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THE ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF 
THE TKW \ INDIANS 



.UUIN PEABOD^ ll\l!i;i\i.h>\ 



EXTRACT FROM THE !UI \ M-M\ III \\\l M, REPORT 
II BUREA1 "h AMERICAN ETHNOLOG1 




in 

I 



(.n\ IIINMI \ I I'lll .ir.. IIFFK I 
1916 






D. of D. ■ 
JUN 13 1916 



CONTENTS 



Page 
|'ii 

bey : 39 

! r.iphv 

rid. 41 

irdinal directions and their symbolism ■•• 

Cardinal colon - 

Cardinal Com Maidens '■' 



dinal birds 43 

I dinal snakes •* 



[inal trees 

Cardinal mountains 

Ices 

dinal identifications 45 

45 



The skv. 



.... moon 





18 



i i mstellations ^° 

• underworld 

• earth jjj 

Earthquake 



Landslide. 



52 

lake 





Irrigation 



53 
Meteorology 

Fair weather 

, 

Glacier 

Heat, cold 





Mist.fog :'' 

s 

hoarfrost 

Clouds 



iw 

Hail 58 



32 CONTENTS 

Page 

Snow 58 

Hail-like flakes of snow 58 

Rainy snow 58 

Little holes in the snow 58 

Wind 59 

Dust-wind 59 

Whirlwind 59 

Lightning 59 

Thunder, thunderstorm 59 

"Heat-lightning" 60 

Mirage 60 

Echo 60 

III. Periods of time 61 

Year 61 

Seasons 61 

Months 62 

The Christian week 67 

Day, night, times of day and night 67 

Hours, minutes, seconds 68 

Festival 69 

Fair, carnival 69 

Time of plague 69 

I \ ' . < leographical terms 70 

V. Place-names 94 

Introduction 94 

Large features 98 

Trails 106 

Place-names in region mapped 107 

[1 ] Tierra Amarilla sheet 107 

[2] Pedernal Mountain sheet 120 

[3] Ahiquiu sheet 129 

[ 1 1 EI Rito sheet 140 

[5] Lower Chama River sheet 147 

[6] Upper Ojo Caliente sheet 157 

[7] Lower Ojo Caliente sheet 168 

[8] Taos sheet 1 72 

['.)} Velarde sheet 197 

[10] Old San Juan sheet 205 

[11 1 San Juan sheet 20S 

[12] San Juan Hill sheet 219 

[13] Chamita sheet 223 

[14 ] Santa Clara West sheet 231 

[15] Santa Clara East sheet 249 

[1(1] San Ildefonso Northwest sheet 260 

[17] San Ildefonso Southwi jt si I . . - 27S 

[18] Black Mesa sheet 289 

[19] San Ildefonso sheet 300 

[20] Buckman sheet 322 

[21] Jacona sheet 329 

[22] Santa Fe Mountain sheet 338 

[23] Nambe sheet 357 

[24 ] Nambe" North sheet 370 



t CONTENTS 33 

Place- ion mapped Continued. Page 

[25] Cunday6 sheet :;77 

[26] Tesuque sheet 385 

[27] Jemez sheel 390 

[28] Cochiti sheet 09 

[29] Southei 457 

Unmapped places 558 

Unlocated places, oot in region mapped 571 

Mythic places 571 

VI. Names of tribes and peoples 573 

VII. Names of minerals 579 

pin 585 

List of place-names 588 

87584°— L"J eth— 16 3 



iu.r>Ti;.\Th).\s 



Plates 



Page 



Plate 1. a. Gallinas "Bad Lands' in the Chama drainage, b. ^rc-no near 
the headwaters of Santa Clara Creek, the slender truncated 
cone of Pedemal Peak in i he distance ill 

2. a. Ancient trameading up the mesa to Triply f'Qywi Ruin. b. Tsi- 

Piv t ''•:■' ■": I'li" 121 

3. a. I Ruin, b The large white rock aeaiKu'qywi I 

from which the ruin probably derived its name 152 

4. Cliff of Puye Mesa 236 

5. Potsuici'yywi Ruin, looking wesl 271 

6. "Tent rocks" near Potsuv/i'qywi'RniD, Bhowing - 

vated dwellings 2:2 

7. "Tent rocks" near PotsuwVqyw\ Ruin, capped by projecting frag- 

ments of harder tufa 272 

8. "Tent rock" near Pott I lin capped by projecting fragment 

of harder tufa 

9. Sci ringtheold [ndian trail 

10. Scene on Ss£kei Mi owing the old Indian trail 273 

11. Ancient deer pitfall al '• ' 279 

12. a. Black Mesa of San [ldefonso, from the Rio Grande, looking north. 

b. View from top "i" the Blai ' sl of San [ldefoi 

Bouthv ieak, from the fields 

Rio Grande, looking wesl 293 

13. Mouth of \\ hite Rock Canyon of the Rio Grande, looking Bouth . 

11. Soda Dam, one mile above Jerries Bol Springe 393 

15 < Sorge of theB rande near the mouth of Frijoles • lanyon. looking 

ream 410 

in the northern wall of Frijol 
nearJ [Ruin ir_' 

17. Fields in the lower part of Frijoles ( any in, below Puqwig.e'Qywi'Ruin (12 

18. Thr- Pai 

19. a. Cochiti Pueblo b Santo Domingo Pueblo 140 

M11 I elipe Pueblo \ oa Pueblo 

i ' ' on the 

left . 



M u»a 

Mat 1 . Tierra Vmarill 107 

2. Pedemal Mount 

\ liic|niii region 

El Rito region 140 

una River region 1 17 

35 



36 ILLUSTRATIONS 



Map 6. Upper Ojo < !aliente region 157 

7 Lower Ojo Caliente region ]68 

8. Taos region 172 

9. Velarde region 197 

10. < >ld San Juan region 205 

11. San Juan region 208 

L2. San Juan Hill region 219 

[3. Chamita legion 223 

14. Santa Clara West region 231 

15. Santa Clara East region 249 

16. San [ldefonso Northwest region 260 

17. San [ldefonso Southwest region 278 

Is. Black Mesa region 289 

L9. San Ildefonso region 300 

20. Buckman region 322 

21. Jacona region 329 

22. Santa IV Mountain region 338 

23. Nam lie region 357 

24. Xamlie North region 370 

25. Cundayo region 377 

26. Tesuque region 385 

2" Ji imez region 390 

28. Cochiti region 409 

29. Southern region 457 

29A. Plat of the San Crist6bal or E. W. Eaton grant 480 

30. I\>\ in the several regions mapped 558 

Diagram 1. Ground-plan of southern half >>( San Ildefonso pueblo, giving 

the Tewa nomenclature for the parts of a pueblo 305 



THE ETHNOGEOCKAIMIY OF THE TEWA INDIANS 



By John Peabody Harrington 



INTIIODI ( TIOX 

THIS paper presents the geographical knowledge of the Tewa 
Indians of the upper K i<> Grande Valley, New Mexico. These 
[ndians speak a Language of the Tanoan -lock, related to the Ji 
and Penis languages, and again to those of Tans, Picuris, Sandia, 
Lsleta, and the Piro. The Tewa inhabit at present five villages 
by the Rio Grande: San Juan, Santa Clara, San Qdefonso, Nambe, 
and Tesuque; and one, llano, among the Hopi pueblos of north- 
eastern Arizona. The range of subjects i- aboul the same as thai 
covered by a school textbook on geography. The information was 
gathered chiefly in 1910, partly by systematic questioning*, parti] as 
incidental to other information. 

The difficulties encountered have been many. The Tewa are 
nti<cnt and secretive with regard to religious matters, and their cos- 
mographical ideas and much of their knowledge aboul place-names 
are bard to obtain. Their country i- rugged and arid. Must of the 
places visited were reached on fool in company with one or more 
Indian informants whose names for obvious reasons are nut bare 
given. The region has aever been accurately mapped. All of the 

map- at the writer'-, disposal are full of BlTOrs, man] of I he features 

shown being wrongly placed or named, while others are omitted 
altogether, and -till others given where the] do nol exist. The 
occurrence of many of the names in a number of dialect- or langut 

baS DOl facilitated the work. 

As in a -choi, I geography, cosn raphical and meteorological 

information i- presented first. An alphabetical!] arranged li-t of 
terms denoting the geographical concepl of the Tewa i- next given. 
The treatment of place name- follows. Tin 1 region iii which Tewa 
place-names an- more or less numerous bas been divided into 29 
areas, each of which is shown on a map. The places are indicated 
on the maps b] numbers which refer to the adjacent text. Tims 
arranged, map- and names will be found convenient for reference. 
Names of places in Spanish, English, ami various non Tewa Indian 
languages have been include/1. A h i "I tribal name- ami one of 
name, of minerals known to the Tewa conclude the paper 

37 



38 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

The section mi place-names is the most complete portion of the 
paper. Interesting studies could be made concerning them. The 
large proportion of etymologically obscure place-names leads to the 
important conclusion that the Tewa have inhabited for a long time 
the region at present occupied by them. Again, the presence in 
various Tanoan languages of phonetically differentiated cognate 
forms of Tewa place-names indicates that certain names of places 
must already have been used by the Tewa at a remote time in the 
past, when the divergence of the Tanoan languages was still null or 
slight. Folk-etymologies and forms assumed by Tewa names bor- 
rowed by Spanish are curious. The abundance and the preciseness of 
description of the geographical terms are also worthy of special men- 
tion. In an arid and little settled region there is perhaps more need 
of the richness and preciseness of these terms than elsewhere, since 
accurate descriptions of places seldom visited are necessary in order 
to identify them. 

That a remarkably large number of tribes and minerals are known 
by name to ihe Tewa should also be noted. 

The writer wishes to take this opportunity of acknowledging his 
deep indebtedness to Dr. E. L. Ilewett, director of the School of 
American Archaeology, who suggested that the work be undertaken, 
made it possible, and has given information and advice on many 
points connected with it. Thanks are also due to Mr. F. W. Hodge, 
ethnologist-in-charge of the Bureau of American Ethnology, who 
has aided in many ways; Mr. K. M. Chapman, Mr. N. C. Nelson, and 
Mr. Owen Wood, who assisted in the preparation of the maps; Miss 
Barbara Freire-Marreco, Dr. H. J. Spinden, Mr. T. S. Dozier, Mr. K. A. 
Fleischer, Mrs. M. C. Stevenson, Mr. J. A. Jeancon, Mr. J. L. Nusbaum, 
Mr. O. Goetz, Mr. ('. L. Linney, and several other persons, including 
the Indian informants. 



PHONETIC KEY 
I. Tewa Sounds 

1. Orinasal (^'nasalized") vowels, pronounced with mouth ami nose 
passages open: g (Eng. father, bul orinasal), 3 (Eng. man, but ori- 
nasal), '. (moderately close e, orinasal), \ (Portuguese swra), $ (French 
j)./-. but orinasal), q (Portuguese torn), y (Portuguese atum). 

2. Oral vowels, pronounced with mouth passage open and nose 
passages closed by the velum: << (Eng. father), e (moderately close e), 
i (Eng. routine), o (moderately elose r/), « (Eng. rule). 

Length of vowels is no! marked unless it distinguishes words other- 
wise alike; thus ',>/," 'hill,' 'oku " turtle.* A superior vowel Bymbol 
indicates that the vowel is very short and apt to be grating (< 
Tenarrstimmig). All the vowels are breathy. Unless a vowel or 
nasal is followed by the glottal elusive, a glottalized elusive, or a 
sonant, an aspiration is distinctly heard al it- end. 

3. Semi-vowels: (Ger. '■■>. bul very fricative), w (Eng. icay). 
1. Laryngeal consonants: h (laryngeal /<).' (glottal elusive). 

5. Dor>al consonants: It (voiceless lenis), Jew (voiceless lenis labial- 
ized (Latin ywis), / (glottalized), /' (aspirated), q (Eng. finder, voiced 
inflative g preplosively nasal), <j (Castilian abo^ado), quo (Castilian 
I I .•••_ .si ■■ i . ■ - ' Eng. Lanauwrthy). 

•'.. Frontal consonants: ny (Castilian maftana), / (voiceless lenis), 
I (glottalized), t' (aspirated), </ (Eng. lanolng. inflative a" preplosively 
nasal), i (Japanese roku), ts (Ger. anaspirated), is (Ger. \ glottal 
ized), * (Eng. «aw), tf (Eng. cAew bul lenis), if (Eng. cAew, glottal 
ized), / (the capital form i-/-: Eng. sAip), n (Eng. now). 

7. Labial consonants: p (voiceless lenis), f> (glottalized), /■' (aspi- 
rated), & (Eng. lambent, voiced inflative I preplosively nasal), t> I 
tilian adogado), w t Eng. man I. 

The sound of / is heard in some words of foreign origin, and in San 
[ldefonso polamimi 'butterfly. 3 

The consonants may also be classified as follow-: 

Voiced const ringents: i. w. 

Voiceless fricatives: A, . /. 

Voiceless fricative labialized: gxo, 

less lenis Bonoplosive elusive labialized: /"•. 

Voiceless glottalized clusives: /-. '. £>. 

Voiceless lenis affricative clusives: ts, ij. 



40 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. ANN. 29 

Voiceless globalized affricative clusives: ts, If. 

Voiceless aspirate clusives: /', /', />' ■ 

Voiced Lnflative clusives, preplosively nasal: g, d, b. 

Voiced levis clusives: g, ./, i. The g of this series is not as levis as 
the •' and t. 

Voiced nasals: //. nj>, n, m. 

The following phonems are consonantal diphthongs: quo, lew, ts, is, 
//', If, <7, <l. and b. En the globalized clusives (/, /. ts, If, />) the glottal 
plosion follows the oral plosion, even following the glided or sukuned 
sand/of the consonantal diphthongs; tha< is, the fc, ?, is, If, or /< is 
completely immersed in a glottal elusive. It has been determined 
that, in many instances, g and g,d and • ', and S and /> are respec- 
tively but two aspects of the same phonem, as is the case with 
Castilian g and levis g, d and levis d, b and levis A. The consonants 
occur in one length only. They may be more or less orinasal when 
contiguous to orinasal vowels. The sonancy of the voiceless lenis 
clusives begins nearly simultaneously with the explosion. 

A 'j r:ive accent is placed over the vowel of a. syllable weakly stressed, 
and with falling intonation. The tone and stress of the other sylla- 
bles arc not written in this memoir. 

An intensive study of Tewa phonetics has been made, the results of 
which will be published soon. The reader is referred to this forth- 
coming memoir for a more complete description of the Tewa sounds, 
including explanation of a number of assimilations and other phonetic 
phenomena not mentioned ahove. 

11. Phonetic Spelling of Non-Tewa Words 

The symbols used in Tewa have the same value as in Tewa. 

Vowels: # (French patte), y (unrounded u). The acute accent over 
a vowel symbol indicates that it is loudly stressed. A circle under a 
VOWel symbol indicates that it- is surd. 

Consonants: ' (aspiration), h (a peculiar weak aspiration occurring 
injemez), />• (marginal, '-velar". /,-, lenis), q (Ger. ach), g, d, b (sonanl 
-lops a- in Eng.), r (bilabial ./'); / after a consonant symbol indicates 
palatalized or palatal quality. 

III. Alphabetic < >rder 

The alphabetic order followed in this memoir is: aq a se%4 I b t d d 
e if f g <j g h i [ j k Tew 1c /■' I I m n nj> ij yy o q p p p </ quo r ■> 
ts if ts If a u u v w. The glottal elusive is ignored in the 
alphabetic sequence. 



I. COSMOGRAPHY 

The World 

'Opa ' the world' 'the universe'. The word is perhaps akin to 
Taos i>"/"! 'sky'. 'Opa includes everything that k. It i- thought 
of as being alive and is worshipped as ' Opasvg/ ' Universe Man' ('opa 
■ win-Id ': .v.. i)i' 'man in prime'). The Milky Way i- said to be its 
backbone (see ]>. 51). The world is represented in Pueblo art in 
various way-. Bandelier 1 writes: 

Here [among the Tewa], as well as among the Queree [Keresan stock], we must 
distinguish between the heavens and the sky. The latter i> a male deity called 
O-pat-y Ben." 

This statement is incorrect; ' Opasegy is not the Skj bul theWorld. 
'In i; Cardinal Directions and Theib Symbolism 

TIm- Tewa < 1 i -- 1 i 1 1 !_•- 1 1 i - 1 1 Bis cardinal directions or regions, namely: 
north, west, south, east, above, and below. The} air usually named 
in the order here given. Tewa symbolism assigns series of colors, per- 
sons, animals, plants, and inanimate objects to these cardinal directions. 

Divinities in some instances arc multiplied thai one may be asso 
ciated with each direction. These cardinal identifications air not 
regarded as merely general information, bul rather as a portion of 
secret ritual: therefore it i- difficult to obtain information about them. 

The aames of the cardinal directions arc clearly descriptive in ori- 
gin. In the names of the four horizontal directions the postpound is 
/>/'/■ when 'in' or Mo' the region is expressed, p'a-'ffi when 'from' 
the region i- expressed. PyeJ-i ('< •from') sometimes takes the 
place of p'a/gi • The name- an' used a- nouns, adjectives, ami adverbs. 

']■ "in the north' ' to the north,' pimp'q-'ffi 'fr the north' 

(pigy •mountain'; piji 'toward' 'direction'; r<i'j- 'from the 
direction of" |. 

Ts&mpiji "in tin- west' 'to the west', ts&mp'q'g, •from tin- west' 
unexplained, but cf. h '<•</' 'yesterday,' and n&'ot&innQ 'i< is 
a liitlr cloudy'; py\ 'toward' 'direction'; p'a-'gt •from the direc- 
tion of | . 

'.I kqmpijt 'in the south' "to tin- south', 'akomp'o/gi 'from the 
south' Qakqyf 'plain'; /"'<■ 'toward' 'direction'; p'a/gi "from the 
direction of.' i 



1 Final i: 



42 ETHNOGEOGBAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

T'qmpije 'in the cast" 'to the east', t'qmp'q'ge 'from the east' 
\fiiij.r 'sun'; piji 'toward' 'direction'; p'q'ge 'from the direction of ). 

1 Opahedi 'in or to the top of the world or above', 'opaheJip'q'ge 
'from the top of the world or above' ( J opa 'world'; he.d 'on top of 
'top'; p'q'ge 'from the direction of). 

' OpanuQi . n<j/nsogt n uge ' in or to the place under the world or down 
where the earth sits', 'opanugeM, , opanug.ep t a'g.e, ntj-nsogenugeJii or 
nqnsogen ugep'q'ge ' from the place under the world or down where the 
earth sits' ('opa 'world'; nuge 'below' 'under' 'down' <nv?u 'un- 
der', g< 'down at' 'over at'; nfiyf 'earth'; soge 'to sit'; M 'from'; 
p'q'ge 'from the direction of). 

Bandelier 1 gives the Tewa cardinal directions as "Pim-pi-i", 
north; " Tzam-pi-i", west; "A-com-pi-i", south; "Tam-pi-i", east; 
'"O-pa-ma-con", above; "Nan-so-ge-unge", below. These are for 
pimpije, ts&mpije, 'akompije, t'qmpije, 'opamakowa, and nqnsogenuge. 
'Opamakowa means 'sky of the world' ('<</"' 'world'; makowa 'sky') 
and is not the proper term. Bandelier does not name the points in 
their Tewa order. 

Directions intermediate between the cardinal directions are defined 
by postfixing ja'a "between'; thus pyapijets^mpijeja'a 'northwest' 
{pimpije 'north'; tsqmpij( "west": ja'a 'between'). More definite 
descriptions of points between cardinal directions of points appear 
not to be used. ]Be\ 'dell' 'corner' is sometimes postpounded instead 
of ja'a. 

Terms for the cardinal directions have been obtained in the neigh- 
boring languages also. The Taos and Jemez have somewhat com- 
plicated systems, position higher or lower than the speaker requiring 
different forms. Each distinguishes six directions. The Cochiti recog- 
nize six directions, which they name in the same order as do the 
Tewa. 

CARDINAL COLORS 

The color symbolism is the same at all the Tewa villages. It has 
been obtained by the writer from all of them, that of some from a 
considerable number of informants. This symbolism differs from 
that of some other Pueblo and non-Pueblo tribes of the Southwest. 
Thus, the Zuiii and the Hopi color scheme assigns blue to the north 
and yellow to the west, but otherwise is the same as the Tewa. The 
cardinal colors of Isleta have been obtained by < ratschet, 2 of Zufii by 
Mrs. Stevenson, 2 of the Xavaho by the Franciscan Fathers' and 
others, of the Apache by Gatschet, 2 of the Dieguefio by Waterman. 4 

i Final Report, pt. i, p. :il 1 , 1890. 
-Ilan.lbnrk Inds , pt i. p. 325, 1907. 

I athers, An Ethnologic Dictionary of the Navaho Language, p. 55, Saint U 

• The Religious Practices "f the Dieguefio Indiai I Mf. Pubis, in Amer. Archscol. nml 

Ethnol., vol s. pp. 332-4, 1910.) 



HARBiN.ii'.. K] COSMOGRAPHY 43 

The Tewa colors are: north, ts&ywsgfi?* 'blue' 'green'; west. 
'yellow'; south, /..'"." 'red'; east, 64?'*" 'white'; above, /s.-rij,'," ; 'all- 
oolored' or U&ms&Qi^ 'variously colored'; below, />'iy,,!," : 'black'. 

Bandolier's information,' probably obtained by him at San Juan, is 
identical. An old Tewa of San Ildefonso said thai this assignment 
of color- seems very natural to him. Tim north always looks blue to 
him, he says. The wesl is yellow, foril isnotas bright as the east. 
The south i- hot ami reddish. The oast is white just before the sun 
rises. The above is a mixture of all colors, like the sky, and the 
below is black. The Tewa do not scorn to be aware that neighboring 
tribes assign different colors. 

In. nection with Tewa color symbolism Bandelier says: 1 "The 

summer -,1111 i- green, the winter sun yellow." •'The winter rainbow 
i- white, the summer rainbow tricolored." 

TAltlUN \\. CORN U iXDENS 

The Tewa ntion six corn maidens, each assigned a direction 

and a color: north. A" ytsftn r n'<i'"ri />>/. Blue Corn Maiden: west, 

A" ij'si t'l'n' ' n 1 ij. Yellow Corn Maiden; south. K'y,pirt . Red 

Coi'ii Maiden; east, K'y,f& <i. White Corn Maiden; above, 

i ■ • ■ ■' • py,, All-colored Corn Maiden; below, K'y.p'e'ndi'a 
j>U* Black Corn Maiden. 

. ORDINAL U wi\l US 

North. /'.•////' "mountain-lion': west, kt "hear": south, /■■'■' 'badger 5 ; 
east, /.' <jr> 'wolf; above, t& 'eagle'; below, mii/l, '.•/ yj> Sgopher', lit. earth 
mountain-lion [n4vy 'earth'; /.;/./ 'mountain-lion'). These are very 
powerful medicine animals. The sacred corn meal is thrown as a 
sacrifice t<> these and other dry inities. The names have been obtained 
,ii San Juan, Santa Clara, San Ildefonso, and Nambe. Mrs. Stevenson 
ha- recorded similar "beast-gods" from Zufli and Sia. 

CAltOIN \l BIRDS 

An investigator :it Santa Clara obtained the following names of 
cardinal birds: north, tin 'eagle'; west, • south, qw&mpi ' red- 
tail haw k ' or tan / / 'macaw'; east, ; above, k' ymtsiue, unidenti- 
fied, lit. ■.orn i.iid ' 1/ './// / 'maize'; teiJn 'bird'); below, katsiie, un- 
identified, lit. "leaf bird 1 [ka 'leaf; UnM 'bird'). Mrs. Stevenson 
has recorded the Zufli and Sia cardinal birds. 

< AI.'IMN \l. -N UCES 

The Tewa of San Ddefonso mention 'aSo/iyy, or serpen! deities ol 
the -i\ regions, each with it- appropriate color. Mrs. Stevenson 
mentions (not by name) the six snakes of the cardinal regions of the 
/ami. and gives' the Sia names of six serpents of the cardinal points. 



44 ETHNOGEOGKAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ass. 29 

CARDINAL SHELLS 

The information was obtained at Santa Clara that 7/7 'abalone' is 
i In' shell of the west; 'og.a'e, applied to olivella and cowrie shells, 
that of the south; fsief'a, applied to large white bivalves, that of the 
east. A San Ildefonso Indian told the writer that 7/7 ' abalone' refers 
to the west, but that he had forgotten the other identifications. The 
Navaho shell assignments are given by the Franciscan Fathers. 1 

CARDINAL TKEES 

The native trees assigned by the Tewa to the cardinal points have 
nut been learned. Mrs. Stevenson records those of the Zuni 2 and the 
Sia 3 . An investigator learned at Santa Clara four cardinal fruit 
trees: north, be 'apple 1 ; west, sayqwqmbe, a kind of apple that ripens 
early, lit. St. John's apple (siyqioar/f < Span. San Juan; be 'apple 5 
' fruit'), since it ripens in St. John's month, June; south, betseji H 
'yellow plum 1 and pibe 'red plum' (be 'apple' 'fruit'; fs, : //"' 'yellow'; 
pi 'redness' 'red'); east, b.jioT' 'peach 5 (b< 'apple' 'fruit'; p'o 
'hair' 'hairy'; 7"' locative and adjective-forming postfix). 

CARDINAL MOUNTAINS 

The cardinal mountains are the same for San Juan, Santa Clara, and 
San Ildefonso. From the other villages they have not been obtained. 
North, Kepiyf 'bear mountain' (ke 'hear'; />('//./' 'mountain'). San 
Antonio Peak (see p. 560), northwest of Taos; west, Tsihwmupifl f 'cov- 
ered obsidian mountain' (tsi 'fiaking-stone obsidian"; Ttumu 'to cover'; 
j'Uif 'mountain'), Santa Clara Peak [2:13]; 4 south, 'Okupiyy 'turtle 
mountain' ('oku 'turtle', pijjf 'mountain'), Sandia Mountain [29:83]; 
east, ' Agirffxnupiijj', of obscure etymology Qagat/^nu unexplained; 
/'////' ' mountain '), Lake Peak [22:.">4]. There is no cardinal mountain 
of the above or the below. The cardinal mountains are also called, 
respectively, according to the regions: Pimpije^ynpiyf 'north moun- 
tain' (pimpije 'north'; '\>)f locative and adjective-forming postfix; 
pijjf 'mountain'), etc. 

Zuni and Sia cardinal mountains are mentioned by Mrs. Stevenson, 
but not identified with mountains now existing on earth. The names of 
the Navaho cardinal mountains have been recorded by Dr. Washington 
Matthews, the Franciscan Fathers, and Dr. Edgar L. Hewett. 

CARDINAL SACRED WATER LAKES 

The cardinal sacred water lakes have been learned for San Ildefonso 
only. When medicine water, wopo (wo 'medicine'; po 'water') is 
prepared in connection with certain ceremonies, small quantities of 

1 An Ethnologic Dictionary of the Navaho Language, p. 5(3, 1910. 

" The Zuni Indians, p. '25. 

si he Sia, p. 28. 

' See the accompanying maps, with explanation on p. 97. 



H4EBi.Ni COSMOGRAPHY 45 

water are collected From the following four places, all situated near 
San [ldefonso Pueblo: North, §u8ogefiokw\ [15:17]; west, ; 
n&pokwi [16:37]; south, Pottin&egi [19:123]; east, Pots?fu , u [19:39]. 

These places are also sometimes called, respectively, pijnju'i,' [„,/),,/,■,/■[ 

'north lake" (pi>rip>j( 'north'; {i)j> Locative ami adjective-forming 
postfix: JH>ktr[ ■ | >nc>] ' " lake'), etc. The medicine water from the above 
is rainwater; that from the below is obtained by digging a hole in : he 
ground where water can be reached. The water from the six sources 
is mixed in a loojtoaa'*' 1 ' medicine- water bowl' (wo 'medicine'; j><> 
'water'; sa 'to be', said of 3+; '<'' locative) and used ceremonially. 

OTHER CARDINAL II)i;\ TIl'Ic A Tlo\s 

.Mrs. St even son ' mentions cum n Ins clouds, ant-. "Ahavuta." etc., of 
the si\ regions of the Zuni. Certainly many Tewa identifications 
remain to l>e obtained 

The Ski 

Makowa 'sky'. Distinct trom'opakeri 'the above'; see under Car- 
dinal Directions. This is probably what Bandelier means when he 
writes;- "Here [among the Tewa], as well as among the Queres [Kere- 
san stock], we must distinguish between the heavens [the above?] and 
the sky. The latter is a male deity called O-pafr-y Sen." "O-pat-y 
Sen" i- evidently for , Opasii) r 'the World, 3 as remarked above under 
The World. The sky is personated a- M<ih-i>i nisi ado 'Sky Old Man' 
(makowa "sky - ; .*</"/" 'old man'). The Sky is the husband ol fche 
Earth, who is personified as N<j,ykwijo ' Earth < >ld Woman': see below 
under The Earth. 

'In the skv' is expressed by nmkou^i without locative postiix. 
Thus the sun, moon, stars, the Christian God, etc, are said to live 
or to be in the sky: makowa fan mi fa 'in the sky the sun lives' 
(makowa "sky": faa / '.sun': //<_/ 'it"he'; fa 'tolive'). Makowak&ii 
mean- 'up in the sky' "at the top of the sky' (/'••''' 'on top of). 
Tewa stories tell of a pueblo in the sky ill which an Indian from llii- 

eartb ha- adventures. The bud and the moon have their path- in 
the sky. 

-in UJD MOON 

The sin i i- called ,',_//,, ,. the 1 1 1< >< >■ i /« . T'qt) f i- perhaps connected 

with the word t'a 'day'. /'" is used also with the meaning 'month'. 

The divinities resident in the sun and moon are called T'qm&ifa 'Sun 

Old Man 1 (t'qgj 'sun'; *<■<■/.• 'old man') and Po ■ $o 'Moon < )ld Man' 

\o 'old man'). Both sun ami moon are male, as thej 

1 p i he / 

Report, pi i. pp. .a: 12, 1890. 



46 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

are also in the belief of the Cochitenos, and the sun is never called 
'father 3 and the moon 'mother', as among the people of Taos, Isleta, 
Jemez, and Zurii. 

"The Tehuas [Tewa]," says Bandelier, 1 "call the sun T'han and 
the moon Po; and their principal deities bear the names of T'han Sendo, 
sun-father, and P'ho Quio, or moon-woman." The moon is never 
called Pokwijo, nor does T % ans$n4o mean 'sun-father.' 

Names for sun in other Pueblo languages are: Taos t'ulend, Isleta 
t'uniie, Piro (Bartlett) "pu-e", Jemez pe orpetfasa, Cochiti 6 fata, 
Tixmija'ttokf 'a (Stevenson: "Yatokia . . . means bearer of light"), 
Hopi 1<i'ir,i. The moon is called: Taoa paend, Isleta paite, Piro 
(Bartlett) "a-e," Jemez pd, Cochiti td'wata, Zuni jdilnanne, Ilopi 

There is in Tewa no name such as ' luminary ' applied to both sun 
and moon. 

The sun and moon pass daily from east to west over trails which run 
above the great waters of the sky. They see and know as do Indians 
here on earth. When they set they pass through a lake to the under- 
world and travel all night to the east, where they emerge through a lake 
and start out on their trails again. Theyknow their trails,' [irtbi po'^iyy 
'they 2'+; M possessive; po 'trail'). Cf. Sanskrit dyu-patha 'sky 
trail,' Latin cursus solis. The trails are also called 'o&imPo 'vapor 
trails' {'nh'iyf "vapor"; po 'trail'). 

When there is an eclipse the sun or the moon is said to die. The 
expressions are: nqt'qiitfu 'it sun dies ' (nq "it" 'he'; tq/Qf 'sun'; tfu 
'to die'), mi pot fa 'it moon dies" {i,q 'it' 'he'; po 'moon'; tfu 'to die'). 
The Indians never say T'ans^n^o nqtfu or Poscndo Tiqtfu, for the 
divine persons in the sun and moon can not die. "Our Lords can not 
die." 

The sun is said to walk through the sky clothed in white deerskin 
and ornamented with many fine beads. The sun has a beautiful face 
tse, hidden by a mask, fan /a or t'qmbi '<j (f'qijy 'sun'; \i 'mask'; H 
possessive). An extracted tooth is thrown to the sun. "The summer 
sun is green, the winter sun yellow." - 

Of a ring about the sun the Tewa say T'qmejido 'obumq 'Sun Old 
Man hasaring' (T'qnxatdti. see above; 'o'he' 'it'; bu 'ring' 'circle'; 
mq 'to have'). Mexicans of New Mexico call this phenomenon ojo 
del buey 'ox's eye'. The Indians say that it does not mean an3 T thing. 

When the sun is "drawing water" the Tewa say t'qmbiquwijf ' the 
sun's tail' (fq/Qf 'sun'; ii possessive; qws^rjf 'tail'). This phenome- 
non is seen when the sun is low in the sky, and the name is applied 
because the rays resemble a tail. 

The emergence hole in the lake through which the sun rises is called 
iqi)l-'"j( (t'qijf 'sun": k'oji 'emergence hole' 'roof-hole'). Xqt'qmj)i, 

1 Bandelier, Final Report, pt. I, p. 308, 1890. 
2 Ibid., p. 311. 



BJJUMKGTON] COS.MOI,KAI'11\ 47 

mit'iim/"";''* 'the Bun rises', lit. 'the sun comes out' (n4 'it' 'he'; t\ 
'mmi': /"' "tn come out' 'to*go out' 'to issue'; '.'"' 'to come'). Nfthoor 
jem% • 'it goes high' {mi 'it' 'he'; Jewajl 'height 1 'high' 'on top'; 
///,■; ;/ -in go' I. .Xiitsu.i, a, u ijf 'it sets', lit. "it enters 1 1 n4 'it' 'he'; 
'to enter'; mg //./■■ 'to go'). 

Of the winter solstice is said: fgn nqwiyf or n4t K <gr)wyrij' 'the sun 
stands still' (tfqyf 'sun'; »4 'it' 'he'; "•{//./' 'tostand'). The conception 
i> th;it the sun rises at the same plan' for a number of days. (Cf. the 
etj mologyof "solstice".) The winter solstice marks the beginning of the 
year (pqjo), which is then called pqjo tsarribV* 'new year' (pqio 'year': 
txtimh;'' 'new'). Of the time following the winter solstice, when the 
sun rises a Little farther south each day, theTewa saj t'qny 'il.-'a.ii/iDijf 
(t'Qyy 'sun'; , i 'it'; /<_''<' said to indicate motion in steps or grades; 
//<>/// 'to go away'); also: t'q/n b4'#'* 'the sun is coming' (' 
'suu'; //-] 'it' 'he'; •?'' 'to come'). The summer solstice is railed 
t'(in nqt'ti or mii'<iiii',i 'the -un lives' (t'gyy 'sun'; «4 'it' 'he'; tf'a 'to 
live'). When the sun rises a little farther north each day the Tewa 
-a\ : t'qn i ' ih'i[iiin<r- i/'iji//' ■Mm": V 'it'; /''././/said to indicate motion 
in steps or grades; mg'i -aid to indicate the direction). Also: t'ui, 
'iln' -un i- going' (t'iftff 'sun'; ra^'it'; imGyy 'togo'). When 
the >un runs low, as in the period about the winter solstice, it is said: 
fa,, ,',ii,<j, /,i,j, a, ij," 'the sun moves 1 < > %s ifqyf •-un": 'qygetagt 'low' 
'on the lower part of a -lope' K'tiyy 'foot'; gi Locative; to'a 'gentle 
slope'; '".' 'it' 'lie': ;." -to move' 'to go about'). When the bud runs 
high, a- in summer, it is -aid: t'a,, Inoaji //<//"' 'the -un moves high' 
(/'(ii/ r 'sun'; /.,/;//,' 'height' 'high' "on top": n$ "it" "In"; )','■ 'to move' 
•to move about'). 

Th'- Tewa have no designation for the equinoxes and say thai these 
are not recognized. 

The calendar is determined bj noticing tin- point ; ,i which the sun 
rises. This is done by sighting along race-courses, hills, or mererj 
marking the rising place on the outline of the eastern mountains. \i 
Santa Clara tie- -un appear- always to rise at different points in the 
great -jap in the Santa IV Range known as Wijo[22:29]. Who does the 
determining of the rising place and just how ii i, done remain to be 
learned. The Tewa believe that the sun ha- a house in the east, and 
ha- a wife. The father of the War Oods, according to Tewa ver- 
sions, \~ '>>/.' ,1 ,ri /',,' 'red cloud' {'ok'uioa 'cloud'; fit'red'), who live- 
on top of Sandia Mountain I 29: --.: |. and not the Sun. 

The spots on the moon are -aid to he his clothing; Poain^oti 'a 'the 

M Old Man's clothing' (fto - .-/ , see above; bi possessive; 'a "'loth 

'clothing 1 ). 

The terms applied to tin- rising and Betting of tin- sun are also 
applied to the i n. 



48 ETHNOGEOGKAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

The new moon is called po ts<irribi H 'new moon' {po 'moon'; tsq/mbi 
'new'; V locative and adjective-forming postfix). Its appearance 
marks the beginning of the Tewa month. Of the slender crescent 
is said: tf ;/_'"' n4poho 'the moon is little' (tfx' littleness' 'little'; 
'/"' locative and adjective-forming postfix; nq 'it'; po 'moon'; Ico 
'to lie' 'to be"). As the crescent grows fuller they say: nqpiSse'* 
'the moon is coming' (n$ 'it' 'he'; po 'moon'; «'* 'to come'). The 
full moon is called po t'agi 1 'round moon' {po 'moon'; fagi H 'large' 
' round '). As the moon wanes they say : nqpomeeijf ' the moon is going ' 
(m) 'it'; po 'moon'; mxyf 'to go'). When the moon disappears they 
say: nqpohqijf 'the moon is gone' (n4 'it' 'he'; po 'moon'; hoyf 'to 
be gone'). Why the moon has phases the Tewa do not pretend to 
know. 

Other expressions are: lcw$ ml/"' po 'rainy moon' 'moon seen in 
rainy weather' {kwqijf ' rain"; '/"' locative and adjective-forming post- 
fix; po 'moon'). Of the moon on top of a cloud is said Posenflo 'ok'it- 
ii-ah; iri m'l'^ijf 'Moon Old Man sits on a cloud' {pos^ndo, see above; 
'ok'uwa 'cloud'; Tcewe 'on top of; nq. 'it' 'he'; 'a?/?./' 'to sit'). Po- 
SQndo ni'ibinnq 'Moon Old Man has a ring' {Poso>do, see above; >/q 'it' 
'he'; bit 'ring' 'circle'; rnq 'to have'). The writer learned at San Ilde- 
fonso that this is a sign that it will rain in three or four days. The 
information was obtained at Santa Clara that if the ring is white it 
means snow; if blue, rain; if red, wind. Mr. C. L. Linney, of the 
United States Weather Bureau at Santa Fe, states that in this part 
of New Mexico the lunar ring is truly a sign that it will rain in two 
or three days. He says it is a scientific fact. The ring is seen only 
when high clouds (cirrus or alta) are in the air. These clouds are 
supposed to be in reality minute spicules of ice — frozen moisture sus- 
pended in the air. 

SUN-DOG 

Tqnnuge nqtse 'under the sun it is yellow' (t'qijf 'sun'; nu'u 'un- 
der'; ge locative; nq 'it'; fse 'to be yellow'). 



'Ago/" 'star'. The gender is mineral. Makowa dPagojo.sa 'the 
stars are in the sky' {makowa 'sky'; di 'they 2+'; 'agojo 'star'; sa 'to 
be in or at', said of 3+). 

Pueblo languages have the following words for star: Taos pa/jy,- 
laend, Esleta pafcy-laue, Piro (Bartlett) "a-hio-sa-e,"' Jemez ■//■yJ/u, 
Cochiti /i/tfyrtfo, Hopi sdhy,. 

'Agojo so'jo 'large star' {'agojo 'star'; so'jo 'large'). ' Agojo e 'little 
star' {'agojo'e 'star'; 'e diminutive). Dinf 'agojo hipo' 'the stars 
come out' (tl'/jj j' 'they 3+to me'; ''agojo 'star'; hi 'light'; ^'"causa- 
tive). ' Aijija iliiii;/ 1) /> ' the stars are marching' {'agojo 'star';#» 'they 
2+'; msgrjf "to go' 'to march'). 'Agojo muwcgF and? 1 'a dim star' 



iiAimiNUTON] COSMOGRAPHY 49 

ifagojo "star; my,w$ 'heal Lightning 'light'; k'<ii)f 'hoariness' 
•hoary'; '/"'' locative and adjective-forming postfix). ' Agojo my/w&- 
/.■*'/"' 'a bright star' ('agojo 'star'; my,w% 'heat lightning' 'light'; 
h 'strength? 'strong 1 ; '/'' locative and adjective-forming postfix). 

II'.' 'agojo u&fc'yjqwqy.f ':i star descends angr\ ' ('"•/ 'a' 'one'; 
'agojo 'star': n$ 'it'; Vijif 'angry'; qwayf 'to descend'). This is 
said of a falling star; curiously enough. the.Ietncz have the same idea: 
jnis, ,r>j/,>j qfub&m\ "a star is going to fight' 'a star is chasing to light" 
(/Vv, 'one'; toy,hy 'star'; gjttbd 'to fight"; mj'togo'). TheTewa 
sometimes also say 'agojo nqkefa 'a star falls' ('agojo 'star'; n4 'it'; 
l.tq *to fall', said of a single object ). 

A comet is called 'agojo qwssn^i'i 'tailed star' {agojo 'star'; 
QWS&Qf 'tail'; fi locative and adjective-forming postfix). The comet 
in November, 1910, excited the interest of the Tewa. 

The Morning Star, i. e.. the brightest star Been in the morning, is 
called merely 'agojo so'jo 'big star' (agojo 'star'; so'jo 'big'). In 
this Tewa agrees with nearly all the Indian language- of the South- 
west. Ii is a male divinity. "One of the fetiches of Tzi-o-ueno 
Ojua, or the morning star." ' TsiguwQ nwrjf'dk'uwa is the Lightning 
Cachina (tsigvAJsenwgf 'lightning'; '§&•'" >/'<i 'Caehina spirit') and not 
the Morning Star. • 

The Evening Star is. however, to the Tewa a female divinity. Her 
name is 'I's.l,',: 'dim yellow star' or Tsek'arfkwijo 'old 

woman with the yellowish hoary hair' (5< 'yellowness' 'yellow'; 
1'ini.r 'dimness' 'dim' ' fadedness' ' faded* • hoariness * ' hoar] ': ' ■ 
'star'; hwijo 'old woman'). She is followed by 'OJcJagojo (see below), 
who has a carnal desire for her. 

'01 'agojo or' 'Agojo 'o&t 'star of San Juan Pueblo' ('"/.■■ 'San Juan 
PueblOj 'agojo 'star') i- said to be b bright star thai continually 
chases Tsek'anj^agojo; see above. 

.1 tj>>], ,><,,,]','< 'horned star' ('a gojo 'star'; sty/ "horn'; V locative 
and adjective forming postfix) is a bright star not yet identified. 

".l/"//'/"7<'<"' 'agojo "iln- southern star' ('akompije 'south'; 
tive and adjective-forming postfix; '</<;<;/'" 'star'). This is a bright 
star -een far in the southern heavens. In Octoberit i- seen near 

dawn. 

The Tewa had no special name for the North Star. The\ .lid not 
notice particularly that one star in the sky i- Stationary . < >l' it might 

,,,,/>; -it does not march' (wi . . . /■' negative; n$ 
■ ii '; ma v ■ ' to go'). 

The Tewa did not Know planets oiler than the Morning Star and 

the Evening Star. The latter are now one planet, now another, but 

they did not know il. 

1 11.11, ■ 
—29 it ii L6 4 



50 ETHNOGEOGBAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. A.N.V. 29 

CONSTELLATIONS 

l\:<_,,Uth, ' meal-drying bowl ' (Jessy f 'flour' 'meal'; la 'to dry'; be 
'vessel' 'bowl'). This name is given to the Northern Crown constel- 
lation, the stars of which studded on the black sky show beautifully 
the form of a perfect and symmetrica] meal-drying jar. These jars 
are of black ware, and meal is placed in them and stirred near a fire 
in order to dry it for keeping. There appears to be no New .Mexican 
Spanish name for this constellation. 

Cassiopeia is not known to the Tewa. Persistent attempts to gain 
knowledge prove this. The Indians can readily see that it looks like 
a s&ywiyf 'zigzag' or W, but never call it thus. The Mexicans 
appear to call it "la puerta del cielo." 

fi'e 'ladder'. Said to be a constellation; not yet identified. 

' Agxyoteqwa "star bouse' ('agqjo 'star'; teqwa 'house'). This is a 
large constellation seen after sunset in the west in September. The 
writer did not identify the stars. 

ToJMsi 'bull's eye' (<»■'" ' bull' < Span, toro; tsi 'eye'). Name of 
a constellation called in Span. Ojo del Toro. Not identified. 

But' a 'big round circle,' name of an October dance (bu 'ring' 'cir- 
cle'; fa 'large and round'). This is a great irregularly-shaped ring 
of stars near the Northern Crown. Some of the stars are very dim. 
No Spanish name. 

El Corral. Spanish name of a constellation near Cassiopeia. 

Los Ojitos de Santa Lucia. Spanish name; consists of two stars, 
seen east of < )rion. 

La Campana. Spanish name of a constellation of perfect bell shape, 
seen between Orion and the Pleiades. 

, 0¥ambu''u 'sandy corner' i^olcqrjf 'sand'; bu'u ' large low round- 
ish place"). This is a large constellation of dim stars seen near Orion. 

Jfiijj' 'hand'. This constellation contains five stars at the tips of 
the imaginary lingers, and one at the wrist. No Spanish name. 

thi-;y,"i<i r 'in a row' (qwiii 'row' 'line'; 'iyf locative and 
adjective-forming postfix). The San Juan form is qwuiniyf. This 
refers to the three bright stars in a row in Orion's belt. The Spanish 
name is Las Tics Marias. 

Tsebege 'seven corner' (fat 'seven'; bie 'small low roundish 
place'; g.e locative). This name is given to Ursa Major, which is 
said to contain seven bright stars. Some Indians call it tseqiospyj; 
which they translate -seven tail' or even 'dog tail' (fse 'seven', also 
•dog'; qw%ijf 'tail'). It is so called because some of the stars (the 
handle of the dipper) project like a tail. Mexicans call it El Carro. 

Tiyirjf 'in a bunch' (Ugi 'bunched'; 'iyf locative and adjective- 
forming postfix). The San Juan form is liginiyf. This is the name 
of the Pleiades. The Mexicans call them Las Cabrillas. 



HABRIKGTOX] COSMOGRAPHY 51 

V'''!'J.<-' 'turkey foot' {$i 'turkey 5 'chicken'; '«j)f 'foot'). This 
i- an easily learned constellation of the exact form of a turkey's foot. 
The Mexicans do not know it. The Tewa also make a cat's cradle in 
■ nn of a i! >"<!/) j\ 

j esipu 'belly of a sling 3 (/" 'stone'; qwi<it 'to sling'; sipu 
•ih.' hollow under a person's ribs'). This is applied, to the Dolphin, or 
Job's Coffin, constellation. The Mexicans interviewed did not know 
it. It has the form of a sling belly. 

P*eketo 'yoke' (p\ 'stick' 'v I'; h 'neck'; fo'tobe in or on'). 

This i- a translation of Spanish el Yugo, "tin- Yoke' name <>!' the 
Bquare part of the Little Dipper, or Ursa Minor, constellation. 

TheMilky Wayhastwo names. 'Opatuk'it 'backboneof the uni- 
verse' ('qpa 'world' 'universe'; tu 'back'; h'y, 'hard straight thing' 
'bone') appears to be the common name. It is called also Ts%VqJ-o 
'whitishness 1 (Sg 'whiteness' 'white'; Kom> element to weaken force 
■■'_ ). The Taos and the Jemez call the .Milky Way by names which 
mean 'backbone of the universe.' The Mexicans usually call it el 
Camino del < Selo. 

The Underworld 

No term for ' underworld 1 different from those meaning ' the below' 

h:i- i ii obtained. (See under Cardinal Directions.) The Tewa 

declare thai they believe in a single underworld, when' the sun shines 
at night, pale like the moon. It was there that the human race 
and tin- lower animals lived until they found their way through 
Sipop\ (see pp. 567 69) and entered this world. The underworld 
i- dark and dank, and this world rests on top of it. The under- 
world is never personified; it is the base of 'qpa 'the universe.' 
Win n the sun sets in the wesl it passes through a lake (pokwi) and 
enters the underworld (fqpawuge or nfrwogfinuge), passing through 
the latter to reach the igain. 

In tin- underworld is situated Wajima, "thehappj hunting-gr ds" 

pp. .".71 72). Wajima is described a- a kiva-like place of the 
-pint-.. I' the dead. The word is akin to Cochiti Winyema and Zufii 
Wejima. 

The Earth 

■ih. earth'; personified :i- NQijkvxijo 'Earth < > 1 - 1 Woman' 
urth'; hmjo 'old woman'), wife of the Sky. Bandelier 1 says: 
••'I'll.- earth a female deity, called Na-ual ya Quio, and totallj dis- 
tinct from the conception of below." "Na-uat-ya Quio" must '"• 
intended for N<lrjkwijo,BB tin- Earth is noj known bj anj other name. 
For thepeculiar "-uat ya"cf. Bandolier's "O-pat-y", quoted underTHE 
Sky. Vccording to Mrs : the Zufii speak of "A'witelin 



52 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OP THE TEWA INDIANS [ETH. ANN. 29 

'Si'ta (Earth Mother)". The Tewa never speak of the earth as 
' Earth Mother' but as ' Earth Old Woman '. The Taos call the earth 
namena, the Isleta namiie, the Jemez hy,y, or hynqpeta, the Piro 
(Bartlett) "na-f'ol-e". 

EARTHQUAKE 

Ndnt'qt'q 'earthquake' (rv^Vf 'earth'; t'qt'q 'to quiver' 'to trem- 
ble'). N4n4nt'qt'qpo'° ' the earth is trembling' (nq 'it'; nqijf 'earth'; 
t'at'q 'to tremble'; jxS postpound). 

LANDSLIDE 

No/rviinsunfv. 'the land slides or slips'; nqnqnjemu 'the land falls' 
(nq 'it'; i«'n)f 'land'; sunfu 'to slide'; jemu 'to fall', said of 3+). 

Water 

Po 'water'. Water was not personified. It symbolized life and 
fruitful ness. 

OCEAN, LAKE 

Pohw\ 'lake' 'ocean' (po "water"; hw{ unexplained). 

The Tewa in primitive times knew (if many lakes, and doubtless also, 
in a more or less mythical waj r , of the ocean. All lakes were sup- 
posed to be the dwelling- places of 'ok'uwa 'cachinas' and passage- 
ways to and from the underworld. 

WAVE 

'TJij/ijijj' 'wave'. 'Ola (<Span. ola) is also sometimes used. 

IRRIGATION 

The Tewa constructed systems of irrigation ditches before the 
Spaniards came to their country. Irrigation ditch is called foiofo. 
A large or main ditch is called jijakwio, lit., 'mother ditch' (J/'ja 
'mother'; TcwCo 'ditch'). Cf. Span, acequia madre, of which the 
Tewa expression may be a translation. A small irrigation ditch is 
called l-ii-i'i', (V diminutive). The ditches in use at the present day 
are of modern construction and supply Mexican and American as 
well as Indian farmers. In the spring the governor of each Tewa 
pueblo orders the Indians of his pueblo to repair the ditches used by 
the pueblo, and each male member of the community must do his 
share of the work. In former times the women also worked at ditch 
cleaning. 



II. METEOROLOGY 

Faii: Weather 

A'" ag ■'■ .■-■■.■• - it is fair weather 5 (of obscure etymology: h appar- 
ently 'light 5 'bright'; n4 ' to be'). 

I. .: 

''/,'• in-". "",.'' 'green or blue ice' Coj i 'ice'; /.«_//;»-,•/ 

'greenness 5 'green' 'blueness 5 'blue'; '>"' locative and adjective 
forming postfix), "'v /■'< '>,..' 'black ice' (?oji 'ice'; p\. 'black- 
ness 5 * I 'lack ': V locative and adjective-forming postfix). 'Black ice 5 
is found the year round on the east side of Truchas Peak [22:13], q. v. 

Pon&oji 'the water is frozen 5 (Po 'water; 5 n$ "it': '<</'' 'ice 5 'to 
freeze'). N&ojijuwa 'the ice is melted 5 («4 'it': '•;/' 'ice'; juwa 
'to melt'). 

Icicle is called ''ojisat&jj 'long slender form in which the Ice lies' 
(*, 7 '/ 'ice'; .-./ ■ t<> be in or at', said of 3+, here used with sing, of min. 
gender; t(jjf 'tube 5 'thing of long slender form'). 

I i I LCIEB 

There is no special term for 'glacier. 5 The Indian- would saj 
merely 'ojin4ko 'ice lies 5 ('o;'*'ice'; n$ 'it'; ko 'to lie'). 

I I EAT, ( ''>!.!> 

Nipmwa "it i- warm 5 (ntf 'it'; auwa 'to be warm'). Said of the 
weather and of objects. N<j,t8$i)w§ "it is hot' (w4 ' it'; ''.■•.■ 'to be 
hot'). Said of the weather and of objects. 3 cold 5 - it is 

cool' (n4 'it'; U 'to be cold'). Said of the weather only. //■'> 

'it is very cold' (htfakPjo 'very'; /<</ 'it'; /<" 'tobecold'). Said 
of the weather only. NtfoFcui "it is cold 5 (ti<J 'it'; 'ok'aui 'to be 

cold'i. Said iif objects "ld\ ■ 

The winter i> cold in the Tewa country, and in the summer the 
tempt rature rarelj rises aboi e 90 I , 

SM( 'Ki: 

/ ■ smoke'. Tobacco is smoked in connection « iili ceremonies, 
the smoke symbolizing clouds. 



54 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ank. 20 

Steam, Vapor 

" ' <>Vh)f 'steam' 'vapor'. The trails of the Sun and the Moon are 
said to consist of vapor. See Sun and Moon. 

Ewq'oF [ijj> 'rain vapor' (l x wq 'rain'; 'ok'iyj> 'vapor'). This is 
applied to vapor or steam sometimes seen rising from the ground after 
a rain. 

Mist, Fog 

" titi-ii 'mist' 'fog' (unexplained, cf. 'ol'wra 'cloud'). JYq- 
sotSoFuwanfi 'it is misty' (nq 'it ': sotok'uwa,as above; nq postpound). 
Nqsdbok'uwapi 'the mist is coming out' (nq 'it'; soio&uwa as above; 
pi 'to issue"). NqsdboTcuwalco 'the mist is out'(w4 'it'; soiok'uwa,&s 
above; ho 'to lie'). Sometimes the mist comes strangely thick and 
white. This is called sdboJcuwa !s;rln'/"' "thick white mist' (soto&uwa, 
as above; is% 'whiteness' 'white'; ha 'thickness' 'thick'; 'r' locative 
and adjective-forming postrix). 

Mist is rare in the Tewa country, but sometimes there are two or 
three days of continuous mist. Mist is recognized by the Tewa as 
being merely a cloud on the surface of the earth. It is often seen 
rising from the river at nightfall in winter. 

Dew 

Post 'dew' (fto 'water'; St unexplained). , Iposejemti4e ,e 'the dew is 

falling' ('/ 'it'; pose 'dew'; jemu 'to fall', said of .">+. here used with 
sing, of min. gender: (//'present). 

Frost, Hoarfrost 

Tsgpi 'white comes out 1 (is% 'whiteness' 'white'; pi 'to issue'). 
pinq 'it is (hoar-) frosty' (nq 'it'; tsse/n, as above; nq 'to be'). 

' < >h gi is a peculiar sort of light frost with long spicules, seen espe- 
cially on the surface of snow when after a snowstorm a cold wind 
comes from the northeast. Small spicules of ice come down as a mist, 
and even fall in such quantity that they can be scooped up by 
the handful where they have fallen as powder on top of the snow. 
It is also called p'Qnf'ojegi (/>'»'/./' 'snow'). According to Mr. C. L. 
Linney, of the "Weather Service at Santa Fe, ^ojegi is not hoarfrost — 
there is no popular English name for it. Nq'ojeginq 'the ground is 
covered with this kind of frost' (nq" 'it'; 'ojegi, see above: n$ 'to be"). 

Clouds 

'Ok'uwa is applied to any kind of cloud. It is distinguished from 
'ok'uwa 'spirit' 'cachina' by having its first syllable short; it is doubt- 
less connected etymologically with the latter word. Cf. also sdbolcuwa 
'mist'. Wordsmeaning 'cloud' in other Pueblo languages are: Jemez 
wahdf, Cochiti hse K naie, Hopi (Oraibi) omatfu. 



HARKlv ME 1 55 

Clouds an- said to come up or oul and then to be in the sky. 

\ ' ,r uwapt?%'* 'the cloud is coming up or out', i.e. into \ iew above the 

horizon (mi 'it': 'ok'uwa 'cloud'; pi 'to issue 1 'to emerge'; '■<"<' 'to 

come'). 'Ok'uwa makowa ' ■■ ■ 'the cloud is in the sky' ({ok'uwa 

cloud'; makowa 'sky' 'in the sky'; sit' 'to be'). 

The \'il> 'ok'uwan4 means 'to be cloudy". Nij?ok'uwan4 "it i- 
cloudy' (n4 'it'; 'ok'uwa 'cloud'; r>4 postpound). To give the mean- 
ing that the whole sky is overcast, fa&ki 'all' or i%m%piji 'in every 
direction' may be added. 

Clouds are frequently mentioned in connection with their color. 
Thus 'ok'uwa tx;{i' : -white cloud' ^ok'uwa -cloud': ts% 'whiteness' 
'white'; \" locative and adjective-forming postfix); 'ok'uwa /<■"."' 'red 
cloud' Qok'uwa 'cloud'; pi 'redness' 'red'; '•" locative and adjective- 
forming postfix). The won! r ,,t,', 'flower' i- used in describing fluffy, 
cumulus clouds of white or dark color. ' Ok'uwapoo) 'fluffy, cumu- 
lus cloud' ('ok'uwa 'cloud'; j'otit. 'flower') — literally 'flower cloud'. 
"/' el- 'ok'uwa !■-■■■'./" 't"''" 1 'white flower-cloud' 'fluffy 
white cloud' ({ok'uwa 'cloud'; pdt\ 'flower'; tk& 'whiteness' 'white'; 
locative and adjective-forming postfix). 'Ok'uwa poo%nuk'u'i H or 

'ok'uWO i,ijl/ ijp,,fii' "' "dark HoWiT-eloud' 'dark colored fluffy cloud' 

■■"•-/ 'cloud'; poV\ 'flower'; mjl.'ij 'dark color' 'dark': V" locative 
and adjective forming postfix). 

Names of seasons are propounded. Frequent is pajo'ok'uwa 'spring 
cloud' (pajo 'spring time'; 'ok'uwa "el. aid"). 

( loud- may he docribed by their accompaniment. R 
'ok'uwa ,,■ ,',"< -wind cloud' [w$ 'w ind'; 'ok'uwa 'cloud': ',"' locath e and 
adjective-forming postfix). /'•>// p 'ok'uwa '.-now cloud' (p'or/j 'snow'; 

'ok'uwa 'cloud'). I\ii;: v /',,/,' ,i,r,i Tain cloud' ( l.n-q // j 'rain': 'ok'uwa 

■cloud' i. TsigwwQ a ii i) ? ok'uwa 'lightning cloud' 'thunder cloud' (tez'gu- 
iniinj i) r 'lightning'; 'ok'uwa 'cloud'). 
Other expressions relating t>> clouds follow. /w-..< //<//'" n&'ok'uwatu} 

'it i- cloudy and threaten- rain", lit. -family it is cloudy' I 

'rain'; '," locative and adjective-forming postfix; n4 'it'; 'ok'uwa 
'cloud'; /"_' verbifying element). 'Ok'uwawigki 'a long strip of 
cloud' 'a stratus cloud' ({ok'uwa 'cloud'; w\rjki 'long, straight, and 
narrow'). 'Ok'uwaffu 'long benl cloud', stratus or other cloud that 
extends far across the sky, because of it- length appearing to be 
benl ('nl' a ,r, i -(loud': !),i 'length and state of being bent' ' 1 ■ > 1 1 '_r 
and bent'). 'Ok'uwa tsGiyi mall flattish bluish cloud' of the 

kind seen high in the -K\ on -ohm- cold days ('■■,'■ 'uwa 'cloud ' ; 
' hi ii< 'lie.-.-" ' hlue' : • 'j recniie-- ' 'green'; p'igi 'smallness and flatni 
' -mall and Hat ': '{"' locative and adjective forming postfix). 

'cloud pile' 'cumulus cloud' ('ok'uwa 'iU>\u\ pile'). 

'bluish cloud' of the kind usuallj large and 

high ' due 1 'greenness ' green' : 



56 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. an.n. 29 

'"' locative and adjective-forming postfix). ' Ok' uwasq.ywiy f 'cloud 
zigzag' 'cloud in zigzag form' ('ok'utca 'cloud'; sq/rjwVQf 'zigzag'). 
'Ok'uwa'okQ 'cloud down', applied to high whitish cirrus clouds 
(',,/,' ,t,r,i 'cloud'; 'olq 'down' 'fine feathers' 'fluff'). ' Ok'uwa lcdi H 
'sharp cloud' 'cloud with a sharp point or edge' ('ok' wwa 'cloud'; lee 
'sharpness' "sharp': '/"' locative and adjective-forming postfix). 
A'V >) /nl : uwa ' mountain-lion cloud', a light-colored cloud associated 
with the north (I'xyf 'mountain-lion': 'ok'uwa 'cloud'). 'Ok'uwa 
qwaje'i H 'hanging cloud' ('ok' hick 'cloud'; qwaje 'to hang'; "/"' loca- 
tive and adjective-forming postfix).' ' Ok'uwawiii 'horizontally pro- 
jecting point of a cloud' ('ok'uwa 'cloud' ; wui 'horizontally project- 
ing point'; see under Geographical Terms). 'Ok'uwafirjj> 'cloud 
mountain'; sometimes applied to a cloud that resembles a mountain 
('ol'uu-a 'cloud': \>Vjf 'mountain'); these clouds are usually dark. 
' ( >]/ mro ■iro.i,'"' ' scattered clouds ' ('ok'uwa 'cloud'; wa^t 'scattered'; 
>" J locative and adjective-forming postfix). 'Ok'uwa qwiui 'a line or 
row of clouds' ('ok'uwa 'cloud'; qwiii 'line' 'row'). Pokany,, the 
Tewa name of Julian Martinez of San Iklefonso, is said to mean a line 
or arch of clouds. 'Ok'uwa t'y, 'spotted cloud', applied to a kind 
of greenish cloud with whitish tinge (fok'uwa 'cloud': t'y, 'spotted- 
ness' 'spotted'). ' Ok'uwa p'agi H 'broad flat cloud' ('ok'uwa 'cloud'; 
p'agi 'breadth, and flatness' 'broad and flat'; /* locative and adjec- 
tive-forming postfix). 'Ok'uwa'e 'little cloud' ('ok'uwa 'cloud'; 'e 
diminutive). 

The mythological serpents, 'Abanfu, and cachinas, 'ok'uwa, are 
supposed to live in the clouds and to be seen sometimes by people 
when looking upward. The cachinas or deified spirits ^ok'uwa) are 
supposed ever to be present among the clouds, and the close asso- 
ciation between them and the clouds probably accounts for the 
resemblance of the words 'ok'uwa and 'ok'uwa. The Tewa also 
speak of mythic persons who are known as 'ok'uwatowa 'cloud peo- 
ple' ('ok'uwa 'cloud': Iowa 'person' 'people'), 'ok'uwa'enu 'cloud 
youth' ('I'k'mva 'cloud'; 'enu 'youth'), and 'ok'woa'a' a nfu 'cloud 
maiden" ('<,/:' mni 'cloud'; 'a' a nyu 'maiden'). These people, youths 
or maidens, are also mentioned with appropriate colors for the six 
directions.' Ok'uwapi 'red cloud' figures in the War God myth. 
The Tewa also speak of 'ok'uwateqwa 'cloud house' (^ok'uwa 'cloud'; 
t, qwa ' house '). They tell of a pueblo in the sky above the clouds. 

The terrace, so common in Tewa art. represents clouds. Bandelier 1 
says: "The clouds, the moon, lightning, and the whirlwind maintain 
[in Tewa religious paintings] the same hues all the year round." 

Tewa personal names compounded with 'ok'uwa seem to be given to 
males only. 

Tobacco smoke, soap plant suds, feathers, etc., symbolize clouds in 
ceremonies. 

i Final Report, pt. r, p. 311, 1890. 



hakim. .MKTEOROLOGY 57 

The shadow of a cloud is called 'ok'uvxi'oJc'ij, ('ok'wwa •cloud'; 'ok'y 
'shadow'). 

Cloudiness is /iq'of.su/uiq "it is ;i little cloudy 5 "the bud i- somewhal 
obscured by clouds' («4 'it'; 'otsiys unexplained ; cf. t&Zmpije, 'west' 
and /x._ /(</»' 'yesterday'; n4 'to he' postpound). 

Kai\ 

"The rainy season is defined, inasmuch as it i- limited to the months 
oi -Inly. August, and September. . . . Weeks may elapse withoul 
tin- discharge of a single shower; then again weeks may bring a series 
df thunder-storms accompanied by floods of rain. During the other 

nine months nt' the year there ar icasional days <>f rain, which 

nsualh comes from the southeast, and lasts until the wind settles in 
the opposite quarter. The same happens with snow-storms; the 
southeasterly winds are their forerunners, while northwesterly cur- 
rents hring them to a close.*' ' Most rain- of the Tew a country come 
from the southwest, not from the southeast a- Bandolier states. 2 

Rain i- of gupr ■ importance to the farmer in the Southwest. The 

Tewa religion is replete with practices and prayers the objecl of 
w bich i- to bring rain and insure crop-. There are also special dances 
beld bj the Tewa for producing rain. These are called huo&nfaJn . 
fcw&mpafctfe, or hu>^m/p\ri4,nJaJ^ "rain dance' 'rain-making dance' 
• rain power dance' (fov<njj> ' rain ' ; fade 'dance'; pa 'to make": />i 
'magic power'). 

Rain i- called huoiyj'. , Uew$'n4o ,a 'it i- raining' ('*' 'it'; Jewiyy 
'rain': 'o'° progressive postpound, present). '//"•< $nn4 "it has rained' 
('/• it '-. /.miijf • rain ': n4 verbifying postpound, perfect). N&fcw4yka- 
•il want-to rain' (/<•_/ -it": /"•<///,/ •rain"; /-/causative: ,/,/'" 'to 
want'). K'l-nn,', 'adrizzle' 'a little rain' (kwiyy' rain'; 'e diminu- 
tive). A'-r.n/, !,!'{, t <l"' [ a little rain' i/.n-.n,, ■ rain': hi"ij)r 'little'; 

'-" locative and adjective-forming postfix). Jiajeki 'tl,- mi, ,,!,.'>• -it is 
raining much 1 (fyajeki 'much'; 'i 'it': kw4VJ 'ram'; '"'" proj 
sive, present). HPwQkuftyj 'good rain' (hi'wQ 'goodness 1 

i': ///•.////■ 'rain'). NiikwQgwigs 'the rain i- standing', said 

when rain i- seen in the distance (n$ 'it'; /■"■,!,,, 'rain': ■<■/' ■ 'to 
Stand'). .Yii/.-ir.iiji i-n/'s, 'the rain -land- yellow', -aid u Ihmi rain i- 

seeu in the distance and look- yellowish [n4 'it'; 'rain'; wiyy 

l to -land'; i • 'yellowness' 'yellow'). .YiLr.i,, /.•»*' 'the rain is 

coming' (ti4 'it'; hwi"0f 'rain'; '■'"' 't >'). puwagi 'il.inn,'. 

' -"on it will rain' ( fuwagi 'soon'; 'i 'it'; /. <>■ i ,, , • rain '; /• mq future). 
</><• 'rainwater' ' rain ' (/"-/v /' rain '; fw'water'). 2 

i Bandolier, Final Report, pi 

.. /'ur. 



58 ETHXOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [ETH. ANN. 29 

(or lini in pti' in-,) n&pojpi 'springs come up in the rain' (kioiyj 
'rain'; kwq,mpo 'rain' 'rainwater' <hv<hjf 'rain', po 'water'; Hioe 
locative; no 'it'; pn 'water'; pi 'to issue'). 

A cloudburst is called kwimposo'oyy 'bigrain' {l;m\iapo 'rain' 'rain 
water' < kiri'njf 'rain, 5 po 'water'; sdqyf 'big'). 

Rainp,< iw 

Kii;)iitiiitb, 'rainbow' (lii'qi)f 'rain'; tejjf 'long cylindrical thing 
or tube'; it referring to round or wheel-like shape; wagon wheel is 
called triiib,). The divinity of the rainbow is Kw^nt^mbes^n4o ' Rain- 
bow Old Man' (s£n4o "old man'). A rainbow on top of another is 
called l-irqnUjiili, kwageHyy 'rainbow on top' (Jcwage 'on top'; ''iijf 
locative and adjective-forming postfix.) Bandelier 1 says: "The win- 
ter rainbow [of Tewa symbolism] is white, the summer rainbow 
tricolored." 

Hail 

Si(ki!'inb<''' 'hail' (of obscure etymology; be c seems to mean 'small 
and round'). , l8akq,mbdo >0 'it is hailing' ('/'it'; V° progressive). 

Snow 

l''V)f "snow'. Jji'qitdo' 'it is snowing' ('* 'it'; p'oyf 'snow'; 
'(/'"progressive). Snowball is called p 'o/„bn' u or p'ombe'e according 
to its size (j>'qij.f 'snow'; ou'k, 'large and round'; be'e 'small and 
round'). For 'snowy' the adjective is formed: hu j''q'n<li' ! ' 'snowy 
stone' (hu 'stone'; p'qijf 'snow'; "/'' locative and adjective-form- 
ing postfix). 

HAIL-LIKE FLAKES OF SNOW 

I'' I'n /bewe'e 'small round snow' (p'oijf 'snow'; bewe 'small and 
round'; 'e diminutive) is the name given to small flakes of snow, hard 
like hail, which come down while it is snowing. 

KAINY SNOW 

hinnnji' qijf 'rain snow' (Itrqyf 'rain': p'qTjy 'snow'). Said of 
snow mixed with rain. 

LITTLE HOLES IN THE SNOW 

Little holes seen in the crust of fallen snow are called p x qmp'o , e 
{p'qyf 'snow'; p'o 'hole'; V diminutive). 

1 Final Report, pt. i, p. 311, lS'JO. 



HABBlNOTOtf] Ml IEOROLOGY 59 

WlM. 

ITT./ "wind - . 'Iini',' n -it Is blowing 3 "it i- windy' ("•'■it'; ,'■■, -\sind'; 

rive). Z\ j44 a ' a 'it wants to blow' 'it looks like wind' (ra^ 

■it': >'-., 'wind'; </"*" 'to want'). Kegi Vm^o'' "it is blowing hard' 

'hard'). A. bnllroarer is called vx&ty, 'wind call' (w?<j •wind': ty 

'to call'). Wind i- produced by Wi&kwijo 'Wind < >M Woman (w4 

'wind'; Tevoijo ""'Id woman'), who lives on Sandia Mountain [29:83J. 

Dtrsa wi\n 

X'i'-j"' • dust-wind' (of obscure etymology). , Inq"iji , o'° 'it is duet- 
windy' 'there is a dust storm 3 ( 3 ' 'it': ' '■ present). NqfijiFk'y, 'a 
dark dust-cloud' I / !*, as above; k'y 'darkness' 'dark'). 

\\ iiii:i.wi\i> 

\ 'garni 'there is a whirlwind' (n4 'it'; gomi unexplained). Ban- 
delier ' Bpeaks of the whirlwind in Tewa symbolism. 

Lightning 

T8tgww$ny,yy 'lightning'. , It#iguw%ny,n4e'< 'lightning flashes' C* 
'it"; tsiguw&ny,yj> 'lightning'; <!■'> present). At the point of each 
lightning bolt there is supposed to be a tsiguwsgnymtePi 'lightning v 

point ' i tsiguwQ ny/i) ? lightning 3 ; t#Fi ' flaking stone' ' piece of llintor 
obsidian' 'arrow point '). The light accompany ing a lightning flash is ' 
called tsik'a i)j> 'meal of the point' (tsi'i as above; /'.< py 'meal flour'). 
Lightning is produced l>\ 'ok'u/wa, who throw it from the clouds. 
Flaking stone, wherever found, is supposed to be the result of light- 
ning striking the earth. An 'ok'uwa, having hurled a tsigww^ ny,nt&i'i, 
picks it up again if it is not shattered. That is why no perfecl 
fsJQiunt iiiintxl' ! are ever found on the earth. 

The arrows of the War Gods were of lightning; these arrows they 
stole. 

Mr. C. L. Li 3 of the Weather Bureau at Santa Fe gh as the in- 
formation that lightning caused more than twenty deaths in New 
M i o in L911. Three years ago a prominent Indian of Namb6 was 
killed at the place called Jobuhu'ti [25:60], east of that pueblo. 

'I'm si'ii:. 'I'm NDBB8T0BH 

A'»r,_;/,; 'thunder'. ) Ikw$t4 , 6" > "it is thundering' ('<' 'it'; fooiW 
'thunder'; V progressive). Thunder is produced bj o ,■ 
'Thunder Old W 'i//«A; 'thunder'; hwijo 'old woman'). 

' Klnul I: 



60 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

There is no Tewa name for 'thunderstorm', although such storms 
are very frequent in summer. The Tewa speak merely of kwq,t4 
'thunder' and huafLyf "rain'. 

"Heat-lightning" 

J/ij !'■:,_ 'heat-lightning' 'light of dawn which resembles heat-light- 
ning' 'northern lights' 'brightness,' said of starlight (of obscure 
etymology). N4rny,w%tfa 'the heat-lightning leaps up' {mi 'it'; 
i,njir;r ' heat-lightning' ; tfa 'to leap'). ' Imy,w%4e'' 'it is light- 
ning with heat-lightning' (7 'it'; mmox as above; '-' present). 
\,i 11,11 n-:i/>,i'° -it is lightning with heat-lightning' (ltd 'it'; my/w% as 
above; /»>'" verbifying postpound). JSfy,w% appears in a number of 
personal names. 

Mirage 

Niifiofcowagi /nit" or nqpolcowagi ' ijntj'qijf 'it resembles water lying' 
(»ii 'it'; [hi 'water'; Ico 'to lie'; wag.% 'like'; w^ 'it'; to 'to resemble'; 

'uijf 'it'; tjqijf 'to appear to one"). 

Echo 
Nqtoto 'it echoes' (nd 'it'; toto 'to echo"). 



III. PERIODS OF TIME 

Ykak 

/'<;'■• 'year'; cf. pajog&ii 'summer'. .Y.r''"' '<i'"it.?nl;> t&tisi pajo 
"imiinn 'this girl is sixteen years old' (/*.r 'this'; V" locative and 
adjective-forming postfix; 'a'°7i •"/- 'girl'; /,•;.//*/• sixteen' '> 'ten', 
•'/ 'from', s*'six'; pajo 'year'; '*'she'; ruj 'she'; mm 'to have' 
'to be'). 

The year began at the time of the winter solstice. The time of new 
year was called pajo tsiml "' {pajo 'year'; fsquibi 'new'; ' i' : locative 
and adjective-forming postfix). 

N&iFpajo ' this year ' {nn 'this'; '*' locative and adjective-forming 
pn-ttix). //■ pqjo 'las! year" (A< 'last' in this sense). N&wi'a pajo 
,,r '■'"■. „-,",, pqjo -nrxt year' (/<;/■ 'this'; wi'a 'coming' 'other' 'dif- 
ferent'; '""•■ 'there'). Wije pqjo nip'a-iJi?* 'two years ago'(W/'< 
'two'; pajo ' year'; «4 'it'; /< '</•'- 'to pass'; "'" locative and adjecth e 
forming postfix). H '<'.'. pqjo '<'"■■ "in two years' 'two years from 
ii'iw'i -v. 'two'; pqjo 'year'; '///•- 'at', 'in' in this sense). 

Se \-< >hs 

TheTewa distinguish only two seasons summer and winter. The 
summer [pqjoge-ii, unexplained, but cf. pqjo 'year') begins in the 
spring and lasts until the fall, Including the months of April, May, 
June, July, August, and September. The winter {tJimti, unes 
plained) begins in the fall and la>t- until the spring, including the 
months of October, November, December, January, February, and 
March. TheTewa speak also of ta'infli 'the spring or planting time', 
ami /<'<;/'• ■'/ 'the harvest time', both of these words being obscure in 
derivation and not considered t<> denote true seasons. Unlike the 
Tewa, the Jemez appear to distinguish four seasons: iqd&ghx 'spring', 
pej 'summer', pdi ' autumn ', tool ' winter '. 

'this winter' [rm 'tlii-': '<" locative and adjective- 
forming postfix; t,'i,u.ii 'winter'). V&wi'a te'nrui 'nexl winter' 
I/,.-- 'this'; wi'a 'other'; timui 'winter'). //- tdnuM 'last winter' 
(/-- • la-t ": i.' ini.ii • w inter'). 

All the clans of the Tewa villages belong to either the Summer or 
the Winter phratry. The same clan, wherever it is found, always 
belongs to the Bame phratry. The Summer phratry <t division is 
called /'//'•.;/..'-"////."/•./ 'summer people' (pqjoQfiti 'summer'; 
locative and adjective-forming postfix; Iowa 'person 1 'people'), 



62 ETHNOOEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

Kn it /■:. ■fiiin) 'turquoise people' (Jcunfsg, 'turquoise'; towa 'person' •peo- 
ple'), or K'aje (of obscure etymology). The Winter phratry is called 
'/',',, a.'/" [/it, ,ini 'winter people' (te'mui 'winter 1 : "vjf locative and 
adjective-forming postfix; Iowa 'person' 'people'); Potowa 'squash 
people' (po 'squash' 'pumpkin' 'gourd' 'calabash'; towa 'person' 
'people'), or Kir;i.ii (of ol iseure etymology). The Summer people are 
presided over by the .Summer cacique, pd'ig.tysnjo 'ceremony-presiding 
chief (/'"'.'; 'to preside at a ceremony', said of either Summer or Win- 
ter cacique); tymjo 'chief, who is in charge of the summer ceremo- 
nies. The Winter people and ceremonies are in charge of theWinter 
cacique \,jiLetuiij<> 'hard ice chief ('oji 'ice'; h 'hardness' 'hard'; 
tuiijn 'chief'). Bandelier 1 writes: "The [Tewa] altar (Cen-te) used in 
the estufas is green for the summer months, yellow after the autum- 
nal equinox." So far as the present writer has learned, the Tewa do 
not recognize equinoxes, hut only solstices. 

Distinct personal names were considered appropriate for children 
according- to the season in which they were born — summer or winter. 

Months 

The Tewa year contained twelve not thirteen months. In this it 
agreed with the Zuni year according to Cashing (see the accompany- 
ing table). The months are said to have begun at the time of the new 
moon, but this subject needs further investigation. They are divided 
into summer and winter months (see under Seasons). Month is 
called fio 'moon'. The term /V<_/"/" i< applied only to the divinity 
resident in the moon (see under Sex and Moon). 

The months were known by descriptive names, which are passing 
out of use. These names differed considerahly according to the 
speaker and the village. The accompanying table gives month-names 
obtained from Indians of four Tewa villages; also Jernez and Zuni 
month-names, the latter from dishing- It will be noticed that the 
old designations of some mouths have been supplanted partially or 
wholly by names of saints, whose festivals play an important role in 
present-day Tewa life. December is invariably named from ny,p'a 
'Christmas.' ami the old name could not be discovered. 



i Final Report, pt. i, p. 311, 1890. 

aZufii Breadstuff, Th< MilUlone, p. 5S, April, 1SS4. 



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ETHNOGEOGBAFHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth.ann.29 





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ETHNOGEOGRAPHV OF THE TEWA INDIANS [hth. ANN. 29 



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HABB1N0 PERIODS OF l I Mi: 67 

'I'm: Cheistiah W'i i k 

./.,'./■' 'time between' Sundays, 'week'. Pemiygii 'Sunday' is fre- 
quently used to render 'week'. Spanish seinana •week' is rarely used 
in Tewa. 

/' iygii 'Sunday' (• Span, domingo). /-"/"' 'Monday' I 
lunes). Ma-iti 'Tuesday' I Span, mar tes). Mi&iholi 'Wednesday' 
i Span, miercoles). Qwebi 'Thursday' (• Span, jueves). />'<.'/<>' 
'Friday' (<Span. viernes). S.itnid'u -Saturday' ( Span, sabado). 
No expressions meaning 'firsl day', 'second day', etc., are in use. 

Dat, Night, Totes of Dai wi> Night 

Ta -day"; cf. t'aijf 'sun'. T.i.i't 'day' (tf'a'day": xi ablative, 
locative). T'a refers to the period beginning when it becomes 
light in tin- morning and ending when it gets dark in the evening. 

For a day of twenty-four hours then' is no expression current in 

Tewa. 

\.if' l i'.i,'.i l '/„;rij f "the days are getting shorter' («4 'it'; t'a 'day'; 

••■ut short'; m&gj' 'togo')- Tf&ta ,a n&t'an4 'the days ar6 short' 

'short'; i<<<_ •it": /'./-day'; n4 'to be'). Wbt'asoms&yj "the 

days are getting longer' (n4 'it'; t'a 'day'; go'large'; mspgj 'togo'). 

//.//.!// , ■'-/ //..//' 'an ■/ 'the days are long' (hek&nfu 'long'; «4 'it'; t'a 

•day ': /,■; ' to be'). 

.Xiil'ijm.i 'it is dark' (/-•.; 'it': / ' >j ij r 'dark': n4 'to be'). N$kvpowa?%?* 
'the light is going to come' (n4 'it': hi 'light'; powa 'to arrive": V* 
'tocome'). \ ! ' p'* '"■'" 'the lie-lit is already coming' 'il is beginning 
to get light' i «4 'it'; '• 'light' 'clear light'; V* 'tocome'; /'/'"-already'). 
Nfyt'eni 'it is light' "it is clear' (7i<j 'it'; t\ 'light' 'clear light'; n4 'to 
be'). 'it is light' (n& 'it'; hi 'light'; po , ° 'to make'). N$hin4 

•it is light' (n4 'it'; hi 'light'; n4 'to be'). Wa'uUi 'the time of the 
earl] morning wheo already light but not yet dawn or Bun-up' (of 
obscure etymology). N4t'amu?%?* 'the dawn is coming 5 (n$ 'it': t'amu 
'dawn'; ' •'' 'tocome'). N&t'amuM 'it isdawn' (ru} 'it'; t'amu •dawn": 
■ . be'). Mmoset't 'the light of dawn' (muwq "heat lightning 1 ; >'■ 
'light'), .y.nn'nr:,/', /.,,'■■ "the ilawn i- shining 1 (nd 'it': muw$t\ as 
above; po , ° to make'). NfflqmpPsi?* 'the sun is about to come up 3 («<J 
•it': ■'■;,), •••um': pi 'to issue'; V 'to come'). NQt'ampi 'the sun 

comes up' (/«/ 'it'; /'<_><// -sun': pi 'to issue 3 'to com it'). /"<//*/'. 

'sunshine' 'sunlight' (t'QVJ 'sun'; ''• 'light'). .V/. ''./,,/'. 'the sun i- 
shining 1 I < "it': fgj./ 'sun'; t\ 'to shine'). //• '<_»■/>■''" "early morning 1 
morning'; &o'° progressive). //.■'<,,./; 'morning' 'forenoon' 
i/,../i, y /- 'morning 1 'forenoon', absolute form never used; ■*! abl I 
locative). //../-/,//<;.'/ 'morning straight up time 1 'time about nine 
or ten o'clock in the morning 1 (/>■■".'// 'morning'; tag.eJiaa below; cf. 
t'Sitaa 



68 ETHNOGEOGEAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

7',/ij, 'straight up', referring to the sun, ' noon' (cf. taj< 'straighl '. 
mil crooked or bent). TageJ-i 'noon' (tage as above; M ablative, loea- 
tive). T'qn tag&ii nqnq 'the sun is at noon' {t'qyf 'sun'; tngeM 
'noon"; nq 'it'; nq 'to be'). IFfitagepo' 'it makes straight up' 'it is 
noon 1 (nq 'it'; tage as above; _/>t>'° 'to make'), fuwagi nqtagepd' 
'noon conies very soon' (fuwagi 'soon'; n&tag.epd' as above). 
\i)hiij,.iip',i,h 'noon is passed' (n<$ 'it'; tageM 'noon'; p"aJ>e 'to 
pass'). 'I'lii^jiji'ii. /,.// 'afternoon' {tag&ti 'noon'; p'cue 'to pass'; ,'i 
ablative, locative). T' e^ t tag&ti 'evening straight up time' 'time 
about two or three o'clock in the afternoon' {Cii 'evening'; tageM as 
above). Ti'i.ii 'evening' (t'e J i 'evening', absolute form never used; 
Jii ablative, locative). Nugepije nqt 'qui mirijf 'the sun is declining' 
(nuqfi 'down' 'below' <nn x u 'below', ge locative; pije 'toward'; nq 
'it 1 ; fqi)f 'sun'; nurijj' 'to go'). NfjJciyf 'it is twilight' (n4 'it'; 
//;/./' 'to be twilight'). Kind' 'twilight' (liuf 'to be twilight'; .'/' 
ablative, locative). Nql- ' umpo' 'it gets dark' (nq "it"; /,' ui/.f 'dark'; 
po ,a 'to make'). Nq,Jc'y,r)f 'it is dark' 'it is night' (nq 'if; k'y,rjf 
'to be dark'). Xqk'nnnq 'it is dark' (ml 'it'; Vuy.f 'dark'; nq 'to 
be'). I\"ij-ii 'night', especially used meaning 'last night' (^'-ji, con- 
nected with k'uijj' 'to be dark'; ■'! ablative, locative). K'^J-iii 
'night' (k'yrli as above; ■'/ ablative, locative). 

Xir/'ii 'to-day' (n% 'this'; /',/ May"). K'u.'i 'last, night', see 
above. Txqndi I/u-'i 'last night' {Isq'ndi 'yesterday'; Jc'yji as 
above). Ts^n^i 'yesterday' {tsfayj 1 , cf. ts^mpije 'west' and nq'otsqnnq 
'it is a little cloudy'; m ablative, locative). Ts4mp%?/g.( 'day before 
yesterday' (Isqijf, as above; p:n/<j,> 'beyond'). T'a'ndi 'to-morrow' 
(I'm) j' 'sun'; .'i ablative, locative). T'dndilh-Kjidi "to-morrow 
morning' (fiuidi 'to-morrow'; ln'inidi 'morning'). T'ltinpxyge 
'day after to-morrow' (t'ayf, as above; pxyge 'beyond'). 

Houns, Minutes, Seconds 

"'/'-> 'hour' (<Span. hora). Minulti 'minute' (<Span. minuto). 
^.iji/mjii 'second' (<Span. segundo). Wets&iijonu '"■'<i wi "day" 
'twenty-four hours make a "day"' (wetsedijonu 'twenty-four'; '<>■'■' 
'hour'; wi 'one'). St gui1;<S* minutv, wi 'h'i'i 'sixty minutes make an 
hour' (siij_ int;r'% 'sixty'; miniiiii 'minute'; wi 'one'; 'o^h 'hour'). 
Segintg?* segun^U wi minnfii 'sixty seconds make a minute' (segint%?% 
'sixty'; segun^u 'second'; wt'one'; mvrmtio 'minute'). 

Clock or watch is called tarda ^\\\\ measure' d'qiif 'sun'; fa 
'measure'), or t'qrnpy,r}w% 'sun for looking at' ifiq/Qf 'sun'; py/qweg 
'to look at"), (jiiuiii.ii ' iimbi /'ijm/iijijir;r. 'look at your watch!' (gse 
'you I' imperative; mu-ii 'to look'; '^m&i'your'; fgmpy,7/w% 'watch'). 

'//;,.'/ 'o'clock' (said to mean something like 'long being' — cf. henj'i 
' long ' — ui ablative, locative; the'/ is unexplained). Tst "<h -■'/' V.r'* 
'you will comeat seven o'clock' (tse 'seven'; "'iheJ-i, as above; '(/'you'; 
'as'* 'to come'). 



BAXBDTOTON] PERIODS OF TIME 69 

//./,//'/ "ihijitiii ,,<),,<) 'what time is it'? (h%nfu 'how much'; 

"iln.hnjf, cf. '//,,.// above; n<2 "it";/".' 'to he'). /■» '///-.// •ten o'clock' 

(/./** "ti'u"; '/A..'/ "o'clock'). Hadi.ii >:r'i/i,-ii or ///</.// t:r?ihe*i 'about ten 

o'clock' (h<uiti, aM 'about'), e/bwu ./<>/-./ pyggeheJti 'half past lour 

•four": .'"/"( 'and'; piygeh&ti 'half- pigg< 'in the middle', /..//. 

cf. "''//..'<, above). /.■;'* m niut'ti nqt- /:/_■' I '//•//'" ' "'' 'ten minulr.- lit' fore 

twelve' i'.;"'' 'ten'; minvAiit 'minute'; n4 'it'; fe 'to be lacking 5 ; /.•;■'<' 
'twelve'; '<"■■ locative). Wi '»■'<) /«_/As 'one hour remains' (wi 'one'; 
'odd "hour": n4 'it'; ("e; 'to be lacking'). 

Ki.-i i\ \i. 

[■nijl ',",./', 'festival' 'fiesta' (of obscure etymology) or hi 'festival' 
'fiesta '(related t<> hitfa 'to tie glad'). 

Pais, ( Iabntc \i. 

r'.j,,i Span, feria. KcumibaiJ,) Span, carnival. Fairs or carni- 
vals are held al Santa Fe and Albuquerque. 

I imi; in I'l ai.i i. 

ETaHtovwagi lowd, tah4n4i' i 'dying of a great many people' {hdtiwi- 

loagi 'very many'-. haUvwi 'very many', voagi 'like'; hnod\ '\ pie'; 

t'il"ii)f 'to die of the plague'; '>"■ locative and adjective-forming 
postfix). 



IV. GEOGRAPHICAL TEEMS 

Note. — The alphabetic order is a a a as as q b b ft d 4 e ifpg q g hi 

{ j I- I, w I /.■' I 1 m n nf ij ijw i]f o q p p p q qyo r J, s f tt t' ts tj ' ts tf 
u -ii \t v w. The glottal stop (') is ignored in the alphabetic sequence. 

'A'n 'steep slope'. Of. ta'a 'gentle slope". 

'Alqiubu' a " plain wholly or partly surrounded by higher land ' 'corner 
of a plain' ('al-qijf+bu'u). 

, Akqmpiji •south,'' literally 'direction of the plains' ('akqyf+pije). 

Wl.qmjiij, Hnte't 'south estufa' (^akqmpijt ' south '+fe'<?). Synonyms: 
pqjogeu,i'iniowabih '< . %y,n /';>_ t,\\ and I'ajite'e. 

\U:i>iiijii/,"ujqn-ii}':i_i)'Ji 'locality beyond (south of) the south house- 
row of a pueblo' (aJi-qiitjii/i ' south '+Y ; +/V; ij'ji). See diagram 1, 
p. 305. 

\[l,qiii/>ij, r lijqinasy, 'south houserow of a pueblo' (^ahqmpije 'south'+ 

T' + qiru.sij). 

\[l,i>injiij, i>;r/n]/"' 'south part of a pueblo' ^akqmpije+psendP'). 

Wliimliir, -at the plain' ^dkqyj'+'iwe). 

"'Ahqnnu 'plain' Cakqyj'+nu). ' Ai,<>>ui:<: {'<iko>) f+na) is never used. 

The various postfixes ran be added to 'akqnnu as to 'akqyy with- 
out difference of meaning. But 'little valley' is rendered "'cikqqf'e, 

not \il-ojnufe. 
'A/rm/ij, . 'akqnnugfi 'down at the plains' ^al'qijf, 'akcmnu+ge). 
' A I '■<> ijf 'plain'. 
~* A~kqyfhenf\ijf 'long plain' ' long valley or glen with flat bottom' 

'long mesa-top' {"nl'Qijf+henfijjf 'length' 'long', mineral 

gender). 
^Al-ojjj-Im' a 'arroyo with a flat, plain-like bottom' ( , akqyj'+hu , u). 
' A a i'' a 'foot of a slope' 'below a slope' ( , a , a+nu , u). 
'ApinniUi ' middle of a slope' 'half way up or down a slope' ('«'«+ 

pinnii.'i). 
' Airiiji'ubii'ii. 'iiiniji'iibt'i, '.in-lip' ibi/'u. 'mniji ibe'e 'low place in which 

cattails grow' ('awap'a, 'awap'i species of cattail + bu'u, bA, ). 
\F. po 'race track' ('a 'to run'+po 'trail' 'track' 'road'). 
'AM 'V -shape'. 
' Aij'.h 'foot of 'base of (^luf 'foot'+j/e). This is often combined 

with other words, as: ftygdagfi 'down the slope to the base of 

the slope'. 

gi 'on the head'. 
'Anj:rtj ii-", ('<//' / •' gi+Ku) a conical rock bearing on its apex a rock 

rap. thought by the Indians to resemble a person carrying a 

burden on the head. (See pis. 7, S.) 
70 



habrin. GEOGRAPHICAL TEEMS 71 

Ba'a 'woman's belt'. It is also used figuratively of a bell or strip of 
country. A man's belt is called 8$mba'a (*<//./ 'man'+Jo'a). 
lord' (<Span. vado 'ford'). 
/.' • pottery' 'vessel'. 

Bfe (1) 'small, low roundish place' • dell ' " <l:ili- ' 'small valley' 'small 
corner' of a space, as of a room. (2) 'of roundish hall-like shape 
; ball' 'clod 5 " mound'. 
B.nnd'it- 'watchhouse for watching a melon Held' (benv4i 'musk- 
melon' + te). 

it,; 'potsherd' (6< ' pottery '+pu 'base , +k'aie 'tobreak'). 
7>'..w/ 'chimney* "liivplaee connected with a chimney 3 (apparently />■'' 

(1) or /' -'■ (-)--" 'arrovi '). 
II, siiji'u 'hole or opening of a chimney' (be#u+p t o). 
B^rjf 'little hen,!'. 
Bzrjfhu' a 'arroyo the course of which bends at short inters als' 

//'.-' i. 
/■'<'■ ■ small and roundish'. 
Jiigt 'sharp bend' (/"'- + </• I. 

small roundish pile, grove, clump, hill or mound'. 
/-'■./'<) • mouth of a canyon' ( <Span. boca 'mouth' ' mouth of a canyon '). 
Bcui "large roundish pile, grove, clump, bill or mound', 
dry dell' (frw'ii 1 1 \+ia 'dryness' 'dry '). 
large roundish low place "dell" dale" valley* ' bottom' in the 
sense of 'low dell') ' large corner of a space' 'courtyard' 'plaza' 

'placita' ■settlement surrounding a plaza' "settle nt " 'town' 

'city'. (2) 'of large roundish hall-like simp, ■' 'large ball' 'large 
mound'. Sec diagram l . p. 305. 
Buwah "oven" (buwa 'bread' + te). 

•largo lieinl' •large turn of a waterway'. 

'.' ' arroyo the course of which makes large turn- at intervals' 
fun/ , + !"/' in. 
!_>,/,',, 'coyote's den' ('/• 'coyote' I p l o). 

I >• ■ small p"inl ' ' small conical point '. 
/' ■ ■ large point ' • large conical point '. 

' I: ''offspring ' "chiM". a <- the diminutive postpound. The 

t in the singular is falling, in the 2 i plural it is rising-falling. 

When meaning 'offspring' 'child' two plural form- are in use: \ 
and 

' Ekwdh 'scl I' (<8pan. escuela 'school'). 

' EkweUdeqvm 'schoolhouae' Cikir.ru vteqyoa). 
i.i.i 'threshing floor 5 l Span, era 'threshing Boo 

'/'.'/<//''•'•/ "pM-t office 5 I Span, estafeta 'post offio 

'railwaj Btation' I Span, estacion ' railway station'). 

, Etup'h '-in; • ' Span, estufa ' 



', ' KTIINOOEOOBAPHY 0] THE ll. WA INDIANS [bth 

(,. ii rJown at' 'to' 'down to', locative postfix denoting re I 01 
motion nl or motion toward on< oi mor< plac< i below the level 

of III- \,< ..l ' I . 

mder' 'there yonder,' demon trative eleroenl denoting 
location nol very farfrom the peaker. Cf. n% (1) and 'o. It i 
much used before po tfi i oi locative meaning, e.g. higJcwaj& 'up 
d< i '.ii top '/-' / ""/• I I' i il o u ed a a noun pn fi 

e.g. />, /,■/,,,! '/'//■'■ 'al Mini h0U " '/<■• /-./■"' <«., .1 '. B ■ '>> 

adjeel •/.<-' /y "'-<<.- ;ii (IkiI Ii' in ■ '/, ( , ' /, y,/,/ 
//.'/. down then yonder,' denoting location nof very far from the 
peal i i and lower than the peaker (hit 

lei denoting location nol verj far from the pi .'I i i 
?iie\2'\). 
//'..■ tin • ■ ondi ' . denoting location nol vi rj far from the peal er 

and al about level of or higher than the pcakei I h < 

II, ,i , r ii. ,/,,, • inn. i i',ii' in closel '/'./"/• omething' 'thing' 

pili " •■ ' to bo pul away ' 
1 1 , ,, iijv lit ,, on " '' 'innei toreroom 'closel < I,:, ., , ■ omething' 

'thing I (j a , I. won >> 'to be hung up' i ,{ ). 
II, I/,/. ' beside' 'at one side of ' and not contiguou (hfyTjf ' '.!• >■ 
lln i/i/irii.i, /..liii/i./i/y,!,,!. mouth of a lakeora body of water' (hfiyj' 

'ri pi ration ' ' piril i <jw(Me; f>ohw\). WfyqwoJ* i al o applied 

to the break in the "life lin< a line which nearly encircle the 
'Mm certain de ign of pottei painting 
Hi ,1 1 in /"///'/- 

//. . in. ill •■ i oo i arroyito' ' gulch '. 
//, i .■ i'l. gap 
//,(// 'gulchlike,' ' groo i 
II, i',/, i'l, 'length vi e (fieji un< plained i pije). 
1 1, .ii in j„i ,n j. place down where the sun shines in the morning' (heJ-VQJ' 

rnorni pri'age), 

I Ii a in jhCii.i I 'place where the sun him in the morning' (JieJ^nf 

1 morning i /m' ,i.i i \. 
II, a ■ill, :, a 1 1/;/, idc or place where there is shade in the morning 

| In a 1/ r l morning ' i /.,>/, [ij(jt ), 
II, i, i/l,:t n it ntji >. l place where there i shade in the morning' (hattyy 

■ morning ' i kipny i im i ;/• ). 
//. ',///,, ,/./, 'place whore there i ihade in the morning' (l,,ni!i i 

//./,. ;/. i 

Hin,;, eg. neel' of :i peninsula' (h i/nft& 'smallness' 'small' I segi 

h ndernoss' ' slender' i V* ). 
///'/ 'near,' locative prefix and adverb (hi unexplained i ■'/). 
Ilutj, 'largo groove' 'arroyo' (hu'u i ge). 

Ilinj./,,, 'arroyo water' 'water from an arroyo' (hv?u I </■ I Po 
' water'). 



HABBMOXOH] GEO< '.HAI'I I H A I . TKK.MS 73 

L delta of an arroyo' 'place down where an arroyo cuts 
through 3 [hii-u + </"•"£■ ). 

Htdahu'u 'dry arroyo' (hu'v + ta 'dryness 3 'dry 3 t hv?u). 

II ' • large groove 3 'arroyo 3 ' Canada'. 

'Jt>' locative postfix meaning 'in 3 'into', referring to rest or motion 
in or motion into hollow object(s); V' ■ fr< unexplained). 'II is 
also used as a noun meaning 'room of a building'. 'In' contigu- 
ous gas, liquid or solid is expressed i>\ 'iwe. 

' lh.f[ii'j. 'in the middle 3 C>'t>- • piyge)- 

'/"' is primarily a Locative postfix meaning 'at', referring to place at 
about the same Lei el a- or above the speaker. It is also postfixed 
to adjective stems to denote gender and number. ' /"' never means 
•in.' I(- forms may be tabulated as follows: 

Sing. Dual 8 + I'lurul 

Mineral gender '>"' 'vjf '<"' 

\ egetal gender ^V)f 

Animal gender V" "vif 'ivy' 

When postfixed to words ending in o, <>. u or <y. wi ,{ , w\r) i maj be 
used Instead of '<" . ">jif. '/"' appears as ; i partof many other 

postfixes, as ">h. ('/"' + t,,). J'.*,,!/,"' (/>,■/ //,• + '/"'). '/'' and its 

compounds denote place either near or remote. This ran be 
observed by comparing 'ip&ji (V • pye) 'to this place 3 'tothal 
plan-' uitli nstpijt </>'_ ■ /"" i 'to this place', h%pijt 'to yonder 

place', 'opijt 'to that remote place'. Theformsi le- 

timea elided with the preceding syllable; thus 'Okeyy 'San Juan 
people 3 f<>r '<>!■'{ 7 / {'<>!:■ 'San Juan Pueblo'). 

'A', locative postfix meaning 'at', referring to two or more places of 
about the same level as or above the speaker ('i 3 ■ )■ unexplained). 
At two or more places 'in 3 contiguous ^-- liquid '"' solid, is also 
expressed by '</< . < 'f. 'iwt ■ 

*//'■/"'/• 'to 1 'toward', referring to two or more places of al 1 the 

same Lei el as or above the speaker ('y< • pijt I. 

'//'-■'/■from' 'out of, referring to two or more places of about the 
same level as or above the speaker ''•'.'• ■ ■'<'). 

'//<" ' in ' 'within', referring to motion which take- place entirely within 
an object, as in the sente ■ 'eagles soar in the Bky 3 

' /"■, locative postfix meaning' at', referring ii • place but to one or 

more objects of about the same level as or above the speaker 
i 1 'In' contiguous gas, liquid or solid is also expi 

by 'iwe. Cf. 'tie. I "• is also used as '£bi is used, especiall] if 
the whole of an obji I a person's band 'in' a 

box. 

'In-, pi], 'to 3 'toward', referring to one place but to one or more ob- 
jects of about the same level ae or above the speaker f 



72 KTIINOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

£?< 'at' 'down at' 'to' 'down to', locative postfix denoting rest or 

motion at or motion toward one or more places below the level 

of the speaker. 
Use, ' that yonder ' ' there yonder,' demonstrative element denoting 

location not very far from the speaker. Cf. n% (1) and , o. It is 

much used before postfixes of locative meaning, e.g. h%kwage l wp 

yonder on top' (As^+kwaje). It is also used as a noun prefix, 

e.g. hsgteqwaHwe 'at that house' (h% + teqwa+ , iwe) ; also as an 

adjective hs^i H teqwoSiwt "at that house' (Ags + , i H +teqwa+ , iwe). 
H%ge "down there yonder,' denoting location not very far from the 

speaker and lower than the speaker (lur + ge). 
ll.rn-.r 'there yonder,' denoting location not very far from the speaker 

(h:r + n:r ['_']). 
list ,r, 'there yonder." denoting location not very far from the speaker 

and at about level of or higher than the speaker {hx + w< ). 
ILririjiiL-tn? ,"• •inner storeroom" 'closet' (hsRwi 'something' 'thing' 

+ jahwo 'to be put away' +"/"')• 
]/;riri,jii-il,ir,ihii' '/"' 'inner storeroom ' 'closet' Qicgnjoi 'something' 

'tiling' + qwikwonu 'to be hung up' + '/"'). 
HQ,7jge ' beside ' 'at one side of and not contiguous {Jiqijf- + ge). 
Ili'iijijir,,./, . fyohu}\h4r)qwoJ.e 'mouth of a lakeora body of water' (h4vf 

'respiration' 'spirit' + qwoJn : pohwi). H&yqwMt is also applied 

to the break in the "life-line"", a line which nearly encircles the 

vessel in certain designs of pottery painting. 
J I'm j' in h'li/'j'. 

Hde ' small groove ' 'arroyito' •gulch'. 
He^e 'wide gap'. 
Segi 'gulchlike,' 'groove'. 
Hejipijt 'lengthwise' (heji unexplained + j'ije). 
Jlt.nji, jxi'inji • place down where the sun shines in the morning' (/k.ici/ /> 

'morning' + pcfagj. ). 
IL.Kmpii'it.ii -place where the sun shines in the morning' (Ii,.n_ijf 

'morning' + pa'cui). 
11,-k i)],:,_ n'iji<j, 'side or place where there is shade in the morning' 

(iKj'tJlf 'morning' +fc(iJS + 'ij/'J')- 
Heu>eyk%nmig<e 'place where there is shade in the morning' {h&Jcjjf 

'morning 1 + Ixijf + nu + ge). 
//..nj//,;ri/'j, 'place where there is shade in the morning' {JieJ^of + 

ic^vf + a< >■ 

Ilin p%seQ.i H 'neck of a peninsula' (hinfif 'smallness' 'small' + segi 

' slenderness ' 'slender' + '/'■')• 
///// 'near,' locative prefix and adverb {hi unexplained + .it). 
Huge 'large groove' 'arroyo' {luCu + ge). 
llugepo 'arroyo water' 'water from an arroyo' (hv?u + g< + fo 

'water'). 



HARRINGTON] GEOGBAPI IK A I . TERMS 73 

Of 'delta of an arroyo' 'place down where an arroyo cuts 
through 3 {lni'ii + qwog.e). 

//,/},//)>/'" 'dry arroyo 5 (Att'« + la 'dryness 3 •dry' + hu'u). 

//■'■. 'large groove 3 'arroyo 3 'canada'. 

' It,- locative postfix meaning 'in 3 'into', referring to rest or motion 
in or motion into hollow object(s); '/"' i B>< unexplained). '/(*<■ is 
also used as a noun meaning 'room of a building 3 . 'In' contigu- 
ous gas, liquid or solid is expressed by 'in;. 
■ i. • in the middle 3 ('*6< : pi\ 'j I. 

*/'■ is primarily a locative postfix meaning 'at', referring to place at 
about the same level as or above the speaker. It is also po>tlixed 
to adjecth e Btema to denote gender and number. V' never means 
•in." It- forms ma\ be tabulated as follows: 

Sing. Dual 3 

.Mineral gender \"Qf 

\ egetal gender 'iyy "uif ">"' 

Animal gender , i H 'vjf 

When postfixed to words ending in 0, q, u or '_/. wi ,{ , wiy 1 may be 
used instead of "<"'. 'vof. '/"' appears as a part of many other 

postfixes, as 'it,. !',"< + ?/ 1. 1 }>:i //,• + '/"'). '/"' and its 

compounds denote place either near or remote. This can be 
observed by comparing 'i^ ,■'/<) 'to this place 3 "to that 

place" with ir.i /,',)• (n% -/"'/'■ I 'to this place", li;i/n'j, Mo yonder 

place', 'opiji 'tothai remote place'. The forms in 'itfj are some- 
times elided with the preceding syllable; thus '"/<v./ 'San Juan 

people 3 for '<>L,'iji j ['(>!., 'San Juan Pueblo'). 
'/!■ h»r aii\c postfix meaning 'at', referring to two or more places of 

about the same level as or above the speaker (V /"■ unexplained). 

At two or re places 'in' contiguous gas, liquid or solid, is also 

expressed by '>[/■ . < 'f. 'vuh . 
'(/■/"'.'■ "'" "toward", referring to two or more places of al t the 

same level as or above the speaker <"'"■'■ 1 pipe). 
'//'..'/■from' -.nit of, referring to two or more places of about the 

same le\ el as or above the speaker ( V/> 1 •''>. 
' I mi • in ' •within', referring to motion which takes place entire!} within 

an object, as in the sentence 'eagles -oar in the sky 3 (>"' 1 /<">. 
"/./■- locative po-tii\ meaning 'at 3 , referring to one place but t or 

more object- of aboul the same level as or above the speaker 
• In' contig 1- gas, liquid or solid i- also expressed 

bj "/".. Cf. </•• /"■• is also used as 'tS< is used, especially if 

the whole of an object is not inside, e. g. of a person's hand 'in 3 a 

box. 
'Jioepijt 'to 3 'toward', referring to one place but to one..! more ob 

jects of ab or aboA e 1 he speaker <' 



74 ETIIXOGEOGRAPH\" OF THE TEWA INDIANS [ETH. ANN. 29 

'/"..//''from' 'out of , referring to one place but to one or more objects 
of about the same level as or above the speaker ('-hoe + m). 

'Innsg "side' 'at side' (?iyf (2) + nse). 

'Irm&ti 'side' 'at side' i^iuf (2) +n% + .it). Cf. 'i?in8e. 

^lyge 'side' below speaker, 'down at side' ('lyy (2) + ge). 

'hj'je.ii 'side' below speaker, -down at side' ('{yy (2) + ge + di). Cf. 'ivffe. 

''IVf (1) a form of '/"', q. v. (2) appearing in several words meaning 
'side'. 

Ja 'in the middle', appearing in various compounds. 

Jage 'amid' 'in the middle of (ja + ge). 

■/",', in pojcUi 'island' (apparently ja + J-e unexplained). 

JaJ>i 'between' 'among, 5 referring to a position between or among 
two or more places or objects (ja + .it). 

Jawe 'outside' - out doors' (ja, probably akin to ja 'to put away' 'to 
put out of the way' + wt ). 

JgnisPi •willow-grown canyon' (jqij.f 'willow' + 1si'!). 

Jqiyjr 'amid' ' in the midst of (j<!ijf-+g<). Used, for instance, in the 
sentence Towaj&ygt 'oji H 'lam moving about in the midst of a 
crowd of people' (iowa, 'people'; 'o i V-.ji' i 'to move about'). 

Jinj'ji 'middle location' 'middle' 'medial' {jqyf+ gi, postfix appear- 
ing in many adjectives). 

J'iij'J'j' "W- ■f'iiJ'J'J' ' '<J' 'flat terrace part way up between base and top 
of mesa', as, e. g., 'bench at top of talus slope' (jqij'ji 'middle loca- 
tion' 'middle' 'medial' + p'agi "largeness and flatness' "large and 
flat^yVr// "smallness and flatness' 'small and flat'). 

Jt'iyf- 'amid' in the compounds jq/yqe and ji'iyqi. 

Jo augmentative postpound. It may be postpounded to certain words 
only, its usage being not as free or frequent as that of the dimin- 
utive 'i . 

Kiitxijul:' ' n' ,"' • ] last uro fenced in for grazing for horses ' (kaiajit < Span. 
caballo 'horse' + /,'a + '"'). 

Kaiajiite, habajiiteqwa "barn or stable for horses' (kabajit < Span, ca- 
ballo ' horse' + t, ; teqwa). 

Kan/eJ-a 'cafiada' 'glen' 'narrow mountain valley' (< Span. Canada, 
of same meaning). 

Aim ii.iii fio's/"/ ' canada with canyon-like walls with a stream flowing 
in it' (kanf&ta. + pn'si'/). 

Kapija 'chapel' (< Span, capilla' 'chapel'). 

KhiTipusantu 'graveyard' (< Span, campo santo 'graveyard'). 

1\'<_ mil'' • shady place' (I'xyf- + '"'). 

K:rn,iii 'shady place' (k&ijf- + mi). 

Kk ] if- 'shade,' in some compounds, as he-it rjlcseniyge). 

A U 'old', said <>f things, not persons. Used only as a postpound. 

Ki, an element postfixed to many adjective stems. Its meaning is not 
clear. 

kit, 'prairie-dog holes' (lei "prairie-dog' + te). 



harrisotosi GEOGBAPHICAt TBBMS 75 

vu 'edge 1 (l,ijij : + inn unexplained). 
■ -'■' (A VDS- + ""•• 
;- 'edge,' as of a table or mesa (kiijy + w >< 

Khjf- in kiji<h , k{nnu, etc. 

Kope 'boat' 'bridge' "plank or log across a ditcn <>r body of watei to 
serve as a bridge' (ko probably identical with Jco 'to bathe' + p l e 
'stick' 'wood' 'timber' •plank' 'log'). What is said to !"• a primi- 
tive Tewa bridge is to be seen over the mother-ditch al San Juan 
Pueblo. Such a bridge consists of a roughly flattened log. 

Koua 'corral' ( < Span, corral 'corral'). The native Tewa equivalent 
i- //'i. 
'right' opposed to left, in various compounds. 
; .'-' 'at the right Bide of locative postfix (Jed'Mr 

1\,'i',i,:i_ 'on the right' 'al the right side' (ko'ui- • ,,. 

Kq 'barranca,' 'bank of an arroyo or gulch' 'arroyo' 'gulch'. The 
term is applied especially i<> arroyos of which a barranca isa 
prominent feature. Arroyos which have a bank on one side and a 

gentle slo] i tl ther, like those of the Pajarito Plateau, are 

called fco. \- a term for arroyos kqfoiPu is as common 

A" ''""'/ 'arroyo with barrancas ot banks as a prominent feature' 'large 
groove by the barrancas' (kq ■ Aw'if). Cf. kq. 

Kqso'o, kqaogje, kqsd'jo 'large barranca' 'large aiToyo' (kq ■ sd'o 'large- 
ness' 'large'; g, ; I. 

Kqtahvtu -dry arroyo' (kq ¥ta 'dryness' 'dry' + A«'«). 

Kqwom -wide gap between barrancas' (kq + waM). 

KqwVi 'gap between barrancas' (kq ■ urPt). 

A~«7/\'/7; 'knife-like tapering ridge' I Sp. cuchilla of same meaning). 

Kuwait a 'sheep-fold' (kuvoa 'sheep' • k'a). 
• store' ' shop' (/ y ' to barter' 

Kwa- in kwagt , kwajt, etc. 

Kwa'a 'downstairs' 'on the ground floor'. 

Kwagt '"ii or at the broad-topped height of 'flat topped height' 
'mesa' 'height' (kwa \-Qje). Used of mesa-top, top of frustrated 
cone, flat top of a hand-quern, etc. 

Kwag.efu'u 'horizontally projecting point of a mesa' (kw 

h',r, nj. ,ri.i'i 'horizontally projecting point of a mesa' (kwagt + wui). 

Kwaji 'on or at the height of 'height' 'ontopof 'above' (kw 
unexplained). This is the most inclusive term meaning 'on top' 
•.it the top' 'in the top' 'above' 'above the top'. It may be 
used, for instance, of a bird in the top of n tree, on the top of a 
tree, or above a tree. Pokwaji means 'above, not touching, the 
.-in-far.- of the water' (Po ' water'). 
• up' (kwaji 

A'./-././/// ' room ' of a buildii . cuarto - 1-. >< . r « ■ of a building'). 

The term of tint i \ e Tewa origin > 

'Mexican settlement' A < I < 'Mexican' ■ 



7'; ETHNOGEOGBAPHY OE THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ass. 29 

KwsgfacbiteqwaH'* 'Mexican settlement 1 (Kw%lcu, cf. Kvj».hj,ij,f 'iron", 
'Mexican' bi possessive - teqwa -' 

]\,r;il,.jlj„',i 'Mexican placita' 'Mexican plaza 3 'Mexican settlement' 
• Mexican' - bu'u). 

Kwsgfc&mpo 'railroad' {kw%ky,r)j> i iron' 'metal', cf. Jewxhu 'Mexican' 
+ 'i'/ • • al gender of l i H f). This term is frequently used for 
railroad train, thus: Kws^cy/mpo nimt^yj 'the train i- going,' lit- 
erally 'iron road goes' («4 'it" + msgyy 'to go'j. 

Kw%tcy,mpokop'e 'railroad bridge' {<hws^ky,mpo - kop't i. 

--' 'winter person 'member of winter phratry' (unexplained.) 
iiii'f 'winter people Jcwsgui 'winter person' • '<"« . 

tenuui ' intowalbite'e, pimpijt 'intowaMte' e, pote'e. 

KwijekwVo 'irrigating ditch' (kwij< 'to irrigate' - imrPo). 

KwVo 'irrigation ditch 1 •ditch*. The Tewa made extensive use of 
irrigation by means of ditches, in pre-European times. Ditch- 
work is now done by the men. In olden times it was done by 
men and women working together and the implements used were 
"\\ shovel-shaped digging-sticks. Ditchwork is still, as 
formerly . communal and compulsory. 

Ewi'ojtja 'main ditch', literally 'mother ditch' (fcwi'o+jija 'mother'). 
The corresponding term in New Mexican Span, is acequia madre, 
of which the Tewa name i- probably a translation. 

l\,r',',,j„, 'irrigation ditch water' 'water from an irrigation ditch' 
(kwPo H po " water"). 

Ka 'denseness' 'dense' "thicket" 'forest'. The word refer- to any 
thick growth of vegetal matter. 

Kabati 'grove' 'clump-shaped thicket' (Jca + bMi). 

Kabu'u ' g n>\ e' Qca - bv?u). 

'big forest' 'grove' (ka so'o 'largeness' 'large' • g< i. 

ffi 'point' projecting more or less vertically, "projecting corner' as 
of a table, 'sharp point' as a cactus thorn. 

A' 'neck' of man or lower animal. The tone of the word is distinct 
from that of /•< 'point.' 

Kefiugj, 'large pointed peak' (h +$ug.i 'largeness and pointedness' 
• large and pointed '). 

K<ij, 'edge' («< 'neck' + ge). This is perhaps the commonest word 
meaning "edge' of a cliff, 'shore' of a lake, 'bank' or 'edge' of 
a river, etc. 

A'./- 'dipper' "ladle' (of obscure etymology). 

KeJ-i 'on top' of an upward-projecting pointed object (h "point" + 
■'>'). The term seems to refer to an edge at the topof an upward- 
projecting more or less sharp object. 

Ke-tipije "to the summit ' (keJ>i+pije). 

A< "•■ 'on top' of an upward-projecting pointed object, 'point' 'peak' 
'dome' /■ 'point' + we). The term 3eems also to he used with 



Harrington] GEOGBAFHICAL TEBMS 77 

the more general meaning 'in, on or a< the top of 'above,' in 

such usage being identical «iili hwajb. Said of water, ii denotes 

position above the Burface, nol touching the surface; cf. kwqjk 
Kewepa ,a 'near the top' 'a short distance below the top' 'not a- far 

up as the t"]>' '/- "■ 
SV'gi ' on the npper surface and contiguous with the uppei surface' 

'on top of or on a surface' (of obscure etymology). Thus /«<- 

kigime&nB 'on the surface of the water' {fo 'water' 
A 'stone' 'rock'. 

'rockj dell' (leu + $e'< 1 1 1). 
Kubi-ii 'small pile of stones' {/cu • J}iui). 
I\ halt 'large pile of stones' leu • b_o>ti). 
K 'if"/' '" (1) ' rocky dell,' (2) ' place enclosed w ithin a circle of stones', a~ 

at tin- shrine of the Stum' Lions f 28 : - 7 1 or Stonehenge. 
A'. ,U .</'}/''"'" '. /"'/ ml mji'''' 'pointed ruck" 'teni rock'(ew+ fafogi, 

ihiif-iiii' 'pointedness' 'pointed' • '•" . See plates 6 8. 
A'"'/'.//..- 'pointed 'rock' 'ten! rock' (in \ dijnhjij- 

'pointedness' ' pointed' * "<"',i. 
Kuk'ajt ' stone fetish' 'stone shrine' (ku+ / <'M. This term is applied 

to all kinds of fetishes and shrines mad.- of s( ( If. / 'aji/cvioui. 

/{"/,■' :i lulu // ,• 'little graveUy bend', as for instance in the course of a 

creek (I ulc'% ■> i ■ /» ■■ 
Kill.':, < a, tm' a 'gravelly dell' (Jeufcsprjj vhu'ii |1|). 
Knl:':, ["■ I'D 'gravelly water' (/<///./ y ■ • j"> ' water'). 
Kul.'.iij- 'gravel' ' coarse sand ' (fru t- Je'^yy ' flour' 'meal'?). 
K'ii"i'"i/ii[ 'pueblo Iniilt of tufaceous stone' {kvJc'i 'tufa' * 1 1 1 i r 

'pumice stone' 'tufaceous stone' * 'Qywi). 
h'" l.-'i' "i/irij.-i ii ' tufa stone pueblo ruin ' (fculc'i "tufa stone' - 

/ 1 H). 
Knl' iini.i, 'place where tufa stones or blocks are strewn or scattered' 

• tufa stone' • uxun ' to strew ' 'to scatter'). 
/ -it nesi " it"'" i I • ani ' 

Ku'n i .i /■!"'>'' 'anl bill' {I ■ ' ' >!). 

/ E turquoise estuf a' {I run , .< ' turquoise' -i te?e). Synonyms: 

hI.dii, jiii,' in/,' i . i„i),iij,.t', • , , . 

/ - 'pueblo imilt of stone' {leu i '"i/,rij. 

liu' Difiril. ii 'stone pueblo ruin' (/ 
/ aid i" be a Santa Clara equivalent for teubiti ' small pile 

of stones' (*m pit'it unexplained 
•stone water' 'water in stony creek bed' {Jeu ■ j»> 'water'). 
Kup'o 'hole in a stone' 'hole in a stone in which water collects' 'water 

bole' in b stone or rock This is the onl) name bj 

which water holes are com monh designated. 
Kup'op'awt 'hole through a stone' 'to go complete] j 

through I. 



78 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OP THE TEWA INDIANS [etii. ass. 29 

Kit*! ijii'liubu' a 'dell partly or wholly surrounded by a zigzag of stone' 
(kwijijtrhj / + bu'u (1)). 

Kiixiujir'uj f "zigzag stone' 'stone zigzag' (Jcu + sq/gwyijf 'zigzag'). 
Applied, for instance, to strata of stone with serratedly eroded 
edges. These are represented in pottery painting. 

Kitxejjf 'hornlike projection of rock' (Jcu + siyy 'horn'). 

Kuj'ii'ii ' horizontally projecting point of stone' (feu +/>i , u). 

Kuta' a /uh"' 'paintedrock' 'rock painting' [hu+ta'Zyj' 1 painting' + '"'')• 

Kutepa 'stone-wall' used either as a fence, or as part of a building 
{l,-ii + f'jui). 

Kuidba ' rock cliff ' (Jcu + iota). 

K'lt'iuli/ij/ • rocky peak or pinnacle' (Jcu + t'a unexplained + dug.!. • large- 
ness and pointedness' "large and pointed'). 

Kuwcue 'place where stones are strewn or scattered' (ku + n-,i.i, 'to 
strew' 'to scatter'). 

]\"ii 'corral' 'fence' surrounding an enclosure, 'fence' 'enclosure'. 

K'abu'u 'roundish place enclosed by a fence or hedge of some sort' 
(Jc'a + bu' a [1]). The enclosures made for certain Jicarilla Apache 
and Navaho dances are called le'ubu'u. 

K'aje 'fetish' 'shrine', applied to anything in which injunjf 'magic 
power' is believed to reside. 

K'aje 'summer person' ' member of summer phratry' (unexplained). 

ETajehu, JcajeTcubaii 'sacred stone' 'sacred stones' 'sacred stone-pile' 
'shrine' (k'aje + ku + bo.ti). Cf. Icuh'aje. 

K'ajete'e "summer people's estufa' (Jc'ajh 'summer person' + ie'e). 
S\ nonynis: 'aJcQmpiji "nitowabite'e, pgjogeui'intowaiite'e, and 
l-unysete'e. 

/\",nr/"i 'gap between fences' 'entrance or exit of a corral' Qc'a + wi?'b). 

K'ewvi 'outside corner o a houserow, house, corral, etc.' (Fe unex- 
plained + iri'i). 

K'n 'arm' of body or, used figuratively, 'branch' 'bough' of a tree, 
'arm' of a lake or other body of water, 'inlet' 'bay' 'bight'. 

K'o'ii 'roof hole' 'door in the roof through which entrance and exit 
are effected'. In Tewa dwelling rooms the Jc'oji have been largely 
replaced by doors in the walls, but the estufas or kivas still have 
them. Mythical Tc'oji are believed to exist at lakes; see pol-wik'oji. 
Tewa Tcoji has been hispanized as coye, and the word is cur- 
rent in New Mexican Spanish. Bandelier l writes "Ko-ye." 
Tewa Voji means 'rooi'hole', not 'inner room'. 

I\"<iik]/ii; 'place where mineral or other substance is dug' 'mine' 
'quarry' (l''oijj> 'to dig' + 'iwe). 

K'liifj, 'at the end' 'end' 'extent' (k'qijf + ge). 

A" <_>//./- in I'l'ij'j' . 

Makina 'machine' 'engine' 'sawmill' (<Span. maquina 'machine' 
'engine'). 

i Final Report, pt. r, p. iai, 1S90. 



babbini GEOGRAPHICAL TKltMS 79 

1/ 'ocean' (• Span, mar 'sea' 'ocean'). 
Maupokwi 'ocean 3 (maA+pohur£). 

,\/<i.' j>,, /,-,/•[ j>;i_ i/<j, nqi/'j' 'the country down oeyond the ocean' ( 

Pokwi+pQ g.e). 

Mesa 'table' 'mesa' 'tableland' (< Span, mesa 'table' 'mesa' 'table 

land*). 
MemkwaQt 'mesa' 'tableland' (mesd+kwage). 
Mwat< 'church' (misa ■ Span, misa 'Roman Catholic mass '+fe). 
Misatt '■ 'chapel' 'little church' (misate+'e). 

'cultivable field' 'field'. Tin- \v«u>l lias the same meaning a- 
Russian n rim. which n resembles in sound. Tow a naba has noth- 
ing to do with the uncommon Span, word oava 'plain.' 
' - u : 1 1 1 1 > - pit fall' • large bottle-shaped bole excavated in the earth, 
covered with brush and earth'; deer fall into it and arc thus 
caught. Such a pitfall is called in the Taos language guana. 
Plate 1 1 show - an ancient naba. 
Nababu'v 'dell of cultivable land ' (naba 'field'+j^w'a 1 1 |). 

Wdbahu'-u 'arroj 'canada with cultivable land in it" 'fieldarroyo' 

i i ■ field , +hit?v). 
• ■■!>,, hit', i ' arroyo or canada with cultivable fields and a stream of 
water in W (naba ' field , +Poku , u). 
.X.th.t's,"; 'canyon with cultivable land in it" 'field canyon' (naba 

' field '+S» , »). 
Nqsa, ruua 'fishweir' (• Span, nasa 'fishweir'). 

