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glttt^oriK^ H t^e glinistrr of ^tiMtati0n» 




C. p. MASON, B.A., F.C.R, 









Entered according to Act of Parliament of Canada, m zae year 1876, by 


In Wie Office of the Minister of Agricuixure. 


It is hardly necessary to repeat here the acknowledgments 
which I have already made in previous editions of the extent 
to which my "English Grammar" in its present form is 
indebted to the splendid works of Mjitzner and Koch, the latter 
of whom has traced the development of English with such 
care and fulness that later systematic grammars contain little 
of consequence on this subject beyond what is already to be 
found in his pages. I have made special reference to his work 
from time to time by way of reminding the reader of the soiu'ce 
of the information given. The few instances in which I have 
been beholden to Dr. Morris's "Historical Outlines of English 
Accidence " for materials not already contained in Koch's 
grammar have been scrupulously noticed. In the present 
edition the Exercises have been somewhat modified by the 
excision of some which are already to be found in my more 
elementary works, and are only needed by beginners, so as to 
make room for some additional help towards the understanding 
of the more difficult constructions. 

The study of English has made rapid advances of late years, 
and no grammar, intended for pupils in the upper classes of 
schools that make any pretensions to teaching of a high charac- 
ter, can be deemed satisfactory, which does not go far beyond 
the mere statement of the current forms and idioms of oui 
language. My aim in this work has been to write a manag<»- 


able " Historical English Grammar" for 8ch.ools. Accordingly 
1 have endeavoured to treat the development of modem 
English out of the older forms of the language with sufficient 
thoroughness to give the learner a clear comprehension of the 
way in which English has come to be what it is, as regards its 
elements, its forms, and its constructions, without distracting 
his attention and burdening his memory with details which are 
necessary only for the minute study of particular periods or 
individual authors. Much of the most difficult portion of what 
was necessary for this purpose has been thrown into the form 
of notes and appendices, the study of which may, if it be 
deemed desirable, be postponed until the learner has mastered 
the general text. The latter is quite within the comprehension 
of a pupU. of ordinary intelligence. I have striven to sot down 
what had to be said in short and clear sentences, every 
expression in which has been carefully weighed with the view 
of securing the utmost possible accuracy, and leading the pupd 
to think. There may be teachers to whom this last-named 
effort is unusual and unwelcome. It will be perfectly easy for 
such to find books called "English Grammars" which will 
exactly suit their requirements. It will be found that in 
several portions of the Syntax I have been able, by following 
constructions up to their source, to introduce important sim- 
plifications, especially with regard to the use of relatives, and 
the troublesome little words as, that, and than. 

In one or two paragraphs the phraseology has been modified, 
with the view of bringing out still more cleai-ly the cardinal 
distinction between the indicative aud the subjunctive mood. 
(See §§ 193, 195, 466.) This distinction is carefully and philo- 
sophically developed by Matzner.* It is substantially that of 
Berker (who, however, makes a needless separation between 

• The student who desires to examine iMStzner's statements must consult the 
original text of bis works. As presented in a recent translation his views an 
totally uninteUigible. 


conjunctive and conditional), aud is expressed clearly enough by 
the best Latin* grammarians. Thus Madvig (§ 346) lays down 
that "in the conjunctive a thing is asserted simply as an idea 
conceived in the mind, so that the speaker does not at the same 
time declare it as actually existing." Dr. Kennedy {Fublic 
Scliool Latin Orammar, § 37) says: "The indicative mood 
declares a fact or condition as real or absolute. The conjunc- 
tive mood states a fact or condition as conceived or contingent.'' 
So, again, Mr. Eoby {Latin Grammar ii. p. 202) says : " The 
subjunctive mood, as distinguished from the indicative, ex- 
presses an action or event as thought or supposed, rather than 
as done or narrated;" a definition which would be improved 
by leaving out the words " or supposed " and " or narrated." 

In discussing grammatical definitions, many writers seem to 
think they have done all that is requisite when they have 
explained the meaning of some grammatical term, as though 
the usages of human speech had been devised to comply with 
the requirements involved in certain names. The grs,:::imeitical 
names in common use are of no authority whatever ; they are 
only attempts, and usually very bungling ones, to classify and 
describe the foi-ms and usages of language. A philosophical 
grammarian uses them as mere conventional names ; he gives his 
own account of that which they are used to stand for. A good 
many grammarians tell us that " mood means the manner of the 

» Many of the older writers on English grammar made a grievoua mii^take in 
trying to di-ess out English constructions in a Latin garb, being misled by the 
notion that Latin grammar is a sort of universal test and touchstone in all gram- 
matical questions. Some modem authors make an equally gross mistake of an 
opposite kind, ■when they refuse to take any account at all of Latin constructions, 
when dealing with those of the English language. In spite of all the differences 
of idiom that distinguish the two langua<^es, there are numerous cases in which 
their constructions involve grammatical principles which are the same in both. 
As regards particular usages there are considerable differences between English 
and Latin in the use of the moods, but the fundamental ideas upon which the 
distinctions of mood are based (like those which relate to the f imctions of the 
parts of speech, of numbers, persons, cases, voices, tenses, &c.) are common to 
both languages. 


action." It really means nothing of the kind. It denotes a 
certain mental attitude of the speaker, with relation to the pre- 
dication that he is dealing with. (See §§ 195, 466.) Subjunctive 
is altogether a bad and misleading term ; for the indicative 
may bo used as freely as the (so-called) subjunctive in clauses 
which are subjoined to a principal clause, and the subjunctive is 
often used in clauses which are not subjoined to others. Many 
writers, however, are incapable of seeing this. They confound 
a subjunctive mood with a conditional sentence, and gravely tell 
us that when an action is stated conditionally we get the sub- 
junctive mood. They seem to suppose that the subjunctive 
mood is the natural and indispensable mood for hypothesis or 
condition. One recent writer actually talks of "Indicative- 
Subjunctive forms." All this is utterly wrong. When I say 
"If he is at home, I will speak to him," the first sentence is 
conditional; but the verb is in the indicative mood, because the 
condition relates to an actual state of things, independent of 
my thought about the matter. If I say " If he were present, I 
would speak to him," we again get a conditional sentence, but 
the verb is in the subjunctive mood, because "his being 
present " is something that I only thinh of. But an indicative 
mood does not c(.'ase to be an indicative and become a sub- 
junctive by having if or though put before it in English ; and 
only very ignorant learners imagine that at must always be 
followed by the subjunctive in Latin. It is quite true that 
the subjunctive mood is more commonly found in conditional 
clauses than in others, but that is the natural result of its 
peculiar function. It is not an invariable phenomenon, nor 
does it determine the definition of the Mood. 

0. F. MASON. 

6. College Gardens, Dulwioh> 
Se;ptevfibeT, 1876. 


The various langniages spoken by mankind admit of beinp 
grouped together in certain great famihes, the meniliers of each 
of which have cf rtain characteristics and elements in common, by 
which they are distintruij-hed in a very marked manner from the 
members of other families. One of these famUios of languages 
has been called the Indo-European, or Aryan family. It include.s 
the Sansi-rit, Per.*ian, Slavonian, Latin, Greek, Keltic, and Teu- 
tonic languages. The Teutonic branch of this family is divided 
into two principal stocks, the Scandinavian and the German ; 
and the German stock is again subdivided into High German 
languages (spoken in the mountainous districts of the south of 
Germany) and Low German languages (spoken in the northern 
lowlands of Gei-many). belongs to the Low German 
branch of the Teutonic stock, and is akin to Frisian, Dutch, 
Flemish, Platt-Deutsch, and Mceso-Gothic. 

The inhabitants of Gaul and Britain, when countries were 
invaded by tlie Romans, were of Keltic race, and spoke various 
dialects of the Keltic group of languages. 

The conquered Gauls adopted the Latin langnage, and the 
Franks and Normans, who at a later time established themselves 
in the country, adopted the language of the people they con- 
quered. Thus it has come about that French is for the most part a 
corrupted form of Latin, belonging to that group of languages 
which is cilled ' Romance.' 

The Kc'ltic inhabitants of Britain did not adopt the Latin lan- 
guage, but retained their own Keltic dialects. One of these is 
still spoken by the Keltic inhabitants of Wales. 

English is the language brought into England by the Saxons 
and Angles, who in the fifth century conquered and dispossessed 
the British or Keltic inhabitants, and drove the remnants of them 
into the remote mountainous comfrs of the island, especially 
Wales and Cornwall. They were a Teutonic race, coming from the 
lowland region in the north-western part of Germany. The name 
Angle appears to have belonged at first only to one division of 
these Teutonic invaders ; but in course of time, thousrh long before 

B • 


d. The revival of the study of the classical lanpTiages in the 
sixteenth century led to the introduction of an immense number 
of Latin and Greek words, which were taken diret^t from the 
original languages. Many of these importations have since been 
discarded. It often happens that the same classical word has 
given rise to two words in EngUsh, one coming to us through 
Vorman-Frfnch, the other taken direct from Latin. Li such 
Mses, the former is the shorter and more corrupted form. Com- 
pare, for example, minster and monastery, bisltop and efiscopal, 
hotel and hospital, reason and rational. 

4. Words of Misccllancotis origin. — The extensive intercourse 
maintained during the last three hundred years with all parts of 
the world naturally led to the introduction of words from most 
languages of importance, relating to natural productions, works 
of art, or social institutions, with which this intercourse first 
made us acquainted. 

Thus it has come about that the two chief constituents of 
moderi} English are Anglo-Saxon and Latin, mixed with a small 
proportion of words of miscellaneous origin. Most of the Teu- 
tonic elements of English were introduced by the Saxons and 
Angles. But the Scandinavian races are also Teutonic, and a 
good many words of Teutonic origin were introduced into English 
by the Danes and Norsemen, who established themselves on the 
eastern coast of our island. 

As a general rule (admitting, of course, of numerous exceptions) 
it will be found that words relating to common natural objects, 
to home life, to agriculture, and to common trades and processes, 
ire usually of Teutonic oria:in. Words relating to the higher 
functions of social life — religion, law, government, and war, to 
che less obvious processes of the mind, and to matters connected 
with art, science, and philosophy, are commonly of classical and 
mostly of Latin origin. Most words of three or more syllables, 
and a large number of those of two, are of classical origin. '1 he 
Teutonic element prevails (though very far from exclusively) in 
words of one or two syllables, and is by far the most forcible and 
expressive. Hence it predominates in all our finest poetry. It is 
impossible to write a single sentence without Teutonic elements, 
but sentence after sentence may be found in Shakspeare and the 
English Bible, which is pure English, in the strictest sense of that 

One great advantage which English has derived from the 
mingling of the Teutonic and Romance elements is the great 
richness of its vocabulary, and its power of expressing delicate 
shades of difference in the signification of words by the use of 
pairs of words, of which one is Teutonic and the other French * 

The changes by which Anglo-Saxon (or the oldest English) 

• Compare, for example, feeling and sentiment, u-ork and labour, bloom and 
fiower. The number of paii's of exactly synonymous words is small. 


became modem English were gradual, and no exact date can be 
given for the introduction of tais or that pertlc^ftr alterttara. 
Still the proee.«s was influenced or accelerated at certain points 
by political events. The Norman Conquest, and the political 
relations between the conquering and the couquertd rwce naturally 
mRde Norman-French the lang^uage of the court and the nobles., 
of the courts of justice, of the episcopal sees, and of garrisoned 
places. But the loss of Normandy in 1206, the enactments of 
Henry III. and Louis IX., that the subjects of the one crown 
should not hold lands in the territory of the other, and the politi- 
cal movements under John and Henry III., stopped the further 
influx of the Norman element. At the same time the absolutist 
tendencies of the kings drove the nobles into closer union with 
the Anglo-Saxon elements of the nation ; and the French wars of 
EdwHrd III. roused an anti-French feeling among all classes, 
which extended itseK even to the language, insomuch that we 
learn from Chaucer that in his time French was spoken in 
England but rarely, and in a coiTupted form. In 1362 appeared 
the edict of Edward III. that legal proceedings in the royal 
courts should be conducted in English. 

Thus the course of the changes which English underwent was 
far from being equable. Koch divides the historical development 
of English into five periods, in the following manner : — 

First Period, that of old Anglo-Saxon. This period extends 
from the time of the oldest literary monuments to about a.d. 1100. 
The' language was di^^ded into two groups of dialects, the Nor- 
thern or Anr/Iian, ;ind the Southern or Saxnn. In the latter 
the speech of the West Saxons, in consequence of the political 
supremacy acquired by that division of the natinri, took precedence 
of the, and hccmne the literacy dialect of En p-lan^l. though it 
did ijot, of course, ousn the other dialects from use in oral speech ; 
and in course of time the Mercian or Midla'd variety of the 
Anglian branch became a diah ct distinct both from the Northutn- 
bri'in and from the We-^t Sax^n. It was widely spread, and 
became at last the pirent ot modern standard English. 

Second Pcrind, that of late Anglo-Saxon. This period extends 
over about 150 years, to the middle of the thirteenth century, and 
sliows marks of the influence of the Danish and Norman settlements 
in disturbinsr the older system of inflections, obliterating many of 
its distincti(jns, and so preparing the way for the still greater 
simplification which followed. 

Third Period, termed by Koch Old English. This period, which 
extends over some 100 years, from about 1250 till about ISoC, 
exhibits a continued weakening of the old forms, spoken sounds 
and their written representatives being both in an unsettled state 
and the influence of Norman French being distinctly traceable. 

Fourth Period, called by Koch Middle English. This period, to 

• As the main part of the Teutonic elements of modem literary English 
have come down to us from this Wett-Saxon speech, it is obviously allowable 
to speak of them in the gross as Saxon. V^ere are critics, however, who wax 
wroth at the use of the term. 


which belong Wiclif, Cliaucer, and Maundeville, reaches nearly 
to the end of the fifteenth century. In it the Midland sectioa 
of the Noi-thern dialect becomes predominant. 

Fifth P(Sj-Jorf,that of Modern English. — For further details respect- 
ing the characteristics of these periods,* the learner is referred to 
Appendix A. 

Leaving the vocabulary of the language out of consideration, it 
may be stated summarily that English has preserved from its 
Anglo-Saxon stage the suffixes that it still possesses in nouns 
and pronouns ; the conjugation of 'ts verbs ; the articles, pro- 
nouns, prepositions, conjunctions, and numerals ; the comparative 
and superlative suffixes of adjectives, and tlie formation of 
adverbs ; the flexibility and variety which it has in the forma- 
tion of compounds ; the most important part of the suffixes and 
prefixes by which derivatives are formed ; the predominant prin- 
ciples of accentuation ; and the compactness and straightforward- 
ness of the syntactical arrangement of its periods. To French 
we owe a considerable modification of the sounds of the language, 
the suppression of the sound of I before other consanants, such as 
f, V, k, m, etc. ; the partial suppression of the sounds of h andy/s, 
and the use of e mute at the end of words; the introduction of the 
Bibilant sounds of J, g, ch and c ; the use of the letter z, and the 
consonantal sound 'of v. French influence assisted in the recogni- 
tion of s as the general sign of the plural in nouns. To French 
we also owe a considerable number of the suffixes and prefixes by 
which derivatives are formed, and are probably indebted for our 
deliverance from that stiff and involved arrangement of sentences, 
under which modei'n German still labours. [Mdtznvr.) 

• The details of the history of Eng-lish Accidence and Syntax during thes<» 
periods have been set forth by Koch with a fulness and minuteness wliicu 
render it a difficult task to make further discoveries in the same held. Indeed, 
nothing of consequence has as yet been added to his results. His nomencla- 
ture is not unexceptionable, iind in oider to keep up the continuity of the 
name English, which certainly belonged to our language in the time of Alfred 
the Great, the best recent English authorities, while adopting Koch's sub- 
division, name the language at its successive stages, ' Eiiglisli of the First 
Period,' 'English of the Second Period,' and so on. The subdivision is, how- 
ever, more elaborate than is necessary. There is no break of any consequence 
between the Thnd and Eouith Periods. No new principle of change begins to 
operate. We simply have in the Fourth Period a still further development, on 
exactly the same lines, of what was going on in the Third. There is no epoch 
at the dividing line of these two peiiods comparable to those formed by the 
Norman Conquest, which preceded the Third Period and the invention of 
printing and the revival of letters, which ushered in the latest period. It 
would be simpler and quite sufficient to divide English, in its historical aspect, 
into three periods — the (Old English or Aiiglo-SMxon) embracing Koch's 
first two periods ; the second (Middle or Transition English) comprising Koch'a 
third and foiurth periods; and the third (Modern English) coinciding with 
Koch's fifth period. Each of the two former has naturally an earlier and a 
later stajre, between which, however, no exact boundary can be fixed. The 
names First Period, Second Period, iV'c, are very bald and unsuggestive, so 
that it requires considerable familiarity with them to be able to reali;!e readily 
what particular stage of the language each represents. 



When we wish to express what is passing in our minds, 
we talk, or else write down certain marks or signs, which 
people have agreed shall stand for the sounds which we 
utter when we talk. 

That which we speak with onr voice, or write down to 
represent what we speak, is called speech or language. 

Grammar (from the Greek gramma, ' letter') is the science 
which treats about speech or language. 

All i)eople do not utter the same sounds, or write the same signs 
to express what they think. There are diiferent languages or 
tongues made use of by different nations, as the English language, 
the French language, the Latin language, &c. ; and since these differ 
widely from each other, it is necessary to have a separate grammar 
for each of them. These separate grammars, however, agree in many 
respects, and are all parts of the general science of grammar. 

Speech or language is made up of words. A word is 
a significant combination of articulate sounds. A collection 
of words arranged so as to convey some complete sense, is 
called a sentence (Latin senteiitiu, ' a thought or opinion ') ; 
as, "The boy learns his lesson;" "The cat has caught 
a mouse." 

The words of which a sentence is made up are of different 
sorts. Thus in the sentence, " The bird flies swiftly," 
bird is the name of an animal ; the points out which bird is 
meant; /lies expresses an action, which it is asserted that the 
bird performs ; swifthj denotes the manner in which that 
action is performed. The different sorts of words which a 
language contains are called Parts of Speech. 

That part of grammar which treats of the letters of which 
"•■^rds are composed, and of the proper mode of writing and 
•filing words, is called Orthography (from the Greek orthoa, 

right,' and grajpho, ' I write '). 


That part of grammar which treats of separate words, or 
of the parts of speech separately, showing the mode in 
which they are formed, and the changes which they undergo, 
is called Etymology (from the Greek etymoSy ' true,' and 
logos, ' account.' 

That part of grammar which treats of the mode in which 
words are combined so as to form sentences, and sentences 
combined with one another, is called Syntax (from the 
Greek syn, ' together,' and taxis, ' arrangement'). 


10 Spoken words are made up of different sounds, and 
written words are made up of different signs, called Idters 
(Lat. litera), which are used to represent the different 
sounds of which spoken words are composed. 

11 The elementary sounds of the English language are re- 
presented by means of tweuty-six letters, each of which is 
written in two forms, differing both in shape and in size ; 
the large letters being called Capitals, or Capital Letters.* 
These letters are the following : — 

A, a: B, b: 0, c: D, d: E, e: F, f : G, g: H, h: I, i: 
J, j: K, k: L, 1: M, m : N, n : O, o : P, p : Q, q: E, r: 
S,8: T, t: U, u: V, v: W, w : X, x : Y, y : Z, z. 

12 The Anglo-Saxon alphabet had no ./, q, v, or s, and k was very 
seldom used, c having a hard sound On the other hand it had two 
symbols, which have since been discarded, namely S f^ethj and p 
(thorn), which both stood for th, S occurring most frequently in the 
middle or at the end of words. In the thirteenth century we find 5 
used, chieily at the beginning of words. It had the sound of a some- 
what guttural y. 7Fwas denoted by the symbol P (tvcn). 

13 The whole collection of letters is called the Alphabet. Alpha and 
Beta are the names of the first two letters of the Greek alphabet. 
The EngUsh Alphabet, with the exception of the letter w, is taken 
from that used by the Romans, who, however, employed the letters 
k, y, and z only in writing foreign (especially Gi'eek) words, and 
sounded v like our w. The Latin Alphabet, in its turn, was derived 
from the Greek, and that again from the Phoenician. 

14 The letters a, e, i, 0, and M, are called Vowels (Latin voca^i*). They 
can be fully sounded by themselves. 

• Capital letters are used at the beginning of proper names, for the nominative 
case singular of the personal pronoun of the first person, and for any noun, adjec- 
tive, or pronoun, used in speakmg of the Divine Being. They may also be used 
at the beginning of a common noun, when it is used in a special or technicaj 
sense, as Mood, Voice, Person. Adjectives derived from proper nouns are al^ 
written with capitals. We also write His Majesty, Her Majesty, &o. 


The remaining letters are called Consonants (Latin con, ' together,* 
senans, ' sounding ') . They cannot be fully sounded without having 
a vowel either before or after them. 
16 The extreme sounds of the vowel scale are those of ee (ia feet) and 

00 (in tool). If the sounds of ee, a (as in fate), a (as in far), o (as in 
pole), and oo (as iu tool) be pronounced in succession with a fuU and 
clear sound, the speaker will be sensible tliat the formation and 
position of the organs of speech chance by successive steps, from the 
one extreme to the other. The primary vowel sounds are i (as in 
pin), a (ail in far), and ci (as in full). AU others are lengthenings, 
combinations, or modifications of these. 

In Italian or German the scale of vowel sounds wiU be represented 
by the letters t, e, a, o, u._ Modern EngKsh has th(j peculiarity that in 
this scale the sounds of J and e {ee and ay) have been transferred or 
' shoved on ' to e and a. In Anglo-Saxon this was not the case. 
Short i and short* preserve their original force (as in pin, tin, bid, &c., 
end, enter, set, &c). The words there, where, and ere preserve the old 
sound of e. 
16 There are thirteen simple vowel sounds in English ; the sounds of 

a in tall, father, fate, fat ; the somids of e in met and 7nete ; the sound 
of i in pin ; the sounds of o in note and not ; the sounds of u in i-ule, 
pull, fur, and but. These sounds are expressed in many various ways. 

The letter a represents four simple vowel sounds, as in fate, fall, 
far, fat. 

The letter e represents three simple vowel sounds, as in mete, pet, 

The letter i represents one simple vowel sound, as in pit ; and one 
diphthongal sound, as ia bite. 

The letter o represents three simple vowel sounds, as in poke, pot, 

The letter u represents four simple vowel sounds, as in rttde, pull, 
fun, fur. 

The sound of a in fate is also represented by the written diph- 
thongs ai (braid), ay {say), ea {great), ei {neigh), ey {prey), ao {gaol), 
au {gauge). 

The sotmd of a in fall is the same as that of o in for, and is also 
represented by the wi-itten diphthongs au {fraud), aw {claw), oa 
{broad), ou {ought). 

The sound of a va. far is also represented by e (if followed by r) 
in sucli words as clerk, Derby, Berkshire (when pronounced Darby, 
Barkshire), and by the written diphtnongs au {aunt), ua {guard), ea 

The sound of « in fat is also represented by ua {guarantee), and 
ai {plaid). 

The soimd of e in mete is also represented by the written diph- 
thongs ea {seat), ee (feet), eo {people)., ie {chief), ei* {receive), ey 
{key), ae {cethcr),oe (Fhcenician), ay {quay), i {marine). 

The sound of e in. pet is also represented by a {many), ai {said), ay 
(says), u {bury), ea {tread), ue {guest), ie {^friend), ei (heifer), eo 
{Leonard, Goeffrey). 

• It is convenient to bear in mind that with the exception of the words seiae 
And ceiling, ei with the sound of ee is found only in words derived from the Latia 
tapia, as deceit (decipio), receipt <recipio}, conceit concipio), &o. 


The sound of « in herd is also represented by i {bird), u (curse), 
y (tnyrrh), ea {earth). 
The sound of i in pit is also represented by y {syllable), u {busy), 

e {pretty), ui {build), ie {sieve). 

The sound of i in bite is also represented by y {thy), ey {eye\ 
ei{height), ie {dies), uy {bu.y), ui {ffuide), and ai {aisle). 

The sound of o in poke is also represented by oa {coat), oe {icie>, 
ou {soul), ow {tow), ew {sew), ow {oive), oo {door). 

The sound of o iapot is also represented by a {lohat). 

The sound of o in for is also represented by a in fall, &c. (See 

The sound of u in rude, is also represented by o {move), oo {rood), 
ew {flew), ue {blue), ui {fruit), ou {through), oe {shoe) ; ie in full 
= 00 in good. 

The sound of u in fun is also represented by o {love), oe {does), 
*o ''flood), ou {rough). 

1 he sound of u in fur is also represented by e, i, y, u, ea. (See 

17 When two vowel sounds are uttered without a break between 
them, we get what is called a vocal or sonant diphthong. There are 
four of them. 

1. i, as in bite. (See above). This sound is made up of the a 
in father, and the e in mete. 

2. oi, as in hoist. This dipthong is also written oy {boy), and 
uoy {buoy). It is made up of the sound of a in fall, and e in tnete. 

3. eu (as in eulogy). This diphthong is also expressed in vn-iting 
by u {mute), ew or ewe {few, ewei, eau {bcaaty), ui {suit), ue {hue), 
yu {yule). 

4. oic (as in noun). This is also expressed in writing by ow { now). 
When two of the letters called vowels are written together to repre- 
sent either a sonant diphthong or a simple vowel sound, we get 
a written diphthong ov digraph. 

1 8 The letters w and y are commonly called semi-vowels. Wlien they 
are followed by a vowel sound in the same syllable, their soimd ap- 
proaches that of a consonant, as in win, twin, you, yonder. When a 
vowel precedes thom in the same syllable they combine with the pre- 
ceding vowel to form eitlier a diphthong or a simple vowel sound ; as 
awe, how, dray, bey, buy. Y is a pure vowel whenever it is followed 
by a consonant (as in Yttria). In Anglo-Saxon y was a pure vowel. 
It was never followed by another vowel, but only by consonants. 
Afterwards it was used at the beginning of words to denote a g 
which had been softened, and supplanted the symbol 5. 

19 The letters /, m., n, and r, are called Liquids. They can be par- 
tially sounded by themselves when pronounced with a vowel before 
them. The Liquids and Sibilants do not stop the breath sharply, 
but admit of a prolcmgation of the sound. /, *, x, z, soft g and 
soft I'h, are called Sibilants (from the Latin sibilare, 'to hiss'). 
The other consonants are called Mutes.* When sounded after a vowel, 
they stop tlie pa.¥sage of the breath more completely than the liquids 
and sibilants do. Of the mutes, b,p, f, and. v are. caMbA lain d.: ov 
lip-letters (from the Latin labium, ' a lip ') ; d, t, th (for which in 

• The Mutes must not be confounded with mute letters, i.e., letters which aie 
vritten but Bot Hounded, Uke k in knot, or e in awe. 


Anglo- Saxon there were two • symbols, and ]») are called dentals or 
teeth-letters (from the Latin dens ' tooth ') ; and ff, k, hard c, and ch, 
(asm loch) axe caMed. gutturals or throat-letters (Latin^M<<«r, 'throat). 

20 The Mutes are also classified, not according to the organs by wliich 
they are pronounced, but according to certain differences in the 
mode in which the consonantal sound is pronounced. F, t, and k 
(or hard c), are called thin ov sharp mutes; 6, d, g are called middle 
01 Jlat mutes ;/and v, th in thin^ and th in thine, ch in loch, and gh 
in lough are called aspirated mutes. The aspirates may themselves 
be dinded into sharp aspirates (/, th in thin, ch), and Jlat aspirates 
(v, th in thine, gh). The sibilants s and z bear the same relation 
to each other asjw and 5, s being a shai-p sibilant, z a iiat sibilant. 

21 A syllable (Greek syllabe, ' a taking togetlier') is a single vowel, 
or a collection of letters pronoiinced together, and containing only 
one vowel sound. 

A word wliich consists of a single syllable is called a Monosyllable 
(Greek tnonos. ' single'), such as man, horse, hut. 

A word which consists of two syllables is called a Disyllable; 
a& folly, learning. 

A word that consists of three syllables is called a Trisyllable, 
as vanity, loveliness. 

A word that consists of more than three syllalles ia called a Poly- 
syllable {Greek polys, 'many'), as singularity.\ 

22 When a syllable beginning with a vowel is added to a mono- 
syllable, or a word accented on the last syllable, ending in a single 
consonant preceded by a single vowel, the final consonant is doubled. 
As sin, sinner; thin, thinner ; rob, robber; sit, sitting ; begin, 
beginning ; expel, expelled ; confer, conferred. But if, in a word 
of more than one syllable, the accent does not fall on the last syl- 
lable, the final consonant is not doubled ; as offer, offered ; differ, 
different ; visit, visiting. The letters / and s, however, are generally 
doubled, as travel, traveller; revel, reveller ; marvel, marvellous; 
hocus, hocussing. There are also some other words in which the 
rule is violated, as worshipper. The reason for this doubling of the 
consonant is that the quantity or length of the preceding vowel may 
be preserved. A doubled consonant usually sliows that the pre- 
ceding vowel is short. Compare running and tuning, sinning .ind 
dining, manning and waning. Before II and ss, a and o are often 
long, as in roll, stroll, squall, fall, gross, grass, &c. 

23 When a syllable (not beginning with i) is added to a word ending 
in y preceded by a consonant, the y is changed mto i, as happy, 

• The y in the old-fashioned way of writing the [y or ye) is a corruption of |>. 

+ The proper way of dividing words into syllables is not yet quite settleil. 
The methods adopted in most spelling'-book.s are extremely arbitrary, not to say 
stupid. Two very .absurd rules commonly laid down are, that " if two consonants 
cof* together between vowels, they should be divided," and that " each separate 
syllable shoirld, as f«r as possible, betrin with a nnnsonant." In acfoidance with 
these rules, one of the commonest spelling-books ^i'^'es us the following divisions : 
— thirs-ty, Irea-tise, righ-teous, poi-ynant, be-nign, e-cLipse, a-noint, bur-yher, cou-rier, 
fron-tier, guar-dian. Such divisions have aeiUier reaaoa nor conveuienoe to justify 
them, they , simply ndn'uious. It is impu.s.^iue to i:iy auwn a .> iuie.-- ■.< 
universal application, but the principle to be kept in view should be to divide 
words so that the syllnhic division may, as far as possible, coincide with the etymo- 
logical division, as in riyht-eous./rout ier, an-oint, gtiard-ian, burgh-er. So cap'itiil 
(not ca-pi-tal) , ao/t-en (not tof-ten), &a 


happily, happier ; pity, pitiless. When the flnal y is preceded by a 
vowel, it is not changed. Conversely when ing is added to a word 
ending in ie, the » is changed into y ; as die, dying ; He, lying. In 
monosyllables y is not changed bef oi'e a consonant ; as dryness, shyly. 

24 Mute e at the end of a word is generally omitted when a syllable 

that begins with a vowel is added ; as force, forcible ; love, loving ; 
but the e is retained if it is required to presei-ve the pronunciation 
of the consonant, as change, changeable, atid after oe, as hoeing. 

Mute e preceded by a consonant at the end of a word is generally 
retained when a syllable that begins with a consonant is added, if 
the vowel sound of the last syllable of the word is long, as pale, 
paleness ; but if the vowel sound of the last syllable is short, the « 
is commonly dropt, as in judgment, lodgment. It is retained, how- 
ever, if necessary to presei-ve the pronunciation of the consonant 
that precedes it ; as in infringement. Mute e is commonly employed 
to show that the preceding vowel is long, as may be seen on com- 
paring rob and robe, shin and shine, ban and bane, run and rune, men 
and scene. It is always put after final v, whether the preceding 
vowel be long or short. 

Mute e at the end of a word, and preceded by a vowel, is some- 
times omitted when a syllable is added, as true, truly ; due, duly , 
sometimes it is retained, as eye, eyeless ; true, trucness ; blue, bluenesa. 

25. The English orthographical system has many imperfections. Thus 
the same vowel sound is often represented in difEerent ways, as in 
the modes indicated above for expressing the simple vowel sounds 
and diphthongs. On the other hand, the same lettor or diphthong 
often represents very difEerent vowel sounds. Compare eat, pate, 
call, father ; read, spread ; broad, coach ; goes, does, shoes, foetid , 
eull, full, yule. Again, some consonants have not always the same 
sound. Compare give, gin, gill (a measure), gill (of a fish) ; cent, 
can; dough, cough; arch, archangel; his, this; thin, thine. The 
same B0\md is sometimes represented by difEerent consonants. Com- 
pare adds, adze; crutch, such ; face, base ; Jury, gaol; knoiv, no; 
plum, plumb; knowledge, privilege; fillip, Philip; picked. Pict. 
Simple sounds are sometimes expressed by two letters, as by ck 
in duck ; ch in loch ; and most of the written digraphs. Complex 
sounds are sometimes expressed by single letters, as by i and m 
in mine and muse ; s in sure ; j in just. Hard c, q, x. and, perhaps, 
w and y, are superfluous letters ; their sounds may be represented by 
other letters. If we include w and y as separate sounds, and the 
nasal ng, we shall have forty-one elementary sounds in English. 
Wh is iironounced like hw, and is not a separate sound. Con- 
sonants are often not pronoimced, as in through, plough, knell, hww. 
L alter a or o, and before another consonant, is sometimes mute, as 
in walk, folk, sometimes sounded, as in malt, fault. T before chia 
not radical, but is used simply to show that cA has the sibilant and 
not the guttural sound, as in stitch (from stick). 


26 When -we speak we do not utter all words and syllables 

■with the same degree of force. By a stress or forcing of the 

voice certain words and syllables have greater prominence 

and importance given to them. When the stress which 


gives this prominence has reference to the idea which the 

word, conveys, so that its function is rhetorical, it is usually 
called emphasis. When it has reference to the syntactical 
importance of a word, or the etymological importance of 
a syllable, so that its function is gramiualical, it is usually 
called accent. 

Words of two or three syllables have a stress laid upon 
one of these, as tender, misery, indecent. Words of more 
than two syllables have also sometimes a second accent 
upon the syllable next but one or next but two to that 
which has the chief accent, as democrdtical, condescend, 
craharcdtion. This secondary accent is sometimes scarcely 
perceptible, as in wilderness, terrify. 

27 In English two systems of accentuation have been at work, the 

Teutonic or genuine Englisli, and the French. The characteristic 
tendency of Teutonic accentuation is to tlu'ow the stress upon the 
root-syllable of a word, and leave the inflections and formative syl- 
lables vmaccented,* as love, lover, loveliness. In French the accentua- 
tion naturally in the first instance followed tliat of Latin, which was 
not etymological but rhythmical, so that the accent often sliif ted its 
position with an alteration in the number of the syllables, falling 
on the penult (or last syllable but one) if it was long, or on the 
ante-penult (or last syllable but two) if the penult was short. Hence 
in old French pastor became putre, pastorem became pasteiir. The 
omission of final syllables of inllectiou in French often left tlie 
accent on the last syllable, even when that was not the root- 
syllable. Thus virtiitem became virtu ; civitdtem cite. When such 
words first passed from French into English they naturally had 
their French accent, as distance, contree (country), manere, (manner) ; 
solace, &c. Even in Spenser we still find progress, succour, ustiye, 
bondage, &c. Most of these adopted wonls however have been 
affected by the English accentuation, which tends to keep the accent 
away from the last syllable, f In words of French or Latin origin, and 
of moi'e than two syllables, there is a tendency to throw the accent 
back on to the ante-penult, as in monopoly, geography. Thus we 
now say advertisement (not advertisement), theatre (not theatre), 
miracle, mirdcttlous, &c. French derivatives ending in ade, -ier, or 
-eer, -ee, -oon, -ine or -in, keep the accent on the last syllable. So 
also do adjectives which are seemingly taken from Latin with the 
simple rejection of the final syllable, as benign, robust, humane, 
polite. The natural weight of the syllable has of course to be taken 
into account. Compare, for example, concentrate and remonstrate ; 
cosmogony and declension, beneficent and benefactor. There is also a 

• In compounds in which the component parts preserve a syntactical relation to 
each other, the accent falls as it would if the words were kept separate, as ill-will, 
,iU-f<nir.i, spit-fire, indetd, fo/sdnth, &c. Nouns compounded with adverbial par- 
ticles have the accent on the particle, as dffshoot, uproar. Verbs have it on the 
verbal root, as out-d6, vnih-stdnd. 

+ Except in derivatives formed by prefixing an inseparable particle to a mono- 
iyllable, as asldnt, betwixt, mis, ust. In verbs a final root-syUahle tends to keep its 
•ooeut. as rt/tr, consent, &c., but with exceptions, aa 6ffer, prdmise, ^e. 


tendency to accentuate the root- syllable of the definitive word in 
a compound, as allegory, melancholy. Words which have been 
adopted without alteration from foreign languages keep their origi- 
nal accent, as torpedo, corona, octavo. 

The influence of accent ui^on the etymological changes of woi'da 
has been very important When one syllable is made prominent, 
those adjacent to it, especially if short and unimportant in them- 
selves, are pronounced carelessly, and frequently get droppec? 
altogether. Thus we get bishop from episcopns, reeve from gerefa, 
sample from example. In this way English has lost nearly all its 
sylkibic suflises. 

When this loss takes place at the beginning of a word, it is 
called by grammarians aphaeresis (taking away) ; when it occurn 
at the end of a word it is called apocope (cutting off) ; when 
two syllables are blent into one, the process is termed syncope 
(shortening by excision.) 

Examples of syncope are seen in lord, from Hlaford ; lady, from 
Klafweardige ; sheriff, from Scirgercfa. (Koch, i., p. 220.) 

An accented syllable often gets lengthened. Thus fiom hebban 
we get heave, from brecan, break, &c. 

An unaccented long syllable is apt to get shortened. Thus the 
adjective minute becomes the noun minute. Compare Clipboard, 
housewife, &c.* 


[N.B. In conjunction with the section on Etymology it would be 
well for the learner to study the first few paragraphs of that on 


28 The words of which the English language is composed are 
distributed into eight parts of speech. These are : 1. 
Noun. 2. Adjective. 3. Pronoun. 4. Verb. 5. Adverb. 
6. Preposition. 7. Conjunction. 8. Interjection. 


29 The word Noun means name (Latin, nomen.) 

A noun is a word used as the name of anything that we 
speak about. 

The greater part of nouns may be divided into two 
classes — Common Nouns and Proper Nouns. 
iJO A Common Noun is a word that may be used as the name 
of each thing out of some class of things of the same sort, 
as horse, man, stone, city ; or of any portion of a quantity 
of stuff of the same sort, as iron, ivheut, water. A common 
noun distinguishes the things belonging to some class from 

* The whole subject of accentuation haa been treated by Koch with extn^ 
mdinary care and fulness. 


everything wliicli docs not belong to that clasa. Thus the 
word horse distinguishes the animal so called from all other 
sorts of things but does not distinguish one horse from 

3 1 A Proper Noun is a word used as the name of some par- 
ticular person, animal, place, or thing, as John, Loudon, 
Bucephalus, Excalibur. The word proper (Latin propriv^s) 
means own. A proper name is a person's or thing's own 

Common nouns are sign ificant. They not only denote, or mark out, 
the objects to wliich they are apj)lietl, but also connote, or note at the 
same time, the whole combination of marks or attributes, through 
their possession of which the various individuals u'lmed by the 
common noun are grouped into one class.* 

Proper nouns, as such, are not significant. Even if the name, 
considered merely as a word, has a meaning, it is not applied to the 
object which it denotes in consequence of that meaning. Margaret 
means pearl, but it is not implied that a pei-son called Margaret has 
pearly quahties. 

Proper nouns are written with a capital letter at the beginning. 

Common nouns uspd in a special or iiidividnal sence should be 
■written with a capital letter at the beginning, as the Solicitor 
General, the Lord * iiief Justiw-. Some writers ix tend this u^age 
to grammatical terms, as a Verb, a Common Noun, &c. 

32 Proper nouns are sometimes used like common nouns, when they 
denote classes or collections of persons ; as uhe Howards, the Cfesars, 
the Alps ; or when they represent the characteristics that marked 
some individual, as if we say of a poet, " He was the Homer of his 

On the other hand, some common nouns are occasionally used as 
the name, not of each individual in a class, but of the class as a 
whole. When we say, " Man is mortal," we mean all mankind. 

33 A noun which in the singular number stands for a col- 
lection or number of things, is called a Collective Noun : 
as herd, parliament, council, multitude, mob, 

34 A noun which denotes a quality, action, or state, is called 
an abstract noun, as /lurduess, ruiming . growth, sleep. Ab- 
stract nouns are derived irom adjctives and verbs, or 
from nouns that denote a function or state, as priesthood 
from priest, infancy from infant. Abstract nouns often 
pass out of their abstract sense, as when we talk of 
sweeping a crossing. The infinitive mood is sometimes 
equivalent to an abstract noun (§ 189). 

• Sometimes the comiotative power of a noun is so much in our thoughts, that 
the noun is used predicatively without an article, as " He was stcrtinry to Mr. A. ;*• 
" He J'^came king of England ;" "In this business he was both knave aud/ooj." 


36 There is a class of nouns whicli are sometimes confounded 
with, abstract nouns. These are General Names, such as 
colour, space, time, life, death, &c. These, in the exact 
sense in which they are used, do not admit of plurals; 
they are significant or connotative general names. 

Abstract notms are sometimes used in the concrete sense, that is, 
standing for that which possesses the quahty which they denote. 
Thus nobility frequently means the whole body of persons of noble 
birth ; youth, the whole class of young people, and so on. 

36 Nouns admit of the three variations of Gender, Number, 
and Case. 


37 Living beings are divided into two classes or sexes, the 
male sex and the female sex, the individuals in the one 
sex corresponding to those in the other. Things without 
life are not of either sex. Thus all things are arranged in 
three classes — things of the male sex, things of the female 
sex, and things of neither sex. 

38 In like manner, nouns (and pronouns) are divided into 
three * classes or sorts (called G-euders), which correspond 
to the three classes of things just mentioned. These are 
the Masculine Gender, the Feminine Gender, and the 
Neuter Gender. Gender comes from the Latin genus, ' a 
kind or sort.' 

The name of anything of the male sex is called a mascu- 
line noun, or a noun of the masculine gender. 

The name of anything of the female sex is called a femi- 
nine noun, or a noun of the feminine gender. 

The name of anything of neither sex is called a neuter 
noun, or a noun of the neuter gender. 

Man, king, father, horse, cock, bull, James, Henry, are 
masculine nouns. 

Woman, queen, mother, mare, hen, cow, Mary, Jane, are 
feminine nouns. 

Stone, tree, house, London, are neuter nouns. 

In the case of animals and young children we often take no 
account of the sex, and hence they are frequently referred to by 
means of neuter pronouns. 

* Nothing is gained either in convenience or in philosophy by the attempt to 
restrict the term i/ender to the iiiasculine and the jemimnf.. Those who itm the 
term neuter so hard as this should be consistent, ana translate it into neither when 
they use it. To talk of nouns being of Neuter Oender (especially with a capital 
N; is not gfood Latin, good EngUsh, or good sense. German grammarians, who 
have the terms mdnnlich, teeibltch, and tdchlich, are spared the temptation to air 
(Ms little crotchet. 

BTYMoLooY— Noxnr. 17 

89 Oendera are classes of nouns (and pronouns) •which oor- 
reepond to the three classes of things of the male sex, 
things of the female sex, and things of neither sex.* 

It is also customary to use the word gender in an abstract 
sense, and to speak of it as an attribute of nouns and pro- 
nouns. In this abstract sense gender may be defined to be 
a distinction in the form or use of nouns and pronouns, by 
virtue of which they stand respectively for things of tha 
male sex, things of the female sex, and things of neithei 

40 Things without life are often personified, or spoken of as if they 
were living beings, and therefore either of the nuile or of the female 
sex. Accordingly masculine and feminine pronouns are used in 
speaking of them. The siinpUcity and natm-ahiess of the English 
system of genders gives peculiar force and vividness to this figure 
of speech. 

Thus the Sun,t Time, Day, Death, rivers, winds, mountains, the 
ocean, the seasons, the stronger passions (as Fear, Anger, Despair), 
actions coimected with strength or violence (as Miu-der, War, &c.), 
are looked upon as male persons, and their names are accordingly 

The Moon, the Earth, Virtue, Night, a ship, countries and. cities — 
such as Europe, England, Paris — Night, Darkness, the Arts and 
Sciences, most abstract conceptions, as Nature, Liberty, Charity, 
Victory. Mercy, Religion, &c., the Soul, the gentler emotions, and 
many other things, are spoken of as though they were female per- 
sons, and their names are accordingly of the feminine gender.J 

41 The names of animals sometimes do not indicate their 
sex, as sheep, bird, hawk, hear, motiae, raven, swan, dove. § 
The words duck and goose are also employed in this way, 
especially in the plural and in compounds. Also various 

• It la only in English, however, that this simple classification is observed. In 
Latin, Greek, French, and other languapes, the names of many things which do 
not belong either to the male or to the female sex, are either msisculine or ft-mi- 
nine. When this is the case, gender ceases to answer (except partially) to any 
natural distinction, and becomes merely grammatical, though originally, no doubt, 
based upon a real, or fancied, natural distinction. A noun is known to be mascu- 
line (or feminine), not by its denoting a thing of the male (or female) sex, but by 
its having associated with it adjectives and pronouns with masculine (or temininel 
terminations. This arbitrary, or merely grammatical gender has disappeared from 
modem English. In French and Italian there is no neuter gender at all. In 
Anglo Saxon, the genders were to a great extent merely grammatical or arbitrary, 
as in Latin. 

t In Anglo-Saxon (as in German) Sun was feminine. 

X The gender employed in personification is, however, rather arbitrary. Usage 
Is by no means uniform on this point. The feeling of appropriation has a 
lorious influence in this matter. Cobbett remarks that the countryfolk in Hamp- 
«hire call almost everything he or she. "The mower caUs his scythe a she, the 
ploughman his plough ; but a prong, a shovel, or a barrow, which passes promis- 
ouously from hand to hand, and which is appropriated to no particxdar laboiuer, ia 

{ In Anglo-Saxon such nouns had their grammatical gender, and were reapev 
Itraty either masooline or femiuiBe, no matter which sax was spoken of. 








names of persons, as parent, spotise, servant,* &c. Such 
nouns are said to be of common or undetermined gendei. 

In speaking of animals which have names of common gender, tn© 
neuter pronouns are employed when the animal is regarded simply 
as an object of nati.u-al history. But in poetry, fables, or narratives 
which imply a lively interest in the actions or feelings of the animal, 
the masculine or feminine gender is used, with a general tendency 
to employ the masculine for the larger and fiercer animals. Thus, 
bea}-, hound, panther, eagle, hawk, camel, wolf, fox, hippopotamus, 
elephant, whale, rat, raven, bison, jackal, &c., would conunonly be 
treated as masculine, while hare, ostrich, dove._ plover, lapwing, 
swallow, partridge, &c., are usually feminine. The larger domestic 
animals are often spoken of as if they were males. 

Sex is a distinction between things, not between names. Gender 
is a distinction between natnes, not-between things. It is therefore 
wrong to speak of the masculine sex, or the male gender : to speak of 
a man as a masculine being, or to talk of things being of the mascu- 
line or feminine gender. Things may be of the male or female 
sex, but only words can be of the masculine, feminine, or neuter 

The distinction of sex in living beings is marked in three 
ways in the nouns that stand for them. 

First Mode.— Quite different words are used : as — 
Masculine. Feminitie. Masculine. Feminine. 


maid or spinsterf 

Horse or 


















Bullock or \ 
steer f 




Monk or friar 






Colt or foal 






Ram or w 










dame or dam J 


















roe or hind 



* Tliese nouns are usually of Romance origin. 

+ The termination -sier was orig^inally feminine. S!pin»(e.r is the only word in 
which this feminine force of it survives. In snavistrrss and son/fitn'.ss we have twc 
temiuiue endings combini'd, one baxon (stei-), the other Frencli (-ess). Many 
words in -ster now u.sed as raaseulins, or as proper nanitss, were originally feminine, 
and denoted occupations ordinarily carried on by women, as sewsier, maltster, 
Uipntn- (a bar-maid), Jlaxlrr (from htkf), Wel/stcr (from we.bban, 'to weave'), &c. 

X Gra/ndam (ijrannam or granny) answers to yrancLsire. Sire and dam, in contrast 
with euoh other, are applied only to auiioalii. 


Man (like the GemiaTi Mctisch) was formerly used of the female 
as well as of the male. We see this in the compouud woman, a 
modified form of wimman — i.e., wifmaii. The vowel sound of the 
first syllable is still preserved in the plural, women. 

The male was distinguished as W(«/);(6T^ «a?j — i.e., armed or wea- 
potied man. Maid had come to mean in Chaucer's time a grown-up 
person of either sex. Thus, ' I wot well that the ai)ostle was a 
maid' (CA. 5661). Girl (a diminutive of the low German i/dr) once 
denoted a young person of eitlier sex. Chaucer (649, 666| still uses 
it in this manner. To distinguish the male, the compound '(cnavc- 
ffirl was used. 

Father means ' one who feeds ;' from the same root as fee-d and 
fa-t (comj)are pa-ter and jm-hco). Hot her is from a root ma — ' bring 
forth' {Morris). Daughter (Gr. 6uydTT}p\ meant originally ' milk- 
maid.' The root is the same as in dug. 

Husband (A.S. husbonda) is the manager or master of the house 
(Mcitzner). Bonda in A.S. means tiller or manager. 

In husbandman and husbandry we have vestiges of the old mean- 
ing. In Anglo- Saxon tvi/was neuter (as Weib aiiil is in German), and 
meant simply a ivuinan. 

Nephew and niece come to us (through French) from the Latin 
ne2Jos ( nepot-is) and neptis. The older Anglo-Saxon words were 
nefa and nefe. Uncle and aunt are from avunculus and amita. The 
provincial and colloquial appellations gaffer and gammer are cor- 
ruptions of godfather and godmother. 

Queen (or quean ) meant simply female or mother: In Anglo 
Saxon cwen-fugel means hen-bird. 

Lord is a shortened form of (».«., hlAfweard, ' loaf- warden, 
or 'bread-dispenser' (Mdtzner and Koch). Lady is from the corre- 
sponding feminine, hlafdige ihlufweardige). /Sir or sire is from 
senior ; madam from mea-domina ; monk from nwnachus, ' one who 
leads a solitary Ufe'; nun = nonna, 'grandmother.' i'Viar is from 
f rater { ere). 

Witch is now only feminine, but it mightcomeindifferentlyfrorathe 
Anglo-Saxon mascuhne wicca, or from the feminine wicce* Wizatd 
comes from the Scandinavian viskr, ' wise,' through the old French 
guiscart, and means ' a very wise man ' {Mdtzner). See ^ 311, 7. 

Brake (old Norse andriki: roota«^=Lat. anat ; riki, connected 
with Geiman reich, and Latin rey-em) means ' king of the ducka.' 
Jjuck is connected with the verb duck, ' to dive.' In Anglo-Saxon 
we find a masculine hana, 'cock' (Germ. Mahn). Goose has lost the 
letter n (Genu. Gans). Gander is formed from the feminine, U 
heing only an offgrowth of the n. Goose is often used as a mascu- 
line, especially as a descriptive epithet, as ' Tom is a goose.' Geese is 
of common gender. 

Bee is now of common gender, but was originally exclusively 

15 Second Mode. — The feminiae is formed by adding certain 
fiutfixes to the masculine. 
1. The commonest of these, and the only one by which 

' " He is such a holy witch, that he enchants societies into him."— <Shak»p. 
Opmb. i. 6.) 


fresh feminines can still be formed, is ess, as count, countess ; 

float, hostess. 

This terraination came to us through French, from the late Latia 
suffix issa. (Comjpare Gr. ia<ra and eo-ira.) 

When this suffix is added, the masculine terminations or and er 
are usually either shortened by the omission of the vowel, as in 
actor, actress; hunter, huntress; or omitted altogether, as in 
adulterer, adulteress ; so Emperor, Empress ; murderer, murderess ; 
governor, governess ; caterer, cater ess ; sorcerer, sorceress. The mas- 
cuUnes author, mayor, prior, and tutor, suffer no abbreviation 
The o of negro and the y of votary are dropped in forming negrcsa 
and votaress. 

Abbess (from abbot) is a shortened form of abbadess. Lass is pro- 
bably shortened from laddess. Duchess follows the French form 
duchesse. Marchioness is formed from the mediseval Latin wora 
march io. In mistress, the a of master is modified. 

Feminines in ess were formerly much more common than they are 
now. Such words as cousiness, ohampioness, suitress, creatress, ^c, 
have quite disappeared. 

2. Feminines in trix are direct importations from Latin, 
as testatrix, administratrix, 

3. A few feminines have the Eomance suflBLx a, as sultana, 
eignora, infanta. 

4. A 'few feminines have the Eomance suffix ine, which 
came to us through Norman French, as heroine (from hero), 
landyravine (from landgrave). Czarina (from czar) has a 
combination of this and the last-mentioned suffix. 

6. One word, vixen, the feminine oifox, preserves the old 
Teutonic feminine suffix en or in (compare German inn), 
the root vowel of the masculine being modified. (Compare 
German Fuchs, Filchsinn.) 

In the oldest English we find such feminines as gyden, ' goddess ; ' 
municen, ' nun ' (from muncc) ; elf en, ' female elf,' &c. So m Scotch, 
we have carlin, ' old woman.' 

6. Bridegroom is a masculine formed from a feminine {bride). 
Groom is a corruption of goom (A.S. guma — man). Widower is 
perhaps also a masculine formed from a feminine, or er may be only 
a modification of the Anglo- Saxon ending a (A.S. masc. widuwa ;* 
tern, widuwe). liuf (tlie name of a kind of bird resembling a 
woodcock) has a feminine reeve. 

46 Third Mode. — Masculine and feminine nouns or pronouns 
are prefixed or affixed to nouns of common gender. 

• In Anglo-Saxon pairs of masculines and feminines were formed : 1, by the 
sufBxes -a and -e, as ne/a, " nephew," ««/'«, " niece ; " ive.bba, " male weaver," 
webbf, "female weaver;" 2, by the suffixes and -extre, as bwcere (baker), 
bcecestre; hoppere (Aancer), hoppest'-e ; JiQdere (tiddler), .A'?5«'«f'^e, &o., of which 
tbe feminine suffix -star has lost its force (see note on § 44) ; 3, by the feminine 
suffix -e added to the masculine, as gtU (g^>at), gUte (ehe-*oat) ; 4, by tbe suffix -w 
or-<» (see above). 























Sometimes proper names are used to answer this pui-pose, as in 
jack-ass, jennif-ass ; tom-cat, tib -cat ; billy-goat, nanny-rioat ; jack- 
datv. In Anglo-Saxon, carl and cwen were used, as carl-fugel {cock- 
fowl), cwen-fugel {hen-fowl). 


47 Number (Latin numeriis) is a variation in the form of 
nouns (and pronouns), by means of which we show whether 
we are speaking of one of the things for which the noun 
(or pronoun) stands, or of more than one. 

There are two * numbers, the Singvilar and the Plural. 

That form of the noun which is used when we speak of 
one of the things for which the noun stands is called the 
singular number, as ship, horse. 

That form which is used when we speak of more than one 
of the things for which the noun stands is called the plural 
number, as ships, horses. 

As it is simpler to think and speak of one thing than to think and 
speak of several things at once, the singular is the original form of 
the noun. The plural form is derived from the singular by making 
some change in it. The process of making this change is called 

48 The plural is derived from the singular in the .following 
ways : — 

First Mode. — By adding the syllable es, shortened to a 
whenever the pronunciation admits of it. The full syllable 
es is now added only when the singular ends in a sibilant 
(», sh, soft ch, X or z) as gas, gases; lash, lashes; witch, 
witches ; box, boxes ; topaz, topazes. Words like horse, horses 
^eally come under this rule, the mute e not being regarded. 

The letters es are also added (but without being sounded 
as a separate syllable) after several words ending in o, as 
hero, heroes ; potato, potatoes ; after y when it is preceded 
by a consonant, the y being changed to i, as lady, ladies ; f 

* In Anglo-Saxon there was also a dual number in the personal pronoiina. 

+ In words of this kind it is more accurate to say that ie has been changed in the 
Rngular into y / as the old English way of spelling the words in the singular WM 
ladie, glorie, &0. In proper names the y is usually retained in the plural. 


and after Anglo-Saxon words ending in Z/ or / preceded by 
any long vowel sound except oo. In these cases the flat 
sound which s always has in es affects the preceding con- 
sonant, and /is changed to v, as elf, elves ; shelf, shelves ; 
leaf, leaves; thief, thieves; loaf, loaves. Wife and Jmife get 
/ changed to v in a similar way — wives, knives. Nouns 
ending in oof, ff, and r/, and nouns in /'of Norman-French 
origin, have only sharp s added to form the plural, and 
retain the sharp sound of the /, as roof, roofs ; cliff, cliffs ; 
dwarf, dwarfs ; chief, chiefs; relief, reliefs. So also reef, 
fife, and strife (see Mdtzner and Koch). Beef, beeves ; and 
staff, staves, are exceptions in modern English, and other 
exceptions are found in the older writers, as wharves, 
turves, scarves. 

49 All nouns except those above mentioned, and the few 
nouns which form their plurals in the second and third 
modes hereafter specified, have their plurals formed by the 
addition of s only, as book, books ; father, fathers ; the s 
having its sharp sound after a sharp mute (as in books, 
cats, traps), and the sound of the flat sibilant z after a flat 
mute, a liquid, or a vowel (as in tubs, eggs, rods, pails, 
rams, nuns, bears, fleas). 

When y at the end of a word iB preceded by a vowel, s 
only is added to form the plural, and the y is not changed, 
as valley, valleys ; boy, boys. Qu counts as a consonant, 
hence the plui-al of soliloquy is soliloquies. 

The usage in the case of ■words ending in o is arbitrary, and by 
no means uniform, es being commonly added. But s only is added 
to words ending in to and oo, and to the following words : — domino, 
volcano, virtuoso, tyro, quarto, octavo, duodvcimo, mosquito, canto, 
grotto, solo, rondo. 

50 The plural suffix s has arisen from dropping the vowel of the 
proper syllabic termination es, which is a modification of the 
Anglo-Saxon plural suffix as. The latter however was used only in 
masculine nouns. In Anglo-Saxon there were also other modes 
of fonuing the plural (see Appendix A), but the influence of 
Norman-French, in which s or x was the common phn-al suffix, led 
to their gradual disuse. When as was clianged to es it long retained 
its syllabic force. Even in Spenser we find such forms as woundes. 
cloudes, handes, &c. (Koch.) In Middle English ys or is is often 
found for es. 

61 Words which are not properly nouns, such as aye, no, pro, ccn, 
extra, if, &c., are sometimes used as substantives. Some writers 
form the plurals of these by adding s with the apostrophe before it 
('«), as aye's, no's, pro's, &c. ; others add s or es {ayes, noes, ifs, buta, 
extras, &c.). The latter mode is the more common, except perhaps 
in words ending in o. Some writers use an apostrophe in formmg 
the plurals of proper names, as the Percy's, the Smith'*. 


52 Second Mode. — By adding en, as ox, oxen; brother, 

brethren ; child, children. * 

The word khie (the phxral of cotv), also belongs to this class. 
There has been a change of the vowel sound besides the addition 
of the en. Welkin, the cloud-covered sky. is considered by some to 
be a plural of this class (German die JFolken^ ' the clouds '). 

53 Third Mode — By changing the vowel soixnd of the 
word, as tooth, teeth j mouse, mice; foot, feet ; c/oose, geese; 
mnn, men.f 

64 Many Latin and Greek nouns are used in English without any 
change of form. The plurals of these words should be made in the 
same way as in the language from which they are taken. The 
following rules m\ist be attended to in forming the pliu-als of such 
words : — 

1. The termination a (in the singular) should be changed into ce, 
as formula, pluial formula, [minutia] mintitice. 
2 The termination us shoidd generally be changed into t, as tu- 
mtdus, pi. tumuli ; radius, pi. radii. 

3. The termination um or on should be changed into a, as animnl- 
culum, pi. animalcula ; efHuvimn, pi. effluvia ; phenomenon, pi. 
phenomena ; so data, arcana, addenda, erraUi, strata, desiderata. 

4. The termination sis should generally be changed into ses ; as 
analysis, pL anlyses ; basis, pi. bases ; axis, pi. axes ; ellipsis, pi 

5. The termination ix or ex should be changed into ices ; as radix, 
pi. radices ; appendix, pi. appendices. 

6. The following forms should also be attended to : — 















Seraph (Heb.) 
Bandit (Ital.) 
Beau (Fr.) 

Mister (i.e. M:i.- 







Cherub (Heb.) cherubim Miasma (Gr.) miasmata 

But if a foreign word has passed into common use, the plural may 

be formed in the usual Enghsh fashion. Thus we say cherubs, 

seraphs, bandits, triumvirs, choruses, dogmas. 
Some Latin words have both a Latin and an English plural, 

as appendices and appendixes ; calices and ealixes ; vortices and 

vortexes ; criteria and criterions ; memoranda and monnrandiims ; 

foci and focuses ; fungi and funguses. Occasionally these two plurals 

• In brethren and children there is a modification of the vowel besides the addition 
of en. Children is a double plural, '•Milder (A. 8. citdru), being' still used as a 
plural in Lancashire. 

The second and third modes of forming the plural are restricted to a few nouns 
of An^lo-Saxon origin. Plurals in -en were more common in the older ^niters. 
Chaucer has dnughteren and sistren. We find shonn (for sh^es) in Shakspere 
[Hamlet iv. 51, eyne or een (for e.'/es) in Scott and Byron, .issen, treen, been occur in 
old writers. ' Hosi-n occurs in the Bible (Dan. iii. 21). Kine is possibly a doublf 
plural. The old plural of <ovj was c.y or eye. Kr/e is still i sed in Scotch. 

t The modified " in wmnen happens t<? ooineide with the original vowel sound at 
the word (}44). 


differ in meaning, as indexes (of books) and indices (in algebra) ; 

geniuses (men of genius), genii (supernatural beings). 
W The word die has two plurals : dies (stamps for coining), and diet 
(small cubes used for gaming). 

Fenny has two plurals ; pennies (a number of separate coins), and 
pence (used when we speak of a sum of money reckoned in that 
coin). The compounds sixpence, mnepence, &c., as the names of 
coins or of distinct sums, may have plurals made from them, — six- 
pences, &o. 

The plural brothers is now used chiefly to express the ordinary 
family relationship. Brethren is used in a more metaphorical 
sense, to denote members of the same community. 

Cloth has two plurals, cloths and clothes (garments). Paths drops 
the e of the suffix, but has tho flat sound of the s and of the preced- 
ing consonant. 

Shot takes a plural form only when it means the discharge of 
a missile. 
60 Some nouns which were neuter and without plural suffix in 
Anglo-Saxon, are the same in the pliu-al as the singular, as sheep, 
deer, swine, neat {cattle), head, (as in ten head of cattle), yoke, year, 
pound ; also noun.s expressing a quantity or number, or used in a col- 
lective sense, as hundred-weight ('the stone weighs ten hundred- 
weight^), brace ('he shot three brace of birds'), pair, couple, 
dozen, gross (' ten gross of buttons '), couple, stone (' he weighs eleven 
stone'), fish* (meaning the race of fishes), fowl, sometimes people 
(meaning a number of persons), sail ('ten sail oi the line'), and 
sometimes fathom and mile Q thirty fathom,' 'ten. mile.' Shaksp.). 
With these may be compared the compound attributives in 'a 
three-foot rule ; ' ' a three-penny book ' ; ' a foiu-- wheel chaise ; ' 
' an engine of a hundred-horse power ; ' ' a five-pound note,' &c. 
Horse and foot, as abbreviations of horse-soldiers, and foot-soldiers, 
have become collective nouns, as have shot (' grape-shot') and cannon. 

67 Names of materials or natural productions, such as wheat, sugar, 
timber, may be used in the plural number when diiferent varieties 
of the articles are spoken of ; as raiv sugars, French wines. 

The idea of repetition or succession is perhaps involved in such 
plurals as ' the dews of heaven," ' the 7-ains of winter,' ' the waters of 
the Nile.' 

68 Names of sciences ending in ics (as mechanics) are plural as regards 
their form, but are frequently used as if they were singular. -f 

• Also the names of several sorts of flsh, as cod, salmon, plaice, trout, pike, perch, 
mackerel, &c. On the other hand shark, whale, sale, herring, eel, turhot, brill, &c., 
I'orm plurals in the ordinary way. 

1- Some have supposed that the different use of the singular logic and thp plural 
mathematics, &c., has arisen from the fact that in the former we have adopted the 
Greek singular n Xo7<k») (t^xvi '• and in the latter the neuter plural t<( fiuWnfuiTiKa. 
This explanation of the use of the singular is, of couri^e, rorreet, but as applied to 
the phu-al it is far-fetcht-d and unnecessary It is doubtful whi ther tlie tirst man 
who spoke of having the rheumatics thought he was representing the plural t<4 
ptvn<niK<i. Wlien adjectives are converted into substantives, it is the tendency of 
our language to use the vilural form. A man talks of ha\'ing the rheumatics jiist as 
in country districts, they talk of having the dumps or the dismals (HalUwell. Diet.) 
"Let them die that age and sullens have." {Shnkspere. Jf. IT. ii. 1). English 
freely allows the use of adjectives as substantives, provided the plural be employed, 
as eatal/les, valuables, greens, sweets, news, &o. 


99 It is a mistake to use a plural of the word folk, as it is a noun ot 

multitude, and means several persons. "We should write, folk say, not 
folks say. " He laid his hands upon a few sick folk" {Mark vi. 5). 
Still, the plural use is very old. It is found in Chaucer and Maunde- 

60 The words riches (Fr. richesse), eaves (A. S. efese), and alttis (A. S. 
cebnesse, from 'eKernxoavvT}), are not really plural nouns, but are 
generally used as if they were in the j)lural number. News is 
plural in fonn, but is used as if of the singular number. There 
is no sufficient reason why means should ever be treated as if it 
were of the singular number, though several good writers use such 
expressions as a means. We now use the singular pea and the 
plural peas; but pease (Lat. pisum, A. S. pise) has now a collective 
eense. Summons (old French semonce, or semonse), is properly 
singular. Amends, galloivs, sessions, shambles, are plurals, but 
are commonly treated as singulars. Small-pox is plural (singular 
pock), but is used as a singular. Odds is used both ways, but 
usually as a plural. We always say much (not many) pains, 
but pains is usually followed by a plural verb ; " your pains are 
registered " {Shakspere}. 

61 Abstract nouns, from the nature of the idea which they denote, do 
not generally admit of the plural number. But wlien they are used to 
denote varieties or different instances of the quality referred to, they 
may have plurals, as affinities, negligences. On the other hand, some 
nouns have no singular, as scissors, bellows, breeches, tongs, annals, 
dregs, entrails, hustings, measles, billiards, oats, &c. The things which 
they represent are double or multiform. The singular wage is a 
provincial f oitq. The plural does not always involve exactly a repeti- 
tion of the idea conveyed by the singular, as compass, compasses ; 
matin, laatins ; vesper, vespers ; pain, pains ; corn, corns ; iron, irons. 
Many plurals have a secondary signification which the singular has 
not, as parings, hangings, leavings, sweepings, &c., which denote the 
product of the action referred to, effects (property), grounds (dregs^, 
respects, parts (capacity), stocks, stays, spectacles, letters (literature), 
draughts, returns, gripes, grains, lists (for tournaments), the Furies, 
lights, returns, shrouds (of a ship), &c. 

62 In compound nouns like father-in-law, hanger-on, consisting of a 
noun foUowed by a definitive prepositional phrase, the mark of 
plurality is attached to the noun part of the compound, — fathers-in- 
laiv, hangers-on. In imperfectly fused compounds, where an adjective 
follows a noun, such as court-martial, knight-errant , thft plural « is 
attached to the noun, — courts-martial, knights-crrnni. Nouns com- 
pounded of full, where the fusion is complete, have the s at the end, 
as handfuh, moutlifals. All other compound nouns have the s at 
the end. (See ^ 300.) Itisdispnted whether the plural of Miss Smith 
should be " The Miss Smiths," or " The Misses Smith." The latter 
is correct, though now regarded as rather pedantic. The former is 
commonly used, and must now be regarded as a well -established form. 
It is perhaps right, on the supposition that "Miss-Smith" is to be 
regarded as a compound name. So " the two Doctor Thomsons " 
(Goldsmith). The words twelvemonth and fortnight, xxsed as singu- 
lars, are relics of a usage which was once quite common, as " this 
seven year'' {Shakspere' s Much Ado, &c.) Even if the noun waa 


in the plural,* the compound was treated as a singolar (as we still 
say, ' a sixpence,' or a ' twopence ') ; as " a twenty bokes "t (Chaucer); 
" a tedious twelve years " {Fletcher) ; " this fourteen years " (lfeasur$ 
for Measure). 


63 Things of which we speak by means of nouns stand in 
various relations to other things, and to actions and attri- 
butes. Consequently, when these relations are expressed 
in language, nouns have various relations to other words 
in the sentences in which they are employed. In the sen- 
tence, " The horse eats the man's hay," Jwrse stands for 
that which does the action described by the verb ; hay 
stands for that upon which the action is performed ; viana 
is used to indicate to whom the hay belongs. The words 
horse and hay have each a certain connexion with the verb 
eats, and man's has a certain connexion with the noun hay. 
Some languages have several different terminations which 
nouns are made to assume, to indicate the various relations 
in which they stand to other words. These different forms 
of the noun are called cases. The word case (Lat, casus) 
means falling. The ancient Greek grammarians took a 
fancy to represent that form of a noun in which it is used 
when it is the subject of a sentence, by an upright line, 
and compared the f)ther forms to lines falliny or sloping 
off from this upright line at different angles. Hence a 
collection of the various forms which a noun might assume 
was called the declension or sloping down of the noun. 
What we call the Nominative Case was called the upright 

\ / 64 Case may be defined to be " the form in which a noun or 
' pronoun is used, in order to show the relation in which it 

stands to some other word in the sentence." 

* This uRase still prevails in the case of multiples. We say ' twice five is ten,* 
because ' twire five ' is treated as a sinfrle sum, though the full phrase of course ia 
" twice five tilings are ten things." The amount is considered rather than the 
mode of its formation. 'WTien the latter idea is prominent, tlie phiral is better, as 
* twice five make ten ! ' Tlie use of the plural times does not affert the question, 
because in ' three times ten is thirty,' times is not the subject of the sentence. 
Three times is an adverbial adjunct of the numeral ten, like twice or thi-ice. 

t It must not be forfrotten however that in Anglo-Saxon twenty, thirty, &o 
were substantives, (like hundt-ed and tlmusand), and took a genitive ca^e 'it'ter 
them. ' Twenty meti ' was ' a twenty of men. ' Also comliinations like ' three and 
twenty,' ' nine and thirty, were treated as compound substantives, and iirecorled 
by the indefinite article. The substantive use of the adjective numerals may )'ave 
been introduced through a false analogy. In a similar way we may perhapa 
•oootint for such genitives as, ' for forty's sake,' ' for ten's sake.' 


The process of forming tlie different cases of a nouu is 
called inflection. 

In English there are now* three cases, the Nominative 
Case, the Possessive Case, and the Objective Case. + 

Id some of the pronouns these three cases are aU different; in nouna 
the nominative and objective cases are alike. (See J 83.) 

15 The nominative case is that form in which a noun (or 
pronoun) is used when it is the subject of a verb ; that is;, 
when it stands for that about which sometliing is said by 
means of a verb. In the sentence, " Men build houses," 
the noun men stands for that about which something is 
said by means of the verb huild. The noun men, ttierefore, 
is in the nominative case, because it is the subject of the 
verb huild. In the sentence, " The boy was struck by his 
brother," the noun hoy stands for that about which some- 
thing is said by means of the verb was struck, and therefore 
the noun hoi/ is in the nominative case, because it is the 
subject of the verb luas struck. If the verb of the sentence 
be in the active voice, the subject of the verb stands for the 
doer of the action described by the verb. If the verb be 
in the passive voice, the subject of the verb stands for the 
object of the action described by the verb. In either case 
the subject stands for that about which something is said by 
means of the verb. 

• English was anciently a much more inflected lanpruajre than it is now. When 
it was in its Anglo-Saxon stage, nouns and pronouns had five oa^es, answering to 
tlie Xominative. Genitive, Dative, Accusative, and Ablative of Latin, the dative 
iad ablative being often alike in nouns. There were also various separate declon- 
sious of Nouns fsee Appendix). In modem English (as in French) the use of 
ease-endings has to a great extent been replaced by the use of prejjositions. Tlie 
function of a preposition was originally to give greater definiteness to tlie sotiie- 
what vague idea expressed by a case-ending. Tlius, in Greek the genitive c;ise 
denoted //■")«, the dative at, the accusative, to. The preposition napd conveyed tlie 
idea of ahnc/.ti'le of, and so the genitive preceded by Tta^xt meant frnm the side of 
something; the dative preceded by jropn meant at the side o/ something; th' 
accusative wi th naoa meant to the aide of something. Similarly in Latin the accusa- 
tive casemail^ed mot'on to some object. If motion to the inside of the thing was to 
be expressed, the vague notion expressed by the accusative was refined by prefix- 
ing tlie preprisilion in ; if motion to the outU'de only was implied, ad was prefixed. 
The use of all prepositions originated in this way. They did not govern cases, i.e., 
require certain cases to be used after them, but were prefixed to to give 
greater definiteness to the idea already expressed h<j the rase itxejf. It will easily 
be seen how, in course of time, the case-ending in the word that followed a preposi- 
tion would become supei-fluous, when prepositions were uniformly employed before 
the same cases. As an accusative always came after ad, and an ablative after de, it 
became needless to put any case-endinsr at all ; the prer osition itself became all- 
important and sufficient. But thous-h in modem English and French a preposition 
followed by a noun is the substitute iov a case, it is wrong to call that combination 
itself a case. If a preposition and noun together make a case, it follows neces- 
sarily that there are as many cases as there are prepositions. 

t Norn ina live comes from the Latin nomirw, ' I name ; ' possessive, from the LatiB 
posrideo, ' I possess ; ' objective, from the Latin objicio, ' I throw towards.' 


66 ITie noun in the nominative case is the answer to the question mad* 
by putting who or what before the verb. Thus in the preceding 
sentence : " Wlio build houses S Ans. Men." " Who was struck ? 

Ans. The boy." * 

67 The possessive case is that form of a noun (or pronoun) 
which shows that something belongs to the person or thing 
for which it stands. Thus in " I saw John's hook," the pos- 
sessive case John^s shows that something (namely a book) 
belongs to John. " A day's journey " is a journey that 
belongs to a day, by taking place in it, or occupying the whole 
of if. 

68 The noun in the possessive is in the attributive relation to 
the noun which stands for what is possessed. (§ 362, 3.) 

69 As what is possessed must be a person or a thing of some 
kind, a noun in the possessive case can only be in the 
attributive relation to a noun.f 

70 The possessive case iu the singular number, and in those 
plurals which end in any other letter than s, is formed by 
adding the letter s with an apostrophe before it (thus, 's) to 
the nominative case ; as, John's, men's, geese's. In those 
plurals which end in s the possessive case is indicated in 
writing by placing the apostrophe after the s, as, " the 
birds' feathers." Formerly the plural in s was used as a 
genitive or possessive without further mark, as ' Cristes 
lore and his apostles twelve He taught' {Chaucer, 0. T. 529). 

71 Sometimes the possessive case in the singular number of 
nouns that end in s, x, or ce is merely marked by placing an 
apostrophe after tho word ; as, Eneas' son ; " Look, in this 
place ran Cassius' dagger through." But this practice is 
now nearly obsolete, except in a few common instances ; as, 
" for conscience' sake," " for goodness' sake." It is found 
in Anglo-Saxon, as ' Urias wif ; ' ' Mattheus gerecydnys.' 

72 In Anglo-Saxon the genitive termination -es (for which at a 
somewhat later period -is or -y« was often used) was restricted 

* Such expressions as, "The noun boy is the nominative case to the verb," are 
incorrect. Case is equivalent to form. Now a noun is not a, form, nor would there 
he any sense in talking' of the nominative form to a verb. The case of a noun is 
not its relation to a verb, but the form which indicates that relation. Of course 
this fundamental distinction between a noun and the form of a noun is not 
alfected by Ihe accident that in English the nominative and accusative cases of 
nouns are alike. The incorrectness of the mode of speaking above referred to is 
rendered evident in an amusing manner by the mistake which beginners in Latin 
frequently make of explaining the accusative ease which precedes an infinitive 
mood by saying that the noun iu the accusative is the nominative to the verb. 

t This noun is sometimes omitted. Thus we say, " He went to the baker's," 
». «., to the baker's shop. " A pictiu'e of my father's" means " a picture of my 
father's pictures," or " one of my father's pictiu'es." " A picture of my father, * 
on the other hand, meana " • painted representation of my father." See, however. 
) 168, noU. 


to the singular, and was not the only genitive suffix. (See Appen- 
dix A.) It formed a separate syllable.* The syllabic -es is often 
found in Spenser, and traces of it occur even in Shakspere, as in 
" To show his teeth as white as whales bone " (Love's L.Z., v. 2) ; 
** Swifter than the moones sphere " {Mids. N. B., ii. 1); "You 
sent me for a ropes end as soon " {Com. of E., sxiv. 1). 

73 The apostrophe in the possessive case singular marks that the 
vowel of the syUabic suffix has been lost. We still see the vowel in 
fFednesday, i.e., Wodenesday. It is therefore an unmeaning process 
to put the apostrophe after the plural s (as birds'), because no vowel 
has been dropped thcre.t In such possessives as Thomas's the vowel 
is sounded in speaking, but omitted in writing. This genitive or 
possessive termination es or 's, was not affixed to feminine nouns in 
Anglo-Saxon, except in adverbial genitives, as nihtes 'by night.' 
We still say Lady-day and not Lady's-day. (See Morris, Spec, 
p. xix.) 

74 The general use of the apostrophe is comparatively modem. 
Milton did not use it. We iind it however aheady employed by 
Robert of Gloucester, who also uses -es or -ys. 

76 In the case of a complex name, the termination of the possessive 
case is only affixed to the last of the names ; as " Julius Csesar'fc 
death;" " John Thomas Smith's father." It is even usual to 
carry out the same principle when one thing is possessed by several 
persons ; as, " John, William, and Mary's uncle ; " that is, the unck 
of John, William, and Mary. This practice, however, cannot be 
defended on grammatical principles. In compound nouns like 
father-in-law, or when a noun is followed by determinative ad- 
juncts of any kind, as ' Henry the Eighth,' ' The Queen of England.' 
' Smith the baker, &c.' the possessive sign 's is placed at the end, J 
as ' My father-in-law's house,' ' the Queen of England's name,' &c. 
We no longer allow such constmctions as " It is Othello's pleasure, 
our noble and valiant general." The Anglo-Saxon usage was to 
put both nouns in the genitive. 

* It is almost incredible how many persons have been induced to adopt the silly 
notion that the 's of the posse^'sive case is an abbreviation for his, so that the kin;/' a 
crown ia the kin^ his crown. The word his is itself the possessive Ciise of he: sotliat, 
ou this principle, his=he+his— he+he+his=he+he+he+his, and so on ad injini- 
tum. Moreover, Mary's bonnet must 'be explained to mean Mary his bonnet. The 
mistake is so stupid, and shows such blank ignorance of the principles of gram- 
matical forms, that one wonders how the notion could have originated. It is quite 
true, however, that the use of his after a noun, in place of a simple possessive 
suffix, is of very early origin and was -svidely prevalent. Some (as Ben Jonson) 
suppose that the alteration of the possessive termination -es into -is, and its pro- 
nunciation as a distinct syllable led to the usage. It is more probable that it arose 
from a pleonastic use of the pronoun, which is ft)und also in the other cases, as 
" He Muyses and King Salomon " (Chancer, 10564) " the sepulchi-e of him Dai'ius " 
(t^ 6080) ; "The nobles they are fled" [Shaksp. Rich. II., ii. 2). 

t The pliu-al books has just as good a right to an apostrophe as the possessive 
singular, a vowel having been omitted. The Anglo-Saxon termination was -as. 

i This power of treating an inflected form or a complex phrase as though it were 
a single declinable word, and adding inflections to it, is very remarkable in English. 
Thus iD Anglo-Saxon the genitives of the personal pronouns were treated aa. 
pronominal adjectives and declined ; an inflected infiiiitive was used after to to 
form, the germid (see Gerund § 197), and even such a compound as ndlhwylc l,ne wat 
hwylo-= I know not which), has suf&xes Uke an ordinary adjective, as " in niSsela 
^thwylcvun," 'in I-know-not-what dwelling.' 


76 The possessive 's is the only case-suffix of noims that has com* 
down to us. The letter s, as the characteristic of the genitive 
suffix, is of gene&l occun-ence in the Aryan languages. 

77 - The meaning of the possessive case may be expressed by 
means of the preposition of, with the objective case after it. 
Thus, for " My father's house," we may say, " The house of 
my father." F.ut the possessive case must not be substituted 
for the preposition of, unless the of implies ' belonging to,' 
in SI ;ne one of the senses of that phrase. 

78 In oM English there is a use of the possessive case which has 
now disappeared, and wliich corresponds to wliat is called the ohjcvt- 
ive f/enitive in Latin (as amor pecuu'ue, " the love of money "). Thus 
in the Enghsh version of the Bible, Thy fear is used for the fear of 
Thee. In Shakspere lus takincj off means the taking off' of him. 
The possessive inflection 's may be added to nouns that denote 
persons, animals, or things that are personified, as " John's book ; " 
" the cat's tail ; " "reason's voice." Also whr.n the noun is com- 
monly preceded by the definite article, as " the sun's light ; " " the 
earth's surface ; " " the liglitning's glare." Also in some idiomatical 
phrases, as with the word srtArc, "For his oath's sake;" "For thy 
name's salife ; " "A day's journey." Poetry admits this possessive 
miii:li more frequently than prose. 

19 The objective case is that form in which a noun or pro- 
noun is used when it stands for the object of the action 
spoken of in some verb, or when it comes after a preposi- 
tion. In the sentence, "The stone struck the boy,'" the 
» act of striking is spoken of as being directed to a certain 
object, namely, hoy. The word boy, which stands for the 
object of the action, is called the object of the verb, and is in 
the objective case. It is in the Objective Relation to the 
verb (§ 366). In the sentence, "John was riding in a 
coach," the noun coach, which comes after the preposition 
in, is in the objective case. 

80 The objective case is often used, like the Latin dative, to 
denote iho iudirext object of a verb, that is to say, it stands 
for some person or thing indirectly affected by the action, 
but not the direct object of it; as " Tell me a tale ;'' " Rob 
me the exchequer." In such cases the word in the object- 
ive case is in the Adverbial Relation to the verb (§ 372, 4). 

81 When a noun in the objective case is the object of a verb, the noun 
in the Qbjective case answers to the question formed by putting 
whom or what before the verb and its subject. As in the example 
given ab-^ve, " "Whom or what did the stone strike? " Ans. " The 

82 rh r.ouns the objective case is the same in form as the nominative. 
Tlie noun which is the subject -^f the verb, and therefore in t'ne nomi- 
native case, is generally put before the vei-b (in assertions, not in 
questions) : the noun which '8 the object of the verb is geV^^a-Uy put 


after the verb. These rules, however, are by no means invariable. 
The former is frequently di.src^^arded in poetry, or when an adverh 
or adverbial phrase is used before the verb and its subject; as, " On 
rushed the foe ; " " By the wayside sat an old man " The second rule 
is also sometimes neglected for the sake of emphasis : as in such a 
sentence as " The two brothers were equally guilty ; John he pun- 
ished, but William he forgave." 
62 Strictly speaking, it ought to be said that nouns in EngUsh have 
only two cases or forms ; one (such as man, dog) for which a new 
name would have to be invented, used indifferently for the subject 
and for the object of verbs; the other, the possessive case. But, as 
pi-onouns have three cases, and in other languages it is very common 
for the nonnnative and accusative cases to be alike, it does not seem 
worth while to alter the conmionly received arrangement.* 

84 The following are examples of the declension of nouus in 
English : — 

Singular. Plural. 

Nominative Case .... Man Men. 

Possessive Case Man's Men's 

Objective Case Man Men. 

Nominative Case .... Father Fathers. 

Possessive Case Father's Fathers'. 

Objective Case Father Fathers. 


65 When we think or speak of anything, we frequently have 
In mind not only the thing itself, but some quality fliat it 
]>i'.ssesses, the number or quantity of what we are talking 
about, or some relation in which it stands to the speaker 
or to other things. In thinking of a rose we may have in 
our minds the idea that it is red, and so speak of it as a 
red rose. In speaking about a cJiild, we may connect with 
it the idea that it is a child near us, and so speak of it as 
this child. In speaking of same biids we may indicate that 

* The endeavour to distinguish a dative, and an nccusntive case in modern 
Eng-lish, is at variance with the genius and liisfory of the language. We see from 
the pronouTiR (see Appendix A) , that the form wliieh maintained its ground was the 
dative wliioh first ousted the ablative, and usurped its functions, and then did 
the same with the accusative. It is unphilosophioal to re-introduce gi-ammatica' 
distinctions which a language has ceasrd to recognise. One might as well attempt 
to restore the Locative Case to Latin, or the Ablative to Greek. As there is but 
one f'rirm (him, her, them, &c.) to denote both the direct and the indirect object, not 
cc'y is notliin'g gained, but an important piece of linguistic history is obsciu-ed by 
having two names for it. It is much bntter to use the common name objective. It 
is true that there are t^\Ti uses of the objective case, but that is another matter. A 
easo is not ttie same tiling as the rrlmion that it expresses, any more than a noun ia 
tie same as the thing which it names. 


there are three of them, and so speak of them as three birds. 
The -words that are used in this way with nouns are called 
86 Di'fiwition. An adjective is a word used with a noun or 
pronoun to denote some distinguishing attribute of quality, 
quantity, or relation, belonging to that for which the noun 
or pronoun stands.f 

In the phrase a ichite horse, the word white is an adjective. It 
denotes a certain quality of the liorse. 

In the sentence, / saiv two men, the word two is an adjective. It 
points out the quantity of that for which the noun stands. 

In the sentence, I love this child, the word ?/as is an adjective. 
It points out that the cliild stands in a certain relation (of nearness) 
to inc. 

87 "When it is attached directly to the noun to which it refers, 
an adjective is said to be used attributively ; as " a red 
hall ; " " a hird flying through the air ; " " which hand will 
you have ?" The adjective and noun together form a com- 
pound description of that which we have m our thoughts. 
When an adjective is connected with a noun by means of 
some part of the verb le (or some other verb of incomplete 
predication, such as become), it is said to be used predica- 
iively, as, "the ball is red,'" "the bird was ^j/m^." All 
true adjectives can be used in both ways. 

In combinations like teaspoon, apf)le-tree, cannon ball, the first word 
is not an adjective. It does not express an attributive idea, it merely 
hints at one, leaving the mind of the hearer to develop the idea foi 
itself. The two nouns form a compound name. Hence those most 
commonly used have come to be written as one word. 

88 As an adjective is not the name of a separate object of thought, an 
adjective can never be used as the subject of a sentence, or as the 
object of a verb, or be governed by a preposition. 

89 Adjectives may be distributed into the following classes : 
— Qualitative Adjectives, Quantitative Adjectives, and 
Demonstrative or Determinative Adjectives. 

90 1. Qualitative Adjectives, i.e., adjectives which denote 

• Latin adjectivus, " capable of bein^ annexed or attached to aomething," from 
od/ecius, "annexed or added to sometliing-." 

+ It is a mistake to call an adjeftive the name of a quality or attribute. Before 
we can name anything, it must be made a .separate object of thought, and the 
navie of anything that we can think or speak about is a noun. IVkileness is the 
name of a certain quality, and iis a noun. White denotes the quality, but does not 

Beware of the absurdity of sajTng that " an adjective denotes the quality of a 
noun." A noun is a name. When we speak of a red rote, the adjective red does not 
denote a quahty of the name rose, but of the thing for whicli the name stands. 
The blunder is verj" obvious, but ia aevertheleas oonuaitted in most Rngl i ah 


some quality or attribute (from the Latin qualia, ' of which 

sort'), as virtuous, high, white, heauti/ul, such,* same, only.\ 
The verbal adjectives called Participles belong to this 

91 2, Quantitative Adjectives, i.e. adjectives which 
denote how much or how many of that for which the noun 
stands we have in our thoughts (Latin quantus ' how 
great' ). This class includes — 

a. The Indefinite Article an (§ 121) and the Cardinal Niune- 
ral Adjectives, one, two, three, &c. (The words hundred, 
thousand, million, like pair and dozev, are nouns. They may 
be used with the indefinite article before them. J) 

b. The words all,% any, some, half, many, few, little, less, 
least, enough, much, more, most, both, several, whole, none ox 
no (=?ioi a7iy). 

Examples. ' All men are mortal.' ' He rode all day long.' ' He 
sleeps all night.' ' He travelled all the next day.' ' Some men pre- 
fer this.' ' Give me some wine.' ' We had a half hoMay.' ' Wait 
half an hour.' ' Few persons will beheve that.' ' He has but little 
wealth, and less wisdom.' ' He has not given me the least trouble.' 
* I have had enough wine.' ' Give him money enough.' ' I have 
much pleasure in doing this.' ' He has more sense than his neigh- 
boiir.' ' Most persons admire valoiir.' ' He had both eyes put out.' 
' They are both in fault ' ' He has eaten a whole apple.' ' Make 
no noise.' ' Give none offence.' ' Give none occasion to the 

92 Some of these words are also used as substantives : — 

All. ' All iR lost.' 

Few. ' I have a fetv^ shillings.' The phrase a many ia equally 
legitimate, but ia obsolete. In A.S. mceniyeo, 'multitude,' was a 

• When stick is used with a noun which is preceded by the indefinite article, the 
article comes between the adjective and che noun ; as, »uch an event, such a sad 

t In such phrases as ' my only son,' only is always either an adjective used attri- 
butively, or an adverb. In " There are only four persons present ; " " He only 
was saved ; " " He is only pretending," only is an adverb. Only is never by any 
chance used instead of a noun. It is therefore absurd to call it a pronoun. Only 
(A.S. fenlic = one-like) is a derivative from dn = one, 

t In Auglo-Saxou they were followed by the genitive case, as though we said 
' A hundred of sheep,' &c. (See App. «A..) 

} The woriis all, half, little, less, least, much, more., most, enrmjh, are also used as 
adverbs ; as " all round the world ; " " half a/mid ; '' I am but little encouraged by 
that ; " " he is less careful than his brother ; " " he is the least ambitious m«n that 
I know ; " " he is much more studious than he used to be ; " " he is most anxious tc» 
succeed ; " " he is tall enough." 

U Few used as an adjective involves a negation of there being many. " He has 
few friends." A few, when few is used substantively, involves a negation that 
there are none ; it implies some, but not many. Little is used in a similar way. In 
Anglo-Saxon /eu> (fe&wa, fea) was used in the singular for * a small quantity.' 
Bcotchmen still say ' a few porridge.' 



Muck, more, most. ' Much has been said, but more remains to be 

Whole. ' He spent the whole of the day in playing.' 
None. ' None are altogether witliout hope.' 

93 Little, less, and least, when they are used before a noun and are 
themselves preceded by an article, are qualitative adjectives ; as, ' a 
little boy.' The comparative of little, in this sense, when it is used 
attributively, ia often written lesser ; as, ' the lesser evil of the two.' 

Least, in the qualitative sense, is nearly obsolete, except in one or 
two phrases ; as, ' Not in the least degree.' 

Many may be used with a noun in the singular,* provided the 
indefinite article be placed before the noun; as, 'Many a man has 
lost his life by these means.' 

94 All, no, none some, enough, may denote either number or quantity ; 
as, ' all men,' ' all the way,' ' some pens,' ' some beer,' ' no money,' 
' no friends," &c. When all denotes quantity, the definite article 
is commonly placed between it and the noun. ' All day ' and ' aU 
night ' are exceptions. 

The use of none before a noun is now old-fashioned. It differs 
from no as mine differs from my ; i.e., no is used when the noun 
which it relates to is expressed, and none when the noun is not ex- 
preesed ; as, ' I have no liorse, and my neighbour has none.' 

95 In Anglo-Saxon none (nan = ne ^n, ' not one') was used 
as a singular both, adjectively and substantively with 
reference (not to quantity, but) to number. Its substantive 
use as a singular is becoming obsolete, but was formerly 
common, as in "None but the braye deserves the fair" 
{Drydeti). No is a shortened form of none as my is of m,ine. 
The ctmibination no one is pleonastic, for no by itself means 
no one. In Chaucer one is shortened into o. 

96 The quantitative numeral one is often used substantively, meaning a 
single individual of some kind already mentioned. When thus used, 
it may even have a plm-al. ' Give me another pen, this is a bad one ;' 
or, ' tliese are bad ones.' 

97 /loth is used when, in spealcing of two things, attention is directed 
to the fact that neither of them is excluded from the jn-edication 
(Gothic baioths : A.'^ Iicfnii, bu. or bu. sometimes compounded with 
lu-<i,—lyd.twk. In Old Euylish we find both two. The origin of the 
-th is obscure). 

98 3 Demonstrative or Definitive Adjectives (Latin 
demonstro, 'I point out') are adjectives which point out 
which thing or things we are speaking of, out of the class 
of things denoted by a common noun. They indicate 
primarily some kind of relation which the thing sjxiken of 
bears to others or to the speaker. — To this class belong 

a. The Definite Article the. 

* So muHus and piur mus in Latiu. " Flurimus in Juaonis boDorem aptuia 
dicet eciuis Argoa." — Uuiact- 


I. The so-called Adjective Pronouns, or Pronominal 

Adjectives, comprising the following classes: — 

1. The Demonstrative Pronouns this, these, that, those. 

2. The Interrogative and Relative Pronouns which, 
what and whether. 

'6. The Distributive Pronouns each, every, either, neither. 

4. The Indefinite Pronouns any, otiier, some. 

o. The Possessive Pronouns my, thy, his, &o. 

6. The Eedective Pi^onouu self. 

c. The Ordinal Numerals, first, second, third, &c. 

lu speaking we do not always express all that we have 
in our thoughts, when what is expressed shows clearly 
enough what is to be understood as meant, though not 
expressed. One result of this is, that adjectives are very 
often used without having the nouns to which they relate 
expressed. Thus, " The good are happy ; " i.e., good people. 
" Blessed are the meek;" i.e., meek jiersons. Adjectives 
are then said to be ased substantively. When speaking of 
persons, the singular is now avoided, though it used to be 
common, as " The poor is hated . . . but the rich hath 
many friends" {Frov. xiv. 20) ; " There will a worse come 
in his place" {'^iuiksp.) This use of Adjectives in the 
singular is now restricted to general or abstract ideas, as 
"The sublime," "The beautiful." In most cases adjec- 
tives used substantively must be preceded by a demon- 
strative [tlie or th:ese) or a possessive, as ' our dearest ; ' but 
thoy may be used without the definite article when they 
are in pairs of opposites, as " 1 will follow you tlirough 
thick and thin"; "For belter or worse'"; " High and low, 
rich and poor together." Also in a few phrases, as " He 
has this character in common with his neighbours" ; "In 
gaieral he avoids such mistakes " ; " He recommended this 
in particular " ; "At hast " ; "At random " ; " In future.'" 
I OK This use of adjectives is especially common with the 
(luantitative and demonstrative adjectives. Thus, "Many 
(persons) are called, but few (persons) ai'e chosen ; " " All 
(men, or persons) heard, and some obeyed;" "I know 
that ; " " I heard what* you said," (See § 88.) 

101 The preceding use of adjectives must be distinguislied from the 
cases in which certain adjectives are used so comislctely as substan- 

• When whnt and which, that and this, are used substantively, they are only of 
the neuter gender, unless they are connected by the verb is with a substantive, as 
" Which is the king \ " "This is he," " That is the man." These and those may 
b»of any gender. 


tavea, that they have the ordinary inflections of nouns. The adjeo- 
tiven which adxait of tliis are — 

1. 'Na.tionalnames, snc\\ as German, Italian, Boman. Wo say, "A 
Roman's rights"; " Tlio Germans crossed the Rhine "; "The Ital- 
ians' love of art." Those names which end in a sibilant sound 
{Dutch, Chinese, &c.) do not admit of inllection. 

2. Names denoting the members of a sect or party ; as Christian, 
Lutheran, Stoic, Jiicobite, &c. 

3. Variovis Latin comparatives, as senior, junior, inferior. Sec, 
with the Anglo-Saxon elder and better. 

4. Various adjectives denoting persons, and of French or Latin 
origin, as native, inortal, noble, saint, criminal, ancient, modern, &c., 
together with a very few of Anglo-Saxon origia, as black, white, 

5. Adjectives used as substantives in the plural only, as vitals, 
intestines, eatables, moveables, valuables, greens, the blues, sweets, &c. 
(See § 58, note). 

