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•  nn  "moTSMAL  tbciinoi.ooic1i.  DicnotrABT,"  and  thk  '*ncnmiAx. 








y,y'/'   ^Digitrzed  by  VjOOQ  IC 

,     THE  WEW  YORK 

755002  A 

I     ASTOR,  LENOX  AND     1 

Itu-den  foundations  j 

I  »^  1936         I-         I 

•  ••••    ••• 

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It  may  seem  surprigiug  that  the  English,  T^ho  haye  employed  their  talents 
successfully  in  every  branch  of  literature,  and  in  none  more  than  in  that  of 
philology,  should  yet  haye  fallen  below  other  nations  in  the  study  of  their 
synonymes :  it  cannot  however  be  denied  that,  while  the  French  and  Germans 
have  had  several  considerable  works  on  the  subject,  we  have  not  a  single  writer 
who  has  treated  it  in  a  scientifick  manner  adequate  to  its  importance :  not  that 
I  wish  by  this  remark  to  depreciate  the  labours  of  those  who  have  preceded 
me ;  but  simply  to  assign  it  as  a  reason  why  I  have  now  been  induced  to  some 
forward  with  an  attempt  to  fill  up  what  is  considered  a  chasm  in  English 

In  the  prosecution  of  my  undertaking,  I  have  profited  by  every  thing  which 
has  been  written  in  any  language  upon  the  subject ;  and  although  I  always 
pursued  my  own  train  of  thought,  yet  whenever  I  met  with  any  thing  deserving 
of  notice,  I  adopted  it,  and  referred  it  to  the  author  in  a  note.  I  had  not  pro- 
ceeded far  before  I  found  it  necessary  to  restrict  myself  in  the  choice  of  my 
materials ;  and  accordingly  laid  it  down  as  a  rule  not  to  compare  any  words 
together  which  were  sufficiently  distinguished  from  each  other  by  striking  fea- 
tures in  their  signification,  such  as  abandon  and  quit,  which  require  a  compari- 
son with  others,  though  not  necessarily  with  themselves ;  for  the  same  reason  I 
thought  fit  to  limit  myself,  as  a  rule,  to  one  authority  for  each  word,  unless' 
where  the  case  seemed  to  require  farther  exemplification. 

Although  a  work  of  this  description  does  not  afibrd  much  scope  for  system 
and  arrangement,  yet  I  laid  down  to  myself  the  plan  of  arranging  the  words 
according  to  the  extent  or  universality  of  their  acceptation,  placing  those  first 
which  had  the  most  general  sense  and  application,  and  the  rest  in  order.  By 
this  plan  I  found  myself  greatly  aided  in  analyzing  their  dififerences,  and  I  trust 
that  the  reader  will  thereby  be  equally  benefited.  In  the  choice  of  authorities 
I  have  been  guided  by  various  considerations ;  namely,  the  appropriateness  of 
the  examples ;  the  dassick  purity  of  the  author ;  the  justness  of  the  sentiment ; 
and,  last  of  all,  the  variety  of  the  writers :  but  I  am  persuaded  that  the  reader 
will  not  be  dissatisfied  to  find  that  I  have  shown  a  decided  preference  to  such 
authors  as  Addison,  Johnson,  Diyden,  Pope,  Milton,  &c.  At  the  same  time  it 
is  but  just  to  observe  that  this  selection  of  authorities  has  been  made  by  an 
actual  perusal  of  the  authors,  without  the  assistance  of  Johnson's  dictionary. 

For  the  sentiments  scattered  through  this  work  I  ofifer  no  apology,  although  I 
am  aware  that  they  will  not  fall  in  with  the  views  of  many  who  may  be  com- 


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petent  to  decide  on  its  literary  merits.  I  write  not  to  please  or  displease  any 
description  of  persons ;  but  I  trust  that  what  I  have  written  according  to  the 
dictates  of  my  mind  will  meet  the  approbation  of  those  whose  good  opinion  I 
am  most  solicitous  to  obtain.  Should  any  object  to  the  introduction  of  morality 
in  a  work  of  science,  I  beg  them  to  consider,  that  a  writer,  whose  business  it 
was  to  mark  the  nice  shades  of  distinction  between  words  closely  allied,  could 
not  do  justice  to  his  subject  without  entering  into  all  the  relations  of  society, 
and  shoiyng,  from  the  acknowledged  sense  of  many  moral  and  religious  terms, 
what  has  been  the  general  sense  of  mankind  on  many  of  the  most  important 
questions  which  have  agitated  the  world.  My  first  object  certainly  has  been 
to  assist  the  philological  inquirer  in  ascertaining  the  force  and  comprehension 
of  the  English  language;  yet  I  should  have  thought  my  work  but  half  com- 
pleted had  I  made  it  a  mere  register  of  verbal  distinctions.  While  others  seize 
every  opportunity  unblushingly  to  avow  and  zealously  to  propagate  opinions 
destructive  of  good  order,  it  would  ill  become  any  individual  of  contrary  senti- 
ments to  shrink  from  stating  his  convictions,  when  called  upon  as  he  seems  to  be 
by  an  occasion  like  that  which  has  now  offered  itself.  As  to  the  rest,  I  throw' 
myself  on  the  indulgence  of  the  publick,  with  the  assurance  that,  having  used 
every  endeavour  to  deserve  their  approbation,  I  shall  not  make  an  appeal  i& 
their  candour  in  vain. 



A  FOURTH  edition  of  the  Enoltsh  Stnontmbs  having  now  become  desirable, 
the  Author  has  for  some  time  past  occcupied  himself  in  making  such  additions 
and  improvements,  as  he  deems  calculated  materially  to  enhance  its  value  as  a 
work  of  criticism.  The  alphabetical  arrangement  of  the  words  is  exchanged 
for  one  of  a  more  scientifick  character,  arising  from  their  alliance  in  sense  or  from 
the  general  nature  of  the  subjects :  thus  affording  the  advantage  of  a  more  con- 
nected explanation  of  terms,  more  or  less  allied  to  each  other.  At  the  same 
time  the  purpoee  of  reference  is  more  fully  answered  by  an  index  so  copious 
that  the  reader  may  immediately  turn  to  the  particular  article  sought  for.  The 
siibject  matter  o(  several  articles  has  been  oonsideraMy  enlarged,  and  sueb 
allocations  admitted  fiB  may  serve  to  place  the  Synonyxes  in  a  clearer  pomt 
of  view,  psjrticularly  by  comparing  them  with  the  corresponding  words  in  the 
original  languages  whence  they  are  derived.  Thes  English  quotations  have 
likewise  undergone  several  alterations  both  in  their  number  and  order,  so  aa  ts 
adapt  them  to  the  other  changes  which  have  been  introduced  throu^umt  the 



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TO  ABAIVDON— to  abaodoo,  denit,  fcmfce,  r»< 

Unqaiab S43 

TTO  ABANDON— to  abandoii,  mlfii,  renounce, 

abdicate 943 

TO  ABANDON— to  give  op,  abandon,  resign, 

forego 943 

ABANDONED— {Nofllgaie,  abandoned,  reprobate  949 
TO  ABASK— to  abase,  bamUe,  degrade,  dlagrace, 

debase lOG 

TO  ABASH— to  abaab,  conibaod,  conAiae 107 

TO  ABATE— to  abate,  leawn,  dlminisfa,  decrease  351 

TO  ABATE— to  subside,  abate,  Intermit 971 

TO  ABDICATE— to  abandon,  resign,  renounce, 

abdicate 943 

TO  ABDICATE-to  abdicate,  desert 953 

ABETTOB— abettor,  accessary,  accompttce 

TO  ABHOR— to  abbor,  detest,  abominate,  loathe  138 
TO  ABIDE— to  abide,  aqjoom,  dwell,  reside,  in- 

babit 963 

ABILITY— ability,  capacity V7 

ABILITY— faculty,  ablUty,  talent 68 

ABILITT— dexterity,  address,  abUity 68 

ABJECT— low,  mean,  atpfect 147 

TO  ABJURE— to  abjure,  recant,  retract,  revoke, 

recall 947 

TO  ABOLISH— to  aboUsh,  abrogate,  repeal,  re- 
voke, annul,  cancel 947 

ABOlONABLE-abomlBable,  deieMablc,  execra- 
ble  138 

TO  ABOMINAT£-to  abbor,  detest,  abominate, 

loathe 138 

ABORTION— AUnre,  miscarriage,  abortion 195 

ABUVB— above,  over,  upon,  beyond 979 

V>  ABRIDGE— to  abridge,  curtail,  contract 178 

TO  ABRiDGE-to  deprive,  debar,  abridge 506 

TO  ABR06ATE-to  jabolUi,  abrogate,  repeal, 

revoke,  annul,  cancel 947 

ABRUPT— abrupt,  rugged,  rough 901 

TO  ABSCOND— to  abaeond,  sieal  away,  secrete 

oae'sself 590 

ABSENT— absent,  abstracted,  dhrerled,  distracted  484 

TO  ABSOLVB-to  abaolva,  acquit,  dear 189 

TO  ABSOLVE— to  foiglva,  paidoo,  absohre,  re- 
mit     87 

ABSOLUTE-absolate,  despotick,  arbitrary 188 

ABSOLUTE— positive,  abooiute,  peremptory ....  188 
TO  ABSORB— to  absorb,  swaOow  op,  Ingulf,  en- 

groas 509 

TO  AB8TAIN-to  abstain,  lbrb«tf,reft«la 944 

ABSTEMIOUS-ahstlneol,    sober,   abstemious, 

iw|wisin 944 

ABSTINBNCE-absttaMMab  ibst 87 

ABSTINENT— ab«tMB^    aaber,     ■hstemloas, 

, 944 

TO  ABSTRACT— to  abstmel,  separata,  distin- 
guish  490 

ABSTRACTED— absent,    abstracted,   diverted, 

distracted 484 

ABSURD— irrational,  foolirii,  absurd,  preposte- 
rous     91 

ABUNDANT— plentUbl,  plenteous,  abundant,  co- 
pious, ample 341 

TO  ABUSE— to  abuse,  misuse 309 

ABUSE-abuse,  Invective 100 

ABUSI V£-reproachful,  abusive,  scurrUous 100 

ABYSS-gulf,  abyss 403 

ACADEMT-scboo],  academy 197 

TO  ACCEDE-to  accede,  consent,  comply,  acqui- 

«cei««ree ISl 

TO  ACCELERATE— to  hasten,  accelerate,  speed, 

expedite,  despatch 961 

ACCENT— sirem,  strain,  emphasis,  accent 991 

TO  ACCEPT— to  take,  receive,  accept 939, 

ACCEPTABLE— acceptable,  grateflil, welcome..  934 
ACCEPTANCE   )                                ^  .^ 

ACCEPPATION  {  ■^^^'P^*^!  acceptation 931 

ACCESS—  admittance,  access,  approach 9BI 

ACCESSION- Increase,  addition,  accession,  aug- 
mentation   '94r' 

ACCESS  ART— abettor,  accessary,  accomplice. . .  365 

ACaDENT— accident,  chance 171 

ACCIDENT— accident,  cooangency,  casualty ...  179 
ACCIDENT— event,  incident,  accident,  adven- 
ture, occurrence 1T9 

ACCIDENTAL— accidental,  incidental,  casual, 

contingent 179 

AOCLAUATION— applause,  acctaunation,  plau- 
dit    130 

TO  ACCOMMODATE— to  fit,  suit,  adapt,  accom- 

modatt,  adjust .*. 154 

ACCOMPANIMENT— accompaniment,   compa- 
nion, concomitant 499 

TO  ACCOMPANY— to  accompany,  attend,  es- 
cort, wait  on . » 493 

ACCOMPLICE— abettor,  accessary,  aceompllGe..  36( 
ACCOMPLICB-ally,  conftdente,  accomplice . .   401 
TO  ACCOMPLISH— to  aoeompHwh,  elibct,  exe- 
cute, achieve 989 

TO  ACCOMPLISH-^  AiUll,  aocompUsb,  rsallae  9B9 

ACCOMPLISHED— accomplished,  peiibct 989 

ACCOMPLISHMENT— quaHfkation,     aceom- 

plishment 989 

TO  ACCORD-to  agree,  accord,  suit lA 

ACCORDANCE— DMkxIy,  harmony,  accordance  159 
ACCORDANT*<-eonaonant,  accordant,  oonalBlMl  158 
A0C0RDIN6LT— theielbsa,  consequently,  ae- 

cordtaigly  ..••.•••.•••«•..•••.•••«.•«••..•••  914 


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ACCOUNT—Bceonat,  reckoning,  bUI 433 

ACCOUNT— account,  narnttve,  deKription 407 

ACCOUNT— wke,  account,  reason,  purpose,  end  535 
TO  ACCOUNT— to  calculate,  oompate,  reckon, 

count  or  account,  number 432 

ACCOUNT A£L£-anawerable,  responsible,  ac- 
countable, amenable 183 

TO  AOOUMULATE-40  heap,  pile,  accumulate, 

amass 340 

ACCURATE— acenrale,  exact,  precise 903 

ACCURATE— correct,  accurate 908 

ACCUSATION— complaint,  accusation ilS 

TO  ACCUSE— to  accuse,  cbaife,  impeach,  ai^ 

ralgn Ul 

TO  ACCUSE-to  accuse,  censure Ill 

AOHIEVE— to  accomplish,  eflbct,ejcecute,  achieve  S88 
ACHIEVEMENT-deed,  exptolt,  achievement, 

feat »5 

TO  ACKNOWLEDGE— to  acknowledge,  own, 

oonfesi,aTow 44S 

TO  ACKNOWLEDGE— to  recognise,  acknow- 
ledge  442 

TO  ACUUAINT— to  iDform,  make  known,  ac^ 

quaint,  apprize 194 

ACQUAINTANCE— acquaintance,   famUiarlty, 

•     intimacy 195 

TO  ACQUIESCE— to  accede,  oonient,  comply, 

acquiesce,  agree 151 

,TO  ACaUIRE— to  acquire,  obtain,  gain,  win, 

earn 3W 

TO  ACaUIRE— to  acquire,  attain 306 

^^I^*!^  I  acquirement,  ^xjuislUon....  306 

AcauisrrioN    s^ 

TO  ACaurr— to  absolve,  acquit,  dear 18S 

ACRIMONY— acrimony,  tartness,  asperity,  harsh- 
ness  • •••••  383 

TO  ACT— to  make,  do,  act »4 

action}"*"- •"•-"' ~ 

ACTION  -action,  g&sture,  gesUculation,  posture, 

attitude 285 

ACTION— action,  agency,  operation 296 

ACTIVE— active,  diligent,  industrious,  assiduous, 

laborious 296 

ACTIVE— active,  brisk,  agile,  nimble S07 

ACTIVE— adUve,  baVi  officious 297 

ACTOR— actor,  agent 298 

ACTOR— actor,  player,  performer 298 

ACTUAL— actual,  real,  poaiUve 208 

-  TO  ACTUATE— to  actuate,  imp^,  Induce 300 

ACUTE-^cnte,  keen,  shrewd 401 

ACUTE— sharp,  acuto,  keen 402 

ACUTENESS— penetration, acuteness, sagacity..  401 
ADAGE— axiom,  maxbn,  aphorism,  apophthegm, 

saying,  adage,  proverb,  by-word,  saw 210 

TO  ADAPT— to  fit,  suit,  adapt,  accommodate,  ad- 
Just 154 

TO  ADD— to  add,  Joht,  unite,  coalesce 418 

TOlADDICT— to  addict,  devoto,  apply 421 

ADDITION— Increase,  additton,  accession,  ang- 

,  mentation * 347 

TO  ADDRBSS-to  accost,  sahite,  address 461 

TO  ADDRESS-toaddieas,  apply 422 

ADDRWaPI   address,  veeeb,  banBgoe^  oratkm. .  461 

ADDRESS-dlreGtioii,addieai,saperaeriptloB....  913 

ADDRES8-dexl«rity,addfeBS,abUlty « 

TO  ADDUCE— to  adduce,  allege,  assign,  advance  490 
ADEUU  ATE— proportionate,  oommensurate,  ade- 
quate   434 

TO  ADHERE— to  adhere,  attach 490 

TO  ADH£RE-to  stick,  cleave,  adhere 419 

ADHERENCE— adhesion,  adherence 420 

ADHERENT— folk)  wer,  adherent,  partisan 419 

ADHESION— adhesion,  adherence 490 

ADJACENT— adjacent, a^Jolntng, contiguous...  420 

ADJECTIVE-eplUiet,  adjective 490 

ADJOINING-adjacent,  adjoining,  contiguous. . .  490 

TO  ADJOURN— to  prorogue,  adjourn 20Q 

TO  ADJUST— to  fit,  suit,  adapt,  accommodate, 

adjust 154 

TO  ADMINISTER— to  minister,  administer,  con- 
tribute    167 

ADMINISTRATION— government,   administra- 
tion  207 

ADMIRATION— wonder,  admiration,  surprise, 

astonishment,  amaxement 403 

ADMISSION-admittance,  admission 235 

TO  ADMIT-to  admit,  receive 235 

TO  ADMIT— to  admit,  allow,  permit,  suffer,  tole- 
rate  157 

TO  ADMIT— to  admit,  allow,  grant 157 

ADMITTANCE— admittance,  access,  approach. .  235 

AD&HTTANCE— admittance,  admission 235 

TO  ADMONISH— to  admonish,  advise |93 

ADMONITION— admonition,  warning,  caution  .    93 

TO  ADORE— to  adore,  worship 31 

TO  ADORE— to  adore,  reverence,  venerate,  re- 
vere  T 51 

TO  ADORN— to  adorn,  decorate,  embellish 590 

ADROIT— clever,  skilful,  expert,  dexterous,  adroit  09 
TO  ADULATE  >to  adulate,  flatter,  compliment. .  526 

TO  ADVANCE-  -to  advance,  proceed 301 

TO  ADVANCE— to  encourage,  advance,  promote, 

prefer,  forward 312 

TO  ADVANCE— to  adduce,  aUege,  assign,  ad- 
vance   49C 

ADVANCE  )  progress,    progression,    ad- 

ADVANCEMENTi     vaoce,  advancement VH 

ADVANTAGE— good,  benefit,  advantage 397 

ADVANTAGE— advantage,  profit 306 

ADVANTAGE— advantage,  benefit,  utility,  ser- 
vice, avail,  use 306 

ADVENTURE— event,  hiddent,  accident,  adven- 
ture, occurrence ITS 

ADVENTUROUS— enterprising,  adventurous...  173 
ADVENTUROUS— foolhardy,  adventurous,  rash  321 
ADVERSARY— «aemy,  foe,  adversary,  opponent, 

antagonist 134 

ADVERSE— adverse,  contrary,  opposite 135 

ADVERSE— adverse.  Inimical,  hostile,  repugnant  135 

ADVERSE— adverse,  averse I3g 

ADVERSITT— adversity,  distress 407 

TO  ADVERTISE— to  announce,  proclaim,  pub- 
lish, advertise 443 

ADVICE— advice,  counsel,  instruetion 104 

ADVICEr-informatioo,  hiteUlgenoe,  notice,  ad- 

^^ 195 

TOADVISE-toadiiK»iab,advte 181 


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ADVOCATE— defitnder,  advoeatei  pleader. 

AFFABLE— «flU>le,  courteoof 

AFFAIR— aAlr,  bustneas,  coneern 

TO  AFFECT— to  aflfeet,  concern 

TO  AFFECT— to  afltet,  umime 

TO  AFFECT— 10  aflbct,  pretend  to SS9 

AFFECTING— moTiof,  aflbcttngi  patbetlek 301 

AFFECTION— affectkn,  love STB 

AFFECTION— attachment,  aifeetion,  iocllnatkNi  379 

AFFECnONATE-aflectlonale,  kind,  fond 379 

AFFIN  IT  y— alliance,  afflniqr 498 

AFFINnT— Uadred,  relatiooship,  affinity,  con- 

■anfuinity 497 

TO  AFFIRM— to  afBrm,  aaMverate,  anure,  voncb, 

a^er,  proteat 441 

TO  AFFIRM— to  affirm,  asKTt 441 

TO  AFFIX— to  affii,  subjoin,  attach,  annex 419 

TO  AFFLICT— to  afflict,  distrev,  trouble 406 

AFFUCTION— affliction,  grief,  lorrow 406 

AFFLU£NCE--iiches,  wealth,  opoience,  afflu- 
ence   * 340 

TO  AFFORD— 10  afford,  yield,  produce 330 

TO  AFFORD— to  give,  afford,  spare 163 

AFFRAY— <|uarrel,  broil,  feud,  affray  or  fhiy . .. .  133 

AFFRONT— affront,  insult,  outrage 181 

AFFRONT— oflcnoe,  trespass,  traiisgreasion,  mlt- 

demeanoar,  misdeed,  aflhmt ISO 

AFRAID— afraid,  fearful,  timorous,  timid 307 

AFTER— after,  behind 879 

AGE— generation,  age 870 

AGE— lime,  period,  age,  date,  era,  epocha 867 

AGED— elderly,  aged,  old 869 

A6ENCT— action,  agency,  operation 886 

AGENT    actor,  agent 

AGENT— minister,  agent 815 

AGENT— factor,  agent 

TO  AGGRAVATE— to  aggravate,  irritate,  pro- 
voke, exasperate,  tantalize 181 

TO  AGORA VATE-Ho  heighten,  ratee,  aggravate  355 

AGGRESSOR— aggressor,  assailant 116 

AGILE— active,  brisk,  agile,  nimble 807 

TO  AGITATE— to  shake,  agitate,  teas 304 

AGITATION— agitaUon,   emoUon,   trepidation, 

trcmour 308 

AGONY— distreaa,  anxiety,  anguish,  agony 407 

AGONY— pain,  pang,  agony,  anguish 407 

TO  AGREE— to  agree,  accord,  suit 15B 

TO  AGREE— to  accede,  consent,  comply,  acqui- 
esce, agree 151 

TO  AGREE-40  agree,  coincide,  concur 151 

AGREEABLE— agreeable,  pleasant,  pleasing....  158 
AGREEABLE—conformable,  agreeable,  suitable  153 
AGREEMENT— agreement,  conUact,  covenant, 

compact,  baigain 153 

AGRICULTURIST— ikrmer,  husbandman,  agri- 

culmrlst 336 

TO  AID— to  help,  assist,  aid,  succour,  relieve. ...  364 

AIM— aim,  object,  end 384 

AIM— tendency,  drift,  scope,  aim 385 

TO  AIM— to  aim,  point,  level 384 

TO  AIM— CO  aim,  aspire 385 

TO  AIM— CO  endeavour,  aim,  strive,  struggle  ....  381 

AIR— air,  manner 193 

AII^-«lr,ail«i.look US 

laO'  AIR— appearance,  air,  aspect 4?8 

ALACRITY— altrmess,  alacrity 897 

ALARM— alarm,  terrour,  fright,  consieniaiion ....  SOS 

ALERTNESS— alortneas,  alacrity 897 


TO  ALIENATE  }■*""«"•  f'=>"''«»^'  ■^»«° ^ 

AUKE^-equal,  even,  equable,  like  or  aiikie,  uni- 
form  43S 

ALL-Hill,  whole 898 

ALL— an,  eveiy,  each 838 

TO  ALLAY— to  allay,  sooth,  appease,  assuage, 

ihitlgate.... 361 

TO  ALLEGE— to  addaee,  allege,  assign,  advance  489 
ALLEGORY— figure,  metaphor,  allegory,  emblem, 

symbol,  type 531 

ALLEGORY— paraUe,  allegory 538 

TO  ALLEVIATE— 10  alleviata,  relieve 361 

ALLIANCE— alliance,  league,  confederacy 499 

ALLIANCE-^Ilianee,  affinity 498 

TO  ALLOT— to  allot,  aaslgn,  apportion,  distribute  168 

TO  ALLOT— to  alk>t,  appoint,  destine 166 

TO  ALLOW— Co  give,  grant,  bestow,  alk>w 168 

TO  ALLOW— to  admit,  altow,  penait,  suffi^r,  tole- 
rate  157 

TO  ALLOW— to  admit,  aitow,  grant 157 

TO  ALLOW— CO  consent,  permit,  allow 156 

ALLOWANCE— alk>wance,     aUpend,     salary, 

wages,  hire,  pay |64 

TO  ALLUDE— to  allude,  refer,  hint,  suggest 386 

TO  ALLUDE  TO— to  glance  at,  alludeto 387 

TO  ALLURE-40  allure,  tempt,  seduce,  entice, 

decoy 319 

TO  ALLURE— CO  attract,  allure,  invite,  engage. .  318 

ALLUREMENTS attractions,     allurements, 

charms 318 

ALLY— ally,  confederate,  accomplice 491 

ALMANACK— calendar, ahnanack,ephemeris..  434 

ALONE— atone,  solitary,  fcmely 859 

ALSO— also,  likewise,  too 8S8 

TO  ALTER— to  change,  alter,  vary 383 

ALTERCATION— dillerenee,  dispute,  altercation, 

quarrel 133 

ALTERNATE— successive,  alternate 879 

ALWAYS— always, at  all  thnea,  ever 858 

AMASS— to  heap,  pile,  accumulate,  amass 340 

AMAZEMENT— wonder,   admiration,  surprise, 

astonishment,  amaaement 403 

AMBASSADORr-ambassador,  envoy,  plenipoten- 
tiary, deputy 314 

AMBIGUOUS— ambiguous,  equivocal 537 

AMENABLE— answerable,  responsible,  aceount- 

able,  amenable 183 

TO  AMEND— to  amend,  correct,  reform,  rectify, 

emend,  fanprove,  mend,  better aui 

AMENDS— festoration,  restitution,  reparation, 


AMENDS— compensation,  satisfbctton,  amends, 
remuneration,  recompense,  requital,  reward. .  438 

AMIABLE— amiable,  lovely,  beloved 378 

AMICABLE— amicable,  ftiendly 378 

AMOROUS— amorous,  toving,  Ibnd 378 

AMPLE— ample,  spacious,  capaekNis 390 

AMPLE— plentiftil,  plenteous,  abundant,  copious^ 

V.  8a 


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TO  AMUSE— (0  amoM,  dlv«t,  ealertaio 390 

TO  AMUSE— to  amufw,  Iwfulle 391 

AMUSEMENT— ainuwuieiit,  entertalamflot,  dl- 

venion,  sport,  recreatluii,  puUmfl 301 

AJ7ATHEB1A— malediction,  carae,  Imprecation, 

execratioD,  nnailiema 6i 

ANCEaTORS-forefaUicn,progeiillor«,aMeaion  Md 
ANCIENT— oid|  audent,   antique,  anUqtutedi 

oid-OMhioiMd,  oInoletA 9Q8 

ANCIENTLY         }  ^ommiy,  io  am«a  poat.  old 
ANCIENTTIMESf    <J»«ordayaof  yore,aii- 

j     cieiiUy  or  in  ancient  tiiuea  9flQ 

ANECDOTE— aoacdoie,  aiory,  ul« 487 

ANECDOTES— aoecdoies,  memoln,  cluwilclaa, 

annaia 460 

ANGER— anger,  reeenunent,  wratii,  Ire,  indigna- 

Uoo 118 

ANGER— anger,  cboiar,  rafe,  fury 119 

ANGER— dlspleaaure,  anger,  disapproliation 118 

ANGLE— corner,  angle 490 

ANGRY— angiy,  paaaionate,  baaty,  iraadUe 119 

ANGUISH— difltreai,  anxiety,  anguidi,  agony. ...  4(17 

ANGUISH— pain,  pang,  agony,  anguiali 4i7 

ANIMADVERSION— animadveraion,  erlticiam, 

atricture 113 

TO  ANIMADVERT— to  ceoauie,    animadviirt, 

eriiiciae ;. HI 

ANIMAL— animal,  brute,  beaat 511 

TOANIMATB— to   animate,  inapJre,   enliven, 

cbeer,.  exhilarate 355 

TO  ANQiATE-Ho  eneourage,  animate,  Indie, 

Impel,  urge,  atimulate,  iniUgate 311 

ANIMATION— animation,  life,  vivacity,  splrU..  350 

ANIMOSITY— enmity,  auimoalty,  boMility 136 

ANN  ALS— anecdoiea,  memoiia,  clironidea,  annaia  4G0 
TO  ANNEX— to  affix,  mibjoin,  attach,  aoiMx. ...  410 
ANNOTATION— remark,  ofaatfvation,  comment, 

note,  annotation,  commentary 451 

TO  ANNOUNCE— to  announce,  prodalm,  pub- 

liah,  advertiw 443 

TO  ANNOY— to  inconvenience,  annoy,  moieet. .  417 
TO  ANNUI^~to  ahollidi,  abrogate,  repeal,  ra- 

▼nke,  annul,  cancel 947 

ANSWER— answer,  reply,  rejoinder,  response.. .  460 
ANSWERABLE-answeraUe,   respooslMe,  ao- 

countable,  amenable 183 

ANSWERABLE—conrespondeni,    answerable, 

•uitable 155 

ANTAGONIST-enemy,  foe,  adversary,  oppo- 
nent, antagpoist 184 

ANTECEDENT  f  "*«eden^  preceding,  forego- 
ANTERIOR        C     ^  P«^fo««»w»t«rior,  prior, 

)     fcnner sn 

ANTICIPATE— to  prevent,  anticipate SSO 

ANTtPAlHY— •veraioa,  antipathy,  dislike,  h*- 

tred,  repugnance 136 

ANTIQUATED  }  old.  ancient,  antiquated,  an- 
ANTIQUE         f    tique,old-ft8hioned,  obsolete  908 
ANXIETY— care,  solicitude^  anxiety 435 

ANXIETY-distrea8,anx|ety,anguisb,agov....  407 
ANY— some,  any 250 

APARTMENTS-lodglngB,apartments.... !!.!!!  499 
APATHY— indilRrence,insensibllHy,  apathy....  875 
TO  APE-10  imitate,  mlmick,  mock,  ape 09 

APERTURE— openlnc,  aperton,  cavity 409 

APHORISM— axiom,  maxim,  aphorism,  apoph- 
thegm, saying,  adage,  proverb,  by-word,  saw  SIQ 
TO  APOLOGIZE— to  apologize,  defend,  Justii>, 

exculpate,  excuse,  plead 181 

APOPHTHEGM— «xiom,    maxim,     aphorism, 
apophthegm,  aaying,  adage,  proverb,  by-word, 

saw 810 

TO  APPAL— to  dismay,  daunt,  appal 300 

APPAREL— apparel,  attire,  array 277 

APPARENT— Apparent,  visible,  clear,  plain,  ob- 
vious, evident,  manifest 478 

APPARITION — vision,     apparldon,    phantom, 

spectre,  ghost 4J9 

TO  APPEAR— to  look,  appear 481 

TO  APPEAR— to  seem,  appear 483 

APPEARANCE-appearance,  air,  aspect 478 

APPEARANCE — show,    outside,    appearance, 

semblance 453 

TO  APPEASE— to  appease,  calm,  pacify,  quiet, 

sUII 301 

TO  APPEASE— to  allay,  sooth,  appease,  assuage, 

mitigate 301 

APPELLATION— name,  appellation,  title,  deno- 
mination....   471 

TO  APPLAUD— to  praise,  commend,  applaud, 

extol ISt 

APPLAUSE— applause,  acdaniation,  plaudit ....  130 
APPLICATION— attention,  application,  study. ..  493 

TO  APPLY— to  addict,  devote,  apply 481 

TO  APPLY— to  address,  apply .'..  488 

TO  APPOINT-Ho  allot,  appoint,  destine 108 

TO  APPOINT— to  appoint,  order,  prescribe, ordain  184 
TO  APPOINT— to  constitute,  appoint,  depute. .. .  814 
TO  APPORTION— to  allot,  aMign,  apportion,  dia- 

tribuie 108 

TO  APPRAISE       )to  appraise  or  appreciate, 

TO  APPRECIATE  i     estimate,  esteem 438 

TO  APPREHEND-to  apprehend,  fear,  dread...  307 
TO  APPREHEND-Ho  conceive,  appreliend,  aup- 

pose,  imagine 7f 

TO  APPRIZE-to  inform,  make  known,  acquaint, 

apiirixe 184 

APPRIZED-«wara,  on  one'a  guard,  apprixed, 

contwious 488 

APPROACH— admittance,  access,  approach 835 

TO  APPROACH— to  approach,  approximate 831 

APPROBATION— assent,  consent,  approbation, 

concurrence 150 

APPROPRIATE — ^peculiar,  appropriate,   parti- 
cular  831 

TO  APPROPRIAT&-to  appropriate,  uaurp,  nrro- 

gala,  assume,  ascribe 830 

TO  APPROPRIATE— to  appropriate,  impropriate  831 
TO  APPROXIMATE-to  approach,  approximate  835 

APT— ready»  ape,  prompt 887 

APT— fit,  apt,  meet 155 

AR  BITER-Judge,  umpire,  jarbtter,  arbitrator. .. .  SU 
ARBITRARY— absolute,  despotick,  arbitrary....  IST 
ARBITRATOR— Judge,  umpire,  arbiter,  arbitrator  811 

ARCHITECT— arcbitect,  builder 408 

ARCHIVE-record,  register,  archive 460 

ARDENT— hot,  fieiy,  buming,  ardent 475 

ARDOUR— fervour,  ardour 475 

ARDUOUS— hard,  difficult,  ardaoui 304 


zed  by  Google 


TO  ARGUE— fo  arpw,  dHNite,  dalMte 114 

TO  AKGUP<— to  aifue,  fivineoi  prove 7i 

ABGUMENT— ttrgument,  raaaon,  proof 77 

TO  A]iISB->to  ftriie  or  riw,  OMNiiit,  amend,  dhnls 

«e«le 308 

TO  ARIBB— to  sriw,  proceed,  lane,  ■prinf,  flow, 

ARMS— •rms.weepoiia 141 

ARMY— enny,  iKMt 141 

TO  ARRAIGN— to  accttse,clmrge,tinpeach,arraign  111 

rO  ARRANGE— to  daw,  erraoge,  range 877 

ro  ARRANGB-to  dtopoM,  arrange,  dlgeet 877 

ARRAY— apparel,  autre,  array 877 

TO  ARRIVE— ID  coDie,  arrive 301 

ARROGANCE— arrogance,  prasumptlon 831 

ARROGANCE-haughtlneaa,  dlidain,  arrogance  101 
TO  ARROGATE— to  appropriate,  usurp,  arrogate, 

aaauiiie,  aacribe 830 

AXT-nart,  cunning,  deceit 581 

ART— buflinesa,  trade,  profeailon,  art 331 

ARTFUL— artftil,  artiflcial,  fictttiooa Kl 

ARTICLE— article,  condition,  term 335 

TO  ARTICULATE— to  utter,  speak,  articiUate, 

pronounce 450 

AiBTIPICE— artifice,  trick,  finesae,  stratagem ....  531 

ARTIFICIAL— artful,  arUficiat,  fictitioua 581 


ARTISAN     }  artist,  artisan,  artificer,  mecliaiiick  330 

ARTIST        y 

ASCENDANCY— influence,   authority,   aacend- 

•Bcy.Bwnj lao 

TO  ASCEND— to  ariae  or  riae,  mount,  ascend, 

dimli,  scale 308 

TOA^*RIBE— to  appropriate,  usuip,  arrogate, 

aasume,  aacribe 830 

TO  ASCRIBB-to  aacribe,  attribute,  impute 831 

TO  ASK— to  ask,  beg,  request 157 

TO  ASK— to  ask  or  ask  for,  claim,  demand 83ti 

TO  ASK— «o  ask,  Inquire,  question,  interrogate  . .    07 

ASPBCTT— appearance,  air,  aspect 4TO 

AfiPERITY— acrimony,  tartness,  asperity,  barab- 

"«" 383 

TO  ASPERSE— to  asperse,  detract,  defame,  aian- 

der,  calumniate 105 

TO  ASPlRE-to  aim,  aspire ,....  335 

TO  ASSAIL— to  attack,  assail,  aaaault,  encounter  110 

ASSAILANT— aap-easor,  assailant 116 

TO  ASSAjSSIN  ATE-to  kill,  murder,  aaMuainate, 

riay  or  slaughter si9 

TO  ASSAULT— to  attack,  assail,  asaault,  en- 

«»»»«■ 110 

ASSAULT — attack,  anault,  encounter,  oont, 

.-J^***^ "« 

ASBEMBLAGB-asaembly,  assemblage,  group. 



TO  A8SEMBLB-to  assemble, muater, collect....  480 
TO  A8SEMBLE-to  aaaemble,  convene,  convoke  m 
ASBEBfBLY-aaaefflUy,  aaaembiage,  group,  eol- 

•*•*•" 490 

ASBEMBLY-aasembly,  company,  meeting,  eoii< 
relation,  parliament,  diet,  congreas,  oonvan- 

tten,  synod,  convocation,  councU 400 

,  eonaant,  approbatkm,  coneiir 

TO  ASSERT— to  aaaert,  raaintatn,  vindicate. . . . 


ASSESSMENT— lai,  rate,  aaaessmeot 

TO  A88EyERATS~toafllrra,a8aeverate,aasuie, 

vouch,  aver,  protest ,. 

ASSmUOUS-^acUve,  diligent,  Industrious,  toA- 

dnoua,  laborkMia 

ASSIDUOUS-eedulouai  dUigent,  aasldnous 

TO  ASSIGN-Mo  adduce,  allege,  assign,  advance 
TO  ASSIGN-to  aHot,  assign,  apporUon,  dhcriboie 
TO  ASSIST— to  help,  aaslst,  aid,  aueeour,  relieve 
ASSISTANT— colleagne,  partner,  coadjutor,  aa- 

ASSOCIATE— aasociate,  compank>n 

ASSOCIATION— aaaoclation,  aoclety,  company, 

ASSOCIATION— aasociadon,  combinadon 

TO  ASSUAGE^— 40  allay,  aootb,  appeaae,  ae- 
suage,  miUgate v 

TO  ASSUME— to  afiRset,  assume 

TO  ASSUME— to  appropriate,  usurp,  arrogate, 
assume,  ascribe ^ 

ASSURANCE— asBurance,  confidence 

ASSUR AN CE— asRurance,  impudence 

TO  ASSURE — to  affirm,  aaaeverate,  assure, 
vouch,  aver,  proteat 

ASTONISHMENT — ^wonder,  admiraUon,  sur- 
prise, astonishment,  amazement 


ASTRONOMY  \  ■«n>no«nyi  "trology 

ASYLUM— aayium,  refuge,  aheller,  retreat 

AT  ALL  TIMES-alwayB,  at  att  Umea,ever 

AT  LAST        > .     . 

AT  LENGTH  J  »Mt»y»  « »Mt,  « l«gtli 

TO  ATONE  FOIt-to  atone  for,  eipiate 

ATROCIOUS— heinous,  flagrant,  flagitious,  atro- 
cious ...-. 

TO  ATTAOtt-io  afllz,  subjoin,  attach,  annex.. . 

TOATTACH— ID  adhere,  attach 

ATTACHMENT— attachment,  aflBsctkm,  inclina- 

TO  ATTACK — ^lo  attack^ 

ATTACK — attack,   assault, 

TO  ATTACK— to  impugn,  (ittaek v 

TOATTAIN— to  acquire,  attain 

ATTEMPT — attempt,  trial,  endeavour,  esaay. 







aasail,  aasauit,  en- 
encounter,  onaet, 
















ATTEMPT— attempt, undertaking, eoterpriae....  388 
TO  ATTEI«>— to  aoeompaay,  attend,  eaooil, 

Walton 193 

TO  ATTEND  TO— to  attend  to,  mind,  regard, 

beed,  notice ^b 

TO  ATTEND-lo  attend,  hearken,  llaten. 481 

ATTENTION— attention,  application,  study 481 

ATTENTION— heed,  care,  attention 488 

ATTENTIYB^-attemivt,  carefal 494 

ATTlRE-apparel,  attire,  anay 877 

ATTITUDS-acUon,  gesture,  gmienJatSon,  poe- 

'  tore,  attitude,  position 895 

TO  ATTRACT— to  attract,  alluie,  lavlle,  engage  318 
ATTRACnONB attradioM,       aUttrements, 

cbarma 319 

TO  ATTRIBUTE-ioaaeribflkattiibala^ Impute..  SO 


zed  by  Google 



ATTKIBtJTE-Hiuamy,  property,  attrlbota 99 

AVAII#-«dvmnUig6,  beoeflt,  atfUty.  Mrriee,  ftvaU, 

ii«e 896 

AVAIL— signUkAUon,  avail,  imporunee,  eonao- 

oeeoce,  weight,  moanent •••••  456 

AVARICB— coveioumeM, capidity,  avaffea  .-.  IflO 
AVA&ICI0U8— avaridoui,  nlaerly,  paialmoni- 

oils,  niggardly 161 

AUDACITY— audadty,  efijnonteiy,  hardihood  or 

hardinen,  boldneia 140 

TO  AVENGB-to  avenge,  revenge,  vindicate. . . .  U9 
TO  AVERp-io  affifin,  aieeveiate,  aiaare,  vouch, 

aver,  proieit 441 

AVEBSE— odverK,  averN 136 

AVERSE — avetae,  unwiUinf,  backward,  loath, 

reluctant 136 

AVERSION-^venlon,  antipathy,  dislike,  hatred, 

repngnanee 136 

AUGMENTATION— increaw,  addition,   accea- 

■iofl,  augmentation 348 

TO  AUGUH— to  augur,  presage,  forebode,  betoken, 

portend 94 

AUGUST— magisterial,  .miOeitlek,  stately,  pom- 
pous, august,  dignified  454 

AVIDITY— avidity,  greediness,  eagerness 163 

AVOCATION — business,  occupation,  employ 

ment,  engagement,  avocation 331 

TO  AVOm— to  avoid,  eschew,  shun,  elude 527 

TO  A  VOW— to  acknowledge,  own,  confess,  avow  443 
AUSPICIOUS— fbvourable,  propitious,  ausftclous  190 
AUSTERE— austere,  rigid,  severe,  rigorous,  stem  389 

AUTHOE— writer,  author 336 

AUTHORITATIVE — commanding.  Imperative, 

imperious,  authoritative 185 

AUTHORITY— influence,  authority,  ascendancy, 

sway 186 

AUTHORITY— power,  strength,  force,  authority, 

dominion 186 

TO  AUTH0RIZE-40  commission,  authorize,  em- 

%      power 186 

TO  AWAIT— to  await,  wait  for,  look  for,  expect  415 
TO  AWAKEN — to  awaken,  excite,  provoke, 

rouse,stlrup 311 

AWARE— aware,  on  one*s  guard,  apprized,  con- 
scious   496 

AWE— awe,  reverence,  dread 307 

AWKWARD— Bwkward,  clumsy 315 

AWKWARD awkward,     cross,     untoward, 

crooked,  froward,  perverse 315 

AWRY— bent,  curved,  crook«l,  awry 316 

AXIOM— axiom,  maxim,  aphorism,  apophthegm, 

saying,  adage,  proverb,  by- word,  saw 310 

TO  BABBLE— to  babble,  chatter,  chat,  pratOe, 

prate 450 

BACK  > 

backward}»*~*'»«^*«*»'»^«" ^ 

BACKWARD — averse,    unwiUfaig,    backwanl, 

loath,  reluctant 136 

BAD-bad,  wicked,  evil 137 

BADGE— mark,  badge,  stigma * 

BADLY-~hadly,  Ul 137 

TO  BAFFLE-to  baffle,  defeat,  disoooeert,  eoo- 


TO  BALANCE— to  polae,  balance 319 

BALIi-globe,  baH SOO 

BAND— band,  company,  crew,  gang 49t 

BAND-chain,  fetter,  band.ahackle 217 

BANE— bane,  pest,  ruin 503 

TO  BANISH— to  banish,  exile,  expd SOS 

BANKRUPTCY— Insolvency,  fkilure,  bankruptcy  135 
BANaUET— feast,  banquet,  carousal,  entertain- 
ment, treat • 513 

TO  BANTERr-to  deride,  nock,  lidknle,  rally, 

banter 108 

BARBAROUS— cruel.  Inhuman,  barbarous,  bru- 
tal, savage 373 

BARE— bare,  naked,  uncovered 948 

BARE— bare,  scanty,  destitute 850 

BARE— bare,  mere SSD 

BAREFACED-glarittg,  barefaced 478 

BARGAIN    agreement,  contract,  covenant,  coiih 

pact,  bargain. . .' 199 

TO  BARGAIN — to   buy,    vurchaae,    bargain, 

cheapen 335 

TO  BARTERp-to  change,  exchange,  barter,  sub- 
stitute   334 

TO  BARTER— to  exchsnve,  barter,  truck,  com- 
mute  335 

BASE— base,  vile,  mean 148 

BASIS— foundattoo,  ground,  basis 496 

BASHFUI^— modest,  bashful,  dU&dent 148 

BATTLE— battle,  combat,  engagement 141 

TO  BE— to  be,  exist,  subsist 839 

TO  BE— to  be,  become,  grow 340 

TO  BE  ACQUAINTED  WITH-to  know,  be 

acquainted  with 106 

BEAM— gleam,  glimmer,  ray,  beam 476 

To  BEAR— to  bear,  yield , 330 

TO  BE Alt-^  bear,  carry,  convey,  transport 330 

TO  BEAR— to  sufl^r,  bear,  endure,  support 140 

TO  BEAR  DOWN — ^to  overbear,  bear  down, 

overpower,  overwhelm,  subdue 144 

BEAST— animal,  brute,  beast 511 

TO  BEAT— to  beat,  strike,  hit 143 

TO  BEAT— to  beat,  defeat,  o\'erpower,  rout,  over- 
throw  143 

BEATIFIC ATION— beatification, canonization. .    85 
BEATITUDE— ha|>plness,  felicity,  bliss,  blosed- 

ness,  beatitode 394 

BEAU-^IIant,  beau,  spark 381 

BEAUTIFUL— beautiful,  fine,  handsome,  pretty  313 

TO  BECOME— to  be,  become,  grow 940 

BECOiaNG— becoming,  decent,  seemly,  fit,  suit- 
able  *. .*. 846 

BECOBfING— becoming,  comely,  graceful 313 

TO  BE  CONSCIOUS— to  feel,  be  sensible,  be  con- 
scious  378 

TO  BE  DEFICIENT— to  fall,  fell  short,  be  defi- 
cient  135 

TO  BEDEW— to  sprinkle,  bedew 353 

TO  BEG— tobegjdeslra 158 

TO  BEG— to  beg,  beseech,  solfelt,  entreat,  suppa- 

cate,  implore,  erave 156 

TO  BEG— to  ask,  beg,  request 157 

TO  BEGIN— to  begin, commence,  enter  upon ....  899 
BEGINNING— origin,  original,  beginning,  riae, 


zed  by  Google 



TO  BEGUILE— 10  amuei  beguile 381 

BEHAVIOUR— bebiTlour,  conduct,  carriage,  de- 
portment, demeanour 192 

BEHINI^-aner,  bebtnd S79 

BSHIND-back,  backward,  bebind 230 

TO  BEHOLD— to  look,  lee,  betaold,  view,  eye. . .  48i 
BEHOLDER— kwkeroa,  tpeclator,  beholder,  ob- 

■erver 488 

BEUEF—belier,  credit,  trust,  (Utb 16 

TO  BELIEVE— to  think,  suppoae,  tmagtue,  be- 

lleve,deem 75 

BELOVED— amiable,  lovely,  beldved 378 

BELOW— under,  betow,  beneath S79 

TO  BEMOA;*!— to  bewail,  bemoan,  lament,  de- 

ploie 410 

BEND-bend,  bent 316 

TO  BEND— to  lean.  Incline,  bend ISO 

TO  BEND— to  turn,  bend,  twist,  diatort,  wring, 

wiMt,  wrench 316 

BENEATH— under,  betow,  beneath S79 

BENEFACTION— gift,  preeent,  donation,  bene- 

ftction 164 

BENEFICE— living,  benefice 930 

BENEFICENCE— benevolence,  beneficence 16& 

BENEFICENT— beneficent,  bountlAil  or  bounte* 

oua,  munificent,  generous,  liberal 165 

BENEFIT— benefit,  favour,  kindness,  dvllity . ...  166 

BENfiriT— benefit,  service,  good  office 106 

BENEFIT— advantage,  benefit,  atOlty,  service, 

avail,  nee 308 

BENEFIT— good,  benefit,  advantage 307 

BENEVOLENCE— benevolence,  beneficence....  165 
BENEVOLENCE— benevolence,  benignity,  hu- 
manity, kindness,  tenderness 165 

BENIGNITY— benevolence,  benignity,  humanity, 

kindness,  tenderness 166 

BENT— bend,  bent 316 

BENT— bent,  curved,  crooked,  awry 316 

BENT— bent, bias, Inelination, prepossession  ....  150 

BENT— turn,  bent 316 

BENUMBED— numb,  benumbed,  torpid 379 

TO  BEQUEATH— to  devise,  bequ^th 164 

TO  BEREAVE— to  bereave,  deprive,  strip 506 

TO  BE  RESPONSIBLE  )  »«5"^^»  »*  ^^ 
TOBESBCURrry        (    rlty,  be  respomdble. 

}     warrant .183 

TO  BE  SENSIBLE — to  feel,  be  sensible,  ooih 

sdons 376 

TO  BESEECH— to  beg,  beseech,  solicit,  entreat, 

supplicate.  Implore,  crave 158 

BESIDES— besides,  morecyver SSI 

BESIDES— besides,  except S51 

TO  BESTOW— to  give,  grant,  bestow,  aUow....  163 

TO  BESTOW— to  conftr,  bestow 167 

BElTMES-eoan,  early,  betimes 900 

TO  BETOKEN— to  augur,  presage,  forebode,  be- 
token, portend 94 

TO  BETTER— to  amend,  correct,  reform,  rec- 
tify, enfiend,  improve,  mend,  better 901 

TO  BEWAIL— to  bewail,  bemoan,  lament,  db- 

pJors 410 

BETOND-  above,  over,  upon,  beyond 979 

BIAS— bent,  bias,  inclination,  prepoasesston 150 

BIAS— bias,  prepoansBioo,  prejudice 160 

TO  BID-to can, bid, summon, invite.... 46( 

TO  BID— to  oflbr,  bid,  tender,  propose 167 

TO  BID  ADIEU  >  to  leave,  take  leave,  bid 

TO  BID  FAREWELL  >     fbieweU  or  adieu. .. .  955 

BIG-grea^  large,  big 340 

BILL— aeeounti  reckoning,  bill 433 

BILLOW— wave,  billow,  surge,  bieaker S53 

TO  BIND-^tobind,Ue 916 

TO  BIND— to  bind,  oblige,  ei«age 916 

BISHOPRICK— bishoprick,  dlocesi 85 

TO  BLAME— to  blame,  reprove,  reproach,  up* 

braid,  censure,  condemn IIO 

TO  BLAME-to  find  fault  with,  blame,  object  to  119 
BLAMELESS — blameless,  trreproacbable,   un- 
blemished, unspotted  or  spotless 190 

BLAST— breeae,  gale,  blast,  gust,  stoim,  tempest, 

hurrleane..... 353 

TO  BLAZE— Heme,  blaze,  flash,  flaxe,  glare  ....  470 

BLEMISH— blemish,  stain,  spot,  speck,  flaw 197 

BLEMISH— blemish,  defect,  Autt 197 

TO  BLEND— to  mix,  mingle,  blend,  confound. . .  984 
BLESSEDNESS-^appiness,  felicity,  bliss,  bless- 
edness, beatitude 304 

BLIND— cloak,  mask,  blind,  veO 516 

BUSS-happlness,  foliclty,  bliss,  blesKdness,  bea- 
titude   304 

BLOODT  i  ssngulnaiy,  bkx>dy,  Mood- 

BLOOD-THIRSTY  )     thirsty 90? 

TO  BLOT  OUT— to  Mot  out,  expunge,  rase  or 

erase,  eAce,  cancel,  obllierato 948 

BLOW— btow,  stroke 149 

BLUNDER— errour,  mistake,  blunder 196 

TO  BOAST— to  gk>ry,  boast,  vaunt 596 

BOATMAN— waterman, boatman, Ibriyman ....  337 

BODILT— corporal,  corporeal,  bodily 510 

BODY— body,  corpse,  carcass 510 

BOISTEROUS— violent,  ftarious,  boisterous,  vehe- 
ment. Impetuous 910 

BOLD— bold,  Ibarless,  intrepid,  undaunted 306 

BOLD-dariiig,  boM 141, 

BOLD— strenuous,  bold 141 

BOLDNESS— audacity,  eflirontery,  hardihood  or 

hardiness,  boldness 140 

BOMBASTICK-^Tgld,  tomid,  bombasdek 464 

BOND  AGE— servitude,  slavery,  bondage 398 

BOOTY— booty,  spoil,  prey 506 

BORDEBr-border,  edge,  rim  or  brim,  brink,  mar- 
gin, verge.....  ...... ............ ...........  ITS 

TO  BORE— to  penetrate,  pierce,  perforate,  bore. .  408 
TO  BOUND-^to  bound,  limit,  eonflne,  cireuna- 

seribe,  restrict 176 

BOUNDARY— bounds,  boundary 177 

BOUNDARY— term,  limit,  boundary 177 

BOUNDLESS— boundleas,  unbounded,  unlimited, 

Infinite 177 

BOUNDS— bounds,  boundary 177 

BOUNTEOUS  )  •«"*»••  ^"'"'^  "  ""^ 
BOUNTIFUL  (     •<>^"»»»««e»t,,»«oa.,ll. 

)     beral 165 

BRACE— couple,  brace,  pair 434 

TO  BRAVE— to biave, defy, dare, challenge....  13S 
BR  A  VERY— bravery,  courage,  valour,  gallanuy . .  130 

BREACH). ,  .^     ^ 

BREAK    }W««5«»i«>w«ifV»« 


zed  by  Google 


TO  BBEAK~tobiiMlE,nMk,nad,lnr. 
TO  BREAK--to  bimk,  brolM,  i 


TO  BREAK-^o  break,  bunt,  eraek,qilU BQ8 

HREAKER— wave,  biUow,  mu§b,  breaker 8S3 

'iO  BREED— to  breed,  enfeader 

BREEI>-fface,  feneration,  braod 4B7 

BREEDING— ediicaUoa,lmtnietfc»,fanedii«...  197 
FREEZE— breeae,  gale,  Mast,  giMt,  atona,  ten- 

pert,  bufricaae aS3 

BRIEF--ahort,  brief,  eonciie,  aucdaet,  aommaiy  9S0 

BRIGHT— dear,  lucid,  brigtat,  vivid 476 

BRIGHTNESS  )  brisfatoeea,   Inaira,    aptadour, 

BRILUANCT  >     brilllaocy 474 

BRXLLIANCY-radlanee,  brUliasey 475 

BRIM— border,  edge,  rim  or  brim,  brink,  aMifki, 

verge 178 

TO  BRING— lobrti«,fttoh,  cany 330 

BRINK^bovder,  edge,  ilm  «r  brim,  brink,  mamln, 

verge ITB 

BEISK-aeUve,  briak,  agile,  nimble 987 

BElTTL£~tefUe,ftail,  brittle 90S 

BROAD— laige,  wide,  biuad 348 

BROIL— quarrel,  broil,  feed,  aftaj  m  ftagr US 

TO  BRUISB-lo  bieak,  bnitae,  equeane,  poand, 

cmrii 801 

BRUTAlr-emel,  Inbumaa,  barbarous,  bmtal, 

aavage • 373 

BRUTE-animal,  bnile,  benit 5H 

TO  BUD-loaproat,bud 353 

BUFFOON— fool,  idlo^bnflb«l 400 

TO  BUUJ)-iobulU,«i«ct,oonBtruet 486 

TO  BUILD— to  found,  ground,  r«8^balU 486 

BULK— aiae,  magnitude,  greatoaaa,  bulk 346 

BULKY— bulky,  maaiive  or  maaif 348 

BURDEN— weigbt,  burden,  load 370 

BURDEN-fVelght,  ca^go,  lading, kiad,  bmdea...  336 
BURDENSOBIE-beavy,  burdenaome,  welgbty, 

ponderoua « ^••..»«.  378 

BURIAL— burial,  interment,  aepultare 64 

BURLESaUB— wit,  bumour,  tttire,  truoy,  bur- 

BURNING— hoc,  fiery,  burning,  ardent 475 

TO  BURST-to  break,  bom,  erack,  apiU 508 

BUSINESS— bttdnem,  occupation,  raiplayment, 

engagement,  avocation 331 

BUSINESS— bnatneas,  trade,  profemkm,  k% 331 

BUSINESS-bttifneai,  office,  duty 331 

BUSINESS— aflblr,  boainem,  concern 308 

BUSTLE— boaUa,  tumult,  uproar flSO 

BUSY— active,  bu^TiOffleioua S97 

BUTCHERY— carnage,  alaugbtar,  botehaiy,  maa- 

aacie 510 

BUTT— mark,  butt 448 

TO  BUY— to  buy,  purehaae,  bargain,  cheapen.. .  335 
BY-WORD— ailom,  maxim,  ajihoriam,  apoph- 
thegm, aayingi  adage,  proverb,  by-word,  law  910 

CABAL— combination,  cabal,  plot,  eonepiracy... 
TO  CAJOLE— to  coax,  wheedle,  enyAe^  (bwn... 
CALAMITY— calamity!  dlaaater,  miaibrtune,  mla- 

chance  miahap ••  406 '  CASH— money,  caah 

TO  CALCULATE— toeakulate,compnte, reckon,        |  TO  CAST— to  caat,  throw,  hurl 

>  439  ( CAST— east,  turn,  deacription,  chnwcter 

801   CALSNDABr^calendar,! 

TO  CALL— locall,  bld,aummon,  invite 40 

TO  CALL-4D  cry,  exclaim,  call 478 

TO  CALL— to  name,  call 471 

CALLOUS— hard,  calkwa,  hardened,  obdurate . .  30 

CALM— calm,  compoaed,  coUecled 388 

CALM— calm,  placM,  aeraoe 388 

TO  CALM — to  appeaae,  cafan,  pacify,  fuiet, 

itiU 381 

CALM— peace,  quiet,  calm,  tranquillity 381 

TO  CALUMNIATE— to  aaperee,deunet,delnme, 

slander,  calumniate '. 185 

CAN— mv,  can 3M 

TO  CANCEL— to  abolish,  abrogate,  repeal,  re- 
voke, annul,  cancel 917 

TO  CANCEL— to  blot  out,  expunge,  rase  or  erase, 

eflbce,  cancel,  ebllierate 94B 

CANDID-candM,  open,  sincere 439 

CANDOR— frank,  candid,  ingenuoaa,  fkee,  open, 

plain 411 

CANONIZATlON-beaiiOcation,  canonisation..    65 
CAPACIOUS-^mple,  spaclooa,  capacious 3S0 

CAPACITY  I  **P*^»  eapadousn^ .. .  171 

CAPACITY— abUlly,  capacity m 

CAPRICE— humour,  caprice 386 

CAPRICIOUS— fbncUUl,  (kntastkal,  whimsical, 

capricious. 385 

CAPTIOUS-capttoua,  croas,  peevish,  peiulaat, 

fhMAil 319 

TO  CAPTIVATE— to  charm,  enchant^  fascinate, 

enrapture,  captivate 317 

TO  CAPTIVATE— to  enslave,  captivate 319 

CAPTIVITY— confinement,  impriaooment,  capd- 

y\tf 179 

CAPTURE^-capture,  sebnire,  prlxe 809 

CARCASS-  body,  corpse,  carcam 519 

CARE— care,  solicitude,  anxiety 485 

CARE— cure,  concern,  regard 495 

CARE— care,  charge,  management .\  495 

CARE— heed,  care,  attention 499 

CAREFUL— careAil,  cautious,  provident 485 

CAREFUL- attentive,  careful 494 

CARELES^-lndolent,  eupine,  lisdess,  carelem..  309 
CARELESS— negligent,  remiss,  careless,  thoughl- 

less,  heedlesB,  Inattentive 491 

TO  CAB ESS-to  caress,  Ibndle  .1 St9 

CARGO— fVelghi,  cargo,  lading,  k>ad,  burden  ....  336 
CARNAGE— carnage,  slaughter,  butchery,  maa- 

CAROUSAL-^east,  banquet,  carousal,  enteruin- 

ment,  treat 513 

TO  CARP— to  censure,  carp,  cavn 119 

CARRIAGE— carriage,  gait,  walk 199 

CARRIAGE— behaviour,  conduct,  carriage,  de- 
portment, demeanour 191 

TO  CARRY— to  bear,  carry,  convey,  transport. . .  339 

TO  CARRY— to  bring,  fetch,  carry 339 

CASE— case,  cause 988 

CASE— eituadoo,  eonditlon,  atate,  predicament,    . 

plight,  case S79 



zed  by  Google 


0ASI7AI/-^Mddeat«],  IncUehtal,  eaioikl,  contfai- 

geni tf9 

CASUAI^— oecadonal,  easQBl 418 

CASUALTY— «ccld«nt,  eontlngoticy,  etMoUXf. . .  T79 

CATAI.OGUK-lfat,  ron,  catnlogue,  nglMer 4lOb 

TO  CATCH— 10  lay  or  lake  hold  of,  eatcb,  lelie, 

Bnateh,frM|i,trripe 237 

TO  CAVIL— 10  cennire,  carp,  cavil 112 

CAVITY— opening,  aperture,  cavity 402 

CAUSB— caae,  eauie 880 

CAUSE — cattse,  reunn,  motive 77 

TO  CAUSS— to  cause,  occasion,  create 204 

CAUiaON— adoHinltloii,  warning,  caution Itl3 

CAUTIOUS— earefiil,  cautions,  provldeot 425 

GAUTIOUS-eaadooB,  wary,  clrcnmspeet 425 

TO  CE ASB-^  eease,  leave  oflT,  diKontinue, desist  257 
TO  CEDB— CO  give  up,  deliver,  surrender,  yield, 

eeda,eoncede 212 

GBLEBRATED— Affloua,  celebrated,  rtnoWned, 

1Bo«trfoas 473 

CELERITY— qulclmess,  twlftneaa,  fleetneaft,  ee- 

teifty,  rapidity,  velocity 202 

CELESTIAL— celestial,  heavenly 81 

TO  CENSURE— to  censure,  animadvert,  erMclse  111 

TO  CENBURf^-co  accoae,' censure Ill 

TO  C^NSURE-^  censure,  carp,  cavil 112 

TO  CENSFRE-lo  blame,  reprove,  reproteh,  up* 

braid,  eenanre,  condemn 110 

CEREMONIOUS— (brmai,  ceremonious 204  ; 

CEREMONY— form,  ceremony,  rite,  observance    83 

CERTAIN— certain,  sure,  secure 380 

CESSATION— cessation,  stop,  rest,  Intermiasion  257 

TO  CHAFE— to  rub,  chafe,  fret,  gall 300 

CHAGBilN-Texation,  mortification,  chagrin 122 

CHAIN— chain,  fetter,  band,  shackle 217 

TO  CHALLENGE— to  brave,  defy,  dare,  cbai 

>«"«»•" 138 

CfiAMPtON— combatant,  champion 134 

CHANCE— chance,  fortune,  fkte 170 

CHANCE— chance,  probability 170 

CHANCE— chance,  hazard 170 

CHANCE-accident,  chance 171 

TO  CHANCE— to  happen,  cljance 171 

to  CHANGE— to  change,  alter,  vary 2S3 

ro  CHANGE— to  change,  exchange,  barlw,  mib- 

■diute , 334 

dlANGE-change,  variation,  vicissitude 883 

CHARACTER— character,  letter 107 

CHARACTER— cast,  turn,  description,  character  467 

CHAR  ACTER— character,  reputation 472 

TO  CHARACTERIZE— to  name,  denominate^ 

style,  entitle,  designate,  characterize 471 

CBARGE-eare,  charge,  management  • 425 

CHARGE— attack,   assault,  encounter,    onae^ 

ch«rie jl5 

CHARGE— cost,  expense,  price,  charge 438 

CHARGE— office,  place,  charge,  funcdon 333 

TO  CHARGE— to  accuse,  charge,  impeach,  ar* 

'*'«« lU 

CHARM— grace,  charm 814 

CHARM— pleasure,  Joy,  delight,  charm 803 

to  CHARM— to  charm,  encbaoi,  fascinate,  en- 
rapture, captivate  t.,  317 

CBARMING-dellghtful,cbaiiiiliig 313 

CHARMS— attraetlona,  allurctnenti,  chains. ...    39 

CHASE— Ibrest,  chane,  park tti 

CHASE— hunt,  chaae 1 871 

CHASM— Ineaeh,  brealc,  gap,  cliasm 50i 

TO  CH ASTEa— to  chaaten,  chastise 20l 

CHASTITY— chasthy,  continence,  modesty 248 

TO  CHASTISE— to  cblMten,  chastise 20ll 

TO  CHAT— to  babble,  chatter,  chat,  prattle,  prate  49^ 
CHATTEIJ8— goods,  fBrnfture,  ehatlela,  movea- 

Ue>,eAets 8l8 

TO  CHATTEB^-to  babble,  chatter,  chat,  prattle, 

prate 401 

TO  CHEAPEN — to   bay,  -parehtae,    bargain, 

cheapen  .•••.•■.•••.•■.■■.•••.••■•■■..•«..•  398 

TO  CHEAT— to  cheat,  defraud,  trick 5B8 

TO  CHECK— 40  cheek,  curb,  cofftnil 9Sk 

TO  CHECK— to  eheck,  chide,  reprimand,  re- 

.  -ove,rebuke ll^ 

TO  CHECK— to  CiJedE,  stop 2MI 

TO  CHEEai— to  animate,  haplre,  enliven,  cheer, 

eihllaraie 8M1 

TO  CHEER-Ho  ebeer,  encourage,  ooaifort SJ8 

CHEEBFUL— cheerful, merry, sprightly, gay....  381 

CHEERPUL-glad,  pleaiKd,  Joyful,  cheerful 393 

TO  CHERISH— to  nourish,  nurtwv,  cherish ftf 

TO  CHERISH— to  fbater,  dierlsb,  harbour,  fn- 

dttlge '..  31^ 

TO  CHIDE— to  check,  c^e,  leprhnand,  reprove, 

rebuke lH 

CHIEF— chief,  prmdpal,  main 201 

CHIEF— chief,  lewler,  chieftain^  head Ml 

CHIEFLY— especially,  partlculariy,  principally, 

chiefly im 

CHIEFTAIN— chief,  leader,  chleftalD,  head 208 

CHILDISH— chlMlsh)  InAmtUia 401 

CHILL-chUl,cold 51% 

TO  CHOKE— to  sttfibcate,  sUfle,  mnother,  choke  228 

CHOICE-optlon,  choice 2M 

CHOLEB^^nger,  choler,  rage,  ftary 118 

TO  CHOOSE— to  chooae,  preftr 28l 

TO  CHOOSE-to  choose,  pick,  aeleet 281 

TO  CHOOSE-40  choose,  elect 2M 

CHRONICL£S-«n«cdotBs,  memoira,  ehionictes. 

CHURCH— temple,  chareh 81 

CIRCLE-drcle,  sphere,  orb,  globe 178 

CIRCUrr-^icuit,  tour,  round ITS 

TO  CIRCULATE— to  spread,  drculate^  prop^ 

gate,  disseminate 3lS 

TO  CIRCUMSCRIBE— to  eircomseribe,  enchM  ITS 
TO  CIRCUM8CEIBB— to  bound,  Umit,  confine^ 

circumscribe,  restrict iTt 

CIRCUMSPECT— cautkius,  wary,  clreumspeet. .  4B 

CIRCUMSTANCE— cliauDstance^  iltualSoii ITS 

CIRCUMSTANCE^-iiicident,Aet ITS 

dRCUMSTANTIAIr—clrcomstanUal,  paitien- 

lar,  minute ITS 

TO  CITE— to  cite,  quota 408 

TO  CITE— to  die,  aummoB 401 

CIVTL-hUvU,  polite Ifl8 

CIVIL--tivil,obllghig,eomplai8ant lOS 

CIVILITY— benefit,  favour,  klndneas,  civlHty ....  188 
CIVILIZATION— eultivationt  eattura, 

Uon,  refinement •• • 

CLAIM— right,  claim,  privUega 


zed  by  Google 



CLAIM — pmcMlMi,  claiB 889 

TO  CLAIM— to  aak,  or  atk  for,  cJaloit  demand. .  336 
CLAMOROUS— loud,  noisy,  bigbHWunding,  da- 

moroui 471 

CLAMOUR— noiM,  cry,  outcry,  clamour 470 

CLANDESTINE— dandeaUne,  ncret 9S0 

TO  CLASP— to  claap,  hug,  embrace 377 

CLASS— claM,  order,  rank,  degree S78 

TO  CLASS— fo  daai,  arrange,  range 877 

CLEAR— apparent,  visible,  clear,  plain,  obvious, 

evident,  manifest 478 

CLEAR— clear,  lucid,  brigbt,  vivid 478 

CLEARr-ftIr,  dear 477 

TO  CLEAIUho  absolve,  acquit,  dear 1£2 

CLEARLY-clearly,  distincUy 477 

CLSARNESS-cleamem,  pempiculty 477 

TO  CLEAVE-40  stick,  cleave,  adbere 410 

CLEMENCY— clemency,  lenity,  metcy 356 

GLERG  YMAN-dergymaa,  panon,  priest,  minis 

t*r 85 

CLEVER — clever,   skUAil,   expert,   deiterous, 

adroit 09 

TO  CLIMB— 10  arlseor  rise,  mount,  ascend, cUmb, 

•cale 308 

CLOAK— cloak,  mask,  bltaid,veU aJO 

TO  CLOG— to  dog,  ktad,  encumber 370 

eiiOISTERr-^dolster,  convent,  monMteiy 86 

CLOSE-ecqud,  dose 884 

CLOSE— dose,  compact 885 

GLOBE— dose,  near,  nlgb 885 

TO  CLOS£-to  dose,  shut 

TO  CLOS£-to  dose,  fiolsb,  condude 880 

TO  CLOSE— to  end,  dose,  terminate 

CIX>WN— countryman,  peasant,  swain,  bind,  rue- 


TO  CLOY— satisfy,  satiate,  glut,  doy 

CLUMSY— awkward,  dumsy 

COADJUTOR^-coUeague,  partner,  coa4)utor,  as- 

TO  COALESGK-to  add,  Join,  unite,  coalesce. . . 

COARSE— coarse,  rough,  rude 

COARSE— grosi,  coarse 

TO  COAX— to  coax,  wheedle,  c^JolOi  fawn 

TO  COERCE— to  coerce,  restrain 

COEVAL— coeval,  contemporary.... 

COGENT— cogent,  forcible,  strong 

TO  COINCIDE— to  agree,  coindde,  concur 


OOLD-cool,  cold,  frigid 

COLLEAGUE— colleague,  partner,  coadjutor,  as- 


TO  COLLECT— to  gather,  coUect 

COLLECTED— «alm,  composed,  cdleeted 
OaLLECnON    assembly,   assemblage. 


nvenatloB,  dialogue,  colkiquy. 

TO  OOLOURF-tocokHir,dye^thige,  stain 

COLOUR— colour,  hue,  tint 

COLOURABLE   cotouraMe,  epeiloas,  ostensible, 

COLUMN— plflar,  column. 
COMBAT— battle  combat, 





.  401 

.  480 





510 1 

>  510 


COMBAT— eonffiet,  combat, 

TO  COMBAT— to  combat,  oppose .... 

COMBATANT-oombataat,  champion 


COMBINATION-comUnatton,  cabal,  pkic,  con- 

TO  COMBINE-40  connect,  combine,  unite 

TO  COME— to  come,  arrive 

COMELY— becoming,  comdy,  graceful 

COMELY-graceAU,  comely,  degant 

COMFORT— comfort,  pleasure 

TO  COMFORT— to  cheer,  encourage,  comfort. . . 

TO  COMFORT— to  console,  solace,  comfort 

COMICK     )  laughable,  ludicrous,  ridteulous,  co- 

COMICAL}     mical  or  comick,  droll 

COMMAND— command,  order,  ii^uncUon,  pre- 
cept, mandate 

COMMANDING— commanding,  imperative,  im- 
perious, authoritative 

TO  COMMENCE— tobegin,oommence,enter upon 

TO  COMMEND— to  praise,  conunend,  appiaod, 

OOMMENDABLB-laodable,  praiseworthy,  com- 

COMMENSURATE — proportionate. 



COMMENT  )'«»•*.   observation,    com- 

COMMBNTART  (     "*"'»  "»**»  commentary, 

3     annotation 

COMMERCE— intercourse,  communication,  con- 
nexion, commerce.... «... 

COMMERCE— trade,  omnmerce,  traffiek,  dealing 

COMMERCIAL— mercantile,  commercial 

COMMISERATION— sympathy,  commiseratiaa. 

TO  COMMISSION— to  commimion,  authorise, 
empower  •...«.• ...•>. 

TO  COMMIT— to  consign,  commit,  intrust 

TO  COMMIT— to  perpetrate,  commit 

COMMODIOUS— commodious,  convenient,  suita- 

COMMODITY— commodity,  goods,  merchandise, 

COMMON— common,  vulgar,  ordinary,  mean  ... 

COMMONLY— commonly,  generally,  frequently, 














COMMONWEALTH — state,  realm,  common- 
wealth  180 

COMMOTION-commotlon,  disturbance 1 417 

TO  COMMUNICATE— to  communicate,  impart  486 
COBIMUNICATION — intercourse,  communica- 
tion, connexion,  commerce 333 

COMMUNICATIVE— communicative,  ftee 487 

COMMUNION— communion,  converse 487 

COMMUNION— Lord*ssnpper,eucharist,  commu- 
nion, sacrament 83 

COMMUNITY— community,  society 487 

TO  COMMUTE— to  exchange,  barter,  commute, 

truck 335 

COMPACT    agreement,  contract,  covenant,  com- 
pact, bargain ISB 

COMPACT-chMS,  compact 961 

COMPANION— accompaniment,  oompanton,  cofr 


zed  by  Google 



(X)MPANION— •noelale,  comiwolon 488 

COMPANY — aaaeinbly,  companyi  meeting,  oon- 
gregmtJon,  parllainent,  diet,  congreni  conven- 
tion, synod,  oonvoeAlion,  council 490 

COMPANY— aaMciaHon,  aociety,  company,  put- 

nenhlp 488 

COMPANY— band,  company,  crew,  gang 49S 

COMPANY— aociety,  company 487 

COMPANY— troop,  company 40S 

COMPARISON— compariaon,  contrast 135 

COMPARISON— simile,  almiUlude,  compariaon. .  533 

COMPASSION— pity,  compassion 356 

COMPASSION— aympattay,  commlaeratlon,  com- 
passion, condolence 3177 

COMPATIBLE— compaUUe,  consistent 153 

TO  COMPEL— to  compel,  foree,  oblige,  necessi- 
tate  819 

COMPENSATION— compensation,  satisraction, 
amends,  remuneration,  recompenae,  requlcal, 

reward * 4^ 

COMPETENT— competent,  fitted,  qualified 154 

COMPETITION— competition,  rivalry,  emula- 

tioD 131 

TO  COMPLAIN— to  complain,  lament,  regret.. .  409 
TO  COMPLAIN— to  complain,  murmur,  repine. .  409 

COMFLAINi*— complaint,  accusation llQ 

COMPLAISANCE— complaisance,  *  condescen- 
sion, deference SOO 

COMPLAISANT— civU,  obliging,  complaisant. . .  199 
'  COMPLAIS/VNl'— courteous,   courtly,   complai- 
sant   109 

COMPLETE -complete,  perfect,  finished S87 

COMPLETE— whole,  entire,  complete,  total,  in- 
tegral  S88 

TO  COMPLETE— to  complete,  finish,  terminate  287 
COMPLETION— consummation,  completion  —  287 

COMPLEX— compound,  complex 218 

COMPLEXITY      >  complexity,c($mplicat{on,  in- 

OOMPLICATION  {     trieacy 218 

COMPLIANT— cnmpliant,  yielding,  subraissive. .  151 
TO  COMPLIMENT— to  adulate,  flatter,  compli- 
ment  596 

TO  COMPLY— to  comply,  conform,  yield,  submit  150 
TO  COMPLY— to  accede,  consent,  comply,  acqui- 
esce, agree 151 

TO  COMPOSE— to  compose,  settle 227 

TO  COMPOSE— to  compound,  compose 219 

TO  COMPOSE— to  form,  cnmpoao,  constitute 294 

COMPOSED— composed,  sedate 227 

COMPOSED— calm,  composed,  collected 

COMPOnND— compound,  complex 218 

TO  COMPOUND— to  compound,  compose 210 

TO  COMPREHEND-^to  comprise,  comprehend, 

embrace,  contain,  include 174 

TO  COMPREHEND— to  conceive,  understand, 

lom|»ehend 74 

COMPREHENSIVE— comprehensive,  extensive.  174 
TO  COMPRISE— ID  comprise,  comprehend,  em- 
brace, omtaio,  include 174 

COMPULSION— constraint,  compulsion 220 

COMPUNCTION— repentance,  penitence,  contri- 
tion, eompnnction,  remorae  

ro  COMPUTE— to  calculate,  compute,  reckon, 

coom  or  account,  nombff < 


TO  COMPUTE— to  estimate,  compute,  rate 439 

TO  CONCEAL— to  conceal,  dissemble,  dlaguise. .  510 

TO  CONCEAL— to  conceal,  hide,  secrete 5i0 

CONCEALMENT— concealment,  secrecy 510 

TO  CONCEDE— to  give  np,  deliver,  surrender, 

yield,  cede,  concede 24X 

CONCEIT— conceit,  fkncy / 90 

CONCEIT— pride,  vanity,  conceit ]Q0 

CONCEITED— opinlated,  opiniative,  conceited, 

egoistical 100 

TO  CONCEIVE— to  conceive,  apprehend,  sup- 

poae,  imagine 7« 

TO  CONCEIVE— to  conceive,  understand,  com- 
prehend      74 

CONCEPTION— conception,  notion 75 

CONCEPTION- perception,  idea,  conception,  no- 
tion   f 73 

CONCERN— afikir,  business,  concern 332 

CONCERN— care,  concern,  regard 425 

CONCERN— interest,  concern 332 

TO  CONCERN— to  affect,  concern 332 

TO  CONCERT— to  concert,  contrive,  manage. . .  533 

TO  CONCILIATE— to  conciliate,  reconcile 153 

CONCISE— short,  brief,  concise,  summary,  suc- 
cinct  886 

TO  CONCLUDE— to  close,  finish,  conclude 2M 

TO  CONCLUDE  UPON— to  decide,  determine, 

concludeupon 223 

CONCLUSION— conclusion,  inference,  deduction  78 
CONCLUSIVE-concIusive,  decisive,  convincing  285 

CONCLUSIVE— final,  conclusive 224 

CONCOBUTANT— aceempaniment,  companion, 

concomitant 403 

CONCORD— concord,  harmony 155 

TO  CONCUR— to  agree,  coincide,  concur 151 

CONCURRENCE— anent,  consent,  approbation, 

concurrence 156 

CONCUSSION— shock,  concussion 305 

TO  CONDEMN— to  blame,  reprove,  reproach, 

upbraid,  censure,  condemn Ill 

TO  CONDEMN— to  reprobate,  condemn 109 

TO  CONDEMN— to  sentence,  condemn, doom. . .  169 
CONDESCENSION— complaisance,    condescen- 
sion, deference SOO 

CONDITION—  article,  cond  Ition,  term 335 

CONDITION— condition,  station S80 

CONDITION— situation,  condition,  stale,  predica- 
ment, plight,  case 270 

CONDOLENCE— sympaJhy,   compassion,   com- 
miseration, condolence 357 

TO  CONDUCE— to  conduce,  contribute 168 

CONDUCT— behaviour,  conduct,  carriage,  deport- 
ment, demeanour 198 

TO  CONDUCT— to  conduct,  guide,  lead 191 

TO  CONDUCT— to  conduct,  manage,  direct ....  191 
CONFEDERACY— alliance,  league,  confederacy  498 
CONFEDERATE— ally,  confiederate,  accomplice  49J 

TO  CONFEIU-to  confer,  bestow 167 

CONFERENCE— conversation,  dialogue,  confe- 
rence, coHoqny  460 

TO  CONFESS— to  acknowledge,  own,  oonfeas, 

avow 448 

TO  CONFIDE— to  confide,  trust 414 

CONFIDENCE— aasuranoe,  oonfldenee 415 


zed  by  Google 



CX)NFIDENC£-bope,  expectation,  mm, 

deuce •  414 

CONFIDENT-H»nfident,  liogmatical,  podtive. . .  414 
1*0  CONFINE— to  bound,  limit,  confine,  dicum- 

•cribe,  restrict 176 

CONFINED— contracted,  confined,  narrow 177 

CONFINEMENT— confinement,    Imprlaoiunent, 

captivity 178 

TO  CONFIRM— to  confirm,  corroborate 825 

TO  CONFIRM— to  confirm,  edablleb SS5 

CONFLICT— confiici,  combat,  contett USL 

TO  CONFORM-^o  comply,  conform,  yield,  sub- 
mit   150 

CONFORMABLE— conformable,  agreeable,  suita- 
ble  isa 

CONFORMATION— form,  figure,  conformation. .  983 
TO  CONFOUND— to abath, confound, confute..  107 
TO  CONFOUND— to  bafl!e,  defeat,  disconcert, 

confound 143 

TO  CONFOUND— to  confound,  confuse 9B1 

TO  CONFOUND— to  mix,  mingle,  blend,  eon- 
found 884 

TO  CONFRONT— to  conftoot,  face 14S 

TO  CONFUSE— to  confound,  confuse S81 

TO  CONFUSE— to  abash,  confound,  cocfuse.. ..  107 

CONFUSED— Indistinct,  confused 9KI 

CONFUSION-conftislon,  disorder 988 

TO  CONFUTE— to  confiite,  refute,  oppugn,  d»- 

prove .'. 118 

TO  CONGRATULATE— to  felicitate,  congratu- 
late  385 

{  assembly,  company,  meet- 
ing.  congregation,  par- 
""»«*»»  diet,  congresa. 
convention,  synod,  con- 
vocation, council 490 

CONJECTURE— conjecture,   supposition,   aur- 

mise 04 

TO  CONJECTURE— to  gueas,  conjecture,  divine   05 

CONJUNCTURE— coi^uncture,  erlds 17^ 

TO  CONNECT— to  connect,  combine,  unite 410 

CONNECTED— connected,  related 410 

CONNEXION- intercourae,communlcation,  con- 
nexion, commerce 333 

TO  CONQUER— to  conquer,  vanquish,  subdue, 

overcome,  surmount 144 

C0N8ANGUINITT— liindred,  relationship,  afli- 

nity,  consanguinity 407 

CONSCIENTIOUS— conscientious,  scrupulous. .  88 
CONSCIOUEt-aware,  on  one*s  guard,  apprised, 

conscious 490 

TO  BE  CONSCIOU8-to  feel,  be  sendMe,  ooo- 

sclons .'  376 

TO  CONSECRATE— to  dedicate^  devote,  coBse- 

crate,  hallow 88 

TO  CONSENT— to  consent,  permit,  allow 156 

TO  CONSENT— 4o  accede,  consent,  comply,  ac- 
quiesce, agree 151 

CONSENT— assent,  consent,  approbation,  eoncar- 

rence 156 

OONSEaUENCE— eflfect,  consequence,  raaolt,  !•- 

sue,  event 990 

CONSEaUENCE— eignificatkm,  avail.  Import- 
ance, consequence,  weight,  moment 490 

CONSEaUENT— euboequent,  cooaeqaent,  poste- 
rior  97* 

CONSEUUENTLY— naturally,  cooeequeutiy.  in 

course,  of  course 979 

CONSEUUENTL  Y— tiierefore,  consequentiy,  ac- 
cordingly   974 

TO  CONSIDER-lo  consider,  reflect 76 

TO  CONSIDER— to  consider,  regard 77 

CONSIDERATE— Uiougfati^ul,  considerate,  deli- 
berate  494 

CONSIDERATION— consideration,  reason 77 

TO  CONSIGN— 10  consign,  commit.  Intrust 415 

CONSISTENT— compatible,  consistent 153 

CONSISTENT— consonant,  accordant,  consistent  153 

TO  CONSOLE— to  console,  solace,  comfort 356 

CONSONANT— consonant,  accordant,  consistent  153 
CONSPICUOUS— distinguished,  noted,  conspicu- 
ous, eminent,  illustrious 473 

CONSPICUOUS— prominent,  conspicuous 474 

CONSPIRACY— combination,  cal«al,  plot,  conspl- 

racy 480 

CONSTANCY— constancy,  stability,  steadinere, 

firmness 99* 

CONSTANT— continual,  perpetual,  constant ....  966 

CONSTANT— durable,  coiwtant 9» 

CONSTERNATION— alarm,  tenour,  fright,  con- 
sternation  30[ 

TO  CONSTITUTE— to  constitute,  appoint,  de- 
pute  Sll 

TO  COBrSTITUTE— to  form,  compose,  consti- 
tute   29< 

CONSTITUTIOK  —frame,  temper,  lemperamenl, 

constitution 38f 

CONSTITUTION— govemiaent,  constitution . . . .  90T 

CONSTRAINT— conatrabit,  coropulslim 991 

CONSTRAINT— constraint,  restraint,  iesi:ietion  9W 

CONSTRUCT— to  build,  erect,  construct 496 

TO  CONSULT— to  consult,  deliberate,  debatt . .  1 14 
TO  CONSUME— to  consume,  destroy,  waste....  S05 
CONSUMMATION-consummation,  coffl|iletion  987 
CONSUMPTION— decay, decUne, consumption..  368 

CONTACT— conuct,  touch 199 

CONTAGION— contagion,  infection 199 

CONTAGIOUS— contagious,  epidemical,  pestilen- 
tial  190 

TO  CONTAIN— to  contain,  bold 174 

TO  CONTAIN— 10  comprise,  comprehend,  em- 
brace, contain,  include 174 

TO  CONTAMINATE — to  contaminate,  defile, 

pollute,  taint,  corrupt 199 

TO  CONTEMN— 10  contemn,  despise,  scorn,  dis- 
dain  101 

TO  CONTEMPLATE— to  contemplate,  meditate, 

muse 76 

CONTEMPORARY— coeval,  contemporery 917 

CONTEMFTUOUS-contempCiious,  smnftil,  dis- 
dainful    109 

CONTEBfPTIBIX~«ontemptiUe,  deqikaMe,  pl- 

tiAil 108 

TO  CONTEND— to  eontend,  strive,  vie 131 

TO  CONTEND-to  eontend,  contest,  dispafis. ...  131 
OOMTENTION— contention,  strife J3i 


zed  by  Google 



eONTBNTION-^iMMuioo,  oooleiitlan,  dtaord, 

■crilb 133 

COWTENTMENT— comenUBent,  ntiiAwiioo...  384 

CONTEST— coaflict,eombat,eoiilMt 14S 

TO  CONTEST— lo contend, eoDiflit,  dtopat*....  131 
CONTIGUOUS— w^aoent,  adjoiainf,  ooDti(uoni  4» 
CONTINENCE-clMflUty,  eoatinMM,  modcrty..  M5 
CONTINGENCY — McideDC,  utaaltj,  eoalln- 

Seoey ITO 

OONTINGENT-ttcddeatal,  inddealal,  camu 

oonlinfent 112 

CONTINUAIj— continual,  perpelual,  conslant. . .  965 

CONTINUAL— oontinual,  cooUoaMl 1 

CONTINUANCE   >  oontlnuaoee,  duntloD,  cob< 

CONTINUATION  )     tiDoatloD 965 

CONTINUATION— cootinualionicontinalty....  966 

TO  CONTINUE^o  continue,  remain,  aaqr 

TO  CONTINUE— to  eondnue,  peraevere,  peniat, 

punae,  proaeeut« 964 

CONTINUED—  continual,  continued 965 

CONTINUITY— eonUnualton,  continuity 266 

CONTRACT — agreement,   cooiract,   covenant, 

compact,  bargain 15S 

TO  CONTRACT— lo  aMdfe,  cortaii,  contract. .  178 
CONTRACTED— contracted,  conflned,  narrow..  177 
TO  CONTRADICT— to  contradict,  oppoae,  deny  113 

CONTRARY— ad veiae,  contrary,  oppoeite 135 

CONTRAST— compariMm,  contrast 135 

ro  CONTRIBUTE— to  conduce,  contribute  ....  168 
ro  CONTRIBUTE— 10  mlniaier,admlniater,  con- 
tribute  167 

CONTRIBUTION— tax,  duty,  custom,  toU,  im- 
post, tribute,  contribution 166 

CONTRITION— repentance,  penitence,  contrition, 

compunction,  remone 86 

CONTRIVANCE-devlce,contriTanGe 533 

TO  CONTRIVE— to  contrive,  devise,  invent. .. .  538 
TO  CONTRIVE— to  concert,  contrive,  manage..  533 

TO  CONTROL— to  checli,  curb,  control 938 

TO  CONTROVERT— to  controvert,  dispute  ....  114 
CONTUMACIOUS— obsdnate,  stubborn,  contu- 
macious, headstrong,  heady 

CONTUMACY— contumacy,  rebeUion 910 

CONTUMELY— reproach,  contumely,  oUoqny. .  108 
TO  CONVENE-to  aawmble,  convene,  convolve  480 
CON  VENIENl'— commodious,  convenient,  suita- 
ble   417 

CONVENT— cloiBter,  convent,  monosteiy 86 

CONVENTION-assembly,  company,  meeting, 
coQgregadon,  parliament,  diet,  congress,  con- 
vention, synod,  convocation,  council 480 

CONVERSATION— conversadon,  dialogue,  con- 
ference, colloquy  400 

CONVERSEr— communion,  <;on  verse 487 

TO  CONVERSE— to  speak,  talk,  convene,  dis- 
course  450 

•ONVERSIBLE— fbeetious,  eonversible.  Jocular, 

pleasant.  Jocose 4IU 

CONVERT— convert,  proselyte 86 

TO  CONVEY— CO  bear,  carry,  convey,  transport  330 

TO  CONVICT— to  convict,  detect,  discover 445 

CONVICT— criminal,  culprit,  malefactor,  feloii, 

convict 193 

TOmnCTION— eonvlctloa,  persuasion 78 

CONVINCING— eonclosive,  decWve,  convincing  S9S 

CON  VrVIAL-coavivial,  social,  sociable 487 

CONVOCATION— osMmbly,  company,  meedng, 
congregation,  parllfment,  diet,  congress,  cod-' 

veotioo,  synod,  convocation,  council 489 

TO  CONVOKE— lo  assemble,  convene,  convoke  480 

COOL— cool,  cold,  frigid 514 

COOL— dispassionate,  cool 119 

COPIOUS— plendftil,  plenteous,  abundant,  copi- 
ous, ample 341 

COPIOUSLY— laigely,  copiously,  AUly 349 

COPY— copy,  model,  pattern,  specimen 530 

TO  COPY— to  copy,  transcribe 530 

TO  COPY— to  imitate,  copy,  counterfeit 589 

OOaUET— coquet,  JUt 98S 

CORDIAL— hearty,  warm,  sincere,  cordial 431 

CORNER— comer,  angle 489 


CORPOREAL  r*''P^™''~'P**^'*^'^ "® 

CORPOREAL— corporeal,  material 510 

CORFSE-body,  cor|ise,  carcass 510 

CORPULENT— corpulent,  stout,  lusty 511 

TO  CORRECT— lo  amend,  correct,  reform,  rec- 
tify, emend,  improve,  mend,  better 901 

CORRECT— correct,  accurate 908 

CORRECTION— correcdon,  discipline,   punish- 
ment  904 

CORRECTNESS— Justness,  correctness 903 

CORRESPONDENT — correspondent,    suitable, 

answerable J5S 

TO  CORROBORATE— to  confirm,  corroborate. .  995 
TO  CORRUPT— to  contaminate,  defile,  pollute, 

taint,  corrupt 198 

TO  CORRUPT— to  rot,  putrefy,  corrupt 504 

CORRUPTION— depravity,  depravation,  corTU|>> 

tlon 198 

COST— cost,  expense,  price,  charge 436 

COSTLY— valuable,  precious,  cosdy 437 

COVENANT — agreement,  contract,  covenant, 

compact,  bargain 159 

TO  COVER— to  cover,  hide 517 

COVER— cover,  shelter,  screen 517 

COVERING— tegument,  covering 518 

TO  COVET— to  desire,  long  for,  hanker  after, 

covet 150 

COVETOUSNESS— covelousnesB,  cupidity,  ava- 
rice  160 

COUNCIL— assembly,  company,  meedng,  congre- 
gaUon,  parliament,  diet,  congress,  convention, 

synod,  convocation,  council • 480 

COUNSEL— advice,  counsel,  instruction 194 

TO  COUNT— to  calculate,  compute,  reckon,  count 

or  account,  number 439 

TO  COUNTENANCE— to  encourage,  sanction, 

countenance,  support 310 

COUNTENANCE— fkce,  countenance,  visage...  479 
COUNTERFEIT— spurious,  suppositious,  < 


TO  COUNTERFEIT— to  imitate,  copy,  c 

felt S» 

COUNTRY— land,  oountiy 497 

COUNTRYMAN— countryman,  peasant,  swain, 

bind,rustick,ck)wn 330 

COUPLE— couple,  brace,  pair 434 


zed  by  Google 


COURAGE— coarage,  fortitude,  rcMlattoii 

COURAGE— bravery,  courage,  vaJour 

COURSE— course,  race,  paange 

COURSE— way,  road,  route  n  rtmt,  conne 

COURSE— aerlea,  coune 

COURSE— way,  manner,  metbod,  ODode,  course, 


COURTEOUS— aflhble,  courteous 

COURTEOUS  1        .  .  ,      .        ^. 

COURTLY      i  <^"^^"*»  con»pt«i»*ot,  courtly . . 

TO  CRACK— CO  break,  burst,  crack,  split 

CRAFTY— cunning,  crafty,  subtle,  sly,  wily 

TO  CRAVE— to  beg,  beseech,  solicit,  entreat,  sup- 
plicate, Iroptore,  crave 

TO  CREATE— to  cause,  occasion,  create 

TO  CREATE— to  make,  form,  produce,  create  . . 

CREDIT— credit,  favour,  Influence 

CREDIT— belief,  credit,  trust,  fklth 

CREDIT— name,  reputation,  repute,  credit 

CREED-faltb,  creed 

CREW— band,  company,  crew,  gang 

CRIMB— crime,  vice,  sin 

CRIME— crime,  misdemeanour 

CRIMINAL— criminal,  guilty 

CRIMINAL— criminal,  culprit,  malefactor,  felon, 
convict ••• • 

CRISIS — coi^uncture,  crisis 

CRITERION— criterion,  standard 

CRITICISM— animadversion,  criticism,  stricture. 

TO  CRITICISE— to  censure,  animadvert,  criti- 

CROOKED— awkward,  croea,  untoward,  crooked, 
froward,  perverse 

CROOKED— bent,  curved,  crooked,  awry 

CROSS— awkward,  cross,  untoward,  crooked,  fro- 
ward, perverse .*.... 

CROSS— captious,  cross;  peevish,  petulant,  fretful 

CROWD— multitude,  crowd,  throng,  swarm 

CRUEL— eruel,  inhuman,  barbarous,  brutal,  sa- 

CRUEL— hardhearted,  cruel,  unmerciful,  merd- 

TO  CRUSH— 10  break,  braise,  squeeze,  pound, 

TO  CRUSH— to  overwhelm,  crash 

CRUTCH-etaff,  stick,  crutch 

CRY— noise,  cry,  outcry,  clamour 

TO  CRY— to  cry,  weep 

TO  CRY— to  cry,  scream,  shriek 

TO  CRY— to  cry,  exclaim,  call 

CULPABLE— culpable,  faulty 

CULPRIT— criminal,  culprit,  malelkctor,  felon, 

CULTIVATION— cultivation,  tillage,  husbandry 

CULTIVATION  >  cultivation,  culture,  clvillza- 

CULTURB  J     tlon,  refinement 

CUNNING— art,  cunning,  deceit 

CUNNING— cunning,  crafty,  subtie,  sly,  wily .... 

CUPIDITY— eovetousnesB,  cupidity,  avarice 

TO  CURB— to  check,  curb,  control 

TO  CURE— to  cure,  heal,  remedy 

CURE— eure,  remedy 

CURIOUS— curious,  inquisitive,  prying 


140   CURSE-Hnatodlcdon,  euiw.  Imprecation,  eieera- 

139  tlon,  anathema 8S 

273   CURSORY— cursory,  basty,*slight,  desultory....  983 
TO  CURTAIL— to  abridge,  curuU,  contract ....  178 

CUR  VED— bent,  curved,  crooked,  awry 316 

CUSTODY— keeping,  custody 179 

CUSTOM— custom,  habit 3St 

CUSTOM— custom,  fashion,  manner, practice. . . .  3SS 
CUSTOM— ux,  duty,  custom,  toil,  impost,  tribute, 

oontrlbntlon 14B 

CUSTOM— usage,  custom,  prescription 394 

DAILY-daily,  diurnal 888 

DAINTY— dainty,  delicacy 314 

DAMAGE— loss,  damage,  detriment 404 

DAMAGE— injury,  damage,  hurt,  barm,  mischief  404 
DAMPNESS— moisture,  humidity,  dampness....  515 

DANGER— danger,  peril,  haaard 171 

TO  DA  RE-Ho  brave,  dare,  defy,  challenge 138 

DARlNG-daring,  bold 141 

DARK— dark,  obscure,  dim,  mysterious 460 

DARK— opaque,  dark 481 

TO  D.%RT— to  shoot,  dart 305 

DATE— time,  period,  age,  date,  era,  epocha 967 

TO  DAUB— to  smear,  daub 515 

TO  DAUNT— to  dismay,  daunt,  appal. . . , 306 

DAYS  OF  YORE— Ibrmerty,  in  times  past,  or 
old  times,  days  of  yore,  andentiy  or  ancient 

times 960 

DEAD— lifeless,  dead,  inanimate 356 

DEADLY— deadly,  mortal,  fttal 371 

DE  AIj— deal,  quantity,  portion 486 

DEALING— trade,  commerce,  traflick,  dealing.. .  333 

DEARTH-flcaicity,  dearth 950 

DEATH— death,  departure,  decease,  demise 371 

TO  DEB AR— to  deprive,  debar,  abridge 506 

TO  DEB  ASE— to  abase,  hamUe,  degrade,  debase, 

disgrace ^ J06 

TO  DEBATE— to  argue,  dispute,  debate 114 

TO  DEBATE— consult,  deliberate,  debate 115 

TO  DEBILITATE— to  weaken,  enfeeble,  debili- 
tate, enervate,  invalidate 368 

DEBILITY— debility,  infirmity,  imbecility 367 

DEBT— debt,  due 917 

DECAY— decay,  decline,  consumption 368 

TO  DECAY— to  perish,  die,  decay 371 

DECEASE— <leath,  departure,  decease,  demise  . .  371 

DECEIT— art,  cimning,  deceit. ...  521 

DECEIT— deceit,  deception 523 

DECEIT— deceit,  duplicity,  double-dealing 523 

DECEIT— deceit,  fraud,  guile ; . . .  533 

DECEITFUL— fallacious,  deceitful,  fraudulent  .  523 
TO  DECEIVB— tn  deceive,  delude,  impose  upon  522 

DECEIVER— deceiver,  impostor 522 

DECF^NCY- decency,  decorum 246 

DECENT— becoming,  decent,  seemly,  fit,  suitable  946 

DECEPTION— deceit,  deception 52^ 

TO  DECIDE— to    decide,  determine,   conclude 

upon 223 

DECIDED— decided,  determined,  resolute 924 

DECIDED-decided,  decisive 224 

DECISION— dedslon,  judgement,  sentence 924 

DECISIVE-decided,  decisive 224 

DECISIV&Hwncluaive, decUve, coovlndng ....  993 


zed  by  Google 


TO  DECLAIM— 10  dedainif  lnv«lgh 109 

TO  DECLARE— lodeclaw,  publlab, proclaim...  44S 
TO  DECLARE— to  expiea,  dodare,  ilcnUy,  tea- 

tafy,  utter 455 

TO  DECLARE— CO  diacover,  manlfaM,  declare. .  444 

TO  DECLAR£-to  protai,  daelara 44S 

DECLINS— decay,  deelioe,  cooaumptloii 368 

TO  DECLINE— <o  rafuaa,  dedina,  r^eet,  repal, 

rebuff S38 

TO  DECORATE— to  adorn,  decorate,  embeUtah.  500 

DECORUBf-deceocy,  decorum S46 

TO  DECOY— to  allure,  tempt,  aeduce,  entice,  de- 
coy   ^ 319 

TO  DECREASE— to  abate,  learen,  dimlnlab,  de- 

creaae 351 

DECREE— decree,  edict,  proelamatioo 443 

TO  DECRT— to  disparage,  detract,  traduce,  de- 
predate, degrade,  decry  105 

TO  DEDICATE— to  dedicate,  devote,  eonaecrate, 

ballow 83 

TO  DEDUCE— to  derive,  trace,  deduce 440 

TO  DEDUCT— to  deduct,  anblraet 421 

DEDUCTION— coacluloo,  iafbreoee,  dedactiou.    78 

DEED— deed,  exploit,  achievement,  Aat 9B5 

DEED— action,  act,  deed 394 

TO  DEEM— to  tliiniK,  eoppoae,  imagine,  believe^ 

deem 75 

TO  DEFACE— to  defkee,  disfigure,  deibrm 503 

TO  DEFAME— to  aspeiae,  detract,  slander,  de- 

&roe,  calumniate 105 

TO  DEFEAT— to  beat,  defeat,  overpower,  rout, 

overthrow 143 

TO  DEFEAT— to  baffle,  defeat,  disconcert,  con- 
found    143 

TO  DEFEAT— to  defeat,  foil,  disappoint,  ftua- 

trate 14S 

DEFECT— imperfection,  defect,  (kult,  vice 134 

DEFECT— blemish,  defect,  fkolt 137 

DEFECnVE-drfective,  deficient 127 

TO  DEFEND— to  apoto^iae,  defend, Justify,  excul- 
pate, excuse,  plead  ■ 181 

TO  DEFEND— to  defend,  protect,  vindicate 179 

TO  DEPEND— to  guard,  deftnd,  watch 160 

DEFENDANT )  ^  ^    ^        ,  ,    ^  ,^ 

DEFENDER     J  ^^^^^^^^^^  ^'^^^^^ 1» 

DEFENDER— defender,  advocate,  pleader 180 

«S:^!I^i'tefen«ble,  defensive 180 


TO  DEFER— to  delay,  defer,  postpone,  procrasti- 
nate, prolong,  protract,  rHard 300 

DEFERENCE— complaisance,  onndeseension,  de- 

i^rence 300 

DEFILE— to  contaminate,  defile,  pollute,  corrupt, 

taint 15M 

DEFICIENT— defective,  deficient 137 

DEFDflTE-deflnlte,  posidve 456 

DEFINITION— definition,  explanation 456 

TO  DEFOtM — to  deface,  disfigure,  deform 503 

TO  DEFRAUD— to  cheat,  defraud,  trick 535 

TO  DEFT — to  brave,  defy,  dare,  challenge 138 

TO  DEGRADE— to  disparage,  detract,  traduce, 

depreciate,  degrade,  decry 105 

TO  DEGRADR-to  abase,  humble,  degrade,  dla- 
graee,ddMBe 106 

TO  DEGRADE— to  disparage,  derogate,  degrade.  105 
TO  DEGRADE— to  humble,  humiliate,  degrade.  146 

DEGREE— clasB,  order,  rank,  degree 376 

DEITT— deity,  divinity 81 

DEJECTION— dejection,  depression,  melancholy  413 
TO  DELAY— to  delay,  defer,  postpone,  procrasti- 
nate, prolong,  protract,  retard 860 

DELEGATE— delegate,  deputy 314 

TO  DELIBERATE— to  consult,  deliberate,  debate  115 
DELIBERATE— thoughtful,  considerate,  delibe- 
rate  424 

DELICACY— dainty,  delicacy 314 

DELICATE— fine,  delicate,  nice 314 

DELIGHT— pleasure,  Joy,  delight,  charm 304 

DELIGHTFUL— delightful,  charming 313 

TO  DELINEATE — ^to  paint,  depict,  delineate, 

aketch 338 

DELINaUENT— offender,  delinquent 190 

TO  DELIVERr-4o  deliver,  rescue,  save 340 

TO  DELIVER— to  give  up,  deliver,  surrender, 

yield,  cede,  concede 849 

DELIVERANCE  1      ,, 

DELIVERY  S  '*®"^®'^*"'^'  ^*"^®^ ^ 

TO  DELUDE— to  deceive,  delude,  impose  upon.  S89 
TO  DELUGE— to  overflow,  Inundate,  deioge  ...  353 

DELUSION— fUlacy,  delusion,  lllonion 523 

TO  DEMAND— to  ask,  or  ask  for,  claim,  demand  S28 

TO  DEMAND— to  demand,  require S98 

DEMEANOUR-behaviour,  conduct,  carriage,  de- 
portment, demeanour 193 

DEMISE— death,  departure,  decease,  demise 371 

TO  DEMOLISH— to  demolish,  raze,  dismantle, 

destroy 505 

DEMON— devil,  demon 93 

TO  DEMONSTRATE— to  prove,  demonstrate, 

evince,  manifest 444 

TO  DEMUR— to  demur,  hesitate,  pause ^    96 

DEMUR— demur,  doubt,  hesitation,  objection ....    96 
TO  DENOMINATE— to  name,  denominate,  style, 

entitle,  designate,  characterize 471 

DENOMINATION— name,  appellation,  titie,  de- 
nomination    471 

TO  DENOTE— to  denote,  signify,  Imply 456 

DENSE— thick,  dense 351 

TO  DENY— to  contradict,  oppose,  deny 113 

TO  DENY— to  deny,  refuse 238 

TO  DENY— to  deny,  disown,  disclaim,  disavow.  113 
DEPARTURE— death,  departure,  decease,  demise  371 

DEPARTURE— exit,  departure 372 

DEPENDENCE— dependence,  reliance 416 

TO  DEPICT— to  paint,  depict, delineate, sketch..  336 
TO  DEPLORE— to  bewail,  bemoan,  lament,  de- 
plore   410 

DEPONENT— deponent,  evidence,  witness 445 

DEPORTMENT— behaviour,  conduct,  carriage 

deportment,  demeanour 193 

DEPOSITS— depoaite,  pledge,  security 183 

DEPRAVITV       1  depravity,   depravation,  cor- 

DEPRAVATIONS     ruptlon 138 

TO  DEPRECIATE— to  disparage,  detract,  tra- 
duce, deprer'are,  degrade,  decry .^ . .  105 

DEPREDATION  -denredatlon,  robbery 505 

DEPRESSION-  «<^Jectton,    depresiion,   melan- 
choly  413 


zed  by  Google 


TO  DEPBIVG— 10  bemve,  deprive,  strip 505 

TO  DEPRIVE— 10  deprive,  debar,  abridjge 906 

DEPTH— depth,  profundity 350 

7X)  DEPUTE— to  conatUute,  appoint,  depute....  914 
DEPUTY— ambaaMdor,  envoy,  ple&lpolentiaiy, 

deputy 914 

DEFUTY-delegate,  deputy S14 

TO  DEBANGE— to  dlforder,  derange,  dlaooncart, 

diacompoae SWO 

DERANGEMENT— deranffement,  insanity,  laoa- 

cy,  madnen,  mania 881 

TO  DERIDE— to  deride,  mock,  ridicule,  Iwnter, 

rally 103 

.  TO  DERIVE-to  derive,  trace,  deduce 449 

*  TO  DEROGATE— to  diaparace,  derogate,  degrade  105 
TO  DESCRIBE— to  relate,  recount,  describe  ....  460 
DESCRIPTION— account,  narrative,  deMsriptkm.  467 
DESCRIPTION— east,  turn,  deacrlption,  charac- 
ter  *B7 

TO  DESCRY— to  And,  And  out,  diacover,  deiciy, 



TO  DESERT— to  abandon,  desert,  fonake,  relin- 
quish  943 

TO  DESERT— to  abdicate,  desert 253 

DESERT— desert,  merit,  worth 438 

DESERT— solitary,  desert,  desolate 853 

TO  DESIGN— to  design,  purpose,  intend,  mean. .  533 

DESIGN— design,  plan,  scheme,  project 534 

TO  DESIGNATE— to  name,  denominate,  style, 

entitle,  designate,  characterize 471 

TO  DESIRE— to  beg,  desire 158 

TO  DESIRE— to  desire,  wish,  kmg  for,  banker 

after,  covet 159 

TO  DESIST— 40  cease,  leave  ofl;  desist,  dlscoo- 

tinue 957 

DESOLATE-w)Utary,  desert,  desolate 363 

DESOLATION— ravage,  desolation,  devaetaUon  506 
DESPAIR— despair,  desperation, despondency. ...  413 
DESPATCH— to  hasten,  accelerate,  speed,  expe- 
dite, despatch 961 

DESPERATE-desperate,  hopeless 413 

DESPERATION— despair,  despondency,  despe- 
ration   413 

DESPICABLE— contemptible,  despicable,  pitiful  108 
TO  DESPISE— to  contemn,  despise,  scorn,  dis- 
dain  .^ 101 

DESPONDENCY— despair,  despondency,  despe- 
ration   4....  413 

DESPOTICK— absolute,  arbitrary,  despotick 188 

DESTINATION— destiny,  desUnaUon 160 

TO  DESTINE— to  allot,  appoint,  destine 160 

DESTINY— destiny,  fate,  lo^  doom 160 

DESTINY— destiny ,  destination 160 

DESTITUTE— bare,  scanty,  destitute 950 

UESTITUTE— foreaken,  foriom,  desUtute 948 

TO  DESTROY— to  consume,  destroy,  waste ....  505 
TO  DESTROY— to  demolish,  rase,  dismantle,  de- 
stroy  505 

DESTRUCTION— destruction,  ruin. ..  504 

DESTRUCTIVE — destrucUve    nilmHM,  pcmi 

clous 504 

DESULTORY  -cursory,  hasty,  slight,  desiUtory.  969 
TO  DETACH— to  separate,  sever,  disjoin,  detach  4il 
TO  DETAIN— 10  hold,  .tfi.^,  detain,  retain 238 

TO  DETECT-40  eonvlet,  detect,  discover 44S 

TO  DETER— to  deter,  discourage,  dishearten  .. .  31S 
TO  DETERMIN£-to  decide,  determine,  con- 
clude upon 993 

TO  DETERMINE— to  determine,  resolve 923 

TO  DETERMINE— to  Ax,  determine,  setUe,  limit  997 
DETERMINED-Hiecided,  determined,  resolute. .  294 
TO  DETEST— to  abhor,  detest,  abominate,  loath  1% 

TO  DETEST— to  liate,  deteet 137  , 

DETESTABLE— abominable,  detesuble,  execra- 
ble   138 

TO  DETRACT— to  aspene,  detract,  slander,  de- 

fhme,  calumnlato 105 

TO  DETRACT— to  disparage,  detract,  traduce, 

depreciate,  degrade,  decry 105 

DETRIMENT— disadvantage.  Injury,  hart,  detri- 
ment, prejudice 404 

DETRIMENT— kMs,  damage,  detriment 4b4 

DEVASTATION^ravage,  desolation,  devasu- 

Uon 507 

TO  DEVEL0PB--40  unfofcl,  nnravel,  develope. .  918 
TO  DEVIATE— todeviate,  wander, swerve, stray  19S 

TO  DEVLATE-to  digress,  deviate 196 

DEVIC&>deviee,  contrivance 533 

DEVU^  devil,  demon OS 

TO  DEVISE— to  contrive,  devise,  Inv'ent 539 

TO  DEVISE— to  devise,  bequeath 164 

DEVOID— empty,  vacant,  void,  devoid 343 

TO  DEVOTE— to  addict,  devote,  apply 491 

TO  DEVOTE— to  dedicate,  devote,  eonsecraia, 

.haUow 89 

DEVOUT— holy,  pinua,  devout,  rellgloos 89 

DEXTERITY— ability,  deitertty,  address 68 

DEXTEROUS— clever,  skOful,  expert,  dexterous, 

adroit 01 

DIALECT— language,  tongue,  speech,  kiiom,dia- 

tect 481 

DIALOGUl^-convellation,  dlalogne,  conference 

colloquy.... 461 

TO  DICTATE— to  dictate,  prescribe 181 

DICTAT^-dictate,  suggestion 184 

DICTION— diction,  style,  phrase,  phraaen^ogr  .    46t 

DICTIONARY— dictionary,  encyclopedia 463 

DICTIONARY— dictionary,  lexiCGii,  roeabolary, 

glossary,  nomenclaturo 464 

TO  DIE— to  die,  expire 371 

TO  DIE— to  perisli,  die,  deca? 371 

DIET— food,  diet,  regimen 514 

DIET— assembly,  company,  meeting,  congreg** 
tion,  paxilameat,  diet,  congress,  convention, 

synod,  convocation,  council t 400 

TO  DIFFER— to  dilTer,  vary,  disagree,  dissent. . .  139 
DIFFERENCE — diiierence,   variety,  diversity, 

medley 988 

DIFFERENCE-difference,  dlsUncUoo 989 

DIFFERENCE— difference,  dispute,  altercation, 

quarrel 133 

DIFFERENT— diflerent,  dIsUnet,  separato 989 

DIFFERENT-^iflSprent,  several,  divera,  sundry, 

various 983 

DIFFERENT— different,  unlike 983 

DIFFICULT- hard,  difficult,  arduous 364 

DIFFICULTIES — dUiicaliies,   emharrassmenra, 
frouhl«>s • 4JJ 


zed  by  Google 


piFFICULTT— Afflculty,  obfltaele,  Impediment.  938 
DIFFICULTT— objeodon,  dHBculiy,  exception  . .  112 
DIFFID£NT-Hl»triMtfH],  Mwpicious,  diffident. . .  416 

DIFFtDBNT—modert,  btthfnl,  dUBdent 148 

DlFFUSB-HliftiM,  prodz 

TO  DIFFUSE— ID  vpread,  expand,  dUnwe 345 

TO  DIOE8T-HO  dtopote,  arrange,  digest 977 

DIGNIFIED — m&giaterlal,    maJoKlck,    atately, 

pompooa,  aagiHt,  dIgnMed 454 

DIGNITY— honour,  dignity 4S9 

DIGNITT— pride,  baugtaUnea,  lofUneia,  dignity.  100 

TO  DIORESS-iodigrea,  deviate.... 196 

TO  DILAT&-40  dilate,  expand 345 

l>ILATORT-«low,  dUalory,  taiUy,  tedloua 900 

DILIGENT— active,  diligent,  indurtrious,  anddtt- 

ous,  laboriou 996 

DILIGENT— diligent,  expeditioiia,  prompt 968 

DILIGENT— tednlous,  diligent,  aaiduous 997 

DIM— darkf  obecore,  dim,  myeteriooe 480 

TO  DIMINISH— ID  abate,  lesMn,  diminish,  de- 

creaee 351 

DIMINUTIVE-little,  small,  dhninaUTe 350 

DIOCESS— Ushoprick,dioceH 86 

TO  DIRECT— to  direct,  dispose,  regulate 101 

TO  DIRECT— to  conduct,  manage,  direct 101 

DIRECT— atraight,  right,  direct 430 

DIRECTION— dlrectioo,  address,  superKrlpiion.  913 

DIRECTION— direction.  Older 913 

DIRECTLY— directly,  immediately,  instantly,  iu- 

stanraoeously 809 

DISABILrrY— faiability,  disability 00 

DISADVANTAGE-disadvantage,  injary,  bart, 

detrinieDt,  pre)iMlioe 404 

DISAFFECTION— dhmflbcUon,  dialoyany 910 

TO  DISAGREE— to  diflbr,  vary,  disagree,  dissent  139 

TO  DISAPPEAR— to  disappear,  vanish 481 

TO  DISAPPOINT— to  defeat,  foil,  disappoint, 

frostrate 143 

DISAPPROBATION— displeasare,  anger,  disap- 
probation   118 

TO  DISAPPROVE— to  disapprove,  dislike 130 

DISASTER— calamity,  disaster,  misfortune,  mis- 
chance, mishap 406 

TO  DISAVOW— a>  deny,  disown,  disclaim,  dis- 
avow   113 

DISBELIEF— disbelief,  anbelief 79 

TO  DISCARD— to  dismiss,  discharge,  discard  . . .  S54 
TO  DlSCERNr*to  perceive,  discern,  distinguish.  483 
DISCERNMENT— dbicemment,  penetration,  dis- 
crimination. Judgement 71 

TO  DISCHARGE— to  dismiss,  discharge,  discard  954 
DISCIPLINE— correction,  discipline,  punishment  904 

DISCIPLE— scholar,  disciple,  pupil 107 

TO  DISCLAIM— deny,  disown,    disclaim,   dis- 
avow  113 

fO  DISCLOSE— to  pabllsh,  promulgate,  divulge, 

reveal,  disclose 443 

TO  DISCLOSE— to  uncover,  discover,  disclose. .  444 
TO  DISCOMPOSE-^to  disorder,  derange,  discon- 
cert, discompose 980 

TO  DISCONCERT— to  baffle,  defeat,  disconcert, 

confound 143 

ro  DISCONCERT— to  disorder,  derange,  discon- 
eert,  diaeompoM ^m 

TO  DISCONTINUE-to  eease,  leave  off,  dlseoo- 

tinuSfdesist 2St 

DISCORD— dissension,  conieniion,  discord,  strifo  138 
TO  DISCOVER— to  convict,  detect,  discover. .. .  445 
TO  DIBCOVER-to  discover,  manifest,  declare. .  444 
TO  DISCOVER— 10  find,  find  out,  discover,  espy, 

descry 445 

TO  DlSCOV£Rp>to  find,  find  out,  discover.  In- 
vent  446 

TO  DISCOVERr-Ho  uncover,  discover,  disclose. .  444 
TO  D1BC0URAGE-40  deter,  discourage,  dis- 
hearten   319 

TO  DISCOURSE— to  speak,  talk,  oonverse,  dls- 

DTSCREDIT— discredit,  reproach,  scandal,  dis- 
grace   167 

DISCRETION— Judgement,  discretion,'  prudence  400 
TO  DISCRIMINATE-Ho  dlsthiguish,  discrimi- 
nate  484 

DISCRIMINATION— discernment,   penetratloa, 

discrimination, Judgement 71 

TO  DISCUSS-^  diseois,  examine 98 

DISDAIN— haughtiness,  dMala,  arrogance 101 

TO  DISDAIN— to  contemn,  despise,  scorn,  disdain  101 
DISDAINFUL— contemptiMNiB,  sooruful,  disdain- 

All 108 

DISEASE— disorder,  diseaae,  distemper,  malady.  367 

DISEASED— sick,  sickly,  diseased,  morbid 367 

TO  DISENGAGE       i  to  disengage,  disentangle, 

TO  DISENTANGLE)     extricate 918 

TO  DISPIGURE-todefoee,  disfigure, deform...  500 

DISGRACE— dishonour,  disgrace,  shame 107 

DISGRACE— dlseredh,  reproach,  scandal,  dia- 

graoe... 167 

TO  DISGRACE— to  abase,  bumble,  degrade,  dis- 
grace, debase 106 

TO  DISGUISE— to  conceal,  dissemble,  disguise..  510 

DISGUST— disgust,  leathhif  ,  naulea 190 

DISGUST — dislike,  displeasuie,  dissatisfoctlon, 

distaste,  distrust 117 

TO  DISHEARTEN— to  deter,  discourage,  dis- 
hearten  319 

DISHONEST— dishonest,  knavish 430 

DISHONOUR— dishonour,  disgrace,  shame 107 

DISINCLINATION— dislike,  disinclination 1 18 

TO  DISJOIN— to  separate,  sever,  disjoin,  detach  431 

TO  DISJOINT— to  disjoint,  dismember 481 

DISLIKE— aversion,  antipathy,  dislike,  hatred, 

repugnance 136 

TO  DISLIKE-to  disapprove,  dislike 190 

DISLIKE — dislike,  displeasure,  dissatisfaction, 

dlstAste,  disgust 117 

DISLIKE— dislike,  disinclination 118 

DISLOY  ALTY-disaffectlon,  disk>yahy 910 

DIBM AL-dnll,  gloomy,  sad,  dismal 410 

TO  DISMANTLE— to  demollsb,  raze,  dismantle, 

destroy 505 

TO  DISMAY— to  dismay,  daunt,  appal 306 

TO  DISMEMBER— to  dhtfoint,  dismember 491 

TO  DTSMISS-to dismiss, discharge,  discard....  954 

lySORDER— confusion,  disorder 968 

TO  DISORDER— 10 disorder, derange, disconcert, 

dlscompfise 960 

DISORDER— dlsofder,  dlieaae,  dMemper,  malady 


zed  by  Google 



DISORDERLY—irregoIw,  disorderly,  Inordinate, 

intemperate 384 

TO  DISOWN— to  deny,  diaown,  difdalm,  dka- 

TOW 113 

TO  DISPARAGE— to  diapanige,  detract,  traduce, 

depreciate,  degrade,  decry 105 

TO  DISPARAGE— to  dispirage,  derogate,  de- 
grade  105 

IHSFARITT— disparity,  inequality 435 

DISPA  tolON  ATE>-dlspatrionate,  cool 110 

TO  DISPEL-tu  dUpel,  dteperw,  diMlpate 345 

TO  DISPENSE— to  dispense,  diiuibute 485 

TO  DISPERSE— 10  dispel,  disperae,  dissipate. .. .  345 

TO  DISPERSE— to  spread,  scatter,  disperse 344 

TO  DISPLAY— to  show,  exhibit,  display 4SS 

TO  DISPLEASE— to  displease,  oflbnd,  vex 117 

DISPLEASURK-dtslike,  displeasure,  dlssatisfto- 

tion,  distaste,  disgust 118 

DISPLEASURE— displeasure,  anger,  disapproba- 
tion   118 

DISPOSAL-disposal,  dispoelUon ST? 

TO  DISPOSE— to  dispose,  arrange,  digest S77 

TO  DISPOSE— to  place,  dispose,  order 878 

TO  DISPOSE— to  direct,  dispose,  regulate 11)1 

DISPOSITION— disposition,  temper 987 

DISPOSITION— dispcyritlon,  inclination 388 

DISPOSITION— disposal,  disposlUon S77 

TO  DISPROVE — ^to  contbte,  lenite,  dlsprovei 

oppugn lis 

TO  DISPUTE— (o  argue,  dispute,  debate 1 14 

TO  DISPUTE— to  contend,  contest,  dispute 131 

TO  DISPUTE-<o  controvert,  dispute 114 

TO  DI8PUTE-(o  doubt,  question,  dispute 05 

TO  DISPUTE— diflbrence,  dispute,   altarcaaoo, 

quarrel 133 

TO  DISREGARD— to  disregard,  -^egl€c^  slight. .  4S3 
DISSATISFACTION— dislilce,  displeasure,  dissa- 

tisAction,  distdsto,  diq^st 117 

TO  DISSEMBLE— to  conceal,  diflsenible,  disguise  510 

DISSEMBLER— hypocrite,  disserubler 530 

DISSEMINATE— to  spread,  circulate,  propagate, 

disseminate 345 

DISSENSION— dissension,  contention,  discord  . . 
TO  DISSENT— to  differ,  vary,  disagree,  dissent.  133 
DISSENTER— beretick,  schismatick,  sectarian, 

dissenter,  nonconformist t..,    03 

DISSERTATION— essay,  treatise,  tract,  disserta- 
tion   ; 

DISSIMULATION— simulation,  dlMinmlailon  ..  590 
TO  DISSIPATE— to  dispel,  disperse,  dissipate . .  345 
TO  DISSIPATE— to  spend  or  expend,  waste,  dis- 
sipate, squander 344 

DISSOLUTE— loose,  vague,  lax,  dissolute,  licen- 
tious  85n 

DISTANT— distant.  Air,  remote 386 

DISTASTE-dielike,  d|s|)leasure,  dlssatisAietion, 

distaste,  disgust J17 

DISTEMPER— disorder,  disease,  malady,  distem- 
per  367 

DISTINCT— different,  distinct,  separate 383 

DISTINCTION— diflbrence,  d  isiinctlon 383 

DISTINCTION-of  Ashion,  of  quality,  of  dls-     " 

tinciion 474 

DISTINCTLY— clearly,  dlstlncUy 477 

TO  DISTINGL^SH-4o  diaUnguiah,  dlseiimlnate  484 
TO  DISTINGUISH— 10  perceive,  diseem,  distin- 
guish  483 

TO  DISTINGUISH— to  signaliie,  distinguish. ...  474 
TO  DISTINGUISH— to  abstract,  separate,  disUn- 

gulsh 490 

DISTINGUlSHED-disUngulsbed,  conspicuous, 

noted,  eminent,  Uliistrioua 473 

TO  DISTORT— to  Uim,  bend,  twist,  wring,  wrest, 

distort,  wrench 316 

DISTRACTED-abaent,  abstracted,  diverted,  die- 

tracted 484 

DISTRESS-advcrslty,  dlstreaa 407 

DISTRESS— distress,  anxiety,  anguish,  agony ...  407 

TO  DISTRESS— to  afflict,  distress,  trouble 408 

TO  DISTRESS— to  disUets,  harass,  perplex. ...    407 
TO  DISTRIBUTE— to   aUot,  assign,  apportion, 

distribute 168 

TO  DISTRIBUTE— to  dispense,  distribute 485 

TO  DISTRIBUTE— to  divide, distribute,  share..  485 

DISTRICT— district,  region,  tract,  quarter 498 

DISTRUSTFUL-distrustful,  suspicious,  diffident  416 

TO  DISTURB— to  disturb,  interrupt 417 

TO  DISTURB— to  trouble,  disturb,  molest 419 

DISTURB  ANCE-commoUon,  disturbance 417 

TO  DIV£-to  plunge,  dive 3S3 

TO  DIVE  INTO— to  pry,  scrutinise,  dive  into  . .    00 
DIVERS-dilferent,  several,  divers,  sundry,  varl- 

oua 383 

DIVERSION— amusement,  entertainment,  divei^ 

aion,  sport,  recreation,  pastime 301 

DIVERSITY— diflbrence,  variety,  medley,  diver- 
sity  89 

TO  DIVERT— to  amuse,  divert,  entertain 390 

DIVERTED— absent,  abstracte4,  diverted,  dis- 
tracted   484 

TO  DIVIDE— to  divide,  separate,  part 484 

TO  DIVIDE— to  divide,  distribute,  share 485 

DIVLVE-godllke,  divine,  heavenly 90 

DIVINE— holy,  sacred,  divine 80 

DIVINE— ecdesiastick,  divine,  theok)gian 80 

TO  DIVINE— to  guess,  conjecture,  divine 05 

DIVINITY— deity,  divinity 81 

DIVISION— part,  portion,  division,  share 485 

DIURNAL-daily,  dinmai 968 

TO  DIVULGE— to  publish,  promulgate,  divulge, 

reveal,  disckise 443 

TO  DO— to  make,  do,  act 904 

DOCILE— dodle,  tractable,  ductile 360 

DOCTRINE— doctrine,  precept,  principle 80 

DOGMA       J^Jwlrfne,  dogma,  tenet 80 

DOGMATICAL— confident,  dramatical,  posiUve.  414 

DOLEFUL— piteous,  dolefbl,  woAil,  rueful 411 

DOMESTICK— servant,  domestick,  drudge,  me- 
nial   3SB 

DOMINEERING— Imperious,  lordly,   domineer- 
ing, overbearing 185 

DO  M  IN  ION— empire,  reign,  dominion 167 

DOMINION— power,  strength,  force,  authority, 

dominion jgg 

DOMINIONS— territory,  dominions }80 

DONATION— gift,  present,  donation,  benefaction  1A4 
DOOM— destiny,  fate,  lot,  doom lOO 


zed  by  Google 


TO  DOOM— CO  ■eotenee,  doom,  condemn 

DOUBLE-DEAUNG-ileoelt,  duplicity,  double- 
dealing  : 

DOUBT— demur,  doubt,  hedtntion,  objection .... 

TO  DOUBT— to  doubt,  quertioo,  dispute 

DOUBT— doubt,  suspense 

DOUBTFUL— doubtful,  dubious,  uncertain,  pre- 

TO  DOZE— to  sleep,  slumber,  doze,  drowse,  nap. 

TO  DRAG— lo  ^w,  drag,  haul  or  bale,  pull,  tug, 

TO  DRAIN— to  spend,  exhaust,  drain  . . . . « 

TO  DRAW— to  draw,  drag,  haul  or  hale,  pluck, 
poll,  tug i 

TO  DREAD— to  apprehend,  fear,  dread 

DREAD— awe,  reverence,  dread 

DREADFUL— fearful,  dreadful,  frightful,  tremen- 
dous, terrible,  terrifick,  horrible,  horrid 

DREADFUL— formidable,  dreadful,  shocking,  ter- 

DREAM— dream,  reverie 

DREGS— dr^s,  sediment,  dross,  scum,  refuse  . . . 

TO  DRENCH— to  soak,  drench,  steep 

DRIFT— tendency,  drift,  *ope,  ahn 

DROLL— laughable,  ludicrous,  ridiculous,  comi- 
cal or  comick,  droll 

TO  DROOP— to  flag,  droop,  languish,  pine 


TO  DROP    \  ***  ^**''  ^^^^  ^^^*  *****  tumble. . 

DROSS— dregs,  sedfanent,  droes, scum,  reAise .... 

TO  DROWSE— to  sleep,  slumber,  doze,  drowse, 

DROWSY— heavy,  dull,  drowsy 

DROWSY— sleepy,  drowsy,  leihargick 

DRUDGE— servant,  domesUck,  menial,  drudge . . 

DRUDGERY— work,  labour,  toll,  drudgery,  task. 

DRUNKENNESS— intoxication,  drunkenness,  in- 

DUBIOUS— doubtful,  dubious,  uncertain,  preca- 

l)UCTILE-<Iocile,  tracUble,  ductile 

DUE— debt,  due 

DU1.L — heavy,  dull,  drowsy 

DULL-lnslpid,  dull,  flat 

DULL— dail,  gloomy,  sad,  dismal 

DULL— stupid,  dull 

DUMB— silent,  dumb,  mute,  speechless 

DUPLICITY— deceit,  duplicity,  double-dealing. . 

DURABLE— durable,  lasting,  permanent 

DURABLE— durable,  constant 

DURATION— continuance,  continuation,  dura- 

DURATION— duration,  time 

DUTIFUL— dutiful,  obedient,  respectflil 

DUTY— doty,  obligation 

DUTY— business,  office,  du  ty 

DUTY— tax,  duty,  cnstom,  toll,  impost,  Uibute, 

TO  DWELL— to  abide,  sojoom,  dwell,  reside,  in- 

TO  DYE— to  colour,  dye,  tinge,  stain 






410 ; 


EACH — an,  every,  each  ■  < 

EAGER— mger,  earnest,  serious  . 