L) 'this' " here", demonstrative element denoting position close by 
the speaker. Of. /'■.' and*". It is much used before postfixes oi 
locative meaning, e. g. n&kwajl "here on top' (n% • hwajb). It is 
also used a.s a noun prefix. ,.. g. n%teqwa , vw6 'at this house' 
I,,:, - teqnoa ■ 'noe); also as an adjective /<,•/""' tegwa'iwt 'at this 
house' (na; + '<"' + tegwa + Hwe). (2) 'at* locative postfix. 
\:nj' "here* 'down here", denoting position of <>r <\n>v liy the speaker 
and relatively low («a. - g> |. 

I 'here', denoting position of or close bj the speak* i i |2]). 

■•'II t hi- Bide', referring usually t«> a river or other body 

■ >f wati i ■ (.. ,,„„:§ I. 

'on this side', said of body or others ise (na. nq 
'here', denoting of or close bj the speaker, and relatively high 

"'• )• 
li ■ here' 'on this sidi *i). 

' ■ 'small clump of earth' 'mound of earth' (niv >' -* &< )> 
'large clump of earth' 'mound of earth' I ; I'-'l'- 

'/<>/ 'shrine', literally, 'earth'- hollow where belly and rib- 
region join' (mil)./' v ft/in 'helix bast ' 'depression below the ribs 
and above the protruding pari of the bell] on each side of the 
navel 1 <« ' bellj ', pu ' base'). 



80 ETIIXOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [ETH. ANN. 29 

Nq,nia •desert' •dryland' {mpjf + la 'dryness' •dry'). 

Nqrjgt 'floor' 'country' (r,oijf + g.< I. 

Xij ijkeJ.l 'on earth' 'in the world' (ninjf + k&ii). 

Xlijf 'earth' 'land' 'country' 'soil' 'floor'. 

Xu'op' ■ V 'plaster' "mortar" (mj formative element + , op t e , e unexplained). 

Nqpo 'kneaded or workable mud' 'mud suitable for making adobe 
walls or brick' (no formative element + po ' water'). Cf. fiotsi. 

JMifiok'y, "hard adobe' whether in form of adobe bricks or in other form 
(/hi po + k'u indicating length and hardness, as inpetfy, 'bone' (/<'< 
'stick')). The Tewa constructed pueblos of adobe in pre-Colum- 
bian times, building up the walls, a layer at a time, with formless 
mud (ndpo). They learned from the Spaniards how to make 
adobe brick and the modern Tewa pueblos are constructed of 
such brick. The Tewa call an adobe brick wi nqpoJc^ (wi "a" 
'one'). 

JV(ipo'i>ijir[/,;jr 'adobe pueblo ruin' (nftpo + 'Qywikejz). 

.Xiif'oirti 'the water trickles down' said, for instance, of water trickling 
down a cliff (/nl 'if; po 'water'; un 'to trickle down'). 

Xiihitxijriiiii 'the bank falls" (//<_; "if: into 'cliff'; jemu 'to fall', said of 
3+, used herewith mineral singular). Cf. the San Juan name for 
February (p. 63). 

X>_ a Nam be and San Juan form sometimes used instead of 'inf. loca- 
tive and adjective-forming postfix. 

Noufta 'well' ( -.New Mexican Span, noria 'well"). This is the ordi- 
nary Tewa word meaning "well'. 

Xn "ashes'. 

Nu locative postfix meaning 'at', referring to one or more objects at 
any level. It never means 'in'. Its usage appears to be iden- 
tical with that of nee. 

JVug.e 'below' 'under' 'beneath' 'at the foot of (W« + g.e). 

Niig.epije 'down' (nug.e+pij< ). 

Xii'n 'below' 'under' 'beneath' 'at the foot of 'at the base of 
'close to' 'down in": said of liquids. 

.\"';i'if"''"' 'place where pine sticks are scattered on the ground' 
'place where pines are dry' {ywxyf 'rock-pine' +la, 'dryness' 
'dry' + •;•). 

Xj-.i 'nice- 'left', in various compounds. 

"///,/ gs ■>/' " at the left side of; locative postfix (nfct'trise,- + ge + ■>>'). 

X i :i '<:,;<__ ,,;>_■ 'on the left' "at the left side' (nys^mse- + nse (2)). 

' 'that' "there", demonstrative element denoting remoteness from 
speaker. It can not be postfixed. Cf . ine, (1) and hx. Itismuch 
used before postfixes of locative meaning, e. g.. ''ohwaje 'way up 
there on top' ('<> + hwaje). It is also used as a noun prefix, e. g.. 
'oteqwa'iwi "at that house' ('" + /..//'•,/ + ' !n; ): also as an adjective 
',//■< /, qwoSiwe ' at that house ' ('<< + ' /"' + tt qwa + Hwt ). 



haobinotoh] GEOGRAPHICA] I I liMS 81 

'Og.i 'down there', denoting remoteness from and position lower than 

speaker ('■ 
' i ' ' • ice'. 

' n j' I'''.').? 'ice mountain' 'mountain with ice, snow or glaciers on it' 

• i'i'if)- 

'hill'. Distinguished by its tone and the length of its vowels 

from 'oka ' turtle'. 

' i >L-<i hege 'gulchlike place by (lower than top of) hill(s)' I g.e). 

gj, 'gulchlike plan' of the hills *('<■/" vheQ.1 • marked liy gulches' 

■ gulchlike '). 

'Okiucewi 'hill peak' 'peaked bill' {ohu v%ewe). 

' ol'i[>[iif 'large hill' 'small mountain' 'mountainous hill' 'hill-like 
mountain' ('oku + phjy). 

'Ol'u/i''i>j7.-/' nut very narrow hill or hilltop ridge' ( , ofcu+p'4'gM ' hirge- 
ness and narrowness' 'large and narrow '). 

' < >luj,' n/li 'narrow hill or hilltop ridge' (""/</ +ji'ujlri ' smallness and 
narrowness' '-mall and narrow'). 

tv high hill" ("••/ » ♦ tuiju-.r ■ highness 5 ' high' 'tallness' 
'tall'; jo augmentative). The name is applied especially to cer 
tain tall hill- with shrines on them: near each of the three pueblos, 
San Juan, San lldefonso, and Tesuque, one bill called thus and 
having a shrine unit- summil is found. These were in former 
times ascended each dawn by a priesl to worship the rising sun, 
it is said. 

' ( )k,in;i.i', • wide gap in the bills' <"•■/ u ■ waui). 

' o/,-, /,r/"/' 'gap in the hills' ('<</'/ * wi'i). 

' ol.'iimb''. 'small sandj low place' Qok'&gj ■/•■'■ i. 

'ul/ <i mbi-i'i 'small -ami pile' i^ok'4vj ' &£**)■ This is used, for in 
-tanec, of the sand piles made' h\ ants. 

'<>!.' it mhn.i; V-and pile' '-and dine-' ('"/!'.////' I Jxi.i'i). 

mbyu'it 'large sand j low place' Cok'tiyy + % , h , w). This is also the 
name of a constellation. 1 Sei p. 50, 

'(>!,' 11 in j>.' • sandy water" ('-/! 

' (/I'q in j 1 ' 1 1 'hole in -and " 'quicksand' {"/■'■lijj' + /''"). 

''//,' a a a a fin. ii.iiiinijii, 'subterranean water' ('.■',',<,;. ■ ntfu 

" Wilt 1 ' 

''>/,' 11 ijl.';i in. ii/:'iiij/.';i/.i'/,, 'quicksand' <'.,/'./,,, 1 l.'-.ij,, 'to sink h 

■ to be apt to' 'to look as if ii would '). 

'Ok't 1 1, r • -and'. 

''//'/'.'; , ■ steam' ' vapor'. 

' shadow ' ' -hade' ' died". 

'n// ,,' ;,,/..! ; 'shad j side' {'ok'y '-hade' 'shadow'; '///;/•'-' 'side' 
• ide', ui ablative, locative). 'The -had\ side of a moun- 
tain, e. g. of Truchas Peak [22:13], is called thus. 
'Ok'ytequM 'shed' {'ok'y ■ teqwa). 
11 L6 



82 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

'On% 'there', denoting remoteness from speaker ('0 + me, [2]). 

' of qnnx 'on the other side', used especially with reference to bodies 

of water ('o + -t'qyf- + nx). For 'on this side' of a body of 

water nxnai 'ot'qnnse is used. 
' Owe 'there', denoting remoteness from speaker and position at about 

level of or higher than speaker ('o + w< ). 
'Oywi 'pueblo' 'village'. The Santa Clara form is 'y,ywi. 
'Qywikeji 'pueblo ruin' ( , oywi + heji). 
'Qywiyge 'pueblo' 'down at a pueblo' C<nj>ri, + g,). 
'Qijwip dk' Ofidi H 'burnt pueblo' (?Q7)W% + p '<// 'qijf 'to burn'< j/'a 'fire 1 , 

tiqyj> 'to do' + "/"')• 
'( h/irijmn/ib"'' 'new pueblo' 'pueblo at present inhabited' ('qijwi + 

ts<&mbi H 'new'). 
/'</'</- in jhi'iiij, . pa?cui (akin to Jemezpe 'sun'). 
Pa ,a 'sleeping mat'. 'bedding' 'bed' 'mattress'. 
Pa?" in h wepa ,a . 

Pi' age 'sunny place' below speaker (pa! a + g.e). 
/'"'"■'< />>'je 'to the front' 'in front' (j>a' a .w 'first' 'eldest' 'older 

brother or sister' +pije). 
l'n', i.i I 'sunny place' (jxnt + ui). 
Pqjog.eui'intowatiite'e 'summer people's estufa' (y >'//'"#<•"' 'summer'+ 

'«'* +lowh 'people' + bi possessive + tee). Synonyms: dkqmpiji- 

iniowabite'e, huufsete'e, and VajeWe. 
Pqnte 'oven' {pq>jf 'bread' <Span. pan ' bread' + te). 
]';riifiifr 'snake nest' 'snake hole' 'snake den' (pxnfit 'snake' + te). 
/'•;./, iitii/kn 'salt lick' frequented by deer (p% 'deer' + ^e 'they' 3 + 

nqyy + Jco 'to eat'). 
/'/'a 'thread' 'string'. The word is probably also used figuratively 

to mean 'little stream'. 
Penioe , e, pembu'u 'graveyard' (peni 'corpse' + &<Y, bn'ti). 
/', sot< lea ' pigsty ' (pesot< ' pig 1 + Jed). 

Pibiiag.e 'place where meat is dried' (pibi 'meat' + Id 'to dry' + ge). 
Pi'in; 'ford', literally 'where they come or go through' {pi 'to issue' 

'to come or go through' + , iw< ). 
Pije 'to' 'toward' 'direction' 'region'. NdMpije means 'to my 

home' (ndbi l my , +pije), ^yMpije 'to your home' (\ibl 'your' + 

PV< )• 

l'iji.ii 'from' 'from the region or locality of (pije + .</). 

1'iir, ' ford' (jii 'to come or go through' + we). 

I'ijiqi)./' 'power' 'magic' 'magic power resident in a fetish 

I'hinii, 'in the midst of {pV]f + "")■ 

Pijinii.'i ' middle' 'in the middle' {pijjf + nu + .'/). 

Puj'je 'in the middle of 'amid' {pvjf + Q<). It means also 'half- 
way'. 

Piyg&ti 'in the middle' 'from the middle' (piyge + Ji). 



hami • GEOGRAPHICAL IEBMS 83 

' hearl ' •cure' ' middle'. 
Pop 'driftwood 5 'pile of driftwood ' (unanalyzable). 
Popeftodi 'pile of driftwood' (pcp( + bout). 

PopewaM " scattered driftwood' {pojh \- "-,,./, 'to scatter'). 
/' ■■>■ • Bshweir' (unanalyzable). 

I'n.i.te 'watehhouse built near a iMiweir" {poJn + /, 'dwelling place'). 

/'■■■•', 'squash estufa 5 {po 'squash' 'pumpkin' 'calabash' + tie). 

Synonyms: pimpijiyuowciMte'i . />'„n.'>" ijih>,r,'itii/,'. ,and£w$aiA '< . 
Pmag.6 'place where squashes arc dried' {po 'squash' 'pumpkin' 

' calabash ' + ia ' to dry ' + ge). 
/'a 'base' 'buttocks' 'root'. 

I'mliJlf 'tree Stump' (pu + <Jf>)f). 

I'ii,,, ib, 'ball' (probably containing be, referring to roundish shape). 

I'limi'ii 'near' 'a little way from', said, for instance, of an object on 

the ground near a houa ■■■>/'n). 

Pate 'rabbit holes' {pu 'rabbit' 'cottontail rabbit' + te). 
/'inni 'cultivated land' 'ploughed field' (unanalyzable). 

I'm r, ill, i' a 'dell of cultivated land' (/nnr,/ -i I 

l'li-iiit, 'bridge' (< Span, puente 'bridge'). 

I'., mil 'on the other side' 'beyond' ■ /• < yj ;•'/). 

'part' 'side,' used especially of parts or quarters of pueblos 

■;•'). 

I 'on the other side' 'beyond' (P&yj *-» 3 [2]). 
ft 'over or down on the other side' ' beyond' (/>.•/ ,, , - + g t i. 
'beyond' 'side', used only in compounds, such a 

ji;i ,,„:, J' i_ ,/iJi . 

I'ii,,!,,/' ii 'a dell in the mountains' (j>iji e I bu y u). 
I' ', n, p', ),",,, i,', 'north estufa' {pimpiji 'north t , i' i + te > e). Synonyms: 
pqjog&bi? [iiiniriihih', , pote'e, and Jcwxrite'e. 

J''ii,,/','j,':_iji/,ri,j':,,/'J, 'locality beyond (north of) the north lion-crow' 

of a pueblo (Pimpip 'north' • V • qwa ■ /• 

I'ljn/ilj.'ijji/ir.istj 'north bouserow' of a pueblo (pimpiji 'north' + V' 

+ ijirusij). 

■ i 'mountain stream' (Pivy * /■" "water'). 

■ mountain trail' (f'i.i/./' + /'" 'trail '). 

■ i, 'flat topped mountain' :/•/'<</ i p'a 'largeness and flatness' 

and flat '). 

I'i ,/i'iiijl,! • mountain rid-'- r 'ni/l, 'narrowness' 'narrow'). 

Pimp'opi 'bald mountain • 'hair' pi m I The 

term is doubtless due to the influence of Span, ceiro pelado, etc. 

•J, 'mountain peak' i oess and pointedness' 

■ large and pointed '). 

■ in the mountain-' I ; , '_' | ). 

i'in*'!i)iiijii 'zigzag-shaped mountain' (Pvjj 



84 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth ANN. 29 

l'ijil.irnji 'mountain top' 'mountain height' (p[ijf + hwaj&). 

I'ijili 'sharp mountain peak' [p'ujf + lee). 

Pyjlcedugi 'mountain peak' 'mountain with a tall peak' (pvjf + lv + 

<!"tj_i 'largeness and poiutedness' 'large and pointed'). 
Piykewe 'mountain peak' (piu.f + Tcewe). 
l'ujii-it.i, • place where mountains are strewn or scattered ' (pij/f + wade 

'to strew' 'to scatter'). 
I'jjjii'ii.i) ' wide gap in the mountains' (p\i)f + waui). 
Piywibo'o 'lone mountain' (pyQf + wi 'one' + bc?o 'being'). 
Piywi'i 'mountain pass' 'gap in the mountains' (P\rjf + in"/). 
Pyjf 'mountain '. 

Piyf^e 'small mountain' (piyf + V). 
Piyf'oh'y, 'mountain shadow' 'shady locality in a mountainous 

country' (pyjf + 'ok'y,). 
Po 'water' 'river' 'creek' 'brook' 'body of water' 'juice'. The 

writer has not learned that rivers are personified by the Tewa. 

But Groddard says of the Pecos, Canadian, Kio Grande, and Chama : 

"These are the sacred rivers of the Jicarilla. The Canadian and 

Kio Grande are male, ' men," the Pecos and Chama are female and 

are so pictured in the ceremonial by paintings." 1 
Pa 'trail' 'track' 'road'. 

P6be\ 'dell with water in it' (po 'water' + b,\ [1]). 
Pdbigt 'sharp bend in a stream' (po 'water' + bige). 
Pobti'it 'dell with water in it' (po 'water' + bu'u [1]). 
Pn'e 'small stream' 'brook' 'puddle' (po 'water' + '<?). 
Po\ 'small trail' (po 'trail' + V). 
Pd'ego 'a stream or body of water which shifts its bed' (po 'water' 

+ 'ego 'to shift"). 
I'i'ih 'river' 'creek' 'low place where water is or runs' (po 'water' 

+ ge). 
P<"J-i 'trail' 'road,' conceived of as running low, on, or through the 

surface of the earth (po 'trail' ' road' + ge). 
Pohe , e 'little gulch in which water is or runs' (po 'water' + hdt ). 
Pohege 'little gulch where water is or runs' (/'» 'water' + h,',_ + ge). 
Pohuge 'arroyoor Canada in which water is or runs' (po 'water' + Aw'w 

+ ge). 

Poll 1 1' ii 'arroyo or canada in which water is or runs' (po 'water' + hv'u). 

PojoUe 'island' (po 'water' + jn.<, |. 

Pojege 'confluence of two streams' | po 'water' + je 'to meet' 'to join' 

+ ge). 
Pojemugi 'waterfall' (po 'water' + jemv. 'to fall', said of 3 + + ge). 
Puji iiiu'i'' 'waterfall' (po 'water' +jemu 'to fall", said of 3++V"'). 
Pojemv!iwi 'waterfall' (po 'water' +jemu 'to fall', said of 3 + +Hwe). 

1 Goddard, Jicarilla Apache Text >, p 223, footnote. 1912. 



BARjtiNGTOtr] GEOGRAPHICAL it.kms 85 

l'nl,ijj<j, 'bank of a river or body of water', said of a bank which has 
:i rather sharp and straight edge (Po 'water' + kygge). 

Pokwajt 'up river' 'north' (/«■ 'water' i Jew 

'lake' 'pond' 'lagoon' 'sea' 'body of water' {fo 'water' • 
kw\ unexplained). The / w\ can perhaps be explained bj compar 
ing the Taos /"•/"•;</- 'lake' and T&osqvfi&- 'pit' 'pitfall'. Lakes 
are believed bj the Tewa to be the dwelling places of 'ok'iewa 
and to communicate with the waters beneath the earth. At every 
lake there is a k'oji or roof bole, through which the 'ok'uwa pass 
when they leave <>r enter the lake. It is said thai each pueblo !>a- 
its lake- of the four cardinal points. Among the Tewa place 
names will lie found the names of many sacred lakes. 

PoJtwii 'little lake" '[Mind' 'lagunita' (pokwi - '■ I. 

Pokwifft 'lake' 'down at a lake' (Pokwi + Q.e). 

PokwUkiyqe "rim of a lake' (Pokwi + kirjge). 

Pokwjfc'o "armor inlet id' a lake" | b'o). 

Pokwik'oji l roofholeoi a lake,' a mythic opening in a lake through 
which the 'ok'uwa are supposed to pass (pokwi + k'ojt). 

Pokw\n% 'by a lake' (Pokwi ¥ n;i_ | ■_']). 

Pohwynu 'by a lake' (pokwi 

Pokwyta'vwi "place where lake grass prows' {pokwi + '" 'grass' + '<'»-. ). 

'banks or shore of a body of water' ' ri\ er bank ' i /"< 'water-' i 

heg> i. This word is commonly used where we use 'river.' The 

fcwaspeakof going down to the river bank (Pokeg.e) instead of 

going to the river. 

PobegepPiiot 'place on the edge or shore of a body of waterwhere 
one enter- or emerges from a ford' I ,. "■■'"'- I. 

'stagnant water' 'bodj of water' (Po 'water' ■ fco'tolie'). 

Pdkowagi n$o 'mirage' (/"• 'water' • /" 'to lie' + wagi "like" 'similar 
t"' + /hi 'if + f" 'to have the semblance of). 

Poku "rock in the water' (po "water' ■ / u "-tune" 'rock'). 

I'iiI.' kij'Ji 'end of the water' "end or n th of a river' {fo 'water' • 

. /■' mill' )■ 

■ onning water" (["> 'wafc 'to go'). 

;. 'down river' 'south' (po 'water' ■ nug.e). 

rater mill' 'mill driven by water' (po "water' • 'o ' tate 1 

'quern 1 "miH'). 1 ' 
Popi 'spring' (po 'water 5 ■■- pi "to issue'). 
I'.,/, ;},.'. -deli where there i- a spring or ore springs' •/• 
I',, /,;!,,,' ,i -dell where there is a spring or are springs' (Popi i l>"'" | 1 |i. 
/■ , ' 'littli p' inf ■■■'■). 

o " basin, pool or how I of a spring' (popi ■ p'o). 
.{'■■i'i> 'water hole' 'holein a rock «.r id-. 'where in which water col 

lects' (/"■ "water' ■ j 



88 ETHXOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. asn. 29 

P / .< yhifo we 'a peak, hilltop, or mountain top as steep as a vertical 
pole' i'j>'t + k'%ki 'verticalness' 'vertical' + fcewe). 

/'''/a/ 'underside of a root' 1 (p'e+pu). 

Pepv/ru%Vf ' dirt or dust that lodges on the rafters or thatch of the 
ceiling of a house' (p'epu + n>t)jf). 

Pep'astte , i ,i 'sawmill' (p'ep'a 'lumber' <p'< 'stick' 'wood' 'timber' 
'log'.y'c 'largeness and flatness' 'large and flat' + sa'8< 'to cut 
across the grain' + V). Site should be contrasted with pait 'to 
split with the grain'. 

Pestbe , z' i 'sawmill' (p't "stick' 'wood' 'timber' 'log' + site 'to cut 
across the grain ' + V'-'i. 

P', fa' a 'horizontally projecting point of timber' 'horizontally pro- 
jecting point of cliff, mesa or rock with timber on it' (/<Y + fu'u). 

P'eteqwa 'wooden house' 'log cabin' 'log fort' (p'e + teqwa). 

J'i.'i 'small pile', said, for instance, of a pile of owl manure and of 
hills resembling in shape such a pile. See [3:18]. 

P'o 'hole', as opening through or into an object, "mouth of a canyon 
'cave' 'pit'. 

P'obe\ 'dell with a hole or pit in it' (p'o + b,' e ■ [l ] ). 

P'o'e 'little hole' (p'o +',). 

/''•'/''■//re 'hole' going completely through an object (p'o + j/awe 'to' 
go completely through'). Such holes in natural rocks and hill- 
tops attract much attention and are represented in pottery 
painting. Sec [19:75]. 

PoM. 'doorway' 'door', referring to the hole and not to the leaf 
or operculum (p'o + ■'!). The word is applied only to holes 
through which people pass. P'<mI can be applied to a roofhole 
doorway or hatchway, although the more proper term for the 
latter is k'oji. Cf. p'otui, k'oji, and qwap'oud. 

P'otUi 'thin flat object used to close an opening' 'door' 'shutter' 
'operculum' (p'o + ti-'i 'shield'). 

P'owili 'horizontally projecting point at or .side of a hole' 'canyon- 
side at the mouth of a canyon' (p'o + n-i.ii). 

P'oiiipiijj' 'snowy mountain' (p'QVf 'snow' + phjf). According to 
Fewkes 1 the Hano Tewa call the high, snowy San Francisco Moun- 
tains of Arizona, "Pompin," which is evidently this same term; 
cf. Fewkes' spelling " PoH " as the name of the ' snow ' cachina (p. 
123 of the same report). 

Qwa ' row of houses' ' houserow or side of a pueblo.' In its primary 
meaning it seems to denote the state of being a receptacle; cf. 
teqwa, poqwa. The, houserow is regarded as the unit of pueblo 
architecture. Probably entirely distinct from qwa-, qwi- below. 

Qwa- referring to a wall in the compounds qwcfawe and qwap'\. 

> Hopi Katcinas, Twenty-first Rep. Bur Amer. EOm., p. 105, 1903. 



u.utiuxcTON] GE0GBAPHICA1 I I.K.MS 89 

Qwar, qwi- 'line', in the compounds qwcui, qwiii. 

' ■>!•, 'surface of a wall' 'wall of a building' 'housewall' (qwaas 
in qwap'&'avh unexplained). Cf. qwap'i, tepa, and tep'\. 

Qioakioag.t 'a mesa thai resembles a pueblo houserow' [gvja+Jewag.e). 

Qwalee, qwakeM. 'upstairs' 'second Btory' 'upper stories' [gta 

Qwap'i 'small, low housewall,' apparently used as diminutive oJ 
qwaPavx {qwa as in qwa'awe+p'i as in tep'i, possibly identical with 
p'i in p'iki 'narrowness' 'narrow'). Qwap'i ' s employed espe- 
cially to designate the low parapet which runs around the flat 
roofs of Tewa adobe house.-. Cf. qwcHawe, tepa, and tep'i. 

Qwap'o 'window hole, through which people did noi pass, in the wall 
or roof of a building' [qwa (1 \+p'o). These hole- were sometimes 
closed by Pueblo Indian- in ancient times by means of -labs of 
selenite or mica or bj stretching cornhusk. ('I', qwap'a&i. 

Qioap'oJ'i 'window of the modem sort, fitted with panes of glass, and 
capable of being opened'. Distinguished from the ancienl qwap'o 
by their resemblance to doors [qwa +p'oJ>i). Cf. qwap'o. 

QwaM, 'large long line' (qwa-+.u£). Augmentative of qwiii. See 

//•-/■'/. the San Juan form of tin- word. 

Qwasy 'nm of houses' 'houserow or side of a pueblo' (qwa + sy 

unexplained). 
i hi; its r : 'street', as in Indian pueblos or Mexican or American settle 

merits [gym + fh&t). 
Qwawi'i 'j^ap or passageway between houserows of a pueblo' 

[qioa + "■'"') 
(hnnri.i'i -end of a houserow " [gym ■ will). 

QwawiibPi 'street like gap or passageway between houserows of a 

pueblo' [gym + voPi ^ i 
Qwi 'fiber' 'line'. Cf. qwaJ>i, qwi-H. 

•-mall slender line" (y ,/■/- + .//). Diminutive of qwa&i. See 
iri./,\ the San Juan form of the word. 

< x >>r,,ij. -delta' 'place down where an arroyo or water cuts through, 
break- through, or washes out ' [qwo ' to cut through ' + g.e). 
• 'outlet of a lake or body of water' [gwo "to cut through' 'to 
break forth' vxe\ Cf. h&qvxue. 

,'/. i- postfixed (o many verb root- and denote- either continuous 

or intermittent action. Cf . a 'to push' and 8&6 'to push in little 
■ cut through' and qw<Me 'to cut through con 

tiimalU ". a- water through the Outlet of a lake. 

,7 i • from.' The ablai i\ e meaning often goes o\ ^-y into almost Locatn e 
meaning, yismd its compounds mean merely 'from' and denote 
nothing ;1 , t,, destination; p'tfygefp'tfmpiji mean 'from', in a 
direction to or toward the speaker. 



90 ET1INOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [BTH. ANN. 29 

Smrqijf ' vestibule ' 'hall' 'corridor' (<Span. zaguan of same mean 
inn-). 

Sqywiyf 'zigzag'. 

Sipu 'the hollow :it each si.lr of the abdomen below the ribs' («j 'belly' 
+ pu 'base"). Sipu does not refer to the hollow just below the 
sternum nor to the hollow about the navel. The former is called 
/>[,npo 'heart bole ' {piyf 'heart' +po 'hole'), the latter szbep'o 
' navel hole' (stb< 'navel' +p'o ' hole'). Sipu appears compounded 
in the words ninsipu 'shrine' (nni/f 'earth'), and sipuwiM 'pro- 
jecting ribs at the sides above the sipu^ (sipu + wiu>i), the latter 
being- used as the place-name [2:36]. 

Sipopigjuteqioa 'sweat-house' such as the Jicarilla Apache use for 
taking sweats (sipo ' sweat ' + pi ' to come out ' + g.e + t< qwa). 

So " mouth' of person, animal, cave, bottle, etc. 

Sop'o 'mouthhole' of person, animal, cave, bottle, etc. 

Sijndiuhk',t 'military stockade' (sun^cuu 'soldier' +//./). 

Sijnd't.i'itpo 'military trail or road' (sun^audi 'soldier' +po 'road') 

5 .i.i.ih/i', // a 'military stockade' (symdcuii 'soldier' + p'ek'a). 

Sijijir.-rT' teqwa 'saloon" (sy,r)w^'i H <sy/QW% 'to drink' + '/"' +teqwa). 

/• ' ' ladder' 'stairway'. 

'edge of a horizontally projecting point ' (/"'» + keQt I. 

[•uu 'horizontally projecting point' (probably connected with/w 
'nose'). 

/'aifi.ii 'horizontally projecting corner 1 (/»'" + wiii). 

T(Ca 'gentle slope'. Cf. 'a'a 'steep slope'. 

Tajepo 'straight trail' 'short-cut' (taje 'straightness' 'straight' + 
po 'trail' 'road'). 

Taki ' horizontal layer or stratum ' (unanalyzable). 

Tq'ijf 'painting' ' pictograph '. 

Tayh 'tank' 'water tank' (< Span, tanque 'tank'). The train is said 
to drink at a railroad water tank. 

'/' l intsthi"t.o'i 'threshing floor' {fqtjf 'seed' 'grain' + tsa 'to cut 
through' + .'/ + \./.'n. 

T< 'dwelling-place' 'house' 'habitation' 'nest or hole of certain 
animals'. 

Te-, referring to wall in the compounds tepa and tep , i. 

Te ' cottonwood tree' ' Populus wislizeni". 

7i 'wagon'. Nothing could be learned as to the origin of this word. 
It means ' wagon ' and nothing else. ' Wheel ' is tebe (l>-- "round- 
ness" ' round"). 

'/''■■■ 'tipi' 'wigwam' 'tent' (t< 'dwelling place ' y 'a 'cloth'). 

Tebe\ 'dell where there are cottonwood trees' (tt 'cottonwood' + 

Tebu'u 'dell in which there are cottonwood trees' ' plaza or park in 

which cottonwood trees grow' (t< 'cottonwood' + bu'u [lji. 



hariiiv GEOGRAPHICAL TERMS 91 

Tie, tii 'estufa' 'kiva.' Both pronunciations are in use. 

/.'■ but' 'ig.it'' 'round estufa' (ti< + but*ag.i 'roundness' 'round' + V). 

'rectangular estufa' ('•'■ • heji 'longness' 'long' 
Tehu'u 'arroyo orcaSada in which cottonwood tree- grow' (fe 'cot- 
ton wood' - lni'ii). 

'pueblo ruin' (U 'dwelling place' +ji as in keji). Thisis saidto 
be a little used San Juan form equivalent to the ordinary 
Jceji or f- '. 
Tekeji 'ruin' i '• 'dwelling place' + Jceji). This is a more inclusive 
term than *<>ij wjjeeji. 

'wagon bridge' (tf< 'wagon' + kqp'e). 
Teka 'cottonwood grove' [te 'cottonwood + tea). 
TekdboJ/i 'roundish grove of cottonw<mds" \>. "cottonwood' * 

'/',',., ,i.i,"l„/,,/riit»'i>'i 'winter people's estufa' (tinn-ti 'winter' +-/'' + 
Iowa 'people' + bi possessive + tee). Synonyms: pimpije'in- 
/airuhitt', and potie. 

'/'. 'ol'uijf 'wagon shed 9 {te 'wagon' + '<'/.' uijf). 

Tepa 'wall' (te as in tep'i+pa unexplained). Cf. tep'%, qwa'awi and 
qwap'i. 

Tepo 'wagon road' (/< 'wagon' + /><< '(rail* 'road'). 

1'iji'i •.-mall, short wall,' apparently used as diminutive of tepa (tt as 
in tepa+p'i, as in qzDap'i, possibly the same as in p'iki 'narrow- 
iii'"' 'narrow'). Tep*i is applied to the low, short walls or fire- 
screens buill beside some fireplaces of Tewa houses. Tep'% was 
also applied to a low stone wall used as a fence, although tepa 
is -aid to he a more proper term for such a wall. Cf. A/"/. 

ij.r.l'il.rr, and .j.r.lji /. 

Teqwa 'house' (U +qwa). This is the common term for separate 
house. A ' Kosa's house' traced on the ground in connection with 
a certain dance al Santa ( Hara was also called teqwa. 

TeqwaJb.it 'inside corner of a house ' (teqwa ■ Jfit (1)). 

Tegwak't u>Pi 'outside projection corner of a house' [t< qwa \- k\ u> 

Teqwa]> aKonffi 'burnt house' (teqwa+p' aKogj 'to burn' p'a 'fire', 
/,',,,. ■ 'to do 1 

TeqtoaiwQaf o 'lone house 1 'detached house 1 oot part of a bouserovi 
[teqwa + wi 'one' i-Jo'o 'being'). 

Tjen$a ( 6tore'l Span, tienda 'tent' 'store'). 

'I'.i.li,,-. 'place where ill" mud curls up when il dries' (to 'to dry' 
'dryness' 'dry' i <}awt 'to be curled up' 't" have risen in a 
curled state'). 

T.nh i ,r, /,,,',, 'dell where the mud curls up when ii dries' (to^ 

'«(!)). 

il such as Bel in playing certain games (to unexplained • 



92 ETHNOGEOGBAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [ETH. ANN. 29 

Tirmrr- 'every' in compounds. 

T:i in:ijiije 'in every direction' (t%m% + /"',/<)■ 

figi 'dot'. 

Toba 1 cliff'. 

Tobabu'u 'dell surrounded by cliffs' (iota + bu'u (1)). 

Tobahup'o 'mouth of a cliff-walled arroyo or canada' (tobahu'u + p'o). 

Tobahup'owiM 'horizontally projecting point at the mouth of a cliff- 
walled arroyo or Canada' (tobahu'u + jfowuii). 

Tubulin' it 'arroyo or canada with cliff-like walls' (lota + hv?u). 

Tdtah hi 'in; ' place where a cliff or bank is tumbling or falling down' 
(toin + l-i'til k to fall' + 'iwt ). 

Tobakwagt "mesa surrounded by cliff-like walls' (friba + hwagi ). 

Tobakwqje 'cliff top' 'heights at top of cliffs or cliff-like land' (toba+ 
Tcwaje). 

f iitx/ /in' a 'place at the base of a cliff' (tuba + nu'u). 

Tohiijio 'hole in a cliff' $oba + /''<:>). 

Tobaqwa 'cliff-dwelling' 'cave-dwelling' (h>b<i + qwa). See plate 16. 

Tnvidjii'til/ ;rii1<i i'' 'subterranean cave-dwelling' (jtobaqwa + k'gnto 'to 
sink' + '/"'). 

Tob'ifii'it •horizontally projecting point of a cliff' (toba + fn'n). 

Tubiitii'iiiji'' '[tainted cliff' (toba + tqijf + '"'). 

Tobawa-ii 'wide gap in cliffs' (tuba + irn.ii). 

'fnhmri'i 'gap or pass in the cliffs' (iota + iri'i). 

Tobairi'i 'horizontally projecting point of a cliff' (toba + n-i.'i). 

Tnkii'iihoyf 'sage-brush plain' (to 'chamiso', commonly called sage- 
brush + tea + '(d'Qijf). 

T'q-mpije'irjqwapsgyge 'locality beyond (east of) the east houserow' of 
a pueblo (fqmpije 'east' + 'i H + qwa + f'<?yqe). 

T<iiii]iij<"ijjijwasy, 'east houserow' of a pueblo (fqmpije 'east' + '*"' + 
qwasy). 

T'oij f appears only in \>fo/inae 'on the other side'. 

Tsq.mpije'iyqwaps^yge 'locality beyond (west of) the west houserow' of 
a pueblo (ts&mpije 'west' + '/"' + qwa + p%yge). 

Tsiiinjiij,'l)jijii;iKU 'west houserow' of a pueblo (tsqmpije 'west' + '/"' 
+ qwasy). 

I'.siiiiuijiii 'chimney' 'hearth' (<Span. chimenea. of same meaning). 

Tsiteqwa 'dog house or kennel' (tsi 'dog' + teqwa). 

Tsikwage 'basalt mesa' (tsi ' basalt ' + kwage). 

Tsihoaje ' basalt mesa or height' (tsi ' basalt '+ Tcwaje). 

Tsifu'u 'horizontally projecting point of basalt' (tsi ' basalt '+ fn'n). 
'horizontally projecting point of basalt' (tt<i ' basalt '+ iri.it). 

Tsuge "entrance' 'shed' (tsu 'to enter'+ge). 

Tsn.i,'!' 1 'entrance' (tsiu< 'to enter '+'«'*). 

Tsudiiwe "entrance' (tstue 'to enter' + Hwe). 

Tsige "canyon' (tsi'i + ge.) 

Tsig> po "canyon water' 'water from a canyon ' (isi'i + ge + $o 'water'). 



babbinoton] GEOQBAPHtt U rEBMS 93 

Tsi'i 'canyon' 'large steep-walled groove or channel'. 

Tsip'o "1111)11111 of n canyon' {toPi h 

Tsip'owiii 'horizontally projecting point :it the mouth of a canyon' 

(is" i + //,„/•;,//'). 
Tbiwfo 'greal canyon' {isi , i + eo , o 'largeness' 'large'). 
Tsiwaui 'wide .trap in :i canyon' (In"! + wcui). 
TsiwekPiwi 'narrow place in a canyon' (tsi'i + we&i 'narrowness 1 

' narrow ' + 'iwi ). 
li'/ 'breast' 'mountain thai resembles a breast'. 

'wide gap ' (wa as in wa&i + ge). This is an uncommon form 
equfr aleni to wadi. 

•-lair', especially foothole cut in rock for climbing steep 
slope-, cliffs, nick-, etc. (unanalyzable). 
Wdki 'slope', used especially of "talus slope' 'talus' at the base of a 

cliff {wa probably identical with wa in vocui + ki). 
II 'at 'nipple' 'head of breast' {wa i h 'point'). 
Wa-ti 'to scatter' "state of being scattered' •scattered'. 
11'/.// 'wide gap w itli -loping -ides* ( int probably identical with wa iii 
irul.i, but cf. al-o //■/'/. of which it may be the augmentative i -li). 
Wcui, San Juan dialectic form of qwa&i. 
Wasik' ' 'cattle corral' (wasi "cow" •cattle" + k'a). 
Wasitegwa 'cowshed' {wasi "cow* + teqwa). 

Wfcp'o 'window hole' (./-,/ "wind" • p"o). 

W'.ijif.i', -window", the part that tills the hole, the removable part I .' 
•u ind' + po + ■'')■ 

W$wPi 'windy gap' {w4 "wind" • wi'i). 

II'. postpounded in many locative postfixes and postfixed in a number 
of place-name-. It appears to have the same meaning as 'vwe, 
supplanting the latter to a large extent in the Nambe" dialect. 

Wegi 'hollowness' "hollow' or 'dell' <>f small Bize. Cf. »•«<{//. 

Wei ' 'narrow place'. 

WtygekwdV* 'council chamber' {we.yg( 'together' i hwo ' to sit' + 'i*). 

Wigt "cap" 'pass' {wi'i + ge). 

WiQi 'horizontally projecting point or corner' {ioi as in wiri + ge). 

This is a form used only in the Santa < llara dialed and equivalent 

to wiii. 
Wiliii'n 'arroyo or cafiada running through or from a gap' {wi'i + hu'u). 
Wi'i 'gap' " pass' 'chink '. 
\Y;,i,it',ij,i' ;,/-, 'place where no one lives"desert' (wi . . . pi negative 

• he' i t'a ' to li\ e' ■ to dwell' t 'iw( ). 
Wiii ' horizontal!} projecting corner or point' as of a cliff, mesa, or 

house i wi unexplained + ■>!). 

11"/.// San .lua 1 1 dialectic form of </ iri.il. 

HV's/"/ 'canyon running through or from a gap' {wi'i + /.v/7). 

Wdti 'high and drj plain' "arid plain' (unanalyzable). 

Wogi 'hollowness' 'hollow ' or 'dell' of large size. Cf. wegi. 



V. PLACE-NAMES 

Introduction 

The Tewa have a marked fondness for geographical conversation, 

and the number of place-names known to each individual is very large. 
Many a Tewa is acquainted with all or nearly all the place-names in 
localities in which he has lived or worked. A Tewa is almost certain 
to know most of the names of places about his village current in the 
dialect of the village. He is especially familiar with names of places 
Dear his field or fields. Of places situated about other Tewa villages 
he usually knows but few names. Shepherds and hunters are best 
informed about places lying in the hills or mountains remote from the 
villages. The Tewa do not travel much outside their own country. 
A few occasionally attend festivals at Taos, Picuris, Cochiti, or Santo 
Domingo. They frequently go shopping to Espaflola or to Santa Fe. 
Hardly any of the places with Tewa names lying outside the Tewa 
country are ever visited or seen by the persons who use the names in 
daily speech. No one Tewa knows more than a fraction of the total 
number of place-names presented in this paper. The number of place- 
names known to an individual depends on environment, interest, and 
memory. 

The use of place-names by the Tewa before the introduction of Euro- 
pean culture was doubtless very much the same as it is to-day. As 
many places outside the Tewa country were known to the Tewa, and as 
few visited, as at present. 

Each Tewa pueblo has about it an area thickly strewn with place- 
names well known to its inhabitants and in their peculiar dialect. It is 
probable that these areas correspond closely with those formerly oc- 
cupied by the settlements of the clans which have united to form the 
present villages. The Tewa's knowledge of geographical details fades 
rapidly when one passes beyond the sphere of place-names of his 
village. 

Tin' majority of the names air descriptive terms denoting land con- 
figuration. Elements denoting animal or vegetal life or things or 
events at the place are frequently prepounded. It requires but little 
use to make a descriptive name a fixed, definite label. It is said 
that no more flaking-stone is found at Flaking-stone Mountain than at 
oilier mountains of the western range, and yet the label is Flaking- 
stone Mountain [2:9]. The Chaina is a large river as well as the 
94 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 95 

Rio I Irande, and yet the mime l'< >■«<>£( - l>ie- river' [ Large Features :3] 
i- applied to the latter only. Most of these names are made up of 
Douns or of uouns and adjectives. A uumber contain verbs, as for 
example: fi ' where the stones slide down' [2:15]. The 

bahuvrihi type is rare; example: K^osq^yj^qnwi 'big-legging place' 
pueblo of the peojile w ho ha\ e the big leggings' | Unmapped |. 

Names of obscure etymology, concerning the origin of which the 
people remember nothing, and which arc nevertheless clearly of Tewa 
origin, form quite a numerous class. A newlj settled country has it- 
Saint Botolph's Towns, a country in which a language has lone- held 
sway, ii- I'>«>-t(ni-. The occurrence ,>t' a considerate sprinkling of 
obscure names argues for the long habitation of the count i \ bj Tewa 
speaking Indians; names of this class are especially noted in the treat- 
ment below . 

The translation into Tewa of foreign place-names is very rare. 
Aside from a number of problematical cases in which a Tewa name 
may lie the translation of a Spanish place name, or vice versa, and 
name- like Taos Mountains, which would naturally be the same in all 
languages, there is known to the writer onlj one translated foreign 
name, that i-. 7- /•' 'Eagle Mountain' [29:93], a peak south of Jemez 
Pueblo, which is (dearly a translation of the current Jemez name. 

Quite a number of foreign names have, however, been borrowed l>v 
the Tewa: thus Sun ?i 'Zuni,' probably borrowed from the Keresan. 

Folk etymology has distorted some of these foreign loan name-. 
Kere-an i( lochiti dialect i K • • •< . a word of obscure etymology even 

in Keie-an and which mean- nothing to the Tewa ear. ha- been taken 

into Tewa and changed to A < '■ '• 'Stone Estufa'; see [28:77]. 

Some name- of villages, mountains, rivers, etc. appear in various 
Tanoan languages in cognate form-. These place names were evi- 
dently already inuse at some remote time in the past when the Tanoan 
languages wen' not so diversified a- thej are at present. Such names 
are discussed in the detailed treatment below. 

When a pueblo was shifted from one place to another, the old name 

wa- regularly retained. There have been, for instance, three su 

Bive pueblos of the San Juan Indians called bj the -aine name. 

each occupying a different site. Compare the English place-names 
transferred to places in America bj tie- English colonists. 

Some much-used name- are abbreviations; thus /'■;;• "Santa IV* 
for ■' OQflPoQt or l\,r,i',ij„,y, [29:5]; />'</</ 'EspaBola' for /.' 
[14:16]. 

The practice of distinguishing villages or jnesas bj numbering 
them 'first', 'second', 'third', etc., seems to be peculiar to the Hopi. 
The Hopi distinguish t he Tewa village of San [Idefonso as the ' first ", 
Santa Clara a- the 'second', San Juan as the •third". Tewa village. 

See under the treatment of these \ illage name-. 



96 ' ETHNOGEOGBAPH"S! OF THE TEWA INDIANS [kth.ann.29 

Sometimes we find two names for one place current in a single dia- 
lect. Thus the Rito de los Frijoles [28:6] is in Tewa Puqwige, alias 
Tunabakug.t . Again, two or more places have precisely the same 
name. Almost every Tewa village has its 'okutyywasjo 'high hill', a 
certain high hill near the village on which a shrine is situated being 
called thus, although there may he higher hills in the neighborhood. 
See [12:27], [19:27], [26:14]. There are several arroyos in the 
Tewa country known as Huiahu'u ' dry arroyo'; see [1:31], [15:26]. 
There is one P'efu'u [8:36] in the Chama Valley, another [20 : unlo- 
cated] south of Buckman. Many streams are called by different 
names in different parts of their courses, as the Chama River [Large 

Features:2], Pojoaque Creek [19:3], etc. On the other hand, several 

arroyos may have the same name if they come from the same water- 
shed, as [10:13]. Two streams starting from a pass, gap, or moun- 
tain in opposite directions sometimes bear the same name, as [13:19] 
and [13:26]; [20:9] and |20:H>|. el,'. 
Place-names overlap as much as among us. One place-name may 

cover an area part of which is covered by one or more others. Such 
an inclusive name as pumafc^yge "the region about Buckman, south 
of|20:.">|" covers many other more limited named localities. Names 
of -mall hut important localities may he extended to cover the 
region of which the locality forms part. Thus P^efupije 'toward 
Abiquiu [3:36]' is used with the meaning 'up the Chama Valley', 
since Abiquiu is to the Tewa the most important place in the valley. 

Numerous instances will lie noticed of a stream being called from a 
height, or vice versa. 

The process of applying a name to a place not previously named, or 

giving a new name to a place, could not he directly studied. It, 
occurs very rarely. It appears that a place-name is usually first 
applied by a single individual. It may or may not he adopted by a 
-mallei- or larger group of other individuals. Many, perhaps the 
majority of place names, exist for a shorter or longer time in the 
mind of one or a few individuals only and are then forgotten, never 
becoming generally known to the community. The process ran not 
lie called an unconscious one. 

How ancient or recent a place name is can not in most instances he 

determined. The vocabulary sometimes enables us to distinguish 

post Spanish names. Tek'aiekwaje 'break-wagon height' [2:40] and 

'■"ni , -It a' a *colt arroyo' [17:42] are (dearly given by a people 

familiar with wagons and colls. 

Many Tewa place-names have Spanish counterparts of the same 
meaning. In such instances the Tewa may be the translation id' the 
Spanish name, the Spanish may he a translation of tin 1 Tewa name. 
both may he translations of a name in some other language, or both 
may he descriptive and of the same or independent origin. It is im- 



HARRINGTON] PLACE [JAMES 97 

possible i" determine satisfactorily the origin of man; of these names. 
Tewa feeling or tradition is the safest guide. Where Tewa idiom is 
violated, as in Tewa ^AkonnnUr. [13:lt>| for Spanish Lmna Tendida 

(which is poor Tewa but g I Spanish), the Tewa is clearly the 

translation. The Mexicans t ranslated a number of Tewa place names, 
and took noi a few of the Tewa words directlj into their language, \ ery 
carelessly modifying their pronunciation, [t is a custom of the Mexi- 
cans to call a place after the Burname of a long-resident, important, 
or numerous family, or the Bole family inhabiting it. These names are 
sometimes singular, sometimes plural; as, Velarde [9:6], Los Luceros 
[9::;.".]. The Tewa, nol well understanding this custom, attempt 
sometimes to translate Spanish names of this origin into their 
language, rendering Los Luceros, for example, by 'Ag.qjoso'jd'iw 'place 
uf the morning star' (translating Span, lucero 'morning star'). 

There i- and always has been considerable dislike for the Mexicans 
on the part of the Tewa, and this feeling i- responsible for the purist 
tendencies of many Tewa speakers. TheTewaare apt t" avoid the 
use <>t' Spanish place-names when speaking Tewa, either translating 

thei ■ using the old Tewa equivalents. When talking Tewa in the 

presence of Mexicans they are especially careful nol to use any Span 
i^li words, lest they be understood and the secret Bubjecl of the con- 
versation I"- betrayed. Dislike for the Mexicans has tended t" keep 
the old Tewa place-names in use, and, in general, to preserve the 
language. 

The area covered by the maps is that in which Tewa place-names 
are common. Twenty-nine regional maps (the key to which is pro- 
vided in map 30 are here presented, of varying scale according 
to the number of the place-names; these follow the Indian political 
divisions more or less faithfully. Each map is designated bj a 
number in boldfaced type inclosed io brackets, and also bj a name 
representing some prominent feature. For Beveral reasons the 
place-names are not given on the maps: The Indian names are too 
long; frequently they have Beveral variant forms in ilect; 

man] are found in several dialects or languages; there are often two 
or more names tor one place. The places are indicated by numbers. 
The text treatment of the names follows their placement on the map--. 
The number in boldfaced type in brackets indicates the map on which 
the place occurs; the light-faced number refers to the place of cor- 

onding number on the map. Thus [22:3] refers to -1 t (22], or 

Santa Fe Mountain sheet, and to the plan, on the Bheet number 
lanatory information inserted bj the author in quotation 
placed in brackets. 

Conversation with Mr. Francis La Flesche, student of the Omaha 
and other Siouan tribes, suggests interesting comparisons between the 
place-names of a sodentarj Pueblo tribe, as the Tewa, and those 



98 ETHNOGEOGBAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

of a typical Plains tribe, as the Omaha. It appears that the Omaha 
have fewer place-names than the Tewa, but more widely scattered and 
more lucidly descriptive. A detailed study should be made of the 
place-naming customs of two such diverse tribes. 

Large Features 

[Large Features : 1]. (1) Pimpigyge, Ts&m.pij<?i' i pimpgyge 'beyond 
the mountains ' 'beyond the western mountains' (fiyf 'moun- 
tain': Ts<zmpije , i H pijjf 'the Jemez Mountains' [Large Features: 
8]; /»/; //;/. ' beyond'). This name is applied to the region of the 
"Valles" [16:44], [16:45], [16:181], and [27:6], q. v. 

(2) Eng. The Valles (<Span. (3)), "the Valles". 1 

(3) Span. Los Valles 'the valleys'. = Eng. (2). "Los Valles". 2 
These are high, grass -grown meadow -valleys west of the 

crest of the Jemez Range ( Tsq rnpij< '<"' piyf [Large Features: S] ). 
Such valleys are found also in the Peruvian Andes, where they are 
called by the German-speaking inhabitants Wiesentaler. There 
are four of the Valles with distinct Spanish names: Valle de 
Santa Rosa [16:45], Valle dc los Posos [16:14], Valle Grande 
[16:131], and Valle de San Antonio [27:6]. See also [2:11] and 
Valle de Toledo [27:unlocated]. The Valles are at present unin- 
habited and no ruins of former Indian settlement have been dis- 
covered in them. This lack of inhabitants was perhaps due to 
altitude, cold climate, and unsuitability for Indian agriculture. 

"Altitude may have been the main obstacle to settlement in some cases, for 
the beautiful grassy basins, with abundant water and fair quality of soil, that 
extend west of Santa Fe [29:5] between the ranges of Abiquiu, Pelado, and 
Sierra de Toledo on the east, and the Sierra de la Jara and the mountains of 
Jemez on the west [for these names see under Ts&mpije' V • fiVf [Large Features: 
8] ], under the name of 'Los Valles', are destitute of ruins. There it is the 
long winter, perhaps also the constant hostility of roaming tribes contending for a 
region soabundant in game, that have kept the village Indian out." 3 "Twenty- 
five miles separate the outlet of the gorge [14:24] at Santa Clara [14:71] from 
the crest of the Valles Mountains [ TsQmpije' V ' piv f>~]* The Valles proper are 
as dest i t ute of ruins as the heart of t he eastern mountain chain [ T'ampije' V ' /»( y r ] ; 
beyond them begin the numerous ancient pueblos of the Jemez tribe". 5 
"Against the chain of gently sloping summits which forms the main range 

i Bandolier, Final Report, pt. n, p. 201, 1892. 

= 11.1.1., pp. 12,200. 

a Ibid., pp. 11-12. 

t ' ' The distances are not absolutely accurate, but according to the statements made to me, the only 
means of checking them being my own experience on foot. The view from the crest, where the 
Pelado [2:13] looms up on one side and the Toledo range [27:unlocated] on the other, is really 
striking. The sight of grassy levels glistening with ci instantly dripping moisture is something rare in 
the Southwest. To heighten the effect, groves of 'Pino Real' and mountain aspen rise everywhere. 
The soil is very fertile, and there is abundant water, and yet no trace of ancient abodes has been 
t. mull. The winters are long in the Valles, and there is too much game not to attract the cupidity of 
a pi iwerful tribe like the Navaj. is [Navali. >].... I suppose that no nun on the flanks of the chain, 
both east and west, is to be found at an altitude exceeding 7,500 feet." 

<> Bandolier, op.cit, pp. 05-06, and note. 



RAKBINGTOH] PLACE N Mil- 99 

from the peak of Ahiquiu [2:10?] to the Sierra de la Palisada [27:ui 

in the Booth abuts in the weal an elevated plateau, containing a series of grassy 

t.. which tin- nam' ■ ! -' (the valleys) has heen applied. Per- 

manent streams water it. and contribute to make an excellent grazing n 
tlii- plateau. But the seasons are short, for snovi Alls the passes sometin 
June, and ma I again as early as September. During the three months 

of summer thai the Vallea enjoy, however, their appearance is very lovely. . . . 
The high Bummits are seldom completely shrouded for more than a few hours 
at a time, and as soon as the sun 1 Teaks through the mist, the grassy ha.-ins shine 
like sheets of malachite. Flocl 61 their surface, and on the heights 

i the deep I ihie tups ,ii i|„. refill pi ins mi nude with the white trunks and 
light verdure of the tall mountain aspen-. It is also the country of the bear 
and the panther, and the brook teem with mountain trout. 

But for agriculture the Valles offer little inducement; for although the 
fertile, ingress and egress are so difficult that even potatoes, which grow there 
with remarkable facility, titivated profitably. The descent to the 

east towanl Santa Clara [14:71] is through a long and rugged gorge [ 14:24], over 
a trail which bi asts oi burden must tread with caution, while toward Cochiti 
[28:77] the paths are still in.. re difficult. On the west a huge mountain mass, 
the Sierra de la Jam [27:10], interposes itself between the principal valley, 
that of Toledo [Valle de Toledo [27: unlocated] ], and the Jemez country. 
Both north and south of this mountain the heights are much less considerable; 
still the clefts by which they are traversed are none the less narrow, and the 
traveller is compelled t.. make long detours in order to reach the Jemez River 
[27::>4]."' "The Valles constitute a water supply for the Jemez country. 
Tw.. rti it, the San Antonio [27:11] on the eastern Bank of the Jara 

Mountain [27:10], and the Jara [Jara Creek [27:unJocated]] at the 

>ver which crosses the trail from Santa Clara [14:71]. These unite 
Eoon to form the San Antonio 'river' [27:111. which meanders through the 

Valles de Santa llosa [16:15] and San Antonio [16:<i] f..r seven mill 
northwesterly direction, and enters a picture- tring the same name, 

and tin n gradually curves around through groves until, at I.a Cueva [27: 
unlocated], it assumes an almost due southerly direction." - 

See especially [16:44], [16:45], [18:131], [27:»J], Valle de 
Toledo [27: unlocated], and TsimpyJiP f^/ [Large Features: 8]. 
[Large Features: 2]. (1) San Juan Popjgff 'red river' (fto'water 
river'; pi 'redness' 'red'; '[< .■ >■ locative and adjective forming 
postfix). 'II i is is the old Tew a name of the Chama River, doubt- 
less formerly currenl at all the Tew a pueblos. It is given because 
of the red color of the water of the river. The water discharged 
by tlie Chama frequently makes the Rio Grande red for miles 
belon the confluence. Bandolier learned thai this red wain- in the 
Chama comes from i loyote Creek 1 1 :•_".» | (see the quotation below), 
I H it the (rater of the Chama is at all times reddish. 

(2) //'.'//"//'". Tfa Span. Chama, see Span, 

below; ]>■• 'water' 'river'; /■■;/• 'bank place' ■ /■ 
'bank,' g> 'down al ' 'over al *). This loan name i- currenl at all 
the Rio < > rande Tewa pueblos. 



100 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. axx. 29 

(3) Cochiti Tfetepotfena 'northwest river' (tfite 'north'; <po 
' wesl ' ; tfena " river'). The Cochiti are fond of naming geograph- 
ical features according to their direction from Cochiti [28:77]. 

(4) Eng. Chama Eiver. (<Span.). =Tewa(2), Span. (5). 

(5) Span. Rio Chama, Rio de Chama 'river of Tsain<i\ the name 
Tsiinn'i having been applied by the Tewa to the pueblo ruin [5:7] 
and its vicinity. For a discussion of the origin of the name see 
[5:7]. =Tewa (2), Eng. (4). The upper Chama River above the 
confluence of [1:4] and Vado settlement [1:5] is called by the 
Tewa Pqmpoj see [1:6]. 

"A picturesque gorge or canon terminates above Abiquiu [3:36], 
and from it emerges the Chama River". 1 

The Chama usually carries its waters above the sand to the Rio 
( irande confluence. ''South of the Rio Chama, the waters of not 
a single tributary of the Rio Grande reach the main artery 
throughout the whole year". 2 

The water of the Chama is always reddish. "The branches of 
which the Chama is formed are the Coyote [1:29] in the west, 
the Gallinas [1:24] north of west, and the Nutrias [1:14] north. It 
is said that the waters of the first are red, those of the Gallinas 
white, and those of the Nutrias limpid. According as one or the 
oilier of these tributaries rises, the waters of the Chama assume a 
different hue. The word "Chama' is properly 'Tzama'". 3 The 
water of the Chama is always somewhat reddish and when the 
water of the Rio Grande is reddish it is said to be due to the dis- 
charge of the Chama. See Posoge [Large Features: 3]. Compare 
the San Juan name of the Chama River given above. 

The region of the Chama River is sometimes spoken of as the 
Chama region or Abiquiu region. For the Tewa expression see 
[1: introduction]. 

See [1:4], [1:6],_[1:8], [1:11], [1:14], [1:15], [1:24], [1:29],[1:31], 
[5:7], [5:16], and Posog.e [Large Features:.'!]. 
J Large Features: :■!]. (1) San Juan, Santa Clara, San Ildefonso Posog.< . 
Nambe Posogt 'place of the great water' (%>o 'water' 'river'; so 
'largeness' 'large' "great'; ge'down at' "over at'). The Nambe 
form is irregular. Compare the names of similar meaning. 

(2) Picuris "Paslapaane '.' 

(3) Jemez HqnfafidJcwa 'place of the great water' (]i<n<-<"i 
'large' 'great': fid 'water'; hvd locative). Compare the forms 
of similar meaning. 

(4) Cochiti Tfena 'river'. 

'Bandelier, Pinal Report, pt.il, p. 55, 1892. "Ibid., pt. II, p. 56. 

[bid . pt. i. p. 17, 1S90. ' Spinden, Pii uris MS. notes, 1910. 



PLACE (TAMES LO] 

(5) Zuni "the 'Great Flowing Waters'", 1 evidently a transla- 
tion of the Zuni name. Compare the names of similar meaning. 

(6) Eopi (Oraibi) Pajo 'river' this is the only name fm- the 
Bio Grande familiar to the writer's informant. 

(7) Jicarilla A.pache "Kutsohihi". 3 No etymology is given. 

(8) Eng. I!i" < rrande. ( <Span. >. Compare the names of similar 
meaning. 

('.») Span. Kii> Grande del "None. Rio Grande, Rio del Norte 
'great river <>i the north' 'great river' 'river of the north'. 
Compare the names of similai meaning. 

The Rio Grande nevei becomes dry as Ear north as the 
Tewa country. In summer the water- frequently sink into the 
sand a short distance above Bernalillo [29:96]. [n July, L908, the 
stream flowed onlj a short distance beyond Cochiti Pueblo 1 28:77]. 
At high water the Rio Grande is dangerous t<> ford in the Tewa 
country. 

The chief tributaries of the Ki>> < rrande in the Tewa count r\ are 
Truchas Creek [9:9], the Chama River [Large Features:2], Santa 
Cruz ('reek [15:18], Santa Clara Creek [14:24], Pojoaque Creek 
[19:3], Guaje Creek [16:53], "Buckman Arroyo" [20:25], Paja- 
rito Canyon [17:30], Water Canyon [17:58], and Ancho Canyon 
[17:62] The Chama River is said to run perennially to its con- 
fluence with Rio Grande. " South of the Rio Chama, the waters 
of not a single tributary <>i' the Rio < rrande reach the main artery 
throughout the whole year."' The Riot rrande is quite clear above 
the Chama confluence. The water of the Chama is reddish with 
mud and the water of the Rio Grande below the Chama conflui oce 
has a dirty reddish oi brownish color. See under [Large Fea 

hire- 

Just above the Tewa country the Rio Grande passes through tlm 
Canyon [8:64], q. v. From this il emerges at [8:75], but the 

precipitous wall of Cai Mesa [ 13:1 ] hugs the river on the west 

as far south as the < lhama confluence. 

From the vicinity of the Chama confluence in the north to that 
San I Me fun-. > Pueblo [19:22] in the south the vallej of the Rio 

■ • is comparatively broad, bordered on il a-i bj \*>w hills 

and on the west by low mesas. This section i- frequently called 
i nericans the " Espanola Valley ", from Espanola [14:16], its 
chief tow n. 

In this section lie the three Tewa pueblos situated bj the river. 
namely, San Juan [11: San Juan Pueblo], Santa ( lara [14:71], and 



102 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. .inn. 29 

San Ildefonso [19:22]. In the east lie the Santa Fe Mountains 
( T a in j "[/'-'/"' pV)f [Large Features :7], in the west the Jemez 
chain ( Tsq mpijd '"' ply./ [Large Features :8]), ranges parallel to the 
Rio Grande and 10 to 20 miles from it. 

About 3 miles below San Ildefonso [11:22] at [19:125] the Kio 
( rrande enters a second canyon, which extends, with exception of 
a short stretch in the vicinity of Buckman [20:19], as far south 
as Cochiti [28:77]. This is called by the Tewa merely Potsi'i 
"water canyon' or Posog.e , i?npoisi'i 'water canyon of the Kio 
Grande' (po 'water': isiH •canyon": Posogjs 'Rio Grande' (see 
above); ''ijjf locative and adjective- forming- postfix); but the 
Americans have a specific name for it, namely, White Rock 
Canyon. See Potsi' i [Large Features:4], below. 

So far as the writer has learned, the Tewa do not personify the 
Rio Grande and other rivers as do the Jicarilla Apache, according 
to Goddard. 1 The Tewa appear to have no myth of the origin of 
the Rio Grande, but say that it has run since the beginning of the 
world, as the result of rain. 
[Large Features:4]. (1) Potsi'i, Posoge'impoisiH 'water canyon of 
the Rio Grande' (po "water'; tsi'i "canyon"; Posog_e 'Rio Grande 1 — 
see [Large Features:3]. above; ^yjf locative and adjective-form- 
ing postfix). This is the only name which the Tewa have for this 
canvon of the Rio Grande. It is also one of the Tewa names 
of [8:64]. 

(2) Eng. White Rock Canyon. This name is said to have been 
applied only since the building of the Denver and Rio Grande 
Railroad. Persons very familiar with the region know of no white 
rock to which it refers. It can hardly refer to the white rock 
[28:94] from which Pena Blanca [28:92] is named, for that is 5 
miles below the southern end of the canyon. Span. (4) appears 
to be a translation of Eng. (3). "White Rock Canon." 2 " White- 
Rock Canyon." 3 

(3) Eng. Devil Canyon. The writer has heard an American 
apply this name to the canyon. 

(4) Span. Canon de la Pena Blanca, Canon Blanco 'white rock 
canyon"white canyon.' (Probably < Eng.). =Eng.(2). "Canon 
Blanco." 2 

(5) Span. "Canon del Norte." 2 This means 'north canyon' and 
is a Span, name used by people living south of the canyon. 

(6) Span. Caja, Caja del Rio Grande, Cajon, Cajon del Rio 
Grande Canon. Canon del Rio Grande, 'box' 'box of the Rio 
< Irande Canyon' •Canyon of the Rio Grande.' "Caja del Rio." 1 

> Jicarilla Apache Texts, 1911. ' Hewett, Comnranaut&, p. 20, 190S. 

■ Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n, p. 70, 1S92. «Bandelier, op. cit., pp. 80, 149. 



uauiungton] PLAGE-NAMES 103 

••Almost opposite San Ddefonso [19:22] begins the deep and 
picturesque clef! through which the Rio Grande has forced its 
way. It is called •Canon Blanco,' 'Canon del Norte,' or 'White 
Bock Canon. 1 Towering masses [Buckman Mesa |20:."«|| of lava, 
basalt, and trap form its eastern walls; while on the west 
those formation- are capped, a short distance from the river, by 
3of1 pumice and tufa." 1 The eastern wall of the canyon ends in the 
vicinity of Buckman [20:19] with the discontinuation of Buckman 
Mesa [20:5], bul is continued farther south by Chino Mesa |29:1 ]. 
The whole canyon is spoken of by Bandelier 3 as "the canon 
that separates San Udefonso [19:22] from Cochiti [28:77]". He 
also speaks of "the frowning walls of the Caja del Rio . . . with 
their shaggy crests of lava and basaltic rock" as \ tew ed from the 
dell [28:22] looking east. 

•■ Except at the little basin [20:22], the Ki,> ' Irande leaves no Bpace f, 
tlement between Ban Qdefonso [ 10:22] and < lochiti [28:77], It il.,» a swiftly 
throngh a continuous canon, with scarcely room for a single horseman along- 
side the stream. The lower end of this cafion afforded the people of Cochiti 
a good place for communal fishing in former times. Large nets, made < 
fibre, were dragged up Btream by tw> parties "i men, holdi 
lank. The shallowesl portions of tin- river were selected, in order to allow a 
man to walk behind the net in the middle of the Btream. In this manner 
portions of the river were almost despoiled of fish. The same improvidence 
prevailed as in hunting, and the useful animals were gradually killed off. 
After each fishing expedition, the product was divided ai ans pro 

i ir the highest religions ofl the communal 

g, [Large Features:3], [8:64], also [19:125], 120:7,1, 

[28:81], [29:1]. 

: ,- Featuri r. 5 . Tew^n4yg< 'Tewa country' i Tewh. name of the 

tribe; arth ' 'land': g, 'dow n at ' ' over at '). 

The Tewa consider their country the region between the Santa 
1-V ( /"'//,./ , Large Featuri s:7])and Jemez ( TafynpigiV 1 

pij/ Largi Features:8]) Mountain Ranges, Er the ricinity of 

San Juan Pueblo [11 : San .(nan Pueblo] in the north to thai of 
San Qdefonso [19:22] and Tesuque [26:8] pueblos in the south. 
The Rio < .rand,- \ allej proper, thai is, the narrow Btrip of culti- 
vated land on each side of the river, is called 1 ■ wabeg< 'Tewa dell' 
('/'■ wh name of the tribe; /'•'• 'small, low . roundish place'; gi 'down 
at' 'overat'). The entire low country of the Tewa, extending from 
mountain range to mountain range and including high hills and 

-. i- railed /• ,r,il)n(j, 'Tew a valle\ ' ( 'I', //•./ nan f the t ribe; 

/-■/'./ 'large, low, roundish place'; g> 'down at' 'over at'). The 

' II u 



104 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. anx. l:0 

portion of the Tewa country at the foot of the mountain chains 
is known as Tewapinnuge 'Tewa place beneath the mountains* 
(Tewa name of the tribe; piijf 'mountain*; nu'u 'below'; ge 
"down at' 'over at'). According to the writer's informants the 
Tewa had in ancient times a strong feeling that the Tewa country 
was their land and property, and would have resented the attempt 
of any other tribe to make a settlement in it. The Tewa had in 
former times also many pueblos in the region south of the present 
Tewa country, known as T'anngc, q. v. [Large Features :G]. 

[Large Features:6]. (1) 7"anug,e, T'anug.e'akQyy 'live down coun- 
try" 'live down country plain' (t'a 'to live'; nug_e 'down be- 
low <nu'n •below*, ge 'down at' 'over at"; 'ttl-oijf "plain'). 
This name refers to the great plain south of the Tewa country 
and east of the Rio Grande. Its Indian inhabitants were called 
T*anug.e'iniowa 'live-down-country people* (T'anuge, see above; 
Hijf locative and adjective-forming postfix; Iowa 'person' 'peo- 
ple'), or for short T'anuiowa. See Tano. page 576. 

(2) Eng. Santa Fe Plain. This term seems applicable. Santa 
Fe city [29:5] is at the northern border of the plain and com- 
mands a view of the greater part of it; hence the name is applied. 
This plain has been called by Bandelier '"the central plain of 
northern New Mexico". He also speaks 1 of the northern part 
of it as "the plateau of Santa Fe," while to the southern part he 
applies "the Galisteo [29:4(>] plain,"- and " the basin of Galisteo 3 
[29:4o]. This is the broad arid plain extending from the region 
about Santa Fe |29:.">] in the north to that about Galisteo [29:40] 
in the south. This plain was, roughly speaking, formerly the 
homeland of the southern Tiwa. See Tano, under Names of 
Tribes and Peoples, page 576, and Galisteo Pueblo ruin [29:39]. 

[Large Features:"]. (1) T'q/n/>'jt'"'p[ijf. fampijepiyf 'eastern 
mountains* {Cqm/pije 'east' <£q/i)f 'sun', pige 'toward'; V"' 
locative and adjective-forming postfix, 3 + plu. ; pijjf 'moun- 
tain"). So called because the mountains are east of the Tewa 
country. Cf. Tsqrnpije'i''' p\j)f [Large Features:8]. 

i 2) Hue-. Santa Fe Mountains, named from Santa Fe city [29:5]. 
(<Span.). = Span. (3). This name has been applied sometimes 
to the whole range, as we use it here; sometimes to the southern 
part of that range only, in the vicinity of Santa Fe city. "Santa 
Fe range.** 4 ''Santa Fe Range." 5 

i Final Report, pt. n, p. 88, 1892. 

. p. 106. 
aibid., pp. 20. S7, 88. 
4 Ibid., pp. 15 

■ Land of Sunshine, a Book of Resources of New Mexico, !>. 23, 1907. Ore Deposits of New Mex- 
ico, i). 163, 1910. 



iiu:kis.;to.n] PLACE-NAMES 105 

(3) Spun. Sierra de Santa Fe, 'Santa Fe Mountains,' named 
from Santa Fe city [29:5]. =Eng. (2). This name is, like its 
Eng. equivalent, applied now to the whole range, now to the 
southern pari of the same. "Sierra de Santa Fe*." ' 

(4) Span. "Sierra Nevada." 2 This means ' snowy mountains.' 
Identified with the Santa Fe Range by Bandolier. 8 

These name- refer to the range of mountains cast of the Tewa 
country from Jicarita Peak [22:9] in the north to the vicinitj of 
Santa Fe [29:5] in the Bouth and west of the upper course of the 
1' cos River [22:t'-_']. They do aot properly apply to the Taos 
Range [8:24], nor to the Mora Range [22:64]. The peaks and 
other features of this range arc given on |22|. 

The Span, name Sangre de Cristo 'blood of Christ' is not cor 
rectly applied to these mountains. It is given on the standard 
map- as a range northwest of Trinidad, Colorado, separating the 
headwaters of the Arkansas and the Rio Grande in Colorado. 

Indian- and Mexicans tell of a half-breed, called in Spanish 
Miguel el [ndio, 'Michael the Indian,' "Indian Mike." who lives 
in (he wild portions of these mountains, eating bear and deer 
meat and avoiding human company. He is said to talk \cry lit- 
tle Spanish, and no one seemstoknow what Indian language he 
-peaks. 
fLar^e Features: 8]. (1) TstrnpyJi? ImpijePigs 'western 

mountains' {ts&mpijt 'west' tsqrjj unexplained, pi)', 'toward'; 
'/'' locative and adjective-forming postfix, •"• j phi.: piyj 'moun- 
tain*). So called because the mountains are west of the Tewa 
country. <T. T'qmpiji^pioj [Large Features: 7]. 

(2) Eng. Jemez Mountains, named from Jemez Pueblo [27:35]. 
This name has perhaps long been applied looselj to the whole 
range, but the writer has not found such usage in print earlier 
than the writings of Hewett. Bandolier* uses "Siena de 

Je /'" as a Bynonym for Jara Mountain |27:1<'|. [. v. "A 

great complex of mountain- loosely known as the Jemez."' 

" Jemez mountain-." 

I Yallee Mountains. (-'Span.). Span. (5). Thisisthename 

applied to the chain l>\ liandelier, who U868 it ju-t a- Hewetl 

uses" Jemez Mountains." "Valles Mountains."' " Valles chain. n * 

Range of the Yalh 

!. lii f. ibid, 

- l**i-i .i>n 
Ml. I 



106 ETHNOGEOGEAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [Era. an.w 29 

(1) Eng. Santa Clara Mountains. This name is suggested by a 
prominent English-speaking Indian of Santa Clara Pueblo [14:71], 
who thinks the name Jemez Mountains or Valles Mountains is not 
appropriate. Santa Clara Pueblo is the only Rio Grande Tewa 
pueblo lying on the west side of the Rio Grande, and the names 
Santa Clara Creek [14:21] and Santa Clara Peak [2:13] are well 
established. 

(5) Span. Sierra de los Valles, 'mountains of the valleys,' re- 
ferring to the meadow-vallevs known as Los Valles; see Pim- 
ji;rij<je [Large Features:l]. This is the name always used by 
Mexicans and by Tewa when they speak Spanish. It is also the 
name used by Bandelier. =Eng. (3). "Sierra de los Valles. " n 
"Sierra del Valle."- 

These names refer to the entire range of mountains west of the 
Tewa country, which Bandelier 3 describes as "the mountains 
which divide the Rio Grande valley from the sources of the Rio 
Jemez [27:31]." Mountains or groups of mountains of this 
chain or range pass under many special names, most of which 
do not appear on any map. and cannot be definitely located. 

"As 1 shall have occasion to refer frequently to the different sections of the 
Valles Mountains under their current Spanish names, I give here a list of them 
from north to south. The northern end of the range is formed by the Sierra de 
Abiquiu [2: unlocated], with the peak [Abiquiu Peak [2:10]] of the same 
name; then follows the Cerro Pelado [SantaClara Peak [2:13]]; afterwards 
come the Sierra de Toledo [27: unlocated], Siena de San Miguel [28:29], 
Sierra de la Bolsa [27: unlocated], and, lastly, the Sierra de la Palisada [27: 
unlocated]. As seen from Santa Fe [29:5], they seem to constitute one long 
chain of contiguous heights. West of this range, at an elevation of at least 
8,000 feet, extend the grassy basins of the 'Valles' [Pimpxyqe [Large Fea- 
tures:!]]; beyond it rises the high Sierra de la Jara [Jara Mountain [27:10]], 
sometimes called Sierra de Jemez, because the Jemez region lies on its western 
base." J 

Other mountains of the range are: Capulin Mountain [1:2S], 
Pedernal Mountain [2:9], Ktisunfupiyj' [14:25], Pltepiyf [14: 
23], K'yjobukwaje [16:131], Cochiti Mountains [28:5], and the 
mountains with Jemez names shown on the eastern part of [27]. 

Trails 

Po 'trail' 'road 1 . Wagon roads are sometimes called tepo ' wagon 
road' (te 'wagon'; po 'road') or posd'jo 'big road' (po 'road'; so'jo 
'big'), in contradistinction to which trails are called po'e ('« diminu- 
tive). Kaiajiipo or Tcws&jipo 'horse trail' (kaiajii, kw%ji 'horse'; po 
•trail*). Bmhipn 'donkey trail' {bvdu 'donkey 1 ; po 'trail'). 

'Bandelier, The Delight Makers, p.l, 1890; Final Report, pt. 11. p. 71. 1892. 

'Ibid., p. 199. 

'Ibid . pt. i. p 14. note, 1890. 

•Ibid., pt. II, p. 72, note, 1S92. 



MAP 1 
TIERRA AMARILLA REGION 










ffl /'. §H%***'%!% 



MAP 1 
TIERRA AMARILLA REGION 



HABBINGTON] PLACE NAMES 11 IT 

The region known to tin- Tewa is covered al present -v% i 1 1 1 a netw ork 
of innumerable brails, most of which are made by Btock. The intro 
daction of the horse doubtless greatly modified the course and charac 
ter of trails used in traveling. Satisfactory knowledge about the 
ancient trails is surprisingly difficult to get. The chief ancient trails 
leading west were doubtless those which passed up the Santa Clara 
and Guaje Creeks and over the western mountains into the Jemez 
country. Important trails must have run along both sides of the Rio 
Grande and Rio Chama. All information obtained about ancient trails 
is included in the present section. < >hl Indian informants say that the 
Tewa Had no bridges across the Rio Grande and the Chama in ancient 
times; their trails led them to well-known fording places These 
were the only streams which could not be forded anywhere. Fordis 
called merely Poptfvwt 'place where one goes through the water" (po 
'water';jpi 'to issue 1 'to go through'; 'iw> locative). A>inthecase 
of the trails, the fords are fully treated in the present section. 
Some of the .smaller streams and ditches of the Tewa country wen- 
spanned by Hat hew n logs. 

Trail- were sometimes named after the places or peoples to which 
they led or after the peoples who used them: Thus, P*efuPo 'Abiquiu 
trail' (/''■/''" 'Abiquiu'; fo 'trail'); II ,, A . 'Navaho trail' 
i W&mcibi 'Navaho'; />■■ "trail'). 

Place n imes i\ Regions Mapped 

|1] TEEBRA \M \i;ll LA sin i I 

The Tewa have no current term for the region shown on map I.' 
Occasionally ' Ajbikjupijt 'up Abiquiu way' {'Ahil.jn 'Abiquiu', 
[8:36J; jriji "toward") is used to designate all the country about and 
beyond (north of) Abiquiu. Tierra Amarilla is applied to the sheet 
because Tierra Amarilla is the name of the county seat of Rio Arriba 
County, which has been used to denote this district. Bandelier 1 men- 
tions "the eold and well-watered Tierra Amarilla in northern New 
Mexico" as "among the few typical timbered areas". 

Only one pneblo ruin is shown on |1|. Probablj many other ruins 
will be discovered later, however, in the southern part of this area. 
Inquiry has failed to reveal that the Tewa have anj knowledge as to 
what people built these pueblos. The results secured by the writer 
ure as negatn e as those of Bandelier, who writes: ■' "To what tribe or 
linguistic stock the numerous vestiges of pueblos along the Upper 
Rio Chama, north of Abiquiu and west of Kl Rito, must be attributed, 
is still unknown. '" See |2:7J. 

i p. i . 



108 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEW A INDIANS [etii. ANN. 29 

The Jicarilla Apache now occupy the northwestern corner of the 
area. It was not many decades ago, however, that these Indians 
ranged east of Taos, and the country now occupied by their reserva- 
tion was held by the Southern Ute. See Jicarilla Apache and Ute, 
pages 574 and 578, respectively. 

[1:1] (1) Pokw\wi?i 'lake gap' (pokwi 'lake' < p» 'water'. kw\ 
unexplained; mi'i 'gap' 'pass'). This name refers to the lake 
and the whole locality. It was not known to the informants 
whether there is a gap or pass there. 

(2) Pokwiio€ipokw\, l > "/:ir[ir / " / "/"' pn/,-iri ' lake gap lake' (pokwi 
'lake' <po 'water', kw\ unexplained; wPi 'gap' 'pass'; i H loca- 
tive and adjective-forming posttix, mineral singular; pokwi 'lake' 
< po 'water', Jcw\ unexplained). This name refers especially to 
the lake. 

(3) Kctfoajupokwi, Kw%jipokwi, Kd : baju , i H pokwi, Kw%j£i H - 
pokioi 'horse lake' (hibujh 'horse' <Span. caballo 'horse'; 
Jcwigji 'horse', perhaps an early borrowing from Span, caballo 
'horse'; i H locative and adjective-forming posttix, mineral singu- 
lar, agreeing with postpounded pokwi ; pokwi 'lake' <po 'water'. 
kw\ unexplained). =Taos (5), Eng. (6), Span. (8). 

(4) J' [in i>ij, pokwi, I'[nijiij,'r'p,.I,u'[ 'northern lake' (Pimptft 
'north 1 <p>vjf 'mountain', pije 'toward'; '»'" locative and adjec- 
tive-forming posttix, mineral singular; pokwi 'lake'</w 'water', 
kw\ unexplained). Horse Lake is thus known as the northern 
lake, Boulder Lake [1:2] as the middle lake, and Stinking Lake 
[1:3] as the southern lake, of the present Jicarilla country. 
= Eng. (7), Span. (9). 

(5) Taos l\'tiip,t,{ir,,hiinl 'horse lake' (Mil- 'horse'; paqwid 
'lake' <P<z 'water', qwtft- unexplained, the compound p<i<jn-i<J- 
probably being cognate with Tewa pokwi.; a>n& noun posttix, 
agreeing in gender and number with postpounded paqwid-). 
= Tewa (3), Eng. (6), Span. (8). 

(6) Eng. Horse Lake. =Tewa (3), Taos (5), Span. (8). 

(7) Eng. North Lake. =Tewa (4), Span. (9). 

(8) Span. Laguna del Caballo 'horse lake'. = Tewa (3), Taos 
(5), Eng. (It). 

(9) Span. Laguna del Norte 'north lake'. =Tewa (4), 
Eng. (7). 

This lake is on the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation. It is 
frequently mentioned in connection with Boulder Lake [1:2] and 
Stinking Lake [1:3]. 
[1:2] (1) Kuk'a'itot 'at the stone enclosure' (kuk'a ' stone barrier or 
wall of roughly piled stones enclosing a space ' < ka 'stone', k'a 
'fence enclosing a space' 'corral'; ''hoe 'at', locative postfix.) 



HAHBI.N l'l Ml NAMES I 09 

One inf ormant stated that the lake ia called thus because it is 
Burrounded by a parapet <>r rim of rocks. 

(2) K"//'/' /'"•, f><i/,- a- 1 'hike at the stone enclosure' (kuk'a 'stone 
barrier or wall of roughly piled stones enclosing a space' < l-u 
'stone', //<: 'fence enclosing a space' 'corral'; 'iwe 'at', locative 
postfix; /<<<///•/ Make' < /><< •water'.///-/ unexplained). Cf. (1), 
above. 

A""/'"//'-/ 'stone lake' (In •stone': pokw\ 'lake' - /..- 
'water', /-/•/ unexplained). Taos (5), Eng. (6), Span. (8). 

(-1) PijjiJ. "pi>J.ir[. /'ij/'j. '"'piil-n-l •middle lake' (/>[>/'■■ "in the 

middle"; /"' locative or adjective-forming postfix, mineral singular, 
agreeing with postpounded Pokioi; Pokwi 'lake' < fo 'water', 
Jew\ unexplained). The lake is thus called in contradistinction 
to Horse Lake or North Lake [1:1] and Stinking Lake or South 
Lake[l:3]. Eng. (7), Span. cm. 

(5) Taos Ow,(\ r, ,,,,,,,,; -stone lake' (///'/"/- 'stone'; ji,i,j,ri,i 

' lake':, pa- ' water', gwi&- unexplained; and noun postfix, agreeing 
in gender and number with postpounded faquld-). =Tewa (3), 
_. (6), Span. (8). 

(6) Eng. Boulder Lake Tewa (3), Taos (5), Span. (8). Cf. 
Tewa (1) and (2). 

(7) Eng. Middle Lake. Tewa I h. Span. (9). 

(8) Span. Laguna Piedra 'stone lake". Tewa (3), Taos (5), 
Eng. (6). Cf. Tewa (1) and (2). 

(9) Span. Laguna en el Medio. Tewa (4), Eng. (7). 

It is near this lake that I he Jicarilla Apache hold a dance mi the 
eight of September L5and for several nights following, everj year. 
The dance takes place inside a large round corral buiH of brush. 
This corral is known to the Tewa as l,',ih,i' ,i ' large roundish low 
place enclosed by a corral' {k'a 'corral'; /"/'-/ 'large roundish 
low place'). The Tewa call the dance k'abu'ufaJt (/'<"/' 'dano '), 
This lake is often mentioned in connection with this dance; also 
in connection with Horse Lake (1:1 J and Stinking Lake j 1:3 |. 
[1:3] (1) /'--»_/'."' 'smelling water' (/»' 'water': ay -to smell', in- 
transitive, said of pleasant or unpleasant smells;'*" locative and 
adjective-forming postfix, mineral singular, agreeing with £>©). 

Cf. Span. (7). 

(2) /' . •' 'smelling lake' {fokw\ Make /"'•water'./'/'/ 
unexplained; #v 'to smell 1 , int ransil ive, said of pleasant or unpleas 
ant smells; / locative and adjective forming postfix, mineral Bin 
gular, agreeing with /■■•. Taos (4), Eng. (5), Span. 

('■'.)'. [kqmp /'/'■/».,/,/■/, '. 1/.H//I/I. ■ outhernlal 

/'//'. 'south' ■' '■i/.m/ >■ ■plain' 'level country', /■ ' - 'toward'; /"' 
locative and adjective forming postfix, mineral singular, agreeing 

w it h /<-//•//•/;/)///•,/■/• lake' • /«< ' water './</■/ unexplained i. I 



110 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth.ann.29 

(6), Span. (9). The lake is thus called in contradistinction to 
Horse Lake or North Lake [1:1] and Boulder Lake or Middle 
Lake [1:2]. 

(4) Taos Paqwidlawaand 'stinking lake' (fiaqwid 'lake' <pa 
'water', qwid unexplained; la 'to smell', intransitive, said of 
pleasant or unpleasant smells; wa said to have theforceof 'which'; 
ana noxm postlix, agreeing in gender and number with postpounded 
lawa). =Tewa ('2), Eng. (5), Span. (8). 

(5) Eng. Stinking Lake. = Tewa (2), Span. (8). Cf. Tewa (1). 

(6) South Lake. =Tewa (3), Span. (9). 

(7) Span. Laguna del Ojo Hediondo 'lake of the stinking 
spring". Cf. Tewa (1). 

(8) Span. Laguna Hedionda 'stinking lake'. =Tewa (2), Taos 
(4), Eng. (5). Cf.Tewa(l). 

(9) Span. Laguna del Sur 'south lake.' =Tcwa (3), Eng. (6). 
According to some of the names and the statements of two 

Indian informants the lake gets its name from a spring the water 
of which has a strong odor. Just where this spring is situated 
could not lie ascertained. This lake is of ten mentioned in con- 
nection with Horse Lake [1:1] and Boulder Lake [1:2]. Notice 
also [1:4 j. Several other Tewa forms of the name of this lake 
are probably also in use. 

This lake is situated south of the Jicarilla Apache Indian 
Reservation, and not on it, as are [1:1] and [1:2]. 
[1:4] (1) Paxij' in; jutjni'n, Posy?iwe , i H pahii'n 'smelling water creek' 
(ji,,sij'/"' •smelling water', one of the names of Stinking Lake < po 
' water', sy, ' to smell', intransitive, used of pleasant as well as of 
unpleasant smells; ' i H locative and adjective-forming postfix, min- 
eral singular, agreeing with f)o; 'iwe, formed by the juxtaposition 
of i' 1 and we, 'at', a locative postfix which is not used unless pre- 
ceded by P' except in the Nambe dialect; i H locative and ad- 
jective-forming postfix, mineral gender, agreeing with pohii'n; 
pohifu 'creek' < po 'water', hu'u 'large groove'). Cf. Eng. 
(2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Stinking Lake Creek. Cf. Tewa (1), Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Arroyo de la Laguna del Ojo Hediondo 'creek 
or wash of the lake of the stinking spring'. Cf. Tewa (1), 
Eng. (2). 

.Many other Tewa forms might also be applied to this creek. 
[1:5] (1) Baiibti'u ' Vado town' {bail < Span. Vado, name of the set- 
tlement; bi/a "town"). 

(2) Eng. Vado. (< Span. Vado). 

(3) Span. Vado 'ford'. 

Vado is a small lumbering settlement. The informants did not 
know whether there is really a ford there. The Spanish name is 
never translated into Tewa. The Chaina River above Vado is 



barbing PLACE-NAMES 111 

called /'/////«'. below Vado il is called PoPiyy; see Chama River 
| Large Features:2]. 

[1:6] I'limj'o' river of the captive(s)' {%h$t)j 'captive' 'prisoner'; ]><• 
■ water' 'river'). The informants do nol know why this name is 
applied. They do nol know whether in Spanish a corresponding 
name, which would be Bio del Cautivo or 1 ii« > de los Cautivos 
'rivei of the captive(s)', is in use. 

This name is applied fco what Americans call the upper Chama 
River above the confluence of [1:4] and the vicinity of Vado set- 
tlement [1:5]. TheTewa, however, consider Pq,mf>o to be a river 
distinct from the Chama. See PoP\t)j> [Large features: 2]. 

[1:7] (1) B-taaubu'ii 'Brazos town" (JBxash Span. Brazos, name of the 
settlement; bw '» 'town'). 

(2) Eng. Los Brazos. (< Span.). 

(3) Span. Los Brazos 'the arms 1 (bodypart) 'the branches'. 
Why this name was given is nol known. ( If. [1:8] and 1 1:9]. 

[1:8] ( I) lj.ht.s)iji,,/,,i' a. 1}i,is.i",'< jn> ha' 1 1 ■ Brazos Creek' (IJ.iu.s'u <Span. 
Brazos, name of the settlement; <"' locative and adjective-forming 
postfix, mineral singular, agreeing w ith fyohmiv,; Pohvtu "creek ' 
//./ 'water". Ini'n 'large groove'). 
(2) Hue-. Los Brazos Creek. (< Span.). 
i:;i "-pan. Rito de los Brazos 'arms creek.' Cf. [1:7] and [1:9]. 

[1:9] (1) niii>'itji'iji-.l} i ii-'' ; 'ij.il'[i i , 'Brazos mountain '(Bm&u Span. 
Brazos, name of the settlement; 'iyj Locative and adjective-form- 
ing postfix, vegetal singular, agreeing with j'iju : Piyj 'moun- 
tain'). 

(2) Eng. Los Brazos Peak(s). (• Span. Los Brazos 'the arms'). 

(3) Span. Cerro de los Brazos, Sierrade I"- Brazos 'the arms 
mountain '. 

The Indian informants stated thai two peaks are conspicuous. 
Cf. [1:7] and [1:8]. 
[1:10] (1) " < i/i'uhii' a -((jo town' {'ohit Span, ojos 'springs'; Ju'fl 

■tow 11' I. 

Span. Los ' >jos ' the springs'. 

It is stated that this settlement is a couple of miles thwest 

of Tierra Amarilla town and east of the Chama River. Several 

informant- have Stated that the Tew a call I lie tow n of l'ark\ iew 

l>\ t iii- name. 

I arra Amarilla region] (1) Nfyntsejiwt 'at the yellow earth 9 (n 
'earth'; i*< "yellowness 1 'yellow'; wot 'at' locative postfix, / 
being infixed whenever oi } iwt Is postfixed t" 

: 
1 . 1 1 ■_- . Tierra Amarilla region. <• spun.). Tewa (1), 
Span. 



112 ETHN0GE0GRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [BTH. ANN. 29 

.Spun, region tie Tierra Amarilla 'yellow earth region'. 

Tewa (1), Eng. (2). 

All the country about Tierra A.marilla town is known by this 
name. Several informants have declared that this is the "old 
[ndian name" of the locality, and thai the locality is named from 
the pigment deposit discussed below under [1:13]. Cf. [1:11] 
and [1:12]. Furthermore, it is slated that the earth in this whole 
region is yellowish. 
|l:ll| (I) Ni&nfsejiwePo, A'<///'.v. /'/'/'vY'/V' 'river at the yellow earth, 
i. e., in the Tierra Amarilla region' {n&nisejiwe 'at the yellow 
earth 1 'at Tierra Amarilla' Kn^yf 'earth', Fse 'yellowness' 'yel- 
low', 'iw< 'at ' local ive postfix,^' being infixed whenever '/"', 'iyy, or 
'///•c is post lixed toise; i H locative and adjective-forming postfix, 
mineral singular, agreeing with f>o; /'»> 'water' 'creek' 'river'). 

Taos (2), Eng.j3), Span. (4). 

(2) Taos Namisulifid'and 'yellow earth river, i. e., Tierra Am- 
arilla river' (na/rrdkuli- 'yellow earth' 'Tierra Amarilla' <.nam- 
'earth', isuli 'yellow'; fa- 'water' 'creek' 'river'; and noun 
postfix, agreeing in gender and number with postpounded pa). 

Tewa(l), Eng. (3), Span. (4). 

(3) Eng. Tierra Amarilla Creek. (<Span.). =Tewa (1), Taos 
(2), Span. (I). 

(1) Span. Ritode Tierra Amarilla 'yellow earth creek'. =Tewa 
(1), Taos (2), Eng. (3). 

(5) Span. Rio Nutritas 'little beaver river'. C(. [1:12], [1:14]. 

( 'I'. Tierra Amarilla. region, above, also [1:12] ami [1:1:;]. 
[1:12] (1) N(\ntsejiwebxCu Mown al the yellow earth' (n^wf 'earth'; 
tse 'yellowness' 'yellow'; , iwe 'at' locative postfix,^' being infixed 
whenever '/"'. 'iji,i\ ovHwe is postfixed toise/ hiCv, 'town'. Cf. 
Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Tierra Amarilla town. (<Span.). =opan. (3). Cf. 
Tewa(l). 

(.".) Span. Tierra Amarilla 'yellow earth'. =Eng. ('_'). Cf. 
Tewa (I). 

( I) Span. Las Nutritas 'the little beavers'. Cf. [1:11], [1:14]. 

Tierra Amarilla is the county seat of Rio Arriba County. Cf. 
[Tierra Amarilla region] above, also |1:11| and [1:13]. 
[1:13] (I) Tseji H k'Qndiwt 'where the yellow pigment is due-' {the 
'yellowness' 'yellow'; V' locative and adjective-forming postfix, 
mineral singular, here refering to yellow stuff or pigment,^" being 
infixed whenever '/"', 'ivf, or 'iwt is postfixed toise; Vqndiwe 
'where it is due-' 'pit' 'quarry' < k' qyf 'to dig', ! w 'at' locative 
postfix). 

It is said that this pigment deposit is situated a short distance 
northwest of Tierra Amarilla town. The substance is moist when 



UAKKISGTON] PLACE-NAM IS 11". 

it is dag oat. It is mixed with water and used for "yellowing" 
the walls of rooms in pueblo houses, near the floor. It is stated 
that the deposit is occasionally \ isited by Tewa Indians, whocarry 
borne quantities of the pigment for this purpose. The substance 
may be called n4 < - " 'yellow earth' (n4Vf earth'), but is com- 
monly called merely ><'"■ See under Minerals. The names 
of the Tierra Ainarilla region, river, town, etc., are probably to 
he explained from the presence of this deposit and from the fai I 
that the earth is yellowish in the vicinity. Ci. [Tierra Ainarilla 
region], pp. ill -12, also [l:ll]and [1:12]. 
[1:14] (U '<>',,■(■ '[>■■ 'beaver house water' {'qjote 'beaver house' 
'beaver nest' <'ojo 'beaver', U 'house'; f>o 'water' 'creek' 
'river'). This i- probably the original Tewa name of this creek. 
Though Nutritas is perhaps as common in Spanish a- is Nutrias, 
the former word is never translated in Tewa speech, while the 
Nutrias River is regularly called 'OjotePo. Cf. Taos (2), Eng. 
-pan. (4). 

(2) Taos Pajapaana 'beaver water' {faja- 'beaver'; fa 'water' 
'creek' 'river'; arc^noun postfix, agreeing in gender and number 
with postpounded Pa). =Eng. (3), (Span, i li. 

(3) Eng. Nutria- Creek. (< Span.). =Taos (2), Span. 

Cf. Tewa i l t. 

(4) Span. Rito de las Nutrias 'beaver creek'. Bandolier x gives 
"the Nutria-"". Taos (2), Eng. (3). < 7. Tewa 1 1 >. 

Bandolier 1 saj s: "The branches of which the Chama is formed 
are the Coyote in the west, the Gallinas north of west, ami the 
Nutrias north. It i- said that the waters of the first are red, 
those of the Gallinas white, and those "1" the Nutrias limpid. 

According as one or tl therof these tributaries rises, the waters 

of the Chama assume a different hue." Cf. the name Nutritas, 
[1:11], [1:12]. 
[1:15] (1) SPi" /"' 'onion water' (si 'onion'; "'"' locative and adjec- 
tive-forming postfix, mineral gender, agreeing with !>■■: r ■ 'water' 
'creek' 'river'). Probably a mere translation of the Span, nan if. 

Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Cebolla Creek. ( Span.). Tewa (1), Span. (8). 

(8) Span. Rito Cebolla 'onion river'. Tewa (1), Eng. (2). 
Cf. [1:17]. 

[1:16] (I) '/'■■til;:i',"' "white dill ' • \\ li it.n. -- " 

•white-': "<" locative and adjective forming postfix, mineral gen- 
der). Eng. (2). 
(2) ••White Butts". Tewa (1). 

1 Final Report, pi ii. p 

. Northern 

PH 16 8 



114 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [BTH. ANN. 29 

The white substance of which these cliffs are composed is said 
to be of no use to the Indians. 
[1:17] (1) SViwe 'at the onion(s)' (si "onion'; Hwe 'at', locative postfix 
referring to a single place). Probably a mere translation of the 
Span. name. = Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Cebolla. (<Span.). =Tewa (1), Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Cebolla 'onion'. =Tewa(l), Eng. (2). "Sebolla." 1 
The settlement is said to consist of a few scattered houses inhab- 
ited by Mexicans. It is said that the road from El Rito to Tierra 
Amarilla passes through this settlement. Cf. [1:15]. 

[1:18] Popiyy is the name applied to the Chama River below Vado. 
Sec Chama River [Large features:2]. 

[1:19] (1) DipVJf "turkey mountains' 'chicken mountains' (qli 'tur- 
key' 'chicken'; piijf 'mountain.'). Probably a mere translation 
of the Span. name. =Eng. (2), Span. (1), Fr. (6). 

(2) Eng. Gallinas Mountains. (<Span.). =Tewa (1), Span. 

(3) Eng. Gallinas Bad Lands. (<Span.). = Span. (5), Fr. (6). 

(1) Span. Cerros de las Gallinas 'chicken mountains' 'turkey 
mountains'. =Tewa (1), Eng. (2). 

(5) Span. Terrenos Malos del Rio de las Gallinas 'chicken or 
turkey river bad lands'. =Eng. (3), Fr. (6). 

(6) "Les Mauvaises Terres de Gallinas" 2 'Gallinas bad lands'. 
= Eng. (3), Span. (5). Cf. [1:24], [1:25]. See plate 1, A. 

[1:l'0] (1) Kwijo\i'a 'old woman steep slope' (Jcwijo 'old woman'; 
',/'(/ 'steep slope '). Tewa fcwaj< or huoags 'mesa' is never applied. 
Cf. Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Las Viejas Mesa. (<Span.). Cf. Tewa (1). 

(3) Span. Mesa de las Viejas "old women mesa'. Cf. Tewa (1). 
This mesa or slope is east of the Chama River and north of 

[1:31]. It would be difficult to determine whether the Tewa or 
the Span, name is original. 
[1:21] (1) Eng. Largo Canyon. (<Span.). 
(2) Span. Canon Largo ' long canyon'. 

This canyon drains into San Juan River. Two of the inform- 
ants know the canyon but say that there is no Tewa name for it. 
[1:22] (1) Son) pi ijf iwe 'at porcupine mountain' [sompiijf 'porcu- 
pine mountain', see [l:unlocated] <soi]f 'porcupine', p>V)f 
'mountain'; Hwe 'at' locative postfix, indicating a single place). 
This term is applied to the region which since Cope's time has 
been known to some Americans as Cristone. Cf. [1:23]. 

(2) Eng. Cristone. (<Span. creston 'hog-back ridge'). See 
[1:23]. 

'Topographic Map of New Mexico, U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 68, pi. I. 
sHewett, Commnnuutes, p. 42, 1908. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 1 




AD LANDS" IN THE CHAMA DRAINAGE 




MDER TRUNCATED 






n.uuttN.iTON] PLAC1 WAMES 115 

[1:33] (1) Sqmpiv /''///•,/,)////•{/.//'. s,>„ij<n)j'!-ir. ',"• 'oi/ir/J.,'/,' 'pueblo 
ruin at porcupine mountain 3 {sqmpiijf'vijot 'a( porcupine moun- 
tain', see [1:22] (1); '^locative and adjective-forming postfix; 
//'-/'/ 'pueblo ruin' <'o>V"'l 'pueblo', Jeeji postpound 
'ruin')! Cf. SQmpiys [1: unlocated] and [1:22]. 

(2) Eng. Cristone Pueblo ruin. This ruin was named by Prof. 
E. I>. Cope, presumably from Span, creston •narrow crest'. 

"In riding past thefoot of the precipice I observed what appeared to he stone 
walls crowning its summit Examination of the ridge disclosed the fact thai a 
village, forming a single line of 30 bouses, extended along its narrow crest, 22 
of them being south of the causeway and 8 north of it. The most southern in 
situation is at some distance from the southern extremity of the bog-back. . . . 

This town I called Crist The same hog-back recommences a little more 

than a mile to the north, rising to a greater elevation, say COO or 7 n feet above 
the valley." ' 

Professor Cope clearly had in mind Span, creston ' ridge ' 
■ crest ". "Cristone." 

This ruin is described by E. D. Cope, as stated above. A part 
of Cope's report on the ruin is quoted bj Hewett. 3 
[1:24] (1) Pipo 'turkey water' 'chicken water' u\', 'turkey' 'chicken'; 
fo 'water"creek"river'). (Probably <Span.). = Eng. (2), Span. 
(3). 

(2) Eng. Gallinas Creek. (<Span.). =Tewa (1), Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Rio de las Gallinas •chicken river' 'turkey river'. 
=Tewa (It. Eng. (2). "The Gallinas." 1 

"The branches of which the Chama is formed are the Coy- 
ote in the west, the Gallinas north of west, and the Nutrias 
north. It i~ said thai the waters of the firs< are red, those of the 
Gallinas white, and those of the Nutrias limpid. According as 
one or the other of these tributaries rises, the waters of the 
( 'ha ma assume a different hue." ' Cf. [1:19] and [1:25]. 
[1:25] M) Iji'in; -where the turkeys or chickens are' ($ 'turkey' 
'chicken'; V"-< 'at' locative postfix indicating a single place). 

Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Gallinas settlement. | Span.). Tewa (1), Span. (3). 
Span. Las Gallinas 'the chickens 'the turkeys'. Tewa 
di. Eng. (2). 

It seems probable thai the Tewa name is a translation of the 
Spanish. Gallinas seems to be a favorite place-name with the 
Mexicans; cf. Gallinas Creek, by which the citj of Las Vegas is 
built See Gallinas Creek, page 559. The Tewa word dVwas 

i , ■ I7S, quoted by 1 

; II II 

pi II, p. M, D 



llfi ETHXOGEOGBAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 20 

originally applied to the wild turkey, but since chickeus were 
iut roduced it has been used to designate both turkeys and chickens, 
turkeys being distinguished when necessary by calling them pin/4 
'mountain chickens' (pvjf 'mountain'; di 'turkey' 'chickens'). 
Cf. [1:19] and [1:24]. 
[Capulin region] (1) 'AWiwe 'where the chokecherry is' ('aie 'choke- 
cherry' 'Primus melanocarpa (A. Nelson) Rydb.'; 'in; 'at' loca- 
tive postfix indicating a single place). =Cochiti (2), Eng. (3), 
Span. (4). 

(2) Cochiti Apofdko 'chokecherry corner' (dpo 'chokecherry' 
'Primus melanocarpa (A. Nelson) Rydb.'; fofco 'corner'). =Tewa 
(1), Eng. (3), Span. (4)._ 

(3) Eng. Capulin region. (<Span.). =Tewa (1), Cochiti (2), 
Span. (-1). 

(4) Span, rejion Capulin 'chokecherry region'. =Tewa (1), 
Cochiti (3), , Eng. CI). Cf. [1:26], [1:27], [1:28]. 

[1:26] (1) ' Atil'i ii;:miil/ii,i, Wtii' ! n-^i' 1 m.akina, 'AbeHioep 'cjxtic'/"', 
, Aie , iwe , i ,i p % epafoe'i'' i ■chokecherry sawmill' (\iiP 'i 'we 'where 
the chokecherry is' 'Capulin', see [Capulin region], above; '^'loca- 
tive and adjective-forming postfix; makina ' machine ' "mill' 'saw- 
mill' <Span. maquina 'machine' 'sawmill'; pupate??* 'sawmill' 
<y<\ 'stick' 'timber', paie 'to cut crosswise', '/'' locative and 
adjective-formingpostfix). =Eng. (2), Span'. (3). 

(2) Eng. Capulin sawmill. (<Span.). =Tewa (1), Span. (3). 

(3) Span, asserradero de Capulin 'chokecherry sawmill' 
= Tewa (1), Eng. (2). 

This sawmill is frequently moved from one part to another 
of the wild region in which it is situated. Tewa Indians have 
been frequently employed at this sawmill. Cf. [Capulin region], 
above, also [1:27] and [1:28]. 
[1:37] (L) 'AMpo 'chokecherry creek' ('«8e, as under [Capulin region], 
above, 'chokecherry' 'Capulin'; p<> 'water' 'creek' 'river'). 
= Eng.(2),Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Capulin Creek. (<Span.). =Tewa (1), Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Rito Capulin 'chokecherry creek'. =Tewa (1). 
Eng. (2). 

This creek is tributary to Gallinas Creek [1:2-4]. Cf. [Capulin 
region], above, also [1:26] and [1:28]. 
[1:28] (1) 'Atnpnjf 'chokecherry mountain' ('afte, as under [Capulin 
region], above, 'chokecherry' 'Capulin'; p'vjf 'mountain'). 
= Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Capulin mountain. (<Span.). = Tewa (1), Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Cerro Capulin 'chokecherry mountain'. =Tewa(l), 
Eng. (2). 

This mountain is said to be high. 



II Mil;! 



Pi mi- x wn.s. 117 



[1:29] il) [>'!"■ 'coyote water' (</• 'coyote'; Po 'water "<a 
'river'). Coehiti (3), Eng. (4), Span. (7). 

(2) N&Pofapo ' adobe river' •mini river' (n4P<>h " :i<l<>i.<- ' 'clayey 
mud*; /»' 'water' "(reck' 'river'). Eng. (5), Span. (8). 

<:'.i Coehiti fdtsonatsdna 'coyote river' (fdteona 'coyote'; 
tsena -river'). =Tewa (1), Eng. (4). Span. (7). 

i I) Eng. Coyote Creek. (<Span.). =Tewa (1), Coehiti (3), 
Span. (7). 

i.'. i Eng. Puerco Creek, Muddy Creek. DirtyCreek. (<Span.). 
I v. a i -J). Span. (8). 

(ti) Salinas Creek. (<Snan.). = Span. (9). 

(7) Span. Rio Coyote 'coyote river'. =Tewa (1), Coehiti (3), 
Eng. (t). "The Coyote." 1 

(8) Span. Rio Puerco 'muddy river' ■< liny river'. =Eng. (5). 
Cf. Tewa (2). 

(9) Span. Rio Salinas 'creek of the alkali flats'. =Eng. (6). 
"Salinas < !reek." a 

After mncb questioning at San Juan it seems clear that these 
names refer to one stream, the name Coyote Creek coming per- 
haps from Coyote settlement, which is situated on the creek. "The 
branches of which the Chama i- formed are the Coyote in the 
west, the Gallinas north of west, and the Nutrias north. It 
that the waters of the first are red, those of the Gallinas white. 
and those of the Nutrias limpid. According asoneortheotborof 
these tributaries rises, the waters of the Chama assume a differ- 
ent hue." 1 Cf. [l:30]and [29:120]. 
[1:30] (I i li'in-, 'coyote place' (# 'coyote'; '/"•- 'at' locative post- 
fix referring to a single place.) (Probablj Span.). Eng. (2), 
Span. (3). This name refers of course to the whole region as 
well as to the .Mexican settlement itself. 

(2) Eng. Coyote settlement ami region. (<Span.). '!'<•« 

Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Coyote 'coyote'. Tewa il I, Eng. (2). Cf. [1:29]. 
l ''ill Ihit.ihn' a 'dry arroyo arroyo' (Av'tt 'arroyo" large groove'; 

'dryness' 'dry'; hx£ii 'large groove' 'arroyo'). Eng. 
>pan. (.".». This name is applied especially to tie' lower pan of 
the stream, as tar up as the white mineral deposit or farther, this 
portion of tin- bed being usually dry. This is perhaps a transla- 
tion of Span. Arroyo - 

/'- ■ <•/••'./'' | po 'deer horn arroyo "deer horn water' 

'deer horn' ■ /■ > 'deer', .-"//■ 'horn': hn'n 

i-.rl, pt. n. p. M 
HI B. 'MOR-mr' 1 ' 1 ''" 1 Burreya Wot ol the J > — j - 1 » M m Colorado and x.irth- 

arn New Maxloo, atlaaaheat :■ 



118 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 20 

groove' 'arroyo'; po 'water' 'creek' 'river'.) Cf. Eng. (4), 
Span. (6). This name is applied most frequently perhaps to the 
upper course of the waterway, near Cangilon Mountain [1:35]. 
Since this is not an exact equivalent of the Span, name, Psgsi rjj 
may be an old Tewa name applied originally to either Cangilon 
Mountain or Cangilon Creek. 

(3) Eng. Cangilon ( 'reek. ( < Span.). = Span. (4). Cf. Tewa (2). 

(4) Span. Kito Cangilon 'horn river'. =Eng. (3). Cf.Tewa(2). 
This creek rises at Cangilon Mountain. Cf. [1:33], [1:34], 

[1:35], and [22:unlocatedJ. 
[1:32] (1) Saibepo 'Athabascan water' (Sate 'Athabascan'; /"/'water' 
•spring-). Cf. Tewa (2), Eng. Ci). Span. (4). 

(2) tyv}Qnsai&po ' Navaho water ' (tywynsaie ' Navaho' < tyw&rjj'- 
'Jemez', Sail ' Athabascan '; po ' water ' "spring"). =Eng. (3), 
Span. (1). Cf. Tewa(l). 

(3) Eng. Navaho spring. (<Span.). = Tewa (2), Span. (4). Cf. 
Tewa (1). 

(4) Span. Ojo Navajo ' Navaho spring'. =Tewa (2), Eng. (3). 
Cf. Tewa(l). ' 

This spring, said to be perennial, is situated on the west side 
of Cangilon Creek, as shown on the map. See Navaho Canyon 
[l:unlocated]. 
[1:33] (ll Eng. Lower Cangilon settlement. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Cangilon el Ritoabajo ' born settlement down creek'. 
= Eng. (1). Prof. H. E. Bolton states that the name Cangilon 
was given by Father Escalante in 1776. "Cangillon" is dis- 
tinguished from "Upper Cangillon". 1 "Canjilon." 2 

No Tewa name was obtained. Cf. [1:31], [1:34], and [1:35]. 
[1:34] (1) Eng. Upper Cangilon settlement. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Cangilon el rito arriba •horn (settlement) up creek'. 
= Eng. (1). "Upper Cangillon". 1 
[1:35] P%s£mp\r)f ' deer-horn mountains' (pxMj)f 'deer-horn' <p% 
'deer 1 , sqqf 'horn'; ph)f 'mountain'). Cf. Eng. (2), Span. (3). 
Since this is not an exact equivalent of the Span, name, Psestyf 
may be an old Tewa. name applied originally to either Cangilon 
Mountain or Cangilon Creek. Cf. [1:31]. 

The main road from El Rito to Tierra Amarilla is said to pass 
through Upper Cangilon. No Tewa name was obtained. Cf. 
[1:31] and [1:35]. 

■ V. s. Geographical Surveys West of the 100th Meridian, Parts of Southern Cc .1. .rado and Northern 
New Mexico, atlaa sheet No. 69, 1S73-1877. 

•i M:,,, b mpanying Hewett, Antiquities. 1906; also Topographic Map of New Mexico, U. S. 

Geological Survey, Professional Papers 08, pi. 1, 1H03-190S. 



OABBINGTOH] PLACE-NAMES 119 

[1:36] il) San Juan T'ibuhu'u l T*i dance; large low roundish place' 
'arroj o'( T*i 'a kind of dance held in winter al San .1 nan Pu< 
bii'n 'large low roundish place'; hn'u 'large groove 5 'arroyo'). 
At any time those wishing to dance the 1' [ dance gel permission 
from the War Captain; a man and a woman are the principal 
dancers and property is thrown to the crowd al the close of the 
dance; <//7'('.-'" 'they are dancing this kind of dance' (4^ 'they 
3 + ? : '<•'" progressive postfix). The etymology given above has 
been confirmed by four San Juan Indians, from whom, however, 
no information could be obtained as to the real meaning o 

The t' of t'i is clearly aspirated. A Santa Clara informant stated 
that i he '['''■ i unaspirated / / : faA ' dance') is a San .1 nan dance 
and described it a> it had been described to the writer by San 
Juan Indians. The Santa Clara informant stated that f[ i- the 

name of a kind of headdress, made of skin and sticks, which pro 

jeots upward and forward fr the forehead of the wearer, and 

that this headdress is worn in the San Juan tifcUe. There has 
been do opportunity to have this information discussed bj San 
Juan Indians. The place name is not known to Santa Clara, San 
Ildefonso, <>r Nambe' Indians -,<_> far as could be ascertained. The 
verbs t'it'i 'tosparkle' and t'ik'eui 'to stumble' were suggested 
by <i San Ildefonso Indian as possibly throwing light on the 
etj mology. 

(2) Span. Arroyo Silvestre 'Silvestre Arroyo*. The. Span. 

name of the arroyo is from the name of the Mexican settlement 
Silvestre [ l:unlocated]. 

I'm.. * 

(\) IJin/;//,-,//." 'breadstuff -tone barranca' {Jmwcucu ' guayave stone ' 
<bi'»;i 'breadstuff' 'any kind of bread', frw "stone'; /<> 'bar 
ranca'). span. (2). 

This is one of the localities at which the kind of stone used 
for baking paper-bread is obtained. See under Minerals, 
where, the preparation of these stones is described. This 
place is probably known to a number of people ai each of 
the Tewa pueblos, hut informants differ widelj a- t" it- location. 
They agree in placing the locality east or north of the upper 
Chama River. One informant places ii above [1:20], another 
below [1:31 1. 

(2) Span. Arroyo Comal 'arroyo of the stone or pan for cook 
ing tortillas, guayave, and the like'. Tewa 1 1 ). 

(I) ././///////•. 'where the willows' {jiyj 'willow'; 'i,r, 'at'locative 

post li\ |. Span. (2). 

(2) Span. La Jam 'the willow ". Tewa II). 



120 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [ETH. ANN. 29 

This is the name of some locality on the Jicarilla Apache Reser- 
vation. The form Jqndiwt is in use in Tewa. 

(3) Eng-. " Navaho Canyon ". Given by Hewett 1 as a northern 
tributary of Cangilon Creek. 
(1) Pobekq 'water-jar barranca" (pobe 'water jar" 'olla' <po 'water', 
be referring to roundish shape; ho barranca). Cf. Span. (•_'). 

(2) Span. Arroyo Tinaja ' large storage-jar arroyo'. Cf. Tewa 
(1). Tinaja is ntjtybe in Tewa; Tewa pob'' signities 'olla' in Span. 

This locality is said to be east or north of the upper Chama 
River. 
(1) Eng. Sierra Creek. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Rito Sierra 'mountain range creek'. =Eng. (1). 

This creek is either a tributary of Coyote Creek [1:29] or 
somewhere in the vicinity of Coyote Creek. None of the Indian 
informants had heard of this creek. 

(1) Span. Silvestre ' wild" 'sylvan'. This is a hamlet on Silves- 
tre Creek [1:36]. =Eng. 2. 

(2) Eng. Silvestre town. (<Span.). =Span. (1). 
s,,,,i>njf 'porcupine mountain' {sqijf 'porcupine'; piyf 'moun- 
tain'). 

A high mountain somewhere near [1:23]. 

Tsa ij/'l ■//'/"' 'where the white mineral' (fss^gilcu 'a kind of white min- 
eral used for whitewashing- the walls of rooms of pueblo houses, 
perhaps gypsum' <tsseg_i unexplained, hu 'stone' 'mineral': '/"' 
locative and adjective-forming postfix, used here since mere 
is,-i_ gilcu would not indicate the place but the mineral itself). 

This mineral is burned and then mixed with water and used for 
whitening interior walls. See under Minerals. The location 
of this deposit is somewhere east or north of the upper Chama 
River. The informants' estimates of the number of miles from 
Abiquiu to this deposit vary widely. Since this substance is 
called yeso in Span, the deposit may be on or by the Rito Yeso. 
See bcli i w. 

Span. " Rito Yeso". 1 This is given as an eastern tributary of Can- 
gilon Creek entering the latter near its junction with the Chama 
River. The name means 'gypsum or chalk creek', yeso being- 
the Span, equivalent of Tewa fsseg.iku. See the preceding item. 

[2] PEDERNAL MOUNTAIN SHEET 

The country shown on this sheet (map 2) includes some of the 
Chama River valley and part of the Tsi'imjiij,'!'' j>[ijf 'western moun- 

' Hewett, Antiquities, pi. xvil. 



MAP 2 
PEDERNAL MOUNTAIN REGION 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 




PEDERNAL M. 



TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT MAP 2 




INTAIN REGION 



MAP 2 
PEDERNAL MOUNTAIN REGION 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 




(Photograph by J. A. Jeanc/on) 

ANCIENT TRAIL LEADING UP THE MESA TO TSIP.I N.f'QNWl. RUIN 








I Photograph by J. A. Jean^ou) 



TSIPiN^'gyWI RUIN 



lfARuis PLACE N \.\n:s 1 2 1 

tains' [Large Features: 8] of the Tewa. This portion of the western 
range of mountains, situated near Abiquiu, is referred to by Bando- 
lier ' as the range of "Abiquiu", and as " Sierra de Abiquiu". 3 

Pedernal Mountain [3:9], plate 1. B, 7,580 feel in altitude, is per- 
haps tin' most conspicuous feature of the area, ami the sheet has boon 
called Pedernal Mountain sheet. 

This region is as little known as that included in the Tierra Ama- 
rilla sheet. Here also the site of only one ruin is shown, although 
several doubtless exist. See Pueblo Ruin nearer to Pedernal Peak 
than [2:7], [2:unlocated]. 

[2:1] See [1:29]. 

[2:2] See Chama River [Large Features:2]. 

[2::;] See [1:36]. 

[2:4] (1) Eng. Caflones Creek. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 

Span. Rito Caflones ' the creek by Caflones settlement'. 
[2:5], |2:6], and [2:7]. 

[2:5] This is the upper pari of ( 'afiones Creek [2:1 ] according to Mr. 
J. A. Jeancon. See[2:4], [2:6], and [2:7]. 

[2:6] (1) Eng. Polvadera Creek. (<Span.). Span. (2). 

(2) New Mexican Span. Rito Polvadera 'dust-storm creek'. 
=Eng. (1 i. See [2:4], [2:5], and [2:7]. 

[2:7] (1) Tsljinj^'mju-'iJ,,',: 'flaking-stone mountain pueblo ruin "Ped- 
ernal Mountain pueblo ruin" ( Tsipiyy 'Pedernal Mountain', see 
[2:9]; 'oywifceji 'pueblo ruin' <'<)';"'£ 'pueblo', keji postpound 
'ruin'). (PI. 2, II.) "Chipiinuinge (Tewa, 'house at the pointed 
peak')". 1 Tsi jin/ f',),j ,r!jj, (ij,' ' down at' 'overal ' locative postfix 
indicating position not above the speaker). "Chipiinuinge". 4 
"Chipiinuinge (maison du pic pointu)". 8 "Tziipinguinge (Tewa, 
tlm place of the pointed mountain, from tzii. meaning point, ping 
meaning mountain, and uinge the place or village". Taifiyf- 

'•_:■ 'down at or over at the pueblo l>\ Pedernal Mountain' 
(y. locative post-fix 'down at' 'over at'). "Tziipinguinge".' In 
a letter to the author. < >ctober 27, 191 1. Mr. Jeancon states: " Re- 
garding the name. The ( !erro Pedernal undoubtedly has gn i n the 

ruin i'n name The translation a^ given to me is: The Plac - 

Village of the Pointed Mountain . . . Although Suaso 
there is another place Dearer the Pedernal bj thai name and 
that this i- not the true Tziipinguinge". In the same 

■ Pinal Report 
» [bid., p. 73, 

' ll.w.-n. \- 

1. XVII. 

i Hewett, Commonaol 

'J. A. Jeanoon, Exploration* In Cbama Baaln, Now M< I [, p. 101, 19U. 

'J. A. Ji a R 

■■■ 



122 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. ANN. 29 

munication Mr. Jeancon locates the ruin as follows: "The ruin 
is located between two creeks. The Canones Creek joins the 
Polvadera just a short distance north of the ruin and the com- 
panion mesas are situated in the crotch formed by this juncture. 
Canones runs southwest from the junction, the Polvadera almost 
due south . . . The ruin is in the Piedra Lumbre grant." The 
following remarks by Bandelier 1 have some bearing on this ruin: 
"The ruins above Abiquiu, and on the three branches by which 
the Chama is formed, I have not visited. Some of them have 
been noticed in the publications of the U. S. Geographical Survey 
and of the Bureau of Ethnology, to which I refer the student." 2 
"While at the Rito [4:5], Don Pedro Jaramillo told me of a 
pueblo lying west of it [i. e., of the Chama River], and north- 
northwest of Abiquiu". 3 No information has been obtained as to 
what tribe built or occupied this pueblo. The name is merely a 
descriptive one and would be applied to any ruin near Pedernal 
Mountain. Cf. [2:4], [2:5], [2:6], [2:8], and [2:9]; see pi. 2, B. 

[2:S] Smaller mesa southeast of the mesa on which Tsipyjf'oijwi 
stands. The end of the arrow marks the situation of a peculiar 
neck of land or causeway which connects this small mesa with the 
large and high mesa southeast of it, 1 

[2:!*] (1) Tsipvjf 'flaking stone mountain' {tstfi 'flaking stone' 'obsi- 
dian' 'flint'; pwy 'mountain'). =Coekiti (2), Eug. (4), Span. (5), 
Fr. (6). Cf. Cochiti (3). 

(2) Cochiti Ilifh'janfA-ot'e 'flaking stone mountain' 'obsidian 
mountain' (hefte'janj'i 'flaking stone' 'obsidian'; Icote 'moun- 
tain'). = Tewa (1), Eng. (4), Span. (5), Fr. (0). Cf. Cochiti (3). 

(3) Cochiti He 'ftijanfvmo 'nakakdt' 'e 'black obsidian mountain' 
(ln'fle'junfe 'flaking stone"; monaka 'black'; hjt'e 'mountain'). 
Cf. Tewa(l), Cochiti (2), Eng. (4), Span. (5), Fr. (6). 

(4) Eng. Pedernal Mountain , Pedernal Peak . ( < Span. ). = Tewa 
(1), Cochiti (2), Span. (5), Fr. (6). Cf. Cochiti (3). 

(5) Span. Cerro Pedernal 'flaking stone mountain'. =Tewa(l), 
Cochiti (2), Eng. (4), Fr. (6). Cf. Cochiti (3). 

"The truncated cone of the Pedernal". 5 "Cerro Pedernal". 8 

i Final Report, pt. u, pp. 55-56. 1892. 

2 Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1875, Appendix LL (App. J, i), Part ii, p. 1086, copied 
into Report upon United States Geographical Surveys West of the Hundredth Meridian (vol. vii, 
Special Report by Prof. E. D. Cope, pp. 351 to 360 inclusive). It is also interesting to note that ruins 
on the Chama were also noticed in 1776 by that remarkable monk, Fray Silvestrc Velez de Escalante, 
during his trip to the Moqui Indians by way of the San Juan country. See his Diario of that jour- 
ney, and the Carta al P. Morfi, April 2, 1778 (Par. 11). 

3 Bandelier, op. cit., p. 53, note. 

< See Jeancon, Explorations in Chama Basin, New Mexico, Records of the Past, X, pp. 102-103, 
1911. 
6 Bandelier, op. cit,, p. 32. 
•Hewett, Antiquities, pi. xvn. 



HABUKOTOH] l'l Ml, \ \ \1 KS ]23 

(6) Ft. "PicPedernal" 1 . (<Span.). =Tewa(l), Cochil 
I 1 1. Span. (5). Cf. Cochiti (3). 

A number ofTewa Indiana bave stated that there is no more 
obsidian about Pedernal Mountain than elsewhere in mountains 
west of tlic Tewa villages. 

The top of the peak is flat and its whole appearance is peculiar. 
It appears to be the highest mountain i 7. .'.so f ee < ) -\%- i 1 1 1 i ■ i 20 miles 
northwest of [2:13]. It ran be seen from most of i he surrounding 
country, and name- for it will probably he found in a number of 
Indian languages. Florentin Martinez, of San Udefonso, has 
Thipiyfaa his Tewa name. Mr. .1. A. Jeancon states that when 
he excavated at /-•'/"'' 'Qyw% |2:7] very little obsidian was found, 
hut quantities of calcedony and other varieties of flaking stone. 
See [2:7], [2:10], and Ts&mpyt ■'-'"' Piyj> [Large Features:8]; also, 

pi. i./;. 

[2:10] (I) /•'.'/"''/ 1' 'cicada mountain 3 (/'_/■ 'cicada'; i>[ijf 'mountain'). 
Cf. [6:19], [22:30]. 

(■2) Eng. Abiquiu Mountain. (<Span.). = Span. (:•>). 

(3) Span. Cerro Abiquiu 'Abiquiu [3:36] mountain'. =Eng. 
(2). "Abiquiu Peak". 8 "The pyramid of the extinct volcano 
of Abiquiu". 8 The high peak of Abiquiu". 4 "The former vol- 
cano of Abiquiu".' ••Tin- base of Abiquiu Peak, and of its south- 
ern neighbor, the Pelado".' For the Pelado see [2:13]. The 
writer has not found a Tewa Indian who know- this mountain by 
the name of Abiquiu Peak. 