6. The adjective o<A«\ Some writers also use eif/ter'* and »e»<Aer'a 
in the possessive singular. 

102 Adjectives, in moderji. English, are not decKnable words. 
With the exception of the words this and that, which have 
plural forms, these and those, and self, which has a plural 
selves, no adjective in English indicates gender, number, or 
case, by means of inflection. 

103 The Anglo-Saxon adjectives were inflected to mark gender, num- 
ber, and case. (See App. A.) By the time of Chaucer the various 
suffixes had been reduced to an inflectional e in the plural, especially 
of adjectives of one syllable, and of adjectives used substantively, 
and at the end of adjectives preceded by demonstratives and pos- 

Comparison of Adjectives. 

104 Adjectives admit of three varieties of form, called De- 
grees of Comparison. These are the Positive Degree, the 
(Comparative Degree, and the Superlative Degree. 

106 The Positive Degree of an adjective is the adjective in its 
simple form, used to point out some quality or attribute of 
that which we speak about, as "A black cat," '^ A. fine 
106 When we wish to indicate that one thing, t or one group of 
things, possesses the same quality or attribute as another, but 
in a greater degree, a change is made in the form of the 

• Shakspere has preserved a solitary sppoimen of the old genitive piviral suffix 
rr (A.S -m) in the word alderlie/'esl (for alUilie/est, d being an oflgrowth of I before 
r'l, meaning 'dearest of all' (//. King U. VI., i. IV Compare the German nller- 
liebst. In Chaucer we find, alderfirst, as well as youre alter = ' of you all.' 
In oWen, «»» is perhaps a relic of the ancient inflection. 

i The word tkini^ means generally whatever we can think about, i.e., make a di»- 
tiuct object of thought, including peraoni, as well as what we commonly denomi' 
oate things. 


simple adjective to mark this. The syllable gr* is added, 
before which a mute e is dropped, as " My knue is sharper 
than yours ; " " John's book is pretty, but mine is prettier f ; " 
" Your parents are richer than mine ; " " This soldier is 
taller than those ; " " These books are larger than that one." 
One thing may be compared either with one other, or with a 
group of several; and a group of things maybe compared 
either with another group or with a single thing. Also a 
thing may be compared with itself under other circumstances, 
as " John is stouter than he was last year." 

107 The Comparative Degree of an adjective is that form of it 
by means of which we show that one thing, or set of things, 
possesses a certain quality or attribute in a greater degree 
than another thing, or set of things. 

108 It must not be imagined that the comparative degree expresses the 
existence of more of a certain quality in an object than the positive 
degree does. If we say, " William is a clever boy," and " John is 
cleverer than Thomas,"' we are not to infer tliat cleverer in the second 
case implies the existence of more cleverness in John than the adject- 
ive clever implies in the case of William. The fact may be that 
WUliam is cleverer than John. The positive degree is used in the 
one case simply because William is not compared with any one else ; 
and the comparative degree is used in the second case because John 
is compared with Thomas. 

Even the use of an adjective in the positive degree often implies 
some standard of comparison ; as when we use such words as hiffh, 
great, &c. But this results only from the meaning of the words 
themselves, and does not affect the grammatical use of the words. 

Some adjectives wliich are comparatives in origin are now Tised a» 
positives, though they stiU involve the idea of relation in space oi 
tinip. Such axe former, latter, elder, upper, inner, &c. 
1 )9 When one attribute is compared with another in respect of degree, 
than must be used without an elhpsis of the verb foUowing, as ' It 
is broader than it is long.' We cannot say ' It is broader than 
long.' But the ellipsis is allowable when more is used, as ' He is 
more witty than wise.' Such a seAtence as " Your company is 
fairer than honest ' {Shakspere, M. for M., iv. 3) is not correct. 
In Latin and Greek two comparatives were used, as vcrior quam 
gratior, 'More true than agreeable.' Also magis was uaed (like 
more in English) with two positives. 

• In Ang'lrt-Saxon the sufBx was -er or -or ; in declension dropping the vowel, 
and inflected accordLng to the weak declension. The letter r is the softened fonc 
of a sibUant. In Gothic the suflix is -iza. With this we may compare the Latin 
comparative sufBx -ios (Key Lat. Gr. § 241), the s of which is softened to r in de- 
clension. It is an ancient Aryan suffix. {Ba-nsa. iyas). Another Aryan comparative 
Bufiix, tar or ter, which we get in the Greek -refjor, appears also in Latin and 
English, to indicate that one thing is viewed in its relation to some other, m 
al,ter 'one of two' ; uter 'which of two' ; neuter : other, either, neither, ivhether. 

1 When -er and ->'st are added to adjectives ending in y, the y is changed, or left 
Bnaltereil, in the sume way as when the plural -ea is added. (See i 49), 


110 The Superlative* Degree of an adjective is that form of it 
which shows that a certain thing, or group of things, 
possesses the attribute denoted by the adjective in a greater 
dcf/ree than any other among several of which it is one. It is 
fdi-med by adding st or estf to the adjective in the positive 
dogree ; as, greatest, largest. Thus, of several boys in a 
gioup, we may say, " John is the tallest.'''' Of the countries 
ot Europe we may say, " England is the wealthiest." 

111 If we say "John is taller ih&n all the other boys in the class," we 
express the same relation as to heiglit between John and the rest as 
il we say, " John is the tallest hoy in the class." But in the former case, 
John is considered apart from the other boys of the class, so that the 
two objeols whicli we have in mind are John and the oDier bops in the 
class. When the superlative degree is used, John is considered as one 
of the group of boys compared with each other. 

113 When two things forming one group are compaied, it la usual and 
jiroper to employ the comparative degree, as, " This line is the longer of 
the two." Nevertheless, as tlie two things do foi'm one group, theie is 
some excuse for saying " Ike longest of the two." 

113 Many adjectives, from the nature of the ideas which they express, 
cannot liave comparative and superlative degrees; &'?■, right, left, wrong, 
fqiiare. triangular, together with n)ost of the quantitative adjectives, 
Hiid all the demonstrative adjectives. Sometimes, however, adjectives 
are used in a sense which falls short of their strict meaning, and then 
they admit of degrees of comparison which would not otherwise be 
tolerable. For example, extreme, perfect, chief. As when we say, " This 
specimen is more perfect than that " ; " He died in the extremest misery "; 
" The chief est among ten thousand." 

114 In the case of some adjectives, the degrees of comparison 
are marked by what are commonly termed irregular forma. 
These are the following : 

Potiliv*. Oomparalive. Superlative. 

Good bettorj best 

Little§ less least 

• Superlative (Lat. superlativus, from superlatus) means " lifting up above." 
The superlative degree lifts the thing that it is applied to abooe all the rest of the 

t In Anglo-Saxon the termination was -est or -ost. In early English writers (as 
in llobert of Gloucester) we still find comparatives and superlatives in -or and ost. 

t In Anglo-Saxon let is a comparative adverb, the comparative suffix bi;ing 
thrown off, as it was also in lenrj (longer), ma (more), i\> (more easily), <er (sooner). 
Beat is a sh ; irlened form of heist or, like last from latest. 

g Little (AS. Itjlel) is a derivative from the simpler form lyt. Less and Uasl are 
not connected w;th this root, but are derived by Koch from a root las. From this 
root would be formed the comparative l(essa or (vnth s softened to /■) laisra, and the 















later or latter 

latest or last J 



ni^hest or next $ 



fdreinost or first 

Old II 

older or elder 

oldest or eldest 



ffinliest ^ 




115 Adjectives of more than two syllables, and most adjectivea 
of two syllables, do not allow of the foimation of com- 
parative and superlative deg-rees by means of sulfixes. But 
^lie same ideas are denoted by prefixing the adverbs more 
and most to the simple adjective, or adjective in the positive 
degree. Thus we say, Virtuous, more virtuous, most vir- 
tuous ; Learned, more learned, must learntd. The dissyllabic 
adjectives which do admit of suffixes of comparison are 
those ending in -y {merry, merrier, merriest; holy, holier, 
holiest); in -er (as tender, tenderer, tenderest); those in -ble 

Bwperlative Icesest. If this be so, it is possible that lesser is not a double eompara- 
tiTe (as is usually supposed), but simply the modern foiin of laesra ; less being an 
abbreviated form of Icvssa, and Irast of Icesest, Lesser is only used as an adjective 
in the sense of smaller. Less was also used thus by the older writers ; as, " How 
to name the bigger light, and how the less" {Shaksp., 7'emp.). Shakspere 
(Hamlet, iii. 2) has the form littlest. 

* Much is the modern fonn of the Anglo-Saxon micel ' great ' (compare neyat 
and viag-mis) softened into michel or muchel. More and most (A.S. mara, mast) are 
from an old Ai-yan root mali. In old English they had the sense of greater and 
greatest ; but the sense of mngnus was gradually supei-seded by that of mullus. In 
old English moe (A.S. via) is found for more when refen-ing to number. 

+ Woise (from A.S. wear 'bad') has the original s of the comparative suffix. 
(See note on § 106). The comparative badder is found in Chaucer. Shakspere 
uses tlie dovible comparative wnrser. Worse and worst ai'e used as the compara- 
tive and superlative of bad, evil, and ill. 

X Later and latest refer to time; latter and last refer (though not exclusively) to 
position in a series. 

\ In Chaucer we find hext for highest. The modem positive near is in reality the 
comparative of the A.S. iieah = nigh, which was both an adjective and an adverb. 
The three degrees shoidd properly be nigh, near, next {Matzner, i. p. •IQI I. The com- 
parative near is found more than once in Shakspere (Abbott, Sh. Gr. § 478,', as 
" The near in blood, the nearer bloody " (Macbeth) . 

i There is an antiquated positive form eld, but elder and eldest are t'ormed from 
old (A.S. eald), being the modern fonus of yLdra and i/ldest. We tind this modiU- 
cation of the vowel m otlier cases, as lang ' long ', lengra, lengest ; geong ' young,' 
gyngra, gyngest. Older is an ordinary adjective of the comparative degree. Elder, 
though originally a simple comparative, has now lost that force, and is used to 
denote not so much greater age, as the relation of precedence which is a conse- 
quence of being older. Elder cannot now be followed by than. 

V. These forms are now established in the language, but they are formed upon a 
false analogy. From the adverb y'oriA are derived /urJAer and furthest. But there 
being no adjective in the positive degree except fur, further and furthest were cor- 
rupted into .farther nad farthest, and set down as derivatives from /ar. In Anglo- 
Saxon the comp. and sup. of far (feorr) were fyrre and feorreat. Sbaksper* 
uses far = fyrre as a compai-ative. (W. T. iv. 4, 442.) 


(as able, abler, ablest) ; those which have the accent on the 
last syllable, as polite, politer, politest; severe, sev.rer, 
severest; and some others, as pleasanter,* pleaaantest ; nar- 
rower, narrowest. 

116 Combinations like more learned, most virtuous, may be called 

>' Degrees of Comparison ' on the same principle as that on which 
' I shall go ' is called the ' Future Tense ' of the verb ffo. The older 
writers use more and most with monosyllabic adjectives, as ' more 
strong' {Shaksp.); 'more sad' {I'opc). This periphrastic mode of 
comparison is of Norman-French origin. 

117 In Anglo-Saxon there were two superlative suffixes, -ost 
or -est and -ema (compare the Greek -loroy in neyiaros, 
and the Latin -imus in simill-imus, intimus, &c.). There 
are a few superlatives in English ending in -most : hindmost, 
topmost, inmost, foremost, uttermost.^ Most of these are 
derived, not from adjectives in the positive degree, but from 
adverbs. They are not compounds of the adverb most, but 
double superlatives,! formed by the use of both terminations 
-ema and -ost. Former appears to be a comparative formed 
from the A.S. superlative /orma. 

118 Double comparatives and superlatives are common in the older 
writers, as "more kinder," "more braver," "the most unkindest 
cut of all" {ohaksp) ; "the most straitest sect," &c. 

119 Some comparatives have become positive in meaning, as near (see 
^ 114) ; utter or outer the comparative of iit = out ; inner of in ; 
after of aft ; nether of neath (A.S. niSe). Superlatives are some- 
times formed from comparatives, as erst from ere (A.S. mr). In 
old English we find upper est, over est, utter est, hinderest. (Matzner). 


120 The AxticlesS are often classed as a separate part of 
speech, but they belong in reality to the class of Adjectives. 
There are two Articles, the Indefinite Article an or a, and 
the Definite Article the, 

* Euphony is the pnide in this matter. The suffixes er and est were more freely 
employed by the earlier writers. Thus e.g. we find unhopefullast in Shakspere, 
honourahlest in Bacon, virtuousest in Fuller, &c. Several modem writers affect these 
old formations. In poetical diction comparatives and superlatives in er and est 
are allowed which are not usual in ordinary prose, such as divinest, per/ectest, pro- 

t The r in uttermott, innermost, &o., is merely phonetic, not formative. In Anglo- 
Baion we find hindemest, ch/temotl, innemesi, form/st, &c. 

t It is Ukely enough, however, that some of these words (as hithtrmost, middle- 
most, undermost, topmost) were really formed under the false conception that -moat 
was the superlative adverb. We even find the comparative more in the double 
comparative /artAermore. . ^v . v i-v t « 

§ Latin articulua, * a ]omt ; ' « word used rather vagruely by the Latm gi^am* 



121 The Indefinite Article an is a quantitative adjective. It 
ifl only another form of the numeral one (A.S. da ;* Scotch 
ane). When placed before a noun it indicates that we are 
speaking of svme one of the things for each of which the 
noun is a name, as, ' A dog bit me ; ' ' I saw an old man.' 

122 The form an is used before words beginnmg with a vowel 
Bound or mute /*, as an apple, an heir. 

An drops the n^ and becomes a before words beginning 
with a consonant, the aspirate li, or the letter u when the 
sound of y is put before the u in pronunciation, as A man, 
a horse, a yellow hall, a useful book. But an is kept before 
the aspirate when the accent is not upon the first syllable of 
the word, as " an historical event." 

123 In some expressions what is now commonly regarded as the inde- 
finite article a was oiigiually a weakened form of the preposition 
on (= in). Thus "Twice a week" was "tuwa on wuoan" {Luke 
xviii. 12. See Koch, ii. p. 85 ; Morris, Mist. Outl.X) 

124 The definite article the is a Demonstrative Adjective. It 
is used before a noun, to define or mark the particular 
individual or individuals that we are speaking of out of the 
class named by the noun. 

125 The definite article is used in English before significant norms. 

(a) It is used to mark out or individualise out of aU the objects 
of thought that might be denoted by the significant name, that one 
to which attention is directed. It does this, first, by dii-ecting 
attention to some attributive adjunct by which the individual is dis- 
tinguished from the rest of the class of which it is a member. Thus, 
when we say, the black horse, the points attention to the adjective 
black, by which the horse in question is distinguished from others 
of the group to which it belongs. "When we say, the Queen oj 
England, <A« points to the distmguislring adjunct ojf^ England. In 
the man who stole my purse, the points to the distinguishing adjective 
clause who stole, &c. The omission of the common name which is 
restricted by the adjective or attributive adjimct leads to svich com- 
binations as the Thames % (for the river Thames) ; the Atlantic (for 

• An was sometimes employed in Anglo-Saxon as the indefinite article. Thus 
e.g. "lob ascreep t»one wyrms of his lice mid anum crocscearde" (Job scraped tlie 
coiTUption off his body with a potsherd. Aelf. Horn.). Its regular use in this 
manner was not established till after the Norman Conquest. 

t In old English the form a or o is foimd for an (as ae in Scotch for ane) even 
when used as a numeral We stiU say 'A day or two '; ' They are both of a size,' 
i.e., of one. size. None (made up of ne and dn) is commonly shortened to no. 

X It is pretty clear, however, that after the use of the indefinite article had 
become general, people thought that in saying ' twice a year,' they were using the 
indefinite article, or they would not also have used such expressions as ' A shdling 
a pound,' where a = on or in would be without meaning. When the article came to 
'be employed in a was used, as ' sevene sithis (times) in a day' [ilail. xvii. 4), &c. 
Phrases lie on or in a year might easily have been abbreviated by the omission of 
the preposition, just as we say, 'the cloth ia a shilling the yard,' instead of 'for 
the yard.' 

I In Anglo-Saxon we find Thamee, Jordan, kt, -witlioat the artiolo. 


the Atlantic ocean); the rictory (for rhe ship Victory). Secondly, 
by indicating that out of all the possible objects to which the sig- 
nificant name might be applied, we are speaking of that particular 
one with which we have some obvious connexion or concern, as when 
we say, the sun, the moon, the Queen, the City, the street, the door, 
the army, the Church, &c. 

(b) The word the is used before significant nouns in the singu- 
lar to show that one individual is taken as the representative of 
its class, as when we talk of the lion, the eagle, or when the name 
does not admit of more than une application in the sense in which 
it is used, as the universe, the Jici/i/, (he oceati. 

(c) 7'he is used before nouns in the plural to show that wo are 
spealdiig of the whole of the chiss to which the name bolongs, as 
when we speak of the stars, the Eiiylish, the good, the Alps. 

There is a corresponding use of the before an adjective when the 
two together form (not, as some say, an abstract, but) a universal 
concrete name, as the snldime, the riiiiculous. 

126 The definite article the is a weakened form of the old demon- 
strative se, SCO, ihtef, which in Anglo-Saxon, besides its ordinary 
force, had the weaker force of the article, though it was often 
omitted in cases where we now use the. In the later stage of 
Anglo-Saxon sc and seo were supplanted by the collateral forms \>e 
{the) and ]>co {thoo). Side by side with the inflected demonstrative 
there was an uniuflccted form the, but in early English writers 
{Robert of Gloucester, Old Kiiglish Iloni.) traces of the inflected 
article, such as Gen. thus, IJat. tham. Ace. then, are still found; 
bIso (especially in the Northern dialect) that was used as an 
article for all genders* {Koch and Mlitzner) ; but ere long only 
the uninflected the was used for the article, and the inflected forms 
were used as demonstrative pronouns. 

127 When a noun preceded by an article ia qualified by an 
adjective, the adjective is generally placed between the 
article and the noun. But in the case of the adjective such, 
or an adjective qualified by the adverbs so and too, the 
indefinite article comes after the adjective, as " Such an 
event;" "So gr^at a misfortune.'" The same is the case 
with the definite article and the adjective all, as "All the 


128 A pronoun t is a word used instead of a noun, as when we 
eay, "John has come in: he is very tired," instead of 
" John has come in : John is very tired." 

* In early English are found the curinus forms thf! tone and ihe. tnther. Matzner 
considers these to have sprung out of the use of that or thel as an article, thet ont 
and thet oiAer,— forms -which are actually found not infrequently. 

t Latin pronomen ; pro for, and nonun uoua- 


Pronouns are divided into two classes, Subste»ntive Pro-' 
nouns and Adjective Pronouns. 

129 Strictly speaking, no word should be called a Pronoun unless it is 
a substantive. But it is usual to include under this head certahi 
demonstrative adjectives which are very often used substantively. 
These bear the somewhat contradictoiy name of Adjective Fronouns. 
When they arc attached to substantives which are expressed, aa 
this man, each ^j;«t', they should be called Demonstrative Adjectives. 

Table of the Pronouns. 


130 I. Personal f ^' *^°"' ^®' 

( you or ye. 

n. Demonstrative 1 •>. 'xi * .i.- i.i. -i - i-, 

{ it, they, this, those ; that, those. 

III. Relative — that. 

IV. Interroqative ) , , . . , , , ,, 
and i?e/a</ye j ^^o •• which, what, whether. 

V. Indefinite i'"''^' *"?^<=' 

( naught . . any, other, some. 

VI. Distributive each, every, either, neither. 

VII. Reflective self. 

mine and my, thine and thy, 

Vm. Foase^dve ^'^\ ^<^^' ^^"^ ^^^•"' /^"' «"'' 

j and ours, your and youra, 

\ their and theirs. 

I.— Personal Pronouns. 

131 Personal Pronouns are of two kinds. 1. Those of the 
First Person. 2. Those of the Second Person. 

132 The Pronoun which is used when a peison speaks of him- 
self singly, or of himself in conjunction with one or more 
others, without mentioning any names, is called the Per- 
sonal Pronoun of the First Person. It is declinable, and 
has the following forms: — 

Singular. Plural. 

Noviinative Case .... I We 

[Possessive Case'] .... [Mine or My] [Our] 

Objective' Case Me Us 

The Nominative Case / is always written with a Capital 
183 The Pronoun which is used when we speak of the person 
or persons spoken to, is called the Personal Pronoun of the 
Second Person. It is declinable, and has the following 
forms: — 


Singulcr. PInraL 

Nominative Case . Thou Ye or You 

[Possessive Gase} . [Thiue or Thy] [Your] 
Objective Case . . Thee You or Ye* 

134 In Anglo-Saxon only the singular forms of this pronoun were 
nsed in addressing a single person. In Shakspere's time tho 
singular was also used as the pronoun of affection towards childi'cn ♦ 
or friends, of good-natured superiority to servants, and of contempt 
or anger to strangers, t {Abbott, Sk. Gr, p. 153). At a very early 
period \ the plural came to be used in speaking to a single person. 
It was at first employed as a mark of special respect (as when a 
subject speaks to a king, or a son to his father), as though the 
person addressed were as good as two or more ordinaiy people. II In 
course of time the nominative ye (as thus emiiloyed) was superseded 
by yo%i, and became exclusively plural in sense. It is now employed 
only in elevated or poetic style. You and your are now the ordinary 
pronouns of address, whether we are speaking to one person ox to 
more than one. 

135 The Personal Pronouns have, properly speaking, no Possessive Case, 
that is to say, no Possessive Case with the force of a substantive. In 
Anglo-Saxon, when the genitives If of these pronouns were used in 
%\\e possessive sense, they were regarded as adjectives and inflected 
accordingly. As the possessive sense is the only one in which we 
have retained these fomis, and as, when used in this sense, these 
forms were always regarded as adjectives, they should be regarded 
as such now ; that is, 7nine and my are the equivalents not of mei 
but of meus, thine and thy of tuns. &c. 

136 The plural forms of the pi'onouns of the first and second persons 
are not etymologically derived from the singular forms. In fact, 
the notion involved (for example) in we is not related to that 
expressed by / in the same way that the idea expressed by men is 
related to that expressed by 7nan. We does not imply a simple 
repetition of /. The notion involved in the word I does not admit 
of plirrahty.** 

• Several grammarians maintain that ye is exclusively nominative. It was so 
onf>e, but the best -(vriters in the languuce use y. as an objective case. As, " His 
wrath, which one day will destroy ye bnth " (J/ilion). " The more shame for ye, 
holy men I thought i/e" (Shakspere). It is true, however, that ye is derived from 
the Ang-lo- Saxon nominative ^e, and j/oa from. the accusative or dative «««>. In 
the English Bible //« is nominative and ynu objective. 

t In Shakspere fathers almost always address their sons with ihou, sons their 
fathers with you (Abbott). 

t "If thou chou'st him some thrice, it shall not be amiss" (TSuel/th I^. ui. 2). 
" Prithee don't thee and thou me; I beUeve I am as good a man aa yoiuself " 
{dfiller of Mansfield), 

\ See Robert of Gloucester, &o. * 

U Tlie use of the first person plural by royal personages may be aooonnted for in 
a nimilar manner. 

H In Anglf)-Saxon these genitives were also used as substantives, and were 
governed by verbs, &c., or used in the partitive sense, as e.g. grmun ]>u m(n, ' re- 
member thou me' (meminerit mei). The $ubttantive use of mtn and \>1n did not 
last beyond the Anglo-Saxon stage of our language. The substantive use of our 
iure) and your {eowerS lasted till a later period. The abbreviated f onus my and (kjr 
vere not employed till the rubstantive use of mtn and ]>!n had disappeared. 

•• It appears in fact that the earliest known form of the phiral Mie (in Sanscrit) 
ma equivalent to land thett, and that of ye to tiiou and these (Koch, i. p. 463). 


137 The pronouns of the first and second persons do not mark 
distinctions of gender, because when a person speaks of 
himself or to another person, the sex, being evident, does 
not need to be marked in laTiguage by differenceo of gender, 
and the plural forms must of necessitj- be ambiguous, as we 
and you may include persons of different sexes. 

II.— Demonstrative Pronouns. 

138 The pronoun which is used when a person speaks of one 
or more other persons or things, without describing them 
by a noun, is often called the Personal Pronoun of the 
Third Person. It is, however, more coiroct to call it the 
Demonstrative Pronoun of the Third Person. It admits of 
the distinctions of number, case, and gender. It has the 
following forms : — 





Nominative Case 

. . He 



Possessive Case 

. . His 



Objective Case . . 

. . Him* 



Nominative Case . . . They 'j 

Possessive Case . . . Their , For all genders. 

Objective Case . . . Them ) 

139 The plural forms must be ambiguous as to gender, because they 
may be used when speaking of persons of diiferent sexes, or of 
persons and tilings together. For the old forms of this pronoun see 
Appendix A. 

140 ahe (sche or scho) was probably a collateral form of heo from very 
early times. It is connected with the feniinine demonstrative seo.t 
It was in Anglo-Saxon kit. The t ia a, neuter suffix, like d in the 
Latin i-d, qno-d^ &c. The regular genitive or possessive case of hi' 
was his, as : '"If the salt have lost his savoiu-," &c. The possessive 
case ti« is of comparatively modem origin. It is found in Sh:,k- 
spere, but even there his is more common. There is only one 
example of it in the English Bible :J: {Lev. xxv. 5). 

141 The modem plural forms of this pronoun are borrowed from the 
demonstrative se, seo, peet. (App. A). The genitive plural her, 
kir or hire, and the dative plural him or hem were in use for some 

• Him was originally a dative case. It ■will be aeen that the datives him, her and 
Ikem, like me, tk'-e, us and you, have supplanted the accusative forms ( See § S^, note). 

t The characteristic s appears in Gothic {si) and Old Saxon (liu), as well as ia 
modem German isie). Bo or hoo is still heard for she in Lancashire and Craven. 

t Some old writers have an uninflected possessive it (for bis or !«.«) ; as " Go to »* 
(trandam, child, and it grandam will give it a plum " (Shaksp., K. J. ii. X). 8«« 
Koeh, ii. p. 233. 


time after thai, thei, or thei/ was adopted for the nominati've. They 
are found in Chaucer* 

142 The genitive cases of this pronoun were not declined as adjectives 
in Anglo-Saxon. + Their retained a substantive force after the 
other possessives had become pronominal adjectives. Traces of 
their substantive force still exist in their use as antecedents to 
relatives ; as, " whose hatred is covered by deceit, his wickedness 
shall be showed before the whole congregation." " Their sorrows 
shall be multiplied that hasten after another God." They may 
now, however, be classed with the other possessives. 

The Demonstrative Adjectives THIS and THAT. 

143 This has a plural, viz., these. That has a plural, viz., 
those.X This refers to what is near the speaker {near me) 
in position ; that refers to what is at a distance from the 
speaker. As " Tins apple is ripe, that is not." In this 
sense this and that are called real demonstratives, or words 
that point to things (Latin res). 

144 This and that are also used to point, not to things them- 
selves, but to some description of what we are speaking 
about, as, " The general was in command of a large force. 
2'his force consisted of infantry and artillery." "They 
remained one day at Eome. That day passed without any 
remarkable event." When thus used, this and that are 
called logical demonstratives. They often "refer to vjJtole 
sentences or to the geiieral idea conveyed by a preceding 
phrase, as, "I know that he is innocent, and this is my 
chief consolation " ; " Lend me a shilling, that's a good 
fellow." Here that = ' a person who will lend a shilling.' 

When two things which have been already mentioned are 
referred to, tins refers to what has been mentioned last, that 
refers to what was mentioned before it ; as " Virtue and 
vice offer themselves for your choice : this leads to misery, 
that to happiness." This is also used to refer to something 
which is going to be mentioned, as, " This is my hope and 
prayer, that my children may grow up in the fear of the 

• The colloquial abbreviation a for the pronoun of the third person occurs in old 
writers. "A brushes his hato' mornings. . . . A rubs himself with civet" {Shaksp., 
Much Ado, iii. 2). It is still a provincial idiom (See Tennyson's Northern Farvier.) 
It is even used as a pliu'al (Koch, i. 4K9). 

t Traces of declension, howe\er, appear at a somewhat later period (See Koch, 
ii. p. 234). 

t Etymological) y, however, those is not the plural of that (A. 8. piiet). These and 
those are only various form:? of \^ns, the plin-al of \>i's or \>is (See Appendix A, 1, 2). 
In Middle English that had a plural tho, a varietj of \>d. Koch is probably in error 
when (ii. p. 242) he derives the plural those from tho by the addition of the plural 
B iittiv s. This was used as a plural even up to the sixteenth century. The propei 
[dural of that was transferred to it or hit. 


145 This anri that (in the singular) are not used substantively to stand 
for persons, except as subjects of the verb be when the latter is 
followed by n noun as the predicate ; as, " This is my brother ; " 
"that is John." We cannot say, " This did tlie deed," meaning 
"this man;" or, "That shall be punished," moaning "that person." 
This restriction does not apply to the plural : '" These are not 
drunken, as ye suppose ; " " Upon those did Solomon levy a tribute." 
But this use of the i)lural is now almost obsolete. 

140 That is properly the neuter of the Anglo-Saxon demonstrative 
pronoun (App. A), < being a neuter suftix (<J 140). Like hit, that 
was used substantively in Anglo-Saxon as a general demonstrative 
witliout regard to gender or number, as "is J'lfit mm broSer"; 
" \>;nt were lirutand hys " (Rob. GIJ . Ultimately it superseded the 
mascuhne and feminine. This is in like manner the neuter of the 
Anglo-Saxon \>cs, 'peos, ))w (App. A). Like that it was used sub- 
stantively without regard to number or gender, as " pis sindou 
|>a, domas" (i/ii* are the decrees). Like that, this supea-seded the 
masciUine and feminine fonns. 

147 The adverbs there and here, combined with another adverb (see 
$ 271), form compounds which are often substituted for that and 
this preceded by prepositions ; thus therein^in that ; hereby^!=by 
this. The usage is getting antiquated ; hut there/or (therefore J is 
in common use. 

147 ft The demonstrative adjective yonder or yon is sometimes 
classed among the pronouns, thcagh it is now never used 
in place of a uoun. The root yon is the same as in the 
Grerman j^ner. In Anglo-Saxon geond was an adverb. 
Yonder is also an adverb in EngLifsh. ^y^""'^ 

III.— The Relative Pronoun THAT. 

148 A Relative * Pronoun is a word which refers to some noun 
or pronoun which has been alreadj^ used to mark the person 
or thing spoken about, and which is called the antecedent of 
the relative. Thus, in the sentence, " He is reading about 
the battle that was fought at Hastings," that refers to the 
uoiMi battle, and battle is called the antecedent to the relative 

The pronouns who and which are also used as relatives. 
In " 1 have found the sheep which I had lost," the pronoun 
which refers to sheep, and sheep is the antecedent to the 
relative which. In " This is the man whose house we saw," 
whose refers to man, and mu7i is the antecedent to whose. 
The antecedent noun is often replaced by a pronoun, as* 

• Relative is a bad tei-m, because it is insufficient. He, she, it, this, that, they are 
ftlso (literally) reZadw pvonouns, because they refer to some preceding substantive 
or antecedent. The relative pionoun, however, diflfcrs from the definite article and 
the demonstrative adjectives this and that by havinpr at the same timf a grammad- 
taCiy connective force, and attachintf subordinate adjective clauses to some word is 
^« principal sentence. 


"He to-day that sheds his blood with me, shall be my 
149 The relative pronoun that is the oldest* relative pronoun 
that we have in English. It is always used as a substantive, 
and. may be used either of persons or of things. It is never 
placed after prepositions, and is governed by a preposition 
only when the preposition is placed at the end of the 
clause. t It has no variations in form to mark number, 
gender, or case. Examples: "The horse that I rode, fell." 
" This is the man that I spoke of." 

160 That was origiually the neuter of the Anglo-Saxon demonstrative J 
pronoun, se, seo, ]>cet, which was also used as a relative, just as der, 
die, das, still is in German. As in the case of the demonstrative 
that, the neuter supei-seded tlie masculine and feminine. This pro- 
noun and the indeclinable pe were used as relatives before who was 
so used. J In old-faphioned English that (like what) was used 
with its antecedent understood ; as " We speak that we do know, 
and testify that we have seen" (John iii. II) ; " That thou doest, 
do quickly" (John xiii. 27) ; " I am that 1 am." 

161 That cannot be used in all cases where who can be used. It can 
now be used only when the relative clause is required to pve to 
the antecedent its full signification. We cannot use that when the 
antecedent is a proper name, or when the antecodent noun has with 
it a demonstrative adjective which eufliciently defines the thing 
or person spoken of. We cannot say, " Thomas that died yester- 

• Addison is quite wrong' when in his "Humble Petition of who and which " h« 
makes the petitioners say : " We are descended of ancient families, and kept up 
onr dignity and honour many years, till the Jack Sprat that supplanted us." 

t In such cases we should perhaps regard the preposition as an adverb forming 
a compound with the verb. Formerly the prepo.sition lor adverb) was i)laced 
be/ore the verb, as though we should say "the land which they in-lived"; " the 
settlement which they from were driven" {Koch, ii. p. 260). This idiom was first 
adopted for the uninflected the and that, and afterwards extended to the othei 

t The use of a relative pronoun marks an a'lvanced 8tag« of the language. Ori- 
giually the principal dau-^e and the accessory relative clause were co-ordinate, as : 
" Se hseff^ bryd, se is biydTuiua" = "He has the bride, he is the bridegroom." 
The preponderating iniportaiice of the definitive clause was easily marked in 
speaking by emphasis. This emphasis at length received its grammatical expres- 
sion by doubling the demonstrative, which was repeated in its indeclinable form 
pe, repetition of the infection being Hence arose the ordinary Anglo- 
Saxon form : " Se pe brf d hoe: ©, se is brydguma " = " Who has the bride he is the 
bridegioom." As the relative force was given to the demonstrative by appending 
the indeclinable pe, the latter came to be regarded as specially containing the 
relative idea. Hence it came to be used sometimes by itself without tlie inflected 
demon.strative, as vice versd the inflected demonstrative was often Used as a rela- 
tive without the appended pe, the accessory nature of the clause being commonly 
evident either from its meaning or from its position. The uninflected that was 
used as a relative by Orm and Layamon in the tweltth cettury {Koch, ii. p. 265). 
The indeclinable pe could even give a relative force to the personal pronouns, as 
•Fasder Ore, f" peeart or heofenum " (Our Father which (= thou that) art in 
heaven); " Ic eom Gabrahel, jc pe stande beforan Gode " (I am Gabriel wAo stand 
before God). Compare du, der du ; and ich, der ich, &c in German. 

§ Before who came into use as a relative pronoun, the relative adverba were 
thin, ihara, thither ( pu7me, peer, pj/der) instead of when, where, whither. 


day, was my brother; " or " I have heard from my father, that is in 
America." Tlie words Thomas and my Father explain perfectly by 
themselves who is meant. In other words, a clau.'su beginning with 
that limits or defines the noun to which it refers, and is therefore 
improper when that noun does not admit of further limitation. 
This rule, however, holds good only in modern English. In the 
older writers that is used after proper names, or nouns limited 
by a definitive word. That never has the coiitinuative force of who 
and which (See } 413), and is never used (Like ivhich) to refer to the 
general sense of an entire sentence. 

IV.— The Interrogative and Relative Pronouns 

152 The pronotm who, neuter what (A.S. hwa, neuter huKtt) 
was in Anglo-Saxon an Interrogative pronoun, and was 
used only substantively* (For the declension of hwa, see 
App. A). It had no feminine or plural. It is thus de- 
clined in modern English : — 

Nominative Case .... Who 

Possessive Case Whose 

Objective Case Whom. 

Even good writers often carelessly use who as the objective case, 
as " saw who ? " {Hamlet, i.) ; " Yield thee, thief ! To who ? to 
thee ? " {Cijmb. iv. 2). This should be regarded as an error. 

IFhom is properly a dative, which, Ukewwi, thee, hi^n, her, and them 
has supplanted the accusative. 

15.3 What has the neuter suffix t. It is the neuter of who. 
It is now indeclinable, and is used not only as a substan- 
tive, but also as an adjective.t When used as a substantive 
it is neuter, like tliat. 

154 Which (A.S. huylc or hwilc), is a compound of hwi or hur^ 
(the old instrumental case of hwa), and lie {like). In Scotch 
it is still quhilk. It is equivalent to the Latin qualis, ' of 
what sort f ' and corresponds to the German welcher. It is 
properly an adjective, as "Which dress do you pi-efer?" 
but is also used substantively, as " Here are port and 

* The word has the same root as the dialectic Greek interrogative not and the 
Latin quis. The hw is a softened form of a guttural. In what, when, &o. we still 
pronounce the h before the w. 

t like the neuters this and that it was tised in Ang'lo- Saxon as a substantive with- 
out repaid to gender and number, as " Hwtet syndon ire .' " {what are ye ?). It wat 
often followed by the genitive ease, as " hwset godes .' " (what of good ?) ; " hwaa'' 
weoroes ? " {whnt of work i) . When the genitive suffix came to be dropped, except, 
when it denoted possession, these combinations gave rise to an apparently adjec- 
tive use of what, which was subsequently admitted befo'e mascuUne and feminine 
as well Hi before neuter nouns. What is used ad.jectively with an inten!<ive force, 
in exclamations, as " What a fool he was I"; "What kuaves they are." In o'a 
Eng'l&h which was similarly used, as ' which a great honour it is' (Ohaucer). 



sherry, which will you take ? " Which asks for one out of 
a definite number ; who and what ask indefinitely. 

155 Whether (A.S. hwctiSer) is derived from who {hwa) by 
means of the comparative suffix ther* (§ 106, note), and ' 
means ' which of the two ? ' As a pronoun it is now nearly 
obsolete. It was usually a substantive, as "Whether of 
them twain did the will of his father ? " out was sometimes 
used adjectively, as "While thus the case in doubtful 
balance huag, unsure to whether side it would incline " 

156 As who, what, and which [hwa, hwcet, hwylc) were used as 
indefinite interrogatives, by a natural transition they came 
to be used as indefinite pronouns, standing for some unknown 
or undetermined person or thing.f in the sense of some one 
or any one, something or anything, especially (though not 
always) after if [gif). This use of who is still found in 
Shakspere, "as who should say" {Macb. iii. 6) = "as one 
might say." 

157 What is still commonly used thus in such phrases as " I'll teU you 
what," where wliat — something. The strengthened form some- 
what is still more common. In the sense of in some degree or partly, 
what is used conjunctively, as, " What with the war, what with the 
sweat, what with the gallows, and what with poverty, I am 
custom-slirunk." (8haksp.,M.for M. ii. l.i The interrogative ad- 
verbs h-ow, where, when, tvhether, &c. had in like manner an in- 
definite sense. We still say somehow, somewhere, somewhither, &c. 

158 A further stop of great importance was made when the 
interrogative or indefinite pronouns who, what, which 
came to be used as Indefinite Relative Pronouns. 
This was effected by attaching to them the adverb so,X as 

• (Iter (once quuter or cuter, from qui) is precisely analogous to whether, from who, 
as is iroTf pov from the inteiTogative and relative root wo. 

+ That is to say, in order to indicate a person or thing as yet unknown or unde- 
termined, a word was employed that a«ked who or w/iat it wjis. Quis was used in 
Latin in preci:<ely the same way after si, num, quum, &c. Compare also the Greek 
Tir. This use of the interrogative was quite common in Anglo-Saxon, as " gif hwa 
eow senig JJinge to cwyS" {3iatt. xxi. 3). ' If any one say anything to you '; " Gif 
eow hvylc seg-(S " (Mark xiii. 21), 'If any man say to you.' 

J In Anglo-Saxon the demonstrative adverb swil (so) was treated like tlie domon» 
utrative pronoun. (See note on § l.'iO.) In ordrr to give it a rdnt-ve foitjeit was doubled. swd came to be regarded (like ])e : as having in itself the power of attaching 
a relative sense to other words. It was placed both before and after the inteno- 
gative (or indefinite) pronouns, to give them tlie f.nce of indefinite relatives ; sn-d 
hwa swd {$11 who so = whosn) ; swd hwcet swd [so what so ■= whatso[ever]) Sec. The 
words that and as {als — alto = all so) were also employed to give relativity to the 
pronouns and adverbs beginning with ivh, as " The highe God, on whom that wei 
believe;" '' CcLton, which that was so wise " [Chaucer); " Whm that the poor have 
Cl'ied, Cwsar hath wept " {Sha/rsi>.) ; " When as sacred light began to dawn," {HiU 
ton, P. h- ix. 192). Whereas still keeps its ground. In the Ormidum we find som» 
(siimm) u.sed for the same purpose {whusumm — whoso ; whutsumm = vhalsn\eve.r\). 
This idiom is preserved in the now vulgar forms whatsomever, howsovuver, &c. 
(8om«timea prouoimced whatsomedever, &c). 


whoso. Thus, " WTioso sheddeth man's blood, by man 
shall his blood be shed " {(Jen. ix. 6). These forms are 
commonly strengthened by the addition of rver, and the so 
is sometimes omitted. IVhnso and 'vJioevtr are not now 
declined. Whusotver is declined : — 

Nominative Case . . . Whosoever 
Possessive Case . . . Whosesoever 
Objective Case . . . Whouisoever. 

Whatever, whatsoever, and whichever or whichsoever, are 
used both substantively and adjectively, as " Whatever 
(subst.) he undertook, jirospered" ; " Whatsoever (adj.) 
things are true, tuliatsoever things are ])ure," &c. [I'hil. 
iv. 8). The antecedent of these indohuite relatives is 
usually omitted. 

159 Lastly, the indefinite relatives v)hoso, &c., dropped the so, 
which was the sign of relativity, and who, what, and 
which became ordinary relative pronouns.* 

160 The pronoun who is used only when persoua are spoken of. 
It does not mark the distinction of number, person, and 
gender. For its declension see § 152. 

What was originally the neuter ot'w/io, and, as a substan- 
tive, refers only to thivfis. It is also ust-d adjectivel}', as 
" I gave him what help I could ; " "What time 1 am afraid, 
I will trust in thee." The possessive case uf it [w]iose= 
hwces or whas), is still in use, though rarely eiii]^lo5''ed 
except in poetry: as "The question whose solution I 
require" [Dryden); " I could a tale unfold, twAose lightest 
word," t&c. [tiliakspere) ; " The roof, luliose thickness waa 
not vengeance proof" {Byron). The dative has disaj/peared. 
In the nominative and objective cases, vjJuit is never jtre- 
ceded by an antecedent,! but may be followed by that, as 
" IVhat he hath won, that hath he fortitied " {Shale, K. J., 
iii. 4). Usually, however, the antecedent is not expressed. 
160i It is, liowever, an utter mistake to treat ichat as tliough it were 
made up of, or were et^uivaleut to, that ivhich. It is simply a rela- 

* Who (wha), as a relative, is first found in the OrmuluTn. Wh 't had been use4| 
as a relative somewhat earlier. " Th'il came into use during the twelfth century to 
supply the place of the indeclinable relative the, and in the fourteenth century it 
is the ordinary relative. In the sixteenth century which often .supplies its place ; 
in the seventeenth century vhn replaces it. About Addison's time Ihnt had again 
come into fasliion, and had almost driven w/i/c/i and wha out of use" {Morris). 
Bleele lidicules the too common use of that in the sentence: "My lords, with 
humble submission, that that I say is this ; that that that tluit gentleman lias ad- 
vanced is not that that lie should have proved to yoiir lordships" {Sped. 80). 
Whether, as a relative, is obsolete, but is found in Chaucer. 

t That is, not now. In the older writeis all what, nnthing whni, that what, &c. 
(Ure conuuoa. 


tive with its antecedent understood, just as when we say, " Who 
steals my purse steals trash." It is like the German m;«w, before 
which the antecedent das is commonly omitted, though it may be 
expressed. An adjective clause introduced by the relative what is 
therefore an adjective clause, used substantively. In the sentence, 
" I do not believe what has been said,' ' what is m no sense the object 
of believe ; it is the subject of has been said. 

161 As what is no longer used as a relative -when the antecedent 
is expressed, its place is supplied by the pronoun which. 

. It is wrong, however, to call which the neuter of who (see 
§ 154). It is an adjective pronoun, and not necessarily 
neuter. In old-fashioned English it is found instead of 
v)ho, as " Our Father which art in heaven." At present, 
however, it is never used substantively as a relative, except 
with reference to animals and things. In such sentences 
as •' The doctrine of the Nicolaitans, which thing 1 hate ; " 
which is used adjectively. 

162 In old-fashioned Eiigli«li, we often find the before which, as "To 
win time, in the which I have considered of a course " (Ci/mbel. iiL 
4); " A chamberlaiiio, the which that dwelling was with Emilie" 
{Chaucer).* (Compare the French le quel, where quel is the equivalent 
of which, being derived from qua lis). 

1G3 The proper correlative of which is such (A. S. swylc, a compound of 
8w^, the instrumental form of the root of swd, and Hi, passing 
through the forms swulc and sulche to such)-\- as " Such which 
must go before" {Bacoti). Such — which = talis — qualis. 

164 Which preceded by a preposition is often replaced by where, 
as wherein ^ in which; whereto = to which, &c. 

165 Who and which oan always be used where that I can be used. 
They have alsoa continuative force, which that never has. (See } 41 3). 

166 The relative pronoun is frequently understood, that is, 
implied, but not expressed ; as, " lie has not returned the 
book I lent him," for "the book which I lent him;" 
*' That is the person I spoke of," " for the person whom I 
spoke of." But the relative is not now omitted in good 

* The whom is found even in Shakspere ( Wint. T. iv. 4.) 

t Hifi/lc, in like manner, passed thiouf^'h the forms wliulc, whulch, and vmck or 
icoch. The pronunciation which lias established itself, but sich is considered vui- 
par. In Anglo-Saxon such (xwi/lc) was relative as well as deraonsti'atire. In 
Bonie dialects of English there still remains the demonstrative thilk or thuck (from 
\>!/ and lie = tnlin. 

X Some grammarians think that who and which are not properly used to intro- 
duoe a limiting or dijining clause, and that in such sentences as " That, is the man 
who spoke to us yesterday," " I'he house which he buUt still remaina," the word 
thdl is preferable. The best wiiters of English prose do not seem to entertain this 
riew. When prepositions have to be employed, whom and which are prefen-ed to 
that. In the English Bible it would be diificult to find a clause beginning with that, 
and having a preposition at the end ; and when a defining or restrictive clause is 
wanted after the demonstrative that, it always begins with which in the Englisb of 
the Bible. 

jsrrruoijOQY — pkonoun. 68 

English, unless, if expressed, it would be in the objective 

167 The adverb as (A.S. ealswa = also, i.e., all so, German als) 
is often used as a substitute for a relative pronoun, es- 
pecially after same and such; as, "This is not the same 
as that; "His character is not such as I admire;" "I 
have not from your eyes that gentleness and show of love 
as I was wont to have ; " {Shakspere, Julius Coesar, i. 2, 
45). In vulgar English as is commonly used as a simple 
relative. In old-fashioned German so is found doing duty 
as a relative pronoun. But see note on § 264. 

v.— Indefinite Pronouns. \ 

168 The Indefinite Pronoun one is the numeral adjective used 
substantively. One has a possessive case, as ' One's 
reputation is at stake.' The plural is used only with 
reference to a preceding noun, as " I saw three brown 
horses and two black ones." Its negative is none. (See § 95. 
A.S. nan = ne an). in Anglo-Saxon man was used lor 
0726* (Comp. Germ. man.). In Chaucer mm = one. 

169 Aughtt (A.S. dii'iht) is derived from the Anglo-Saxon 
substantive wild, a ' thing,' which we still employ as 
a masculine in the noun wight, and a = ever. Nauyht is 
a compound of the negative ne and aught. 

170 Any {cenig) is a derivative from an. ' one,' just as ullus 
in Latin is a diminutive of W7/z«s. (Kej% Lat. Gr., §334.) 
In negative and interrogative sentences when any refers to 
a singular noun, it implies quantity ; when it refers to a 
plural noun, it implies number ; as, " This food is bad, I 
will not eat any" ; " There were somea])ples on that tree, 
did you pluck any ? " Being used to express indefiniteness, 
it also serves to express universality, as " Any one can 
do that." The negative ncenig (n-any) has vanished. 

171 Other means one of two (like the Latin alter). It is 
formed from the root an. a variation of the al of aWos and 
alter, by means of the comparative suffix ther{see § 106, note). 
"When used as a substantive it has the ordinary inflections 
of a noun. J 

• Some grammarians of authority {e.g.. Dr. Adams and Dr. Latham) derive 
one from Fr. on = Iwmo. 

+ The spelling ought and nought is old but incorrect. Nought was shortened into 
de adverb not. 

X Other orig'inally had the adjective plural sufiSx -«, the droppinj? of -which left 
the old plural form other, as " When other are glad, than is he sad " {Sk*iton apud 


Singular. Plural. 

Nominative Case. , . . Other Others. 

Possessive Case .... Other's Others'. 

Objective Case .... Other Others. 

When an is used before other the two words are usually 
written together, another. 

i~-_: Some (A.S. sum) originally meant 'a certain' (Lat. 
quidam), as "Sum man haefde twegen suna " (a certain 
man had two sons). It still has this force in somebody, some- 
times, something. It very early came to mean an undeter- 
mined number or quantity forming part of a whole or class. 
It is used with numerals to give the sense of about, as " We 
four set upon some dozen" {Shaksp., I. Henry IV. i\. 4); 
" He will last you some eight year or nine year" {Hamlet). 

VI.— The Distributive Pronouns EACH, EVERY, 

173 Each (A.S. oelc = d-ge-hwylc,* Scotch ilka) is used both 
adjectivoly and substantively. 

173d In such phrases as, " They loved each other," " They hated one 
another," the words each and other, and one and another, have a re- 
ciprocal relation to each other ; but it is a mistake to call them com- 
pound pronouns (as though equivalent to the Greek allcloi). They 
are independent pronouns, having separate and dilt'erent construc- 
tions in the sentences where they occur. lu "They loved each 
other," each is in the nominative case, in the attributive relation to 
they, which it distiibutes in sense ; other is in the objective case, 
governed by the verb loved.f In Spenser (Faerie Queen, i. 5, 6) we 
find — " With greedy force each other doth assail; " that is '' each 
doth assail the other." In " They heard each other's voice," each 
is in the nominative case, agreeing with they ; other's is in the pos- 
sessive case, attached to the noun voice. Such phrases as to each 
other, from one another, &c., are corruptions, made upon a false 
analogy, though they are now thoroughly fixed in the language. 
In old-fashioned and correct English we find ench to other, one 
from another. It seems anomalous at first sight, that a word like 
each, which is essentially singular, should be attached to a plural 
word, but we have exactly the same idiom in Latin. Quisque in 
the singular may be used to distribute a plural subject. Each other 
is now used when two are referred to, one another when more than 
two are meant ; but tliis distinction is not a necessary one. 

174 Every (old English evercelc or everilk) is a compound of 
A.S. ae/re, * ever,' and oilc, and denotes all of a series taken 

• The particle ge was prefixed to the indefinite pronouns in Anglo-Saxon to prive 
the idea of universafity, as ge-hwa = every one ; ge-hwylc = every one; ge-hwaQer 
= both. (Compare the Gem\an Gehriider and Creschxtnster.) Tlieae forms were 
strengthened byoprpfixiDg li = <'i"!r. Hence came d-^e-Awyic = ale ss tach; d-ge- 
huiae^tr = ag^er = either. (Korh i. 48.i.) 

4 lu Anglo-Saxon this difference i^ marked by the tenninationa. 


one by one. Each and every both call attention to the 
individuals forming a collection. When each is used, the 
prominent idea is that of the subdivision of the collection 
into its component parts. When every is used, the pro- 
minent idea is that the individuals taken together make up 
some whole. In Chaucer, every [everich) is used substan- 
tively. This use is still found in legal phraseology. 

175 Either (A.S. cey^er = d-ye-hivct^er) originally meant hoth 
or each of two; as " On either side one" [Jolm xix. 18); 
" On either side of the river" [Rev. xxii. 2). Neither is a 
compound of either and the old negative iie. Either may 
have a possessive cafso, as : " Where either's fall determines 
both their fates" [R<nre, Lucan vi. 13). 

Every, either, and rieiiher are always singular.* 

VII.— The Reflective Pronoun SELF. 

176 Self was originally an adjective, meaning same.f It is 
now both an adjective and a substantive. Self (plural 
selves) is used with either the possessive or the objective 
case of the personal pronouns. It is preceded by what 
seems the possessive case of the personal pronouns of the 
first and second persons, and by the objective case of the 
pronouns of the third person, myself, thyself, ourselves, your- 
self, yourselves, himself, herself, itself, themselves. 

The pronoun self may also be used substantively with the 
possessive case of a noun, especially along with the adjec- 
tive own; as, "A man's own self." " Men's own selves." 
In such cases the pronoun is always in the possessive case, 
as " his own self," " their own selves." 

The pronoun one is generally treated as being on a par 
with the pronouns of the third person ; so that we write 
oneself, not one's self. 

177 The constructions in which ««//" appears to be used as a substantive 
are probably corruptions. In Anglo-Saxon si/lf was always an 
adjective, and being declinable, was put in the same case and 
number as the personal pronoun to which it was attached. But 
this cmions anomaly is found in Anglo-Saxon, that the nominative 
(or possibly uninjitcted) sylf might be preceded by the dative casfl 
of a pronoun, the compound being often attached to or followed by 
the nominative + pronoun {le mesylf, ^u J)e sylf, he himsylf ; oi 

* The older writers were not clear upon this point. Shakspere frequently gives 
X plural sense to every and neither. Thus, " Every one to rest themselves betake" 
{Rape of LucTece, 125) ; " When neither are alive " ( Cymb. iv. 2, 2.52). 

1 "In that selve moment" (Ghauctr) = 'in that same moment'; "That self 
mould " [Shaksp., R. II. i. 2) = ' that same mould.' CJompare 'selfsame.' 

X Modem ^rammanana are horrified at such expressions as " It is vie." " Wlio 


me^ylf ie,&a', so in Wiclif we us sitf, ye you silf). This dative was 
perhaps originally rather the dative absolute, than a dative in 
apposition to a nominative. Myself ^nd thyself weve ' cor- 
ruptions of mesilf and thesilf the change being probably aided by 
the fact that self veas beginning to be treated as a substantive. 
Herself is ambiguous. Ourselves and yourselves (which are com- 
paratively late forms, us selve, us silf ourselven, yourselven, Sec, 
having preceded them) were probably formed on a false analogy to 
resemble myself and thyself. The dative form maintained its 
ground in himself, herself, itself, and themselves,* though this last 
form is a puzzle, because if self be used adjcctively, it has no busi- 
ness with the plural suffix s, which does not belong to adjectives at 
any stage of the language. The variations and anomalies in the 
usage of different periods render it imx^ossible to give any perfectly 
satisfactory explanation of the use of this pronoun. 

In poetry the personal i^ronouns are used reflectively without 
being strengthened by self, as : " I do repent me" ; " haste thee " ; 
*' Signor Antonio commend^s him to you." 

VIII. — Pronominal Adjectives, or Possessive 

176 Besides the possessive cases mine or my, thine or thy, his, 
her, its, our, your, their, which have now passed into the 
class of adjectives, we have the secondary adjective forms, 
hers, ours, yours, theirs, formed from the preceding by the 
possessive suffix «.t These forms, as well as mine and 
thine, are now used only when the noun to which they 
relate is not expressed. His is used in both ways. Its is 
seldom used without a noun. Formerly, mine and thine 
were used before words beginning with a vowel or mute 

did tliat? Me, Sir," &c. Nevertheless, it is by no means clear that these forms 
ore inconsistent with the idioms of our lang'uage. They are not more at variance 
with strict rules than he himself, she he,\ielf, &c. ; and the French laiig-uage toleraten 
the dative forms mi>i, toi, lui, &k., in constructions where gramuiatical purity would 
require the nominative, as " c'est moi." 

Passing by instances of mere carelessness, examples of the objective pronoun in 
place of the nominative are found in writers of authority from early times onwards. 
Thus : "Lord, yworshiped be the" {Piers Plowman) ; "I would not be thee nuncle" 
[King Lear i. 4) ; " That's me" (Twelfth N. ii. 5) ; " Scotland and thee did in each 
other live " (OrydtH). In some provincial dialects the two cases are used inter- 

* Ilis self and their selves are found in the early writers. When our and i/our 
relate to a single person, self not selves is used, as " We will ourself in person to this 
war"; "You must do it yourself." In early English there is a very curious use of the 
numeral (MK in the sense of self, 'him one,' &c. The adjective laue ( = alone) is 
similarly used m Scotch, ' my lane,' ' him lane,' &c. The pronoun appears to vaiy 
between the possessive and the objective, as it does with self. 

+ Compare the double superlatives ( { 117). It is now usual to omit the apos- 
troplie in these words,- but many writers still keep it (our's, yimr's, &c.) There ia 
no valid reason for not retaining it. In old writers (as MaundevUle and Cliaucer) 
W»: find nures, youres, hires, so that "ures should become our's, just ac hinges became 
king's. In vulgar and provincial English we also find the double possessivcs, num, 
Ifourn, hern, his'n, theirn, which, though not reco(fiused in polite lidiglish, are juat 
Va good as tur<, yoars, tlC. 


h, my and thy before the other letters. They are still 
sometimes used thtis in poetry. 

In the phrases of mine, of yours (as ' a book of mine') 
some grammarians* consider that we have a repetition of 
the idea of possession. 


1 79 A Verbt is that part of speech by means of which we are 

able to make an assertion about something. 

180 The word which stands for what is spoken about is called 
the subject of the verb (or of the sentence). It is put in the 
nominative case. A verb expi'esses with regard to what is 
spoken about, that it is something, that it does something, 
or that it is the ob/t^ct of some action. 

181 When an adjective is prefixed to a noun, the notion of some 
quiilit}-, attribute, or fact, is connected witli our notion of that 
which is spoken about. If we say a red apple, the notion of red is 
connected with that of apple. The same end ia attained by the use 
of a verV>, -with tliis difference, that wlien we prefix an adjective to 
a noun, the connexion between the two notions is spoken of as 
already existing ; tlie use of a verb effects the union of the two 
notions. When we say a blue coat, tlie connexion between the 
object of thought and its attnbute is pre-supposed. When we say. 
The coat is blue, the verb is effects the union of tlie two notions. 
[The difl'erent lands of sentences that result from the use of verbs 
are treated of in the Syntax.] 

182 Verbs are divided into two classes —Transitive| and 
Intransitive Verbs. 

A Transitive Verb is one which denotes an action or 
feeling which is directed towards some object ; as, strike, 
"He strikes the hsiW ; " love, "He Jnves his father." The 
word which stands for the object of the action described by 
the verb is called the object of the verb. It is put in ':he 
objective case. 

An Intransitive Verb is one which denotes a state or con- 

• Dr. Adams takes this view of them. The general explanation is that " a book 
of mine" iaea.Tis " ixhonk of my honks" {Latham, Eng. Lang.,-p. H3). If this were 
nec'SRarily the case, such an expressifin as " this sweet wee wife of mine," in 
Burns's song, would suggest unpleasant ideas of bigamy. Koch (ii. p. 236) suggestB 
the explanation that nf is partitive, and ntirif., &c., universal in sense, so that of 
mine means ' of all that l)elongs to me.' Perhaps the true explanation is that the 
of does little more than mark identity, as in the expres.siona, ' The city of Eome,' 
'A brute of a fellow.' In ' a book of yours,' we have a triple expression of the 
genitive or possessive idea, in of, r, and s. 

+ Latin verbum, "word;" the verb being emphatically the loord of the sentence. 

i Latin transire, " to go across ;" the action passes over, as it were, from th« 
doer of it to the object of it. 


dition. or an action or feeling whicli ia not directed towards, 
or exerted upon an object ; as, to be, to dwell, to stand, to sit, 
to rejoice, to run. Verbs of this kind are sometimes called 
Neuter Verbs. 

183 Many verbs which denote actions are used sometimes as transitive 
verbs, sometimes as intransitive verbs ; as, " Ho ;■«■«, away;" " He ran 
a tliom into his finger." " Tlie child upcaJcs ah"e;idy ", " He speaks 
several languages." In all such cases there is not only a difference 
of use, but a real difference of meaning. Thus, speak, " to utter ar- 
ticulate sounds " ( intransitive) ; speak, " to use (a language) as the 
means of expressing ideas" (transitive). This intransitive use of a 
verb must not be confounded with the reflective use of a transitive 
verb, in cases where the reflective pronoun is understood,* ps " The 
sea breaks (itself) on the rocks " ; " The clouds spread (themselves) 
over the sky " ; " The boats drew (themselves) clear of one another" ; 
" The earth moves (itself)" ; " The needle turns (itself) towards the 
pole." Verbs properly intransitive may be used as transitive, as 
" He swam the Esk river" ; " Yie f ought liis adver.saries " ; " The 
student walks the hospitals," &c. In old English intransitive verba 
were often followed by a pronoun iised reflectively, as " Hie thee 
home " ; " Fare thee well " ; " Sit thee down.' Some compound verbs 
are used curiously in this way, as : " To over-.sleep oneself" ; " He 
over-ate himself " ; " Vaulting ambition which o'erleaps itself." 

Transitive verbs are sometimes used with a sort of passive signi- 
fication, as: "The meat cuts tough," i.e, 'is tough when it is 
cut'; "The cakes eat short and cri.sp," i.e., ' are short and crisp 
when they are eaten ' ; " The book sold well " ; " The bait took " ; 
"The bed feels hard," i.e., 'is hard when it is felt'; "The rose 
smells .sweet" ; " The wine tastes sour." 

184 Verbs admit of the following modifications : — Voice, 
Mood, Tense, Number, and Person. 


1 85 Voice is tbe form of a verb by means of which we show 

whether the subject of the sentence stands for the doer, or 
for the object of the action spoken of by the verb. There 
are two Voices, the Active Voice and the Passive Voice. 

The Active Voice is made up of those forms of a verb 
which denote that the subject of the sentence stands for the 

* It is only when thus used that a verb pan properly be said to be used reflectivdt/. 
Compare the difference bctw- en lavnt sp and lavatur in Ijatin, and between TtTrrei 
^uuTOK and Ti.iTTeTLii in Greek. The fnllowin^ verbs are some of those that may 
be used reflectively without liaviiig' the reflective jjionoun exprestJed -.—push, extmd, 
atrf.tch, drag, rest, lean, inclinf, kri-p, set, bend, feed, open, shut, harden, shorten, 
lengthen, melt, dissolve, recover, reform, prepare, waxh, yield, change, dash, refrain, 
obtrude, intrude, pour, press, remove, settle, steal, stretch, &c. 

Several intransitive verbs were once reflective, aa,wend {went), dbietntd, venture, 
depart, consort, retire, &c. 

The following' are a few of those which are both transitive and intransitive : — 
act, talk, eat, drink, blow, fly, grow, abide, answer, boil, rain, shake, slip, stay, survive, 


doer of the action described by the verb ; as, " The boy 
strikes the ball." " The cat killf.d the mouse. " 
The Passive Voice is made up of those forms of a verb 
which deuute that the subject of the sentence stands for the 
object of the action described by the verb; as, "The ball 
is struck by the buy." " The mouse was killed by the cat." 
186 We may speak of one and the same action by means either 
of a verb in the active voice, or of a verb in the passive 
voice ; but then the word that is the object of the active 
verb must be the subject of the passive verb, as in the above 
It is clear that only transitive verbs can properly be used 
in the passive voice. There are, however, some remarkable 
exceptions to this principle in English. When an intransi- 
tive verb is followed by a phiase made up of a preposition 
and noun, the intransitive verb may often be used passively 
with the preposition as an adverbial adjunct. Thus we 
may say, " I despair of success," " I hope for* reward," 
and also "Success is despaired of," "Reward is hoped 
for."* We can even say "He was taken care of"; " He 
was lost sight of," &c. The indirect object may also be 
the subject of a passive verb, as " The dcud were refused 
burial " ; " He was promised a new coat." 

1 87 The Passive Voice of a verb is formed b}' prefixing the 
various parts of the verb be to the perfect participle of the 
verb. The perfect participle of a transitive v<;rb is passive 
in meaning. 

Some intransitive verbs have their perfect tenses formed 
by means of the verb be, followed by the past or perfect 
participle ; t as, "I am come ; " " He is arrived ; " " He is 
fallen." Great care must be taken not to confound these 
with passive verbs. The sign of the passive voice is not 
the verb be, but the passive participle that follows it. 


188 Moods (that is, modes) are certain variations of form in 
verbs, by means of which we can show the mode or Tuunner 

* Respecting the view held by some grammarians that in such a phrase as, " I 
wonder at your folly,'' nt has befome an adverb, and wondf.r at a compound pre- 
cisely equivalent to a transitive verb, and bavins: your ,i'olly for its o>ije''t. see the 
note on \ 372. Those who maintain this view must be prepared to admit tliat " to 
promise a new coat to," and " to tjike good care of," are compound verbs governing 
the objective case. 

+ Some grammarians are pleased to order us to alter these forms into " I hav 
come," " He has arrived," &c. They had better at the same time mend the IVench 
and German languages, which at present still tolerate the forms, Je suit venu. Jch 
Hn geknmmpii. 


in which the attribute or fact indicated by the verb is con- 
nected in thought with the thing that is spoken of. 

In English there are four moods : — 1 . The Inhnitive Mood. 
2. The Indicative Mood. 3. The Imperative Mood. 4. The 
Subjunctive Mood.* 

To these moods many grammarians add the Potential Mood, meaning 
by that mood certain coiubinations of the so-called auxiliary verbs may, 
might, can, could, must, with the infinitive mood. This is objectionable. 
7 can write, and I must go, are no more moods of the verbs write and go, 
than po«*«'n scribere is a mood of tcribo in Laiia; or, Je puis icrire, Jch 
Icann schreiben and Ich muss gehen moods of the Yerhs ecrire,sckreiben, 
and gehen in French and German. Moreover this potential mood would 
need to be itself subdivided into Indicative forms and Subjunctive forms. 
The sentences, " I cuuid do this at one time, but I cannot now," and " I 
could not do this, if I were to try," do not contain the same parts of the 
verb can. In the first sentence, could is in the indicative mood ; in the 
second, it is in the subjunctive mood. 

1, — The Infinitive Mood. 

189 The Infinitive Mood is that form of the verb which is used 
when the action or state that is denoted by the verb is spoken 
of without reference to person, number, or time. The verb is 
then not used predicatively, but the action or state that it 
denotes is treated as a separate object of thought, and conse- 
quently the infinitive mood has the force of a substantive, 
and may be used either as the subject or as the object of 
another verb, or after certain prepositions (namely to and 

190 It is impossible to make an assertion by means of the 
Infinitive Mood. 

191 The preposition to is not an essential part of the infinitive 
mood, nor an invariable sign of it. Many verbs (as may, f 
can, shall, will, must, let, dure, do, bid, make, see, hear, fed, 
need) are followed by the simple infinitive without to, as 
"You may sprak"; "Bid me discourse"; "He made me 
laugh"; '^1 ielt the shock vibrate through my nerves"; "I 
had rather not te/l you." (See note on § 560). In " I cannot 
but aiimire his courage," admire is in the infinitive mood 
after the preposition but. (See § 505). 

• Mood comes from the Latin modut, "manner"; Indicative from indieare, "to 
point out'' ; Imperative from imperare, " to command" ; SuhjuncHue from suhjungere, 
" to join on to" ; Infinitive from inrmilus, " vnlimiteil," i.e., as regards person, num- 
ber, (fee. 

t The case is exactly analogous in German. The preposition zu precedes the 
infinitive mood after all verbs except such as ansveer to the English verbs after 
which to is not required. B.-cker (in his German Gininmar) apijlics the teim supine 
to this combination oi eu with an infinitive mood. There would be advantages in 
the use of this name in English grammar, as the combination most nearly ap- 
proaches the force of the Latin supine in -um, and the terra gerand might then be 
restricted to the forms in -ing. 


The simple infinitive (without lo) used as the suhjeut of another Terb 

IB legiiiiiiate, tlinviL;li soninwlMt archaic, as " Better d« witii the dead" 
{Macheih in. 2, 20) ; "Will t please your highness walk " (Lear iv. 7) ; 
'* Mother, what does marry mean?" {Longfellow) ; "Better dwell in the 
midst of alarms than reu/n in this horrible place " (Cowper). So in 
Anglo-Saxofi : " Leotre js uh beon beswungen for lare l)8eniie hit ne 
cunnan" {MIJ. Coll ) , ''To be flogged for learning is more welcome to 
us, tlian not to know it." 

192 In Anglo Saxon, the infinitive mood ended in* -an, and when used as 
such, had no to before it. A verb in the infinitive miglit be the subject 
or object of another verb, or even come after an adjective such as wurlhy, 
ready, &c. The infinitive was however treated as a declinable abstract 
nuiin, and a dative form (called the gerund), ending in -anne, or -enne, 
and preceded by the preposition lo, was used to denote purpose. Thus 
in '' He that hatli ears to lieai," to hear=lo gehyranne; in " The sower 
went forth to sow," to sow = to sdwenne. Tliis gerundive infinitive passed 
into modern English \\iih the loss of the dative inflection, as in " I came 
to tell you"; " Tlie water is good lo drink," i.e., for drinking; "This 
house is to let ";t " He is to come home to-inoirow." Here tlie to has iis 
full and proper force, and we have more than a mere iiifinitive mood. 
From denoting the purpone of an action, the to came to maik tlie ground 
of an action more generally, and so may indicate the cause or condilion ol 
an action, as " I am sorry lo hear this ;" " 1 am glad lo see you," i.e., ' ai 
teeing yon,' or ^ in consequence of seeing you'; "To hear him talk (('.«., 
on hearing him talk), one would su]ipose he was master here." Bni 
somehow or other this gerund with tu came to be ttsed in place of tlie 
simple infinitive, as the subject or object of anollier verb,* and so we 
say ■' To err is human, io /or(/u'c divine"; "I liope to see you." Here 
the /" is utterly without meaning. We even find another preposition 
usef'. before it, as "This is Elias which was /or to come"; § "There is 
nothing left but to gubmit." 

As this infinitive preceded by to has come to us from the Anglo- Snx'fn 
gerund, it is often called the geruudial infinitive, or the gerund. I'l'lic 
latter name is in this work applied to a different form.) 

2.— The Indicative Mood. 

193 The Indicative Mood comprises those forms of a verb "which 
are used when a statement, question, or supposition is made 
respecting some event or state of things, past, present, or 
future, regarded as actual, and not as merely thought of : 
as, " He strark the ball;" "■'nl tsei out to-morrow"; 
" If he was guilty, his punishment was too light." 

• An infinitive snffix -en or -e is still found in Chaucer and Wiclif. A» used by 

Spenser it is antiqua:ed. 

t The active intiui'.ive in these phrases is the older and truer form. Chaucer 
uses " It IS to despise '' = " It is to be despised." In the North they still say " Wha,l 
is to do .' " for " \V'h>it is to be done 1 " 

t Even in Anglo-Saxon we find such constructions as " hyt is alyfed wel to 
doune " (it is allowed to do good) ; " He ondred pyder to faranne " (he dreaded t«i 
go ttdfher). 

i This use ni for occurs very early. We still say " I was about to obserre." Ir 
the Northern disilect at was used for «o, as " I have noght ac ij with tha " (Kovt 
ii. p. 61). Til {till) was also used. 



3. — The Imperative Mood. 

194 The Imperative Mood includes those forma of the verb by 

means of which we utter a command (requests and exhor- 
tations are only weaker kinds of commands); as, " Oive 
me that book." " Oo away." 

A direct command must of course be addressed to the person who is 
to obey it. Hence a strictly imperative mood can only be used in 
the second person. When we express our will in connexion with 
the first or third person, we either employ the subjunctive mood (as 
"Cursed be he that first cries hold"; "Go we to the king"), or make 
use of the imperative let, followed by an infinitive complement (see § 
395), as "Let us pray " ; " Let hiiu be heard." These are not impera- 
tive forms of prciy and hear, but periphrastic expressions doing duty for 
them (see § 200). 

4.— The Subjunctive Mood. 

195 The Subjunctive Mood comprises those forms of a verb by 
means of which an event or state of things is spoken of 

--^ot as a matter of /act, actual or assumed, but as merely 
thought of. 

The primary distinction between the Indicative and the Subjunctive 
Mood is, tliat when the Indicative is used, the connexion lietween the 
subject and the predicate is regarded as answering to some actual event 
or state of things, past, present, or future ; whereas, when the Sub- 
junctive is used, this connexion is only made in ihoutihl, without being 
referred to anything actual outside tbs mind itself.* Hence the Sub- 
junctive is employed to express a will or wish (as "Thy kingdom 
come ") ; in clauses denoting purpose (as " See that all be in readiness " ; 
" Govern well thy appetite, lest sin surprine thee ") ; in clauses denoting 
the purport of a wish or command (as "The sentence is that the 
yr\ prisoner be imprisoned for life ') ; to express a supposition or wish 
&/_ , contrary to the fact, or not regarded as brought to the test of actual 
fact (as " If he were here be vould tliink difierently " ; "Oh! that it 
were possible"). (Look carefully at § 466.) 

A verb in the Subjunctive Mood is generally (but not always) preceded 
by one of the conjunctions if, that, lest, though, unlets, <fec. ; but the 
Subjunctive Mood is not always necessary after these conjunctions, nor 
is the conjunction a part of the mood itself. 

196 In modern English the simple present or past tense of the smljunctive 
mood is often replaced by plirases compounded of the verbs may, might, 
and should, which for that reason are called auxiliary or helping verbs. 
Thus for " lest sin surprite thee," we now commonly say " Lest sin 

\ should surprise thee." 


197 Participles are verbal adjectives, differing from ordinary 

• In modem English it is getting (unfortimately) more and more common to use 
the Indicative Mood in cases where the Subjunctive would be more correct. Thus 
for " See tbat all be in readiness," many people say " See that all is m readiness" ; 
for " If that were to happen," they say, " If that was to happen." In Anglo-Saion 
and early English the Subjunctive was (rightly) used in the dependent clause in 
which a person's ppeech or thought was reported. Even in Sidney's Arcadia we 
Ind : " And I think there she do dwelL" 


adjectives in this, that the active participle can take a sub- 
stantive after it as its object. 
There are two participles formed by inflection, the Imper- 
fect Participle and th« Porfect Participle. The imperfect 
participle always ends in ing.* The perfect participle in 
verbs of the Weak Conjugation ends in d or ed.\ The 
Imperfect Participle is always active, the Perfect Participle 
is 'passive, provided the verb be a transitive verb ; as, "I 
saw a boy heating a dog." " Frightened by the noise, he 
ran away." 

I9S Even in the perfect tenses, as, "I have written a letter," the origin 
of the construction is, " I have a letter written," where written is an 
iinjective agreeing with letter; in I,atin, Habeo epistolam scriptam. In 
Prench the participle agrees with the ('i)ject in some constructions; as, 
" Les lettres que j'ai ecrites." In Anijlo-Saxon the perfect paiticiple 
in the perfect tenses was originally iniiected, and made to agree with 
tli» nhiect of tlie verh.t 

199 Besides the participles formed by inflection, there are the 
following compound participles: — 

Active Perfect Participle — Having struck. 
Active Perfect Participle of continued action — Having 
been striking. 

Passive Indefinite Participle — Being struck. 
Passive Perfect Participle — Having been struck. 


200 Besides ihe participles (which are adjectiws), most verba 
in English have a substantive ending in -ing formed from 
them, called the gerund.^ A gerund is like an imperfect 

• The termination of this participle in Anglo-Saxon was -ende, which was sub- 
sequently changed to -inde. and finally to -inge, -ynge, and -ing. In the Northern 
dialect the termination was -ande or -and, whicli lon<^ maintained its gi-onnd in the 
North of England and in Scotland, and sometimes o^ curs in Chaucer. The essential 
letters of the suffix are nd. This sulhx is akin to the Latin -ent or -nt and the Greek 

our or €VT. 

t Thi letter y, which is found as a prefix in one or two old forms (as ydtpl 
'called'), and is afl'ected by some writLTS in others, is derived from the Anglo- 
Saxon prefix ge. 

t As " He heefJJ man geweorhtne " (he has created man) ; " Hig hsefdon heora 
lof-sang gesungeune" (they had sung their praise-song). But the accusative 
suffix began to lie dropped even in Anglo Saxon (Koch, ii. p. 36). 

§ The true origin of tlie gerund is a point nit some difficulty, owing to forms 
derived from more than one source having become almost inextricably blended 
together. There are two classes of verbal substantives in -ing. Of those one is 
merely a modification of the Anglo-Saxon verbal nouns in -ung, the continuous use 
of which can be traced. These have the ordinary construction of nouns, as " For 
eamimge ^can lifes," '■ for earning of eternal life' ('Jrem, ii. p. 286); " Thei weren 
at r'.^binge," ' tkeg were a rnllnng ' (L tyamon) ; " On hunting ben they ridden," ' a 
hunting are they ridden'; " I fare to gon a begging " {Chaucer); "I go a fishing" 
(John xxi. 3) ; "Forty and six years was this tem.ple in building"; " While tha 
ark was a preparing." (The a is a weakened form of on or in). Such phrase* 


participle in form, but is totally distinct from it in origin 
and construction. As the verbs have and he have gerunds, 
there are also certain compound forms, whi<.h may be called 
compound gerunds, made up of the gerunds of these verbs 
combined with participles ; as, having gone, being loved, 
having been writing, having been struck. 

201 Gerunds are followed by the same construction as the verbs from 
which they are derived. They are used either as tlie subjects oi 
objects of verbs, or after prepositions,* as, " I Live n'aduig,'" " He 
is fond of studying mathematics," " He is desirous of be'uig distin- 
gii'jshed," "After having been writing all the morning, I ara tired," 
" Through having lost his book, he could not learn Iris lesson." 

202 Participles (being adjectives) are never used as the subjects or 
objects of verbs, or after prepositions. It must be observed, too, that 
in all such compounds as u hiding-place, a walking-stick, &c., it is 
the gerund, and not the participle, which is used. If the latter were 
the case, a walking-stick could only mean a stick that walks. 

^'''^ Tense. 

203 Tense (Latin tempus, ' time ') is a variation of form in verbs, 
or a compound verbal phrase, indicating partly the time to 
which an action or event is referred, and partly the com- 

as " I am a doing of It," though now obsolete, are perfectly grammatical. The 
omission of the preposition led to what some have mistaken for a passive use of 
the participle in -!«.'/> as "the house is building." We have here the direct 
descendants of the nouns in -uni/. (Compare r-.g. " gre beo3 on hatuuge," 'ye 
shall be hated.' [Matt. x. 22). Some maintain that there is no gerund in -ing 
distinct from these modeiui-<ed nouns in -ung. To this view it may be objected 
that the nouns in -uni/ funii.^h no explanation of the origin of the compound 
gerunds, and tliat the verbals in -i«;/ commonly called gerunds have a power of 
governing objects which never belonged to the nouns in -uni/. When we say " he 
was hanged foi' killing a man," the objective relation of ma?i to killing is (now at 
any rate) as distinctly in our thoughts as that of man to kiUfd when we say " he 
killed a man." (Consequently even if it could be shown that the foixnation in -ung 
was the parent of aU the noun formations in -ing, a large class of would still 
be entitled to a new cla^sitication and a new name, just as adverbs that have 
acquired the force of piepositions require to be classed and named as such. 7t is 
bettor to allow (with Koch) that, besides the descomlants of the nouns in -ung, 
there is a clas> of verbiil substantives in -ing, descended from the ol<l Anglo-Saxon 
gerund, which Koch traces (ii. § 981 through such foims as to hodiniuie, to bodiemie, 
to Jifoiiile, in toi-nand, to accusinge, for to brennyng, iVc. The weakening and final 
omission of the preposition would lead to the modem form, the development of 
which may have been assisted by the influence ot the .French gerund in -ant, which 
in most French gratamars is confoiuided with the present p.articiple. (In 
Italian the forms are distinct, and the extensive use of the gerund is remarkable) . 
An infinitiot in -ing, which is set down in some gi-ammars as a modification of the 
simpU. infinitive in -im or -en, is a perfectly needless and unwarranted invention. 
The descendants of the -ung nouns are quite competent Co discharge such special 
functions as are attributed to it. 

• The grossness oflhe mistake which is made in confounding the participle with 
the gerund in English, becomes most palpable when beginners, who have been led 
Jtstray by their English grammars, render such pluases as " He talks about fight- 
ing," by the Latin " Loquitur de pugnante." In such Fiench expressions as en 
attmdarit, the word in -ant is a gerund, derived from a Latin form in -rrndo-. The 
\djective in -ant ia derived from the participle in ant {-antia). — Mux Miiller. 


pleteness or incompleteness of the event at the time*in- 

204 If inflection alone were the criterion of tense, we should have to 
limit the tenses in English to two, the present and the past indefi- 
nite; but the theoretical precision of the arrangement would no*, 
be worth the inconvenience that it would entail. 

205 There are three divisions of time to which an event or a 
state may be referred, — the Present, the Past, and tic- 
Future. Hence, if the iime of an event were the only 
thing to be considered, there could not be more than three 
tenses. But, besides the time of an action, there are three 
ways in which an action or event may be viewed: — 

1. It may be spoken of as incomplete, or still going on. A 
tense which indicates this is called an imperfect tense. 

2. It may be spoken of as complete. A tense which indi- 
cates this is called a perfect tense. 

3. It may be spoken of without distinct reference to other 
events, with regard to which it is complete or incomplete. 
A tense in which an action is thus spoken of is called an 
indefinite tense. The indefinite tenses are employed when 
an action or event is spoken of as one whole, without refer- 
ence to its duration ; as, " He strikes the ball.' " He fell 
to the ground." " He will hrenk his neck." 

2(16 An action may be viewed in these three ways with refer- 
ence to past, to present, or to future time. We thus get 
nine primary tenses. 

f 1. The Past Imperfect, showing that at a certair past 
j time an action was going on ; as, / teas writing ; I vjas heiny 
j taught. 
I 2. The Past Perfect, showing that at a certain past time 

an action was complete ; as, / had written ; I had heen 


3. The Past Indefinite (or Preterite), speaking of the 

action as one whole i-eferred to past time ; as, / wrote ; I 

was taught. 

1. The Present Imperfect, showing that an action is going 

on at the present time ; as, / am urriting ; I am being 


T. J 1^ The Present Perfect, showing that at the present time 

' a certain action is complete ; as, / have written ; I have 

heen taught. 

3. The Present Indefinite, speaking of the action as one 
whole, referred to present timf* • as, / write ; I am taught. 


f 1. The Future Imperfect, showing that at a «ertain 
f future time an action will be going on ; as, / shall he wrii- 
I iiig ; I shall he heint) taught. 

2. The Future Perfect, showing that at a certain future 

0. -{ time an action will be complete ; as, / shall have written ; 

I shall have been taught. 

I 3. The Future Indefinite, speaking of an action as one 

whole, referred to future time ; as, / shall write ; I shall 

[ be taught. 

207 From this table it appears at once that perfect and past are not the 
same. A tense is past, present, or future, according to the tiine with 
reference to which an action is spoken of, not according to the com- 
pleteness or incomijleteness of the action at that time. When we say, 
'^ I have written," although the act of writing took place in past time, 
yet the completeness of the action (which is what the tense indicates) 
is referred X^o present time. Hence the tense is n. present tense, although 
it speaks of an action that is completed. To justify us in using this 
tense, it is necessary that the state of things brought about by the 
action should still exist at the present time. We may say, " England 
has foimded a mighty empire in the East." because the empire still 
lasts: but we cannot say, "Cromwell has founded a dynasty," 
because the dynasty exists no longer. 

208 The indefinite tenses are often imperfect in sense. Thus, " I stood 
during the whole of the performance." "While he lived at home 
he was happy." The verbs in such cases would have to be rendered 
into the past imperfect tense in French, Latin, or Greek (see J 216). 

209 Besides the primary tenses given in § 206, we have the 
following : — 

The Present Perfect of continued action — I have been 

The Past Perfect of continued action — I had been vjriting. 

The Future Perfect of continued action — I shall have been 
writing. * 
'ilO The Present Indefinite Tense is used not only of what 
takes place now, but also of what frequently or habitually 
takes place; as, " John often goes to the theatre." "He 
writes beautiful poems." " It rains here almost every 
day." It is also used of what is universally true ; as, 
"Virtue is its own reward." " Honesty is the best policy." 
It is also used with reference to what is future, t in cases 
in which in Latin a future or future perfect tense would 
be used ; as, " When he comes, 1 will speak to him." " If 

• Some grammars give combinations like " I am going to write," aa tmtaet [Pre- 
tint Intentional, Post Intentional, Sic). Tliis is quite unnecessary. "lam goinp 
(0 write," and " I am intending to write," arc not ti-n^^es of the verb write, but of 
tfie verbs go and intind, followed by a g-erundial infinitive, which constitutes cithw 
an object or au adverbial adjunct to it. 

+ Our lanfiTuaf^e admits tliis idiom the more leadily, as in Anglo-Saxon the same 
form served for both the pieseut and the futui-e tense. 


ho hits me, I will hit him again." In lively narrations 
also, the speaker or writer often imagines himself to be 
present at the events he is describing, and so uses the pre- 
sent tense in speaking oi past events. When thus used, the 
tense is called the Historic Present. 
211 A Substantive has no relation to any time in particular. 
The Infinitive Mood is virtually a substantive. Hence 
the Infinitive Mood does not indicate time.* It admits 
only of the distinctions in tense called Imperfect, Perfect, 
\\^ and Indefinite. " [To] htwriting " is an Imperfect Tense, but 
tJ \\ it may refer either to present or to future time. In " I ought 
- W ^ tobe writing my letters now," it refers to present time ; in " I 

shall he travelling to-morrow," it refers to future time. 

t*( 212 The tenses of the English verb are made partly by inflec- 
Vj tion, partly by the use of auxiliary verbs. 

^ f\ The Present Indefinite and the Past Indefinite in the 

^^ Active Voice are the only two tenses formed by inflection. 

^ The Imperfect tenses are formed by the indefinite tenses 

of the verb he, followed by the imperfect participle, t 

The Perfect tenses are formed by means of the indefinite 

tenses of the verb have, followed by the perfect participle. 

The Future tenses are formed by TL.eans of the auxiliary 

verbs shall and will, followed by the infinitive mood : shall 

being used for the first person, will for the second and 

third in affirmative principal sentences ; but in subordinate 

clauses, after a relative, or such words as if, when, us, though, 

unless, until, &c. , the verb shall is used for all three persons ; J 

^'^ as, "If it shall be proved" ; " When they shall turn unto 

ly theLofd"; " When He shall appear we shall be like Him." 

Y 213 WTieu the verb will is used in the first persou and the verb shall 

1 iii the second and third, it is implied that the action spoken of 
depends upon the wLO of the speal;t:r. Shall (like sollen in German) 
implies an obligation to do something. Hence shall is appro- 
priately used in comjuauds (as " Thou shait not kill "), in pro- 
mises or threats (as " You shall have a hoUday "), and in the 
language of prophecy, which is an utterance of the Divine 
wUl or purpose. Shall is iised in the first person as a simple 

' The same is the caae with the Participles in English. They express imper/eet 
^''Sperjtet; liul ni<t pitst or present. 

+ It is pretty ceriain that the \-iew adopted by Max MiJiler and others, that the 
eompound imperfert tenses originated in the use of the verbal noun in -ing (I am 
vriliny hawnjf been originally / am a uriting, &c. ; see note on § i'M) is incorrect. 
The participie in -eride, -and. -yng, or -ing, is found from the earUest period 
onwards, :-ide by side with the use of the verbal noun in -ung or -ing, as: "Hig 
wieron etende and drincende," ' they were eatinfr and drinking' (Matt. xxiv. 38) ; 
"Harold was cnmand" [P. Langtoft). The sense of the compound imper/eet 
tenses was however commonly expressed by means of the uncompounded indefiuiu 
tenses. (See § 208.) 

t In early Knglish shall is the u^ual future auxiliAry. 




aturiliary of a future tense, on much the same principle as that on 
which a person subscribes himself at the end of a letter, " Your 
obedient humble sei-vant." It implies a sort of polite acknow- 
ledgment of being bound by the will of others, or at least by the 
force of circmnstances. By a converse application of the same 
principle, the verb will is used in the second and third persons to 
imply that the action referred to depends upon the volition of the 
person to or of whom we speak. In questions, however, and in reported 
speeches, the force of the verb shall is the same in the second and 
third persons as it would be in the answer, or as it was in the 
direct speech: "Shall you be present ? " "1 shall." "I shall not 
set out to-morrow ; " "I said I should not set out to-morrow," or, 
" John said that he should not set out to-morrow." The verb to be 
used in a question depends upon the verb expected in the reply. 
We say, '" WUl you go ? " if we expect the answer, " I will." * 

214 All moods and tenses in the Passive Voice are made by 
means of auxiliary verbs ; the Passive Voice of a verb con- 
sisting of its perfect participle, preceded by the various 
moods and tenses of the verb ie.f 

215 The Indefinite Tenses and the Indefinite Participles of the Passive 
Voice are a little ambiguous in meaning. They may refer either to 
the action indicated by the verb, or to the results of the action. In 
the latter case they are not strictly tenses of the passive voice, but 
the participle that follows the verb be is used as an adjective. In 
" He teas terrified at the sight," was terrified is a past indefinite 
tense of the passive voice of the verb terrify. It represents an 
action exerted upon a certain person. In " He was terrified., so that 
he coiild not speak," the verb of the sentence is was, and terrified is 
a mere adjective | In "Every house is built by some man," is 
built is a present indefinite tense passive of the verb build. In 
" This house is built of stone," is is the verb, and built is used as an 

216 From the foUowing table it will be seen that tjie English 
language admits of greater accuracy than any other in the 
expression of all the shades of meaning that are involved 
in tense. In other languages the same form often has to 
do double duty. 

• In Ansln-Saxon the present often did duty for the future, as : " Aefter prim 
dagon ic arise," ' After three ilni/s I shall riae nijain ' {Matt, xxvii. 63) ; " Ael" treow 
.... bj'S foroorfeii," ' Every tree .... shall he. cut down' {Halt. iii. 10), but the 
compounds with shall and will were also used. The future perfect belongs only 
to modem English. Tlie pa'-t indeflnite often served for the modem past indefinite, 
present perfect, and past perfect, e.g. "mine e;igan gesawon pine ha;le," 'mine 
eyes have seen thy salvation ' (Luke ii. 30). 

t In Anvrlo Saxon there were two auxiliary verbs for forming the passive, beon 
and enr'San, the latter (like werden in German) being employed to denote that 
something is the object of a definite action, and not merely that it is in the state 
resulting from an action The participle being in the predicative relation to the 
subject, was made te agree with it. 

t This distinction can be easily marked in Greek and in German. " The letter 
is written" maybe rendered either " h fir«»-ToXi) i(>n<ptTai," and "Der Brief wird 
teechrii.'ben," or " h emaroXi} ■ttfi>aijin4vn ean," and '• Der Bi-ief ist ge.«chriebi n." 
In Anglo-Saxon the present and past perfect passive were expressed by mtans of 
the present and past indefinite teiase«. 



t-H O 


c a 



5 g 
















•§-S -2 


-^ g 


(0 CC r4 


■ t:-^ 

■5 ^ 


*H ;- t< 

;. ;h ki 

u u 


® V c> 

SO) <D 

<o <s 




'tl ^ 





iS o3 




-(J -ti rl 

p* > ."S '^ 

f- u 



•r T- ^ 




E3'3 >^ 


VQJ .(U c3 

\(v sQi a 

■O VU 


^^ 1— ( >— ( 

•—4 1—4 ^-^ — ^ 

P— t F— « 




11, «, ■©■ 



^^ ?^ ?. 

,^^ .^ 





.15 i ^ 

-e -^ 



."ti ."ti ' s 

CO aj 

<D :j 



rC'^ Oh 

£"2 .S" 




■j^'S 'S 

u ^ 




00 a. 00 

ec ou oQ 



C tf 

60 a 
e ® 
•■43 is 




s ^ ^ 

^ a 
. — 1 © 



tK rj3 




00 ® 

ffi • 

:i s ^ 



KM a 




»> ->^ 

<a >i 

-^ tj 

s s 


•w .« 

■£ .*> 

8 -2 

~ ^~-^"W 

s ^ ■♦.» 

s >. 

-2 ?^ 

-s S^ ? 


0- s 


k:;^^; c^ 



K .'^ 









!-• Q 
■~' O 

> a 

a a 











e a> 

.J3 rfi rO 



03 O <0 r^ 






55 fcl ^ >> 

,J4 rd rJ:^ 0) 





S 0) 


Q) a 



0) S 

aj ci (B ri 0) fl 


be ba 


5£ H 


wird g 







CO 03 (D 

lO S Q 















a a 



5 CO 03 5 0) 
•^ .^ ^ ^ +j 

a a 

6fi fl 










N umber. 

21 7 Number is a modiiictitiou of the form of a verb, by means 
of which we show whether the verb is spoken of one person 
or thing, or of more than one. There are, therefore, two 
numbers in verbs, corresponding to the two numbers in 


218 Person is a moditioation of the form of verbs, by which we 
indicate whether the speaker speaks of himself, or speaks 
of the person or persons addressed, or speaks of some other 
person or thing. There are three persons — the First Per- 
son, the Second Person, and the Third Person.* 

The First Person inchides those forms of the verb which 
are used when the speaker speaks of himself either singly 
or with others. 

The Second Person includes those forms of the verb which 
aroused when the subject of the verb stands for the person 
or persons spoken to. 

The Third Person includes those forms of the verb which 
are used when the subject of the verb denotes neither the 
speaker nor the person spoken to. 


219 The conjugation of a verb is the formation of all the 
various inflections and combinations used to indicate the 
Voices, Moods, Tenses, Numbers, and Persons of which the 
verb is capable. The varieties in the conjugation of verbs 
depend upon the formation of the Infinitive, the Past In- 
detinite or Preterite Tense, and the Perlect Participle. All 
other parts of a verb are formed from these according to 
unvarying rules. 

• Observe that the subject of the verb forms no part of the person of the verb. 
The first person of the present tense of the verb be is am, not I am. It is usual, 
however, to conjugate verbs with a subject expressed, for the sake of cleamees. 

The suffixes by which Person is marked were originally neither more nor lass than 
the Personal Pronouns. These can be traced in various languages, but, as might 
be expected (see § 27), usually appear in very mutilated forms, or disappear alto- 
gether. The characteristic letter of the suffix for the first person was m (oompare 
met, me, &c), for the second s {corapaxe Greek av, at), for the third ( (the root 
consonant of various demonstratives, as to in Greek, torn, tum, ire. in Latin, the, 
this, &c. in English). Combined with a mark of plurality, a or n, these are found 
in the plural. (Compare -mtts, -tis, -nt in Latin ; -mea in old High German). In 
English the sufhx -m still appears in am (in A. S. also in beam) Compare the 
Latin rwm, inquam, amem, &c. In -«( or -eat the t is a phonetic offgrowth of the », 
which is the suttix in Gothic, and ia found in the Northumbrian dialect (compare 
umidat, &c.). In the third person -th is now commonly softened to -a. The 
plural suffijtes had in Anglo-Saxon become the same for all three persons (see 
A.ppendix A) . 


Verbs in English are divided into two well-defined and 
widely different classes, distinguished by the formation li 
the preterite. These are : 

A. Verbs of the Stroruj Conjugation. 

B. Verbs of the Weak Conjuyation. 

Verbs of the Strong Conjugation. 

220 The Strong Conjugation is based upon a mode of forming 
the preterite -which belongs to various members of the 
Aryan family of languages. In the Strong Conjugation 
the Preterite (or Past Indefinite Tense) was originally 
formed by redupUcation, i.e. by repeating the root of the 
verb. This formation was weakened (1) by omitting the 
final consonant from the first member of the doubled root; * 
(2) by weakening the vowel sound of the initial syllable to 
one uniform letter, and frequently by weakening or modify- 
ing the vowel sound of the second root as well ; t (3) by 
omitting the initial consonant of the second member of the 
doubled root, so that the vowel of reduplication and the 
vowel of the root came in contact with each other, and were 
commonly blended into one | sound. Thus it has oome to 
pass that in English (with two exceptions), the preterite 
of verbs of the Strong Conjugation is formed by 
modifying the vowel sound of the root. 