EAGERNESS— avidity,  greedlneil,  eagemestf ...  163 

EARLY-«oon,  early,  betimes 368 

TO  EARN— to  acquire,  obtain,  gain,  win,  earn. .  3M 

EARNEST— eager,  earnest,  serious 393 

EARNEST— earnest,  pledge 184 

EASE    ease,  quiet,  rest,  repose 303 

EASE  } 

EASINESS  \  ^'^^  e^lnexi  ^IHtyt  lightness  ...  383 

£ASY-«asy,  ready 383 

EBULLITION— ebullition,    efliervescence,    fer- 
mentation  300 

ECCENTRICK— particular,  singular,  odd,  eccen- 

trick,  strange '. 385 

ECCLESIASTICK— ecclesiastlck,  divine,  theolo- 
gian     80 

ECONOMICAL— economical,  saving,  sparing, 

thrifty,  penurious,  niggardly ». .. .  161 

ECONOMY— economy, frugality,  parsimony  ....  161 

ECONOMY— economy,  management 161 

ECSTASY— ecstasy,  rapture,  transport 318 

EDGE— border,  edge,  rim  or  brim,  brink,  margin, 

verge 178 

EDICT— decree,  edict,  proclamation 443 

EDIFICE-cdifice,  structure,  fabrick 490 

EDUCATION— educaUoo,  inslrucUon,  breeding.  197 
TO  EFFACE— to  blot  out,  expunge,  rase  or  erase, 

eflhce,  cancel,  obliterate 848 

EFFECT— eflTect,  consequence,  result,  event,  Is- 

■ue 890 

TO  EFFECT- to  eflisct,  produce,  perform 889 

TO  EFFECT— to  accomplish,  execute,  achieve,  ef- 
fect  S88 

EFFECTIVE— eflfective,  eflicient,efi<xtual,eflica- 

cioQS 390 

EFFECTS— goods,  furniture,  chattels,  moveables, 

eflbcts 339 

EFFECTUAL-«fftotive,  efficient,  efiectual,  effi- 
cacious  390 

EFFEMINATE— female,  feminine, effeminate...  514 
EFFERVESCENCE — ebullition,  eflervesceuce, 

fermentation 309 

EFFICACIOUS  )  effective,  efficient,  efficacious, 

EFFICIENT      J     effectual 290 

EFFIGY— likenesR,  picture,  Image,  effigy 538 

EFFORT-^ndeavour,  effort,  exertion 321 

EFFORT— attempt,  trial,  endeavour,  essay,  effort  3SD 
EFFRONTERY— audacity,  effrontery,  hardihood 

or  hardiness,  boldness HO 

EFFUSION— effusion,  ejaculation 463 

EGOISTIC  A  L—opiniated  or  opiniative,  conceited, 

egoistical 100 

EJACULATION— efiiision,  ^acuiation 463 

ELDER— senior,  elder,  older 860 

ELDERLY— elderiy,  aged,  old SG9 

ELECT— to  choose,  elect 334 

ELEGANT— graceful,  comely,  elegant 315 

TO  ELEVATE— to  lift,  raise,  erect,  elevate,  exalt  SS-l 

ELIGIBLE— eligible,  preferable 834 

ELOCUTION  >  elocution,  eloquence,  rhetorick, 

ELOQUENCE)     oratory 419 

TO  ELUCIDATE— to  explain,  illustrate,  eluci- 
date  458 

TO  ELUDE— to  escape,  elude,  evade 597 

TO  ELUDE— to  avoid,  eschew,  shun,  elude. .....  SP^ 


zed  by  Google 



TO  EMANATE-^40  irlie,  pnieMd,  iaoe,  ifiriiic, 

flow,  emanate SOI 

TO  EMBARRA8S-HO  embamua,  tntangle,  pei^ 

plei 4151 

EMBARRASSMENTS — dUBeultlea,  embarraaa- 

menia,  troublea «....  413 

TO  EMBELLISH— to  adorn,  decorate,  embeUMi  SOO 
EMBLEM— figure,  melaphor,  allegory,  emblem, 

/ajrmbol,  type S31 

TO  EMBOLDEN— 4o  encoorage,  emboldeo 31S 

TO  EMBRACE— 10  claip,  bug,  embrace 377 

TO  EMBRACE— to  eompriae,  conprebcad,  em- 
brace, contain,  include'. 174 

EMBRYO— embryo,  foMut 510 

TO  EMEND— to  apiend,  correct,  reform,  rectify, 

emend,  improve,  mend,  better SOI 

TO  EMERGE— to  rke,  IflMie,  emeiffs 801 

EMERGENCY— exigency,  emergency 173 

.  EMINENT— dIaUngulibed,  couflplcuoui,  noted, 

eminent,  tnoitrloua 473 

EMISSARY— emlMaiy,  epy 446 

TO  EMIT— to  emit,  exhale,  evaporate 501 

EMOLUMENT— gain,  profit,  emolument,  lucre. .  397 
EMOTION— agitation,  emotion,  trerooor,  treplda- 

lion 306 

EMPHASIS— etraM,  atrain,  emphMia,  accent SSI 

EMPIRE— empire,  Icingdom 189 

EMPIRE-eropire,  reign,  domlnloa 187 

TO  EMPLOY— to  employ,  uee 306 

EMPLOYMENT— buelneei,  occupation,  employ- 
ment, engagement,  avocation 331 

TO  EMPOWER— to  oommtMion,  authorise,  em- 
power   I8B 

EMPTY— empty,  vacant,  void,  devoid 343 

EMPTY— hollow,  empty 344 

EMULATION— competition,  emulation,  rivalry.  131 
TO  ENCHANT— to  charm,  enchant,  (baclnate, 

enrapture,  captivate 317 

TO  ENCIRCLE— to  aurround,  encompaai,  envi- 
ron, encircle 175 

TO  ENCLOSE— to  circumscribe,  endoae 175 

TO  ENCLOSE— to  endoae,  Include '. . . .  174 

ENCOMIUM— encomium,  eulogy,  panegyrick....  130 
TO  ENCOMPASS— to  eurround,  encompaas,  en- 
viron, encircle 175 

ENCOUNTER— attacit,  aanult,  encounter,  oraet, 

charge 116 

TO  ENCOUNTERr-to  attack,  aaMil.amattlt,  en- 
counter   116 

TO  ENCOURAGE— to  cheer,  encourage,  comfort  350 
TO  ENCOURAGE— to  encourage,  animate,  in- 
cite, impel,  urge,  atlmulate,  inetigate 311 

TO  ENCOURAGE— to  encourage,  advance,  pro- 
mole,  prefer,  forward 31S 

TO  ENCOURAGE— to  encourage,  embolden —  318 
TO  ENCOURAGE— to  encourage,  countenance, 

sanction,  aupport 310 

TO  ENCROACH— to  encroach,  intrench,  invade, 

intrude,  infringe 507 

TO  ENCUMBER— to  clog,  load,  encumber 370 

ENCYCLOPiEDl A— dictionary, encyctopsdia..  463 

END— aim,  object,  end 334 

TO  END-to  end,  close,  termbiate 395 

END— ^,  extremity   •  9R5 

END— sake,  acooant,  reason,  parpose,  end 589 

TO  END£AVOUR^-to  attempt,  trial,  endeavour, 

eaMy,eflbrt 390 

TO  ENDBAV0UR-40  endeavour,  aim,  strive, 

straggle 3SI 

ENDEAVOUIt-^endeavour,  eflbn,  exertloB 381 

ENDLESS— eternal,  andless,  everlasting 870 

TO  ENDOW— invest,  endow  or  endua 167 

ENDOWMENT-flft,  eadowmen^  talent 07 

ENDURANCE— patience,  enduran^^  resignation  149 
TO  ENDURE-40  sufiTer,  bear,  endure,  support . .  149 
ENEMY-*«nemy,  foe,  adveraaiy,  oppwent,  auta- 

gonlst 134 

ENERGY— energy,  force,  vigour 378 

TO  ENERVATE) to  weaken,  enfeeble,  debiil- 
T.0  ENFEEBLE  >     tale,  enervate,  invalMata . .  368 
TO  ENGAGE— to  attract,  allure,  invite,  engage. .  318 

TO  ENGAGB-to  bind,  engage,  oblige 316 

ENGAGEMENT— battle,  combat,  engagement ..  141 
ENGAGEMENT— businesB,  occupaUon,  emptoy- 

ment,  engagement,  avocatkm 331 

ENGAGEMENT— promlae,  engagement,  word  ..  817 

TO  ENGENDER— to  breed,  engender 497 

TO  ENGRAVE— to  imprint,  impreai,  engrave. . .  450 

ENGRAVING— picture,  print,  engraving 450 

TO  ENGROSS— to  absorb,  swallow  up,  Ingulf, 

engross 509 

ENJOYMENT— enjoyment,  fhiitlon,  gratification  383 
ro  ENLARGE— to  enlarge,  increase,  extend —  348 
TO  ENU6HTEN— to  Uluminate,  illumine,  en- 

lightan 107 

TO  ENLIST— to  enrol,  enllat  or  list,  register,  re- 
cord  408 

TO  ENLIVEN— to  animaie^  iMpiie,  cheer,  en- 
liven, ezhtlarata , 355 

ENMITY— enmity,  animosity,  hosUlity 135 

ENMITY— hatred,  enmity,  ill-will,  repugnance. .  137 
ENORMOUS— enormous,  huge,  immense,  vast . .  340 
ENORMOUS— enormous,  prodigious,  monstrous.  350 

ENOUGH— enough,  sufllclent 343 

ENRAPTURE— to  charm,  enchant,  fkscinate,  en- 
rapture, captivate 317 

TO  ENROL— to  enrol,  enlist  or  list,  register,  re- 
cord  466 

ENS  AMPLE— example,  pattern,  ensample 531 

TO  ENSLAVE— to  enslave,  captivate 318 

TO  ENSUE— to  follow,  succeed,  ensue 971 

TO  ENTANGLE— to  embarrass,  entangle,  pei^ 

plex 418 

TO  ENTANGLE— to  insnare,  entrap,  entangle, 

inveigle 585 

ENTERPRISE— attempt,  undertaking,  enterprise  330 
ENTERPRISING— enterprising,  adveniurous  ...  173 
TO  ENTER  UPON— to  begin,  commence,  enter 

upon 909 

TO  ENTERTAIN— to  amuss,  divert,  entertain. .  380 
ENTERTAINMENT— amusement,  diversion,  en- 
tertainment, sport,  recreation,  pastime 301 

ENTERTAINMENT— feast,  banquet,  carousal, 

entertainment,  treat 513 

ENTHUSIAST— enthuaiast,  (knatick.  visionary . .  01 
TO  ENTICE— to  allure,  tempt,  seduce,  entice, 

decoy 319 

TO  £NTICE-to  persuade,  enlke)  prevail  upon.  31J 


zed  by  Google 


ENTIRB-^bole,  entire,  comiriete,  toul,  Integral  888 
TO  ENTITLE— to  name,  denominate,  ityle,  en- 
title, designate,  eharaeterise 471 

TO  ENTRAP-Ho  innare,  entrap,  entangle,  In- 
veigle   a» 

TO  ENTREAT— to  beg,  bceeech,  aollclt,  entreat, 

■upplicate,  implore ISB 

ENTREATY— prayer,  petition,  leqacat,  entreaty, 

Butt,  crave 87 

ENVIOUS— lnvidloas,enTfcMM 389 

TO  ENVIRON— to  •urroand,encompan,  environ, 

encirole 175 

ENVOY — ambaendor,  envoy,  plenipotentiary, 

depaty » 214 

ENVY— jealouay,  envy,  sasplcion 389 

EPHEMERIS— calendar,  almanack,  ephemeria  . .  434 

EPICURE— eensuaiiit,  volnptoary,  epicure 375 

EPIDEMICAL*— oontaglona,  epidemical,  peetilen- 

lial M9 

EPISTLE— letter,  epiatle 196 

EPITHET— epithet,  a^edive 490 

EPOCHA— time,  period,  age,  date,  era,  epodm  . .  967 
EQUABLE  )  equal,  even,  equable,  like  or  alike, 

EQUAL       ]     uniform 435 

TO  EQUIP— to  fit,  equip,  prepare,  qualify 154 

EQUITABLE— (kir,  honest,  equitable,  reasonable  496 

EQUITY— justice,  equity 818 

EQUIVOCAL— arablgnouB,  equivocal 97 

10  EQUIVOCATE— to  evade,  equivocate,  pre- 
varicate   596 

ERA— time,  period,  age,  date,  era,  epoeha 967 

TO  ERADICATE— to  eradicate,  extirpate,  extoi^ 

rainate 508 

TO  ERASE— to  blot  oat,  expunge,  rase  or  erase, 

eflhce,  cancel,  obliterate S4  8 

TO  ERECT— to  build,  erect,  construct 496 

TO  i:RECT— to  institute,  establish,  found,  erect.  913 
To  ERECT— to  lift,  raise,  erect,  elevate,  exalt. . .  354 

ERRAND— mission,  message,  errand 915 

ERROUR— errour,  mistake,  blunder 196 

ERROUR— errour,  fault 185 

ERUDITION— kpowledge,  scignce,  learning,  eru- 
dition    196 

ERUPTION— eruptfon,  explosion 501 

TO  ESCAPE— to  escape,  elude,  evade 5S7 

TO  ESCHEW— to  avoid,  eschew,  shun,  elude. . .  527 
TO  ESCORT— to  accompany,  escort,  wait  on,  at- 
tend  493 

ESPECIALLY— especially,  partlculariy,   prince 

pally,  chiefly 966 

TO  ESPY— to  find,  find  out,  discover,  espy,  descry  4«1G 
ESSAY— attempt,  trial,  endeavour,  essay,  eflbrt. .  390 

ESSAY— essay,  treatise,  tract,  dtasertation 3S20 

ESSENTIAL — neccanry,  expedient,  essential, 

requisite 417 

TO  EST  ABLISH— to  confirm,  establish 985 

TO  ESTABLISH— to  fix,  setUe,  establlab 997 

TO  ESTABLISH— to  institnte,  establish,  Anind, 

erect 913 

ESTEEM— esteem,  respect,  regard 497 

TO  ESTEEM— to  value,  prize,  esteem 436 

TO  ESTEEM      )  to   apprize,  appreciate,  esti- 

TO  ESTIMATE  ]     mate,  esteem 438 

TO  ESTIMATB— to  estimate,  compote,  rais....  438 

ETERNAL— eternal,  endless,  everlasting 87D 

EUCHARIST— Lord's  supper,  eucharlst,  commu- 
nion, sacrament....; 83 

EULOGY— encomium,  eutogy,  panegyrick 130 

TO  EVADE— to  evade,  equivocate,  prevaricate.  586 

TO  EVADE— to  escape,  elude,  evsde 587 

TO  EVAPORATE— to  emit,  exhale,  evaporate. .  501 

EVASION— evasion,  shift,  subterftige 596 

EtVEN— equal,  even,  equable,  oniform,  like  or 

alike 435 

EVEN— even,  smooth,  level,  plain 435 

EVENT— event,  incident,  accident,  adventure,  oc- 
currence  179 

EVENT— event,  issue,  consequence 890 

EVER-^atorays,  at  all  times,  ever 856 

EVERLASTING— eternal,  endless,  everlasting. .  970 

EVERY— all,  every,  each 858 

EVIDENCE— deponent,  evidence,  witness 445 

EVIDENCE— proof,  testimony,  evMence 444 

EVIDENT-~apparent,  visible,  clear,  plain,  obvi- 
ous, evident,  manifest fJS 

EVIL— evil  or  111,  misfortune,  harm,  mischief. .. .  405 

EVIL-bad,  evil,  wicked 197 

TO  EVINCE— to  argue,  evince,  prove 77 

TO  EVINCE— to  prove,  denoonstrate,  evince,  ma- 

niifest 444 

EXACT— accurate,  exact,  precise 903 

EXACT— exact,  nice,  particniar,  punctual 903 

TO  EXACT-Ho  exact,  extort 817 

TO  EXALT— to  lift,  praise,  erect,  elevate,  exalt.  354 
EXAMINATION— examination,  search,  inquiry, 

research,  investigation,  scrutiny 98 

TO  EXAMINE-to  discuss,  examine 96 

TO  EXAMINB— to  examine,  search,  explore. ...    96 

EXAMPLE— example,  pattern,  ensample 531 

EXAMPLE— example,  precedent 531 

EXAMPLE— example,  instance 531 

TO  EXASPERATE— to  aggravate,  Irritate,  pro- 
voke, exasperate,  tantalize 191 

TO  EXCEED  )  to  exceed,  aurpaa,  transcend,  ex- 

TO  EXCEL     \     eel,  outdo ..973 

EXCELLENCE— excellence,  superiority '. .  874 

EXCEPT— besides,  except 851 

EXCEPT— unless,  except 851 

EXCEPTION— objection,  difficulty,  exception  ...  119 

EXCESS— excess,  superfluity,  rednndancy 343 

EXCESSIVE— excessive,  immoderate,  intempe- 
rate   343 

TO  EXCHANGE— to  change,  exchange,  barter, 

snbutitute 334 

TO  EXCHANGE— to  exchange,  barter,  truck, 

commute 335 

EXCHANGE— interchange,  exehimge,  reciprocity  334 
TO  EXCITE— to  awaken,  excite,  provoke,  rouse, 

stir  up 310 

TO  EXCITE— to  excite,  incite,  provoke 300 

TO  EXCLAIM- to  cry.  exclaim,  call 470 

TO  EXCULPATE— to  apologize,  defend,  justify, 

exculpate,  excuse,  plead 181 

TO  EXCULPATE— to  exonerate,  exculpate  ....  188 
EXCURSION— excundon,  ramble,   tone   Jaimt, 

trip 308 

TO  EXCUSE— to  apologize,  defend,  Justify,  ez- 
cul^Mte,  excuse,  plead        181 


zed  by  Google 



TO  EXCUSE— to  ezciue,  pardon 

EXCUSE— pretence,  pretention,  pretext,  excuse. . 
EXECRABLE— abominable,  deteatable,  execrable 
EXECRATION— malediction,  cune,  imprecation, 

eMcration,  anaUiema 

TO  EXECUTE— to  accompUita,  effect,  execute, 


TO  EXECUTE— to  execute,  foliU,  perform 

EXEMPT— free,  exempt 

EXEMPTION— privilege,  prerogative,  exemption, 


TO  EXERClSE^-^to  exereiee,  practiae 


»,^  «^»«rr,       i  to  exert,  exercise 

TO  EXERT       S  ^ 

EXERTION— endeavour,  eflbrt,  exertion.^ 

TO  EXHALE— to  emit,  exhale,  evaporatX 

TO  EXHAUST— to  spend,  exhaust,  drain 

TO  EXHIBIT— to  give,  present,  offer,  exhibit .. . 

TO  EXHIBIT— to  show,  exhibit,  display 

EXHIBmON— «how,  exhibition,  representation, 
sight,  spectacle 

TO  EXHILARATE— to  animate,  inspire,  cheer, 
enliven,  ex  hilarate 

TO  EXHORT— to  exhort,  persuade 

EXIGENCY— exigency,  emergency 

TO  EXILE— to  banish,  exile,  expel 

TO  £XIST-to  be,  exist,  subsist 

TO  EXIST— to  exist,  live 

EXIT— exit,  departure 

TO  EXONERATE— to  exonerate,  exculpate  .... 

TO  EXPAND— to  dilate,  expand 

TO  EXPAND— to  spread,  expand,  dilAise 

TO  EXPECT— to  await,  watt  for,  look  for,  expect 

EXPECTATION— hope,  expectaaon,  confidence, 

EXPEDIENT— expedient,  resource 

EXPEDIENT— exiiedient,  fit 

EXPEDIENT — neccnary,  expedient  iSMntial, 

TO  EXPEDITE— to  has^,  accelerate,  speed,  ex- 
pedite, despatch 

EXPEDITIOUS— diligent,  expeditious,  prompt . . 

TO  EXPEL— to  banish,  exile,  expel 

TO  EXPEND— to  spend  or  expend,  waste,  dissi- 
pate, squander 

EXPENSE— cost,  expense,  price,  charge 

EXPERIENCE  /  experience,  experiment,  trial, 

EXPERIMENT  {      proof,tesl 

EXPERT— clever,  skilful,  expert,  dexterous,  adroit 

TO  EXPIATE— to  alone  for,  expiate 

TO  EXPIRE— to  die,  expire 

TO  EXPLAIN— to  explain,  expound,  interpret . . 

TO  EXPLAIN— to  explain,  illustrate,  elucidate. . 

EXPLANATION— definition,  explanation 

EXPLANATORY  *       ,       . 

EXPLICIT  !  explanatory,  explicit,  express 

EXPLOIT— deed,  exploit,  achievement,  feat 

TO  EXPLORE— lo  examine,  seareb,  explore .... 

EXPLOSION— eruption,  explosion 

EXPOSEI>-«ubJect,  liable,  exposed,  obnoxious. . 
TO  EXPOSTULATE — to  expostulate,  remon- 
strate  ' 

TO  EXPOUND— to  explain,  expound,  interpret. 
EXPRESS— explanatory,  explicit,  dxpress 






TO  EXPRESS— to  exprcM,  declare,  signiiy  tes- 
tify, utter 455 

EXPRESSION— word,  expression,  term 40S 

EXPRESSIVE-signlficant,  expressive 456 

TO  EXPUNGE— to  blot  out,  expunge,  rase  or 

erase,  eflkoe,  cancel,  obliterate 948 

TO  EXTEND— to  enlarge,  increase,  extend 348 

TO  EXTEND— lo  reach,  stretch,  extend 348 

EXTENSIVE— comprehensive,  extensive 174 

EXTENT— limit,  extent 1T7 

TO  EXTENU ATE-lo  extenuate,  paUiate 183 

EXTERIOUR— outward,  external,  cxteriour 351 

TO  EXTERMINATE — to  eradicate,  ezUrpate, 

exterminate. 503 

EXTERNAL— outward,  external,  exterlour 351 

TO  EXTIRPATE— U>  eradicate,  extirpate,  exter- 
minate  «Y 503 

TO  EXTOL— to  praise,  commend,  applaud,  extol  130 

TO  EXTORT— to  exact,  extort 317 

EXTRANEOUS-extraneoua,  extrlusick,  foreign  437 
EXTRAORDINARY— extraordinary,  remarkable  451 
EXTRAVAGANT— extravagant,  prodigal,  lavish, 

profuse 343 


EXTREMITY  i  «««^«»**y.  «««»« » 

EXTREMITY— end,  extremity 985 

TO  EXTRICATE— to  disengage,  disentangle,  ex- 
tricate   918 

EXTRINSICK-extraneous,  extrlnsick,  foreign..  437 

EXUBERANT— exuberant,  luxuriant 343 

TO  EYE— to  look,  see,  beboldj  view,  eye 489 

FABLE— fiible,  tale,  novel,  romance 407 

FABRICK— edifice,  structure,  ftibrick 499 

TO  FABRICATE-to  invent,  feign,  frame,  ad>ri- 

cate,  forge 598 

FABRICATION— fiction,  fabrication,  falsehood.^  598 

TO  FACE— to  confront,  face 149 

FACE— face,  front 478 

FACE— face,  countenance,  visage 479 

FACETIOUS — ftcetious,  conversible,  pleasant, 

Jocular,  Jocose 461 

FACILlTY-ease,  easiness,  Ughtness,  facility....  363 

FACT— circumstance,  incident,  fbct ITS 

FACTION— ftction,  party  909 

FACTIOUS— ftcUous,  sediUous 90» 

FACTOR— Actor,  agent 338 

FACULTY— abiJity,  faculty,  talent 68 

TO  FAIL— to  fall,  (kll  short,  be  deficient 195 

FAILING— imperfection,  weakness,  (Vailty,  fail- 
ing, foible 194 

FAILING  >.„        .„,  ,^ 

FAILURE  J'"^"'*'^'"'* ^^ 

FAILURE— failure,  miscarriage,  abortion 195 

FAILURE— Insolvency,  failure,  bankruptcy 195 

FAINT— faint,  languid 369 

FAIR— fair,  clear 477 

FA IR— fair,  honest,  equitable,  reasonable 428 

FAITH— belief,  trust,  credit,  faith 78 

FAITH— faith,  creed 79 

FAITH— faith,  fidelity 416 

FAITHFUL-faithful,  trusty 416 

F AITHL  ess— faithless,  unlkithful 524 

FAITHLESS— faithless,  perfidious,  treacherous. .  594 


zed  by  Google 


TO  FALL— to  All,  drop,  droop,  nink,  tumble. ...  303 
TO  FALL  SHORT— to  Ml,  ftU  short,  be  defielent  125 
FALLACIOUS— fftllackHu,  deceitful,  Aaudulent  533 

FALLAPY— fallacy,  delusion.  Illusion 

FAUiEHOOD— flcUoD,  AU>rication,  falsehood 


FALSrrr        1  "''^"^*  f<^l*ehood,  falsity,  He. . .  538 

TO  FALTER— to  hesitate,  fUter,  stanuner,  stutter  97 

FAME— Ame,  reputatfcNi,  renown 47S 

FAMd—ikme,  report,  raoMHir,  beaiaay 472 

FAMILIAR— free,  IkmlHar 241 

FAMILIARITY— acquataitance,  ftmiliarity,  inti- 
macy   105 

FAMILY— Aimily,  bouse,  lineage,  race 405 

FAMOUS— famous,  celebrated,  renowned,  Uloo- 

tiioua 473 

FAN ATICK— enthusiast,  fanatick,  visionary. .. .  91 
FANCIFI7L— (bncifbl,  fkntaadeal,  whimsical,  ca- 

inicloas 385 

FANCY— conceit,  fkncy 00 

FANCY— fkncy.  Imagination 73 

FANTASTICAL— fhncUtal,  fantastieal,  whimsi 

cal,  capricious •>oo 

FAB— distant,  fltr,  remole 986 

FARE— fare,  prorision 513 

FARMER— former,  husbandman,  agriculturist. . .  336 
TO  FASCINATE— to  chaim,  enchant,  fascinate, 

ennptnre,  captivate 317 

FASHION— custom,  fashion,  manner,  practice  . .  3S8 
OF  FASHION— of  fbshlon,  of  quality,  of  distinc- 
tion   474 

TO  FASHION— to  form,  fashion,  moold,  shape  903 

FAST-^bstinence,  fkst 87 

TO  FASTEN— to  flz,  fbsten,  sUck 296 

FASTIDIOUS— Astldions,  squeamish 385 

FATAL— deadly, mortal, (ktal 371 

FATE— chance,  fortune.  Ate 170 

FATE— destiny,  Ikte,  lot,  doom 160 

FATIGUE— fatigue,  weariness,  lassitude 360 

FAVOUR— benefit,  favour,  kindness,  civility. ...  166 

FAVOUR— credit,  favour,  influence 190 

FAVOUR— grace,  favour 100 

FAVOURABLE— ftvouraUe,  prupillous,  auspl- 

douB 100 

FAULT— blemisb,  defect,  Ault 197 

FAULT— enoar.Ault 135 

FAULT— Imperfection,  defect,  Ault,  vice 124 

FAULTY— culpable,  ftulty 123 

TO  FAWN— to  coax,  wheedle,  ciOote,  fawn.. ..  535 

TO  FE ARr-to  apprehend,  fbar,  dread 307 

FEARFUL— aftaid,  fearful,  timorous,  timid 307 

FEARFUL— fearful,  dreadful,  fHghtful,  tremen- 
dous, terrible,  terrilick,  horrible,  horrid 306 

FEARLESS-bold,  fearless,  intrepid,  undaunted  306 
FEASIBLE— colourable,  speelona,osten8ible,  plau- 

siUe,  feasible 516 

FBASl'— fbaM,  banquet,  caroosal,  enterulnment, 

treat 513 

FEAST— feast,  festival,  holyday 85 

FEAT — deed,  exploit,  achievement,  feat. 205 

FEEBLE— weak,  feeble,  infirm 368 

TO  FEEL— to  feel,  be  sensible,  coneekNis. 376{ 

FEELING— feeling,  eeoMtion,  sense 

FEELING-Adtaiff,  sensibility,  smeepUbilhy. . 

TO  FEIGN— to  feign^  pretend. 5S8 

TO  FEIGN— 10  invent,  fel^,  firame,  fabricate, 

foige 4 525 

t6  FELICITATE— to  felicitate,  congratulate.. .  305 
FELICITY— bappinen^  felicity,  bliss,  lAessednem, 

beatitude 304 

FELLOWSHIP— fellowship,  society 4H0 

FELON— criminal,  culprit,  malefactor,  fek>n,  con- 
vict  123 


FEMINIZE  i  ^^"^'^  fiuninine,  effeminate 514 

FENCE— fence,  guard,  security 163 

FERMENTATION— ebullition,  effetvescente,  fer- 
mentation  •• 300 

FEROCIOUS— ferocious,  fierce,  savage 374 

FERRYMAN— waterman,  boatman,  fluryman. . .  337 

FERTILE— fertile,  flrultful,  prolifick 341 

FERVOUR— fervour,  ardour 475 

FESTIVAL— feast,  Ibsdval,  holyday 85 

FESTIVITY-festivity,  mirth 392 

TO  FETCH— to  bring,  fetch,  carry 330 

FETTER— chain,  fetter,  band,  shackle 217 

FEUD«-quarrel,  broil,  feud,  afiTray  or  fVay 133 

FICTION— fiction,  fabrication,  falsehood 538 

FICTITIOUS— artful,  artificial,  fictiUous 531 

FIDELITY— feith,  fidelity 416 

FIERCE— ferocious,  fierce,  savage 374 

FIERY— hot,  fiery,  burning,  ardent 475 

FIGURE — figure,  metaphor,  allegory,  emblem, 

symbol,  type 531 

FIGURE— form,  figure,  conformation 203 

FILTHY— nasty,  filthy,  foul 515 

FINAL-^final.  ooncliMive 234 

FINAL— last;  latest,  final,  ultimate 270 

12  ™2«  ^T«-,  I  to find,find out,  discover, invent  446 
TO  FIND  OUT  \  *  * 

TO  FIND  I  to  find,  find  out,  discover,  espy, 

TO  FIND  out!     descry 445 

TO  FIND  FAULT  WITH— to  find  feult  with, 

blame,  object  to 118 

FIN  E— beautiful,  fine,  handsome,  pretty 313 

FINE— fine,  delicate,  nice 314 

FINE— fine,  mulct,  penalty,  forfeiture 204 

FINESSE— artifice,  trick,  finesse,  stratagem 531 

FINICAL— finical,  spruce,  foppish 386 

TO  FINISH— to  dose,  finish,  conclude 286 

TO  FINISH— to  complete,  finish,  tennioate 287 

FINITE— finite,  limited 178 

FIRE— fire,  heat,  warmth,  glow 475 

FIRM— hard,  firm,  solid 373 

FIRM— firm,  fixed,  solid,  stable 296 

FIRM— strong,  firm,  robust,  sturdy 372 

FIRMNESS— constancy , stability,  steadiness,  firm- 
ness  296 

FIT— fit,  apt,  meet 155 

FIT— expedient,  fit 418 

FIT— becoming,  decent,  seemly,  fit,  snitable 246 

TO  FIT— to  fit,  equip,  prepare,  qualify 154 

TO  FIT— to  fit,  suit,  adapt,  accommodate,  ad- 
Just 154 

FITTED— competent,  fitted,  qualified 154 

TO  FES— to  fix,  fbsten,  stick. 

376  TO  FIX-40  fix,  setae,  establish 

376  j  TO  FIZ--lofiz,  deiennlne,  settle,  limit . 



zed  by  Google 



TO  FLAG— CO  flag,  droop,  lanfulibt  pine 

FLAGITIOUS  i  belnouK,  flagrant,  flagtUoiw,airo- 

FLAGBANT    )     ckraa 


FLARE  Sfl^pue,  blase,  flaah,  flarei  glar* 

FI^ASH  ) 

FLAT— Itot,  lev«l 

FLAT-4iMlp(d,  dull,  flat 

TO  FLATTER— to  adulate,  flatter,  compHineiit 
FLATTERER— flatterer,  qfcopbant,  panulte. .. . 

FLAVOUR— taaie,  flavour,  rellab,  aavour 

FLAW— Uemiflta,  atain,  apot,  apeek,  flaw 

FLEBTINC^— trmnaient,  tranaitory,  fleetiof,  leoi- 


FLEBTNE8S— quieftaeaa,  awillneaa,  fleetneaa,  ot- 

lerity,  rapidity,  velocity 

FLEXIBLE— flexible,  pliable,  pliant,  rappto 

FUGHTINE8S— llgbtncas,  levity,  flif  bUncaa,  v^/- 

laUlity,  giddlnen 

FLIMSY— auperfleial,  ehallow,  flimey 

TO  FLOURISH— to  flourish,  thrive,  prosper .... 
TO  FLO W— to  arlae,  proceed,  lie  je,  p^log,  1Ur»f 

TO  FLOW— to  flow,  alream,  pish 

TO  FLUCTUATE— toactupie,b«sit&JM,f^tiKti.e, 


#LUID-flaid,  liquid 

iO  FLUTTER— to  palpitate.  Init'ar,  pant,  gaap 
X>&— eneay,  foe,  advioaar/,  cppooent,  anlago- 


**CET(J8— embryu,  ikxns  

COIBLE— Imperfcytiot.,  wsak*ieai,  IVailty,  (Uling, 


ro  POIL-io  dafeat,  ftU,  diaappoiul,  flruatrate  . . 

tOLKS— people,  peraona,  follca 

ro  FOLLOW— CO  foDow,  aueceed,  enaue 

•JTO  FOLLOW— to  follow,  puraue 

ro  FOLLOW— to  follow,  Imitate 

FOLLOWER— follower,  adherent,  partisan 

FOLLY— folly,  foolery 

FOND— afltctionate,  kind,  fond 

FOND— ainoroufl,  lovinf,  fond 

FOND-indulfent,  fond 

TO  FONDLE-^to  cartas,  fondle 

FOOD— food,  diet,  rrglmen 

FOOL— fool,  idiot,  buflbon 

FOOLERY— foHy,  foolery 

FOOLHARDY— foolhardy,  advemnrooa,  rash. .. . 
FOOLISH— irrational,  foollsb,  abanid,  prepoata- 


rOOLISH-tioipte,  alHy,  foolish 

FOOTSTEP— mark,  trace,  vestige,  footstep,  tiack 

FOPPISH— flnlcal,  spruce,  foppish 

TO  FORBBAR—lo  abstain,  forbear,  reflrala 

TO  F0RBID-40  forbid,  prohibit,  intefdict 

FOREC  ABT-^foicalBbt,  forethacght,  foncaat,  pre- 


FORCE— eneigy,  forea,  Tlgour 

FORCE— power,  anengtb,  foroat  aathorlty,  doad- 

nlon • 

FORCE— fnice,  violence 

FORCE— strain,  sprain,  siraiv,  force 

TO  FORCB-lo  compel,  foree,  oblige, 

FORCIBLE— cogent,  forcible,  strong SiO 

TO  FOREBODE— to  augur,  presage,  forbode,  be- 
token, portend M 

FORECAST —foreaight,  forethought,  premediia- 
lion,  foreciMt 3QB 

FOREFATHERS— forefathers,  progenitors,  an> 

FOREGO— to  give  up,  abandon,  resign,  forego. . .  SIS 
FOREGOINO— antecedent,  preceding,  foregoing, 

previous,  anterior,  prior,  former S79 

FOREIGN— extraneous,  extrlnaick,  foreign 437 

FOREIGNER— stranger,  foreigner,  alien 380 

FORERUNNER— forerunner,  precursor,  mesien- 

ger,  harbinger S15 

FORESIGHT— foresight,   Ibretbongiit,  forecast, 

preniediutlon 309 

FOREST— forast,  chase,  park S7i 

TO  PORETEL— to    foretel,  predict,  prophesy, 

prognosticate 04 

FCRETHOUGIIT— foresight,  forethought,  fore- 
cast, premiHlitation  30tt 

rORFEITURE— fine,  mulct,  penalty,  forfeiture. .  904 
TO  FORGE— to  invent,  feign,  frame,  fabricate, 

forge aS8 

FORGETFULNESS— forgetfulness,  oblivion ....  n 
TO  FORGIVB— to  forgive,  pardon,  absolve,  remh    87 

FORLORN— forsaken,  forlorn,  destitute 348 

FORM— form,  figure,  conformation S93 

FORM— form,  ceremony,  right,  observance 83 

TO  FORM— to  make,  form,  produce,  create SOS 

TO  FORM— to  form,  fashion,  mould,  shape S93 

TO  FORM— to  form,  compose,  constitute 904 

FORMAL— formal,  ceremonious 994 

FORMER— antecedent,  preceding,  foregoing,  pre- 
vious, anterior,  prior,  former 979 

FORMERLY— formerly.  In  times  past  or  old  times, 

in  days  of  yore,  anciently,  or  ancient  times. .  900 
FORMIDABL£-formldable,   dreadful,  terrible, 

shocking 308 

TO  FORSAKE— to  abandon,  desert,  forsake,  re- 
linquish  943 

FORSAKEN— forsaken,  forlorn,  destitute 948 

TO  FORSWEAR— CO  forswear,  peijure,  suborn.  99 
TO  FORTIFY— to  strengthen,  fortify,  invigorate  379 
FORTITUDE— courage,  fortitude,  resolution....  130 
FORTUITOUS  I  fortunate,    lucky,    fortuitous, 

FORTUNATE  )     prosperous,  successful 305 

FORTUNATE— happy,  fortunate 394 

PORTUN E— chance,  fortune,  foie 17D 

FORWARD—onward,  forward,  progressive 3UI 

TO  FORWARD— to  encourage,  advance,  pro- 
mote, prefer,  forward 319 

TO  FOSTER— to  foster,  cheriah,  harbour,  Indulge  377 

FOUL— nMty,  filthy,  foal 515 

TO  FOUND— to  found,  ground,  rest,  buikl 408 

TO  F<^/UND— to  lnaUtute,eBtabllah,  found,  erect.  913 

FOUNDATION— foondatkm,  gnmod,  baiJa 40B 

FOUNTAIN-apilng,  fooDtaln,  source 353 

FRACTION  1     ^       ^ ,      ,  ,^ 

FRACTURE  J  ""»*"'•'***'•"» '^**^^" ** 

FRAOILE-fraglie,  ftall,  brittle 509 

FBA6RAN0S— aoMll,  aeant,  odaar,  parfoma,  ftm- 

granca • 511 

FRAlL-^Aagltei  fiall,  brittle 808 


zed  by  Google 


FRAILTY— 4mperfectinn,  weakncM,  frailty  fall- 

ln«,  foible 134 

FRAME— frame,  temper,  teroperamenl,  conititu- 

tion aSB 

TO  FRAM&-HO  Invent,  feign,  frame,  fabricate, 

for^ 598 

PRANK— frank,  eandid,  ingenuoue,  free,  open, 

plain 431 

FRAUD— deceit,' fraud,  guile fl93 

FRA^— quarrel,  broil,  feud,  afltaj  or  f^y 133 

FRAUDULENT— fUlacioua,dec6ltful,fir«udulent  333 

FREAK— freak,  wbim 384 

FREE— communicative,  f^ 487 

FRBE-^rank,  candid,  Ingenooua,  free,  open,  plain  431 

FREE— free,  exempt 949 

FREE— free,  liberal 941 

FREE— free,  Ikmillar 941 

TO  FREE— to  free,  set  free,  deliver,  deliberate..  94 

FREEDOM— freedom,  liberty M3, 

FREIGHT— freight,  cargo,  lading,  load,  burden. .  338 
TO  FREQUENT- tofrequenc,reaortto,haunt..  484 
FREaUENTLY-commonly,  generally,  usuaUy, 

frequently 933 

FREaUENTLY— often,  frequently f 968 

FRESH— freah,  new,  novel,  recent,  modem 968 

TO  FRET— to  rub,  chafe,  fret,  gall SOD 

FRETFUL— captloas,  cron,  peevlsb,   petulant, 

fretful 315 

FRFENDLY— amicable,  friendly 378 

FRIENDSHIP— love,  frlenpthip 390 

FRICID-cool,  cold,  frigid 514 

FRIGHT- alarm,  terrour,  fright,  consternation. .  305 

TO  PR IGHTEN— to  frighten,  Intimidate 307 

FRIGHTFUL— fearftil,  dread  Ail,  frlghtAil,  tremen- 
dous, terriiick,  horrible,  horrid 306 

FRIYOLOUa-triflhig,  trivial,  petty,  frivolous, 

futile 457 

FROLICK— frotick,  gambol,  prank 390 

PRONT— face,  front  478 

FROWARD— awkward,  crom,  untoward,  crook- 
ed, froward,  perverse 315 

FRUGALITY— economy,  frugality,  parsimony..  101 

FRUITFUL— fertile,  fruitful,  proliark 341 

FRUITION— enjoyment,  fruition,  gratlOcatlon. . .  383 

FRUITLESS— vain,  incAictual,  fruitless 990 

FRUSTRATE— to  defeat,  foil,  disappoint,  frus- 
trate   143 

TO  FULFI  l^—lo  execute,  fulfil,  perform 989 

TO  FULPTL— to  fulfil,  accompibb,  realize 980 

TO  FULFIL— to  keep,  observe,  ftilfll 980 

FULLY— largely,  copiously,  fuUy 349 

FULNESS— fulness,  plenitude 341 

FUNCTION— oAce,  place,  charge,  frmetion 339 

FUNERAL— funeral,  obsequies 84 

FURIOUS-^loleot,  furioua,  boisterous,  impetu- 
ous, vehement 919 

FURNISH— to  provide,  pracara,  fumish,  supply. .  3B0 
FURNITURE— goods,  furaitore,  chattels,  move- 
ables, efbets 330 

FURY— madness,  phrensy,  rafe,  ftury 981 

FURY— anger,  choter,  r^ge,  Airy 119 

FUTELE-Crlfliog,  trivial,  frivQloaa»  Ibtlle 457 

GAIN— gain,  prolli,  enotamwiit,  locra 307 

TO  GAIN-tn  get.  gain,  obtain,  procure 300 

TO  GAIN— to  acquire,  obtain,  gain,  wm,  earn. . .  386 

GAIT— carriage,  gait,  walk 199 

GALE— breeae,  gale,  Uasl,  gust,  storm,  tempest, 

hurricane 353 

TO  GALL-to  rub,  chafe,  fret,  gall 300 


GALLANT— gallant,  beau,  spark 381 

GALLANTRY-^ravery,  courage,  valour,  gal- 
lantry   130 

GAMBOL— froiick,  gambol,  prank 300 

GAME— play,  game,  sport 384 

GANG — band,  company,  crew,  gang 489 

GAP— breach,  break,  gap,  chasm 501 

TO  GAP%-to  gape,  stare,  gaze 479 

GARRULOUS— talkative,  loquacious,  garrulous.  460 

TO  GASP— to  palpitate,  flutter,  pant,  gasp 305 

TO  GATHER— to  gather,  coUeet 334 

GAUDY— showy,  gaudy,  gay 4S3 

GAY— dieerful,  merry,  sprightly,  gay 389 

GAY— showy,  gaudy,  gay 458 

TO  GAZEr-to  gape,  store,  gaze 479 

GENDER— gender,  sex 514 

GENERA  L-general,  universal «. 333 

GEN  BRALLY— commonly,  generally,  frequently, 

usually 333 

GEN  ERA  TION— generation,  age 370 

GENERATION— race,  generation,  breed 497 

GENEROUS— beneficient,  bountiful,  bounteous, 

munificent,  generous,  liberal 165 

GENIUS— intellect,  gcnlua,  talent 67 

GENIUS— taste,  genius 70 

GENTEEL-poUie,  poUsbed,  refined,  genteel ....  190 

GENTILE— gentile,  heathen,  pagan 495 

OENTLE-gentie,  tame 360 

GENTLE-soO,  mild,  gentie,  meek 350 

GENUINE— intrinsick,  teal,  genuine,  native 437 

GESTICULATION  i  •^"**"'  «^""^  gcsticula- 
GESTURE  i     •***"'   P***""^**  attitude. 

f     poeiiion, 305 

TO  GET— to  get,  gain,  obtain,  procure 306 

OH  ASTLY— hideous,  gha8tly,grim,  grisly 478 

GHOST— lesion,  apparition,  pliantom,  specure, 

ghost 470 

GHOSTLY-epirituoua,  spirited,  spiritual,  ghostly    66 

TO  GIBE— to  scofir,  gibe,  Jeer, sneer 104 

GIDDINESS— lightness,  levity,  flighUaess,  volati- 
lity, giddiness 300 

GIFT— giO,  present,  donation,  benefaction 164 

GIFT— gift,  endowment,  talent 67 

TO  GIV£-to  give,  grant,  bestow,  alJow 169 

TO  GIVE— to  give,  affonl,  spare 163 

TO  GIVE— to  give,  present,  oifer,  exhibit 163 

TO  GIVE  UP-lo  give  up,  deliver,  surrender, 

ylekl,  cede,  concede 949 

TO  GIVE  UP— togive up,  abandon,  rssign,  forego  949 

GLAD-glad,  pleased.  Joyful,  cheerful 38S 

GLADNESS— joy,  gladness,  mlrtli 308 

TO  GLANCE  AT— 10  glance  at,  aUude  to 381 

GLANCfi-look,  glanoe 488 

GLANCK-flimpae, glance... 397 

GLARE— flame.  Maze,  flash,  flare,  glare 476 

TO  GLARE— to  abipe,  gUttar,  glare,  sparkle,  ra- 
diate  4?f 

ligitized  by  VjOOQ IC 




G LARCNG— glaring,  barafaced     476 

GLEAM— gleam,  glimmer,  ray,  beam 476 

TO  GLIDB-Ho  slip,  aUde,  glide 303 

GLIMMER— gleam,  glimmer,  ray,  beam 476 

GLlMPSE-glimpae,  glance 387 

TO  GLITTER— u>  thine,  glilter,  glare,  aparkle, 

radiace 476 

GLOBE— circle,  sphere,  orb,  globe 175 

GLOBE— gkjbe,  ball 500 

GLOOM— gloom,  heaviness 410 

GLOOMY— duU,  gloomy,  sad,  dismal 410 

GLOOMY— gloomy,  suUen,  morose,  spleoetkk. ..  411 

GLORY— glory,  honour 499 

TO  GLORY— to  glory,  boas^  vaunt £96 

TO  GLOSS— to  gkMS,  vaniMi,  palUate. .  .^ 515 

GLOSSARY— dictionary,  leilcon,  glossary,  vo- 
cabulary, nomenclature ^ 

GLOW— fire,  heat,  warmth,  glow 475 

TO  GLUT— to  satisfy,  satiate,  glut,  cloy 383 

GODLlKE-godllke,  divine,  heavenly 90 

GODLY— flodly,  rigtileous 90 

GOLD-gold,  golden 514 

GOOD— good,  goodness 39? 

GOOD— good,  benefit,  advantage 397 

GOOD-HUMOUR  )        , 

GOOD-N  ATURB  \  goodnature,  good-humour. .  388 

GOODNESS-good,  goodness : 397 

GOOD  OFFICE— benefit,  service,  good  ofllce. .. .  166 
GOODS— commodity,  goods,  merchandise,  ware  339 
GOODS— goods,  furniture,  chattels,  moveables,  ef- 
fects  339 

GOODS— goods,  possessions,  property 340 

TO  GOVERN— to  govern,  rule,  regulate U6 

GOVERNMENT— guveroment,  administration..  907 
GOVERNMENT— government,  constitution  ....  907 

GRACE/— grace,  favour 190 

GRACE— grace,  charm 314 

GRACEFUL— becoming,  comely,  graceful 313 

GRACEFUL— gracefiil,  comely,  elegant. ........  315 

GRACIOUS— gracious,  merciful,  kind 357 

GRAND— great,  grand,  sublime 455 

GRAND— noble,  grand 454 

GRANDEUR— grandeur,  magnificence 454 

TO  GRANT-  HO  admit,  aDow,  grant 157 

TO  GR ANT— 4o  give,  grant,  bestow,  allow 162 

TO  GRASP— to  lay  or  take  hold  of,  catch,  seize, 

snatch,  grasp,  gripe  237 

GRATEFUL— acceptoble,  grateful,  welcome....  234 
GRATIFICATION— enjoyment,  fruiaon,  gratifi- 
cation  383 

TO  GRATIFY— to  salhify ,  please,  gratify 383 

GRATITUDE— thankfulness,  graUtude 441 

GRATUITOUS— gratuitous,  voluntary 441 

GRATUITY— gratuity,  recompense 440 

GRAVE— grave,  serious,  solemn 303 

GRAVE— sober,  grave 399 

GRAVE— grave,  tomb,  sepulchre SCO 

GRAVITY— weight,  heaviness,  gravity 309 

GBEAT-greal,  large,  Ug 340 

GREAT-gieat,  grand,  subUme 455 

GREATNESS-slse,  magnitude,  greatness,  bulk  348 
GREEDINESS— avidity,  greedfaiess,  eagerness. . .  169 

GREETIN(>-«aIute,  salutatlc^,  greeting 461 

QRIEF— afBiction,  grief,  sorrow 408 

GRIEVANCE— grlevanoe,  hardship 400 

TO  GRIEVE— to  grieve,  mourn,  lament 406 

GRIEVED— sorry,  grieved,  hurt 412 

GR IM— hideous,  gbasUy,  grim,  grisly 478 

TO  GRIPE— to  lay  or  take  hoklof,  catch,  seixe, 

snatch,  grasp,  gripe 837 

TO  GRIPE— to  press,  squeeze,  pinch,  gripe 309 

GRISLY— hideous,  gbasUy,  grim,  grisly 478 

TO  GROAN-MO  groan,  moan 41C 

GROSS— gross,  coarse 901 

GROSS-groH,  total 388 

TO  GROUND— to  found,  ground,  rest,  buiM 498 

GROUND— foundation,  gnxind,  baste 498 

GROUP    assembly,  assemblage,  group,  collection  490 

TO  GROW— to  become,  grow i....  940 

TO  GROW— to  increase,  grow 347 

GRUDG  E— malke,  rancour,  spite,  grudge,  pique. .  381 
TO  GUARANTEE— to  guarantee,  be  security,  be 

responsible,  warrant 183 

GUARD— fence,  guard,  security 188 

TO  GUARD— to  guard,  defend,  watch 180 

GUARDr-guaid,  sentinel 180 

GUARD— guard,  guardian 181 

TO  GUARD  AGAINST— to  gpard  against,  take 

heed 181 

GUARDIAN— guard,  guardian 181 

TO  GUESS— to  guess,  conjectore,  divine OS 

GUEST— guest,  visitor  or  visitant 401 

TO  GUIDE— to  lead, conduct,  guide 191 

GUIDE— guide,  rule 910 

GUILE-d«ceit,  fraud,  guile 993 

GUILTLESS— guiltless,  innocent,  harmless 193 

GUILTY-criinlnal,  guilty 123 

GUISE-guise,  habit &IS 

GULF— gulf,  abyss 403 

TO  GUSH— to  flow,  8lT«am,  gush 3SB 

GUST— breeze,  gale,  blast,  gust,  atorm,  tempest, 

hurricane 353 

HABIT— custom,  habit 39S 

HABIT— guise,  habit 518 

TO  HALE— to  draw,  drag,  haul  or  hale,  pull,  tug, 

friuck 303 

TO  HALLOW— to  dedicate,  consecrate,  hallow..  89 
HANDSOME— beautiful,  fine,  handsome,  pretty  313 
TO  HANKER  AFT£Rr-todesire,wish,  long  for, 

hnnker  after,  covet 150 

TO  H APPKN— to  happen,  chance 171 

HAPPINESS— happiness,  felicity,  bliss,' bleMed- 

nefa,  beatitude 394 

HAPPINESS— well-being,  prosperity,  happiness, 

welfare 306 

HAPPY— happy,  fortunato 394 

HARANGUE— address,  speech,  harangue,  oration  461 

TO  HARASS— to  distress,  harass,  perplex 407 

TO  HARASS— to  weary,  tire,  Jade,  harass 360 

HARBINGER— forerunner,  precursor,  messenger, 

harbinger 915 

HARBOUR<*-harbour,  haven,  port 518 

TO  HARBOUR— to  haiiKMir,  shelter,  lodge.    ...  517 
TO  HARBOUR— to  foster,  cherish,  harbour,  In- 
dulge   377 

HARD— hard,  firm,  solid 373 

H  ARD-faard,  hardy,  iaseadbie,  unfeeling 374 

Digttized  by  VjOOQ IC 



HAKI> -liard,  dlfficolt,  wduoiu 364 

HARD  )  bard,  ealloiis,  bardened,  obdu- 

HARDENED  )      nte 373 

HARDUEA&TED— bard  hearted, cruel,  iininei^ 

elful,  mercilen 373 

HARDIHOOD  )  audaeity,  effrontery,  bardUiood 

HARDINESS  (     or  haidineai,  boidnea 140 

HARDLY— bardly,  scarcely 364 

HARDSHIP— grievance,  hardship 409 

HARDY— bard,  baidy,  inseiMtble,  unleeliog 374 

HARM— evil  or  iU,  misfortune,  haim,  mischief. . .  405 
HARM— injury,  damafe,  hurt,  barm,  mlscbler ...  404 

HARMLESS— cuillless,  innocent,  harmless 1S3 

HARMLESS— uooflending.  Inoffensive,  harmless  121 

HARMONY— concord,  harmony 155 

HARMON  Y— melody,  harmony,  accordance 155 

HARSH — ^barsb,  rough,  severe,  rigorous,  stem  . . .  S88 
HARSHNESS — ^acrlroooy,  baiabness,  asperity, 

tartness / 383 

TO  HASTEN— to  hasten,  accelerate,  speed,  expe- 
dite, despatch 961 

TO  HASTEN— to  hasten,  hurry S81 

HASTINESS— rashness,  temerity,  hastiness,  pre- 
cipitancy   963 

HASTY— cursory,  desultory,  slight,  basty 

HASTY— angry,  passionate,  hasty,  irascible 119 

TO  HATE— to  bate,  detest 137 

HATEFUL— hateful,  odious 137 

HATRED-^vendon,  antipathy,  dislike,  hatred, 

ippognance 136 

HATRED— hatred,  enmity,  ill-will,  rancour 137 

TO  HAVE— to  have,  possess 337 

HAVEN — harbour,  haven,  porl 518 

HAUGHTINESS — haugbiineaB,  arrogance,  dis- 
dain   101 

HAUGHTINESS— pride,  haughUness,  loftiness, 

dignity 100 

HAUGHTY— faouehiy,  blgb,  high-minded 101 

TO  HAUL— to  draw,  drag,  haul  or  hale,  pluck, 

poll,  tug 303 

TO  HAUNT— to  frequent,  resort  to,  haunt 494 

HAZARD— danger,  peril,  hazard 171 

HAZARD— chance,  hazard 170 

TO  HAZARD— to  hazard,  risk,  venture ]7l 

HEAD-chief,  leader,  chieftain,  head 906 

HEADSTRONG  }  otwtlnate,  contumacious,  sUib- 
HEADY  5     bom,  headstrong,  beady. ...  909 

TO  HEAL— to  cure,  heal,  remedy 365 

HEALTHY— healthy,  wholesome,  salubrious,  sa- 
lutary  366 

HEALTH Y— sound,  sane,  healthy 366 

TO  HEAP— to  heap,  pile,  accumulate,  amass. ...  340 

TO  HEAB  ) 

TO  HEARKEN  I  ^  ^^^  ^^^^^  ^^"*^"    ^  *^ 

TO  HEARKEN— to  attend,  hearken,  listen 4S9 

HEARSAY— Ome,  report,  raroour,  liearsay 47S 

HEARTY— hearty,  warm,  sincere,  cordial 431 

HEAT— fire,  beat,  warmth,  glow 475 

HEATHEN— gentUe,  beatlien,  pagan 495 

TO  HEAVE-to  HA,  heave,  hoist 354 

TO  HEAV£— to  heave,  swell 354 

HEAVENLY— celestial,  heavenly 81 

HEAYENLY-fodlike,  divine,  heavenly 00  HONESTY- 

UEAVlNESS-«looB,heavln«i , 410|        tegrity 


HEAVINESS— weight,  heaviness,  gravity 369 

HEAVY— heavy,  dull,  drowsy 300 

HEAVY— heavy,  burdensome,  weighty,  ponder* 

ous 370 

TO  HEED— 10  attend  to,  mind,  regvd,  heed,  no- 

Uce 493 

HEED— heed,  care,  attention 496 

HEEDLESS— negligent,  remiss,  careless,  thought- 
less, heedless,  inattentive 494 

TO  HEIGHTEN— to  heighten,  raise,  aggravate. .  335 
HEINOUS— heinous,   flagrant,  flagilious,  atro- 
cious  940 

TO  HELP— 10  help,  asrist,  aid,  succour,  relieve. .  364 

HERESY— heterodoxy,  heresy....! 03 

HERETICK— ^.ereUck,  schiamaUck,  sectarian  or 

sectary,  dissenter,  nonconformist 98 

TO  HESITATE— to  demur,  hesitate,  pause 96 

TO  HESITATE — to  hesitate,  falter,  stammer, 


TO  HESITATE— to  scruple,  hesitate,  fluctuate, 

waver 07 

HESITATION— demur,  doubt,  hesitation,  objec- 

Uon 96 

HETERODOXY-hWrodoxy,  heresy 93 

HIDDEN— secret,  hidden,  latent,  mysterious,  oc- 
cult  590 

TO  HIDE— to  conceal,  hide,  set  ete 519 

TO  HIDE— to  cover,  hide 517 

HIDE— skin,  hide,  peel,  rind 518 

HIDEOUS— hideous,  ghasUy,  grim,  grisly 478 

HIGH— high,  taU,  k>Ay 355 

HIGH  1 

HIGH-MINDED r'"«***^' *'«**'  high-minded...  101 

HIGH-SOUNDING— loud,  noisy,  high-sounding, 

clamorous 471 

HILARITY— mirth,  merriment,  Joviality,  jollity, 

hilarity T: 301 

HIND— countryman,  peasant,  swain,  bind,  down, 

rastick 336 

TO  HINDER— to  hinder,  prevent,  obstruct,  im- 
pede  958 

TO  HINDER— to  hinder,  stop 958 

TO  HINDER— to  retard,  binder 960 

TO  HINT— to  allude,  refer,  bint,  suggest 396 

TO  HINT— to  hint,  suggest,  intimate,  insinuate. .  396 
HIRE— allowance,  stipend,  salary,  wages,  hire, 

pay.^ 164 

HIRELING — venal,  mercenary,  hireling 330 

TO  HIT— to  beat,  bit,  strike 149 

TO  HOARD— to  treasure,  hoard 341 

TO  HOIST— to  lift,  heave,  hois% 354 

TO  HOLD— to  contain,  hold 174 

TO  HOLD— to  hold,  keep,  detain,  retain 936 

TO  HOLD— to  bold,  occupy,  poewss 236 

TO  HOLD— to  bold,  support,  maintain 937 

HOLINESS-boliness,  sanctity 88 

HOLLOW— hollow,  empty 344 

HOLY— holy,  pious,  devout,  religious 89 

HOLY— holy,  sacred,  divine 89 

HOLYDAY— feast,  festival,  holyday 85 

HONEST— fair,  honest,  equitable,  reasonable. ...  496 

HONEST— sincere,  honest,  true,  plain 430 

honesty,  uprightness,  probity,  in- 


zed  by  Google 



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.  480 


,  414 

.  41S 

C  fearful,  dreadrVil,  ftightfbl,  terrible, 
/     tremendott,  terrlfiek,  borrlMei 

■OJJ?f"  I  hon-ly, !«»«., 


HONOUR— flofy,  howmr 

HONOUR— honour,  dignity • 

TO  HONOUR— tn  honour,  reverenet;,  reipeet<^ 

HOPE— hope,  ezpeetation,  trust,  confidence... . 

HOPELESS— deapenite,  hopelem . 

HORRID      ^ 

HOST— nrmy,  hoM W 

HOSTILE— adverse,  Inimical,  hostile,  repugnant  135 

HOSTILITY— enmity,  anlmoelty,  hosilltty 135 

HOT— hot,  flery,  burning,  ardent 475 

BOUSE— fiimlly,  house,  lineage,  race 4«5 

HOWEVER-howerer,  yet,iievertheiesa,notwltb- 

sundlng *rt 

HUE— colour,  hue,  tint 816 

TO  HUG— to  dMp,  hug,  embrace 3T7 

HUGE— enormous,  huge,  Immense,  ▼ast 349 

HUMAN     1 

human,  humane.. 



HUMANITY— benevolence,  benignity,  hnmanlty, 
kindness,  tenderness IW 

TO  HUMBLE— to  abase,  humble,  degrade,  dis- 
grace, debase '. Wk 

HUMBLE— humble,  lowly,  low 147 

HUMBLE— humble,  modest,  submissive 147 

1^  "I!!!«^^m«  \  U)humble,humUlaie,degTade  14fl 

HUMIDITY- molelnre,  humidity,  dampne« 515 

HUMOURr-llquld,  liquor.  Juice,  humour 358 

HUMOUR— humour,  temper,  mood 387 

HUMOUR— humour,  caprice 3B8 

HUMOUR— wit,  humour,  saUre,  Irony,  buriesque    W 

TO  HUMOUR— to  qualify,  temper,  humour 3M 

HUNT— hunt,  chasa 871 

TO  HURL— to  cast,  throw,  huri 304 

HURRICANE— breeze,  gale,  blast,  gust,  tempest, 

storm,  hurricane SB 

TO  HURRY- to  hasten,  hurry 9«I 

HURT— Injury,  damage,  hurt,  harm,  misehlef. .. .  404 

HURT— sorry,  grieved,  hurt ^18 

BURT— disadvantage.  Injury,  hurt,  prajudlce,  de- 
triment  *** 

HURTFUL— hurtflil,  pemieious,  noxious,   not- 


HUSBANDMAN— farmer,  husbandman,  agricul- 

HUSBANDRY— cttlUvatlon,  tillage,  husbandry.. 
HYPOCRITE— hypAlte,  dissembler 

ILL— badly,  HI VK 

ILLITERATS-lgnorant,  illiterate,  unlearned, 

unlettarod HT 

ILLNBBS    skkaeas,  lllnasa,  tadiapoetehm 381 

TO  ILLUMINATE  >  to  Ulumloate,  Ulusrine,  en- 

TO  ILLUMINE       )     ll«hien IST 

ILLUSION— fallacy,  deluskm,  Uluslon 9U 

TO  ILLU8TRATE-I0  azplala,  Ittnstraie,  eluel- 

daie <• 

ILLUSTRIOUS-dlsUoguWied,  noted,  oonspku- 



ILLUSTRIOUS— Aunona,  celebrated,  renowned, 

illustrious 4W 

ILL-WILL— hatred,  enmity,  lU-wllI,  rancour. .. .  IST 

IMAGE—Hkeness,  picture,  image,  effigy 538 

IMAGINARY— Ideal,  imaginary 73 

IMAGINATION— fancy,  imagination 78 

IMAGINATION— lilea,  thought.  Imagination ....    W 
TO  IMAGINE— 10  ceucelve,  apprehend,  suppoM, 

imagine W 

TO  IMAGINB-lo  ihhik,  auppose,  Imagine,  be- 
lieve, deem "" 

IMBECILITY— debUliy,  Inllrmlty,  ImbeciUQr. ...  367 

TO  IMITATE— to  foliow.  Imitate 530 

TO  IMITATB-to  Imlute,  copy,  counterfeit ... .  880 
TO  IMITATE— to  Imltaie,  mimick,  mock,  ape..  flOO 
IMMATERIAL— unimportant,  inslgnUlcant,  Im- 
material, inoonslderabie 45? 

IMMATERIAL— Incorporeal,  unbodied,  immate- 
rial, Bplriiual •• 

IMMEDIATELY— directly,  iromedlalely,  Instan- 

taneously.  Instantly 

IMMENSE-enormous,  huge,  immense,  vast.... 
IMMINENT-^niminent,  impending,  threatenfatg. 
IMMODERATE— excearive.  Immoderate,  Intem- 

IMMODEST— indecent, immodest,  indelicate.... 
IMMODEST— imOHidesl,  fanpudent,  shamdeas. . . 
IMMUNITY— privilege,  prerogaUve,  exemption, 


TO  IMPAIR— to  Impair,  Injure 

TO  IMPART— to  communicate,  Impart 

IMPASSABLE— Impervious,   Impassable,   inae- 




TO  IMPEACH— «>  accuse,  charge,  impeach,  ar- 

TO  IMPEDE— to  hinder,  prevent.  Impede,  ob- 




IMPEDIMENT— difficulty,  impediment,  obsmcle.  890 

TO  IMPEL— to  actuate.  Impel,  Induce 300 

TO  IMPEL— to  encourage,  animate.  Incite,  impel, 

urge,  sthiknlaie,  Instigate »U 

IMPENDING— imminent,  impending,  threatening  405 
IMPERATIYE— commanding,  imperative,  impe- 
rious, authoritative 108 

defect,   fkttit. 

IDE  A— IdeA,  thought,  imagination < 

IDEA— peroepUon,  idea,  conception,  notion 

IDEAL— ideal,  imaginary ■ 

IDIOM— language,  tongue,  speech,  idiom,  dialect  463  DffERFECTION— Imperfeethm, 

IDIOT— (bol.  idiot,  bullbon •  400  vtee 

IDLB--ldle,laxy,tndolenu 880  niPBRPECTiON-Ttaipwfccllon,  weakness,  fkll- 

IDLE— Idle,  leisure,  vacant SOO         Ing,  fValhy,  foible 

IDLE-idle,vain 880  iMPERIOUfl-coromandtai,  tanpamthre,  Imparl 

IGNOMINY— Infbmy,  Ignominy,  oppnArium....  106 1        ous,  authoritative "*•' 

IQNOR ANT-Hgnorant,  UHterate,  unlearned,  u»-         IMPERIOUS— impettoua,  loldly,  overiMUitag,  do- 
lettered •  Wj        mineering..... 

ILL,  aids  EVtt.  1  mPERTINBNT,  mis  PBETINBNT. 




zed  by  Google 


mPULTINEIfT— iDipMtliient,  mda,  npey,  Im- 
pwleitt,  Imoleiit 900 

IMPERVIOUS— imperrloiu,  ImpuMMe,  imceat- 
•ibte S35 

IMPK'ITJOUS— Tioleol,  flirioot,  boiMOKNit,  ▼€!»- 
ipeni,  Impemoin SI9 

mpioUS— irreimoiM,  pto&ae,  imiiious OS 

IMPLACABLE— Iniptaeable,  imreleatloCi  nlMl^ 
lea%  Inexorable 381 

TO  IMPLANT-^)  implant,  Infrmfl,  inetUcMe, 
inrtil,  iiifiiee .' 440 

TO  IMPLICATE-io  Implicate,  involve 818 

TO  IMPLORE— to  beg,  beKecb,  eoUdt,  entreat, 
■uppUcaie,  Implore,  eiave..... 158 

TO  IMPLY~4odtenoie,Bigniry,  imply 4M 

IMPOrr — Hlguiifcatioa,   meaniiii,  eenee.    Im- 
port •  .•••■•••••••■••••••••••••>••••••••••••  4H 

OfPORTANCE— eifniAcation,  avail,  Importance,   - 
coneeqiieoce,  welgbi,  moment 456 

IMPORTUNATE — ^pi-emlng,   importunate,    u^ 
fceot 158 

IMPORTUNITY— M>licitatioii,  Importunity 156 

TO  IMPOSE  UPON— 10  deceive,  delude,  Impoee 

*ipon as 

IMPOST— tax,  duty,  cottom.  Import;  loll,  tribute, 

contribution 168 

IMPOSTOR— deceiver,  impostor SS 

IMPRECATION- malediction,  curM,  execration, 

imprecation,  anatJiema 8B 

TO  IMPRESS— to  imprint,  imprem,  engrave....  450 
IMPRESSION— mark,  print,  Impremlon,  etamp. .  446 
TO  IMPRINT— to  Imprint,  Iniprefli,  engrave....  450 
IMPRISONMENT— confinement,  impriaoament, 

captivity 178 

TO  IMPROPRIATE— to  appropriate,  Impropriate  831 
TO  IMPROVE— to  amend,  correct,  reform,  rec- 
tify, emend,  Improve,  mend,  better 801 

IMPROVEMENT— progress,  Improvement,  profi- 

dency 904 

IMPU  D ENUE— aeiurance,  impudence 415 

IMPUDENT— immodeet,  impudent,  ebameleie. ..  847 
IMPUDENT— impertinent,  rude,  saucyjlmpudeiit, 

inK>lent 90o' 

TO  IMPUGN— to  Impugn,  attacic 116 

TO  IMPUTE— CO  aMribe,  attribute,  Impute 838 

INABILITT— Inability,  disability 69 

INACCESSIBLE— impervious,  impaseable,  inae- 

cesslble 835 

niACTTVE— Inactive,  Inert,  la^,  elollkral,  slug- 
gish  906 

nVADEaUATE— litcapable,  InsuAcient,  inoom- 

(•eient,  inadequate 60 

INADVERTENCT— inadvertency,  oversight,  In- 
attention  483 

INANIMATE— lifeless,  dead,  Inanimate 3S0 

INANITY— vacancy,  vacuity,  inanity 344 

INATTENTION— inadvertency,  overrigbt,  Inat. 

tentlon 483 

INATTENTIVE— negligent,  remlm,  tlwogbtleM, 
careless,  heedless,  Inaueniive 484 

llj« « «U  #  talMf^it,  liibwd,  tabom,  bmaie 78 

OrCAPABLB— Incapable,  losoffldeat,  tMOMpa- 


INGESbANTLY-inoessHMly, « 

terrnpledly,  without  intermission 857 

INCIDENT— clrcnmstanoe,  iacldeat,Act 178 

INCIDENT— event,  incident,  accident,  adventare, 

oeeurraoce 178 

INCU)£NTAL~«cctdental,   faieMcntal,  CMiial, 

contingent , ITS 

TO  INGITE-HO  eoeoarage,  tnliiiBle,  iwita,  Im- 
pel, uife,  stfaDotate,  Inotigam 311 

TO  INCITE— to  excite,  Incite,  provoke 308 

mcUNATION—attachmait,  afltetkm,  IneUna- 

tioo 378 

INCLINATION— beat,  bias,  Inclination,  prepca- 

semion 138 

INCLINATION— dtoposiUon,  incUtmtloa 386 

INCLINATION-^lncllaation,  tendency,  propea- 

siiy,  pronenem 160 

TO  INCLINE— to  lean,  incline,  bend. 156 

TO  INCLUDE— 10  enclose.  Include 174 

TO  INCLUDE— to  comprise,  comprehend,  em- 
brace, contain,  include 174 

INCOHERENT    )  inconsistent,  incongruous,  In- 

INCONGRUOUS  f     coherent 163 

INCOMPEl%NT— Incapable,  iwuffldenl,  Incom. 

potent,  inadequate 66 

INCONSIDERABLE— unimportant,  immaterial, 

Intigniflcant,  inconsiderable 457 

INCONSISTENT— Inconsistent,  Incongmotts,  io- 

coherent 153 

INCONTROVERTIBLE— indubitable,  onqoea. 
tionabie,  Indisputable,  undeniable,  lncontit>- 

vertible,  Irrefhigable 114 

TO  INCONVENIENCE-to  Inconvenlenee,  an- 
noy, molest 417 

INCORPOREAL-incorporeal,  unbodied.  Imma- 
terial, spiritual m 

IN  COURSE— naturally,  in  coarse,  eonseqoeatly, 

of  course an 

TO  INCREASE— to  enlaige, increase, extend...  348 

TO  INCREASE— to  Increase,  grow 347 

INCREASE— increase,  addiUon,  accession,  aug- 
mentation   347 

INCREDUUTY-unbelief,    infidelity,   incradu. 

ihy 78 

TO  INCULCATE~to  Implant,  ingraft,  inculcate, 

Instil,  InAise 4|g 

INCURSION— Invasion,  lacuiilon,  irraptkm,  In- 
road  SM 

INDECENT      ) ,  ^       .  .        ^      .  , 
INDELICATE  ('"*'•**"'» *™«^ »«»*««<«•    ^ 
TO  INDICATE-to  show,  point  out,  marie,  Indi- 
ct*  • 481 

INDICATION— mark,  sign,  noie,qrmptom,  token, 

Indication 447 

INDIFFERENCE-iadlfireaoe,  apathy,  laseoel. 

wntjr S7i 

INDIFFE^ENT-lndlfihreot,  onooneened,  la- 

«*«««» m 

INDIGENCE  poveity,  liid%iBca,  want,  need, 
P»wy 366 

INDIOENOUS— natal,  native,  iadigencM 400 

INDIGNATION-ai«er,  wse^^^ea^  wralb,  In, 
IndignadoB ug 

INDIGNITY    lodigiiltr.  lank m 


zed  by  Google 

ixxfi  INDEX. 

INDISCRIMINATE— indtoerimloate,    prombeu- 

.  884 

INDISPOSITION— ilckneM,  HlncM,  indispoemon  3B7 
INDISPUTABLE— imlubitaUe,  unquatlonable, 
indbpiitable,  undeniable,  incontrovertible,  ir* 

wfragable "* 

INDISTINCT— Indtatlnct,  confused 883 

INDIVIDUAL— particular,  individual 858 

INDOLENT— Idle,  la«y,  indolent 809 

INDOLENT— Indolent,  supine,  lteleai,careleft. .  300 
INDUBITABLE— Indubitable,  unquestionable,  In- 
dispuuble,  undeniable,  incontrovertible,  irr»- 

f^agable "* 

TO  INDUCE— to  actuate,  Impel,  Induce 308 

TO  INDUE— to  invest,  indue  or  endue 167 

TO  INDULGE— to  foster,  eberiah,  indulge,  har- 
bour  3^ 

INDULGENT— Indulgent,  fond 378 

INDUSTRIOUS— active,  diligent,  IndusUious,  as- 
siduous, laborious 396 

INEFFABLE— unspeakable,  ineffidrte,  unutter- 
able, incjtpresBlbto 4fl0 

INEFFECTUAL-^valn, ineffectual,  fruitless....  890 

INEQUALITY— disparity,  inequality 435 

INERT— inactive,  Inert,  laiy,  slothftil,  sluggish. .  298 
INEXORABLE— implacable,  unrelenting,  relent- 
less, inexorable 381 

INEXPRESSIBLE— unspeakable,  ineffable,  unut- 
terable, inexpressible 460 

INFAMOUS— Infamous,  scandalous 108 

INFA MY— Infamy,  Ignominy,  opprobrium 108 

INFANTINE— childish,  infanHne 401 

INFATUATION— drunkenness,  Infatuation,  In- 
toxication  3*6 

INFECTION— contagion,  Infealon 139 

INFERENCE— conclusion,  deduction,  inference. .    78 

IN FERIOUR— second,  secondary,  Inferiour 874 

INFERIOUR— subject,  subordinate,  subservient, 

Inferiour 140 

INFIDELITY— unbelief,  infidelity,  Incredulity. .    79 
INFINITE — boundless,  unbounded,  unlimited. 

INGENUOUS — frank,  candid,  ingenuoils,  free, 
open,  plain • *** 

TO  INGRAFT— 40  implant,  ingraft,  inculcate,  In- 
stil, infuse  448 

TO  INGRATIATE— to  insinuate,  ingraUate....  387 

TO  INGULF— to  absorb,  swallow  up,  ingulf,  en- 

TO  INHABIT— to  abide,  sojourn,  dwell,  reside, 


INHERENT- inherent,  Inbred,  Inborn,  innate. .. . 
INHUMAN— «ruel,  Inhuman,  barbarous,  bniial, 



Inimical,   hosUie,  rcpug- 


Infinite . 

INFIRM— weak,  feeble,  infirm 366 

INFIRMITY— debility,  infirmity.  Imbecility 367 

INFLUENCE— credit,  favour,  influence 190 

IBTFLUENCE— influence,  authority,  ascendency, 


INIMICAL— advene, 


INIQUITOUS— wicked,  unjust,  Iniquitous,  nefa- 
rious   1* 

INJUNCTION— command,  order,  ii^unctkio,  pre- 
'   cept,mandate 18* 

INJURY— disadvantage,  injury,  hurt,  detriment, 
prejudice *^ 

TO  INJURE— to  Impair,  injure 405 

INJURY— injury ,  damage,  hurt,  harm,  mischief. .  404 

SJU^iceI'»J"^'»J-'^''™»« "* 

INNATE— inherent,  inbred,  inborn,  innate 73 

INNOC  ENT— fuillless,  Innocent,  harmless 183 

INOPFENSIVF^— unoflfending,  Inoflbnsive,  harm- 
lens IM 

INORDINATE— irregular,  disorderly,  Inordinate, 

intemperate 2W 

TO  INQUIRE— to  ask.  Inquire,  question,  interro- 
gate     87 

INQUIRY— examination,  search,  inquiry,  investi- 
gation, research,  scrutiny  96 

INQUISITIVE— curious,  inquisitive,  pryhig  ....    99 
INROAD— Invasion,  incursioa,  irruption,  inroad  SOB 
INSANITY— derangement,  insanity,  lunacy,  mad- 
ness, mania S8J 

INSENSIBILITY- indifl^rence,  apathy,  insensi- 

bllliy ' 375 

INSENSIBLE— hard,  hardy,  unfeeling,  Insensible  374 
177  L  INSIDE— Inside,  interiour 331 



TO  INFORM— to  inform,  make  known,  acquaint, 

apprize 194 

TO  INFORM— to  inform.  Instruct,  teach 19^ 

INFORM  ANT— Inlbrmant,  informer # . . .  195 

INFORMATION— information,  Intelligence,  no- 

Iko,  advice 105 

INFORMER— Informant,  Informer 195 

INFRACTION— Infringement,  Inf^tion 508 

TO  INFRINGE— to  encroach,  intrench.  Intrude, 

Invade,  Infiinge 507 

TO  INFRINGE— to InfHnge, violate, transgress..  508 
TNFRINGEMfiNT-4nfrittgement,lnfhictlon ....  508 
TO  INFUSE— to  implant,  ingraft.  Inculcate,  In- 

•llI,lnrUsc 449 

INGENIOUS— Ingenndhs,  ingenious 438 

INGENUITY— ingenuity,  wtt 70 

lNGENUOUS-lQgenQoai,li«eiilouf «....  438 

INSIDIOUS— insidious,  tr«acherous 534 

INSIGHT— insight,  inspection ' 813 

INSIGNIFICANT — unimportant,   insignificant, 

immaterial,  inconsiderable 457 

TO  INSINUATE— to  hint,  suggest.  Intimate,  in- 
sinuate... 388 

TO  INSINUATE— to  Insinuate,  ingratiate 387 

INSINUATION— inslnuation^reflectlon 387 

INSIPID— Insipid,  dull,  flat 513 

TO  INSIST— to  insist,  persist 805 

TO  INSNARE— to  Insnare,  entrap,  entangle,  In- 
veigle-...  • 58a 

INSOLENT— impertinent,  rude,  saucy,  impudent, 

insolent 80C 

INSOLVENCY— insolvency,  failure,  bankruptcy  13S 

INSPECTION— Insight,  inspection 213 

INSPECTION — inspection,  oversight,  superlu- 

tendency SU 

TO  INSPIRE— io  animate^  Inspire,  enliven,  cheer, 

exhilarate 355 

INSTANCE— example.  Instance 531 

INST ANT-lnstant,  moment 987 


zed  by  Google 



INSTANTLY  1     It-unlaneoiMly,  m- 

r     ■lantiy 263 

TO  INSTIGATE— lo  cncouraee,  animate,  incite, 

impel,  nrge,  iiimulata,  ^igaie 311 

TO  INSTILr-Ho  Ifoplaut,  ingraft,  Inculcate,  InMil, 

iDfute 410 

TO  INSTITUTE— to  ImUtute,  eatabUth,  found, 

erect 313 

ro  INSTRUCT-— to  inform,  inetruct,  teadi IM 

INSTRUCTION— advice,  counsel,  insUuction...  194 
INSTRUCTION— education,  instruction,  lireod- 

iDff 197 

INSTRUMENT— inMrument,  tool 399 

INSUFFICIENT— Incapable,  inauffieient,  incom- 
petent, iuadeqoaie  69 

INSULT— affront,  insult,  outrage 131 

INSULT-lndignity,  insult 131 

INSUPERABLE  (  »«vincible.   unconquer. 

>mTc»inwrxiT%Tm<nT  v\     ^Mc,  Insupefable,  in- 



INSURRECTION — iuurrection,  sedition,  rebel- 
lion, revolt 806 

INTEGRAL— whole,  entire,  complete,  integral, 
total 388 

nVTEGRITT— liooesty,  uprightness,  probity,  in- 
tegrity   437 

INTELLECT— intellect,  genius,  talent 67 

INTELLECT — undeiatanding,  Intellect,  inteUI- 

INTELLECTUAL— mental,  Intellectual 73 

DiTBLLIGENCE— information,  notice,  advice, 
tntelligenoe  • Id5 

3ITELLIGENCE — understanding,  intelligence, 
Intellect 66 

niTEMPER  ATE— excessive,  Immoderate,  intem- 
perate  ^ 343 

INTEMPERATE— irregular,  disorderly,  inordi- 
nale,  intemperate # 384 

TO  INTEND— to  design,  purpose,  intend,  mean. .  538 

Sf  I '■«•"'•"'»- «* 

TO  INTERCEDE— 10  intercede,  interpose,  medi- 
ate. Interfere,  intermeddle  216 

INTERCHANGE— interchange,  exchange,  reci- 
procity  334 

INTERCOURSE — Intercourse,  communication, 

connexion,  commerce 333 

TO  INTERDICT— to  forbid,  prohibit.  Interdict, 

proscribe 223 

INTEREST— interest,  etmcern 333 

TO  INTERFERE— to  Intercede,  interpose,  medi- 
ate, interfere,  intermeddle 816 

INTERIOUR— Inalde,  interiour 331 

INTERLOPER— Intruder,  interloper 509 

TO  INTERMEDDLE — ^lo  intercede,  interpose, 

mediate,  interfere,  Intermeddle 316 

INTERMEDIATE— intermediate.  Intervening...  816 

INTERMENT— burial,  interment,  sepulture 84 

INTERMISSION— cessation,  slop,  rest,  intermis- 
sion  857 

TO  INTERMIT— to  subside,  abate.  Intermit ....  371 
to  INTERPOSE— to  Intercede,  interpose,  medi- 
ate, lalerftra,  Intermeddle 816 

INTERPOSITION— intervention,  interpoaidon..  816 
TO  INTERPRET — to  explain,  expound,  inter- 
pret  457 

TO  INTERROGATE— to  ask,  inquire,  question, 

Interrogate 97 

TO  INTERRUPT— to  disturb,  interrupt 417 

INTERVAI/— Interval,  respite 357 

INTERVENING— intermediate,  intervening 816 

INTERVENTION— iniervendon,  InterposiUon . .  816 

INTERVIEW— meeting,  interview 494 

INTIMACY— acquaintance,  familiarity,  inUmacy  105 
TO  INTIMATE— to  hint,  suggest,  intimate,  ln< 

sinuate 336 

TO  INTIMIDATE-to  frighten,  Intimidate 307 

INTOXICATION— Intoxication,  drunkenness.  In- 
fatuation   316 

TO  INTRENCH— 40  encroach,  intrench,  Intrude, 

Invade,  inArittge 507 

INTBEPID— bold,  feariess, Intrepid,  undaunted..  306 
INTRICACY — complexity,  compttcatkm,  intri- 
cacy  818 

INTRINSICK— Inulnsick,  real,  genuine,  native. .  437 

TO  INTRODUCE— to  introduce,  present 163 

INTRODUCTORY— previous,  preliminary,  pre- 
paratory, introductory 374 

TO  INTRUDE^to  encroach,  intrench,  intrude, 

Invade,  Infrii^ 507 

TO  INTRUDE-to  intrude,  obtrude 500 

INTRUDER— Intruder,  Interloper 509 

TO  INTRUST— to  consign,  commit,  intrust 415 

TO  INVADE— to  encroach,  intrench,  intrude.  In- 
vade, infringe 507 

INVALID-invalid,  patient 397 

TO  INVALIDATE— to  weaken,  enfeeble,  debili- 
tate, enervate,  Invalidate 388 

INVASION— invasion,  ineuiMion,  irruption,  in- 
road  508 

INVECTIVE-^buse,  InvecUve 100 

TO  INVEIGH— to  declaim,  inveigh 110 

TO  IN  VEIGLE— to  Insaare,  entrap,  entangle,  in- 
veigle  5» 

TO  INVENT— to  contrive,  devise,  invent 538 

TO  IN  VENT— to  find  or  find  out,  diMX>ver,  invent  446 
TO  INVENT— to  invent,  feign,  frame,  fbbricaie, 

for}>e 588 

TO  IN  VERT— to  overturn,  overthrow,,  subvert, 

invert,  reverse 508 

TO  INVEST— to  invest,  endue  or  endow 167 

INVESTIGATION— examination,  investigation, 

Inqii Iry,  search,  research,  scrutiny 98 

INVIDIOUS— invidious,  envious 380 

TO  INVfGORATE — to  strengthen.  Invigorate, 

fortify 378 

INVINCIBLE— Invincible,  unconquerable.  Insu- 
perable, insurmountable 145 

TO  INVITE— to  attract,  allure,  Invite,  engage. . .  318 
TO  INVITE— to  call,  bid,  summon,  invite ......  460 

TO  INUNDATE— to  overflow,  inundate,  deluge  3Si 

TO  INVOLVE— to  impHcate,  Involve 818 

IRASCIBLE-angry,  passlonaie,  hasty,  irascible  UO 
IRE— anger,  reaentment, wrath,  ire,  indignation..  118 
IRKSOME-trouUesome,  Irksome,  vexatious. ...  413 

IRON  Y— ridicule,  satire.  Irony,  sarcasm I0|  ' 

IRON Y— wit,  humov,  satire.  Irony,  buricsque. . .    60 


zed  by  Google 



nRATIONAlr-Irmtional,  feoUih,  tbMud,  pra- 

posteroo*..... 01 

IXREFRAGABLE—tiidubiuMe,  unquestionable, 

faidfepulaUe,  undeniable,  Inoontrovertible,  ir- 

rofVagaUe 114 

IBRE6ULAR-4rragutar,  dtsorderiy,  Inordinate, 

intemperate 8M 

lREL16IOUS—lrreHgloiia,proraiM, Impious....  82 
UULEPROACHABLE — ^blameless,  nnUentelied, 

frreproaeliable,  unspotted  or  spotlem ISO 

TO  OtillTATE— to  aoravate,  irritate,  provolte, 

eiasperate,  Untallse 131 

IRRUPTION— inyaalon,  incarston,  irruption,  ift- 

road 506 

ISSUK—eflbet,  coneequence,  result,  issue,  event. .  980 

nSUIr—ollbprlnc,  progeny,  Inue SOI 

TO  ISBUE-to  arise,  proceed,  Issue,  spring,  flow, 


TO  JADE-Ho  weary,  tire.  Jade,  lianui. . . 

TO  JANGLE)      ... 

TO  JAR         i ^ ^"**' ^^'  wrangle  .... 

JAUNT— exearslon,  ramble,  tour,  trip, Jaunt ....  908 

JEALOUST— J«Aio«sy,  envy,  suspicion 380 

TO  JEER--IO  scoff,  gibe,  Jeer,  sneer 104 

TO  JB8T-40  Jest,  Jolie,  make  game,  sport 104 

JTLT-««oqnet,  Jilt 525 

JOOOBE  - )  (bcetlottB,  oonrerMble,  pleasant,  Jo- 

JOCULAR)     eular,  Jocose 461 

JOCUND— lively,  sprigluly,  vivacious,  sporUve, 

TO  JOIN—to  add.  Join,  unite,  eoalcaoe 518 

TO  J0KE-10  Jest,  Joke,  make  game,  sport 104 

JOLLITY      9  mirtli,  merriment,  Joviality,  Jollity, 

JOVIALITYS     hilarity 901 

JOURNEY— Journey,  travel,  voyage 908 

JOY— pleasure,  Joy,  ddlgbt,  charm 303 

JOYHoytfladness,  mirth 393 

JOYFUL-giad,  pleased,  JoyAiI,  eheerfbl. 303 

JUDOB— Judge,  umpire,  arbiter,  arbitrator SU 

JUDGEMENT— discernment,  penetration,  discri- 
mination, Judgement.. 7] 

JUDGEMENT— Judgement,  discretion,  prudence  400 
JUDGEMENT— decision, Jlldgeraeo^ sentence...  99« 

JUDGEMENT— sense.  Judgement 70 

JUICE— liquid,  liquor,  Juice,  humour 3SB 

JUST— right,  JiMt,  proper 430 

JUBTICE-Justice,  equity »U 

TO  JU9TIFY-<o  apologlae,  defend,  JusUfy,  ei- 

culpate,  eaeuse,  plead 181 

JUSTNE8SH<Mtness,  correctness 909 

JUYENILE-TOQihf ul,  Juvenile,  puerile 401 

KEEN— aente,  keen,  shrewd 401 

KEEN— sharp,  acute,  keen 402 

TO  KEEF— 10  hoy,  keep,  detain,  retain 836 

TO  KEEP— (o  keep,  preeerve, save.... 178 

TO  KEEP— to  keep,  observe,  Ailfll 9B0 

KEEPING— keeping,  cnstady 170 

TO  KILL— CO  kill,  murder,  assaadnate,  sl^  or 

slaughter 510 

KIND-aActlonate,  Mnd,  fond 970 

KIND-f  radons,  merciful,  kind 997 

KIND-kind,  species,  sort 400 

KINDNESS— beneflt,  Aivour,  kindnooi,  civility. .  106 
KINDNESS— bene volepice,  benignity,  humanity, 

kliMinesB,  tenderness 16S 

KINDRED— kindred,  relatloiMfalp,  afliaity,  con- 
sanguinity  407 

KINDRED— relation,  relative,  kinsman,  kindred  406 

KINGDOM— empire,  kingdom 180 

KINGLY— royal,  regal,  kingly J80 

KINSMAN— relation,  relative,  kinsman,  kindred  496 

KNAVISH-disfaonesi,  knavish 490 

TO  KNOW-40  know,  be  acquainted  with 196 

KNOWLEDGE -knowledge,  sdence,  learning, 
erudition uo 

LABORIOUS-acUve,  dlHgent,  bidustrious,  ami. 

duous,  laborious so6 

LABOUR-work,  labour,  toil,  dradgerf ,  task SM 

TO  LABOUR— to  labour,  take  paiaa  or  trouble, 

use  endeavour...* 990 

LABYRINTH— labyrinth,  maze 408 

TO  LACK-Ho  want,  need,  lack 347 

LADING— fteigbt,  caifo,  lading,  load,  burden. ..  3» 
TO  LAG-to  linger,  tarry,  toiter,  lag,  saunter. ...  961 

TO  LAMENT— to  complain,  lament,  regrvt 40t 

TO  LAMENT— to  bewail,  bemoan,  faiment,  de- 


TO  LAMENT-^to  grieve,  mourn,  lament. 

LAND— land,  country 497 

LANDBCAPE-^ew,  prospect^  landscape 4f30 

LANGUAGE-language,  tongue,  speech,  idiom, 

dialect 4flg 

LANGUID-fUnt,  languid 999 

TO  I<ANGUISH-to  flag,  droop,  hmgukh,  pine. .  368 

|LARGE-grea^lalge,blt 349 

I  LARGE— large,  wMe,  broad 340 

LARGELY— largely,  copiously,  Ailly 30 

LASSrrUDE-Atiguet  weariness,  lassitude 360 

LAST— last,  latest,  final,  nldmaie gn 

LA(«TIN6-duiable,  iasUng,  permanent 906 

LASTLY-lasdy,  at  laa^  at  length 979 

LATENT-«ecre^  hidden,  latent,  occult,  myste. 

rious 919 

LATEST— last,  latest,  final,  Qttlmate v  9T9 

LAUDABLB-laudable,  rvaiseworthy,  commead- 






TO^LAI'GH  AT  -to  laugh  at,  ridicule 

LAUGHABLE-laughaMe,  ludicrous,  ridfeuioos, 

comical  or  comick,  droll... 

LAVISH— extravagant,  prodigal,  lavish,  proflwe 

l-AW— maxim,  precept,  rule,  law 

LAWFUL-lawftti,lfgal,  legitimate,  licit 

LAX— kMMe,  vague,  lax,  dissolute,  licentious 

TO  LAY  OB  TAKE  HOLD  OF— to  lay  or  take 

bold  of,  catch,  seiae,  snatch,  grasp,  gripe 

TO  LAY— to  lie,  lay 

LAZY-ldle,laiy,  indolent 

LAZY— inactive.  Inert,  laiy,  slothful,  sluggish... 

TO  LEAD— 10  lead,  conduct,  guide 

LE  A  DER— chief,  leader,'ehieaain,  head 

LEAGUE-raUiance,  league,  eonfederacy 

LEAN— lean,  meagre 

TO  LEAN-to  lean,  IncUne,  bend 

LEARNING-knowIedge,  science^  leanilng,  em- 







zed  by  Google 




tEABmNO-toUen,  UtcntwVk  l«nilnc m 

LHAVEr-taife,  liberty,  parnUailoB,  Ucmm «U 

TO  LEAVE~4olMva,qult,NUoquM SS5 

TO  LBAVB—tol,  leave,  luflkr 8S3 

TO  LEAVS-to  kava,  lato  Imw,  bid  faieweli 

or  adieu SM 

TO  LEAVE  OFF-Ho  eeva,  Icava  oO;  diMon- 

Uniie,deilrt SS7 

LEAVINGS-ieaWn^  maalna,  relleks 9SS 

LEG ITIMATB  |  '■'''^'  ***■''  leglUmaie,  UcH. .  ai 

LEISURE— Idle,  telmra,vacaal »0 

LENITY— clrawacy,  lenity,  meicy 358 

TO  LESSEN— lo  abate,  IceMn,  dimlaleb,  de- 

ciMee 351 

TO  LET— toiet,leaTa,tulbr..J 855 

LBTHARGICK— eleepy,  drowey,  tethaiflck 300 

LETTER— elMracter,  letter 197 

LETTER— ieiter,  epietle IM 

LETTERS— 4eaeia,llteratar«,  learning 190 

LEVBL-«Tea,  emooih,  level,  plain. 435 

LEVEL-^at,  level 435 

TO  LB  VQj— to  aim,  point,  level 384 

LEVITY— Hghtneei,  levity,  fllghtlBeBi,volalllky, 

giddtnM 300 

LBXICON—dktlonary,  lexicon,  voeabalary,  clor 

eary,  nomendamre 404 

LIABLE— eubieet,lfable,expoeed,obaozloiie....  140 
LIBER  AL—benefleenf,  honatlAil,  bounteoue,  mn- 

nilicenl,  generous,  liberal 105 

UBBRAL-free,  liberal 941 

TO  LIBEBATB— to  fine,  eet  flree,  deUver,  libe- 
rate  940 

UBERTY-^eedoiB,*  liberty 949 

LICENSB  I  ^"^  PennWon.  >"»rty.  "««■•  •  •  «» 
LICENTIOUS— looee,  vague,  lax,diw>late,  llcen- 

dooi 950 

LICfT-towfUl,  legal,  Iegldroate,llett 911 

LIE— antrath,  ftleebood,  Mshy,  He 598 

TO  LIB-fo  lie,  lay 980 

LIFB-anlmatSon,  lilb,  vlvadty,  spirit 356 

LIFELESS-lifeleBe,  dead,  Inaninute 350 

TO  LIFT*-«>  HA,  heave,  hoU* 354 

TO  LIFT— to  ItO,  raise,  erect,  elevate,  exalt 354 

LIGHTNESS— esse,  eaalneM,  llghtnesi,  (kcility . .  303 
LIGHTNESS— llghtoew,  levity,  fllglitlnese,  vola- 
tility, giddlnesi 3I» 

LIKE— equal,  even,  equable,  like,  or  alike,  uiil- 

fbnn 435 

LIKENESS- likeoees,  reMmblance,  slmUarity  or 

eirailltttde 532 

LIKENESS— IlkencsR,  pletnre,  image,  effigy 539 

LIKEWISE-aho,  likewise,  loo 953 

LIMB-mcmber,  limb 511 

TO  LIMIT— to  bound,  limit,  confine,  restrict,  dr- 

cumecribe 170 

ro  LIMIT— to  llx,  determine,  eeltle,  limit 997 

LIMIT— limit,  extent 177 

LIMIT— term,  limit,  boundary 177 

LIMITED— finite,  limited 178 

LINE  AGE— fcmlty,  houee,  Ilneege,  race 405 

TO  LINGER— to  linger,  tarry,  tolter,  lag,  saunter  961 
UaUID— Bold,  Uqald >» 

uauoa !  "'"*^'  ****"**''  ^"^'  '■™*" *■ 

LIST— list,  roU,  eaUtogue,  icglster 400 

TO  LIST— to  enrol,  enlist  or  Usi,  register,  record  408 

TO  LISTEN— to  attend,  hearken,  Itolen 488 

LISTLESS— indolent,  supine,  lUUess,  careless. . .  308 

LITERATURE— leiten,  literature,  learning 198 

LITTLE-IUtle,  small,  diminuUve 358 

TO  LIVE— 10  exist,  iixe M8 

LIVELIHOOD  S  "''•**!r''  "^"''  "»»»»««^ 

f     nance 9M 

LIVELY— lively,  sprightiy,  vivaelous,  sportlv<s 

merry,  Jocund 388 


LIVING— living,  benefice 988 

LOAD— (Veight,  cargo,  load,  lading,  burden 338 

LOAB— weight,  burden,  k>sd  -. 370 

TO  LOAD-Ho  ctog,  load,  eneamber 398 

LOATH— averse,  unwilling,  backward,  loath,  re- 

lucunt < 188 

TO  LOATH— lo  abhor,  deleet,  abominate,  ioaih  138 

LOATIIINO-diegust,  loathing,  nausea J98 

TO  LODGE— to  harbour,  sbeher,  lodge 517 

LODGINGS— kidginfi,  apartments 468 

LOFTINESS— pride,  haughtiness,  loftiness,  dig- 
nity  J08 

LOFTY— hich,  tall,  lofty 355 

TO  LOITER— to  linger,  tarry,  loiter,  leg,  saunter  90)1 

LONELY— alone,  solitary,  tonely 998 

TO  LONG  FOR— to  desire,  tong  for,  banker  after  158 

LOOK— air,  mien,  look 103 

LOOK— look,  glance 488 

TO  LOOK— to  kwk,  see,  behold,  view,  eye 488 

TO  LOOK-to  kiok,  appear 481 

LOOKER-ON — kxdcer-on,  epectator,  beholder, 

observer 488 

TO  LOOK  FOR-«o  await,  wait  fi>r,  k)ok  fi>r, 

expect....'. 419 

LOOSE— loose,  vague,  lax,  dissolute,  licentious. .  958 

LOOSB-eiock,  loose 958 

LOQUACIOUS-ialkative,  loquacious,  garrulous  408 
LORDLY— imperious,  lordly,  domineering,  over- 
bearing  las 

LORD'S  SUPPER— Lord*s  supper,  communkxi, 

eueharlst,  sacrament 83 

TO  LOSE— to  loee,  miss 404 

LOSS— loss,  damage,  detriment 404 

LOT— destiny,  ftte,  kit;  doom 108 

LOTH,  wds  LOATH. 

LOUD— loud,  noisy,  higb-sbunding,  clamorous. ..  471 

LOVE— aflixtlon,  love . .' .' 378 

LOVE— love,  friendship 388 

LOVELY— amiable,  lovely,  betoved 378 

LOVER— lover,  suitor,  wooer 381 

LOVING — amorous,  tovlng,  fond J!B 

LOW— humble,  lowiy,  tow 14? 

LOW— low.  mean,  abject 147- 

TO  LOWER— to  reduce,  tower 148 

LOWLY— humble,  lowiy,  tow 141 

LUCK  Y—fortiinate,  lucky,  prosperDus,  sucecMftd  39 

LUCRE— gain,  profit,  emolument,  lucre aOV 

LUDICROUS— laughable,  ludierous,  ridicutous 
eomical  or  eomlck,  droll 108 


zed  by  Google 


LUNACT— derBDgement,  Innnlty,  Innacy,  mad- 

BCSB,  mania 881 

LUSTEB-luttre,  brightoeai,  apleiidoiir,  brllUancy  474 

LU8TT— corpalent,  Moot,  Ituty .% 511 

LUXUR[ANT-«zuberant,  luxuriant 343 

MADNESS— derangement,  inaanily,  lunacy,  mad* 


MADNESS— madnea,  phreuy,  rage,  fury 831 

MAGISTERIAL— magUterial,  majestick,  stalely, 

pompous,  august,  dignified 454 

MAGNIFICENC  E^-grandeur,  magnificence 454 

MAGNIFICENCE— magnificenee,  pomp,  splen- 
dour  453 

MAGNIT(JD£-«iz6,  magnitude,  greatness,  bulk  348 
MAJESTICK — magisterial,   mf^JesUck,  sUtdy, 

pompous,  august,  dignified 454 

TO  BIAIM— to  mutilate,  maim,  mangle 509 

MAIN— chief,  principal,  main 806 

^TO  MAINTAIN— to  assert,  maintain,  vindicate  441 
TO  MAINTAIN— to  bold,  support,  maintain... .  837 
TO  MAINTAIN— to  sustain,  support,  maintain..  838 
MAINTENANCE— ItveUhood,  living,  subsistence, 

maintenance,  support,  sustenance 839 

TO  MAKB— to  make,  do,  act 394 

TO  MAKE— to  make,  form,  produce,  create ! 

TO  MAKE  GAME— to  Jest,  joke,  make  game, 

•port 104 

TO  MAKE  KNOWN— to  inform,  make  knovn, 

acquaint,  apprize 194 

MALADY— disorder,  disease,  distemper,  malady  367 
MALEDICTION— maledicUon,  cune,  impreca- 
tion, execration,  anathema 83 

MALEFACTOR-criminal,  culprit,   malefacujr, 

felon,  convict 193 

MALEVOLENT— malevolent,  malicious,  malig- 

nanl..... 381 

MALICE— malice,  rancour,  spite,  grudge,  pique. .  381 
MALICIOUS    1  malevolent,   malicidus,    mnlig- 

MALIGNANTJ     nant 381 

TO  MANAGE— to  concert,  contrive,  manage....  533 

TO  MANAGE— to  conduct,  manage,  direct 191 

MANAGEMENT— care,  charge,  management ...  435 

MANAGEMENT— economy,  management 161 

MANDATE— command,  order,  injunction,  pre- 
cept, mandate 185 

MANFUIj— manly,  manful 306 

TO  MANGLE— to  mutilate,  maim,  mangle 509 

MANIA— derangement,  Insanity,  lunacy,  madness, 

mania 381 

MANIFEST— apparent,  visible,  cleoj.  plain,  obvi- 
ous, evident,  manifest  478 

TO  MANIFEST— to  discover,  manifest,  derlar*)  444 
TO  MANIFEST— to  prove,  demonstrate,  evince, 

manifest 444 

MANLY— manly,  manful 300 

MANNER— air,  manner 193 

MANNER— custom,  habit,  manner,  practice 333 

MANNER— way,  manner,  method,  mode,  couno, 

means 375 

MANNERS— manners,  morals 193 

MARGIN— border,  edge,  rim  or  brim,  6rink,  verge, 

margin JTO 

MARINE— maritime,  marine,  naval,  naucical....  337 

MARINER— seaman,  waterman,  aaflor,  marinei . .  337 
MARITIME'-maritime,  marine,  naval,  nautical.  337 

MARK— nark,  print.  Impression,  stamp 446 

MARK— mark,  sign,  note,  symptom,  token,  indi- 
cation  447 

MARK— mark,  Uace,  vestige,  footstep,  track  ....  448 

MARK— mark,  badge,  stigma 448 

MARK— mark,  butt 448 

TO  MARK— to  mark,  note,  notice 450 

TO  MaUK— to  show,  point  out,  mark,  Indicate. .  451 

MARRIAGE— marriage,  wedding,  nuptial 83 

MARRIAGE— marriage,  matrimony,  wedlock ....    84 
MARTIAL— martial,  warlike,  miUtary,  soldier- 
like   337 

MARVEL— wonder,  miiade,  marvel,   prodigy, 

monster 403 

M ASK-ekiak,  mask,  veil,  blind 516 

MASS  ACRE— carnage,  alaughter,  butchery,  mas- 
sacre  ^..  510 

MASSIVE— bulky,  massive  or  massy 348 

MASTER— possessor,  proprietor,  owner,  master. .  338 

MATERIAL— corporeal,  material 510 

MATERIALS— mauer,  materials,  subject 335 

MATRIMONY— marriage,  mauimony,  wedlock.    84 

MATTER— matter,  materials,  subject 3SS 

MATURE— ripe,  mature 887 

MAXIM— axiom,  maxim,  aphorism,  apophthegm, 

saying,  adage,  proverb,  l^-word,  saw 210 

MAXIM— maxim,  precept,  rule,  law 311 

MAY— may,  can 384 

MAZE— labyrinth,  maze 408 

MEAGRE— lean,  meagre 511 

MEAN— base,  vUe,  mean 148 

MEAN— common,  vulgar,  ordinary,  mean 3S3 

MEAN— tow,  mean,  abject 147 

MEAN— mean,  pitiful,  sordid 411 

MEAN— mean,  medium 846-. 

TO  MEAN— to  design,  purpose,  mean,  intend....  533 
MEANING— signification,  meaning,  import,  sense  456 
MEANS— way,  manner,  method,  mode,  course, 

means 375 

MECHANICK— artist,  artificer,  mechanick,  arti- 
san  338 

TO  MEDIATE— to  Intercede,  Interpose,  mediate, 

interfere,  intermeddle 910 

MEDIOCRITY— moderation,  mediocrity 8«6 

TO  MEDITATE — ^to  contemplate,  muse,  medi- 
tate     70 

MEDIUM — mean,  medium 840 

MEDLEY— diflerence,  variety,  diversity,  medley  388 

MEDLEY— mixture,  medley,  miscellany 884 

MEEK— «of\,  mild,  gentle,  meek 350 

MEET— fit,  apt,  meet 1S5 

MEETING — aasemhly,  company,  congregation, 
meeting,  parliament,  diet,  congress,  conven- 
tion ,  counci  I 49( 

MEETING— meeting.  Interview 494 

MELANCHOLY-deJection,  depression,  melan- 
choly   413 

MELODY— melody,  harmony,  accordance 1 55 

MEMBER— member,  limb 511 

MEMOIRS-anecdotea,  momoin,  ch.-onicl««,  ap- 

n»to 466 

MEMORA^LV-slpxal,  Mieiporabje ..  474  ' 


zed  by  Google 

MEMORIAL— monasMnt, 


MEMORY— memory, 

remembrwwe,  rceoUeetion, 

MENACE— thmt,  meoaea 

TO  MEND— to  amend,  correct,  rectiry,  reform, 
emend,  improve,  mend,  better 

MENIAIf— eervant, domestick,  menial,  drudge.. . 

MENTAL— mental,  intellectaol 

TO  MENTION— to  mention,  notice 

MERCANTILE— mercantUe,  commercial 

MERCENARY— hireling,  mercenary,  venal 

MERCHANT— trader,  merchant,  tradeunan 

MERCHANDISE— commodity,  goodi,  merchan- 
dise, ware  

MERCIFUL— graclout,  merciful,  kind 

MERCILESS— hard-hearted,  cruel,  unmerciful, 

MERCY— clemency,  mercy,  lenlQr 

MERCY— pity,  mercy 

MERE— bare,  mere 

MERIT— dewrt,  merit,  worth 

MERRIMENT— mirth,  merriment,  Joviality,  hila- 
rity, JolHly 

MERRY— cheerful,  merry,  sprightly,  gay 

MERRY — lively,  sprightly,  vivacious,  sportive, 
merry.  Jocund 

MESS AGE-mimlon,  mesnge,  errand 

MESSENGER— forerunner,  precursor,  messenger, 

TO  METAMORPHOSE — to  transfigure,  meta- 




METAPHOR — figure,  meupbor,  allegory,  em- 
blem, symbol,  type 

METHOD— order,  method,  ruhs 

METHOD— system,  method 

METHOD— way,  manner,  method,  mode,  course, 

MIEN— air,  mien,  look 

M IGHTY— powerful,  potent,  mighty 

MlLD-^a.  mild,  genUe,  meek 

MILITAEY— martial,  warlike,  military,  soldier- 

TO  MI  MICK— to  Imitate,  mlmick,  mock,  ape... . 

MIND-sottl,  mind 

TO  MIND— to  auend  to,  mind,  regard,  notice, 

MINDFUI^— mindful,  regardful,  observant 

TO  MINGLE— to  mix,  mingle,  blend,  confound.. 

MINISTER— clergyman,  parson,  priest,  minister 

MINISTER— minister,  agent 

TO  MINISTER— to  minister,  administer,  contri- 

MINUTE— circumstantial,  particular,  minute. . . . 

MIRACLE — wonder,  miracle,  marvel,  pnidlgy. 

MIRTH— festivity,  mirth 

MIRTH— Joy,  gladness,  mirth '„ 

MIRTH— mirth,  merriment.  Joviality,  Jollity,  hila- 

MI8CA  RRI  AGE— failure,  miscarriage,  abortion. . 
MISCRLLANY^minure,  medley,  mtseellany... 
MISCHANCE — calamity,  disaster,  misfortune, 

INDEX.  zlt 


MISCHIEF— evD  or  til,  misfortune,  barm,  mischief  405 
MISCHIEF— Injury,  damage,  hurt,  harm,  mischief  404 
TO  MISCONSTRUE— to  misconstrue,  mislnier- 
piet 458 

MISDEED  i  "^^^  *'"P^  ''"^'^ 

misdemeanour}     ^XT.'r::".':  180 

MISDEMEANOUR— crime,  misdemeanour J98 

MISERABLE— unhappy,  miserable,  wretched...  419 
MISERLY — avaricious,  parsimonious,  niggardly  lOJ 
MISFORTUNE-evil  or  ill,  misfortune,  mischief, 

barm ',.  40S 

MISFORTUNE  )  calamity,  disaster,  misfortune, 

MISHAP  ]     mischance,  mishap ...400 

TO  MISINTBRPRET-f-to  misconstrue,  misbi- 

terpret 458 

TO  MISS— to  lose,  mlm 404 

MISSION-misslon,  message,  errand SIS 

MISTAKE-errour,  mistake,  Uuiider 196 

MISUSB-abuse,  misuse 390 

TO  MITIGATE— to  allay,  sooth,  appease,  miti- 
gate, assuage 381 

TO  MIX— to  mix,  mingle,  blend,  confound 884 

MIXTURE— mixture,  medley,  miscellany  .1 884 

TO  MOAN— to  roan,  moan 410 

MOB  ) 

MOBILITY  S  *^*'*®'  P°P'***^'^»  "»«>*»»  n>oWliiy  ..  405 

TO  MOCK— to  deride,  mock,  ridicule,  rally,  banter  104 

TO  MOCK— to  imitate,  mlmick,  mock,  ape 589 

MODE— way,  manner,  method,  mode,  course, 

MODEL— copy,  mod^,  pattern,  specimen 530 

MODERATION— moderaUon,  mediocrity 840 

MODERATION— modesty,  moderation,  tempe- 
rance, sobriety •.  815 

MODERN— IVesh,  new,  novel,  recent,  modem...  863 

MODEST— humble,  modest,  submissive 147 

MODESl^modesi,  bashful,  diffident 148 

MODESTY— chasthy,  continence,  modesty s45 

MODESTY— modesty,  moderation,  temiierance, 

sobriety 845 

MOISTURE— nioblure,  humidity,  dampness  ... .  515 

TO  MOLEST— to  trouble,  disturb,  molest 418 

TO  MOLEST— to  inconvenience,  annoy,  molest..  417 
MOMENT— signification,  avail,  Anportance,  con- 

seqnehce, weight,  mnpient... 450 

MOMENT— instant,  moment 807 

MONARCH- prince,  monarch,  sovereign,  poten- 
tate    168 

MON ASTERY-<k>ister,  monastery,  convent. ...    88 

MONEY— money,  cash 340 

MONSTER— wonder,  miracle,  marvel,  prodigy, 

monster 403 

MONSTROUS— enormous,  monstrous,  prodigious  350 
MONUMENT— monument,  remembrancer,  me- 
morial  50C 

MOOD— humour,  temper,  mood 387 

MORALS— manners,  morab , 103 

MORBID— sick,  sickly,  diseased,  niort>id 387 

MOREOVER— besides,  moreover 851  ^ 

MOROSE— gkmmy,  sullen,  morose,  splenetlck ...  411 ' 

MORTAL— deadly,  Altai,  mortal 371 

MORTIFICATION— vexation,  chagrin,  mortifl 
cation '. 190 









zed  by  Google 



MOTION«-iiipdoa,  movvoMat 301 

MOTIVE— cauM,  motive,  r^paon 77 

MOTIVE— prineliile,  moUvo 913 

TO  MOULD— to  foniH  fashloo,  mould,  shape. ...  983 
TO  MOUNT— to  arlae  or  riae,  mount,  aacend, 


TO  MOURN— to  grieve,  mouro,  lament 408 

MOUENrUL-mottniful,aad 410 

TO  MOVE-to  stft,  move 901 

MOVEABLES— foodi,  fumUiire,  moveaUea,  ef- 

fecta 330 

MOVEMENT— motion,  movement 301 

MOVING— moving,  aflbellng,  pathetick 301 

MULCT— fine,  mulct,  penalty,  forfeiture 904 

MULTITUDE— mulUtttde,  crowd,  throng,  swarm  494 
MUNIFICENT— benaflceo^  bouiMful  or  boonto- 

oua,  munificent,  geneiooe,  liberal 185 

TO  MURDER— io  kUl,  munter,  aasafsinate,  alay 

or  slaughter • 510 

TO  MURMUR— to  complain,  ranrmur,  repine...  400 

TO  MUSE— to  contemplate,  meditate,  muae 76 

TO  MUSE— to  think,  refiect,  wonder,  muse. ....    76 

TO  MUSTER— to  aasamble,  muster,  collect 480 

MUTE-eilent,  dumb,  mote,  speechleas 484 

TO  MUTILATE— to  mutilate,  maim,  mangle. ..  500 
MUTINOUS-^umukuoua,   turbulent,  sediilooa, 

mutinous 908 

MUTUAL— mutual,  reciprocal 334 

MYSTERIOUS— dark,  obscure,  dim,  mysterious  480 

MTSTEBIOUS-eecrat,  blddea,  latent,  occult, 

mysterious ••••  590 

MYSTERIOUS  J     _  ^        '      ..  ^  .^ 

MYffTlCK         1  n.y« 590 

MAKED— bare,  naked,  uncovered 940 

TO  NABI£-to  name,  call 471 

NAME— name,  appellation,  title,  denomination..  471 

HAMK— name,  reputation,  lepuie,  credit 479 

TO  NAME— to  name,  denominate,  style,  entitle, 

designate, cbaraeteriie 471 

TO  NAME— to  nominate,  name 471 

TO  NAP— to  sleep,  slumber,  don,  drowse,  nap. .  300 

NARRATION— relaUon,  recital,  narration 466 

NARRATIV£-«ccount,narraUve, description..  487 

NARROW— contracted,  confined,  narrow 177 

MARROW— straight,  narrow 985 

NASTY— nasty,  filthy,  foul 515 

NATAL— natal,  native,  indigenous «96 

NATION— people,  naUoo, < 404 

NATIVE— lotrinskk,  real,  genuhie,  native 437 

NATIVE— naial,  native,  indigenous 408 

Sa^J^^al}-""-"-^ «» 

NATURALLY^^natnrally,  in    course,    conae- 

quenily,  of  course 979 

NAVAL        >  maritime,   marine,  naval,  nautl- 

NAUTICAlI     cal 337 

NAUSEA-diagust,  loathing,  nausea 190 

NAUTICAL — maritime,  asarine,   naval,  nan. 

tical 337 

NEAK-ekMC,  near,  nigh 985 

NECESSARIES— lieceeBUies,necenaKles 347 

NECESSARY— necessary,  eipedlent,  essential, 
lequialto • 417 

TO  NECBBSITATJS-^  eompel,  force,  lAJ^ 

necessitate 919 

NECESSITIES— necessities,  necemarles 347 

NECESSITY-occasioQ,  necemity 418 

NECESSITY— necessity,  need 348 

NEED— poverty, indigrnce,  want,  need,  penury..  348 

TO  NEED— to  want,  need,  lack 347 

NEED— necessity,  need 348 

JJg|^^^}e.ito  NECESSITY,  NEED.. 348 

NEFARIOUS—wleked,  ui4int,^infc|ttilotts,  nefk- 

rtous 198 

TO  NEOLECT-lo  dlsrecard,  slight,  neglect. .. .  40 

TO  NEGLECT— to  neglect,  omit 491 

NEGLIGENT— negligent,  remiss,  caroless,  heed- 
less, thoughtless,  inattentive 494 

TO  NEGOTIATE— to  negotiate,  troat  for  or     ^ 

about,  transact 915 

NEIGHBOURHOOD-neighbaurbood,  vklnity..  408 
NEVERTHELESS— however,  yet,  nevertheless, 

notwithstanding 951 

NEW— fresh,  new,  novel,  receot,  modem 968 

NEWS -news,  tidings 485 

NICE— eiaci,  nice,  partleaiar 903 

NICE— fine,  delkate,  nice S14 

NIGGARDLY— avarlckMiB,  miserly,  paiainioni- 

ous,  niggardly 181 

NIGGARDLY— economical,  sparing,  thrifty,  nav- 

inf>  ntgganily 181 

NIGH— cloae,  near,  nigh 88S 

NIGHTLY— nightly,  nocturnal 968 

NIBIBLE— active,  brisk,  agile,  nimble 997 

NOBLE-noMe,  grand 454 

NOCTURNAL-nlghUy,  noctnrnal 968r 

NOISE— noise,  cry,  outcry,  clamonr 470 

NOISOME— hurt(\il,pernicfcms,  noxious,  noisome  408 
NOISY— loud,  noisy,  highsnunding, clamorous. .  471 
NOMENCLATURE-dictkMiary,   lexionn,  cata- 
logue, vocabulary, gkwsary,  nomenclature... .  484 

TO  NOMINATE— to  nominate,  name 471 

NONCONFORMIST— heredck,  schlamaiick,  see- 

urian,  dieseater,  nonconformist ^ 09 

NOTE— mark,  sign,  note,  symptom,  token,  indica- 
tion  447 

NOTE— remark,  observation,  comment,  note,  an- 
notation, commentary 451 

TO  NOTE— to  mark,  note,  notice 430 

NOTED— distinguished,  conspicuous,  noted,  emi- 
nent. Illustrious  473 

NOTED— noted,  notnrioos.^ 473 

NOTICE— Information,  intelligence,  notice,  advice  195 
TO  NOTICE— to  attend  to,  mind,  regard,  lieed, 

nottee 499 

TO  NOTICE— to  mentkm,  notice 451 

TO  NOTICE— to  mark,  note,  notice 490 

TO  NOTICE— to  notke,  remark,  observe 450 

NOTION— conception,  notion 73 

NOTION— perception,  idea,  emieeption,  notton. .    75 

NOTION— opinion,  sentiment,  notion 80 

NOTORIOUS— niited,  notork>ttS 473 

NOT^VlTHSI'ANDING-however,  yet,  never- 

theleas,  notwithatandfiig 951 

NOVEL— fable,  tale,  novel,  romance 48T 

NOVEL— fteah,  new,  novel,  recent,  modem 988 


zed  by  Google 



TO  NOUBISn— to 

Jf OXIOUS— burtAil,  pernieloua,  nozious, 

MUMB— numb,  beoumbed,  torpid 

TO  NUMBER— to  calcuUbB,  compute,  rackos, 

eoaot  or  account,  number 

HUMERAL      f 

mJMBRICAL  >nameioiM,  somenl,  immerical 


MUPTl  A1J9— maniace,  weddinf,  nuptJale 

TO  NURTURE— 10  nouiiab,  nurture,  cliariah.«. 

OBDURATE— hard,  caBoue,  hardened,  obdorate 

OBEDIENT-^uttful,  obedient,  rHpeelAii 

OBEDIENT— obedient,  aubmMve,  obeequloua. . 

OBJECT— aim,  object,  end 

OBJECT— object,  eubjeet. .,.. 

TO  OBJECT— to  object,  oppoee 

TO  OBJECT  TO— to  and  fault  with,  blame,  ob- 
ject lo 

OBJECTION— demur,  doubt,  beeltatlon,  oltfeo- 

OBJECTION-obJectton,  difficulty,  exception... 

OBLATION— oAsrliif,  oblaUon 

OBUGATION— duty,  obHgalkm 

TO  OBLI6E-to  bind,  oblige,  engager 

TO  OBLIGE— to  compel,  oblige,  force,  neceeel- 

OBLIGING— dvll,  obliging,  complaleant 

TO  OBLITERATE— to  blot  out,  expunge,  reae 
or  eraee,  eflkce,  cancel,  obliterate 

OBLIVION-forgelfulneaB,  obHvkm 

OBLONG— oblong,  oval 

OBLOQUY— reproach,  contumely,  obloquy 

OBNOXIOUS-obnoxloue,  oflbndve 

OBNOXIOUS-«ubJect,  liable,  exposed,  obnoz- 

OBSCURE— dark,  obicure,  dim,  myetarioba 

TO  OBSCURE— to  ecUpee,  obicure 

OBSEQUIES— Aineral,obeequlea 

OBSEQUIOUS-obedlent,  eubmlmive,  obeequl- 

OBSERVANCE— Ibrm,  ceremony,  right,  obaerv- 

OBSERVANCE— obeervaiion,  okMertrance 

OBSERVANT— mindful,  regardful,  obeerrant. . . 

OBSERV ATION-iibaervatlou,  obeervance 

OBSERVATION— remark,  ofaaervatloo,  note,  an- 
notation, comment,  commentary 

TO  OBSERVE— to  keep,  obeertre,  fulfil 

TO  OBSERVE— to  notice,  remark,  obwrve 

TO  OBSERVE— to  obterre,  watch 

TO  OBSERVE-^  eee,  perceive,  obeerve 

OBSERVER-tooker-oo,  apectator,  beholder,  ob- 

OBSOLEl'E— old,  ancient,  antiquated,  antique, 
old  fiwhioned,  obioiete 

OBSTACLE— difficulty,  impediment,  obMacle  ... 

OBSTINATE-obatinate,  oontumacione,  beady, 
•lubbom,  headatrong 

TO  OBSTRUCT— to  hinder,  prevent,  impede, 

TO  OBTAIN— to  acquire,  obuin,  gain,  win, earn 

TO  OBTA  IN— to  get,  g jln,  obtain,  procure 

TO  OBTRUO£-<oin;nide,  obtrude 

377  TO  OBVlATE-topravent, obviate, piecJode.... 
4M  OBVIOUS-apparent,  viaible,  dear,  plain,  obvi- 

37SI;        ooa,  evident,  manifeit 

!  TO  OCCASION— to  caoae,  occasion,  create 

439  OCCASION— occaaion,  opportuniqr 

i  OCCASION— occaak>a,neoeaaity 

OCCASION  AL-occasional,  caittal 

OCCULT— eecret,  hidden,  latent,  occult,  myito. 



OCCUPATION  jow^n^ncy*  occupation 

373  OCCUPATION— buaineis,  occupation,  employ- 
ment, engagement,  avocatloa 

TO  OCCUPY— to  bold,  occupy,  poaieei 

OCCURRENCE— event,  lncidett^«  accident,  ad- 






ODD— particular,  Angular,  odd,  strange,  eecen- 

ODD— odd,  uneven 

ODIOUS— hateAil,  odious 

ODOUR— smell,  scent,  odour,  perfume,  ftngraooe 

OF  COURSE-naturally,  in  ooune,  ooiMequently, 
of  cottiae 

OFFENCE— offlmce,  trespass,  tranegrMion,  mto- 
demeanour,  misdeed,  affioat 

TO  OFFEND-to  displease,  offend,  vex 

OFFENDER-oibnder,  delinqoent 

OFFENDING  >   ^  ^        „.__, 

OFFENSIVE  J  »»"<»*»«.  o*~l^e 


TO  OFFER— to  give,  oflfer,  preeent,  exhibit 

TO  OFFER— to  oflbr,  bid,  tender,  propose 

106  OFFERING-offering,  oblation 

148  OFFICE-bttslnesi,  office,  duty 

OFFICE--oace,  place,  chaige,  ftinctlon 

140   OFFICE-beneflt,  service,  good,  office 

480  ^  OFnCIOUB— active,  busy,  officious 

480 ,  OFFSPRING-oflbpring,  progeny,  tasue 

84  OFTEN— often,  fteqwmtly 

OLD— elderly,  aged,  oU 

OLD-oM,  ancient,  antique,  antiquated,  old-l^ 












OLDER— senior,  elder,  older 

OLD-TIMES— formerly,  In  times  past,  old  times 

or  days  of  yore,  ancientiy,  or  in  ancient  times 

OMEN— omen,  piognoitlck,  prepage 

TO  OMrr— to  neglect,  omit 

ON  ONE'S  GUARD— aware,  on  0De*s  guard,  ap. 


nit,   encounter,    chaige. 

ONE    1         ^  ^        ,_ 


ONSET — attack, 


ONWARD— onward,  forward,  progremive 

OPAQUI^-opaque,  dark 

OPEN— landid,  open,  sincere 

OPEN— frank,  candid,  ingenuous,  free,  open,  plain 

OPENING— opening,  aperture,  cavity 

OPERATION— action,  agency,  operation 

OPERATION— work,  operation 

OPINI ATED   1  opinlated  or  opinlative,  ooncelt- 

OPINIATIVE\     ed,  egoistical 

i  I  OPINION— opinion,  senUment,  notion 








zed  by  Google 



OPPONENT— enemy,  foe,  tdTenary,  opponent, 

entacoiilflt 134 

OPPORTUNITY— occasion,  opportunity 416 

TO  OPPOSE— to  combat,  oppose 134 

ro  OPPOSE— to  contradici,  oppose,  deny 113 

TO  OPPOSE— to  ol^t,  oppose 118 

TO  OPPOSE-to  oppose,  tetlit,  thwart,  with- 
stand  114 

OPPOSITE— adverse,  contrary,  opposite 135 

OPPROBRIUM— infamy,  ignominy,  opprobrium  108 
TO  OPPUGN— to  confute,  refute,  disprove,  op- 
pugn .: 115 

OPTION— opUon,  choice 834 

OPULENCE— riches,  wealth,  opulence,  atSuence  340 

ORAL- verbal,  vocal,  oral 468 

ORATION— address,  speech,  oration,  harangue. .  461 
ORATORY— elocution,  eloquence,  oratory,  rheto- 

rick 468 

ORB— circle,  orb,  globe,  sphere 175 

TO  ORDAIN  )  to  appoint,  order,  prescribe,  or- 

TO  ORDER    J     dain 184 

ORDER— class,  order,  rank,  degree 876 

ORDER— command,  order,    iqjunction,  precept, 

mandate J85 

ORDER-<lire<<lon,  order 813 

ORDER— order,  method,  rale 876 

ORDER— succession,  series,  order 871 

ro  ORDER— to  place,  dispose,  order 878 

ORDINARY— common, vulgar,  ordinary,  mean.. 

DRI  PICE— orifice,  perforation 402 

ORIGIN       )  origin,  original,  beginning,  source, 

original}     rise 898 

ORIGlNAL---primary,  primitive,  pristine,  origi- 
nal   874 

OSTENSIBLE— colourable,  specious,  ostensible, 

plausible,  feasible 510 

OSTENT AT10N-«how,  parade,  ostenutlon ....  453 

OVAL— oblong,  oval 950 

OVER— above,  over,  upon,  beyond 870 

OVERBALANCE — ^to   overbalance,  outweigh, 

preponderate 806 

TO  OVERBEAR— to  overbear,  bear  down,  over- 
power, overwhelm,  subdue   144 

OVERBEARING— impertous,  k>rdly,  domineer- 
ing, overbearing  185 

TO  OVERCOME— to  conquer,  vanqnish, subdue, 

overcome,  Murmount 144 

TO  OVERFLOW— to  overflow,  inundate,  deluge  353 
TO  OVERHEAR— to liear,  hearken,  overhear  ..  422 
TO  OVERPOWER— 10  beat,  defeat,  overpower, 

rout,  overthrow 143 

TO  OVERPOWER — to  overbear,  overpower, 

bear  down,  overwhelm,  subdue J44 

TO  O VKRRU  LE-ovemile,  supersede 806 

OVERRULING— prevailing,  prevalent,  predomi- 
nant, overruling 805 

TO  OV  ERRUN        )  to  ovetvpread,  overran,  ra- 

TO  OVERSPREADS     vage 507 

OVERSIGHT — inadvertency,  Inattenlton,  over- 

siehi 433 

OVERSIGIIT—lnspection.  oveiilght,  superintend- 
ence  813 

TO  OVERTHROW— to  beat,  defeat,  overpower,    * 
rout,  overthrow 143 

TO  OVERTHROW  )  to  ovettnrn,  aabvert,  over- 
TO  OVERTURN      )     throw,  Invert,  reverse  ..  503 
TO  OVERWHELM — ^to  overttear,  bear  down, 

overpower,  overwhelm,  subdue 144 

TO  OVERWHELM— to  overwhelm,  crash 504 

OUTCRY— noise,  cry,  outcry,  clamour 470 

TO  OUTDO— to  exceed,  excel,  surpass,  outdo ...  873 

OUTLINES— sketch,  ouUlnes 338 

TO  OUTLIVE— to  ouUive,  survive 840 

OUTRAGE— affront,  Insult, outrage 121 

OUTSIDE — show,  outside,  semblance,  appear- 
ance  453 

OUTWARD— outward,  external,  exteriour 351 

TO  OUTWEIGH— to  overbalance,  preponderate, 

outweigh 806 

TO  OWN— to  acknowledge,  own,  confess,  avow  448 
OWNER— possessor,  proprietor,  owner,  master . .  838 

PACE— pace,  step 301 

PACIPICK— peaceable,  peaceful,  paclflck 308 

TO  PACIFY— to  appease,  ealm,   pacify,  quiet, 

still 361 

PAGAN— gentile,  heathen,  pagan 495 

PAIN— pain,  pang,  agony,  anguish 407 

TO  PAINT— to  paint,  depict,  delineate,  sketch  . .  338 

PAIR— couple,  brace,  pair.. 434 

PALATE— palate,  taste 519 

PALE— pale,  pallid,  wan 360 

TO  PALLIATE— to  extenuate,  palliate 18S 

TO  PALLIATE— to  gloss,  varalsb,  paDiate 5lS 

PALLID— pale,  pallid,  wan 300 

TO  PALPITATE — to   palpitate,  flutter,  pant, 

gasp 305 

PA  N EG YRICK— encomium,  eukigy,  panegyrick"  130 

PANG— pain,  pang,  agony,  anguish 407 

TO  PANT— to  palpitate,  flutter,  pant,  gasp 30S 

PARABLE— parable,  allegory 538 

P  A  RA  DE— show,  parade,  ostentation 453 

PARASITE— flatterer,  sycophant,  parasite 5S8 

TO  PARDON— to  excuse,  pardon 188 

TO  PARDON— to  forgive,  pardon,  absolve,  remit    87 

PARDONABLE— venial,  pardonable 188 

TO  PARE— toped,  pare 518 

PARLIAMENT — assembly,  company,  meeting, 
congregation,  pari  lament,  diet,  congress,  con- 
vention, synod,  convocation,  council 490 

PARSIMONIOUS— avaricious,  miserly,  parsimo- 
nious, niggardly 161 

PARSIMONY— economy,  frugality,  parsimony  ..  161 
PARSON— clergyman,  paraon,  priest,  minister. . .    85 

PART— part,  division,  portion,  ahare 485 

PART— part,  piece,  patch 489 

TO  PART— to  divide,  separate,  part 484 

TO  PARTAKE         }  to  partake,  ahare,  partlcl- 

TO  PARTICIPATE  J     pate 486 

PARTICULAR— circumstantial,  minute,  particu- 
lar     173 

PARTICULAR— exact,  nice,  particular,  punc- 
tual   803 

PARTICULAR— particular,  singular,  eccentrick, 

odd,  strange 385 

PARTICULAR— particular;  Individual 859 

PARTICULAR— peculiar, api»ropriate,  particular  831 
PARTICULAR— special,  speciflck,  partleolar ...  859 


zed  by  Google 



PARTICUL  ASLY— enpedally,  partleularly,  prin- 
cipally, etaiefly S06 

PARTISAN— follower,  adherent,  partisan 419 

PAETNER— eolteagoe,  partner,  coadjutor,  aaalat- 

ant 491 

PARTNERSHIP— aanciatton,  society,  company, 

partnership 488 

PARTY— lacUon,  party 909 

PASSAGE— course,  race,  passage Sr75 

PASSIONATE— angry,  passionate,  hasty,  irasci- 
ble  119 

PASSIYE-paasive,  submissive 149 

PASaiYE— paUent,  pasBiye 149 

PASTIIffi— amusement,  entertainment,  diversion, 

sport,  recreation,  pastime 391 

PATCH— part,  piece,  patch 486 

PATHETICK— moving,  afleeUng,  pathetick 301 

PATIENCE— fwtience,  endurance,  resignation ...  140 

PATIENT— patient,  passive 149 

PATIENT— invalid,  patient 367 

PAUPER— poor,  pauper 347 

TO  PAUSE— to  demur,  hesitate,  pause 96 

PAT — allowance,  stipend,  salary,  wages,  hire, 

W •' IW 

PEACE— peace,  quiet,  calm,  tranquillity 361 

PEACEABLE  )  . ,  ,,.«.. 

PEACEFUL    i  P"*^'*'*^  I«««f«^  pncifick. .. . 
PEASANT— countryman,  peasant,  swain,  hind, 

rastick  clown 336 

PECULIAR— peculiar,  appropriate,  particular . . .  S31 

PEEL-eldn,  hide,  peel,  rind 518 

TO  PEEL— to  peel,  pare 5Ul 

PEEVISH — captious,  cross,  peevish,  petulant, 

fretful 315 

PELLUCID— peUucld,  transparent 477 

PENALTY— fine,  penalty,  mulct,  forfeiture 201 

TO  PENETILATE— to  penetrate,  pierce,  perfo- 

'    iaie,lM>re 402 

PENETRATION — discernment,  discrimination, 

penetration 71 

PENETRATION— penetration,  acuteneas,  saga- 

eUy 401 

PENITENCE— repentance,  penitence,  contrition, 

compunction,  remorse 88 

PENMAN— writer,  penman,  scribe 336 

PENURIOUS— economical,  saving,  spariag,  penu- 
rious, thrifty,  niggardly 161 

PENURY — ^poverty,  indigence,  want,  penury, 

need 34C 

PEOPLE— people,  nation 494 

PEOPLE— people,  populace,  mob,  mobility 495 

PEOPLE— people,  persons,  folks 495 

TO  PERCEIVE — to  perceive,  discern,  dtslin- 

gnish 483 

TO  PERCEIVE— to  see,  perceive,  observe 483 

PERCEPTION— perception,  idea,  conception,  no- 
tion     75 

PERCEPTION— sentiment,  sensation,  perceptions  J76 
PEREMPTORY— positive,  absolute,  peremptory- 188 

PERFECT— accomplished,  perfect 

PERFECT— complete,  perfect,  finished S87 

PERFIDIOUS— faithless,  perfidious,  treacherous  594 

TO  PERFORATE— 10  penetrate,  pierce,  perfo- 

iale,boie 409 

PERFORATION— orifice,  perforation 409 

TO  PERFORM— to  effect,  produce,  perform 9^9 

TO  PERFORM— to  execute,  fulfil,  perform 9^ 

PERFORMANCE — production,  work,  perform- 
ance  399 

PERFORMER— actor,  player,  performer 908 

PERFUMED— smell,  scent,  odour,  fragrance,  pei^ 

fume 511 

PERIL— danger,  hazard,  peril 171 

PERIOD— sentence,  proposition,  period,  phrase . .  464 
PERIOD— lime,  period,  age,  date,  era,  epocha ....  907 

TO  PERISH— to  perish,  die,  decny 371 

TO  PERJURE— to  forswear,  perjure,  suborn ....  09 
PERMANENT— durable,  lasting,  permanent ....  966 
PERMISSION— leave,  liberty,  permission,  Ucense  255 
TO  PERMIT— to  admit,  allow,  permit,  tolerate, 

wtbr 157 

TO  PERMIT— to  consent,  permit,  allow 159 

PERNICIOUS— destructive,  ruinoos,  pernicious. .  504 
PERNICIOUS— hurtful,  noxious,  noisome,  perni- 
cious  406 

TO  PERPETRATE— to  perpetrate,  commit 906 

PERPETUAL— continual,  perpetual,  constant..  965 

TO  PERPLEX— to  distress,  harass,  perplex 407 

TO  PERPLEX— to  embarrass,  perplex,  entangle  413 
TO  PERSEVERE  )  to  continue,  persevere,  per- 
TO  PERSIST        \     sist,  pursue,  prosecute...    964 

TO  PERSIST— to  insist,  persist 965 

PERSONS— people,  persons,  folks 405 

PERSPICUITY— clearness,  peraptcuity 477 

TO  PERSUADE— to  exhort,  persuade 319 

TO  PERSUADE — to  n^rsuade,  entice,  prevail 

upon 313 

PERSUASION— conviction,  persuasion 79 

PERTINENT— pertinent,  relevant 397 

PERVERSE — awkward,  cross,  crooked,  unto- 
ward, froward,  perverse 315 

PEST— bane,  pest,  ruin 503 

PESTILENTIAL— contagious,  epidemical,  pesti- 
lential   190 

PETITION— prayer,  petition,  request,  entreaty, 

suit 87 

PETTY— trifling,  trivial,  petty,  frivolous,  futile . .  457 
PETULANT— captious,  cross,  peevish,  fretful, 

petulant 315 

PHANTOM— vision,  apparition,  phantom,  ghost, 

spectre  icw. 479 

PHRASE— eentence,  propoeilton,  period,  phrase. .  464 
PHRASE  )  diction,  phrase,  phraseology, 

phraseology!     style 463 

PHRENSY— madness,  phrensy,  rage,  fury 981 

TO  PICK— to  choose,  pick,  select 934 

PICTURE— likeness,  picture,  image,  e(Bgy 539 


PICTURE— picture,  print,  engraving 450 

PIECE— part,  piece,  patch 488 

TO  PIERCE— 10  penetrate,  pierce,  perforate,  bore  403 

TO  PILE— heap,  pile,  accumulate,  amass 340 

PILL AOE— rapine,  plunder,  pillage 507 

PILLAR— pillar,  column  .*. 499 

TO  PINCH— to  press,  squeeze,  pinch,  gripe 300 

TO  PINE— to  flag,  droop,  languish,  pine 36ft 

PIOUS— holy,  pious,  devout,  religious 80 

PIQUE— malice,  rancour,  spite,  grudge,  pique ...  381 


zed  by  Google 


shri  INDEX. 

*  i^ 

PITEOUB-pltMNM,  dolefbl,  woM,  meAil 411 


PITIABLE  SpiMo«ii,pltl«ble,pltUtal SSB 


PrriFUL-meaB,  pltMU,  ■oidM 411 

PITIFULr-cootempUUe,  deipk&Me,  piUAi] lOS 

PITT— filtj,  eoapMrioB 3S8 

PITY— pliy,  mercy 358 

PLACE— offlee,  ptaM,  charge,  ninoUon 33) 

PLACE— ptaoe,BltaftClaB,eiatloii,ixMltlon,poat..  S78 

'  PLACE-plMe,  epoc,  aite 878 

TO  PLACE-to  place,  dlipoee,ordir 378 

TO  PLACE-Ho  put,  place,  lay,  aet SBO 

PLAciD-«allB,  placid,  aerene SOS 

PLAIN— apiiarent,  vlalble,  dear,  plain,  oinioaa, 

eiident,  BianlflMt ^ 478 

PLAIN— even,  amootb,  lerel,  plain 435 

PLAIN — f^ank,  candid,  Ingenuoua,  free,  open, 

plain 431 

PLAIN— aineere,  boneat,  Uue,  plain 430 

PLAUDIT— applauae,  acclamaUon,  ptaodtt 130 

PLAUSIBLE — colourable,  specloua,  oMenalUe, 

plauaibie,  feaalble 516 

PLAY~^ay,Kame«8port 384 

PLA  YER— actor,  player,  perfbrmer »B 

TO  PLEAD— apologlae,  defend,  JuatUy,  ezcuae, 

eiculpate,  plead 181 

PLEADER-defender,  advoeatt,  pleader 180 

PLEASANT— afreeable,  pleannt,  pleaaing 159 

PLEASANT— f^cetioaa,conyer>ible,  pleasant.  Jo- 
cular, Jocoae 401 

TO  PLEASE— 10  saiisfy,  pleaae,  gratify 

PLEASED— glad,  pleased,  joyful,  cheerful 

PLBASINO— agreeable,  pleaaani,  pleasing ISB 

PLEASURE— comfort,  pleaaure 3S7 

PLEASURE— pleaaure,  joy,  delight,  charm 3D3 

PLEDGE— depoalie,  pledge,  lecurlty 18:! 