Bandolier 7 states that this peak i- LI, 240 feet high according to 
Wheeler's measurements. This mountain does not looktobeas 
high as [2:9] and not nearly so high as [2:13]. its top is quite 
pointed. A distant \ iew of the peak i- shown in plate 2, B. See 
[2:11]. [2:12], Abiquiu Mountains [2:unlocated], and Tt&mpijJi?*- 
]'[i) ,■ | Large Features:8]. 
[2:11J (1) j'>jj>[iiij<:[i)'j' 'beyond cicada mountain 1 I /-</ /'•(</,/. see[2:10]; 
i>:i ,/>j. • beyond'). 

On the other side, i.e., the western -id.' of Abiquiu Mountain, 
then' are no tree., it i, -aid: but ii is a beautiful place, with 
much grass, waist high. One kind of grass which grows there 
i.- used for making brooms. Sei PimPspyot [Large Features: 1]. 

i Bewi ■ 

i i - ,. | 

Ii tier, Pinal Report, pi 
• tbld 

•Ii.i.) 

' I t.i-l . |- SB, ii.. i.-. 



124 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

[2:12] (1) j>y,pinnuge 'at the base of cicada mountain' (fypi'jj', see 
[2:10]; nuge 'at the base of <nu , u 'at the base of. ge 'down 
at' 'over at'). 

(2) Eng. Vallecito. (<Span.). = Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Vallecito 'little valley'. =Eng. (2). 

The Vallecito is a large, comparatively level, area where con- 
siderable dry-fanning is practised by Mexicans. This locality is 
reached from Abiquiu by driving up the canyon, which is also 
known as the Vallecito. This canyon the Tewa might call 
pypinnugepoTsVi (/'y.pinnuge, as above; poisi'i 'canyon with 
water in it* <po "water*, TsPi 'canyon'), but they usually call the 
whole canyon and vicinity fy,pinnuge. See [2:10] and [2:11]. 
[2:13] (1) Tsiku'mupiyj', probably abbreviated either from tsiud- 
/I'll'ii'mij. pig e 'mountain covered with flaking stone or obsidian', 
or tsinqhrfm u pit) f ' flaking sti me is covered mountain' ' mountain 
where the flaking stone or obsidian is covered" (tsVi ' flaking stone', 
hen' referring almost certainly to obsidian, which abounds in the 
range of mountains of which this is a peak: J,i l from ' l by ' ' with ' 
postfix showing separation or instrumentality; nq 'it'; Lx'mu 'to 
be covered": piyf "mountain"). The writer has discussed this 
etymology with a considerable number of Indians. The first 
etymology mentioned above was suggested by an old man at San 
Juan, a very trustworthy old man at San Ildefonso, the old cacique 
of Nambe, and several other reliable informants. One often 
hears such an expression a> lcvM ndkuSmy, "it is covered with 
stones', said of the ground 0cu "stone": M "from" 'by 5 'with'; n$ 
" it * : k'' in ii " to be covered *). The verb l-u',,, u. may also be used of 
eyes covered by a hand, face covered by a blanket, etc. 

(2) Tsftmpije'impiyj' 'mountain of the west' (tsimpije 'west' 
< ts&yf unexplained, pij< "toward*: "vjf locative and adjective- 
forming postfix; j'iji,f 'mountain'). This is the ceremonial name, 
the mountain being the Tewa sacred peak of the west. See L'ak- 
iuxai. Mountains. 

(3) P'qpipiyy "bald mountain" (p'opi 'bald" </<*</ "hair". 
pi negative; pigf 'mountain'). =Cochiti (1). Eng. (•">), Span. (7). 
This i- a mere translation of the Span, name of the mountain. 
hardly ever used by the Tewa. Some of the informants did not 
know that it refers to Tsifcu'viupiyf. 

(1) Cochiti fd^wata3c6t\ 'bald mountain' (fd'wata 'bald'; /-''< 
'mountain'). =Tewa (3), Eng. (5), Span. (7). This translates 
the Span. name. The Cochiti use now the Span. name, now the 
term here given, for designating this or any of the other ""bald" 
mountains of this part of New Mexico. 



BAUUNOTON] I'l \ri: \ \M IS 1 '_'."> 

(5) Bald Mountain, Baldy Mountain, Pelado Mountain. (<Span.). 
—Tewa (3), Cochiti | 1 1, Span. (7). 

(6) "Santa Clara Peak". 1 

(7) Span. Cerro Pelado 'bald mountain'. = Towa (3). Cochiti 
(4). Eng. C). 

"The base of Abiquiu Peak, and of its Bouthern neighbor, 
the Pelado".' So far as it can be ascertained this i- the 
highest peak of the Jemez or Valle Range. Its height is given 
by Wheeler a^ 1 L,26< l feet.' It is the Tewa sacred mountain of the 
wr-t and worship is performed on its summit.* It may also be 
the sacred mountain of the easl of the Navaho. See Cabdinal 
Mm mains, jiaj^e 44. The .Icmez name for the mountain could 
not be obtained. The top is almost destitute of trees, hence the 
Span. name. Sec |2:ll|. For the name Pelado cf. [587:10], etc. 

[2:14] Tdokwaji probably 'cotton wood inside of something height' 
C ' cottonwood,' Populus wislizeni; to k to be inside of some- 
thing', said of objects within hollow objects; hwajt 'on tup' 
'height'). Why the locality is called thus is nut known to the 
informants. This name applies to the yellowish slope near the 
top of Bald Mountain on the eastern side. This slope is grassy 
and, especially in autumn, has a bright yellotf color. See 
[2:13]. 

[2:l"iJ K'lxijH r'ljj'iji f 'sliding stone mountain ' (/ " 'stone'; sy,nfy 'to 
slide or slip down a gradual or steep slope'; puu' 'mountain'). 
The mountain is called tlm- because its sides are bo steep that a 

stone \\ ill slide dou n. 

This is a high and thin ridge which separates the upper Oso 
drainage from Santa Clara Creek For designations oi 
along its southern side for which the Santa Clara people have 

name-, see 1 14]. 

[2:1'!| K>tiii<n>ts!liii ' u 'Comanche arroyo' {Kumqntsi 'Comanche' 
<Span. Comanche; hii'tt 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

One of the headwaters of Oso Creek [5:35]. It is said thai 
it Hows into |2:I7|. Comanche arroyo is a common name in 
\ru Mexico; cf. [6:12]. 
[2:17] A'./jV;/'" 'wild-goose water' (k&gi 'wild goose'; £»o 'water' 
'creek 'river*). 

One of the headwaters of Oso Creek [5:85]. See [3:18], 
[2:18 j Span. Riachuelo 'rivulet' 'arroyo', 

This is a small Mexican settlement on the Kftgipo [2:17|. Three 
families lived there in 19] I according to a San Juan informant. 

• tod Northern 
■Band 

i ii n, 

p . 



126 ETHNOGEOGBAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

[2:19] KicxfsPi 'oak canyon' (kw% 'oak'; fsi'i 'canyon'). 

This is the most southerly of the chief headwaters of the Rio 
OsoT5:35]. 
[2:20] TscpJ/gnnse 'at the white meal or flour ' (fs% 'whiteness' 
'white'; L'tcijf 'meal' 'flour'; nse 'at'). 
This locality lies between [2:15] and [2:21]. 
[2:21] /''(•'< niiijk'SF' 'where the deer eat earth' (pee, 'mule deer'; .ie 
'they 3+'; n^wf 'earth' incorporated object; Ico 'to eat': V loc- 
ative and adjective-forming postfix). 

Presumably a salt-lick frequented by deer. The earth at this 
place is said to be salty. The locality is said to be a short dis- 
tance east of [2:20]. 
[2:22] S%bekwaje 'pottery bowl height' (s%be 'a kind of bowl' <«« 
unexplained, be 'roundish' 'roundish vessel'; hixije 'on top' 
'height'). 

This high flat- topped mesa is conspicuous from the Rio Grande 
valley. Cf. [2:21] and [2:25]. Sandy hills lie between this mesa 
and the Chama River. 
[2:23] Tsifijin;r 'at the basalt fragments' (tsi 'basalt'; thjf 'frag- 
ment' ' to break' "to crack ': n;c 'at'). 

It is said that this place is a short distance southwest from San 
Lorenzo settlement. See San Lorenzo [2:unlocated]. It is at 
the base of Malpais Mesa [2:24]. In this vicinity are strewn 
great quantities of cracked and broken basalt and lava. There is 
a spring at this place. 
[2:21] (1) M'f:i i't'i.f unexplained (ma'x unexplained; phjf 'moun- 
tain'). 

(2) Eng. Malpais Mesa. (<Span.) = Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Mesa Malpais, Cerrito Malpais 'basalt mesa' 'basalt 
mountain '. 

The top of Mq'xpyjf has the shape of a mountain peak rather 
than of a mesa top. The height is about the same as that of Black 
Mountain. Cf. [2:22] and [2:25]. 
[2:25] (1) l'b/1'ijijf "dark mountain' (piyf 'mountain'; 1'iujf 
'darkness' 'dark' 'obscure'). Cf. Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Black Mountain, Negro Mountain, Black Mesa. Negro 
Mesa. (<Span.). = Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Cerro Negro, Cerrito Negro, Mesa Negro "black 
mountain' "black mesa'. =Eng. (2). Cf. Tewa (1). 

The Tewa name is more picturesque than the Span. The moun- 
tain looks peculiarly dark in certain light, but would hardly be 
called black. The top is quite flat, and it may well be called a 
mesa. It can easily be seen from the Rio Grande Valley. Cf. 
[2:22] and [2:24]. 



HAJUtWOTON] PLACE-NAMES 127 

[2:26] (1) /''■>>; ibi •■!'•. V^eux£\mhoJ>i 'cross knob' (p'ewa 'cross' <p'e 
•-tick*, wa unexplained; boti 'round pile' 'groove' 'knob' 
• knoll ' 'round-topped mountain'). Probably - Span. Eng. 
(2), Span. (3). 

(2)Eng. Cruz Mountain. (<Span.). Tewa (1), Span. (3). 

(3) Spun. Cerrito de la Cruz 'cross mountain'. =Tewa(i), 
Eng. (2). 

This small round mountain can be seen at the base of .'A/V 
piijj> [2:24]. The Tewa aame is evidently a translation of the 
Span. Why it should be called ' cross mountain ' is not known to 
the informants. 
[2:27] (1) San Juan Siep'&ii^Aegt 'over at the black peak gullies' 
(h 'peak'; l»jjf 'blackness' 'black'; '/"' locative and adjective- 
forming postfix; .'«•'' 'small groove' 'arroyito' 'gully'; g.< 'down 
at' 'over at"). 

(2) Eng. Capirote Hill. (<Span.). = Span. (3). 

(3) Span. El Capirote 'pointed cap' 'hood' 'falcon 1 d'; also 

'body louse' 'grayback'. The informants do not know with 
which meaning this name was originally used. 

This hill was pointed oul to the w riter from several localities in 

the < 'liama Valley. It seemed to be dark or blackish. 
[2:28] San Juan Towibuhu'u unexplained [Towibu'u, see [2:29]; 

Ii'i'u 'large groove' 'arroyito'). 
[2:29] San Juan Towibu'u unexplained (Jtowi unexplained; one San 

Juan informant has tried bard to account tor the origin of towi 

but without success; &w'« 'large low roundish place'). See [2:28], 
[2:30] San Juan Eotifyuhu'v. ' malarial chills dale arroyo' I Eolifni'u, see 

[2:31]; hu'u 'large groove' "arroyo"). 
[2:31] San Juan Solibu'u ' malarial chills dale' {Jcoli 'malarial chills' 

as in n4 , okolipo , ° 'J have the chills ' • Vi4 'I' emphatic pronoun, 
'I' prefixed pronoun, Icoii * malarial chills ',jw?'° 'to make' 'to 

be affected by'; b/u'tt 'large low roundish place' 'dale' 'valley'). 

See [2:30]. 
[2:::-_'| San Juan Ts&taQjtkQ, I '• >,\-"vil" 'white Blope barranca' 
2:unlocated]; 'iyj locative and adjective-forming 

postfix; <'" ' barranca' I. 
The place Tssetagfi, from which this barranca take- iu name, is 

not located. See [2:unlocated |. 
[2::;:;] San Juan TsyniJtQhu'u, Tsvcu\r)kqhu' / u 'basalt rocks arroyo' 

(ts\ 'basalt'; ku 'stone'; '<. .■• • locative and adjective-forming 

postfix; /,<>/,, i'</ 'barranca arroyo' /'■■• 'barranca', hu'u 'large 

groove' 'arroyo'). 
\2:'.'A | /•"///.// '<>/,(//</', /,//'". /-mi /•:•/■' 'iitn{ij r li"' " "arroyo where the 

white earth is dug' (/•"/' Be [2:86]; 'iyj locative 

and adjective- forming postfix; ■ 'large groove' 'arroyo') See 

[2:36]. 



128 ETIINOliEOGEAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [ETH. ANN. 29 

[2:35] San Juan ['unf;>_k' <>/<<] iw< 'where the white earth is dug'' 
(ftnifcC 'a kind of white earth used by the Tewa\ see Minerals; 
k'Qijf 'to dig'; V«v'at'). See [2:34]. 

[2:36] San Juan Sipuwuti "projecting corner formed by the lower ribs 
at each side above the abdomen' (sijm 'the depression at each side 
of the upper part of the abdomen of a person, just below the ribs,' 
noticeable especially in lean persons <s»^belly', pu 'base'; witi 
' projecting corner'). This name is given to the ends of the tongues 
of the low mesa west of San Jose [13:44] both north and south of 
fui] f;rl' ondin-ehiru [2:34], but chiefly south of the latter. See 
[2:37] and [2:38]. 

[2:37] San Juan SipuwiMhvtu, Sipuwu4?iyj'hu , u 'projecting lower 
ribs arroyo' (Stpuwiii, see [2:36]; y hjf locative and adjective- 
forming postfix; hu'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). This name re- 
fers to several small arroyos south of J*unf;rl, : ' <>itdlu'ehv\i, [2:34] 
and at Sipuwiii. See [2:36] and [2:38]. 

[2:38] San Juan SipuwUVoJcu 'projecting lower ribs hills' (Sipuwili, 
see [2:36]; 'oku 'hill'). 

These low hills are seen on top of the plateau west of SipuwUi. 
See [2:36] and [2:37]. 

[2:39] (1) Watfehmj&akqVf 'plain of the height by Guache' ( Wabfl 
'Guache' [14:11]; kwajl 'on top' 'height'; ''aloijf 'plain'). 
= Tewa(2). 

(2) Jlahubiityl-iraji'iilqijf 'plain of the height by owl corner' 
{Miiliijbn'ii. see [14:11 1: y> •down at' 'over at'; hvaje 'on top' 
'height - ; 'akoyf 'plain'). =Tewa (1). See [14:11]. 

[2:40] San Juan Tel£ cfolhwajh 'break wagon height' (Tek'abe, see 
[13:47]; hwajl 'on top' 'height'). 

San Juan Indians go much to this place for firewood. They 
reach the height by driving up a small arroyo which is called 
Ti //ntii'/iri' ii ; see [13:47]. 

[2:41] (1) Eng. Roman Mountain. (< Span.). "Mt. Roman." 1 =Span. 

(2). 

(2) Span. Cerro Roman. =Eug. (1). Onty one Santa Clara 
Indian was found who knows this name. Inquiry at Espaiiola 
revealed the fact that this mountain bears the given name of 
Roman Sarasar, a Mexican butcher of Espaiiola, who has cattle 
pastured there. 

[2:42] Santa Clara Creek, see [14:24]. 

[2:43] Coyote Creek, see [1:29]. 

[2:44] Cebolla Creek, see [27:3]. 

1 Hewttt, Antiquities, pi. xvn. 



MAP 3 
ABIQUIU REGION 



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MAP 3 
ABIQUIU REGION 



n.w.itiv PLACE NAMES 129 

I NLO( vn:i> 

ill Eng. Abiquiu Mountains. (<Span.). Span. (2). "the range. 
. . . of Abiquiu." ' 

(•J) Span. Sierra de Abiquiu 'Abiquiu Mountains', named from 
Abiquiu Peak [2:10] and Abiquiu settlement [3:36]. -Enj 
"Sierra de Abiquiu." 

The mountains west of Abiquiu are thus called. Thej are 
really the northern part of the Jemez Range; see TsfimpifJi'* i'ijj r 
[Large Features: 8]. "The northern end of the range [1 

formed by the Sierra de Abiquiu, \\ith the peak 
of the same name [2:10]; then follows the Cerro Pelado [2:13]." 2 
I; is very uncertain just which and how many mountains are in- 
cluded by the name. See [2:10] and [3:36]. 
D'"qijl-";ij,' •turkey track- height 1 i'// •turkey' •chicken': \- // • ' i. ol ' 
'footprint'; hwaj't 'on top' 'height'). 

This is said to be a low mesa somewhere near Roman Mountain 
|2:ll|. Tin' name is familiar at San Juan. Santa Clara, and San 
Lldefonso. 
Santa Clara Kup'-ubu'w 'hollowed stone corner' {kit 'stone'; p'u 'hol- 
lowness' 'hollow'; 6u'w 'large low roundish place'). /''</ is prob- 
ably connected with/''" 'to inflate'. 

A place near upper Oso Creek [5: :!5], accord i no; to two Santa 
( llara informants. 
Santa Clara Makoichpiyf "sky mountain' {makowh •sky"; j'ijir 
'mountain '). 
This is a mountain north or northwest of Santa Clara Pueblo. 
Span. San Jose" 'Saint Joseph'. 

According to Mr. .1. A. Jeancon this is a Mexican settlement 
on upper ' >so < Ireek •"> 

(1) Eng. San Lorenzo settlement. I Span.). Span. (2). 

(2) Spun. San Lorenzo, Plazita San Lorenzo 'Sainl Lawrence'. 
Eng. I i i. 

This Mexican settlement is said to he southeast of Ss&bekwaji 
^ [3:22] and noilhea-t of i 2:23]. 

Ta%taQs 'over at the white slope' (ts$ 'whiteness' 'white'; t,i\i 
■iiia! slope 1 'gentle slope'; p> 'down at' 'over at'). See 
[2:32]. 
Pueblo ruin nearei Pedernal Mountain |2:'.'| than [2:7], q. \. 

j3| ABIQl li -III i 1 

The Tewa refer to the country about Abiquiu as 'Atiijupiji 
'up Abiquiu waj ' i Atikju 'Abiquiu ' ; /</,■'• 'toward'). The ruin- 
shown on this sheet m ip 3 are all claimed by the Tewa. 

' Ibid 

-T.'.-l 29ETB I'- 



130 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

[3:1] Span. "Arroyo Cubre." 1 This would mean 'copper arroyo'. 

Tliis name was not known to the informants. 
[3:2] (1) P'~, fi'jiiji ,/■'< 'projecting- timber and little mountain' (Pefii, 

see [3:30]; pijjf 'mountain'; \>- diminutive). Cf. (2) and (3). 

(2) 'AbtJcjupiijfc, 'Abefupiyy'e 'Abiquiu little mountain' 
(Aiekju, WKfn 'Abiquiu', see [3:36]; fiyf 'mountain'; '<s di- 
minutive). Cf. (1) ;nnl (3). 

(3) A" osn'oijtr hj, ji[ij/,\ K'oxupiyf'e 'large legging or large 
legging village little mountain' {K % oso , qr)wige, see [3:30]; pujf 
'mountain'; V' diminutive). 

[3:3] See [2:12]. 

[3:4] (1) Eng. Santa Rosa Chapel. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 
(2) Span. Capilla de Santa Rosa "chapel of Saint Rose'. 
The ruins of this chapel lie about a mile east of Abiquiu, south 
of Chama River, between the main wagon road and the river. 
The walls are still standing; the door was toward the east. The 
structure was built of adobe. 
[3:.'>] Chama River. See Chama River [Large Features: 2]. 
[3:6] J4mpowihu , oku , e "little hills of [3:7]' (J4,mpowihv?u, see [3:7]; 
'oku 'hill'; -e diminutive). 
The hills of [3:12] might also be called thus. 
[3:7] (1) .fiUiijmtrihti' 'a 'willow water gap arroyo' (JqmpowPi, see 
[3:unlocated]; hv?u " large groove' 'arroyo'). 

(2) Eng. Madera Arroyo. (<Span.). = Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Arroyo Madera, Canada Madera 'timber arroyo' 
'timber Canada'. =Eng. (2). 

This arroyo enters Chama River slightly east of and opposite [3:9]. 

Mexicans go up this arroyo to get timber with which to build 

houses, hence the Span. name. They get the timber especially at 

a place up the arroyo called JqmpowPi in Tewa; see [3:unlocated]. 

A trail passing up this arroyo connects Abiquiu [3:30] and El 

Rito [4:5]. 
[3:8] (1) J\ifnh-i!Iiu' a 'squash projection height arroyo ' (Pofiik&ii, 

see [3:10]; hu'u ' large groove ' "arroyo'). 

(2) Kij'k' ■ 'Hi "' '" 'skunk-bush height arroyo' (KyJceti, see 

[3:10]; hv!u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). See also [3:8]. 
[3:9] (1) Pof ii~k,-i'i'i>ijir'd-i]i 'squash projection height pueblo ruin' 

{Pofuk&ti, see [3:1»>|; 'qijivijcji 'pueblo ruin' K'oijirl 'pueblo', 

l-iji postpound "ruin'). 

(2) Kij'koii'iiiju-iliji "skunk-bush height pueblo ruin' (KuJc'i, 

see [3:10]; 'oiin-ij^ji 'pueblo ruin' < 'oiju-i 'pueblo', Zv/7'ruin"). 

See also [3:8]". 

i Hewett, Antiquities, pi. xvn. 



harrin PLACE-NAMES 131 

[8:10] (1) /'//"/•<•'/ 'squash projection height' [po 'squash 5 'gourd' 

'pumpkin'; j'"'<< 'horizontally projecting end of anything'; h >>' 

'at tlic top' " height '). 
(2) I\'jh- ■>>' ' skunk-bush height' (hj, 'skunk-hush'; keti 'at the 

top' 'height'). 

There is much skunk-bush growing on this mesa. 
[3 : 1 1 J (1) To ly 'good pinon mountain' (io 'pifion tree': majo 

'good' 'best' 'tip-top' 'chief, its second syllable being probably 

the augmentative jo; j>'ui >- 'mountain'). 
It is probable that there are good sized pifion trees on this 

mountain. With this name <•!'. Chimayo [22:18]. 

(2) Eng. "Black Mountains". 1 
The mountain is not at ;ill black. 

(3) Span. Oerro de loa Burros 'donkey i intain'. So called 

because then' either are or were many wild donkeys on tin- moun- 
tain. This appears to be the common name among Mi 

at tout Abiquiu. 

(4) Spun. Cerro Tequesquite 'tequesquite [see Minkrals] 
mountain'. Tliis name is applied because Tequesquite Spring 
[3:1 1 1 is situated near this mountain. 

(5) Span. Cerro Abiquiu 'Abiquiu mountain". This name is 
frequently applied by Mexicans li\ ing in the < >i'> * aliente region 
and in Chama River valley below tin' mountain. 

From Ojo Caliente it appears to be the most prominent moun 
tain near Abiquiu [3:36]. 
Cf. [3:2], [3:13], [8:14], [3:15]. 
[8:12] TomajoPimp% ijqdokvti 'small hills behind [3:11]' (To najoj. 

3:11]; p:i i/'j' 'over beyond' 'behind' - p&nj'- ' beyond ', g.t 
'down at ' 'over at'; '<■'.» 'bill'; '< diminutive). This name could 
be applied by a speaker anywhere, the Tewa thinking of the set- 
tled Chama River country somehow as being in front of the 
mountain [3:11] and of the little hills [8:12] as being behind it. 
These hills could also be called JfamPourihu'oku't [8:6] or ' 
eral other descriptive nam.'-. Cf. [8:11], [8:13], [3:14], [3:15]. 
[8:13] TomajoPin.nug.Joku 'hills at the foot of |3:11|" (TornajoPi 
see [3:11]; nugt 'over at the base of 'al the base of, ge 

'down at' 'over at'; 'oku 'bill'). This name refers to the entire 
chain of four whitish hills and also to the two small dark hills 
[8:15] south of tin- hill chain. 

There are manj lota 'cliffs' by these hills. Cf. [8:11], [8:12], 
[8:14], [3:15]. _ 

[3:1 1 | I I l / . - littli' alkali spring' 

'little alkali spring at the foot of [3:11 1' ('..<-.» 'alkali 1 a- in 

XVII. 



132 ETHXOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA IXDIAXS [bih. ass. 29 

'salt', sag "pepperi: ''spring' <fo 

•water", pi 'to come out": 'e diminutive : g as in 

[3:13]). Cf. Eng. (2), Spa- . 

Although 'osse refers to any kind of alkali the alkaline deposit 
of this spring has peculiar properties and is called in Span, by a 
special name. See Span. 

2) Eng. Tequesquite Spring. (<Mex. Span.). =Span. 
Cf. Tewa 

Span. Ojo Tequesquite ' spring where a peculiar alkaline 
-ranee known in Mexican and New Mexican Span, as teques- 
quite is obtained." See Tequesquite under Mxsebats. = Eng. 
(2 1. • 

I Span. Ojo del Pajaro 'bird spring". This name was 
tained only from Mr. Jose" Rafael Gallego, who lives at [3:20]. 
He says that he has heard the spring called by this name, but that 
it is usually called Ojo Tequesquite. 

This spring is in the arroyo which issues from between the most 
i'ly of the chain of hills [3:13] and the hill next to the most 
- rly one. Mr. Gallego. who has lived long in the vicinity, at 
. has visited the spring many times, states that the teques- 
quite is d< - a crust on the bed of the arroyo about the 
spring. In most place- this crust is so thin that the substance can 
not be gathered without considerable admixture of sand. Mexi- 
cans and Indians go to the place and carry away sacks of the sub- 
stauce, which is used by them as a purgative and for raising bread. 
Tequesquite, under Mineral.-. A specimen of the teques- 
quite from this spring was obtained from an old Indian of San 
Juan, who kept a sack of the substance in his house to use as medi- 
cine and as baking powder. Cf. [3:11], [3:12], [3:13], [3:15]. 
[3:15] Toma ' \€6k 'k'uyf'e ' little dark hills at the foot of [3:11] ' 
if- g as in [3:13] : V. ./ 'hill': I'nrjf 'darkness' "dark": 
'e diminutive). 

These two small, low. dark-colored hills are situated on the 
southern slope of the chain of hills [3:13] and east of the Teques- 
quite Spring [3:14]. 
[3:16] Pueblo ruin. 

This ruin lies just west of Mariana [3:19], between the wagon 
road and the river. The writer used every endeavor at San Juan 
to obtain the Indian name of this ruin, but without success. A 
low mound could be seen in the field where the ruin lies. 
[3:17] Makusap'uihu , u 'owl excrement pile arroyo' {Mahy^ap'iM,, 
3:18 : hu'u "large groove" "arroyo"). 
This arroyo is lo-t in the fields just ea<t of Mariana [3:19]. 
See [3:18]. 



BAUturaroH] I'l.Ati STAMBS 133 

[3:1^| Mi/njs.ij,' :.ii 'little ]>il«'s of owl excrement 3 [mahy 'owl'; m 
'excrement'; /<'/.// •-mall pile'). 
These hills might easily be though! to resemble owl excrement. 
[3:19] (1) Eng. Mariana settlement. (<Span.). Span. (2). 

(2) Spun. Mariana ' pertaining to Mary '. Mariana is in Span, a 
woman's given Dame. =Eng. (1). " Mardiana "' 

(3) Span. El Puente, La Puente, 'the bridge'. A Mexican 
living at this place said thai there was formerly a bridge across the 
Chama River there; hence this name. "Three miles below (south- 
east) AAriquiu, at a plan' called ' La Puente' (the Bridge).'" "La 
Puenta". 8 

Ii i- said that some Mormon families came to live at this place 
about six years ago and thai the name Mariana was never heasd 

before they came. The name of the post-office i- now Mariana. 

Mexicans .-till call the plaee El Puente, and few who do not live 
in the vicinity seem to know that the name ha- been changed 
to Mariana. Mariano ami Mariana an' given names common 
in New Mexico. At present there are two frame houses at 

Mariana, in one of which i- the post office. The mill [3:16] 
lie- in the Gelds ju-t ui-,| of Mariana and the ruin on a bluff 
L50 feei above the river described bj Yarrow. Bandolier, and 

Hewitt, must be s where near. It i- possible that the latter 

i- |3:'.']. See [3:unlocated] for complete discussion. 

[3:2u| Span. Los Gallegos. This place is named from Mr. Jose Ra- 
fael Gallego and family, who have a ranch there. 
The place is just west of Tierra Azul [3:26]. 

[3:-_'l| Tomajdbu'u 'over at the corner by [8:11]' > oxTomajo- 

j'iji t\ -ee [3:11]: b"'" 'large low roundish place'). 
All this low sandy arid cornel is called thus. 

[3::.'l'| Tamajokqhu'u 'arroyos of [3:11]' (Tomajo for Tomajopigs, 
Bee [3:11]; kqhu'u ' barranca arroyo Jtq 'barranca, 9 '<"'" 'large 
groove 3 'arroyo'). 

The arroyo, which enter- the river ju-t east of the wae-on road, 

ha- it- nth slightlj to the west of the ranch of Mr. Earran, a 

Frenchman who married the daughter of a Mexican ranch owner 
named < lhavez. See |3:1 1 ]. 

[8:23 I The main wagon road between LI Rito [4:5] and Abiquiu [8:86]. 

[3:24] 'Awap'ajfii'u 'cattail corner' ffowap'a 'cattail'; Jit'ti '1 

low round place'). 

This swampy plaee i- ju-t wesl of the cqttonwood grove [3:26]. 
(3:l'.'.| /;/•.;////"'/ ' cottonwood grove corner ' (tt 'oottonwood' 'Popu 
htswislizenV', tea 'thicket 3 'forest 3 'thick', meaning -el..-, to 
gether'; bu'n 'large low round place'). 

. : \m, 
' Km. - 



134 ETHXOGEOGRAPHY OF THE IEWA INDIANS [bth. ANU. 28 

This is almost due north of Tierra Azul [3:26]. 
[3:26] (1) Xnnts'U]ir;?h'/' 'u 'blue orgreen earth corner' {nayf 'earth'*: 
tsqyw% 'blueness' 'blue' 'greenness' 'green'; bu'u 'large low 
round place"). =Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

j: Eng. Tierra Azul. (<Span.). =Tewa (1), Span. (3). 
(3) Span. Tierra Azul 'blue earth'. 

The names refer to the bluish, or rather grayish, color of the 
-(iil at the place. The Indian informants insist that Nqntsq ywst bu'ti 
is the original Tewa name of the place. At present the locality 
is occupied by a number of Mexican farms. 
[3:27] Depowikohu'u, see [5:12]. 
[3:28] /'•■'' . see [5:14]. 
[&29i l - 4:3], 

1 3:3i ■ | Tsq not pijjf. see [5 :5]. 

[3:31] Sdyw%pi'z H 'at the red sandston ■sandstone": pi 'red- 

ness' 'red'; '•" locative and adjective-forming postfix). Cf. [3:32] 
and [3:33]. 
[3:32] Teqwapifru'u "red house corner' {teqwa 'house'; pi 'redness' 
'red'; bu'u 'large low roundish pla< < 

This refers to the locality northeast of Mr. Gonzales' house. 
Cf. [3:31] and [3:33]. 
[3:33] (1) Teqwapibu'u ' red house town' {teqwa "house": pi 'redness* 
Ted": b'i'ii 'town'). Cf. Eng. (2). Span. (3). 

(2) Ene-. Plaza Colorada. (<Span.). = Span. (3). Cf. Tewa 

(I)- 

(3) Span. Plaza Colorada Ted courtyard'- =Eng. (2). Cf. 
Tewa (1). 

This is the name of the Mexican settlement north of Chama 
River opposite Abiquiu [3:36]. 
[3:34] (1) P'efwiug.epopi "springs below [3:36]' (P'efu-, see [3:36]; 
/, uij, 'over below' Knu'u "below". g_e "down at" "over at'; popi 
'spring' <po "water", pi "to issue"). 

(2) 'Abefunug.epopi, 'Ahekjunug.epopi "springs below [3:36]' 
i' At- /''■-.' ' ,see 3:36]; nug.e 'over below' </<-/""' below", ge 
'down at' "over at": pqpi "spring' <po 'water'; pi 'to issue'). 

_- ibIow [3:36J (Fosd'oywi, see 
[3:36]; /"/g- "over below* <nu'u ' below". g_e "down at' "over at": 
pqpi "spring" <po "water", pi "to issue'). 

Easl of [3:35] are two little gulches in each of which is a peren- 
nial spring, the water of which is said to be very good. This is 
presumably the best water in the vicinity of [3: 
[3:35] (1) PefunvQepotsa "marsh below [3:36]' (P'efu, see [3:36]; 
inig. "over below' <nu , u 'below', g.e 'down at' 'over at'; potsa 
'marsh' <po 'water', tsa 'to cut through'). 



HIEBINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 1 .",,") 

{■j) ' Atiifiinotj. i><jfs,/, 'AbehjxvnuQfi'potaa 'marsh below [8:36]' 
ffJLb&fu-JAiekju, see [3:36]; nug.e 'over below' <»«'« 'below', 
q.6 'downat' 'overat'; potsa 'marsh' < po 'water', tsa 'to cut 
through '). 

(3) K'os'i'oiju-ijuifr [><,ts.r 'marsh below [3:36]' {JCosrfqqw 
[3:36]; /*>'£> 'overbelow' <»>''" 'below', ge 'down at' 'over al ': 
Potsa 'marsh 3 <fo 'water', tsa 'to cut through'). 
[3:36] (1) San Juan l y , fnh"' <* 'timber end town' (/>'< 'stick "timber'; 
fu'tt 'end of longish object in horizontal position'; bit'it 'town'). 
The nan ii ■ P\ fu- is applied to both the present town ami tin- ruin 
[3:38]; it i- used by the San Juan people onlj . It is undoubtedly 
th." original Tewa name of the pueblo ruin [3:38] as well as of the 
present Mexican town, and of it Span. Abiquiu is a corruption. 
& e Span. (7). The original reason why this place is called thus 
appears to have been forgotten in the remote past. The name 
ii iran s either the end of a stick or log, or the sharp end of a mesa 
or some other geographical feature which projects horizontally 
and has timber on it. The same word appears as a San [ldefonso 
place-name in P'efukwajk [20:46] and P K ef<uta?a [20:47]. Tewa 
(2), Cochiti el). Eng. i7». Span. (8). ••At San Juan the name 
was given to me as Fe-jiu". 1 This i- given a- the name of the 
presenl town. •"In that ease it U quite likely that its name 

was Fe-jyu".-' This i, given a- the probable nan f the 

pueblo ruin [3 

(■_') ' Ahi /'/'", ' Ab. //'". (- Span. (8)). Both of these forms have 
been modified by folk-etymology. 'At"'- is identical with 
'chokecherry' 'Prunus melanocarpa' while the Mexican- say 
AJbtkju. j-ii'n in ' Atti fa' 'i is the word meaning "end" ju I 
appears in the original Tewa name P'efu'u, so thai the whole 
meaning of 'Ab&fu'u, is 'chokecherry end'. This is the form 
commonlj used al all the Tewa pueblos except San Juan, while 
'AfiJ.'i" is seldom heard. Tewa (1), Cochiti (6), Eng. (7), 
Span. (8), "Se-pS ue and A.be-cbiu." In the sentence fol 
lowing the one from which these words are quoted Bandelier 
refer- t.i information obtained by him from the Tewa of San 
[ldefonso. I lis "Abe-chiu"ise^ identlj ' Ahi fu' h and was probably 

obtained by him at San [ldefonso. "Abechiu (Tewa, "the scr :h 

of the owl")".' "Abechiu (le cri du hibou)".' 

(3) A " . A ' i 'Si,' It 1/ ir t_, l\ \/.v,i\i;/ .!■ '■■' II • lal'je 

legging pueblo' 'large legging town' (BTosd qtjj 'Hopi person' 
■ /,',. 'legging', Mn'oi/f irregular vegetal singula! 

. 

'Il.l.l . p 7J 

•II.Mitl, Uitl.|iilt|.-, p. :'j'.. KM. 



136 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

agreeing with k'o 'legging 7 , often clipped to so' or so in various 
forms referring to the Hopi; 'oiju-i 'pueblo'; bu a 'town"). A 
peculiar feature of this name is that when 'i H or Hrjf locative and 
adjective-forming postfix, is inserted, it becomes wi H or wygf\ 
thus K ' os'i'itijirijiibif a instead of K'oso'Qijf'iiiibii'ii which one 
would expect. = Tewa(4). "Jo-so-ge." 1 This seems to rest on 
some ungrammatical Tewa form. The writer has spent mucli 
time inquiring about this form. All the informants agree that 
although a Tewa might say K'osoge or E'oso'oyr/e and these forms 
would be understood, they are not correct Tewa, for g.e 'down at' 
' over at' added to the name of a people means nothing. There are 
no such forms as Tewag.e, ITapoge, roqwo-iege, etc. It has been 
ascertained from San Juan, Santa Clara, San Udefonso, and JSainhe 
Indians that ICosoQe is an incorrect form, which does not sound 
right to Tewa ears. See Tewa (4) and the general discussion of 
Abiquiu below. 

(4) MohVqywi, MoWnHu 'Hopi (Mold) Pueblo' 'Hopi (Mold) 
town' {MoJci 'Mold' 'Hopi' <Span. Moqui, see Hopi (Names of 
Tribes and Peoples); 'oywi 'pueblo'; bu'u 'town'). = Tewa (3). 
"Miike". - For the reason why the names A" ,,*<>' 'qijf- and Mola- 
are applied to Abiquiu, see the general discussion of Abiquiu, 
below. The name Mok\ is applied very seldom or not at all and 
is therefore omitted from the items on place-names about Abiquiu 
in which the name of [3:36] appears propounded. 

(5) Cochiti 'Avekjutsas i^Avekju <Span. (7); ts;e locative). 
= Tewa (1), Tewa (2), Eng. (6), Span. (7). 

(6) Eng. Abiquiu. (<Span.). = Tewa (1), Tewa (2), Cochiti 
(5), Span. (7). 

(7) Span. Abiquiu, Santo Tomas de Abiquiu. (<Tewa (1), 
above). = Tewa (1) , Tewa (2) , Cochiti (5) , Eng. (6). "Abiquiu". 1 
This is the established Span, spelling of the name. Initial J?' in 
the San Juan dialect approaches bilabial /'and would easily be 
heard by Span, speakers as a medial Span. b. The Tewa -f- be- 
came Span, -qui-; the sound of Tewa / might easily be thought 
by a Spanish speaker to resemble that of -qui- (hi or lei). An a 
was added to the Span, form before the medial b. 

The Tewa have clearly explained this multiplicity of names 
as follows: The original Abiquiu was the pueblo ruin [3:38]. 
The original name of this was P'efu-. See Tewa (1), above. 
When the Mexicans came to the country they mispronounced 
P'efu-, calling it Abiquiu. At present only the San Juan 
Indians preserve the old name P'efu- in their speech, the other 
Tewa calling the place by the Span, name usually mispronounced so 

i Bandolier, Final Report, pt. II, p. 54, 1892. 
' Hewett, Antiquities, p. 36, 1900. 



PLACE-NAM 1 5 137 

as in make it sound like, 'Abi'fu'u 'chokecherry end". Sit Tewa 
(2), above. After the Tewa pueblo at Abiquiu was colonized by 
the Spaniards a number of I ml hm rapt i\ es. mostly Hopi Mold), 
were settled there by the Spaniards. From this time the pueblo 
or town was known l>v the name K'osd'oyj'- or Mofck- as well as 

by its old name, /'•/"" . and it- mispronounced Span, na 

\l* /""'». '. lb> /.■'/". because the Hopi (Moki) were or had been 
living there. Bandolier's information agrees with thai of the 
Tewa informants and makes the history of these names very 
clear. "The modern town of Abiquiu stand- almosl on the site 
of an ancienl village [8:38]. That town was peopled in part by 
'Genizaros', <>r Indian captives, whom the Spaniards bad rescued 
or purchased from their captors. The Tehuas [Tewa] of Santa 
Clara contend thai most of those Genizaros came from the Moquis 
[Hopi], and that therefore the old pueblo was called Jo-so-ge." 1 
( lonsiderable documentary history of Abiquiu is also given by Ban- 
dolier. The Spanish settlers had always to contend with the 1 te 
and later on with tin' Navaho, according to Bandelier. The Tewa 
word rendering Span, genizaro or cautivo is /»."/./• Great festi- 
vals were formerly held at Abiquiu, ami many people of various 
pueblos used to go thither t<> attend these. The Tewa saj that 
there is much Hopi hi mid ami still more Tewa blood in the present 
Mexican population of Abiquiu. Tin' Tewa state that Abiquiu 
was a Tewa pueblo, whose inhabitants had the same culture and 
customs as the people of the other Tewa villages, and -poke a 
dialect which was slightly different from that of any other I 
village but no more different from the dialects of the other Tewa 
pueblos than the dialed of San Juan is from that of Santa ( llara. 
Abiquiu i- todaj a quaint "Id Mexican tew n w ith one large plaza. 
It contains six saloons. It- largest store is owned bj a Hebrew 
merchant. On a cross which stands on the west -id.- of the 

plaza reads " Etecuerdo de la Mi — ion L6 de Marzo I s^T." ihe 

Tewa and other Indian languages formerly spoken there have 
become entirely extinct. According to information obtained from 
ra Indian by an investigator at Santa Clara the people were 
formerly saved from a flood bj taking refuge in cavee at Abi- 
quiu, Chimayo, and the Black Mesa near San Qdefonso |18:l'..t]. 
The cave at Abiquiu to which the people fled was a- big a- a 
house. According t" the Tewa informants the p$n) 

1 captive ~'\J(hH "dance") called in Span. el haile de lofi cautlVOS, 

was much danced ;it Abiquiu a tew .jvnerat ion- BgO. Thi-ua- 

danced oul of doors in the night time in a Bpecialrj prepared 

yard. Tewa. Hopi. and Mexicans took part. See [8:88]. 'Ihe 



; Report, pt. n i 



138 ETHNOGEOGKAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [HTH. ANN. 29 

Ollero division of the Jicarilla Apache received rations from 
the Government at Abiquiu for several decades prior to 1880, 
according to Goddard. 1 
[3:37] (1) P'efaluCu 'arroyoof [3:36]' {P'efu-, see [3:36]; hu'u 'large 
groove' 'arroyo'). 

(2) 'Abefuhu'u, ' l AbeJcjuhu , u 'arroyoof [3:36]' i^AVfu-^Abelju, 
see [3:36]; hu'u ' large groove ' 'arroyo'). 

(3) K'o8o'oijir[l,ii'u 'arroyo of [3:36]' (K'oso'Qywi, see [3:36]; 
hu'u' large groove' ' arroyo'). 

[3:38] (1) P'efu'qywikeji 'pueblo ruin of [3:36]' {P'efu-, see [3:36]; 
\iijirij,-, j't 'pueblo ruin' <'o)jici 'pueblo', Jceji 'ruin' postpound). 

(2) 'Atefu'oywikeji, ' Abekju' 'qywiJceji 'pueblo ruin of [3:36]' 
{'Abefu-, 'Abekju, see [3:36]; 'qrjvyiJceji 'pueblo ruin' < , oijici 
'pueblo', Jceji 'ruin' postpound). 

(3) K'osoojjf'mjirU,,)'^ h"ns,i'oijiriJ,; )', 'pueblo ruin of [3:36]' 
{K^oso'qyf-, see [3:36]; 'oywiJseji 'pueblo ruin' <'qywi 'pueblo', 
Jceji 'ruin' postpound). 

(4) MbhV Qywiheji 'pueblo ruin of [3:36]' {Mold, see [3:36]; 
'qywikeji 'pueblo ruin' <'oywi 'pueblo', Jceji 'ruin' postpound). 

This ruin is described by Bandelier 2 and by Hewett. 3 See 
[3:36]. 
[3:39] (1) Pefuhwage 'mesa of [3:36]' {P'efu-, see [3:36]; Jcwage 
'mesa'). 

(2) ' AbefuJcwage, 'AbeJcjuJcwage 'mesa of [3:36]' CAbefu-, 'Abelju, 
see [3:36]; JcwaQfi 'mesa'). 

(3) K t oso'oj)'W\kwage 'mesa of [3:36]' ( K f os(? oyio\, see [3:36]; 
Jcwage 'mesa'). 

This mesa is high and flat-topped, and is composed of basalt. 
Cf. [3:40]. 
[3:4o] (1) P'efukeM 'height of [3:36]' {P'efu-, see [3:36]; Tceud 
'height'). 

(2) 'Abefulc&ii, 'AbeJcjulcaii {'Afcfu-, 'Abekju, see [3:36]; lceJ>i 
' height'). 

(3) K'oso'qywyceJ'i, ICoxo'oijhnit 'height of [3:36]' {Foso'qywi, 
Roso\i)f-, see [3:36]; lv./i 'height'). Cf. [3:2] and [3:39]. 



Cave near Abiquiu. According to information obtained by an inves- 
tigator at Santa Clara the ancient people were saved from a flood 
by fleeing to caves at Abiquiu, Chimayo, and the Black Mesa near 
San Ildefonso [18:19]. The cave at Abiquiu to which they fled 
was as large as a house. Since caves actually exist at Chimayo 

1 Jicarilla Apache Texts, p. 7, 1911. 

» Final Report, pt. II, pp. 54-65, 1892. • 

a Hewett, Antiquities, No. 31, 1906. 



m.n] PLAt'i: NAMES 1 39 

and at the Black Mesa near San Qdefonso we may assume that 
there i- a large cave Bomewhere mar Abiquiu. 

.//_//,///.-//■'/. see |3:7]. 

Span. Mesa Encantada 'enchanted mesa'. 

Mexicans say that there is an enchanted mesa mar Abiquiu. 
Sounds come from this mesa resembling a faint singing of man; 
voices or again like the faint crowing of a cock. 

/ / /in' a' ,'I\:i i [in. 'J'*:/' [iii /'" 'white arroyo' 'whitecreek' 

'whiteness "white'; 'iv • Locative and adjective forming post- 
fix; /"/'" 'large groove 1 'arroyo'; /«< 'water 5 'creek'). 

This is the name of an arroyo <>r creek not Ear west of Abiquiu 
mi the mirth side of Chama River. 

Pueblo ruin northwest of Abiquiu. "While at the Kit<> [4:5], Don 
Pedro Jaramillo told me of a pueblo lying west of it |4: 
north-northwest of Abiquiu.' 1 ' This may refer to [2:7]. 

Pueblo ruin on a high blull' near La Puente [3:19]. "Three miles 
below (southeast) Abiquiu, at a place called 'La Puente 1 (the 
Bridge), on a bluff close to the river on the south bank, stands 
the ruin which Dr. yarrow of Washington examined about sixteen 
years ago, and of which he lias given descriptions and a ground 
plai 

Bandelier devotes pages 56 and 57 of his Pinal Report (pt. n) to 
a description of this ruin. The ruin is described also by Hew- 
ett,* and later mentioned by him.' Unfortunately the writer's 
Tewa informants did not know either the Location or the name 
of this ruin, unless indeed [8:9] be meant. Bandelier gives two 
names for this ruin, and Hewitt records -till another. 

(1) "To this ruin the San Juan Tehuas applj the name of 
Abechiu.'" This is true only in the sense thai the San Juan 
people might apply the name of [3:36] to any ruin in the vicinity 

of [3:36] of which the} did not know tin' true name. The whole 

region about Abiquiu is called bj the name of [3:36]. 

(2) "* To this ruin the San Juan Tehuas applj tho nai i' Abe- 
chiu, while those of Santa ( Mara call it Oj po re-ge, 'Place where 
metates are made rough'. Abechiu is undoubtedly the original 
name, and the other one of more recent date'."' In a footnote 
on the same page Bandelier adds: " ' Lugar adonde pican los 
metates'. As the ancient metates were not made rough bj pick- 
ing, I therefore conclude that it is a modern designation for 

1 Baodi I 

I Pueblo Bud an \>" lent Burial 
Watt of lOOtta 

" 

ime. 

•Biui'li-ll-r. 



140 ETHXOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bxh.ajts.29 

the place." Either Bandelier or his informants have made a 
mistake in giving this form. ' po 7" means 'rough metate' Co 
'metate'; po "rough": 7"' locative and adjective-forming postfix). 
The expression meaning "I make the metate rough" is >"l'o>)f } o- 
fo'o' (nq "I" emphatic pronoun: .torjf "I it for myself prefixed 
pronoun: "•■ 'metate'j^w "to roughen": V present progressive). 
No such form as -poJe- is possible. The writer has studied this 
word especially with Santa Clara informants. Po ' rough " is a 
very uncommon word, pa being the common word rendering 
'rough' and the verb kutsse the common expression meaning to 
roughen by pecking. '" would be the common Santa 

Clara translation of ""lugar adonde pican los metates "' i"< •me- 
tate": hutsti " to roughen by pecking": 'iw< locative*. Pom means 
'fishweir', poM means "head". Prepounding 'o "metate' to either 
of these words would form a compound which has little meaning. 
The Santa Clara informants can not understand "Oj-po-re-ge" 
at all, and none of them nor any other Tewa informant ever 
heard Abiquiu Pueblo ruin called by such a name. " Opo'oifwi, 
' <yj\rine could be formed, but "does not sound right'" i'" "me- 
tate": po 'rough'; 'qywi "pueblo": ge "down at" "over at' . 

(3) "" Kwengyauinge ("blue turquoise house").'" 1 ""Kweng- 
yauinge (maison de la turquoise bleue)**. 2 This name is evi- 
dently Knij:x'qi]ir </!■„ "over at the turquoise pueblo' Qeunj'% 
"turquoise' <hu 'stone', nyse as in 'drift*: "salt", cf. '<) "alkali": 
i "pueblo": ge ; down at' "over at"). The Tewa know two 
pueblos by the name K>fijfa_'q>)u-[: one is the inhabited pueblo 
called in Eng. and Span. Pueblito [13:15]. which lies northwest 
from San Juan on the west 7 7 of the Rio Grande and is inhab- 
ited by San Juan Indians: the other is the pueblo ruin in the Tano 
country [29:"23] near the turquoise deposit [29:55], That the Tewa 
know a third pueblo by this name is not impossible, but persistent 
questioning of informants has failed to bring the information that 
there i< a K 7 in the Chama River valley. Cf. Kuke*i- 

'oijw'deji, one of the names of [3:9]. 

See [3:9], [3:16], [3:19], and [3:36]. 

[4] EL KITO SHEET 

The region shown on this sheet (map 4) is generally called in Tewa, 
Eng.. and Span, after El Rito town [4:5] or the plain or creek bearing 
that name. In the central and southern part of the area shown vege- 
tation is -cane and the low hills are sandy. 

1 Hewett, Antiquities, p. 34, 1906. 
' Hewett, Communautes, p. 4_ 



MAP 4 
EL RITO REGION 



<o 






00 






''/.vV vV 







MAP 4 

EL RITO REGION 



n.vuiuv PLAGE-H \ M LS 1 I 1 

Two pueblo ruins are shown on the sheet These two seem to be 
the onlj ruins in this area which are known to the San Juan people. 
Thej are claimed bj theTewa, who have definite traditions that they 
were buill and occupied by their ancestors. 

[4.1 1 (1) P#4Piys, Pfikwajd, Pi'iPiyhoaji 'lighl reddishness moun 
tains' 'light- reddishness heights', referring to the color of the 
mountains (/""■.: old absolute Eorm of /><',_/,/■,", ppfiwiyj 'light- 
reddishness' 'light red' 'pinkness' •pink' /■/ 'redness' 'red', 
'brownness' 'brown' bul when postpounded to 
other color names indicates 1 i lt 1 > t and faint quality of color; fiyy 
•mountain ': kwajt 'height'). With the use of the absolute form 
.it' the color-adjective in this name, thai is. of /""■_' instead of 
ji,",i ,/•/"■■. ppfiwiy . compare Posi 'greenness' 'green' in the name 
|6:'_'1| instead of Posi/wi?*, posiwiyy, and /<" 'grayness' 'gray' in 
tin- name |6:lM | instead of how€ i 1 howig e. The forms /><''./. po&i, 
and ho do not occur in Tewa as it is spoken al the present time, 
but they are understood. They an' old nouns an. I correspond t.> 
tin* noun-forms of other color-words, as pi redness', a- compared 
with /W. /""(v./ ' red'. 

Tin-.' mountains or heights are more noticeably reddish than 
the plain [4:4] al their base, and it is nut improbable that all the 
oilier geographical features ^ hich arc call.. I /'.'. gel their nanus 
from t hen i. The canyon [4:2] ami creek [4:3], the town [4:5], an. I 
ruin [4:7] certainly gel their names /''"■' from the mountains 
|4:l I and the plain [4:4 j. ami since the plain i- le-- conspicuously 
red than the mountains and bears the name Pi'iTWQi 'over al the 
fool of the pink' (see [4:4]), one i- Id to think that the mountains 
give the names to all these places, or at Leasl suggest the names 
as si rongrj as does the plain. 

(2) gitdpiv '• .'/''" El Kilo Mountains '(ffitd ■ Span. 

El Rito, Rito, see discussion under |4: ocative and 

adjective-forming postfix; /•<'//, 'mountain'). Span. 

(8) Eng. El Rito Mountains. ( Span.). Tewa (2), Span. (4). 

(4) Span. Sierra del Rito Colorado, Sierra del Rito, Cerros del 
Rito ' red creek mountain-.'. See discussion under [4:3J. Tewa 
(2), Eng. (3). 

n. [4:2], [4:3],[4:4], [4:5],and |4:7|. The most easterlj of the 

mountain- shown on the sheet i- Dot a- reddish a- the other.-. 

[4:2] (1) Pt'd .:■.!' 'pink-below water can- 

yon' <!'■''■',:. ee [4:4]; '< locative aid adjective-forming 
postfix; /'■-'*<"'' 'canyon with water in it' $o 'water', &t?i can 

yon i. 



142 ETHN0GEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [ETH. ANN. 29 

(2) yitiipotsi'i, gitu'impotePi'El Rito Canyon' (j/'V'"', see [4:3]; 
"tjjf locative and adjective-forming postfix; potsi?i 'canyon with 
water in it' < fio ' water', isPi 'canyon'). 

"The Mexican settlement of El Rito lies at the northern end of 
the basin, near where the creek issues from a sombre and rocky 
gorge". 1 Cf. [4:2]. [4:3], [4:4]. [4:5], [4:7]. 
[4:3] (1) Pi , q,nug.epohu'u, PPq.nug.e'impohu'u "pink below creek 1 
il'>"<i""W L4:-lj: 'ivy locative and adjective-forming postfix; pohu?u 
'creek with water in it' < po 'water', Jui'n 'large groove' 
'arroyo' i. 

(2) ( Y' f ''' i" '■'"'"■ '/'?'"''."< }>"hn' a 'El Rito Creek' {jjitli < Span. 
(4), 'ivy locative and adjective-forming postfix; pohii?u 'creek 
with water in it' < pt> 'water', hu'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 
= Eng. (3), Spun. (4). 

(3) Eng. El Rito Creek, Elrito Creek. El Rito Colorado Creek, 
Rito Creek. (<Span.). = Tewa (2), Span. (4). 

(4) Span. El Rito Colorado, El Rito 'the red creek' 'the creek'. 
Mexicans say that the proper name is El Rito Colorado, but most 
of them say El Rito. = Tewa (2), Eng. (3). 

The creek proper, Tewa poh </' ". begins where the stream emerges 
from the canyon [4:2] three miles above El Rito town [4:5] and 
is called pohu'u from that point to its mouth. The course below 
El Rito town appears at the present time to be dry throughout the 
year; this may be due to irrigation at El Rito town. The places 
[4:1],. [4:2], [4:4], [4:5], and [4:7] seem to get their Span, names 
from the creek [4:3] while their old Tewa names. P/"<i-. are derived 
from either the mountains [4:1], the plain [4:4], or from both. 
Perhaps this creek is occasionally called by still another name in 
Tewa and Span. — KasitapoAu , u, KasitaHmpoku'u, Span. Rito 
( lasita, Rito de Casita, referring to [4:9] and [4:10], but San Juan 
Indians have denied this. Cf. [4:1], 4:2], [4:4], [4:5], and [4:7]. 
[4:4] (1) Pfqnug.e, Pi^nug.e'akovy, Pi'dnugJivy 'akogf 'pink below' 
'pink below plain 5 (ppd 'pinkness' 'pink' < pi 'redness' 'red', 
'4 'brownness' 'brown', but when postpounded to other color- 
names indicates light or faint quality of color; nug.e 'below' in 
contradistinction to the mountains [4:1] < iu/u 'below', ge 'over 
at' 'down at'; %,/ locative and adjective-forming postfix; 'al-oyf 
'plain'). See [4:1]. Cf. [4:2], [4:3], [4:5], [4:7]. "The level 
basin of El Rito spreads out to the view. It is surrounded by 
wooded heights on all sides: its soil is dark red. and on its eastern 
edge flows the stream that has taken its name from the color of 
the ground."' 

'Bandelier, Fiiml Report, pt. n. p, 51, 1892. 



HABBIHGXOH] PLACE-NAMES 143 

(2) ;i',t'n'.i!;o,i,\ ,7 .'.''''' !■■...' '<il-qijf ' El Rito plain' {gitit ■ [4:3], 
Span. (4); '49/ locative and adjective-forming prefix; 
'plain'). Eng. (3), Span. (-4). 

(3) Eng. El Rito Plain, Elrito Plain, Etito Plain. 1 Span.). 
an'). Span. (4). 

(4) Span. Llano del Rito Colorado, Llano del Rito, 'red creek 
plain" 'the creek plain'. =Tewa (2), Eng. (3). "The Rito 
plain." 1 

Thi> name applies to the whole plain about El Rito town [4:5], 
this plain lying entirely west of the creek [5:3]. The plain is 
level and reddish, but not as markedly so as t h.- mountains |4:1]. 
[t extends toward the south beyond [4:9] and [4:10]. See[4:l]. 
4:2], [4:3], [4:5], [4:7]. 
[4:5] (1) Pffinvgiebu'ii, I'i'qi' ug^ynJ^u'-u 'pink below town' (/'<"<' 
„"(li j , see [4:4]; \yf locative and adjective-forming postfix; \\Cu 
'town'). 

(l') ffititbu'u, git/tfymbu'v. ' El Rito town ' (gitii < [4:3], Span. 
(4); "ijjf locative and adjective-forming j >< >-t iix : Im'" 'town'). 

Eng. (3), Span. (4). 

Eng. El Rito settlement, Elrito settlement, Rito settlement. 
(<Span.). =Tewa (2), Span. (4). 

ill Span. HI Kito Colorado, El Rito, 'rod creek' 'the creek 5 . 
"The Mexican settlement of El Rito."' 

Bandolier gives the elevation of El Rito, according to Wheeler, 
as 6,792 feet. 1 " The Mexican settlement of El Rito lies at the 
northern end of the basin, near where the creek [4:3] issues from 
a sombre and rocky gorge |4:l'|." : ' There ia considerable land 
nnder irrigation at El Ritotown. Cf. [4:1 j, [4:2], [4:3], [4:4], [4:7]. 
[4:r.] (1 .1 '/:/.,>;/;, ,,;,.!,,.. ,1. (■ Span.). Eng. (2), Span. I 

(2) Eng. Spanish-American Normal Scl I. Tewa (1), 

Span. 

an. Escuela Normal. Tewa ( 1 1, Eng 

Mr. Eulogio » lata, of San Juan Pueblo, is tl 1I3 Tewa Indian 

who baa attended this school, the object of which is the training 
of teachers for schools in which manj of the pupils come from 
Mexican homes. 
[4:7| (1) /'/"'_///</{/. 'mjir'd ■■',; 'pink below pueblo ruin' (P 

[4:4]; } qytaijuji 'pueblo ruin 1 '■"/■>■'. 'pueblo,' kgi 'ruin' post 
pound). 

(2) ;i'<>h'-<i,<i-'ij.']'-. .7 •.:;' 'El Rito Pueblo ruin' 

(_y ;■., 4:3], Span. • ative and adjective formin 

li\: '05 ■■■■■;_!., ',: 'pueblo ruin' 'qtfur% 'pueblo', lceji 'ruin' postfix). 
• Ibid . 



144 ETHNOGEOGKAPHV OF THE TEW A INDIANS [ETH. ANN. 29 

The pueblo ruin is :i quarter of a mile northeast of the Spanish- 
American Normal School. It consists of indistinct mounds 
which lie in a field. Potsherds of red ware may be picked up 
from the mound. According to San Juan informants this was 
a Tewa pueblo and its old name was the name given above 
under Tewa (1). This is all the information that could he 
obtained about it. 

[4:8] Ssepsewe'Qywikeji • S;i_ ji:i in Pueblo ruin' (Ssepqswe unexplained 
except that -we is probably the locative postfix used in the Nambe 
dialect meaning 'at' 'up at'; 'oyirUvji 'pueblo ruin' <'qtjfi 
'pueblo,' /-/'/' •ruin' postfix). An effort has been made to get the 
explanation of this name at San Juan, Santa Clara, San Ilde- 
fonso. and especially at Nambe, where the old Winter Cacique 
thought a long time about it. The meaning of the word has been 
forgotten by the Tewa. "Se-pa-ua". 3 "Se-pa-ue". 2 "Sepaue". 3 
"Sepawi ".' 

This ruin is described by Bandelier 6 and by Hewett. 8 Accord- 
ing to Bandelier it is the largest ruin in New Mexico. "Les 
traditions rattachent cette tribu | Nambe] a celle des Sepawi 
sur l'oued El Rito, dans la vallee du Chama."' "A 9 milles au 
sud-ouest d'Ojo Caliente, dans la vallee El Rito, on apercoit Se- 
pawi, 1'une des plus grandes mines de la region Pueblo ... On 
nen connait ]ias 1'histoire, mais, d'apres la tradition, ce serait 
le village actuel de Nambe, a [20] milles a vol d'oiseau au sud- 
est." s The old Winter Cacique of Nambe informed the writer that 
Nambe people or Tewa used to live at Sxpxirt, but this informa- 
tion had to be gained asan answer to a leading question. A num- 
ber of Tewa were found who knew of S% p% we ruin, but not one \\ ho 
seemed to know definitely that Nambe 1 people used to live there. 
It is generally known that it is a Tewa ruin. The writer is un- 
able to understand from reading Bandelier and Hewett on which 
side of El Rito Creek the ruin is situated. According to Hewett, 8 
"Sepawi" is located on the east side of El Rito Creek; three San 
Juan informants and the old Winter Cacique of Nambe -fated i hat 
the ruin is on the west side of the creek, but perhaps they were led 
to say this because they know the ruin is near El Rito town and 
that the latter is on the west side. 

[4:!»] (1) Kasith. (<Span.). =Eng. (3), Span. (4b 

(2) Teqwa\ 'little house', translating Span. (4) {teqwa 'house' 
<te 'dwelling-place', qwa indicating hollowness or receptacle: ', 

1 Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n. p. 17. 1S92 

•Ibid., p 51. 

s Ibid., \k 52. 

« Hewett: General View, p •■'. 1905 Antiquities, p. 40, 1906; Communautes, pp 33 II 99,1908 

6 Bandelier, op cit., pp. 61-52. 

• Antiquities, I Communautes, pp 33,41,1908. 

'Ibid., p. 33. 'Ibid., p. 41. » Antiquities, pi. xvir. 



HARRINGTON 



PI \< E N WHS I I,") 



diminutive). =Tewa (1), Eng. (3), Span. ill. This term would 
hardlj be used, bul the writer heard it employed once in the 
coin ersal ion of a San Juan [ndian. 

(3) Eng. Casita. (■ Span.). =Tewa (1), Tewa (2), Spun. (4). 

(4) Spun. Casita 'little house'. Tewa(l),Tewa (2), Eng. (3). 
The modern Mexican settlement is entirely on the western Bide 

of the creek. At this point a wide low plain extends eastward 
from the creek, bul above and below Casita there is no plain east 
of the creek, the count rv being covered b\ low barren hills. 
See [4:10]. 
[4:10] (1) Kasithkeji, Kasitabukeji 'old Casita' 'old Casita town' 
[Kasith <Span. Casita ' little house'; (>"'" "town": Tceji 'ruiu' 
postpound). =Tewa (2), Eng. (3), Span. (4). 

(2) Tegwa?ekeji, Teqwdehrikegi little bouse ruin' 'little house 
town ruin' {teqwa "house' <te 'dwelling-place', qwa indicating 
hollow tie-- or receptacle; 'e diminutive; bu'u "town': k,ji •ruin' 
postpound). Tewa(l), Eng. (3), Span. (4). 

(3) Eng. Old Casita. (<Span.). = Tewa (1), Tewa (2), Span. (4). 
(4-) Span. Casita Vieja 'old little bouse' settlement. Tewa 

(1), Tewa (2), Eng. (3). 

The ruin- of the adobe bouses of < >ld Casita are seenaboul a 
mile south of the present Casita on the eastern side of the creek 
[4:3]. The ruin of an adobe church loom- among them. The 
ruin i- about 500 feet easl of the creek. An old plum i ree stands 
on the western hank of the creek opposite the ruin. An old 
informant of San Juan said that when he was a hoy Old Casita 
was still inhabited bj Mexican.-. See [4:9]. 
|4:11| Pokwildbu'tt 'dry lake corner' (fokwi "lake" • j*,, -water". Jcw\ 
unexplained; la 'dryness' 'dry': b/u'tt 'large 1< > w roundish 
place'). 

This hollow among the bills is 8 or l miles east of |4:1<»| and 

north of |4:ls|. An old San Juan Indian -aid that when he wa- 
a hoy hi- father and he went deer hunting in the bills easl of I'd 

Rito < 'reek; having killed a deer, thej hung it up in a cedar tree 

at Pol -iriji ib"'n. Thej went to Placita < 'olorada [5:16] to gel a 
donkey On which to carry the deer h When they returned 

to l',J:,r(i,ibii' u the\ discovered thai Bomeone had taken th< 
during their absence. They found the deer at the house of a 
Mexican at the now ruined Old Casita. It is said that Pokw 

does not drain into any creek. There i- a little water in the lake 
there only after a heal y rain. 
|4:TJ| J), fitnr iKithu'it 'coyote water gap barranca arroyo' {D 

under [4:unlocated]; fto/tu'u 'barranca arroyo' to 'bar 
lanca", //-/■'/ 'large groo^ e' 'an 
^-t.-.m l-.i 1 1 ii L6 L0 



146 ET11X0GE0GKAPHY OP THE TEWA INDIANS [BTH. ANN. 29 

This arroyo runs into [4:13] and is crossed by the wagon road 
[4:15] west of [4:14]. The gap from which it gets its name is 
somewhere near the upper course. The trail [4:16] is said to pass 
through this gap. See DepowPi [4:unlocated]. 

[4:13] fomajokohu'u, see [8:22]. 

[4:11] Towa'e 'little people' 'the twin War Gods' (iovja 'person'; 'e 
diminutive). 

At the northeastern extremity of the low mesa indicated on the 
map stand two eroded knobs of earth about the size of half-grown 
children. These are at the top of a cliff 20 or 30 feet high, at 
the level of the top of the mesa. The main road between El 
Rito and Abiquiu passes within a few hundred feet of these War 
Gods, the arroyo [4:13] lying between the wagon road and 
the effigies. "Picturesque rocks, curiously eroded, line the creek 
bottom on the east." 1 

[4:15] Main wagon road connecting El Rito and Abiquiu. The road 
from El Rito to Abiquiu passes the Spanish- American Normal 
School [4:6] and the Rito Plain [4:4], Casita [4:9], and somewhat 
below- Casita crosses the creek [4:3], recrossing it just north of 

[4:16 1 N4nfsejiwepo, Nintsejiwi\mpo 'Tierra Amarilla trail' (N&ntse- 
jiwe, see [l:Tierra Amarilla region]; 'iyf locative and adjective- 
forming postfix; fin 'trail'). 

In following this old trail one leaves Rio Chama town [5:16], 
crosses El Rito Creek [4:3] and the upper [4:13], passes through 
I), powt'i [4:unlocated], and across [1:32], [1:15], and [1:14] to the 
Tierra Amarilla region. 

[4:17] 'Oku hehsRnfuH'* 'long hill' ('oku 'hill'; lulnrnfu 'long'; 'i' 
locative and adjective-forming postfix). 

One wagon road passes down the east side of the creek between 
the stream and the crest of this hill. In driving from El Rito to 
Abiquiu one. takes the road which turns to the west [4:15] before 
reaching this hill. 

[4:18] Nameless arroyo, see [7:12]. 

[4:19] TutsQmbehu'u, see [7:18]. 



I), powi'i 'coyote water gap' (4<? 'coyote'; po 'water'; wi?i 'gap' 
'pass"). 
This is a gap in the hills somewhere in the upper course of [4:12], 
q. v. The trail [4:16] passes through it. There is said to be a 
spring or a wet place at the gap, hence the name po 'water.' 

iBandelier, Final Report, pt. II, p. 63, 1892. 



MAP 5 
LOWER CHAMA RIVER REGION 



MAP 5 
LOWER CHAMA RIVER REGION 



barbixi PLACE-NAMES 147 

T-f>i'<: 'eagle end' (is, 'eagle'; fu'-u 'projecting end of a long 
object in horizontal position'). 

This was said by a Santa Clara informant to be a mountain north 
of El Rito[4:5]. It was also said that the name is Tsefu 'eagle 
in '->■' i/*" 'nose'), but this was probably due t<> misunderstanding. 

[5] LOT! BE I ii \M \ kin I l; SHEET 

This sheet (map 5) includes a pari of the lower Chama River valley. 
Six pueblo ruins are shown, all of which have old Tewa names and 
lared by the Tewa to have been occupied bj their ancestors. 

[5:1 1 .' "". >ee [3:22]. 

[6:2] '/'■ - 4:UJ. 

El Rito Greek, Bee [4:3]. 
[5:4J Tut8$™behu , u, see [7:1 

5 . ■!//'•! j'hjj' 'wrestling mountain' ( 7'mi m&, see [5:7]; piuj- 'moun 
tain'). 

This -mall, round hill i- about halt' a mile southeast <>f the junc- 
tion of El Rito ( 'reek with < !hama River. Ii i- net more than 50 
feel high, but very symmetrical ami prominent. The name given 

above i- certainly the ohl Tewa name df the hill, ami it is ii"l im 

possible that the hill gave the name Tsdm4- to the pueblo ruin 
[5:7] and other features in the vicinity. Inquiry was made of a 
Mexican family which lives <>n the ranch situated between [5:.".] 

ami [5:6] a- to the Mexican nan f the hill, hut they said that it 

ha- aone. However, another Mexican said that he calls it Cei 
rii.. Redondo 'round hill". See [6:7]. Of. [5:6], [5:8], [6:9]. 

[5:H] 7*'_j /,.<//■■'/. '/'s,i,n,i/, ■//•,//'." 'wrestling height' (Tsiinni. see [5:7 1; 
k&ii, hwaji ' height '). 

This i- the height on which the pueblo ruin [5:7] stands. The 
main wagon road down the Chama River ralley east of the river 
passes between [6:5] am! [5:6] ami then along the base of [5:6], 
between [5:6] ami [5:8] and [5:9]. < T. [5::.], [5:7], [6:8], [6:9]. 

[6:7] / 'wrestling pueblo ruin' Us,n,,,i 'to wrestle'; 

',,1/iriJ,. j: 'pueblo ruin' < 'oyi/Jt 'pueblo', leeji 'ruin' postpound). 
The \erl> is,i,i,,i i, used only in a perfect or past Bense; the verb 
denoting 'wrestling' in the present or future is /> "/. Thu 

they are wrestling with each other' i>/,'t,,' ' thej •"■♦ with 
themselves'; /< "/ 'to wrestle'; ■fc'' progress^ e present); ^i&i 
'tln\ have wrestled with each other' t-//fc/ 'thej ■"■' with them 
Belves'; ts&mQ 'to have wrestled'). Tin- informants thought it 
likely that the name /'■•,.; «a- original!] applied to the pueblo, 
perhaps because there was at -one- time in the past a wrestling 
contest there, and that the cither places in the \ icinitj art na i 



148 ETHNOGEOGEAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth.ann.29 

Tsq mq from the pueblo. The writer has not had an opportunity to 
look through early Span, documents for mention and forms of the 
name Chama. The form "Zama" is used byZarate-Salmeron. 1 So 
far as he is aware the only other form which occurs in Span, docu- 
ments is the now standardized Chama; San Pedro de Chama also 
occurs. These terms, Zama, Chama. and San Pedro de Chama, 
appear to have been used in Span, invariablyto designate either the 
whole Chama River district ("San Pedro de Chama, as the district 
was called after the reoecupancy of New Mexico"-) or the Chama 
River itself. The diminutive form Chamita has been and is given 
to the eastern part of the V-shaped tract of lowland formed by the 
confluence of the Chama River with the Rio Grande, and to the 
Mexican settlement made there. The latter place and settlement 
have been or are also called San Gabriel del Yunque and San Gabriel 
de Chamita, oreven merely San Gabriel. See [13:28]. "The name 
Chamita dates from the eighteenth century, and was given in order 
to distinguish it from the settlements higher up on the Chama 
River." 2 Now Span. Zama, Chama, evidently come from Tewa 
Ts&mq,, name of the former Tewa pueblo [5:7], applied also to 
several other places near that pueblo. Since there is much land 
good for agriculture in the vicinity of that pueblo, the writer 
believes that one of the Span, settlements higher up on the Chama 
River in contradistinction to which Chamita gets its name, was at 
Tsq/rnq,-. At any rate, the first extensive farming land encountered 
in going up the Chama valley after leaving the region about the 
Canoe Mesa near San Juan [5:55] is at Tsumq-, and it is not at all 
strange that the name Tsqmq,- was taken over into Span, and 
applied first to a more or less definite region up the Chama Valley, 
as the Tewa applied it, then to the whole Chama River region, 
and more recently especially to the Chama River itself. It was 
forgotten long ago by the Mexicans, if indeed it was ever clearly 
understood by them, that TsQmd- is properly only the name 
of a former Tewa pueblo and of a little round hill, a marsh, and 
rich bottom-lands which lie beside it. What relation the name 
Placita Rio Chama [5:16] bears to the names discussed above is 
impossible to determine without historical evidence. It is always 
called Placita Rio Chama "Chama River town' and never Placita 
Chama. The settlement may be called by this name for no other 
reason than because it is in the Chama River valley. In going 
up the river it is the first compact Mexican settlement met after 
passing [5:33] and entering the narrower part of the Chama 
River valley. From Chama applied to the Chama River the 

i Quoted by Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n, p. 60, 1892. 
= Bandelk-r, ibid., p. 62. 



HUilll-. PLACE N \M I S 149 

modem town of ( !hama on the I >enver and Rio Grande Railroad 
in the northernmost pari of N <\% Mexico gets its name. 

'/'mj inti'<)ii,rij,-. ',! is a very large ruin consisting of low mounds. 
Three large courtyards can be distinctly made out. An [ndian 
living at Sun Juan also told the writer that there are three bu'n 
'courtyards' which can in 1 seen at this ruin. The long axis of the 
village, running through these courtyards, is in a northeast-south- 
west direction. An old and disused wagon road can i»- traced up 
the side of the slope toward [5:5]. The Indian informants are 
inclined to believe that tin- village bad already been abandoned 
at the time of the coming of the Spaniard- to this region. But 
the name Tsiinni is Mill known to and used bj the Tewa, being 
applied to this ruin and a number of places about it, l>ut never, 
as the Mexicans apply Chama, to the Chama River or the Chama 
River region. See[5:5], [5:6],[5:8], [6: 9], [5:16], [18: 27], [13: 28], 
and Chama River [Large Features: 2], 

[5:*] T8$7?i4nug.ePotsa 'swamp below [5:6]' (T-^imq. sec [5:7]; 

'below' <nv?u 'below', g.e, 'down at' 'over at'; fotsa 'marsh' 
<fo 'water', tea "to cut through'). 
Cf. [5:5], [5:6], [5:7], [5:9], [5:10]. 

[5:!»] Tx<:in<!nii>it p6kw% 'pools below [5:6]' ( '/'v./ /«<_/, see [5:7]: nuge 
'below' <ni*'tt 'below', g.t 'down af'overat'; pdkw\ 'lake'< 
£w -water'. /•./■; unexplained). Cf. [5:5], [5:6], [5:7], [5:8], 
[5:10]. 

[5:loj Ts4m4nuQ.ePom&'iwt 'where the water went below [5:6]' 
i/ , see [5:7]; nwge'below'- nu'u 'below' ,g.e 'down at' 'over 

at"; /V.;,-.'",'//'. 'where the water went' /•■■ 'water'. „,.; 'to 

have gone', "''<'• locative). This name refers to the old bed of 
the Chama River, which can be clearlj traced through the marsh 
.[5:8]. Cf. [5:5], [5:6], [5:7], [5:8], [5:9]. 

[5:1 1 1 Mah ijsn/i'i.n, see [8:18]. 

[5:12] '"I/ii'iiIi '-and hills' \'n!'ii '-and': '<//,'« 'hill'). 

[6:13] 71 kaaog.ikQhu'u, I ■ feasog.i'ir) kqhu'u ' cotton wood grove barranca 
arroyo' i '■ kasogi 'cottonwood grove' 6 'cottonwood' 'Populus 
wislizeni'; lea 'denseness' 'dense' 'forest'; sogi giving the idea 
'together' 'bunched'; '[n ■ locative and adjective forming postfix; 
ktiLn'n 'barranca arroyo' kq 'barranca', 'hu'v 'large groove' 

■arro\ ,,'). 

This little dry gulch is so called because its mouth is near a small 
grove of cottonwood trees on the rii i r. 
[5:1 1| .)'"'•' //"•/.//, /•, '.,/.■, i 'rockpine point hills' (91099/ 'rockpim 
'Pinus scopulorum'; wUi 'projecting corner' -point"; uh elided 
form of 'i/wt locative; 'oku 'bill'). 



150 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

These hills are opposite Rio Chama settlement [5:16]. The 

ends of the tongues of these hills projecting toward the Chama 

River would be called ?/v','/, a word which is applied to the corner 

of a table, for instance. 
[5:15] N&nisejiwepo, see [4:16]. 
[5:16] (1) Eng. Rio Chama settlement. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Placita Rio Chama 'Chama River hamlet'. =Eng. 

(I). For a discussion of the name see under [5:7]. 

It is at this place that the old trail to Tierra Amarilla leaves 

the Chama River valley. See [5:15]. 
[5:17] Plasita jiu Tfama kwaje 'height by Placita Rio Chama' 

(Plasita ,'//»> Tfama < [5:16], Span. (2); kwaje 'height'). 

This name is applied to the height back of Rio Chama settle- 
ment. The trail [5:15] passes up this height. 
[5:18] See Chama River [Large Features: 2J. 
[5:19] py,p<Ue'oywikeji 'cicada head pueblo ruin' (fy. 'cicada'; pode 

'head'; qywikeji 'pueblo ruin 1 < 'oywi 'pueblo', Tceji 'ruin' 

postpound). 

The ruin is on the mesa [5:21] and at the foot of the hill 

[5:20]. The San Juan informant who pointed out the site of this 

pueblo ruin said that he guessed it got its name from the hill 

[5:20], which the ancient Tewa may have thought resembles a 

cicada's head. Cf. [2:10], [5:20], and [5:21]. 
[5:20] py.pou.Joku 'cicada's head hill' (fy,poJe, see [5:19]; 'ofcu 'hill'). 

For an Indian's guess at the origin of this name see [5:19]. Cf. 

[5:21]. 
[5:21] j>y,p<Mekwag.t 'cicada's head mesa' (fupoJe, see [5:19]; kwagi 

' mesa '). This name refers to the broad- rolling mesa on which the 

ruin [5:19] stands. See [5:19], [5:20]. 
[5:22] Kapokqhu'u, Kapo'iykohu'u 'leaf water barranca arroyo' 

(Kapo, see [5:23]; 'ijjf locative and adjective-forming postfix; 

/<>/"'"' ' 'barranca arroyo' < kq 'barranca', A wV 'large groove' 

'arroyo'). 

Cf. [5:21]; also the similarly sounding names ITapo, Santa 

Clara Pueblo [14:71], and "Kapo", a Tano Tewa pueblo ruin 

[29:uulocated]. The latter name may be but probably is not 

identical. 

This is described as a large pueblo ruin. Cf. [5:22], [5:21]. 
[5:23] Kapd'qywikeji 'leaf, water pueblo ruin' (ka 'leaf; po 'water': 

, qijir[k, }/' 'pueblo voXvl' Koywi 'pueblo', Tceji 'ruin' postpound). 
Where the leafy water is situated from which this pueblo ruin 

eels its name, is not known. The name may be taken from that 

of the arroyo [5:22], or vice versa. 



HARRINGTON] P] LI I NAMES ] ."l ] 

[5:34] Kafokwaje 'leaf water heights' (ITapo, see [5:23]; huoajb 

'height'). Cf. [5:22], [5:23]. 
[5:25] /'' " j i"<bu' ''i 'snake dwelling-place corner' i 'snake'; /• 

'dwelling place'; 6w'w 'large low roundish place'). Cf. [5:26], 
[5:26] I':{n ?'it.l, >r,ij; 'snake dwelling-place height' (p^pnyu '-naive": 

'. 'dwelling place'; Jcwaje 'height'). Cf. [5:25]. 
This i< a very low mesa between [5:22] and [5:27]. 
[5:i.'7| T'li'i'ii 'cottonwood arroyo' {te 'cottonwood' 'Populus wisli- 

zeni'; hu'u 'deep groove' 'arroyo'). 

It i- not difficult to understand how this arroyo jets it- name. 

There is at present a large cottonwood tree growing in it not far 

from the mouth. See [5:28]. 
[5:-_'s] Tehu'iwepopi, Tehu'.iwJimPopi 'spring in [5:27]' {Tehifu, see 

[5:27]: 'iwt locative; 'iyf locative and adjective-forming postfix; 

Popi 'spring' < /«■ 'water*, pi • to issue'). 
[5:29] Szbekwajl, see [2:22]. 

l';i_i]ir;> ,i<\;,i; 'where the deer's tail* {p% mule-deer; gwserfy 'tail'; 
■locative"). This is the name of the whole region about 

[5:30] and [5:31], q. v. 
[5:30] Vi qwst nfiiwt j'ijj ^'mountains at the .leer"- tail place' {P%qw% n- 

(h'tr,, see the preceding term; ]•{• t 'mountain'). 
[5:31] J';fjir;i_ii;,r,'iJ. ■>/'. 'little hills at the deer"- tail place' < /'■' qwci n- 

ij'ir.. se,- \5:- % ->\: '"/." 'hill'; '< diminutive). 
[6:32] span. Arroyo Palacio 'palace arroyo'. 

According to information obtained from a San Juan Indian, 

Mr. Samuel Eldodt, the merchant of San Juan Pueblo^ formerly 

had a elaim OH a hit of tillable land at the month of this iirnnii; 

but a freshet trashed the land away and Mr. Eldodl quit the elaim. 
[5:33] J '>,i>;i, ,■;./,' 'water wind point" {}>n "water'; /■ / 'wind*- //■/.// 
'projecting corner'). 

This point projects far out, forming a narrow gap through 
which the river passe-. This gap is always windy, according to 
Tewa informants. Although perfectly conceivable thai the point 
might have been given this name because of the river flowing past 
and the windy character of the location, the Tewa w hen using I he 
name al-o think of the J'"ir,i/i,i 'water-air -pint-' i/... 'water'; 
': '■ 'pulse' 'respiration' 'life' 'spirit'), invisible 
spirits who live in the air and are sometimes heard to -peak. 
According to one story thej catch people who tr\ to kill them- 
selves by hurling themselves over cliffs and make them fall lightly 

and unhurt. Cf. [5:34], 
[5;:;l] 7'.. //■._; iri.ilj, [ij r 'water wind point mountain* (Pow&wili, 
|; puj /' ' mountain *). 

The following queer story came to the mind of a San Juan 
informant when he was asked about this high hill bach of /' 






152 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [ETH. ANN. 29 

wiud. St. Cecilia once appeared to some Mexican soldiers near 
Las Truchas [22:11]. The soldiers followed her across the Rio 
Grande and across Chamita [13:28]. At last she passed through 
a hole in Powfiwi-tipiyj'. The soldiers found her shoe on the 
other side. 
[5:3.">J (1) P\se-iepo 'shove stick creek' (P'es&ie, see [5:37]; po 
water' 'creek'). This is the old Tewa name of the creek. 

(2) lu'po 'bear creek' (fe'bear'; po 'water' 'creek'). This is 
a mere translation of Span. (4), but is frequently used nowadays. 
= Eng. (3), Span. (4). 

(3) Eng. Oso Creek, (<Span.). = Tewa (2), Span. (1). 

(i) Span, Rito Oso, Rio Oso 'bear creek' 'bear river'. The 
Span, name is often pronounced Joso by native Span, speakers of 
New Mexico. 

Although the etymology of P^es&te is discussed under [5:37], it 
is quite possible that the pueblo ruin [5:37] takes its name from 
the creek. Oso Creek flows into Chama River nearly opposite, 
but somewhat above, the point at which Ojo Caliente Creek joins 
the latter from the northeast and just opposite the big projecting 
tongue of land Powqict.'/ [5:33J. See [5:37]. 

[5:36] \h;r/i)/\/ 'alkali arroyo' ('c<«s 'alkali' <'y, 'alkali', s% 'pep-' 
periness' 'peppery'; luCu 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

[5:37] P'esede(>i)n-[h:ji 'shove stick pueblo ruin' (p'e 'stick' 'log' 
'timber'; s&ie 'to shove or push away from one's self with little 
jerks'; 'Qywikeji 'pueblo ruin'< 'oywi 'pueblo', leeji 'ruin' post- 
pound) (PI. 3, A.) JVq, J<op'ese.ie means 'I push the stick or 
login little jerks' (ml 'I' emphatic pronoun; .io 'I it'; p'e 'stick' 
'log' incorporated object; se<(e 'to shove or push away from one's 
self with little jerks'). Nq, dop'ese would mean 'I push the stick 
from me steadily, not in jerks'). Cf. [5:35], [5:38]. "Indians of 
San Juan have given me the names of some of the ruined pueblos 
that lie on the mesas west and south of the Chama River; for in- 
stance, Fe-se-re and Te-e-uing-ge". 1 This is the only reference 
which Bandelier makes to this ruin. Hewett does not seem to 
mention it at all. "Pesede-uinge (Tewa, the place of the sliding 
log)", 2 for P'eaeJ.e'qywige 'down at or over at the shove stick jerk- 
ingly pueblo' ('oy'i 'pueblo'; g.e 'down at' 'over at'). 

There is much information about P' ese^e 1 o yu'ikej i in two articles 
by Mr. J. A. Jeancon 3 which have recently appeared. See [5:38]. 

[5:38] P',s<.i< : <>i)iriJ,;};,,uh<i 'fields of [5:37]' (P'ese-ie'oywikeji, see 
[5:37]; ndba 'field where crops are raised'). 4 

i Bandelier, Final Report, pt. II, p. 58, 1892. 

2 J. A. Jeancon, Explorations in Chama Basin, New Mexico, Records of the Past, vol. x, p. 96, 
1911. 

3 J. A. Jeancon, ibid , pp. 9H-1U8; also Ruins at Pesedeuinge, ibid., vol. xi, pp. 28-37, 1912. These 
two articles ^ivc photographs and maps of the ruin. 

■ Sec Jeancon, Explorations in Chama Basin, op. cit. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 3 




A. P ESEaE'oywi RUIN 







\ U'QNWl RUIN, FROM V. 
DERIVED ITS NAME 



BABBINOIOX] l-|.At I. N LMES 153 

[5:39] M<i';> y.r • . see [2:34]. 

[5:40] /'■ icofait, see [2:26]. 

(5:41] A' /.'«./,.//* •■/-.<;. . see [2:27]. 

[6:42] Santa Clara Kit'ogtoikeji 'stone pueblo ruin' (?•" 'stone'; 
' i> i/ir [/,-,//' 'pueblo ruin' <'<>//</•/ 'pueblo', fe/i 'ruin' postpound). 
This Dame is not mentioned in the writings of Bandolier or Hew- 
ett. "Kuuinge". 1 Mr. Jeancon, who hag described this ruin,' 
thinks that it may get its name because of an isolated column of 
cream-colored tufa which stands in the lowlands a short distance 
southwesl of the mesa on which the ruin is situated. This rock 
(pi. 3, />') is a hundred feel or more in height and is at present un- 
scalable. There are well-worn old trails leading to it, and part of 
a trail which evidently once led up to the top was noticed by Mr. 
Jeancon. This showed the effects of the attrition of human feet. 

There was probahly a shrine on bop of this ruck, such BS arc 

found at high places about all Tewa pueblos. That the pueblo 
takes its name from this rock seems very probable, inasmuch as 
/•"'<>////■£/•« /'/ mean- mererj 'stone pueblo ruin' and is applied to 
any ruin of a pueblo built of -tone, in contradistinction to 
niiji^ht'Kijir'iJ.:}: 'adobe pueblo ruin' {n4fota 'adobe' • nd 'it'. 
fto 'water', 2a 'to be dry'). Mr. Jeancon kindly furnished the 
following information regarding this ruin in a letter bearing date 
October 27, 1911: "Kuuinge is not the same ruin as Teeuinge 
[5:4:;j. We visited the latter first; then went bach to the road 
just after it leave- San Jose* 1 13: 1 1 1. and taking a road leading to 
the left of the main road to Abiquiu, crossed the bills until we 
came in sight of theOso. From there we turned directly to the 

left until we came to the vicinity of Kuuinge. The name was 

given me by Aniceto Sua-" and was recognized by a number of 
other Santa Clara Indian-. The plan of the place shown by Dr. 
Ilewett in his Antiquities of the Jemez Plateau as Teeuinge is 
altogether different from thai of Kuuinge. Kuuinge can not be 
seen from Chili [6:46] or Cuchilla [6:49]." In October, 1910, the 

San Juan Indian who pointed out / ' |5:4:>| from the 

Chama Vallej said that there i- another pueblo ruin about a mile 
west of /:'.'•"/"■('/•.// and soui h of Oso Creek, but he could not 
remember the name At San Juan Pueblo the writer talked with 
another Indian who knew of this ruin a mile or bo weei of 
/'.,,,•;/ ; '. but he also was unable t" give the name of it. 
• learning the name and location of Kt£Qyw\kiji from Mr. 
Jeancon's article, a Santa Clara Indian was found who knew the 

ruin l>y that name and supplied the etymology of it. which Mr. 

.ha neon states he also obtained, although he does not give the mean- 

■ l paj*lm, 
IU1I. 

Ml. 1. 1 . i 



154 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [ETH. ANN. 29 

ing of the name in his article. That the place received its name 
from the rock described above is only Mr. Jeancon's conjecture; no 
Indian lias explained the origin of the name in this way. Two 
San Ddefonso Indians whom the writer asked about the Dame did 
not know either the nameor the ruin, although they knew the ruins 
[5:37] and [5:43]. Notice also that Bandelier gives the names of 
the ruins [5:37] and [5:43], but docs not mention [5:42].' 

[5:43] Te\ ir/"t>ijiri/.; j /\ T, ',' <hj ir'ij,. j /, Te'emkeu " oryuiih j i, TJelcaii- 
'<>i)irij,;ji "little cottonwood gap pueblo ruin' 'little cottonwood 
pueblo ruin' 'little cottonwood gap height pueblo ruin' 'little 
cottonwood height pueblo ruin' (Te'ewPi, Te'e, see [5:44]: Tc&ii 
'height'; ^oijwijceji 'pueblo ruin' <'o7?w>i 'pueblo', Jceji 'ruin' 
postfix). See [5:43]. "Indians of San Juan have given me 
the names of some of the ruined pueblos that lie on the mesas 
west and south of the Chama River; for instance, Fe-se-re [5:37] 
and Te-e-uing-ge", 2 "Teeuinge", 3 "Teeuinge", 4 "Teeuinge". 5 
This ruin is described by Hewett." The mesa on which this 
ruin stands can be clearly seen from Chili [5:46]; also from the 
Cuchilla [5:49] and many points in the Chama River valley south- 
east of the Cuchilla. The gap [5:44] and the bill [5:45] arc also 
clearly seen from these places. Mr. Jeancon states that part of 
I he ruin is being washed away by an arroyo and bones and various 
other objects are being exposed to view. 

[5:44] TiewVi 'little cottonwood gap' (te 'cottonwood' 'Populus 
wislizeni'; V diminutive; wi'i 'gap'). 

This is a gap or pass between the mesa on which the ruin [5:43] 
lies and the hill [5:45]. It was presumably called thus because at 
some time undersized or young cottonwood trees stood at the 
place. This gap has given the name to the pueblo ruin [5:43], to 
the hill [5:45], and to the arroyo [5:50]. An old trail is said to 
pass through the gap. Cf. [5:43], [5:45], [5:50]. 

[5:45] T,'< iri'ibn.i', 'little cottonwood gap knob' (Tdewfi, see [5:44]; 
hem ' roundish pile' 'knob' ' round hill'). Cf. [5:43], [5:44], [5:50]. 

[5:4<i] (1) San Juan Tsipapu of obscure meaning (/n/7 'Making stone' 
'obsidian'; pa unexplained; pu 'buttocks' "region about the 
anus"). This is the old San Juan Tewa name of the place. 

(2) Tfili. (<Span.). =Eng. (3), Span. (4). 

(3) Eng. Chili settlement. (<Span.). = Tewa (2), Span. (4). 
Span. Chill unexplained. =Tewa (2), Eng. (3). 

Bandelier, Final Report, pt. 11, p. 58, 1892. 
> Ibid. 

Hewett, Antiquities, p. 34, 1906. 
' Hewett, Communautes, p. il, 1908. 

'■ Jeancon, Explorations in Chama Basin, New Mexico, Records qf the Past, vol. X, p. 97, 1911. 
< Antiquities, X<>. 29, 1906. 



HAKKIV.l..-.] PLACE NAMES 155 

1 5:17 j (1) Tsipapu'ofoi', 'little hills of |5:4ti]' (Tslpapu, see [5:l»i]; 
'hill'; ' diminutive). 
(2) TfiWoku\ 'little hills of [5:46]' (Tfili, see [5:48]; 'oku 
iiill '; \ diminutu e). 
[5:48] (1) TsipapukQ, Txipupiikqlui'ii. 'barrancas of [5 :4<'> J' 'barranca 
arroyos of [5:46]' ( Tsipapu i , see [5:46]; Jcqhu'v. ' barranca arroyo' 
</.o 'barranca', htfu 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

TfUikq, TfU'il-oJiu' >/. 'barrancas of [5:46]' 'barranca ar- 
royos of [5:46]' (Tfili, see [5:46]; TcqkvPv, 'barranca arroyo' </o 
■ barranca', hu'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 
[5:49] (I) TsyokeJ-i 'knife height', translating the Span. oame(tsijo 
•knife' ■_!:<',", 'flaking stone', jo augmentative; TceJ/i 'height'). 
Ci. Tewa (2), Eng. (3), Span. (4). 

(2) KutfyiL. (<Span.). = Eng. (3), Span. (4). Cf. Tewa 

(3) Cuchilla. (<Span.). =Tewa(2), Span. (4). Cf.Tewa(l). 

(4) Span. Cuchilla, ' sharp narrow ridge of land". Tewa (2), 
Eng. (3). Cf. Tewa (1). 

This lone- thin ridge of basal! curves slightly northward just 
before touching tin 1 river. The extreme point of this ridge was 
cut through >e\er.-il years ago Eor a proposed railway through the 
Chama River valley and the cul has been utilized for running an 
irrigation ditch. There are several narrow ridges <>f land called 
by the Mexicans Cuchilla, in northern New Mexico. See Eor 
instance Cuchilla |9:i'J. |5:4'.»J tapers gradually and is very 
symmetrical. 

[6:50] 71', irijni ' a ' little cottonwood gap arroyo' ( '/', ', ,ri'/. see [5:44]; 
Ini'ii 'large groove' 'arroyo'). See [5:44]. 
A wagon road lead- up this arroyo. 

[5:">l ] Te&dboJi 'cottonwood grove' (ft 'cottonwood' 'Populus wisli- 
zeni": lea 'denseness' 'dense' 'forest'; bo-ii 'pile' 'clusl 
The valley is wide here on the side southwest of the river, with 

g 1 alfalfa fields and a grove of cottonwoods. This is possibly 

the cottonwood grove where the Jicarilla Apache used formerly 

t'> hold a ceremonj at certain ti -. See under [5:unlocated], 

This is the cottonwood grove lying farthest down the river in the 
part of the vallej above Tsiioiii [13:2]. 

[5:.'>:_'| Nameless arroyo of considerable size 

[6:58] San Juan Misihoaji 'young female deer height' (m4#isaidby 
an aged San Juan informant to be an antiquated form of miQs 
'young female of the mule deer'-. Jewoji 'height'). This i- the 

Old San .1 nan TeWB name. 

This hill is south of < >j.> Caliente < Sreek. The main wag -oad 

between Ojo Caliente and Chamita passes between this bill and 
the mesa [5:55]. 



156 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

[5:54] Ts\v?ui 'projecting corner of basalt '{tsi 'basalt', as in Ts\kwaje, 
the name of the whole mesa [5:55]; wui 'projecting corner'). 
Ts{wiud is sometimes applied to this corner of the Black Mesa near 
San Juan, though it is usually applied to the more prominent 
corner [13:2], q. v. See also [13:1]. 

[5:55] Tsikwajl, see [13:1]. 

|5:-')ti| San Juan Siywszkohu'u 'sandstone barranca arroyo' (saijir.-r 
'sandstone'; /.o/n/'i/ 'barranca arroyo '<&<> 'barranca', /ura 'large 
groove' 'arroyo'). 

[5:57] San Juan TowUbuhtfu, see [2:28]. 

[5:58] San Juan fs%iag.ekQ, see [2:32]. 

[5:59] San Juan Tsycukqhvtu, see [2:33]. 

Unlocated 

Cottonwood grove, where the Jicarilla Apache used to hold a fiesta. 
Doctor Hewett informed the writer that he had learned from Tewa 
Indians that the Jicarilla Apache used to hold a fiesta at a cotton- 
wood grove in the lower Chama Valley about 4 miles above the 
confluence of the Chama with the Rio Grande, somewhere near the 
mouth of Ojo Caliente Creek. It is probably the same grove that 
he means when he writes: " About -4 miles above the confluence 
of the Chama with the Rio Grande is the noble cotton wood grove 
whose grateful shade lias been the noon or evening goal of every 
traveler that has toiled up or down that sandy valley for a cen- 
tury. At this point a chain of detached fragments of the great 
Black Mesa (Mesa Canoa) [13:1] crosses over to the south side of 
the river and extends for some miles southwestward". 1 Even the 
statement that the basalt formation crosses the river at the place 
does not enable the present writer to locate the grove. It is not 
unlikely,- however, that it is [5:51]. The San Juan Tewa inform- 
ants who accompanied the author up the Chama Valley knew 
nothing of the Jicarilla Apache having formerly held a fiesta at 
a grove in the lower Chama Valley. An informant at San Juan 
Pueblo, however, knew of this practice and volunteered the in- 
formation that it was the "fiesta de San Antonio" which was there 
celebrated. But unfortunately he was not certain even as to the 
side of the river on which the grove is situated. One of God- 
dard's Jicarilla Apache texts says of the fiesta: "We [the Jica- 
rilla Apache] started away [from Tierra Amarilla] immediately to 
Cuchilla [5:49] where they were to hold a feast. For that purpose 
we all came there. The Pueblo Indians brought fruits there and 
the Mexicans came with wagons and on horseback. They had a 
rooster race. After the feast was over we moved camp back 
again to Tierra Amarilla, where we and the Ute remained in sepa- 

1 Hewett. Antiquities, p. 33, 1906. 



MAP 6 
UPPER OJO CALIENTE REGION 







mm 




vOU-i 



« 



MAP 6 
UPPER OJO CALIENTE REGION 



HABBIKGTOH] PLAt'l NAMES 1 f > 7 

rate camps". 1 Goddard explains concerning the fiesta: "The 
feast of San Antonio formerly held on the Chama River in a cot- 
tonwood grove near the mouth of Caliente Creek [Ojo Caliente 
Creek]".' The text implies thai the groveisator near the Cu- 
chilla [6:49]. Perhaps [5:5] ] is the groi e. 
"Poihuuinge'V ''Poihuunge". 1 None of the informants interro- 
gated have known the name or the ruin. The -uing* or -ungt of 
the forms of 1 1 > « - name quoted above is evidently for 'qrywige 
•down at the pueblo "over at the pueblo' ("».»/"•{ ' pueblo 'jge'dow a 
at' 'over at'). Theetj mologj of the first part of the name i - not 
apparent. 

The ruin is situated as follows: " Atiout ± miles above the con- 
fluence <>f the < lhama w ith the Rio < rrande is the aoble cottonwood 
grove whose grateful shade has been the noon or evening goal of 
every traveler that has toiled up or dow a that sandy vallej for a 
century. At this point a chain of detached fragments of the 

great Black aa (Mesa Canoa) |13:l| crosses over to the south 

side of the river and extends for some miles Bouthwestward. On 
tin- top of one of these black fragmentary mesas about a mile 
Bouth of the river stood the villago of I'oihuuinge". 8 See 
[9:unlocated], where Hewetfs "Poihuge" is discussed. 

|6| I PPEB OJO CALIENTE SHEET 

This sheet (map 6) shows the region about and above Ojo Caliente. 

Three pueblo ruin- arc included, all of which have old Tewa names. 
These axe claimed by the Tew a as former pueblos of their people. The 
Tewa believe this region to have been the cradleland of their race. 
Ojo ( Saliente hoi springs 1 6:_' 1 1 and the caves at La ( hieva [6:30], |6::il ] 
are of special interest. 

[6:1] (1) Eng. Petaca. (• Span.). Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Petaca, 'a .-mall coffer or grip of Bewed leather or 
canvas used in traveling or for storing article-, much as a suitcase 

is now used.' Verj old petacas can -till be seen in soi fthe 

Mexican houses in New Mexico. Why this name was applied to 
Petaca settlement has not been learned. 

I his is a small Mexican settlement. Sec |6:1|. 
|6:_| /' .,i;,r, -where a certain kind of mineral call 

kin rij is dug' I . see under Mim i:\i-, p. 582; k'qniiia 

'where it is dug' ' ■"/ 'todig', Vw< locativi 

This mineral deposit i- situated in the hill- more than two miles 
east of Petaca [6:1]. It is still occasional!) risited bj th< 

.. L911 

II 



158 ET1IN0GE0GRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [ktii.an\.U9 

for the purpose of obtaining the glistening earth called pok%nf%t,, 
which is used by the Tewa women in making pottery. The name. 
poksenyy, is applied to coal-tar and asphalt, as well as to mica, 
bat it is supposed that it is mica 1 or micaceous earth which is 
referred to by the Indians. See [7:2] and Minerals, p. 582. 

[6::-!] TeboJA 'cottonwood grove' (te 'cottonwood' 'Populus wisli- 
zeni'; hoM 'pile' 'grove'). 

Petaca [6:1] is said t<> be situated about a mile north of this 
grove. This grove may be identical with Old Servilleta [8:8], q. v. 

[6:4] (1) Kipo, Ki'ijiipo 'prairie-dog water' (ki 'prairie-dog'; po 
'water' 'creek'). =Taos (8), Eng. (5), Span. (8). 

(2) Petdkapo, Petaka'impo 'Petaca water'. (< Span.). =Eng. 
(4), Span. (7). 

(8) Taos Ritfupaanq "prairie-dog dwelling place water' (ki 
'prairie-dog'; t'y, 'to dwell', cognate with Tewa fa 'to dwell'; 
pa- 'water' 'creek'; am) noun postfix). =Tewa (1), Eng. (5) } 
Span. (8). 

(4) Eng. Petaca Creek. (<Span.). =Span. (7). 

(5) Eng. Tusas Creek. (<Span.). =Tewa(l),Taos(3),Span.(8). 

(6) Eng. Servilleta Creek. (<Span.). =Span. (9). 

(7) Span. Rito Petaca 'leathern case creek', named from the 
settlement Petaca [6:1]. =Eng. (4). 

(s) Span. Rito de las Tusas 'prairie-dug creek'. =Tewa (1), 
Taos (3), Eng. (5). 

(9) Rito Servilleta 'napkin creek', named after Servilleta 
Vieja [6:unlocated]. 

[6:5] (1) Eng. Vallecito Creek. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Rito Vallecito, Arroyo Vallecito, 'little valley creek' 
"little valley arroyo r . = Eng. (1). 

[6:6] San Juan Mahysennsg, Jfii/njsfyinirpiijf 'at the owl's horns' 
'mountain at the owl's horns' (mahy, 'owl'; $%Qf 'horn', also 
applied to the ''horns" of owls; n% locative; piyf 'mountain'). 
An old San Juan informant said that he had heard that the moun- 
tains are called thus because from the vicinity of Ojo Caliente 
[6:20] two peaks are seen resembling the horns of an owl. These 
are evidently the peak directly north of [6:21] and the norther- 
most of the peaks or mountains called by this name. It requires 
considerable imagination to see this resemblance. The horn to 
the right is more prominent than that to the left. 

These mountains seem to be about as high as [6:16], whereas 
the other mountains shown on the sheet are low T er. The caves 
[6:30], [6:31] are at the foot of the northernmost mountain. The 
colored cliffs [6:11] are in the southern slope of the southern- 
most. This southernmost peak of Mah nsijmse one sees when look- 
ing straight up the Ojo Caliente Valley. 

] See W. G. Ritch, Illustrated New Mexico, p. 140, 1885. 



HAERIN..T..N] PI.AC I \ ■ ' 159 

[6:7] ill Posipo 'greenness wain-', referring to Ojo Caliente hot 
springs [6:2 see [6:24]; />•< 'water' 'creek 5 'river'). 

(2) Taos raludpaand 'hot water river', referring to Ojo Cali- 
ente hoi springs [6:24]' (/■ <- 'water'; IM 'hoi ': /«'- 'water'; and 
noun postfix). Picuris (3), Eng. (4), Span. (5). 

(3 Picuris "Pasxlupane". 1 - Taos (2), Eng. (4), Span. (5). 

(4) Eng. Ojo Caliente Creek. (• Span.)- Taos (2), Picuris (3), 

Span. 

(5) Span. Kilo < )jo Calient.-. Rio < >jo < laliente ' ho< wain- creek' 
'hot water river', referring to Ojo Caliente hoi springs [6:24]. 
=Taos(2), Picoris (3), Eng. (4). "This is the Bio del Ojo Cali- 
ente, which takes its name from the remarkable medicinal ther- 
mal springs 16:l'4] on it- western ban] 

[6:s] Mnli'jxi jm-.i .'</■*/ 'canyon at the owl's horns' {Mqhq#$n 
[6:6]; tkPi 'canyon'). 

This is a deep, narrow, and beautiful canyon. The walls are 
rocky and in many places perpendicular. Mq,hy&&vn*i |6:>;| towers 
to the northeast and Posipij} e |6:K| and J '■■•') ■{',,'. [6:17| to the 
southwest. 

[6:'.'] Miilni^ ./</*;/ t.si'iir. {„,',, "water mill at the canyon by the <>w l'~ 
horns' (Mol,'j-i_ 'i, see [6:8]; 'via locative; pd'o 'water mill' 

< [»> • water', 'o 'metatc'). 

The wagon road which runs through Mq.hysGrvn&tei'i [6:H] is on 
the northeastern side of the creek. Several small brooks which 
flow down from the heights of JA.' ; <y-< .,,,, |6:o| cross this road. 
At the fourth of these brooks which crosses the road, counting 
from the confluence of Comanche Creek [6:12], stands the Mexican 
water-mill. The little brook which turns the « heel i- said to tl<>\v 
quite stronglj all 1 he j ear. 

[6:1<i| Mill, ._/a-i ,,i,:i_ -isijiiiiri.!!, Moliij.ii ,,,,., p ,,,,-,'./ ! 'the projecting cor- 
ners or points at the opening or month of the canyon at the owl's 
horn Pi, see [6:8]; p'erwiii 'projecting corner or 

point at the opening or mouth of a canyon' p'o 'hole' 'open- 
ing', "■''•''' 'projecting corner or point'). This name refers to 
both the northern and the southern mouth of the canyon [6:8]. 

The northern i ithisalso shown on the enlargement. A. San 

Juan informant was heard t" 3aj l/,"'. / < ■■■/,', ■,,-!. /:, bul when his 
attention was called to the name he -aid thai he did no! consider 

the latter pail coll'', t. 

[6:11 1 .\'i a , /»/"«/ Kv" ■ "at the pink or lighl reddish colored earth 1 

■ pink ' ' lighl reddish' • pi ' red' 
• n -ilna — ". '.; 'brown* bul when postpounded to color-denoting 

mo. 



160 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth.ann. 20 

words indicating' light or faint quality of color; i H locative and 
adjective-forming posttix). 

The flesh-colored area on the southern slope of the southern 
peak of Mqhy^^nnsg [6:6] extends to about one-third the height 
of the mountain on this slope. It has the form of a broad stripe 
extending east and west. It is seen when looking up Ojo Cali- 
ente Valley from the vicinity of Ojo Caliente hot springs [6:24]. 
This earth is said to be of no use. 
[6:12] (1) Kumqtsihivu 'Comanche arroyo' {E-umqtsi 'Comanche'; 
A-wV large groove' 'arroyo'). =Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Comanche Creek. (< Span.). =Tewa (1), Span. (8). 

(3) Span. Canada de los Comanches, Canada Comanche, Arroyo 
Comanche 'Comanche gulch' 'Comanche arroyo'. =Tewa (1), 
Eng. (2). "Canada de los Comanches". 1 "The situation of 
Houiri [6:21] is such as to command a fair view for a few miles of 
the valley of the Canada de los Comanches". 1 

The laud on both sides of Comanche Creek is dry, rolling, and 
dotted with pinon trees. There is no water running on the sur- 
face of the creek bed during most of the year. The old Jutapo 
or Ute trail [9:17] crosses the KumqtsihiCu above [6:1-1], but just 
where has not been determined. 

[6:18] Kiunqtsihup'ovl.ii. Kmnqtsipowui ' the projecting corners or 
points at the opening or mouth of Comanche arroyo' (Kwnatsi- 
/it/'i/, see [6:10]; jfowili 'projecting corner or poiut at the opening 
or mouth of an arroyo' <p'o 'hole' 'opening', wui 'projecting 
corner or point'). This name is said to apply especially to the. 
northern projection, the southern one, on which the pueblo ruin 
[6:21], q. v., stands, being also called Hbw&ti. Mr. Tomas 
Lucero still lives on his ranch at TZumqtsihup^owiii north of the 
mouth of Comanche Creek just as he did when Bandelier visited 
the locality 30 years ago. "Don Toraas Lucero, who lives near 
Houiri [6:21]". ' As a San Juan Indian said: Tom a I/useMi 
Kum&t&vp 'owui nqt'a ' Tomas Lucero lives at [6:13]' (Toma LuseJni 
<Span.; Kumqtsip^owUi, see above; nq 'he'; fa 'to live'). 

[6:14] (1) Buwapiyf 'bread mountain' (buwa 'any kind of bread'; 
p\yf 'mountain'). =Tewa (2). 

(2) Pqmpiyf 'bread mountain' (pays 'bread' <Span. pan 
'bread'; p\yf 'mountain'). This latter form is said to be the 
only one used by the San Juan. 

The mountain has the shape of an inverted cheese-box and must 
have been thought to resemble bread of some kind. It is men- 
tioned in the Posejemu story. The Sun first spoke to Posejemu's 
virgin mother at Buwapiyf. 

[6:15] Pi'qpir/f, see [4:1]. 

iBandelier, Final Report, pt. n, p. 40, 1892. 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 161 

[6:1<'.| (li PoaipitQf 'greenness mountain', referring to Oj<> Caliente 
hot springs [6 :24]' (Posi, see [6:24]; Piyf 'mountain'). 

(2) Eng. Ojo Caliente Mountain. (-.Span.)!:;). Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Cerro Ojo Caliente ' hot spring i intain'. - Eng. 

Mexicans regularly give the mountain this name. 

This mountain is about as high as the highest (the north) peak 

of |6:''.| and ran l>e Been from afar, especially from the southwest, 

trhere there is nothing to hide it. It was said by Mexicans 
tiring on the lower i lhama River to mark the site <>f ( 'jo Caliente. 
8:17]. 

[6:17| /'..."■<',■•', 'little greenness mountain" (Posi, see [6:24]; j'ijif 
• mountain': '• diminutive). 
This hill rises just west of the pueblo ruin [6:18] Of. [6:16] 

[6:ls| San Juan ///_/ poW '<>// //•//•- ji 'pueblo ruin of the flower of the 

one-seeded juniper' (ky "one .-ceded juniper' 'Juniperus to- 

sperma', commonly called sabina in Span, and ''cedar'' in Ene-.; 
poil 'flower'; 'oywifyji 'pueblo ruin' - 'orjwi 'pueblo', leeji 
'ruin' postpound). "] Co-mayo". 1 " Bomayo". 3 Bandelier uses 
the spelling "Ho-mayo" once and the spelling "Homayo" a 
number <>f times; he does not give the meaning of the name. 
Hewett evidently copies Bandelier's spelling and name. Thai 
//ij/i/.t,',- is the name of this pueblo ruin is generally known among 
the older San Juan Indian-. " I [omaj o", \\ batever Tewa form it 
may stand for, is certainly a mistake. San Juan Indian- ha\ e sug- 
gested Tomayo, the name of the large mountain [3:11] when 
"Homayo" has been pronounced to them. The sound i might 
easily nol be heard, or it might be taken for h by an ear unused to 
Tewa: or "Homayo" ma\ be for hy/majo 'good one-seeded juni- 
per' (/•■_/ 'one-seeded juniper'; mago 'good' 'tiptop' 'chief'), 
although none of the San Juan informants had ever heard such a 
name as hymajo. ETypcfib- is the name for this pueblo ruin current 
at San Juan, and until someone proves that a second name for 
it resembling "Homayo" exists, we may remain sceptical. 
"////"-ft/e/y,/'/ is an old Tewa pueblo," said a San Juan Indian, 
"comp i nion to Ha ,i-;.i ','(,,!,!■{ i 6:l' I |". Another San Juan informant 
volunteered the information that Posejemu, a hero or god of the 
Tewa. li\ed at TfypcibVoyioi. This information was given under 
such circumstances that it could not be followed up by further ques- 
tioning. Ifu/x'tu and Hbwi-ti [6:21] are said to lie farthest north 
of all pueblos. The ruin ha- been described by Bandelier : and 
by Hewetl '. 

| Bandelier, -Final It- | 

Mllllll.lll.'*. 

p. n. 

;■ - ■' !■■■ U I 
• Ant 

B7684 -. 16 it 



162 ETHN0GE0GRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [HTH. ANN. 29 

[6:1!>] Sail Juan IftipoilJc&H 'one-seeded juniper flower height' 
(HypoVb-, see [6:18]; kedi 'height'). This designates the height 
or mesa on which the pueblo ruin [6:18] lies. 

[6:20] San Juan Hy,poilhu'u 'one-seeded juniper flower arroyo' 
(flujxibi-, sue [6:18]; hiiti Marge groove' 'arroyo'). 

[6:21] San Juan HowU "njjirij,-, ji 'gray point pueblo ruin' (ho abso- 
lute form of hniri'' . howiyy meaning ' grayness' 'gray'; wUi 'pro- 
jecting corner' 'point', referring to the projecting corner or point 
of mesa just below the confluence of Comanche Creek and Ojo 
Caliente Creek, on which the pueblo ruin stands; ^Qywikeji 'pueblo 
ruin' <'<>ijii'i 'pueblo', hji 'ruin' postpound). With the use of 
the absolute form of the color adjective in this name, that is, of 
ho instead of howi H , howygf, compare pi'q instead of pi'q "•/"', 
]>i'<nrh)f in the name [4:1] and posi instead of posi/ri''. poxiwiyf, 
in the name [6:24]. The forms ho and posi do not occur in 
Tewa as it is spoken at the present time, but the} 7 are understood. 
They are old names and correspond to the noun forms of other 
color words still in use, as pi 'redness' as compared with /</'/"', 
1'i'bl.f 'red'. The pueblo gets its name, according to San Juan 
informants, from the nuijf howi H 'gray earth' {/wyf 'earth'; 
ho iri' 1 ', Ji<>ir{ij /• 'gray '), of which the wui or point of land on which 
it stands is composed. The ground all about this place has, in 
fact, a gray color. "Ho-ui-li'V "Houiri". 2 Bandelier does not 
give the etymology. "Hoiuri". 3 Hewett evidently copies spell- 
ing and name from Bandelier. 

This ruin is said to have been an old Tewa pueblo, companion 
to y/iipob'i'oij/rij,, ji [6:18]. : 

[6:22] JLiirihl,;,!/, Il/nci.ii- 'gray point height' 'gray point' (SowU-i, 
see [6:21]; h.ti 'height'). 

This is a low mesa projection about as high as [6:19]. 

[6:2:!] 7lowin7.i>/n/' a 'gray point barranca arroyo' (Ilowi'i, see [6:21]; 
1,-qh it'u 'barranca arroyo' <Tcq 'barranca', hu'u 'large groove' 
'arroyo'). 

This is an arroyo, a hundred feet or so broad, which joins Ojo 
Caliente Creek just south of Howiu.i'oywikeji [6:21]. Its lower 
course runs straight toward Posipijjf'e [6:17], the little mountain 
which stands west of Ojo Caliente Creek. 

[6:24] (1) Posipqpi, Posipokwi 'greenness spring' 'greenness pool' 
(posi old absolute form of posnoi'*, posiwiyf 'moss-greenness' 
'moss-green', this adjective being applied to water, stain, paint, 
and things stained or painted which have this color, while of 
ordinary green and blue colors tsqyw% is used; pqpi 'spring' 

i Bandelier, Final Report, pt. II, pp. '^,37, 1892. 

"Ibid., p. 37, el passim; Hewett: General View, p. 597, 1905; Antiquities, p. 40, 1906. 

3 Hewett, Communautes, p. 41, 1908. 

< For description see Bandelier, op. 'it., pp. 39-40; Hewett, Antiquities, No. 37, 1906. 



eubbikoton] PLACE-NAMES L63 

</>'/ 'water', j>i "t<> issue'; pokw\ <j>o 'water', Jew\ unex- 
plained). With the use of the absolute form of the color adjec- 
tive in this name thai is, of Post i 1 1 — t c -:i< 1 of [ins,', /•/"•. ji,,sni-ujf — 
compare [""q 'pinkness' 'pink 5 in the name |4:1| instead of 
/'/"../ -/•/"'. /""'.'"•{/; '■ and ho 'grayness' 'gray' in the name [6:21] 
instead of howi 1 ', howygj*. As to the forms Posi, /""■/ am! 
[6:21] above. The etymologj of Posi (Posiwi H , Posiwyg/) is un- 
known to the modern Tewa, but ii may he that it was origi- 
nally compounded of po 'water' and si 'to stink", which ap- 
pears, for instance, in n4sisy "it ~t ink<' (n4 "it": si 'to stink* 
propound; sy "to smell : intransitive, said of agreeable or dia 
agreeable smells), and thai Posi originally referred to stinking 
water, which frequently has a moss-green color. lids is, of 
course only a conjecture, and in tin- absence of record- of 
ancient Tewa language '-an nut he proved. At the preseni 
time 'stinking water' i- rendered in Tewa by posisyfi* i/<« 
'water'; sizy??* 'stinking' <si 'to stink.' which appears only 
propounded to certain verbs, •-'_/ 'to smell', intransitive, said of 
agreeable or disagreeable smells; ''"' locative and adjective 
forming postfix), and the *y of this expression can no! be 
omitted. The reason why this came posi 'moss-greenness 1 was 
applied to Ojo Caliente hut springs bj the ancient Tewa i- easily 
discovered, "(hi account of the high temperature of the water 
of the stream, and .,/ th, hot springs issuing from tit, naked rock 
and covering them with an emerald-green stain, 1 1 n ■ \ were not 
only objects <>f curiosity to the native, hut. like everything he 
dm-- iM't comprehend, objects of veneration, of worship." ' 

The italics are the writer's. The green stain mentii d may still 

be seen where the h"t mineral water oozes from the ground <>n 
the banks of the little arroyo just west of the bathhouse. 
The sacred old green-edged pool has been changed and obscured 
hy building the bathhouse over it. Bandelierand Hewetl have 

recorded a number of times, in Bandolier's spelling, the m i of 

the pueblo ruin [6:25], which i- derived from that of the springs; 
-ee under [6:25]. Nunc of the other place names beginning with 

Pogi- ha\ e. -,. far a- i- know n, I n recorded or published, nor has 

the etymology of Posi been ascertained or published. Bando- 
lier] or "P'ho-se" in all of his forms (see under [6 

tin' . of which ean he explained only as a result of defective 
hearing or of confusion of thi- name w nli the name of the culture 
hero r . Bandolier's "Pose-yemo", etc. It is n Uesa to 

-a\ that the |>laee ■, beginning with POSI and the name of 

the mythical person Posejemu, alias P — 'fwebh, have nothing in 
conn accept that thej happen to begin with the word /'■• 



164 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [mra. ann.20 

'water'. The springs give rise to the names of [6:7], [6:lti], 
[6:17], [6:25], [6:26]. See [6:Ojo Caliente region], page 165, 
where names for the Ojo Caliente region in the Taos, Picuris, 
and Cochiti languages, based on names of the spring which were 
not recorded, arc given. 

(2) Eng. Ojo Caliente hot springs, or more properly Ojo 
Caliente spring. (<Span.). = Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Ojo Caliente "hot spring'. =Eng. (2). 

This hot spring is situated 25 miles west of Taos and 50 
miles north of Santa Fe, New Mexico, ami about 12 miles from 
Barranca station [8:70] on the Denver and Rio Grande Railway, 
from which point a daily line of stages runs to the spring. 
Altitude 6,300 feet. 1 

The hot spring is situated about 300 feet from the mouth of 
a small arroyo or gulch, which starts beneath Ojo Caliente 
Mountain [6:1*1] and discharges into Ojo Caliente Creek [6:7] 
from the west about 2 miles south of the junction therewith of 
Comanche Creek [6:12]. The spring is situated where this 
arroyo emerges from the mesa. Mineral water at a temperature 
of from 90° to 122° F. oozes out or spurts forth from the earth 
at this point, mostly on the southern bank of the arroyo, but cov- 
ering a considerable area. 2 The old pool, over which the bath- 
house is now built, was also on the south side of the arroyo. 

This greenish pool of hot water was one of the most sacred places 
known to the Tewa. According to a San Ildefonso informant, 
when the Tewa lived in the Ojo Caliente region and Posejemu, 
the culture hero was still among them, he used at times to enter 
this pool. A Santa Clara Indian says that Posejemvts grand- 
mother lived and still lives in this pool; that Posejemu comes from 
the south to visit her one day each year, passing in some way 
near Santa Clara Pueblo when he makes this journey. Sacred 
pools such as this were believed to be the dwelling places of 
mythic beings and openings between this world and 'opanuge 
'the under world' through which spirits freely passed. "Joseph's 
Ojo Caliente." 3 "The Hot Springs belonging to the Honorable 
Antonio Joseph." 4 Mr. Joseph died several years ago. and the 
spring is now in charge of his son. 

San Juan informants said that the Tewa drink and probably 
also formerly drank the water of this hot spring. Bandelier 
writes: "It is not unlikely that superstition prevented the 
ancient Tehuas of Ojo Caliente from using the- warm waters of 
its stream for irrigation." 3 The San Juan informants knew of 

i Wheeler gives the altitude of Ojo Caliente as G.2U2 feet. 

2 For a geological description of the springs, sec Lindgren, ciraton, and Gordon, the Ore 
Deposits of New Mexico, ProfessionaJ Paper 68, V. S. Geol. Surv., pp. 72-74,1910. 
B idelier Final Report, pt.il, p. 22, 1892. 
.Ibid., p. 36. 
6 Ibid . p i. 



BUttBINOTON] I'l Ac E X \M ES 1 l>."> 

do such superstition. See |6:()j<> Caliente region], below, and 
nameless mineral spring L8 miles east of AJbiquiu [3:36], |6:un- 
located], 
[6: Ojo Caliente region] (!) Pos '■"■ 'al the greenness', referring t<> 
Caliente hoi springs [6:24]' (Pod see [6:24]; '■" locativeand 
adjective-forming postfix). This Dame refers to the whole region 
aboul Ojo Caliente bol springs [6:24], from which the Tewa claim 
that they originally came. For spellings of Post- by Bandelier 
and Elewetl applied to the pueblo ruin |6:_'.">| see under [6:25]. 
Fur the el \ mology ami origin of Posi- see [6:24]. 

(2) Taos PalUdM 'at the bol water' (/(./- •water'; l<m 'hot', 
rnate with«u in Tewa suh;i -hot'; Ui locative). =Picuris (3), 

Cochiti ili. Eng. (6), Span. (7). 

(3) Picuris "P&dunia'V probably a spelling Cor a form iden- 
tical with the Taos form given abov. Taos (2), Cocbiti ( 1 1, 
Eng. (6), Span. (7). 

(4) Cochiti Kdwatyatscj ' at the hot spring ' (jkdioa 'hot', said of 
water; tj>a 'spring or issuing'; fo& locative). = Taos (2), Picuris 
(3), Eng. (6), Span. (7). 

(5) Jicarilla Apache "oho, 'Ojo Caliente'". 3 

(6) Eng. Ojo Caliente region. (<Span.). = Taos (2), Picuris 
1 tochiti | I i. Span. (7). 

(7) Span, region de Ojo Caliente 'hoi spring region'. =Taos 
(2), Ficuris (3), Cochiti (4), Eng. (5). 

The Tewa always refer to this region as their cradleland. Cf. 
[6:7], [6:16], [6:17], [6:24], [6:25], [6:26], and aameless mineral 
_■- i- miles easl of Abiquiu [3:36], [6:unlocated]. 

[6:i'.">| I'nsi'tiij, rij,; jj. Po8lpokwiOi i; J 'i' n i t ,r'il .}', ■^ririiiic. pueblo ruin' 

'greenness pool height pueblo ruin' (Po . [6:24]; 

Qt 'down at' 'over at'; i.'i 'height'; 'Qywikeji 'pueblo ruin' 

<'orfu>i 'pueblo', keji •ruin' post] ud). The form Post'oywioe 

(jgf 'down at' 'over at') is evidently the form on which the 
spellings quoted below are based "Pos< ning-ge". "Pose 
oingge'V "Village of Po-se or Pho-se". "P e Dingge". 1 
"Poseuinge or Posege".' The Tewa informants state th 
Mich form as Fosigi or "Posege" is ever used, and thai sucha 
form is nol correct. " Poseuin 

I ruin has been described b] Bandelier,* and by Hewett. 10 
/' ejemu, the Tewa culture hero, dwell al this tillage and at 
Uy/po t,r, ,,,„•; [6:18] and HbioJUFoiywi \8:-\\ according to a tra- 

iQodd 

• Ibid , p 

P 12. 