Two preterites in English distinctly show reduplication, 
namely, did from do, and hiyJit (was called) from tho old 
verb hdtan, where gh is a variety of the guttiu-al h at the 

221 In English the perfect participle of all veibs of the strong 
conjugation was originally formed by the (adjective) suffix 

• In Sanscrit perfect tenses are formed thus, just as in Latin, from turf (the root 
ot tundo) we get tu-tud-i ; from mu.-d, mo-mord-i ; from die (the root of di^co) 

t In Greek the initial consonant is repeated,but with the vowel sound weakened 
to e (as i^^'i^ui Ka). This formation occurs in several verbs in Latin, as pe-pul-i 
(from pello); pe-pitji (from patKjo) ; ce-rid-> (from cada). In Gothic the reduplica- 
tion consisted of the niitial consonant followed bj' ni, as haitan (to call), hai-hnit 
In An^'lo-Saxon the reduplication once consisted of the first consonant followed l/y 
«o. {Kocfi, i. p. 240). 

t Thus in old Frisian the preterite from the root hald passed throug-h the stages 
ha-hald, lia-h'td, ha-ild to held. In Latin the root Ifg (in iego) passed throut,'-h the 
stages Je-ie.i7-i, li-eg-i to legi ; the root ucn (in vnio] through ve-ven-i, vf-fn-i to 
vhii : the root fac through fi-jtc-i, fe-ic-i, to J'ca. 

It is obvious that the changes described tended to result in giving a fuller and 
broader sound to the vowel of the root. 

I In Gothic the preterite is haihait. A few other Anglo-Saxon preterites show 
reduplication, especially when compared with Gothic. Thus rf^d-.m (to, 
prot. reord, shortened from reo-nzd (Gothic ridan, rairoc/i] ; iSinn (to let), pret 
2«or< (for iso/O) shortened from i''o/(«« (Gotliic Utan, lailoC); Idcan (to leap), pret. 
Uolc, shortened from len-ldc (Gothic Laikan. lailaik) ; on-drSdan (to dread), pret 
on-dreord, shortened from OK-dreo-dr&d, 


-en and the prefixed particle gt. The suffix -en has now 
disappeared from many verbs, and the prefix ge from all. 

Verbs of the Weak Conjugation. 

222 The characteristic of the Weak Conjugation is that tho 
preterite tense was originally formed by annexing to the 
root the preterite of the verb do (root da). This suffix 
became abbreviated* in Anglo-Saxon to -de or -te,\ and 
was attached to the mot by a connecting vowel o or 
e (which disappeared after some consonants). In modern 
English the suffix de or te has become d or t, and the con- 
necting vowel is always e. "When a verb ends in e, that e 
is omitted before the connecting vowel of the suffix, as 
love, lov-ed. The suffix -ed is pronounced as a separate 
syllable only after a dental mute, as in need-ed, pat-t-ed, 
mend-ed. The vowel y after a consonant is changed into i 
before it, as pity, 2>itied. After a sharp guttural or labial 
mute ed has the sound of t, as in tipped, knocked. 

It thus appears that in origin, as well as in meaning, 1 
loved is equivalent to I love did, or / did love. 

223 The perfect participle in the weak conjugation was formed 
by the suffix d or t,X joined to the root by o or e as a connect- 
ing vowel, and had the particle ye prefixed. The force of this 
particle was extremely feeble, and after a time it vanished 
(§ 221), so that now the perfect participle of most verbs of 
the weak conjugation is the same in form as the preterite. 

224 Since the auxiliary suffix of the Weak Conjugation is a redupli- 
cated or strong form, it follows that the Strong Conjugation ia the 
older of the two. Whenever fi-esh verbs are formed or introduced, 
they are of the weak conjugation.^ 

225 A. — Verbs of the Strong Conjugation!. 

1. Verbs in tvhich the preterite is formed by vowel-change, and the 
perfect participle has the suj/ix -en or -n. 

• All suffixe.s were originally independent ■words, with a meaning of their own. 
Their frequent occurrence, and their position at the end of words, led to theii 
being carelessly pronounced. Hence they became abbreviated and cormipted in 
form, till in many cases tlieir oriH'hial meaning can only be guessed at, or deduce^J 
from a comparison of several cognate languages. 

t In Ciothic the reduplicated au-ijiliary root (ded) appears in the dual and plural 
of the pretdrite indicative, and in all three numbers of the past subjunctive {Skeat, 
Moeso- Gothic Glossary and Grammar, p. 301). 

t Probably an adjective formation, akin to the Greek rot and the Latin tuf. 
{Morris, p. 168) . 

§ Siring, strung, strung is a solitary exception. 

II Koch (followed by Morris) arranges these verbs arcerding to their Anglo- 
Saxon forms, which is the most convenient phin when all the successive variations 
are to be traced. But as these forms are not original, but belong only to one 
sta^ in the process of change, and by no means explain all those that follow, 
an arrangemeat ia here adopted, which is based upon the present iu)age of the 





F. Fart. 



F. Part. 














once crown 



lien or 




















or sliowed 



drove or 





















(a) rise 

(a) rose 















2. In most of the following verba there is a tendency to assimilaH 
the vowel-sound of the preterite to that of the perfect participle. 



F. Fart. 



F. Fart. 



borne or 


sware or 



born t 






tare or 



brake »r 







cleave J 

clave or 






or cleft 

or wove 

shear J 



choose II 




spake or 







trode or 






or trod 

3. In the following verbs the preterite hat a second form, which m 
OHly the perfect participle transformed into a preterite. 



F. Fart. 



P. Part. 


began or 



gat or 

gotten or 

begun 1! 




bade or 

bidden or 


rang or 




rung 11 


drank or 



shrank or 

shnjnken ** 

drunk If 

or drunk 

shrunk H 

or shrunk 

* A provincial form, found also in Spenser. 

V Born is now used only with reference to birth. Borne means carried. 

t Also weak, cleave, cleft, cleft. 

\ Also of the weak conjufration. 

g Gh»»s was an old form of the present. 

^ These forms are now usually avoided by the best wnten. 

•• These forms are now used only as adjectives. 





P. Part. 



P. Part. 


sang or 
sung • 



sprang or 



sank or 

sunken f 


stank or 


sunk * 

or sunk 



span or 



strake or 

stricken t 



or struck 


spat or 

spit or 


Bwam or 






In the following verbs the preterite 

is the perfect participle J 


as a preterite. 



P. Part. 



P. Part. 






shotten or 



bitten or 





slidden or 







chidden or 








climb 1 












































hidden or 


In the following verbs the 

perfect participle has 

been borrowed 


the preterite. 



P. Part. 



P. Part. 







awake || 






heave || 









or struck 

or held 



taken or 







shone or 


spat or 

spat or 




seethe | 


or sod 

• These forms are now usually avoitlfd by the best writers. 

t These forms are now used only as adjertives. 

X When there are two fonns of the perfect participle, the short form is adopted 
for the preterite. Besides those ^ven the short forms driv, smit, rid, rin, are used 
as preterites liy some of the old -nriters. In vulgar Englisli we often hear " I seen 
him "; " He done it "; " I give it him," &c. 

} Chode occiu-s in Oen. xxxi. 36, " Jacob chode with Laban." The weak form 
ehidde \s also found. 

n Also of the weak conjugation. 

^ Formerly $lnde. 

•• Took, mistook, forsook, shook, rode, ttrove, twam, drank, &c., are used as perfect 
participles by Shakspere. 





F. Fart. 







6. Unclassified forms. 

Pres. Fret. F. Fart. 

eat ate or eat eaten 

dig dug dug 

[bequeath] quoth * 

B.— Verbs of the Weak Conjugation. 

226 Besides the large class of what are frequently called 
Kegular Verbs, because the preterite and perfect participle 
are uniformly made by the simple addition of -ed, which 
includes all verbs of French or Latin origin, the following 
verbs belong to the Weak Conjugation : — 

1. Verbs in which the addition of the suffix d or 1 1« accompanied by 
a shortenifig of the vowel-sound of the root. 



F. Fart. 



F. Fart. 


bereft f 






crept J 










lost II 


dreamt § 





















wept J 



kept + 





2. Verbs in wh ich the suffix ) 
of th'' '"^"'l 

ias been dropped after the 




F. Fart. 



F. Fart. 


























Verbs in w 

hich the addi 

ion of d or 

t is accompanied by o 

change in the vou 

el-sound of the 




F. Fart. 

Fres. ' 


F. Part. 

beseech 1[ 




sou gilt 














bring tt 









• The simple queath [r.we^nn] is no longer used. To bequeath is to allot a thing 
by speaking, (^oiupaie the veib bespeak. 
t Also bereaved. 

X In early writers we find crep for crepte, slep for sleple, wep for wepte. Kep is 
a common vulgarism for kept. 

I Also dreamed. 

I In Anglo-S (xon {for)losen was softened into {for)loren, which is still preserved 
in lorn and fnrlnrn. In a similar way frore is found for frozen. "The parching 
*ir burns frore'" {Par. Lost, ii. 595). 

H Beseech, is a compound of seek ; k, ch and fh are only varieties of the guttural 

•• The t IK not radical. It is only used to indicate that ch has th« sibilant tjoiuid. 

++ The n in these verbs is not radical. 



4. Verbs in which the suffix te has disappeared, but has changed 

a final flat mute into a sharp mute. 



F. Fart. 



F. Fart 






built or 






gilt or 

gilt or 










girt or 

girt or 







went or 







Verbs in 

tvhich the suffi 

c has disappeared without further 

, change. 



F. Fart. 



P. Fart. 


















































Verbs which have preserved the formation of the 

strong conju- 

gation in the perfect participle. 



F. Fart. 



F. Fart. 





shapen or 

[en] grave 

[en] graved [enjgravien 





shaven or 





holpen or 



shewn or 



hewn or 



sown or 



laden or 






molten or 




mown or 



swollen oi 



riven or 



wash en oi 



sawn or 



waxen or 


Verbs not 

included in the ^ 





F. Fart. 



P. Fart. 












fraught or 












* The y in these verbs is a weakened form of the guttnral e^ 




P. Part. 





wrought or 

wrought or 



had {i.e. 

made {i.e. 



8. Tiffkt is a participle of tie (A.S. fif/an). Distraught is an excep- 
tional form from the vprb distract. S'tra'u/ht is for stretched. Bight 
is from deck (= bedecked). Yclept is from the old verb clypian = to 
call. In cfo^the a is the original vowel (A.S. cla'^). The th has 
disaj^peared before the d. Go borrows a preterite from the verb 
wend (properly to ivend {or turn) one's xoay). Be has a particij)le of 
the strong foinn. Am, iva.i, and been come from three dillerent roots. 

In Appendix A will be found a list of strong verbs that have 
become weak. 


227 Several verbs in English are defective ; that is, have not the 
full complement of moods and tenses. Those which are 
still in common use are shall, will, may, must, can, ought, 
dare, wit. 

A peculiarity which all these verbs (except will) have in common, 
is, that the present tense is in reality a preterite of the strong con- 
jugation,* which has replaced an older present, and has had its own 
place suppKed by a secondary preterite of the weak conjugation. 
One consequence of this fact is, that they none of them take ."( as a 
.suffix in the third person singular, as that suffix does not belong to 
the preterite tense. 

228 SHALL. 

No Infinitive Mood.f No Participles. 
Indicative Mood. 

Present Indefinite Tense. 
Singnlar. Plural. 

1. [I] shaU 1. [We] shaU 

2. [Thou] Shalt J 2. [You] .shall 

3. [He] ShaU 3. [They] shaU 

Past Indefinite Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. [I] should 1. [We] should 

2. [Thou] 2. [You] should 


3. [He] should 3. [They] should 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Past Indefinite Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. ri] should 1. [AVe] shoiild 

2. [Thou] .shouldest or shouldst || 2. [You] sh<nild 

3. [He] should 3. [They] should 

• This 13 evident from the ten^e suffixes in Anijlo-Saxon, which are those of the 
preterite, not those of the present tense. Tliese preterite-presents may be com- 
pared with 01 An, nozii, &c. , in Greek and I^atin. 

+ In Ang-lo-SaxoB acv.lan = to moe. 

X The suffix t in the second person singular of the past indefinite in the strong 
conjugation is older than -si. It is found in Gotliio. 

II The termination -st in the second person singular in the suhjunctive mood, is 
a deviation from the ancient principle of formation. In Anglo-Saxon, the three 
persons were alike in the subjunctive mood in both tenses. 


229 Shall (A.S. sceal) is (in form) a preterite.* When it came to be 
used as a present tense, another preteiite (should) of the weak con- 
jugation was formed to supply its place. The ou of should comes 
from the u of sculan. In Anglo-Saxon, ' I shall ' means ' I owe.' f 

It then came to indicate some compulsion or obligation arising 
either from the will of some superior authority, or from some ex- 
ternal source. Hence it is used in direct or reported commands, 
as " Thou shalt not steal " ; *' The genei-al gave orders that he 
should be shot" ; " Ye shall not surely die," i.e., ' There is surely 
no edict that ye shall die ' ; " The tyrant shall perish," i.e., 
' Ciicumstances, or the wUl of others demands that the tyrant 
shall perish'; " He demanded where Christ should be born," i.e.. 
'where it was fated or propliesied that ho was to be bom ' ; " You 
should always obey your parents," i.e., ' It is your duty to obey 
your parents.' It often conveys this sense in the first person, as 
" What shall I do ? " i.e., " What ought I {or am Ii to do 'i " and even 
when used as an auxiliary verb denoting simple futurity in the 
first person, the verb docs not really lose tliis force (see § 213). 
It is tow only a verb of incomplete i^redication, and is followed 
by the infinitive without to. 

In exclamations it is often omitted, as " WTiat, I love ! I sue .' 
I seek a wife ! " " Thou wear a lion's hide 1 " {Shakspere). 

In Scotch and in the Northern dialtcta / shall i& often ab'^reviated 
io Tst; or Ish. 

230 WILL, 

Iiijinitive Mood, [To] wiU. 

Imperfect Farticiple, Willing. 

Ferfect Farticiple, Willed. 

Compound Perfect Farticiple (active). Having willed. 

The infinitive mood and the participles of this verb arc only used 
when it has the stronger of its two senses. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Indeji 

nite Tense. 

Fast Indefinite Tense. 


1. [I] wiU 

2. [Thou] wilt 


1. [We] WiU 

2. [You] wiU 



SingTilar. Pliiral. 
[11 would 1. [We] would 
[Thou] 2. [You] would 

wouldest or 


3. [He] wiU or 

S. [Theyj will 


[He] would 3. [They] would 

• Aocordingto Grimm shall or ikal is the preterite or perfect of a verb meaning to 
VK. As killinsr involved the paj-ment of the penalty orioer-<7e.W, ' I have killed ' 
jame t-o mi-an ' I owe the fine,' and thence ' I ow< ' simply. 

t " Hu mioel sc^alt ])u ! " = " How much sha'.t thou ? " = " How much owest 
thou" ; {Lake xvi. 5). But the verb is also used in Ang-lo-Saxon as the auxiliary 
of tVip fuTiire *rnse. 

t This form is used only when the verb is employed in its strong sense. 


Subjunctive Mood. 
Fast Indefinite Tense. 

Sinernlar. Plural. 

1. [I] would 1. [We] would 

2. [Tliou^ wouldest or wouldst 2. [You] would 

3. [He] would 3. [Tliey] would 

The verb will is followed by the infinitive, without the preposition 
to ; as, " I luill strive" ; " He will not obey." 
2?1 Tills verb, besides being used as a mere auxiliary for forming 
future tenses * in the second and third persons, is used to express 
determination or intention. It lias this force in all its persons, as — 
" Not as 1 will, but as thou ivUt " ; " In spite of warning, he tvill 
continue his evil practices." When used in the strong serse of 
"having a determination" to do something, the verb will mny be 
conjugated like an ordinary regular verb; but in this case the 
preposition to must be used with the infinitive that follows it. 

232 This verb is also used to express the frequent repetition of an action ; 
as, " When he was irritated, he would rave like a madman," 
" Sometimes a thou-^and twanging instnmients wiU hum about my 
ears " {Shaksp., Tempest?). 

233 Wilt has been formed after the analogy of shall, although it ia 
strictly a present tense (see note on § 228). In old English shal and 
wil are found for shall and wilt. 

234 An old form of the present was I wol or / wole, whence the nega- 
tive I won't. In colloquial English the. verb is often shortened by 
the omission of wi or ivonl, as 111=^1 will, Td=I would. In old 
EugUsh it was combined with the negative ne, ic nille=I will not, 
ic nolde=I would, not. We still have the phrase willy mlly=will 
he nill he, or will ye nill ye. 

236 MAY. 

No Infinitive Mood. No Participlee.t 
Indicative Mood 
Present Indefinite Tense. Past Indefinite Tense. 

Singular. Plural. Sin^ar. Plural. 

1. [I] may I. [We] may I 1, [I] might 1. [We] might 

2. [Thou] mayest 2. [You] may 2. [Thou] might- 2. [You] might 

07- mayst " est 

3. [He] may 3. [They] may | 3. [He] might 3. [They] might 

Subjunctive Mood. 

The Present and Past Indefinite tenses of the Subjunctive in 
this verb are the same in form as the corresponding tenses in the 
Indicative Mood. 

• See however § 213. 

t That ifl, not now. Tn Chaucer we find "If froodly bad he might" '£'ocik,4 

. 365) 


236 The g in may is a softening of the y in the root mag (A.S. Inf. 
magan). The modem present, / way, &c., is in reality a preterite 
tense of an older verb,* and (like memini, novi, &c.) had originally 
0, perfect meaning of its own, which passed into a secondary present 
sense, denoting the abiding result of some action. Instead of thou 
mui/est we find in old English thou milU t or inyyht (oouipare shall), 
afterwards thou may (compare thou shal, ^ 233). 

237 A collateral variety of may was mow or mowe, of which the past 
tense mouyht is used by Spenser i^F. Q. i. 1, 42), and is a common 

238 The verb may formerly denoted the possession of strength or power 
to do anything. X It now indicates the absence of any physical or 
moral obstacle to an action, as " It may be so, though I scarcely 
believe it " ; "A man njay be rich and yet not happy " ; "He might 
be seen any day walking on the pier," i.e., 'there was nothing to 
hinder his being seen.' Hence it came to be used as an optative. 
" May you be happy,' is as much as to say " I desire that you be 
free from hindrance to your hajipiness." The notion of permission 
also springs from this meaning, the hindi-ance which is absent being 
the prohibition of some authority. 

The verb ii/ay is now often employed as a mere auxiliary (followed 
by an infinitive mood) to replace the simple subjunctive after (hat 
and lest. Instead of '■ Give me tins water that I thirst not," we now 
say " that I may not thirst." 


239 Must (A.S. raoste) is the preterite f of the verb m6tan=<o be 
allowed, or to be in a position to do something .\ It stiU has this sense 
in such phrases as " You must not come in, ' i.e., ' You are not per- 
mitted to come in.' The old present mote is still used by Spenser. 1! 

240 When the preterite mxist came to be used as a present, it acquired 
a stronger sense, and was used to express (1) heiny bound or compelled 
to do something, as " He must do as he is bid " : (2) being unable to 
control the desire or will, hence a Ji.vcd determination to do some- 
thing; as "I must and will have my own way"; "So you must 
always be meddling must you? " : (3) Certainty, or the idea that a 
thing cannot but be as is stated; as •' He surely must have arrived 
b)' tills time " ; " It must be so; Plato thou reasonest weU." 

24 1 The verb must is now used only in the indicative mood, sometimes 
as a present, sometimes as a past tense,** but there is no difference 

• Compare note on § i!'27. 

t Thus " Amende thee wliile thou myght."' 

X Thus " Gif [Ju wilt |)u miht me geclsensian," ' If thou wilt thou canst make 
ine clean ' [Malt. viii. 2) ; " Biitan nettum huntian ic rates" ' I can hunt without 

§ The s of mtjst is a softened form of (he t of the root mot before the t of the 
sufiBx. Compare the form wist U 2\n). See Koch, i. p. 356. 

II E.'j. "Josep hied PUatus ptet he moste niman pies Hselendes Itchaman," 
' Joseph begged PUate that he might be allowed to (mual) take the Saviour's body.' 
{John xix. 38). 

11 "Prielissa was as faire asfaire mote bee" [F. Q., i. 2, 37). Byron, who some- 
times aifects archaisms without understanding them, uses mole as a past tense, 
" Whate'er this grief mote be, whieli lie rould not control." 

•* In " He must needs pass through Samaria " (John, iv. 4} must is in the paat 
tense. Wlien past time is referred to, however, must is usually followed, by the 
perfect Intiuitive, as " It must have been a sad day, when the old man died." 




of form to mark tense, number, or person. It is a verb of iiicom* 
plete predication followed by the infUiitivo without to. 


No Infinitive Mood. No Participles. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Indefinite Tense. 


1. [I] can 

2. [ThouJ oauBt 

3. [He J can 


1. [We] can 

2. [You] can 

3. [TlieyJ can 

Past Indefinite Tense. 
Singular. PluiaL 

1. [We I could 

2. [You] could 

[I] could* 

It - 

couldest or 
3. [He] could 

3. [They] could 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Past Indefiuitt Tense. 

Singular. Plural. 

[1 1 .!Ould 1. [We] could 

[Thou] couldest or couldiit 2. [You] could 

[He] could 3. [They] could 


The present can is in reality the pieterite tense of the verb cunnan 
= to know.f The infinitive conne is found in Chaucer (iis "I sh;il 
not conne answer" = 'I shall not be able to answer'), and still 
subsists in the verb to con (as, "He was conning his lesson"). 
Cunning (now used as an adjective) is in reality the present parti- 
ciple of the verb. " He is a cunninff fellow " means ' He is a know- 
ing fellow.' The old perfect participle en's [known), still survives in 
uncoHth.X 'Thou can' for 'Thou canst' is found in old writers'} 
(see ^ 233). Can is now a verb of incomiilete predication, and ie 
followed by the iniinitive without to. 

244 OUGHT. 

Singular. Plural. 

1. [I] ought 1. [We] ought 

2. [Thou] oughtest 2. [You] ought 

3. [He] ought 3. [They] ought 

Ought exhibits very clearly the substitution of a preterite lOx a 
present. It is the past tense of the verb to owe, and is used in its old 
sense by Shakspere (/. King H. IV., iii. 3.), " He said you ought him 
a thousand pounds." It is now used as a past only in the reported 
, form, as ' He said I ought to be satisfied.' In direct sentences tho 
reference to past time is indicated by using a pei-fect infinitive 
after it, as " He ought to have said so," i.e., ' It was his duty to say 

* The I in could had no business to intrude Itself. It is not found in the Anglo- 
Saxon verb. It was probiibly inserted to make could resemble would and should. 
where tlie I is radical. The Anglo-Saxon foiin is " Ic cuthe. 

+ " Ne cann ic eow " = ' I know you not ' [Matt. xxv. 12) ; " They oonne latyii 
out litylle" [MuundevilU). ' 

i In Milton {Lycidas, 186) the " uncouth swain" means the ' poet aa yet umAnoJWk 
to fame.' So " his uncouth way " (P. L.) meaob ' hiu uukuowu way.' 

Q As in Sktiltua. 


BO.' "He ought {pres.) to do it" means 'he owes the doing 
of it.' • 

The original meaning of ' to owe ' was ' to possess,' f owe and own 
being collateral forms, j " You otve me a thousand pounds " meana 
"You possess (or have) for me a thousand pounds." Though the 
dative is really es.sential to the meaning, the verb came to have its 
modern sense independently of the dative. The adjective own is 
really a participle of oive. 

There used to be a perfect participle ou(/ht.§ The verb to owe, in 
its modern sense, is conjugated regularly as a verb of the weak 
conjugation. In early writers there is a curious impersonal use of 
this verb, as " Wol ought us werche" {Cliaucer, C. T. 15482), " Uf 
ouyhte have pacience" ifih. Mel.). 

245 WIT. 

To wit (A.S. witan) means ' to know.' "I do you to wit," means 
' I make you to know.' The adverbial (gei-undial) iniinitive to wit 
is still common. The forms I wot, God wot, you wot, they tvot, are 
found in old writers. TFot is a preterite of the strong form, which 
has supplanted the old prescnt,|| and has been rex^laced by a pre- 
terite wist of the weak conjugation. H 

^Vots and wotteth {Gen. xxxix. 8) are false forms (see ^ 227), as is 
the participle wottiny ( Winter's Tale, iii. 2). The old form was 
loitende. The correct form is retained in unwittingly. 

Combination with the negative ne gave the old English forma 
nat =^ ktww noi, nisie = knew not, &c. 

246 DARE. 

Infinitive Mood [To] dare. 
Participles, daring, dared, having dared. 
Indicative Mood. 
Present Indefinite Tense. 
Singrular. Plural. 

1. [I] dare 1. [We] dare 

2. [Thou] darest 2. [You] dare 

3. [He] dare 3. [They] dare 

Past Indejiiiile Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. ri] durst 1. rVVe] durst 

2. [Tl)ou]aurstest(?) 2. [You] dm-st 

3. [He] durst 3. [They] durst 

• Compare the Latin ' Hoc faeere debet.' Debeo is a compound of de and Jiabeo : 
* I have from ' = ' I owe to.' 

+ So in Shakspere {All's Well, ii. 5), "I am not worthy of the wealth I owe." 
Acooiding to Giimm I owt {ic dli) is itself the perfect of a verb eigan = to labour, 
and means ' I have earned.' Ouglil is therefore a pieterite or perfect of the second 
degree, being a preterite of a pieterite. 

t Thus in Chaucer (Mel.) we find "I own not to be conseiled by thee." 

§ riuases like "He hadn't ought to do it" are perfectly grammatical, though 
they ai'e now vulgiir. 

II The root wit is the same as fi& in the Greek ftScli, and vid in the Latin vid-eo, 
and originally meant see. The preterite present wot may be compared wiih the 
Greek ulda. ' 1 have seen ' = ' I know.' 

^ The s of wisl is a softened form of the t of wit before the ( of the suffix. This 
change occurs in various Teutonic languages. Compare must (? 239, note), "1 
wist not tliat he was the high priest" = ' I knew not,' &c. (Acts xxiii. b). H'i.'U has 
notlung to do with an imaginary present Ivjia, which {wlien not a mere affectation) 
is simply a coiruption of the word i/wis = certain (A.S. ijewis). The verb to whs = 
to show or teach (A.S. wisian or wissian) is a different verb, though derived from the 
same root. 



Past Indefinite [I] durst, &o. 

/ Aare la a preterite (of the strong form) of the old verb durran^ 

which has ousted tlie old present, and has itself been replaced by 
a preterite {durst) of the weak formation.* The use of durst as a 
present is quite incorrect. 
As in tlie other verbs of this class (see § 227) the third person 
singular should be without the suffix s ; he dare, not he dares. Bare 
(especially in the sense of challenge) is also conjugated like an ordi- 
nary verb of the weak conjugation, and some of these forms are occa- 
sionally borrowed for the defective verb ; and so we find he dares and 
he dared, &c. The followdng infinitive must then have to before it, 
as "^e dared to refuse." The defective verb is followed by the 
infinitive without to, as " He durst not refuse." 

247 The following defective verbs are now obsolete, or nearly so. 
Quoth I or he {i.e., said J or he ; Anglo-Saxon, cu-ethan. " io I'au "). 
The impersonal thinks (= seems, from the Anglo-Saxon fnnoan. " to 
appear," a different verb from thencan, " to think"), in methinks \it 
seems to me), methouyht {it seemed to me. Comp. the German verb 
diinken, " to seem "). Me-Hsts=^It pleases me ; him listed=it pleased 
him. Shakspere uses list as a personal verb.f Worth {is or 
be), as in the phrase " woe worth the day," that is, ^^ looe be to the 
day"), a reUc of the Anglo-Saxon iveorthan, " to become " (German, 
werden) , vrhidh -was one of the auxiliaries by means of wliich the 
passive voice was formed. Wont is now used only as a participle. 
Formerly, / wont, he wont, &c., were used in the iadicative mood. 
Hight 1= was called [ f 220). 

From its resemblance in construction to the other verbs of incom- 
plete predication, the verb need has the third person he need instead 
of he needs. When the infiected form is used, the following infini- 
tive should have to before it. 

248 The Notional and Auxiliary Verb 


Infinitive Mood. 

Indefinite Tense, [To] have. Imperfect Tense, [To] be having. 

Perfect Tense, [To] have had. 


Imperfect Participle, Having. Perfect Participle (passive), Had. 

Compotmd Perfect Participle (active), Having had. 

• The s of durst comes from the fuller form of the root dars or daura, which 
appears in Gothic' (A'ocA, 1. p. P51). Compare the Grefk Hiipcr-etv {Morris, p. 184). 

+ The inlransiti^e verb pinran 'to appear' is related to the causative verb 
\>encaM ' to tliink,' just as drincun ' to driuk ' is related to drenaan ' to drench,' i.e. 
• to make to drink or absorb.' To think is to make a thin^ to the mind. 

t So the old impersonals him hnngrede, &c., became he hunyered, &c. (Compare 
\\ 614, 516, 523.) 

J As: " This grisly beast, which by name Lion hig-ht, the trusty Thishe . . . did 
scare away" (Mids. N. D., v. 1). There is no participle hiyht, though Byron in- 
vents one. (Compare note on 5 '239.) 


Indicative Mood. 

Present Indefinite Tense. 
Singtilar. Plural. 

1. [I] have 1. [We] have 

2. [Thoiil hast* 2. [You] have 

3. [He] hath or has 3. [They] have 

Present Perfect Tense. \ 
SingTilar. Plural. 

1. [I] have had, &c. 1. [We] have had, &a 

Past Indejinite Tense. 
Sin^ar. Plural. 

1. [I] had 1. [We] had 

2. [Thou] hadst 2. [You] liad 

3. [He] had 3. [They] had 

Past Perfect Tense.f 
Singular. Plui-al. 

1. [I] had had, &c. 1. [We] had had, &c. 

Future Indejinite Tense. 
Sing'ular. Plui-al. 

1. [I] shaU have 1. [We] shall have 

2. [Tliou] wilt have 2. [You] will have 

3. [He] will have 3. [They] wiU have 

Future Perfect Tense. 
Singular. Plui-al. 

1. [I] shall have had, &c. 1. [We] shall have had, &c. 

Imperative Mood. 

Singular. Plural. 

Have [thou] Have [you or je] 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Present Indejinite Tense. 
(Used after if, that, lest, unless. &c.) 
Singular. Plural. 

1. [I] have 1. [We] have 

2. [Thou] have 2. [You] have 

3. [He] have 3. [They] have 

Present Peifect Tense. 
(Used after if, that, unless, &c.) 

Singular. Plural. 

1. [I] have had 1. [We] have had 

2. [Thou] have had 2. [You] have had 

3. [He] have had 3. [They] have had 

• Hast is a contraction of hnvest, had of haved, has of haves. 
r For the complete forms of these compound, see the corresponding teu o 
df the verb smite. 


a. Past Indefinite Tense. 
Used mostly after if, that, tmless, && 

J. 11] had 

2. [Thou] hadst 

3. [He] had 


1. [We] had 

2. [You] had 

3. [They] had 

b. Secondary or Periphrastic* Form. 
Wlien not preceded by C on j unctions. f 

I] should hiive 
Thou] wouldst have 
3. [He] would have 


1. [We] should have 

2. [You] would have 

3. [They] would have 

a. Patil Perfect Tense. 
Used mostly after if, that, unless, &c; 


1. [I] had had 

2. [Thou] hadst had 

3. [He] had had 


1. [We] had had 

2. [You] had had 

3. [They] had had 

b. Secondary or Periphrastic Form. 
When not preceded by Coujimctions. 


1. [I] should have had 

2. [Thou] wouldst have had 

3. [He] would have had 


1. [We] should have had 

2. [You] would have had 

3. [They] would have had 

249 The verb have often has the sense of to keep or to hold. In thiscaue 
it may have the imperfect tenses, and may be used in the passive voi :« 
like an ordinary verb. 
For the formation of these tenses see the paradigm of the verb 

250 The Notional and Auxiliary Verb 


Infinitive Mood. 

Indefinite Tetise, [To] be. 

Perfect Tense, [To] have been. 

Imperfect Participle, Being. Perfect Participle, Been. 

Compound Perfect Participle, Having been. 

• PeriphrasHc means ' expreseing in a roundabout manner.' (Greek veoi, about,- 
«.^,diu,, rteU.) 

t After if, though, unless, lest, exc-pt, &c., tie second and third persoms are fonnej 
by ahouldst and should, not wouldst and would. 


Indicative Mood. 
Present Indefinite Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. [I] am* 1. [We] are 

2. [ThouJ art 2. [You] are 

3. [He] is 3. i They] are 

Fresent Perfect Tense.-^ 
Singular. Plural. 

I. [I] have been, &c. I. [Wo] have been, &c. 

Past Indefinite Tense 
Sinsiilar. Plural. 

1. [I] was 1. [We] were 

2. [Thou] wast or wertj 2. [You] were 

3. [He] was 3. [They] were 

Past Perfect Tense.i 
Singular. Plural. ' 

1. [I] had been, &c. 1. [We] had been, &c. 

Future Indefinite Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. [I] shaU be 1. [We] shall be 

2. [Thoii] wilt be 2. [You] will be 

3. [He] wiU be 3. [They] wiU be 

Future Perfect Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. [I] shall have been, &c. 1. [We] shall have j<^cn, &c. 

Imperative Mood. 
Singular. — Be [thou] Plural. — Be [ye or youj 

Subjimctive Mood. 

Present Indefinite Tense, 

After t/i that, though., lest, &c. 

Singular. Plural. 

1. [I] be 1. [We] be 

2. [Thou] be 2. [You] he 

3. [He] be 3. [They] be 

• Another form of the present tense, indicative moiid, still used in some parts oi 
the coujntry, and found in Shakspereand ISIilton, is [/] be, [thou] beest, [he] be, [we] 
be or ben, [yo«] In- or ben, [they] be, hen, or bin. In " i,verything that pretty bin '' 
(Shaksp.), bin ia pToha,h\y plural, everything being treated as equivalent to all things 
(see \ 175). Byron's use of bin ("There biu another pious reason") is of no 
authority. See note on { 239. 

t For the full forms of these compound tenses see the paradigm of the verb 

t There is no necessity for regarding wert as exclusively a subjimotive form. 
In Aiiglo .Sa.ton the form was ivcere. Thou were is found in early English writers. 
WTt \i< formed after the analogy of wilt and shall. The form wast did not appear 
in English before the fouiteeuth century, and was preceded by was [thou was). 
Wert, as a subjunctive form, belongs only to modem English. [Koch, i. p. 348.) 


Present Perfect Tense. 
After if, that, though, unless, &c. 
Sin^lar. Plural. 

1„ [I] have been 1. [We] have been 

2. [Thou] have been 2. [You] have been 

3. [He] have been 3. [They] have been 

a. Past Indefinite Tense. 
Used mostly atter if, that, though, unless, &c 
SingTiIar. Plui-al. 

1. [I] were 1. [We] were 

2. [Thou] wert 2. [You] were 

3. [He] were 3 [They] were 

b. Secondary or Periphrastic Form. 
Wlaen not preceded by Conjunctions.* 
Singular. Plural. 

1. [I] sliould be 1. [We] should be 

2. "Thou] wouldst be 2. [You] would be 

3. ^He] would be 3. [They] would be 

a. Past Perfect Tense. 
Used mostly after if, that, though, unless, &c. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. [I] had been 1. [We] had been 

2. LThou] hadst been 2. [You] had been 

3. [He] had been 3. [TheyJ had been 

b. Secondary or Periphrastic Form. 
When not preceded by Conjunctions.* 
SingTjlar. Plural. 

1. [I] should have been 1. [We] should have been 

2. [Thou] wouldst have been 2. [You] would have been 

3. [He] would have been 3. [They] would have been 

261 Tlie conjugation of this verb is made up from three difEerent roots. 
(1). The present tense of the indicative mood is fonned fiom tlie 
old Aryan root as, which appears in Greek and Latin in the form 
es, in Gothic in the form is. The s of the root is softened to r in 
anvf ( = arm), art and are. Are is an abbreviation of the Anglo- 
Saxon ar-on, whidi has the personal suffix of a jpast tense. Is (a 
variety of the root as) has no suffix. 

(2). The present subjunctive, the imperative, the infinitive, and 
the participles are formed from the root be. There was formerly 
also a present indicative from this root. (See note on ^^ '250). 

(3). The past indefinite tense of the indicative and subjunctive is 
formed from the root ives or ivas in the old verb wesan =-- [to] be, s 
being softened to r in the plural and in the subjunctive. fFast has 
the sufax t (Kke shalt, &c., see § 228). JFas (Uke is) is without 

• After the conjunctions if, though, unless, lest, except, *c., the second and third 
persons are fonned by shouldsl and should, not wouldst and would. 
t See { 251 (3) . The ( in ar-t corresponds to the ( in ahal-t. (See 5 228.) 


In old English the forms nam = am not ; nart = art not, &c., wers 
made by prefixing the negative ne. 
S62 The verb be is a most important verb for the right imderstanding 
of the etymology and syntax of verbs in general, because it has dis- 
tinct forms for the past indefinite in the indicative and sixljjunctive 
moods. In no other verb is there a corresponding difference of 
form, though there is a real ditterciice of mood. This identity of 
form, concealing a real difference of constmction, is a fact of very 
common occurrence in English ; as in the nominative and objective 
cases of nouns, the three different pei-sons in the plural of verbs, &c. 
The verb be, therefore, is a test verb. By substituting it in place of 
any other verb in a sentence wlKJi-e the constriTction is doubt fid or 
difficult, we can see directly what part of the verb it is that is really 
used. In such sentences as, " He would not come when I called 
h;m ;" " He could not lift the weight when he tried ;" " Ye would not 
come unto me that ye might have life" (i.e., Ye did not choose to 
come) ; '' He told me that I might go" {i.e., that it uas permitted 
me to go) ; " You should not have done that " {i.e., it was your duty 
not to have done that) ; the verbs could, would, might, are in the 
indicative mood : the sentences are simple assertions. On the 
other hand, in such sentences as these — " I could not do it if I were 
to tiy;" " I should not have said that, if you had not asked me ;" 
" I would not tell you if I could f " He might have done it if he had 
liked!" — the verbs which are in italics are in the subjunctive 

253 The Notional and Auxiliary Verb DO. 

Infinitive Mood. 

Indefinite Tense, [To] do. Imperfect Tenss, [T .] be doing. 

Perfect Tense, [To] have done. 

Imperfect, Doing. Perfect (passive) , D one. 

Compound Perfect, Having dcme. 

Do (when used as a notional verb) is not defective in Voice, Mood, 
or Tense. It is remarkable as being one of the only two remaining 
verbs in which the preterite is fonned liy reduplication {^ 220). It 
reqixires no to before the follo-n-ing infinitive (except in the phrase 
' I do vou to wit'). 

254 As a notional verb (or verb of complete predication) it is used both 
transitively (as " He did the wrong"), and intransitively (as "I 
shall not do so," i.e., ' I shall not act so '). It had also the sense of 
put. Thus don ^do on= put on ; dup = do up — put up, [German, 
aufthun] or open ; dof= do of= put off ; dout {douse) = dc out = 
put out. The foi-m docst is always transilive. 

This verb do (A.S. don) mu>t not be confounded with do from 
A.S. dugan, 'to avail, to be strong, to profit,' which is used in the 
phrases 'That will rfo,' 'How do you do I' &c. (In Scotch dow, 
pret. docht or dought.) The preterit doxi:ed occurs in early English 
(see ' Specimens, &c.,' by Morris & Skeat, p. loo). Through cou- 
fosion with the other do the preteiit is now did. . 


As a verb of complete predication do (when followed by the in- 
finitive) had formerly the sense of tnalce or cause. Thus " They 
have done her understonde " = ' They have made her understand ' 
(fiower) ; " Here did she fall a tear," i.e., ' Here she let a tear fall ' 
{Hichard II., iii. 4). " We do you to wit." "When used as a mere 
auxiliary, it is employed — 1, to give emphasis,* as " I do love you," 
" That does astonish me " ; 2, to form interrogative sentences, as 
"Do you hear?" "Did you understand?"; 3, to form negative 
sentences, as " 1 do not hear you " " We did not speak." As an 
auxiUary do has none of the compound tenses. 
255 Interrogative sentences are fonned in two ways. 1st. By placing 
the verb before its subject, as, " Said he not so ? " " Went they not 
this way?" With any of the compound tenses, active or passive, 
the subject of the verb is always placed after the auxiliary verb, as 
" Shall we begin ? " " Have you dined ? " " Were you hurt ? " 

2nd. By iising the verb do, followed by the infinitive mood : " Do 
you hear ? " "Did you learn your lesson ? " 

But the verb do is never employed when the subject of the sentence 
is an interrogative pronoun, or when an interrogative word quahfies 
either the subject or an adjective attached to the subject, as, " Wlio 
broke the window P " " Which boy did this ? " " How many persons 

In poetical language, a sentence is made negative by simply putting 
not after the verb ; as, " I heard not his voice." In prose the verb 
do, with the infinitive mood, is employed ; as, " I do not understand," 
" He did not reply." But do is never used in this way to replace a 
compound tense of the active voice, or any tense of the passive 
voice ; nor is it used, either in negations or in questions, with the 
verbs have, be, may, can, must, shall, will, durst. 
266 The verb let is now employed (in the second person imperative) as 
a verb of incomplete predication, followed by an objective case 
and an infinitive mood, to form a substitutef for an imperative 
in the first or third person, as " Let me see "; " Let us pray "; " Let 
him go on," &c. (see ^ o72d for the analysis of these sentences). 
This use of let is based upon the same principle as that of shall in 
the future tense (see ^ 213). Formerly let had the stronger mean- 
ing of make or cause, as " He let her wit" (Chaucer, 785) ; " He lette 
two cofres make " {Gower). 

Complete Conjugation of an English Verb. 

257 The following table exliibits tte persopal inflections that 
are made use of in conjugating a verb. Let a single stroke 

* Fonnerlv this periphrasis conveyed no emphasis, unless stress was laid en the 
auxiliary. (See the Enjilish Bible and Sliakspere passim.) With the elision of the 
dependent infinitive it still foi-ins a weak repetition of a precetling verb ; as, " T do 
not spend so much as he does [spend] ." It is never followed by the iiitinitiye have 
and he, except in the imperative mood, as " Do have patience "; " Do be quiet." 

t It may be said that it is much easier to call ' Let us go ' the first person plural 
imperative of the verb go, and so on. So it is. It is always easier to shirk a 
difficulty than to solve it. The objection to the ea.sier course is that it is false. Us 
cannot be the subject of a. finite verb, and W cannot be of the first person. (Com- 
pare the German ' Iiassetunsbeten.') A complex grammatical phrase has not 
been explained when its parts have been jumbled together into one lot, and tickfeted 
with a wrong name. 



( ) stand for the infinitive mood (-without to), and a 

double stroke ( ) for the first person singular ol 

the past indefinite tense. 

Imperfect Participle. 


Indicative Mood. 
Present Indefinite Tense. 




est or st 2. 

-eth,| es, or s. 3. . 

Past Indefinite Tense. 

Plural, t 

est or st{ 


Subjunctive Mood. 
Present Indefinite Tense. 


Past Indefinite Tense. 
The same as in the Indicative Mood. 

Verbs ending in a mute e drop the e before the suffixes 
ing, eet, and eth.\\ Do takes th, not eth in the present tense 
{doth : doeth is obsolete). The suffix eth is now seldom 
used except in poetry. (See § 22.) The suffix es is added 
to verbs ending in a sibilant (as pass-es, caich-es) ; o (as 

• Verbs in ie form the imperfect participle with y instead of ie ; as die, dying : 
tie, tying. The verb dye retains the mute e [dyeing), to distinguish it from dying. 

t It is curious that in early EngUsh the termiuation of the plural of this tense 
in all three persons was -es in the Northern, -en in the ^Midland, and -eth in the 
Southern districts : "They hopes" (n.) ; "Theyhopen" (m.) ; "They hopeth" (s.). 
— (Moi-ris, Spec. p. xii.) The plural -es or s often occurs in Shakspere, as : •' Words 
to the heat of deeds too cold laeath gives" (Oih. ii. 1). In the modem editions 
these plurals have often been un■warran^ably altered. (See Abbott, p. 235.) 

t In old writers, when this sutfix is added to verbs ending in a dental, we often 
find the vowel omitted, and the dental blended with the suffix into a t, as bint for 
bindeth ; fint ior findrth ; .ttant for slandeih ; holt, for hntdeth. ( Mdlnner.) Asolitary 
specimen of this is preserved in list (" When she list " Shaksp.). 

§ This suffix orisiiiaUy belonged only to the weak conjugation. In the strong 
couiugation the suffix was -e, which long maintained its ground, e.g., thou crewe , 
thou sawe (Skelton). In the Northern dialect the « was thrown off, so that we find 
such forms as Ihou gaf, thou saw, &c. (See § 236.) In early English est or st was 
often thrown off in verbs of the weak conjugation, as " Why nad (= ne had) thou 
put" (Chaucer, C. T. 4086). This was especially the case in the Northern dialects. 

II The pronunciation of fle-eth, se-eth, &c., shows that the suffix is -eth not -th. 
Tha < of est may be dropped whenever the pronunciation allows. 



go-ea, do-rs) ; or y preceded by a consoDant, as Jli-es, piti-e». 
(See § 48.) K a verb ends in ic, c is changed to ck before 
-i7ig, -fd, or -eth, to preserve the hard sound of the c, as 
trafficking, mimicked. (See also § 22.) The letter p is 
usually doubled, even when the last syllable is not ac- 
cented, as kidnap2ied, worshipped. 
The formation of the compound tenses will be obvious on 
an examination of the following verb.* The learner must 
analyse it carefully, and it will then be unnecessary to set 
down the rules at full length. 



Infinitive Mood. 

Indefinite Tense, [To] smite. 

Imperfect Tense, [To] be smiting. 

Perfect Tense, [To] have smitten. 

Petfeet of continued action, [To] have been smiting. 


Imperfect, Smiting. 

Perfect, Having smitten. 

Ptrfect of continued action. Having been smiting. 

Indicative Mood 


Present Indefinite Tense. 
Singiilar. Plural. 

I] smite 1. [We] smite 

Thou] smitest 2. [You] emite 

He] smites or smiteth 3. [They] smite 

Present Imperfect Tense. 

Singular. PJiu-al. 

I] am smiting 1. [We] are smiting 

'Thou] art smiting 2. [You] are smiting 

'Ke] is smiting 3. fThey] are smiting 

Present Perfect Tense. 

Singular. Plural. 

[I] have smitten 1. I We] have smitten 

[Thou] hast smitten 2. [You] have smitten 

[He] has smitten 3. [They] have smitt^i 

* It will not be easy to make mistakes in the verb which is here given. There is 
not a large choice of verbs which are transitive, denoting a single action which may 
benrolonged or repeated, having the past indefinite tense and the p<»rfect participle 
different, and making some reasonable sense when conjugated through all varieties 
of voice, mood, and tense. Most grammars follow tlie very objectionable plan of 
giving as a model some verb in whieh the past indehnite tense and the perfect par- 
ticiple are the same in form. If a dozen beginners were set to analyse such a verb, 
three-foiuths of them would probabljf pronounce the present perfect tem-'i to h% 
made up of have and the ptist indefinite tense. 


Fresent Ferjeet of continued action. 
Singular. Plural. 

I. [1] have been smiting, &c. 1. [^Ve] have beensmitlLg, &c. 

Past Indefinite Tense. 
tjing^ular. Plural. 

1. [1] tuiote 1. [We] smote 

2. ['I'hou] smotest 2. [You] smote 

3. \\iii] smote 3. [They] smote 

Past Imperfect Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. [I] was smiting 1. [We] were smiting 

2. [Thou] wast smiting 2. [You] were smiting 

3. [He] was smiting 3. [They] were smiting 

Fast Perfect Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. [1] had smitten 1. [We] had smitten 

2. [Thou] hadst smitten 2. _You] had smitten 

3. [He] had .smitten 3. [They] had smitten 

Past Perfect of continued action. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. [I] had been smiting, &c. 1. [We] had been smiting, &c 

Future Indefinite Tense. 
Singular Plural. 

1. [I] shiill smite 1. [We] shall smite 

2. [Thou] wilt smite 2. [You] will smite 

3. [He] wUl smite 3. [They] will smite 

Future Imperfect Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. [I] shall be smiting, &c 1. [We] shall be smiting, &c. 

Future Perfect Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. [I] shall have smitten, &c. 1. [We] shall have smitten, &c, 

Future Perfect of continued action. 
[I] shall have been smiting, &c. 

Imperative Mood.* 

Singular. — Smite [thou]. Plural. — Smite [you or ye]. 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Fresent Indefinite Tense. 

(After if, that, thouyh, lest, unless, &c.) 

Singular. Plural. 

1. [1] smite 1. [We] smite 

2. [Thou] smite 2. [YouJ smite 

3. [He] smite 3. [They] smite 

» A. perfect imperative is now and then met with, as " Have done"; "Begone." 


Present Imperject Tense. 
After if, that, though, lest, &c. 

Singular. Plural. 

1. [I] be smiting 1. [We] be smiting 

2. I Thou] be smiting 2. [You] be smiting 

3. [He] be smiting 3. [They] be smiting 

Present Perfect Tense. 
After if, though, unless, &c. 

Singular. Plural. 

1. [I] have smitten 1. [We] h<ave smittea 

2. [Thou] have smitten 2. [You] have smitten 

3. [He] have smitten 3. [They] have smitten 

Present Perfect of continued action. 

After if, though, unless, &c. 

Singular. Plural. 

1. [I] have been smiting, &c. 1. [We] have been smiting, &o, 

Past Indefinite Tense. 
Used mostly after if, though, unless, &o. 

Singular. Plural. 

1. [I] smote 1. [We] smote 

2. [Thou] smotest 2. [You] smote 

3. [He] smote 3. [They] smote 

Secondary,* or Periphrastic Form. 
When not preceded by Conjunctions. 

Singular. Plural. 

1. [I] should smite 1.' [We] should smite 

2. [Thou] wouldst smitef 2. [You] would smite 
3 [He] would smite 3. [They] would smite 

Past Imperfect Tense. 
Used mostly after if, that, though, unless, && 




[I] were smiting 


^We] were smiting 


[Thou] wert smiting 


'You] were smiting 


[He] were smiting 


[They] were smiting 

• These secondary forms have almost replaced the older and simpler forms in 
eonditional assertions. Instead of saying, " It were vain to teU thee all I feel," we 
should commonly say, "It would he vain," &c. Instead of "' I had fainted unless 
I had believed to see the goodness of the Lord," we say now, " I sho>dd have faiiUed," 
&c. In German the correal londing f onus keep their place side by side. Ich wart 
— Ich wilrde seyn. After that, in clauses denoting purpose, the present indefinite 
and past indeflnite subjunctive are usually replaced by may a.n&.migM, followed by 
the inlinitive of the verb. 

t After the conjunctions if, though, unless, lest, except. Sec, the second and third 
persons are formed hjshouMst and should, not wouldst and would. 


Secondary or Conditional Form. 

When not preceded by Conjuiictiona. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. [I] should be smiting 1. [We] should be smiting 

2. [Thou] wouldst be smiting* 2. [You] would be smiting 

3. [He] would be smiting 3. [They] would be smiting 

Past Perfect Tense. 
Used mostly after if, though, unless, &c. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. [I] had smitten 1. [We] had .smitten 

2. [Thou] hadst smitten 2. [You] had smitten 

3. [He] had smitten 3. [They] had smitten 

Secondary or ConiUtional Form. 
When not preceded by Conjunctions. 
SingTilar. Plural. 

1. [I] should have |g 1. [We] should have )g 

2. [Thou] wouldst* have ,' J5 2. [Y''ou] would have r; 

3. |He] would have ) g 3. [They] would have I '= 

Past Perfect of continued action. 
Used mostly after if, that, though, unless, &c. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. [I] had been smiting, &c. 1. [We] had been smiting. &c. 

Secondary or Perijjhrastic Form. 

Wlien not preceded by Conjunctions. 

[I] should have been smiting ; [Thou] wouldst* have been smiting. &c. 


Infinitive Mood, 

Indefinite Tense, [To] be smitten. 
Imperfect Tense, [To] be being smitten. 
Perfect Tense, [To] have been smitten. 


Indefinite Participle, Being smitten. 

Perfect Participle, Smitten. 

Compound Perfect Participle, Having been smitten. 

Indicative Mood. 
Present Indefinite Tense.f 
Singular. Plural. 

1. [I] am smitten 1. [We] are smitten 

2. [Thou] art smitten 2. [You] are smitten 

3. [He] la emitten 3. [They] are smitten 

» After '/, though, unlest, lest, exeept. Sec, the second and third persons are formed 
Dy shouldsl and should, not wouldst and would. 

+ In Anglo-Saxon and early English this tpnse had also the meaning now e»- 
pressed by the present perfect tense. 



Present Imperfect Tense. 
Singular. Plviral. 

[I] am being smitten, &c. 1. [We] are being smitten, Jkc 

Present Perfect Tense. 
Singrular. Plural. 

[I] have been smitten 1. [We] have been smitten 

[Thou I hast been smitten 2. [You] have been smitten 

[He] has been smitten 3. [They] have been smitten 

Present Pet feet of continued action. 
[I] have been being smitten, &c. 

Past Indefinite Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

[I] was smitten 1. [We] were smitten 

[Thou] wast smitten 2. [You] were smitten 

[He] was sinitten 3. [They] were smitten 

Past Imperfect Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

[I] was being smitten, &c. 1. [We] were being smitten, &c 

Past Perfect Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

[I] had been smitten 1. [We] had been smitten 

[Thou] been smitten 2. [You] had been smitten 
[He] had been smitten 3. [TJiey] had been smitten 

Past Perfect of continued action. 
[I] had been being smitten, &c. 

Future Indefinite Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

I] sliall bo smitten 1. [We] shall b& smitten 

Thou] wilt be smitten 2. [You] will be sinitten 

He] wUl be smitten 3. [They] will be smitten 

Future Imperfect Tense. 
[I] shall be being smitten, &c. 

Future Perfect Tense.*. 
Singular. Pliiral. 

[I] shall have been j g 1. [AVe] sliall have been ) § 

[Thou] wilt have been \ S 2. [You] wUl have been 

fThevl will have been 

[He] will have been 

3. [They] will have been 

Future Perfect of continued action.-^ 
[I] shall have been being smitten, &c. 

Imperative Mood. 
Singular. Plural. 

Be [thou] smitten Be [ye] smitten 

• This tense finst makes its appearance in modern English. 

+ It may be doubted ■whether many examples of the passive perfeotn of con- 
tinued action can be found in ac tual use. 


Subjunctive Mood. 

Present Indefinite Tense* 
After if, that, though, &c. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. [I] be smitten 1. [WeJ be smitten 

2- [Thou] be smitten 2. [You] be smitten 

3. [He] be smitten 3. [They] be smitten 

Trcsent Imperfect Tense. 
After if, that, though, &c. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. [I] be being smitten, &c. 1. [We] be being smitten, &c. 

Present Perfect Tense. 
After if, that, though, &c. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. [I] have been smitten 1. [We] have been smitten 

2. [Thou] have been smitten 2. [You] have been smitten 

3. [He] have been smitten 3. [They] have been smitten 

Present Perfect of continued action. 
[I] have been being smitten, &o. 

Past Indefinite Tense. 
After if, that, though, Sec. 

Sin;»ular. Plural. 

1. [Ij wore smitten 1. [We] were smitten 

2. [Thou] wert smitten 2. [You] were smitten 

3. [Hej were smitten 3. [They] were smitten 

Secondary or Conditional Form. 

When not preceded by Conjunctions. 
Singular. Plural. 

1 [I] should be smitten 1. [We] should be smitten 

2. [Thouj wouldstbesmittent 2. [You] would be smitten 

3. [He] would be smitten 3. [Theyj woidd be smitten 

Past Imperfect Tense. 
After if, though, &c. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. [I] were being smitten 1. [We] were being smitten 

2. [Thou] wert being smitten 2. [You] were being smitten 

3. [Hel wei-e being smitten 3. [They] were being smitten 

Secondary or Periphrastic Form. 

When not preceded by Conjunctions. 

[I] should! be being smitten, &o. 

• Bea note • on p. 94. t See note * on p. 96. ♦ See note * on p. M. 



Fast Perfect Tense. 

The same in form as the Past Perfect Indicative. 

Secondary, or Periphrastic Form. 

Wlien not preceded by Conjunctions. 

i^I] ehonld liave been smitten ; [Thou] wouldst* have been 
smitten, &c. 

Past Perfect of continued action. 

The samo in form as tlie Past Perfect of continued action in the 
Indicative Mood. 

Secondary or Conditional Form, 
"VTlion not preceded by Conjunctions. 
I should* have been being smitten, &c. 

258 In some of the regular verbs of the weak form the d at 
the end of the past indefinite and perfect participle is 
Bounded like t (especially after a sibilant, as in published, 
passed, incensed, pushed; after p, as in stepped; and after 
ch, as in picked), and is sombtimes replaced by t, as spilt for 
spilled, divelt for dwelled, learnt for learned, leapt for leaped, 
pent for pew ed. 

Some morlfirn "writers follow the older practice of writing 
t in all oases where the suffix has a sharp sound, t and 
V/riiQ pnshi, past, &c. 

In the VPrbs lay, say, and pay, laid is written for layed, 
taid for sayed, snidpaid for ^jayed. 


259 "When wo think of a thing and connect with it the notion 
of some action or attribute, we often take account of 
the conditions or circumstances which modify or define the 
action or ^-.ttribute, STich as ^)?oce ("He lives here"), time 
("The mua died yesterday"), manner ("The bird flies 
swiftly "), degree (" The house is very large," " The distance 
is too great"). The words by which these conditions or 
circumstances are denoted are called adverbs. % 

• See note • on pa^e 95. 

t Tliis, in reality, is not an innovation, and has much to recommend it. See an 
ess.iy on "English Oitliography." by the late Archdeacon Hare, in the "Philo- 
logical Museum," vol. i. 

% Adve7-bwm, f lom ad (to) and verbiim (verb), the name adverb implying a word 
ft^taohed to a verb. 


260 Definition. — An advarb is a word which, shows the con- 
ditions of place, time, manner, degree, cause, effect, &c., 
wliich modify or limit an action or attribute. * Adverbs are 
must commouly attached to verbs, adjectives, or other 
adverbs ; but they may also be used with abstract nouua 
(gerunds) denoting an action or state, as "He succeeded by 
working diligently." Adverbs are usually said to modify 
the words to which they are attached. 

261 Adverbs may be classified in two ways, (1) according to 
their sj'ntactical force, (2) according to their meaning. 

262 As regards their syntactical force adverbs are of two 
kinds: — 1. Simple Adverbs; 2. Conjunctive or relative 

A simple adverb is one which does nothing more than modify 
the word with which it is used as, yesterday ("We arrived 
yesterday"); noio ("I hear him now"); hither ("He is 
coming hither "). 

A conjunctive or relative adverb is one which not only modifies 
some verb, adjective, or other adverb in its own clause, but 
connects the clause in which it occurs with the rest of the 
sentence; as Wie« (" Come when you are ready "); whither 
("I know not whither he has gone "). 

263 A relative adverb always refers to some demonstrative word, 
expressed or understood, which stands to it in the same sort of 
relation that the antecedent stands in to a relative pronoun, as, 
" Come {then) tvhen j'ou are ready ; " " There, where a few torn 
slii'ubs the place disclose." 

Care is necessary to distinguish connective adverbs from connective 
words which are not adverbs. Many conjunctions refer to time, 
jjlace, cause, &c. ; but thty do not refer to these conditions in con- 
tiexioH with any verb or adjective of the clause which they introduce ; 
but the whole of the subordinate clause has the foi'ce of an adverb 
attached to some word in the principal clause of the sentence, as, 
" He said that because he beheved it." Here because does not, 
by itself, modify either the verb believed or the verb said, but the 
clause because he believed it is an adverbial clause modifying the 
verb said. 

264 The following words are conjunctive or relative adverbs : 
When, where, whither, whence, why, wherein, whereby, where- 
fore, whereon, whereat, whereout, whereafter, wherever, as\ 

• It is self-evident that any word which fulfils the functions of an adverb must 
be an adverli. It may discharge other functions as well, but an adverb it is and 
must bi\ When, where, &c., do not cease to be adverbs bec^usr- they also connect 
a subordinate clause with a piiacipal clause, anymore than who and which cease to 
be pronouns because tliey also do the same. If when, where, &o. aie to be called 
conjunctions because tliey jom sentences, who and which must be called conjunctions 
also, for the same reason. 

+ .4* is a dlffieult word to deal with It is both a simple or demonstrative 
adverb and a relative or connective adverb. It is, in fact, a compound of ail and 


(when it answers to so, such, or the demonstrative aa), 
than. * 
265 With reference to their signification both simple and 

M (like tlie Gentian als), wliich has been shortened into aa. The demonstrative 
sense of tlie word is therefore the original one, but like otlier demonstratives it 
was also used as a relative. The transition from the demonstrative to the relative 
sense, especially in the case of the strengtliened form also (all-so), is easily under- 
stood. " Thou art me leof also mi fader " {Lnyamon), ' Thou art dear to me as my 
father,' is only a step removed from " Thou art dear to me. All so (de;u), i.e., 
just so (dear) is my father." (See note on \ 158). So " He wolde crie as he were 
■wod" (' He would cry as if he were mad') is, ''He would cry. All so (i.e., 'in 
this state of things,' ' crying so ') " he would be mad." As a demon.strative adverb 
it only qualifies adjectives or adverbs, and is followed by as used relatively. In 
practice it is often difficult to distinguish as from a relative pronoun (see § 167). 
However, let it be borne in mind that tlie mode or manner in which a thing is, may 
lepresent some quality which it possesses (as in Terence, Phormio in. 2, 42. Sic sum. 
Ego hiinc esse nliter credidi. Ego isti nihilo sum aliter ac fui). So in answer to the 
question, "Is that boy a dunce?" we may reply, "He is so." " Is that true ? " 
" It is so." On a similar principle we may say, " He talked like a fool, as he was." 
"He seemed to be a foneigner, as in fact he was." [Peregrinus, ut erat, visus est. 
"He looked like a foreigner, and so he was.") If the force of these examples is 
well understood, there will not be mucii difficulty in the as which follows such and 
same. As, " His health is notsueh as it was " Demonstratively, " His health was 
so and so, it is not such now." " This is not the same as that [is]." " This is so and 
so, that is not the same ; " the manner in which a thing exists being used to denote 
either a quality of the thing, or even the thing itself, since no two things can 
possibly exist in the same way. In old English so (swa) was used relatively. Its use 
as a connective adverb is still found in Shakspere, as : " So 1 were out of prison and 
kept sheep, I should be as merry as the day is long " (A'. /., iv. 1). A great number 
of clauses beginning with a.s are elliptical. The construction of these will be dis- 
cussed in the section on,Analy.sis (} 545, &e.). Writers who make as a pronoun 
would have to do the same with wie and als in German. (Ein solcher wie er.) It 
need hardly be added that senfences like, " He is the man as did this," " That is 
the horse as I saw yesterday," are utter abominations. Fiom denoting the mode 
or manner of an action, as came to be used to mark the time of an action [e.g., ' He 
arrived as I was setting out '), or even (in old wi'iters), to denote place [e.g., ' as ys 
bones lyggeth ' = ' where his bones lie.' (Bob. of Gl.) In " He grows wiser a.i he 
grows older," as is a relative adverb of degree. In this sense it may also give a con- 
cessive force to a clause, as " Rich as he is, one would -hardly envy him." 

• 2'Aan is often set down as a mere ccmj unction. This is a mistake. T'Aan and 
«Aen ai-e only various forms of the same word (a.s. ponne or \>anne). In Skelton 
(i. 79) we find, " Whan other are glad, Than is he sad." In later Knglish the 
spelling than has been restricted to the adverb as it is used after compara- 
tives. In Anglo-Saxon than ( \>onr>e) means ' when,' having the common relative 
force of se, seo, pa- ( and its derivatives. In this sense it was used after compara- 
tives to introduce the standard of comparison, " He came sooner than I expected," 
meant in fact, " When I expected (him to come soon) he came sooner." " John is 
taller tlian Charles," meant, "When Charles is taU (i.e., when the tallness of 
Charles is regarded) John i.s taller." "I have no other home than this," is, 
" When I have this, I have no other home." In course of time than ousted the 
dative case, which in Anglo-Saxon was used (like the ablative in Latin) to denote 
the standard of comparison. In Scotch be (= by) is used tor a similar puiTidse, 
as, " Hey's yunger be onie o thaim," = " He s younger by [i.e., ' by the side of,' 
'compared with') any of them." The curious provincial and Scotch use of nor 
after comparatives is quite dilferent. "He is older nor John," possibly mean* 
"He is older, and not John." Clauses beginning with than are usually eilipticAl, 
and require a verb, either expressed or understood. From wliat has been said 
above, it appenrs that than is a connective adverb, qualifying (adverbiallyj this 
verb. Quam, in Latin, does not strictly answer to than, but is an adverb of degree 
(like the demonstrative tarn), qualifying the adjeetive or adverb (expressed or under* 
stood) which follows ik 


relative adverbs admit of being classified according to the 
ideas of time, place> &c., which they indicate. 

1. Adverbs of Time. Now, then, after, before, presently, 
immediately, when, as (in such sentences as "As I was 
returning, I met him "), &c. 

2. Adverbs of Place and Arrangement. Here, there, wlusre, 
whither, wherever, whitheisoever, thence, whence, wherein, 
whereat, whereupon, in, out, up, down, under, within, 
inside, without, backwards, firstly, secondly, &c. 

3. Adverbs of Repetition. Once, twice, &c. 

4. Adverbs of Manner. Well, ill, badly, how, however, 
so, as. 

To this class belong the numerous abverbs formed from 
adjectives by the suffix ly, as riyhtly, virtuously, badly. &c. 

6. Adverbs of Quantity or Degree. Very, nearly, almost, 
quite, eke (A.S. edc = Germ, auch), much, more, most, 
little, less, least, all, half, any, only, as, the. These are 
only a particular kind of Adverbs of Manner. 

6. Adverbs of Affirmation and Negation. Not, no, nay, 
aye, yea. 

7. Adverbs of Cause and Effect. Therefore, wherefore, 

2')r> As regards their origin, adverbs are for the most part formed by 
inflection, derivation, or composition, from nouns, adjectives, and 

2G7 Adverbs derived from H'ouns.— Adverbial genitives' 
still remain ui needs {==. of necessity), straightway s\ (comp. straight- 
way), noways (comp. noway), always (comp. aZttJai/ = ' all the way '; 
A.S. ealne weg). 

Some adverbial phrases, as ' Day and night,' ' Summer and winter,' 
' One day,' were once genitives. 

We have one adverbial dative left in whilom (A.S., hwilttm), a 
dative plural, meaning ' at whiles ' (' formerly,' ' on a time '). jEver 
and neverX were once datives singular. The adverbs in -meal were 
comiiounds of the dative plural maclmn, 'by portions'; SiS piecemeal, 
inchmeal {Shaks., Temp. ii. 2), limhneal {Cymb. ii. 4). 

In § 37-, 3, it is noticed that many adverbial adjuncts consist of 
a noun (which was originally in the accusative), qualified by an 
adjective. Several of these have hardened into compound adverbs, 

• Adverbial genitives were common in Ang-lo-Saxon, as 'sdSes' (of a truth); 
' uihtes ' [hy night) ; ' dtugea' [by day, compaie ' of an eveiiin",'-,' ' of mornings '): 
'sylfwilles' [of free will), &c. Many of them have been replaced by o/ followed 
by the noun. 

t Some of these are mixed up with the compoimds of wise. Thus we have 
itnglhwat/s and lengthwise, nowny and 

I £■;;./• is xometimes wrongly substituted for never in such expressions as "He 
told never 80 many hes," " Be they never so many," i.e., 'be they many, so that 
they were never so many.' In like manner people commonly say, ' Don't do more 
than you can help,' instead of ' I>on't do more than you can't help ' (De Mtyrga n). 


as sometimes, always, otherwise, likewise (=i:iii Ifke manner) 
meantime, midway, yesterday {A.S.,(/estran dcey), straightway. Thf 
adverbs north, south, east, west, honie, were formerly accusative 

A large class of adverbial adjuncts consist of a noun preceded 
• by a preposition (see ^ 372, 2). Some of these adverbial expressions 
have been welded together into adverbs. Thus, with the prepo- 
sition on (weakened to a), we get abed, asleep, afoot, ahead, astern, 
adrift, afloat, ayape, amiss, away, aback, aboard* &c. 

In a similar way we get indeed, betimes (i.e., by-times), besides, 
beforehand, forsooth, to-day, to-morrow, to-night, overboard, &c. 

A few adverbs are derived from nouns by the suffix -long (formerly 
linge, answering to -lings in German), as headlong (formerly heed- 
lynge), sidelong, or sidling f {sidelinges). Darkling comes from an 

268 Adverbs derived from Adjectives. — Specimens of the 

genitive suflis; s api^ear in else (formerly elles, the genitive of a root 
el or al, meaning other), once (for ones, from One), twice (formerly 
twyes), thrice (foiauerly thryes or thries), wiawares, inwards,X out- 
wards, &o. (by the side of the forms inward, outward, &c.). Much 
fas in much greater z:^ greater by much) and little were datives 
(miclum and lylluni). Other adverbs were formerly accusative 
adjectives, as all, enough, right, far, near, ere. By pretrxing a 
preposition to an adjective, and then dropping the old case 
suffix, we get such adverbs as amid (A.S., on-middum), abroad, 
withal, aloud, awry, along, together.^ We still say in general, in 
vain, &c. 

269 The corrmon adverbial suffix in Anglo-Saxon was -e,\\ the omission 
of which reduced many adverbs to the same form as the adjectives 

• from which they were derived. H Thus, " He smot him harde " 
became "He smote him hard." "His spere sticode faeste"=: 
"His spear stuclc fast." "He weop biterlice " r= " He wept 
bitterly." It was thus that we got such adverbs as those in the 
phrases, 'to run /asi'y ' 7-ight rev evend'; ' «or<; displeased'; 'to talk 
like a fool'; 'to speak loud'; 'to sleep sound'; 'to live godly'; 
' to come early '; ' you are very likely aware,' &c. In Anglo-Saxon 
there was a nimierous class of secondary adjectives ending in -lie, 
the adverbs fi-om which ended in lice (= like =: ly), as biter lie 

• These must not be oonfoundecl with French compounds of ^ ( = a<l), such as 
apart, apace, afront, apiece, agog. (See Mlilzner, i. 441.) 

+ la Morte d' Arthur, n. 286, we read " Pelle downe noseling," i.e., ' on to his nose.' 
[Halliwdl, s. v.) 

t Ward (A.S. weard), is in reality an adjective (used only in compounds), and 
e(]uivalent to the Latin vergens, 'inchuing or stretcliiiig.' 

\ Thus also were formed anon (= on ane, ' at one ftime],' ' without interval.' 
The nonce is a corruption of then once (= than ane(s), ' that one purpose or time ' 
Koch, ii. p. 309.) 

II Adverbs in -e are still found in Spenser. 

11 In old French there was an adverbial use of adjectives, which found its way 
into English. Hence we say, " You play me false ." " That is very good ;" " Sure 
tliat caimot be true;" "I «carc-e touched him" "That is gui<e true." It is often a 
question whether we are dealing with an adverb, or with an adjective used as the 
complement of the predicate, e.g., "Hope springs eternal in the human breast" 
(J'ope) ; " Slow and sure conies up the golden year " (2'ennyaon). 


(bitterlike =z ' of a bitter sort '), biterlice = * in a bitter sort of way.' 
As the adverbial suffix -e fell into disuse, the sufHx lice {z=. ly) cama 
to be treated as an ordinary adverbial suffix, the intervening 
adjective in -lie {-ly) being either suppressed or not formed.* 
Thus we now have 'bitter' {adj.) and 'bitterly' {adv.), but not 
'bitterlike'; and the suffix is ajjpended to Homance as well as to 
Anglo-Saxon words, &b perfectly, divinely. ^ 

.'70 Pronominal Adverbs.— These are formed from the pro- 
nonunal roots (a) by the suffix -re, marking place :—here, there, 
where ;X {b) by the suflix -ther : — hither, thither, -whither ; {c) by 
the suihx -n (A.S., ne, the accusative masculine suffix^) : — then or 
than (A.S., \>aHne or ])onne), when; {d) by the compound suffix -nee, 
of which ce {=cs) is the genitive suffixH -.^hence, thence, whence ;% 
{e) from the'Anglo-Saxon instrumental case we get the (== \>y), 
used before comparatives, as in ' llie sooner the better'; why (= 
hwi or htvy) and how {:=:hwt(). 'Ihe neuter relative pronoun that 
is often used as a connective adverb. fFhat has in old writers the 
sense of why ? or in what degree ? Thus is probably only a variety 
of theos, the instrumental case of the neuter this. 

271 Many adverbs are identical in form with prejjositions, as by (' he 
rode by'), on ('come on'), off ('be ofi'), to ('he came to'), out 
('go out'), &c. From, as an adverb, survives in to and fro. Ihe 
adverbial use of the words is in fact the older of the two (see farther 
on, mider ' Preposition '). These adverbs combine with the pi'o- 
nominal adverbs, and form the compound adverbs herein, thereby, 
herewith, hitherto, ivhereat, tliereout, thenceforth, &c. 

272 Adverbs of Negation. The old English negationwasMs, put 
before the verb, while not is put after it, when the verb is finite. Not 

* "We often have pairs of adverbs (commonly with a slight difference of meaning) 
formed with or without the intei-vention of the adjective in lie, as Uqhl, lightly ; 
right, rightly ; hard, hardly, &c. 

Like was itself an adverb, as in "Like as a father pitieth hia children, so the 
Lord pitieth them tliat fear Him." Here like is repeated in so. In " He talks like 
a fool," like is an adverb, and is itself qualified adverbially (§ 372, 4) by ' [toj a 
fool.' (Compai-e the dative after smfV/Zec in Lalii\.) 

t When adverbs are formed from adjectives in -le preceded by a consonant, e is 
cut off and y only is added, as able, ably. Y is changed to i before ly, as in bodily, 
merrily, daily. Before -ly II is reduced to I, as full, ful-ly. 

The e of ue is elided, as in truly. Ly is not added to adjectives ending- in ly. 
The adverbial suflix -ly was sometimes omi*ted, so that we get such pluases as 
' grievous sick ' (Shalcsp. R. II. i. 4); ' exceeding great ' ; 'Thou didst it excellent' 
{Taming of Shreu; i. 1, 89) ; ' Does easy ' {Macb. ii. 3, 143) ; ' Less winning soft, less 
amiably mUd ' {Par. Lost, ii. 478). 

t These adverbs are often used for those in -ther by the best writers, as "There I 
throw my gage " (Shaksp.) ; " Your horse wdl carry you there " {Scottj, &c. 

} Compare the Latin turn and quum. 

II Hence, &c., are secondary forms. The older forms are heonan, heonne, hetken, 
henne, and then hennis, hennes, hens, hence ; hwanon, wanne, whethen, whennes ; Ihanon, 
thnniie, thennes. The -n or -an appears to mark motion from. (Compare the Latin 
i-n-de, u-n-de, and German hi-n.) 

H These adverbs followed the com-se of the corresponding pronouns. Those 
derived from whn were at first inten-ogative and indefinite, and are still so used. 
They have the indefinite sense in somewhere, anywhere, elsewhere, nowhere, somehow, 
anyhow. Seldom is possibly a corruption of aeld-hwonne = rarely-when (Koch, ii. p. 
813). The is both relative and demonstrative. Before who Qiwa) and its derivatives 
were used a» relatives, there, then, than, &c., had this sense. 


ifl a shortened form of nought or naught * {i.«.,ne-d-wiht = n-aver m 
thing), and consequently is a strengthened negative,t meaning 'in 
no degree,' or ' ui no respect.' It was at first used to strengthen a 
previous negative,^ just as Chaucer and other writers use nothing 
(" Nothing ne knew he that it was Arcite," C. T. 1521). 

No and nay are only varieties of na =r never, which was uaed before 
comparative adverbs, as ' na \>y la3s ' r= nevertheless. No is now used 
bflore comparative adverbs and adjectives, as no further, no bigger. 
The form No is now employed as the absolute negative, as " Did 
you speak ? No." The older form for this was nag. The affirma- 
tive particle ay or aye is the same us the Anglo-Saxon d =: ever. 
{For aye =z for ever.) Yea (A.S. gea) is of the same origin as the 
Gorman y«. Yes (A.S. gese) is a compound of yea or ye and the old 
subjunctive si ov sie 'be it.' {Miitzner, i. 446.) Ay cu; aye and 
nay (=: ever and never), as adverbs, once formed part or a i^lu-ase 
containing a verb which they qualified. § In yes the traces of such 
a verb are stOl left. 

273 Adverbs are sometimes used after prepositions, so as to 
serve as compendious expressions for a qualified substan- 
tive, as "I have heard that before now;" "He has 
changed since then." Now is equivalent ta "the time now 
being;" then to "the time then being," &c. Adverbial 
phrases are also used thus, as " Erom beyond the sea." 

Comparison of Adverbs. 

274 Some adverbs (like adjectives) admit of degrees of com- 

The comparative degree of an adverb is that form of it 
which indicates that of two actions or qualities which are 
compared together, one surpasses the other with respect to 

• In Anglo-Saxon the elements are found separate, as " He ne mehte wiht 
gefeohtan" 'He could not liglit.' (Beowulf.) Ne-ne was equivalent to neither 
-nor. Byron now and then uses this double negative. 

i- We have the negative doubly strengthened in such phrases as ' not a bit,' ' not 
a jot,' ' not a whit ' (where whit or wiht, in fact occurs twice). A bit, a Jot, a straw, 
&c., are accusatives of measure. 

X In old English negatives were strengthened, not neutralized, by repetition : e.g., 
■ Ne goseah iieefre nan man God" {John i. 1S> ' No man hath not never seen God.' 
The use and position of not arose fi om the omissifm of the negative ne. Thus 
" Heo nefden noht ane moder {Layamon i. 10) = "They ne had not, &e." became 
" They had not," &c. 

I In fact we must repeat with them the previous subject and predicate. Thus 
"Is not this true? — Ay, Sir," is at full length: — "Ay (i.e., ever) this is true." 
"Did you speuk ?-^No ; " is: — ' No or nay (/.«., never) did I speak.' Judged by 
the present usage of not and no, not slioiild be used in all such contracted sen- 
tences as "Do you believe this or not ?" But or no has also the sanction of the 
best writers, as "If you be maid or no" (Shaksp. Temp. I. 2) ; "Thou knowest 
aione whether this was or no" (Teunyton). The phrase 'whether or no' has 
established it self in common use. Nd and nay were similarly used in Anglo-Saxon 
and early English. [Miitzner, ii. p. LSI .) Also never (= no or no) is foimd for not, 
as " we witeni never" =■ ' we know not ' ( Wicli/; John is.. 'il\. 


Bome circumstance of manner or degree by ■yMch they are 
both marked, but in different degrees. Thus, " John 
reads ill, but Thomas reads worse ; " •' I was but little pre- 
pared for that event, but he "was less prepared." 

The superlative degree of an adverb is that form of it 
which indicates that out of several actions or qualities 
■which are compared together one surpasses all the rest 
"with respect to some circumstance of manner or degree by 
■which they are all marked, but in different degrees; as, 
" Of all these boys, William "writes the worst;" "John 
•was less cautious than I, but Thomas "was the least cautioua 
of the three." 

It is only some adverbs of time, distance, manner, and 
degree "which admit of degrees of comparison. 

276 The suffixes for comparison are now -er and -est. In Anglo-Saxon 
they "were -or and -ost, which were appended to adverbs in -e and 
-lice, the final e of which was struck off. In modern Enghsh 
adverbs in -er and -est are usually fnnned from tliose adverbs which 
are the same in form as the corresponding adjectives, as Jiard, 
harder, hardest ; long, longer, longest ; fast, faster , fastest, &c. These 
suffixes are not now appended to adverbs in -ly (except early). 
Shakspere uses proudher, truer, easier, &c. Oftener and oftenest are 
still common. The usual mode of indicating comparative and super- 
lative is to prefix the adverbs more and most, as ivisely, more wisely, 
most wisely. There are some instances in which the adverbial 
suffix -ly is appended to comparative and superlative adverbs, as 
nearly, mostly, formerly, firstly, lastly. 

276 The foIlo"wing forms should be noticed.* 

Positive. Comparative. Superlative. 

well better best 

evil {contr. ill) worse worst 

much more most 

nigh or near nearer next 

forth fui-ther furthest 

far farther farthest 

ere t erst 

late later last 

[adj. rathe J] rather 

The comparatives nether (from be-neath,) upper, xnner, outer, or 
utter, hinder ibe-hindi, are used only as alljectives. Respecting the 
superlative forms, see § 117. 

• Compare ? 114 and the note*. 

+ In early English ere was sometimes spelt or, as: " "We, or ever he come neap, 
are ready to >i1l him " [Acts xxiii. 15) , " or ever the silver cord be loosed " (Ecclet. 
xii. 6). 

t " Ihe rathe (early) primiose.'" (MUton, Lye.) 



277 Prepositions* are words placed before substantives, by 
means of wbich we show the relation in which things, and 
their actions and attributes, stand to other things. In the 
eentence, " I saw a cloud in the sky," in is a preposition, 
and marks the relation (of place) in which the cloud stands 
to the s%. In the sentence, " Tuesday comes after Mon- 
day," after is a preposition, and shows the relation (of 
time) in which the coming of Tuesday stands with respect 
to Monday. In " He struck the dog on the head," on is a 
jjreposition, and denotes the relation of the act of striking 
to the head. In "Tom peeped through the keyhole" 
through denotes the relation (of movement from one side to 
the other) of the act of peeping to the keyhole, f In " He is 
fond of music," of denotes the relation of music to the 
attribute fond. The substantive which follows a preposi- 
tion is in the objective case, and is said to be governed by 
the preposition. 

278 Things and their actions and attributes can only bear 
these relations to other things. Therefore a preposition can 
only be placed before a word that stands for a thing, that is, 
a substantive, or a substantive clause, which is equivalent 
to a substantive (comp. § 273), and can connect the sub- 
stantive which follows it only with a substantive, a verb, 
or an adjective, since thiese alone stand for things and their 
actions and attributes. . 

Origin of Prepositions. 

279 It has been already pointed out (see note on p. 27) that the original 
ftmction of prepositions was to give precision and deflniteness to 
the somewhat vague ideas of the relations of actions to things, which 
were expressed by the case-ending of nouns. J They exhibit three 

" The word preposition gives a very imperfect description of this part of speech, 
as it merely implies 'placed before' (Latin prae = he/ore, pnsitus = placed), and 
is self-contradictory when (as is sometimes the case) a preposition comes after the 
word that it governs, as in ' the pen which I wi'ote tvith.' 

+ Some grammarians maintain the crotchet that a preposition invariably denotes 
the relation of a ihinq to a tkijiq. Tl the above sentence is consistent with this 
definition, the diffiiulty of a camel's going through the eye of a needle is reduced 
to very manageable proportions. The origiml function of a preposition (as ^ill be 
seen from what follows) was to define the relation of an action to a thing (5 280). 
In a recent grammar a preposition is said to be " a word whicli shows the relation 
of one noun to another." Does " Jack in the box " imply that the noun Jack is in 

the noun box ? , i, . , i. .^- » ,, 

XX find that this view of the matter haa the weighty sanction of Mhtzner 

(i. p. 447). 


stages of construction. (1) They were prefixed to the verb, which 
they qualified adverbially, forming in fact a compound with it. 
(2) They were detached from the verb, but not prefixed to the 
noun. At this stage it is often difficult to tell whether we are 
dealing with a preposition or an adverb. (3) They acquired the 
force of prepositions, and were prefixed to the nouns.* The first 
stage is represented by such a sentence as " I'igstandaS me strange 
geneatas" {Caedmon) = '■ Stont vassals bystand me'; the second 
stage by "He heom stod wiS " {Lay anion) = ^ 'H.e them stood 
against,' or "Again the false paiens the Christen stode he by" 
(P. Langtoft\ = ' Against the false pagans the Christians he stood 
by ' ; the third by " He stood by the Christians." 

280 From this it is ob\-ious that the primary function of prepositions is 
to show the relation between an action or attriluxte and a thing. 
It is only through the intervention of an attribiitive word, which 
was afterwards dr;)pped, that they came to show the relation of one 
thing to another. "The book on the table" ="The book lying 
(or being) on the table," and so on. 

281 As regards their etymology, prepositions may be arranged 
in the following classes : — 

(1.) Simple Prepositions. 

at forth t of or off till 

by fromj on to 

for in througn up 


(2.) Prepositions derived from Adverbs. } 

a. By a comparative suffix. 

after over under 

The dative which foUowed these comparatives was the dative marking 
the standard of comparison {Koch, ii. p. 321). 

b. By prefixing a preposition to an adverb. || 

• The student of Greek wiU have no diflBculty in tracing these three stages. The 
oricinally adverbial force of prepositions is unmistakably evident from the forma- 
tion of the greater part of them, and is clearly seen in such words as between, 
among, &c. 

t Forth is found as a preposition in Shakspere : " They issue forth their city " 
(Cor. i. 4). It is sometimes strengthened by another preposition, ' from forth.' It 
is now commonly used only as an adverb. 

X In Chaucer and Wiclif we find/ro. 

§ All these prepositions were originally adverbs. 

H Coiupaie \ 273. In these prepositions the. steps of formation are perfectly 
clear. (1) From a simple adverbial or prepositional particle, such as Ut (out), or 
aft (behind) is formed an adverb (uian, (xf<an, &c.) by means of the old adverbial 
Buffix -an, denoting locality. These adverbial forms sometimes acquire the force 
of prepositions in Anglo-Saxon, sometimes not. (2) This adverb is preceded by a 
preposition (be — bi or by, mth, and on, weakened to a, being those most frequently 
used), and a secondary compound is sometimes formed by pretlxing a (= on) . The 
resulting compounda are adverbs, and are used as such, but also acquire the force 
of prepositions. 


abaft (A.S. a-be-seftan) beneath (A.S. be-neo8an) 

above (A.S. a-be-ufan) beyond (A.S be-geondan) 

about (A.S. a-be-utan) but* A.S. be-utan) 

afore (A.S. on-foran) or set- throughout {Jate A.S. jjurh-ut) 

foran) underneath (A.S. under-neo- 
before (A.S. bi-foran or be- San) 

foran) within (A.S. witJ-innan) 

behind (A.S. be-hindan) without (A.S. wi3-utan) 

(3.) Prepositions formed by prejixing a preposition to a noun or an 
adjective used substantively. 

aboard ( ^ on board) astride 

across (from Fr. croix) athwart (A.S. on )rweorh 

adown f or down (A.S. of crooked) 

dune) atween (see between) 

against^ (A.S. on-gegn,ongean) below 

along (A.S. andlang^S) besides or besides (A.S. be- 

amid or amidst (A.S. on sidau) 

middum) . between** (A.S. betweonum = 

among or amongst (A.S. on- 'by two') 

gemang || ) bet-wixt (A.S. betwih, betwix, 

anent (A.S. on-efen or on- o?'betwux) 

emn = ' on a level,' ' over- since t-f- 

against') inside 

around or rotind outside 

aslant withal Xt 

Aloft (on lyfte=::in the air) and abreast are used now and then as 

* This old preposition is often wrongly taken for the conjunction but. It means 
literally 'on the outside of,' and thence 'without' or 'except.' Thus " Biitan 
nettum huntian ic m£eg" = 'I can hunt without nets' (Coll.) "Ealle biitan 
anum" {Beow, 705) = 'all but one.' This is the regular construction in Anglo- 
Saxon after all [eal). Plirases Like ' all or none but he ' are ungrammatical. In 
Chaucer we find " But meat or drinke she dressed her to lie in a dark corner of the 
house alone." The motto of tlie Duke of Sutherland is, " Touch not the cat but 
thf! glove" (Koch. ii. p. 366). But may be followed by the infinitive without to, as 
"He did nothing but laugh." Bespeoting the cases in which but appears to mean 
only, see § 505. 

+ Literally, ' off the hUl.' Diin = hill. _ 

t In against, amidst, and amongst the s is the adverbial genitive suffix (§ 268). 
The t is an offgrowth of the s. Again is the older form. 

§ From the old Anglo-Saxon preposition and = opposite, or in presence of, which 
we have in answer. 

II Gemang in A.S. means an assemblage or multitude. 

if Bc4de ha« now reference to place, as ' A house beside a river.' Besides meant) 
'in addition to,' as " Besides the profit there is the honour." This distinction is 
modem, and is purely arbitrary. On-this-side is used as a preposition, like beside, 
inside, and outside. 

*• Between comes from the numeral adjective ttcenn (= Lat. hinus), a derivative 
from twa or twi (= two). Betwih was formed from the root twi. To this was added 
the adverbial genitive sirffix s (hctwix),si-ad. subsequently the offgrowth t {\ 218). 
The parts of the compound lieiwmnvm might be separated. ' Be seem tweonuin ' 
(bt/ the lakes tivain] = 'between the lakes.' 

tt Since or sinnes is formed by the sviffix -es from sin (" Sin thilke day," = since 
that day— Chaucer), a shortened form of the adverb siQan (tithen), derived from nlj 
= later. 

tt Always placed at the end of the olaiua. 


(4.) Prepositions formed hy prefixing an adverbial particle to a 
preposition : — 

into until* upon without 

onto unto •within 

(5.) From the s.djective weard (zziLat., w?ye«s), preceded by the 
adverb io,f we get ia Anglo-Saxon the adjective toweard, meaning 
' apijroachiug, future. ':|: 

Toweard and toweardes (formed by the genitive inflection, {see 
^ "268), were used as adverbs, and then acquired the force of pre- 
positions. Nigh {veah). near, nearer, and next, are adjectives used 
tirst as adverbs and then as prepositions. (iSce § 114.) When used 
as adverbs they .ire followed by to. Ere (A.S., ar) is a comparative 
adjective, used first adverbially and then as a preposition. Past, 
ouce an attributive participle, is now a preposition, a-s '• He went 
past the house." 

285 In Anglo-Saxon passive and other impevsoual verbs might be used 
without a subject of any kind expressed {) 382), simply to afiirm 
that an action takes place, without referring it to any agent. 
Participles are often employed impersonally in exactly the same 
manner. As we may have a noiniuative absolute consisting of a 
participle qualifying a substantive (see § 372, 5), so we may have 
a participle used absolutely without any substantive for it to 
quaUfy, as : " Speaking generally, this wiU be found ti-ue "; 
" Barring accidents, we shall arrive to-morrow." Participles tJiua 
used are sometimes wrongly set down as prepositions, as concerning, 
considering , respecting,^ &c. In some cases these active participles 
have supplanted passive participles which qualilied the noun. Thus, 
"considering his conduct" was "his conduct considered," just as 
we stiU say, " All things considered." Notivitltstandlng, pending, 
and during are particii^les qualifying the noun that follows in the 
nominative absolute. Notwithstanding is sometimes placed after 
the noun, especially in legal phraseology. Save (Fr. sauf) .and 
except are of French origin, and are remnants of Latin ablatives 
absolute in which salvo- and excepto- were used. In old EngUsh, 
out-taken is found for except. In Shakspere we still find excepted : 
" Always excepted my dear Claudio." As both the nominative and 
the objective case are used in the absolute construction (^ 372, 5), 
%ave he and save him are both allowable. 

283 The principal relations which, prepositions indicate are 
those oi place, time, and causality.^ 

* "ihe old Gothic preposition und (= German Us) appeared in Anglo-Saxon asO(5 
(just »6 the Gothic («n<Au5 became toth or tooth). The older form maintained its 
ground in und-til {iiniil) and und-to (unto) = ' all the way to.' 

T Tlie adjective (or adverb) ward (uv.ard) fonn.s various compound adverbs, as 
vorlhwrard, keav.nward, Godward. These are sometimes preceded by the preposi- 
tion to as tn Godward (2 Cor. iii. 4). 

I Honce ' inclining to,' ' favourable.' The opposite of this is ' froward ' (=from- 
ward). and the negative of it ' untoward.' In old English fromward is used as a 
preposition, meaning ' away from.' 

\ Sometimes these participles (as, e.g., respecting) have retained or acquired • 
shade of meaninf^ peculiar to themselves. 

II By causaiity is meant the cause, reason, or purpose of any action or event. When 
we a&y, full oj water, of marks the cause of Vd^ fulness. 


Prepositions were first used to express relation in space, then they 
were applied to relation in time, and lastly were used metaphorically 
to mark relations of causality or modality. The following examples 
will show the course of these changes. 

281 By means— (1) 'Alongside of,' or ' close to,' in connexion either 
with rest or with motion, as'Sitiyme'; 'The patli runs by the 
river'; ' We went hy your house'; • He Us'fis by himself,' i.e., ' with 
himself as his only neighbour'; 'To put a thing by' is to put it 
soinowliere near, or by our side, not In front ; hence, out of the way, 
just as we say ' to put aside.' If a man swears by an altar or a 
relic, it is natural that ho should place his hand on it, or at least go 
close up to it. (2) If I arrive by ten o'clock, the time of my arrival 
is close to, or just before, ten o'clock. By and by properly denote? 
a time close to the present.* ' Day by day,' implies that one day is 
next to the other without interval. (3) It is natural to seek the 
doer or instrument of an act in close neighbourhood to the locality 
of the action. Hence by came to denote the agent f or instrument. 
" Abel was killed by Cain," means literally ' Abel was killed besido 
Cain.' " He is older by two years," implies that the excess of age 
is caused by two years. 

For in Anglo-Saxon means ' in front of ' before.' with reference 
both to i^lace and to time (compare the Latin pro). From the idea of 
standing in front o/'came first that of difendiny, as when we say ' To 
fight /o;- one's king ; and then that of representinri, or taking the 
place of (compare avrX and 2J'>'o). Thus an advocate appears for 
his client, or one jjerson is 'taken /or another' ; or is ' responsible _/br 
another.' This idea of substitution or exchange often occurs, as in 
'To die /or'; 'To exchange, barter, or sell /or'; 'Eye /or eye.' 
Exchange passes into the sense of requital, as ' He was punished /or 
the crime.' The iden of ' in return or exchange for ' underlies such 
phrases as 'grateful for,' * sorry /or,' 'to work /or,' * to seek /or,' 
'to wait for,' {ivork, &c. being the price in exchange for which 
the object is secured). Hence /or comes to signify ^purpose' in 
general. ' He did this/or love of me ' means ' in presence of his love 
of me as a stimulating motive.' ' In presence of ' may pass into 
the meaning 'in spite of (just as when we say '' He persevered in 
the face of all olistacles "), as in " For all his wealth, he is unhappy." 
The idea of interest or benefit may spring out of tliat in which /or 
denotes in place of, and thence o« behalf of , to the advantage of. 

Of and off are only various modes of wT-itingand pronouncing the 
same word. It is only in later English that off has been restricted 
to particular shades (^f the general meaning. The word indicates 
movement or separation from something, or the starting-point from 
which some action proceeds, as in ' Get o^^that chair ' ; ' A long way 
off the mark ' ; ' he went out of tlie room ' ; 'He comes of a good 
stock ' ; ' To buy of a person ' ; ' To expect somethmg of a person ' ; 
' Of A child,' i.e. 'from the time when lie was a child.' A vessel is 
off the coast when it is at a short distance from it. The idea of 
separation imderUes aU such phrases as ' to cure of ; * to clear of ; 

• Chaucer speaks of " two yonge knightes ligging hy and by," i.e., " lying aide b> 
t Compare the provincialism "That's all along of you." 


' to cleanse o/' ; ' to deprive o/' ; ' to acquit o/' ; 'free o/' ; ' desti- 
tute of.' 'To beware of implies 'keeping aloof from.' If a 
thing ' smells of musk,' or ' tastes of onions,' the smell or taste cornea 
from the musk or onions. 

That which comes from, or is taken from a thing, was a part of 
it, or belonged to it iiv some way. Hence spring two meanings. 
i. Of is vised in the partitive sense, as in 'A piece of cheese' ; 
'One of the men ' ; ' To paruike of,' &c. 2. Of denotes possession, 
as in ' The house of my father,' or marks that an attribute pertains 
to something, as in ' The brightness of the sun.' It thus becomes 
the general equivalent of the genitive or possessive case. 

A thing is made from the material of which it is composed. 
Hence we say, ' A bar of iron ' ; ' A book of poetry ' ; ' A stack of 
corn'; 'A pint 0/ beer.' From denoting the material of a thing, 
of passes on to denote the constitution or characteristic of a 
thing in geuerul, as in ' A man of high rank ' ; ' A person o/'gieat 

A man's works or productions come from him. Hence we sjieak 
of ' a play of Shakspere ' ; ' a symphony of Beethoven,' &c. Of 
also marks generally the source from which an action proceeds. 
Hence it denotes the agent or means, as ' He was led of the 
Spirit ' ; ' Tempted of the devil' ; ' The observed of all observers,' 
i.e., 'The person observed % aU observers.' 'Full 0/ water,' 
i.e., 'Filled with water.' 