PLEDGE— earneai;  pledge 184 

PLENIPOTENTIARY— ambaandor,  plenipoten- 
tiary, envoy,  deputy S14 

PLENITUDE— fulneaa,  plenitude 341 

PIiENTEOUS  )  plentiful,   plenteoua,  abundant, 
PLENTIFUL  )     copious,  ample 341 

PLIANT    <  *«^*«»  Pl*»*l«t  pliant,  sopple 300 

PLIGHT— altuatlon,  condition,  sute,  predicament, 

pllght,caae 879 

PLOT— comMnatkm,  cabal,  plot,  conspiracy 489 

TO  PLUCK— to  draw,  drag,  haul  or  hale,  pluck, 

pull,  tog 303 

PLUNDER— rapine,  plunder,  pillage 507 

TO  PLUNGB-lo  plunge,  dive 353 

TO  POINT— to  aim,  point,  level 3S4 

TO  POINT  OUT— to  show,  point  out.  Indicate, 

mark 451 

TO  POI8R-to  potae,  balance 970 

POISON— poison,  venom..  V 503 

POLITE      j  ?•*!•••  pollriiad,  Mfinad,  genlM. .. .  181 

POLITE-etyn,  polite 198 

POLITICK    {p^nje^ppiitfck an 

POLITICAL  <'^""^'^        " 

TO  POIIjUTE— to  contaminate,  deiUe,  poOnle, 
taint,0Qrrupl • 199 

POMP— magnificence,  aplendour,  pomp 451 

POMPOUS— maglsierial,  miOc*tlcki>Uit«)7>  ponp* 

ona,  august,  dignified 454 

TO  PONDER— to  think,  reflect,  ponder,  muae. . .    78 
PONDEROUS— beavy,  burdensome,  ponderous, 

weighty 378 

POOR— poor,  pauper 347 

POPULACE— people,  populace,  mob,  mobility. . .  495 

PORT— harbour,  haven,  port 518 

TO  PORTEND— to  augur,  pfosage,  forebode,  be- 
token, portend  94 

PORTION— deal,  quantity,  portion 488 

PORTION— part,  division,  portion,  share 408 

POSmON-^—place,  situation,  station,  position, 

pnet 878 

POSITION— action,  gesture,  gesticulation,  atti- 
tude, pnoture,  position 898 

POSITION— tenet,  position .'   80 

POSITIVE— actual,  real,  positive 898 

POSmVE— confident,  dogmatical,  positive 414 

POSmVE-definite,  positive 458 

POSITIVE— positive,  absolute,  peremptory 188 

TO  POSSESS— to  have,  possess 937 

TO  POSSESS— to  hold,  occupy,  possess 836 

POSSESSIONS— goods,  possessions,  property. ...  349 
POSSESSOR— possessor,  proprietor,  owner,  maa- 

ter 838 

POSSIBLE-possible,  practicable,  practical 394 

POST— place,  sihiation,  station,  position,  post. ...  878 
POSTERIOR — subsequent,  consequent,  poste- 
rior  878 

TO  POSTPONE— to  delay,  defer,  postpone,  pro- 
crastinate, prolong,  protract,  retard 909 

POSTURE— action,  gesture,  gesticulation,  poa- 

ture,  attitude,  position 995 

POTENT— powerful,  potent,  mighty 187 

POTENTATE— prince,  monarch,  aovereign,  po* 

POVERTY— poverty,  indigence,  want,  penary, 

need 348 

TO  POUND— to  break,  bruise,  aqueese,  pound, 

crush 801 

TO  POUR— to  pour,  spin,  sbed.^ 348 

POWER— power,  strength,  force,  autlioriiy,  do- 
minion   188 

POWERFUL— powerful,  potent,  mighty 187 

PRACTICABLE  »  .^  .,    ^  ^  ,  m^ 

PRACTICAL       \  »*^"*'  P»«c«««t*^  l««te«»  » 
PRACTICFz-custom,  habit,  manner,  practice...  389 

TO  PRACTISE— to  exercise,  practise 39i 

TO  PRAISE— to  praise,  commend,  applaud,  ex- 
tol  138 

PRAISEWORTHY-comroendable,  pralKWorthy, 

laudable 131 

PR ANK— frolick,  gambol,  prank 398 

TO  PRATE       { to  babble,  chatter,  chat,  prate, 

TOPRATTLBt     prattie 499 

PRAYER— prayer,   petition,   request,  enUeaty, 

auit 87 

PRECARIOUS — doubtful,  dnbioua,  nneartain, 

prscarioua - 98 

PRECEDENCE— priority,  pieeedenoe,  pralerence, 

pre-eminence  * .' 8T8 

PRECEDENT— example,  preeedant SH 


zed  by  Google 



Pl£t'EDING~«nl0c«deiit,  pfeeedtng,  previotw, 

foregiiiiif ,  anierlor,  prior,  former 97S 

FABCKPT—cominftnd,  order,  kOuncUoo,  precept, 

inei4ilate .  • • 185 

PBECEPT— doelrine,  precept,  principle 80 

rEBCKFT— nrazim,  preeepc,  rule,  law SI  1 

PRECIOUS-vatnable,  praelc  in,  cuatly 437 

FBECIPlTANCY-mibnea,  temerity,  baadiMM, 

precipitancy M3 

FRECISB— accHnie,  eiacc,  predM 903 

TO  PEBCLUDE~to  praveni,  obviate,  preclude  S9B 
PKECUKSOR— forpninoer,  pracunor,  meeeenger, 

liarfaiiiger 915 

PEEDICAMENT—eltuatioB,  oonditioD,  state,  pre- 
dicament, pli(bt,caae 970 

TO  PSEDICT— to  forelel,  predict,  prognoeiicate, 

propbesy 04 

PKEDOMINANT— prevailii«,  prevalent,  over- 
ruling, predominant 905 

PRE-  EMINENCE— priority,  precedence,  pre>enii- 

nenee,  preAtrenee 973 

PAEFACE— prelude,  preflice....^ 931 

TO  PKEFER^lo  cbooee,  prefer. 

TO  PREFER— to  encourafe,  advance,  promote, 

prefer,  forward 318 

FREFBBABLB-ell«ible,  pKferaMe 934 

PREFERENCE — ^priority,  precedence,  pre-emi- 
nence, preference  •*«•.*••••«•••.•.■••.•••.•  973 

PKEJUDICE--bia8,  pnyudice,  piepoaKailon IGO 

PREJUDICE-dindvaotacB,  Injury,  burt,  detri- 
ment, prejudice ' 

PRELIMINAR  Y—previoua,  prdimioary,  prepara- 
tory, Inlroduclory 974 

PRELUDE— prelude,  preface 931 

TO— to  premise,  prenime 931 

PREMEDITATION— rorcsifbt,forethOttsht,  fore- 
cast, premeditaliou 309 

TO  PREPARE— to  fit,  equip,  prepare,  qualify. . .  154 
PREPARATORY— previous,  preliminary,  prepa- 

'  rainry,  inuodoeiory 974 

TO  PREPONDERATE— to ovetlmlance,  prepon- 
derate, outweigh  906 

PREPOSSESSION — Mas,  preposeesilon,  preju- 
dice   160 

PREPOSSESSION— ben^  bias,  Inciinaiion,  pre- 

poosiissioo ISO 

PREPOSTEROUS — ^irrational,  foolish,  absurd, 

prepiaiterous 01 

PREROGATIVE— privilege,  prerogative,  immu- 
nity, eiemplion  998 

PRESAGE— omen,  prerogative,  presage 03 

TO  PRESAGE— <o  augur,  prssage,  forebode,  be- 

tolten,  portend 94 

TO  PRESCRIBE— to  appoint, prescribe,  ordain. .  184 

TO  PRBifiCRIBE— to  dictate,  prescribe 184 

PRESCRIPTION— usage,  custom,  preseription . .  394 
PRESENT— gift,  ptesem,  donaUon,  beneflKtion. .  164 
TO  PRESENT— lo  give,  oftr,  present,  exhibit. . ..  163 

TO  PRE8BNT-10  fanradoee,  prewnt 163 

TO  PRESERVE— to  keep,  preserve,  save 178 

TO  PRESERVE— 10  save,  spare,  preserve,  pio- 

lect ( 170 

TO  PRESS— 4o  press,  squeeae,  pinch,  gripe 300 

PRESSING— pieislagi  Ufsc^  tmpoiuinaie. ...     188 

TO  PRE8UME-«>  premise,  | 
PRESUMING— presumptive,  prssumptuous,  pre- 
suming  938 

PRESUM  PTION— arrogance,  presumption — . .  931 
P  RESU  HPTl  V£     1  presumptive,  presumptuous, 

PRESUMPTUOUS  \     presuming 93t 

PRETENCE— pretence,  pretension,  pretext,  ex- 
cuse  99i 

TO  PRETEND— to  feign,  pretend 598 

TO  PRETEND— to  aAct,  pretend 999 

PRETENSION— pretendon,  claim 939 

PRETENSION  *  pretence,  pretension,  pretext,  ex- 

PRETEXT        \     Cttse 9» 

PRBTTY-beaulilVil,  fine,  handsome,  pretty 313 

PREVAILING — prevailing,  ruliug,  overruling, 

prevalent,  predominant 90S 

TO  PREVARICATE— lo  evade,  equivocate,  pre- 
varicate  990 

TO  PREVENT— to  hinder,  prevent,  impede,  ob- 
struct  *..  9SB 

TO  PREVENT— to  prevent,  anticipate 9S0 

TO  PREVENT— to  prevent,  obviate,  preclude...  950 
PREVIOUS— -antecedent,  preceding,  foregoing, 

previous,  anterior,  prior,  former 972 

PREVIOUS— previous,  preliminary,  preparatory, 

introductory 974 

PREY— booty,  spoil,  prey ^ 500 

PRICE— cost,  expense,  price,  charge 136 

PRICE— value,  worth,  rate,  price 436 

PRIDE— pride,  vanity,  conceit 100 

PRIDE— pride,  haugbtlnen,  loMiiem,  dignity ....  100 
PRIEST— clergyman,  parson,  prieM,  minister ....  8S 
PRIMARY    }  prinisry,  primitive,  pristine,  origl- 

PRiMiTIVB>     nal 974 

PRINCE— prince,  monarch,  sovereign,  potentate  188 

PRINCIPAL— chief,  principal,  main 906 

PRINCIPALLY-espeeially,  particulariy,  prind- 

pally,  chiefly 906 

PRINCIPLE— doctrine)  precept,  principle 80 

PRINCIPLE— principle,  motive 913 

PRINT— mark,  print,  impression,  stamp 446 

PRINT— picture,  prim,  engraving 45q 

PRIOR— antecedent,  preceding,  foregoing,  previ- 
ous, anterior,  prior,  former 979 

PRIORITY— priority,  precedence,  pre-eminence, 

preference S7S 

PRISTINE — primacy,  primitive,  prlstlce,  origi- 
nal  974 

PRIVACY— privacy,  retireanent.  seelusion 9SS 

PRIVILEGE— privilege,  prerogative,  exemption, 

immunity 92ji 

PRIVILEGE-righc,  claim,  privilege 998 

PRIZE— capture,  selsnre,  priw SOI 

TO  PRIZE— to  value,  prlie,eaieem 431 

PROBABILITY— chance,  probability 176 

PROBITY-^ionesty,  nprightneai.  Integrity,  pro- 
bity  491 

TO  PROCEED— CO  advance,  proceed 301 

TO  PROCEED-lo  arte,  proesed,  issue,  spring, 

flow,  emanate * 901 

PROCEEDING— proeeedli«,  tramaetlon 333 



proceeding,  process,  progrem. , 

PROCESSION    proeesrioa,  trala,  retiant 400 

Digitized  W  Google 


INDEX.     . 

TO  PROCLAIM— to  anmrance, proclaim,  publiih, 

■dvertbe" 443 

TO  PROCLAIM— to  declare,  puUuh,  proclaim..  442 
PROCLAMATION— decree,  edict,  prucianiaUoo  443 
TO  PROCRASTINATE— to  delay,  defer,  poet- 
pone,  procrastinate,  prolong,  protract,  retard.  •  SOO 
TO  PROCURE^— to  get,  gain,  obtain,  procure... .  306 
TO  PROCURB— to    provide,  procure,   fumUii 

nipply 309 

PRODIGAIf— extravagant,  prodigal,  lavlah,  pro- 

Aim 342 

PRODIGIOUS— enormout,  prodigious,  moiwtroua  3S0 
PRODIGY— wonder,  miracle,  marvel,   prodigy, 

monster 40B 

PRODUCE— production,  produce,  product 380 

TO  PRODUCE— to  afford,  yield,  produce 330 

TO  PRODUCE— to  eilbct,  produce,  perform 380 

TO  PRODUCE— to  make,  form,  produce,  create  S02 

PRODUCT         I  

PRODUCTION  l'™'"**'"''*^""*''*^"'*-  ^ 
PRODUCTION— production,  performance,  work  3S0 

PROF ANE— irreligious,  profane,  impious 03 

TO  PROFESS— to  profess,  declare 442 

PROFESSION— business,  trade,  profession,  art. .  331 
PROFICIENCY— progress,  proflclency.  Improve- 
ment  804 

PROFIT— advantage,  profit 398 

PROFIT— gain,  profit,  emolument,  lucre 307 

PROFLIGATE— profligate,  a!>andoned,  reprobate  349 

PROFUNDITY— depth,  profundity 350 

PROFUSE— extravagant,  prodigal,  lavish,  profuse  34S 

PROFUSENESS)        -    .  * 

PROFUSION        J  P~f"rion.  P«><V«ness 342 

PROGENITORS— forefkthers,  ancertors,  progeni- 
tors  900 

PROGENY— offi>pring,  progeny,  Issue 391 

PROONOSTICKr-omen,  presage,  prognostick ...    08 
TO  PROGNOSTIC  ATE— to  foretel,  predict,  prog- 
nosticate, prophesy..... 94 

PROGRESS— proceeding,  proceo,  progress 333 

PROGRESS— progress,  proficiency,  Improvemenl  304 
PROGRESS         i  progrev,  progression,  advance, 

PROGRESSION  )     advancement 804 

PROGRESSIVE— onward,  forward,  progressive  308 
TO  PROHIRIT-io    forbid,   prohlbl^   Interdict, 

proscribe 823 

PROJECT-  design,  plan,  scheme,  project 534 

PROLIFICK— fertile,  fruitful,  prolifick 341 

PROLIX— dUnise,  prolix 464 

TO  PROLONG— to  delay,  defer,  postpone,  pro- 
crastinate, prolong,  protract,  retard S60 

PROMIN  ENT— prominent,  conspicuous 474 

PROMISCUOUS— promiscuous,  indiscriminate. .  884 

PROMISE— promise,  engagement,  word 817 

TO  PROMOTE— to  encourage,  advance,  promote, 

prefer,  forward « 319 

PROMPT— diligent,  expeditious,  prompt 862 

PROMPT— ready,  apt,  prompt 997 

TO  PROMUIiG  ATE— to  publish,  promulgate,  di- 
vulge, reveal,  disclose 443 

SONENESS— toellnatioo,  tendency,  propenilty, 

proneness 160 

TO  PRONOUNCE— to  utter,  speak,  articulatn, 
proooance  « t     490 

.  r. 

PROOF— argument,  i 

PROOF— proof,  evidence,  testimony 444 

PROOF— experience,  experiment,  trial,  proof,  test  310 

PROP— staff,  stay,  prop,  support .  .*. 838 

TO  PROPAGATE— to  speed,  circulate,  propa- 
gate, disseminate 34S 

PROPENSITY— IncUnatkm,  tendency,  proneness, 

propensity 160 

PROPER— right.  Just,  proper 430 

PROPERTY— goods,  property,  poascsslous 340 

PROPERTY— quality,  property,  attribute 938 

PROPITIOUS— Avourable,  auspicious,  propltloua  190 
TO  PROPHESY- to  foretel,  predict,  prophesy, 

prognosticate 94 

PROPORTION— rate,  proportion,  raUo 434 

PROPORTiO  N'— symmetry ,  proportion 43S 

PROPORTIONATE— proportionate,  commensu- 
rate, adequate :..  434 

TO  PROPOSE— to  oflbr,  bid,  tender,  propose. .. .  167 

TO  PROPOSE— to  purpose,  propose SS4 

PROPOSITION— sentence,   proposition,  period, 

I>hrase 464 

PROPRIETOR — possessor,    proprietor,  owner, 

maxter 938 

TO  PROROGUE— to  prorogue,  adjourn 860 

TO  PROSCRIBE-to  fortiid,  prohibit.  Interdict, 

proscribe 983 

TO  PROSECUTE— to  continue,  persevere,  per- 
sist, pursue,  prosecute 964 

PROSELYTE— convert,  proselyte 86 

PROSPECT— view,  survey,  prospect 479 

PROSPECT- view,  prospect,  landscape 470 

TO  PROSPER— to  flourish,  thrive,  prosper aOS 

PROSPERITY— well  being,  welfare,  prosperity, 

happiness 306 

PROSPEROUS— fortunate,    lucky,    prosperous, 

successful 306 

TO  PROTECT— to  defend, proieci,  vindicate....  M 
TO  PROTECT— to  save,  spare,  preserve,  protect  179 
TO  PROTEST— to  affirm,   asseverate,  assure,' 

vouch,  aver,  protest 441 

TO  PROTRACT— to  delay,  defer,  postpone,  pro- 
crastinate, prolong,  protract,  retard 960 

TO  PRO VE— 10  argue,  evince,  prove 77 

TO  PROVE— to  prove,  demonstrate,  evince,  ma- 
nifest  444 

PROVERB— axiom,  maxim,  aphorism,  apoph- 
thegm, saying,  adage,  proverb,  by-word,  saw  910 
TO  PROVIDED— to  provide,  procure,  furnish,  sup- 
ply  390 

PRO  VIDENCB— providence,  prudence 309 

PROVIDENT— careful,  cauikras,  provident 42S 

PROVISION— fare,  provision 513 

TO  PROVOKE— to  aggravate,  irritate,  provoke, 

exasperate,  untalize 121 

TO  PROVOKFi— to    awaken,  excite,   provoke, 

rooee,  stir  up 3]f 

TO  PROVOKE— to  excite,  Incite,  provoke 309 

PRUDENCES— Judgement,  discretion,  prudence..  400 

PRUDENCE— prudence,  providence 399 

PRUDENCE— wisdom,  prudence 400 

PRUDENT        > 


prudent,  pradentlal. 

TO  PRY— to  piy,  scmtlnlse,  divt  Into. . .  r .99 


zed  by  Google 



PB  flNG— canons,  prying,  ioqnlaitlTa 90 

TO  PUBLISH— lo  aonouiice,  proclaim^  adverttoe, 

publirii 443 

TO  PUBLISH— to  declare,  publish,  proclaim....  USt 
TO  PUBLISH— to  publish,  promulgaie,  divulge, 

reveal,  diseloae 443 

PUERnJE^yottthful,  JavenDo,  puerile 401 

TO  PULL— to  draw,  drag,  haul  or  hale,  pull, 

pluck,  tug.* 303 

PUNCTUAL— exact,  nice,  particular,  punctual..  903 
PUNISHMENT— correction,  discipline,  punish- 
ment  804 

PUPIL— wsholar,  disciple,  pupil 197 

TO  PURCHASE— to  buy,    purchase,   bargain, 

cheapen 335 

PUBPOSE— sake,  account,  reason,  purpose,  end. .  535 
TO  PURPOSE— to  design,  purpose,  intend,  mean  533 

TO  PURPOSE— to  purpose,  propose 534 

TO  PURSUE— to  follow,  pursue S71 

TO  PURSUE— to  continue,  peraeTere,   perrist, 

pursue,  prosecute > 964 

TO  PUT— to  put,  place,  lay,  set 980 

ro  PUTREFY— to  rot,  putrefy,  corrupt 504 

TO  QUAKE— 10  shake,  Uemble,  shudder,  quiver, 

quake 305 

aUALIFICATION — qualification,  accomplish- 
ment  989 

aUALlFIED— competent,  fitted,  qualified J54 

TO  QUALIFY— to  fit,  equip,  prepare,  qualify. .  154 
ro  QUALIFY— to  qualify,  temper,  humour....  386 
OF  QUALITY— 4>r  Hishion,  of  quality,  of  dis- 
tinction  474 

QUALITY— iiuality,  property,  attribute S32 

QUANTITY— deal,  quantity,  portion 486 

QUARREL— iUflerence,  dispute,  quarrel,  alterca- 
tion   133 

QUARREL— <iuarrel,  broil,  feud,  aflfray  or  fray. .  133 
QUARTER— district,  region,  tract,  quarter 408 

Su^ON!^"*^*«»^""y ^ 

TO  QUES'^ION— to  doubt,  question,  dispute....  OS 
TO  QUESTION— to  ask,  inquire,  question,  inter- 
rogate     07 

QUICKNESS— qnlcknesB,   swlftnees,    fleetness, 

celerity,  rapidity,  velocity 902 

QUIET— ease,  quiet,  rest,  repose 362 

QUIET— peace,  quiet,  calm,  tranquillity 361 

TO  QUIET— to  appease,  calm,  pacify,  quiet,  still  361 

TO  QUIT— to  leave,  quit,  relinquish 955 

TO  QUIVER— to  shake,  tremble,  shudder,^  qui- 
ver, quake 305 

TO  QUOTE-to  cite,  quote 460 

RACE— course,  race,  passage 975 

RACE— fiunily,  house,  lineage,  race 495 

RACK— race,  generation,  breed 407 

TO  RACK— to  break,  rack,  rend,  tear 501 

RADIANCB-fBdlanee,  brilliancy 475 

ro  RADIATE— CO  shine,  gUtter,  glare,  sparkle, 

radiate 476 

RAGE— anger,  eholer,  rage,  ftary 110 

RAGI^madness,  phrensy,  rage,  ftiry 981 

TO  RAIdfi—M  lieighteD,  ratae,  aggravate 355 


TO  RAISE— to  lift,  raise,  erect,  elevate,  exalt. . .  394 
TO  RALLY— to  deride,  mock,  ridicule,^  raUy, 

banter 103 

RAMBLE— excursion,  ramble,  tour,  trip,  Jaunt. . .  3IB 
TO  RAMBLE— to  wander,  ttroil,  ramble,  rove, 

roam,  range 196 

RANCOUR-hatred,  enmity,  ill-will,  rancour  ...  137 
RANCOUR— malice,  rancour,  spite,  grudge,  pique  381 

TO  RANGEr— to  class,  arrange,  range 977 

TO  RANGE— to  wander,  stroll,  ramble,  rove, 

roam,  range • 196 

RANK— class,  order,  rank,  degree 976 

TO  RANSOM— to  redeem,  ransom 440 

RAPACIOUS— rapaeious,  ravenous,  voradous. .  50^ 
RAPIDITY— quickness,  swiftness,  fleetness,  eele 

rity,  rapidity,  velocity 968 

RAPINE— rapine,  plunder,  pillage 50? 

RAPTURE— ecstasy,  rapture,  transport 318 

RARE— rare,  scarce,  singular 950 

TO  RASE— to  blot  out,  expunge,  rase  or  erase, 

eflfaco,  cancel,  obliterate 948 

RASH— foolhardy,  adventurous,  rash 391 

RASHNESS— rashness,  temerity,  hastiness,  preci- 
pitancy  i8f 

RATE— rate,  proportion,  ratio 434 

RATE— tax,  rate,  assessment 168 

RATE— value,  worth,  rate,  price 430 

TO  RATE— to  estimate,  compute,  rate 438 

RATIO— rate,  proportion,  ratio 434 

RATION  Air— rational,  reasonable .'. 71 

RAVAGE— ravage,  desolation,  devastation 506 

TO  RAVAGE— to  overspread,  overrun,  ravage. .  507 
RAVENOUS— rapacious, ravenous,  voracious...  507 

RAY— gleam,  glimmer,  ray,  beam 470 

TO  RAZE— to  demolish,  raze,  dismantle,  destroy  505 

TO  REACH— to  reach,  stretch,  extend .»  348 

READY— easy,  ready 363 

READY— ready,  apt,  prompt 997 

REAL— actual,  real,  piDsitive 908 

REAL— Intrinsick,  genuine,  real 437 

TO  REALIZE-to  ftiMI,  accomplish,  realize....  980 

REALM— state,  realm,  eomroonwealth 180 

RE  A  SON— argument,  reason,  proof. 77 

REASON— cause,  reason,  motive 77 

RE ASON— consideration,  reason 77 

REASON-.eake,  account,  reason,  purpose,  end. .  535 
REASONABLE— fair,  honest,  equitable,  reason- 
able....  498 

REASONABLE— rational,  reasonable 71 

REBELLION— contumacy,  rebellion 910 

REBELLION— insurrection,  sedition,  rebellion, 

revolt 908 

TO  REBOUND— to  rebound,  reverberate,  reooU  305 
TO  REBUFF— to  reAise,  decline,  reject,  repel, 

rebufl" 939 

TO  REBUKE— to  check,  chide,  reprimand,  r». 

prove,  rebuke. HO 

TO  RECALL  i  to  alidnre,  recant,  retract,  revoke, 

TO  RECANT  S     recall 9417 

TO  RECAPITULATE-to  repeat,  reeitfi,  reeapl< 

tulate,  rehearse 468 

TO  RECEDE— to  recede,  retreat,  withdraw,  re- 
tire, secede  / 9S8 

RECEIPT— feoeipt,  reception 931 


zed  by  Google 



TO  RECEIVB— to  take,  receive,  accept 233 

TO  RECEIVE— to  admit,  receive 335 

BEOENT—  freBli,  new,  novel,  recent,  modern. ...  368 

EECEPTION— receipt,  reception 333 

RECIPROC A L— mutual,  reciprocal 334 

RECtPROCriT— iniercliangc,  exchange,  recipro- 
city  334 

REOlTAL—relation,  recital,  narration 4M 

TO  RECITE— to  repeal,  recite,  retieane,  recapi- 
tulate  465 

TO  RECKON — to  calculate,  compute,  reckon, 

count  or  account,  number 438 

RECKONING— account,  bill,  reckoning 433 

TO  RECLAIM— to  reclaim,  reform 303 

TO  RECLINE— to  recline,  repose 363 

TO  RECOGNISE— to  recognise,  acknowledge  ..  442 
TO  RECOIL— to  rebound,  reverberate,  recoil . . .  305 
RECOLLECTION— memory,, remembrance,  re- 
collection, reminiscence  73 

RECOMPENSE — compensation,  amends,  satia- 
(kction,  remuneration,  recomiiensc,  requital. .  438 

RECOMPENSE— gratuity,  recompense 44U 

TO  RECONCILE— to  conciliate,  reconcile 153 

TO  RECORD— to  enrol,  enlist,  record,  regiBter . . .  468 

RECORD— record,  register,  archive 460 

TO  RECOUNT— to  relate,  recount,  describe  ....  460 
TO  RECOVER— to  recover,  retrieve,  repair,  re- 
cruit   440 

BECOVEl^— recovery,  rcatoration 440 

RECREATION— amusement,  entertainment,  di- 
version, sport,  recreation,  pastime 301 

TO  RECRUIT— to  recover,  retrieve,  repair,  re- 

cmlt 440 

TO  RECTIFY- to  amend,  correct,  reform,  rectify, 

emend,  improve,  mend,  better SOI 

RECTITUDE— rectitude,  uprightness 438 

TO  REDEEM— to  redeem,  ransom 440 

REDRESS— redrew,  relief 365 

TO  REDUCE-to  reduce,  lower 148 

REDUNDANCY — redundancy,  superfluity,  ex- 
cess   343 

TO  REEL— to  stagger,  reel,  totter 303 

TO  REFER- to  allude,  reflsr,  hint,  suggest 38G 

TO  REFER— to  refer,  relate,  respect,  regard 336 

REPINED— polite,  polished,  refined,  genteel ISO 

REFINEMENT— cultivation,  cSviliuitlon,  reflne- 

roent .196 

TO  REFLECT— lo  consMer,  reflect % 78 

TO  REFLECT — to  think,  reflect,  muse,  pon- 
der     76 

REFLECTION— insinuation,  reflection 337 

TO  REFORM— to  amend,  correct,  reform,  rectify, 

emend.  Improve,  mend,  better 801 

TO  REFORM— to  reclaim,  reform 803 



REFRACTORY— anruly,  ungOTenutble,  refVae- 
tory  ..•..••••......•.•.......•.»•..•.....,, 

TO  REFRAIN— to  abstain,  forbear,  refhUn 844 

TO  REFRESH— to  revive,  reflreah,  renovate  re- 
new  -    «  . .  900 

REFUGE— My lum,  rehige,  sneitar,  retrett  518 

¥e  REFUSE— to  deny,  refuse «  -.«.  338 

ttftFUBK— di«p,iedimeot,ar(M^ieaiaiaj]^«    515 

>  reform,  vefonnatloB.. 

TO  REFUSE— to  reftise,  decline,  reject,  repel,  re- 

bufi* 338 

TO  REFUTE— to  confute,  refute,  oppugn,  dis- 
prove   115 

REGAL— royal,  regal,  kingly 189 

REGARD— care,  concern,  regard 43f 

TO  REGARD— to  attend  to,  mind,  heed,  regard. .  431 

TO  REGARD— to  esteem,  respect,  regard 437 

TO  REG  ARD— to  consider,  regard 77 

TO  REGARD— to  ref^r,  relate,  respect,  regard. . .  380 
R EGA RDFUL— mindful,  regardfiil,  observant . . . .  49B 
REGARDLESS — indifferent,   unconcerned,  re- 
gardless   379 

REGIMEN— fbod,  diet,  regimen 514 

REGION— district,  region,  quarter 498 

TO  REGISTER— to  enrol,  enlist,  record,  register  468 

REGISTER— record,  register,  archive 409* 

REGISTER^iist,  roll,  catalogue,  register ^ .  468 

TO  REGRET— to  complain,  lament,  regret 409 

TO  REGULATE— to  direct,  dispose,  regulate...  191 

TO  REGULATE— to  govern,  rule,  regulate 906 

TO  REHEARSE— to  repeat,  recite,  reheune,  re- 
capitulate   465 

REIGN— empire,  reign,  dominion 187 

TO  REJECT— to  refuse,  decline,  reject,  repel,  re- 
buff"  939 

REJOINDER— answer,  reply,  rejoinder,  response  460 
TO  RELATE— to  refer,  relate,  respect,  regard...  396 

TO  RELATED— to  relate,  recount,  describe 466 

RELATED— connected,  related 419 

RELATION— relation,  recitel,  narration 460 

RELATION  )  relafion,  relative,   kindred,  klns- 

RELATIVE  (     man 49i 

RELATIONSHIP— kindred,  relaUonshlp,  afllnity, 

consanguinity 497 

TO  RELAX— to  relax,  remit 856 

RELENTLESS— implacable,  unrelenting,  relenl- 

SB,  Inexorable 381 

RELEV  A  NT— pertinent,  relevant 387 

RELIANCE— dependence,  reliance 416 

RELICKS— leavings,  remains,  reUcks . .  ^ 95$ 

RELIEF— redress,  relief 365 

TO  RELIEVE— to  alleviate,  relieve 361 

TO  RELIEVE— to  help,  assist,  aid,  succonr,  re- 
lieve  364 

RELIGIOUS— holy,  pious,  devout,  religious 89 

TO  RELINaUISH- to  abandon,  desert,  forsake, 

relinquish 943 

TO  RELINaUISH— to  leave,  quit,  relinquish  ..  955 

RELISH— taste,  flavour,  relish,  savour  ^ 512 

RELUCTANT— averse,  unwilling,  backward,  re- 

lucuntjoatb 136 

TO  REM AIN— to  continue,  remain,  stey 963 

REMAINDER — rest,  remainder,  remnant,  tesi- 

doe S7D 

REM  ATNS— leavings,  remains,  relicks 95r 

REMARK— -remark,  observation,  comment,  note, 

annotation,  commentary 451 

REMARKABLE— extraordinary,  remarkable  ...  45 1 

TO  REM  ARK— to  notice,  remark,  observe 459 

TO  REMEDY— to  cure,  heal,  remedy 365 

REMEDY— cure,  remedy 365 

REMEMBHANCE— memory,  remembrance,  le- 
coUeciion,  reminiscence... 79 


zed  by  Google 


B£3IBBiBRANCE&— monament,  memoria],  t«- 

menibrancer 500 

KEMINISCBNCK— memory,  remembreoce,  recol- 
lection, remlniacenoe 73 

KEMlB8-~ncgligent,  remin,  careless,  tbougbtless, 

heedless,  inaitentive 434 

TO  REMIT— to  forgive,  pardon,  absolve,  remit.*    87 

TO  SEBfrr— to  relax,  remit 850 

£EUN ANT— rest,  remainder,  remnant,  residue..  270 
TO  REMONSTRATE — to  expostulate,  remon- 
strate   459 

REMORSE — repentance,  penitence,   contrition, 

compunction,  remorse 87 

REMOTE— distant,  fkr,  remote S8B 

REMUNERATION— compensation,  satkfaction, 
amends,  remuneration,  recompense,  requital, 

reward 438 

TO  REND— to  break,  rack,  rend,  tear 501 

TO  RENEW        >  to  revive,  refresh,  renovate, 

TO  RENOVATE  5     renew 369 

TO  RENOUNCE— to  abandon,  resign,  renounce, 

abdicate 343 

REN  OWN— fame,  reputation,  renown 473 

RENOWNED— Oimous,  celebrated,  renowned,  U- 

InsirioaB 473 

TO  REPAIR— to  recover,  retrieve,  repair,  recruit  440 
REPARATION— restoration,  restitution,  repara- 
tion, amends  430 

REPARTEE— retort,  repartee W 

TO  REPAY— to  restore,  return,  repay ^9 

TO  REPB  A  Lr— to  abolish,  abrogate,  repeal,  annu)^ 

revoke,  cancel 347 

ro  REPEAT— to  repeat,  recite,  rehearse,  r»capi- 

tolaie 465 

TO  REPEL— to  reftise,  decline,  reject,  r«pel,  rebuff  333 
KEPENTANCE— repenunce,  penitence,  contri- 
tion, compunction,  remorse 88 

REPETITION— repetition,  Uotology 466 

ro  REPINE— to  complahi,  murmur,  repine 409 1 

REPLY— answer,  reply,  rejoinder,  respoMe 460  ^ 

REPORT^fkme,  report,  rumour,  hearsay 473  ' 

'  REPOSE— ease, qolet,  rest, repose 368| 

ro  REPOSE— to  redine,  repose 363 

REPREHENSrOlV— reprehension,  reproof. ......  110 

REPRESENTATION— «how,  exhibition,  repre- 

wntadon,  sight,  spectacle 453 

TO  REPRESS— to  repress,  restrain,  suppress....  381 

REPRIEVE— reprieve,  respite 857 

TO  REPRIMAND— to  cheek,  chide,  reprimand, 

reprove,  rebnke 110 

REPRISAL— retaliation,  reprifial 440 

REPROACH — discredit,  reproach,  scandal,  die. 

grace 107 

REPROACH— reproach,  contumely,  obloquy  ....  106 
TO  REPROACH— to  blame,  reprove,  reproach, 

upbraid,  censure,  condemn 110 

REPROACHFUI^— reproacbfitl,  abusive,  scurrl- 

kMH 100 

REPROBATE — profligate,    abandoned,    repro- 
bate  MO 

TO  REPROBATE— to  reprobaia,  condemn 109 

RKPROOP— reprehension,  reproof 110 

TO  REPROVE— to  check,  chide,  reprimand,  re- 



REPUGNANCE — aversion,  antipathy,  dislike, 

hatred,  repugnance 136 

REPUTATION— character,  reputation 478 

REPUTATION— fame,  reputation,  renown 473 

REPUTATION  )  name,   reputation,  credit,  re- 

REPUTE  J     pute €73 

REQUEST- prayer,  petition,  request,  entreaty, 

suit OT 

TO  REQUEST— to  ask,  beg,  rciquest 157 

TO  REQUIRE- to  demand,  lequire 838 

REQUISITE— necessary,  expedient,  esseoUal,  ra- 

qulsite 417 

REQUITAL— compensation,  satisfaction,  amends, 
remuneration,  recompense,  requital,  reward. .  438 

REQUITAL— retribution,  requital 440 

TO  RESCUE— to  deliver,  rescue,  save 840 

RESEARCH— examination,  search,  inquiry,  re- 

senrch,  investigation,  scrutiny '  98 

RESEMBLANCE— likeness,  resemblance,  simi- 
larity or  sipitlitude 538 

RESENTFl^L— resentful,  revengeful,  vindictive  119 
RESENTMENT— anger,  resenunent,  wrath,  Ire, 

Indignation « j]B 

RESERVATION  )                           ,  ,^ 

RESERVE  preserve,  reservation IW 

TO  RESERVE— to  reserve,  retain 178 

TO  R£SLDE-to  abide,  sojourn,  dwell,  reside,  in- 
habit  SK8 

RESIDUE— rest,  remainder,  remnant,  residue. 
TO  RESIGN— to  abaiidon,  resign,  renounce,  ab- 

TO  RESIGN— to  give  up,  abandon,  forego,  re- 

RESIGNATION— patience,  endurance,  resigna- 

Uon 14» 

TO  RESIST— to  oppose,  wiUistand,  thwart,  le- 

Bist J15 

TO  RESOLVE— to  determine,  resolve 323 

TO  RESOLVE— to  solve,  resolve 894 

RESOLUTE— decided,  determined,  resolute 334 

RESOLUTION— courage,  fortitude,  resolution. . .  140 
TO  RESORT  TO— to  frequent,  haunt,  resort  to. .  40t 

RESOURCE— expedient,  resource 535 

TO  RRSPECT— to  esteem,  respect,  regard 427 

TO  RESPECT— to  honour,  reverence,  respect...  437 
TO  RESPECT— to  refbr,  relate,  respect,  regard..  380 
RESPECTFUL-duUful,  obedient,  respeetftil....  ISO 

RESPITE— interval,  respite 857 

RESPITE— reprieve,  respite 857 

RESPONSE— answer,  reply,  r^inder,  response  400 
RESPONSIBLE — answerable,  responsible,  ao- 

countable,  amenable 183 

REST— cessation,  stop,  rest,  Intermission 897 

REST— ease,  quiet,  rest,  repose 308 

REST— reet,  remainder»  remnant,  resMue S7V 

TO  REST— to  found,  ground,  rest,  build 498 

TO  REST— to  stand,  stop,  rest,  stagnate an 

RESTITUTION  i  restoradon,  resUtution,  repa- 

RESTORATION  ]    ration,  amends 439 

RESTORATION— recovery,  resteration 440 

TO  RESTORE— to  restore,  return,  rapay 43R 

TO  RESTRAIN— to  coerce,  restrain 890 

TO  RESTRAIN— to  repres,  restrain, mipprflH  «  881 





zed  by  Google 



EESrrSAIin'— constraint,  rMtraint,  ratiktion. .  390 
TO  RESTRICT— to  bound,  limit,  coofiDe,circain- 

■eribe,  reetrict 176 

RESTRICTION— constraint,  restrmiut,  rotrlction  990 
RESULT— effect,  consequence,  result,  iesue,  event  390 

TO  RETAIN— lo  hold,  keep,  detain,  retain 336 

TO  RETAIN— to  reserve,  retain 178 

RET  ALIATION— retaliation,  reprisal 440 

TO  RETARD— to  delay,  defer,  postpone,  procras- 
tinate, prolong,  protraot,  retard 360 

TO  RETARD— to  retard,  hinder 960 

RETINUE— procession,  train,  retinue 493 

TO  RETIRE— to  recede,  retreat,  retire,  secede, 

withdraw...^ 953 

RBTIREMENT—privacj,  retirement,  seclusion. .  953' 

RETORT— retort,  repartee 461 

TO  RETRACT— to  abjure,  recant,  retract,  re- 
voke, recall  .i 917 

RETREAT— asylum,  refuge,  shelter,  retreat 518 

TO  RETREAT— to  recede,  retreat,  tetire,  with- 
draw, secede 953 

RETRIBUTION— retribution,  requital 440 

TO  RETRIEVE— to  rftover,  retrieve,  repair,  re- 
cruit  440 

RETROSPECT— retrospect,  review,  survey 480 

TO  RETURN— to  restore,  return,  repay 439 

TO  RETURN— to  revert,  return 207 

TO  REVEAL— to  publish,  promulgate,  divulge, 

reveal,  disclose • 443 

TO  REVENGE— to  avenge,  revenge,  vindicate. .  119 
REVENGEFUL-resenlful,  revengeful,  vlndicdvc  119 
TO  REVERBERAT&-to  rebound,  reverberate, 

recoil 305 

TO  REVERE         )  to  adore,  reverence,  vene- 

TO  REVERENCE  J     rnle,rev«re 81 

REVERENCE— awe,  reverence,  dread 907 

TO  REVERENCE— to  honour,  reverence,  respect  437 

REVERIE— dream,  reverie 91 

TO  REVERSE— to  overturn,  overthrow,  subvert, 

Invert,  reverse 503 

TO  REVERT— to  revert,  return 337 

REVIEW— retrospect,  review,  survey 480 

.REVIEW— revisal,  revision,  review 480 

TO  REVILE-t*  revile,  vilify 108 

REVISAL   )      .    ,        ,  .           ,  ^oft 

REVISION  i  "^'■'*»  wvision,  review 480 

TO  REVIVE— to  revive,  refresh,  renovate,  re- 
new  960 

TO  REVOKE— io  ab}ure,  recant,  retract,  revoke, 
recall..... 347 

TO  REVOKE— to  abolish,  abrogate,  repeal,  re- 
voke, annul,  cancel 947 

REVOLT- faiBurrecdon,  sedition,  rebellion,  re- 
volt  908 

REWARD— compensation,  satlsfkctkm,  amends, 
remuneration,  reeompense,  requital,  reward  438 

RHETORICK— elocution,  eloquenee,  oratory,  rhe- 
torkk 4(B 

RICHES— riches,  wealth,  opulence,  affluence ....  340 

RIDICULE— ridicule,  satire,  irony,  sarcasm. . . .'.  104 

TO  RIDICUL^-lo  laugh  at,  ridicule 103 

TO  RIDICULE^-to  deride,  mock,  ridicule,  raUy, 
banter • 1€8 

RIDICULOUS-laughable,  ludicrous,  ridiculoua, 

comicsl  or  comlck,  droll 103 

RIG  HT— straight,  right,  direct 430 

RIGHT— right,  Just,  proper 430 

RIGHT— right,  claim,  privilege 928 

RIGHTEOUS-godty,  righteous 90 

RIGID  >  austere,    rigid,    severe,    rigorous, 

RIGOROUS)     stern 389 

RIGOROUS— harsh,  rough,  severe,  rigorous 389 

RIM— border,  edge,  rhn,  brim,  brink,  margin, 

verge 176 

RIND— skin,  hide, peel,  rind 518 

RIPE— ripe,  mature 987 

RISE— origin,  original,  rise,  source 999 

TO  RISE— to  rise,  issue,  emerge. 991 

TO  RISE— to  arise  or  rise,  mount,  ascend,  climb, 

scale 309 

TO  RISK— to  haaard,  venture,  risk 171 

Rri*E— form,  ceremony,  rhe,  observance 83 

RIVALRY— competition, emulation, rivalry  ....  131 

ROAD— way,  road,  rouu  or  rout,  course. 375 

TO  ROAM— to  wander,  stroll,  ramble,  rove,  roam, 

renge 196 

ROBBER Y— depredation,  robbery 505 

ROBUST— strong,  Arm,  robust,  sturdy 379 

ROLL— list,  catalogue,  roll,  register 468 

ROM  ANCE— fable,  tale,  novel,  romance 467 

ROOM— space,  room 350 

TO  ROT— to  rot,  putrefy,  corrupt 504 

'OTUNDITY— roundness,  rotundity 351 

TO  BOVE— to  wander,  stroll,  ramble,  rove,  roam, 

»*>nge 196 

ROUGH__abrapt,  rugged,  rough 901 

ROUGH-covse,  rough,  rude 901 

ROUGH— hfcreh,  rough,  severe,  rigorous 989 

ROUNDNESS-roundneas,  rotundity 351 

ROUND— circuit,  tour,  round 175 

TO  ROUSE-lo  awaken,  excite,  provoke,  rouse, 

■lirup 310 

TO  ROUT— to  beat,  defeat,  overpower,  rout, 

overthrow 143 

ROUTE— way,  road,  route  ot  rout,  couree 375 

ROYAL— royal,  regal,  kingly las 

TO  RUB— to  rub,  chafe,  ftet,  gall 309 

RUDE-^coarse,  rough,  rude 201 

RUDE— impertinent,  rude,  saucy,  impudeni,  inso- 

»enl 900 

RUEFUL— piteous,  doleful,  woAil,  rueful 411 

RUGGED— abrupt,  rugged,  rough 901 

RUIN— bane,  pest,  ruin 503 

RUIN— destruction,  ruin 504 

RUINOUS-HlestrucUve,  ruinous,  pernicious 504 

RULB— order,  method,  rule 276 

RULE— guide,  rule SJO 

RULE— maxim,  precept,  rule,  law 911 

TO  RULE— to  govern,  rule,  regulate 906 

RULING— prevailing,  prevalent,  rtiling,  predomi- 
nant    305 

RUMOUR— fbme,  report,  rumour,  hearsay 479 

RUPTURE— rupture,  (Vacture,  fraction 509 

RURAL     t.  ^..  ^ 

rustickJ""^™**** »• 

RUSTICK— countryman,  peasant,  swain,  hind, 
niatick,  clown 331 


zed  by  Google 



BACUAMBNT— Lonfa  rapper,  eucbarlst,  Mcra- 

nent 83 

BACEED— holy,  sacred,  divine. 80 

SAD— dun,  gloomy,  lad,  dismal 410 

BAD— mournful,  sad 410 

8 AF£— safe, secnrs 386 

MOACIOUsI"*^-**'^"'*"' *" 

8A6AGITY— penetfatloD,aeutenes8,  sagacity...  401 
BAILOR— seaman,  waterman,  sailor,  mariner. . .  337 
BALAEY— allowance,  stipend,  salary,  wages, 

him,  pay 104 

BAK&— sake,  account,  reasoB,  purpose,  end 535 

SALUBftlOUS  1  healthy,  wholesome,  salubrious, 

SALUTARY     \     salutary '....  306 

BALOTATION^^„^.^^^,^ «, 

TO  9ALUTS— to  acegst,  addnvs,  salute 461 

TO  SANCTION— to  countenance,  sanction,  sup- 
port  310 

SANCTITY— hollnsssisancaty 88 

BANS— sound,  sane,  healthy 306 

SANGUINARY— bloody,  blood-thirsty,  sangui- 
nary  507 

TO  SAP— lo  sap,  undermine 509 

BAPIBNT-«age,  sagacious,  sapient 401 

8ARCA8M— ridicule,  satire,  irony,  sarcasm 104 

TO  SATLATB-to  satisfy,  satiate,  glut,  cloy. ...  383 

SATIRE— ridlcula,  satire,  Irony,  sarcoam 104 

SATIRE— wit,  humour,  satire.  Irony,  buriesqiie   70 
SATISFACTION— compeosailon,   satisfaction, 
,  remuneration,  recompense,  requital, 


SATIBFACrnON— contentment,  satisfaction. ...  384 

TO  SATISFY— to  satlsiy,  please,  gratify 363 

TO  SATISFY— to  satisfy,  satiate,  glot,cioy....  3B3 
SAUCY— impertinent,  rude,  saucy,  impudent,  in- 
solent  800 

SAVAGE— cruel,  Inhuman,    barbarous,  brutal, 

savage 373 

SAVAGE— ferocious,  fierce,  savage 374 

TO  SAVE— to  deliver,  rescue,  save iMO 

TO  SAVE— to  keep,  save,  preserve 178 

TO  SAVE— to  save,  spare,  preserve,  protect 179 

8AVIN6— economical,  saving,  sparing,  thrifty,  |ie- 

nurkms,  niggardly 161 

TO  SAUNTEB^-to  linger,  Urry,  loiter,  saunter, 

lag 9B1 

BAVOUIt— taste,  flavour,  relish,  savour 51S 

SAW,  9id0  SAYING. 

TO  SAY— to  speak,  say,  tell 46S 

BAYING— axiom,  maxim,  aphorism,  apophthegm, 

saying,  adage,  proverb,  by-word,  saw 910 

TO  SCALE— to  arise  or  rise,  mount,   asoend, 

cUmb,  scale 309 

BCANDAL— discredit,  disgrace,  reproach,  scandal  107 

SCANDALOUS— Infbmoas,  scandalous 106 

SCANTY— bare,  scanty,  destitute 950 

SCARCE— rase,  scarce,  singular S50 

SCARCELY— hardly,  scarcely 3M 

SCARCITY-scarolty,  dearth 950 

TO  SCATTER— to  spread,  scatter,  dlsperw 344 

SCENT— smell,  scent,  odour.  {«rfume,  fragrance  511 
flCHEMB-design.  piao,  scheme,  project 534 

SCHISUATICK— heredck,  schismatick,   secu- 

rtan,  dissenter,  nonconformist 98 

BCHOLAR-schblar,  disciple,  pupil 197 

SCHOOL— school,  academy 197 

SCIENCE— knowledge,  science,  learning,  erudi- 

tkm 196 

TO  SCOFF— to  scoli;  gibe,  jeer,  sneer 304 

SCOPE— tendency,  drift,  scope,  aim 395 

TO  SCORN— to  contemn,  despise,  scorn,  disdain  lUl 
SCORNFUL— contemptuous,  scornful,  disdainful  ]«]9 

TO  SCREAM— to  cry,  scream,  shriek 470 

TO  SCREEN— to  cover,  shelter,  screen 517 

SCRlBEV-writer,  penman,  scribe 336 

TO  SCRUPLE— to  scruple,  hesitate,  waver,  fluc- 
tuate     97 

SCRUPULOUS— conscientious,  scrupulous 88 

TO  SCRUTINIZE— to  pry,  scrutinise,  dive  into    99 
SCRUTINY— examination,  search,  inquiry,  re- 
search, investigation,  scrutiny 96 

SCUM— dregs,  sediment,  dross,  scum,  refuse 515 

SCURRILOUS— reproachful,  abusive,  scurrilous  109 

»BAL— seal,  stamp 450 

SEAMAN— seaman,  waterman,  sailor,  mariner. .  387 
SEARCH— examination,  search,  inquiry,  investi- 
gation, research,  scrutiny 98 

TO  SEARCH— to  examine,  seek,  search,  explore    06 
SEASON  ilime,   season,  timely,  season- 

SEASONABLE)     able 966 

TO  8ECEDJ>-to  recede,  retreat,  retire,  with- 
draw, secede Si53 

SECLUSION— privacy,  retirement,  seclusion...  953 
TO  SECOND— to  second,  support 365 

I^NDAKY  I -"«'•""*''•'"**»'••••  "* 

SECRECi"— conceahnent,  secrecy 519 

SECRET— clandestine,  secret 580 

SECRET— secret,  bidden,  latent,  occult,  myste- 
rious  5» 

TO  SECRETE— to  conceal,  hide,  secrete 519 

TO  SECRETE  ONE^S  SELF— to  aiiscoDd,  steal 

away,  secrete  one's  self 590 

awoTAmAV  {  heretick,  schismatick,  sectarian, 
SECTARY      )     ■^'^'y'  dls«.nter,nonconform. 

SECULAR— secular,  temporal,  worldly 90 

SECURE— certain,  sure,  secure 386 

SECURE— safe,  secure 386 

SECURITY— depoeite,  plc>dge,  security 18S 

SECURITY— ftjnce,  guard,  security 183 

SEDATE— composed,  sedate 987 

SEDIMENT— dregs,  sediment, dross,  scum,  relUse  515 
SEDITION— hwurrectlon,  sedition,  rebellion,  re- 
volt  908 

SEDITIOUS— fncUoue,  sediUous 909 

SEDITIOUS— tumultuous,  turbulent,  seditious, 

mutinous 908 

TO  SEDUCE— to  allure,  tempt,  seduce,  entice, 

decoy 319 

SEDULOUS— sedulous,  diligent,  assiduous 997 

TO  SEE— to  look,  see,  behold,  view,  eye 48i 

TO  SEE— to  see,  perceive,  observe 489 

TO  SEEK— to  examine,  seek,  search,  exptore. ...    98 

TO  SEEM— to  seem,  appear 483 

SEEMLY— becoming,  decent,  seemly,  fit,  suitable  946 


zed  by  Google 



U,  piCK}  MSI 

)  Kir-wi 

I      Wlfl 

r-wlll,    Kir-conciift, 
■elf-mfficteDcy 100 

,  376 

.    70 


.  376 

.  375 

.  375 
.  SM 


TO  SEIZE— to  lay  or  take  hold  of,  eateli,  mfu, 
snnteh,  grafp,  gripe 837 

SEIZURE— capture,  seizure,  prize 506 

TO  SELECT— to  cliooeu,  pick,  wlect S34 




SEMBLANCE— show,  ouuide  appearance,  Mm- 
blance 453 

SENIOR-«enior,  elder,  older 960 

SENSATION— flentinientfieiwaaonjpereepllou..  370 

SENSE— wnae.  Judgement 

SENSE— elgniftcaiion,  meaning,  Import,  aenm. . . 
SENSIBILITY — feeling,  ■eoalbUity,  auKepUbl 


TO  BE  SENSIBLE— to  feel,  be  aensiUe)  con 

S?I^E  }«-"-. "~'«'~.  -"««« 

SENSUALIST— eenaualiflt,  voanptuary,  epicure.. 

SENTENCE— decltflon,  Judgement,  aentence 

SENTENCE-eenleiice,  period,  ptaraae,  propoai- 

lion • 

TO  SENTENCE— to  aentenoe,  condemn,  doom. .  100 

SENTENTIOUS— ««ntentloua,  aenilmental 376 

SENTIENT— aenalble,  aenalti ve,  aentlent 375 

S ENTI M ENT— sentiment, aemaiicn,  perception . .  376 

SENTIMENT— opinion,  sentiment,  notion 80 

SENTIMENTAL— aentcntloua,  aenilmental 376 

SENTINEL— guard,  aeniluel 160 

SEPARATE— different,  distinct,  aeparate ,  88S 

TO  SEPARATE— to  abatract,  aeparate,  distin- 

gulah « 490 

TO  SEPARATE— to  divide,  separate,  part 484 

TO  SEPARATE— to  aeparate,  aever,  disjoin,  de- 

tach 491 

SEPULCHRE— grave,  tomb,  aepuldire 500 

SEPULTURE- burial,  interment,  aepulture 84 

SEaUEL-aequel,  dose 984 

SF.RENE— calm,  placid,  serene 368 

SERIES— eeriea,  course 975 

SERIES— aucceasion,  aerlea,  order 871 

4ERIOUS— eager,  eameat,  serious 383 

SERIOUS— grave,  serious,  solemn 309 

SERVANT— servant,  donicstick,  menial,  drudge  388 
SERVICE— advantage,   benefit,  utility,  service, 

avail,  use 308 

SERVICE— benefit,  service,  good  ofiioe 166 

SERVITUDE— servitude,  slavery,  bondage 338 

TO  SET— u>  put,  place,  lay,  set 980 

TO  SET  FREE— to  free,  set  free,  deliver,  libe- 
rate  <H0 

TO  SETTLE— to  compose,  aeitlo 997 

TO  SETTLE— to  fix,  determine,  aeitle,  limit ....  937 

TO  SETTLE— to  Ax,  aettle,establiab 997 

TO  SEVER— tn  separate,  aever,  disjoin,  de*acli..  431 
SEVERAL— different,  aeveral,  divers,  sundry,  va- 

rioiir 963 

SEVERE— austere,  rigid,  aevere,  rlgoroua,  atem. .  389 

SEVERE— taarth,  rough,  aeveie,  rigorous 389 

SEVERE— strict,  aevere 904 

SEX— gender,  aex 514 


SHACKLE-cbab,  fetter,  bandi  shackle fti7 

^"^'^^      l.hade,.liadow 

SHADOW  f  ■"■««»  ■»■"»"' 

TO  SHAKE— to  abake,  tremble,  ahudder,  quiver, 

quake • 3W 

TO  SHAKE— to  shake,  agitate,  toaa 304 

SHALLOW— auperficial,  shallow,  flimsy 457 

SHAME— dishonour,  disgrace,  shame 101 

SH A  MELESS— immodest,  impudent,  shameless. .  947 

TO  SHAPE— to  form,  fashion,  mould,  sliape  ....  993 

TO  SHARE— to  divide,  distribute,  shars 485 

SHARE— part,  division,  portion,  sliare 485 

TO  SHARE— to  partake,  panici|iate,  share 486 

SHARP— sharp,  acute,  keen 468 

TO  SHED— to  pour,  spill, shed 346 

SHELTER— asylum,  refuge,  shelter,  retreat 51S 

TO  SHELTER— to  cover,  ahelter,  aereen. .......  517 

TO  SHELTER— to  harbour,  aheUer,  kidge 617 

SHirr— evaaion,  ahiO,  snbterfufe S96 

TO  SHINE — to  ahine,  gUtter,  aparkle,  radiale, 

glare • •-  47f 

SHOCK— shock,  concussion 301 

SHOCKING— TonnidAble,  draadful,  shocking,  in- 

rible 308 

TO  SHOOT— to  shoot,  dart 308 

SHORT— short,  brief,  ooneise,  auceinct,  aummary  981 

SHOW— show,  outaide,  appearance,  aemblanoe. .  48i 

SHOW— ehow,  exhibition,  repNaeniatlon,  sight, 

apecucle 4Si 

SHO  W— ahow,  parade,  oatenuifcm 4SI 

TO  SHOW— to  ahow,  point  out,  mark,  Indtaaie..  451 

TO  SHOW- to  show,  exhibit,  diaplay 458 

SHOWY— ehowy,  gaudy,  gay 453 

SHREWD— acute,  keen,  ahiewd 401 

TO  SHRIEK-toery,aeream,abrlek 471 

TO  SHRlNK-to  apring,,  atartle,  shrink....  304 

TO  SHUDDER— to  ahake,  treiiiUe,  quiver,quake, 

shudder SOS 

TO  SHUN— to  avoid,  eachew,  ahon,  elude 387 

TO  SHUT— to  cloM,  ahut 986 

iIcLtI*^- •""'.'""«-'■-"""'' ^ 

SlCKNFSS-elckneas,  illnew,  indlaposition 367 

SIGHT— show,  exhihitkm,  rapreaentatkNi,  sight, 

spectacle 4Si 

SIGN— mark,  algn,  note,  qrroptom,  token.  Indica- 
tion   417 

SIGN       )  ,        .      , 

SIGNAL  r'«"' •*«"'* ^ 

SIGNAL— algnal,  memorable 474 

TO  SIGNALIZE— to  aignaliae,dlatingul8h 474 

SIGNIFICANT-aigiilficant,  expreaslve 406 

SlONIFICATION-eignificatlon,  meaning,  aense, 

bnport 436 

SIGNIFICATION — algnificaiion,  avaU,  import- 

aitce,  oonaKquenee,  moment,  weight 456 

TO  SIGNIFY— to  denote,  aigniry,  inip(y 451 

TO  SIGNIFY— to  expieaa,  declare,  signify,  utter, 

testify 4SI 

SILENCE— silence,  lacitumAy , 46' 

SILENT— eilent,  dumb,  mute,  speeeUees 401 

SILLY— simple,  silly,  fbolleh 4r 

SIMILARIIT— likenesa,  resemblanee,  aimilarilj 


zed  by  Google 

8UIIL1TUDB— IlkeneM,  rewmblajicet  atmUarity 
or  similitude '• 

SIMPLE— simple,  single,  singular 

SIMPLE— simple,  dlly,  foolish 

SIMULATlON-^muUtlon,  diflsimulaiion 

BIN— crime,  vice,  sin 

SINCERE— candid,  open,  sincere 

SINCERE— hearty,  warm,  sincere,  cordial 

SINCERE— sincere,  bonert,  uue,  plain 

SINGLE— solitary,  sole,  only,  single 

SINGLE— one,  single,  only 

SINGLE       )  .    ^      .    .      ,      , 

SINGULAR  r^P**' •*"«*••  •*"«"'*' 

SINGULAR— rare,  scarce,  si ngolar 

SINGULAR— particular,  singular,  odd,  eccentrick, 

TO  SINK— to  fall,  drop,  droop,  sink,  tumble 

SITE— place,  spot,  site 

SITUATION— circumstance,  situattoo 

SITUATION— place,  situatton,  station,  posltton, 

SITUATION— situatMHi,  condition,  state,  predica- 
ment, pUghl,  case 

SIZE— size,  magnitude,  greatness,  bulk 

TO  SKETCH— to  paint,  depict,  delineate,  sketch 

SKETCH— sketch,  ouUines 

SKILFUL— clever,  skilful,  expert,  adroit,  dexter- 

SKIN-skin,  hide,  peel,  rind 

SLACK— slack,  kMse 

TO  SLANDER— to  asperse,  detract,  defame,  ca- 
lumniate, slander * 

■LA  VERY— servitude,  slavery,  bondage 

SLAUGHTER — esraage,  slaughter,  massacre, 

TO  SLAY— to  kiU, murder,  slay,  assassinate .... 

TO  SLEEP— to  sleep,  slumber,  doie,  drowse,  nap 

SLEEPY— sleepy,  drowsy,  letbarglck 

SLENDER— Uiin,  slender,  slight,  slln 

TO  SLIDE— to  slip,  slide,  glide 

SLIGHT— cuiM>ry,  basty,  slight,  desultory 

SLIGHT  »         oender,  slight,  slim 

■LIH        ) 

TO  SLIGHT— ID  disregard,  neglect,  slight 

TO  SLIP— to  slip,  sIMe,  glide 

SLOTHFUL— inactive,  inert,  lacy,  slothflil,  slug- 


BLOW— stow,  dihitory,  tardy,  tedious 

SLUGGISH— Inactive,  inert,  lazy,  slothful,  slug- 

TO  SLUMBER— to  sleep,  slumber,  doae,  drowse, 



TO  SNEER--to  seoff,  gibe,  Jeer,  sneer 104 

TO  SOAK-  to  soak,  drench,  steep Si» 

SOBER— alMtinent,  sober,  abslemkius,  temperate  944 

SOBBR-sober,  grave Ml 

SOBRIETY— modesty,  moderatioii,  temperance, 

sobriety  , 945 

SOCIAL       1 

30CL\BLE  (^"^'''"^•■~***' "***"* ^ 


SLY— cunning,  crafty,  subtle,  sly,  wily 

SMALL— little,  diminutive,  small 

TO  SMEAR— to  smear,  daub 

SMELL— smell,  scent,  odour,  perfume,  fragrance 

SMOOTH— even,  smooth,  level,  plain 

TO  SMOTHER— to  stifle,  suppress,  smother 

TO  SMOTHER — to  sollbeate,  stifle,  smother, 


TO  SNATCH— to  lay  or  take  hold  of,  catch,  seize, 

anaielii  grasp,  gripe 









SOCIETY— association,  society,  company,  part- 
nership   488 

SOCIETY— community,  socie^ 487 

SOCIETY-rellowsbip,  society 48B 

SOCIETY— society,  company 487 

SOFT— soft,  mild,  gentle,  meek 3S» 

TO  SOIL-to  stsin,  soil,  sully,  tarnish 5J4 

TO  SOJOURN— to  abide,  sqfoum,  dwell,  reside, 

inhabit 963 

TO  SOLACE— to  console,  solace,  comfort 396 

SOLDIER-LIKE— martial,  military,  soIdie^like, 

warlike 337 

SOLE— solitary,  sole,  only,  single 951 

SOL  GMN— grave,  serious,  solemn SOS 

TO  SOLICIT— to  beg,  beseech,  solidi,  entreat, 

sum»licate,  imptore,  crave 1S8 

SOLICITATION^soUcitatkMh  Importunity 158 

SOLICITUDE— care,  anxiety,  solicitude 495 

SOLID— firm,  fixed,  solid,  suble 996 

SOLID— bard,  firm,  solid 313 

SOLID— substantial,  solid 399 

SOLITARY— atone,  solitary,  tonely 991 

SOLITARY— solitary,  sole,  only,  single 951 

SOLITARY— solitary,  desert,  desolate 9S3 

TO  SOLVE— to  solve,  resolve 9M 

SOME— some,  any 950 

SOON— soon,  early,  betimes 969 

TO  SOOTH— to  allay,  sooth,  appease,  assuage, 

mitigate 361 

SORDID— mean,  plUful,  sordid 411 

BORROW— affliction,  grief,  sorrow 408 

SORRY— sorry,  grieved,  hurl 1 419 

SORT— kind,  species,  sort 406 

SOVEREIGN- prince,  monarch,  sovereign,  po- 
tentate   188 

SOUL— soul,  mind 05 

SOUND-sound,  sane,  healthy 366 

SOUND-snund,  tone 511 

SOURCE— origin,  original,  rise,  source 999 

SOURCE— spring,  fountain,  souroe 353 

SPACE— space,  room 396 

SPACIOUS— ample,  spaetous,  capactous 396 

TO  SPARE— to  give,  afli>rd,  spare 163 

TO  SPARE— to  save,  spare,  preserve,  protect....  179 
SPARING— economical,  saving,  sparing,  thrifty, 

nlcgardly 16. 

SPARK— gallant,  beau,  spark 381 

TO  SPARKLE-to  shine,  glUter,  glare,  sparkle, 

radiate 4W 

TO  SPEAK-to  speak,  say,  tell 465 

TO  SPEAK— to  speak,  talk,  converse,  discourae. .  456 
TO  SPEAK-40   utter,  speak,   artlcnlafe,  pror 

nounce 451 

SPECI AL-special,  speciflck,  particular 9B 

RPECIES— kind,  species,  sort 496 

SPECIFICK-spcdal,  specUIck,  parlleiilar 991 


zed  by  Google 



SPECIMEN— copy,  nodd,  ptttera, qMeimen. ...  530 
BPECf  OUB—eokNirable,  ■peeioui,  oMeoilble,  fea- 
sible, plaiMible 516 

SPECK— btemUi,  ftalo,  spot,  speck,  flaw J87 

SPECTACLE— show,  exhibition,  representation, 

jlght,  spectacle 458 

SPECTATOR— lookei^on,  spectator,  beholder,  ob- 

senrer 488 

SPECTRE— vision,  apparition,  phantom,  spectre, 

ghost 479 

SPECULATION— theory ,  speculation jBO 

SPE  BCH— addreaif  •pcech,  harangue,  oration  •  • . .  461 
SPEECH— language,  tongue,  speech.  Idiom,  dia- 

iec^t ^ 463 

SPEECHLESS— silent,  dumb,  mute, speechless..  464 
TO  SPEED— lo  hasten,  aoeelerate,  epeed,  expe- 
dite, despatch 861 

TO  SPEND— to  spend,  exhaust,  drain 344 

TO  SPEND— to  spend  or  expend,  waste,  dissl- 

pate,  squander 344 

SPHERE— circle,  sphere,  orb,  globe 175 

TO  SPILL-to  pour,  spill,  shed 346 

SPIRIT— animation,  life,  vivacity,  spirit 356 

SPIRITED— epiritttous,  spirited,  spiritual,  ghostiy    66 
SPIRITUAIr— bioorporeal,  unbodied,  Immaterial, 

spiritual 66 

SPIRITUAL    1  spirituous,  spirited,  ghostiy,  spi- 

SPIRITUOUS  (     ritual 66 

SPITE— malice,  rancour,  spite,  grudge,  pl<]Ue. .. .  381 
SPLENDOUR— brightness,  lustre,  splendour,  bril- 
liancy  474 

SPLENDOUR— eplendour,  magniflcence,  pomp. .  453 
BPLENETICK— gloomy,  morose,  sullen,  splene* 

tick 411 

TO  SPLIT— to  break,  buivt,  crack,  split 508 

SPOIL— booty,  spoil,  prey 506 

SPONTANEOUSLY— wiiUogiy,  spontaneously, 

voluntarily 150 

SPORT— amusement,  dlverak>n,  entertainment, 

sport,  recreation,  pastime 301 

SPORT— play,  game,  sport 384 

TO  SPORT— to  Jest,  Joke,  make  game  of,  sport. .  104 
SPORTIVE— lively,  cprightiy,  vivactoua,  sportive, 

meny.  Jocund 380 

SPOT— place,  spot,  site S78 

SPOT— blemish,  suin,  spot,  speck,  flaw 127 


TO  SPOUT— to  spurt,  spout 3S3 

SPRAIN-^etrain,  sprein,  stress,  foree 881 

TO  SPREAD— lo  spread,  scatter,  disperse 344 

TO  SPREAD— to  spread,  expand,  dUflise ,  346 

TO  SPREAD— lospread,  circulate,  propagate,  dis- 
seminate   345 

SPRl6HTLY-«heerful,  merry,  sprightiy,  gay. . .  380 
SPRIOHTLT— lively,  sprightiy,  vivacbus,  sport- 
ive, merry 380 

SPRING— spring,  fountain,  source 353 

TO  SPRING— to  arise,  proceed,  Issue,  spring,  flow, 

emanate 801 

TO  SPRING— to  spring,  start,  startle,  shrink....  .304 

TO  SPRlNKCE-to  sprinkfe,  bedew 353 

TP  SPROUT— to  sprout,  bud 353 

SEE  UCE— flnleil,  foppish,  spruce 386 

8PUR10US-«pttriona,supposltioas, counterfeit..  530 

[  to  spring,  start,  startie,  shrink. 


TO  SPURT— Cotpait,spaot 35S 

SPY— emissary,  spy 440 

TO  SaUANDER— to  spend  or  expend,  waste, 

squander i. ...'..  344 

SaUEAMISH— fastidious,  squeamish 385 

SQUEEZE— to  break,  bruise,  squeese,  pound, 

crush 501 

TO  SaUEEZEr— to  press,  squeeie,  pinch,  gripe. .  300 
STABILITY — constancy,  subllity,  steadbiess, 
flrmness  ..............•....•...•>.... .....  880 

STABLE-flrm,  fixed,  solid,  suble 880 

STAFF— staff;  stay,  prop,  support 898 

STAFF— stafl;  stick,  crutch 839 

TO  STAGGER— to  stagger,  reel,  totter 303 

TO  ST  AGNATE— to  stand,  stop,  rest,  stagnate. .  858 

STAIN— blemish,  stain,  spot,  speck,  flaw 197 

TO  STAIN— to  colour,  dye,  tinge,  suin 516 

TO  STAIN— to  stain,  soU,  sully,  tarnish 514 

TO  STAMMER— to  hesitate,  fkller,   stammer, 

stutter 97 

STAMP— mark,  print,  Impresskm,  stamp 446 

TO  STAMP— to  seal,  stamp 450 

TO  STAND— to  stand,  stop,  rest,  stagnate 858 

STANDARD— criterion,  standard 

TO  STARE— to  stare,  gape,  gaie. 

TO  START       > 


STATE— situation,  condltton,  state,  predicament, 

plight,  case .870 

STATE— sute,  realm,  commonwealth 189 

STATION— condition,  station <-  880 

STATION— place,  situation, statkm, position,  post  878 
STATELY— magisterial,  maJeMkk,  stately,  pomp- 
ous, august,  dignlfled 454 

STAY— staflT,  stay,  support 838 

TO  STAY— to  continue,  remain,  stay 963 

STEADINESS— constancy,  stability,  steadhwss, 

flrmness 980 

TO  STEAL  AWAY— to  abscond,  stral  away,  se- 
crete one*s  self  . 980 

TO  STEEP— to  soak,  drench,  steep 518 

STEP— pace,  step 301 

STERN— austere, rigid,  severe, rigorous,  atem...  388 

STICK— stall;  stkk,  crutch 939 

TO  STICK— to  stick,  cleave,  adhere 419 

TO  8TICK-toflx,fUten,  stick 886 

TO  STIFLE— to  stifle,  suppress,  smother 889 

TO  STIFLE— to  suflbcate,  stifle,  choke,  smo- 

U)er. 888 

STIGMA— mark,  badge,  stigma 448 

TO  STIMULATE— to  encourage,  animate,  In- 
cite, impel,  urge,  stimulate.  Instigate 31 1 

TO  STILL— to  appease,  calm,  pacify,  quiet,  still  361 
STIPEND— allowance,  stipend,  salary,   wages, 

hire,  |Miy 164 

TO  8TIlU-4oslir,move 301 

TO  STIR  UP— to  awaken,  exdte,  provoke,  rouse, 

stir  op 310 

STOCK— stock,  store 341 

STOP— €4^ssation,  stop,  rest,  intermlsBion 857 

TO  STOP— to  check,  stop 858 

TO  STOP— to  hinder,  stop .^ 958 

TO  STOP— to  stand,  stop,  reHt,  stngnate *Jn8 

STORE-etock,  store *.....    941 

Digitized  by  VjOOQ IC 



BTOKM-braese,  gate,  Man,  gmi,  storm,  tempen, 

arOST—ftneedote,  ■toryytale 

BTOUT—corpuleDt,  lusty,  iloat 

STRAIN-— fltrain,  sprain,  itras,  foree 

STRAIN— BtresB,  stnan,  emphasis  .secant 

STRAIGHT— straight,  right,  direct 

*  8TRAIT--fltialt,  narrow 

9TRANGB— particular,  lingular,  odd,eccenti)ck, 

STRANGER— stranger,  foreigner,  alien 

STRATAGEM— artiflce,  trick,  flnesse,  stratagem 

TO  STRAY— to  deviate,  wander,  swerve,  stray 

STREAM— scream,  current,  tide 

TO  STREAM— to  flow,  stream,  gush 

STRENGTH— power,  slieiigtb,  force,  authority, 

rO  STRENGTHEN-to  strengthen,  fortify,  invi- 

STRENUOUS-etrenuotts,  bold 

STRESS— strain,  sprain,  stress,  force 

STRESS— stress,  strain,  enipbssis,  accent 

TO  STRETCH— to  reach,  stretch,  eitend 

STRICT— strict,  severe 

STRICTURE— animadveiaion,  criticism,  stric- 

STRIFE— contention,  strife 

STRIFE— dissension,  contention,  discord,  strife. . 

TO  STRDCE-to  beat,  hit,  strike 

rO  STRIP— to  bereave,  deprive,  strip 

fO  STRIVE— to  contend,  strive,  vie 

ro  STRIVE— to  endeavour,  aim,  strive,  strug- 
gle  - 

STROKE— blow,  stroke 

TO  STROLL— to  wander,  stroll,  ramble,  rove, 
roam,  range 

STRONG— coyent,  forcible,  strong 

STRONG— strong,  firm,  robust,  sturdy 

STRUCTURE— edifice,  structure,  fabrick 

TO  STRUGGLE— tO'  endeavour,  aim,  struggle, 

bTUBBORN— obstinate,  contumacious,  stubborn, 
headstrong,  heady 

STUDY— attention,  application,  study 

STUFID-atnpid,  duU 

STURDY— strong,  firm,  robust,  sturdy 

TO  STUTTER — to  hesiute,  falter,  stammer, 

STYLE— diction,  style,  phrase,  phraseology 

TO  STYLE— to  name,  denomhiate,  style,  entitle, 
designate,  characterise 

SUA VIT Y— «ia vity,  urbanity '. 

TO  SUBDUE— to  conquer,  vanquish,  subdue, 
overcome,  surmount 

TO  SUBDUE— 4o  overbear,  bear  down,  over- 
power, overwlielm,  subdue 

TO  SUBDUE— 4o  subject,  su^ugate,  subdue 

SUBJECT— matter,  materials,  subject 

SUBJECT— object,  subject 

SUBJECTT— subject,  liable,  exposed,  obnoxious. . . 

SUBJECT— subject,  subordinale,  inferiour,  aub- 

TO  SUBJECT— to  subject,  subjugate,  subdue. . . . 

TO  SUBJOIN— to  afllz,  subjoin,  attach,  annex. . 

TO  8UBJU6ATE~lo  subject,  sul^jugate,  subdue  145 

SUBLIHE-great,  grand,  sublime 455 

SUBMISSIVE— complaint,  yielding,  submissive  151 

SUBMISSlVE-ibamble,  modest,  submissive 147 

BUBMlSSIVE-obedlent,  nubmlsrive,  obsequtous  149 

SUBMISSIVE— passive,  submissive 140 

TO  SUBMIT— to  comply,  yieki,  submit 150 

SUBORDINATE— subjea,subordinate,  inferiour, 

subservient 146 

TO  SUBORN— to  forswear,  peijurs,  suborn 98 

SUBSEaUENT— subsequent,  consequent,  poste- 
rior  S79 

SUBSERVIENT— 8ul(iec^  suboidlnate,  inferiour, 

subservient 146 

TO  SUBSIDE-lo  subside,  abate,  intennit 871 

TO  SUBSIST-to  be,  exK  mibsist 330 

SUBSISTENCE-liveliliood,  living,  subsistence, 

maintenance,  support,  sustenance 939 

SUBSTANTlAL-snbstantial,  solid 97S 

TO  SUBSTITUTE— to  change,  exchange,  barter, 

subsUtnte 334 

SUBTERFUGE— evaskn,  shift,  subterfuge 596 

SUBTLE— cunning,  crafty,  subtle,  sly,  wily 599 

TO  SUBTRACT— to  deduct,  subtract 491 

TO  SUBVERT— io  overturn,  overthrow,  subvert, 

invert,  reverse 503 

TO  SUCCEED— lo  foltow,  sueeeed,  ensue 971 

SUCCESSFUL— fortunate,  lucky,  prosperous,  suc- 
cessful  305 

SUCCESSION— successton,  series,  order 971 

SUCCESSIVE— successive,  alternate 979 

SUCCINCT— short,  brief,  concise,  succinct,  sum- 
mary  981 

TO  SUCCOUR— to  help,  assist,  aid,  succour,  i«- 

lieve 364 

TO  SUFFER— to  adndt,  allow,  permit,  sufifcr,  to- 

leiaie 157 

TO  SUFFER— to  let,  leave,  sufifer 955 

TO  SUFFER— to  sufifer,  bear,  endure,  support. . .  149 

SUFFICIENT— enough,  sufllclent 343 

TO  SUFFOCATE— to  snllbcate,  stifle,  smother, 

choke 929 

SUFFRAGE— vote,  siiflrsge,  voice 409 

TO  SUGGEST— to  allude,  refer,  hint,  suggest ...  396 
TO  SUGGEST— to  hint,  suggest,  Intimatn,  insinu- 
ate  390 

SUGGESTION— dictate,  suggestion 184 

SUIT— prayer,  petition,  request,  suit 87 

TO  SUIT— to  agree,  sccord,  suit 159 

TO  SUIT— to  fit,  suit,  adapt,  accommodate 154 

471    SUITABLE— becoming,  decent,  seemly,  suitable, 

108  fit 946 

SUITABLE— conformable,  agreeable,  sultnble. . .  153 
SUITABLE— commodious,  convenient,  suitable. .  417 
SUITABLE— correspondent,  answerable,  suiuble  155 

SUITOR— lover,  suitor,  wooer 39; 

SULLEN— gloomy,  sullen,  morose,  splenctick ....  411 

TO  SULLY— to  stain,  soil,  sully,  larnMi 514 

SUMMARY— short,  brief,  concise,  succinct,  sum- 
mary  * 986 

TO  SUMMON— to  call,  bid,  summon.  Invite 400 

146   TO  SUMMON-to  cite,  summon 400 

145   SUNDRY— different,  several,  divers,  sundry,  va- 
4I9l        rious 9B3 


zed  by  Google 

If  Hi 


BUPE&FICIAL-mperflela], iImUow, fllawf  ....  457 

8UPERPICI  ES-wirface,  ■uperOclei 4S7 

BUP^FLUITY— eice89,su|ieriIuU7,redun4Mcy  343 

SUPE&INTENDENCY — iBspeeOon,  ovenSght, 
■aperlntendeney Sl3 

8UPERI0BITY— excellence,  saperiortty 874 

BUPEKSCRIPTION — dlreelkn,  loperMtipaon, 
■ddren 813 

TO  saPERSEDE— to  overrule,  lopefwxle S06 

SUPINE— Indoleut,  aupine,  iiiUees,  careleM 300 

SUPPLE— flezlUe,  pliaiit,  supple 360 

TO  SUPPLICATE— u>  beg,  beseech,  soUclt,  en- 
treat, supplicate.  Implore,  crave 1S8 

TO  SUPPLY— to  provide,  procure,  furaiab,  nip- 
ply 309 

SUPPORT— livelibood,  living,  subrielence,  wp- 
port,  suetenance 930 

BUPPORT-eUff,  stay,  support 838 

TO  SUPPORT— to  countenance,  aanction,  sup- 
port   310 

TO  SUPPORT— to  hold,  maintain,  support 837 

TO  SUPPORT— to  second,  support 365 

TO  SUPPORT— to  suffer,  bear, endure, support..  149 

TO  SUPPORT— to  sustain,  support,  maintain ....  838 

TO  SUPPOSE— to  conceive,  apprehend,  suppose, 

TO  SUPPOSE— to  thinlc,  suppose,  Imagine,  deem, 

SUPPOSITION— conjecture,  supposition,  surmise 

SUPPOSITIOUS^epuriuua,  suppositious,  coun- 

TO  SUPPRESS— to  repress,  restrain,  suppress  . . 

TO  SUPPRESS— to  stifle,  suppress,  smother .... 

SURE— certain,  sure,  secure 

SURF  ACE— surftce,  superficies 

SURGE— wave,  billow,  surge,  breaker 

SURMISE— conjecture,  supposition,  surmise 

TO  SURMOUNT— to  oonquer,  vanquish,  subdue, 
overcome,  sunnount 

TO  SURPASS— to  exceed,  excel,  outdo,  surpus 

SURPRISE— wonder,  admiration,  surprise,  asto- 
nishment, amazement 

TO  SURRENDER — to  give  ap,  deliver,  yield, 
surrender,  cede,  concede 

TO  SURROUNI>— to  surround,  encompass,  envi- 
ron, encircle 

SURV  E  Y— reurospeet,  review,  survey 

SURVEY— view,  survey,  prospect 

TO  SURVIVE— to  ouUlve,  survive 

SUSCEPTIBILITY— feeling,  sensibility,  susoepU- 

SUSPENSE— doubt,  suspense 

SUSPICION— Jealousy,  envy,  suspicion 

SUSPICIOUS— distrustful,  suspicious,  dliBdent . . 

TO  SUSTAIN— ti)  sustain,  support,  maintain . . . 

SUSTENANCE— livelihood,  living,  subsistence, 
support,  sustenance 

SWAIN— countryman,  peasant,  swain,  hind,  rua- 
ticlc,  clown 

TO  SWALLOW  UP — to  absorb,  swallow  up, 


BW  ARM— multitude,  crowd,  throng,  swarm. . .. 
SWAY— Influence,  authority,  ascendancy,  sway. 
TO  SWELL-to  heave,  flweU 


TO  8WSRVB-to  deviate,  ti-ander,  swerve,  stray  186 

SWIFTNESS— quickness,  swiftness,  flcetnesi,  ce- 
lerity, rapidity,  vekwiiy aoi 

SYCOPHANT— flatterer,-sycophant,pafaflite....  986 

SYMBOL — flgure,  metaphor,  aUegory,  emblem, 
symbol,  type 

SYMMETRY— qrmmetiy,  proportkm 

SYMPATHY— sympathy,  eompaasioii,  commise- 
ration, condolence 

SYMPTOM— mark,  sign,  note,  ^mptom,  token, 

SYNOD— amembiy,  company,  jneedng,  congrega- 
tion, parliament,  diet,  congress,  convention, 
sj^nod,  convocation,  council 

SYSTEM— system,  method 



.  447 


TACITURNITY— silence,  taciturnity 

TO  TAINT— to  cvntaminate,  defile,  pollute,  cor- 
rupt, taint ••. 

TO  TAKE— to  take,  receive,  accept 

TO  TAKE  HEED — to  guard  against,  to  take 

TO  TAKE  HOLD  OF— to  lay  or  take  ImM  of, 
catch,  seise,  snatch,  grasp,  gripe 

TO  TAKE  LEAV£-to  leave,  take  leave,  bid 

TO  TAKE  PAINS — to  labour,  Uke  pains  or 
trouble,  use  endeavour 

TALE— faUe,  ule,  novel,  romance 

TALE— anecdote,  aiory,  tale 

TALENT— fiftculty,  ability,  talent 

T  A  LENT-^lft,  endowment,  talent 

TALENT— Intellect,  genius,  talent 

TO  TALK— to  speak,  talk,  converse,  discourae.. 

TALKATIVE— talkative,  loquacious,  garrulous. « 

TALL— high,  tall,  lofty 

TAME— gentle,  tame 

TO  TANTALIZE — to  aggravate,  Irritate,  pro- 
voke, exasperate,  tantaliie 

TO  TANTALIZE— to  tease,  vex,  taunt,  torment, 

TARDY— elow,  dilatory,  tardy,  tedious 

TO  TARNISH— to  stain,  soli,  sully,  tarnish 

TO  TARRY— to  linger,  tarry,  loiier,  lag,  saunter 

TARTNESS— acrimony,  urtnesa,  asperity,  harsh- 

TASK— work,  labour,  toll,  drudgery,  task 

TASTE— palate,  taste 

TASTE— taste,  flavour,  relish,  savour 

TASTE— taste,  genius 

TO  TAUNT— to  tease,  vex,  Uunt,  tautalize,  tor- 

TAUTOLOGY— repetition,  tautology 

TAX— tax,  duty,  custom,  toll.  Impost,  tilbate,  con- 

TAX— tax,  rate,  assessment 

TO  TEACH— to  Infbrm,  teach.  Instruct 

TO  TEAR— to  break,  rack,  rend,  tear 

TO  TEASE— to  tease,  vex,  taunt,  tantalise,  tor- 




TEDIOUS— slow,  dilatory,  tardy,  tedious. . 
TEDIOUil^- wearisome,  tiresome,  tedious. . 

TEGUlfENT— tegument,  covering 

TO  TELL-«>qMak,ny,teU 


.  C7 













zed  by  Google 



TEMERITT-flwhiMii,  Icmeritr,  pneipttwiey  . .  903 

TEMPER— dtopofliiion,  temper • 387 

TEMPER— frame,  tooiper,  temperun«nt,  comU- 

tution ass 

TEMPER— hamoar,  temperi  mood 3B7 

TO  TEMPER— U|qiulUy,  temper,  humour 388 

TEMPERAMENT— frame,  temper,  lempenmeat, 

eoMtiiutloD 388 

TEMPERAMENT— temperament,  tempeiatim..  388 
TEMPERANCE— modesty,  moderaUon,  temper- 
ance, aobrietj  945 


VenXB 844 

TEMPERATURE-1emperamen^temperatura..  38B 
TEMPEST-breese,  gale,  Uait,  gust,  etorm,  tern- 

pfst,  burrieane 353 

TEMPLE— temple,  chiirdi 88 

TEMPORAL-aecular,  temporaJ,  worldly 90 

TEMPORARY— temporary,  trandent,  traosltoiy, 

fleecing 9g7 

TEMPORIZING— temporizing,  timeaerving 987 

TO  TEMPT-to  aUore,  tempt,  eeduce,  entice,  de- 

<»y 319 

TO  TEMPT— to  try,  tempt 319 

TENDENCY- IncUoatioo,  tendency,  propenrity, 

proneneei leo 

TEN  DENCY— tendency,  drift,  icope,  aim 325 

TO  TENDER— to  offer,  bid,  tender,  piopoM 14S7 

TENDERNESS — ^beneYolcnoe,   benignUy,    hu- 
manity, kindneei,  lendemem 195 

TENET— doctrine,  precept,  tenet 80 

TENET— tenet,  poelttoo 80 

TERM— article,  condition,  term 335 

TERM— term,  limit,  boundary 177 

TERM— word,  term,  ezprewlon 409 

TO  TERMINATE-lo  eomplete,  finiifa,  terml- 

"•» 987 

TO  TERMINATE— to  end,  doee,  terminate 985 

TERRIBLE— fonnldable,  dreadful,  shocking,  ter- 

ribte 308 

TERRIBLE   {  ^«*^l*^>i«*<lf>il«fHghtful,  terrible, 
TERRIFICK  I     ivviMndoui,  lerrifldE,  horrible, 

f     horrid 306 

TERJMTORY— territory,  dominion 180 

TERROUR — alarm,  lerroiir,  mght,  consterna- 

l*on 305 

TEST— experience,  ezperiuient,  Uial,  proof,  kst. .  319 

TB8TAHENT— will,  testament 164 

TO  TESTIFY-to  express,  declare,  signiiy,  use- 

iiry,  utter 455 

TESTIMONY— proof,  evidencs,  testimony 444 

THANKFULNESS— thankfulness,  gratitude. ...  441 
THEOLOGIAN— eccleslasiick,  divine,  thGoiogisa    86 

THEORY— theory,  speculation 80 

THEREFORE— therefore,  consequently,  accord- 
ingly  974 

THICK— thick,  dense 351 

THIN— thin,  slender,  slight,  slim 351 

TO  TH INK— to  think,  reflect,  ponder,  muM 76 

TO  THINK— 4o  think,  suppose,  imagine,  believe, 

deem 75 

THOUGHT— idea,  thought,  imi^ination 73 

THOUGHITUL— thoughtful,  conskleraie,  deli- 
berate   4S4 


THOUGHTLESS — negligent,  remisi,  carelem, 

thoughU«*B,  heedless.  Inattentive 494 

THREAT— threat,  menace 499 

THREATENING— imminent,  impending,  threat- 

Mdng 4Vf 

THRIFTY— economical,  savhig,  sparing,  thrifty, 

penurious,  niggardly 19| 

TO  THRIVE— to  flourish,  prosper,  thrive 395 

THRONG— multitude,  crowd,  throng,  swarm. ...  494 

TO  THROW— to  cast,  throw,  huri 304 

TO  THWART— to  oppose,  rcai«,  withstand, 

thwart 115 

Tn)E-«tream, current, tide 3S9 

TIDINGS— news,  tidings 46S 

TO  TIE— to  bind,  tie 316 

TiLLAGE-cuItivatk>n.  tUlage,  husbandry 337 

TIME— duration,  time 999 

TIME— time,  season,  timely,  seasonable 909 

TIME—time,  period,  sge,  date,  era,  epocha 967 

TIMELY— time,  season,  timely,  seasonable 966 

TIMES  PAST— formerly,  in  former  times,  times 
past  or  d«y«  of  yore,  ancieatiy  or  in  ancient 

t*n» 909 

TIMESERVING— temporising,  timeserving 997 


TIMOROUS  I  '^'''^^>  ''"vflili  ^^^^1  ttanorous. ...  307 

TO  TINGE— to  colour,  dye,  tinge,  slain 516 

TU«rr— colour,  hue,  tint 5it 

TO  TIRE— to  weary,  tire.  Jade,  haram 369 

TIRESOME— wearisome,  tiresome,  tedious 369 

TITLE— name,  appellation,  titie,  denomination..  471 

TOIL— work,  labour,  toil,  drudgery,  task 998 

TOKEN— mark,  sign,  note,  symptom,  indication, 

token 447 

TO  TOLERATE-to  admit,  aUow,  permit,  sufl^, 

tolerate 157 

TOLL— tax,  custom,  duty,  toll,  Impoft,  tribute, 

contribution jgc 

TOMB— grave,  tomb,  eepalelire soo 

TONE— sound,  tone ju 

TONGUE-language,  tongue,  speech,  idiom,  dia- 
lect   409 

TOO— aim,  likewise,  too SS3 

POOL— instrument,  tool 990 

TORMENT— torment,  torture «» 

TO  TORMENT— to  tease,  vex,  taunt,  tantallae, 

torment jgi 

TORPID— numb,  benumbed,  torpid 379 

TORTURE-tnrment,  torture 408 

TO  T03S-to  sliake,  agluie,  toss 304 

TOTAL-gmss,  total 9B6 

TOTAL— whole,  entire,  complete,  total,  Integral  288 

TO  TOTTER— to  stagger,  reel,  totter 393 

TOUCH— contnci,  touch igg 

TOUR— circuit,  tour,  round 175 

TOUR— cxcureion,  tamble,  tour,  trip,  Jaunt 309 

TO  TRACE— to  derive,  trace,  deduce 440 


TRACK  I  '"*^'^*  ^^'^^  Testige,  fhotstep,  track. . .  448 

TRACT— essay,  treatise,  irnct,  dissertetlon 399 

TRACT— district,  region,  tract,  quarter 496 

TRACTABLE— docile,  tractable,  ductile 369 

TRADE— business,  trade,  profesnion,  art 331 

TRADE— trade,  commerce,  tralBck,  dealing 233 


zed  by  Google 



TEADEaMAN  }t«d«.o«ch«^  tr.4»«M... 

TO  TRADUCK—to  dlfparage,  detract,  traduce, 
depreciate,  degrade,  deciy 

TRAFFICK— trade,  commerce,  trafflck,  dealing. . 

TRAIN— fNTOceaiion,  train,  reiiniie j.  . . . 

TRAITOROUS— treacherous,  traitorous,  treoaon* 

TRANaUHJilTf— peace,  quiet,  calm,  tranqull- 

TO  TRANSACT— to  negotiate,  treat  for  or  about, 

TRANSACTION— proceeding,  transaction 

TO  TRANSCEND— to  exceed,  surpaM,  eicel, 
transcend,  outdo 

TO  TRANSCRIBE— to  copy,  transcribe 

To  TRANSFIGURE  )  to  trainaflgttre,  transform, 

TO  TRANSFORM     (     metamorplioee 

TO  TBANSGRESS-Ho  infringe,  violate,  trant- 

TRANSGRESSION— olfence,  trespass,  tran^grea- 
■ion,  misdemeanour,  misdeed,  affront 

TRANSIENT     )  temporary,    transient,    transi- 

TRANSITORY  f     tory,  fleeting 

TRANSPARENT— pellucid,  transparent 

TO  TRANSPORT— to  bear,  carry,  convey,  trans- 

TRANSPORT— ecstasy,  rapture,  trenspcrt 

TRAVEL— Journey,  travel,  voyage 

TREACHEROUS— faithless,  perfidious,  treache- 












TREACHEROUS— insidious,  treacherous 534 

TRBACHEKOUS  >  treacherous,  traitorous,  trea- 

TREASONABLE  I     sonabie 534 

ro  TREASURE— to  treasure,  hoard 341 

TREAT — feast,  banquet,  carousal,  entertainment, 

treat 513 

TO  TREAT  FOB  OR  ABOUT — to  negotiate, 

treat  for  or  about,  transact 315 

TREATISE— essay,  treatise,  tract,  dissertation..  320 

TREATMENT— treatment,  usage 380 

TO  TREMBLE — to  shake,  tremble,  shudder, 

quiver,  quake 305 

FREMBTilNO— trembling,  tremour,  trepidation..  308 
TREMENDOUS— fearful,  dread  Ail,  frightftil,  tre- 
mendous, terrible,  terriAck,  horrible,  horrid. . .  306 
TREMOU R         »  agitation,  emotion,  trepidation, 

TREPIDATION  J     tremour 308 

TREMOUR         i  trembling,    tremour,   treplda- 

TREPIDATIOn}     tlon 306 

TRESPASS— offence,  trespass,  transgression,  mis- 

demeanour,  misdeed,  affk-ont 130 

TRIAL— attempt,  trial,  endeavour,  essay,  effort. .  39U 
TRIAL— experience,  experiment,  trial,  proof,  test  319 
TRIBUTE— lax,  custom,  duty,  toll,  impost,  trl. 

bute,  contribution 168 

TRICK— artiftce,  trick,  Anesse,  stratagem 531 

TO  TIUCK— to  rhea^  defraud,  trick 535 

TRIFLING  I  trifiinp,  trivial,  peuy,  frivolous,  fu* 

TRIVIAL    \     Ule 457 

TRIP— excureion,  ramble,  tour,  trip.  Jaunt 303 

TROOP— trooFi,  company 493 

TO  TROUBLE— lo  afflict,  dis(ri«,  trouble 408 

TO  TROUBLE— to  trouble,  dlfturi>,  molest 413 

TROUBLES-dUBcoltiet,  < 

bles 413 

TROUBLESOME— troublesonie,  irksome,  vexa- 
tious  413 

TO  TRUCK— to  exchange,  barter,  track,  eom- 

mate ^ 335 

TRUE-^incere,  honest,  true,  plain 430 

TRUST— belief,  credit,  trus^  Alth 78 

TRUST— hope,  expecUtlon,  trust,  confidence....  414 

TO  TRUST— to  confide,  tniit 414 

TRUSTY— falthfiil,  trusty 4L6 

TRUTH— truth,  veracity 588 

TO  TRY— to  try,  tempt 319 

TO  TUG— to  draw,  drag,  hale  or  haul,  poll,  pluck, 

tug 303 

TO  TUMBLE— to  Ml,  drop,  droop,  sink,  tumble  303 

TUMID— turgid,  tumid,  bombasdck 464 

TUMULT— busUe,  tumult,  uproar SSO 

TUMULTUOral  '"""'"«-'-"'"•""' «« 

TUMULTUOUS  i  tumultuous,    turi>ulMit,  sedl-   \ 

TURBULENT     S     tioos,  mutinous 908 

TURGID— turgid,  tumid,  bombastick 464 

TURN— cart,  turn,  description,  character 467 

TURN— turn,  bent 316 

TO  TURN— to  turn,  bend,  twist,  distort,  wring, 
wrest,  wrench 316 

TO  TWIRL  }  *"*  *"™»  ''*"*'•  "^^^^  ^"^^  """^^  ''• 

TO  TWIST— to  turn,  bend,  twist,  distort,  wring, 
wresi,  wrench ' 316 

TYPE— figure,  metaphor,  allegory,  emblem,  sym- 
bol, type 351 

l*YRANNlCAL-absolute,  ariiitrary,  tyrannical  184 




ULTIM  ATE-last,  latest,  final,  ultimate 

UMPIRE— Judge,  umpire,  arbiter,  arbitrator 

UNBELIEF— disbelief,  unbelief 

UNBELIEF— unbelief,  infidelity,  increduiiiy.... 

UNBLEMISHED— Nameless,  Irreproachablo,  un- 
blemished, unspotted  or  spotless 

UNBODIED— Incorporeal,  unbodied,  iifamaterial, 

UNBOUNDED— boundless,  unbounded,  infinite, 

UNCEASINGLY— Incessantly,  unceasingly,  un- 
interruptedly, without  intermission 

UNCERTAIN— dottbtAil,  dubious,  uncertain,  pre- 

UNCONCERNED— Indiflbrent,  unconcerned,  re- 

UNCONQUERABLE — invincible,  insuperable, 
unconquerable,  insurmountable 

TO  UNCOVER— to  uncover,  discover,  disclose. .  444 

UNCOVERED— bare,  naked,  uncovered 949 

UNDAUNTED— bold,  fearless,  undaunted,  intre- 
pid  306 

UNDENIABLE— Indubitable,  unquestionable,  In- 
disputable, undeniable,  Incontrovertible,  Irr^ 
fraisable 114 

UNDER— under,  below,  beneath '..,  S79 

TO  UNDERMINE-to  sap,  undermine 503 

TO  UNDERSTANU— to  conceive,  comprehend, 
understand 74 



zed  by  Google 



ITNDERflTANDING — ondemandlDC,  iateilect, 

InieUigence 07 

UNDERTAKING— attempt,  undertaking,  enter- 

priae 330 

UNDETERMINED — lAdetermined,    anaetUed, 

urateady,  wavering 225 

UNEVBN—odd,  uneven 436 

UNFAITRFUL--raitblem.  unfoithAU 534 

UNFEELING— baid,  hardy,  unfeeling,  Imenaible  374 
TO  UNFOLD— to  unfold,  uniavel,  develope  ....  318 
UNGOVERNABLE— unruly,  ungovernable,  re- 
fractory  308 

UNHAPPY— unbapfty,  mberaMe,  wretebed 41S 

'  UNIFORM— equal,  even,  equable,  like  or  alike, 

nalform 435 

UNIMPORTANT — unimportant,    Inelgnificant, 

Immaterial,  ineondderable 457 

UNINTERRUPTEDLY — ^ineearantly,   uninter^ 
rupledly,  unceasingly,  wlUiout  Intermiaslon  957 

TO  UNITE— to  add,  Join,  unite,  coalesce 418 

TO  UNIT&— to  connect,  combine,  unite 419 

UNIVERSAL— general,  universal 383 

UNJUST— wicked,  unjust,  iniquitous,  nefarious  128 
UNLEARNED    i  Ignorant,  illiterate,  unlearned, 

UNLETTERED5     unlettered 107 

UNLESS— unlem,  eicept 951 

UNLIKE— different,  unlike 

UNLIMITED— boundless,  unbounded,  unlimited. 


UNMERCIFUL— bard-bearted,  cruel,  unmerciful. 


UNOFFENDING— unoffending,  harmless,  inof- 
fensive  191 

UNQUESTIONABLE— Indubitable,  unquestion- 
able. Indisputable,  undeniable,  inoontrovenl- 

ble.  Irrefutable 114 

TO  UNRAVEL— to  unfold, unravel,  develope.. .  218 
UNRELENTINC^-lmplacable,  unrelenting,  re- 

tentlesB,  Inexorable 381 

UNRULY— unruly,  ungovernable,  refractory....  S08 
UNSEARCHABLE— unsearchable,  inscrutable. .  481 
UNSETTLED— undetermined,  unsettled,  waver- 
ing, unsteady SS5 

UNSPEAKABIjE— unspeakable,  Ineflhble,  unut- 
terable, Inexpressible 400 

UNSPOTTED— blameless,    irreproachable,   un- 
blemished, unspotted,  spodess 199 

UNSTEADY— undetermined,  unsettled,  waver- 
ing, unsteady 235 

UNTOWARD— awkward,  cross,  crooked,  unto- 
ward, frowaid,  perverse 315 

UNTRUTH— untruth,  falsehood,  falsity,  lie 528 

UNUTTERABLE— unspeakable,  inefbble,  unnt- 

terabia,  inexpressible 460 

UNWILLING— averse,   unwilling,  backward, 

loath,  rainelaiit 136 

UNWORTHY— onwofthy,  worthless 437 

TO  UPBRAID— «>  blame,  reprove,  reproach,  up- 
braid, ecosare,  condemn 110 

UPON— above,  over,  npon,  beyond 979 

UPRIGHTNESS— taoaeaty,  uprlghcnesa.  Integrity, 

proUty 437 

UPRIGHTNESS-reeUtnde,  uprlghtnem 

UPROAR-hoade,  tnnnit,  uproar 

URBANITY-Hirbanlty,  suavity 106 

TO  URGE— to  encourage,  animate,  iacile,  impel, 

urge,  stimulate,  instigate 311 

URGENT— preasing,  urgent,  importunate 158 

USAGE— usage,  custom,  prescription. 334 

USAGE— treatment,  usage 380 

USB— advantage,  benefit,  utility,  service,  avail, 

e 30a 

TO  USE— to  employ,  use 3U8 

TO  USE  ENDEAVOURS-to  Iabour,take  pains 

or  trouble,  use  endeavoura 396 

USUALLY— commonly,   generally,    frequently, 

usually 333 

TO  USURP-Ho  appropriate,  usurp,  arrogate,  aa- 

sume,  ascribe 330 

UTILITY— advantage,  benefit,  utility,  aerVlce, 

avail,  uae 306 

TO  UTTER-'to  expreas,  declare,  aignify,  testier, 

utter 455 

TO  UTTER— to  utter,  apeak,  articulate,  pro- 
nounce  k' 450 

VACANCY— vacancy,  vacuity,  Inaifity 344 

VACANT— empty,  vacant,  void,  devoid 343 

VACANT— idle,  vacant,  leiaure 300 

VACUITY— vacancy,  vacuity.  Inanity 344 

VAGUE— looae,  vague,  lax,  dissolute,  licentious. .  356 

VAIN— idle,  vain 990 

VAIN— vain,  Ineffectual,  frulUeas 900 

VALOUR— bravery,  courage,  valour,  gallantry  . .  130 

VALUABLE— valuable,  precious,  coatly 437 

VALUE— value,  worth,  rate,  price 430 

TO  VALUE-to  value,  prize,  esteem 436 

TO  VANISH— to  disappear,  vanish 481 

VANITY— pride,  vanity,  conceit 100 

TO  VANQUISH— to  conquer,  vanquish,  aubdue, 

overcome,  surmount 144 

VARIATION— change,  variation,  vlclssilude ....  983 
VARIATION  I      ^  ^            ,  .  „^ 

VARIETY      (^««»*«on,  variety 383 

VARIETY— difference,  variety,  diversity,  medley  989 
VARIOUS— difibrent,  several,  divers,  sundry,  va- 
rious  983 

TO  VARNISH— to  gloss,  varnish,  palliate 515 

TO  VARY— to  change,  alter,  vary 983 

TO  VARY— to  differ,  vary,  disagree,  dissent ....  139 

VAST— enormous,  huge,  vast,  immense 340 

TO  VAUNT— to  glory,  boast,  vaunt 596 

VEHEMENT— violent,  furious,  boisterous,  vehe- 
ment, impetuous  810 

VEIL— cloak,  mask,  blind,  veil 516 

VELOCITY— quickness,  swiftness,  fleetness,  cele- 
rity, rapidity,  velocity  989 

VENAL— venal,  mercenaiy,  hireling 330 

TO  VENERATE— to  adore,  leverenoe,  venerate, 

revere 81 

VENIAL-venial,  pardonable 169 

VENOM— polaon,  venom 503 

TO  VENTURE— to  hazard,  venture,  rlak 171 

VERACITY— truth,  veracity 538 

VERBAL— verbal,  vocal,  oral 468 

VERGE— border,  edge,  rim  or  brim,  brink,  maiw 

gln,  verge 17f 

VESTIGE— mark,  trace,  veatige,  footatcp,  track..  448 


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TO  VEX— to  dinpleafe,  vex,  offend 
TO  VEX — ^10  tease,  Tex,  taunt,  Untalize,  tor- 
ment  121 

VEXATION— vexation,  mortification,  chagrin. . .  1S3 
VEXATIOUS— troublesome,  Irluomei  vexatious  413 

VICE— crime,  vice,  tin 128 

VICE— trnperfeciioQ,  defect,  (kult,  vice 134 

VIClNrrY— oeigbbourhood,  vicinity 496 

VICISSlTUDE-change,  variation,  vtciaritude.. .  283 

TO  VIE-^o  contend,  strive,  vie 131 

VIEW— view,  survey,  proapect 479 

VIE W— vie w,  prospect,  landscape 479 

TO  VIEW>-^  look,  see,  behold,  view,  eye 482 

VIGILANT— walceAil,  watchful,  vigilant 483 

VIGOUR— energy,  force,  vigour 372 

VILE— baas,  mean,  vile 148 

TC  VILIPY— to  revile,  vUify 108 

TO  VINDICATE— to  assert,  maintain,  vindicate  441 
TO  VINDICATE— to  avenge,  revenge,  vindicate  119 
TO  VINDICATE— to  defend,  protect,  vindicate..  179 
V^INDICTIVE— resentful,  revengeful,  vindictive  119 
TO  VIOLATE— <o  infringe,  violate,  iranMgress  ■ .  508 

VIOLENCB-force,  violence 219 

VIOLENT — violent,  furious,  boisterous,  vehe- 

men  t,  1  m  petuous 210 

VISAGE— face,  countenance,  visage 479 

VIBlBLE-^apparent,  visible,  clear,  plain,  obvious, 

evident,  manifest 478 

VISION — ^vlsion,  apparition,  phantom,  specue, 

ghnat 479 1 

TO  WANDER — to  deviate,   wander,  swerve, 

stray Mi 

TO  WANDER— to  wander,  stroll,  ramble,  rove, 

roam,  range.... Ml 

WANT  -poverty.  Indigence,  want,  need,  penury  346 

TO  WANT— to  want,  need,  lack 347 

WARE— commodity,  goods,  merchandise,  ware. .  330 
WARLIKE— martial,  military,  warlike,  soldier- 
like  337 

WARM— hearty,  warm,  sincere,  cordial 431 

WARMTH— flre,  heat,  warmth,  glow 475 

WARNING— admonlUon,  warning,  cauUon 193 

TO  WARRANT— to  guarantee,  be  security,  be 

resiMmsible,  warrant 183 

WARY— cautious,  wary,  circumspect 425 

TO  WASTE— to  spend,  expend,  waste,  dissipate, 

squander 3^ 

TO  WASTE— to  consume,  destroy,  waste 505 

TO  WATCH— to  guard,  defend,  watch 180 

TO  WATCH— to  observe,  watch   483 

WATCHFUL— wakeAil,  watchful,  vigilant 483 

WATERMAN— seaman,  waterman,  sailor,  mari- 
ner, boatman,  ferryman 337 

WAVE— wave,  billow,  surge,  breaker 353 

TO  WAVER — to  scrapie,  hesitate,   fluctuate, 

WMver • 97 

WAVERING— undetermined,  unsettled,  wavei^ 

ing,  unsteady •' 225 

WAY — way,  manner,   method,  mode,  courae, 
means 275 


VISION  ARY— enthusiast,  fknatick,  visionary 
VISITANT)      _     _.     ,    ... 
VISITER     I  8"««.^W»*»t.  visiter 

VIV ACIOU8— H vely,  sprightlj,  vivacious,  merry, 

sportive.  Jocund 389 

VIVACITY— animation,  life,  vivacity,  spirit....  356 

VIVID— clear,  lucid,  bright,  vivid 476 

VOC  A  B  U  L  A  RY— dictionary ,  lexicon,  vocabulary, 

glossary,  nomenclature 464 

VOCAL— verbal,  vocal,  oral 462 

VOICE— vote,  suffrage,  voice 462 

vol  1>— empty,  vacant,  void,  devoid 343 

VOLATILITY— Hghtneas,  levity,  flfghaness,  vo- 

laiility,  giddiness 390 

VOLUNTARILY— wilHngly,  volunUrtly,  sponta- 
neously    150 

VOfLU  NT  ARY— gratuitous,  voluntary 441 

VOLUPTU.\RY— sensualist,  voluptuary,  epicure  374 
VORACIOUS— rapacious,  ravenous,  voracious..  507 

VOTE— voce,  suffrage,  voice 462 

TO  VOUCH— to  aflkrm,  asseverate,  assure,  vouch, 

aver,  proteK ^^ 441 

VOY  AGB-*Joumey,  travel,  voyage 302 

VULGAR^'Common,  vulgar,  ordinary,  mean. .. .  3B3 

W  AGEtf-^lfowance,  Btpend,  Mlaiy,  wages,  hire, 

TO  WAIT  FOlt-tD  awalc  or  wtdt  for,  look  for, 

'     expect 415 

TO  WAIT  ON-Mo  accompany,  eaeort,  attend, 

watten 493 

WAKKFUL-wak^al,  watohftil,  vigHant 483 

WALK~caiTlage,gaU,walk 192 

WAN-pale,  pallid,  wan 309 

91   WAY— way,  road,  route,  course 275 

'  WEAK— weak,  feeble,  infirm 368 

TO  WEAKEN— to  weaken,  enfeeble,  debUiuie, 

enervate,  invalidate 368 

WEAKNESS — ImperfecUon,  weakness,  frailty, 

felling,  foible 124 

WEALTH— riches,  wealth,  opulence,  affluence. .  340 

WEAPONS— arms,  weapons 141 

WEARINESS— fatigue,  weariness,  lassitude ....  300 
WEARISOME— wearisome,  tiresome,  tedious...  360 

TO  WEARY— to  weary,  tire,  jade,  harass 360 

WEDDING— marriage,  wedding,  nuptials 83 

WEDLOCK— marriage,  mauimony,.wediock. ...    84 

TO  WEEP— to  cry,  weep 470 

WEIGHT— signification,  avail,  importance,  con- 
sequence, weight,  moment 456 

WEIG IIT— weight,  heaviness,  gravity 360 

WEIGHT— weight,  burden,  load 370 

WEIGHTY— heavy,  burdensome,  weighty,  pon- 
derous   370 

WELL-BEING— well-being,  welfere,  prositerity, 

happineas 300 

WELCOME— acceptable,  grateful,  welcome 234 

WELFARE— well-being,  welfere,  prosperity,  hap- 
piness  396 

TO  WHEEDLE — to     coax,   wheedle,    cigole, 

16}  fewn 5H 

WHIM— fireak,  whim 364 

WHIMSICAL— fenclAil,  fentasticaJ,  whimskaJ, 

caprlctotta 380 

TO  WHIRL— to  turn,  wind,  whirl,  twirl,  writhe  3U 

WHOLE— all,  whole 29^ 

WHOLE — whole,  jcomplete,  total,  Integml,  en- 
tire   288 


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WUOI.«SOMB-healtby,  wbolcnme,  nlubrioiiS) 

•aliilsry 366 

WICK  KD-bad,  evil,  wicked 1S7 

WICKED—wicked,  uiiJuM,  Iniquitous,  nefarious  1S8 

WIDE— large,  broad,  wide «-  349 

WlLL—witl,  tevtameiU 164 

TO  WILL-io  will,  widi 159 

WlLLI])i6LY— willingly,  volantariij,  ipontaue- 

ously 1S9 

WILY— cunning,  crafty,  aubtle,  aly,  wily SS2 

TO  WIN— to  acquire,  obtain,  gain,  win,  earn. .. .  396 
TO  WIND-to  turn,  wind,  whiri,  twirl,  writbe. .  316 

WISDOM— wladom,  prudence 400 

TO  WISH — to  desire,  wlab,  hanker  after,  long 

for 150 

TO  WISH— to  will,  wisb 159 

WIT— ingenuity,  wit 70 

WIT— wii,  bnniour,  satire.  Irony,  burlesque 09 

TO  WITHDRAW— to  recede,  ivtreat,  withdraw, 

retire,  secede 853 

TO  WlTHSTAN1>-lo  oppose,  resist,  withstand, 

thwart 115 

WrreoUT  intermission— Ineessandy,  un- 
eeaijngiy,  uninterruptedly,  without  iniennls- 

■on ., ^ SSI 

WTTNESfU-deponent,  evidence,  witness 445 

WOFULr— piteous,  doleful,  woful,  rueful 411 

WONDER— wonder,  admiradon,  surprise,  asto- 
nishment, amazement 403 

WONDER— wondor,  miracle,  marvel,  monster, 

prridlgy 403 

^OOER—k>ver,  suitor,  wooer 380 

WORD— prom'.se,  f  ngsf  ement,  w  jrd 217 

WORD— word,  term,  expression <d9 

WORK— work,  labour,  to'.l,  dr.idge'y,  irjtk 338 ' 

WORK— production,  performance,  work 399 

WORK— work,  operation 388 

WOR LDLY— secular,  temporal,  worldly 00 

TO  WORSHIP— to  adore,  worship 81 

WORTH— desert,  merit,  worth 438 

WORTH— value,  worth,  rate,  price 436 

WORTHLESS— unworthy,  worthless 437 

TO  WRANGLE-to  Jangle,  Jar,  wrangle 134 

WRATH— anger,  resentment,  wrath,  indignation, 

ire 119 

TO  WRENCH  )  to  turn,  bend,  twlut,  wring,  dis- 

TO  WREST     )     tort,  wrest,  wrench 316 

WRETCHED— unhappy,  niiserabie,  wreu:hed. . .  418 
TO  WRING— to  turn,  bend,  twist,  dtotort,  wring, 

wrest,  wrench 316 

WRITER— writer,  penman,  scribe 336 

WRITER— writer,  author 336 

TO  WRITHE— to turB,  wind,  whiri,  twirl,  writhe  316 
WRONG— injustice,  injury,  wrong 818 

YET— however,  yet,  nevertheless,  notwithstand- 
ing  851 

TO  YIELD— to  aAird,  produce,  yield 330 

TO  YIELD— to  bear,  yield .TW 

TO  YIELD— to  comply,  conform,  yield,  subnili. .  ISO 
TO  YIELD— to  give  up,  deliver,  surrender,  yield, 

cedo,  concede 848 

YIELDING— compliant,  yielding,  submissive... .   150 
YOUTHFUL— youthful,  Juvenile,  puerile «01 


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Boi;L,  nin). 

Thmi  teniM,  or  Uie  equivalent  to  them,  have  been 
caiployed  by  all  civilised  nations  to  designate  that  Mrt 
orhaman  nature  which  la  dletincc  fipm  matter.  Th« 
SnO,  however,  from  the  Oennao  «««/«,  Itc  and  the 
Onek  Um,  to  live,  like  the  immm  of  the  Latin,  which 
oomvfl  fhMD  the  Greek  Anpos^  wind  or  breath,  ia  repre- 
lented  to  oar  minds  by  the  subtilest  oi  inqst  ethereal  of 
senrible  objects,  namely,  breath  or  spirit,  and  denotes 
properly  the  quickening  or  vital  principle,  ^tn^  on 
the  contrary,  fltim  the  Greek  fthofy  which  signifies 
strength,  is  that  sort  of  power  which  is  ckMely  allied  to, 
and  In  a  great  measure  dependant  npon.  corporeal  o^ 
ganlEaiioD :  the  former  is,  therefore,  the  imraoital,  and 
the  latter  the  mortal,  part  of  us;  the  former  connecis 
■s  with  angels,  the  latter  with  bratea ;  fai  this  latter  we 
dtsdnguish  nothing  but  the  power  of  receiving  impres- 
iions  fltNn  external  objects,  which  we  call  Ideas,  and 
which  vre  have  hi  common  with  the  brutes. 

There  are  minute  phikMophera,  who,  from  their  ex- 
treme anxiety  after  truth,  deny  that  we  possess  any 
thing  more  than  what  this  poor  composition  of  flesh  and 
bkwd  can  give  us ;  and  yet,  methinks,  sound  philosophy 
would  teach  us  that  we  ousht  to  prove  the  truth  of  one 
psalilon,  before  we  assert  the  folsehood  of  Its  opposite ; 
and  consequently,  that  if  we  deny  that  we  have  any 
thing  but  what  is  material  in  us,  we  ought  first  to  prove 
that  the  materhil  is  sufliciettt  to  produce  the  resMning 
foeuhv  of  man.  Now  it  ia  upon  this  very  Impossibility 
of  finding  any  thing  in  matter  as  an  adequate  cause  for 
0»  pfoduccfcm  of  the  «««{,  that  it  Is  conceived  to  be  an 
entirely  distinct  principle.  If  we  had  only  the  mind, 
that  Is,  an  aggregate  of  Ideas  or  sensible  Images,  such  as 
ia  poMJessedniv  the  brutes,  it  would  be  no  dlmculty  to 
conceive  of  this  as  purely  material,  since  the  act  of  re- 
eeSvlng  images  is  but  a  paaavsael,  suited  to  the  inactive 
propetty  of  matter:  but  when  the  tmU  turns  in  upon 
ilsplf.  and  creates  for  itwif  liy  abstractioi^  combination, 
and  dedneHon,  a  world  of  new  ol^Jectat  It  proves  Hself 
lo  be  the  most  active  of  all  principles  in  the  universe ; 
jtJhenpoelUvely  actt  upon  matter  Instead  of  being 
aded  upon  fay  It. 

Bdt  not  to  k»se  sMitof  thedistinctbn  drawn  between 
the  words  MtU  and  siiad,  I  simply  v^sh  to  show  that 
the  vulgar  and  the  pbHosnphical  uw  or'  these  terms  aHo- 
gelher  aeeonit  and  ave  both  founded  on  the  true  nature 
of  things.  Poels  and  philosophers  speak  of  the  »tnU  in 
dw  same  stivin,  as  the  active  and  living  principle ; 
Han's  #0«l  in  a  perpetual  motion  flows, 
And  to  no  outward  cause  that  motion  owes. 

In  haahAiI  eoynem,  or  in  maiden  pride, 
The  soft  rsium  coneealM.  Mve  when  It  stole 
In  ride-kmg  glances  ftom  her  downcast  ey«a, 
Or  firom  her  sweilhig  awl  in  stifled  sidis. 

*7%enool  twinsistt  of  many  foealtles,  aa  the  finder 
smading,  and  the  wUI,  with  aU  Um  senses,  both  outward 
and  in  want;  or,  to  spaak  more  philosophically,  the  «•«/ 
can  excft  heraelf  In  many  dilferent  ways  of  action.'— 
Admsom.  The  andenia,  though  unaided  by  the  light  of 
divine  tavelatlon,  yet  represented  the  soul  as  a  distinrt 

his  dying  bed  to  have  addreamd  Ma  acnl  in  wonb  wUeh 
clearly  denote  what  he  thought  of  Its  ladepeadea^ 

awof  their' 

The  Piyehe  of  the  Greeks,  which  was  the 
cave  to  the  human  m«Z,  was  feigned  to  be 
r  Incorporeal  or  celestial  beings.  The  mumm 

untmen  in  the  mo< 

•4  the  smA  by  which  k' was  dMngulahed  from  the 

-    Tbas  the  anpcroui  Adrian  is  aaid  OB 

Animula  vagnla,  Uandula, 
Qkam  nunc  imibia in  tocal 
Uospes  comesqoe  eorporls, 
Pallldula,  r^a,  undula. 
Nee  (ut  soles)  dahlijocal 

The  m«ad  being  conslderad  as  an  attribute  to  the  sm/, 
ia  taken  aometimss  for  one  foculty,  and  someMmea  for 
another;  as  for  the  underrtanding,  when  we  say  a 
person  ia  not  in  Ids  right  mind; 
I  am  a  very  foolish,  fond  old  man  ; 
I  fear  I  am  not  in  my  perfect  su'nd.— SHAnpB4RB. 
Sometimes  for  the  hitellectual  power; 
I  thought  the  etsmal  sitfad 
Had  naade  us  nMsters.— Dkymm. 
Or  for  the  Intellactual  capacity ; 

We  say  that  learning 's  endlem,  and  blame  fote 
For  not  allowing  life  a  longer  date. 
He  did  the  utmost  bounds  of  knowledge  find, 
He  found  them  not  so  laige  aa  waa  his  snnd. 


Or  for  the  Imagination  or  conception ;  *  In  the  Judgment 
of  Aristotle  and  Bacon,  the  tme  poet  forms  his  imi- 
tations of  nature  after  a  model  of  Ideal  perfection, 
which  periiaps  haano  exlBlenoa  but  In  his  own  silml.'— 

Sometimes  the  word  awnd  is  emptoved  to  denote 
the  operations  of  the  thinking  faculty,  the  thoughts  or 
opinions ; 

The  ambigaonsgod, 
In  these  mysterious  words  his  siAid  exprem'd, 
Some  tnithd  revealed.  In  terms  involved  the  rest 
The  earth  was  not  of  mv  «tad 
If  you  suppose,  as  ftarlng  you.  It  Aook. 

Or  the  will,  cholce,%etermination,  as  in  the  oolkiqulal 
plirase  to  have  a  mind  to  doa  thing  ;*  All  the  argu> 
meats  to  a  good  life  will  be  very  insignificant  lo  a  mmr 
that  hath  a  smid  to  be  wkked,when  vemisBfoa  of  staa 
may  be  had  on  such  cheap  terms.*— Tiixorson.  *  Out 
queadon  is,  whether  aU  lie  sin  which  is  done  without 
direction  by  Scripture,  and  not  whether  the  Israelites  did 
at  anytime  amisa  by  following  their  ownianids  without 
asking  counsel  of  God.*— Hookbe. 

Sometimes  It  standa  for  the  memory,  aa  to  the  fo- 
mlilar  exptemioaB  to  caU  tosrind,  pot  iasMM,4^t 
•  The  Ung  knows  tiielr  dlsposllioB ;  a  small  touch  will 
put  him  in  sitnd  of  them.*— Baoob. 

These,  and  more  tiian  I  to  siAid  can  bring, 
Menalcas  has  not  yet  foigot  to  sbig.*— Dnmnr. 
*  Thoy  win  iNit  him  in  mtad  of  his  own  wakfaig 
thoughts,  ere  these  dreams  bad  as  yet  made  their  Im- 
pressions on  his  foncy.*— Attbrbubt. 
A  wholesome  tow,  timeoOt  of  amid; 
Had  been  oonflrm*d  by  fote's  decree.*— Swm*. 
Lsstiy,  the  mind  is  considered  as  the  seat  of  an  the 
foculties;  *  Every  foculty  Is  tdlstinet  taste  to  the  aitnd; 

and  hath  objects  accommodated  to  Its  prr— ^"-^  * 

Aj>msoN.  And  ako  of  the  passions  or  t 
E*en  Aom  tiie  body's  purity,  the  snad 
Receives  a  ■ecretiympathetick  aM^— Thohi 



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*  Tbia  word,  being  often  used  for  the  »mU  Kivlaf 
life,  is  purlbutad  abusively  to  madmen^  when  we  my 
that  ihey  are  of  a  dutraeted  auii^,  Inatnd  of  a  broken 
mideratandlnK ;  which  word  mmd  we  uae  alao  for 
ophiion,  aa  I  am  of  thia  or  that  mi»d ;  and  aonetlmea 
lor  iiieti*!  oonditkma  or  ▼irtuea,  aa  be  la  of  an  booeal 
aha^.  or  a  manof  a  Juataitiid;  aoroetlmealbralfectiiNi, 
aa  I  do  tbIa  for  my  an»<r«  take,'  ^c.— Ralbiob. 

The  MOMly  belnc  the  belter  part  of  a  man,  la  taken  for 
the  man'*  aelf,  aa  Horace  aays,  In  allusion  to  bia  friend 
Virgil,  *  Et  aeryea  anima  dimidlum  men  :*  bence  the 
lariii  Im  figuratively  extended  in  lit  application  to  denote 
a  human  being ;  *  The  moral  la  the  caae  of  every  gonl 
of  ufl.*— L'BaTaANOB.  It  la  a  republick ;  there  are  In  It 
a  hundred  burgeoia,  and  about  a  tboiiaaudMiUa;  *The 
poor  «»«{ rat  ainging  by  a  sycamore  tree.*— SHAXsrBAfta. 
Or  the  Individual  In 

Join  voteea,  all  ye  living  tnit.    Ye  birda 
That  ainging  up  to  heaven-gate  aacend 
Bearoa  your  winga,  and  in  your  botea,  hia  pralae. 


Alao  what  laezeelicnt,  tbe  eaaentlal  or  principal  part  of 
a  thing,  the  spirit ;  ^Thon  sun,  of  this  great  world  both 
eye  and  tout* — Miltom.  *  He  baa  the  very  toul  of 
bounty.*— SHAunABB. 

There  la  some  smI  of  goodness  In  thinn  evil, 
Would  men  obaerviiigly  diatil  It  out— Shakbpbakb. 


iactfrptfrsoi,  from  eorpiw,  a  bodv,  marks  the  quality  of 
not  belonging  to  tbe  body,  or  having  any  properties  In 
common  with  it ;  unbodM  denotes  the  atate  of  being 
without  the  body,  or  not  encloard  in  a  body ;  a  thing 
may  therefore  be  mr.crpor»al  without  being  unbodied; 
but  not  vice  vered ;  the  soul  of  man  is  vMorportal^  but 
not  wnbeditd^  daring  hia  natural  life ; 
Th*  umiMUed  apirit  ttiee 
And  lodgea  where  it  Ughu  in  man  or  beaat. 


Inearp^real  la  uaed  in  regard  to  living  things,  parti- 
ealariy  by  way  of  comparison,  with  corporeal  or  h< 

Of  aenae,  whereby  they  bear,  aee,  ameU,  touch,  taale, 

Taating,  concoct,  dIgeM,  aaaimilate. 

And  eorpore^  to  huorporeal  turn.— Miltom. 

Bence  we  apeak  of  niear7»orea^  ags<*cy>  or  ineorvoremi 
agents,  In  reference  lo  auch  beinga  aa  are  au ppoaed  to  act 
in  thia  world  without  the  help  oi  the  body ;  '  Senae  and 
perception  must  neceaaarily  proceed  (torn  aoine  Mcet^ 
pereM  aubsunce  within  us.*— Bbntlbt.  But  laiaie- 
lariaZ  la  applied  to  Inanimate  objects ; 

O  thou  great  arbiter  of  life  and  death, 

Naturo*a  immortal,  immaterial  sun ! 

Thy  call  I  follow  to  the  land  uj||inown.— TouRa« 

Nan  are  aarpercol  aa  men,  aplrlts  are  incorporeal ;  the 
body  Is  tfee  maUrial  part  of  man,  the  soal  bis  maia- 
tsrts/  part :  whatever  external  ol^ect  acta  upon  the 
aenaea  la  HkoUrial ;  bat  the  action  of  the  mind  on  liaelf, 
and  ita  reaulta  aie  all  immaterial :  the  earth,  aun,  moon, 
dec  are  termed  wuUcrial ;  but  the  impreaalona  which 
Ibey  make  on  the  mind,  that  la,  our  ideaa  of  them,  are 

Tbe  taesraarsal  and  immatvrial  have  ahvava  a  reia- 
dve  aboae ;  the  tpiriimal  la  U»t  which  la  poaltl  ve :  God 
ie  a  jr^jn'caol,  not  property  an  ineorjforeal  nor  fmsMts- 
rial  being :  the  angeia  are  llkewlae  designated,  in  gene- 

-  ^  '  '  (Inhabitants  of  Heaven; 'All  craa- 
'  U  as  corporeal,  declare  their  abeo- 
I  the  first  author  of  all  beings,  tbe 
4toly  aelf-exlaient  Ood.*— Bbmtlbt.  Although,  when 
■poken  of  In  regard  to  men,  they  may  be  deoomlnaied 

ral,  aa  tbe  ewiritmal  Inhabil 
tnrea,  aa  well  epiritual  as  e 
InU;  dependance  upon  the  i 

Thai  imccfpareal  iplfifa  lonnalleat  fonna 
Reduced  tbeir  abapea  bnmenae.— Mixjtor. 

The  eidibet  apirit»al  baa,  however,  been  Improperty 
m  figuratively  applied  to  objecta  In  the  aenae  of  nla^^ 
fsriol;  *  Echo  la  a  great  argument  of  tbe  sptrttaal 
aaaencu  of  aounda ;  for  if  It  were  corporeal^  tbe  repar- 
'  1  aboubi  be  created  by  like  inatnunenla  with  the 


fytritmouM  algnlfiea  having  tbe  apirii  aeparated  from 
tbe  groas  partlclM  of  tbe  body,  aAer  the  manner  of 
MptritMan*  Uquora ;  *Tbe  spirituoua  and  benign  rodtter 
moat  apt  for  generation.*— Smm  on  Old  Age,  j^nrifed 
la  applicable  to  the  animal  j;p»ri£c  of  either  men  or 
brulea ;  a  person  or  a  borae  may  be  eperitcd;  and  alao 
In  a  moral  application  In  the  aenae  of  vivacioua,  or  cal- 
culated to  rouse  tbe  epirit;  *  Dryden's  tranalallon  of 
Vli^  la  noUe  and  jy^rtlcd.'— Porn.  What  la  epiritmai 
la  after  the  manner  of  a  sstn't;  and  what  is  gkootlf  la 
like  a  ghoet ;  allbough  orkinally  the  aame  in  inean^ 
the  former  being  derived  from  tbe  Latin  twiritne^  and 
the  latter  from  the  German  gdcL,  and  boUi  signifying 
what  la  not  corporeal,  yet  they  have  acquired  a  dider 
ence  of  application.  Spiritual  objecta  are  diatinguislied 
generally  from  thoee  of  sense ;  *  Viiginity  is  bettpi  than 
the  married  life,  not  that  it  is  more  noly,  but  that  Jt  ia 
a  (Veedum  from  carea,  an  opportunity  to  apend  mora 
time  in  epiritual  employ nienta.*—TATLoa  (//•ly  Up- 
ing\.  Hence  it  iathat  the  word  epiritual  Is  opposed 
to  the  temporal ;  *■  She  loves  them  aa  her  epiritual 
children,  and  they  reverence  her  aa  their  spiritual 
mother,  with  an  aflbctlon  far  above  that  of  tbe  fondest 
fliend.'— Law. 

Tboa  art  reverend, 

Toucbiiv  thy  eptrHmal  ftinctlon,  not  thy  life. 


Gkoetlf  la  more  Immediately  oppoaed  to  the  carnal 
or  the  aecular,  and  la  liierefore  a  term  of  more  solemn 
import  than  epiritual ;  *  The  grace  of  the  epirit  is  much 
more  preckws  than  worldly  beneflla,  and  our  gkoetlg 
evila  of  greater  imporunce  than  harm  which  the  body 
foeieth.*— HooKia.  '  To  deny  roe  the  gkeetljf  comfort 
of  my  chaplains  aeems  a  greater  barbanty  than  is  ever 
uaed  by  Chriadana.*— IL  CBABLBa. 

Underetanding  being  tbe  Saxon  word,  la  eroploved 
to  describe  a  fanilliar  and  eaay  operation  uf  the  mind  in 
forming  distinct  ideoa  of  thinaa.  JnuUeet,  which  la  of 
Latin  derivation,  la  emploved  to  mark  llie  aame  opera- 
tiun  in  regard  lo  higher  and  more  abatruae  objects.  The 
umderetaudiug  applies  to  the  first  exercise  of  tlie  ra- 
tional powers :  it  is  therefore  aptly  said  of  children  and 
aavagea  that  they  employ  their  umdaretandinge  on  the 
almpie  objecta  of  perception ;  a  child  uaca  his  under- 
etanding to  distinguish  the  dimensions  of  objects,  or 
to  apply  the  right  ndnies  to  tbe  thiiigi  that  come  before 
his  notice ;  *  By  underetanding  I  mean  Uiat  fhcully 
whereby  wo  are  enabled  tt>  apprehend  the  objects  of 
knowledge,  generals  aa  well  aa  parilculara,  absent 
thingM  aa  well  as  present,  and  to  Judge  of  their  truth  or 
(biaehood,  good  or  evil.' — WiLnaa. 

InUUett,  being  a  matured  aute  of  tbe  underetand- 
ing,  la  inijat  properly  applied  to  tbe  eSbrta  of  thuae  who 
have  their  powers  in  full  vigour :  we  speak  of  under- 
etanding OS  the  characterlstick  distinction  between  man 
and  brute ;  *  The  light  within  ua  Is  (afaice  tbe  fall)  be- 
come darkness ;  and  tbe  underetmndingy  that  shoukt  bo 
eyes  to  the  blind  faculty  of  tbe  will,  is  blind  itself. *-« 
South.     But  human  beings  are  dtatinguished  fiooi 

nga  are  distinguished  fiooi 
each  other  by  the  measure  of  their  intelUa ;  'All  tbnsfl 
arta  and  inventJoiia  which  vulgar  rolnda  gaze  at,  tbe 
ingenioua  pursue,  and  all  admire,  are  but  flie  relicks  of 
an  inutleet  defaced  witli  ain  and  dme.*— South.  We 
may  expect  the  voungeat  children  to  employ  an  under- 
etanding according  to  the  opportunltlea  which  they 
have  or  nsina  their  senses;  one  la  gratified  in  seeing 
great  intdlcenn  youth. 