166 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. Ann. 29 

dition current at all the Tewa pueblos. "He [Posejemii] is 
represented as having dwelt in the now ruined pueblo of 
Pose-uing-ge, at the hot springs belonging to the Hon. Antonio 
Joseph". 1 
[6:26] (1) Posibu'u 'greenness town' {Pod-, see [6:24]; buu 'town'). 

(2) Eng. Ojo Caliente town. (< Span.). =Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Ojo Caliente 'hot spring'. =Eng. (2). 

Ojo Caliente town is east of the creek [6:7], opposite the hot 
spring [6:24]. 
[6: La Cueva region] (1) Mqhy,wui 'owl point', referring to the 
projecting corners or points of Mahy,s%nn% mountain (maky, 
'owl', referring to JA;//y.v(/,/,,r [6:6]; wui 'projecting corner or 
point'). 

(2) Eng. La Cueva region. (<Span.). = Span. (3). 

(3) Span, region de La Cueva 'region of [6:28]'. =Eng. (2). 
[6:28] (1) San Juan Mqhy,wuihws^kubiCu, Mg7iy,wuibu'u 'owl 

point Mexican town' 'owl point town' (3fahy,wud, see [6: La 
Cueva region]; Icws^lcu 'Mexican', of obscure etymology; bu'u 
'town - ;. 

(2) Eng. La Cueva town. (<Span.). = Span. (3). 

(3) Span. La Cueva 'the cave', referring to the caves [6:30] and 
[6:31]. = Eng. (1). 

A short distance north of the arroyo [6:29] stands the house of 
Florentin Gallegos, the most southerly house of La Cueva settle- 
ment. 
[6:29] (1) San Juan Mqhy,wiiiJcQhv?u 'owl point barranca arroyo' 
(Jlq/iij.ir,'.//'. see [6:La Cueva region], above; Tcqhv)u 'barranca 
arroyo' </o 'barranca', hu'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

This arroyo has water throughout the year in its lower course, 
this condition being the result of the presence of a number of 
small springs. 
[6:30], [6:31] (1) San Juan Temap'o 'Keres holes' (Tenia 'Keres', 
applied to the Indians of Cochiti, Santo Domingo, San Felipe, 
Santa Ana, Sia, Laguna, and Acoma pueblos; ji'o 'hole' 'cave'). 

(2) San Juan Mahywuip'o 'caves of La Cueva region' 
(Mqhy,wUi, see [6: La Cueva region], above; j>'o 'hole' 'cave'). 

The cliff in which these caves are situated is about 25 feet high. 
The caves are tunnel-shaped, have a level floor, and are high 
enough for a man to stand erect in them. The northern cave 
extends into the cliff 25 or 30 paces; its innermost recesses are 
dark owing to a curvature which the cave makes. The openings 
are a few feet above the creek bottom. The interior surface 
of the caves is smooth and flesh-colored. From these two caves 
the Temalowh, 'Keres people', are said to have come forth when 

1 Bandelier, Final Report, pt i, p. 810, 1890. 



sabuki PLACE (TAMES 1 67 

they first entered this world, while the Tewa originated in the 
lake near Alamosa, Colorado (see p. 568). Nothing further con- 
cerning 1 1 1 i -— advenl of the Keresan people could be learned. 

[6:32] Smooth grass; bottom, not marshy. The land belongs to Mrs, 
Maria de la Loz Lucero. 

[6:33] (li San -hum Mqhy,wuipotsa 'marsh of La < 'u«\ u region' 
(JHqhy,wui, see [6: La < lueva region]; potea 'marsh' • fo 'water', 
tea "to cut through'). 

(2) Eng. La Cueva marsh. (< Span.). Span 

(3) Span. Cienega de La Cueva 'marsh of the cave', referring to 
[6:28] settlement Eng. (2). 

This marsh is found in two places as indicated <>n the sheet. The 

ground is grass-grown, soft, and boggy. Curiously enough, in 

t'r.mt of the caves [6:30] and [6:31] and the little cave [6:36] there 

i- firm grass-grown ground. According to a San Juan informant 

the land west of the creek, opposite and below this marsh, was also 

marshy when he was a boy, t>ut bas gradually become drj and 

sandy. 
[6:34 ) This fence divides the land of Mrs. Maria de la Luz Lucero on 

the north from thai of Mr-. Dolorita Menguarez on the south. 
I Smooth grassy bottom, not marshy. The land belongs to Mrs. 

Dolorita Menguarez. 
[6:-".t;| A small cave is situated in the cliff at this place. 
[6:37] Remains of an old -tone wall are Been here on tin' slope above 

the cliff. Whether this was made by Indian- or by Mexicans was 

ip il ascertained. 
[6::;>,] A -mall stream Sows down a gully in the cliff at this place; its 

Bource i- ei identlj a spring. 
[6::;'.i| A second ledge or cliff, 25 feel higher than the first. 
[6:40], [6:41] San Juan Mqh/yvrUipohwi 'owl point pools' ( .IA/ /<</"•/.//. 

Bee [6: La Cueva region], page 166; fiokwi "pool' ■ /«• 'water', 

!,ir{ unexplained). 

According to the San Juan informant- these two pools were as 
red to the ancient Tewa as was the pool |6: - _'t 1 at < >jo < laliente, 

lint the water in them was cool, not warm. The pool farther from 

the creek i- now choked with Band. 
1 San .'nan MqhywiJ>i'oku\ 'little bills at owl point' i Mqhy,wiii, 

see [6:La Cueva region], page 166; 'oku 'hill'; \ diminutive). 

Span. Falda ' slope at the rear of a hill '. 

A Mexican settlement <>n Petaca ( !reek |6:1 1 situated below [6:8]. 
Span. Servilleta Vieja 'old Servilleta, 

\ Mexican settlement on Petaca Creek a short distance below 
Petaca [6:1]. See |8: s ), which gives the approximate la 
Bee also [8:9] and |6:i). 



168 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [hth. ANN. 29 

Soda Springs. "In the same county [Taos County], 3 miles north of 
Ojo Caliente, are soda springs." 1 

Soda Springs. "There are . . . soda springs 4 miles southeast of 
Petaca, in the same county [Rio Arriba County]". 2 

Old Spanish silver mine. "Traces of such ancient mining for silver 
are found . . . at a prospect near Ojo Caliente". 3 

Nameless mineral springs 18 miles east of Abiquiu [3:36]. "There 
are mineral springs 18 miles east of Abiquiu in Rio Arriba 
County." 2 This would place the springs somewhere near Ojo 
Caliente hot springs [6:24], q. v. Perhaps the latter are re- 
ferred to. 

[7] LOWER O.TO CALIENTE SHEET 

Thissheet (map 7) shows a portion of lower Ojo Caliente Creek 
and adjacent country. The southeastern part of the area is occu- 
pied by the great Black Mesa, or Canoa Mesa [7:16]. Two ruined 
Tewa pueblos are located on this sheet. 

[7:1] San Juan Ny,tekq "ashes estufa barranca' {Ny, tde, see [7:2]; l-o 
'barranca'). This arroyo is named after the pueblo ruin [7:2], 

[7:2] San Juan Ny,td Q'QWJJcqi 'ashes estufa pueblo ruin' (ny, 'ashes'; 
'• 'i 'estufa'; \ujwiLeji 'pueblo ruin' < 'oywi 'pueblo', Iceji 'ruin' 
postpound). The connection in which the name was originally 
applied is forgotten by the Tewa of to-day. So far as they know, 
it is the ancient name of the place. 

The ruin lies between the main wagon road which leads up the 
valley, and the creek, being about 500 feet from the road and a 
couple of hundred feet from the creek. A modern irrigation 
ditch cuts through the ruin. Four cottonwood trees stand beside 
this ditch. The writer picked up a glistening black potsherd at 
the ruin, which au Indian informant said had been prepared with 
pok%nj"iL from [6:2]. The pueblo was of adobe, and the ruins 
are now in the form of low T ruouuds. The land on which it stands 
was said by Mexicans who live near by to have belonged to Mr. 
Antonio Joseph. The land adjoining the ruin on the south 
belongs to Mr. Juan Antonio Archuleta. There is a small grove 
of cottonwood trees about 300 yards north of the ruin. This ruin 
marks the northern extent of Tfugjs^iwe. 

[7::;] il) Tfugsgiwe ' place of the Falco oisus' (fwgi& 'Falco nisus'; 
'in; locative). =Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(■J) Eng. < ravilan settlement. (< Span.). =Tewa ( 1 ). Span. (3). 

(3) Span, (iavilan 'Falco nisus'. =Tewa (1), Fug. (2). 

This name is applied to the locality extending on both sides of the 

creek from [7:2] to [7:8]. .Most of the Mexican houses are on the 

eastern side of the creek. There is no plaza. It was at Tfugx'iwe 

nd Walter, The Land of Sunshine, a Handl k . ofNewMextco,etc.,p.l73,SantaFe,1906. 

■ [bid., p. ITT. 

3 Ore Ii'-pnsits ui New Mexico, p. 17. 1910. 



MAP 7 
LOWER OJO CALIENTE REGION 



MAP 7 
LOWER OJO CALIENTE REGION 



BABBXHGTOH] PLACE-NAMES L69 

that Posejemu, theTewa culture hero, bad his contest with Jbai, 
the god of the Mexicans and Americans, according to a Tewa 
myth. Whether the Tewa name is a translation of the Span. 
name, or whether the opposite is true, could nol be ascertained. 
[7:4] (1) TfuQ&'iwekwaj&, TfuQ3?vw£6h£i 'Falco nisus heights' 
'Falco nisus hills' {Tfuggfinoe, see [7:3]; hwaji 'height'; 
'hill'; 'e diminwtu e). 

(2) San Juan Vy,i I ■ ' . \ /'.".,' ./"- 'ashes estufa heights' 
'ashes estufa hills' i Vfyfe'e, see [7:2]; hoaji 'height'; } oku 'hill'; 
\s diminutive). 

A San Juan informant insisted thai t !>*-—.- hills are not called by 
the same name as [7:.">|. although one cannot understand why they 

should QOl be SO called. 

[7:5] San Juan TsipgygJokift 'little hills beyond the basalt', referring 
to [7:16]; tsi 'basalt', referring to Tsikwaji 'basalt height' [7:16]; 
'»/■'/ 'hill'; '• diminutive). 

[7:6] Tfugqfiwepo o 'water mill at Falco nisus place' (Tfugstfiioe, see 
[7:3]; fto'o 'water mill 5 • /-• •water". '■■ 'metate'). 

This .Mexican water mill stands on the west side of the creek 
slightly north of the spol where |7:-s| enter-. 

[7:7| 7j'"u : t /"/"'"". 1) >/tj.t''i>; l.nli h'ii ' barranca arroyo at Falco nisus 
place' {TfvQ&, Tpug.&'vwe, see [7:3]; kohu'v 'barranca arroyo' 
</-o 'barranca', A«'-u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

[7:8] (1) San Juan KyJe'ahiPu 'skunk-bush corral arroyo" i/»y 'skunk- 
bush'; /■'■> 'corraL' 'fence'; hu'ii 'large groove' 'arroyo'). Per- 
haps a translation of the Span. name. 

(2) Lemita Arroyo. (<Span.). Span. (3). Cf . Tewa (1). 

(3) Span. Arroyo de Las Lemitae 'skunk-bush arroyo'. i 
(2). Cf. Tewa (1). 

This -mall arroyo is less than three-fourths of a mile north of 
[7:11]. The most southerly houses of Gavilan settlement [7:3] 

are north of this army,,. 
7 ■ I >i,o ( aliente ( 'reek. B ee [6:7]. 

[7:10] About 200 yards east of the creek and about a quarter of a mile 
north of the month of [7:11] is a peculiar figure, like tin- ground- 
plan of two squarish rooms with corners touching. It is outlined 
on the valley bottom by small stones arranged one next to another 
so a- to form line-. Tin- structure is at the toot of the low mesa. 
Neither Indians from San Juan nor Mexicans who Uveal Gavilan 
[7::;| could explain the origin or significance of tin- figure. 
[7:1] (11) Eng. Buena Vista Arroyo. | Span.). Span. (2). 

(2) Span. < ' mada de la Buena Vista 'g I view arroyo' 

p. ( i ) 
This name was furnished bj Mr. Antonio Domingo Bivetaof 
Gavilan [7:8]. The arroyo ie less than three-quarters of a mile 
Bouth of [7:8] and 710 paces north of the pud do ruin [7:19], 



170 ETHXOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. a.vn. 29 

[7:12] Nameless arroyo. This is a large and long gulch, without 
water except just after rain-. The main trail connecting 3 
Juan Pueblo with E\ Rito passes through this arroyo. 

[7:13] San Juan Pon./ij'i' J k''. Ponfipa ,a kwqje 'height of the beds 
of plumed arroyo shrub' i /' n flipa' a , see [7:141: k&ii, J.icoje 
" height'). 

This i- the height or low mesa on which the pueblo ruin [7:14] 
stai 

[7:14] San Juan Ponynpa^kerPorfioike/i, Ponfipa' a l;iraj','q\jiriJ:,y, 
'pueblo ruin of the plumed arroyo shrub beds height' {ponfi 
'plumed arroyo shrub" 'Fallugia paradoxa acuminata', called by 
Mexicans lining in the Tewa country, ponile; j»i' a 'bed" 'mat- 
tress' 'sleeping-mat'; 'height'; 'oywikeji "pueblo 
ruin' <'oiju-i 'pueblo', keji 'ruin' postpoundi. Bandelier's 
"P'o-nyi Pa-kuen" is almost certainly his spell ingf or Ponfipn' a - 
hwaje: "The Tehuas claim Sepaue [4:S] as one of their ancient 
settlements, but I failed to obtain any folk-lore concerning it. I 
was also informed that another ruin existed near l>y. to which 
the Indians of San Juan give the name of P'o-nyi Pa-kuen. It 
might be the ruin of which I was informed as lying about 7 miles 
farther west, near the road to Abiquiu. My informant told me 
that near that ruin there were traces of an ancient acequia". 1 
The supposition expressed in the next to the last sentence quoted 
is evidently erroneous. It is not clear from Bandelier's text 
whether the "traces of an ancient acequia" whieh he mentions 
are near "P'o-nyi Pa-kuen" or near the ruin 7 miles west of 
■■ Sepaue". No trace- of an ancient ditch were noticed near[7:14]. 
The circumstances under which the name P<mf\pcH a lceJ.i was origi- 
nally given were- probably forgotten long ago. Large mounds 
lying on the mesa top mark the site of the ancient Tewa village. 

[7:15] San Juan Ponj y ipa ,a k&iikqhu'u,Pon.j^pa ,a kwajekohu , u 'barranca 
arrovo of the plumed arroyo shrub beds height' (Ponfipa^keM, 
Pan p\pcC a kwaje, see [7:14]: fcohu'u 'barranca arroyo' <ko 'bar. 
ranca", hvtu Marge groove 7 'arroyo'). 

This is an arroyo of considerable size, the first large arroyo 
joining Ojo Caliente Creek north of the northern end of Tsikwaje 
[7:16]. A Mexican informant who lives at ( mvilan [7:3] said that 
this arroyo has no Mexican name, but that he would call it Arroyo 
del Pueblo 'pueblo arroyo', referring to [7:14]. 

[7:16] San Juan Tsikwaje, see [13:1]. 

[7:lower Ojo Caliente region] San Juan Tsipgyge, Tsikwajepgyge 
' beyond the basalt ' ' beyond the basalt height '. referring to [7:16] 
(fsi 'basalt'; hwajl 'height': p;i_ ij[h : ' beyond'). This name refers 
to the whole region northwest of [7:16]. See [7:4], [7:5], [7:17], 
[7:19], [7:20], [7:22]. 

■ Bandelier, Final Report, pi. n, p. 53. 1892. 



HABKISI I'l U3E-NAMES 171 

|7:1T] San Juan Taip^r/getekaiaH 'cottonwood grove beyond the 
basalt', referring to [7:16] {ts\ 'basalt'; Psegjjt 'beyond'; U 'cot- 
tonwood 1 'Populus wislizeni'; lea 'denseness' 'dense 1 'forest'; 
• roundish pile' 'grove'). 
This small group nt' cottonwood trees is w&ii of the creek and 
southwest of [7:1 1 1. 

[7:18] (1) San Juan Tv&8$mbehv?u 'peas arroyo' (tutsimfye 'pea'< 
/'/ 'bean', <*••.'///' 'blueness' 'blue' 'greenness' 'green', absolute 
form of - ■ ■' of same meaning, 5< denoting roundish shape; 
/(</'// 'large groove' 'arroyo'). (<Span.). =Eng. (2), Span. (3). 
. (2) Eng. Arvt'jon Arroyo. (<Span.). Tn\;i 1 1 i. Span. (3). 
(3) Span. Arroyo Arvejon " peas arroyo'. Tewa (1), Eng. (2). 

[7:19] San Juan Tsif% ij'j- '<_'••>■! '-"' 'al the alkali beyond the basalt', 
referring to [7:16] (ts\ 'basalt'; p%yge 'beyond'; V-.' 'alkali' 
<'<j 'alkali'. .*.■» 'pepperines8'; '"' locative and adjective forming 
postfix). 

This is a .-mall alkali llal. 

[7:20] San Juan Tsip^ygePotaa 'marsh beyond the basalt', referring 

to [7:16] (t*i "ba-alt ': />.•; ij'h "beyond"; jh>tsa 'marsh'- /"-•water'. 

tea 'to cut through'). 

This is a small alkaline marsh westof the creek [7:9]. 
[7:21] (1) Eng. Banchitos del Coyote settlement. (• Span.*. Span.(2). 

(2) Span. Ranchitos del (Doyote 'little farm-, of the coyote. 5 

Eng. (1). 

This nana' i- applied by Mexicans vaguely loan area a couple 
of mile- in length. The settlement consists at present of a couple 
of deserted Mexican houses at the place indicated bj the number, 
near where the trail from Estaca [10:3] descends the me, a [7:16]. 
[7:22] (1) San Juan /><'/'< <rj-l>"'>> 'corner be> 1 the basalt", refer- 
ring to [7:16] {tsi 'basalt'; p&yge 'beyond'; bu'u 'largelow 
roundish place'). 

(2) '/ ■■ uribu'u 'eagle gap corner', referring to [7:21 1 < / - "•."'. see 
[7:24]; Jfu'u 'large low roundish place"). 

This large low area i- formed partly bj a concave curve which 
the mesa [7:16] make- at this locality, partly by the receding of 
the small bills [7:5]. The place is arid and uninhabited. 
|7:'j::| Tsewikw «*' eagle gap height' [Tsewi'i, »■*■ [7:24]; 

Jcwaji , /■/.// • height ' i. 

Thi- n>und knob i- of the -ame height a- the adjacent uic-a top 

[7:16] and i- really onlj a detached portion of the latter separated 
from it by an eroded '_ r ap [7:24]. The little inteinous knob is 

rery Striking in appearance, and appear- to lie well known to 

many Tewa in the various villages. It can be seen from a 
distance al man] point- treat and north of it. hut i- not visible 
from any of the Tewa villages now inhabited. It would not be 
surprising if a shrine were discovered on its top. 



172 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIAN'S [ETH. ANN. 29 

[7:24] Tsewi'i 'eagle gap' (fee 'eagle'; wi'i 'gap' 'passageway'). 

The gap is at its southeastern extremity perhaps only about 

25 feet deep. It separates the well-known knob [7:23] from the 

body of the mesa [7: Hi]. 
[7:25] Jutapo, see [9:17]. 
[7:26] Tsewipo, see]10:S\. 
[7:27] Qwa3ceU, see [13:3]. 

[8] TAOS SHEET 

This sheet (map 8) shows, roughly speaking, the country of the 
Tans and Pieuris Indians, which constitutes the extreme northeastern 
corner of the Pueblo territory. The attempt has been to locate on 
this sheet only those places which are known to the Tewa. Only a few 
Taos and Pieuris names of important places are given below to supple- 
ment the Tewa, Eng., and Span, names. Most Tewa Indians have 
visited Taos and Pieuris and are familiar with many if not nearly all 

of the places named on this si t. The Taos and Pieuris names for 

places in this area are however very numerous, and would require a 
special and prolonged study. Pueblo ruins exist in this area in great 
number, but. so far as is known, none is claimed by the Tewa as a 
village of their ancestors. For information about the relationship of 
the Taos and Pieuris to the Tewa and other tribes see Names of 
Tribes and Peoples, pages 573-78. 

[8:1] Ganglion Mountain, see [1:35]. 

[8:2] El Rito Creek, see [4:3]. 

[8:3] El Rito Mountains, see [4:1]. 

[8:1] (1) Klfvif 'prairie-dog mountains' (// 'prairie-dog 1 ; pijjf 

'mountains'). =Taos (2), Eng. (3), Span. (4). 

(•_') Taos Kit' upluiit'iit'i 'prairie-dog dwelling-place mountains' 

(ki 'prairie-dog 7 : t'y, 'to dwell' cognate willi Tewa fa 'to dwell'; 

p'nl/i- •mountain"; end noun ending). =Tewa (1), Eng. (3), 

Spun. (4). 

(3) Eng. Tusas Mountains, Tusas Hills. (<Span.). = Tewa 

(l),Taos (2), Span. CD. 

(1) Span. Cerritos de las Tusas ■prairie-dog mountains'. 
= Tewa (1), Tacs (2), Eng. (3). 

Cf. Petaca Creek, Tusas Creek [6: t], and Tusas settlement [8:6]. 
[8:5] Petaca Creek, Tusas Creek, see [6:4]. 

[8:<i] (1) Kibti'it "prairie-dog town' (ki 'prairie-dog'; bn'a 'town'). 
= Eng. (•_'), Span. CD. 

(2) Eng. Tusas settlement. (<Span.). = Tewa (1), Span. (3). 

(3) Spun. Tusas "prairie-dogs'. =Tewa (1), Eng. (2). 

( 'f. Petaca ( 'reek. Tusas ( 'reek [6:1], and Tusas Mountains [8:1] 



MAP 8 
TAOS REGION 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 




TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT MAP 8 












'ii^n 




S3 . :-. -,,,.0 ., . ,'iU 55 -VC-^o • ..u/nilAC 'W . 



m R^iihesft 




- ^^**0M0'MM^ V'" ^%^ 



am* - 




MAP 8 
TAOS REGION 



babbis I'l M31 (TAMES 173 

[8:7] Petaca settlement, sec [6:1]. 

[8:8] (1) Eng. Old Servilleta. (-.Spun.). Span. 2) 

Span. Servilleta Vieja 'Old Napkin '. Eng. I i. 
Before the Denverand Bio Grande Railroad was buill Servil 
leta was a Mexican settlement situated on Petaca Creek [6:1] 
somewhat beloTi Petaca settlement [6:1]. Since the building of the 
railroad Servilleta proper has been situated on the railroad; see 
[8:'.»]. The former location is distinguished by calling ii ( >1»1 Ser- 
villeta, Snvillcta Vieja. old Servilleta has not been exactly 
located; therefore it is not shown on sheet [6] but is mentioned 
under [6:unlocated], The writer is inclined to think that Old 
Servilleta is identical with [6:3], q. v. 
[8:9] (1) Eng. Servilleta town. (-.Spam. =Span.(2). 

(2) Span. Servilleta 'napkin'. Eng. (1). See [8:8]. 
The route commonly taken to Taos Pueblo is that from Ser- 
villeta Station. It is from Servilleta Station that Taos Pueblo is 
most frequently reached. 
[8:1"] (1) Eng. No Agua settlement. (<Span.). -Span. (2) 

(2) Span. No A.gua 'no water'. Eng. (1). 
[8:11) il) KuwakufohiCu, Kv/waJctfim.f>ohu'v. 'mountain-sheep rock 
water arroyo' {Kwwaku, see [8:12]; Pohu'u 'arroyo which carries 
water' /'<< 'water', hu'n 'large groove' 'arroyo'),. This is the 
old Tewa name, still in common use. =Taos (2). 

(2) Taos l\ '■■"■ ■■'■/i>~i</ih~i/ii/f'i •mountain sheep rockarroyo' (kuwa 
'mountain-sheep'; </<" "-tone': qtydlu- "arroyo': nd noun end- 
ing). Tewa I 1 I. 

(3) Eng. Tres Piedras Arroyo. (■ Span.). Span. (5). 

iii Span. Arroyo de las Orejas 'ear arroyo', referring to Ore- 
jas Mountain [8:37]. This is the only name for the arroyo cur- 
rent in Span. Neither in Tewa nor Taos, nor in English, so far 
as is known, i- this arroyo ever referred to by the name of the 
mountain [8:37 1. as in Span. 

(5) Span. Arroyo de las Tres Piedras, Arroyo Tres Piedras 
'three stone arroyo', referring to [8:12]. This name is used infre 

quently if at all in Span. 

The region which this arroyo drains is verj barren. 
[8:li'| ill Kuwaku 'mountain-sheep rock-' (kuwa 'mountain-sheep'; 
/•// 'stone 1 . I aos (2). 

(2) KuwaqMnd 'mountain sheep rocks' I ■'. uwa 'mountain sheep'; 
y-'/- ■-tone'; ^4 noun postfix denoting 2-t plural, the correspond 
bag noun postfix denoting the singular being na). Tewa(l). 

(3) Eng. Tres Piedras rocks. (• Span.) Span. (4). 
Mi Span. Tie- Piedras 'three rocks'. Eng. I 

These two or three large rocks are ju-t west ol Tres Piedra 
tlement [8:13]. Perhaps the Tewa translation of the Span, name, 



182 



ETHNOGEOGEAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 



(18) Zufii "Topoliana-kuin 'place of Cottonwood trees'"*. 1 

(19) Jicarilla Apache "'Koho'hlte''. 2 '-Kigotsaye 'Taos' ". ' 

(20) Jicarilla Apache "daGosiye ' at Taos' ". 4 The lyeis a loca- 
tive ending; the d is equivalent to the t used in this memoir. The 
name seems to he merely the Jicarilla Apache pronunciation of 
Span. (23). 

(21) Navaho "To Wolh 'water gurgles'". 5 "TaWolh 'water 
gurgles'".''' "Tqowhul, 'the Taos'". 7 "Tqowhul 'running or 
swift water ( ?), Taos' ". s 

(22) Eng. Taos. (<Span.). = Span. (22). 

(23) Span. Taos, probahly from Tv&-, the Taos name of the vil- 
lage; see Tewa (1), Taos (4), and Taos (."»). above. The -s is gently 
sounded in New Mexican Span. Such forms as Pecos and Tanos 
are often used by Mexicans as singulars, although these words, and 
probably also Taos, are properly plural forms. "Taos". 9 "Sant 
Miguel". 10 "Tahos". 11 "San Geronimo de los Taos". 12 "Ta- 
osy". 13 "Taosij". 14 "Thaos". 15 "Taoros". 1 ' "S.Hieronymo". 17 
'• i'aosis". ls " San Geronimode los Tahos". 19 "S<- Hieronimo". " 
"S. (ieronimo de los Thaos". 21 "Tuas". 22 "San Geronymo de 
los Thaos". 23 "S. Jerome de los Taos". 24 "S* Jeronimo". 25 
"S l Jerome". 26 "San Geronimo Thaos". 27 "Tous". 28 "S. Je- 
ronimo deToas". 29 "Yaos". 30 "Tons". 31 "Taosas". 32 "Tao". 33 
"Taoses". 34 "Touse". 35 "Toas". 3e "Taosites". 37 "Tacos". 38 
"San Geronimode Taos". 39 "Jaos". 41 ' "Taosans". 41 Gatschet 43 
quotes "Taos" as the name of a Nicaraguan tribe. 



• Cashing, 1884, quoted in Handbook Inds., pt. 
2, p. 691, 1910. 

- Hodge, field notes, Bur. Amer. Ethn., 1895, 
Ibid. 

loddard, Jicarilla Apache Texts, p. 11. 1912. 
<Ibid., p. 121." 

'Curtis. American Indian. I, p. 138, 1907, 
i Handbook Inds.. pt. 2, p. 691. 1910 (misquol 
ins; Curtis). 

' Franciscan Fathers. Ethnologic Dictionary of 
the Navaho Language, p. 128, 1S10. 
8 Ibid., p. 136. 

i [n Doc. Inld., xvr, pp. 109, 306,1871. 
"Ofiate (1598), ibid., p. 257. 
ii Z4ra1 quoted by Ban- 

, I, p. 600, 1882. 
»Benavides, Memorial, p 37, 16 10. 
13 Lin-, I l'Ame>ique, map 

ii Sanson, l'Amurique, map, p. 27 1657. 
i»Freytas, PeDalosaRel. (1662 ,pp 12,74 1882. 
. Ulas, XII. p. 71.1667. 
p. 61. 
p 62. 
incurt (16%) in Teatro Mex., in, p. 318, 
1871. 

M el Floride, 1703. 



=■ Rivera, Diario, leg. '.150. 1736. 

Mota-Padilla, Hist. Nueva Galicia, p. 515, 1742. 
» Villa-Sefior, Theatro Americano, n, p. 410, 
17iv 
w Vaugondy, map Amerique, 177s. 
- Iiowks, mail Am., 17*1. 
-•' Kitchin, map X. A.. 17-7. 

io. Die. Geog., v. p. 115, 17S9. 

smith, map X. A.. 1795, ed. 1814. 
I* Walch, Charte America, 1805. 
Expedition, map, 1810. 
31 Ibid., opp. to pt. in, pp. 7,9. 
32 Gregg, Commerce Prairies, i. p. 124, 1844. 

li. map Mexico, 1816. 

« Ruxton, Adventures, p. 199, 1848. 
i, Wahtoya, p. i 
latin in Nam. Ann. Voy., 5th series, xxvn, 
p. 304, 1851. 

■ go, p. 311, 1857. 
■■ Buschmann, New Mea i 

1868. 
"Hinton, Handbook t" Arizona, map 
« P v in Donaldson, Moqui Pueblo Indians, 

p. 101, 1893. 
BZwoll Bprachi a, p I 



HABBIMC PLA( I. NAMES 183 

(24) span. "Braba". 1 "Brada'V A.a Hodge suggests, I as 
taneda's " Braba" may l>e a miscopying of "Tuata", but it seems 
to the writer that ii is probably a miscopj ing of Tuaba or some 
such spelling of the Taos name T'&dbd (see Taos | 1 1, above). 

(25) Span. "Valladolid'V Taos was probably called thus by 
the Spaniards on account of it- fancied resemblance to, or in mem- 
ory of, the Spanish city of this name. 

(26) Span. "Yuraba".' "Uraba".' As Hodge suggests, these 
form-; arc perhaps in place of the Pecos form equivalent to 

or rather <>!' Ju'l&bo, whirl) is though! to l"' another 
Jemez form. 

(27) Span. "Tayberon",' as a name for the province of "Teos" 
Taos. 

(28) Span. "Tejas". 8 It is not certain thai Garces refers to 
the Taos when he u >es this word. 

(29) Span. "Tejos"." This is identified with Tan.." 1 
Bandelier describes Taos as follows: "Taos has two tall houses 

facing each other, one on each side of the little stream, and com- 
municating' across it bymeansof wooden foot bridges." 11 Cf. the 
names [8:24], [8:43], [8:51], [8:52], [8:53], [8:54], [8:57], [8:58 . 
[8:46] Pueblo ruin about a hundred yards northeast of Taos. 

I >r. II. .1. Spinden has described this ruin as follows ; "There 
is an old pueblo site about a hundred yards from Taos pueblo, 
on the north Bide of the' creek, up the creek from Taos. This 
is said to tx apart of Taos which burned down about four hun- 
dred years ago. Remains of pottery of several hind-, metates, 
mortar-, etc., may he picked up at the ruin". The following de- 
scription evidently refers to the same ruin: "Au nord du village 
de Taos, a quelques metre- de la maison du nord du \ illage actuel, 
on voit les ruines du i>>i,hl<> occupe en dernier lieu par les Indiens 
j, avant L'6tablissement desdeux grandes constructions en ter- 
rasses qu'ils habitent aujourd'hui. Ces mine- ae -out plus (pie 
des amas d'adobe desagreg6en miettes. On ne -ait pas quand le 
rillage de Taos a etc rebati sur le plan actuel, mais il est probable 
que ce fiit dan- la periode historique. Cette question sera Btlre- 
menl 61ucidee par les investigations ult6rieures". 1J 

•Jur 

'Oil .'in. 

"li.w.ii, Conunniwol 



176 ETHNOGEOGKAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth.ann.29 

[8:26] (1) Taos '"Lapulasita". 1 

(2) Eng. Elizabethtown. 

(3) Span. Moreoa. 

"In 1866 . . . prospectors from Colorado found placer gold 
... at Elizabethtown in Colfax County, and in that district 
operations on a larger or smaller scale have continued until the 
present day". 2 
[8:27] (1) Eng. Cebollas Creek. (< Span.). = Span. (2). 

(2) Span, Rito Cebollas, Rito de las Cebollas 'onion Creek". 
Eng. (1). 
[8:28] Rio Grande. See Rio Grande [Large Features: 3], p. 100. 
[8:29] (1) Eng. San Cristobal Creek. (< Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Rito de San Cristobal 'St. Christopher Creek'. 
= Eng. (1). Cf. [8:30]. 
[8:30] (1) Eng. San Cristobal settlement. (< Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. San Cristobal 'St. Christopher'. =Eng. (1). Cf. 
[8:29]. 
[8:31] Eng. John Dunn's Bridge. Cf. [8:36]. 

[8:32] (1) Taos Tukufiaana, of obscure etymology (tuhu- unexplained; 
pa 'water' 'creek'; and noun posthx). Cf. [8:33] and [8:34]. 
Budd gives Taos " Hu'aluli'l&'ku 'Arroyo Hondo'". 3 The au- 
thor's Taos informant could not understand this form at all. 
Perhaps it refers to Arroyo Hondo [8:65]. 

(2) Picuris "Atsunahulopaltilina". 4 This name presumably 
indicates [8:32]. 

(3) Eng. Arroyo Hondo Creek. (<Span.). =Span. (5). 
(-t) Eng. Los Montes Creek. (<Span.). =Span. (6). 

(5) Span. Arroyo Hondo 'deep gully'. =Eng. (3). "Arroyo 
Hondo". ' 

(6) Arroyo de los Montes 'forest gully'. =Eng. (i). '"Los 
Montes Creek". 6 Mr. Melaquias Martinez of Taos says that the 
name Los Montes is never applied to this creek at the present 
day, but that it is applied to the locality of an irrigation ditch 
somewhere south of [8:32]. 

[8:33] (I) Eng. Arroyo Hondo Canyon. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Canon del Arroyo Hondo 'deep gully canyon". 
= Eng. (1). 

The canyon extends from a short distance east of Valdez settle- 
ment [8:35] to the sources of Arroyo Hondo Creek. 

iBudd, Taos vocabulary, MS. in possession of Bur. Amer. Ethn. 
20re Deposits of New Mexico, p. IS, 1910. 
:! Budd, op, cit. 

* Spinden, Picuris notes, MS., 1910. 
<> Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n, p. 32, et passim, 1892. 

6 r. s. Centra phical Surveys West of the 100th Meridian, Parts of Southern Colorado and Northern 
New Mexico, atlas sheet No. 69, 1873-1877. 



M A. ! \ wn.s 177 

|8::;i] ill Taos Kfodl&t'd, of obacure etymology {kMlA unexplained; 
■ d..\\ 11 at ' '<>\ er hi '). '" Kualata'V 

(2) Eng. Arroyo Hondo settlement. (<Span.). = Span. (4). 

(3) Eng. Los Montes settlement. (• Span.). Span. (5). 

(4) Span. Arroyo Hondo 'deep gully', referring t<> [8:32]. 
_■. (2). 

(5) Span. LosMontes 'the forests', referring probably to [8:32], 
=Eng. (3). "Los Montes". 2 Mr. Melaquiaa Martini'/ says 
that the name Los Montes is never applied to tin- town at the 
present day. 

Arroyo Hondo settlement is about 3 miles above the junction 
of [8:32] with the Rio Grande. The settlement lies on both sides 

of the creek. 

[8:35] (1) Eng. Valdez settlement. (/Spun.). -Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Valddz (Span, family name). Eng. (1). 

Valdez town i< situated jus! below the mouth of the canyon 
[8:33]. Unlike Arroyo Hondo settlement, Valdez lies entirely on 
the north Bide of the creek. 

|8::;'i| Eng. John Dunn's sulphur spring. Cf. [8:31]. 

(8::'.Ti ill l : ' 'coyote ears mountain' ($ 'coyote'; '"'■ 'ear'; 

Piyf 'mountain'). Taos (2). Cf. Eng. (3), Span. (4). 

(2) Taos T'Kjir.iU'ihi.it' in,,! 'coyote ears mountain 1 (tugwa- ' coy- 
ote'; A////./- "ear": t'v 'pile' 'mountain'; n,} noun postfix). 

Tewa(l). Cf. 1 ag. (3), Span. (4). 

(3) Eng. Orejas mountain. (<Span.). = Span (4). Cf . Tewa 
(1), Taos (2). 

iii Span. Cerro Orejas "ears mountain'. Eng. (3). Cf. 

Tewa Mi. Taos (2). 

The mountain is said to resemble ears in some way. 
[8:38] A bridge constructed in I'M I to facilitate the driving of sheep. 
[8:39] (1) Eng. Cebolla spring. (<Span.). Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Ojo de la Cebolla, Bajada de la Cebolla 'onion spring' 
'onion slope'. Eng. < I |. 

There is a spring of sulphurous water at this place. 
[8:4o| {[) Mii./n-uinjiijj , , .\/<t>/, r,i/, , i>i// ,. Miii/H'nl ''ij'iji , ". borrowed 
from the Taos language {M&qwolo . etc. Tan- (2); 
*iin H in tain' . By -iii m- Tewa this name is perhaps applied vaguelj 
to the whole Tan- Range |8:-J4|. 

(2) !;"•- '/ oalund, nf obscure etymology (rod unexplained; 
qwalu 'high', cf. gwalalami 'it is high'; nQ noun postfix). 
= Tewa 1 1). ■■( )ne nf them | refer rin-.' toruinsof the Tan- people] 
to which I was told thej gave the name of Mojua lu na, oi Mo 

' Bod I In Bnr, Kmn i 

the tooth Merld ■ irtharn 

- I 29 1 in L6 12 



178 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [ETH. ANN. 29 

jual-ua, is said to exist in the mountains". 1 Bandelier has here 
recorded the Taos name of Pueblo Peak. From his information 
t lie name appears to be applied also to a pueblo ruin probably 
situated somewhere near the peak. A Tans informant says that 
no such form as "Mojual-ua" is in use in the Taos language. 

(3) Eng. Pueblo Peak. (<Span.). = Span. (4). 

(4) Cerro del Pueblo 'mountain of the pueblo', referring to 
Taos pueblo. =Eng. (3). 

This great peak rises immediately northeast of Taos Pueblo. It 
is a mountain especially sacred to the Taos. The sacred lake 
[8:50] is situated close to this mountain. The mountain and its 
Taos name in corrupted form are well known to the Tew a. 
[8:41] (1) Taos Pdkupaand, of obscure etymology (pa 'water': In un- 
explained; pa 'water' "creek"; and noun postfix). Cf. [8:42] 

(2) Picuris " Hulotiam 'dry creek'." 2 =Eng. (3), Span. (4). 

(3) Eng. Arroyo Seco Creek, Seco Creek. (<Span.). = Picuris 
(2), Span. (4). 

(4) Span. Arroyo Seco 'dryarroyo'. = Picuris (-2), Eng. (3). 
Cf. [8:42]. 

[8:42] (1) Taos Pahut'd, Pakubd, of obscure etymology (pafcu- as in 
|8:41] <pa 'water'. Tax unexplained; t'd "down al ' "over at'; id 
'up at'). " PdJciitd." 3 

("2) Eng. Seco town, Arroyo Seco town. ( < Span.). = Span. (?>). 

(3) Span. Arroyo Seco 'dry arroyo'. = Eng. (2), named after 

[8:41], on the banks of which it stands. 

[8:4:; | ( 1 ) T'awipo, T^awVimpo 'dwell pass water* (jTawi'i, see [8:45]; 

'i/yy locative and adjective-forming postfix: po "water" 'creek'). 

This name is sometimes used vaguely to include [8:52] and [8:57]. 

(2) Taos ''Idlapd&paand 'red willow water", referring to [8:45] 
('Idlap'ai-, see [8:45]; pa- "water' 'creek'; an d noun postfix). 

(3) Taos Tiiat'dpaand, TUdidpaand 'water down at the pueblo' 
'water up at the pueblo", referring to Taos Pueblo (Tftat'd-, 
Tu&bd-, see [8:45]; pa 'water' 'creek'; una noun postfix). =Eng. 
(7), Span. (9). 

(4) Taos Kipawai "our water' (Id . . . wai 'our'; pa- 
' water'). 

(5) Jemez J-u?ldp& 'water of" (.///'/<;-, see [8:45], (13); pd 
"water" 'creek'). 

(»',) Cochiti T fit ff Shot fena "north corner river', referring to 
the region of Taos (Tj-et/folco, see [8:45]; tfena 'river'). 

(7) Eng. Pueblo Creek. (<Span.). =Taos (3), Span. (9). 

(8) Eng. Taos Creek. (<Span.). = Span. (10). Thisnamealso 
refers to Fernandez de Taos Creek [8:52]. 

i Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ir, p. 32, 1892. 

aSpinden, Picuris notes, MS., 1910. 

s Budd, Taos vocabulary, Ms. in Bur. Amer. Ethn. 



BABBJKI 1'I.At I N \ Ml - 179 

(9) Span. Rio del Pueblo, Ritodel Pueblo ' pueblo creek '. refer- 
ring to Taos Pueblo [8:45]. Taos (3), Eng. . 

(10) Span. Rio deTaos, Rito de Taos 'Taos Creek". Eng. 
This name is avoided bj many Mexicans, since il is applied 

also to Fernandez de Taos Creek [8:52]. "Petites rivieres de 
Taos". 1 

In it- upper course the creek passes through a beautiful canj on. 
The lake [8:50], about which the Taos hold secret dances, flows into 
this creek. The creek is spanned byquainl log bridges al Taos 
Pueblo |8:4.">|. •"! am informed by Mr. Miller that blocks <>r 
'chunks ' of obsidian, a- large as a list or larger, are found in the 
Arroyo de Taos. This would be about 60 miles north of Santa 
IV".- The ■■Arroyo de Taos" here referred t<> i-, probably 
Pueblo Creek. 

[8:41] (1) Eng. Lucero (reek. Span. . Span. (2). 

j Span. Ritode losLuceros, referring to the settlement [8:17]. 
=Eng. l . See [8:44]. 

[8:45] (1) T'awi'Qywi 'dwell pass pueblo' /'<> 'todwell' 'to live at a 
place'; w?i 'gap' 'pass'; 'oywi 'pueblo'). To what pass or gap 
this name refers or why the name was originally applied is nol 
known to the Tewa informants. The Tewa name for Picuris 
Pueblo [8;s,s] also contains postpounded wi'i, although the lew a 
do no! understand to what ]>a-s it refer-, li is not impossible 
that Tewa /",/./•/- is a corruption of Taos TtiA ; see Taos (4) 
"Ta-ui"*, •■Tow ili ".' Hodge suggests thai the span, name 
Taos is derived from the Tewa form, but Span. Taos resembles 
Taos T-SA- as closely as it resembles Tewa T'avn'i. Span. Taos is 
derived from Taos Tf& : Bee Taos (1) and Span. (22), below. 
Bj the San Juan a single Taos person is called Tawi'l'* or T'awi' f , 
while two or more are called Taw\i)j> (V, C, • Locative and 
adjective-forming postfix). At San [ldefonso a single Taos person 
is called 7™awi'i' 1 while two or more are called Vawi'iyj'. The 
San Juan form Taw\i)f 'Taos people' sounds like 'dwell mice' 

lo dwell'; ,ri_i, i ' mouse ' |. a n>l the informant took pli 
in pronouncing the name so thai the second syllable sounded just 
like the word meaning 'mouse' or ' ral ' (he rather looks down on 
the Taos people I. 

San Juan P ■■■ al mountain pueblo', referring to 

[8:i'l| or [8:ln| { j,[ tl , 'mountain'; so 'great'; '.■/,.- 'pueblo'). 
Tewa (1) is, however, the nam.' for Taos commonlj used al San 



180 ETHNOGEOGBAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [ETH. ANN. 29 

Juan. 'Taos person' is rendered by P\nsowi H , Taos people by 
J ' <_n <>>>»i_ijf {"<'', 'Ijjf, wi H , whjf locative and adjective-forming 
postfix). The form Pinsowiyf sounds like 'great mountain 
mice' while T'avrijjf (see above, Tewa(l)), sounds like 'dwell 
mice' or even 'day mice' (fa 'day'). 

(3) Taos ' I ahtji'o't'a. 'lalap'aibd 'down at or at the red wil- 
lows' 'up at the red willows' ('i&la ' willow '<'M- 'willow" cog- 
nate with Tewa jay f 'willow', la 'wood' probably cognate with 
Tewa soijf 'firewood'; p'&i 'red'; fa 'down at' 'over at'; id 
'up at"). The name seems to refer to ordinary willows, which 
are reddish, rather than to a peculiar species of willow. Accord- 
ing to a Taos informant this is the real name of Taos Pueblo. 
"Red Willow Indians". 1 " ,-Ta-i-na-ma, or willow people "-—per- 
haps for 'Ididindmq "willow people' ('"'- 'willow": taindmi 
'people'), a form about which no opportunity has been afforded 
to question a Taos Indian. "Ya'hlahaimub'ahutulba "red willow 
place'." 3 No opportunity has offered to ask a Taos Indian about 
this form either. The first three syllables are evidently 
'l&lap'ai-; the syllable b'd is probably pa 'water'; the last sylla- 
ble /"/ is probably Id 'up at '. 

(4) Taos Tfaifa, Twihd 'down at or at the village' 'up at the 
village' (t&d- 'house' 'houses' 'village' 'pueblo', cognate with 
Tewa te 'dwelling-place": fa 'down at' 'at'; M 'up at"). It is 
probably from the form Tvd that Span. Taos is derived. See 
Tewa (1). above, and Span. (22), below. "Taos, or Te-uat-ha". 1 
"Taos, Te-uat-ha". 5 "Tegat-ha.". 6 Bandelier has here "eon"' 
for yd. "Tiia-ta". 3 "Tai-ga-tah'". 7 This spelling has "ai-ga" 
for uii. The orthography is perhaps French and ai stands per- 
haps for the sound of e, which #. resembles; the g is for w, as in 
Bandelier's form, above. 

(5) Taos Kimawai 'our pueblo' {ki . . . wai 'our'; tud as in 
Taos (1). above). 

(6) Taos fdlndmd 'the people', referring especially to the Taos 
people. This form is also postpounded to the Taos names for 
Taos Pueblo given above in order to render 'Taos people'. 
Thus, for instance, ' 'Talap 'ditaln&m&r, 'falap'fflfataiindmQ, 
'lalap'aibdUmdTna. "Taiinamu". 3 



1 Amy in Indian Affairs Report for 1871, p. 3S2, 1872. 

> Miller, Pueblo of Taos, p. 34, 1898. 

sHodge, field notes, Bur. Amor. Ethn.. 1899 (Handbook Inds., pt. 2, p. 691, 191"). 

< Bandelier, Final Report, pt. i. p. 123, 1890. 

f Ibid., p. 260, note. 

s Bandolier, Gilded Man, p. 233, 1893. 

' Jouyenceau in Catholic Pioneer, i. No. 9 p. i-. 1906. 



I'l \t l \ \\n - 181 

(7) '"Indian name' Takhe". 1 " Taos (in der eigenen Sprache 
Takhe genannt) ' "Tax6".' [t maj be thai the forms used by 
Gratschi-t and I '. . •. arc liasod » »n Locw's I'm in. Locw's orthog- 
raphy and informal ion are often incorrect. For Taos Wa ' 

(8) Taos "Wee-ka-nahs'V According to the authority" 
from which many of the synonyms of Taos herein cited are taken, 
r 1 1 i — name i- given by Joseph as the Taos Indian.-' own tribal name 
for themselves. Misprint and error? Sec [8:88], (2), I I i. 

(9) Picuris "Tuopa".* This spelling is probably for a form 
identical with TtiMd; see Tan- (4), above. "Tuopa 'the northern 
one'."' This spelling is probably also for a form identical with 
TfidbA; Bee Taos < 1 1, above. 

(10) Picuris "Kwapihalki 'Taos Pueblo.' It means 'chief 
houses or village'. Muwi is the present word for chief. 
Kwapihal was an old word for chief". 7 

(11) Sandia •■ Tou train".* 

(12) I -Ida "Tuwiral '*." 

(13) Jemez Jtfldtd of obscure etymology (•/»'/</ 'Taos Indian': 
td locative). There, i- reason to believe that locative poal fixes 
other than td may also be used, l>nt no record of such forms 
appears in the writer's Jemez notes. Ju'ld means 'Taos Indian." 

'Taos person'. For 'Taos Indian-' "Tans people' either the 

plural Jn'li'if or the compound Ju'ldfsd'df {isd'df 'people') is 
used. "Vulata".' This form i- <:ivcn as the Jemez and Pecos 
name of the pueblo. 

M i) Pecos " Yulata".' As Hodge suggests, Span. (25), below, 
may come from this form. There is a Jemez locative ending bo. 
Perhaps the forms Span. (25) come from a hypothetical Pecos 
Jii'l&bo. 

(15) Cochiti 7 'north corner place' {tyety 'north'; 
■corner': tea locative). Tyety/dko 'north corner' refers 

to the whole northern corner of the Pueblo Indian country. 
to the whole Taos region. The span, name Taos l see Span (22) ) 
is probably also used in the Cochiti language. 

(16) Sia "Tausame 'Taos people'".' This is probablj from 
Span. Taos + ma ' people'. 

(17) Laguna "Ta-uth".* 

■ 

• pot 

- ii.i i 

• Hodge, Ibid. 

•Oat- 



182 



ETHXOGEOCRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. 



(18) Zufii "Topoliana-kuin 'place of cottonwood trees'". 1 

(19) Jicarilla Apache "Koho'hlte". 2 "Klgotsaye 'Taos' ". 3 
(l'i )) Jicarilla Apache "daGosiye ' at Tans' ". 4 The lye is a loca- 
tive ending; the d is equivalent to the t used in this memoir. The 
name seems to he merely the Jicarilla Apache pronunciation of 
Span. (23). 

(21) Navaho "To Wolh 'water gurgles'". 5 "TaWolh 'water 
gurgles'". 15 "Tqowhul, 'the Taos'".' "Tq6whul 'running or 
swift water (?), Taos" "*. 8 

(22) Eng. Taos. (<Span.). = Span. (22). 

(23) Span. Taos, probably from Tun-, the Taos name of the vil- 
lage; see Tewa (1), Taos (1), and Taos (5), above. The -s is gently 
sounded in New Mexican Span. Such forms as Pecos and Tanos 
are often used by Mexicans as singulars, although these words, and 
probably also Taos, are properly plural forms. '"Taos". 9 ".Sant 
Miguel". 10 "Tahos". 11 "San Geronimo de los Taos". 12 "Ta- 
osy". 13 •■Taosij". 14 "Thaos". 15 "Taoros". 16 "S. Hieronymo". 17 
" Taosis". 18 "San Geronimo de los Tahos". 19 "S^Hieronimo". 20 
"S. (ieronimode los Thaos".- 1 "Tuas". 22 "San Geronymo de 
los Thaos". 23 "S. Jerome de los Taos'*.- 4 "S' Jeronimo". 25 
"S 1 Jerome". 26 "San Ger6nimo Thaos". 27 "Tous". 28 "S. Je- 
ronimo deToas". 29 "Yaos". 30 "Tons". 31 "Taosas". 32 "Tao". 33 
"Taoses". 34 "Touse". 35 "Toas". 36 "Taosites". 37 "Tacos". 38 
••Sau <ie.ronimode Taos". 39 "Jaos". 40 "Taosans". 41 Gatschet 42 
quotes "Taos" as the name of a Nicaraguan tribe. 



'Cushing, 1884, quoted in Handbook Inds., pt. 
2, p. 691, 1910. 

2 Hodge, field notes, Bur. Amer. Ethn., 1895, 

l.lard, Jicarilla Apache Tests, p. 14, 1912. 

II. hi., p. 121.' 

<s Curl is, American Indian, I, p. 13.8, 1907. 

« Handbook Inds., pt. 2, p. 691, 1910 (misquot- 
ing Curtis). 

' Franciscan Fathers. Ethnologic Dictionary of 
the Navaho Language, p. 128, 1910. 

' I i.i. I , p, 136. 

9 0fiate(1598)iD Doc. Intd.,xvi, pp. 109, 306,1871. 

i iate 1 1598), ibid., p. 257. 

' y.inai.. Sah.i. I..M i.a 1629} quoted by Ban- 
croft, Native Races, i. p. 600, 1882. 

la Benavides, Memorial, p. 87, 1630. 

w Linschoten, Descr. de l'Amerique, map 1, 1638. 

w Sanson, l'Amerique, map. p. 27, 1657. 

'. Fiwtas. Perialosa Rel. (1662 , pp 12,74, 1882. 

"Bl , Atlas, xil, p. 71, 1667. 

"Ibid., p ..1. 

nibid., i. 62. 

"Vetancurt (1696) in Teatro Mex., in, p. 31s. 
1871. 

:.. . ■ a... Hex el Floride, 1703. 



?> Rivera, Diario, leg. 950, 1736. 
M.<ta-Padi 11a, Hist. Xueva Galicia. p. 515, 1712. 

23 Villa-Seflor, Theatre Americano, n, p. 410, 
1748. 

Li Vaugondy, map Amerique, 1778. 

» Bowles, map Am.. I7sj. 

MKitchin, map X. A.. I~s7. 

\ leedo, Die. Geog., v. p. 115, 1789. 

•< Arrowsmith, map X. A., 1795, ed. 1814. 

aWalch, Chartc America, 1805. 
Expedition, map. 1810. 

31 Ibid., opp. to pt. in, pp. 7,9. 

a8 Gregg, Commerce Prairies, i, p. 121, 1844. 

■ Disturnell, map Mejico, 1816. 

"Ruxton, Adventures, p. 199, 1848 
.1, Wabtoya, p. 131, 1850. 

36 Gallatin in Vottv. .l«". Voy., 5th series, xxvrr, 
p. am. 1- I 

i' Davis, El Gringo, p. 311 1851 

- Buscbmann, New Mexico, p. 230, i s "> v . 

^ Ward in Indian Affairs Report for Is., 7. p. 213, 
186S. 

"Hinton, Handbook to Arizona, map, 1878. 

a Poore in Donaldson, Moqui Pueblo Indians, 
p. nil, 1893. 

« Zwolf Sprachen, p. 45, 1876. 



PLAGE (TAMES 183 

(24) Span. "Braba". 1 "Brada'V As Hodge suggests, I - 
taneda's " Braba" may be a miscopying of "Tuata", bul it seems 
to the writer that it i- probably a miscopying of Tuaba or some 
such spelling of the Taos Dame 7 ttdid (see Taos ( 1 1, aU>\ e). 

(■_'.'.) Span. "Valladolid'V Taos was probably called thus by 
tlie Spaniard- on account of its fancied resemblance to, or in mem- 
ory "I', the Spanish city of this name. 

(26) Span. "Yuraba". 8 "Draba"." A.s Hodge suggests, these 
forms are perhaps in place of the Pecos form equivalent to 

it rather of Ju'l&bo, which i- thought t>> be another 
Jemez form. 

(27) Span. " Tayberon",' a- a name for the province of " Teos" 
Taos. 

(28) Span. "Tejas". 8 It i- not certain that (iaree- refer- to 

the Taos when he uses this word. 

(29) Span. "Tejos"." This i- identified with Taos. 10 
Bandelier describes Taos a- follows: "Taos has two tall houses 

facing each other, one on each side of the little stream, and com- 
municating across it bymeansof wooden font bridges." 11 ('(. the 
names [8:24], [8:43], [8:51], [8:52], [8:53], [8:54], [8:57], [8:58]. 
'8:4»'>) Pueblo ruin about a hundred yards northeast of Taos. 

Dr. II.. I. Spinden has described this ruin as follow-: "There 
is an old pueblo site about a hundred yard- from Taos pueblo, 
on the north side of the' ereek. up the ereek from Taos. This 
i- -aid to Ik a part of Taos which burned down about four hun- 
dred years ago. Remain- of pottery of several kind-. tates, 

mortar-, etc., ma\ be picked up at the ruin". The following de- 
scription evidently refer- to the same ruin: "An uord du village 
de Taos, a quelques metres de la maison du nord du \ illage actuel, 
on voit les mines du pn.hln occupe" en decider lieu par les Indiens 
-. avant L'ltabltesement des deux grandee constructions en ter- 
rasses qu'ils babitent aujourd'hui. Ces ruines ne son! plus que 
de- ama- d'adobe desagreg6en miettes. On ne -ait pas quand le 
village de Taos a 6te* rebati Bur le plan actuel, mate il est probable 
(pie ce fut dan- la p6riode historique. Cette question sera sure- 
ineiii ehieid.-e par les investigations ult6rieures". ,J 

■Hu 

•Jnr 
"II. ■> 



IS-i ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [ETH. ANN. 29 

[8:47] (1) Taos " Puawenuma'ya'lutS 'Placita de los Luceros'". 1 

(2) Taos "Ya'ldhanemta 'Placita de los Luceros', second 



name". 1 

(3) Luceros settlement. (< Span.). = Span.(4). 

(1) Span. Luceros, Plazita de los Luceros, from the family 
name Lucero. = Eng. (3). 

This Mexican settlement is a mile and a quarter southwest of 
Taos Pueblo, and just south of Prado settlement [8:48]. 
[8:48] (1) Eng. Prado settlement. (< Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Prado "meadow'. =Eng. (1). 

This Mexican settlement is just north of Luceros [8:47]. 

[8:4'.»] North branch of Pueblo Creek or Pueblo Canyon [8:43]. 

[8:50] The sacred lake of the Taos Indians. 

This was located for the writer by Mr. Melaqufas Martinez, of 
Taos. Once when passing near this lake Mr. Martinez came 
suddenly upon a body of Indians, who leveled their rifles at him. 
He hastened from the spot as fast as he could go, not daring to 
look back. Mr. Martinez did not see Indians daucing. Two 
Mexican informants say that they have friends who have seen 
Indian men and women dancing naked about this lake. An 
American friend informed the writer that an old man (an Ameri- 
can) recently came upon the Indians when they were dancing at 
this lake, and that they had on their ordinary dancing costume-. 
Mr. Martinez says that he knows the location of the lake very 
well, and that it drains into Pueblo Creek [8:43]. 

[8:51] (1) Eng. Taos Peak. ( < Span.). = Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Cerro de Taos 'mountain of Taos'. =Eng. (1). 
"•The Truchas [22:13] are slightly higher than Taos Peak. 
The latter is 13,145 feet, the former 13,150, 2 — both according to 
Wheeler. The altitude of the Jicarita [22:9] has not, to my 
knowledge, been determined; but the impression of those who 
have ascended to its top is that it exceeds the Truchas in height." 3 
It would appear that either Taos Peak, Truchas Peak, or Jicarita 
Peak is the highest mountain of the Santa Fe-Taos Kange. 

[8:52] (1) Taos "Paxwenuapu'hwik'qu 11 'Fernandez Creek'". 1 "Pa- 
xwenua-" is evidently the same as " Paxwinowia" in Picuris (2) 
andPaqwianuw- in [8:54]. 

(2) Picuris " Paxwin6wiapaxhune (pahua 'canyon': paxwinowia 
'spring'), Fernandez de Taos Creek'". 4 "Paxwinowia-" is evi- 
dently the same as "Paxwenua-" in Taos (1) and " Paqwianuwa-" 
in [8:54]. 

Budd, Taos vocabulary, MS., Bur. Amer. Etbn. 
= The United States Geological Survey has determined the height of Truchas Peak to lie 
L3.275 feet. 
■< Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n, p. 34, note, 1892. 
• Spinden, Picuris not.-, Ms., 1910. 



RABItlV : PL V I 185 

(3) Eng. Fernandez Creek, Fernandez de Tans Creek, Taos 
( !reek. i • Span.). Span. ( l }. 

ii) span, liit . > Fernandez, Rito Fernandez de Taos, Rito de 
Taos, etc. See [8:54]. 
[8:53] (1) Eng. Fernandez Canyon, Fernandez de Taos (any. .a. Taos 
Canyon. (<Span.). Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Canon Fernandez, Canon Fernandez de Taos, Canon 
de Taos, etc. See |8:.M |. 

Perhaps Picuris(2)of [8:52] i- the Picnris name for the canyon 
instead of for the creek. 
[8:.Vi| (lj Taos "Paqwianuwaaga" 'down at nighl pool', referringto 
the pool of a spring situated somewhere near Taos settlement 
(paqwld 'lake' 'pool'; nvmoa ' night'; agq 'down at'). 

The pool to which the name refers is said to have green grass 
about it all winter. This name i- &\ idently applied also to Fernan- 
dez Creek [8:52] and Fernandez Canyon [8:53]. See "Pa\xwenu&-" 
and "Paxwin6wia-" under [8:52]. 

(•2) Eng. Fernandez de Taos, Fernandez Tan-. (<Span.). 
=Span. (3). The name TaOs is the official and commonlj used 
form. 

(3) span. Fernandez de Taos, Fernandez Taos. Information 
bearing on the history of thi- name is lacking. 

This is the town of Taos, county Beat of Taos County. 
"The modern town of Fernandez de Tan-, which lies about 3 
miles «im of the pueblo". ' According to the maps "west" in 
the quotation above should be corrected t>> "southwest." "The 
Ranchos de Taos [8:">s| lie l miles from Fernandez de Taos, the 
modern t<>« n". -' 
[8:55] (1) Eng. Taos Pass. Span. (2). 

(■_') Span. Paso de Taos. Eng. (1). 

[8:56] ill 7 'ii/niji,,, Tanug^imfo 'dwell below water' 'dwell below 

place water', referring to the Tano and especially to Galisteo 

[29: Hi | ( 7" ■i,in. Tanugjt . Bee [29:40]; f>o 'water' 'creek' 'river'). 

(2) ffwgSimpo 'river of [29:33]' (ffwge, sec- [29:33]; "v,f 

locative and adjective-forming postfix; ]'■• "water" k creek' 

" ri\ el'|. 

[8:57] (1) Eng. Rio Grande of Taos Creek. (• Span.). Span. (2). 
(•_') Span. Rio Grande de Taos 'great river <>( Tan-' 'big creek 
of Taos'. Eng. < 1 1. 

One would expect that ihis creek would also be called after 
[8:58]. 
[8:58] (1) gant/ti. (< Span.). Span. (5). 

I aos ■|":i 'lainiina. 'los Ranchos de Tn< Picuris(3). 

>n...i i 

'Bod i Um. 



186 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

(3) Picuris "Talamona, "name of the pueblo ruin at Ranchos 
do Taos'". 1 Evidently the same as Taos (2), above. 

1 1 i Eng. Ranchos de Taos, Ranchos of Tans. Ranches de Taos, 
Ranches of Tan-. Ranchos, Ranches, Francisco Ranchos, Francisco 
Ranches. (<Span.). =Span. (5). 

(5) Ranchos de Taos, Ranchos, Ranchos de Francisco. Francisco 
Ranchos. "Ranchos de Taos".'-' 

"The Ranchos de Taos lie 4 miles from Fernandez de Taos, the 
modern town**. 3 "There are said to be considerable ruins near 
the Ranchos de Taos, and also extensive vestiges of garden 
plots". 4 See [8:59]. 
[8:51'] Picuris ••Talamona •name of the pueblo ruin at Ranchos de 
Taos"". 1 Budd record- what is evidently the same word as the 
Taos name for Ranchos de Taos [8:58]. 

.Mr. Melaquias Martinez informs the writer that the pueblo 
ruin is at the site of the modern Mexican town [8:58]. Dr. 
Spinden states as follows: '•There are remains of an old pueblo 
near Ranchos de Taos. This pueblo ruin is apparently quite 
modern — walls are still standing-. I was informed at Picuris 
that this pueblo ruin had its former population depleted by dis- 
ease. Some of the remnant went to Taos and some to Picuris. 
The people have mixed with those of other pueblos, but there are 
none at present at Picuris." 
[8:60] (1) Eng. Miranda Creek. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Arroyo Miranda, Arroyo de Miranda "Miranda 
arroyo*. Miranda is an important family name in New Mexican 
history. 

This is a small arroyo on which the sulphur spring [8:61] is 
situated. 
[8:0| | (1) Eng. Sulphur Spring. =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Ojo de Azufre, -sulphur spring'. = Eng. (1). 
This is a sulphur spring on the arroyo [8:60]. 
[8:0i>] (1) Eng. Frijoles Creek. (< Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Rito de los Frijoles, Rito Frijoles 'bean creek'. 
= Eng. (1). 
[8:03] (1) Kiiji'i jidln; 'at the black stone' (kv, 'stone': j>'fj).f 'black'; 
'/'/-, locative). 

The informants were one San Juan and one San Ildefonso 
Indian. Each of these said that there must be a black stone 
somewhere near the settlement, but did not know where the stone 
is situated. 

(2) Eng. Cordova. (< Span.). = Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Cordova, name of a city in Spain. =Eng. (2). 

'Spinden, Picuris aotes, Ms.. 1910. 'Ibid., p. 33, note. 

2 Bandelu-r, Final Report, pt. II, pp. 3:;. < Ibid., pp. 32-33. 



BAJMUNGTON] P] \i I 8 ' 187 

[8:''.lj (1) Po-tJimPohu'u, PoJiJimfoivPi 'fishweir water-canyon '(poM 
'fishweir'; '[ijr locative and adjective forming postfix; pohitu 
'arroyo or canyon with water in it" • po 'water', hu'u 'large 
groove' 'arroyo'; Potsi?i ' canyon with water in it" < f>o 'water', 
-von"). This name was given because the Tewa used to 
construct fishweirs in this canyon. Cf. Pou^a'aqwaie'iw< 1 8 : ♦ '• 7 J 
and l\>.i.",ir, [8:73J. 

TheCochiti used to make fishweirs in the canyon of the Rio 
Grande above the Keres country; aee[28:White Rock Canyon]. 

(2) Po8og.^imPohu ,, u, Posog.Jimpofei'i 'water canyon of the 
great river', referring to the Rio Grande (Posog.e, see Large 
Features: 3]; 'ivf locative and adjective-forming i><>~tti\: 
l<nhn'n 'arroyo or canyon with water in it' <f)o 'water', 
hu'v 'large groove' 'arroyo'; p<te€i 'canyon with water in it" 
< po "water", /.v/7 'canyon'). This name could be applied toanj 
canyon through which the Rio Grande passes. 

(3) lj mbii.ih' [m pu}, u' H. Ij, iiibn-iiiir'ijiijiiiliii" a. Ij. ii,bti.iu'[inji'>tx"<. 
It, ji,lj>i.'iiirl,,,j»>ts," / ' 'Embudo water canyon' (J)embyjnk ■ Span. 
Embudo, see Span. (6), below; '<" . voV locative and adjective- 
forming postfix; pohu'tt 'arroyo or canyon with water in it' <f>o 
'water', />"'" 'large groove' 'arroyo'; potePi 'canyon with water 
in it' <po "water". tePi 'canyon'). Eng. (5), Span. (6). 

ili Picuris "Pasxlapakwlix 'the whole Rio Grande or Embudo 

Canyon" (pasxlapaa "eanyon ")'".' 

I Eng. Embudo Canyon. (<Span.). Tewa (3), Span. (6). 
Span. Canon Embudo, Canon del Embudo, Embudo "funnel 
canyon' 'funnel'. =Tewa (3), Eng. (5). 

This gorge extends from the mouth of [8:43] to the mouth of 
[8:79], or according to other informants, to the mouth of [9:3]. 
"The banks of the Rio Grande, from the San Luis valley [Un 
mapped] to the [lower] end of the gorge of the Embudo, appear 
. . . not to have been settled in ancient times". 3 
[8:65] (lj Kqbidsi'i 'barranca corner canyon' '/<> 'barranca'; 

'large low roundish place'; tePi 1 canyon '). The situation of the 
large low roundish place from which the arroyo takes its name 
was not made clear to the \\ titer. 

(2) Taos Pai yuhii&kmd 'water locus I creek '(^a- "water": i 
'cicada '. equivalent t«> Tew a ./'/. Span, chicharra; hijMvr 'arroj o', 
the first syllable of which seems i" be cognate with Tewa /<"'" 
"arroyo": ,,.i noun postfix). Budd's vocabulary lia~ a form 

•• //./■ ',//;/// 'l.Yl.ii 'arroyo Hondo'". This form the Taos in- 
formant was unable to understand. It may refer to Arroyo 
Hondo [8:32]. 

> Bandolier, Pinal Bj | 

• Bn : i Urn. 



L88 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [BTH. axn. 29 

(:>) Eng. Arroyo Hondo. Arroyo Hondo Arroyo, Hondo Arroyo. 
(<Span.). = Span. (4). 

(4) Span. Arroyo Hondo 'deep arroyo or gulch'. = Eng. (3). 

This ia the rir^t deep gulch entering the Rio Grande from the 
east above Cieneguilla [8:67]. According to Mr. Melaquias 
Martinez, of Taos, a Mr. London Craig owns a fine piece of land 
at the head of this arroyo, which he irrigates by means of 
springs situated where the arroyo begins [8:66]. Arroyo Hondo 
played an important part during the Taos rebellion of 1847. 
Cf. Arroyo Hondo [8:32]. 
[8:66] Kqbvisifopi 'spring of barranca corner canyon' (Jvobutsi'i, see 
[8:65]; popi 'spring' > po 'water', pi 'to issue'). 

This is the spring (or springs) on Mr. Craig's place, referred to 
under [8:65]. 
[8:67] (1) San Juan Po<ie'a , aq>waie'iw< 'tishweir slope descending- 
place' (jm.i, •tishweir"; Va 'steep slope": qwcCbd 'to descend"; 
'in-, 'locative'). The name would indicate that a tishweir or 
fish weirs were formerly built at this place. Cf. the names of 
Embudo Canyon, Po<iiyrnpohv!u [8:64], and Embudo Station, 
] >,,,/, ',',/;• [8:73]. 

(2) Eng. Cieneguilla. (<Span.). = Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Cieneguilla 'little marsh'. =Eng. (2). 

This Mexican settlement lie- on both sides of the little arroyo 
[8:68]. There is some marshy ground there: hence the Span, 
name. The name Cieneguilla appears never to be translated into 
Tewa. The San Ildefonsos seem to know the place only by its 
Span. name. Cf. [8:68] and [8:69]. 
[8:68] (1) San Juan P(Me , a , aqwaie'iwehu'u, P(Ue'a , aqwaie , iw^iyj'hu > u 
'tishweir slope descending place arroyo' (PoJJd'aqioaie'iwe, see 
[8:67]; '■£'* locative and adjective-forming postfix: hu'u 'large. 
groove ' ' arroyo '). 

(2) Eng. Cieneguilla Arroyo. (<Span.). = Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Arroyo de la Cieneguilla 'arroyo of [8:67]'. 
= Eng. (2). 

[8:69] San Juan. PoJ-iaHaqwo^ekwajl 'fishweir slope descending 
place height' (PMe'ctagwaie-, see [8:67]; Tcwaje 'height'). This 
name refers to the mesa each side of Cieneguilla Creek: for 
some reason the name seems to be considerably used. Cf. [8:67]. 

[8:70] (1) Eng. Barranca station. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 
(2) Span. Barranca 'cleft' 'barranca'. =Eng. (1). 

[8:71] A bridge across the Rio Grande. This bridge, about 4 miles 
below Cieneguilla [8:67], is sometimes called Barranca bridge 
because it is near Barranca [8:70]. 



HAUiav. I'l \< I \ Wll B 189 

[8:72] (1) Eng. Comanche station. (<Span.). Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Comanche, 'Comanche'. Eng. (1). 

[8:73] (1) San Juan l',>.i,' ;,,■, 'at the Gshweir' (pote 'fishweir'; Hwt 
locative). The name implies that there was formerly a fishweir 
or that there were fish weirs built in the river at thi> place. Cf. 
[8:64] and [8:67]. 

(i'l Eng. Embudo station. (<Span.). Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Embudo 'funnel'. Eng. (2). The name is perhaps 
:i recent one and is taken from the canyon [8:64]. 

Cf. Dixon, Old Embudo, Embudo [8:78]. 
[8:74] Black Mesa near San Juan, see 1 13 : 1 1. 

|8:7.".| il) San Juan Posaj&iiDi •when' the water bubbles or boils' 
(/"-•water": mje 'to boil' 'to bubble'; '<'//-, locative). This name 

refers to the water bubbling over the rocks at the uth of 

Embudo Canyon |8:'U |. 

(2) PoJe'impohtip'owiii 'projecting points at the mouth of 
[8:64]' I /" • 'impohu'u, see |8:t'.i |; p\ .//•/.// ' projecting point at 
mouth ' ■ p'o "hole" • mouth of canyon. ' wiii ' project Lng corner or 
point '). 

i . /' tog^impohup'owhii 'projecting point at mouth of 
[8:64]' {Po8og.e 'impohu'u, see [8:64]; p'owtJi 'projecting point 

at uth' • /'"•hole" 'mouth of canyon', wiii 'projecting corner 

or i oint'). 

1 4) Pembvuu'impohup'awiui 'projecting points at the mouth 
of [8:o4]' { !_)■ mb'Tu' imjx'/m' n. see [8:64]; P'owiii 'projecting 
point at mouth' • p'o 'hole' 'mouth of canyon', witi ' projecting 
point or corner'). 

5) Eng. Embudo Canyon mouth. (• span.). Span. (6). 

(6) Span. Boca del (anon del Embudo'mouth of funnel can 
yon". = Eng. 
|8:7ti| San Juan Kvbewikwaji ■roundish rock height' (Jcu 'stone' 
'rock'; bewi ' smallness and roundishness' 'small and roundish'; 
Icwajt 'height'). The mesa probably gets this name from its 

roundish appearance. 

Tli is high mesa separates |8:7'.'| from [9:3]. It- southernmost 

part rises just north of La Joya corner [9:5]. Kufyewikwajt is 

about the same height as Canoe Mesa |8:7I|. It miaj be the 

"Table Mountain" of Borne Americans. 

|8:77| (I) Picuris "Paots ( 'the mouth of Embudo ('reck'".' 

(2) Eng. Rinconada, l Span.). Span. (3). 

(8) Span. Rinconada 'corner'. Eng. (2). A. Tewa translation 
of Rinconada would be 'Akombtfu ^ahoyf ' plain ' ; \\Cu 'large 
low roundish corner'), but the Tewa use the Span, name only. 

The low land about the mouth of Embudo Creek [8:79] is called 
Rinconada. 



190 ETHNOGEOGBAPHY OF THE IF.W.V INDIANS [ete. ANN. 29 

8:7- i.i Eng. Dixon settlement. This is at present the official 
name. 

(2) Old Embudo. Embudo. (<Span.). = Span. (4). 
Span. Dixon. (<Eng.). =Eng. (1). 

(4) Span. Embudo Viejo, Embudo 'old funnel" 'funnel'. 
=Eng. (2). This name refers to Embudo Canyon [8:64]. 

Before the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad was built, this was 
the only settlement called by the name of Embudo. The naming 
of the station [8:73] Embudo caused confusion and led to the 
final adoption of Dixon as the name of the old Embudo settlement. 
" Embudo is a small Mexican town five miles from the railroad 
station of the same name"'. 1 
[8:7'.»] (1) .San Juan. 7" ■ ' Rydberg's cottonwood 

water or narrow-leaved cottonwood water' {TenfSL Tewa nameof 
both Rydberg's cottonwood (Populus acuminata) and the narrow- 
leaved cottonwood (Populus angustifolia); '-" locative and 
adjective-forming postfix; po "water" •creek" 'river'). 

(2) DembiUupo, [> W "Embudo water' \J), n.bu.iu 
<Span. Embudo. cf. |8:f>4]: '/"''" locative and adjective-forming 
postfix; po 'water' "creek" 'river'). 

(3) Eng. Embudo Creek. (<Span.). = Span. (4). 

1) Span. Rio Embudo, Rito Embudo "funnel river' "funnel 
creek", referring to |8:7 v | and [8:ti4j. "Rio del Embudo." 1 

Embudo Creek is formed by the joining of Pueblo Creek [8:Sti] 
and Pefiasco Creek [8:85]. '"One of these brooks is the Rio del 
Pueblo; the other the Rio del Pefiasco, and they unite at a dis- 
tance of a mile below the pueblo of Picuries to form the Kio del 
Embudo, and thus become tributary to the Rio Grande." 1 
[8:80] (1) Eng. Trampas Creek. (<Span.). = Span. (2) 

(2) Rio de las Trampas "trap river". =Eng. (1). For the 
name cf. Trampas settlement [22:4J. ("_'). No Tewa name for this 
creek has been found. 
[8:81] (1) Eng. Ojo Zarco springs and settlement. (<Span.). 
=Span. (2). 
(2) Span. Ojo Zarco 'light blue spring'. = Eng. (1). 
"At Ojo Sarco on the Rio Grande, north of Santa Barbara 
Si'. 1 '.']. Taos County, is a fine group of mineral springs.'" - 
[8:82] (1) Eng. Ojo Zarco Creek. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Rito del Ojo Zarco "creek of the light-blue spring". 
referring to [8:81]. = Eng. ( 1 ). 
[8:83] (.1) Eng. Chamizal settlement. (<Span.). -Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Chamizal. adjective form of Chamizo. an unidentified 
shrub common in the Tewa country. = Eng. (1). 
Cf. [8:84]. 

1 Dal Report, pt. II, p. 85, note, 1S92. ' Land of Sunshine, p. 173, 1906. 



IIAKIUV p] \, ]<|[ 

[8:84] (1) Eng. Chamizal Creek. (<Span.). Span. (2). 
Span. Rito < lhamizal. 
Cf. chamizal settlement [8:83]. 
[8:V>| I 1 ) Picuris "Tuikwepapama ' river on the other Bide', oame of 
the Penasco River". 1 

(2) Eng. Penasco Creek. ( Span.). = Span. (4). 

(3) Eng. Lucia Creek. (<Span.). = Span. (5). 

(4) Span, liit > del Penasco, l;it<> del Pi river or 
creek 5 'rocky cliff river or creek'. Eng. (2). "Rio del 
Penasco". Penasco \ allej ". 

Span. Rio Lucia, Rito Lucia 'Lucj River or Creek'. =Eng. 
Why this name is applied was not ascertained. 
■■ From these two mountains | [9:4], [9:13], [22:9], [22:13] | de 
scend two streamlets, which run almost directly to the west, 
parallel \\ith each other, for many miles, divided by wooded 
ridges <'t' small width. < me of these brooks is the Rio del Pueblo 
[8:86]; the other the Rio del Penasco [8:85], and they unite at a 
distance "t a mile below the pueblo <>!' Picuries to form the Rio del 
Embudo [8:7'.'J. and thus become tributary to the Hi" Grande". 3 
The present writer has not been able t<> learn any Tewa name for 
Penasco < Ireek. 
( !f. Pefiasco settlement [8:98]. 
1 8 .^<; | (1) Picuris "Teupopapama 'Pueblo canyon and Pueblo river 
near Picuris pueblo'." ' 

2) Picuris " Telpupapama* ' whole Pueblo river above Picuris 5 
(telpapa - ' abo\ e 5 ; pam/i ' river')". ' 
(:;) Picuris "T6nopahdkuil 'Pueblo river below the canyon'". 1 
Eng. Pueblo Creek, Pueblo River. (■ Span.). Span. (6). 
(.">) Eng. Picuris Creek, Picuris River. Span. (7). 

(6) Span. Rio del Pueblo, Rito del Pueblo, 'pueblo river', rcfor- 
ring to Picuris Pueblo [8:88]. Eng. (4). "Rio del Pueblo". 3 

(7) Span. Riode Picuris, Rito do l'inu-U. I-'.n^. (.">i. 
Budd's Taos " P&'tulshenaya 'Pueblo Canyon"" presumably 

refei - to Pueblo < !anyon |8:4::| above Taos Pueblo. 

Ii is understood that the canyon extends from the vicinitj of 
Picuris Pueblo upward to tin- mountains. A short distance above 
Picuris Pueblo there was formerly a sacred rock in tin- middle of 
the stream, which had an ancient sun painting on it- surface. In 
spite of the protest of the Picuris Indians this rock was blasted 
away a couple of years ago bj the employees of a lumber com 

pany. See excerpt fr Bandelier, under [8:85]. 

[8:>n7| Confluence of Pueblo Creek [8:86] and PeSasco <'n-cl< |8:v">] 
about "in- mih' in-low Picuris Pueblo [8:^|. 

* i - int. 



192 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

[8:88] (1) l'[ij)i-i'i>ijii-[ 'mountain-gap pueblo' (p'ujf 'mountain'; wPi 
'gap' 'pass'; 'qytri 'pueblo'). The form with no other word 
postpounded is PiywiH. 'Picuris person' is regularly enough 
J'ijji/-/"/"'-, 'Picuris people', PiywCiyf (P', 'iijf locative and 
adjective-forming postfix). = Jemez (8). Ping-gwi' 'gateway 
of the mountains' 'V Picuris can hardly be said to be situated in 
a gap in the mountains, and why the Tewa and Jemez names and 
perhaps some of the unexplained names should mean 'mountain 
gap' has not been made clear. Cf. Tawi'i 'dwell gap', the Tewa 
name for Taos Pueblo [8:43]. 

(2) Taos "Wilana." 2 = Picuris (4). 

(3) Taos "Hiututa." 3 

(4) Picuris: s ' Picuries, the aboriginal names of which are both 
Ualana and Ping-ul-tha." 4 "Picuries, Palana, also Ping-ul-tha." 5 
"We-la-tah." 6 = Taos (2). Cf. [8:45], (8). 

(5) Picuris: "Pinuclta". 1 "Pi n weltha 'Picuris Pueblo."" 
" Pi"welene 'Picuris people."' 7 

(6) Sandia ''Sam-nan." 1 Cf. Isleta (7). This is apparently a 
plural form and may mean 'Picuris people.' 

(7) Isleta "Sam-na'i"; 1 cf. Sandia (6). 

(8) Jemez Pekwiletd 'at the mountain gap' {pe 'mountain'; 
hwile 'gap' 'pass": td locative). =Tewa (1). " Pe"kwilit:V." ' 
A Picuris person is called Pekwilt : two or more Picuris people 
are called Pekwilef. One also says, for instance, Pehwilebda 
' Picuris old man' (ield ' old man"). PekwilePsffaf ' Picuris people' 
(istfaf 'people'). Pe is cognate with Tewa pijjf 'mountain'; hai- 
ls cognate with Tewa wfi 'gap.' 

(9) Jemez Ota of obscure etymology. Otats&'&f means 
' Picuris people ' (FsiTaf ' people '). This name was obtained from 
one Jemez Indian only. If it is correct, it may be that Onate's 
" Acha" (Span. (17), below) is a corruption of this name. 

(10) Pecos "Pe"kwilita'.''' This is given as the Jemez and 
Pecos name. 

(11) Cochiti Pihuri. The informant volunteered the informa- 
tion that this is merely the Span, name pronounced as it is by 
Cochiti Indians. In New Mexican Span, the final s is usually 
faint or has disappeared altogether. Mexicans commonly say 
Pikuri for the written form Picuris. =Sia (12), Keresan (13), 
Eng. (15), and Span. (16). 

'Hodge, Held notes, Bur. Amer. Ethn.. 1895 > Ibid., p. 260. 
(Handbook [nds., pt. 2, p. 245, 1910). »Jouvenceau in Catholic Pioneer, I, No. 9, p. I-', 

■ [bid., 1899 (Handbook Inds.,op. cit.,p. 246 1906. 

»Spinden, Taos notes, MS., L910. 'Spinden, Picuris notes, MS., 1910. 

' Bandelier, Final Report, pt. I, p. 123, 1890. 



ion] PLAC! NAMES 1<I3 

(12) Sia "Pikurfs." 1 Probably From bhe Span. Cochiti 
(lb. Keresan ( L8), Eng. ( L5), and Span. | L6). 

(13) Keresan (dialect not stated) "Plkuri'a" 2 . "Picuriafrora 

. its keresan Dame." 3 It seems probable that tlii- is 
merely the Span, name as pronounced b] Keresan Indian-. 
Cochiti Mi). Sia (12), Eng. (15), and Span. (16). 
ili) Jicarilla Apache "T6k'ele\" 

(15) Eng. Picuris. (<Span.). Cochiti (11), Sia (12), Keresan 
(13), Span. (16). 

(16) Span. Picnris (of unknown origin). "Picuries." 4 
Buenaventura." 5 "Pecuri."' "San Lorenzo de 1<>- Pecuries."' 
"Pecuries."" "S. Lorenzo de Picuries."' "Si. Lawrence." 10 
••>. Lorenzo de los Picuries." " "Pecari." 12 " San Lorenzo de 
Picuries."" "Pecucio."" "Pecucis." 15 "Pecuris."" "Pica- 
ri>." 17 "Pecora.""* " PicorU." ri "Vicuris." 20 "SanLorenzo 
de Pecuries." 21 "Pic'ux." 251 "Picuni." 28 "Ticori." 24 "Picto 
ri-." "S. Lorenzo." 2 "Picuri." 27 "Picuria." 28 "Piccu- 
ries." 2 " '"San Lorenzo de los Picuries." 80 "Levillage desPicu- 
ris." 21 "Picuri 

(17) Span. "Acha." "Acha" is identified with Picuris by 
Bandolier. It may lie a corruption of Jemez Ota; see Jemez 

above. Or it may come from a Pecos form cognate with 

.i /. Ota. 

Picuris Pueblo stands <>n the north side of Pueblo Creek 
8:86] about a mile above the confluence of the latter with Pe 
fiasco Creek [8:^.">|. Bandolier says of Picuris: "At the time of 
the firs! occupation of New Mexico, Picuries formed a considera- 

1911. • p., p. 212, 

■ Ethn., l^'.r, ia r >0. 

(Handbook tads., pt. .'. p. 245, 1910 . un, Ibid., p. 211. 

• Bodge, Ibid., i =» Lane 

I ,XTI,pp.l09,2 

"II 
i Vetani 

III, Children ol the sun. p, 12] 

III-: ' 

ii. p 206, 1892. 

i map, DC, p. • ■ 

87684 -'• Id 



194 ETHNOGEOGBAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [ETH. ANN. 29 

hie village; to-day it is reduced to a mere hamlet.' 11 A San Juan 
informant says that the principal shrine of the Picuris Indians is 
on top of Jicarita Mountain [22:9]. An old scalp-house (Tewa 
poVowate 'head-skin house") is still to be seen in the plaza of 
Picuris. Scalps are hanging in this house in plain sight of all 
who enter. 

[8:89] The "Old Castle," presumably called in Span. Castillo Viejo. 
This ruin stands just north of the pueblo. Dr. H. J. Spinden 2 
furnishes the following information about it. "There are still 
several houses at Picuris which show pre-Spanish construction. 
The best example is the 'old castle' on a mound back of the 
pueblo. It is said to have been five stories high. It is now 
three, but is in an advanced stage of decay. There are still two 
perfect rooms, which are sealed up and which contain some 
sacred meal. There is a shrine on the mound of the ' old castle.' 
On it a fetish of clay representing an animal, a piece of an old 
tube pipe, and four small stones, one of them a piece of obsidian, 
were to be seen." 

[8:90] (1) J'iji' r 'P'Jj.f 'mountain-gap mountains' (I'iijiri'i, see [8:88]; 
f'i'j.f ' mountain '). 

(2) Picuris " Pi n ene — the Picuris mountains are called thus; 
also any range of mountains is called thus." 2 

(3) Eng. Picuris Mountains. =Span. (4). 

(4) Span. Sierra de Picuris ' mountains of [8:88]', q. v. = Eng. (3). 
"The dark mountains of Picuries divide the ruins in the Taos 

country from those to which the traditions of the Picuries are 
attached". 3 "There is a trail leading from Taos to Picuries, but 
I preferred the wagon road as more commodious and as furnish- 
ing a better view of the eastern high chain. This road sur- 
mounts the crests of the Sierra de Picuries by going directly 
south from the Ranchos de Taos [8:58] for some distance. It 
follows at first a pleasant valley and a lively rivulet, and then 
penetrates into forests of pine on the northern slopes of the 
Picuries chain. These wooded solitudes afforded no room for the 
abode of man in ancient times. The modern traveller delights in 
their refreshing shade, and notices with interest the animal life 
that tills the thickets. The jet-black and snow-white magpie 
[Tewa kir,r,i\ flutters about; blue jays [Tewa se\ appear, and 
variegated woodpeckers. It is so different from the arid mesas 
and barren mountains that we forget the painful steepness of the 
road. Its general direction is now to the southwest. Once on 

'Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n, p. 35, 1892. 'Bandelier, op. tit., p. 33. 

- Pieuris notes, MS., 1910. 



- ton] i 1 \> i K - 1 95 

the southern slope of the Picuries range, we Btrike directly for 
tlir west . . . t ho abrupt Sierra de Picuries, againsl which the 
pueblo leans on the south, is covered with statelj forests". 1 

[8:91] Eng. United States Peak. 

Wheeler' gives the heighi as 10,734 feet. It appears to be the 
highest peak of the Picuris Mountains [ 8 :-*< » J. 

[8:92] The old trail between Taos and Picuris. 

Bandolier 9 evidently mentions this trail: "There is a trail 
Leading from Taos to Picuries". Mr. Spinden 4 gives this infor- 
mation: "This trail goes over LI, 000 feet high; some people can 
not stand it. Theroad attain- a height of over L0,000 feet." 

[8:93] Picuris "Matsoita, meaning 'muj fragoso' 'very rough'". * 

[8:94] Picuris " Poiketha". 4 

8:95] Picuris "Kaket'h6a, 'the old pueblo'". 6 Whether this name 
means old pueblo in general or is the proper name of this ruin is 
not clear. 

Dr. Spinden furnishes the following native description: "The 
old jmelilo i- on the ridge between Pueblo and Penasco Rivers. 
This old pueblo was established after the flood. It continued to 
increase until Cortes came. The people of this pueblo wen! to 
the east But five families went west to California. Most of 
the Indian- of this puelilo went to Red River [8:11*] and founded 
a new pueblo close to a very high mountain. It was a very lone' 
time ago when they were last heard of. There are old remain- on 
top of a flat ridge between Rio Pueblo and Rio Penasco about 1 
mile below Smith's -tore. Bowlder foundations extend over a 
large area. Potterj fragments are common. It is black and 

white painted pottery with geometric designs. A comm le- 

ment i- standing triangles with parallel Lines. Also incised black 
pottery wa- found. The incisions are horizontal lines a quarter 

to half an inch apart. Also a few samples of corrugated ware 

were picked up. Remains of small grinding stones were fairly 
common." 
[8:96] Picuris "Quta, lower bench of the tongue of land between 

Pueblo < 'reek and l'efia-co ( 'reek".' 

" I- rom these two mountains |22:'.'| [22:13] descend two -treain 

Lets, which run almost directly to the west, parallel with each 
other, for many miles, divided by wooded ridges of small width".' 

iN.n- ..[ noUu ! northern 

(few M.-x 



196 F.THXOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. axx. L'9 

[8:97] Picuris "We n to n ta, 'high hill", upper bench of the tongue of 
land between Pueblo Creek and Penasco Creek". 1 See quotation 
from Bandelier under [8:96]. 
[8:98] (1) Eng. Penasco settlement. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 
(2) Span. Penasco, 'rock' 'rocky cliff'. = Eng. (1). 
Cf. Penasco Creek [8: 85]. Whether there is a rocky cliff in the 
vicinity is not known to the writer. 

"" Penasco, about 2^ miles southeast of Picuries, is higher than 
Taos [8:54], while Embudo [8:7>J is more than a thousand feet 
lower". 2 
[8:99] (1) Eng. Santa Barbara settlement. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 
(2) Span. Santa Barbara. 'Saint Barbara". =Eng. (1). 
Cf. "•Sierra de Santa Barbara"* under [22:unlocated], page 355. 
[8:100] (I) Eng. Junta Creek. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Rito de la Junta, 'confluence creek'. =Eng. (1). 



" Bear Mountains." The Taos informant said there are certain moun- 
tains south of Taos Pueblo which the Taos call by a name in their 
language which means "bear mountains.' 

Picuris •' Ktl'pama, 'eye of a bear,' the name of a canyon.** 1 

Picuris •• Kalene Creek; Kalene means "here sits a wolf.'" ' 

Taos '•Ili'utiUt'a. 'a ruined pueblo on Bed River.'" 

Pueblo ruin in the Taos Mountains. "The ruins of the Taos people 
are to be sought along the base of its high mountains. One of 
them, to which I was told they gave the name of Mojua-lu-na, or 
Mojual-ua, is said to exist in the mountains.*" 4 See Pueblo 
Peak [8:10]. 

Picuris "Quorna, a mountain of the Picuris range north-northeast of 
the Government school-house at Picuris pueblo."' ' 

(1) Eng. Sora settlement. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Sora. =Eng. (1). The Span, dictionaries give "sora, a 
kind of drink prepared from maize." Or for Span. Zona. ' fox'? 
A "Mexican town on Petaca Creek [8:5] somewhere above 
Petaca settlement [8:7]. 

Taos "Tu'Tuia 'Plaza Rota, in Bio Hondo.""' Rio Hondo refers 
perhaps to Arroyo Hondo [8:32]. A Span, dictionary gives 
••rota" as meaning "route" and 'rattan.' 

'Spinden, Picuris notes, Ms., 1910. 

r.Final Report, pt. n, p, 35, note, 1892. Wheeler gives the altitude of Penascoas 
nver and Rio Grande Railway gives the height of Embudo as o.suii ieet. 

abulary, iu Bur. Aruer. Ethn. 
i . op. (it., i>. :■<-. 



MAP 9 
VELARDE REGION 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 




TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT MAP 9 




MAP 9 
VELARDE REGION 



HAEEINGTON] I'l.U I .N \ 197 

Qnlocated pueblo ruin near Picuris Pueblo. "The ruins of a pueblo 

exist on one of the mesas near by, but I had ao time to investi- 

> them, and have only seen man} fragments of potter] ami of 

grinding-slabs from that locality." 1 Perhaps identical with 

[8:95]. 
Cnlocated sulphur springs. "Five miles south of Taos . . . are 

sulphur springs of rare medicinal value."'- Perhaps identical 

with [8:61]. 
Qnlocated sulphur springs. "Between Penasco |8::»>| and Mora 

[Mora in Mora County, not on any of the accompanying maps] 

on the Kio Pueblo [8:86], are sulphur springs of rare medicinal 

value." 

[9 J VELARDE SHEET 

All the region shown on this sheel (map 9) is claimed by the Tew a 
of San Juan. Three Tewa pueblo ruins are included. The sheet is 
named from Velarde [9:6], which is perhaps the most widely known 
settlement. 

|9:1 | Canoe Mesa, see [18:1]. 

[9:2] San Juan Kit$ewekicaj(! : Bee |8:7f>|. 

[9:3] San Juan Johu'u 'cane cactus arroyo' (jo 'cane cactus' 'Opun- 
tia arbor escens'; hutu 'large groove 5 'arroyo'). 

[9:4 j (1) San Juan Kop % ebJ> 'boat corner" ' bridge corner*, referring 
to the Span, name!/"//- "boat" 'bridge' <ko unexplained,^ 
• stick" 'log'; be '< small low roundish place). Cf. Span. (4). 

(2) Eng. Brady. This name, now the official one, wasgiven 
to the place several years ago and is in common use. 

(3) Eng. Canoa. (--Span.). Span. (4). ('(. Tewa (1). 
3pan. Canoa, •canoe' 'boat'. The name is perhaps taken 

from < lanoe Mesa [9:1 |. Eng. (3). < f . Tewa (1). 
[9:5] (I) San Juan Tsig&bu'v, 'chico corner' {fsig.il, an unidentified bush 
very common in New Mexico, called h\ the .Mexican-- of the 
Tewa country chico: bv?<u 'large low roundish place'), 
is much chico erou ing at this place. 
Picuris "Phahu'tena, 'hole in the ground.'" 4 Perhaps a 

translation of the Span. name. Span. 1 1 i. 

Eng. La Boya, La Joya. i :Span. i. Span. I 1 1. < T. 
Picuris 

tli Span. La Hoya, New Mexican Span. La Joya, 'the dell' 
'thehollow.' Eng. (3). Cf. Picuris (2). The Span, name is still 
in common use as a designation of the whole locality. It was 

> II. I.! 
■ Ijiii.I 



198 ETHNOGEOGBAPHY OF THE TEW A INDIANS [ETH. ira. 29 

formerly also used as the name of the settlement [9:6], which was 
recently changed from La Hoya to Velarde because of confusion 
with La Hoya on the Kio Grande below Albuquerque. In New 
.Mexican Span, words beginning with a vowel or l are frequently 
pronounced with an initial ;'. Hence the current misspelling " La 
Joya" for La Hoya. Hoya is a much applied geographical term 
in New Mexican Span., being the nearest Span, equivalent of 
Tewa bu'u, &-"<. '"La Joya (ten miles north of San Juan)"'. 1 

[9:6] (1) Eng. Velarde settlement. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 
(2) Span. Velarde (family name). =Eng. (1). 
This place was formerly called La Hoya settlement: see [9:5]. 
Because of confusion with La Hoya on the Kio Grande south of 
Albuquerque the name of the post office was recently changed 
to Velarde, this being tiow the official name and adopted by 
Mexicans living in the vicinity. The name Velarde was chosen 
because of a prominent Mexican family named Velarde, which 
resides at the place. 

[9:7] (1) San Juan Kutfijttoku 'Cuchilla Hill' {Kutfija <Span. (2); 
'.,],■„ 'hill'). Cf. Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Cuchilla, "narrow sharp ridge". Cf. Tewa (1). 
The bladelike point of [9:8] is called by this name Some apply 
the name vaguely to the whole hill. See [9:8]. 

[9:sJ San Juan Tsig.ubug.e'impiyj' 'chico corner mountain', refer- 
ring to [9:5] (Tsig.ubu'u, see [9:5]: ge "down at' 'over at": \" 
locative and adjective-forming postfix; piij.f 'mountain'). This 
hill or mountain is perhaps sometimes called by the same names 
a- 1 9:7]. Perhaps the Mexicans would call it Cerro de La Hoya, 
but such a name might refer to any mountain or large hill near 
La Hoya, while the Tewa name given above does not. 

[9:9] (1) San Juan ' <>u,;<_ //.-/(." ijjj /m'u •crooked chin place arroyo' 
C <>n,;iij'j<:, see [22:unlocated]; '/"'locative and adjective-forming 
postfix;/^/'" ' large groove ' •arroyo'). 

(2) Eng. Truchas Creek. (<Span.). = Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Rito de las Truchas, "trout creek. 1 Probably so called 
from the presence of trout therein; but cf. Truchas settlement 
[22:11], which is probably named from the creek, although the 
reverse may be true. 

This long creek has perennial water only in its upper course. 
See 'Omq ij'je. [22:unlocated], and Truchas settlement [22:1 1]. 
[9:10] San Juan 'Omffijqehug.elJba 'cliffs at crooked chin place arroyo' 
{Omuij'jiji'i' '" , see [9:9]; ge 'down at' 'over at'; toia 'cliff'). 

These very noticeable cliffs are on the north side of the creek 
[9:9] about two miles from the Rio Grande. 

iBandelicr, Final Report, pt. n, pp. 63-64, 1S92. 



BABlUfOTOW] Pl.At I (TAMES 199 

[9:11] San Joan Euso'joimhu'&e hem '0m% ygzhugt' i')f '"?''" 'hills of 
|9:!») and [9:12]' (Eusd'jmoihu , u, Bee [9:12]; </- ■down at' 'overat'; 
h..i,i',i 'and'; ' Om&ygGhu'ii, see [9:9]; "'" locative and adjective 
forming |><>-ui\: '<</•" 'hill'). 

[9:li'] San Joan Kuso'jowihtfv. 'great rock gap arroyo ' (E scfjowPi, 
see [9:l."'|: A«'« ' large groove ' 'arroyo'). 

[9:13] San Joan Jag.am4 , oku of obscure etymology {jage 'between'; 
//,■! anexplained; 'ol u 'hill'). 

[9:14] San Juan KuscPjo 'great stone' (kn "stone'; so'jo 'great', form 
agreeing with ku, mineral singular). 

This stone is whal remains of the woman who fed the water- 
man according to the mytb related under [10:26]. Fleeing from 
' i //,.',, I r r[l-,j', [10:26] over the old trail to Picuris, she reached the 
site of this -tone, where she became petrified as she lay down on 
the ground to rest. The stone lies on a little heighl about a dozen 
yards east of Kxiso'jovrv'i [9:1."' | through which the old trail to 
Picuris passes. It is a hard grayish-white stone, about the size 
of a person. The Length is live feet, it- diameter averages about a 
foot and a half. It- surface is smooth and roundish. The stone 
lies north-northwest and south-southeast. The head end, which 
is to the south-southeast, is slightly higher than the other end. 
Arms, breasts, and other features (female) are dearly to he made 

out. a- the old Indian informant showed the writer. The -tone 

would weigh a thousand pounds, perhaps. Some small fragments 
of -tone lie on the ground just southwest of the stone. These are 

-aid to he what remain- of two ear- of coin which the old woman 

had with her a- provisions during her flight. This stone is a k'aje, 
or sacred thing. A wagon road passes a few rods east of the spot. 
Mexicans fcrai el on this road, know ing nothing of the existence of 

the old woman. The -tone ha- given name- to [9:1"J], [9:15], and 
[9:16]. 
|9:1.".| San Juan Kwo'jowVi 'great -tone trap." referring to the Kuso'jo 
|9:14| {wVi 'gap' 'pass'). 

The old trail to Picuris passes through this gap. The trail is 
deeply worn in the gap. The petrified old woman lie- mar by, 
to t he east. 
[9:16] San Juan A tjo'ohu 'great -tone hill.-", referring to the 
" (see [9:1 1 1; 'ol u "hills'). 

[9:17 1 Juthfo • lie trad' (Jul,, 'Ute'; />" "trail'). 

This i- the old and -till well-worn trail to the I'te Indian 

country. It climbs Canoe Mesa |9:i| opposite the pueblo ruin 
[9:28], passing up the Jiithfxj'iyshu'ti [9:l>|. It crosses Canoe 
Mesa [9:1], going toward the north, and Comanche Creek [6:12] 
at a place not determined, and passes thence to the country where 
the I te foi merlj ranged. 



200 ETHNOGEOGBAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth.ann.29 

[9:18] San Juan Jtitiipo'iijfhit'n ' Vte trail arroyo' (Jutapo, see 
[9:17]; 'i H locative and adjective-forming postfix; hiCu 'large 
groove' 'arroyo'). See [9:17]. 

[9:19] (1) Eng. Lyden station. 

(2) Span. Bosque, 'forest', the Span, name referring to the 
locality both west and cast of the Rio Grande. See [9:20]. 

[9:20] (1) San Juan Boke. (<Span.). = Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Bosque. (<Span.). = Tewa (1). Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Bosque, 'forest.' =Tewa (1), Eng. (2). 

This name is applied to the locality on both sides of the river, 
including Lyden, which is on the west side. The name Lyden 
seems never to be applied to the settlement on the cast side of the 
river, which is always called Bosque. See [9:21]. 
[9:21] San Juan Bokep K eTcahv)u 'Bosque corral corner' {Boke. see 
[9:20]; pek'a 'corral' <p e 'stick' 'timber', I'a 'fence' 'en- 
closure': bu'n "large low roundish place'). 
[9:22] San Juan Ss^juhiUv. 'corn-silk arroyo", referring to [9:2-';] 
I S%fu, see [9:23]; hn'a 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

This is a large arroyo. 
[9:23] San Juan Ssgfv? orywikeji 'corn-silk pueblo ruin' (■■<:, fn "corn- 
silk' < sse 'corn-silk', fu perhaps connected with fy, 'to fly": 
'<V)"'V''ji 'pueblo ruin" <'oijiri "pueblo", keji 'ruin' postpound). 

' ' They [the Tewa of San Juan] also state that there are two ruins 
at La Joya [9:5], (ten miles north of San Juan), one of which 
they call' Sa-jiu L'ing-ge', and the other 'Pho-jiu Uing-ge'." 1 
"Poihuge (maison da clan de 1'eau), et Saihuge (maison du clan 
du tabac) a dix milles au nord des villages actuels sur le lnciiie 
cote de la riviere." : 

The ruin consists of low mounds on a low bluff beside the river. 
Potsherds and other debris are strewn along the edge of the bluff 
for a distance of 200 yards or more. The ruin is being eroded 
by the river, and much of it is already gone. An irrigation ditch 
run- at present at the foot of the bluff between the bluff and the 
water of the river. The sandy island [9:21] is opposite the ruin. 
[9:24| (1) San Juan Bokepojaut 'Bosque Island' (Boke, see [9:20]; 
pojcUe 'island' <po ' water , ,jaJ't 'in the middle of 'in'). 

(2) San Juan Ssefupcyckk 'corn-silk island' (Ss^fu, see [9:23]- 
pojcuu 'island' <po 'water', jcUt 'in the middle of ' 'in'). 

This is a large, low sandy island opposite the ruin [9:2.".]. 
[9:25] San Juan Sirfubu'u "corn-silk corner' (S'se./u, see [9:23]; 6«'w 
' large low roundish place'). 

This is a little dell beside the river just below [9:23]. A small 
arroyo which has its mouth here might be called Siefubuhv?v. 
' arroyo'). 

' Bandelier, Final Report, pt. II, pp. 63 64, 1892 
- IKwttt, Communautes, p. 30, 1908. 



H.viiKiv ri.At i names 201 

[9:26] Nameless arroyo. The San Juan informant could not remem- 
ber its name. 

19:l'7J Nameless pueblo ruin. 

Many fragments of Indian pottery are strew n be re on the ground. 
Pari of a wall composed of adobe bricks was found at the place. 
The site is an open plain. Ii is not certain thai this is the rum 
of an [ndian pueblo. The San Juan informant could not remem 
her the bame of this ruin. but said that he bad heard the name of 
either this or another ruin somewhere in this vicinity. It may 
be that this i- PopoWQtfwi&epi; see under [9:unlocated], Mr. 
Juan de Dios Romero, whose home is in this region, told the 
writer that he knows of Mexicans finding Indian metates at a 
place not far from tin- river and about midway between |9:i'T] 
and [9:34]. There used t<> be two Mexican houses at the place 
where the nictates hito found, hut uobodj lives there now. 

[9:28] Farmhouse of Mr. Felipe Lopez, given in order to locate 
[9:27]. 

|9:i".'| Farmhouse of Mr. Manuel Martinez, given in order to locate 
[9:27]. 

[9s;oJ San Juan y.-e - Jeq ' barranca of Avanu dwelling-place 

eoiner'. referring to [9:31 \(Jrdb§ » t utebu'u,aee [9:31]; '<"' locative 
and adjective-forming postfix; hq 'barranca 1 'arroyo with a 
noticeable hank"). 
This gulch nm.- straight back from Alcalde station. 

f 9 : - ". 1 j ll) San Juan / . 'Avanu dwelling-place corner', 

referring to the pool [9::',-_'l (I'ofrrnfute, Bee [9:32]; &i*'m 'large 
low roundish place'). 

(2) Kni:'. Alcalde station. ( Span.). Span. 

•span. Alcalde 'magistrate 9 'judge'. =Eng. (_)■ This 
name was recently given and properlj belongs to Alcalde settle- 
ment [10:15] on the ea-i side of i he river. 
There are a station and windmill at [9:31]. 

[9::;i'| San Juan F084 n 1 ut* . Pobq ,, , ui, j,,,/. w\ ' \ \ afin dwelling place' 
A 1 aim dwelling place pool' (Pol Juan form of the San 

Udefonso 'Abanfu 'horned-snake divinity', probably < /«< 
•water'. r ,,, , „ 'snake'; U 'dwelling place K ,Pokw\ 'pool' 'lake' 
< fin "water'. hw\ unexplained). 

West of the station and windmill and by the river's edge is a 
depression a- la pan of horses, where water may collect. 

This was believed by the Tewa of San Juan to be one of the 
dwelling-placet of '. Han 1 u ' horned-snake dn initj '. 

[9:-".:;| San Juan Sii,i,l,iii/i . k'aw\ ,, , 'akonnu "plain of the corral of 
the soldiers' (Sy,n4a B P*\ locative and adjec 

ti\e forming postfix; 'akonnu "plain' • , akqnj "plain', nu unes 
plained). 
This is a w ide, h\ el, barren plain'. 



202 ETHXOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ass. 20 

[9:34] (1) San Juan Sy,n4aup K eFa , iwe 'at the corral of the soldiers', 
translating the Span. name. =Eng. (•_'). Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Corral of the Soldiers, translating the Span, name, 
Corral de Los Soldados. =Tewa (1), Span. (3). 

(3) Corral de los Soldados, 'corral of the soldiers'. = Tewa 
(1), Eng. (2). Cf. [9:33]. [9:36], [9:37]. 

Some American soldiers had their barracks at this place at 
some time or other, when, the informants did not know; hence 
the name. This place is about a mile below Bosque [9:20]. 
[9:35] (1) Eng. Los Luceros settlement. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 
(_') Span. Los Luceros (a family name). =Eng. (1). 
The northernmost houses of Los Luceros are at [9:34]; the 
most southerly are at |9:4I |. 
[9:36] San Juan Sundd'hp'ek'abu'u 'corner by the corral of the sol- 
diers ' ( Stj„,],n,ji', //n, see [9:34]; iu'u Marge low roundish place ' i. 
This name refers to the low place by the river about and below 
the mouth of [9:37]. The mesa almost merges into the bottom- 
lands here, so slight is its elevation. 
[9:37] San Juan Sy,ndaup'ek'd'iyJcQhu''u 'barranca arroyo of the 
corral of the soldiers ' (Sy,ndaup'eFa,see [9:34]; '/''locative and 
adjective-forming postfix: kohii?u 'barranca arroyo' <]cq 'bar- 
ranca', Im't! 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 
To this large arroyo the spring [9:38] is tributary. 
[9:38] (I) San Juan Tsiguponu'u, Tsigfrponupopi 'down by the chico 
water' 'spring down by the chico water' (Tsig.it unidentified 
species of bush, called by the Mexicans of the Tewa country 
chico; po 'water'; nu'u 'below' •down at'; popi 'spring' <po 
' water,' pi ' to issue '). 

(2) Eng. Ballej os spring. (<Span.). =Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Ojo de los Vallejos, Barrancas de los Ballejos, 'Balle- 
jos Spring' 'Vallejos Barrancas' (Vallejos, Span, family name, 
name of a Mexican family which used to live near this place). 
= Eng. (2). 

This spring is the only water in the vicinity and is used for 
watering sheep. The place is almost due west of Alcalde station 
[9:31]. The old San Juan informant formerly spent much time 
herding sheep about this spring. When the spring did not have 
enough water, the sheep had to be driven down to the river to 
water them. The whole region south of Eusd'jo [9:14] is loosely 
called Tsig.iiponu'u. See [9:39], [9:40], [9:41], and [9:42]. 
[9:39] San Juan Tsig.uponug.e > i , %o : ba > e 'little cliffs or banks down by 
the chico water' (Tsig.'hponu , u, see [9:38]; £> "down at' 'over at'; 
'/"' locative and adjective-forming postfix; UJta 'cliff' 'bank'; '( 
diminutive). 

The spring and pool are surrounded on the north and east by 
peculiar little cliffs. 



HABBINGTON] IM \c i: NAMES 203 

(9:lo| Sun Juan Tsig.itPonugjii' { oku\ 'little Mil- down l>y the chico 
waii' i- ' i Tsig.iiponu'u, see [9:38]; g< 'down at' 'over at'; 'i H locative 
and adjective-forming postfix; 'ofeu 'hill'; '< diminutive). 
Southeasi of the spring and pool is a range of verj small hills. 

|9:41] San Juan Tsig.iiPomig.e'imfiokwi't ' little pool down bythe chico 
water' ( TsigMponu'u, see [9:38J; g.e 'down at' 'over at'-. '/'• loca- 
tive and adjective-forming postfix; pokwi 'pool' 'lake' <[><> 
'water', feci unexplained; '■ diminutive). 

This is a -mall round pool which drain- to the south. North- 
east and west of ii are small knoll- of bluish, pebbly earth. 
< i rass grows luxuriantly in a small patch south of the pool. The 
little arroyo [9:4_!| can be traced from the spring. 

[9:4:.'] San Juan Tsiguponu'g.e'iifkQ 'barranca down by the chico 
water' (Tsigiiponu'u, see [9:38]; #• 'down at' 'overat'; V' loca- 
tive and adjective-forming postfix; /<> 'barranca' 'banked 
arroyo '). Sec (9:41 1. 

|9:i:;[ San Juan /'V',.y. 'n^z-f /, /7 'pueblo ruin down at the wood- 
pecker place' (p'i'o 'woodpecker', Span. 'carpintero'; y- "down 
at " "overat': '<>//"•;/.;/ 'pueblo ruin' '«ijir{ 'pueblo', !>■• ]i 'ruin' 
postpound). The whole region about the ruins is called P^i'og.e. 
There are several names of animals compounded with g.e. Thus 
'/'.,,'./,, j, -down at the bird place' [17:34], for instance. " Pio-ge." ' 
•• Pioge." 

'The pueblo ruin lie- perhaps a hundred yards southeast of the 
farm of .Mi\ Esador Lopez. A wagon road runs between (his 
farm and the ruin. A ditch about 15 feet deep ha- been cut 
through the ruin from north to Bouth. This ditch was con- 
structed for irrigation purposes about Beven years ago, but owing 

to Gnancial difficulties of the company which due- it. the ditch 

ha- never been utilized. The pueblo was of adobe and the ruin 
consists of liiu mounds. Bandelier 1 says of I' !'<><j- : "Pio-ge, 
three miles north of San Juan. This i- smaller than Abiquiu [3:38]; 
hut the disposition of its buildings appear- to have been similar. 
I considerable pottery ha- been exhumed from Pio ge, and hand 
some specimens are in Mr. Bldodt'a possession. Among them 
are sacrificial bowls with the turreted rim i hat characterizes those 
vessels, and the symbolic paintings of the rain cloud-, of water 
snakes, and of the libella. Similar fetiches of alabaster have also 
been unearthed. Pio-ge i- claimed l>\ the Tebuas of San Juan as 

01 f their ancient \ il la'je-. and they a--eit that it wa- iikin. 

doned previous to Spanish time-." 

"Quatre endroits Bont bien connus des Indiens de San Juan 
pour a\ojr etc habited ancienneraent par quelques-uns de km, 

clan-: Pioge,* & troi- milles au d de San .luan." / ' . •"■■;/, ha- 

given the name to tin- small arroyo [9:44]. 



204 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [HTH. ANN. 29 

[9:44] San Juan P fogtiijlo 'barranca down at the woodpecker 

place' (P'i'og.e, see [9:43J: V' locative and adjective-forming 

postfix; hq ' barranca ' ' cleft arroyo ' ). 
[9:45] San Juan 'Awap Ubiru 'cattail corner' ( , awap*a 'cattail', 

unidentified species: bu'u 'large low roundish place'). This name. 

is applied to the low land by the river south of the vicinity of the 

mouth of [9:44] and north of the vicinity of the mouth of [10:0]. 

Cattails ('awap'a) were seen growing at the upper end of this area. 

The corner has given its name to [9:46] and to [10:6], 
|9:4*'>] San Juan 'Awap'akwaje 'cattail heights', referring to [9:45] 

('awap'a 'cattail', as in [9:45]; kwaje 'height'). This name 

refers to the higher land east of [9:45]. The ruin [9:43] is said to 

stand on 'awap akwaje. 

Unlocated 

A pueblo ruin mentioned by Bandolier as "Pho-jiu Uing-ge" 
and by Hewett as "Poihuge." 

" They [the Tewa of San Juan] also state that there are two ruins 
at La Joya (10 miles north of San Juan), one of which they call 
'Sa-jiu Uing-ge' [9:23], and the other 'Pho-jiu Uing-ge'." 3 
" Quatre endroits sont bien connus des Indiens de San Juan pour 
avoir e"te habites anciennement par quelques-uns de leurs clans . . . 
Poihuge (maison du clan de l'eau)." 2 No form like "Poihuge" 
can mean in Tewa l ' house of the water clan,'* and what is more 
perplexing no Tewa can make any meaning' out of "Pho-jiu." 
The writer labored with these forms persistently among the San 
Juan Indians. The San Juan informants suggest that "Pho-jiu" 
is for Pofu'u, the name of the pueblo ruin [3:9] situated near 
Abiquiu; and they think that "Poihuge" must be the same name 
with the locative g_> postfixed. as is often done. Bandelier may 
quite easily have made this mistake. There is, however, another 
plausible explanation, and that is that "Pho-jiu" may be for 
Popobi; see PopoW qywilceji, page 205. Popdb\ may have been 
changed to Pofu'u by Bandelier's informant because of influence 
of 8&fu, with which it was associated. Sirfu may have called to 
his mind Pofu'u, although the latter is a ruin in the Chama River 
drainage, especially since Pofu'u and Popoil both contain po 
' squash ' as their first syllable. Or the writer's informants may all 
be wrong. But it would be strange if there were a pueblo ruin 
named Pofu'u near Abiquiu and another by the same name near 
La Hoya [9:5]. One should also notice in connection with these 
names 1 Ie we tt's " Poihuuingv ", which h(> locates in the Chama Uivcr 
drainage; see " Poihuuinge" under [5:unlocated], page 157. 

i Bandelier, Final Report, pt. u, pp. 63-64, 1892. "Hewett, Comnmnautes, p. 30, 1908. 



MAP 10 
OLD SAN JUAN REGION 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 




TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT MAP 10 




'■•• " ■'/M>--''/;,^,.. ■■-'/, ■'■■ 

'/Jil!i ; J'ii 

. ^■" '" '"»' V,,\V-:;/n|: 




MAP 10 
OLD SAN JUAN REGION 



habbiw PLACE-NAMES 205 

San Juan PcpoWorfvoiJceji 'squash flower pueblo ruin' {po 'squash' 
'pumpkin'; poii 'flower'; 'qywikeji 'pueblo ruin' 
'pueblo', leeji "ruin', postpouud). This name was known to 
three San Juan informants. They agreed thai iliis 'ruin' is lo- 
cated b where Dear Sagftfoywflceji [9:23]. It may be t In- 

nameless and problematic ruin [9:27] the name of which the in- 
formant could not remember. At anj rate it is almosl certain 
that it is the name for which Bandolier's " Pho-jiu" is intended. 

[10 1 OLD SAB .H an BHEET 

This sheet (map 10) shows a tract just north of Sau Juan Pueblo. One 
pueblo ruin, Old San Juan [10:26], is included, from which the sheet 
has been named. 

[10:1 ] Canoe Mesa, see [13:1]. 

[10:2] San Juan QwalceM, [13:3]. 

[10.:;| Tsewipo 'eagle gap trail', so called because it passes north of 
I. nt near [7:24] (TaewVi, see[7:24]; Po 'trail'). 

This is an old trail. It is th ie frequently taken when going 

by trail from the \ icinity of San Juan to < (jo < laliente or El Etito 
ons. The trail winds its way up Canoe Mesa [10:1] just back 
of .Y'i .>)>/>' <■/<>/'" 1 10:4 1 and almost directly opposite the old ruin of 
/'''""<j [9:43]. The trail is perhaps also called l>\ the San Juan 
p'onupo (IF&mjp'onu'u, see [10:1 1: j><> 'trail'). It isprobably 
to this trail that Bandelier 1 refers when he says: ""A trail leads 
across it [Canoe Mesa] to the Rio < Irande from Ojo Caliente". 
[10:4] (1) San Juan Wimp'onu'u 'down at the hole- in the earth", 
referring to holes of some sort in tin- ground at the foot of the 
cliff of < lanoe Mesa [10:1] at this place {n& , < 'earth': p'o 'hole'; 
mi' a 'below', applied to distinguish the place from the beij 
Canoe Mesa |10:I|, which overhangs ii). 

Eng. Estaca settlement. (<Span.). Span. (3). 
(3) Span. Estaca 'the stake'. Eng. (2). In what connection 
this name is applied i- unknown. "La Stal 

The most southerly house <d' this place is the large residence of 
Mr. Juan Lopez, which is approximately opposite Alcalde [10:15]; 
the place extends to the north to the point at which the Tsewipo 
trail [10:3] climbs the mesa, 'The hill or slope called QwafceJd 
[10:^| lies between the place and the cliff of the mesa 1 10:1 ]. 
[ 10:.". | San Juan 'Awap'ahu'u, see [9:45]. 

> Bandelier, Pinal r 

the 100th Meridian, Parta of Southern O rthorn 



206 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEVVA INDIANS [bth. ann. 29 

[10:* >] San Juan 'Awap'abu'iyJco "cattail corner arroyo' CAwap'a- 

bu'u, see [9:45]; "'"' locative and adjective-forming postfix; Jco 

'barranca' "arroyo with hanks'). 
This is a broad and straight arroyo which gets its name because 

its mouth is at [10:5]. 
[10:7] (1) Eng. La Villita settlement. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. La Villita 'the little town.' =Eng. (1). A few 

Mexican houses at this place are called by this pretentious name. 

No San Juan Tewa name for this place could lie learned. 
[10:8] (1) Eng. Los Pachecos settlement. (<Span.)- =Span. (2). 
(2) Span. Los Pachecos (Span, family name). = Eng. (1). 
There are a few Mexican houses at this place. 
[10:9] San Juan 'Anybu'u of obscure etymology ('nmj. unexplained; 

bii'u "large low roundish place'). 'Any, appears also in a number 

of other names; see [10:K»], [10:11], [10:12], [10:13J, [10:14]. and 

[10:15]. 
[10:lo| .San Juan 'Anyk&ii of obscure etymology {'any,, see [10:9]; 

Tc&ii 'height'). This name is applied to the higher land east of 

[10:9]. 
[10:11] San Ja&n'Anyko of obscure etymology ('any,, see [10:',']; hq 

'barranca' "arroyo with banks'). 

This arroyo pas>es about half a mile north of Alcalde settle- 
ment [10:15]. 
[10:12] San Juan 'Any'oku of obscure etymology ('any., see [10:!*]; 

'olcu 'bill'). 

The group of hills here referred to is about 2 miles from the 

Rio Grande. 
[10:13] San Juan ' Any'ohukq of obscure etymology ('any, see [10:1']; 

'nil/ "hill*; ho "barranca" "arroyo with banks'). 
[10:14] San Juan 'Any'ohubu'u ' 'Any (unexplained) hill corner' ('any, 

see [10:9]; 'ohu 'hill': bn'u "large low roundish place"). 

This low place lies between 'Any'oku [10:12] and Hyfsekwaje 

[10:21]. It is said to he barren, with no trace of the works of 

man in sight. 
[10:1.">] (1) San Juan 'Anybu'u " 'Any (unexplained) town' ('any, see 

[10:9]; bn'„ "town"). 

(2) 'Akadebu'u "Alcalde town' ('AkaqZe, see Span. (4); bu'u 
•town"). =Eng. (■■>), Span. (4). 

(3) Eng. Alcalde settlement. (<Span). =Tewa (2), Span. (4). 

(4) Span. Alcalde, l'lazita Alcalde 'magistrate' "judge" 
= Tewa (2), Eng. (3). Span, alcalde is translated in Tewa by 

tln> word tsod/i H , but the name of Alcalde settlement is never 
translated. 

This is an old Mexican settlement. 



BABBINGTON] I'l k.CE N V.MBS 207 

[ 10:l<; | San Juan PPiioiii ' clay point' (/"'/' 'a kind of pottery clay,' 
see A'.'/" "i under Minerals; wiii 'projecting corner or point'). 
This name is given to a small point of land projecting toward the 
south, situated about midway between [10:15] and [10:20]. Cf. 

[10:171 ami [10:18], 

f 10: 1 7 1 San Juan PC\wiM l ivfhu , u 'clay point arroyo' {PPiwiti^ see 

[10:16]; 'i' 1 locative and adjective-forming postfix; hniu 'large 

groove' " arroyo"). 
[10:18] San Juan PPiwuvZnfit 'clay point corner' ( /'/";,/■/'.//. see 

[10:16]; bu'u 'large lowroundish place'). 
[10:1'.'] San Juan QyxhienagbiCu 'corner where it cuts through' t>/iooue 

'to cut through' as a stream cuts through earth or sand; was 

locative; bu'u 'large low roundish place'). Cf. [10:20]. 
[10:20] San Juan QwoAensgJcQhvtv. 'barranca arroyo where it cuts 

through' {Qwouen&, see [10:19]; l.-»lin'ti 'barranca arroyo' <ko 

'barranca', hv?u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

This large arroyo Hows out from Hyitkekwaje [10: - _'l |. and in its 

upper part might perhaps he called //utSt/.q/tiru. See [12:2]. 

10:21 | San Juan HyikehvajZ, see [12:2]. 
[10:22] Small nameless arroyo. 

[10:23] San Juan Pfliikute&'in fhvtv. 'arroyo where the meal is or was 
pounded' (jribi 'meat'; leutsii 'topound' 'topeck'; 'i'* locative 

and adjective- forming po-tlix: /"/'" " la rev groove' 'arroyo'). 
[10:-_'4| San Juan 'Anj>\bu'u 'sunflower corner' ('any? 'sunflower', 
probably <Span. anile 'sunflower', used instead of the old Tewa 
name t'&mpolft "sun flower' (t'iyf "sun': pot\ 'flower'); biiw 
'large low roundish place'). Why the name was originally ap- 
plied was not known to the informant-. ( 'f. | 10:25] and 1 10:26]. 

[10:25] San Juan 'An eih li^An t ibuh ■>■', 'An > Ubu'.okek&ii 'sunflower 
height' 'sunflower corner height' 'sunflower height whereOld 
mm Juan is' {'anyi 'sunflower', 'An , ijm'n, see [10:24]; 'oke, see 
[10:26]; /-■'/ 'height'). The higher land east of [10:24] is called 
thus. 
< )ld San Juan Pueblo ruin [10:26] is at this place. 
[10:26] San Juan 'OkJoytoifceji, '.I" oikeji ''*>/.■ (unex- 
plained) Pueblo ruin' l, Oh (unexplained) Puelilo ruin at sun- 
flower corner [10:24]' (""/• unexplained, uu f San Juan 

Pueblo, see San Juan Pueblo under- 1 i 1 1. pages -_M l 15; ""v-;/, ;/ 
'pueblo ruin' K'qyioi 'pueblo', Jceji 'ruin' postpound; 
10:24]). 
No previous mention of this pueblo ruin can be found. The 

San Juan informant- -a y that >an .luan Indian- Speak of it tnore 

frequentlj than 1 1 1 . ■ \ do "f an'j other pueblo ruin, for ii is old 
San Juan, and the San .luan people used to live there before thej 



208 ETHXOGEOGKAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. auk. 29 

migrated south to build a pueblo [11:17], also called ' Oke and now 
in ruins, and more recently to build the present pueblo of San 
Juan, which they now inhabit and to which they still apply the 
old name 'Oke, the present pueblo being the third to which this 
name has been applied. 