A result springs from a cause. Hence of marks the cause or 
ground of an action or feeling, that which excites it ; as in ' To die 
of a, broken heart'; 'To do a thing f/' one's free will,' '0/ right,' 
or ' of necessity ' ; 'To be sick of a. fever.' ' The love of money ' is 
' the love excited by money,' and so ' directed towards it.' Su 
' Fond of ; ' weary of ' ; ' guilty of ; ' proud of ; ' conscious of ; 
'sensible of &c., denote emotions caused by, or sprinying jrom 

' I heard of his death ' marks that ' his death ' was the starting- 
point of the news that came to me. Hence 0/ comes to mean con- 
cerning or respecting in a variety of phrases. If we 'speak of 
Cicero,' Cicero is the starting-point of our speech. ' A copy of a 
thing' is ' a copy taken from it.' A man is ' strong of arm ' when 
his strength prcxjeeds from his arm. ' He lived tliere upwards of a 
year,' means ' during a certain period reckoned /ro«2 the end of the 

To (spelt too in some of its adverbial uses) denotes the point to 
which a movement is directed (as in ' goto '), or the proximity which 
is the result of the movoment (as in "close to'), or (metaphorically) 
the object or i^urpose of some action (as in ' He came to see me' ; 
'They came to dinner'), or that to ivhich the influence of some 
action or attribute extends, and which is therefore affected by it (as 
in ' That is a pleasure to me ' ; ' This is painful to me '). ' Give him 
a sliilling and a loaf too,' means ' Give him a loaf in addition tu the 
shilling.' ' That is too bad' means ■ something in addition to bad, 
rtonieihing more than merely bad.' 

Withis a shortened form of the Anglo-Saxon adverb tyitJer, formed 
by the comparative suffix ther (j 106, note), from an ancient root ici 
or v%, denoting separation,. The ancient meaning of with (tviQ) is 


from,* which we still preserve in withhold and withdraw. The 
notion of separation passed into that of opposition, from which with 
• derived its ordinary Anglo-Saxon meaning of ' against,' stUl main- 
tained in ' withstand,' Ho be angry with ' ; " weigh oath with oath " 
{Shak.spere), i.e., ' weigh oath against oath,' &c. Ojjpiosition impliea 
proximity, and proximity suggests association, and so with came by 
its modem sense, as in ' Come with us.' In this sense it denotes 
attendant circumstances (as in ' I will come with pleasure '). Among 
the attendant circumstances of an action is the instrument with 
which it is iserfonned. Hence another of the common meanings of 
with. All its other senses are only modifications of these two. In 
the case of the other prepositions, their various metaphorical mean- 
ings are easily deduced from the primary relation in space which 
they denote. With has supplanted the old preposition mid (= Ger- 
man mit). 
Most of the above words are adverbs as weU as prepositions. The 
mode in which they are used will always determine which part 
of speech they are. When they are prepositions there is always a 
substantive, expressed or understood, which they govern. (But 
compare ^ 273.) In, " He laid one book above the other," above is a 
preposition. In, " One was below, the others above," below and 
above are adverbs. 


285 Conjunctions are so called because they join words and 
sentences together (Lafc. co?i= ' together, 'ywnf/o = ' I join'); 
but a word is not necessarily a conjunction because it does 
this. Who, ivhich, and that are connective words which are 
pronouns. (See § 408.) When, where, whitlitr, as, than, 
&c., are connective words which are adverbs (§§ 262, 

286 Definition. — Conjunctions are connective words, which have 
neither a pronominal nor an adverbial signification. 

287 Prepositions show the relation of one notion to another. Con- 
junctions show the relation of one thought to another (see 
5 294). Hence conjimctions for the most partf join one sentence 
to another. ■ 

• "Heged^lde lif wi^ lice," "He separated life from [the] body' (^Btowulf, 


t The single exception is the oonjunction and, which, besides uniting one sentence 
to another, may unite words which stand in the same relation to some other word 
in the sentence, as in " Two and three make five," where two and threi'. stand in the 
samt' relation to the verb make ; " Tom sat between John find James," where John 
and James are in the same relation to sat between. It is easy to see that in such 
cases ami does not .show a connexion between the notions expressed by ' two ' an4 
' tlu-ee,' or ' John ' and ' James,' but in each case shows tlie connexion between 
two thou;/htii, namely, that two has to do with the making of Jive, and that three has 
to do \vith the makini; of A''« ; that Tom has a relation of position to John, and 
that Tojii has a relation oif position to James. Some giamiiutrians will have it that 
in all such cases two co-ordinate sentences are contracted (§ 445) into one, but it ia 


J88 As regards their syntactical use conjunctions may b© 
divided into two classes : — 1. Co-ordinative Conjunctions; 
2. Siibordinative Conjunctions.* 

As regards their sigidficatiou, conjunctions may bo thus 
classilied : — 

1. Simple: — and, both, that. 

2. AdversaUve or exceptive: — but. 

3. AlternaHve: — either — or; neither — nor. 

4. Causal: — because, since, as, for, lest. 

5. Hypothetical : — if, an, unless, without, except. 

6. Concessive: — though, although, albeit. 

7. Temporal: — after, before, ere, till, until, now, while, 

2836 1. Co-ordinative conjunctions are those which unite 
either co-ordinate clauses (§ 402), or words which stand 
in the same relation to some other word in the sentence. 

The co-ordinative conjunctions are aiul, but, either, or, 
neither, nor, whether, both. 

Hither — or, neither — nor, ivhether — or, both — and, are used in pairs 
as correlatives. In old English w* — ne were used for neither — 

Both (in A.S. ha, the neuter plural form of begen, as tiud of twegen ; 
see § 97) is simply a numeral adjective (as in " They were both 
killed"), which has come to be used as a conjunction. The_ pro- 
noun ivhether (see § 155) in like manner is now used as a conjunc- 
tion to introduce two alternative indirect inteixogatives (as " I will 
tell you whether it is true or not " ), or one of two alternative hypo- 
theses (as " I will do it, whether ( = either if) you Uko it or not"). 

Or is a contracted form of the old pronoun other \ (A.S., awOer, 
aSor or aSer), which was used as an alternative conjunction. 

quite futile to attempt to cut the preceding into separate sentences. To say ' Two 
make five and three make five,' or ' Tom sat between John and Tom sat between 
James,' is sheer nonsense, and it is quite inadmissible to substitute some other verb 
for make, or some other preposition for bttweni. Grammatical analysis has to deal 
with the expressions before us, not with son.etliing else that we are told to substi- 
tute in their place. Some grammarians adojjt the eccentric idea that in cases like 
the abo\ e " and does the work of a preposition " ( = with). They should at least be 
prepared to maintain that " Tom an</ 7;i« took a walk" is good English. To say 
that 'Prepositions connect words and conjunctions connect seutenccs,' is neat and 
terse in form, but imperfect, inexact, and misleading in sense. The staiement in 
\ 287 contains all that is true in it, and excludes what is inexact and erroneous. 

• Most grammarians distribute conjunctions into copulativ; and disju/tctive con- 
ja!.jtions. A. cupulalive conjunction is a. Jvi/iiny iwrd which couples toyrther. A dis- 
tunetivf conjunction is a. joining word which disjoins. A person need be very keen- 
sighted to see the sense or utility of this classification. 

t This woi'd is not the same as other = the Gothic antkar. There were two oom- 
pomids of ' hwa?cSei" in Anglo-Saxon, ' a-ge-hwaj^er,' from wluch we ^et eitlier 
(which properly means both, see \'i 173, 175), and ' a-hwieger,' from which came 
the pronoun awthej- or other, and its negative ndQer, nother, or nouther, which have 
still a provincial existence. This (formed without the pai-ticle ge, which c-ives the 
idea of combination/ is the proper alternative pi-onoun, but ha' been supplanted by 



The co-ordiaative tise of but sprang out of its subord'.native vsa 
(note on § 289), in which it introduced an exception to a general 
statement. From that it came to denote contrast, and so acquired 
the force of a co-ordinative and adversative conjunction, and 
supplauted the old wora ' ac' 

288c 2. Subordinative conjunctions are those whicli unite sub~ 
ordinate clauses (see § 412) to the prijicipal clause of a 
sentence. They never couple words only. 
The subordinative conjunctions are that, as, if, an, lest, 
unless, though, although, hut, after, ere," before, for, till, 
until, without, because, now, while, albeit, since, except. 

289 That was originally the neuter demonstrative pronoun, used to 
point to the fact stated in an iudependeut sentence, as " It was 
good; he saw that." By an inversion of the order this became 
" He saw that, (namely) it was good," and so passed into the form, 
" He saw that it was good," whei-e that has been transferred to 
the accessory clause, and become a mere sign of grammatical 
subordination. A subordinate clause of this kind becomes the 
equivalent of a substantive (see § 403). It may be used as the 
subject of a verb {e.ff., "That he has gone away is certain"), as 
the object of a verb (e.ff., "I know that he said so"), or in 
apposition to a substantive or a demonstrative pronoun.f 

290 One functiou of the adverb as was to give a relative force to the 

• Ere is often ■written or in old -RTiters (? 276). 

+ E.g., " Is pset ssegd pset hi ci'imou," ' That is said, that they came ' {Bed. i. 1). 
It was tluoug-h the intervention of this second that, that substantive clauses were 
at first used after prepositions, as " Ic cwiine ier pam pset he sag," ' I will come 
ere that, that he goes'; " Se apostol liine swang for pan pnet hs wolde Godes hyrde 
forletan," • The apostle chastised him, ;o;' <Ao<, that he wished to abandon (iod's 
flock.' "Ealle pa pingsiudouon pinrehanda baton pamanum, pfct pu pine hand 
on him ne astrecce," ' AU those things are in thine hand but tliat one, that thou 
stretch not tbuie hand upon him ' {Ji>b i 12). Here the accessory clause is in appo- 
sition to the demonstrative govem-d by the preposition. >iext the eonjunoLive 
* pset' was weakened to ' pe,' and attached to the preceding demonstrative, wh ch 
was thus made relative or connective in its force (>ee note on 'i 150), and so in its 
turn passed over to the accessory clauae ; as " ^rpam ^e se coce criiwe," ' ere that 
the cock crow.' The dr'opiiiug of • po' gave rise to such fonns as "For pam 
heora ys heofcna rice" — ' for that yours i.> the kingdom of heaven.' Tlie use ot 
the indeclinable that in place of the mtlooted forms of the pronoun, or the omis- 
sion of the inflected form and tlie retention of the conjunciion ' ptet' (as in " Hit 
ne majg to nahte buton piet hit sy iit-aworpen," 'It is good for naught but tiiat it 
should be cast out,' Matt. v. 13), gave rise to such constructions as " In that He 
Himsflf hath .suflered, being tempted," &c. (Heb. ii. 18); " I would have come, but 
that I was unwell"; " Before that certain came from James he did eat vath the 
Gentiles" {G'U ii. 1'2), &c. In these ca.sest/(, b^n, be/ore, &c., arc still prepositions 
wlii(;h are followed by a .'-ubstautive clause. Lastly, tl\e conjunction «/«/( disap- 
peared, leaving such constructions as " ter heljiscop wtere," ' ere he was bishop'; 
" Najbbe ge lif on eow buttu ge etan min flaisc," ' Ye have not life in you but 
(= excL-pt) ye eat My flesh ' {John vi. .53) ; " He went away before I came." ic. , in 
which the j..rep()sitiou8 eie, but, be/or-, &c., have absorbed the conjunctive pai-ticle, 
and so i.iay at last be regarded as being themselves conjunction.'S. (Compare what 
is said respecting b'causi-.tchiU, &c.) Some grammarians prefer to regard them 
08 beiug still prepos-itions followed by a substantive clau.-e, which has di-opped the 
that (§4 6). In the case of bdtan, an ellipse of the verb gave such eonsti-uitions as : 
"Nunmau buton feeder ana" (= ' No man knoweth but my father only '), for 
"buton ptem pat feeder ana" This may justify (but does not necessitate': 
such constructions as " Nobody knows it but L" 


indefinite and demonstrative adverbs when, whme, then, there («» 
note on ^ lo8). Thus were formed when-as and whereas.* Not 
only, however, were ivhen and where used without the as ; as might 
be used without the when or where, as " I met James as I was 
coming hither "; " pe quer as ys hones lygge^ " ( = where his bones lie). 
From denoting j!;/«ce, ' whereas ' came to indicate attendant eirctmt- 
stances. Thus " I held my tongue whereas the rest kept talking," 
= ' I held my tongue [in cii-cumstances] in which the rest kept talk- 
ing.' The adverbial sense of whereas has now become so weakened, 
that it is commonly regarded as a mere conjunction. It is some- 
times in this character replaced by as. Thus " As you say so, I 
must believe it." As is also used in the sense of as if, or as tliough 
C' His heart throbbed as itwould have burst," Scott). 

291 If (A.S. gif) is connected by the best authorities ^vith the Gothic 
%ba ovjabai.x It is sometimes strengthened by atid, which once (Uke 
et and /coi) had tliu sense of also or even. And if = even if. In Anglo- 
Saxon There was also a particle ono, wliich had a conditional force. 
This probably is the source of an, meaning if, as in '■ He shall an it 
please him" \Uamlet,\\. 6) -4« and «?<rf are sometimes confounded. 

291i Lest is the same as the superlative adverb least. In Anglo-Saxon 
we find 'Ises' (/«««) preceded by '})y' (the ablative of ptetj, and 
sometimes followed by • l^e', which gave a relative or subordinative 
force to the phrase, ' fiy lais,' or ' ];y Ises l^e,' being the eqiuvalent 
of the Latin quominus= ' that by so much the less." j The super- 
lative was used in Uke manner, ']3e laeste jJe' is found {Sax. Chr. 694, 
F.) = quo minime. " Flee lest he slay thee," means " Flee, that so 
least he may slay thee." We sometimes find lest that, where that 
(like pe) gives a subordinating force to lest (§ lo8, note). 

2\)lc Unless is a compound of on and the comparative less, and means 
much the same as minus in arithmetic. " He will be ruined unless 
you help him ", means ' Subtract [from aU the circumstances of the 
case] your helping him, and he will be ruined.' 

22\d Though, was originally an adversative adverb, meaning 'never- 
theless.' It is still so used, as : " You are stiU in time; make naste 
though." To give it a subordinative power \)e or that was origmally 
appended, but afterwards dropped. 

291e The mode in which the prepositions hut. after, ere, before,for, till,§ 
until, and withouthecarae conjunctions has been already explained 
{^ 289, note), and is illustrated by the use of because, now, and while. 
Because was originally ' by the cause that, ' wh He was ' the while 
tha.t'(uhi/e = hwil—' time'), that introducing a substantive clause in 
eppos tion to the noun cause or while. When that was dropjied, its 
subora ■:^ative power passed to the ijreceding i)hrase, which hardened 
into a conjunction. II I^Tow that became the conjunction now in a 
similar way. SiBCe is formed by the adverbial genitive suffix 

• "There, whereas all the plagues and harms abound " {Spenser, F. Q. IV. i. 20) 

fNiit with the verb yii-e, thoui,'li at tirst it iieems natural to regard it as the 
liiipera/tive of that verb, of which the Scotch gin, ( = gVen = given, i.e., gianted) ia 
tbe participle. 

i, " WariafJ eow, f y-lses eower heortan geheflgode syn," ' Beware, that hg 
to much the. less ( = lest) your hearts be over-charged {Luke xxi. 34.) 

s Till and until were used in the Northern dialect for to and unto. When they 
passed into general use they became re.>trictef! to re ntions of time. 

U WhtUt was formed by the adverbial gemuve b .ujc s and ite offgiowth (. 


{ee = g oi es) from sin, a shortened form of sithen, from s»5 \iam = 
* after that.'* Albeit {all-be-it) is a short concessive or impe- 
rative sentence. Except at first formed a nominative (or 
objective) absolute with the following clause. When that was 
dropped, except became a conjunction. 
''•91 / Many words which are frequently set down as conjunctions are 
really simple adverbs, not having even a connective force, except in 
so far as every demonstrative word, which refers to something that 
has akeady been said, causes a connexion in thought,t though a mere 
demonstrative is not, (jrammatically speaking, a connective word. 
Such words as therefore, still, yet, nevertheless, not withstanding, con- 
sequently, hoivever, hence, accordingly , likewise, also, are adverbs, 
inasmuch as they indicate some of the conditions or circimistances 
under which the predicate of the clause to which they belong is 
asserted of the subject. (See further in the Syntax, under the head 
of Collateral Heutences, § 408.) 


293 Interjections are words which are used to express some 
emotion of the mind, but do not enter into the construction 
of sentences ; as, Oh ! ! Ah ! Ha ! Alas ! Fie ! Fahaw ! 
Hurrah ! 

In written languai^e interjections are usually followed by 
what is called a mark of admiration (!). The word interjec- 
tion comes from thoLatin inter, ' between,' andyacio, ' I cast.* 

• The derivation of the conjimction is slightly different from that of the preposi- 
tion § 281). 

+ As " He suddenly lost all his fortune. This was a great blow to him." No 
one would treat this as a relative or connective pronoun in such a sentence. 
The same is obviously true of such a sentence as, "He was idle. For tliat reason 
he did not succeed." But put, instead of for that reason, its exact grammatical 
eqmvalent therefore, and half the writers of grammars wiU teU us that there/ore 
is a conjunction. 

A proper attention to the nature and use of adverbs will enable us to correct 
mistakes on tlie subject which are to be found in the gramiaars of most languages. 
Even the best Latin and Greek grammars are not free from them. Tims, quum in 
Latin is an adverb, not a conjunction, even ^^hen, for the sake of convenience, we 
tran.«late it hy since. The exiilanation is not that quum is sometimes an adverb 
and sometimes a conjtmction, liut that the Komans used a word meaning when in 
oases where we use the word since. Quum is in foi-m and meaning the correlative 
of turn, and, like it, refers both to time and to attendant circumstances. So ut = as, 
ut = ho '■, ut — that, ui == u'hai,, is the same pait of speech in all those uses, and 
to a Roman ear con\eyed in all cases the same fundamental meaning. The 
adverbial force of ut may be intlicated by trealicg it as other relatives are often 
treated in translation, namely, by substituting for it a demonstrative with a con- 
junction. As qui = and he, SO ut — and so. Thus, tarn validus est ut nemo turn 
superare possit, " He has such and such a degree of strengrth, and so no one can 
iivercome him." The ut refers to the circumsiancs under which the verb possit is 
affirmed of the subject. To set down phrases like howheit, m as jar at, &c., as 
compound conjunctionH, is quite inaduissible. Each word in such phrasea adsoits of 
being pAtued separately 



294 The pupil who has carefully studied the definitions of the 
Parts of Speech already given, will be prepared to compre- 
hend the classification of the constituent parts of ianguajje 
contained in the annexed table. 

Language is made up of words and forms. By these we 
express all the conceptions that the tniiifl is cap;ible of form- 
ing. All thought — and, consequently, all speech — is about 
Bomething. The basis of every timughr, therefore, is the 
notion of a thing, that is to say, nf whatever we can make 
an object of tiiought. The words tha,t stand for things are 
nouns and pronouns. 

Besides things themselves, we form conceptions of the 
actions and attributes of thing?, 'Oie words that express 
these are adjectives and verbs. Botn '!ese classes of words 
express attributive notions, the difference between them being 
that the verb expresses an attribute together with the idea of 
assertion or predication; the adjective does not assert the 
connection between the thing and its attribute, but assumes it j 
or (to borrow a metaphor from mechanics) the adjective is a 
etatic attributive, the verb is a dynatnic attributive. The ad- 
jective is a sort of weakened verb. 

Further, besides things and their attributes, we form con- 
ceptions of the limitations of these attributes — the mode, 
manner, time, place, or other conditions under which the 
attribute is regarded as attached to the thing. These con- 
ditions are expressed by adverbs. 

These are all the simple notions that we can form. But 
when we think, we combine no; ions together, and this com- 
bination is represented in language partly by words called 
relational words, that is, words tiiat denote the relation 
between notions and thoughts, and partly by grammatical 
forms and inflexions. There are two sorts of relational 
words, prepositions and conjunctions. Prepositions only 
denote the relation of one notion to another. {See Definition 
of Preposition, § 277.) Conjunctions denote the relation of 
one thouyht to another, a thougld being already the combina- 
tion of at least two notions. The relation of a verb to its 
subject ; of an adjective to a noun ; of an object to the word 
that governs it ; and of an adverbial adjunct to an attributive 
word, is indicated by grammatical forms and inflexions. 



'spjo^ praot!jo^ 











I— I 






2 o 

:=! o 

O fn 

ft ? 

-P +^ 

o b Si 
























K cc 4! 

J-^ X 2 »5 

c £ ~ 2 




296 The words of which the English language is composed may be 
di\dded into two classes, primary words, and secondary or deriva- 
tive 'wovAs. 

A word is a 2}''^>n''^if word when it does not admit of being 
resolved into simpler elements ; as man, horse, rim. 

A word is a secondanj word when it is made up of significant 
parts, which exist either separately or in other combinations. 

29t) Secondary words are fonned partly by Composition, partly by 


297 A word is a compound word when it is made up of two or more 
parts, each of which is a significant word by itself ; as apple-tree, 
tea-spoon, spend-thrift. 

298 All compounds admit of being divided primarily into two 
words ; but one of these may itself be a compound word, so that 
the entire word may be separated into three or four words ; as 
handicraftsman (made up of man and handicraft, handicraft being 
itself made up of h'i7id and craft*); midshipman (made up of 
man and midship, midship being itself made up of mid and ship). 
In such cases the subordinate compound is usually the fii-st of the 
two words into which the whole is divisible. 

299 In most compound words it is the first word which modifies the 
meaning of the second. (The second denotes the genus, the first 
distinguishes the species.) Rosebush means a particular kind of 
bush, namely, one that bears roses. A haycart is a certain kind 
of cart, namely one for carrying hay. The accent is placed upon 
the modifying word when the amalgamation is complete. When 
the two elements of the compound are only jiartially blended, a 
hyphen is put between them, and the accent falls equally on both 
parts of the compound, as in knec-dccp. Wc do not get a true 
compound so long as the separate elements both retain their 
natui'al and full significance, and their ordinary syntactical rela- 
tion. Composition is accompanied by limitation of significance. 
Compare blue bell and bluebell, red breast and redbreast, monk's hood 
and monkshood. 

A.— Compound Nouns. 
800 Compound Nouns exhibit the following combinations : — 

1. A noun preceded by a noun, of which the first (1) denotes 
what the second consists of, is characterized by, or attached to, 
as haystack, cornfield, oaktree, wineshop, churchyard ; (2) denotes 

• The i in handicraft and handiwork is a relic of the syllable ge in the A- 8. hand^ 
gecToe/t and handgeweorc. 



tte purpose for which the thing denoted by the second is used,* 
as teaspoon, milking-stool, (see § 202), inkstand; or with which 
its activity is connected, as man-killer, bush-ranger, sun-shade ; 
(3) is a defining genitive, or the equivalent of one, as stvordsman, 
kinsman, Wednesday {Woden s day), sun-beam, noon-tide, day-star. 

2. A noun preceded and modiiied by an adjective, as roundhead, 
blackbird, halfpenny, quicksilver, Northampton, Eastham, »w«<^- 
day, midriff {A. ^.\\v\i = \)0-we\s.) Twilight {twi — two'), fortnight 
(^.Q., fourteen-nights), sennight (i.e., seven nights) are from nu- 

3. A noun preceded by a verb of which it is the object, as 
stopgap, pick2)ocket, makeweight, turncock, wagtail, spitjire.f 

4. A noun denoting an agent preceded by what would be the 
object of the corresponding verb, as man-slayer, peace-maker. 

6. A gerund preceded by a governed noun (§ 200, note §), as 
wire-pulling, blood-letting. 

6. A verb preceded by a noun, as godsend (very rare). 

7. A noun preceded by an adverb, which modifies (adverbially) 
the noun, when that denotes an action, or else is in the quasi- 
attributive relation to the noun (§ 362,4), a,s forethought, fore- 
sight, neighbour (A.S. neah-bur ^z' one who dwells near'), offal 
(i.e., off-fall), off-shoot, aftertaste, by-play, by-path, inroad, anvil 
(A.S. anfilt or onfilt, troTaJillian ' to strike '). 

8. A norm preceded and governed by a preposition, as forenoon, 

9. A verb preceded or followed by an adverb which modifies it, 
as inlet, welfare, onset, go-between, standstill, income. 

301 The following compound nouns, in which one or both of the 
elements have been changed or become obsolete, are given by 
Koch (ni.p. 98/.). 

hangnail = ang-naegele (« sore under the nail) 

bandog = bond-dog {a dog chained up) 

bam =: bere-sem {barley house) 

brimstone = bryn-st^n {burning -stone) 

bridal = bryd-ealu (bride-ale) 

distaff ^ dise-stsef {flax-staff. * To dise' (prov.) is 

*to supply with flax ') 

garlic, hemlock from leac {leek) 

gospel = god-spell {good nexos, or God's message) 

grunsel =: grund-syl {ground-sill, threshold) 

huzzy =: hds-wif {house-wife) 

icicle = is-gicel (provincial, ice-shoggle) 

lammas ' .= hlaf-messe {loaf-mass) 

moldwarp or mole ■=. molde-weorp (mould-thrower) 

midwife =: med-wif {hired woman) 

• The modifying word maybe a verb used substantively, as in washtut, grind' 
rttme, stewpan ; or the pronoun self, as self-tmll, telf-murder. 
+ These words axe peculiar. See § 299. 




:= nas-I)yrl 


r= ort-geard 


= stig-rap 


= stige-weard 


= scyld-truma 


= toad-in-pool 


= wedlac 


= wer-eld 


=: leof-man 

{nose-hole. Comp. dtil^ 
(wort- or root -garden) 
[mounting -rope) 
{sty- or staU-warden) 

(man-age, a generation) 
[loved or dear 2)erson) 

B.- Compound Adjectives. 

302 Compound Adjectives exhibit the following combinations: — 

1. An adjective preceded by a noun, which qualifies it ad- 
verbially (comp. § 267), as skg-blue, Jire-netv, pitch-dar/c, blood-red, 
ankle-d/;ep, breast-high, head-strong, ehildlike, warlihe, sinful, hope- 
ful (and other compounds of full, written with one I, once formed 
with the noun in the genitive, B.a willesfd = wilful), shamefaced 
(oi'iginaUy shanufast, A.S. sceainfccst) , steadfast. 

2. The adjective in these compounds is often a participle, as in 
seafaring, bed-ridden, heart-broken, tempest-tossed, sea-girt, &c. 

3. An impci-fcct participle preceded by its object, as tale-bearing, 
heart-rending, time-serving , &c. 

4. An adjective or participle preceded by a simple adverb, aa 
upright, doivnright, under-done, out-spoken, inborn, almighty, alone 
(i.e., all-one). 

5. A noun preceded by an adjective, as barefoot; in modem 
English mostly restricted to those compounded with nunK-rals, 
as tivo-fold, manifold, a three-iottle man, a twopenny cake, a thru- 
foot ride. In A.S. more common, as mild-heart (mild-hearted), 
dn-edge (one-eyed), twi-fingere (two-fingered). (Compare the 
nick-names Hotspur, Longshanks, Roundhead, Blve-noscs, &c.) In 
modern EngUsh these compounds have taken the participial end- 
ing, bare-legged, one-eyed, pigeon-breasted, &c. 

C— Compound Pronouns. 

303 Bee §§ 154, 158, 169, 173, 174, 175. 

B.— Compound Verbs, 

304 These present the following combinations : — 

1. A verb preceded by a separable adverb, as overdo, understand, 
fulfil, undergo, cross-question. Twit is a corruption of eet-witan. 

2. A verb preceded by its object, as baek-bite, brow-beat. (See 
§ 301,3.) 

3. A verb preceded by its adjectival (objective) complement 
(§§ 391, 395), as white-wash, rough-hew. 

4. A verb followed by an adverb, as don { = do or put on), doff 
[■ or put off), dout or douse = do out, dup — do up. (Comp. Germ. 

305 For compound adverbs, prepositions, and conjunction*, see §§ 
267, 269, 271, 281, 291, &c. 



306 Most words in all languages liave been built up by the combina- 
tion of simpler elements. Words generally admit of being ar- 
ranged in groups, all the words belonging to one of which have 
a certain portion wliich is common to all, and which represents a 
certain fuudam^ental notion, which in its various aspects, or in 
combination with other notions, gives rise to the different con- 
ceptions which are represented by the several words of the group. 
Tlius, love is common to all the words \_he\ loves, loving, lover, 
lovcablc, lovely, loveless, &c. So in Latin, /ac is common to facio, 

feci, f actum, factor, efficio, f actio, fades, &c. This common funda- 
mental part of a group of words is called a root. 

307 In languages of kindred origin many roots are found in all or 
several of such languages, as the bases of groups of words. All 
roots are monosyllabic, and the most primitive roots consist of a 
single vowel, or a vowel and a consonant.* Hoots are subdivided 
into predicative roots, representing notions, and demonstrative or 
relational roots, indicating the relations of notions to each other 
or to the speaker. Primitive roots are not words, but elements 
from which words are form.ed, either by combination or by making 
some change in the fonn of the root ; which latter process was 
certainly in matly cases, and possibly in aU, the result of the 
blending of some earlier combination of different roots, or of the 
weakening of existing sounds in anticipation of such as were 

808 In the course of time a large number of the formative elements 
by which words have been formed from roots, or from other 
words, have lost their independent existence and significance, and 
have been reduced to mere prefixes and suffixes ; and in EngUsh, 
through the decay and disuse of eufiixes, many words have been 
reduced to mere roots. 

309 Derivation, in the wider sense of the term, includes all processes 
by which words are formed from roots, or from other words. In 
practice, however, derivation excludes composition, which is the 
putting together of words both or aU of which retain an inde- 
pendent existence, and inflexion, which is the name given to those 
changes in certain classes of words by which the varieties of their 
grammatical relations are indicated, inflexion being subdivided 
into the inflexion of nouns, adjectives, and pronouns, which is 
termed declension, and the inflexion of verbs, which is termed 

• See Max MUUer, Lf.cturea, <tc., i. 273, &c. 

+ Compare, for example, the fli'st syllable in nation with that in national; the 
BOTind of cat with the kit in JdtteM, brother with brethren, child with chUdren. The 
ehan^ of goose into geese, foot into feet, &c., is a relic of a similar process, th« 
added gyllable having disappeared. (See Helfenstein, Oomp. Gr. p. 2). 


810 That part of an inflexional word upon which the inflexions are 
based is called the stem* or crude form of the word. In English 
the formative elements by which stems were once formed from 
roots have often disappeared. Thus the root love answers for 
both the verb love and the noun love. In Latin the root am- 
becomes ama- as the stem of the verb, and amor- as the stem of 
the noun. 

311 When two words are related to each other, it is sometimes 
evident from the form alone which is the primary and which the 
derived word. We see at once that bestir is derived from stir 
and bondage from bond, derivation being a process of addition, not 
of subtraction. In less obvious cases we must be givided partly 
by analogy, partly by a consideration of the relation of the idetis 
represented. That will be named first in langnage which exists 
first in thought. As a stitch is the result of stick-ing and a ditch 
of digging, the verb will be earlier than the noun. 


Derived Notms. 

312 Noun Prefixes of Teutonic Origin- 

1. un ; as in unrest, undress. 

2. mis; as ia misdeed, mishap, mistrust, misconduct. This prefijt. 
(connected with the verb miss, and the Old English mys = evit) 
implies error or fault in the action referred to. In many words 
of Romance origin, as mischance, mis — Old French mes, from Lat. 

313 Noun Sufaxes of Teutonic Origin. 

1. -dom (connected with deem and doom-, implying j'tirisdiction, 
su'ag, sphere of action or existence, condition), as in kingdom, Chris- 
tendom, earldom, thraldom-, martyrdom. (Compare Germ, thum.) 
Freedom and wisdom are from adjectives. 

2. -hood (A.S. hdd=person, condition, state, calling), as in man- 
hood, priesthood, wifehood, childhood. (Comp. Germ, heit.) Mead 
in. maidenhead; godhead, is the same. Likelihood and hardihood are 
from adjectives ; brotherhood and sisterhood have become collective 
nouns, like youth, nobility, &c. 

3. -red (A.S. rced:=i counsel, power, state, mode), hatred, Jcin-d-red. 
In 0.^. freondrede {friends/tip), sibrede [relationship), &c. 

4. -ship, skip, scape (denoting shape, condition, fashion, from 
scapan ^ to shape), as in land skip or landscape, friendship, worship, 
i.e.J worthship. (Compare Germ, schaft from schaffen.) Added 

• The analofry implied in the ■words root and stem must not be pressed too far. 
A grammatical stem ia the root -|- something else. The root of a tree f onus no part 
•< its stem. 


also to Romance words, as relationship. Hardship is from ao 

6. -en (forming diminutives from nouns) ; maidm, jkitten, 
chicken* (from cock). 

6. -kin (forming diminutives from nouns), as in lambkin, pipkin 
(comp. "&pipe of wine"), mannikin, bumpkin, thumbkin. In 
proper names, as Ferkin (= Peterkin), Tomkin, Wilkin, Hawkin 
{ivoTO. Hal), Watkin (from Walter), Simkin (from Simon), Hodgkin 
(from Roger). Compare Germ. chen. 

7. -ling (forming diminutives from nouns), as in duckling, gos- 
ling,* kid ling, sir i]} ling (a little strip ov stripe). Darling (dear), 

falling, firstling are from adjectives. Suckling, starveling , hireling, 
witling are from verbs. Comp. G-erm. lein. 

The diminutive sense easily passes into that of depreciation, as 
in worldling, groimdling. 

8. -rel (diminutive and depreciative) occurs in a few words of 
Teutonic root, as to which it is difficult to believe that the very 
unusual sirfiix is of Komance origin : as 2^icke}-el (a little pike), 
cocke.el (a young cock), gangrel (a vagabond), ?«owy?-e;^ (from the 
root mong =z mix ; comp. mingle, among), wastrel (a spendthrift). 

9. -y, -ie, -eg (diminutival), as in daddy, Sally, Charlie or Charley, 

10. -ock (forming diminutives from nouns), as in bullock, hillock, 
ruddock (robin-redbreast), pinnock (tom-tit). In Scotch we get 
wifock, laddock, tassock, &c., and with ie, wifukie (wee little 
woman), drappukie (wee little drop). In proper names, as Pollock 
(Paul), Baldock {Baldwin), Mattock {Matthew). 

11. -ing (zrz A.S. -UMg) forming abstract nouns from verbs, as 
hunting, blessing ; or denoting the result of a process, as in build- 
ing, dripping, gelding ; or gi\Tng a collective sense, as in paling, 
flooring, shirting, clothing. These from nouns. Tidings is a later 
form of the participial tidende (see ^ 197 note). 

12. -ing (in A.S. =: ' son of,' as " Cerdic wtPS Elesing," i.e., 
* son of Elesa') appears as a tribal or communal name in Tooting, 
Harding ham, Shcrington, Sec. With the force of 'belonging to,' 
or ' connected with ' it appears in whiting, herring (the shoal or 
army fish, A.S. here = army), tithing, farthing. 

13. -en, -on, or -n, as in garden, kitchen (from cook ; see note on 
§ 307), token, beacon, rain, loan, brain. • 

14. -er (A.S. -ere) denoting the agent, as in digger, baker, seeker, 

15. -er (not the same as the preceding), as in hammer, hunger, 
summer, winter, bower, ivater, heather. 

16. -el, -I, -Ie (in A.S. also -ol and -ul), as in navel, kernel, 
angle, apple, girdle, shuttle, bundle, sickle, spittle. Many of these 
are from verbs, and denote the instrument. In A.S. they often 
end in -Is, as byrgcls = buriaU^VMQ, hridels, gyrdds. 

• Bee uoU! ou 5 307. 


17. -ter, -ther, -der, denoting the agent or instrument; as in 

father, mother, daughter (see § 44), laughter, rudder {TOw),tceather 
(Gothic waian^i to blow), ladder (Germ. Leiter, root hU-=:7nount), 
bladder {blow, in Scotch blaw), spider { — spinder or spinner). 

18. -ste" (in AS. denoting a female agent, § 44, note t) ; spin- 
ster, gamester, trickster, punster, Breiuster (brew), Webster {weave), 
Baxter {bake), bolster, holster. 

19. -om or -wj ; bloom, blossom, bosom, doom, qualm (intrans. quail 
and trans, quell), dream, stream, slime (comp. Lat. saliva). 

20. -ow (=r A.S. -u) ; shadow, meadow, shallow {shoal). 

21. -ness, forming ab.stract nouns from adjectives — dearness, 
redness, goodness, &c. Formerly added to nouns, as in wilderness 
(=:-w-Lld-deer-ness). A.S. rutnnes, wjdnes, &c., have been re- 
placed by roominess, needincss, &c. Witness is from the verb wit. 

'I'l. -th, -t, -{s)t, -d (varieties of th^ same suifix), originally form- 
ing pas.sive participles or adjectives, as couth (in un-couth), from 
cunnan 'to know' (Goth, kunths,* Germ, kund), brought, loved, 
dead (from die). Many of these became nouns, of which a large 
proportion are abstract. The suffix appears in gift, might {may), 
thcft,-\ weft, sight, wrist {writhe), shrift, rift {rive),Jlight,length,\ 
strength,\ breadth,\ height (properly highth), mirth {mernj), sloth 
{slow), growth, stealth, ruth (to rue), food {Jloiv), health (A.S. 
hal = whole), truth and trust from true or troiv, death {die). 

23. -nd, -n (old suffix of the imperfect participle). Fiend (Goth. 
fijan 'to "h&te'), friend {Goth, frijon 'to love'), wi>7d (Goth, waian 
'to blow'). Youth in reality belongs to this class, th having 
replaced d and n ha\ing disappeared. (Comp. Germ. Jugend, and 
see note * on 22.) 

24. -est : harvest (comp. Gr. KapTr-os), earnest. 

Adjective Prefixes of Teutonic Origin. 

314 1. a, alive, aweary. .Athirst is in A.S. of-\>yrst, an-hungcred is 

2. a, a corruption of ge ; alike = gelic. 

3. un (negative, not the same as the un in verbs) ; unwise, untrue, 
and befoi-e Romance words, as uncourteous. An umpire is one 
who makes the two sides uneven {in or un, par) by joining one of 

Adjective SuflBxes (Teutonic). 

?15 1. -ed ; the common participial suffix; see 311, 22. Also added 
to nouns, as in ragged, icretched, wicked (probably = to jYc>^erf), left- 
handed, &c. See \ 302, 5. 

2. -en or -n (used also as a participial suffix) ; wooden, golden, linen 
(from lin^Jlax), heathen (a dweller on the heath), green, fain^ 
brown, &c. 

3. -erov-r; bitter, lither, fair. 

• Compare tooth with Goth tunthus. ' t See note on } 307. 


4. -em (a compound of the two last) ; northern, southern, o. 
6. -el or -le (A.S. -ot), fickle, little, brittle, idle. 

6. -ard or -art {-z^ hard, A.S. heard, as irenheard'^:: 'haid. as 
ii-on'; gives an intensive force), added to adjectives and verbs, 
as dullard, drtoi/card ; from verbs laggard, dotard, braggart, blinkard, 
stinkard. Most of these are now used as nouns. This suffix 
made its way into the Romance languages, out of which some 
derivatives have come into English, as bastard, standard (O.F. 
estendre z=i extender e), coivard [codardo from Lat. cauda ; properly 
a dog that runs away with his tail between his legs). Bastard 
is a corruption of dastrod or adastrod, the pass. part, of A.S. 
adastrian ' to frighten.' 

7. -ish, -sh, -eh added to nouns to denote ' belonging to,' ' having 
the qualities of,' as sivinish, slavish, foolish, Bomish, Turkish, 
Welsh, French. Conip. Germ. -sch. Added to adjectives it 
naturally gives a diminutive force, as blackish, dullish. 

8. -less (A.S. leas =: loose, free from, without). Heedless, senseless, 
lawless, houseless, Sec. Very common. 

9. -l!/ (a corruption of like), added (of course) to nouns. Godly, 
heavenly, ghastly (from ghost), manly. Veiy common. 

10. -some, added to verbs and adjectives to denote the presence of 
the quality that they indicate. Winsojne, buxom, (from bugan = 
to yield), tiresome, quarrelsome, wholesome, blithesome , fulsome. 

11. -th or d (originally a superlative suffix : see Koch iii. p. 24), 
in numerals. Third, fourth, &c. 

12. -2/ = A.S. -i^, added usually to nouns to indicate the presence 
of that for which the noun stands. Greedy, bloody, needy, thirsty, 
moody, sorry, {sore), dirty, &c. Added to Romance words in 
savoury, &c. From verbs, — sticky,- sundry {sunder) , weary . The 
same suffix appeal's in the nouns, body, honey. In A.S. dysig 
{ = dizzy) is a noun, meaning ' an act of folly,' as well as an 

13. -ward, denoting 'becoming' or 'inclining to' from A.S. 
weor^an. Northwai-d, froward {from), toward {to). Awkward 
(from auk or auke, noun and adjective, meaning 'left hand,' 
♦ lef b-handed,' 'perverse'). 

14. -ow (in narrow, callow, &c.) has replaced A.S. -u. See 314, 20. 

316 For Derived Pronouns see §§ 154—175. 

Derived Verbs. 
Teutonic Prefixes to Verbs. 

317 \. a- (a weakened form of Gothic us or as), meaning formerly 
out, away, off (A.S. Slceorfan 'to cut off'), afterwards back or 
again, now merely an intensive particle, prefixed to verbs : — arise, 
abide, awake. 

2. be { — by) denotes the application of an action, or of an attribu- 
tive idea, to an object, and so {a) makes intransitive verbs 
transitive, as betnoan, bespeak, bestride, befall, or {b) forms transi- 


tive verbs out of adjectives or nouns, aa bedim, begrime [grim), 
benumb, becloud, befriend, bedew, or (c) strengthens the meaning of 
transitive verbs as betake, bestoiv, bedazzle. Used also before 
Komance words, as becalm, belabour, besiege, betray. 
Believe is probably a corruf)tion of A.S. gelt/fan. 

3. for ( = German wr) usually implies that the action indicated 
by the simple verb is negatived, or done in a bad sense, as forbid, 
forsake, forget. Forgive meant originally ' to make a present of .' 

(Compare Lat. condonare.) 

4. mis, denoting error or defect (see § 312, 2), as in misspell, mis- 
believe, misgive, misbecome, misbehave. Before Romance words, 
misadvise, misdirect. 

5. un (Gothic and = against, back, German ent), implies the re- 
versal of the action indicated by the simple verb : — unbind, undo, 
untie. Answer (A.S. andsivarian) has the same prefix ; also am- 
bassador (Gothic andbahts — servant). Unbosom, unkennel, trnsex, 
&c., are formed directly from nouns, without the intervention of 
the uncompounded verb. 

6. gain (root of against, German gegeri) ; gainsay, gainstrive. 

7. with (see § 284 ' with' ) ; withdraw, tvithstand, ivithhold. 

8. to ( = Germ. zer ; not the preposition to) ; to brake ( ' broke to 
pieces' is still found in Judges ix. 53. Compounds of this particle 
were once very numerous. 

Ve'bal SuflBxes (Teutonic). 

318 1. -el or -le, added to the roots of verbs and nouns gives a 
combined frequentative and dimiuutive force : dazzle [daze), 
straddle {stride), shovel [shove), swaddle (sivathe), dribble (drop), 
gamble (game), draggle (drag), waddle (wade), snivel (sniff), 
grapple [grab), dtvindle (A.S. dioinan ■=. to fade), wrestle, dabble ; 
from nouns — kneel [knee), nestle [nest), sparkle [spark) throttle 
[throat) nibble [nib or neb), curdle, scribble [scribe). 

2. -er (giving much the same force as the last), glimmer [gleam), 
wander [wend), sputter (spit), patter (pat), fritter (fret), flitter 
smd flutter (flit), batter [beat). 

3. -k (frequentative) ; hark (hear), talk (tell). 

4. -en forming causative or factitive verbs from nouns and 
adjectives; as strengthen, lengthen, frighten, fatten, sweeten, slacken. 

5. se, forming verbs from adjectives ; cleanse, rinse (comp. Germ. 

319 Verbs are often formed from nouns by a modification or weaken- 
ing of the vowel sound, or of the final consonant, or of both. Thus 
bind (from bond), sing (from song), breed (brood), feed (food), knit 
(knot), drip (drop), heal (whole), calve (calf), halve (half), breathe 
(breath), bathe (bath), shelve (shelf), graze (grass, glaze (glass), hitch 
{hook). The same process is seen in Romance words, as prize from 
price, advise (advice), &c. The weakening was occasioned by ver- 
bal suffixes (see note on § 307), which have since disappeared. 


320 Transitive (causative) verbs are often formed by a slight modi- 
fication or -weakening of the root vowel from intransitive verbs 
denoting the act or state wliich the foi-mer produce. Thus felt 
{iroia fall), set (from sit), raise (from rise), lay {lie), drench {drink), 
tcend {wind), quell {quail, A.S. cwelan 'to die' ). 

321 Almost any noun may be turned into a verb ; as, to iron a shirt , 
to deck a ship ; to ham-siring an animal ; to black-ball a candidate ; 
to paper a room; to ship goods, &c. Vice-versa, many nouns are 
only verb-roots used substantively, as work, print, walk, &c. 

322 A k or ff sound at the end of words in old English tends tc be- 
come softened in modern English. Sometimes this variation may 
constitute derivation, sometimes it is mere divergence. Compare 
dike and ditch, stink and stench, wring and wrench, mark and 
march (:= boHudary) , lurk and hirch, bank and bench, stark and starch, 
seek and beseech, bark and barge, bake and batch, stick and stitch, 
wake and watch, tweak- 3,116. twitch. Also sc tends to become sh, 
as AS. scacan = shake, A.S. ' scddu= shadow, A.S. sceal = shall, 
A.S. sccdp = sheep, A.S. scapan = shape, A.S. seip — ship, &c., 
scuffle = shuffle, screech = shriek, scabby — shabby , skirt = shirt, &c. 

323 Other collateral forms involve the retention or omission of an 
initial s. Compare smash mash, splash plash, smelt melt, squash 
quash, squench quench, swag wag. 

324 For Derived Adverbs, Prepositions and Conjunctions see §§ 267 


325 Prefixes of Latin Origin. 

1. a, ah, ahs (from or away). Avert, abduction, abstract The d 
in advance is an error ; Fr. avancer from ab and ante. 

2. ad (to) found also in the forms ac, al, an, ap, as, at, a, accord- 
ing to the consonant that follows it. Adore, accede, allude, an- 
nounce, appear, assent, attend, aspire. 

3. amb- or am- (round). Amputate, ambiguous. 

4. ante or anti (before). Antedihivian, antecessor (or ancestor), 

5. circum or circu (round). Circumlocution, circuit. 

6. con (with), also com-, col-, cor-, co-, according to the following 
consonant. Conduct, compact, collision, correct, coheir. 

7. contra, contro (against), often Anglicized into counter. Con- 
travene, controvert, counteract, country-dance = contre-danse. 

8. de (down, from). Denote, describe, descend. 

* The greater part of these words of I^atin origin were adopted ready-made 
Into English, either directly, or indirectly (throua-h Flinch) ; they were not formed 
by the internal development of our language. In some cases, however, the forma- 
tion has been imitated. 


9. dis (in two, apart), also dif-, di-, de-. Dissent, differ, dilute, 
deluge { = diluvium), depart, dctni- ■=: dimiditim. Naturalized and 
used as a negative before Teutonic words ; disband, disbelieve, 

10. ex (out of), ec-, ef-, e-. Extrude, efface, educe. Disguised in 
astonish, {etomier = extonare) , afraid {effrayer), scourge {ex-corrigere), 
scorch [ex-corticare), sample [ — example), issue {exire). 

11. extra {beyond). Extravagant, extraneous, stranger. 

12. in (in, into), modified to il-, im-, ir-, en-, em-. Induce, 
illusion, impel, irruption, endure, embrace. Naturalized and used 
before Teutonic words, embody, embolden, endear. Disguised in 
anoitit {in-xmctus). 

13. in (negative). Insectire, improper, illegitimate, irrational. 

14. inter, intra (among, within). Interdict, introduce. 

15. onis- (Old Fr. »«es = Lat. minus); mischance (comp. Fr. 
mechant), mischief. 

16. ob, obs (against), oc-, of-, op-. Oblige, obey, occur, offend, 

17. per (through) , j^e^-. Permit, pellucid. Disguised in pardon 
{per-donare), pilgrim (Ital. pellegrino = peregrinus), appurten- 

18. post (after). Postpone. 

19. jjrae or pre (beforej. Praelection, preface. Disguised in 
provost {^zjjrae-positus). 

20. praeter, prefer (past). Preterite, preturnatural. 

21. pro {ioT:th.,\>eiove), pol, por-, pur-. Promote, pollute, portray, 
purchase (pro-captiare), purpose, purveyor. 

22. re or rcrf (back, again). Redaction, redound, reduce. (Rally = 
re-alligare, O.E. relie, Fr. relier.) Used before Teutonic words in 
reset, reopen, &c. 

23. retro (backwards). Retrograde. Rear in rearward. 

24. se or sed (apart). Seduce, sed-ition. 

25. sub or subs (under), sue-, suf-, sur-, sus-. Subdue, succeed, 
suffuse, surrogate, suspend. Di.sguised in sojourn {sub diurno). 
Prefixed to Teutonic words in sublet, &c. 

26. sub ter (henesith). Subterfuge. 

27. stiper (above), sur. Superscribe, surface (= superficies), sur- 
feit, surcharge. 

28. trans, or tra (beyond). Translate, tradition. Diflgnised in 
he-tray, treason, tres-pass. 

29. ultra (beyond). Ultramontane. Outrage =lat» Latin ultra- 

326 Suffixes of Latin Origin. 

1. -tf (1) =Ij-dt. ea in line, lance ; (2) ='La,t.ies,faee; (3) = Lat. 
it0n in exile, homicide, &o. 

2. -ee, -ey, -y { = Ija,t. -atus or ata) ; nominee, attorney (lato Latin 
attornatus), deputy, army {armata), country {con-terrafa), jur^ 



ijurata), journey (diurnata) ; decree from decretum; d.-gree tioxa 
gradus ; party from partita. 

. 3. -y (1) =Lat. -ia, in memory, infamy; (2) = Lat. -ium in 
remedy, study ; (3) = Lat. -aeus in pigmy ; (4) = -eus in i»ory ; 
-ee = aeus ia. Pharisee, &c. Also in abstract nonnsof late formation, 
as baatardy, gluttony, beggary, simony. 

4. -te, -t, -ate, -ete, -eet, -ite, -ute, ia adjectives, nouns and verbs 
derived from adjectives or participles in -tus, -atus, -etus, -itus, 
-utus, as chaste, honest, perfect, advocate, concrete, discreet, erudite, 
statute, appetite, joint, point, fact, habit, assault, conduct, relate, &c. 

6. -at^e, from -rtiMs through Spanish and Italian ; brigade, cascade, 
lemonade, &c. 

6. -se, -ce, -s (=Lat. -sus), in case, process, decease, oppress, sauce 
{salsus), advice, spouse. 

7. -ice, -ess {— Lat. -itia), in avarice, justice, duress {duritia), 
largess (largitia) ; -ice, -ise = Lat. -itiiim in service, solstice, exercise ; 
.ace = -atium in palace, solace ; -ice = ex in pumice. Latin -ia, or 
Gi'eek -fia preceded by < or s gave rise to -ey or -sy ia aristocracy, 
abbacy, fancy or phantasy {(pavraaia), grace. Lnitatedin intimacy, 
obstinacy, bankruptcy, &c. Mostly abstract nouns. 

8. -ace, -ass { — luat. -aceus, -a) : populace, cutlass [cultellacea). 
From -ax ia furnace. 

9. -age (late Latin -agium, a modification of -atioum) ; age, voyage 
[viaticum), savage isilvaticus). personage, homage, marriage {marita- 
gium). Naturalized and added to Teutonic words, as in tillage, 
windage, wharfage, bondage. This suflRx denotes (1) the condition 
or occvipation of the person indicated by the primary noun, as 
vassalage, pilotage ; (2) a collection, quantity, or summing-up, as 

_ poundage, mileage, herbage ; (3) a state or process in which some- 
thing is concerned, as wharfage, bondage, windage ; (4) when added 
to verbs, the result of an act, or the sum total of separate acts 
indicated by the verb, as breakage, leakage, pillage {pit or peel — 
strip)), coinage, &c. 

10. -al, (Lat. -alis, added to nouns, and denoting ' possessing the 
qualities of,' ' belonging to ' ) ; legal, regal, general, annual ; freely 
used in modem formations, as comical, whimsical. Neuter adjec- 
tives of this formation often gave rise to substantives in -al and 
-el, as canal or channel, hospital or hotel, jewel [jocale), chattels or 
Mttle [capitalia). Modern formations, trial, denial, proposal, &o. 

11. -el {= -clis) , cruel. 

12. -ile, -il, -eel, -le, -el (^Lat. -His), servile, civil, genteel, gentle, 
kennel [canile). 

13. -ile, -il, -le (= Lat. -ilis, denoting ' capable of or * adapted 
for ' the action indicated by a verb-root) : fragile, frail, subtle, 
able {habilis), agile. 

14. -able, -ible, -ble, ( = Lat. -ahilis, -ibilis, the same in sense as 
the preceding) : culpable, probable, flexible, feeble (from flebilis, 
0. Fr. floible, compare the Gei-man wenig, formerly weinic or 
weinig, from wein-efi). Naturalized and added to Teutonic roots, 
ae teachable, eatable, &c. 


15. -ne or -n { — -na, -num) ; plane, plan, fane, reign, sign. 

16. -an, -ain, -one, -en, -on ( = -anu8, a, tun, and denoting ' con- 
nected with ') : pagan, publican, captain, chaplain, certain, mundane, 
humane, mizzen {niedianus),scriven-er, surgeon {chirurgii/nns), sexton 
{ = sac7-istan), parisMon-er {parochianus) ; -en from -cniis in alien. 

17. -ine, -in, -im (=Lat. -inus, a, urn, same meaning' as the 
preco<'""^g) : divine, saline, equine, marine, canine, &c. : Nouns, 
docti'i//'; rapine, pilgrim, matins, 

18. -ain, -aign, -eign, -ange ( = Lat. -aneus), mount ain, champaign, 
campaign, foreign [foraneus), strange {extraneus). 

19. -ar (=;Lat. -aris); regular, singular, &c. 

20. -ary, with the secondary formations -arious, -arian (= Lat. 
-arius) ; necessary, adversary : Nouns, granary, salary. Gregari- 
wis, nefarious, antiquarian, librarian, &c. 

21. -er, -ier, -eer, -or ( = Lat. -aritts, denoting usually 'one 
whose functions are connected with ' that for which the primitive 
noun stands); archer {arcuarius), carpenter, mariner, butler, officer, 
usher (ostiarius), farrier (^ferrarius), brigadier, cannoneer, chan- 
cellor, councillor. Engineer (Fr. ingenieur) from itigcniator. 

22. -ery, -ry, -er (from nouns in -aria or -eria, denoting a ' con- 
dition ' or a ' collection,' or forming a generic name for acts of a 
certain kind) ; slavery, cavalry, pantry [pariter = panetarius), 
nunnery, carpentry, river {riparia), gutter (that in which guttae 
i.e., drops collect). 

-ry was naturalized (with the same force) as an independent 
formation, as in Jewry, fairy, jeioelry, poetry, poultry [poult), 
spicery, peasantry, thievery, knavery, cookery. 

23. -ess, -ese (rr: Lat. ensis), burgess, Chinese. 

24. -ess, feminine suffix : see § 45. 

25. -el, -le, -I (= Lat. -ulus, -a, -um, and the secondary forms, 
-alius, -ellus, -illus) ; angle, people, buckle {buccula, from the face 
with which it was commonly adorned), table, sample, metal, 
chancel {cancelli), castle, chapel, libel, veal (vitulus). Farticipk 
{participium), principle (^principium), and chronicle {chronica) are 

26. -el, -le, {=: Lat. -ela) ; quarrel {querela), candle. 

27. -He, -bule (= Lat. bulus, -a, -um), fable, stable, vestibule. 

28. -de, -eel, -sel {^=. Lat. cuius, a, um or cellus, -a, -um, with 
diminutive force), uncle, carbmwle, article, particle, parcel {parti- 
eella), damsel {dominicella). 

29. -ele, -ere (z= Lat. culum or crum, denoting usually the instru- 
ment of some action) ; receptacle, obstacle, tabernacle, sepulchre, 

30. -ive, -tive, -tiff, -sive (= Lat. -ivus, or when added to the 
stem of the perfect participle, -tivus, -sivus, denoting ' inclined to ' 
or 'apt for' the action denoted by the verb); adoptive, restive 
pe/isive, fugitive, active, native, plaintive, plaintiff, caitiff {captivus) 
indicative, abusive, bailiff' {bajulivus), &c. Naturaliiied in talkative 
Hasty, jolly, testy have lost an/.- in old French they are hastif 
jolif, testif { = hcady). See Koch ui. 2, p. 48. 


31. -ose, -Otis (= Lat. -osus, Ft. -eux, de:ioting' 'full of,' or 
• abounding in') ; jocose, verbose, curious, famous, glorious. Imitated 
in mai'vellous, chivalrous, &c. 

32. -ous, (= Lat. -us) in assiduous, anxious, omnivorous. Natu- 
ralized and added to Teutonic stems in murderous, wondrous. 
Adjectives in -acioxs, and -ocious, are enlarged from the Latin 
-ax and -ox, as mendacious, loquacious, ferocious. Fitcous for the 
ol^ev 2}itous (pietosus). Righteous a corruption of rihtwis. 

33. -estrial, -estrian, enlarged from Lat. -estris. Equestrian 

34. -ant, -ent (z= Lat. ans, ens. termination of imperfect par- 
ticiple) ; distant, current, &c. These fomis are often used ad 
nouns, as accident, tenant, &c. 

35. -ance, -ancy, -ence, -ency (= Lat. -antin, -entia, forming ab- 
stract nouns from the preceding) ; distance, irfancy, continence, 
decency, chance {cadcntia). Imitated in gri':vance, &c. Province 
{provincia =i providcntia) ; =z nd. from. Lat. -ndus : legend, dcodand. 

36. -ion, -tion, -sion, -son, -som (:=: Lat. -ion, gi\ang -tion, -sion, 
when added to the stem of the perfect participle^ ; opinion, 
nation, tension, mission, &c. Foison [potion-), treason (tradition-), 
ransom {redemption-), reason, venison, season {sation-, sowing time). 

37. -tire, -mre, -sure (^ Lat. -ura, and with p.p. sufEix, -tura, 
-sura) • figure, venture, scripture, measure. 

38. -ter ; master {tnagister from mac/is), minister (from minus). 

39. -tor, -sor, -er, -or, -our ( = Lat. -tor, -sor, -ator) : doctor, 
successor, censor, founder (ftindator). Juror (jurator), enchanter, 
emperor, saviour. The abbreviated -er got mixed up with the 
A.S. -ere. 

40. -our {= Lat. -or), labour, ardour, honour. Through French 
•eur. Imitated in behaviour, &c. 

41. -tory, -sory, -ser, -or, -our, -er (z= Lat. -torium, -soriuni), 
auditory, accessory, censer, mirror (jniratorium), parlour {parlato- 
rium), manger (tnanducatoria). 

42. -ter, tre (=: Lat. -trum) : cloister, theatre. 

43. -me, -m, -n (:= Lat. -men) : volume, chcrm, leaven {levamen), 

44. -ment (rz: Lat. -mentum, denoting the means or instrument, 
or the act itself) : ornament, pigment. Naturalized in payment, 
bewitchment, fulfilment, &c. 

45. -ty {= Lat. -tat) : vanity, cruelty, city [civitat-), Sec. 

46. -ct, -let (compare -ing and -ling), having a diminutive force; 
of obsciu-e origin, but naturalized in English. Owlet, cygnet, 
ballet, circlet, pocket, coronet, bracelet, armlet, cutlet, streamlet, 

47. -on, -one, -oon (denoting a large specimen of the thing in 
question, as in the Latin nick-names j.Y/7.w=: Big-nose, Gapitoii^Big- 

' head). Balloon, tronhone, cartoon, milliim, f,agoi( , pennon , glutton. 

48. -ish (from Lat. -ckco, through the Erench inchoative con- 
jugation in -ir, -issant : see Brachet's Mist. Fr. (J-r. p. 131) : 
fiaurish, banish, punish, &c. 



49. Words in -ave, -tie, -atic, -aceous, -id, -lent, -lence, -mony^ 

-esque {-iscus from icus), -tude, -bund or -bond, -tend, -umn, &c., 
will be readily recognized as of Latin origin. 

327 There are two principal modes in which verbs are formed in 
English from Latin verbs. One mode is by taking simply the 
crude fcrm of the infinitive mood or present tense, without any 
Buffix ; as intend, defend, manumit. Sometimes mute e makes 
its appearance after a long vowel, as in uiclii^e, opine, revise. 
The second mode is to adopt as a suffix the termination of the 
perfect participle passive (slightly modified), t, s, ate, or ite 
(Lat. tils, suf, atus, itiis) ; as create (from creatus), conduct 
(from conductus), credit (from creditux), expedite (erpeditiis), 
incense (from incinsus). When derivatives are formed by both 
methods, one generally retains one of the meanings of the original 
verb, the other another. Compare deduce and deduct ; conduce 
and conduct; construe and construct; revert a.uA. reverse; convert 
and converse. 

328 Nouns (or adjectives) and verbs of Latin origin are often the 
same in foi-m, but are distmguished by the accent, the noun or 
adjective having the accent on the first syllable, the verb on the 



NoiiH or Adjective. 































J29 The following prefixes are found in words of Greek origin : — 

1 . a or an (not) . Anarchy. 

2. a>wjy/u (on both sides, M- round). Amphibious, amphitheatre. 
3 ana (up). Anabasis, anatomy, analogy. 

4, anti (against). Antithesis, antipathy. 

6. fljpo (from). Apogee, ajMlogy. 

6. catn (down). Catalepsy, catastrophe. 

7. di (two, or in two). Disyllabic, diphthong. 

8. <;iff (through, among). Diameter, diaphanous. 

9. en or cii (in or on). Emphasis, enema. 

10. etido (within). Endosmose. 

11. epi (upon). EpUogue, epitaph. 

12. ec or ex (out of) . Exodus, ecstatic. 

13. exo (outside). Exosmose. 

14. hyper (over). Hyperbolical 


16. hypo (under). Hypotenuse, hypothesis. 

16. meta (implying change). Metamorphosis. 

17. pa7-a (beside). Parabola, paraphrase. 

18. peri (round). Peristyle, perimeter. 

19. pro (before). Program. 

20. pros (to). Prosody. 

21. syn (with, together), modified into sym or syl. Syndic, 
syntax, symbol, syllogism, syllable. 

22. eu (well). Euphony, eulogy. 


330 The following suffixes mark words of Greek origin : — 

1. -e : catastrophe. 

2. -«/( = io): anatomy, monarchy. 

' 3. -ad or -id. Iliad, ^neid, Troad. 

4. -ic, -tic. Logic, cynic, ethics, arithmetie. 

6. -ac, maniac, Syriac. 

6. -sis, -sy, -se {pz -arts) : crisis, emphasis, palsy {paralysis), 
hypocrisy, phrensy, eclipse. 

7. -ma : diorama, enema. 

8. -tre, -ter {-Tpov) : centre, meter. 

9. -st, iconoclast, sophist, baptist. 

10. -te, -t (= Tjjs) : apostate, comet, patriot. 

11. -sm : sophism, spasm, aneurism. 

12. -isk : asterisk, obelisk. 

13. -ize (in verbs): baptize, criticize. This termination and its 
derivatives have been imitated in modem formatioi^si. as minimize, 
theorize, deiym, egotism, egotist, annalist, papist. 

331 When a compound or derived word is made up of elements 
derived from different languages, it is called a hybrid [liyhrida = 
mongrel, from Greek vfipis), a.^ falsehood, politely. Some writers 
speak as if all such fonnations were faulty, and lay down as a 
rule that " in derived words all the parts must belong to one 
and the same language." This is quite a mistake. When a 
word of foreign origin has been thoroughly naturalized in 
English, it is capable of receiving all the inflections, prefixes, 
and affixes which are employed in English. If this were not 
the case we could not decline such -words when they are nouns 
or conjugate them when they are verbs. Such words as false- 
hood, grateful, unjust, rudeness, doubtless, useless, artful, acccaser, 
seducer, politeness, grandfather, conceited, readable, martyrdom, 
wondrous, are aU hybi'ids, the stem and the prefix or suffix 
being the one of English, the other of classical origin ; but 
any rule which would condemn such formations shoidd be 
rejected as arbitrary and groundless. The following principle, 
however, is observed in the foiination of derivatives: — If a 


derived word has been formed by means of an Englisb suffix, 
and a secondary derivative has to be formed by means of a 
prefix, the prefix should be English. If the suffix of the first 
derivative is of classical origin, the prefix should be classical. 
Thus we say undecided and indecisive, un- and -ed being both 
English, in- and -ive both Latin. So ungrateful, ingratitude; 
unjustly, injustice. But one or two suffixes of Latin origin (like 
-able) are treated as if of English origin, aa in unspeakable. 

332 Words compounded of Latin elements have often undergone 
considerable mutilation, so that they are not easy to recognize. 
Thus ostrich '= avis strut hio ; constable ziz comes stab uli ; jjarslcyz^ 
petroselinum ; bittern comes from mugi-taurus, corrupted into 
bngi-taurus ; mi grim (Fr. migraine) z= hemi-cranium, ' a pain 
affecting half the head'; bustard'=z avis tardus ; jeopardyz=.jocus 
partitus (a sportive venture, consisting in a choice between two 
alternatives) ; copperas ^ cupri rosa ; porpoise ■=. porcus piscis ; 
porcupine zz: porcus spinosus ; vinegar ^ vinum acre {alegar is 
' eager ' or sotir ale) ; verdict = vere dictum ; verjuice =r viridum 
jus ; viscount ■=. vice-comes ; grandam, granny (through French 
grande dame) = grandis doniina ; gramercy z= grand merci ; 
rosemary = ros marinas ; mnugre z=z male gratum ; van (avant) 
^ ab ante; rear, arrearzmad retro; chanticleer -^z chante clair ; 
summons ^ submoneas ; kerchief* ■=. cotivre chef ; curfew ■=. couvre- 
feu ; tennis rz tenez * catch ' ; lamprey = lambe petram, ' lick- 
stone,' from its habit of adhering to rocks by suction ; agree 
(originally an abverb a gre) z=: ad gratum ; dandelion =: dent de 
lion ; alert =z Ital. alV erta {erta from erecttcs) ; alartn z=. Ital. 
alVarme ' to arms ' (from armd). Verbs in -fy usually represent 
compounds of -Jicare, as edify, mortify, deify. Defy is irouo-fidere. 

333 An attentive examination of § 326 and section TV. of Appendix 
B will shiw the usual changes that are to be looked for when a 
Latin wi-rd has passed through French into English. The 
following ^amongst others of less difficidty) should be borne in 
mind : — 

1. b often vanishes from between vowels. Compare sudden and 

2. e OT g often vanishes when it occurs before a dental or 
between vowels. Compare.y<?«^ and factum, sure and. seeurus, pay 
and pacare, deny and denegare, display and displicare, rule and 
regula, seal and sigillum, allow and allocare. 

3. rf or < vanishes. Compare prey and praeda, ray and radius, 
chair and cathedra, c>:' and cauda, roll and rotulus, round and 
rotundus, treason and tradition-, and look at chance, obey, recreant, 
defy, chain, fay, &c., and see § 326, 2. 

• The sense of head (chef) bo completely disappeared, thatthe secondary com- 
pound handlcerchi^ was formed ; in which again the meaning of Aond was dis- 
regarded, so that the word neckhandkerehief was made, which literaUy ought in 
mean ' a luad-oavermg used for the hand^s tied round the neck,' 


4. Initial e becomes eh, as in ehiefy chance, ehandler, thant, 
change, &c. 

6. The consonantal force of II disappears ; as in couch from 
wttocare, beauty from heliUas, &c. 

6. b ox p becomes v or /, as in chief {caput), ravin {rapio), Hver 
(riparius), cover {co-operire),van {tih-uyite). 

1. di before a vowel becomes soft g or ch or j, as in degt 
{assediuni), journey {diurnnta), preach (praedicare), Jane [Diana). 

8. ti undergoes a similar cbange, as in voyage {viaticum), age 

9. bi, pi, vi before a vowel becomes ge or dgc, as in abridge 
{abbreviare), change {caiiibiare), plunge {plunibicure), rage {rubies), 
deluge {diluvium), assuage (ad-suavis), sage {sapio). 

334 A Latin word adopted in old English or brought in through French 
has sometimes been re-introduced at a later period directly from 
the Latin. In that case the older word shows a more mutilated 
fonn than the later. Com' bishop and episcopal ; minster and 
monastery ; priest and presbyter ; pistol and epistle ; balm and 
balsam ; sure and secure. 

335 Sometimes the older form has kept its ground with a different 
shade of meaning. Compare joej/a«ce amd penitence ; blame and blas- 
phemy ; chalice and calix ; forge and Jabric ; countenance and 
continence; feat and fact ; defeat and defect; poor and pauper; 
ray and radius ; treason and tradition ; frail and fragile ; loyal 
and legal ; couch and collocate ; rule and regulate. 

336 There has also been a tendency to reject French modifications 
and other corruptions, and bring -words back again to their original 
form. Compare aferme and affirm ; auter and altar ; coler and 
collar; scoler and scholar ; noterer and notary; dotyr and doctor ; 
parfyt and perfect; sotil and subtile; dortoure and aormitory; 
caitiff and captive ; aunterous and adventurous. 

337. Proper names are often curiously disgnised in common words. 
Thus dunce is merely the name of the celebrated schoolman 
Buus Scotus ; tawdry is a corruption of St. Audrey {Ethelrcda), 
a fair at which gaudy wares were sold having been held on her 
feast-day ; grog is so called after Admiral Vernon, who fii-st 
served out to his sailors mm mixed with water, and was nick- 
named Old Grog from a cloak of grogram which he was in the 
habit of wearing; tram-ways are named after their inventor 
Outram ; cordwaincrs dealt in Cordovan leather; a lumber-room 
was a roojn in which Lombard pawnbrokers kept the goods 
pledged vnth them ; sarcenet was made by the Saracens ; cambric 
was made at Cambray ; cherries came from (Jerasus ; damsons from 
Damascus ; shalloon was made at Chalons ; copper was named from 
Cyprus ; muslin came from Mossul on the Tigris. 
For fuller lists of similar words the student must consult some of 

the various glossaries that deal with them. 

SYNTAX. 137 


342 The word syntax meaus arrangement (Greek syn, together, 
taxis, arrangement). The rules of syntax are statements 
of the various ways in which the words of a sentence are 
related to each other. 

34 ci A sentence is a collection of words of such kinds, and 
arratiged in such a manner, as to make some complete 
By " making some complete sense" is meant, that aorne- 
tinny is said about something. 

344 It is plain, therefore, that every ordinary* sentence must 
consist of two essential parts: 1st, that which stands for 
what we speak about ; 2nd, that which is said about that 
of which we speak. The first part is called the subject, 
the second is called the predicate. 

In Grammar it is usual to employ the terms subject and 
predicate in a more restricted sense than in Logic. In 
Logic, the subject of a proposition is the entire description of 
that which is spoken of: the predicatf is all that is employed 
to represent the idea which is connected with the subject. 
Thus, in " This boy's father gave him a book," the subject 
is "this boy's father;" the predicate is "gave him a 
book." But in grammar, the single noun fatUer is called 
the subject, and gave the predicate, the words connected 
With father aud gave beiiis: treated as enlargements or 
adjuncts of the subject aud predicate. 

345 The word which stands for that about which we speak is 
called the subject of the sentence. The suhject of a sentence, 
which is a wor</, must not be confounded with the thing 
that is spoken about, or subject of discourse. 

346 That act of the mind by which the notion expressed by 
the predicate is joined to the notion expressed by the 
subject, is called a. judgment. The result of a judgment is 
a thought. The expression of a thought is a sentence. 

• In Latiu and Anprlo-Saxon we hav« sentences in which there is absolutely no 
■nhject, as pluit (it rains), tonat (it thunder-), concurritur (a rush together takes 
place). The word it. that we Use in such ease", is the mere ghost of a subject. 
There is really nothing detinite to whi' h it relatfs. (See further \ b82.J 

138 SYNTAX. 

347 It) Logic propositions are always reduced to the form of which 
" Gold is yeUow " may be taken as a type ; that is, two terms (a« 
they are called) are united by the verb is, are, &c. Of these terms 
the first is called the subject, the second the predicate, and the 
intei'vening verb, is, are, &c., is called the copula, or link. Thu.s in 
the above sentence "gold" would be the subject, "yellow" the 
predicate, and is the copula. In grammar, however, this is quite 
needless, and would be very troublesome. " Time flies," or " Tempus 
fugit," is a perfect sentence as it stands, and yet involves no part 
of the verb be or esse, exiDrePsed or understood. In " Time flies " the 
subject is "time"; that which is predicated of time, is " flying " ; 
the root of the verb Jlies expresses this idea, and the personal 
terjnination of the verb " tlies " uuites this predicate to the subject. 
In grammar the copula consists simply of the personal injlections 
of the verb, that is to say, of the inflections or forms by which 
number and person are marked, and by which the verb is made a 
finite verb. 

348 Inasmuch as the personal terminations of a verb hare no 
existence apart from the verb itself, it is usual (and con- 
venient) in grammar to treat the copula as a part of the 
predicate. Thus in the sentence, " Time flies," time is 
called the subject, and flies the predicate. This mode of 
speaking is slightly different from the use of the word pre- 
dicate in Logic ; but it must be understood that in using the 
word predicate, w« mean the predicate and copula combined* 

349 Whenever we speak of anything, we make it a separate 
object of thought. A word that can stand for anything 
which we make a separate object of thought is called a 

350 It follows, therefore, that the subject of a sentence must be 
a substantive, or what is equivalent to a substantive. 

351 An adjective denotes an attribute which is attached to 
some thing, but is not the name of a sei>arate object of 
thought. An adjective, therefore, can never be the subject 
of a sentence. 

352 Substantives may be arranged in the following classes : — 

1. Nouns. 

2. The Substantive Pronouns (see § 130). 

* In Logic every proposition is thrown into a shape in which a pait of the verb 
be is the copula simply for the purpose of conversion, i.e., of altering the proposi- 
tion so that the subject becomes predicate and the predicate subject. But the 
business of griammar is to analyse the forms and coinbii)ati<jiis wliich language 
actually gives us, not other bailjarous expressions which are asseited to b>^ their 
equivalents. Grammariiins who try to foist the logical copula " )s " into grammar, 
ai-e careful not to travel bnyond such examples as " Man is mortal." The task of 
dealing with such a sentence as "Johu went lo London" they leave to their 

sy^ta:s.. 138 

3. The Infinitive Mood (see § 189). 

4. Gerunds, or Verbal Nouns (see § 200). 

5. Any word which is itself made the subject of discourse, 
every word being a name for itself. 

6. A phrase or quotation ; a phi-ase being, to all intents 
and purposes, a iiame for itself. 

7. A Substantive Clause, that is, a clause which, in its 
relation to the rest of the sentence, has the force of a single 
substantive (§ 402). 

353 The only part of speech by means of which we can make 
an assertion is the verb (see § 179). The essential part of 
every affirmation respecting an object of thought is a 
finite verb {i.e., a verb in some one of its personal forms, 
not the infinitive mood or participle). 

354 The subject and the verb are the cardinal points of every 
sentence. All other words in a sentence are attached 
directly or indii'ectly to one or other of these two. 

355 When a sentence contains only one subject and one finite 
verb, it is said to be a simple sentence. 

When a sentence contains not only a principal subject 
and its verb, but also other dependent or subordinate 
clauses which have subjects and verbs of their own, the 
sentence is said to be complex. 

The subject of a complex sentence may be an entire 

When a sentence consists of two or more principal and 
independent sentences connected by co-ordinative con- 
junctions, it is said to be compound. 

356 The subject of a sentence stands for some object of thought : 
the predicate denotes some fact or idea which we connect 
with that object, and the union between the two is efi'ected 
by the copula. But this union may be viewed in more 
ways than one. 

1. When it is our intention to declare that the connexion 
which IS indicated between the subject of discourse and 
the idea denoted by the predicate does exist, the sentence 
is declarative ; * as, "Thomas left the room." 

2. "^Tien it is our wish to know whether the connexion 
referred to subsists, the sentence is interroyative ; as, " Did 
Thomas leave the room ? " 

3. When we express our will that the connexion between 
the object of thought denoted by the subject, and that 

• A negative sentence is Only a particular variety of affirmative sentence. If we 
deny that .Tohn is here by saying, " John id not here," we uj/iim that John U no\ 


wHch is expressed by the predicatb, should subsist, the 
sentence that results is called an imperative sentence ; as, 
" Thomas, leave [thou] the room." * 

4. When we express a wish that the connexion may 
subsist, the sentence that results is called an optative 
sentence; as, " May you speedily recover." 

In some imperative sentences the will is so weakened as 
to become simply a wish ; as, '* Defend us, Lord." " Sing, 
heavenly muse." The grammatical force of the sentence, 
however, is not altered by this. 
357 In all the above-named kinds of sentences, the grammatical 
connexion between the subject and the verb is the same. 
It is sufficient, therefore, to take one as a type of all. 
The affirmative sentence is the most convenient for this 


858 The starting point in a sentence is the subject. To thia 
the other words of the sentence are attached directly or 
indirectly. The modes in which the various words and 
groups of words in a sentence are related to each other 
may be classed as follows : — 1. The Predicative Relation. - 
2. The Attributive Relation. 3. The Objective Relation. 
4. The Adverbial Relation. 

The Predicative Relation. 
359 The Predicative Relation is that in which the predicate of 

• It is amusing to see how some ■writers puzzle themselves about the grammatical 
equivalence of all these forms, owing to the fact that grammar has borrowed from 
lugic (which does not take accoimt of questions or commands) the tei-m predicate, 
tudenote the notion of action or attribute which, by means of a verb, we connect in 
thought with sometliing that we think about. Of course predicate, if taken literally, 
imi)lies assertion, and commands and questions are not assertions. But, till we get 
a better term, it is quite easy to use predicate in a technical sense, with a Umitation 
of its literal meaning, just as a mathematician puts up with the terms addition and 
multiplication in algebra, although the operations so designated may be (arithme- 
tically) subtraction or division. No one scruples to call to an adverb, even though in 
go manii it qualities not a verb, but an adjective. One writer propounds the curioua 
stateiiicnt that in imperative sentences the nominative becomes vocative, and a 
noun in the vocative case cannot be the suhject of a verb in the imperative mood ; 
Hnd there tore imperative verbs have no subject. Of course in ' Thomas, leave ths 
room,' tlie noun ' Thomas' is reduced to a vocative, because nouns are always of 
Sie third person, and therefore a noun cannot be the subject of either an assertive 
jt an imperative sentence in which the verb is in the second person. The introduc- 
tion of the personal pronoun is indispensable when Thomas t» addretaed, as in 
•Thomas, you left the room,' or 'Tbomas, leave [you] the room.' The pronoHn, 
expressed or understood, is then the subject. It is often expressed even with im- 
perative verbs, as ' Hear ye, Israel.' Sentences like ' Audi tu, populus Albanus' 
are common enough in Latin, and show that the nominative force of tu is sufficient 
to lead to the Bub.stitution nf a nominative in apposition to it, in Ueu of the vocativa 
that might have been expected. 

BTNTAX. 141 

a sentence stands to its subject.* The predicative relation 
to the subject may be sustained by a verb, or by a verb of 
incomplete pitdication and its complement (see § 392). "In 
the sentence, " The boy ran away," the verb ran is in the 
predicative relation to the subject boy. In the sentence, 
" The ball is round," not only the verb is, but the adjective 
round, -which belongs to the predicate, is said to be in the 
predicative relation to the subject ball. 

The Attributive Relation. 

360 When we speak of anything, and connect with it the 
idea of some attribute that it possesses, or some circumstance 
respecting it, assuming the connexion, but not asserting it, 
the word or phrase by means of which the attribute is 
indicated, is said to stand in the attributive relation to the 
word which denotes the thing spoken of. Thus, in " Wise 
men sometimes act foolishly," the adjective wise stands m 
the attributive relation to the noun men. The attribute 
which it denotes is assumed to belong to the men, but it is 
not asserted of them. If we say, " The men are wise," then 
wise is in the predicative relation to men ; the attribute is 
asserted of them. If we say, " Socrates was wise," wise 
is in the predicative relation to Socrates. If we say, 
"Socrates was a wise man," then wise stands in the 
attributive relation to the word man, and wise man stands 
in the predicative relation to Socrates. 

361 As an attribute can only belong to a thing, it is only 
to substantives that words can stand in the attributive 
relation. Words or combinations of words, which stand 
in this attributive relation to a substantive, may be called 
attributive adjuncts. 

362 Attributive adjuncts may be of the following kinds : — 

1. An adjective or participle, either used simply, or 
accompanied by adjuncts of its own; as, "A large apple, 
many men" ; " the soldier, covered with wounds, still kept 
his ground." 

2 A noun in apposition to the substantive; as, "John 
Smith, the baker, said so," or a substantive clause in apposi- 
tion to some substantive, as, " the report that he was killed 

• A relation of this sort is, of course, reciprocal. In the sentence, " The hoy ran 
away," while ran is in the predicative relation to boy, boy is in its turn in the 
itihyective relation t<i mn. But as these are only two different modes of yiewin^ 
the »ame griiuuuiiUcal combiualion, a separate claosihcalion id unnecessaxj. 

142 SYNTAX. 

is untrue," where the clause that he luaa killed is in appoa- 
tion to report. 

3. A substantive in the possessive case ; as, " My father't 
house"; '' John^s book"; "The man whose house was 
burnt down," &c. Or a substantive preceded by of, used 
as the equivalent of the genitive case in any of its mean- 
ings when it was attached to a noun; as, " One of us''; 
" The leader of the party "; " The love of money,"* 

4. A substantive preceded by a preposition, forming what 
would naturally be an adverbial adjunct of an attributive 
word, but which through the omission of some participle 
or adjective has become attached directly to the noun,t as : 
" A horse /or riding {i.e., ' Ahorse kept, or being, or suitable 
for riding ') ; "A mistake to be avoided " {i.e., ' A mistake 
which is to be avoided ') ; " Water to drink " {i.e., ' Water 
that is for drinking'); "The trees in the garden" ; "A 
time to weep " (§ 192) ; " A man on horseback," &c. A 
simple adverb may be used in the same way, as: "The 
house here " ; " An outside passenger" ; " The then state of 
affairs." These may be called quasi-attributive adjuncts of 
the noun. 

Under this head we may class those instances in which an 
adverb or adverbial prepositional phrase is attached to a 
noun by virtue of the idea of action which the noun in- 
volves, J as : " Our return home " (compare ' We returned 
home'); " His journey <o Paris "('he journeyed to Paris') ; 
" The revolt of the Netherlands /ro;?i Spain " (' The Nether- 
lands revolted from Spain '), &c. 

5 An Adjective Clause. (See § 408.) 

3fi3 Adjectives (including participles) must always be either in the 
attributive, or in the predicative relation to some substantive 
expressed or understood. But one noun in the plural may be used 
distributively with two or more adjectives, provided no obvious 

• One curious use of of is that in which it replaces the relation of apposition, a3 
in " The month of June '' ; " The island of Sardinia " ; " A brute of a fellow " ; 
" A milksop of a boy.'' The genitive is similarly employed sometimes in Latin. 
On the other hand, apposition has sometimes replaced the use of of, as in 
'A hundred sheep'; 'A dozen yards.' 0/ reappears when the numeral is used 
VHth the plural suffix ; as " Hundreds of pounds ; " " Dozens of persons." 

t Similarly in Greek oi vvv at.Hpwvot iaol vvv ovret tivUpuiwui. As the mention 
of a tiling presupposes its bein;/ (at least notianally, which is all that is necessary) 
the omission of that which indicates being is very easy. "When a noun is vised 
atlrihuiivdy (j o<5'2, 2) it may be qualified by an adverb just like any other attribu- 
tive word, as " This man, once the possessor of a large fortune." 

i It is the notional signification of a verb, not its predicative fimction, which la 
qualified by an adverb, or defined by an objective case. Hence participles and 
gerunds, which are not predicative, have objects and adverbs attached to them, 
•nd some nouns admit of at least an approach to the same ooustruction. 

snrrAZ. 14S 

an ibigTiity be produced, and the article the be not repeated. Thus '. 
" He is master of the English, French, and German languages,"* 
meaning 'The English language, the French language, and the 
German language; ' " The European and African races," meaning 
'The European race and the African race,' ' The third and fourth 
regiments,' &c. If we say " The European and the African races," 
we mean ' The European races and the African races,' but ' The 
European and the African race ' means the same as ' The European 
\'ace and the African race.' But when the adjectives denote at- 
tributes that may co-exist hi the same thing, such phrases arr 
ambiguous. " The black and white balls " might mean ' The balh 
which are black and white ' (parti-coloured), ' The black ball and 
the wliite ball,' or ' The black balls and the white balls.' If the 
first meaning is not intended, we should say, ' The black and 
the white ball,' or ' The black and the white balls,' according to 

361 When a word (not Loiag a substantive in tlie possessive 
case) is in the attributive relation to a substantive, it must 
agree with it in number, gender, and case, if it is capable 
of expressing those distinctions by its form; as, " T/i/s 
man^' ; " These men.'' 

38t "Words which stand in the attributive relation to a substantive 
should (in English) be placed next it, except when the attributive 
is (lualified by an adverb or adverbial phrase.* 
Attributive adjectives (or participles), when used singly or accom- 
panied by not more than a single adverb, should precede the nouns 
that they Qualify; as, ' A black hat'; 'A very large dog'; ' A 
quickly passing shower '; but if they are modified by a complex 
adrerbial adjunct, or are followed by an object, they should be 
placed after the noun ; as, " They were implicated in the plot so 
fatal to their party "; " I saw a man stealing the apples." 

S65J One attributive adjunct may often be replaced by another. Thus, 
for " The king's palacR," we may say, ' The palace of the king,' or 

* The palace which belongs to the king,' or ' The palace belonging 
to the king,' &c. An attributive adjunct sometimes (especially in 
poetry) expresses a condition, and may be replaced by an adverbial 
olause. Thu3, in " Forekn.owlodge had no iufluonce on their fault, 
which had no less proved certain unforeknown" (Milton), unf ore- 
known is equivalent to ' if it had been unforeknown.' 

36oc Attributive adjuncts may be used in two ways. (1) They may be 
distinguishing or definitive, as when we say, ' A black horse,' or 

* Four men.' Here black and four distinguish the thing or things 
referred to from others comprehended under the same common 
name. (2) They may be descriptive, i.e., adding some additional 
description to a thing alrsiidy defined by its name, or by some 
definitive word, as in "Louis Napoleon, Einperor of the French" ; 
" Next came the king, mounted om a white horse." (Compare 

• The following sentence, therefore, is faulty : — " The country — beyond which 
the *rts cannot be traced of civil society or domestic life." (Johnson, Rassdas.) 
Such sentences as : " The di ath is announced of Mr. John Brown," are getting 
(r«q<ie|it in the newspapers, but are quite indefensible. 


the definitive and continuative nses of the relative prononn. Se$ 
$ 413.) 

The Objective Relation. 

366 When a verb, participle, or gerund denotes an action 
which, is directed towards some object, the word denoting 
that object stands in the objective relation to the verb, 
participle, or gerund. Thus, in " The dog bites the boy," 
boy is in the objective relation to bites. In, " Seeing the 
tumult, I went out," tumult is in the objective relation to 
seeing. In, " Hating one's neighbour is forbidden by the 
Gospel," neighbour is in the objective relation to the gerund 
hating. The object of a verb is the word, phrase, or clause 
which stands for the object of the action described by the 

367 As an action can be exerted only upon a thing, f it is only 
a substantive, or a phrase or clause which is equivalent to a 
substantive, that can stand in the objective relation to 
a verb, participle, or gerund. An adjective can never be 
the object of a verb. 

868 When an infinitive mood is used after another verb, 
it always stands to the latter in the objective relation 
when not preceded by to, and very often when it has to 
before it. 

369 The objective relation is not indicated by prepositions. J 
In declinable words the objective relation is indicated by 
the iLse of the objective case. 

• Thi < use of the term object is perfectly simple, intelligible, and unobjectionable. 
It would be better if it were the only use of it allowed in grammar. Many writers, 
however (following Becker), apply the term to any sort of grammatical adjunct which 
serves to detennine or restrict the genenil application of a verb. Thus not only 
the direct object of a transitive verb, but the place, the manner^ nay, even the cause 
of an action, are included under the name object. This is altogether unnatural 
and arbitrary, and there is not the slightest necei::sity for it. To say that in the 
sentence, " He severed the head from the body," hcid and from the body are both 
objects of severed, will confuse the learner rather than help him. Grammatical 
ideas are not simplified or arranged by being jumbled together under one title, any 
more than papers are sorted or classified by being bundled together into one 
pigeon-hole. The term completing object which is applied by Becker to what in this 
work is called the object, is also objectionable. If we compare such sentences as 
"He strikes the ball," and ''He runs across the meadow," it seems obvious 
enough that strikes expresses the action in the first, quite as completely as runs does 
in the second. The description of the action as such is completely expressed by the 
verb in each case. At any rate, if b,iU is to be called the completion of the predi- 
cate in the one case, across the mendnw .should be so also in the second. 

f That is, what we can make a separate object of thought. 

} A substautive preceded by a preposition always constitutes either an attributive 
adjunct (§ .302, 4), or an adverbial adjunct (§ 372, 2). When the preposition is used 
to denote the relation of a thing to a thing (§ 277), we get an attributive adjunct ; 
when it denotes the relation of an attribute or action of a thing to some other 
tSiinfr, we go*, ar adverbial adjunct. 

BTNTAX. 148 

370 The objective relation ia expressed by tbe rule, that 
" transitive verbs, with their imperfect participles and 
gerunds, govern nouns and pronouns in the objective 

In compound sentences an entire clause may be in the 
objective relation to a verb, participle, or gerund. 

The Adverbial Relation. 

371 The functions of an adverb are defined in § 259. Any 
word, phrase, or clause which is attached to a verb or 
adjective to show the conditions or limitations of place, 
time, manner, degree, cause, effect, &c., which modify or 
limit an action or attribute, stands in the aduerhial relation 
to the verb or adjective, and may be called an adverbial 
adjunct to it. 

372 Adverbial adjuncts may be of the following kinds : — 

1. An adverb (see § 259) ; as, "He fought bravely." "1 
set out yesterday^ " He is very industrious." 

2. A substantive preceded by a preposition; as, "He 
hopes far success." "I heard of his arrival.^'* "He is 
sitting on a stool." " He killed the bird with a stovJ' " I 
love him /or his virtues." " He is fond of reading." "He 
is guilty of murder." " All but one t were present." 

The gerundial infinitive (§ 192) often forms an adverbial 
adjunct of a verb or adjective; e.g., "He toils to earn a 
living." " He strives to swcceec?." ""We eat to Hue." "He 
has gone to fetch his hat." "This food is not Ht to eat." 
"This coat is too good to give away." " This house is to 
letX (=/<"■ lettin;/)." " He is a foolish man to throw away 
such a cha7ice." Here to throw away, &c., is in the adverbial 

• Some g^tiinmarians hold that in these eases the verb and preposition should 
be taken together as forming a sort of compouud transitive verb, of which the 
noun that follows is the object. This is inadmissible. It contradicts all analogry. 
It is absurd to attfmpt to i.-^olate EngUsh from eog-nate lang'uages, and to explain 
constructions common to English and several other languages by methods which, 
even if valid at all, would be applicable only to English. " I am speaking of you " 
ia precisely analogous to the i'reneh, '" Je parle de vous," the German " Ich spreche 
von dir," and the Latin '" Loquor de te." Nobody would for a raoment admit that 
loquor de makes a compound transitiue verb, and that de has ceased to be a prt-posi- 
tion and become an adverb united to the verb. It ia true we can say in Knglisii, 
" Tliis was spoken of ;" but so can we also say, " He was taken cai-e of," " He was 
promised a new coat." It will be amusing to find •'to-promise-a-new-coat," " to- 
take-care-of." &c., set down as compound transitive verbs governing the objective 
case. (See § 186.) 

+ In Anglo-Saxon 'bUtan linum.' 

t In Anglo-Saxon the active voice is always used in phrases of this sort ; e.g., 
" Mannes sunn ys t6 syllanne on mannu handa," ' the 8<hi of Man is to be given 
(to give) into the hands of men ' (Mali. xvii. 22i. 

146 STUTAX. 

relation to foolish. An adverbial adjunct may also consist 
of a substantive clause governed by a preposition (see ^§ 289, 
418). But, followed by an infinitive mood or a clause, often 
forms an adverbial adjunct; as, "I would buy it but that 
I have no money," where ' bui that — money ' forma an 
adverbial adjunct to would buy. 

In many adverbial adjuncts of this class the noun preceded by the 
preposition e/or to was formerly in the genitive or dative case, as, 
for example, aiter full, clean, mindful, guilty, weary, &c. Prepo- 
sitional phrases have sometimes rej)laced direct objects, as in ' ^o 
admit of '; ' to accept of\' ' to dispose of '; ' to approve of &c. 

3. A noun qualified by some attributive adjunct, and so 
forming a phrase denoting time when, the measure of space 
or time, direction, &c., or marking some attendant circum- 
etance of an action; as, '* He arrived last night." "We 
see him every day." "We stayed there all the summer." 
"He walked ten miles." "He lives three miles away." 
** A hundred times better." " Three furlonys* broad." 
"Go that way." "They advanced sword in hand." 
"They went over dry foot"-\ "The ship drove/MZ? satZ."^ 
"Day by day." " Niy/it after night." " Ste]} by step," &c., 
are adjuncts of this class. In all such expressions the 
noun is in the objective case, representing either a dative 
or an accusative case. 

4. A substantive in the objective case, before which some 
such preposition as to or for might have been put, and which 
in Latin, Greek, or German would be in the dative case ; 
as, "Give me {i.e., to me) the book." "I will sing you 
(i.e., for you) a song." " l)o me {i.e., for me) the favour." 
" Teach me Thy statutes." "You are like| him [i.e., like 
to him)." This use of the objective may be called the 
adverbial objective. A noun thus used with a verb is often 
called the indirect object of the verb.§ 

It is perhaps imder the head of the adverbial relation that we 
should class surh anomalous passive constructions as, " lie was 
taught hii lesson. ' " He was paid his bill." " He was promised a 

* In cases like this the genitive was used in Anglo-Saxon, as " ])reora furlanga 
brSd' (three furlongs broad) . Tliis frenilive is rciiresi'Uled in rilii 'Knglish by o/', 
as " Let a gallows be made of fifty cuhitti hl^h " {Esther v. 14) ; " He was of eyylite 
and thrj-tty yer old " {lloh. o/Gl.). The </a«iw was used in dofuiiug a comparative. 
Much {as in much better) or little (as in Iktle viore) were datives, ' miclum ' and 
* lythim.' ' A foot taller ' means ' tailor by a foot,' 

t In Anglo-Saxon these exprossioTis would have been in the dative case. 

t The adverb like may also be modified by an adverbial objective, as " He talks 
like a fool." Similiter in Latin may be accompanied by a dative. 

^ Sec Shakspere {Taming of the, Shrrw. i. •/) for a himiorou.s illush-ation of the 
tilTeienue between the dative and the accusative sense of the Jinghsh objective. 


new eoat" &c., where an objective case seems to be governed by a 
passive verb. The accusative case in Latin is often used adverbially 
to define or limit the range within which the meaning of the verb ia 

Generally speaking, when two objective cases are used with a 
verb (except in the case of verbs of incomplete predication), one of 
them is the direct object, the other an adverbial adjunct * 

What is often termed the cognate accusative (or objective) (as in 
'to Txxn. a race,' 'to die a happy death') should more properly be 
classed among the adverbial adjuncts. f In Anglo-Saxon the dative 
was used in some cases, as, "Men hbban fam life" (Men Live that 
life) ; " He feaht miclum feohtum " (He fought great Jights). See 
Koch, ii. p. 94. 

5. A substantive (accompanied by some attributive ad 
junct) in the nominative or objective J absolute ; as, " Tin. 
sun having risen, we commenced our journey." " He being 
absent, nothing could be done." A substantive clause may 
be used absolutely, like a simple substantive, as, " Granted 
this is true, you are still in the wrong." 

Participles may be used absolutely in fliis manner without having 
any noun to be attached to (see § 282). In such a sentence as 
" Speaking generally, this is the case," the phi'ase 'speaking gene- 
rally ' is an adverbial adjunct of the predicate. 