Intellect  and  intelligenee  are  derived  ftom  tbe  aame 
word rbut  inUUeU  deacribea  the  power  liaelf  and  m- 
lelligenee  tbe  exerclae  of  that  power :  tbe  inteUca  may 
be  lOdden,  but  tbe  tmlsUyrmM  brii^i  it  to  light ; 
Silent  aa  tbe  eeauHek  bliaa 

Of  aoub,  that  by  intelligenee  converse.— Otwat. 

qenee  we  apeak  of  mtelligenca  aa  diaplayed  In  the 

'-nance  of  a  child  wboae  kMka  evince  that  be  boa 

bla  catattsec,  and  thereby  proved  that  It  exiata 
t  arlaea  that  the  word  mlso^ancs  has  been  ebi 


pbqred  In  the  aenae  of  knowledge  or  hiformatlon,  be- 
On£t»  atin^elUganca:  w 

eauae  tbaae  axe  the  expraaa  I 


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inM  know  1^  meaiM  of  imttiligtnee ;  but  we  may  be 
VDorant  with  ■  great  share  of  tnteUeeL 

UndertiandiMg  and  inuUiremee admit  of  compar 
la  the  sense  of  acquaintance  between  two  or  more  per- 
sons aa  to  each  other's  views,  and  a  consequent  bSr- 
Bony  and  concert ;  but  the  former  term  Is  applied  to 
the  ordinary  concerm  of  life,  and  the  harmonious  In- 
ttrcoarae  of  men,  ai'  in  the  phrase  to  be  on  terms  of  a 
good  mnderttaiulin£  ;  *  He  hoped  the  loyalty  of  Mi  lub- 
Jecu  would  concur  with  him  in  the  preserving  a  good 
m»4ergt4Mdiitg  between  him  and  his  subiects.*— Cla- 
RB^noir.  huMifenet,  on  the  other  hand,  is  particu- 
larly applicable  to  persons  who,  being  obliged  to  co- 
operate at  a  distance  from  each  other,  bold  a  commerce 
of  inroruatlon,  or  get  to  understand  each  other  by 
means  of  mutual  inlomiatlon ;  *  It  was  perceived  iliat 
there  bad  nut  been  in  th«  Catbolicks  so  much  foresight 
as  to  provide  that  true  inieUigtnee  might  pass  between 
them  of  what  was  done.*— Hooker. 
Let  all  the  pamages 

Be  well  secored,  that  no  inUlU fence 

May  pass  between  the  prince  and  them.— Dbiiham. 

InteOed,  In  Latin  inUUectua^  ftom  tnUlUgo^  to  un- 
derstand, signifying  the  gift  of  understanding,  as  op- 
posed to  mere  Instinct  or  Impulse,  is  here  the  cenerick 
terra,  as  it  Includes  in  its  own  meaning  that  orthe  two 
otliers :  there  cannot  be  genius  or  talent  without  intd- 
UU;  but  there  may  be  inUUeet  wliiiout  genius  or 
tetent:  a  man  of  inuUeei  distinguishes  himself  (torn 
Ibe  common  herd  of  mnnkind,  by  the  acutenees  of  his 
observation,  the  accuracy  of  his  judgement,  the  origin- 
aliiy  of  his  conceptions,  and  other  peculiar  attributes 
of  mental  power;  genius^  hi  Latin  genius^  from  gigno^ 
10  be  bom,  signifying  that  wiiich  is  peculiarly  Bnrn 
with  uff,  is  a  particular  bent  of  the  intellect,  which  dis- 
tmguisbes  a  man  from  every  other  individual;  talent^ 
wliich  from  T^Xamov  and  talentum^  a  Greek  coin  ex- 
ceedinc  one  hundred  pounds,  is  now  employed  in  the 
ligiirallve  language  of  our  Saviour  for  that  particular 
modus  or  modification  of  the  vntelUet,  which  Is  of 
practical  utility  to  the  possessor.  Intellect  sometimes 
runs  through  a  fiunily,  and  becomes  as  it  were  an  he- 
reditary portion  :  grnius  is  not  of  so  communicable  a 
nature;  it  Is  that  tone  of  the  thinking  faculty  which  is 
alu^ther  Individual  in  its  character ;  it  is  opposed  to 
every  thing  artificial,  acquired,  circumstantial,  or  inci- 
dental ;  It  is  a  pure  spark  of  the  Divine  flame,  which 
raises  the  poisensor  above  all  his  fellow- mortals;  it  is 
not  expanded,  like  tnXeUect,  to  many  objects ;  for  in  its 
very  nature  it  Is  contracted  within  a  very  sliort space; 
and,  tike  the  rays  of  tlie  sun,  when  concentrated  within 
a  focQS,  it  fains  In  strength  what  it  loses  in  expansion. 
*  We  consider  intellect  as  it  generally  respects  specu- 
lation and  abstraction ;  but  genius  as  it  respects  the 
operations  of  the  imagination ;  talent  as  it  respects  the 
exercise  or  acquirements  of  the  mind.  A  man  of  inteh 
teet  may  be  a  good  writer ;  but  it  requires  a  genius 
fttr  poetry  to  be  a  poet,  a  genius  for  painting  to  be 
a  painter,  a  genius  for  sculpture  to  be  a  statuary,  and 
the  Hke:  it  requires  a  talent  to  learn  languages;  it 
requires  a  tmUnt  for  the  stage  to  he  a  good  actor ;  some 
have  a  talent  for  imitation,  others  a  talent  for  humour. 
hiteUeet,  in  its  strict  sense,  is  seen  onlv  in  a  mature 
sute ;  genius  or  talent  may  be  discovered  in  its  earliest 
dawn :  we  speak  in  general  of  the  intellect  of  a  man 
only ;  but  we  may  speak  of  the  genius  or  talent  of  a 
tooth;  mfeUset  qualifies  a  person  for  conversation, 
and  afifords  him  neat  enjoyment ;  '  There  was  a  select 
•et,  supposed  to  be  dlstingulsbed  by  superiority  of  in- 
teUects<t  who  always  paMed  the  evening  together.*— 
lonvsoM.  Oentus  qualifies  a  peison  for  the  most  ex- 
alted efibrts  af  the  human  mind ;  '  Thomson  thinks  in 
a  peculiar  train,  and  always  thInltB  as  a  man  ofgeniua* 
•oJoBiiaoii.  TVdent  quailfiea  a  oerson  for  the  active 
doties  and  emfdoyments  of  lUe;  *It  is  commonly 
ilioaflit  that  the  sagacity  of  these  fbthera  (the  Jesuits) 
in  discovering  the  talent  of  a  young  student,  haa  not  a 
BMe  eontriboted  lo  tlie  figure  wmch  their  order  has 
made  In  the  world.*— Budsbll. 

Oifl  ani  mtdawwunt  both  refer  to  the  act  of  jrHring 
nd  emUmhg^  and  ofooune  ladude  the  idea  oTsoine- 

thing  given,  and  something  received :  the  word  tobpig 
conveys  no  such  colhiteral  idea.  When  we  speak  of  « 
gift^  we  refer  in  our  minds  to  a  gA>er  ; 

But  Heaven  its  gifu  not  all  at  once  bestows, 

These  yean  with  wisdom  crowns,  with  actioii  thoae. 


When  we  speak  of  an  endowment,  we  lefor  In  our 
mhids  to  the  receiver;  *  A  brute  arrivea  at  a  point  oT 
perfection  that  he  can  never  pass ;  in  a  few  years  h« 
has  all  the  endowments  he  is  capable  of.*— Aosisor. 
When  we  speak  of  a  talent  (e.  InteUecL)  we  only  thhik 
of  its  intrlnsick  quality  or  worth ;  *Mr.  Locke  has  an 
admirable  reflection  upon  the  diflerence  of  wit  and 
judgement,  whereby  he  endeavours  to  show  the  reason 
why  they  are  not  always  the  talenU  of  the  same  per- 
son.*— AODISOII. 

The^/t  is  either  supernatural  or  natural;  theea- 
dowment  Is  only  natural.  The  primitive  Christiana 
received  various  gifu  through  the  inspiration  of  the 
Holy  Spirit,  as  the  gift  of  tongues,  the  gtft  of  healing, 
he  There  are  some  men  who  have  a  peculiar  g^ft  or 
utterance :  beauty  of  person,  and  corpon»l  agility,  are 
endewmenU  with  which  some  are  peculiarly  invested. 

The  word  gift  excludes  the  idea  of  any  thing  ac- 
quired by  eTeruon  I  it  is  that  which  is  communicated 
to  us  altogether  independent  of  ourselves,  and  enables 
us  to  arrive  at  that  perfection  in  any  art  which  could* 
not  be  attained  in  any  otlier  way.  Speech  is  deno 
niinated  a  general  gift,  Inasmuch  as  it  is  given  to  the 
whole  human  race  iii  distinction  from  the  brutes;  but 
the  gift  of  utterance  is  a  peculiar  gift  granted  to  in- 
dividuals, in  riistinciion  from  others,  which  may  be 
exerted  for  the  beiiefit  of  mankind.  Endowments. 
though  inherent  in  us,  are  not  independent  of  exer- 
tions ;  they  are  qualities  which  admit  of  Improvement 
by  being  used ;  they  are  in  feci  the  gifu  of  nature, 
which  serve  to  adorn  and  elevate  the  possewor,  wheo 
employed  for  a  good  purpose.  TaUnU  are  either  na- 
turnl  or  acauired,  or  in  some  measure  of  a  mixed  na- 
ture ;  they  denote  powers  wiiliout  specifying  the  source 
from  which  they  proceed :  a  man  may  have  a  taleni 
for  musick,  for  drawins,  for  rnimickry,  and  the  like ; 
but  itiis  talent  may  be  the. fruit  of  practice  and  experi- 
ence, as  much  as  of  nature.  ^ 

It  is  clear  from  Uie  above  that  an  endowment  is  a 
gtft,  but  a  gift  is  not  always  an  endowment ;  and  that 
^talent  may  also  be  either  a/i/<or  an  endowment,  but 
that  it  is  frequently  distinct  from  both.  A  gift  or  a 
taUnt  is  applicable  to  corporeal  as  well  as  spiritual 
actions;  an  endowment  is  applicable  to  corporeal  or 
mental  qualities.  To  write  a  superiour  band  is  a  rift^ 
inasmuch  as  it  is  supposed  to  be  unattainable  by  any 
foree  of  application  and  instruction ;  it  is  a  talent^ 
inatimuch  as  it  is  a  power  or  property  worth  our  po»- 
session;  but  it  is  never  an  endowment.  On  the  other 
hand,  courage,  discernment,  a  strong  imagination,  and 
the  like,  are  both  gifu  and  endowments;  and  when  th« 
intellectual  endowment  displays  itself  in  any  creaUve 
form,  as  in  the  case  of  poetry,  musick,  or  any  art,  so  aa 
to  produce  that  which  is  valued  and  esteemed,  it 
becomee  a  talent  lo  the  possessor. 


MUitUy  in  French  kahiUU,  Latin  hoJHUtas,  cornea 
fh>m  ahUy  kahilsj  kabilisy  and  koAeo  to  liave,  because 
possession  and  power  are  inseparable.  O^oeity,  in 
rrendh  capadti,  Latin  eapaeitasy  ftom  eapaz  and 
cafio  to  receive,  marks  the  abstract  quality  of  being 
able  to  receive  or  hold. 

Maity  is  to  capacitv  as  the  genus  to  the  species. 
AMlttf  comprehends  the  power  of  doing  in  general 
without  specifying  the  quality  or  degree;  caaaeitn  is  « 
particular  kind  ofabiUty. 

jability  mav  be  either  physical  or  mental,  capadtv, 
when  said  of  persons,  is  mental  only ;  *  Elches  are  of' 
no  use,  if  sickness  taketh  from  us  the  akilitf  of  eo- 
Joytaig  them.'— Swift.  « In  what  I  have  done,  I  have 
rather  given  a  proof  of  my  willingnesi  and  desire,  than 
of  my  sMIttirto  do  him  (Shakspeare)  JusUce.*— Pora. 

^Mitf  respects  action,  cspoetfiy  respects  thought. 
vUlitv  always  supposes  something  able  to  be  dona; 
I  loqk  apoo  an  sAls  statesman  out  of  basinem  Hke  n 

be  dona; 

huge  whale,  that  will  endeavour  to  overtnrn  the  shin 
unless  he  has  an  empty  cask  to  play  wllh.*— ^rasLs. 
GqrscAy  is  a  manial  andowment,  and  always  fupposaa 


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ioaNlhli«iiea43rtorec«lTOorliold;  ^Theol^eottatiMk 
Mg  for  our  c^ocscy,  wben  we  woaJd  oompfebend  the 
etrcum/brence  of  a  world.*— A»miom.  Boom  we  eey 
•n  *Me  commander;  an  0^20  •tatennan;  a  man  of  a 
emaaViw  nutaid ;  a  gveal  tcfcitg  of  tf 

MiUtg  li  in  no  wIm  limited  in  lta« 
■mall  or  great; 

'Of  slndng  thoa  bam.  got  tte  npotadoii, 
Qood  Thyml*;  mine  I  yield  to  thy  oMMf . 
My  heart  dolh  aeek  another  aetlmaiion.~aiMmT< 

C^ooty  of  Itaelf  always  impllei  a  positive  and  rape- 
rlrnir  degree  of  power;  ^Sir  Fraixis  Bacon*i  eapacitf 
flMmed  to  have  grasped  all  that  was  revealed  In  booka 
liefore.*— HneBBs.  Althouch  It  may  be  modUled  by 
•pitheie  to  denote  diftrent  degrees :  a  boy  of  eopac^ 
VUI  have  the  advantage  over  bis  sehool-feliows,  parU- 
GUlariy  if  he  be  classed  with  those  of  a  dull  e^^citg. 
A  person  maiy  be  abla  to  write  a  letter,  who  is  not  ca^a- 
ib  of  writing  a  book ;  *9l  Paul  requlreth  learning  in 
presbyters,  yea,  such  learning  as  doth  enable  them  to 
flcbort  in  di»ctiine  which  Is  sound,  and  to  disprove 
them  tliat  gainsay  it  What  measure  of  oMitv  in  such 
tbinoB  shdl  serve  to  make  men  enable  of  tnat  kind 
of  office  he  doth  not  determine.*— Hookkr. 

jf  M<f  fte*,  when  used  in  the  plural  only,  Is  confined  to 
the  signiflcatlon  of  mental  endowments,  and  compre- 
llends  the  operations  of  thought  in  general ;  *  As  fbr  roe, 
my  abilitita^  if  ever  I  had  any,  are  not  what  they 
were.*— AmaBuaY.  Capaeitft  on  the  other  hand,  is 
that  peculiar  endowment,  that  enlargement  of  under- 
•tandlng,  that  exalts  the  possessor  above  the  rrat  of 
mankind :  *  We  sometimes  repine  at  the  narrow  limltt 
prescribed  to  human  eapactCy.'— Bbattib.  Many  men 
nave  the  abilities  for  managing  the  concerns  of  olhen^ 
who  would  not  have  the  eapadty  for  conducting  a  con- 
oem  of  their  own.  We  should  not  Judge  highly  of  that 
man's  abititie$  who  could  only  mar  the  plans  of  othen, 
but  had  no  capacitf  for  conceiving  and  proposing  any 
thing  better  in  their  stead. 

A  vivid  Imagination,  a  retentive  memory,  an  exube- 
rant flow  of  language,  are  abilities  whicb  may  be  suc- 
eemfully  employed  In  attracting  popular  applause: 
*  I  grieve  that  our  senate  is  dwindled  Into  a  school  of 
rhetorick,  where  men  rise  to  display  their  abilities  rather 
than  to  deliberate.*— Sia  W.  Jonas.  But  that  eapaeiiy 
which  embraces  a  question  in  all  Its  bearings,  which 
surveys  with  a  discriminating  eye  the  mixed  multitude 
of  objects  that  demand  atientioni  which  Is  accompanied 
with  coolness  In  reflecting,  readlnem  In  combining, 
qulcknem  in  inventing,  firmness  in  deciding,  prompti- 
tude In  action,  and  penetration  In  discerning,  that  is  the 
eapaeitp  to  direct  a  state,  which  is  the  gift  of  but  few; 
*An  herolck  poem  requires  the  accompllshnicntof  some 
extraordinary  undertaking,  which  requires  the  duly  of 
a  soldier,  and  the  capacUy  and  prudence  of  a  genera!.* 

-    PftTDBR. 


The  common  Idea  of  power  is  what  renders  these 
words  synonymous. 

Minify  as  in  the  preceding  article,  signifies  that 
which  may  be  derived  either  iVom  cireumstanoes  or 
otherwise :  /scitlty,  in  Latin  fscaltas,  changed  fVom 
fuUitas  fhcUlty,  which  signifies  doaUeness,  or  th^i 
property  of  being  able  to  do  or  bring  about  eflltets,  is  a 
power  derived  from  nature;  *The  vital  faeultp  Is  that 
nr  which  life  is  preserved  and  tAe  ordinary  Ainctions 
or  speech  preserved;  and  the  animal  facuitf  is  what 
eonducts  the  operations  of  the  mind.* — Qcimct.  The 
faeuUif  Is  a  permanent  possession ;  It  is  held  by  a  certain 
tenure:  the  abiUtg  is  an  incidental  posseaion;  it  Is 
whatever  we  have  while  we  have  It  at  our  disjpoaal, 
but  it  may  vary  in  degree  and  quality  with  times,  per- 
■ons,  and  circumstances;  *Abitit§  to  leach  by  sermons 
is  a  grace  which  God  doth  bestow  on  tliem  whom  he 
BMketh  sufficient  fi>r  the  commendable  discharge  of 
their  duty.'— HooKBE.  The  powers  of  seeing  and 
hearing  ^ttfaeuUiss  ;  health,  stieagth,  and  fortune  are 
tbiUties.  The  faeuUf  Is  some  specffick  power  whkh  Is 
directed  to  one  single  oltject;  it  is  the  power  of  acting 
Moordlog  to  a  given  Ibrm ; 

No  ftnh  onr  palate  oowts,  or  llow*r  our  tmel, 
But  on  its  (ngrani  boaom  nations  dwell ; 
All  formed  wfth  proper /senOiim  n>  s' 
The  dally  bottoHesof  thetr  Makai^ 

1*)M  aMUfy  Is  Ib  nnonl  tke  power  of  doing;  th» 
faeuUw  therefore  ought,  la  the  strict  1  " 

sideredaa  at  "    

night,  in  tlie  strict  sense,  be  war 
»of  abiUtg;  'Human  abUity  Is  an 
the  vkileBt  and  unforeseen  vklssk- 

nnitqual  malcii  for 

tndes  of  the  wodd.*— Blaib. 

A  nmn  uses  thefaeuUies  with  which  be  is  endowed , 
he  gives  according  to  his  abiUtg. 

F^uvhv  and  talent  both  owe  their  being  to  nature ; 
but  the  facuUf  may  be  eitJier  phvsical  or  mental ;  the 
taimU  Is  altogether  mental:  the  /aenZty  of  speech  and 
the  ratiooal  /acaiiw  are  tke  grand  marks  of  distinctioa 
between  man  and  the  krute;  'Reason  Is  a  noble 
faemlt^,  and  when  kept  within  ila  proper  sphere,  and 
applied  to  useful  purposes)  proves  a  means  of  exalting 
human  craafiures  almost  to  the  rank  of  superiouir  beings? 
— Bbattib.  The  ta/eal  of  mlmickiy,  of  dxamalick 
acting,  and  of  imitatloa  la  geneml,  Is  what  disiinguisheB 
one  aiaa  flnm  the  other; 

*Tls  not,  Indeed,  my  talent  to  engage 
In  lofty  trifles,  or  to  swell  my  page 
With  wtaid  and  noise.— Drtdbii. 

These  terms  are  all  used  In  the  plural,  agreeably  to 
the  above  explanation ;  the  abilities  include,  In  the 
aggregate,  whatever  a  man  Is  able  10  do;  hence  we 
speak  of  a  man's  abilities  in  speaking,  writing,  learn- 
ing, and  the  like;  the  faculties  Include  all  the  endow- 
mentfl  of  body  and  mind,  which  are  the  Inherent  priN 
ponies  of  the  being,  as  when  we  speak  of  a  man*8 
retaining  his  faenUiesj  or  having  his  faemUiss  in- 
paired  :  talents  are  the  particular  endowments  of  the 
mind,  which  belong  to  ixie  individual;  hence  we  say, 
the  ialsnts  which  are  requisite  for  a  minister  of  stale 
are  diflerent  fiom  those  which  qualify  a  man  for  being 
a  Judge. 


JibiUtp  Is  here,  as  in  the  preceding  articles,  the  gene- 
riftk  term :  dextmrity,  says  the  Abbe  Glrard,*  resfiects  the 
manner  of  executing  things ;  it  is  the  medianlcal  facilitx 
of  performing  an  office:  address  refera  to  the  use  oC 
means  in  executing ;  it  signifies  properly  the  mode  of 
address  or  of  managing  one*s  self;  dexterity  and 
address  are  but  In  fact  modes  of  oit/ity. 

Dsxteritjf^  in  Latin  dexteriiasy  comes  from  dexter,  tlw 
right  hand,  because  that  it  Is  the  member  most  fitted  fot 
dexterous  execution.  Dexteritff  may  be  acquired ; '  Hla 
wisdom,  by  often  evading  from  perils,  was  turned 
rather  into  a  dexterily  to  deliver  himself  ft-om  dangers 
when  they  pressed  him,  than  Into  a  providence  to  pre> 
vent  and  remove  them  afhr  ofi*.*— Bacoh.  Address  is 
the  gift  of  nature;  *It  was  no  sooner  dark  than  she 
conveyed  inUi  hla  room  a  young  maid  of  no  disagree- 
able fifun,  who  was  one  oi  Ver  uttendnnts,  and  did  not 
want  address  to  improve  the  opportunity  for  tba 
advancement  of  her  fortune^^rBuTAToa. 

We  may  have  abilitg  to  any  degree  (v.  Mihtf);  •  U 
Is  not  possible  for  our  small  party  and  small  abUtty  to 
extend  their  operations  so  fkr  as  to  be  much  felt  among 
such  nnmbeni.*— Gowraa.  But  detierity  and  addresa 
are  positive  degrees  of  ability  ;  '  It  is  often  observed  that 
the  race  Is  won  as  much  by  the  dexterity  of  the  rider  aa 
by  the  vigour  and  fleetnem  of  the  animal.'~EAjtL  op 
Bath.  *  I  could  produce  Innumerable  instances  from 
my  own  observation,  of  events  imputed  to  the  profound 
skill  and  addrsf«  of  a  minister,  which  in  reality  were 
either  mere  efibcts  of  negligence,  weakness,  humour,  or 
pride,  or  at  beat  hut  the  natural  courv  of  things  left  to 
themselves.*— Swirr. 

To  form  a  good  government  there  must  be  atiUty  la 
the  prince  or  his  mtnistera;  address  in  those  to  whom 
the  detail  of  operations  Is  Intrusted;  and  dexterity  in 
th^NM  to  whom  the  execution  of  orders  is  confided. 
With  Uttks  abibly  and  k>Bg  habit  in  traBsacting  busi- 
ness, we  may  acquire  a  dexterity  in  despatching  n,  and 
address  in  pvlng  it  whatever  turn  wul  best  suit  our 

jibiUty  ebables  us  to  act  with  tatelllgenee  and  eon> 
fidence;  dexterity  lends  an  air  of  ease  to  every  action; 
address  supplies  art  and  Ingenuity  in  contrivance.  To 
manage  the  whip  with  dexterity,  to  carry  on  an  Intrigue 
with  address^  to  dlsplBy  some  ability  on  the  turf,  wll 
rate  a  man  high  In  toe  rank  of  the  present  AshionabUs 

•  ^nde  •  Duterhd,  adrmse^  habBM. 


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Ctmtr^  In  French  Itgere^  Ladn  tni$  ngitt,  wenM  to 
deoole  qukkneas  In  the  mental  faculty ;  tkilful  sigiilflea 
Ml  of  tkiU  ;  and  9km  probaMy  oones  tHm  the  LaUn 
«na  to  knnw ;  <xp«r^  in  Preoeh  ei!p«rtt,  Latin  ezptrtus. 

IMiilcf  pie  of  oferi^r  toaearch  or  try,  aignlllea 
and  tried ;  de«Ccr«M,  In  Latin4bsf«r,  in  Giwk  jc(cnp)(, 
6tiia  the  rifht  hand,  baa  the  meaninf  of  clever, 
lae  the  right  hand  is  the  moat  fitted  for     -' 

«dr«it,  in  French  adroiU.  Latin  wdreetut  or  reettu 
right  or  atralgbt,  agnifla  tiie  quality  of  doing  thinga  in 
a  right  manner. 

Clever  and  $kiUkl  are  qoalltlea  of  the  mind ;  expert^ 
itxUmu,  and  «b^  refer  to  modes  of  phyaleal  acHoo. 
CbMnuts  regarda  in  teneral  the  teadineaa  to  compre* 
hend;  «*iil  the  matnruy  of  the  Judgement;  expertiutt 
a  (adHty  in  the  uae  of  thinga;  dfztmiy  a  raochaaical 
liMSttity  In  the  perfotmanee  of  any  woric ;  adrmtnets 
AeauitablemoTemeniaofthebody.  A  penon  is  ctaMr 
at  drawing  who  diowa  a  taate  for  it,  and  execaiea  U 
well  without  much  Insiniction ;  he  iBski^ul  in  drawing 
IT  he  underatanda  it  both  In  theoiy  and  practice;  he  la 
mptrt  In  the  uaa  of  the  bow  If  he  can  ute  it  with  expe- 
ditloo  and  eflbct;  be  iM  dsxterou*  at  any  came  when  he 
pMa  ihroogh  the  maomuvrea  with  oetefity  and  an 
werring  hand;  he  ia  adivct  If  by  a  qnlclt,  ndden,  and 
-  '  ;ted  movmnent  of  hia  body,  he  eActa  the 
haa  In  Tiew. 

ClMcmMf  li  mental  power  empkiyed  in  the  ordi- 
■aiy  coocenia  of  life :  a  peiaon  b  eUwr  in  bocineaa  or 

Ht  fVienda  bade  me  welcome,  bat  struck  me  quite  dumb, 
Whh  tidings  that  Johnson  and  Burke  wouhl  not  come ; 
*  And  I  knew  it.**  he  cried,  "  both  eternaHy  ihil, 
The  one  at  the  House,  and  the  other  with  Tbrale. 
But  no  matter ;  1*11  warrant  we'll  make  up  the  party, 
With  two  Aill  ea  eUvmr  and  ten  times  aa  hearty.** 


Skill  ia  both  a  Biental  and  corporeal  power,  exerted 
m  mechanical  operatkHis  and  practical  sciences:  a 
■fayalcian,  a  lawyer,  and  an  artist,  are  skilful :  one  may 
iave  a  tkiU  in  divination,  or  a  tkiU  in  painting. 
There  la  nothing  more  graceAil  than  to  see  the  play 
maad  still  for  a  few  momenta,  and  the  audience  kept 
ai  an  agreeable  suspense,  during  the  silence  of  a  aUSfml 
eetor.*— Adoisox.  Expertn4*$  and  dexUritw  require 
aiore  corporeal  than  mental  power  exerted  In  minor 
■ns  and  amuaements:  one  Is  txpert  at  throwing  the 
fnoit ;  dexUr»u9  in  the  management  of  horsea ; 

0*er  bar  and  afaeif  the  watery  path  they  sound, 

With  4exfir»uM  arm,  sagacious  of  the  ground ; 
»     Feariess  they  combat  every  hostile  wind, 

Wheeling  in  many  tracts  with  course  inclin'd, 

Kxpcrt  to  moor  where  terroun  line  the  road. 


*Ile  applied  himself  next  to  the  coquette's  heart, 
which  he  likewise  laid  open  with  great  dexUritM.'— 
Aomaoir.  JIdroitMtt  is  altogether  a  corporeal  talent, 
naployed  only  m  occasion  may  require :  one  is  adroit 
ateluding  the  blows  aimed  by  an  adversary ;  *  Use  your- 
self 10  carve  adroitljf  and  genbeeily.* — CuBSTSEriXLD. 

Ck90nuM  is  rather  a  natural  gift;  $ktU  Is  elever- 
MtM  Improved  by  practice  and  extended  knowledge ; 
i»m-tme»s  is  tiie  elTect  of  long  practice;  dexterity 
artKS  from  habit  combined  with  agility ;  adroitnue  is 
a  meciesof  dex<m(y  arising  from  a  natural  agility  and 
pQablUty  of  body. 

h^HUtf  denotes  the  ahaenco  of  abUiiw  (a.  ^Miiv) 
In  the  moat  general  and  abstract  sense ;  *  It  is  not  from 
HM*iiily  to  discover  what  they  ought  to  do  that  men 
err  in  practice.*— Blaib.  Diaubititf  implies  the  ab- 
foiee  of  mbiUty  only  in  particular  eases :  the  nMiMtty 
■es  in  the  nature  of^the  thing,  and  la  irremediable ;  the 
OaoMitf  lies  In  theelrcunisiances,  and  mav  sometimes 

he  removed ;  weakness,  whether  ph; 
will  oeeaaioB  an  tnoMtte  to  perform  a  task ;  thereba 
lotal  imeAiUtif  In  an  innmt  to  walk  and  act  like  on 
adult :  a  want  of  knowledge  or  of  the  requisite  quall- 
(bationa  outy  be  a  dieahilitit:  in  thb  manner  mi- 
Bority  of  age,  or  an  objection  to  take  certain  oaths 
MT  be  a  rfieaHiilf  flw  ffiUng  a  pnbltek  o0loe ; « Want 

of  age  li  a  tegai  dlMkiUtf  to 



lue^akUj  that  Is,  net  having  eaaadtff  («.  Mtlity)j 
tmmjguiemty  or  not  ttifieient,  or  not  having  what  Is  nf' 
Jkiont;  inean^etmt,  or  not  competent;  are  employed 
either  for  persona  or  things:  the  first  in  a  general,  tlm 
lasttwolnaspccMckseose:  inademieUmnotadefuaf 
or  equalled;  b  applied  more  generally  to  tUngs. 

WhenaaMn  la  said  to  be  ineapaUe^  It  characterizoa 
hb  wliole  mind ;  *  Were  a  human  soul  ineepable  of 
farther  enlarttmenta,  I  coidd  Imagine  it  might  fall 
away  Insensibly .*>~Ainnsii!C.  If  he  he  said  to  have 
tne^jjUienef  and  ineompeteneif,  h  respects  the  parti- 
cular objects  to  which  he  haa  applied  hb  power:  he 
may  be  ineumeient  or  ineomfetent  for  certain  things ; 
but  he  may  have  a  etmoeitff  Amt  other  things :  the  term 
niMpastty,  therefore,  Implies  a  direct  charge  upon  the 
understanding,  which  b  not  implied  by  the  inet^i^ 
eieney  and  ineompeteneg.  An  mca^octty  consisb  alto* 
gether  of  a  phytScal  deftct :  an  ineuffieienef  and  ta- 
eompetonef  are  incidental  d^ects :  the  former  depend4 
lag  upoB  tlM  age,  Hie  condition,  the  acquisitions,  moral 
qoaliilca,  and  uie  like,  of  the  Individual ;  the  latter  o* 
the  extent  of  hb  knowledge,  and  the  nature  of  hia 
SMdies ;  where  there  b  direet  taemacit|r,  a  nerenn  hat 
■0  chance  of  making  Mmaalf  fit  mr  any  once  or  em* 
ptoyment ;  *  It  diietly  proceedeth  fVnm  natural  ineepw 
et'ry,  and  general  Indbpoeliion.'— BaowN.  Youth  ia 
natnrallv  accompanied  with  imenfieienef  to  fill  sta 
tlons  which  belong  to  mature  age,  and  to  perfomi 
oAces  which  require  the  exercise  of  Judgonent ;  *  Th« 
minister's  ap( 
reading,  t 
a  stranger, ' 

thing  to  do.'~HooKBE.  A  yoang  person  ta.  therefbre^ 
etiU  more  imeompetent  to  form  a  Axed  opinion  on  anf 
one  subject,  because  he  can  have  made  hfanself  mat* 
rer  of  nope;  *  Laymen,  with  equal  advantages  of 
parts,  are  not  the  moat  imumpetent  >idges  of  sacre4 
things.* — Dbydbn. 

Incopabte^  b  applied  aometimea  to  tlie  moral  cha- 
racter, to  signify  the  absence  of  that  which  b  bad| 
imeu^ent  and  imeomp^ent  alwaya  c<mvey  the  Met 
of  a  deficiency  in  that  which  b  at  least  desirable :  it 
fs  an  honour  to  a  ptvaon  to  be  ine^ekU  of  Ihloehoodf 
or  ineapeUe  of  doing  an  ungenerous  action ;  but  to  be 
inM^0^e^ent  and  incompetent  are,  at  all  eventa,  qusHitiea 
not  to  be  boasted  of,  although  they  may  not  be  expieasly 
disgracenii.  These  ternos  are  likewise  applicabb  m 
things.  In  which  they  preserve  a  similar  distinction) 
infidelity  b  ineapabte  of  affording  a  man  any  comforti 
when  the  nieana  are  ineuJUient  for  obtaining tlie  end^ 
h  b  madness  to  expect  sucoess ;  it  b  a  sad  condition  or 

wnicn  require  me  exemse  oi  juogunem;  'ine 
v'n  aptness,  or  ineufieienef,  otherwise  than  by 
{,  to  Instruct  the  flock,  standeth  in  thb  place  aa 
ger,  with  whom  our  Common  Prayer  has  no* 

litv  when  a  man's  resources  are  ineempetent  !• 
supply  him  with  the  ilrst  necessaries  of  life. 

Jnede^nete  b  relative  In  Hb  signification,  like  tfnM^ 
JUient  and  ineempetent ;  imt  the  relaiion  b  dlOueol 
A  thing  Is  ineuffieieni  which  doss  not  suffice  either  for 
the  wishes,  the  purpoaeR,  or  necessitiea,  of  any  on«^ 
in  particubr  or  in  general  cases;  thus  a  quantity  of 
materlata  may  be  inenfident  for  a  particular  building ; 
*  The  inenffidentjf  of  the  light  ot  nature  Is,  by  the 
light  of  Scripture,  l^illy  supp)led.*'~HooKxa.    /rcsm- 

petenef  Is  aa  inenJfuMneo  for  general  purposes,  in  thinp 
of  the  firat  necessity  ;  thus,  an  InoooM  may  be  tfacoai- 
petent  torapport  a  family,  or  perform  an  onoe ;  *  EveiF 

speck  does  not  blind  a  B»n,  nor  doea  every  inflrmMf 
moke  one  unable  to  dbcera,  or  ineempetenl  to  reprove^ 
the  grosser  iholis  of  olhen.'— Govbehmbbt  or  vat 
ToNovB.  Inede^umep  b  still  more  particular,  fbr  % 
denotes  any  deficiency  which  is  meftsured  by  compap- 
rison  with  the  object  to  which  It  reftes;  thus,  lh« 
strength  of  an  animal  may  be  madsfnate  to  tlie  labour 
whbh  b  required,  or  a  reward  may  be  tnodsr**^  tO 
the  aarvice;  *  All  the  attainments  possible  In  oar  pr» 
sent  state  are  evidently  raad«r«als  lo  our  oapacldes  ot 
enjoyment.*— JOHHSON. 

vnt,  like  wbdora,  accordfaig  to  Its  original,  fhoai 
iMlsssn  to  know,  signifies  knowledge,  hat  it  haa  at 


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I  ttimmnlngM  toiignifyUMtfkealtj  of  the 

mind  by  which  knowledge  or  truth  to  perceived.  The 
Am  property  of  wit,  ae  an  exertion  of  the  Uitelleciual 
faculty,  to  that  it  be  mpontaiieoua,  and  as  it  were  In- 
■tinctive :  laboured  or  forced  wtt  to  no  wiL  Reflection 
and  experience  aupfily  ua  with  wladoin ;  study  and 
labour  supply  us  with  learning;  but  wit  aeixea  with 
au  eagle  eye  that  which  escapes  the  notice  of  the  deep 
thinker,  and  elicits  truths  which  are  in  vain  sought 
for  with  any  severe  eifort:  '  H^it  lies  more  in  the  as- 
•eniblage  of  ideas,  and  putting  those  together  with 
quickness  and  variety/— Addison.  Bumtw  to  a 
pecies  of  wtt  wlikh  flows  out  of  the  tumour  of  a 

For  sure  by  wit  to  chieflv  meant 

Applying  well  what  we  invent : 

What  kttwMur  to  not,  all  the  ulbe 

Of  logick-mongers  can  describe: 

Here  nature  only  acts  her  port, 

Unbelp'd  by  practice,  books,  or  an.— 8wirr. 
Wit,  as  distinguished  from  tasumr,  may  consist  of  a 
•ingie  brtlHant  thought ; 

In  a  true  piece  of  wit  all  things  most  be, 
Yet  all  things  there  agree.— (X>wlbt. 
But  kvmour  runs  in  a  vein ;  It  to  not  a  striking,  but  an 
Muable  and  pleasing  flow  of  wit;  *  There  Is  a  kind 
or  nature,  a  certain  regularity  of  iliought,  which  must 
discover  the  writer  (of  humour)  la  be  a  man  of  sense 
at  the  same  time  thai  be  appears  altogether  siven  up 
to  caprice '— Addisom .    Of  this  desci iption  of  wit  Mr. 

Tto  with  our  Judgemeali  ■•  our  watekM^  i 
Go  Just  alike,  yet  each  believes  hto  own ; 

Go  Just  alike,  yet  each  believes  I 

In  poets  as  true  rtniua  to  rare,        , 

True  tvu  as  seldom  to  the  critick's  share.— Pops. 

It  to  obvious,  therefore,  that  we  may  have  a  tasU 
without  having  gnuMM ;  but  It  would  not  be  possible  tm 
have  gmius  for  a  thing  without  having  a  ta«t«  for  it : 
for  notiiing  caa  so  efl'ectually  give  a  taste  for  any  a» 
compltohment,  as  the  capacity  to  learn  it,  and  tlie  sua 
eeptlbllitv  of  all  lis  beautio,  which  ciicumstanres  ar 
hweparahle  from  /sains. 


Both  these  terms  imply  acuteness  of  nndenlandSng, 
and  dUhr  mostly  in  ihe  mode  of  dtoptaying  theuisetvea. 
/n/maity,  in  Latin  ta/«maulss,  signifies  literary  free- 
dom of  birth,  in  dtotinctiou  from  slaveiy,  with  whfcb 
condition  have  been  naturally  associated  nobleness  o( 
character  and  richness  in  mental  endowments,  ia 
which  latter  sense  it  is  allied  to  wtt.  Ingenuity  com- 
preliends  lovention ;  wtt  comprehends  knowledge,  /a- 
gtmniif  dtoplays  Itself  in  the  mode  of  conduciing  aa 
argument ;  *  Men  were  formerly  won  over  to  opiuiooa, 
by  the  candour,  sense,  and  ta/eatn'tf  of  those  who  had 
the  right  on  their  side.*— Addison,     ^it  is  oMstly  dis- 

'  lyed  in  aptness  of  expression  and  Illustration ;  *  Whea 

Addisiin  has  given  us  the  most  admirable  specimens  in 
his  writings,  who  knew  best  how  to  explain  what  wit 
and  AiuRotir  were,  and  to  illustrate  them  by  hto  practice. 
Humour  may  likewise  dtoplay  itself  in  aciions  as  well 
as  words,  wherdiy  It  to  more  strikingly  distinguished 
fprn  wtt,  wMch  dtoplays  itself  only  in  the  happy  ex- 
pression of  happy  thoughts;  *  I  cannot  help  remarking 
that  sickness,  which  often  destroys  both  wit  and  wls- 
diom,  yet  seldom  has  power  to  remove  that  talent  which 
we  caH  Attaisar.  M  r.  Wy cher ley  showed  hto  In  hto  last 
compliment  paid  to  his  voung  wife  (whom  he  made 
'  s,  on  hto  dying  bed,  that  she  would  not  marry  an 

old  man  again).* — Pora. 

Ssftre,  from  sotfr,  probably  (Voro  sat  and  4ra 
abounding  in  aimer,  and  irony^  from  the  Greek  upuvia 
simulation  and  disstmulatlou,  are  personal  and  censo 
rious  sons  of  wit ;  the  flrst  of  which  openly  pohiti  at 
Che  object,  and  the  second  in  a  covert  manner  takes  ito 
aim ;  '  The  ordinary  subjects  of  taiiro  are  such  as  ex- 
cite the  greatest  indignation  in  the  best  tempers.*— 
Adomon.  '  In  writings  of  Avaonr,  figures  are  some- 
times used  of  so  delicate  a  nature,  that  it  shall  oOen 
happen  that  some  people  will  see  tlilnp  in  a  direct  con- 
trary sense  to  what  the  author,  and  the  minority  of  the 
readers  understand  them :  to  such  the  most  hinoeent 
irony  may  appear  irreligton.'— CAaaaiDoa.  But' 
hoque  to  rather  a  species  of  humour  tlian  direct  wit, 
which  constots  in  an  asaeiiiblage  of  Ideas  extrava- 
gantly discordant ;  *  One  kind  of  burUoquo  represents 
aaean  persons  in  the  accouhwmenis  of  heroes.'— 
Addison.  The  sottrs  and  irony  are  the  most  Ill-na- 
tured kinds  of  wtt ;  bmrUofuo  stands  In  Ihe  fewest  rank. 

7\wt0,  in  all  probability  fkom  the  Latin  Uutum  and 
tango  to  touch,  seems  to  designate  the  capacity  to  de- 
rive pleasure  from  an  object  by  simply  coming  In  con- 
tact with  it ;  *  Thto  metaphor  woula  n<il  have  been  so 
feneral  had  there  not  beea  a  conformity  between  the 
■nental  toots  and  Uiat  sensitive  taoU  which  gives  a  re- 
lish of  every  flavour.'— AomsoM.  Geniuo  designates 
the  power  we  have  for  accomplishing  any  object; 
*  7\ist«  consists  in  the  power  of  Judging,  gowhu  in  tlie 
power  of  executing.'- BLAia.    He  who  derlvsa  parti- 

r  pleasure  horn  muslck  may  be  said  to  have  a  taote 

for  musick ;  he  who  makes  very  great  proficiency  In  the 
tiieory  and  practice  of  musick  may  be  said  to  have  a 
roniuo  for  iL  TaoU  to  in  some  degree  an  acquired 
ncolty,  or  at  least  Is  dependant  on  cultivation,  as  also 
on  our  other  faculties,  for  ito  perfection ;  *  The  cause 
of  a  wrong  tests  to  a  defect  of  Judgement'— Buaaa. 
Oenimo,  fhmi  the  Latin  gigno  to  generate,  to  a  perfectly 
natural  gift  which  rises  to  perfection  by  lis  own  native 
■tranfth ;  the  former  belongs  to  tlie  crliick,  and  tlie  lat- 
ter to  the  poet; 

broke  looee  from  that  great  body  of  writers,  who  have 

mployed  their  wit  and  parts  in  propagating  vice  and 

Irrelision.  I  did  not  question  but  1  shouM  be  treated  aa 

omploved  their  wit  i 

Irrelision.  I  did  not  qu«vMwu  »•". «  xwuim  v^  iic»»»u  •• 
an  odd  kind  of  feltow.'- Addison.  One  to  ingtniouo 
in  matters  either  of  art  or  science ;  one  Is  witty  only 
In  mattera  of  sentiment :  things  may,  therefore,  be  ta- 
goniouoi  but  not  wit^;  wtttf ,  but  not  tngoniouOf  or  boUi 
witty  and  ingeniouo.  A  mechanical  Invention,  or  any 
ordinary  contrivance,  to  ingeniouo  but  not  witfy ;  aa 
ingeniouo^  not  a  witty  solution  of  a  difliculty  ;  a  flash 
of  wit,  not  a  flash  of  tn^saatty ;  a  witty  humour,  a 
witty  conversation ;  not  an  ta/«ai>iis  humour  or  con- 
versation :  on  the  other  hand,  a  conceit  to  ingoniouot 
as  It  is  the  fnilt  of  one's  own  mind ;  it  to  wi'Uv,  as  It 
conteins  point,  and  strikes  on  the  underMandiag  df 


SenoOf  from  the  Latin  oenouo  and  seatts  to  foel  or 
perceive,  signifies  in  general  the  faculty  of  feeling  cor- 
poreally, or  perceiving  mentally ;  in  the  flrst  case  it  to 
allied  to  feelioic  (o.  Foeling)^  In  the  second  it  to  synony- 
mous with  JMdrement^  which  to  a  special  operation  of 
tlie  mind.  *  Tlie  oenoe  to  that  primitive  portion  of  the 
understanding  which  renders  an  account  of  thing* 
through  ttie  medium  of  the  senses ; 

Then  to  the  soul  a  nature,  which  contains 

The  power  of  ssass  within  a  greater  power. 

And  the  judgement,  that  portloirof  the  reason  which 
selects  or  reJixMs  (torn  this  accounL  The  ««iise  to,  so 
to  speak,  the  reporter  which  collects  the  details,  and 
exposes  the  focu ;  the  Judgement  is  the  judge  that 
passes  sentence  upon  tnem.  According  to  the  strict 
import  of  the  terms,  the  judgement  depends  upon  the 
feiise,  and  varies  with  It  in  degree.  He  who  has  no 
««N«0,  has  no  judgement ;  and  he  who  loses  oenot, 
\ooea  judgement :  since  saue  supplies  the  knowledge 
of  things,  and  judgement  pronounces  upon  them.  It  to 
evident  that  there  must  be  ssius  before  there  can  be 

On  the  other  hand,  oense,  when  taken  to  denotr  the 
mental  foculty  of  perceiving,  may  be  so  distinguished 
from  jtu^«m«nt,  that  there  may  be  eenoe'Without  judge- 
montf  and  judgement  witlmut  ««ns«;  smss  to  tlM 
faculty  of  perceiving  in  general;  It  to  applied  to  ab- 
stract science  as  well  as  general  knowledge  '.judgement 
to  the  faculty  of  determining  either  in  matiere  of  prac- 
tice or  theory.  It  to  the  tot  of  many,  therefore,  to  have 
eenee  in  matten  of  theory,  who  have  no  judgment  in 
matters  of  practice .  while  othera,  on  the  contrary, 
who  have  nothing  above  common  oenoe,  will  have  a 
soundness  of  judgement  that  Is  not  to  be  surpassed 

Nay,  Airther,  It  to  possible  for  a  man  to  have  good 
oenoe,  and  yet  not  a  solid  judgement :  as  they  are 
both  natural  foculdes,  men  are  gifted  with  them  as 

•  Vide  Ribaud :  «'  Sens,  Jugement " 


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fitioiisly  M  with  eviny  other  faeolty.  Bj  good  ««iw« 
«  nwa  !•  enabled  to  diMern,  as  it  were  Intuitively,  that 
vhicli  rcquirea  another  of  leu  ««b««  to  ponder  over 
and  Mudy ; 

There's  something  previous  ev*n  to  ttuU:  'Us  ««»««, 
Good  tenae  ;  which  only  Is  the  gift  of  heav*n, 
And,  ihough  no  science,  fairly  worth  the  seven ; 
A  light  within  vourself'you  must  perceive. 
Jooes  and  Le  Notre  have  it  not  to  give.— Pofb. 

Ry  a  solid  jtu^saiM^  a  man  is  enabled  to  avoid  those 
errours  In  conduct,  which  one  of  a  wealL  iMdgement  is 
always  failing  into ;  *  In  all  Instances,  where  our  ex- 
perience ot  the  past  has  been  extensive  and  uniform, 
ourjiu/^cMeitt  concerning  the  future  amounts  u>  moral 
certainty.*— Bbattib.  There  is,  however,  this  dis- 
Uiictiou  between  seiws  and  jiu^iiuiit,  that  the  deficien- 
cies of  the  former  may  be  supplied  by  diligence  and 
anention ;  bat  a  defect  in  the  latter  is  to  be  supplied 
by  no  effi>rts  of  one's  own.  A  man  may  improve  his 
tenMc  In  proportion  as  he  has  the  means  of  infor- 
mauon ;  but  a  wealmess  of  ja^eaiciU,  Is  an  hrreme- 
diabfe  evil. 

When  employed  as  epithets,  the  term  tensibU  and 
judieictu  serve  still  more  clearly  to  dlstinEuish  the  two 
primitives.  A  writer  or  a  speaker  Is  said  to  be  aen»i- 
He;  'I  have  been  tired  with  accounts  fVom  tentibU 
men,  ftirnislied  with  matters  of  fhct,  whish  have  hap- 
pened within  their  own  knowledge.' — Addison.  A 
friend,  or  an  adviser,  to  be  judieious ;  *  Your  obscrvar 
tionsare  wojudidoutA  wish  you  had  not  been  so  sparing 
of  theoi.'— 8iR  W.  JoNBS.  The  teiue  displays  itself 
In  the  conversation,  or  the  communication  of  one's 
Ideas  ;-iftie  judgvuHt  in  the  propriety  of  one's  actions. 
A  »eM«ibU  man  may  be  an  entertaining  companion ; 
but  a  judicitnu  man,  in  any  poet  of  command,  is  an 
hiesiimable  treasure.  SensihU  remarks  are  alwavs 
calculated  to  please  and  interest  sauibU  people;  j«- 
dtea«M  measures  have  a  sterling  value  In  themselves, 
that  is  appreciated  according  to  the  importance  of  the 
objecL  Hence,  it  is  obvious,  that  to  be  tentibU  is  a 
desirable  thing ;  but  to  tmjudieiaut  is  an  indispenaable 

DitceruwuHt  expressos  thejudgement  or  power  of 
Usetnumg.  which,  fhim  the  IjQI^a  diteemoj  or  dt«  and 
eeni«,  signifies  to  k>ok  at  apart,  so  as  to  form  a  true 
estimate  of  things ;  petutraticm  denotes  the  act  or 
power  of  penttrmtingf  fh>m  penetrate^  in  Latin  pene- 
tralutf  participle  of  |r«iiefr0  and  penilus^  within,  sign!- 
(VIng  to  see  into  the  interiour ;  duterimimaUtn  denotes 
the  act  or  power  of  iU$erimniatinf,  from  tUgcriminaUj 
in  Latin  dasmsitactw,  participle  of  dueriminOf  to 
makeadlflference;  judgement  denotes  the  power  of 
jmdging,  (kom  ia^«i  In  Latin  judieoy  compounded  of 
jut  and  dies,  signit  ving  to  pronounce  rli^hL 

The  first  three  of  these  terms  do  not  express  different 
powers,  but  different  modes  of  the  same  power; 
namely,  the  power  of  seeing  Intellectually,  or  exerting 
the  intellectnal  sight. 

Dieetnmtmt  Is  not  so  powerAil  a  mode  of  intellcc 
foal  vision  as  pMctrottra ;  the  former  is  a  common 
fhcuhy,  the  lauer  la  a  higher  degree  of  the  same 
faeuliy ;  It  Is  the  power  of  seeing  quickly,  and  seeing 
in  spite  of  all  that  intercepts  the  sight,  and  keeps  the 
object  out  of  view :  a  mau  of  common  diecemmeKi  dis- 
tnrn  charaeten  which  are  not  concealed  by  any  par- 
licttlar  disguise ;  *  Great  part  of  the  country  was  aban- 
doned to  the  spoUe  of  the  soldiers,  who,  not  troubling' 
themselves  to  diecem  between  a  subject  and  a  rebel, 
while  their  liberty  lasted,  made  indiflerently  profit  of 
both.*— Hatwaro.  a  man  of pemetTation  is  not  to  be 
deceived  by  any  artifice,  however  thoroughly  ekMiked 
or  secured,  oven  from  sosidclon ;  *  He  la  as  stow  to 
decide  as  be  is  quick  to  apprehend,  calmly  and  delibe- 
rately weighing  every  opposite  reason  that  is  offered, 
and  tracing  It  with  a  most  Judlek>aa  ^nMlrotjon.*— 
MCLMOTU  {LHUre  of  Pltmif). 

IHseemwunt  and  penetration  serve  for  the  discovery 
of  individual  things  by  their  outward  marks;  dieerimi- 
nation  is  employed  In  the  discovery  of  differences 
between'two  or  more  objects ;  the  former  consists  of 
simple  obaervaik>n,  the  latter  combines  also  com- 
parlsoft;  duetrmment  and  penetration  are  great  aids 

towards  di«erisi inaiisa ;  ha  who  can  Oseem  tba 
spriop  of  human  actton,  or  penetrate  the  viewa  of 
men,  will  be  most  fitted  for  dUcriminating  betweea 
the  characters  of  dififerent  men ;  *  Perhaps  there  is  no 
character  through  all  Shakspeare  drawn  with  mora 

3)trit    and   Just  diecriminatMn   than  Bhytock's.*— 

Although  judgement  derives  much  aasiatance  fioai 
the  three  former  operations,  it  is  a  totally  disthict 
power:  the  former  only  discover  the  thlnffB  that  are; 
It  acts  on  external  objects  by  seeing  them :  the  latter 
Is  creative ;  It  produces  by  deductk>n  tVom  that  which 
passes  Inwardly.*  The  former  are  speculative;  thsf 
are  directed  to  that  which  is  to  be  known,  and  an 
confined  to  present  objects;  they  serve  to  discovar 
truth  or  falsehood,  perfections  and  defects,  motivea 
and  pretexts:  the  latter  is  practical ;  It  is  directed  to 
that  which  Is  to  be  done,  and  extends  its  views  to  the 
future;  it  marks  the  relations  and  connexions  of 
things:  it  foresees  their  consequences  and  efleets;  *I 
kwe  hbu,  I  confess,  extremely ;  but  my  affection  doca 
by  no  m^ns  prejudice  my  judgement,*)— MuLuora 
iLettere  of  Plin^). 

Of  dieeermment,  we  say  that  it  is  clear;  it  serves  to 
remove  all  obscurity  and  conflisioa :  of  penetration^ 
we  say  that  It  is  acute ;  it  pierces  evory  veil  which 
falsehood  draws  before  truth,  and  prevents  us  fion 
being  deceived :  of  dieeriminatumt  we  say  that  It  is 
nice ;  It  renders  our  ideas  accurate,  and  serves  to  pre- 
vent us  from  confounding  objects :  of  judgement^  wa 
say  that  it  Is  solid  or  sound ;  it  renders  the  conduct 
prudent,  and  prevents  us  from  committing  mistakes, 
or  involving  one's  self  In  embarrassments. 

When  tlie  question  Is  to  estimate  the  real  qualities 
of  either  persons  or  things,  we  exercise  discernment; 

Cool  age  advances  venerably  wise, 

Turns  on  ail  hands  lis  deep  dieteming  eyes.— Porm. 
When  it  is  required  to  lay  open  that  which  art  or 
cunning  has  concealed,  we  roust  exercise  ^metraCtoii; 
*  A  penetration  into  the  abstruse  difficulties  and  depths 
of  modern  algebra  and  fluxions,  la  not  worth  the 
labour  of  those  who  deslan  either  of  the  three  learned 
professions.'- Watts.  When  the  question  Is  to  da* 
termlne  the  proportions  and  degrees  of  qualities  in  per- 
sons or  things,  we  must  use  diaerimtnation;  *•  A  satire 
should  expose  nothing  but  what  is  corrigible,  and 
make  a  due  dieeriminaHon  between  those  who  are^ 
and  those  who  are  not,  proper  objects  of  it.' — ADDisonf 
When  called  upon  to  take  any  step,  or  apt  any  part, 
we  must  employ  \Xk^  judgement ;  ^Judjfement^  a  cool  and 
slow  faculty,  attends  not  a  man  in  the  rapture  of  poeti- 
cal compoidilon.' — Dennis.  JJiscemment  is  more  ot 
less  indispensable  for  every  man  in  private  or  public 
station ;  he  who  has  the  most  promiscuous  dealln|BB 
with  men,  has  the  greatest  need  of  it :  pcMtraitMs  is 
of  peculiar  importance  for  princes  and  statesmen :  di$ 
erimtnatien  is  of  great  utility  for  commanders,  aod 
all  who  have  tiie  power  of  distributing  rewards  and 
punishments  .judgement  Is  an  absolute  requisite  for  aH 
to  whom  the  execution  or  management  of  ooneema  ia 


Are  both  derived  from  the  same  Latin  word  rotMr, 
reason,  which,  from  ratua  and  reoTf  to  think,  signifiMB 
the  thinking  facultv. 

ReaeomUtle  signifies  accordant  with  reason ;  rottSMl 
signifies  having  reason  in  it :  the  former  is  more  coa- 
monly  applied  in  the  sense  of  right  reason,  propriety^ 
or  fairness ;  the  latter  Is  emptoyed  in  the  original  senn 
of  the  word  reaeon :  hence  we  term  a  man  reneomahle, 
who  acts  according  to  the  principles  of  right  reason ; 
and  a  being  ratumaif  who  is  posaessed  of  tlie  rmtionml 
or  reasoning  faculty,  in  distinction  from  the  brutes.  It 
is  to  be  lamented  that  there  are  much  fewer  reossnoMs 
tlian  there  are  ra/s0iiai  creatures.  The  same  distinction 
axisu  between  them  when  applied  to  things ;  *  A  law 
may  be  reaeouable  in  itself,  although  a  man  does  not 
allow  it,  or  does  not  know  the  reason  of  the  lawgiven '. 
— Swirr.  *  The  evidence  which  is  afforded  for  a  fhtora 
state  Is  saflicient  for  a  ratismal  ground  of  oondoeL*^ 

•  Vide  Abbe  Girard .  ".Discarnemwit,  JogOMBt  "«> 


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Tiiere  ii  the  miiM  dfflbrenee  between  wu 
iMtetUietusl  m  betweea  mind  and  nUeUeet :  the  rntud 
conprehendt  tfas  thinking  faeulcjr  In  general  with  all 
•m  openuiona;  the  inlelUet  ineludes  only  that  part  of 
It  which  eonaiflla  in  andeivtaading  ana  Judgement: 
wuntal  is  therefore  oppoeed  to  corporeal ;  inUlUetual 
taoppoaed  to Mnanai  or  phyileal:  menial  ezertioni  are 
MK  n>  be  ezpBcied  front  all ;  mt^Uetual  enjoyments 
Ikli  to  the  lot  of  eomparatlTeiy  few. 

Objects,  pleasurea,  pains,  operations,  gifts,  &c  are 
denominated  mental ;   *To  collect  and  reposite  the 
various  forms  of  thinp  Is  fhr  the  most  pleasing  part 
at  mmaal  occupation.*--JoHifsoH.     Subjects,  conyer- 
sailnn,  punults,  and  the  like,  are  entitled  intelUctual; 
Man  *s  more  divine,  the  master  of  all  these, 
Lord  of  the  wide  world,  and  wide  wat'ry  seas. 
Endued  with  iMteUeetual  sense  and  soul. 

It  IS  not  always  easy  to  dIstinguWi  our  mental  pteasures 
th>m  those  corporeal  plnsures  which  we  ei^Joy  In  com- 
mon with  the  brutes ;  the  latter  are  however  greatly 
Mghteoed  by  the  former  hi  whatever  degree  they  are 
Mended :  lo  a  society  of  well4nfi>rnied  iiervons  the  con- 
versation wiU  turn  priDclpaliy  on  uUaUeetual  sufcgecu. 


Memerjfj  In  Latin  mamaria  or  mmsmt,  Greek  iiM(fi<»y 
and  uv4aitait  comes,  In  ail  probability,  ftom  uW,  the 
mind,  because  wumaty  ia  the  principal  ftculty  of  the 
mind ;  pemambranc$t  from  the  verb  mu m^sr,  cou- 
iraeted  from  rt  and  mamara^  to  bring  Itack  to  the  mind, 
is  a  verbal  substantive,  denoting  the  exercise  of  that 
Acuity ;  rteoiUetion^  from  reeoUeet,  compounded  of  r« 
and  coUeet^  signifies  eoUeeting  ai^ain,  i.  e.  carefully, 
wd  fttmi  diflbrentqoarters  by  an  etfbrt  of  the  mMiary; 
f«sii»we«iic«,  in  Latin  raminiseentia,  from  reminieeer 
mi  aicHMP,  ii  the  bringing  back  to  the  mind  what  was 
mere  before. 

Memory  la  the  power  of  leealHng  images  onoe  made 
em  the  mmd ;  rememkrantey  reeeUeetion,  and  reminie- 
eemee,  are  ooeiations  or  ezertlons  of  this  power,  which 
vary  in  their  mode.  , 

The  MMMTf  is  a  power  which  eierts  itself  either  In- 
dspendently  or  the  will,  or  In  conformity  with  the  will ; 
hat  all  the  other  terms  exprem  the  acts  of  conscious 
fgents,  and  eoasequently  are  more  or  lem  connected 
with  the  WiU.  In  dreams  the  mmwry  exerts  itself,  but 
w  siMMld  not  sav  that  we  have  then  any  rememkranee 
m  rteelleetien  of  objecta. 

Mmnemira»ee  Is  the  exmclBB  of  meeunj  fn  a  oon- 
ackms  agent ;  it  la  the  calling  a  thing  back  to  the  mind 
wMiA  has  been  there  before,  but  has  paaMd  away ; 
PorgetAilneas  Is  nccomary  to  wnMviftraiiee.*— JoHir- 
fem.  This  may  be  the  eflfeci  of  repetition  or  habit,  as 
t»  the  eaae  of  a  child  who  remembere  his  lesson  after 
iMviog  learoed  It  several  times ;  or  of  a  horse  who 
usiisiins  the  road  whi^  be  has  been  continually 
passing ;  or  it  may  be  the  effect  of  associanon  and  ciiv 
ewnstances,  by  which  images  are  casually  brought 
tabk  to  the  mind,  as  happens  to  intelligent  beings  con- 
limuUy  as  they  exercise  their  tblnkii«  ftculUes ; 

Ah,  thou  poor  ghost,  while  memory  holds  a  seat 
In  fhls  distracted  globe.— SaASsPBAas. 

H  ibeae  eaaes  remembramce  la  an  involuntary  act ; 
§m  thinfi  remm  to  the  mind  before  one  Is  aware  of  it. 
■i  In  the  ease  of  one  who  hears  a  particular  name,  andf 

t  that  he  has  to  call  on  a  peraon  of  the  same 
or  of  one  who,  on  aeeing  a  particular  tree, 
vemee^ere  aU  the  circumstances  of  his  youth  which 
were  connected  with  a  similar  tree. 

Jtemem^anee  b  however  likewise  a  voluntaiy  act, 
aid  the  consequence  of  a  direct  determination,  as  in 
^  case  ofv  ebiid  who  strives  to  rememher  what  it  has 
"a  Mend  who  remembere 
friend  in  conseauence 
B  excited  In  his  mind :  nay 
MMeed  experience  teaches  os  that  scarcely  any  thing 
in  ordinary  cases  to  more  under  the  subservience  of 
llM  will  than  the  mumerf/ ;  for  It  is  now  become  almost 
a  maxim  to  say,  thai  one  may  remember  whatever  one 

■a  case  orv  enuo  wno  stnves  to 
itaa  told  by  ifi  parent ;  or  of  a  f 
*a  hour  of  meetlnf  another  fi 
•f  the  interest  which  It  has  excl 

The  power  of  mmisry.  tmi  tha  rfuple  emtlBe  of 
that  power  In  the  act  of  i-emtmbuingf  are  pomiastd 
In  common,  though  in  diflbrent  degrees,  by  man  and 
brute ;  but  rtceUeetion  and  reminieeenee  are  exerclaea 
of  the  memerif  that  are  connected  with  the  higher 
fbculties  of  man,  his  Judgement  and  understanding. 
To  remember  is  to  call  to  mind  that  which  has  oiica 
been  presented  to  the  mind;. but  to  reeMect  is  to 
remember  afiesh,  to  remember  what  has  been  remewf 
bered  tefore.  RemembroMce  busies  itself  with  objectt 
that  are  at  hand ;  recoUectien  carries  us  back  to  dis- 
tant periods :  simple  rememiroMu  is  engaged  in  tilings 
that  have  but  Just  left  the  mind,  which  are  more  or 
leas  easily  to  be  recalled,  and  more  or  lem  faithfully  lo 
be  represented ;  but  reeeUeetion  'tries  to  retrace  the 
Mat  images  of  things  that  have  been  so  long  unthougbt 
of  as  to  be  almost  obliterated  fh>m  the  m^mcrv.  In  Uiii 
manner  we  are  said  to  remember  in  one  half  hour  what 
was  told  us  in  the  preceding  half  hour,  or  to  remember 
what  passes  fhnn  one  day  to  another ;  but  we  reeoUeet 
the  incidents  of  childhood ;  we  reeoUeet  what  happened 
in  our  native  place  after  many  yeare*  absence  tmin  It. 
The  remembrance  is  that  homely  every-day  exercise  of 
the  memerf  which  renders  it  of  essential  service  in  the 
acquirement  of  knowledge,  or  in  the  performance  of 
one*s  duties ;  *  Memery  may  be  assisted  by  method, 
and  the  decays  of  knowledge  repaired  by  stated  timea 
€€  recollection.* — JonmoM.  The  r\K«2/ee(ioii  is  that  ex- 
alted exercise  of  the  memory  which  affords  us  the  pure4 
of  enfoymenta,  and  serves  the  noblest  of  purpot^s ;  the 
recollection  of  all  the  minute  incidents  of  childhood  is 
a  more  sincere  pleasure  than  any  which  the  present 
moment  can  aflord. 

AflKtnucewee,  if  It  deserve  any  notice  as  a  #brd  of 
English  use,  is  altogether  an  abstract  exercise  of  the 
memory,  which  is  employed  on  purely  intellfictual  ideoa 
in  distinction  fVom  those  which  are  awakened  by  sen- 
sible objects ;  the  maihematkian  makes  use  of  remi- 
nieeenee in  deducing  unknown  irutln  from  those  which 
he  already  knows ;  ^Reminieeenee  is  the  retrieving  a 
thing  at  present  forgot,  or  confusedly  renumbered^  by 
setting  the  mind  to  hunt  over  all  lis  notions.*— Booth. 

Reminieeenee  among  the  disciples  of  Socrates  waa 
the  remembrance  of  ihinas  purely  intellectual,  or  of 
that  natural  knowledge  which  the  souls  had  had  before 
their  union  with  the  body;  while  the  memory  was 
exercised  upon  seniiible  things, or  that  knowledge  which 
was  acquired  through  the  UMBdium  of  the  senses ;  |here> 
fore  the  Latins  said  that  reminieeetUia  belonged  exclo^ 
sively  to  man,  because  it  waa  purely  intellectual,  but 
that  memory  was  common  lo  all  animals,  because  K 
was  merely  the  depot  of  the  senses ;  but  this  dli«ine. 
tion,  from  what  has  been  before  obaerved,  is  only  pre- 
aerved  as  it  respects  tlie  meaning  of  rtmtiMseMMs. 

Memory  Is  a  generic  term,  as  has  been  already 
ahown :  it  includes  the  oofnmon  Idea  of  reviving  former 
imprevrions,  but  does  not  qualify  tlm  nature  of  the 
ideas  revived:  the  term  Is  however  extended  in  its 
application  to  signity  not  merely  a  power,  but  also  a 
seat  or  resting  place,  as  is  Ukewlae  remewehranee  and 
reeoUeeUon;  but  stiU  with  this  diftrence,  that  the 
memorv  is  spacious,  and  cootaina  every  thing;  the 
remembranee  and  reeoUeetien  are  partial,  and  compre- 
hend only  passing  events :  we  treasure  up  knowledge 
In  our  memory ;  uie  occurrences  of  Um  preceding  yeaf 
are  still  fresh  in  our  remembramce  or  reeeileetiom. 

Forgetfnlneee  characterlsea  the  penon,  or  that  which 
nal ;  obUmon  the  slate  of  the  thing :  the  Ibrmor 

fen  10  him  who  forgete;  *I  have  read  in  ancient 
authors  Invkationa  to  lay  aside  care  and  anxiety,  and 
give  a  hraoe  u>  that  pleaaing /m st/«incM  wlierelii 
men  put  off  their  characters  of  busioess.'— STaaut. 
The  latter  to  that  which  \»forgeUmi: 
O'er  all  the  rest,  an  undistinguished  crew, 
Her  wing  of  deepest  shade  oMtvien  drewr— Palconbs. 

We  Uame  a  parson  for  his  forgetftJmieae ;  but  we  some- 
limes  bury  things  in  ehUeeon, 

',  considered  as  a  power,  simply  brings  the  ob 
9  mind,  or  nia'Mes  it  appear,  from  the  Latin 
id  the  Greek  ^mnwk  •»!  ^ai¥*ot  to 


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■HMir;  tat imagtauHmit  ttomtwuige.  lo  I«atio  immgQt 
Of  mUifo^  or  imitiUio.  b  a  power  which  prnenta  the 

The  fmufi  therefore, 
only  wployB  Itself  about  thinys  wnhom  reg«rdin|{ 

their  nsture; 

but  the  tm^i^mattM  oi 
and  fetHnf  » true  copjr: 

aims  at  tradoi  a 

And  as  iwugiiutwu  bo4lei  fbrlh 
The  forms  of  tUngs  onkiiowii,  the  poeCfspea 
Toms  theai  lo  riiape.— SHA.unAKa. 
The  fa»qf  conseaueDtly  forms  comhlnatlons,  either 
real  or  unreal,  as  coaoce  may  direct ;  but  the  imagima- 
*um  is  seldoroer  led  astray.  The  /axcy  is  busy  in 
Ireanis,  or  when  the  mind  Is  In  a  dftsordered  state ; 
There  was  a  certain  tady  of  thin  airy  shape,  who 
•vas  very  active  In  this  solemnity:  her  name  was 
Foncf  .*— Addiboit.  But  the  iwuigtnaUon  is  suppoeed 
to  act  when  the  Intellectual  powers  are  in  fUll  play. 
The  /omit  Is  employed  on  light  and  trivial  olyiects, 
which  are  present  to  the  senses;  tbnimmgiHation  soani 
abow  all  worldly  objects,  and  carries  us  aom  the  world 
»f  matter  into  the  world  of  spirits,  from  time  present 
to  the  time  tocome.  A  milliner  or  mantua-nmker  may 
employ  har/«a«f  in  the  decorations  of  a  cap  or  gown; 
Phlloaophy  1  I  sav,  and  call  It  He ; 
For  whatsoe'er  tlw  painter's /sacy  be, 

It  a  male  virtue  s 

B  lo  me.— CowLBT. 

But  the  poet's  imagiiution  depicts  every  thine  grand, 
every  thing  bold,  and  every  thing  remote ;  '  Whatever 
be  bis  subject,  MUton  never  falls  to  All  the  magina- 

Although  Mr.  Addison  has  thought  proper,  for  his 
convenience,  to  use  the  words /oiinr  and  tmagination 
pronNscuouny  when  wridng  on  this  aubject,  yet  the 
diMioction,  as  above  pointed  out,  has  been  observed 
biitJi  in  Amiliar  dlscoune  and  in  writing.  We  say 
that  we  /aitcy,  not  that  we  isMfiiie,  that  we  see  or 
hear  KNnething;  the  pleasores  of  the  tiMifmatiMi,  not 
of  the  /oncf  . 


/d«a.  In  Latin  idea,  Greelc  ciMi,  signifies  the  form  os 
fanage  of  an  olgect,  flrom  u6im  to  see,  that  is,  the  thing 
seen  in  the  mind.  Thought  Iherally  signifies  the  thing 
tkMgkt,  and  msgimatiom  the  thing  imagimtd. 

The  td«a  is  the  sbnple  representation  of  an  object; 
the  Uuugkt  is  the  refleetloii;  and  the  imagination  is 
the  comMnaHon  of  idet:  wo  have  tdea«  of  the 
Bun,  the  moon,  and  ail  material  objects ;  we  have 
tktmgkMa  on  moral  sul^ects :  we  have  im^giiuaiont 
drawn  from  the  tdeos  ata^y  existing  in  Uie  mind. 
ThetdeMsrefonned;  they  are  the  rude  materials  with 
which  the  tkimkimg  teculty  exerts  itself:  the  thought* 
arise  in  the  mind  by  uMam  of  association,  or  recur 
in  the  mind  by  the  power  of  the  memory ;  they  are 
the  nuterlals  with  which  the  thinking  faculty  cmnloyB 
itself:  the  tsiaWaaltsu  are  created  by  tlie  mind's  re- 
aetioooo  iiaein  they  are  the  materials  with  which  the 
nnderatanding  seeks  to  enrich  itself. 

The  word  tdea  Is  not  only  the  moet  general  in  sense, 
bat  the  most  univemi  in  application;  thought  and 
immginatun  are  paitioular  terms  used  only  In  coa- 
DeoM  Willi  the  agent  iktmking  or  imagining.  All 
e  therefore  a  dwlnct  oflwe,  in  which 

they  cannot  properly  be  confounded  with  each  otlier, 
Uem  m  used  In  all  cases  for  the  menial  representation, 
abatraeiedly  from  the  agent  that  represents  tbeni :  lience 
ideas  are  cither  clear  or  distinct :  ideas  are  attached  to 
wordi;  ideas  ar«  analyzed,  conrounded,  and  the  like; 
lo  which  eases  the  word  tkougiu  could  not  be  subitl- 
loted ;  Every  one  finds  that  many  of  tlie  ideas  which 
he  deaiied  lo  retain  have  slipped  away  irretrievably.' 
— Jonnsos.  The  thought  belonn  only  to  tliinking  and 
radoiial  beings :  the  brutes  may  ne  said  to  have  ideas^ 
but  not  thoughts :  hmotthou^Us  are  either  mean,  fine, 
grovelliiig,  or  sublime,  according  to  the  nature  of  the 
mind  in  which  they  exist: 

The  warring  passions,  and  tumuduousOM^Ais 

That  rage  within  thee!— Kowb. 

Hence  we  say  with  more  propriety,  to  Indulge  a 
thomghl,  than  to  Indulge  an  idea:  to  express  one's 
OMifAis,  rather  |han  one's  idsas,  on  anv  subject: 
althnugh  the  lallM'  term  idea^  on  account  of  lu  compre- 
hensive use,  maF  without  violatioD  of  any  exprea  rule 

be  InAAreotly  empioyi 
thought;  but  the  former 
lose  Its  characteristic  mo 

r  term  does  ntt  OB  this  account 
■  characteristic  meaning. 
The  tsM^atMm  Is  not  only  the  (fruit  ci  thought^  but 

of  peculiar  thought :  the  thought  may  be  another's; 
the  imagination  tBonet  own :  the  thought  occurs  and 
recurB;lt  comes  and  it  goes;  it  Is  retained  or  r«gecicd  at 

the  pleasnra  of  the  thinJting  being :  the  imagination  la 
framed  by  special  desire ;  R  is  cherished  with  the  par- 
aality  of  a  parent  for  lu  oflbpring.    The  thoughts  are 

busied  with  the  sunrounding  objecia;  the —  —'—  - 

k  distant  and  I ' 

areempkqredood  , 

thoughts  are  denominated  sober,  clmste,  and  the  like ; 
the  tnaginations.  wild  and  extravagant  The  thoughts 
engage  the  mind  as  circumstances  give  rise  to  them ; 
they  are  always  supposed  to  have  a  foundation  in  some 
thing:  the  tias^'iiatioas,  on  the  other  hand,  are  often 
the  mere  fruit  of  a  disordered  brain ;  they  are  always 
regarded  as  unsubstantial,  if  not  unreal ;  they  fte- 
Quently  owe  their  origin  lo  the  suggestions  of  the  appe* 
utes  and  passions ;  whence  they  are  termed  the  tma^  • 
isasor  the  heart:  *puibrent  climates  produce  in 

men,  by  a  diiferent  mixture  of  the  humourB,'a  dlflbrent 
and  unequal  course  of  imaginationo  and  paadous.* 
— Tbmpls. 


Tdsal  does  not  strictly  adhere  to  the  sense  of  Its  prl 
mitive  idea  (v.  idea)  :  the  idea  is  the  representation  of 
a  real  oblect  in  the  mind  •  but  ideal  signlftes  belonging  to 
the  idea  uidepe ndent  of  tne  realitv  or  the  external  object. 
Imaginary  preserves  the  sigoificalion  of  ita  primitive 
imagination  (v.  Fanewj  also  v.  Idsa)^  as  denoting  what 
la  created  by  the  mind  hself. 

The  idea<  Is  not  dlrecUy  opposed  to,  hot  abstracted 
from,  the  reality;  *  There  Is  not,  perhaps,  in  all  the 
stores  o(  ideal  anguish,  a  thought  mure  palnAil  than 
the  coiMciousness  of  having  propagated  corruption.' 
— JoHNsoM.  The  imaginarif^  on  the  otlier  hand,  is  di- 
rectly opposed  to  the  reality;  it  is  the  unreal  thing 
formed  by  the  imagination;  *  Superiour  beings  know 
well  the  vanity  of  those  im^^niary  perfections  that 
swell  the  heart  of  man.*— AnmsoH.  Ideal  happiness 
is  the  happiness  which  is  formed  in  the  mind,  without 
having  any  direct  and  actual  prototype  in  nature ;  but 
it  may,  nevertheless,  be  something  possible  to  be  real 
ized ;  It  may  be  above  nature,  but  not  in  direct  contra- 
diction to  it :  theimaginmrf  is  that  which  is  opposite  to 
some  positive  existing  reality ;  the  pleasure  which  a 
lunatic  derives  from  the  conceit  of  being  a  king  b  alto- 
getlier  imaginarf. 

The  inherent^  from  hmreo  to  stick,  denotes  a  perma 

nent  quality  or  property,  as  opposed  to  that  w'tiich  i« 
adventitious  and  transitory.  Inbred  denotes  that  pro  , 
pertv  which  is  derived  prlncipallv  from  habit  or  lay  a 
gradual  process,  as  opposed  to  the  one  acquired  by 
actual  eilbrtB.  Inborn  denotes  that  which  Is  purely 
natural,  in  opposition  to  the  artificial.  Inherent  is  in 
Its  sense  the  most  general ;  for  what  is  inbred  and 
inborn  Is  naturally  inherent;  but  all  is  not  fn^r«d  and 
taftom' which  is  inherent.  Inanimate  objects  have 
inherent  properties;  but  the  inbred  and  inborn  exist 
only  in  that  which  receives  life;  sollditv  is  an  tiiA^rexc, 
but  not  an  inbred  or  inborn  propcrtv  of  matter :  a  love 
of  truth  is  an  tn^orn  property  of  the  human  mind :  It 
Is  consequently  mAsrsiit,  in  as  much  as  nothing  can 
totally  destroy  It; 

When  my  new  mfaid  had  no  infusion  known, 

Thon  gav'st  so  deep  a  tincture  of  thine  own, 

That  ever  since  I  vainly  try 

To  wash  away  th*  inhoront  dye.— CowLiir. 

That  which  is  ta^rsd  Is  bred  or  nurtured  in  us  from  our 
birth ;  hence,  likewise,  the  properties  of  animals  are 
inbred  in  them,  in  as  much  as  they  are  derived  through 
the  medium  or  the  breed  of  which  the  parent  partakes , 
that  whkh  Is  imbom  is  simply  born  in  us:  a  property 
may  be  inborn,  but  not  tarred;  It  cannot,  however,  b« 
inbred  and  not  I'a^om.  Habits  which  are  ingrafted 
Into  the  natural  disposition  are  properly  inured  ,•  whence 
the  vulcar  proverb  that  '  what  Is  bred  in  the  bone  will 
never  be  out  of  the  flesh;*  to  denoto  the  influence 


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whieb  puranti  have  on  the  cbancten  of  their  ehlldiea, 
both  pbytleaUy  «od  morally ; 

But  he,  my  inbred  enemy, 

Forth  imuM,  bnuiduihiiig  his  Ikul  dart. 

Made  to  destroy ;  I  fled,  audciy'd  out  death! 


rropensitiea,  on  the  other  hand,  which  are  totally  inde- 
(teiidcnl  of  education  or  external  drcuraetanees,  are 
properly  inborn^  aa  an  imbom  love  of  fteedom ; 
Despair,  and  eecret  shame,  aqd  conscious  thought 
Of  inborn  worth,  liis  lab*rlng  soul  oppressed. 


Imbom  and  miMttf,  fVom  the  Latin  natu*  born,  are 
precisely  the  same  in  meaning,  yet  they  differ  somewliat 
in  applicaUon.  Poetry  and  the  grave  style  have  adopted 
inborn;  philoeophy  has  adopted  innaU;  genius  is 
inborn  lu  some  men ;  nobleness  is  inborn  in  otJiers : 
there  is  an  inborn  talent  in  some  men  to  command,  and 
an  inborn  fliness  in  others  to  obey.  Mr.  Locke  and  his 
followers  are  pleased  to  say,  there  is  no  such  thing  aa 
innate  ideas ;  and  if  tliey  only  mean  that  there  are  no 
sensible  impressions  on  the  soul,  until  it  is  acted  upon 
by  external  objects,  they  may  be  right :  but  if  they  mean 
to  say  that  there  are  no  inborn  characters  or  powers  in 
tliesoul,  which  predispose  it  for  the  reception  of  certain 
Impressions,  they  contradict  the  experience  of  the 
learned  and  the  unlearned  in  all  ages,  who  believe,  and 

Jtfyrehondimg  u  a  nomentaiy  or  niddeii  aeC'; 

I  nam*d  them  as  they  paai'd,  and  understood 

Their  halure,  with  such  knowledge  God  Indued 

My  sudden  tpprekmuiom^—Uivms. 
Coneoioingi  which  b  a  procesn  of  nature.  Is  often  slow 
and  gradual,  as  to  eoneeioe  a  design ;  *Thls  man  eo»r 
eeived  the  dulce*8  death,  but  what  was  the  motive  of 
that  felonious  conception  Is  in  the  clouds.*— Woltoh. 
What  is  eoncdved.  Is  conclualve  or  at  least  deter- 
minate ;  *  A  state  of  Innocence  and  happiness  Is  so 
remote  fhmi  all  that  we  have  ever  seen,  that  although 
we  can  easily  coneoito  It  is  possible,  yet  our  specula 
tions  upon  It  must  be  general  and  conflised.*--JoHiisoif . 
What  Is  apprehended  may  be  dubious  or  Indetermi- 
nate: hence  the  term  t^prokend  Is  taken  In  the  senae 
of  fear; 

Nothing  is  a  misery, 

Unleai  oor  weakness  apprehend  it  so. 
Conceive  and  apprdund  are  exercises  of  the  under 
standing ;  euppoee  and  imagine  of  the  imagination  ; 
but  the  former  commonly  rests  on  some  ground  of 
reality,  the  latter  mav  be  the  mere  offspring  of  the 
brain.  Suppoee  Is  used  In  opposition  lo  poeiti  ve  know- 
ledge ;  no  person  enppooeo  that,  of  which  he  Is  posi- 
tively informed:  'It.can  scarce  be  snppoaed itMi ihe 
mind  fai  more  vigorous  when  we  sleep,  than  when  we 
are  awake.*~HiiWEaswoRTH.    Imt^ino  is  employed 

that  fVom  close  observation  on  themselves  and  othera,  I  for  that  which,  in  all  probability,  does  not  exist ;  we 

that  man  has,  from  bis  birth,  not  only  the  general  cha- 
racter, which  belonga  to  him  In  common  with  his 
species,  but  also  those  peculiar  characterlsUcks  which 
distinguish  individuals  from  their  earliest  infancy :  all 
thc»e  characters  or  characieriaticks  are,  therefore,  not 
suppoeed  to  be  produced,  but  elk:ited,  by  circumstances ; 
and  the  ideaa,  which  are  but  the  sensible  forms  that  the 
soul  assuiiies  In  its  connexion  will)  the  body,  are,  on 
that  account,  in  vulgar  language  termed  innaU;       < 
Grant  these  inventions  of  the  crafty  priest, 
Yet  such  inventions  never  could  subsist, 
Unless  some  glimmerings  of  a  Aiture  stale 
Were  with  the  mind  coeval  and  imnaU. 



To  eoneoioet  fiom  the  Latin  coneipio^or  con  and  capfo 
to  put  together.  Is  to  put  an  Image  together  in  the 
mind,  or  to  form  an  Idea ;  to  apprehend^  from  appro 
ktndo  to  lay  hold  of,  la  lo  seize  with  the  understanding ; 
toonppoee,  in  French  Mt^e^er,  Latin  onppoeni^  perfect 
of  euppono^  or  onb  and  pono  to  nut  one  thing  In  the 
place  of  another,  la  to  have  one  thing  In  one's  mind  in 
lieu  of  another;  to  imagine,  in  French  imaginer^ 
Latin  tma^mo,  IVom  imago  an  Image,  slgnifloalo  reflect 
"   ntomlr  "       '   ' 

shall  not  imagine  what  is  evident  and  undeniable; 
*  The  Eari  of  Rivers  did  not  imagine  there  could  exist, 
in  a  human  form,  a  mother  that  would  ruin  her  own 
son  without  enriching  herwif.*— Johrsom  {Ldfe  ^f 

These  terms  Indicate  the  Intellectual  operations  of 
forming  Ideas,  that  is,  ideas  of  the  complex  kind  In  die* 
tinction  from  Uie  simple  id«*as  formed  by  the  act  of 
perception.  To  eonceive^  Is  to  put  together  in  the 
mind ;  to  underetandt  is  to  stand  under,  or  near  lo  the 
mind ;  to  comprehend^  trom  the  Latin  cem  or  eum  and 
prehendo  to  take,  signifies  to  aeize  or  embrace  in  the 

generick,  the  others  the  soecii 
kendingf  imagining,  and  «iq 
eeive  or  form  an  idea,  but  not 

as  an  image  or  phantom  In  the  mind. 
Conceive^  in  the  strict  sense  of  the  word,  is  the 
"  lecifick  terms:  since  in  epjrrs- 
[  evppotingj  we  always  con- 
m^w*  «/i  iu>  •■■  •>*!  idea,  but  not  vice  vored ;  Uie  ditference 
consists  in  the  mode  and  object  of  the  action :  we 
conceive  of  things  as  proper  or  improper,  and  Just  or 
unjust,  right  or  wrong,  good  or  bad,  this  Is  an  act  of  the 
Judgement ;  *  Conceive  of  things  clearly  and  distinctly  in 
their  own  natures;  conceive  of  things  completely  in  all 
their  own  parts;  conceive  of  things  comprehensively  in 
all  their  properties  and  relaiioos ;  conceive  of  things 
extensively  In  all  their  kinds ;  conceive  of  tilings onlerly, 
or  in  a  proper  method.'— Watts.  We  apprehend  the 
meaning  of  another;  this  is  by  the  power  of  simple 
perception ; 

Yet  this  I  apprehend  not,  wby  to  those 
Among  whom  God  will  deign  to  dwell  on  earth 
So  many  and  bo  various  laws  are  given.— Milton. 
Jlppreheneion  is  considered  by  logicians  as  the  first 
power  or  operation  of  the  mind  being  employed  on  the 
simplest  objccta;   *  Simple  anprrheneion  denotes  no 
more  than  the  souPs  naked  intellection  of  an  oDject, 
without  either  composition  or  deducUon.*— Glan  villb. 
Conceiving  Is  applied  to  obiects  of  any  magnitude 
which  are  not  above  the  stretch  of  human  power; 
O,  what  avails  me  now  that  honour  high 
To  have  conceived  of  God,or^hat  salute 
Hall  highly  favour'd,  among  women  Meat.— MuToa. 

Ome^Cimi  b  the  simplest  operatioa  of  the  three; 
when  we  conceive  we  may  have  but  one  idea,  when 
we  wederetand  or  comprehend  we  have  all  the  Ideas 
which  the  subject  is  oapable  of  presenting.  We  can- 
not nnderetand  or  comprehend  witliout  concetvimg ; 
but  WR  may  often  conceive  that  which  we  neither  un- 
deretamd  nor  comprehend;  *  Whatever  they  cannot 
immediately  conceive  Mwv  consider  as  too  high  to  be 
reached,  or  too  extenalve  to  be  comprehended.* — 

That  which  we  cannot  conceive  Is  to  us  nothing ; 
but  the  cemcepUon  of  It  gives  it  an  existence,  at  leaat 
in  our  minds;  but  nnderetanding  or  compreheniUng 
Is  not  essential  to  the  belief  of  a  thing's  existence.  Sc 
long  as  we  have  reasons  sufficient  to  conceive  a  thing  aa 
possible  or  probable,  it  is  not  necessary  either  to  under- 
eland  or  comprehend  them  in  order  lo  authoriie  our  be- 
lief. The  mysteries  of  our  holy  rellgkm  are  ol^ts  of 
conception^  but  not  of  comprtheneion  ; 

Our  finite  knowledge  cannot  comprehend 

The  principles  of  an  abounded  sway.— Sbiblbt. 
We  conceive  that  a  thing  may  be  done  without  Mtiifer* 
eioMding  how  it  is  done ;  we  conceive  that  a  thing  may 
exist  without  comprehending  the  nature  of  lu  exist- 
ence. We  conceive  clearly,  underetand  fhUy,  comprv 
hend  minutely. 

Conception  Is  a  species  of  invention ;  It  Is  the  fhiit 
of  the  mind's  operation  within  itself;  *■  If,  by  a  more 
nobieand  more  adequate  conception  that  be  considered 
as  wit  which  Is  at  once  natural  and  new,  that  which, 
though  not  obvious,  is,  upon  its  first  production,  ac- 
knowledged to  be  Just;  if  It  be  that,  which  he  that 
never  found  It,  wonders  how  he  missed ;  to  wit  of 
this  kind  the  meuphyslcal  poets  have  seldom  risen.* — 
Johnson.  Underetamding  and  comprtheneion  are  em- 
ployed solely  on  external  objects ;  we  nnderetamd  and 
comprehend  that  which  actually  exists  before  us,  and 
presents  itself  to  our  obsprvation ;  *■  Swift  pays  no  court 
to  the  passions ;  he  excites  neither  aurpriae  nor  adnil- 


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ntlon ;  be  alwayi  wtdertUitd*  hlnnKlf,  and  bla  relul- 
era  always  undergtumd  him.* — Jobmson.  Concewing 
li  the  ofoce  of  tlie  imagination,  as  well  aa  itie  Judse- 
Bienc;  nmder9ta,nBi-Hg  end  eomprektnnon^ct  the  office 
of  the  rcaionliig  foculties  exclusively. 

•  Cpnceiemj-  b  employed  wiUi  regard  to  matters  of 
taste,  to  arraiigemeuts,  designs,  and  projects;  undtr- 
tlaudinff  is  employed  on  familiar  objects  which  pre- 
sent tiiemseives  io'tlie  ordinary  discourse  and  business 
of  men ;  umfrtkeuding  respects  principles,  lenoos, 
and  speculative  knowledge  in  general.  The  artist 
€amc€iif€9  a  design,  and  he  who  will  execute  it  nmst 
mmderttund  it ;  tlie  poet  amceivu  that  which  \a  grand 
and  sublime,  and  he  who  will  enjoy  the  perusal  of  his 
ctmeepUons  must  have  refinement  of  mind,  and  ca- 

Ccity  to  comprehend  the  grand  and  subliine.    The 
ilder  coneetvea  plans,  tlie  scholar  nnderttandt  lan- 
guages, the  meiapliysician  eomfriJUmdt  subtle  ques- 

A  ready  eonc^tion  supplies  us  with  a  stock  of  ideas 
oo  all  subjects ;  a  quick  wtdersioHding  catches  the 
Intentions  of  oUiers  with  half  a  word ;  a  penetrating 
mind  con^rehendt  the  abstrusost  points.  There  are 
human  beings  involved  in  such  profound  ignorance, 
that  they  cannot  conceiv  of  tlie  most  ordinary  tliinp 
that  exist  in  civilized  life :  there  are  those  who,  though 
slow  at  MMi^atanding  words,  will  be  quick  Blvndtr- 
aUtmdimg  looks  and  signs :  and  tliere  are  oihem  w1k>, 
though  dull  at  cenenoing  or  underalanding  common 
mauera,  will  have  a  power  for  eomprek€»dmg  the 
ahsiruser  parts  of  the  mathematics. 


CbaMptiM,  from  eoueehe  (o.  7\a  coaeetvc},  signifies 
the  thing  eaneeived ;  notion,  in  French  noUon^  Latin 
notiot  fromuoiuo  participle  of  no»co  to  know,  signifies 
llae  tiling  known. 

Ccneepliom  is  the  mind's  own  work,  what  it  pictures 
to  itself  from  the  exercise  of  its  own  powera ;  *  Words 
signify  not  immediately  and  primely  thinp  themselves, 
but  tlie  tome^iiono  of  the  mind  concerning  tilings.* — 
South.  Motion  is  the  representation  of  otyects  as 
tliey  are  drawn  from  observation;  *The  story  of 
Teleoiachas  it  formed  altogether  in  the  spirit  of 
H<Mner,  and  will  give  an  unlearned  reader  a  notion  of 
that  great  poet's  mamier  of  writing.'— Addison.  Qm- 
€tptimn9  are  the  fhilt  of  the  imagination ;  *  It  is  natural 
for  the  imaciuations  of  men  who  lead  their  lives  in  too 
solitary  a  manner  to  prey  upon  themwives,  and  form 
ftoni  their  own  eonceptiona  beings  and  thingi  which 
have  no  place  in  nature.*— Stsklk.  Jfotiona  are  the 
result  of  reflection  and  experience ;  '  Considering  that 
the  happiness  of  the  other  world  is  to  be  the  happiness 
of  the  whole  man,  who  can  question,  but  there  is  an 
Infinite  variety  in  those  pleasures  we  are  speaking  oft 
Revelation,  likewiie.  very  mnch  confirms  this  notion 
under  the  dilTerent  views  it  gives  us  of  our  future  hap- 
^ness.*— Addison.  CeneepUona  are  formed ;  notion* 
are  entertained.  Conception*  are  either  grand  or  mean, 
poos  or  sublime,  either  clear  or  indistinct,  crude  or 
diKinct ;  nofiena  are  either  uue  or  false,  Just  or  absurd. 
Intellecuial  culture  serves  to  elevate  the  eonceptiona; 
the  exteisBioa  of  knowledge  serves  to  correct  and  refine 
the  ntftiana. 

Some  heathen  phltoaophers  had  an  indistinct  eoneep- 
tiM  of  the  Deity,  whose  attributes  and  character  are 
unfolded  to  us  in  his  revelation :  the  Ignorant  have 
often  false  notion*  of  their  duty  and  obligations  to 
their  superiours.  The  unenlightened  express  their  gross 
and  crude  eemceptums  of  a  Superiour  Being  by  some 
material  and  visible  object:  the  vulgar  notion  of 
gbOBU  and  spirits  is  not  entirely  banished  from  the 
noot  cultivated  parts  of  Bngiand. 

Parception  expresses  either  the  act  of  nareeiving  or 
lbs  Impression  produced  by  that  act;  in  this  latter 
sense  it  is  analogous  to  an  iden  (v.  Idea^.  The  Im- 
pression of  an  object  thnt  is  present  to  us  Is  termed  a 
pareeption ;  the  revival  of  that  impression,  when  the 
ol^eet  Is  removed,  Is  n^iden.  A  combination  of  idaaa 
by  which  any  Image  firpresented  to  the  mind  is  a  am- 

*  Vide  Abbe  Oirard:  "Entendre,  eomprendre,  eon- 

eeption  (v.  To  eomprdkand)  ;  the  associatioB  of  two  oi 
more  tdMs,  so  as  to  constitute  it  a  decision,  is  a  notiom 
Ptrcaptwna  are  dear  or  confused,  according  to  tht 
state  of  the  sensible  organs,  and  \hopercaptiva  faculty, 
idaaa  aro  faint  or  vivid,  vague  or  distinct,  according  to 
the  nature  of  ib»  ptrcoption ,  conc^iiona  are  gross  of 
refined  according  to  the  number  and  extent  of  one's 
idaaa  ;  noUana  are  true  or  false,  correct  or  incorrect, 
according  to  the  extent  of  one's  knowledge.  The  par- 
copUon  which  we  have  of  remote  objects  is  solbeiimes 
so  indistinct  as  to  leave  hardly  any  traces  of  the  image 
on  the  mind  ;  we  have  in  that  case  a  parcapUon^  but 
not  an  idaa. 
What  can  the  fondest  mother  wish  for  more, 
Ev'n  for  her  darling  son,  than  solid  sense,  ' 

Perception  clear,  and  flowhig  ekiquence. — WrmiB. 
If  we  read  the  description  of  any  object,  we  may  have 
an  tifsa  of  it ;  but  we  need  not  have  any  imiuediats 
perception :  the  idea  in  this  case  being  complex,  and 
formed  of  many  images  of  which  we  have  already  had 
a  perception;  *  Imagination  selects  idaaa  from  tlw 
treasures  of  remembrance.'— Johnson. 

If  we  present  objects  to  our  minds,  according  to  dif 
ferent  images  which  liave  already  been  imprefsed,  we 
are  said  to  have  a  conception  of  them :  in  tliis  case, 
however,  It,  is  not  necessary  for  the  objects  really  to 
exist ;  they  may  be  the  ol&pring  of  the  mind's  opera- 
tion within  itself;  '  It  is  not  a  head  that  is  filled  with 
extravagant  eonceptiona,  which  is  canable  of  furnish- 
ing the  world  with  diversions  of  this  nature  (from 
humour).'— Addison.  But  with  regard  to  nstiMw  it  is 
different,  for  they  are  formed  respecting  objects  tliatdo 
really  exist,  aliliough  perhaps  the  properties  or  circum- 
stances which  we  assign  to  tiiem  are  not  real ;  '  Thoaa 
notiona  which  are  to  be  collected  by  reason,  in  opposi- 
tion to  the  Ktises,  will  seldom  stand  forward  in  the 
mind,  but  be  treasured  In  the  remoter  repositories  of 
the  memory.'— Johnson.  If  J  look  at  the  moon,  I 
have  ti  perception  of  It;  if  it  disappear  from  my  sight, 
and  the  impression  remains,  I  have  an  idea  of  it:  if  an 
object,  diflMrlng  in  shape  and  colour  from  tliat  or  any 
thing  else  which  I  may  nave  seen,  present  Itself  to  my 
mind,  it  Is  a  conception ;  If  of  this  moon  I  conceive 
that  it  is  no  biscer  than  what  it  appears  to  my  eye,  this 
is  a  notion,  which  In  the  present  Uistance,  aangns  an 
unreal  property  to  a  real  oqject. 


To  think.  In  Saxon  thincan,  German  denkan,  kj^ 
lh>m  the  Hebrew  \'^Xo  rule  or  Judge,  to  the generick 
term.  It  expresses,  in  common  with  the  other  terms, 
the  act  of  having  a  particular  idea  In  the  mind ;  but  It 
is  Indefinite  as  to  the  mode  and  the  object  of  the 
action.  To  think  may  be  the  act  of  the  understand- 
ing, or  merdy  or  the  imagination :  to  auppoat  and 
imagine  are  rather  the  acts  of  the  imaginalion  than  of 
the  onderstandingK  To  think,  that  is,  to  have  any 
thought  or  opinion  upon  a  subject,  requires  reflection : 
it  is  the  work  of  time ; 

If  to  conceive  how  any  thing  can  be 
From  shape  extracted,  and  locality. 
Is  hard :  what  think  you  of  the  Deity  T-nJaNTHS. 
To  anppoaa  and  iwu^ina  may  be  the  acts  of  the  mo- 
ment. We  think  a  thing  right  or  wrong;  we  auppoaa 
it  to  be  true  or  fblse;  *It  to  absurd  to  auppoaa  that 
while  the  relations,  In  which  we  stand  to  our  fellow- 
creatures,  naturally  call  forth  certain  sentiments  and 
auctions,  there  should  be  none  to  correspond  to  the 
first  and  greatest  of  all  beings.'— BLAia.  We  imagine 
it  to  lie  real  or  unreaL  To  think  to  employed  promto- 
cuously  In  regard  to  all  objects,  whether  actually  ex- 
isting or  not:  to  euppoaa  applies  to  those  which  areuo- 
certain  or  precarious;  imagine,  to  those  which  are  un- 
real ;  *  How  ridiculous  must  it  bo  to  imagine  that  the 
cl<^rgy  of  England  fiivour  popery,  when  tliey  cannot  be 
clergymen wfthoutrenounclng it.*— Bbvkridok.  Think 
and  tsK^tiu  are  said  of  that  which  afifecis  the  ienses 
immediately ;  auppoaa  to  only  said  of  Uiat  which  oc 
cupies  the  mind.  We  think  that  we  bear  a  noi^e  as 
soon  as  the  sound  catches  our  attention;  in  certain 
states  of  the  body  or  mind  we  imagine  we  hear  noises 
which  were  never  made :  we  thtnk  that  a  person  will 
come  to-day,  because  he  has  informed  us  that  he  in 
I  tends  to  do  so ;  we  euppoaa  that  h«  will  come  to^iay,. 


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Bt  a  MrulD  hoar,  beeanw  Iw  came  at  the  f 

When  ftpplM  to  lh«  ennta  an4  ckewMCUMM  of 
life,  to  think  nay  be  applied  to  any  ffane,  pa«,  preaem, 
iM- 10  eoine,  or  where  aottme  to  expressed:  to  tuppMe 
to  mace  aptly  applied  to  a  future  time;  arid  tmagtns  to 
a  peat  or  |m»enl  time.  We  think  that  a  peiwrn  has 
done  a  thing,  to  doing  it,  or  will  do  it;  we  «am«M 
thai  he  will  do  it;  we  iiMftiM  that  he  has  done  it.  or 
to  doing  IL  A  person  think*  that  he  will  die ;  tsMftae* 
that  he  to  in  a  dangeious  way :  we  think  that  the 
weather  will  be  fine  to-day,  we  $9pp9M  that  the  afidr 
will  Iw  decided. 

In  regard  to  moral  points,  in  which  ease  the  word 
deem  may  be  conipaied  with  the  others;  to  tiink  to  a 
coDplusion  drawn  ttom  certain  premises.  I  think  that 
a  man  has  acted  wrong :  to  mppoge  to  to  take  up  an 
idea  arbitrarily  or  at  pleasure;  we  argue  upon  a 
9uppo*ed  case,  merely  for  the  salce  of  aigument :  to 
tma/me  is  to  take  up  an  Idea  by  accident,  or  withour 
any  connexion  with  the  truth  <v  reality;  we  imagine 
that  a  person  to  ollbnded  with  us,  without  being  able 
to  aMigu  a  fdngte  reason  for  tiie  idea ;  imaginary  evito 
are  even  more  numerous  than  tliose  wbfcfa  are  rwl : 
to  deem  to  to  form  a  conclusion;  thincs  nn  dtemtd 
hurtful  or  otherwise  in  consequence  of  oiMervation ; 
*  An  empty  bouse  to  by  the  players  deti^^  the  most 
dreadful  sign  of  popular  disappiobatloo.*— Hawkbs- 

To  think  and  htUnt  are  both  opposite  to  knowing 
or  perceiving;  but  to  lAiaik  to  a  more  partial  action 
than  to  believe:  we  think  as  the  thing  strikes  us  at 
the  lime ;  we  beUwe  iVom  a  wiiMt  deduciioo :  hence,  It 
expresses  much  less  to  say  that  [  think  a  person  speaks 
the  truth,  than  that  I  Mtrie  that  he  spt^aks  the  truth ; 
Vtr  they  can  conquer  who  Mine  they  can.— Ortdih. 

I  tUnk,  firom  what  I  can  recollect,  that  such  and 
such  were  the  worda,  i'  a  vague  mode  of  sneech,  not 
admissible  in  a  court  oi  law  as  positive  evioencc :  the 
■atural  question  which  folkiws  upon  this  to,  do  you 
^raly  beliete  ill  to  which,  whoever  can  answer  in  the 
affirmative,  with  the  appearance  of  sincerity,  must  be 
admitted  as  a  testimony.  Hence  it  arises,  Uiat  the 
word  can  only  be  employed  in  roatleis  that  require  but 
Jule  thought  in  order  to  come  to  a  conclusion;  and 
Mieve  to  applicable  to  things  that  must  be  admitted 
only  on  substantial  evidence.  We  are  at  liberty  to  say 
Jia'  I  thinkf  or  I  believe^  that  the  account  Is  made  out ;  but  we  nnist  say,  that  I  believe^  not  think^  that 
the  Bible  to  the  word  of  God. 


Tlunkf  in  Saxon  Uiaeoa,  German  denken.  Ace., 
somes  from  the  Hebrew  t"l,  to  direct,  rule,  or  judge: 
r^fUct,  in  l^tin  reUetOy  signlfles  literally  to  beiid 
Mck,  that  Is,  to  bend  the  mind  back  on  itself;  ponder^ 
(torn  ponduM  a  weicht,  signifies  to  weigh ;  flnu«.  from 
SMMO,  a  song,  signifies  to  dwelT  upon  with  the  imagi* 

To  think  to  a  general  and  indcflnite  term ;  to  r^fleU 
to  a  particular  mode  of  thinking ;  to  ponder  and  miu0 
are  diflbrent  modes  of  r^feeting,  the  former  on  grave 
mattera,  the  latter  oD  mattera  tnat  Intereft  either  the 
aliectlons  or  the  tmaginatiOB :  we  tkink  whenever  we 
receive  or  recall  an  idea  to  the  mind;  but  we  r^^Uel 
only  by  recalling,  not  one  only,  hot  many  ideas :  we 
think  if  we  onlv  suHbr  the  Ideas  to  revolve  la  suecea* 
rion  in  the  mind :  but  in  r^fUeting  we  compare,  com- 
bine, and  Judge  of  those  ideas  which  thus  pass  In  the 
miml ;  we  think,  therefore,  of  things  past,  as  they  are 
pleasurable  or  otherwise ;  we  r^fUU  upon  them  as  they 
are  applicable  to  our  present  conditton :  we  may  thinJt 
on  things  past,  present,  or  to  come ;  we  r^fUet,  ponder^ 
and  mmee  mostly  on  that  which  is  past  or  present. 
The  man  thinks  on  the  days  of  his  childhood,  and 
wislies  them  back ;  the  child  tkinks  on  the  time  when 
he  shall  be  a  man,  and  to  impatient  until  it  to  annez 
*  No  man  was  ever  weary  or  C4tiiAta^,  much  less  of 
tkinking  that  he  had  done  well  or  virtuously.*— South. 
A  man  rfjleet*  on  hto  past  foUles,  and  tries  to  profit 
by  exiierience ;  *  Let  men  imt  rUieet  upon  tlielr  own 
observation,  and  consider  impartially  with  themselves 
how  few  in  the  world  they  nave  known  made  better 
by  lure. '—  Boiith.  One  ponders  on  an}  serious  concern 
that  afifecto  hia  destiny ; 

Stood  OB  the  brink  of  hdl.  and  10Qk*d  •wUiab 
Pondering  lito  voyage.— MtLTon. 

One  snuM  on  the  happy  evento  of  hto  childhood;  *I 
was  sitting  OB  a  sofa  one  evening,  after  I  had  been 
caressed  by  Amurath,  and  my  imijjtnmtinn  kindled  •■ 



Contemplate,  in  Latin  contemplatue^  participle  of 
eontemplor,  probably  comes  ftom  templum  the  templa, 
that  being  the  place  most  fitted  for  eentemplatieu. 
Meditate,  in  Latin  meditatae,  pardciple  of  meditor, 
to  probably  changed  from  mditor,  In  Greek  fuXtrdett 
to  modulate,  ot  attune  the  thoughts,  as  sounds  are  har- 
monized. JlfK««  to  derived  from  musa,  owing  to  ttie 
connexion  between  the  harmony  of  a  song,  and  the 
harmony  of  the  thougfats  in  mnsing. 

Difibrent  species  of  reflection  are  marked  by  these 

We  contemplate  what  to  present  or  belhre  our  eyes ; 
v^»  meditate  on  what  is  past  or  abaent ;  we  muee  on 
what  to  present  or  pasL 

1^  heavens,  and  all  the  works  of  the  Creator,  ara 
obfects  of  eentemplation ;  '  I  sincerely  wish  myself 
with  you  to  eofntemvlaU  the  wooden  of  God  In  the 
firmament,  rather  than  tlie  madness  of  man  on  the 
earth.'— Pora.  The  wavs  of  Providence  are  fit  sub- 
Jecto  for  meditation;  *  But  a  ytry  small  part  of  the 
moments  spent  In  meditation  on  the  past,  produce  any 
reasonable  caution  or  salutary  sorrow.*— Jobhsom. 
One  miuM  on  the  events  or  circumstances  which  have 
been  Just  passing. 

We  may  eontemplaie  and  meditate  for  the  future, 
but  never  mueo.  In  this  case  the  two  Ibrmer  torms 
have  the  sense  >of  contriving  or  purposing :  what  to 
contemplated  to  be  done,  to  thought  of  more  indla- 
linctly  than  when  It  is  meditated  to  l«  done:  many 
things  are  had  in  contemplation  which  are  never 
seriously  meditated  upon ;  *  Life  to  the  Inmedlato  gift 
of  God.  a  right  Inherent  by  nature  In  every  individual, 
and  it  begins  in  contemplation  of  law  as  soon  as  aa 
Infknt  to  able  to  stir  in  the  mother's  womb.*— Blaoe- 
STORB.  Between  contemplating  and  maditating  there 
is  oflener  a  greater  dlflference  than  between  moSiating 
and  exeenting ; 

Thus  plung'd  in  Hto  and  meditating  more. 
The  people's  patience,  tried,  no  longer  bore 
The  raging  monster.— Drtdbn. 
Contemplation  may  be  a  temporary  action  direded 
to  a  singto  object;  *  There  to  not  any  property  or  cli^ 
cumntaucesof  my  being  that  I  eontoinphUe  with  more 
ioy  than  my  immortality.*— BaaaaLBT.  Meditating 
to  a  permanent  and  serious  action  directed  to  several 
objcctt;  'Meditate  till  you  make  some  act  of  piety 
upon  the  occasion  of  what  you  meditate,  either  get  soma 
new  argumenu  acainst  sin,  or  some  new  encourage- 
ment to  virtue.*— Tatlob.  Muting  to  partial  and  uft* 
important :  meditation  to  a  religious  duty.  It  cannot 
be  neglected  without  injury  to  a  person's  spiritual  im- 
provement ;  nuuing  to  a  temporary  employment  of  the 
mind  on  the  ordloary  concerns  of  life,  as  tliey  haM>ea 
to  excite  an  iatorest  for  the  time ; 

Musing  as  wont  on  this  and  that, 
Such  trifles  as  I  know  not  what.— Fbamcib. 
Contemplatioe  and   musing,  as  epithets,  have  a 
strong  analogy  to  each  other. 

Contemplative  is  a  habit  of  the  mind ;  musing  to  a 
particular  state  of  the  mind.  A  person  may  have  a 
eeii(«inp<alre«  turn,  or  be  in  a  siana^  mood. 

Consider,  in  French  considerer,  I^Oln  eonstdoro^ 
a  factaiive,  fW)m  censido  to  sit  down,  slenifles  to 
make  to  settle  in  the  mind.  ReJUct,  In  Latin  r^/teeto^ 
compounded  of  r«  wndJUcto,  siaiiifies  to  turn  back,  er 
upon  itself,  after  the  manner  of  the  mind. 

The  operatton  of  thought  is  expreared  by  these  two 
words,  but  it  varies  in  the  clrcumsunces  or  the  action. 

Censideraiion  to  employed  for  practical  purpoaes, 
Tiificction  for  matters  of  speculaffim  or  moral  improve- 
nient.  Common  objects  call  for  consideration;  the 
workings  of  the  mind  iiseif,  or  objects  purely  spiritual, 
occupy  r^^tion.    It  to  necessary  to  consider  what  to 


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proper  to  be  done,  befbre  we  take  tor  step;  '  Uteem 
tmtmuft  in  Um  cboiee  of  petvons  for  greeter  emplov- 
ncnM,  10  e^mnder  tbdr  booiea  as  well  as  Ibeir  mloda, 
and  ases  and  health  aa  well  as  their  abUitiaa.'— Tsm- 
m.  It  la  eonabtent  with  oar  natuiea,  aa  ralkmal 
beiagB,to  r^^l  on  whiit  we  are,  what  we  ought  to  be, 
and  what  we  ahaD  be;  '  VHioever  r^/Uctt  rrequeDtiy 
no  the  aneertainty  of  hie  own  duration,  wlU  find  out 
'  I  the  stale  of  othenli  not  more  permanent  than  hia 



7b  eamndtr  («.  7b  cMsidir)  stanlfles  to  take  a  view 
ofa  thing  in  the  mind,  which  is  the  result  of  thought; 
to  rtfmrd  la  Uierally  to  look  back  upon,  from  tlM 
French  rc/«fidsr.  that  is.  r*  and  gttrdery  to  keep  or 
wttchi  wtuch  ia  derired  fkom  the  old  German  wakren. 
to  aee,  of  whkb  there  are  still  traces  In  the  words 
hemaktmt.  to  guard  against,  wntn  to  wait,  and  the 

llMre  ia  more  caution  or  thoogfat  in  euimiiring  ; 
I  perMinal  interest  in  regtrdiug.  A  man  may 
"*•  remitatton  so  as  to  be  deterred  flrom 
\  a  paffttcttiar  step;  if  he  rggardt  his  reputation, 
this  wmrd  has  a  general  influence  on  all  be  does. 
'The  Log  bad  not,  at  that  time,  one  person  about 
Umof  his  oouneU,  who  had  the  least  anuideration  of 
his  own  honour,  or  friendship  for  those  who  sat  at 
the  hetan  of  aAuBi  the  Duke  of  Lennox  eicepted.*— 

If  mneh  you  note  him. 

Ion  oflbnd  hia ;  feed  and  rtgard  hfan  not. 


A  similar  diatinetion  exists  between  these  words 
when  not  expreasly  personal :  to  consider  a  thing  in  a 
certain  light,  ia  to  take  a  steady  view  of  it ;  ^1  cm- 
iider  the  soul  of  man  as  the  ruin  of  a  glorious  pile  of 
buiMiogs.*— Steblb.  Xo  regard  a  thing  is  to  view 
It  with  a  oeitain  interest ;  *  I  regard  trade  not  only  aa 
highly  advantageous  lo  tlie  commonwealth  in  general, 
but  as  the  most  natural  and  Ukdy  method  of  nmking  a 
■an*a  fortune.*— Butcblu 

Omsideraiian,  or  that  which  enters  toto  a  perBon*a 
»nslderalion,  haa  a  reference  to  the  person  consider- 

ing. Reaaon,  or  that  which  influences  the  reason,  hi 
taaanabsolutetv:  eanaidtratioiu  are  therefore  fbr  the 
nost  part  pwvaL  as  aflbcting  particular  interests,  or 
dependent  on  partJeular  circumstances.  *  He  had  been 
made  general  upon  very  partial,  and  not  enough  de- 
Hbecated  earn  it'dsrsf  iiws,  '--CLABBitnoii. 
.iUsMM  on  thecontraiy  maybe  general,  and  vary 
aeeoidlng  to  the  nature  of  the  subject:  *The  reaamu 
anigned  In  a  law  of  the  36ih  year  of  Edward  III.  for 
havfaig  pleas  and  Judgements  in  the  English  tongue, 
might  have  been  nrnd  for  having  the  laws  themselves 
in  tnet  language.*— ttewhitt. 

When  applied  to  matters  of  practice  the  eanHdera- 
tiam  Infloenees  the  particular  acttons  of  an  individual 
or  individuals ;  no  emuideration  of  profit  or  emolument 
should  induce  a  peraon  lo  forfeit  his  word;  *ile  was 
obliged,  antecedent  to  all  other  cmsidfrn£ssns,  to 
search  aa  asylum.*— DavoKN. 
The  rtaton  hifluences  a  line  of  conduct;  the  roMMons 
R  nwign  for  their  conduct  are  often  as  absurd 

I  mask  the  business  from  the  common  eye 
For  sundry  weighty  rMSMw.—SnAKSPBAEB. 
In  the  same  manner,  when  applied  to  matten  of 
theory,  the  coiuideration  Is  that  which  enters  into  a 
n*s  consMeratkm,  or  which  he  oflbrs  to  Che  consider- 


To  orgMOy  from  the  Latin  argue,  and  the  Greek 
^9(  clear,  signtfles  to  make  dear;  to  cv«m0,  In  Laiiu 
svnMs,  compounded  of  vmce  lapreveot  make  out,  and 
$  forth,  sigmfleb  to  bring  to  light,  to  make  to  appear 
dear;  lo  prevOf  in  French  prenveTf  in  Latin  prebOf 
ftom  prekma  good,  signifies  to  make  good,  or  make  to 
appear  good. 

These  terms  hi  general  convey  the  Idea  of  evidence, 
but  with  gradations :  argue  denotes  tlte  smallest  degre«, 
and  freue  the  highest  degree.  To  oralis  is  to  serve 
as  an  taidication  amounting  to  probability ;  to  evince 
denotea  an  indication  so  dear  as  to  remove  doubt;  to 
froue  vamtka  an  evidence  so  positive  as  to  produce  cuo- 

It  arguea  a  want  of  candonr  In  any  man  to  conceal 
eirenmatanees  in  Ms  statement  which  are  any  ways 
calcutaited  to  aflbct  the  subject  in  question;  'U  to  not 
the  being  siiwular,  but  being  singular  for  something, 
that  argnee  either  extraordinary  endowments  of  nature 
or  benevolent  Intentions  to  mankind,  which  draws  the 
admiration  and  esteem  of  the  world.*— Bbexxlbt. 
The  tenour  of  a  person's  conversation  may  evince  the 
reflnement  of  bis  mind  and  the  purity  of  his  taste; 
*The  nature  of  the  soul  itself,  and  partfcularly  its 
immateriality,  has,  I  think,  been  evinced  almost  to  n 
demonstration.*— AoDisoH.  When  we  see  men  sacrl- 
fidng  their  peace  of  mind  and  even  their  integrity  of 
character  to  ambition,  it  proves  to  us  how  important  it 
to  even  te  early  life  to  check  this  natural,  and  in  some 
measure  lauddbJe,  hot  stilt  Inainuating  and  dangeroua 

artoB  of  others ;  *The  foUy  of  ascribing  temporal  pun- 
liliAents  to  any  particular  crimes,  may  appear  from 
aeveralcMuaderalMns.*— Apoisom.  The  reoMn  to  that 
which  flows  out  of  the  nature  of  the  thing;  <  If  it  be 
auaral,  onght  we  imt  ntlier  to  conclude  that  there  ia 
aooM  groond  or  rssMft  for  thoee  fears,  and  that  nature 
bmh  not  ptamed  them  ia  oa  to  no  purpoae  1*— Tib- 

What  object,  what  event  the  moon  beneath* 

But^urguee  or  endeara  an  after-scene  1 

To  reason  frevee,  or  weds  it  to  desire  1— Touiia 

jtrgumetUi  from  argue  (o.  To  argue),  signifies  either 
the  thing  that  argues^  or  that  which  to  brought  forward 
in  erguiug:  reueon,  in  French  raieen,  I^atln  ratto, 
from  roXaw,  participle  of  rear  to  think,  signifies  the 
thing  tliought  or  estimated  in  the  mind  by  the  power 
otreaeen;  proof,  from  to  prove,  signifies  the  thing  tliat 

An  argument  aerves  for  defence;  a  reesen  Ibr  Justi- 
fication; n  pro^  for  conviction.  Jtrgumunte  are 
adduced  in  support  of  an  hypoiJiesia  or  proposition ; 
'  When  the  arguments  press  equally  on  both  sides  in 
matten  that  are  indilTerent  to  us,  tlw  safest  method  to 
to  give  np  oursdves  to  nelUier.*— AnniaoN.  Reaeono 
are  assigned  in  roattere  of  belief  and  practice ; 
fbe  reaeono,  with  hte  fHend*a  experience  JolnM, 
Encoarag*d  much,  hot  more  disturb'd  hto  mind. 

Proofs  are  eollected  to  aacertaln  a  foet; 

One  soul  in  both,  whereof  §oodproef 
Thto  day  aflbrd&r-MiLT«i. 
Argumonto  are  either  strong  or  weak ;  remoono  soUd 
fnWieiproefe  dear  and  podttve,  or  vague  and  Inde- 
finite.   We  confine  an  argument,  overpower  a  reaoon^ 
'     '"■  *  ■      to  defend 


and  Invalidate  u  proof.  Whoever  i 
Chrtotianity  will  be  in  no  want  of  arguments ;  *  This, 
before  revetotion  had  enlightened  tlie  world,  was  tlie 
very  best  ar^sMnt  for  a  future  stale.*— Attbrburt. 
The  believer  need  never  be  at  a  loss  to  give  a  reaeon 
for  the  hope  that  to  in  him ;  *  Virtue  and  vice  are  not 
arbitraiy  things,  but  there  to  a  natural  and  eternal 
roaoon  for  that  goodnem  and  virtue,  and  against 
vice  and  wiclrednesa.*— Tillotsom.  Throoghont  the 
wboto  of  Divine  tevelatJon  there  to  no  circumstance 
that  to  sntastamiated  with  such  irrefragable  pro^fe  aa 
the  reanrrectkm  of  our  Saviour ; 

Are  there  (stin  more  amazing !)  who  resist 
The  rising  thought,  who  smother  in  Ito  birth 
The  glorious  truth,  who  struggle  to  be  brutes f 
Who  fight  rhtproefe  of  tanmortality  1— Yoono. 

Cause  to  supposed  lo  signify  originally  the  same  an 
case;  It  means  however  now,  by  distinctton,  the  case 
or  thing  liappening  before  another  aa  its  cauee;  the 
reneonim  the  thhig  that  aots on  the  reaoon or  under 
standlag;  the  mome^  in  French  motif,  ftom  the  Latte 


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iR«tiu,  pwtldide  of  ••«#•  to  move,  It  tfaat  which 
briiigii  into  action. 

Cduse  respects  the  order  and  connexion  of  things; 
rea»on  tile  movenieuia  and  operaUona  of  the  mind; 
motieet  the  nMivemeiita  of  the  mind  and^iody.  Cause  is 
pri>[)erly  the  generick ;  rsotM  and  wtstive  are  spedflclc : 
«very  rtagoa  or  moCim  Is  a  mms,  but  every  cams  is 
oot  a  reason  or  motive. 

Quue  is  said  of  aU  Intnimate  objects;  reason  and 
motive  of  rationai  ageulk:  whatever  happens  in  the 
world,  happens  (Wmi  some  caius  HMdiate  or  imme- 
diaie;  ttie  primary  or  first  coMse  of  all,  la  God;  'The 
wise  aitd  learned  among  the  vo^  heathens  theraieives, 
have  ail  acknowledged  some  first  eamse^  whereupon 
ortKinally  the  being  of  all  things  dependeth,  neither 
have  lliey  otherwise  spoken  of  that  eause^  than  as  an 
agent  which,  knowing  what  and  why  it  worketh, 
obsrrveth  in  working  a  most  exact  order  or  law.'— 
HooKKR.  Whatever  opinions  men  hold,  they  ought  to 
be  able  to  assign  a  substantial  reason  for  them ;  'If  we 
conimcroorate  any  mystery  of  our  redemption,  or  arti. 
cle  of  our  faltli,  we  ought  to  confirm  our  belietof  it  by 
considering  all  those  reasons  upon  which  it  b  built.'— 
Nblson.  For  whatever  men  do  they  ought  to  have  a 
iufllcient  motive ;  '  Every  principle  that  is  a  motive  to 
good  actions  ought  to  be  encoursiged.'— Addison. 

As  the  cause  gives  birtli  to  the  effect,  so  does  the 
reason  give  birth  to  the  conclusion,  and  the  motive  gives 
birth  10  the  action.  Between  cause  and  effect  there  is 
a  necessary  connexion :  whatever  In  the  natural  world 
Is  capable  of  giving  birth  to  another  thing  is  an  ade- 
quate cause; 

Cut  off  the  eaiwef ,  and  the  effects  will  cease, 
And  all  the  moving  madness  fall  to  peace. 

But  in  the  moral  world  there  is  not  a  necessary  con- 
nexion between  reasons  and  their  results,  or  motives 
and  their  actions:  the  state  of  the  agent's  mind  Is  not 
always  such  as  to  be  acted  upon  according  to  the 
nature  of  things;  every  adequate  reason  will  not  be  fol- 
lowed by  its  natural  conclusion,  for  every  man  will  not 
believe  who  has  reasons  to  believe,  nor  vield  to  the 
reasons  that  would  lead  u>  a  right  belief:  and  every 
motive  will  not  be  accompanied  with  its  corresponding 
action,  for  every  man  will  not  act  wlw  has  a  molrve 
for  acting,  nor  act  In  the  manner  in  which  his  motives 
ought  to  dictate :  the  cauoes  of  our  diseases  often  lie  as 
hidden  as  the  rsoseiu  of  our  opinions,  and  the  motives 
fur  our  actions. 


Conelmsion,  from  eonetndef  and  the  Latin  eonelaudo, 
or  eon  and  eludo  to  shut  up,  wignifies  literally  Uic 
winding  up  of  all  arguments  and  reasoning;  inference, 
from  infer^  in  Latin  inferoj  signifies  what  is  brought 
in;  dedneUon^  from  deduct,  in  Latin  dsductus  and 
dsduco  to  brinii  out.  signifies  the  bringing  or  drawing 
one  thing  from  another. 

A  conclusion  Is  full  and  decisive;  an  inforonco  is  par- 
tial and  Indecisive:  a  conclusion  leaves  the  mind  in  no 
doubt  or  hesitation ;  it  puts  a  stop  to  all  farther  rea- 

I  only  deal  by  rules  of  art, 
Such  as  are  lawful,  and  Judge  by 
Conclusions  of  astrology.— Hudibeas. 
Inferences  are  spedal  conclusions  from  particular  cir- 
euiuslances ;  they  serve  as  links  in  the  chain  of  reasoo- 
ing ;  *  Though  it  may  chance  to  be  right  in  the  eon- 
elusion,  it  is  yet  unjust  and  mistaken  in  the  method  of 
ti|f«reiie«.*— Glanvillb      Conclusion  in   the  logical 
sense  is  the  ooociuding  proposition  in  a  syllogism, 
drawn  tnm  the  two  othien,  which  are  called  the  pre- 
mises, and  may  each  of  them  be  iitferenees. 

Conclusions  are  drawn  fh>m  real  fbcts,  ii^srsiiees 
are  drawn  fitMn  the  appearances  of  things ,  deductions 
only  fVom  arguments  or  assertions.  Conclusions  are 
oractical;    inforoness  ratiocinailve;  deductions  are 

We  emtdmio  ftom  a  peraon's  condact  or  declarations 
what  he  Intends  to  do,  or  leave  undone ; 

He  praises  wioe,  and  we  eondrnds  ftom  thenee 
He  lik'd  his  glass,  <ni  bia  own  evidence.— Addisoic. 

(kn  of  rain  or  snow;  'Too  mkhtf  ftom  the  single  peo- 
ple departed,  make  some  useful  inferences  or  guessea 
how  many  there  are  left  unmarried.'— SraaLa.  We 
deduce  from  a  combination  of  (hctM,  inferences,  and 
assertions,  that  a  story  is  fabricated:  'There  is  a  con- 
sequence which  seems  very  naturally  dsdmcMe  frooi 
the  foregoing  consideraliona.  If  the  scale  of  being  li' 
iich  a  regular  progress  so  hiah  aa  man,  we  fflay  ., 
rity  of  reason  suppose  that  It  still  proceeds  gradu- 

We  infer  tnm  the  appeaimnce  of  the  clouds,  or  the 
iWcknesa  of  the  atmoBiilMra,  that  then  wiU  bo  a  heavy 

by  such  a  regular  progress  so  hiah  aa  man,  we  may  bf 
a  parity  of  reason  suppose  that  It  still  proceeds  gradu- 
ally through  those  beings  which  are  of  a  superior 
nature  to  him.*— Addison.  Hasty  contusions  betray 
a  want  of  judgement,  or  firmness  of  mind:  contrary 
inferenees  are  freauently  drawn  (tnm  the  same  circuBA* 
stances  to  serve  the  purpoees  of  party,  and  support  a 
favourite  position ;  the  deductions  in  such  cases  are  not  _ 
unfkequently  true  when  the  ntforonees  are  fhlse. 


Beiief,  fhHn  bdieve.  In  Saxon  gelgfam,  geleavam,  la 
German  glauben,  kilauhan,  Ate.  comes,  in  all  possibiutv, 
from  lief,  in  German  belisben  to  please,  and  the  Latin 
libet  it  pleaaetli,  signifying  the  pleasure  or  assent  of  the 
mind.  Credit,  in  French  credit,  Latin  ereditus,  parti, 
ciple  of  credo,  compounded  of  e«r  the  heart,  and  do  to 
give,  signifies  also  riving  the  heart  TVust  Is  eon- 
nected  with  the  old  word  trow,  in  Saxon  troomiam, 
German  trauen,  old  German  thravikn,  tkruven,  k^.  to 
hold  true,  and  probably  from  the  Greek  0^)pc<ir  to  have 
confidence,  signifying  to  depend  upon  as  true.  FaitJk, 
in  Latin  Jides,  from  JUo  to  confide,  signifies  also  de> 
pendence  upon  as  true. 

Belief  ia  tlie  generlck  term,  the  oth'^rs  specifick ;  we 
believe  when  wc  credit  and  trust,  bui  not  alwaya  vies 
versd.  Belief  rests  on  no  particular  person  or  thing; 
but  credit  and  tm»t  rest  on  Ilie  authority  of  one  or 
more  individuals.  Every  thing  is  the  subject  of  bdief 
which  produces  une*i(  assent:  the  events  of  human  11  Je 
are  credited  upon  the  authority  of  the  narrator:  the 
words,  promises,  or  the  integrity  of  individuals  are 
trusted:  theiiower  of  persons  and  llie  virtue  of  thiofi 
are  objects  ot faith. 

Belief  and  credit  are  partteular  actions,  or  sentl- 
menu:  trust  and  faith  are  permanent  dispositions  of 
the  mind.  Things  are  entitled  to  our  belief;  persona 
are  entitled  to  our  credit :  but  people  repose  a  trust  la 
otliers;  or  have  n  faith  in  others. 

Our  belief  or  unbelief  is  not  always  regulated  by  our 
reasoning  fhculties,  or  the  truth  of  things:  we  ofken 
believe  from  prejudice  and  ignorance,  tilings  to  be  inia 
which  are  very  false ; 

Oh !  I've  heard  him  Ulk 

Like  the  first-born  child  of  love,  when  every  word 

Spoke  In  bis  eyes,  and  wept  to  be  bdiea^d, 

And  all  to  ruin  me.— Southbbn. 

With  the  bulk  of  mankind,  assurance  goes  fbrther 
than  any  thing  etae  in  obtaining  credit :  gross  fklso- 
hoods,  pronounced  with  confidence,  will  be  ereiiud 
sooner  than  plain  truths.toId  in  an  unvarnished  style ; 

Oh !  I  will  credit  my  Scamandra's  tears ! 

Nor  think  them  drops  of  chance  like  other  women'a. 

There  are  no  disappointments  more  severe  than  thoaa 
which  we  fisei  on  finding  that  we  have  intsled  to  nsea 
of  base  principles ; 

Capricioos  man !    To  good  or  111  Inconstant 
Too  much  to  fear  or  trust  is  equal  weaknea. 
•     Johnson. 
Ignorant  people  have  commonly  a  more  implicit  faith 
in  any  nostrum  rpcommended  to  them  by  persons  of 
theh  own  class,  than  in  the  prescriptions  of  profeasiooal 
men  regularly  educated; 

For /ail*  repos'd  on  seas  and  on  theflau'ring  sky 
Thy  naKed  corpse  is  doomed  on  shores  unknown  to  He 

,  DaVDBN. 

BeUrf,  trust,  and  faia  have  a  rellgloas  application, 
which  credit  has  not.    Beli^  Is  simply  an  act  of  the 
trust  and  faith  are  active  moving 
mind  in  which  the  heart  b  concerned, 
extend  beyond  an  assent  of  the  mind  to 
any  given  proposltioD;  trust  and  faith  are  lively  sen- 
timents whkb  Impel  to  aclioB.    Belief  Is  to  trust  ami 
faith,  as  coMse  to  efllsct:  there  may  be  beli^  without 
either  trnsl  or/sstt;  bat  Ibera  eaa  be  no  trust  m 


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/dUwHlMaC  hOUf:  we  freUev^tfamt  there  te«God, 
who  to  the  creator  and  prewrver  of  all  his  creatares; 
we  therefore  truai  in  him  for  bis  protectloii  of  our- 
lelvea :  we  UUeoe  that  Jesua  Christ  died  for  the  sine  of 
men ;  we  have  tiierefore  faith  in  hia  redeeming  grace 
to  Mve  us  from  our  sins. 

BeUtf  to  common  to  all  reHgtons ;  *  The  Epicureant 
eootentod  tbeioselves  with  the  ijtoniai  of  a  Providence, 
asKiting  at  the  same  time  the  eztoience  of  gods  in 
general :  because  they  would  not  shocJc  the  conmioii 
MUf  of  nianklnd.*>-ADmsoN.  Tnut  to  peculiar  to 
the  Migoers  In  Divine  revelation ;  *  What  can  be  a 
stronger  motive  to  a  firm  tntst  and  reliance  on  the 
mercies  of  oor  Maker,  than  the  giving  us  hte  Son  to 
sufler  foe  us  ?*~Adi>isoi«.  Faitk  to  employed  by  di»- 
tincikin  for  the  Christian  faiik ;  *  The  faith  or  persua- 
sioa  of  a  Divine  revelation  is  a  Divine  fatUL  not  only 
with  respect  to  the  object  of  it,  but  likewise  in  respect 
of  the  author  of  it,  which  to  the  Divine  8piriu*— Til- 
LOTSOK.  Belief  to  purelv  speculative ;  and  truat  and 
faith  are  operative :  the  for  raer  operates  on  the  mind ; 
the  litfter  on  the  outward  conduct.  IVusl  in  Gud 
serves  to  dispel  all  anxious  concern  about  the  future. 
"  Faith,"  save  the  ApoMle,  "to  dead  without  works.'* 
Theorists  substitute  Mi^  for  faith ;  enthusiasU  mis- 
take paaslon  for  faith.  True  faith  must  be  grounded 
en  a  right  b^ief^  and  accompanied  with  a  right  practice. 


Fkith  (v.  BtUtf)  denotes  either  the  principle  of 
IruMii^  or  the  thing  trusted ;  creed,  from  the  Latin 
ertdt  to  believe,  denotes  the  thing  believed. 

These  words  are  synonymous  when  taken  fur  the 
ihii«  trusted  in  or  believed;  but  they  differ  in  this,  tliat 
faith  has  always  a  reference  to  the  principle  in  the 
mind ;  treed  only  respects  the  thing  which  iu  the  object 
of  faith :  the  former  is  likewise  taken  generally  and 
Indefluiiely ;  the  latter  particularly  and  deflnitely,  lig- 
nifiring  a  set  form  or  a  code  of  faith;  hence  we  say, 
to  be  of  the  sajne  faiths  or  in  adopt  the  same  creed. 
The  holy  martyrs  died  for  the  faith^  as  it  is  in  Christ 
Jesus ;  *  3t.  Paul  aArms  that  a  sinner  is  at  first  Justified 
and  received  iulo  the  favour  of  God,  by  a  sincere  pro- 
fession of  the  Christian  /aiO.'— Tillotsok.  Every 
established  form  of  religion  will  have  its  peculiar  creed. 
Tlie  Church  of  England  has  adopted  that  ereed  which 
h  consldeia  as  containing  the  purest  principles  of 
Christian  faith;  *  Supposing  all  the  great  points  of 
athetom  were  formed  into  a  kind  of  creed,  I  would  foin 
ask  whether  it  would  not  require  an  infinitely  creater 
measure  of  faith  tlian  any  set  of  articles  which  they 
so  violemly  oppose  V — Addisom. 


Cmotelisa,  from  convince,  denotes  either  the  act  of 
cmmimcing  ttt  the  state  of  being  eonioxHced ;  vercuoitton, 
which,  from  the  Latin  pamtadeo,  or  suadeo,  and  the 
Greek  ^fik  eweet,  slgnifieiB  lo  make  thoroughly  agree- 
able to  the  taste,  expresses  likewise  the  act  of  per- 
tuading,  or  the  stale  of  being  pemutded. 