'An . above, was abandoned because of a flood, 

according to the San Juan informants. It was once a very popu- 
lous pueblo. In those old days there were certain religious cere- 
monies which required that a man be shut up without food or 
water for twelve days. A certain man. inhabitant of the ancient 
pueblo, was once shut up according to this custom; he was con- 
fined in a dark room, and a man and a woman were appointed to 
w at ih him and >ee that he neither drank nor ate. On the eleventh 
day he burst out of the room like a madman, and crazed for want 
of water, running to a marshy place at'Aiifibx'u [10:24]. ju-t 
below the old pueblo, he lav down- and drank and drank of the 
water. This was a bad omen. After a while the man hurst, and 
water from his body gushed over all the highlands and lowlands 
and obliterated the whole pueblo. One can still see at the ruin 
traces of this catastrophe. The inhabitants tied, and built a new 
'Oh village at [11:17] about a mile farther south. The woman 
who had been guarding the fasting man also took to flight, fol- 
lowing the old trail which leads to Picuris. Where this trail 
passes through a gap in the hills the woman lav down on the 
ground to rest, when she was suddenly transformed into a stone, 
which can -till be seen lying near the pass. This stone is called 
Kuso'jo 'great stone": see [9:14]. The gap referred to is Kuso , jawi , i 
' great stone gap" [9:15]. According to an old custom, the woman 
carried a couple of cars of corn with her to sustain her on her 
journey. These also turned to stone, and may be seen beside the 
petrified old woman. No names of the persons who figure in this 
myth could be obtained. 

The site of the ruin is on a low highland not far from the river. 
Not even a mound could be distinctly traced, so completely oblit- 
erated is the ruin. Some fragments of gray and black unpainted 
pottery were picked up. 
[10:i'7j Sau Juan KQp*agi'iyj', see [11:6]. 

[11] SAX JUAN SHEET 

This sheet (map 11) shows the country in the immediate vicinity of. 
San Juan Pueblo. So far as could be learned, only one pueblo ruin is 
included in the area shown. On the lowlands east of the Rio Grande 
and west and southwest of San Juan Pueblo the San Juan Indians do 
most of their farming-. 



MAP 11 
SAN JUAN REGION 



MAP 11 
SAN JUAN REGION 



HAiiuiv n \. i \ wik.s 209 

[11:1] Sun Joan TsUcowdbe'e 'little comer of the fireflies' {tsiko^wa 
said to mean 'firefly'; 6e\ 'small l< >\\ roundish place'). 

This little corner merges into ^Anf\bv!u [10:24]. Mr. Julian 
Sanchez owns the land and has his house a short distance east of 
the low place on '!'.•<:/,', ,ir,il,ir,ij: [11:2]. This low place appears 
to have given [11:2] and [11:3] their names. 

[11:2] San Juan Tsiko'wakwajd, TsiJco'wabekwaje 'firefly height' 
'height of the little corner of the fireflies' (Tsifcowa, Tsik'owa$Je, 
11:1 1: Jaaaje 'height'). 'Hi is name is :i]>[>l i>'<i to the high land 
north ami northeast of TsifcawabJi |11:1|. 

[11:3] San Juan Tsik'owdbJitjkq 'arroyo of the little corner of the 
fireflies' (Tsik'owabe'e, see [11:1]; V locative and adjective- 
forming postfix; /<> 'barranca' 'arroyo with hanks'). 
This little gulch is tributary to Tsik'owdb^e [11:1]. 

1 11:1] San Juan 7i'<_>/V >;</.. Kop'ag.i'iykqp^yfft 'beyond the arroyo' 
• beyond the wide gulch arroyo '(.ffQabbreA iated from Kqp'ag.i'iykq, 
see [11:6]; pseyg, 'beyond'). This name refers especially to the 
locality which ties immediately north of the lower Kop'ogfii/s 
[11:6]. 

[11:5] Sau Juan KqfsvQqebvlu, Kqp'ag.tiykqp&ygebu'ii 'low corner 
beyond the arroyo' 'low corner beyond the wide gulch arroyo' 
( A'i/<. i i)<i. h"''i. h''</''i< t i;"ijjl,i>j,:iij<j.hii',i, see [11:4]; bv?u 'large 
low roundish place'. I 

[11:6] San Juan Kqp'aQ.Vygj', Kqp'ag.i'iTjkq 'broad arroyo' 'broad 
gulch arroyo' (i*o l barranca' 'arroyo with banks'; p'agi 'broad'; 
"n) /■ locative and adjective-forming postfix). 

This is a large and straight arroyo with barrancas at many 
places along its cour-e. In the name-. 1 11 : 1 | and [ 11:.". | it i- often 
referred to simply by /.<> 'the arroyo'. Its mouth is opposite the 
upper end of thesandj island [11:9]. Its upper course is called 
KqpileaQ Piyko; see[12:7]. One should compare the name JTqp'ag.i- 
'[ijl.o with KqP'ag.ekQhu'u [19:3], the San Udefonso name of the 
lower part of Pojoaque ('reek, which lies north of San Udefonso 
Pueblo just as this [11:6] lies north of San Juan Pueblo. 

[11:7] San Juan Jop'e'i^oku, see [18:17]. 

[11:8] Pueblita Pueblo, see [18:15]. 

[11:9] San Joan rojati 'the island' (Po ' water'; jaui 'in the midst of 
'in'). 

This large sandy island i- crossed by the wagon road which con 
nects Chamita settle nt [18:28] with San Juan Pueblo. 

[11:10] /'"/■- "water neck' 'water brink 1 (/"■ "water'; /, 'neck' 
'height'). The river bant in the vicinity of San Juan is known 
by t bis name. 

s7.-.s| 20BTD I"'. 11 



210 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. axn. 20 

[11:11J San Juan Pofupokwag.e 'level bank by the bend in the river' 
'water'; fa'n 'projecting corner or point', in this instance 
referring to a bend in the river; po 'water'; kwage 'high and 
level place'). 

[11:12] San Juan 'OkJakonnu 'plain of Ohe or San Juan Pueblo* 
( < >!,■• , see San Juan Pueblo, below; 'akQnnu 'plain' <'ulo)jf 
plain; nu unexplained). The entire plateau on winch the present 
pueblo of San Juan stands is called thus. Cf. [12:6]. 

[11:13] (1) San Juan KwPo Jija •mot her ditch ', translating the Span. 
name (ku'i'o 'irrigation ditch'; jija 'mother'). =Span. (2). 
(2) Span. Acequia Madre 'mother ditch'. =Tewa (1). 
This is the chief irrigation ditch of the San Juan Indians, and 
is therefore called by this poetic name. A part of it is shown on 
the map. 

[11:14] San Juan J'UjJ/ <_iiibn' n of obscure etymology (j'lOf 'willow'; 
I'fjj.f unexplained: bn'u Marge low roundish place'). 
Cf. [11:15] and [11:16]. 

[11:15] San Juan Jo ij/.'<_ij wili of obscure etymology (Jqyl 'eij f ', see 
[11:14]: wui 'projecting corner or point'). Cf. [11:14]. This 
name applies to a sort of projecting point of higher land east of 
the ditch [11:13]. 

[11:16] San Juan Penibegt 'dead body corner' 'graveyard' (peni 
'corpse 1 'dead bod}-'; be'e 'small low roundish place'; g& 'down 
at' over at'). 

This is the Roman Catholic graveyard at San Juan at present in 
use. In earlier times interments were made in the churclryard 
[11:22]. The graveyard is on the level ground just north of the 
north end of the race-track [11:20], It is surrounded by a fence. 

[11:17] San Juan Kulin./'!'' 'bunched stones place' (ku 'stone'; iigi 
' in a bunch ' ' bunched '. as in Tig.Pijjj'. San lldefonso name for the 
Pleiades; '/'* locative and adjective-forming postfix). This name 
refers to the bunches or groups of stones, which are said to be all 
that remain of the second pueblo called by the name ' Oke. See 
Ku'tlfii'nl.'nijiriJ:, ji under [ll:unlocated], p. 219. The whole lo- 
cality about this as vet unlocated ruin is called KidigiT*. A 
number of Mexican houses are at the place. See Kviigihwajl 
[11:23], this name beingapplied to the height on which the present 
San .Juan Pueblo is built. 

[11:18] San Juan Pejebuhi of obscure etymology (j>e is said to sound 
like y>' , 'an unidentified species of rodent resembling the field- 
mouse'; je unexplained; hvSu 'large low roundish place'). Cf. 
[11:19]. * 

This low corner lies just west of the rise to the higher land and 
easl of Kittig_i'<"' [11:17]. 



HABRINOTON] PLACE-NAMES 'J I 1 

[11:19] San Jnan Pejt&u'a'a 'slope by [11:18]' [Pejebtfu, Bee [11:18]; 

'steep slope'). It Ls said that the bottom 1 11:1 s | rises s< - 

what to the north at this place; bence the name. 
[11:20] San Juan Pimj>ijJit)f'%Po 'northern race-track 5 </V<. 

'north' <pvjf 'mountain', pij 'toward', 'i u locative and 
adjective-forming postfix; '% fo 'race-track' • '■■ 'to run 
' -track"). 
This is the northern race-track of the San Juan Indians; it 
runs north and south. For the southern one see [11:33]. Mrs. 
Perlina Sizer Cassidy, of Santa Fe, N < ■ \\ Mexico, informs the 
writer that there are at the northern end of this race-track two 

stones, one on each side, marking the starting place. The one 
on the eastern Bide U a shaft of sandstone nearly a foot in diameter, 
about 2| feet high, and approximately square. The one on the 
western side, about 30 feel from the oilier, is of a kind of granite 
formation of pyramidal form, aboul l\ feel bigh, with base of 
rounded triangular form, each side of which is about 2 feet long. 
At aboul - o'clock on St. John's day. 1912, after a race run 
on tlii- track was finished, three women were observed by Mrs. 
Cassidy to pour water with meal in it over these stones and rub 
them with their hand-. Thi-. water was what remained in the 
ollas from which the racers had been drinking. Why there 
should be two racetracks at San Juan and whether this one is 
considered to belong to the Summer or to the Winter phratry, or 
to both or ne it he i'. are questions which, so far as i he writer knows, 
have not been determined. 
[11:21 1 San Juan 'Okekwaje ' 'Oh (unexplained) height ' (' Oh . see San 
Juan Pueblo, pp. 211 215; kwaji 'height'). The extreme north 
eastern corner of San Juan Pueblo is called thus. This place is 
-aid to be called Aguapa by the .Mexicans, a term for which no 

explanation ha- I n obtained. 

[11: San Juan Pueblo] M) '"/,,',,,,,,■;_ ,,f obscure etymologj ('oh 
unexplained; 'qrfioi 'pueblo'). The original etymologj of oh i- 
no longer known to the Tewa. 'Oh sounds exactly like -hard 

nictate' Co •nictate'; / 'hardness' 'hard'). One si Id al-o 

notice the thdoh name of a certain Tewa religious officer, w hich is 
-aid to mean ' hard inetate face' (fi< ' face'; 'o 'mctate';& 'hard'). 
In ni"-t of the forms quoted below the noticeable aspiration at 
the end of the < re the/- is represented by a letter such 

■■I- Span. /'. Dr. J. Walter Fewkes seems to have noticed s< 

peculiarity, since be w rites '. A Bingle San Juan person is called 
regularly 'OhfP*; two or more' San Juan people are called regu 
larly '"/.';'/ -. hut the San Juan Tewa and perhaps some other 
Tewa sometimes saj 'Okty locative and adjective form- 

ing postfix). The name 'Oh wa- originally applied to the pile Mo 



212 ETHXOUEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

ruin [10:26] and after that pueblo was destroyed, to the unlocated 
pueblo ruin at [11:17], the present pueblo of San Juan being 
according to the tradition the third to which the name has been 
applied. See the general discussion below. The forms of ' OTce 
quoted from various sources ' all apply to the present San Juan, no 
mention of the pueblo ruins to which this name is applied being 
there made. "Ohque." 2 "Ochi." 3 "Oj-que." ,< "San Juan da 
los Caballeros, or Oj-ke." 5 "San Juan, Jyuo-tyu-te Oj-ke." 8 
The writer has not had opportunity to question Tewa about "Jyuo- 
tyu-te." The spelling has a non-Tewa appearance. "Ohke, 
'up-strearn place'." 7 The meaning given is certainly incorrect. 
"O r ke'." s (.iiven as the Hano r J'e\va name of San Juan. "Kaj- 
kai;" 9 this is given as the native name. 

(l') San Juan Kuiig.ikwaje'Qywi, Kuiig.ikwaje'oke'Qywi 'bunched 
stone height pueblo' 'bunched stone height pueblo of 'Oke (un- 
explained)' {Ruiigihwaje, see [11:23]; " Oh; see Tewa (1), above; 
'"Jj"'i "pueblo'). This name is applied to distinguish the present 
San Juan from the first- and second-built pueblos, now in ruins, 
which were called by the same name. 

(3) Taos "Pakabaluyii, 'where the Rio Grande opens into a 
plain"". 7 Cf. Picuris I 1). Isleta (6). 

(1) Picuris "Pakuqhalai". 10 "Pakupala". 11 Cf. Taos (3), Is- 
leta (6). 

(5) Picuris "Topfane 'San Juan people' "." 

(6) Isleta "Paku'parai". 10 Cf. Taos (3), Picuris (1). 

(7) Jemez S,i/,)i-i) (-.Span.). The writer is convinced that this 
is the only name for San Juan commonly used at the present day 
by the Jemez. See Jemez (8). 

(8) Jemez /■/i'i[id(//"l of obscure etymology (fjd unexplained ; pa 
•water': <//'/ 'down at 1 'over at"). This is an old and abandoned 
name formerly applied to San Juan, as nearly as the informant 
could remember. It seems likely that it is however the old Jemez 
name of Santa Clara Pueblo; see [14:71]. The people of j-jupdiji'l 
were called fj&pats&'af (fsa'af 'people'). 

(0) Cochiti Sanhwan. (<Span.). = Span. (11). 
(10) Sia "Sanhwan". 1 - (<Span.). = Span. (14). 

■ Chiefly through Handl k [nds., pt. 2, p. 443, 1910. 

2 Smith, Cabeea de Vaca, p. 163, 1871. 

tschet in Mag. Amcr. Hist, p. 259, April, lss'2. 
< Bandeliei in Ritch, New Mexico, p. 201, 1885. 
sBandelier, Final Report, pt. l. p. 12:;, 1890. 
' Ibid., note. p. 260. 

I Hodge, field notes, Bur. Amer. Ethn., 1895 (Handbook Inds., pt. 2, p. 443, 1910). 
• Fewkesin Nineteenth Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethn., p. 614, 1900. 

! Jouvenceau in Catholic Pioneer, 1, No. 9, p. V2, 1906. 
'» Hodge, op. cit., p. 444. 

II Spinden, Picuria notes, MS., 1910. 
i^Spinden, Sia notes, MS., 1910. 



HAEBINCTON] PLACE-NAMES 213 

(11) Oraibi Ilopi Jy/paka TStoa 'last Tewa' {jyfpaka 'last'; 
'/',', m 'Tewa'). San Juan is the Tillage of the Tewa passed last 
of all when going up the Rio Grande Valley; hence the name. 

Ml') Navaho "Kin EOechfnl 'red house people' ".' ""Kliinli- 
chini,the red house people, the San Juan". 2 "Khlntichf, red house, 
San Juan."' 

(13) Eng. San Juan. (-Span.). - Span. (14). 

(14) Span. San Juan, San Juan de loa Caballeros "Saint John? 
"Saint John of the gentlemen'. =Eng. (13). Bandelier* 
explains why "de los Caballeros" was added to the sainl name: 
"The village [18:27] was definitively forsaken in L598, for the 
benefit of the Spaniards, « li" established themselves in the houses 
temporarily, until they could build their own abode-. This 
occurred with the consent of the Indian-, who voluntarily relin- 
quished the place to join their brethren al San Juan; and it was 
partly on account of this generous action that the title 'De l<>s 
( laballeros' was bestowed upon the Tehuas of the latter village". 8 
••Sant Joan".' "'Sani Joan Batista".' "San Juan de los Cabal- 
leros". 8 "Saint-.Iean de Chevaliers".' "St. Johns". 10 "San 

Juan"." "S.John". u "S.Joanne". S.Jean"." "S.Iean". M 

"San Juaners". 1 ' "San Juan de Ins ( Sabelleros". 1 ' " SanJuane- 
ros". M "San Juan de * labalenos". 

American Indian, i. p. . 
' Francis i Navaho Languai 

• Ibid., i 

' Bandeller, Final Report, pt u 
"B I 

Aqul 1"- Indlos mtii goal a, 

Con ■' roil. 

V laego que alojados y de at 
/A-.- ado ' tindad n t 
AlflO- 

HuzIh mii giacloao Pueblo Wen traxado 
A qoleu San Juan i»'r nombre le putdeton, 
cauallcrofl por memorla, 
lelloi que prlmi ro 
a- nueuaa tiernu >■ regj 
Kl aukgrlento estandart 
Poi la -uhi'i detod 
• llaposea ol th..- (able that Ita ros' waa given to the • 

during the Insurrection rary, the Indiana of Ran Juan 

>l tii- rebels; and their participation In the rialnga ol ISM and 
B nw.i urn, Ibid. 

' 1871. 

^ p, mi. I8SS; ! . 

" Vaugondr, Map An 
" Da 

'• ten K • 



214 ETHNOGEOGKAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth.ann.29 

According to Sun Juan tradition, the present pueblo is the third 
one which has been called ' OJce. The first ' Ohe Pueblo is [10:26], 
the ruins of which are about a mile north of the present San Juan. 
When this pueblo was destroyed by a miraculous flood, the inhab 
itants built a second pueblo called 'O&e at KidigiH H [11:17], the 
ruin of which has not been located. This second pueblo was only 
a few hundred yards northwest of the third and present pueblo of 
"<>],; , which is situated on the height or mesa near Kuttg.i , i H , the 
latter name applying to a low place. Why the second-built 
pueblo was abandoned for the present site was not known to the 
informants. The now ruined pueblo of Jy >][/<■ [13:27] and the 
pueblo of ' Ohe (the present San Juan) used to be "like brothers," 
it is said. When Jy,yrje was abandoned its inhabitants went to 
live at ' Ohe or atPueblita [13:15]. When Jijij'jr was permanently 
abandoned seems not to be known to the historians. Bandelier 1 
says: "Yuge-uingge must have been still occupied in 1541, for 
Castaneda says, in Cibola, p. 138: 'Mais eeux de Yuque-yunque 
abandonnerent deux beaux villages qu'ils possedaient sur les bords 
du fleuve, et se retirerent dans les montagnes . . . On trouva 
beaucoup de vivres dans les deux villages abandonnes' ". 

Bandelier obtained the following interesting tradition from the 
Sau Juan Indians: "Indian folk-lore has much to say about Yuge 
uingge. The Tehuas relate, that when their ancestors journeyed 
southward from Cibobe, and the. division into summer and winter 
people occurred, of which I have spoken in the First Part of this 
Report [p. 303], the summer people, under the guidance of the 
Pay-oj-ke or Po-a-tuyo, settled at Yuge-uingge; but the winter 
people, after wandering over the eastern plains for a long 
while, at last went in search of their brethren, and established 
themselves near San Juan in sight of the other's village at 
Chamita. Finally it was agreed upon that a bridge should be 
built across the Rio Grande, and the official wizards went to work 
and constructed it by laving a long feather of a parrot over the 
stream from one side, and a long feather of a magpie from the 
other. As soon as the plumes met over the middle of the stream, 
people began to cross on this remarkable bridge; but bad sor- 
cerers caused the delicate structure to turn over, and many people 
fell into the river, where they became instantly changed into 
fishes. For this reason the Navajos, Apaches, and some of the 
Pueblos refuse to eat fish to this day. The story goes on to tell 
that both factions united and lived together at Oj-ke on the east 
bank". 2 

The present writer obtained a somewhat different version of 
the same tale, which is given under Sipojie, Mythic Places, 

> Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n, p. 61, note, 1892. 2 Ibid., pp. 60-61. 



HABEiNCTON] PLACE-NAMES 215 

pages 571—72. The informant of San Juan who related this 
tale knew nothing of J\iyje [13:27] being settled by Summer 
people and ' Uk\ by Winter people. Me said that he supposed 
that both these places were settled by the same kind of people. 
He did not know that the feather bridges were made at San 
Juan; lie had heard merely that they were made somewhere 
across the Kio (irande. The informant -aid thai hoth Jy/gge and 
, OJce (at it- various Bites) were inhabited for a very long time, 
but that at last Jy,n<J< was abandoned, the people being merged 
into the ' OJee villagers, as stated above. The informant was an 
old man. and his statements were honestly made. 

The San Juan Indians will invariably tell one that San Juan 
was the chief Tewa village in olden days. Councils (Span, junta-) 
of villagers from all the Tewa pueblos, from Tano pueblo-. Taos 
and Picuris, used to be held at San Juan. It was from San Juan 
that word was sent out when the Tewa tribe declared war. The 
Tewa of the other pueblos do not contradict these statements. 
San Juan, it will be remembered, played a leading part in the 

rebellion of 1680. 

In ancient time-, it i- said, the people of San Juan used to raise 
melon-, corn, cotton, etc.. on the highlands east of San Juan, in 
places which are now barren indeed. It was dry farming and crops 
were not certain; but usually plenty of rain fell in those times. 

According to the informant-, the Tewa of San Juan are of 
pare blood, not mixed with non-I'ueblo blood as art 1 the Taos. 
This information was received in one instance unsolicited. Vet 
Bandolier 1 -ay-: ""at San Juan the Vutas [l'te| and Apaches 
[Jicarilla Apache] . . . have assiduously contributed to the prop- 
agation of the species." As regards the architecture id' San Juan 
tin' same authority says: •"Santo Domingo. San Juan, Santa Ana. 

and especially Acoma, consist of several parallel rows of houses 
forming one to three streets." 3 There is only one estufa at San 
Juan; this i- in the northern pari of the village. It is a rectan- 
gular structure, above ground, and contains no permanent paint 
bags in it- interior. 

The elevation of San Juan, according to the Wheeler Survey, 
( 601 feet 

There i- :i post office at present at San Juan Pueblo, but the 
official name of the post office is ( lhamita. 

The name '<//,, is al-o applied by the San .luan to a bright -tar 

Been in the southern -hie-; see Stabs, page 19. 

' Final Report, pi. i. ii 

■ Ibid ; 

• Gannett, Dictionary <■( allltadee, p, 860, imm. 



216 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. a> 



[11:2-2] San Juan Misatt 'mass-house' 'church' {misa "mass" <Span. 
misa "Roman Catholic mass': te 'dwelling-place'). 

This is the Roman Catholic church. Its entrance faces the 
east. It is sometimes distinguished from the chapel across from 
it by being called Misate //• }!',"' 'the large church' {heji 'largo'; 
'/"' locative and adjective-forming postfix). Across the street 
from this church, east of it. is a Roman Catholic chapel, which 
has its entrance toward the west. This is called Misate 1 ! ('< 
diminutive) by the Sau Juan Indians to distinguish it from the 
church. In front of the church stands a statue of the Mother of 
Jesus, which is called by the San Juan Indians Nq'irribi Kioijo 
'our lady', translating the Span. "Nuestra Senora" (n&ynbi 
'our': hwijo "old woman", used here to show reverence). 

[11:23] San Juan Ki&igihioaje 'bunched stone height', referring to 
Katiiji'"' (Kvtigi, see [11:17]: hwaje "height"). This name refers 
to the whole high locality on which the pueblo of San Juan is 
built, the present pueblo itself sometimes being distinguished as 
Kvtig.ikwaje'oke; see San Juan Pueblo, above. See also [10:26] 
and [11:17]. 

[11:24] San .hum Knt- he}!' !'' "the big store* ilnte 'store' <ky. "to 
trade', te 'dwelling-place' 'house' 'building'; heji 'large'; '«" 
locative and adjective-forming postfix). 
This is the store of Reuth. Eldodt & Co. 

[11:25] San Juan 'Age 'down at the slope' (\/a 'steep or short slope'; 
g.e 'down at' 'over at"). All the lowland sloping toward the 
river west of San Juan Pueblo is called thus. This is the form 
used when the speaker is at San Juan and the place is below 
him. 

[11:26] San Juan Potsa 'marsh' (po 'water'; tea 'to cut through"). 
Although potsa is applied to any marsh, when used at San 
Juan, unless otherwise indicated, the word refers to this place. 
There is some swampy ground, and several cotton wood trees 
stand at the place. 

[11:27] San Juan ' ALqtj>jt'[ijko 'the arroyo down at the plain' 'the 
arroyo over at the plain' 'the arroyo of the plain", referring to 
' ' >l'<tko)ihi( [11:12] (^olqyf 'plain*; g.e 'down at' 'oxer at'; 
T' locative and adjective-forming postfix; hq 'barranca' "arroyo 
with banks'). 

This arroyo runs in front of (north of) the residence of Mr. 
Samuel Eldodt. the merchant, of San Juan. See [11:28] and 
[11:2'..]. 

[11:28] San Juan Kqqwog_e 'down where the arroyo cuts through" 
'delta of the arroyo", referring to [11:27] {kq "barranca" "arroyo 
with banks": qvoo 'to cut through": g_e 'down at' 'over at"). 
This name is instantly understood by a San Juan Indian as 
referring to a definite locality. See [11:27], 



babkinbtox] PLACE-NAMES -17 

[11:29] San Juan Kqnugt 'downbekm thearroyo', referring to [11:27] 

'barranca' 'arroyo 'with hanks': nu'u 'below'; p> 'down at' 

' over at'). This name refers to quite a large and indefinite locality 

below (i. c west of) the end [11:28] of the arroyo [11:27]. See 

[11:27] and [11:28]. 

[11:30] San Juan ' Ehl<>t>i teqwa 'dwelling house of Eldodt' i?Eldb 
< German Eldodt; hi possessive postfix; teqwa 'house' <A dwell- 
ing-place', qwa indicating stale of being a receptacle). 

This is the red-brick residence of Mr. Samuel Eldodt. He has 
a collection of rare Indian objects from existing pueblos and 
pueblo ruins, which he courteously allowed the writer to examine 
and use for purposes of study. 

[11:31] San Juan '/■» /•-•'/ 'threshing-floor height' ('e^d 'threshing 
floor' < Span, era 'threshing-floor', which in turn is derived from 
Latin area, of same meaning; kali ' height '). 

This is a high place southeast of Mr. Eldodt's housewhere wheat 
is threshed in Mexican fashion by driving animals over it. 

[11:32] San Juan ' Ekvoelateqwa "school house' ('efavela 'school' 
<Span. escuela 'school'; teqwa 'house" <te 'dwelling place', 
qwa denoting state of being a receptacle). 

This is the Government schoolhouse for Indian children. It is 
Bouth of the pueblo. 

[11:33] San Juan 'A&ompije'it} ''••'/'" 'southern race-track' ('nlqmpije 
'south' < '<//<>/; r 'plain', />■'/• 'toward': T' locative and adjective- 
forming postfix; '&po l race-track'- '.•; 'torun', po 'track' 'trail'). 
This i- the southern ceremonial race track of the San Juan 
Indian-. It lies on the level, barren height of Thig^akonnv 
[11:34] and extends in a north and south direction as does the 
northern race I rat k. See 1 11:20]. 

[11:34] San Juan T&ig$akqnnu, Tsigilkwaji 'chico plain' 'chico 
height 1 [TsigH an unidentified species of hush, called chico by 
the Mexicans of the Tewa country; 'akonnu 'plain' <Cakqrff 
'plain', //" unexplained; hvaji 'height'). This name is given to 
the high, barren plain southeast of San Juan Pueblo. Chico 

bushes grow On it: hence the name. 

Thi- may also be regarded as a part of ' Oke'akQnntt [11:12]. 
■south of [11:84] is Trigiftrfu [11:44], q. \. 
[11:35] San Juan 'JShoel&paeyge'era 'threshing-floors beyond the 
school', referring to the Government schoolhouse [11:32] i^ekwela 
'scl I' • Span, escuela 'school'; />'//</. 'beyond'; 'era * thresh- 
ing floor' Span, era 'threshing floor'). 

There are several threshing Moor- at the locality known i>\ this 

name. 

[11:36] San Juan Nugt 'down below", ro called because of it- low 
and southerly location (»«'w 'below'; y< 'down at' 'over at'). 



218 ETHNOGEOGEAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

Mr. Tomasino Martinez lives about where the more southerly 
of the two circles suggesting this name is placed. 

[11:37] San Juan Kuqwanv^iyJcq 'drag-stone-down arroyo' (Aw 
'stone'; qwa 'to drag'; nug.e 'down* 'from a higher place to a 
lower place across a surface' <i>i/'u 'below', g( •down at' 'over 
at' "down to' "over to'; 'hjr 1 locative and adjective-forming post- 
fix; J.q 'barranca' 'arroyo with banks'). 

\Vho dragged a stone down, and under what circumstances, is 
probably forever forgotten. It is not impossible that the arroyo 
itself did the dragging of a stone or stones referred to by this 
name. 

This arroyo is quite deep where it cuts through the edge of the 
highland. It starts at Tsigtfakonnu [11:34] and loses itself in 
the lowlands of Nug.e [11:36]. See [11:38]. 

[11:38] San Juan Fewmoinfiiwe 'where the cross stands' (p'ewa 
'cross' <p'e 'stick', wa unexplained; jcijj.r 'to stand'; Hwe 
locative). 

On the high corner just north of [11:37] where the latter 
leaves the highland stands a wooden cross, said to have been 
erected by Mexicans in connection with a funeral procession. 

[11:39] San Juan Kiapo 'badger water' Qcia 'badger'; po 'water"). 
This is a low place near the bank of the Rio Grande. 

[11:40] San Juan Pij)<je 'in the middle", referring in some way to the 
middle or central portion of the lowlands. 

[11:41] San Juan j-uQt>bc'e 'little corner of the mosquitoes' {fug.o 
'mosquito' ; hie 'small low roundish place"). 

[11:4l'] San Juan Puwdbu'u "cultivated land corner' (puwa 'cultivated 
land' 'land under state of cultivation '; bttu ' large low roundish 
place'). 
It is at this place that the clay-pit [11:43] is situated. 

[11:43] San Juan P^inapok^Qniiwe ' where the clay is dug', referring 
to a peculiar kind of clay (pt'inapo "moist clay' Slav that is 
moist when it is dug out' Kpi'i 'reddish pottery-clay', napo&s in 
napota 'adobe'; k'oij/ 'to dig'; 'iwe locative). 

This is the source of the clay used in making the common red 
pottery of San Juan. See Nqpi'% under Minerals. The clay- 
pits are at the place called Puwabu'u [11:42]. 

[11:44] San Juan Tsig.ubv?u 'chico corner' (tsig.u name of an uniden- 
tified bush which is called chico by the Mexicans of the Tewa 
country; buu 'large low roundish place"). See [11:34]. 

[11:45] San Juan Piitt'vjlo, see [12:20]. 

[ll:4t>] San Juan Pttti\i)kqqwog.e 'delta of jackrabbit hole arroyo' 
[11:45] (1't/ti'iijko, see [12:20]; qwoQe 'delta' < qwo 'to cut 
through', g.e ' down at' ' over at"). 

Puteyjkq is here lost in the lowlands of TxiQubu'it [11:44]. 



MAP 12 
SAN JUAN HILL REGION 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 




SAN JUA 



TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT MAP 12 



10, 



22 




...•'i/i/. — ■."/. 

5.- .1,7/ ••'•'//'-..■/,, ':.«:;»-,, 7/// '-■ ;.u//,, .>"/,.-. -,,,;'- 

*' ,,% XV.!^,j./V/ii^^ 

■>//""•; -y ! /,,,<'> '"/i i'' ■', 'm [ \*' .- 7i«« 

_ **■" ^^r-#Miifr 

oii„. # J7- — -^_-_^ ''/•.•• '///nin< '/,,>: 




) 



"-,' m-,«;m v 







15 



IEGION 



MAP 12 
SAN JUAN HILL REGION 



PLAC] N VMKS 219 



San Juan h~»'t>'<j'"<>ij'ri/.; ',!, K"t:^!'n/,,'o)jir[I.. j!. ' <■,//,•,,,,,/■;/, ;/ 'bunched 
stones pueblo ruin' 'bunched stones pueblo ruin of 'Oh (unex- 
plained) 1 'pueblo ruin of 'Oh (unexplained) 3 (Kvtig.i, see [11:17]; 
'qywifceji 'pueblo ruin' K.'qywi 'pueblo', keji "ruin' postpound; 
'Oke, see San Juan Pueblo, above). 

This pueblo ruin of the second-built village called 'Oh is said 
to be somewhere in the vicinity of the place called Kutig. , Pi? i [11:17], 
in the lowlands a short distance northwest of the present San 
Juan Pueblo. The site was notvisited by the writer. See dis- 
cussion under [10:26] and San Juan Pueblo, above. 

[12J SAN .HAN HILL SHEET 

This sheet (map 12) shows a small area of arid hill country east of 
Sun Juan Pueblo. The hill [12:27] is the chief ceremonial hill of the 
S;m Juan villagers 

[12:1] San Juan <hr,,.i, n^kqhu'u, see [10:20]. 

[18:2] San Juan Hqtbekwagi "yellow one-seeded juniper height' (fni 
'one-seeded juniper' 'Joniperus monosperma'; tse 'yellowness' 
'yellow', absolute form of tseji H , isejiyy 'yellowness' 'yellow'; 
hwaje 'height'). These two long ridges bear this name. Cf. 
[12:3]. 

[12:3] San Juan Hytsekq 'yellow one-seeded juniper arroyos', refer- 
ring to [12:2] (jffy&e, see [12:2]; hq 'barranca' 'arroyo with 
hanks'). 
These arroyos join, forming QwoJtenseltqhtiv, [10:20]. 

[12:4] San Juan A'<y' agf i_i, , . see [11:6]. Onlj the lower course of 
the arroyo is called by this name. 

[12:.". | San Juan '. I gc IcwwjSak <>i/ 1 'plain of the height above the Blope' 
I'./y. 'down at the slope' '<i'<i ' -t <•< - j ( slope' ■ .-.hort slope": ij, 
"down at' 'overat'] leaa/ft 'height'; 'akqyy 'plain'). 

Just why 1 1 1 i - name is applied did not seem to be clear t<> either 
of the two informants. Ii refers t" the generally level plain 
north of [12:7] and east of 10:26]. 

[12:6] San J nan ' i >\. I. ,i;„j.\il.n , j -plain of I lie high Hal place l>y 'Oh 

(unexplained)', referring i" San Juan Pueblo ('Oke, see San Juan 
Pueblo, under |11|. pp. 211 215; kwaQt 'high Bat place' 'mesa 
top'; "'//"/; i 'plain'). 
[ 12:7 J San Juan Kqpucag.i 'red starving arroyo' {Jeq 'barranca' 
'arroyo with hank-': />/ 'redness' 'red'; kagi 'starving' 'becom 
ing or haying become thin from starvation'). 



220 ETHNOGEOGEAPHT OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth.ann.29 

The connection in which this name was originally given A\as 
not known to the informants. This arroyo and its height [12:*] 
are reddish in places. The arroyo is nothing- but the upper part 
of [12:4]. Cf. [12:8]. 

|12:s] San Juan Kopikag.i'iykwaje, Kqpikagi'iykwaj&oJcu 'red starving 
arroyo height" "hills of red starving arroyo height' (Kopikagi, 
see [12:7]: V' locative and adjective-forming postfix; hvaje 
'height'; 'oku • hill 1 ). 

This reddish height is north and northeast of the arroyo from 
which it appears to take its name. See [12:7]. 

[12:9] San Juan Jqmp'aniJco, Jq,rn.pd?\T)ko 'broad willow arroyo' 
(}<nj f 'willow'; p a "broadness" 'broad' 'largeness and flatness' 
"huge and flat', here evidently referring to the shape of a willow 
tree or a group or number of willow trees: 'ij)f. ni locative and 
adjective-forming postfix, the San Juan dialect sometimes having 
n\ for ivy/ ko 'barranca' "arroyo with banks'). See [12:13]. 

Whether the name originally applied to the arroyo or to the 
height [12:13] it is of course impossible to determine. No willow 
trees were to be seen either in the dry gulch or on the height. 
See [12:13]. 

[12:10] (1) San Juan Wbbui "medicine piles' (wo 'medicine' 'magic* : 
biii " pile " or " heap ' of roundish shape). Why this name is applied 
appeared not to be known to the informants. Perhaps it refers 
to the occurrence of the medicinal plant referred to by name (2), 
below. 

(2) Sao Juan 'Ag.ojop'e'oku ' contrayerba hills' ('ag.ojop'e 'con- 
trayerba' 'Dorstenia contrayerba". a kind of weed the stalks of 
which are chewed, the cud being applied to -ores and swellings 
by the Indians < , ag.ojo "star'.^/t; "stick" "stalk" 'plant': 'ohi 
'hill'). 

[12:11] San Juan Papibee 'red fish corner', referring to [12:12] (Papi, 
see [12:12]: bt\ "small low roundish place'). 

[12:12] San Juan Papihvaje "red fish height', said to be applied 
because the height looks like the reddish spine of a reddish fish, 
although the writer could not see the resemblance (pa 'fish': pi 
'redness' 'red'; hvaje "height'). 

[12:13] San Juan Jqmp 'ahvaje 'broad willow height' (J&mp'a, see 
[12:9]; hvaje "height'. 

[12:14] San Juan Ti.iitq'-Jiiii fit'"' "little shield painting' (tUi 'shield'; 
to''- "painting'; hln/st 'small'; '«"' locative and adjective-f orming 
postfix). 

This little hill is as round as a shield and is of reddish and 
yellowish color as if painted. The 'large shield painting' hill 
[12:33] is, however, not of shield shape. Cf. [12:15] and [12:33]. 



HARMNOTON] PLAC] (TAMES 221 

[12:15] San Joan Tuitq , thinj'9ikq 'little shield painting arroyo' 
i 7'>'.i t'/ii' -7/ //,;./ . Bee |12:ll|; iq 'barranca' 'arroyo with banks'). 
This little gulch takes its came from [12:14|. 

1 12 :!•"•] San Juan N^mpibui 'pile of red earth' innii, 'earth'; pi 
■ redness' ' red ': biui ' roundish pile of -mall size ' ). 

This is a small roundish hill of brighl red color which is con 
spicuous afar off, 

[12:17] San Juan 1 ha 'the cliffs' 'the cliffs of the 

tall taseyj grass species place", referring to [12:19] (toia 'cliff' 
'vertical bank'; Tasinty,ywsejo, see [12:19]). 

These cliffs are high and noticeable, and give the upper pail of 
the dell of [12:7] a markedly barren appearance. The cliffs are 
yellow i-h and reddish in color. See 1 12:ls| and 1 12:19 |. 

[12:1 s *! SanJuan Toiaps y<ft . Tas^nty,ywa jotoiapa ij<ji_ ' beyond the cliffs' 
• beyond the cliffs of the tall tasty < grass species place', referring 
to [12:17] ( Toia, '/> '■-■i.ii 'ijijtr:/ \jotoia, see [12:17]; p% rjge ' beyond'). 
This Dame refers to quite a large regioD of arid, broken country. 

[12: l'.'J San Juan Tas&ity,yw%jo , oku "hills of the tall ta&qqf grass 
species' (tosegj 'an unidentified species of grass which is very 
good for grazing purposes and grows waist-high under very 
favorable conditions, called by the Mexicans zacate azul' <ta 
'grass', 8€9y unexplained; ty/yw&jo ' very high' Ktyrywa, 'high', 
jo augmentative; 'ofcu 'hill'). 

These hills are much higher than any other hills shown on the 
map. They can be seen distinctly from places far wesl of the Ki<> 
Grande. There are two peak-- or height-. 

[12:20] San Juan Pute? hjl.it 'jackrabbii hole arroyo', referring to 
[12:25] (/'"/-. see [12:25]; '>'■ Locative and adjective-forming 
postfix; /.q 'barranca' 'arroyo with barrancas'). 

The lower course [11:45] and end [11:46] of this arroyo are 
-hown mi map [11 J. 

[12:21] SanJuan TsigMbu'ii, see [11:44]. 

|12:l'l'| San Juan Kut&lgiDa, lm' [i/l, q ' blue rock arroyo' (Kuts4v^9 /><>'", 
see [12:23]; , i' Locative and adjective forming postfix; kq 'bar- 
ranca' 'arroyo with hank-'). The name appears to be taken 
ti [12:23], in which the arroyo lies. 

The arroyo i- tributary to [12:20]. 

|12:l':;| San Juan KutsQyio&bu'u 'blue -tone corner' (leu 'si '; 

tsqij,r;i_ 'blueness' 'blue' 'greenness' 'green'; Ju'w 'large low 
roundish place' |. 

The informants said thai there were bluish or greenish -tone- 
in this low place. The place has given name-- to [12:22] and 
[12:24]. 

| \2:i\ | San .(nan /{':/<,! i/,/-., Inil. ir.ij; • l )h n • stone corner height ' i 

,jir;,hi,-„. gee [12:23]; fcwaji 'heighf '). Cf. [12:22] and [12:28]. 



222 ktii X(pi;e(k;kaphy of the tewa Indians [bth.ann.29 

[12:25] San Juan PutJoku 'rabbit hole hill' (pu 'rabbit'; te 'dwell- 
ing -place' "warren 7 'rabbit hole'; 'oka 'hill'). This name ap- 
plies also to the .small hills surrounding the larger hill on which 
the circle is placed. Sec [12:2f>]. 

[12:26] San Juan /{"/.' <vnh'ir, 'stone quarry' (&« 'stone'; k'oyf 'to 
dig': 7"'< locati\ e). 

There is a quarry at this place from which stone has been taken 
to build the church and other buildings at San Juan Pueblo. 
The quarry is said to belong to Mr. Samuel Eldodt, of San Juan 
Pueblo. 

[12:27] San Juan ' OJcutyijw&jn 'high bill' ('oku 'hill'; fnij)i\-rj,> 'very 
high' < tuijir-r ' high ', jo augmentative). 

This is the sacred high hill of the San Juan Indians. It has 
two shrines on its top; see [12:28] and [12:30]. The unidentified 
medicine-plants knt,bi and tiwo were found growing on this hill. 

[12:28] The northern peak of [12:27] hill. On this summit is a shrine 
of stones arranged like a letter U. about a yard in length, with 
the opening toward San Juan Pueblo. 

[12:29] The middle peak of [12:27] hill. 
There is no shrine on this peak. 

[12:30] The southern peak of [12:27] hill. 

There is on this summit a large V-shaped stone shrine with the 
opening toward San Juan Pueblo. "Where the two lines of the 
V meet is erected a large slab of yellowish stone. 

[12:31] San Jua.nX)kut{ir/irfrjopfeij[/e, 'Okutnijir;rjoi>;r)]/jebu'u 'beyond 
the high hill' 'corner beyond the. high hill' (' Okuhjijira },>. see 
[12:27]; ps&yae 'beyond'; bu' u 'large low roundish place'). 
These names refer to a more or less definite locality beyond, 
i. e., east of, [12:27]. Cf. [12:32]. 

[12:32] San Juan ' (>kutut)WiP.jopseij<h kin//,' 'heights beyond the high 
hill' (' Ol-ntu ipni J'jjki yge, see[12:31]; hvaje 'height'). This name 
may be used to include [12:33], which has also a name proper 
to itself. 

[12:33] San Juan T'biiiq"-lf}i"i' ' large shield painting' (Tuita^, see 
[12: 14]; heji i largeness" large'; H H locative and adjective-forming 
postfix). 

This is the large shield painting as distinguished from the 
'small shield painting' [12:14]. [12:33] is long and not shield- 
shaped, while [12:14] is round like a shield. As noted under 
[12:32], this bill is sometimes included with the hills designated 
[12:32] under the descriptive name of ' Okuty,r)W%jop%7)gehvaj&. 

[12:34] San Juan Toiap'ohvajetota 'cliff hole height cliffs' (Toiap'o- 
hvaje, see [12: 36] ; iota ' cliff '). Cf . [12: 35]. 



MAP 13 
CHAMITA REGION 



MAP 13 
CHAMITA REGION 



HAEBINGTON] I'l \(l: N \MF.S 1> 2 3 

[12:35] San Juan Tctoop'o, Tolap'd'i'* 'clifl hole' 'at the dill hole' 
$oba • i-l ill": p ',, ■ In .I,." ; ',"■ locative and adjecl ive forming postfix). 

There i- a cave in the cliff at tliis place. This 'cliff hole' has 

given names to [12:34] and [12:36]. 
[12:.'ji;| (1) San Joan '/'.'•/ 'cliff hole height' {Tdbap'o, see 

[12:35]; hwaji 'height'). The hills, or perhaps more properly t lie 
western hill only, are so called because of the well-known cave 

[12: 

San Juan 'Ag.ap'ekwaji, , Ag.ap K dsikwaj^, of obscure ety- 
mology i'-U/'V'' . ' Ay*'/'' ■'■<<"/. see [12:37]; hwajh 'height'). This 
name is surely taken from that of [12:37]. 

[12:37] San .hum ' Aij ip' ■'<<' i of obscure etymology ('aga an unex- 
plained word which occurs also in [22:54]; p'< 'stick': tht'i 
• canyon '). 
This i> -aid i" he a deep gulch, tributary to [12:20]. 

[12:38] San Juan Sapobu'u 'corner of the thin or watery excrement ' 
(so •excrement': fo "water": bn'n 'large loTi roundish ]>lace'). 
This is a large hollow in the hills which extends far to the south- 
east toward Santa Cruz Creek. Cf. [12:39]. 

|12::;'.'| San Juan Sapokwajd, Sa'pofavajS'oku 'height of the thin or 
watery excrement' 'hill- of the height of the thin or watery 
excrement' i -■'>.. see [12:38]; hwaji. 'height'; 'oku ' hill'). 

[12:40] '"/.'..,/,;■;/,;;. see [10:26]. 

ii 1 1 1 1 . 

San Juan I'llm'u "red corner' (/'>< 'redness' "red": 6m'« large low 
roundish place'). 

This i~ said to he a dell in the hill- east of and not vrrv far 
from San Juan Pueblo. 

[ 13 | i 1 1, Will A SHEET 

Tin- area shown on this sheet (map 13) liesaboul the continence 
of the Chama and Rio Grande, west of San Juan Pueblo [13:24]. 
Canoe Mesa [13:1] occupies the upper part of the sheet. The whole 
of the area shown was formerlj claimed and occupied by the San 

Juan Indian-. 

Tl ntire region west of San Juan Pueblo, west of the Rio ( I ramie, 

i- called ' "' <>ii , i -.in the other side '('.//'. u/ , Unexplained: /,;/ loca- 

tive) by the San Juan Indian-. They use also the Span, name 
Chamita, as do Mexicans and American-, to indicate the territory 
west of the Rio Grande, west of San Juan. Chamita i- more Btrictly 
the name of the Mexican settlement [13:28]. 



224 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [BTH. ans. 29 

[13:1] (1) Tsihvaje, Tsifavagt 'basalt height' 'basalt mesa' (tsi 'ba- 
salt'; kwaje 'height'; kwuge "large Hat high place' 'mesa'). 

(2) Eng. Canoe Mesa, Canoa Mesa. (<Span.). =Span. (I). 

(3) Eng. Black Mesa, Black Mesa near San Juan. =Span. (5). 
Cf. [18:19]. '-Black Mesa". 1 "Black Mesa (Mesa Canoa)". 2 

(4) Span. Mesa de la Canoa, Mesa Canoa 'Canoe Mesa' "boat 
mesa\ =Eng. (2). "Mesa de la Canoa". 3 "Black Mesa (Mesa 
Canoa)". 4 

(5) Span. Mesa Prieta "black mesa'. =Eng. (•'!). Cf. [18:19]. 
The mesa is commonly called thus by Mexicans of the vicinity. 
Mr. Thomas S. Dozier of Espanola informs the writer that this 
is the name which appears on deeds and land grants; he has seen 
a large blueprint map which had this name on it. 

This high mesa with its dark cliffs is one of the most striking 
geographical features of the Tewa region. It is called Black 
Mesa from its color, and Canoe Mesa presumably because of its 
oblong boatlike shape. The name Black Mesa is better avoided, 
lot it be confused with other mesas of the region called by this 
name. The Tewa of all the villages call it Tsjjcwaj&, or Tsikwagi . 
Bandelier 3 says of the mesa: "In the east an extensive plateau, 
covered by a layer of black trap, separates this valley [the Chama 
Valley] from the Rio Grande; it is called the ' Mesa de la Canoa', 
and there are no vestiges of antiquity on its surface so far as I am 
aware, but there are rents and clefts in its eastern side that I have 
reason to believe are used to-day by the Indians of San Juan for 
sacrificial purposes". Canoe Mesa is crossed by at least two im- 
portant trails; the Jutapo [9:17] and the Tsewipo [10:3]. It is 
probably to the latter trail that Bandelier 5 refers when he says: 
"A trail leads across it [Canoe Mesa] to the Rio Grande fromOjo 
Caliente". See [5:54], [7:23], [13:2]. 

[13:2] San Juan Tsiwiii, Tsifu'u 'basalt point", referring to [13:1] 
(tsi "basalt": wiri "projecting corner or point'; /Vm ' projecting 
point"). 

[13:3] San Juan Qwalc&ii 'housetop height' (gwa showing state of 
being a receptacle, as in tegwa 'house", poqwa 'reservoir for 
water", qwasy "houserowof a pueblo"; Tce-ri 'height' 'top'). It 
is said that this long hill is so called because of its resemblance to 
a house or row of houses; also, that Qwatce-iuota (iota 'cliffs') is 
either another name of the hill or a name of a locality near the 
hill. See [13:1]. 

i Hewett, Antiquities, pi. xvn, 190G. 

2 Jean<;on, Explorations in Chama Basin. New Mexico, Record* of the Vast, x, ]>. 92, 1911. 

3 Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n, p. 63, 1S92. 

* Jeancon, op. cit. 

5 Bandelier, op. cit., note. 



I 



PLACE-NAMES 225 



[13:4] A large white house with a red roof, owned by ;i .Mexican. 
The southern end of QiyakeM [13:3] is almost due west of this 
Mexican villa. 

[13:.">] San Juan Tn' n j ■■<_ ntwgwagjo'oku, TcPrifQntyTfws&jdkoJbi "hill of 
the tall t'/'n ,:•_!/' bushes 1 an unidentified species of 

bush; tijijir.ij.* 'very high' <ty,yw% 'high 3 , jo augmentative; 
'hill'; /' '' 'large roundish pile' 'hill'). The adjective 
refers to the hushes, not to the hill. See [18:6]. 
[13:''.] San Juan I'/b'ir,",' 'meal gap' (pibi •meat': wPi "'jap' 'pa—'). 

This .yap gives the name to PtbiwtfiykQ [13:7]. 
[13:7] San Juan PZbiwtfiyJco ' meat gap arroyo ' (PtbiwiH, see [13:6]; 
locative and adjective-forming postfix; kq ' barranca' "arroyo 
with barrancas'). Why the arroyo was thus named, was not 
known to the informants. 
[13;s| San Juan Jefvkqht^u of obscure etymology (./</" unexplained: 
"arroyo with barrancas' </•<_> 'barranca', hu'u 'large 
groove' "arroyo" i. 

This arroyo is lost in the fields north of Pueblito [13:15]. 
[13:'.'] San Juan Tdbap'okwajebcui "the roundish height of the cave 
in the' (dill", referring to [13:9] | Tribap'o, see 1 13:'.' j: hoaje ' height'; 
'large roundish pile"). See [13:10 , 
[13:1"] San .hum Toiap'o 'cliff hole' (fo5a 'cliff'; p'o 'hole'). 

This cave is situated on the southern side and near the top of a 
peculiar round knob [13:9]. The cave opens to the south. Its 
floor is level. The mouth is 8 feet wide; the depth of the cave is 
• '. feet. Prom the innermost part of tie- cave and on the Level of 
it- floor a small tunnel like hole runs hack horizontally •"> fed or 
more. There is a niche in the western wall of the cave. The 
roof of the cave is arching, low, and sooty. 
[13:11 ] San Juan Toiap'olceJd 'cliff hole height' {fotap'o, see |13:1"J; 
/..// 'height', here referring to a narrow ridge). 

This ridge incloses the low roundish place. [13:13]. It is a 
thin neck of hill; one can walk along its top as along the ridge- 
pole of :i hoUSe. See [13:12]. 

[13:1l'| San Juan 'I.t.'ts;,-;- -at the white cliff' {lota 'cliff'; fs% 

'whiteness' 'white'; V' 1 locative and adjective forming postfix). 

At the place indicated l.y the circle, on the eastern slope of 

1 13:11 I, is this white cliff. See [13:11 |and [18:12]. 

[18:13] (I i San Juan Tdbap'obu'u 'cliff hole corner', referring to 

[13:l"| [Tdbap'o, Bee [18:10]; \i?ii 'large low roundish place'). 

(2) San Joan / '• ■ '■■ '" "white dill' comer', referring to 
[18:12] [Totateq i. see [18:12]; Ju'u 'large low roundish place'). 

This arid low place gives the arroyo | 13:1 I | its name. 
87884 20 1 in 16 US 



226 ETHXOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA ISDLOTS [bth.ass.29 

[13:14] (1) San Juan Tobap'o'itjJco 'cliff hole arroyo". referring to 
13:- " . see [13:10]; °vjf locative and adjective-forming 

postfix: fco 'barranca' ' arroyo with barram - . 

. San Juan Tot . "white cliff" arroyo', referring to 

[13:12] {Tobedsse, see[13:12]; '\tj.f locative and adjective-forming 
postfix; Jcq •barranca' 'arroyo with barrancas'). 
[13:15] (1) San Juan A" [ 'turquoise pueblo' (};>mj>se 'tur- 

quoise" "kalaite ' This name is applied also to 

the pueblo ruin [29:23]. Compare also "a la Puenta [3:19], on 
vi 'it la grande mine de Kwengyauinge (maison de la turquoise 
bleuej'". 1 See [3: unclassified]. 

- San Juan" Of 'o/t/ur'oijwi 'pueblo on the other side' 
on/ix 'on the other side' <'ofoijf unexplained, /<ie locative; , oyw{ 
'pueblo'). This name is much used by the San Juan people. 

(3) Eng. Pueblito settlement. (<Span.). = Span. (4). 

(4) Span. Pueblito -little pueblo". =Eng. (3). 

San Juan is the only Tewa pueblo which has a suburb — Pueb- 
lito. Pueblito is a genuine little Tewa pueblo, built about a court- 
yard or plaza, but inhabited by Indians who are identical with 
the San Juan in origin, dialect, and customs. Bandelier 2 says of 
Pueblito: "The Indians of San Juan to-day still hold a portion of 
the arable lands about Chamita, and a small colony of them dwell 
on the west side of the Rio Grande at the so-called 'Pueblito'". 
A summer village of the Acoma is also called Pueblito in Span. 5 

[13:1<:j San Juan Desivrihwaje 'stinking coyote gap height' {De*' " '. 
13 . - 'height'). 

[13:17] San Juan Jop'e P e oku 'hill adorned with cane cactus' (Jo •cane 
cactus' "Opuntia arborescens": p't 'adorned* 'fixed up": V' loca- 
tive and adjective-forming posttix; 'oku 'hill'). 
The railroad track lies close under this hill. 

[13. IS] San Juan Pesiiofi 'stinking coyote gap' [4e "coyote": si said 
to mean 'stinking': w?i 'gap' 'pass'). 

This place has given names to [13:16], [13:19], and [13:20]. 

[13:19] San Juan Pesivrikohu'u 'stinking coyote barranca arroyo' 
//.,;,/•,";. see [13:18]; TtohvSu 'barranca arroyo' <lq 'barranca'. 
h'i'ii. large groove' •arroyo"). [13:26] is called by the same 
name. 

[13:20] San Juan K'}p'"g.~uj.f. see [11:6]. 

[13:21] The San Juan name (which unfortunately has been mislaid by 
the writer) means 'where the water is deep". 

[13:22] San Juan TepoTeope 'wagon road bridge' (tepo 'wagon road' 
<te 'wagon', po 'road'; lope 'bridge' 'boat' <Jeo 'to bathe", 
p't 'stick 5 "log"). 

' Hewett, Oommunautes, p. 42, 190S. 
2 Final Report, pt. n, pp. 62-63, 1S92. 
•See Handbook Inds., pt. 2, p. 316, 1910. 



tox] PLACE-NAMES 227 

[18:23] San Jnan Pojcuri, see [11:9]. 

[13::M] San Joan Pueblo, sec under [11], page 211. 

[13:35] Sun Juan /'»//////->, see [12:20]. 

[13:26] San Juan ~QesiwikqkiCu 'stinking coyote gap barranca ar- 
royo 5 {]). *'<«•',",, see [13:18]; kohu'v ' barranca arroyo' </'g' bar- 
ranca,' At*'« 'large groove' 'arroyo' . 

[13:27] (1) San Juan JyyqjQrfwiJceji of obscure etymology (ji'yje 
means clearly enough 'down at the mocking bird place' <}<!')/ 
'mocking bird', g< 'down at' "oxer at.' just as the name of the 
pueblo ruin P'i'og.i [9:4:'.] means 'down at the place of the wood- 
pecker' and that of the pueblo ruin TsvreQ.6 [17:M4J means 'down 
at the place of the bird'; bu1 although the San Juan informants 
agree that this is unquestionably the meaning, they state that 
when they use the word they never think of a mocking bird or of 
any etymology at all; 'qywj^eji 'pueblo ruin' ■'>>//«•/ 'paeblo,' 
Jeeji 'ruin' postpound). The forms quoted below from various 
Bources are intended for Jy/t/g^oywigi (g<? 'down at' 'overat'): 
" Yuqueyunque." ' Thisisa poor spelling, indeed. The writer 
may have been influenced bySpan. yunque 'anvil' < Latin incus 
'anvil.' "' Yuque- Yunque ' are the Tehuas [Tewa], north of 
Santa Ke."- " Yuque-yunque, or Uhamita."" '"Yuque-yun- 
i|ue"."' "Yunque i* but a contraction of Xuge-uingge. Esca- 
lante says, in Carta alPa&n 3rV>rj£ [April 2, 1 77^ |. par. 2: 'Una 
Villa de Espanoles, que era de San Gabriel did Yunque, primeroy 
despnes de Santa FeV "' Jy>yg< i- ool a contraction bu( a portion 

of the name Jy.Tjge'oiyioiffe. London would hardly lie railed a ( - 

traction of London town. "Yuqueyunk." ■ "Yuqui Yanqui." 7 
"Ynqueyunque."' "Juke-yunque."* "Yunque." 10 "Yuge- 
uingge." 11 "Ynge uing-ge." ia "Yugeuinge." 1 ' "'Yun que.'"" 
" fugeuingge (Tewa: ' village of the r&\ me' i." 1! This etj mologj 
cannot be correct. It is based onjy 'to pierce.' 
j Span. "" Sant Francisco de los Espanoli s 

»Bu I Introdnctloii, pp. 28-24, 188L 

• iiuii.l. -h.-r. Final Report, pi n, p, 11 

• II., : 

• Ibid , 

■ 
' k'. rn 

• !,,.■■.* 

"Bandolier in Bitch 
" Bandolier, Final It. ; 
nil. 

11 ii. V. 

" R. E. Twlichell In 

u Hodga in Handbook In. I-., pi 

i"f>fl,e. i. p, lie, 1871. 



228 ETHNOGEOGHAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth.axn.29 

(3) Span. •'Sunt Gabriel." 1 "'San Gabriel."- "Sant Ga- 
briele." 3 

"The pueblo was voluntarily relinquished to the Spaniards under 
Onate in 1598, the inhabitants joining their kindred at San Juan. 
In the year named the tirst white settlement in the West was here 
made, under the name 'San Francisco de los Espaiioles,' and on 
September 8 the chapel was consecrated. In the following year 
the name was changed to San Gabriel, which lias been retained 
by the Mexicans as the name of the place to this day. San Gabriel 
was abandoned in the spring of 1605 and Santa Fe founded as the 
sea< of the New Mexican provincial government." 4 The older 
Indians of San Juan are still familiar with the name San Gabriel. 5 

[13:2s] (1) Eng. Chamita settlement. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Chamita, diminutive of Chama <San Juan Tsq-mq,; 
see discussion under [5:7]. "The name Chamita dates from the 
eighteenth century, and was given in order to distinguish it from 
the settlements higher up on the Chama River." 6 "Chamita."' 
" La ville mexicaine de Chamita." 8 The Tewa use the Mexican 
name only. 

The name Chamita is applied definitely to the settlement 
[13:28]: also vaguely to the whole region about this settlement. 
See [5:7], [13:27], [13:31]. 

[13:29] Chamita warehouse or station. 

[13:30] (1) San Juan Jy.ijge'oku^ 'little hills of [13:27]' (Jyyge, see 
[13:27]: 'oku 'hill'; 'e diminutive). This is the old name. 

(2) San Juan TfamittfoJcu'e 'little hills of [13:28]' (Tfamita, 
Span. Chamita, see [13:28]; '<>/," 'hill'; 'e diminutive). 

These hills are mentioned under the name tirst given, in a San 
Juan myth. 

[13::jl| San Juan Tat'qylceM 'grass shooting up height 5 (fa 'grass'; 
t'<}>jf 'to shoot upward, said to refer here to the slope of the land 
its,. If: Ic&ii height'). 

At the grassy rise known by this name Mr. Romelo de Herrera 
has a store. Mexicans at the place said that they include this 
under the name Chamita. The arroyo indicated on the map, 
west of the circle indicating this place, is presumably named 
T<if t'i/L-,-1 i/ni' a or Tat'or/hiiu {Jui'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 



151J8 1 in />.»■. In,, I., XVI, p. 116, 1871. 
"Shea, Cath. Miss . i». 78, 1870. 
a Bandelier in Papers Arch. Inst., i, p. 19, 1888 
EoiJgc in Handbook Inds., pt. 2, p. 1007, 1910. 
'For a ground plan of the ruin see Bandelier, Final Report, pt. II, pi. i, fig. 10,1892. Foradeserip- 
tion see the same w< irk, pp. 68-63, and Hewett, Antiquities, No. 88, 1906. See also San Juan Pueblo 
under [11]. 
' Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n, p. 62, note, 1892. 
: [bid., p. 59 i't passim. 
Hewett, Communautes, p. 30. 1908. 



HABBIKOTOK] I'l \( 1 \ \ \1 I - 229 

[18:32] The San Juan have a special name for this locality, but the 
information is not available. 

[18:33] San Juan Kw&ky,mpo 'the railroad' {kws^ky,yj 'iron 1 'metal' 
unexplained; /»< 'trail' ' road'). 

[18:34] San Juan Kws&Jey/mpokop '< 'the railroad bridge' (£wseky,mfio, 
see [13:33]; /'<</•- 'bridge ' 'boat'- ko 'to bathe', p\ 'stick" log'). 

[18:35] San Juan 'A/ug.1 "down at the alkali point " (">./ 'alkali'; fu'n 
'horizontally projecting point'; g.< 'down at' 'over at'). 

The V-shaped alkaline meadow at the confluence of the Chama 
and Rio Grande rivers is called l>y this name. It is here thai 
\i - 'cwijo, the Old Salt Woman, used to dwell and give of her 
body to the people, according to San Juan mythology. See 
[29:1 lo|. The San Juan do not gather salt from this place at the 
present time. The place is, indeed, very scantily supplied with 
alkali or salt, a Cart may explain the origin of the myth, which 
relates thai Old Salt Woman forsook the place. See [29:110], 
Salt, under Minerals; cf. [13:36], [18:15]. 

[13:36] San SvaaPojegt 'down where the water- n t' {$o 'water'; 

• to meet ": g.t 'down at ' "over al '). 

This na applies to the confluence and the adjacent locality. 

As used at San Juan Pueblo it often refers especially to the Gelds 
of San Juan Indians bordering on the Rio Grande, just east oi 
the confluence. 

[18:37] San Juan QivSijeg.enitg.dc&ii, sometimes abbreviated to Qwe- 
t>- nuij. /,:./,' 'height of kick down together low place 1 {QvoetSh- 
jeg.emi&e, see [13:38]| %e*i ' height'). 

The wagon road leading upthe Chama Vallej on the north side 
of the river passes o\ er this height before plunging into [ 13:38]. 

[13:38] San Juan QwetejeQ.eniig.t "kick down together Ioti place' 
{qwett 'to kick an object' as in the kicking race game; ' 'to 
meet', said to refer here to the objects kicked; g< 'down at' 'over 
at'; /'"'" below'). The name probably refers to the kicking of 
objects in a direction toward each other and downward at this 
place, in connection with the playing of some game, it is said. 
Cf. [18:37]. 

[13:89] San Juan Ts\kq 'basalt arroyos' (foj 'basalt'; kg 'barranca 1 
'arroyo w itfa barrancas'). 

These short and broken gulches extend from the mesa-clifl to 
the river. The place is strewn with blocks and masses of basalt. 
Cf. 1 13:1 1, [18:2]. 

[18:40] (1) Eng. Duende settlement, i Span.). Span: (2). 

(2) Span. I mende 'dwarf'. Eng. (1). Whj the name 'dwarf 1 
was given is not known. 



230 ETIINOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

There is no San Juan Tewa name for this Mexican settlement. 
The Tewa word meaning 'dwarf is p'inini, but is never applied 
to this place. 

1 13:41] San Jua,nj > unj'Sgk'Qndiwehu , u, .see [2:34], 

[13:12] San Juan Sipuwud, sec [2:36]. 

[13:43] San Juan Sipuwiiihii'u, .see [2:37]. 

[13:44] (1) San Juan JIij"um:r 'where the one-seeded juniper' (hy, 
'one-seeded juniper, Juniperus monosperma'; 'iyy locative and 
adjective-forming postfix; '>/;r locative). The use of two locative 
elements in this word appears to be irregular. The one-seeded 
juniper still grows at the place. This is the old name of the place. 
People at San Juan Pueblo often say Ihtfinnsk 'ot'onn% ('ot'onnsg 
'on the other side 1 'on the other side of the river", referring to 
the Rio Grande). 

(2) Eng. San Jose, San Jose des Chama settlement. (<Span.). 
= Span. (3). 

(3) Span. San Jos6, San Jose 1 de Chama 'Saint Joseph' 'Saint 
Joseph of Chama', referring to Chama River. =Eng. (2). 

This settlement extends for two or three miles in a northwest- 
erly-southeasterly direction. The Mexican houses are along the 
irrigation ditch, which runs where the higher irrigated lands to 
the southwest merge into the lower irrigated lands nearer the 
Chama River. The ditch is perhaps half a mile from the river. 
See [13:45]. 
[13:45] The Roman Catholic church at San Jose de Chama, 

This is situated at the southern end of the settlement. 
[13:40] (1) San Juan 'Akonrnttg ' stretched plain ' (^akqnnu 'plain 1 
<\ilo>if 'plain', nu locative; tse 'state of being stretched' 
' stretched '). Cf. Span. (2). 

(2) Sp. Lorn a Tendida 'stretched hill' 'flat hill' 'mesa'. Cf. 
Tewa (1), which is evidently a translation of this idiomatic Span. 
expression. 
[13:47] San Juan Te&abehu'u 'break wagon arroyo' (te 'wagon'; 
Katie 'to break'; Jui'u "large groove' 'arroyo'). 

San Juan Indians go much to the mesa Tek'aiefewaje [2:40] for 
firewood. To reach the height they drive up this small arroyo, 
the wagon road of which is very rough and hard on wagons. 
Sec [2:40]. 
[13:48] (1) Mahfibuwiii, Mqhy/witi "owl corner point' 'owl point' 
(Mqhybii'ii, see [14:1 1]; wUi 'projecting corner or point'). 

(2) Watfewtii 'point of [14:11]' (Watfe <Span. Guache, see 
[14:11 1; iri.'t * projecting corner or point'). 

This long projecting tongue of mesa separates Guache settle- 
ment from San Jose de Chama [13:44]. See [14:11]. 



MAP 14 
SANTA CLARA WEST REGION 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 




SANTA CL 



TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT MAP 14 




REGION 



MAP 14 
SANTA CLARA WEST REGION 



HARBIHGTON] PLACE-NAMES 231 

I ' \ I . .1 Ml D 

San Joan PotekegJoywikeji 'pueblo ruin down a I tin- ed'_rc of the n^lx 
water' -{po 'water'; t, 'ugliness' 'ugly'; tcegt 'down at the edge 
of <h 'neck' 'height', y- 'down at' 'over at'; 'Qtjwikeji 
'pueblo ruin" - 'oywi 'pueblo', l,ji "ruin' postpound). This 
form was obtained from a single San Juan informant, now dead. 
as the name of a pueblo ruin somew here mar ( Ibamita. 

[14] s\\ I \ CLAB \ WEST SHE] l 

The central feature of 1 1 1 1 — sheet (map Id is Santa Clara Creek 
[14:24]. Roughly Bpeaking, the area of the sheet proper was claimed 
by tin- Santa Clara people, and a large percentage of the places included 
in this area have names which are known to the Santa Clara Indians 
only. 

Santa Clara Pueblo [14:71] is shown, also the important Mexican 
and American settlement of Espafiola |14:b>|, and a number of pueblo 
ruins which are claimed by the Tewa and in some cases rather defi- 
nitely by the Santa Claras as the homes of their ancestors. 

The Santa Claras claim also considerable territory east of the Rio 
< Irande; see sheet [15]. 

[14:1] /■'ji'i"""U' ■ ~-c r [2:12]. 

[14:2] Ssebekwaje, see [2:22]. 

[14:3] Tdohvaj^ see [2:14]. 

[14:4] Kumqntaihu'u, see [2:16]. 

1 14:.". | K&gipo, see [2:17]. 

[14:6] AV.w.v/7. see [2:19]. 

[14:7| ( >so < reek see [5:35 |. 

[14:8] Mqhvbvm Ui, see [13:48]. 

1 14:'.' | Miihijbu'ij/I.n. Miihu'ij/I.n 'owl corner arroyo' 'owl arroyo' 
i MiiIujIik' n. see |14:ll|: ' hj , locative and adjective formingpost- 
li\: /<< 'barranca' "arroyo with barrancas'). See [14:11]. 

[14:lo] M,iliijl,nl. n;ij. ',,/.,/. M<i!ni',J,ti 'hills of the height bj owl cor- 
ner' 'owl hills' ( Mnhuhu' a. Bee [14:1 1|: kwaji 'height'; 'oku 
•hill'i. See [14:11]. 

[14:11| id Miilnjhii' n 'owl coiner' (mqhy "our; Im'u 'large low 
roundish place'). 
(_') Bng.Guache settlement and vicinity. { -Span.). Span. (3). 
(3) Span. Guache, of obscure etymology. Eng. (2), Sofax 
.i- ii baa been possible to learn, "< niacin-" baa no meaning in Spun.. 
and is not a corruption of anj l<-«:i name. < f.. howe\ er, < i uache 
panque 1 14:20] 



232 ETHXOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. ann. 29 

This Mexican settlement merges into Placita Larga [14:12] on 
the south, and is separated from San Jose" de Chama [13:44] on 
the north by MqhijbuwiM [14:8]. 
[14:li'] (1) 'Qi)ifijnji. Buli.ji 'long pueblo' 'long town*, translating 
the Span. name('o7?wi 'pueblo', hardly properly applied to a Mexi- 
can settlement; heji ' length ' 'long 1 : bu'ti 'town'). = Eng. (2), 
Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Placita Larga. (<Span.). =Tewa (1), Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Plaeita Larga •lone' town". =Tewa (1). Eng. (2). 
Mr. L. Bradford Prince of Santa Fe, New Mexico, has a ranch 

near this place. 
[14:13] Wdbe'iyko, see [15:1:;]. 
[14:14] (1) Eng. Angostura settlement. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Angostura 'narrow place*. =Eng. (1). 
[14:15] (1) Kutepa'iwe "stone wall place* 0cutepa 'stone wall' <lcu 

'stone": 1, /in 'wall'; Hwt locative). Cf. Eng. (2), Span. (:;). 

(2) Eng. Corral dePiedra. (<Span.). =Span.(3). Cf.Tewa(l). 

(3) Span. Corral de Piedra 'stone corral". =Eng. (2). Cf. 
Tewa (1). Both the Tewa and the Span, names are descriptive 
and may have originated independently. 

[14:10] (1) Butsqbi' /"'. Buts&bPiwt 'new town place' (bi/'n 'town"; 
t&qbi 'newness* 'new*; "/"'' locative and adjective-forming post- 
fix; 'iir, locative). This name is felt to be the opposite of 
Bukejior (juachepanque [14:20], the latter name meaning 'old 
town". 

(2) Eng. Espanola. (<Span.). =Span. (3). The "official" 
spelling of the name omits the tilde. 

(3) Span. Espanola ' Spanish", agreeing with some such femi- 
nine form as placita 'town*, which is understood. = Eng. (2). 

The Santa Clara people definitely claim Espanola as within the 
territory formerly considered as belonging to them. Espanola 
contains two huge stores and a number of American inhabitants. 
The Indians of Santa Clara and San Ildefonso pueblos do most of 
their shopping here. 
[14:17] Butsibi , i H kop'e, But$&b , i H tepoJcop't "new town bridge" 'new 
town wagon bridge' (Buts&bi'i H , see [14:16]; Tcope 'bridge' 
•boat' <Jeo 'to bathe', p'e 'stick' 'log*: tepo 'wagon road' 
<te 'wagon', po "trail" 'road'). 

This is the only wagon bridge between San Juan Pueblo and 
Buckman [20:19]. When the Kio Grande is so high as to make 
the fords near San Ildefonso dangerous the San Ildefonso people 
in driving to Espanola take the road on the eastern side of the 
Kio Grande, which is not so good as that on the western side, cross- 
ing; by means of this bridge. 



EUKKHfOTON] PLACE-NAMES 233 

[14:18] Santa Cruz Creek, see [15:18]. 

1 14 : 1*. » ] Santa Clara Ty,ywi§j6kqhu'u 'high arroyo 1 {f,y,ywssjo 'very 
high' <tu>jir:i • high ', 70 augmentative; hohu'ii ' arroj o with bar- 
rancas' v;/,--! 'barranca', lui'u 'large groove '' arroyo '). Why 
this name is applied was not known to the informants. 

[14:20] (1) Santa Clara Potsipi'igi 'down at the mud string place' 
(fotsi 'mud' ■-./"' • water*, tsi unexplained; /w''-' 'thread' 
'string' 'cord', used also figuratively; <j< 'down at' 'over at'). 
Span. (4) is a Corruption of this name The Santa Claras of the 
presenl day do nol fully understand the meaning of the name, 
and the informants have puzzled much over it. The reference is 
perhaps to a muddy string, or to mud lying in the form of a 
string. The word po/.si i- applied to any mud except regularly 
made adobe mud. the latter being called nafola. 

(•_') Jjii/.i ji 'old town' (btl'll "town'; Jceji 'old' postponing. 
This name is felt to be the opposite of IJulsti/ti'i'' , Espanola 
[14:16], the latter name meaning ' new town". The name /Jul-, ii 
i- used especially in conversation when it is feared that .Mexicans 
would overhear and understand Guachepanque. 

(3) Eng. Guachepanque. (<Span.). =Tewa (1), Span. (4). 

(4) Span. Cuacliepani|ue. I •. Tewa ( 1)1. Tew a ( 1 ). Kne-. (:',). 

The settlement of Guachepanque lies mostly on the edge of the 
low mesa. The Santa Claras distinguish the lowlands lying in 
this vicinity by the river as Potsipi'igenug.e, see |14:-J1|. The 
Santa Claras usually pass through Guachepanque when going to 
Espanola. If talking Span., they sometimes use low tones when 
passing this place, for fear thai the .Mexicans will overhear. 
This is. of course, mere sent imenl 

[14:21] Santa Clara Potsi p&'igt rwQi "down bekra the mud string 
place', referring to [14:20] {Potsip^'igi , see [14:20]; rm'u 'below'; 
iji ■ down at ' • over at '). A- explained under 1 14:20], this name 
i- applied to the lowland- bj the river at [14:20]. 

[14:22] Santa Clara Peak, see [2:13]. 

[14:23] i'iji ji'hi , ■ loathsome penis mountain* (/>/ for py/fa l head of the 
penis'; U 'loathsomeness' 'loathsome'; piyj 'mountain'). 

|14:-_'l] (I) A ', i /„,/„,/,,/' ,i, l\' «]>,;{, i, juilni' >i. A", ij„, fin's,",'. A". iji,: u,,ji., - 
Is,",' -creek of Santa Clara Pueblo |14:7l|' ' cany 'ii of Santa 
Clara Pueblo [14:71]' (K'apo, see [14:71]; '[i/r locative and ad- 
jective-forming postfix; /" ,ii u'ii 'arroyo with water in it' 
•water*. I,,,',, 'large groove' 'arroyo'; pctePi'' canyon with water 
in it* • £>o 'water', &*** 'canyon'). Pohu'u is used of the more 
open, /».\77 of the more closed in, parts <>f the creek. Merely 
Pohu'u or foiet'i is often used by the Santa Clara-, it being under 
i tow hich creek or canj on the reference i- made. Santa I llara 
< nek i- appropriately named, for Santa Clara Pueblo is al it- 



234 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [ETH. ANN. 29 

mouth, and it is claimed by the Santa Clara Indians as their own 
creek. Cf. Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Santa Clara Creek. (<Span.). = Span. (3). Cf. 
Tewa (1). 

(3) Span. Rito de Santa Clara, Arroyo de Santa Clara, Canon 
de Santa Clara ' creek, arroyo or canyon of [14:71 J". =P2ng. (2). 
"Les rivieres . . . Santa Clara." ' Bandelier's "Arroyo de Santa 
Clara" 2 certainly does not apply to Santa Clara Creek; see 
under [14:116]. 

[14:25] Kusun yupiy r. see [2:15]. 

[14:26] Santa Clara 'Apipibrfu 'naked red corner' Qapi 'nakedness' 
'naked'; pi 'redness' 'red'; hn'u 'large low roundish place'). 
This name refers to a low place on both sides of the creek. It 
is said to be reddish. Cf. [14:27]. 

[14:27] Santa Clara 'Apipibuhvaje 1 naked red corner height' QApipi- 
bu'u, see [14:26]; kwaje 'height'). 

[14:2s] Santa Clara Tsci/wa-ii 'wide gap of the little eagle' (tse 
'eagle'; '< diminutive; wcui 'wide gap'). 

[14:2'.t] Santa Clara Kii?onf%g_i'iwe, Ku'oh firgibn'u ' stone on its head 
place' 'stone on its head corner' (ku 'stone'; , onf%g.i 'on the 
head', adverb; Hire locative; bu\t, 'large low roundish place'). 
There are at this place "tent-rocks" (see. pis. 6-8), which are 
thought to resemble people carrying objects on their heads; hence 
the name. 

[14:30] Santa Clara Ts%F%nn% 'white meal place' (fsse 'whiteness' 
'white'; k'wyf 'meal' 'flour'; n% locative). 

A Mexican family is said to live at this place, which is north 
of the creek, under Kusunfupygf [14:25]. 

[14:31] Santa Clara Knqwu'i'' 'rock house place' (jcu "stone' 'rock'; 
qwa denoting state of being receptacle ; '"' locative and adjective- 
forming posttix). The name refers to the location of a rock 
which has caves in it or is hollow, capable of being used as a 
house. 

[14:32] Santa Clara JBuwakupa'awt 'sunny placeof the stone for baking 
bread' (bnwtJcii ' bread stone', referring here to stone of the kind 
of which "slabs are made for cooking btcwajabe 'paper bread' 
< buwa 'bread', jab& 'to tear oft' the surface layer from an 
object'; hi ' stone '; j>a'awe 'sunny place' 'sunny side' Kpa'a 
akin to Jemezpe •sun', we locative). 

There is said to be at this place a deposit of the kind of sand- 
stone used for preparing guayave slabs. So far as could be 
learned, the Santa Clara or other Tewa do not get guayave stones 
from this place at the present time. 

1 Hewett, Communautes, p. 24, ISO*. 2 Bandolier, Fimil Report, pt. n. p. Go, 1892. 



bam™ PLAC1 NAMES 235 

[14:."..".| Santa Clara pup' [iui:i'i>ii'rij.. ',', 'pueblo ruin at tin' narrow 
point ' ( /'"'" ■ horizontally projecting corner or point, as of a mesa 
top'; /'(/// for ji'iijl.i 'narrowness' •narrow'. n% locative; 
'Qrjwikeji 'pueblo ruin' <"<_>//"•( 'pueblo', heji 'old' postpound). 
The Santa Clara informant does not know why this name is 
given; he thinks that the narrow point referred to may be the whole 
of the mesa. Bandelier writes: "On the north side a castle-like 
mesa of limited extent detaches itself from the foot of the Pelade 
The Tehuas call it Shu-finne." 1 "ShuFinne." 3 "Shu-finneV' a 
•• Shutinne." ' ••Shutiniu''." ' "Tsiphenu." 1 "Tsifeno.'" The 
forms "Tsiphenu" "Tsifeno," meaning Mack obsidian' (see 
under Mi\i:i:w.n. p. 584) are incorrect, being based on informa- 
tion obtained In the writer in 1908 from San [ldefonso and Santa 
Clara Indians, who did not know the old Santa Clara name for 
the place. Mr. [gnacio Aguilar of San [ldefonso calls the place 
Ts>'/'i_>i/t<i 'black obsidian' to this day. The ruin and locality 
are described by Bandolier 1 and by Ilewett. 8 Sec [14:46], [14:54]. 

(14::;i| Santa Clara Kup'yiu'-u 'rocky rabbit-brush corner' (/,•>/ 
'stone'; p'y ' rabbit-brush 'Chrysothamnus bigelovii'; bu'u 'large 
low roundish place"). Sec [14:35]. 

[14:M.">| Santa Clara A'"/*' uftufovcy&Qijwih y, 'pueblo ruin of the height 
at rabbit-brush corner, referring to [14:34] (Ekip'uQu'it, see 
[14:34]; hoajt 'height'; 'oywikeji 1 pueblo ruin' QQyvri 'pueblo', 
/./'/ ■ old ' postpound). 

[14:.'!»;| Santa Clara Qw^nsap&ahqnnu 'plain of the soft rat excre- 
ment 1 !•/"'.'/// a specie- of rodent resembling the woodrat; aafo 
'watery excrement' <«a ■excrement'. £>o'water'; 'ahqnnu 
'plain 1 K'akqys 'plain', nv. locative). 

'I'll i — i- a low, level, meadow like place. Sec [14:37]. 

[14:37] Santa ('lara Qw&nsapo'a&QnntfQywikeji 'pueblo nun at the 
plain of the -oft rat excrement', referring to [14:36] (Qwsensapo- 
'akQnnu, see [14:36]; 'qywjJcepi 'pueblo ruin' • 'qywi 'pueblo', 
Jeeji 'old' postpound). 

|14::'.s| Santa Clara Tsipiwi'i 'gap where the pieces of flaking stone 
conn- out of the ground' (tet'i 'flaking stone'; pi 'to emerge' 'to 
come out ' • i.i.j, i' 'to issue'; voVi * gap' 'pass'). For quoted 

form- of the name 1 14:39]. 

Doctor lleweti furnishes the information that the gap or pass 
referred to by this name i- weal of the ruin [14:89], q. v. 

':• port pt ii. |. I 
» Hnn.l.-li. r : iv». 

Mir 

• Howotl ... ii. rui Vim 
« Ilnrr 

• AMI 



236 ETHXOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. asm. 29 

[14:39] Santa Clara Tsipiwi 'oywikeji ' pueblo ruin at [14:88]' (Tsipivn'i, 
see [14:38]; ' 'qijw\],-ej i 'pueblo ruin' <'oi)ir% 'pueblo', Jceji 'old' 
postpound). " Hewett mentions "cliff dwellings of Chupadero 
Canyon" [14:87]. 1 "Chipiwi". 2 

Tsipiwi'i is a ruin situated on the southern rim of the mesa 
east of the gap from which it takes its name, according to Doctor 
Hewett, hy whom it La described. 3 

[14:-10] Santa Clara Puje&ohu'u, Puje'iykQhu'ii 'arroyo of [14:46]' 
(Puje, see [14:46]; 'ij)f locative and adjective-forming postfix; 
IqlnCn 'arroyo with barrancas' <lo_ 'barranca', hu'v. 'large 
groove 1 "arroyo"). 

The two chief head waters, or rather head gulches, of this 
arroyo unite just south of the western extremity of the mesa 
[14:45] to form Pujekohrfu proper. 

[14:41 1 Santa Clara Pujeyw%j}kabaH 'rock-pine grove of [14:46]' 
(Puje, see [14:46]; ijir;rijf 'rock-pine' 'Pinus scopulorum'; lea 
'denseness' 'dense' 'forest'; boJ-i 'large roundish pile', possibly 
referring here to a hill, but more probably referring to a grove). 
The Santa Clara informant insists that this is a regular place 
name. 

[14:42] Santa Clara J3y,be , e ' little corner of the one-seeded juniper' 
(hy, 'one-seeded juniper' 'Juniperus monosperma ' : be't 'small 
low roundish place'). Cf. [14:43]. 

[14:43] Santa Clara Sybehwaje 'height at the little, corner of the one- 
seeded juniper' (I/ybee, see [14:42]: fovaje 'height'). 

[14:44] Nameless pueblo ruin, located by Doctor Hewett. 

[14:45] Santa Clara Pujekwaje, Pujehwag.e 'height of [14:46]' 'mesa 
of [14:46]' {Puje, see [14:46]; kwaje' 'height": Jewag.e 'height' 
'mesa'). (PL 4.) 

"Puye is a rock of grayish-yellow tufa, 5,750 feet long, vary- 
ing in width from 'JO to 700 feet. It is a fragment of the great 
tufaceous blanket that once covered the entire Pajarito plateau 
to a thickness of from 50 to 500 feet." 4 See [14:46]. 

[14:46 1 Santa Clara Puje^uywikeji probably 'pueblo ruin where the 
rabbits meet or assemble' (pu probably 'cottontail rabbit"; /', 
probably 'to meet' 'to assemble'; 'wywikeji 'pueblo ruin' 
<'Uywi 'pueblo' (Santa Clara dialectic form of Tewa 'oywi), heji 
'old' postpound). This etymology is not certain, although it is 
given by Tewa Indians when asked to etymologize the word. The 
Santa Clara pronounce puj< with rising-falling tone of the last 
syllable, while je 'to meet" has a level tone. One informant sug- 
gested that if the etymology given above is correct, the name may 

' General View, p. 698, 1905. 

'-' Hewett: Antiquities, p. 15, 1906; CommunauUs, p. 45, 1908. 

'Antiquities, No. S, 1906. 

i Hewett in Out II est, xx.xi, p. 697, 1909. 



B1BRIH0TOV] PLACE-NAMES 237 

refer t<> rabbits being driven together at a communal rabbit bunt. 
Although pit refers properly to the >pccies of cottontail nibhits 
wit li which the Tewa are familiar, it is also used as the general 
word for 'rabbit'. Puji means 'deerskin'. Stephen 1 gives 
"puyd" as meaning 'quail' in the Hano dialed of Tewa. Note 
also the etymology by Hewett, quoted below. "Puiye." a 
"Puye." a "Pu-ye."* 1 "Puye (Tewa: | place of the] 'berry')". 8 
•' Puy.V' 

Tin- pueblo ruin i- described by Bandolier,' by 1 lewett," and by 
S. G. Morley.' The Santa Clara- -ay tliat their ancestors lived 
at Puye, although this is perhaps a conclusion al which they would 
naturally arrive rather than a definite historical tradition. The 
Tewa of the other pueblos consider that sill the country about 
Santa Clara Creek belongs to the Santa Clara Indian-, and thai 
Puye, being situated in this country, must also belong to the 
Santa Claras. The writer has talked with many Tewa on the 
subject, but has never been able to learn anything further than 
this. But Bandelier 10 write-: 

Fer tun consecutive years I inquired of the Tehuaa of San Juan and San Qde- 

fonso if they knew anything about the cave dwellers, ami they invariably told me 

they • 1 i ■ 1 not. At last, iii 1888, I became acquainted with the people of Santa 

, and during three protracted stays at their vill led in gaining 

tl ufidence of several of their principal shaman-. These medicine-men 

assured me that the pueblo on the summit of the l'u-y.'. and the cave dwellings 
in that cliff and at the Shu- tin in', were t lie work and abodes of their ai 

quently I questioned the medicine-men of Ban Juan, and the} acknowl- 
edged that what their neighbors had told me was true. Inn that it was li" part 

of their local traditional history. The same was said to me afterwards by one 
of the wizards of San Ildefonso. The Indians of Santa Clara also informed me 
that drought and the hostility of nomadic Indians had compelled the final aban 
donmenl of the sites. The statements of these Indians were so emphatic, thai I 
am strongly inclined to believe them. The cave-houses and the highest pueblo 
appear therefore to have been the homes of that portion of the Tehua tribe whose 
remnants now inhs ige of Santa Clara, in days long previous to the 

coming of Europeans. 

The statements which Santa Clara Indian- have made to the 
present writer relative to this subject have been only what one 

might expect, and apparently arc based mi speculation rather 

than definite tradition. Hodge 11 Bays: 
The natives [the Santa Claras] assert that their ancestors dwelt in thee 
tificial grottos excavated in cliffs of pumice-stone Puye and Shufinne) 

ii.irv nf tbi Lai ; in. I'll- by 

tar. Am, Ethn " 

' [bid., p 178; B OB; I ommamoU . p t> ■ 

• n hi ■■ ort, pi ii. |i n ■ : 

•Bewi , p. 14, 1KB; In Out HU, \\m. i irrlnftan, Ibid 

' Pinal Report, pt. u, i 

•Anllqi 

•Ibid., n mi. S 

„! Reprfrt, re II pp ti 
u Handbook tl 



238 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [ETH. ANN. 29 

west of the Rio Grande, and this may be true of both historic and prehistoric 
times; but the Santa Clara people probably were not the only Tewa occupants 
of these cliff-lodges. 

J'mj, has given the names to [14:40], [14:45], and [14:47]. 

1 14:47] (1) Santa Clara Pujt popi 'spring at [14:46]' (Puje, see [14:46]; 
popi 'spring' <po 'water 1 , pi 'to issue'). 

(2) Eng. Nine Mile spring. It is called thus because it is 
supposed to be 9 miles from Santa Clara Pueblo, or from the Rio 
Grande. 

[14:48] Santa Clara Suwako 'warm barranca' (suwa ' warmth' 'warm'; 
l-q 'barranca'). Why this bank or gulch is called warm the in- 
formants did not know. Suwa is used much as Eng. 'warm' is 
used, of objects which are warm, of warm and sunny locations, etc. 

[14:49] Santa Clara Knpinmse 'at the small pile or piles of stones' 
(Jcu 'stone'; pu'u 'small roundish pile' of about the same mean- 
ing as b'l.ii ; n;r locative). 

[14:50] Santa Clara Tap ojateqwdiwe 'place of Taf ova's house' 
(Tap'oja <Span. Tafoya, surname of a Mexican who has a house 
at this place; teqwa 'house' <te 'dwelling-place', gwa denoting 
state of being a receptacle; Hwe locative). 

[14:51] Santa Clara Poiag_e 'down at the place where the squashes, 
pumpkins, or gourds are dried' (po 'squash' •pumpkin' 'gourd'; 
la 'to be dry' 'to dry', transitive; g< 'down at' 'over at"). Cf. 
[14:52]. 

[14:52] Santa Clara PataQ.ehv!u 'arroyo at the place where the 
squashes, pumpkins, or gourds are dried' (Potag.e, see [14:51]; 
h u'li 'large groove' 'arroyo'), 

[14:53] Santa Clara 'Awap'qsakt'imu 'corner where the cat-tails are' 
('awap'a 'cat-tail'; sa 2 + plural of tfa 'to be at a place"; %-Pimv, 
said to mean about the same as buu 'large low roundish place'). 

[14:54] Santa Clara P'yp'innse, P'yp'iim^kwaje 'rabbit-brush nar- 
row place' 'rabbit-brush narrow place height' (p'u rabbit-brush' 
'Chrysothamnus bigelovii'; p*\7)f for pytjki 'narrowness' 'nar- 
row'; n;r locative; kira/e 'height'). Cf. [14:33] and [14:55]. 

[14:55] Santa Clara P'lip'innsehiiu 'rabbit-brush narrow place arroyo' 
(P*vp'inn%, see [14:54]; hu , u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

It is said that the main wagon road leading to Puje [14:4ti] 
passes through the lower part of this arroyo. 

[14:56] Santa Clara 'Ate , ehu , u 'little chokecherry arroyo' ("aie 
' ehokeeherry ' 'Prunus melanocarpa'; '(diminutive; htfu 'large 
groove' 'arroyo'). 

[14:57] Roman Mountain, see [2:41]. 

[14:58] Santa Clara Nqnijiembn'ii 'black earth corner' (»<)tj/ 'earth'; 
p zyf 'blackness' 'black'; bu'u 'large low roundish place). Cf. 
[14:59], 



HAMINOTOM I P] M I NAMES 239 

[14:59] Santa Clara Nfonp'tykwajt 'black earth height 1 {n&mp'etfs, 

see [14:58]; k waji 'height '). 
[14:60] Santa Clara '1','jiii'i'' 'box-elder place' {t.'ji.ii 'box-elder' 

'Acer aegando'; V"' locative and adjective forming postfix). 
[14:f>l] Santa Clam 1'obi'i • little corner of the squashes, pumpkins, 

or gourd' (po 'squash' ' pumpkin ' 'gourd'; /n '< 'small low 

roundish place'). Cf. [14:62]. 
[14:t52] Santa Clara Pobehu'u 'arroyo of the little corner of the 

squashes, pumpkins, or gourds' (Pobe'e, see [14:61]; Tm'u 'large 

grooi >■' 'arroyo'). 
[14:G;>| Santa Clara '.\'ntx<ii/w?pbe'e 'little corner of the blue slope' 

i'n'ii 'steep or short .-.lope": tsqrjwif, 'blucness' 'blue" 'greenness' 

'green': b< '< 'small low roundish place'). 
[14:64] Santa Clara Potsibe'e 'little mud corner' (fotei "11111(1" < po 

'water', tsi unexplained; b<'< "small low roundish place'). Cf. 

[14:20]. 
[14 :»'>.") J Santa Clara Qn-;i mpiirii "gap of the red- tailed hawk' (<ji/<a m />/ 

"red-tail hawk", unidentilied species of bird < qinryf 'tail', pi 

'redne.-s" "red': n-i'i 'gap' 'pass'). The gulch at the place is 

probably called (Jw:i in p'nri/i'u' u (Itu'u 'large groove' "arroyo'). 
The local itj \\a~ pointed out to the writer, but the gap itself 

could not be definitely located. Perhaps it is identical with the 

gulch or arn>\ o. 
[14:t'.'iJ Santa Clara Jowi'i 'cane cactus gap' (jo 'cane cactus' 'Opun- 

tia arborescens'; wVi "'jap'). 
[14:67] Santa Clara E?aPopohu'iykw%ky,mp6kop't 'railroad bridge of 

|14:ii4|" ( K'n/iiijin Ini' a, ~ee [14:"_'4|; '[>/./' locative and adjective 

forming p«,-tii\: Jew, il.uin jm "railroad" <hw%ky,T)j 'iron', of ob- 
scure etymology ', po 'trail' 'road'; hop'e "bridge" 'boat' ho 

k tO bailie". p\ " -I iek ' " log '). 

[14:68] Santa Clara Nubu'u 'corner below' (nu'u 'below' 'under'-. 
//ii'u 'large low roundish place'). The place is called thus, it \g 
>aid. because it is far below Santa Clara Pueblo. 

[14:69] (I) Santa Clara Ea/pijbkeji 'old el, -pel' (kapijh Span, 
capilla 'chapel'; Jeeji 'old' postpound). Eng. (8), Span. (4). 
(2) Santa Clara Mieate'ekep 'old chapel' (misate't 'chapel' 

<////.-./ ■ Span, mi-a ' Roman ( 'at holic inn-- '; I, 'dwelling- place' 

'house'; > diminutive; Jeeji 'old' postpound). Cf. Tewa (1), 
Eng. (8), Span. id. 

(8) Eng. the Old Chapel. Tewa (1 1, Span, i t). 

(4) Span. Capilla Vieja 'old chapel'. Tewa (1), Eng. (3). 
( f. Tewa (2). 

It i- -aid that there is at this place the ruin of a Catholic 

chapel. 



240 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [etii. 



[14:7o] Seen Arroyo, see [15:26]. 

[14:71 1 (1) K'itpii'utjiri of obscure, etymology (k'apo unexplained; 
'yi/ii'i 'pueblo'). Although a large number of Tewa Indians have 
been questioned concerning the etymology of this name and 
although what are apparently cognate forms of the name occur in 
other Tanoan languages, K'apo has withstood up to the present 
time all attempts to explain its meaning. Both syllables are 
long in the Tewa form of the name; the first syllable has level 
tone and the second syllable circumflex tone. The syllable k'a 
with level tone has no meaning in Tewa. Neither /•'«/ 'corral' 
■fence'. /,■'</' weight' 'heavy', k'arntsik'a 'eyeball' (tsi 'eye') 
nor k'a'" 'wild rose' 'rose' 'any rosa species' is identical with 
the syllable k'a in K'apo. The second syllable of h",/ [><>. namely 
po, is even more perplexing. It lias the circumflex tone, as said 
above, and is identical with Tewa po 'trail' 'road'. The seem- 
ingly cognate Jemez form of the name (see Jemez (.">), below) has 
as its second syllable the Jemez word pa 'water', cognate with 
Tewa po 'water'. The quoted Taos, Pieuris, and Isleta forms 
seem to show p<t "water". Tewa. has besides po 'trail', also po 
' water ' and po ' moon '. each of these three words having a differ- 
ent tone. The etymology of the name K'apo is not known either 
to the Tewa or to the Jemez. If a Tewa Indian is asked to give 
the meaning of K 'apo he couples either ' corral ', ' heavy ', ' spheri- 
cal', or 'rose' with either 'trail', 'water', or 'moon'. Some of 
the fancied etymologies formed in this way are very pretty. 
Thus he may render the name by 'rose-trail' 'spherical moon' 
'heavy water'. One informant was strongly in favor of 'corral 
water'. An investigator at Santa Clara Pueblo writes: " I asked 
. . . what Kapo meant . . . He answered without hesitation 
'dew' (Span, rocio) — what comes in the night and looks pretty in 
the morning." This Indian had chosen the. meanings 'rose-water' 
and construed them as the water on rose plants, that is, 'dew', the 
similarity in sound between Span, rosa 'rose' and Span, rocio (c 
in New Mexican Span. =s), ' dew '. perhaps, helping along this ety- 
mology. In a later letter the same investigator writes: " I have 
discovered that the Indians do not know the meaning of K'apo.'' 
The writer is hopeful that a thorough study of the forms of the 
name in the Indian languages in which it occurs, other than Tewa, 
will make clear its etymology. Some of the forms quoted below 
represent a variant pronunciation, K'apo' . It is possible, but 
hardly probable, that the name of a former Tano Tewa pueblo, 
Bandelier's "Ka-po", etc. [29:unlocated] is the same. Cf. this 
name, and also Kapo, name of the pueblo ruin [14:71 ]. which is, 
of course, entirely distinct. The present pueblo [14:71] is said to 



BABBI2TOTON] PLACE-NAMES 241 

l>e the third which has borne the name A" afo. The Qrsf to have 

this Dame was [14:116], the second 1 14 : 1 17]. See general ills 

cossioD below: "Capoo." 1 •■Capo."'- ■■Ca-po." 3 "Ka-po."* 
"Kapung" 5 (given a- llano Tewa name). "Kapou." 8 
"Ka-Poo."' "Kap-h6" 8 (given as San Lldefonso and 
San Juan name). •■ K"ha-po'-o.*' 9 "Ka'po." 18 "Kah-po." 11 
"(:i|»i." ,; "K'hapob 'where the roses (?) grow near the 
water.'" 1 ' 

(2) Taos"Haipaai". M "Hai'bata'\ 8 Haiba'yu"." 

(3) Picuris "Haiphaha". 8 "Kaipaa 'in the river there are wet 
cornstalks'". 

Hi [sleta "K'haibhai". 8 

(5) JeiiH'z /•/'//'«;,//'; of obscure etymology but evidently akin to 
the Tewa, Tiwa. and Keresan forms (fjd unexplained; pd 'water'; 
at leasl it sounds exactly the same as Jemez pd 'water'; gi'i loca 
tive, probably equivalent to Tewa gt 'down at' 'over at'). This 
name was given the writer as the old and now no longer used 
Jemez name of San Juan Pueblo. It was Been at once, however, 
that ii must be the old Jemez name for Santa Clara Pueblo, A"'//'-. 
This is corroborated by the fact thai the same name was obtained 
by Mr. Hodue a- the name of Santa ( 'lara Pueblo; see below. The 
people of pj&p&gi'laxe called by the Jemez />j&p&t?d?&f {ffd?&f 
' people'). "Shi-ap'-a-gi". 8 

(6) Pecos •'< riowaka -a'". '' "Giowatsa-a,"'. 18 "Giowa-"in these 
forms is clearly the same as Jemez giowd 'oveT above' 'up- 
country'; "tsa-a"' of the Pecos form second given is certainly 

equivalent to Jemez ffd'tif -\ pie*. In the Jemez language 

gunodtf&'&f mean- 'up-country people' and is said to be applied 
to the I "to. Jicarilla Apache, Taos, etc., who live up-country, 

' !'•• II : 

17, urn. 
■ Bandelier In Ritcn, v 

* I'-h-i Amir., vn, p. 157, 1890; alao In Finn] Report, pt. I, pp, I 
1890. 

• Baodi 

1910). 
»lbld. 

"Few p 81 1, 1900. 

UJOQTI 

"T'.i , lottng earl) Span, noi 

u Bodg 

ii Bndd [8. In Bnr. 

-I ZOrrn L6 16 



242 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

above, north of Jeraez Pueblo. Probably the corresponding 
Pecos form, of which Stevenson has fortunately given us a record, 
hud the same meaning, being applied to the Tewa and other tribes 
living up country from the Pecos. The " ka-a'" of the Pecos 
form first given remains unexplained. 

(7) Pecos "Ak'-e-ji". 1 

(8) Cochiti Ki'iipa. This name is said to have no etymology 
known to the Cochiti. "Kai'p'a". 2 

(9) "Sia 'Tinjititja me'". 3 The last syllable is evidently mx 
'people'. 

(In) Acoma "Kaiipa". 4 

(11) ( )raibi Hopi Nascftie't tewa ' middle Tewa 5 (nasaie 1 ! ' middle'; 
Tewa 'Tewa'). So called because Santa Clara is the central vil- 
lage of the Tewa villages on the Rio Grande, lying between San 
Ildefonso and .San Juan. 

(1'2) Navaho '"Ana S'lishl 'tribe like bears'''. 5 It is explained 
that the Santa Claras arc so named from their skunk-skin moccasins 
which at first were thought to be of bear skin. 

(13) Probably Keres or Tiwa "Caypa". 8 This name is con- 
founded with San Juan. 

(1-1) Eng. Santa Clara. (<Span.). = Span. (15). 

(15) Span. Santa Clara 'Saint Clara'. =Eng. (14). "Santa 
Clara". 7 "S?Clara". 8 "Si a Clara". 9 "S.Clara". 10 

With TTapo compare the name of the pueblo ruin Kapd 'oywikeji 
[5:23| and Bandelier's "Ka-po" given as the name of a pueblo ruin 
nearGolden, New Mexico [29: unlocated]. Bandelier describes Santa 
Clara Pueblo: 11 "Jemez. Santa Clara, and San Felipe are each a 
double quadrangle with two squares." "At Santa Clara . . . 
the Yutas . . . have assiduously contributed to the propagation 
of the speries". 13 A Santa Clara informant knew nothing of the 
Ute blood at Santa Clara Pueblo. " The church of Santa Clara was 
iirst used in 17«'>1 ". 13 The present pueblo is the third to bear the 
name ITafto according to Santa Clara tradition. The first TCafo 
pueblo was [14:116], a short distance northwest of the present 
.Santa Clara Pueblo. This was abandoned, so the story goes, its 
inhabitants building a second village called A"</}»> at a site some- 
what northeast of the present Santa Clara; see [14:117]. 

1 Hodge, field notes, Bur. Amer Ktlm . 1895 (Handbook Inds., pt. 'J, p. 457, 1910). 

a Hodge, ibid. 

"Spinden, Sia notes, 1910. 

« Hodge, op. cit. 

b Curtis, American Indian, i, p. 138, 1907. 

» Ofiate (1598) in Doc. I„nl., XVI, p. 256, 1871. 

; Ibid., p. Hi'.. 

* De l'lsle, Carte Mex. et Flor., 1703. 

" li'Anville, Map Amer. Beptentrionale, 1746. 

10 Crepy, Map Amer. Septentrionale, 1783 (?) 

11 Final Report, pt. i. p. 265, 1890. 
1= [bid., pp. 'JiU-t'.'j. 

13 Ibid., p. 267, note. 



HAKRIMITUNI 



P) M i N \MI IS "J !■"- 



[14:72] Santa Clara A'n-.-r/,,', 'oak arroyito [kw& 'oak'; hii '-mall 
groove' 'arroyito'). Cf. [14:73], [14:120]. 

[14:73] Santa Clara Ewsphefcwaji 'oak arroyito height' (JSw^he'e, see 
[14:72]; hoajjl 'height'). Cf. [14:72]. ' 

[14:74 1 Santa Clara Kupunf^huhqhu'u 'arroyo of the corner where 
the -tone is conspicuous' [Kupunfgbu'u, see [14:75]; 
'arroyo with barrancas' <kq 'barranca', hu'u 'large groove' 
'arroyo'). < '!'. 1 14:75]. 

[14:7"i| Santa Clara Kupunj>3gbu , u 'corner where the stone is conspicu- 
ous' (*u 'stone'; punyn 'to be conspicuous' 'to be noticeably 
beautiful'; l>"'>/ 'large low roundish place'). 

[14:76] Santa Clara Kunu'ijfj'hu'u 'arroyo below the rocks ' (Jcu 1 rock' 
•-tone': hu'u •below"; V" Locative and adjective-forming post 
fix; hu'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 
There is said to be white sand in this gulch. Cf. [14:77]. 

[14:77) Santa Clara Kunu'ygj'huhwaj^ Kunukwaji 'heighl of the 
arroyo below the rock-" 'height of the place below the rocks' 
th'"n"'hj rli'i'n. A'"//</'»,see( 14:76]; hvaji 'height'). Cf. [14:76]. 

[14:78] Santa < !lara P'egwapohu'u 'drag pole or log creek * (/•'< "pole' 
'log'; qwa 'to drag'; Pohu'n 'creek with water in it' </-o 
'water', hu'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

[14:79] Santa Clara Ku'iyfhu'u 'rocky arroyo' (hu "rock" •-tone"; 
'<" locative and adjective-forming postfix; hu'u 'large groove' 
'arroyo'). 

[14:80] San Qdefonso Tsabijofchu'u, ee [18:8]. 

|14:M| Santa Clara P 'smooth red arroyo' (^''redness' 

'red'; si thness' 'smooth'; hu'u' large gul< h" arroyo'). 

[14:82] Santa Clara TanCahu'u 'arroyo where the sun lives or 
dwells', said to refer to the shining of the sun I fay > 'sun'; t'a 
'to live' 'to dwell'; hu'u 'large gulch' 'arroyo'). For the name 
cf. [28:16]and [28:17]. 

[14:83] Santa Clara 7" </'' *. hu'i < 'arroyo of the yellow Cu'* mineral' 
CV" a kind of whitish mineral, Bee under Minerals; is, 'yel- 
lowness' 'yellow '; hu'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

[14:M| Santa Clara Qwawiwag.z'iQfhu'u 'arroyo of the place like a 
gap between the houserows of a pueblo' (qwawi'i 'gap between 
the house rows of a pueblo' qwa 'house,' indefinite term show- 
ing state of being a receptacle, wi'i ' gap '; wagi ' like ' similar to' 
postfix; '■"' locative and adjective-forming postfix; hu'u 'large 
gap' 'arroj o'). 

[14: s .'>| ih Santa Clara K*ahu'u 'corral arroyo' (/■',/ 'corral'; hu'u 
'large groove' 'arroyo*). Cf. Span. (2). 

Span. Arroyo de las Latas 'slat arroyo'. Cf. Tewa (li. 

[14:s»'.| ill Santa Clara ) pa. npupoh , pu^o 'rock pine roots 

creek' (ywtpgj "ruck pine' 'Pinus saxorum'; />" 'base' 'root'; 



244 ETHNOGEOGBAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. anx. 29 

pohuu ' arroyo with water in it' <po "water', liun "large groove' 
arroyo'). Cf. Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Arroyo del Pinavete 'rock-pine arroyo'. Cf. 
Tewa(l). 
[14:87] (1) Santa Clara Ky/unhvPu 'skunk-bush gap' (Ky,m , i ) see under 
[14:unloeated]; Itii'u "large groove' 'arroyo'). 

(2) San Ildefonso \\' a nfijh<hi';i nij/yiiu'ii. "arroyo where the two 
maidens .sit' (a a n,fuijf2, + plural of 'a'°nyy 'maiden' 'virgin'; 
da 'they two' third person dual prefixed pronoun with intransi- 
tive verb; 'xi)f 'to sit'; 'iijf locative and adjective-forming post- 
fix; hiLu 'large groove' "arroyo'). Why this name is applied 
was not known to the informants. 

(3) Eng. Chupadero Creek, Chupadero Arroyo, Chupadero 
Canyon. (<Span.). =Span. (4). 

(4) Span. Arroyo Chupadero, Canon Chupadero "sucking place 
canyon '. = Eng. (3). 

Span, chupadero means "sucking place' "nursing bottle'. 
Doctor Hewett explains the application of the name Chupadero 
to this canyon in a very satisfactory way. In the bed of the 
lower part of the arroyo, Doctor Hewett says, holes or pits in 
the sand are always to be seen. These, which are sometimes 5 
feel or more in depth, are made by the donkeys pastured in the 
region, who always obtain water in this fashion, although the sur- 
face of the arroyo-bed may be entirely dry. This explanation 
probably accounts for the frequent appearance of the name of 
Chupadero on the map of New Mexico. Mr. Hodge informs the 
writer that the name "'chupadero" is applied also to a certain 
apterous insect. Information given by Indians and Mexicans 
leads to the conclusion that no such application is current in New 
Mexico. '"Chupadero Canyon." 1 "Chupadero". 2 For the name 
cf. [22:51], [22:58], [23:25], [26:4]. 

[14:88] Santa Clara P'ininik'% ijiri'i •dwarf-corn meal gap' (p'inini- 
k';<_ijf 'dwarf-corn' a variety of corn resembling our sweet corn 
<jiinini 'dwarf 'puny and undersized person', New Mex. 
Span, pinineo 'pygmy'?, k'vijf "meal' 'flour; wi'i 'gap' 'pass'). 
For quoted forms of the name see under [14:93]. 

Doctor Hewett informs the writer that this is a deep gap. It 
has given names to [14:89], [14:91], and [14:93]. 

[14:89] Santa Clara P'ininiVs^ijwiJcwaji. " height by dwarf -corn meal 
gap' (P'inhiik';r>jir't'i, see [14:88]; Tcwaje "height"). 

|14:'.»uJ Santa Clara Xabaiiu'uijiriktjt 'pueblo ruin of the arroyo of 
cultivatable fields', referring to [14:91] (Xabahu'u, see [14:91]; 
'yijirikiji "pueblo ruin' <\iytri 'pueblo', Iceji 'old' postpound). 

•Hewett, General View, p. 59s, 1905. 
2 Hewett in Out West, xxxi, p. 707, 1909. 



HAKB1NG P 



l'l \. I. NAMES "-' 1 5 



"Navahu". 1 "Navahu".' 1 " Navahti ".' The ruin stands on 
low land, at the Bide of the arroyo [ 14;*. > I ] From which it takes its 
name. lr i- described by ! [ewett. 4 

14:91] (1) Santa Clara Ncfodhu'v 'arroyo of the cultivatable Gelds' 
'- 'piece of land which is or has been cultivated or is con 
sidered capable of being cultivated"; Ini'u • lame jjfroovc" "ar- 
royo'). The name refers to any arroyo to which the definition 
applies. It mean- about the .same as ' arroyo where the people 
raise crops'. There are many such arroj os in the rugged Navaho 
country, and it is probable that the tribal name Navaho is a cor- 
ruption "t' Tewa naiahu'u as suggested by Hewetl '; see under 
Nw \tiii, page 575. For quoted forms of Ndbahu'u see under 
[14:90]. 

(2) Santa Clara l'i ni nil/ ' :i ij>rijj fh u' u ' dwarf -corn meal gap 
arroyo" (P'ininivri'i, see [14:88]; ' i ' ' locative and adjective-form- 
ing postfix; hu'ii ' large groove ' 'arroyo'). 

[14:'-'2| Nameless pueblo ruin. 

[14:'.»:'.| Santa Clara J '"mi nil/ ';; //./•/' '■/_/ i/iril; ji 'pueblo ruin at dwarf 
corn meal gap' (P'ininik'%ywi'i, see |14; s s|: 'y,yivilceji "pueblo 
ruin" -/'j/jirl 'pueblo', Jceji 'old' postpound). " Pininicangwi 
i "place of the corn-Hour ')".''' '" I'minican^w i.""' ; "Phinini- 
kanwi'i.'" 

The ruin stands on low land, at the Bide of the creek |14:'.»1| 
and some distance east of the gap [14:88], from which it taki - it- 
name. 

|14:'.'4 1 Nameless ruin. 

[14:95] Span. Armyo del Ojo de Agua 'arroyo of the sprin 
water*. The name is supplied bj Doctor Hewett. 

( 14 :'-♦■; | J'im/iiji' [iji/irinji "northern arm of the delta' {fim'piji 
"north" /'{'./• "mountain', pijt "toward": ' /" locative and 

adjective-forming postfix; qwogt 'delta' 'arm of delta' q 
cut through' 'to gouge out'; gt "down at ' 'over at'). One of 
the name- of the creek [14:87] may also be propounded. See 
[14:87], [14:97]. 

[14:'. , 7] ' A!nii,/'ij(' i L i,i/i/-tnj: 'southern arm of the delta' '"/" 

'south' '"/. ■"// • 'plain', pijt "toward'; /" locative and adjec- 
tive-forming postfix; qwog.t ' delta '' arm of delta' jwo'tocut 
through' 'to gouge out'; y 'down at' 'ovei at') 

[14:98] Rio Grande, see [Large Features], pages LOO 102. 

[14:99] .".lack Mesa, secfl8:19]. 

[14:100] San Ild.d'on-o A'.,/,,,. | 16 . 

■ II- . 

■ ii.m.ii. Commanaat. 

< 11, . 

• Hewi " I ■• 

■II 

'Hurtnctao ... "«< Wat, i ■ vi. p 1 



246 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [BTH. ANN. 29 

[14:101] San Ildefonso Kupiwaud'inisi'i, see [16:49]. 

[14:102] Guaje Creek, see [16:53]. 

[14:103] San Ildefonso T.v^/V'/. see [16:80]. 

[14:104] San Ildefonso Tf%hu'u, see [16:20]. 

[14:105] San Ildefonso T'y,p//nii!, see [16:24]. 

[14:106] San Ildefonso P'ahewihu'u, see [16:25]. 

[14:107] San Ildefonso * E'<njJ>-qhun, see [18:40]. 

[14:10S] Santa Clara K ' apopohupsgygt 'beyond Santa Clara Creek' 
(K'apopohifu, see [14:24]; psgyge 'beyond'). 

This term is applied more or less definitely to the region beyond 
(north of) Santa Clara Creek. 

[14:lo',t] Santa Clara Behe'e 'arroyito of the fruit trees' (be 'intro- 
duced fruit' 'introduced fruit tree', meaning' originally 'round- 
ishness'; he\ 'small groove' 'arroyito'). 

The informant thought that some fruit trees used to grow 
somewhere in this gulch. It is very small and dry, yet is appar- 
ently identical with Bandelier's '•mountain torrent called Ar- 
royo de Santa Clara". 1 See under [14:116]. Cf. [14:110]. 

[14:110] Santa Clara Behekwaje 'fruit tree arroyito height' (Behde, 
see [14:109]; hwaj't 'height'). 

[14:111] Santa ( !lara Katsinahe\ 'Cachina arroyito' ( Ka t&ina 'cachina,' 
a kind of mythical being; hce 'arroyito'). ( 'f. [14:112.] 

[14:112] Santa Clara Katsinahehmajl 'height by Cachina arroyito' 
(ITatsinahe'e, see [14:11]; Tewajt 'height'). 

[14:113] Santa ( 'lata Sabepenihe'i 'Athabascan corpse arroyito' (Sabe 
'Athabascan Indian'; pent 'corpse' 'what remains of a dead 
body'; he*e 'small groove' 'arroyito'). 

Mr. J. A. Jeancon states that he learned while at Santa Clara 
Pueblo that two "Apache" Indians are buried somewhere 
slightly south of the village. At times in the night these Apache 
rise from their graves and are seen by Santa Clara Indians. Mr. 
Jeancon's informant said that he always ran when he passed near 
the place at night. He refused to tell Mr. Jeancon just where 
these Apache lie buried for fear the latter might dig up the 
remains, an act which the informant thought might cause trouble. 
[Cf. 14:11]. 

[14:114] Santa Clara Sabepenihehuoajh 'Athapascan corpse arroyo 
height' (Sabepenihe'e, see [14:113]; huoaje 'height'). 

[14:115] Santa Clara Knt<i'"- will 'painted rock point' (ku 'stone' 
'rock'; tq"i 'painting' 'pictograph'; wiM 'projecting corner or 
point'). 

[14:116] Santa Clara ]\"n po'injwifajt (first site) of obscure etymology 
(K'apo, see [14:71]: '\Lijir'tJ,,)i 'pueblo ruin' K'yr/wi 'pueblo', 
Jeeji 'old' postpound). 

i Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n, p. 65, 1892 



BAWUNOTON] PLACE-NAMES 24 7 

Thia ruin is said to lie northwest <>!' Santa Clara and west of the 
railmad track. Ii is -aid thai this is the first and original site of 
K'nj^'ijijn-l. Bandolier certainly refers to tins site when be 
write-: "A still older Bite [than [14:117]] is at the nutlet of a 
mountain torrent called Arroyo de Santa Clara, a short dis- 
tance to the wesl [of Santa Clara Pueblo]. The re. -a\ the natives, 
stood "old Kapo before the white man and the gray fathers came 
to dwell among us'". 1 It is not known what is meant by ;i 
••mountain torrent called the Arroyo de Santa Clara". Any 
arroyo back of Santa Clara would be called Arroyo de Santa 
Clara by the Mexicans. The nun must lie somew here near />'- /<■ 'e 
[14:109]. One would hardly call the latter a "mountain torrent". 
Can it he that tin' well known Santa Clara Canyon is here referred 
to1 Ilewett-' refers to this ruin in the last clause of the fol- 
lowing passage: "Pres du village de Santa Clara, deux endroits 
ont e*te* autrefois occupes par cette tribu. Celui qui a etc habits 
le plus reeemineiit est ( >ld Kapo 1 14 : 1 1 7 1, a quelques metres a 
l'e8< du village actuel; <le I'autre il ne reste que des debris". < !f. 
[14:71], [14:117]. 
[14:1171 Santa Clara A" a ]<■' u i/trij,. j i (second site) of obscure ety 
mology i A".'/"-. Bee [14:71]; 'y rywijteji 'pueblo ruin' < , y,iywi 
• pueblo', /■</'' 'old" postpound). 

It i- said that this ruin, which lie- northeast of the present vil- 
lage of Santa Clara, is what remains of the pueblo occupied by 
the Santa Clara Indian- after tiny abandoned the pueblo 1 14:1 Hi] 
and before they built their present village [14:71]. Bandolier 1 
says of t hi- site: •• The former pueblo and church of Santa Clara 
have long since disappeared, but their site is still known to the 
Indian-, north of the pueblo". Of this ruin Ilewett write-: 
•• Pres du village de Santa ( 'lata, deux endroits ont etc autrefois 

rapes par cette tribu. Celui qui a etc babitd le plus re"cemment 

est old Capo, & quelques metre- a I'esl du village actuel". Cf. 
[14:71 1. [ 14:1 hi|. So far as can be learned this is the pueblo 
which the Santa Claras inhabited at the time of the coming of the 

Spaniards, and it was at this] bio that the church and monastery 

were erected between 1622 and i ■ 
jl4:ll v | Santa Clara Miehtekeji 'old church' {tnishU •church' • mish 

Span, misa 'Roman Catholic mass'; U 'dwelling-place 1 'house'; 
'old 5 postpound). 

"The church date- from 1 T • 1 1 ".' This church is now in ruined 
condition and i- no longer used. 

■c 

1 17, ma 



248 ETIIXOGEOUKAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. ann. 29 

[14:liy] A special name is applied by the Santa Clara Indians to the 
southern part of their village, but unfortunately the name is not 
available. 

[14:120] Santa Clara Iuvtr In p% ij<j, 'beyond oak arroyito', referring to 
]14:72]( A'ir.-i h,', . see [14:72]; pagygt 'beyond'). This name refers 
rather vaguely to the locality beyond (that is. south of) the gulch 
[14:72]. " 

[14:121] Santa Clara B?aponuQ.e 'down below [14:71]' (K'apo, see 
[14:71]; nu'u 'below', g.e 1 down at' "over at"). This name applies 
to the low farming lands near Santa Clara, lying west of the Rio 
( rrande. 

[14:12:2] Santa Clara , Ot , Qnnsg 'on the other side' (W oy f unexplained; 
ux locative). This name applies vaguely to the region east of the 
Kio Grande, on the side of the river opposite Santa Clara. It is 
very commonly used, sometimes added to other names denoting 
places east of the river. 



Santa Clara Kjwi'i 'skunk-bush gap' {ley, 'skunk-bush' 'three-leaved 
sumac' 'Rhus trilobata', called lemita by the Mexicans of the 
Tewa country; wPi 'gap'). 

This gap is somewhere in the drainage of [14:87]. It gives 
[14:87] its Santa Clara name. It also gives rise to the two names 
next below. 

Santa Clara Ky/wikwaje, Ky/witdbdkwaj'e 'skunk-bush gap height' 
'skunk-bush gap cliff height' (Ky/wiH, see above; hvaje 'height'; 
tdba 'cliff'). 

Santa Clara Kjir" ij tywifa >ji 'skunk-bush gap pueblo ruin' (Kauu" 7, see 
above; 'yywikeji 'pueblo ruin 1 <'uijii-i_ 'pueblo', kepi 'old' post- 
pound). 

This is said to be a large pueblo ruin, near the place called 
Ky/wVi. 

"Pajarito" Hill. "Les mines les plus septentrionales [du district de 
Gallinas] appartiennent a la colline Pajarito, pres de. la riviere de 
Santa-Clara, a dix ou douze milles a I'ouest du village indien de 

ee nom". 1 

San Juan l'h,i/>'ij of obscure etymology (pUjf 'mountain '; p'y, unex- 
plained). This name is applied by the San Juan Indians to a large 
mountain not far south of the headwaters of Santa Clara ('reek 
[14:24]. It can be seen from San Juan Pueblo, but is difficult to 
identify. 

1 Hewett, CommunauWs, p. 12,] 



MAP 15 
SANTA CLARA EAST REGION 




^ x ' 









w m^^- ^^_i 









^'i'o'"^ 









MAP 15 
SANTA CLARA EAST REGION 



KA1UUNGT0S] PLACE-NAMES 249 

San Juan Popik'anii'it of obscure etymology (jpopi 'spring' <po 
' water ',_p» 'to issue'; k'a unexplained; wu!v, 'below'). Name of 

a mountain situated not tar south of the headwaters of Santa 

Clara ( 'reck. 
This mountain can be seen from the vicinity of San Juan Pueblo. 
Santa Clara Qwsen/joPo 'creek or water of a species of rat like animal 

railed i/ir;t_/j ,;,',." (qw% i)fjo unidentified species of rodent, perhaps 

a kind <>f wood rat: f)o 'water' 'creek'). 
"Thampijeb.ukwa 'east town yard', the narrow place cast of Dono- 

ciano'a house |at Santa Clara |. " ' 
"Teikwaa 'estufa yard' east of Jose* Guadalupe's lion-..', hut rather 

south of it. near the corrals [at Santa Clara]."' 
Shrines on the hill- west of Santa < llara. 
On the hill- 1 14:1 in], [14:112], and [14:114], and on the high land 

ju-t west of these hill- ai'e many curious shrines made \>\ 

arranging -tone- of various kinds on the earth. Prayer-sticks 

and sacred meal are deposited at these shrines. Mr. .1. A. 

Jeancon states that he counted more than 30 distinct shrines on 

these hill.-. 
Place near Santa Clara where candles are burned in the night ou 

certain occasions. This custom is of Christian origin, according 

to Mr. Jeancon. 

[15J SANTA CLARA EAST SHEET 

It is claimed by the Santa Clara Indians that the region about lower 
Santa Clara Creek |15:ls| a- far north a- Ranch it o [15:14], as far south 
a- slightly t<> the south of Mesilla settlement |15:-J.s|. and aboul as far 
east a- Puebla [15:25], was formerly held by their people. (See map 
1."..} San Juan and San Qdefonso informant- also bave stated that 
this region i- considered to have belonged to the Santa Clara people. 
The pueblo ruins [15:21] and [15:22] are claimed by them. The ruin 

1 15:'_'l | i- -aid I iy all tie' Tew a to have been a llano pueblo. See under 

[15:24], On the eastern side of the river San Juan names prevail as 

far south a- lianehito [15:14]. 

|15:1| Chama River, see [Large Features], pages 99 100. 

[15:2] Rio Grande, see [Large Features], pages 100 L02. 

[16:3] San duan Piyge, see [11:41]. 

[ 15:4- 1 San Juan TsiQfibvPu, see [11 :44]. 

[15:."i| San Juan Sapobu'u, see [12:38]. 

[15:6] San Juan /'■ ;:■ . see 1 13 

1 15:7 1 San Juan ropy ■!'<■■ 'black watei place' (£o 'water'; / 

'blackness' 'black'; '<"■■ locative). 
At this place black marsh water is found onlj aboul a foot belon 

the -in fan of the ground. There i- an apple orchard just east of 

the place. 