6. An adverbial clause. 

373 Adverbs themselves admit of limitation or (qualification as 
regards degree ; as, " He writes very badly.'" " He will be 
here almost imuiediately." 

;^~4 When a noun stands in either the predicative or the attri- 
butive relation to another substantive, it may have words 
standing to it in the adverbial relation; as, "Napoleon, 
lately Emperor of the Pi-ench." 

375 The greater part of adverbial adjuncts are included in the 
following classification : — 

• Care is necessary in distingTiishinpr these, as the construction after a verb is not 
always unifonn. Thus in ' He taug'lit me Latin,' me answers to the dative case. 
In ' He taught me thoroughly,' me answers to the accusative. 

+ The cogTiate objective sometimes appears in a metaphorical shape, as in " to 
look (irt^/7e»s at a person "; " To rain fire and brimstone." The vague pronoun it 
is freely used in this construction, as, "We shall have to rough it"; "Go it, 
boys," &c. 

t Some grammaxians insist that in these constructions the objective (as the 
representative of the old dative) is the only proper case, and that the use of the 
nominative is the result of a mistake. Milton uses both constructions. Thus, 
"Him destroyed for whom all this vpas made, all this will soon follow " {P. L., ix. 
130) ; " Us dispossessed" {P. L., vii. 140). On the other hand, we tind, " Adam, 
wedded to another Eve, shaU live with her enjoying, I extinct " (P. L., ix. 944) ; 
'• Which who knows but might as Ul have happeued, thou being- by" (P. L., ix.). 
Sliakspere also uses the uoiuinative : " Thou away, the very buds are mute." When 
the forms admit of a choice, the nominative is preferred by modern writers. When 
the abbreviated pai ticiple except {§ ii83) is used, we always lind the objective caae, 
IS eM eccept me. The dative was used in AuKlo-Saxon. 


1. Adverbial adjunet$ of Time. — " I arrived be/ore his departtire "; 
" Come when I bid you " ; " He slept all day." 

2. Adverbial adjuncU of Flace. — " He lives over the way "; " He 
still lay where he had fallen "; " He lives a long way off." 

3. Adverbial adjuncts of Manner or Circumstance. — "You must 
do it in this ivay "; " You must act as I tell you "; " There being 
nothing to see, we came away"; "His statements Are for the most 
part untrue." 

4. Adverbial adjuncts of Condition. — " If this is so, the cose is 
hopeless" ; " Though He slay me, yet will I trust in Him" ; " Thii 
being granted, the proof is easy." 

6. Adverbial adjuncts of Cause. — "He left me o« that acootmt" ; 
" He sold the horse because he could not manage it." 
, 6. Adverbial adjunets of Consequence. — " He that sweareth to 
hit own hurt," &o. ; " He was so exhausted, that he could not 


376 As both the subject and tbe verb of a sentence are spoken 
of the same thing (the subject naming or denoting it, and 
the verb making some assertion respecting it), they must 
agree with each other in those points which they have in 
common, otherwise there would be a mutual contradic- 

The points which they have in common are number and 

377 Hence the rule that " A verb must agree with its subject * 
in number and person." 

378 The subject of a finite verb is put in the nominative 

379 Thus, the predicative relation is indicated partly by 
the subject of the verb being in the nominative case, 
and partly by the verb indicating by its iniiection the 
same number and person as the substantive which is its 

There is, however, an exception to this rule. The relation of the 
verb to the sii.tject is often modifled to suit the sense of the words 
rather than their form. Hence a noun in the singular number 
which denotes a multitude (as crowd, senate, army.Jiock) may have 
its verb in the plural number, when the idea to be kept in ^iew ia 

• It is common to say that a verb must agree with its nominative case in nunibei 
^nd person. Tliis mode of speakinf? is innorrect. It confounds a substantive with 
H case. A cast of a sul)st.antive is a certain /orm of it ; but it is obviuut-ly nonsense 
to talk of a verb agreeing mth a form 6i a substantive. In the sentence, "I 
wrote the letter," 7 IS not a «omi"^(!u« rase, hut a itronoun in the nmninnt'w case. 
Through thi-^ iiiischievou? habit of treating nnminntive case as synonymous with 
tuhjt'ct, bpgiuners in Latin, when parsing depeniii^nt sentences, are cuistantly 
betrayed into tlie absurdity of spe;iking of the suliject of the depcndeuc verb as 
being in the aceusative case, because it is the nominiiive to U^ verb in the infinitive 

STSTAJi. 149 

not the multitude viewed at one whole, but the individuals of which 
the multitude is composed. As, " The multitude were of one heart 
and one mind." But we should say, " The army was led into the 
defile," because we then speak of the army a* a whole. 

381 The verb is put in the plural number when it has for its 
subject two or more nouns in the singular coupled by the 
conjunction and;* as, " John and Thomas were walking 
together." But when the compound subject is considered 
as forming one whole, the verb is kept in the singular ; as, 
"The mind and spirit remains invincible"; "Hill and 
valley rings" (Par. L. ii., 495). 

382 In Engbsh every finite verb must have a subject in the 
nominative case expressed or understood.t Such a sen- 
tence as, " That is the man whom I heard was ill," is 
faulty, because the verb was is left without a subject ; the 
relative pronoun, which ought to be the subject, be'Jig 
wrongly put in the objective case. It should be, " That is 
the man who, 1 heard, was ni.":^ "I will give this to 
whomsoever wants it " is faulty in a similar way. Wants 
must have whosoever for its subject. Besides, the pre- 
position to marks a relation not to the relative pronoun, 
but to the antecedent him (understood) which is qualified 
by the adjective clause. Moreovei, a verb must only 
have one subject, and one subject can only belong to one 
verb. § 

383 The subject of a verb is sometimes understood as, " I 
have a mind presages me such thrift," for ' which pre- 
sages,' &c. ; " So far as [it] in him lies " ; "Do [he] what 

• When nouns are connected by the preposition with, the verb is sometimes put 
in the plural, in accordance with the general sense, but in violation of the strict 
rule of syntax. Thus: " GedaUah, who with his brethren and son were twelve" 
(1 Chron. xxv. 9). 

+ In Anglo-Saxon we find passive and other impersonal verbs nsed absolutely 
without any subject expressed or understood. Thus : " pam ylcan d6me J^e ge 
demaS eow byg gedi'med" (with the same judgment that ye juige to you [it] 
shall be judged); "him hungrede" (him hungeied). CoTW[>aLT6 tonat, pluit, pug- 
natum ett, &c., in Latin. The word it, that we now use in such cases, is the mere 
ghost of a subject. See §§ 344, a87, note. 

t The construction of a relative or interrogative pronoun may always be tested 
by that of a demonstratire pronoun used in its stead. The construction of " Whom 
I heard was HI," would be the same as that of " I heard him was HL"' 

} An exception to this rule has the sanction of some of the beet wiiters. Since 
a subordinative particle (such as t/, though, &c.) cannot prece-ie a relative pronoun, 
and yet must stand (if used) hrjryre the subject of its clause, who cannot be the sub- 
ject of a hypothetical clause unless it is repeated in the shape of he, sh-i, it, or they. 
Hence we find in ililton, " A right noble and pious lord, who had he not sacrificed 
his life and fortunes to the commonwealth," &:c. "Lend it rather to thine enemy, 
•tAo if fie break, thou mayst with better face exact the penalty" (J/. 0/ Ven., i. 3). 
This difficulty doee not present itself in Latin. In ^(t si d'diiset, qui is the sujjeot 
0( tU4i3set. 


he will, he oannot make matters worse." The subject of 
a verb iu the imperative mood is usually omitted. 

' Subject. 

184 The subject of a seutence m.ay be simple, compound, or 


385 The subject of a sentence is simple when it consists of a 
single substantive, or a simple infinitive mood; as, "/ 
love truth"; "Men are mortal"; "To err is human." 
(See § 352.) 

386 The subject of a sentence is compound when it consists of 
two or more substantives coupled together by the conjunc- 
tion ojici; as, "Caesar and Pompey were rivals." "You 
and I will travel together." * The conjunctions either, or, 
neither, nor, do not couple substantives together so as to 
form a compound subject. They imply that one of two 
alternatives is to be taken, not that the assertion can be 
made of both subjects simultaneousli/. The sentence is not 
simple, but compound and contracted (§ 445). Hence the 
verb is put in the plural only when the subject which is 
the nearer to it is in the plural; as, " Neither John nor 
Thomas has arrived " ; " Either he or his brothers were in 

587 The subject of a sentence is complex when it consists of an 
infinitive phrase, f of a substantive clause, or of a quota- 
tion ; as, "To love our enemies is a Christian duty "; 
" How to do it is the question " ; " That he said so is cer- 
tain"; " 'England expects every man to do his duty,' 
was Nelson's watchword." A complex subject is very 
often anticipated | by means of the neuter pronoun it, as, 

• Many grammarians insist that in cases of this kind we are to regard the 
Bentence as a contraction of two co-ordinate sentences joined by and. This ex- 
plunatioii mi^ht do vei-y well for such a sentence as, " Jolin and William are 
eleven years old"; that is, ''John is eleven years old, and William is eleven years 
old "; but it is simply absurd when applied to such a sentence as, " Two and three 
make five," or, " He and I are of the same age"; '' Blue and yellow make gieen." 
&c Be it observed, we have no riijht to alter the phraseology of the predicate. It is 
obvious, on tlic face of the thing, that what we have to deal with is not two verba 
in the singular, but one verb in the plural. Similar remarks apply to the case of 
two objects of a verb, or two noims after a preposition, when they are coupled by 
the conjunction and ; as, "He drank a glass of bx-andy and water." (See § 287.) 

t In old English the infinitive in such phi'ases is often without the to, as, "Me 
chaunctj of a knight encountered be" [Spi-nser, i. 2); " To know my deed 'twere 
best not know myself [Macb., ii 2) ; " Better be with the dead." 

J This is especiiUly the case with the impersonal verbs, such as, t< rtpents me, U 
becomes you, &c. These verbs were formerly much more numerous, as, it ghids mt, 
it pities me, &c. They were often used without it (or hit), as, ' me ferthinketh ' (it 
repents me); 'me shanieth that, &c.': 'me remembretii of the day of dom*' 
( Qhawxr) ; ' me douteth of the taruth ' ( Wid.i/ ) . See § 382, note X. 

" It IB certain that he said so " ; " It is wicked to tell lies." 
In such cases the complex subject is in apposition to the 
word it (§ 398). A pronoun is often used pleonastically to 
repeat a simple subject, as "The Lord, He is God"; "The 
green boughs, they wither." The word there in such 
sentences as, " There was a man of the Pharisees," can- 
not be taken as being anything else than an adverb. It 
is not the subject of the verb. It answers to the adverb y 
in the French phrase " II y a." Its force, however, has 
almost evaporated.* 

388 The subject of a sentence may have any attributive adjunct 
attached to itf (see §§ 360, 362) ; as, " Tliis tree is dead." 
" The man told a lie."' " Good men love virtue." " Edward 
the Black Prince did not succeed his father." " Johns coat 
is torn." " The defenders of the city were slain." " The 
brave old man died maintaining his innocence." " I'he general, 
having reviewed his troops, advanced to meet the enemy." 
If the subject is a verb in the infinitive mood, or a gerund, 
it may be accompanied by objective or adverbial adjuncts ; 
as, " To rise early is healthful " ; " To love one's enemies is 
a Christian dutv " ; " Playing with fire is dangerous." 


389 The predicate of a sentence is either simple or complex. 

390 The predicate of a sentence is simple when the notion to 
be conveyed is expressed by a single finite verb; as, " Virtue 
flourishes." "Time flies." "Hove." 

391 Many verbs do not make complete sense by themselves, 
but require some other word to be used with them to make 
the sense complete. Of this kind are the intransitive verbs 
be, become, grow, seem, can, do, shall, will, &c., and such 
transitive verbs as make, call, deem, think. To say, " The 
horse is," " The light becomes," " I can," or " I think the 
man," makes no sense. It is requisite to use some other 
word or phrase (a substantive, an adjective, or a verb in 
the infinitive) with the verb; as, "The horse is black." 
"The light becomes dim," "I can write." "William the 
Norman became King of England." " I think the man 
insane," "It made the man mad," " ^e was made king." 

• In German the neuter pronoun es ia used in such phrasea. In old English hit 

(i.e., it) was sometimes used instead of there. 

t In such cases the subject is sometimes said to be enlarged. The tenn is a bad 
one, because the grammatical subject is not enlarged, but r^.'fnct'rf. by thp use of 
adjuncts, at least as regards its cumpreheiision. ifen iuciudes luure lium wit* 



Verbs of this kind are called Verba of incomplete Predication, 
and the words used with them to make the predication 
complete may be called the complement of the jrredicate. * 
The complement may consist of any attributive adjunct 
(§ 362), as e.g., ' The earth is the Lord's,' ' The coat was oj 
many colours.' 
Verbs which are capable of forming simple predicates are 
often followed by complements, being verbs of incomplete 
predication so far as the matter in, hand is concerned. Thus 
live is not always and necessarily a verb of incomplete pre- 
dication, but in the sentence, " He lived happy ever after- 
wards," the predicate is lived happy, and happy forms a 
(subjective) complement to lived, which, therefore, is, so 
far, a verb of incomplete predication. So in " They went 
along singing," singing is the complement of went ; in " He 
stood gazing on the scene," gazing is the (subjective) com- 
plement of stood. In " He made a mistake," mxide is a 
verb of complete predication ; in " He made his father 
angry," m.ade is a verb of incomplete predication, and 
requires the (objective) complement angry to make the 
sense complete. 

892 The predicate of a sentence is complex when it consists 
of a verb of incomplete predication accom.panied by its 

393 When a verb of incomplete predication is passive or in- 
transitive, the complement of the predicate (if it be an 
adjective or substantive) stands in the predicative relation 
to the subject of the sentence; as, "He is called John." 
"The wine tastes sour." "He feels sick." This kind of 
complement may be termed the Subjective Complement, 
inasmuch as it is closely connected with the subject of the 

In such sentences as ' It is I,' we must regard it as the subject, 
and I as the complement of the predicate ; ' it {i.e., ' the person 
you have in mind,' &c.) is I.' In Anglo-Saxon this was reversed. 
We find " gyf >u hyt eart," if thou art it {Matt. xiv. 28) ; " Ic hyt 
com," / it am {Matt. xiv. 27). Afterwards we find the it omitted, 
as, " gif thou art " {Matt. xiv. 28) ; " I my silf am " {Luke xxiv. 39). 

A verb is an attributive word (§ 294), and an infinitive 
mood or'infinitive phrase is often used instead of an adjec- 
tive as a subjective complement, as, " He seems to have 

• I find that this use of the term complement is adopted by Koch. The comple- 
fDent folluws a verb, not in its predicative, but in its attributive character (J 294). 
Hence participles and infinitive mooda may have coiuplemeuta attached to them, 
•e, " FeeliKij Hck": " lie strove to become rich." 

BT»TAX. 163 

forgotten me." If the infinitive thus used is itself a verb 
of incomplete predication, it may be followed by a com- 
plement, ■which may be called the secondary complement. 
Thus, in " He appears to be honest," to be is the comple- 
ment of appears, and honest the complement of to be. 

The complement of the predicate in these cases is spoken 
of the subject, and must therefore agree with the subject 
in all that they can have in common. Hence the rule that 
the verbs be, become, feel, be called, &c., take the same case 
after them as before them. The objective complement with 
an active verb becomes the subjective com])lement of the 
passive, as, " He cut the matter short," " The matter was 
cut short." 

394 An adverb or adverbial phrase never forms the comple- 
ment of a predicate. A substantive clause may be used as 
a complement, just like a simple substantive, as, " My 
advice is that you do not meddle with the mutter.'^ 

395 When the verb is transitive, and in the active voice, the 
complement of the predicate stands in the attributive 
relation to the object of the verb; as, "He dyed the 
cloth red." "She called the man a liar." This kind 
of complement may be termed the Objective dyraplemtnt, 
inasmuch as it is closely connected with the object of the 

In such sentences as " He dyed the cloth red " ; " He found the 
man dead," the adjective distinguishes the thing referred to not 
from other things of the same class, but from itself wider other 
circumstances. The mode in which the complement attaches itself 
to the verb may be illustrated by the way in wliich the perfect 
participle is used in the perfect tense, as ' I have written ' (where 
the participle used to agree with the object ; see \ 198), and by the 
passive form, " The cloth was dyed red," &c. 

In ' I made him run,' the verb run, though in the infinitive mood, 
is still an attributive word, and has the same relation to him, as the 
adjectives in the preceding examples. In old English the participle 
was often used in these cases, as, "To mak the Ih^Vls Jleand," to 
make the English fly (P. Langtoft, in Koch, ii. p. 101). 

The third kind of complement is that which follows such 
verbs as can, will, must, &c., as " I can write," " He must 
go." This may be termed the infinitive complement, or 
complementary infinitive. The object of the sentence is often 
attached to the dependent infinitive.* 

• The eonplementary inflnitive must be carefully distinguished from the objective 
and the adverbial infinitive. In " He seems to know me," to know is the complemeat 
of letmis. In " I rejoice to know" {i.e., at knowing), to know is an adverbial infini- 
tire. In " Permit me to *ay," to toy is the object of permit, me being the iadirett 
tbjett of the verb. 


396 A predicative verb may have any objective or adverbial 
adjuncts attached to it. ]n such cases it is sometimes said 
to be enlarged (see note on § 388). . 


397 The object of a verb may be either simple, compound, or 
complex. These distinctions are the same as in the case oi 
the subject (see §§ 386 — 388). There is also a peculiar kind 
of complex object, in which a substantive clause is replaced 
by a substantive followed by a verb in the infinitive mood. 
Thus, for " I wish that you may succeed,''^ we may have '* I 
wish you to succeed " ; for '* I believe that the man is guilty," 
we may have "I believe the man to be guilty." In such 
sentences as '* I saw him fall," ** I heard the dog bark," 
the construction is of the same kind.* It is analogous to 
that of the accusative with the infinitive in Latin. 

398 When the object of a verb is complex, it is often preceded 
by the word it, to which it then stands in apposition, as, 
'• I think it foolish to act so," " I think it is a pity that he 
should waste so much time." In such cases the predicate is 
complex. Compare § 387. 

S99 The object of a verb, and the complement of a predicate, 
may have objective, attributive, or adverbial adjuncts 
attached to tbem (see note on § 388). 

Complex Sentences. 

400 A Complex Sentence is one which, besides a principal 
subject and predicate, contains one or more subordinate 
claiises, which have subjects and predicates of their own. 

401 Subordinate Clauses are of three kinds : — Substantive 
Clauses, Adjective Clauses, and Adverbial Clauses. 

A Substantive Clause is one which, in its relation to the 
rest of the sentence, is equivalent to a substantive. 

An Adjective Clause is one which, in its relation to the 
rest of the sentence, is equivalent to an adjective or an 
attributive adjunct. 

An Adverbial Clause is one which, in its relation to the 
rest of the sentence, is equivalent to an adverb, or an 
adverbial adjunct. 

402 A complex sentence is produced whenever the place of a 

• This coDstruction is closely analogous to that of the objective complement. 
The verb in the infinitive is cllnhutive with respect to its subject, as we see from 
the passive construction, 'He was believed to be gMilty '; • it waa uiadc olaud upon 
the feet' [JJait. iii. 1), Aic. 

SYNTAX. 156 

substantive, an attributive adjunct, or an adverbial adjunct 
is supplieil by a substantive clause, an adjective clause, or 
an adverbial clause. 

If we say, " He announced the arrival of Csesar," we get a simpVw 
seiitence, containing only one subject and one predicate. If we say, 
" He announced that Caesar had anived," we get a complex sen- 
tence, the substantive clause that Ccusar had arrived being sub- 
stituted for the substantive (with its attributive adjunct) the 
arrival of C'cesar. 

If we say, ■' He has lost the book given to him by me," we have a 
simple sentence. If we say, " lie has lost the book which I had 
given to him," we get a complex sentence, the adjective clause 
which I had given to him being substituted for the attributive 
adjunct given to him by me. 

If we say, " The boy went out to play on the completion of his 
task," we get a simple sentence, containing one subject and one 
finite verb. If we say, "'The boy went out to play when ho had 
completed his task," we get a complex sentence, the adverbial clause 
wlivn he had completed his task, which contains a subject and pre- 
dicate of its own, being substituted for the adverbial adjunct on the 
completion of his task. 

It must never be forgotten that a dependent or subordinate clause 
is an integral part of the principal sentence to which it belongs, 
just as though it were an ordinary substantive, adjective, or 
adverb.* Subordinate clauses are attached to the principal clause 
by means of connective or relative pronouns (J 145), connective or 
relative adverbs (J 204), and subordmative conjunctions ($ 288). 

Substantive Clauses. 

403 A Substantive Clause is one whicb, in its relation to the 
rest of the sentence, is equivalent to a substantive. It 
may be either the subject or the object of the verb in the 
principal clause, or it may be i^ apposition to some other 
substantive, or be governed by a preposition. Thus, in the 
sentence, *' I know that he did this," the clause, " that he 
did this,^' is the object of the verb know. In " He asked 
how old I was," the clause " how old I was" is the object 
of the verb asked.f In " When I set out is uncertain," the 
clause, " when I set out" is the subject of the verb is. In 
' ' The idea that he would be reduced to poverty rendered 
him miserable," the clause '^that he would be reduced to 

• Many books on the analysis of sentencea quite ignore this most important 
coint, to the great bewilderment of their youn^ leaders. The subordinate clause 
must have its construction in the entire sentence as strictly and precisely indicated, 
as if it were a single word. Phrases like ' No\in sentence to I.,' ' Aiijrctive sentence 
to II.,' &c., are quite unmeaning. An adjective clause cannot bear the relation of 
an adjective to a lentence. It is attached to some definite sub&tuntive ia the 

i In cases of this sort we get what is termed an indirtet question. In Anglo-Saxon 
the verb in an indirect question was in the subjunctive moud. 

106 STTfTAX. 

poverty" is in apposition to the nouu idea. In "We should 
have aniveil sooner, but that we met with an accident," 
the clause "that we met with an acci<1ent" is governed by 
the preposition hitt. In "In that He himself hath suffered, 
being tempted, He is able also to succour them that are 
tempted " {Heb. ii. 18), the preposition in governs * a sub- 
stantive clavise. (Look carefully at § 289, note f.) 
A substantive clause may also follow a phrase which, taken as a 
whole, is equivalent to a transitive verb. Thus : " He other means 
doth make, How he may work imto her fiirther smart," where 
' make means ' = endeavour, or tri/. So ' / am afraid that he will 
not succeed ' is equivalent to ' I fear that he will not succeed. 't 

404 "When a substantive clause is the subject of the verb of 
the principal clause, the sentence is commonly formed by 
using the word it as the grartiraatical subject of the prin- 
cipal verb, and putting the substantive clause after the 
main clause. In this case the substantive clause is in 
appositio7i to the subject of the main verb. As, "It is not 
true that he died yesterday." (See § 387.) 

405 It is to verbs that substantives and substantive clauses most com - 
monly stand in the objective relation. This has nothing to do witli 
the predicative force of the verb, but depends upon the fact that the 
verb denotes an action or feeling directed towards an object. Par- 
ticiples and gerunds take objects after them, and even some nouns 
which denote a transitive action or feehng may have a substantive 
clause as an ol^ject. Thus, ' There is no proof that he did this' ; 

"We have no hope that he will recover ' ; ' He did this on purpose 
that he might ruin me.' 

406 Substantive clauses usually begin either with the con- 
junction that, or with an interrogative word.t The con- 
junction that, however, is frequently understood ; as "I 
saw he was tired." 

Adjective Clauses. 

408 An Adjective Clause is one which, in its relation to the 
rest of the sentence, is equivalent to an adjective. It stands 

• In Buch cases the preposition and the substantive clause governed by it con- 
stitute tofrether an adverbial adjunct of the predicate, just like a preposition and 
noun (? 372, 2). What is sometimes improperly substituted for that, as, ' I had no 
idea hut tohnt the story was true ; and that is sometimes omitted, as, 'It never 
rains but it pours' (».^., 'le.iving- out the times when it pours, it never rains'); 
'But I be deceived, our fine musician frroweth amorous' {Shaksp., Tarn., iii. 1). 
In these cases the f>ut acquires the function of a conjunction ({ 2&9, note +). See 
further ?} 515-517, .fi22. 

+ It is also possible to treat the substantive clause in such cases as bein;? analo- 
gous to the adverbial accusative, or accusative of closer definition in Latin. Thus, 
" I am sorry that yon are not well " is ' I am soiry a« regards the /ad that you are 
not well.' 

t Interrogatives are also used with verbs in the infinitive mood to constitute a 
tiiHatUivt phraie, as ' I do not know where to qo ' (§ 387). 

SYirxAX. ]5'> 

in the attributive relation to a substantive, aud is attached 
to the word which it qualifies, by means of a relative pro- 
noun, or a relative adverb which is equivalent to a relative 
pronoun preceded by a preposition. Thus, in the sentence, 
"Look at the exercise which I have written,"' the clause 
" which I have written " qualifies the noun exercise. In 
" The man with whom you dined yesterday is dead," the 
clause *' with whom you dined yesterday " qualifies the noun 
man. In the sentence, " That is the house where I dwell," 
the clause " where I dwell " qualifies the noun house, where 
being equivalent to in which. In the sentence, ' ' Autumn 
is the time when fruits ripen," the clause '' vjhen fruits 
ripen " qualifies the noun time, when being equivalent to 
in which.* "I' return to view wtiere once the cottage 
stood" *= 'to yiew [the place] in which,' &c. 

406 The relative is sometimes omitted, as, "Where is the book I gave 
you?" for which I gave you; "I have a mind presages me such 
thrift," ifec, for which presages, Sec. ; " They are envious term thee 
parasite," for who term, &c. In modem English this omission of 
the relative is hardly permissible unless the relative, if expressed, 
would be in the objective case, except after a simple assertion or 
denial of the existence or identity of something (as Lc ' There i.s 
nothing vexes him more'; 'It was John told me'), or when the 
relative would be the complement of the predicate (as, ' He is no 
longer the man he was '). 

Sometimes adiective clauses are used substantively, i.e., with no 
antecedent expressed, as, "Who steals my purse, steals trash." 
This omission of the antecedent is usual when the relative what is 
used, as, " I heard what he said," " There is no truth in what he 

410 Care must be used to distinguish those clauses in which an indirect 
question is involved mthe use of who, what, when, where, &c., froui 
clauses in which these words are mere relatives. In such senteiuLd 
as, " Tell me what I ought to do," " I asked him who said so," " I 
know why he did it," " He asked me when I had aiTived," the 
dependent clauses are indirect questions, and are substantive clauses, 
having no antecedent expressed or understood to which they relate. 
In "That is what I said," "This is where I live," the depeiidi'iit 
clauses are adjective clauses. The distinction is analogous to ilmt 
between clauses beginning with qui* or quid, in Latin, and clauses 
beginning with qui or quod. 

411 Adjective clauses are very often co-ordinate with the demonstrative 
adjectives this, that,f &c. In such cases the demonstrative word is 

• So in Latin unde often means from whom, or from which ; «M is at which, Ac. 

t Ln the same way, in I-atin, adjective clauses beginning with qui, ijunlis. qunnfu, 
anil 'iuot, qualify the same substantive as a preoediiig it, talis. Umlu , or tol, and are 
co-ovdinate with them. In " Non tales miror libros quales scribit," the fla .••;e 
(/nalKS scribit is an attributive adjunct to libros equally with tairj. Coiiijaiv llie 
author's Analysis nf Stut^ux* applied te Latin, § 110, &c. Abbott's Shal.spemim 
dammar. B 64> 

108 SYNTAX. 

simply preparatory to the ndjective rlmi.«p V>y which it? own import 
is luorc fully explained. Thus in the sentence, " i never received 
thoje books which you sent," the adjective those and the adjective 
clause which you sent are both in the attributive relation to books, 
and are co-ordinate * with each other. 

412 Clauses beginning with as must be regarded as adjective clausea, 
when they follow such and same. The as muse be considered not 
exactly as a relative pro)ioun, but as doing duty for a relative (see 
note on § 264). Thus, iu " I do not admire such books as he writes," 
the clause as he writes is an adjective clause qualifying books, and 
co-ordinate with such. In old English wo find ivhich or Mai, instead 
of as ; as, " Such which must go before" {Bacoii) ; "Thou speakst 
to such a man that is no fleering tell-tale" {Shakspere^ J. C). 

413 An adjective clause (like an ordinary adjective) has usually a 
determinative or restrictive force. But it often happens that clauses 
introduced by relatives, although in form they are adjective, are, as 
regards their force and meaning, co-ordinate f with the principal 
clause. Such a clause is con: m native rather than determinative. 
Thus, in " I wrote to your brother, who replied that you had not 
arrived," the sense of the sentence would be the same if and he were 
substituted for who. Sentences beguining with which must often 
be treated as co-ordinate with the preceding clause, when which 
relates not to any one substantive, but to the general import of the 
clause, as, " He heard that the bank had failed, which was a sad blow 
to him ' ; " He was not at home ; for which reason I could not give 
him your message." 

The continuative relative may even belong in reality to an 
adverbial clause J contained within the entire clause wliich it intro- 
duces. Thus: — "Which when Beelzebub perceived .... ho 
rose" {Par. i., ii. 299), equivalent to "And when Beelzebub per- 
ceived this, he rose." " Which though I be not wise enough 

to frame, Yet as I well it meane, vouchsafe it without blame" 
{Spenser, vi. 4, 34), i.e., 'And though I be not wise enough to frame 
this,' &c. Modem writers rather eschew these constructions. 

When the relative is in the objective case, it is not always (in 
English) the object of the first finite verb that follows it. Phrases 
like ' A ijromise which he would have given worlds to recall ' ; ' The 
game which he spent the morning in shooting,' are admissible, but 
miist be used with caution.§ 

Adverbial Clauses. 

414 An Adverbial Clause is one which, in its relation to the 

• This point is of importance, as it indicates the correct mode of dealing with 
correlative adverbs. 

t The antieipative or provisional subject it (see §387) often baa an adjective 
clause as an arljimct. Thus, " It was John who did fliat" = "lt (the person) 
who did that was John." In auch cases, whea the relative la the .suljject of the 
following verb, that verb usually agrees in number and person with the predi- 
cative noun or pronoun instead of the subject it ; as, " It is my parents who totbid 
that ; " " It is I who say so." 

i Many writers, who ou^^ht to know better, blunder terribly in the attempt to 
tiu-n an adjective clause into the reported foiTQ. ' That is the man who was so ill ' 
is often modified into ' That is the man whom I heard was so ill.' This is altogether 
wrong. fSee § 382.) The only way of meeting the difficulty ijl to turn ' I heard ' 
into a parenthesis, 'who (I heard) was ill.' 

SYNTAX. 158 

rest of the sentence, is equivalent to an adverb. It stands 
in the adverbial relation to a verb, an adjective, or another 
adverb. Thus, in the sentence ' ' He was writing a letter 
"when I arrived," the clause ^^ when I arrived'" indicates 
the time at which the action expressed by the verb was 
writing took place. The clause " when I arrived " is there- 
fore in the adverbial relation to the verb was writing. The 
sense and construction may be represented by a single 
adverb: " He was writing a letter; I arrived then." So, 
"He still laj where he had fallen;" i.e., "He had fallen 
[somewhere] : he still lay t/iere." *' I give you this because 
I love you; " i.e., " I love you ; there/ore I give you this." 
115 Adverbial clauses admit of the same classification as 
ordinary adverbial adjuncts. (See § 375.) 

1.— Adverbial Clauses relating to Time. 

416 Claiises of this kind begin either with the relative adverbs which 
denote time (see § 265), or with the conjunctions before, after, while, 
since, ere, until, &c. (see ^J 288c, 289). As, " Every one listens when 
he speaks." " I was glad when he had finished." " He read while 
livrote." "He piinished the hoj whenever he did wrong." "He 
never spoke after he fell." It must be observed that when relative 
adverbs introduce adverbial clauses, they not only connect the ad- 
verbial clause with the principal clause, but themselves qualify the 
verb of the clause which they iutroduce. 

2.— Adverbial Clauses relating to Flaoe. 

419 Clauses of this kind are introduced by the relative adverbs where, 
whither, whence, &c. As, " He is still standing where I left him." 
" Whither I go ye cannot come." " Whithersoever I went he fol- 
lowed me." " Let me alone, that I may take comfort a little before 
I go whence I shall not return." The relative adverbs connect the 
dependent clauses with the main clause, and at the same time 
qualify the verbs of the dependent clauses themselves. 

3.— Adverbial Clauses relating to Manner. 

420 Adverbial clauses reliijing to manner are commonly introduced by 
the relative or connective adverb as. E.g., " He did as he was 
told." '■'■ It tvLmedi out as I expected." Here the dependent clauses 
quaHfy the verbs of the main sentecc-es, while the adverb as refers 
to the manner of the action spoken of in the dependent clauses 
themselves. Clauses beginning with as are generally ellipticaL At 
full length the above would be, " He did as he was told to do." 

4.— Adverbial Clauses relating to Degree. 

421 Clauses of this land are introduced by the adverbs them, the 
(§ 270), and as. 

As degree is an idea which attaches not to actions {per se), but to 
attributes of things, and to the mode or manner of actions, ad- 
verbial clauses denoting degree are always attached to adjectives or 
adverbs. They are almost always elhpticaL (See note, ^ 264.) 

160 BYirxAX. 

4!*Si 2?.^., "He is not so (or as) tall as I thought" (i.e., as I thonght he 
was tall). Here the clause " as I tboufrht [he was tall] " qualifies (or 
is in the adverbial relation to) the adjective lall, and is coordinate* 
with the demonstrative adverb no; and the relative adverb as at 
the beginning of the adverbial claase qualifies the adjective tall 

" He is taller than his brother ; " i.e., " He is taller than his brother 
[is tall].""!" "I love study more than ever [I loved it much]." The 
real force of clauses beginning with than has been already explaineil 
(See note f on ^ '-i'U). Than originally meant ichen. The clause 
beginning with tlmu is in the adverbial relation to the predicaie of the 
main clause, and than is iu the adverbial relation to the predicate of its 
own clause. J 

" The more I leai-n, the more I wish to learn." Here the adverbial 
sentence " the more I learn " qualifies the comparative more in the main 
clause, and is co-ordinate with the demonstrative adverb the which 
precedes it ; the word more in the adverl)ial clause being itself qualified 
by the relative adverb the. (See § 270.) The first the is relative ox 
Bubordiuative, the second the is demonstrative. 

6.— Adverbial Clauses relating to Cause. 

428 Clauses of this kind usually begin with the conjunctions heeaute 
and for. 

E.g., " I love him because he is good." Here " beeauie he U good " 
is an adverbial clause qualifying the verb love. 

" He could not have st-en me, for I was not there." Here "for I wat 
not there " is aa adverbial clause qualifying the verb could, 

6.— Adverbial Clauses relating to Purpose and Consequence.] 
i'ii Clauses of this kind are commonly co-ordinate with the adverb <• 
expressed or understood. 

E.y., " He ran so fast that he wa» out of breath." Here the adverbial 
clause '* that he wan out of breath" stands in the adverbial relation to 
font, and is co-ordinate with to, the indefinite meaning of which it 
amplifies and defines. 
4M Adverbial clauses relating to purpose come also under this head. 
E.g., " He labours ihal he mag become rich." Here the adverbixl 
clause qualifies the verb labours. "I will not make a noise, lest I 
should disturb you," Here the adverbial clause qualifies the vera 

• In like mamier adjective clauses are often used as co-ordinate with a demon- 
strative adjective, the vag-ue meaning of which they indicate more precisely (} 411), 
and adverbial clauses fjf other kinds are often co-ordiiiate with some preceding 
demonstrative adverb, the vague sigmfication of which they determine, as when 
then is accompanied by a clause beginning with when, there, by a clause beginning 
with where. Ace. 

t That we must understand the adjective tall as well as the verb is, will easily 
be seen if it be considered that every clause or subordinate sentence must have a 
predicate as well as a subject. If then we ask what is predica'./ed of his brother, tint 
answer obviously is, beinn till. 

t The subordinate clause is attached grammatically to the verb of the main clause , 
but logically it modifies that verb onlv after the comparative adjective or adverb with 
ail belonginy to it has been attached to 'Ui predicate. In other words, the subordinate 
clause qualifies, not the grammatical, but the logical preili-'.'ite oi the main clmise. 
Tue Latin quam means (not ' when," buti ' in wlial ■li;.^ . ne,' ' oy how much.' Uitior 
est quam egu i'.ie:iu.4 ' in what degiee I [am rich.' •><> i» vmImi.' 

SYNTAX. 161 

426 These adverbial claases beginning with that were originally sub- 
stantive clauses in ap]3osition to a preeeJing deraonstiative thai.* 
Consequently t)ic that at the beginning is not an adverb, but the co»- 
junction — the sign of grammatical subordination (§ 289). 

7. — Adverbial Clauses relating to Condition. 

12" Clauses of tliis kind be.£;in with the conjunctions if, ■unless, except, 
Ihout/h, althouoh, and the compounds of ever (however, ivhoeveTf whatever, 

428 In adverbial clauses of eondition, the principal sentence is called the 
conseqienl clause [i.e., the 'iluuse which expresses the consequence) ; tlie 
subordinate sentence is called the hypothetical clause (i.e., the clause 
which expresses the hypothesis, supposition , or concession). 

■129 Suppositions may be of two kii^ds. (A.) Suppositions of the first 
kind relate to some actual event or state of things, which was, is, 
or will be real, independently of onr thought respecting it. (It 
makes no grammaticiil difference whether the actual fact agrees with, 
or coutradicis onr supposition.) In such suppositions the indicative 
mood is employed. (Read here the remarks made in the Preface to this 

430 Examples, — "If the prisoner committed the crime, be deserves death. 
If he did not commit it, all the witnesses have sworn falsely." " If he 
is at home, 1 shall see him." " If your exercise is finished, bring it to 
me." *'He has arrived by this time, unless he has met with some 
accident." " He deserves our pity, unless his tale is a false one." 

431 In like manner concessive clauses {i.e., clauses in which something is 
granted) beginning with though or although, which relate to whnt actually 
is or v:as the caxe, have the indicative mood ; as, ' Though he was there, 
I did not see him," '' Although he is rich, he is not contented." *' Bad 
as the accommodation is, we must put up with it." 

432 In a hypothesis relating to some definite event still future, the future 
tense of the indicative mood was formerly sometimes used in the 
hypothetical clause. E.g., ^' 1( ve shall say 'from heaven,' he will say, 
' \N hy then did ye not believe him ?' " (Mark xi. 31). " If they shall 
enter into my rest" (Heb. v. 0). This construction is now obsolete, and 
in such cases we now use the present tense. E.g., "If it ruins to- 
morrow, we shaU not be able -to go out." "If he does not arrive before 
next week, he will be too late." 

433 (B.) Suppositions of the second kind treat an event or a state 
of things as a mere conception of the mind, and do not involve (though 
they do not always preclude) the idea that what is supposed may 
possibly coiTPSpondto what was, is, or will be the fact In suppositions 
of this class, the subjunctive mood is employed («eef§ 196, 46ij). 

• E.g., " pees lang pset" = that long that, &o. ; " to pees heard pset" = to that 
[degree] hard, (hat ; " to pam feee-t |'at," ' to that [degree] strong, that,' i'C. ; " hig 
namon .-tanas tu pam pset hig woldon hine torfian," 'they took up stoucs to that 
[intent] that tliey might ^tone him' (Johnviii. 6jj. As the adverb so meansmuch 
the same as ' to that [degree],' these sub>tantive clauies came to be used in appo- 
sition to so, and to suck, whiich is a compound of so. 

+ Sentences of this kind present considerable difficulty, because the practice of 
the best writers is not quite uniiui-m or cou.-r~teni, and common usage tolerates in 
some cases a. departure from what is retailed by the principles of grammatical 
construction. (See note on S i^^.) 

162 SYNTAX. 

434 A supposition which is contrary to some fact, present or past, ia 
necessarily a mere conception of the mind, and therefore the sub- 
junctive mood is used both in the hypothetical and in the consequent 
clause, the past indrfini-te tense* of the subjunctive being used 
in the hypothetical clause with reference to present time, and the 
past perfect with reference to past time. In the consequent 
clause the secondary past indefinite subjunclive (or condilinmd) is used 
after a supposition referring to present time, and the secondary form of 
the past perfect subjunctive (or conditional perfect) after a supposition 
relating to past time. 

Examples. — " If he were present (which he is not), I would speak to 
him." " If he had confessed his fault (which he did not do), 1 should 
have forgiven him." " If he were not idle (which he is), he would make 
rapid progress." "If our horse had not fallen down (which he did), we 
should not have missed the train." 
to5 In old-fashioned English and in poetry we also find the past perfect 
subjunctive used in ihe consequent clause, instead of the secondary 
form (or conditional perfect) ; as, "I had fainted unless 1 had believed 
to see the goodness of the Lord." 

436 Clauses expressing a wish contrary to the fact have also the subjunc- 
tive mood. Thus, "I wish that he ivere here (which he is not)." 
" Would that this had never happened (but it did happen)." 

437 When we make a supposition with regard to the future as a mere 
conception of the mind, ninl state its consequence, without connecting 
with it the idea that the matter will be decided one way or the other, 
the subjunctive mood must be used in botli clauses. 

Examples. — " If he were rewarded, he would be encouraged to perse- 
vere." " if he went (or should go or were to go) away without speaking 
to me, I should be grieved." "If he lost (or should lose, or were to 
lose) his money, he would never be happy again." " He could not (or 
would not be able to) do it if he tried (or were to try)." " I would not 
believe it unless I saw (or should see) it." " If he were to fail, it would 
be a great disgrace." The use of the indicative in such suppositions 
(as " If he wai' to fail," <fec.,) is a common vulgarism. 

435 When a hypothesis is made respecting the future (especially if the 
case be put i/eneraUy, and not with reference to some definite event), there 
is a natural tendency to treat the event supposed as a mere conception of 
the mind, and accordingly to use the subjunctive mood in it, even though 
the consequent clause, by the use of the indicative or imperative, 
show that we do not exclude the idea of the supposed event being 
brouglit to the test of reality. E.g., " If tliis be granted, the proof will 
be easy." " If thy ri^ht eye offend thee, pluck it out." So in con- 
cessive clauses: "Though he slay me, yet will I trust In him." 
" Though hand join in hand, the wicked shall not be unpunished." 

439 The older wj-iters also use the subjunctive in suppositions relating to 
present fact, especially to indicate reluctance to entertain the supposi- 
tion, or doubt of its possibility. E.g., "If there be iniquity in my 

• It seems anomalous to have apoittenee in any mood referring to present time; 
but the idiom is found in Fieuch, German, Latin, and Greek. In French and 
Greek we even have a pa^t tense of the indicative mood used in sentences of this 
kind (The verb he is of great value as a criterion for the mood in English.) It 
seems to have been felt that t he past t^nse used witli reference to pre.-ent timf 
marked better the want of congruity between the supposition and the fact. 

SYKXAX. 163 

hands " [Pt. vii. 8) ; " If it be thou, bid me come to thee " {Matt. 
xiv. 28) ; " If thou have power to raise him, bring liim hither " 
(Sliakspere) ; " If it be so, our God i3 able to deliver us " {Daniel iii. 17). 
If the cape put be general, and not particular or definite, the use of the 
subjunctive is quite natural. 

440 In suppositions the conjunction if is often omitted. E.g.^ " Had 1 
known this (i.e., If I had known this), 1 woulii not have come." 
" Were it not so («.«., if it were not so), 1 would have told you." 

441 An interrogative or imperative sentence is sometimes used in sucli 
a way as to be equivalent to a hypothetical clause. /■-'..(;., "Is any 
afflicted (i.e., if any one is ufliioted), let him pray." " Take any form 
but that, and my firm nerves shall never tremble." 

442 Conditional clauses (in the older writers) often begin with «o.* 
Eg.,''l am content to (i.e., on this condition, namely, that) thou wilt 
have it so " {Rom. and J., iii. 5). Just as the demonstrative that became 
the relative or connective that (see note on § l-^iO), the so in conditional 
clauses became as. E.g., "As I were a sheplieidess, I >.liiiuld be piped 
and sung to; a< a dairy ivench, I would dance at maypoles " {Ben Jons. 
Cynth. Eev. iv. 1). This elliptical use of as (in the second clause) is 
Still quite common. 

Compound Sentences. 

443 A compound sentence is one which consists of two or more 
co-ordinate principal sentences, joined together by co-ordi- 
uativG conjunctions, a3 " He is happy, but I am not " : 
" John is clever, and Eichard is industrious '' ; " They toil 
not, neither do they spin " ; " Either you are mad or you 
are drunk.' Co-ordinate clauses are grammatically inde- 
pendent of each other, whereas every subordinate clause is 
a component part of some other clause or sentence. They 
are either simply coupled together (as, " You are rich and 
your brother is poor "), or coupled and at the samo time 
opposed to each other (as, " He is not clever, but he studies 
hard "). 

444 The co-ordinate members of a compound sentence may 
themselves be complex sentences, as (a), " I will tell your 
brother when 1 see him, but (J) I do not think that he will 
arrive this week." 

N.B. — The conjunction itself does not enter into the con- 
struction of the clause which it introduces. 

Contracted Sentences. 
145 When co-ordinate sentences contain either the same sub- 
ject, the same predicate, the same object, the same comple- 
ment, or the same adverbial adjunct to the predicate, it often 
happens that the portion which they have in common is ex- 

* 5t in Latin is apparently only another form of .sic. 

164 SYNTAX. 

pressed only once. In this case the compound sentence is 
said to be contradtd. 

Examples. — " Neitlier I nor you have seen that"; ■».«., 
" Neither I [have seen that,] nor you have seen that." ' ' He 
loved not wisely, but too well "; i.e., " lie loved not wisely, 
but [he loved] too well." In these contracted sentences the 
predicate is expressed only once.* 

" He stole a purse, and was convicted of the thofi"; «.e., 
" He stole a purse, and [he] was convicted of the theft." 
"Eeligion purifies and ennobles the soul"; i.e., " Religion 
purifies and [religion] ennobles the soul." In these con- 
tracted sentences the subject is expressed only once. 

" He is either di-unk or mad "; i.e., " Either he is drunk 
or [he is] mad." Here the subject and the verb of incom- 
plete predication is are expressed only once. 

"He advances slowly but surely"; i.e., "He advances 
slowly, but [ho advances] surely." Here the common sub- 
ject and predicate are expressed only once. 

" He reads and writes well "; i.e., " He reads [well] and 
[he] writes well." Here the common subject and the 
common adverbial adjunct are expressed only once. 
446 Contracted sentences ouglit always to be so constructed, that when 
arranpred without conjunctions, so that what is common to both or 
all is placed before or after what is not common, the common and 
separate portions, when read off continuously, make complete sense. 
Thus, " Religion purifies and ennobles the soul," may be written — 


and complete sentences are obtained when the parts that are common, 

and written once, are i-ead with each of the separate portions in 

succession. So. " He gave me not only some good advice, but also a 

Bovereign," may be arranged thus — 

TT^ ™.„« „„ " ( not only his blessing 
He gave me < , • . ° 

° \ also a sovereign. 

"He pos.3esse8 greater talents, but is less esteemed knaahls hM- 
ther," — 

He {Fs°^rte?rd" ^'^''"'M tban his brother. 
If we take such a sentence as, " Man never is but always to be blest," 
and subject it to this test, we see in a moment that it is faulty — 


( never is 

I always to be 

I blest. 

cannot be read off both ways. 
447 It has been already remarked {§ 387, note) that a sentence is not 
necessarily a contracted sentence because we find co-ordinative con- 

• The predicate which is expressed must, of course, agree with the nearer of the 
two subjocts. The rr^fiicate w liich is not expressed may biivp to )'e modifiod when 
Bupplifj til -uit ii« <"■ sultjii 1 Tlris, " Is'uilher you nor 1 am i%l:t "; " NVilber 
fou nor your brulbei .t lu fault." 

SYNTAX. 166 

junctions used in it. "John and Charles are brothers," is as much 

one sentence as " These two boys are brothers." One predication 
may be made of two things taken together. " The child has a red 
and white ball," does not mean " The cliild has a red ball, and the 
child has a white ball." The attributes eoearisi in the same object. 
So when the same act is directed siimdtancously to two or more 
objects, the verb may have two or more objects after it ; but the 
sentence need not, on that account, be split up into two or more sen- 
tences. A similar principle applies to the case of adverbial adjuncts. 
But every verb makes a distinct predication, consequently every verb 
requires a separate sentence for itself. The conjunction or always 
involves a complete sentence for each of the words or phrases that it 
introduces, because the word implies some alternative, so that the 
idea of simultaneousness is excluded. 

448 It luJows, from the principle on wliicli co-ordinate and 
contracted sentences are constructed, that the co-ordina- 
tive conjunctions must always join words and clauses 
"which stand in the same relation to the other parts of the 
sentence. It would make nonsense, if we attempteii to join 
an adjective to a noun (unless the latter be used attribu- 
tively or predicativdy), or a subject to an adverb, or a 
verb in the indicative mood to a verb in the imperative 

Collateral Sentences. 

449 We frequently find sentences side by side, which have a 
connexion with each other as regards their sense and use, 
but have no grammatical link of connexion between them 
(that is, no conjunction, relative pronoun, or relative 
adverb). The complex idea that such sentences suggest to 
the mind is the same as if they were co-ordinate clauses 
coupled by conjunctions. For example — "I came. I 
saw. I conquered." " Fear God. Honour the king." 

•* The way was long, the wind was c-old ; 
The minstrel was infirm and old.'* 
" So he spoke, so I replied." "This is foolish, that is wise." 
" I was robbed of all my money ; for that reason I was 
unable to proceed." " I believed, therefore have I spoken." 
" He is virtuous ; consequently he is happy." 
Such sentences as those placed side by side in the abovo 
examples may be called collateral sentences. 
i50 A proper consideration of the nature of collateral sentences will 
enable us materially to thin the usual list of conjunctions. A ward 
is not a conjunction because it refers us to something that precedes. 
Simple demonstratives do this. (See { 291,/.) Such words as there- 
fore, consequently, likewise, also [i.e., all so =just in that manner), 

• Young letter-writers constantly forget this rule at the close of tTiPir epistles, 
wlif It such combinations as, " T have no more to say, and beheve me youis truly," 
tte very fcequeat. 

166 8Y1TTAX. 

nevtrtheUss, notwithstanding, are not conjunctions, but demonstra- 
tive adverbs. 

451 We frequently have a series of sentences wHcla are partly 
collateral and partly co-ordinate. 
Example : — 

" He stay'd not for brake, and he stopp'd not for stone; 
He swam the Esk river, where ford there was none." 

-152 Collateral sentences may be contracted in the same way as 
co-ordinate sentences; as, "A true fiiend advises justly, 
[a true friend] assists readily, [a true friend] adventures 
boldly, and [a true friend] continues a friend unchange- 

Elliptical Sentences. 

453 Elliptical sentences differ from contracted sentences in the 
following respect : — In contracted sentences a certain por- 
tion which is common to the sentences is expressed only 
once in one of them, and has to be repeated in the others. 
In elliptical sentences, the part to be supplied in one 
clause, although suggested by what is expressed in tho 
other, is not necessarily exactly the same in form. More- 
over, contracted sentences or clauses are always co-ordinate; 
an elliptical clause is usually a subordinate clause, the 
portion to be supplied being suggested by the principal 
clause ; as, " He is taller than I," i.e., " than I am tall "; 
" This does not cost so much as that," i.e., " as that costs 


1.34 The following is a brief summary of the laws of the structure of 
sentences, and of the functions of the dillereiit parts of speech. 

1.35 The primary elements of every sonteuce are the substantive, which 
forms the subject of the sentence (see § 345), and the verb, by 
means of which an assertion is made about that for which the sub- 
ject stands (see §^ 347, 348, 353, 359). 

456 The subject of a sentence is in the nominative case ($§ 380, 381). 

457 The nominative case is also used for the subjective complement of 
a, verb of incomplete predication, which is intransitive or passive, 
such as be, become, seem, be called, be Made, Sec. {§ 393). 

A noun or pronoun in the nominative may also be used absolutely 
(6 372, 5). 

The nominative is also used in the s»me manner as the vocative* 
in Latin. It is then termed the nominative of appellation. 

• It seems needless to set down the vocative a» a separate ease in Enelish. The 
language nowhere recognises the distinction. The objeotivp case stands on a 
diflerent footing. Thuu^h like the nominative in nouns, it differs fiom it in the 

SYNTAX. 167 

458 For an accouut of the funcciou and uae of the possessive easo, see 
ij 67, 68, 69, 78, 178 note. 

The possessive case denotes not only possession, in the sense at 
ownership, but the wider idea that someihing belongs or appertains 
to that for which it stands. In prose it is rarely used unless we 
are speaking of living things, except in a few phrases, such aa 
' for conscience' sake,' ' a day's march,' &c. In poetry its use 
is much less restricted, and expressions like 'earth's plains", 'the 
mountciin's brow*, are frequent. (See also j 78). 

"When two or more names constitute a firm, the possessive inflec- 
tion is only added to the ]ast, as " Smith, Jones, and Robinson's 
Warehouse." (For an occasional extension of this usage, see § 75.) 
The inflection is added only to the last of two nouns in apposition 
(as 'Smith the baker's house'), or forming, when joined by or, 
alternative names for the sajie thing, as ' After fortnight or 
three weeks' absence." 

The possessive case always forms an attributive adjunct to a noun 
(§362,3). Resp-cting the ore iSional omission of this noun (as in 
'I bought this at Smith's,' ' we went to ISt. Paul's'), see note on 
} 69 (p. 28), and compare § 178 and note (p. 57). 

459 The objective case is used when a noun or pronoun is the direct 
object of a trans. tive vero, participle, or geruud (j 366). It is also 
used for the objective complement of various transitive verbs of 
incomplete predication (J 391, 395). It is used to mark the indirect 
object of a verb, that is, to indicate the person or thing aifected by, 
or concerned in, the result of the actim,* without being the direct 
object of it (§ 372, 4). These two u^es of the objective constitute 
not two cases, but two modes of using the same case (see p. H,note). 
There is some convenience in terming these cases respectively ' the 
dative objective', and the 'accusative objective', providOii the 
former be understood to signify nothing more than ' the objective of 
tbe indirect object.' The objective is employed in various kinds of 
adverbial adjuncts (§ 372, 3). When two nouns in the objective 
case follow a verb which is not a transitive verb of incomplete 
predication, one of them should be regarded as having an 
adverbial force (like the Latin 'Accusitive of Limitation or 
Closer Definition'). See these discussed in $ 372, 4 (pp. 146, 
147). What is often called the Connate Objective after intransi- 
tive verbs was oiiginally an adverbial dative (§ 372, 4, p. 147). 
In Chaucer, in place of the mere objective in 'to vaXn Jire', 
we should have had the preposition of ; eg., " Hit snewed in his 
hous of mete and drynke", i.e., 'It snowed meat and drink in 
his house.' The objective case m^y be used absolutely (§ 372, 5). 
Nouns or pronouns governed by prepositions are in the objective 
case (§^ 79,372). It is sometimes employed (especially in collo- 
quial language, and in connexion with the word self) when the 
strict laws of grammar would require the nominative, as, ' That's 
him' ; 'Who is there? Me, sir' (§ 177). Expressions like these 

• rt sometimes seems as though an intransitive verb were used reflectively, as 
"Bit thee down, ' " stand thee close " [Much Ado, ilL 3). In old English the pro- 
noun in such phra'^es wa'* in the dative c;i~e, forminj? an indirect object, or elhie 
dative {dativus ethictts). Thus : " Ferde aa cyng idm ham" (a. 8. Chr. 1009), 'The 
Hag went him home.' 

168 SYNTAX. 

are probably formed on the analogy of the French ' c'est moi,' &c., 
which ousted the old construction (still found in Chaucer) ' It am 
I.' The change was perhaps facilitated by the fact that objective 
forms like himself coiald be used in appositiou to Lominaiives, as, 
' he himself said so.' In dignified language the nominative is 
preferable, as ' It is I, be not afraid ' {Mark vi. 50) ; " Lord, is it 
I?" (JfrtW. xxvi. 22). 

No satisfactory explanation can be given of the use of the relative 
whom after than, in cases where we should expect the nominative.* 
Even the demonstrative is sometimes similarly put in the objective 
case,t but this should be avoided. 

The objective case is used in exclamations, as ' Ah me! ' ; ' Oh 
me, unhappy ! ' 

Respecting the position of the word in the objective case, see J 82. 
The nominative and objective should not both precede the verb, 
unless the use of a pronoun in the nominative or objective ciise 
prevents ambiguity. The verb quoth always has its subject placed 
after it. 

460 A noun or pronoun may have another noun attached to it attri- 
butively, giving a further description or detinitioa of the person or 
thing spoken of. This second noua is said to be in apposition 
to the former {§ 362). It is, of course, in the same case. We have 
B different kind of appositioa m 'a dozen horses', 'a liundred 
sheep ' (see § 91 h). In early Englisli apposition was more freely used. 
Thus, in Chaucer, ' no maner wight' means 'uo manner of ].erson.' 

461 Sometimes the idea expressed by an entire f-entence is repeated 
(pleonastically) by means of a noun, for the purpose of appending 
some complex attributive phrase, as, " He rashly ventured to ascend 
the motmtain without a guide, an act which cost him his life." 

402 Tlie general rule respecting the concord of verbs is, that a verb 
agrees with its subject in number and person (^ 376). See 380—382. 

463 Words that are plural in form {as mathematics, politics) are some- 
times treated as singular in construction (§ os), and some singular 
nouns have been mistaken for plurals (^60). A plural used as the 
title of a book, &c., must be treated as a singular, as " Johnson's 
' Lives of the Poets ' is a work of great interest " ; and generally 
when a plural denotes a whole of some kind, the verb may be 
singular, as " Forty yards is a good distance" ; " Two-thirds of this 
is mine by right." " Twice two is four." For the usage when the 
subject is a collective noun, see § 380, and for the case of a com- 
pound subject, or of a noun in the singular to which other nouns 
are joined by means of ivith, ^ 381. J 

• " Beelzebub .... than whom, Satan except, none higher sat " (Par. L., ii.). 
There is no grammatical justitication for this. The case of an interrogative or 
relative pronoun ought to be the same as that of the demonstrative pronoun which 
would answer to it. But " None sat higher than him " would be bad grammar. 

t E.g., " A stone ia heavy, and the saud weighty; but a fool's wrath is heavier 
than them both " {Prnv. xxvii. 3). 

X Sometimes notms joined by and are regarded not as a compound subject, but 
as the independent subjects of a contracted sentence (5 445). Thus: "To rive 
what Goth and Turk and Time hath spared" (OA. Harold), implies a contraction 
of ' what Goth [hath spared], and [what] Turk [hath spared], and [what] Time 
bath spared.' 

SYNTA.Y. 169 

464 Wlieri snbjeet-s differing in number, or person, or both, are connected 
by and, the verb must always be in the plural; and in the first 
person, if one of the subjects is of that person ; m the second person 
if one of the subjects is of that person, aud noue of the first, as, 
' 1 and he are of the same age,' ' You aud I shall be too late.' 

46") Subjects connec*^ed by or and wor imply an alternative. Hence a 
plura.1 verb cannot be attached to two such subjects, if they are 
in the singular. The sentence is in fact contracted (§ 386), as, 
'' Either John [is mistaken] or Thomas is mistaken " ; " Neither 
John [is mistaken] nor Thomas is miscakeu. "* 

466 The use of the subj nnctive mood is perfectly simple and intelligible 
if its proper aud primary function be kept in view (J 195). That 
function is to indit ate that the connection between the subject and 
the predicate is not regarded as corresponding to any actual, ex- 
ternal event or state of affairs, past, present, or future, independent 
of the thought of the speaker, but is dealt with simply as a 
conception of the mind, without being spoken of any actual ob- 
jective reality. t Using the term objective for what has an existence 
of its own, independent of the thought of the speaker, and sub- 
jective for what exists (or is dealt wi!h as existing) only in the 
ti. ought of the speaker, we may say tlrit the indicative is the mood 
of objective predication and the subjunctive the mood of subjective 
predication. The principal forms that s-uch conceptions assume are 
indicated in § 195. The use of the subjunctive in hypothetical 
sentences is explained in ^§ 434 — 440. 

In modem English the subjunctive mood is used : — 
(1) In clauses expressing a supi:)osition, concession, or wish con- 
trary to actual fact {§§ 434,435). The older writers used the simple 
subjunctive in the consequent clause in such cases, as " I had 
fainted, unless I had believed, &c." ; " Hadst thou but shook thy 
head . . . deep shame had struck me dumb" {Sh. K. John iv. 3) ; 
" Wert thou regent of the world, it were a shame to let this land by 
lease" {Rich. II. ii. 1). The secondary or conditional form (pp. 

• This sort of conti'action is not legitimate unless the subjects are in the same 
number and person, for it is only then that the same verb is cmnmnn to the two 
sentences (5 445), and is not justified by such examples as " Not Altamont, but 
thou hadst been my lord" ; " Not I, but thou his blood dost shed" (quoted by 
Matzner), for here there is no alternative; the one suViject excludes the other. 
But many grammarians tolerate con'raction in other cases, and lay down the rule 
that if the alternative subjects differ in number, or person, or both, the verb 
should a^ree with the subject that is nearest to it. According to this we ought to 
say, "Neither we nor John is rich"; "Either the pupils or their teacher is 
wrong"; " Neither the children nor I am hungry." To me all such sentences 
sound simply barbarous. It would be better to say, " Either the pupils are 
wrong, or their teacher is" ; " Neither are we rich, nor is John." &c. Inasmuch, 
however, as what is denied of each is denied of both or all, good writers some- 
times allow them!<elves the use of contraction with neither — nnr. but treat the verb 
according to the rule of concord for subjects of different number or person con- 
nected by and, as, " Neither you nor I are in fault." (Compare " Htec si neque 
ego neque tu fecimus." Ter., And. \. 'i, 23.) 

t It is altogether wi'Ong to talk of the subjunctive mood as being governed by 
conjunctions. It\ unless, &c., cannot possibly governVae subjunctive [i.e., neoesai- 
tate its being used), for they axe followed quite as often by the indicative as by 
the subjunctiva 


94. 95) is now usual for the consequent clause, 'I should hare 

jwinted ', ' would have struck ', ' would be ', &c. 

(2) The subjunctive is used in hypothetical or concessive clauses 
relating to the future, which express a mere conception of the mind 
not contemplated a- something that will be put to the test of actual 
fact, as " If he tvere punished he would rebel." The three modes in 
which such clautes may be expressed are given in J 437. 

(3) Suppositions respecting what actually wiU be the case in the 
future are so closely allied to mere subjective conceptions, that the 
subjunctive present mny be used in them, as " If this be allowed, 
there wUl be an end to all discipline." But in prose the indicative 
present is now more usual: "If this is granted, &c." "If it 
rains to-morro>v, we thall not be able to s^art-." Also the secondary 
forms proper to the last case (" If it should rain ", or " If it were to 
rain") are often employed now, f specially after 'though', as 
" Though hand should join in hand, the wicked shall not be un- 
punished." See ^ 438. 

Suppositions respecting what actually was or is the fact are 
properly expressed by the indicative mood. But see § 439. 

(4) The simple subjunctive present is employed when a concession 
is expres.^ed without the use of ihe verb 'let', as "Creep time 
ne'er so slow " (<S7(. K. John, \\i. 3) ; " Come weal, come woe ", &c. 

(f5) The simple subjunctive prrsont (as well as the compound form 
with 'may') is us^d to express a wish, as "God bless you"; or 
'■'May every blessing attend you." 

(6) In poetry and in the older writers we find the simple present 
subjunctive after ' that ' and ' lest ' to express purpose, as " Give 
me leave that I may tuin the key, that no man enter" {Rich. II. 
V. 3) ; "Keep thy heart light, lest it make thee sink" {Shelley). 
In ordinary prose we now use the compounds of ^ may' and 
'tniffht'atteT 'ihat' (as "He locks the door that no man fnay 
enter" ; " He locked the door that no man might enter"), and the 
coinpoTind of ^should' after 'lest', whether the preceding verb be 
in the present or in the past tense (as " Govern thy appetite, lest sin 
should surprise thee" ; "He governed his appetite, lest sin shotdd 
surprise hiiu "). 

467 The subjunctive mood was employed more commonly by the 
older writers* than is the case now. It was used, for example, in 
dependent questions (as " I adjure Thee that Thou tell us whether 
Thou be the Christ") ; also after till and before. 

468 Sequence of Tenses. — The tense of the verb in an accessory or depen- 
dent clause commonly depends upon that of the verb in the principal 
clause. A present or future in the principal clause requires a present 
or future indicative, or a present subjunctive, in the dependent 
clause. A past tense in the main clause requires a past tense in 

• The modoin use of the indicative is in many cases quite improper, as in " Take 
care that tlie fhild does not hint himself." So also in -pwHiriS a- general c;iSO, such aa 
" He that smiteth a man so that he die " [Ex xxi. 12). the suti.juiictive is piopcr, 
because the indicative, liy turnmg the result supposed into a fact, would deprive 
it of its generality, and render it no longer suitable for the general definition that 
U wantuil. 

SYNTAX. 171 

the dependent claiise ; e.g., " lie does this that he may please me " ; 
•' He will do this that he may please mi; " ; " He hasdonethis thjit 
he wc?/ please me" ;* " He did this that he might please me" ; " He 
eays that he is better"; "He said that he wa'^ better," &c. . But 
if the dependent clause states a universal truth, it is better to keep 
the present tense Thus : " He allowed that all men are liable to 
error " ; " He denied that God exists." 
459 The Infinitive Moo-I ma^ be uspd 1, as the simple siibjeot- or 
object of a finite verb {^^ 189, 191, 192, 385, 397). It scmetiii> s 
has to before it in these casfs, sometimes not. 2. Attached to a 
substantive, so that substantive and veib form a complex object of 
another verb (§ 397). 3. As an adverbial adjunct to atjotlier verb, 
or to an adjective, or as an attributive adjunct to a noun {^ 362, 4). 
It is only the gerundial infinitive (§ 192) that can be thus used, 
the to retaining its proper force (\^\*i 192,372,2). But after verbs 
denoting motion the infinitive without ' to ' is U!=ed by th>- older 
writers, as "1 will go tell the kin?." 4. As the complement of a 
verb of incomplete predication (^ 395). 

470 The origin and eonstrnction of the gerund in -in(; are explained 
in §§ 200, 201. When a verbal substantive in -bir! is prec^ded by 
the or followed by of, it must be regarded as the representative of a 
verbal noun in -ung, as in " land suitable for the planting of trees " ; 
"During the reading of the will", &c. When preceded by the, it 
should be followed by of. When the verbal noun in -ing has an 
object, like a verb, it is the gerund. f 

471 Respect ing the attributive and the predicative u?e of adjectives, see 
^ 360, 391. As regards adjectives used substantively, and adjec- 
tives which have become substantives, see ^ 99 — 101. Adjectives 
and participles sometimes relate to the substantive which is implied 
in. a possessive pronoun, as in "For all our sakes"; " It fills my 
mind waking and sleeping." 

472 As a general rule the Article should be repeated before each of a 

• Notice that lias done is a present tense. (See ? 207.) 

+ The U'e of a participle where we ought to have a gerund, is a common error, 
as in, "I heard of him running away," instead of ' I heaid of liis runuiag away'; 
"It is of no use you saying so," for 'It is of no use your siying- so,' (i.e., 'It — 
namely, your saying so — is of no use')- It is not easy, however, to tell when 
the one construction should he used, and when the other. In the case of personal 
and relative pronorms the gerund and possessive should always be used, as in the 
preceding sentences. With this, that, eac/i. oil. either, nei'her, the participial con- 
Btniction is proper, as " You will oblige me by all leaving the room " ; "I have my 
doubts as to this leing true" ; "You seem to understaiid me. by each at once her 
choppy finger iaytng unon her sliinny lips " {3Iachelh\ The best writers also grive 
sentences like the foUoTOng :— " The jealousy of liis contemporaries prevented 
justice being done to hirn during his litetime" ; "I am afraid of mischief resulting 
frim this" ; '• On some brandy being administpred to him he revived " ; " There 
is no record of any payment having been made" ; " There was a story of money 
having heen hiiritd there"; "I then all smarting with my uvunds leing cold" 
(Shaksp.) ; " Upon Ng/.l insisting," &o. {Scrtt.) ; " These circumstances may lead 
to your Ladyship quitting this house" {Tftndera?/). These are analogous to the 
Latin post urlem cvnditam. &c. On the other hand most authorities woiild prefer 
" On the lay's confessing his fault I forgave liim " ; " On my father's hearing of 
this, he was amazed." On the whole, it may he questioned whether the parti- 
cipial construction has not tallen into undeserved disrepute. 

172 SYNTAX. 

series of nouns representing different things (as " I saw a horse, a 
cow, and a pig in the stable " ; " An Act of Parliament requires tha 
assent of the Queen, the Lords, and the Commons"), but not before 
each of several nouns describing the same thing* (as " He was the 
founder and patron of the institution"; "He slew the tyrant and 
destroyer of his country"),, or before each of several adjectives 
attached to one noun (as " I dislilce the long, rambling, and obscure 
sentcDces of that author" ; " He d^vered a short, pithy, and pun- 
gent address"). But certain infractions of the strict rule are 
allowable, when no ambiguity can possibly result. If the things 
spoken of are very closely (connected together, one article often does 
double duty, as " We saw the King and Queen " ; " The tables and 
chairs were in contusion"; "He gathered all the apples and 
pears"; " He built a coachhouse and stable." On the other hand 
the article may be repeated when it is impossible that more than 
one person orthing can be meant, as " He rose a sadder and a wiser 
man " ; " You will find this road the shortest and the plea?antest." 

473 When a noun is used attributively or predicatively with distinct 
reference to its signification, the article should not be used. Thus : 
" He became Chancellor of the Exchequer" ; " John Smith, captain 
of the Petrel, next gave evidence." 

474 Pronouns shoiild agree in gender, number, and person with the 
nouns for which they stand. Their case is defermined by the con- 
struction of tlie clause in which they occur. Thus : ' I do not like 
John {obj.) ; he {nom.) is an idle boy ' ; 'I know the man {obj.) 
whose (pass.) portrait hangs there,' &c. Even if the pronouns 
happen to coincide in case with the nouns to which they relate, this 
is not grammatical agreement, it is a mere accident. 

476 The antecedent of a relative pronoun is sometimes disguised in 
the form of a possessive (adjective) pronoun, as " Wliose is the 
crime, the scandal too be theirs." llespecting the omission of the 
antecedent or the relative, see §§ ICO, 166, 409. The continuative 
relative (^ 413) can never be omitted. 

476 When a relative refers to a noTiu which is in the attributive or 
predicative relation to a personal pronoun, the relative is some- 
times made to agree in person with that pronoun, rather than with 
its actual antecedent. Thus : " I am .... a plain blunt man, that 
love my friend" {Sh. J. G. iii. 2) ; " Thou art the God that doest 
wonders" {Fs. Ixsvii. 14). 

477 The vague demonstrative it is used as a provisional or anticipatory 
Btihjectf (see § 387), and also as an anticipatory object, as in "He 
found ii dilficult to convince his antagonist," where it stands ia 
place of ' to convince his antagonist,' in ord: r to show more simply 
the construction of the sentence. An indefinite it before the verb 
is, was, &c., is often explained by a following adjective clause, as 

• In"He wa.s a better prcse-writer than poet," the omission of a before poet 
results from the form of the sentence which is contracted : " He was a better 
prose-writer than [lie was a good] poet." 

+ It ia worth noting that " It is allowed to do well " would be in Anglo-Saxon, 
" Hit is alyfed wel to donne " = ' Permission is given for doing well ' ; " It is a 
shame to tell" would be "Hit is sceame to tellanne" = 'There is shame foi 
telling.' In such phrases, therefore, it was not always a provisional subject. 

SYNTAX. 178 

•^t is* I who amf in fault," i.e., " It (the person) who is in fault, is 
I." " It is we who have won." In such cases the relative is usually 
attracted into the number and person of the pronoun or noun that 
follows the verb is, was, &c. I'he case of the relative, in its turn, 
sometimes affects (by attraction) the case of the preceding proi oun. 
Thus, most persons would say " It was / who did it," but '' It is me 
whomhe fears." Through a confusion of Cf nstructionswe also say " It 
is to you that I am speaking," for " It is you to whom I am speaking." 
Respecting it used as tlie subject of impersonal verbs, see § 344. 
For it used as a vague cognate objective, see § 372, note. In such sen- 
tences as " There is a horse in the field," many grammarians tell us 
that there is a provisional or anticipatory subject of the verb. Dr. 
Latham (more acutely) says that it stands for an unexpressed 
predicate. It really represents, in an indefinite, shadowy way, the 
circumstances in which the predication is made, just as «/ does in the 
French ' II y a,' &c. 

478 If two alternative nouns, differing in gender or number, are 
referred to by the pronoun he, she, it, we sometimes find the plural 
employed, J as, "If an ox gore a man or a woman, so that the'i/ 
die " {£x. xxi. 28) ; " Not on outward charms alone should man or 
woman build their pretensions to please " (Ojjie). 

479 They who, or they that is just as legitimate as he who, or he that. 
The plural thei/ is freely used in this way by the older writers, but 
now-a-days those is usually substituted for it. 

480 It must be borne in mind that in constructing a sentence out of its 
elements, an adjunct which, for grammatical purposes, is attached 
directly to some word, may, with regard to the logical sequence of 
ideas, be connected with that word only after some other adjunct 
has been joined to it. The predicate usually applies only to the 
logical subject (§ 348). In 'The boy was nearly killed,' '■was 
killed ' can be attached to ' boy ' only after ' nearly ' has been 
joined to the verb. In ' The first king of Rome ' ''first,' and ' oj 

• In the older forms of the language the verb attached to the it was influenced 
bj' the following noun or pronoun. Thus in Chaucer we have, "It am I." "It 
fccK nat ge that spekon" (Matt. x. 20). In German we have e» sind, if a plural 

\ To such a question as, "Who is there ? " we might get such a reply as, " It is 
I, your uncle, who am come to see you." To such a question as, " Who ia 
come to see me?" we should expect such an answer as, "It is I, your uncle, 
who is come to see you." On this point I differ from Dr. Adams (Eng. Lang., 
p. 208). 

t Compare the ambiguous eac?i in, "Leteacft esteem other better than them- 
tilves." Some repeat the alternative in the pronoun, " So that he or she die"; 
"build his or her pretensions," &o. Cobbett insisted upon this being the oiily 
cnrrect method. His dictum was ridiculed in the 'Rejected Addresses' by the 
parody, " I take it for granted that every intelligent man, woman, and child, to 
whom I addiess myself, has stood severally and respectively in Little Russell 
Street, and cast their, his, her, and its eyes on the outside of this building " 
(Rushlon, Rules, &c., p. 110). Double alternatives involve a rather violent appli- 
cation of the piinoiple of contraction, and ajjproach dangerously near to the 
advertisement in the comedy : " Rats and gentlemen ketched and waited on." 
It is better to express the sentence in full (as, "If an ox gore a man bo that he 
die, or gore a woman so that she die '), or change the form (as, " Not on outward 
charms alone should man build his pretensions to please, or woman hers "). But 
after all there is uo great objection to the plural. 

174 BTNTAX. 

Rome ' are not co-ordinate adjuncts. One is applicable only after 
the other has been attached.* 

The subject of a verb is often repeated pleonastically, as " The 
Lord, He is God"; " The skipper he stood beside the helm " {Long- 
fellow). It is also frequently suppressed, as 'Prithee,' (i.e., 'I, 
pray thee'); 'Dost hear' {Tempest i. 2); "Bless you" (i.e., 
' God bless you ') ; in concessive clauses, as " Do [I] what I will, 1 
cannot please him ; " and in impersonal expressions, as " It is colder 
than [it] is usual at this season." " If you please " is properly " If 
[it] please you," but the verb has come to be treated as a personal 
verb. Shakspeare freely uses it both ways. 

The predicate verb he is often omitted, as " Peace to his ashes " ; 
" No wonder he said so." 

The old er writers freely used such constructions as " A treasure 
which if country curates buy. They Junius and Tremellius may 
defy." They are grammatically perfect, and there is no real objec- 
tion to them ; but modern writers are reluctant to connect the 
relative with any finite verb which is not the principal verb of the 
relative clause. There is more objection to a relative in the nomi- 
native in such cases, as in " Lend it rather to thine enemy, who if 
he fail, thou may'st with better face exact the penalty" {M. of 
Ven.), because it involves the pleonastic use of a demonstrative to 
indicate the construction. Such pleonasms, however, were once 
quite common (see note on § 150). In Chaucer, a sort of make- 
shift genitive and dative of the relative that are formed by the 
pleonastic use of his and him, as, " That he ne knew his sleighte " 
=: " whose craft he did not know." 

It must be carefully observed that each, every, either, and neither 
are singular, and require the verb that follows to be singular. 

Great caution nmst be used in elliptical sentences (especially with 
as and than ; §5 548, &c.), to see that the right cases are used. The 
best way is to test the sentence by filling up the ellipsis, as " He 
loves me better than [he loves] thee"; "He loves me better than 
thou [lovest me] " ; " He knows the man as well as I [know the 
man]"; "He knows the man as well as [he knows] me"; "I 
know no wiser man than he [is wise] " is correct; but " I have no 
other saint than thou to pray to "is wrong, because the construc- 
tion springs out of "I have no other saint when [I have] thee." 
See^. 100, note. 

• A good deal of hypercriticism has been wasted on such phrases as " The three 
first verses of the chapter," &c. We are told that this is incorrect, because there 
is only one first verse. On this principle it is equally wrong to talk of ' The first 
hours of infancy,' or ' The last days of Pompeii,' for there is only one fii-st hour, 
and one last day. Surely if there are several last days, theii- number may be speci- 
fied. It would be the height of pedantry to alter ' ' His two eldest sons went to 
Bsa" into " His eldest two sons went to sea" ; yet strictly there can be only one 
eldest son. German writers see nothing wi'ong in such phrases as "die drei 
ersten," " die zwei letzten," &c. All these superlatives admit of a little laxity in 
their application, just as chief and extreme admit of the superlatives chie/est and 
extremest. ' The three first verses ' simply means ' The three verses before which 
there is no other.' Those who tell us to write 'The first three verses,' and so 
on, must do so on the hypothesis that the whole number of verses is divided into 
sets of three, of which sets the first is taken. But what if the chapter only contains 
&T« altogetiter I 


481 The following terms are frequently employed in grammar : — 

^phaeresis (U<paipeatt, ' taking away '), the omission of the 
beginning of a word, as 'neath, 'gainst. 

Apocope (axoKOTTij, ' chopping off '), the throwing away of one 
or more letters at the end of a word, as tho', th' (before a vowel). 

Syncope {crv-iKoitft, ♦knocking together'), the shortening of a 
word by the omission of a letter or syllable in the middle, aa o'tr 
for over, iaen for taken. 

Diaeresis {itaipeam, 'taking asunder'), the separation in pro- 
nunciation of two vowels which might otherwise form a diphthong, 
as aeronaut (not mronaut). 

Synaeresis {(rwalotait, ' taking together '), the sounding of two 
syllables as one, as see'st. 

Tmesis {Turiait, ' cutting '), the division of a compound word by 
the insertion of another word between the parts, as ' to Ood ward' ; 
' what place soever.' 

Ellipsis (iWii'iict, ' leaving out'), the omission of some word or 
words essential to the construction of a sentence. (See ^ 453.) 

Pleonasm {nXeonaa-iAot, 'excess'), the insertion of redundant words 
when the syntax is complete without them. (See § 480.) 


482 In speaking, tlie words of a sentence, especially if it be a 
complex one, are not uttered consecutively without any 
break. Certain pauses are made to mark more clearly 
the way in which the words of the sentence are grouped 

In writing, these pauses are represented by marks called 
stops or points. Punctuation (derived from the Latin 
pundum, a point) means "the right mode of putting in 
points or stops." 

The stops made use of are — 1. The Comma (,). 2. The 
Semicolon (;). 3. The Colon (:). 4. The Full Stop or 
Period. (.).* 

As it is impossible to lay down perfectly exact rules for 
the introduction of pauses in speaking, so it will be 
found that in many cases the best writers are not agreed 
as to the use of stops in writing. All that can be done is 
to lay down the most general principles. 

• These words (properly speaking) are names not of the stops, but of the portiona 
(*f sentences which they mark off. Comma means a clause ; Colon, a limb or member 
oi a sentence ; Semicolon, a half Colon ; Ftriod, a complete sentence. 


483 The Full Stop is used at tlie end of a complete and inde- 
pendent sentence, but not at tlie end of a sentence which 
IS followed by another collateral sentence (§ 449). 

484 The Colon and Semicolon are only placed between sen- 
tences which are grammatically complete, not between the 
various portions of either simple or complex sentences 
(§ 400). The colon is placed between sentences which are 
grammatically independent, but sufficiently connected in 
sense to make it undesirable that there should be a com- 
plete break between them. Thus: "The Chief must be 
Colonel : his uncle or his brother must be Major : the 
tacksmen must be the Captains" {Macaulay). "Nothing 
else could have united her people • nothing else could have 
endangered or interrupted our commei'ce " (Landor). But 
in similar cases many writers only use the semicolon ; no 
exact rule can be given. 

A colon (with or without a dash after it) is often put 
before a quotation which is not immediately dependent on 
a verb ; as : ' On his tombstone was this inscription : — 
" Here lies an honest man." ' 

485 The semicolon is commonly placed between the co- 
ordinate members of a compound sentence, when they are 
connected by and, but, or nor ; as : " Time would thus be 
gained; and the royalists might be able to execute their 
old project " {MacauJay). It is also inserted when three or 
more co-ordinate sentences are united collaterally (§ 449), 
with a conjunction before the last ; as : "A battering-ram 
was invented, of light construction and powerful effect ; it 
was transported and worked by the hands of forty soldiers; 
and as the stones were loosened by its repeated strokes, 
they were torn with long iron hooks from the walls " 
{Gibbon). When the co-ordinate sentences are short and 
closely connected in meaning, commas are placed between 
them, or such parts of them as remain after contraction 
(S 445), as : ' I ran after him, but could not catch him.' 
Sometimes even commas are unnecessary, as: " He reads 
and writes incessantly." "He learns neither Latin nor 
Greek." "He struck and killed his brother." "Either 
you or I must leave the room." 

48G In a simple or complex sentence commas should be 
inserted whenever, in reading or speaking, pauses would 
be made to show more clearly the way in which the words 
are grouped together. It is impossible to lay down hard 
and fast rules. When no pause is required in reading, no 


comma is necessary in writing. The following directions 
may be of service : — 

In simple sentences the comma is inserted — 

1. Before the main verb, when the subject is accompanied 
by an attributive adjunct which, with its adjuncts, forms 
a combination of words of considerable length. As, " The 
injustice of the sentence pronounced upon this ivise and 
virtuous man, is evident." But if the adjunct is expressed 
briefly, the comma is not used; as, "The injustice of the 
sentence is evident." 

2. Before and after any participle (not used as a mere 
qualitative adjective) or participial phrase; as, " The man, 
having slipped, fell over the cliff." " The general, having 
rallied his soldiers, led them forwards." "Undaunted, 
he still struggled on." "All night the dreadless angel, 
unpursued, through heaven's wide champaign winged his 
glorious way." 

3. Before and after any attributive adjunct to the subject 
which consists of an adjective, or noun in apposition, when 
these are accompanied by other words standing to them 
in the attributive, objective, or adverbial relation. E.g., 
" Bacon, the illustrious author of the ' Novum Organum,' 
declared," &c. "The soldier, afraid of the consequences 
of his insubordination, deserted." 

4. Before or after a phrase or quotation which is either 
the subject or the object of a verb. Thus: "Nelson's 
watchword was, ' England expects every man to do his 
duty.' " " He said to his disciples, ' Watch and pray.' " 

5. When several substantives, enumerated successively 
without having the conjunction and placed between them, 
have the same relation to some other word in the sentence, 
forming either the compound subject or the compound 
object of a verb, or coming after a preposition, they must 
be separated by commas. Thus : " John, William, James 
and Henry took a walk together." " He lost lands, money, 
reputation and friends." Adjectives and adverbs co- 
ordinately related to the same noun, or to the same verb or 
adjective, and not connected by and, should be separated 
by commas ; as : " He was a wealth}', prudent, active and 
philanthropic citizen." "He wrote his exercise neatly, 
quickly and correctly." 

6. A comma is insei ted a fuor an adverbial phrase consist- 
ing of a noun (with its adjuncts) used absolutely, or an 


intinitivy mood '^preceded by to) implying purpose, when it 
precedes the verb or its subject. As, " To conclude, I 
will only say," &c. " The man being dead, his heirs took 
possession of his estate." 

7. Other complex adverbial phrases also are frequently 
followed by commas when they precede the subject of the 
sentence ; as, " By studying diligently for five hours a day, 
he mastered the language in six months." Such phrases 
should be both preceded and followed by commas when 
they come between the subject and the verb, and modify 
nob the verb simply, but the entire assertion; as, "The 
foolish man, in defiance of all advice, persisted in his pro- 
ject." " This undertaking, therefore, was abandoned." But 
a siusle adverb or a short adverbial phrase which simply 
modifies the verb need not be thus marked ofi"; as, "The 
man in vain protested his innocence." However, when it 
is the representative of an elliptical clause, must be pre- 
ceded and followed by commas; as, "The man, however, 

8. Nouns used in the vocative (or nominative of appella- 
tion) are separated by commas from the rest of the sentence ; 
a?, "John, shut the door," "I said, Sir, that I had not 
done that." 

4iS7 In complex sentences the following rules may be observed : 

1. A substantive clause used as the subject of a verb 
should be followed by a comma. Thus: "That the 
accused is innocent of the crime imputed t^ him, admits 
of demonstration," "How we are ever to get, there, is the 

If such a clawse follow the verb, a comma does not usually 
precede the substantive clause. As, " It is of great import- 
ance that this should be rightly understood." 

A substantive clause which is the object of a verb is not 
generally preceded by a comma. Thus: "He acknow- 
loflged that he had done this." " Tell me how you are." 

2. An adjective clause is not separated by a comma from 
the noun which it qualities when it is an essential part of 
the designation of the thing signified; that is, when the 
thing or person signified is not sufficiently indicated by 
the antecedent noun. Thus: "The man who told me 
this stands here." " I do not see the objects that you are 
^loiuting out." 

But if the designation of the person or thing meant is 


complete -witliout the relative sentonoe, so that the latter 
only extends and defines that designation, being continua- 
frve, and not restrictive (§ 413), then a comma must be in- 
troduced. Thus : " We are studying the reign of William 
Eufus, who succeeded his father a.d. 1087." '* I will 
report this to my father, who is waiting to hear the news." 
Adverbial clauses which precede the verb that they modify 
should be marked off by commas. Thus : " When you 
have finished your work, tell me." " Except ye repent, ye 
shall all likewise perish." But an adverbial clause need 
not be preceded by a comma when it comes after the verb 
that it modifies; as, "I will wait till I hear from you"; 
"I did not see him when he called " ; "He ran away as 
soon as I saw him." 

4'^8 Besides the stops, some other signs are employed in 

489 A note of interrogation (?) must be placed at the end of 
all direct questions, but not after indirect questions. Thus : 
" Have you written your letter ? " But : " He asked me 
whether I had written my letter." 

490 The note of admiration or exclamation (!) is placed after 
interjections, exclamations, and after nouns and pronouns 
used in addresses, when particular stress is to be laid upon 
them. This mark is also frequently placed at the end of a 
sentence which contains an invocatiun. 

491 The parenthesis ( ) is used to enclose a clause, or part of a 
clause, which does not enter into the construction of the 
main sentence, but is merely introduced hy the way. Words 
enclosed within a parenthesis do not require to be separated 
from the rest of the sentence by any other stop. 

492 Double or single inverted commas ' — ' or " — ", are used 
to mark quotations. 




493 a. The first stage in tlie analysis of a simple sentence is to 
separate the grammatical subject with its adjuncts from 
the predicate-verb with whatever is attached to it as 
object, complement, or adverbial adjunct. The gram- 
matical subject with its attributive adjuncts forms the 
logical subject of the sentence ; the predicate verb, with 
aU that is attached to it, forms the logical predicate of the 
sentence (§ 348). 


Logical Subject. 

(OrammaticcL Subject with AttHbutive 


Logical Predicate. 

{Predicate- Verb, with Objective and 

Adve^-bial Adjuncts.) 

Oiir messenger 

has not yet arrived. | 


will carry ail our property with 

The village preacher's modest 

rose there. | 

The wretched prisoner, over- 
whelmed by his misfortunes, 

was on the point of putting an ' 
end to his existence. 1 

A bird in the hand 

is worth two in the bush. ! 

t93 b. The following example illustrates the separation of the 
logical subject into the grammatical subject and its attri- 
butive adjuncts (§ 348).' 

"The soldiers of the tenth legion, wearied by their long 
march, and exhausted from want of food, were unable to 
resist the onset of the enemy." 

Logical Subject. 

Ora.mmatical Subject. Attributive Adjuncts of Subject. 

Logical PredicaU, 


1. The 

2. of the tenth legion 

3. wearied by their long 


4. exhausted from want 

of food 

were unable to resist 
the onset of the 



498 c. In the following examples the logical predicate is 
eepaiated into its component parts : — 

logieal Subject 

Logical Prtdieatt. 

Prtdicate- Verb. 

with Adjunct*. 

Adverbial Ad- 

The sight of distress 


a benevolent 

1. always 

2. with com- 



will bend 

our coiirse 

1. thither 

2. from off the 

tossing of 
these riery 

493 d. In the following example both, the subject and the 
object of the verb are separated into the substantive 
and attributive adjuncts of which they are composed :— 

" The mournful tidings of the death of his son tilled the 
proud heart of the old man with the keenest anguish." 


Attributive Adjunctt 
0/ SubjeC. 



of Object. 

Adjuncts of 


1. The 

2. mournful 

3. of the death 

of his son 



1. the 

2. proud 

3. of the 
old man 

with the 


493 e. The following examples show how a complex predicate 
(§ 391-395) may be separated into its components: — 

" That hero was deservedly called the saviour of hie 

Subject, vnth 


Adverbial AdjuneU of Predicate. 

of Incompl'tt 


Adverbial Ad- 
junct of Verb. 

Adverbial Ad- 
junct ofCompU- 

that hero 

was called 

the saviour of 
his country 




" This misfortune will certainly make the poor man 
miserable for life." 

Subject with 


Object with 

Adverbial Adjunct* of 

Vab oj 



Adjunct of 

Adjunct of 

This mis- 

■will make 


the poor 


for life 

t93 /. The thorough analysis of a sentence is to be conducted 
in the following manner : — 

i. Set down the subject of the sentence, which may con- 
sist (1) of a single substantive, or (2) of two or more sub- 
stantives united by co-ordinative conjunctions, or (3) of 
an infinitive mood, or (4) of a quotation, or (5) of a sub- 
ordinate substantive clause (see §§ 384-387). 

ii. Set down the attributive adjuncts of the subject. These 
may consist (1) of an adjective or participle (with or with- 
out adjuncts of their own), or (2) of a noun, an infinitive 
mood, or a substantive clause in apposition to the subject, 
or (3) of a substantive (noun or pronoun) in the possessive 
case, or (4) of a substantive precede^! by a preposition (in- 
cluding under this head an infinitive mood preceded by to), 
or (5) of an adjective clause (§ 3G2). 

ui. Set down the predicate-verb. If the verb is one oi 
incomplete predication, sot down the complement of the 
predicate, and indicate that the verb and its complement 
make up the entire predicate (§§ 389-395). 

iv. If the predicate be a transitive verb, set down the 
object of the verb. The object of a verb admits of the 
same varieties as the subject. If the predicate be a verb 
of incomplete predication, followed by an infinitive mood, 
set down the object of the dependent infinitive (§ 397). 

V. Set down those words, phrases, or adjective clauses, 
which are in the attributive relation to the object of the 
predicate, or to the object of the complement of the predi- 
cate, if the latter be a verb in the infinitive mood (§ 389). 

vi. Set down those words, phrases, or adverbial clauses 
which are in the adverbial relation to the predicate, or the 
complement of the predicate. These adverbial adjuncts 
may consist (1) of an adverb; or (2) of a substantive (or 


verb in the infinitive mood) preceded by a preposition ; or 
(3) of a noun qualified by an attributive word ; or (4) of a 
substantive (noun or pronoun) in the objective case, before 
which to or for may be understood ; or (5) of a nominative 
absolute; or (6) of an adverbial clause (§ 372). 

These various elements of the sentence may be arranged 
either in the mode adopted in the following examples, or 
in that indicated in the table at the end of the book. 

Examples of the Analysis of Simple Sentences. 

494 a. " Having ridden up to the spot, the enraged officer struck the 
unfortunate man dead with a single blow of his sword." 
Subject, 'officer.' 

Attributive ad. {^- ' t^^^ ' (§ 362, 1). 
mtrumtive aa- ^ 'enraged' (§ .362, 1). 
juncU of subject, \ 3 . j^^^j^^ ^^|^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^ ^p^^ , ^^ ggg^ ^^ 

p J. . ( Vet'h of incomplete predication, 'stnick.' 

rreUKote, y Complement ofpredicate(§ '695) 'dead-' 

Ohject, ' man. ' 

Attributive ad- \ 1. 'the.' 

juncts of object, | 2. 'unfortunate.' 

Adverbial ad- l\. 'on the spot' (§ 372, 2). 

juncts of pre- \ 2. 'with a single blow of his sword' (J 372^ 

dicate, \ 2). 

494 6. "I saw a man with a sword." Here tinth a sword forms an 

attributive adjunct of the object man. It does not denote the 
manner or means of the action saw (§ 362, 4). 

495 "Who are you!"* 
Svbject, 'you.' 

p. J- f { Verb of incomplete predication, 'are.' 

rreatcat*, | Complement of predicate, 'who.' 

496 "Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger, comes dancing 
from the East." 

Subject, 'star.' 

Attributive ad- j J; ', *^f j^<.«, ^^f^^]' ^^ 
juncts of subject, \ ^ . ^^^,^ harbinger ' (§ 362, 3). 
p i- f ( Verb of incomplete predication, 'comes.' 

rreaicate, | Complement of 2}redicale, ' dancing 't (^ 391). 

A dverbial adjunct of the predicate, ' from the East ' (§ 372, 2). 

• The conetniction of an interrogative or relative sentence is most easily seen 
Dy looking at that of the corresponding affirmj.tive or demonstrative seutenoft 
Thus, ' Who art you t" answers to " / am he." 

i It is much better to class this example with such phrases as " looki flne,^ 
"gr^wt tall," " snulU twerf" Ac., tlinu to trait dancing us an attributive adjunct 
ti tba aul^eat; which in tiw order of IdaM it certainly is uoU 


497 " He found aU bis wants supplied by the care of bis friends." 

Suhject, " he." 

Predicate, " found. " 

Object, " wants." 

f 1. "all" (§362, 1). 
Attributive adjuncts ! 2. "to" (§ 362, 1). 

of object, I 3. "supplied hj the oere of bis 

[ .fiieads" (§ 262, 1). 

Sentences like the above must not be confounded with such as 
" It made the man mad,'" " He called him a kar,'' &c. Sentences 
like "He found the family starving" do not doier from "1 
beard the man speaking," " I saw the rain foiling." 

In the phrase " by the care of his friends*^ we may separate the 
words ^^ of his friends" as forming an attributive adjunct of the 
noun care. 

498 " A man of weak health is incapable of the thorough enjoy- 

ment of life." 

Subject, 'man,' 

Attributive ad- ( I. 'a' (§ 362, 1). 
juncis of subject, \ 2. ' of weak health' (§ 362, 4). 

p J. , f Verb of incomplete predication, ' is.' 

1 reaicate, | CompLement of predicate, ' incapable' (§393) 

Adverbial adjunct of the complement of the predicate^ ' of the 
thoroughenjoyment of life.' (See the note on the last example.) 

499 " And now, their mightiest quelled, the battle swerved, with 

many an inroad gored." 
Subject, ' battle.' 

f 1. Article ' the.' 
Attributive ad- I 2." Parttczma^w^ms^,' with many an inroad 
juncts 0/ subject, ^ gored' (§ 362, 1.) 

Predicate, ' swerved.' 

j^ 1 ' 1 ri r^- Adverb, ' now.' 
Aaverotauaa- j 2_ JSfoun, with attributive adjunct in the 

juncts oj pre- < nominative absolute, 'their mightiest 

^^'^°'^^^ ^ quelled' (§372, 5.) 

500 •' He gave him a letter to read." Here 'him,' (i. e., ' to him ') 
and to ' read ' (ad legendum., § 190, form adverbial adjuncts of 
the predicate. 