What  convince*  binds;  what  pcreuadeo  attracts. 
We  eravnics  by  arguments;  it  is  the  understanding 
which  decerminet '  we  are  perouaded  by  entreaties  and 
personal  Influence  i  it  to  the  imagination,  the  pasrions, 
or  the  will  which  decide.  Our  conviction  respects 
solely  matters  of  belief  or  faith ;  *  When  therefore  the 
Apostle  requireth  ability  to  convict  hereticin,  can  we 
ihiak  he  Judgeth  it  a  thing  unlawfol,  and  not  rather 
aeedfttl,  to  use  the  principal  instrument  of  their  eomvic- 
IMS,  the  light  of  reamn.'— IIooKsa.  Our  persuasion 
reepeets  matten  of  belief  or  practice ;  '  I  should  be  glad 
if  I  could  peronade  him  to  write  such  another  critique 
on  any  thing  of  mine,  for  when  he  condemns  any  of  my 
poems,  be  makes  the  world  have  a  better  opinion  of 
them.*— Dktdbii.  We  are  convinced  that  a  thing  to 
true  or  fotoe ;  we  are  perouaded  that  It  to  either  right  or 
wrong,  advantageous  or  the  contrary.  A  person  will 
have  half  elfeeted  a  thing  who  to  eonoinced  that  it  is  hi 
bto  power  to  eflba  it ;  he  will  be  easily  pereuaded  to  do 
that  which  Ihvoors  hto  own  Intereela. 

Comrietiom   respects   our  most  important  duties 
'Their  wtodom  to  only  of  ihto  world,  to  put  fUse 
opon  tfaingi,  to  call  good  evil,  and  evil  good, 
toe  eomictun,  of  their  own  conaciences.*— 
PonumHon  to  frequently  applied  lo  matters  of 


IndiflTerence:  'Philoelea's  beaaqr  not  oxk\y  vorouaded^ 
but  so  peronadsd  that  all  hehrts  must  yield.^— Sidnkt 
The'first  step  to  true  repentance  to  a  thorough  eonoic- 
Hon  of  the  enonnity  of  sin.  The  cure  of  people's  mala- 
dies to  sometimes  promoted  to  a  surprisiqg  degree  by 
their  persuaoion  of  the  efficacy  of  the  remedy. 

As  conviction  is  the  effect  of  substantial  evidence,  it 
to  solid  and  permanent  in  Its  nature ;  it  cannot  be  so 
easily  changed  and  deceived;  |»«r#«4Ut0«,  depending  on 
our  foeliiiga,  is  influenced  by  external  objects,  and  ex- 
posed to  various  changes;  it  may  vary  both  in  the 
dt^ree  and  in  the  object.  Conviction  answers  in  our 
minds  to  positive  certainty ;  pereumeion  answers  to  pro- 

The  practical  truths  of  Chrtotianlty  demand  our 
deepest  conviction ;  *  When  men  have  settled  in  them- 
selves a  conviction  that  there  to  nothing  honourable 
which  to  not  accompanied  with  innocence;  nothing 
mean  but  what  has'guilt  in  It;  richee,  pleasures,  and 
honours  will  easily  lose  their  charms,  if  they  sund  be 
twcen  us  and  our  integrity.'— Stkblb.  Of  the  specu 
laiive  truths  of  Cbristiauiiy  we  ought  to  have  a  rational 
porouation  ;  *  Let  the  mind  be  possessed  with  the  per- 
suasion of  inimortal  happiness  annexed  to  the  act,  mid 
a^re  will  be  no  want  of  candidates  to  struggle  for  tlM 
gi-^riotts  prerogative.'— CcMHBRUiND. 

The  couvietien  of  the  truth  or  AUsehood  of  that 
which  we  have  been  accustomed  to  condemn  or  admire 
cannot  be  eft'ected  without  powerful  means;  but  w« 
may  be  perouaded  of  the  propriety  of  a  thing  to-day, 
which  to-morrow  we  shall  regard  with  indifi'erence. 
We  ought  to  be  convinced  of  the  propriety  of  avoidinf 
every  thing  which  can  interfere  with  the  good  order  of 
society;  we  may  be  persuaded  of  the  truth  of  a  person*! 
narrative  or  not,  according  to  the  representation  mudf 
to  V ;  we  may  be  perouaded  to  pursue  any  study  or  lay 
it  aside. 

Unbelief  {v.  Belief)  respects  muters  in  general ;  tnji 
deUtUy  fmmfidee  faithful,  to  vn^e/itff  »  respects  Divine 
revefaiirm ;  incredulily  is  umhelirfin  ordinary  mauera 
Unbelief  Is  taken  in  an  indefinite  and  nptzative  sense; 
it  to  the  want  of  belief  in  any  particular  tiling  that  may 
or  may  not  be  believed :  infidelity  is  a  more  active  state 
of  mind ;  it  supposes  a  violent  and  total  rejection  of  thai 
which  ought  to  bt;  believed:  incredulity  is  also  an  active 
stale  of  mind,  in  which  we  oppose  a  beU^  to  matter* 
that  may  be  rejected.  UnbM^  docs  not  of  ib«lf  con 
vey  any  reproachful  meaning;  It  depends  npnn  the 
thing  disbelieved ;  we  may  be  unbelievere  In  indifferent 
as  well  as  the  most  lm|M>rtant  matters;  but  absolutely 
taken  It  means  one  who  dtebelieves  sacred  truths; 
'Such  a  universal  acquaintance  with  things  will  keep 
you  flrom  an  exctw  or  credulity  and  unbelief;  I.  e.  a 
readiness  to  believe  ordeiiy  every  thing  at  first  bearing.' 
—Watts.  'One  geis  by  heart  a  catalogue  of  title 
pagtfs  and  editions ;  and  immediately,  to  become  con- 
spicuous, declares  that  he  is  an  unbeliever.* — Addison. 
Infidelity  id  taken  in  the  worst  sense  for  a  blind  and 
seniwless  per\-eniiiy  in  refusing  belief; '  Belief  and  pro- 
fbssion  will  speak  a  Christian  but  very  fhinily,  when 
thy  conversation  proclninis  thee  an  I'l^Uei.*— Soutb 
Incredulity  to  often  a  mark  of  wisdom,  and  not  unfre- 
quently  a  mark  of  the  contrary ;  '  I  am  not  aitofsether 
tnerednlous  that  there  may  be  such  candles  as  are  made 
of  salamaiider'e  wood,  being  a  kind  of  mineral  which 
whiieneth  in  the  burning  and  consiimeth  not.*— Bacor. 
'  The  youth  hears  all  the  predictions  of  the  aged  with 
obstinate  tacrsdaitev.'— Johhson.  The  Jews  are  unbe- 
lievere in  the  mission  of  our  Saviour ;  tlie  Turks  are 
tnfideU,  inasmuch  as  they  do  not  believe  In  the  Bible; 
Deists  and  Aihetots  are  likewise  infidels^  Inasmuch  as 
they  set  themselves  up  against  Divine  revelation;  well- 
informed  people  are  aJwai's  increduloue  of  storiea 
respecting  gbosta  and  apparitions. 

IKsftslte/ properly  implies  the  Mt'cvm^  that  »thlnf 
to  not,  or  renising  to  believe  that  it  to.  Unbelief  ex- 
presses proper^  a  beUeving  the  contrary  of  what  one 
has  beKeved  before :  diebaief  to  qualified  as  to  Its  nature 
by  the  thing  disbelieved.  *  The  belief  or  diebelief  of  a 
thing  does  not  alter  the  nature  of  the  thhig.'— Tillot- 
soH.    Our  diebelirf  of  the  idle  take  which  are  told  b 


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bPSptBiH)  to  JOMlfltd  bv  Uw  frcqamt  deiectiM  of  tiieir 
IklMlMod ;  '  TiMs  Atbdat  baa  nol  found  bto  post  tenable. 
mad  k  tbareibra  retired  into  dekm,  and  a  ditbeiieftit 
revealed  reUglon  oiUy.'— Aooiaoa.  Oar  Bavtour  had 
eoiupaaiioa  on  Thomaa  for  bia  auMsVi  Bod  gave  bin 
•uch  evldenoea  of  bto  Mentiiy,  as  diflsi|«ted  ever] 
doubt ;  *  The  opfiuallaa  to  faiib  are  wmbtli^  and  credu- 
lliy.*— TiLuynox. 

D^ctriut,  In  Fkaneb  d^etrimsy  Latin  ddctnao,  froon 
d0ce0  to  teacb,  rfgnWea  ibe  tUng  taoght ;  prtetptf  from 
tbe  Latin  prmcipio^  lignlfiefl  the  thing  laid  down;  and 
mrincnU,  fn  Frencb  jwimipe,  Latin  prtndmum,  aigoi- 
Ilea  the  be«inalngof  tMn|p,thMto,tbeir^        ^' 

S  tbeir  OM  or  origi- 

Tbe  d0€trim»  reqniiea  a  tether ;  the  p  ree^t  reqoires 


Tbe  d^etritu 

iprinciple  reaulrea  only 
la  alwaya  framed  by 

to  eqioiJied  'or  laid  down  by 
aoine  one ;  ilM  ^rm^<«  Itoa  In  tlie  thi 


ne  one ;  Ibe 

»  thing  liaalf.  The 
doUriM  fai  eonpoaed  of  frvmpUt;  tbe  prte^t  reala 
upon  pirincipUB  cx  dmelanmu.  Pytbagoraa  taught  tbe 
d0etrim»  of  UM  meiempavdKMls,  and  eojotated  nany 
pruepts  on  hto  dtoetptea  for  ttte  r«utation  of  tiieir  con- 
duct, particulariT  that  tbev  sbould  abatain  from  eating 
aninial  food,  and  be  onlv  rtient  liearem  for  tlie  Unt  Ave 
years  «f  tbeir  aelnlanbip:  the  former  of  then  niiee 
depended  upon  tiie  preceding  doetriM  of  tlie  aouPa 
iraiinnlgraiion  to  llie  bodies  of  animate;  tbe  latter 
r»ted  on  that  almpto  prineipU  of  education,  liie  entire 
devotion  of  iheacliolar  to  tbe  maatti^. 

We  are  aaid  to  believe  In  deetritus:  to  citify  prw- 
upu ;  to  imbibe  or  bold  prinsiplet.  The  d^Urhu  to 
tliat  which  enten  into  tlie  compoaidon  of  our  faith ; 
*  I'o  malie  new  articles  of  lUtb  and  doarin§  no  man 
thinketh  It  lawful;  new  tows  of  government  what 
cbuxcb  or  commonwealth  to  there  which  maketh  not 
either  at  one  time  or  other.*— Hooebe.  *Thto  sedi- 
dous,  unconstitutional  d0CCrrR«  of  electing  kings  is  now 
publickly  taught, avowed,  and  printed.*— Bveeb.  The 
frtcept  to  that  wbteh  to  recommended  for  practice; 
>  Pythagoras's  flnt  rule  directs  us  to  worship  the  gnds, 
aa  to  ordained  by  law,  for  that  to  the  most  natural  In- 
terpreution  of  tbe  vrae^C*— A  odisom.  Both  are  the 
■uly|ecls  of  rational  assent,  and  suited  only  to  tbe 
matured  underataodlng:  primcipUa  are  often  admitted 
without  examinalion;  and  imbibed  as  frequently  from 
observation  and  circumstances,  as  from  any  direct 
pereooal  eftns ;  children  as  well  aa  men  get  primr 
mpUa  :  '  if  we  hid  the  whole  hialory  of  leaL  from  tiie 
days  of  Cain  to  our  timea,  we  should  see  it  nlled  with 
ao  many  scenes  pf  slaughter  and  bloodsbed,  as  would 
make  a  wise  man  very  carefUl  not  to  suffer  himself  to 
be  actuated  by  siicb  a  prineipU^  wben  it  ref  ' 
tarn  of  opinion  and  apeJeulation.*— Appiaow. 

The  dMtrim  (e.  DoUrine)  originates  with  the  Indi- 
vidual who  teaches,  in  application  to  all  subjects;  the 
dotiriM  is  whatever  to  taught  or  recommended  to  tbe 
belief  of  otbem ;  tiie  dogmm^  from  the  Greek  3^/ia  and 
&iriw  to  think,  sIgnUlea  tbe  thing  thouchi,  admitted,  or 
taken  for  granted ;  thto  Ilea  with  a  body  or  number  of 
Individuato ;  tbe  tmee,  from  the  Latin  teiuo  to  hold  or 
maintain,  signifies  tlie  thing  held  or  mainuined,  and  is 
a  species  of  principto  (v.  DoetrhU^  specifically  main- 
tained in  matters  of  opinion  by  persons  in  general. 

The  doUrnu  nests  on  the  actborlty  of  tbe  individual 
by  whom  it  to  framed ; 

Unpractto'd  he  to  fawn  ors^  for  power 

By  doeirinta  fhsbion'd  to  tbe  varylm  hour; 

Far  other  alms  bto  heart  had  leam'd  to  prise, 

More  aklird  to  ralae  the  wreieh'd,  than  to  rise. 


The  dogma  rests  on  the  aathority  of  tbe  body  by  whom 

It  to  maintained ;  *Ovr  paet  was  a  aioick  philosopher, 

and  all  bto  moral  aenteooes  are  drawn  from  the  dogma* 

of  that  sect*— Deyvbh.    Tbe  Unut  rests  on  its  own 

Intrinsick  merits  or  demerits ;  *  One  of  tbe  puritanical 

Untio  was  tbe  iltegality  of  all  games  of  chance  *— 

ioHMsoR.     Bfany  or  tbe  doUrnuo  of  our  blessed 

Saviour  are  be  M  by  faltb  In  him ;  they  are  subjects  of 

persuasion  by  tlie  exercise  of  our  rational  powers:  the 

^^fMos  of  tbe  Romtoh  cburcb  are  admitted  V  none 

anctaas admit  toMMborhy:  tbe  finale  ofraprta^ 
na,  teveUers,  and  freelblnhen,  have  been  nnbbiato- 
Ingly  maintaiaadboih  in  publfck  and  privatn. 

Tbe  tmut  (e.  Dottrnu)  la  the  opinldn  which  w« 
boM  In  our  own  mladaj:  the  ptiUon  to  that  wblcb  we 
lay  down  for  eltaefs.  Oor  UnoU  may  be  boitftil,  oar 
pooUiono  fUse.  Be  who  gives  up  his  tmuU  readily 
evlttcea  an  unataMe  mind;  he  who  arguea  on  a  falaa 
pooUiom  simwa  more  lenadty  and  aubtlenr  tlmn  good 
sense.  Tbe  tmuio  of  tbe  dMbrent  deaonunatlona  of 
Cbriallana  are  acarcely  to  be  known  or  dtoilngutoiied; 
tbey  often  raat  upon  aiaeh  trivial  polnta;  *  llie  oecar 
slon  of  Luther's  belnc  first  dtoguaied  with  the  UmU 
of  tlie  Romtoh  dttreb,  to  Itnowii  to  every  one,  the 
least  eonveraanc  with  history.*— Ronnavaon.  The 
pooitiono  whieb  an  author  I«y8  down  moat  be  very 
definite  and  clear  wben  he  wtonea  to  build  upon  tiMaa 
any  theory  or  system;  ^Totbe^Miltenof  Tulty,  ibnt 
if  virtue  cobM  be  seen,  she  must  be  foved,  nuqr  bo 
added,  that  if  truth  eould  be  beard,  ilw  raiiat  bn 
ob^ed.'— Jomsov. 


Tlstfry,  from  tbe  Greek  dtdo/uu  to  behold,  and  apocm 

lotion^  from  tlie  Latin  $peemler  to  watch  for  or  espji 

are  both  employed  to  express  what  to  seen  with  tbe 

mind's  eye.    'neorf  to  tlie  fruit  of  reflection,  it  a 

tbe  porpoeea  of  sctence;  practice  will  be  incomplam 
wtien  the  tJuwrf  to  fUae; 

Truo  ptoty  wltboot  ceasation  toaC 

By  theoritOf  the  practice  past  to  loat— ^hvak. 
SpocuUtion  belongs  more  to  tbe  imagination :  It  boa 
therefore  leas  to  do  with  realities :  it  to  that  which  can- 
not be  reduced  to  practice,  and  can  therefore  never  lie 
brought  to  the  test  of  experience ;  '  In  all  these  thinpi 
being  Tuliy  persuaded  that  what  they  did,  it  was  obe- 
dience to  tbe  will  of  God.  and  that  all  men  sbould  do 
the  like;  there  remained  after  opuidaUon  practice 
whereunto  the  whote  world  mCght  be  framed.*— 
HooEKE.  Hence  it  arises  that  tUorp  to  contrasted 
sometimes  with  tbe  practice  to  deaignatn  ita  Inaufil- 
ciency  lo  render  a  man  complete ; 

True  Cbriattanity  dependa  on  fofct. 

Religion  to  not  aMry,  but  net^— Haete. 
And  opeculation  to  put  for  that  which  to  flmdfril  or 
unreal ;  *  This  is  a  consideration  not  to  be  neglected  or 
thought  an  indlfllirent  matter  of  mere  opeeulaUon.^ — 
Leslie.  A  general  who  to  so  only  in  theory  will 
acquit  bimsdf  miserably  in  the  field;  a  reli^onist 
wlio  to  only  so  in  tpoadation  will  make  a  wretched 


Opinion^  In  Latin  svjnts  friom  opimor^  and  theOredt 
hivokot  to  think  or  Judae,  Is  the  work  of  the  head; 
oenUmont^  from  •tntioXo  feel,  to  the  work  of  the  heart ; 
notion  (vide  Porcoption)  to  a  fllmpto  operation  of  tJie 
thlnkins  faculty. 

We  form  optMono :  we  have  oenUnunU  .*  we  get 
notiona.  Opinions  are  formed  on  speculative  matteri ; 
they  are  the  result  of  reading,  experience,  or  reflec- 
tion :  oentimonU  are  entertained  on  matten  of  prac- 
tice ;  tliey  are  the  conaequence  of  habits  and  circom- 
ices :  notion*  are  gathered  upon  sensible  ol^ecta, 
bnd  arise  out  of  tlie  caaualtlea  of  liearing  and  seeing. 
We  have  opinion*  on  religion  as  respects  its  doctrines ; 
we  have  tentimoni*  on  roiglon  as  respects  its  praetlen 
and  its  precepts.  The  unitv  of  tbe  Oodbead  in  tlie 
general  sense,  and  the  doctrine  of  the  Trinity  in  the 
particular  sense,  are  opinion* ;  honour  and  gratitude 
towards  the  Detty,  the  sense  of  our  dependence  npon 
him,  and  obligations  to  him,  are  gontimonu. 

Opinion*  are  more  liable  toerrour  than  *entiment*: 
the  former  depend  upon  knowledge,  and  moat  there- 
fore be  inaccurate ;  tlie  latter  depend  rather  upon  in- 
stinct, and  a  well  organized  frame  of  mind ;  *  Time 
wears  out  the  fieiions  of  opinion^  and  doth  by  degrees 
discover  and  unmask  ibat  fallacy  of  ungrounded  per- 
suasions, but  confirms  the  dictatea  and  sentimonU  of 
nature/— WiLEiNa.  Jfotien*  are  still  more  liable  to 
ertour  tban  either ;  tbey  are  tbe  Immatnred  dectaionanf 


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tfw  onioformed  mind  on  Um  appearances  of  ihin^. 
There  is  noUiing  made  a  more  common  subject  or 
dIscourM  than  naturt;  and  ltd  laws,  and  yet  few  agree 
in  tlieir  notwns  about  these  words.*— CmTNS. 

The  didbrenfee  of  ominian  among  men,  on  the  most 
Important  questions  or  human  life,  Is  a  sufficient  evi- 
dence that  the  mind  of  man  Is  very  ea«ily  Ipd  astrav 
hi  matters  ofMnuan;  *No,  cousin,  (said  Henry  IV. 
when  cbarfed  by  the  Dulse  of  Bouillon  with  having 
changed  his  rdlgion)  I  Imve  changed  no  religion,  but 
an  apnuM.'— HowBL.  Whaievec  dillerence  of  opi- 
Bira  tliere  may  be  among  Christians,  there  is  but  one 
gsniiwtut  of  love  and  good-will  among  those  who  fol- 
low the  example  of  Chrlsi,  rather  than  their  own  pas- 
sions ;  '  There  are  never  great  numbers  In  any  nation 
who  can  raise  a  pleasing  discourse  from  their  own 
stock  of  sentiment*  and  images.*— JoaiisoN.  The  »s- 
tinu  of  a  Deity  are  so  Imperfect  among  Avages  In 
general,  that  they  seem  to  amount  to  Uttle  more  than 
an  indistinct  idea  of  some  superlour  Invisible  agent ; 
*  Being  we  are  at  this  time  to  speak  of  the  proper  no- 
tion of  the  church,  therefore  I  ahaJl  not  look  upon  it  as 
•ny  more  than  the  sons  of  men.'— Pbaksom. 

neitf,  IhMa  Deue  a  God,  signifies  a  divine  person. 
2>ntinty,  from  dtvtiuw,  signifies  the  dtotns  esKuce  or 
power:  the  deitiee  of  the  heathens  bad  little  of  dtei- 
wUf  in  them ;  *  The  first  original  of  the  drama  was 
KUgious  woisMp,  consisting  only  of  a  chorus,  which 
was  nothing  else  but  a  hymn  to  a  />0ttir.*— Addisoh. 
The  dieinitw  of  our  Saviour  is  a  flindamental  anide  In 

Why  shrinks  the  soul 
Back  on  herself,  and  startles  at  destruction  1 
*Tis  the  drotmCy  that  stirs  within  us.— Aooisoir. 

tkUetial  and  keavenhf  derive  thdr  difibrence  In  dg- 
aUkation  from  tbeirdU^nt origin :  they  boUi  Uisralty 
imply  belonging  to  heaven ;  but  the  former,  from  the 
Latin  «c^(iun,  signifies  belonging  to  the  heaven  of 
heathens;  the  latter,  which  has  its  origin  among  be- 
lievers in  the  true  God,  has  acquired  a  superlour  sense, 
hi  regard  to  heaven  as  the  habitation  of  the  Almighty. 
This  diatmction  la  pretty  faUhfully  observed  In  their 
applicaiion :  eeleetial  Is  applied  mostly  in  the  natural 
ssnse  of  the  A^avew  ;  heavenlvU  employed  more  com- 
monly in  a  spiritual  sense.    Hence  we  speak  of  the 
« Jeetial  globe  as  diatinf  uished  from  the  termtrial,  of 
'he  ceieeUal  bodies,  of  Olympus  as  the  eeUetial  abode 
y  Jupltw,  of  the  etUetial  deities; 
Twice  warn'd  by  the  e^eetial  mesaenger. 
The  pious  prince  arose,  with  hasty  fear.— Drtdbh. 
Unhappy  son!  (lUr  Thetis  thus  replies, 
While  teara  eeUetial  trickle  from  her  eyes.)— Pops. 
But  on  the  other  hand,  of  the  heavenly  habitation,  of 
iMvcxiir  Joys  or  bliss,  of  heavenly  spirits  and  the  like. 
There  are dmibtless  many  cases  in  which  eeleetuUmny 
be  used  for  heavenly  in  the  moral  sense ; 
Thus  having  said,  the  hero  bound  his  brows 
With  leafy  branciieB.  then  perform'd  his  vows; 
Adoring  lliat  the  genius  of  the  place, 
Then  Elutb,  Chemother  of  the  heaven^  race. 

I  In  which  heavenly  cannot  ao  pro- 
,_  , dbyesfestto/;  »  As  the  love  of  hea- 
ven makes  one  heaveniy,  the  love  of  virtue  virtuous, 
so  doth  the  love  of  the  world  make  one  become 
woridly.*— Sdhxt.    Hwvenly  Is  frequently  employed 
la  the  sense  of  anperexeellent; 
But  now  he  aels'd  Brisels*  Jbeav*iil|f  charms, 
And  of  my  valour's  prize  defrauds  my  arms.-^ora. 
The  poets  have  also  availed  themselves  of  the  Hoense 
to  use  ceieetial  in  a  similar  sense,  as  occasion  might 


Mar*.  In  French  sdsrtr,  Latbi  odere.  or  sd  and 

srw,  sIgnMes  Hlerany  to  pray  to.    Werehtp^  In  Saxon 

io*erth*typ*t  Is  contracted  from  werththtp^  implying 

mm  the  oiileet  ttat  hi  woith,  of  tbt  worth  toeif: 

whence  it  has  been  employed  to  designate  the  action 
of  doing  suitable  homage  to  the  object  which  has  worth 
and,  by  a  Just  distinction,  of  paying  homage  to  our 
Maker  by  religious  rites. 

Adoratiany  strictly  speakinc,  Is  the  service  of  the 
heart  towards  a  Superlour  Being,  in  which  we  ac- 
knowledge our  dependence  and  obedience,  by  petition 
and  thanksgiving:  iDor*hip  consists  In  the  outward 
form  of  showing  reverence  to  some  supposed  superlour 
being.  JideraUen  can  with  propriety  be  paid  only  to 
the  one  true  God;  'Menander  says,  that  '^God.  the 
Lord  and  Father  of  all  things,  hi  alone  worthy  of  our 
humble  adoration^  being  at  once  the  maker  and  giver 
of  all  bkaslno.*' '— Ccx  aaaLABn.  But  woish^  is 
ofibrcd  by  heathens  to  stocks  and  stones; 
By  reason,  man  a  Godhead  can  discern. 
But  how  he  shouU  be  ie»r*hip*d  cannot  learn. 


We  may  adore  oar  Blaker  at  aO  tfanes  and  in  all 
places,  whenever  the  heart  is  lifted  up  mwanis  him; 
but  we  worehip  him  only  at  stated  times,  and  accord* 
ing  to  certain  rules;  *  Solemn  and  serviceable  worskip 
we  name,  for  distinction  8ake,whatsoever  beiongein 
to  the  church  or  publick  society  of  God,  by  way  of 
external  adarcUton.*- Hoouca.  Outward  signs  arc  but 
secondary  in  the  act  of  adoration;  and  in  divine  wor- 
th^ there  Is  often  nothing  existing  but  the  outward 
form.  We  seldom  odor*  without  wcrehipping ;  but 
we  too  frequently  wsfrehip  without  adoring. 


Adoration  has  been  before  cooddered  only  fai  rda* 
tlon  to  our  Maker ;  it  is  here  employed  In  an  Improper 
and  extended  npplicatlon  to  express,  in  the  strongest 
pomible  manner,  the  devotion  of  the  mind  towards 
sensible  objects:  KeveroMe,  in  Lathi  reverentia^ 
reverence  or  awe,  impties  to  show  reverence,  from 
reverter^  to  stand  in  awe  of:  Fenerate^  in  LaUn  veno- 
rata*,  participle  of  veneror^  probably  from  venere 
beauty,  signifying  to  hold  In  very  high  esteem  for  its 
supenour  qualities:  rever*  is  another  form  of  the  same 

Reverence  Is  equally  engendered  by  the  contempla- 
tion of  superiority  in  a  being,  wliether  of  the  Supreme 
Being,  a&  our  Creator,  or  any  earthly  being  as  our 
parent.  It  difiers,  however,  from  adoration,  in  as 
much  as  it  has  a  mixture  of  fear  arising  from  tbe  con- 
sciousness of  weakness  and  dependence,  or  of  obliga- 
tion for  favours  received;  'The  fear  acceptable  lo 
God,  is  a  filial  ftor,  an  awful  reverence  of  the  Divine 
Nature,  proceeding  from  a  just  esteem  for  bis  perfbo- 
tlons,  which  produces  in  us  an  inclination  to  his  ser- 
vice, and  an  unwillingness  to  oilbnd  him.'- Roobrs. 

To  revere  and  venerate  are  applied  only  to  human 
belnn.  and  that  not  so  much  from  the  relation  we 
stand  In  to  them,  as  from  their  characters  and  endow 
menta ;  on  which  account  these  two  latter  terms  are 
applicable  to  inanimate  as  well  as  animate  objecis. 

Adoration  In  this  case,  as  in  the  former,  essentially 
requires  no  external  form  of  expression:   It  Is  heat 
expressed  by  the  devotion  of  the  individual  to  the 
service  of  him  whom  he  odor**;  *** There  is  no  end 
of  his  greamesB.**    The  most  exalted  creature  he  has 
made  is  only  capable  of  adoring  it;  none  but  himself 
can  comprehend  It.*— AnnisoM.     .fteeersactii^  our 
Maker  is  altogether  an  Inward  feeling ;  but  reverencing 
our  parents  includes  In  It  an  outward  expression  of  our 
sentiments  by  our  deportment  towards  toem ; 
The  war  protracted,  and  the  siege  dday'd, 
Were  due  lo  Hector's  and  this  hero's  hand, 
Both  brave  alike,  and  equal  in  command ; 
iBneas,  not  Inihrlour  in  the  fleM, 
In  plons  reverence  to  the  gods  exoell'd.— Ditdbr 
Revering  and  venerating  are  confined  to  the  breast  of 
the  individual,  but  they  may  somethnes  dlqday  them 
selves  In  suitable  acts  of  homage. 

Good  princes  are  fteouently  adored  by  tbehr  sul^ects: 
It  is  a  part  of  the  Chrirtian  character  to  reverence  our 
aplritual  pastors  and  masters,  as  well  aa  all  temporal 
authorities ;  *  It  seems  to  be  remarkable  that  death  In- 
creases our  veneration  for  the  good,  and  extenuates 
our  hatred  of  the  bad.*— Jomtsos.  We  ought  to  veme- 
rau  all  truly  good  men  while  living,  and  to  n 


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And  had  not  men  the  hoary  head  r09«r'd, 
And  bo>-B  paid  merenee  when  a  man  appear* df 
Both  must  have  died,  though  richer  skina  they  wore, 
And  aaw  more  heapa  of  acoraa  In  their  aiora. 


Offenngt  Aom  ^«>'t  *od  odlotMn,  fttn  •Uocm  and 
tblattu  or  ^/la<M,  come  both  fttMn  •^ev  (v.  T«  ^«r) ; 
Uie  fonuer  ia  however  a  lenn  of  much  OMire  general 
and  famUiar  uae  than  the  latter.  Qf§rimg»  arc  both 
moral  and  leUgioua ;  atatian.  In  the  proper  aeaae,  to 
religious  only;  'the  mooey  which  la  put  faiin  the 
eacramentnl  plate  la  an  ofgrimg;  the  oonaecraled 
br(>ad'and  wiue  at  the  sacrament  is  an  sitatiM.  The 
offering,  iu  a  religious  sense,  is  whaiever  one  ^ff^r^  u 
a  gift  by  way  of  reverence  to  a  auperlour ; 

They  are  polluted  offering*,  more  abhonr^ 
Than  spotted  liven  in  the  sacrifice. 


The  winds  to  beav*n  the  curling  vapouis  bore, 
Ungrateful  offering  to  the  immonalpow^rs, 
Whose  wrath  hung  heavy  o*er  tlie  Trojau  tow'r^ 


The  oblatian  la  the  offering  which  Is  accompanied 
with  pome  particular  ceremony;  'Many  conceive  in 
the  oblation  of  Jephlha's  daughter,  not  a  natural  but 
a  ci\il  kind  of  deaih.'— Browh.  The  wlae  men  made 
an  offervng_xoo\it  Saviour ;  but  not  properly  an  obla- 
tion :  the  Jewish  sacrifices,  astn  general  all  religious 
aacrifices,  were  in  the  proper  sense  oblatione.  The 
term  oblation.  In  a  figurative  sense,  may  be  as  gene- 
rally apfdied  as  offering  ; 

Ye  mighty  princea,  your  obUtiono  bring, 

And  pay  due  bonoun  to  your  awful  king  —Pitt. 

The  kind  oUo^ira  of  a  fiUling  tear.— Drtdkm. 


MaUdicUon,  from  maU  and  dico,  siinilfles  a  saying 
111,  that  Is.  declaring  an  evil  wish  ogainst  a  person : 
cvrxf,  in  Saxon  ihir#taii,  comes  In  all  probability  from 
the  Greek  xvptfw,  to  sanction  or  ratify,  signifying  a  bad 
wish  declared  upon  oath,  or  in  a  solenm  nilhner:  tm- 
precaUon^  (hiro  tm  and  preeo,  signifies  a  praying  down 
evil  upon  a  person :  exeerationt  from  the  Latin  ezo- 
eror,  that  ia,  i  eacrie  exeludore,  dignifies  the  same  as  to 
excommunicate,  with  every  form  of  aolemn  impreea- 
Uon  :  anathema,  in  Greek  iv6Biua.  signifies  a  setting 
out,  that  is,  a  putting  out  of  a  religious  community  by 
wav  of  penance. 

"if  he  ias/«dtcti9»  is  the  moat  Indefinite  and  general 
term,  slf nifying  simply  the  declaration  of  evil :  euroe 
Is  a  solemn  denunciation  of  evil :  the  fonucr  Is  em- 
ployed mostly  by  men ;  the  latter  by  God  or  man :  the 
rest  are  species  of  the  cwree  pronoimced  only  by  man. 
The  maUdieUon  Is  caused  by  simple  anger :  the  enrse 
is  occasioned  by  some  grievous  offence :  men.  In  the 
heat  of  their  passions,  will  utter  maJUdietiono  against 
any  object  that  offends  ttiem ;  '  With  many  praises  of 
his  good  play,  and  many  maU^tion*  on  the  power 
of  chance,  he  took  up  the  cards  and  threw  tliem  in  the 
fire.'— Hacexnzib.  God  pronounced  a  earss  upon 
Adam,  and  all  his  posterity,  after  the  fkll; 

But  know,  that  eie  yoar  promisM  walls  yoa  botid. 

My  cttrsss  ahaU  severely  be  fuUitt'd.— Dbtubm. 

The  cmroo  diftra  In  the  degiee  of  evil  pronounced 
or  wislied;  the  tsi^raB«tf#it  and  taocratton  always 
imply  some  positive  great  evil,  and,  In  tux,  as  moch 
evil  as  can  be  conceived  by  man  In  hfs  anger;  *  Thus 
either  host  their  tmnroettono  loln'd.'— Port.  The 
anafAwia  raipeetB  the  evil  which  la  pronounced  ae- 
eording  to  the  canon  law,  by  which  a  nan  Is  not  only 
put  ont  of  the  church,  but  held  up  as  an  objieet  of 
•fllfenoe.  The  moMiittioin  is  altogether  an  uoalk>wed 
ezpreaaioD  of  private  rcMutment;  the  ewroo  was  ad- 
Bitted,  in  some  casea,  according  to  the  Mosaic  law: 
and  thai,  as  well  as  the  oaalAssifl,  at  one  time  formed 
a  part  of  the  ecclesiastical  dtocipline  of  the  Christian 
church;  'The  bare  ankaUumoM  of  the  church  lUl  Uke 
■0  many  hrvla  fnlwina  upon  the  obstinate  and  schls- 
matlcal.'— South.  The  tntproeation  fbrmed  a  part  of 
the  heathenish  ceremony  of  rettgloo,  wherel^  they 

Invoked  the  Dlrs  to  bring  down  every  evil  on  tlia 
heads  of  their  enemies.  They  had  different  formulas 
of  speech  fbr  difll^rent  occasions,  as  tu  an  enemy  on  his 
departure:  'Abeas  nunquam  reditarus.*  Mela  in- 
forms us  that  the  Abrantes,  a  people  of  AfHca,  used  lo 
salute  the  rising  and  setting  son  after  this  manner. 

The  exoeration  is  always  the  informal  expreastoB 
of  the  most  violent  personal  ancer;  *I  have  seen  In 
Bedlam  a  man  that  has  held  up  his  Ihoe  in  a  posture 
of  adoration  towards  heaven  li»  uiter  ssserottsiw  and 


These  words  designate  an  edifice  dertlned  for  tha 
exercise  of  religion,  nut  with  collateral  Ideas,  which 
sufficiently  distinguish  them  firom  each  other.  The 
templum  of  the  Latin  signified  originally  an  open 
elevated  spot  marked  out  by  the  augura  with  th«'ir 
lituus,  or  sacred  wand,  whence  they  could  beet  survey 
the  heavens  on  all  sides ;  the  idea,  therefore,  of  sala- 
cious, open,  and  elevated,  enters  into  the  meaning  of 
this  word  In  the  same  manner  as  it  does  b  the  Helnew 
word  ^3'n»  derived  from  Spn»  which  in  the  A  rabick 
signifies  great  and  lof^.  The  Greek  yodf,  from  valio 
to  inliabit,  signifies  a  dwelllngrplaee,  and  by  di>rtinction 
the  dwelHng-place  of  Uie  Almighty,  in  which  seiwe  iIm 
Hebrew  word  Is  also  taken  to  denote  the  high  and 
holy  place  where  Jehovah  peculiarly  dwetleth,  othei- 
wise  called  the  kolf  keavono,  Jelmvalils  dwelling  or 
resting-place;  whence  St.  Paul  calls  our  bodies  tlie 
tempUe  of  God  when  the  spirit  of  God  dwelleth  in  us. 
The  Roman  poeu  used  the  word  too^ium  in  a  similar 

CobU  tonltralla  templa.— Locarr.  (Lib.  L) 

Qui  templa  cmli  summa  sonltu  eoneuilt. 

Taaairr.  (£hm.) 
Contremuit  templam  magnnm  Jovis  altitonantla. 

The  word  temple,  therefbre,  strictly  signifies  a  spacious 
open  Diaee  set  apart  fbr  the  peculiar  presence  and 
worship  nf  the  Divine  Being,  and  is  applied  with  pecu- 
liar propriety  to  the  sacred  edifices  of  the  Jews. 
^  Church,  which,  through  the  medium  of  the  Saxon 
circe,  cync,  and  the  German  kireho,  ia  derived  frtun 
the  Greek  cvpcaxdf,  signifying  literally  what  belonged 
to  K^fuos,  the  Lord ;  whence  fl  became  a  word  among 
the  earliest  Christians  for  the  Lord's  Bupiier,  iho 
Lord's  dav,  the  Lord's  house,  and  also  for  an  assembly 
of  the  faithful,  and  in  still  used  in  the  two  latter  mean* 
liigs;  *■  That  churches  were  consecrated  unto  none  but 
the  Lord  only,  tiie  very  general  name  chletiy  doth  Ruf- 
ficienily  show ;  eknrch  doth  signify  no  other  thing 
than  the  Lord's  house.'— HooKsa.  *  The  ehwreh  being 
a  supcrnatiiral  society,  doth  ditfer  from  natural  »>- 
cietles  in  this ;  that  tlie  persons  unto  whom  we  asso- 
ciate ourselves  in  the  one,  are  men  simply  oonsideied 
as  men ;  but  they  to  whom  we  be  Joined  in  the  o;her, 
are  God,  arwels,  and  holy  men.'— Hooxta.  The  word 
dkurch,  having  acquired  a  spectfick  meaning,  is  never 
used  by  the  poets,  or  in  a  general  application  like  the 
word  temple  ;  '  Here  we  have  no  tempU  but  the  wood, 
no  assembly  but  horn-beasts.'-~SHAKsraAKR.  On  the 
other  hand,  it  has  a  diveraity  of  paitleular  meanings : 
being  taken  sometimes  in  the  asnae  of  the  eodcsiasUcal 
power  in  distinction  fiom  the  state,  Bometimes  for 
holy  ordera,  Jfcc 


Dedicale,  in  Latin  dadi'sotas,  partletpte  (h>m  do  and 
dies,  signifies  to  sac  apart  bv  a  promlsa:  dsvsis,  in  Latin 
dswtes,  participle  irom  dsvsMs,  aignlfiea  to  vow  for 
an  expreaa  purpoae;  eonooerate,  in  Latin  conseeratma^ 
fW>m  eonsscro  or  eon  and  socrv,  slgniflea  to  make  aacred 
by  a  apeclal  act ;  Aoilsip  fhm  M9,  or  tiia  Germaa 
koilig,  signifies  to  make  holy. 

Thereb  somethlnf  more  positive  hi  the  act  of  dodt- 
eottiif  than  in  that  ordsoituv;  bol  leas  so  than  in  that 
of  sons  AFrwttatf'^. 

Tb  dsdteals  and  domoU  may  be  eai|iloyed  in  both 
temporal  and  apiritual  roatiars;  to  oonooerato  and  kal- 
low  only  in  the  spiritual  sense:  we  asay  dodieau  01 
doooU  any  thing  that  is  at  otir  disposal  to  tlie  acrvica 


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oTfome objeet;  but  tiM  ibraier  li  employMt nxMdy  In 
icgud  to  Miperloun,  mnd  the  latter  to  peraow  without 
dlninctkNiornuik:  we  rfMUcote  a  hociae  to  the  Mrvke 

VITarnM  by  tbe  aeer,  to  her  oflboded  oane 
We  ralae  and  dedieuu  tbla  wood*nxw  frame. 

Or  we  detwu  oar  lime  to  the  benefit  of  our  fiimdk  or 
tbe  relief  of  the  poor;  'Gilbert  Wm  aetiled  bimMlf 
in  a  very  pleaaant  bouee  ai  Wickbam  In  Kant,  wbere 
be  dwtsd  bimaelf  to  piety.'— JoumoR.  We  may 
^tdieate  or  devte  ouraelvee  to  an  object ;  but  tbe  former 
Blway«  Implies  aaolemn  aeittog  apart,  ^Hrlnginf  from  a 
ieaae  of  daty ;  tbe  latter  an  entire  application  of  one's 
seir  from  zeal  and  affection ;  in  this  manner  be  wtM> 
4ed»cmUa  bimself  to  God  abstracts  himself  (torn  every 
object  whjcb  is  not  immediately  connected  with  tbe 
service  of  Obd ;  be  who  devotes  bimself  to  tbe  ministry 
pnnnies  it  as  tbe  first  ol^ecl  of  hit  attention  and  regard : 
such  a  deii€4Uwn  of  ounelf  is  hardly  consistent  with 
our  other  duties  as  members  of  society ;  but  a  devotion 
of  one's  powers,  one's  time,  and  one's  knowledge  to 
the  spread  of  religion  anion«!  men  is  one  of  tbe  most 
booounble  and  sacred  lEinds  of  devotion. 

To  eoneeerate  Is  a  species  of  formal  dedieotion  by 
▼irtue  of  a  reHgioiis  observance ;  it  Is  applicable  mosUy 
to  places  and  things  connected  with  religions  worlds ; 
*  TIm-'  greatest  conqueror  in  this  iiuly  nation  did  not  only 
eompfwe  the  words  of  his  divine  odes,  but  ^generally 
set  them  to  musit-ic  himself;  after  which  his  works, 
though  they  were  consecrated  to  the  tabernacle,  became 
tbe  naiioiial  entertainment.'— Addison.  Hollow  i»  a 
species  of  iufbmiaJ  conoeeration  applied  to  ttie  same 
ibJKCia :  tbe  church  is  coneoerated  ;  particular  days  are 

Without  the  walla  a  niin'tf  temple  stands, 
To  Ceres  kaUowod  once.— DRY  dbn. 


Arm  in  ols  sense  rsapecis  the  form  or  manner  or 
tie  actk>n ;  eeremoitt,  in  Latin  csrsaumio.  Is  suppoeed 
ID  signify  the  rites  of  Ceres ;  n'te,  In  Latin  rttiur,  is 
irobably  changed  flom  ratue,  signifying  a  custom  that 
8  esteemed ;  oheervanee  signifies  the  thing  observed. 

All  these  terms  are  employed  with  regard  to  particu- 
lar modes  of  action  in  civil  society.  ^  Form  is  here  the 
noHt  general  in  its  sense  and  application :  ceremony^ 
fitfj  and  observance  are  particular  kinds  of  /brm, 
suited  to  particular  occasions,  fhrmt  in  its  distinct 
application,  respecia  all  modes  of  acting  and  speaking, 
that  are  adopted  by  aodety  at  large,  in  every  transac 
lion  of  lift ;  cerowuntf  respects  thtme  forme  of  outward 
behaviour  which  are  made  the  expressions  of  respect 
and  deference;  rite  and  obeervance  are  applied  to 
national  ceremonies  in  matlera  of  religion.  A  certain 
form  is  requisite  for  tbe  sake  of  order,  method,  and 
decorum,  in  every  social  mauer,  whether  in  affairs  of 
state,  in  a  court  of  law.  in  a  place  of  worship,  or  in  the 
private  intercourse  of  friends.  So  long  as  distinctions 
are  admitted  in  society,  and  men  are  agreed  to  express 
their  sentimenta  of  regard  and  respect  to  each  other,  it 
will  be  necessary  to  preaerve  tbe  cersnMHtes  of  pollie- 
MsB  which  have  been  estabiisbed.  Every  country  has 
adopted  certain  rtt«s  founded  upon  its  peculiar  rellgloua 
ftiih,  and  prescribed  certain  obeorvancee  by  which 
individuals  could  make  a  publick  profession  of  their 
fbith.  Administering  oathe  by  tbe  magistrate  is  k  ne- 
cemajjform  In  law ;  *  A  long  table  and  a  square  li" 
or  seat  about  tbe  wiAs,  aeem  things  at  forwu,  but 
things  of  sttbsianee;  fbr  at  a  kmg  ubta,  a  few  at  tbe 
npper  end,  in  eflSsct,  sway  all  tbe  Duaineas ;  but  in  the 
otiier  foriu  tbere  Is  more  use  of  the  counsellors'  opi- 
■ioas  that  alt  lower.*— Bacor.  Kissing  tbe  king's  hand 
k  a csrsaieny  practlaed  at  court; 

And  what  have  Ungs  that  privaiei  have  not  toO| 

Sava  csramenf  7— SHAKflPBAas. 
BaptlsBB  la  one  rtis  of  InlUation  Into  tbe  CbrWatf 
church,  and  eonllnnatioii  another :  prayer,  reading 
tbe  Scrfpturea,  and  preacfalng  are  dinerent  rellgioua 

An  laapecli  rdlgloo,  the/srMs  tbe  eslabliahed  prae- 
tlee^  ooBprebending  tbe  riU,  ceremony^  and  oksemoneet 
hot  the  word  Is  moslly  applied  to  that  whick  b  exter- 
kal,  mU  iuiied  fbr  a  cwnmiinlty;  •  He  wiw  ifflrmetb 

speech  to  be  neeesnry  aaiong  all  nea  throogtooiit  th  i 
world  doth  not  thereby  import  that  all  men  must  ne- 
cessarily speak  one  language;  even  so  the  necessity 
of  polity  and  regimen  in  aU  churches  may  be  held 
without  boMlng  any  one  certain  form  to  be  necessary 
in  tbem  all.'— Hooxaa.  Tbe  eeromonf  mav  be  aaid 
either  of  an  individual  or  a  oommuiiity ;  the  riu  la 
said  onlv  of  a  communtgr:  tbe  obeorooMce^  more  pro- 
perty of  the  individual  either  in  publlek  or  private. 
The  eeremomf  of  kneeling  during  the  time  of  mayer  Is 
the  most  becoming  posture  for  a  suppliant,  whether  in 
publick  or  private ; 

Bring  her  up  to  the  high  alur,  that  ilw  may 
Tbe  sacred  caresMnMs  tbere  partake^— araaasa 
Tbe  diacipHne  of  a  Christian  church  consists  in  its  rUee^ 
to  which  every  member,  either  as  a  layman  or  a  prleat, 
is  obliged  to  confprm ; 
Live  thou  to  mourn  thy  k>ve*s  uabappy  ibie, 
To  bear  my  mangled  body  from  the  roe. 
Or  buy  it  back,  and  fun'ral  ritee  beatow.— DavoKM. 
Publick  worship  Is  an  obeervonee  which  no  Christian 
thinks  himself  at  liberty  to  neglect;  'Incorporated 
minds  will  alwajrs  feel  some  inclination  towards  exte- 
riour  acts  and  ritual  obeervoncee.^ — Johnboh. 

It  betrays  either  gross  ignorance  or  wilful  imperti- 
neiice,  in  the  man  who  sets  at  nought  any  of  the  esia- 
blisliMl  forme  of  society,  paiiicularly  in  religious  mat- 
ters ;  '  You  may  discover  tribes  of  men  without  plicy, 
or  laws,  or  cities,  or  any  of  tbe  arts  of  life ;  nut  no 
where  will  you  find  them  without  some  form  of  reli- 
gion.'—BLAia.  When  eeromoniee  are  too  numerous, 
they  destroy  the  ease  of  social  intercourse ;  but  the 
abnieiice  of  ceremony/  destroys  alt  decency ;  *  Not  to  use 
ceremeniee  at  all,  is  to  teach  others  not  to  use  them 
again,  and  so  diminish  respect  to  himself.' — Bacon. 
In  publick  worship  the  excess  of  ceremony  is  apt  to  ex- 
tinguish the  warmth  and  spirit  of  devotfcin ;  but  the 
want  of  ceremony  deprives  it  of  all  soiemniv. 

The  I^rd^o  supper  ia  a  term  of  i^unillar  and  general 
use  among  Christians,  as  designating  in  litetal  terms 
tbe  sufiper  of  our  Lord ;  that  Is,  either  the  last  solemn 
supper  which  he  took  with  his  disciples  previous  to  hia 
crucifixion,  or  the  commemoration  of  that  event  which 
confonnably  to  his  commands  has  been  obaerved  b« 
the  professors  of  Christianity;  'To  the  worthy  parti- 
cipation of  the  Lor^e  supper^  there  is  Indispensably 
required  a  suitable  preparation.'— Socnra.  Euchariet 
is  a  tftrm  of  peculiar  use  amor.g  the  Roman  Catholicks, 
fVum  tbe  Greek  ioxapP^  to  give  thanks,  because  per- 
sonal  adoration,  by  way  of  returning  thanks,  consti- 
tutes in  thoir  estUnation  tbe  chief  part  of  the  cere* 
mony :  'This  ceremony  jf  feasting  belongs  most  pro- 
perly both  to  marriage  ind  lo  the  euekariet^  as  both  of 
them  have  the  nature  of  a  covenanL'— South.  Aa 
the  social  afllections  are  kept  alive  moetly  by  the  com- 
mon participation  of  meals,  so  Is  broiberiy  love,  the 
essence  of  Christian  feltowship,  cherished  and  wanned 
in  the  highest  degree  by  the  coinmon  partkination  in 
this  holy  festival:  hence,  by  distinction,  it  has  been 
denominated  the  eornmitnion  ;  *  One  woman  he  could 
Aot  bring  to  the  cmmniii^  and  when  he  reproved 
or  exhorted  ber,  she  only  answered  that  she  was  no 
scholar.'— JouitsoH.  As  tbe  vows  which  are  made 
at  tbe  altar  nt  our  Lord  are  tbe  most  solemn  which  a 
Christian  can  make,  comprehending  In  tbem  the  entire 
devotion  of  himself  to  Christ,  tbe  general  term  «ar'^a- 
mont,  signifying  an  oath,  has  been  employed  by  w  -v 
of  emphasis  for  this  ordinance ;  *  I  could  not  have  tho 
consent  of  the  pbyaicians  to  go  to  church  yesterday ; 
I  therefore  reeeived  the  holy  socreawml  at  home.'— 
JoBmoa.  The  Roman  Catbolkka  have  employed 
tbe  aame  term  to  alx  other  ordinaneea j  but  tbe  Pro- 
teatanta,  who  attach  a  similar  degree  of  saciedness  to 
BO  other  tban  baptten,  annex  ttali  appallalion  only  to 
these  two. 


JTarWtfe,  from  to  aMrry,  dencrtes  tbe  ad  of  ainrrf 

img:  i0#^'»#  and  ninptuUs  denoto  the  ceremony  of 

beli«  f'  •m«L    Aa  ewwry,  hi  French  mmrrior,  comea 

Aram  xub  Lat^n  marito  to  be  joined  to  a  male ;  hence 


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mmriof  eomprahends  the  act  of  chooBing  and  being 
legally  Dound  to  a  man  or  a  woman:  weddings  from 
100^,  and  the  Teotonick  v«tt«M,  to  promine  or  betroUi, 
Impiiei  the  ceremony  of  marrftng^  Inasmuch  as  It  Is 
binding  ui>on  the  {MrtJes.  ^ttpUaU  comes  from  the 
Latin  nnbo  to  veil,  because  the  Roman  ladies  were 
veiled  at  the  time  of  mmrriage :  hence  the  word  has 
been  put  for  the  whole  ceremony  itself.  JUarriage  is 
a  general  term,  which  conveys  no  collaieral  meaning. 
Marriage  is  an  institution  which,  by  those  who  have 
been  blessed  with  the  light  of  Divine  revelation,  has 
always  been  considered  as  sacred; 

O  dual  maid !  thy  starn'of « is  endow'd 
With  Phrygian,  Latian,  and  Kululian  blood. 

Widdimg  has  always  a  reflsrence  to  the  oeremony; 
with  some  persons,  particularly  among  the  lower  orders 
of  societv,  the  day  of  their  wedding  is  converted  into 
a  day  of  riot  and  intemperance ;~  Ask  anv  one  how 
he  has  been  employed  to-day :  he  will  tell  you,  per- 
haps,  I  have  been  at  the  ceremony  of  talcing  the  manly 
robe :  this  friend  invited  me  to  a  wedding ;  tlint  de- 
sired me  to  attend  the  hearing  of  his  cause.*— Mxl- 
MOTB  (Lettere  of  Plinf).  Jrnptiale  may  either  be 
used  in  a  general  or  particular  Import ;  among  the 
Roman  Catnolicks  in  England  it  is  a  practice  for  them 
to  have  their  nuptiale  solemnized  by  a  priest  of  tlieir 
own  persuasion  as  well  as  by  the  Protestant  cleqor- 
Fir'd  with  disdain  for  Tumus  dispossessed, 
And  the  new  aaq^d'ols  of  the  Trojao-guesL— Drydbh. 


Marriage  (v.  Marriage)  is  oftener  an  act  than  a 
state;  muurimony  and  wedlock  both  describe  stales. 

Mtrriofte  is  taken  in  the  sense  of  an  act,  when  we 
speak  of  the  laws  of  marriage^  the  day  of  one's  mar- 
riage^  the  congratulations  upon  one*s  marriage^  a 
happy  or  unhappy  marriage^  &c ;  *  Marriage  u  re- 
warded with  some  honourable  distinctions  which  celi- 
bacy la  forbidden  to  usurp.*— Juhkson.  It  Is  u&ken  in 
the  sense  of  a  state,  when  we  speak  of  the  pleasures 
or  pains  of  marriage;  but  in  this  latter  case,  matri- 
fnoiiy,  which  sisniAes  a  married  life  abstractedly  from 
all  aaents  or  acting  persons,  is  preferable ;  so  likewise, 
to  think  of  matrimmf,  and  to  enter  into  the  holy  state 
of  matrimanft  are  ezpresstons  founded  upon  the  signl- 
Hcation  of  the  term.  As  tnatrimonjf  is  derived  from 
mater  a  mother,  because  siarrtod  women  are  in  gene- 
ral mothers,  it  has  particular  reference  to  the  domestick 
state  of  the  two  parties ;  broils  are  but  too  frequently 
the  fruits  of  motrMMsv,  yet  there  are  few  cases  in 
which  they  might  not  be  obviated  by  the  good  sense 
of  those  who  are  engaged  in  them.  Hasty  marriages 
cannot  be  expected  to  produce  happiness ;  young  oeo- 
ple  who  are  eager  for  matrimonv  before  they  are  fully 
aware  of  its  consequences  will  purchase  their  expe- 
rience at  the  expense  of  their  peace ;  *  As  k>ve  generally 
pfnduces  sisxrimmy,  so  it  often  happens  that  matri- 
monjf  produces  love.'— Skctator. 

fredloek  Is  the  okl  English  word  for  mairimaHf^  and 
Is  in  consequence  admitted  in  law,  when  one  speaks 
of  children  bom  in  wedlock:  agreeably  to  its  deriva- 
tion it  has  a  reference  to  the  bond  of  union  which  fol- 
lows the  marriage :  hence  one  speaks  of  living  hap- 
pily in  a  state  of  wedlock,  of  being  joined  in  holy  wed- 
Uck ;  *  The  men  who  would  make  good  husbands,  If 
they  visit  publick  places,  are  frighted  at  wedlock  and 
resolve  to  live  sbigle.*— Johmsoit. 


h\aural.  In  Latin  fwmu^  Is  derived  from  fmnia  a 
cnrd,  because  lighted  cords,  or  torches,  were  carried 
before  the  bodies  which  were  interred  by  night ;  the 
funeral,  therefore,  denotes  the  ordinary  solemnity 
which  attends  the  consignment  of  a  body  to  the  crave. 
Obsequiett  in  Latin  txmpdm,  are  both  derived  fVom 
•etfuor,  which,  in  Its  eompuund  sense,  signiflos  to  per- 
form or  execute ;  they  comprehend,  therefore,  fmmoraU 
attended  with  more  than  ordinary  solemnity. 

We  speak  of  Che  fkmeral  as  the  last  sad  oflloe 
which  we  perform  for  a  friend ;  it  Is  accompanied  bj 
nothing  but  by  mourning  and  sorrow ; 

That  pliiGk*d  my  nerves,  those  tender  strings  of  lilb^ 

Which,  pluck*d  a  little  more,  will  toll  the  bell 

That  calls  my  few  friends  to  my /mists/.— Yoinio. 

We  speak  of  the  obeequiea  as  the  tribute  of  respeel 

which  can  be  paid  to  the  person  of  one  who  was  high 

in  sU(ioa  or  publick  esteem ; 

His  body  shall  be  royally  Interr'd. 
I  will,  myself, 

Be  the  chief  moamer  at  his  oAssfnss.— Ditdbh 
The  funeral,  by  its  (Vequency,  becomes  so  familiar  aia 
object  that  it  passes  l»y  unheeded ;  the  obeeqniea  which 
are  performed  over  tlie  remains  of  the  great,  auraet 
our  notkse  fh>m  the  pomp  and  grandeur  with  which 
tliey  are  conducted.  The  faneral  is  performed  for 
one  Immediately  aller  his  decease ;  but  the  obeeqniea 
may  be  perfonned  at  any  period  a(\erward,  and  lu 
this  sense  is  not  confined  alone  to  the  great ; 
Some  in  the  fiow'r-strewn  grave  the  corpse  have  lay*d, 
And  annual  obaeqwea  around  It  paid.— Jskyms. 

Burial,  from  burf,  in  Saxon  Hriau,  HrigoM,  Gar 
man  bergen,  signifies.  In  the  original  sense,  to  conceal 

IiitermewL  from  inter,  compounded  of  t»  and  terrm^ 
signifies  the  putting  into  the  ground.  SepmUure,  In 
French  tepnltare,  Latin  ««pi^ura,  from  a^nltue, 
participle  of  e^elio  to  burf,  comes  from  sepee  a 
hedge,  signifying  an  eiicloeure,  and  probably  likewise 
from  the  Hebrew  HSE^  to  put  to  rest,  or  In  a  state 
of  privacy. 

Under  bvriai  is  comprehended  simply  the  purpose 
of  the  action ;  «nder  inierment  and  tapmltmra,  tlie 
manner  as  well  as  Uie  motive  of  the  action.  We  burg 
In  order  to  conceal ;  '  Among  our  Saxon  ancestors,  the 
dead  bodies  of  such  as  were  slain  In  the  field  were 
not  laid  in  craves ;  bat  lying  upon  the  ground  were 
covered  with  turves  or  clods  of  earth,  and  the  nuwe 
ill  repuution  the  persons  had  been,  the  greater  and 
higher  were  tiie  turves  raised  over  Uieir  bodies.  Tliis 
some  used  to  call  biriging,  some  beorging  of  the  dead ; 
all  being  one  thing  tliough  diflercntly  pronounced, 
and  from  whence  we  yet  retain  our  speech  of  burying 
the  dead,  that  Is,  hiding  the  dead.*— VBarraoAN 
Interment  and  eefuUure  are  accompanied  with  rdi 
gioiis  ceremonies. 

*Bury  is  confined  to  no  object  or  place ;  we  bury 
whatever  we  dcposite  In  the  earth,  and  wherever  we 

Wlien  he  Ilea  along 
After  your  way  his  tale  pronouac'd,  shaO  burf 
His  reasons  with  his  body.— SaAESPBAEa. 

But  interment  and  aeyuXture  rei^pect  only  the  bodica 
of  the  deceased  when  deposited  in  a  sacred  plac**. 
Burial  requires  that  the  object  be  concealed  uiidei 
ground;  interment  may  be  used  for  depositing  it. 
vaults.  Self-murderers  are  buried  in  the  highways ; 
Christians  In  general  are  Parted  in  the  church-yaid ; 

If  you  have  kindness  lefr,  there  see  me  laid ; 

To  bury  decently  the  Ii0ur*d  maid 

Is  all  the  fltvour.— Wallbe. 
The  kinp  of  England  were  formerly  interred  in  West 
minster  Abbey ; 

His  body  shall  be  royallv  ratsrr'^ 
And  the  last  fUneral  pomps  adorn  his  hearse. 


Burial  Is  a  term  In  frmiillar  use ;  interwunt  sarvas 
frequently  as  a  more  elegant  expresskm ; 
But  good  Mnetm  ordered  on  the  shore 
A  stately  tomb,  whose  top  a  trumpet  bore; 
Thus  was  his  friend  interred,  and  deathless  ftime 
Still  to  the  lofiy  cape  consigns  his  name.— Dbtdbh. 
Sepulture  Is  an  abstract  term  confined  to  partlculai 
cases,  as  in  speaking  of  the  rights  and  privilage*  of 

Ah !  leave  me  not  for  Grecian  dogs  to  tear, 
The  common  rites  of  eepulture  bestow; 
To  sooth  a  fother's  and  a  mother's  wo ; 
Let  their  large  gifts  bmcure  an  um  at  least. 
' '  Blnhlsc  - 

And  Hector's 

I  country  rest.— Pon 
:  *(Tobuf7,inler.'* 


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hUrmaU  and  t^fmUttn  nerer  depart  ftoin  their 
leUgioua  Import;  bury  ia  used  figuratively  for  other 
oMects  and  purpoaes.    A  man  to  said  to  birg  hiraaelf 
alive  who  ahuts  hlnwelfoat  from  the  world ;  he  is  said 
to  buty  the  talent  of  which  he  makes  no  uee,  or  to  tery 
>Q  obhvion  what  he  does  not  wish  to  call  to  mlud ; 
This  ifl  the  way  to  make  the  city  flat 
And  bmjf  all,  which  yet  dtetinctly  rangea 
In  heaps  mid  piles  of  ruin.— SBAxaPKAaa. 
fmUr  li  on  one  ooeasion  applied  by  Bhakapeara  also 
HI  other  objects; 

The  evil  that  men  do  lives  af\er  them, 
The  good  is  oft  tnterrvd  with  their  bones. 


rhese  are  two  acu  emanating  fh>m  the  pontlflcal 
authority,  by  which  the  Pope  declares  a  person,  whose 
nie  has  been  exemplary  and  accompanied  with  mira- 
cles, as  entitled  to  enjoy  eternal  happiness  after  his 
death,  and  determines  in  consequence  the  sort  of  wor- 
ship which  should  be  paid  to  him. 

In  the  act  of  ketUi/ication  the  Pope  prowMraces  only 
as  a  private  person,  and  uses  his  own  authority  only 
in  granting  to  certain*  persons,  or  lo  a  religious  order, 
the  privilege  of  paying  a  particular  worship  to  a  b44Ui- 
fbtd  object. 

In  the  act  of  emt^mixation^  the  Pope  speaks  te  a  Judge 
after  a  Judicial  examination  on  the  state,  and  decides 
the  sort  of  worship  which  ought  to  be  paid  by  the  whole 


Femst,  In  Latin  /Mtam,  or  /wfits,  changed  most 
probably  firom  fetim.  orferim^  which,  in  all  proba- 
Billty,  comes  from  the  Greek  fcp8(,  sacred,  because 
those  days  were  kept  sacred  or  vacant  from  all  secular 
labour :  fettwoL  and  A^iulcy,  as  the  words  themselves 
denote,  have  precisely  ilie  same  meaning  in  their  ori- 
ginal sense,  wuh  thhi  dlflbrence,  that  ttie  former  derives 
ns  origin  from  heathenish  superstition,  ttie  latter  owes 
its  rise  to  the  establtshment  of  Christianity  in  its  re- 
formed slate. 

A  fetul,  la  the  Christian  sense  of  the  wont.  Is  ap- 
plied to  every  day,  except  Sundays,  which  are  regarded 
aa  sacred,  and  observed  with  paiticular  solemnity ;  a 
JMydoy,  or,  acoonling  to  its  modern  orthography,  a 
htUdmfy  Is  simply  a  day  on  which  the  ordinary  busi- 
Beasiflsu8pend<*d:  among  the  Roman  Catholicks,  there 
are  many  days  which  are  kept  holy,  and  consequenilv 
by  tliem  denominated  feagU^  which  In  the  English 
lefurmed  church  are  only  observed  as  Aoti<faM,  or  days 
of  exemption  from  publick  business ;  of  this  description 
are  the  Sainta*  days,  on  which  the  p«iblick  offices  are 
shut :  on  the  other  hand,  Christmas,  Easter,  and  Whi^ 
auntide,  are  regarded  in  both  churches  more  as  fcMtt 

FBMsif  as  a  technical  term,  Is  applied  only  to  certain 
tpeOOed  kaiidayt  ; 

First,  I  provide  myadf  a  nimble  thing, 
To  be  my  page,  a  varlet  of  all  crafts ; 
Next,  two  new  suits  for  feast*  and  gala  days. 


4  kaUiof  Is  an  Indefinite  teim|  it  may  be  employed 
Ibr  any  <Uy  or  time  In  which  there  Is  a  suspensiOu  of 
busineaB;  there  are,  therefore,  many  featts  where 
tliere  are  no  A^fufayiy,  and  many  kelidayt  where  tliere 
are  no  fuuU :  a  feoMt  is  altogether  sacred ;  a  holiday 
taM  frequently  nothing  sacred  In  It,  not  even  in  iu 
came ;  It  may  be  a  sunple,  ordinary  transaction,  the 

It  happenM  on  a  summer's  kdUay^ 

That  to  the  green  wood  shade  he  took  his  way. 


A  festival  has  always  either  a  sacred  or  a  serious 
olqect ;  '  In  so  enlightened  an  age  as  the  present,  I 
shall  perhaps  be  ridiculed  If  I  hint,  as  my  opinfcm, 
that  the  observation  of  ceruin  festivaU  is  somethins 
amre  than  a  mere  political  institution.*— Walpolb.  A 
feoH  is  kept  by  religious  worship ;  a  holiday  is  kept 

^Glnid:  " BealMcadon, canwilaatlon » 

by  Idleneas ;  *  Many  worthy  persons  urged  how  great 
the  hartiioiiy  was  between  the  hoHdays  and  thehr  attri- 
butes (if  I  may  coll  them  so),  and  what  a  conAi<slon 
would  follow  if  Michaelmas-day,  for  insunce,  was 
not  to  be  celebrated  when  stubble  geese  are  in  their 
highest  perfection.*— Walpolb.  A  feeitoal  is  kept 
by  mirth  and  festivity :  some  feasts  are  festivals,  as 
in  the  case  of  the  carnival  at  Rome ;  some  festivals 
are  holidaps^  as  in  the  case  of  weddings  and  pubUek 

ClergytMM,  altered  from  elerk^  clericus.  signified 
any  one  holding  a  regular  office,  and  by  distinciion 
one  who  held  the  holy  office ;  parson  is  either  changed 
aeon  person,  that  is,  by  distinction  tile  person  who 
spiritually  presides  over  a  parish,  or  contracled  from 
parodUanus ;  priest,  in  German,  9lc.  prissier,  is  con- 
tracted ft-om  presbyter,  in  Greek  wpso^npos,  signiiViug 
an  elder  who  holds  the  sacerdotal  office;  miiustery  in 
Latin  minister,  a  servant,  from  minus,  less  or  inferior, 
signifies  literally  one  who  performs  a  subordinate  office, 
and  has  been  extended  in  its  meaning,  to  slgniiy  gene- 
rally one  who  officiates  or  performs  an  office. 

The  word  cUrgyman  apfiUes  to  such  as  are  regularly 
bred  according  to  the  forms  of  the  national  religion, 
and  applies  to  none  else.  In  this  sense  we  speak  of  the 
English,  the  French,  and  Scotch  elcr^,  without 'dia- 
tinctlon ;  *  By  a  dsrgyman  I  mean  one  In  holy  Xirders.*— 
Stbblb.  'To  the  time  of  Edward  III.  It  is  probable 
that  the  French  and  English  languages  subsisted  to- 
gether throughout  the  kingdom ;  the  higlier  orders,  both 
of  the  ctsrgy  and  laity,  speaking  almost  universally 
French ;  the  lower  retaining  the  use  of  their  native 
tongue.'— TTBwnrrT.  A  parson  is  a  species  of  cler- 
fyman^  who  ranks  the  highest  in  the  three  orders  of 
Tnferiour  elern ;  that  is,  parson,  vicar,  and  curate ; 
ttie  parson  being  a  technical  term  for  the  rector,  or  him 
who  holds  the  living:  in  its  technical  sense  it  has  now 
acquired  a  definite  use ;  but  in  general  conversation  it 
Is  become  almost  a  nickname.  The  word  clergyman 
is  always  substituted  for  parson  in  polite  society. 
When  priest  respects  the  Christian  religion  it  is  a 
species  of  elergymon,  tliat  is,  one  who  Is  ordained  to 
officiate  at  the  altar  in  distinction  ftoni  the  deac43n,  who 
Is  only  an  assistant  to  the  priest  But  the  term  priest 
has  llRewise  an  extended  meaning  in  reference  to  such 
as  hold  the  sacerdotal  character  in  any  form  of  religion, 
as  the  priesU  of  the  Jews,  or  those  of  the  Greeks,  Ro- 
mans, Indians,  and  the  like ;  *  Call  a  man  a  priest,  or 
parson,  and  you  set  him  in  some  men's  esteem  ten  de- 
grees below  his  own  servanL'— South.  A  minister  is 
one  who  actually  or  habitually  officiates.  Clergymen 
are  therefore  not  always strictlv  ministers;  nor  are  all 
ministers  clergy  men.  If  a  clergyman  delegates  his 
functions  altogether  he  Is  not  a  ministsr ;  r.or  is  he 
who  presides  over  a  dissenting  congregation  a  clergy- 
man. In  the  former  case,  however,  it  would  be  invidious 
to  deprive  the  dergumau  of  the  name  of  minister  of 
the  gospel,  but  In  the  latter  case  It  Is  a  misuse  of  the 
term  clergyman  to  apply  it  to  any  mtnwter  who  does 
not  officiate  according  lo  the  form  of  an  established 

With  leave  and  honour  enter  oar  abodes, 
Ye  sacred  ministers  of  men  and  gods.— Popi. 


Bishepriek.  compounded  of  bishop  and  rich  or  rsiek 
empire,  signifies  the  empire  or  government  of  a  bishop : 
Dioeess,  in  Greek  StUx^imi^  compounded  of  did  and 
biKho,  signifies  an  administration  throughout 

Both  these  words  describe  the  extent  of  an  episcopal 
Jurisdiction;  the  first  with  relation  to  the  person  who 
officiates,  the  second  with  relation  to  the  chaige: 
There  may,  tlierefore,  be  a  bishopriek,  either  where 
there  are  many  dioeeesss  or  no  dioeess;  but  according 
to  the  Import  of  ilie  term,  there  Is  properly  no  dioeess 
where  there  is  no  bishopriek.  When  the  Jurisdiction 
is  merely  titular,  as  injcountries  where  the  Catholick 
religioa  is  not  recognised,  it  is  a  bishopriek,  but  not  a 
dioeess.  On  the  other  hand,  the  bishopriek  of  Rome  or 
that  of  an  archbishop  comprehends  all  the  iioessses 
of  the  subordinate  bishops.  Hence  it  arises  that  when 
we  speak  of  the  ecclesiastical  distribution  of  a  country,. 
weiienntliedlvlsionatoA«!pridk«;  but  w.'ien we  speak 


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«f  the  actdul  oflke,  we  tenn  it  a  iweet§.  EnglBBd  li 
iivUarf  into  a  c«ruln  number  of  M«A«^db,  not  dio- 
9$——.  Every  bishop  visits  his  dsocMf,  not  Ills  biUap- 
Hdk,  at  stated  intervals. 


An  eccluiMtiek  derives  his  title  tma  the  oflVce  which 
he  bears  in  the  eceletia  or  church ;  a  dMne  and  Uua- 
Ufian  ttom  their  pursuit  afler,  or  engagement  in, 
dioiiu  or  UutoUgieal  matters.  An  eeeUsitutick  is  con- 
nected with  an  episcopacy ;  a  divine  or  tkeotogioM  is 
not  essentially  connected  with  any  form  of  church  go- 

An  ee^esiMMtiek  need  not  In  his  own  petaon  perfonn 
any  oflke,  aliiiough  he  flila  a  station:  a  divine  not 
only  Alls  a  suUon,  but  actually  Derforms  the  ofl\ce  of 
teaching;  a  theologian  neither  Oils  any  particular  sta- 
tion, nor  discharges  any  speclflck  duty,  but  mereiy  fol- 
lows the  punuit  of  studying  theology.  An  eeeleeiaetieh 
is  not  always  a  dtvm«,  nor  a  divine  an  eecUeiaatick ;  a 
divine  is  always  more  or  less  a  theolegia*^  but  every 
theologimm  la  not  a  divine. 

Among  the  Roman  CathoUclES  all  monlts,  and  In  the 
Church  uf  England  the  various  dignitaries  who  perform 
the  epiiwopal  functions,  are  entitled  eccUeiasticke  ; 
*  Our  old  English  monks  seldom  let  any  of  their  kiup 
depart  in  peace,  who  bad  endeavoured  to  diminish  the 
power  or  weallli  of  which  the  eeeleeiaetieke  were  in 
those  tirobs  pussessii  d-'—A  dpiso w.  There  are  but  few 
denominations  of  Christians  who  have  not  appointed 
teachers  who  are  called  divinre ;  '  Nor  shall  1  dwell  on 
our  excellence  in  metaphysical  speculations ;  because, 
be  that  reads  the  works  of  oiir  divinee  will  eaaily  dis- 
cover how  ftr  human  subtilty  has  been  able  to  pene- 
trate.'—Johnsoh.  Professors  or  writers  on  theology 
•re  peculiarly  denominated  theologiaue:  *  I  looked  on 
that  sermon  (of  Dr.  Price's)  as  the  pubflck  declaration 
of  a  man  much  connected  with  literary  caballera.  in- 
tiiguing  phUosophen^  and  political  timlogianu,*— 

Gfouter,  In  French  *  clAUrej  from  the  word  doe  close, 
(rtgniOes  a  certain  doae  place  In  a  eonveni,  or  an  encki- 
sure  of  iMuses  for  canons,  or  In  general  a  rriigioos 
house ;  eomvent^  (torn  the  Latin  eonventue^  a  meeting, 
and  convtnio  to  come  together,  signifies  a  religious  as- 
sembly ;  nonaetery^  in  rrcuch  monaetire^  stgnlfies  a 
habitation  for  monkiL  from  the  Greek  ^u6wn  alone. 

The  proper  Idea  of^  clouter  is  that  of  seclusion ;  the 
proper  Idea  of  convent  Is  that  of  community ;  tlie  proper 
Idea  of  a  monaatery  is  that  of  siiiltudc.    One  is  shut 

up  in  a  eUieter^  put  into  a  esmventi  and  retiree  to  a 

Whoever  wishes  to  take  an  absolute  leave  of  the 
world,  riiuts  himself  up  in  a  eleieter; 

Some  solitary  eloieler  will  I  choose, 
And  there  wuh  holy  virgins  live  iuimur'd. 


Whoever  wMiea  to  attach  himsdf  to  a  community 
that  has  renounced  all  commerce  with  the  worki,  goes 
into  a  eomvemt ;  '  Nor  were  the  new  abbots  less  Indus- 
trious to  stock  their  eemvent*  with  foreigners.'— Tv  a- 
WHiTT.  Whoever  wishes  to  shun  all  human  inter- 
course retires  to  a  monaetery  ;  *  I  drove  my  suitor  to 
forswear  the  fliU  stream  of  the  world,  and  to  live  in  a 
nook  merely  aMiMstieA.*—8H4E8rsi.aa. 

In  theelowfsr  our  liberty  is  sacrificed :  in  the  convent 
oar  worldly  habits  are  renounced,  and  those  of  a  regular 
rellgioiiB  eommunlty  being  adopted,  we  submit  to  the 
yoke  of  eatablished  orders :  in  a  momutery  we  Impose  a 
•ort  of  voluntary  exile  upon  ourselves;  we  live  with 
the  view  of  living  only  to  God. 

In  the  ancient  and  true  si#mast«ries,  the  members 
divided  tlieir  time  between  contemi^ation  and  labour; 
but  aa  population  increased,  and  towns  multiplied, 
RMiMslerMs  were,  properly  speaking,  succeeded  by 

In  ordinary  discourse,  eloutor  is  emptoyed  in  an  ab- 
ioluie  and  hideflnite  manner:  we  spesk  of  the  doieter 
to  designate  a  monvtick  state ;  as  entering  a  doieter; 

*  Vide  Abbe  Eoubaud:    "ClAitre,  eonvent,  mo- 

teiying  one's  self  In  a  eUieter;  . 
cations  arc  practised  in  a  doieter  ;  but  R  Is  not  tha 
same  thing  when  we  speak  of  the  doieter  of  tite  B^um- 
dictlnes  and  of  their  monaetery;  or  the  eUutor  of  tht 


GmvtrC,  fVom  the  Latin  eenvsrte,  slgnlflea  ehanged 
to  aomethlng  in  conformity  with  Uie  views  of  another; 
profeiy t«,  from  the  Greek  wpoa^vrof  and  spse^ncefiMt 
signifies  come  over  to  tlie  side  of  another. 

Convert  is  more  extensive  in  its  sense  and  application 
than  froedyte :  convert  In  its  Aill  sense  includes  every 
change  of  opinion,  without  respect  to  the  subj^t; 
proeelyte  in  its  strict  sense  refers  only  to  changes  from 
one  religious  belief  to  another :  there  are  many  convene 
to  particular  doctrines  of  Cliristiantty,  and  proeelytee 
from  the  Pagan,  Jewish,  or  Mahoinedan,  to  the  ChrisUaa 
fblth :  there  are  political  as  well  as  religious  converte. 
who  could  not  with  the  same  strict  propriety  be  termed 
proedytee.  * 

Convereiem  Is  a  more  virfuntary  act  than  yroedytiem  ; 
it  emanates  entirely  from  the  mind  of  the  agent,  inda 
pendent  of  foreign  influence ;  it  extends  not  merely  to 
the  abstract  or  speculative  opinions  of  the  individual, 
but  to  the  whole  current  of  hl^feelings  and  spring  or 
his  actions :  it  is  the  convereion  of  the  bean  and  soul. 
Proedftiem  is  an  outward  act,  which  need  not  extend 
t>eyona  the  conformity  of  one's  words  and  actions  to  a 
certain  rule ;  convert  Is  Uierefhre  always  taken  in  a 
good  sense :  it  bears  on  the  face  of  it  the  stamp  of  sin 
cerity ;  *  A  believer  may  be  excused  by  the  most  hard- 
ened atheist  for  endeavouring  to  make  him  a  convert, 
because  he  does  it  with  an  eye  to  both  their  interests.*— 
Addison.  Proedyte  ia  a  term  of  more  ambiguous 
meaning ;  the  proedyte  Is  often  the  creature  and  tool 
of  a  party ;  there  may  be  muiy  proeelytee  where  there 
are  no  cenverte ;  '  False  teachers  commonly  make  usa 
of  base,  and  low,  and  temporal  conskleratlons,  of  little 
tricks  and  devices,  to  moke  disciples  and  gain  proea- 
iytee. '— Tii.ix>TSOK. 

The  convereion  of  a  sinner  Is  the  work  of  God's  grace, 
either  by  his  special  interposition,  or  by  the  ordinaiy 
influence  of  his  Holy  Word  on  the  heart ;  It  Is  an  act 
uf  great  presumption,  theiefore,  in  those  men  who  rest 
so  strongly  on  their  own  particular  OMides  and  forms  la 
bringing  about  this  great  work :  they  may  without  any 
breach  of  charity  be  suspected  of  rather  wlahing  to 
make  proedytee  to  their  own  pariy. 


TVan^ftgure  Is  to  make  to  pass  over  Into  another 
figure;  traneform  and  metamorphoee  Is  to  put  into 
another  form:  the  former  being  said  mostly  of  spiritual 
beings,  and  particularlv  in  reference  to  our  Saviour ; 
the  other  two  terms  being  applied  to  that  which  has  a 
corporeal  form. 

TVaneformation  Is  commonly  applied  to  that  which 
changes  Its  outward  form ;  in  this  manner  a  hariequbi 
traneforme  himself  into  all  kinds  of  shapes  and  llke- 

Somethhig  you  have  heard 
Of  Hamlet's  tranefomuUion :  so  I  call  It,      ^ 
Since  not  the  exteriour,  nor  the  Inward  man 
ResemUes  what  It  was.— SaAJLSPBAas. 

Sometimes  however  the  word  la  applied  to  moral  ob- 
jects ;  *  Can  a  good  intention,  or  rather  a  very  wicked 
one  so  miscalled,  traneform  perjury  and  hypocrisy  into 
merit  and  perfection  r—SoDTH.  JUeUmorpheeie  ia 
applied  to  the  Ibrm  Internal  aa  well  as  external,  that  fa^ 
to  the  whole  nature ;  in  this  manner  Ovid  describes 
among  otheii,  the  nutamorohoeee  of  Narclnus  Into  a 
flower,  and  Daphne  into  a  laurel :  with  the  same  idea 
we  may  speak  of  a  rustick  being  metamorphoeed^  by 
the  force  of  art.  Into  a  fine  lentleman ;  *  A  lady's  shift 
may  be  metamorpkoeed  into  billets-doux,  and  come  into 
her  possession  a  second  time.'— Addisom.  7*rmnejigia- 
ratiem  is  frequently  taken  for  a  painting  of  our  S»- 
viour's  traneJ^vraJtion ;  *  We  have  of  this  gentleman 
a  piece  of  the  tram^gurationy  which  I  think  Is  iMid  a 
work  second  to  none  In  the  world.'— SrxaLB. 


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Prajfer^  from  the  Latin  preco^  and  ihe  Greek  viii)i2 
and  tvxv^aA  to  pray,  to  a  general  term,  Including  tne 
CDRiiiioij  idea  or  application  to  tome  pi-raon  for  any 
fivoiir  in  be  grantea ;  p^UHon^  from  pko  lo  loek ;  re- 
f«e«/,  from  the  Latin  r^fui$itn»  and  requiro^  or  r«, 
aiul  qumro  i6  look  after,  or  seek  for  with  desire ;  en- 
truUf^  from  the  French  m  and  traitery  signifying  to 
act  upon;  nut,  fhxn  ra«,  in  French  «ittvre,  Latin 
9t^u»r  to  follow  after;  denote  different  modea  of 
prapevf  varying  In  tbeclicumatancas  of  the  action  and 
the  object  acted  upon. 

The  prayer  to  made  more  commonly  to  the  Supreme 
Being ;  Uie  petiium  to  made  more  generally  to  one*B 
fdlow-crpauires;  we  may,  however,  ^ay  our  fellow- 
creatures,  and  petitum  our  Creator :  the  prayer  to  made 
for  every  thing  which  to  of  the  first  Imoortance  to  us 
as  living  beings;  the  petition  to  made  for  that  which 
may  satisfy  our  desires :  hence  our  prayere  to  the  Al- 
mighty respect  all  onr  cfreuinstances  as  moral  and 
respunsible  agenta;  ompetitien*  respect  the  temporary 
circumstances  of  our  prasent  existence.  When  the 
term  prayer  to  applied  to  one*s  fellow-ereaiures  it  car- 
ries with  it  the  idea  of  earnestness  and  submission ; 
*  Frayer  among  men  to  supposed  a  means  to  change 
the  peivon  to  whom  we  pray;  but  prayer  to  God  doth 
■ot  change  him,  ^t  file  us  to  receive  ttie  things  prayed 
Ibr.*— 8Tiu.uaFiJiBT. 

Torture  him  with  thy  softness. 

Nor  till  thy  prayert  are  granted  set  him  free. 


The  petitian  and  rtfueH  are  ^ke  made  to  our  flsllow- 
creaiures;  but  the  former  to  a  publick  act,  In  which 
manv  express  their  wtehes  to  the  Supreme  AuthorlQr ; 
the  latter  to  an  individual  act  between  men  in  their 
private  relations :  the  people  petition  the  king  or  the 
parliament ;  a  school  of  boys  petition  their  maater ; 

She  takes  vsCitioiw,  and  dispenses  laws, 

Hears  amfdetermines  eveiy  private  cause. 

A  child  makes  a  request  to  ita  parent;  one  fHend 
makes  a  reqmeet  to  another ; 

Thus  spoke  Illoneua ;  the  Trojan  crew, 

With  cries  and  elamoun  hto  request  renew. 

.  Drtdbr. 
The  request  mariu  an  equality,  but  the  entreaty  de- 
fine* no  condition ;  it  differs,  however,  fh>m  the  former 
In  the  nature  of  the  object  and  the  mode  of  prefer- 
ring :  the  request  to  but  a  simple  expression ;  the  011- 
treaiy  to  urgent:  the  requeetnuay  be  made  in  trivial 
matters;  the  entreaty  to  made  In  matters  that  deeply 
Interert  the  feelings :  we^make  the  requeet  of  a  fVlend 
to  lend  a  book ;  we  use  every  entreaty  In  order  to  di- 
vert a  person  from  the  purpose  which  we  think  detri- 
mental :  one  complies  wlin  a  request:  one  yields  to 
entreaties.  It  was  the  dying  request  of  Socrates,  that 
they  woukl  sacrifice  a  cock  to  iEacuIapIus ;  Reguius 
was  deaf  to  every  entreaty  of  his  friends,  who  wished 
him  not  to  return  to  Carthage ;  *  Arguments,  entreatiesi 
and  promises  were  employed  in  order  to  sooth  them 
(the  foltowers  of  Cortes).*— Bobkrtson. 

The  suit  is  a  higher  kind  of  srsysr,  varying  both  In 
the  nature  of  the  subject,  and  the  character  of  the 
atenL  A  gentieroan  pays  bis  suit  to  a  lady  ;  a  cour- 
tier makes  hto  suit  to  the  prince ;  '  Seldom  or  never  to 
there  much  spoke,  whenever  any  one  eomes  to  prefer 
A  suit  to  another.'— Sooth. 


.Itsmsj  or  at  one,  dcnilles  to  be  In  unity,  at  peace, 
or  good  fHends ;  expiate,  in  Latin  exptatus^  participle 
ef  expiOf  compounded  of  ex  and  piot  ngnlJSes  to  put 
oat  or  make  dear  by  an  act  of  piety. 

Both  these  terms  express  a  sattoftetk>n  for  an  o^ 
ftnce ;  but  atone  Is  general,  eipiate  to  particular.  We 
nay  atonsfor  a  fkuih  by  aqy  species  of  suffering ;  we 
axptau  A  crime  only  by  suffering  a  legal  punishment 
A  Ibnale  oAen  sufllcleatly  atoneefor  her  violation  of 
chastity  by  the  misery  ahe  entails  00  berwif ; 

O  tot  the  bkMd,  already  split,  atone 

Vm  ite  pMtcflM6iof  euia'd 

PRA  y ER,  PETITION,  BEQUEST,  ENTBEATT,    There  are  too  many  unfbrtunate 

SUIT.  who  expiau  their  crbnes  on  a  galkiwe ; 

How  sacred  ought  kings*  Uvea  be  held, 

When  but  the  death  of  one 

Demands  an  empire's  Mood  for  exptation.—'Lw^ 

Neither  atonement  nor  expiation  always  necessarily 
require  punishment  or  even  suffering  f^om  the  offender. 
The  iwuire  of  the  atonement  depends  on  the  will  of 
the  individual  who  to  offended ;  and  oftentimes  tbt 
word  implies  sbnply  an  equivalent  given  or  ofiered  fee 
something;  'I  woukl  earnestly  dosTre  the  story-tellei 
to  consider,  that  no  wit  or  mirth  at  the  end  of  a  story 
can  atone  for  the  half  hour  that  has  been  lost  before 
they  come  at  It*— Stkblk.  Expiations  are  frequently 
made  bv  means  of  performing  certain  religious  rites  or 
acts  of^  piety.  Ounces  between  man  and  man  are 
sometimes  atoned  for  by  an  acknowledgment  of  errour ; 
but  offences  towards  Gnd  require  an  expiatory  sacri- 
fice, which  our  Saviour  has  been  pleased  to  make  of 
himself,  that  we,  through  Him,  might  become  par- 
takers of  eternal  life.  Expiation^  therefbre.  In  the 
religious  sense,  to  to  atonement  as  the  means  to  the 
end :  atonement  to  often  obtained  by  an  expiaUony  but 
there  may  be  ex^'atwiu  where  there  to  no  atonemeni. 

Jitonemont  replaces  in  a  stale  of  fkvour ;  expiatiom 
produces  only  a  real  or  supposed  exemption  fhNn  sin 
and  lui  consequences.  Among  the  Jews  and  heathens 
there  was  ex^islura,  but  no  atonement;  under  the 
Christian  dtopeosation  there  to  atonemont  as  well  as 

Ahetinenee  to  a  genera]  term,  atolicable  to  any  obfeti 
fh>m  which  we  abstain ;  faei  to  a  species  of  ehsti- 
nenee,  namely,  an  abstaining  from  food  ;  *  Fridays  are 
appobited  by  the  Church  as  days  of  ebsiinence:  and 
Good  Friday  as  a  day  of  /a«t'— Taylor.  The  gene> 
ral  term  to  likewise  used  in  the  particular  sense,  to 
imply  a  partial  abeiinenee  ftom  particular  food ;  but 
fast  signifies  an  abstinence  fVoni  food  altogether ;  *  I 
am  venly  pe|8uaded  that  If  a  whole  people  were  te 
enter  Into  a  course  of  ahstriunce^  and  eat  nothing  but 
water  gruel  for  a  fortnight,  It  wouU  abate  the  rage  and 
animosity  of  parties  ;*  *  Such  a  fast  would  have  tlM 
natural  tendency  to  the  procuring  of  tiiose  eiuto  tai 
wiiich  a/sst  to  proclaimed.'— Addisoii. 


ForgiDe^  compounded  of  the  privative /or  and  fiv$; 
and  pardon,  in  French  |»ardeiM«r,  som pounded  like- 
wise of  the  privative  par  or  per  and  donner  to  give, 

both  signify  not  to  give  the  punishment  that  to  du'e.  10 
:  from  the  rigour  of  hwtlce  in  demanding  retrlou- 

relax  I 

tion.  Forgive  is  the  familiar  term :  pard(fn  to  adapted 
to  the  serious  style.  Individuals  forgive  each  other 
personal  offences ;  they  pardon  offinices  against  law 
and  morals:  the  former  to  an  act  of  Christian  charity; 
the  latter  an  act  of  clemency :  the  former  to  an  act  that 
is  confined  to  no  condition ;  the  latter  to  peculiarly  the 
net  of  a  superiour.  He  who  has  the  right  of  being 
offended  lias  an  opportunity  ot  forgiving  the  ofiesder; 

No  more  Achf  lies  draws 
His  conqu'ring  sword  in  any  woman's  cause. 
The  gods  command  me  to  forgive  the  past, 
But  let  thto  first  Invasion  be  the  last— Popr. 

He  who  has  tlie  authority  of  pmilahing  the  offence 
may  pardon ;  <  A  being  who  has  nothing  10  eardon  !■ 
himself  may  reward  every  man  according  to  hto  worlm ; 
but  he  whose  very  best  actions  must  be  seen  with  a 
grain  of  allowanoe,  cannot  be  too  mild,  moderate,  and 
/or/rteins;.*— Anmaoif.  Next  to  the  principle  of  not 
taking  oronoe  eerily,  that  of  forgiving  real  Injuries 
should  be  Insdiled  into  the  Infant  mind :  it  to  the  bapiw 
prerogative  of  the  monarch  that  he  can  extend  his 
pardon  to  all  criminate,  except  to  those  whose  crimes 
nave  rendered  them  unworthy  to  live :  they  may  h» 
both  used  In  relatkm  to  our  Maker,  but  with  a  simitor 
distinction  in  sense.  God  forgives  the  sins  of  Hto 
creatures  as  a  fkther  pitying  hto  children;  he  sordsiis 
...  .   s erlmkato,M 

their  sins  as  a  Jndge  extending  1 
Ar  Ml  to  consistent  with  Justice. 


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*  Parienj  irhen  'MMnpared  with  remitsion^  is  the 
consequence  of  ofleiioe ;  it  nvpecia  princi(Milly  tlie  per- 
■onoSeodlng;  it  depends  iipiMi  liim  wiio  is  oflRinded; 
it  produces  reconciliation  when  It  is  siiicereiy  granted 
and  sincerely  demanded.  JHemiition  is  the  conse- 
quence of  the  crime ;  it  has  more  particular  regard  to 
the  punishment;  it  is  granted  either  by  the  prince  or 
magistrate ;  it  arrests  the  execution  of  Justice ; 

With  suppliant  prayers  tlieir  powers  appease ; 

The  soft  Napcan  race  will  soon  repent 

Their  anger,  and  remit  the  punishment^DRTDCic. 
/Unustioiu  like  parioiu  is  peculiarly  applicable  to  the 
sinner  witn  regard  to  his  Maker.    Mtolution  is  taken 
in  no  other  senso :  it  is  the  consequence  of  the  l^ult  or 
the  sin,  and  properly  concerns  tlie  state  of  the  culprit ; 
itproMrly  loosens  hlro  from  the  tie  with  which  he  is 
bound ;  it  is  pronounced  either  by  the  civil  judge  or 
the  ecclesiastical  minister ;  it  re-establisiies  tlio  accused 
or  the  penitent  in  the  rights  of  innocence ; 
Bound  in  his  urn  the  blended  balls  he  rolls, 
Msohfea  the  Just,  and  dooms  the  guilty  souls. 


The  pardon  of  sin  obliterates  that  which  it  past,  and 
rastores  the  sinner  to  the  Divine  favour;  it  i»  iHroniioed 
throughout  Scripture  to  all  nion  on  the  condition  of 
faith  and  repentance ;  i^mitsiot^of  sin  only  averts  tlie 
Divine  vengeance,  which  otherwise  would  flill  upon 
those  wiio  are  guil^  of  it;  it  is  granted  peculiarly  to 
Christians  upon  thv  ground  of  Christ*s  expiatory  sacrl- 
flce,  which  satisfies  Divine  Justice  for  all  offences :  ab- 
stfliUiVm  of  sin  is  the  work  of  God's  grace  on  tlie  heart ; 
a  acts  for  the  fiiture  as  well  as  the  past,  by  lessening 
the  dominion  of  am,  and  making  those  free  who  were 
before  in  bondage.  The  Roman  Catholiciu  look  upon 
ittsoluUon  as  the  immediate  act  of  the  Pope,  by  virtue 
of  his  sacred  relationship  to  Christ ;  but  the  Protestants 
look  to  Christ  onlv  as  the  dispenser  of  this  blessing  to 
men,  and  his  minlsterB  dimply  as  meaieogeri  to  declare 
the  Divine  will  to  men. 

RepmUmee^  from  re  back,  and  panitet  to  be  sorry, 
sIgnUles  kMklng  back  with  sorrow  un  what  one  has 
done  amiss;  ptwitenee,  from  the  same  source,  signifies 
simply  sorrow  for  what  Is  aniisL  Om/rttum.  from 
e^nUro  to  rub  together,  or  bruise  as  It  were  with  sor- 
row ;  eosipmii^ltcm,  from  eompunifo  to  prick  thorough- 
ly :  and  rssMTse,  from  remordeo  to  have  a  gnawing 
pain ;  all  exprees  modes  of  penitetue  differing  in  de- 
gree and  circumstance. 

Rtpetdmue  refers  more  to  the  change  of  one*s  mind 
with  regard  to  an  object,  and  is  properly  confined  to  the 
time  when  this  change  takes  place;  we  therefore, 
strictly  speaking,  rrpent  of  a  thing  but  once ;  we  may, 
however,  have  penttenee  for  the  same  thing  all  our 
Uvea.  Repentamee  may  be  felt  for  trivial  matters ;  we 
may  r^ent  of  going  or  not  going,  speaking  or  not 
speaking:  pntittnee  refers'  only  to  serious  matters ;  we 
are  0«iite«jU  only  for  our  sins.  Errours  of  Judgement 
will  always  be  attended  with  repentance  in  a  mind  that 
Is  striving  to  do  right;  there  Is  no  human  being  so  per- 
fect but  that,  in  the  sight  of  God,  he  will  have  occa- 
sion to  be  penstdU  for  many  acts  of  commission  and 

R^entmue  may  be  Mt  for  errours  which  concern 
only  oursdves,  or  at  most  oflbnces  against  our  fellow 
creatures ;  penitence,  and  the  other  terms,  are  appli- 
cable only  to  ofifences  against  the  moral  and  divine 
law,  that  law  which  Is  engraven  on  the  heart  of  every 
mvL  We  m«y  repent  of  not  having  made  a  bargain 
that  we  afterward  And  would  have  been  advantageous, 
or  we  may  r^siU  of  having  done  any  Injury  to  our 
neighbour;  but  oar  penanee  is  awakened  when  we 
ivfleot  on  our  unworthiness  or  sinAilness  In  the  sight 
c€  oar  Maker.  This  penitence  is  a  general  sentiment, 
which  belonp  to  all  men  us  ofibndlng  creatures;  but 
eemtritien,  ampunetion,  and  remoree  are  awakened 
bgr  reflecting  on  particular  oflfenceo :  etnUriUon  is  a 
continued  and  severe  sorrow,  appropriate  to  one  who 
his  been  in  a  continued  state  of  peculiar  sinftilneas; 

Vldo  AbbeOlrard:  "Absolution,  pardon,  remis- 

compunrtion  Is  rather  an  oecaslonal,  but  sharp  sorrow 
provoked  by  a  single  oflence,  or  a  moment's  reflection , 
remoree  may  be  temporary,  but  it  is  a  still  sharer 
pain  awakened  by  some  particular  otn^nce  of  peculiar 
magnitude  and  atrocity.  The  prodigal  son  was  a 
c9iiXrtt«  sinner;  the  bretlirenof  Joseph  felt  great  com- 
punction when  they  were  carried  buck  with  their  sacks 
to  Egypt ;  David  was  struck  with  remorse  for  tlie  mur- 
der of  Uriah. 

These  four  terms  depend  not  so  much  on  the 
measure  of  auilt  as  on  the  sensibility  of  the  offender 
Whoever  reflects  most  deeply  on  the  enormity  of  sin, 
will  be  most  sensible  of  rnentancct  when  he  sees  his 
own  liability  to  oflfend  ;  *  This  is  the  sinner*s  hard  lot; 
that  the  same  thing  which  makes  him  need  rtpnttanee^ 
makes  him  also  in  danger  of  not  obtaining  it'--SocTH 
In  tliose  who  have  most  offended,  and  are  come  to  a 
sense  of  their  own  condition,  penitence  will  rise  to  deep 

Heaven  may  forgive  a  crime  to  penitenee. 
For  heaven  can  Judge  if  penitence  be  true.— Drydbh. 
*  Oentritioni  though  it  may  melt,  ought  not  to  sink,  or 
overpower  the  heart  of  a  Christian.*— Blair.  There 
is  no  man  so  liardened  that  he  will  not  some  time  or 
other  feel  compunction  for  the  crimes  he  has  eomniit- 
ted ;  *  All  men,  even  the  most  depraved,  are  subject 
more  or  less  to  eoswHRcttoNs  of  conscience.* — Blair 
He  wlM)  has  the  liveliest  sense  of  the  Divine  goodness, 
will  feel  keen  remorse  whenever  he  reflects  on  any 
thing  that  he  has  done,  by  which  he  fears  to  have  for 
felted  the  Ihvour  of  so  good  a  Being ; 

The  heart, 
Plcre*d  with  a  sharp  remoree  for  guilt,  dbclaims 
The  costly  poverty  of  hecatombs, 
And  olfon  the  best  sacrifice  Itself.— jRrr&T. 


Conoeientioue  marks  the  quality  of  having  a  nice 
conscience;  ecrupuloue^  that  of  having  a  scru/^le. 
Conecience,  In  Latin  coneeientia,  from  eeneeien*^  sig- 
nifies that  by  which  a  man  becomes  conscious  to  him- 
self of  right  and  wrong.  ServpU^  in  Latin  eempvluet 
a  little  hard  stone,  signifies  that  which  gives  pain  to 
the  mind,  as  the  stone  does  to  the  foot  in  walking. 

CenecinUiome  Is  to  ecrupulous  as  a  whole  to  a  part. 
A  eoneeientiou*  man  is  so  altogetlier ;  a  ecrupulous 
man  may  have  only  particular  scruples:  the  one  la 
therefore  always  taken  in  a  good  sense ;  and  the  other 
.at  least  in  an  indifferent,  if  not  a  bad  sense. 

A  consdestious  man  does  nodiing  to  offend  his  een^ 
scienu ;  *  A  eonseientioue  person  would  rather  distrust 
his  own  Judgement  than  condemn  his  speciiM.  He 
would  say,  I  have  observed  without  attention,  or 
Judged  upon  erroneous  maxims;  I  have  trusted  to 
prof^on  when  I  ought  to  have  attended  to  conducL* 
BuRKK.— But  n  ecrupulous  man  has  often  bis  scruples 
on  trifling  or  minor  points ;  *  Others  by  their  weakness, 
and  fear,  and  scrupulousness,  thnnoi  fiilly  satisfy  their 
own  thoiu;hts.*»-PuLLXR.  The  Pharisees  were  scrw 
pulsus  without  being  conscientious:  we  must  there- 
fore strive  to  be  conscientious  without  being  over  «crM- 
pulous;  'I  have  been  so  very  scnqtulous   in  this 

K articular,  of  not  hurting  any  man's  reputation,  that  I 
ave  forborne  mentioning  even  such  authors  as  I  could 
not  name  with  honour.*— Adoisok. 


Holiness^  which  comes  fttim  the  northern  lanfuagea, 
has  altogether  acquired  a  Christian  sienification ;  it 
respects  the  life  and  temper  of  a  Christian;  sanctitu 
which  is  derived  from  tlie  Latin  sanctus  and  sanctfo^ 
to  sanction,  has  merely  a  moral  signtficaiion,  which  It 
derives  from  the  sanction  of  human  authority. 

Holiness  is  to  the  mind  of  a  man  what  sanctity  Is  to 
his  exteriour ;  with  this  diflference,  that  holiness  to  a 
certain  degrse,  ought  to  bek)ng  to  every  man  professing 
Chrl^anity ;  but  sanclity^  as  It  lies  in  the  manners, 
the  outward  garb,  and  depr^rtment,  is  becoming  only  to 
certain  persons,  and  at  certain  times. 

Holiness  is  a  thing  not  to  be  alTbcted;  It  is  that 
genuine  characteristick  of  Christianitv  which  is  alto- 
gether spiritual,  and  cannot  be  counterfeited ;  *  Habitual 
preparation  for  the  Sacrament  consists  In  a  perma 
o«ot  bahU  or  prlncivle  of  Asiinsss.*— Soimi.   Sanctity, 


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M  the  other  hand,  b  fttrni  Its  rery  BBtnre  ezpoted  to 
fUKboodf  and  ibe  least  to  be  trusted ;  when  itdisplaya' 
Jtwir  ta  IndividualB,  either  bf  the  ■orrowf^loea  of 
their  hioka,  or  the  singular  cut  of  their  garments,  or 
other  singolarities  of  action  and  gesture,  It  is  of  the 
most  questionable  nature ;  but  In  one  who  performs 
the  sacerdotal  office,  it  is  a  useAil  appendage  to  the 

■olemnlty  of  the  scene,  which  excites  a 
regard  to  tlie  individual  in  the  mind  of  the  beholder, 
and  the  most  exalted  sentiments  of  that  religion  which 
he  thus  adorns  bv  his  outward  profenlon;  *  About  an 
age  ago  it  was  tDe  fhshion  in  England  for  every  one 
that  would  be  thought  religious,  4o  throw  as  much 
tametitf  as  possible  into  bis  lace.*— Addiboh.  *  It  was 
an  observation  of  the  ancient  Bomans,  that  their  em- 
pire had  not  increaaed  more  bjr  the  strength  of  their 
arms,  than  by  the  soMciUf  of  their  mamien.*— A]>- 

NMtf  Is  here  taken  in  the  sense  of  Aoteie»«,  as  in  the 
preceding  article ;  punu^  In  Latin  pius,  Is  most  proba- 
baMy  changed  from  dims  or  deu»,  signifying  regard  for 
the  gods;  dev^nt,  \n  Latin  dnottUf  from  deooveo  to 
engage  1^  a  vow,  signlfles  devoted  or  consecrated: 
rdigiauM^  in  Latin  rtUgioiu.  comes  from  rdigio  and 
rtbgot  to  Mod,  because  reilsion  binds  the  mind,  and 
producea  in  it  a  fixed  princifMe. 

A  strong  regard  to  the  Supreme  Being  is  expressed 
by  all  these  epithets ;  but  koly  conveys  the  most  com- 
prehensive Idea;  pimu  and  devout  designate  most 
fervour  of  mind ;  teUgienu  is  the  most  general  and 
abstract  In  its  signification.  A  holy  man  is  In  all 
respects  heavenly^minded ;  he  is  more  fit  for  heaven 
ihan  earth:  hoUneos^  lo  whatever  degree  it  is  pos- 
seswd,  abstracts  the  thoughts  from  sublunary  objects, 
and  fixes  them  en  thbia  that  are  above;  it  Is  therefore 
a  Christian  quality,  which  Is  not  to  be  attained  In  Its 
full  piHfection  by  human  beings,  in  their  present  im- 
perfect state,  and  is  attainable  by  some  to  a  much 
greater  degree  than  by  others.  Our  Saviour  was  a 
perfect  pattern  of  kohnesM  ;  his  apostles  after  him,  and 
Innumerable  saints  and  good  men,  both  In  and  out  of 
the  minlsiry,  have  striven  to  imitate  his  example,  by 
the  kolineoM  of  their  Ilfb  and  converaatlon :  In  such, 
however,  as  have  exclusively  devoted  themselves  to 
his  service,  this  kolinees  may  shine  brighter  than  in 
thnce  who  are  entangled  with  the  afTalrs  of  the  world ; 
*  The  kotieot  man,  by  conversing  with  the  world  In- 
snisibly  draws  something  of  soil  and  taint  from  it.* — 

Pion*  Is  a  term  more  restricted  In  its  signification, 
and  consequently  more  extended  in  Its  application, 
than  holy  :  piety  is  not  a  virtue  peculiar  to  Christians, 
h  is  common  to  all  believers  In  a  Supreme  Being ;  It  is 
the  homage  of  the  heart  and  the  afllections  to  a  supe* 
riour  Being:  from  a  similarity  in  the  relationship 
between  a  heavenly  and  an  earthly  parent,  devotodneee 
of  the  mind  has  In  both  cases  been  denominated  pietv. 
Piety  towards  God  naturally  produces  pitty  towaras 
parrats ;  for  tlie  obedience  of  the  heart,  which  elves 
rfae  to  the  virtue  In  the  one,  seems  instantly  to  dictate 
the  exercise  of  it  In  the  other.  The  difference  between 
koUueae  and  piety  Is  obvious  ttom  this,  that  our  Saviour 
and  his  apostles  are  characterlznl  as  Ao/y,  but  not 
piouM^  because  AUfy  is  swallowed  up  In  holtnea*.  On 
the  other  hahd,  Jew  and  Gentile,  Christian  and 
Heathen,  sre  alike  termed  pioue^  when  they  cannot  be 
called  Jko/y,  because  piety  is  not  only  a  more  practi- 
cable virtue,  but  because  It  Is  more  universally  appli- 
cable to  the  dependant  condition  of  man:  *In  every 
age  the  practice  has  prevailed  of  substituilng  certain 
appearances  of  piety  in  the  place  of  the  great  duties  of 
humanity  and  mercy.'— BLAia. 

Devotion  is  a  species  of  piety  peculiar  to  the  wor- 
shipper ;  ll  bespeaks  that  devotodness  of  mind  which 
difiphiys  itself  In  the  temple,  when  the  Individual 
serins  by  his  outward  services  solemnly  to  devote  him- 
setr,  soul  and  body,  to  the  service  of  his  Maker: 
*  Dtvotion  expresses  not  sn  much  the  performance  of 
rnv  particular  duty,  as  the  spirit  which  must  animate 
9L'XreVri9uo  duties.'— BLAia.  Pfrty,  therefore,  lies  In 
the  heart,  and  may  appear  externally;  but  devotion 
dnes  not  properly  exist  except  In  an  external  ob- 
WTvan«« :  a  man  pwrnoly  rniif  ns  himself  to  the  will  of 
God,  In  the  midst  of  his  afflictions;  he  prays  dovonUty 

in  the  bosom  of  hh  ftmlly ;  *  A  stale  of  temperanca, 
sobriety,  and  Justice,  without  devotiomj  is  a  lifeleM  in- 
sipid condition  of  virtue.'— AsmsoK. 

Religion*  Is  a  term  of  less  import  than  either  of  the 
other  terms;  It  denotes  little  mora  than  the  simple 
existeace  of- religion^  or  a  sense  of  reUgion  in  the 
mind :  the  reiigiono  man  is  so,  more  In  his  principles 
than  in  his  aifecdons ;  lie  Is  rdigiomo  in  his  sentiments, 
in  as  much  as  he  directs  all  his  views  according  to  the 
will  of  his  Maker ;  and  lie  Is  reUgious  in  bis  conduct, 
in  as  much  as  he  observes  the  outward  formalities  or 
homage  that  are  due  to  his  Maker.  A  koly  man  fits 
himself  fiA-  8  hither  slate  of  existence,  after  which  h« 
is  always  aspiring ;  a  viono  man  Ins  God  Ui  all  his 
thoughts,  and  seeks  to  do  his  will ;  a  devout  man  bends 
himself  In  humble  adoration  and  pays  his  vows  of 

ryer  and  thanksslvlng;  a  religimu  man  conforms 
all  thhigs  to  what  the  dictates  of  his  conscience 
require  fhmi  hlm,  as  a  responsible  befaig,  knd  a  mem- 
ber of  society. 

When  applied  to  thten  they  preserve  a  rimilar  dis- 
tinction :  we  speak  of  the  koly  sacramenl ;  of  a  punu 
discourae,  a  pteuo  eiJacuUition ;  of  a  devout  exerdse, 
a  devout  air ;  a  reUgiono  sentiment,  a  roligiouo  life,  t 
rst^ifiaas  education,  Jbc 


Hely  is  here,  as  in  the  former  article,  a  term  of 
higher  Import  than  either  oaered  or  divme :  emered,  In 
Latin  eaeer^  is  derived  either  fhmi  the  Gredc  &y^ 
holv  or  odoi  whole,  perfect,  and  the  Hebrew  laeak  pure 
Whatever  Is  most  intimately  connected  with  religion 
and  religious  worship,  in  Its  purest  state,  Is  holy,  is  un- 
hallowed by  a  mixture  of  inrerlour  objects,  is  elevated 
In  the  greatest  possible  degree,  so  as  to  suit  the  nature 
of  an  infhiitely  perfect  and  exalted  Being.  Am<mg  the 
Jews,  the  holy  of  A«lt'«f  was  that  place  which  was 
Intended  to  approach  the  nearest  to  the  heavenlv 
abode,  consequeotiy  was  preserved  as  much  as  pnsn 
ble  from  an  contamination  with  that  which  Is  earthly : 
among  Christians,  that  religion  or  form  of  religion  Is 
termed  A«2y,  which  is  esteemed  purest  In  its  doctrine, 
disclpilne,  and  ceremonies,  and  »  applied  with  equal 
propriety  by  tiie  Roman  Cathollcks  and  the  English 
Protestants  to  that  which  they  have  In  common ;  *  To 
fit  us  for  a  due  access  to  the  holy  Sacrament,  we  must 
add  actual  preparation  to  habitual.*— South.  Upon 
this  ground  we  speak  of  the  church  as  a  holjf  {rince,  of 
the  sacrament  as  the  Aoty  sacrament,  and  the  ordinances 
of  the  chureh  as  holy. 

Saered  Is  less  than  holy;  the  satrod  derives  Its  sane 
tion  from  human  institutions,  and  is  connected  rather 
with  our  moral  than  our  religious  dudes :  what  is  holy 
Is  altogether  spiritual,  and  abstracted  fh>m  the  earthly ; 
what  is  socrsd  may  be  simply  the  human  purified  from 
what  is  gross  and  corrupt:  what  Is  holy  must  be 
regarded  with  awe,  and  treated  with  every  passible 
mark  of  reverence ;  what  is  eaered  must  not  be  violated 
nor  Infringed  upon.  The  laws  are  oaered^  but  not 
holy ;  a  man's  word  should  be  «scr«d,  though  not  holy  : 
fbr  neither  of  these  tiibip  Is  to  be  reverenced,  but  both 
are  to  be  kept  tiet  fhmi  injury  or  external  violence. 
The  holy  is  not  so  much  opposed  to,  as  It  Is  set  above 
every  thing  etoe ;  the  ooered  is  opposed  to  the  profane ' 
Uie  Scriptures  are  properly  denominated  holy,  because 
they  are  the  word  of  Goo,  and  the  fruit  orchis  HUy 
Spirit;  but  other  writings mav  be  termed  eaered  which 
appertain  to  religion,  in  distinction  fVom  the  profane, 
which  appertain  only  to  worldly  mattera ;  <  Conimoo 
Knse  could  tell  them,  that  the  good  God  could  not  be 
pleased  with  any  thing  cruel,  nor  the  most  holy  God 
with  any  thing  filthy  and  unclean.*— South.  *  Religion 
properlv  consists  In  a  reverential  esteem  of  things 
saersd.*— South. 

Divine  is  a  term  of  even  less  Import  than  oaeted ;  It 
signifies  either  belonging  to  the  Deity,  or  being  like  the 
Del^ ;  but  fltim  the  looseness  of  Its  application  it  has 
lost  in  some  respects  die  dignity  of  its  meaning.  The 
ditfijte  is  often  contrasted  with  the  human :  but  there 
are  many  human  things  which  are  denominated  divine: 
Mllton*s  poem  is  entitled  a  divine  poem,  not  merely  nn 
account  of  the  subject,  but  from  the  exalted  manner  In 
which  the  poet  has  treated  bis  Mubject:  what  is  divine, 
therefore,  may  be  so  sufierlatlvely  excellent  as  to  lie  con- 
ceived of  as  havfaig  die  staftp  of  Inspiration  from  the 


zed  by  Google 



IMtjr,  which  of  eooive.  u  it  respecta  human  peribnn 
■ncea,  it  but  a  hy|ierix>ucal  mode  of  upeech. 

From  the  above  explaoaiion  of  these  teni»,it  la  deai 
that  there  it  a  manileii  ditference  between  them,  and 
jret  that  their  reMmbtaiice  ia  auflldently  great  for  them 
Id  be  applied  to  the  aame  objecta.  We  apeaJc  of  the 
H»lp  Spirit,  and  of  IHvme  iuapiratioo ;  by  the  Ant  of 
which  epitheta  ia  undentood  not  only  what  ia  auper- 
buioan,  but  what  ia  a  cooatUuent  part  of  the  Deity :  by 
the  aecond  ia  repraaenied  merely  in  a  general  manner 
the  aource  of  the  inapiratioo  aa  coming  from  the  Deity, 
and  not  from  man ;  '  When  a  man  rteieih  and  aaaureih 
hhnaelf  upon  Dnriiu  protection,  he  gaiheroth  a  force 
and  lUth  whkh  bmnan  nature  in  ilaelf  could  not 
obtain.'— Bacon.  Bubjecta  are  denominated  either 
saered  or  dtotM,  aa  when  we  apeali  of  tacred  poema, 
or  ditine  liymna ;  satrtd  here  cbaracterizea  the  aubjecia 
of  the  poema,  aa  thoae  which  are  to  be  held  sacred; 

anddsviiM „ . 

being  ordinary  or  merelv  human ;  it  ia  clear,  therefore, 
that  what  ia  A«ly  ia  in  lU  very  nature  taered^  but  not 
me*  verad;  and  that  what  la  My  and  »aared  ia  hi  ita 
very  nature  dtvma;  but  lift  divMa  ia  not  alwaya  cither 
jkaiv  or  aacrad. 

Godlike  beapealtB  ita  own  meaning,  aa  lilce  OeA,  or 
after  the  manner  of  Ood ;  divine,  in  Latin  dtvtmw  from 
divu*  or  lMu»y  aigniOeaapperUiniiig  to  Ood;  keavemljh 
or  keavoiUike,  aigiiiOea  liJte  or  appertaining  to  Aeavem. 
Oodliko  b  a  mora  expreaaive,  but  iesa  common  term 
than  dioime;  the  formor  ia  uaed  only  aa  an  epithet  of 
peculiar  praiae  for  a  particular  object ;  divime  'u  gene- 
rally employed  for  tlwt  wliich  apperialna  toaauperiour 
being,  in  diatinction  fhND  that  which  ia  human.  Bene- 
volenoe  ia  a  godlike  property^ 

Sure  he  that  made  ua  with  auch  large  dlaooone, 
Looiilng  before  and  after,  gave  ua  not 
That  capability  UkA  godlike  reaaoo,  ! 

To  mat  in  ua  unua'dT— BHAxapcARB. 
The  Divine  ImafB  la  ataropMl  on  the  featurea  of  man, 
whence  the  Ikce  ia  called  by  Milton  'the  human  face 
Divine.*  •  The  benefit  of  naUire*a  light  ia  not  thought 
eicluded  aa  unneceaaary,  becauae  the  neceaaity  of  a 
dteoM  light  ia  magnified.*— Hookkr.  Divine  la  how- 
ever frequenUy  uaed  by  the  poeta  for  what  la  aupa* 
■  excelianu 

Of  all  that  aee  or  read  thy  oomedlea, 
Whoever  in  thoee  glaaaea  looka  may  find 
The  apota  retum'd.  or  gracea  of  hia  mind ; 
And  by  the  help  or  ao  divine  an  art. 
At  leiaure  view  and  dreaa  hia  nobler  part 


the  aubject  of  the  hymna  aa  not   fie««.*— Fkltham.    The 

catkm  QtgodUneUy  which  at  the  aame  time 
temper  or  mind,  not  only  to  delight  In,  but  to  profit  bv 
Bttch  ezereiaea:  *  The  aame  church  la  really  holy  in  thla 
world,  in  relation  to  all  godlv  peraona  contained  in  it, 
by  a  real  tnfuaed  aaoctlty?— PaAitaoH.  Rtgktoousnea» 
on  the  other  hand  comnrehenda  Chriatian  morality,  in 
diatinction  ftom  that  of  the  heathen  or  unbeliever ;  a 
rigktevue  man  doea  righit  not  only  becauae  It  ia  rigkL 
but  becauae  It  la  agreeable  to  the  will  of  hia  Maker,  and 
the  example  of  hia  Redeemer:  rigkteouensee  la  there- 
fore to godlm$09  aa  the  eflbct  to  the  cauae;  '*Tla  the 
gaapel*a  worit  to  reduce  man  to  the  principle*  of  hia  fliat 
creation,  that  la,  to  be  both  good  and  wiae.  Ourances- 
ton,  it  aeema,  were  dearly  of  thia  opinion.  Be  that 
was  jploua  and  juat  waa  recltoned  a  righuoue  man. 
OodUnes*  and  integrity  waa  called  and  accounted 
rigkteveness.  And  In  their  old  Saxon  rigkUone  waa 
ngktwitet  and  rigkteoueneet  waa  originally  ri^&<«DM«- 

godly  man  goea  to  the  aanc- 
1th  hia  Matter  aaalmilatea  all 

tuary  and  by  converae  wit 

hia  allbctlona  to  the  character  of  that  being  wliom  lie 
woraldpa;  when  he  leavea  the  aanctuary  he  provea  the 
eAcaey  of  hia^ad/nufa  by  hia  righteoua  convene  with 
hia  feUow-creatttrea.  It  ia  eaay  however  for  men  to 
miatake  tiie  meana  for  tlie  end,  and  to  reat  with  gedli- 
ne$e  without  rigkUoutneeet  aa  too  many  are  apt  to  do 
wlio  aeem  to  make  their  wlioie  duty  to  cooalat  in  an 
attention  to  religioua  obaervancea,  and  hi  the  indul- 
gence  of  extravagant  feelinga ;  *  It  hath  been  the  great 
design  of  Hie  devil  and  hia  inatrumenta  in  all  agea  to 
undermine  religion,  by  makhig  an  unhappv  aeparaUon 
and  divorce  between  godUneee  and  morality.  But  let 
ua  not  deceive  ouraelvea;  thia  waa  alwaya  religion,  and 
the  condition  of  our  acceptance  with  Ood.  to  endeavour 
10  be  like  Ood  in  purity  and  hoilneaa,  in  Juatice  and 

Aa  di'Hna  ia  oppoaed  to  human,  ao  la  koMemly  m 

earthly :  the  I>tvtiM  Being  la  a  term  of  diatinction  for 

the  Creator  ftom  all  other  belnp;  but  a  kewenlv  being 

denotca  the  angela  or  Inliabltania  of  kemven^  in  diatino^ 

tion  fh>m  earuly  belnga  or  the  iuhabiiania  of  earth. 

A  divtju  influence  ia  to  be  aouxht  for  only  by  prayer 

to  the  Giver  of  all  good  thln^;  but  a  Acaeaaiy  temper 

may  be  acquired  by  a  ateady  contemplation  of  keaveiUf 

thinga,  and  an  abatracUon  from  thoae  which  areeartbly.    reaaon,  to  acme  queatlona  tli 

The  Z>>efaa  will  ia  the  foundation  of  aU  moral  law  and '  iwro/  dig  niUea,  eBpeclally  to 


liMKier  in  Latin  Mcalarta,  ftom  eeeulum  an  age  or 
di7laion  of  Unie,«lgulfiea  belonging  to  time,  or  thia  life; 
temporal,  in  Latin  UmporaUe^  from  tempue  time,  aigni- 
fiea  laaUnff  only  for  a  time;  toorUUif  algnlflea  after  the 
manner  of  tiie  w»rld. 

Secular  ia  oppuned  to  ecdealaatlcal  or  aplritual,  tcm. 
poral  and  woridlv  ar«>  oppoaed  to  aplritual  or  eternal. 

Tile  ideaa  of  the  worlds  or  the  outward  objecta  and 

puiauiu  of  the  worldy  in  diatinction  ftom  that  which 
ia  aet  above  the  ja^r/d,  la  Implied  In  common  by  all  thi! 
tcrma;  but  ooevlar  la  an  indifferent  term,  applfcabk>  (• 

the  allowed  punulta  and  concema  of  men ;  temporal  ia 
uaed  eitiier  In  an  ludifibrent  or  a  bad  aense;  aiid 
vorldly  moatly  In  a  bad  aenae,  aa  contraaied  with  \bijifi 
of  more  value. 

The  oflloa  of  a  clergyman  la  eeeleaiaatical,  but  that 
of  a  achoolinaater  la  aecvlor,  which  ia  ftvqueoUy  veated 
in  the  aame  handa;  *Thia,  in  aeveral  roen*a  actioiia  of 

common  life,  appertaineth  unto  moral :  ip  oubiick  and 
politick  eocmlar  affain,  unto  civil  wladom.'— Hookbe. 
Tiie  upp«f  houae  of  parliament  conalati  of  lorda  api 
ritual  and  temporal ;  *  There  la  acarce  any  of  tlioae 
decifiiona  but  givea  good  light,  by  wav  of  authority  or 
reaaon,  to  acme  queationa  that  ariae  aJao  between  tern- 
wherein  aome  of  our 


Inatraeted  yott*d  explore 

wibordinate  temporal  tltiea  have  part  in  the  contro* 
«ny.*— Sblobk.     fVorldlf  intereat  haa  a  more  pow. 

Divins  contrivanee,  and  a  Ood  adore^BiJicniOEB  I  eriW  "way  upon  the  roinda  of  the  great  bulk  of  man- 
r^^^^t^  i««  •«.  rtl  «u.i*^r  .11  «...  i.k»..»  In  tKu  *"'<*i  than  their  aplritual  intcreaia;  'Compare  the  hap- 
fffK.?'!.^.*"  ^  ^^^^  ■"  ^  '•****"  ^  •"■   niniofmen  and  beaaU  no  farther  ihaiiltreaulrafroii 

worldlf  advantagca.'— Attbrbury.    Whoever  enien 
nto  the  holy  oflice  of  the  minhKry  with  merely  eecular 

Seavenljf  Joya 
earthly  courae; 

Reaaon,  alaa!    It  doea  not  know  Itaelf; 

But  man,  vain  manl  would  with  hia  ahort-lin'd 

Fathom  tlie  vaat  abyaaof  Aaaeaniy  Justice.— Drtpbn. 

Oodiy  la  a  contractkm  of  godlike  (a.  Ovdliks); 
rigkteane  algnifiea  conformable  to  rigkt  or  truth. 

Tbeae  epitlieia  are  both  uaed  in  a  a|4ritual  aenee,  and 
eannot,  witliout'an  indecoroua  affectation  of  religion, 

be  introduced  Into  any  other  diacourae  than  that  which    , ^ 

la  properly  apirttuaL  OadltiMaa,  In  the  atrict  aenae,  ia  I  eternal  bappineaa.*— JoBNaoM.  fVordlp  applause  wlU 
that  outward  deportment  wliich  characteriaaa  a  bea- 1  W(>igh  very  light  when  aet  In  the  balance  agaiiiat  the 
venlyteniper;  prayer,readingof  tiie Scripiure8,pubiick  [reproach of one'a own conacience;  '  ff'orUUif  iMng9 tu% 
wonhip,  and  every  niigioiH  act,  enten  Into  the  aiguiO-  /  nf  auch  qualiiy  aa  to  lessen  upon  dividing.*— <2rovb. 

viewa  of  preferment,  chooaea  a  very  unfit  aource  of 
euif  ilument ;  *  Some  aaw  nothing  in  what  baa  boeu  done 
In  France  but  a  firm  and  temperate  exertion  of  fteedum, 
ao  consistent  with  inorala  and  piety,  aa  to  make  it  de- 
aervittg  not  only  of  the  eeenUr  applauae  of  daaliiiig 
Machiavellan  politiciana,  but  to  make  it  a  fit  theiue  fof 
ail  the  devout  efilialona  of  aacred  eloquence.*— Burks 
A  too  eager  punuit  afler  temporal  advantagea  and  tem- 
poral pleaaurea  ia  apt  to  draw  the  mind  away  from  ita 
regatd  to  tlioae  which  are  eternal;  'The  ultimate  pur- 
poae  of  covemment  la  temper^  and  that  of  religion  ia 


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Tbe  enthusiast,  faauUiek^  and  visionmy  have  dis- 
ordcred  imagiiuitiom;  bat  Ibe  emthusiast  ii  only 
aflfected  inwardly  whh  an  eitraordinuy  ferviNir,  tbe 
fsmaUck  and  owa«iu»  y  betray  that  fervour  by  10016  out- 
ward mark ;  tbe  forawr  by  luifularittefl  of  conduct,  tbe 
laUer  by  ■Ingularitiea  of  doctrine.  FanuUicks  and 
vismnarUs  tre  therefore  always  more  or  leae  auA%- 
siasts;  but  enthusiasts  are  not  alwnyi  famaticks  or 
msisnaries.  *SvOvimica2  among  the  GreekB,  from  h 
In  and  Btii  God,  denined  those  suppoeed  lo  have,  or 
pretending  to  have.  Divine  iniipiration.  Fauatid  were 
■o  called  among  the  Latioa,  m>m  fawa  the  templefl  in 
which  they  spent  an  extraordinary  portion  or  tlieir 
time ;  they,  like  the  hSsota^alof  the  Greeks,  pretended 
to  revelations  and  Inspirations,  during  the  influence  of 
which  they  indulged  themselves  in  mauy  extravagant 
tricks,  cotthig  themselves  with  knives,  and  distorting 
tliemeeives  with  every  species  of  aniick  gesture  and 

Although  we  are  profiessora  of  a  pure  religion,  yet 
we  cannot  boast  an  exemption  from  the  extravagancies 
which  are  related  of  the  poor  heathens;  we  have  many 
wtio  indulge  themselves  In  similar  practices  under  the 
idea  ef  honouring  their  Maker  and  Redeemer.  There 
are  fauatieis  who  profess  to  be  under  extraordinary 
influences  of  the  spirit ;  and  there  are  eiUhusiasts  whose 
intemperate  zeal  disaualifies  them  for  taking  a  bene- 
ficial part  in  tbe  sooer  and  solemn  services  of  the 
church.  Visionarf  rignlfies  properly  one  who  deals  in 
VMi«iu,  that  Is,  in  the  pretended  appearance  of  super- 
natural objects;  a  species  of  $nthwtia9t8  who  have 
sprung  up  in  more  modem  times.  The  leaders  of  sects 
are  oommoolv  visiamaries^  bavins  adopted  this  artifice 
to  establish  their  reputation  and  doctrines  among  their 
deluded  followers ;  Mahomet  was  one  of  the  most  sue- 
ceuful  visiamaries  that  ever  pretended  to  divine  inspl 
ration;  and  since  his  time  there  have  been  omimartes, 
particularly  in  Enghind,  who  have  raised  religious  par- 
ties, by  having  recourse  to  tbe  same  expedient:  of  this 
description  wssSwedenboif ,  Huntington,  and  Brothers. 
Famatick  was  originally  confined  to  ttiose  who  were 
under  religious  frenzy,  but  the  present  age  has  pre- 
lenied  us  with  tbe  monstrosity  of  fauatieks  in  irreli- 
Ition  and  anarchy ;  *  They  who  will  not  believe  that 
the  plnlosophical  fauaticks  who  guide  in  these  mat- 
ter* have  tong  entertained  the  design  (of  abolishing 
relifioo),  are  utterly  ignorant  of  their  character.*— 
Buasji.  EiUkusiast  is  a  term  applied  in  genoral  to 
every  cme  who  Is  filled  with  an  extraordinary  degree 
of  fervour; 

Her  little  soul  h  raviah*d,  and  ao  pour*d 

Into  kxMe  ecstanies,  that  she  is  placed 

Above  heneU;  Mustek's  smtkusiasL—CRAMniLW. 

Eutkusiasts  nretend  that  they  have  tbe  gift  of 
prophecy  by  dreams.*— Paoitt's  BaRasiooRAPHT. 
Vistsuttry  m  a  term  applied  to  one  who  deals  in  fkn- 
clfal  speculation ;  *  This  account  exceeded  all  the  Noc- 
taoibuli  or  visisnaries  I  have  met  with.*— Turnkr. 
Tbe  former  may  sometimes  be  innocent,  if  not  lauda- 
ble, according  to  the  nature  of  the  object ;  the  latter  Is 
always  censurable :  the  enthusiast  has  mostly  a  warm 
heart;  tbe  visionarf  has  only  a  (hnciful  head.  The 
mthusiast  will  mostly  be  on  the  side  of  virtue  even 
though  in  an  emrar ;  the  visUmarg  pleads  no  cause  but 
Ms  own.  Tbe  sutkusiast  suflers  his  imagination  to 
IbUow  his  heart ;  tbe  visionary  makes  bis  understand- 
ing bend  to  his  imagination.  Although  in  matters  of 
religion,  enthusiasm  should  be  cautiously  guarded 
■gainst,  yet  we  admire  to  see  it  roused  in  behalf  of 
0«e*s  country  and  one's  fViends ;  *  Cherish  tnie  religion 
•a  preciouriy  as  you  will,  fly  with  abliorrence  and 
eomempt,  superstition  ami  «atAiu>atsi.*— Chatham. 
risionariesy  whether  in  rellf  ion,  politicks,  or  science, 
•re  dangerous  as  members  of  societv.  and  oflfensive  as 
eompanlons ;  '  Tbe  sons  of  inArny  ridicule  every  thing 
•a  romantick  that  comes  In  competition  with  their  pre- 
sent interest,  and  treat  those  persons  as  visionariss 
who  dare  sund  up  In  a  corrupt  age,  for  what  has  nol 
Its  Immediate  reward  Joined-  to  IL'— AnniaoN. 

Dream^  in  Dutch  dirom^  ttc  oomn  either  from  the 
Ctldc  dres^  a  sight,  or  ibc  Greek  jpclfia,  a  fbble,  or  as 

probably  from  tbe  word  fvosi,  rignliying  to  wander, 
in  Hebrew  D")  to  be  agitated;  msru^  m  French 
reverie^  like  tbe  Bngliota  rave,  comes  from  the  Latin 
rabies,  signifying  that  Wbkb  is  wandeciug  or  inco- 

i>r«aaw  and  rsvsrtes  are  alike  opposed  to  tlie  reality, 
and  have  their  origin  in  tbe  buagination ;  but  the 
fi>nnar  commonly  pass  in  sleep,  and  the  latter  when 
awake:  the  drtam  may  and  does  oommonly  arise 
when  tbe  imagination  is  in  a  sound  state ;  the  rewris 
Is  the  ftuit  of  a  heated  imaghiation ;  *  AnMry  is  when 
ideas  float  in  our  mind,  without  reflection  or  regard  of 
the  understanding.'— Looks.  Dreams  come  in  the 
course  of  natore ;  rsosries  are  the  oonaaquence  of  a 
peculiar  ferment 

When  the  dream  is  applied  lo  the  act  of  one  that  to 
awake,  it  admits  of  anotlier  dletlnctton  from  reverie. 
They  both  designate  what  is  confounded,  but  the 
iream  to  less  extravagant  than  the  reverie.  Ambitious 
men  please  themselves  with  dreams  of  Aiture  great- 
ness; enthuslasis  debase  the  purity  of  the  Christian 
religton  by  btending  their  own  wild  reneries  with  the 
doctrines  of  the  Gospel.  He  who  indulges  hfanself  in 
idle  dreams  hiys  up  a  store  of  disafqiointment  for  hlm> 
self  when  be  recovers  his  recoUeciton,  and  finds  that 
it  to  nothing  but  ^  dream;  *  Gay's  friends  persuaded 
bim  to  sell  bis  share  of  Soutlhsea  stock,  but  he  dreamed 
of  dignity  and  splendour,  and  couM  not  bear  to  obstruct 
his  own  fortune.*— Joansoif.  A  love  of  singularity 
operating  on  an  ardent  mind  will  too  oAen  lead  men 
to  indulge  in  strange  reveries  ;  *  I  continued  to  sit  mo* 
tionless,  with  mv  e/es  fixed  upon  the  curtain,  some 
moments  after  h  ieU.  When  I  was  roused  from 
my  reverie  I  found  myadf  abnoat  alone.*— HAWxaa- 




Irrational^  compounded  of  I'r  or  i«  and  ratio,  signl 

flos  contrary  to  reason,  and  Is  employed  to  express  the 

want  of  the  faculty  itself,  or  a  deficiency  in  the  exer 

else  of  this  fheulty ;  foelish  denotes  the  perveraion  ol 

Sto  faculty;  absurd,  (torn  surdus,  deaf,  signifies  thai 
which  one  would  turn  a  dear  ear ;  preposterous 
flt)m  vr«  before  and  vast  behind,  signifies  literally  thai 
side  loremoet  which  is  unnatural  and  contrary  10  com 
mon  sense. 