250 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

[15:S] Sau Juan Pd'okcuivh 'cold water place' (po 'water'; 'okcui 
'coldness' 'cold'; wt for Hwe locative). 

A stream of cold water runs from this place down to Potsage 
[15:10]. 

[15:9] San Juan Pqfug.e 'down by the bend in the river', referring to 
a small bend in the river (po 'water'; fu'u ' projecting corner or 
point', here referring to a bend of the river: ge 'down at' 'over 
at'). 
There are several cottonwood trees at this place. 

[15:10] San Juan PotsaQt 'down at the marshy place' (po 'water ; 
tsa 'to cut through'; g_e 'down at' 'over at"). 

This place extends for some distance along the river. A stream 
from a spring, from which Po'okaudwe [15:8] gets its name, runs 
down to this place. 

[15:11] San Juan Potsaqwogs 'down where it cuts through or gouges 
out at the marshy place' {po 'water'; tsa 'to cut through' "to 
ooze out'; qwo "to cut through or gouge out as when a stream 
washes away land ' ; #< 'down at' 'over at"). This name is said to 
be applied to a kind of gulch or bank at Potsag.6 [15:10]. 

[15 :liij San Juan Wohe 'the high plain' (unanalyzable). The level 
land all about Eanchito settlement [12:14] is called thus by the 
San Juan Indians. Cf. [12:13] and [12:14]. It is probable that 
the locality called Llano |15:1.">] was formerly included under the 
name Wdbt . 

[15:13] (1) San Juan Woteoiyko 'arroyoof [15:12]' (Woie, see [15:12]; 
T' locative and adjective-forming postfix; /.<> 'barranca' 'arroyo 
with barrancas'). 

(2) Eng. Eanchito Arroyo. (<Span.). = Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Arroyo de Kanchito 'arroyoof the little farm 1 , refer- 
ring to [12:14]. = Eng. (2). 

This arroyo runs through the settlement of Kanchito [15:14]. 
[15:14] (1) Eng. Kanchito settlement. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Kanchito ' little farm'. = Eng. (1). The San Juan 
and Santa Clara Indians use only the Span, name when referring 
to this place. 

Kanchito lies on both sides of Kanchito Arroyo [ 15:13]. There 
are a number of Mexican houses and a small school house at the 
place. 
[15:15] (1) Eng. Llano settlement. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Llano 'the plain'. =Eng. (1). It is probable that 
the vicinity of Llano was formerly included under the Tewa name 
Wofo [15:12]. 



HARBIMQTON] PLACE-NAMES '251 

[15:l»i| '/•■''! p"<j' • down ;ii the cottonwood tlii 1 1" water ' (A .'•_/ 'green 
seedpod of the Female tree of Populus wislizeni, 1 '< >[>u 1 1 1-~ acumin- 
ata, or Populus angustifolia', bul used in this place name as an 
abbreviation of t&tifoVi (jpdtn 'flower') or t&i&oku ifdku 'down' 
'fluff'), 'the fluff of the seed of the female tree of these species'; fo 

'water'; </■ 'down at' 'over at'). There were cottonw I- and 

pools at the place; hence tin' aame. 

This is the old Tewa name of the site of the present ranch of 
.Mr. Lucero Amado, which is passed by the main road connecting 
San Juan Pueblo and Santa Cruz settlement [15:19]. 
[ 15:17 | (1) JJusoQ , BusogePokwi 'bijjf corner ' ' pool of the big corner' 
'large low roundish place'; so' 'bigness' 'big'; u> "down 
af'over at": fohoi 'pool' 'hike' <fo 'water', /"•(' unex- 
plained). 

(2) San [ldefonso Pimpijepokwi ' lake of the north ' (pimpijt 
■north' • j'iji r 'mountain', />!'/, "toward'; fohwi "lake' p 
■water'. l,ir[ unexplained). For the reason that this name i- 
given, see below. 

These names refer to the large dell near the Rio Grande just 
to the north of the mouth of Santa ( !ruz Creek [15:18]. Near t he 
Rio Grande this dell is marshy and there is a pool. This pool 
is the ••lake of the north" of the San Lldefonso sacred water cere- 
mony; see Cardinal Sacked Water Lakes, pp. 14-45. It is 
at this pool that the Santa ( Hara and San [ldefonso Kosa sociel ies 
bold their initiation ceremony annually, when certain members 
sing and pray at the pool for eight days. The Kosa paint their 
bodies w itb -tripe-, using the mud of this pool for the purpose. 
[15:1 s ] (I) Teimajo'impohvt'u 'creek of the superior Baking stone', 
referring to Tsimajo [22:18] (Tsimajo, see [22:18]; V locative 
and adjective-forming postfix; fohu'v 'creek with water in it" 
</»< • witter'. ///'-/ ' large groove ' 'arroyo'). Cf. Picuris (3). 

(2) Kan p&ta, Kan rs&dtfimfohrfu 'the Canada ''Canada Creek' 

Span. Canada, referring to the Canada de Santa 
Cruz, see Span. (5), below; '<"' locative and adjective forming 

postfix; Pohu'u 'creek with water in it' ■ />.< 'water'. 

'large groove' 'arroyo'). This is a sorl of translation of the 

Span. name. 

(3) Picuris "Chemaiyond 'Canada de Santa Cruz.'" 1 Cf. 

Tewa III. 

ilt Eng. Santa Cruz Creek. (< Span.), Span 
(5) Span. Canada de Santa Cruz 'mountain valley of the holy 
cross '. relet i i 1 1 •_■ to Santa Cruz settlement [15:19], 
The course of the headwater- of the creek t- shown on Bheel |22|. 

1910, 



252 ETHNOGEOGBAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. an.\. 29 

[15:1!'] (1) Kan ,:< ,i,)' [mbu'ii ' Canada town,' referring to the Canada 
de Santa Cruz [15:1s | {KanfXJ<i, see [15:18]; H H locative and 
adjective-forming postfix; bu'u 'town"). 

(2) Eng. .Santa Cruz settlement. (<Span.). =Span. (3). 

(3) span. Santa Cruz 'holy cross'. =JEng. (2). 

The Roman Catholic church at Santa ( Iruz is at present the only 
church in the central and southern part of the Tewa country 
which has a priest in residence. Many Tewa are married at this 
church. 
[15:20] (1) Sqm Peuai corrupted from the Span. name. =Eng. (2), 
Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. San Pedro settlement. (<Span.). = Tewa (1), Span. (3). 

(3) Span. San Pedro ' Saint Peter '. =Tewa(l), Span. (3). 
[15:21] Santa Clara P'ajobu'u'y,ywikeji 'puehlo ruin of winnowing 

basket corner" (JP'ajaibu'u, see under [15 :unlocated]; ! y,ywikeji 
'pueblo ruin' <uijw[ 'pueblo". Jceji 'old' postpound). "Pa- 
yumbu "".' 

Bandelier does not mention this nun. llewett 1 says of it: 

I'rvs du village de Santa Clara, <leux endroits ont etc autrefois occupes par 
cette tribu. Celui qui a etc habite le plus recemment est Old Kapo, a quelquea 
metres a Test du village actuel; de l'autre il ne reste que dea debris. D'autrea 
einiilaeeincnts des elans de Santa Clara se trouvent dans la Canada de Santa- 
Cruz, vis-a-vis d'Espanola, de l'autre rote de la riviere, a deux ou trois milles 
de leur village actuel. An sud de Santa Cruz, a. nioins d'un niille du confluent 
de la riviere avec le Rio Grande, Tewai [15:22] s'elevait sur une haute colline. 
Payumbu est a un demi-mille an nord, du cetc oppose de la riviere. Ce sont 
des lieux dont la tradition a garde le souvenir; il ne reste que des quantitea de 
tessons qui couvrent le ><<\ et quelquea outils de pierre. 

Twitchell 2 evidently refers to the ruin in the following passage: 
Up the Santa Cruz river [15:18], beginning just below the site of the pres- 
ent church, where there was a pueblo, in a number of places are sites of old 
pueblos, any one of which can be pointed out to the tourist or student. 

The writer has not visited the sites of [15:21] and [16:22]. 
These are located on the map through the kindness of Doctor 
Hewett and Mr. Jeancon, who have visited them independently. 
A number of Indians also have located them for the writer. Both 
[15:21] and [15:22] are claimed by the Santa Claras as being 
former pueblos of their people. Cf. [15:22]. 
[15:22] Santa Clara Tewig.e' y.'QWJJceji 'pueblo ruin below cottonwood 
gap' (Tevri'i, sec under [15:unlocated]; g.e 'down at" 'over at"; 
' ij i/irlki j't 'pueblo ruin" <'uijiri 'pueblo'. Iceji 'old' post- 
pound i. " Tewai'." 1 The name resembles Teurig.e, the Tewa 
name of Santo Domingo Pueblo [29:109], but has different intona- 
tion and a totally- distinct etymology and origin. See [29:109]. 

'Hewett, Commuaautea, p. 31, 190S. - K. E. Twitchell in Santa Fe New Mexican, Sept. 2'->, 1910. 



HARBIN. PLACE-NAMES 253 

Some Indians, however, careless in etymological mutters, have 
attempted t" connect the two names. 

Bandelier does ix>t mention this ruin. See excerpt, from 
Hewett, under [15:21]. 

The writer has not visited the site, but Doctor Hewett and Mr. 
Jeancon have kindly located it for him. Mr. Jeancon writes *: 
"Tewal as given in Hewett's report [Commimautes] is correel as 
regards location." 
[15:23] Tsg mcui. Tins name means in the San Juan dialect, and pre- 
sumably also in the Xamiie dialect, either 'broad whiteline'or 
'wide white gap' (ts% 'whiteness' 'white": wcui ' wide gap', but 
in the San Juan dialect and presumably also in the Nambe" dialect 
qwtui 'broad line' of the other Rio Grande dialed- has become 
wcui). In the other dialects of Rio Grande Tewa the name means 
only 'wide while gap'. The interpretation of the name in llano 
Tewa has not been learned. A conspicuous broad line of soft, 
whitish rock occur- at this place on both sides of Santa Cruz 
Canada. Specimens of the rock were ohtained. lint have not yet 
been analyze. 1. The llano Tewa formerly lived at the pueblo 
[15:24] at this place and the name is probably of llano Tewa 
origin. The question whether the Tewa name meant originally 
•white line" or 'white gap" must await answer until it is deter- 
mined whether the llano Tewa word meaning 'broad line' is 
qweui or wcui. The Namhe form Tsewcui [28:30] clearly means 
■yell. ,w gap." not 'yellow line'. The Tewa commonly translate 
the name as 'white gap'. At which Tewavillage Hewett obtained 

the following explanation is not know n to the w tiler : 

Tsawari est an mot des Tewas el signifie band* blanch* vers /. centre. <<r. 
derriere la colline sur laquelle esl situe" le village, -vi.'-ve an plateau, et une 
intercalation de roches blanches calcaires, an centre de la paroi du precipice, 
donne I'apparence d'une bande blanche autour du rocher. C'esf la coutume 
dec I •■ llagee dee nome qui decrivenl leur situation 

The pueblo ruin |15:-JI| has taken its name from this ruin, as 
Hewett -ay- in the quotation given above. For quoted forms of 
the name, see under |15:-_'4]. 
[15:24] Ts:i irn.ii'iujirij.-i ji ' puehlo rnin of tin- w hie white gap", refer- 
ring to |15:l':i| (Ts&UHkri, see [15:23]; 'QgwiJceji 'pueblo ruin' 
<oij)i{ 'pueblo', Jeep 'old' postpound). For the application of 
the name, see the quotation under [15:23]. " Tceewacligi," " \ • ■ ■ 
wage", i llano forms.) The first form i- probably for / 

'<"' ("/"' locative): the second form the writer take- to be B 

> In a letter to the writer, November, 19U, ; 

1908. 



254 ETHNOGEOGBAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

poorer spelling, equivalent to the first. "('hawari". 1 "Tsa- 
warii". 2 This form is doubtless for Ts%waJn?i H (Y' locative). 
"Tcewadi". 3 "Tsawari". 4 "Tsawari, ou Tcewadi". 5 The first 
of these forms is evidently from Hewett's information from the 
Tewa, the second Fewkes's spelling. 

The ruin consists of low mounds of disintegrated adobe, lying 
on a low bluff on the south side of Santa Cruz Creek a short dis- 
tance west of the Mexican settlement of Puebla [15:25]. It is 
strewn with fragments of pottery. The site is well known to 
Mexicans who live in the vicinity, one of whom guided the writer 
to the place. 

The ruin is known to the Tewa by the name Ts:ei(xui'i''. Tewa 
and Mexican informants had never heard that it is called also 
" Yam P'ham-ba", e San Cristobal, or any name other than Tssgwcui. 
( )f the history of the people of Y'.w; woui prior to their building of 
the pueblo the informants knew nothing; not one of them had 
heard that the people of Ts^vxui were Tano people or that they 
came originally from the Tano country or from 'down country'. 
See Tano (NamesofTkibes and Peoples, page 576). The evidence 
is contradictory and confusing. We quote in chronologic order 
what various writers say: "Los Queres [Keresans], Taos y Pecos, 
peleaban contra los Tehuas y Tanos."' ''Los Tanos, que cuando 
se sublevaron vivian en San Cristobal [29:4.")] y en San Lazaro 
[29:52], dos pueblos situados en la parte austral de la villa de Santa 
Fe [29:5] despues por las hostilidadesdelos Apaches yde los Pecos 
y Queres [Keresans] se trasladaron y fundaron con los mismos 
nombres dos pueblos, tres leguas largasde San Juan [11: San Juan 
Pueblo]." 8 '•Higher up [in Santa Cruz Canada, [15:18]], toward 
Chimayo [22:18], there are said to be well defined ruins on the 
mountain sides, the names of two of which arePo-nyi Num-bu [22: 
unlocated] and Yam P'ham-ba [elsewhere given by Bandelier as 
the Tano Tewa name of San Cristobal [29:45], q. v.]. The site of 
Yam P"ham-ba is probably that of the socalled 'Puebla' [15:25], 
two miles east of Santa Cruz [15:1'.)]. The former [Po-n3 7 i Num- 
bu] is very ancient, but Yam P'ham-ba was a village which the 
Tano [see Names of Tribes and Peoples, page 576] constructed 
in the vicinity of Santa Cruz 1 15: is] after the uprising of 1680, 
when they forsook the Galisteo [29:39] region and moved north in 

■Hodge, field notes, Bur. Amer. Ethn., 1895 (Nanibe information), Handbook Inds., pt. 2, p. 823, 
1910. 
2 Ibid. (Santa Clara information). 

:i Fewkea in Nineteenth l>p. Bur. Am< r. Ethn., p. 614 (Hano name.) 
< Hewett, General View, p. 597, 1905. 
sHewett, Communautes, p. si, 1908. 
«Bandelier. Final Report, pt. II, p. 83, 1892. 

7 Escalante ( 177S !. Carta al Padre Morti, par. 7, quoted by Bandelier, ibid., p. 1U3, note. 
'Relacion Anonima, 1718, p. 127, quoted by Bandelier, ibid. 



kington] PLACE-NAMES 255 

order to be nearer their kindred, theTehuas[Tewa], Vargas found 
them there in 1.692, when he made bis first successful dash into 
New Mexico. There is also a ruin in that neighborhood, I-pe-re 
[else\i htere given by Bandolier as the TanoTewa name of San Laz- 
aro [29:.">i']J, or San Lazaro, which dates from the same peri'"!. 
Both were abandoned after the reconquest, San Lazaro in 1694, and 
Vain P'hamba or San Cristobal in the same year. It [San Cristo- 
bal] was subsequently reoccupied, and finally deserted in 1696, 
after i he murder of the missionary Fray Jose* de Arvizu on the 4th 
of June. Willi him was killed the priest of Taos, Fray Antonio 
Carboneli. In the Canada de Santa Cruz [15:18], consequently, 
then- are ruins of historic, as well as of pre-historic pueblos; a 
fact which future explorers should hear in mind"'.' "Afterthe 
expulsion of the Spaniards [1631], the Tanos of San Cristobal 
[29:45] settled in the vicinity of Santa Cruz [15:18], as already 
related. Mosl of their descendants are now among the Moquis 
[Hopi]". 2 "San Lazaro [29:52] . . . which was abandoned after 
the uprising in L680and never occupied again." 8 "Les ruines de 
Tsawari se trouvent sur une petite colline du cote sud, a cinq 
millee plus haul [than [16:21] and [16:22]], sur la Canada [15:18]. 
Le oom historique de ce village est San Cristoval. Nous avons 
etai'li que ce lieu esl le Tsawari, ou Tcewadi, on vivait le peuple 
llano, aujourd'hui a Hopi. Les Lndiens de Santa Clara el de San 
[Idefonso onl a eel egard dee tradition.-. Dans ces deux villages, 
on trouve encore des lndiens qui se rappellenl les visites faites 
par les lndiens llano a leur detneiire a nee- 1 rale, selon une coutume 
en usage chezlee Pueblos. Cue preuve d'identification importante 

est la loealite elle-meme . . . I /ident ideal inn (le eet end IN 'i I a \ ee |. ■ 

San Cristoval de I'histoire esl egalemenl complete, car c'esl le nom 

par lequel la ruine est conn lesMexicainsdela vallee. A propos 

de ce village, Bandelier dit: 'Yam P'hamba 6tail un village con 
struit par les Tanos dan- le voisinage de Santa Cruz apres la 
1 1' olte de 1680, lorequ'ils abandonnerenl la region de Galisteo el 
allerenl au nord pom- -e rapprocher de leur- parents, les Tehuas. 
II y a aussi, dan- ce voisinage, une ruine, Ipera, ou San Lazaro, 

qui date de la me periode. II- furent tnu- deux abandon n 6s 

apres la conquete, en 1694, furenl ensuite repris el finalemenl 
desertes en 1696. '" 4 "The natives of this pueblo [San Cristobal 
1 29: 15]], and of San Lazaro [29-..M | were forced by hostilities of the 
Apache, the eastern rleresan tribes, and the Pecos to transfer their 
pueblos to the vicinity of San Juan [ll:San Juan Pueblo], where 
the towns were rebuilt under the Bame name- 1 Bancroft, Ariz, and 
N. Me\.. p. 1 86, I B89). This ronton al (w hich was mure strictly toa 

•mid., p. 103. i ii.-ttrii, Oomm 



256 ETHNOGEOGBAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth.ahn.29 

place called Pueblito [Puebla [15:25]], near the present Potrero [15: 
unlocated], about 2 m. e. of Santa Cruz [15:1'.']. on the Rio Santa 
Cruz [15:18]), occurred after the Pueblo revolt of 1681 '. and prior to 
L692, at which latter date the natives were found by Vargas in their 
new locality. The pueblo was abandoned in L694, hut was later re- 
occupied, and was finally deserted in L696 after the murder of their 
missionary in June of that year. Most of their descendants are now 
among the Hopi of Arizona." ' It will be noticed that Bandelier ap- 
pears not to have visited Tsazwcui Pueblo ruin or vicinity, and 
merely approximates the site of ••Yam P'ham-ba" (San Cristobal) 
as a pueblo [15:25], Hewett is more definite, but his information 
is contradicted by the writer's information. Even the Mexicans 
living at Puebla [15:25] whom the author interviewed had appa- 
rently never heard that Tsa wcui Pueblo ruin is called San Cristobal. 
The history of the people of Tsazwcui after they abandoned the 
pueblo i-. on the other hand, widely known among the Tewa. 
Bandelier -ays merely: •"After the expulsion of the Spaniards 
[from New Mexico in 1680], the Tanos of San Cristobal [29:45] 
settled in the vicinity of Santa Cruz [15:19], as already related. 
Most of their descendants are now among the Moquis [Hopi]."' 2 
"It[San Cristobal by Santa Cruz [15:19]] was . . . finally deserted 
in lti'-"''. after the murder of the missionary Fray Jose de Arvizu on 
the 4th of dune." 3 "Tsawari, ou Tcewadi, ou vivait lepeuple 
Hano [unmapped], aujourd'hui a Hopi. Les Indiens de Santa 
Clara et de San Ildefonso out a cet egard de traditions. Hans 
ces deux villages, on trouve encore des Indiens qui se rap- 
pellent les visites faites par les Indiens Hano a leur demeure 
ancestrale, selon une coutume en usage chez les Pueblos." 4 " Most 
of their descendants [those, of San Cristobal [29:45] and San 
Lazaro [29:52]] are now among the Hopi of Arizona." 1 The 
writer has succeeded in obtaining from a number of Tewa 
Indians the uniform information that the inhabitants of T& 
were Tewa and that they tied to the Hopi several generations 
ago to escape from the tyranny of the Mexicans and to help 
the Hopi fight the Navaho and the Mexicans. On reaching 
the Hopi country they built a new pueblo, called "'Tewa" (see 
llano [unmapped]). Hano Tewa frequently visit the Tewa and 
other pueblos of the Rio Grande drainage, trading or selling 
goods. They sometimes visit also Tsazwcui, the site of their 
former pueblo. Two Hano Tewa men visited the Tewa villages in 
1910. Information obtained by a friend from J. M. Naranjo, an 
aged Santa Clara Indian, assigns a reason not usually u'iven for the 
migration of the people: "Long ago people of our language 

' Hodge in Handbook Inds., pt. 2, p. 428, 1910. 

= Bandelier, Final Report.pt. n.p. i > Hewett, Communautes, p. 31. 1908. 



BOBBIN PLACE-NAMES 251 

lived near Chimayo [22: 1 ^ ]. at Tssg/uxud,, and there came Moki 
[A""-'";, . Eopi] people and said they wore fighting much with 
the Navaho, and for these people to go with them to fight the 
Navaho, and that they would give them hinds to sow for their 
families. They all went, to a man, deserting Te&w<Mi. They 
went to toiakwaje 'a mesa top' [tota 'cliff'; hvaje 'top'Jandwere 
given lands below. Then came Navaho, very many. The cap 
tain told the people that he would spend the night below in the 
fields and half-way up on the mesa. After breakfast they all 
went down to fight the Navaho, they and the Iv'oso'qijf. They 
met the Navaho at a place between two high hills. They fought 
all day. from breakfast until the sun was pretty low. All the 
Navaho were killed except one to carry the news home. Many 
Moki [Hopi] died also. So that place is called TwwVi\tu 'flesh'; 
trl", 'gap']." .Vn old man of San Ildefonso gave the writer 
the following information: A fellow tribesman of /V. "Little 
Jackrabbit' (pu 'jackrabbit'; '< diminutive; Tewa name of a 
young Oraibi Hopi silversmith, who lives, working at bis trade, 
:ii San Qdefonso and, S:mt<> Domingo) visited San Ildefonso a 
couple of years ago. This man said that the people of "Tano" 
village at Hopi used to live at Ts&wcui. When the people 
left Tssgwcui they buried a big storage jar {n&ly,mbt 'storage 
jar," Span, tinajon) filled with blue turquoise, red coral, and 
other beautiful things, somewhere near the pueblo. What the 
jar contains i- very valuable. Nobodj has yet found it. The 
vaui people went straight to the Hopi country. They shot 
an arrow four times and then they reached Hopiland. See 
[15:23], 1 15:25], Tano (Names of Tribes \m> Peoples, page 57G . 
San Cristobal |29:l.">|. San Cristobal [15:unlocated], San Lazaro 
|29:.")i!j, San Lazaro [16:unlocated], "Potrero" [15:unlocated], 
■f'iijl:'<nj'ji [15:unlocated], ' n// ,,„,?„,./; [15:unlocated], and llano 
Pueblo | unmapi 

[16:25] (1) Eng.Puebla. i Span.). Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Puebla, perhaps Darned from the large town of this 

na in Mexico, span, puebla mean- 'settlement,' but is an 

uncommon and little-known word in New Mexican Span. 

Eng 

"The site of Yam P'ham ba i- probably that of the so called 
'Puebla' two miles east of Santa Cruz". Bandelier identifies the 
site of hi- "Yam Phamba" with that of y\.( <'-./. '/\> //-/•//,/ '.■ see 
"Yam P'hamba" [28:45]. "Tsawarii . . . The Tewa name of a 
pueblo that once stood at or Dear the present hamlet of La Puebla, 

Pueblito, a few miles above the town of Santa Cruz, in s. i. Rio 

87684 1" 16 IT 



258 KTLIXOOF.OGRAPIIY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ass. 29 

Arriba Co., N. Mex." 1 Indian and Mexican informants state that 
the place is called P,uebla, never Pueblito. The settlement consists 
of a string of Mexican houses and farms between the arid hills on 
the south and the bed of Santa Cruz Creek on the north. See 
[15:23], [15:24]. 
[15:26] (1) Ilidiilni'ii "dry arroyo', probably translating the Span. 
name. Cf. Eng. (•_'), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Seco Arroyo, Arroyo Seco Arroyo. (< Span.). 
= Span. (3). Cf. Tewa (1). 

(3) Span. Arroyo Seco 'dry arroyo*. =Eng. (2). Cf. Tewa(l). 
This is a large, deep, and usually dry arroyo. It was at this 

arroyo that a ''battle'" was fought between Mexicans and Tewa 
Indians about a century ago, according to a San Juan informant. 
"The governor of San Juan Pueblo was at that time Baltazar and 
the name of the captain of the Mexicans was Arniijo. They had 
a battle in the Ht&ahxCu, or Arroyo Seco, south of Santa Cruz 
Creek. It was a big battle. There were live wagonloads of dead 
Mexicans. One wagon which the Indians captured contained 
ammunition. At evening of the day of the battle the Mexican 
leader wanted to confer with the Indian leader. The latter agreed 
to come unarmed to the former. Peace was made. But when 
the Mexicans and Indians were returning together to Santa Cruz, 
suddenly the Indians were seized and were locked up in Santa 
Cruz church. Just a little bread was thrown in to the Indians, 
but they refused to eat such food. They were Tewa Indians, and 
some of them were from San Juan." This informant was an old 
man ami he stated that his father took part in this " battle." The 
writer is unable to explain this account. It can hardly refer to 
the engagement which Bandelier 2 mentions: "The Arroyo Seco 
was the scene of the engagement in August, 1*37, in which < rov- 
ernor Perez Was routed by the insurgents from Taos and north- 
ern New Mexico". 

It is said that there is a deposit of good guayave stone [see 
Minerals] somewhere near Seco Arroyo. 
[15:27] (1) Eng. Polvadera settlement. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 

(2) New Mexican Span. Polvadera for Span, polvareda "dust 
storm' "dust wind". = Kng. (1). 

The settlement consists of a few Mexican farms scattered along 
near the river. There appears to be no Tewa name. The Span, 
name is well applied; it is a very dust-windy place. 
[15:28] (1) San Ildefonso T'ynjopgyge ' beyond Black Mesa [18:19]' 
\T'ui)j<>, see [18:19]; pgyge "beyond'). 

i Hodge in Handbook Inds., pt. 2, p. 822, 1910. *Bandelier, Final Report, pi. II, p. .^3, note, 1892. 



HARRINGTON] PLACE-NAMES 259 

[15:29] Nambe" JoKvlv, 'cane-cactus arroyo' (Jo 'cane-cactus" ' Opun- 
tia arborescens'; Au'w 'large groove 5 'arroyo'). 

'l'lic upper part of this arroyo is shown on map |22|. ('I'. 
[22::>A\. 

I N l DCATED 

Santa Clara ■f<n///>!i]<j; 'end of the willows' (J4VS "willow"; l-'-n^ji 
said to mean •end"). This name was obtained from a single Santa 
Clara informant, and was said by him to refer to a place near 
Ts.itr,,. i'i [15:24]. It was obtained in connection with thewriter's 
endeavor to get information respecting Bandolier's "Yam 
P'hamba"; set- •"Yam P'hamba" nnder [15 :24]. 

(it Eng. Montevista. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 

(•Ji Span. Montevista 'forest view'. =Eng. (l). 

This place is said to be a small Mormon settlement a short dis- 
tance north of Santa Cruz 1 15:19]. 

Santa Clara 'Ok'ombo.ii 'large sand-pile' (?ok K Q7}j' "sand"; boui 'large 
pile'). 

This name was given as that of a place in Santa Cruz Canada 
[15:ls] a short distance above Santa Cruz [15:19]. The inform- 
ant was unable to locate the place more definitely. It can hardh 
he the •"Yam l'"ham-Ui" of Handelier: -ee under |29:-C>| and 
[15:24]. 

Santa Clara P'ajobu'u 'winnowing basket comer" (p'ajo 'shallow 
roundish basket used for winnowing wheat and other purposes'; 
In'" 'large low roundish place'). 

This i, the corner which gives the ruin [15:21] its name. Its 
exact location is uncertain. 

"Potrero". 1 The name means 'tongue of land' 'enclosed piece of 
pasture land". "The natives of this pueblo [SanCrist6bal [29:4">|| 
aid of San LAzaro 1 29 :.".-_' | were forced l>\ hostilities of the 
Apache, the eastern Keresan tribes, and the Pecos to trans 
fer their pueblos to the yicinity of San Juan [11: San Juan 

Pueblo], where the town- were rebuilt under the same name- 

(Bancroft, Ariz, and N. Mex., p. 186, L889). This removal 
(which was more strictly t<> a place called Pueblito [Puebla 
|15:l'."i|1 near the present Potrero, about '_' m. r. of Santa Cruz 
[15:19], on the Rio Santa < !ruz [15:18]), occurred aftei the Pueblo 
revolt ol 1680 and prior to 1692, at which latter date the natives 
werefound i>\ Vargas in their new locality. The pueblo [two 
pueblos?] was abandoned in 1694, hut was later reoccupied, and 
was fuialh deserted in L696 after the murder of their missionary 
in June of that year. Most of their descendants are now among 
the Hopi of Arizona."' The present writer's Tewa and Mexi 



260 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth.ann.29 

can informants knew of no place in the vicinity of Santa Cruz 
[15:19] called the "Potrero". See [15:24], [29:45], [29:52], San 
Cristobal [15:unlocated], and San Lazaro [15:unlocated]. 

(1) Eng. Santo Nino. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Santo Nino ' holy child', referring to Jesus. =Eng. (1). 
This name is applied to a locality or a hamlet between Ranchito 
[15:14] and Santa Cruz [15:19]. 

(1) Eng. Cuarteles. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Cuarteles ' quarters' 'barracks 1 . =Eng. (1). "Quar- 
tellas." 1 

The informants said that Cuarteles is somewhere south of Santa 
Cruz [15:19]. The archeological map 1 referred to above places it 
on the northern side of Santa Cruz Creek, about a mile east of 
Santa Cruz. 

Santa Clara TewPi, Tewigt "cottonwood tree gap' 'down at cotton- 
wood tree gap' {tt 'cottonwood tree' 'Populus wislizeni"; wi'i 
'gap*: g.t 'down at* 'over at*). 

This unlocated gap has given the ruin [15:22] its name. See 
[15:22]. _ 

Span. San Cristobal, a former settlement of Tano Indians :; leagues 
from San Juan [ll:San Juan Pueblo], situated probably in Santa 
Cruz Canada [15:18]. See [29:45], [15:21], and San Lazaro 
[15: unlocated]. 

Span. San Lazaro, a former settlement of Tano Indians 3 leagues from 
San Juan[ll:San Juan Pueblo] and probably in Santa Cruz Canada 
[15:18]. See [29:52], [15:24], and San Cristobal, above. 

[16] SAX ILDEFONSO NORTHWEST SHEET 

This sheet (map 16) shows a large area of Pajarito Plateau, wesl of 
San Ildefonso Pueblo and south of Santa Clara Creek. The country 
is a high plateau of tufaceous stone, cut by deep canyons and arroyos. 
The drainage is from the Jemez Mountains in the west to the Rio 
Grande in the east. The region shown is wild and little explored, and 
the existing maps of it are very inadequate. Many ruins exist, some 
of which are shown. In this area is the Pajarito Park. "I here 
restrict the name Pajarito Park to the district 10 miles long by 4 wide 
that is under withdrawal and consideration for a national park (H. R. 
72<i9, 58th Cong.) ... As the lines are now drawn it creates Paja- 
rito Park with the 'Pajarito* [17:34] left out." 2 

[16:1] Santa Clara Creek, see [14:24 1. 
[16:2] Puye Mesa, see [14:45]. 

■Hewett, Antiquities, pi. XVII, 1906. s Hewett. General View, p 598, 1906 



MAP 16 
SAN ILDEFONSO NORTHWEST REGION 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



27 










Mil'- ^viWcC^-" 



r - v, '' rr 'Wi^'i-^-- ,? = : - 










SAN ILDEFONSO 



TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT MAP 16 




IEST REGION 



MAP 16 
SAN ILDEFONSO NORTHWEST REGION 



HAKKi\..i.i.\) PLACE-NAMES 2G1 

[16:3] Santa Clara P % egwapoku\ see [14:78]. 

[16:4] Simla Clara A'- '<',/, /,,/'-/. see [14:79]. 

|16:.'i| Santa Clara /'-"■/,- ,-, •,,/'■:. see [14:81]. 

[16:6] Santa Clara T 'ant 'film' 'u . see [14:82]. 

[ 16:7 ( Santa Clara T"y, , y&ehu , u, see [14:83]. 

[16:^| Santa Clara Qwawiwc^Piyyku'u, see [14:84]. 

[16:9] Santa Clara K'ahu'u, see [14:85]. 

|16:1"| Santa Clara .)' ir.ij,,, p,,l, ,f' ,,, see [14:86]. 

|16:11| Santa Clara Naiahu'u, see [14:91]. 

[16:12] Santa Clara Kywiku'v, see [14:87]. 

[16:13] Pimpij<?iyqwog.e, see [14:96]. 

[16:14 1 '. 1 kgmpiji "ni'/'i-fQ.'. see [14:97]. 

|16:1.".| Rio Grande, see [Large Features], pages 100-102. 

1 16: 1 • > I San [ldefonso Tdbaqwak'&ntci'iwi 'cave-dwelling in which the 

meal was put ' fobaqwa 'cave-dwelling' <loo~a 'cliff', qwa denoting 

state of being a receptacle; /■ '.-.' >j r 'flour' 'meal'; to 'to put in' 

• t<> be in'; '*ie< locatu e). 
1 16 :1 7 1 San QdefonBO Tf&hu'ympiygekwaje 'the beighl between the 

two branches of [16:20]' (Tf%hu , u, see [16:20]; 'i u locative and 

adjective-forming postfix; I'Ui'J' 'in the middle of; hvaji 

'height'). 
|16:1^| San [ldefonso P\mpijJintf&hv?u ' northern branch of [18 

</"j'7"7' "north* <f'ij)j 'mountain'; /"'/'< 'toward'; '<"' locative 

and adjective-forming postfix; rf&hu'u, see [16:20]). Cf. 1 16:19]. 
|16:l'.i| San Qdefonso "'AkqTrypvjiyrdft&lwSu 'southern branch of 

[16:20]' Cakompijt 'south' <_'til.f>i) r 'plain' 'down country', 

/'/'/'• 'toward'; 'i' locative and adjective-forming p<>-tii\: /./".'- 

h.mf. see [16:20]). Cf. [16:18]. 
1 16:2' 1 1 (li San Qdefonso Tf.ilm'" <>( obscure etymology (tf% unex 

plaiind, said to !»' neither tfn 'small' nor tf.-i 'money'; hu'u 

'large groove' 'arroyo'). Cf. [16:26], [16:27]. 
(l'i Eng. Lab Marias Arroyo. (■ Span.). Span. (3). 

Span. Canada de las Marias 'mountain ralley of the three 

bright Btars of Orion's Belt'. Eng. (2). 
1 16 :2 1 1 San [ldefonso Pt^qvos^yhwaQt 'deer tail mesa' </•■' 'mule 

deer'; y ■' g • 'tail'; I wagt ' mesa '). 
|16:2*J] San [ldefonso Ij. !..}>■' ■ 'little corner of the hard penis' [4* 

'penis'; h 'hardness' 'hard'; />■'■ 'small l<>u roundish place'). 
[16:"j:;| San Lldefonso T'y,pihukwaji 'height l>\ red white-earth ar- 

royo' (T'vPihtCu, see[16:24J; kwaji 'height'). 
[16:l'4| San lldefonso T'vPihnCu 'red white-earth arroyo' it' a'" 'a 

kind of white earth', see under Minerals; pi 'redness' 'red'; 

//-/'-/ ■ large groo\ e' 'arroj o'). 



262 ETH NUCLEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [BTH. ANN. 29 

[16:25] San Udefonso P' alu-wiltu u 'arroyo of fire gully gap' (P'ahe- 
"/'/, see under [16 :un located], p. 277; hu'u 'large groove' 
'arroyo'). 

[16:2ti| San Udefonso Tfa^iyTewagfi of obscure etymology (tf% unex- 
plained, as in [16:20] and [16:27]; '•£' ' locative and adjective-form- 
ing postfix; hjoage 'mesa'). 

[16:27] San Udefonso Tfffpifjf of obscure etymology (ffse unex- 
plained, as in [16:20 and [16:26]; l<uj.f 'mountain'). 

This large hill has a small flat top surrounded by cliffs. (See 
pi. 12, C.) This hill is said to have no Span. name. 

[16:28] San Udefonso Tf%p\mbu?u, Tfsrhfu of obscure etymology 
(Tfvphj.f, see [16:27]; tf% unexplained, as in [16:20], [16:26], 
[16:27]; hu'u "large low roundish place"). 

[16:29] San Udefonso Tzriiiitiijk' <>ij<je 'down where the soft earth is 
dug' (f;rt>i 'soft'; nqtjy 'earth'; Voijy 'to dig'; ge'down at' 
' over at '). 

[16:30] Eng. Pajarito station. This station was established by the 
Denver and Rio Grande Railroad Company some time between 
190S and 1912. The name was probably given by Miss Clara I>. 
True, who owns a large ranch near by, which she has named Pa- 
jarito Ranch. The name Pajarito is taken of course from the 
Pajarito Plateau, etc.; see [17:3-1]. 

[16:31] San Udefonso Stii^sQhvijoMnaia 'Mrs. Stevenson's ranch' 
(SfiifsQ <Eng. Stevenson; Jewijo 'old woman'; 8/ possessive; 
naia 'ranch'). 

Mrs. M. C. Stevenson has a ranch at this place. Mrs. Steven- 
son herself calls her ranch Tunyo Ranch, naming it from T'y/tjo, 
the Black Mesa [16:130]. 

[16:32] San Udefonso Takabu'u, Taiuu 'corner where the grass is 
thick' 'grass corner' (in 'grass'; tea 'denseness' 'dense'; bu'u 
Marge low roundish place'). 

This place is near the river, just south of Mrs. Stevenson's most 
southerly alfalfa held. 

[16:33] Pojoaque Creek, see [19:3]. 

[16:31] (1) San Udefonso P%8%r)fhv?u ' deer horn arroyo ' (p% 'mule- 
deer'; iffijf ' horn'; hu'u ' large groove ' 'arroyo'). 

(2) Eng. Contrayerba arroyo. (<Span.). = Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Canada de las Contrayerbas 'narrow mountain val- 
ley of the weed-species called by the Mexicans contrayerba.' 
= Eng. (2). 

[16:35] San Udefonso Tsrbikohun, 'soft arroyo' (tfeti, 'softness' 
'soft'; TcqhvSu 'arroyo with barrancas' <lq 'barranca', hu'u 
'large groove' 'arroyo'). T%ii would be said of soft earth or 
rock or anv other soft substance. 



HARRINGTON] PLACE NAMES 203 

|16::;t',| San Lldefonso PatagJoywikepi 'pueblo ruin down at the place 
of a species of kangaroo rat' {p&ta a small rodent which walks 
and jumps like a kangaroo, also called p.; g, 'down at' 'over 
at': 'oywi 'pueblo'; kepi 'old' postpound). "Pe-ra-ge." 1 
•■ Perage." " Perage (maison du clandu rat des montagnes)." 8 
Perage has been described by Bandolier, 3 and Kewett. 4 
Twitchell 5 evidently refers toPetagj when he writes, "a large 
mound across the rn er from the present pueblo of San lldefonso." 
The present writer's Tewa informants did not know whether 
l',.iiig, was still inhabited or already abandoned at the time the 
Spaniards first came to the Tewa country. The scene of a Corn 
Maiden -lory obtained at San lldefonso is laid at Peuage. The 
tradition that Peuag< wasa village of the San lldefonso people is 
\ei\ definite and widely known. According to Hewett: "When 
the mesa life grew unbearable from lack of water, and removal t" 
the valley became a necessity, a detachment from < )towi [16:lu.~,| 
founded the pueblo of Perage in the valley on the west side of 
the Rio Grande about ;t mile wot of their [the San Ildefon>o 
people's | present site."' It is believed that /',■', /g, is located 
quite accurately on the sheet. 

[16:37] (1) San lldefonso Pots&yw&stnnq , Pot8&nsznn% , Pot8$ywk\ 

nil fol >ri . r,,!s.iiis(jiit:i />.</■//•/, ] '< >/.s<i ijir;i sfn/i;i '<</'//, Pot8(j,n8t.n- 
/,./■>•/</. l'.,ts,i )/ii-;i s<_ /,//;/ t,,fi,i, I'ntsiin.sijiniijnb'i "place of the blue 

or green water man' "pool at the place of the blue or green 
water man' •hill at the place <.f the blue or green water man' 
' cliffs at the place of the blue or green water man' ($0 'water'; 
f.-,iijn-:i 'blueness' 'blue' 'greenness' 'green', the syllable leg 
being most Frequently elided when the place name is pronounced; 

*<_il r •man in prime'; "•■' locative 'at', locative postfix; /'"/"'/ 
•lake' 'pool' • ]>■, 'water', /"'a unexplained; ',,/,,, 'hill'; iota 
'cliff'). Man\ inquiries regarding potalywsgsi'r) i»were made, but 
it was not possible to learn whether or not the name designates a 
mythic being. The color ts&ywbi symbolizes the north, not the 

West The name / '. ,/mi i/ir;i -i i, ,,:i appear- to ha\e in it- origin 

something to do with the ] I; see below. 

(2) San lldefonso TsimpijePolnvi i ]ake of the west' (tsimpijt 
'west' '•;//- unexplained. />!}, 'toward'; pokwi 'lake' 'pool' 
■water', /"/ unexplained). For the reason this nana- is 
applied, see below. 

The pool i- jusl west of the big pear t ree of the farm belonging 
to Mr. tgnacio ^guilar. This pool is the "lake of the west" of 

<■ in Route I 
• Hewott, a- ■ 



264 ETHNOGEOGBAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. asn. 29 

the San Ildefonso sacred water ceremony: see Cardinal Sacred 
Water Lakes, pp. 41-45. West of the pool rise two little hills — 
the 'oku, with clifflike sides, and the Idba. Cf. [16:38] and [16::",*. tj. 

[16:38] San Ildefonso Potsq r)w%s%n.n%? iijy/nr' u, Potsq.ns^nnsL \yfhvPu 
k hi ue or green water man place arroyo' (Pots4yw%8Vnn%, see 
[16:37]; "'" - locative and adjective-forming postfix; Ini'u "large 
groove' 'arroyo'). The name is probably taken from [16:37]. 

[16:39] San Ildefonso Potsq yw% s$n »;>_' ijjl wag* . Pots4nsin7i^ , iyhvag.< 
"blue or green man place mesa' (Potsqrjwseszimig, see [16:37]; 
'("'locative and adjective-forming postfix: Jcwagi 'mesa'). The 
name is probably taken from [16:37]. 

[16:40] San Ildefonso STo-ioby^u of obscure etymology (I'n.io unex- 
plained: bu'ii "large low roundish place"). Cf. [16:41]. 

|16:41] San Ildefonso K*<Mobukwag.( ' mesa at [16 :40]' ; ( A""./,,ltn'n, see 
[16:47]; hjoage 'mesa.') 

[16:4"i] San Ildefonso 'Omapiyfoi obscure etymology (\»ih/ unex- 
plained; piyf 'mountain'). ' means with different intonations 
•-car' ami 'metate'. The syllable ma is postpounded in several 
other place-names, but its meaning is no longer understood. 
This high hill is thought of by the San Ildefonso in connection 
with J'umapiyj' [16:130]. 'Omapiyy is on the west side of the 
Rio Grande at the mouth of the canyon, fumapir/j' is on the east 
side. The locality at the foot of 'Omapiyy is called ' Omapinnu'u 
or'Omcmu'u (nu'u 'below'). ' Omapiyf is a conspicuous moun- 
tain as viewed from San Ildefonso Pueblo. 

[16:4:'.] San Ildefonso ' Omapiywi'i, 'OmawiH "gap by [16:42]' ('Oma- 
pi'J f- '"in" see [16:42]; »•/'/ 'gap'). 

A wagon road goes through this gap or pass. 

[16:44] (1) San Ildefonso Pi/irpzeyge 'beyond the mountains' {pirjf 
'mountain': pser/ge 'beyond'). There is no more definite Tewa 
name for this valley. 

(■2) Eng. Santa Rosa Valley. (< Span.). =Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Vallede Santa Rosa ' valley of Saint Rose'. =Eng. (i»). 

This is one of the high, grass-grown meadow-valleys west of 

the Jemez Range. Such valleys occur also in the Peruvian Andes, 

where they are called by the German - speaking inhabitants 

•• Wiesentaler." ( !f. [16:4:,*] and [16:131]. Sec also [27:11]. 

[16:45] (1) San Ildefonso Tsisopimpseijge ' beyond the mountain of the 
great canyon', referring to [16:4ti] (Tsisopiy f, see [16:40]: pseiyje 
'beyond'). The locality is also referred to by the more inclusive 
and loosely applied name l J bnj>;rrj<jc 'beyond the mountains'. Cf. 
[16:45]. 

(2) Eng. Posos Valley. (<Span.). = Span. (3). 



H v in- 1 . PLACE \ a u i 5 2G5 

(3) Span. Valle de I"- Posos 'vallev of the holes'. Eu^-. a'). 
The Span, name i- said to refer t<> the holes in tin- grassj surface 
of the \ alley. 

This i-. like 1 16:4 1- J ami [16:131], one of the high, grass-grown 
meadow-valleys west of the Jemez Range. 
|16:4tij San Ildefonso Tsisopiy .-. TttisoPigheWi 'mountain of the greal 
canyon ' ' mountain peak of i tie greal canyon ' ( Tsiso'o, see [16:53J; 
i'i'jf ' mountain '; h w< ' peak '). 

This mountain is at the head of Tsiso'o, or ( ruaje < lanyon 1 16:53]. 
A trail much used by Tewa people when going to Jemez leads up 
tie- Gruaje Canyon [16:53], over this mountain ami across the 
Valle Grande [16:131 1 t<> Jemez. See |16:4TJ. 
|16:1T| Sanlldefonso Ttrisopir)j>'afa't? i 'great canyon mountain steep 
slope where one goes up as one ascends stairs or ladders ' (Tsiso 

jiijj r. see [ 16:46]; </'</' ' Steep -lope ': /"</ ' to L r <> up a stairway or a 
ladder": '"' locative and adjective-forming postfix). 

On this slope the trail mentioned under [16:4<!J is steep and 

stairway-like. 

[16:1^| San Ildefonso K<> J'i'h; /./,'' ijj/.inHj, • red -tone strewn mesa 1 i/-» 
•-tone': pi 'redness' "red": waH 'strewn' 'scattered'; ijjf 
locative and adjective-forming postfix; hoag.< ' mesa '). Whether 
the name "red stone strewn' i- originally applied to [16:48] or 
[16:4'.t] or to both is not determined. i'\'. 1 16:49]. 

|16:f'.»] (l) San Ildefonso Kupiweui 'intbPi ' red stone strewn canyon' 
(Kupiw(ui, see [ 1 6 : t '. * ] ; ',"■ locative ami adjective-forming post- 
fix; tsPi ' canyon '). Whether this name was originally applied 
to [16:4s] or [16:4'.»| or to both i- m.t determined. < T. [16:48], 

(2) Eng. Angostura Canyon. ( Span.). Span. (3). 

(3) Span. La Angostura, Canon de la Angostura 'the narrow 

place' 'canyon of the narrow place". =Eng. 2. 

[16:50] Mi San Ildefonso Stt^o'rock water' (ku 'stone' 'rock'; £><? 
'water' -creek"). Cf. Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Piedra Creek, Piedra Canyon. | Span.). Span. (3). 
Cf. Tewa (1). 

<•'■> Span. A.gua de Piedra "ruck water'. Eng. (2). Cf. 

'leu a II). 

The stream gives |16:.".l| it- name. Whether the Tewa name 
i- a translation of the Span., or rice rarsa, i- no1 determined. 
[16:51] San Ildefonso Itupokwajt 'rock water height' iA'"/<. . 

[16:50]; hoaji 'heighl '). 
[16:.".i'i San Ildefonso //" wiji "/'/'', ' place of the two arroyos ', referring 
to [16:50] and [16:49] (Aw'ti 'large groove' 'arroyo'; wiji 'two'; 
locative). 



266 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth.ann.29 

[16:53] (1) San lldefonso Tsiso'o 'great canyon' {Is"! •canyon'; 

sd'o " greatness " ' great'). This name refers to the Guaje Canyon 

above its junction with [16:10(1]. Below this junction it is called 

by the San lldefonso Tewa 'Omahic'u; sec [16:126]. The Guaje 

is a very large canyon, and it is easy to understand why the name 

Tsisd'o was originally applied. 

(•_') Eng. Guaje Canyon. (<Span.). =Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Canon de Guaje, Canon Guaje, Canon de los Guajes 

'canyon of the long gourd(s) or gourd rattle(s)'. = Eng. (2). 

WhytbeSpan. name was applied has not beenlearned. "Guages." 1 

This deep and long canyon has its mouth near the railroad bridge 

[19:li'l]. There is said to be always water in its upper course. 

The pueblo ruin [16:60], situated on the Guaje, is an important 

one. The trail leading up Guaje Canyon is mentioned under 

[16:46]. _ 

[16:54] San lldefonso TsiweMpgygt •beyond the narrow canyon', 
referring to [16:5:,] i TsiweM, see [16:55]; pseyge ' beyond"). 

[16:55] San lldefonso TsiweMiwi -place of the narrow canyon' (ts?i 
'canyon': meki ' narrowness ' 'narrow'; Hwe locative). Thecanyon 
is narrow at this place. The place has given the names to [16:54], 
[16:56], and [16:57]. 

[16:56] San lldefonso P\mpijetsiweM , \r)hvag.e ' northern mesa by the 
place that the canyon is narrow' (pimpije 'north' <pi>jf 'moun- 
tain' 'up country", pijt •toward"; TsiweM, see [16:55]; ■"' loca- 
tive and adjective-forming postfix ; Tcwage 'mesa'). Cf. [16:57]. 

1 16:57] San lldefonso AJcompijetsiweMiyhvage 'southern mesa by the 
place that the canyon is narrow' ^akompiji "south' <'nhqof 
'plain' 'down country ', jpije 'toward'; TsiweM, see [16:55]; V* 
locative and adjective-forming postfix; hvag.e 'mesa'). Cf. 
[16:56]. 

[16:5,s] San lldefonso KapotewPi 'gap by the Santa Clara houses 
( Kapo 'Santa Clara Pueblo', see [14:61]; te 'dwelling place' : wiH 
'gap') If is said that Santa Clara Indians used to dwell at this 
place: hence the name. 

The informants say that it was not more than a hundred years 
ago when Santa Clara people lived at this place. 

[16:59] San lldefonso \\'ijin:r/eg.e 'down where the spider was picked 
up' (V ijir:r 'spider'; t, 'to pick up": g.e 'down at' 'over at"). 

[16:60] Nameless pueblo ruin. Doctor Hewett informs the writer 
that this ruin is at least as large as that of Potsuwi'i [16:105]. 
The Indian name for the ruin has not been ascertained. 

'Hewett: Antiquities, pi. xvn, 1906; Commimautfe, p. 21, 1908. 



HARRINGTON] P] \i I \ WHS 267 

[16:<U] (1) San lldefonso I'<r\), /;>r,nj, ■ mesa where the threads meet ', 
referring to [16:62]; /'<!'''/■ . see 1 16 :•>•_']: k<rinj.<- 'iikmi'i. 

(2) Eng. Cuchilla de Piedra height. (<Span.). = Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Cuchilla de Piedra 'stone ridge-point'. Eng. (2). 
[16:62] San Lldefonso ?^['y«?»'*' where the threads l >t',probably re- 
ferring to tlic two streams (/">''- 'thread', now never applied to a 

strea f water; u 'to meet' ' to flow together'; '*" locative and 

adjective-forming postfix). 

[16:63] San [ldefonso /'[>i'j- \>[>)j 'mountain in the middle', referring 

to it- position between [16:53] and [16:85] {piyge ' in the middle'; 

l>[ij p " mountain ') 

[16:i'4| (1) San lldefonso Ts&bPi" 'at the small white roundish rocks' 

'whiteness 1 'white'; hi 'very small and roundish or conical'; 

V'' locative and adjective forming postfix). 

(2) Span. Las Tienditas 'the little tents'. There are many 

-mall tnit n.cks ore ]>l-. li s at this place; hence the Dame. 
Cf. [16:65]. 

[16:65] San lldefonso Ts^ii'iijkwagt 'mesa at the small white round- 
ish rocks' (T8&bi, see [16:64]; 'P* locative and adjective-forming 
postfix; Jcwagt 'mesa'). See [16:64]. 

[16:66] San [ldefonso Kumqntsikih tati'iwi ' where the< lomanche fell 
down' ( A umqntsi 'Comanche'; Jcetdbi 1 to fall down'; Hwt locative). 
This name refers to the locality about a high cliff on the north 
side of the arroyo [16:»>7|. A. Comanche Indian once, when pur- 
sued by the Tewa, fell over this cliff and died; hence the name. 
The place has given the name to the arroyo [16:67]. 

[ 1 6 : • '> 7 ] San [ldefonso E/umg/ntsiketaZi , itfyhu''u 'arroyo where the Co- 
manche fell down' (JKwnQntsiketaii, see [16:66]; V' locative and 
adjective-forming postfix; huSv. ' large groove ' 'arroyo'). 

(16:f^| San [ldefonso Qw%ka4eg.i 'little mountain mahoganj forest 

peak 1 lye./ ■mountain mahogany' 'Cercocarpus parvifolius', 

called by the Mexicans 'paloduro'; Tea 'denseness' 'dense' 'for 

est'; '/<l/< 'smallnese and pointedness' 'small and pointed'). 

Bushes of the mountain mahoganj gro^i all over this little peak. 

LI 

|16:»;'.»| San [ldefonso Qw%ka4egi?ydsPi 'canyon of little mahoganj 
forest peak 1 Uhruk.i,].^:. see [16:68]; '<" locative and adjective- 
forming postfix; thVi 'canyon'). 

|18:7"| San Lldefonso ./■<„.//"' 'where tin' willow-,' (Jiyj 'willow'; 
locative and adjective-forming post6x). One informanl said 
the Span, name of this place would be La Jara 'the willow. 1 
The name refer- to a nearly level place where willow- grow. 
This is said to be a prett j place. Cf. [16:71]. 



268 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [ETH. ANN. 29 

[16:71] San Ildefonso Jqmpo, Jihupots/"/' 'willow water' 'willow 
water canyon' (J<uj r. see [16:70]; po 'water'; isi'i 'canyon'). 

[16:72] San Ildefonso Pidaiawi'i 'dry head of penis gap' [piia "head 
of penis'; la 'dryness' 'dry': iri'i 'gap') 

[16:73] San Ildefonso Nabakwage, Nabawikwag.t "pitfall mesa' 'pitfall 
gap mesa' (iVafta, NabawPi, see [16:74]; hvag.i 'mesa'). 

[16:74] San Ildefonso NabawiH 'pitfall gap' (naba 'pitfall'; wPi 
'gap'). The mt%i were bottle-shaped holes several feet in length 
cut in the tufaceous rock in gaps through which deer and other 
large game were likely to pass. • They were covered over with 
sticks and earth so that the animal suspected nothing till it 
crashed through. Cf. [16:73]. There is another NabawiH in the 
Pajarito Plateau; see [17:15]. 

[16:75] San Ildefonso Tse'ebuTcwaje 'little eagle corner height' 
{Twebuii, see [16:76]; hwaje 'height'). Cf. [16:76], [16:77]. 

[16:7»;J San Ildefonso TsJebifu 'little eagle corner' (tst 'eagle'; 'e 
'diminutive': b>i'u 'large low roundish place'). This place has 
given names to [16:75] and [16:77]. 

[16:77] San Ildefonso Tse'ebuhu'it 'little eagle corner arroyo' (Tse'e- 
b)/'n, see [16:76]; hu'u 'large groove' 'arrovo'). Cf. [16:75], 
[16:76]. 

[16:7s | San Ildefonso Qirxbonxbu'u 'mountain-mahogany round hill 
corner' (Qinrbmin . see [16:79]; bu'u 'large low roundish place'). 

[16:79] (1) San Ildefonso Qw%bon%, Qw%bon%leewt 'at the round hill 
of the mountain mahogany' 'round hill peak of the mountain 
mahogany ' {qw% "mountain mahogany' 'Cercocarpus parvifolius' 
called by the .Mexicans 'palo duro'; bo, referring to huge hall-like 
shape as in boM 'large roundish pile"; n% locative). Cf. [16:78]. 
{■!) Span. Cerro Palmilloso 'hill where there is much yucca". 

[16:so] San Ildefonso Nxgetsii of obscure etymology (n% unex- 
plained; g, "down at' 'over at'; tsi'i • canyon'). 

[16:81] (1) San Ildefonso Psz?%,ntohv?u 'arroyo in which there are or 
were deer tracks' {/>;(' 'mule-deer': 'qi/f 'foot' 'foot-track'; /» 
'to be in'; hu'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). Cf. [16:82]. 
(■2) Span. Arroyo de las Barrancas 'arroyo of the barrancas'. 

[16:8:4] San Ildefonso P$'4ntohube'i "little corner by the arroyo in 
which there are or were deer tracks' (Pqe.'q.ntohu'u, see [16:81]; 
b, ', "small low roundish place"). 

[16 :s;; j San Ildefonso S,>„ , ,;,/,■ '. -little corner where the firewood is 
or was' {*Qi)f 'firewood'; nx locative; bie "small low roundish 
place'). 

[16:81] San Ildefonso Sqnmrb.'ln yhu' 'a 'arroyo of the little corner 
where the firewood is or was' i s, ,„,,;,_/,,', . see [16:83]; V' loca- 
tive and adjective-forming postfix; hu'u ' large groove' 'arroyo'). 
Cf. [16:83]. 



BABBINC PLAC 1 N A \l I 3 2()9 

[16:85] San [ldefonso tyw&gwt'iQshu'ii 'rock-pine gap arroyo' ($w% 
i/ii-r,'. sec under [16 :unlocated], below; "<' : Locative and adjective 
forming postfix; /<"'" 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

[16:86] San [ldefonso fuwalap'Qyktwagt 'dry louse not \>-i\ narrow 
mesa 1 [fuwa 'louse'; la 'dryness' 'dry'; j'qij.r ^ in p'qyhi 
'largely narrow" 'not very narrow' and corresponding nouns; 
hvag.( 'mesa'). P'q/gki is the augmentative form of p'iyhi 
'narrow '. 

The flatfish hill to which this name applies look- thin and nar- 
row . like a dry dead louse. 

|16:->7] San ttde£onsojP'egwaPo/cwag.t ' drag pole or timber trail mesa' 
'pole' 'timber' 'log'; gwa 'to drag'; fo 'trail'; I. wag.i 'mesa'). 

[16:88] San [ldefonso Towtfygefovag.! 'mesa where the pifion trees 
are all together" i/<< 'pifion tree' 'Pinus edulis'; wtfygt 'together 
in one place'; / waQt 'mesa"). 

[16:^'.'] San [ldefonso ' .\t»b(jj rh"' " 'arroyo with chokecherry grow- 
ing at it- little bends' ('aS< 'chokecherry' 'Primus melanocarpa'; 
}>V)f 'a small bend'; hvtu "large groove" 'arroyo') Cf. [16:90]. 

[16:90] San [ldefonso ' Atubij/ , lm,jin„j, 'delta of the arroyo with 
chokecherry growing at its little bends' (?AiebeyfhiSu, see [16: 
89]; qwogfi 'delta' •down where it cuts through' < qmo 'to cut 
through*. i t v 'downat' 'over at'). See [16:89]. 

[16:'.»1 1 mm [ldefonso Jfrgshfymu 'when' the willow is all gone' 
{/•[i)' •willow": lnuif' to he all gone"; nu locative). This name 
i- applied to the locality both north and south of the stream. 

There are many cottons 1 tree- at this place and the inform- 
ant- think that the Mexicans call the place Bosquecito ' little 
fore-t '. 
[16:92] San [ldefonso Mipoma of obscure etymology. (No part of 
the word can be explained; ma occur- as the last element of 
several place names I. 
This locality is on the southern side of the stream bed. 
|16:'.':;i (I) San [ldefonso IJ <»l <</'■'■ kmagt 'mesa where the donkej was 
killed" (buflu 'donkey 1 -pan. burro 'donkey'; h\ 'to be 
killed": hvag, 'mesa'). Cf. Span. (2). 

-pan. Banco del Burro 'donkey bank'. Cf. Tewa 

The following story explains the name: A Naval nee stole 

a donkey from the Tewa, taking ii from a corral at night. He 
was overtaken by armed Tewa somewhat easl of this place on the 
following morning. The Navaho made the donkey fall over the 
cliff of this mesa, thus killing it, and escaped by fleeing afoot, 
fewa found the dead donkei at the fool of the cliff. 



270 ETHNOGEOGBAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [btii. ANN. 29 

[16:94 1 Sun Ildefonso .)'ir;r,,,/i,_l/"/' 'place where the rock-pine tree is 
bent' (yivsgyy ' rock-pine ' 'Pinus scopulorum'; peki 'bent', said 
for instance of an arm bent at the elbow or at the wrist; '/"' loca- 
tive and adjective-forming postlix). 

There is a peculiarly twisted and bent rock-pine tree at this 
place; hence the name. 

[16:95] (1) San Ildefonso Kusinfimbii'u of obscure etymology (ten 
'stone' 'rock': si unexplained; iij'qij/ 'nest'; bu'u 'large low 
roundish place'). 
(2) Span. Vallecito 'little valley'. 

This is described as being a large and deep dell at the head of 
[16:98]. 

[16:96] (1) San Ildefonso KuJciwa44,Jtwag.e 'tufa-strewn mesa' [huk'i 
'tufa' < feu 'stone", Jc x i unexplained; waJbi 'to strew' 'to scatter'; 
hvage 'mesa'). Cf. [16:97] and [16:99]. 

(2) Span. Chiquero 'pigsty' 'sheepfold'. Why this Span, 
name is applied is not known. 

[16:1*7 ) San Ildefonso KyJciwcuiifiyf, Euk'iwcuipiyteewt 'tufa-strewn 
mountain' 'tufa-strewn mountain peak' (Kuk'iwcui, see [16:96]; 
pijj.f 'mountain'; teeWi 'peak'). Cf. [16:90]. 

1 16:'.>s | San I Ldefi mso Pitsawt h n'u of obscure etymology (pi apparent ly 
'redness' 'red'; tsawe unexplained; hu'it 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

[ 1. 6 : i ► '. • J San Ildefonso KvMiwa4>ihv?v, 'tufa-strewn arroyo' (Kulc iwcuii, 
see [16:96]; /n/'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). This name is applied 
to the two upper forks of [16:100] because they are situated in 
the locality called KuJc'iwaMkwag.e [16:96]. 

[16:1U0] (1) San Ildefonso Tehv?u 'cottonwood tree arroyo ' (tc 'cotton- 
wood' 'Populus wislizeni'; hu'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). Cf. 
Span. (4), of which this Tewa name is perhaps a translation. 

(2) San Ildefonso 'Obebuhu'u 'arroyo of [16:121]' ('Obcbx'tt, see 
[16:121]; Iitthi 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

(3) Eng. Alamo Canyon. (<Span.). = Span.(l). Cf.Tewa(l). 
"Alamo canyon." 1 "Canyon de los Alamos." 2 

(4) Span. Canada de los Alamos 'narrow mountain valley 
of the cottonwoods'. = Eng. (3). Cf. Tewa (1). 

The headwaters of this arroyo are called Kul' !ir<i.ii/ni' u ; see 
[16:99]. 
[16:101] San Ildefonso Kuwas^nto , i H , Euwas^nto'iyhu'u 'place in 
which the horn or horns of the mountain-sheep is or was, are or 
were' 'arroyo in which the horn or horns of the mountain-sheep 
is or was, are or were' {kuwa 'mountain-sheep'; sej)f 'horn'; to 
'to be inside or in': '/'', locative and adjective-forming postlix; 
Ini'ii 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

'Hewett, Antiquities, p. 18, 1906. "Ibid., p. 21. 



BABBINOTOH] I'l Ml, NAMES 271 

[16:102] ( l i San Qdefonso a "/'■' hy,hv?u 'arroyo of the large gravelly 
dells' (fcuk'% 'coarse gravel'; />"'" 'large low roundish place'; 
//'/*// 'large groove' 'arroyo'). Cf. Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. "Otowi canyon". 1 This is evidently the same can- 
yon. For the etymology of ■•Otowi" sec [16:105]. 

(3) Span. Canada de los Valles 'narrow mountain valley of the 
dells'. Cf. Tewa(l). 

The Tewa name i- applied to the arroyo only above the vicinity 
of Poteuwi'i [16:105]. Below that vicinity the arroyo is called 
/ ./ ' 'v/7.- see [16:115]. 

[16:103] Sun Qdefonso Paptokwokwag.e 'mesa on which the deer arc 
or were enclosed' (p% 'mule-deer'; to 'to tic inside or in"; lewo 
'to he' said of 3 +; hwagt 'mesa'). The name is applied, it is 
said, because the walls of the mesa arc so steep that deer on the 
top of the mesa were as if impounded in a corral. The eastern 
extremity of this mesa bears the ancient name Tfv,g.Jefv?u; sec 
[16:H>4].' 

[16:lnJ] San Ildefonso Tfugjefutu 'little sorcerer point' {tfugt 
'sorcerer' "wizard' "witch'; '< diminutive; fu'n 'horizontally 
projecting corner or point '). This name is applied to the eastern 
extremity of Psetokwokwagt [16:103]. Tfvg.e , efu , v i- jusl wesl 
of Potsuvn'i ruin [16:105]. The name is said to be "a very old 
one". The reason for its application was nol known. 

[ 16:1 « '•"> | San Ildefonso Pot&uwi'Qiywikeyi 'pueblo ruin at the gap 
where the water sinks', referring to 1 16 : l» ><•» | {Potsuwi^i, see 
[16:106]; '<>//</■//•. /7 'pueblo ruin' • '<"/"'( 'pueblo', keji 'old' 
postpound). Cf. [16:106], [16:144]; also, see plate 5. The "ten! 
rock-", including several "rocks which carrj a load on the head", 
are shown in plates c, 8, "Po-tzu-ye". a For Bandelier's spell- 
ing of wi'i as "ye" or "yu" see [16:114] and [22:42]. "Otowi".' 
"Otowo'V 
Referring to Otowi Mesa. Hewett 1 says: 

lliiii' a mile to the south [oi [16:105]] the huge mesa which is terminated 
by Rincon del Pueblo bounds the valley with a high unbroket 

haps e the dry arroyo at the bottom. The Bai listance to the 

oorth is the equally high and more abrupt Otowi mesa, and east and west 
an equal distance and to about an equal height rise the wedge-like b 
- h hich define this great gap | 16: leu) m the middle mesa. 

Potmiwi'i ruin is merely mentioned bj Bandelier; 1 it is fullj 
described by Hewett. 1 Of the locati f the ruin Hewett says: 

The parallel can 16 92] and [16 i through this glade 

[ 16 in*;] are prevented from forming a confluence by a high ridge, the rem- 

i Ibid 

- 

' mi, hi 



L'Tli ETHNOGEOGBAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

nant of the intervening mesa. Upon the highest part of this ridge i- Located a 
large pueblo ruin which formed the nucleus of the Otowi settlement. In every 
direction are clusters of excavated cliff-dwellings of contemporaneous occupa- 
tion and on a parallel ridge to the south are the ruins of one pueblo of con- 
siderable size and of seven small ones, all antedating the main Otowi settle- 
ment. 1 

< If the ruins of the pueblo to the south, Hewett says further: 

This is a small pueblo ruin in Otowi canyon [16:100] just across the arroyo 
[the bed of [16:100]'.'] about 300 yards south of Otowi pueblo. It i? situated i in 
top of a narrow ridge which runs parallel with the one on which the large ruin 
stands. The stones of the building are smaller and the construction work is 
cruder. The building consists of one solid rectangle with one kiva within the 
court. Seven other small pueblo ruins or clan houses are scattered along the 
same ridge to the west within a distance of one mile, all apparently belonging 
to this settlement. 2 

It is a tradition generally known at San [ldefonso that a con- 
siderable number of the ancestors of the San Ildefonso people 
used to live long ago at PotsuwiH [16:105] and at SsekewVi 
[16:114]. The writer has obtained two myths the scene of which 
is laid at Potsuvn'i. The San Ildefonso Indians insist that I J o- 
tmwi'i and X; />///■/' were inhabited by their ancestors, and not 
by those of any of the other Tewa villagers. Hewett saj s: 

The traditions of Otowi are fairly well preserved. It was the oldest village 
of Powhoge [San Ildefonso] clans of which they have definite traditions at 
San Ildefonso. They hold in an indefinite way that prior to the building 
of this village they occupied scattered 'small house' ruins on the adjacent 
mesas, and they claim that when the mesa life grew unbearable from lack of 
water, and removal to the valley became a necessity, a detachment from Otowi 
founded the pueblo of Perage [16:3t>] in the valley on the west side of the Rio 
( Irande about a mile west of their present village site. 2 

The "tent rocks'" (pis. 6-8) near PofsuwPi ruin are called by 
the San Ildefonso Tewa P ot8uwiKv4tn4indiive 'place of the 
pointed or conical rocks of the gap where the water sinks' {Pot ■ 
a-,",', see [16:106]; 4$v4$Vf 'largenessand pointedness' "large and 
pointed': 'iw> locative). 

From about half a mile to a mile above the main pueblo of Otowi is a cliff- 
village that is unique. Here is a cluster of conical formations of white tufa, 
some of which attain a height of thirty feet . . . These are popularly called 
'tent rocks'. They are full of caves, both natural and artificial, some of which 
have been utilized as human habitations. These dwellings are structurally 
identical with those found in the cliffs. They present the appearance of enor- 
mous beehives. 3 

See [16:106], [16:114]. 

[ 16: 1" >♦;] San Ildefonso PotsuvrFi 'gap where the water sinks' (/»< 
'water'; tsu 'to sinkin'; W-Pi 'gap'). The ordinary expression 
meaning 'the water sinks' is n4pot8wiem%'Qj (n4 "it": po'water'; 

Bewett, Antiquities, p. 18, 1906. =Ibid., p.20. 'Ibid., p. 19. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 8 




IN, CAPPED BY PROJECTING FRAGMENT OF HARDER 
TUFA 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE 10 




\, 



- 



\ - V ! 



SCENE ON S/EKEWI'I MESA, SHOWING THE OLD INDIAN TRAIL 



ton] PLACE-NA.Ml- 273 

txu.i. n,:i_\)j 'to ~ink in' < teu 'to sink in', ■'• 'little by little', 
//«•; i/ ■ 'to go'). Wh\ the gap is so called appears to be no Longer 
known to the San [ldefonso people. Perhaps the water of the 
arroyos [16:102], 1 16: 1' ><• | or some other water sinks or Bank in 
the earth or sand at this locality. The name hints at the prob- 
able reason for the abandonment of the pueblo. The gap gives 
it- name to the pueblo ruin [16:105], 
1 l.w.i i '■ describes this gap as follows: 

The long narrow p ounding the canyon on the north 

ntirely cut out tor a distance of nearly a mile, thua throwing int ie 

Bquarish, open [.ark the width of two small canyons and the formerly inter- 
vening mesa. From the midst of this little park, roughly a mile square, a view 
of surpassing beauty is t.> be had. 

[16:lu7j San Lldefonso Swifyvu.'pomPv. 'belowthe soldiers' road', re 
ferring to a road made in 1 1 1 i — locality by American soldiers, it is 
said i-7/e/"V <Span. soldado 'soldier'; /"< 'trail' 'road'; rwtv. 
'below '). Cf. [16:108]. 

[16:1"^: San Hdefonso Sym4o/Updkw<yt 'soldiers' road height' 
. nee [16:107]; hmjl 'height'). Cf. [16:107]. 

( 16: 1« »;• j .\amele~s puehlo ruin. I lew ett - says: 

This ruin is situated in Canyon de los Alamos on a high ridge running par- 
allel with tli.- stream on its Bouth side. It is about three-quarters of a mile 
west ol Tsankawi and its inhabitants eventually merged with the population 
of that village. The settlement consisted of one rectangular pueblo of consid- 
erable size and a numbei of small clan houses scattered along the ridge to the 
west for about half a mile. It belongs to the older class ..f ruins. 

Doctor llewett informs tin' writer that an old trail leads 
straight from Saglcewi'i [16:114] due west to this ruin. 

[16:llo] Nameless pueblo ruin. Doctor llewett informs the writer 
that a small pueblo ruin exists about where located on the map. 
So far as can be learned, this ruin has not been mentioned in any 
publication. 

[16:lll| San lldefonso Ssekewikwajb, v/ /,</•// </■</</. 'height ormesaof 
the gap of the sharp round cactus', referring to [16:112] ( Sq h wiH, 
see [16: 1 1l'|; hwajb, kwagt 'height' 'mesa'). Eng, (2). 

(2) Eng. "Tsankawi mesa".' ( Tewa). Tewa(l). Forthe 
spelling of the na Bee 1 16:1 11 1. (Pis. 9, 1".) 

[16:11-| San lldefonso S&kewi'i 'gap of the sharp round cactus' I a. 
applied to several varieties of jointed round cactus, among others 
to Opuntia comanchica and Opuntia polyacantha; h 'sharpness' 
■-harp', probablj referring to the sharpness of the thorns; wPi 
'gap'). This gap has given the nam.- to [16:11 1 1. [16:113], 
[16:114], and [17:13]. 



■ Antlqu 

st.-.si _*■ • i i • ■ n; is 



274 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eih. an 



This gap or narrow and low place is wesl of the pueblo ruin 
1 16:114]. Whether round cactus now grows at the pass has not 
been ascertained. For quoted forms of the name, see under 
[16:114]. 
[16:113] San Ildefonso Ssgkewinug.e'oTjwikeji 'pueblo ruin below the 
gap of the sharp round cactus', referring to [16:112] (S\?A;>in"/ 
see [16:112]; nng_e 'down below' <.nv!u 'below', g.e 'down at' 
'over at'; ' ' Qrjwjjceji 'pueblo ruin' <'oipci 'pueblo', l-eji 'old' 
postpound). Cf. [16:114]. 
Ibwett 1 says of this ruin: 

This is a small pueblo ruin of the older type, situated on a lower bench just 
north of the Tsankawi mesa [16:111], about half a mile south of the Alamo 
[16:100]. The walls are entirely reduced. The site belongs to the same class 
and epoch as nos. 9 and 11. 

See under [16:105] and [16:109]. It has not been possible to 
obtain any tradition about this ruin. 
[16:114] San Ildefonso S%lcewi 'o?)wikeji,S%JceiviIi waj& or/wikeji 'pueblo 
ruin of the gap of the sharp round cactus ' ' pueblo ruin above the 
gap of the sharp round cactus', referring to [16:112] (Sn;/o wi\ 
see [16:112]; Jewaje 'height' as in [16:111]; 'oywikeji "pueblo 
ruin' K'oijiri 'pueblo', Jeeji 'old' postpound). Cf. [16:113]. 
" Sa-ke-yu ". 2 For Bandelier's spelling of wi?i&a "ye" or "yu" 
see [16:105] and [22:42]. "Tsankawi". 3 "Tsankawi" (Tewa, 
' place of the round cactus")."' ' 

S%h ■ iri'l ruin is merely mentioned by Bandelier; 5 it is fully de- 
scribed by Hewett." Of the location of the ruin Hewett says: 
" It is a veritable ' sky city '. . . . The site was chosen entirely 
for its defensive character and is an exceptionally strong one". 
It is a tradition generally known at San Ildefonso that a consider- 
able number of the ancestors of the San Ildefonso people used to 
live long ago at PotmwVi [16:105] and Sghewi'i [16:114]. The 
writer has obtained a myth the scene of which is laid at Szel'' wVi. 
The San Ildefonso Indians usually mention the names Potsuwi'i 
and Ssefa wiH together and insist that these two places were 
inhabited by their ancestors and not by those of the other Tewa 
villagers. 
[16:115] San Ildefonso Ts,<l,' e lsi'i ' canyon of the erect standing spruce 
trees' (tee 'Douglas spruce' " Pseudotsugamucronata', called by the 
Mexicans pino real * real pine '; dt' e as in degi ' erectness' ' erect ': 

'Antiquities, p. 22, 1906. 

: Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n. p. 78, 1892. 

'Hewitt: General View, p. 598, 1905; Antiquities, p. 20, 1906; Communautes, pp 15, 85, 86, and table 

.Irs matieres, 1908. 

1 Hewett, Antiquities, p. 20, 1906. 
■ Bandelier, op. eit. 
'Hewett, op. eit. 



HARRINGTON 



PI ',< i \ HUES 275 



t&Pi ' canyon '). Whether spruce trees now grow in the canyon 

i- Dot known to the writer. This name is applied to the i yo 

or canyon only below the vicinity of PotsuwiH ruin [16:105]. 
See [16:102]. 
It i- believed that the canyon is correctly located on the sheet. 

[16:11"] Sun Ildefonso TsdewPi 'gap of the eagle(s)' (tst 'eagle'; '< 
diminutive; tet'i'gap'). Of. [16:117]. 

[16:117] San Ildefonso Tsiewikwajt 'height l>y the gap of the 
eagle (s)' l TsJewPi, Bee [16:116]; Jewaje 'height'). 

|16:ll s j San Qdefonso ''Ag.ap'iteg.t of obscure etymology {'aga unex- 
plained but occurring also in a few other Tewa place-names, for 
instance 'Ag.atfanit [22:.'.4|: p'i said to sound exactly like p'i 'a 
sore": te 'to lift up' 'to pick up'; <j> 'down at' 'over at'). This 
name applies to the western part of the low mesa shown on the 
sheet. 

[16:119] San Ildefonso 'Obihoaji 'height thereby the little bend', re- 
ferring to [16:121]; ('Obi, see [16:121]; hoajl 'height') Cf. 
[16:122]. 

[16:120] San Qdefonso P%nj>ut'ake&< ' hill where the snake(s) live(s)' 
7',' nj>u 'snake'; t'a ' to live ' ' to dwell '; kegt * hill ' 'knob 
indicating height, g< 'down at 1 'over at'). 

The author was shown the holes in this hill in which many snakes 
of various kind-, are said to live. 

[16:l'_'l] San Ildefonso 'Obqbu'u 'corner there by the little bend' ('" 
■their': In "little bend'; 6u'w 'large low roundish place'). The 
canyon at this place i- very deep and has precipitous walls, 
especially on the southeastern side. It forms a sharp little \h-\-A: 
hence fche name Cf. 1 16 : 1 19], [16:122]. 

[16:122] San [ldef onso ' Obtlndtiba, 'cliffs there bythe little bend', re- 
ferring to |16:IlM I ('Ctofftu'w, see [16:12] 1: Iriba ' cliff'). 

A- noted under 1 16 : 1 ^ 1 1. there are high cliffs at this place on the 
southeastern Bide of the canyon. These cliffs are of blackish 
basalt. 

|16:1l':;| '1i San Ildefonso Kvo%wLii 'oak-tree poinl 'oak'; 

wiui 'horizontally projecting corner or point'). Cf. Span. (2). 
-pan. ( 're- ton 'ridge' 'hog back'. Cf. Tewa (1). 
These names are applied to a projecting ridge situated on the 
south side of Guaje Arroyo. There i- a spring of g I water at 

lie- lo, alil\ . 

[16:124] San Ildefonso "'Omaf^V^ 'beyond[16:4 ee[16:42]; 

/>.-< ij'h 'beyond'). This name i-. of course, applied vaguelj to the 
region beyond tie- hill [16:42]; especial!] to the locality indicated 

on the map. See [ Hi 



276 ETHXOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

[16:125] San Ildef onso Kunf%tewaki 'turquoise dwelling-place .slope' 
{liinf.r 'turquoise' <ku 'stone', nf% unexplained but postfixed 
to some other nouns, as '<hif;r '.-alt"; f, 'dwelling-place'; waki 
■slope'). The informants were amused at this name. There is, 
they said, neither turquoise at this locality nor is it a dwelling-place 
for anything or anybody. The name applies somewhat vaguely to 
the slope on the southern side of Guaje Arroyo a short distance 
cast of [16:123]. 

[16:126] San Ildefonso 'Omahu'u 'arroyo by [16:42]' QOma, see 
[16:12]; hvtu "large groove" 'arroyo'). The lower course of 
( iuaje Arroyo, from the confluence of Alamo Canyon [16:loo] to 
the mouth [16:127], is called thus very regularly by the San Ilde- 
fonso Indians. They think of the conspicuous hill or mountain 
[16:12] and of this wide arroyo together and call them both by 
the name > Oma-. See [16:42], [16::.:;]. [16:127]. 

[16:127J San Ildefonso 'Omahuqwog.e "delta of [16:126]' (' Omahu'u, 
see [16:126]; <jW'>g.> "delta" "down where it cuts through' <qwo 
'to cut through', g.e 'down at' 'over at'). 

The mouth of the great Guaje is a wide dry gulch just west of 
the railroad bridge. See [16:126]. 

[16:128] San Ildefonso Totsgbikwaje 'quail height' (tvtirbi 'quail': 
hvaje 'height'). 

This is a lai'ge mesa-like height southwest of [16:42] and on the 
south of (iuaje Arroyo. The Santa Clara Indians call quail lot% 
instead of iot% hi. 

[16:l2'.t] San Ildef onso JBeta'iwt " place that fruit is dried' (be 'roundish 
fruit', as apples, peaches, pears, etc. : fa 'to dry' 'dryness' 'dry"; 
'■iwt locative). 

This nearly level place on the western bank of the river was 
formerly used by Indians for drying fruit, so it is said. The 
name is probably of recent origin. 

[16:130] Buckman Mesa, see [20:5] 

[16:131] (1) San Ildefonso Poqwawipimf^yge 'beyond the reservoir 
gap mountains', referring to [16:132] \Poqwawi'i, see [16:132]; 
phjf 'mountain'; pinyje 'beyond'). Also called merely I'lju- 
l>;i ijij, "beyond the mountains'. Cf. [16:44] and [16:45]. 

(2) Grande Valley, Valle Grande. (<Span.). = Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Valle Grande 'large valley'. =Eug. (2). 

This is the largest of the high grass-grown meadow-valleys 
west of the Jemez Range. Cf. [16:44] and [16:4:.]. 
[16:132] San Ildefonso PogwawiH ' water reservoir gap' (pogwa 'water 
reservoir' 'water tank' < p<> " water', qwa indicating state of being 
a receptacle; wiH 'gap'). 



BABBINOTON] I'l.Al I. \ LMES 277 

The aame is said ti> refer to a gap <>r pass in the range itself. 
Why the name was given is not known; the informants say thai 
there ma; bean old water reservoir there or thai the pass may 
resemble a reservoir in some way. The canyon [16:133] begins at 
this pass, from which it takes it- Dame. Cf. also [16:!.".l ]. 

[16:133] San Udefonso Poqwawitsi'i 'water reservoir gap canyon ', 
referring to [16:132] (PogwawiH, see [16:132]; tsiH 'canyon'). 

|16:1.". l| S:m Udefonso K'yjobukwajl 'wolf corner height', referring 
to [16:135 e [16:135]; hwaji 'height'). 

[16:135] San Udefonso K'yjobit'u 'wolf corner' {Jcyjo 'wolf; bu'u 
• large l"\\ roundish place'). 
This oame refers to a very large and well known low place. 

[16:136] San Udefonso TsiMQginUVi, see [17:30]. 

|16:l:;7] San Udefonso s,< f, L-, ,r, • pound cactus point hill' (-..' ' round- 
cactus' of various species, a og others < >puntia comanchica and 

Opuntia polyacantha; fu J u 'horizontally projecting point or cor- 
oer'; /•- m 'hill' 'knob'). Three informants gave this form of 
the name independently; one gave the first syllable as /,/ 
'grouse'. 

This is a small roundish topped hill south of [16:135] and en the 
southern ride also of |16:i 



[16 
[16 
|16 
[16 
[16 
[16 
[16 

lie 

[16 

lie 

[16 



L38] San Udefonso 7 'oii/\i/,ir,ij;'hj //,„',,, see [17:10]. 

139] San Udefonso PosytfJijjj'hu'u, see [17:17]. 

lh'| San Udefonso Ke&cwihvtu, see [17:19]. 

I II | Sao Udefonso Tfvj&wihu'u, see [17:25]. 

142] San Udefonso , Aiebehu , u, see [17:29]. 

L43] San Udefonso Besu'iT/j'hv'u, see [17:37]. 

II 1 1 San Udefonso /•■'■'■ hu'u, see 1 17::; 1 1, 

145] San Udefonso T%\kwajh, see [20:45]. 

L46] mii Udefonso Etibaji}?Jiyj'hu , 'u, see [17:42]. 

147] San Udefonso I'o.'rpo/ia'if.s,"/', sec [17:5s]. 

[ I- [Triples Canyon, see |28:f.|. 



San Udefonso R'aj&pigj 'fetish mountain ' (k'aji 'fetish' 'shrine'; 
i'ijj ■ ■ mountain'). 

This mountain is Baid to be somewhere west of G-uaje Creek 
[16:53]. 

San Udefonso P^ahewVi ' fire gulch gap ' [p'a 'fire'; h* 'small gr .<■' 

•ai i"\ ito 1 'gulch ': "■'"'' " gap'). 

This gap is said t" be in the vicinity <>i the upper P'ahewi/ui'u 
[16:25] and gives the oame i" the latti r. 



278 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. anm. 29 

Span. Rincon del Pueblo ' pueblo corner'. 
Haifa mile to the south [of [16:1(15]] the huge mesa which is terminated by Rincon 
ilt-1 Pueblo bounds the valley with a high unbroken line. 1 

Of two San Ildefonso Indians one had heard this name, the 
other had not. Neither knew where the place is. 

San Ildefonso Tdbagwak'agto'iwi 'place where the cliff-dwelling is sunk 
underground (fobaqwa 'cliff -dwelling' < tdba 'cliff', qwa indicat- 
ing state of being a receptacle; k'sgto 'to sink under' 'to be im- 
mersed', said for instance of one sinking into quicksand < J:x 
unexplained, to 'to be in': Hwe locative). This name was ob- 
tained from a single San Ildefonso informant, who could locate 
the place no more definitely than to say that it is somewhere in 
the Pajarito Plateau west of San Ildefonso. lie had never seen 
the place. 

[17 J SAX ILDEFONSO SOUTHWEST SHEET 

This sheet (map 17) shows a largo area in the Pajarito Plateau south- 
west of the San Ildefonso Pueblo. The country is of the same charac- 
terasthat shown on sheet [16]. Thissheet [17] contains Tsirege Pueblo 
ruin [17:34], after which Doctor Hewett named the Pajarito Plateau; 
see [17:34], and the introduction to sheet [16]. The area represented 
on the sheet proper is claimed by the San Ildefonso Indians, and mosl 
of the name- of places are known to them only. The southern boun- 
dary of the sheet proper is approximately the boundary between the 
country claimed by the San Ildefonso people as the home of their 
ancestors and that claimed by the Cochiti as the home of their ancestors. 
The part of the area near the Rio Grande is often included under the 
name />umap%i)(t< 'beyond Packman Mesa [20:5]'; see introduction 
to 120]. 

[17:1] San Ildefonso fsiso'o, see [16:53]. 

[17:2] San Ildefonso Tehu'u, see [16:100]. 

[17:3] San Ildefonso 'Omahu'u, see [16: lib], 

[17:4] San Ildefonso Ssekewihwaje, see [16:111]. 

[17:.">] San Ildefonso Sy-ndauponug.e, see [16:107]. 

[17:6] San Ildefonso Sy,n4aupohvaj&, see [16:108]. 

[17:7] San Ildefonso TotgMfovqje, see [16:128]. 

[17:8] San Ildefonso BeWiwe, see [16:129]. 

[17:b] San Ildefonso T'anfakivaje 'sun dwelling-place height' (fays 

'sun'; t'<i 'to live' 'to dwell'; hoaje height). The name refers 

toamesa. Cf. [17:10]. 
[17:10] San Ildefonso. T'ant'akwajeHyj'hu'u 'sun dwelling-place 

height arroyo', referring to [17:!»J (Tantahwaje, see [ 17:'.»J; V' 1 

locative and adjective-forming postfix; hu'u 'large groove' 

'arn>\ o'l. 

i Hewett, Antiquities, p. I s , 1906. 



MAP 17 
SAN ILDEFONSO SOUTHWEST REGION 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 







SAN ILDEFON 



TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPi. T MAP 17 




WEST REGION 



MAP 17 
SAN ILDEFONSO SOUTHWEST REGION 



BABBM I'l \( I \ WII.S 279 

|17:ll| San Ildefonso Ketribaywakwaji "bear cliff-dwelling height,' re- 
ferring to [17:12] (Ketdbaqwa, Bee [17:12]; boaji 'height'). The 
name refers to a roundish mesa, it i- said. 

[17:12] San Ildefonso Ketobaqwa, KeiiodaqwaHwt 'bear cliff-dwelling' 
'bear cliff-dwelling place' {/■■■ 'bear 1 of any species; lol 
'cliff-dwelling' < ?o8o ' cliff,' (pan indicating state of being a re- 
ceptacle; ''"•- locative). The name evidently refers to :i cliff- 
dwelling which was occupied by a bear. 

The i-a\ e dwelling is said to be near the top of the mesa 1 17:1 1 ] 
to w hich it gri es the name. 

[17:13] San Ildefonso Si ' voihvtu 'arroyo of the sharp round-cactus 
gap', referring to [16:112] (SsglcewPi, see [16:112]; //-/'<> 'large 
groove' 'arroyo'). 
This arroyo starts at [16:1 12] and flows into [17:14]. 

|17:14] (I) San [ldefonso SqmlicLnafoahu'u ' watermelon field arroyo' 

Span, sandf a 'watermelon'; noiba 'field'; hu'u 'large 

re' 'arroyo'). Cf. Eng. (2), Span. (3). This Tewa name is 

applied only to the upper pari of the arroyo, the pari below the 

gap [17:15] being called Posy.ge'i ; see [17:17]. The Eng. 

ami Span, names, however, refer to \Ur whole arroyo. 

(2) Eng. "Sandia Canyon." 1 . (<Span.) = Span. {3). Cf. 
Tewa (1). 

(3) Span. Canada tie las Sandfas 'narrow mountain vallej of 
the watermelons.' =Eng. (2). ('(. Tewa (1). 

Possibly the name Posygi [17:17], now applied only to the lower 
course of the arroyo, was originally applied to the whole arroyo, 
and the names given above owe their origin to watermelon fields 
in its upper com i are many cliff-dwellings in this arroyo. 

17 

17:15] San Ildefonso NctibawPi 'pitfall 'jap' {naha 'pitfall'; wPi 
••jap'). There i- another ndfcawi'i on the Pajarito Plateau; Bee 
[16:74]. For quoted forma of the name see [17:16], a pueblo 
laiin which i~ called after this gamepit gap. The pitfall is shown 
in plate ll. Hewetl describes [17:15] as follows: 

On the narrow neck of gaabo west of the pueblo [17 

the convergence of foui ip nava from which the 

[ 17:16] takes its name. This is one "f a number of pitfalls « hich ha i 
diacovered at points in this region where game t' 

ivaw i. It « .-ii down the 

■ from toward the mountains or up the trail from either of two aide canyons 

could hardly fail to be entrapped. Thi a in the rock which 

could li.iw been made on with great difficulty, as thi is here 

quite hard. The ; 



280 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth.ann.29 

L5 feet deep and about 8 feel in diameter at the bottom. The mouth of th«' pit 
is about six feet in length by four in breadth. The trap has been useil in 
modern times by the San Ildefonso Indians. 1 

[17:16] San Ildefonso Naiavn'oywikeji 1, pitfall gap pueblo ruin', refer- 
ring to the gap [17:15], which is just east of the ruin (JFcibam'i, 
see[17:15]; 'oywikeji ' pueblo ruin' <'oijiri_ 'pueblo,' Jceji 'ruin'!. 
'Navak-wi'. 2 "Navawi ('place of the hunting- trap')" 3 . "Na- 
vawi." ' 

The ruin is not mentioned by Bandelier. It is fully described 
by Hewett. 5 

[17:17] San Ildefonso Posy.gehu'u 'arroyo of the place where the 
water slides down' (Posy,gi . see under [17:unlocated]; hu'u 'large 
groove' 'arroyo'). The lower course of the arroyo [17:14], below 
the gap [17:15], is called by this name, although in Eng. and Span, 
the entire arroyo is called by a single name. For Sqn^ianc^ah liu, 
thenameof the uiipcrcour.se of the arroyo, see [17:14]; iorPosuge, 
see under [17:unlocated], page 289. 

[17:18] San Ildefonso 'Awap'a'i ,i -cattail place' (air<ij>'a a kind of 
broad-leaf cattail <'awa 'cattail', pa ' large and flat ', referring 
to the leaves). 

Some cattails grow at this place. It is said to be the point of 
beginning of the Keflavrihu'u. There is a Mexican house at the 
place, but no Mexican name for it is known. See [17:19]. 

[17:1!>] San Ildefonso Kedawihu , u 'arroyo of the gap where the bear 
is or was desired", referring to Jdijmri'i [17:unlocated]; hu'u 
'large groove' 'arroyo'). Cf. [17:20]. 

[17:20] San Ildefonso KidawihuHyhwag.e, 'mesa of the arroyo of the 
gap where the bear is or was desired' {Ked / awihii'u l see [17:1'.']; 
'/'' locative and adjective-forming postfix; hvag.t "mesa"). 

It appears that this name is given especially to the mesa north 
of the upper lCt]tnri/tu' u; see[17:19]. 

[17:21] San Ildefonso J^^ntuheg^iyhwaje ' height of the arroyitos of 
the earth flesh' (ty4ntuheg.e, see [17:22]; 't' locative and adjective- 
forming postfix; hvaje 'heighl '). 

[17:22] San Ildefonso ty&ntuheg.^i'yfh'u'u 'arroyo of the arroyitos of 
the earth flesh', referring, it is said, to a kind of clay mixed with 
earth (n4vf 'earth'; tu 'flesh'; hee 'small groove' 'arroyito'; g.e 
'down at' 'over at'; '/"' locative and adjective-forming postfix; 
hu'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

It is said that some brownish or reddish clay is mixed with the 
earth at this place. Cf. [17:21]. 

Hewett, Antiquities, pp.22-2 ! ' Hewett, Communautes, p. 98, 1908. 

= Hewett, General View . p. 598, 1905. » Antiquities, No. 14, l'JOii. 

' Hewi it. Antiquities, p. 22, 190d. 



BABRIKGTON] |'| \( 1, \ WHS 'JM 

[17:23] San lldefonso flw&wPi 'wind gap' {yw4 'wind'; wVi 'gap'). 
This wide and windy gap is believed to be correctly placed on 
the sheet. The names [17:24] and [17:25] are derived from it. 

[17:-_'4| San [Idefonso y"ic ", JceJ>i 'wind gap height', re. 

ferring to [17:23]; kwaje 'height'; k&ii 'height'). Especially 
the mesa between tyiviwi'i [17:23] and the K i < > Grande is called 
by this name. 

[17:i'.i] San lldefonso ljfwq,wihtfu "wind gap arroyo', referring to 
[17:23] i. V"';' "■"/. see [17:23]; hu'it 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 
The Ke$avrihv!u (17:1'.»| is the largest tributary of this arroyo. 

[17:26] Buckman wagon bridge, see [20:20]. 

[17:27] Buckman settlement, see[20:19]. 

[17:28] San lldefonso K'ow&p'&ift 'place of the twisted corn-husks' 
(/,',, ir,'i -skin' ' tegument ', here referring to 'corn-husks'; £?'3 
'to twist' 'to braid' 'to interlace'; '*" Locative and adjective- 
forming postfix). 

Corn-husks were and arc sometimes twisted and knotted into 
strange forms and thus prepared have some ceremonial use. Ai 
the ruins on the Pajarito 1 Mat can a number of twisted corn-husks 
have been found. 

The locality is described as a nearly level dell at the head of the 
\\h behuu [17:29]. 

[17:29] (1) San lldefonso 'Ate^ehu'u, ' Ah.L's!': ' arroyo of the little 
corner of the chokecherry ' 'canyon of the Little corner of the 
chokecherry' {'At. />■',. see under [17: unlocated], page 288; hu'u 
■ large groove' 'arroyo': Is,".' 'canyon'). 

(2) Buey Canyon, Ox Canyon. I span.). Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Canon del Buey ' <>\ canyon'. Eng. (2). 

[17:30] (1) San lldefonso /*/./. </. '*,"/. Tsiueg.ehu'u ' bird place canyon ' 
'bird place arroyo', referring to [17:34] (Tbiieg.e, see [17:34]; 
tsi'i 'canyon'; hv?v. 'large groove' 'arroyo'). The name 
Ttri '.i. ij.'s/"/ is applied especially to the upper, Tsueg.ehu'u to the 
lower, course of the waterway. Cf. Cochiti (2), Eng. (3), 

-pan. | l>. 

(2) Cochiti W'.i ji.il.'.ii. ... 'bird canyon', probabl] translating 
the Span, name <</•■/ /'/./ 'bird'; Tctunfo 'canyon' Span, canon). 
( i. Tewa l 1 I, Eng. (3), Span. ( 1 1. 

Eng. "Pajarito Canyon". 1 (<Span.). Span. % (4). Cf. 
Tewa il i. Cochiti (2). 

( 1 1 Span. Canon del Pajarito 'canyon of the little bird', refer- 
ring to Pueblo del Pajarito [17:34]. Eng. (3). Cf. Tewa(l), 
< lochiti (2). 

The arroyo begins at K'yjdfyxCu [16:135]. At places in its 
upper course it is a deep and narrow canyon. The lower • 
seldom carries surface water. "A limited supply of water can 

I II. -u 



282 ETHNOGEOGKAPHY OF THE IEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

still he obtained at almost any season at the spring in the arroyo 
a quarter of a mile away (from [17:34] ]. and during wet seasons 
the Pajarito carries a little water past this point". 1 

[17:31] (1) San Ildef onso , AkoyyAe'ir)hvag.< ' longplain mesa' ^akqrjf 
'plain'; h> 'length' 'long'; '/"' locative and adjective-forming 
postfix; kwagi 'mesa'). Cf. Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Phillips Mesa, so railed because a Mr. Phillips does 
dry-farming- on this mesa, raising large crops of corn. 
(:',) Span. Llano Largo • long plain '. Cf. Tewa (1). 
This mesa is several miles in length. The ruins [17:32] and 
j 17 :■'>•'■] are found here. 

[17:32] Nameless pueblo ruin. Doctor Hewett informs the writer 
that a large pueblo ruin lies on the mesa approximately where 
indicated. See [17:.'!1 |. 

[17:33] San Ildefonso Makina , i ,i 'sawmill place' {makina •machine' 
'sawmill' <Span. maquina •machine"; '/"' locative and adjective- 
forming postfix). 
This is one of the sites on which sawmills have been built. 

[17:34] (1) San Ildefonso Tsiteg.e'Qywikeji 'pueblo ruin down at the 
bird' 'pueblo ruin of the bird place' (tsiu< 'bird'; g.< 'down at' 
'over at'; 'oywikeji 'pueblo ruin" <'<>ijiri 'pueblo', keji 'old' 
postpound). Several other Tewa place-names are compounded 
of a word denoting a species of animal, plus the locative g_e; thus 
/'Tmjr -woodpecker place' [9:43], PeraQn 'placeof a species of 
kangaroo rats' [16:36], etc. Some other place-names are animal 
names with 'iw< postfixed; thus Ddiwt 'coyote place' [1:30]. 
Why such animal names are given to places it has not been pos- 
sible to learn; it is believed that clan names have nothing to do 
with them. Bandelier 2 says of TsUeQs : "It is also called 'Pajaro 
Pinto.' from a large stone, a natural concretion, found there, 
slightly resembling the shape of a bird." A large number of San 
Ildefonso Indians have been questioned about this bird-shaped 
rock, but none has been found who knows of the existence of 
such. Several Indians ventured to doubt this explanation id' the 
name, and said that it is the Tewa custom to name places after 
animals and that that is all they know about it. "Tzirege." 3 
"Tzi-re-ge." 4 "(Tewa: Tchire, bird; ge, house =house of the 
bird people: Spanish Pajarito. a little bird. ) Tchirege." 5 "Tshi- 
rege (Tewa, 'a bird;' Spanish pajarito. "small bird')."" ••Tchi- 
rege." 7 Cf. Cochiti (2), Span. (3). 

Hewett, Antiquities, p. 25, 1906. 
2 Final Report, pt. II, p. 79, note, L892 
3 Bandelier. Delight Makers, p. 381, 1890. 
'Bandelier, Final Report, pt. II, pp. 16, 78, 79, 1892. 
: Hewett, General View. p. 598, 1905. 
SHewett, Antiquities, p. 23, 1906. 
' Hewett, Communatites, pp. 45, 35, v ' matieres, 1908. 



bauux PLACE NAMES 283 

(2) Cochiti Wdftethd , affo%af6ma *<>ld village of the bird' 
(irdj'/,t •bird'; luPafteta 'village' 'pueblo'; ("dma 'old'). Cf. 
Tewa 1 1 ) .Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Pueblo del Pajaro, Pueblo del Pajarito 'bird pueblo' 
'little bird pueblo.' Cf. Tewa (1), Cochiti (2). "Puebloofthe 
Bird" 1 (evidently translating the Span. aame). "Pajarito." 3 
Bandelier gives "Pajaro Pinto" ['piebald bird ']* as the name of 
the pueblo, bui none of the Tewa informants are familiar with 
the name with "pinto" added. Mr. J. S. Candelario of Santa Ee 
informs the writer that he has beard the name Pajarito Pinto 
applied by Mexicans to a ruin somewhere mar Sandia Pueblo 
[20:11 

Tsidegt was fir-t described by Bandelier. 4 It i- fully described 
by Hewett, who Bays in part: 

Tshr pueblo in ill" Pajarito 'li>triit, and « ith the exten- 

. 1 i tf-% illage clustered about ; '. the largest aboriginal settlement, ai 
modern, in the Pueblo region of which the writer has personal knowledge, 
with the exception of Zufii . . . Tshirege ie said to have been the last of all 
the villages of Pajarito Park to be abandoned. A limited supply of water can 
still be obtaii ed at almost any season at the spring in the arroyo a quarter of a 
away, and daring ve\ seasons the Pajarito l ■ sa Little water 

past th - point.' 

Tin' San Udefonso Indian- state very definitely that their ances- 
tors and not the ancestors of the other Tewa villagers lived al 
TsLieQfi. No detailed tradition, however, was obtained from 
them. One Cochiti informant stated thai Tg&tegt was formerly 
inhabited by Tewa. The Pajarito Plateau (see introduction to 
(16J. page 260) was named by Hewetl after TsiM g : so also Pajarito 
Park. /'-/',;/• gave rise also to the name- of [17:30], [17:35], 
[17:36], and [17:39]. 

[17:35] San Ddefonso TsUeg.e'iygwakwag., 'bird place house m 
referring to [17:34] (Tsi-ieg.e, see [17:34]; "<" ; locative and . 
tive forming postfix; qwa indicating state of being a receptacle 
or, house-like shape; hwagt 'mesa'). This name is applied, i( is 
-aid. to a large mesa shaped like a Pueblo house situated jusl 
north of /■'-./• ruin [17:34]. Cf. [17:36], 

[17:36] (1) < Sochiti "Tziro Ka aash".' Bandelier says: "The Queres 
call it 'Tziro Ka-uash', of which the Spanish name i- a Literal 
translation". "Tziro Kauash". 1 Cf. Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Pajarito Mesa, i Span.). Span. (3). Cf. Cochiti (1). 

(3) Span. Mesa del Pajarito 'little bird mesa', doubtless refer 
ring to 17:: t . Eng. Cf. Tewa (1). " Me*>a del 






284 ETIIXOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ass. 29 

rito". 1 So far as could be learned, the Tewa do not apply the 
term TsueQt or Pajarito to any mesa other than [17:35]. The 
Uochiti name quoted above is just as likely a translation from the 
Span, name as vice versa. Bandelier 2 says: "The Mesa del Paja- 
rito forms the northern rim of a deep gorge called Rito de los 
Frijoles [28:6]". Hewett 3 writes: 

Beginning about a mile and a ball" south of Tsankawi [16:114]. the aspect of 
the country changes. From the Pajarito Canyon [17:30] to Kito <le los Frijoles 
[28:6], a distance of perhaps 10 miles, the high abrupt narrow tongue-like 
mesas protruding toward the river with broad timbered valleys between are 
replaced by one v'reat table-land, the Mesa del Pajarito, which at fir-- 
appears to be one continuous expanse only partially covered with pifion 
and juniper. It is, however, deeply cut at frequent intervals by narrow and 
absolutely impassable canyons. 

Cf. the names Pajarito Plateau and Pajarito Park: see intro- 
duction to [16]. page 260. Perhaps [17:53] is the nearest Tewa 
equivalent to "Mesa del Pajarito" as the latter is applied by 
Baudelier. See also [17:65]. 

[17:37] San Hdefonso Resvtiwe 'chimney place" (besu 'chimney' 
apparently <be ' smallness and roundness* 'small and round', su 
• arrow " ' shaft " : ' iwe locative). 

It is said that some American soldiers once built houses at 
this place, of which the chimneys are still standing. The arroyo 
■ [17:3S] is named after this place. 

[17:38] San Ildefonso Besrfiyfhu'u "chimney place arroyo". referring 
to [16:37] (Besu'iwe, see [16:37]; '/"' locative and adjective- 
forming postfix; /<"'" 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

[17:39] San Ildefonso Tsiieg.e'akompije'akqyy 'plain south of the bird 
place*, referringto [17:34]( Tsueg> . see [17:3-1]: 'akompije •south' 
<'ol-0!jf 'plain' -down country ', pijt 'toward'; 'akoyf 'plain'). 
This name is applied to the large low region between Tsiueg.t and 
the Rio Grande. 

[17:40] Rio Grande. Box Canyon of the bio Grande, see special treat- 
ment [Large Feature.-], pages 100-102. 

[17:11] San Ildefonso Tsikwaje, see [20:15]. 

[17:42] (1) San Ildefonso Kdbajtfe'vQfhifv. *colt arroyo' (kabaju 
"horse" <Span. caballo 'horse': '< diminutive: '/'locative and 
adjective-forming postfix; /<"'" 'large groove' 'arroyo'). Cf. 
Eng. (2), Span. 

(2) Eng. Colt Arroyo. (<Span.) = Span. (3). Cf. Tewa (1). 

(3) Span. Arroyo del Potrillo ' colt arroyo". =Eng. (2). Cf. 
Tewa I 1 1. Whether the Tewa or the Span, name was first applied 
is hardly ascertainable, nor is it known why the name was applied. 

1 Bandelier. Final Report, pt. II, pp. 79, 168, 1892. 



HAHBINQTON] PLACE-NAMES 285 

The name • horse or colt canyon orarroyo' is frequently applied 

l)_v Mexicans and Americans; cf. [28:52J. The name refers to a 

long anoyo which flows into the river. 
1 17:17] is an important tributary. 
[17:43] San Ildef onso MaMna'i'' 'sawmill place' (makina 'machine' 

'sawmill' <Span. maquina 'machine'; V' locative). 
A sawmill is Bituated at this place at the present time (1912). 

Cf. [17:45]. 
1 17:11 1 Nameless pueblo ruin. The information is furnished f >y 

I loctoi 1 lewett. 
[17:45] San [ldefonso Kabajitfehtfi-gkiocyh, Kribajitfekwaji. 'coll arroyo 

height' 'eoH height', referring e\ identlj to [17:42] I Kaiajil'i hvfu, 

h~"b'ijii't. see [17:42]; Y locative and adjective forming postfix; 

Att'w 'large groove ' 'arroyo"). The name is applied.it is said. 

only to the mesa on the south side of part of |17:4;)]; on the north 

side of [17:42] are [17:41] and [17:39]. 
[17:46] San Qdefonso , 4.nj'&u>i'i 'smooth gap' ('<!"j ; '. 'smoothness' 

'smooth'; w?i 'gap'). This gap is really smooth; henceprobably 

the name. The gap connects [17:47] and [17:58]. Cf. [17:47]. 
[17:17| San lldefonso An f;[ >ri/n/'>/ ': smooth gap arroyo', referring to 

1 17:4G] CAnficw"', see [17:46]; hv?n 'large groove' •arroyo"). 
It is said thai this arroyo Mow- into |17:4^J. 'Anyq "'/7|17: 16], 

from which it takes its name, is situated near its head. 
|17:ts) San Qdefonso J^ekuHwiygflvulu 'chimney place arroyo' (bem 

' chimney,' apparently ■ b, 'amallness and roundness' 'small and 

round', su "arrow shaft'; 'mc< locative' ">' locative and adjective 

forming postfix; hitii "large groove' "arroyo"). The name is the 

same as [17:38]. Either a mistake has been made or there are two 

arroyos by this name. See [16:37], |16::'..sJ 
1 17: !'•• ] San lldefonso Kw%bukwwji "height of the large roundish oak 

trees' {kwn "oak"; bu 'largeness, and roundish form like a ball' 

'large and roundish like a ball'; lewaji 'height'). 
|17:."iii| Jemez Mountain-., see special treatment, [Large Features:8], 

page 105. 
[17:51 ] San lldefonso Poqwawitsi'i, see [16:133]. 
[17:."'L'| San [ldefonso Poqwawztsikwajt 'water reservoir arroyo 

height', referring to [17:51] (Poqwa/witsi'i, nee [17:51]; hvaje 

"height",. 

[17:53] San [ldefonso KatajWcaT 1 , Kabajuk'd'iykwaQ.t 'horse fenced 
in place' 'horse fenced in mesa' (kdbajit 'horse' <Span. caballo 
■ horse'; k'a 'fence' 'corral locative and adjective-form- 

ing postfixes; lewagt 'mesa'). This name is applied to a large and 
indefinite mesa area north of the upper course of the Ritodelos 
Fi ijoles[28:6]. Ii i- perhaps the nearest equivalent of " Mesa del 



286 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [ETH. ann. 29 

Pajarito" as the latter is applied by Bandelier. It is said that 
horses are confined in the area and that this fact explains the 
name. See [17:36]. Cf.[17:57]. 

[17:54] San Lldefonso Qws^mpifu'n 'red-tailed hawk point' (qwsgmpi 

"an unidentified species of red-tailed hawk' <qw%T)j> 'tail', j<i 

'redness' "red"; /><'" 'horizontally projecting point or corner'). 

The point gives the name to the canyon [17:55]. There is at 

San lldefonso a Qws^rnpi Clan. 

[17:55] San lldefonso Qwcempifug.e'inisi'i 'canyon clown by red- 
tailed hawk point', referring to [17:54 | ( Qwa. mpifu'u, see [17:54]; 
ge 'down at' 'over at'; "/'' locative and adjective-forming post- 
fix; As/'/ 'canyon'). 

This is a deep canyon, on the northeast side of which [17:.">4] is 
situated. 

[17:56] Nameless pueblo ruin. 

This ruin has been approximately located through the kindness 
of Doctor llewett. It is said to be at the upper end of the long 
mesa [17:31]. 

[17:57] San lldefonso Kabajuk t d'i H po , i'we 'place of the water at the 
horse-fenced-in place', referring to [17:.V>] ( Kaiajuk'aT 1 , see 
[17:53]; /"''water': '/'"•, locative). The name refers to a spring 
at the very head of [17:5S] proper. 

It is said that a sawmill was formerly situated about 100 yards 
north of this place. The locality is like a rolling valley, it is 
said. 

[17:58] (1) San lldefonso PoJ>epopq" i ?sVi, literally 'fishweir water 
thread canyon', but the etymology is not (dear (pou,> 'fishweir'; 
pa 'water': pop* 'thread' 'cord' not used in modern Tewa with 
the meaning 'stream', but perhaps used so in ancient Tewa; tstfi 
'canyon'). 

(2) Eng. Water Canyon. 'Water Canyon' is a common name 
in the Southwest. Cf. Huntington: "But there ain't no water in 
these mountains, except once in about L0 years in Water Can- 
yon". 1 The reference is not to this Water Canyon. 

(3) Span. Canon del Diezmo •canyon of the tenth or the tithe". 
Why this Span, name is applied is not explained. 

The names apply to a very lone' canyon, running from [17:57], 
it is said, to the Rio Grande. 
[17:59] San lldefonso MdkincM?* "sawmill place' (iii<i!,-ni<i 'machine' 
'sawmill' <Span. maquina "machine": V * locative and adjective- 
forming postfix). 

It is not ascertained on which side of the creek [17:58] the saw- 
mill formerly stood at this place. 

1 Huntington in Harper's Magazine, p. 294, Jan., 1912. 



haubik PLACE X \Ml-.s 287 

f 17 :»'>< ' ] Sun Qdefonso Total h hu'v 'cliff cottonwood little corner 
arroyo' (Totatebtfe, see under [17 :nnlocated], below; /"■'" 'large 
groove' 'arroyo'). 

[17:61] Nameless pueblo ruin. 

The ruin was located on the sheet by Doctor Hewett. 

[17:62] ill Sun Ildefonso Tunabahu'it 'bean field arroyo' (tu 'bean'; 
' 'field'; /("'" 'large groove' 'arroyo'). Ii is said thai for 
merly there were bean fields in this canyon: hence the name. 
This and not [ 28 :•'. J is the frijol or bean canyon of the Tewa, but 
is never thus designated in span.; cf. the Span, name of the 
neighboring Rito de los Frijoles |28:u|. 

(2) Eng. Ancho Canyon. (■ Span.). = Span. (3). 

(3) Canada Ancha, Canon Audio 'broad mountain-valley' 
'broad canyon'. It is so called because of its breadth and large 
size. =Eng. (2). "Canada Ancha." 5 "There are caves in the 
deep Canada Ancha." 2 

[17 :•'■::] San Ildefonso Siywyi)ge , i'r)fhu , 'u "arroyo down by the place 
where he or she stood and cried and wept' (Siywiyge, see under 
[17:unlocated], below; V' locative and adjective-forming postfix; 
lui'i 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

[17:64] Nameless pueblo ruin. 

This has been located on the sheet by Doctor Hewett 

[17:65] San Ildefonso Top l op'awe'i ,i 'place of the pinon tree which 
has a hole through it", referring to a peculiar tree thai stood and 
perhaps still stands in the locality 0o 'pinon' 'Pin us edulLs'; p'o 
■hole"; p'awi 'pierced'; "<"' locative and adjective forming 
postfix i. This name is (riven to the mesa north of the Ritode los 
Frijoles, northwest of the pueblo ruin |28:l'_'|. This is a part of 
the mesa region to which Bandolier applies the name Mesa del 
Pajai ito; see 1 17:36]. 

[17:66] (1) San Ildefonso Tohii'u 'arroyo of the chamiso hediondo' 
Qf> 'an unidentified species of plant vi bich the Mexicans call cham- 
iso hediondo; ku'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). Cf. Eng. (3). 

(2) San Ildefonso Soucevoi\i)fKviu 'arroyo of a kind of thick 
cornmeal mush' (sakew< 'a kind of cornmeal mush thicker than 
atoh"; '," locative and adjective-forming postfix; hu'v 'large 

lOVe' "arro\ o'i. 

(3) Eng. Bush Canyon. It is so called by Doctor Hewett and 
others, although this name appears nevei to have been published. 
Cf. Tewa (1). 

This is a short canyon between Ancho Canyon [17:62] and 
Frijoles < lanyon [ 28 : • '. | . See Rito del Bravo under [17 :unlocated] 
below. 



■ Bandi 



288 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [et 

[17:67] Frijoles Canyon, Rito de los Frijoles, see [28:0], 
[17:68] San Ildefonso Puqwig.^Qywikeji, see [28:12], 
[17:0'.»] San Ildefonso Puqwig.eHnisig.epojemug.e, see [28:14]. 
[17:70] Nameless canyon, see [28:17]. 
[17:71] Alamo Canyon, see [28:20]. 

ri7:T2] Capulin Canyon, Cuesta Colorada Canyon, see [28:30]. 
[17:73] Cochiti Canyon, see [28:52]. 
[17:74] Quemado Canyon, see [28:66]. 



San Ildefonso 'Atebe'e 'little corner of the chokecherry ' ('«8i 'choke 
cherry' 'Primus melanocarpa.'; bee 'small low roundish place'). 
This dell is said to be somewhere in the vicinity of the upper 
part of [17:29], to which it gives the name. 

Span. Rito del Bravo 'creek of the brave' 'creek of the non-Pueblo 
Indian'. 'Bravo' is often used by Span, speaking people of New 
Mexico to distinguish non-Pueblo from Pueblo Indians. But 
it is possible that the name is not Rito del Bravo, but Rito Bravo, 
'wild, turbulent river"; cf. Rio Bravo del Norte, an old Span, 
name of the Rio Grande. See non-Pueblo Indian, page 575, and 
Rio Grande [Large Features:3], pages 100-102. This name was 
not familiar to the Tewa informants. It is evidently the Span. 
name of some canyon not far north of Frijoles Canyon [28:0]. 

Hewett 1 mentions this stream at least three times in his Antiq- 
uity s: "It [ruin No. 18] is not less than 800 feet above the waters 
of Rito del Bravo, which it overlooks". "No. 19 . . . A small 
pueblo ruin in the beautiful wooded park just south of the Rito 
del Bravo and a mile north of Rito de los Frijoles". 3 "This site 
[of ruin No. 20] overlooks the deep gorge of the Bravo to the 
north, and south a few rods is another deep canyon". 

San Ildefonso Ke^awVi 'gap where the bear is or was desired' (ke 
'bear' of any species; dii'a 'to wish' 'to want ' 'to desire'; iri'l 
'gap'). For the name cf. Nambe Paflabic'u [22:44]. The circum- 
stances under which the name was originally given were not 
known to the informants. 

San Ildefonso ' O^o'ebu'u 'little crow corner' (*««/<< 'crow'; 'e diminu- 
tive; bu'u Marge low roundish place"). 

This corner is indefinitely located as somewhere not very far 
north of Frijoles Canyon [28:0]. 

Span. Mesa Prieta 'dark mesa". Bandolier 3 writes: 

The formation of black trap, lava, and basalt crosses to the west side of the 
Rio Grande a little below San Ildefonso, and extends from half a mile to a mile 
wist. Hexagonal columns of basalt crop out near the Mesa Prieta. 

■ Antiquities, p. 25. 1906. 'Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n, p. US, 1892, 

s Ibid., p. 26. 



MAP 18 
BLACK MESA REGION 



m 



CM 








MAP 18 
BLACK MESA REGION 



BABBINOTON] PLACE N \M ES 289 

This place is seemingly situated on either 1 16] <>r more probably 
on 1 17 1. Sec the unlocated pueblo ruin- given below. Two or 
three San Qdefon>o Indians have hecn questioned, hut they know 
of no mesa by this name. 

San [ldefonso Posy^t 'where the water slides down' {fro 'water'; sy, 
said to li«' the same a- sy in syrify 'to slide"; y. 'down at' 
'over at'). This name i- said to be applied to a place in or near 
tin' lower course of Posyg 'in fAu'v |17;17j, from which the latter 
takes it- name. Sec 1 17:1 7|. 

San Qdefonso Siywiygi "down where he or she stood and cried and 
wept " : <i ii<r[ii , 'to stand and cry and weep' <.«/ for eij^i 'to crj 
and wee]>". ij"''. 1 ! f' "to stand'; Qi "down at' 'over at'). The I e.i 
son win this name i- applied is not known, nor can the place be 
definitely located. See S'ljifijj'j.'njf/ni'ii [17:63], which takes it- 
name from Siijira/.j,. 

San DdefonSO Sy&Vi^iWi 'place of the weed species' known as 

.-■>j'si_'n/r 'an unidentified species of weed which grows in 
mar-In ground and is ground up and rubbed all over a person 
as a cure for fever' (<sy. 'to smell' intransitive, Is'dijf unex- 
plained; '-'"■■ locative); said to !»■ known in Span, as pohSo. 

The name is applied to a locality on the west Bide of the Jemez 
Mountain- opposite Kabajiik'a'i H [17:53]. 
San Qdefonso TdbatebJi 'little corner of the cliffs and cottonwood 
trees' (toba 'cliff'; tn "cottonwood' 'Populus wislizeni'; !>■'. 
* small low roundish place'). 

The informant says that there are cliffs at this place in one 
of w bich i- a large cave, hut he does no! remember any cottonwood 
tree-. The place can not he definitely located. See Tobatebe- 
/i"'" [17:60], which takes \i< name from Tobatehie. 
Pueblo ruin- No-. IT. Is. L9, and 20of 1 lewett's Antiquitiet •< 1906) lie 
in the area. l>ut it has not been possible to locate them definitely. 

[ 18 J BLACK Ml.-\ SHE] I 

This -heet (map 18) shows the Black Mesa north of San Qdefonso 
Pueblo and some of the hill country about the Black Mesa. Besides 
the ruins of temporary structures on the mesa, only one pueblo ruin 
is represented on t he sheet proper; this is [18:0], which is perhaps in- 
correctly placed. The entire region shown easl of the Rio Grande is 
claimed bj the San Qdefonso Indian- and mosl <>f the place-names are 
know it only t<> them. 

[ 18 : 1 | San Qdefonso 7" >!„ //■•['■' ij<j,<I ■'/»■/■/" ,'n; ■ where they x" through 
the river beyond [18:19]' {Tymj fapq vge, see [18 10]; $ith< 

ST.",- 1 29ETB 16 19 



290 ETHNOGEOGRAPHT OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

po 'water' 'river'; pi 'to issue* 'to pass'; Hwe locative). This 
name is applied to the little-used wagon ford of the Rio Grande 
slightly north of Hobart's ranch [18:11]. 

[18:'J] Santa Clara Ku'iyj'hu'u, see [14:79]. 

[18:3] San Ildefonso Ni&mpihegi 'red earth with the many little 
gulches' (ixnjf 'earth'; pi 'redness' 'red'; hegi 'gulched' 
<//<■> 'little groove' 'gulch' 'arroyito', g/asin many adjectives 
which denote shape). Cf. [23:59]. The name is applied to the 
first range of low reddish hills east of Black Mesa [18:19]. 

The range is more than a mile long. It is much eroded and 
cut by small gulches. On its highest point is the ancient altar or 
shrine [18 :4 1. A higher range of hills, east of Nqmpihegi and run- 
ning parallel with it is Pijog.e [21:2]. 

[18:4] San Ildefonso Nq/rnpihegiTcvhaMi 'stone pile of the place of the 
red earth with the many little gulches 1 , referring to [ 18 :;» ] 
(JV4mpikeg.i, see [18:3]; Icubvui 'pile of stones' 'altar or shrine 
consisting of a pile of stones' <ku 'stone', bou>i "large roundish 
object or pile'). 

This shrine is situated on the highest point of the whole 
Nq-mpihegi Range. 

[18:.'i| San Ildefonso ftin.firl'ojju'i'i 'gap where the mineral called 
f'lur'ii' is dug' ([•iinf'<rl : qrjf-, see [18:6]; wi'i 'gap'). This name ' 
refers especially to the vicinity of the pit [18 :'>] but more loosely 
to the whole gap between N$mpiheg.i [18:3] and Pijog.e [21:2]. 
See [18:6]. 

[18 :<:»] San Ildefonso fimj=feVo»d/'we 'place where the mineral called 
funfc£ is dug' (funfie a whitish mineral used in pottery making 
(see Minerals); Tcqyf 'to dig'; Hive locative). 

The pit follows the outcropping of the vein of the mineral. It 
extends 60 feet or more in length in an easterly and westerly 
direction. It is nowhere more than a few feet deep and a few 
feet broad. This is the place where San Ildefonso pottery-makers 
usually obtain funfee,. A well-worn ancient trail leads to the 
place from San Ildefonso and a modern wagon road passes a short 
distance west of the pit. Cf. [18:5]. 

[18:7] San Ildefonso Tsaiyo$ehuku 'stone on which the giant rubbed 
or scratched his penis' (tsaiijo 'a kind of giant ' <tsati unex- 
plained, jo augmentative); d>: ' penis 'j-Am'-h 'to rub' ' to scratch ' ; 
leu ' stone"). 

This is a trough-shaped stone about 7 paces long and 2 or 3 
feet broad. The child-eating giant who lived within Black Mesa 
[18:1!>] used to visit this rock. In former times San Ildefonso 
Indians were accustomed to come to this stone to pray. The San 
Ildefonso informants say that the writer is the first non-Indian 



roMl P] in \ wn.s 291 

to whom this stone was shown and explained. Ail knowledge of 
ii is kepi from outsiders with scrupulous cure. Cf. [18:8], to 
which i h'u stone gives the name. 

[18:*] San Ildefonso ' '". Tsaii;o4ehu'u 'arroyo of 

the stoi i which the giant rubbed his penis' 'arroyo of the 

giant's penis' (Tsatijodehuku, Tsabijofe, see |18:7|: '/" locative 
and adjective-forming postfix; hu'ii 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

The arroyo begins near [ 18:7 ] and takes its name from the 
tatter. The Mexicans are said to refer to ii as Lrroyo Seco 'dry 
arroyo' if they give ii a name. The arroyo cuter- the Ki<> 
Grande just north of Hobart's ranch [18:11]; it is perhaps some- 
times included under the name /""/-' /'"/''.•_' i/'j' /hi'", see [ 18: lu|. 

[18:'.»] San Qdefonso and Santa Clara Qwaf>ig<£o7)wikeyi ' pueblo ruin 
of the red house-wall(s) ' (</"'•' 'house-wall'; /V 'redness' 'red'; 
ge 'down at' 'over at'; 'ogwikeji 'pueblo ruin' <'<>ijirl 'pueblo'; 
'old' postpound). 

Whapige (maison da clan da fauron ii la queue rouge), reeonnu par 1 
whoges [San Qdefonso Indians comme la maison d'imile letir- elans. a I'<' pi »|iic 
de Perage. Ce clan (Whapitowa < Qdefonso. 1 

Bewett's informants confuse the firsi pari <d' the name with 
qws^mfi ' red tailed hawk.' Early in November, L911, Mr. J. A. 
Jeancon t<>ld the writer that Santa Clara Indians had informed 
him that the Tew a name of this pueblo ruin means " place of the 
lazy people." In a letter dated November 15. 1911, Mr. Jeancon 
write-: 

I have bad the Santa ( lara peopli repeal the name a number of time 
to n iv untrained ear I gel k Wahpie, which they say mean- the "Place of the 

Painted Walls.' I misunderstood al t the meaning "Lazj People." [1 

that the people ol thai place were very lazy, and thai when people oi othei 
places were lazy they urn- told to go to ! Wahpie. I er to the 

name, however. This information was corroborated by Ancieto (?) Boaso, 
Nestor Naranjo, Victor Naranjo, Pueblo (?) Vaca, Pablo Silva, and Geronimo 
Tafoya. All of these wi i any intimation thai 

oi Ise had been spoken to about the name. 