601 It frequently happens that the attributive adjuncts of the 
subject or object have in their turn adverbial or other adjuncts 
of sufficient importance to be worth setting down separately. 
In that case they may be inserted in the analysis under a head- 
ing of their own. Thus : — 

" Hence, loathed Melancholy, 
Of Cerberus and blackest midnight born, 
In Stygian cave forlorn, 
'Monggt horrid shapes, and shrieks and sights unholy." 


Subject, * melancholy. ' 

Attributive ad- II. Adjective, 'loathed.' 
juncts of subject, \ 2. Participle, 'born.' 

!1. 'Of Cerberus and blankest midnight.' 
2. ' In Stygiaa cave forlorn.' 
3. ' 'Mongst horrid shapes, and shrieks, and 
sights llQhol3^' 
Predicate (understood), ' go ' (or dei>art). 
Adverbial adjunct of predicate, 'hence.' 

502a "All but one were killed." 

Here 'but one' (A. S. bulau dnum) is an adverbial adjunct (§ 373, 2) 
of the verb. The sentence means 'all, leaving out one, were killed.' 

5026 " None but the brave deserve the fair." 

That is, ' None, if we leave out the brave, deserve the fair.' ' But the 
brave ' (like ' but one ' in the last example) is an adverbial adjunct of the 
predicate. (For another mode of explaining thu construction of but in 
this instance, see § 289. note. It is easy to see that the filling up of the 
ellipsis there indicated is possible only after a negative.) "Who but 
a madman would act thus ? " means, " Leaving out the class of madmen, 
who would act thus?" The jilirase 'but a mndman,' is, in any case, 
an adverbial adjunct of the predirntp. 

503 "But being charged, we will be still by land" {Antony and 
Cleopatra, iv. 11, 1). 

Here ' but being charged ' is a gerund, preceded by the preposition 
but, and means ' leaving out the case of being charged.' The phrase 
forms an adverbial adjunct to the predicate verb will be. The sentence 
means, " Unless we are attacked, we will make no movement by land." 

504 " Whence, but from the author of all ill, could spring so deep a 
maUce ?" 

Here an adverbial phrase instead of a substantive seems to fdlnw the 
preposition but. The use of the gerund after but in the last example, 
however, suggests that the full phrase should be hut springing from (he 
author of all ill, that is, " Without springing from tlie author of all ill," 
or, " If we leave out the case of springing from the author of all ill, 
whence could so deep a malice spring ?" So, "Matchless but with 
the Almighty," is "Matchless but (being matched) with the Almighty." 

A similar explanation may be given of such phrases as, " He never 
comes hut when he is tioi ivanled," i.e., 'but (coming) when he is not 
wanted;' so 'except when he is not wanted,' may be treated as 'coming 
when he is not wanted being excepted." We do, however, find adverbs 
standing for qualified substantives, and preceded by prepositions. Before 
now is equivalent to before the present liine. 

505 " I can but lament the result." 

In such sentences it seems as though but were an adverb, meaning 
only. It is, however, the preposition but, followed by a verb in tlie 
uuGmiPve (or substantive) mood. In reality all such cuuBtructionu havr 


arisen from the improper omission of a negative.* In Chaucer we find, 
**I n'am but a leude compilatour;" " That I may lave not but my meat 
and drinke " (Wedgwood, Diet. a. v. ' but '). 

Examples of the Analysis of Complex Sentences. 

606 When there are subordinate clauses, the analysis of the entire 
sentence must first be conducted as if for each subordinate clause 
we had some single word. AVlien the relation of the several 
clauses to the main sentence and to each other has thus been 
clearly marked, the subordinate clauses are to be analysed on the 
same principles as simple sentences. Mere conjnnctiocs (§ 286) 
do not enter into the grammatical structure of the clauses which 
they introduce. No combination of •words forms a dependent 
sentence without a finite verb expressed or understood. 

607 The relation of the parts of a comple.K sentence may be indicated 
by the following notation : — 1. Let brackets of different kinds 
enclose the several clauses, and be so placed as to enclose every- 
thing that enters into the structure of the clause in question. If 
a clause contains other subordinate clauses within it, let these be 
enclosed in brackets of their own. A principal sentence need 
not be enclosed in brackets, unless it be one of two or more 
co-ordinate sentences. 2. Let a principal sentence be marked 
by a capital letter placed before it,f as (A), iB), &c. 3. Let 
each subordinate clause be marked by a small letter of its owu 
prefixed to it (inside the brackets), a letter without a dash [a, b, 
&c. ) denoting a substantive clause, a letter with a dash (c', iV, 
4;c.) denoting an adjective clause, and a letter with two dashes 
(m", n", &c.) denoting an adverbial clause. (Co-ordinate clauses 
may be denoted by the same small letter repeated and dis- 
tinguished by numerals placed underneath, as a^, o,, b^', b.^, h-(.) 
This single letter would be enough to denote the clause for sub« 
sequent reference ; but, to show more clearly the connection of 
the clauses, if one subordinate clause is contained within another, 
let the letter which denotes the contained clause be preceded by 
the letter or letters denoting the containing clause. Thus, let 
(a'b) denote a substantive clause (6) which is contained within 
an adjective clause (a') ; let (ab'oc") denote an adverbial clause 
(c") contained within the second {h\) of two or more co-ordi- 
nate adjective clauses contained within a substantive clause (a). 
Thus in the following example (C) : " I have heard [(a) that 
my brother has lost at play the money { [aU. ) which was given 
to him ■{ [ah'c".) that he might pay his debts }•"} ], the sub- 
stantive clause marked a includes all from ' that my brother ' to 

• There are other instances in which negatives are Improperly omitted in 
English. " Do not spend more tliap you can help," ought lo be " Do not -spend 
uiore than you cannot help." " He has lost ever so much money," should he, 
"He has lost never so much money," ».«., •' He has lost a quantity of money, and 
never before lust so nmch." 

t Tliu may be omitted U the seuteuce U an Itiolated on«. 


'debts.' The adjective clause beginniug with 'which' is marked 
ah', because it is an adjective clause (6') contained within the 
substantive clause which is marked a; and the adverbial clause 
beginning with tlint is marked ah'c", being an adverbial clause 
(c") contained within the adjective clause marked a.b' ; all tha 
clauses being parts of the principal sentence (C). The letters 
denoting the clauses may be enclosed within brackets of their 
own, or not, at discretion, ^f it is desired to indicate to which 
out of two or more co-ordinate sentences a clause belongs, carry 
out the notation by prefixing to the letter or letters placed before 
the clause the capital letter placed before the sentence. 

1. Sentences containing Substantive Clauses. 
008 (A) " He inferred from this [(o) that the opinion of the judge 
was { (ab) that the prisoner was guilty j ]. 

Analysis of (A). 
Subject, * he. ' 

Predicate^ •inferred.' 

{Substantive clause, [{a) ' Thatf the opinion of 
the judge was that the prisoner was 
guilty ']' {§ 403). 
Adverbial adjunct of predicate, ' from this ' (§ .372, 2). 

• The use of*this notation is not at all essential in the analysis of sentences, but 
it will be found to add much to the clearness of the process. Instead of brackets 
enclosing the various causes, lines of different sorts may be drawn under or over 
the clrtufces. A thick Une may denote a substantive clause, a thin line an adjec- 
tive clause, and a dotted line an adverbial clause, the small letters denoting the 
clauses being placed at the be:;inning of the several lines. Thus, "1 have heard 
that my brother has lost at play the money which was given to him 

(«) („,:-] 

that he might pay his debts." The degree of subordination of the vanoua 

(ab'<r) — — 

clauses would thus bo obvious at a glance. If the use of these combinations of 

letters for denoting the subordinate clauses be thought too difficult, each clause, 

as it is reached in the analysis, may be denoted by a letter or mark of any kind, 

for subsequent reference, vjithout bracketing and marking the cl lusos in the first 

instance. Thus (A), " He inferred that the opinion of the judge was that the 

prisoner was guilty " :^ 

Subject, 'he.' 

PfedieaU, ' inferred.' 

ni^g^ i {8%iJbstantive claute), ' that the opinion of the Judge was tJiat tha 

^'*"> ( prisoner was guilty ' (X). 

AncUytU of (X). 
Subject and adjunctt, ' the opinion of the Judge." 

Pr^- it f Verb of incomplete predication, 'was.' 
rreateaie, -^complement (Substantive clausi), ' that the prisoner was guilty '(Y), 

Anaiytit o/ (Y). 
tvhjeet CMd adjinet, ' the prisoner.' 

M_ J- J ( Verb of incompUtt predication, ' 
^'^"<^' {complemmt, 'guUty' 

+ That, being a mere coujunctioii, does not enter Into the structure of the cboM 
which it introduces. 



Analysis of (a). 
Subject, ' opinion.' 

Attributive ad- (1. 'the.' 
functs o/aubject, [2. 'of the Judge ' (f 362, 4). 

iVerb of incomplete predication, 'was. 
Complement (Substantive clause) \{ab) 'that 
the prisoner was guilty' j. 

A nalysis of {ab'). 
Subject {* 'th Attributive adjuncts), 'the prisoner.' 
Predicate, [ ^'^'^^ of incomplete prediration, ' was.' 

( Complement^ ' guilty.' 

609 (A) " Tell me [{b) who • ymi think that man is]." 

Analysis of (A). 
Subject [understood], 'you.' 
Predicate, 'tell.' 

Obiect [ {''^'^''t'stantive clause) [(5) * Who you think that 

^ ' ( man is ']. 

Adverbial adjunct of predicate, ' me.' 

Analysis of (6). 
Subject, ' yon.* , 

Predicate, ' think.* 

Object, (Substantive dame) {(bo) ' Who that man is']. 

Analysis of (bo). 
Subject, with adjunct, 'that man.' 
p J. , ( Verb of incomplete predication, •«.* 

freaicaie, y Complement of predicate, ' who.' 

610 " The hope that I shall be successful sustains me." 

The substantive clause ' that I shall be sui'^essful,* may be termed an 
enlargement of the subject hope, to which it stands in a species of objee- 
live relation, hope being a noun denoting ho. active feeling directed 
towards some object (§ 450). 

511 (1) " That he said that is not trae." (2) " It is not true that 
he said that." 

In the former sentence the subject is the substantive ckuse "that he 
said that," In the Intter the subject is the pronoun it, to which the 
substantive clause, " that he said that," stands in apposition, forming 
an attributive adjunct to it (( 362, 3). 

• It fs common In sentences of thfs kind to see the Jnterrog'ative or re'ativo 
prououn put in the objective case. Tliis is wrong (see noti- on §405). "Whom 
do men say that, I am " wouM be correct only if it were allowable to say, ' 'Men 
Bay that I am him." The words ,vo« thirik arc piinted in italics because, although 
they belong to the entire substantive clause, they interrupt the consecutiveneai 
of the contained clause. ' who that man Is,' 


612 (1) " I told him that he was mistakeo." {2^ " I convmoed him 
that he was mistaken. " 

In the first sentence him answers to the Latin dative case, and is an 
adverbial adjunct to the predicate told, the object of which is the sab- 
•tantive clause " that he was mistaken." In the second sentence him 
is the direct object of the verb, and the substantive clause (like the 
Latin Accusative of Limitation) forms an adverbial adjunct of the pre- 
dicate (§ 407). The first sentence is equivalent to " He was mistaken. 
I told him that ;" the second to " He was mistaken. I convinced him 
vith respect to that." 

613 " There was a report that yon were dead." 

Subject, ' report' 

/ 1_ « a.' 

, V I.- \ \ 2. Substantive clause, 'that you were dead* 
juncts of subject, | - , ^gg 2) 

Predicate, ' was.' 

Adverbial adjunct of predicate, ' there.' 

614 (A) " Methinka * [(o) the lady doth protest too much "]. 
Sulked, ' \that] the lady doth protest too much' (a). 
Predicate, 'thinks.'* 

Ad^'erbial adjunct of predicate, ' [to] me.' 

Analysis of (a). 

Subject, ' lady.' 

Attributive adjunct of subject, 'the.' 

Predicate, 'doth protest* 

Object, ' too much. ' 

515 (B) " Him thought* [(a) his sorrowful heart would break ']. 

Here the substantive clause " [that"} his sorrowful heart would break " 
is the subject of the verb thought. 

516 "I should have forgiven him, but that he repeated the offenca." 

Here we have a substantive clause preceded by the prepusiiion hut, 
the whole phrase forming an adverbial adjunct of the predicate " should 
have forgiven " (8 403). 

517 (A) "Thieves are not judged, butf [(m) they are by to hear "]. 
(B) " It shall go hard but + [(n) I wiU better the instruction]. 

In these two sentences the substantive clauses that follow the pre- 
position but are not introduced by the conjunction that. The com- 
bina.ion of the preposition and substantive clause forms an adverbial 
adjunct to the predicate (J 372, %). 

• Thinks and thought are the present and past indefinite tenses of the ola 
Knt'lish verb tliincan, 'to appear.' (Compare the German diln Ictixnd diiuclUe). 

' That IS, " without their being by to hear," or " the case of their being by to 
he -r being excluded." 

X That is, " The case oi my bettering the instruction being excluded, it bUaI gc 


2. Sentences containing Adjective Clauses. 

618 (A) " The cohort, { (a') which had already croesed the river, 
quickly came to blows with the enemy." 

Subject, 'cohort.' 

ju -h i' ^ M' ■Article, 'the.* 

AUMive aa- J2_ Adjective clause, 'which had already 
J oj su jec , I crossed the river ' [a'). 

Predicate, ' came. ' 

Adverbial ad- ll. 'quickly.' 

juncts of predi- | 2. 'to blows.' 

cate, ( 3. ' with the enemy.' 

Analysis of (a'). 

Subject, 'which.' 

Predicate, 'had crossed.' 

Object, 'river.' 

Attributive adjunct to object, 'the.' 
Adverbial adjunct to predicate, ' already.' 

619 (B) "Oive me that large book [{a^ that you have in your 

Here the adjective clause " that yon have in your hand " is in the 
attributire relation to the object ' book.' The relative that is the object 
of have. 

520 " Give me what you have in your hand." 

Here the adjective clause, "what you have in your hand "is used 
substantively, that is, without having its antecedent that expressed. 
In the analysis we may either introduce the word tfiat, the object of 
give, and set down the relative adjective clause as an attributive adjunct 
to it, or we may at once caU the adjective clause itself the object of the 

Care must be taken not to confound adjective clauses like the above 
with substantive clauses beginning with the interrogative what, ta " Tell 
me what he $aid." (§ 410.) 

B21 " I return to view where once the cottage stood." 

Here ' where once the cottage stood ' is an adjective clause qualifying 
the noun place understood, which forms the object of view. 

622 " Who is there but admires such deeds T" 

The verb admiret requires a subject. If we supply he, the phrase hui 
\_lhat'\ he admires such deeds is an adverbial phrase qualifying liie predi- 
cate, and consisting of the preposition hut, followed by a substautivt; 
clause. If we supply who (' but who admires,' &c.), we also get an 
adverbial adjunct to the predicate, the sentence being equivalent to, 
" Who, if we leave out thoise who admire such deeds, is there ? " Who 
admiret tueh deah is then an adjective clause used substantively, that i^ 
without aa antecedent txpressed, and preceded by a preposition. 



62? "His conduct is not such as I admire." 

Here as I admire must be taken as an adjective clause co-ordina' - 
with tuch, and (like it) forming a complement to the predicate ii. A$ 
does duty for a relatiye pronoun, and is the object of admire (J 412). 

3. Sentences containing Adverbial Clauses, 

(D) [(tn")" When in Salamanca's cave 

Him listed his magic wand to wave,] 
The bells would ring in Notre Dame." 

Analysis of (D). 
Subject {unth attributive adjunct), ' the bells.' 
Predicate, * would ring.' 

Adverbial ad- (h {Adverbial clause) [(ni") 'when in SaJa 

jfuncts of predi- J manca's wave']. 

cote, (2. 'in Notre Dame.' 

Analysis of {mT). 
Subject [Infinitive J .^ ^^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^^,, J ° 

Predicate, ' listed.' 

Adverbial ad- [ 1. ' When ' 

juncts of predi- < 2. * in Salamanca's cave.' 

cate, \ 3. 'him.'* 

625 (A) " He slept [(«") while I watchedl.'' 
Subject, 'he.' 

Predicate, ' slept' 

Adverbial ad- \ 

junct of predi- | {Adverbial clauae), 'while I watohoL' 
cute, ) 

Analysis of {n"). 

Subject, 'L' 

Predicate, ' watched.* 

•While ' is a conjunction (§ 291e). 

626 "He slept till I awaked him." 

Here it must be observed that till is not adverbial in its force. Tt is 
usually called a conjunction, and such a clause as 'till I awaked bim' 
is regarded as an adverbial clause. Till was originally a preposition, 
and was used with a substantive clause after it (§ '19 le). 

527 (B) { {x") " If it were donef [{x'y") when 'tis done] j , then it 
were well [(2) it were done quickly"]. 

• Bim has bere the force of a dative. 

♦ ».«. If It were all over when 't'» dor 


Analysis of (B). 

Subject, ' it. ' 

Altrihiitive ad- '\ Substantive clause in apposition, (§387) [(aj 
juncts of subject, ) 'it were done quickly']. 

Predicate, ' were.' 

t J ,. , J [ \. (Adverbial clause of condition) I »" 'If it 

Adverbial ad- \ j i, u- j >■ 

• J J' J • I were done, when tis done | 

juncts of predi- l^ 'then' 

«^' (a 'well.' 

Analysis o/(x"). 

Subject, *it.' 

Tj J. . ( Verb of incomplete predication, were.' 

Prerftcafe, j Co„,pieme«<, ' done ' 

Adverbial adjunct ) (Adverbial clause of time) [{a/'y") ' when 'tfs 
qf predicate, j done. '] 

Analysis of (a/'y"). 

Subject, 'it.' 

D ,. . f Verb of incomplete predication, *a.' 

Predicate, | Complement, 'done.' 

Adverbial adjunct \ , i^^ > 

of predicate, ) 

Analyns 0/(2). 
Subject, Mt.' 

Predicate, (Ordinary passive verb) 'were done.' 

Adverbial adjunct ) , • i^i > 

of complement, j " '^' 

528 (A) " He ran so fast { (a") that I could not overtake him"}. 
Subject, ' he.' 

Predicate, 'ran.' 

Adverbial ad- a ,^^^^., ^j^^^ 51. .g^.* 

juncts of predu [ g. ' that I could not overtake him.* 
cate } 

Analysis of (a"). 
[Adverbial clause co-ordinate with 'so.' $ 424.) 
Subject, •!.' 

_, , . , ( Verb of incomplete predication, ' could.* 

Predicate, ( Complement, 'overtake.' 

Object, ' him.' 

Adverbial ad- \ 
junct of predi- >'not.* 
cate, ) 

[It seems natural, at first sight, to reptard that in this sentence U the 
equivalent of the Latin connective adverb ut (note on § '291/). But thf 
eonatr action in reality sprang uat of the use of a subsiautive clause 


ased in apposition to a demonstrative pronoun ('to that [degree]'), 
which was afterwards replaced by the adverb to. The Ihut. tlioi>, 
had better still be regarded as the subordinative cmijunciion IJ iii^ 
though the s 'ilistuntive claust; has become adverl.ial.] 

529 •' He spoke loud that I might hear him." 

Here the clause " that I might hear him " is now an adverbial adjunct 
of ' spoke." It was originally a substantive clause in apposition to some 
such noun as order or end in such a sentence as " He spoke loud in 
order that I might hear him," or "to the end that I mght hear him," 
wliere the whole phra«e, "in order that I might hear him," forms an 
adverbial adjunct to ihe verb tpoke. 

530 (A) [(6") "Whatever the consequeace may be] I shall speak the 

Analysis of {b"). 
{Adverbial clause of concession attached to ' shall speak.') 
Subject {wUh attributive adjunct), 'the consequence.' 

(Verb of incomplete predication, 'may.' 
Coinplement of predicate., 'be.' 
Secondary complemen §393), 'whatever.' 

531 (C) "He is not so wise [(a") as he is witty]." 
Subject, 'he.' 

n J- , j Verb of incomplete predication, ^ 13.' 

freaicate, j Complnnent, ' wise.' 

Adverbial adjunct of predicate, ' aoU' 
Adverbial ad- | . , , 

Analysis of {a"). 
{Adverbial clause qualifying 'wise,' and co-ordinate with ' sa*) 
Subject, ' he. ' 

i Verb of incomplete predication, 'is.* 
Predicate, \ Complement, 'witty.' 

Adverbial adjunct of compleinent, 'as.' 
[/32 (X) " Beware [ {d") how you meddle with these matters "). 
Subject [understood), 'you.' 

p i Verb of incomplete predication, 'be.' 

tr educate,, [ Coinnlement of pvdicate, 'ware.' 

Adverbial ad- ( {Substantive clause used adrerhially, § 407), 
junrt of com- \ ' how you meddle with these matters ' 

plevtent, \ {d"). 



Analysis of {d"). 

Subject, 'you.' 

Predicate, ■ ' meddle.' 

Adverbial ad- 

ddverbial ad- I -, 
juncts of predi- \ „' 
cate, \ ' 

1. 'how.' 

with these matters.' 

Examples of the Analysis of Compound Senten'^es, 

53o Ordinary sentences of this kind require no special discuss'-'O. 
All that has to be doue is to analyse each cf the co-ordintte 
clauses separately, omitting the conjunctions by which they ^re 

534 There is, however, one class of co-ordinate clauses which re- 
quire care, namely those in which the relative pronoun has a 
continuative force. (See § 413, and Analysis of Sentences applied 
to Latin, § 165). 

635 [(A) " At last it chaunced this proud Sarazin 

To meete me wand'rint^ ;] [(B) who perforce me led 
With him away] [(C) but never yet could win]." 

Analysis of (A). 
Svhject, ' it.' 

Attributive ad- \ 

junct of subject I 

(infinitive phrase, ^ ' to meete me wand'ring.' 

in apposition to \ 

'it,') / 

Predicate, ' chaunced. ' 

Adverbial adjunct of predicate, ' this proud Sarazin.' 

The analysis of (B) and (C) presents no difficulty. They are 
priiicipal claus>=s co-ordinate with (A) ; wJio being continuative 
in its force (§ 413). 

536 [(A) " This is now our doom], [(B) ((?»") which if we can sustain 
and bear, } our supreme foe in time may much remit his anger"]. 

Here which is continuative in force (} 413). 

Analysis of (B). 
8vJ)ject (loith adjuncts), ' our supreme foe.' 
p J- f j Verb of incomplete predication, 'may.' 
freaicate, {Complement, 'remit.' 
Object [with adjunct), ' his anaer.' 
Adverbial ad- ( ^- ^'^'^^^f '^"^'^ ^^"""^ ' ^^""^ "^ 

juncts of predi- g. 'intrme' 

"*^*« 1 3. 'much.' 


Aiialysia of (to"). 
Subject, «we.' 

Predicate. ( '^'^^^ of incomplete predication, ' cau,' 

^ ( Complement, ' sustain and bear.' 

Object, ' which. ' 

Contracted Sentences. 

637 Before a contracted sentence ({ 445) is analysed, the parte 
omitted must be expressed at full leugth. 

538 " There has not been a better or more illustrious man than 
Africanus." In full — 

[(A) ' There has not been a better man than Africanus.'] 
[(B) ' There has not been a more illustrious man than 
Africanus. '] 

539 " We perceive that these things not only did not happen, but 
could not have happened. " In full — 

[(A) ' We perceive that these things not only did not happen. '] 
[(B) ' We perceive that these things could not have hajipened. '] 

640 ' ' Many instances were related of wise forethought, or firm 
action, or acute reply on his part, both in the senate and in the 
forum." In full — 

[(A) ' Many instances were related of wise forethought on his 
part in the senate.'] 

[(B) ' Many instances were related of wise forethought on his 
part in the forum.' 

[(C) ' Many instances were related of firm action on his part 
in the senate. '] 

[(D) ' Many instances were related of firm action on his part 
in the forum.'] 

[(E) ' Many instances were related of acute reply on his part 
in the senate.'] 

[(F) ' Many instances were related of acute reply on his part 
in the forum.'] 

641 ' ' Every assertion is either true or false, either wholly or in 
part." InfuU— 

[(A) ' Every assertion is true wholly.'] 
[(B) 'Every assertion is true in part.'] 
[(C) ' Every assertion is false wholly.'] 
[(D) ' Every assertion is false in part.'] 

642 When co-ordinate sentences or clauses are connected hj neither, 
nor, the simple negative not may be substituted i')r each in the 
inalysis, the conjunctive portion of the words being omitted. 


"The man who » 'her reverences nobleness nor loves good- 
ness, is hateful." i.». mil — 
[(A) * The man who reverences not nobleness is hatefuL'] 
[(B) * The man who loves not goodness is hateful.'] 

513 "Whether he succeed or fail, it will not matter to me." In 
[(A) ' If he succeed, it will not matter to me.'] 
[(B) 'If he fail, it will not matter to me.'] 

Elliptical Senteiices. 

544 An elliptipal sentence is one in which something is omitted 
which is essential to the complete construction of the sentence, 
but which is readily supplied in though r, without being ex- 
pressed in words. 

546 Contracted sentences are one variety of elliptical sentences, in 
which what is common to two or more co-ordinate sentences is 
ex esed only once. In the sentences now to be considered 
that which is omitted is not common to two or more clauses. 

646 Relative pronouns and relative adverbs are sometimes omitted. 
"That is the hook I gave you." In full — " That is the book 

which I gave you." 

" That is the house I live in." In full—" That is the house 
which I live in." 

" That is the way I came." In full — " That is the way which 
(or by which) I came." (Here the which or by which will be in 
the adverbial relation to the verb came.) 

" He left the day I arrived." In full—" He left the day that 
(or on which) I arrived." (In this sentence the day is in the 
adverbial relation to left ; that (or on which) is in the adverbial 
relation to arrived ; and the dependent clause that I arrived is 
an adjective clause qualifying (fay. ) 

647 The commonest (and the most troublesome) elliptical sentences 
are those which begin with as and than. In analysing them 
care must be taken to ascertain what the pi-edicate really is in the 
dependent clause, and what word the adverbs as and tlian qualify. 
(See §§ 267, 420—422.) 

548 " He ia as tall as I am."* In fvdl — " He is as tall as I am tall" 

• Clauses beginninfj with at frequently come after the adverb so or the demon- 
strative as, with which they are co-ordinate (see 5 422). When as answers to so or 
an, it qualifies a word (expressed o^ understood) expres.sing the SiUne sort of idea 
as is expressed by the word which the /o or as qualifies. 'J his is seen by the 
Latin usage. It is not uncommon to finJ such sentences as the following! :— " Qui 
se oppido munitissirao tamdiu tenuit quamdiu in provincia Parthi fuenint" (Cia 

Fam. xii 19) " Who ke)>t himself in a very strongly fortified town so long os tha 

PartUi:mR were in the ])rovinco." We see from the Latin that the relative advurb 
M (auswenag to quavi) really qualifies the woid lotiff understood (" us long at Ham 


This sentence is analysed precisely in the same way as that in j 681. 
If we ask what the predicate in the dependent clause is (or what is pre- 
dicated of me), the answer is, "being tall;" and moreover not being tall 
simply, hnt.being tall in a certain degree, which decree is denoted by the 
relative adverb as, which qualities tall (undeistncd) in the adverbial 
clause, just as the demonstrative adv>»^rb as quaid.s tall in the main 

649 "He is taller than I anL" In full— (A) "He is taller [(o") 
than I am tall"]. 

Subject, , «he.' 

p ,. r Verb of incomplete predication, 'ia,' 

fredicate, \ Complement of predicate, 'taller.' 

Adverbial ad- I 

juncts ofpredi- I {Adverbial clause) [{a") * than 1 am taU *}. 

cate, { 

Analyna of {a"). 
Subject, •!.' 

Predicate i ^^'^^ of incomplete predication, 'am.* 

' ( Complement of predicate, ' tall,' 

Adverbial adjunct of predicate, 'than.' 

It has been explained that the connective adverb than originally 
signified uihen (§ 2G4, note), and in this relative sense was employed to 
introduce the standard of comparison. The sentence in full is : — " He 
is taller when I am tall," i.e., ' when my tallness is taken into account.' 

550 "He is more industrious than clever." Ia full — " He is more 
industrious than he is clever." 

Here again the way in which the sentence gets its meaning is quite 
intelligible when the original and proper signification of than is under- 
Stood. It means: — 'He is more industrious when he is clever,' i.e., 
'when his cleverness is regarded, or taken as a standard,' — ' when he 
has cleverness to serve as a measure of his industry.' The when refers 
not 80 much to time as to the eireumetancu o/ the case, 

Farthians kept themselves long, be.). So again : " Nemo orator tan mvlta ne In 
Qrseco quidenj otio ecrijisit, quam multa sunt nostra" (Cic. Orut. 30)— "No orator 
has written so many things, as our wr. tings are many." "' Tarn niagis ilia freniens, 
et tristlbus efFera flammis, quam ma^is eiTuso crudescuut singnine pngnju " 
(Virg. Mn. vii. 7sS). In English we rei.der tarn, magis- quam mayis by to much tlie 
more — a* ; but tl.e Latin shows that the (u really qualities the won! more (under- 
stood). But it ia the common practice in Latiu (and the universal practice in 
English) to omit the word qualitied by quam (English as), when it is a ready ex- 
pressed in the main clause; as, " Vixit tamdiu quam Ucuit in civitate bene 
beateque vivere" (Cic. de Off. ii. 12). The same priucip'.e is illustiatcd by such 
correlatives as tantuj — quantus, aaditalis—quiilis. If tajitit* means so yreat, guantiM 
(thougti rendered only by o.s) must reallj' mean of gnat. 

It may be taken as a general rule that after the relative adverbs at and than we 
must supply a word of the same kind of meaning as the word qualified by the 
simple or demonstrative adverb in the main claviso. In Anglo-.saxon we often 
find the word qnaliried by tbo rcjaiiv^ ...1vl-i o c.v,.i;u, a-; Ic iie mceg tioa J'ela 
gefoHiicufelatwa w vMtg getyUan i " i oaouot caich w many as i can seii ^luaLi;) ' 



561 " He has not written so much as I have." In full — "He has 
not written so much as I have written much." (See § 421, and 
note on § 549. ) 

The adverb as does not refer to the manner of my writing {i.e., it is not 
an adverb of manner, qualifying the verb have written), but refers to the 
quantity that I have written (i.e., it is an adverb of degree, qualifying the 
word much understood). 

652 " He has lived as many years as you have lived months." In 
full — "He has lived aa many years aa you have lived many 

In the adverbial clause a$ is an adverb qualifying many (under- 
stood), and the whole adverbial clause is co-ordinate with the 
demonstrative as in the main clause, 

653 "He has written more letters than you." In full — "Hehaa 
written more letters than you have written many letters." 

It is clear that in the subordinate clause the object of the verb have 
written is not expressed, and yet is requisite to make the sense com- 
plete. A transitive verb must have an object (expressed or understood) 
as well as a subject. And as a comparison is drawn between the uy.mber 
of letters written in each case, the object Utters (understood) must ba 
accompanied by an adjective indicating number. The whole is 
atiaehed to the predicate in the main clause, denoting the standard •{ 
comparison kept in view wimn tlie Mssction of the main clause is made. 

654 "He does not write so well as yon." In full — "He does not 
write 80 well as you write welU The adverbial idea which is 
attached to the predicate in the subordinate clause is not the 
manner (speaking generally) of ' your writing,' but the degree of 
goodness that marks ' your writing.' The idea of goodness will 
be expressed by well, and the notion of degree by the adverb aa, 
which qualifies weU. 

655 " I would as soon die as suflFer that." Here it is clear that the 
word as in the subordinate clause does not mark the manner of 
the suffering referred to, but the degree of readiness with which 
'I would suffer that.' Therefore as must qualify an adverb 
(marking readiness), understood. At full length the sentence ia, 
" I would as soon die as (I would soon) suffer thatb" 

656 *' I would rather die than suffer that." 

The analysis of the preceding sentence will guide us to that of 
the one before us. At full length it will be, "I would rather die 
than (I would soon) suffer that." Here than (—when) qualifies 
the predicate wovld suffer, and the adverbial clause, ' than 1 
would soon suffer that,' qualities the predicate in the main clause. 

667 •* I saw John as well as Thomas." In fuU — " I saw John as 
well as [I saw] Thomas [well]." Here the elliptical adverbial 
clause 'as Thomas^ qualifies and explains the as in the main 
clause, to which it is tiierefore in the adverbial relation. 


B58 •* He is not so rich as you think." In full — (A) " He is not ne 
rich [(a") aa you think ( {a'b) that he is rich " J ], 

Subject, • he.' 

p ,. ^ I Verb of incomplete predication, *ia.' 

^ \ Complement of predicate, 'rich.' 

Adverbial adjunct of predicate, 'not.' 

Adverbial ad- ( 1. ' so.' 

juncts of com' \ 2. (Adverbial clause) [(o*) * aa yon thlii^ 

plement, ( that he is rich ']. 

Atialysis of (o"), 

*• As you think that he is ricli." 

The construction of this clause is the same as though it were 
" You think that he is so rich." The relative adverb as qualifies 
the adjective rich, which is the complement of the predicate in 
the dependent substantive clause "tJiat lie is rich." 

659 " He is richer than you suppose." In full — (B) " He is richer 
[(x") than you suppose that he is rich]." 

Subject, 'he.' 

n ^: A { Verb of incomplete predication 'is.* 

fredwate, y Complement of predicate, ' richer.' 

Analysis of (af )• 

Subject, 'you.' 

Predicate, * suppose.* 

feSriK-x •«■"*"» I. rich.-) 

Adverbial adjunct of predicate, 'than' (= when). 

Analysis of {z''y). 
Subject, *he.' 

n^ J- A \ Verb of incomplete predication^ *\a,' 

rreatcate, ^ Complement of predicate, ' rich.' 

The separation of than or as from the clause to which it reaDj 
belongs may be illustrated by such sentpnces as, "I told him 
how foolish I thought he was." " He asked me how I thought 
he looked." 

533 "I had rather die than endure such disgrace." In full- (C) "I 
tad rather die [(c") than [I would soon] endure such disgrace "3t 


Bvibject, «I.' 

Pm,7> /* i Verb of incomplete predication, 'had.' 

r-reatcatc, ^ Complement of predicate, ' rather.' ♦ 

Object, «die.' 

Adverbial adjunct of the predicate, 'than [1 would aoon] endtue 
such disgrace ' (c"). 

Analysis of (<J^ 
Suhjed, •!' 
Predicate, 'would endure.' 

561 "I am not so foolish as to believe that," In fuH — (A) " I am 
not so foolish [(s") aa I should be foolish to believe that "]. 

Here the clause, " As I should ^-^ that," is co-ordinate with »o, and 
in the adverbial relation to foolish. At is in the adverbial relation to the 
complement Joolith understood. To oelieve that (i.e., Jor believing that, 
or in believing that) is an adverbial adjunct of the verb thould be. 

562 ** I am not such a fool as to believe that" In fuE— (E) " 1 am 
not such a fool [(a") as I should be a fool to believe that "]. 

Here the elliptical adverbial clause (V) qualifies the adjeclive iuch 
The adverb at may be taken as qualifying the predicate thould be. 

563 "He looks as if he knew meu" In full — "He looks as (he 
would look) if he knew me. " 

564 " I agree with you in so far as you adopt his opinion." 

Here a comparison is insL luted between the extent to wbioh *I 
agree,' and the extent to which ' you adopt his opinion.' 
Each clause therefore involves a word denoting extent, qualified 

* The explanation of this conatnioHon is not easy. It is frequently said that 
had is a corruption of would. If this were bo, the diflBculty would vanish ; but 
there is good reason for believing that hiid is quite correct. The nualogous con- 
struction with hef is unquestionably genuine. S.g., " I had at lirf not be, as live 
to be in awe oftuch a thing as I myself" — (Shakspeare, Julius Ccesar, i. 2) ; as also that 
with the comparative liefer or liever. Thus we find in Chaucer : " N* never had I 
thing so lief, ne liever" — (Frank. Tale). This last example gives us a good clue to 
the construction, lief atid liever are adjectives (not adverbs) agreeing with the 
object of the verb have, wliich in this construction la a verb of incomplete predi- 
cation (Or. 391, 395), so that lief and liefer, or liever, are its eomplements. (Com- 
pare the phrases lieb haben aad lieber haben, in German.) At present the use of the 
phrase to have Zi«/ is restricted to cases where the object of tlie verb have i« a verb 
in the infinitive mood, and the adjective lief is qualified by the adverb a*. The 
use of the comparative liefer or liever is obsolete. Now, in old English, we find 
rathe {early or ready) ; comp. rather, super), rathest, used as adjectives. Milton 
speaka bf the rathe primrose, and Spenser of the rather ii.«., earlier) lambs. Thus, 
by taking rather as an adjective (giving the idea of preference, which easily springs 
uut of the radical notion of the word), we get in the phrase to have rather a con- 
struction precisely analogous to that in to have liff (that is, to hold or regard as 
dear or de.Hr able), or to have liefer: have being a verb of incomplete predication, 
rattier its complement, and the depoudont infinitive the object of have. Let it be 
observed that / had sooner do so and s<i is bad English. Sooner is not an adjective. 
We must say, / woiUd sooner, &.c. I would rather is good Euh^lish, because rather 
io an adverb as well as an adjective. In the phrase / had rather, the verb had i» 
kn the ni^unotive mood. 


respecti i^ely by a demonstrative and a relative adverb of degree, 
by means of wliich the comparison is effected. At full length, 
therefore, the sentence will be, "I agree with you in so far aa 
you adopt his opinion (far). " 

565 "He knows that, inasmuch as I have told him." That is to 
say, the extent to which it is the fact that he knows that, ia 
equivalent to the extent to which it is the fact that I have told 
him. The relative as, therefore, in the subordinate clause, 
qualifies a word (understood) denoting extent, and the whole 
adverbial clause is co-ordinate with the demonstrative as in the 
phrase in as much ; the phrase in as much being in the adverbial 
relation to the verb knows. 

666 "I cannot give you so much as five pounds." In full — "1 
cannot give so much as five pounds (are much)." (In Latin the 
correlatives £rt?i<wm and quanfinn would be used; and quantum 
shows that the idea of quantity belongs as essentially to the 
dejjendent aa to the main clause.) 

567 "I cannot give you more than five pounds." The analogy of 
the preceding sentence shows that we must fill up the ellipsis 
thus : — "I cannot give you more than five pounds are much." 

668 " Our habits are costlier than LucuUus wore." 

Ht'ie again the original sense of titan { = when) gives ns an easy 
explanntion of the ellipsis. ' Our habits are cosilier than (when) 
LucuUus wore costly habits;' i.e., ' Taking Lucullus's wearing of costly 
habits as a standard of comparison, our habits are costlier.' 

569 "More than twenty men were killed." That is, "More men 
than twenty (are many) were killed." In other words : — " When 
twenty are many (or, if twenty are regarded as many), more 
were killed." 

670 " "WTiether he likes it or not, I shall do it." This is a con- 
tracted elliptical sentence. 

Whether is equivalent to if either (Latin, sive, Le., sivel). At 
full length we get two co-ordinate sentences. 

(A) "If he likes it, I shall do it." 

(B) " If he does not like it, I shall do it." 

671 o "He cannot so much as read." In fuU — " He cannot (do) 

much as (to) read (is much)." The elliptical adverbial clause * 
read ' is co-ordinate with the adverb so, and the connecti 
adverb as qualifies mu<:h understood. 
5726 " He was fond of all such amusements as cricket and rowing.' 
As, in the elliptical clause as cricket and rowing are. must be taken ai 
a substitute for a relative pronoun (§ 412), and so foiming the comple 
ment of the verb of incomplete predication are. The whole clause is in 
tiie attributive relation to umiis. meitt, and is co-ordinate with such. It 
has been before explained that tlie proper correlative of such ( = &wa-lic) 
is which <-«hwl-lic). It is for this which that a» does dutv. 


672 e "Which when Beelzebub perceived, than whom, Satan except, 
none higher aat, with grave aspect he rose." 

The objective case whom is anomaloas, thoagh the nsage of the best 
writers sanctions it. If it were grammatically correct, it would also be 
correct to say, ' None sat higher than him. ' In analysis ' than whom ' 
must be treated as a mere adverbial phrane, it being impossible to supply 
the ellipsis so as to expand it into an adverbial clause. 

572i. "Let us go." 

Here let is the second person plural of the imperative mood of the 
verb /«/, which is a verb of iricomplete predication, having «* for its 
object and go for its complement, the suljfict of the imperative being, as 
Qsual, understood. Just as in the case of the objective complement 
(§395 j, of which in fact this is one variety, we have an attributive 
notion (§294), denoted by the infinitive gr, utached to the object tis. It 
is a blending of the objective and the inflniuve complement. The gram- 
matical relations of the words in the imperative sentence, ' Let [ye] 
him go ' are the same as in the assertive sentence ' I let him go ' (§357). 
* I let him go ' does not differ (grammatically) from ' I made him go/ 
which is closely analogous to ' I made him angry,* the only difference 
being that the attributive idea attached to the object is expressed by K 
verb in the one ca!«e, and an adjective in the other. The class of attri- 
butive words includes both (§291). 


573 The preceding systeiii of analysis still leaves us with 

groups of words in many cases, into the mutual relatione 
of which it does not enter. When a minute account of 
each word of a sentence is given, including not only its 
syntactical relation to other words, but also its etymological 
inflections and accidents, the process is termed parsing. 
Two or three examples will show the mode in which it 
should be performed better than any system of rules. 

674 " I told him that I did not know who had taken the red 
book that lay on the table." 

/. — Personal pronoun of the first person, singular ntunber, 
in the nominative case, because it is the subject of the 
verb told. 



Sold. — Transitive verb : in th« active voice, indicative mood, 
past indefinite tense, first person, singular number; 
in tbe predicative relation to /, with which it agrees 
in number and person. 

him, — Personal pronoun of the third person and the mas- 
culine gender ; in the singular number and objective 
case, standing in the adverbial relation to the verb 
told, of which it is the indirect object. 

that. — Subordinative conjunction, connecting the substan- 
tive clause, "/ did not know — table," with the verb 

L — Personal pronoun of the first person, in the singular 
number and nominative case : subject of the verb did. 

did. — ^Auxiliary verb, in the active voice, indicative mood, 
past indefinite tense, first person singular ; in the pre- 
dicative relation to /, with which it agrees in number 
and person. 

not. — Adverb of negation, modifying the verb did. 

know. — Transitive verb, in the active voice, infinitive mood, 
imperfect tense ; depending on the verb did. 

who, — Interrogative pronoun, in the singular number, 
third person, and nominative case, being the subject 
of the verb had taken. 

had taken. — Transitive verb; in the active voice, indicative 
mood, past perfect tense, third person, singular num- 
ber ; in the predicative relation to the pronoun who, 
with which it agrees in number and person. 

the. — Definite article, in the attributive relation to hook. 

red, — Qualitative adjective, in the positive degree of com- 
parison ; in the attributive relation to the noun hook, 

hook. — Common noun, of the neuter gender ; in the singular 
number and objective case, standing in the objective 
relation to the verb had taken. 

that. — Relative pronoun, of the neuter gender, third person,, 
and singular number, to agree with its antecedent hook, 
and in the nominative case because it is the subject of 
the verb lay. 

Jay. — Intransitive verb ; in the active voice, indicative 
mood, past indefinite tense, third person, singular 
number, in the predicative relation to that, with 
which it agrees in number and person. 

on. — Preposition governing the noun tabic. 

the. — Definite article, in the attributive relation to the noun 

tahle, — Common noun, of the neuter gender ; in the sin- 
gular niimber, objective case, governed by the pre- 
position on. 



The Numhflrs placed at the comnvncempnt of the ErrrcUes are those of 
the Paragraphs in the Grammar to which they relate, 


34 Write do'WTi the abstract nouns wliich. correspond to the 
following adjectives : — 

Pure, simple, good, bad, worthy, splendid, just, meek, temperate, 
large, wide, broad, slow, quick, red, blue, sour, sharp, sweet, distant, 
near, soft, able, innocent, durable, brilliant, merry, brief, white, 
Ions, able, hvunble, popular, obstinate, wicked, pious, poor, sad, 
infirm, jovial, silent, wise, prudent, abundant. 

Write down tbe adjectives which correspond to the following 
abstract nouns : — 

Vobility, stupidity, fickleness, suppleness, height, depth, acidity, 
uwi'dnilence, sleepiness, greenness, rigidity, ductility, sonority, infirm- 
ity, patience, condescension, prosperity, wisdom, elegance, strength, 
valoui", magnanimity, elevation, candour, durability, insipidity, 
heroism, monstrosity, grandeur, width, breadth, seniUty. 

38 Write down in one column all the mascuUne nouns in the 
foUoAviug list ; in another column all the feminine nouns ; in 
a third column all the neuter nouns ; and in a fourth column 
all the nouns of common gender : — 

Cow, horse, dog, man, girl, ship, house, Robert, Jane, London, 
Thames, goose, hen, cock, bird, sheep, pig, boar, fox, uncle, nephew, 
John, vixen, lass, ox, form, desk, tree, servant, footman, maid, boy, 
nursemaid, baby, slate, gander, elephant, tiger, lioness, Maria, France, 
Napoleon, cart, infant, brother, lady, pen, lord, king, sovereign, 
queen, ruler, judge, author, cousin, sister, mother, aunt, box, speaker, 

67 Write out the following sentences, and draw one line under 
the nouns which are in the possessive singular and two lines 
under those which are the possessive plural, one line over 
those in the nominative case, and two lines over those which 
are in the objectiv? case. Also point out on what nouns the 
possessive cases depend : — 

He admires the lady's beauty. He saw the queen's courtiers. 


They live in kings' courts. The Idng's palace ia large. The lady's 
robe was torn. I saw some ladies in the room. The ladies' d ri\«!se3 
were handsome. The boys' exercises are badly written. I saw the 
boys at play. The boy's father has arrived. She made the women's 
dresses. Wliere is my wife's purae ? The men slew their wives. 
The men heard of their wives' danger. Call the girls in. Give me 
the girls' books. Hold the horse's head. The horses are druiking 
water. The horses' hoots are hard. He is paring the horses' hoofs. 
He stole John's sister's books. John stole his sister's books. The 
men's wages are due. ^ly father's house is large. I saw John's 
brothers. He ran away from his father's house. 

SO Write out the following sentences, and draw one Une xinder 
the nouns which are the direct objects of verbs, and two 
lines under those which are datives or indirect objects: — 

Give Mary an apple. He gave the dog a bone. He gave the dog 
to his cousin. My father sent John to school. My uncle sent John 
a cake. The poUceman took the man to prison. The kind woman 
took the poor man a loaf. Mary fetched the beer. Fetch your 
mother a chair. John fetched Tom a slap on the head. He brought 
the runaway home again. My father brought my brother a watch 
from town. Pour the water into the basin. Pour your cousin out a 
glass of wine. He wrote his father a long letter. Sir Walter Scott 
wrote ' Marmion.' He handed the lady to her carriage. Hand that 
gent laman a glass. 


85 — 98 Write down in a column the adjectives in the following 
sentences, and write opposite each the noun which it qualities ; 
also point out to which class each adjective belongs : — 

Give me two shillings. He rides a black horse. "Wise men never 
waste time. Twenty men were killed. He heard of the poor man's 
death. The fine ladies' dresses are torn. The ladies' fine dresses 
are torn. He cropped the black horse's tail. The brown horse has 
a black taU. That man has two horses. Every man has two ears 
and one mouth. They travelled the whole day. Several carriages 
have passed this house. Take another seat. All men admire 
generous actions. No man likes pain. "Which dish do you prefer P 
What books have you read ? We have read thoee books. Do not 
tell such hes. Such conduct deserves punishment. He succeeded 
the first time. Each man received the same simi. Much precious 
time was lost. Many brave men were killed. That sentence is on 
the second page of the third volume. "What nonsense you talk. 

tl7 In the following sentences point out whether the adjective 
is in the attributive or iu the predicative relation to the noun 
which it quaUfles, paying particular attention to the cases in 
which the noiin is not expressed : — 

There is a white cow. He gave me ten apples. The apples are 
ripe. "Which boy is the cleverest ? They seem happy. He feels ill. 
Idle boys must be Dum'shed. The tallest boys are not always the 


Btrongeat. He has many kind friends. The days are short. The 

nights are longest in winter. It is liottcst in summer. We have the 
coldest weather in winter. My cousin is named Jane. A man 
riding at full gallop has passed the house. The soldiers, wearied 
with the march, halted. The soldiers are weary. Who gave you 
that pretty book p It is the prettiest I ever saw. What news is 
there r" The reports are alamiing. The man spread an alarming 
report. These mistakes are vexatious. The sleeping lion was 
aroused by the fierce dogs. The lion, sleeping in his den, was aroused. 
I saw the boys sleeping. The boys are slee^jy. Those pears are the 
ripest. Those pears are ripe. When will the com be ripe ? Which 
i: ihe way ? Which wine is the best ? The first volume is the best, 
'.^ae second volume is tedious. What time I am afraid I will trust 
in thee. 

99 In the following sentences supply the nouns which are 
understood : — 

I have read these books, but I have not read those. All go to one 
place. The meek shall inherit the earth. Which of these books 
have you read ? Take this apple and give me that. He was punished 
for this. This is pretty. The poor suifer more than the rich. 
This picture is the prettiest. Which boy is the cleverest ? Which 
of these two boys is the cleverer f My book is the prettiest. That 
is the prettiest book. John is the cleverest in the class. She is the 
prettiest of all my cousins. These are my children. That is John's 
hat. My apple is the biggest. 

104—116 Write down the oemparative and superlative degrees 
of the following adjectives, or their substitutes : — 

Large, great, high, fierce, lovely, full, tame, rich, happy, hand- 
some, common, mervy, near, gay, cold, holy, healthy, bright, cold, 
big, red, rich, monstrous, wiiisi^me, sad, mad, beautiful, fresh, dull, 
hearty, quarrelsome, blithej splendid, clever, iflle, gentle. 

Write down the positive degree of the following ad- 
jectives : — 

Prettier, rudest, sweetest, justest, gentler, finest, steeper, ten- 
derer, worst, slenderet^t, duller, sweetest, gentlest, wittier, slower, 
tidiest, wealthier, han Isoniest, sprightUer, mightiest, nastiest, 
rudest, brightest, crudest, better. 



Point out what nouns the pronouns are used for in the 

following exercise : — 

The master praised the boy because he was attentive. Children 
are loved when they are good. The boys have lost their ball. If 
the thief is caught he will be punished. Jane has found her book. 
The horse ran away with his rider. Parents love their chiklren. 
When the boys have learnt their lessons, they must say them to the 
master. The men will be paid when they have finished their work. 
The woman has lost her child. WTien the girl was old enough, her 


mother sent her to school. The girls have lost their needles ; they 
will never find them agahi. Tlie kitten was biting its mother's tail. 
If the man leaves his glove beliiud him, his dog will fetch it for 
him. The boj' said that he had found the shilling. John cried out, 
' 1 have found a bird's nest.' Jane said she had finished her task. 
George, you said you had learnt your lessons. 

130 Write out the following sentences and draw one line under 
the substantive pronoims, and two lines under tiie adjective 
pronouns : — 

I told him that. He heard that we had arrived. Who said so ? 
Which wine do you prcfr? Wliose pen is this ? Give me that book. 
I told him myself. Thou art the man. She is mad. What business 
is it of yours ? One cannot but admii-e his perseverance. We ride 
every day. Who is that man whom you were speaking to ? Our 
house was burned down. His father has come and ia taUdng with 
mine. You may sit on either side. 

129 Point out which of the adjective pronouns in the following 
sentences are used adjectively, and which are used sub- 
stantively : — 

On what day do you set out P I do not like this book ; give me 
that. That is the style which I admire most. I could not find that 
book which you wanted. Will you have these or those ? He gave 
twopence to each of them. I do not love either of them. That is 
what I said. I cannot eat this meat : have you no other ? You 
may have whichever baU you hke. What happiness is in store for 
you •! Tell the others what I said. What lovely weather I Pay me 
the money which you owe me. 

148 — 167 "Write out the following sentences, and draw one Kne 
under the relative pronoims, and two lines under their 
antecedents : — 

He who does wrong deserves punishment. Give this money to the 
poor man whose child was killed. They that seek me early shall find 
me. Whose is this book that I have found ? Is that the man whom 
you spoke of P That is not the book which I gave you. You are 
not the person whom I expected. Which is the author whom you 
admire most P He departed the very day that I arrived. It is that 
that grieves me. It is this that I fear. That which you tell me is 
incredible. That which is false and mean should be despised. 
Those who love wisdom will find it. Come and see the pony that 
my father has given to my brother, who has just left the school at 
which he was for so many years. They are but faint-hearted whose 
courage fails in time of danger. Blessed is the man whose trans- 
gi-ession is forgiven. Happy are they in whose midst peace reigns. 
He doth sin that doth beUe the dead. Whose hatred is covered by 
deceit, his wickedness shall be showed before the whole congre- 
gation. He to-day that sheds his blood with me shall be my brother. 
" This is the priest all shaven and shorn that married the man all 
tattered and torn that kissed the maiden all forlorn that milked the 
cow with tlv^ cruiii;!!-''! lioni that tossed the dog that won-ied the 
cat that Idlled the rat iliat ate the malt that lay in the house thsA 
Jack built." 


166 Supply relative pronouns where they are understood in the 

following sentences : — 

Pay me the money you owe me. Which was the road you took ? 
Play me the tunes I love. Be reconciled with the man you have 
olTonded. That is not the book I gave you. I am come to pay for 
the goods I bought yesterday. He has not answered the letter I 
wrote him. Have you received the money I sent you ? He is not 
the man I expected. 

143, 144, 148 In the following sentences point out when that 
is a relative pronoun and when it is a demonstrative 
pronoun : — 

There ia tjiat man again. " There is that scattereth and yet in- 
creaseth." He to-day that sheds his blood with me shall be my 
brother. That man is guilty. What was that noise that I heard ? 
Who is that man P Is that the horse that you bought ? Whose ia 
that book that you have in your hand? Avoid that which is 
sinful. Write do^vn the words that I dictate. You said that you did 
not know. That is not true. Who is he that wishes for more men P 
Tell that boy to be quiet All the goods that he sells are bad. Cease 
that noise. What was that that you were saying ? It is that that 
1 fear. That is the hope that supports me. Show me the man that 
dares to climb that height. The teacher Bays that that ' that ' that 
that boy made use of was imnecessary. 

-160 Write out the following sentences; draw one line 
under the relative pronoxins, and two lines under the interro- 
gative pronouns : — 

Which ia the shortest road P Have you read the book which I 
gave you P Do you know what he said P Whom did he refer to P 
Who said so P Is that the man who said so ? Do you know who 
did this P Did you see which way he went ? Is that what you 
said p Tell me what you said P I want to know who broke the 
window. They do not know what to do. What is the matter with 
you ? Do you know what that means ? Did you hear what I said P 
By what means can we succeed? On what day will you come P 
Why do you tell me what I know already P When did you receive 
what I sent you p Who is there ? Do you know the gentleman who 
has just arrived p Whose hat is this p Can you tell me whose hat tliis 
is ? Do you know the man whose house was robbed ? Will you tell 
me whom I am to give this to ? 

"Write out the following sentences ; draw one line under the 
relative and interruj^ative pronouns which are in the nomina- 
tive case, and two lines under those which are in the objective 
case : — 

Where is the man who did this P He is a man whom I despise. 
Do not trust a man whom all shun. He is a man in whom I have 
no confidence. Where is the pen which I gave you? Who has 
taken the pen which lay on my di sk ? I will show you the horse wliich 
I bought yesterday. I do not like books that convey no instruction. 
This is the man whom I sent for. That is the book which I sent jtM 


for. Give mo the book that I asked for. They that seek me early 
eliall find me. Have you seen the ship which Jiaa just arrived? 
There is the ship of which my uncle is captain. To which of tliesa 
persons did you refer ? That is the book which I spoke of. He is 
the very man that I was looking for. I love them that love ma. 
He purchased the house which his brother had built. He no longer 
possesses the estate which once belonged to him. He avoids every- 
thing that interferes with his studies. What did you ask for? 
"NA'hat did he say ? What ails you ? What induced you to say so ? 
Which of them is right ? Wliich of these do you want ? Which 
pleases you most ? Take whichever you like best. I will do what- 
ever I like. He likes whatever is manly. He likes everything that 
I like. He likes everything that pleases me. He lil:cs everything 
that I am fond of. He admires whatever is pretty. 'WTiere are the 
flowers that you promised to send me ? To -nliora did he sell the 
house that he biult F He has lost everytliing that belonged to him. 
liepeat what I said. Tell me what you want. Tell me who did 
that. Tell me what ails you. Koad v.-hat follows. Correct the 
mistake which he made. Correct the mistakes which occur in that 
sentence. Send me the cake which joj promised me. Have you 
received the letter that I sent you ? That is not a drees that 
becomes her. 


182 Make a list of twenty transitive, and of twenty intransitive 
verbs, and make sentences illustrating the use of them. 

182, 183 In the following examples point out whether the verb 
is used transitively, intransitively, or refl.ecti\'ely : — 

He speaks. He speaks French. He talks too loud. He is talking 
nonsense. He is eating. He is eating his dinner. He rides to 
town every day. I ride a black horse. He plays too eagerly. He 
plays the flute. He is working a sima. Yeast makes beer work. 
He strikes the ball. The snake twists and turns about. The earth 
tuma roimd. He has twisted Ids ankle. He turned the man out of 
the room. The boy is spinning a top. The top spins round. _ I 
emeU a rat. The rose smells s\\«et. He is resting. I am resting 
myself. He gave up the game. You had better give in. The 
town surrendered. The commandant sunendered the to^\-n. The 
undertaking promises well. He promised to come. His return 
rejoiced the hearts of his parents. We all rejoiced at his success. 
The ship struck on a rock. I struck myself with a hanuaer. He 
etmck the ball hard. He has not shaved this morning. The barber 
shaved me yesterday. Get your umbrella. Get out of my way. I 
withdraw my claim. The deputation withdrew. Eveiy one laughed. 
They laughed him to scorn. He ran a race. He ran a thorn into 
his finger. Keep where you are. Keep your place. Get up. He 
roused up at the sound. He laimched out into all sorts of extrava- • 
gance. The horsemen spread over the plain. The robbers soon 

186 Express the sense of each of the following sentences by 

X £x:e:iiciS£S. 

means of the passive voice of the verbs that are used ; as, 
*' He struck the boy," " The boy was struck by him." 

The cat killed the mouse. The soldiers are defending the city. 
Tliis does not surprise me. We love our parents. He hates mean- 
ness. The man has earned the reward. That surprised me. This 
will please you. I had not expected tills. We shall refuse your 
request. We have received a letter. We heard the thunder. AVe 
are writing French exercises. H ■ had cut liis own throat. Idleness 
will clothe a man with rags. Did that hoy make your nose bleed ? 

Express the sense of each of the follomng sentences by 
means of the active voice of the verbs that are used : — 

We were overtaken by a storm. Has my letter been received by 
you ? He was killed by thi-i blow. The pig has been killed by the 
bu' cher. The letter was never received by us. Thou wilt be loved 
by aU. I was beiug pushed by my neighbour. Has a new house 
been built bv yoiu- brother ? Was yoair coat torn by that boy ? 
Mice are caught by cats. By whom has your coat been torn ? By 
whom shall you be accompanied ? By how many soldiers will the 
queen be escorted P 

191, 192 Point out ■which verbs in the following: sentences are 
in the infinitive mood, di'awing one line under those in the 
simple inJinitive, and two lines under those in the gerundive 
infinitive : — 

Did you speak P Shall you go ? We shall soon be there. Let me 
Bee it. Dare you say so ? We heard him speak. You must depart. 
I let biTn go on. You need not stay. I cannot see. He could not 
reply. If I might but see him. You may be sure of it. Did you 
say that ? I do not know. Do not let it fall. Do teU me his name. 
He does not hear. I can easily do that. I wiU try to do so. I long 
to depart. We hoped to succeed. To please you is our constaut 
endtavour. We can but fail i£ we try. 

192 "Write out the following sentences. Draw one line under 
those gerundial infinitives which are the subjects of other 
verbs, two lines under those which are the objects of other 
verbs, and three lines under those which are used to denote 
the purpose or cause of some action or state : — 

He came to fetch me. He went to see what was the matter. To 
be slothful in but^iness is not the way to succeed. He hopes to hear 
from you soon. Show me how to do it. I desire to see you. It ia 
all very weU to say you can't, but you must try to do it. It is easy 
to see that he knows nothing about it. He dislikes to be kept 
waiting. We sent liim to buy some bread. His object is to tire otit 
my patience. That water is not fit to drink. Help me to carry this. 
I am happy to find you so much better. I am glad to hear it. The 
boys had a long task to do. I was not pre]jared to hear that news. 
He pretended to be !i;'i'>op. H^ did his best to i-uin me. He is 
aiixious to do his duty. Ue de.iglits to tease me. The master called 
the boy to say his lesson, f love to watch the return of spring. I 


em charmed to welcome you to my house. Have you come to stay 
v.ith us? He is too clever to make such a misfake. Such a fellow 
is not fit to live. I am sorry to hear such an account of him. 

193^195 Point out whicli verbs in the follcwing sentences are 
in the indicative mood, and which are in the sabjunctive 
mood : — 

Oh that it were with me as in days that are past. How gladly 
would I have done it. He did so gladly. Though he slay me, yet 
will I trust in him. If this be granted, the pror.; easily follows. If 
this were true, he would not deny it. If he luid said so, I should 
have believed him. He did not deny it. Unless you try hard, you 
will not succeed. Though hand join in hand, the wicked shall not 
go vinpunished. I could not open the door when I tried. I could 
not open the door if I tried. Except ye repent, ye shaU all likewise 
perish. He would not answer me when I called. He would persist 
in his contumacy, in spite of all I could say. If you would lend me 
fifty pounds, I should be much oljliged to you. I would not go, even 
if they were to send for me. If that really happened, it was a .great 
calamity. If you had the money when he asked for it, you ou':;ht to 
have paid him. If I had the niuiiey, I would give it to you. If that 
was the case, why did you not tell me ? 

197 — 202 Point out when the imperfect participle is used in the 
following examples, and when the gerund : — 

I see a man riding on horseback. A man passed by, running at 
full speed. I like reading. He hates lying. A lying witness ought 
to be punished. He gained his ends by using false pretences. In 
keeping tliy commandments thrre is great rev.ard. The officer fell 
while leading his troops into action. See yonder bark, struggling 
against the wind and tide. The centre of the group was occupied 
by a figure holding a globe. "We fell in with a ship saiUir.,' to 
America. We arrived there first by taking a shorter route. He is 
fund of improving his mind. He lives by begging from his friends. 
He went about, begging from his friends. 

Make ten other sentences containing gerunds and ten con- 
taining imperfect participles. 

206 Change the verbs in the following sentences successively 
into all the other eight primary tenses, without altering the 
voice of the verb : — 

I am writing a letter. He sells the house. We spent the money. 
He will have finished his task. I had travelled from London to 
York. He buys com. I was persuaded to give him permission. 
We sliaU be attacked by robbers. We had been led by a short road. 
Are you learning French ? Is he not telling a talsehood ? The 
money has been counted. 




262—264 Write down in separate columns tlie simple adverbs 
and the connective adverbs in the following- list : — 

Well, now, to-morrow, here, wlien, where, wherefore, how, there- 
fore, yet, yes, quickly, as, so, quite, all, however, generaUj'-, enough, 
perhaps, often, early, little, twice, verj', not, namely, above, whitlior. 
then, thither, once, immediately, why, thence, whereon, thus, while, 
within, that, than, wherein. 

264 — 270 Distinguish the connective from the interrogative 
adverbs in the followinjj sentences, and point out the verb 
which each adverb qualiiies : — 

When did you arrive ? We came when you did. Where ia your 
brc 'ther ? I will teU you the news when I see you. How do you do ? 
Whence did yciu get that report p He worked while we played. 
He asked me how I had travelled. Whither are you going ? Whence 
came these P We visited the jjlace where the great battle was 
fought. I will follow you whithersoever you go. How we got out 
again I scarcely know. That is the reason why I did not write 
sooner. Why do you tell such stories ? Wherever he lives he will 
be happy. We came directly when we heard you call. When did 
you iiud it ? Why did you not come sooner ? How can one beHeve 
him-' Wherefore did thoy leave the town? I will tell you why 
they left. Tell me how you arranged the matter. Where did you 
lose your purse ? 
269 Write out the following sentences, and draw one line under 
the adjectives, and two lines under the adverbs : — 

Do not speak so fast. I am going by a fast train. The mill is 
fast by the brook. He is a fast runner. Go on faster. Run 
quicker. He advanced with quicker steps. What a hard lesson ! 
lie hits hard. The tree is hard by the pond. He tried hard. My 
bed is hard. He is a just man. We were just starting. He did 
just what I expected. That decision was riglic He lay right across 
the doorway. They advanced right up the hUI. He is the worst 
boy in the class. He writes worst. I love John best. He is my 
best friend. She is less beautiful than her sister. He received less 
money. He is the most etudioua boy I ever saw. John will get most 
283, 284 Write down in separate columns the prepositions that 
denote place, the prepositions that denote time, and the 
prepositions that denote causality. 

In the following sentences point out the prepositions and the 

words that are governed by them, and state in each case 

whether the preposition marks the relation of a thing to a 

thing, of an action to a thing, or of an attribute to a thing : — 

There is a horse in the meadow. I am foud uf music. He 



rejoices in iniquity. A man on horseback has jnst passed. He ia 
afr;iid of the dog. He killed the man with a sword. There is a man 
with a cocked hat. H^ is merry without being rude. Those men 
quarrelled with each other. They bade adieu to each other. Do 
not stand before me. Do not place yoiu-iself between rae and the 
light. He is just in all his dealings. Such a master will be served 
with readiness. Come away from the window. The book is undej 
the table. I see a book undf-r the table. I see a brvnk lyiag undej 
the table. They are going to church. Stand behind me. Get off 
that chair. His conduct is beyond all praise. Do not come neai 
me. This is past bearing. 

2b4 Distinguisli the prepositions from the adverbs in the follow 
ing sentences : — 

He got up behind. There is a garden behind the house. D© 

not lag behind. I told you that before. He departed before my 
arrival. I came the day before yesterday. I could not come before 
'J he earth turns round. Run round the table. Open that box, 
there is a book inside. You wUl find a book inside that box. He 
repeated that over and over. I see a picture over the chimney- 
piece. Sit down. He ran down the hill. Run after him. That 
comes after. Go along. He planted a row of trees along the river. 
That is above my reach. God reigns above. He is beneath my 
notice. From the summit of the hill we saw the villages Ijnng 
b. neath. The box was painted within and without. He met with 
tioubles without end. That is the hill that he ran down. There is 
th^i church which we go to. Yonder is the village that he comes 
from. That is the piece which I cut off. That is the man whom I 
ep )ke of. That is the servant whom I packed off. Sing me the 
B' ug that I am so fond of. Here is the box, but where is the book 
w lich I put inside ? That is the nximber which I wrote down. 
^\■nich is the tree that you climbed up f He knocked down the 
pi lar which I had set up. 

259, &c. Write ont the following examples, and draw one line 
under the prepositions, two under the adverbs, and three 
under the conjunctions: — 

Though I am poor, yet I am contented. He is rich, nevertheless 
he is unhappy. They are poor, because they are extravagant. He 
is industrious, and consequently he is successful. The man is neither 
wealthy nor wise. I believed, therefore have I spoken. VnV ss you 
try, you will not succeed. Except ye repent, ye shall all lil^ewise 
perish. I will behave so as to please my parents. As you say so, I 
must believe it. TeU me why you did that ? Where thou dwellest, 
I will dwell. He is rich and also generous. He cannot but grieve, 
for he has last his be>t fricud. I do not care whether you go or stay. 
Since you say so, I believe it. I have not seen him since last week. 
I have never heard of him since. This is for you. I honour him, for 
he is a brave man. He invited me, and accordingly I went. John 
came, and like-svise William. If you do that, you will .'•uffer for it. 
There is nobody but me at home. You may go, but I will stay. 

143, 148, 288, 289 Point out when that in the following sentences 



is a demonstrative pronoun, -when it ia a relative pronoun, 
and when it is a conjunction : — 

He said that he had not done it. I heard that he had an-ived. Look 
at that star. I am so troubled that I cannot speak. He does that 
that he may vex me. He is the very man that I want. I am sure 
that he said so. That is certain. He is so lazy that he never does 
auytliiiig. His indignation was such that he could scarcely speak. 
I am sure that you never read that book that I gave you that you 
might study it. He says that we shall never succeed in that 
attenqjt. I am afi'aid that he says that, that he may deceive me. 
It is very strange that none of them heard it. He went to London 
in order that he might find a situation. 

Make twenty other sentences in which that is used at least 

twice in different senses. 

362, 372 Distinguish the attributive adjuncts of substantives in 
the following examples from the adverbial adjuncts of 
verbs : — 

T see a horse in the field. He gathered the primroses by the river. 
She laid the book on the table. She admired the book on the table. 
I called on my neighbour who lives over the way. Our neighbours 
over the way have been very kind. We rely on your promise. 
Reliance on his promises is useless. Put not your trust in princes. 
Do jour duty to your neighbour. What is my duty to my neigh- 
bour ? He adhered to his determination to make the attempt. He 
is too feeble to make the attempt. He is not rich enough to buy 
the house. He gave him his best wine to drink. The place abounds 
ill good water to drink. He has neither food to eat nor raiment to 
wear Do you see that man on horseliack ? He has given up riding 
on horseback. He rode to town on horseback. 

Analysis of Simple Sentences. 

493 a Divide the following sentences into two parts, the first part 
consisting of the logical subject [i.e., the grammatical subject, 
with all the adjuncts belonging to it), the second of the 
logical predicate (i.e., the verb and all that is attached to it). 

The old church has fallen into ruinfl. The brave soldiers defended 
their post to the last. Fine, warm weather followed rain. A rich 
old uncle left him all his property. A stitch in time saves nine. 
The most difficult tasks are overcome by perseverance. The palace 
of the prince was set on fire. A horseman, wrapped in a huge cloak, 
entered the yard. The rent in his coat was made by an old nail. 
Tlie lauf;hing children sported round his knee. Place yourself in 
my situation. The horse, terrified by the lightning, ran away at 
full speed. Dismayed at the prospect, they beat a retreat. 

^493 b Take the preceding sentences, and separate the grammatical 
subject and its adjuncts in each. Speoii'y also of what ths 



adjuncts consist (§ 390). Do the same with the following 
examples : — 

The owner of that estate is a fortunate man. The man's abject 
misery n^uved my compassion. A man on horseback passed me. 
^ The ancestoisof this family were renowned Water for drinking 
was very scarce. Disgusttd by so many acts of baseness, the minTs 
friends all deserted him. Does your uuc'e, the doctoi', know of this ? 
"Whencn did the author of that book get his materiids ? Who in the 
world told you that ? Every finite vrrb in a sentence must have a 
BiifcjfcCt. Jiihn's account of the affair alarmed me. My brother 
John told me that. My cousin, the inventor of this machine, is 

Make or find twelve sentences in which the grammatical 
subject is enlarged (§ 388), and state in each case of what the 
enlargement consists. 

8 cin the following sentences separate the logical predicate into 
its component parts : — 

John gave me a shilUng yesterday ($ 372, 4). I met the man in 
the street. I &aw a man on horseback* just now. I saw the occur- 
rence through a gap in the wall. T«-day I ahull help the men 
mowing the barley. I shall not go out of doors all day. Did you 
finish j'our Greek exercise during my absence ? Send the fellow out 
of the house directly. I desire nothing better. I desire nothing 
more ardently. I told him my opinion pretty plainly. They have 
already tried the path over the mountains. He has already returned 
me all the money Q 372, 4). Why have you kept this intelhgence 
so long from me 'if 

493 d Talie the preceding sentences, and separate the objects of 
the verbs from their attributive adjuncts. Do the same with 
the following sentences : — 

We heard the sound of the horn reverberating among the rocks. 
Everybody admires John's lirtle sister. Who has not admired a 
noble ship saihng over the waves? Have you Trad this author's 
last work yet ? The man struck the poor httle boy on the head 
- (6 372, 2). The master praised the boy at the top of the class 
II 362, 4). I saw a soldier on horseback. I walked through the 
river on foot. The farmers want dry, wami weather for a month. 
He borrowed fifty pounds for a year. We have just bought a calf 
a month old This general has just terminated a war of ten years' 
duration. Do you see that horse in the meadow ? 

e In the following sentences separate the complex predicate 
into its component parts, and specif y whether the complement 
is a Subjective Complement, an Objective Complement, or an 
Inhnitive Complement. (See §§ 393, 395). 

• Observe that this does not in(ii''.'ite where Ihf. act of seeinq tonic plact. 


He grew rich suddenly. He callod the man a liar. They became 
very poor. The wiue tastes sweet. I am not happy. He is called 
John. He is thought wise. We do not deem the occurrence un- 
fortunate. That step was deemed imprudent. His friends thought 
him insane. The number cannot be reckoned. He oTight not to 
say £0. The tradesman was declared insolvent. Nothing is more 
hateful. Nothing can be more abominable. I wish the boy safe 
back agfiin. You may play in the garden. jj You must not touch 
that. They cannot escape. The prisoner was declared guilty. Wa 
consider this coui-se expedient. He came laughing into the room. 
The dog ran away how ing. She looks very pretty. He stood 
petrified with horror. We are wont to follow our own inclinations 
too much. He is said to have poisoned his brother. He lives happy 
enough in his poverty. His threats were rendered ineffectual by the 
measures adopted. I am sure of pleasing you in this. 

Make a sentence witli each of tlie following transitive verbs, 
and then enlarge the predicate, 1. With an object; 2. With 
an object and an adverbial adjunct. Thus : lie loves. He 
loves his parents. He loves his parents with all his heart. 

Strike. Speak. Love. Stretch. Help. Touch. See. Lead. 
Draw. Hate. Feel. Slay. Join. Build. Govern. Raise. 

Take the sentences formed in the last exercise, and enlarge 
the object in each with two or more attributive adjuncts. 

493 /, 494 — 505 Give the complete analysis of the following 
sentences : — 

No complete survey of the country having been made, it is im- 
possible to state accm-ately the amount of cultivated land. Did you 
ever hear a full accoimt of that adventure ? Virtue and happiness 
go hand in hand. Not being acquainted with the facts of the case, 
1 must decline pronouncing an opinion. Full many a llower is bom 
to blush unseen. In coining to a decision on this point, we must be 
guided solely by the evidence before us. The host himself no longer 
shall be found careful to see the manthng blip's go round. Teach 
ening man to spurn the rage of gain. Downward they move, a 
melancholy band. He used a strong stick to support his feeble 
steps. I have experienced nothing but kii.dness at his hands. We 
can but hope for the best. There is nothing but roguery to be found 
in villainous man. There live not three good men unhanged in 
England. For mine own part, my lord, I could be well contentedjx) 
be there, in respect of my love to your house. Considering all this 
{§ 283), the escape of so many is astonishing. Except my brother, 
no one was in the room at the time. 1 have too much to do * to stay 
here. He did not give the boys enough to eat. I am doubtful of 
the wisdom of this proceeding. It is impossible to imderstandf 
such nonsense. The heat of the climate renders it almost impossible 

• To do forms an attributive adjunct of much. To atny is an adverbial adjunct 
of have. 

i To tindrrstand, &c., is in apposition to it. 



to work. I left him almost. ¥i..;ut.liless. I found this flower in the 
hofl^t). I fou:id lil;u at Lae poiat of death. Who tauglit ynu those 
bad manners ? (J 372, 4). Fill me the goblet full. He plucked me 
ope his doublet. I should blush to be o'erheard and taken napping 
BO (§ 192). To tell you the truth, I don't believe that How 
Bweet the moonlight sleeps upon the bank ! ViHiat can skill avail 
ns ? "Wlaat can we do but wait ? (^ 505) . Wlio but a fool would 
talk like that? {§ 604). Let me die the death of the rif^hfooua 
(§ 372, 4). 1 have fought a good fight. Whose fault waa that but 
his own P How like a fawning publican he looks! 

Analysis of Complex Sentencea 
1. Sentences containing Substantive Clatiaea, 

COG — 617 Analyse the following sentences, having first enclosed 

the substantive clauses in brackets : — 

I know that your story cannot be ti-ue. That he was the instigator 
of the Clime is most certain. I fear thou play'dst most foully for it. 
Thence it is, that 1 to your assistance do make love. It is scarcely to 
be expected that he will succeed in that attempt. Tell me how old 
you are. I wish to know when this message was deHvered. It is my 
opinion that you ought to adopt a different plan. The fact that you 
vouch for the truth of this statement is enough for me. It is a ques- 
tion among doctors which mode of treatment is the most successful. 
Eut that I knew him to be a man of honour, I could not have be- 
lieved the story (^ 517). He told me he knew all about it (^ 406). 
I will spend my last shilling but I will bring him to justice (§§ 403, 
617). Tell me why you think so. Show me where you hid yourself. 
In case you succeed, write to me. Except ye repent, ye shall aU 
likewise perish {§j 283, 372, 6). Tell me what you think of all thij^. 
It is uncertain what the result will be. I hate him, for he is a 
Christian, but more for that in low simplicity he lends out money 
gr^itis. The fact that he was insolvent soon became known. I am 
not yet so old but I can leam. Try if you can decipher that letter. 
By Jacob's staff I swear I have no mind of feasting forth to-night. 
It must be owned he is a most entertaining companion. What his 
capacity is, signifies nothing. "VVliere I live doe.-< not concern you 
Whac does it signify how rich he is ? What signifies what, weather 
we have in a country going to ruin like ours ? Methinks I know 
that handwriting (^ 514). That depends upon how you did it. O 
yet I do repent me of my fury, that I did kill them {^ 510). Anon 
methoughr. the wood began to move (§ 514). Thou sure and firm- 
set earth, hear not my ^teps which way they walk, for fear the verv 
Btones prate of my whereabout. 

2. Sentences containing Adjective Clauses. 

408-~413, 518, &o. Analyse the following sentences, having first 
enclosed the adjective clauses in brackets : — 


That is the man who sto'e your purse. He that is down need fear 

no fall. They tliat w ill lie rich fall iuto teinptati..n ana a siiaie It* 
was ray brother who told me. I have lot>t the luuney you gave me 
(§ 409). Wlio steals my purse, steals trash. Pay the man what \ou 
owe him (^ 372, 4, 410, 510). What I said was this. What" he 
wants is to have his own way. What was the opinion of the judge 
who tried the case P I will repeat what I said to you. What do 
you think of the man who could do this? The reason why yoi 
cannot succeed is evident {§ 408)^. That is the place whei-e I hid 
myseK. The fortress whither the* defeated troops had fled was soon 
captured. Blessed is he whose transgressions are forgiven. This is 
the only witchcraft I have used (§ 409). We can never recover the 
time we have mis-spent. Where is the book I gave you yesterday? 
In me thou seest the twilight of such day as after sunset fadeth in 
the west. His behaviour is not such as I like (^ 412). God's bem'son 
go with those thnt would make good of bad. He hath a wiisduju 
that doth guide his valour to act in safety. Who can advise may 
speak. Infected be the air whereon they ride. Who was tlie 
thane lives yet, but Tinder heavy judgment bears that life which he 
deserves to lose. 

3. Sentences containing Adverbial Clause*. 

414 — 442, 524 — 532 Analyse the following sentences, enclosing 
the adverbial clauses in brackets, and specifying to which of 
the various classes of adverbial clauses they belong : — 

I will teU you the secret when I see you. When you durst do it, 
then you were a man. He still lay where he fell. He was so altered 
that I did not know him (^ 528). He is happy because he is con- 
tented. While he is here, we shall have no peace. If you do that, 
you will suffer for it. I must not give you the book, for it is not 
mine. He wiU go to ruin unless he alters his conduct. He did not 
pay me when I called on him, because he had no money. If tliis 
account is true, the man is much to be pitied. Wliatever may be the 
consecxuence, I will do what I have said. He is not happy, although 
he is so rich ; for his only son has taken to vicious courses. Wherever 
you go, I will follow you (§ 530). However dangerous such a course 
may be, it is the only one that we can adopt. I will walk in the 
garden until you return (^ 5'.^6). As the tree falls so it will lie. 
He left the room, that he might not be drawn into the quarrel. The 
mountain is so high that there is always snow on the top of it (■} 528). 
The higher you cUmb,t the wider will the pro.spect be (^ 270). She 
is as good as she is beautiful. I doubt not but to die a fair death for 
ell this, if I escape hanging for kilUng that rogue t A plague upon 
it when thieves cannot be true to one another. An I have not ballads 

• In sentences of this land it is equivalent to the person. The relative clause ii 
In the attriliulive relation to it. Omiprire \i 387, 511. 

t This adverbial clause qualifies tvider, and is co-ordinate with the which pre- 
cedes wider. 

t Mind that /or killing, &e., is not an adverbial adjtinct of escape, but an attrt* 
toutive adjunct of the substantive hanging. 


made on you all and sixng to filthy tune?, let a cup uf sack be my 
poison. When we can entreat an liour to serve, we would spend it 
in some words upon that business, if you would grant the time. So * 
I lose not honour in seeking to augment it, I shall be counselled. 
I do not despair of the future, dark as it appears at present. When 
I am detenuined, I always listen to reason, because tluni it can do no 
hann. What signifies asking, when there's not a soul to give you 
an answer ? The flighty purpose never is o'ertook, unless the deed 
go with it. I'll chann the air to give a sound, while you perform 
your antic round. The lady's fortune must not go out of the 
family ; one may find comfort in the money, whatever one does in 
the wife. 

607 In the following examples, substantive clauses contain other 
clauses •within them. Enclose the containing and the con- 
tained clauses by brackets of different sorts. Prefix a properly 
marked letter to each clause, and then put the letter that 
denotes the containing clause before that which denotes the 
contained clause. 

He heard that the Helvetii had biumed all the com except what 
thev were about to take witlj them {{^ 283, 372, 5, 521). lie said 
ho would return the book wlien he had read it. I wisli the boy would 
finish the task I set him. Tell me how old you were when your 
father died. Who told you that I built the house which you see ? 
But that my foot slipped as I turned the comer, I should have won 
the race. He fears that his father will ask him where he lias been. 
But that I told him who did it, he would never have knowTi. What- 
ever I may have gained by folly, you see I am willing to preven'' 
your losing by it. Go bid thy mi;^ tress when my drink is readj 
she strike upon the bell. Nor failed they to express how much 
they praised that for the general safety he despised his own. Who 
but felt of late (^ 522) with what compulsion and laborious fliglit 
we sunk thus low? Where they most breed and haunt I have 
observed the air is delicate. 

Deal in a similar manner with the following adjective and 
adverbial clauses, which contain other clauses within them : — 

The person who told you that I said so la mistaken. The child 
who does not mind when he is spoken to must be punished. He is 
not such a fool as I thought he was (^ 412). Scouts were sent out 
who were to see in what direction t]ie foe had retreated. There 
are men who care not what they say. The house where I lived 
when I was in town has been pulled down. Tlie man who does 
the best that he can deserves praise. Whoever maintains that genius 
by itself can accomplish everything, is mistaken. I have only done 
what I told you I would do. They fear what yet they know 
follow. The time approaches that will with due dtci.'^ion make tts 
know what we shall say we have, and what we owe. I ehovdd 

• So qualifies sTiaUhe eounselUd, and the clatise that follows «o is in apposition to 
tt, and explains it. It is thus equivalent to a hypothetical clause. See § 440, && 

2-*^ t^EKCISES. 

report that which I say^I saw.* I have secret reasons, whloh 1 
fci'l)oar to mention, because you are not able to answer those ol 
which I make no secret. The time lias been that when the brains 
were out the man would die. The right valiant Banquo walked too 
late, whom f you may say, if it please you, Fleance killed. The eighth 
appears, who bears a glass which shows me many more. 

In the following examples each sentence contains a sub- 
ordinate clause which contains another subordinate clause, 
which in its turn contains a third. Bracket and analyse 

I was grieved when 1 heard how he had obtained the character 
which he bore among his neighbours. I know that he would never 
have spread such a report if he had not beHeved what your brother 
told him. Men who see clearly how they ought to act when they 
meet with obstacles are invaluable helpers. I will not excuse you 
unless you tell me who it was who was the author of that statement. 
It would be well if all men felt how surely ruin awaits those who 
abuse their gifts and powers. It was so hot in the valley that we 
could not endure the garments which we had found too thin when 
we were higher up among the mists. I need not tell you how glad 
I am that you have abandoned the design which you mentioned to 
me. I will give you no more money tUl I see how you use what 
you have. 

Contracted Sentences. 

445, 449, 452 Fill up and analyse the following sentences :— 

You must either be quiet or leave the room. Neither John nor 
his brother was present. He wrote the exercise quickly, but well 
He pursued, but could not overtake the retreating enemy. The man 
left the house, but soon returned. The larynx, or rather the 
whole of the windpipe taken together, besides its other uses, is also 
a musical instrument. Let the rich deride, the proud disdain these 
simple blessings of the lowly train. I have not decided whether I 
will go or not. He yields neither to force nor to persuasion. It is 
uncertain whether he wrote the book, or not. He allowed no day 
to pass without either writing or declaiming aloud. So will fall hJe 
and his faithless progeny. Whose fault ? Whose but his own T 
No man can be great imless he gives up thinking much about 
pleasures and rewards and gets strength to endure what is hard and 
painful. Wiles let them contrive who need, or when they need, 
not now. Who knows whether our angry foe can give it, or will 
ever? If you pursue this course, you will not injure me but you 
will ruin yourself. Our greatness will appear then most conspicuous 
when great things of small, useful of hiu'tful, prosperous of adverse 
we can create. Oxir purer essence then will overcome the noxious 
vapour of these raging fixes, or, inured, not feel. 

• The construction of the sentence " which I say [that] I saw " ia the same aa 
that of "I nay that I saw this." 
t Sbe last note. 



Sentences containing Elliptical Clauses. 

453, 544, &c. Analyse the folloTring sentences, having first 
supplied the words that are* understood : — 

He looks as stupid as an owl. He is not so clever as Ms brother. 
He is as rich as his brother. He is richer than I am. To prevaricata 
is as bad as lying. He is not so wise as he thinks. I had rather die 
than endure such a disgrace. It is not so bad to suffer mij^fortune as 
to deserve it. Better is a dinner of herbs where love is, than a stalled 
ox and hatred therewith. I will do as you desire. He is not so rich 
as he once was. He is better to-day than yesterday. It ia 
better to die than to live in such misery. I am not such a fool 
as to tell him my secret. This is better than if we had lost 
everything. He looked as if he could kiU me. I'd rather 
be a dog, and bay the moon, than such a Roman. He told 
me that wisdom was better than wealth; as if I did not know 
that before. I would give a thousand pounds an I could run as fast 
as thou canst. I'U shed my dear blood drop by drop in the dust, 
but I will raise the down-trod Mortimer as high in the air as this 
unthankful king. An 'twere not as good a deed as drink to turn 
true man and leave the=e rogues, I am the veriest varlet that ever 
chewed with a tooth. What can be worse than to dweU here driven 
out from bliss ? Rather than be less, he cared not to be at all. For 
mine own part, if I were as tedious as a king, I could find it in my 
heart to bestow* it all on your worship. He has no redeeming 
qualities whatever. f How could you make such a blunder as to 
suppose I did it ? My companion understood the art of managing 
money matters much better than I. What if I don't teU you ? I 
have as good a right to the money as you. You will comply with 
my wishes, won't you? I never attend to such requests ; do you? 
His wages as a labourer^ amount to twenty shillings a week. Tell 
me which is the better, this or that. He accompanied me as far as 
to the end of the street. As for me, I will have nothin g to do with 
it. As to your proposal, I cannot assent to it. As ^ what you 
teU me, it passes belief. The author is no other than my old friend 
Smith (§ 264, note). With other notes than to the Orphean lyre I 
sang of chaos emd eternal might (§ 264, note). 

• The inflnitive phrase to bestow, kc, is in apposition to it, the object of find, 

+ In full : " "Whatever redeeming: qualities there are." 

I In full : In phrases like this, as introduce.? an elliptical hypothetical clause, 
the connpotive as havine rppla^ed the d^uir,,, tr-itive »o. '■ A- a l^'^iurer" i.-* in 
firi : "A- ;^ if; he i- 1 ' I ' <urer." " As for me " ia " As t= if J the matter is far 
me." bee it 442, and uoUs. 



Anglo-Saxon Forms of some Iraportant "Words. 

1. The demonstratiTe and relative pronoun was thus declined : — 

Mas. Fern. 

Kom. 86 (pe) seo {\>e6) 

Gen. J)ses ])£ere 

J)at. J)am (Jjaem) ]?8ere 
Ace. J)one (J)aene) ]>si 
Abl. J)y, \iQ — — 

As a dimonstrative, this pronoun answered to the Latin is, ea, id. 

2. There was another demonstrative word, answering to the Latin 
hie, haec, hoc, which was declined as follows : 



M. F. 4- N. 




Jj^ra (J)sera) 

|)am (l)aem) 

fam (^aem) 









M. F. 4" JV. 












pi sum 












3. The followmg are the forms of the personal pronouns :— 


First Person Sing. 




me (mec) 

Dual. Plural. 

Jfom. wit we 

Grn. uncer Ore (User] 

Dat. unc us (^ic) 

Ace. unc(uncit) us 

Second Person Sing. 




pe (pec) 

Dual. Flural. 

git ge 

incer eower 

inc eow 

ino (incit) eow (e6wic) 

Third Person Sing. 
M. F. N. 

he he6 hit 

his hire his 

him hire him 

hine hi (hig) hit 

hi (hig) 
hira (heora) 
him (heom) 
hi (hig) 

It is worthy of notice that in Anglo-Saxon there was a dualnnmbQX 
in the pronouns of the first and second persons, and that the Dative 
and Accusative forms are not always the same. The genitive plural 
ure has probably lost the letter n ; ouren (for of us) is foiiiid in Wiclif . 
Chaucer uses thei/ for the nominatiye plural, but hier and hem for thtir 
and them. 



4. The interrogative pronoun hwa was thus declined :— 
M. F. N. 








hw&m (hwsem) 

hwone (hwsene) 



hwam (hwa?in) 

li woet 



Declension of Nouns. 


(iVown* ending in essentia/ a and e.) 


nam -an 



{All Gv/idfirs.) 

Abl. . 











(Jfottnt ending in a Consonant, and Masculines in -e.) 






Sing. Plural. 
word {as in Sing.) 






1 -ena 

word-es -a 


1 hund-e 




word-e -urn 






word {n» in Sing.) 

The Third Declension presents no additional forms of special- im- 

6. Declension of Adjectives. 

Adjectives preceded hy a demonstrative word had their three 
genders declined like the masculine, feminine, and neuter nouns of 
the first declension. 

When not preceded by a definitive word, adjectives were declined 
M follows : — 






M. and F. Neut. 





g6de godu 





godra godra 





godura godum 





gode godu 







7. Conjugation of Verbs, 

A. Veebs of thb Weak Conjugation. 

J<irst Class. — Nerjan (to preserve). 

Inf. — nerjan. Imp, Part. — nerjende. Perf. Fart. — (ge)nered. 

Indicative Mood. 

Pretent Tense. 

Preterite Tense. 



Su'ff. Plural. 

1. nerje 


1. nerede neredon 

2. nerest 


2. neredest neredon 

3. nereS 


3. nerede neredon 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Present Tense. 

Sing. Plural, 
\f 2, and 3. iierje nerjen 

Preterite Tense. 

Sing. Plural. 
1, 2, and 3. nerede neredet 

Imperative. — Sing., nere. Plural., nerjaS. 

Second Class. — Lufjan {to love). 

Inf. — lufjan. Imp. Part. — lufjpnde 'lufiyende^, 
Perf Pari!.— (ge)lufod. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 

Sing. Plural. 

1. lufje (lufige) lufjaS (lufigeaS) 

Z.lufast lufjaG (lufigeat$) 

8. lufaS lufjaS (luligeaS) 

Preterite Tense. 
Sing. Plural. 

1. lufode lufodon 

2. hifodest lufodon 

3. lufode lufodon 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Present Tense. 

Sing. Plural. 
1, 2, and 3. lufje lufjen 

(lufige) (lufigen' 

Imperative. — Sing., lufa. 

Preterite Tense. 
Sing. Plural. 

I. lufode lufodeii 

Inf. — h^an. 

Plural., lufja?S. 

Third Glass. — Hyran {to /mar). 
Imp. Part. — hyrende. Perf. Part. — (gt')hyred. 
Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 
Sing. Plural. 

1. hyre hyraS 

2. by rest hyraS 
8. hyretJ h^ratS 

Preterite Tense,. 
Sing. Plut III. 

1. hCrde liyrdon 

2. hyrdeat hyraon 
8. hyrde hyrdon 


Subjuuetive Mood. 
Present T'etise. \ Preterite Tense, 

S'l/.y. Plural. Sing. Plural. 

I, 2, and 3. liyre hyren 1 1, 2, and 3. hyrde harden 


B. Veebb op the Strong Conjuqatiou. 
Niman {to take). 
-niman. Imp. Part. — niinende. Perf. Part. — ( 
Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 
Sing. riural. 

1. nime nimaS 

2. niinest nimaS 

3. nimeS nimaS 


1. nam 

2. name 

3. nam 

Preterite Tense. 


Subjunctive Mood. 
Present Tense. 
Sing. Plural. 

I, 2, and 3. nime nlmen 

Preterite Tense. 
Sing. Plurak 
1, 2, and 3. name uamea 

Cre6pan {to creep). 
Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 
Sing. Plural. 


Preterite Tense. 




creope creopa'S 
crypst creopaS 
crypS creopaS 






The Verb 'to be' (See § 251). 
Ifif, — bedn wesan. Imp. Part. — wesende. Per/. Part. — (ge)wes6n, 

Indicative Mood. 

Sing. I 



bedra (be<5) 


< 8111 don (sind) 
f aron 



Present Tense. 
bist (b^st) 

sindon (sind) 

Preterite Tense. 




i» (ys) 

sindon (sind) 



Suhjunetive Mood. 

Present Tente. 





/ bc6 

1 sie (st, sefi) 

1 wese 

i bfon 

J sien (sin) 


sie (si, se6) 



sien (sin) 


sie (si, aeOi 



sien (stn) 

( wesen 




Preterite Tense, 









The foregoing are the lending inflections of the Anglo-Saxon, or Firat 

Period of English. (See rrcloninary Notice, p. o.) 

In the ISecoxd Fvriod we find a weakening of the broad vowels (a, o, 
and «) in suihxes to e, and a tendency to drop some suffixes altogether. 
Tlie use of -es as a plural suffix increases. Es also begins to be used as a 
genitive suffix in feminine nouns. Some suffixes properly belonging only 
to iJurticidar declensions begin to be used indiscriminately in all. In 
adjectives of the strong declension suffixes do not always appear in their 
full form. In the weak declension they are often replaced by -e, a 
change wluch in the Northern dialect appUed to the strong declension as 

The inflections of the demonstrative or relative pronoun se, seo, ]>eet (now 
pe, ])vo, jxet) are sometimes dropped, so that wo get an uninflected form 
the, which, as a demonstrative, is the modem definite article. The 
neuter rt-iative thet or that was used with antecedents of any gender. 

In verbs the gerundial infinitive often ended in -en or -e, instead of 
•enne or -anne, in place of which -inde is also found. Shall and toill 
began to come into use as ordinary auxiharies. The old prefix ge of 
perfect participles was weakened to i, and frequently dropped, aa was 
also the -tt of the sufiix. 

The simpUfication of the grammar is especially observable in the 
Northern dialect. 

The Third Period exhibits a continued weakening of the old forms, 
spoken sounds and their written representatives being both in an un- 
settled state. The influence of two opposed systems of accentuation is 
tracciible {§ 27) ; grammatical and natural gender begin to coincide, and 
diffei-ences of dcclen.sion connected with ditfereuces of gender cease. 

In nouns the inflections have dwindled down to the plui-al suffix -,t, -es, 
•is, or -1/s, used without regard to gender or ancient modes of declension 
(-en being however still used in a largo number, and a few plurals being 
fonncd by the suffixes er, re, or e, or by a cliange of vowel) ; the ordinary 
genitive suffix -«, -ei, or -is (curiously dropped in the case of the family 
unmea father, mother, brother and sister, and of several feminine noivoe, 



bnt found In plnral genitivee like mennes) ; and the ocoasional genitive 
plural suffix -ene. Traces of a dative singular in -e are still found. Both 
cases are often expressed by means of prepositions. 

In adjectives the only suffix is -e, which is used partly after demon- 
Btratives, and partly to denote the plural. The duals of the personal 
pronouns disappear. Sche, tho, or ho, replaces the feminine heo. 