Irrational  is  not  so  strong  a  term  as  feeUsh :  it  li 
applicable  more  fhMiaently  to  tbe  thing  than  to  the 
person,  to  the  principle  than  to  tlie  praetioe ;  •  The 
schemes  of  freethinkers  are  altogether  irrational,  and 
require  tbe  most  extravagant  credull^  to  embrace 
them.' — Adoisom.  Foelish  on  the  contrary  is  com 
mooly  applicable  to  tbe  panon  as  well  as  tbe  thing , 
to  the  praetioe  rather  than  the  principle ;  '  The  same 
well  meaning  gentleman  took  oocasion  at  another  time 
to  bring  together  such  of  his  friends  as  were  addicted 
to  a  foolish  habitual  custom  of  swearing,  in  order  to 
show  them  the  absurdity  of  tbe  practice.- Addisok 
BkepUcism  Is  the  most  trrationel  thing  that  exists; 
tbe  tiuman  mind  Is  formed  to  believe,  but  not  to 
doubt :  he  Is  of  all  men  most  foolish  who  stakes  his 
eternal  salvation  on  his  own  fancied  superiority  of 
intelligence  and  illumination.  Foolish^  absurd,  and 
preposterous^  rise  In  degree :  a  violation  of  common 
sense  is  Implied  by  them  all,  but  thev  vary  according 
to  the  degree  of  violence  which  is  done  to  the  under- 
sundlng:  foolish  Is  applied  to  any  thing,  however 
trivial,  which  in  the  smallest  degree  oflfcnds  our  under 
standings :  the  conduct  of  children  is  therefore  often 
foolish,  but  not  absurd  and  prepostorous,  which  are 
said  only  of  serious  things  that  are  opposed  to  our 
Judgements:  It  is  obsurd  for  a  man  to  persuade  another 
to  do  that  which  he  in  like  drcumstanoes  would  obfea 

But  grant  that  those  can  conquer,  these  can  cheat, 
*Tls  phrase  absurd  to  call  a  villain  great; 
Who  wickedly  is  wise  or  madly  brave 
Is  but  the  more  a  fool,  the  more  a  knave.- Pops. 
It  Is  preposterous  for  a  man  to  expose  himself  to  the 
ridicule  of  others,  and  then  be  ai^iry  with  those  who 
will  not  treat  him  reopectftilly ;  '  By  a  preposterous 
desire  of  things  In  themselves  Indifierent  men  forego 
the  enjoymbit  of  that  happiness  whleb  those  thiop 
are  lastrumental  to  oiKain.*— Bbrxslrt. 


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As  epithets  to  derignaie  the  character  of  the  peison, 
they  seem  to  rise  In  degree:  the  vrreUgwut  Is  nega- 
ilve;  the  Wans  and  mfiim»  are  podtlve;  the  lat- 
ter being  much  stronger  than  the  former.  The  prof  am 
of  the  LaUns,  from  pro  and  famMM,  L  e.  proetd  a  fanoy 
far  frdm  the  temple,  were  those  not  initiated,  who  were 
not  permitted  to  take  any  part  In  the  sacred  my«eriea 
and  riles^  whence  by  a  natural  consequence  those  who 
despised  what  was  sacred.  AU  men  who  are  not  pod- 
lively  actuated  by  principles  of  rellgioD  are  irrdUgunu  ; 
*  An  officer  of  the  army  in  Roman  Catbollek  countries, 
would  be  afraid  to  pate  for  an  irreligwu  man  If  he 
should  be  seen  to  go  to  bed  without  offering  up  his 
devotions.'— Addisoh.  Who,  if  we  Include  all  such 
as  show  a  disregard  to  the  outward  observances  of 
religion,  form  a  too  numerous  class:  vrofamt^  and 
impietv  are  however  of  a  still  more  heinous  nature ; 
they  consist  not  in  the  mere  absence  of  regard  for  reU- 
cion,  but  in  a  positive  contempt  of  It  and  open  out- 
rage against  Its  laws ;  Jhe  prof  am  man  treats  what  is 
sacred  as  if  It  were  irr©/«jis ;  ^These  have  caused  the 
weak  to  stumble  and  the  pr^tuu  to  Uaspheme,  oflend- 
ing  the  one  and  hardening  the  other.*— South.  What 
a  believer  holds  ifk  reverence,  and  utters  with  awe,  is 
pronounced  with  an  air  of  indllference  or  levity,  and 
n  a  matter  of  common  discourse,  by  a  vrofama  man ; 
he  knowing  no  difiference  between  sacred  and  profaau; 
but  as  the  former  may  be  converted  into  a  soiuce  of 
scandal  towards  othere:  'Fly,  ye  profane;  if  not, 
draw  near  with  awe.*— Youhu.  The  impiouo  man  is 
direcdy  opposed  to  the  pwu  man ;  the  former  is  Ailed 
with  defiance  and  rebellion  against  his  Maker,  as  the 
lauer  b  with  love  and  ftar;  the  former  curses,  while 
the  latter  prays ;  the  former  b  bloated  with  pride  and 
conceit:  the  latler  b  fuU  of  humility  and  self-abase- 
ment :  we  We  a  picture  of  the  former  in  the  devils, 
and  of  the  latter  in  the  saints.  When  applied  to 
things,  tlie  term  vrrMgioaa  seems  to  be  somewhat 
more  positively  opposed  to  religion :  an  trreluriout 
book  b  not  merely  one  In  which  there  b  no  reiigioni 
but  that  abo  which  b  detrimental  to  religion,  such  as 
skeptical  or  licentious  writinp:  the  profane  in  this 
case  b  not  always  a  term  of  reproach,  but  b  employed 
to  dbUnguish  what  is  eipressly  spiritual  in  its  nature, 
fh>m  that  which  b  temporal :  the  hbtoiy  of  nations  ir 
profane,  as  distinguished  from  the  sacred  history  con- 
tained In  Uie  Bible:  tiic  writings  of  tiie  heathens  are 
altOKCther  profoM  as  dbtingubhed  from  the  moral 
writings  of  Chrbtians.  or  thehelievers  in  Divine  Reve- 
lation.   On  die  other  band,  when  we  speak  of  a  pro- 

regard  to  loven*  vows ;  be  who  deserts  Ms  mMvea  lo 
whom  he  has  pledged  hb  affection  b  a  perjured  man  ; 
Be  gone,  for  ever  leave  tiib  happy  sphere; 
For  perjar*d  lovers  have  no  mansions  here.— Lbb. 
fbrewear  and  perjure  are  Um  acts  of  Indiyiduata  ; 
tnbom,  from  tite  Latin  nbomare,  signiflea  to  make  lo 
forewar :  a  perjured  man  has  ail  the  guUt  upon  him- 
Mlf;  butbewhobM^^riMdsbanahbguUtwltii  tha 

They  were  evbom^d  ; 
Malcolm  and  Donalbaln,  the  king's  two  sou, 
Are  stole  away  and  fled.— Shaukau 

DeviL  in  old  German  tiefel,  Baxon  iSmi^,  Welali 
diafwl\French  diable,  Italian  dianoU,  Dutch  ^f^ 

demon,  in  Latin  dmmon,  Greek  ialpmv,  from  i&m  to 
know,  signifies  one  knowing,  tiiat  b,  having  preter 
natural  knowledge,  and  b  taken  either  in  a  bad  or 
good  sense  for  the  power  that  acb  within  us  and  con- 
uols  our  actions.  ^    ^  ^       -    „ 

Since  Uie  deoU*  b  represented  as  Uie  fkUwr  of  aH 
wickedness,  associations  have  been  connected  with  the 
name  that  render  Its  pronounciation  In  familiar  dis- 
course offensive  to  the  chastened  ear ;  while  demon  b 
a  term  of  Indifferent  application,  that  b  commonly 
substituted  In  Its  stead  to  designate  eitiier  a  good  or  an 

foM  sentiment,  or  a  pr^ama  Joke,  pro/«ju  lips,  and 
the  like,  the  sense  b  personal  and  reproachAil ;  *  No- 
thing is  prof  am*  that  servelh  to  holy  things.- Ralboh. 
tmplone  b  never  applied  but  to  what  b  personal,  and 

evil  spirit,  .  .      ^ 

Among  Jews  and  Christians  tiie  term  dssum  b  taken 
always  in  &  bad  sense;  but  tiie  Greeks  and  Romans 
understood  by  the  word  dmrnim  any  spirit  or  genius 
good  or  evil,  but  particulariy  tiie  good  spirit  or  guardian 
angel,  who  was  supposed  to  accompany  a  man  tmm 
hb  birth.  Socrates  profeased  to  be  always  under  tiie 
direction  of  such  a  dstaon,  and  hb  example  baa  been 
followed  by  other  heatiien  philosophers,  particularly 
those  of  tiie  Platonick  sect  Hence  tiie  use  of  tiieee 
terms  in  ordinary  discourse,  the  deoil  being  alwavs 
considered  as  the  aupernatural  agent,  who,  by  tiie 
S I  divine  p^rmtasion,  actt  on  the  hearts  and  minds  of 
f  men;  bift  a  demon  b  applied  generally  and  indefinitoly 
■  In  tiiesense  of  any  spirit  The  rfeea  ta  said  in  proves 
bial  dl:icourse  to  be  in  such  tilings  as  go  contrary  to 
tiie  wish ;  tiie  demon  of  jealousy  b  said  to  possess  tlie 
mind  tiiat  is  altogether  carried  away  witii  that  passion. 
Men  who  wish  to  have  credit  for  mow  goodnesa  tiiaa 
they  possess,  and  to  throw  tiie  load  of  guilt  off  them- 
selves, attribute  to  tiie  dsvtf  a  perpetual  endeavour  lo 

J>__    •!>»•«    tn*M   (Km     KAmmlaaiAll     nf    ArlnMH ;     '  TIm 

in  the  very  worst  sense ;  an  impunu  thousht,  an  tn»- 
piona  wbh.  or  an  impiona  vow,  are  the  fruits  of  an 

Love's  great  divinity  rashly  maintains 
Weak  wnpwne  war  with  an  immortal  God. 


Forebear  b  Saxon ;  perjwre  b  Latin ;  tiie  preposi- 
tion for  and  per  are  botii  privative,  and  the  words 
signify  literally  to  swear  contrary  to  Uie  tvutii ;  tiib  is, 
however,  not  tiieir  only  dbtinction:  to  farawear  b 
applied  to  all  kinds  of  oatiw ;  to  perjure  b  gnnloyed 
only  for  such  oatiis  as  have  been  administered  by  tiie 

A  soldier  forroear*  himself  who  breaks  hb  oatii  of 
allegiance  by  desertion ;  and  a  subject  foreweare  him- 
self who  takea  an  oatii  of  albgiance  to  hb  M^jerty 
which  he  afterward  violates ; 

False  as  thou  art,  and  more  than  Mae  forsworn! 

Not  sprung  from  noble  blood,  nor  goddess  bom ; 

Why  shoiud  1  own  1  what  worw  have  I  to  fear  1 


A  man  perjuree  himself  in  a  court  of  law  who  sweara 
to  the  truth  of  that  which  he  knows  to  be  fatae;  « The 
common  oath  of  tiie  Scyllilan  was  by  the  sword  and 

tiie  flre,  for  tiiat  tliey  accounted  tiMwe  two  special .  ^ :-■----- 

divine  powers  which  should  wortt  vengeance  on  tiie  |  keretwal  notions, 
ssriursr*.'— SPBiiSBE.    Fbrawear  Is  used  only  in  the 
pfoper  sense:  perjure  may  be  used  flguraUvely  wltii  1 

draw  them  into  the  commiasion  of  crimes; 
enemies  we  are  to  contend  with  are  not  men  but 
d«vt{».'— TiLLOTsoM.  Wherever  the  demon  of  discoid 
has  got  admittance,  there  hi  a  farewell  to  aU  the  com- 
fortt  of  social  life;  '  My  good  demouj  who  sat  at  my 
right  hand  during  the  course  of  thb  whole  viskyn, 
observing  In  me  a  burning  desire  to  loin  that  gloriouB 
company,  told  me  he  highly  approved  of  that  generooB 
ardour  with  which  I  seemed  transported.'— Addison. 

A  heretiek  is  the  maintainer  of  Aeresy  (o.  Hetero- 
dox) ;  the  eekiomatiek  b  the  author  or  promoter  of 
eektem;  the  eeetarian  or  eeetarf  b  the  member  of  a 
sea  ;  tlie  diseenter  b  one  who  diseenta  from  the  esub- 
lishment;  and  the  nonconformist  one  who  does  not 
conform  to  the  establbhment  A  man  b  a  heretiek 
only  for  mattera  of  fhith  and  doctrine,  but  he  Is  a 
echismalUk  in  matters  of  diaclpline  and  practice.  The 
heretiek  therefore  is  not  always  a  schiematick^  nor  the 
sckismatiek  a  heretiek.  Whoever  holds  the  doctrines 
thai  arc  common  to  the  Roman  Oathollnk  and  the 
reformed  Churches,  is  not  a  keretiek  in  the  Protestant 
Ktise  of  the  word ;  altiiough  he  may  in  many  outward 
formalities  be  a  sckismatiek.  The  Calvinbts  are  nnc 
heretickSf  but  they  are  for  the  most  part  sekismaticks  ; 
on  the  other  hand,  there  are  many  membera  of  the 
establishment,  who  hold  though  they  do  not  avow 

•  Vide  Abbe  Girard :  "  Diablo,  demon 


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l:ilOLiBU    aVNONTMES. 


TMhertHek  la  coraldered  as  meh  with  renid  tothe 
Catliolick  Church,  or  the  whole  bodv  of  Christians, 
hoMlnii  the  same  Aindamental  principles;  *When  a 
Papist  uses  the  word  keretUk*  he  generally  means 
Protestants,  when  a  Protestant  uses  the  word,  ho 
generally  means  any  persons  wilfully  and  contentiously 
obstinate  in  flindanienta!  erroors.*— Watts.  But  the 
9€kitmatiek  and  teetarian  are  considered  as  such  with 
regard  tu  particular  established  bodies  of  Christ^s. 
Stkismj  from  the  Greek  cvRm,  to  spilt,  denotes  an 
action,  and  the  tektsmatieflM  an  agent  who  splits  for 
himself  in  his  own  individual  capaci^:  the  teetarian 
does  not  ezprealy  perform  a  pait,  he  merely  holds  a 

he  does  not  divide  any  thing  hhnself,  but 
betoi^  to  that  which  is  already  cut  or  divided.  The 
tekirmuUekf  therefore,  takes  upon  himself  the  whole 
moral  responsibility  of  the  sekiam  ;  but  the  sectarian 
does  not  ncceewarily  lake  an  active  part  In  the  measures 
of  liis  sect ;  whatever  guilt  attaches  to  »cki»m  attaches 
to  the  seAUwtatick ;  he  is  a  voluntary  agent,  who  acts 
ftom  an  enoneous  principle,  if  not  an  unchristian  tem- 
per: the  Mtetariaa  is  often  an  involuntary  agent:  he 
mlfcyws  that  to  which  he  has  been  incidentally  attached. 
It  is  possible,  therefore,  to  be  a  tckumatick,  and  not  a 
'  ■  ;  as  also  to  be  a  »«c(arMm,  and  not  a  Bcku- 
Those  professed  members  of  the  establish- 
ment who  afRxrt  the  title  of  evangelical,  and  wish  to 
palm  upon  the  Church  the  peculiarities  of  the  Calvin- 
Istiek  doctrine,  and  to  ingraft  their  own  modes  and 
forms  hito  its  discipline,  are  tckismaiickM^  but  not  «ae- 
tariaat:  '  The  •ckiswMiicka  disturb  the  sweet  peace 
of  our  Church.*— Hows L.  On  the  other  hand,  tliase 
who  by  birth  and  education  are  attactied  to  a  sui^  are 
BoUarioMt^  but  not  always  »ekiamatick»;  'In  the 
house  of  Sir  Samuel  Luke,  one  of  Cromiveirs  officers, 
Butler  observed  so  much  of  the  character  of  the  ««»- 
tsrtw,  that  he  is  said  to  have  written  or  begun  his  poem 
at  this  time.*— JoHNsoif.  Consequently,  MckiMiaatick 
is  a  term  of  much  greater  reproach  than  Mectaria*. 

The  tckis^iatUk'wad  teetarian  have  a  reference  to 
aay  established  body  of  Christians  of  any  country ; 
but  dissenter  Is  a  term  applicable  only  to  the  inhabil- 
aots  of  Great  Britain,  and  bearlnc  relation  only  to 
the  established  Church  of  England:  it  includes  not 
only  those  who  have  Individually  and  personally  re- 
nounced the  doctrines  of  the  Church,  but  ttiose  who 
are  in  a  state  of  dtssmt  or  dlflbrence  fVom  it.  JOia- 
senters  are  not  necessarily  either  sekiematieke  or  tec- 
tmrioMs^  fbr  British  Roman  Catholicks,  and  the  Presby- 
terians of  Scotland,  are  all  diasenterg^  altliough  they 
are  the  reverse  or  what  is  understood  by  sekuwuUick 
and  sectarian :  It  is  equally  clear  that  all  sckismatieks 
and  eeetariana  are  not  dissenters^  because  every  esta- 
Nlshed  oommnnlty  of  Christians,  all  over  the  world, 
.have  had  Individuals,  or  smaller  bodies  of  individuals, 
aeulng  tiiemselves  up  against  them:  the  term  dis- 
senter belnc  In  a  great  measure  technical.  It  may  be 
appUed  individually  iir  generally  without  conveylnc 
any  idea  of  reproach;  'Of  the  dissenters^  Bwift  did 
not  wish  to  infringe  the  toleration,  but  he  opposed 
their  encroachments.*— Jobhsom.  The  same  may  be 
said  of  nameeitferwust,  which  Is  a  more  special  term, 
tachiding  only  such  as  do  not  cemferm  lo  some  esta- 
blished or  national  religion ;  '  Watts  is  at  least  one  of 
the  few  poelB  wtth  whom  youth  and  ignorance  may  be 
•alUy  pleased;  and  happy  wlU  that  reader  be,  whose 
mind  is  disposed,  \rf  his  verses  or  his  prase,  to  faitltato 

„ .        ,   .  lis  prase,  t 

Wm  in  aH  but  his  MnesyomuCy.*— Johnsoh.  Coo- 
lent^,  all  members  or  the  Romish  Church,  or  of 
_.  Kirk  of  Soodand,  am  eicludad  from  the  number 
of  mamtemSvrmisU;  while,  on  the  other  hand,  afl 
Briiisli-bom  subjects,  not  adhering  to  these  two  forms, 
and  al  the  same  time  ranouneing  the  esubllsbed  A>rm 
•f  their  country,  are  of  this  number,  among  whom  may 
be  reckoned  Independents,  Presbyterians,  Baptists, 
Quakers,  Methodists,  and  all  other  such  setta  as  have 
»cen  formed  since  the  reformallon. 

Ifeecrsdsxy,  from  the  Greek  frvpof  and  M(iy.  slgnlfles 
amcher  or  a  dlibrent  doctrine ;  Asrsty,  from  the  Greek 
4i^mi  a  choice,  slgnlllaB  an  opbion  adopted  by  indlvi- 

•  To  be  of  a  dUfereat  penuaakm  Is  keterodexf;  to 
•  Vide  RoubMd :  *«  H^i^ne,  hA^rodon.** 

have  a  (kith  of  one's  own  is  keresw;  the  kateredexf 
characterizes  the  opinions  formed ;  the  keresf  cbarac- 
teriaes  tlie  bidivklual  forming  the  opinion:  the  kete- 
redsxjf  exists  independently  and  for  itself;  '  All  wrong 
notions  in  religion  are  ranked  under  the  general  name 
of  A«terMi»a;.*— GoLSUfo.  Ttie  Asresy  sets  itself  up 
against  others;  ' ifeCeredsxtes,  fUse  doctrines,  yea, 
and  kerseiest  may  be  propagated  by  prayer  as  well  as 
preaching.'— Bull.  As  all  division  supposes  emxir 
eitlier  on  one  side  or  on  both,  the  woras  ketsredoxy 
and  Asrcsy  are  applied  only  to  Imman  opinions,  aiiU 
strictly  in  the  sense  of  a  false  opinkin,  formed  in  di»> 
tinctloa  (Vom  that  which  is  better  founded;  but  iha 
former  respects  any  optaiions,  important  or  otlmrwise ; 
the  latter  refoia  only  to  matten  of  Importance:  the 
Jhsresy  is  therefore  a  fundamental  errour.  There  has 
been  much  Astcrodsacy  in  the  Christian  world  at  all 
times,  and  among  tltae  have  been  kereeies  deuyuig 
the  plainest  and  most  sertous  truths  which  have  been 
acknowledged  by  the  great  body  of  Christiana  siuoa 
the  Apostles. 


An  these  terras  express  some  token  or  sign  of  what 
b  to  come ;  smmh,  in  Latin  mmh,  probably  comes  (h>m 
the  Greek  oSoiuu  to  think,  because  It  Is  what  gives 
rise  to  much  conjecture;  frognostick^  In  Greek  *piry 
v^t^utkvi  IVom  «yM>xv49KM,  to  know  before,  sicnifles  the 
sign  by  wiilch  one  Judges  a  thing  before  hand,  because 
a  prognesUck  is  rather  a  deduction  by  the  use  of  tlia 
understanding ;  the  presage  Is  tJie  sentlmem  of  pro- 
saanngy  or  the  thing  by  which  one  presages. 

The  omen  nndnrognastwk  are  both  drawn  fSrom  ex- 
ternal objects ;  tne  presage  Is  drawn  from  one*s  own 
feelings.  The  emen  is  drawn  from  objects  that  have 
no  necessary  connexion  with  the  thing  they  are  made 
to  represent;  it  is  the  Ihiit  of  the  fanagination,  and 
rests  on  superstition :  the  pregnasOeky  on  the  contrary, 
Is  a  sign  which  partakes  In  some  degree  of  the  quality 
of  the  thing  denoted.  Omens  were  drawn  by  tlie 
heathens  from  the  flight  of  birds,  or  the  entrails  of 
beasts;  'Aves  dant  omina  dira.'— TiBOu.hs.  And 
oftentimes  ftom  diffierent  incidents;  thus  Ulysses, 
when  landed  on  his  naUve  island,  prayed  to  Jupiter 
that  he  would  give  him  a  double  sion  by  which  he 
might  know  that  he  should  be  permitted  to  slay  the 
suitors  of  his  wifo ;  and  when  he  heard  the  thunder, 
and  saw  a  maiden  supplicating  the  gods  in  tlie  temple, 
he  took  these  for  emens  that  he  should  immediately 
proceed  lo  put  in  execution  his  design;  the  omen  was 
therefore  considered  as  a  supernatural  sign  sent  for  a 
particular  purpose;  'A  signal  omen  stopp'd  the  passing 
hosL*- Pops.  Pregnostieks^  on  the  other  hand,  are 
discovered  only  bv  an  acquaintance  with  tin  objects 
in  which  they  exisl,  as  the  pregnostieks  of  a  mortal 
disease  are  known  to  none  so  well  as  the  physician ; 
the  vregnasticks  of  a  slorm  or  tempest  are  best  known 
to  the  mariner; 

Though  ywiT  pregnostieks  ran  too  fost. 
They  must  be  verified  at  lasL— Bwirr. 
In  an  extended  sense,  the  word  «mni  is  also  applied  to 
objects  whk:h  serve  as  a  sign,  or  enable  a  person 
to  draw  a  rational  inference,  which  brings  It  nearer  in 
sense  to  the  prognostiek  and  the  presage:  but  the 
Mwn  may  be  used  of  that  which  Is  either  good  or  bad, 
the  prognostiek  mostly  of  that  which  Is  bad.  It  is 
an  omen  of  our  success,  If  we  find  those  of  whom  wo 
have  to  ask  a  fovour  in  a  good  humour;  '  Hammond 
would  steal  ftnm  his  fellows  into  places  of  his  privacv, 
there  to  say  his  prayers,  omens  of  his  fUture  paclAc 
temper  and  eminent  devotion.'— Fell.  The  spirit  of 
discontent  which  pervades  the  countenances  and  di»- 
coune  of  a  people  is  a  proinestiek  of  some  popular 

CSanftil  observefi 

BjmmprognostlekM  may  foretell  a  shower.— Swirr. 
Fresage,  when  signifying  a  sentiment,  is  commonly 
applied  to  what  Is  unAivourable ;  '  I  know  but  one  way 
of  fortifying  my  soul  against  these  gloomy  presages 
that  is,  by  securing  to  myself  the  protection  of  that 
Being  who  disposes  of  events.'— Addisom.  But  when 
taken  for  that  oy  which  oo»  presages^  it  is  understood 
favourably,  or  in  an  indlflbrent  sense.  The  quickness 
of  powers  discoverable  in  a  boy  is  sometimei  a  ^rs- 
sage  of  his  ftiture  grra  jmsb; 


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Oars  Joy  fllfd,  and  liioat 
^*r9§f  ot  ▼Ictory.-'Mu.TOif. 


Augmr^  in  French  0iiigwt9r^  Latin  ammmwmy 
*roin  ai>i$  a  bird,  as  an  myitry  v<^aa  origlnaliy,  and  at 
dl  liinea,  principally  drawn  fkora  tiM  aong,  the  flight, 
or  other  actions  oC  Urda.  The  amgwrium  of  the 
Laiina,  and  the  oiAncaa  of  the  Orcein,  was  a  ipeGlei 
of  diyinaiton  practlaed  by  the  vkgw^  who  proftsMd 
to  foretell  eventi,  either  from  the  heavenly  phenomena, 
from  the  chattering  or  flight  of  birds,  from  the  sacred 
thickens,  according  to  the  manner  of  their  eating  their 
neat ;  from  quadrupeds,  such  as  wolves,  foxes,  goats, 
^tc ;  or,  lasliv,  from  what  they  called  the  dtr«,  or  the 
accidents  which  befell  persons,  as  sneezing,  stumbling, 
spilling  salt,  or  meeUng  partlcaiar  ofajecls ;  whence  by 
a  natural  extension  In  the  meaning  of  the  term,  it  has 
been  used  to  signify  any  conjecture  respecting  futurity. 
Pr9»ag9y  in  French  jprtfsoM,  from  the  Latin  frtt  and 
9agio  to  be  Instinctively  wise,  signifies  to  be  thus  wise 
about  what  Is  to  come ;  farAoie  is  compounded  of 
Jorty  and  the  Baxon  koiian^  and  the  English  itd,  to 
odTer  or  to  declare,  signifying  to  pronounce  on  (\itonty ; 
betoken  signifies  to  serve  as  a  token ;  portend.  In  Latin 
jrortendo,  corapoanded  of  por  for  pro  and  Undo^  signi- 
fies to  set  or  show  forth. 

To  aufur  signifies  either  to  serve  or  make  use  of  as 
an  augury ;  to  forbade  and  preeage  is  to  form  a  con- 
clusion in  one's  own  mind :  to  betoken  or  portend  is  to 
serve  as  a  sign.  Pereons  or  things  augur  or  presage : 
penmns  tuAy  forebode ;  iMnffi  only  betoken  or  portni. 
'4ngmru»jr  la  a  calcalatioii  of  some  ftitura  event.  In 
wh ich  the  imagination  seems  to  s  much  concerned 
as  the  understanding :  presaging  athcr  a  conclusion 
or  deduction  of  what  mav  be  fh)m  what  is ;  it  lies  in 
the  uiideriUndlng  more  than  In  the  Imagination :  fore- 
boding lies  altogether  in  the  Imagination.  Thinp  are 
said  to  brtoken,  which  present  natural  signs ;  those  are 
said  to  poriendt  which  preseiit  extraordinary  or  super- 
oatural  signs. 

It  augurs  111  for  the  prosperity  of  a  country  or  a 
state  when  Its  wealth  has  increased  so  as  to  take  away 
the  ordinary  sdmnlus  to  industry,  and  to  introduce  an 
inordinate  love  of  pleasore;  *  There  Is  always  an 
OMgurf  to  be  taken  of  what  a  peace  Is  likely  to  be, 
from  the  prellmfaiary  steps  that  are  made  to  bring  It 
about.*—  Bdrkb.  We  presage  the  fhture  greatness  of 
a  man  from  the  indications  which  he  gives  of  possess- 
ing an  elevated  character;  *■  An  opinion  has  been  k>ng 
conceived,  that  quieknen  of  invention,  accuracy  or 
Judgement,  or  extent  of  knowledge,  appearing  before 
the  usual  time,  presage  a  short  llfb.'— Johnson.  A 
distempered  mind  Is 9pL\a  forebode  every  ill  from  the 
most  trivial  cireumsunces ;  *  What  conscience  fere- 
bodesf  revelation  verifies,  assuring  us  that  a  day  fa  ap- 
pointed when  God  will  render  to  every  man  according 
to  his  works.*— Blme.  We  see  with  pleasure  those 
actions  in  a  child  which  betoken  an  Ingenuous  temper; 

All  more  than  common  menaces  an  end : 

A  blaze  batokens  brevity  of  life. 

As  IT  bright  embera  should  emit  a  flame.—YoONO. 
A  mariner  sees  with  pain  the  darkness  of  the  sky 
which  p(9rCinu<«  a  storm ; 

Bkiird  in  the  wing*d  inhabitants  of  the  air, 

What  auspices  thei^  notes  and  flights  declare 

O !  say— for  all  religious  rites  portond 

A  happy  voyage  and  a  prosp*rous  end.— Drtobt 
The  moralist  augurs  no  good  to  the  morals  of  a  nation 
fkom  the  lax  discipline  which  prevalla  in  tlie  education 
of  youth ;  he  presages  the  loss  of  independence  to 

idea  of  a  verbal  eommttnlcatk>n  of  flitaniy  to  t 
vrognosticaUy  from  the  Greek  spoytviioiKw  to  I  ^ 
beforehand,  to  bode  or  imacine  lo  one's  self  befovt 
hand,  denotes  the  action  of  leeling  rather  than  speov 
ing  af  things  to  come. 

Fhrttell  is  the  most  general  in  Itssense,  and  fomiliar 
In  its  application ;  yieforeUU  common  events ;  we  may 
predict  that  which  Is  common  or  uncommon ;  propha- 
eUs  are  for  the  most  part  impoitant ;  foretelling  is  an 
ordinary  gitt;  one  foreuOs  by  a  almple  calculation  or 
Above  the  rest,  tlie  sun,  who  navw  lies 
ForotelU  the  change  of  weailier  in  the  ikies. 


To  vredUt  and  prophesf  are  extraordinary  gifts ;  ona 
vredieU  either  by  a  supniour  degree  of  inielligence,  o« 
by  a  supernatural  power  real  or  supposed  ;  '  The  con- 
sequences of  suflisring  tile  French  to  establish  them* 
selves  in  Scotland,  are  predicted  with  great  accuracv 
and  discernment.*— RoBBRTsoN.  *  In  Christ  they  au 
meet  with  on  invincible  evidence,  as  If  they  wore  not 
predictions,  but  after  relations ;  and  the  penmen  of 
them  not  prophets,  but  evangelists.*— South.  One 
propkesies  oy  means  of  inspiration  real  or  supposed ; 
An  ancient  augur  ^ropAssi^d  fVom  hence, 
**  Behold  on  Latian  shores  a  foreign  prince  !** 

Men  of  discernment  and  experience  easily  foretell  the 
events  of  undertakings  which  fall  under  their  notice. 
The  priests  among  the  heathens,  like  the  astrologera 
and  conjurers  of  more  modern  times,  pretended  to  pro- 
diet  events  that  effected  nations  and  empires.  The 
gift  of  prophecy  was  one  among  the  number  of  the 
supernatura!  gifts  communicated  to  the  primitive 
Christians  by  the  Holy  Ghost.  '  No  arguments  made 
a  stronser  iniprcaslon  on  these  Pagan  converts,  th^. 
Uie  predictions  relating  to  our  Saviour,  in  those  old 
propbetick  writings  deposited  among  the  hands  of  the 
greatest  enemies  to  Christianity.'— Aodisom. 

Prediction  as  a  noun  is  employed  for  both  the  verba 
foretell  and  predict ;  it  b  therefore  a  term  of  less  value 
than  prophecy.  We  speak  of  a  prediction  being  veri- 
fied, and  a  prophecy  fulfilled :  the  predictions  of  alma- 
nack-makers respecting  the  weather  are  as  seldom 
verified  as  the  prophecies  of  visionaries  and  enthusiasts 
are  fulfilled  respecUng  the  death  of  princes  or  the 
affairs  of  goveniments.  To  prognosticate  is  nn  act  of 
the  understanding;  it  is  guided  by  outward  symptoms 
as  a  rule ;  it  is  only  stimulated  and  not  guided  by  out 
ward  objects ;  a  physician  prognosticates  the  crisis  of 
a  disorder  by  the  symptoms  discoverable  in  the  patient^ 
^  Who  that  should  view  the  small  beginnings  of  some 
persons  could  imagine  nt  pivgnosticaU  Ukkm:  vast  in 
creases  of  fortune  that  havo  afterward  folk)  wed  them 
— Soirm. 

the  minda  of  men  bi  whom  proper  principles  of  subor- 
dination have  not  been  early  eagemiered.  Men  some- 
times/orsftods  the  mfafortanes  which  happen  to  them, 
but  thef  ofteaer  forebode  evils  wlUch  never  come. 



Conjecture,  in  French  eo^eetisre,  Latin  eoniecturm 
from  eonjicio  or  con  and^'scts  to  throw  togniher,  sig- 
nifies the  thing  put  together  or  framed  in  the  mind 
without  design  or  foundation ;  supposition,  In  French 
supposition,  fVom  suppono,  compounded  of  sub  and 
pons  to  put  hi  the  place  of  a  thing,  signifies  to  *^ 
one's  thoughts  In  the  place  of  reality;  surmise,  a: 
pounded  of  sur  or  sub  and  miscj  Latin  missus  pa 
ciple  of  sittts  to  send  or  put  forth,  has  an  origlne 
meaning  similar  to  the  foraier. 
i     AU  these  terms  convey  an  idea  of  somefhlng  In  the 
mind  independent  of  the  reality;  bat  eonjeetvre  le 
founded  less  on  rational  inference  than  siip^o«fe>sii; 
and  surmise  less  than  either ;  any  circumstance,  how- 
ever trivial,  may  give  rise  to  a  eonjeeture  ;  some  rea 
sons  are  reouisite  to prodnee  a  supposition:  a  parti- 
cular state  of  fbellngor  train  of  thinking  may  of  itself 
create  a  raneus. 

Although  the  seme  epithets  are  generally  applicable 
toaU  these  tenna,  yet  we  may  with  propriety  say  thai 

a  eoMoetwro  is  idle;  a  ,  '  '      ^* 


T6  forotstt,  componnded  effort  and  tsU  ;  projittf 
from  prm  and  dieo;  prophesy,  in  French  pnmhsUser, 
LaUn  prephaiso,  Greek  «o0ffrc^<»,  all  signify  to  tell, 
expound,  or  declare  what  k  to  happen,  and  convey  the 

su^tHiom^  fhise ;  a  svranss 

Coi^eetmres  are  emptoyed  on  eventa,  their  causftL 
conseqoenees,  and  eontingendes ;  *In  the  casting  of' 
lots,  a  man  cannot,  upon  any  inmnd  of  reason,  bring 
the  event  so  much  as  under  esi^sefairs.*— South.  Sup- 
positiou  Is  concerned  in  speculative  points;  '  Thia  ia 


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otSf  m  inlUlibllftT  «pon  oyf— fttow,  tJiM  If  a  thing 
M  true  it  is  ImpoMlhle  to  be  felse.*— TiLLoraoN .  Sur- 
wtite  M  employtHl  <m  pcnonal  coneerm;  *  To  let  go 
priT«ie  tmrwdteM  whereby  the  thing  la  not  made  betier 
or  worae;  if  |uat  and  aUowabte  reasooa  might  lead 
tkem  lo  do  ae  they  did,  then  are  tbne  cenMirea  frua- 
trate.*— Ho  >utR.  The  wcret  measurea  of  government 
^ve  riM  to  varioascMyectere*;  all  the  tufpositionM 
which  are  formed  respecting  couiels  teem  at  present  to 
faU  ahort  of  the  truth :  the  behaviour  of  a  perwn  will 
often  occasion  a  gvrmut  respecting  his  intentions  and 
proceedings,  let  them  be  ever  so  «usguised.  Antioua- 
rians  and  etyoMtloglsts  deal  much  in  eonjeUuret ;  they 
have  ample  acope  aflbrded  them  for  asserting  what  can 
be  neither  proved  nor  denied;  'Persons  of  studious 
and  contemplative  natures  often  entertain  themselves 
with  the  history  of  past  ages,  or  raise  schemes  and  esa- 
jtcturt*  upon  Aituriiy.*— AnmsoK.  Religionists  are 
pleased  to  build  many  sufposititma  of  a  doctrinal  na- 
ture on  tbeSciiptures,  or,  more  properly,  on  their  own 
mrtlal  and  forced  interpretations  of  the  Scriptures ; 
*Even  in  that  part  which  we  have  of  liie  Journey  to 
Canterbury,  It  will  be  necessary,  in  the  following  Re- 
view of  Chaucer,  to  take  notice  of  certain  defects  and 

mconsistencies,  which  can  onlv  be  accounted  for  upon 
the  tmfmotiiUn  that  the  work  was  never  finished  by 
the  antnor.*— Ttrwuitt.    It  is  the  part  of  prudence, 

as  well  as  Justice,  not  to>ezpress  any  turmises  which 
we  may  entertain,  either  as  to  the  character  or  conduct 
of  otliers,  which  may  not  redound  to  their  credit ; 
*■  Anv  the  least  surmist  of  neglect  has  raised  an  aver- 
akm  in  one  man  to  another.'— South. 


Cn^eetmringy  In  the  same  sense  as  before  (vide  r«ii 
fsctere),  la  nearly  allied  to  guessing  and  divining . 
gn£*Sj  in  Saxon  and  Low  German  /ts««ii,  is  connected 
with  the  word  ghast^  and  the  German  /etst,  &c.  spirit, 
signifying  the  aclMMiof  a  spirit ;  itnmie,  from  the  Ladn 
HviumM  and  Dem»  a  God.  signifies  to  ihink  and  know 
MS  independently  as  a  God. 

We  eamJMtmrt  that  which  may  be;  *  When  we  look 
Dpon  such  things  as  equally  may  or  may  not  be,  humaa 
reason  can  then,  at  tlie  best,  but  eonjectnre  what  will 
he.*— South,  we  ^imss  that  a  thing  actually  b  or 

Incapable  and  shallow  Innocents ! 

You  caaiioC  giusa  who  caused  your  fhther*s  death. 
Wecamjeeturt  at  the  meaning  of  a  person's  actions; 
ire  gmtM  that  it  Is  a  certain  hour.    Tlie  cm^eetnring 
is  opposed  to  the  flill  conviction  of  a  thing ;  the  gnut- 
ntg  is  opposed  to  the  certain  knowledge  of  a  thUig ; 

And  these  discoveries  make  v»  all  confess 
Thai  sublunary  science  Is  bai  guess. —DmnukJi, 

A  cMld  gusBsts  at  that  portion  of  his  lesson  which  he 
has  not  properly  learned;  a  fancifUl  person  employs 
es/^jednrs  where  he  cannot  draw  any  positive  con- 


I>SH*C,  la  French  dsatsr,  Latin  dmbito  from  dirWas, 
conies  fh>m  M«  and  i»6vaCis,  in  the  same  manner  as 
our  frequentative  dsubt^  signifying  to  have  two  opin- 
ions ;  question^  In  Latin  qumshSt  trom  ptmrOf  to  inqniie, 
signifies  Y>  maike  a  question  or  inquiry :  dispute,  fiom 
the  Latin  dispute^  or  du  asunder  and  irate  to  think,  sig 
nifies  literally  to  think  differently. 

Titese  terms  czprcfs  the  act  of  the  mind  In  staving 
lis  decision.  The  dcubt  lies  altogether  in  the  mind ;  ft 
is  a  less  active  feeling  than  questunung  or  dinmxti^ : 
by  the  former  we  merely  auapend  deciaion ;  by  the  latter 
we  aetuaify  demand  prooft  In  order  to  assist  us  lA  de- 

ciding.   We  may  dambi  In  silence ;  we  cannot  s«e«tt«« 
or  dispuU  without  expressing  It  directly  or  indirectly. 
He  who  siisitests  doubts  does  It  with  caution ;  bt 

To  gmsss  and  es^^eeturs  both  Imply,  for  the  most 
part,  the  Judging  or  forming  an  opinion  without  any 
grounds;  Sot  sometimes  they  are  used  for  a  Judgement 
on  some  grounds ;  *  One  may  ^ess  by  Plato^s  writinps, 
thai  bla  meaning  as  to  the  Inferiour  deities,  was,  thai 
ibey  who  wookl  nave  them  might,  and  they  who  would 
not  might  leave  them  akme;  Imt  that  himself  had  a 
rigbc  <^uloD  cooeerahog  the  tiae  God.*— Stilumo- 

Now  iKar  the  Grecian  fVaud,  and  from  this  one 
Csmjeetmts  all  the  rest— Detoim. 
To  guess  and  e^njseturs  are  the  natural  acta  of  the 
■rind:  dvrtas.  Id  Its  proper  sense,  is  a  supemataral  act; 
ia  tUs  aenae  the  bettfaens  Uftcted  lo  dtetas  that  which 
WHS  known  only  to  an  Omniscient  Being;  and  Impoa- 
tava  in  oor  iIbm  piesuHie  lodMas  in  mattera  that  are 
act  abova  the  reach  of  Iranian  comprehension.  The 
MfHi  ia  huwow  employed  to  denote  a  speciesof  ptsss- 

Walklag  Ibey  talk*d,  and  ftHhlenriy  «vm*d 
What  fHcod  fHa  pilMM  fey  tlwae  woffda  designU 


who  makes  a  questisn  throws  in  dUSculties  with  a 
degree  of  confidence.  Doubts  Inalnoale  themselves 
into  the  mind  oAentimea  involuntarily  on  the  part  of  the 
doubter;  ouestions  are  always  made  with  an  express 
design.  We  doubt  In  matters  of  general  interett,  on 
abstruse  as  well  as  common  subjects,  we  question 
mostly  In  ordinary  matters  that  are  of  a  personal  into* 
rest ;  disputing  is  no  less  penonal  than  questioning,  but 
the  diiipuie  respects  the  opinions  or  assertions  of 
another ;  the  question  respeois  his  moral  character  or 
qualities;  we  dovAt  tlic  truth  of  a  position ;  '  For  my 
(tart  I  think  the  being  ofa  God  is  so  little  to  be  doubted, 
tliat  I  tliink  it  is  almost  the  only  truth  we  are  sure  of.* 
— AoDisoK.  We  question  the  veradty  of  an  author; 
Our  business  in  the  field  of  fight 

Is  not  to  question  J  but  to  prove  our  mighL->Pom. 
The  existence  of  mermaids  was  doubted  for  a  great 
length  of  time ;  but  tlie  testimonv  of  creditable  pereona, 
who  have  lately  seen  them,  ought  now  to  put  it  out  of 
all  doubL    VVhcii  tlie  practicability  of  any  plan  is  ques- 
tioned, it  is  unnecessary  to  enter  any  farther  into  Ita 
merits.    When  the  nulhorltv  of  the  person  is  disputed 
it  Is  In  vain  for  him  to  offer  his  advice  or  opinion; 
Now  I  am  sent,  and  am  not  to  dispute 
My  prince's  orders,  but  lo  execute. 

The  doubt  is  frequently  confined  to  the  individual, 
the  questton  and  dispute  frequently  respect  others. 
We  doubt  whether  we  shall  be  able  to  succeed;  we 
question  another's  right  to  interfere ;  we  dispuU  a  per 
son's  claim  (o  any  honour ;  we  doubt  whether  a  thing 
will  answer  the  end  proposed;  we  question  the  utility 
of  any  one  making  the  attempt ;  we  depute  the  Justice 
of  any  legal  sentence;  In  thia  application  of  the  terms 
question  and  dispuU^  tlie  former  expresses  a  less  deci- 
sive feeling  and  actk>n  than  the  latter. 

Tliere  are  many  doubtful  eases  in  medicine,  where 
the  physician  is  at  a  toss  to  decide;  there  are  many 
questionable  measures  proposed  by  those  who  are  In  or 
out  of  power  which  demand  consideration.  There  are 
many  disputable  points  between  man  and  man  which 
cause  much  angry  feeling  mid  disposition;  to  doubt 
every  thing  is  nK)re  Inimical  to  the  cause  of  truth,  than 
the  readiness  to  believe  every  thlm ;  a  disposition  to 
qnestton  whatever  is  said  or  done  by  others,  is  much 
more  calculated  to  give  offence  than  to  prevent  decep- 
tion. A  disposition  to  dispute  every  thing  another  saya 
or  does  renders  a  person  very  unfit  to  be  dealt  with. 

The  doubt  respects  that  which  we  should  believe ;  the 
suspensty  ftom  the  Latin  suspeusus  and  suspendeo  to 
hang  upon,  has  regard  to  that  which  we  wish  to  know 
or  ascertain.  Wc  are  in  doubt  for  the  want  of  evi- 
dence; we  are  in  euspenee  for  the  want  of  certainty. 
The  doubt  interrupts  our  nrogress  In  the  attainment  of 
truth;  'Could  anv  difl9culty  have  been  proposed,  the 
resolution  would  have  been  as  early  as  the  proposal ;  It 
could  not  have  had  time  to  settle  Into  doubt.*— Soxrm, 
The  suspense  Impedes  us  In  the  attainment  of  our 
objecta,  or  In  our  motives  to  action :  the  former  Is  con- 
nected principally  with  the  nndentanding ;  the  latter 
acts  upon  the  hopes;  it  is  (Veouenily  a  state  between 
hope  bjmI  fear.  We  have  our  dsaks  about  things  that 
have  DO  regard  to  time ;  '  Gold  la  a  wonderful  clearer 
of  lira  undeiatanding;  it  dissipates  every  doubt  and 
scruple  In  an  instant'— Addisoh.  We  are  in  suspenM 
about  things  that  are  to  happen  in  ftitnre,  or  that  are 
aboot  to  be  done;  *Tbe  bundle  of  hay  on  elUier  tide 


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■triking  hli  (the  •«*•)  lUit  mai  tauU  in  the  game  pro- 
poriioti,  would  keep  him  To  perpetual  tuapatat." — Aodi- 
■ON.  Tboee  are  tae  least  Inclined  to  donht  who  have 
tte  most  thorouch  knowledge  of  a  aubjeet ;  thoae  are 
tlie  leaat  exponed  to  the  unpleaaant  feeling  of  «iuf  «iim 
who  confine  iheir  wlahea  to  the  pment; 
Ten  daya  the  prophet  In  aiupaue  remain^, 
Would  no  man*B  fate  pronounce ;  at  last  cooatrain'd 

Would  no  man*!  fate  pronounce ; 
TW  Ithacua,  he  solemnly  design'd 
Me  for  the  aacrlilce— Detokm. 

The  dnbtf^  admits  of  doubt  (v.  Davbi^  mupnu*): 
the  dmikmu  creates  suspense.    The  doubtful  Is  said  of 
tilings  in  which  we  are  required  to  tiaye  an  opinion ; 
the  ^hMmm  respeeia  erenta  and  thlnjis  that  must  speak 
iw  tlitimselvea.    In  dtimblfMl  cases  it  is  adviseable  for 
a  judge  to  lean  to  the  aide  of  mercy ;  *  In  handling  the 
right  of  war,  I  am  not  willing  to  intermix  matter 
dowbtful  with  that  which  b  out  of  tfovAC— Bacon. 
While  the  issue  of  a  contest  Is  duhwtUt  all  Judgement 
of  the  parties,  or  of  the  ease,   must  be  carefUlly 
avoided ; 
His  utmost  pow*r,  with  adverse  power  oppoa*d 
In  dubi0iu  battle  on  the  plains  of  heav*n.  . 

ft  is  worthy  of  remark,  however,  that  doubtfu*  and 
dubiou*y  being  both  derivations  fh>m  the  same  Latin 
word«  dubit0  and  dubius^  are  or  may  be  indlflerently 
used  in  many  instances,  according  as  it  may  suit  the 
verse  or  otherwise; 
The  Greeks  with  slain  TIepolemus  relir'd. 
Whose  fall  Ulysses  view'd  with  Airy  nr*d ; 
Doubtful  if  Jove^s  great  son  he  should  imrrae. 
Or  pour  his  vengeance  on  ttie  Lycian  crew.— Pops. 
At  the  k)wer  end  of  the  room  is  to  be  a  side-table  for 
perKins  of  great  fame,  but  dmbioug  existence ,  such  as 
Hercules,  Theseus,   iEneas,   Achilles,  Hector,  aud 
others.'— Swift. 
Doubtful  and  dubtvu*  have  always  a  relation  to  the 

person  forming  the  opinion  on  the  subject  in  auestk>n ; 
uneertMn  and  DrseanVnw  are  epithets  which  designate 
tlie  qualities  of  the  thinp  themselves.    Whatever  is 

unceruin  may  flrom  that  very  circumstance  be  doubt- 
ful or  dubious  to  those  who  attempt  to  determine  upon 
them  ;  but  they  may  bednaignated  for  their  Kiic«r(aiiit|r 
without  any  regard  to  the  opinions  which  they  may 
give  rise  to. 

A  person's  coming  may  hedoub^ul  mumeertain; 
the  length  of  bis  stay  is  otlener  described  as  uneertaiM 
than  as  doubtful.  The  dwbtful  is  opposed  to  thai  on 
which  we  form  a  positive  conclusion ;  tlie  nneortain 
to  that  which  is  definite  or  prescribed.  The  efiicacy 
of  any  medicine  is  isa^^ni;  the  manner  of  its  opera- 
tion may^  be  inwcrfam.  While  our  knowledge-is  hmit- 
ed,  we  iii'ust  expect  to  meet  with  many  thiiim  that  are 
doubtful ;  '  In  dovibtful  cases  reiUK>n  still  determines 
for  the  safijrslde;  especially  if  tlie  case  be  not  only 
doubtful,  but  also  highly  concerning,  and  ttie  venture 
be  a  soul,  and  an  eternity.*— South.  As  every  thing 
in  the  world  is  exposed  to  change,  and  all  that  a  future 
Is  eiiiirelv  above  our  control,  we  must  naturally  ex- 
pect to  find  every  thing  wicsrtsra,  but  what  we  see 
passhig  before  us ; 

Near  old  Antandroa,  and  at  Ida's  foot, 
1  he  timber  of  the  sacred  grove  we  cut 
^  nd  bulM  our  fleet,  tmesrto^n  yet  to  find 
What  plaee  the  gods  for  our  repoae  assign'd. 

Preeariout,  from  the  Latin  proemriu*  and  prteor  to 
pmy,  signifies  granted  to  entreaty,  depending  on  the 
will  or  humour  of  another,  wlience  It  is  applicable  to 
whatever  is  obtained  from  others.  PrteariouM  is  the 
highest  species  of  uncertainty,  applied  to  such  things  as 
depend  on  future  casualties  in  opposition  to  that 
whith  Is  fixed  and  determined  by  design.  T^e  wea- 
ther Is  unetrtnin ;  the  subsistence  of  a  person  who  has 
DO  stated  Income  or  source  of  living  must  be  preea- 
riouo.  his  umeortam  what  day  a  thing  may  take 
place,  until  it  Is  determined ;  'Man,  without  the  pn>- 
teedcm  of  a  supoiour  Being,  Is  secure  of  nothing  that 

be  enj<iya,  and  mmurUim  of  every  Ihtng  be  hopea  for. 
— TiLLOTsoif .  There  is  notliing  more  proearioms  than 
what  depends  upon  the  flavour  of  atatesmen ;  '  The 
frequent  disappuinUDents  incident  to  hunthig  Induced 
men  to  estabUah  a  permanent  nroperty  in  their  flocka 
and  herda,  in  order  to  sustain  uemaeives  in  a  leas  j^rs 
eartsiu  manner.*— B&ukCUXoaB. 

The  cbmur,  the  isa^t,  and  the  keoitatioH  are  here 
employed  in  the  sense  either  of  what  causes  domur, 
daubtt  and  heoitationf  or  of  the  slates  of  mind  them- 
selves ;  the  objection^  fVom  obiUiOy  or  ob  and  Jmcio  to 
throw  in  the  way,  signifies  wnat  is  thrown  In  the  way 
so  as  to  stop  our  progress. 

Demur*  are  often  in  matters  of  deliberation ;  doubt 
in  regard  to  matters  of  Aiet;  kooitation  ia  matters  of 
ordinary  conduct ;  and  oloeetien*  in  matters  of  common 
consideration.  It  Is  the  business  of  one  who  givea 
counsel  to  make  demmro;  It  is  the  business  of  the  in- 
quirer to  suggest  doubto ;  It  is  tlie  business  of  all  occa- 
sionally to  make  a  ktoiuuion  who  are  called  upon  to 
decide ;  it  Is  the  business  of  thoae  to  make  oHectiono 
whose  opinion  Is  consulted.  Artabanes  maoe  many 
domuroto  the  proposed  invasion  of  Greece  by  Xerxes* 
'  Certainly  the  highest  and  dearest  concerns  of  a  tem- 
poral life  %re  inflnltely  leas  valuable  than  those  of  an 
eternal ;  hitd  consequently  ought,  without  any  domur 
at  all,  to  be  sacrificed  to  them  whenever  they  come  In 
competition  with  them.*— South.  Doubts  have  been 
suggested  respecting  the  veracity  of  Herodotus  as  an 
hbtorian ; 

Our  doubts  are  traitors, 
And  make  as  lose,  by  fearing  to  attempt 
The  good  we  oft  might  win.— SBAEapKABX. 
It  Is  not  proper  to  ask  that  which  cannot  be  granted 
without  kesitution:  'A  spirit  of  revenge  makes  him 
curse  the  Grecians  in  the  seventh  book,  when  they 
kesitato  to  accept  Hector's  challeiige.*— Pops.    And 
it  is  not  the  part  of  an  amiable  disposition  to  make  a 
hesitation  in  complying  with  a  reasonable  request: 
there  arc  but  fow  things  which  we  either  attempt  to  do 
or  recommend  to  others  that  b  not  UaUe  to  some  kind 
of  an  objtction. 

A  demur  stops  the  adjustment  of  any  plan  or  Iba 
determination  of  any  question : 

But  with  njolnders  and  replies. 
Long  bills,  and  answers  stuff*d  with  llei^ 
Demur^  Imparlance,  and  assoign, 
The  parties  ne'er  couki  Issue  ^.— Swirr 
A  doubt  intemipts  the  progress  of  the  mind  in  coming 
to  a  stale  of  satbfhctlon  and  certainty:  they  are  both 
applied  to  abstract  questions  or  such  as  are  of  general 
interest ;   'This  akepttcal  proceeding  will  make  every 
sort  of  reasoning  on  every  subject  vain  and  fHvolous, 
even  that  skeptical  rgaaoning  itself  which  has  per-, 
suaded  us  to  entertain  a  dsubt  concerning  tlie  agree- 
ment of  our  perceptions.'- BuaKK. 

ffesitution  and  objection  are  more  individual  and 
private  in  tiieir  nature.  Hesitation  lies  mostly  in  the 
state  of  the  will ;  oljoetion  b  rather  the  ofiSiprlng  of 
the  understanding.  The  hrsita^on  interferes  with 
the  action ;  '  If  every  man  were  wise  and  virtuoua^ 
capabre  to  discern  the  best  use  of  time  and  resolute  ti» 
practise  it,  it  might  be  granted,  I  think,  without  kesita- 
Cu«,that  total  liberty  would  be  a  blessing.*— Johnson. 
Tlie  ohjoetion  aflecti  the  measure  or  the  mode  of  ac 
tion:  'Lloyd  was  always  raising  opjeetwns  and  va 
moving  them.'— JoHnaoM. 


DsmMTt  in  French  tfmciifw,  Latin  dsnurari^  aigniOes 
to  keep  back ;  kssitole^  In  Latin  Acst^atwn,  pnrtleTple  of 
Amtto,  a  fhequenuiive  from  Acrs,  slgiUfies.  flnrt  to  stick 
at  one  tiling  and  then  another;  pause^  in  Latin  poaso, 
firom  the  Greek  snfo,  to  cease,  signifies  to  make  a  stand. 

The  Mea  of  stopping  b  common  to  these  terms,  to 
which  signification  b  added  some  distinct  collateral 
idea  for  each :  we  dsmar  from  doubt  or  difficulty ;  we 
kesitats  from  an  undecided  state  of  mind ;  we  pauso 
from  cireumstaness.  Demurring  b  the  act  of  an  equal : 
we  dsmar  in  giving  our  assent;  kesitaUng  l<)  often  the 


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Ktof  ft  miperloiir;  we  hesitau  In  giving  oareooMnt. 
vhen  a  proposition  appear*  to  be  unjiut  we  demw  in 
npponing  it  on  tlie  ground  of  ita  inktstlce ;  '  In  order 
ja  iMuiiab  an  evtJ  out  of  tlie  world  inat  doee  not  only 
produce  great  uneaainento  private  persona,  but  haa 
<l»  a  very  bod  influence  on  the  publick,  I  shall  endea- 
foor  to  abow  tbe  follv  of  dmacrrni^.'—ADDiaoN. 
When  a  request  of  a  dubious  nature  ia  made  to  iia  we 
ktsitttte  in  complying  wiili  it ;  *  I  want  no  aolieitatlona 
for  me  to  comply  where  it  would  be  ungenerous  for  me 
to  refuse ;  for  can  T  kesUate  a  moment  to  take  upon 
myself  tlie  protection  of  a  daughter  of  Cofrelliua  T*~ 
HBLxoTB'a  Lrmaa  OP  Punt.  Prudent  people  are 
moat  apt  to  iemnr;  but  -people  of  a  wavering  temper 
are  apt  Ut hesitate:  demurring  may  be  oAen  unnecee- 
sary,  but  it  is  seldom  injurious ;  keeitattng  is  mosily 
injurious  when  it  is  not  necessary ;  the  former  is  em- 
ployed in  matters  that  admit  of  delay;  the  latter  in 
caMs  where  immediate  decision  is  requisite. 

Demurring  and  hesitating  are  both  employed  as  acta 
of  the  mind ;  pausing  ia  an  external  action :  we  demw 
and  hesitate  in  determining 
doing  any  tiling ; 

Think.  O  tbbik, 

And  ere  thou  plunge  into  tne  vast  abys^, 

Pause  on  the  verse  awhile,  look  doWn  and  see 

Thy  future  maiuMon.— Portsus. 

To  sen^  (v.  Qmseientieus)  aimply  keepe  us  fh>m 
deciding;  tbe  hesitatienj  from  the  Latin  hasite^  fre- 
quentative of  hareo  to  stick,  signifying  to  stick  first  at 
one  thing  and  then  another;  the  waverings  from  the 
word  woee,  signifying  to  move  backward  and  forward 
like  a  wave ;  and  Jtuetuation^  firom  the  Latin  Jluetus  a 
wave,  all  bespeak  tbe  variable  state  of  the  mind :  we 
ecnple  simply  from  motives  of  doubt  as  to  the  pro- 
priety of  a  thing ;  we  hesitau  and  waver  from  various 
motives,  particularly  such  as  ofiect  our  interests. 
Conacience  produces  #cr«plM,  fear  produces  AMtta^ton, 
produces  «< 

i  we  pause  in  speaking  or 

on  produces  waxering-t-  a  person  scruples  to  do 
an  action  which  may  hurt  his  neighbour  or  offend  his 
Maker ;  he  hesitates  to  do  a  thing  which  he  fears  may 
not  prove  advantageous  to  him ;  he  wae0r«  in  his  mind 
between  going  or  staying,  according  as  his  inclinations 
impel  him  to  the  one  or  the  other  -  a  man  who  does  not 
seruple  to  say  or  do  as  he  pleases  will  be  an  oflbnsive 
eoropanion.  if  not  a  dangerous  member  of  society ; 
■The  Jacobins  desfare  a  change,  and  they  will  have  it 
If  they  can  ;  if  they  caimot  have  it  by  English  cabal, 
they  will  make  no  wonoX  seruple  to  have  it  by  the  cabal 
of  France.* — Bitrkk.  He  who  hesitates  only  when  the 
doing  of  good  Is  proposed,  evinces  himself  a  worthless 
member  of  socie^ ;  '  The  lords  of  the  congregation  did 
not  hesitate  a  moment  whetlier  they  should  empk>y 
their  whole  strength  in  one  generous  effort  to  rescue 
their  religion  and  ttlwrty  from  impending  destruction.* 
— ^RoBKRTsoH.  He  who  wavers  between  his  duty  and 
his  inclination,  will  seldom  maintain  a  long  or  doubtful 
contest ;  '  It  ia  the  greatest  abaurdity  to  be  wavering 
and  unsettled  without  ctosing  with  t'hat  aide  wliich  ap- 
pears the  moat  aafe  and  probable.'— AnniaoM. 
'  Xo  fiuetuete  conveys  the  idea  of  strong  agitation ; 
to  vover,  that  of  constant  motion  backward  and  for- 
ward :  when  applied  in  the  moral  sense,  to  Jf,uetuale 
designates  the  action  of  the  spirits  or  the  opinions ; 
10  waver  is  said  only  of  the  will  or  opinions:  he  who 
is  alternately  merry  and  sad  In  quick  succession  is  said 
In  be  JLuctuating ;  or  he  who  haa  many  opinions  in 
quick  succession  is  said  to  fiuctuale;  but  he  who  can- 
not form  an  opinion,  or  come  to  a  reaolution,  la  aaid  lo 

FUutuatiens  and  waverings  are  both  opposed  to  a 
manly  character;  but  the  former  evincea  the  uneon- 
irolled  infloence  of  the  passlona,  the  total  want  of  that 
equanimity  which  eharacterizea  the  Chriatian;  the 
latter  denolea  the  want  of  fixed  principle,  or  the  riieeea- 
aary  deciaionof  character :  we  can  never  nave  occasion 
to  Jlmctuate,  if  we  never  raise  our  tiopea  and  wishea 
bqrond  what  is  attainable ; 

The  tempter,  but  with  ahow  6f  leal  and  love 
To  man,  ami  Indignation  at  hia  wrong, 
New  part  puts  on,  and  aa  to  paaalon  movM 
Ftuetmates  diitarb*dd— MiLToa. 


We  can  never  have  occasion  to  waver^  If  we  know  and 
feel  what  is  rlght,and  resolve  never  to  swerve  from  It: 
1  ^  ft  n»«ni  without  trepidation  or  wavsringt  moeead 
in  discharging  his  duly.'— Bi^r. 




Besiuu  signifies  tbe  same  as  in  the  preoeding 
article ;  falter  or  faulter  seems  to  signify  to  commit  a 
fauU  or  blunder,  or  it  may  be  a  frequentative  of  to  (Ul, 
rignifying  to  stumble ;  stammer^  in  the  Teutonic  sta$n- 
merUf  comes  most  probably  from  the  Hebrew  Ono 
to  obstruct ;  stutter  is  but  a  variation  of  stammer. 

A  defect  hi  utterance  is  the  idea  which  is  common  in 
the  signiflcaUon  of  all  these  terms :  they  differ  either  as 
to  the  cause  or  the  mode  of  the  action.  With  regard 
to  the  cause,  a  hesitation  results  from  the  state  of  the 
mind,  and  an  interruption  in  tbe  train  of  thoughts; 
fatter  arises  from  a  perturbed  sUte  of  feeling ;  stammer 
and  stutter  arise  either  from  an  incidental  circum- 
stance, or  more  commonly  from  a  physical  deftct  in  the 
organs  of  utterance.  A  person  who  is  not  in  tbe  habits 
of  publick  speaking,  or  of%coUecting  his  thoughts  Inta 
a  set  form,  will  be  apt  to  hesitate  even  in  fkmiliar  con- 
versation ;  he  who  first  addresses  a  publick  assembly 
wiU  be  apt  to  faUer.  Children  who  first  bcghi  to  read 
Will  stammer  at  hard  words :  and  one  who  has  an 
impediment  In  his  speech  will  sCvttsr  when  he  attempts 
to  speak  in  a  hurry. 

With  regard  to  the  mode  or  degree  of  the  action, 
hesitate  expresses  less  than  falter :  stammer  less  than 

The  slightest  diillculty  in  utterlns  words  constitutaa 
a  hesitation ;  a  pause  or  the  repetition  of  a  word  may 
be  termed  hesitating;  'To  look  with  solicitude  and 
speak  with  hesitatien  is  attainable  at  will ;  but  the. 
show  of  wisdunr  is  ridiculous  when  there  is  nothing  m 
cause  doubt,  as  that  of  valour  when  there  is  nothing4o 
be  feared.*— Johnson.  To  falter  supposes  a  failum 
in  the  voice  as  well  as  the  lips  when  they  refiise  to  do 
their  office ; 

And  yet  was  ^ery  fauUering  tongue  of  man, 
Almighty  Father !  silent  in  thy  praise. 
Thy  works  themselves  would  raise  a  general  voice. 

Stammering  and  stuttering  are  confined  principally  to 

the  useless  moving  of  the  mouth ; 

j>  Lagean  Juice 

Will  stammering  tongues  and  stagg'ilng  feet  prod  uoe. 

He  who  stammers  brings  forth  Bounds,  but  not  the  right 
sounds,  without  trials  and  efforts:  he  who  stutters 
remains  for  some  time  in  a  state  or  agitation  withoat 
uttering  a  sound. 


The  question  is  the  thing  called  In  questieni  or  that 
which  is  sought  for  by  a  question  ;  querf  Is  bat  a  vari- 
ation of  quteret  from  the  verb  qumro  to  seek  or  inquire^ 
signifying  simply  the  thing  sought  for. 

Questions  and  queries  are  both  put  for  tbe  sake  of 
obtaining  an  answer ;  but  the  fonner  may  be  for  t 
reasonable  or  unreasonable  cause ;  a  query  is  mostly  a 
rational  question :  idlers  may  put  questions  ftxmi  mere 
curiosity ;  learned  men  pnt  queries  for  tbe  sake  ot 


Jtskt  comes  from  tbe  Saxon  oMicn,  k>w  German 
asJksn,  esdb«n,  German  heischen^  Danish  adshs^  See.' 
whkh  for  tbe  most  part  signiiy  to  wish  for,  and  oome 
from  the  Greek  d(i^  to  think  worthy;  whence  thbi 
word  in  English  has  been  employed  for  an  expression 
of  our  wishes,  for  the  purpose  of  obtaining  what  we 
want  from  others ;  taowtrs,  Latin  inquire^  compounded 
of  in  and  qumro^  signifies  to  seareh  aAer ;  questien,  in 
Latin  ia  a  variation  of  the  same  word ;  interrega^ 
Latin  interregatust  participle  of  interrogOy  com- 
pounded of  hUer  and  rstfw,  elgnlfles  to  osikailiemateJy, 
or  an  asking  between  difibrent  persons. 

We  perform  all  these  actions  in  order  to  get  iatat' 

Digitized  by  VjOOQ IC 


lAMdon :  but  we  Mk  ftv  general  purpoiea  of  eonve- 
Bienee ;  we  inquire  IVom  motives  or  cuiioalty ;  we 
mmutum  and  tnUrrogatt  fVoin  motivee  of  diecretlon. 
To  oMk  reepecis  flmiily  one  thing ;  to  infyJrt  reepects 
one  or  many  mbjecu ;  to  ouBttion  and  xnttrrogaU  is 
lo  a*k  repeatediy,  to  examine  by  queeUoning  and  in- 
terrogating, and  in  the  latter  ease  more  authoritatively 
ttian  in  the  former. 

Indiflbrent  people  nk  of  each  ollMr  whateirer  tbey 
With  to  Icnow ;  '  Upon  my  atking  her  who  it  was,  the 
told  me  it  was  a  wry  grave  elderly  gentleman,  but 
that  she  did  not  Itnow  hie  name.'— Addisok.  Leamere 
«f«tr«  tlie  reaaona  of  thing!  whkh  are  new  to  them; 
Too  have  oft  tnffiar*tf 
After  the  shepherd  that  complain*d  of  love. 


Mastera  fuftwn.  their  servants,  or  parents  their  chil- 
dren, when  they  wish  to  aacertaln  the  real  state  of 

But  hark  you,  Kate, 

I  must  not  henceforth  have  you  qwutitm  ma 

Whither  I  go.— Shaufbarb. 
Magistrates  interrogau  criminals  when  they  are 
lousht  b«fore  them ;  '  Thomson  was  Introduced  to 
the  Prince  of  Waive,  and  being  gayly  interrogated 
About  the  state  of  his  affitirs,  said,  **  that  thev  were  in 
a  more  poetical  posture  than  formerly."* — Johnson. 
It  is  very  uncivil  not  to  answer  whatever  is  ashed  even 
by  tlie  meanest  person :  ii  is  proper  to  satisfy  every 
imquirft  so  as  to  remove  doubt :  questiaiu  are  some- 
times so  impertinent  that  they  cannot  with  propriety 
be  answered:  interrogations  from  unauthorized  per- 
■ons  arc  little  better  than  Insults.  To  ask  and  interro- 
gmU  are  always  personal  acts ;  in  inauire  and  questum 
•re  ftequently  applied  to  things,  the  rormer  in  the  sense 
of  seeking  (o.  KznminatUni)^  and  the  latter  in  ttiat 
of  doubUng  (o.  To  Doubt). 



Examination,  comes  from  tlw  Latin  txamino  and 
csamai,  the  beam  by  which  the  poise  of  the  balance  is 
held,  because  the  Judgemetit  keeps  itself  as  it  were  in 
a  balance  in  examining ;  search^  in  French  ekercker. 
is  a  variation  of  seek  and  see ;  inquirf/  signifies  the 
•aroe  as  in  the  preceding  article;  researck  is  an  inten- 
aive  of  searek ;  investigation^  from  the  Latin  vesti- 
ginm^  n  track,  sianities  seeking  by  Uie  tracks  or  foot 
■lepe :  «en(lt«y,  from  the  Latin  serutoTf  to  search,  and 
aeratviR,  lumber,  signifies  looking  for  among  lumtier 
•nd  rubbish,  i.  e.  to  ransack  and  turn  over. 

Examination  is  the  nHist  general  of  these  terms, 
which  all  agree  in  expressing  an  active  vlfort  to  find 
out  that  which  b  unknown.  The  ezmminatiam  Is 
made  either  by  the  aid  of  the  senses  or  the  under- 
Manding,  the  body  or  the  mind ;  the  searek  is  princi- 

Ky  a  physical  action ;  the  inquirp  is  mostly  intel- 
ual ;  we  sxasKRS  a  face  or  we  examine  a  sui^ect ; 
we  semrtk  a  house  or  a  dictionary ;  we  inquire  into  a 
■atler.  An  esoaunottsa  Is  made  for  the  purpose  of 
Ibrming  a  iudgement ;  the  seorc*  Is  made  for  ascei^ 
lalning  a  fact;  the  lafwry  is  made  in  order  to  arrive 
•t  Uuth.  To  ssasMMs  a  peison.  Is  eitlier  by  means 
of  questioDS  to  get  at  his  mind,  or  by  means  of  looks 
to  become  acquainted  with  his  person ;  to  searek  a 
yacson  is  by  corporeal  contact  to  learn  what  he  has 
•bout  him.  We  exasu'as  the  features  of  tkose  who 
interest  us ;  oflkers  of  Justice  searek  those  who  are 
•Qspected ;  bat,  with  the  prepositions  for  or  after,  the 
verb  searek  may  be  employed  In  a  moral  application ; 
'if  you  searek  purely  for  troth,  it  will  be  indllftrent  to 

Sio  where  you  find  It*— BinwBLL.  £xasilac(seM  and 
qniries  are  both  made  by  means  of  questions ;  but 
the  former  is  an  oflkiai  act  for  a  apeciflck  end,  the 
latter  la  a  private  act  for  purposes  of  ooovenience  or 
plaisure.  Students  nndeigo  examdnatians  from  their 
leachen ; '  they  punue  their  inquiries  for  themaelvea. 

An  extmhuMon  or  an  inqubrf  amy  be  set  on  foot 
•D  any  subject :  but  the  examination  la  direct ;  it  Is 
tte  setting  of  things  before  the  view,  oorporeal  or  men- 
tal, in  onfer  to  obt«in  •  condnalon ;  '  The  body  of  man 
.•  such  a  snbjeet  ai  stands  the  atmost  te«  of  eaasnaa- 
Men.*— Addison.  The  tafii»r|r  Is  indirect ;  it  is  a  dr- 
•■Itoua  method  of  eoming  to  tlie  knowledge  of  what 
was  not  known  before;  ^hptints  aftar  happhMi  are 

not  so  neeematv  and  nseflil  to  mankind  aathe  aitt  of 
consolation.* — Anmsoa.     The  student  exomwcs  tba 
evidences  of  Christianity,  that  he  may  strengthen  hbi 
own  belief;  the  government  Institute  an  inquirf  into 
the  conduct  of  subjects.    A  researek  Is  an  inquirf  into 
that  which  Is  remote ;  an  invesligation  Is  a  minute 
inquiry ;  a  scnUntf  is  a  strict  examinmtien.    Learned 
men  of  inquisitive  tempers  make  their  rssMrdhss  into 
To  all  Inferiour  animals  *tls  glv*n 
T'  enjoy  the  state  allotted  them  by  heav'n ; 
Up  vain  researekes  e'er  disturb  their  rest.— JBHTna 

MaglstrateB  investigate  doubtfiil  and  mysterious  aflbtrs ; 
physicians  investigate  the  causes  <^ diseases;  *We 
nave  divided  natural  philosophy  into  the  investvration 
of  causes,  and  the  production  of  efilects.*— Bacon. 
Men  scrutinize  the  actions  of  those  whom  they  hold 
in  suspicion  ;  *  Before  I  go  to  bed,  I  make  a  semtinf 
what  peccant  humours  haive  reigned  in  me  that  day.* 
— HowBLL.  Acuteness  and  penetration  are  peculiarly 
requisite  in  making  researekes;  patience  and  perso 
verance  are  the  necessary  qualifications  of  the  investi" 
gator;  a  quick  discernment  will  essentially  aid  the 

These  words  are  here  considered  aa  they  designati' 
the  looking  upon  places  or  objects,  in  order  to  get 
acquainted  witli  them.  To  examins  (v.  Examination) 
expresMs  less  than  to  seek  and  searek :  and  these  less 
than  to  explore,  which,  from  the  Latin  ex  and  pleroy 
signifies  to  burst  forth,  whether  In  lamentation  or 

We  examine  objects  that  are  near ;  we  seek  thooa 
that  are  remote  or  not  at  hand ;  searek  thoee  that  am 
hidden  or  out  of  sight ;  we  explore  tliose  that  are  un- 
known or  very  distant  The  painter  examines  a  land- 
scape in  order  to  take  a  sketch  of  It ; 

Compare  each  phrase,  examine  ev'ry  line, 
Weigh  ev'ry  word,  and  ev*ry  thought  refine.— Pon. 
One  friend  seeks  another  when  they  have  parted ; 
I  have  a  venturous  fairy,  that  shall  seek 
The  squirrePs  hoard,  and  foteh  thee  thence  new  nntiL 
The  botanist  searekes  after  curious  planu ;  the  inoui- 
siiivo  traveller  explores  unknown  n^ons;  the  wntei . 
examines  tlie  books  from  which  he  intends  to  draw' 
his  authorities ;  '  Men  will  look  into  our  lives,  and 
examine  our  actions,  and  inquire  into  our  conversa- 
tions ;  by  thetie  they  will  judge  the  tnjth  and  reality 
of  our  profesdion.'— TiLLOTsoN.    A  penon  secies  an 
opporiujiity  to  efiba  a  purpoae; 

Sweet  peace,  where^doat  thou  dwell  1 
I  humbly  crave 
Let  me  once  know, 
I  sought  thee  in  a  secret  cave, 
And  ask'd  if  peace  were  there. — ^Hbbbbbt. 
The  antiquarian  searekes  every  comer  in  which  bo 
hopes  to  find  a  monument  of  antkiulty ;  n 

Not  thou,  nor  they  shall  seartk  the  thoughts  that  mO 
Up  in  the  cktse  recesses  of  my  soul.— Popb. 
The  classlck  oxpleres  the  leambig  and  wisdom  of  tlw 

Hector,  he  said,  my  eoarage  bida  me  meet 

This  high  achievement,  and  explore  the  fleet.— Per«. 


DiscmsSi  In  Latin  diseuosusy  participle  of  disevHot 
signifies  to  shake  asunder  or  to  separate  thoroughly  so 
aa  to  see  the  whole  composition ;  examine  has  the  same 
signification  as  in  the  preceding  article,  because  die 
judgement  holds  the  balance  in  examining. 

'The  intellectual  operation  ejcpressed  by  these  teima 
Is  applied  to  objects  that  cannot  be  Immediately  dis- 
cerned or  understood,  but  they  vary  both  In  mode  and 
decree.  Dioeussion  b  altogether  carried  on  by  verbal 
and  persrmal  comrnnttleatlon ;  ssaaitnaliea  proceeda 
by  reading,  reAeetlon,  and  observation :  we  often  exn- 
mlne  therefore  by  dweassten,  which  la  property  one 
nuide  otexaeninatiom:  a  dieeusaion  Is  always  carried 
on  I7  two  or  more  pcnons;  an  axmminattoit  may  bt 


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MnMdonbjoaemriy:  politlckaareaftieqiMnillioufb 
WK  always  a  ploaaant  auk|)ect  of  disemtnon  In  aocial 
veednfi ;  *  A  country  feUow  distlnguiahea  himaelf  aa 
■acta  in  tiie  cliurcli-yard  as  a  elUxen  doaa  upon  tlw 
change;  the  whole  pariah  politicka  being  generally 
4iKWM«d  in  that  place  either  after  aemon  or  before 
the  bdl  riogs.'— AoDiaoN.  Complicated  queationa  can- 
not  be  loo  thonwfhly  *xami»ed;  *Men  follow  their 
inelknatloae  without  ez^mimmg  whether  there  be  any 
priaclplea  which  they  ought  to  form  for  regulatlog  their 
cooducL*— B1.AIR.  DittuMum  aervea  for  amuaeanent 
nuther  than  for  any  aolld  murpoae ;  the  cauae  of  truth 
Bddom  derives  any  immediate  benefit  from  U,  although 
the  minds  of  men  may  become  iuTlgorated  by  a  col- 
Usion  of  semlroeot:  wewtiirtwm  la  of  great  practical 
tttilliy  In  tlie  direction  of  our  conduct:  all  decisions 
must  be  paitial,  uqjuat,  or  Impradeni,  which  are  made 
witlKMii  previous  egewtwaft'em. 


P^  is  in  all  probability  chanaed  from  prove,  In  the 
sense  of  try;  »emtinite  comes  from  the  Latin  terutor 
to  search  thorou^ly  (v.  Examiuatin)  dive  expresses 
the  physical  sntion  of  going  under  water  to  the  bottom, 
and  figuiailvdy  of  aearching  to  the  bottom. 

Fry  is  mkeii  In  the  bad  sense  of  looking  more  nar. 
rowly  into  things  tlian  one  ought :  tenUinw  and  dive 
tMto  are  employed  in  tlie  good  sense  of  searching  things 
to  the  bottom. 

A  person  who  priea  looika  into  that  which  does  not 
belong  to  him ;  and  too  narrowly  also  into  that  which 
may  belong  to  him ;  it  Is  the  consequence  of  a  too 
esger  curiosity  or  a  busy,  meddling  temper :  a  person 
who  termtmite*  kioks  into  that  which  is  intenUonally 
consealed  from  him ;  it  is  an  act  of  duty  flowing  out 
of  his  office :  a  iierson  who  dites  penetrates  into  tliat 
which  lies  hidden  very  deep ;  he  is  impelled  10  this 
action  by  the  thirst  of  knowledge  and  a  laudable 

A  love  of  frying  Into  the  private  affairs  of  families 
malEea  a  person  a  troublesome  neighbour; '  The  peace- 
able man  never  offlctousiy  seeks  to  pry  Into  the  secrets 
of  others.*— Blair.  It  is  the  business  of  the  magistrate 
10  •cnrtMtxs  into  all  mauers  which  aOect  the  good 
esder  of  society ;  *  He  who  eaters  upon  this  tenuiny 
(Into  tlie  depths  of  the  mind)  enters  into  a  labyrinth.* 
-^oimi.  There  are  aome  mhids  so  imbued  with  a 
love  of  scieoce  that  they  delight  to  dim  nUo  the  secrets 
of  nature; 

In  man  the  more  we  dtss,  the  more  we  8e& 
'        1  immoital  make. 


Heavea*B  signet  stamping  1 

Cvisus,  In  French  eurtemr,  Latin  curtMns,  firom 
tra  earn.  slsnifVing  All!  of  care ;  tmfVMiCtvc,  in  Latin 
inymiro  to  inquire  or  aeareh  Into, 
*  nestigate  thoroughly;  pry- 
to  fry^  try,  or  sift  to  the 

signifies  a  dlspQsitkm  to  Investigate  thoroughly;  pry. 
"istbedispc  -^        - 

tmf  sigulfies  the  disposldon  1 

The  disposition  to  Interest  ond's  self  In  matters  not 
of  bnmedude  concern  to  one's  self  Is  the  Idea  common 
to  all  theae  terms.  OirtMiteis  directed  to  all  ofe»|ecis 
that  can  gratify  tiie  InclinatMn,  taste,  or  understaod- 
lof ;  mYVMiftvMwst  to  such  thlnp  only  as  satisfy  the 

The  cvnsas  peiaon  latesests  biraaeif  In  afi  the 
works  of  natme  and  art;  he  la  mrtsKs  to tryeflbcts 
and  «*^"'»"*  causes:  tlie  inqttititive  person  endea- 
vottis  to  add  to  his  store  of  knowledge.  Ouriotitp  em- 
ploys every  meana  which  foils  in  lis  way  In  order  to 
procuie  gratification ;  the  euriotu  man  uses  his  own 
powen  or  those  of  othen  to  serve  his  nurpose;  inni- 
eAiMnssa  ki  Indolged  oolv  by  means  of  verbal  taiqulry ; 
tte  mfBWttws  penOQ  collects  all  fkom  others.  A  tra- 
veller is  eurinu  who  e^unlnes  every  tUng  for  bim- 
Hif;  'Sir  Francis  Beooo  says,  sone  have  bean  so 
smdaasaatoiemarkthetinMaaad  smsoos,  when  the 
ttekeof  an  enTiooB  eye  ki  most  eilbcCnally  pernidoiH.* 
>0Rn.B.  BelsmfwsMvswhen  hemliiuielyqaee- 
tfonsetheia.  fm^migmvetugs is  tberefora  to citrisifty 
M  a  pert  to  the  whole:  whoever  Is  snrisMs  will  nata- 
t^  be  jnfsisietes,  anfl  be  who  is  inyuintim  Is  so 
horn  a  apeciaa  of  ewfosOlr;  bat  tefirifttiesMts  mar 

aomttlmes  be  taken  in  an  improper  aenae  for  moral 
otrtscla;  *  Checking  our  trnfuisUwe  soUcUude  about 
what  the  Almighty  hath  concealed,  let  us  djlifentjty 
Improve  what  he  hath  made  known.*— 

Ctortses  and  trnquisitivt  may  be  both  used  in  a  bad 
*>hBe ;  pryinf  la  never  used  otherwise  than  In  a  bad 
sense.  Inquuitivty  as  In  the  former  case,  Is  a  mode 
of  eurio9ity^  and  prying  is  a  species  of  eager  airionty. 
A  cvrisM  person  takea  unallowed  means  of  learning 
that  which  he  ought  not  to  wish  to  know ;  an  infwm- 
ttrs  person  puts  many  impertinent  and  troublesome 
questions;  a  prying  temper  is  unceasing  in  its  endea- 
vours to  get  acquainted  with  the  secrets  of  others. 
Cwrionlyim  a  f^ult  common  to  females;  ja^witiiM- 
7U98  Is  most  general  among  children ;  a  prying  Oemper 
bek>ngs  only  to  people  of  tow  character. 

A  well-disciplined  mind  checks  the  first  risings  pf 
idle  euriosity :  children  should  be  taught  early  to  siq>- 
pren  an  in^Mintive  temper,  which  may  so  easily  be- 
come burdensome  to  others :  those  who  are  of  a  pry 
ing  temper  are  insensible  to  every  thing  but  the  desire 
or  unveiling  what  lies  hidden;  such  a  disposition  is 
often  engendered  fiy  the  unlicensed  indulgence  of  ciir«»- 
si'ty  In  early  life,  which  becomes  a  sort  of  passion  in 
riper  yeara:  'By  adhering  tenaciously  to  his  opinion, 
and  ezbibiting  other  instances  of  &  prying  disposition, 
Lord  George  Sackville  had  rendered  himself  disa- 
greeable to  the  commander-in-chief.*— Smollbt. 


Conceit  comes  Immediately  ftom   the  Latin  «««- 

cfptuSf  participle  of  eoncipio  to  conceive,  or  form  1q 

the  mind ;  faney^  in  French  pkantaaU^  Latin  pkan- 

,  tasioj  Greek  ^vraolat  from  ^vr^  to  make  appear, 

I  and  ^tm  to  appear. 

These  terros  equally  expresB  the  working  of  the 
imagination  in  its  dbtorted  state;  but  c<mc«tc  denotes 
a  much  greater  degree  of  distortion  than/ancy;  what 
we  conceit  is  preposterous ;  what  we  fancy  Is  imreal, 
or  only  apparent.  Conceit  applius  only  to  internal  ob- 
jects ;  ii  is  mental  in  the  operation  and  the  result ;  it  is 
a  species  of  Invention  ;  '  Strong  conceit^  like  a  ww 
principle,  carries  all  easily  with  it,  when  yet  hbore 
common  sense.'— Lock  a.  Fancy  Is  applied  to  ex- 
ternal objects,  or  whatever  acts  on  the  senses :  nervous 
people  are  subject  to  strange  eonceiu;  timid  people 
fancjf  they  hear  sounds,  or  see  objects  in  the  dark 
which  awaken  terror. 

Those  who  are  apt  to  conceit  oftener  conceit  that 
which  is  painful  than  otherwise; 

Some  have  been  wounded  with  cescsit. 
And  died  of  mere  cq>inton  stralLp-BuTLsa. 
Conceiting  either  that  they  are  always  in  danger  of 
dying,  or  that  all  the  world  is  their  enemy.  There 
are  however  insane  people  who  conceit  themselves  to 
be  kings  and  queens ;  and  some  indeed  who  are  not 
called  insane,  who  conceit  themselves  very  learned 
while  they  know  nothing,  or  very  wise  and  clever, 
while  they  are  exposing  themselves  to  perpetual  ridi- 
cule for  their  folly,  or  very  handsome  while  the  world 
calls  them  plain,  or  very  peaceable  while  they  are 
always  quarrelling  with  their  neighbours,  or  very 
humble  while  they  are  tenaciously  slicking  fof  thefr 
own :  it  would  be  well  if  such  conceitt  afforded .  a 
harmless  pleasure  to  their  authors,  but  unfortunately 
they  only  render  them  more  oflenalve  and  di^guatiag 
tlian  they  would  otherwise  be. 

Those  who  are  apt  to/sacy,  never  /ency  any  Ibiag 
to  please  themselves ; 

Desponding  fear,  of  feeUe/oneiss  ftdl, 
Weak  and  onmanly,  Inseena  every  power. 


They /sasv  that  thbip  are  too  kmg  or  too  short,  too 
thick  or  too  tbin,  too  eohl  or  too  hot,  with  a  thousand 
other /ancto  equally  trivial  hi  their  nature;  thereby 
proving  that  the  allghtest  aberration  of  the  miAd  is^ 
serlouB  evil,  and  productive  of  evil. 

When  taken  In  reference  to  Intellectaal  obtjects,  een- 
csft  Is  mostly  In  a  bad  sense ;  *  Nothing  caa  be  mora 
^alnly  Impossible  than  for  a  man  "  to  be  profitable  to 
God,'*  and  consequently  nothing  can  be  more  absonl 
than  for  a  man  to  eberWi  so  trratkmal  a  eencsti.*— 
AomsoR.  But  /sncy  may  be  emptoyed  In  a  good 
;  'My  ftioad,  Sir  Roger  de  Coverieyi  told  oie 

755002  Aogle 



Ifother  day,  that  lie  had  been  reading  my  neper  apon 
WciUnlnaier  Abbey,  In  which,  uye  be,  there  are  a 
great  lAany  ingenioua/aiicict.'— Aooieoa. 


A  fondnea  for  one's  opinion  beraeaki  the  opimattd 
nan  *  a  fond  conceit  of  one*«  eeir  bespeaka  the  eon- 
uiUd  man :  a  fond  attachmeDt  to  one*e  lelf  bespeaka 
the  eroittiMl  man :  a  liking  for  one's  self  or  one's  own 
k  evidently  the  common  idea  that  runs  through  these 
terms ;  they  difler  in  tlie  mode  and  in  the  ohjecu 

An  tpiniaied  man  b  not  only  fond  of  his  own 
sipmMM,  but  full  of  his  own  ominion :  he  has  an  opinion 
on  every  thing,  which  is  the  best  poesihle  opimiont  and 
Is  delivered  Uierefore  fVeely  to  every  one,  that  they 
Biay  profit  in  forming  tlieir  own  opinion* ;  <  Down 
was  he  cast  from  all  his  greatness,  as  It  is  pity  but  all 
auch  politick  opiniatora  should.'— South.  A  conceited 
man  has  a  eoneoU  or  an  idle,  fond  opinum  of  hb  own 
Ulent ;  it  b  not  only  high  in  competition  with  oihen, 
but  it  b  so  high  as  to  be  set  above  others.  The  eon- 
teited  man  doea  not  want  to  follow  the  ordinary  meana 
of  acqulilng  knowledge :  hb  conceit  suggests  to  him 
that  his  talent  wUI  supply  labour,  application,  reading 
and  study,  and  every  other  contrivance  which  men 
have  commonly  employed  for  their  improvement ;  be 
aeei  by  intuition  what  another  learns  by  experience 
and  observation ;  he  knows  In  a  day  what  others  want 
yean  to  acquire ;  he  learns  of  himself  what  others  are 
contented  to  get  by  means  of  instruction ;  *  No  great 
measun*  at  a  very  difficult  crisis  can  be  pursued  which 
is  not  attended  with  some  mischief;  none  but  eoneoiud 
pretendere  in  fiublick  business  hold  any  other  lan- 
guage.'—Bnaxa  The  egoiaUcal  man  makes  himself 
the  darling  theme  of  his  own  contemplation ;  he  ad- 
mires and  fovea  himself  to\hat  degree  that  lie  can  talk 
and  think  of  nothing  else ;  hb  children,  his  house,  his 
garden,  hb  rooms,  and  the  like,  are  the  Incessant 
theme  of  hb  conversation,  and 'become  Invaluable 
from  the  mere  circumstance  of  belonging  to  hhn; 
*  To  show  their  particular  aversion  to  speaking  in  the 
first  person,  the  genUomen  of  Port  Ri)val  branded 
thb  form  of  wrldog   with  the  name  of  egotiom:— 

AODISOIV.  ^     ^ 

An  optntaUd  man  b  the  meet  unfit  for  eonvena- 
tion,  which  only  aflbnb  pleasure  by  an  alterpate  and 
equable  communication  of  sentiment.  A  conceited 
man  b  the  most  unfit  for  coH>peration,  where  a  Junc^ 
tkm  of  talent  and  eflbrt  b  essential  to  bring  tilings  to 
a  conclusion ;  an  egoioticol  man  b  the  most  unfit  to 
be  a  companion  or  Mend,  for  he  does  not  know  how 
to  value  or  like  any  thing  out  of  himself. 

SOf-wiU  signifies  the  will  In  one's  self:  eOf-eomctU, 
conceit  of  one's  self:  e^-MvJfUienqfy  stifficiencf  in 
one's  self.  As  charecteristicks  they  come  very  near 
to  each  other,  bat  that  depravity  of  the  will  which 
lefttses  10  submit  to  any  control  either  wlUiin  or  with- 
out b  bom  with  a  person,  and  b  amona  the  eariiest 
Indications  of  character ;  in  some  It  Is  less  predomi 
nant  than  In  othere,  but  if  not  early  checked,  it  is 
that  defect  in  our  natures  which  will  alwavs  prevail ; 
tdfconceit  b  a  vicious  habit  of  the  mind  whkh  b 
auperlnduced  on  the  original  character;  it  b  that 
which  determines  in  mattem  of  Judgement ;  a  ee{f- 
wilted  pemon  thinks  nothing  Of  right  or  wrong:  what- 
ever the  hnpobeof  the  moaMot  suggeeta,  b  the  modve 
to      " 

There  safo  In  oe^f-mifflgionl  Impndenee 
Without  experience,  honesty,  or  sense, 
Unknowhig  In  her  Interest,  trade,  or  laws, 
He  vainly  undeitakee  hb  coontry 'a  cause.— Jbhtm. 


Prids  b  In  all  probability  connected  with  the  word 
versds,  and  the  Oerroan  pnuJU  ahow  or  spleiidour, 
as  it  stgnifies  that  high-fiown  temper  in  a  man  which 
makes  him  paint  to  himself  every  thing  in  himself  as 
beautiful  or  splendid ;  nanitft  in  Latin  vamtne^  from 
oaim  and  voiws,  b  compounded  of  v«  or  vulde  and 
raoals,  signifying  exceeding  emptiness ;  conceit  signi-^ 
fies  the  same  as  In  the  preceding  article  («.  Coneeitj 

The  valuing  of  one's  self  on  the  poesearion  of  any 
property  b  the  Idea  common  to  these  terms,  but  they 
difler  either  In  regard  to  the  object  or  the  manner  of 
the  action.  Frids  is  the  tenn  of  most  extensive  impor. 
and  application,  and  comprehends  In  its  signifcation 
not  only  that  of  the  other  two  terms,  hut  likewise  Meaa 
peculiar  to  itself. 

Fride  b  applicabte  to  every  object,  good  or  bad. 
high  or  low,  small  or  great ;  vanity  b  applicable  only 
to  small  objects :  pride  b  therefore  good  or  bad ;  eaiiily 
is  always  bad,  it  b  always  emptiness  or  nothingness. 
A  man  b  proud  who  values  himself  on  the  possession 
of  hb  literary  or  seientifick  talent,  on  hb  wealth,  on  hb 
rank,  on  his  power,  on  lib  acouirements,  or  hb  supe- 
riority over  his  competitors ;  be  Is  vain  of  lus  person, 

hb  dress,  his  walk,  or  any  thing  that  b  friv(»k>u8. 
Pride  Is  the  Inherent  quality  in  man ;  and  while  Ic 
resu  on  noMe  objects,  it  is  hb  noblest  charaeteristick ; 

TowOhU  men 
The  Iqjuftos  that  they  tbemselveB  proenr'd. 
Must  be  their  ecboolmasioia.— SBAKsnAms. 

The  *e(f-eoneeUed  peiaon  b  always  much  concerned 
about  riight  and  wrong,  but  It  b  only  that  whieh  he 
conceives  to  be  right  and  wrong;  *  Nothing  so  haughty 
»,  where  eelf-conuit  Uds  it 

IB  Ignoran 
nible.'— a 

and  -        r 

aet  up  for  Infallible.'— South.  Se^f-engLetomai  b  a 
•pedes  of  ee^-coneoU  applied  to  aetloa :  as  a  »4f-eon- 
teited  person  thinks  of  no  opinion  but  hb  own ;  a  ee{f- 
0vMeient  uemm  reAnea  the  assbtaaca  of  every  one  In 
frbataver  lie  b  called  upon  to  do ; 

vanitf  b  the  distortion  of  one's  nature  flowing  from  a 
vicious  constitution  or  education :  pride  shows  Itaelf 
variously  according  to  the  nature  of  the  object  on 
which  It  b  fixed ;  a  noble  orids  seeks  to  di;<play  itself 
in  all  that  can  command  the  respect  or  admiration  of 
mankind  ;  the  pride  of  wealth,  of  no\ver,  or  of  oUipt 
adventitious  properties,  commonly  displays  itself  in  an 
unseemly  de()ortment  towards  others ;  vanitf  shows 
liaeir  only  by  Its  eagerness  to  catch  the  notice  of  others : 
*  Fanitf  makes  men  ridiculous,  pride  odious,  and  am* 
bitlon  terrible.— 8TKai.a. 

*Tb  an  old  maxim  In  the  schools, 

That  vanitf  '#  the  food  of  fuols.— Swirr. 

Prtde  (says  Blair)  makes  us  esteem  ourselves :  vanitf 
makes  us  desire  tlie  esteem  of  others.  But  If  pride  b, 
as  I  have  before  observed,  self-esteem,  or,  which  l« 
nearly  the  same  thing,  self- valuation.  It  cannot  properly 
be  said  to  make  us  esteem  ourselves.  Of  vanitf  I  have 
already  said  that  it  makes  us  anxious  Tor  the  notice  and 
applause  of  others ;  but  I  cannot  with  Dr.  Blair  aay 
that  it  makes  us  desire  the  esteem  of  others,  because 
esteem  b  too  substantial  a  qualliy  to  be  sought  for  by 
the  vain.  Besides,  that  which  Dr.  Blair  secitis  to  asMign 
as  a  leading  and  cbaracterbtick  ground  of  dbtinetion 
between  pride  and  vanity  b  only  an  Incidental  pro- 
perty. A  man  is  said  to  be  vain  of  hb  clothes,  if  be 
gives  indications  that  he  values  himself  upon  them  as  a 
ground  of  distinction ;  although  he  shotUd  not  expressly 
seek  to  display  himself  toothers. 

Qmceit  is  that  speciea  of  self-valuation  that  respccta 
one's  talents  only ;  It  b  so  far  therefore  closely  allied  to 
pride ;  but  a  man  is  sud  to  be  ^rsiid  of  that  which  he 
really  haa,  but  to  be  eonceiled  of  that  which  he  really 
has  not:  a  man  may  be  proud  to  an  excess,  of  merits 
which  he  actually  possesses;  but  when  he  b eoneoiud 
hb  merits  are  all  In  hisown  conceit ;  the  latter  b  there- 
fore obviously  founded  on  (kbehood  altogether ;  *Tbe 
odf-coneeit  of  the  young  b  the  great  source  of  tboae 
dangers  to  which  they  are  exposed.'— Blai&. 


Pride  b  here  empkiyed  pdncipally  as  respects  the 
temper  of  the  mind ;  the  other  terms  are  emptoyad 
either  as  reepects  the  senfinnent  of  the  mind,  or  the  ex- 
ternal behaviour. 

Pride  b  here  as  before  («.  Pride)  agenprick  term; 
kMtrktinaee^  or  the  spirit  of  being  kamfkiv  or  high 
spirited  («.  Hamgktf) ;  lojtineeet  or  the  splill  of  being 
lifted  up ;  and  dtfxtte,  or  the  sense  of  worth  or  value, 
are  but  modes  ofpride.  Pride,  Inaisnuch  as  it  consists 
porely  of  self-esteem,  la  a  positive  Beatlment  which  one 


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my  entertain  independently  of  other  penone :  it  Itei  in 
the  IniDoet  rece«eB  of  the  Iranian  heart,  and  minflea 
ilieir  InwMlbly  with  our  affections  and  pawiona ;  U 
ja  our  companion  by  night  and  by  day ;  in  publicli  or  in 
private ;  it  aoea  wiih  a  man  wherever  Iw  goea,  and 
Maya  with  him  where  be  atays;  it  is  a  nevei^failing 
■ource  of  satisfaction  and  self-coniplacency  under  every 
drcunisuince  and  in  every  situation  of  human  life. 
H^MgkUntMt  is  tiiat  mode  of  pride  which  springs  out 
of  one's,  comparison  of  one's  self  with  oilwra :  the 

kmmgktf  man  dweHa  on  the  inferiority  of  otiiers ;  the 

Bu  in  tne  atrict  sense  dwells  on  his  own  per- 

L0jUmest  is  a  mode  of  vrida  which  raises 

^rsiid  maul 

tiie  spirit  above  objects  supposed  to  6e  inferiour ;  itdoes 
not  set  a  man  so  much  above  others  as  above  himself 
or  that  which  concerns  himself.  Dignitv  is  a  mode  of 
firide  which  exalts  the  whole  man.  it  is  the  entire  con- 
adooaneaa  of  what  la  becoming  himself  and  due  to 

FridB  assumes  such  a  variety  of  shapes,  and  puis  on 
Bocfa  an  infinity  of  disguises,  that  it  is  not  easy  always 
to  recognise  It  at  the  first  glance :  but  an  Insist  Into 
human  nature  will  suffice  to  convince  us  that  it  la  the 
apring  of  all  human  actlona.  Whetlier  we  aee  a  man 
professing  humility  and  self-abasemeni,  or  a  singular 
dagree  of  self-debasement,  or  any  degree  of  self-exalia- 
ifcin,  we  may  rest  aanirea  that  hia  own  vrida  or  con- 
ackwa  aelf-lmportance  b  not  wounded  by  any  auch 
meaaorea ;  but  that  in  all  eaaea  he  la  equally  athnulated 
whh  the  deaire  of  giving  hlmaelf  in  the  eyca  of  others 
that  degree  of  importance  to  which  in  hia  own  eyes  he 
ia  entitled;  '£very  demonstration  of  an  implacable 
rancour  and  an  untameablc  pride  were  the  only  en- 
eooragementa  we  received  (from  the  regicidea)  to  the 
renewal  of  our  aupiriicationa.* — ^Burkx.  Hawktinett 
ia  an  unbending  species  or  mode  of  pride  which  does 
not  stoop  to  any  artiflces  to  obtain  grHtificaiion ;  but 
compels  others  to  give  it  what  it  fancies  to  be  its  due ; 
'  Provoked  by  Edward's  kav^ktineeef  even  the  paasive 
Ballol  began  to  mutiny.'— RoBaaTsoii.  Leftmee*  and 
digmiif  are  equally  remote  (h>m  any  subtle  pUancy,  but 
they  are  In  no  leas  degree  exempt  fVom  the  unamiable 
ehanicteilBtlck  of  havffhtinets  which  makes  a  man 
bear  with  oppreailve  away  upon  othera.  A  leftp  spirit 
and  Adignitf  of  character  preeerve  a  man/hnn  yielding 
to  the  contamination  of  outward  objecia,  but  leave  hia 
Judgement  and  feeling  entirely  free  and  unbiaaKd  with 
reapect  to  others ;  *■  Waller  deacribes  Sacharissa  as  a 
pmtominatlng  beauty  of  20/ty  charms  andimperioua 
influence.'— J0HN8ON.  *  Aa  soon  as  Almagro  knew  his 
ftie  to  be  inevitable,  he  met  it  with  the  diguitf  and  for- 
ttlude  of  a  veteran/— Robcktson. 

A9  leapecta  the  external  behaviour,  a  haughty  car- 
rfage  ia  moelly  unbecoming;  a  loftg  tone  u  mostly 
jastifiaUe,  particularly  aa  circumatancea  may  require ; 
and  a  digt^fM  air  ia  without  qualification  becoming  the 
muuk  wiio  pnascaaca  real  dxgnitjf. 


Hmrngkiimete  ia  the  abstract  quality  of  haughty,  aa  in 
the  preceding  article ;  disdain  from  tlie  French  de- 
^m/iwr.  or  the  privative  de  and  dignue  worthy,  sig- 
nioea  thinking  a  thing  to  be  worthleaa ;  arrogoHcej  from 
mrmgatAt  w  the  Latin  or  or  od  rcgo  to  aak,  aignifiea 
claiming  or  taking  to  one'a  aelf. 

H^mghiimee*  (aava  Dr.  Blair)  la  founded  on  the  high 
opinion  we  entertalnof  ouraelvea ;  di«datm,  on  the  low 
ophiion  we  have  of  othera ;  arregaiue  Is  tlie  result  of 
both,  but  if  any  thing,  more  of  the  former  than  the 
latter.  Hamgklimees  and  dtsdotnare  properly  senti- 
ments of  the  mind,  and  arrogance  a  mode  of  acting 
resulting  from  a  snte  of  mind ;  there  may  therefore 
he  kangktineee  and  dt«dain  which  have  not  betrayed 
themselves  by  any  visible  action ;  but  the  sentiment  of 
amganee  is  always  accompanied  by  its  corresponding 
action :  tlie  kanghif  man  is  known  by  the  air  of  supe- 
riority which  he  asaomea;  the  disdainful  man  by  the 
contempt  which  be  ahowa  to  others :  the  arrogant  man 
hy  his  lofty  pretensions. 

HanghUntee  and  arrogance  are  both  vidoua;  they 
are  bufit  upon  a  fklae  idea  of  ourselves ;  <  Tlie  same 
kamgktineae  that  prompts  the  act  of  injustice  will  mora 
stroofly  incite  its  Justification.'— Johnson.  *  Turbu- 
hnt,  dboontented  men  of  quality,  in  proportion  aa  they 
■re  paAsd  up  with  peraonal  pride  and  arrogamee^ 
JIf  deapintlMirownoniar.*— BomKS.   JDudain 

may  be  JuatlfiaMe  wiien  provoked  by  what  li  Infkmoua : 
a  lady  muat  treat  with  disdain  the  peraon  wlio  inaultf 
her  honour ;  but  otherwise  it  Is  a  highly  tubecomiuf 

Didst  thou  not  think  such  vengeanoe  must  await 

The  wretch  that,  with  his  crimes  all  fresh  about  hbn, 

Ruahes,  irreverent,  unprepar'd,  uncall'd. 

Into  hia  Maker'a  presence,  throwing  back 

With  imolent  disdain  hia  cboioeat  ^  1— PoaTBua. 


HoMgktg^  contracted  flpom  high-hearty,  in  Dutch 
hoogkart^y  alcnifiea  literally  high-spirited,  and  like  the 
word  ktgh^  M  derived  through  tne  medium  of  the 
Northern  languages,  fk^m  the  Hebrew  JJJM  to  be  higlu 

liangkiy  characterizes  mostly  tlie  outward  beha- 
viour ;  high  respects  both  the  external  behaviour,  and 
the  internal  sentiment ;  high-minded  marlu  the  senti- 
ment only,  or  the  state  of  the  mind. 

With  regard  to  the  outward  behaviour,  hanghtf  is  a 
stronger  term  than  high .  a  haughty  carriage  bespeaka 
not  only  a  high  oplnloii  of  one's  self,  but  a  strong  mix- 
ture of  contempt  for  others :  a  high  carriage  denotes 
simply  a  high  opinion  of  one's  self:  haughtiness  is 
therefore  always  offensive,  as  it  is  burdensome  to 
others ;  but  height  may  aometimea  be  laudable  In  as 
much  as  it  is  justice  to  one's  self:  onecan  never  give  a 
command  in  a  haughty  tone  without  making  uthetv 
feel  their  inferiority  in  a  painful  degree ;  we  may  aome- 
timea aaaiime  a  high  tone  in  order  to  shelter  ourselves 
from  Insult 

With  regard  to  the  aentimeat  of  the  mind,  htgh  de- 
notea  either  a  particular  or  an  habitual  state ;  high' 
minded  Is  most  commonly  understood  to  designate  an 
habitual  slate ;  the  former  may  be  either  good  or  bad 
according  to  circumstances ;  the  latter  ia  expressly  In- 
consistent with  Cliristian  humility.  He  is  high  whom 
virtue  ennobles;  his  height  is  Independent  of^ adventi- 
tious circumatancea,  it  becomes  the  poor  aa  well  as  the 
rich ;  he  ia  properly  high  who  is  set  above  any  mean 
condescension;  hifh-mindedness^  on  the  contrary,  in- 
cludes in  it  a  selrcoraplacency  that  resta  upon  one'a 
personal  and  incidental  advantagea  rather  than  upon 
what  b  worthy  of  ourselves  as  rational  agents.  Supe 
riours  are  apt  to  indulge  a  haughty  temper  which  doe* 
but  excite  the  scorn  aiid  hatreaof  those  who  are  com 
polled  to  endure  it; 

Let  gifis  be  to  the  mighty  queen  deslgn*d. 
And  mollify  with  pray'rs  her  haughty  mind. 

A  high  spirit  is  not  always  serviceable  to  one  in  depen 
dent  circumAanoes ;  but  when  regulated  by  discretion, 
it  enhances  the  value  of  a  man 'a  character;  'Who 
knowa  whether  indignation  may  not  aucceed  to  lerrour, 
and  the  revival  of  high  aentimenta,  apumlng  away  the 
iUusion  of  aafety  purchased  at  the  expenae  of  glory, 
may  not  drive  ua  to  a  generoua  despair.' — Bcrkb.  No 
one  can  be  high-minded  without  thinking  better  of 
himself,  and  worse  of  others,  than  he  ought  to  think ; 
*  The  wise  will  determine  from  the  gravity  of  the  case ; 
the  irritable,  fVom  aenalbiiity  to  oppreaaion ;  the  Ugh" 
minded  from  diadain  and  indignation  at  aboaive  power 
in  unworthy  handa.— Burxb. 


Contemn^  in  Latin  contemno^  compounded  of  eon  and 
temnot  is  probably  changed  from  tamino,  and  ia  derived 
from  the  Hebrew  kDO  to  pollute  or  render  worthless, 
which  is  the  cause  of  contempt ;  despise,  in  Latin 
despidoy  compound  of  de  and  epeeioy  signifies  to  look 
down  upon,  which  is  a  strong  mark  of  contempt ;  scorn.  « 
varied  fVom  our  word  sAom,  signifies  stripped  of  alt 
honours  and  exposed  to  derision,  which  situation  is  the 
cause  of  seem ;  disdain  has  the  same  signification  a< 
In  the  preceding  articl«%. 

The  above  elucidations  sufllclenily  evince  the  feeling 
towards  others  which  gives  birth  to  all  these  actions. 
But  the  feeling  of  contempt  is  not  quite  so  strong  as  that 
of  dsspisimgt  nor  that  of  despising  so  strong  as  those 
o(  seeming  9!6A  disdaining:  the  latter  of  which  ex- 
presses the  strongest  sentiment  of  aJL  Persons  ate  • 
contamnad  for  their  moral  qnalitiea;  tliey  are  despised 
on  account  of  theli  outward  ciieuinataacea,  thalr 


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cbaracten,  or  tbetr  endowments.  Superioan  may  be 
emitenaud;  Inferioan  only,  reiil  or  suppoeed,  tre  d«- 

Contemfi,  tm  applied  to  penons,  is  not  incompatlUe 
with  a  Chrlftian  temper  when  jurtly  proroked  by  their 
cbaraeier;  but  despising  is  distinctly  forbidden  and 
seldom  warranted.  Yet  it  Is  not  so  maeh  our  business 
to  esntemn  othen  as  to  estUsmm  that  which  is  e^n- 
tsmptitU;  but  we  are  not  equally  at  liberty  to  dupise 
the  person,  or  any  thing  belonging  to  tiie  person,  of 
another,  whatever  springs  from  the  free  will  of  an 
other  may  be  a  subject  of  contempt ;  bat  the  casualties 
of  fortune  or  the  gifts  of  Providence,  which  are  alike 
independent  of  personal  merit,  should  never  expose  a 
peraon  to  be  despised.  We  rfiay,  however,  c»ntenin  a 
person  for  his  impotent  malice,  or  despise  him  for  his 

.Persons  are  not  sesmed  or  disdained^  but  they  may 
be  treated  with  eeorn  or  disdain ;  they  are  both  impro- 
per expressionB  of  contempt  or  despite ;  scorn  marks 
tile  sentiment  of  a  Uitle,  vain  mind ;  disdain  of  a 
baughty  and  perverted  mind.  A  beautiful  woman 
looks  with  seom  on  her  whom  she  despises  for  the 
want  of  this  natoral  gift  The  wealthy  roan  treats 
with  disdeum  hhn  whom  he  despises  for  his  poverty. 
There  is  nothing  excites  the  oontsmpt  of  mankind  so 
powerfully  as  a  mixture  of  pride  and  roeanness ;  '  Gra- 
tsMpt  and  derision  are  hard  words ;  but  in  what  man- 
ner can  one  give  advice  to  a  youth  In  the  pursuit  and 
possession  of  sensual  pleasures,  or  aflbrd  pity  to  an  old 
man  in  the  impotence  and  desire  of  enjoying  them.'— 
Btkklk.  a  moment's  reflection  will  teach  us  the  follv 
and  wickedness  of  despising  another  for  that  to  which 
by  the  will  of  Providence  we  may  the  next  moment  be 
exposed  ourselves ;  *  It  is  seldom  that  the  great  or  the 
Wise  suspect  that  they  are  cheated  and  despised:— 
JoBMSON.  There  are  silly  persons  who  will  scom  to 
be  seen  in  the  company  of  such  as  have  not  an  equal 
•bare  of  finery 

Intemons  wretch ! 
So  much  bek>w  my  seorn,  I  dan  not  kill  thee. 


And  there  are  weak  upstarts  of  fortune,  who  disdain 
to  look  at  Ukmb  who  cannot  measure  purses  with  them- 

Yet  not  for  those, 
For  what  the  potent  victor  In  his  rage 
Can  else  inflict,  do  I  repent  or  change, 
Though  cbang'd  in  outward  lustre,  that  fix*d  mind 
And  high  disdain  from  sense  of  Injur'd  merit. 


In  speaking  of  things  Independently  of  others,  or  as 
immediately  connected  with  ourselves,  all  these  terms 
may  be  soraetimea  employed  in  a  good  or  an  indifferent 

When  we  contemn  a  mean  action,  and  seom  to  con.- 
eeal  fay  fUsebood  what  we  are  called  upon  to  acknow- 

ledge, we  act  the  part  of  the  gentleman  as  well  as  the 

Christian ;  *  A  man  of  spirit  should  contemn  the  pral 

of  the  IgnoraaL'-xSTasLS.     And  it  is  inconsistent 

with  oar  infirm  and  dependent  condition,  that  we 
fbnuld  fed  ioellned  to  dsij^iss  any  thing  that  fUls  in 
our  way ; 

Thrice  happy  ihev,  beneath  their  northern  skies, 
Who  that  worst  fear,  the  fear  of  death,  despise  ; 
Provoke  approaching  fkte,  and  bravely  scom 
To  spare  that  life  which  must  so  soon  return. 


Much  less  are  we  at  liberty  to  disdain  to  do  any  thing 
which  our  station  requires ;'  It  is  in  some  sort  owing 
to  the  bounty  of  Providence  that  disdaining  a  cheap 
and  vulgar  happiness,  they  frame  to  themselves  imagf- 
Dary  goods,  in  which  there  is  nothing  can  raise  desire 
but  the  dlfllcultv  of  obtaining  them.'— Bkrkv  lbt.  We 
ought  to  think  nothing  unworthy  of  us,  nothing  de- 
gradiM  to  us,  bat  that  which  Is  inconsistent  with  the 
will  of  God :  there  are,  however,  too  many  who  aflect 
to  despise  small  favours  as  not  reaching  their  (hncied 
deaerte,  and  others  who  disdain  to  receive  any  fkvoar 
at  all,  from  mistaken  ideas  of  dependence  and  obliga- 

Virtue  disdains  to  lend  an  ear 

To  the  mad  people's  senae  of  rlgbt-^FftAXOi^ 


These  terms  are  very  fluently,  tboagta  veiy  eno> 
neously,  confounded  In  common  diseoaise. 

Contemptible  Is  applied  to  the  thing  deserving  com' 
tempt ;  Contemptuous  to  that  which  is  expreesive  of 
contempt.  Persons,  or  what  Is  done  liy  petsons^  may 
be  either  contemptible  or  contemptuous;  but  a  thing  is 
only  contemptible. 

A  production  is  contemptible:  a  sneer  or  look  is  con- 
temptuous; 'Silence,  or  a  negligent  Indlflbrence,  pro- 
ceeds from  anger  mixed  with  scom,«hat  shows  an- 
other to  be  thought  by  yon  too  contemptible  to  be  re- 
garded.'—Addison.  *  My  sister's  principles  in  many 
Karticularadiflfer;  but  there  has  been  always  such  a 
armony  between  us  that  she  seldom  smiles  upon  those 
who  have  suffered  me  to  pass  with  a  eontea^tmaus 
negligence.'— Hawxbsworth. 

Contemptible  Is  not  so  strong  as  despicable  or  pitifuL 
A  person  may  be  contemptible  for  his  vanity  or  weak 
ness ;  but  he  Is  despicable  for  his  serviflty  and  base- 
ness of  character ;  he  is  pitiful  for  bis  want  of  man- 
liness and  becoming  spirit  A  lie  is  at  all  tiroes  cm- 
temptiblc ;  it  is  despicabU  when  it  is  told  for  parpoaea 
of  gain  or  private  interest :  it  is  pitiful  when  accom 
panled  with  indications  of  unmanly  fear.  It  Is  ctfw- 
temptibU  to  take  credit  to  one's  self  for  the  good  action 
one  has  not  performed ;  '  Were  every  man  persuaded 
from  huw  mean  and  low  a  principle  this  passion  (for 
flattery)  is  derived,  there  can  be  no  doubt  but  the 
person  who  should  attempt  to  gratify  it  would  then  be 
as  contemptible  as  he  is  now  successfol.'— Stbblb.  It 
is  despicable  to  charge  another  with  the  feults  which 
we  ourselves  have  committed ;  *  To  put  on  an  artful  • 
part  to  obtain  no  other  but  an  unjust  praise  from  the 
undisceming  is  of  all  endeavours  the  most  despicable.* 
— Stxklb.  It  is  pHiful  to  offend  others,  and  then 
attempt  to  screen  ourselves  from  their  resentment 
under  any  shelter  which  oflers ;  '  There  is  something 
pitifuUy  mean  in  the  inverted  ambition  of  that  man 
who  can  hope  for  annihilation,  and  please  himself  to 
think  that  las  whole  fabrtek  shall  crombie  Into  dust.*-^ 
Stbklx.  It  is  contemptible  for  a  man  in  a  superioor 
station  to  borrow  of  his  Inferioun ;  it  is  despicabU  la 
htm  to  forfeit  his  wonl :  it  is  pit^  In  htan  to  attampC 
to  conceal  aught  by  artmoe. 


These  epithets  rise  In  sense  by  a  regular  gradation. 

Contemptuous  is  general,  and  applied  to  whatever 
can  express  contempt:  scornful  and  disdainful  are 
particular ;  they  apply  only  to  outward  marks:  one  la* 
centemptueus  who  Is  seomful  or  disdait^fidy  but  not 
vice  vers  A. 

Words,  aaions,  and  looks  are  eontemftuous ;  kwka, 
sneers,  and  gestures  are  seomful  and  disdainfuL 

Contemptuous  expressions  are  always  unjustifiable : 
whatever  may  be  the  contempt  which  a  person's  con- 
duct deserves,  It  is  unbecoming  in  another  to  give  him ' 
any  indications  of  the  aentlment  he  feels.  Seomful^ 
and  disdainful  smiles  are  resorted  to  by  the  weakest  or 
the  wont  of  mankind ;  *  Prior  never  sacrifices  accuracy 
to  haste,  nor  Indulges  himself  in  cowtemptuems  n^li- 
genoe  or  Impatient  idleneas.'-^oBRsoif .  '  As  soon  aa 
Mavia  began  to  look  round,  and  saw  the  vagrimnd 
Mirtillo  who  had  so  long  absented  himself  from  her 
circle,  she  looked  upon  him  with  that  glance  whidi 
In  the  language  of  ogleis  Is  ealled  the  seamfid '  ■ 

In  vain  he  thus  attempts  her  mind  to  move, 

With  teara  and  prayers  and  late  repenting  love; 

Disdainfully  she  looked,  then  turning  round, 

She  fix'd  her  eyes  unmov'd  upon  the  ground. 


LaugHf  through  the  medium  of  the  Saxon  Makans 
old  German  lakanf  Greek  y<Xdis,  comes  from  the  Be 
brew  pn!r  with  no  variation  In  the  meaning;  rids- 
c«l«,  (Vom  Latin  ndss,  has  the  same  original  meaning 
Both  these  verbs  are  used  here  in  the  improper  sense 
for  lasigkter^  blended  with  mora  or  less  of  eoDienpli« 


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lattlie  foraier  diiplasr*  tlnlf  by  Uw  natural  expraMton 
of  UmfkUr ;  the  lattw  iiIiowb  iueir  hy  a  verbal  ex- 
preMiou :  ^he  foniMr  is  produced  by  a  feeling  of  mirth, 
oa  otaaerviiig  the  re^  or  BupposiHl  weakDeae  of  an- 
ocher ;  the  latter  la  produced  by  a  strong  sense  of  the 
atamrd  or  irrailnnal  In  another :  the  former  is  more  im- 
mediaidy  directed  to  the  iwraon  who  has  excited  tlie 
feeling ;  the  latter  ia  more  commonly  produced  by  the 
thing  than  by  persons.  We  Ivigk  at  a  person  to  his 
faee;  but  we  ridiemU  bis  notions  by  writing  or  in  the 
course  of  conversation ;  wo  laugh  at  the  individual ; 
we  rHiemU  that  which  is  maintained  by  one  or  many. 
It  is  better  to  toMgk  at  the  fears  of  a  child  than  to 
attempt  to  restrain  them  by  violence,  but  it  is  still  belter 
to  overcome  tliem  if  poaBlble  by  the  force  of  reason  ; 

*  Men  loMgk  at  one  another's  cosL*— Swift.  RiddcuU 
is  not  the  test  of  truth ;  he  therefore  who  attempts  to 
misuse  it  against  the  cause  of  truth,  will  bring  upon 
himself  the  contempt  of  ail  mankind ;  Imt  folly  can  be 
assailed  with  no  weapon  so  efiectual  as  ridieuU; 

*  It  is  easy  for  aman  woo  sits  idle  at  home  and  has  no- 
body to  please  but  himself,  to  ridieala  or  censure  the 
eooiiDoa  practices  of  mankind.'— Jobhsok.  The  phi* 
loiopher  Democritus  preferredto  langk  at  the  foUies  of 
men,  rather  than  weep  for  them  like  Heraclitus :  infi- 
dels have  always  employed  ridieuU  against  Chris- 
tianity, by  which  they  have  betrayed  not  only  their 
want  of  argument,  but  their  personal  depravilv  in 
lamgUng  where  they  ought  lo  be  most  serious. 


iMughahU  signifies  exciting  or  fit  to  excite  loMghUr  ; 
iadiersM,  in  Latin  Imdicer  or  fadtcnw,  from  Indus  a 
game,  sif  nifles  causing  game  or  sport;  ridiculoua  ex- 
citing or  fit  to  excite  ridicMU ;  comical^  or  conu'cA,  in 
Latin  camiauy  from  the  Greek  KtAiuaUa  comedy,  and 
mAfoi  a  village,  because  comedies  were  first  performed 
in  villages,  s^ifies  after  the  manner  of  comedy ; 
dnOl,  in  French  dr4f<,  is  doubtless  connected  with  the 
German  raUa  a  part,  in  the  phrase  Hna  roUe  tpitlen  to 
play  a  trick  or  perform  a  part. 

Either  the  direct  action  of  laughter  or  a  correspond- 
ing sentiment  is  included  in  the  signification  of  all 
B  terms :  they  differ  principally  in  tlie  cause  which 
nees  the  feeling ;  tbe  laMgkabU  consists  of  objects 
la  general  whetlier  personal  or  otherwise;  tbe  btdi- 
erous  and  ridieutout  liave  more  or  leas  reference  to 
that  which  is  personal.  What  is  laughable  may  excite 
aimple  merriment  independently  of  all  personal  refer- 
ence, unless  we  admit  what  Mr.  Hobbes,  and  after 
tataa  Addison,  have  maintained  of  all  laughter^  (hat  It 
from  pride.    But  without  entenng  into  this 

■ke  question,  1  am  Inclined  to  distinguish  between  tbe 
taughabU  which  arises  from  the  reflection  of  what  is 
lo  our  own  advantage  or  pleasure,  and  that  which 
■rises  from  reflectijig  on  what  is  to  the  disadvantage  of 
another.  The  droU  thdu  of  a  monkey,  or  the  hu- 
Borous  stories  of  wit,  are  loMghable  from  the  nature 
of  the  tbinfi  tfaemselvee;  without  any  apparent  aUu- 
afooi  however  remote,  to  any  individual  but  the  one 
whose  senses  or  mind  is  gratified ; 
Tbeyni  not  show  their  lecth  In  way  of  salla, 
Though  Neslor  swear  the  jest  be  iMghabU. 


The  Imiiervua  and  ridiadwM  are  however  species  of 
tbe  laughabU  which  arise  altogether  ftom  reflecting 
on  that  which  is  to  the  disadvantage  of  another.  The 
imdierffus  lies  mostly  in  the  outward  circumstances  of 
tbe  indivkinal,  or  such  as  are  exposed  to  view  and 
serve  as  a  show ;  '  The  action  of  the  theatre,  though 
modem  states  esteem  it  but  iadteroas  unless  It  be  sati- 
rical and  biting,  was  careAilly  watched  by  the  andents 
that  it  might  improve  mankind  In  virtue.'— Bacoh. 
Tbe  ridieuiouj  applies  to  every  thing  personal,  whe- 
ther external  or  internal ;  *  htfeUx  pauptrtaa  has  no- 
thing In  it  more  Intolerable  than  this,  that  It  renders 
men  ridUutaua.*-~Soxm.  The  ludia-aua  does  not 
comprehend  that  which  is  so  much  lo  the  desparage- 
ment  of  the  Individnal  as  the  ridieuieu*;  whatever 
ihire  is  in  oiinelves  which  excites  laughter  in  others, 
Is  arcompaiiied  in  their  minds  with  a  sense  of  our  in- 
fer inriiv:  and  consequently  the /iwKcroit*  always  pro- 
4hc*%  this  feeling;  but  only  In  a  eiiphi  degree  com- 
pared with  the  rUie^utt  whkh  awakens  a  postUvo, 

ute  uesi  sense  ui  ine  wono,  ana  oepon  nimsaii  m 
most  araceful  manner  before  a  prince,  yet  If  the  tai 
his  smrt  happen,  as  I  have  known  it  happen  to  a  v 
wise  man,  to  hang  out  behind,  more  people  will  Im 

sense  of  contempt  Whoev«r  Is  In  a  ludieroua  situ 
aUou  is,  let  it  be  in  ever  so  small  a  degree,  placed  la 
an  inferk)ur  station,  with  regard  to  those  by  whom  ha 
is  thus  viewed;  but  he  who  is  rendered  ridieulau$i» 
positively  degraded.  It  is  poasible,  therefore,  for  a 
person  to  be  in  a  ludiermu  rituation  witliout  any  kind 
of  moral  demerit,  or  the  slightest  depreciation  of  hit 
moral  charaoter ;  since  that  which  renders  his  situatloa 
huUerout  is  altogether  independent  of  himself ;  or  ft 
becomes  luHtraus  only  in  the  eyes  of  incompetent 
Judges.  "  Let  an  ambnssador,"  says  Mr.  Pope.  "  speak 
the  Dest  sense  in  the  worid,  and  deport  hloiseif  In  the 

' •   '  •  "thetailof 

I  very 
at  Uiat  than  attend  to  tbe  other."  '  This  is  Uie  ludi- 
erotu.  The  same  can  seldom  be  said  of  the  ridiculoua; 
for  as  this  springs  flrom  positive  moral  causes,  it  re- 
llectB  on  the  person  to  whom  it  aUaclies  in  a  less  ques- 
tionable shape,  and  produces  positive  disgrace.  Per- 
sons very  rarely  appear  ridiculous  without  being  really 
so;  and  he  who  is  really  rulic«^eic# Justly  excites  eoo- 

Droll  and  comical  are  In  tbe  proper  sense  applied  to 
things  which  cause  laufhter^  as  when  we  speak  of  a 
droll  story,  or  a  cssumT  incident,  or  a  cowtich  song ; 
A  eomich  subject  k>ves  an  huaiUe  verse, 
Thyesies  scorns  a  low  and  comieh  s^le. 


*  In  the  Augustine  age  Itself,  notwithstanding  the  can 
sure  of  Horace,  tliey  preft^rred  tbe  low  buflbonery  and 
drollery  of  Plautiis  to  the  delicacy  of  Terence.'^ 
Wartor.  These  epithets  may  be  applied  to  the  per- 
son, but  not  so  OS  to  reflect  disadvantageoudy  on  tbs 
individual,  like  tfie  preceding  t 


Dsrids,  compounded  of  do  and  the  Latin  rideo ;  and 
ridieuU^  from  rtdeo^  both  signify  to  laugh  at;  mech^ia 
French  moqwr^  Dutch  mocheut  Greek  luoKam^  signinea 

likewise  to  laugh  at ;  riUlu  Is  doubtiess  connected  with 
rati,  which  Is  in  all  nrobabiiity  acontraclion  of  rootle  ; 
and  barter  is  possibly  a  corruption  of  the  French 


Strong  expresaionM  of  contempt  are  designated  by  aW 
these  tenns. 

Dorieion  and  moehery  evince  themselves  by  the  out- 
ward actions  In  general;  ridieule  consists  more  iu, 
words  than  actions ;  railfiug  and  bantering  almost 
entirely  in  words.  Deride  Is  not  so  strong  a  term  as 
moeht  but  much  stronger  than  ridieule.  There  ia 
always  a  mixture  of  hoetillty  in  derision  md  moehery; 
but  ridicule  is  frequently  unaccompanied  with  anyt 
personal  feeling  of  displeasure.  Derision  is  ofteii 
deep,  not  loud ;  it  diaeovers  itself  in  suppressed  lauglis, 
contemptuous  sneers  or  gesticulations,  and  cutting  ex« 
pressions:  mockery  b  mostiy  noisy  and  outrageous;  it 
breaks  forth  in  insulting  buflbonery,  and  Is  sometimea 
accompanied  with  personal  violence:  the  former  con- 
sists or  real  but  contemptuous  laughter;  the  laiiaa 
often  of  afl^ted  laughter  and  grimace.  Dorieion  aa4 
moehery  are  always  personal ;  rtdt«iii«may  be  directed 
to  things  as  well  as  persons.  Derision  and  moekern 
are  a  direct  attack  on  tbe  individual,  the  latter  still 
more  so  than  the  former ;  ridieuU  Is  as  often  used  l» 
writing  as  in  personal  intercourse. 

Derision  and  mockery  are  practised  by  persons  im 
any  station;  riduule  is  mostiy  used  by  equals.  A- 
person  is  derided  and  mocked  for  that  which  is  offiMi- 
slve  as  well  as  apparently  absurd  or  extravagant;  h« 
Is  ridiculed  for  what  is  apparently  ridiculous.  Our 
Saviour  was  exposed  both  to  the  dorieion  and  mockery 
of  his  enemiea:  they  derided  him  for  what  they  dared 
to  think  his  folse  pretensions  to  a  superiour  mission : 
they  ntocked  him  by  planting  a  crown  of  thorns,  and 
acting  the  force  of  royalty  before  him. 

Derision  may  be  provoked  by  ordinary  ciroana- 
■tances;  mockery  by  that  which  is  extraordinary. 
When  tile  prophet  Elijah  in  his  holy  seal  mocked  the 
false  prophets  of  Baal,  or  when  the  children  mocked 
the  prophet  EHsha,  the  term  deride  would  not  have 
suited  ehher  for  the  occasion  or  the  action ;  but  tw« 
people  may  deride  each  other  In  their  angry  disputes 
or  unprincipled  people  may  dsrids  thoas  wham  then 


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caaiiot  imitste,  or  eondemn.  Derision  tnd  meekerf 
•re  altogetber  incompatible  wlih  the  Cbrisiian  temper ; 
HUeuU  is  jofliitiable  in  certain  cases,  particuiariy  when 

k  la  not  penooal.  When  a  man  renders  blmaelf  an 
ql^ect  of  derision^  it  does  not  follow  that  any  on«  is 
JiMtlfled  in  deridimg  him ;  « 

Satan  beheld  their  ptlfbt, 
And  to  his  mates  thus  in  dtrtBion  call'd : 
O  friends,  why  oome  not  on  tlioao  vic|prs  pioud  T 

MiLToii.  -^ 
Inaulia  are  not  the  means  for  correctinf  faults :  mocktrjf 
Is  very  seldom  used  but  for  the  gratification  of  a  malig- 
nant dispositJpn;  hence  it  is  a  strong  expression  when 
OMd  figuratively ; 
Impeird  with  steps  unceasing  to  pursue 
Botue  fleeting  good  that  mocka  me  with  the  Tiew. 


Although  rUiemU  is  not  the  test  of  truth,'  and  ought 
not  to  be  employed  in  the  place  of  argument,  yet  there 
are  some  follies  too  absurd  to  deserve  more  serious 

Want  is  the  scorn  of  every  Ibol. 
And  wit  in  rags  Is  turned  to  rtd>enl0.—DRYDBic. 
Raihf  and  hmUer^  like  deritum  and  SMciwry,  are 
alttigeiher  peisonal  ads,  in  which  application  tliey  are 
very  analogous  to  ridicule,  BidienU  is  the  most  gene- 
nl  term  of  the  three ;  we  oden  raUy  and  bwUer  by 
Hiietding,  There  is  more  exposure  in  ridiculing; 
reproof  in  rtUljfing;  and  provocation  in  bantering.  A 
pecMn  may  be  ridiculed  on  account  of  his  eccentri- 
cities; he  is  raUied  for  his  defects ;  be  is  bantered  for 
afecidental  droumaunces:  the  two  former  actions  are 
ofU>n  Justified  by  some  substantial  reason ;  the  latter  is 
an  ncUon  as  pueiile  as  It  is  unjust,  it  is  a  contemptible 
species  of  moekery.  Self-conceit  and  extravagant  fol- 
lies are  oftentimes  best  corrected  by  good-namred  ridi- 
eule;  a  man  may  deserve  sometimes  to  be  rallied  for 
his  want  of  resolution ;  *The  only  piece  of  pleasantry 
in  Paradise  Lost,  is  where  the  evil  spirits  are  described 
as  raUying  the  angels  upon  the  success  of  tlielr  new 
Invented  aitillery/— Addison.  Those  who  are  of  an 
Ul-natured  turn  of  mind  will  banter  others  for  their 
ntofortunes,  or  their  personal  defects,  rather  than  not 
-eay  something  to  their  annoyance ;  *  As  to  your  man- 
ner of  behavbig  towards  these  unhappy  young  gentle- 
men (at  College)  you  describe,  let  It  be  manly  and 
eaiv :  if  they  banter  your  regularity,  order,  decency, 
and  love  of  stody,  banter  in  return  their  neglect  of  it.* 


Kidieule  signifies  the  same  as  in  the  preceding  arti- 
cle; satire  and  trsnv  have  the  same  original  meaning 
as  given  under  the  head  of  Wit;  sareaem^  from  the 
Greek  capmanbtj  andeopc^w,  fromffaip(  flesh,  signifies 
Vterally  to  tear  ilie  flesh. 

Ridicule  has  simple  laughter  in  it ;  satir«  has  a  mix- 
Inre  of  ill-nature  or  severlly ;  the  former  Is  raiployed 
te  maiten  of  a  shameless  or  trifling  nature,  sometimes 
Improperly  on  deserving  objects ;  '  Nothing  is  a  greater 
■ark  ot  a  degenerate  and  vicious  age  thar  the  com- 
■Mm  ridUnle  which  pesses  on  this  state  of  life  (mar- 
ilnge).'— Addisoh.  Satire  Is  employed  either  In  per^ 
■»al  or  grave  matten ;  *  A  man  resents  with  more 
MUemess  a  satire  upon  his  abUiUes  than  his  practice.' 
•— Hawusworth.  irenf  is  disguised  eatire;  an 
irenist  seems  to  praise  that  which  be  really  means  to 
eOnlemn ;  '  When  Regan  (in  King  Lear)  counsels  hhn 
to  ask  her  sisler  forgiveness,  he  Alls  on  his  knees  and 
Mks  her  with  a  striking  kind  of  trowy  how  such  sup- 

j  language  as  this  becometh  him.*-^oBN80i(. 
dsream  is  bitter  and  personal  satire;  all  the  oihere 
may  be  successfttlly  and  properly  employed  to  expose 
IbUy  and  vice;  but  fsrcoMi,  which  Is  the  indulgence 
only  of  personal  resentment,  is  never  Justifiable ; '  The 
severity  of  this  sarcasm  stung  me  with  .intolerable 
lage.^— Hawuswoetr. 