Doctor Ileuett kindly located the ruin on thesheet, bu( it is 
doubtless placed too far south. Hewetl describes it- location 
\ii\ indefinitely: 

A quelquee millee au nord de Tuyo [ 18 . in ] . a la base de coUinee de Bable, 1 1 
vis-a-vi- de 3 14:71 |, on roil I'emplacemenl de Wnaj 

Mr. .1. M. Naranjo, an aged Santa ( Lira Indian, stated thai there 
i- a pueblo ruin at "La Mesilk [15:28] this was Qwapi&nd the 
I | de were '/'"in/." It wasnol known to then riter's San Ildefonso 

i Bcwelt.Commnnkuli 



292 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

informants either that the people of Qwapigt were T'arnt (Tano) 
or that, as Hewett says in the quotation above, 1 they were the an- 
cestors of San Ildefonso people. 

[18:10] San Ildefonso T x y,nfjop%i]ge 'beyond [18:19]' (T'y.njjo, see 
[18:19]; /'••m/.' / < 'beyond'). This name refers especially to the 
locality just north of Black Mesa [18:19], and more vaguely to 
all the region north of Black Mesa. The name Hobarl is some- 
times applied much as T'ynfjopwogt is applied, but Hobarl 
refers properly to [18:11] only, q. v. Vf. [18:14]. 

[18:11] Eng. Hobart's ranch, Hobart, so called because a Mr. E. F. 
Hobart, now of Santa Fe. owned the ranch for many years. The 
ranch is now owned by Mr. II. .1. Johnson. Sometimes the name 
Hobart is used to designate more or less vaguely all the region 
between Black Mesa 1 18:1'. >J and Mesilla [15:28] or to include 
Mesilla itself. 

[18:12] Rio Grande, see [Large Features::;], pages 100-102. 

[18:13] Santa Clara I'!'ui,j;ilni'ii^ see [14:81]. 

[18:11] San Ildefonso Ty,nfjop%Tjge?ir)fhihi 'arroyo beyond [18:19]' 
'arroyo of the region [18:10]' {Tnnfjo. see [18:19]; p%y</t 
'beyond'; ~i'' locativeand adjective-forming postfix; hu , u i \&Tge 
groove' •arroyo"). 

This arroyo runs from T'y/nj'joW'Pi [18:L'l] to the Rio Grande. 
It passes south of Hobart's ranch [18:11]. and is the first large 
arroyo north of Black Mesa [ 18:19]. To it is tributary the arroyo 
of the salt spring [18:16]. 

[18:15] San Ildefonso 'Anf^po, , Anf%pd'iwt 'the salt water' "at the 
salt water' ('<_' //./•'' 'salt' <"<_' alkali, nysg unexplained, perhaps the 
same as in -(•"/; /'._' 'turquoise', etc. ; po 'water'; 'in; locative). 

The salt spring is about 100 yards above the confluence of the 
little stream which comes from the spring, with the main bed of 
[18:16]. The bed of the little arroyo in which the spring is situ- 
ated is whitish with saline substance for some distance about the 
spring. It is said that this spring never goes dry, but the little 
water it contains sinks into the sand at the spring or a few 
feet below according to season. It was at this place that the San 
Ildefonso Indians used to get salt many years ago, but now all 
the salt there has turned into peppery alkali ('']«;). it is said. The 
arroyo [18:10] takes its name from this. See Salt, under Min- 
erals; also [29:110] Cf. [13:35]. 

[18:10] San Ildefonso 'Anf:rpn'hj,fliii'u 'arroyo of the saltwater' 
referring to [18:15] (\4n./'<r/'''. sec [18:15]; •£'»' locative and 
adjective-forming postfix; liu'ii ' large groove' 'arroyo'). 

[18:171 Santa Clara T'ant'ahu'u, see [14:82]. 



1 Oommunaiit<'-s T p. 33, 190S. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT PLATE K 




. 



~~\ 



A. BLACK MESA OF SAN ILDEFONSO, FROM THE RIO GRANDE LOOKING NORTH 




B. VIEW FROM TOP OF THE BLACK MESA OF SAN ILDEFONSO, LOOKING 
SOUTHWEST 




&k ■-.«* 



Tr/EMHj', A SMALL MESA-LIKE PEAK, FROM THE 
GRANDE, LOOKING WEST 



HAEEINOTON] PLACE-NAMES 293 

[18:^] Santa Clara T'yfy&ehu'u, see [14:83]. 

[18:1'.)] (1) ." •, apparently 'very spotted mountain' 'very 

piebald mountain 1 (t'ym ejo, apparently identical with the augmen- 
tative form of f '>ji)f 'spottedness 1 < t'y,rjj 'spottedness', ,70 aug 
mentative; ^l??y 'mountain'). No etymology for the name usu- 
ally exists in the minds of the Indian users. '/'ijijri<> 'very 
spotted 1 'piebald 1 is in common use in the language and sounds 
exactly like the name of the mesa. '/ ' ijij i»' spottedness' 'spotted', 
without the augmentative ,70, appears in Tat'ttgge, the old Tewa 
name for Tesuque; see |26:>|. The northern dill's of Black 
Mesa, especially about ih<' cave [18:21], are marked with large 
greenish spot-, and if I \i n fjo really meant originally 'very 
spotted 1 this feature may have given rise to the name. Many 
surrounding features are named from T^y/n/jo. "Tu-yo". J 
"Tuyo." 2 The Tew a name of Terecita Marti ne/. a young woman 
of San 1 1 de fonso, i- Tym ■ ':'• 'weave basket' it in/ e 'basket'; /'<< "to 

weave'), which merely happens to sound like the name of the 

Black Mesa, 

(2) Eng. Black Mesa, Black Mesa of San [Idefonso, Black Mesa 
near San Qdefonso (pi. li'. .1). ('!'. |13:1| No Span, name of 
similar meaning appears to l.<- applied to this mesa. The mesa 
is composed of blackish basalt and is near San ildefonso Pueblo; 
hence these names. "BlackMesa".' ■•The Black Mesa of San 
[ldefonso'V "Black Mesa of San Bdefonso". 6 

(:'.) Eng. "Sacred Fire Mountain".' It is so called because of 

the altar [18:23] on it- top. 

i I i Eng. Me-ita. Me-illa. I Span.). Span. (9). 

(5) Eng. Orphan Mountain. | Span.). Span. (10). This 
name i- mueli used by Americans who live in tie' Tewa 
country. 

(6) Eng. San Lldefonso Mesa, Mesa of San [Idefonso. San 
Ildefonso i- sometimes coupled with the other name- applied in 
Eng. and Span, to the mesa. Span. 111). 

iT) Eng. Beach Mesa, Beach Mountain. Doctor Hewetl some 
time, rail- it thu- because it- top i- strewn with pebbles a- if it 
had once hern a beach. 

(-; Eng. Round Mesa, Bound Mountain. Mr. John Stafford 
of K-panola regularly calls the mesa thu-. The name is given 

because Of it- apparent roundish shape, although in reality the 

mesa i- squarish rather than roundish, a- shown on the Bheet. 

■ Bandelier, Pinal Report, pt n pp 

• ll.'U'.'tl: Cfimmiin.i . t, XXXI, p. 701, 1909. 

i ■ on inaati i, p Out Wat op. alt. 

' Bandelier, 
p.M. 
•Be wet t, In 0\ 



294 ETHNOGEOGKAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. as 



(9) Span. Mesita, Mesilla 'little tableland' "little mesa'. 

Eng. (4). Cf. the names of the settlement Mesilla [15:28] and 
of the Mesilla on the wesl side of the Rio Grande somewhere 
opposite the latter [14:unlocated], which take their names from 
[18:19]. 

(In) Span. Huerfano 'the orphan", so called because the mesa 
is so isolated. = Eng. (5). This is perhaps the commonest Span, 
name of the mesa. 

(11) Span. Mesa. Mesita 6 Mesilla de San [ldefonso. = Eng. (6). 

The Black Mesa is the most conspicuous geographical feature 
in the Tewa valley country. It looms like a great black fort, 
about midway between San [ldefonso and Santa Clara Pueblos. 

Of the geology of the Black Mesa Heweti writes: ""Here is an 
example of the geologically recent basaltic extrusions which char- 
acterize the Rio Grande Valley from this point south through 
White Rock Canon". 1 The entire mesa is of blackish basalt: see 
the discussion of it- history, below. The cave [18:L'l] was 
deepened in the hope of finding mineral deposits, but up to the 
present time no mineral of commercial value has been discovered 
at the mesa; see [18:i'l |. 

The Tewa say that the mesa has been used as a place of refuge 
and defense in time of war since the earliest period. The cliffs 
are scalable in four places only: [18:27], [18:28], [18:29]. and 
[18:25]. At one of these places [18:29] are remains of an ancient 
wall. In historic times the San Ildefonso Tewa were besieged on 
the top of this mesa by the Spaniards at the close of the Indian 
revolt of 1680. 

It was on this cliff [18:19] that the Tehuas [Tewa] held out so long in 1694 
against Diego de Vargas. No documentary proof of this is needed. Vargas 
made four expeditions against the mesa, three of which proved unsuccessful. 
The first was on the 28th of January, 1694, and as the Tehuas made proposals 
of surrender, Vargas returned to Santa Fe without making an attack upon 
them. But as the Indians soon after resumed hostilities, he invested the mesa 
from the 27th of February to the 19th of March, making an effectual assault on 
the 4th of March. A third attempt was made on the 30th of June, without 
results; and finally, on the 4th of September, after a siege of five days, the 
Tehuas surrendered, Previously they had made several desperate descents 
from the rock, and experienced some lo>^ in men and in supplies. The mesa 
is so steep that there was hardly any possibility of a successful assault The 
ruins [18:l'4] on its summit [18:19] are those of the temporary abodes con- 
structed at that time by the Indians. 2 

The San Ildefonso Indians preserve traditions of this siege. 
Brave Indians used to descend every night through the gap 
[18:27] and get water from the river for the besieged people to 

! Hewett in Out West, xxxi, p. 7(il, 1909. ! Bandelier.'Final Report, ft. u. p. 82, ami note, L892. 



hakim PLACE-NAM] S 295 

drink. The Spaniard- were afraid to come near enough to be 

within range of rocks and arrow-. The .-tone wall [18:29 

the ruined houses [18:24] probably date from the siege of Vargas, 
l>nt still older remains of walls and houses may be discoverable 
on the mesa. 

Black Mc-a has much to do with the mythologj and religion of 
the Tewa. A giant (Tewa tsatijo) formerly lived with his wife 
and daughter within the mesa. They entered through the cave 
[18:21] and their oven was [18:30]. The giant was so large thai 
be reached San [ldefonso village in four steps. He made daily 
trips thither in order to catch children, which he took home and 
he and his family ate. He used to drink from the Bio Grande, 
also 1 18:7]. At lasl the giant and his family were killed by 
tiie War Gods (Tewa ZW&'< 'little people'). The giant's heart 

i- a white -tune situated on top of tin' Illc-a at [18:22], which 
probably is mythic, a- are SO many other things both in the Tewa 

world and in our own. Cf. [19:118]. 

It is said that Black Mc-a i- one of the four places which for 
merly belched forth tire and -moke. The others were j*umawa- 
kip'o'iw< [19:11''.). 'Og.uhewi [20:8], and Ttmapiys [29:3], accord- 
ing to San Qdefonso tradition. 

The altar [18:13] on top of the mesa i- still perfectly pre- 
served, and remains of offerinjrs are to he found by it. showing 
that it is still u-ed. It is said that dame- were once performed 

on certain oca-ion- on top of the me-a. 

Prom the top of Black Mesa one may view the whole Tewa 
country (see pi. L2, B). It i- a strange place, full of historical and 
mythical interest, and no visitor at San [ldefonso Pueblo should 

fail to take a trip to the top of the ine-a in company with an 

Indian informant. 
Mr. A. Kenahan. of Santa IV, ha- published a book of verse 

entitled " Songs of tin' Black Mesa". Whether the title refers 

to 1 18:1'.' | is not known to the writer. 
[18:l'o| San [ldefonso /'<_/. • waki 'slope or talus of [18:19]'(7*fl 

see [18:19]; waki 'slope 3 -tain-"). This name refers to the talus 

slopes al the fool of the cliffs of [18:19]. The cliffs themselves 

are called '/"•/„ \ • 'cliff'). See [18:19]. 
[18:21] San [ldefonso Fynjjop'o, Tynj top '<■'>"' "hole of |18:r.'|' 

•pla.e of the hole of [18:19]' I Tym .-/■. see [18:19]; /•'■• 'hole'; 

locative and ad ject i\ c f, .rmilcj' DOStfix). Note that the p'o 

'hole' is used and not any of the word- meaning 'cavity " or 'cave'. 
/' suggests p ■■' i •door' and appear- to be u-ed because the ca\ e 
i- thought of as an opening leading into the hollow interior of 
the mesa. 



296 ETIINOGEOGKAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. ANN. 29 

According to information obtained from Tewa, Mexicans, and 
Americans, a natural cave has always existed at this place. This 
cave was deepened about 25 years ago by a party of miners from 
the Middle West, under extraordinary conditions, according to 
information obtained from Mr. E. F. Hobart, of Santa Fe. A 
woman who resided in an Illinois town saw in a trance the Black 
Mesa, and mineral deposits at its center. She had never been in 
the West, but she saw it just as it is. Organizing a party consist- 
ing of four men and herself, a start was made at once for San 
Lldefonso, under guidance of the spiritual insight of the woman. 
They made a camp near Hobart's ranch, and under the woman's 
direction the men commenced digging and blasting, making tin' 
ancient cave deeper. No mineral of commercial value was dis- 
covered. After carrying the cave to its present dimensions the 
project was abandoned and the party returned to the East. 

The cave is at present 13 feet high at its mouth and 6 feet 
across. The mouth is at the top of the talus slope, perhaps about 
300 feet above the bed of the Rio Grande. The floor is horizontal 
and the walls are quite uniform and smooth. The cave is 75 feet 
deep, and 50 feet from the mouth is a cavity with perpendicular 
.-ides. 12 feet deep. The portion of the cave near the mouth is 
clearly in its ancient condition, unaltered. There are traces of red 
lines still left on the roof, evidently the work of Indians. There 
arc also concentric circle designs about -A inches in diameter, and 
some incised and reddened lines. It is difficult to determine just 
where the old part of the cave ends and the recently excavatrd 
portion begins, but it is not far from the mouth. 

Owing to mythological ideas even the sophisticated Tewa of the 
present day do not like to venture near the hole. It was through 
this hole or door that the child-eating giant went in and out. 
From out this hole in very ancient times the mountain belched 
smoke and fire. See further concerning this under [18:11*]. 
According to information obtained at Santa Clara Pueblo by 
an informant, at the time of the Hood the Tewa people were 
rescued in caves at Abiquiu [3:36], Chimayo [22:18], and T'unfjo. 

The only published reference to this cave that has been found 
is in Bandelier: 

On the steep side of the Tu-yo there is a cave about, which S"ine fairy and 
goblin stories are related which may yet prove useful for ethnological and his- 
toric purposes. 1 

See [18:19]. 

'Bandelier, Final Report, pt. II, p. 82, 1892. 



habuhotoh] PLACE-NAMES 297 

[18:22] il) San Qdefonso Tscfliyobipiyj' 'the giant's heart' (tsaiijo 
'giant ': ti possessive; piyj ' hear! '). 

{■_') Sau Qdefonso K<itx:i/<" : 'white stone' [kit 'stone'; ts$ "white 
in*-- " • white"; '/"' locative and adjective-forming posttix.) 

These names air said t" refer to a white .--tone about a font in 
diameter situated on the top of the mesa near the northern edge 
and slightly east of a point on the surface over the cave [18; - 21J. 
This stone is what remains of the eiaut's heart, it is said. 

An Indian told the writer that although lie has been on top of 
the mesa many times and knows that the heart exists, he has never 
seen it. A careful search along the northern edge of the mesa 
failed t.> reveal the giant's heart. See |18;1'.»|. 
[18:23] San Qdefonso T'v<njyoJewqg&k*ajeku 'holy stone on top of 
[18:1'.'!' i T'ij/i .'./'". -ee |18:1'.']. hraji 'height' 'on top of"; ¥ajt 
'holy object ' •fetish'; hu 'stone'). 

This is :i roundish bowlder-altar on tin' western side of the top 
of Black Mesa. Hewetl describes it as follows: 

I'm sanctuaire sur le bord oueet du plateau scrt aujourd'hui encore auculte dee 

Indians. C est un cairn creux, conique, de sis pieds de haut, fait de gros cail- 

loux, avec un creux poor le ten u sa base. [1 est connu sous lenomdu sanctuaire 

[loccupe la place la mieux en Evidence detoute la valleedu Rio Grande. 1 

Fresh prayer plumes and feathers have been found deposited 

at the altar. Because of this shrine Hewett has called the Black 

Mesa "Sacred Fire .Mountain" 1 '. See [18:19]. 
[18:i'l] San Qdefonso T'yn fjofavaj&tegwakeyi 'old houses on the top of 
1 18 :'.» | " i /"'./// //'". see |18;1'.'|; Tcwajl 'height 1 'on top of'; tegyoa- 
/./'/ -old house' .. t, gwa • house • ti ' dwelling place,' gwa denoting 
-tate of being a receptacle; Jceji 'old' postpound). 

Somewhat north and east of the center of the surface of the 
mesa the walls and rooms of former houses or shelters can be 
traced as low ridges and mound-. The Indians say that the top 
of Black Mesa was never inhabited except temporarily in times 
of war. Bandelier is evidently correct when be writes; 

It was on thin cliff [18:19] that the Tehuas [Tewae] held out bo long in 1694 
i Diego de Vargas. The ruins on its summit are thoseof the temporary 
at t ' '■■ ins. 

3ee [18:19]. 
[18;2.">| At the place indicated one can climb up and down the cliff, 
but oul\ with considerable difficulty. The cliff is high and steep. 

and there is do easy way upas there is at |18;°j7|, |18:'_'>|, and 
[18:29]. 



■ Rowed ■ ' Bandelier, Final Report | 

in Out Wtit, xxxi. p. 71 



298 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. ann. 29 

[ 18:26] The place indicated is the highest part of the mesa-top. It is 
a sort of a knoll on the otherwise flat surface. There is no 
shrine or altar on its summit. 

[18:27] .San Ildefonso TsdmpijefcutsiMpd'e 'little trail of the notch in 
the rock at the west side' {tsampije "west 1 Ktsq.yj 1 - not fully ex- 
plained, pije 'toward'; leu 'rock' 'stone'; tsijd 'notch "notched'; 
po 'trail'; \ diminutive). This is the expression in current use. 
It is said that through this gap brave young Tewa went down 
to the river to get water at night when the San Ildefonso people 
were besieged by Vargas on top of the mesa in 1694. It is at 
present difficult to get up or down through this cleft. See 
[18:19]. Cf. [18:28]. 

The cleft is called also KupaieHwt 'where the rock is cleft' (hi/ 
'rock'; i„ibt 'to split'; '//'•, locative), hut this is merely a de- 
scriptive term. It can. of course, also he spoken of as a wiH, as 
[18:28] is usually referred to. 

[18:2s] San Ildefonso 'Akompije'iywi'i 'the south gap' Cakompijt 
'south' <'</l'oijf 'plain' 'down country". pvje 'toward'; '/"' 
locative and adjective-forming postfix; iri'i 'gap'). 

It is through this gap in the cliff that access to the top of the 
mesa is usually gained. A well-worn ancient trail leads up the 
talus-slope and through the gap to the top of the mesa. See 
[18:19]. Cf. [18:27]. 

[18:2!>] San Ildefonso TsabijribipanteHwe'intepa&eji 'old wall by the 
giant's oven', referring to [18:30] {TsaMjdbipante, see [18:30]; 
7»v locative; T' locative and adjective-forming postfix; t< pa 
'wall'; Tceji 'old' postpound). The name applies to the remains 
of a stone wall which may date from the time of de Vargas or 
earlier, or may have been built more recently for the purpose of 
fencing in stock. This was built across a place at which there is 
no cliff at all and at which ascent or descent would he easy if not 
barred in some way. See [18:19]. Cf. [18:30], 

[18:30] San Ildefonso Tsribijdb'ipqnh 'the giant's oven' (tsabijo 'giant '; 
M possessive ; j»uit, "oven" <pqr)j> 'bread' <Span. pan 'bread', 
A 'dwelling-place' 'house", probably for an earlier buwate, buwa 
being the native Tewa word for ' bread'). 

This dome-shaped detachment at the southeastern extremity of 
the mesa is nearly as high as the mesa itself. It is separated 
from the main mesa-top by a narrow and shallow gap [18:31]. 
Tewa tradition says that this was the giant's oven, in the inner- 
most recess of the mountain, at (he extremity farthest from the 
opening [18:21]. Into this oven the cruel giant put the youthful 
War Cods, but they got out and. placing the giant's only daughter 



HABR1NGTON | I'l LCE NAMES 299 

iii the oven, thej burned her up in their stead. See [18:19]. Cf. 
[18:29], [18:31]. 

[18:.".1| San lldefonso TsafrijobipqntJiifwiH 'gap by the giant's oven' 
( Tsutiijofti 'j'lUit, . Bee [18:30]; "<" ; 'locative and adjective-forming 
postfix; »•'"'' 'gap'). This name ia applied to the narrow gap 
which separates (18::;"] from the main mesa-top. Sec [18:30]. 

[18:32] San lldefonso Ty,nj>j<wVi 'gap by [18:19]' {Ty,nyj'o, see 
[18:19]; \oPi 'gap' ' pas-*). 

The main wagon road connecting San lldefonso and Santa Cruz 
passes through this gap or pass. The northern [18:14] and south- 
ern [18:32] T t y,njjohu , us both start at this pa--. For a similar 
passcf. [20:'.']." See [18:19]. 

[18:::.°.] San lldefonso 'Akqmpiji '■yzt'ynfjohu'u, 'AkqmpyJint'y,n 
ir ikqh ii'u, T ' unfjuhiilojiii ' a 'arroyo south of |18:l!'|" 'southern 
arroyo of [18:19] .yap' "arroyo at the foot of |18:l'.'|" ^okqmpijt 
'south' <""/<_"//' 'plain' 'down country'; V' locative and adjec 
tive-forming postfix; T'tynyjo, see [18:19]; hv?u 'large groove' 
•arroyo'; '/•/"/ 'gap', here referring to [18:32]; kqhu'u 'arroyo 
with barrancas' < kq 'barranca', /<»"'/ 'large groove' 'arroyo'; 
„ii' a ■ below' 'at the foot of). 
This is the first large arroyo south of Black Mesa 

[18::;i| Santa Clara KytwihiPu, San \\&i<Um>i>W a 7ify,n<la , %n\r)j'hii'ii\ 
sec [14:87]. 

[ 18:';.".] San Qdefonso Pribipigy, Ptithpiy/'oku 'flower mountains' 
'flower mountain hills' (poiH 'flower'; piy/ 'mountain'; 'oku 
'hill'). Why this name is applied is not known. 

There are three of these little bills, north and two south of 

[18:36]. The hills give the name to [18:36], which in turn gives 
the name to [18:37]. 

[18:36] San lldefonso Pdbl piyw&i, l'<>tn />/// /i>h mri'i 'yap of the 
flower mountains' 'gap of the flower mountain hills', referring to 
1 18:. - ;.". 1 1 PoVkpij) i , I '•■h'lj'iji. /'■•!■ a. Bee [18:35]; wPi -gap'). 

This -jap i- between the hills [18:35]. It gives the name to the 
arroyo |18:.''»T]. 

1 18 : ; >T ] San lldefonso Pdfop\rywih.v!u, Potipiyf'okwwihu'u 'arroyo of 
tin. vap of the flower mountains' 'arroyo of the gap of the flower 
mountain hills', referring to [18:36] (PtMpiywi'i, Pot 
//■/"/, see [18:36]; Aw'u 'large groove' 'air 

This arroyo begins at the highest part of N$m,piheQ.i |18:-';| 
and flows through the yap [18:36] whence it take- iis name. 

[18:38] San Qdefonso Jtuntucu h' qrv&iwi 'where the limestone is dug' 
(/•'//<" 'limestone', literally 'stone ashes' /• " '-tone', im 'ashes'; 
'stone' 'rock'; k'qyf 'to dig'; '.'"•• locative). 



300 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [ eth. 



Whitish stone, probably real limestone, is found at this place; 
at any rate Mexicans and, imitating them, Indians, gather and 
burn this stone, making mortar or cement from it. The custom 
appears not to be a primitive Tewa one. See KunvJcu under 
Minerals. 

[18:39] San Ildefonso 'E'q.yJcohug.Joku, i E , qr)f > ohj. 'hills of the ar- 
royo of the child's footprints' 'hills of the child's footprints' 
(' k'uijkqh nit, see [18:40]; g.e 'down at' 'over at'; 'oka 'hill'). 
The name is probably taken from [18:40]. It is applied rather 
indefinitely to a number of hills and hillocks, of which the three 
chief ones are shown on the sheet. The arroyo of the same name 
extends north of the most southerly and largest of these hills. 
Cf. [18:40]. 

[18:4o] San Ildefonso ' E'qijloh'i '" 'child's footprint arroyo' (\? 'child' 
'offspring'; 'qijf 'foot' 'footprint': l-qJiu'it 'arroyo with bar- 
rancas' <7co 'barranca', hit'u 'large groove" 'arroyo'). Whythe 
name was originally applied is not known. The arroyo extends 
through the hills [18:39], which are called by the same name. 

[18:41] Mrs. M. ('. Stevenson's ranch, see [16:31]. 

[18:42] San Ildefonso Tubtbit'it. Tabu'u, see [16:3-2]. 

[18:4.3] San Ildefonso Kop"ag.ehup%T)qeA.ij>op?iv)e 'where they go 
through the river beyond [18:46]' ( Kop % agt hu'u, see [18:46]; pa rjge 
'beyond'; di 'they 3+': po 'water' 'river': pi 'to issue' 'to 
pass': 'iire locative). This is a wagon ford, often used when 
[19:12] is dangerous. 

[18:44] San Ildefonso Tf%hv?u, see [16:20]. 

[18:45] San Ildefonso Pojy.ywsg.'ohi, see [19:5]. 

[18:46] Pojoaque Creek, see [19:3]. 

[19] SAN ILDEFONSO SHEET 

The area is claimed by the San Ildefonso Indians and is full of 
placesknown byname to them. One pueblo ruin [19:40] is included 
in the area of the sheet proper (map 19). 

[19:1] San Ildefonso 7/V /'"'»• see [16:20]. 

[19:2] San Ildefonso '(hibn'tt 'corner there at the wrinkles' (',, 
'there'; si ' wrinkle' as in a tegument or surface: bn'n 'large low 
roundish place'). Whythe name is applied is not known. This 
name is applied to the lowlands on both sides of Pojoaque Creek 
[19:3] at the confluence of the latter with the Rio Grande. 
There are several Mexican farms at the place where, among other 
crops, good melons are raised. Particular inquiry was made of 
the Mexicans; they have no special name for the place. 

[19:3] (1) Posyrrwseg.e'impohu'u 'creek of [21:29], {Posy.yw^g.e, see 
[21:29]; T' locative and adjective-forming postfix; poTwPu 'creek 



MAP 19 
SAN ILDEFONSO REGION 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 




SAN ILC 



TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT MAP 19 



18" 



21 












-4\ fl "" i - " 20 , 



MAP 19 
SAN ILDEFONSO REGION 



tlKOTOH] P] Ml, N WHS BO] 

ifi which water Bows' < f>o ' water', hvUv. ' Large groove' 'arroyo'). 

Eng. (6), Span. (7). This name is applie I especially (<> the part 
of the creek between Pojoaque [21:29] and the Rio Grande; but 
it is applied also to the creek which run- past Nambe Pueblo [23:4]. 

(2)Jemez Pdfuf>6 'creek of San Hdefonso [19:22]' (P 
see [19:22]; /<./ 'water' 'creek'). 

(3) NftmbJimPohu'it 'creek of [23:4]' (2Vg»iJ(2, see [23:4]; V 
locative and adjective-forming postfix; pohu'u 'creek in which 
water Hows" < /><< 'water', hxHu ' large groove' 'arroyo'). Eng. 
(8), Span. (9). This name is sometimes applied only to the neck 
which flows past Nambe 1 Pueblo [23:1] and down only as far as 
Pojoaque [21:29]; but it is applied also to the whole creek from 
the mountains back of Nambe' to the Ki<> Grande. 

i4i San Ddefonso Kop'ag.eku'u 'broad bank place arroyo' (ho 
• barranca'; p'a 'broadness' 'broad' 'largeness and flatness' ' large 
and fiat'; </- "down at' 'overat'; hu'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 
This name applies properly to the lower part of Pojoaque Creek 
only, where it is a quarter of a mile or more wide: hence the 
name. ( 'f. Kop'agi'iyj' [11:6], a name of similar meaning applied 
by the San Juan people to a w ide arro\ o just north of their pueblo. 
For the application of the Simple Kop'aQt , see [19:17]. 

(5) Nambe /'". Pohu'it 'the water' 'the creek' (fo 'water'; 
jinttti'" 'creek in which water Hows' -.:/>«< 'water', A"'" 'large 
groove' 'arroyo'). The Nambe people often refer to tin- creek 
merely by this simple designation; they mean the creek which 
flows past Nambe' Pueblo [23:4] and less definitely the creek from 
the mountains hack of Xamhc to the Rio Grande. The Nambe' 
people regularly say pokegt of L r <>inir down to the river or the 
river bank which refers to the creek, while the same word used 
at San I Ide fon -o refer- to the Rio < rrande. See |23:1 1. 

(6) Eng. Pojoaque Creek. (> Span.). Span. (7), Tewa (1). 
Applied the same a- Tewa ( 1 I. 

(7) Arroyo de Pojoaque, Rio de Pojoaque 'arroyo of [21:29]' 
•river of [21:29]'. Tewa (1), Eng. (6). Applied the sameas 
Tewa (1 1. "Rio de Pojuaque, called in it- upper course Rio de 
Nambe".' 

(8) Eng. Namhe Creek. (<Span.). Span. (9), Tewa (3). 

Applied the same a- Teua (:.). 

i'. 1 ) Span. Arroyo de Nambe, Rio de Namb6 'arroyo of [28:4]' 
'river of [28:4]'. Tewa (3), Eng. (8). Applied the same as 
Tewa (3). '" Rio de Pojuaque". 1 

The most important tributary of Pojoaque < reek is Tesuque 
Creek [26:1 J. 

1 Bandolier, ru.nl Report, pi n, p M 



302 ETHNOGEOGRAPHT OF THE TEWA INDIANS [BTH. ANN. 29 

[19:4] San Ildefonso Pojy,?jwsg'% of obscure etymology (po 'water'; 
JWf apparently 'to pierce'; w^sp unexplained). 

The locality to which this name is applied includes a portion of 
the creek bed and some territory north of it. In the creek bed is 
a water hole frequented by live stock. North of the creek IV- 
cundo Sanchez of San Ildefonso lias a shanty. There are some 
Cottonwood trees by the northern bank. The. locality in this 
vicinity south of the creek is called Potsifu'u; see [19:38]. 
l J (,/iji/ir;r':r gives the name to the hills [19:5]. 

[19:5] San Ildefonso Pojy,yws^oku "hills of [19:4j" (Pojy.rjws&'se, see 
[19:4]: >ohi 'hill'). 

These little bare hills have ridges like devilfish anus stretching 
in man}' directions. 

[19 :<>J San Ildefonso Pceszyflni'it, see [16:34]. 

[19:7] San Ildefonso Peuag.e'qrjwik^i, see [16:36]. 

|19:sJ San Ildefonso Ts£bikohu , u, see [16:35]. 

[19:'.>] Rio Grande, see [Large Features], pp. 100-102. 

[19:lo] San Ildefonso PotSQywgs&inse, see [16:37]. 

[19:11] San Ildefonso Potsci'QW%8qnns(i > ii)j'hv?u, see [16:38]. 

[19:12] San Ildefonso Dipopi'iwe, l J o'jir,>i r i,(!/j):,j,r/'ir,__- 'where they 
cross the river' 'where they cross the river by San Ildefonso' (di 
'they 3+'; po 'water' 'river': pi 'to issue' 'to cross'; 'nee 'loca- 
tive'; Pogwog.e, see [19:22]). 

This is the chief ford in the vicinity and is more used than any 
other ford in the Tewa country, the bridges at Espanola and San 
Juan Pueblo making fording unnecessary at those places. At 
high water the river is 3 or 4 feet deep at this ford. The 
fords [18:1] and [18:43] are said to be slightly shallower, but not 
so conveniently situated. A Mexican family named Gonzales 
lives just west of the ford. 

[19:13] San Ildefonso Potsig.ebw'u 'marshy place corner' (fiotsi 
'marsh' <po 'water', tsi 'to cut through'; g.e 'down at' 'over 
at'; bait 'large low roundish place'). This name is given to the 
low land on the eastern side of the river near the ford [19:12]. 

[19:14] San Ildefonso Polcege 'the bank of the river' (po 'water'; Tee 
'height' 'above'; £< 'down at' 'over at"). This name is applied 
to the bank of the river and the land near the river bank. The 
common expression meaning 'I am going to the river' is mf 
'opolceg.< 'om% (nq 'I'; '<? 'there'; polcege as explained above; 
',< 'I'; m% 'to go'). Cf. [19:15]. 

[19:15] San Ildefonso Pokeg.etag.e 'down at the slope by the river 
bank' {Pohege, see [19:14]; ta'a 'gentle slope; ge 'down at' 
'over at"). This name is given to the level, gently sloping lands 
directly west of San Ildefonso Pueblo. Cf. [19:14]. 



Harrington] PLAC] NAMES 303 

[19:1»'| San Qdefonso Tefvibtfu 'cottonw 1 tree bend corner' (tt 

' cottonwood' 'Populna wislizeni'; fti'ii 'horizontally projecting 
corner", here referring to a bend of the river which is conceived 
of as a projection of the water of the river; bu f u 'large low 
roundish place' I. 

I he place i- by the river bank, due wes' of [ 19:34]. 

[19:17| San Udefonso Kqp'ag.t 'down by the broad arroyo', referring 
to the lower course of the Kqp' ag.e ir)fhv!u [19:3]. This name is 
applied to the Locality north of San Udefonso Pueblo from as Ear 
south as the vicinity of the schoolhouse [19:18] to and including 

the arroyo [19:3]. See Kbp'ag.e'iljj'hu'u [19:3], the coi ones! 

San Udefonso name for the lowerparl of Pojoaque Creek. 

[19:1.^1 San Udefonso ' EkwelMeqwa 'the schoolhouse '('< Span, 

esquela 'school'; teqma ■house* < te 'dwelling place', qwa denot- 
ing state of being a receptacle). 

This? is the Government school, which the younger Indian chil- 
ilren of San Udefonso at tend. There are a schoolhouse proper and 
a living house for the teacher. The well contains better water 
than is generally to be obtained aboui San Udefonso. 

[19:1!»| San Qdefonso Tenug^u'v •corner down below the cottonwood 
trees' (A 'cottonwood' 'Populus wislizeni'; raiu 'beneath'; g.< 
'down by' 'over by'; bu'u 'large low roundish place'). A large 
area northeast of San Udefonso Pueblo is called by this name, 
There are al ore-cut no cottonwood trees at the place. 

fl9:i'o| San Udefonso KqnuQt 'down below the barranca or arroyo' 
i/<> 'barranca' 'arroyo with barrancas'; »m'« 'below' 'beneath'; 
(j- "down at' 'over at'). This name refers to the locality of the 
old plum orchard, situated about midway between San Udefonso 
Pueblo and the schoolhouse |19:l>-| and west of the main road 
leading northward from San Udefonso. There is an irrigation 
ditch with large barrancas al the side of the locality toward San 
Udefonso Pueblo; hence probably the name. The locality is used 

BS :i latrine. 

|19::il | San Udefonso TejikwaQi of obscure etymology (/,// unex 
plained; kwaQt 'mesa' 'high level land'). This name is applied 
to the locality north of the northern estufa [19:23] of San Ude- 
fonso Pueblo, that i-, north of the middle of the' northern house 

row. Ii consists partly of bare gi'ound used as a dumping place 
for rubbish near the houserow, and partly of a cultivated 6eld 

which lie- farther north. The informants saj that it i- an old 

name, of unknown etymology. 

[ 19 :•_'•_' | 1 1 ) PoqwoQ.iqijw\ 'pueblo where the water cuts down through' 
'pueblo down i>y the delta' (fw •water': qwog.6 'where it cuts 
down through' < qwo 'tocut through', Qt 'down at' 'over at'; 



304 ETHNOGEOGKAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIAN& [eth. ann. 29 

'"i/n'i 'pueblo'). A San Ildefonso person is called cither regularly 
Poqwog.e'i' 1 , 2+ plural Poqwogjir) ?('!''. "ujf locative and adjective- 
forming postfix) or irregularly PoqwtMe, '2+ plural PoqvxMe (qwo-ie 
'to cut. through little by little' < qwo 'to cut through', <ie 'little 
by little'). Just where it was that the water cut through or washed 
out was long ago forgotten. Any stream of water from the l!i" 
Grande running down to an irrigation ditch or gully may have 
done the work which gave the place its name. Qwogt and qwoue 
appear in many Tewa place-names. The name Poqwoge was ap- 
plied both before and after the site was shifted to the north; see 
general discussion below. Cf. Ha no (2). Taos (3), Isleta (4), 
Jemez (5), Cochiti (7). Santa Ana (8). "O-jo-que". 1 "Po-juo- 
ge". 2 "P'Ho-juo-ge". a "Po-juo-ge". 2 ''Poo-joge'". 4 "Po'- 
kwoide". 5 This form was obtained by Fewkes from the llano; it 
is evidently Fewkes's spelling of Pogwo-te 'San Ildefonso people'. 
"Powhoge". 6 "Po-hua-gai".' The ai is evidently intended to 
be pronounced as in French. ''Powhoge (maison au confluent 
des eaux)". 8 "O-jo-que". 9 It may be that Bandelier's "O-po- 
que" and Twitchell's " O-jo-que" are copied from some Spanish 
source unknown to the present writer. 

(2) llano "Posowe". 10 No such form is known to the Kio 
Grande Tewa. Notice also the Hano form included under 
Tewa (1). above. Cf. Tewa (1), Taos (3), Isleta (4), Jemez (5), 
Cochiti (7), Santa Ana (8). 

(3) Taos "Pahwa"lita". n "Pawha'hlita". 12 Said to mean 
"where the river enters a canyon". Cf. Tewa (1), Hano (2), 
Isleta (4), Jemez (5), Cochiti (7). Santa Ana (8). 

(I) Isleta " P'ahwia'hliap ", 12 Cf. Tewa (1). Hano (2), Taos (3), 
Jemez (5), Cochiti (7), Santa Ana (8). 

(5) Jemez l'llfiKji'l of obscure etymology (/"</ 'water'; fu 
unexplained: <//'*/" locative, akin to Tewa g.e). San Ildefonso people 
are called P&fvtsff&f (Pdfa, see above; tsaaf 'people'). Cf. 
Tewa (1), Hano ('2), Taos (3), Isleta (4), Cochiti \l), Santa Ana (8). 
Cf. also Jemez (6). 

■Bandelier: In Autland p 925 L882; in Ritch, New Mexico, p. 210, 1885. 

- Bandelier: Finnl Rop.irt. pt i. p. 124, 1890; pt. n, p. 82, 1892. 

»Ibid., pt. i. p. 200. 

'Bandelier, Gilded Man, p. 232, L893 

'Fewkesin Nineteenth J:- p Bui Amer. Ethn., pt. I, p. 614, 1900. 

• Hewett: In American Anthropologist, n. s., vi, p. 630, 1904; Antiquities, p. 20, 1906. 

■Jouvenceau in Catholic Pioneer, i. No. 9, p. 12, 1906. 

'Hewett, Communautes, p. 32, 1908. 

■' Twitchell in Santa F< M w Hi i ii an, Si pt. 22, 1910. 

ii in Eighth Rep. Bar. Amir. Ethn., p. 37, 1891. 
» Budd, Taos vocabulary, MS., Bur. Amer. Ethn. 
"Hodge field notes, Bur. Amer. Ethn., 1S95 (Handbook Inds., pt. 2, p. 441, 1910). 



DIAGRAM I 

GROUND-PLAN OF SOUTHERN HALF OF SAN ILDEFONSO 
PUEBLO 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



5 -J 



(A «> 

J J) 

*• 

*» V) 



04 




c 




ti 




& 




E 






> 


4) 

3: 


«i 


n 


c 


••«■ 


s 


1 


'1 


fl 




8 


8 


u. 


" 


fi 


5. 


tu 





2 


< 



Po 



owe 

lick 



^ £n.d o/~ row 

7~s amp// e i^n a w ct v^/oe 
Western Entrance 

Pot-c *">" 



/Ca?nn uoe = 
Te 

Pctnte 



K^/WCL W /U I 

En ct of row 



--.- • 



Pvta 



Correct 



7~e o w cz w / g o'o 
'Sep ctrcct e n.oiJ-se 



Te 



yi* 



Pcfez 

s 

^4k.on 



tSV CX 11 



GROUND-PLAN OF SOUTHERN HALF OF SAN ILDEFONSO PU 



TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT DIAGRAM 1 



Plaza 



7g 



ft) 






Oo 






^., 






•O 






K-2 


<0 „ 

fc 4) 








c 










u 


«) W] 


Oci^ 


^ I 


•^ 


% I 


^1° 


&t 


5 - 


e-s 


^ ^ 


«J B 






^ 


k 


* 


£r,U of ro~ 





7" 



£* m ro 1/ einqwawii. 
Eastern Err trance 



<ol t, 



ite 

Oven 



P r ete 
' Corn- 

. left 

SA ex. cty S icl& 

Pota 



f k omp ij e'tn a w ccsi^c 

tSonth rod <or Hotuses 



[• wet wiu i 
End of rov* 



ijepa?n di 

h vS ictc 



Pa* 

5 i a'e 



ape 



e/n te , e 



THE TEWA NOMENCLATURE FOR THE PARTS OF A PUEBLO 



DIAGRAM I 

GROUND-PLAN OF SOUTHERN HALF OF SAN ILDEFONSO 
PUEBLO 



' 



I'l Ml. NAMES 305 



(6) Jemez SabjfQuo. (<Span.). = Eng. (11), Span. (12). This 
form i- given because the corruption is in common use is stand 
ardized. 

(7) Cochiti 1'ii!/ w 'e of obscure etymology (no part of the word 
explainable; evidently borrowed long ago from Tanoan). ('(. 
Tewa 1 1 ). Hano (2), Taos (3), kleta < D. Jemez (5), Santa Ana (8). 

(8) Santa Ana "Pakwiti". 1 The form is evidently identical 
with Cochiti (7). Cf . Tewa (I), llano (2), Taos (3), Meta (i), 
Jemez (5). 

i'.'i Oraibi Hopi Sostavanatewa 'first Tewa' {sistemma 'first'; 
/('//•./' Tewa ' <Tewa Tewii). San Ddefonso or its population is 
so called because it i> the tir«t Tewa village reached when going 
up the Rio Grande Valley. Cf. the Hopi names of other Tewa 
villages. 

(10) Navaho " Tse TiJ K3nn8"; a said to mean " houses between 
the rocks". 

(11) Eng. San Ddefonso. (<Span.). = Jemez (6), Span. (12). 

(12) Span. San Ddefonso "Saint Ildefonsus.' = Jemez (6), Eng. 
(II). •■ Sant Ilefonso*'. 3 "Sanllefonso'V "Sanlldephonso".' 
"S. Ildefonso".' " S. Ildefonse ".' "San Jldefonso". 8 "Ilde- 
fonso".' San Aldet'oiiso'". 1 " ••San Ildefoiisia"." •'San II de 

■ ."'.'-■ "SanYldefonso". 18 Sanlldefonzo"." "SantYlde- 
fonso"." "San Yldefonzo"." 

(13) Span. (?) "Bove". 1 ' This reminds one of the Tewa word 

u-i'h, 'high plain'. With the name San Ildefonso cf. Ildefonso 
19 19]. 

The plaza of San 1 Idefonso 1 3ee diagram l ) \\ as formei ly (pre^ i- 
ous to the uprising of L696, according to Bandolier 1 | just south of 
its present location, so that the row of houses south of the present 
plaza was then the row of house- north of the plaza. The place 



■ Hodgi Amei Ethn li 

• Oflati isTi. 

i Bi naridi -. Memorl 

1748. 
: 1752. 
; Vaugondy, Slap tanerlqne, 177s (French form). 
p, 1848. 

ilcraft, In. linn i 

i 
ucart 
u Final li. port, pt ii i 



306 ETHNOGEOGKAPHY OF THE TEW A INDIANS [eth. amn. 29 

formerly occupied by the plaza is called Ta<}awt ; see [19:26]. The 
south estufa 1 19:24] was in the center of the former plaza. The 
house rows surrounding the former plaza were two or three stories 
high; most of those of the present pueblo are only one story 
high, while a few have two stories. According to San Ildefonso 
tradition, when the plaza occupied its former southern location 
San Ildefonso was a populous and prosperous village. It was big 
and several-storied. All went well until certain sorcerers advo- 
cated moving the pueblo to the north. All good people, including 
the I'o'tr/tfii/o (Summer cacique), opposed this move, saying that 
people must always migrate to the south, villages must always be 
moved southward. It was arranged at last that the good people 
and the bad sorcerers should hold a gamine- contest and that the 
pueblo should be moved according to the wish of the winners. 
What kind of game was played is no longer remembered. The 
bad sorcerers won the game by witchcraft, and according to their 
wish the pueblo was shifted northward. Since that time the San 
Ildefonso people have decreased in number, have had pestilence, 
famines, persecutions. This is because the pueblo was shifted 
in the wrong direction. Concerning this shifting Bandelier says: 

After the uprising of L696, when the church was ruined by fire, the village 
was moved a short distance farther north, and the present church is located 
almost in front of the site of the older one, to the north of it, 1 

In a footnote Bandelier adds concerning the destruction of the 
church: 

This occurred on the 4th of June, 1696. Two priests, Father Francisco Cor- 
bera and Father Antonio Moreno, were murdered by the Indians, who during 
the night closed all the openings of both church and convent and then set tire 
to the edifice. Several other Spaniards also perished. The facts are too well 
known to require reference to any of the numerous documents concerning the 
events. 

The plaza of the present San Ildefonso used to contain, within 
the memory of an informant about 45 years of age, seven large 
Cottonwood trees. Of these at present only one remains. 

Cf. especially [19:23], [19:24], [19:25], [19:26]. 
[19:23] San Ildefonso Pimpijete\ 'the north estufa' (pimpije 'north 1 
<VWf 'mountain* "up country', piji 'toward'; tie 'estufa' 
' kiva'). 

This is a rectangular room, entirely above ground, a part of 
the north houserow of the village. Cf. [19:24]. 
[19:24] San Ildefonso ' Akqmpijete'e "south estufa' {'akompije ''south' 
<'<-dQijf 'plain' 'down country', pigt "toward'; tee 'estufa' 
'kiva'). 

'Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n. p. S'i, 1892. 



aumiNQTON l PI.ai l ETAMES 307 

This is a circular room, entirely above ground. It formerly 
stood in the middle of the plaza of the pueblo, before the pueblo 
was shifted toward the north. Cf. [19:23]. 
[19:-_'.">| S;m [ldefonso Miwtie, Poqv)OQ.emisd,t< 'thechurch 1 'the church 
of [19:22}' 'church' <misd <Span. misa, Roman Catholic 

mass', tt 'dwelling place', 'house'; Poqwog.e, see [19:22]). Of the 
church :it San Qdefonso Bandolier says: 

Thechurch . . . of San Qdefonso i- posterior to 1700.' After the uprising 

, when the church was rained by fire, the village was moved a short 

distance farther north, and the present church is located almost in front of the 
site of the older one, !•• the n 

The presenl church faces southward. A.boul the front of the 
church is the graveyard, few of the graves of which are marked 
in anj way. In interring a bodj bones of other bodies are'usu- 
iilly tluy up. The San Ildefon-o > all the graveyard by the usual 
word: /"nib,'. ' little corner of the corpses' {peni 'corpse'; bJi 
'small low roundish place' ■ corner'). 

Mr. Dionisio Ortega, of Santa Fe, informed the writer thai se^ 
cral years ago at Banchos [19:50] he obtained some religious images 
which were said to have come from the old church of San Qde 
fonso, the one destroyed in It;'.";. That they came from the old 
church seems improbable. Indians have said thai carved beams 
from the old church were in possession of some of the Indian- a 
few years ago. The site of the old church, south of that of the 
presenl church, i- known tomanj of the Indians. See[19:22]. 
[19:26] San Ildefonso Ta4awe, Ta4awebu'u •where it is curled up 
when it dries,' 'corner where it is curled up when it dries,' 
referring to mud (fo'todry' 'dryness' 'dry';$aw< 'to he curled 
up* 'to have risen up curlingly '). The name refers to the crack- 
ing and curling up of the surface layer of drying mud such as 
one often sees in Ne* Mexico and elsewhere and sees in drying 
puddle- at this very place. One says commonly of this phe- 
nomenon iniju, „.it,i 'the mud is dry' (■/'//<■■ 'mud' < i»i unex- 
plained, /•.. ■ water': >!■: 'it'; t,i 'to hedn '): //<//«« u<ij,u].< tr, • I he 
mud i- dry and curled Up' (nifo "mud' n$ unexplained, j>,, 

• water': „■! 'it'; ia l to dry' 'to be dry'; Hawi 'to !»■ em-led up'). 
The name i- applied to all the Ideality immediately south of the 
-out he i-n houserowof the pueblo abou I the southern estuf a [19:24]. 
The place is entirely wesl of the main wagon road which leads 
south from San [ldefonso and extends indefinitely to the wesl to 
a poinl perhaps aboul south of the church [19:25]. A large col 
ton wood a couple of hundred yards south of the southern house- 
row marks the southern extremity of the locality. This locality 



308 ETHNOGEOGBAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. ann. 29 

was the former site of San Ildefonso. When at ths site the 
pueblo was only .slightly north of a point due west of the shrine 
hill] 19:27]. See [19:22], [19:24]. 

[19:27] San Ildefonso ' Okuty,yw%jo 'the very high hill' ('ofeu 'hill'; 
tyyinrjo "great height' 'very high' <ty.)jv:ie 'height' •high", jo 
augmentative). 

This symmetrical high round hill is the shrine hill of San 
Ildefonso. A well-worn trail loads from the southeast corner of 
the pueblo to the shrine [19:28] on the summit of the hill. See 
[19:28]. 

[19:28] San Ildefonso ' Okutyywsgjokewe&ajekuboUii 'holy rock-pile on 
top of the very high hill' (' Okuty,yw%jo, see [19:27]: fcewe "peak' 
'on the very top of a pointed thing': /'<//'. "fetish" "holy thing' 
'holy'; Icubcui 'pile or group of stones' <k>/ 'stone', b<ui 'large 
and roundish like a pile"). See [19:27]. 

[19:2'.)] San Ildefonso 'Okuwi'i 'the gap in the hills' (\>lu 'hill': wPi 
'gap'). 

This refers to the gap between ' < >l'ut\uju-;i ),> [19:27] and 'Oku- 
j'ngi'ijjf [19:33]. Out from the gap runs the arroyo [19:30], 
which takes its name from the gap. Just east of the gap lies the 
claypit [19:31] whichalso takes its name from the gap. The lower 
part of the western side of the gap is used by the villagers as a 
latrine. At daybreak on the day of the buffalo dance (January 24) 
the dancers tile down through this gap from the east. 

[19:30] San Ildefonso ' 0&uwi , iyyhu , u "arroyo of the gap in the hills' 
referring to [19:29] ('Okuwi't, see [19:29]; 'hjf locative aud adjec- 
tive-forming postfix; /"'"" 'large groove' 'arroyo'). See [19:29]. 

[19:ol] San Ildefonso ' OkuwinQT/F ondiwe 'place at the gap in the 
bills where the earth or clay is dug' COkuwPi, see [19:29]; nqijf 
"earth': Tiqr)f 'to dig'; Hwe locative). 

This deposit is the chief, indeed practically the only, source of the 
clay from which San Ildefonso women make their pottery. The 
clay is reddish, and both the red and the black ware of San Ilde- 
fonso arc made from it. Sec N&pi'i, under Minerals. 

[19:32] San Ildefonso 'Okubu'u, 'Okupsgyge 'corner of the hills' 
' corner back of the hills' ('<>I,n 'hill'; bu'u 'large low roundish 
place": />.< //V< 'beyond'). This name applies to the dell or low 
place back of the hills immediately southeast of San Ildefonso. 

[19::;:!] San Ildefonso ' Okup'agi'i'OJ' "the two broad flat lulls' (',./,// 
'hill'; pagi ' broadness and flatness' 'broad and flat ':' 'yjf loca- 
tive and adjective-forming postfix). 

There are two of these hills which appear nearly flat when 
compared with ' Okuty/Qw^jo [19:27]. 



PLACE-NAMES 309 

[19::u| San Ildefonso Sufol 'where the arrow water starts' (sw 
'arrow'; /><< •water": /■'. 'to atari to move'). Why this name, 
which seems peculiar even t<> the [ndians, is applied, is do< 
known. \<> water starts at the place. The name is given to the 
locality west of [19:33] and south of [19:26]. 

[19:35] San Ildefonso /' < id'oku of obscure etymology ({fuma unex- 
plained: *oku 'hill'). A number of unanalysable place names end 
in ma. This name is applied to the long ridge, extending north 
and south, which has a horizontal streak [19:36] on its western side. 
It is much higher than the low chain of hill- between it and the 
Rio Grande. There is no other hill as near San Ildefonso as 
Tfuma, which is neatly a> high as Tfuma. The northern end of 
Tj'"nni rises immediately south of Tabcita [19:41 1. See [19:36], 
[19:70], to which this place gives names. 

[19:36] San Ddef onso Tf wmapiqwaJ-i, Pigyxui 'the large red line of 
[19::!e[* 'the large red line' {Tfuma, see [19:35]; pi 'redness' 
"red": qweui 'large or broad line', contrasting with qwi&i 'small 
or thin line'). 

This horizontal reddish line on the west side of Tfuma is very 
conspicuous. See [19:35]. 
19 : .7 San Ildefonso NetogonaalebiteqwaHwt ' place by Nestoi Gon- 
zales' house' (Netoffonealt < Span. Nestor (ionzales: hi p<>»es>i\ e; 
'house' ■ '■ 'dwelling place', quia denoting state of being 

a receptacle: 'in; locative). 

Mr. Nestor Gonzales, a Mexican about 40 years of age, has 
lived here with his family for year-,. Mr. Gonzales speaks Tewa 

t ■ some extent and i- especially liked li\ the Indian-. Thisdesig 
nation of the locality i- much used. 
[19:.';s| San Ildefonso 1 '<>/.-,' f >/' h •muddy point' ($Ot&i 'mud' < po 

•water", tsi "to (ait through' 'to ooze through'; fu'u 'horizon- 
tally projecting point or corner'). It is -aid that th'e marsh is 
called thus because it runs out in a point toward the east This 

marsh is just SOUth Of |19:ll| and entirely on the BOUth side of 
the creek. There i- a pool or Bpring almost in the middle of the 

marsh} place; Bee 1 19:39]. 

[19:::it| (l» San Ildefonso roUifufyopi 'spring of the muddj point' 
referring to [19::;s| -,• ( see [19:38]; popi 'spring' 

• water', pi ' to issue'). 

San Udefonso T'qmpijePokw\ 'lake of the east' (t'qmpijt 
'east' >'■!!,, 'sun', piji 'toward': pokw\ 'lake' 'pool' ■ /... 
'water', hw\ unexplained). For the reason that this np.me is a|>- 
plied, see below. These name- refer to a small pool of water on 



310 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [BTH. ANN. 29 

the south side of Pojoaque Creek, almost in the middle of the 
marshy meadow [19:38]. This pool or spring is never dry. Live 
stock drink there. The pool is the 'lake of the east' of the San 
Ildefonso sacred water eeremom'; see pages 44-45. 
[19:40] San Ildefonso T x dba?Q'Qwikeji 'live belt pueblo ruin' (T'ubaa 
see [19:41]; , qywikeji 'pueblo ruin' < , Qywi 'pueblo', />/'/ 'old', 
postpound). "I'ha-mba." 1 The "I" is evidently a misprint for 
"T." "Ihamba." 2 

All that could be learned of this pueblo is that it is very old 
and probably was formerly inhabited by some of the ancestors of 
San Ildefonso people. It was constructed of adobe. Bandelier 
says of it : 

On the south side of the Pojuaque River, between that village [21:29] and 
San Ildefonso, two rains are known to exist; Jacona, orJSacona[21:9],a small 
pueblo occupied until 1696, and I'ha-mba, of more ancient date. I have not 
heard of any others in that vicinity. 1 

Hewett says : 

Pres de la riviere [19:3], au-dessua de San Ildefonso, on trouve lea mines 
de Sacona [21:11] et d'lhamba . . . Toutes ces ruines sont historii|iies. 2 

See [19:41]. 

[19:41] San Ildefonso TaboHa 'live belt' 'belt where they live' (fa 
'to live' 'to dwell'; ba'a 'woman's belt', applied also sometimes 
to a belt of country). The etymology of the name is not very 
clear to the Indians. For quoted forms sec under [19:40]. 

This name is applied to a strip of country at the foot of the 
north end of TfumtfoJcu [19:35]. The place gives names to the 
pueblo ruin [19:40] and the arroyo [19:4'J|. 

[19:42] San Ildefonso T'abakqhuhi 'live belt arroyo' (T'abd'a, see 
[19:41]: lo/n/'i/ "arroyo with barrancas' </•<? 'barranca', hu'u 
'large groove' 'arroyo'). The gulch takes its name from [19:41]. 

[19:43] San Ildefonso Slide, S{tefo 'vagina estufa' 'vagina estufa 
water' (si 'vagina' 'vulva': tie "estufa' 'kiva'; po 'water'). 
There is a spring near Zuni called by the Zuni "vulva spring.'" 3 
For the use of tie cf. [24:11]. 

Although in a dry dell of the hills, there is always water in this 
spring. There is a roundish pool about 15 feet across, from one 
side of which two long narrow arms extend 10 feet or more, each 
arm ending in a small roundish pool. The large pool is the 
'vagina estufa' proper: the arms are called Fo 'arm'). The 
water is clean and tastes good. Mexican women come to the pool 

■Bandelier, Final Report, pt. 11. p 85, 1892. 
'Hewett, Comnmnautes, p 33 1908 

3 Stevenson, The Zuni Indians, Twenty-third U, i>. Bur. Ami r. Ethn., p. 87, 1904. 



HABUHOTON] PLACE NAMES 311 

regularly to wash clothes. Sometimes Mexicans <>f Ranchos 
19:.'. o| fetch barrels of water from the Bpring for domestic us< al 
Ranchos. Indian and Mexican live stock water at the place. The 
water flows into and soon sinks beneath the sands of [19:44], to 
which the spring gives the name. The name and place arc iiui 
on-: whether any religious significance i- or was attached to this 
-priii'/ ha- not Keen learned. The spring i- a shorl distance north 
of the curious place [19:7<»] and i- sometimes said t<> he. loosely 
speaking, at [19:70]. The spring gives name- to [ 19: 1 1|. 1 19: J."i|, 
and [19:46]. 
[19:44 ] San [ldefonso Sit JcQhutv ' vagina estufa arroyo', referring to 
[19:43 S -ee [19:43]; kQhu'u 'arroyo with barrancas' <kq 

'barranca', //»'» 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

The lower part of the gulch passes just easl of a Mexican farm 
house. Below the farmhouse the gulch is lost in cultivated 
fields. The water of the spring [19:4:»] sinks under the -and a 

few feet helow the pools of the Spring; ID dry titlle- the water 

sink- at the pools themseh es, so that there i- no outflow. 

[19:4.">( San [ldefonso Sijt/.tr,/',, 'height by vagina estufa ', referring 
to [19:43] (Site'e, see [19:43]; l.<r<ih 'height'). This name is ap 
plied to tin- high land immediately south and east of Sit,', spline- 
[19:43], hut not to the hill |19:47J. 

[19:4'ij San Udefonso S\te l akonnu ' vagina estufa plain ', referring to 
[19:43] (S[tee, see [19:43]; \ikormu 'plain' ^akqijj 'plain', mi 
locative). This name i- applied to the large, nearly level area south 
of >;/.', spring [19:43] and between it and the northern limits 
of the broken country called S&giosepirjgt [19:70]. 

[19:47 1 San [ldefonso /"/"■'' '■■In. /'■/',/','' of obscure etymologj 
i/'. unexplained; fu'v apparently fvtu "horizontally projecting 
point or corner'; '<" locative and adjective-forming postfix; 'oku 
'hill'). This name i- applied to the hill or hill- immediately east 
of si/,', [19:43] and directly south of Tep'eykewt [19:49]. The 
hill- |19:."il| are never called hy this name and are carefully 
distinguished. 

[19:4^] San [ldefonso /\ir:i/.-ij/>- ii'h.'. ' little corpse corner of the Mex- 
iean-' i l\n-.i i. .j 'Mexican', of obscure etymology; cf. !■"-' 
•iron"; peni 'corpse'; /<■'■ 'small low roundish place'). Thisname 
refer- to the Mexican L r ra\ ej aid which lies jusl south of the main 
wagon road that lead- up Pojoaque Creek from San Hdi 
The place where the graveyard i- situated can also be included as 
a part of the locality [19:49 

[19:49 ■! /,■/•' i a nil' a. Tej below the black 

dwelling place' ' black dwelling place height' >'■ 'dwelling place' 



312 ETHNOGEOGBAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [BTH. ANN. 29 

"house'; p'ejjf 'blackness' 'black'; nvtu 'below'; fcewe 'top' 
'peak' 'height'). The former of the two names refers to the low 
lands beside Pojoaque Creek; the latter refers to the hilh T land a 
few rods south of the creek. 

(2) Eng. Ildefonso. (<Span.). =Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Ildefonso. so called because of its proximity to San 
Ildefonso Pueblo [19:22]. = Eng\ (2). The Eng. and Span, 
names are very recent; see below. 

There are a few Mexican houses at this place. The post-office, 
formerly at San Ildefonso Pueblo under the name San Ildefonso 
Pueblo, has recently been moved to this place and is now called 
Ildefonso. This name has not come into use, however, and most 
of the letters received at the post-office are addressed to San Ilde- 
fonso Pueblo or San Ildefonso. The official list of New Mexican 
post-offices spells the name Ildefonzo. With the names San Ilde- 
fonso and Ildefonso cf. Santo Domingo [29:<Jl] and Domingo 
[29:60]. This system of place-naming is confusing. The name 
Tep\yhewe may be applied so as to include the locality of the 
graveyard [19:4S]. 
[19:50] (1) San Ildefonso IFoso'o, probably "large legging" but possi- 
bly 'large arm" (/'</ 'legging' 'arm': so'o 'largeness' 'large'). 
This is the old name of the place and is still frequently applied. 
It refers especially to the locality where Kanchos village is the 
biggest. Why the name is applied is no longer remembered. 
One shoidd compare with this name K' oso' iij f (\>. 561), the Tewa 
name for the Hopi. 

C2) San Ildefonso A'ir.rhi' '/"' 'place of the Mexicans' (Iv/weky, 
'Mexican', of obscure etymology; cf. l , t'\rkuij/' 'iron'; '/'' loca- 
tive and adjective-forming postfix). This name is used perhaps 
more commonly than (1), above. This is the largest Mexican set- 
tlement in the immediate vicinity of San Ildefonso, hence there is 
no misunderstanding. 

(3) Eng. Ranchos. (<Span.). =Span. (4). 

(4) Span. Kanchos, Kanchos de San Antonio 'ranches' 'ranches 
of Saint Anthony'. =Eng. (3). According to Mr. Dionisio 
Ortega of Santa Fe the only proper name of the place is Ranchos 
de San Antonio. 

The settlement extends for some distance along the south side 
of the creek as a row of small Mexican farms. The place gives 
names to [19:51] and [19:52]. 
[19:51] (1) San Ildefonso TTosdoha 'hills of [19:50]' {ICosoo, see 
[19:50]; "oku 'bill'). 

(■_') San Ildefonso ]{ : wxicy?i'<\>kii 'hills of the place of the Mexi- 
cans", referring to [19:50] (A'wsekij,'/"', see [19:50]; \>l-u 'hill'). 



BABBIBOTON] I'l \t I NAMES 313 

[19:52] (l) San Udefonso ITosokqhu'u 'arroyo of [19:50]' (UToso'o, 
3ee 1 19:50]; kqhu'u 'arroyo with barrancas 1 <kq ' barranca', hu'u 
• large groove' 'arroyo'). 

(2) Sim Qdefonso KwB^ku'ygkqhu'u "arroyo of the place of the 
Mexicans', referring to [19:50] ( /ur.-i/.-ij',"'. see [19:50]; kqhu'u 
'arroyo with barrancas' <kq 'barranca', hu'u 'large groove' 
'arroj o'). 

[19:53] San [ldefonso Kubft 'small rock} corner' [feu 'stone' 'rock'; 
(i- '< ■ small low roundish place' i. 

The dell called by this name is on the south side of the creek, 
about a mile east of Ranchos [19:50]. There arc some Mexi- 
can farms at or near the place. The place' gives the name to the 
hills [19:54]. 

[19:."'4 1 San Qdefonso K"b. 'nl.ii ■ hills of the small rocky corner', refer- 
ring to [19:53] [Kube'e, Bee [19:53]; 'oku 'hill'). 
These hills are low and scattering. 

[19:55] San Udefonso Potsupvaj&g.i of obscure etymology (P 
•marsh* <p<> "water", tsi 'to cut through' "to ooze through'; 
qwaje apparently identical with qwaj't 'to hang' intransitive; q> 
"dow ii at* "over at"). 

The name refers to the large marshy place on both sides of 
Pojoaque Creek, easl of 19 :•">•". |. It is -aid that Mr. Felipe R03 bal 
i- "He of the Mexicans n\ 1 n » have farms at or near this place. 
I be place gives the name to [19:56]. 

il9:."'7| San Udefonso Wajimdoku of obscure etymology ( Wajima the 

abode of spirits in the underworld; 'oku 'hill'), see pages 571 72. 

This small roundish hill i- south of the two 'Okup'ag.'Piyj' 

[19:33] and is separated from them by the WajvmawPi |19:."' s |. 

(T. [19:58] and [19:59]. 

[19:58] San [ldefonso WajimawPi of obscure etymology t Wajima, see 
[19:57]; uxPi 'gap'). 

This gap is between [19:33] and [19:57]. from it Wajii 
/hi' a |19;.v.i| runs westw aid. 

[19:59] San Qdefonso Wajimakoht^u at obscure etymologj t Wajima, 
19:.'.7j: kQhu'u ' arroyo with barrancas' ■ kq 'barranca', Au'w 
'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

This arroyo inns westward from Wajvmaun'i |19:.">s| until it> 
course is obliterated in the cultivated lands about midwaj between 
the hills and the Bio < rrande. 

[19:f.o| San [ldefonso Tamakqgt of obscure etymologj (tama unex 
plained, hut note thai a number of unexplained Tewa place names 
end in ///./.• kq ' barranca'; y- 'down at' 'over at'). 

This is a place that i> much spoken of. The uame refers espe 
ciall\ to the higher level land just weal of the hills [19:62], both 
north and south of the arroyo [19:64]. Wheat is threshed al this 



314 ETIINOGEOURAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

place. It is here that one of the chief ancient foot-trails con- 
necting San Ildefonso and Cochiti Pueblos leaves the lowlands by 
the Rio Grande. This trail runs directly south from San Ilde- 
fonso Pueblo up through the gap [19:63] and southwestward 
through the hills [19:102]. Clay similar to that dug at [19:31] is 
obtained at this place; just where could not be learned. At this 
place, or more precisely at the western foot of [19:63], is a ledge 
of rock which is used for making the handstones (manos) for 
metates; see [19:63]. A large cottonwood tree stands just south 
of the place on the north hank of the arroyo [19:08]. The place 
has given names to [19:61], [19:62], [19:63], and [19:64]. 

[19:1)1 ] San Ildefonso Tam.akqge'imbu'u 'corner by [19:60]' ( Tamakqge, 
see [19:60]; [yj' locative and adjective-forming postfix; bn'u Marge 
low roundish place"). This name is given to the low, cultivated 
land immediately west of [19:60]. 

[19:62] San Ildefonso Tam.akqgdokv, "hills of |19:6o]' {TamakQge, see 
[19:60]; '<>},„ 'hill'). 

These hills lie south of the gap [19:65]. Somewhere at the 
western foot of the hills, called in Tewa Tamakqgi okumUv. {hh'ii 
'below' 'at the foot of) is a ledge of rock which is used by 
the San Ildefonso Indians for making manos for metates. This 
kind of stone is called merely s&yv)% Tcv. ' sandstone' (xqywx 'sand- 
stone'; kit 'stone'). 

[19:63] San Ildefonso TamdkqgewiH 'gap by [19:60]' {Tamakqg.e< see 
[19:00]; mH 'gap'). 

This gap is north of the hills [19:62] and through it the San 
Ildefonso-Cochiti trail passes; see under [19:64]. Through this 
gap runs the arroyo [19:64]. 

[19:64] San Ildefonso Tamakqgekqhu , u 'arroyo by [19:60]' {Tama- 
kqge, see [19:60]; Tcqhvtv, 'arroyo with barrancas' <£o 'barranca', 
Aw'w 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

[19:65] San Ildefonso Tefu'u, Tefubu'u 'cottonwood tree point' 'coi- 
ner by cottonwood tree point' (Te 'cottonwood' "Populus wisli- 
zeni': fu'u 'horizontally projecting corner or point'; biiit 'large 
low roundish place"). The name and place are said to be distinct 
from [19:16]. 

The land at this place is low and is cultivated. A house belong- 
ing to Mr. Ignacio Aguilar of San Ildefonso stands in Tamakqge 
[19:60] very near where the latter joins Tefu'u. 

[19:66] San Ildefonso Pojag.e 'the island' 'in the midst of the waters' 

{]'»> 'water': jag.e "in the. middle of). It is said that after heavy 

rains the land at this place is more or less flooded: hence the name. 

This place consists of low, cultivated land. The place probably 

gives the name to [19:6)7 |. 



HABBINGTON] PLACE N LMES 315 

[19:67] San Qdefonso Pmagabun Vomer b\ I In- island', referring 
probably to [19:66] {PqjaQt . see [19:66]; bu'u 'large low roundish 
place') 

The arroyos [19:87] and [19:95] end al this place. The boundary 
between this place and |19:'.»s| i- indefinite. See [19:66]. 
[19:t>s] San lldefonso K'y,n8%kQhu'v 'arroyoof the boiled or stewed 
maize' (k'yy f 'maize' "corn" 'Zea mays'; 89 'boiled stuff' 'stew', 
; to boil' 'to stew'; IcQhutii 'arroyo with barrancas' kq 'bar- 
ranca', hu'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). Why this name is applied 
is nol known. The arroyo i- called by this name as far up as the 
poinl ai which the arroyos [19:69], |19:71|. and |19:74J come 
together t" form it. 
The arroyo is lost in the lowlands at [19:66]. 
[19:69] (1) San Lldefonso S&tjwq piv$> k* '■'"' " 'arroyo in the midsl of 
the -,and-loiie.' referring to |19:7"| [S4yw%piyge, see [19:70]; 
l.tijni'n 'arroyo with barrancas' </■<> 'barranca', hu'it 'large 
groove' "arroyo"). 

(2) San Lldefonso TfumafH&ygekQhvtu 'arroyo beyond '/,• 
[19:35]' (Tfumap&gge, see [19:70]; fcoAu'u 'arroyo with barran- 
ca-" </•<> • barranca". hv?ii ' large groove ' 'arroyo'). 
See [19:70]. 
[ 19:7" »J (1) San lldefonso S$i)W&piygt 'in the midst of the sandstone' 
[s,itju-;,_ 'sandstone'; piygt 'in the midsl of). The place i- a 
maze of curiously eroded sandstone; hence the name. 

(2) San Lldefonso Tfumap&ygt 'beyond Tfvma [19 :35]' (Tfuma, 
see 1 19:35 ' bej ond '). 

The place drains into the arroyo [19:69], t<> which the same 
name i- applied. It was at this place that a crazy man used to try 
to kill himself by wrapping himself completely in his blanket and 

rolling over the cliffs, but he \\a- rescued every time by the 
Water Wind Spirits (FenvihilJJ'), who caoghl him in the air and 

made him tall gently. 1 19:7" » | is a weird place at night, when the 
whole region look- mottled and -freaked and the little el ill- throw 
their shadows. 
[19:7I| San lldefonso Tf epekqhv!u of obscure etymologj (tfept unex 

plained, but see under [19:72]; /.*>/,, ,'„ 'arroyo with barranca-' 

'barranca', hu'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). lit. arroyo 
designated thus i- known by a different name in the uppermost 
part of ii- course 1 19 :-:'>) and by a still different name in it- lower 
course [19:68]. See [19:72]. 
[19:7-_'| San lldefonso '//'/-'-" ,,!' obscure etymology ('./*•/'' unex- 
plained, i 'I n pei ha | >- from Span, chepa 'hunch' ' hump', referring 
to tin- billocky land at the place; "<"' locative and adjective-form- 
ing postfix). The writer has recorded the name i l couple 



316 ETHXlXtEOGEAPHY OF THE TEWA IXDIAXS [kth.asts.29 

of times, but this is probably not correct. The name is applied, 
it is said, to the locality in the immediate vicinity of the spring 
[19:73] and is not equivalent to [19:70]. Cf. [19:71], [19:73]. 

[19:73] San Ildefonso . 'the water at [19:72]' (TJ 

!-ee [19:72]- po ' water"). This name refers to a spot in the bed 
of [19:71] where water can always be obtained by digging in the 
sand a few feet. Since the water at most times of the year does 
not flow forth of its own accord, the place is not called a spring. 
- [19:72]. 

[19:74] San Ildefonso Pi . 'ekohu'i ' northern arroyo of 

the place, with the hole through it" pi V 'north' < pijjf 
'mountain' 'up country', pije "toward": 'vi)f locative and adjec 
tive-forming postfix; . . see [19:75]; "<•"■'"• 'arroyo with 

barrancas" < fro 'barranca". Aw'w 'large groove' "arroyo"). For 
the southern T^opemehqh ' . se< 19 - 1 

The arroyo must not be confused with [19:77]. 
19:75] San Ildefonso Pop . - "the hole which goes 

through" 'place of the hole which goes through" (po "hole": 
poire 'to go completely through": "•'" locative and adjective-form- 
ing postfix). 

At the spot indicated, at the we>tern end of the ridge, near 
the summit, a small eroded hole passing completely through the 
ridge was formerly t<> be seen. There was a cave-in here many 
years ago (more than fifty according to one informant i but the 
place where the hole was is still remembered and the name is 
still used. The site of the hole is a short distance southeast 
of Poqwavrfi [19:76]. The hole gives names to [19:74]. [19 :7-; . 
[19:87], and [19:91]. 

[19:76] San Ildefonso P'op'awe'oku 'bills of the hole which goes 
through', referring to [19:75] (Pqp'awe, see [19:75]: 'oku "hill"). 
There are two chief ridges, parallel to each other, called by this 
name. The hole [19:75] from which the name is taken i-. at the 
western end of the more northerly of these two hills. See [19:91]. 

[19:77] San Ildefonso P ' 'arroyo of water reservoir gap' 

referring t ■> 19:7- - 19:7-: to A w'w 'arroyo with 

barrancas' < ko 'barranca', hu'it ' large groove' 'arroyo'). 
This small arroyo runs into [19:71] from the south. 

[19:7-] San Ildefonso P ' 'jap of the water reservoir' (pogwa 

"water reservoir' 'hollow where water collects" < po "water". 
qwa denoting state of being a receptacle: wti "gap"). 

No reservoir or water-hole of any kind could be found at the 
place, and the informants said that they had never heard of the 
existence of any. Why the place is called thus is not known. 
The place gives names to [19:77] and [19:79]. 



HARRINGTON] |'| Ml (TAMES 317 

[19:7:»] San Ddefonso PoqvMwi'oku, PoqwawPoktfe 'hills by water 
reservoir gap' 'little hills by water reservoir gap' (Pogwavri'i 
Bee |19:7^j: 'oku 'hill'; "• diminutive). 

The gap [19:78], from which the hills lake their name, is in the 
range of hills. 

|19:m'| San Ddefonso Qw&titfbi'oku of obscure etymology (gwq appar- 
ently '/"•■; 'mountain mahogany' 'Cercocarpus parvifolius', called 
by the Mexicans palo duro; ty sounds exactly like/'./ 'to say'; bi 
apparently the possessive ft*/ 'oku 'hill'). 

This roundish hill i- much higher than any other hill east of 
San Qdefonso Pueblo shown on this sheet. The hill either gives 
the name to 1 19:M 1 or vice versa. 

[19:M | San Qdefonso Qioaetyfti'okubu'u, Qw%ty,bibu , 'u of obscure etj 
molog bi'oku, see [19:80]; bu , u i large low roundish place'). 

Whether the name Qwgtyibi was originally applied to the hill 
[19:^'»| or to this low corner ran not be determined. 
The hill is far more conspicuous than the corner. 

[19:^1' | San Ddefonso Pobli >,,■/>" . PotHbaniff^oku of obscure ety- 
mology (pob\ 'flower'; h.n,<}~' unexplained, apparently <bayy 
unexplained. '" locative and adjective-forming postfix; 'oku 
'hill'). Whether 'oku i- added or not. the name refers to the two 

hill- of roundish shape slightly theast of the high hill [19:80]. 

The hills give rise to the name 119: s :;|. 

[19:83] San Ddefonso PoftJban&fkQhtfu 'arroyo of [19:82]' (PoVlr 
html" . see [19:82]; ,'„/,-/'// 'arroyo \v. i 1 1 1 barranca- ' <kq 'bar- 
ranca,' '"''" 'large groove' 'arroyo'). The uppermost pari of 
the course of the arroyd |19:T1 1 is so designated. 

[19:Mj San Ddefonso Kibtfv. 'prairie-dog corner' {ki 'prairie-dog'; 
b'i'ii 'large l"\\ roundish place'). 

This bu'u i- hounded on the easl bj the $v)%nt8c?6ku [19: 
There is an abandoned Mexican bouse ai the place. 

119:^.",] San [ldefonso Pfiv$nt8a J oku 'hills where the rock-pine trees 
'rock-pine' 'Pinus scopulorum'; tea 'to 

cut acrOSS the grain' 'to CUt down', -aid of a tree: 'oku "hill'). 

V. rock pice trees were to be seen on the hill. The bilk 

the name to | 19:86]. 

l r t -• 3an [ldefonsi 'okukqhu'u 'arroyo of the hills where 

the rock-pine tree- are or were cut', referring to [19:85] 
i \n-;i „/..,/'. see [19 ' irroyo \s i 1 1 1 barrancas' <ko 

'barranca,' hu'u ' large groove ' 'arroyo'). 

This gullj discharges over the lowland- jnsi south of A 
|19 
[19:^7] San Ddefonso wekqhu'u, P'op'awekQhti'u 

there arroyo of the place with the hole through it' 'arroyo 



318 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 20 

of the place with the hole through it', referring to [19:75] 
(iikoiitpije 'south' <'<iloijf "plain" 'down country \pije 'toward'; 
'ivy locative and adjective-forming postfix ; P'op'arwe,see [19:75]; 
l-ojiu'ii 'arroyo with barrancas' <l-q 'barranca', hu'ii 'large 
groove' 'arroyo'). Cf. [19:74]. 

This arroyo is very large. Its lower end is at [19:67]. 

[19:88] San Ildefonso Ty,n\ 'oku, said to mean 'white earth hills' 
(,'!///?, said to be for f'u'ua kind of white earthy mineral, see 
.Minerals, page 583; 'ofcu 'hill'). The name is not clear in its 
meaning. It may have referred originally to the arroyo [19:89] 
instead of to these hills, or it may have referred originally to 
both arroyo and hills. 

A wagon road connecting Ranchos [19:50] and Buckman passes 
just east of these hills. A trail follows the wagon road, making 
short cuts, being in some places identical with the wagon road. 
No kind of whitish earth or rock was to be seen at the hills. The 
hills clearly give name to [19:90]. 

[19:S9] San Ildefonso T l y,nilcQhv?u, said to mean 'white earth arroyo' 
(T\i»i, see [19:88]; lolni'ii "arroyo with barrancas' <Jcq 'bar- 
ranca', hv?u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). The name T'yni may 
have been applied originally to the arroyo instead of to the hills 
[19:88], vice versa, or to both. No white earth was to be seeD 
at either hills or arroyo. 

[19:90] San Ildefonso T'y,ni , okubii'u 'corner by the white earth hills' 
referring to [19:88] (T'y.nVokn, see [19:88]: bu'u "large low 
roundish place'). 
This bn'u is just south of the hills [19:85]. 

[19 :!>1 J San Ildefonso P l op K aw£ok.vbv?u^ P t op'awe , ohup%ygebu , u 'cor- 
ner by the hills of the hole that goes through' "corner beyond 
the hills of the hole that goes through*, referring to [19:7<i] 
(P'op'awe'oku, see [19:70]: bu'u 'large low roundish place": 
]'i;rij'j,> ■ beyond'). . 

At this corner is the spring Psgpopi [19:92]. 

[19:92] San Ildefonso Pgpopi 'deer spring" ( p% 'mule deer'; popi 
"spring' <po 'water', pi 'to issue"). 

This spring, which is sometimes dry, is situated at the corner 
[19:91], 

[19:93] San Ildefonso Nq,r)Jc' ondiW( 'where the earth i- or was dug' 
{n'tijr "earth": Icqtjj' ' to dig'; , iwt "locative"). Of. [19:94] and 
[19:95]; also Nq,r)Je orjwPi under [19:unlocated]. 

A hole in the ground is still clearly seen at this place. It is 
said that earth was removed long ago for the purpose of making 
a thin layer of clay or plaster on the walls of rooms. 

[19:'.»4] San Ildefonso Nq,rj]c 'oijwVoku 'hills of the gap where the 
earth is or was dug' (X<njV oijirV , see [19:93]; 'oiku 'hill'). 



harrin.-.tonI PLACE NAMES 319 

[19:95] San Udefonso .V„/ j ':'<>>, "'i' bqhu'u 'arroyo of th<> gap where 
the earth isor was dug' ( Nt&yk' qywi'i, see 1 19:93]; kqhu'u 'arroj 
with barrancas' <kq 'barranca', huh 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

[19:96] San [ldefonso Ntiyk" qywi?oJcu?eJ>h 'threshing Boor of the hills 
by the gap where the earth i- or was dug', referring to |19: ( .»4| 
19:'.'l|: '• '-'' < Span, era 'threshing lioor'). 
This threshing floor is on a low, flat hilltop. 

[19:97] San Udefonso 'Omai 16:42]. 

[19:98] San Udefonso 'Omahu'u, see [16:126]. 

[19:99] San Qdefonso fumanu'u 'al the foot "t' [19:112]' (puma, see 
[19:112]; »m'm ' below' 'at the t'<»«»t *>*"" ►. The name refi 
quite a definite locality a- it i< usually applied: this locality is 
indicated by the Dumber on the sheet ami is equivalent t<> the 
lower drainage of the arroyo (19:loo|. t < > which pumanvSu gives 
the uame. 

[19:1om| San [ldefonso pumaivu'iyj'hu'u 'arroyo at the base of 
[19:112]', referring to [19:99] (pwmamtu, see [19:99]; [>if Ioca- 
tive and adjective forming postfix; hu'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 
This large arroyo has several large tributaries. 

f 19: 1< 1 1 1 San Qdefonso Pimpije'infumawikohu'u, pumawiJeqhu'v, 

' northern arroyo of 1 20: '.» ] " 'arroyoof |20:'.»|* (fympiji •north' 

<pVj ' 'mountain' 'up country , ,pif< 'toward'; '/// / locative and 

ctive-forming postfix; pumawtfi, see [20:9]; leqhtfu 'arroyo 

with barrancas' • fro 'barranca', Aw'u ' large groove' 'arroyo'). 

C\. f 20: 1 I 1 and [18:14]. 
[19:102] San Udefonso Mcuiwe. Meteiwe'oku, Mcuiwehvaje of obscure 
etymology {nuuiwt unexplained but apparently ending in the 
locative we; 'oku 'hill'; kwajl 'height'). 

This ridge is very long, stretching far toward Tesuque. Ii is 
crossed bj a number of trails, notably bj the old trail connecting 
San [ldefonso and Cochiti, which leave- the lowlands by the l>'io 
Grande at [19:60]. This trail crosses [19:102] about 

two miles east of Buckman Mesa[19:l 12], it issaid. Cf. [19:103], 
[19:104], and [19:105]. 
[19:1":;: San Udefonso Miuiweta'a of obscure etymology (i "'' 

19:102]; te'a 'gentle slope'). This name is given to the gentle 

to MaMwe'okv. just south of the arroyo [19:105]. 

1 10: 1 • 1 1 1 San Udefonso Mcuiw, p > ■ ■: . W < \1 t.i'.r,!,,' „ 

'beyond [19:102]' 'corner beyond [19:102]' 'corner by [19:102]' 

■ • lii 10 '• 'beyond'; \\C% 'large h>« roundish 

place'). 

I he locality i- better shown in |20:l:'.|. 
1 19 : 1 ' »-'» I San [ldefonso Mcuiwehu'u 'arroyoof 1 19: l< »^.' ] * (mcuiic 
[19:102]; kii'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). Cf. [80:26]. 



320 ETHXOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 28 

This is the chief tributary of [19:100], or, in other words, it 

may be said that the upper course of [19:1"U] is known by this 

name. 
[19:100] San Ildefonso Ii'a/n/'r/ 'fence arroyo' "corral arroyo' I 

'fence' 'corral'; Am'w 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 
[19:107] San Ildefonso Po^be\ "little corner of the flower.-' (j ! 

"flower": 6«'< "small low roundish place"). 
The corner wives the name to the arroyo [19:1<»7]. 
[19:108] San Ildefonso PdinhehvUv. "arroyo of the little corner of the ■ 

flowers', referring to [19:107] (Pohibe'e, see [19:107]; /<»'» 'large 

groove' 'arroyo' I. 
[19:109] San Ildefonso Ponjnbu'u " corner of the plumed arroyo shrub' 

(ponfi 'plumed arroyo shrub' ' Fallugia paradoxa acuminata": 

b'/'ii "large low roundish place'). 

This large corner gives the name to [19:110]. 
[19:110] San Ildefonso Ponj^QmkvSu "arroyo of the corner of the 

plumed arroyo shrub", referring to [19:109] (Ponfibu'u, see 

[19:109]; hu'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 
[19:111] San Ildefonso Kuts^yw^hvUu 'blue rock arroyo' Qcu 'stone' 

'rock": tstzywa 'blueness' "blue" 'greenness' 'green'; hu'u 'large 

groove' 'arroyo'). It is said that there are bluish rocks at the 

arroyo: hence the name. 
[19:112] San Ildefonso fumafiyf, see [20:5]. 
[19:113] San Ildefonso fumawaki '-lope of [19:112]' "talus slope of 

[19:112]' {puma, see [19:1 1 2 dope' " talus slope at the base 

of a clifl"). This name is applied to the talus -lope at the foot of 

the cliffs of [19:112]. See [19:115] and [19:116]. 
[19:111] San Ildefonso 'Agwowapo 'tickle-foot trail' {'<iyf 'foot'; 

w&wa "to tickle'; po 'trail'). The trail is so called because it is 

gravelly and the gravel tickle- one's feet through the moccasins. 
This trail ascends the mesa [19:112] west of trail [19:117], pass- 
ing the cave [19:116] about half- way up. Cf. [19:115]. 
[19:115] San Ildefonso , Aywowa'a'a 'tickle-foot slope' (Agwowa-, see 

[19:114]: ''■■'■/ 'steep slope'). This name is given to the gravelly 

foot-tickling slope where the trail of like name [19:111] ascends 

the mesa [19:112]. 
[19:116] (1) San Ildefonso pumatoakipo, pumawakijfo'i'* "hole of 

[19:113]' 'place of the hole of [19:113]' (fumaioaM, see [19:113]; 

p'o "hole": V" : locative and adjective-forming postfix). 

(2) San Ildefonso Nqyketabei*, Nqr}ket4iep'o , i' i 'place where 

the earth tumbles down quickly' "place of the cave where tiie 

earth tumbles down quickly" (n4yj> "earth": ketqie, said to mean 

'to tumble quickly": V locative and adjective-forming postfix; 

p'o 'hole" "cave"). 



babbihi PLACE-NAMES 321 

< )n the east aide of a small gulch near the top of the talus there 
is a cliff of earth about LS feet in beight. It is said that in former 
times there was a raw :ti the bottom of the rlitf. La rjie frag- 
ments of the earthen cliff have broken off from time to time, until 
now not a true.' of the cave ran be seen. The cave was in ancient 
times, it is said, one of the places from which fire and smoke 
issued. The other places were 'Oguhewt 1 20 : 7 ] , Tofna [29:3], 
and 7 n y,njjop'o'i' i [18:21 1 according to San [Idefonso tradition. 

[19:117| San [Idefonso Twjefyo ' the straight trail' (tage 'straight'; po 
'trail'). The name is applied to distinguish this trail from the 
more del ions trail |19:1 14]. 

This trail goes straight up the mesa [19:112]. Either [19:117] 
or [19:112] is often used when traveling down the river on foot 
or horseback. 

[19: 1 1>] San Eldefonso Thabijobip'o, TaoMjobip'oW 'the hole of the 
giant ' ' the place of the hole of the giant ' {tsdbigo ' a kind of gianl ': 
ti possessive; p'o ' bole 1 'cave'; '"' locative and adjective forming 
]M.~ilix). 

This i-~ a large but -hallow cave at the base of the cliff above 
the talus. It is said to have been one of the ra\ es frequented by 
the giant who lived within the Black Mesa; see under [18:19]. 

[19:1 1'.»] San [Idefonso ' Oflotefuwui ' projecting corner of the crow 
dwelling-place' ("'/■• 'crow' "raven': t. 'dwelling place', here 
almost equivalent b> ' nest ' in thr vaguer Bense of the word; fu'n, 
ir,'./,' 'horizontally projecting corner "). The name is applied to 
a projecting corner of blackish cliff. 

[19:120] Fofsip'owiU ' projecting corners at the hole or month of the 
river canyon ', referring to the cany on o t t In- Rio (i ramie south of 
the place (po&i'i • river canyon' ■ ]><> ' water' ' river', tbVi •can- 
yon ': p'o ' bole '. here referring t<> the ' mouth ' of a canj <m ; wiii 
' horizontally projecting corner '). The name refers to the pro- 
jecting corners of higher land at each side of the mouth of the 
canyon. See Bpecial treatment of the Rio Grande [Large Fea- 
tures], pages 100 in.-. 

[19:121 ]San I Id. 't on -o l\,r , / ._/. ipokop'i 'the railroad bridge 1 ( I "'.-/ 'ky.J)j> 
■iron' 'metal'; /"'Toad' 'trail'; hop\ 'boat' 'bridgi 
bathe', p\ ' stick ' ' log'). 

This bridge is the only railroad bridge across the Kio Grande 
north of Albuquerque, V u Mexico. 

[19:I-_'l'| San [Idefonso A <<</ •//./'< 'the railroad' (/! 'iron' 

•metal;' }>•> -mad' 'trail') the Denver <S Rio Grande Railroad. 

[19:123] (1) San [Idefonso PoUmi'eg.i 'down at the little muddy 
place ' (/'../..//,■ « it is muddy ' /"-/.•./•mud' fto'water', 
cut through 1 'to ooze through'; nd 'to be'; '< diminutive; at 
hi 16 21 



322 ETHXOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS 



• down at' ' over at '). The use of ?;<] in this name is unusual and 
its force is obscure. 

(2) San Ildefonso , Akqmpijepohw\ 'lake of the south '( 'aJcQm- 
pij< 'south' <'iil'»jjf 'plain' 'down country', pije 'toward'; 
pofavi 'lake' "pool' <po ' water ', Jctwi unexplained). For the 
origin of this name see below. 

(3) Eng. Rio Grande station. =Span. (4). 

(4) Span, estacion Kio Grande (named after the Rio Grande). 
These names refer to the locality of a short gulch which has its 

head near the top of the mesa and forms a junction with the Rio 
Grande. It is crossed at its mouth by the railroad. A tank 
[19:124] for supplying engines with water stands at the mouth 
just east of the track. The water for the tank comes from a spring 
near the head of the gulch. There was formerly a pool at this 
place called Pot»tn<i'eg_epohvi (p/>friri 'lake' 'pool' <po 'water', 
hvi unexplained). This pool was the "lake of the north" of the 
Sni Ildefonso; see page 251. Hence the name San Ildefonso (2), 
al Hive. Some Mexicans live at Rio Grande. See [19 :124]. 

[19:124] (1) San Ildefonso Kw%lcy,mpopoqwa 'the railroad tank' (hr:i - 
hympo, see [19:122]; poqwa 'tank' 'reservoir' <p<> 'water', qwa 
denoting state of being a receptacle). 

(2) San Ildefonso Kw%1cy,mpotq,7)lce 'the railroad tank' (faose- 
l-innpo see [19:122]; tqijlv <Span. tanque 'tank'). 

It is at this tank that the train drinks (nijmijwie 'it drinks'), as 
the San Ildefonso express it. 

[19:125] Potsip'owiti, Po80Q.i\m ! pot$ip < owiii "mouth of the water 
canyon' 'mouth of the water canyon of the Rio Grande' {Potsii, 
Posog.e'impdsi'i, see [Large Features], pp. 102-03; p'owiii 'hori- 
zontally projecting point or points of high land at the mouth of a 
canyon' <p"o 'hole", wUi "horizontally projecting point'). 

This is the northern mouth of White Rock Canyon. See 
PcitsVi [Large Features], pp. 102-03. 
Unloca 1 1 n 

San Ildefonso NqyV ' oywi 7 'gap where the earth is or was dug', 
referring to [19:93] {XitijVmjf as in [19:93]; »<77 'gap'). 
This gap is situated somewhere near [19:93], [19:94], and [19:95]. 

[20] BUCKMAN SHEET 

The sheet (map 20) shows places with Tewa names about Buckman, 
Mexico. No pueblo ruin is known to exist in this area west of the New 
Rio Grande. The territory is claimed by the San Ildefonso Indians 
and the names of places were obtained from them. The whole region 
is known to the San Ildefonso and other Tewa &spumap%7}$e 'beyond 
Buckman Mesa [20:5]' ([■um,!. see [20:5]: $%yge "beyond"). 



MAP 20 
BUCKMAN REGION 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 




TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REFORT MAP 20 





Hi/,. 14 -"". 

" iiiV' 1 "*/^""'' oi'<.'"'/' 

?i Hi/, '-.(/. ''••„. '■•"-^f:! 

/"••' cV'- "''..••• ''//.-• .■'" '■■'-■ '//i \\v 

'"■ _- .--, " >-.• _- -aw .»•**;, 

-^ '. i .- ■■n'\- .- il///. C 




MAP 20 
BUCKMAN REGION 



mm 







BASRINGIOIf] PLACE NAM I..- 323 

[20: 1 1 San Qdefonso , Oma lu'w, see [16:126]. 

[20:l'J Sun Qdefonso NfyntkewPi 'yellowearth gap' [n4,yj> 'earth'; 
' yellowness', absolute form of ise??* -yellow': wfi 'gap'). 
This is a little gulch aboul 100 yards south of [19 :123]. In it 
lumps of yellow mineral (probably ocher)are picked up, whichare 
ground and used as yellow paint. See under Minerals. 

[20:3] White Rock Canyon of the Rio Grande (pi. L3), see Bpecial 
treatment of the Rio Grande [Large Features: 3], pages L00-102. 

[20:4] San Qdefonso Tobatk .■/ /'/'■ 'the white cliff or rock' {ioba 'cliff' 
'large cliff-like rock'; S3 'whiteness' 'white'; V' locative and 
adjective-forming postfix). 

It is not certain that this •"white rock" exists except in the 
minds of some of the Indians, who chum that White Rock i !anyon 
of the Rio Grande must be named after it. See special treatment 
of Rio Grande [Large Features; :;|. pages 100-10.!. One Indian 
describes the ••white rock" as a "ledge as white as .-now in 
the middle of a black cliff." Mr. F. W. Sodge suggests that 
the white rock referred to may be a perfectly white "patch" in 
a cliff on the east side of the river, which may be seen from the 
road out of Buckman leading to the Rito de los Frijoles. 

[ 20 : ."■ j ( I ) San Udefonso pumapi'Qj' of obscure etj mology < , uma un- 
explained, bul containing -ma in common with many other unana- 
lvzable Tcwa place names, as for instance 'Oma [16:42] across the 
river from j-'nim; ]>'n, i 'mountain'). Mr. W. M. Tipton, of 
Santa Fe. informs the writer thai "cuma" is given in an old Span. 
document as the name of a hill or mountain west of Santa Fe; see. 
however, Toma [29:.'i|. "'( rigantes', or the black cliff of Shyu- 
mo south of San Qdefonso." ' " The Tehuas call . . . the gigan- 
tic rocks forming the entrance to the Rio Grande gorge south of 
their village, Shy u-mo." ' The o at the end of these forms of 
Bandelier is probablj a misprinl for a. 

(2) Eng. Buckman Mesa (named from Buckman [20:19]). This 
name seems to be rapidly coming into use. 

i.'.i Span. Mesa de los Ortizes 'mesa of the Ortizes (family 
name)'. This is the common Span, name- why applied is not 

! I lined. 

(t) Span. "Gigantes."' Probably ho called because of the tra- 
dition of the giant; Bee [20:7], [19:118]. 

This high basaltic mesa puma form-, as it were, the eastern 
pillar at tin- month of Whit"' Rock Canyon of the Rio Grande; 
the .-mailer but equally dark 'Oma [16:42 forms the western 
pillar. The 1 1 1 1 • - .- 1 i- crossed bj an ancient trail connecting San 
[Idefonso with the more southern pueblos. From two places on 

■ Bandelier, Pinal Ri i 



324 ETHNOUEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [ETH. ANN. 29 

f umtt fire and smoke were belched forth in ancient times, it is said, 
namely, from [20:7^] and [19:116], q. v. Many other features 
of interest in the vicinity of puma will be noticed on the maps. 
[20:6] San Ildef onso ' OQ.uh.ewe, ' Og.uhewelcewe of obscure etymology 
Coguhewi unexplained, except that -we is apparently locative; 
/■- a-, • peak' 'height'). 

The top of Buckman Mesa [20:5] is flatfish; ' Og.it/iewe rises like 
a hillock on the western side of the mesa top. It contains the 
hole ' Oguhewep'o [20:7] from which tire and smoke used to belch 
forth. See [20:7]. 

[20:7] San Ildefonso 'OQuhewep'o, ' Og.uhewep l o , i H "hole at [20:6]' 
'place of the hole at [20:6]' (' Og.uhewe, see [20:6]; p'o 'hole': V"' 
locative and adjective-forming postfix). 

This is described as a hole 10 feet or so deep which goes verti- 
tically into the earth at the summit of [20:6]. According to San 
Ildefonso tradition this is one of the four places from which 
Are and smoke came forth in ancient times; the other places 
werej'umawakip'o [19:116], Toma [29:3], and 2"y,njy&p'o [18:21]. 
Bandelier 1 mentions this tradition, but names only three of the 
places: "To-ma", "Shyu-mo", and "Tu-yo." 

[20: n] San Ildef onso fumawv'i ' gap by [20:5]' (j>uma, see [20:5]; wVi 
'gap'). 

This is the pass east of fuma Mesa just as T"y,nfOWi?i [18:32] 
is the pass east of T'ynfjo Mesa [18:19]. The main wagon road 
l» 'tween San Ildefonso and Buckman runs through this pass. 
Sec 1 20:9] and [20:10]. 

[20:9] San Ildefonso Pimpije'infumawikQku'u, pwmawikQhu'u, see 
[19:101].- 

[20:10] San Ildefonso , AJcQ7npijd\nfurriawiJcQhu?'u 'southern arroyo 
of [12:8]' Cakompije 'south'< 'al-oijf 'plain' 'down coun- 
try', pije 'toward'; Hyf locative and adjective-forming postfix; 
pumawiH, see [20:8]: froh/iu 'arroyo with barrancas'< Jcq 'bar- 
ranca', /"/'// ' large groove ' 'arroyo'). 

This arroyo runs into the KokoJM,wag.e [20:11]. It is not as 
important or as well known as [20:!»]. 

[20:11] San Ildefonso KqAoMiWOQi of obscure etymology {Jcq 'bar- 
ranca'; liOi'ii unexplained; w<i apparently as in wau?' ' wide gap'; 
g.e apparently the locative 'down at' 'over at'). It has not been 
found possible to analyze the name. 

This arroyo is deep and narrow; its walls are in many places 
vertical cliffs, its bed sandy. One can walk through it, and to do 
so is a strange experience, so narrow and shut in is it. The arroyo 
discharges into the Rio Grande just below the spring [20:17]. Its 

i Final Report, pt. II, p. 81, 1892. 



HAMIKOTOW] PLACE NAMES 325 

lower coarse is spanned by u wooden railroad bridge. Ii- upper 
most coarse, or whal maj be termed an upper tributary, is 
1 20:10]. 

[20:12] San Qdefonso Miuiwe, Mcuiwe'oku, see [19:102], 

[20:13] San Qdefonso Meuiwep&yge, see [19:104]. 

1 20: 1 l| 'Kujeinug.e'ivkQhu'u, see [21:22], 

[20:15] San Qdefonso Posyg htt'u, see [17:17]. 

|20:l«'| San Ildefonso A'" - .-; Icymnfo 'the railroad' [l,ir:,l-ui)f "iron' 
• metal 1 : /"• 'trail ' 'road'). 
This is the narrow-gauge Denver and Bio Grande Railroad. 

[20:17] San Qdef onso /tymap&ygepotsip'owiii 'projecting corners at 
tin- month- of tlir canyons of th»? river beyond Buckman Mesa 
]20:.">|' (futnap&yge, Bee introduction to sheet (20]: PotePi 'river 
canyon' <po 'water' 'river', here referring to the Rio Grande; 
tsti'i 'canyon'; p x o "hole' •month of canyon": wUi 'horizontally 
projecting corner or point'). This name is applied to the \ icinitj 
of the projecting corners of higher land at the month of the can- 
yons of the Rio Grande both north and south of Buckman. These 
are called merely 'the canyon mouths at Buckman', to translate 
freelj . 

[20:1 s ] San Qdef onso fumqPig'ijgdimpopi ' the spring beyond Buck- 
man Mesa' 1 20:1:.' | (j'umap&gge, see introduction to sheet |20]; 
19 / locative and adjective-forming postfix; /">/"' 'spring' < po 
'water', pi 'to issue'). 

This spring is mosl peculiarly situated. It is near the top of a 
steep earthen hank beside the Rio Grande and perhaps 20 feel 
above the bed of the river. There are two little basins for water, 
one of which has been recently boxed in with hoard-. Although 
it is hard to determine the source of the water, the spring runs 
the year round and probablj contains the best water for drinking 
purposes in the vicinity of Buckman. The San Qdefonso Tewa 
say thai ii is a verj old and good spring, and frequently go to 
ii to drink when at or passing through Buckman. 

[20:l'.i| (li /•■///, ,ifi:i ij'j.t.,/tr,i'i'< 'place of the houses beyond Buck- 
man Mesa' (/•uinap&Tjge, see introduction to sheel [20|: 
'house 1 '■ 'dwelling place', qwa denoting state of being a 
receptacle; ''"' locative and adjective-forming postfix). Indian 
purists use this nam.-, it i- also used sometimes so thai Mexicans 
and Americans will nol understand thai Buckman is referred to. 

[Idefonso I be firsl of I 
forms is evidently from the Eng., the sec I fr the Span., pro 

nuneial ion of the name; see l»'low . 

(3) Eng. Buckman. Named, it i- -aid. fr "old man Buck 

man." now .lead, who operated a sawmill in the mountain- wesl 



326 ETHNOGEOGBAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. akn. 29 

«f Buckman, in the eighties. The railroad .station and settle- 
ment were named after him 20 or 30 years ago. The name is 
applied also to several surrounding geographical features, as 
Buckman Mesa [20:.')]. One San Ildefonso Indian had curiously 
enough determined that this name must mean ' male deer '; he took 
"buck" as jar 'deer' and "man" assqr/j; meaning "man" 'male', 
>incej>;rxcr/f means ' male deer' in Tewa. = Tewa (2), Span. (4). 
(4) Span, pronounced Bakman. Bakaman. (<Eng.). =Tewa 
(-')■ Eng. (3). 

The settlement of Buckman consists at present of several small 
houses and shacks mostly south of the railroad, and a large lum- 
ber yard. The lumber sawed in the territory west of the Rio 
Grande is hauled to Buckman in wagons and thence shipped by 
train. Buckman is only a stone's throw from the two arroyos 
[20:11] and [20:25]. The vicinity of Buckman itself and of 
places designated by Buckman used in compounds is usually 
rendered in Tewa by /'umap^yge, literally ' beyond Buckman 
Mesa' [20:5]; see introduction to sheet [20], page 322. 

[20:20] San Ildefonso /'umap%ygetekqp'e 'wagon bridge beyond Buck- 
man Mesa' [20:5] {pumapst tj'J' ■ Sl ' e under introduction to sheet [20J; 
tt 'wagon'; Jcop , t "bridge"' boat' <h> 'to bathe', p'e 'stick' 
'log'). 

This is the only wagon bridge across the Rio Grande between 
Espanola and Cochiti. 

[20:21] San Ildefonso Tjwqwihu'u, see [17:25]. 

[20:22] San Ildefonso 'Abebehifu, see [17:29]. 

[20:23] San Ildefonso TsUeg.ehv?u, see [17:30]. 

[20:1'!] Rio Grande, see [Large Features], pages 100-102. 

[20:25] San Ildefonso Kqsog.e,KqsoQ.i\ , gj>hvlv l "down at the large bar- 
ranca or arroyo ' ' arroyo down by the large barranca or arroyo ' {l-q 
'barranca' 'arroyo with barrancas': sd'o 'largeness' 'large'; ge 
'down at' 'over at'; ' iy/ locative and adjective-forming postfix; 
//'/'" ' large gi'oove ' 'arroyo'). Some individuals appear to use 
Kqsogt and Kosog.e'iyj'hu'u indiscriminately; others insist that a 
certain locality in the arroyo is called Kqsog.e and that the whole 
arroyo must be called Kqxogriijfhuu. There are very large and 
high barrancas at several places in the arroyo and although the 
writer was accompanied by an Indian at Buckman who had ad- 
vocated the two-name, two-place theory, he did not know to 
which barranca Kqsog.6 should be applied. 

This arroyo is very large and in the neighborhood of the mesa 
[20:33] wildly picturesque. It is known by the Americans as 
"Buckman Arroyo", but since [20:11] also can be so designated, 
this cannot be given as an established name. 



HARRINGTON'] P] \'l NAMES 327 

[20:26] San Ddefonso MaiiweP&ggiiyfhifu, Ma-fvwehiCv. 'arroyo of 
[20:13]' 'arroyo of [20:12]' (MaMwefy&Qge, see [20:13]; Maivwe, 
see [20:12]; "ijj ■ locative and adjective-forming postfix; hu'tt 
'large groove' 'arroyo'). Of. [19:105]. 

This flows from the vicinity of [20:13] and enters [20:25] not 
mt\ far above Buckman settlement [20:l'.i|. 

[20:27] San Udefonso Sseitkiebu'u 'white round-cactua corner' 
'round-cactus' of several species, as 'Opuntia comanchica' and 
'Opuntia poly acant ha'; teg 'whiteness' 'white'; ftu'w ' large low 
roundish place'). 

It is said that the cactus plants look whitish or dust; at this 
place, hence the name. The corner is believed to be accurately 
located on the sheet. 

[20:-2*J San Ddefonso P'amupubJigj'hu'it 'arroyo of the little cor- 
ner of the roots of Yucca glauca', referring to [20:2'.'] (P*amu- 
pube'e, see [20:29]; "njf locative and adjective-forming postfix; 
Au'i* 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

[20:29] San Ddefonso P^amwpvkii 'little corner of the roots of 
Yucca glauca {jp am u 'Yucca glauca 'a sniiill species of Spanish 
bayonet the roots of which arc used for washing people's hair 
and for other purposes; pu 'root'; bee '.small low roundish 
place' 
This small corner gives the name to the large arroyo [20:28]. 

|20:3o] San Ddefonso /'/'/• b"'" 'corner where the thread or fila- 
ment is on top' (/*?'* 'thread' 'filament'; h said to in; the same 
as in hev>( and to mean 'on the very top'; J>u'u 'large low round- 
ish place ' i. To what the name refers is uot clear to the modern 
Indians. It may be that the name was originally applied to 
[20:31], q. v. 

[20:-"d | San Udefonso Pqttfcekwajl 'height where the thread or fila- 
inent is on top' (Pqfike, see [20:30]; kwaji 'height'). It may he 
that /'-//. was applied originally to the height instead of to the 
dell [20:30], or more probably originally to both. 

[20:82] Tesuque ' A/ijiju-.i i>:r ij'j.'Iij/.k/,,,',/, see |26:2|. 

[20::;:; | San Ddefonso M4nti , i' i , M&ntipiyj' 'place of the swollen 
hand' 'swollen hand mountain' (m4vs 'hand"; ti 'swollenness' 
'swollen'; V* locative and adjective forming postfix; piyj 'moun- 
tain'). Why this name i- applied is unknown to the informants. 
The little mountain bearing this name is clearly visible from the 
railroad. It has a flattish top and i- very picturesque. The 

common form of the name i- said to be .)/<.'///''<"'. It appear- 
that Tewa usually use the word without thinking of its etymology. 
The mountain appears to give name- to [20:34J, ; 20 ■ ; . . 
r20:361. 



328 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. axn. 29 

[20:34] San Ildef onso M&nt?i H h?e 'little arroyo of the place of the 

swollen hand', referring to [20:33] (Jlutti'i H , see [20:33]; he'e 

•small groove' ' little arroyo'). 
This arroyito runs into [20:25]. 
[20:3.".] San Ildefonso Mdntz'i H isi , i •canyon at the place of the swollen 

hand', referring to [20:33] (Mi nf !'!'', see [20:33] ; tsiH 'canyon'). 

This name is given to the beautiful canyon of [20:25] opposite 

.Win//"/"' Mountain [20:33]. 
It is at the lower part of the canyon in the bed of the arroyo 

that the spring [20:36] discharges. 
[20:36] San Ildefonso JLi/it/"/"' pn/>/ 'spring by the place of the 

swollen hand', referring to [20:33] (2I,int /"/"'. see [20:33]; ftopi 

'spring' </>» 'water'. j>! 'to issue'). 
The spring is situated as described under [20:35], above. It is 

said that it is never dry. 
[20:37] San Ildefonso Ts:<~n fukPygfhu '» 'arroyo of the whitish gentle 

slope', referring to [20:38] (Tssenfuta'a, see [20:38] ; "njj' locatrs e 

and adjective-forming postfix ; ln/'n ' large groove ' 'arroyo'). 
This arroyo joins |20:4oJ and the two form the canyon [20:35]. 
[20:3s] San Ildefonso Tss^nfutcCa ' whitish gentle slope' (isgnfu, said 

to be an old form of tsxj 'whiteness' 'white' now used only in 

this place-name and in the name of the White Corn Maiden 

( A" >j/i f *;r/ifi/'ti' a nfu <k'yy.f 'corn', tssrn fu ' whiteness' 'white'. 

'<i'"ii fn 'maiden'): tcSa 'gentle slope"). Why the sloping plain 

is called thus was not known to the informants. It may be said 

to be whitish. 
The plain gives names to [20:37] and [20:39]. 
[20:39] San Ildefonso Tsxnfutn'ol-n 'hills by the whitish gentle 

slope', referring to [20:38] (fs%nfutd?a, see [20:38] ; 'oku 'hill'). 
[20:4<>] San Ildefonso Tehu'u 'cotton wood tree arroyo' (te 'cotton- 
wood' 'Populus wislizeni": hu'u "large groove' 'arroyo'). 
[20:41] San Ildefonso Ka : baJ2t , e , iyj'hu'u ) see [17:43]. 
[20: fi'] San Ildefonso Po-iepopqfHsiH, see [17:58]. 
[20:43] San Ildefonso Tunctbahu'u, see [17:02]. 
[20:44] San Ildefonso fohu'u, see [17:66].' 
[20:45] Tsihwaje, see [29:1]. 
[20:46] San Ildefonso P'efukwaje, see [29:2], 
[20:47] San Ildefonso P'efuta'a 'gentle slope of timber point' 

(/'\fii'u, see under [20:unlocated]; to? a 'gentle slope'). 
A large sloping part of the mesa top is called thus. 
[20:4s] San Ildefonso P'efuboui 'roundish hill of the timber point' 

(I'./i/'ii, see under [20 :unlocated]; bchti 'large roundish thing or 

pile'). 
[20:4!>] San Ildefonso K ' Um p ' ijjn' '" 'shin corner' (k'y.mp'i "shin" 
^ '„"//' '"h'g": j 1 ' i 'narrowness* 'narrow' as in p'%M of same 

meaning; bu'tt 'large low roundish place'). 



MAP 21 
JACONA REGION 



lO 
















\ 



l^^i^c 




00 



MAP 21 
JACONA REGION 



II.UlHIS.;Ti.iN] PLAC'I NAMES 329 

The place gives the name to [20:50], Why the name is given 
is qoI known to tlic informants. 
[20 :.".i> | ill San Udefonso K'ftmp'ibukwaji 'height bj shin corner' 
( A" </////•' ibi/'ii. see [20:49]; kwaji ' height '). 

(2) Span. Mesa del Cuervillo, .Mesa del Cuervo 'crow mesa'. 
Why this name is applied is not known. Mesa del Cuervo is 
erroneously identified with [29:3] by Bandolier. 

This name i- gi\ en to the northern extremity of the great mesa 
[29:1 1, especially to the portion that towers atxn e the dell |20:4'.tj. 

Jacona station, Jacona section. This is a place on the railroad a few 
miles east of Buckman. There are no buildings there. The name 
is but recently applied and i- taken from [21:6], q. v. 

San Udefonso /'•/'"'" 'timber point' (ji, 'stick' "log' 'timber'; 
fn''i •horizontally projecting point'). Cf. P x efv?u, the Tewa 
name for Abiquin; see [3:36]. 

.In-t where this point is and of just what nature ii is the infor 
inant- did not know. It gives names to [29:2|. [20:48], and 
[20:47J. 

[21] JACOB \ Mil ri 

The sheet (map 21) shows the vicinity of the Mexican settlements 
Jacona and Pojoaque, also three pueblo ruins about which definite 
traditions have been preserved. It is not certain what kind of Tewa 
formerly occupied this area. 

|21:1| San Udefonso ptmj>sg¥qr)W^i, see [18:5]. 

[21:2] San Udefonso and Nambe /'//'<<</. . Pijogjoku 'downal the verj 

red place' 'hills down at the very red place' (/'/'-redness' 'red': 

lugmentative; g.< 'down at' 'over at'; '6ku 'hill'). 

This is a high, long, and much eroded reddish range of hill . 

It is the highest and most conspicuous ranee between Nambi 

Pueblo and the Black Mesa [ 18: 1 '-• |- PijoQt is separated from 

piJiegi |18:::| by the gap ptmysek'oywiH 1 1 8 : « *. ] . Pijog.6 is 

nearly as conspicuous ae the Black Mesa |18:l'.»|. According to 

■ !i Udefonso story, a Santa Clara man once loved a Cochiti 

woman. The woman had a Cochiti husband. A pentta 'dry 

corpse' (/"/"' 'corpse'; la 'dryness" 'drj 'i volunteered to kill 

the husband. The storj end- bj saying that the pentta went to 

sleep in a cave somewhere in /'■;/<. where he is -till sleeping. 

21 I Nambe 7"i>/,„j,. '/" ,,t, iim' u 'down at the place of the pure 

white earth' 'white earth corner' i '/"■>'■ Nambe' form of / V" 

'white earth', -ir Under MINERALS; •'■' -aid to lie for tii.K)'" 

'pureness' 'pure'; w 'down at' 'over at 'large low 

roundish place'). 



330 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [BTH. ANN. 29 

There is much "tierra blanca" at this place, as can be seen 
from far off. Cf. [21:4]. 

[21:4] Nambe T otvbukwaje 'heights by white earth corner", referring 
to [21:3] [Totubu'u, see [21:3]; kwaje 'height'). 

[21:5] Pojoaque Creek, Nambe Creek, see [19:3]. 

[21:6] (1) Sul-onx. SakQn%kwse%y, , i >i 'at the tobacco barranca 5 'Mexi- 
can place at the tobacco barranca' (Sakong, see [21:9]; Kwxky, 
•.Mexican', modified from fooxlcy,i)f 'iron' 'metal'; '/''locative and 
adjective-forming postfix). =Eng. (2), Span. (3). For quoted 
forms of the name see under (9) below. 

(2) Eng. Jacona settlement. (<Span.). =Tewa(l), Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Jacona. (<Tewa Sakonsg). =Tewa (1), Eng. (2). 
The change from s to Span, j is peculiar. 

This is quite a large Mexican settlement. The main road 
between Pojoaque and San Ildefonso runs through it. See espe- 
cially Jacona under [20:unlocated] and Jaconita [21:7]. 
[21:7] (1) S,i/,'(>/,;i', . s,il,o,):r!:ir;rlij'i r , 'little place at the tobacco 
barranca' 'little Mexican place at the tobacco barranca" 
(Sdkonsg, s,i/,i),i;ikn':i_/,-y'/"'. see [21:6]; V diminutive). Cf. Eng. 
(2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Jaconita. (<Span.). = Span. (3). Cf. Tewa (1). 

(3) Span. Jaconita, diminutive of Jacona [21:6]. = Eng. (2); 
cf. Tewa (1). 

Jaconita is nearly a mile west of Jacona [21:0] and like the lat- 
ter is a Mexican settlement through which the main road between 
Pojoaque and San Ildefonso passes. 

[21:8] SakQn%nug_epotsa "marsh below the place of the tobacco bar- 
ranca", referring to the vicinity of [21:0] (Sakon?, see [21:0]; 
mi', i 'below'; g_e 'down at' 'over at": potsa "marsh' < po 
' water', tea "to cut through' "to ooze through'). 

The bed and vicinity of Pojaque Creek are meadowy at this 
place. 

[21:'.'] S,iI:i>i,;i'i>i)ir{L;j; "pueblo ruin by the tobacco barranca* (.«/ 
'tobacco'; kq 'barranca'; n% locative; 'oywikeji 'pueblo ruin* < 
'oijiri_ 'pueblo', 1,-iji "did" postpound). "Xacona." 1 '"Xacono." 2 
" S. Domingo de Xacona,"" 3 "S. Domingo de Xaeomo." 4 
"S. Domingo de Xacoms.""' "'Jacoma.'' 6 "Iacona."' 7 "Sa'- 
kona."' s ■" Jacona, or Sacona." 9 '" Saeona."' 10 "Sacoma." 11 
"There is also one [a ruin] near Jacona." '-' 

> De l'lsle, carte Mexique et Floride. 1703. 'Hodge, field notes. Bur. Amer. Ethn., lvv, 

sle At la- Nouveau, map 60, IT-.:.:. Handl k [nds , pt. 1. p, 627, 1907). 

3 Ii'Anville, map Amerique Septentrionale, 9 Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n, p. 85, 1892. 

17 ic. io Hewett: General View, p. 597, 1905; Com- 

i Jefferys, Amer. Atlas, map 5, 1776. munautes, p. ".:;. 1908. 

i lharte America, 1805. " Hewett, Antiquities, pi. xvn, 1906. 

El Gringo, p 88, 1857 "Twitchell in Santa Fe New Mexican, 8ept. 22, 

unann, Neu-Mex., p. 230, 1858. 1910. 



BABBiKoxox] PLACE-NAMES 331 

Tliis Ls tho ruin of a historic puehlo. a- i- evident t'n»m the 
quoted names gii en above. Bandolier says of it : 

nth Bide of the Pojuaque River [21:5], between thai village 
[21:29] and San Udefonso, two rains are known to exist; Jacona, orSa 
small pueblo occupied until 1696, and ['ha-mba, [19:40], of more ancient 
date. I have not beard "i any others in that vicinity. 1 

In a note Bandolier ' adds: 

In 1680 Jacona was an 'aldea ' [village] only. Vetancurt, Cronica, p. 317. 
It bel - its abandonment it became the 

property of I . ■ ybal in 1702. Merced de Jacona, M8. 

The ruin i- evidently still in possession of the Roybal family, 
for its southern end is on land owned by .Mr. Juan Bautista 
Roybal while tin' remainder is on [and belonging to Mr. Remedios 
Roybal. The pueblo was of adobe, and the ruin- consist of low 
mounds altogether about 200 feet long. The site i- well known 
to Tewa ami Mexicans of tin- vicinity ami the writer was inf< i 

by Mexicans at Jacona settlement [21:6] that someg 1 pottery 

has been found at the ruin. The Mexicans added Santo Domingo 
'holy Sunday' or 'Saint Dominick' to the Indian name, as will be 
noticed in the quoted forms above. There is no record of a church 
or chapel ever having been built at the place. .Fust why the name 
s,i!,<>i,;i was originally applied is no longer known to the Tewa, 
so it seems. One myth has been obtained at San Ddefonso, the 

scei f which is laid at >.'/"/,,■/. The informants do not know 

whence the 8akon% people departed, except that they went to 
live at other Tewa villages, s, //.,,,,:, gives rise to the names of 
[21:6], Jacona [20:unlocated], [21:7], and [21:10]. 

[21:1"| San Udefonso Sakon%'6ku "hill- by the place of the tobacco 
barranca', referring to the vicinity of [21:6] i Sakqna, . see [21:9]; 
'"In "hill'). This name i- in common use and i- found also in a 
- i Udefonso myth, above mentioned. When the Parrot Maiden 
brought her husband hack to Sakqn^ the home of hi- parents, 
alighted on the v.// .>,,,/ ',,/.,. The maiden and her husband 
remained there till after nightfall, when they went to the pueblo. 

|21:11] Naiuhe K"j>'i. _ij J'/*"' " 'arroyo of the Mack rocks' </" 'rock' 

'stone'; p < ■.■ • 'blackness' 'black'; Au'u ' large groo< e' 'arroyo'). 

This arroyo is formed by the joining of [15:29] and [21:20]. It 

dischargee into Pojoaque Creek at the upper end of the marsh 

[21:8]. Cf. [21:19]. 

[21:12] Namho 7 Takebuh/ifu 'arroyo where they live on 

top' 'arroyo of the corner where they live on top', said to n fer t" 
[21:13] {Tal . TakeQv'u, see [21:18]; hu'u 'large groove' 

'all o\ (>'). 



332 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [hth. ann. 29 

[21:13] Nambe T'akebvtv. 'the corner where they live on top' (t'a 'to 
live'; Ice 'on top' as in Tcewe 'on top'; biHu 'large low roundish 
place'). Why the name was given is not known; the informants 
presume that some people used to Live "on top*' somewhere near 
this low place. 

The place extends both north and south of Pojoaque Creek 
and all about the lower course of [21:12]. On the south side of 
Pojoaque Creek there are many .Mexican farms and a Roman 
Catholic chapel [21:15]. The Mexicans include this locality under 
the name Pojoaque, it seems. The locality gives names to [21:12] 
and [21:14]. 

[21:11] Nambe T'akekwqje, T"akebvJcwaje 'height of the place where 
they live on top' "height of the corner where they live on top' 
referring to [21:13] (T'ake-, T'alcebw'u, see [21:13]; hoaje 'on 
top'). The name refers to the high lauds north of Pojoaque 
Creek in the vicinity of [21:13]. 

[21:15] Nambe Misate'e, T'aJcebumis&te'e 'the little church 3 "the little 
church of the low corner where they live on top', referring to 
[21:13] (misate 'church', literally 'mass house 1 <misa <Span. 
misa 'Roman Catholic mass'; te 'dwelling-place' 'house'; 'e 
diminutive; T 'atcebu 'it . see [21:13]. 

This is the. Roman Catholic chapel mentioned under [21:13]. 

[21:16] Nambe Tseqwseywuihu'u, see [24:8]. 

[21:17] Nambe Tapubuhu'u 'grass root corner arroyo', referring to 
[21:18] (Tapubu'u, see [21:18]; //"'?«. 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

[21:18] Nambe Tapubu'u 'grass root corner' (ta 'grass'; jou 'root'; 
bu'n 'large low roundish place'). 

[21:19] Nambe* Kup*VQfh%CuIcwaje 'height of the arro3~o of the black 
stones', referring to [21:11] (Kup'eTjfhu'u, see [21:11]; kwaje 
'height'). 

[21:20] Nambe HiisoQ.e, see [24:1]. 

[21:21] Tesuque Creek, see [26:1]. 

[21:22] San Ildefonso, Nambe, Tesuque, and Santa Clara Kujemug.e'iy- 
lolni'ti 'arroyo of the place where they threw the stones down' 
referring to [21:24] {Kujemuge, see [21:24]; 'iij.f locative and 
adject i\ c-forming postfix: Icqhv^u 'arroyo with barrancas' <ko 
'barranca', hu'ii 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

[21:23] Nambe" Kosoge, Husog.e, ' Okup%r/<jekosog.e, ' OJcup%ygehv£og.e, 
see [23:48]. 

[21:24] San Ildefonso, Nambe. Tesuque, and Santa Clara Kujem.vg.e- 
''oytvil'jt 'pueblo ruin where they threw down the stones' (Jcu 
'stone'; jemu 'to throw down three or more objects': ge 'down 
at' "over at'; 'oywikeji 'pueblo ruin' <'oijwi 'pueblo', keji 'old' 
postpound). 



inula-. PLACE-H LMES 333 

Throwing down stones from a lioighl was a common means of 
defense in Pueblo warfare. Under what circumstances the stones 
were burled down at [21:24] has apparently been forgotten. 
"Cuyammique." 1 "Cuyo, Monque." 2 "Cuyamungue." 3 "Cuya- 
manque." 4 "Cuya Mangue." 5 "Coyamanque."' "Cuyamun- 
que.'" "Cuya-mun-ge." 8 "< hiyamonge."' "( luyamunque." 10 
"Cu-ya-mun-gue." 11 "Ku Ya-mung-ge."" "Kyamunge." 13 See 
[21:25]. 