As regards verbs, various strong verbs get the weak inflection ; -e in 
the first person singular present is often dropped, and in the second -eat 
ia sometimes changed to -ist or -yst. In the plural -ath or -eth is some- 
times replaced by -en, of which the -n is sometimes dropped. In the 
preterite of the strong conjugation the change of vowel which marked 
the second person singular and the plural disappears, and the suffix -est 
or -ist comes in to mark the second person singular in this tense as well 
as in the present. Somefemea -es is found for -est. The n of the plural 
is sometimes dropped, and is rarely used in the .subjunctive mood. In 
weak verbs -ed replaces -od, where the latter termination had been used. 
The final n of the infinitive is commonly dropped, so that the mood ends 
in -e. The ff or J of the connecting syllable in such Anglo-Saxon verba 
as lufjan or lufigan was sometimes retained in the form of t or y, giving 
rise to such infinitives as makie, answerye.* The participial suffix -inde 
or -ynd is often replaced by -inf/ or -yng. 

In the Fourth Feriod, the Midland section of the Northern dialect 
becomes predominant. In nouns the dative sufiQx entirely disappears. 
Plurals in -en, or with a modified vowel, become merely exceptional cases. 
The names of relationship {father, mother, &c.) are less commonly used 
without their genitive suflix. The inflections of adjectives are much the 
same as in the preceding period. The substantive use of the genitive 
cases of the pronouns disappears, the possessive sense being expressed 
by the pronoiiiin;il adjectives, and all other senses by means of preposi- 
tions. They (thei) is used for the nominative plui-al of tlie demonstra- 
tive of the thu'd person, but here and hem stiU maintain their ground as 
genitive and dative. The plural tho (= those) is stiU sometimes used. 
The short foini/ (often written i) for ich or ie, though found in the 
preceding period, becomes more common in this. 

In verbs the Weak Conjugation becomes iiore and more common. 
The plural suffix -eth is usually replaced by -en, the n of wliich is often 
dropped. In the impei-ative mood the suffix -eth is usually, but not 
invariably employed. As the period advances, the infinitive more and 
more frequently drops its suffix. 

£ is a common adverbial termination. As compared with the preceding 
period, this i.s one of settlement arid reconstnictiou. 

In accentuation a reaction against the French system sets in, and 
numerous French words are brought under the laws of the English 

The Fifth Period, that of Modern English, is marked by a still further 
simplification of the accidence, and the gradual settlement of the 
orthography and accentuation of words, resulting in that form of the 
language which is now in vogue. 

* In Somersetehiie sxifh infiiiii tires »• aewy, reapy, nursy, are still heard. 



. A List* of some Celtic Words preserved 

in Enff] 












crowd (fiddle) 






















































The following geographical names are of Celtic origin : — Rivers : — 
Avon, Dee, Don, Ouse, Severn, Stour, Thames, Trent. Kills .•—Cheviot, 
Clultem, Grampian, Malvern, Mendip. Islands : — Arran, Bute, Man, 
Mull, Wight. Counties : — Devon, Dorset, Kent. Towns : — Liverpool, 
Penrith, Penzance. 

The following Celtic elements are found in some geographical 
namesf : — Aber (mouth of a river), as, 'Aberdeen, A.ber-brothwick, 
Aberwick (Berwick) ;' Auchin (field), as ' Auchindoir, Auchinleck ;' 
Ard or Aird (high, projecting), as, ' Ardnamuchan, Ardrishaig ;' 
Bal (village), as, 'Balmoral ;' Ben or Pen (mountain), as, 'Ben Nevis, 
PenmaenmawT ;' Blair (field clear of wood), as, 'Blair Athol ;' Brae 
(rough ground), as, ' Braemar ;' C«tr (fort), as, ' Caerleon (Carlisle) ; 
Combe or Comp (valley), as, 'Compton, Ilfracombe, Appuldurcombe ;' 
Dun (hill), as, ' the Downs, Dumbarton ;' Inch (island), as, ' Inch- 
keith, Inchcape;' Inver (mouth of a rivor), as, 'Inverness, Inverary ;' 
Kill (cell, chapel), 'Kilmarnock;' Lin (deep pool), 'Linhthgow, 
King's Lynn;' Llan (church), ' Llandaff, Launceston ;' Tre (town), 
' Coventry (town of the convent), Oswestry ;' Strath (broad valley), 
' Strathfieldsaye.' 

II. Scandinavian Words and Elements in English. 

The most important of these are found in some geographical 
names J : — 

ark I (temple or i Arkhobn beck (brook), Caldbeck 

argh \ altar) ( Grimsargh by (town), Whitby 

• This list is mainly extracted from a longer one given by Mr. Oamett in the 
'Transactions of the rhilolOKical Society,' vol i.. p. 171 

t Bee Angus, Handbnok, &c., p. 18; Hain, English G^-amiaar, p. 124 

t Thia list is tak«D front a larg^ one f^iven by Dr. Adams (Sng Lang. p. A.) 



dal (valley), Dalhv 

ey. Mislaid), j2;;i;;=i 

feU (rocky hiU), ScawfeU 
ford j I Seaford 

forth \ (inlet) \ Seaforth 
firth ) iHobnfirth 

force (waterfall), Micldeforce 

gOI (valley), Onixesgill 

holm (island), Lansrlioim 

ness (headland), Skipi:rss 
Bear (steep rock), Scarborough 
skip (ship), Skipwith 

ding ) ™6; I Dingwall 

thorp \ / •ii.„„x f Grimsthorpe 
thropM^^Sre) JMilnthrop^ 
toft (small field), Lowestoft 
with (wood), Langwith 

III. Elements handed down from the Anglo-Saxon 

stage of Engiish. 
[Nothing more is attempted here than a brief classification, with a 
few examples.] 

1. The pronouns, numerals, prepositions, conjunctions, adjectivet' 
of irregular comparison, and the auxiliary, defective, and (so-called) 
irregular verbs. 

2. Monosyllabic derivatives formed by a modification of the root 
vowel or of the final consonant, as dilch (from diff), bless (from bliss) 
and the majority of the words formed by strictly English suffixes. 

3. Most wordsdenotijig common natxiral objectsand phenomena, as — 






































4. Words relating to the family, household, and farm, as — 























































tree, ScOt 





6. The names of most of the parts of the body, as — 

























moutbf ' 




6. The names of common aniinal», as — 
ape dove hare 



bear fish hawk 

bee foal horse 

beetle fowl hound 

bird fox lamb 

deer goose lark 

7. Terms for common qualities and actions, as — 
bold hig-h ask buy 
blind low hear chaffer 
briglit holy bid chew 
broad hot bind come 
cold old bite dip 
dark quick blaze do 
dead rough bleach drink 
deaf sock blow eat 
good smooth bring fear 
bard pretty bum fill 

8. Names of common things — weapons, tools, clothes, 
awl bridge hat name 

bank food knife ship 

book fire meat sword 

boat hook nail spear 









make, &c. 
&c. — 

IV. The Classical Element in English. 

The greater part of the abstract terms in English, and words rela- 
bing to religion, law, science, and literature, are of Latin or Greek 
Drigin. Most words of three or more syllables are of classical origin, 
and a very large number of those of two syllables, the exceptions 
being mostly words formed by Englinh sufiixes, from monosyllabic 
roots. Most monosyllabic words in English are of Teutonic origin, 
but many are derived from Latin and Greek, the greater part having 
Bome to us through the French.* The following belong to this 
slass + : — 
ace {as) aunt (amita) brace (brachiTim) 

age {netnticum). Old bail (bajulus) brief (brevis) 

Fr. edage) balm (balsamnm) broach (brochua) 

aid (adjutiun) base (bassus) bull (bulla) 

aim (aeatimare) beast (bcstia) cage J fcavea) 

air (aer) beef (boves) camp (campus) 

aisle (ala) blame (blasphemia) cane (canna) 

alms {iXevt^otTwri) boil (bullire) car ) 

arch (arcus) boon (bonus) carry > (oarros) 

ark (area) bowl (buUa) charge ) 

• It is, however, a preat mistake to suppose that a word taken from the French 
langTiage is necessarily of classical origin. Some writers forget that.tbe Franks 
fend Normans were of Teutonic orltrin. 

+ The words from which they are derived are appended. Those in italics are of 
K post-classical &ge, 

I The change of ft 6, p, or * between vowels into {h» soiutd of soft f la found Za 
•everal word*. 


mp© foapntt 
cash (capsa) 
cease (cessaie) 
chafe (calefaooro) 
chain ^catena) 
chalk (calx) 
chair (cathedra) 
chance {cadentia) 
chant (can tare) 
charm (carmen) 
chase {cuptiare) 
chief (caput) 
clang (clangor) 
claim (clamare) 
coast (costa) 
coin (cuneus) 
cook (coquus) 
coop (cupa) 
couch (collocsire) 
count (comes) 
count (computare) 
core (cor) 
cork (cortex) 
cost (constare) 
coy (quietus) 
crape (crispus) 
cup (cupa) 
croak (crocitare) 
cue (cauda) 
cuU (colligere) 
dame (domina) 
date (datum) 
daunt {domitnre) 
dean (decanus) 
die {dadus) 

dose (5o(rti) 
doubt (dubitaro) 
drese (dirijicre) 
due (debitum) 
duke (dux) 
face (facies) 
fail (fallo) 
fair (feria) 
faith (fides) 
fan (vannus) 
fay (fata) 
feast (fc-tus) 
feat (factum) 

feign ffingere) 

fence (do-fensum) 

fierce (ferus) 

fife (pipare) 

fig (ficus) 

file (filum) 

flame (flamma) 

flour \ ,a \ 

a > (flor-es) 

flower ♦ ^ ' 

flute (flatus^ 

foil (folium) 

force (fortis) 

forge (fabric:)) 

found (fundere) 

fount (fons) 

frail (fragilis) 

frock (floccus) 

frown (frons) 

fruit (fructus) 

fry (frigere) 

fuse (fundere) 

glaive (gladius) 

glut (glutire) 

gorge (gurges) 

gout (gutta) 

gourd (cucurbit.)) 

grant (credentc/ e) 

grease (crassua) 

grief (gravis) 

gross (grossus) 

gulf ((coAtoj) 

heir (heres) 

host (hospit-) 

hulk {6\Kas) 

inch (uncia) 

jaw (gabata) 

jest (gestum) 

jet (j actum) 

join (jungo) 

joy (gaudium) 

juice (jus) 

lace (laqueus) 

lease flaxare) 

liege [legius) 

loungo (lontrus) 

mace (massa) 

nuil, armour (macula, 


male (masculus) 

mass (misaa) 


mop (mappa) 
mount (mons) 
niece (neptis) 
noise (noxia) 
noun (nomen) 
nurse (nutrix) 
ounce (uncia) 
pace (passus) 
pain (pcena) 
paint (pingere) 
pair (par) 
pale (palleo) 
paunch (pantex) 
pay (pacare) 
peace (pax) 
peach Cpersica) 
pierce (pertusum) 
place (platea) 
plait (plectere) 

plead }(Pl^°^*^) 
plum (prunum) 
plunge {pluiiihicare) 
point (punctum) 
poise (pensum) 
poor (pauper) 
porch (porticus) 
pound (pondus) 
praise (pretiare) 
pray (precari) 
preach (prsedicare) 
prey (praeda) 
priest (presbyter) 
print (premere) 

proof (probare) 
push (pulsare) 
qmre (chorus) 
quite (quietus) 

ray (radiua) 
rear (retro) 
rest (restare) 
rill (rivulus) 
river (lipariai) 
coll (rotula*) 



round (rottmdua) 

rule fregnla) 
safe (salvus) 
sage (sapiens) 
eaint (sanctua) 
sauce (salsus) 
scan (scandere) 
scent (sentire) 
scarce {ex-scarptus\ 
scourge (coirigere) 
seal (sigiJluin) 
search [circare) 
seat (sedes) 
short (curtus) 
siege (assediiun) 
sir (senior) 
sluice (exclusis) 
soar {exaurare) 
soil (solum) 
sound (sonus) 
source (surgere) 

space (spatium) 
spice (species) 
spoil (spoUum) 
spouse (sponsus) 
sprain (exprimo) 
spy (specio) 
squad, square («p- 

stage {staticusS 
stain (stingTio) 
strain (stringo) 
strange (extraneus) 
strait (strictus) 
street (strata) 
sue, suit (sequor) 
sure (securus) 
taint (tinctus) 
task (taxare) 
taste [titxitare) 
taunt (temptare) 
tense (tempus) 

test (testis) 

toast (tostus) 
toU (telonium) 
tour I /, V 



treat (tractate) 
try (terere) 
tune (tonus) 
vault (voluta) 
vaunt (van I tare) 
veal (vitulus) 
veU (velum) 
vice (vitium) 
▼iew (videre) 
void (viduus) 
voice (vox) 
vouch (vocare) 
vow (votum) 
waste (vastus) 

The above list does not include a large number of monosyllables, 

the Latin origin of which is obvious, such as cede (cedo), long {long us), 
&o. Some of the less obvious etymologies are taken from MiiUer a 
admirable " Etymologisches Worterbuch der Englischen Sprache." 

Besides words like the above, whiun with many others have b©e« 
distinctly imported from the classical languages into English, there 
are numerous instances in which a word or root is common to several 
of the Aryan languages, without having been borrowed by any one 
from another, all having received the word in common from some more 
primitive source. In tracing the variations which such words assume. 
a very remarkable relation between the consonants is found, which is 
commonly known as 'Grimm's Law.' The substance of the following 
statement of this law is taken from Max Miiller (Lect. ii. 199, &c.) 
and Helfenatein [Com]). Or., p. 99). 

If the same roots or the same words exist (1) in Sanskrit, Greek, 
Latin, &c., (2) in Gothic or the Low German dialects,* and (3) in Old 
High German, then I. When the first class have an aspirate, f the 
second have the corresponding soft check (i.e., Jlat or middle mute), 
the third the corresponding hard check (i.e., sharp or thin mute). 
IL When the first class have a soft check (Jlat or middle mute), we 
find the corresponding hard check {sharp or thin mute) in the second 
class, and the corresponding asjiirate in the third. III. When the 

^ Of wbldh English la on*. 

« bm (1 18, la. 

first class have a hard consonant (sharp or thin mute), the second 
have the aspirate, and the third the soft check (Jlat or middle mute). 
In this third section of the rule, however, the law holds good for Old 
High German only as regards the dental series of mutes, the middle 
(or flat) guttural being generally replaced by h, and the middle (or 
flat) labial by /.• 

The three branchds of the law ^ven above may be easily remem- 
bered in the foUowi ag way : — Take a circular disc of cardboard, and 
mark on it three ladii, inclined each to each at an angle of 120°. 
iVl irk thi^se '■adii (1), (2), and (3), corresponding respectively to the 
tl ree clPiseF of languages above referred to — (1) denoting Sanskrit, 
Greek, La* in, &c • (2) denoting Gothic and Low German dialects 
(including English/; anil (3) denoting Old High German. Place the 
disc on a sb ^et of paf.ei, ind write Aspirate ojiposite the end of radius 
(1), Middle. )r Flat opjtosite the end ■•■t radius (2), and IViin or Sharp 
opposite the end of radius (3). I'he disc may be shifted, so that 
radius (1), instead of pointing to Aspirate, may point to the other 
two classes of mutes in succession. In each p.isition of the disc, each 
radius will point to the jlass of mute.s that may be expected to cha- 
racterize any word that is common to all three classes of languages, 
provided that one radiiif f)oints to the class of mutes which the word 
in question exhibits in that -^roup of languages which that radius 

The following are a few instances of the application of this law :— 



6< xHskrit. 1 


1. xp" 















3. < 











[Ang. Sax.) 
oose I gans 

ostrandaeg j gistra 
garden gards 

' 1 aughter 







be fbe om) 

I daughtar 
\ daur 
I dius 




OH High 







* The above is the law in its g<jiii;ral forii, ** ;.= subject to Rporiat modific.itiona 
and ezoeptums, wbioh will t)« found treated at length by ttie authcwra referred ta 







{Aug. Sax.) 


Old HigX 


1 yvwfxi 






1 ytvos 






i. < y6fu 






1 t^has 



A.S. micel 



' iyi 


A.S. ic 


ih (G. ich) 

( iro5-rfj 




- ) SfKa 






J onto 





' oS6i>T-os 





I Kdwa&is 








I KecpciK-f) 






7. < KapSla 






( (k6,) 


A.S. hwa 


iri ^ 






8. I rpflr 






' tr-fpos 






1 irariip 





9. I virip 






I ir\ios 











Gbneral Table or Grimm's Law. 


^Sauskrit I gh {h) dh {h)bh[h) 
i.< Greek ...I x 
(Latin ...\h,/(g,v)f{d,b)f{b) 

11. Gothic, &c.i a \ d \ b 
ULOJLGer. % \ t \ p 



8 I 9 



b c, qu \ t \ p 

(p) \h,n.{/)th, d'f, b 

/({/)' h, ;;. k d ij, v 



A List* of some of the most important Anglo-Saxon 
Words which are still preserved in English. 

eeft, sefter ; after 
set; at 
ser; ere 

andlansr; along 
be, bi, big; hj 
beforan ; before 
begeondan; beyond 
behindan; behind 
beneoiJan ; beneath 
betweonum, betwy- 
nan ; between 

6n; one 

twegen; two, twain 
J>ri : three 
feowcr ; four 
six; six 
seofon ; seven 
eahta; eight 


betweox, bctwux : 

btifan ; above 

b(itan, biiton [with- 
out) ; but 

feor ; far froio 

f ram ; from 

for; for 

in; in 

neah ; nea? 

of ; ofl, of 


nigon; nine 

tjTi ; ten 
endlif , endlufon ; 

twelf : twelve 
J)reutj-ne ; tldrtecn 
feowcrtyne ; four- 
teen, &o. 

ofer; over 

on ; on, in 

ongean; against 

to ; to, too 

under; under 

up, nppan ; up 

fit, (itan; out 

wiC ['tgaind) ; with, 
{as in witlisf-aud, 
nngry with, &o.) 

l>urh; through 

twentig ; twenty 

teOntig; one hun- 

enlufontig; one hun- 
divd and ten 

twi'lfcinr; one hun- 
dred and twenty 

Words relating to the Common Objects of Nature. 

6c; oak, acorn (i.e. 

Bjpl, topel; apple 
tesc ; ash 
eemette; emmet 
ajspen ; aspen 
bitel ; beetle 
b&.r; boar 
beofer ; beaver 
berige ; berry 
beo, bio ; beo 
birce ; bircli 
blied {hnoich) ; blade 
boo; beech 

brter ; briar 
bicniel ; bramble 
brid {the yminy of an 

animal) ; bii-d 
broc; brook 
catt ; cat 
cleg; clay 
clam {mud) ; clanuuj 
clawu; claw 
coc; cock 
comb [valley) ; in 

names, as Alcomb, 

crCin; crane 

d£eg ; day 
d.tuian; to dawn 
d :iw; dew 
demi [valley) ; den [in 

>iames,a^ Tviitvnhn) 
deor [animal) ; deer 
e& [ivaler); ialaud(i.«. 

ef'Ti ; evening 
eoSre; earth 
faj^er; feather 
fisc; fi.-h 
flcax; flax 
flod; fiood 

• This list does not pretend to 1)6 exhRUstive ; it is intenr'ca to shdW t.}ie kin'', dl 
words I !iat have maintaiued t\\c\x ^ouud in Engli&h, and tha piincipal clmiitftai ol 
form tliat hare occurred in tlxem. 



froso; frcg 

iugel {bird) ; fowl 

gos ; goose 

h:e3; heath 

h;ifoc ; hawk 

hiigol; hail 

hran ; rrttwdeer or 

lawero ; laverock, lark 

Icncten {th« spring) ; 

leolit; light 
mona; moon 
pabol ; pebble 
reyen; rain 
sfe ; sea 
snaw; snow 

spcarwa ; sparrow 
etier ; stare, starling 
stan ; stone 
Burner; summer 
sunne (/«f*».) ; sun 
treow; tree 
waiter; water 
woruld; world 

Words relating to the House and Farm. 

a-bacan ; to bake 

acfi', a'cer; acre 

aeg {pi. aegru) ; t>gg, 

assce ;• ashes 

seiiiyrie; embers 

ba 6 ; bath 

btest {inner bark) ; 

bere; barley 

bere-em (eni==j?fcoe); 

berewe ; barrow 

besem ; besom 

bin {manger) ; corn- 

bolla; bowl 

bolster; bolster 

bord ; board 

braec ; breeches 

bread (fragment) ; 

buau (CO till) ; boor 

bxio ; buck-et 

buUuca {calf) ; bul- 

b}i; ; butt, bottle 

camb ; coinb 

ceaf ; chaff 

cealf ; calf 

cese, CTse ; cheese 

eetel; kettle 

clucge {bell) ; clock 

cnedan ; to knead 

coc ; cook 

cod (bag); peascod 

coto, cyte ; cot, cot- 

cradol ; cradle 

craet ; cart 

croc {pot) ; crock-ery 

cd ; cow 

cwearn {mill) ; quern 

del fan {dig) ; to delve 

die ; dike, ditch 

ealo ; ale 

efese {/em. ting.) ; 

ele? oil 

erian (to plough): to 

feauh {little pig); far- 

feld; field 

feorm {food) ; farm 

fiocc ; floe k 

f 6da ; iood 

f uih ; fuiTOW 

fyr; fire 

gkd ■ goad 

gsers ; grass 

gkt: goat 

gcai-d {hedge) ; yard, 

geat; gate 

grdt {/)ieal); groats, 

haerfest; harvest 
heorS ; hearth 
hLcfdige ; lady 
hiai'ord ; lord 
hlki; loaf 
hof {house) ; hovel 
hrof ; rooi 
hund ; hound 
hiis ; house 
hwffite ; wheat 
hweol ; wheel 
lam {mud) ; loam 
m;i;d ; mead-ow 
meolc ; milk 
otcn ; oven 
ortg?ard {^yard for 

worts or vegetables) ; 

oxa ; ox 
ticg ; rick 
sceJip ; sheep 
ep^ca; spoke {of a 

wtegen; wagon, wain 
wudu ; wood 
Jjtec ; thatch 
))erucau ; to thresh 

Words relat'ng to Family arid Kindred. 

bT63or ; brother 
bryd ; bride 
cild {pi, ciidra) ; child 
ouapa, cn^a {boy) ; 

cyn ; kin 
doll tor ; daughter 
fajder ; father 
husbonda {house- 

holder) ; husband 

modor ; mother 
nefa ; nephew 
widuwa ; widower 
widuwe ; widow 
wif (woman) , wife 

Word* relating to the Parts of the Body and Nature/ Function*. 

ftncleow ; ankle 
baelg (i(7.y) ; belly, 

bulge, bellows 
b^n ; bone 
blaedJre ; bladder 
blod ; blood 
bddig [stature) , body 
bosm {fold) ; bosom 
bneS ; breath 
brtew ; brow 
breost ; breast 
ceaca ; cLeek 
oeowan ; to chew 
cin ; chin 
cneow ; knee 
cnucl ; knuckle 
eiige; eye 

eir; ear 
earm ; arm 
olboga ; elbow 
finger ; finger 
fl esc ; flesh 
f 6t ; foot 
fyst; fist 
geoiht ; sight 
goma; gum 
. h;i T ; hair 
hand ; hand 
heafod ; head 
he.ils [neck) ; halter 
hel; heel 
heorte ; heart 
hlist {the sense of 
hearing) ; listen 

hoh {heel) ; hough 

hricg {back) ; ridge 

hrif {bowels) ; midriff 

lini ; limb 

lipjje ; lip 

maga {stomach) ; maw 

mearg ; marrow 

mui^ ; mouth 

naegl ; naU. 

nasu ; nose 

sculder ; shoulder 

seon ; to see 

to5 ; tooth 

tunge ; tongue 

tusc ; tusk 

[)euh ; thigh, thews 

))r6te ; throat 

Words relating to Handicrafts, Trades, ^e. 

adesa ; adze _ 

anfilt ; an\'il 

angel {hook) ; to angle 

kr ; oar 

are we ; arrow 

bat ; boat 

bil; bill 

braes ; brasss 
bycgan ; to buy 
byitl; beetle 
ceap {bargain, sale) ; 

cheap, chaifer, 

ceol {small ship) ; keel 

cl&S ; cloth 

craeft (strength) , 

hamor ; hammer 
mangian {to traffic) 


Words denoting Common Attributive Ideas. 

bild; bold 
biter ; bittor 
blaec ; black 
blac {pale) ; bleach 
bleo ; blue 
br&d ; broad 
brun; brown 
calu {bald) ; callow 
ceald ; cold 
col ; cool 

dearc; dark 
dfcop ; deep 
deore ; dear 
eal ; all 
eald ; old 
efen ; even 
fiegr ; fair 
fffitt; fat 
f61; foul 
geolo ; yellow 

gTiT3g; grey 

grene ; green 

heah ; high 

heard ; hard 

hefig ; heavy 

hwit; white 

rud (red) ; ruddy, 
ruddle, ruddock {the 

acan ; to ache 
acsian ; to ask 
beran ; to bear 
agan ; to own 
6th ; oath 
beatan ; to beat 
be6dan ; to bid 

Words referring to Common Actions and Feelings. 

ceorfan {to 

berstan ; to bui-st 
biddan ; to bid 

{bitan ; to bite 
bitt ; bite, bit 
bledan ; to bleed 
bliSe ; blithe 
brecan ; to break 

ceosan ; to choose 
clsenan ; to clean 
era « an ; to crow 
creopan ; to creep 
nunan ; to come 



cnnnan {to know, to 
be able) ; ken, con, 
can, cuniiiug, un- 
couth (==ui> known) 
cwelian, cwellan ; to 

kill, to quell 
dOd ; deed 
don ; to do 
drafdan ; to dread 
drencan ; to drench 
driuoan ; to drink 
dreniran {to work) ; 

ac, eac {also) ; eke 
adl {pain, sickness) ; 

eefre ; ever 
aemta {leisure), 8sm- 

tig ; empty 
denlic ; only 
5r, superl. serost ; 

ere, early, erst 
Bel'el {noble) ; Athe- 

ling, Ethelred 
bOr ; bier 

bCtan {to curb); bit 
bana {killer) ; bane, 

beacen ; beacon 
beacnian ; to beckon 
bealu {woe) ; bale-ful 
b§d prayer); bedes- 
belief e {gain) ; behoof 
beaittan {to sit round) ; 

beorht {brightness) ; 

Albert, &c. 
bi&egxi {businesi) ; 

( bhest ; blast 
\ bluwan ; to blow 
bland {mixture) ; to 

bletsian {from bl6t, 

sacrifice) ; to bless 
i blowian ; to blow 
\ blostma ; blossom 

dfnan ; to dine 
dyppar. ; to dip 
etan ; to eat 
feallan ; to fall 
fodan ; to feed 
f elan ; to feel 
fleogan ; to fly 
foigian or fyligean ; 

to follow 
gif an ; to give 
gitan ; to get 
gleo; glee 

graf an (to dii/) ; •&■ 


ihabban (fd hsefst 
^thou hast) ; to 
hfeft {holding); haft 
heorcnian ; to heark- 
hyran ; to hear 
leugan ; to lie 
luf ; love 
Borh ; sorrow 
Bprecan ; to speak 

Miscellaneous Words. 

hoc ; book 

bocsum [Jlexible) ; 

boga {arch) ; bow 
borgian {from borg- 
plcdge) ; to borrow 
bot {remedy, from be- 
tan, ' to make bet- 
ter-^) boot-less, to 
brod ; brood 
brycg ; bridge, brig 
brydel ; bridle 
bryne {burning) ; 

brysan ; to bruise 
brytan {to break) ; 

bngan ; to bow 
bdr {cottage) ; bower 
burh {fort) ; borough 
bylgian; to bellow 
byrSen; burthea 
I byre {mound) ; byre 
\ byrian ; to bury 

icarl (male) ; Charles 
oearu; care 
cearcian ; to creak 
ceorl ; chiu-l 
cirps {curled) ; crisp 
cleafan ; to cleave 
clypian (to speak, 

call) ; y-clept 
on&wan ; to kaoi* 

cniht (youth, attend- 

I'lit) ; knight 
cnoll ; knoU 
cnott ; knot 
cnucian ; to knock 
cos. cyss ; kiss 
era a an: to crave 
eric ; crutoh 
crincan {to be weak) , 

crump (crooked) ; 

crydan ; to crowd 
cue, cwio {alive) ; 

owealm {destruction) 


Jcw6n (female) ; 
queen, quean 
cwenf ugel; hen bird 
cweftan (to say) ; 

ejf'S (acquaintance) ; 

cyning; king 
dffife Ifit) ; deftly 
diel {part) ; deal, dole 
doanan ; to dare 
deman {to Judge), 

d6m ; deem, doom 
deof an (to sink) ; dive 
dohtig; dougnty 
dol {J'oolish) ; dolt 
dreorig (bloodjf, sad\ , 




drifan ; to drive 
drigan (<o dry) ; drag, 

dwinau {to pine) ; 

dyne {titutider) ; din 
dysig {foolish) ; dizzy 
dynt {stroke); dint 
' eic {also) ; eke 
ealdor; elder, alder- 
ecg; edge 
eorl {man of valour) ; 

eomest ; earnest 
f adian {to set in order) ; 

faegen glad) ; fain 
faran {to go) ; fare, 

fealo {yellotd) ; fallow 
(ground), fallow- 
feoh {cattle, money) , 

feobtan ; to fight 
feor ; far 
ficol ; fickle 
fiSele ; fiddle 
fleot {bay) ; North- 
fleet, &c. 
fleotan ; to float 
folc; folk 

f orhtian ; to frighten 
foster {food) ; foster 
( freo ; free 
I freon {to set free, 
' love) ; friend 
fretan {to gnaw) ; to 


gaderian ; to gather 

g^l {merry), galan {to 

sing) ; nightingale 

gamen {pleasure) ; 

g&n, gangan {to go) ; 
g&r {dart) ; to gore 
gist ; ghost, gas 
gekp {wide) ; gape, 

gear; year 
goara ; yore 
gearo {ready) ; yare 
geleaf a ; belief 
i geong ; young 
\ geogoS ; youth 
gekia {merry feast) ; 

geond ; yonder 
geom {desirous), geoT- 

nian ; to yearn 
geotan {to pour) ; 

gerefa {companion) ; 
reeve, sherilf, land- 
glisuian ; to glisten 
gbtian ; to glitter 
gaagan ; to guaw 
god ; good 
god-spell ; gospel, 
(spell =: message) 
gr^pian {to lay hold 
of) ; grab, grapple, 
gretan ; to greet 
guma {man) ; bride- 
gyldan {to pay); to 

yield, guild 
gyrsta ; yester-day 
h^d {state or con- 
dition) ; GtoAhead, 
child- Aoo(i, &c. 
haecce ; hook 
haefen; haven 
hielan ; to heal 
hist; {hot) ; hasty 
i halig ; holy 
( halgian ; to hallow 
h&m ; home, Cobham, 

h&.s ; hoarse 
healdan ; to hold 
healf; half 
hebban ; to heavo 
helan {to hide) ; hell 
heonan ; hence 
heord {fl'^'-f; trea- 
ture) ; herd, hoard 

here {tirmy) ; harbour 
{i.e., refuge for an 
army, from beorh 
or beorga), hemng 
(the army- or shoal- 
hingrian ; to hunger 
hiw {form, fashioti) ; 

hlidan {to pump up) ; 

hlo5 {band of robbera, 

booty) ; loot 
hoc ; hook 
hof ; hoof 
hoLm {river island) ; 

Laug/;o/w!, (fee. 
hrsed ; ready 
hraSe {toon) ; rathe, 

hreosan ; to rush 
hre6wan {repent) ; to 

hriddel {f:ieve) ; to 
riddle (with holes) 
I hwfet {sharp) ; to 
< whet 
( hwytel {knife) ; to 

hwearf {turning, ex- 
eliange, barter) ; 
hweorfan {to turn) ; 

hwil {time) ; while 
hyd {i-ki>t) ; hide 
hyS {shore, port) ; 

Greeuhithe, &c. - 
lifer {doctrine) ; lore 
Leran {teach) ; learn 
{still vtdyarly used 
in the sense of teach- 
hlaford ; lord 
leas {false, void); 
leasing, -less {as 
in harm-less) 
leod {people) ; le-wd 
{belriuging to th$ 
common people) 
leof {dear) ; Uef 


lie {corpse) ; lieli-gate 

licgan ; to lie 

lin {flax) ; linen, lin- 
net [theflax-fincli) 

lystan {to please, to 
take pleasure, used 
im per son-all ji) ; 'Idm 
listed,' listless 

imaegcn {strenrjth) ; 
might and main 
magan {be able) ; 
^ ^ may 
msbl {time, portion), 

maelum {in parts) ; 

piecemeal (sootsep- 

maelum,s?<'jB by step) 
manig ; many 
matJu {worm) ; moth 
max, maso {noose) \ 

mengian {to mix) ; 

mingle, among 
mersc ; marsh 
metsian {to feed) ; 

mess, messmate, 

midde ; mid, middle 
m6d {mind) ; mood 
mortJ {death) ; mur- 

morgen ; mom, mor- 
m6t {assembly, from 

metan to meet) ; 

mycg ; midge 
nacod ; naked 
nseddre {serpent) 

adder {an adder zz. 

a nadder 
nses or ntesse : naze, 

-ness (in Fiu-uess, 


ineah (comparat. 
near); nigh 
uearo ; narrcw 
ne6d; need 
neb (break) ; nib 
neaCan ; bo-neath 
niesan ; to eneezQ 
niht; ni^ht 

mCer (dntcn) ; nether 
Ord i''l {ovz=f7re from, 
iicl rz: part, parti- 
tanship) ; ordeal 
est ; east 
pic ; piteh 
pln^wiiicle , peri- 
pip; pipe 

pocca ; pouch, pock- 
prastig {crafty) ; 

pylc ; pillow 
rseoan ; to reach 
rsedan {interpret) ; to 

r^p, r&p ; rope 
re&c ; {smoke) ; reek 
( re&.fa [robber] ; reiver 
I reufian ; be-roave 
rec {ca}-e) ; reckl ss 
rein {clean) ; rinse 
ric {dominion) ; bish- 

r.^y (/larvest) ; ripe, 

rod {cross) ; rood 
sa3d [sated) ; sad 
s;(l {ffood hick) ; ssel- 
ig {lucky) ; seely 
{old Engl.), siUv 
(i.e., blessed) 
s&r; Pore, sorry 

Bcacan ; to shake 
8c£idn,Kceado , .sl'adow 

(scafan {sciupe\ , to 
\ aceaft {a scrapod 
\ pole) ; shaft 
Bcanca ; shanj 
scapan, scoapa^ <* 
form, ereat') , t.»ifa,v> 

{Frijrr,, this CMn" ttit 

mtffix sciptj or scype 

= -sliip) 
soeaega (« bush or 

bunch) ; shaggy 
io sceal (i ow«) ; I 


8c6ran ; to shear, 

to .share, short 
sceai^an {to siral, in* 

jxre) ; scatheless 
sceawian {to look) ; 

Bceoh {perverse) ; 

sceof an, scut'an ; 

shove, shuffle, 

sceorp {clothinn)^ searf 
sciiiaii ; to shine 
scip ; ship, skipper 
scir {pure, dear) ; 


{scir ; shire 
scir-gerefa ; sheriff 
scolu {'lai/d) ; shoal 
scriiican ; to shrink 
scrud {garment) \ 

sealt ; salt 
8ecg ; sedge 
secgan ; to say 
seld ; seldom 
segel ; sail 
sencan ; to sink 
seoc ; sick 
seolf er ; silver 
slitp ; sleep 
slecge {hammer) ; 

8l6p {frock, loose outer 

dress) ; slop shop 
i''ama , slumber 
simera s^yrease) ; smear 
snican {creep) ; sneak 
86tS {'ruth) ; sooth- 

spfvth fl ; to spit 
sped {prosperity) ; 

spell {tale) ; gosjwl 

(i.e., good-spell 
spiwan ; to spew 
sprengan ; to sprinkle 
stsef ; staff 
Btteger ; stair 
stearc {strouff)- stark 



rtelan ; to steal 

Btenc ; stench, stink 

steopan {to bcmave) ; 
step-son {i.e., or- 
phan ion\ step- 
father (orphan I 

steorra ; star 

sticce {portion) ; stick, 

stician ; to stick, stitch 

stigan [tomount) \ .stir- 
rup (i.e., stig-rap 
zzz mounting rope) 

9t6c {place) ; names 
in — stoke 

stow {place) ; to 
eitow away, stew- 
ard {guardian of a 
mansion), names in 
— stow 

etreowian ; to strew 

sum (rt v'eriain — ) ; 
some-body, &c. 

8u?> • south 

Bweart {black) ; swar- 

swelgan ; to swallow 

B^e\t&ji.{todie); swel- 

sweord ; sword 

swerian ; to swear, 
answer {from and 
r= against) 

swifan {to move quick- 
ly) ; swift 

syllan {to give) ; sell 

tffican; to teach 

tiesan {to pluck) ; 

tendan {to kindle) ; 

ieo^a {tenth) ; tithe 

tid (time) ; tide 

feilian '(oprepure) ; till 

itreowian {to trust) ; 
to trow 
treowtf {eonfi- 

dence) ; trutii, trust 
troK {tuh, l/oat) ; 

tumbian {to dance) ; 

tun {enclosed ground); 

twegen {two) ; twain, 

t^vin, between, 

wacan, wacian ; to 

wake, watch 
w^d {garment) ; 

widow's weeds 
wjepeu ; weapon 
/ w:er {cautious); 
\ ware, wary 
( wamian ; to warn 
wsescan ; to wash 
J wana {lack) ; want 
( wanian ; to wane 
wandt'iaii; to wander 
wealcan {to roll, turn); 

weald forest) ; Weald, 

wealdan {to rule) ; 

wield, Bretwalda 

{governor of the 

wenih {foreign) ; 

Welsh, wabiut 
weard {guard) ; ward 
wed {a pledge) ; to 

wel, bet, betst ; well, 

better, best 
wendan {to turn) ; 

to wend one's way 
wen {hope), weuan 

{to expect) ; ween, 

weorc ; woik 
weorpan {to throw, to 

ehanae) ; to warp, 

monldwarp (i.e., 

mould-caster). . 
wC'iriS ; worth 
weorftan [to become) ; 

* woe worth the 

day,' i.e., * woe be 

to the day ' ' 
wesan {to be) ; was, 

wic {dwelling) ; Aln- 
wick, Greenwich, 

wicca, wicce; witch, 

wilcuma {a desired 
guest) ; welcome 

w'iht (thing, orature) ; 
wight, whit 

win nra?) ; Baldwin, 

/ witan {to know) ; to 
) wit, I wot 
i \ntrLes {knowledge); 
' witness 

wi5 {against) with- 
stand ; to be angry 
with, &c. 

wolcen {cloud) ; wel- 

wop {weeping) ; 

wor3 (farm) ; Tam- 
worth, &c. 

w6s (Juice) ; ooze 

wi-serftan {to twist) : 
wrest, wrestle 

wrecan {to afiict) ; 
wreck, wreak, 


vrregan {to accuse) ; 

wri&'a {band); wreath 
to wreathe, writhe 

wyn (joy) ; winsome 

wyrd {fate) ; weird 

wyrhta {workman) ; 

weor {bad) \rjvse, 
vrprcest ; worse, 

yfel {bad) ; evil, ill 

yrman {to afflict) ; 

yniaii ; to run 

{Jjencan ; to think 
|)iucan {to »eem) , 
to me), methought 
{i.e., "ecmed to ute) 
>e6f ; ihief 


Mrel (Jiole'i ; drill, 
nostril (i.e., nose- 

f weor {oblique ; 



jjiinsran [to press) \ 


\vx\ {^lave) ; tliral- 

Specimens of Words that hcvea remained unaltered, or nearly so. 













brill <ji;-an* 








climb -an 



spuni-an (to 




strike with 




the heel) 



rascal (* lean 







help -an 








hilt or hylt 



drag-- an 

■ horn 






















will-an , 


















mere {lake) 


{)iug [f)orn 

A. List of the principal Latin Words from which 
Dorivativea are formed in Eaglish.t 

Acer {sharp), acidus (sour), acorbus {bitter) ; acrid, acerbity, acrimony 

Acno (/ sharpen) ; acute, acumen. 
Aedes {house) ; edifice, edify {literally, to build up). 
Aequus (li-vel) ; equal, equation, equator, adequate, equity, iniquity 

equivocate, equinox. 
Aestimo {I value) ; estimate, esteem, aim. Ae.stus {tide) ; estuary. 
Aet.cnius, i.e., aeviteruus {of endless duration) ; eternity, eternal. 
Aevum (".'/«) ; ccjoval, primeval. Agger {heap) ; exaggerate. 
Ager {jield) ; agricultuie, agrarian. 

• The inflnitire termination an is no 3ou(^ used. 

♦ lu most caaea oiilv a few tuanpie* of tUo English derivativea are trivM> 

tsvESDix. 243 

Ago (/ set in motion, drive, do) ; agent, act, agile, agitate. 

Alacer {brisk) ; aluurity. 

Alius {other), alter {other of two) ; alien, aKbi, alter, alternate. 

Air {1 iiouris/i) ; aliiuoiiy, aUmeut. Alius {hir/Ii, deep) ; altitude, exalt. 

Anihitio {going round, courting favour) ; axubition, aiubitiuus. 

Aiubulo (-/ walk) ; amble, soiimambulist {i.e., slecp-iviUker). 

Ajuo (/ love), amicus {friend), amor {iuve) ; amour, amorous, amicable, 

Amoenus (^pleasant) ; amenity. Amplus {large) ; ample, amplify, 

Ang-o (/ choke), anxius, anxious, anxietj', anyuish. 

Aoigulus {corner, bend); angle. 

Ani mfl. {breath), animus {tnind) ; animate, animal, magnanimous, 

Annulus {ring) ; annular. Annus (year) ; annual, anniversary. 

Anus {oldwoihan); anile. Aperio {I open); April, aperient, aperture. 

A^itj {bee) ; ajjiary. Appello {I call) ; appellation, appellant, appeal. 

Aptus {jitted), apto {I J't) ; adapt, apt. 

Aqtui {water) ; aqueous, aquatic, aqueduct. 

Aii)iter {umpire, go-between) ; arbitrate, arbitrary. 

Arbor (tree) ; arboiu?. Area {cheat) ; ark. Arcus {how) ; arc, aroh. 

Ardeo {I burn) ; ardent, ardour, arson. Arduus {i-U'-p) ; arduous. 

Arena {nand) ; arena, arenaceous. Argentum {si/vcr) ; argent. 

Argilla {clog) ; argillaceous. iii'gTxo (7 prove) ; ar';ue, argumtnt. 

AriduB {(Irg) ; arid, aridity. Arma {jUiings, arm-'-) ; anas, arm, anuour. 

Arc {1 plough ; arable, earing. Aivs {^kill) ; art, artist, artiiice. 

Ai-tus {j(.int), articulus {little joint or fastening) ; articulate, article. 

Asinus (was) ; asinine. Asper {rough) ; asperity, exasperate. 

Audax (bold) ; audacious, audiicity. Audio (/ hear) ; audience, audible. 

Augco {I increase) ; augment, auction, author, authority. 

Aurum {gold) ; aui'ifeious. 

Auspex {one ivho takes Oinens from birds) ; auspicious, auspices. 

Auxilium {help) ; auxiliary. 

Avarus {greedg) ; avarice, avaricious. Avidus {eager) ; avidity. 

Avis {bird) ; aviary. Auris {eur) ; aurist, auricular. 

Barba {beard) ; barb, barbed, barber. Beatus {blessed) ; beatitude. 

Beilum {war) ; belligerent, rebel. Bene {well) ; beneiiceiit, benedictiua. 

Beniguus {kind) ; benign. Bestia {beast) ; beast, bestial. 

Biui {two by two) binary. Bis {twice) ; bissextile, bisect. 

Blandua {coaxing) ; bland. Brevis {short) ; brief, brevity. 

Caballus {home) ; cavalry. 

Cado, sup. casuni {IfuU) ; cadence, ac-cidcnt, oo-casion, casual. 

Caedo, cacsvun (/ cui) ; suicide, regicide, incision, concise, cement (».o,, 

cacdimentmu) . 
Calamitas; cabanity. Calcitro (/ ^-tV^-) ; recalcitrant. 
Calculus {pebble) ; calculate. Calx ; cLalk, cakme. 
Callus {hard «/t*«), callosus ; callous. Campus {pliin) ; canip,encainp, 
Caudeo {I burn or shine), candidus {whUe) ; candid, incanaoscent, ui- 

ceudiary, candle, candour. 
Cania {dug) ; canine. Canna {reed or tube), oanalis ; canal, chaimcl. 
Canto {1 siug) ; chant, incantation. 
CapiUiw {jMir) ; capillary. Carmen {»ong) ; aharn). 



Oapio (J tahii), captus (taken) ; captive, capacity, accept, conoeptioi. 

recipient, anticipate. 
Caput (head) ; cape, cajiital, captaia, chapter, decapitate, precipitate 
Jarbo [coal) ; carbon, arboniferous. Career {prixon) ; incarcerate 

Caro, camis (Jiesh) ; carnal, incarnate, charnel-house, carnival. 
Carpo {pluck) ; carp. Carus {dear) ; charity. 
Castigo {restrnhi) ; castigate, chastise. Castus {pure) ; chaste. 
Casus {fa/liiiff) ; case, casual. Causa ; cause ; excuse, accuse. 
Caveo, cautum {I take care) ; caution. 
Cavus {hollow) ; cave, cavity, excavate. 
Cedo {I go) ; cede, precede, proceed, cession. 
Celeber {frequented) ; celebrate, celebrity. 
Celer {quick) ; celerity. Celo (/ Iride) ; conceal. 
Censeo {I judge) ; censor, censure. Centum {hundred) ; cent, oenturj 
Centrum ; centre, concentrate, centrifugal. 
Cemo, cretum {I dintiiig/tish) ; discern, concern, discreet, secret. 
CorUia {t ^solved) ; certain, certify. Cesao {Iloiter) ; cease, ceaeatioi. 
Charta (paper) ; chart, charter, cartoon. 
Cingo (/ gird) ; cincture, succinct, precincts. 

Circum {round), circus {a circle) ; circle, cLrcixlate, circuit, circumference 
Cista {'wx) ; chest. Cito (/ route) ; citation, excite. 
Civis {ciiizen) ; civil, civic, city {from ciA-itas). 
Clamo (/8/(0J<<), clamor; claim, exclaim, clainoiir. 
Clams {bright) ; clear, clarify. Classis ; class, classic. 
Claudo, clausiim {I shut) ; close, enclosr, exclude, preclude, include. 
Clemens {mild) ; clemency, inclement. 
Clino (/ bend) ; incline, recline, declension. 

Clivus {sloping ground) ; declivity. Coelebe {bachel^) ; celibacy. , 
Coelum {heaven) ; celestial. Cogito (coagito — I think) ; cogitate 
Cognosco (/ examine, know) ; recou'nize, cognizant. 
Colo, cultum {I till) ; culture, cultivate, colony. 
Color ; colour. ; column. 
Comes {companion) ; concomitant, count. , 
Commodus {convenient) ; commodious, commodity, incommode. 
Conunxmis ; common, community. Contra {against) ; counter. 
Copia {jDlcnty) ; copious. Copulo {I join together) ; copulative. 
Coquo, coctum {I boil) ; cook, decoction. 

Cor, coi-dis (/(«ar<) ;cordial, concord, record. Corona : crown, coronation 
Corpus {body) ; -corps, corpse, incorporate, corporeal, corpulent. 
Cras {to-tnorroto) ; procrastinate. 

Credo {I believe) ; creed, credulous, incredible, credit. Creo ; create. 
Cresco, cretum {I grow) ; inci'ease, accretion,^ crescent. 
Crimen {charge) ; crime, criminal. Crispus {curicd) ; crisp. 
Crudus {raw), crudelis; cruel, ci-ude. Crusla ; crust. 
Crux {cross) ; crusade, crucify, excruciate. 
Oubo, curabo {I lie) ; succuirib, recumbent. 

Cubitus (rt bend, elbow) ; cubit. Culpa {J'ault) ; inculpate, culpftble 
Culter; coulter. Cumulus {heap) ; accumulate. 
Cupidus {eager) ; cupid, cupidity. 
Cura {care) ; cure, cui-ator, curious, procure, secure. 
Qurro^ cursum {I run) ; concur, discursive, cui-rent. carriole, eoocour 


Onrvns {bent) ; curve. Custodia {guard) ; cnfitody. 

Damno ; damn, condemn. Debeo, dcbitum (/ owe) ; debt, debit. 

Debilis (weak) ; debility. Decern {ten) ; December, decimal, dc^cimate. 

Decens {becoming), decor, decorus ; decent, decorous. 

Densus ; dense, condense. 

Dens, dentis {tooth) ; dentist, trident, indent. 

Desidero {I long for) : doaire, desiderate. 

Deus {God) ; deity, deify, dcodand {to bfi given to God). 

Dexter {right) ; dexterous, dexterity. 

Dico, dictum (/ sag) ; contradict, predict, diction, dictate. 

Dies {dug) ; diary, dhu-nal. 

Digitus (^A;?/7<^r) ; Vurit, digital. Dims; dire. 

Digiius {worthg) ; comb'gii, dignity, dignify. 

Disco (/ learii) ; disciple, disciijline. 

Divide ; divide, division. . Divinus ; divine, divination. 

Do, datum {I give) ; dative, add, addition, date. 

Doceo (/ teach) ; dociio, doctor, doctrine. 

Dolor {grief), doleo, {I grieve) ; dolorous, condole. 

Domo {I tame) ; indomitable. Dono {T prese7it) ; donation, condone. 

Domus {houne) ; domicilo, domestic, dome. 

Domiiius {master) \ doniiuate, dominant, domineer. 

Dormio {I sleep) ; dormant, dormitory, dorinouse (?) 

Dubius {doubtful) ; doubt, dubious, uidubitable. 

DiX'.K), ductxun {J lead), dux {leader); conduct, duke, adduce, seduce, 

Duo {tico)'; dual, duet, duel. 

Durus {hard), duro {I harden) ; endnre, durable, indurate. 

Ebriua {drunken) ; ebriety, inebriate. Edo {1 eat) ; edible, esculent. 

Ego (/) ; fgctist. Emo {I bug) ; redeem, exempt. 

Eo, ivi, itum (/ go) ; exit, initial, transit, perielu 

Equus {home), eqiies {horseman) ; equine, equerry, equitation. 

Erro (I tcander) ; err, error, erroneous, erratic, aberiation. 

Esca [food) ; esculent. Examino { I in-igh) ; examine. 

Exemplura ; example, sample. Exerceo ; exercise. 

Expedio {I Bet free) ; expedite, expedition. 

Experior (/ trg) ; experiment, expert, experience. 

Faber {mechanic, vngixeer) ; faljric, fabricate. 

Fabula {little atorg) ; fable, fabulous. Facetus {clever) ; facetiouh, 

Facies {make or appeara)tce) ; face, facial, superricial. 

Facilis {easg) ; facile, facility, difficulty, faculty, facilitate. 

Facio (J make, do) ; fact, faction, affect, infect, defect, deficient, bene- 
factor, manufactory, perfect. 

Fallo (7 deceive) ; false, fail, fallible. 

Fama {report) ; fame, infamous. Familia ; family, familiar. 

Fans {speaking), futum {what is spoken or decreed) ; infant, fate, fataL 

Fanum {temple) ; fane, profane^ fanatic. Fus„idiuni {loathing) , 

Fatuus {tas^kss, sillg) ; fatuous, infatuated. Faveo ; favour. 

Febris ; fever, febrifuge, febrile. Fecundus {fertiU) ; fecundity. 

Feli-^ {cat) ; feline. Felix {happg) ; felicity. 

Feuiina {woman) ; femiuiue, e&minate. _ 


Fendo {T strike) ; iefen^, offend, offence, fence. 

Fero (/ benr) ; fertile, infer, defer, circumforence ; p3rt. latus ; dilate, 

Ferox ; ferocious, ferocity. Femim (iron) ; ferruginous. 
Ferveo (/ boil) ; fervent, fervid, effervesce. 
FestuB {solemn, Jof/ful) ; festive, feast. Fibra; fibre. 
Fides {/iiit/i), fido (7 trust) ; fidelity, confide, perfidy, defy. 
Ficro, fixum {I fasten) ; fix, crucifix. Filius {son) ; filial, affiliate. 
Findo, fissura (/ cleave) ; fissure, fissile. 
Fiii]u;o, fictum {I shape) ; fiction, fi^^ure, fei; u. 
Finis (end) ; final, finite, finish, confine, define, infinitive. 
Firmus ; firm, confirm, affirm. Fiscus {treasury) ; fiscal, oonfiscate. 
Flaccidus ; flaccid. Flai-ellum {scourge) ; fiasrellation. 
Flagitium((/tsyrar<'); flagitious. Flajrro {I burn); flagrant, conflagration 
Flanima; flame, inflammation. Flo,fiatum (ib/ow); inflate, flu tuleut. 
Flecto {I bend) ; deflect, iijfl(;ct, floxible, circnmflox. 
F«litro, fiictum (/ strike)*i affiict, conflict, profligate. 
Ftos, floris {flower) ; flora, florid, floral, effloresce. 
Fluo>\^u!K_uni {I flow), fluctus, {wave) ; flux, fluxion, influence, super- 

\ Auous, fluctuate, fluid. 
Fodio,'TOesum {I dig) ; fos«e, fossil. 
Folium {leaf) ; foliage, folio, exfoliate, trefoil. 
Fons ; foxmt, font, fountaiu. Forma ; form, reform, inform. 
Formido {fear) ; formidable. Fors, fortiuia ; fortune, misfortune. 
Fortis {strong) ; fort, fortify, fortitude, fortress. 
Frango, fractum {1 break) ; fragile, frail, infringe, infraction, v^ 

fraction, refractor^-, fragment, fract'ire. 
Frater {brother) ; fraternal, fratricide. Fraus, fraudis ; fraud. 
Frequens ; frequent. Fiico (/ rub) ; friction. 
Frigus {cold) ; frigid, refrigerate. Frivolus ; frivolous. 
Frons ; front, affront, froutisiiece. Frugalis ; frugal. 
Fruges, fructus {fruit), fruor {I enjoy) ; fruit, fructify, fruition. 
Frustra {in vain) ; frustrate. Fugio {I flee) ; fugitive, refuge. 
Fulgeo {I liffJitev) ;- refulgent. Fulmen {thunderbolt) ; fulminate. 
Fumus (smoke) ; fumig^ite, fume. 

Fundo {I pour) ; found, foundry, refund, confound, confuse, refuse. 
Fundus (bottom) ; found, foimdation, fundamental, protound. 
Fungor {I discharge)^ function, defunct. Funus; funeroL 
Fur {thief) ; furtive. Futilis ; futile. 
Garrio {I prattle) ; garrulous. 

Gelu {ice) ; gelid, congeal, jelly, gelatine. Gemma ; gem. 
Grens {race), gigno {root gen-), / beyet ; genus {kind) ; geutile, generate. 

generation, gender, degenerate, general, geutle, genteel. ^ 
Qermen {bml) ; germinate. 

Gero, gestum (7 bear) ; gesture, suggest, belligerent, vice-gerent. 
Glacies (ic<.') ; glass, glacial, glazier. Glans (/.^/-/(t^) ; gland, glandular. 
Glcba {clod) ; glebe. 

Gl<>bu3 {baU\ glosssro (/ tnake into a ball) ; globe, oonglomerate. 
Glm-ia; glory. 
Gradus {step), gradior, greasum {I icalk) ; grade, degrade, digression, 

ooa^re«*a, txan.serosa. acgrossiou. 

Ghrandifl (far^ff) ; grancl, aarprrandize. Grainim; grain. 
trratia ; grace, gratuitous, gratis. Gratus ; grateful, gratitude. 
, Gravis {heavy) ; grave, gravitation, grief. 

Grei (Jlock) ; gregarious, congregate. Gubcmo ^I pilot) ; goTetn. 
Habeo, habitmn {/ /lave) ; have, habit, prohibit. /~\l-^^ >r-'S^ 

Habito {dwell) ; habitation, inhabit. LX.><3<y 

Haereo {I stick) ; adhere, adhesion, hesitate. 
Haores or heres {heir) ; inherit, hereditary. 

Halo {I br tat he); exhale, inhale. Haurio,hatistnni (7" (/rffj^;); exhaust. 
Herba ; herb, herbaceous. Hibernua {wintn/) ; hiberaate. 
Histrio {actor) ; histrionic. Homo {man), hiimanus ; h iiinan, homicide. 
Honestus; honest. Honor ; honour, honourable, houorary. 
Horrco {I thudder), horror, horridus; horror, horrid, horrify, abhor. 
H orto r ; exhort. Hortus {garden) ; horticulture. 
Hospes {gitest) ; hospitable, hospice, host. Hostia {enemy) ; hostile, 
Humeo (/ am wet) ; humid, hirmoTir. 
Humus {ground) ; exhume, humble, humiliate. 
Ignifl {Jire) ; ignite, igneous. Ignoro ; ignore, ignorant. 
Imago; image, imagine. Imbecillis {weak) ; imbecile. Irnbuo: imbue. 
Impero (/«)OT»)«nrf),imperium; empire, emperor, imperious, imperative. 
Index, indico {I point) ; indicate, indicative. 
Inferus {low, placed underneath) ; inferior, infemaL 
Ingenium {talent, disposition) ; ingenious. 
Ii^enuus {native) ; ingenuous, ingenuity. Insula (^island) ; in- 

Bular, insulate. 
Integer {whole, sound) ; integral, integrate, integrity. 
Intelligo {I perceive) ; intelligent, intellect. Invito ; invite. 
Ira {anger) ; ire, irate, irascible. In-ito (/ provoke) ; initate. 
Brrigo ; irrigate. Iterum {again) ; reiterate. 
Iter, itrneris {journey) ; itinerant. 
Jaceo (i lie down) ; atijaccnt. 

Jacio,j actum (/Mrotc) ; eject, reject, object, adjective, conjecture, subject. 
Jocus; joke, jocular. Jubeo, jussum (/ order) ; juiiivc. 
Judex ; judge, judicious, adjudicate, prejudice. 
Jugum (yo^-e) ; conjugal, conjugate, 8ubj\igato. 
Jugulum {collar bone) ; jugular. 

Jimgo, junctum ; join, joint, juncture, conjunction, injanction> 
Jiu*o {1 swear) ; conjure, jury, perjury. 

JuB {justice), Justus {just) ; just, unjiist, injury, justify, jurisdiction. 
Juvenis (yoHw^) ; juvenile, junior. Labor; labour, laborious, laboratury. 
Labor, lapsus sum (/ slide) ; lapse, elapse, collapse. 
Lac, lactis {milk) ; lacteal, lactic. Lacero {I mangle) ; lacerate. 
Lacrima {tear) ; lacrimose. Lacus ; lake. ' 
Laedo, laesum (/ dash or hurt) ; lesion, elide, elision, collision. 
Lamentor ; I lament. Lacgueo, languidus ; lantniid, languish. 
Lapis, lapidis (s^owc) ; lapidary, dilapidate. Lar;;us; large. 
Lassus {weary) ; lassitude. Lateo {I lie hid) ; liiteiit. 
Latus (broad) ; latitude. Latus, lateris {side) ; lateral, eqidlateral. 
Laus, laudi.s {praise) ; laud, laudation, laudable. 
Lavo {I wash) ; lavatory, lavation, lave. Laxu3 (Awsf) ; lax, relax. 
Lt|g» \lund QT depute) ; legate, allege, legacy. 

Lego, lechim {I gather, ohooat) ; collect, select, elect, recollect. loofcnJfe, 

colle;,'e, legion. 
Lenis fsniooth) ; lenity. Lentus (Jlfxible) ; relent. 
Levis {light), levo (/ lift) ; levity, alleviate, relieve, elevate. 
Lex, legis (law) ; legal, legitimate, legislate. 

Liber ( free) ; liberal, liberate, deliver. Liber {book) ; library, lil>el. 
Libo [J pour) ; libation. Libra {balance) ; ^deliberate, libration. 
Licet {it is laufnl) ; licence, illicit. Lignum {wood) ; ligneous. 
Ligo (/ tic) ; ligament, religion, league, allegiance, oVilige. 
Limgn {threshold) ; elimiuat(3. Limes, limitis {boundary) ; limit. 
Liuea; line, lineal. Linarna {tongue) ; linguist, language. 
Linguo, lictum {Heave) ; relinquish, relict, delinquent. 
Liquor, liquidus ; liquor, liquitl, liquefy. 

Litera ; letter, literal, illiterate. Lividus {dark blue) ; livid. 
Locus {place), loco {I place) ; locate, local, locom.otion. 
Longus; long, longitude, elongate. 
Loquor, locutus, (/ speak), loquax; elocution, loquacious, colloquy, 

eloquent. Lucrum {gam) ; lucrative, lucre. 
Ludo, lusum {I play) ; elude, prelude, Ulude, illusion, ludicrous. 
Lumen \i>^ghi) ; luminous, Ulmninate. Luna {moon) ; lunar, lunatie 
Luo, lutum (/ wash) ; dilute, ablution, diluvial. 
Lustrum {pu.-iJication) ; lustre, lustrous, lustration, illustrate. 
Lux {light) ; lucid, elucidate. 

Machina; maoMne, Maciila {spot) ; immaculate. 
Magister {master) , magistrate, magisterial, 

Magnus {great), n>ajor [greater) ; magnitude, majesty, majority, mayoi 
Miilus {had) ; malice, r\alig-nant, m;iltreat, malady. 
Manuna {breast) ; raamn^a, mammalia. 

Mando {commit, enjoin) ; irvandate, command, commend, remand. 
Maneo, mansum {I remainj ; mansion, remain, remnant, permanent 

Manus {hand) ; manual, marufcctory, manuscript, maintain, manacle, 
emancipate, manumit. Mi^re (sra) ; marine, maritime, mariner. 
Mars ; martial. Massa ; mass, ivassive. 
Mater {mother) ; maternal, matricicie, matron, matrix, matriculate 

matrimony. Materia {timher, itii_f) ; matter, materiaL 
Maturus {ripe) ; mature, immature, pi ^luatuiie. 
Medeor {1 heal), medicina ; remedy, medioJne., medical. 
Medius {middle) ; mediator, mediocrity, immediate. 
Mel {honey) ; mellifluous. Melior {better) ; ameliorate. 
Menibrum ; member, membrane. 
Memor {mindful), memini {I remember) ; rememb>'»r,:ner>ory, memorial, 

memoir, commemorate, comment. Mendax {lyiug) ; mendacious. 
Mendicus {bf.'ggar) ; mendicant, mendicity. 
Meudum {fault) ; amend, mend, emendation. 
Mens, mentis {mind) ; mental, vehement. Mereo merituir (J dMsrve) ; 

Merge, mersum {I plunge) ; immerse, merge, emergency. Meruu; mcfa 
Merx {war en) , merchant, commerce, mercer, mailiet, 
Metier, mensus sum (/ measure) ; immense, mensuration, measuni 
Migro (/ change my abode) : mi^rrate. 

Miles, militis {xoldicr) ; uinit;iiy, militia. 

Mille {ihoui,aiid) ; mile, inillLiiium, niiUion. 

Minister i»ervant) ; minister, ministry. 

Minor (less), mumo (J lessen) ; diminish, minor, minority raina'.o. 

Minis (iro>idcrfnl) miror (/ admire) ; admirp, minirle. 

Misceo, mixtum, {I niix) ; miscellany, promisftuons. 

Miser {wretched) ; miser, miserable, misery commiserate. 

Mitigo; mitigate. 

Mitto, missum {I send); emit, admit, permit, promise, mission, missile. 

Modus {tneasurc) ; mode, mood, model, moderate, modest, modulation. 

Mela ; mill-stone, meal, molar, inmiolate, emolument {the miller's per- 

quisite). Mollis {soft) ; emollient, mollify, moUusk. 

Moneo, monitmn {I warn); admonish, monument, monster, monitor. 
Mons, mentis ; mount, mountain, surmount, dismount, promontory. 
Monstro {I show); demonstrate. ULorbus {disease); morbific, morbid. 
Mordeo, morsum {I bite) ; remorse, morsel. 

Mors, mortis, {death) : mortal, mortuary. Mos, moris {custom) ; moraL 
Moveo, motum {I move), mobilis, momentum; move, motive, moment, 

mobility, emotion. Mula : mule. 
Multus {many); multitude, mviltiform, multiple, multiply (plico, -plei). 
Mimdus {u-or/J) ; muudane. 

Mimio {I fortify) ; munition, ammunition, muniment. 
Muuus, muneris {gift, share) ; remunerate, immunity. 
Murus {wall) ; mural, intramural. 

Musa {muse) ; music, amuse, museum. Mutilus {maimed) ; mutilate, 
w Muto {I change) ; mutable, mutatif^n, commute, transmute. 
'^ Narro ; nan-ate, narrative. Nasus {nose) ; uasal. 

Nascor, natus sum {I am bom) ; nascent, natal, native, nation, cognate, 

nature, natural. 
Navis {sh ip) ; naval, navigate, navy. Nauta {lailor) ; nautical, nautilus. 
Necesse ; necessary, necessitude, necessity. 

Necto, nexum {I tie) ; connect, annex. Nefas {wicJccdi/css) ; nefarious. 
Nego {I deny); negation, renegade. Nej^otium, {business) ; negotiate. 
Nervus {stritig) ; nerve, enervate. Neuter {tiot cither) ; neuter, neutraL 
Niger {black) ; negro. Nihil {nothing) ; annihilate. 
Noceo (J hurt) ; innocent, noxious, innocuous. 
No-SCO, notum {I knou^ ; no-men {name), no-bilis {noble) ; noun, name, 

nominate, nominal, noble, ignoble, ignominy, note, notation, 

notion, notice. Non {not) ; non-entity, non-age. 
Norma {rule) ; normal, enormous. Novem {nine) ; November. 
Novus {new) ; novel, innovate, renovate, novice. 
Nox, noctis {night) ; nocturnal, equinox. 

Nubo (/ marry) ; nuptial, connubial. Nudufl {naked) ; nude, denude. 
Nullus {none) ; nullity, nullify, annul. 
Numerus {number) ; numeral, enumerate. 

Nuntio (/ announce) ; nuncio, announce, renounce, renunciation. 
Nutrio {Inourish) ; nutritious, nutriment. Nui' ..x, nurse. 
Nyrapha; nympb. Oblivio (from liv-idus) ; oblivion. 
Obliquus; oblique. Obscoenus ; obscene. Obscurus (d»r/r) ; obscure, 
Occulo, oocultuiu (/ hide) ; occult. 
Ocoupo (J lau hold of) ; occupy, occupation. 


Octo {eight) ; octave, octavo, October. 

Ociilus {eye, bud) ; ocular, ofxilist, inoculate. 

Odiiun {hatred) ; odious, oclmm. 

Odor {smell), oleo (/ smell) ; odour, odoroua, redolence, olfactory. 

Officium {duty, businea.s) ; office, officious. Oleum {oil) ; oleaginous 

Omen ; ominous, abominate. 

Omnis {all) ; omnipotent, omnibus {for alt). 

Oi;us, oneris {load) ; onerous, exonerate. Opacus {shaded) ; opaqnet 

Opiunr {I think) ; opine, opinion. Optimus {best); optimist. 

Opto (/ desire) ; option, adopt. Opus, operis {tvork) ; operate. 

Orbis {circle) ; orb, orbit, exorbitant. 

Ordo, ordinis {order) ; ordinate, ordain, ordinary. 

Orior, ortus sum {J rise) ; orient, orifriii, abortive. 

Oro (/ speak) ; orator, oracle, adore, inexorable. 

Os, oris {face) ; oral. Osculor (/ kiss) ; oscillate. 

Ovum {egy) ; oviparous, oval. 

Paciscor, pactus sum {1 make an agree^jtent) ; pact, compact, 

Pagina ; page. Pagus {village) ; j*gan, peasant. 

Pallium {cloak) ; pall, palliate. 

FalloT {paleness) ; palleo. {I am pale) ^ pallor, pallid. Palma; palm. 

Palpo (/ stroke) ; palpable, palpitate. 

Pains {stake) ; pale, palisade, impale. 

Pando, pansum and passura (I spread) ; expand, expanse, compass. 

Pango, pactixm {I fasten) ; compict, impinge. 
Panis {bread) ; pantry. Par {equal) ; parity, peer, compare. 
Parco, parsum (/ spare) ; parsiniony. Pareo {I appear) ; apparent. 
Pario (/ bring forth) ; parent, viviparous. 

Paro {I prepare) ; impair, repair, prepare, compare, comparative. 
Pars, partis {part) : partition, impart, party, particle, participle, parse, 
particular, bipartite. Pasco, pastuui (I feed) ; pasture, repast, 
pastor. Passus {itride, see pando) ; pace. 
Pateo (/ lie open) ; patent. 

Pater {father) ; paternal, patron, patrimony, patrician, patristic. 
Patria {country) ; patriot, expatriate. 
Patior, passus sura {I ■■<uffer) ; patient, passion, passive. 
Pauper (jooor); pauper, pauperism. Pavio (J »-«»*<<](//ii); pave, pavement. 
Pax, pads {peace) ; pacific. 
Pecco (/ sin) ; peccant, impeccable, peccadillo. 
Pectus, pectoris {breast) ; pectoral, expectorate. 
Peculium {private property) ; ppculiar, peculation. 
Pocunia {money) : pecuniary. Peilis {skin) ; peltry. 
Polio, pulsum (i drive) ; compel, repel, repulse, pulse, piilsation. 
Pendeo {I hang), pendo, peusmn, {1 hang or weigh) ; depend, expcndj 
pension, pensive, recompense, pendulum, conijejisate, perpen- 
dicular, pensile. Pene {almost) ; peninsula. 
Penetro (/ pierce) ; penetrate. 

Penuria {waut) ; penuiy, penurious. Perdo (/ lose) ; perdition. 
I'er.'^oua [mask) ; person. 

P(;s, pedis [foot) ; pedal, pf^destrian, impede, expedite, biped. 
Pe.stia {p'ogue) ; pest, pestilence. 
Peto, potitiuu {ask, leek) ; petition, aoaoapete, repeat, appetite. 


Pinfro, pictum (pnint) ; depict, picture, pigment, iHots. 

Pil'i ([ K-ful) ; pillage, compile. Piriois {jisk) ; piijcatory. 

Pius {ditt'/id) ; pious, piety, pity, expiate. 

Placoo {I please) ; placid, placable, complaisant, pleasant. 

Plango ; com-plain, plaint. Planta ; plant, plant;ition. 

Planus (level) ; plane, plain, explain. 

Plaudo (/ clap) ; applaud, applause, plaudit, plausdble. 

Plebs {commonalty) ; plebeian. 

Plecto, plexus (/ tveave) ; complex, perplex. 

Pleo (l Jill), plenus {full) ; plenary, complete, replete. 

Plico {1 fold) ; implicate, apply, application, comply, reply, supplicate, 

su^jpliant, dui)licity,douljle,coniplex, pliable, &ui-piice,accouiplice. 
Ploro (/ u-eep) ; deplore, explore. Pluma ; plume. 
Plumbum {lend) ; plumber, plummet. 
Plus, phiris {more) ; plural, surplus. 

Poena {Jine) ; penal, punitive, punish, repent, penance, penitent. 
Polio ; polish, polite. 

Pondus, pouderis {^weight) ; pound, ponderous, preponderate, ponder. 
Pono, posituin {I place) ; impose, repose, deposit, compound, position, 

component. Pons {/n-ul./e) ; pontoon. 
Populus {people) ; popular, depopulate, public, publish. 
Poivus {/loi/) ; pork. 
Porta {door) ; portal, portico, porthole. 

Porto {/carry); export, portable, support. Port us ; port. 
Possum (J can) ; p 'ssible, potent. 

Tost {it// er); posterity. Postis; post. Postulo {J demand); postulate. 
Prseda {plunder) ; predatory, depredation, prey. 
Pravxis {crooked) ; depraved. 

Precor {J pray) ; deprecate, precarious {depending on entreaty). 
Prehendo {I graap); apprehend, apprehension. 
Premo, pressiun {I presn) ; express. 
Primus {first) ; prime, primitive, primeval, primrose. 
Princeps {prince) ; principal, principle. Pristinus ; pristine. 
Privo 1 1 deprive, make separate) \ deprive, private,«privacy, privy. 
Vvobo {I approve, make good) ; prove, probe, probation, probable, reprobate. 
Probus {honest, good) ; probity. Probrum {a shaiiiejul act) ; opprobrious. 
Promptus, /row promo {ready) ; prompt, promptitude. 
Pronus ; prone. Propago ; propagate. 

Prope {near), proximus {nearest) ; propinquity, proximate, proximity. 
Proprius {one's otcn) ; proper, property, propriety, axjprnpviate. 
Prurio {I itch) ; prurient. Pudor {shame), pudet ; impudent. 
Puer {buy) ; puerile. Pugil {boxer) ; pugilist. 
Pugna {jighl), pugno {Ijiglit) ; puguaciouf, impugn, repugnance. 
Puhno (lungs) ; pulmonary. Pulpa ; pulp. 
Pungo, punctura (i prick) ; pungent, puncture, punctuation, expunge, 

point, appoint. Puppis (tern) \ poop. 
Pupus, pupulus, pupillus {a little boy) ; puppet, pnpD.. 
Purgo (/ cleanse) ; purge, purgatory. 
Purpura ; purple. Purus ; pure, purify. 
Puto (J cut, calculate, think) ; amputate, compute, count, repute, 

depute, putative. Vwiris {rot tpn); putrid, piifrp'; 


Qnaero, qnaesittun (J teeic) ; question, inanire, require, queiy, quest, 
exquisite, inquest. QiVLaiia \pf v>hich kind) ; quality, qualify. 

Quantus {how ffreat) ; quantity. 

Quatio, quassum (cutio, cussum in eompo^atds, I shake or strike) 
quash, percussion, discuss. 

Quatuor {four), quartus {fourth), quadr: (iquare) ; quart, quarto, 
quarter, quadrature, qiiadi-ant, q;i '. tic. 

Queror {/ complain) ; querulous. Quies, quietis (rest) ; quiet. 


Quinque (/tv) ; qixintessence. EatiiiL {red, ray); radius, radiate. 

Radix, radicis {root) ; radish, radical, eradicate. 

Rado, rasum {I scrape) : iriise, razor, ,i!-.. ■ 

Ramus {branch) ', rainiii(;;!tinn. 

Rapio, raptum (/ swafc^.) ; i.ipid, rap; rapacious, ravisli, 

ravage, raven, ravii.ou,-". Jiarus (f/izn) •, -ire, rarefy. 

Ratio {reckoning, calculation, p-roportio.r reason^ ratiocination, rational, 
ration. Jisitiis (r/ckoned, Jixeii . ^ rnii;"y, ,-dte. 

Rego, Tectum {I make stra/{/ht) ; regVi.' , jt, regent, regimen, 

regiment, rector, rectify. 

Rex, regis {king ; not the same n ■ t) ; regal, regicide ! 

Rci.'num; reign, regnant, mtf 

Reperio {I find) ; repertory. Repo \^i. <,rcipj , ^ptile. 

Res (MiM^) ; real, republic. Rete (;2i^) •, reti fi^. reticule. 

Rideo, risum (/ laugh) ; deride, risible, tiviicwle ■ idiculous. 

Rigeo (/ am stiff) ; rigid, rigour. 

Rigo (7 water) ; irrigate, irriguoua. P,itu2 ; rite, ritual. 

RivTis {brook), rivalis {baring the same brocui in comtnon) ; river, rival, 
derive, arrive, rividet. 

Robur {oak, strength) ; robust, corroboraie, 

Rodo, rosum {I gnatc) ; coiTode, corrosion. 

Rogo(/«.vA); arrogate, derogate, rogation, ■^'^rogue. Rosa; rose. 

Rota {wheel) ; rotate, rotary. Rotuncus ; round, rotund, rotundity. 

Rudis {untaught); rude, emdite, rudin ■ Ruga {wrinkle); cor- 


Ruminare {to chew the cud) ; ruminate. Kmnor; rumour. 

Rumpo, ruptum (/ ir«aA;) ; rupture, abruri, oruption, corrupt, bank- 

Ruo (7 rusli) ; ruin. Russatus {dyed r£d) ; vusset. 

Rus, ruris {countn/j ; rustic, nu-al. Saccus ; sack. 

Sacer (s'?('«rf), sacerdos {priest); sacred. '••• rament, sacrifice, conse- 
crate, paeerdotal, sacristan. 

Sagax {knotviiif) ; sage, sagacious, presp" 

Sal ; salt, saliue, salary {properly an aUou)unc^for lalt). 

Salio, salt.inn, i)i compounds, sultiun (7 leap ssiliont, asPail, assault, 
salmon {the leaping _^sh), dtisultory, > .-I'.it, insult, saltatory. 

Sains, salutis {safety) ; salute, salutary. 

Saliiber; salnbiious. Salvus (.stt/c) ; salvation, salve, i^alvo, saviour 

San''io, eanctuin {f consecrate) ; sanction. 

Sanctus {lioly) ; saint, sanctify. 

BangiUH, sanguinis {blood) ; siinguinary, sanguine, consanguinity. 

8auo ( / make sound) ; sanativ** "^natory. 


SauTifl {sound) ; sane, sanity, sanitary. 

Sapio (/ taste, am wise), sapor {taste); savour, sapient, insipid. 

Satelles {attendant) ; satellite. 

Satis {enou(/h), satur {full), satio {Infill) ; satiate, satiety, saturate, 

Scando (/ climb) ; scan, scansion, ascend, descend, condescend. 
Scindo, scissum {I split) ; rescind, abscissa, scissors. 
Scintilla {spark) ; scintillate. 

Scio (/ know) ; science, prescience, omniscience, conscious. 
Scri bo, scriptum {I write) ; scribe, describe, scripture, postscript. 
Scrupulus (a little pebble) ; scruple, scrupulous. 
Scrutor (I examine) ; scrutiny, inscrutable. 

Seco, sectum (/ ctit) ; sect, section, insect, dissect, segment, secant. 
Seculum {at/e, world) ; secular. 
Sedeo, sessum {I sit), sido (/ set), sedo (/ settle) ; session, sedentary, 

sedulous, sediment, assess, possess, preside, subside, assiduous, 

consider, sedate. 
Semi {half) ; semicircle. Senex {old-man) ; senile, senior, senate. 
Sentio {I feel, think), sensus {feeling) ; sentient, scent, sentence, a3sent, 

sense, sensual, sensitive. 
Sepelio {I burp), sepidcrum; sepulture, sepulchre. 
Septem {seven) ; September, septennial. 
Sequester {an umpire) ; sequestrate, sequestered. 
Sequor, secutus (/ follotv), secundus {following) ; sequence, sequel, 

consequent, persecute, second. 
Sero, sertura (/ set in a roiv) ; insert, exert, desert, series, sermon. 
Semen {seed) ; seminary, disseminate. Serus ; sere. 
Servus (»■/(/ re), servio {I serve), ^ervo {I watch or preserve) ; serf, servila, 

servitude, servant, servitor, preserve, observe, deserve. 
Sidus {star) ; sidereal. 

Signum ; sign, signify, signal, resign, design, assignation. 
Sileo {I am sile/it) ; sUent, silence. Silva {wood) ; sylvan. 
Similis {like) ; similar, assimilate, resemble, seiublance, simulate. ' 
Simul {together) ; simultaneous, assemble. Sincerus; sincere. 
Singuli {one by one) ; single, singular. Sinister ; sinister. 
Sinus {bend) ; sine, sinuous. 

Sisto (/ stop, I stand) ; consist, insist, resist, assist. 
Socius {companion) ; social, society. Sol {sun) ; solar, solstice. 
Solemnis {annual, festive) ; solemn. Solidus ; solid, solder. 
SoUicito ; solicit. Solor ; con-sole, solace. 
Solum {ground); soil. Connected perhaps vfith this, is the root sul or 

sil in exsul {exile) ; consul {consul); counsel. The root is really 

identical with sed or sid in sedeo and sido. 
Solus {aloiie) ; solo, solitude. 

Solvo, solutum (/ loosen) ; solve, solution, dissolute. 
Somnus {sleep) ; somnolent. Sopor {sleep) ; soporific. 
Sonus ; sound, sonorous, consonant. Surdes {dirt) ; sordid. 
Spargo, sparsum (/ strew) ; sparse, disperse. 
Spatium ; space, spacious, expatiate. 
Specio. spectum (/ look), species {appearance, kind) ; special, speciovw, 

respect, aspect, spectetor, speculate, despise, suspicion. 


Spemo (/ reject) ; spurn. Spero (/ fiope) ; despair, desperate. 
Spiro {I breathe), spiritus {breath) ; spirit, aspire, conspii-e. 
Splendeo {I shine) ; splendour, splendid. Spolium; spoil, spoUntion. 
Spondeo, sponsum (/ promise, bargain) ; sponsor, spouse, respond, 

response, despond. StagTius {standing) ; sta.gnant, stagnate. 
Stella {star) \ constellation, stellar. Sterilis ; sterile. 
Stemo, stratum (/ throw down, spread) ; prostrate, consternation. 
S)i\\\si (drop) ; distil. Stilus; style. Stimulus {goad); stimulate. 
Stipendium (pay) ; stipend, stipendiary. Stirps {root) ; extirpate. 
Sto, statum \l stand) ; station, stature, stable, distant, obstacle, super- 

stition, armistice, substance, substantive. 
Statuo {I set up) ; statue, statute, constitute. Strenuus ; strenuous. 
Stririgo, strictum {I tighten) ; strLug-ent, strain, constrain, strict, strait. 
Strangulo {I strangle). 

Struo, structum {I pile up) ; construct, destroy, destruction, construe. 
Studium {zral, eagerness), studeo {I am eager); study, studtnt. 
Stupeo ' ' am amazed) ; stupid. 
Suadeo, snasum (/ advise) ; suasion, persuade. 

Sublimis {raised aloft) ; sublime, sublimate. Subtilis ; subtile, subtle. 
Sudo (/ sweat) ; exude. 
Sum {lam), root es, ens ^eing); entity, present, absent. Futurus {about 

to be) ; future. Hummus {highest); oum, summit, consummate. 
Sumo, sumjjtura ( I fitJce) ; assume, consum.e, cousumption. 
Super {above), HU-perus {upper), ciupremus {highest); superior, supreme, 

supernal. Supitiup {mi the back) ; supine. 
Surgo, surrectum (/ rise) ; surge, resurrectifm, insurrection. 
Tabula {board) ; table, tablet, tabular, tabidate. 

Taceo {Jam silent) ; tacit, reticence, taciturn. Tlii(iAmra.{disgust) ; tedious. 
Tango, tactum {I touch) ; tact, contact, tangible, contagion, coutiguous, 

attain, pertain, attach. Taxo ; tax, taxation. 
Tardus {slow) ; retard, tardy. 

Tego, tectum (/ cover) ; protect,, integument, detect. 
Temere {rasJily) ; temerity. Temuti {I despise) ; contemn, contempt. 
Tempero {I moderate) ; temperate, temper. 
Templum ; temple, contemplate. 
Tempus, temporis {time) ; temporal, temporary, tense. 
Tendo, tensum (/ stretch) ; contend, intend, tense, intense, tension. 
Teneo, tentum (/ hold) ; tenant, tenure, tenaceous, tenour, retain, con- 
tain, content, retinue, tendril, continuous. Tener ; tender. 
Tento or tempto (/ try) ; tempt, atteinpt, temptation. 
Tenuis {thi)t) ; tenuity. Tepoo {1 am warm) ; tei^id. 
Terminus {houndory) ; term, terminate, exterminate, detennine. 
Tcro, tritum (/ rub) ; trite, contrition, attrition, detriment. 
Terra {earth) ; terrestrial, terrene, inter, terrier, terrace. 
T(-rreo {I frighten) ; terrify, terrible, ten-or, deter. 
Testis {witness) ; testify, testimony, attest, detest, protest. 
Texo, textum (/ weave) ; text, context, texture, textile. 
Timeo {I fear) ; timid. Torpeo (/ am numb) : torpid. 
Torquco, tortum {I twitt) ; torsion, contort, contortion, torture, torment. 
Torn '1, tostum (/prtrcA) ; torrid, toast. Totus {whole) ; total. 
Tralio, tractum (/ draw) ; tracto (/ handle) ; treat, tract, contxaot, 

attract, tractable, traoiate. Tranqiiillus; tranqulL 

kPfmcDix. 255 

Tremo (/ tremblt) ; tremonr, txemiilouB, tremendona. 

Trepido {lam in disorder); trepidation. 

Tres, tria (three) ; trefoil, trident, ti-inity. Tribuo {I assign); tribute. 

Tribus; tribe, tribune. Triuniphus ; triuTupli. 

Trudc.trusuin (/ thriint) ; extrude, intrusion. Truncuij; trunk, truncated 

Tueor {I protect) ; tuition, tutor. 

Tumeo (I swell) ; tumid, tumour, tumult, contumely, tomb. 

Tuber (a swelliii'i) ; protuberance, tubercle. 

Tundo, tusum (/ t/uiinp) ; coiitusiun. 

Turba (mob) ; turbulent, turbid, disturb. Tui*pfs (foul) ; turpitude. 

Uber (udder), exuberant. Ubirjue (everywhere) ; ubiquity. 

Ulcus, ulceris (.iore) ; ulcer, ulcera tiou, 

Uitra (beijontt), ulterior (further), iiltimus (ft^rt/ief-t) ; idterior, ultimate, 

penult. JJuxhva, (fi/iade) ; umbi<«riH, umbrag-eous, umbrella. 
Uncia (a tivclfth part) ; ounce, inch, uncial, unci;ay. 
Unguo, unctum (/ unoiiit) ; ungTient, ointment, unction. 
Uuda {wave), undare (to rise in waves) ; abound, redound, abundant, 

Unus (one); union, unity, unit, triune, uniform, universe, universal, 

TJrbs (cily) ; urban, urbane, suburb. 
Urgeo (I press); urge, urgent. Uma ; um. 
Uro, ustum (/ burn) ; combustion. 

Utor, usus sum (/ use) ; use, usage, utility, usury, usurp. 
Uxor (wife) ; uxorious. Vacca (cow) ; vaccine, vaccination. 
Vaco (1 am lowccupied) ; vacant, vacation, vacate, vacuum, evacuate. 
Vado, vasum (7 170) ; invade, evade, invasion, wade. 
Vagor (/ wandtr), vagus (wandering) ; va^ue, vagrant, vagabond, 

Valoo (I am strong) ; valid, valoui-, value, avail, prevail, prevalent, 

Vallis ; vale, valley, Vallus (stake) ; rsirnumvallation. 
Vanus (emptg) ; vain, vanity. Varius , various, variegate. 
Vapor (steam) ; vapour, evaporate. Vas (pot) ; vessel, vascular. 
Vastus (desolate) ; vast, vraste, devastate. 
Veho, vectum (I carry) ; convey, convex, inveigh, vehicle. 
Velio, vulsum (I pluck) ; convulse, revulsion. 
Velum (covering) ; veil, reveal, develop, envelop. Vena ; vein. 
Vendo (7 sell) ; vend, venal. Venenum (poinon) ; venom. 
Veneror (7 icorship) ; venerate, revere. 
Venio, ventnrn (7 come) ; convene, venture, convent, advent, prevent, 

revenue, convenient, covenant. 
Venter (belly) ; ventral, ventriluqmst. Ventus (wind) ; ventilate. 
Verbum (ivoi^) ; verb, verbal, j)rovevb. 

Vei'go (7 incline) ; verge, converge. Vermis (ivo7-m) ; vermicular, vermin. 
Verto, versum (I turn) ; verso (I turn); verse, ver.sion, convert, divorce, 

adverse, advertise, perverse, universe, vortex, vertical. 
Verus (true) ; verity, verify, aver. 
Vcstis (garment) ; T<est, vesture, vestry, 'aveet. 
Vetus (old) ; inveterate, veteran. 
Vezo (7 iMrass) ; vex, vexation. Vi'iro; vibrate. 



Via (road) ; deviate, obviate, pervious, trivial. 

Vicia (change) ; vicissitude, vicar, vicarious, viceroy. 

Vicinus (neiglthour) ; vicinity. 

Video, visum (/ see) ; visible, vision, provide, revise, visage, prudence, 

providence, survey, invidious, envy. 
VUis {cheap) ; vile, vilify. Villa {country honse)\ villa, -vdllage. 
Vinco, victum (/ conqxer); victor, vanquish, victim, con \'ince, convict. 
Vindex [avenger) ; vindicate, vindictive. 

Vir {man), virtus {manliness) ; virtue, virago, triumvir, virile. 
Vis {Jorce) ; violent. Viscus ; viscera, eviscerate. 
Vita {life) ; vital. Vitiiim {faid!) ; vice, vicious, vitiate. 
Vitrum (glass) ; vitreous, vitrify, -vitriol. 
Vivo, victum (/ live) ; revive, vilify, vivacious, victuals. 
Voco (/ ea'l), vox {roice) ; voice, vocnl. vocntion, invocate, convoke^ 

provoke, vowel, vooabiil; v. Yvlo {T Jig) ; volatile. 
Volo (J '.fill) ; voluntary, volunteer, benevolent, volition. 
Volupis {-Jelightfnl) ; voluptuous. 

Volvo, volutum [I roll) ; revolve, volume, revolution, voluble, volute. 
Vomo; I vomit. Voro (/ dci'our) ; voracious, devour, carnivorous. 
Voyeo, vottim (/ voic) ; vote, votive, votary, devote, devout. 
V^uigus {conwon people)' vnls-a*, 'Uvulge, vog^e, vuIgate. 
Vulnus {u-ound); viil'«>rat>lft. 

list of the principal Greek Words Derivatives from which 

have been adopted into English. 
AyjfAof (angelos, ntexsei<(/er) ; angel, evaiigelist. 
Ayius {sacreJ) ; hagiology. Ayw/ri {h-itdiwj) ; synagogne. 
Kya)v [fitrugjlc) ; agony, autagonidt. A5a/ia$ {^•iteel) ; adamant, diamond. 
hrip {(iir) ; aeronaat, aerc-tiition. AdAoy [conte-'^t) ; athlete, athletic. 
Aiflnp {fkij) ; ether, ethereal. Ai^ [Olood) \ haemorrhage. 
Aitiyixa {ri:(U<) \ enigma. A'lprims {choice) ; h^ rosy, heretic 
AiffflTXTij {perccpiion) \ aesthetif:s. A»co5^/u«ia ; academy. 
Ak/iij [point); acme. Axo\ojdf<» [I follow); aci>lyte c//- acolyth. 
Akoucct {I hear) ; acoustics. AKpoao/xai (I listen) ; acroauiatic 
AKpos {fop) ; acroiiolis. AAAoi [other) ; allopiithy. 
AAAtjAoi {one uiiotner) ; parallel. KKfa (a) ; ulpuabet. 
An<pi {on both sides) ; amphibious, amphitheatre. 
Aj/f^oj {wind) ; anemometer. hyQoi {flower) ; anthology. 
kvBpa^ ['oal); anthracite. AvSpuvos {man); anthi'oiU)Ioi'-\ , philanthropy. 
A^iw/ta {claim, diinand) ; axiom. ApKros {bear) ; mii t:c. 

AptB/ios {iitiml/ir) ; arithmetic. Apiaros {best) ; aiiistocraoy. 
'Apuovta ; harmony. Aprripitt ; artery. 
Apxv {rule, beg i, ruing) ; monarch, archangel, architect. 
AcTKFw {I exerci-fij ; ascetic. Acrrrjp {star) ; astral, asteroid, astronomy. 
Aa> (I breathe) : asthma, atmosphere. Avtos {^elj) ; autograph, autocrat. 
Ba\Aa) (/ Ihrotc), /3 lAij, QKruui; hj^perbole, paral;.", emblem, symboL 
BaiTTbi, jSoTTifa) ; b;iptize. Bo/^/3opos {not Grec-i:) : l':irbaruus. 

Bapos {weight. ; barometer. Bcwrtf {trending,-: ,' '',; ; base, basis. 
Ri&Mov {book) ; Bible, bibJ ^yole. Bios (/(/«); Li.i,;.;i; p:iy, amphibioue. 
B\oo-4)j)/iia ; blasjiliomy. 6 anBu^ {silk-worm) ; L'jiiii.'aziuo. 
BoTavT? [grans) ; botany. ^oyx"^ {windpipe) ; bronchitis. 

Til {earth) ; apogee, geoj; ,, geology. ra\a {ini'k); galaxy. 
To/ttoj {marriage) ; bigamy. Taa-rvp \helhj) ; gastric, gastronomy. 
Tivos {race) ; gaivii: logy. Tiyas ; giant, gigantic. 
VKaiaaa {tongue); gloss,;:' ■ '.ry. TKoqiu {carve); hieroglyph ia 
Vv^p-wv {pointer); gnom .3'siognomy. 

rpaipoo {I write); gramii. '"^graph, graphic, paragraph. 

Tuixva^ai {I exercise) ; g^.nOJiastic. • ruvrj {woman) ; mi.sogynoxis. 
AuKTuAoj {Jiu'jcr) ; dact ^aifioav {divinity) ; demon. 

Aei>jua {pointiti(i); par Ae.fa ''«♦»"); decalogue. 

Afvlpov {tree) ; dendi-ol ^Tr)nn% {peopte) ; democracy. 

Aiaira {xvay of lit'iiif/); AiSotcrKw {I teacii); didactic 

Ai7rAct/Ao [nnythiigfoldi ma. C:ioypia. {opinion); dogma, dogmatio 

Ao^a [opinion, glory); 1 jdoxology. 

Atjou) [1 act) ; drafitic, ■ Apo/xus [running) ; hippodrome. 

Auiauis {power); dyn;i i-«ty. 'E5pa [seat); catlieJraL 

K0VOS {race); ethnic. 1. imology. EQos {custojn); ethica. 

Ei5oj ^form); kaleidoicope ^, inlaid, &c. 

EiSuKov {iwage): idol. ido<dtry, EtKcov {image); iconoclast. 
Etowfiia [disimulatiir, irony EA.««rTiKos {that may Oe driven); elastio. 
E\eT]fioffvvTj {pity)\ eieerxi&iy^iary. 'EKKw [Greek); Hellenio. 
'Ey [one); h}T)hen- Zv:>oy viithin); endogejious. 
Krrcpa {etitraib); dybCQieo. '£{ {sir^; hexagon. 

Ef» (outsidfi) ; exoteric. 'Eirra {seven) ; heptarchy. 
Ep'iov {icork); energy, raetalliagy. 
Fpvfi-os {solitary) ; eremite, henmt. 

V.repos {other); heterodox, heterogeneous. Ervfios (true); etymology 
V.v [well); eulogy, euphony. Ex<» {I hold); epoch. 
Za)j.T; {(jirdle) ; zone. Zoioj/, ^«5ioy .animal) ; zoology, zoophyte, zodiac. 
'^•■Yt\ais {leadimj); exege.'^is. MKnirpov {atnher); electricity. 
'HAioy {sun) ; heUacal, heliotrope. 'H/xepa {day) ; ephemeraL 
"Hai {half); hemisphere. 'Hp«i; hero. 
f^X'7. '7X« {f^ound) ; echo, catecliize. 
©soo/inj {I behold); theatre, theory, th-^orem. 

©ai'/ia {wonder); tliauma trope. 0«os [God); theology, theism, enthusiast. 
©ep.uos {heat); thermometer, isothermal. 
eijiaiTi-jQi {I heal); therapeiiticw. 

©«<r.y, diiJLa {pkunng); anatheiaa, antithesis, epitliet, theme. 
05JK77 ij'ox) ; hypothecate, apothecary. ®vp.oi {mind) ; enthymeme. 
I3fa [form); idea. 

iSior (jpecw/iVcr); <5iwTi)y, i5iai/^a; idiom, idiot, idiosyncrasy. 
'Upos [sacred); hiei-arch, hieroglyi^hic. 'Wapos {cheerful); hilarity. 
'lirnos {horse); Pliilip, hippopotamus. 

I(7or [fqual); isomoi-phous, isoclironous, isosceles (irKeXojinleg). 
'\(TTopia {itivesligation); history, atory. IxQus {fish); ichthyology. 
MaX^M {I call); (KK\i)aia; ecclesiastic. 

KaXoi {beautiful) ; koXKos {beauty) ; calligraphy, calotype, oalisthenio. 
KaXuTTTui {I hide) ; apocalj'jise. Ka-apos {pure) ; cathartic. 
KaKos {bad) ; cacophonous. Kcwaii' [rule) ; canon, canonicaL 
KavcTTiKos {burnt/If/) ; caustic. Kevrpoy {point.) ; centre. 
K\:fxa {.s/ope) ; climate. K\ifj.a^ {ladder) ; climax, climaoterio. 
KAij/tt [I briiil) ; incline, enclitic. Koivos {common); epicene. 
Ko-)x») [cockle) ; conchology. 