Jeet  is  in  all  probability  abridged  from  geeticnlate^ 
the  ancient  mimicks  used  much  geetieulatien 

in  breaking  their  ject#  on  the  company ;  joke,  in  Latin 
a  In  aU  probability  from  the  Hebrew  ppy 

to  laugh ;  to  make  game  signlflea  here  to  make  the  sub 

jectof  game  or  play ;  to  sport  signifies  liere  to  sport 
with,  or  convert  into  a  subject  of  amusemcnL 

One  jests  in  order  to  make  others  laugh ;  oitt  jokes 
in  order  to  please  one^s  self    The  jeet  is  directed  at 
the  object ;  the  joke  is  practised  with  the  person  or  on 
the  penmn.    One  attempts  to  make  a  thing  laughable 
or  ridicutous  by  jeeting  about  it,  or  treating  it  in  a 
jeeting  manner ;  one  attempts  to  excite  good  humoui 
hi  othere,  or  Indulge  it  in  one's  self  by  joking  with 
them.    Jeets  are  therefore  seldom  harmless :  jekee  are 
frequently  allowable.    The  most  serious  subject  may 
be  degraded  by  being  turned  Into  a  jest; 
But  those  who  aim  at  ridicule. 
Should  fix  upon  some  ceruin  rule, 
Which  fairly- hints  they  are  injeft— Swirr. 
Melancholy  or  dejection  of  the  mind  may  be  conve 
nientiy  dispelled  by  njoke; 

How  fond  are  men  of  rale  and  place. 
Who  court  it  from  the  mean  and  baae, 
They  k)ve  the  cellar's  vulgar >A«, 
And  loee  their  houre  in  ale  and  smoke.— Gj^t. 
Court  fools  and  butToons  used  formeriy  to  break  their 
jests  upon  every  subject  by  which  tbey  thought  to  en- 
tertain their  employers :  those  wlio  know  how  to  joke 
with  good- nature  and  discretion  may  contribute  to  the 
niinh  of  the  company :  to  make  game  of  is  applicable 
only  to  persons:  to  make  a  eport  of  or  eport  witli,  is 
applied  to  objects  in  general,  whether  persons  or  tbingj* , 
both  are  employed  Mke  jest  In  the  bad  sense  of  treaung 
a  thing  more  lighily  than  it  deserves ;  *  When  Som- 
son's  eyes  were  out,  of  a  public  magistrate  he  was 
made  a  public  sport.'Sovru. 

To  jest  consists  of  words  or  corresponding  signs ;  it 
•is  peculiarly  appropriate  to  one  who  acts  a  part :  to 
joke  consists  not  only  of  words,  but  of  simple  actions, 
which  are  calculated  to  produce  mirth  ;  it  is  peculiarly 
applicable  to  the  social  intercourse  of  friends :  to  mails 
game  of  consists  more  of  laughter  than  any ;  it  Jiaa 
not  the  ingenuity  of  the  jest,  nor  the  good-nature  of 
Uwjoke ;  it  is  the  part  of  the  fool  who  wishes  to  make 
others  appear  what  he  himself  really  is :  to  «sort  with 
or  to  make  eport  of,  consists  not  only  of  simple  actions, 
but  of  conduct ;  it  is  the  errour  of  a  weak  mind  that 
does  not  know  bow  to  set  k  due  value  on  any  thing , 
the  fool  eporte  with  his  reputation,  when  he  risks  the 
loss  of  it  for  a  bauble 


Scoff  comes  frtm  the  Greek  eicAwrm  to  deride :  gtba 
and  jeer  are  connected  with  the  word  gabble  aqd  Jab- 
ber, denoting  an  unseemly  mode  of  speech  ;  sneer  it 
connected  with  sneeze  and  nose,  the  member  by  which 
sneering  is  performed. 

ScojffGig  is  a  general  term  fi{r  expressing  contempt ; 
we  may  scoff  either  by  gibes,  jeere,  or  sneere;  or  we 
may  scoff  hy  opprobrious  language  and  contemptuoua 
looks:  to  gibe,  jeer,  and  sneer,  are  personal  acta ;  the 
gibe  and  jeer  consist  of  words  addressed  to  an  indivl 
dual ;  the  former  has  most  of  ill-nature  and  reproach 
in  it ; 

Where  town  and  country  vican  flock  In  tribes, 

Secur'd  by  nuuibera  from  the  laymen's  gibes.— Swirr. 

The  latter  has  more  of  ridicule  or  satire  in  It; 
Midas,  expos'd  to  all  their  j0«rt. 
Had  lost  his  art,  and  kept  his  ears.— Swirr. 
They  are  both,  however,  applied  to  the  actions  of 

vulgar  people,  who  practise  their  coarse  jokes  on  each 


Shrewd  fellows  and  siich  areh  wafs !  A  tribe 
That  meet  for  nothing  but  to  gibe.-^wirt. 
•  That  jeering  demeanour  is  a  quality  of  great  offence 
to  others,  and  danger  towards  a  man*s' self '—Loan 
WbhtWorth.  Scoff  and  eneer  are  directed  either  to 
persons  or  things  as  the  object ;  gibe  and  jeer  only 
towards  perrons:  scoff  is  uken  only  in  the  proper 
sense ;  sneer  derives  its  meaning  (torn  the  literal  acf 
of  sneering:  the  scoffer  speaks  llghUy  of  that  which 
deserves  serious  attontlon ; 

The  fop,  with  learning  at  defiance 
Scoffs  at  the  pedant  and  the  science.— Gat 
The  saieisr  speaks  either  actually  with  a  sncsr,  or  m 


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h  were  liy  Implicedon  with  a  snur;  *  There  ii  one 
ttion  passage  still  remaining  (of  Alexia  the  poet's) 
which  convey*  a  nuer  at  Pythaieoraa.*— CuMaaRLAiiD. 
The  9C0ffer*  at  religion  aet  at  naught  all  thoughts  of 
decorum,  they  openlv  avow  the  little  estimation  in 
which  they  hold  it ;  the  nuerert  at  religion  are  more 
sly,  hut  not  less  malignaM;  they  wish  to  treat  religion 
with  contempt,  but  not  to  bring  themselves  into  the 
ooatempt  they  deserve ; 

And  snsers  as  learnedly  as  they, 

Like  females  a'er  their  morning  tea.— Swirr 


Disparage,  compounded  of  di»  and  parage,  from 
par  equal,  signifies  to  make  unequal  or  below  what  it 
ought  to  be;  detract,  in  Latin  detraetum,  participle 
of  detrtko^  from  de  and  trako  to  draw  down,  signifies 
to  sec  a  thing  below  its  re^  value;  tradaee,  la  Latin 
tradmea  or  tranadueo,  signifies  to  carry  firom  one  to 
another  that  which  Is  unAivourable ;  dipreeiaU,  from 
the  Latin  pretium,  a  price,  signifies  to  bring  down  the 
price ;  degrade,  compounded  of  de  and  grade  or  gradua 
a  step,  degree,  signifies  to  bring  a  degree  or  step  lower 
than  one  hA  been  before ;  dwry  signifies  literally  to 
cry  down. 

The  Idea  of  lowering  the  value  of  an  object  is  com- 
mon to  all  these  words,  which  diflbr  in  the  circum- 
stances and  object  of  the  action.  Disparagement  is 
the  must  Indefinite  in  the  manner :  detract  and  traduce 
are  specifick  in  the  forms  by  which  an  object  is  lowered : 
disparagement  respects  the  mental  endowments  and 
qualifications:  detract  and  traduce  are  said  of  the 
moral  character ;  the  former,  however,  in  a  less  specifick 
manner  than  the  latter.  We  disparage  a  man's  per- 
formance by  speaking  slightingly  or  it;  we  detract 
from  the  merits  of  a  person  by  ascribing  his  success  to 
chance ;  we  traduce  him  by  handing  about  tales  that 
are  unfavourable  to  his  reputation :  thus  authors  are 
apt  to  disparage  the  writings  of  their  rivals;  'It  is  a 
bard  and  nice  subject  for  a  man  to  speak^f  himself;  It 
grates  his  own  heart  to  say  any  thing  of  disparagement, 
and  the  reader's  ears  to  hear  any  thing  of  praise  fiom 
him.'— CowLKT.  A  person  may  detract  from  the  skill 
of  another ;  '  I  have  very  often  been  tempted  to  write 
invectives  upon  those  who  have  detracted  from  my 
works ;  but  I  look  upon  It  as  a  peculiar  happhiess  that 
I  have  always  hindered  my  resentments  from  proceed- 
ing to  this  extremity.'— Addison.  Or  he  may  traduce 
him  by  relating  scuidalous  reports ;  '  Both  Homer  and 
Virgil  had  their  compositions  usurped  by  others ;  both 
were  envied  and  traduced  during  their  lives.'— Walsh. 

To  disparage,  detract,  and  traduce,  can  be  applied 
only  to  persons,  or  that  which  is  personal ;  depreciate, 
degrade,  and  deerv,  to  whatever  is  an  object  or  esteem ; 
we  depreciate  and  degrade,  therefore,  thlnss  as  well  as 
persons,  aixl  decry  things :  to  depreciate  Is,  however, 
not  so  strong  a  term  as  to  degrade ;  fbr  the  language 
which  Is  employed  to  depruiate  will  be  mild  compared 
with  that  used  for  degrading :  we  may  depreciate  an 
object  by  implication,  or  in  indirect  terms ;  but  harsh 
arid  unseemly  epithets  are  employed  ftir  degrading: 
thus  a  man  may  be  said  to  depreciate  human  nature, 
who  does  not  represent  it  as  capable  of  its  true  eleva- 
tion ;  he  degrades  It  who  sinks  it  below  the  scale  of 
rationality.  We  may  depreciate  or  degrade  an  indi- 
vidual, a  language,  and  the  like;  we  Jerry  measures 
and  principles:  the  two  former  are  an  act  of  an  indi- 
vidual ;  the  latter  is  properly  the  act  of  many.  Some 
men  have  such  perverted  notions  that  th^y  are  always 
depreciating  whatever  is  esteemed  excellent  in  the 
world ;  *  The  business  of  our  mmlish  French  authors 
Is  to  depreciate  human  nature,  and  consider  it  under 
Its  worst  appearances.*— Addison.  They  whose  in- 
terests hav«' stifled  all  feelings  of  humanity,  have  de- 
graded tlie  poor  Africans,  in  order  to  Justify  the  en- 
slaving of  them  ;  *  Akenside  certainly  retained  an  unne- 
eessary  and  outrageous  zeal  for  what  he  called  and 
thought  llbennr ;  a  zeal .  which  sometimes  di^ulaes 
from  the  world  an  envious  desire  of  plundering  wealth, 
or  degrading  greatness.'— Johnson.  Political  port!- 
sans  commonly  decry  the  measures  of  one  party,  in 
order  to  exalt  those  of  another;  'Ignorant  men  are 
very  subject  to  decry  those  beauties  in  a  celebrated 
work  which  tbey  have  not  eyes  to  discover.'— A  ddicion. 


Disparage  and  degrade  have  tlie  same  meaning  nk 
given  in  ine  precetUng  article;  derogau,  in  Latin 
derogatus,  (torn  derogo  to  repeal  in  part,  signifies  to 
take  from  a  thing. 

Disparage  Is  here  employed,  not  as  the  act  of  per- 
sons, but  of  things,  in  which  case  it  is  allied  to  dsro- 
rate,  but  retains  Its  indefinite  and  general  sense  aa 
before :  circumstances  may  disparage  the  nerform- 
ances  of  a  writer ;  or  they  may  derogate  from  the 
hotKrars  and  dignities  of  an  individual :  it  would  be  a 
high  disparagemsnt  to  an  author  to  have  it  known 
that  he  had  neen  guilty  of  plagiarism;  It  derogates 
fhim  the  dignity  of  a  magistrate  to  take  part  hi  popular 
measures.  To  degrade  is  here,  as  in  the  former  case, 
a  much  stronger  expression  than  the  other  two :  what- 
ever disparages  or  derogates  does  but  take  awav 
a  part  from  the  value ;  but  whatever  degradee  sinks  it 
many  degrees  in  the  estimation  of  those  In  whow  eyes 
it  is  degraded ;  In  this  manner  rellgloo  is  degraded  by 
the  low  arts  of  its  enthuslastick  professora ;  '  Of  the 
mind  that  can  deliberately  pollute  itself  with  ideal 
wickedness,  for  the  sake  of  spreading  the  contagion  in 
society,  I  wish  not  to  conceal  or  excuse  the  depravitv. 
"^uch  degradation  of  the  dignity  of  genius  cannot  be 
contenipiated  but  with  grief  and  indignation.' — John* 
SON.  whatever  may  tend  to  the  disparagement  of  a 
religious  profession,  does  injury  to  the  cause  of  truth ; 
"T  Is  no  disparagement  to  philosophy,  that  it  cannot 
deify  us.'— GijiNviLLB.  Whatever  derogates  fVom 
the  dignltv  of  a  man  in  any  office  is  apt  to  degrade  the 
ofike  Itself;  *  I  think  we  may  say,  without  derogating 
from  those  wonderful  performances  (the  Iliad  and 
.£neid),  that  there  Is  an  unquestionable  maanificence 
in  every  part  of  Paradise  Lost,  and  indeed  a  much 
greater  than  could  have  been  formed  upon  any  Pagan 
qrstem.'— AD0I8ON. 


Asperse,  in  Latin  aspersus,  participle  of  asperge  tc 
sprinkle,  signifies  in  a  moral  sense  to  stain  with  spots, 
detract  has  the  same  signification  as  given  under  the 
head  of  disparage;  defame^  in  Latin  defamo,  com- 
pounded of  tne  pnvaiive  de  and /ama  fame,  signifies  to 
deprive  of  reputation ;  slander  is  doubtless  connected 
with  the  words  slur,  suUp,  and  soil,  sigiiifyiog  to  stain 
with  some  spot ;  calumniate,  from  the  Latin  calumnia, 
and  the  Hebrew  0^3  infamy,  signifies  to  load  with* 

All  these  terms  denote  an  effiirt  made  to  injure  the 
character  by  some  representation.  .Asperse  and  da 
tract  mark  an  indirect  misrepresentation;  defama, 
slander,  and  eo/Kiniuafs,  a  positive  assertion. 

To  asperse  is  to  fix  a  stain  on  a  moral  character ;  to 
detract  is  to  lessen  its  merits  and  excellencies.  .Asper- 
sions always  imply  something  bad,  real  or  supposed : 
detractions  are  always  founded  on  some  supposed 
good  in  the  oli^t  that  is  detracUd:  to  defame  Is 
openly  to  advance  some  serious  charge  against  the 
character :  to  slander  is  to  expose  the  faului  of  another 
in  his  absence:  to  calumniate  Is  to  communicate  se- 
cretly, or  otherwise,  circumstances  to  the  injury  of 

Aspersions  and  detractions  are  never  positive  false- 
hoods, as  they  never  amount  to  more  than  Insinuations ; 
defamation  is  the  publick  communication  of  facts,  whe- 
ther true  or  fhlse :  slander  involves  the  discussion  ot 
moral  qualities,  and  is  consequently  the  declaratiofi  of 
an  opinion  as  well  as  the  communication  of  a  fact: 
calumnyy  on  the  other  hand.  Is  a  positive  communica- 
tion of  circumstances  known  by  the  narrator  at  the 
time  to  be  false.  Jispersions  are  the  ettect  of  malice 
and  meanness ;  they  are  the  resource  of  the  basest 
persons,  insidiously  to  wound  the  characters  of  those 
whom  they  dare  not  openly  attack :  the  most  virtuous 
are  exposed  to  the  malignity  of  the  asperser;  « It  la 
certain,  and  observe«l  by  the  wisest  writers,  that  there 
are  women  who  are  not  nicely  chaste,  and  men  not 
severely  honest,  in  all  families;  therefore  let  those 
who  may  be  apt  to  raise  aspersions  upon  ours,  please 
to  give  us  an  impartial  account  of  their  own,  and  we 
shall  he  satisfied.* — Stbklk.  Detraction  is  the  effect 
of  envy :  when  a  man  is  not  disposed  or  able  to  follow 
the  example  of  another,  he  strives  to  detract  from  thr 


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merit  of  his  aetlon  by  qaeatknihig  the  pnrltf  of  his 
motlvea :  disUngulabed  penoiw  are  the  motft  exposed 
:o  the  evil  tongues  of  detractors;  *  What  made  their 
enmity  the  more  entertaining  to  all  the  reM  of  their 
■ex  was,  that  in  their  detraction  from  each  otiierf  nei- 
ther could  fall  upon  terms  which  did  not  hit  herself  as 
aiuch  as  her  adveraary.*— Steble.  D^amation  is  tl;e 
consequence  of  peiwnal  resentment,  or  a  busy  inter- 
Terence  with  other  men*s  aflUn;  it  is  an  onjurtiflable 
exposure  of  their  errours  or  vices,  which  is  often  visited 
with  the  due  vengeance  of  the  law  upon  the  nflbnder ; 
*  What  shall  we  say  of  the  pleasure  a  man  takes  in  -a 
defamatorf  libel  1  Is  it  not  a  heinous  sin  in  the  sigbt 
of  God  1*— Addisoh.  Slandet  arises  either  f\nm  a 
mischievous  temper,  or  a  goesipptng  humour ;  it  is  the 
resource  of  ignorant  and  vacant  minds,  who  are  in 
want  of  some  serious  occupation :  tlie  steiultfrcr  deals 
unroercifblly  with  his  nelEhbour,  and  speaks  without 
regard  to  truth  or  (Uaebood; 

Steiufer,  that  wont  of  poisons,  ever  flnda 
An  easy  entrance  to  igaoUe  mands.-^HsRVBTk 

Calwemy  is  the  worst  of  actions,  resulting  from  the 
worst  of  motives ;  to  ii^ure  the  reputation  of  another 
by  the  sacrifice  of  truth,  is  an  accumulation  of  guilt 
which  is  hardly  exceeded  by  anv  one  In  the  whole 
catalogue  of  vices ;  *  Tlie  way  to  silence  eaiwmnjf,  says 
Bias,  is  to  be  always  exercised  in  such  things  as  are 
praiseworthy.'-^ADOtsoii.  Slanderers  and  ealumni- 
at/ore  are  so  near  a-kin,  that  they  are  but  too  often 
found  in  the  same  person:  it  is  to  be  expected  that 
when  the  elanderor  has  exhausted  all  his  surmises  and 
censure  upon  his  neighbour,  he  will  not  liesitate 
columniaU  him  rather  than  remain  silent 

If  I  speak  sligbUngly  of  my  neighbour,  and  insi- 
nuate any  thing  against  the  punty  or  his  principles,  or 
the  rectitude  of  his  conduct,  I  aeperee  him :  ii  he  be 
a  charitable  man,  and  I  ascrifie  his  charities  to  a  selfish 
motive,  or  otherwise  take  away  fVom  the  merit  of  his 
conduct,  I  am  gnUly  of  detraction:  if  I  publish  any 
thing  openly  that  injures  his  reputation,  I  am  a  ii»- 
^amer :  if  I  communicate' to  others  the  reporu  that  are 
in  circulation  to  his  disadvantage.  I  am  ^sUndertr: 
if  I  ftbricate  any  thing  myself  and  spread  it  abroad,  I 
am  a  calumniator. 



To  ahase  expresses  the  strongest  degree  of  sdf-bu- 
miliation,  from  the  French  abaieser^  to  bring  down  or 
make  low,  which  Is  compounded  of  the  intensive  sylla- 
ble a  or  ad  and  haiesor  from  has  low,  In  Latin  basis 
the  base,  which  is  the  kiwest  part  of  a  cohimn.  It  is 
at  present  used  principally  In  the  Scripture  language, 
or  in  a  metaphorical  style,  to  imply  the  layinf  aside  all 
the  high  pretensions  which  distinguish  us  from  our 
fellow-creatures,  the  descending  to  a  state  compara- 
tively low  and  mean ;  to  kMmbU^  in  French  knmiUer^ 
from  the  Latin  kumHis  humble,  and  kumne  the  ground, 
naturally  marks  a  prostration  to  the  ground,  and  figura- 
tively a  lowering  the  thoughts  and  feelings.  Accord- 
ing to  the  pfiDcipIea  of  Christianity  whoever  abasetk 
himself  shall  be  exalted,  and  according  to  the  same 
principles  whoever  reflects  on  his  own  litUeDess  and 
luiworthiness  wUl  daily  hmmbU  himself  befoi«  his 

To  degrade  (e.  To  disparage)^  signifies  to  tower  in 
the  estimation  of  others.  It  supposes  already  a  state 
of  e.'evation  either  In  outward  circunkstances  or  in  pub- 
lick  upinion ;  disgrace  Is  compounded  of  the  privative 
die  and  the  noun  grace  or  favour.  To  diegrace  pro- 
perly implies  taput  out  of  fkvour,  which  is  always  at- 
tended more  or  less  with  circumstances  of  ignominy, 
and  reflects  contempt  on  the  object ;  debase  is  com- 
pounded c£  the  intensive  syllable  de  and  the  a4}ecUve 
bassy  signifying  to  make  very  base  or  low. 

The  moaest  man  abas«s  himself  by  notinsistinc  on 
the  distinctions  to  which  he  may  be  justly  entitled : 
the  penitent  man  knmbles  himself  by  confessing  his 
errours;  the  man  of  rank  degrades  himself  by  a  too 
familiar  deportment  with  his  mferiours ;  he  diegracee 
himself  by  bis  meanness  and  irregularities,  and  debaeee 
his  character  by  his  vices. 

We  can  never  be  aftoscd  lyy  abasing  ourselves,  but 
we  may  be  ktmbled  by  unseasonable  ketmiliatietie,  or 
r  conoesslona ;  we  may  be  degraded  by  do- 

seemilDg  from  our  rank,  and  diegrued  by  the  azpoaoit 
of  our  unworthy  actions. 

The  great  and  good  man  may  be  abaeed  and'jktist- 
bUd,  but  never  degraded  or  disgraced ;  his  glory  fol- 
lows him  in  his  abaeement  or  knmiliaiian;  his  great- 
ness protects  him  from  degradeUiont  and  hia  virtue 
shields  him  from  diegrace. 

*Tis  ImmortaUty,  'tis  that  akme 

Amid  life's  pains,  afrastsMfUs,  e 

Tlie  soul  can  comfbrL— Tomio. 

My  aotti  is  justly  ksmkUd  in  the  dust— Rows. 
It  is  necessary  to  abase  those  who  will  exalt  them 
selves;  to  bMmbU  those  who  have  lofty  opinions  of 
themselves :  *  If  the  mind  be  curbed  and  koMklod  too 
much  in  ehUdran;  if  their  spirits  be  sussed  and  broken 
much  by  too  strict  a  hand  over  them :  they  lose  all 
their  vigour  and  industry  .'—Loon.    Those  who  act 
inconsistently  wiih  theli  rank  and  staiion  are  fre> 
quently  degraded  ;  but  it  is  more  conamoo  for  otf  lere  to 
be  u^iuslly  degraded  tbrouab  the  envy  and  ill-will  of 
theirlnferiours;  'Itis  very  disingenuous  to  level  tim 
best  of  mankind  with  the  worel,  and  fbr  the  faults  of 
particulars  to  degrade  the  whole  species.*— Hoaaaa 
Polly  and  wickedness  bring  diegrace  on  courts,  where 
the  contrary  ought  to  be  found ; 
You'd  think  no  fools  disgraced  the  fbnner  reign, 
Did  not  some  grave  examples  still  remain.— Pops. 
The  misuse  of  thlnp  for  inferlour  purposes  debase 
their  value :  '  It  Is  a  kind  of  taking  God's  name  ia 
vain,  to  debase  religion  with  such  frivolous  disputes.'— 


Of  all  these  terms  degrade  and  diegrace  are  the 
most  nearly  allied  to  each  other;  but  the  fonner  has 
niflst  regard  to  the  external  rank  and  condition,  the 
latter  to  the  moral  estimation  and  character.  What- 
ever is  low  and  mean  is  degrading  for'those  who  are 
not  of  mean  condition ;  whatever  Is  immoral  is  (2tV 
graceful  to  all,  but  most  so  to  those  who  ought  to  k  now 
better.  It  Is  degrading  for  a  nobleman  to  associate 
with  prize-fighters  anif  jockeys;  it  is  disgrac^ul  ttn 
him  to  countyiance  the  violation  of  the  laws,  which 
be  is  bound  to  protect;  it  is  degrading  for  a  clergy  man 
to  take  part  in  the  ordinary  pleasures  and  occupationa 
of  mankind  in  general;  ft  is  disgracrful  for  him  to 
indulge  in  any  levities;  Domitiaiid«jTa^atf  himself  by 
the  amusement  which  he  chose  of  catching  flies ;  he 
disgraced  himself  by  the  cruelty  which  he  mixed  with 
his  meanness ;  king  John  of  England  degraded  himself 
by  his  mean  compliances  to  the  pope  and  the  barons, 
and  diegraced  himself  by  many  acts  of  ii^ustice  ami 

The  higher  the  rank  of  the  individual  the  gn^ter  his 
degfadation :  the  higher  his  character,  or  the  more 
sacred  his  office,  the  greater  his  diefrace^  if  be  act  in- 
consistently with  its  dignity :  but  these  terms  are  not 
confined  to  any  rank  of  life ;  there  is  that  which  ia 
degrading  and  diegraceful  for  every  person,  however 
low  his  station ;  when  a  man  forfeits  that  which  he 
owes  to  himself,  and  sacrifices  his  independence  to  his 
vices,  he  degrades  himself;  *  When  a  hero  is  to  be 
pulled  down  and  degraded  It  Is  best  done  in  doggerel.* 
— Addison.  '  So  deplorable  is  the  degradation  of  our 
nature,  that  wliereas  before  we  bore  the  image  of  God, 
we  now  only  retain  the  image  of  men.'— South.  He 
who  forfeits  the  good  opinion  of  those  who  know  him 
is  diegraced^  and  he  who  fails  to  bestow  on  an  object 
the  favour  or  esteem  which  it  is  emiiled  to  dvtgnueo 
it ;  '  We  may  not  so  in  any  one  kind  admire  her,  that 
we  disgrace  her  in  any  other ;  but  let  an  her  waya 
be  accordinff  unto  their  place  and  degree  adored.*— 
HooKEE.  But  alUv>ugh  the  terra  disgrace  when  eene- 
rally  applied  is  always  taken  In  a  bad  sense,  yet  m  re- 
gard to  individuals  it  may  be  taken  in  an  indifit;rent 
sense ;  it  is  possible  to  be  disgraeedy  or  to  lose  tlie 
favour  of  a  patron,  through  his  caprk>e,  without  any 
fkult  on  the  part  of  the  disgraced  person ;  '  Philips  died 
honoured  and  lamented,  before  .any  part  of  his  reputa- 
tion had  withered,  and  before  his  patron  St.  John  had 
disgraced  him.' 

Hen  are  veiy  liable  to  err  In  their  jodcemenis  on 
what  is  degrading  and  disgraceful ;  but  all  who  are 
anxious  to  uphold  the  statfon  and  character  In  which 
they  have  been  placed,  may  safely  observe  this  rule. 

I  that  nothing  can  be  so  degrading  as  the  violation  or 
truth  and  sincerity,  and  nothing  so  disgrac^ul  as  a 
breach  of  moral  rectitude  or  pnvrielj. 


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'  Tbflte  teniM  mtj  be  empknred  wtth  a  liainar  dlt 

tinciton  in  regard  to  thiofi ;  a  tmng  ia  dtgradtd  which 

fUl>  any  degree  In  the  icale  of  general  eeiJinatlon ; 

All  higher  knowledge,  in  her  pneence,  fUle 

A  thing  Is  Hagraeed  when  it  beconMaor  is  made  lea 
tofdy  and  deeinble  than  it  waa;  . 
And  where  the  valee  with  Tiolete  onea  were  ei«wB*d| 
Now  knotty  buna  and  tlioras  Hagrwu  the  pound. 



Jik^tik  is  an  Inteneive  of  ahoMty  elgnUytng  to  abase 
thoroughly  in  spirit;  conSvnanA  and  ctn^use  are  derived 
(torn  different  parts  of  the  same  Latin  verb  eonfuwlo. 
and  its  parttciple  eanfugut.  Cntfumda  is  compounded 
of  ton  aadfwmdo  to  pour  together.  To  confound  and 
tomfuMo  tlien  signify  properly  to  melt  together  or  into 
one  maoi  what  ought  to  be  distinct ;  and  figuratively, 
as  it  b  Iwre  taken,  lo  derange  tlie  tlxHighis  in  such 
■annnr  as  tlwt  they  seem  melted  together. 

A^nak  expresses  more  ttian  amfawkiy  and  umfown^ 
more  than  omfuot;  shame  contributes  greatly  to 
€tmMkmnU ;  what  is  sudden  and  unaccountable  serves 
to  eanfonmd ;  tMshfulness  and  a  varies  of  emotions 
give  rise  to  cMtftwMit. 

The  haughty  man  is  aka$k»d  when  be  is  humbled  in 
the  eyes  of  others,  or  the  sinner  when  he  stands  con- 
vicied;  *If  Peter  was  so  abashed  when  Ctirlst  gave 
him  a  look  aAer  his  denial ;  if  tliere  was  so  much 
dread  in  his  kwks  when  he  was  a  prisoner ;  how  much 
graaier  will  it  be  when  he  sits  as  a  Judge.'— SomrB. 
The  wicked  man  Is  «oi^fonmd§d  when  iiia  villany  is 

Alaa!  I  am  aftaid  they  have  awak'd, 

And  *tls  not  done:  th'  anenqic,  and  not  Iha  deed, 

Cb^famndM  us ! — SHAXSPBAaa. 
A  modest  person  may  be  eo^fue§d  in  the  presence  of 
his  superioun;  *The  various  evils  of  disease  and 
poverty,  pain  and  sorrow,  are  iVequently  derived  from 
oilwra ;  but  shame  and  comfusum  are  supposed  to  pro- 
ceed from  ourselves,  and  .to  be  incurred  only  by  the 
misconduct  which  they  furnish.*>-HAWKaswoaTH. 

Jihask  is  always  taken  in  a  bad  sense:  neitlier  tte 
acorn  of  fools,  nor  tlie  taunts  of  tlie  oppressor,  will 
abaok  him  who  has  a  conscience  void  or  oflfence  to- 
wards God  and  man.  To  be  eonfmmdtd  is  not  always 
the  consequence  of  guilt:  superslllioB  and  ignorance 
are  liable  to  be  amfomnded  by  extraordinary  ^eno- 
mena;  and  Providence  somethnes  tldnks  fit  to  eon- 
found  the  wisdom  of  the  wieest  by  signs  and  wonders, 
Ihr  above  the  reach  of  human  comprehension.  Con- 
fuBion  is  at  the  best  an  Infirmitv  more  or  leas  excusa- 
Dle  according-  to  the  nature  ofthf  cause:  a  steady 
mind  and  a  clear  bead  are  not  easily  eonfuoed,  but  per- 
aons  of  quick  senalbllKy  cannol  ahravs  preaarve  a 
perftct  colleetion  of  thought  In  trying  dtuatk>ns,  and 
those  who  have  any  coiuciouaneas  of  guilt,  and  are 
not  very  hardened,  will  be  aoon  thrown  Into  toitfntion 
by  cloae  inierrogatorlea. 


Diskmomr  Irapliea  the  state  of  being  without  honour, 
or  the  thing  whkb  does  away  honour ;  diograea  slgni- 
lies  the  itate  of  dligraee,  or  that  which  causes  the  dia- 
trace  («.  Ma$e) ;  »hame  denoiaa  either  the  feeling  of 
behig  ashamed,  or  that  which  causes  this  ftellng. 

Di$gra£B  Is  more  tiian  dUkonomr^  and  leaa  than 
akmrno.  The  disgraca  Is  applicable  to  tliose  who  are 
not  sensible  of  the  dishonour ^  and  the  shame  for  those 
who  are  not  sensible  of  the  disgraee.  The  tender 
mind  is  aUve  to  dishonour :  those  who  yield  to  their 
passions,  or  are  hardened  in  their  vicious  courses,  are 
alike  insensible  to  disgrace  or  shams.  Dishonour  is 
seldom  the  consequence  of  any  oflhnce,  or  ollbred  with 
any  Intention  of  punishing ;  it  lies  mostly  in  the  con- 

J  of  the  indtviduaL    Disgraes  and  shame 

are  the  direct  couaequences  of  misconduct :  but  the 
former  appliea  to  clrcamstancea  of  less  Importance 
than  the  latter ;  conaequently  the  feeling  of  being  in 
disgrate  la  not  so  strong  as  that  of  shame.  A  cl^n 
feels  it  a  dishonour  not  to  be  chosen  to  those  offices  of  | 
mat  and  honour  for  which  lie  constdera  himsMf  etigi-i 

bte;  it  la  a  dtsgroM  to  a  seboolboir  to  be  ]teced  tha 
inhlacraaa;  i 

which  la  heightened  into  ahame  if 
it  brinphlm  into  puniahment; 
Like  a  dull  actor  now, 
I  have  forgot  my  part,  and  I  am  out 
Even  to  a  AiU  dM/racs^-BiiAKsraAaB. 
'  I  was  aecietly  concerned  to  aae  human  nature  in  ao 
much  wretchedness  and  disgraee,  but  could  not  foi^ 
bear  smiling  to  hear  Sir  Roger  advise  the  old  woman 
to  avoid  aH  communications  with  the  devU.'— A»- 

Tlie  Aar  of  dishonour  acts  as  a  laudable  stimulna  to 
the  diachaige  of  one's  duty ;  the  fear  of  disgrau  ot 
shams  sarvea  to  prevent  the  commission  of  vices  or 
crimes.  A  soldier  feels  It  a  dishonour  not  to  be  placed 
at  the  post  of  danger; 

'T  is  no  disAenaiir  for  the  brave  to  dlbr-DRTOM. 
But  lie  is  not  always  snOciently  alive  to  the  disgraes 
of  beinc  punished,  nor  is  he  detened  from  his  Irregu- 
larities by  the  open  shame  U>  which  he  is  sometimes  pot 
in  the  presence  of  his  fellow-soldiers ; 
When  the  proud  theatrea  dischMe  the  scene 
Which  interwoven  Britons  seem  to  raise, 
And  show  the  triumph  wiiich  their  shame  displays. 

Aa  epithets  these  terns  likewlstf  rise  insenae,  and  are 
distinguished  by  other  chaiacterlstkks ;  a  dishonourabta 
action  Is  that  which  vMatea  the  piinclplea  of  iKmour ; 
a  disgraceful  action  is  that  which  redeots  disgraes ;  a 
sham^ul  action  Is  that  of  which  one  ought  to  be  fully 
ashamed  ;  it  is  very  dishonourable  for  a  man  not  ta 
keep  hia  word,  or  for  a  aoldler  not  to  mailntaia  hie 

He  did  dishononroNe  find 
Thoae  arUdea  which  did  our  state  decreaae. 
It  la  very  disgraesful  for  a  gentleman  to  aasoclate  with 
thoee  who  are  hia  inferlours  in  station  and  education ; 
*  Maatera  must  correct  their  servants  with  gentleness, 
prudence,  and  mercy,  not  with  upbraiding  and  dis- 
graceful language.'— Taylor  (Help  lAving).    It  la 
very  shameful  for  a  gentleman  to  uae  his  rank  and  in- 
fluence over  the  lower  orders  only  to  mislead  them  ftom 
their  duty ; 

This  all  through  that  great  princess  prMe  did  lUI, 
And  came  to  shameful  end.-«niaBR. 
A  person  is  likewise  said  to  be  dishonourable  who  la 
diapoaed  to  bring  dishonour  upon  hlmaelf ;  but  things 
only  are  disgrauful  or  shameful :  a  dishonourable  man 
rendera  himself  an  outcast  among  his  equals ;  he  must 
then  descend  to  his  inferioura,  among  whom  lie  may 
become  fomlUar  with  the  disgraceful  and  the  shameful: 
men  of  cultivation  are  alive  to  what  Is  dishonourable; 
men  of  all  stations  are  alive  to  that  which  Is  for  them 
disgraceful^  or  to  that  which  is  in  itself  sAame/ai ;  the 
sense  of  what  is  dishonourable  is  to  the  superiour  what 
tlie  sense  of  the  dugraeeful  Is  to  the  inferlour;  but  the 
aenae  of  what  la  skomtful  is  independent  of  rank  or 
station,  and  forms  a  part  of  that  moral  sense  which  la 
inherent  in  the  breaat  of  every  rational  creature.  Who* 
ever  therefore  cherlahes  in  hlmaelf  a  lively  aenae  oC 
what  Is  dishonourable  or  disgraceful  la  tolerably  seeue 
of  never  commiiang  anything  that  Is  shamefiU. 


Discredii  algnlfiea  the  lose  of  credit;  disgrate^  the 
lose  of  grace,  nivour,  or  eateem ;  rnroack  sianda  for 
the  thing  that  deaerves  to  be  reprtfodUd ;  nnAseonded 
for  the  thine  that  givea  seamdal  or  offence. 

The  conduct  of  men  In  their  variona  rehitiona  with 
each  other  may  give  riae  to  the  unflivourabie  aenilment 
which  is  expreased  In  common  by  these  terms.  Thinp 
aiesald  to  reflect  disersditt  or  disgrace  to  bring  reprgask 
or  scandal,  on  the  individual.  These  terms  seem  to 
riae  in  sense  one  upon  the  other:  dw^occ  is  a  stronger 
Chan  discredit;  rspreaek  than  disgrau;  and 
scandal  than  rofreaeh. 

Discredit  interftree  with  a  man's  credit  or  refpecta- 
billiy ;  disgraes  marks  him  out  as  an  object  of  unfii- 
vourable  distinction ;  reproach  makes  him  a  subject  of 
raareasV^conTefaation ;  scsmdal  makes  hbu  an 


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of  olfenee  or  ena  abborrance.  As  regularity  in  hours, 
reKulsrIty  in  habits  or  modes  of  livlu|{f  regularity  in 
payments,  are  a  credit  to  a  family ;  so  is  any  deviation 
from  this  order  to  its  tUteredit :  as  moral  rectitude, 
kindness,  charity,  and  benevolence,  serve  to  ensure  the 
food-will  and  esteem  of  men ;  ao  do  instances  of  untbdr 
dealing,  cruelty,  inhumanity,  and  an  unfeeling  temper, 
tend  to  the  dUgrate  of  the  oflfender:  as  a  life  of  dis- 
tinguished virtue  or  particular  instances  of  moral  ex- 
cellence, may  cause  a  man  to  be  spolcen  of  in  strong 
terms  of  couimen4ation ;  so  will  flagrant  atrocities  or  a 
course  of  immorality  cause  his  name  and  tiimself  to  be 
the  general  subject  of  refrotuh :  as  the  profeasion  of  a 
Christian  with  a  consistent  practice  is  the  greatest  or- 
nament which  a  man  can  put  on:  so  is  the  profession 
with  an  inconsistent  practice  tbe  sreuttftt  deformity 
thai  can  be  witnessed ;  it  is  calculated  to  bring  a  scandal 
on  religion  itself  in  the  eyes  of  those  who  do  not  know 
and  ft^el  its  intrinsick  excellencies. 

DUertdLt  depends  much  on  the  character,  circum- 
stances, and  situation  of  those  who  ^credit  and  those 
who  are  discredited.  TlMse  who  are  in  responsible 
situations,  and  have  had  confidence  reposed  in  them, 
must  have  a  peculiar  guard  oveA  their  conduct  not  to 
bring  discredit  on  themselves :  disgrace  depends  on  tbe 
teuiper  of  men's  minds  as  well  as  collateral  circum- 
stances ;  where  a  nice  sense  of  moral  propriety  is  pre- 
▼alent  in  any  community,  disgrace  inevitably  attaches 
to  a  deviation  from  good  morals.  Rsfreack^XkA  scamdal 
refer  more  immcdiateiy  to  tbe  nature  of  the  actions  than 
the  character  of  the  persons;  tbe  former  being  em- 
ployed in  general  maitere;  the  latter  mostly  in  n  reli- 
|ious  application :  it  is  greatlv  tc>  the  discredit  of  all 
heads  of  publick  institutions,  when  tbey  allow  of  abuses 
that  interfere  with  the  good  order  of  the  establishment, 
or  divert  it  (W>m  its  original  purpose ;  *  *T  is  the  duty 
of  every  Clulsiian  to  be  concerned  ibrthe  reputation 
or  discredit  his  life  may  brink  on  his  profession.*— 
RoGKKs.  *  When  a  roan  is  made  up  wholly  of  the  dove 
without  the  least  grain  of  the  serpent  in  his  composi- 
tion, he  becomes  ridiculous  in  many  circumstances  of 
his  life,  and  very  oden  discredits  bis  best  actions.'— 
AsDisoH.  In  Bparta  tlie  slightest  intemperance  re- 
flected great  disgrace  on  the  <iffeuder; 

And  he  whose  aflluence  disdain'd  a  place, 
Brib'd  by  a  title,  makes  it  a  disgrace.— Bkovth. 
In  the  present  age,  when  the  views  of  men  on  Chris- 
tianity and  its  duties  are  so  much  more  enlightened  than 
tb^  ever  were,  it  ts  a  reproach  to  any  nation  to  con- 
tinue to  trafflck  in  the  blood  of  Its  fellow-creatures ; 
'The  cruelty  of  Mary's  persecution  equalled  the  deeds 
of  those  tyrants  who  liave  been  the  reproach  to  buman 
nature.'— RoBBSTSON.    The  blasphemous  indecencies 
of  which  religious  enthusiasts  are  guiltv  in  the  excess 
of  their  zeal  is  a  scandal  to  all  sober-minded  Christians ; 
His  lustful  orgies  be  enlarfed 
£ven  to  the  hill  of  scandal^  by  the  grove 
Of  Mok)cb  homicide.— Milton. 

hfamoMS^  like  tt^saty  (e.  /Vssiy),  is  applied  to  both 
persons  and  thina;  scandalous^  or  causing  scandal, 
only  to  things:  a  character  is  ii^amcns,  or  a  transaction 
Is  titfamous;  but  a  transaction  only  is  scandalous. 
Infamous  and  scoiidaioats  are  both  said  of  that  which 
is  calculated  to  excite  great  displeasure  in  the  minds  of 
all  who  hear  It.  and  to  degrade  the  offenders  in  the 
genera)  estimation;  but  tlie  infamous  seems  to  be  that 
which  producen  greater  publicity,  and  more  general 
reprehension,  than  llie  scandalous,  consequently  is  that 
wnich  is  more  sertous  in  its  nature,  and  a  greater  vio- 
lation of  good  morals.  Many  of  the  leaders  in  the 
French  revolution  rendered  themselves  infamous  by 
their  violence,  their  rapine,  and  their  nmrders ;  '  Tiiere 
is  no  crime  more  infamous  than  the  violation  of  truth.' 
— JoHKSoN.  The  trick  which  was  played  upon  the  sub- 
scribers to  the  South  Sea  Company  was  a  scandalous 
flnud ,  '  It  is  a  very  great,  though  sad  and  scandalous 
truth,  Uiat  rich  men  are  esteemed  and  honoured,  while 
the  ways  by  which  they  grow  rich  are  abhorred.'— 

/Voaiy  is  tbe  opposite  to  |Ood  famt;  it  consists  in 

an  evil  report ;  igwomnui,  fttnn  n/omen  a  same,  flgnUiei 
an  ill  name,  a  stainea  name ;  ouprohrium,  a  lAtin 
word,  compounded  ot  opotoh  and  prokrum,  signifiei 
the  highest  d^ee  of  reproach  or  stain. 

The  idea  of  discredit  or  disgrace  in  the  highest  po** 
sible  degree  is  common  to  all  tliese  terms :  but  infam§ 
Is  that  which  attaches  more  to  tbe  itAo%  than  to  the 
penon ;  ignominif  is  tlirown  upon  tbe  person ;  and  •• 
prokrium  is  thrown  upon  tbe  agent  rather  than  toe 

Tbe  n^oaqr  caoses  either  the  person  or  thing  to  be 
ill  spoken  of  by  all ;  abhorrence  or  both  is  expressed  by 
every  mouth,  and  the  ill  report  spreads  from  mouth  to 
mouth :  ignominf  causes  the  name  and  tbe  person  lo 
be  lield  in  contempt ;  and  to  become  debased  in  the 
eyes  of  others :  opprobrium  causes  tlw  person  to  be 

rken  of  in  severe  terms  of  reproach,  and  to  be 
nncd  as  something  polluted.  The  infamw  of  a 
traitorous  proceeding  Is  increased  by  the  addition  of 
ingratitude;  the  ignominif  of  a  miblick  punishment  Is 
increased  by  the  wickedness  of  the  offender ;  i^ipro 
brium  sometimes  (klls  upon  the  Innocent,  wlien  chr 
cumatances  seem  to  convict  them  of  guilt 

Jnfamjf  is  bestowed  by  tbe  puUick  voice ;  it  does  not 
belong  to  one  nation  or  one  age,  but  to  every  age :  tbe 
infamy  of  a  base  transaction,  as  the  massacie  of  tbe 
Danes  in  England,  or  of  the  Hugonots  in  France,  will 
be  handed  down  to  the  latest  posterity ;  '  The  share  of 
infamff  that  is  likely  to  ftll  to  the  lot  of  each  individual 
in  publick  acts  is  small  indeed.'— Bubkb.  Ipiomtny  is 
brought  on  a  person  by  the  act  of  the  magistrate:  the 
publick  sentence  of  the  lAw,  and  the  infliction  of  that 
sentence,  exposes  the  name  to  publick  scorn ;  the  igno- 
minf^  however,  seldom  extends  beyond  tlie  Indlviduala 
who  are  immediately  concerned  in  it:  every  honest 
man,  however  humble  hisstation  and  narrow  his  sphera, 
would  fttin  preserve  his  name  IVom  being  branded  with 
the  ignominf  of  either  himself,  or  any  of  his  family, 
sufliMing  death  on  the  gallows ; 

For  strength  Arom  tnith  divided,  and  from  Jiat, 
Illaudable  naught  merits  but  dispraise, 
And  ignominf. —Mthvon. 
Opprobrium  Is  the  Judgement  passed  by  the  publick; 
it  18  more  silent  and  even  more  confined  than  the  infamy 
and  the  ignominf;  individuals  are  exposed  to  it  ac- 
cording to  the  nature  of  the  imputations  under  which 
they  lie:  every  good  man  would  be  anxious  to  escape 
the  opprobrium  of  having  forfeited  his  integrity ; 
Nor  he  their  outward  only  with  tbe  skins 
Of  beasts,  but  Inward  nakedness  much  more 
Opprobrious,  with  hia  robe  of  righteousness 
Arraying,  cover'd  from  his  fktber's  sight 



Reoils,  from  the  Latin  vilis,  signifies  to  reflect  upon 
a  person,  or  retort  upon  him  that  which  is  vile :  to 
viliff,  signifies  to  make  a  thing  vile,  that  is,  to  set  it 
forth  as  vile. 

To  reviU  Is  a  personal  act,  it  ts  addressed  directly  to 
the  object  of  offence,  and  is  addresstd  tor  Uie  purpose  of 
making  the  person  vile  in  his  own  eyes :  to  vilify  b  an 
indirect  attack  which  serves  to  make  the  object  appear 
vile  in  tbe  eyes  of  otheta.  Rsttile  is  said  only  of  pei^ 
sons,  for  persons  only  are  reviled ;  but  vilify  is 

mostly  of  things,  for  thinp  are  often  vili^d. 
is  contrary  to  all  Christian  duty ;  it  is  commonly  re- 
sorted to  Iqr  the  most  woithless,  and  practised  upon  th« 
ost  worthy ; 

But  chief  he  gloried  with  licentious  style, 
To  lairti  the  great,  and  monarchs  to  rsrils.— Pon. 
To  vxliff  Is  seldom  Justiflablc ;  for  we  cannot  vilify 
without  using  improper  lancuage ;  It  is  seldom  resorted 
to  but  for  the  gratification  of  ill  nature:  'There  Is  no- 
body so  weak  of  invention  that  cannot  make  some 
little  stories  to  viliff  his  enemy.'- Addison. 

Reproach  has  the  same  eignlflcatton  as  given  under 
7\»  Blame;  contumelf,  from  contumeo,  that  If,  contra 
tumeo,  signifies  to  swell  up  againcY ;  obloquf,  from  ob 
and  (Of  MSTr  signifies  speaking  against  or  to  the  dis- 
paragement of. 


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Tlie  idea  of  contempCuoos  or  angry  treatnMnt  of 
Mbento  common  to  all  \hem  terms ;  batnfroaekiB 
tlie  generai,  eontwmelf  and  ohloqmf  are  the  particular 
terma.  Reproach  Is  either  deaerved  or  undcMrved; 
tbe  name  of  Puritan  is  applied  aa  a  term  of  rtpnaek 

I  as  ailect  greater  mirity  tban  oUieis;  tbe 
of  Cbrwtiao  ia  a  name  of  rtfr^aek  ia  Turkey :  but  r*- 
proaek  taJ(eo  abaolutdy  is  alwaya  suppoaed  to  be  unde- 
aerred,  and  to  be  itaelf  a  vice; 
Has  foul  refroufck  a  privilege  ftom  heav*n  T— Pon. 
Ctnluwulf  is  always  undeserved;  it  is  tbe  insolent 
sweUiog  of  a  worthleaa  person  againat  merit  In  dis- 
treaa ;  our  Saviour  waa  ezpoaed  to  the  eantuwulf  of 
tbe  Jeffs ;  *  Tbe  royal  captives  followed  In  tbe  traitt, 
amid  tbe  hordd  yells,  and  ftantick  dances,  and  in- 
ibmous  €oiUumelie»t  of  tbe  furies  of  bdl.*— BusKSt 
OMMsy  is  always  supposed  to  be  deserved ;  It  to  ap- 
plicable to  those  whose  conduct  has  rendered  them 
objects  of  general  censure,  and  whose  name  therefore 
bas  almoat  become  a  rtfrottek.  A  man  who  uaea  his 
power  only  to  oppreas  those  wbo  are  connected  with 
nim  will  naturally  and  deservedly  bring  upon  himself 
much  oblofuig;  *  Reasonable  moderation  batb  freed  us 
llnom  being  subject  unto  that  kind  of  oblofuify  whereby 
as  tbe  church  of  Rome  di  \h,  under  the  colour  of  love 
towards  those  tbingi  whicu  lie  harmless,  maintain  ex- 
tremely most  hurtful  corruptions ;  so  we,  peradventure 
might  be  upbraided,  that  under  colour  of  hatred  to. 
wards  tliose  things  that  are  corrupt,  we  are  on  tbe 
oiber  side  as  extreme,  even  ogainst  most  bannleaiordi* 
nances.*— HooKKK. 


Repfad^ult  when  applied  to  tbe  person,  sljpiiAfs 
fbll  <tf  r^roaekea ;  when  to  the  thing,  deserving  of 
r«fr»Mk:  ahusiv*  Is  otUy  applied  to  tbe  person,  signi- 
lyug  after  tiie  manner  of  abu$e:  aemrriims*  from 
»cmrrm  a  bulibon,  is  emjployed  as  an  epithet  eitner  for 
pcrsoos  or  tbingi,  signifying  using  tcurrilUjff  or  tbe 
language  of  a  buflboo.  Tbe  conduct  of  a  pemn  is 
rtpr—el^  in  as  much  aa  It  provokea  or  is  entitled  to 
tbe  rtpr^ueku  of  others ;  tbe  langusge  of  a  person  is 
r^rtmOfml  when  it  abounds  in  rtfroackUt  or  par- 
takes of  tbe  nature  of  a  reproach  :  a  peraon  Is  abuaive 
wbo  indulges  himself  in  abuse  or  abunoe  buguage: 
and  be  is  seurriioua  wbo  adopts  scurniitf  or  eemri- 
iem»  language. 

When  applied  to  lb*  same  otject,  whether  to  tbe 
penon  or  to  tbe  thing,  they  rise  bi  sense,  tbttreproaeh- 
/■l  Is  less  tban  tbe  ahieive,  and  this  than  tbe  senr- 
nlam*:  tbe  reprwadtfid  is  sometimes  warianted  by 
tbe  provocation ;  but  the  abusive  and  eeurrUous  are 
always  unwarranuble :  reproachful  iancuagemay  be 
oonaisteiit  with  decency  and  propriety  of  speech,  but 
when  the  term  is  taken  absolutely,  It  is  generally  in  the 
bad  sense;  '  Honour  teaches  a  man  not  to  revenge  a 
contumelious  or  reproachful  word,  but  to  be  above 
k.*— South.  JlbusiM  and  semrrilous  language  are 
t  tbe  laws  of  good  breeding,  if  not  of 

Thus  envy  pleads  a  natural  claim 
To  pereecnte  tbe  Muse's  Aune, 
Our  poets  In  all  times  abusive^ 
From  Homer  down  to  Pope  Inclusive. 


'  Let  your  mtrtb  be  ever  void  of  all  tfewm'ltty  and  biting 
wofds  to  any  man.'— Sta  HsHav  Sidhbt.  A  parent 
may  somrtimes  find  It  necesnr}'  to  address  an  unruly 
son  In  remroachful  tenna ;  or  one  friend  may  adopt  a 
repraackjul  tone  to  another;  none,  however,  but  tbe 
hmeat  orders  of  men,  and  those  only  when  their  angry 
paariona  are  awakeiied,  will  deacend  to  eAuMwa  or 
acnrriisHS  language. 


To  reprobate^  which  ia  a  variation  of  reproach^  Is 

■inch  stronger  tban  to  eandemnt  which  bears  tbe  same 

feneral  meaning  as  given  under  7^  Blame ;  we  always 

i  when  we  reprobaU,  but  not  vice  versd:  to 

^  is  to  esndssm  (n  strong  and  repioacbAil  lan> 

We  reprobaU  all  measures  which  tend  to  sow 

I  in  society,and  to  loosen  the  ties  by  which  men 

are  bound  to  each  other;  *  Simulation  (according  to 

mf  Loid  Cbesiecfleld}  la  by  no  means  to  be  re^robaud 


as  a  disguise  for  chagrin  or  an  engine  of  wlL'~iUo- 
EaHxii.  We  condemn  all  disrespectful  language  to 
wards  superiours ; 

I  see  tbe  right,  and  I  approve  It  too; 

Gvn^sam  tbe  wrong,  and  yet  tbe  wrong  pursue. 

We  rtfrobaU  only  the  thing ;  we  eomdemn  tbe  penon 
alao :  any  act  of  diaobedience  in  a  child  cannot  be  iik> 
atronglynrproftsted;  a  perKm  must  expect  to  be  com- 
demned  when  he  inv<rives  himself  in  embanassmeiiis 
through  bis  own  imprudence. 

jabuse^  wbkb  ftom  tbe  Latin  stafsr,  aignifyfaig  to 
li^ore  by  improperly  using,  is  here  taken  in  tbe  nieta- 
pborkalapoUcaiion  for  ill-treatment  of  persons;  ntvec- 
tive,  from  fbe  Latin  inveho^  signifles  to  bear  upon  or 
against  Haiah  and  unseemlv  censure  is  the  idea 
common  to  these  terms;  but  the  former  to  employed 

more  properly  agabist  the  person,  the  latter  againei'ihe 

Ahue  is  addressed  to  the  Individual,  and  mostly  by 
word  of  mouth :  imvectioe  to  communicated  mostly  by 
writing,  ^buee  to  dictaiad  by  anger,  which  throws  oft 
all  constraint,  and  violates  all  decency:  invective  ia 
dictated  by  par^  sfrfrit,  or  an  Intemperate  warmth  of 
feeling  In  matters  of  opinkm.  jSkuse  to  always  re- 
sortea  to  by  tbe  vulgar  in  their  private  quarreto:  is- 
veuive  to  the  ebullition  of  seal  ana  ill-nature  in  publlck 

Tbe  more  mde  and  ignorant  tbe  man,  the  more 
liable  he  to  to  indulge  in  abuse  ;  *  At  an  entertainment 
given  by  Pistotratus  to  some  of  hto  intimates,  Thra- 
sippus,  a  man  of  violent  passion,  and  inflamed  witli 
wine,  took  aome  occaston,  not  recorded,  to  brt;ak  out 
into  the  most  violent  abuse  and  insulu'— Cdmbkk- 
LAND.  The  more  restless  and  opiniated  the  par 
tisan,  whether  in  religion  or  politicks,  tlie  more  ready 
he  to  to  deal  in  invective ;  *  Thto  to  a  true  way  of 
examining  a  libel ;  and  when  men  consider  that  no 
man  living  thinks  better  of  their  heroes  and  patrons  for 
tbe  panegyrick  given  tbem.  none  can  think  themselves 
lessened  by  their  tnvwtiee.*— Stbblb.  We  must  ex- 
pect to  meet  with  abuse  from  tbe  vulgar  whom  we 
oflfend ;  and^f  we  are  in  high  stations,  our  conduct  wlU 
draw  forth  tneecttee  fVom  busybodles,  whom  spleen 
baa  converted  tano  oppoaitiooists. 


Deelaimt  in  Latin  declamo,  that  to,  de  and  elams, 
signifies  literally  to  cry  in  a  set  form  of  words ;  ipveifh 
is  taken  in  tbe  same  sense  as  given  In  the  preceding 

To  dselsMi  toto  speak  either  for  or  against  a  person; 
dseiomtv  to  in  all  cases  a  notoy  kind  of  oratory :  *  It 
to  usual  for  masters  to  make  their  boya  declaim  on  both 
aidea  of  an  argument.*— Swirr.  To  inveigh  signlflea 

always  to  speak  against  the  object ; 


tlon  publlck  men  and  publick  measures  are  subjects  for 
the  dcelamer;  private  Individuato  afford  subjecu  for 
inveighing;  the  former  is  under  the  influence  of  parti- 
cular opinions  or  prejudices;  the  latter  to  the  fruit  of 
personal  resentment  or  dtopleasure :  patriots  (aa  they  , 
are  called)  are  always  declaiming  against  the  conduct 
of  thoae  in  power,  or  the  state  ot  the  nation ;  and  not 
unfrequently  they  profit  by  the  opportunity  of  inAlging 
their  private  pkiue  by  timeighiug  against  particular 
members  of  the  government  who  have  disappobited 
tlieir  expectations  of  advancement.  A  declaimeria 
noisy ;  he  to  a  man  of  words ;  be  makes  long  and  loud 
speeches :  *  Tully  (was)  a  good  orator,  yet  no  good 
poet;  Sailust,  a  good  blstonugranher,  but  no  good  de- 
e/atsisr.'— FoTHBBBT.  An  invetgher  is  virulent  and 
personal :  he  enters  into  private  details,  and  often 
Indulses  hto  malignant  foellnp  under  an  afifecied  re- 
gard for  morality ;  '  Ill-tempered  and  extravagant  in- 
vectives against  papistic  made  by  men,  whose  persons 
wanting  authority,  aa  much  aa  their  speeches  do  rea- 
son, do  nothing  else  but  set  an  edge  on  our  adversaries* 
sword.*— Jacbbom.  Although  both  these  words  may 
be  applied  to  moral  obiects,  yet  declamations  are  more 
directed  towards  the  thing,  and  invectives  against  the 
person;  *The  grave  and  the  merry  have  equally 
^'  tbemaelvas  at  liberty  to cooclude,  either  wli£ 

Digitized  by 




ieeUmaUtry  eomptoteti,  or  Httlrie&l  oeMmrai  of  ftmmie 
loily.'— JouMioif. 

Scarce  were  the  ilocia  refttshM  with  momips  dew, 
When  Damon  8tretch*d  beneath  an  olive  shade, 
And  wildly  staring  upward  thus  iitoeigh*d 
Against  the  conauous  gods.  -Drtpbh. 


JBtosM,  In  French  Uosier,  probably  ftooi  the  Greek 
fitSki^at,  perfect  of  the  verb  ^Adrrw  to  hurt,  signi- 
fying to  deal  harshly  with ;  rtprv—  comes  fhmi  the 
Latin  rvprvte,  which  signlfles  ihe  conimry  of  jrrsto, 
to  approve;  rtfr^ack,  la  French  rsfifwcAer,  ooro- 
pounded  of  rs  and  prs«U,^rvxtmiw  near,  algnUieB  to 
cast  boclK  upon  a  person ;  iqi^ratd.  compounded  of  up 
or  v^oii,  and  kraid  or  »rssd,  aigniOes  lo  hatch  against 
one ;  ecasars,  in  French  cemtwi^  Latin  cnsara,  the 
censorship,  or  the  office  of  censor ;  the  censor  being  a 
Roman  magistrate,  who  took  cognizance  of  the  moral* 
and  manners  of  the  people,  and  poolshed  oflances 
against  either :  ccadtim,  in  French  eomAammtr^  Latin 
e«ii4«mM,  compounded  of  e#»  and  daatno,  ftoro 
damnxM,  a  loss  or  penalty,  signiaea  to  Be&iance  to 
aome  penalty. 

The  expression  of  one*B  disapprobation  of  a  peraon, 
or  of  that  which  he  1ms  done,  is  the  common  idea  in 
the  signification  of  these  terms ;  but  to  kUme  expresses 
less  than  to  reprove.  We  simply  charge  with  a  fkult 
in  blaming;  but  In  rtprtmt^^  severtty  ia  mixed  with 
the  charge.  Rtproaek  ezpresees  more  tlian  either;  it 
is  to  MasM  acrimoniously.  We  need  not  hesitate  to 
blame  as  occasion  may  require ;  but  it  is  proper  to  be 
cautious  how  we  deal  out  rtprtf  where  the  necessity 
,  of  the  case  dues  not  fully  warrant  it ;  and  it  is  highly 
culpable  to  r^roatk  without  the  most  aubstantial 

To  Maais  and  reproM  are  the  acts  of  a  superiour ;  to 
reprpaeky  t^braid^  that  of  an  equal:  to  eeiw«r«  and 
condemn  leave  the  relative  coadliioii  of  the  parties 
undefined.  Masters  blame  or  reprove  tlicir  servants; 
parents  tlieir  chiMren;  friends  and  acquaintances 
reproach  and  upbraid  each  other ;  persona  of  all  oon- 
diiloos  may  eoneure  or  be  eonowedy  condemn  or  be  esw- 
demmed,  according  to  circumstances. 

Blame  and  reproof  are  dealt  out  on  every  ordinary 
occai^ion;  reproach    and   upbraid    respect  personal 
matters,  and  always  that  which  affects  the  moral 
character ;  eenoore  and  oendemmaiion  are  provoked  by 
faults  and  misconduct  of  different  descriptions.  Every 
fkult,  however  trivial,  may  expose  a  person  to  blame^ 
particularly  if  be  perform  any  office  for  tiie  vulgar, 
who  are  never  contented; 
Chafe  not  thyself  about  the  rabble*e  cenaare : 
Ttiey  bUme  or  praise,  but  as  one  leads  the  other. 
,  FaowsB. 

Inlentfamal  errours,  however  small,  aeem  necessarily  to 
call  for  reproof  and  yet  it  Is  a  mark  of  an  imperious 
tem|ier  to  substitute  reproof  in  the  place  of  admoni*' 
tk>n,  when  the  latter  might  posMibly  answer  the  pur- 
pose ;  *  In  all  terms  of  reproof  when  the  sentence  ap- 
pears to  arise  ftom  personal  hatred  or  passion,  it  is  not 
then  made  the  cause  of  mankind,  but  a  misunder- 
standing between  two  persons. '-HmaLB.  There  is 
nothing  which  provokes  a  reprooeh  sooner  than  Ingra- 
titude, altliough  the  offender  is  not  entitled  to  ao  much 
notice  from  tlie  injured  peraon ; 
The  prince  replies:  *■  Ah  cease,  divinely  fair. 
Nor  add  reproaehe*  to  the  wounds  I  bear.'— Port. 

Mutual  upkraidmge  commonly  iblkiw  between  those 
who  have  rounially  contributed  to  their  misfortunes ; 
Have  we  not  known  thee,  slave !  Of  all  the  boat, 
'The  man  who  acts  the  least  upbraide  the  most. 


The  deftetive  eiecQtioB  of  a  work  Is  eaknlMed  to 
draw  down  eonaure  upon  ila  antfaor,  panlcttlaity  If  he 
betray  a  want  of  modesty ; 
Thoagh  ten  ttanes  worn  tbeaialveB,  yoo*U  ftaquent 

rhoae  who  with  keenest  rage  wUI  esasiirt  yon.— Pirr. 

Hie  ndaiakcs  of  •  fenoaL  or  •  BtadMr  of  itoia.  Witt 

provoke  condemnation,  particalaily  if  fala  iategritj  \m 

called  In  question; 

Tliua  th^  in  mutual  aocuantk>n  ncnt 

The  ftultieaahoun,'but  neilber  waS-cmiewmmg. 


Blam«j  reproof,  and  upkraiiing,  are  always  ad- 
dressed dlieetly  lo  the  Individual  in-  peamn ;  reproachj 
eoneure,  and  eemdemn^tion,  are  aoineiimes  conveyed 
through  an  indirect  channel,  or  not  addresaed  at  all  to 
the  party  who  is  the  object  of  them.  When  a  master 
bUunee  his  servant,  or  a  parent  reprovee  his  child,  or 
one  Mend  upbraide  another,  he  directs  hisdiscouiseto 
him  to  exprem  bis  disapprobation.  A  man  wilf  always 
be  reproached  by  his  neighbours  for  the  vices  he  com- 
mits, however  he  may  fkncy  himself  screened  from 
their  observation ;  *  The  very  regret  of  being  surpassed 
In  any  valuable  quality,  by  a  person  of  the  same  abili- 
ties with  ourselves,  wlU  reproach  our  own  laziness, 
and  even  shame  us  into  imitation.*— Roobrs.  Writen 
ceneure  each  other  in  their  publications ; 

Men  may  csmhts  thine  (weakness) 
The  gentler,  if  severely  thou  exact  not 
More  strength  firom  me,  than  in  tliyseif  was  found. 


The  condoct  of  Individuals  Is  sometinMS  condemned  by 
tb  e  puMick  at  Isrge ;  *  They  who  approve  my  cmiduct  in 
this  particular  are  much  more  numerous  than  those 
who  condemn  It*— Spbctator. 

Blame,  r^roaeh,  upbraid,  and  condeeen,  may  be  ap- 
plied to  ourselves ;  reproof  and  eenoure  are  applied  to 
others:  we  blame  ourselves  for  acts  of  imprudence > 
our  consciences  reproach  us  for  our  weaknesaca,  and 
upbraid  or  cMdcaia  us  for  our  ilns. 

Personal  Name  or  censure  Is  implied  by  both  thaae 
terms,  but  the  former  is  much  miMer  than  the  latter. 
By  repreheneion  the  personal  independence  Is  not  so 
sensibly  affected  as  in  tlie  case  of  reproof:  people  of 
all  ages  and  stations  whose  conduct  is  exposed  to  the 
investigation  of  others  are  liable  to  rrprehmjeion ;  but 
children  only  or  such  aa  are  in  a  subordinate  capacity 
are  exposed  to  reproof.  The  repreheneion  anioiinia 
to  little  more  than  peering  aa  unfavourable  sentence 
upon  the  condoct  or  another ;  *  When  a  man  feels  the 
repreheneion  of  a  fKend,  seconded  by  hto  own  heart, 
he  la  easily  heated  into  resentmeot.*-~^onRsoic.  iZe- 
pDM/addsto  therMreAmstMi  an  unfHendly  addresa 
to  the  offender  ;*  There  ia  an  ol»lk|ue  way  of  repro^ 
whkih  takes  off  fVom  the  sharpness  of  it.*— Stbblb. 
The  master  of  a  achoot  may  l>e  ezpoapd  to  the  repro- 
heneion  of  the  parents  for  any  supposed  impropriety: 
his  scholars  are  sul^act  U»  bis  frequent  repro^. 


Check  derives  Its  figurative  signification  from  the 
eft«e4!-ina<«,  a  movement  in  the  game  of  chess,  whereby 
one  stops  one's  ad  versary  ftom  making  a  further  move ; 
whence  to  cheek  signifira  to  stop  tlie  course  of  a  per 
son,  and  on  this  occasion  by  the  exercise  of  authority ; 
ckide  is  in  Saxon  eidan,  probably  connected  withcyUon 
to  scold;  reprimand  is  compounded  of  the  privative 
svUable  repri  and  mand,  in  Latin  stands  to  commend, 
signifying  not  to  commend ;  reprove,  in  French  rs- 
prouver,  Latin  reprobo^  is  compounded  of  the  privative 
syllaUe  re  and  prebo,  signifying  to  find  the  contrary  of 
good,  that  is,  to  find  bad.  to  blame ;  rebuke  is  com- 
pounded of  re  and  buke,  in  French  bouche  the  month, 
signifying  to  stop  the  mouth. 

The  idea  of  expressing  one*s  dffapprobation  of  a 
person's  conduct  is  common  to  all  these  terms. 

A  penon  is  ekecked  that  he  may  not  contlnne  to  do 
what  is  oflbnsive ;  he  is  chidden  fbr  what  he  has  done 
that  he  may  not  repeat  it:  impertinent  and  forward 
peopte  require  to  be  cAaciBsd,  that  they  may  not  beeomn 

I  hatn  when  vke  can  bolther  aifamema, 
And  Tlnnt  longua  todbsdk  her  pride. 


Thon^eN  people  are  cktdden  when  thcj  give  hurt 
proofkof  their  carelessness;  *Wbat  had  be  to  do 
cMds  at  waBV^StUkMJUUAMM. 


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Feople  an  eftaeted  by  MtkNw  ud  kmki,  m  wtll  as 

But  if  a  clam^rauB  vlie  ptebeten  Toas. 

Him  witli  rtfro0f  he  ekeeJ^d,  or  lam'd  with  Mows. 

Thef  are  tkiiim  hyVorda  ooly:  a  timid  penon  ta 
aaailf  dkMftarf;  the  waot  even  of  due  eDOourafement 

wUl  werv9  to  damp  hb  icMliidoii :  the  yooof  are  per- 
petually iaUtaif  into  invfularitiei  whkfa  nqoira  to  be 

Hb  bouM  was  known  to  all  the  vafrant  train, 
He  ekid  their  wanderinfi,  but  relievM  their  pain. 


To  chide  marka  a  etronger  degree  of  diaplenaure  than 
ntprnaoMd,  and  u^rimMnd  than  rqtrov  or  rebuke  ;  a 
peraoo  may  chide  or  reprimand  In  anger,  he  reproves 
and  rekukee  with  eoolneM:  great  offencee  call  forth 
thidinge ;  omlaelons  or  mietakee  occasion  or  require  a 
reprtmemd;  *This  aoit  of  language  waa  very  eeverely 
reprimaMded  by  the  Censor,  who  told  the  criminal 
*•  that  be  spoke  In  contempt  of  the  court*'  '—Addison 
AMD  STKaLa.  Irregulariiies  of  conduct  give  rise  to 
reproof:  *  He  who  endeavours  only  the  happiness  of 
him  whcNn  be  repronee^  will  always  have  tlie  satisftc- 
tlon  of  either  obtaining  or  deserving  kindness.*— John- 
aoN.  Improprieties  of  behaviour  demand  rebuke; 
« With  all  the  Infirmities  of  his  disciples  he  calmly 
bore ;  and  hia  rebukes  were  mild  when  their  provoca- 
thma  weregreat'- Rlaie. 

Chiding  and  rejnitnemdinf  are  employed  for  offences 
against  the  Individual,  and  In  cases  where  the  greatest 
disparity  ezisu  in  the  station  of  the  parties ;  a  child 
is  chid  by  his  parant;  a  servant  is  rq^aunded  by  his 

Repreving  and  r^mMng  have  less  to  do  with  the 
relation  or  station  of  the  parties,  than  with  the  nature 
of  the  offence :  wisdom,  age,  and  experience,  or  a  spi- 
ritnal  mission,  give  authority  to  reprove  or  r^uke  thoae 
whoae  conduct  has  violated  any  law,  human  or  divine : 
the  prophet  Nathan  reproved  king  David  for  his 
heinous  offences  against  his  Maker :  our  Saviour  re- 
plied Peter  for  his  presumptuous  mode  of  soeech. 


Accnse^  in  Latin  seevss,  compounded  of  se  or  ad 
and  enso  or  eeaus.  a  cause  or  trial,  signifies  to  bring  to 
trial ;  charge^  from  the  w<ml  cargo  a  burden,  signines 
10  lay  a  burden ;  inkpeaek^  in  French  empechsr  to  hinder 
Of  disturb,  compounded  of  en  or  m  and  ^es  the  foot, 
signifles  to  set  one's  foot  or  one's  self  against  an- 
other; arraign,  compounded  of  or  or  ad  and  raign 
or  range,  dgnlfles  to  range,  or  set  at  the  bar  of  a 

The  Idea  of  asserting  the  guilt  of  another  Is  common 
to  these  terms.  Accuse  in  the  proper  sense  is  applied 
particularty  to  crimes,  but  it  is  abn  applied  to  every 
apecies  of  oflfcnce ;  eAar^  may  be  applied  to  crimes, 
but  is  used  more  commonly  for  breaches  of  moral  con- 
duct; we  accuse  a  person  of  murder;  we  charge  him 
with  dishonescy. 

JlccMse  Is  profieriy  a  fbrmal  action ;  charge  is  an  in- 
Ibrmal  action ;  criminals  are  accused,  and  thieir  aeeusa- 
Han  la  proved  In  a  court  of  Judicature  to  be  true  or 
fiilse;  '  The  Countess  of  Hertford,  demanding  an  au- 
dience of  the  Queen,  hiid  before  her  the  whole  series 
of  his  mother's  cruelty,  and  exposed  the  Improbability 
of  an  secaMtisn,  by  wblcb  he  was  charged  with  an 
iotent  lo  commit  a  murder  that  couM  produce  no  ad- 
vantage.'—JoBnaoN  ilAfs  ef  Savage).  Any  person 
nay  be  charged,  and  the  charge  may  be  either  sub- 
aundated  or  retaiedin  the  Judgement  of  a  third  per- 

-  -  ,  '  Nor  waa  this  irregularity  the  only  charae  which 
Lord  "ryreonnel  braogfat  against  him.  Having  given 
hhn  a  colEectlon  of  valoaMe  books  ataniped  with 
his  own  arms,  he  had  the  mortification  to  see  them 
in  a  abort  time  azpoaed  for  sale.'— JoHNaoa  {Ltfa  of 

tmpeaek  and  arra^  are  both  apeetea  of  aecusMg; 
the  Ibrmer  in  appHcaoon  to  statesmea  and  state  eon- 
cenn,  the  latter  In  regard  to  the  general  eondoct  or 
prineiplas ;  with  tMadOlMnGe,  that  he  who  impeaehas 
only ssscrta  the  galkbut  does  not  determine  it;  but 
Iboae  who  arraign  also  take  upon  themselTea  ta  de- 
dda:  itataBnen  un  ta^psacAsd  for  mlademeanotua  In 

the  administration  of  goTcnmwnt;  *  Arlatoglton,  whh 
revengeAii  cunning,  impeashsd  several  courtiers  and 
Intimates  of  the  tvrant.'— Cumberland.  Klnts  ar- 
raign governours  of  provinces  and  subordinate  princea, 
and  In  this  manner  kings  are  sometimes  arraigned  he- 
fore  mock  tribilto^:  ow  Saviour  was  srra^fa«d  before 
Pilate;  and  creatures  in  the  madness  of  presumption 
arraign  their  Creator ;  *  O  the  faMXpresslble  borroar 
that  will  aaize  upon  a  poor  sinner,  when  he  sianda  or- 
ro^^asd  at  the  bar  of  Divine  Juatice.'—8oDTB. 

To  aesase  («.  TeJSceuse)  la  only  to  aasert  the  guilt 
of  another ;  to  eensure  (v.  TV  Censwre)  ia  to  take  that 
guilt  for  granted.  .  We  accuse  only  to  make  known  the 
ofience,  to  provoke  inquiry;  we  esfuwe  In  order  to 
Inflict  a  punishraenL  An  acnisa<c9»  may  be  false  or 
true ;  a  eensure  mild  or  aevere.  It  Is  extremely  wrong 
to  acoiss  another  without  auflklent  grounds ;  '  If  the 
person  accused  makethMa  Umocence  plainly  to  appear 
upon  his  trial,  the  aoeuesr  is  hnmediately  put  to  an 
ignominloua  death.*— Swirr.  But  still  worse  to  een- 
sure blm  without  the  rouai  substantial  grounds;  *  A 
ataiesman,  who  Is  poaseaed  of  real  merit,  should  look 
upon  his  political  eensurers  with  the  same  neglect  that 
a  good  writer  regardshiscriticks.'— Adduon. 

Every  one  is  nt  liberiy  to  occsm  another  of  offenees 
which  he  knows  him  for  acertalnty  to  have  committed ; 
but  none  can  censurs  who  are  not  authorised  fay  their 
age  or  station.  Jieeusing  is  for  the  most  part  employed 
for  publick  offences,  or  for  private  offences  of  much 
greater  magnitude  than  those  which  call  for  censure ; 
*  Mr.  Locke  accuses  those  of  great  negligence  who 
discourse  of  moral  things  with  the  least  obscurity  la 
the  terms  they  make  use  of.'— Budgell.  'If  any 
man  measure  hb  words  by  his  heart,  and  speak  as  he 
thinks,  and  do  not  express  more  kiiidne«s  to  every 
man  than  men  usually  have  for  any  man,  be  can 
hardly  escape  the  censure  of  the  want  of  breeding.'— 



To  eensure  (v.  7b  Aeeuse)  expresses  less  than  to 
«aisiadv«rCorcriti«tse;  one  may  alw^seeantre  when 
one  animadverts  or  eriUeises:  antmadvert,  in  Latin 
animadeerU,  i.  e.  animuM  verts  ad,  sicnifies  lo  turn  the 
mind  towards  an  object,  and,  In  thb  caae,  with  the  view 
of  finding  fault  with  It:  to  oHMeise,  from  the  Greek 
Kfivis  to  judge,  signifies  to  pass  a  Judgement  upon  an- 

To  eensure  and  animainsrt  are  both  pemonal,  the 
one  direct,  the  other  indirect;  trisitism  is  directed  lo 
things,  and  not  to  persons  only. 

OnMitn'ag  consists  in  finding  some  Aiult  real  or  s«i>- 
posed ;  it  refers  mostly  to  the  conduct  of  individuals. 
Animadvert  consists  In  suggestinx  some  errour  or  im- 
propriety: it  refere  mostly  to  matters  of  opinion  and 
dbpuie ;  eritieism  C4>nabt8  In  minutely  examining  the 
intrinsick  characteristicks,  and  appreciating  the  merits 
of  each  individunlly,  or  the  whole  collectively ;  it  reftia 
to  mattere  of  science  and  learning. 

To  eensure  requires  no  more  than  simple  asuertion : 
its  Justice  or  propriety  often  rests  on  the  authoritv  of 
the  individual :  *  Many  an  author  has  been  dejected  at 
the  censure  of  one  whom  he  has  k)Oked  upon  as  an 
ldk)(.'— Addison.  jfiMiadversisns  require  to  be  accom- 
panied with  reasons ;  those  who  animadvert  on  the 
proceedinn  or  (pinions  of  othera  must  state  some 
grounds  tor  their  objections;  'I  wish,  Sir,  yon  would 
do  us  the  favour  to  anmodesrt  frequently  npon  the 
fklse  taste  the  town  b  in,  with  relation  to  the  plays  as 
well  as  operas.'— Stbxlb.  Critieism  b  altogether  argu- 
mentative and  illustrative :  it  takes  nothing  for  granted, 
it  analyzes  and  decompoaes,  it  compares  and  combines, 
it  aaserts  and  supports  the  assertions ;  '  It  b  ridiculous 
for  any  man  to  eritkise  on  the  works  of  another,  who 
haa  not  dbtlnguiahed  himself  by  hb  own  perform^ 
aaeas.*— A»msoif. 

The  ofllce  of  the  eansurar  b  the  eaaiest  and  least 
honourable  of  the  three;  it  may  be  assumed  by  igno- 
rance and  Impertlnenee,  It  may  be  performed  for  the 
Mrpoae  of  tndulglnc  an  ancry  or  imperioua  temper. 
The  taak  of  antmadosrtni^la  delleate;  It  mav  be  re- 
aorted  to  for  the  tndnlgence  of  an  overweening  self- 
concelL   The  offlce  of  a  eriiick  b  both  arduous  and 


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honoarable ;  It  cannot  be  fiUed  by  any  one  Ineompeicnt 
for  tbe  charge  without  ezpoaing  his  arrogance  and  folly 
lo  merited  contempt 


Cnuure  has  the  same  general  meaning  bb  given  in 
the  precedina  aniclee  (v.  Tb  jiecu^e) ;  carp.  In  Latin 
carpo,  slgniflee  to  pluck ;  eavi7,  in  French  caviUer, 
in  Latin  caviUor^  from  cavUlwn  a  hollow  roan,  and 
emu9  hollow,  efgniAee  to  be  unsound  or  unsubstantial 
In  speech. 

To  eensutt  respects  positive  erronrs ;  to  carp  and 
ca«i7  have  regard  to  what  Is  trivial  or  Imaginary ;  the 
former  is  employed  for  errours  In  persons ;  tbe  latter 
for  supposed  defects  in  thinp.  Centurt  are  frequently 
necessary  from  those  who  have  the  authority  to  use 
them ;  a  good  fhther  wiU  eeiunre  bis  children  when 
their  conduct  to  cmuurabU :  but  censure  may  likewise 
be  frequently  unjust  and  frivolous ;  *  From  a  conscious- 
ness of  his  ownintegrity,  a  man  assumes  force  enough 
to  despise  the  little  ee$uuree  of  Ignorance  and  malice.*— 
Bin>«KLL.  Carping  and  euvUUng  are  resorted  to  only 
to  indulge  Ill-nature  or  self-conceit :  whoever  owes 
another  a  grudge  will  be  most  disposed  to  carp  at  all  he 
does  in  order  to  lessen  him  in  the  esteem  of  others: 
those  wlio  contend  more  for  victory  than  truth  will  be 
apt  to  cavil  when  they  are  at  a  loss  for  Air  argument : 
party  politicians  carp  at  the  measures  of  administra- 
tion ;  Mt  is  always  thus  with  pedants;  they  will  ever 
be  carping^  if  a  gentleman  or  roan  of  honour  puts  pen 
to  paper.*— Stkblb.  Infidels  cavil  at  the  evidences  of 
Christianity,  because  they  are  determined  to  disbe- 
lieve ;  *  Envy  and  cavil  are  the  natural  fruits  of  laxl- 
ness  and  ignorance,  which  was  probably  the  reason  that 
in  tlie  lieathen  mythology  Honius  is  said  to  be  the  son 
of  Noz  andfiomnus,  of  darkness  and  sleep.*— Adoisom. 


Jinimadvereion  (v.  TV  Censure)  includes  censure  and 
reproof;  criticism  Implies  scrutiny  and  Judgement, 
wnetber  for  or  against;  and  stricture^  from  tbe  Latin 
strietura  and  strings  to  touch  lightly  upon,  compre- 
hends a  partial  Investigation  mingled  with  censure. 
We  smimadvert  on  a  person's  opinions  by  contradicting 
or  correcting  them ;  we  criticise  a  person's  works  by 
minutely  and  rationally  exposing  their  iniperfcciinos 
and  beauties;  we  pass  strictures  on  publick  measures 
by  descanting  on  them  cursorily,  and  censuring  them 

Animadoersions  are  too  personal  lo  be  Impartial ; 
eonsequently  they  are  seldom  Just;  they  are  mostly 
resorted  to  by  those  who  want  to  build  up  one  system 
on  the  ruins  of  another ;  but  the  term  is  sometimes 
emploved  in  an  indiflbrent  sense ;  <  These  things  fail 
undbra  province  you  have  partly  pursued  already,  and 
therefore  demand  your  animadioersion  for  tlie  regu- 
lating so  noble  an  entertainment  as  that  of  the  stage.*— 
Btbklb.  Oritidsm  Is  one  of  the  most  Important  and 
honourable  departments  of  literature:  a  critick  ought 
justly  to  weigh  the  merits  and  demerits  of  authors,  but 
of  the  two  his  office  to  rather  to  blame  than  to  praise ; 
much  less  Injury  will  accrue  to  the  cause  of  literature 
from  the  seventy  than  from  the  laxity  of  criticism: 
» Just  criticism  demands  not  only  that  every  beauty  or 
blemish  be  roindtely  pointed  out  In  its  different  degree 
and  kind,  but  also  that  the  reason  and  foundation  of 
excellencies  and  faului  he  accurately  ascertained.*— 
Warton  .  Strictures  are  mostly  the  vehicles  of  party 
•pleen ;  like  most  ephemeral  productions,  they  are  too 
superficial  to  be  entitled  to  derlous  notice ;  but  this  term 
Is  also  used  in  kn  indifferent  sense  for  cursory  critical 
remarks ;  *  To  the  end  of  most  plays  I  have  added  short 
strictures^  containing  a  general  censure  of  faults  or 
prsise  of  excellence.*— JoHHsoM. 

Both  thepe  terms  are  employed  in  regard  to  the  con- 
duct Df  others,  but  ll»e  csmplaint^  from  the  verb  to  com- 
plain. Is  moeliy  made  In  matters  that  pcraonalty  affect 
file  complainant ;  the  accusation  (e.  to  Accuse)  Is  made 
of  matters  in  general,  but  expr>cialiy  those  of  a  moral 
nature.  A  complaint  is  made  for  the  sake  of  obtaining 
ladTCBB ;  an  aoeusaJUon  to  made  for  tbe  sake  of  ascer- 

taining the  fkctor  bringing  to  punishment.  A  compUsatl 
may  be  fHvolous;  an  aceusaJUon  fUse.  people  la 
subordinate  stations  shouki  be  careful  to  give  no  cause 
for  complaint ;  *  On  this  occasion  (of  an  interview  with 
Addison),  Pope  made  hto  complaint  with  frankness  and 
spirit,  as  a  man  undeservedly  neglected  and  opposed.*— 
JoBKsoii.  The  most  guarded  conduct  will  not  protect 
any  person  fVom  the  unjust  accusations  of  the  malevo- 

lent ;  '  With  guilt  enter  distrust  and  discord,  mutual 
accusation  and  sti  " 

I  stubborn  self-defence.*— Jobhson. 


All  these  terms  denote  not  simply  fbeling,  but  also 
expressing  dissatisfliction  with  some  person  or  thiof. 
To  ;liid  fauU  mitk  signifies  here  to  point  out  a  fkulL 
either  in  some  person  or  thing ;  lo  blame  is  said  only  of 
the  person ;  ei0Jeet  to  applied  lo  the  thing  only :  we  find 
fauU  with  a  person  for  his  behaviour;  we  find  fituU 
icitk  our  seat,  our  conveyance,  and  the  like ;  wc  blame 
a  person  for  hto  temerity^  or  his  Improvidence ;  we« 
object  to  a  measure  that  to  proposed.  We  find  fault 
with  or  blame  that  which  has  been  done;  we  object  to 
tliat  which  to  to  be  done. 

Finding  fault  is  a  familiar  action  applied  to  matteia 
of  personal  convenience  or  taste ;  blams  and  object  f«, 
particularly  the  latter,  are  applied  to  serious  ot^cts. 
Finding  fault  to  ofren  tbe  fruit  of  a  discontented 
temper :  there  are  some  whom  nothing  will  please,  and 
wlm  are  ever  ready  to  find  fault  with  whatever  comes 
In  tlielr  way ;  '  Traal-coroedy  you  have  yourself  found 
fault  with  very  Jusuy.*— Budgbll.  Blame  to  a  matter 
of  discretion;  we  blame  frequently  in  order  to  correct; 
'  It  is  a  most  certain  rule  in  reason  and  moral  philosophy, 
that  where  there  is  no  choice,  there  can  be  no  blame,* 
—South.  Objecting  to  is  an  affair  either  of  caprice 
or  necessity ;  some  capriciously  olject  to  that  which  to 
proposed  to  them  merely  from  a  spirit  of  opposition ; 
others  object  to  a  thing  from  substantial  reasons ;  '  Men 
in  all  deliberations  find  ease  to  be  of  the  negaUve  ride, 
to  oijcet^  and  foretel  difficulties.*— Ba.con. 

To  o^'eet,  from  ob  and  jocio  to  cast,  to  lo  cast  in4he 
way ;  to  oppose  to  to  place  in  tbe  way ;  there  is,  there- 
fore, very  little  original  difference,  except  that  casting  to 
a  mora  momentary  and  sudden  proceeding,  placing  to  a 
more  premeditated  action ;  which  distinction,  at  tbe 
same  time,  corresponds  with  the  use  of  the  terms  in 
ordinary  life :  to  object  to  a  thing  Is  to  propose  or  start 
something  against  it ;  but  to  oppose  it  is  to  set  one's  self 
up  steadify  against  it:  one  otfjects  to  ordinary  mattei* 
tlMt  require  no  reflection;  one  opposes  matters  that  call 
for  deliberation,  and  aflbrd  serious  reasons  for  and 

Sainst:  a  parent  oljeets  to  his  child's  learning  the 
issicks,  or  to  his  running  about  the  streeU ;  hp  opposes 
lito  marriage  when  he  thinks  the  connexion  or  the  clr- 
cumsunces  not  desirable :  we  object  to  a  thing  from  « 
our  own  particular  feelings;  we  oppose  niMng  because 
we  Judge  It  Improper ;  capricious  or  selfish  people  will 
object  to  every  thing  that  comes  across  their  own  hu- 
mour ;   *  About  this  time,  fin  Archbtohop  of  York 
objected  to  clerks  (recommended  to  benefices  bythe 
Pope),  because  they  were  ignorant  of  English.*- Tra- 
wniTT.  Those  who  oppose  think  it  necessary  lo  assign, 
at  least,  a  r.»son  for  their  opposition; 
*T  was  of  no  purpose  to  oppose^ 
She  *d  hear  to  no  excuse  in  prose. — Swift. 

The  efr^eeCton  (».  nemur)  to  here  general ;  It  compre- 
hends both  the  diffleultif  and  the  exception^  which  are 
but  species  of  the  MeUion :  the  objeetion  and  the  difi- 
cuUu  are  started ;  the  exertion  is  made :  the  objection 
to  a  thing  to  in  general  that  which  renders  it  less  desi- 
rable; but  the  difficultf  to  that  which  renders  it  leas 
practicable;  there  to  an  objection  against  every  scheme 
which  incurs  a  serloua  risk ;  '  I  would  not  desire  what 
you  have  written  to  beomiued,  unless  I  had  the  merit 
of  removing  your  ©ty'eelwa.*— Port.  Tbe  want  of 
means  to  bciin,  or  resources  to  carry  on  a  scheme,  are 
aerious  dtffieultiee ;  '  In  the  examination  of  every  great 
and  comprehensive  plan,  such  as  that  of  Christianitv, 


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£NOUSH   8T2iONTM£8. 

fMnitut  mwy  occiir.*-~>BLAiR«  In  applicaition  to 
■oral  or  iDldtectual  mibjecu,  tbe  objution  Interferes 
with  ooe*s  declsloii ;  tbe  difieultw  cauwa  perplexity  la 
the  mind ;  '  Tbey  mtetake  digumUiM  for  impouibili- 
tiei ;  a  penilBlous  mlatake  certainly,  and  the  more  per- 
■Icioiia.  for  that  men  are  Midom  convinced  till  tneir 
conTlctionB  do  them  no  good.'— South.  *  There  is  ever 
between  ail  estates  a  secret  war.  I  know  well  this 
apetch  Is  the  •<tr«e<<f»i  and  not  the  decision;  and  that 
ll  is  alter  refuted.'— Bacoh. 

Tbe  ejection  and  exception,  both  respect  tlie  nature, 
the  moral  tendency,  or  moral  consequences  of  a  thing ; 
bat  tlie  ehfectiem  may  be  frivolous  or  serious ;  the  ex- 
UfUen  is  something  serious:  the  ol^eetion  is  positive ; 
Ihe  exception  Is  relatively  considered,  that  is,  Uie  thing 
axeepUi  ftom  other  things,  as  not  good,  and  conse- 
quently ejected  to.  O^ecUene  are  madesometlmes  to 
propoaals  for  the  mere  sake  of  getting  rid  of  an  engage- 
ment :  those  who  do  not  wish  to  give  themselves  trou- 
ble find  an  ea^  method  of  disengaging  themselves,  by 
making  ekjeetiene  to  every  proposition;  *  Whoever 
makes  such  okiectimiM  against  an  hypothesis,  hath  a 
right  to  be  beard,  let  his  temper  and  genius  be  what  it 
will.*— Buaarr.  Lawyers  make  exceptiene  to  charges 
which  are  sometimes  not  sufflciently  substantiated : 
*  When  they  deride  our  ceiemonies  as  vain  and  frlvo- 
kws,  werelt  hard  to  apply  their  exaptione^  even  to  those 
rivil  ceremonies,  which  at  the  coronation,  In  parlia- 
ment, and  all  courts  of  Justice,  are  used.^— Crammkr. 
In  all  ei^agemenls  entered  Inio,  It  is  necessary  to  miike 
ixapCtMM  to  the  parties,  whenever  there  is  any  thing 
oxceptionmbU  in  tJieir  characters:  the  present  promis- 
CQons  diflualon  of  knowledge  among  the  poorer  orders 
la  very  okiectMnahU  on  many  grounds  ;  the  course  of 
leading,  which  they  commonly  pursue,  Is  without  ques- 

To  centradiet^  tmax  tlie  Latin  contra  and  dictam^  sig- 
■Mes  a  speech  against  a  speecb ;  to  oppoee^  in  French 
eppoter^  Latin  evpeeni^  perfect  of  oppono  from  opwob 
and  pono^  stgnlflies  to  throw  in  the  wav  or  against  a 
thing ;  to  dmy,  in  French  dniMr,  Latin  dcnego^  is  com- 
pounded of  de,  n«,  and  age  or  dieo,  signifying  to  say  no. 

To  contradict,  as  the  oriein  of  the  word  sufflcientiv 
denotes,  is  to  set  up  assertion  against  assertion,  and  is 
timfore  a  mode  of  opposition,  whether  useil  in  a  gene- 

nl  or  a  particular  application.  Logicians  call  those 
propositions  contradictory  which,  in  all  their  terms,  are 
■MMt  completely  oppoeeA  to  each  other ;  as  '  All  men 
are  liars ;'  *  No  men  are  liars.*    A  connJtrejiiction 

aarily  supposes  a  verbal,  though  not  necemarily  a  per- 
sonal, opposition ;  a  person  may  unintentionally  cvn- 
iradict  hunaelf,  as  Is  IVequently  the  case  with  liars ; 
and  two  persons  may  contradict  each  other  without 
knowing  what  either  has  asserted;  *The  Jews  bohl 
that  in  case  two  rabbles  should  contradict  one  another, 
ihey  were  yet  bound  to  believe  the  eontradictorp  amwr 
lions  of  both.*— Sotrra. 

But  although  contradietinf  must  be  more  or  less 
veibal,  yet,  in  an  extended  application  of  the  term,  the 
eontradietion  may  be  implied  la  the  action  rather  Uuin 
In  direct  words,  as  when  a  person  by  his  good  conduct 
eontradicto  the  s!anders  of  his  enemies ;  *  There  are 
many  who  are  fond  of  contradicting  the  common  re- 
ports of  fame.'~ADmsoif .  In  this  application,  contra- 
dict and  oppooe  are  clearly  distinguished  Aom  each 
other.  80  likewise  in  personal  disputes  eontradietion 
implies  oppoeiUon  only  as  fbr  as  relate*  to  tho  words ; 
oppoeingt  on  the  other  band,  comprehends  not  only  the 
spirit  of  the  action,  but  also  a  great  diveralty  in  the 
ve  may  eontradia  from  necessity,  or  in  sdf- 
j  we  oppoee  from  eonvictton,  or  a  less  bonour- 
aMe  nature ;  we  contradict  by  a  direct  negative ;  we 
oppoee  by  means  of  aqpiment  or  otherwise.  It  is  a 
breach  of  poiiteneas  ever  to  eontradia  flaUy ;  h  Is  a 
vk  latkNi  of  the  moral  law  to  si^ass  without  the  most 

That  tongue 

laapir'd  wlttaMii£radtc(t4m  durst  oppoea 

A  third  part  of  the  gods.— Mxltoh. 

Tn  eMiradMC  and  to  dsay  may  be  b( 

wodm  of  verbal  oppuaitlon,  but  one  eontradicU  an  a»- 

■srtion,  and  donue  a  Act;  the  contradiction  Implies 

Aa  aMUng  opoM  penooTa  aotteiiiy  or  opiokm  ai    ' 


that  of  another;  the  dental  impUea  die  maintaining  a 
person's  veracity  in  opposition  to  the  charges  or  imi 
nuationa  of  othen.  Contradicting  is  commonly  em 
ployed  In  speculative  matters;  'If  a  gentleman  is  a 
little  sincere  In  his  representations,  he  is  sure  to  have  a 
dozen  contradictere.'—Smirr.  Denying  In  mattere  of 
personal  interest;  '  One  of  the  company  began  to  rally 
uim  (an  tnlldel)  upon  his  devotion  on  shl|rtioard,  whtea 
the  other  denied  in  so  high  terms,  that  it  produced  the 
lie  on  both  skies,  and  ended  in  a  duel.'— Asdisoh.  Dm 
tewing  may,  however,  be  croptoyed  as  well  as  contra- 
dtcttng  in  the  course  of  argument ;  but  we  denp  the 
general  truth  of  the  position  by  contradicting  tbe  parti- 
cular assenionsof  tlie  Individuals ; '  In  the  Socratic  way 
of  dispute,  you  agree  to  every  thing  your  opponent  ad- 
vances; in  the  Arisiotellc,  you  are  still  denying  and 
eoiUradicting  aome  part  or  other  of  what  be  says.' — 

When  eontradia  respects  other  persons,  it  is  fre- 
quently a  modb  of  opposition^  as  we  may  most  efleclu- 
ally  sppM0  a  person  by  eontradicting  what  lie  asserts; 
but  eontradiaion  does  not  necessarily  imply  oppooi- 
tion;  the  former  to  simply  a  mode  of  action,  the  latter 
ccmiprehends  both  the  action  and  the  spirit,  with  which 
it  to  dictated :  we  contradict  from  necessity  or  in  self- 
defence  ;  we  oppoeCf  firom  conviction  or  some  petsonal 
feeling  of  a  less  honoiiraMe  nature.  When  we  hear  a 
friend  unjustly  charged  of  an  offence,  It  to  but  reasona- 
ble to  eontradia  tbe  charge;  okt)ectionable  measures  ^ 
may  call  for  opposUiony  but  It  is  sometimes  prudent  to 
abstain  from  eppoeing  what  we  cannot  prevent 

Contradict  to  likewise  used  in  denvlng  what  to  hii|l 
to  one's  charge ;  but  we  may  deny  without  eontradict' 
ingf  in  answer  to  a  question :  contradiction  respecti 
indifferent  niauera ;  denying  to  always  used  in  matten 
of  immediate  interest. 

Contradiction  to  employed  for  correcting  others;  de- 
nying to  used  to  clear  one's  self:  we  may  eontradia 
falsely  when  we  have  not  sufflcient  ground  for  «antra- 
dicting ;  and  we  may  deny  justly  when  we  rebut  an 
unAur  charge. 


Deny  (v.  To  deny)  approaches  nearest  to  the  senat 
of  dtsoim  when  applied  to  peraons ;  dteewn,  that  Is,  not 
to  own,  on  the  other  hand,  bears  a  strong  analcfy  to 
deny  when  appUed  to  things. 
In  the  first  case  deny  h  said  with  regard  to  one'a 

knowledge  of  of  connexion  with  a  person ,       ^ 

on  the  other  hand  to  a  term  of  Inner  ImpcMt,  ineludfa^ 
the  renunciation  of  all  relationship  or  social  tie :  the 
former  to  said  of  thoso  who  are  not  related ;  the  latter 
of  snch  only  as  are  related.  Peter  dented  our  Saviour; 
'  We  may  deny  God  In  all  those  acts  that  are  moral^r 
good  or  evil ;  those  are  the  proper  scenes  In  which  wo 
act  our  confemkms  or  denlato  of  him.*— Soim.  A 
parent  can  scarcely  be  Justified  in  dieotening  hto  ehlM 
let  hto  vices  be  ever  so  enormous;  a  chihTcan  never 
dieovn  its  parent  In  any  case  without  vlolallng  tbo 
most  sacred  duty. 

In  the  second  case  deny  to  said  in  regard  to  thlofi 
that  concern  othen  as  well  as  ourselves ;  disown  only 
m  regard  to  what  to  done  by  one's  self  or  that  in  whten 
one  to  personally  concerned.  A  person  deatee  that 
there  to  any  truth  In  the  assertion  of  another;  *  The 
Earl  of  Straflbrd  positively  dented  the  words.*— Cla 
KxiiDOii.  He  disowns  all  paiticipation  hi  any  afflUr ; 
Then  they  who  brother's  better  rJahn  dissmi, 
Expel  their  parents,  and  usurp  the  throne. 


We  may  deny  havlnc  seen  a  thing;  we  m. 

that  we  did  It  oursdvea.    Our  veracity  to  often  the 

only  thing  lihpUcated  in  a  dental ;  our  guilt,  Inn. 

or  honour  are  hnplicated  in  what  we  dioown,    A  wt. 

ness  dento  what  to  stated  as  a  ftwt;  tbe  aoensed  pony 

disowns  what  to  laid  to  hto  ehaiye. 
A  dem'cl  to  employed  only  Ar  outward  aetkMS  oi 

events;  that  which  can  be  related  may  be  denied;  dt^ 

owning  ertends  to  whatever  we  ean  own  or  poosesii 

we  may  disown  our  feeUngs^our  name,  our  ooomb- 

•        and  the  like. 

ftians  deny  tbe  cbatfBi  whtoh  are  broi 
tbe  gospel  by  Its  enemies;  *lf,  Uke  Zeno, 
11  walk  about  and  yetdei^  there  to  nay  bn 

oral  eoHtitiiiod  ftff  Aatt- 


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cvr  a,  and  were  a  At  companion  for  thoee  who,  faavliif  a 
conceit  they  are  dead,  caniHit  be  convicted  unto  the 
■ocieiy  of  the  living.'— BaowH.  The  apoeUes  would 
never  disown  the  character  which  they  held  as  mea- 
gouieUmea  lest  man  should  quite  Us  pow*r  ^mmm, 
He  UiSkea  that  power  to  UenibUngnationa  known. 


Disdaim  and  disown  are  holh  . 
tng  the  individual  wtio  is  the  agent:  to  dMclatm  is  lo 
throw  off  a  ei4i««i,  as  to  iiMVwn  is  not  to  admitas  one'e 
own :  84  ciotm,  ftom  the  Latin  ci«NM,  aignlllBs  to  do- 
daie  with  a  loud  tone  what  we  want  aa  our  own;  so 
ID  iutUim  is  with  an  equally  loud  or  poaitiTe  tone,  to 
tfve  una  efom ;  ihia  is  a  more  positive  act  than  to  H*- 
m,  which  may  be  perfbrmed  by  insinuatioa,  or  by  the 
laere  abeuining  to  own.  ,       ^ 

Be  who  feels  himself  dkgraced  by  the  actions  that 
««  done  by  his  nation,  or  his  fauiUy,  wiU  lie  ready  to 
difciam  the  very  name  which  be  bears  in  common 
with  the  offending  party ; 

The  thing  cali'd  life,  with  eaae  I  can  diaeUdm, 

And  ihiul  It  over-sold  to  purchaM  fhme.— Drtoeh. 
An  absurd  pride  sometimes  hnpels  men  to  disown  their 
Mlationship  to  those  who  are  beneath  them  in  external 
nttk  and  condition ; 

Here  Prlam*s  son,  Delphobus,  he  found: 
He  scarcely  knew  hiiu,  striving  to  disown 
His  blotted  form,  and  blusliiiig  lo  be  known. 


An  honest  mind  will  diselaim  all  right  to  praise  which 
It  feels  not  to  belong  to  itself;  the  fear  of  ridicule  some- 
times makes  a  man  disown  that  which  would  redound 
to  his  honour:  'Very  few  among  tliose  who  proftifls 
thema-lves  Chrisliaus,  disclaim  all  concern  for  Uieir 
souls,  duown  the  auihorily,  or  renounce  the  ezpecU- 
tfona  of  the  gospel —Rooaas. 

To  disavow  is  to  avow  that  a  thing  is  not  The  dua- 
vowal  is  a  general  declaration ;  Uiu  denial  is  a  particu- 
lar assertion;  the  ionuer  is  made  voluntarily  and  un- 
asked for,  the  latter  is  alwsys  in  direct  answer  to  a 
charge :  we  disavow  in  matters  of  general  liiierest 
where  uuth  only  is  concerned ;  we  dsnf  in  matters  of 
Mrsonai  iuttotest  where  the  character  ur  feelings  are 

What  is  disaoowsd  Is  generaUy  in  support  of  truth ; 
what  b  dsnisd  may  ot\en  be  in  direa  violation  of  truth : 
an  honest  mind  will  always  disavow  whatever  baa 
been  erroneously  auribuled  to  it ;  '  Dr.  Solander  disa- 
vows s6me  of  thuse  narrations  (in  HawKeswortli's 
wyages),  or  at  least  decUres  them  to  be  grossly  niisre- 
presented.*— Bkattuc.  A  timid  person  sometimes 
Smies  what  be  knows  to  be  tnie  tram  a  fear  of  tho 
consequences;  'The  king  now  dsnied  his  knowledge 
of  the  conspiracy  against  Rizzio,  by  public  proclama> 
tions.'— RoasRTSOM.  Many  penMiis  have  disavowed 
being  tlie  author  of  the  letters  which  are  known  under 
the  name  of  Junius ;  the  real  authors  whoiiave  denisd 
their  concern  in  it  (as  doubUeas  they  have)  availed 
Ibemwivea  of  the  subterfuge,  that  since  it  was  th«  offidr 
of  several,  no  one  individuaUy  could  caU  hhuaelf  the 


Cantrovorty  compounded  of  the  Latin  csntra  and 
MTto,  signlflea  to  turn  against  another  In  discourse,  or 
dUeet  one*a  self  againat  another. 

Disfutt,  in  Latin  dismOo,  ftom  du  and  »iils, 
flea  llteraHy  to  think  dlArenUy.  or  to  call  in  question 
Sw  oniaioSl  of  another,  which  k  the  aaoae  that  brh«i 
It  In  cloaest  alliance  wkh  eonirsmsrtiM. 

To  somtroosH  baa  fegard  to  speculative  potata;  to 
ditpwts  reapecta  mattera  of  fhet:  there  la  more  of  oppo- 
tSminemUrovsrtt;  mose  of  doubt  in  dt«irtMi#  .•• 
I^lst controverts^^ skepttek diyt»^ ;  t^  P^msal 
I«i  BttMimeattnithaof  tiM  GoapeTbave  been  att  con- 
Sw«rlsd  hi  their  turn  by  the  aelf^uOclent  inquirttrj 
rrbetaoUahingef  Dunkhrk  was  ao  eagerly  hiatoled 

i!SducednehaUeSge.»-BuDaiLL.    The  authenticity 
WtiM  BiWe  llaelf  hna  bean  ^gFji^, 
Mlvlduala;  the aiiatMieo  of  a  God  bgr  itil 

Now  I  am  sent,  and  am  not  to  dispute^ 


Qmtroversv  is  worse  than  an  nnprofltaUe  taaa ; 
Instead  of  eliciting  truth,  It  does  but  expose  thf>  failings 
of  the  parties  engaeed ;  » How  cometh  it  to  oass  that 
we  are  so  rent  with  mutual  contentions,  and  that  th« 
church  is  so  much  troubled  1  If  men  had  been  wilUtif 
to  learn,  all  these  eontroversiss  might  have  died  tiia 
very  day  they  were  first  brought  forth.*— Hooaan. 
Disputing  Is  not  so  personal,  and  oonaequentiy  not  m 
objectionable:  we  never  controvert  any  point  wlthoot 
seriously  and  decidedly  intending  to  oppose  the  notion* 
of  another ;  we  may  sometimes  dispnts  a  point  for  the 
sake  of  friendly  argument,  or  tiie  desire  of  informatioo : 
Uienloglans  and  politicians  are  Uie  greatest  eontrover- 
sialisU :  it  la  the  busbiess  of  men  in  general  to  die 
puts  whatever  ought  not  lo  be  taken  for  granted; 
'The  earth  is  now  placed  so  eonveulendy  that  planlt 
tiirive  and  flourish  In  it,  and  animals  live ;  this  la 
matter  of  fact  and  beyond  all  dis^ts,'— BanrucT. 
When  dispuU  is  taken  in  the  sense  of  verbally  main- 
taining a  point  in  opposition  to  another,  li  eeases  tn 
have  that  alliance  to  the  word  controvert,  and  comea 
nearest  to  the  sense  of  argue  {v.  Argus). 

TndMbitahU  signifies  admitting  of  no  doubt  (vhlo 
Doubt)  \  unquestionabUy  admitting  of  no  fuestHm 
(t>.  Douht)\  indisputable^  admitting  of  no  dispute 
Iv.  To  controvert);  undeniable,  not  to  be  dentrd 
(v.  To  deny,  disown);  incontrovertible,  not  to  bo 
controverted  (v.  To  controvert) ;  irrefragable,  from 
frango  to  break,  eignlfies  not  to  be  broken,  d«?siroy«»d, 
or  done  away.  These  terms  are  all  opiwsed  to  uncw- 
uinty ;  but  they  do  not  imply  absohite  certainty,  for 
they  all  express  tiie  strong  persua«lon  of  a  person's 
mind  rather  tiian  the  absolute  nature  of  the  thing : 
when  a  fact  Is  supported  by  auch  evidence  aa  admits 
of  n<i  kind  of  doubt,  it  is  termed  indubitable;  '  A  full 
or  a  tiiin  iMMine  will  indubitably  expre4«s  the  sense  of  a 
majority.'— Hawkksworth.  When  the  truth  of  an 
amertion  rests  on  tiie  autiiority  of  a  man  wliose  cha- 
racter for  integrity  stands  unhnpeached,  It  is  termed 
iwifl««tioiicftZ«  authority;  •  Fmm  the  unjuestionabU 
documents  and  dictates  of  tiie  hiw  of  nature,  I  shall 
evince  the  obligation  lying  upon  every  man  to  simw 
gratitude.'— i*ooTH.  When  a  thing  la  believed  to  exist 
on  the  evidence  of  every  man's  senses,  it  is  termed 
undeniabU ;  '  So  undeniable  is  the  truth  of  this  (viz.  the 
hardness  of  our  duly),  that  the  scene  of  virtue  is  laid 
in  our  natural  averseness  to  things  excellent.'— 
Sonrn.  When  a  sentiment  has  always  been  held  aa 
eitiier  Uue  or  fhlae,  witliout  dispute.  It  is  termed  iMdi>- 
putable;  'Truth,  knowing  tiie  indisvutable claUu  she 
has  to  all  Uiat  is  called  reason,  tiilnks  it  below  her  lo 
ask  that  upon  courtesy  in  which  she  can  plead  a  pro- 
perty.*—South.  WJ>en  argunicuui  have  never  been 
controverted,  they  are  teroied  incontrovertible ;  '  Our 
distinction  must  rest  upon  a  steady  adherence  lo  the 
incontrovertibU  rules  of  virtue.'— Blair.  And  when 
tiiey  have  never  been  ^ilsfaciorny  answered,  they  art 
termed  irrefragable;  'There  is  none  who  walks  so 
surcJy,  and  upon  such  irrefragabls  grounds  of  pra 
dance,  aa  he  who  la  religkius.*— Soctb. 


To  orgne  te  to  adduce  argumenta  or  reasons  ii 
Bupport  of  o&e*s  position :  to  dumMe«,in  Latin  dinutm, 
compounded  of  dM  and  puis,  signifles  to  ihink  dilfei 
entiy,in  an  extended  sense,  to  assert  a  different  opt 
nion;  to  debate,  in  French  debaUre,  compounded  of 
the  intensive  qrllable  de  and  battre,  to  beat  or  flgh^ 
sItQiflM  lo  contend  for  and  againat. 

0*0  ar#ns  la  to  defend  one*s  self;  diepuU  to  oppoaa 
cnotker ;  to  debate  is  to  diepuU  in  a  formal  manner. 
To  argue  on  a  subject  hi  to  explain  the  reasons  or 
proofb  in  aapport  of  an  aasertkm ;  to  argue  with  a 
person  la  to  defend  a  poaltion  against  him :  to  dispmta 
a  tbii«  la  to  advance  oMections  against  a  position ;  to 
dtsMtswItli  a  peiaon  fa  to  aiancAdections  againat  faM 
pudtiona,  to  attempt  to  refbte  tiien ;  a  iebau  la  a  dis^ 
•Hinlisii  b«kl  bf  manf.  To  argm  doaa  not  naeea- 
inrfly.aappoaa«convlctlanoB  the  part  of  die  ar^nsr. 
that  what  he  deAnda  la  tree;  nor  a  real  difibrence  m 
In MaofvwMat;  tacwmmiam.  have  each  «i 


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Kehinf  uimientlly  fiir  an  mwMnf,  that  they  will 
asenipt  to  prove  what  nobody  deniM;  and  hi  looie 
eates  the  term  vrguB  may  be  lued  in  tlie  lenae  of  ad- 
iuciiif  nmmvM  more  for  the  purpoae  of  produeing 
■Mtual  coufirmatloB  and  illuatration  of  truth  than  for 
the  detectioD  of  falsehood,  or  the  qoeationing  of  opl- 

Of  food  and  evil  much  they  er/ncd  thM.^Mu.Toii. 
To  diMpmU  alwaya  nippoaes  an  opposition  to  lome  per- 
toD,  but  not  a  aincere  opporftkm  to  the  thing:  for  we 
■ay  iufyJ*  that  wUch  we  do  not  deny,  for  the  sake 
of  holding  a  dwp«lf  withooe  wholsof  difibrent  senti- 
■Mnls:  to  dthau  presupposes  a  multitude  of  clashing 
or  opposing  opinions.  Men  of  many  words  argue  for 
the  sake  of  talking :  men  of  ready  tongues  diafute  for 
the  sake  of  victory:  men  in  Parliament  often  dehale 
tat  the  sake  of  opposing  the  ruling  party,  or  Aom  any 

'^  r  motive  than  the  love  of  truth. 

jtrgwmmUatum  is  a  dangerous  propensityf  and  ren- 
ders a  man  an  unpleasant  companion  in  society ;  no 
one  shook!  set  such  a  value  on  bis  opinions  as  to  ob- 
trude the  defence  of  them  on  tliose  who  are  unlnter- 
e«sd  in  the  question ;  *  PuMick  orgning  oft  serves  not 
only  to  exasperate  Uie  miuds,  but  to  whet  tlie  wits  of 
hefetkfcs.*— DttCAY  or  Pibtt.  Dupntatien^  as  a  scho- 
tastick  exercise,  is  well  fined  to  exert  the  reasoning 
|iowera  and  awaken  a  spirit  of  inquiry ; 
Thus  Rodmond,  train'd  by  this  uiihallow'd  crew. 
The  sacred  social  passions  never  knew : 
Unskiird  to  argMA,  in  dupuU  yet  k>ud, 
BoM  without  caution,  without  lionouri  proud. 


ihkatimg  \n  Parliament  Is  by  some  converted  into  a 
trade ;  he  who  talks  the  loudest,  and  makes  the  most 
vehement  oppouil<m,  expects  the  greatest  applause ; 
The  murmur  ceasM :  then  from  his  lofty  throne 
The  king  lnvok*d  the  gods,  and  thus  begun: 
I  wish,  ye  Latins,  what  ye  now  depots 
Had  been  reBolv*d  before  it  was  too  late. 



Te  eenralt,  in  French  eonsulUrj  Latin  cMintto,  is  a 
frequentative  of  anuMto,  signifying  to  counsel  toge- 
ther ;  to  deliberate^  in  French  delHerer^  Latin  deliherof 
compounded  of  de  and  /t6re,  or  Utra  a  balance,  idgo^ 
fles  to  weigh  as  in  a  balance. 

Camsmltatiomg  always  require  two  persons  at  least ; 
ielibaratiama  require  many,  or  only  a  man*s  velf :  an 
faidii^daal  may  eonnU  with  one  or  many ;  assemblies 
commonly  deliberate:  advice  and  information  are 
^ven  and  received  in  eanauUatiane ;  '  UlyaKS  (as 
Booier  tells  us)  made  a  voyage  to  the  regions  of  the 
dead,  to  eensuU  Tiresias  Itow  he  should  return  to  bis 
country.*— AooisoN.  Doubts,  difficulties,  and  objec- 
tions, are  started  and  removed  in  deliberaUeme; 
*Molocb  declares  himself  abruptly  for  war,  and  ap- 
pears Incensed  with  his  companions  for  losing  so  much ' 
time  as  even  to  deUberaU  upon  it*— Addisom.  We 
eonununicate  and  hear  when  we  cemeuU:  we  pause 
and  hesitate  when  we  deliberau :  those  who  have  to 
en-f»peraie  most  frequently  canauU  together ;  those 
who  have  serious  measures  to  decide  upon  most  oooOy 

To  di6«te  («.  T»  argu^  and  to  emunU  equally  mark 
the  ansof  panring  orwlthboldinf  the  decision,  whether 
applicable  to  one  or  Bumy.  To  ds»ate  supposes  always 
a  oontrBTtety  of  opinfcm ;  to  delibarau  suppoaes  shnpily 
the  weighing  or  esthnatUig  the  value  of  the  opinion 
that  is  oflered.  Where  many  penoos  have  the  ttberly 
of  ollbrlng  their  oplnhxis,  It  la  natural  lo  expect  that 

To  seek  wtm  Neafor  now  the  chief  raaolvas; 
With  hhn  m  wholeaoine  eounads  to  debaU 
What  yet  lemalna  to  safo  the  aUiking  state. 

oftn  that  la  eompHcated  and  qoaa- 
for  mature  deUbarotian  ; 

Wbn  onifa  lift  Is  hi  df»«<«^ 
The  JaJjB  can  na^  toe  hwg  daiberatt. 


fcla  lamaiitaMa  when  pasalon  gan  such  an  aseaadancy 
to  Ika  akid  of  aqy  MMb  M  >o  n«ke  Itbn  Mate  whieh 

coarse  of  conduct  he  shall  pnrsoe :  the  want  of  idk 
berationy  whether  in  private  or  pubnck  transactfons,  in 
a  more  IhiltAtl  source  of  mischief  than  abnost  any 
other.  ' 


Oppeee  («.  7b  oft/sct,  eppoeey)  Is  the  general  tensi 
signifying  shnply  to  put  in  the  way;  reeist^  signifies 
liierally  to  stand  back,  away  fk-om,  or  against ;  with 
in  mtketamd  has  the  force  of  fw  la  raeiat ;  Owsrt,  frooa 
the  German  f  asr  cross,  signifies  lo  coom  acrosi. 

The  action  of  setting  one  thing  up  against  another 
is  obviously  expressed  by  all  these  terms,  but  thef 
differ  in  the  ananner  and  the  circuoastanees.    To  sp- 

poae  simply  denotes  the  relative  position  of  two  objeeu^ 
and  when  applied  to  persons  it  does  not  necessarily 
^rsonal  cnaracteristick :  we  may  sppose 
force  tu  force ;  or  tilings  may  be  e^—ed  t« 

Imply  any^rsonal  characteristick :  we  may  ofpeait 
reason  or  force  tu  force ;  or  tilings  may  be  eppeeed  t« 
each  other  which  are  in  an  oppoeite  dlrectiou,  as  « 
house  lo  a  church,  fiesiet  is  always  an  act  of  more  or 
less  Ibfce  when  applied  to  persons ;  It  is  mostly  a  cul- 
{Mble  action,  as  when  men  resist  lawful  authority: 
resistance  is  in  fact  always  bod,  unlem  lu  case  i»f 
actual  self  defence.  Opposition  may  be  made  In  any 
(bnn,  as  when  we  opvose  a  penK>n*s  admittance  into  a 
iNMise  by  our  personal  eflort«;  or  we  opjfose  his  admi»> 
sion  Into  a  society  by  a  declaration  of  our  opiuionsk 
Hesistamee  is  always  a  direct  action,  as  when  we  resist 
an  invading  army  by  the  sword,  or  we  resist  the  evi- 
dence of  our  seniles  by  denying  our  assent ;  or,  in  re- 
lation to  things,  when  wood  or  any  hard  substance 
resists  the  violent  efibrts  of  stcef  or  iron  to  make  an 

Withstand  and  tkioert  are  modes  of  resistance  appll. 
cable  on^  to  conscious  arenls.  To  withstand  is  nega- 
tive; it  implies  not  to  yield  to  any  foreign  agency: 
thus,  a  person  withstands  the  entreaties  of  anotlier  t« 
comply  with  a  request.  To  thwart  is  positive ;  it  if 
actively  to  cross  the  will  of  another :  tlnis,  humour 
some  people  ate  perpetually  thwartmg  the  wishes  of 
those  with  whom  thay^are  in  connexion.  Habitual 
apposiUan^  Whether  in  act  or  in  ipirit,  is  equally 
senseless :  none  but  conceited  or  tuibulent  people  art 
guilty  of  It; 

80  hot  th'  assault,  so  high  the  tumult  rose, 

WhUe  ours  defend. 


while  the  Greeks 


Ofpasitiemists  to  government  are  dangerous  members 
or  society,  and  are  ever  preaching  up  rssistaase  fea 
constitulM  authorities ; 

To  do  all  our  aole  delfcbt 

As  being  the  contrary  to  his  high  will 

Whom  we  resist.— Milton. 
*  Particular  instances  of  second  sight  have  been  given 
with  such  evidence,  as  neither  Bacon  nor  Boyle  have 
been  able  to  rssi«(.*— Johnson.    It  Is  a  happy  thina 
when  a  young  man  can  withstand  the  aUuremenls  of 

For  twice  five  days  the  good  old  seer  withetood 
Tir  intended  treason,  and  was  dumb  10  blood. 

It  Is  a  part  of  a  Christlaa*s  duty  to  bear  with  patlenca 
the  untoward  events  of  IHb  that  thwart  bis  purposes ; 
*  The  undeiauading  and  will  never  diaagread  (befort 
the  fUl) ;  for  the  proposals  of  the  one  never  Owartad 
the  tacflnatloiiB  of  the  other.*— 8otm. 

CamfnU  and  r^rfs,  in  Latin  e«i0i<sand  r^fata^  art 
compoonded  of  sea  agaiaal,  re  privative,  and  /ats,  ob- 
aoleta  for  arjrus.  signifying  to  argue  against  or  to  argot 
the  contrary;  iiaprmH^  compounded  of  dis  privakivt 
and  areas,  algnlfies  to  prove  the  contrary ;  oppugn^  hi 
LaitaiifF«Vii#,8igBiaaato  fight  In  order  to  remove  or 

To  cm^M4  rsiftela  whtttoanmiiaotatlve;  r^M$ 
wbalispananal;  d<»rsos  whatever  Is  reprasentad  op 
f^itbtd;  ipyiyn  whatever  is  held  or  mainiahidd. 

An  aifument  is       *--••-  •—».-«...— 

chaiia  It  r^fuud  1 

is  csijwsd  by  proving  its  fUlaey ;  • 
id  by  provhif  ooa'a  liiiiofltnea;  aft 


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um:r\km\Bdispr^»d by  prarlnc  that Itli  fttoe;  t doe- 
trine  is  oppugiUd  by  a  edune  or  maoning. 

Paradoxes  may  be  easily  e^itfuud ;  calumnlea  may 
be  easily  refuted;  the  marreiloos  and  Incredible 
stories  of  travellers  may  be  easily  ditproved;  hecasies 
and  skeptical  notions  ouf  ht  to  be  oppugnsd. 

The  pemleious  doctrines  of  skepdcks,  though  often 
fnfvUd^  are  asoflen  advanced  with  the  same  degree 
•f  assurance  by  the  fkee-thinking,  and  I  might  say  the 
unthinking  few  who  imbM»  their  spirit; 

The  learned  do,  by  turns,  the  tearn'd  amfntey 
Yet  all  depart  unalter'd  hy  dispute.— Oeebrv 
It  ta  the  employment  of  libeillsis  to  deal  out  their  mali- 
cious aspersions  against  the  objects  of  their  malignity 
la  a  manner  so  looae  and  indirect  as  to  preclude  tlie 
poasibillty  of  rvfntatUm  ;  *  Philip  of  Maoedon  r^fuud 
Wf  the  force  of  gold  all  the  wisdom  of  Athens.'— An- 
iDisoH.    It  would  be  a  fVuiiless  and  unthankful  task  to 
•ttemot  lo  di»pr9V9  all  the  statements  which  are  dr- 
culatea  In  a  common  newspaper , 
Han*8  feeble  race  what  ills  await ! 
Labour  and  penury,  the  racks  of  pain, 
I>lsease,  and  sorrow's  weeping  train. 
And  death,  sad  ref\ige  from  the  storm  of  fate, 
The  fond  complaint,  mv  aong !  dM/rao«, 
And  Justify  the  laws  of  Jove.— Collins. 
ftt  is  the  duty  of  ministers  of  the  Gospel  to  oppugn  all 
doctrines  that  militate  against  the  established  Aiiih  of 
CItf  Istlans ;  *  Ramus  was  one  of  the  flnt  oppugntrB  of 
the  old  philosophy,  who  disturbed  with  iimovations 
th»  quiet  of  the  schools.*— Johhsok 


To  im%f»t%y  ftom  the  Latin  m  and  pugnoy  signlfyti 
lo  fight  against,  is  synonymous  with  oltoeJk  only  in  re^ 

gard  to  doctrines  or  opinions ;  In  which  case,  to  m- 
fug%  signifies  to  call  in  question,  or  bring  arguments 
against;  to  attach  is  to  oppose  with  warmtli.  Skep- 
ticks  mpngn  every  opinion,  however  self-evident  or 
Vrell-grounded  they  may  be :  infidels  make  the  roost 
Indecent  alUuik*  upon  the  Bible,  and  all  that  la  hekl 
•acred  by  the  rest  of  the  world. 

He  who  impugn*  may  sometimes  proceed  insidiously 
and  circuitously  to  undermine  the  faiih  of  others :  he 
who  aUaek*  always  proceeds  with  more  or  less  vio- 
lence. To  impugn  is  not  necessarily  taken  in  a  bad 
sense ;  we  may  sometimes  tsipa^  absurd  doctrines  by 
a  ftir  train  of  reasoning:  to  attack  is  always  objee- 
tlonable,  either  In  the  mode  of  the  acik>n,  or  lis  object, 
er  in  both ;  it  is  a  mode  of  proceeding  oflener  em- 
ployed in  the  cause  of  falsehood  than  truth:  when 
there  are  no  arguments  wherewith  to  laipic^  a  doc- 
trine, it  Is  eaay  to  aUoek  it  with  ridicule  and  scurrilily. 


Jittaekj  in  French  attaquer^  changed  from  ottocJUr, 
In  T^tln  attaaum^  partTciple  of  «Mi«/o,  signifies  to 
bring  into  ckMe  contact;  omouH,  mtMauU^  in  French 
asf  oticr,  Latin  attilio,  asstUtum^  compounded  of  as 
or  od  and  salio^  signifies  to  leap  upon ;  cactfiMlfr,  la 
French  reiie#Btr«,  compounded  of  «a  or  in  and  coitlre, 
In  Latin  centra  against,  signifies  to  run  or  cume 

Jtnack  is  the  generick,  the  rest  are  spedflck  terass. 
To  attack  is  to  make  an  approach  in  order  to  do  some 
▼lolence  to  the  person ;  to  aitaU  or  aasaaUt  is  to  make 
•  sttddeu  and  TeheOBent  aUack;  lo  anemtnttr  Is  to 
naeet  the  aitaek  of  another.  One  aUack*  by  almplr 
offering  violence  without  neoeasarily  producing  an  ef- 
fiBCt;  one  aataiU  by  means  of  missile  weapons ;  one 
mbsomUb  by  direct  personal  ylolenee;  one  «a«simlsrs 
by  opposing  violence  to  violenoa 

Men  and  animals  aitmck  or  ememnUr ;  men  only,  in 
the  literal  sense,  aMsil  or  auamU.  Animals  aUmek 
•ach  other  with  the  weapons  nature  has  bcatowed  upon 
them ;  '  King  Atlielstan  attadked  another  body  of  the 
Hanes  at  sea  near  Sandwich,  sunk  nine  of  their  ships, 
and  put  the  rest  ta  flight*— Hitmb.  Those  who  pro- 
voke a  multitude  may  expect  to  have  their  bouses 
or  windows  muaU$d  with  ftomeB,  and  their  panooa 

Bo  when  he  aawhis  tlatt*ring  arts  to  fhil 
With  greedy  force  he  'gan  the  foit  t*  ouaiL 

And  double  death  did  wretched  man  Invade, 
By  steel  aatauUed^  and  by  gold  betray'd.— Drtdbn. 
It  is  ridicuk>us  to  attempt  to  encounter  those  who  are 
superiour  In  strength  ana  prowess ; '  Putting  themselves 
In  order  of  battle,  th^  auounterad  their  enemies.'— 

They  are  all  used  figumtlvely.  Men  aitaek  with 
reproaches  or  censures ;  they  aetaU  with  abuse;  they 
are  asgauUed  by  temptations ;  th^  anceunter  opposi- 
tion and  difliculties.  A  fever  attack*  ;  horrid  slirieka 
«Mai2  the  ear ;  dangers  are  emcountertd.  The  reputa  ■ 
tions  of  men  in  publlck  life  are  ofVen  wantonly  attack- 
ed; 'The  women  might  possibly  have  carried  this 
Gothick  building  higher,  had  not  a  famous  monk, 
Thomas  Conecte  by  iwme,  aUaeked  It  with  great  seal 
and  resolution.'— Addisoh.  PuMick  men  are  aeeaUed 
in  every  direction  by  the  murmurs  and  complaints  ofj 
the  discontented ; 

Not  truly  penitent,  but  chief  to  try 

Her  husband,  how  Air  urg'd  hii  patience  bean, 

His  virtue  or  weakness  which  way  to  oeeaiL 


They  often  encounler  the  obstacles  which  party  spirit 
throws  In  the  way,  without  reaping  any  solid  advan- 
tage to  themselves ;  '  It  Is  sufliclent  Uiat  you  are  able  !• 
encounter  the  temptations  which  now  aesauU  you : 
when  God  sends  trials  he  may  send  strength.'— 


An  aUack  and  aeeault  (v.  7b  aitaek)  may  be  made 
upon  an  uiireslstinc  object :  eneeuMter^  enett^  and 
dkarge^  require  at  least  two  opposing  parties.  An 
attack  may  be  slight  or  indirect;  an  aesauU  must 
always  be  direct  and  mostly  vicoroos.  An  attack  upon 
a  town  need  not  be  attendea  with  any  Injury  to  the 
walls  or  Inhabitants;  but  an  aeeault  is  commonly  con- 
ducted so  as  to  eflbct  its  capture.  Mteucke  are  made 
by  robbers  upon  the  person  or  property  of  another; 
aeeaulte  upon  the  perron  only ;  '  There  is  one  species 
of  di  version  which  has  not  been  generally  condemned, 
though  it  Is  produced  by  an  attack  upon  those  wlio 
have  not  voluntarily  entered  the  lists ;  who  find  them- 
selves bufietted  In  the  dark,  and  have  neither  means 
of  defence  nor  possibility  of  advantage.'— Hawkbs- 
WOETtf .  '  We  do  not  find  the  meeknessof  a  lamb  in  a 
creature  so  armed  for  battle  and  aaeauU  as  the  lion.*~ 

An  enoeuMter  generally  res]iect8  an  unfbrmal  casual 
meeting  between  single  individuals ;  oneet  and  ekarge 
a  rmilar  attalk  between  contending  aruiieM ;  onitet  is 
•mployed  for  the  commencement  of  the  battle ;  ekarge 
for  an  attack  fhmi  a  particular  quarter.  When  knlgCl- 
enrantry  was  In  vogue,  eiuountere  were  perpetually 
taking  jdace  between  theknighu  and  tueir  antagonlsia, 
who  often  existed  only  in  the  imaginatfon  of  the  com- 
batants: enceuntere  were,  however,  sometimes  fierce 
and  bioodv,  when  neither  par^  would  ylekl  to  the 
other  while  he  had  the  power  of  resistance ; 
And  such  a  (tovm 
Each  eaat  at  th' other,  as  when  two  Mack  clouds, 
Whh  heav'n's  arUliery  fraught,  come  rattling  on 
Hovering  a  apace,  till  winds  the  signal  Mow, 
To  join  their  dark  encounter  in  mid  air.— Miltoh. 
The  French  are  said  to  make  impetuous  ensets,  but 
not  lo  withstand  a  coollnoed  attack  with  thesame  per- 
aeveranoe  and  steadiness  as  the  English; 
OneeU  In  love  seem  best  tike  those  In  war, 
Fierce,  resolute,  and  done  with  all  the  force.— Tatb. 
A  furious  and  well-directed  ekarge  (tom  the  cavalnr 
will  aometimes  decide  the  fortune  of  the  day : 
O  my  Antonio !  Fm  all  oa  fire ; 
My  aoolis  up  ill  arms,  ready  to  Aarge^ 
And  bear  amid  the  foe  with  conqu'ring  troo 
■  ■'■  ■ 


the  Latin  aggreeeue^  participle  of 
nded  of  ag  or  ad,  and  gredeer 

I  frsaaar  la 


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Mrp,  rifntfie*  on  }  stepplnc  up  to,  (UUng  upon,  or  attick- 
iag;  «««as/««£,  fruui  ofnail,  in  Frendi  tusMilcr^  com- 
pmmded  of  m»m  ud^  and  folit  to  leap  upon^  Mgiiifics 
OM  leapinf  up,  or  attacKiiig  atiy  one  vebemetiUy. 

The  charactc'rifUek  Idea  of  aggressor  la  Uiat  of  one 
lolng  up  10  another  In  a  liontile  manner,  and  by  a  na- 
tural extension  of  the  sense  coounencinf  an  attack : 
the  characterirtick  ideaof  «««m7aiu  la  thatof  onecoot- 
Miuing  an  act  of  violence  on  the  penon. 

An  aggressor  o(fei8  to  do  some  li^ury  either  by 
word  or  deed ;  an  assaUant  actuallv  eamnilta  some 
vtotence:  the  former  commences  a  dispute,  the  latter 
carries  It  on  with  a  Tebement  and  direct  attack.  An 
•Mgrssssr  to  Mameable  for  givinf  rise  to  quarrels; 
Where  one  to  tiie  aggrssssry  and  in  pursnanoe  of  hto 
frst  attack  kllto  the  other,  the  law  supposes  the  action, 
feowever  sudden,  to  be  malicious.'— Jobmso 


lOBmoif  {Life  sf 
An  dssaiUaU  to  culpable  for  the  mischief 

What  ear  so  fortified  and  barr*d 
Against  tlie  tuneAil  force  of  vocal  charms, 
But  would  with  transport  to  such  sweet  assaUamts 
Surrender  its  attention  I—Masoh. 
Were  there  no  aggressors  there  would  be  no  dis- 
foies;  were  tliere  no  assaiUmts  those  disputes  would 
not  be  serious. 

An  aggressor  may  be  an  assailaiU,  o(  sn  ssssOsnC 
mmr  be  an  aggressor ^  but  tiiey  are  as  frequently  distinei. 


&  way  of; 

ZHsplsass  natamlty  marks  tlie  contrary  of  pleastas; 

~  '  '  the  Latin  ofendo^  sicnifies  to  stumble  in 
way  of;  ««x,  In  Latm  vexo,  m  a  ftequentative  of 
•ete,  signifying  literally  to  toss  up  and  down. 