Kucr^os (tt'or^rf); cosmical, microcosm. Koni\r7ii {long-haired); comeL 
Kpwiov {skull); cranium. Kparoj {strength) ; autocrat, democrat. 
Kpivu {I judjc) ; Kpiffn, KpiriKo's ; critic, crisis, hypocrisy. 
KpucrraWos (ice); crystal. KpuirTci) {F hide); apocrypha, crypt. 
Ki'kAos (Circle); cycle, cycloid, cyclopseclia. 

KuXiyopos {roller); cylinder. KvBos; cube. Kvtav{dog); cynic. 
KvptaKos (belonging to the Lord); church. Ka)/tof {festivity); encomium. 
Kwvos; cone. Atytt (sat/, choose); eclectic. 

Ae^ts (speech) ; lexicon, dialect. Aafj^avw (I take) ; epilepsy, syllable. 
Ainrai {I leave) ; ellipse, eclipse. A«jx'?*'> lichen. 
\fiToj (belonging to the people) ; liturgy. 
AiBos (stone) ; lithography, lithic. 
Aojos (speech, reason); logic, dialogue, syllogism. 
At'(jo; lyre, lyric. Avod (loosen) ; paralysis. Moyot; Magian, magio 
Mtt/cpoy (tow//); macrocosm. Madrina (/earning); mathematics. 
Maprus (wittiess) ; martyr. MeAas (black) ; melancholy. 
MfAos (tune); melody. KfraWov; metal. 

MfTpoy (measure) ; meter, barometer. Mtjttjp (mother) ; metropolis. 
MTixayT) (contrivance); mechanics. Mioii'io (1 pollute); miasma. 
KiKpoi (small) ; microscope. Mijuas (imitator) ; mimic. 
Murof (hatred) ; misanthrope. MyrifiMv (remembering) ; mnemonio. 

APi>Bin>nc 259 

Movos {o>ihj) ; monarch, monogamy, TnonotLei«m. Movaxos : monk. 

Mop<j>r] (form) ; amorijhous. Kuarripta; mystery. 

Noi/j (aliip); nautical, nausea (sea-.sicknt-ss). 

NapKou (I benumb); narcotic. KfKpos (dead); necropolis, necromancy, 

Neoj [new) ; ijfeology, neophyte. Kivpoy {string, nerve) ; neuralgia. 

NTjaoj (island) ; Polyuesia. 

No/ws (liiw) ; antinomian, astronomy, gastronomy. 

NoiTos (disease) ; nosology. OB^^ktkos ; obelisk. 

'OSos (w"i/)\ exodus, method, period. Oikos (/toiise); economy. 

OtKifffis (dictllinr/) ; otKem (J inhabit) ; dJocCfie, 0( cinneiiicai. 

'Ot^os (wliole); catholic, holocaust. 'O/toios (li/je); homoeopathy. 

'Ofios (.srtwie); homogeneous. 

Ovofia, ovvftja. {name) ; synonymous, patronymic. 

Ofus {sharp) ; oxygen, paroxysm. 

OwTJKOs {belonjixg to siglit); optics, synopsis. 'Opate {I see); panorama. 

Opyavov {instrtiment) ; organ. OpSos (ylmight) ; ort};odox, orthogTaphy. 

'Opi^w {I dejitie); horizon, aorist. Opyn {bi/d); ornithology. 

Op<pavos ; orphan. Opxr)<^Tpa {dancing-place) ; orchestra. 

OffTiov (hone) ; osteology. O^u {scrpetit) ; ophicieide. 

0<p6a\pLos {eye) ; ophthalmia. T\a\aios {'mcient) ; palaeography. 

Ticw (all) ; pantheism, pantomime. Ilai' {Pan) ; panic. 

Uados {suffering, affection) ; pathos, sjTnpathy, pathetic. 

noij {boy) ; paedagogue. Tlavriyvpis {assembly) ; panegyric. 

riajSfio (instruction) ; cyclopaedia. narea* (7 v"i/c) ; peripatetic 

navffis {stopping) ; -pavLse. [leipa (trinl) ; empirical. 

Ueine (jive) ; pentagon. UevrrtKocrroi (fiftieth) ; pentecost. 

ncToAov (leaf) ; petal. Tier pa (rock) ; petrify, Peter. 

neiro) {di:/est) ; dyspeptic. 

UXaffiTu (I mould, daub), vXaoTiKos; plastic, plaster. 

XWav-qr fi\ {wandering) ; planet. nAijcro-w (strike) ; apoplexy. 

Uoifo) (j ma/i-e) ; poet. Uohtfjuii (war); polemic. 

Xlo\os (bowl, pole) ; pole, polar. 

no\is (city); polity, policy, metropolis. 

noAuj (many), polygon, polygamy, poljrtheism. 

no/x-mi (procession) ; pomp, pompous. Tlovs (foot) ; antipodes, tripod. 

Upaa-'u (I do) ; practice, pragmatical. 

np(9BvTfpo$ (elder) ; presbyter, prester, priest. 

Upiona (something sawn) ; prism. T\p<uros (first) ; prototype. 

riTWjua (fill) ; symptom. Hup {fire) ; pyrotecluiics, empyrean. 

riaiAeu) (J sell) ; monopoly. 

'P«fl» {Ijlow), Pivfj-a; catnrrh, rheum, rheumatic. 

'PrtfvvpLi {I break); cataract. "Pr,r'jL'p (orator); rhetoric. 

'? IS (nose); rhinoceros. 'PvOfios (nieasin-ed motion); rhythm. 

'^ap^ (flesh); sarcophagus. lapKa^ai (I tear the flesh); sarcastic 

IBevvvfii (I extinguish); asbest/ ■;. ^tipwv (tube); siphon. 

SiTos (food); parasite. 'SKauSaKop (stumbling-block); scandal. 

Skijvtj (tent, stage) ; scene. 2,Ki]-KTpov (staff) ; sceptre. 

ZKOTTfo) (I look), VKo-rros ; episcopal, bishop, scope, telescope, microscopb, 

^woM (I draw); spasm. l,Treptia (seed), ffiropa; spermatic, sporadic 

ZiTfipa (coil) ; spire, spiral. 

iTutris (standing) ; apostasy, ecstasy, system. 

trtWo) (I despatch); epistle, apostle. ' 'Zrevos (narrow): stenography. 


2t«p«oj {solid); stereoscope, stereotype. 

2Tiy/j.a {brand) ; stigma, 2tix9s {^tne) ; distich, acrostic. 

^-rparos {orniy) ; strategy. 2,rpo<j>ri {turninr;) ; catastrophe, apostrophe 

1uKo% {Ji<i) ; sycophant. 2<^c.ipa (/;«//) ; sphere. 

Itpvi^w {J tJirofi) ; asphyxia. ^x^M" {form, make); scheme. 

-X'^"* {^divide); schism. ^x'l^r) {leisure); school, scholar. 

Tuipos {ium/i) ; epitaph. Ta^is {arrangcmnit); syntax. 

Tovos {stretching, pitvli); tone, touio, monotony. 

VofHT) {cnttiny); atom, epitome, entomology. 

Tiuxoi {iiiiplemeiit, book); peutateuch. 

TT}Ki {Jar ij/') ; tilescopc, teleg-ruph. 

Toirus {place); topography, toiiic. Tpottos {turnitig); tropic, trope. 

Tviros {siiupc) ; type. Tupavvos ; tyrant. 

"Cypos {;; hygrometer. 

'TScop {water) ; dropsy, hydrate, hydrostatics, hydrogen, hydi'ophohia. 

'yjj-vos ; hj'mn, anthem. "tirvos {sleep) ; hypnotic. 

'TffTfpos {wum/j) ; hysteria, hysti rical. 

*a7« (/ fc«i) ; sarcophagus. / 

<Patyw {I shoiv) ; plienoiuenon, phantom, phase, 

'^apiJ.aKov {drug) ; pharmacy. 

't'fpci) (/ bear) ; pliosphorus, metaphor, 

^p.1 {[ say) emphasis, prophecy. ^QoyfT) {voice, vowet) ; diphthong 

*eio-(i {wasting) ; phthisic. *tAoy {fond of) ; philosophy, Phdip. 

<P\e^s {vein); phlebotomy. 

i'Keyfj.a {iiifawination, slimy humour) ; phlegm. 

<PoBos {fear); hydrophobia. ^payna, {fei'Ce); diaphragm. 

^patris {saying) ; phrase. ipy}u {mind); phrenology, 

^uffis {natnr(t) ; physics, physiology. 4>utoi' ( plant) ; zoophyte. 

iiDvn {voice); phonetic, phonography. *«$ {liyitt); photography. 

Xaoi {empty space); chaos. XapaKTTjp {somethivg engraved); cliaracter. 

Xopty {tlianks) ; eucharist, Xeip {hand) ; chirography, chiromancy. 

XiAioi {thousand) ; kilogramme. 

Xinaipa {a falialuus monster); chimerical. Xo\7) {bile); melancholy. 

Xof5pf>j {cartilage of the breast) ; hypochondriac, 

Xo/^07j {string) ; chord, Xupos {dance) ; chorus, choir. 

Xpovs {time); chronology. Xpia {I anoint) ; Christ, Christian. 

Xpttiixa {colour); achromntic. Xi/yuos, x"^os {juice); chpiie, chyle, 

Xtup'S {place); chorography, VoAA.a) {I play tlie lyre); psalm, 

^ev5os {falsehood); pseudoijyra, "VvxV {'^<"d) ; psychology. 

Clh] {song) ; ode, monody, parody, nv, ovtos {being) ; ontology, 

'Clpa {hour); horology, horoscope, Claixos {thrusti)ig); endosmose. 

The above list does not includo a large mimber of scientific 
terms cin])l()yed in Ijotany, niedicino, zoology, &c. 

The I'ullowing table of tlie Greek alphabet is inserted for the 
use of those who are unacquainted with the Greek character : — 

A, ai=a. B, /3=rb. r, 7 =: g. A, 5 = d. E, t = 6, Z, ^=:z, 
H, T) = 6. 0, := th. I, I = i. K, /c = k or c. A, A = L 
M, M ^ m. N, v = n. H^ f =: X. O, = 6. FI, tt =: p, P, p =: r. 
2, 0- := s. T, T == t. T, u ^ u. *, 4) =1 ph. X. X ^= ch. 
V, i(i =: pa. XI, 01 = o. 


Miscellaneous Words adopted from Foreign Languages 

French. — Beau, belle, bon-mot, bouquet, consje, depot, eclat, ennui, 
envelope, foible, naive, environs, etiquette, penchant, picquct. 
soiree, toilette, trousseau, &c. 

Italian. — Akimbo, alarm (all' arme), alert (all' erta, from Lie. 
erectua), ambassador [uUiniately from the Godiie andbalits, ' ser- 
vant '), avast {It. basta), bass [Lat. basi^us, \fat, squat '), bassoon, 
baluster {ruljarly banister), balustrade, bandit [root 'ban'), 
bravo, brig'ade, brigand, brigantine, brocade, bronze, burlesque, 
bust, cameo, cannon ('« great tiwe,' from Lnt. canna), canto, can- 
teen, cape {from caput), caper {J'rom Lat. caper), captain, caravel, 
caricature (' an exagyeratiou,' from caricare, ' to load '), cartel, 
cartoon {Lat. carta; cartone = ^rt>y« or thick paper, pasteboard), 
charlatan, citadel, companion {* a comrade,' one who shares your 
Orend, from con and panis), concert, concerted {probably from con- 
certare), conversazione, cosset {It. casiccio, ' a lamb brought up by 
hand in the house'), cupola, ditto, dilettante, dombio, dram, 
farrago {mixed food, from 'far'), folio, fresco, gabion, gala, 
gallant, garnet, gazette, granite, gondola, grate, grotto, liarle- 
quin, improvisatore, incognito, influenza, inveigle, lava, lupine, 
macaroni, manifesto, madrigal, mezzotint, motto, opera, paladin, 
pantaloon, piazza, palette, parapet {from petto, ' the breast '), 
parasol, pigeon (piccione), pilgrim (pelegriuo, />'ow peregi'iuus), 
pistol, policy {of insurance, &c., polizza, a corruption of polypty- 
ohiun, 'a memorandum book of many leaves'), porcupine (ijorco- 
Bpino),^ portico, proviso, regatta, scaramouch, sketch, soprano, 
stanza, stdetto, stucco, studio, tenor, terra-cotta, torso, umbrella, 
virtue, virtuoso, vis'.a, volcano. 

Spanish. — Alligator (el lagarto), armada, baiTicade, battledore 
(batador), caparison, capon, cargo, caracole (caracol, 'a winding 
staircase'), castanets, chocolate, cigar, clarion, clarionet, cochi- 
neal, cork (corcho,/rom cortex), Creole, desperado, discard, dismay 
(desma)'ar, ^ to faint'), don, duenna, embargo, embarrass, filigree, 
filibuster, flotilla, grandee, jade (ijada, ' tlic Jianks,' ijadear, ' to 
pant'), javelin {a boar-spear, from jabali '■wild boar'), jennet, 
lawni (lona, transparent texture'), mulatto, negro, pamphlet {per' 
haps from papclete, '■a note'), pawn (peoue, ' a lilmurer'), pedestal, 
pillion, pint (pinta, '« mark'), platinum, punctilio, renegade 
(corrupted into runagate), savannah, sherry (Xeres), tornado, 

Portug-uese. — Caste, cocoa, commodore (commendador), fetish, man- 
darin (mandar, ' to have authority '), marmalade (marmelo 
'quince'), palaver {derived from parabola 'parable '), porcelain. 

Dutch. — Boom, sprit, reef, schooner, skate, sloop, stiver, talt'rail. 
yacht (jas:hteu, ' to chase '). 


Arabic. — Admiral {properly amniiral), alchemy, alcohol (al-kohl, 
^thejiue powder of antinwni/'), alembic, algebra (al-gr-br, ' union or 
eombwatinn '), alkali, almanac, amber, amulet, arrack (araq, 
• sweat '), assassin {eater of hashish), azimuth, cadi, caliph, 
camphor, carat, cipher, coffee, cotton, dragoman, elixir, eiiiir, 
fakir, gazelle, giraffe, harem, hazard, jar, lute, magazine, mame- 
luke, minaret, monsoon, moslem, mosque, mufti, mummy, nadir, 
naphtha, salaam, simoom, sirocco, sofa, sugar, sultan, syrup, talis- 
man, tamarind, vizier, zonith, zero. 

Hebre-w. — Abbot, amen, behemoth, cabal, cherub, ephod, hallelujah, 
hosanna, jubilee, levintlian, manna, sabbath, seraph, shibboleth. 

Persian. — Azure, balcony, bashaw or pasha, bazaar, caravan, check- 
mate (shahmat, ' li'^g dead'), chess, dervish, hookah, jackal, lilac, 
musk, orange, paradise, scimitar, shawl, sherbet, talTota, turban. 

Hindustani — Buggy, bungalow, calico, chintz, chutnee, coolie, 
cowrie, curry, jung-le, lac, mulligatawny, nabob, pagoda, palan- 
quin, pariah, punch, pundit, rajah, rupee, sepoy, suttee, toddy. 

Chinese. — Bohea, caddy, congou, gong, hyson, junk, nankeen, pekoe, 

Malay — Amuck, bamboo, caoutchoac, gutta-percha, orang-outang, 

Turkish. — Bey, chibouk, janissary, sash, tuJ'p, seraglio. 

Polynesian. — Taboo, tattoo, kangaroo. 

North and South American Indian.- Condor, hammock, lama, 
maize, mocassin, pampas, pemmican, potato, squaw, tobacco, 
tomahawk, tomata, wigwam. 
Most of the words in this section will be found in the lists given by 

Dr. Adams, Dr. Angus, Mr. Bain, &c., and are treated in detaU in 

the beet etyniological dictionaries, especially those by Wedgwood, 

Mailer, and Stormonth. 

[See Anglo-Saxon numerals, p. 231. J 

Thf numerals o»«, two, and f/irce were the most fully declined; those 
ivom. four to twelve being partially declined. 

The syllable lif in endlif (Gothic ainlif) and twelf is in reality a 
word meaning ten, and is another form of tig. (Instances of the 
interchange of I with d or t, and of a guttural with b ot v are not 
uncommon. Compare odor with oho in Latin; Incrima with B6.Kpu\ 
flans with 0i\ayos ; the pronunciation of launh with its spelling, &o.) 
Eleven is therefore one -\- ten^ twelve ia two -\- ten. 



The referenee$ {except in a few instances) are to the paragraph* of 
the Grammar, 

A., various sounds of, 16 

feminine sxifiix, 45 

weakened forni ot on, 123 
note, 267, 268 

adverbial prefix, 267, 268 

feminine sufiix, 45 

short form of an, 122 

for he, 141 note 
Absolute nominative and objective, 

282 , 372 o 
Accent, 26 

kinds of, 26 

Teutonic, 27 

French, 27 

influence of, 27 

distingiiislies verbs from 
nouns, 339 
Accusative, see Objective 
Accusative case replaced by dative, 

83 note 
Active voice, 185, 186 

conjugation of, 257 
Adjective, definition of, 85, 86 

not a name, 86 note 

used attributively, 87, 362, 471 

used predicatively, 87, 391 

ttst, 87 

not used as subject or object, 

qualitative, 90 

quantitative, 91 

demonstrative or definitive, 98 

pronominal, 98 

used Bubiitautivelj, 99, 100 

Adjective become substantive, 101 
iuflected, 103, App. A 
uuinliected, 102 
comparison of, see Positive, 

Comparative, Superlative 
compound, 302 
derived, 317 
Adjective clause, 362, 401, 408, 

Adverbs, iefinition, 259, 260 

classification of, 265 
simple, 262 
conjunctive or relative, 262, 

264, p. 116 note 
di&'er from conjunction, 263, 

compound. 271, 290, 304 
derived, 267, 268, 289, 270 
■with suffix, omitted, 269 note f 
identical in form with preposi- 
tions, 271 
of afBjmation and negation, 

after prepositions, 273 
used attributiveiy, 362 
used for relative pronoun, 

comparison of, 274-276 
Adverbial relation, 371 

adjuncts. 369 note, 371-376 
clauses, 414-440, 524-^32, 647- 

suffixes. 267-270 
After, 281, 289 note 



Alms, 60 

Alphabet, 11, 13 

An, see Indefinite Artirle 

Analysis of sentences, V.Yoa, &o, 

examples of, 494-r)72 
ATid, 287, 283 

joLiiing the mem' .-rs of a com- 
pound subject, 386 note, 387 
Angles, p. 1 
Anglian dialects, p. 2 
Anglo-Saxon, p. 2 

characteristics of, p. 2 
alphabet, 12 
accidence, App. A 
words and forma, App. B, 
App. C. 
Anteeedi^iit to relative, 146, 473, 
omitted, 160 
Any, 91, 170 
.■^.poistrophe in possessive case, 70, 

71, 73, 74 
Apposition, 362, 460, 461 
Articles, 120, see luderniite Article 
and Definite Article 
position with such, to, and too, 

repetition of, 472 
Aryan languages, p. 1 
As, adverb, 264 note, 290, 548, 551, 
552, obi, 555,558, 561-572 
used for relative pronoun, 167 
Aspirated mutes, 20 
Attributive relation, 360 

adjuncts, 362-365, 369 note, 

adjuncts, position of, 365 
adjuncts, definitive and de- 
scriptive, 365c 
Anght, 1G'.» 
Auxiliary verb, see Verb 

Be, conjugation of, 250, 226 8, 

a test verb, 252 

verb of incomplete predica- 
tion, 391 

ben, bin, p. 87 note 
Because, 2lUe 
Bet ore, 281, 2S8<t, 289 note 
Better, bo.«t, 114, 276 
Botli, 97. 288A 
Bridejrroom, derivation of, 45 

Britons, language of, p. 1 

Brothers, brethren, 55 

But. p. 108 note, 2834, 288c, 289 

note, 502, 605 
By, 284 

Can, could, 242 
Case, definition, 63, 64 

number of cases in English, 83 

number of cases in Anglo- 
Saxon, p. 2, 64 note, App. 

nominative, tee Nominative 

possessive, see Possessive case 

objective, see Objective case 

endings. 61, 70, 72, 73, 75, 77 
Celtic, see Keltic 
Classical element in English, App 

Classification of words and form.s. 

Cognate objective, 372 
< ,'ol lateral sentences, 449, 450 
Comma, use of, 479-484 
Comparative degree, 106, 107, 108 

suffixes, 106 tiote, 115 

double comparatives, 1 1 8 
Comparatives become positive, 119 
Comparison of Adjectives 

degrees of, 104. See Positive. 
Comparative, Superlative 

irregular, 114 

exisressed by more and most. 

when not allowable, 113 
Comparison of Adverbs. 274-276 
Comparison of Attributes, 109 
Complement of predicate, 391-394 

subjective, 393 

objective, 395 

infinitive, 395 
Composition of words, 297 f 

Compound nouns. 300 

adjectives, 302 

pronouns, 302i 

verbs, 303 

adverbs, 304 

sentences, 443, 53^-536 
Con, 2 13 

Concord of verb and subject, 376 
383, 462-465 

of adjcctiv'c and noun, 102 

of uronoun and noun, 474, 478 



Conjnsration of verbs, 219, 257 

strong conjugation, 220, 221, 

weak conjugation, 222, 224, 
Conjunctions, definition of, 285, 
different from conjunctive ad- 
verbs, 2(33 
contrasted with prepositions, 

co-ordinative, 28S5, 447 
snbordinative, 2SS<! 
developed out of prepositions, 

289 note 
•wrongly so called, 291/, 450 
Consouiuits, 14, 19, 20 
doubled, 22, p. 92 
Coutiiiuative use of relative, 413 
Contracted sentences, 287 note, 

445. 537, 465 
Copula, 347 
Cunning, 243 

Danish element in English, p. 3 

D.ire, durst, 246 

Dative case replaces accusative, 83 

Daughter, derivation of, 44 
Declension. 63, 84 
D^^fecLive Verbs, 227-253 
Definite article, 98, 124, 125. 126 

inflected, 126 App. A. 

thet or that, 126 
Demonstrative pronouns, 98, 129, 

Dental mutes, 19, 20 
Derivation of words, 305, 341d 
Dies, dice, -55 
Ditrvaphs, 17 
DiphthoiiKS, 17 

DL^tribuiive pronouns, 98, 173-176 
Disylhible, 21 
Do, conjugation of, 253 

preterite fonued by reduplica- 
tion, 220, 253 

auxiliary of preterite in the 
weak conjug;ition, 222 

in interrot^ative and negative 
sentences, 255 

tised to give emphasis, 254 

used to repeat preceding verb, 

-= put, 254 

Do= make, 2 "4 
Drake, d?rivat;oa of. 44' 
Dual number, 47 note, App. A. 
Duck, derivation of, 44 

E, sounds of in English, 16 

Each, 173, 174 

Eaves, 60 

Either, 175. 28Si 

Elder, eldest, 114 note 

Elliptical sentences, 453, 644-572 

Else, 268 

En, plural suf&x, 52 

adjeetis-e sidfix, 318 

sullix of perfect participle, 22; 
English, the langtiage of tlie Angles 
and Saxons, p. 1 

a low-German language, p. 1 

constituents of modem Eng- 
Ush, pp. 4-6 

development of, pp. 4, 5, App. A 
Er, comparative suffix, 106 

plural suf&x, 52 
Ere, erst, 119,276, 288c 
Es, plural sufEix, 48 

sullix of thii'd person singular, 
p. 91 
Ess, feminine suffix, 45 
Est, St, sullix of second person 

singidar, p. 91 
Eth, suffix of third person singular, 

p. 91 
Etyinology, 8, 28, &c. 
Eveiy, 174 
Except, 282, 291» 

Far. 114 note 

Farther, farthest, 114 note, 276 
Father, derivation of, 44 
Feminine gender, 38, 44-46 

suffixes, 44 note, 45 
Few, 92 
. Final consonant doubled, 22 
Fiist, 114 
For, meanings traced, 284* 

conjunction, 289 note 

preiix, 328 
Foreign words adopted in EngUriik 

App. C. 
Former, 117 
Fortnight, 62 
Further, furthest, 114 note, 276 

Ge, prefix in Anglo-Saxon, 173 



Gender, definition of, 38, 39 

natural and grammatical, 39 

distinguished from sex, 37, 43 

how denoted, 44-40 

mascuHne, 38, 44, 45, 46 

feminine, 38, 44-46 

feminine suflixes, 44 note, 45 

neuter, 38 

common, 41 

of animala, 42 

in pronouns, 137 

An;ji<j-Suxon suffixes for, 46 
Genitive, see Possessive 

in Anglo-Saxon, T2, App. A 

after mmierals, 91 twte, 62 

adverbial, 267, 268 
Gerund, 192, 200, 201, 470 
Geruudial infinitive, see Infinitive 
Grammar, definition of, 3 
Greek words in English, p. 3, 
App. C 

eufiixes, 340 
Grimm's law, Anp. C 
Guttural mute3,^19, 20 

Have, conjugation of, 248 

auxiliary of perfect tenses, 198 
He, demonstrative pronoun, 138, 

App. A 
Hence, here, hither, 270 
Hight, 220, 247 
His, 140 

Husband, derivation of, 44 
Hwa, hwajt, 152, App. A 
Hwylc, 164 
HT\aSer, 156 
Hybrids, 34 li 
Hypothetical sentences, 427, &c. 

I, sounds of, 16 

I, personal pronoun, 132, 13C, 

App. A 
If, 291 
Imperative mood, 194, 256, p. 93 

Imperfect participle, 197 

in Anglo-Saxon, 197 note 
Imperfect tenses, 205, 2U6, 207, 

212, 216 
Impersonal verbs, 247, 387 note, 

344 note, 382 note 

Indefinite article, 121, 122, 123 note 

Indefinite pronouns, 98 

who, what, which, 156, 157 

ono, IGtt 

aught, 169 

any, 170 

other, 171 

some, 172 
Indefinite tonseo, 205, 206, 210, 215 

ambiguous in the passive, 216 
Indicative mood, 193, 466 
ludii-ect object, 80, 186 
Indirect questions, 403, 410 
Ine, feminine suffix, 45 
Infinitive mood, 189 192 

without * to ' 191, 192, 368 

■with 'to' (gcrmuliai infinitive) 
192, 372, 393 twte 

object or subject, 189, 191 

tense in, 211 

syntax of, 469 
Ing, suffix of participle, 197 

sufiLx of geiTind, 200 

suilix of verbal nouns, 200 note, 
Interjections, 293 
Interrogative pronouns, 98, 152-155 
Interrogative sentences, 253, 356 
Intransitive verbs, 182, 183, 186, 

followed by a preposition, 186 
It, pronoun, 140, App. A 

anticipatory subject, 387, 404, 

anticijiatory object, 3P8 

cognate object, p. 147 notef 
1 wis, 245 note 

Keltic languages, p. 1 

words in English, p. 2, App. B 

Labials, 19 

Last, latest, 114 note, 276 
Latin words in English, p. 3, App. 
B, App. 

prctixos, 335 

BuflLxes,' 337-338 
Lesser, 1 14 note 
I,est, 291* 
Lot, 256 

Liice, u'ljectlv© and ndverb, 269 



Liquids, 19 

Me-liats, 247 

Little, less, least, 92, 114 

adverbs, 268 
Lord, lady, derivation of, 44 
Ly, adjective and adverbial suiHx, 

Man, 44 

Many, 92 

MasciiL' le ddistinguished from 

L lale, 43 
Masculine gender, 38, 44r-46 
May, 235-238 
Means, 60 
Monosyllable, 21 
Moods, 188-196 
M6tan, mote, 239 
Mother, derivation of, 44 
Mow, mowe, mought, 237 
Much, 92, 114 note, 276 
Mute e, 24 
Mutes, 19 

sharp and flat, 20 

Nam, nart, nis, naa, 251 

Nat, niste, 245 

Near, a comparative, 114 note, 276, 

Negative particles, 272 
Negative sentences, 255 
Neither, 175, 2886 
Nephew, niece, derivation of, 44 
Neuter gender, 38, 39, 40, 42 

suffix ' t,' 140, 153 
Nill, 234 
No, »ee None 
No, nay, 272 
Nominative case, definition of, 66 

derivation of, 64 note 

how ascertained, 66 

absolute, 373 note, 499 

syntax of, 456. 457 
None, no, 94, 95, ] HA 
Norman French, iutroduction and 

effects of, pp. 3, 6 
Not, 272 
Nouns, definition of, 29 

common, 30, 31 

proper, 31 

colleotive, 33 

abstract, 34 

gender of, 38 

numeral, 62 note 

Nouns, general names, 35 

derived, 309-316 
Number, definition of, 47 

ho-fl^ denoted, 47, 48-66 

singular, 47 

pluj-al, 48-56 

plural suffixes, 48, 49, 64 

dual 47 note, App. A 

in verbs, 217 
Numeral nouns, 91 

adjectives, 91, 98, App. C 

adjectives used as nouns, 62 

O, Bounds of, 16 

Object of verb, 79, 81, 186 

use of term. 366 

simple. 397 

compoimd, 397 

complex, 397 

completing, 366 note 

replaced by prepositional 
phrase, 372 

enlarged, 399 
Objective case, definition of, 79, 

how determined, 81 

form in nouns, 82 

denoting indirect object, 80 

absolute, 372 5 

position of, 82 

governed by prepositions, 79 

objective for nominative, 17? 

cognate objective, 372 

adverbial relation of, 80, 372 

syntax of, 459 
Objective relation, 366, 370 
Older, oldest, 114 note 
One, 96, 168 
Only, 90 note 
Orthography, 7 

Orthograpliical system, Engliah, 

imperfections of, 25 
Other, 171, 173, 2886 note 
Ought, 244 
Owe, 244 

Parsing, 573 

Participles, 90, 197-199 

used absolutely, 282, 372 I 
miaoaUed prepositions, 282 



Parts of speech, 6, 28 

Passive voice, 185, 186, 187, 214 

couiui;ation of, p. 9o, A:i:'. 

of intransitive verbs, J86 note 

in Anglo- Saxon, 214 note 
Pennies, pence, 55 
Perfect participle, 197-199, 221, 

in the strong conjugation, 221 

in tlie weak conjngation, 223 

final ' d ' of, sounded like ' t,' 
Perfect tense, active, 198, 205-209, 

in the strong conjugation, 220 

in the weak conjugation, 222 

in Latin, 220 note 
Periods of the English language, 

p. 5, App. A 
Person, in pronouns, 132, 133 

in verbs, 218 

origin of personal inflections, 
218 note 
Personal pronouns, see Pronoun 
Personification, its influence on 

gender, 40 
Plural, definition, ,47 

suffixes of, 48, 49, 52, 54 

formed by vowol-cliange, 63 

same as singular, 56. 

of proper names, 32 

of foreign words, 54 

used as singular, 58, 60, 62 

diit'erent in meaning from sin- 
gidar, 55, 61 

of compound names, 62 

double forms, 56 

words only used in, 61 

p Anglo-Saxon, 50, App. A. 

m -ics, 58 

of address, 134 

in pronouns, 137, 139 

suilix of, in present tense of 
verbs, p. 91 note 
Positive degree, 105, 108 
Possessive case, definition of, 67 

fonnation, 70, 71 

supposed derivation from ' his,' 
72 7wte 

in feminine nouns, 73, App. A. 

of complex names, 75 

replaced by ' of,' 77 

used objectively, 78 

in Quincs of tluDgs, 79 

Possessive case of personal pro- 
nouns, 135, 142, 178 
attributive force of, 362 
Predicate, 346, 347, 348, 356, 360, 
376, 379, 389, 395 
simple, 390 

complex, 391, 392, 403a 
complement of, 391 
logical and granimatical, 34' 
Predicative relation, 369, 379 
Prefixes, Latin, 336 
Greek, 336 

Teutonic, 309, 319, 323, 327, 32S 
Prepositions, definition of, 277 
origin of, 279 
primary function of, 66 note. 

279, 280 
siraj^le, 281 
derived, 281 
same in form as adverba, 279, 

p. 112 
relations indicated by, 283 
contrasted with conjunctions, 

become conjunctions, 289 note 
Present used for future, 210, 
213 note 
historic, 210 
Preterite or past indefinite tense, 
see Perfect tense 
in the strong conjugation, 220 
in the weak conjugation, 222 
used as a present, 227 
final 'd' of, sounded like *t,' 

periphrastic forms of, p. 94 
Pronominal adjectives, 178 
Pronouns, definition of, 98, 128 
subdivision and classification 

of, 128, 130 
adjective, 129, 135, 178 
personal, 131-142, App. A. 
demonstrative, 138-151, Apj.- 

relative, 146-167, App. A. 
interrogative, 152-155, App. A. 
distributive, 173-176 
reflective, 176, 177 
possessive, 98, 135, 178 
compound, 3026 
derived, 3216 
Proposition in Logic, 347 note, 348 
Punctuation, rules for, 474-49-'* 


Qualitative adjectives, 90 
Quautitative adjectives, 91-97 
Quoth, 247 

Bedaplication in the preterite tense, 

Reflective pronouns, 98, 176, 177 
Reflective verbs, 163 
Relative pronouns, 98, 146-167 

that, 146-151 

who, 152, 156, 159 

what, 153, 159, 156, 157 

which, 154, 159, 156 

whether, 155 

whoso, &c., 158 

understood, 166, 409 

used continuatively, 413 

conpord of, 474, 476 
Riches, 60 

S, plural suffix, 49, 60 

'S, suflix of possessive case, 70 

Aryan suffix. 76 

adverbial suffix, 267, 268 
SiVxons invade Britain, p. 1 
Saxon dialect becomes predomi- 
nant, p. 6 
Scandinavian element in English, 

p. 3 
Se, seo, thaet, 126, 141, App. A. 
Second person sing, of verbs with- 
out suffix, 233, 243, p. 91 note 
Self, 176, 177 
Semi-vowels, 18 
Sentence, definition of, 6, 343, 346 

simple, 355, 493, 505 

complex, 355, 400, 402, 442, 

compound, 355, 533-536 

contracted, 445, 486, 537-643 

collateral, 449 

elliptical, 544-572 

afBxmative, 356 

imperative, 356 

optative, 356 

interrogative, 356 
Sequence of tenses, 468 
Shall, 206c, 212, 213 

conjugation of, 228, 229 

originally a preterite, 229 
Sibilants, 19 
Since, 291tf 
Singular number, 47 

like plural, 66 

Singular number ttsed as pIuraL 


used in multiplication, 62 K»te 
Some, 172, 91 

Ster, feminine suffix, 44 note 
Subject of verb, 65, 218 note, 346, 
350, 376-381 

understood, 383 

simple, 385 

compound, 381, 336, 287 note, 

complex, 387 

enlarged, 388 

logical and grammatical, 348, 
Subjunctive mood, 195, 196, 435- 
440, 466, 467 

conjugation of, p. 93, p. 97 
Subordinate clauses, 401 
Substantive clauses, 401, 403-406 

Substantives classified, 352 
Such, 163 

Sxiffixes, once independent words, 
222 note 

in nouns, see Declension 

in verbs, see ConjugatiMi 

in adverbs, 266, &c. 

plural, 48, 49, 54 

feminine, 45 

possessive, 70 -76 

in derivatives, 305, && 

Latin, 337-339 

Greek, o-lO 
Summons, 60 

Superlative degi-ee, definition of, 
110, 111, 112 

how formed, 110-117 

formed from comparativee, 119 
Syllables, 21 )iote 
Syntax, definition of, 9, 342 

T, snf&x of second person singular. 

228 note, 233, 236, p. 87 

offgrowth of ' s ' 281 note, 291f 
Tenses, 203-216 

present, past, and future, 205 

imperfect, 205, 206, 208 
perfect, 205, 206, 207, 209 
mdefinite, 205, 206, 208, 212, 

216, 216 
in the infinitive, 211 



Tenscb, formed by inflection, 212, 
221, 223 

atixilitiries, 212, 213, 214 

comparative table of, 216 
Teutonic languages, p. 1 
Thar, 264 note, 649, 550, 553, 556, 

559, 560, 667, &c., 572 
That those, 143, 144 
That, rel. pron. 146-161 

difference between ' that ' and 
'who,' 149, 151,165 

conjunction, 289, 424, 426, 528, 
The, definite article, 124, 126 

before ' which,' 162 

adverb, l>y, 270 
Ther, comparative suffix, 106 note, 

155, 171 
There, thence, thither, 270 
They, 141, 142, 479 
Me-thinks, 247 
This, these, 143, 144 
Thou, 133, 136 

use of singular and plural 
forms, 134 
Though, 291c? 
Thus, 270 
To, meamng of, traced, 28i 

before infinitive, iee Infinitive 
Transitive verbs, 182, 183, 186 
Trix, feminine suf&x, 46 
fwelvemonth, 62 

Q, sounds of, 16 
Uncouth, 243 
Unless, 291c 

Verbs, definition of, 179, 181, 353, 

354, 359 
transitive and intransitive, 182, 

reflective, 183 
impersonal, 387 note, 247, 882 

note, 344 note 
active voice and passive voice 

of, 185-187 
moods, 188-196 
participles, 197-li"J,221 ^23 

Verbs, gerund, 200, 201 

tenses, 203-216, see Tenae* 

niuuber, 217 

person, 218, 257 

conjugation, 219, 257 

regular verbs, 226 

defective verbs, 227-253 

compound verbs, 303 

derived verbs, 322 

verbs of incomplete predica- 
tion, 391 

auxiliary, 212, 222, 196, 187, 
228-238, 391 

concord of verb and subject 

intransitive verb and preposi 
tion not equivalent to a tra.P- 
sitive verb, 372 
Vowels, 14 

vowel sounds, 16 

vowel scale, 15 

W, semi- vowel, 18 

We, 132, 136, App.,d 

Wert, p, 87 note 

What, which, whow», whethOT, «tf» 

Relative pronoun 
When, where, whence, whither 

how, why, 262-264, 270 
Where, for preposition and ' which, 

While, 291«. 

Wlio, see Relative pronoun 
Will, 212,213, 230 234, 
(To) wit, 245 
Witch, gender of, 44 
With, 284 

Wizard, derivation of, 44 
Woman, derivation of, 44 
Wont, 247 

Worse, worst, 114 note, 276 
Worth, weorthan, 247 

Y, semi-vowel, 18 
pure vowel, 18 
Ye, you, 133, 134 
Yea, yes, 272 



The following papers are made up of questions on Grammar and 
Etymology selected from amongst those set since 1871 at the Exami- 
nation for Public School Teachers conducted by the Central Com- 
mittee for the Province of Ontario : — 



1. Give reasons for regarding the article as an adjective. 

''. Remark on the grammatical peculiarities of the following words 
or expressions: — "Children," "alms," "gander," "songstress," 
"The more the merrier," "He is gone a-hunting," "The 
house is building." 

3. Give as fully as you can the syntax of the subjunctive mood. 

4. Give some examples of families of words from a common root. 

5. To what great family of languages does the English belong ? 

Under what subdivision is it properly classed ? Mention the 
languages of the same subdivision. 

6. Give instances of Celtic, Latin, and Danish remains in the Eng- 

lish language, and state for what classes of words we have 
adopted chiefly Greek, Latin, and French derivatives. 

7. Give specimens of spondee, dactyl, and anapest, and describe the 

Spenserian stanza. 
8 Explain the figures Syncope, Paralepsis, and Pleonasm, indicating 
the class to which each belongs, and distinguish between 
Barbarism and Solecism, Simile and Metaplior. 


1. When may proper nouns be regarded as common, and when are 

common nouns equivalent to proper ? 

2. Indicate the various uses of the pronoun "it," and account for the 

curious change of gender in the following sentence : — " Death 
hath not only lost the sting, but it bringeth a coronet in her 
hand." — Jeremy Taylor. 

3. (a) What may be regarded as the characteristic property of the 

verb ? Does it ever include, besides, the property of the ad- 
jective? (h) Exhibit the origin of the termination "d" or 
" ed " in the past tense, (c) What value do yuu attach to in- 
flection as a mode of indicating number and x>erson in English 
verbs 1 


4. Enumerate the varioua uses of " but." Is such a construction a» 

' ' Princes are but men " inconsistent with the grammatical 
definition of the adverb ? 

5. (a) Illustrate the primary and secondary use of the preposition. 

(6) Draw up a table exhibiting the relations expressed by pre- 

6. Latham speaks of Etymology in the wide and in the limited sense 

of the word ; explain his meaning. 

7. ,a) What proportion do words of Anglo-Saxon origin bear to 

those from classical sources? (b) Show that this proportion 
is not maintained in the language of ordinary intercourse. 

8. Scan the following lines : — 

The proper study of mankind is man. 
Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note, 


1. "Orthographical expedients are resorted to on account of the im- 

perfections of the English alphabet, which may be char- 
acterized as deficient, redundant, and ambiguous" — Authorised 
Spelling Book. 
Explain clearly the meaning of the term " Orthographical Ex- 
pedient," and show in what respects the English alphabet is 
deficient, redundant, and ambiguous. 

2. Explain the meaning of Orthoepy, Idiom, Dialect, and Metaphor, 

and give the best definition you can of "letter," " syllable," 
and "word." 

3. Define Adjective and Pronoun ; state how you classify adjectives 

and pronouns ; show where you draw the line between these 
parts of speech ; and explain your views with regard to the 
parsing of "his," " each," "this," "all," "another," "what," 
and "some," in the various constructions. 

4. Explain with the aid of examples the meaning of Grammatical 

Equivalent and Conjunctive Adverb. 

5. What argument does Max Miiller rega- d as establishing conclu- 

sively that the English language is a branch of the great 
Teutonic stem of the Aryan form of speech ? 
6 (a) Mention some of the Celtic elements of the English language. 

(b) Name the two branches of the Celtic stock of languages. 

(c) Which of these was most probably the language of ancient 
Gaul ? Confirm your answer by pointing out affinities. 

7. Point out the difference between Barbarism and Solecism, and ex. 

plain the figures Pleonasm, Metonymy, Paragoge, and Synec- 
doche, giving examples and indicating the class to which each 

8. Give speoimeos of Iambus, Trochee, and Amphibrach. 



1. Give the origin of the termination " ess " as a mode of expressing 

the feminine gender. 

2. The termination " er " is common to adjectives of the comparative 

degree ; to some other adjectives, as "upper," " under," &c. ; 
and to certain pronouns, prepositions, and adverbs, as " either," 
*' over," &c. What common idea undeilies this identity of ter- 
mination ? 

3. Define Pv,elative Pronoun, Verb Impersonal (Proper and Improper), 

and Conjunctive Adverb. 

4. Show how the Indicative and Potential Moods differ in their de- 

clarative force. 

5. Some grammai-ians have given it as a rule that " verbs substan- 

tive govern the Nominative Case. " Is this correct "' Investigate 
the i-ule. 

6. " Conjunctions connect not words but propositions." Show that 

this assertion can be maintained even with sentences like 
these: " John and Thomas carry a sacli to market ; " "Three 
and three make six." 

7. What is meant by Service Metre and Alexandrines ? Give speci- 

mens of each. 

8. Compare words of Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Xoi-man origin for the 

puqjose of explaining the preference given to either element 
in the choice of words. 


1. Do you consider "chicken," "riches," "alms," and "summons" 

to have been originally singular or plural ? Give the grounds 
for your opinion. 

2. Give examples of the indefinite relative. To what restrictions 

is it subject ? 

3. To what parts of speech is the termination "ing" common? 

Show fuUy how they are to be distinguished. 

4. Give Latliam's opinion in regard to the Question of concord when 

two or more pronouns of dififerent persons and of the singular 
number follow each other disjunctively. 

5. Though all English compaiatives end in " r," no superlative ends 

in " rt. " How has this happened? 

6. Illustrate the influence of Onomatopoeia in the forma iju of 


7. Give the derivation of the following words, tracing the history 

of the meaning wherever you can: — Muslin, currant, hymeneal, 
bursar, coercion, rill, priest, deed, liishopric, urbanity, 
universe, here, inoculate, religion, gentry, chestnut, vulgate, 
preposterous, rival, romance, health, legend, fancy. 

8. When and under what circumstances did tlie ])rinci]ial elements 

which enter into the comyosition of the Eugii&h lau^ua^e 
severally take their places in it ? 



1. Name tlie inflected parts of speech ; state the inflection b to which 

they are suhject ; and give an example of every inflectional 
form in the language. Give all the inflectional forms of 
"abbot," "me," "was." Are "fatherly," " happen," and 
" acknowledgment " inflectional forms ? Explain the forms 
"his" and "whose." 

2. Some grammarians consider the article and participle distinct 

parts of speech. State your own views, with reasons. 

3. Give examples of sentences in which it is more appropriate to 

use "that" than "who" or "which." Explain the reason 
in each case. 

4. Show to what extent we are to receive the statement that " the 

passive voice expresses passively the same thing that the 
active voice does actively." 

5. Give as fully as you can the syntax of the Possessive Case. 

6. Of words which have disappeared from our literary dialect men- 

tion (1) some which modei-n authors of note have endeavoured 
to revive ; (2) others whfch survive only as provincialisms ; 
and (3) others which pass for Americanisms, but which are 
really Old English. 

7. Explain the figures Hyperbaton, Apocope, and Apostrophe, 

indicating the class to which each belongs. 

8. What is meant by Historical Etymology ? 


1. Mention the causes of diversity in Orthogra])hy, and state in 

what respects the English alphabet is deficient, redundant, 
and inconsistent. 

2. Give the best definition of Gender you know. State why you 

consider it the best, and point out its defects. 

3. "The construction of English Infinitives is two-fold : (1) objective ; 

(2) gernndia].."— Latham.^ 

Explain fully and exemplify this statement. 

4. Name the verbs which specially belong to the class called 

"copulative," and explain their office in analysis. How 
would you deal in analysis with the Imperative aod the 
Absolute ? 

5. Illustrate fully the adjective in predicate. 

6. Derive the following words : — Mechanics, politics, cambric. 

meander, tantalize, April, Thursday, furlong, fathom, pilgrim, 
vintat^e, sarcasm, gazette, scarlet, tulip, tobacco, almanac, 
jubilee, caravan, sonnet, skate, ballast, calico, caricature, alli- 

7. Give the force of each of the affixes: Hood, ling, some, ric. aye, 

and less ; illustrate by examples. 

8. Give examples of Syuairiiis, JSyncope, Paralepsis, Hyperbole 



1. Define Logical Subject, Grammatical Subject, Case, Mood, 

Middle Voice, Predicate, Copulative Conjunction, and Dis- 
junctive Conjunction. 

2. Give a list of defective verbs. 

3. "Substantives signifying the same thing agree in case." Point 

out the defects of this rule for apposition, and define " Apposi- 

4. Give an etymological analysis of the following words, mentioning 

in each case prefix or affix, root, literal meaning, and ordinary 
eignification : — Discussion, expressed, adventure, condolence, 
hj'pocrite, expedite, atonement, accuracy, cemeterj'^, extra- 
vagant, trespass, dilapidation, advocate, adherent, disparity, 
colloquial, ambitious, transgression, degeneracy, declension 
(connect grammatical sense with root), dissection, pilgrimage, 
inarticulate, compunction. 

5. Mention English words related in derivation to " speak," 

"sorrow," "choose," "what," "bequeath," "death," and 
" barren." 

6. Which parts of speech are all of Saxon growth ? 

7. What traces of Danish occupancy do we find in local English 

names ? 

8. Write half a dozen lines on any subject you choose, using only 

words of Anglo-Saxon origin. 


1. (a) Explain " strong " and " weak " preterites. (J) Cite instances 

to show that the tendency has been for some time to exclude 
the "strong" forms, quoting also some of the very few 
instances in which the reverse has taken place. 

2. Define Middle Voice, Copulative and Disjunctive Co-ordina- 

tion, and explain Dativus Ethicus, of Deflection, 
and Equivocal Reflective. 

3. Specify and exemplify the various constructions in which the 

sign of the possessive case is omitted. 

4. Give examples of different cases which may arise in the applica- 

tion of the principle : "A verb must agree with its nominative 
in number and person," and state the special rule applicable 
to each case. 

5. Distinguish between "common" and "mutual;" "stationery" 

and "stationary;"' "feminine" and "effeminate;" "sani- 
tary" and "sanatory;" "persecute" and "torment;" 
"loiter" and "linger." 

6. What information about the following articles may be obtained 

from the names they bear : — Port (wine), sherry, nanlieen, 
ammonia, bayonet, cherrj', curr; nts? 

7. Give the derivation of : — Blame, metaphysics, peripatetics, synod, 

loi'd, ma'am, fee, villain, anathema, premature, retrograde, 
extravagant, rather, treacle, lass, comfort, epitaph, paper, 
executor, save, depose, mode, serve, paste, cover, lesson, 
meaning, fur, impostor, insolent. 


8. Write etymological notes on : 

(a) In like manner also that women adorn themselves in 
modest apparel with shamefacedness and sobriety : — L Tim. 
ii. 9. 

(b) Woe worth the chose, woe worth the day. — Scott, 
{c) Come Fate into the list 

And champion me to the utterance. — Shakespeare, 


1. In what words is the aspirate rightly dropped when it stands as 

their first letter ? 

2. State the various uses of the pronoun "it." 

3. Show that the perfect is a present tense, and write sentences to 

exhibit the violation of the "sequence of tenses" in conneo- 
tion with that tense. 

4. Explain the construction of the objective case in each of the fol- 

lowing sentences : — (a) He waited all night ; (6) The book is 
worth a shilling ; (c) Full many a league they rode ; (d) They 
dreamt the future flight. 

5. Give the different powers of the prefixes " be" and "en" or "em." 

6. Make a list of five words from each of the Latin verbs ago, curro, 

jacio, fero, video, and rego. 

7. Give words —two in each case — derived from these Greek roots ; 

Charis, cratos, metron, phone, pathos. 


1. Investigate the statement that "mine" and "thine" are the pos- 

sessive case of the personal pronoun, whilst " my" and "thy" 
are the possessive adjective. 

2. " A verb is a word that makes an assertion." Discuss the defects 

of this definition. 
'^. What prepositions should follow "glad," "true," "insinuate," 
and "intervene" ? 

4. What are the Latin and Greek prefixes meaning "from," 

" beyond," " without " ? 

5. Derive the following words, giving the etymological analysis 

where you can: — Where, ephemeral, alone, before, river, rap- 
turous, current, month, pain, blood, generally, number, 
agency, vicious, diabolical, wrote, stenography, pagoda. 

6. Make a list of words derived from "lego," including four from 

the Latin and four from the (ireek verb. 

7. In the following groups of verbs of similar signification, indicate 

the appropriate use of each verb : — Esteem, estimate, appreci- 
ate ; grant, allow, bestow, concede ; build, erect, construct ; 
naurp, arrogate, assume. 



1. Give examples of verbs of strong and of weak conjugation. 

2. State the rule relating to "sequence of tenses" in connection 

with the conjunction "that," and quote Latham's reason to 
show that the rule must necessarily be absolute. 

3. Illustrate the use of the adjective in predicate, and state clearly 

its force and relation. 

4. Define and give examples of adverbial sentence and complex 

sentence, and form or quote a sentence containing a dependent 
proposition which is the subject of a verb. 

5. Enumerate the affixes denoting state, condition, or quality, and 

give examples of each in combination. 

6. Convert, by the help of prefixes or suffixes, the following adjec- 

tives into verbs : — Large, just, humble, strong ; and convert 
the following verbs into nouns :— Weave, compel, receive, dig 
think. Explain the law which governs each change. 

7. Trace the following to Latin or Greek roots: — Venison, sample, 

maintain, livery, human, hermit, sarcophagus, volume, tau- 
tology, technical, phylactery, blasphemy. 


1. What are the principal parts of ", travel," " smell," " benefit" t 

2. Give examples of the different uses (a) of words ending in " ing," 

and (b) of " but." 

3. Give instances of infinitives and infinitive phrases used as the 

objects of a verb. 

4. Give a detailed analysis of the following passage and the full syn- 

tactical parsing of all the italicised words : " Strange as it may 
seem to find a song-writer put forward as an active instru- 
ment of union among his fellow-Hellens, it is not the less true 
that those poets whom we have briefly jjassed in review, by mi- 
riching the common language and by circulating from town to 
town either in person or in their compositions, contributed to 
fan the flame of pan- Hellenic patriotism at a time when there 
were few circumstances to co-operate with them, and when the 
causes tending to perpetuate isolation seemed in the ascen- 
dant. " — Grote. 

5. (a) Explain the term "Hybridism," and illustrate by examples. 

ib) Show that " icicle" is hybrid in appearance only. 

6. Give examples of (a) Derivatives formed by merely changing the 

radical vowel ; (b) Primitive words formed on the principle 
of imitation ; and (c) Derivatives from dotos, hodos, laos, 
pingo, olo or oiesco, linquo, fligo, arceo, tero, and vello. 

7. Trace the following to Latin roots : — Egregious, lateral, illusion, 

annex, complex, pulverize, quotient, satisfy, scripture, ex- 
tortion, adult, monument. 



1. Write the plural of hidalgo, no, chimney, colloquy, Livy, vinculum, 

3, w, appendix. Lord Gordon, court-martial. 

2. Classify pronouns, enumerating those under each head. 

3. Give the principal parts of hew, fly, flee, stride, rive, crow. 

4. Give a classification of conjunctions. 

5. K. Rich. Of comfort no man speak ; 

Let's talk of graves, of worms, and epitaphs ; 
Make dust our j^aper, and with rainy eyes, 
^ Write sorrow on the bosom of the earth. 
Let's choose executors, and talk of wills ; 
And yet not so— for ivhat can we bequeath 
iSave our deposed bodies to the ground ? 
Our lands, our lives, and all, are Bolingbroke'Sf 
And nothing can we call our own but death 
And that small model of the barren eaith 
Which serves as paste and cover to our bones. " 
(a) Divide the above extract into propositions, stating their 
relations to each other, and analysing them ; (b) Parse the 
italicised words ; (c) Make a list of the words of classical 
origin in the passage. 

6. Give words — two in each case — derived from these Greek roots : 

Ago, biblos, martur, deka, skopeo, tupos. 

7. Give words of Latin and English origin corresponding with 

apology, catalogue, democracj', eulogize, mystery, prophesy, 


1. Give abstract nouns of the same derivation as "brief," "true," 

"common," "needy," "poor." 

2. Give examples of the different constructions in which "as" is 

used, and tell in which of them it may be replaced by "that." 

3. Distinguish : May I go from Can I go. 

Shall I go " Will I go. 

Were 1 to go " Was I to go. 

Would 1 have gone " Should I have gone. 

4. Give adjectives of Latin origin corresponding to the following 

nouns :— Dog, head, house, friend, step, light, law, rest. 

5. Trace the following words to Greek roots : — Rhetoric, crypt, nau- 

tical, cosmogony, ephemeral, asteroid, polity, telegraph. 

6. Give words — two in each case — derived from the Latin roots 

faber, fruor, integer, licet, plico, salio, voveo. 

7. What do you understand by the "imperfect incorporation" of 

words introduced from a foreign language ' State the prin- 
ciples which characterize it. and give examples. 



1. What do you understand by "gender " in grammar ? Show that 

your definition applies to each of these words : Lady, seam- 
stress, man-servant, testatrix, mistress, heroine, margravine. 

2. Write the past tense, present participle, and past participle of 

"flow," "fly," "singe," " die, "" loose, "" lay, " and " hear. " 

3. Give accurate rules for the use of " shall" and " will." 

4. Form or quote sentences to illustrate (1) the restrictive and the 

connective force of the relative pronoun, and (2) the two- 
fold use of the cognate object. 

5. Parse the italicised words in the follov/ing quotations : — (a) In 

spite of such a man as Gibbon's opposition ; {b) They are not 
the same that they have been ; (c) He did it in the Geograjyhy 
class ; [d < They are very much in the style of Milton's 
Sonnets ; (e) That is the way that boys begin. 

6. Trace the following words to Latin and Greek roots, distinguish- 

ing those from each language : — Autumn, biscuit, disastrous, 
epidemic, autocratic, linen, analyse, amnesty, fanatic, optics, 
infant, verdict, oxygen, frantic, empyrean, federal, isother- 
mal, carnival, polygon, system, fossil. 

7. Give adjectives formed from Latin or Greek roots corresponding 

to the following English nouns :— Brother, forest, breath, 
beginning, husband, cloud, leg, eye, hand, rule, ship, tooth, 
fist, glass, disease, marriage, art. 


1. What parts of speech perform a double function? Give full ex- 

planatory examples. 

2. Explain " Conjunctive Adverb," and write sentences containing 

the various forms of the "Adverbial Phrase." 

3. Give rules for the right use of the subjunctive mood, with ex- 


4. In each of the foUovring pairs of sentences, point out the difference 

in meaning : — (a) He was the first that came. He was the firs* 
who came, {b) He would make a better statesman than lawyer 
He would make a better statesman than a lawyer, (c) Ho 
arrived safe. He arrived safely. 

5. Parse the italicised words in the following sentences : — 

(a) Did "religion," when our language was translated, 

Tnean godliness ? 
(J) Thus shall mankind his guardian care engage, 

The promised ./'a<A?r of a future age. 
(c) In Christian hearts, for a pagan zeal 1 

A needful but opprobrious prayer I 
{d) He is busy thrashing. 

6. Derive "foliage," " atone," "demagogue," "lieutenant," "rem- 

nant," "jelly," "closet." 

7. Mention words — two in each case — derived from these Latii 

roots : Arceo, caro, eolo (are), falx, fiscus, gelu, grex, orior, 
ainua, tueor. 




1. Define Abstract Noun, Eelative Pronoun, Verb Transitive and 

Intransitive, Adverb, Preposition. 

2. Name and define those parts of speech which are inflected. 

3. Name and distinguish plurals of nouns which have two forms of 

plural with different signification. 

4. Give any six examples of irregular comparison of adjectives, and 

state the classes of adjectives which do not admit of com- 

5. What changes for the sake of euphony do the following prefixes 

undergo : — Ad, con, sub, syn ? 

6. Mention prefixes — each in combination with some word — which 

denote rest or motion forward and backward in place and 

7. Give words in which the following affixes appear, and state the 

force of each : — ^Ard, eer, ory, dom, sy, ment, ship, ism, ule, 
oee, ish. 


1 . Name the four great divisions of Grammar, and state the province 

of each. 

2. Write the plurals of : Stuff, potato, canto, grotto, attorney, 

seraph, cousin-german, medium, ataraen, appendix, thesis, 
chrysalis, cargo, tyro, echo, chimney, criterion, axis, genius, 
index, aide-de-camp. 

3. Name the distributive and indefinite pronouns. 

4. How is the verb inflected ? Name the moods and state the force 

of each. 

5. In what cases is the final consonant doubled before an affix ? 

6. Illustrate by examples the use of each of the prefixes denoting 

negation or destitution, and of each of the affixes denoting 
manner and rank, office, or doininion. 

7. Give the different forms assumed by the prefixes " in " and "ad" 

in composition, illustrating your answer by examples. 


1. \Vrite the plural of "cheese," "policy," "soliloquy,** and 

"phenomenon ;" the singular of "species," "apparatus," and 
"indices;" and the feminine of "beau," "earl," "lad," 
"stag," and "ram." 

2. Explain the terms Declension, Conjugation, Case, Mood, Tense, 

Voice, Person, and Participle, illustrating your answer with 

3. Form the past tense and past participle of the following verbs : — 

Rid, rend, shed, dive, lean, light, wed, speed. 
i. Show the different ways in which the words "there," "it," and 
" but " are employed. 


6. Parse the following sentence, and change the form so that it shall 

contain a Nominative Absolute: — "When fresh troops had 
arrived, the battle was resumed." 
D. Compose or quote a sontence containing the words "bail" and 
"bale" properly used, and another illustrating the different 
meanings of the word "crew." 

7. What is the force of the following affixes : — Age, ry, ice. dom, nesB, 

ock, ic, ose, ish, en ' State in regard to each of them whether 
it is of Anglo-Saxon or classic origin. 


1. What is meant by Inflection, Gender, Predicate, Complement, 

Impersonal Verb, Interjection, Conjunction ? 

2. What is the Passive Voice ? When may a verb in the Passive 

Voice be followed by the Objective Case ? 

3. Give a list of Auxiliary Verbs. 

4. How many tenses are there in the Potential Mood? Give the 

signs of each. 

5. Parse the following sentence, and change the active into the pas- 

sive construction : — "His love of change drove him a pilgrim 

to the Holy Land." 
C). Compose a complex sentence containing an example of Apposition. 
7. What are the meanings of the prefixes : Para, meta, ob, be ; and 

of the affixes : Ness, by, dom ? 


1. Quote any two special rules for the formation of the plural of 

uouns, and write the plural of the following : Wharf, folio, 
spoonful, Mussulman, cherub, memorandum, miasma, alumnus. 

2. Compare such of the following adjectives as are capable of com- 

parison : — Cool, late, happy, perpendicular, many, triangular. 

3. Inflect the Present Indicative of the verb "to strike" in all its 

three forms. 

4. Define the terms Subject and Predicate. 

5. Change the construction of the following sentence so as to intro- 

duce a Nominative Absolute, and parse the latter half : — 
" Having completed his arrangements for the battle. Napoleon 
beheld the vast array defile before him." 

6. Form or quote a sentence containing a dependent proposition 

equivalent to an adverb. 

7. Attach roots to the following prefixes, exhibiting when possible 

the change made in the prefix for the sake of euphony : — Ad, 
re, inter, trans, con, in, syn, amphi, hyper, sub. 


1. Form Abstract Nouns from the following adjectives : — Pure, brief, 
slow, dear, intricate, 

i. Write the plural of "pea," "attorney," "stratum," "lens,** 
"focus," "Mussulman," "Henry," " sixpence, "" seraph, " 
"cameo," "index," "crisis ;" and the masculine or feminine 
form, as the case maybe, of "widow," "czar," "testator," 
"witch, ' "duke," "sultan," "earL" 


3. Give rules for forming the degrees of comparison of adjectives. 

4. Write the past tense, present participle, and past participle of the 

following verba : — Loose, bear, come, eat, flow, fiy, go, dye, 
singe, die. 
5 Ke-write the following sentences so as to change the grammatical 
construction, but express the same meaning : — (a) To me the 
case seems to stand thus ; [b) In arguing about field sports, I 
was arguing with people whose doings were open to tlie 
world ; (c) He speaks the truth. 

6. Explain the different uses of the objective case, giving an example 

of each. 

7. Write Latin or Greek prefixes signifying "asiile," "across," 

"against," "down," "'together," "change," "near to," with 


1. Explain the inflection 's in the Possessive case, and give examples 

of the appositive to the possessive. 

2. Give a list of comparatives which want the positive. 

3. What rules are laid down to regulate the use of the relative 


4. Distinguish between Transitive and Intransitive verbs, giving an 

example of each. 

5. Give the rule f or'the construction of the Predicate noun, and state 

with what verbs it is most frequently connected. 

6. What is a sentence ? Write specimens of simple, compound, and 

complex sentences. 

7. Give words in which the following affixes appear, and state the 

force of each affix : — Ling, all, ster, ness, &ey, ure. 


1. Write a sentence containing an example of every part of speech 

properly used. 

2. (a) What are the various modes of distinguishing the masculine 

and feminine genders? (6) Give the feminine of "stag," 
"marquis," "buck," "executor." 
d. Write the past tense, past participle and present participle of the 
following verbs : — Set, flee, seethe, cleave (to split), bear (to 
bring forth), shear, shoe, job, lie down, omit, prefer, wink, 

4. How may a simple subject be changed to a complex one? 

5. (a) Show that intransitive verbs ai-e sometimes rendered transitive. 

(6) Give the transitive forms corresponding with "rise," 
"lie," "sit," "fall." 

6. Show by examples how a verb may be modified by a word, by a 

phrase, and by a subordinate sentence. 

7. Give words in which the following alhxes appear, and state the 

force of each : — Ster, mony, ric, ion, ency, tude. 



The following papers, with the exception of the two Intermediate 
ones for 1876, are made up of questions set since 1873 for entrance 
into the High Schools and Collegiate Institutes of Ontario : — 

1. Define Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Mood, Tense. 

2. Crive the plurals of new, staff, folio, penny, index. 

3. Give the feminines of earl, friar, hero, marquis, stag, ram, baron, 

peacock, preceptor ; and the masculines of witch, roe, empress, 
niece, lass, maid, filly. 

4. Of the following adjectives compare those that admit of com- 

parison : Good, near, happy, beautiful, many, perpendicular, 
old, eternal. 

5. Inflect the Personal Pronouns. 

6. Give the past tense and past participle of the following verbs ; — 

Flow, go, cleave (to split), get, smite, weave, crow, blow, 
mow, fall, call, tear, may, shoe, drink. 

7. Analyse and pai-se : " The sun rose pleasantly over the scene that 

lay before us." 


1. Define Transitive Verb, Active Voice, Finite Verb, Adverb, 


2. Give the plurals of deer, family, foray, potato, half, beau, German, 


3. Give the positive forms cori-esponding to "most," "first," 

"next," "eldest." 

4. Give adverbs corresponding with "quick," "good," " little." 

5. Write out in full, in the ordinary form, the indicative mood of 

the singular. 

6. Give the past tense and past participle of slide, stoop, hide, hurt, 

wink, swim, set. 

7. Analyse : 

" Full many a gem of purest ray serene 
The dark unf athomed caves of ocean beai-. " 
And parse the italicised words in the following sentence : 
" Where is the man that will not fight for hia country " ? 


1. Define Conjunction, Subject, Case, Person, Personal Pronoun, 


2. Write the plural nominative of sheep, species, beau, solo, cherub, 

Mr. ; the possessive singular and plural of chimney, sky, lass ; 
the comparative and superlative degrees of many, tedious, 
holy ; and the past tense, present participle, and past participle 
of rear, beseech, singe, dun, die, ply. 


3. Give the tliird singular present indicative, third singular pre. 

sent subjunctive, present participle, and past participle of tha 
following verbs: Dig, swim, flee, pay, pry, deal, thrust, 
threaten, shrink. 

4. Express the following fractions by means of words . — 

« 5 4 31 onA iO 

5. Name three adjectives that are irregularly compared, and com- 

pare them. 

6. Into what classes are pronouns divided? Give an example of 

each class. 

7. Analyse : — " iSaint Augustine ! thou well hast said 

That of our vices we can frame 
A ladder, if we will but tread 
Beneath our feet each deed of shame." 
And parse : — " Scott, the famous author, who was an early riser, 
usually worked four hours in his study before breakfast. " 


1. "Write the singular of potatoes, pence, swine, clauses, ties, pies, 

spies, lies, ci-ies ; the possessive plural of who, lady, gentle- 
man ; all the persons in the singular of the present and the 
jiast indicative of wili, the principal verb, and all the persons 
in the singular of the present and the past of vnll, the auxiliary 
verb ; and the present and past participles of fulfil, sue, shine. 

2. What is meant in Gi-ammar by "qualify," "pioposition," 

"gender" ? 

3. Classify adjectives, and give an example of each class. 

4. Give the rule for the use of the pronoun "that." 

5. Give the masculine or feminine forms, as the case may be, of hero, 

sultana, countess, executor ; the plural of money, lily, folio, 
gas, brother, pea, cargo ; the comparative and superlative 
degrees of far, ill, funny ; the past tense and past participle 
of lead, sit, loose, pay, stay, shoe, 

6. Analyse : 

*' They buried him darkly at dead of night, 
The sods with their bayonets turning. 
By the struggling moonbeams' misty light, 
And the lanterns dimly burning. " 

7. Parse: "John stadies two hours daily, but James, his brother, 

passes his time in playing chess." 


Correct where necessary the following sentences, giving reasons for 
any changes made : — 

1. Neither James nor John do their work well. 

2. You and me do not read those sort of books. 

3. Every good pupil strives to please his teacher. 


4. The toast was drank in silence. 

5. It makes no difiference to either you or I. 

6. Neither John nor James is coming. 

7. The burning of the Bavarian was one of the most dreadful acci- 

dents that has happened for many years. 

8. My sister and my sister's child, 

Myself and children three, 
Will fill the chaise, so you must ride 
On horseback after we. 

9. A or an is styled an indefinite article. 

10. He is great, but truth is greater than us all. 

11. There are a great many people in town. 

12. Ten-elevenths are equal to twenty twoes. 

13. The river has raised six inches since morning. 

14. Of the two Henries this is the youngest. 

15. I seen him a good ways up the street. 


*' The signet-ring young Lewis took, 
With deep respect and altered look ; 
And said : — ' This ring our duties own ; 
And pardon, if to worth unknown, 
In semblance mean obscurely veiled, 5 

Lady in aught my folly failed. 
Soon as the day lliugs wide his gates, 
The King shall know what suitor waits. 
Please you, meanwhile, in fitting bower 
Repose you till his waking hour ; 10 

Female attendance shall obey 
Your best, for service or array. 
Permit I marshal you the way. ' 
But, ere she followed, with the grace 
And open bounty of her race, 15 

She bade her slender purse be shai'ed 
Among the soldiers of the guard." 

— The Lady of the, Lake, Canto VI. 

1. Divide vv. 9-17 into propositions, and fully analyse them. 

2. Parse " pardon, '■ " to," and "unknown," 1.4; "soon," ' as," 

and "wide," 1. 7; "you," 1. 10; "for," 1. 12; "you,"'l 
13; "with,"l. 14; "purse," 1.16. 

3. Give the derivation of "signet," "respect," "alter," "duty," 

"semblance," lady," "aught," "folly," "repose," "obey," 
"marshal," "grace," "bounty," "service." 
4- Explain the meaning of Kne 3, of " signet," and of " best." 


5. The syllables et, re, he, per, tend, ance, occur in many English 

words. State the meaning and explain the origin of each. 

6. Render the passage in prose. 

7. Give an account of the ditferent uses of "it." 

8. On what basis are verbs classified into strong and weak? State 

which of the verbs in the passage at the head of this paper 
are strong. 


1. " Hai-p of the North, farewell ! The hills grow dark, 

On purple peaks a deeper shade descending ; 
In twilight copse the glow-worm lights her spark, 

The deer, half-seen, are to the covert wending. 
Resume thy wizard elm ! the fountain lending, 

And the wild breeze thy wilder minstrelsy — 
Thy numbers sweet — with Nature's vespers blending, 

"NV^ith distant echo from the fold and lea, 
And herd-boys' evening pipe, and hum of housing bee." 

(1) Divide into propositions, state their kind, explain their con- 

nection, and fully analyse them. 

(2) Parse "dark" (1. 1); "half-seen" (1.4); "wizard" and 

"fountain" (1. 5) ; and "pipe" (1.9.) 

(3) Name the stanza aud explain its structure. Scan and name 

the last two lines. Mention any long poem written 
throughout in this stanza. 

(4) Explain the meaning of " wizard elm" (1.5), and "pipe" 

(1. 9). 

(5) Make a list of the words of classical origin that occur in the 

stanza, giving their roots when you can. 

2. Parse the italicised words in the following extract : — 

" To hero houne for battle strife 

Or bard of martial lay, 
'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life 

One glance at their array ! 
Their light armed archers /ar and near 

Surveyed the tangled ground. 
Their centre ranks with pike and spear 

A twilight /o?-es< frowned, 
Their barbed horsemen in the rear 

The stern battalia crowned." 
Explain the meaning of ' barbed" (1, 9), and " battalia" (1. 10). 

3. Express, in as many different ways as you can, the fact that John 

tauyht James grammar, using not only the same but ditferent 


Combine the simple sentences in the following paragraph into 
compcuud sentences, where it is necessary, so as to produce a 
continuous narrative : — 

The polar bear is of a white colour. It is fom»^l in the Arctic 
regions. It leads an almost entirely aquatic life in these 
regions. Its body is long. Its head is flat. Its muzzle ia 
broad. Its mouth is peculiarly small. The paws are very 
large. They are covered on the under side with coarse hair. 
From the coarse hair it derives security in walking over the 
slippery ice. The fur is long. The fur is woolly. It is of 
tine texture. It is of considerable value. 
Define the meaning of the grammatical terms : Strong Conjuga- 
tion, Gender, Degree of Comparison, Regimen, Adjective Sen- 
What is an auxiliary verb ? Explain the use and meaning of each 

of the English auxiliary verbs. 
Name the relative pronouns, and give examples of their respective 

Criticize the following sentences, making corrections where neces- 
sary :— 
He is a better philosopher than a statesman. 
The tenth and the eleventh boys in the class. 
This is one of the most successful works that ever was executed. 
Death has come to all, greater, wiser, better than I. 

This wonderful steam walking man was invented and 
patented by John Blank, of Blanktown, after spending thou- 
sands of dollars and several years experimenting in steam walk- 
ing machines, has at last accomplished a perfect steam man, 
five feet in height, and walks as natural as a living man. 



1. Define Person, Voice, Case, Mood, and Tense. 

2. Define the following parts of speech, and give an example of each 

in a short sentence : — Abstract Noun, Denionstrative Adjec- 
tiv-^e. Distributive Pronoun, Indefinite Pronoun. 

3. What part of speech is each of the " that's" in the following sen- 

tence ? Give reasons for your decision : — "I told John that 
that man that he saw reading that great book was not the 
learned pf rson that he would have us think him to be." 


4. Give the feminine of duke, hunter. Sultan, friar, wizard ; the mas- 
culine of niece, lass, peeress, bride, actress ; and the plural of 
cargo, chimney, staff, flagstaff, story, pea, penny. 

6. Vary the structure of the following sentences by changing the 
Active into Passive, and the Passive into Active : — (a) What- 
ever is offensive in our manner is corrected by gentleness. 
(6) Every summer we may observe the mischievous effects of 
the rapacity of birds in the vegetable kingdom. 

6. State clearly the uses of the Present Tense. 

7. Quote the rules of Syntax which the following sentences are 

severally intended to exemplify : — 
(a) John gave me a book. 
(6) It cost a shilling. 
(c) " Others said, He is like him." 

8. Analyze the following sentences, and parse the italicized words : — 

* ' Night, sable goddess, from her ebon throne. 

In ray less majesty, 7iow stretches forth 

Her laden sceptre, o'er a slumbering world. " 

" Who steals my purse steals trash." 

1. Define word, phrase, clause, sentence. Give an example of each 

in a short sentence. 

2. State clearly the distinction between Simple, Complex, and Com- 

pound sentences. 

3. Name the essential terms of a sentence and the subdivisions of 

each. Analyze : " This skull has lain you in the ground 
these three years. " — Shakespeare. Parse you, years. 

4. Analyze the following sentence and parse the italicized words : — 

"Full many a gem of purest ray serene, 

The dark unfathomed caves of ocean bear." — Gray. 

6. Correct or justify the following expressions, giving your reasons 
for corrections : — (a) Three and two is five, (b) The two 
eldest of the family, (c) The fl^'st three Gospels, {d) 'He 
made a better soldier than a poet. ' " No laws are better than 
English laws." 

6. In the following hypothetical sentence, distinguish the Protons 
from the Apodosis, and point out clearly the four different 
senses in which "it" is used : — " If 'twerdone when 'tis done, 
then 'twere well it were done quickly." — Shakespeare. 


1. Give the meaning of the prefixes of the following words, with the 

correspon<ling prefixes in two other languages: — Homoeopathy, 
retrospect, thoroughfare, synod, sidings. 

2. Give the same with respect to the suffixes of the following : — 

Lawyer, monastery, earldom, beauteous, troublesome. 


3. State and illustrate the logical use of compound xv^ords. 

4. Give three examples of each of the following : — (a) Compouud 

words indicating the place whence ; (6) incomplete com- 
pounds ; and (c) apparent compounds. 

5. Give and analyze the compound diminutive terminations of Saxon 


6. Give a strict definition of "number," and show how the English 

language departs from this in respect to nouns, pronouns, 
and to verbs. 

7. Analyze the following words : — Hence, mine, him, more, worse, 

farther, innermost, amidst. 

8. Define the following figures, giving two examples of each : Pro- 

thesis, metathesis, syncope, aphaeresis, elision. 


I.' What is meant by inflection? Give an account of inflection in 
the English Language as compared with inflections in other 

2. Give the past tense and past participle of the following verbs : — 

Shear, lie, lade, be, chide, freight, cleave, thrive, swing, slide, 
spring, swim. 

3. Point out the defect in the following seutence, and show how 

that defect may be avoided : — "When we see the beautiful 
variety of colour in the rainbow, we are led to enquire its cause." 

4. Give the chief rules Avith reference to the position of the adjective. 

5. Explain clearly the use of the participles ; account for the ex- 

pressions a fishiiu), a going, a Imnting, a running ; and show 

that a participle while used as a noun may be modified in all 

respects as a verb. 
(). Explain the use of.each of the words in italics in the following : — 

(a) Not only the men, but the women also were present. 

(6) I, e,ve,n I, do bring a flood, &c. (c) Tliere came to the 

beach a poor exile, &c. [d) She looks cold, (e) He arrived 

safe. {/) The milk turns sour. 
7. State clearly what is meant by an adverbial phrase ; give a few 

examples of adverbial phrases, and state what you know of 

their origin. 
S. Show that the infinitive mood may be the subject of a verb, the 

object of a verb, the predicate nominative after a copulative 

verb, in apposition with a noun, and the object of a preposition. 


9. Verbs signi^ing to name, choose, appoint, constitute, and the like, 

generally govern two objectives : the direct and the indirect. 
Give examples of this. 

10. Give examples of the different uses of the present tense of the 

indicative mood. 


1. Explain the use of each word in italics in the following : — [a) Do 

it at once. (6) To think that she should be so foolish ! (c) 
You were silent when accused — a clear confession of guilt. 
(d) I am sorry, and so is he. (e) I shall expect you this day 
three weeks. (f) It was then that the cavalry charged. 
(j7) Granting that you are right, what uo you infer from this ? 
(h) A friend of mine is here. 

2. Explain what is meant by defective verbs. Give a list of them, 

and show how they may be used. 

3. Sometimes the antecedent term of a preposition, and sometimes 

the subsequent,' is omitted. Give examples. 

4. State clearly what is meant by nouns in apposition. Show their 

various uses in the construction of sentences. 
6. Concerning, exceptin<f, regarding, respecting, save, and except, are 
found in the list of prepositions : in what other ways may 
they be considered ? How may compound prepositions be 
explained ? 

6. Explain fuliy by examples the use of conjunctive adverbs. Why 

is it said that a fcM' adverbs are sometimes used as adjuncts to 
nouns and pronouns ? 

7. Give a few examples illustrating the use of adverbial sentences. 

8. Show clearly the use of the participle as a verbal noun. 


1. What is meant by adjectives not susceptible of comparison ? 

2. Give the plui-al of each of the following : — Chrysalis, bandit, 

virtuoso, ignis-fatuus, genus, fungus, oasis. 

3 .Show tliat the pronoun " it " is used in a variety of ways in the 

English language. 

4 What is meant by the antecedent of a relative pronoun ? Give 

examples of different aiitecedei\ts. 
5. State clearly what is meant by the restrictive use of a relative 

plain the 

Shun sue-.-. — 

7. Transitive verbs have two voices, active and passive. Show the 
difference between them in construction and use. 

6. Explain the use of the word "as" in the following sentence : — 
Shun such as are vicious. 


8. Annex to each of the following the Latin word from which it is 
derived : fete, defy, endorse, duplicity, disdain, duemia, 
ragout, germ, progeny, elite, lavender, elate. 


1. Show clearly the insufficiency and redundancy of the English 


2. Write out the past tense of the verb to lie (repose). 

3. For what purposes are verbs inflected ? 

4. Give the plural of each of the following : — focus, calx, erratum, 

magus, radius, hypothesis, stratum, miasma. 

5. Show clearly the construction and use of the passive voice of 

transitive verbs in the English language. 

6. What is meant by the office of the Relative being sometimes 

descriptive, and sometimes restrictive? Give examples. 

7. State clearly the use and construction of compound relative 


8. How would you explain to a class the use of the words in italics 

in the following : — (a) It often happens that the good are un- 
rewarded. (6) Give but one kind word, (c) The ship went 

9. What is meant by the irregular comparison of adjectives ? 

10. Annex to each of the following the Latin word from which it ia 

derived : — Filter, mallet, courage, malicious, religion, claret, 
bivalve, alarm, sufifer, commerce, pantry, abominable. 


1. Name the words beginning with the letter "h," in which it is 


2. E.xplain the various uses of the different parts of speech. 

3. Classify and name each part of speech in the following sentence : 

" The power of speech is a faculty peculiar to man, a faculty 
bestowed on him by his beneficent Creator, for the greatest 
and most excellent uses ; but, alas ! how often do we pervert 
it to the worst of purposes ! " 

4. What ia the distinguishing peculiarity bet%veen articles and 

adjectives ? 

5. Why are personal pronouns the only real pronouns ': 

B. What are the variations in the termination of an English verb ? 
Give examples. 


7. As words ending in "ing" are frequently used bobh as nouns 

and adjectives, how do you find to which class they belong ? 

8. Name one or two prepositional phrases. 

9. How are words which are used both as adverbs and adjectives 

distinguished ? 

10. Define the participle, and how formed. 

11. What is "case" in grammar ? Give examples of the three cases. 

1 2. Name the classes into which verbs are divided, with respect to 

their form ; and their distinguishing marks, with respect to 
their signification. 


1. What does English Grammar signify ? 

2. Define Orthography, Etymology and Syntax. 

3. Define the following, simply but fully : Noun, Adjective, Verb, 

Preposition. Cohjunctiou, giving examples of each. 

4. Name the parts of which a sentence may consist, and the 

different kinds of sentences. 

5. What is a Proposition in logic, and of how many parts does it 

consist ? Point them out in the following sentence : — " Virtue 
alone is happiness below." 

6. Name the following parts of the verb To read : Imp. Potential ; 

Plural Imperative ; First Future Indicative ; Third Plural 
Imp. Subjunctive. 

7. Define a Participle and a Participial Adjective. Is the Parti- 

cipial form ever used for the Infinitive Mood ? 

8. What is meant by Infiexion ? Of what may inflexions consist ? 

9. What is meant by Cases? Define them, giving an example of 

10. In the sentence "And they feared when they heard that they 
were Romans," what part of speech is when ? Give the reason. 


1. Give examples of Primitive, Derivative, Simple and Compound 


2. Into how many parts is English Grammar divided ; and of what 

does each treat ? 

3. Explain the use of each part of speech, giving examples. 

4. What is meant by Case of Nouns, and what d.oe3 each denote ? 

5. Name the classes into which Pronouns may be subdivided, 

giving one of each class. 

6. When is the word "what" a compound relative — an interroga- 

tive Kelative Pronoun— an Adjective Pronoun— an Interjection? 

7. Illustrate by examjjles the kinds of Nouns, and their persons. 

8. State the different kinds of Verbs, in regard to the manner of 

their action and their different forms, giving an example of 
each mood. . 


9. When is a verb called irregular ? Name the present and imper- 
lect tenses ; also the perfect participle of awake, choose, rise, 

10. How many tenses has each mood : and what words are the signs 

of them ? 

11. What is a participle derived from ; and how are participles 

formed ? 

12. What parts of speech do adverbs qualify ? Give two or three 

adverbial phrases. 
J.3. Name the Prepositions which occur to you ; and by what part 
of speech must a Preposition be followed Y 


1. Classify the words sweet, before, lead, till, deep, us. 

2. Give the inflections of lion, tree, wrote, went, soon, good, 

3. Name the various kinds of extension of the predicate, and give an 

example of each. 

4. Analyze in the prescribed form the following sentences : — 

"Heaven hides nothing from thy view." 
" He wiih his horrid crew 
Lay vanquished rolling in the fiery gulf." 
" Him the Almighty 
HtirVd headlong flaming from the ethereal ^Isy 
With hideous ruin and combustion down 
To bottomless perdition." 

5. Parse in tabular form the words in italics. 

6. Give the past tense and past participle of all the irregular verbs 

in the passage. 

7. The same verb expressing the same action is sometimes transitive 

and sometimes intransitive ; give examples, and point out the 
difference in meamng. 

8. Name the different kinds of subordinate clauses, and give an ex- 

ample of each. 

9. Explain the terms voice, mood, and case. 



1, Classify tlic words light, round, square, die, use, farther, so. 

2. Give all the inflexions of lion, be, he, I, go, pretty, went, came. 
8. Write the plural of lady, man, pea, chimney, hoof, wharf, cherub, 

genius, axis, penny. 

•!. What is a complex sentence ? In how many relations may a sub- 
stantive clause stand in a sentence ? Give an example of each 


6. Define the term case. What seems to be the present tendency 
with respect to the use of the possessive case ? Give examples 
in support of your answer. Explain the different uses of the 
objective case, and give an example of each. 

6. Discuss the Number of the following words : — Physics, politics, 

bellows, scissors, riches, alms, news. 

7. Explain the function of than in comparative sentences . What is 

its office in the preceding passage ? What words in the pas- 
sage do you regard as participles ? Why ? How can you dis 
tinguish participles from adjectives ? 

8. Give a short explanation of the nature and use of the verb and tne 

preposition. Criticise the method in which the prescrib«d 
text-book on Grammar tre-\ts these parte of speech. 


rtilo of writin-;: uit the Auolvsis of Sentences which is adf)pted in the Grammar, §§ 493—572, ia perhaps 
"'*"■" * .^j *ii/i n>v\f>fiGia m<iv Uo, ('(infliif.toii DV WTitiii? (IrtTini wf ftTino jjj horizontal 

„„^^,, ; -- J .^iia, -.. r-ssiuiw ouii:i>uiiDin.o ..1 uiD ov^^^^.^^o i^.n, umv iiavo w be analvsed, 

mid thon tabulatiug tho i-esulU of the aualysis, as in the following examples. When the subject or object of the 
separate members of it {e.g., * A white man and a black man 

TnK mode of writinj; uit the Auolvsis of Sentences which is adf)pted in the Grammar, §§ 493—57 
ihp leiist titiublesome; biit if it be preterred. the process may be coudiicted by wi-itiu? down at once, 
lines, and at the top of pamllel columns, all tho possible components nf the senteiicos that may have to 
Mid thon tabulating the i-esults of the aualysis, as in the followin 
rt»rb i« compound, with adjuncts attached to the separate memb 

were walking together'), tiie substantives forming the compound subjects may be written one underneath the 
other, having their proper adjuncts placed over a^amst them m the next column. A compound sentence consiatijic 
of two or more co-ordinate clauses, may be split up into its compound clauses by means of brackets in the wav 
indicated m one of the examples below The columns may of course be filled up by writing verticaUV instead Jf 
horizontally, u it be found more convenient. 

A. " A rculer anacquainted with 
the real nature of a classical educa- 
tion, will probably undervalue it when 
he sees that so large a portion of 
time is devoted to the study of a few 
ancient authors yhose works seem 
to have ■- iirect bearing on the 
stu'htM .^a duties of our owd gene- 

B. "When he sees thnt so largt 

a |»ortion of time is devnteil to 


C. " [That] so large a portio; 
time is devoted to th** 'study of a 
ancient authors, whose works — 

A. " Bleat he, thnuph nntlistin- 
guished from the crowd l»y Mcalth or 
; lUgnity, who dwells secure, wlitre 
man, by nature Ilerce, baa laid aside 
his fierceness, having learnt, though 
slow tt> learn, the maniicrH ami the 
arta of civil lifu." 

B. " Who dwells secnre where man 
by nature fierce, has laid asido his 
lieroeness, having learnt, though alow 
to learn, the maunei-s and the arts of 
civil life." 

0. " [Though) he be uudietinguiaLed 
from the crowd by wealth or dignity." 

D. "Where man, by nature fiei 
has laid aside his fierceness, hav 
learut, though slow to learn, the ui 
noj-a and the arts of civil life." 

K. '■ (Though] /,«;.,,,„„. to ],^^. 

Adverbial clause, 
qualifying the pre- 
dicate ' will under- 

Adjective da 

qualifyiu" the i 

Attributive Ad- 
juncts of Subject. 

b. Coraple: 

Verb of incom- I ,-, t * 

plete Predication Complement. 

with the real na- 
ture of a classical 

Com|iound con- 
tracted advrrliial 
clause, rjualifying 
the predicate verb 

Adverbial clausL', 
[ualifying the pie- 
liuate dwells. 

"Elliptical adverl.ia: 
clause, (pi;tlif.\iir. 
hntnnij learnt. 

a. Of Predicate I b. Of Corn- 
Verb. plemeut,whei; 
that is 4 Verb. 

[That so large 


Adjuncts of 


Adjuncts of the 
Complement of 
the Predicate. 

Adverbial Adjckc 

. Of Predicate b. Of Comple- 

Verb. ment of Predi- 


1. Probably 

2. Adverh,.d rlnuse— 
[\Vheu he sees that 
60 large a portion of 
time 13 devoted to 
the study of a few 
ancient author-, 
whose works seim 
to have no direct 
bearing on the stu- 
dies aud duties of 
our geueratioL (B).] 


L) the study of i 
ancient an 

[whose works 

to our 

ration (D).] 

Adj. ,./n(,..e-(v,-|, 

-IW-lks .SiTUl 

wh.-T,- man 

civii life (B).- 

1. by nature fierce 

2. having ttarnt, 
[though A^w slow 
to k-ani (K),] the 
manners and the 
arts of civd life. 

idv. clause— [Thongh 

he beundistinL'iiished i 
fnim the crowil by 
wealth ordignityiO] [ 

Adv. clause — [Whera , 
life (D).] 

, Of denoting subordinate clausos J^^'^^ j^ ^^^^^^^^^^ ;0' b, ^^ ^.^ ,^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^ 

In the second sentence we may substitute [a) for E ; W) for C . (a'c ) for D ; and uL"d'] for E. 


1. Classify the words li 

2. Give all the inflexion 
8. Write the plural of 1 

genius, axis, pen 
•!. What is a complex si 

stantive clause st 

5. Define the term case. 

•with respect to tli 
in support of you 
objective case, ar 

6. Discuss the Number 

bellows, scissors, 

7. Explain the function 

its office in the pi 
sage do you regai 
tinguish participl 
8L Give a short explanal 
preposition. Cr'v 
text-book on Gra: 



The new Authorized Grainniar, 


BY J. A. McMillan, b. a. 

The only Edition prepared as an Introductory Text Book to 
Mason''s Grammar. 

In Miller's Edition of Language Lessons The Deflnitions of 
tbe Parts of speech are noiv^ made ideutical wlih 
iTIaKOu's Graisstuar. 

The Classification of Pronouns. Verbs, Moods, and 
General Treatment are the same as in Mason's Text 

Miller's Edttloiv is prepared as an introductory Text Book 
for Mason's Grammar, the authorized book for advanced classes 
for Public Schools, so that what is learned by a pupil in an elemen- 
tary text-book will not have to be unlearned when the advanced book 
is used, a serious fault with many of the graded Public School Books. 

Miller's Edition contains all the recent examination Papers 
set for admission to High Schools. 

is authorized by the Education Department of Ontario, 
is adopted by the Schools of Montreal, 
is authorized by the Council of Pubhc Instruction, Manitoba. 

To the President and Members of the County of Elgin Teachers 
Association : 

In accordance with a motion passed at the last regular meeting of 
the Association, appointing the undersigned a Committee to con- 
sider the respective merits of different English Grammars, with a 
view to suggest the most suitable one for Public Schools, we beg 
leave to report, that, after fully comparing the various editions that 
have been recommended, we believe that "Miller's Swinton's 
Language Lessons" is best adapted to the wants of junior pupils 
and would urge its authorization on the Government, and its intro- 
duction into our Public Schools. 

St. Thomas, Nov. 30th, 1878. 

A. F. BUTLEE, Co. Inspector. 

J. McLEAN, Town Inspector. 

J. MILLER, M.A., Head Master St. Thomas Hiph School. 

A. STEELE, B A., •• Aylmer High .School. 

N. M. CAMPBELL, " Co. of Elgin ilodel School. 

It ■was moved and seconded that tlie report be received and 
adopted — Carried unanimously. 

t»riee, doth Extra, - SSc. 


One of the most popular Text Boi>ks ever published. 


By Thomas Kirkland, M.A., Science Master Normal School, 
and William Scott, B.A., Head Master Model School, 

Intended as an Introductory Text-Book to Hamblm Smith't 


Cloth Extra, 176 Pages. Price 26 Cents. 

Highly recommended by the leading Teachers 
of Ontario. 

Adopted in many of the best Schools of Quebec. 

Adopted in a number of the Schools of New- 

Authorized by the Council of Public Instruc- 
tion, Prince Edward Island. 

Authorized by the Council of Pnblio Instruction, 


l^Hhii, one year the 4{)th thousand has been issued. 



** Epochs in History mark an jj-^uch in the Study of it. " 

G. "W. Johnson, H.M.M.S., Hamilton. 

An Acceptable Text-Book on English History 





Authorized by the Education Department. 

Adopted by the Public Schools of Moiitreal, and a number of 
the best Schools in Ontario. 

" Characterized by Brevity and Comprehensiveness." — 
Canada Presbyterian. 

" Amongst manuals in English History the Epoch 
Series is sure to take high rank." — Daily Globe. 

" Nothing was more needed than your excellent 
Primers of English History."— Fred. W.Kelly, M. A., B.D., 
Lect. in English History, High School, Mont eal. 

In Eight Volumes, 20 cents each, 

— OE — 


Part I. Contain First Four of the Series. 
Part II. Contains Last Four of the Series. 



Whole Series in One Vol., Complete, Price, $1.00. 



Being an Introductory Volume to the series of Epochs of English Bistoryt 
by tbe Eev. MANDELL C HEIGHT' )N, M. A., late Fellow and Tutor of Mer" 
ton College, Oxford; Editor of ' Epochs of English History.' Fcp.8vo.pp- 
148, price 3u cts. cloth. 

' In making history attractive to the 
young the Author has proved his apti- 
tude in a department of literature in 

which few distinguish themselves 

The narative is so sustained that those 
who take it up will have a desire to 
read it to the end.' 

Dundee Advertiser. 

' This volume is intended tobe in- 
troductory to the Epochs of English 
History, and nothing could be better 
adapted for that purpose. The little 
book is admirably done in all respects, 
and ought to have the effect of sending 
pupils to other and fullir sources of 
historical knowledge.' Scotsman. 

'Mr Crfighton's introduction to the 
Epochs of English History covers in 
a hundred and forty pages more than 
18(10 years, but having regard to its 
extreme condensation is well worthy 
of notice. On the whole the work is 
admirably done, and it will no doubt 
obtain a very considerable sale.' 


' An admirable little book that can 
scarcely fail to obtain a considerable 
popularity,! notwithstanding the great 
number of previous attempts made to 
relate the history of England in a very 
small compass ...In this epitome the 
epochs become chapters, but an in- 
teresting account is given of such 
events as are likely to be attractive, or 
even moderately intelligible to young 
readers.' Welshman. 

' The excellent series of little books 
published under the title of Epochs of 
English History, edited by the Eev. 
MANDEiiii Cebighton, M. A., and writ- 
ten by various able and eminent writers 
being now complete, the Editor has 
prepared an introductory volume, cal- 
led the Epoch Primer, comprising a 
concise summary of the whole series. 
The special value of this historical out- 
line is that it gives the reader a com- 
prehensive view of the course of mem- 
orable events and epochs and eualiles 
him to see how they have each con- 
tributed to make the British Nation 
whaiii is at the present day. 


'As aU the leading features — political, 
social and popular — are given with 
much impartiality, it can hardly fail 
to become a school class-book of great 


' The Rev. MandelijCeeighton' has 
really succeeded in making an admir- 
able resume of the whole of the prin- 
ciple events in English history, from 
the time of the Roman Invasion down 
to the passing of the Irish Land Act 
in 1870. Interesting, intelligible and 
clear, it will prove of great value in 
the elementary schools of the kingdom; 
and those advanced in years might tind 
it very handy and useful for casual 
reference. ' Northampton Herald. 

• This volume, taken w^th the eight 
small volumes containing the accounts 
of the different epochs, presents what 
maybe regarded as the most thorough 
course of elementary English History 

ever published Well suited for 

middle class schools, this series may 
also be studied with advantage by 
senior students, who wUl find, instead 
of the mass of apparently unconnected 
facts which is too often presented in 
such works, a carefvil tracing-out of 
the real curnut of history, and an in- 
telligible account of the progress of the 
nation and its institutions.' 

Aberdeen Jotjknai/. 

' The whole series may be safely 
commended to the notice of parents 
and teachers anxious to find a suitable 
work ou English history for their 
children, inasmuch as the several 
volumes are simply and intelligibly 
written, without being overloaded with 
details, and care has been taken to 
bring every subject treated on witliin 
the comprehension of the young. The 
namby-pamby element, which is so 
often conspicuous in histories for 
children is entirely absent, and the 
works in question are certainly amongst 
the best of the kind yet issued. The 
little volume now under notice, which 
brings the series to a close, is fully 
equal in every respect to the preceding 
ones, and it will be found exceedingly 
useful to every one who may have to 
teach English history.' 




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