These  words  express  the  act  of  causing  a  painftil 
Mntiment  In  tiK  m  ••d  by  some  impropriety,  real  or 
HppoNd,  on  on  >^H'n  part.  DispUase  to  not  always 
•pnlicd  to  that  .'  rxn  personally  concerns  ourselves; 
aUiou^  ^end  an  rex  have  always  more  or  less  of 
what  la  personal  ui  them :  a  superionr  mav  be  dts- 
•Isased  with  one  who  to  under  hto  charge  for  unproper 
Mhavkwr  toward  pemns  In  general ; 

Meantime  Imperial  Neptune  heard  the  sound 
Of  raging  billows  breaking  on  the  ground ; 
DispUas*d  and  fearing  for  hto  watery  reign, 
He  rear'd  hto  awAil  head  above  the  main. 

He  win  beoffuded  with  hira  for  disrespectful  behavkMir 
toward  himself,  or  negtect  of  his  Interests ;  '  The  em- 
peror himself  came  running  to  the  place  in  his  armour, 
severely  reproving  them  of  cowardice  who  had  for- 
saken the  place,  and  grievously  offended  with  them  who 
had  kept  such  negligent  watch.*— Khollbs.  What 
displeases  has  lesi  resard  to  what  to  perwnal  than  what 
sffends;  a  supnoaed  Intention  In  the  most  hamUess  act 
amy  cause  offence,  and  on  the  contrary  the  most 
fffasding  action  may  not  give  offeace  where  the  inten- 
wna  of  the  agent  is  supposed  to  be  sood;  *  Nathan's 
ftble  of  the  poor  man  and  his  lamb  had  so  good  an  ell^ct 
as  to  convev  Instruction  to  the  ear  of  a  king  without 
Sffeading  It.  — AonisoN. 

Displease  respects  mostly  the  Inward  state  of  feeling ; 
egemd  and  ««x  have  most  regard  to  the  outward  cause 
which  provokes  the  feeling:  a  bumoursome  person  may 
be  displeased  without  any  apparent  cause ;  but  a  cnp- 
dous  peracm  will  at  least  have  some  avowed  trifle  for 
which  he  to  offended.  Vex  expresses  more  than  offend: 
H  marks  in  fact  (yeqnent  eflbrto  to  offend^  or  the  act  of 
pending  under  anravated  circumstances:  we 
nlntenuonaUy  di^lsase  or  offend :  but  he  who 
has  mostly  that  <rf>ject  in  view  m  lo  doing :  any  instance 
•f  neglect  displeases ;  any  marked  Instance  of  neglect 
offends :  any  aggravated  instance  of  neglect  vexes  :  the 
fedlngof  dispUasnre  is  more  perceptible  and  vivid  than 
tfial  of  offence ;  but  it  to  less  durable :  the  feeling  of  «es«- 
lisn  to  as  transitoiy  as  that  of  di»plsa»nre,  but  stronger 
than  either.  Displeasure  and  voxaUon  betray  them- 
selves by  an  angry  word  or  kwk ;  offence  discovers  Itself 
ki  the  whole  conduct :  onr  dinlsasnre  to  ui^ustlflable 
when  It  exceeds  the  measure  of  anoiher*s  fkult;  It  to  a 
■ark  of  great  weakness  to  take  offente  at  trifles ;  perM>ns 
of  th !  greatest  irritability  are  eiposcd  to  the  most  fre- 
tuent  voxatians  ;  '  Do  poor  Tom  some  charity,  whom 

the  foul  fiend  vrass.*— ^akspbaeb.  These  terms  lUBf 
all  be  applied  to  tlie  action  of  unconscious  agents  on  tht 
mind ;  *■  Foul  sights  do  rather  displease.  In  that  they 
excite  the  memory  of  foul  things,  than  in  the  immediate 
objecti.  Therefore,  in  picturvs,  those  foul  sights  do  not 
much  offend.*— Bacok.  *  Gross  sins  are  plainly  seen, 
and  easily  avoided  by  persons  that  itrofesii  religion.  But 
the  indiscreet  and  dangerous  use  of  Innocent  aiui  lawful 
things,  as  it  does  not  sliock  and  offend  our  conseienceis 
so  it  to  difllcult  to  make  people  at  ail  sensible  of  th» 
danger  of  lu*— Law. 

These  and  a  thousand  mix*d  emotions  more, 
From  ever-changing  views  of  good  and  ill, 
Form'd  infinitely  various,  vex  the  mind 
With  endless  storm.— TaoMsoB. 

Ai  epithets  they  admit  of  a  similar  distinction:  It  Ib 
very  displeasing  to  parents  not  to  meet  with  the  mosi 
respectful  attentions  from  children,  when  they  give 
them  counsel ;  and  such  conduct  on  the  part  of  children 
is  highly  effensive  to  God :  when  we  meet  with  an  of- 
fensive object,  we  do  most  wisely  to  turn  away  from 
it ;  when  we  are  troubled  with  vexeiimu  afiairs,  our 
best  and  only  remedy  to  patience. 


Dislike  signlfleathe  opposite  to  liking,  or  being  allka 
to  one's  self  or  one's  taste ;  dispUasuroy  the  opposite  to 
pleasure ;  dissatisfaction,  the  opposite  to  satisfaction ; 
distasts  and  disgust^  from  the  Latin  gnstms  a  taste, 
both  signify  the  opposite  to  an  agreeable  taste. 

Dislike  and  dissatisfacUem  denote  the  feeling  or  sen- 
timent  produced  either  by  iiersons  or  things :  dfsplea- 
swre,  that  produced  bv  {lersons  mostly ;  distaste  and 
disgust,  that  produced  1^  tliinp  only. 

In  regard  to  persons,  dieUke  to  the  sentiment  of  eq>into 
and  perM>ns  unconnected ;  displeasure  and  dissatis- 
faction, of  superinuis,  or  such  as  stand  In  some  sort  of 
relation  to  us.  Strangers  may  foel  a  dislike  upon  se<*lng 
each  other :  parenu  or  masters  may  feel  displeasure  or 
dissatisfaction :  the  former  sentiment  to  occasioned  bv 
their  supposed  faults  in  character ;  the  latter  by  their 
supposed  defective  services.  One  dislikes  a  permn  for 
hto  assumption,  Irmuacity,  or  any  thing  not  acreeable 
in  his  manners ;  '  The  Jealous  man  to  not  Indeed  angry 
If  you  dislike  another;  but  ify<iu  find  those  ibults 
I  which  are  found  in  hto  own  character,  you  discover  not 
only  your  dts/tJes  of  another  but  of  himself.' — Addison. 
One  is  displeased  with  a  person  for  hto  carelessness,  or 
any  thing  wrong  in  hto  conduct ;  *The  ihreatenlngs  of 
conscience  suggest  to  the  sinner  some  deep  and  dark 
malignity  contained  In  guilt,  which  has  drawn  upon 
hto  head  such  high  displevure  from  heaven.'— Blaib. 
One  to  dissatisfied  with  a  person  on  aca>unt  of  thesmall 

auantlty  of  work  which  he  has  done,  or  hto  manner  oC 
oing  It.  Displeasure  to  awakened  by  whatever  to 
done  amiss :  dissatisfaction  is  caused  by  what  happens 
amiss  or  contrary  to  our  expectation.  Accordingly  the 
WfNil  dissaiisfaction  Is  not  confined  to  penwns  of  B 
particular  rank,  but  to  the  nature  of  the  connexioa 
which  subeiets  between  them.  Whoever  does  not  re- 
ceive what  they  think  themselves  entitled  to  from  an- 
other aro  dissatisfied.  A  servant  may  be  dissatisfied 
with  the  treatment  be  meeu  with  ftom  hto  master ; 
and  may  be  said  therefore  to  express  dissdti^actiom^ 
though  not  displeasuro ;  *  I  do  not  like  to  see  any  thing 
destroyed:  any  vokl  in  society.  It  was  therefore  with 
no  disappointment  or  dissatisfaction  that  my  observa- 
tion did  n6t  present  to  me  any  fawonigitile  vice  In  the 
noblesse  of  Franee.'— Bubkb. 

In  reiard  to  things,  disliks  to  a  caBual  foehng  not 
arising  from  any  speclflck  cause.  A  dissatisfacitsn  to 
connected  with  our  desires  and  expectations;  we 
disliks  the  performance  of  an  actor  firum  one  or  many 
causes,  or  from  no  apparent  cause;  butwearedis^siis- 
fied  with  hto  perftvmance  If  It  fall  short  of  what  we 
were  led  to  expect.  In  ortter  to  lessen  the  number 
of  our  dislikes  we  ought  to  endeavour  not  to  disliks 
whhout  a  cause ;  and  in  order  to  lessen  our  dissatis- 
faction  we  ought  to  be  moderate  in  our  expectation. 

Dislike,  distasts,  and  disgust  rise  on  each  other  la 
their  signification.  The  distasts  to  more  than  the  dis" 
Uke :  and  the  diegust  more  than  the  distaste.  The 
disliks  to  a  partial  foeUng,  quickly  produced  and  qukklv 


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gubsldliit;  thedutafU  h  a  Mttled  ftelinc,  gradottlly 
^odueed,  and  perniaiiflDt  in  Us  daratloa :  dugutt  Is 
MthertranaiioryorotberwlBs;  momentarily  or  gradually 
produced,  bul  atroufer  tiian  either  of  the  two  others. 

Capriee  lias  a  grrat  share  in  our  tikes  and  disliku  ; 
•  Drydeo's  distikt  of  the  priesthood  is  impuird  bv  Lang- 
teine,  and  I  tbinlt  by  Brown,  to  a  repulse  which  he 
Mtfered  when  be  soUcitad  oidinatlon.*-JoBiison.  Di9- 
U»u  depends  npon  the  changes  to  wMch  the  eoMtitu- 
lion  physically  and  mentally  is  exposed ;  '  Because  true 
history,  through  ft«quent  satie^  and  similitude  of 
things,  works  a  dUiaaU  and  misprision  in  the  minds  of 
men,  poesy  cheereth  and  reftesheth  the  soul,  chanting 
things  rare  and  yarious.*— Bacon.  Disgiui  owes  iu 
origin  to  the  nature  of  thinp  and  their  natural  operation 
on  iho  minds  of  men;  *  Vice,  for  vice  Is  necessary  to  be 
ahown,  should  always  excite  das/wi.'— Jobmsum  A 
ehild  likes  and  dwiais*  his  plavtbinfi  without  any  ap- 
narent  cause  for  the  change  of  sentiment :  after  a  long 
Illness  a  person  will  frequently  take  a  dutiutt  to  the 
Ibod  or  the  amusements  which  before  afforded  him 
much  pleasure :  what  I4  indecent  or  filthy  is  a  natural 
Object  of  duguat  to  every  person  whose  mind  is  not 
depraved.  It  Is  good  to  «uppresB  unfounded  dUlikes  ; 
it  is  difficult  to  overcame  a  strong  Uttaate ;  It  Is  ad- 
rlnble  to  divert  our  atlantion  from  objects  calculated 
lo  create  dts/tuL     • 


DUWu  to  opposed  to  Uking;  dismdmslum  to  Ifae 
ivverse  of  inclination. 

Ditlikt  applies  to  what  one  has  or  does :  dwrneitiM- 
tion  only  to  what  one  does :  we  diglike  the  Ihius  we 
have,  or  diaUkt  to  do  a  thing ;  but  w«  an  disimcuiud 
only  to  do  a  thing. 

They  express  a  similar  feeling,  but  dlObring  in  de- 
gree. Dinnctination  to  but  a  small  degree  of  ditUkt ; 
di*liht  marks  something  contrary ;  dinncUnati^n  does 
■ot  amount  to  more  than  the  abee«c«  of  an  liMlluatlon. 
None  but  a  disobliging  temper  has  a  diMUke  to  comply 
with  reasonable  requests ; 

Munnuvs  rise  with  mlx*d  applause, 

Just  as  they  ftvour  or  dielike  the  cause.— Dstdbii. 

The  moat  obliging  disposition  may  have  an  occasional 
dinmclinati0%  to  comply  with  a  particular  request; 
'  To  be  grave  to  a  man's  mirth,  or  inattentive  to  hto 
tfiMOurse,  argues  a  ditinclimatton  to  be  enlerulned  by 
kim.'— Stbblb. 


Di$pUanr*  signtlles  the  feeling  of  not  being  pleased 

with  either  persons  or  things ;  anger  comes  from  the 

Latin  ang^r  vexaiioo,  and  smge  to  vex,  wt||ch  to  com- 

nnded  of  an  or  od  against,  and  age  10  act ;  dieappv- 
ra  to  the  reverse  of  approbation. 
Between  diepUaaure  and  aatger  there  is  a  differeaee 
both  in  the  dfegree,  the  cause,  and  the  consequence  of 
the  feeling:  diapUaettre  to  always  a  softened  and 
gentle  foelinc;  amger  to  always  a  hanfa  feeling,  and 
I  rise*  to  vehemence  and  madness.     Dia- 

pteaaure  to  always  produced  bv  soiAe  adequate  cause, 
real  or  supposed ;  an^ sr  may  be  provoked  by  every  or 
•ov  cause,  aeconUng  to  the  temper  of  the  Individual ; 
*  Man  to  the  merriest  species  of  the  creation ;  all  above 
or  betow  him  are  serious ;  be  sees  thInp  In  a  dllforent 
Ughc  from  other  beings,  and  finds  hto  mirth  arising 
from  objects  that  perhaps  cause  something  like  pity  or 
4iapla*amra  In  a  hiiher  nature.*— Anmsoi*.  DtapUa- 
mere  to  mostly  saitofled  with  a  simple  verbal  expnvakm ; 
but  angtTt  unless  kept  down  with  great  force,  always 
•aeks  to  return  evil  for  evil ;  *  From  aiysr  in  its  full 
Import,  protracted  into  malevolence  ano  exerted  In  re- 
venge,  arise  many  of  the  evUs  to  which  the  life  of  man 
to  exposed.*— JoHRSOii.  DiapUaaure  and  diappprah*- 
l«sn  are  to  be  compared  In  as  moeh  as  they  renieet  the 
Oonduet  of  those  who  are  under  the  direction  of  otheia: 
diapUaaure  to  ao  act  of  the  will,  it  to  an  angry  send- 
ment;  *  True  repentance  may  be  wrought  In  tiie  hearts 
of  such  as  fear  God,  and  yet  Incur  hto  diapleuavra^  the 
deserved  eAct  whereof  to  eternal  death.*— Hookse. 
IHaapproictiam  to  an  act  of  the  Judgement,  It  Is  an 
opposite  o|dnlon;  *The  aueen  Regent's  brothers 
knew  her  sicret  dtsapprs^sltsii  of  the  violent  meo- 

Hebrew  TVHf)  heat  or  anger ;  tndif-Kattam,  in  French 
indignrntianf  fa  Latin  rndt/natas,  .from  imdig%m;  to 
think  or  feel  Unworthy,  marks  the  strong  feeling  which 

snres  they  were  driving  on.*— RonftTsoH.  Any  mo 
of  self-wiU  in  a  child  is  calculated  to  excite  digpUm- 
amra  ;  a  mistaken  choice  in  matrimony  may  produea 
diaapprobaiUm  in  the  parenL 

UhapUaaure  to  always  produced  by  that  which  to 
already  come  to  pMs ;  dtaq>probatian  may  be  fek  upoo 
that  which  to  to  lake  place :  a  master  feeto  diapUaamr* 
at  the  careieasness  of  hto  servant ;  a  parent  expressea 
hto  diaapprobation  of  hto  son's  proposal  to  leave  hto 
sitoatk>n :  it  to  sometimes  prudent  10  check  our  dia- 
pUaawre;  anJ  mostly  prudent  to  exprsss  our  d«s- 
approkmtion :  the  former  cannot  be  expressed  withoot 
inflicting  pain  *  the  latter  cannot  be  withheld  when  ra 
quired  withoiu  the  danger  of  mlatoading 


Jingar  has  the  lame  original  meaning  as  in  the  |ira- 
ceding  article;  reaantmaid,  in  French  ressMttMcai^ 
from  ressentrr,  to  compounded  of  ra  and  sciil«r,  sign! 
tying  to  fed  af^n,  over  and  over,  or  ibr  a  continuance ; 
wratk  and  ire  are  derived  from  the  same  source, 
namely,  iprsO,  in  Saxon  wrath,  and  tre,  in  LaUn  are 
anger,  Greek  fyts  contention,  all  which  spring  from  tha 
heat  or  anger ;  tn^gnaUau^  in  French 
Latin  rndt/natas,  .from  imdig%m;  to 
worthy, marks  the stj  ""  " 

base  conduct  awakens  in  the  mind. 

An  Impatient  agiution  against  any  one  who  acts 
contrary  to  our  inclinations  or  opinions  to  the  charac- 
terisUck  of  att  theae  terms.  Raaamtmamt  to  less  vivid 
than  anger y  and  anger  than  vrstA,  tre,  or  indignatian. 
Anger  is  a  sudden  sentiment  of  dtopleasunr;  reaent- 
wunt  to  a  continued  oa^sr;  isralA  to  a  beighlanctf 
sentiment  of  aa^sr,  which  to  poeUcaliy  expresMd  by 
the  word  ire. 

Anger  may  be  atthw  a  selfish  or  a  dtoloterested 
passion;  it  may  be  provoked  by  injuries  done  to  our- 
selves, or  iniustice  done  to  others :  in  tbto  latter  senaa 
of  strong  disptoasure  Gnd  to  angrv  with  sinners,  and 
good  men  may,  to  a  oertaUi  degree,  be  aajry  ^^^^  VMm^ 
under  their  control,  who  act  Improperly;  *  Moralists 
have  defined  angar  to  be  a  desire  of  revenge  for  soma 
iiOury  oflTurKl.'— tenBLB.  Reaenimant  to  a  brooding 
sentiment,  altogether  ariving  from  a  sense  of  penional 
iigury;  it  to  assucisted  with  a  dtolike  of  the  ofiender 
as  much  as  the  alfonce,  and  to  diniiotohed  only  by  the 
infliction  of  pain  in  return ;  in  its  rise,  progress,  and 
effects.  It  to  alike  opposed  to  the  ChrisUan  spirit; 
*  The  temperately  revengeful  have  telsure  to  weigh  iha 
roerita  of  the  cause,  and  thereby  either  to  smother 
their  secret  rMeatsisiite,  or  to  seek  adequate  ro* 
paratlons  for  the  damages  thoy  have  sustained.*— 
Stbblb.  Wraik  and  tw  are  the  sentiment  of  a  supa* 
rlour  towards  an  Inferlour,  and  whan  provoked  by  per- 
Bonal  iojuries  discovers  itself  by  haughtlnem  and  a 
viiidictiva  temper; 

Achilles*  wratA,  to  Greece  the  dlrefol  spring 
Of  woes  unnumber'd,  heavenly  goddem  dng. 


As  a  sentfanent  of  dtopleaaure,  teratk  to  unjustifiablo 

between  man  and  man ;  but  the  tpra<A  of  God  may 

be  provoked  by  the  persfvering  impenitence  of  sinners : 

the  ire  of  a  heathen  god,  according  to  the  gross  views 

of  Pagans,  was  but  the  wrath  of  man  associated  with 

greater  power;  it  was  altogether  unconnected  with 

moral  dlsideasttre ;  the  same  term  to  however  applied 

also  to  the  lieroes  and  prhices  of  antiquity ; 

The  prophet  spoke:  when  with  a  „ 

The  monarch  started  ftom  hto  shining  th 

Black  choier  fill'd  hto  breast  that  boll'd  with  ira^ 

gloomy  fro« 
ling  throne ; 

And  fhMn  hto  eye-balto  flaah'd  the  living  Are.— Por&, 
htHgnaHan  to  a  sentiment  awakened  bvthe  onwortby 
and  atrocious  conduct  of  others ;  as  It  is  exempt  horn 
personality.  It  to  not  Iireconcilable  with  the  temper  of 
a  Chrtotlan ;  *  It  to  surely  not  to  be  observed  without 
indignaHan,  that  men  may  be  found  of  minds  meaa 
enough  to  be  satisfisd  with  thto  treatment;  wretcbsB 
who  are  proud  to  obtain  the  privileges  of  madmen.'-. 
JoBHsoN.  A  warmth  of  constitution  sometimes  given 
rise  to  sallies  of  angar;  but  depravity  of  heart  bresda 
reaentmamt :  unbending  pride  to  a  great  source  ot 
wrath;  but  indignation  flows  from  a  high  sense  at 
hom«ur  and  virtue. 


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Jlnger  sbmiOes  the  nune  as  in  the  precedlog  artiele  ; 
A^Uvy  in  French  eol^*^  Latin  ehritra^  Greek  xoX^i 
cumei  frnm  voXi^  bile,  beeauae  the  overflowing  of  the 
bile  is  both  the  cause  and  consequence  of  ehoter;  ragty 
*M.  French  rmge,  iMlin  rabiu  madness,  and  r«M«  to 
rave  like  a  nuidman,  comes  ftom  the  Hebrew  T  3*1  to 
tremble  or  shake  with  a  violent  madness ;  /Wry,  in 
French /itrt'e,  Latin /Wror,  comes  probably  from  fero 
to  carry  away,  because  one  is  carried  or  hurried  by  the 
emotions  of  Jfurw. 

These  words  Dave  a  piufiMshre  ihree  in  their  algnl- 
fication.  Choler  expresses  something  more  sudden 
and  virulent  than  amgmr;'rtkge  is  a  vehement  ebuUI- 
lion  of  oN^sr ;  and  ^^try  is  an  eicess  of  rage.  JStnger 
may  be  lo  stifled  as  not  to  discover  itself  oy  any  oat- 
ward  symptoms;  ehaler  is  discoverable  by  the  pale- 
ness of  the  visage:  rage  breaks  forth  into  extravagant 
expressions  and  violent  diatortiona;  /ary  takes  away 
the  use  of  the  understanding. 

Aikgvr  is  an  infirmity  incident  to  human  nature ;  it 
ooght,  however,  to  be  aappveased  on  all  occasions ; 
*  The  maxim  which  Periander  of  Corinth,  one  of  the 

benevolence,  was  x^X«v  Kp^«,  be  master  of 
*-nJoHM80M.    CkoUr  is  a  malady  too  physl- 


I  saces  of  Greece,  ksa  as  a  memorial  of  his  know- 
cai  to  fie  always  coireeted  by  reflection 
Must  I  give  way  to  your  rash  eheUr? 
BliaU  I  be  IMghted  when  a  madman  stares  1 

Rawa  and  fitry  are  distempers  of  the  soul,  which 
■ouing  but  religion  and  the  grace  of  God  can  core ; 
Oppose  not  riyv,  while  rage  is  in  its  force, 
But  give  It  way  awhile  and  let  it  waste. 

Of  this  kind  Is  the  /vry  to  which  many  men  giye 
way  among  Uielr  servania  and  dependaut8.*-~JoHi(- 


ReeemtftJ  signifies  filled  with  resentment:  revemgt- 

fal,  that  18,  filled  whh  the  spirit  or  desire  of  revenge; 

emrfieCtM,  flom  vindiea  to  avenge  or  revenge,  sipii- 

flea  either  given  to  revenge,  or  after  the  manner  ot 

ReB€ntful  marktf  solely  the  state  or  temper  of  the 
mind,  revemgefui  also  extends  to  the  action ;  a  person 
is  reeemtful  who  retina  resentment  in  his  mind  with- 
oftt  diaeovering  It  In  any  thing  but  his  t»ehaviour ;  he 
is  rev€Hgefmi  If  be  displays  his  feeling  in  any  act  of 
revenge  or  Injurv  toward  the  oflbnder.  Reeentful 
people  are  affected  with  trifles;  '  Pope  was  as  reeeml' 
fat  of  an  Imputation  of  the  roundness  of  his  back,  as 
Marshal  Luxerabouis  is  reported  to  have  been  on  the 
sarcasm  of  Klna  William.*— Tvbrs.  A  revengeful 
leniper  Is  oftentUDea  not  satisfied  with  a  small  portion 
of  revenge; 

If  thy  revenfefml  heart  cannot  forgive, 
Lo !  here  I  lend  thee  this  sharp-pointed  sword. 
Which  hide  in  tbb  true  breasL— Shaxspbare. 
JUcamg^ul  Is  mostly  said  of  the  temper  or  the  person ; 
bat  vindietive  or  vimdieaUvef  as  it  is  sometimes  written, 
is  saM  either  of  the  person  who  is  prone  to  revenge  or 
of  the  thing  which  serves  the  purpose  of  revei^  or 
punishment;  'Pubilck  revenges  are  for  the  most  part 
fortunate ;  but  in  private  revenges  h  is  n<A  so.    Fmdi- 
catiw  perKUM  live  the  lift  of  witches,  who,  as  they 
we  mischievous,  so  eod  tb^  unfortunate.'— Bacon. 
*  Suits  are  not  reparative,  but  vindieiive^  when  tiiey 
are  commenced  against  insolvent  persons.*— Kbttlb- 


Jtve»ge^  revenge^  and  nnHcaie,  all  spring  ftom  the 
Mune  source,  namely,  the  Latin  vindieot  the  Greek 
Mu[£^opmt  compounded  of  h  in  and  60ai  justice,  slg- 
Bl/ying  to  pronounce  Justice  or  pht  Justice  in  force. 

The  idea  common  to  these  terms  is  that  of  taking  up 
Hne  one's  cause. 
To  avenge  Is  to  ponish  In  behalf  of  another;  to  re- 
f  Is  to  ponisb  for  one's  self;  to  vindieau  is  to  de- 


The  wrongs  of  a  person  are  aiaemged  or  remeetgedi 
his  rights  are  vindieated. 

The  act  of  aoengingt  though  attended  with  the  In 
flictiott  of  pain,  is  oftentimes  an  act  of  humanity,  aa4 
always  an  act  of  Justice ;  none  are  the  suflferers  bul 
such  as  merit  it  for  their  oppression,  while  those  am 
benefited  who  are  dependent  for  support :  this  is  thn 
act  of  God  himself,  who  always  avewfea  the  oppressed 
who  look  up  to  him  ibr  support;  and  it  ought  to  be  the 
act  of  all  his  creatures,  who  are  invested  with  tbf 
power  <^  punishing  ofienders  and  protecting  the  lielf 

The  day  shall  come,  that  great  avenging  day,  / 

When  Troy's  proud  glories  in  the  dust  snail  lay. 

Revenge  Is  the  basest  of  all  actions,  and  the  spirit  of 

any  prospect  of  advantage;  'By  a  continued  series 
of  hMse,  thouffh  apparently  trivial  gratifications,  the 
heart  is  often  thoroughly  corrupted,  as  by  tlie  commis- 
sion of  any  one  of  those  enormous  crimes  which  spring 
from  great  ambition,  or  great  revenge,*— Blaik.  Fin- 
duation  Is  an  act  of  generosity  and  humanity ;  It  is  the 
production  of  good  without  tiie  Infliction  of  pain :  the 
claims  of  the  widow  and  orphan  call  for  vUdieatian 
ftom  those  who  have  the  time,  talent,  or  ability,  w 
take  their  cause  into  their  own  hands:  England  can 
boast,  of  many  noble  vindicat4rre  of  the  rights  of 
humanity,  not  excepting  those  which  concern  the  brala 
creation ;  *  Injured  or  oppressed  by  the  world,  the  good 
man  looks  up  to  a  Judge  who  will  vmdieaU  his  causa  *  ■ 
— B1.AIR. 


JSnger^  signifies  either  having  angers  or  prone  m 
anger;  paeeianate^  prone  to  the  paseian  of  anger; 
Aosty.  prone  to  excess  of  kaete  (kota  intemperate  feel- 
ing; traeeibUj  able  or  ready  to  be  made  angrf^  front 
the  Latin  ira  anger. 

jSngrf  denotes  a  particular  state  or  emotion  of  iba 
mind;  paeeianaU  and  kaely  express  habits  of  thn 
mind.  An  angry  man  is  in  a  state  of  anger;  a  paa- 
erenate  or  kaety  man  is  habitually  prone  to  be  paa 
eionate  or  kaetf.  The  angry  has  less  that  Is  veba* 
ment  and  impetuous  in  it  than  the  paeeionaU^  tba 
Aitfty  has  something  less  vehement,  but  more  sudden 
and  abrupt  in  It  than  either. 

The  angry  man  is  not  always  easily  provoked,  nor  . 
ready  to  retaliate ;  but  he  often  retains  his  anger  until 
the  cause  is  removed ;  *  It  is  told  by  Prior,  in  a  pane* 
gyrick  on  the  Duke  of  Doreel,  that  his  servants  used 
to  put  themselves  in  his  way  when  he  was  angrv^  be- 
cause he  was  sure  to  recompense  them  for  any  indig- 
nities which  he  made  them  sufiTer.*— Jobnbon.  Tho 
paeeionate  man  Is  quickly  roused,  easer  to  repay  the 
oflbnce,  and  speedily  appeased  by  the  infliction  of  pain 
of  which  he  afterward  probably  repents;  '  There  to  In  ' 
the  world  a  certain  class  of  mortals  known,  and  con- 
tentedly known  by  the  name  of  paaeionate  men,  who 
imagine  themselves  entitled,  by  that  distinction,  10  be 
provoked  on  every  slight  occasion.'— Joiinsoiv.  The 
kaety  man  Is  very  soon  oflfended,  but  not  ready  to 
otfoad  in  return ;  his  an^ry  sentiment  spends  itself  in 
aiv^  words; 

The  king,  who  saw  their  Bqaadrans  yet  unmov'd,   ■ 

With  kaety  ardour  thus  the  chlefr  reprov*d^Popn. 

These  three  terms  are  all  empk>yed  10  denote  a  tem- 
porary  or  partial  feeling ;  traeeikUy  on  the  other  hand, 
is  solely  employed  to  denote  the  temper,  and  is  applied 
to  brutes  as  well  as  men ;  *  We  are  here  in  thecountiy 
surrounded  with  blessings  and  pleasures,  without  a^f  > 
occasion  of  exercising  our  iraaeme  faculties.'— Di«av  . 
TO  Pops. 


DiepaeeianaU  is  taken  negatively,  It  raallB  merriy  ' 
the  absence  of  passion ;  eool  (v.  Coat)  Is  taken  poil> 
lively,  It  marks  an  entire  fteedom  from  paarion. 

Those  who  are  prone  to  be  passionate  must  learn  t» 
bedispaf«umat«;  those  who  are  of  a  cool  tempera    ' 
ment  will  not  suflbr  their  paarions  to  be  nmaed.    JOIb.  * 


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paitkmaU  mMy  nqwctt  mm  or  IrritaUe  MBttiiimita ; 
cmI  reipectfl  any  perturbed  feeling:  wben  we  meet 
"'*  an  angry  dlspatant  It  ia  ntcemuy  lo  he  dispat- 
vU  In  order  to  avoid  quairela ;  '  At  to  violence 

the  lady  (Madame  D*Acler)  has  infinitely  the  better  of 
the  gentleman  (M.  de  ia  Motte).  Notbing  can  be  more 
polite^  di>pa«Moita(«,orwnaible,  than  hu  manner  of 
managing  the  ditpnte.*— Popb.  In  the  moment  of 
danger  our  nfeiy  oiYen  depends  upon  our  coolness: 
*  I  cooeeived  this  poem,  and  eave  loose  to  a  degree  of 
leaentment,  wlilch  perhaps  1  ought  not  to  have  In- 
dolged,  but  which  in  a  cmUt  hour  I  cannot  altogether 
w^mtemn' — Cowpbr. 


To  disapprove  is  not  to  approve,  or  to  think  not 
fOod :  to  diuUlu  Is  not  to  likOi  or  to  find  unlike  or  un- 
sttkaMe  to  one's  wishes. 

DUawrw  Is  an  act  of  the  Judgement;  ditUke  Is 
•B  act  or  the  will.  To  mrne  or  disapprove  is  pecu- 
ttarly  the  part  of  a  supenourf  or  one  who  determines 
tke  conduct  of  others ;  to  dislike  is  altogether  a  per- 
■oaal  act.  in  which  the  feelings  of  the  Individual  are 
eonsulted.  It  b  a  misuse  of  the  Judgement  lo  disap- 
pnvs  where  we  need  only  dislike ;  *  The  poem  (Sam- 
son Agonlstes)  has  a  beginning  and  an  end,  which 
AristoUe  himself  could  not  have  disaaproved^  but  it 
Moat  be  allowed  lo  want  a  niiddle.'-^oHiisoii.  it  is 
a  ptrverskm  of  the  Judgement  to  disapprove^  because 
•wdisliks;  *Themanof  peace  will  bear  with  many 
wtMoe  opinions  or  practices  he  ifutii^M,  without  an 
1  violent  rupiure.'-^'Buam. 

wtMoe  oplii 
open  and  vi 

Disgust  has  the  same  signification  as  given  under 
the  bead  of  DisUks^  Displsasw^  &c. ;  loaiking  sig- 
nifies the  propensi^  to  loathe  an  object;  nausea^  In 
Latin  noiwca,  from  the  Greek  miDs  a  ship,  properly  de- 
Botes  sea  sickness. 

'Disgust  is  less  than  2oalAiii#,  and  that  than  noMsea, 
When  applied  to  sensible  ol^ectt  we  are  disgusted 
with  dirt ;  we  Uatke  the  smell  of  food  If  we  have  a 
Bicklv  appetite ;  we  naussaU  medicine :  and  when 
applied  metaphorically,  we  are  disgustedvrtth  affecta- 
tKHi ;  *  An  enumeration  of  examples  to  prove  a  posi- 
tion which  nobody  denied,  as  it  was  (h)m  the  begin- 
nteg  superfluous,  must  quickly  grow  disgustiagJ'-^ 
JoBHsoK.  We  loatks  the  endearments  of  those  who 

Thus  winter  ftUs, 
A  heavy  gloom  oppressive  o'er  the  world. 
Through  nature's  shedding  influence  malign, 
The  soul  of  man  dies  ill  Jura,  loaikingUte. 

We  mauseaU  all  the  enjoyments  of  life,  after  having 
■Bde  an  Intemperate  use  of  them,  and  discovered  their 

Th'  Irresoluble  oil. 
So  gentle  late  and  blandishing.  In  floods 
Of  rancid  bile  overflows :  what  tumults  hence, 
What  horrors  rise,  were  namseous  to  relate. 



Cglsius  is  here  the  general  term,  signifying  merely 
tho  act  that  offends,  or  nins  counter  to  something  else. 

OffsneeieproveTly  Indefinite;  it  merely  Implies  an 
Bifsct  without  the  least  signification  of  the  nature  of 
tho  object;  trespass  and  transgression  have  a  positive 
nihrence  to  an  object  trespassed  upon  or  transgress- 
ad  ;  tre^ass  is  contracted  fhim  trans  and  pass  that  is 
B passing  beyond;  and  transgress  from  trans  and 
grsasus  a  going  beyond.  The  offence  therefore  which 
eenstltutes  a  tre^ass  arises  out  of  the  laws  of  pro- 
perly ;  a  passing  over  or  treading  upon  the  properQr  of 
aaother  Is  a  trespass :  the  offenes  which  consuuites  a 
ttmnsgression  flows  out  of  the  laws  of  society  In  gene- 
ts which  fix  the  boundaries  of  right  and  wrong ;  wbo- 
ovor  therefore  goes  beyond  or  breaks  through  thote 
hOQodi  is  guilty  of  a  transgrsssisn.    The  trespase  is 

a  species  of  nff^nse  which  peeuilaily  appHes  to  tno 
land  or  premises  of  individuals ;  transgression  is  a 
species  of  moral  as  well  as  political  evil.  Hunters  ars 
apt  to  commit  trespasses  In  the  eageniefsof  tLeir  pui^ 
suit ;  the  passions  of  men  are  perpetually  mislead- 
ing them,  and  causing  them  to  commit  various  trans' 
gressions ;  ttie  term  trespass  is  sometimC'S  employed 
Improperly  as  respecu  time  and  other  objects ;  trans  > 
gression  u  always  used  In  one  uniform  ttense  as  re- 
spects rule  and  law ;  we  trespass  upon  the  time  or 
patience  of  another ; 
Forgive  the  barbarous  trespass  of  my  toQgue. 

We  trasisgTtms  the  moral  or  dvU  law ; 

To  whom  with  stem  regard  thus  Gabriel  spake  : 

Why  hast  thou,  SaUn,  broke  the  bounds  prescribed 

To  thy  transgressions  7— Miltom. 

The  offence  is  either  publick  or  private ;  the  vnedfi- 
msanour  is  properly  a  private  offence,  although  impro- 
perly applied  fur  an  offence  against  publick  law;  the 
wtisdemsanour  signifies  the  wrong  demsanour  or  aa 
offence  In  one's  demeanour  aealnst  propriety ; '  Smaller 
faults  in  violation  of  a  publick  law  are  oompris(>d  under 
the  name  of  mMdeiMaiMvr.'— Bi.ackstokb.  The  mis- 
deed is  always  private,  it  signifies  a  wrong  desdy  or  a 
deed  which  offends  against  one's  duty.  lUoious  and 
disorderly  behaviour  in  company  are  serious  misds- 
meanours  ;  every  act  of  drunkenness,  lying,  firaud, 
or  immorality  of  every  kind,  are  misdeed*  ; 

Fierce  fkmine  Is  your  lot,  /or  this  misdeed, 

Redue'd  to  grind  the  plates  on  which  you  feed. 


The  tffenee  is  that  which  afTectt  persons  or  princi- 
ples, communities  or  Individuals,  and  Is  committed 
either  directly  or  indirectly  against  the  person ;  '  Siisht 
provocations  and  fHvolous  fences  are  the  most  fre- 
quent causes  of  disquleL'— Blaib.  An  affront  is  alto- 
gether personal  and  directly  brought  to  near  against 
the  front  of  tlie  particular  person ;  '  God  may  some 
-•     iusUcc       - 

time  or  other  think  It  the  concern  of  his  Justice  and 

Erovidence  too  to  revenge  the  affronts  put  upon  tho 
kws  of  wan.*— South.  It  Is  an  offenta  against  an- 
other to  speak  disrespectfully  of  liim  In  his  absence : 
It  is  an  affront  to  push  past  him  with  violence  and 

Offences  are  against  either  God  or  man ;  the  tres- 
pass Is  always  an  ^enee  against  man;  tlie  tramsgres- 
sian  is  asainst  the  will  of  God  or  the  laws  of  men ; 
the  misdemeanowr  is  more  particularly  against  tho 
established  order  of  society ;  the  misdssd  \»  an  effenea 
against  the  Divine  Law;  the  q^VnU  la  an  ^omaa 
agalnat  good  manners. 

The  offsndsr  la  ho  who  efftnds  in  any  thing,  eltbor 
by  commission  or  omission ;  '  When  any  offemdsr  la 
presented  Into  any  of  the  ecclesiastical  courta  be  is 
cited  to  appear  there.*— BBVBRtooB.  The  deUnqueia^ 
from  ddinaus  to  fall,  signifies  properly  he  who  fklls  by 
omission,  but  the  term  delinqueneif  Is  extended  to  a 
fkilure  by  the  vIolaUon  of  a  law;  *The  killing  of  a 
deer  or  boar,  eleven  a  hare,  was  punished  wiUi  the 
kMS  of  the  delinquent*s  eyes.'— Humb.  Those  who  go 
into  a  wrong  place  are  tffendsrs;  those  who  stay 
away  when  they  ouf^t  to  go  are  d^in^snts :  there 
are  many  offenders  against  the  Sabbath  who  commit 
violent  and  open  breaches  of  decorum ;  there  are  stilt 
more  delinqusnu  who  never  attend  a  publick  place  of 

Offending  signifies  either  actually  offending  or  eal 
culiuod  to  offend;  offensive  signifies  calciualed   to 
^end  at  all  Umes ;  a  person  may  be  offending  in  hta 
manners  to  a  particular  Individualf  or  use  an  offending 
expression  on  a  particular  occaston  without  any  impu- 
ution  on  his  character ; 
And  tho*  th'  offending  part  fbit  mortal  pam, 
Th'  louDorta]  part  its  knowledge  did  retain. 

If  a  person's  manners  are  ojfenetve,  It  reflects  both  tm 


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tie  tnkper  alWI  edaeatloo 

tnr  ii  tgmuiv4  in  oor  manaen.*— Buob. 

XJw^tmdiMg  denolM  tbe  act  of  not  tgmdimg  ;  tn- 
9§fmn»t  the  property  of  not  bebac  dispoeed  or  apt  to 
oifcod ;  kmrmUs$t  tbe  property  of  being  void  of  barm. 
Um^tmdimf  expit— ea  therefore  only  a  partial  state ; 
n^fciwt*«  and  kmrmlus  mark  the  dispoetlion  and  cha- 
raoer.  A  child  to  wmtgtMding  as  long  as  he  does  no- 
ihtog  to  oflbod  others ;  out  lie  may  be  ^fentmt  If  he 
diseoveraaunamiable  temper,  or  has  unpTeasant  man- 
nen ;  '  The  tuutf ending  royal  little  ones  (of  France^ 
were  not  only  condemned  to  langnlsh  In  solitude  and 
darkness,  but  their  bodies  left  to  perish  with  disease.*— 
Bbwaed.  a  ereatare  to  nuifgnnvB  that  has  notliing 
In  itself  tiiat  can  oflfaid; 

For  drink,  the  grape 
BbBtanmbeBtim^mtipe  mast— Mxltox. 
That  to  karmleg*  which  has  neither  the  wUknor  the 
jiDwer  to  harm;  'When  the  disciple  to  questioned 
aboot  the  studies  of  bto  master,  he  makes  report  of 
some  minute  and  frivolous  researches  which  are  intro- 
duced only  finr  the  porposeof  raising  a  karmlcMt  laugh.' 
— CuMBBELAiin.  Domestlck  animato  are  fVequently 
very  inoffensioe  ;  U  to  a  great  recommendation  of  a 
ouack  medicine  to  say  tliai  it  to  AonaiMS- 


The  mUgniif,  fhmi  the  Latin  Hfntu  worthy,  signi- 
fying unworthy  treatment,  respects  tbe  feeling  and 
oondtion  of  the  person  oflbnded :  the  in§%U  (v.  Jt/- 
frmU)  respecte  the  temper  of  the  oflending  party.  We 
measure  the  tiid^tty  in  our  own  mind;  it  depends 
upon  tlie  consciousness  we  have  of  our  own  worth : 
we  measure  the  nuuU  by  tlM  disposition  which  to  dis- 
covered in  another  to  degrade  us.  Persons  in  high 
sutioas  are  peculiarly  exposed  to  indignitieB :  persons 
In  every  station  may  be  exposed  lo  intuUg,  The  royal 
family  of  France  sufibred  every  indignitjf  which  vul- 
car  rage  oouM  devise ;  '  The  two  casques  made  Mon- 
tesnmas'  offlcen  prtoonem,  and  treated  them  with 
great  tfadi^tty.'— Robkrtsom.  Whenever  people 
Barbour  animosities  towards  each^her,  ihey  are  apt 
to  discover  them  by  oOlsring  insnUg  wiien  they  havethe 
opportunity;  'Narvaez  having  learned  that  Cortez 
was  now  advanced  with  a  small -tedy  of  men,  consi- 
dered tlito  as  an  innJt  which  merited  immediate  chaa- 
ItoemenL'— RoBBRTSON.  Indignitiea  mky  however 
be  oflfered  to  persons  of  all  ranks;  but  in  this  case  it 
always  consists  of  more  violence  than  a  simple  tntnlt; 
It  would  be  an  indignity  to  a  person  of  any  rank  to  be 
mcnpelled  to  do  any  office  which  betongs  only  to  a 
beast  (MT  burden. 

it  would  be  an  indignitf  to  a  female  of  any  station 
In  be  compdled  to  expose  her  person ;  on  the  otiMr 
hand,  an  inndt  does  not  extend  beyond  ^n  abusive 
expiesslon,  a  triumphant  contemptuous  loolt,  or  any 
breach  of  courtesy. 


jf/rvia,  in  French  i^^VvNte,  from  tbe  Latin  ad  and 
/tmw,  the  forehead,  signifies  flying  In  the  fkce  of  a 
person;  tfurait,  in  French  «B«K/<e,  comes  from  the 
Latin  insnlu  to  dance  or  leap  upon.  The  former  of 
tliese  actions  marks  defiance,  the  latter  scorn  and  tri- 
umph ;  outrage  Is  compounded  of  out  or  utter  and 
rmg9  or  vi^enee,  signllViiM  an  act  of  extreme  violence. 

An  agront  to  a  mark  of  reproach  shown  in  the  pre- 
sence of  others ;  It  piques  and  mortifies :  an  tntnU  to 
an  attack  made  with  Insolence;  it  irritates  and  pro- 
vokes :  an  tmtrage  eomblnes  all  that  to  oflfenslve ;  it 
wounds  and  injures.  An  intentional  breach  of  polite 
ness,  or  a  want  of  respect  where  h  to  due.  Is  an 
afrtnt;  'The  person  thus  conducted,  who  was  Han- 
nibal, seemed  much  disturbed,  and  eouM  not  forbear 
compJaining  to  the  board  of  tlie  affronts  he  had  met 
with  among  the  Roman  historians.*— Abdison.  An 
ess  mark 

exprem  mark  of  dtorespect,  parttcuiarly  If  coupled  with 
any  external  Indication  of  hostilltv,  is  an  iiurv/C ;  *  It 
mny  very  reawnably  be  eipected  that  the  old  draw 
npon  ihcmsHvcs  the  greatest  part  of  those  in9utt$ 
whirb  tliey  to  much  lament,  and  that  age  to  rarely 

despised  but  when  It  to  contempllMe.*- JoHBsoit 
When  the  insult  breaks  forth  into  personal  violence  ll 
to  an  0utrnge;  'Thto  to  the  round  of  a  pasiiionate 
man's  life;  he  contracts  debts  when  he  la  flirlous, 
which  hto  virtue,  if  he  has  virtue,  obliges  hiin  to  dis- 
charge at  the  return  of  reason.  He  sprnda  hto  time  in 
gmtrage  and  rsparation.'-^onMsoH. 

Captious  people  eonstme  every  innocent  freedom 
into  an  qgrvnL  When  people  are  in  a  state  of  ani- 
mosity, they  seek  opportunities  of  oflbring  each  other 
mtmUs.  Intoxication  or  viotont  paasfton  impel  men  to 
tiM  comnissian  of  auirag»». 


jaggrtnate^  in  Latin  aggraioatiUy  participle  of  ng- 
gravQy  compounded  of  the  mtensive  syllable  o^  or  s4 
and  gra»0  to  make  heavy,  signifies  to  make  very  heavy ; 
irriutej  in  Latin  trrttatnf ,  participle  of  iVrito,  which 
to  a  frequentative  troat  t>a,  dgnifies  to  excite  anger; 
pmoke,  in  French  vreiMfiMr,  Laim  nrovota^  tom- 
pounded  of  ;rrs  fbrtn,  and  voco  to  call,  signifies  to 
cliallenge  or  defy;  «za«psnUo,  Latin  axtuptratus^ 
participle  of  gxasperoy  to  compounded  of  the  Intensive 
syllable  ex  and  owcr  rougli,  signifying  to  make  things 
exceedingly  rough,  toatoitM,  in  French  tantaliMer. 
Greek  TwvrttX^M,  comes  fhrni  TantaluM^  a  king  or 
Phrygia,  who,  having  offended  the  gods,  was  destioed 
by  way  of  puntohmem  to  stand  up  to  hto  chin  in  water 
with  a  tree  of  fUr  fniit  hanging  over  hto  head,  both 
of  which,  as  lie  atienipted  to  allay  hto  hunger  and 
thirst,  fied  from  his  touch ;  whence  to  tantaliie  signi- 
fies to  vex  by  exciting  fklse  expectations. 

All  these  words,  except  the  first,  refer  to  tbe  feelings 
of  the  mind,  and  in  familiar  discourse  that  also  bears 
the  same  si^ification ;  but  otherwise  respects  the  out- 
ward circumstances. 

The  crime  of  robbery  to  aggrmoaUd  by  any  clreum- 
stances  of  cruelty ;  whatever  comes  across  tbe  feelings 
trrttotes  ;  whatever  awakens  anger  prowkes ;  what- 
ever heightens  this  ancer  extraordinarily  •zaaperatee ; 
whatever  raises  hopes  in  order  to  frustrate  them  ttaUa- 

An  appearance  of  onconeem  for  the  oApce  and  its 
conseouences  aggravates  the  guilt  of  the  oflTKiider; 
'  As  ir  nature  hid  not  sown  evils  enough  in  life,  wo 
are  continually  adding  grief  to  grtof,  waA  aggravating 
the  common  calamity  by  our  crud  treatment  of  one 
another.*— AnnisoN.  A  grating  harsh  sound  irritatee 
if  long  continued  and  often  repeated ;  so  also  reproaches 
and  unkind  treauiient  irntols  the  mind ;  *  He  irritaud 
many  of  hto  friends  in  London  so  much  by  his  letters, 
that  they  withdrew  tlieir  contributions.'- Johnsob 
(£.(/>  •/  Savage).  Angry  words proveke^  pnrticulaily 
when  spoken  with  an  air  of  defiance ;  '  Tne  aniinat^- 
versions  of  criticks  are  commonly  such  as  may  easily 
provoke  the  sedatest  writer  td  some  quickness  of 
resentment'— JoHBSoN.  When  provocations  become 
multiplied  and  varied  they  exaeperate ;  '  Oppoeition 
retards,  censure  ezaeforatee^  or  neglect  depresses.'— 
Johnson.  Tbe  weather  by  lu  fireouent  changes  tan- 
tallies  those  who  depend  upon  it  for  amusement; 
'  Can  we  think  that  religion  was  designed  only  for  a 
contradiction  to  nature:  and  with  the  greatest  and 
most  irrational  tyranny  in  tlio  worid  to  tantaUiM  7'— 

Wicked  peopte  aggravaU  their  transgresstons  by 
violence:  susceptible  and  nervous  peo|Ne  are  most 
easily  frrttotsd;  proud  people  are  (\\A€k\Y  provoked  ; 
hot  and  flerv  people  are  soonest  exasperated:  ihose 
who  wish  for  much,  and  wiah  for  it  eagieriy,  an 
oftenest  tant^tsd. 


TVbm  to  most  probably  a  frequentative  of  tear ;  e«a. 
has  t!:e  same  sigcification  as  given  under  the  head  of 
dteplease :  tataU  to  probably  contracted  from  tantalixe^ 
the  original  meaning  of  which  to  explained  in  the  pre- 
ceding article:  twment^  fhxn  the  Latin  termentnm 
and  torqneo  to  twist,  signifies  to  give  pain  by  twisting; 
or  griping.  The  Idea  of  acting  upon  others  so  as  to 
produce  a  painful  sentiment  Is  common  to  all  these 
terms ;  they  differ  In  the  mode  of  the  action,  and  in 
the  degree  uf  the  effei^t 


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AU  these  aetkna  liw  !■  Inmortanee ;  to 
t  trifling ;  to  tomi 

)Cmw«  oon- 
ebtt  in  that  which  to  OMMt  trilling ;  to  i»rment  in  that 
whieh  to  moat  serious.    We  are  Uastd  hy  a  fly  that 
buzzes  in  our  ean;  we  are  vexed  by  the  careleasneas 
and  stupidity  of  our  serrants ;  we  are  toamUd  by  tiie 
aarcasms  of  olhere;  we  are  Uuttalized  hy  the  fair 
prospecis  which  only  proMnl  themselves  lo  disappear 
again ;  we  are   tormenUd  by  the   Importunliies  of 
troublesocne  beggaia.    Hto  the  repetition  of  nopleaaant 
trifles  which  Uasee;  *  Louisa  began  to  take  a  liide 
mischievous  pteasare  la  Uaetng.^—CvuumWLLAMm.    It 
to  tlie  croesoess  and  perversily  of  thinyi  whieh  vss  ; 
Still  may  the  dog  the  wandMng  troope  constrain 
Of  airy  ghosU,  and  vss  the  guilty  train.— Dftiri»«i. 
In  thto  seMe  thlosR  maj  be  said  figuratively  to  be 

And  8haipen*d  ibane  dnH  «m  the  fruitful  ground, 


It  to  cootemptaoos  and  provoking  behaviour  which 

Sharp  was  hto  voice,  which  in  the  shrillest  tone, 
Thus  with  iiuttrious  taimto  attack  the  throne. 

It  to  the  dtoappolntment  of  awakened  expectations 
which  toMtaUtu;  'When  the  maid  (in  Sparu)  was 
once  sped,  she  was  not  sulibred  to  UmtaUu  the  male 
part  of  the  common  wealth.'— Addisom.  It  to  the  repe- 
tition of  grlevooa  tioubles  which  torments;  *  Truth 
eierling  itself  in  the  searching  precepts  of  self-denial 
and  mortification  to  terwuntiHf  to  vicious  minds.*— 
Booth.  We  may  he^teaeed  and  tormented  by  that 
which  produces  bodily  or  mental  pain ;  we  are  vexed, 
taunted,  and  tuntaUied  only  in  the  miud.  Irritable 
and  nervous  people  are  moet  easily  t«aj0i<;  captious 
and  fretful  people  are  most  easily  vexed  or  taunUd; 
aaaguine  and  eager  people  are  most  easily  toiUo/uerf  ; 
iu  all  these  caM»  the  Imagination  or  the  bodily  state 
of  the  individual  serves  to  increase  the  pain :  but  per- 
sons are  Urrmenied  by  such  things  as  inflict  posidye 


Vexaiiony  signifies  either  the  act  of  vexing,  or  the  ftel- 
Ing  of  being  vexed ;  mort(/lca<i9it,  the  act  of  uiortlfv- 
ing,  or  the  feeling  of  being  mortified;  ekagrin,  in 
French  ekoffrin,  from  aigrirf  and  the  Latin  aeer  sharp, 
signifies  a  sharp  feeling. 

FcJcotMrn  sprinas  from  a  variety  of  causes,  acting 
tuploasanUy  on  toe  inclinations  or  passions  of  men ; 
nor^fieutwn  to  a  strona  degree  of  eezaiion,  which 
arises  from  particular  cucumfetances  acting  on  parti- 
cular pamions :  the  loss  of  a  day's  pleasure  to  a  ^«x«- 
tien  to  one  who  to  eager  for  pleasure;  the  loas  of  a 
IMrize,  or  the  circumstance  of  coming  Into  disgrace 
where  we  expected  honour,  to  a  mer^fication  to  an 
ambitious  person.  Fexatien  arises  pnnclpallv  ftom 
our  wishes  and  views  being  crossed ;  mart^atien, 
from  our  pride  and  self-  importance  bei  og  hurt ;  ehagriny 
flrom  a  mlxii*  re  of  the  two ;  dtoappolntments  are  ai  ways 
attended  with  more  or  less  of  vitxaCcoM,  according  to 
the  circumstances  which  give  pain  and  trouble ;  '  Po- 
verty to  an  evil  complicated  with  so  many  circum- 
stances of  uneasiness  and  vexation,  that  every  man  is 
ttudious  to  avoid  iL'— Joniisoff.    An  exposure  of  our 

Kverty  may  be  more  or  less  of  a  mert{fication^  accord- 
i  lo  the  value  which  we  set  on  wealth  and  gran- 
deur; 'I  am  nurti/Ud  by  those  compliments  which 
were  designed  to  encourage  me.'— Pope.  A  reftisal  of 
a  request  will  produce  more  or  less  of  ekagrin  as  it  to 
accompanied  with  circumstances  more  orTess  mertify- 
tnr  to  our  pride ;  *  It  was  your  purpose  to  balance  my 
ehofrim  at  the  inconslderaUe  eflbcc  of  that  essay,  by 
representing  that  It  obtained  some  notice.'— Hill. 

Crime  (v.  Crime)  to  to  wdedemeanavr  (e.  Qfenee), 
as  the  genus  to  the  species :  a  miedemeoMeur  to  in  the 
technical  sense  a  miDor  crime.  Housebreaking  to 
under  all  circumstances  a  cHme;  but  shoplifUng  or 
pilAsring  amounto  only  lo  a  miedemeoMemr. 

Corporeal  puntobmeuto  are  most  commonly  annexed 

'  to  crimte;  pecuniary  punishments  frequently  to  mi«- 

deoMaiMKrs.    In  the  vulgar  use  of  these  terms,  mi*- 

demetmoMir  to  moreover  diatingniabed  from  crime,  hf 
not  always  signifying  a  violation  of  publlck  law,  but 
only  of  private  morals ;  in  which  sense  the  term  cnm» 
implies  what  to  done  against  the  state; 
No  erims  of  thine  our  present  suflMngs  draws, 
Noi  tbott,  but  Ueav'n's  dtopoaftng  wiU  Uie  caism 

The  miedgmemaemr  to  that  which  ofltaids  Individuato 
or  small  communities ;  *  I  mention  thto  for  the  aake  of 
several  rural  squires,  whose  reading  does  not  rise  so 
high  as  to  "the  present  state  of  England,"  and  who 
are  often  apt  to  usurp  that  precedency  which  by  the 
laws  of  their  country  is  not  due  to  them.  Their  want 
of  learning,  which  has  planted  them  in  thto  station 
may  in  aome  measure  exoise  their  miedemeamew*'- 


GKsM,  In  LaUn  erimen^  Greek  api^  signifies  a 
Judgement,  sentence,  or  punishment :  also  tlie  cause  of 
the  sentence  or  puntohment,  in  which  latter  sense  it  to 
here  taken :  vice,  in  Latin  vittatai,  from  vito  to  avoid, 
signifies  that  which  ought  to  be  avoided :  f  m,  in  Saxon 
«yMme,  Swedish  ej/md,  German  «mMie,okl  German 
rante,  saala,  frc  Latin  eentu,  Greek  odirfK,  from  s/vm 
to  hurt,  signifies  the  thing  that  hurts :  ein  being  of  all 
things  the  most  hurlAil. 

A  crime  to  a  social  oflbnce ;  a  vioc  to  a  personal 
oflence:  every  action  which  does  injury  to  otbeia, 
either  individually  or  collectively,  to  a  crime;  that 
which  does  injury  to  ouraelves  to  a  vice, 

A  CTMM  consists  in  the  violation  of  human  laws; 
*■  The  most  ignorant  heatben  knows  and  feeto  timt, 
when  henas committed  an  unjust  aitd  cruel  action,  he 
haa  committed  a  trime  and  deserves  puidshmenU'— 
Blair.  Vice  cousisu  iu  tlie  violation  of  tlie  moral 
law;  *  If  a  man  makes  bis  vieee  publick,  though  they 
be  such  aa  seem  principally  to  aflboc  himself  (as  drunk- 
ennem  or  the  like),  they  then  become,  by  the  bad  ex- 
ample they  set,  of  pernicious  effects  to  society.'— 
BLAcasTOKX.  Sin  consists  in  the  violation  of  the  Di- 
vine law;  'Every  single  giorn  act  of  sta  to  much  the 
same  thing  to  the  conscience  that  a  great  blow  or  All 
to  lo  the  head ;  It  stuns  and  bereaves  it  of  all  use  of 
its  senses  for  a  ame.'— South.  5m,  therefore,  com- 
preliends  both  cnaw  and  vie*  .-but  tliere  are  manv  etna 
which  are  not  crimes  nor  vicif:  erimee  are  tried  before 
a  human  court,  and  puntohed  agreeably  to  the  sentence 
of  thejudae ;  vices  and  sine  are  brought  before  the 
tribunal  of  the  conscience ; 

the  former  arc  punished  in 
come,  by  the  sentence  of  tlie  Almighty :  treaHon  to  one 

this  world,  the  latter  will  be  punished 

in  the 

worid  lo 

of  Die  most  atrocious  crimes:  drunkenness  one  of  the 
most  dreadful  vices ;  religk>UB  hypocrisy  one  of  the  most 
heinous  sins. 

Qrimee  cannot  be  atoned  for  by  repenunce ;  society 
demands  reparation  for  the  inju^  oommiUed:  vices 
continue  td  puntoh  the  oflbnder  as  long  as  they  are  che- 
rished* MM  are  pardoned  through  the  aioneiueui  and 
mediation  of  our  blessed  Redeen»er,on  the  simple  con- 
dition of  sincere  repentance.  Orimee  and  vicee  disturb 
the  peace  and  good  order  of  society,  they  affect  men's 
earthly  happiness  only ;  sin  destroys  the  soui,  both  for 
thto  worid  and  the  worid  to  come :  crimes  sometimes 
go  unpuntohed ;  but  sin  carries  Ito  own  punishmtmt 
with  it :  murderers  who  escape  the  punishment  due  to 
their  ertsies  commonly  suffer  the  torments  which  at- 
tend the  commission  of  sucb  flagrant  sins.  Crimes  are 
particular  acts;  vices  are  habitual  acts  of  commission ; 
sins  are  acto  of  commission  or  omission,  habitual  or 
particular :  personal  security,  respect  for  the  laws,  and 
regard  for  one's  moral  character,  operate  to  prevent  th^ 
conimission  of  crimes  or  vices ;  the  fear  of  God  deters 
from  the  commission  of  sin. 

A  crime  alwavs  involves  a  violation  of  a  law ;  a  vice, 
whether  in  conduct  or  disposition,  always  dimintobei 
moral  excellence  and  involvea  guilt;  a  ein  always sup> 
poses  some  perversity  of  will  in  an  acoiuntable  agent 
Children  may  commit  crimes,  but  we  may  trust  trial 
in  the  divine  mercy  they  will  not  all  be  imputed  to  th«m 
as  sins.  Of  vices,  however,  as  they  are  liabituai,  we 
have  no  right  lo  suppose  that  any  exceptlota  wiU  be 
made  in  the  account  of  our  sins. 

Crimee  vary  with  tine es and  countries;  vices  may  be 
more  or  less  pernicious;  but  ein  to  as  unchani^ealile  in 
its  nature  as  the  Being  whom  it  oflends.    Smuggling 


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■M  fiMfny  an  1 1  imu  ta  Englaad,  wtiich  In  other 
OMBlries  we  eillMr  not  kaown  or  not  regarded :  the 
«Mf  of  glttttooy  k  not  n  dreadful  as  that  of  draaken- 
Bm;  9!^nty  «m  aa  an  offence  aaalnst  aa  laAntteij  good 
and  wise  Betog,  moat  aJwaya  bear  the  eame  stamp  of 
goUtand  enormity. 

By  the  aflteution  of  aome  wrhere  in  modem  tinie8» 
Ibe  word  crnne  haa  been  aaed  in  the  shigular  to  denote, 
la  the  afastvaet  semet  a  eourae  of  erhninal  eoaduct,  but 
the  lanomlon  Is  not  warranted  by  the  necemity  or  the 
cane,  the  word  being  ueed  In  the  plural  narober,  hi  that 
aease,  as  to  be  enoourafed  hi  thecommlsikm  of  cWsMe, 
■oc  of  crime. 


Onmiutl,  ftom  ctmm,  slgnifiee  bek>nging  or  relating 
to  a  crime;  pdUg^  from  gmilty  slgiiUles  having  g}$iU : 
ptUt  eomei  from  the  German  §tUai  to  pay,  aud/a/t  a 
One,  debt,  or  from  gmiU  and  i<;^Ht<f,aecof ding  to  Home 
Tooke ;  '  Ouili  is  g«-wicled  gvileJL  gviTdt  malt ;  the 
past  participle  of  ge- wiclian  md  lo  find  guiU  In  any  one, 
is  to  find  tJuu  he  has  been  guiUdf  or  as  we  now  say, 
•tfsiled,  as  wicked  means  witched  or  bewitched.*— 
(XMv«rtftea#  tf  Pmrieg.) 

Oimmdl  icspecla  the  character  of  the  oflence ;  *  True 
sodeety  avoids  every  tbing  that  k  maunei ;  fhlse 
BBodesty  everything  that  Is  unA»hlonable.'~ADDisoa. 
Ouiltff  respects  the  fact  of  committing  the  ofltoce,  or 
more  properly  the  person  committing  It; 

Goiit  hean  appail'd  whh  deeply  troubled  thought ; 

And  yef  not  always  on  the  ruiUf  bead 

Descends  the  fated  flash.— Thomson. 
The  eriwmuUUw  of  a  person  is  estimated  by  alt  the  cir- 
eumstances  of  his  conduct  which  present  tbemsetves  to 

obiervatinn ;  his  /ni/t  requires  to  be  proved  by  evi- 
dence. The  ertmno/ity  is  not  a  matter  of  question, 
but  of  Judgement ;  the  guilt  is  often  dotibiAil,  if  not  po- 
sitively concealed.  The  higher  the  rank  of  a  person, 
the  greater  his  eriminalitff  if  he  does  not  observe  an 
upright  and  Irreproachable  conduct ;  '  If  this  perseve- 
nunce  In  wronc  often  appertains  to  Individuals,  It  much 
more  frequenuy  belongs  to  publiek  bodies;  in  them  the 
diigrace  of  errour,  or  even  the  crtmiaaitty  of  conduct, 
betoncs  to  so  many,  that  no  one  is  ashamed  of  the  part 
which  betongs  to  liimseif.*— Watboh.  Where  a  num- 
ber of  Indlviifuals  are  concerned  in  any  unlawful  pro- 
eeedf ng,  the  dlfKculty  of  attachhig  the  gviU  to  the  real 
o^nder  is  greatly  Increased ;  '  When  these  two  are 
takea  away,  the  possibility  of  f«iU,  and  the  posslbilUy 
•f  innoeenoe,  what  restraint  can  the  belief  or  the  creed 
lay  upon  any  man  ?*— Hammond. 

Onwuntdttf  attaches  to  the  aider,  abettor,  or  encoa- 
^ragei ;  butM'tt,  in  the  strict  sense  onhr,  to  the  perpe- 
trator of  wliat  is  bad.  A  person  may  therefore  some- 
limes  be  cAwdnal  witliout  befaig  gniltf.  He  who  oon- 
Mnls  the  offences  of  another  may,  under  certain  dr- 
cuaistances,  be  more  enminmi  than  the  guilty  peiaon 
himself  On  the  other  hand,  we  may  be  guiltf  with- 
out being  crtmmai ;  the  latter  designates  something 
positively  bad,  but  the  former  fai  qualified  by  the  ol^ect 
nf  the  Aslf.  Those  only  are  denominated  crnmiicl 
who  olfend  seriously,  either  against  publick  law  or  pri- 
vate morale;  but  a  pemn  may  be  said  tobejraifty, 
aiiher  of  the  greatest  or  the  smallest  offences.  He  who 
eontradlcts  another  abniptiy  in  conversation  hguiltif 
of  a  breach  of  politeness,  but  he  Is  not  erimindC 

OimrMl  is  moreover  applied  as  an  epithet  to  the 
things  done ,  ptiUffH  mostly  applied  to  the  person  doing. 
We  enmroonlyspeak  of  actions,  proceedings,  intentions, 
and  views,  as  eriminai;  but  or  the  person,  the  mind, 
or  the  conscience,  as  guilty.  It  Is  very  eWiNim«l  to  sow 
dimension  among  men ;  although  there  are  too  many 
who  from  a  busy  temper  are  guilif  of  this  ofltace. 


An  these  terms  are  eniptoyed  for  a  pnMIck  offender ; 
hot  tiie  flfit  conveys  no  more  than  this  general  idea ; 
while  the  othen  compreliend  some  accessory  idea  in 
their  sIgnlAcathm :  erimineU  (v.  Oisriiisi,  Guilty)  is  a 
general  terai,  and  the  rest  are  properly  species  of  crt- 
mimaU .  emiprity  from  the  Latin  culpa,  and  urtkentua 
taken  In  a  fiinli,  slfnifles  tlie  criminal  who  Is  directly 
charged  with  bin  oflfence:  malrfaetor,  compounded  of 
^hs  Latin  tfenna  mdU  and/asCer%  signifies  an  evil-doer, 

that  la,  oaa  who  does  evB,  la  disUnetiaa  from  hhn  who 
does  good :  /don,  Amn  /elMy .  in  Latin  ftlmda  a  capital 
Mnes  from  the  Greek  ^Aiieis  an  imposture 
fraud  and  villa^y  are  the  proniineni  featurss 
of  every  capital  offence:  eenvtcl,  in  LaUn^  convictue^ 
participla  oc  cenemee  lo  coavince  or  prove,  signifies  one 
proved  or  found  guilty. 

When  we  wish  to  speak  in  general  of  those  who  by 
offences  against  the  laws  or  regulations  of  society  have 
exposed  themselves  to  punislunent,  we  denominate 
them  cn'simaif ;  '  If  I  attack  the  vleh>us,  I  sliall  only 
set  apon  them  in  a  body,  and  will  not  be  provoked  by 
the  worst  usage  I  can  receive  tton  others,  to  qiake  an 
example  of  any  particular  cHmtnaf  .'-^Addison.  Wliea 

persons  as  already  brought  before  a  trlbu 
aal,  we  call  them  cufyrita ; 

The  lury  then  withdrew  a  mooient. 
As  If  on  weighty  points  lo  comment, 
And  right  or  wrong  resolved  to  save  her. 
They  gave  a  verdiaio  her  favour. 
The  culprit  by  escape  grown  boM, 
PIUSbts  alike  from  youag  and  old.— Mooai 
Whan  we  conai4er  men  in  regard  to  the  moral  turpi 
tude  of  their  character,  as  the  promoters  of  evil  rathor 
than  of  good,  we  entitle  them  malrfactort ; 
For  this  the  mtd^aetar  goat  was  laid 
OnBacchuB*  altar,  and  his  forfeit  pald^—DaTDa*. 
When  we  consider  men  as  otfending  by  the  grosser  vio- 
lations of  the  law.  they  are  termed  felonM ;  *■  He  (Eari 
Ferrers)  ezpreasea  some  displeasure  at  being  executed 
as  a  common  feUn^  exposed  to  the  eyes  of  such  a  mul- 
titude.*—Sm  ollkt.   When  we  consider  men  as  already 
under  the  sentence  of  the  law,  we  denominate  them 
Attendance  none  shall  need,  nor  trabi,  where  nono 
Are  to  behoM  tlie  Judgement,  but  the  Judged ; 
Thoae  two :  the  third  beat  absent  is  oondemn'd 
QpRvict  by  flight,  and  rebel  to  all  law, 
Conviction  to  the  serpent  none  belongs.— Milton 
The  ponishmtott  Inflicted  on  «rtaiana2«  vary  accord- 
ing to  the  nature  of  their  crimes,  and  tlie  spirit  of  the 
laws  by  which  they  are  Judged:  a  guilty  conscienoa 
will  give  a  man  the  air  of  a  eulprH  in  the  presence  o( 
Ukmc  who  have  not  authority  to  be  either  his  aecusere 
or  Judges :  it  gratified  the  malice  of  the  Jews  to  causa 
our  bleased  Saviour  to  be  cnidfied  between  two  sutls- 
fattart :  it  Is  an  important  reffulailon  in  the  intemal 
economy  of  a  prison,  to  have/e{(m«  kept  distinct  from 
each  other,  particularly  If  thebr  crimes  are  of  an  atro- 
cious nature :  it  has  not  unfteouently  happened,  that 
when  the  sentence  of  the  law  has  placed  convicts  In 
the  lowest  stale  of  degradation,  their  characters  have 
undergone  so  entire  a  reformation,  as  to  enable  them  to 
attain  a  higher  pitch  of  elevation  than  they  had  ever 
eqjoyed  before. 


CuXpablty  In  Latin  eufyabHit^  IVom  aUpa  a  Ikult  ot 
Manie,  signifies  worthy  of  blame,  fit  to  be  blamed ; 
'     (y,  from  fauUy  havkna  faults. 

'e  are  culpable  ft-om  tlie  commission  of  one/snlt ; 
we  an  faulty  fVom  the  number  of  faults  :  culpable  is 
a  relative  term ;  fauUy  is  absolute ;  we  are  culpable 
with  regard  to  a  superiour  whose  intentions  we  have  not 
ftilflllea;  we  are  faulty  whenever  we  commit  any 
faults.  A  master  pronounces  his  servant  culpable  for 
not  having  attended  to  his  coihmands ;  •  In  the  com- 
mon business  of  life,  we  find  tiie  memory  of  one  like 
that  of  another,  and  honestly  Impute  omissions  not  to 
involuntary  forfetfulness,  but  culpable  inattention.'— 
Johnson.  An  Indifikrent  person  pronounces  another 
bM faulty  whtme  faulte  have  come  under  his  notice; 
*  In  the  consideration  of  human  lift  the  satirist  never 
folb  upon  persons  who  are  not  glaringly  faultu.*-' 
SrxaLa.  It  is  possible  therefore  to  be  faulty  witbout 
betag  eulpabUt  but  not  vies  vered. 

ChaliUeey  without  ^ift.  Is  more  than  inneeeHt:  hh 
necenee,  from  naeeo  to  hurt,  extends  no  farther  than  tfai 
quality  of  not  hurting  by  any  direct  act ;  guiltleee  com- 
prehends the  qunlifyof  not  Intending  to  hurt:  it  la 
possible,  therefore,  to  be  innocent  without  being  guUb- 
tese^  though  not  vice  vend;  ha  who  wlshai  for  tht 


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death  of  another  la  not  i^sIOm*,  though  ho  may  be 
intMcetil  of  the  crime  of  murder.  OitiUUss  aeema  to 
regard  a  man's  general  condition ;  nuutceut  hia  nuti- 
caiar  condition:  no  man  b  gwiUle«&  In  the  dgntof 
God,  for  no  man  la  exempt  from  the  guilt  of  ain ;  out  be 
may  be  innocemt  In  the  eight  of  men,  or  innoeent  of  all 
auch  intcniiona  ofRmcea  as  render  him  obnoxious  to 
hia  feUow^^realores.  OtaUUsnuM  waa  that  happy 
iUta  of  perfection  which  men  lost  at  the  lUI ; 

Ah !  why  should  all  mankind 
For  one  man's  Auilt  thus  guiltUtt  be  condemned, 
l{gviltU§M7  But  ftom  me  what  can  proceed 
But  aJi  corrupt  1— Miltom. 

Immmkm  is  that  relative  or  compaiaUve  state  of  per- 
fection which  Is  atudnable  here  on  earth:  the  highest 
slate  of  imnocenee  Is  an  ignorance  of  evU ;  *  When  Adam 
sees  the  several  changes  of  nature  about  him,  he  ap- 
pears in  a  disorder  of  mlod  sniiabie  to  one  who  had 
forfeited  bolh  his  mnoente*  and  his  happiness.'— Ao- 


OuUtle$»  is  In  the  proper  sense  applicable  only  to 
the  condition  of  man ;  and  when  applied  to  thlnp,  It 
still  has  a  reference  to  the  person ; 

But  ftom  the  mountain's  gras*y  side 
w  feast  I  bring; 
a  fruits  and  herbs  supplied, 

A  FvOtfcstf  feast  I  bring ; 
scrip  with  fruits  and  herl 
Ana  water  Ikom  the  spring.— 4*oumuth. 

Ituucmt  is  equally  applicable  to  persons  or  things ;  a 
person  is  ntnocaU  who  has  not  committed  any  Injury, 
or  has  not  any  direct  purpose  to  commit  an  ii^ury ;  or 
a  conversation  is  tim^esiU  which  is  free  from  what 
is  hurtful.  InnocetU  and  harmUt*  both  recommend 
themselves  as  qualities  negatively  good;  they  desig- 
nate an  exemption  either  in  the  person  or  thing  frcHn 
injury,  and  dlflbr  only  In  regard  to  the  nature  of  the  in- 
jury :  inmocemce  respects  moral  Injury,  and  karmUs* 
physical  li^ury:  a  person  is  tmmotetU  who  Is  free  from 
moral  impurity  and  wicked  porpoees ;  he  is  karmlesa 
'if  lie  have  not  the  power  or  disposition  to  commit  any 
violence;  a  diversion  is  mnoemt  which  has  nothing  in 
It  likely  to  corrupt  the  morals ;  *  A  man  should  endea- 
vour to  make  the  sphere  of  his  mnaeeiU  pleasures  as 
wide  aa  possible,  tlmt  he  may  retire  into  them  with 
aafbty.'— Adouom.  A  game  is  harmle»*  which  is  not 
Ukely  to  Inflia  any  wound,  or  endanger  the  health ; 

Full  on  his  breast  the  Trojan  arrow  fell. 
Bat  harwduM  bounded  from  tlie  plated  steel. 



Jmp^rftetion  denotes  either  the  abstract  quality  of 
hitptrftety  or  the  thing  which  constitutes  it  impwrfect; 
dtftt  signifies  that  which  is  deficient  or  Alls  short, 
Ihim  the  Latin  i^^ifiin  to  flUl  short  ;/*«!!/<,  from  fUl, 
signifies  that  which  fails;  viet^  signmes  the  same  as 
explaimed  under  the  head  cX  OHmm. 

These  terms  are  applied  either  to  pereons  or  things. 
An  tsiptfr/ceeira  in  a  pereon  arises  from  his  want  of 
^trfeeticitt  and  the  infirmity  of  his  nature;  there  Is  no 
one  without  some  point  of  rmperfution  which  is  ob- 
vious to  others,  if  not  to  himself:  he  may  strive  to 
diminish  it,  although  he  cannot  exoect  to  get  altogether 
rid  of  it :  a  defcetu  a  devUtion  from  the  general  con- 
stitution of  man ;  it  is  what  may  be  natural  to  the  man 
as  an  indivi^pal,  but  not  natural  to  man  as  a  species ; 
in  this  manner  we  may  epeak  of  a  defect  in  the  speech, 
or  a  defeei  in  temper.  The  fault  and  vice  rise  in  de- 
gree and  character  above  either  of  the  former  terms; 
they  both  reflect  disgrace  more  or  less  on  the  person 
poMCBoing  them  ;  but  the  fault  always  characterizes 
the  agent,  and  is  said  in  relation  to  an  individual :  the 
vice  characterizes  the  action,  and  may  be  considered 
abetrnciedly :  hence  we  speak  of  a  mtin'% faults  as  the 
tilings  we  may  condemn  in  him ;  but  we  may  speak  of 
tlie  vice*  of  drunkenness,  lying,  and  the  like,  without 
any  immediate  raference  to  any  one  who  practises 
these  vices.  When  they  are  both  employed  for  an  in- 
dividual, their  distinction  is  obvious :  Hie  fault  may 
Ifswn  th«  amiability  or  excellence  of  the  character ; 
the  via  is  a  stain ;  a  single  act  destro^-s  its  purity,  an 
liaUtiiii  practice  is  a  poUutioo. 

In  regard  to  thinn  the  distinction  depends  upon  ibn 
preceding  explanatfon  in  a  great  measure,  for  we  tarn 
scarcely  use  tliese  words  without  thinking  on  man  aa 
a  moral  agent,  who  was  made  the  most  perfect  of  aH 
creatures,  and  became  the  moat  mp^rftet ;  and  from 
our  imperfecticn  has  arisen,  also,  a  general  imperfet' 
tioH  throughout  all  the  works  of  creation.  The  word 
mperfeetum  is  theret jre  the  most  unqualified  term  of 
all :  there  may  be  imperfeeUim  la  regard  to  our  Maker ; 
or  there  may  be  imperfeUwn  in  regard  to  what  wv 
conceive  of  perfeaum :  and  In  this  case  the  term 
simply  and  generally  inwUea  whatever  falls  short  In 
any  degree  or  manner  of  perfeahn ;  *  It  is  a  pleasant 
story  ihu  we,  forsooth,  who  are  the  only  imptrfeel  crea- 
tures in  the  univeise,  are  the  only  belnffi  that  will  not 
altow  of  im|rer/ectt0n.'— Stkblb.  Detect  Is  a  positiva 
degree  nXtrnpafefOMm, :  It  is  contrary  both  to  our  Ideaa 
of  perfection  or  our  particular  intention :  tiros,  thera 
may  be  a  d^eet  in  tlie  materials  of  which  a  thing  ia 
made;  or  a  drfeet  in  the  mode  of  making  It:  the  term 
defect^  however,  whether  said  of  persons  or  tilings, 
characterizes  rather  the  object  than  the  agent;  'Thia 
low  race  of  men  take  a  particular  pleasure  in  finding  , 
an  eminent  character  levelled  to  their  condition  fay  a 
report  of  its  d^ecU^  and  keep  themselves  in  counte- 
nance, though  they  are  excelled  in  a  thousand  virtues, 
if  they  believe  that  they  have  in  common  with  a  great 
person  any  one  /sait.*— Addisoii.  /bait,  on  the  other 
band,  when  said  of  thinf^  always  refers  lo  the  agem: 
thus  we  may  say  there  Is  a  defeu  in  the  daas,  or  a  ds- 
feet  in  llie  sprhig ;  but  tiiere  is  a  fatdt  in  the  workman- 
ship, or  a  fault  In  the  putting  together,  and  the  like. 
Vice^  with  regard  to  things,  is  properiy  a  serious  or 
radical  defect ;  the  former  lies  in  the  constitution  of 
the  whole,  tlie  latter  may  lie  In  the  parts ;  the  former 
lies  in  eoKniials,  the  latter  lies  in  tlie  accidents;  there 
may  be  a  defect  in  the  nhape  or  make  of  a  horse;  but 
the  vice  is  said  In  regard  to  his  soundness  or  unsound- 
ness, his  docility  or  indocllity ;  *  I  did  myself  the  honour 
thb  day  lo  make  a  visit  to  a  lady  of  quality,  who  li 
one  of  those  who  are  ever  railing  at  the  wcc$  of  the 
age.'— Stbiui. 


Tmperfeetien  (v.  Imperfeetum)  has  already  been  con 
sidpred  aa  that  which  in  the  most  extended  sense 
abridges  the  moral  perfeetun  of  man  ;  the  rest  are  but 
of  imperfectien^  varying  in  degree  and  circum- 
;  '  You  live  in  a  reign  of  human  infimilty, 
where  every  one  has  tmperfeetumt.^—BhAiM,.  fVeak' 
neee  is  a  positive  and  etnmg  degree  of  iwiperfectun, 
which  is  opposed  to  strength ;  it  h  what  we  do  not  ao 
necessarily  look  for,  and  therefore  dlstinEuishea  the  in- 
dividual  who  is  Ihihle  to  It;  < The  folly  of  allowbiff 
ounelTes  to  delay  wliat  we  know  cannot  finally  be 
escaped,  Is  one  of  tlie  general  weaknesses  which,  to  a 
greater  or  less  degree,  prevail  in  every  mind.'-~JoHif- 
son.  Frailtf  is  another  strong  mode  of  imperfectism. 
which  characlerizea  Uie  fragility  ot  man,  but  not  of  all 
men ;  It  differs  from  meakneas  in  respect  to  the  object. 
A  weakness  lies  niorq  in  the  Judgement  or  in  the  senti- 
ment ;  fraiUp  lies  more  in  the  moral  features  of  an 
action;  '  There  are  circumstances  which  every  man 
must  know  will  prove  the  occasions  of  calling  forth 
his  latent  /rmttiw.'— Blair.  It  is  a  weakness  in  a 
man  to  yield  to  the  persuasions  of  any  one  against  hia 
better  Judgement ;  it  is  a  frailtp  to  yield  to  Intemper- 
ance or  illicit  indulgences.  Failings  and  foibles  art 
the  smallest  degrees  of  imperfection  to  which  the 
human  character  is  liable:  we  have  all  oarfatUnfs  In 
temper,  and  our  fogies  In  our  habits  and  our  prepoa 
sessions ;  and  he,  aa  Horace  observes.  Is  the  best  wiM 
has  the  fewest ;  *  Never  allow  small  failings  to  dwell 
on  your  attention  so  much  as  to  deface  the  wliole  of  an 
amiable  character.'— -BLAin.  *  Witty  men  have  some- 
times sense  enough  lo  know  their  own  foibles^  and 
tlierefore  they  craftily  shun  the  attacks  of  an  argu- 
ment.*—Watts.  For  our  imperfections  we  roust  seek 
superlour  aid :  we  must  be  most  on  our  guard  against 
tliose  weaknesses  to  which  the  softness  or  susceptibility 
of  our  minds  may  most  expose  us,  and  against  tboaa 
frailties  Into  which  tlie  violence  of  our  evil  pawiona 
may  bring  us:  toward  the  failings  and  foibles  ot 
otiiers  we  may  be  indulgent,  but  should  tw  ambiiioua 
to  correct  them  In  ourselves. 


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FkOj  \n  French/aitf cr,  Oerman,  Atc/dUem,  like  the 
wont  nil,  C0IDO9  m>Bi  the  Latin  folio  to  deceive,  and 
the  Hebrew  SbI  to  fall  or  decay. 

To  fail  maris  tlw  reeull  of  actiona  or  effbrta;  a  per- 
■OD  fmils  in  his  undertaking :  fall  $Mort  designates 
dtlier  the  result  of  actions,  or  ttie  state  of  tilings;  a 
person/oIU  short  in  hb  calculation,  or  in  his  account ; 
the  issue /ail*  okort  of  the  expecutiou :  to  b*  iafkUml 
BMriu  only  tlie  state  or  quality  of  objects ;  a  person  is 
4^itieoX  in  good  manners.  People  frequently /si/  in 
Ibeir  best  endeavours  for  want  of  knowing  how  lo 
apply  their  abUiliss ;  '  I  would  not  wilUngiy  laugh  but 
to  instruct;  or,  if  I. sometimes /oii  in  this  point,  when 
my  mirth  ceases  to  be  instructive,  it  shall  never  cease 
to  be  innooenL*— AnmsoN.  When  our  expectations 
ere  immoderate,  it  Is  not  surprislngif  our  success /atts 
Bk»n  of  our  hopes  and  wishes:  *  There  Is  not  in  mv 
opinion  any  thing  more  mysterious  in  nature  than  tli» 
Instinct  in  animabs  which  thus  r&Ks  above  reason, 
and  /sUs  infinitely  okort  of  iL'— Aodisom.  There  is 
■olhiDg  In  which  people  discover  theinaelves  to  be 
wore  ieficwol  than  in  Iweping  ordinary  engagementi ; 
While  all  creation  speaks  the  pow*r  divine, 
Is  It  d^ficumt  In  tlia  main  design  1— Jbntms. 
To  faU  and  h»  d^fleiemt  are  both  applicable  to  the 
ebaracters  of  men ;  but  the  former  is  mostly  employed 
for  the  moral  conduct,  tlie  latter  for  the  outward  beha- 
vkMir:  hence  a  man  It  said  vofail  in  hii  duty,  in  the 
diaeliarge  of  bis  olriigations,  In  tile  performance  of  a 
pmmise,  and  the  like ;  but  to  be  defUitnt  in  politeness, 
in  attention  to  his  Mends,  in  his  address,  in  liis  manner 
of  entering  a  room  and  the  like. 

e  designs  of 


species  of 

species  of  siiffearrie^s,  fmd  in 

/oAlMrc,  as  it  applies  only  to  tlie  <      ^ 

agents:  but  it  does  not- carry  the  mind  back  to  the 

agent,  for  we  speak  of  the  abortion  of  a  scheme  with 

as  little  reference  to  the  schemer,  as  wlien  we  speak  of 

the  Mtseorrta^  of  an  expedition ;  *  All  abortion  is 

fitom  inflrmity  and  defect.*— South. 


All  these  terms  are  propeiiv  used  in  the  mercantile 
world,  but  are  not  excluded  also  in  a  llguretive  sense 
fh>m  general  application,  huolvoncf^  from  ra  priva- 
tive, and  telvo  to  pay,  signifying  not  to  pay,  denotes  a 
state,  namely,  the  state  of  not  being  able  to  pay  what 
one  owes ;  fstZitre,  ftom  tofaH,  signifies  the  act  of  fail 
ing  In  one's  bustaiess,  or  a  cessation  of  business  for 
want  of  means  to  carry  it  on ;  bankmptey^  from  the 
two  words  banea  rupta^  or  a  broken  bank,  denotes  the 
eflbct  of  a  failure,  namdy,  the  breaking  up  of  the 
capital  and  credit  by  which  a  concern  is  upheld.  The 
word  bankmptef  owes  its  origin  to  the  Italians,  by 
whom  it  is  called  bancorottot  because  originally  the 
money-changers  of  Italy  had  bencties  at  which  (hey 
conducted  their  bnsiness,  and  when  any  one  of  them 
faiUd  his  liench  was  broken.  Tlieae  terms  are  seldom 
confined  tb  one  person,  or  description  of  persons.  As 
an  incapacity  to  pay  debts  is  very  Sequent  amonc 
others  besides  men  of  business,  insohenqf  is  said  of 
any  such  persons ;  a  gentleman  may  die  in  a  state  of 
tnoolvenai  wlio  does  not  leave  eiKcts  suflkieat  to  covet 

TbftfaUwra  (v.  To  fait)  bespeaks  the  action,  or  the 
icsolt  of  the  action ;  the  failing  is  tite  habit,  or  the 
habitual  failnre  :  the  failnre  is  said  of  one's  under- 
takings, or  In  any  point  generally  fai  which  one  failt; 
*Tlioagfa  some  violations  of  the  petition  of  rights  may 
perhaps  be  bnputed  to  him  (Ctiaries  I.),  these  are  more 
lo  be  ascribed  to  the  necessity  of  his  situation,  than  to 
nnyfaamro  in  the  integrity  of  his  principles.*— HoMa. 
Tlie  failing  is  said  of  one*s  moral  character ;  '  There 
is  scarcely  nay  failing  of  mind  or  body,  which  instead 
of  producing  shame  and  discontent,  Itt  natural  eflects, 
has  not  one  time  or  other  gladdened  vanity  with  the 
hope  of  praise.*— JoBSSOH.  The  failure  is  opposed  to 
the  success;  the  failing  to  the  perfection.  The  mer- 
chant must  be  prepared  totfailureo  in  his  speculations : 
Ibe  BUteaman  tat  failures  in  his  projects,  the  result  or 
which  depends  uD«)n  contingencies  tliat  are  abov^ 
faaman  control.  *  With  our  faiUngo,  however,  it  is 
aomewhat  difllbrent ;  we  must  never  rest  sati«fled  that 
we  are  without  them,  nor  contented  with  the  mere 
I  tliat  we  liave  them. 

Atfsre  (v.  To  fait)  lias  always  a  reference  to  the 
■gent  and  his  desiign ;  miocorriage^  that  Is,  the  carrying 
or  giring  wrong.  Is  applicable  to  all  sublunary  concerns, 
without  reference  to  any  particular  agent;  aborHon^ 
«Vom  tlie  Latin  aborioTj  to  deviate  from  tlie  rise,  or  to 
pass  away  before  it  be  come  to  maturity,  is  in  the  pro- 

r  sense  applied  to  ttie  prooem  of  animal  nature,  and 
the  figurative  sense,  to  tlie  tiioughts  and  designs 
svhich  are  conceived  in  tlie  mind. 

miuro  is  more  definite  in  Its  sifnification,  and 
IdBited  in  its  appUcatton ;  we  speak  of  the  faibtroo  of 
individuals,  but  of  the  mioearriagto  of  nations  or 
tUnffi :  tho/s«l«r«  reflects  onthe  personso  astoeaeite 
towards  him  some  sentiment,  eitlier  of  compassicm, 
Aspleasure,  or  the  like;  *IIe  that  attempts  to  show, 
bowever  modestly,  the/oiiairtf  of  a  celebrated  writer, 
•ban  sure!}'  irritate  his  admirers.*— Johhsom.  The 
'  ge  Is  considered  mostly  In  relation  to  tlie 
Iraman  events;  *Tlie  wdoearriageo  of  the 
great  def4«Bs  of  princes  are  recorded  in  the  histories  of 
ae  worfd.*— JoBHsoR.  The  failure  of  Xerxes*  expe- 
dition reflected  disgrace  upon  liimself ;  but  the  wUo- 
aarriuga  of  military  enter  pi  leea  in  general  are  attrl- 
tatlble  to  the  elemems,  or  some  such  untoward  cir- 
1— slam  i    The  abortion^  io  In  pn^er  leiiiek  la  a 

Even  the  dear  delight 
Of  sculpture,  paint,  intaglios,  books  and  coins, 
Thy  breast,  sagacious  prudence  I  shall  connect 
With  filth  and  beggary,  nor  disdain  lo  Unk 
With  black  inoelvenejf. — Sbbhstohb. 
Although  faUure  is  here  specifically  taken  for  nfaOmra 
In  business,yei  tliere  may  be  n  failure  in  one  pnrtlculai 
nndertaking  without  any  direct  inoolveney :  a  failure 
may  likewtoe  only  imply  a  temporary /oijvre  In  pay* 
ment,  or  it  may  imply  an  entire  failure  of  the  concern ; 
*Tlie  greater  tlie  whole  quantity  of  trade,  the  greater 
of  ooorse  must  be  tlie  positive  number  of  failure*^ 
while  the  aggregate  success  is  still  in  the  same  propor- 
tlon.'— BvRKx.  As  a  bankrupted  Is  a  legal  transae* 
tion,  which  entirely  dissolves  the  firm  under  which 
any  IrasinesB  is  conducted,  it  necessarily  implies  a 
failure  in  the  full  extent  or  the  term ;  yet  it  does  not 
necessarily  Imply  an  instdvenqf;  for*  some  men  may, 
In  consequence  of  a  temporary /u'/itre,  be  led  to  com- 
mit an  act  of  bankruptqf^  who  are  afterward  enabled 
to  give  a  Aill  dividend  to  all  their  creditors ;  <  By  an 
act  of  inoolvenqf  all  persons  who  are  In  too  low  a  way 
of  dealing  to  be  bankrupts,  or  not  in  a  mercantile  slate 
of  life,  are  discharged  ftom  ail  suits  and  Imprisonmenli, 
by  delivering  op  ail  their  esutes  and  effects.'— Black- 
sTONa.  But  ftom  the  entire  state  of  destitution  which 
a  bankrupUf  Involves  in  it,  the  term  is  generally  taken 
for  the  most  hopeless  state  of  want ;  'Perkin  gathered 
together  a  power  neitlier  in  number  nor  in  hardlnesa 
cmitemptible;  but  in  their  fortunes  to  be  feared,  being 
bankruptti  and  many  of  them  felons.*— Bacon.  It  is 
also  used  figuratively;  'Sk,  if  you  spend  word  for 
word  with  me  I  sliali  make  your  witftaaJErapl^— Shas»- 


Errour,  finm  orro  to  wander  or  go  astray,  respeeti 
the  aet ;  fault,  fVom/otZ,  respects  the  agent :  the  errmar 
may  lay  in  the  judgement,  or  in  the  conduct ;  but  tlio 
fauU  Ilea  in  the  will  or  intention :  the  erroure  of  youth 
must  be  treated  with  indulgence:  but  their /oaifs  must 
on  ail  accounts  be  corrected ;  errour  is  said  of  that 
which  Is  iDdividnal  and  partial; 
Bold  la  the  task  when  subjects,  grown  too  wise,  * 
Instruct  a  monarch  wlwre  his  srreiir  lies.— Pora. 
Aali  Is  sakl  of  that  which  Is  habitual;  *Other  fauUo 
are  not  under  the  wife*s  lurfaMliction,  and  should  if 
possible  escape  her  observation,  but  jealousy  calls  upon 
Aer  partkulariy  fiur  Its  cure.*— Aodibon.  It  k  an  orromr 
to  use  intemperate  language  at  any  time ;  It  is  a  /sale 
In  the  temper  of  some  penms  who  r 


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Errourf  M  in  the  preceding  article,  marlu  the  act  of 
wandering,  or  the  state  of  being  gone  astray ;  a  mistaJt* 
is  a  lakinc  amiss  or  wrong ;  blunder  is  not  improbably 
changed  from  blind,  and  slgaifies  any  thing  done  blindiy. 

Errour  in  Its  unlvenal.  sense  is  tlie  general  term, 
since  every  deviation  from  what  is  right  in  rational 
agents  is  termed  orroitr,  which  Is  strictly  opposed  to 
truth :  errour  is  the  lot  of  humanitv ;  Into  whatever 
we  attempt  to  do  or  think  srrviir  win  be  sore  to  creep: 
the  term  therefore  is  of  unllBiiied  use ;  the  very  men- 
tion of  it  reminds  us  of  our  condition :  we  have  erramn 
of  Judgement;  errown  of  calculalioo;  errvmrs  of  the 
head ;  and  trmtrM  of.  the  heart ;  '  Idohitrv  may  be 
looked  upim  as  an  »rrokr  arislttg  firom  mistaken  devo- 
tbn.*— Adusom.  The  other  terms  designale  ouideB  of 
«rr0«r,  which  mostly  refer  to  the  common  ooneens  of 
life :  miatake  is  an  erreur  of  choice ;  Uwmdtr  an  wisw 
of  action :  children  and  careless  people  are  most  apt  to 
make  mi$take»;  *  It  happened  that  the  king  hiniielf 
passed  through  the  galleiy  during  this  debate,  and 
amiliug  at  the  mistake  of  the  dervbe,  asked  him  how 
he  could  possibly  be  so  dull  as  not  to  distingulrii  a 
palace  from  a  caravansary /--Adoisok.  Ignorant,  coo- 
ceiled  and  stupid  people  oonunonly  commit  UumierB  : 
*  Pope  allows  that  Dennis  had  detected  one  of  thoae 
^Imndcrg  which  are  called  bulls.*-nJouiisoK.  Aiaw- 
Uk*  must  be  rectified ;  In  commercial  transactions  It 
may  be  of  serious  consiDquence ;  a  blunder  must  be  set 
right ;  bui  blunderers  axe  not  always  to  be  set  right ; 
and  blundere  are  frequently  so  ridiculous  as  only  loex- 
dte  laughter. 


Deviate^  from  the  Latin  devimSf  and  de  vtc,  signifies 
literally  to  turn  out  of  the  way ;  wander ^  In  German 
wandan,  or  voMdelnf  a  frequentative  of  wenden  to 
lum,  signifies  lo  turn  frequently ;  swsrvs,  probably 
from  the  German  sekwetfen  to  ramble,  eekmeben  to 
aoar,  &c.  signifies  to  take  an  unsteady,  wide,  and  indl> 
reel  course;  straif  Is  probably  a  chainie  from  erre  lo 

DeeiaU  alwavs  sunposes  a  direct  path ;  wonder  in- 
etades  no  such  idea.    The  act  of  demoting  is  commonly 
Ikulty,  that  of  woMdertnjr  Is  indifibrent:  th^  may  flv 
ifueoUy  exchange  signueatiora ;  the  former  being  Jua* 
tifiable  by  necessity ;  and  the  latter  arising  from  an  un- 
steadiness of  mind.    Denimte  is  flBostJy  used  la  the 
moral  acceptation ;  tsandcr  may  be  used  In  eillier 
aense.    A  permn  deviaiee  from  any  plan  or  rule  laid 
down;  he  wanders  from  the  subject  in  which  he  Is 
engaged.    As  no  rule  can  be  laM  down  which  will  not 
admit  of  an  exception,  it  is  imponlble  but  the  wisest 
will  find  it  neccssaiy  in  their  moral  conduct  to  deviate 
occasionally ;  yet  every  wanton  demaiien  from  an  ea- 
Ubliabed  practice  evinces  a  culpable  temper  on  the 
part  of  the  deviater;  '  While  we  remain  in  this  life 
we  are  suhjea  to  innumerable  temptations,  which, 
If  liaienrd  to,  will  make  us  deviaie  (torn  reason  and 
goodness. *— Spectator.    Tbow  who  watidsr  into  the 
Pegions  of  metapbyslcks  an  in  great  danger  of  losing 
themselves;  It  Is  with  them  as  with  most  wandarsfs, 
that  they  spend  their  time  at  best  but  idly ; 
Our  aim  is  happlneas ;  *t  is  yoora,  *t  Is  mine ; 
He  said ;  't  is  the  nunait  of  alt  that  live. 
Yet  few  attain  it,  if 't  was  e*er  attained ; 
But  tliey  the  widest  woiulsr  from  the  mark, 
Who  thro*  the  flow*ry  paths  of  sauntering  jej 
Seek  this  coy  goddess.— ARMsraoMo. 
To  ewerve  Is  to  deviate  from  that  which  one  holds 
right;  to  stray  Is  to  wondar  In  the  same  bad  aeose : 
own  ewerve  (rem  their  diyy  to  consult  iheir  Interest; 
Nor  number,  nor  otample,  with  him  vnoug^ 
To  Mssrvs  from  trath.— 'Mii;iom. 
The  young  straif  fha  the  path  of  vselttiide  lo  teak 
tbatof  ptoaaun; 

Why  bafe  I  sCray'd  frott  pieaauw 

To  seek  agood  each  fmrttnoMot  bestows 


Both  fai  the  orlffaial  aod  the  accepted  aaaae,  tfeeae 

wofds  express  going  out  of  the  onUbaiy  couiae:  but 

,  digress  to  used  only  in  particular,  and  deviate  in  general 
I  cases.    We  digraee  only  in  a  narrative  whether  writ- 
ten or  spoken ;  we  deviate  in  aciioas  as  well  as  la 
words,  in  our  conduct  as  well  aa  in  writing*. 

Digreee  is  mostly  taken  In  a  good  or  Indiflbreat 
sense ;  *  The  digreseiens  In  the  Tale  of  a  Tub,  relating 
to  Wotton  and  Bentley,  must  be  confessed  to  discover 
want  of  knowledge  or  want  of  Integrity.*— Jobnsoii. 
Deviate  In  an  Indiflbrent  or  bad  sense;  *  A  resolution 
was  taken  (by  the  authors  of  the  SpecUior)  of  courting 
general  approbatfton  by  general  topicks ;  to  this  practice 
they  adhered  with  few  d0etatisiw.'--JoBNsoR.  Al- 
though frequent  digreseiens  are  fttulty,  yet  occastonally 
It  is  necessary  to  digress  fat  the  jpurpoaes  of  explana- 
tkm :  every  d«v«atieii  Is  bad,  which  is  not  sanctioned 
bj  the  necessity  of  ctrcumstancea. 


IfMdcrBlgnMeB  the  saoM  as  la  the  article  Deviate  ; 
etraU  Is  probably  an  intensive  of  to  roll.,  that  Is,  lo  go 
in  a  planless  manner,  raai^lc  frnm  tlie  Latin  re  and 
awbute,  is  to  walk  backward  and  forward :  and  reve  is 
probably  a  contraction  of  ramble;  ream,  is  connected 
with  our  word  reMi,  space,  slgnliying  to  go  in  a  wide 
apace,  and  tbe  Hebrew  Oil,  to  be  violently  moved 
backward  end  forward ;  rangey  from  the  noun  range^ 
a  rank,  row,  or  extended  space,  signifies  to  go  over  a 
great  space,  but  within  certain  limits.  Tbe  idea  of 
going  in  an  irregular  and  free  manner  i*  common  to  al 
these  terms. 

To  wand/er  is  to  go  out  of  the  path  that  has  beea 
already  marked  out ; 

But  fkr  about  they  wondsr  from  the  grave 
Of  him,  whom  his  ungentle  fortune  uig'd 
Aaalnst  his  own  sad  breast  lo  lift  the  hand 
Of  hnpious  violence.— Thomsor. 
Sometimes  waadert*^  may  be  an  involuntarv  action  • 
a  person  may  wander  to  a  great  distance,  or  for  aa  la 
definite  lengOi  of  time ;  In  this  manner  a  person  wsis- 
dere  who  has  kiat  himself  In  a  wood ;  or  it  may  be  a 
planleaa  course; 

I  will  go  lose  myself; 
And  wander  up  and  down  to  view  the  city. 


To  stroll  to  to  go  In  a  fixed  path,  but  etretUng  to  a  vo 
luntary  action,  limited  at  our  discretion ;  thus,  when  t 
permn  takes  a  walk,  he  sometimes  HroUs  frvim  one 
path  into  another,  as  he  pleases ;  <  I  found  by  the  voice 
of  my  friend  who  walkea  by  me,  that  we  had  Insensibly 
strolled  into  tbe  grove  sacred  to  tbe  widow.'— Adw- 
SOR.  To  ramble  IB  to  wander  without  any  object,  aod 
consequently  with  more  than  ordinary  Irrpgnlarhy :  in 
tMs  nianm'r  be  who  sets  out  u>  take  a  walk,  without 
knowing  or  thinking  where  he  shall  go,  ramblee  aa 
chance  directs;  'I  thM rambled  from  pocket  lo  pocket 
until  the  beginning  of  the  civU  wars.— Addisoh.  To 
reva  is  to  w«id«r  in  the  same  planless  manner,  but  to 
a  wider  extent ;  a  fugitive  who  does  not  know  his  road, 
rwee  about  the  country  in  quest  of  some  retreat ; 
Where  Is  that  knowledge  now,  that  regal  thought 
With  Just  advice  and  thnely  counsel  fraught  1 
Whore  aow,  0  Judge  of  Israel,  does  It  rove  f 

To  reaan  to  to  tsaadsr  from  the  impcrise  of  a  disocdored 
mind ;  In  this  manner  a  lunaHek  who  has  broken  hNMW 
may  reoat  about  the  country ;  so  likewise  a  penon 
who  travels  about,  because  he  cannot  rest  In  quiet  at 
homo,  may  aho  he  said  to  rsoai  in  quest  of  peace; 
She  Inoka  abroad,  and  pnniea  herself  for  lllgfat, 
Like  an  unwiOlflf  inmate  k>np  to  roam 
Fkom  thto  doD  oaith,  and  aeek  her  native  home. 


Toroii^to  the  ooatraxyof tofvam;  aathe latter  hidl- 
catea  a  diaordered  atate  of  mind,  the  fonner  Indicate! 
oompoaure  aod  fliedneas;  we  range  within  certala 
Ilmtti,as  tbe  hanier  r«ii««s  Ilia  final,  the  abepbecji 
roR^M  the  laoiiataliis; 

The  atag  too  aingled  fiwoi  the  henl,  whom  hmg 
He  ramg'd  tbe  biaaeMiw  Rioaareh  of  dn  r  '- 
"  '     -^   '  drivea^-TaojtooR. 


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B**miak  Is  probably  chanted  flom  tba  word  Uame^ 
■Knifylng  tbatwblch  cauMs  Mame;  ief§ettind/auU 
have  tbe  nme  alfiiificatioii  aa  giveo  ander  the  bead  of 

Of  ao  object:  d^«ct  oonalaia  hi  tbe  want  of  aoine  nw- 
cttck  propriety  hi  an  object;  /aalc  oomrvya  tbe  Mea 
vot  only  of  sometblng  wrong,  bat  alao  of  lla  rdadon  to 
the  author.  There  is  a  Uemuh  In  line  china ;  a  defect 
in  tbe  sprtaiff  of  a  dock ;  and  a  fmtU  in  the  oon- 
tiivaaee.  An  accident  may  cause  a  Utmieh  In  a  fine 
painUnf ;  'There  is  anotber  particular  which  may  be 
leekoned  among  the  (ImiwAm,  or  rather,  tlie  mise 
beauUes,or  oar  JBngHBh  tragedy:  I  mean  tlMae  parti- 
cular speeches  which  are  comaaonly  known  by  the 
name  of  raoia.*— Aonsom  The  course  of  naiore  may 
occasion  a  d^aeC  In  a  pefwn*s speech ;  'It  has  been 
ollen  remarked,  tliottgh  not  wliliout  wonder,  thai  a 
man  is  more  Jealous  of  his  natural  tbah  of  lus  moral 
qoaliiies;  periiaps  it  will  no  longer  appear  strange^  If 
it  be  considered  that  natural  defects  are  of  necessity, 
and  moral  of  choice*— HAWKsswoaTH.  The  care- 
kssness  of  tlie  workman  is  evinced  by  ibe/atJto  in  the 
workmanship;  *  The  resentment  which  tbe  discovery 
of  a  fault  or  folly  produces  must  bear  a  certain  pro- 
portion to  our  pride/— JoBRsoN.  A  blemiek  may  be 
easier  remedied  than  a  dtfect  is  corrected,  or  ti  fault 


Blamisk  comes  immediately  ftom  tbe  French  UHnr 
to  grow  pale,btttpn)bahiy  in  an  indirect  manner  from 
Mame ;  etain,  in  French  taindre^  old  French  deeUindre, 
coaMs  from  the  Latin  tinge  lo  die ;  irpet  is  not  impro- 
bably connected  with  the  word  epit,  Latin  eputum, 
and  the  Hebrew  nSDi  to  adhere  as  something  extra- 
neous ;  epeekf  in  Saxon  ofeeee^  probably  comes  from 
tbe  same  Hebrew  root ;  JUue,  in  Saxon  jCoA,  Jliece^ 
Gerroaii  JUek^  low  German ;fai;  or  plakke.  a  spot  or  a 
(higment,  a  piece,  most  probably  ftom  tbe  Latin  plaga^ 
Greek  vXiry^  a  strip  of  land,  or  a  stripe,  a  wound  in  the 

in  the  proper  sense  blemisk  Is  the  generick  term,  tbe 
rest  are  qieclfick :  a  stem,  a  epet,  epeek.  and  /«w,  are 
Hemiekes^  but  there  are  likewise  many  blemiehee  which 
are  neither  etanut  spate,  epecks,  ikorjiaws. 

Whatever  takes  off  from  the  seemliness  of  appear- 
ance is  a  blemisk.  In  works  of  art,  the  slightest  dim- 
nesi  of  cotour,  or  want  of  proportion,  b  a  blemisk. 
A  staim  and  spot  snfliciently  characterise  themselves, 
as  that  which  is  superfluous  and  out  of  its  place.  A 
spetk  is  a  small  spot ;  and  a  jlaio,  which  is  confined  to 
hard  substances,  mostly  consists  of  a  fbuity  inden- 
'  A  blemisk  tamfshes: 

tare  on  the  ouyer  surfbce. 

stam  spoils;  a  epet,  speek,  or  jCow,  disfigures. '  A 

blemisk  is  rectified, a staia  wiped  out,  a  spotwepeek 

These  terms  are  also  employed  fisuratlvely.  Even 
•B  imputation  of  what  is  improper  in  our  moral  con- 
duct is  a  bUtesiek  in  our  repuution;  *It  is  impossible 
fat  aothon  to  discover  beauties  in  one  another's  works : 
tbey  have  wm  only  for  spHs  and  ^lemMUs.'— Addi- 
The  miltagsof  a  good  man  are  80  many  jp«fs 

In  tbe  briaht  hemisphere  of  his  virtue 

I  whkh  aflx  a  stem  on  the  character  of  nationa, 

;  there  are 
vifcea  which  aflx  a  stem  on  the  character  of  nai 
M  well  as  of  the  individuate  who  are  guilty  of  item ; 
By  length  of  time, 
Tte  aeorf  la  worn  away  of  each  eoaunitted  erlnw; 
No  speck  la  left  of  their  haUmal  statue, 
Bui  the  pore  miher  of  ite  aavl  ramaliia.— DaTssx. 
A  blemisk  or  a  speH  may  be  removed  by  a  comae  of 
good  condoet,  but  a  staim  la  mostly  Indelible:  it  is  as 
great  a  privilege  to  have  an  laMemisked  reputation,  or 
as9siiesscharaeier,asitlsamisfortiiae  m  have  the 
\  of  bad  actions  aAzed  to  our  name:  'There  are 
who  applaud  thsmselvca  Aw  the  singularity  of 
JudgameaL  which  has  soarched  deeper  than 
etbeia,  and  fbaad  a /am  In  what  tte  faiMralliy  of  maa- 


card  totte  tMng  llseir  ttat  Is  wanting.  A  book  may 
be  defective^  in  conseouence  of  some  leaves  being 
deficient.  A  deficiency  b  therefore  often  what  coiivti- 
tutes  a  defecL  Many  tLings,  tewever,  may  be  defectivs 
wlttent  having  any  deficienef^  and  vice  vered.  What 
ever  is  misshapen,  and  Mis,  eltlier  In  beaaty  or  uttthy, 
b  d^eetive;  that  which  b  wanted  to  make  a  thing 
complete  b  d^idemt.  It  is  a  dtfeet  in  the  eve  when  H 
b  so  constructed  that  things  are  not  seen  at  ttielr  proper 


D^sMm  MBnaaui  tte  qnalhy  or  property  of  teviag 

a  d^«ei(«.  JMsA);  d^^bnrt  b  eai|E^  wtth  i? 

distances :  <  Providence,  for  tte  most  part,  sets  us  upon 
a  level ;  if  it  renders  us  perfoct  in  one  aceomplbb- 
ment,  it  generally  teaves  us  defecthe  in  another.'— 
AnnisoM.  Ttere  b  a  deJUMnew  in  a  tradesman's  ac- 
counts, when  one  side  Mb  short  of  the  other ;  •  11 
ttere  be  a  deficiency  in  tlie  speaker,  there  will  not  he 
sufllcient  attention  and  regard  paid  to  the  thing  spoken.' 

Things  only  are  said  to  te  defective;  but  persona 
may  te  termed  deficient  either  in  atienthm,  hi  good 
breeding,  in  civility,  or  wtetever  ebe  tte  occasion 
mav  require.  That  which  b  defective  b  most  likely 
to  be  permanent ;  but  a  d^ieney  mnj  te  only  occa- 
sional, and  eaaily  rectified. 


Body  In  Saxon  bad^  baed,  in  German  Ml«,  is  probably 
connected  with  the  Latin  pgus  worse,  and  the  Hebrew 
}ffy  lo  te  ashamed ;  wicked  b  probably  changed 
from  witcked  or  bewiteked,  that  Is,  possessed  witli  aa 
evil  spirit ;  bad  respects  moral  and  physical  qualities 
in  general;  wicked  only  moral  qualilies;  eeti,  in  Ger- 
man «eM,  from  tte  Hebrew  S.^Tl  ?<>>">  signifies  that 
which  is  the  prime  cause  of  pain ;  evil  therefore,  in  its 
full  extent,  comprehends  both  badness  and  wicks^ 

Whatever  oflends  tte  taste  and  sentiments  of  a 
rational  teing  is  bad:  food  b  bad  when  it  disagreea 
witli  tte  comititutloo ;  tte  air  b  bad  which  has  any 
thing  in  it  disngrffoable  to  the  senses  or  hurtful  lo  Ite 
body ;  books  are  bad  which  only  iutlamo  tiie  imagina- 
tion or  the  passions ;  '  Whatever  we  may  pretend,  s« 
to  our  belief,  It  b  tte  strain  of  our  actions  thai  must 
show  whetlier  our  principles  have  been  good  or  bad.* 
— Blaie.    Wtetever  b  wicked  olfends  tte  moral 
principles  of  a  rational  agent :  any  violation  of  tte 
law  Is  wicked,  as  law  b  tte  support  of  human  society; 
an  act  of^injustice  or  cruelty  b  wicked,  as  H  « 
the  will  of  God  and  tte  feelings  of  humanity ; 
For  when  th*  impenitent  and  wicked  die. 
Loaded  with  crimes  and  inlbmy ; 
If  any  sense  at  that  sad  time  remains, 
They  fbd  amazing  lerrour,  mighty  palnsL 

EvU  b  either  moral  or  natural,  and  may  te  applied  to 
every  object  that  b  contrary  to  good ;  but  tte  term  b 
employed  only  for  that  which  b  in  the  highest  degreo 
bad  or  wicked; 

And  what  your  bounded  view,  which  only  saw 

A  little  part,  deem'd  evil.  Is  no  more ; 

Tte  storms  of  wintry  time  will  quickly  pan. 

And  one  unteunded  spring  enclrcto  all^— Tbomson. 

When  used  In  relath>n  to  persons,  both  refer  to  tte 
morals,  but  bad  b  more  general  than  wicked ;  a  bad 
man  b  one  wte  b  generally  wanting  in  tlie  perform 
ance  of  hb  duty ;  a  wicked  man  b  one  wte  b  charge- 
able with  actual  violations  of  tte  Mw,  human  or 
Divine ;  such  a  one  has  %n  «vt7  mind.  A  bad  cha- 
racter b  tbe  consequence  of  immoral  conduct ;  but  no 
man  has  the  cteracter  of  being  wicked  who  has  not 
been  guilty  of  aome  known  and  flagrant  vices:  tte 
indlnatioaB  of  ite  best  are  sv0  at  oectatn  times 


Baditf,  In  tte  manner  of  bad  (e.  Bad\;  m,  In 
Bwedbh  tU,  leeiandick  tiar,  Danbh  ill,  kx.  U  rup- 
poaed  by  Adelnng,  and  with  aome  degree  of  Joaiice, 
not  to  te  a  contraction  of  evil,  but  to  spring  ftom  tte 
Greek  oh>ds  destructive,  and  sXMw  to  \destroy . 

These  tarma  are  both  empkiyed  to  modify  the  actlom 
or  qnalittes  of  tbtngi,  bat  badh  b  always  annexed  to 
tte  action,  and  HI  to  tte  quality:  as  to  do  any  thta« 
»adrf,  tte  tUng  b  »sd^dooe;  an  iU-Judead  r^ 
an  io-conlKlved  mmanre  aa  iU-dbposed  pa 


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D^pravitjf^  from  the  Latin  prtaritaa  aod  jrrooM,  in 
Greek  ^u/3ds,  nnd  the  Hebrew  Vl  to  be  diMrdered, 
or  put  out  of  its  established  oider,  signtfyiog  the 
auality  of  not  being  etralght ;  darAvaiion^  in  Latin 
i^pravatio^  ti|niflo«  Ibe  act  or  malcing  depraved; 
MrTMjpCtam,  in  Latin  eorruptio,  eomraipo,  from  ntiiuio 
to  break,  marks  the  disunion  aod  decomposition  of  the 

*  All  these  tarns  are  applied  to  objects  whieh  are 
contrary  to  the  order  of  Providence,  but  the  term  de- 
pramtif  characterise  the  tiling  as  it  is ;  the  terms  de- 
prtmatuu  and  eornftiou  derignate  the  making  or 
causinc  it  to  be  so :  defrrovtey  ilierefore  excludes  the 
idea  of  any  cause ;  depravation  always  refers  us  to 
Uie  cause  or  external  agency :  hence  we  may  speak  of 
d^ramtf  as  natural,  But  we  speak  of  difrnfaUon 
and  eorrvpUan  as  tile  result  of  circumstances:  tliere 
Is  a  depraoUiif  in  man,  which  nothing  but  tlie  grace  of 
God  can  correct ; '  Nothing  can  show  greater  dewranitf 
of  understanding  than  lo  detlgfat  in  the  show  when  the 
ceallQr  Is  wanting.*— JoBMsoN.  The  Introduction  of 
sbscenitv  on  the  stage  tends  greatly  to  the  depraioaUim 
of  morals;  bad  companylends  to  the  eorruptitm  of  a 
yonnc  man's  morals ;  *  The  corrvption  of  our  taste  is 
not  of  equal  consequence  with  tlie  dofrtnaiitn  of  our 
virtue.'— Waktoii. 

I>cpravt(y  or  deprtnaiion  implies  crookedness,  or  a 
distortion  from  the' regular  course;  Mrntption  implies 
a  dissolution  as  it  were  in  the  component  |iarts  of 

Cicero  says  that  dgpramtf  Is  applicable  only  to  the 
Blind  and  liean ;  but  we  say  a  dmrm«d  taste,  and 
depraved  humours  in  regard  to  the  body.  A  depraved 
taste  loatlies  common  food,  and  longs  for  that  which 
Is  unnatural  and  hurtful.  Qrrruptton  to  the  natural 
by  which  material  substances  aredlsorgan- 


process  I 

In  the  figurative  application  of  these  terms  they 
preserve  the  same  sigiilflcation.  Depravity  to  cha- 
racterised by  being  directly  opposed  to  order,  and  an 
•stabllahed  system  of  things;  corruption  marks  the 
vitiation  or  spoiling  of  things,  and  the  ferment  that 
leads  to  destruction.  Depravitp  turns  things  out  of 
tlieir  ordinary  course ;  eomption  destroys  tlieir  cMen- 
tfal  qualities.  D^ravitf  is  a  vicious  state  of  things, 
in  which  all  is  deranced  and  perverted ;  corruption  is 
a  vicious  state  of  things,  in  which  all  is  sullied  and 
polluted.  That  which  Is  depraved  loses  its  proper  man- 
ner of  acting  and  existing ;  '  The  depraoalion  of  hu- 
man will  was  foltowed  hy  a  disorder  of  the  harmony 
of  nature.*— Johnson.  That  which  is  corrupted  loses 
its  virtue  and  essence ;  '  We  can  discover  that  wliere 
there  Is  universal  innocence,  there  will  probably  be 
vnivemU  happiness ;  for  why  sliould  afflictions  be  per- 
mitted to  infest  beings  who  are  not  in  danger  of  cor- 
ruvtion  from  blessings  ?'— Johnson. 

The  force  of  irregular  propensltits  and  distempered 
Imaginations  produces  a  dqtravitff  of  manners ;  the 
force  of  .example  and  the  dissemination  of  bad  prind- 
pies  produce  eom^Hom.  A  Judi^ement  not  sound  or 
right  is  depraved ;  a  judgement  debased  by  that  which 
k  vicious  is  esmiptAL  What  is  d^praMd  requires  to 
be  reformed :  what  to  corrupted  requires  to  be  purified. 
Depravity  has  most  regard  to  apparent  and  excessive 
disorders ;  corruption  to  internal  and  dissolute  vices. 
**  Manners,"  says  Cicero,  "are  corrupted  and  depraved 
bv  the  love  of  rfehes."  Port  Royal  says  that  God  Iws 
given  up  infidels  to  the  wandering  of  a  corrupted 
and  depraved  mind.  These  words  are  by  no  means  a 
pleonasm  or  repetition,  because  they  represent  two 
distinct  images :  one  indicates  the  state  of  a  thing  very 
much  changed  in  its  substance :  the  other  the  state  of 
a  thing  very  much  opposed  to  regularity.  "Good 
God !  (says  BfasUkm  the  preacher),  what  a  dreadful 
account  will  the  rieh  and  powerful  have  one  day  to 
jIve;  since,  besides  their  own  sins,  they  will  have  to 
account  before  Thee  for  pubiick  disorder,  dg^avitp  of 
morals,  and  the  cerruptwn  of  the  age!'  Publlck  dis- 
order! bring  on  naturally  depravity  of  morabi ;  and  sins 
of  vicious  pmctloes  naturally  give  birth  to  eomption. 
D^ravity  to  more  or  less  open ;  h  revolts  the  sober 
.  upright  undentanding ;  corruption  to  more  or  lem  die- 

*V1de  Rouband:  "Depravation,  eomiption/'^ 
Tnissler:  **  Depravity,  com]|)tioD.** 

gullbd  in  its  opefatlons,'1mt  fatal  In  Ito  < 
former  sweeps  away  every  thing  before  it  like  a  tor- 
rant  ;  the  latter  infuses  itself  into  the  moral  frame  lilt* 
a  slow  poison. 

That  to  a  depraved  state  of  morato  In  which  the 
gross  vices  are  openly  practised  in  defiance  of  all  de 
coram;  'The  greatest  dURculty  iliat  occurs  in  ana- 
lysing hto  (Swift's)  character,  is  to  discover  by  what 
deproottv  of  intellect  he  took  adight  in  revolving  ideas 
from  which  almost  every  other  mind  shrinks  with  dis- 
gust.'—Johnson.  That  is  a  corrupt  state  of  society 
in  which  vice  has  secretly  indlnoated  itself  into  all  the 
principles  and  habits  of  men,  and  concealed  its  defor- 
mity under  the  fair  semblance  of  virtue  and  honour ; 
Peace  to  the  happy  natural  state  of  man ; 
War  hia  corruptiont  hto  disgrace.- Thomsoh. 
The  manners  of  savages  lire  most  likely  to  be  d«- 
praved;  those  of  civilised  nations  to  be  comat^  wlien 
luxury  and  r^nement  are  risen  to  an  excessive  pitch. 
Cannibal  nations  present  us  with  the  picture  of  human 
depravity;  the  Roman  nation,  during  the  time  of  the 
emperors,  afiords  us  an  example  of  almost  unlverutl 

From  tlie  above  observations,  it  to  dear  that  deprar 
vity  to  best  applied  to  those  objecto  to  which  common 
usage  has  annexed  the  epithets  of  right,  regular,  fine. 
Sec ;  and  corruption  to  those  which  may  M  charac- 
terised by  the  epitheto  of  sound,  pure,  innocent,  or 
good.  Hence  we  say  depravity  of  mind  and  eom^ 
£iim  of  heart;  dtpravity  of  principle  and  corruption 
of  sentiment  or  reeling :  a  depraved  character ;  a  cor- 
rupt example ;  a  corrt^  faifluence ;  '  No  depravity  ot 
the  mind  has  been  more  frequently  or  Justly  censured 
than  ingratitude.*— Johnson.  *  I  have  remarked  in  a 
former  peper,  that  credulltv  to  the  comiuua  lailing  of 
Inexperienced  virtue,  and  that  he  who  tosponiaoeoosly 
suspicious  may  be  Justly  charged  with  radical  corny 
Cum.' — Johnson. 

In  reference  to  the  arts  or  belles  lettres  we  say  either 
depravity  or  corr^tion  of  taste,  because'  taste  has  its 
rules,  if  liable  to  be  disordered,  is  or  to  not  conformable 
to  natural  order,  to  regular  or  irregular ;  and  on  the 
other  hand  it  may  be  so  intermingled  with  sentiments 
and  feelings  foreign  to  its  own  native  purity  as  to  give 
It  Justly  the  title  of  corrvpL 

The  last  thing  worthy  of  notice  respecting  the  two 
words  depravity  and  corruptieny  is  that  the  former  to 
used  for  man  in  his  moral  capacity ;  but  the  latter  for 
man  in  a  political  capacity  :  hence  we  speak  of  human 
depravity t  but  the  corruption  of  government ;  '  Tlie 
depravity  of  mankind  to  so  easily  discoverable,  that 
nothing  but  the  desert  or  the  cell  can  exclude  It  from 
notice.*— Johnson.  '  Every  government,  say  the  poli 
tictons,  to  perpetually  degenerating  toward  corrup- 


Wicked  (v.  Bad)  is  here  Uie  generick  term ;  inf^- 
tews,  from  inioune  unjust,  stonifles  that  species  of 
wiekedneee  which  consists  In  violating  the  law  of  right 
between  man  and  man ;  ntfanoue^  from  the  Latin 
ne/ae  wicked  or  abominable,  Is  that  species  of  vieked- 
neee  which  consists  in  violating  the  most  sacred  obli- 
gations. The  term  wicked,  befng  indefinite,  is  com- 
monly applied  in  a  mikier  sense  than  iruquitoua ;  aod 
iniquitoue  than  ntfarioue ;  it  Is  wicked  to  deprive 
another  of  hto  property  unlawfully,  under  any  ciicom- 

In  the  corrupted  cnrrento  of  thto  world, 

Oflfence*s  gilded  band  may  shove  by  Justtoe; 

And  oft  *t  Is  seen,  the  wicked  prise  itsdf 

Buys  out  the  law.— Shakspbaek. 
It  Is  nn'f Mftsiis  if  it  be  done  by  fraud  and  clrenm- 
▼entkm ;  and  nefoHoue  If  It  involves  any  breach  of 
trust,  or  is  in  direct  violation  of  any  known  law :  any 
undue  Influence  over  another,  in  the  making  of  hto 
will,  to  the  detriment  of  the  rIgbtAil  heir,  to  iniouitoue  • 
*  Lucullus  found  that  the  province  of  Pontus  bad 
fallen  under  great  disorders  and  oppressions  from  the 
iniauity  of  usurers  and  publicans.  — ^Pridbadx.  Any 
underhand  dealing  of  a  servant  to  defraud  bis  masto' 
to  nefariouoy  or  any  conspiracy  to  defraud  or  injure 
otbeia  to  called  mfaeiauM ;  *  That  onbaUowed  villu^ 


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GratflMtMrtt,  in  Lallii  timftwi'mifiii,  pwtldple  of 
cmXMciM,  GomM  flom  Uie  Hebrew  HOD  ^  PoUate ; 
tff^Ue,  compoojided  of  i§  aad  jUa  or  vifo,  ilgiiltei  to 
■lake  ▼!!« ;  ji«Uirf«^  In  Latin  j»«itetiM,  pniticipto  of 
yflmp,  eompoautoa  of  ^«r  and  l«o  or  iav*  to  waab  or 
«ye,  ilgnifiei  to  inAne  tboioucbly;  C«iiil,in  French 
«m<,  participle  of  CcAiire,  in  Latin  tmifv,  elgnUlee  lo 
dye  or  Main;  comyCiBifniAeitiieMaieai  Intliepra- 
Ming  article. 

C^ntmummU  it  wM  w  itionf  an  eipreirioQ  a*  i^ 
or  pMuUi  iNtt  it  la  itroiMer  titan  tmmi    " 
an  oaed  in  the  eenaa  of  iiunring  purity 
tke  idea  of  deitiOTlng  it.    Whatever  ie 
,  wiiatlt  gnw  and  Tile  in  I 

id  in  tlie  moral  lenie  poUmUt;  what  ii  con- 
r  infbctlooa  eomftsi  and  wiiat  ie  csrrwfUd 
It  other  tbingi.    Improper  eoovemuioa  or 
!MteawMl«0  the  mlud  of  youth;  'Tiw drop 
of  water  after  ila  progreas  through  all  the  clianneis  of 
the  ftreettanot  more  emuamnaied  with  filth  and  dirt, 
Oian  a  limple  Mory  after  It  has  pamed  through  the 
noutbt  of  a   few  modem  tale- bearers.'— Ha wus- 
woETB.    Lewdnem  and  obecenity  d^the  body  and 
When  from  the  moontabi  tope  wltn  hideoQB  ery 
And  dalf  ring  wingi  the  hungry  harpies  fly, 
Th^  aaaidl  the  meat,  d^^UtH^aU  they  And, 
And  parting  leave  a  loaHieome  itench  behind. 

Her  vMn  statue  with  tbelr  bloody  hands 
Foliated,  and  pro(bn*d  her  holy  bands.— DaTsni. 
Loose  company  eomtptg  the  morals;  <  All  men  agrse 
that  licentious  poems  do,  of  all  writings,  soonest  e«r- 
rm^  the  heart*— SruLa.    The  coming  in  contaa 
wfib  a  tmrrtfUd  body  is  suflicient  to  give  a  teimt  ; 
Yoor  teeming  ewes  shall  no  strange  meadows  try, 
Nor  fbar  a  rot  from  tctntod  company.— D&Tna*. 
If  yooag  people  be  admitted  to  a  promiscuooa  inter- 
course with  society,  tb^  must  unavoidably  witnces 
objects  tlHttare  calculated  to  etntmmiiusU  their  tlioughts 
If  not  tiielr  incllnatioos.    Th«r  are  thrown  in  the  way 
of  seeing  the  Ups  of  females  d^fUed  with  ,the  grossest 
Indecencies,  and  hearing  or  seeing  things  which  can- 
not be  heard  or  seen  withont  pkhtHng  the  soul :  It 
cannot  be  surprising  if  after  this  tlieir  principles  are 
fimnd  to  beosmyCedbefine  they  have  reached  the  age 
ef  matuiiQr. 

CbaCaet.  Latin  Gratactiw,  participle  of  cMtmjv, 
canpoundBdof  cm  andfoii^  to  toodi  together,  b  dla- 
ttngwishrt  ftom  thasbnple  woid  (MieJk,  noiso  much  in 
asnseaa  in  grammatical  constnictioa ;  the  fbrmer  ex- 
preering  a  Stole,  and  reftrring  to  two  bodies  actually  in 
ihaisuie;  the  laitar  on  the  other  hand  implying  the 
aisliaet  act  of  Umdiimg:  we  speali  of  thlaoi  coming 
or  being  in  craiect,  but  not  of  the  eemUtt  Instead  of 
thelMM/bof  atUng:  the  poison  which  comes  ftom  the 
petson-tree  Is  so  powerftil  hi  its  natoia,  that  It  is  not 
nuissaiy  to  cobm  In  eentect  with  it  to  order  to  feel  its 
aansftil  inflaenee;  *  We  are  attracted  towards  each 
other  by  general  sympathy,  but  kept  back  ftom  erafact 
fa  nrivale  taMerssL'— Jobmhhc  Some  Inssets  are 
I  with  sdnp  so  inconceivably  sharp,  thai  the 
lUe  is  snUeient  to  piodnoe  a  puna- 
HHviaw ••■»«»;  *Odeath!  where  to  now  thy  siingl 
Opavo!  when  la  thy  vtotoryl  Where  are  dm  ter^ 

1  AtthetMH*oftheDlvhierod,tkrvtaioiiary 

IbsBs  imns  imply  the  power  of  communieadng 
Ing  bad,  hot  eoai^isn,  from  the  Latin  verb 
'  »oie  in  contact,  proceeds  fWmi  a  simple 
i^ftctlMh  ftom  the  Lattai  vcrik  mdcis  or 

tn  and /adb  to  pot  in,  I 
inwardly,  or  having  it 

pncaedi  by  raeetfliiganiietUBg 
'  Infused. 

or  yellow  fever,  { 

are  ttaerefbre  deaomtoaled  tomUgiamm; 
lent  dieoiders,  as  fevcra,  conanmpliona,  and  the  lika^ 
are  tanned  m/«Btis«s,  aa  tliey  are  communicated  kgr 
the  lem  rapid  procem  of  n^Mtioa;  theairiseontafMua 
or  ii^«cti»Hs  BcoonUngtotbe  same  rule  of  distinction : 
wiien  tieavlly  overcbiiged  with  noxious  vapoun  and 
deadly  disease,  it  to  justly  entitled  tanUfiw^  but  to 
ordtoaiy  cases  fi^ae«oa«.  In  the  figurative  sense,  vice 
to  for  the  same  obvious  reason  termed  cMltfiras ;  'If 
I  send  my  son  abroad.  It  to  scareely  possime  to  keep 
him  from  the  reigning  eonUgitm  of  rudeness.'— Locxv 
Bad  principles  are  doiomtoated  «i^«cCie«« ; 

But  we  who  only  do  infuse. 

The  rage  to  them  like  boutd-ftna» 

*T  to  ow  example  tbat  Inatito 

In  ttiem  the  iw^eetiom  of  our  ilto.— Bctlbr 

Borne  young  people,  who  are  fortunate  enough  loshai 

the  eoat^iMi  of  bad  society,  are,  perhaps,  caught  by  the 

the  moral  constitution. 

G»»t^r»MW  iignilleshavingeMliVriMi  («.  GratiyMilc 
m'dMiaeal,  in  Latin  «pid»miett  Greek  ht6^iuosi  that  to 
M  and  6%ii»s  among  tiie  people,  signifies  unlveraalljr 
spread ;  vutilential^  from  tiie  Latin  vsstM  the  plague^ 
stgnifies  having  the  plague,  or  a  shnilar  disoMer. 

Tiw  emUa£i»u9  appliea  to  that  which  to  capabto  of 
being  caught,  and  ought  not,  therefore,  to  be  touched; 
the  mdntieai  to  that  Which  to  already  caught  or  ciroi- 
1,  and  requires,  tlierefore,  to  be  stopped;  tbejMsti- 
al  to  that  which  may  breed  an  evil,  and  is,  there> 
fore,  to  be  removed :  direases  are  •anUgwu  or  q^ 
demiud  ;  the  air  or  breath  to  pettiUntiaL 

They  may  all  be  applied  morally  or  figuratively  in 
the  same  sense. 

We  endeavour  to  shun  a  ctmUgimu  disorder,  tliat  it 
may  not  come  near  us;  we  endeavour  to  puiUy  a  ^ssC^ 
Utdiai  air,  that  it  may  not  be  inhaled  to  our  iidury;  wa 
endeavour  to  provide  against  •fidntUal  diiorden^  that 
tiwy  may  not  spread  any  farllier. 
Yidous  eiampte  to  c—f  s#is—  ;  • 

No  foreign  food  the  leemfaic  owes  ehall  fcar, 
No  touch  ssnt^rJMM  sprendltftlaflDence  here. 
Certato  follies  or  vices  of  fbsfalon  are  epidewtUal  to 
almost  eveiy  age;  *  Among  all  the  diseases  of  themind, 
tliere  to  not