The Tewa retain memory of this pueblo much as they do of 
s,il.i>n;i_ [21:9], with which they often couple its name. Like 
[21:9], it is a historic ruin. Bandolier says of it: 

Near Pojuaque [21:29] tin- Tezuque stream [21:L'l] enters thai oi Pojuaque 
[21:5] from the southeast On its banks, about three miles from the mouth, 
stand the ruins of Ku Ya-mung-ge. This Tehua village also was in existence 
until 1696, when it was finally abandoned. 19 

In a note Bandolier adds: 

In '.' I the pueblo was granted to Alonzo Rael de Iguilar; in 17::i 

it was regranted n> Bernardino de Sena, who had married the widow "f Jean 
1'Archeveque ur Archibeque" [the murderer of La 8 

According to Hewett, 14 the land where the ruin stands is part of 
tin Indian reservation (the Tesuque grant) at the present time. 
The Indian informants agree that the people of Eujemugj were 
Tewaj who, after the abandonment of the place, went to live at other 
Tewa pueblos, lmt one old man at Namhe insisted thai Kujemugn 

was a Tano pueblo. The ruin is on a low mesaand is said to < 

sisl of mounds of disintegrated adobe. Eujt mug* gives the names 
to [21:22] and [21:25]. 
[21:'_'."i] (1) San [ldefonso Kujemugekw^ku , i? i 'place of the Mexicans 
by the place where they threw the stones down', referring to 
[21:24] (Kujemug.e, see [21:24]; Ewsplcy, ' Mexican', modified from 
l.ir;ij,u I, , 'iron' 'metal 1 'oak,' hu 'stone'; '-"'locative 

and adjective-forming postfix). Eng. (2), span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Callamongue and other spellings. I Span.). Span 

(3) Span. Callamongue and various other spellings, as will he 
noticed in the quoted forms under [21:24]. i Tewa). Tewa(l), 
Eng. (2). Although the spelling of the name varies so much, the 
pronunciation among Mexicans appears to be quite uniform. It 

nrnl 'Haiiil.ll.r In Kit. i 

ii Ban 
it in 

1881. 



334 ETHXOGEOGRAPHY OP THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. axn. 29 

is hajarnoyge. This pronunciation has been obtained from a num- 
ber of Mexicans, aud from a Cochiti Indian who had heard only 
the Span, form of the name, with considerable uniformity. Such 
pronunciations as kajamoyke, Tcajammfke and Icujamorjhe are prob- 
ably also to be heard. Mr. Antonio Roybal and some of his 
friends who live at Callamongue were questioned as to the spell- 
ing of the name by residents of the place. Mr. Roybal wrote 
" Callamongu6," which was approved by the others. This spell- 
ing- has been chosen therefore from among many current ones. 

[21:26] Nambe - Pojegi 'down where the waters or creeks meet' (po 
'water' 'creek'; je 'to meet'; ge 'down at' 'over at'). This 
name refers to the confluence. 

[21:27] Nambe Posyywgg.enu'ii, Po&yywseg.enug.epotsa "place belowthe 
drink water place' ' marsh below the drink water place', referring 
to [21:29] (Posy,ywseg.e, see [21:29]; nv?u 'below'; g.e 'down at' 
'over at'; potsa "marsh' <po 'water,' tsa 'to cut through' 'to 
ooze through '). 

The author once tried to cross this marshy place at a time when 
it looked like a dry meadow, but he slumped in up to his knees, 
much to the amusement of some Mexicans who live near. Of 
course Posy,yw%genu'u is a more inclusive name than the other, 
but the two names seem to be used by the Indians indiscriminately. 
There are a number of Mexican houses at the place. 

[21:26] Nambe Posy,yw%gjehvaje 'height of the drink water place', 
referring to [21:29] (Posy,yw%,Q.e, see [21:29]; hvaje 'height*). 
This name is given to the whole height or hill on which Pojoaque 
stands. 

[21:29] (1) I'"*ijijir;ig_, "drink water place' (po "water": syijwx 'to 
drink'; g.e 'down at' 'over at'). Why the name was originally 
applied appears to have been forgotten. All the forms in vari- 
ous languages given below seem to be either corrupted from or 
cognate with this name. "San Francisco Pajague". 1 "Pojua- 
que". 2 "Pujuaque". 3 "Pasuque". 4 "Pusuaque". 5 '" Ojuaque". 6 
"Ohuaqui". 7 " Ohuqui"'. 8 '"Pojaugue". 9 "Pojodque". 10 "Po- 
godque". 11 "Payuaque". 12 "Pejodque". 13 '"Pajuagne". u "Pa- 
juaque". 15 "Projoaque". 18 "Pozuaque"." "Pofuaque". 18 "Nues- 

1 Villagran (1610), Hist. Nueva Mexico, app. 3, 'Parke, Map of New Mexico, 1861. 

p.96, L900 "> Calhoun (1851) in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, vr, 

-Ms . . .; 1715 quoted by Bandelier in Arch. Inst. p. 709, 1857. 

p. 193, 1890. " Ibid., ill, p. 633. 1853. 

3 Villa-Senor, Theatro Amer., ii, p. 418, 1748. '■ Meriwether (1856) in H. E. Ex. Doc. 37, 34th 

I f, p. 114, 1788. Cong., 3d sess., p. 146. 1857. 

b Hezio (1797-98) quoted by Meline, Two Thou- 13 Schoolcraft, op. cit., VI, p. 688. 

sand Miles, p. 'jus, 1867. " Domenech, Deserts N. A., n, p. 63, 1860, 

, lero, Xotieias Estad. Chihuahua, p. 180, is Ibid., i. p. 183 

Mexico, 1834 >«Taylorin Cat. Farmer, June 19, 1863. 

7 Ruxton, Adventures, p. 1%, 1848. » Tnd. Aff. Rep. for 1864, p. 193,1865. 

= Ruxton in Nouv, Ann. Voy.,5th s., xxi,p.84, is Ibid., p. 191. 
1850. 



B4BBIKGT0M] • i N \ M KS 335 

tra Sefiora de Guadalupe de Pojuaque". 1 "Poujuaque". "Pa- 
joaque". a "Pojoague'V "Pojoaque". 5 "Pojanquiti".' "Po- 
jake".' "Pojanque". 8 "Po-zuan-ge".' " Pojuague". 10 
"Potzua-ge" (given here as " native name " according i<> Hand- 
book Lnds.,pt. 2, p. 274, 1910). " "Pojouque"." "Pohuaque". ,a 
•• Pojuaque, or more properly Pozuang-ge"." " Pojuaque, P'Ho 
zuang-ge". 16 "P'o-zuang-ge, or Pojuaque". 1 ' "Pojuaque, or 
P'o-zuang-ge". 1 ' " Phojuange ".'' "Posonwu". 19 This form was 
obtained by Fewkes from the Hano Tewa. Ii is clearly for 
/"'.! -. the g' being for some reason omitted. " Pojoaque". " 
•• Po-suan-gai".* 1 

(•2) Picuris "A'sona', Pojoaque Pueblo. Last syllable hard t" 
get — eevaa t>> have a Bound before the ". but not clear." 82 l'rob- 
ably identical or cognate with "Tigua" "P'asuiap", below. 

"Tigua" (presumably Isleta) " P'asuiap". M Cf. Picuris 
"A sona' "'. above. 

(4i "Po^udki"." CHearl) Span. Pojuaque. 

(.'.) Cochiti Pohwdkg, Pohwdkgts&itsa locative). Clearly <Span. 
Pojuaque. 

(6) Eng. Pojoaque, also other spellings. (<Span.) 

iTi Span. Pojoaque, al><> other spellings; see under Tewa (1) 
above. (<Tewa). Span./' for Tewa a i- the same change as 
in the name Jacona [21:6] (<Sakon&) and some other words. 
Notice also that under Tewa (1), above, names are quoted showing 

that attempts have I a made t>> attach the Baint-names Nuestra 

Sefiora de Guadalupe and San Francisco t<> Pojoaque, bul they 
have not remained. The name Pojoaque must nut be confused 
with Pohuate, name of a subpueblo of the Laguna Indians. 
Tin' ffandbooi of Indians quotes " Pokwadi" 25 and "Po'kwoide" 2 * 
a- Hano forms meaning Pojoaque, but this is erroneous- 

1 \V„r ! [892, 

"Ibid 

* Loew (1875) In Wha p. Univ. Cyclopedia, vin, 

I' 1 
< Morrison, Ibid., app. nn'.. p. 1278, is?-. 
I -. II, p 117. 1879. 

17, •' Hcwett, Antlqoltli - pi. \vn 

I88L " Jom 

• Con 

vocabulary, 18! 
Ibid. In ibid. 

. 
" Brflhl Ii 

rl, |.|. 1, p. 124, l-'"i " I 



336 ETHNOGEOGBAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

"Pokwadi" and " Po'kwoide " are both for Tewa PoqwoM 'San 
Illdefonso people' (see [19:22]). 

Pojoaque has changed gradually from an Indian pueblo to a 
Mexican settlement. 

It became the seat of the Spanish mission of San Francisco early in the 
seventeenth century. After the Pueblo rebellions of 1680 and 1696 it was 
abandoned, but was resettled with rive families, by order of the governor of 
New Mexico, in 1706, when it became the mission of Nuestra Sefiora de Guada- 
lupe. In 1760 it was reduced to a visita of the Nambe mission; but in 1782 it 
again became a mission, with Nambe and Tesuque as its visitas. In 1711' its 
population was 79; in 1S90 it was only 20; since 1900 it has become extinct as 
a Tewa pueblo, the houses now being in possession of Mexican families. ' 

In 1909 the writer could not find an Indian atPojoaque, although 
a girl was found who said she was partly Indian but did not know 
the Indian language. At Pojoaque were obtained the names of 
three men said to be Pojoaque Indians. The family names of 
these men is Tapia. One was said to be living at Nambe and two 
at Santa Fe. The history of Pojoaque is well known to the 
Indians of other pueblos. When at Santo Domingo in 1909 the 
writer was told that he could not be permitted to sleep at that 
pueblo and was reminded by an old Indian of the fate of Pojoaque. 
Cf. especially [21:30] and [21:31]. 
[21:3(1] (1) Posy.ywgg.e'e 'little drink water place' (Posiiywxge, see 
[21:29]; V diminutive). Cf. Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Pojoaquito. (<Span.). = Span. (3). Cf. Tewa(l). 

(3) Span. Pojoaquito (diminutive of Pojoaque [21:29]). = Eng. 
(2). Cf. Tewa (1). 

The eastern group of houses on Pojoaque height is called thus. 
The church is at this place. Both Mexicans and Indians are care- 
ful to distinguish between Pojoaque and Pojoaquito. 
[21:31] (1) TJ,-'<'oijir[l:,j:. Tek'e'Qywikejfoywipiyge, TelcJoywipiyge- 
, oywikeji 'cotton wood bud pueblo ruin' 'cottonwood bud pueblo 
ruin centrally situated among the (Tewa) pueblos' (tek'e bud of 
male tree of Populus wislizeni, Populus acuminata, or Populus 
angustifolia < t, as in f.-jq, see under [15 :16], Ice 'kernel' 'grain'; 
'<>)j>rij,,j: "pueblo ruin' < -qrjmi ' pueblo', Jeeji 'old' postpound: 
pitjffe ' in the middle of" ' in the midst of). Why the pueblo was 
given the name 'cottonwood bud(s)' seems no longer to be known. 
It was designated ' ' qywipijjge 'centrally situated among the pueblos' 
because it and the historic Pojoaque [21:29] are actually so situ- 
ated. San Juan is north, Santa Clara northwest, San Udefonso 
west, Tesuque south, and Nambe east of this place. No other 
pueblo is so situated. This was stated independently by several 

i Handbook Inds., pt. 2, p. 274, 1910. 



PLACE-NAMES 3S7 

Indiana at San [ldefonso, Nambe*, and San Juan. When the 
writer objected thai other pueblos, as Jacona [21:9] Eor ex- 
ample, when inhabited also occupied a central position, the in- 
formants answered thai thai mighl be true, bul thai ii did nol 
alter the fact that the pueblo ruin [21:31] used to be called 
''',;,■ . One San [ldefonso Indian -aid thai [21:31] was the 
middle of the Tewa country. It is not known what importance 
should be attached to his statement. Bandelier writes of the 
pueblo ruin: 

The Tehuas [Tewa] claim thai this pueblo marks the center of the ran 
their people, and thai the division into two branches, of which the Ti 
became the northern and the Tanos the southern, took place there in very 
ancient times. ( iertain it i- that in the sixteenth century tie- Tehuas already 
held the Teeuqae valley ten miles south of Pojuaque, as they still hold i< today. 1 

San Juan "Te-je LTing-ge O-ui-ping". 1 This is evidently for 
tlie locative form Te&'jQywigdQjywipipge. "Tehauiping 

(2) 1'oxiji/ir;, ii/ 'i<iiir'd, y ' drink water place pueblo ruin', refer- 
ring t<> the vicinity of [21:29] (Posy,ywasge, »■<■ [21:29]; 'Qtywikefi 
'pueblo ruin' '•"/"''. 'pueblo', k<y 'old' postpound). The 
informants saj that this name is descriptive and thai the name 
given under (1) above is the real, old name <d' the pueblo ruin. 
Ha nde Her. Hewett, and the Handbook of Indians incorrectly locate 
the pueblo ruin. Bandelier writes: 

Around the Pojuaque [21:29] of today ■luster ancient recollections. \ 
Large ruin, railed bj the- San Juan Indians Te-je Ding ge 1 1 ui-ping, occupied 
ithern slope of the bleak hills [21:28] on which Btands the present vil- 
la-.- [21 

The writer's Indian and Mexican informants knew of no pueblo 
ruin on the southern slope of [21:28]. '/'■ /.'■'<uj>rij,,jr, >,/</■; 
as is well known to the Tewa and manj Mexicans, is situated as 
located on sheet |21| on the northern -lope overlooking Pojoaque 
Creek. Bandelier's mention of San Juan informants makes it 
probable that his information was obtained at San Juan Pueblo and 
that In- did not \ isit the ruin. Bandelier's mention of San Juan 
in formants gives rise to a mi -take in the Handbook of Indians,' see 
below. Hewett and the Handbook evidently follow Bandelier: 

I .- •. illage de Pojoaque 2 1 recemmenl 

niim- llage appele 1 

Th.- ruins ol a prehist ri. Tewa pueblo on the 8. slope of the hills on which 

on tie- Ri 

■ Hand - 

16 -- 



338 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

It will be noticed that the first edition of the Handbook (1910), 
owing- probably to the mention of San Juan informants in Rande- 
lier's sentence, is doubly in error in indicating- the location of the 
ruin on the south slope at San Juan when in reality it is on the 
north slope at Pojoaque. 

The ruin lies on the nearly level hilltop, which slopes slightly 
toward Pojoaque Creek. It overlooks the creek, from which it 
is separated by a precipitous hillside. The land ou which the 
ruin is situated belongs to Mr. Camillo Martinez, who lives near 
San Ildefonso Pueblo. The ruin consists of mounds of adobe. 
It measures 13s paces in an east- west direction and 131 in a north- 
south direction. The Tewa say that it had once a large popula- 
tion. The pueblo has certainly not been inhabited in historic 
times. Informants say it was a Tewa pueblo, but what became 
of its inhabitants they do not know. 
[21:32] (1) Nambe Mig.elko.hu'u 'Michael arroyo' (Mig.d <Span. 
Miguel; lolni'it •arroyo with barrancas' <ko 'barranca', lui'u 
' large groove ' 'arroyo'). (<Span.) Cf. Span. (2). 

(2) Arroyo Miguel ' Michael's arroyo '. Cf . Tewa (1). Why 
the name is given is not known. 

Unlocated 

Nambe Kq n -)jfq\vxijqe 'place down at the tail of the American bison' 
{ko"-)jf 'American bison or buffalo'; qw^yf 'tail'; ge 'down at' 
' over at '). 

The place known by this name is somewhere east of Tesuque 
Creek [21:21] and near Callamongue settlement [21:25]. 
Nambe Soqwiwi'i 'bridle gap' (soqwi 'bridle' <so 'mouth', qwi 
'cord' 'fiber': wi'i 'gap'). 

This 'gap 'is situated somewhere in the northeastern part of 
the sheet. The name must have originated since the introduction 
of the horse. 

[22] SANTA FE MOUNTAIN SHEET 

The mountains east of the Tewa country are shown on this 
sheet (map 22). These mountains are called by the Tewa 
T , ampije l i H piyy 'eastern mountains' {tqmpije 'east' <t'<jij.f 
'sun". pije 'toward': '/'' locative and adjective-forming postfix; 
f'iijf 'mountain'). The Americans call them, especially the range 
west of the Pecos River [22:02], the Santa Fe Mountains; see spe- 
cial treatment of Santa Fe Mountains [Large Features :7] Most 
of tin 1 place-names were obtained from Indians of Nambe. who are 
I iet !er acquainted with the region than are those of the other Tewa 



MAP 22 
SANTA FE MOUNTAIN REGION 



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^sp 




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'^ 




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;oi 








;-„-,'- 






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J /<^' m:i ^Mt0M 



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^w)/^'^^^ , %' ,, ^ : ^/$^w^^'^/'V.S^- ^i 




MAP 22 
SANTA FE MOUNTAIN REGION 



E1HBIK0TON] PLACE-NAMES 339 

pueblos. The located ruin- on the sheel proper are all claimed 
by the Nambe - Indiana as the villages of their ancestors. The 
greater part <>f the area Bhown is ;ii present comprised in the 
Pecos National Forest (formerly known as Pecos River Forest 
Reserve). 

[22:1] Rio Grande, see special treatment [Large Features], pp. LOO L02. 

[22:2] Embudo Creek, Bee [8:79]. 

[22::*. j Trampas Creek, see [8:80]. 

[22:4] (1) Eng. Trampas settlement. I Span.). Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Trampas, Las Trampas 'the trap-'. Eng. (1). 
■■ Trampas." : 

It appears that no Tewa name for the settlement exists. Cf. 
[22::: |. 

[22:5] Penasco Creek, sec [8:85]. 

[22:6] Penasco settlement, Bee [8:96]. 

[22:7] Picuris Pueblo, Bee [8:88]. 

[22:8] Pueblo Creek, Bee [8:86]. 

[22 :'.» I (li Tunijihjj' 'basket mountain' Ounf 'basket'; piyy 'moun- 
tain'). It i- said that the name is applied to the mountain because 
of its shape. Cf. Eng. (3), Span. (4). 

(2) Picuris " Jicarilla or Jicarita peak i- called Qayaftha, w hich 
means mountain. Jicarilla or Jicarita is called putipi n e?no, 'eat- 
ing basket ' ".- 

Eng. Jicarita Mountain, Jicarita Peak. (<Span.). = 
Span. < 1 1. ( t'. Tewa < 1 1. 

(li Cerro Jicara, Cerro Jicarita, Cerro Jicarilla 'mountain of 
the basket' 'mountain of the cup-shaped basket'. Eng. (2). 
Cf. Tewa (1). "Jicarilla Peak". "Jicarrita'V 

The peak i- roundish Like an inverted basket; it is not heavily 
wooded; Bandelier* calls it "the bald Jicarrita." The altitude of 
the mountain has been determined bj the United States Geolog- 
ical Survey to be 12,944 feet.' It is well known to the Tewa that 
Jicarita Peak is a sacred mountain of the Picuris Indian-. The 
Picuris have a shrine on its summit, it is said, and members of 
certain fraternities of Picuris frequently vi-it the top of Jicarita 

in a body. 

[28:10] Truchas Creek, Las Truchas < reck. Bee [9:9]. 

[22:11] (I) Eng. Truchas settlement, Las Truchas settlement. 

(<Span. i. Span. <•_'). 

i Bun. I. ii. r. Pinal Report, pi 

• 100th M.n.i , Partial Boutin rn I olorado mimI Northern Not H 

■ an 77. 

' lllli! 



340 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

(2) Span. Truchas, Las Truchas 'the trout*, probably called so 
from Truchas Creek [22:luJ. 'Truchas". 1 There is no Tewa 
name for the settlement. 

This is a small Mexican town. Sheep and other stock are 
raised on the hills in the vicinity. The grandfather of one San 
.hum informant used to herd his sheep up by Truchas. make 
cheese from the milk at Truchas town, and bring it to San Juan 
Pueblo to sell. The important claypit [22: Li>] is near Truchas. 

[22:1 2 1 San Juan 'Oma ii:jr"ijj.tf""J.' nqyFon&Wt ' where the earth is dug 
down by crooked chin place arroyo', referring to |22: lo] ('Omst ij- 
'jCuj.f/'"'"- see |22:]o|: g_e 'down at' 'over at'; nqijf ■earth' 
'clay': h'qyj' 'to dig'; 'iwt locative). 

It. is saiii that at this place the best red pottery clay known to 
the Tewa is obtained. It is pebbly, but makes very strong 
dishes, and it is used especially for ollas. It is said that Tewa of 
various pueblos visit this place frequently and carry away the clay. 
See under Minerals, page 581. The clay deposit is a mile or 
tw r o southeast of Truchas town [22:11J. 

[22:13] (1) K'lxij'tpVjf- Ku8%rvn% apparently "rock horn mountain' 
'place of the rock horns', but xfjjf has the intonation of seijf 
'man in prime* rather than that of xnjf 'horn' although some 
Indians recognize it as the latter word and feel sure of the mean- 
ing given above (hu 'stone* 'rock': szyj? "horn": piyy 'moun- 
tain'; n:e locative). If this etymology is correct, as several 
Indians have assured the writer, the name doubtless refers to the 
upward-projecting rocks of the summit described by Bandelier: 
'"The summit of the Truchas is divided into sharp-pointed peaks, 
recalling the 'Horner Stocke' or 'Dents' of the Alps". 2 

(2) Eng. Truchas Mountain(s), Truchas Peak. (<Span.). 
= Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Sierra Truchas. Sierra de las Truchas 'mountain or 
mountain range of the trout'. = Eng. (-2). This name appears 
to be taken from Truchas Creek [22:l0j, which rises at this 
mountain. "Trout mountains (Sierra de la Trucha)". 3 "Sierra 
de las Truchas." 4 Of the height of Truchas Peak Bandelier says: 

The highest point of the" whole region [i. e., the whole southwestern United 
Stales], as far as known, lies in northern New Mexico. The 'Truchas', north 
of Santa Fe, ascend to 13,150 feet above sea level. None of the peaks of the 
Sierra Madre reach this altitude; they do not even attain the proportions of 
lesser mountains in New Mexico like the Sierra Blanca . . . [11,892 according 
to official maps], 'Baldy' [22:53] (12,661),the Costilla (12,634) or the Sierra 
.hi Mateo [29:115] (11,200). The same may be said of Arizona, where 

i Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n. pp. 35 15, 1892 
nbid., p 35 

ier in Papi rsArt h Inst. Ami r., Amer. ser , i. p. 39, 1881. 
B tndelier, Final Report, j>t. n, pp. 34, », . 



BACMHOTOH] PLACE-NAMES 34] 

only the northern ranges of the Sierra de San Francisco and the Sierra Blanca, 
ove 12,000 

Again: 

["he Truchas are slightly higher than Taos Peai [8:51]. The latter is 13,1 15 
feet, the former 13,150 i ling to Wheeler. The altitude of the 

Jicarrita [22:!'] has not, to my knowledge, been determined; bul the im] i 
of these who have ascended t.. it- top - thai il exceeds the Truchas in height. 3 

The United Mate- Geological Survey has established tin- altitude 
of Truchas Peak as 13,275 feet, and that of "Jicarilla" Peak as 
{.2,944 feet. See [22:14]. It is said thai nuktt is found on this 
peak; see under Minerals. 
[22:14| ' of.' ii'hj'jfj,'. Kusijuj'ijnpn i)<j. '<>!.' ij'ij/'J'''- Kusenna. />./ ygJok'u- 
"ij/'jr.ii 'the shadowy side or place" 'the shadowy side beyond 

rock horn mountain' 'the shadowy side beyond the pla< i the 

rock horns' (',./'/_/ 'shadow 9 ; '{'/.'/-■''' 'side'; Eus^mpiy .A 

see [22:i:;|: p&yc/i 'beyond'), [t is said that on the other sid< oi 

the great mountain [22:13] the sun rarely shines. <>n that side 

neat- the mountain top all the place is like smokj ice ('oji . 

• black ice' < ',,//' • ice'. /,' 1 1/ f • blackness' 'black', '"' locative and 

adjective-forming postfix). < >n the mountainside below this ice 

ate Sowers, white, red. Yellow. See [22:13]. 

|22:1.">| San Juan Tos^nty/i/wsejo'oJcu, see [12:19]. 

|22:1»',| San Juan Sa ],.,b>' u, see [12:38]. 

[22:17] Santa Cruz Creek, see [16:18]. 

|22:', - <'/'</. Tsimajobu'u 'flaking stone of superior quality' 

'town of the flaking -tone of superior quality' (tsi'i 'flaking 
stone' of any variety; majo 'superior' 'chief, apparently 
unexplained,^'*? augmentative; Ju'u 'town'). With the name cf. 

Tomajo 'pif t' superior quality' [3:11]. dust why the name 

was original h applied bas been forgotten. No obsidian or other 
flaking Btone is known to exist al the place. Eng. (2), Span. (3). 
(2) Eng. Chimayo settlement, i Span.). Tewa (1), Span. (3). 
Span. Chimay6. 1 Tewa). Tewa (1), Eng. (2). Thepho 
netic condition of the Tewa name' is well adapted in be taken over 
into Span.; cf., for general sound, Chumayel, a place in the 

Country Of the Maya Indian-. "Chimayo". 1 The Indian- of 

(according to information obtained bj the writer) and of 
Picuris (according to information obtained l>\ Doctor Spinden) 
know the place well, bul call it by it- Span. name. 

The Indian- -a\ that < 'hima\ o u-ed lo he a Tew a Indian | mid do, 

then called Teima /..■#! //(/•/ 1 '<>/;"•; 'pueblo'). This pueblo was situ- 
ated where the church now is, the informants stated. The church 
is on the south Bide of the creek. Where tl hurch now is there 



■ Ibid ; 



342 KTHXOGEOGBAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

used to be a pool, they say, called Tsimajopofavi (j>oJew\ 'pool' 
< po 'water', hw{ unexplained). The earth or mud of this pool 
has healing properties; see below. Doctor Hewett furnishes the 
following information about Chimayo: 

Chimayo was originally an Indian pueblo, a pueblo of blanket weavers. 
There is a famous old shrine at the place. It was originally an Indian shrine. 
After the pueblo became Mexicanized a church was built by the shrine and 
pilgrimages were made to the shrine from all over the Southwest. The church 
built at the shrine is in the custodianship of the people of purest Indian descent. 
In a grotto is the curative earth. Boards in the floor are taken up in order 
to get at the earth. People used to carry the earth away with them. Articles 
of silver, brass, and glass wire deposited at the place. The earth was con- 
secrated. 

The Mexican inhabitants of Chimayo are famous for the beau- 
tiful blankets which they weave. The blankets are of a thin 
texture and have attractive designs in colors. Hundreds of dol- 
lars' worth of these blankets are purchased from the makers every 
year. "Chimayo blankets made by Chimayo Indians of northern 
New Mexico, who are now practically extinct, are thought to be 
the connecting link between Navajo and Saltillo weaving." ' It 
is probable that the Chimayo blankets are a development of 
ancient Tewa weaving. No blankets are now woven by the Tewa 
Indians, this art probably having been lost since the Mexicaniza- 
tion of the Tewa country. It is said that Chimayo blankets are 
woven also by Mexicans living at Santuario 1 22:20] and at other 
places in the vicinity of Chimayo. 

Chimayo lies in a deep canyon or Canada. Bandelier 2 mentions 
the "gorges of Chimayo." He probably refers to a number of 
gorges, as those of [22:17], [22:22], and [22:26]. It is said 
that a large part of the settlement is on the north side of the creek; 
tin 1 church and some houses are, however, on the south side. 
There is very little published information about Chimayo. Ban- 
delier merely mentions the name, and no information is given in 
Hewett's publications. Tsimajo gave the creek [22:17] its old 
Tewa name. It gives the name also to a mountain or hill [22:U>]. 
According to information obtained by an investigator at Santa 
Clara Pueblo, Chimayo was one of the places at which fire and 
smoke were belched forth in ancient times. 
|22:l'.i] Tsimajopiyy 'mountain of the flaking stone of superior qual- 
ity', referring to [22:18] (Tsimajo, see [22:18]; piyj' 'mountain'). 
This name is given to a mountain or hill north of Chimayo 
[22:18]; it was seen and located from the heights between Nambe 
and Cundayo [25:7]. 

1 Ainer. Museum Journal, xn, no. 1. p. 33, Jan., 1912. 
a Final Report, pi. n, p. 71, 1892. 



BABBINOTON] PLACE-NAMES 343 

[22:20] (1) Eng. Santuario settlement. (> Span.). =Span. (2). 

cj) Span. Santuario 'sanctuary'. =Eng. (1). There is do 

Tewa name for this Mexican settlement. 

See under |22:4I] ami Santuario Mountains under |22:un- 

located]. 
|22:-_M | Nambe* Ponj ij'j ijinibn' u 'corner of the tall plumed arroyo 

shrub' (ponj*i 'plumed arroyo shrub' 'Fallugia paradoxa acu- 
minata'; tiji)u-;i 'tallness' 'tall'; 5 w'u 'large low roundish place'). 

It i- said that this low place is so Darned because the plumed 

arroyo shrub actually grows tall there. 
[22:22] ill Nambe' and San Juan Po'efohu'ii 'little water creek' 

'creek of the small Btream of water' {[>■> ■water*: '< diminutive; 

pnhn'ii -creek with water in it' <f>0 'water', lui'n 'large groove' 

'arroyo'). Cf. Picuris (2), Eng. (3), Span. (4). 
(2) Picuris " PatySqSone, RioChiquito, literally 'little river'." 1 

Cf. Tewa (1). Eng. (3), Span, i I I. 

Eng. Rio Chiquito. (<Span.). = Span. (4). Cf.Tewa(l), 
Picuris (2). 

iliSpan. RioChiquito 'little river'. Eng. (3). Cf.Tewa(l), 
Picuris (-). There is reason to believe thai the Tewa form is the 
original one. and that the Span, form is an attempt at translating 
it. u Idle the Picuris form is a mere translal ion of the Span. form. 
It is said that 'the creek is called by it- Tewa name because the 
stream of water in it is very small. Cf. Rio Chiquito settlement, 
also Rio Frijoles, under [22 :unlocated]. 
[22:i''J] Sapapijfwi'i of obscure etymologj (Sapapiy -. see under [22: 
unlocated]; wPi 'gap'). 

This pass drains into the Pecos River [22:62] and Medio Creek 
[22:28]. 
[22:21' Nambe* /'"W'l'i'Jj 'mountain of an unidentified Bpecies of 
bird' (puQfl |l large species of bird the description <d' which indi 
cates thai it is probably the sandhill crane'; pigs 'mountain'). 

It La said thai the Pecos River [22:68] has it-- origin at this 
mountain. 
[22:25] ii) Nambe' Hwmatopiyj of obscure etymology (humato unex- 
plained; j>iji i " mountain'). 
(2) Span. Cerro del Cuballe 'mountain of the aotch.' 
This i- a very high peak. It can be distinguished by ii- yel- 
low i-h color. 
[22:26] Nambe topvg > . see [25:1 ft]. 
|22: - _'7| Nainlie '/'../<///< ]>■< i/'j-'i '" /"'/' "' " ■ see |25:l."p|. 
[22:28] Medio Creek, see [25:3]. 

iSpindcn, Picurta note*, Ma, 1910 



344 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. asn. 29 

[22:29] Wijo 'the great gap' (wi'i 'gap'; jo augmentative). 

This gap is well known to all the Tewa. It is large and wide 
and can be clearly seen from most parts of the Tewa country. At 
Santa Clara Pueblo the sun appears to rise through this gap. a 
fact which has been mentioned by Santa Clara Indians both to 
another investigator and to the writer. Somewhere at or near 
the gap is the ruin of the ancient pueblo Wijdqywx 'pueblo of 
the great gap' ( Wijo, see above; 'oiju'i 'pueblo*), which was built 
by the united Summer and Winter people after they had wan- 
dered separately for generations. See Wijd'qywikeji under [22: 
unlocated|. 

[22:30] Nambe pyJcwaje 'locust height' (fu 'locust'; hvaj't 'height'). 
Cf. [2:10]. _" 

[22:31] Nambe Rujotfa, Kojotfa apparently 'big rock there' (leu, lco 
'stone' "rock"; jo augmentative; tfa 'to be then-' 'to be at a 
place', the dual and plural forms being sa). 

[22:32] Nambe Kup'eyfhu'u, see [21:11]. 

[22:33] Nambe Johu'u, see [15:29]. 

[22:34] Nambe Jbhu , o&u , e, Johuhaajh 'little hills of cane-cactus 
arroyo ' ' height of cane-cactus arroyo', referring to [22:33] (JbA ufu, 
see [22:33]; 'oku 'hill'; 'e diminutive: hvajd ' height'). 

[22:35] Nambe PmtehxCu 'deer dwelling-place arroyo' (/VA -. see 
[22:36]; Ihi'h "large groove' "arroyo"). The name is probably 
taken from [22:36], q.v. 

This arroyo flows into Ht/soge [24:1]. 

[22:36] Nambe Pagtekwaje 'deer dwelling-place heights' (px 'mule- 
deer"; te 'dwelling-place'; Temaje ' height'). This place probably 
gives the name to [22:35]. It is said that there is good deer 
hunting on these heights, hence the name. 

[22:37] Nambe Creek, see [19:3]. 

[22:38] Nambe" P%po' deer water' (p% 'mule-deer'; po 'water'). The 
lower course of this arroyo is called 'Obipowe, see [23:25]. 

[22:39] Nambe Mahy,powe 'owl water' 'owl creek' (mghy. 'owl'; po 
' water'; Wt locative). 

[22:4u] Nambe Kehvajt '"i/wikeji 'pueblo ruin of the sharply pointed 
height' (Jce 'peak' 'sharpness' 'sharp'; ln-,ij> "height"; 
't>i/trij.;j; "pueblo ruin' <'nij)ri 'pueblo", leji 'old' postpound). 
" Ke-gua-yo". 1 "Keguaya". 2 
Of this pueblo ruin Bandelier says: 

Mt j s:i* with abrupt sides border upon the valley [of Nam be 1 ] in the east, and 
on these there are pueblo ruins. The Indians of Nambe assert that they were 
reared ami occupied, as well as abandoned, by their ancestors prior to the 
establishment of Spanish rule in New Mexico. Tiny also gave me some of the 

1 Bandelier. Final Report, pt. n, p. B4 1892. "Hewett, Communautfe, p 33 L908. 



babbim PLACE NAM] S 3 I 5 

Ke-gua-yo, in th of the Chupaderos [probably 

[22:."ii]J, a cluster of B] isl oi Nambe' in a narrow 

moui 

I Lewetl saj s: 

Plus loin, ce Bont lee mines de Keguaya, a quelqnea milles a I'esl de 
Nam!"- . . . onsuj Bont cellee des villages historiquea dee Nambe. 3 

All that could !»■ Learned is that this i- a wry ancient villa 
the Nambe" people. 
[22:41] Nambe" 'Ag.awonu'oywikeji of obscure etymology, perhaps 

• pueblo ruin where the cowri< livella shells are or were hang- 

lown 5 C<"j'< unexplained, but occurring in several Tewa place- 
Dames, >'. g. 'AgcctfanuPiyf [22:.ML possibly an <>I<1 form of 'og.a 
'cowrie shell', 'olivella shell', il is said; wo 'to hang?; nu loca- 
tive; 'n'jir[ : ': 'pueblo ruin '•: "')/;"•/ 'pueblo', keji 'old' post- 
pound). Since the etymology above was given by a very reliable 
informant, an aged cacique, considerable weigh! i- to be attached 
to it. "A-ga Do-no". 1 "Agauono". This is given' both as 
the name of the pueblo ruin an. I, by mistake, a- the name of 
Juan 1>. Gonzalez 8 of San tldefonso, whose Indian name is 
'-ly'V"V" ./<T ' shaking star ' {fagfljo "star'; q»f;i 'shaking'), not 
'Agmioonu. 

Bandelier bas already been quoted with regard to this pueblo 
ruin (see under [22:40]). He -peaks further "f 

A-ga [Jo-no and Ka-a-yu [22:42], both in the vicinity oi' the Santuario in 
the mountains. 1 

The location of •• the Santuario" has not been ascertained. 
[22:20] is the Mexican settlement called Santuario. Hewett 

writes as follow-: 

Pine loin, ce -em li - roinee di E£< gu > , 22 K) . I pielquee milles 
de Nam!..- ct de Tobipange [25:30], i 8 milles au nord est; on Buppose que ce 

- Ninnlie. I 
Kaayu [22:4l'] sur le Santuario [sei |uelquea millee plus loin an 

nord-eet, indiquenl probablement I'ancienne residence de certains clans dee 
■ 

'Agawonu is -aid to have been a rorj ancient pueblo of the 

N'alllhe people. 

|22:i_'| Nambe' A"/' i /-"•.,•/'..'■ |.nel.|o ruin of an unidentified species 

of bird called / f an unidentified -| ies of bird 

of bluish color which cries /.i/ii; 'm/n-ij,: )i 'pueblo ruin ' 'm/n-i 

• pueblo', /•/'' ' old ' postpound. > For Bandolier's spelling of </■,"/ 
a- "ye" or ••\n". B ee 'Hi 105 and 16 1 1 i|. 



346 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ahn. 29 

For quoted information about K'qiriri'i see under 'Agawonu 
[22:41], above. As in the case of 'Ag.awonu, it could be learned 
only that K'qxivi'i was a very ancient pueblo of the Nambe 
people. 
[22:43] (1) Nambe" J^q,miepohupojem.u , iive 'place of the waterfalls of 
Nambe Creek 1 (N&mbepolivlu, see [19:3]; pojt mu , iwe ' waterfalls' 
<po 'water', jeimi 'to fall', said of 3+, 7«\? locative). This is 
the descriptive name current at all the Tewa pueblos. 

(2) Nambe" Pojemu , iw< ' the waterfalls ' (po 'water'; jemu to 
fall' said of 3+; Hwe locative). When this term is used at Nambe 
it is understood which waterfalls arc meant. 

(3) Natnbe Poffmix 'where the water dies' (po 'water*: tfu 
'to die 1 ; nig, 'at' locative postfix). Cf. [22:44], [22:45], [22:46]. 

(4) Eng. Nambe Falls. 

(5) Span. Salto de Agua de Nambe, Caida de Agua de Nambe, 
'Nambe Falls'. 

These are the well-known waterfalls of Nambe Creek. Three 
portions of the falls have distinct names; see [22:44], [22:45], 
and [22:46]. The Nambe name Potfunsg appears to refer espe- 
cially to the two lower falls; see [22:46]. 

[22:44] Nambe PotJurCv, 'below where the water dies' (Potfu, see 
[22:43]; nu'u 'below'). This name is given to the first water- 
fall met when going up Nambe" Creek, the lowest of the Nambe 
Falls. See [22 :43], [22 :45], and [22 :46J. 

[22:45] Nambe PotfuJc'xntahege 'meal-drying jar place where the 
water dies' (Potfu, see [22:43]; L'xniabr 'meal-drying jar', for 
drying meal for preservation <lt%,iQf 'meal' 'flour", la 'to dry"; 
be ' vessel' 'pottery'; ge 'down at' 'over at"). It is said that the 
name is applied because of the bowl-like shape of the canyon at 
the base of this fall. This name is given to the middle one of 
the Nambe Falls, situated between [22:44] and [22:46]. See 
[22:43], [22:44], [22:46]. 

[22:46] Nambe, Potfup%nn%, PotfvOcewe, Potfukwajl 'waterfall or 
place beyond or above the place where the water dies' (Potfu, 
see [22:43]; pxnnx 'beyond" < pteijf unexplained, nx locative; 
k> we 'above" < fee 'top', we locative; favaje "above'). This name 
is applied to the uppermost of the Nambe Falls. See [22:43], 
[22:44], [22:45]. 

[22:47] Nambe Pynpiji [mpowe 'the northern creek' (pimpije 'north' 
< fi'Jf 'mountain' 'up country', pije 'toward'; iijf locative 
and adjective-forming postfix; powe 'creek' < po 'water', we 
locative). 

This is the north branch of upper Nambe Creek. See [19:3], 
[22:48]. 



BABBIKOTON] I'l.All [TAMES •'! 1 7 

[22:ls| Nambe* '. 1/ wnp !').'[,,, few* 'the southern creek* ('akqmjpij* 
'south' ■ f ak<tOf 'plain' 'down country'; pij< 'toward'; \r)f 
locative and adjective-forming postfix; /""/•. 'creek' po'water', 
we locate e). 

Thisis the south branch of upper Nambe* Creek. See |19: : >| 
and [22:47J. 

[22:49] (1) Nambe* Pibvwe ' little red pile of roundish shape' (/<>' 'red- 
ness' 'red'; I"' as in biri, 'small and roundisb like a ball'; "■ 
locath e). 

(•_') Span. Cerrito de la Junta ' little mountain of the joining', 
said in refer to the joining of [22:47] and |22:48j. 
Tins small mountain is a short distance southwest of [22:50]. 

[22:50] Nambe* Kawi'i* ' place of the tw isted leaf or leaves' [ka ' leaf; 
wi for qvri of San Qdefonso and Santa ( 'lata dialects, meaning ' t<> 
twist ": V' locative ami adjective forming postfix I. 

This place is described as a high, level locality a short distance 
northeast of the little mountain |22:4'.»|. 

[ 22:. M' (1) Nambe* and San Ildefonso Tsepobifu, Tsep6kqq< 'cornerof 
the seven waters" "place down by the barranca of the seven 
«atcr>' (tst 'seven'; ]><■ "water', here evidently referring to 
springs of water: b\£u ■ large low roundish place": Jcq ' barranca.'; 

</. ' down at " " over at '). 

(2) Span. Los Chupaderos, Chupaderos 'the sucking places' 
meaning where water i- sucked up. For the name cf. [23:25], 
[22:58], [14:87]. It is probable that the Tewa and Span, names 
refer to a single place. Bandelier Bays: "Ke-gua-yo |22:lo]in 
the vicinity of the Chupaderos, a cluster of springs about four 
miles east of Nambe* in a narrow ml <."' See [22:52]. 

[22:.">l'| Nambe* TsepoPow< ■creek of the Beven waters' (TsePo, see 
[22:51]; j»>n; 'creek' < /'""water". u>t locative). 

[22:53] (1) Nambe" Pobipiyj ' flower mountain ' (poM 'flower'; 

'mountain'). Wnj it is called thus is not known, unless it be 
because it is hate on top. with flowerj meadows in the summer 
time. This name refers to the very high peak just north of 
[22:54], i'(. Eng. (2), Span. (3), Span. | D. 

(2) Eng. Baldj Peak, Santa Fe Baldy. Cf. Tewa (1), Span. 
(8), Span. (4). "Bal Ij "Santa F« Baldy.'" 

(3) Span. CerroPelado 'bald mountain'. Cf . Tewa (1), Eng. (2), 
Span. (l). The mountain is so called because of it- bald top, 
snow-capped in winter, grassj in summer. 

ili Span. Cerro del Zacate Blanco •mountain of the white 
-'. This evidently refers to it- grassy top. Cf. Tewa(l), 

; I 

■ lb : 

. alley Ranch (pamphlet on the Valley Ban h, Vellej Ranch, s. Mm 



348 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth.ann.29 

Eng. (2), Spun. (3). This name appears to be considerably used 
by Mexicans who live about Nambe. 

This great peak seems to be better known to Mexicans and 
Americans who reside in the Tewa country or about Santa Fe 
than it is to the Tewa Indians. The chief attention of the Tewa 
is directed t<> the sacred Lake Peak [22:54], and many Tewa of 
San Ildefonso, Santa Clara, and San Juan do not know Baldy 
Peak l>v any name. Bandelier says of Baldy Peak and Lake 
Peak: 

Two of the highest peaks of the southern Rocky Mountains rise within a 
comparatively short distance of Santa F6, — Baldy, 12, or,] feet, and Lake Peak 
[22:54], at the foot of which the Santa Fe River [22:56] rises, 12,405 feet.' 

Subsequent measurement by the United States Geological Sur- 
vey determines the height of Baldy as 12,623 feet, and that of 
Lake Peak as 12,380 feet. Somewhere immediately north of 
Baldy Peak rises the unlocated Tfipjopiyj; see under [22:unlo 
cated]. Tfii'j<>]<vjf is a large mountain, it is said, but not so 
large nor so high as Baldy Peak. Cf. Grass Mountain [22: 
unlocated | and Pecos Baldy [22:unlocated]. 
[22:54] (1) Wg.iitf:(niipi)jj> of obscure etymology Cagfl unexplained. 
but possibly an old form of 'oga 'cowrie shell', 'olivella shell'; it 
is found in several unetymologizable Tewa place-names. as Nambe 
'Agawonu [22:41]; tfm unexplained; mi apparently locative). One 
San Ildefonso Indian pronounced the name 'Afratfang, but others 
asserted that this form is not correct. The lake Wg.(iff:riini>itj- 
Kewepohvi [22:unlocated] is sometimes designated merely , Ag.at- 
f:i nupohvi, and this usage may shed some light on the origin of 
the name Ag.atfsenu-. 

(2) 7 "qmpijt "ijupbif 'mountain of the east' (T"ampijt 'east' 
<fnrjf 'sun 1 , pi'/e 'toward'; Hyy locative .and adjective-forming 
postfix: pl>]j> •mountain"). This is the ceremonial name, the 
mountain being the Tewa sacred mountain of the east. See 
Cardinal Mountains. 

(3) Piylcewe 'the mountain peak', abbreviated from (1) and (2), 
above {piijf 'mountain': Icewe 'peak' 'top' <ke 'point', we 
locative). 

(4) Eng. Lake Peak, referring to the lake [22:55]. Cf. Span. 
(5). "Lake Peak." 2 

(5) Span. Cerro de la Laguna, referring to a lake or lakes on 
its summit; see below. . Cf. Eng. (4). 

Bandelier writes: 

The elevation ... of Lake Peak [is given] at 12,405. . . . The lagune on 
Lake Peak is of course lower than the summit. 3 

1 Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n, p. 88, note, 1S92. *lbid., pp. 12, 88. ; Ibid., p. 12, note. 



BABBINOTON] 



P] Ml \ LMES 349 



See also excerpt from Bandolier with regard to Baldj and Lake 
Peaks, under [22:53]. 

For the height of the two peaks as subsequently determined by 
tin- United States Geological Survey, see page 348. 

The trail to Spirit Lake [22:unlocated] follows a charming littli 
miles through the woods, np an approp little lake lies 

hidden away in the « Is, surrounded by high rock walls, some 11,000 feel 

above sea level. A few miles bey 1 the white Bign which points to Spirit 

Lake, the trail emerges from the trees into an open glade. On the right is 

Fe Baldy [22:53], 12,623 the sea, snowcapped thi 

part "i the year: .m the left, but a little lower, is Lake Peak, a crater long 
burnt out, which now holds the Crystal Lakes [22:unlocated], the sources ol 
the Santa l"e and Nambee Rivers. Far below, between the peaks, lies the 
Bio Grande Valley, through which the Rio Grande River is traceabl 
very source by its fringe of tn ■ 

As is stated above, Lake Peak is the Tewa sacred mountain of 
the east. Somewhere a( or near the top of this peak is a lake 
which is called , Ag.atf%nupiyfcewePokwi q. v. under [22:unlo- 
cated j. page 351. 

Certain secret societies of some of the Tewa pueblos hold 
summer ceremonies on top of tlii> peak at thi- lake, just as the 
Picuris do on t < » j > of Jicarita Peak [22:9] and the Taos do at the 
sacred lake [8:50] near Pueblo Peak[8:40]. This information is 
confirmed l>> Bandelier: 

er-plomes art found on the Sierra de Ban Mateo (-Mount Taylor) [29: 
116], as well as at the lagnne on Lake Peak, near Santa 1-'<V 

mpiTjkewefohvi, Crystal Lake-. Lagoon on Lake 
Peak, Spirit Lake, all under [22 mnlocated], [22:5] |, and [22:52]. 
[22:55] Santa Fe Creek, see [29:8]. 
[22:56] Santa Fe city, see 1 29 :.">]. 
[22:57] Namlpe Paqwsempiys 'fish-tail mountain' (pa 'fish'; qu 

: pi't)/ 'mountain'). 'The mountain is -aid to be bo named 
because in form it resembles a fish's tail. 

The location of this peak given on the sheet is only approxi- 
mately correct. 
[22:58] Eng. Chupadero Creek, Bee [26:4]. 
[22:59] Tesuque (reek, see |26:l |. 

[22:60] (1) Namhe and Tesuque Poq HvSi , 0& a P 8- e PiVJ' 'mountains 
down by the place of the water" 'mountains down bj the place of 

tl livella shell water', referring to Santa Fe {Pog . ' ' 'wi'^u- ■ 

29:5]; pvyf ' mountain '). This name includes Atalaya Moun 

tain [22:60], Thompson .Mountain [22:'d |. and other peaks in the 

neighborhood of the citj o 

> Hi, 



350 ETHNOGEOGKAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

(2) Eng. Atalaya Mountain. (<Span.). = Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Cerro Atalaya, Cerro de la Atalaya ' mountain of the 
watchtower'. = Eng. (2). This name is known to some Mexicans 
at Santa Fe. It appears on the Santa Fe sheet of the United States 
Geological Survey, 1894, as "Atalaya Mt." 

The mountain lies south of Santa Fe Creek Canyon, east of 
Santa Fe. 
[22:01] (1) Nambe and Tesuque Pogepiyj; ' Og.apog.epiyj'. =Nambe" 
andTesuque [22:60]. 

(2) Eng. "Thompson Peak''. 1 This name appears to be un- 
known locally. The writer is informed that the mountain was so 
named by Mr. Arthur P. Davis, of the United States Geological 
Survey, in honor of the late A. H. Thompson, geographer of the 
Survey. 

The United States Geological Survey determined the altitude 
of Thompson Peak to be 10,546 feet. The mountain is east of 
[22:60} It is about the same size as [22:60]. 
[22:62] Pecos River, see [29:32]. 
[22:63] (1) Eng. El Macho settlement. (<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Span. El Macho 'the jack-mule' 'the male mule'. = Eng. (2). 
This is a small Mexican hamlet on Pecos River. There is no 
Tewa name for it. 
[22:64] (1) San Juan and Nambe PPag.ev/tpiyj> 'mountains of the red 
slope' (pi 'redness' 'red'; Va 'steep slope'; g.e 'down at' 'over 
at'; "ujf locative and adjective-forming postfix; piijf 'moun- 
tain'). Why this name is applied was not known to the inform- 
ants. They stated definitely that the name applies to the entire 
range east of the headwaters of the Pecos River [22:02]. 

(2) Nambe and San Ildefonso T'anupofisgyge 'imply j> 'moun- 
tains beyond the Tano river', referring to the Pecos River [22:02] 
(T'anupo, see [29:32]; ptrijijr 'beyond'; \j)f locative and adjec- 
tive-forming postfix ; pijjf ' mountain '). This name is descriptive 
and refers to the whole range east of the river. 

(3) T'ampije'impiyj' 'eastern mountains' (tfampije 'east' 
<t' l I>Jf 'sun'. ]>!]< 'direction'; 'ijjj' locative and adjective-form- 
ing postfix; pVQf 'mountain"). This name applies to all the 
mountains east of the Tewa country, including of course this 
range east of the headwaters of Pecos River. See the special 
treatment of Santa Fe Mountains, pages 104-05 [Large Fea- 
tures:?]. 

(4) Eng. Mora Mountains. (<Span.). = Span. (5). 

(5) Span. Sierra Mora 'mulberry range of mountains'; Iforais 
applied also to blackberries, in the Span, of the Southwest. The 
mountains are evidently so named from Mora town [Unmapped], 
Mora grant, etc. 

'Santa Fe sheet of the U. S. Geological Survey, 1894. 






PLACE-NAMES 351 



[22:65] (1) Eng. Toro Creek. (-.Span.). Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Kio del Tun, - hull river'. Eng. (1). "Rio El 
Toro". 1 

This creek joins Yao Crock [22:ii»'>], forming a creek tributary 
to Pecos River [22:62]. 
[22:66] (1) Eng. Vao Creek. (< Span.). Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Bio La Van "hreath river". = Eng. (1). ''Rio la 
Vao". 1 

This creek joins Toro Creek [22:65], forming a creek tributary 
to Pecos River [22:62]. 

Unlocated 

'Ag.at/% ifij'ijj'k' "•'/'"' "■''. 'Ag.atf%nupokwi, Pyrjkewepokwi "lake of 
1 22 :"'!]" PAgat/senupiyhewe, see [22:54]; pohvi 'lake' <p<> 
■ water', hw\ unexplained). 

This is tin- sacred lake mi or near the top of Lake Peak |22:.")4] 
at which summer ceremonies of secret societies are held: see 
under [22 :.">4|. It is probably identical with the Crystal Lakes 
[22 :unlocated] and with the Lagoon on Lake Peak [22:nnlo- 
cated]. See 'Ag.atf$nupitjs [22:54], and Crystal Lake. Lagoon 
on Lake Peak, and Spirit Lake, all under [22 :unlocated], 

Arnold Ranch. This is a ranch in Pecos River Valley [22:62] above 
Valley Ranch |29:unlocated]. 

Aztec Mineral Springs. 

Four mi!.- east ot Santa Fe, in the foothills of the Sangrede Cristo range 
[Santa Fe Mountains], and a few hundred yards from the Scenic Bighway, 
are tin- Aztec mineral springs . . . of late they have been abandoned, owing 
t.i the removal of th< ir ow ner to the city of Mi 

Then- are two "scenic highwaj b" leading toward the east from 
Santa Fe. The exact location of the Bprings ha- not been deter- 
mined by the writer. 
Span. Cangilon "horn". This is said bj San Juan Indian- to In- the 

Span, name of 8( hill- far u]) the arroyo [9:37]. 

The!,- i- no Mexican settlement at the place, it i- Baid. A 

wagon road pa through the hill-. 

"( 'l'\ -tal Lake-'". 

\ t'.-A miles beyond the white sign which point- t,, Spirit Lake [22: unlo- 
cated |, tii,- trail emerges from the trees int.. an open glade. On the right i* 

the -a. snowcapped thi 
part ,,f the y,-ar, on the left, bul a little lowi 'eak 122:.",!]. a crater 

long burnt out, which now hold >l Lakes, the cources of the Santa 

I ■ [22*6] an- 1 Nan, I [29 II 

"Crystal Lake-."' appear to be identical with tin- Lagoon of 
Lake Peak [22:unlocated] and 'AQat/vnuPiykewePofovi [22: 
unlocated], although the description i- not definite enough to 

■ Handbook of] 



352 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. Ann. 29 

make this identification certain. See 'Ag.atf%7iupiy/ [22:54], 

and 'Agat/sgnupiyh "'< pokwi "Lagoon on Lake Peak' 'Spirit Lake', 

all under [22 :unlocated]. 
Elk Mountain. This is shown as a mountain east of Pecos River 

[22 it!:.']. 1 
Span. Kio de los Frijoles, Rito de los Frijoles "bean crock 1 , given by 

Nambe Indians as the name of a creek somewhere by the Rio 

Chiquito [22:22]. 
Grass Mountain. This is a mountain in the territory included in 

this sheet. 

There is a trip to Grass Mountain, partly over good roads an<l partly over 
trails, bntalways in the midst of a splendid country. The top of Grass Moun- 
tains is a plateau remarkably level for this country, covered with velvety grass, 
and gay with wild-flowers. 2 

This is evidently distinct from Baldy Peak [22:53], which is 
mentioned as distinct from Grass Mountain on the same page of 
the pamphlet. 
Nambe" Jo,nn\hv!u "willow arroyo' {j<&yf 'willow'; n\ Nambe and San 
Juan form sometimes used instead of 'iys, locative and adjective- 
. forming post fix; Ini'u ' large groove ' 'arroyo'). 

This is a large arroyo north or east of Top'ujf [25:1-4]. See 
,](\iiiiUiii'o))\rU,-,ji [22 :u id oca ted], below. 
Nambe J&nnihv? Qywilceji ' willow arroyo pueblo ruin' (J$nnihu , u, see 
under [22:unlocated], above; ' ' qrjwilceji 'pueblo ruin' <'o??wi 
'pueblo'. Iceji 'old' postpound). 

This is a pueblo ruin on the Jq,nn\hv!u; see under [22 runlocated], 
above. 
Nambe KaMkwafo of obscure etymology (kcui, unexplained, sounds 
like the latter part of \>k<t.i.! 'coldness' 'cold'; kwaje 'height'). 
This is the name of a height east of Nambe. 
Nambe Katepokwi 'leaf dwelling-place lake' (ha 'leaf; t< 'dwelling- 
place'; pokwi 'lake' <po 'water', kwi unexplained). 

This is a small lake somewhere in the mountains east of Nambe\ 
(1) Nambe Kepo ' hear water' (ke 'bear'; po 'water'). Cf. Span. (2). 
(2) Span. Rito Oso, Rio Oso "hear creek' "hear river'. Cf. 
Tewa ( 1 ). 

This is the name of a creek somewhere near the headwaters of 
[22:28]. 
Nambe Kojajepo 'water of an unidentified species of plant' (Jcojaje a 
small yellow-flowered plant which the Mexicans call verba de la 
vibora ' rattlesnake weed'; po 'water' 'creek "). 
This is the name of a creek near ( 'himavo. 
Nambe Kwstip agi 'imply f 'flat oak-grown mountain' (kw% l oak , ;p , ag.i 
'flatness' 'flat', referring to large flat surfaces; 'iyf locative and 

'TheValle: Ranch op. cit. (see map therein). 'Ibid. 



BABBINOTON] I'l U I NAMES 353 

adjective forming postfix: i'ijj /' 'mountain'). The word piys 
is sometimes omitted. 

This mountain is Bomewhere near the upper course of the Kio 
Chiquito [33:22]. 

Nam!"' K"s:i';> ir.ij^, ' place of the rock bowl '(*w 'stone 5 "rock"; s&'&we 
■ bow 1': ij- -il.iw m at ' "o\ er at '). 
This i- a dell in the mountains cast of \amlx'. 

Lag "ii Lake Peak. "The laguneon Lake Peak is of course lower 

than the summit." ' " Prayer-plumes air found on the Sierra do 
San Mateo (Mount Taylor) [39:115], as well a- at the la<_uinc on 
Lake Peak [22:."T[. near Santa I'.'."'-' This lake is probably iden- 
tical with " Ail"' l':rn"[>ij//.< "•< jn>l:ir[ | 22:unloeated ] and Crystal 

Lake-- [33:unlocated]. See 'Agatf&wuPiys [33:54], and Aga 

f f't "" i'i'jk- "■- /""• "'' 'Crystal Lakes' 'Spirit Lakes', all under [22: 

unlocated]. 
Nambe" .Mountain-. Bandolier mentions "the high mountains of 

Namb6" a and "Sierrade Nambe." 4 Heevidently refer- to the 

-ec tioD of the Santa Fe Range near Nambe\ 
Naiid"' NQmpibu'u 'red earth corner" (n4yy 'earth'; pi 'redness 

'red' - , 6"'" 'large low roundish place'). 
This is a locality in the mountains easl of Nambe*. 
Naiid"' .\'r;rijl;/i,, ' sharp rock-pine water' (yw&TJS 'rock-pine' 

'Pinusscopulorum'; /■■ 'sharpness' 'sharp'; /"/'water' 'creek'). 

The name refers to sharp pine needles. 

'I'hi- is given by the old cacique of Nambe' as the Nambe' name 
for the creek which the Mexican- call Ki<> Panchuelo. It is 
doubtful, however, whether this information is correct. Thecreek 
is said to be somewhere in the mountains northeast of [25:1 . 
to be tributary to Santa Cruz Creek [22:17|. For discussion of 
this perplexing matter see |25:1.">|. 
( 1 ) N:ini i ■■'- ' Ok ■/;".' /. \77 'canyon of the dwelling-place <>f an uniden- 
tified species of medicinal weed called by the Mexicans contra 
yerba' ( , Ok&tjw% ' contra yerba'; te 'dwelling-place'; to&i 'can 
yon'). 

(2) Span. El RitO ' the creek '. 

This place i- in the mountains northeasl of Nambe. 
(1) San Juan ' ","" i/'jf, ' 0m% ij'j- 'impopi, said to mean 'crooked chin ' 
'crooked chin springs' ('o 'chin'; m% ygt 'crookedness' 'crooked'; 

locative and adjective forming p"-tti\: popi 'spring' 
• water', pi 'to issue'). 
(2) Span. Los Ojitos 'the little springs'. 
This i- a locality on the lower course of |22:lo[ bul nol found 

On -licet (9|. 

• Ibid 

8 



354 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

Nambe Pa4abu'u 'corner where the fish was desired' (pa 'fish'; d,d?a 

'to wish' 'to want' 'to desire'; bu'u, "large low roundish place'). 

For the name cf. San Ildefonso Judawi'i [17:unlocated]. The 

circumstances under which the name was originally applied were 

not known to the informant. 
The place is said to be a large dell in the mountains near the 

upper course of the Mah/apowe [22:39]. 
Span. Rio Panchuelo. See tywgykepo under [22: unloca ted], above, 

and Tophnj):r)j(j,_'iijj'Iiii'n [25:15]. 
Pecos Baldy. This is a high peak somewhere in the mountains east 

of Nambe. 

A three days' jaunt [from Valley Ranch] will take you to the headwaters 
of the Pecos [22:62] — Pecos Baldy, 13,000 feet above the sea, and the Truchas 
Peaks [22:13], towering still higher. 1 

Nambe "Po-nyi Num-bu." 2 

Higher up [than Santa Cruz [15:19] ] toward Chimayo [22:18], there are 
said to be well defined ruins on the mountain sides, the names of two of which 
are Po-nyi Num-bu and Yam P'ham-ba. 2 

For " Yam P'ham-ba " see [29:45]. The writer's Nambe inform- 
ants had never heard this name Po-nyi Num-bu and were sur- 
prised to hear that there is a pueblo ruin by this name. They 
thought the name may be a mistake for l't>n fitwijwxbiCu [22:"J1], 
but the} 7 knew of no ruin at the latter place. It is not clear from 
Bandelier's text from which Tewa village he obtained the name. 
Cf. Nambe" Sentineua'oywikeji under [22: unlocated], below. 
Nambe Puti'a'a 'swollen buttocks slope' (j>u 'region about the anus 
"buttocks'; ti 'swollenness 5 'swollen'; 'a'a 'steep slope"). 

This place is somewhere near the upper course of Nambe Creek 
[22:37]. Cf. Nambe Puti'apo [22:unlocated], below. There are 
springs at the place, it is said. 
Nambe Puti'apo "swollen buttocks slope water", referring to Puti'a'a, 
above; po "water' "creek'. 

This is a creek which takes its name from Puti'a'a (see above), 
but under what name is not known to the writer. 
Pi l : o-nd iwe 'place where the red paint is dug' {pi " redness' ' red'; 
I'oijf 'to dig'; 'iwe locative). 

This is a deposit of bright red paint situated about 2 miles east 
of Santa Fe, the informants think north of Santa Fe Creek [22:55] 
in high land a few hundred yards from that creek. This paint 
was used for body painting. It is said that Jicarilla Apache still 
go to the deposit to get this paint and sometimes sell it to the 
Tewa. See pi (under Minerals). 

i The Valley Ranch, op. cit 

2 Bandelier, Fimil Report, pt. II, p. S3, 1892. 



HABRINGTON ] 



ri u i N \mi;s 355 



(1) Eng. Rincon. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Rincon 'the corner'. Eng. (1). 
This is a mountain about 10 miles northwest of Pecos Pueblo 
ruin [29:33] and due east of Santa Fe. 

Rincon, upon whose peak the cross [of the Penit< ntes] is set, is only a 
day's ride from theValley Ranch [29:unlocated], and the trip is worth 
making for the view, as well as to get an idea of the terrible climb it must be 
for the Buffering an 1 blm Penitentes, w bo choose always the steepest, ro 

way. 1 

(1) Eng. Rio Chiquito settlement. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 
Span. Rio ( Ihiquito 'little river', see [22:22]. 
This is a small Mexican town on the RioChiquito near ( Ihimayo 
|22:Is], Some Chimayo blankets are woven there, it is said. Cf. 
[22:22]. 

Span. " Sierra de Santa Barbara" 2 'the mountains of Saint Barbara', 
the name referring perhaps to the part of the Santa Fe Mountains 
oear Santa Barbara settlement |8:'.»!»|. 

{Santuario Mountains. Bandelier mentions "the Santuario".* Hew 
ett, perhaps following Bandelier, uses the expression "Sur le 

Santuario.""' Whether there are untains by this name lias not 

1 ><•. ti Ira mi 'i I; I lew ett understands thai there are. No map known 
to the writer shows any place named Santuario other than Santu- 
ario settlement |22:^ii]. 

s "i' , 'i'l'jj' of obscure etymology {sa apparently tin 1 same as sa "t" 
i,iis,itij. -it makes :l rushing sound', -aid of water <«4 'it', sa 'to 
make- a rushing sound', ty "to say": £>a apparently 'to crack 5 
'state of being cracked' 'cracked'; j'iju 'mountain"). The rerb 
/>,/ i- used "i' unfolding leaves, bul the word. can doI be explained 
a- referring to unfolding tobacco leaves because sa "t< bacco' has 

a different int ition. Nor can it mean 'cracked excrement' for 

■• scremenl ' has -till a different intonation. 
The mountain is somewhere neat- the pass [22:23], to which il 
appears to give the name. The mountain is well known to the 
Tewa and is said to be one of the highest of the range. One of 
the boys of San [Idefonso Pueblo i- named Saf>a\ 

Namhe S4yw%p'vkwaji ' height of the sandstone and the rabbitbrush' 
< ' sandstone'; j>' y l rabbitbrush ' 'Chrysothamnusbigelovii'; 
/ waji ' height ' |. 

This mountain i- between 'Ag.atf&n'uPiTff |22:.M| and 
/'••/./■./ inj>[i)j' [22:57]. 

■ tiIjiIii- rill UlOltl 

l I 

' Final I 

1908. 



356 ETHNOGEOGBAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. ann. 29 

Narube Sentm&ia'oy'wikeji of obscure etymology (sqntin&ia apparently 
<Span. sentinela 'guard' although the writer learned of no such 
Span, place-name; 'oywikejii 'pueblo ruin" <'<)//»■/ 'pueblo,' keji 
'old' postpound). A Nambe informant gave this as the name of 
a pueblo ruin, which he located a short distance north of [22:21]. 

(1) Eng. Spirit Lake. (<Span.). =Span. (2). "Spirit Lake." 1 
(l'I Span. Laguna del Espiritu Santo "Holy Ghost lake.' 
= Eng. (1). "'Espiritu Santo Lake." 2 

The trail to Spirit Lake follows a charming little stream ten miles through 
the woods, up an appropriate canon, to where the little lake lies hidden away 
in the woods, surrounded by high rock walls, some 11,000 feet ahove sea level. 
A few miles beyond the white Bign which points to Spirit Lake, the trail 
emerges from the trees into an open glade. On the right is Santa Fe Baldy 
[22:53], 12,623 feet ahove the sea, snowcapped the greater part of the year; 
on the left, but a little lower, is Lake Peak [22:54], a crater long burnt out, 
which now holds the Crystal Lakes, the sources of the Santa Fe [22:55] 
and Nambee [22:37] Rivers. Far below, between the peaks, lies the Rio 
Grande Valley, through which the Rio Grande River is traceable to its very 
source by its fringe of tree-. 1 

The map given in the pamphlet cited shows Spirit Lake about a mile and 
a half southeast of the summit of Baldy Peak [22:53]. The data available 
do not warrant identifying "Spirit Lake" with any of the Tewa lake names 
of this region. Illustrations of this beautiful little lake have been published. 

See 'Ag.atf^nupiyy [22:54] and 'Ag.atf%nup\r)kewepokwi 
'Crystal Lakes' 'Lagoon on Lake Peak", all under [22: unlocated]. 
''Stewart Lake." 1 

This lake is mentioned in connection with Spirit Lake [22: 
unlocated], and is probably situated in the mountains east of 
Nambe. 
Nambe TabUi 'Qywikeji 'pueblo ruin of the little pile of grass' (ta 
'grass'; bui "small roundish pile'; 'nywikej' 'pueblo ruin' <oijtri 
'pueblo'. Iceji 'old' postpound). 

This is said to be a pueblo ruin in the hills southeast of Nambe. 

T'amujog.e, T' amujogepohwi "place of the great dawn' 'lake of the 

place of the great dawn' (fanm 'dawn' <£a 'day', mu 'heat 

lightning' "northern lights'; jo augmentative; g.e 'down at' 

'over at'; pokwi "lake" <po 'water', hw\ unexplained). 

This place and lake are most sacred to the Tewa. being men- 
tioned in songs connected with cachina worship. Most of the 
informants said that they had heard the name of the lake and 
place, but do not know the location. Several, including one very 

i The Valley Ranch, up. cit. 

' Land of Sunshine, a Handbook oi Resources of New Mexico, p. 22. 1006. 

s Ibid., opp. p. 23; also in the pamphlet on the Valley Ranch, op. cit. 



MAP 23 
NAMBE REGION 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 




TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT MAP 23 




MAP 23 
NAMBE REGION 



HARRINGTON ) 



H UK NAMES 357 



trustworthy San Udefonso informant, place 'Pamvjog.i somewhere 
in the mountains east of Namb6, as indeed the name might sug 
gesl the Location to be. The informant referred to insists thai it 
i- a real place, not mythical, 

Nambe" Tttbag.ebu'v 'bov orner' (Tubag.e, see TubaQe'Q'ywikeji 

[22:unlocated], below; bu'u 'large Iom roundish place'). 

This i- a corner in the hills near the upper course <>!' Mahy,\ 
[22:39]; see fubag^qipvihgi [22:unlocated], below. 

N'iuhIk' / \ .■//./'/ 'bowed back pueblo ruin' (fit 'back'; bag.< 

state of being 'bowed' 'benl as under a load'; '<<//»'//,/7 'pueblo 
ruin' < '"//"■/ 'pueblo', keji "old" postpound). 

This is a pueblo ruin at Tubag.' b"'», a dell in the hills some- 
where near the upper course of Mahyfowt |23:4u'|. Sec '/',ib,nj. 
bi/'u [22:unlocated], above. 

Namiie Tf""fji'njr. Tfu'jokewe, T/u'jo, Tfv.'jo'i of obscure etymol- 
ogy [tfn'f said by the old Indian wlio gave the name to refer to 
-oine kind of black material: this is all hi' would explain, and no 
other informant of whom inquiry was made was able to ex- 
plain it at all: puj • /• 'mountain'; kewt "peak": '< diminutive). 
This is a mountain north of l'.aldv Peak [22:53] and BOUth of 
A j <tfa [22:31]. It is a high mountain, it is said, hut not SO high 
a- Baldy Peak. 

San Juan, San Udefonso, and Nambe ir//V„, y ,/',7, ,7 'pueblo ruin of 
the great gap,' referringto |22:2'.»] ( Wijo, see (22:l".»|: 'o//</7/,;/ 
'pueblo ruin' < 'Qywi 'pueblo.' heji "old' postpound). 

This pueblo plaj - an important role h > \ ersion of the Tewa 

migration legend. It was built, bo it is related, bj the united 
Summer and Winter people after the} had wandered separated 
for generations. It was hen- that two-cacique government was 
first instituted. So far as the writer is aware, this ruin ha- not 
hitherto been mentioned in print. It ha- not been possible to 

learn of it- location more definitely than that it i- somewhere in 

or near tin- great gap [22:29]. It i- -aid that the ruin i- not very 
large. See [22:29]. 
Nameless mineral spring. It i- -aid that Mi-. Fritz Midler, of Santa 
ETe, owns a mineral spring situated in the hill- south of Nambe' 
and easl of Tesuque. The water i- cold. Some of ii ha- be< n 
bottled and -old iii Santa IV. 

| 23 | N Willi'. -IIKKT 

This -heei (map 23) -how- -nine of the country around Nambe' 
Pueblo, especially to the BOuth, The region i- claimed by the 



358 Kill MICROGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [ETH. ASS. 29 

Nambe Indians and nearly all the place-names were obtained from 
them and are in the Nambe* dialect. 

[23:1] Nambe" Creek, see [19:31. 

[23:2] Nambe 'Okupz ygekohu'u 'arroyo liehind the hills', referring to 
[23:.'i| (' Okupgyge, see [23:31; kohv?u 'arroyo with barrancas' 
< Jcq 'barranca,' hu'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

The Mexican water-mill [23:4] is a short distance east of the 
mouth of this arroyo. 

[23::;| Nambe 'Oku, 'Okuhvaje 'the hills' 'the hill heights' Coku 
• hill': kwaje " height'). This name refers definitely to the heights 
indicated, southwest of Nambe Pueblo and between the latter and 
tin' arroyo [23:2]. The name refers also vaguely to all the hills 
south of Nambe* or even to hills anywhere. The region beyond 
1 23:-';] or beyond the hills in general is called 'okupspyfi ov'oku- 
kwajepgyge (p%yg< 'beyond'). An old trail leads from Nambe 
Pueblo across [23:3] to [23:49]. 

[23:4] Nambe /'<<"<<, Nimbe , t' i po > o, N<imbe > £' i po , d'iwe 'the water-mill' 
•the water-mill by Nambe' 'place of the water-mill by Nambe' 
(po "water"; '« 'nictate'; Nq,mb£e, see [23:5]; Y' locative and 
adjective-forming postiix; 'iwt locative). 

This Mexican water-mill is situated on the south side of Nambe* 
Creek [23:1 ] and a short distance east of the mouth of the arroyo 
[23:2]. Indians and Mexicans living about Nambe have much 
wheat and maize ground at this mill. 

|23:."i] (1) Nambe' oywi, N&mbJe ' pueblo of the roundish earth ' 'the 
roundish earth', referring probably to a mound of earth (Nqmbe'e, 
see [25:30]; oijwi -pueblo'). This name was originally given 
to the pueblo ruin [25:30] which is now distinguished as 
Nq.mbe'oywikeji or Nimbekeji (Tceji 'old' pestpound); for the 
etymology of the name see [25:30]. All of the forms of the 
name quoted below are with exception of one of the Oraibi names 
and one of the Span, names either identical or akin. "San 
Francisco Nambe." 1 '-Nambe."- "Nambe." 3 '"Vampe." 4 
"Naniba." 5 "NamiTe." 6 "NampeV" "Mambo." 8 "Mambe."' 

i Vetancurt (ca. 1693) in Tmitro Mex.. in. p. 317, 1871. 
\i- ca. 1715 quoted by Bandelier in Arch. Tnst. Papers, v,p. 193 1890 

I' Anville, map Am&ique Septentrionale, 1746. 
< Pike, Exped., 3d map. 1810. 

Bent (1849) in Cal. Mess, and Corres., p 211, 1850. 
s Simpson. Report to See. War, 2d map, 1850 
■ 1 1, ,]n.ii. i li . Deserts North Amer., n, p. 63 i860. 
8 Wan] ill lud. Aff. Rep. for lsti-1. p. 191, L86 >. 
'■> Ibid, for 1867, p. 212, 1868. 



lARBISr.TON] PLAC1 NAMES 359 

•■ San Francisco de Nambe." ' " Nambi." : ' " Na-imbe," : gh en as 
Tewa Dame. " Na-im-be," * given as Tewa name. "NamW'or 
"Nambe."' Bandolier uses these forms promiscuously through- 
oni his Final Report. "Numi;"' this is given as the HanoTewa 
form; it is evidently merely a poor spelling <>t' Nftmbt '■ ; cf. 
Fewkes' spelling of the Eano form given below. "Na i mbi;'" 
given as the Tewa form. <>n bearing a pronunciation of this 
spelling a Tewa Indian Baid, " Mr. Bandelier didn't hit it as nearly 
as tli" old Mexicans did." The name has t\\". nol three syllables. 
"Na i-mbi" sounds like Tewa ntgymbi 'our' (n4 \:'iji> '-' - plural 
sign; bi possessive). "Nambe;" 8 given as the HanoTewa form; 
cf. Stephen'- spelling of the Hand Tewa form, given above. 
•■ Na-im-bai. Nambe (from Nam b6-6,the native name, proba- 
bly referring to a round liill <>r a round valley)." '" " Nambee." " 

(2) Picuris "NammSlSna 'little mound of earth."*'-' This i- 
important as a corroboration of the meaning of the Tewa name. 
With the syllable -mbl cf. Tewa /',■', and Isleta -bur in the 
[sleta form quoted below. 

[sleta "Namburuap", u given as the Isleta form. This is 
undoubtedly the old [sleta name. With the syllable bur cf. 
Tewa br', . Picuris -mol . 

id [sleta sing. "Nambe-huide", plu. "Nambeliun"; 1 * given as 
[sleta name for the Nambe people. The firsl pari of the name is 
merely a Span, loanword. 

(5) Jemez N&mbJe. The Nambe' people are called N&mbde- 
Qffdf (t.s,y,i j' 'people'). 

Cochiti Ndmbq ',/ . This is the old name The people are 
called .\ 'people'). Cf. especially Acoma (8). 

(7) Cochiti Nambe'. This is merely a Span, loanword. 

i-) Acoma "Nom8'6". M Cf. especially Cochiti (6). 

(9) Oraibi Bopi Tohvive'Stewa 'Tewa near the mountains' 

"-' •mountain' •mountain range'; >■■'■ 'at' •near": tSwa 

<Tewa Tewh 'Tewa'). This name is applied by the Hopi to the 

the Nambe and TeSUque Teua. 

[868. 

• Coopei 

' Bandelier, Final Report, pt I, p. 124 

• [bid . i 
1 [bid., i 

: Bandelier op 

I ■ 
In Handbook ti : 1910. 

» The Vallej Bancb, ••! 

■■ ib. in Boi lm< r I 'in, 



360 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [ktii. ass. 29 

(10) Oraibi Hopi Nambe. This is merely a Span, loanword. 

(11) Eng. Nambe" PueMo, Nambe Pueblo, Nambe, Nambe. 
(<Span.). 

(12) Span. Nambe. (<Tewa JV&mbe'e). 

(13) Span. "San Francisco Nambe". 1 '"San Francisco". 2 "St. 
Francis". 3 '"Sun Francisco de Nambe". 4 This saint-name is no 
longer in use, although it is well known to the Indians that St. 
Francis is the patron saint of the pueblo. 

Nambe is the second village known by the name IfQmbde. The 
first village called IF&rnbe'i is the pueblo ruin [25:30], which ac- 
cording to Mr. A. V. Kidder, is a very ancient pueblo. Cf. Nambe" 
settlement under [23:unlocated]. 

Of the origin of the Indians now inhabiting Nambe Pueblo, 
Bandelier says: "The people of Nambe are a compound of origi- 
nal Tehuas [Tewa]. of Navajos, and of Jicarilla Apaches". 5 The 
writer's Nambe informants, who were reliable, stated that they 
had never heard of any appreciable amount of Navaho or Jicarilla 
Apache blood existing in the Nambe body of Indians. They said 
further that there is not a single Athapascan Indian settled at 
Nambe at present, but that one of the former caciques of the 
pueblo was of Navaho extraction. Bandelier mentions as former 
pueblos of the Nambe Indians: "T'o B'hi-pang-ge" (a name which 
means merely 'beyond the mountain' [25:14] and could be applied 
to any or all of the pueblo ruins [25:18], [25:23], and [25:30] and 
perhaps to other pueblos; see introduction to sheet [23]); '"Ke 
gua-yo" [22:40]; "A-ga Uo-no" [22:41]; and "Ka-a-yu" [22:42]." 

Hewett 7 mentions as former pueblos of the Nambe these same 
four village names given by Bandelier, and adds S<?psewe [4:8]: 

Plus loin, ce sont les ruines de Keguaya [22:40], a quelques rnilles a Test de 
Nambe et de Tobipange [see above], a 8 milles au nord-est; on suppose que ce 
sont celles des villages historiques des Nambe. Les ruines d' Agauono [22:41] 
et de Kaayu [22:42] sur le Santuario, a quelques milles plus loin au nord-est, 
indiquent probablement l'ancienne residence de certains clans des Nambe, et 
les traditions rattachent cette tribu a celle des Sepawi sur l'oued El Rito, dans 
la vallce du Chama. 

1 Vetancurt (m. 1693) in Teatro Mex., in, p. 317. 1871. 

- Villa-Senor, Theatre Amer., n, p. 425, 174S. 

'Shea, Cath. Miss., i> 80 18 - 

* Ward in /ml. Aff. Rep. fur 1S67. p. 213, 1868. 

s Bandelier, Final Report, pt. i, p. 261, 1890. 

Miii. I . pt. ii. p. 84. 1892. Mr. Hodge informs the writer thnt he made special inquiry regarding 
these names while ut Nambe in 1895 and was informed that "T'o B'hi-pang-ge" is a ruin in the Mora 
Mountains about 5 miles east of Nambe; "Ke-gua-yo" is about 3 miles southeast of NamM, and 
• \ :i i o-no" (pronounced Agawano by the Namb6 informant) about 4 miles to the eastward, in 
the Mora Mountains. The exact loealtiy of "Ka-a-yu" could not be given, although the name was 
known to the Indians. A ruin called Kekwaii is situated near Agiwano, and another, known as 
Kopiwari, lies about 5 miles north of the present Nambe. 

'Communautes, p. 33, 1908. 



PLACE-NAMES 361 



Jeancon i w rites: 



I have beard Borne stories that the people of Xambe lived in Pesede-ninge 
[5::;?] at one time, but have not been able to coi roboiate them a- I have aot 
had the time. 

Nambe" Indians informed the writer thai the ruins [22:1"]. 
[22:41], [22:42], [2S:36], [25:8], [26:18], [25:23], and [25:80] 
were built and inhabited \>y their ancestors al various times in 
the past. The unlocated WijcPoywikeyi [22:unlocated] was in- 
habited by their ancestors with the ancestors of all the Tewa 
Indians of other villages. The old Winter cacique of Nambe* 
knew the name and location of S:rp;rn\ |4:>] and -aid the Nambe 1 
or Tewa people used to live at thai pueblo, but the latter infor- 
mation was gained only as an answer to a leading question. A 
number of Tewa knew of Sa /-'! "•■'■ ruin, bul nol one seemed to 
know definitely that Nambe people used to live there. Oppor- 
tunity lias otl'ered to a-k only one San Ildefonso and one Santa 
Clara Indian about the tradition thai the ancestors of the Nambe" 
Indian- formerly inhabited P\ 86A '<njir[/,; }i |5:-')7|. The}' had 

nol beard of such a tradition. It appears thai Mr. Jeanc b- 

tained his information al Santa Clara Pueblo. 

There is al present only one estufa (kiva) at Nambe", and this is 
a Winter estufa. The only cacique is a Winter cacique. This 
estufa i- of the round above-ground type, like the south estufa of 
San Ildefonso. It contains some faces of Icosi crudely painted on 
the pillar- of it- interior. The estufa is in the Borneo bal irregular 
courtyard of the village aboul 200 feel easl of the Government 
schoolhouse. The old cacique says thai be has been told by 

Indian- now dead that the high land where the church [28:10] 

-tand- was covered in earlier times with houses of the pueblo. 
See [26:30], [23:10], [28:11], [28:12], [28:6], [23:7], [23:8], [28:9]. 

[23:'d Nambe" Tsehu'u 'eagle arroyo' (fe< 'eagle' of any species; Aw'« 
• large groo\ e J 'ari'oyo'). The whole arroyo is 'ailed thus. ('(. 
the name- [24:15], [24:6], [24:7], and [24:8]. The part of this 
arroj o immediately wesl of Nambe' Pueblo i- called by the Nambe 1 
Indian- ' we-t arroyo'. the part immediately north <>t' Nambe* 
Pueblo -north arroyo'; see [28:7], [28:8]. 

[23:7 1 Nambe' Ts^mpijivQfhvUu "wesl arroyo' c rest' 

'to set', piji 'toward'; '[n ' locative and adjective-form- 
ing postfix; /"/■-/ 'large groove' 'arroyo'). The pari of the 
arroyo [28:6] immediatelj wesl of Nambe" Pueblo is called thus. 
SeeJ23:.;|. [28:8]. Cf. [28:12]. 



■ KxpkmtkmilnClumi Hit Apr.,p IM 



362 ET1IN0GE0GRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth.ann.29 

[23:s] Nambe Pimpije'iyj'hu'u 'north arroyo' (Pimpije 'north' 
<plVf 'mountain' 'up country', pije 'toward'; , \rjj' locative 
and adjective-forming postfix; hu'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 
The part of the arroyo [23:6] immediately north of Nambe 
Pueblo is called thus. See [23:6], [23:7]. Cf. [23:12]. 

[23:'.t] Nambe" 4£po, , 4?pog.e 'the race-track' 'place down at the race- 
track' ('as 'to run'; po 'track' 'trail' 'road": w 'down at' 
'over at'). 

This track for ceremonial foot-racing is now seldom used. It 
extends several hundred feet in an east- west dh-ection on the level 
land north of the part of the Tsehu'u [23 : 6] called Pimpije'iyj'- 
hu'u [23 : 8] and due north of Nambe Pueblo. This is the only 
race-track which at present exists at Nambe, so far as could be 
learned. 

[23:10] Nambe JA'.vV/,'. Nizmbe'iin.misatt 'the church' 'Nambe church' 
(misate 'church' < mish < Span, misa ' Roman Catholic mass'. /,• 
'dwelling-place' 'house'; Ifymbe'e, see [23:5]; , \yj' locative and 
adjective-forming postfix). 

[23:11] Nambe NxCu, N4mbenu'u 'below' 'below the roundish earth' 
referring to [23:5] (nu'u 'below'; N&mbJe, see [23:5]). This 
name is applied to a strip of low land about a hundred feet wide 
extending along Nambe" Creek [23:1] at Nambe Pueblo. It is 
applied especially to the part of this low land due south of Nambe 
estufa (see [23:5]) and just west of the gulch [23:12]. 

There is a spring at this place which is thought to contain better 
water than that obtained from the creek or from the irrigation 
ditches. 

[23:12] Nambe T'gmpije'iykQ.hu'u 'eastern arroyo' tt'q"<]"'i<' 'east' 
<t'qi]f 'sun', pije 'toward'; 'ijjf locative and adjective-forming 
posttix; J.qlni'u 'arroyo with barrancas' < kq 'barranca'. Im'u 
'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

This is a small gulch just east of Nambe Pueblo. Cf. |23:7] 
and [23:8]. 

[23:13] Nambe ' 0\ piyf of obscure etymology (Ve unexplained, possi- 
bly meaning- 'little nictate' or 'little scar' but the intonation is 
wrong for either of these interpretations: piyj ' mountain'). 

The two circles on the map indicate the location and extent of 
the hill or hills thus called. 

[23:11] Nambe PoowawiH 'drag water gap' (po 'water'; qwa 'to 
drag'; wil 'gap'). Why the gap is thus called was not under- 
stood by the informants. A San Ildefonso Indian said that it 
refers perhaps to the sluggish manner in which water tlows through 
the sand. 

The main wagon road connecting Nambe with Santa Fe passes 
through this gap. 



BABBIHGXON] PLACE N \ 363 

[23:l."iJ Nambe" P*ciboJ4kwaj<l, P*aboJ<i 'height of the roundish hill of 
the yucca' 'roundish hill of the yucca' {p'a yucca 'Yucca l>:i<-- 
cata'; boua ' roundish hill' of large size; kwajb 'height'). 

The ends of T'gntehvajt |23:lti| tapering toward the south and 
east arc called thus. See |23:lf>|. 

f23:lii| Nambe 1 Vqniekwaji ' sun dwelling-place height' {t'qyj 'sun'; 
ti 'dwelling-place' 'house'; hvajt 'height') For the name cf. 
T'qnt'akwajl [17:9J. The name is peculiar and poetic. 

This great bare liill has a high rounded point to the northwest. 
To the south and east it runs out into P'abo^ikwaji [23:15]. See 
also [23:17]. 

[23:17] Nambe - Tqntebtfu 'sun dwelling-place corner' (7"<nti--. see 
[23:16]; bu'n 'large tow roundish place'). 

This lai'ge dry corner is west of and sheltered by |23:l»'>|. from 
which it take> its name. 

[23 : 1 s | Nambe - Kitajita'a ' gentle slope where the prairie-doe- move 
about' (/''•'". said to be an old form equivalent to Jci 'prairie- 
dog', just as one hears in modern Tewa both /*■ and p ( ta applied 
to what is apparently but one species of rodents, resembling kan- 
garoo rats; ji 'to move about, at, or in a place'; ta'a 'gentle slope'). 
Prairie-dogs actually live at the place. The prairie a short dis- 
tance east of Nambe" Pueblo is called thus. Cf. [23:22]. 

[23:19] Nambe" Pibuhu'u, see [24:39]. 

[23:20] Naml.e Tafohu'u, see [24:43]. 

[23:21] Nambe Fawofivs, see [24:44]. 

|23:-Jl'] Nambe' Wbb< 'high plain' (unanalyzable). 

The name refers to a large, level, barren area exceeding a mile 
square. 

[28:23] Nambe - P^nyvgw^ka^oJi'irfj'hu'u 'arroyo by the round hills 

of the snaky i miain mahogany thickets', referring to |23:i'i| 

i /'> i, .■ >■■,■!■:, I,,il„,.ii, see [23:24]; 'iyf locative and adjective-form- 
ing postfix; Im'u 'large groove' "arroyo"). 

This arroyo runs down between the little hills [28:24] and the 
height [23:16]. 

|23:l'(| Namhe l'.i i, mqw^kalioM 'the round bills of the snaky moun- 
tain-maboganj thicket-' (, ike'; jw% "i in tain mahog- 

any' 'Cercocarpua parvifolius'; ka 'denseness' 'dense' 'forest' 
•thicket"; />"/)' 'large roundish pile' 'round hill'). 
These hills give the name to the arroyo [28:23]. 

|23:'_'.">] (I) Namhe ' ' >h'ij>..<r. 'duck creek' (?o%\ •duck"; j„,ir, 'water' 
'creek ' ■ £>o ' water', " . locath e). 

(l'i Tesuque Kutq/n\hvlu "pointed rock arroyo', referring to 
[23::;7] (K'ltii'"-. see |23::;7|: n% a Tesuque form of '< 



364 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [hth. ANN. 29 

and adjective-forming postfix; huht 'large groove' 'arroyo'). It 
is well known at Nambe and Tesuque that the names differ. 

(3) Span. Chupadero Creek 'sucking place creek'. For the 
name cf. [14:87], [22:51], [22:58]. The upper course of this 
arroyo is called by the Nambe' P%po, see [23:34], Name [23:25] 
and name [23:34] begin to be applied about where 1 23 :.'>:;] joins 
the waterway. Whether the Tesuque and Span, names apply like 
the Nambe name to the lower course only or include [23:34] has 
not been determined. On the writer's first visit to Nambe it was 
learned that ' Obipowt is sometimes also called 'Upowe 'awl creek' 
(')/, 'awl' 'punch') but this information is probably incorrect. 
See [23:37], [23:34]. 

[23:26] Nambe' Jq,mp'ag.i'i i, ohi 'hills of the broad. Hat place of the 
willows', referring to [23:27] (Jamp'agi, see [23:27]; T* locative 
and adjective-forming postfix; 'ofat 'hill'). These low hills are 
evidently named from the arroyo [23:27]. 

[23:27] Nambe J&mp* agikohrfv. 'broad. Hat arroyo of the willows' 
(j'lU.f 'willow'; p'ag.i 'largeness and flatness' 'large and flat'; 
Icokifv, 'arroyo with barrancas' <Icq 'barranca', hu'n 'large 
groove' 'arroyo'). 

There appear to be now no willows in this arroyo. 

[23:28] Nambe S&ywgkwag.e •sandstone mesa' (s&r)W% 'sandstone'; 
hvag.( ' mesa' ' height'). It is said that the Nambe people say also 
S(&yw%wag.< ■■; the last two syllables they do not understand, but 
take them to be equivalent to -kwag.e. 

This is a flatfish hill. It gives the name to the arroyo [23:29]. 

[23:2'.»] Nambe ,s'./ '/"'•'' kiniyi '[ij:ili »'", Sd)jwxhvag.< : itjfhu'u 'arroyo of 
sandstone mesa', referring to [23:28] (S$yw%kwag.e, Sqywie.wag.e, 
see [23:2s); 'hj / locative and adjective-forming postfix; hu'u 
'large groove' arroyo 1 ). 

[23:30] Nambe fsewaM 'great yellow gap' (tse 'yellowness' -yellow'; 
ivadi 'widegap'). Cf. fs%wau,i [15 :23]. A yellowish hill appears 
to be called bv this name. The name gives rise to that of [23:31]. 

[23:31] Nambe, Tsewcuiihu^u 'great yellow gap arroyo', referring to 
[23:30] Cfsewcutd, see [23:30]; hu'u ' large groove' arroyo'). 

[23:32] Nambe , lnfsp,tvbee 'round smoke house' ('/iifpe. 'smoke'; te 
'dwelling-place' 'house'; be'e ' roundishness' 'roundness like a 
ball'). Why the name is given was not known to the writer's 
informants. 

|23:33] Nambe Tentywxii)qwoQ.e 'flute talk delta' (feij p 'hollow tube' 
'flute'; ty,w% said to mean 'to talk' 'to whistle', the ordinary 
word meaning 'to talk' being simply^.; 'i^ylocative and adjective- 
forming postfix; qwoge ' delta' ' down where it cuts through ' < qwo 
'to cut through', g.e 'down at' 'over at'). Why the name is 
given was not known to the informants. 



R&BUHQTOH] PLACE-NAMES 365 

[23:34] NmiuIm' /'■,/„,, see [22 - , 

[23:8.">] Nuiiilx'' Purjw&kwaje 'buttocks thorn height' (jnt 'region 
about the ami.-' 'buttocks'; yw% 'thorn'; faoajt 'height'). 

This is quite a high mesa; its sides though steep are nol cliffs. 
Why the name is given was nol known to the informants. Cf. 
[23:36], [23:38]. 
[23: 3«> ] Namhe Puyw&kwaje'oTjrwikeyi 'buttocks thorn height pueblo 
ruin' (Puywegfaoaj^ see [23:35]; 'Qrywikepi 'pueblo Yuin' > 
■ pueblo', Tceji 'old' posl pound). 

This is an ancient adobe pueblo ruin, said to have been inhab- 
ited by some of the ancestors of the Namhe people. 
[28:37] Namhe Kutqfiiive, KvtqdiP 'place of the painted rock' 'the 
painted rock' [fat "rock" 'stone'; /</'" 'a painting'; 'iw< locative; 
'-"' locative and adjective-forming postpound). 

This i- a large isolated rock, on the west face of which faint 
Indian pictographs as well a- partially obliterated Mexican letters 
are -til! to be seen. This rock gives the waterway [23:25] its 
Tesuque name. 
[23:-".^] Namhe Puyw&kwaj&inf u'lt 'projecting point of Imttocks 
n height', referring to [23:35] {Pwyw%7cwajl, see [23:35]; 
'ivy locative and adjective-forming postfix; /'»'» 'horizontally 
projecting corner or point '). 
[23::!'.'J Namhe Tajuibabuhu'u ' arroyo of dry field corner', referring 
to [23:40] (fanafiabu'u, see [28:40]; hu'u 'large groove' 
'arroyo'). 
[23: lo) Namhe Tainibabu'u "dry Held corner' (ia 'dryness' 'dry'; 
' 'cultivable field';' bu'it 'large low roundish place'). 
It is said thai this arid corner was cultivated long, Ion./ ago. 
The place gives the name to the gulch [23:39]. 
[23: (1 1 Nam he ' Obagatcta 'gentle slope of an unidentified species of 
weed called 'ot a kind of weed; /./',/ 'gentle slope'). 

There were none of tixe'oiaja weeds on the -lope when the 
writer visited it. 

[23:l'_'| Namhe /'',/-'<//»//,</.'' 'place of the half hurnl wood' (/.', 

•wool' 'timber' 'log'; p'a 'to burn' 'state of being burnt' 
'burnt'; /"'</./' 'half in the Bense of 'nol thoroughly or com- 
pletely'; '<"' locative and adjective-forming postfix). The name 
refers to the height south of Narabe Creek opposite [28:43]. No 
i) irni u -kmI was seen al t he place. 
[28:43] Namhe TJigshu'it 'cotton wood arroyo' (A 'cottonwood tree' 
1 Populus wislizeni'; '<<// locative and adjective-forming postfix; 
hu'u ' large grooi e' ' arroyo'). 

This dry gulcb enters Namhe Creek jusl below the locality 
[23:4:.]. The gulch begins al the localitj 123: l»|. 



366 ETHNOGEOGBAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

[23:44] Nambe Kuk'sep'ag<e ' gravelly flat place' (kuk'se 'gravel' <lcu 
' stone ', V;p as in 'ok' se ' sand '; pa ' largeness and flatness ' ' large 
and flat'; g.e 'down at' 'over at'). 

This is a high, arid, somewhat sandy and gravelly place. Here 
[23:43] begins. 

[23:45] Nambe PofsejibJe 'small corner of the yellow squash(es)' (po 
'squash' 'pumpkin'; tseji 'yellowness' 'yellow'; bee 'small low 
roundish place'). 

This is a little dell on both sides of Nam be* Creek at a sharp 
turn in the creek. There are some cotton wood trees there, also 
cultivated fields. 

[23:46] Nambe M~ahy,powe, see [22:39]. 

[23:4-7] Nambe Tsy&senfihtfu 'arroyo of the j r ellow im,' an unidenti- 
fied weed {Tmtsen />/-, see [25:58]; hua 'large groove' 'ar- 
royo'). Whether the name Tsyisenyi- referred originally to this 
arroyo or to the mountain [25:58] is uncertain. 

[23:48] Nambe KQsogje, ' OJcup3ey^JcQsog.e 'place of the big arroyo' 
'place of the big arroyo beyond the hills' (Jcq 'barranca'; so 
'largeness 5 ' large'; ge 'down at' 'over at'; ' OTcupsRyge, see 
under [23:3]). 

The upper course of this large arroyo is called Pxt'qda hn'u 
see [23:58]. 

[23:49] Nambe Tdss&lcwaje ' height of a kind of whitish earth called 
tetsse' found at this place and of which no use is made <te un- 
explained, tsee. 'whiteness' 'white'). Cf. [23:50]. 

There are many small piles of stones on top of this heio-ht, 
seemingly placed there for some religious purpose. See [23:50], 
[23:51], [23:52]. 

[23:5(>] Nambe T<ds%bu , u 'corner of a kind of whitish earth called 
telsse'' (Tetsse-, see [23:4'."]: bu'u 'large low roundish place"). Cf. 
[23:49]. This name is applied to the locality between [23:49] and 
the arroyo [23:4s]. See [23:49], [23:51], [23:52]. 

[23:51] A large artificial pile of earth. 

[23:52] Several small piles of stones. 

[23:53] Old and partially obliterated wagon road connecting Nambe 
Pueblo and Callamongue [21:25]. 

[23:54] Nainbe Qw%pupo , oku 'mountain mahogany roots water hill' 
(>/>r:r •mountain mahogany' 'Cercocarpus parvifolius" called by 
the Mexicans palo duro; pu 'base' 'root'; f>o "water" 'spring'; 
'ohu 'hill'). It was said that there is no place called merely 

(Jir:i jmp,,. 

This small hill is cori"ectly located on the sheet. The old 
wagon road [23:53] passes between this hill and [23:49]. 



HAMUNC I'l \< I N \ M ES 367 

[23:.".;. | Numb.' I>. fsPa'a 'lean coyote slope '($ 'coyote'; tsi 'leanness' 
• lean'; 'a'a 'steep slope'). 

This slope runs up high toward the south. In summer it is 
grassj and green. The white stratum [23 :56] is at this place. 

[23:56] Namli. '/•"//,• 3 U • . pun fsgtks&ivk ' the white white earth' 'place 
of the white white-earth' {funfst 'a kind of v\ 1 1 i 1 1 • earth', sec 
Minerals; tea. 'whiteness 1 'white'; 'iwt locative). 

This is a broad stratum of white at a place [23:55], marked by 
the presence of cliffs. 

[28:57] Nambe . /'' fqtfapopi 'spring of the deer wanting 

to tremble' (/?3 'mule-deer'; t'qda 'to want to tremble' 'to be 
about to tremble' <f§, usually t'gi'q, 'to tremble', fta'a 'to 
want"; /." •water' 'spring'; ftopi 'spring' </'"> 'water*. /</ "to 
issue'). The meaning of the name was not very clem- to the 
informants. 

This is a perennial spring of good water at the foot of a clill of 
soft rock on the south side of the arroyo bed. The spring gives 
the name [23:58] to the upper part of the arroyo. 

[23:.">.s| Nambe Pazfqiahifu 'arroyo of the deer wanting to tremble' 
said to refer to the Bpring [23:57] (/'•;/'._/«/.'. see [23:57]; hu'u 
'large groove' 'arroj o'). 
The upper jpart of the Kqsogt |23:l>| is called thus. 

[23:.'.'.'] Nambe Nimfihegi 'red earth with many little gulches 1 (n&VS 
'earth'; /"''redness' -red'; hegi 'gulched' <he , < 'little groove' 
'gulch' "arrovito*. gi as in many adjectives which denote shape). 
Cf. [18:3]. 

Tin' large region bearing this name i- reddish in color and much 
cut by -mall gulches. It is bordered <>n the easl by Nfympibrfv, 
[23:60]. All the rague region beyond, i. e. south of N&mpi/ieg.i, 
is called NfamPipiSVS' 'beyond the red earth' (pszyg* 'beyond'). 

[23: •'.'►] Nambe Nftmpibtt'u ' large, low . roundish place of the red earth ' 
iii'im /»/-, as in [23:59]; bv?u 'large, low, roundish place'). 

[28:6] | Tesuque Creek, see |26:1|. 

[28:62] Tesuque " Ai yrpva. ]>;, t)gj\n fkqkvl »/, see [26:2]. 



Nambe name-- of place- not at all definitely located are included 
here. 

/>','/; //ft/'. .,</-./ ' the houses of the Vigils' (/:>/"'/ span. Vigil, family 
nam. |>i possessive Vteqwa 'house' ft 'dwelling-place,' yaw 
denoting state of being a receptacle). The name refers to a group 
of tour or five bouses near Nambe Creek, aboui a mile easl of 
Nambe* Pueblo. The houses are the homes of Nambe 1 Indian- the 
.Mexican family name of -i of whom happens to l.c VigiL 



368 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [BTH. 



Hence the name. The place is sometimes called in P^ng. Upper 
Nambe. 

Nambe" Jiuwaiaku'iwi 'dry bread stone place' (bmra 'bread'; la 'dry- 
ness' 'dry'; k". 1" 'stone'; 'iwe locative). 

A place east of Nambe\ Why the name is given was not known 
to the informant. 

Nambe Johekewe 'cane-cactus arroyito height' (Jo 'cane-cactus' 
'Opuntia arborescens'; hee 'little groove' 'arroyito' 'gulch'; 
fa a; • height' 'peak'). The name may refer to one or more than 
one arroyito. 

The place is somewhat east of Nambe. 

Nambe Kafuwili 'leaf point' (Jca 'leaf; fu'n 'horizontally project- 
ing corner'; will 'horizontally projecting corner"). 
This is a height east of Nambe. See Kafuwili' oywilceji, below. 

Nambe KafuwiiVoywiTceji 'leaf point pueblo ruin' (Kafuwili, see 
next item above; 'oywilceji "pueblo ruin' <'oywi 'pueblo'. Tceji 
'old' postpound). This is the name applied to a small pueblo 
ruin said to exist on top of Kafuwili. The informant knew no 
details concerning it and nothing about its history. 

Nambe Kinr'tijl-qfje 'oak arroyo' (kw% "oak": 'ij)f locative and 
adjective-forming postfix; Tcq 'barranca'; g.u 'down at' 'over at"). 
This is a gukh east of Nambe". 

Nambe Kowag.e, Kowag.enu'u 'place down where, the hair is or was 
dressed' 'place down beneath where the hair is or was dressed' 
(faywa 'to dress hair'; g<> 'down at' 'over at'; ?iuu 'beneath'). 
This is a place east of Nambe. 

Nambe Kuhaje, KuhagPiwe 'the hanging rock' 'place of the hanging 
rock' (Jeu 'stone' 'rock'; haje 'to hang' intransitive; 'iwe 
locative). 

Nambe Kupibo^i 'round hill of the red rock(s)' (Jcu 'stone' 'rock'; pi 
'redness' 'red'; boil 'round hill'). Cf. [25:40]. 

A place several miles southwest of Nambe; some Mexicans live 
there, it is said. 

Nambe Kypoliu'u- 'cob creek' (ky, 'cob' 'corn-cob'; pohu'u "creek 
with water in it' < po 'water', hun "large groove' "arroyo"). 
A place in the mountains east of Nambe. 

Span. Rio de en Medio, Rio en el Medio, 'middle river", said to be a 
southern tributary of Nambe Creek. Cf. [22:28]. 

Eng. and Span. Nambe settlement. The name Nambe is applied 
rather vaguely to all the country about Nambe Pueblo. Nambe 
post-office is at present in a store kept by a Mexican about half a 
mile west of Nambe Pueblo. Some Mexicans who live a short 
distance east of Pojoaque say that they live at Nambe. 



HARBINOTOM] I'l \CI \ \M ES 309 

Namlie .\</-;i ij.A-iyj- . tywgyshifu ' rock-pine arroyo' {yw%yj 'rock- 
pine' 'Pinus scopulorum'; fcg 'barranca'; y 'down at' 'over at'; 
ku'u • large gnxn e' 'arroyo'). 
This is an arroyo in the mountains east of Nambe\ 
Nambe* I'n'ii'"' 'place of the steep slope by tin' water' {j>o 'water'; 
'.'*./ 'steep slope'; '-"' Locative and adjective forming postfix). 
This is a place in the mountains east of Nambe*. It i~ north of 
.■ see next item below. 
Nambe* /'.«/(.'"/'"'• 'empty water place' (f>o 'water'; feys 'emptiness' 
'empty ": 'iw< locative). 
This place is in the mountains east of Nambe*, south of !'•■' 
bove. 
Nambe* l'''n lt ',i',i 'cane slope' (/"< 'cane', probably 'Phragmites 
communis', '■ailed by the Mexicans carrizo; } iyj locative and 
adjective forming postfix; '"'" 'steep slope'). 
This place i> several miles southeast of Namlie. 
Nambe* Pomawi, said to mean 'where the water gouges out' (/*< 

■ water'; mawi said to mean ' i" gouge out '. but this i- doubt I'ul I. 

This i- a place in the mountains east of Nambe\ 
Nambe* /'ijjir,",' 'black gap' (p'tys 'blackness 5 'black'; wi'i 'gap' 

■ pass'). 

This is a gap in the hills south of Nambe*. It is said thai tin 1 
road connecting Namlie and Santa Fe which passes throue-h [23:1 1 1 
passes also through this gap. 
Nam In' Qwn ijfjuj" 1 'water or creek of an unidentified species of rodent 
resembling the woodrat' (qwgyjyoa species of rodent < gw&yj' 
■a species of rodent, jo augmentative; f)o 'water' "creek-'). 

This is ;i creek ill the high mountain- e:i-t of Namlie. 

Namlie Qw%nt#ikeWi "peak of tin- eve i .f an unidentified species of 
rodent resembling the woodrat' (gw&yy a species of rodent 
••> e'; /■ ' • " peak ' • height "). 
This is a -mall peak in the high mountains east of Nanibe\ 
Namlie s.i i)h' ,il, <t' a • arroyo of an unidentified Bpeciesof bush' l 

an unidentified species of hush the wood of which i- mt\ hard; 
ha' a 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 
This is an arroyo east of Namb£. 
Namlie s,( ,, 'squirrel point height' {stfyw^ a kind of 

Bquirrel; fii'u ' horizontally projecting point'; lewaje 'height'). 
This is u height in the high mountains east of Namlie. 
Namlie s, ji.,1,1,' a 'bluebird creek' (s< 'bluebird' of several species; 

J,,,/,, i',i -creek w ith water in it ' £>0 ' water '. ■'<■ 'lai 
■ariii\ o'). 

This is an arroyo situated along tin- eastern boundary of sheet 
[23]. .-\t below. 

oi Hi 24 



,370 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. Ann. 29 

Nambe - Sefokedt 'bluebird water height" (sepo-, see next above; IceM 
'height'). 
This is a place near S< pohu'u; see next item above. 
Nambe Si/ie'iyTcQ 'belly-ache arroyo' (si 'belly'; Ju 'ache' 'aching'; 
I icative and adjective-forming postfix; Jco 'barranca'). 
This is a gulch somewhere near the eastern boundary of sheet 
[23]. 
Nambe TsepoM 'eagle's head' (tse 'eagle' of any species: poJ>e said to 
mean •head' < po 'head', J-e unexplained). Cf. [24:37]. 

This is a hillock south of Nambe, in plain sight of the pueblo, 

probably somewhere near [23:13]. The name was not known to 

the informants with whom the author took walks in the hills south 

of Nambe. 

Nambe Tsiwi'i 'flaking- stone gap' (As/'/ 'flaking-stone'; '/■/'/ 'gap'). 

This is a gap in the hills or mountains far east of Nambe. Cf. 

TsiwiboJ-i, next below. 

Nambe' TsiwibMi 'round hill by flaking-stone gap', referring to 

Tsiwi'i, next above (biui 'roundish pile or hill '). 
Upper Nambe - , see JSihiTbiteqwa under [23:unlocated], above. 
Vigil's place. See JiihiHiteqwa under [23:unlocated], above. 

[24] NAMBE NOETH SIIKET 

This sheet (map 21) shows the country immediately north of Nambe 
Pueblo. No ruins are known to exist in the area. The place-names 
were all obtained at Nambe. 

[24:1] Nambe HusoQfi ' the large arroyo ' (// u'u ' large groove ' ' arroYo '; 
so 'largeness' "large - : g.e "down at' 'over at'). 

The uppermost course of this arroyo, which is canyon-like, is 
called Kitpltsi' i ; see [25:40]. The HusoQjS flows into Knptijfhiru 
[21:11]. 

[24:2] Nambe HyJ>aheg.i 'one-seeded juniper belts gulched' (Jiy, 'one- 
seeded juniper' 'Juniperus monosperma'; ba?a 'woman's belt', 
probably here referring to belts of juniper; heg.i 'gulched'). 

A large high area of broken land lying north of the central 
course of the HusoQfi is called thus. It is said that until a few 
years ago the northern line of the Nambe Pueblo land grant ran 
through the Hy£aheg.if uow the line extends south of this place, 
it is said. 

[24:.°,] Nambe P%lMu, see [22:35]. 

[24:4] Nambe Pelcehrfv, 'sharp fruit arroyo' (pe 'ripeness' 'ripe' 
'fruit': let 'sharpness' "sharp", said. e. g.. of cactus thorns; lui'n, 
"large groove' 'arroyo'). 



MAP 24 
NAMBE NORTH REGION 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 




namb£ 



TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT MAP 24 



22 



24 



25 







23 



j * 



MAP 24 
NAMBE NORTH REGION 



RABBIN PLACE N'AMKS 371 

|24:.">| ( I ) Nambe* 'Os% "•• " place of the unidentified weed species called 
if weed; we locative). 
(2) Span, i rallinero ' place for keeping chickens' 'chicken house 
oryard', probably bo called because of fancied resemblance in shape 
between the ridge and a chicken house. 

1 >■ «t 1 1 Nambe" and Span, name- seem to refer rather vaguely 
tn the w hole arid locality. 
[24:fi| Nambe* Tsegwq yw&ii 'eagle-tail point ' (fat 'eagle'of anj spi i 

gj> 'tail'; wiii 'horizontally projecting point', here referring 
in the westwaitl projecting end of the little hill). There arc sev- 
eral name- mi the sheet which contain fat 'eagle.' 
The hill by this name gives the names to [24:7] and f 24 : ^ ' . 
[24 : 7 ] Nambe" TsegwgTywiHpseggt 'beyond eagle-tail point 1 , referring 
to [24:6] (Tsegw%gw&ti, see [24:6]; p%yg< 'beyond'). This name 
as to be applied rather definitely to the locality just north of 
the hills [24:6]. 
(24:>| Nambe" Tseqrw%T)wUv ! arroyo by eagle-tail point', refer 

ring to [24:6] I Tsegwa. r/wi&i, see [24: 6]; vi.r locative and adjecth e- 
forming postfix; />"'" 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

Thisarroyo Sows into Kup'trffhu'it [21:11]. Notice the places 

with name- in it- upper course. 

[24:'.»] Nambe* 'Ok'&vn'i 'sandy gap' {'ok'$ 'sand'; "•/"/•■jap"). This 

name refer-, definitely i" a gap through which the arroyo [24:sJ 

passes, and vaguely to the whole region about the cap. 

[24:l"i Nambe* ' ;,'• 'place of the white earth' I rth'; 

'white', applied to the White Corn .Maiden 

and found in some Other place names </.s;c "white', n 
explained Imt occurring with some .other color name.-: <j, 'down 
at " • over at'). 

The earth i- whitish at thi< place. There are low hillocks on 

the northern side of the arroyo |24:s|. 

[24:11; Nambe* /'',!,'. "trap estufa' (p\ 'trap' of any kind: te\ 

'estufa'). For the name el', .s'//, ", [19:43], This name is applied 

to two little springs in the bed of the arroyo [24:8] mar the 

-nun c of the arroyo. 

[24:12] Nambe* UigjeUeqhu'u, see [21 
[24:13] Nami.c Creek, see [19:3]. 
|24:U) Nan see [28:6]. 

[24:l.'i| N'amlie Tseqwajo, i said to mean ' where the eagle 

• iv much' 'hill where the eagle dragged \<v\ much' 

'eagle'; qwa 'to drag'; jo augmentative). The reason for 

applying the name was not know n to the informants. There are 

several other Dames on the sheet in which - 'eagle' appear-. 

The name appli ill hill somewhat farther west than the 



372 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth.ann.29 

other hills shown on this part of the sheet. The old trail from 
Nambe" to Cunday6 passes east of this hill. 

[24:16] Nauibe Pon file '<"'', Ponfi¥d e kwaje 'dodge plumed arroyo 
shrub place' 'dodge plumed arroyo shrub height' (ponyi 'plumed 
arroyo shrub 7 'Fallugia paradoxa acuminata'; /,■'>'' 'to dodge'; 
kwaje 'height'). The verb &V e appears to be used much as is 
Eng. 'to dodge." The exact meaning of the name was not under- 
stood by the informants. This name is applied to two ridges, the 
more southerly one having a depression in its middle. 

An old trail leading to P'ojo [24:21] passes east of PonfiL', ' . 

[24:17] Nambe lhi-ut;i>a"-~h "■• 'fasting thread peak or height' 
[//,i,': L r-i'v-. see [24:l!.i]: Icewt 'peak' 'height'). Perhaps the 
name Ha-tsgp&z- was originally applied to the arroyo [24:19]. 
See [24:18]. 

[24:1^] Nambe' Toiapupi, ToiapupPit/je ' cliff roots come out ' 'place 
where the clitl' roots come out' {iota "cliff'; pu 'base', here 
'root'; y/ ' to come out' 'to issue"; Hwe locative). 

A peculiar mineral formation, probably of fossil origin, is found 
at this place. Straight pieces of brownish stone resembling 
fragments of human ribs are found protruding from the ground, 
'coming up', here and there oil the southern slope of [24:17] 
near the base of some low cliffs. These pieces of stone are said 
by the Nambe Indians to be they-" ' roots' of the cliff, which is 
conceived of as having roots as does a plant. Earl and Archie 
Bolander, sons of the teacher of the Government Indian school at 
Nanib6, had also noticed this formation and had supposed it to 
consist of fossilized bones. 

[24:1'.' J (1) Nambe* Hcuis^po'^is'Pi 'fasting thread canyon' (haJse 'to 
fast' "to hold a religious fast'; pg,^ 'thread': /.s/7 •canyon')'. 
The meaning of the name was not fully understood by the 
informants. It is not clear what 'fasting' has to do with 
" thread". 

The locality would be a good place to fast since it is absolutely 
devoid of food and water. There is ordinarily not even a thread- 
like stream of water in the bed of the ' canyon '. This waterway 
should be called a hu'u rather than a fsi'i, as the informants re- 
marked; cf. -IcQku'u in Nambe (2), below. Cf. [24:17] and [24:21]. 
(2) Nambe Tdbabu^iyj'hqhu^u 'cliff corner arroyo' (Tdbabu'u, 
see [24:20]; "ujf locative and adjective-forming postfix; loLu'ti 
'arroyo with barrancas' <Zo •barranca', hv?u 'large groove' 
'arroyo'). This name is applied because the arroyo is conceived 
of as flowing about the low place [24:2u|. 

This arroyo and the arroyo [24:2.">] are the chief tributaries of 
the Tsehu'u [24:14]. Cf. [24:20]. 



HARRINGTON] Tl V I NAMES 873 

[24:-_'n] (ii Nambe - //.i.':i />.<'•! !>'■■' u 'fastening thread corner', probably 

referring to |24:1'.<| (Ha — .• [24:19]; bu'u 'large low 

roundish pla 
(2) Namlie Toiabu'u 'cliff corner' {iota 'dirt"; bu'n 'large low 

roundish place'). Thecorner is called thus because ii issurrounded 

on the north and west by the named little bills with dirt's [24:17|, 

[24:16], [24:27], and [24:28]. The, arroyos [24:19] and [24:25] 

may l>e called after this low place. 
[24:iMJ Namlie P'ojo 'the big hole' (p'o 'hole'; jo augmentative). 
This bole is merely a natural pit or cave ai the base of a tall 

dirt'. ( loyotes sleep and raise their young at this place according 

t<> an old informant. An old trail leads between |24:lf>| and 

[24:17] to the place. The gulch by the hole drains into the 

a mm, [24:19]. See [24:22], 
[24:^2j .Namlie P'ojobu'u, P'ojof>%yafelntii 'corner by the big hole' 

'corner beyond the big hole', referring to [24:2] J (p'ojo, see 

[24:21]; 6u'« 'large low roundish place'; Pser/ffi 'beyond'). The 

two Forms of the name refer to the same Ideality. 
[24:23] Nambe //-«/. we 'gray coyote place' (ho 'grayness' 'gray';$ 

'coyote'; vo, locative). 
This place is a short distance northwest of [24:32], It gives 

names to [24:24] and [24:25]. The arroyo [24:25] begins at this 

place. 
[24: - _M] Namlie //..,/.'/-./•/;/'/. 'beyond gray coyote place', referringto 

[24:23]( Hoa\ "'• • see [24:23]; f$ yg< 'beyond'). 
The arroyo [24:19] is said to commence at this place. 
[24:25] (1) Namlie //,;/, u-, /,„' ,, ' gni\ coyote place arroyo', referring 

to [24:23] (HoQewe, see [24:23]; hv!u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

So called because it begins at Ho$ewe [24:23]. 
(2) Toodbuhu'n • cliff corner arroyo', referringto 1 24 : •_'< » | (Tot 

In', i, see [24:20]; h£u 'large groove' ■arroyo'). Cf. [24:19], 

This arroyo and the arroyo [24:19] are the chief tributaries of the 

'</ |24:14|. The little arroyo [24:26] is tributarj to '24vi:.\. 

[24:26] Namlie N&mp\n(lihv?u 'black earth arroyo' (n 5 'earth'; 

l> ijif ' blackness' ' black'; '/" locative and adjective formic 

ii\: /<"'" 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 
This gulch runs into the arroyo [24:25]. 
[24:_'7| Namlie 7 -white morning' (6g 'whiteness' 'white'; 

/'••". v.' 'niornine'. cf. the common expression h.-nniH'' 'in the 

' -ning' 'morning', '«" locative and adjective forming 

postfix i. 
This little arid knob of a hill has a ^ cry pretty and poetic name. 

The old trail north from Nambe' passes between it and [24:15], 
[24:28] Namlie /•<//, ,.i/\,, tvhere the 

white earth called /Wiyg is dug' 'height where tin' white earth 



374 ETHNOGEOGEAPH'S OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bts.ann.29 

called fm, , ■:< i- dug' {funfg a kind of white earth used in pottery 
making, see under Minerals; h % Qyf 'to dig'; V' locative and 
adjective forming postfix; hivajt 'height'). 

A horizontal layer of purr white funfsg runs near the top of the 
hill. The hill contains two peculiar cave-dwellings [24:29] and 
east of it are (he 'water-jar on the head' forks [24:30]. 
[24:29] (1) Nambe" tdbaqwa, TobaqwaHwe 'the cliff -d wellings ' "the 
place of the cliff-dwellings' i/r<ft</ 'cliff'; qwa denoting state of 
being a receptacle, hereabout equivalent to 'cave' or 'house'; 
Hw< locative). 

(l') Nambe Sgesribabuwate, S%8aiapqntt 'ovens of the 8%saba : 
(S;, iaba. a being personated on certain occasions by a masked 
man w h«> goes aboul Nambe" Pueblo flogging children with a whip 
of yucca: luwate, panfa 'oven' <buwa 'bread', te 'dwelling- 
place' 'apartment'; pays 'bread' Span, pan 'bread'). The 
caves are -aid to ha\r something lo do with the S%8tiba cere- 
mony; hence the name. 

These are large caves with Hat floors and roundish roofs, seem- 
ingly artificially excavated. Traces Of smoke can he seen on the 
root's. These caves closely resemble the typical dwelling-caves of 
the Pajarito Plateau. The caves are part way up the steep side of 
the hill [24:28]. The hillside forms a fold, so that the two caves 
face each other. The eastern cave is high enough for a man to 
stand upright in it: the western cave is only about 3 feet high. 
See [24:28]. 
[24:30] (1) Nambe" Pobe , $nj>%g.i "water jar on the head' (/Wv 'water- 
jar' "olla" j"> 'water', (>■ 'jar' •pottery'; '<i/i j:{<J.i 'on the 
head'). 

(2) Nambe S4yw% , 4nj>%g.i 'sandstone on the head' {xqijivsp, 
•sandstone'; '<///,/.' </'' "on the head'). 

(.".) Nambe" S.iijtr;, /:,',"< 'the sandstone necks' 'place of the sand 
stone necks' (s&TJWSg 'sandstone': /. -necks' 'necked'; '/''loca- 
tive and adjective-forming postfix). 

These names are used indiscriminately in referring to some 
eroded rock pillars the slender base of which supports a large 
and heavy top, suggesting the figure of a woman carrying an olla 
on the head. 
[24:31] Nambe" Wole, see [23:22]. 

[24:.'W| Nambe" 'Awap'iwe, 'Awap'iwebu'u "place of a kind of cattail 
called 'aivap'i' 'corner of the place of a kind of cattail called 
'awap'i' ('mrnjii an unidentified species of cattail with narrow 
leaves <.'awa 'cattail', p'i 'smallness and flatness' •small and 
flat', cf. 'awap'a 'broad-leaved cattail'; we locative; /<"'<< 'large 
low roundish plai <■'). 



amaiv PLACE-NAMES 375 

This name refers to a large region. Just where the cattails 
which gave rise to the name grow or grew was do( known to the 
informants. The place mentioned gives names to [24:33], [24:3 1 . 
and [24:35]. 
:M Nambe' '.I wajfiw< /,-/"-/ 'arroyo by the place of a kind of cat- 
tail called 'awap't?, referring to [24:32] ('Awap'iwe, see [24:32]; 
/('/'-/ • larg j 

This little dry gulch proceeds from 'Awap'iwt [24:32] north of 
the little mesa [24:34] and disappears in the high plain of Wdbt 
[24:31]. 
[24:34] Nambe 'Awap'iwekewe 'mesa or height of the place of a kind 
of cattail called 'a/wap'?, referring to [24:32] QAwap'ii 
[24:32]; bew, 'height' 'mesa' 'peal 

This little mesa rises abruptly from the plain with cliff walls to 
a height of 30 feet or more. It can be scaled without the help of 
tackle only in two or three places, [ts topis flat and 30 or 4i 
in diameter. There is a little water hole in the top at its south- 
west extremity which contained good water in October, although 
it was said that no rain had fallen for 9eTeral days. There is a 
cave in the cliff at the southern end of the mesa; see [24 
The little mesa is very conspicuous from Nambe Pueblo and from 
all the plain about. 
[24:35] Nambe* 'Atoap'iwekewe'ymp'o 'the hole in the mesa or height 
of the place of a kind of cattail called 'nir.ij,'','. referring to [ 24: 
34] {' A'l-.iji in-,):, wt , see [24:34]; '<'</ •■ locative and adjective-form- 
ing postfix; p'o "hole'). 

This cave of [24:35], unlike the can es of [24:28], appears to be 
of natural origin and shows no signs of having been inhabited. 
[24:36] (1) Namb^ 'iw^oM. I Span.). Cf. Span. (2). 

2) Span. Arroyo del A.gua Fria "cold water arroyo'. Cf. 
Tewa (1). 

There appears to be no name for this gulch in the Nambe" 
language. It is distinguished by r unning in front of, i. e., just 
south of the mesa [24:34]. Why the name 'cold water' Bhould 
ipplied to this dry gulch is not clear. 
[24::;7] Nambe' TsefohxCu 'eagle's head arroyo' (to 'eagle of any 
species'; ]>■■ 'head'; Au'u 'large groove' 'arr< 
place names on the sheet contain the word < If. espe- 

cially Tsefchit under [23:unlocated]. 
This gulch run- from Tkefokwaji [24:38] to which it appears 

to give the name, until it is h>-t in the arid plain. 

[24:38] Nambd Ttepokwaji 'eagle head height' </-/<..-. see [24:37]; 
• height'). 

iu'ii [24:.';7 1 begins al this place. 



376 ETHNOGEOGKAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. Ann. 29 

[24:39] Nambe Pibuhu'u, Pibup^e^ehu'u 'red corner arroyo' 'arroyo 

beyond red corner", referring to [24:41] (Pibv?u, see [24:41]; 

'beyond'; hv?u ' large groove ' "arroyo'). 

This arroyo runs straight toward Nambe Pueblo, but its course 

becomes obliterated in the lowlands. 

[24:40] Nambe Popoiibu'-u 'squash flower corner' (po 'squash' 

'pumpkin* 'calabash'; pdtib 'flower'; bu'u 'large low roundish 

place"). 

This is an arid corner amid low hills. 

[24:41] Nambe Pibu'u "red corner' (pi 'redness' "red": bu'u 'large 
low roundish place'). 

This corner gives the names to [24:39] and [24:42]. 

[24:42] Nambe Pibu'Jcwaje 'heights by red corner', referring to 
[24:41] (Pibu'u, see [24:41 1; Tcwaje ' heighl '). 

[24:43] Nambe Tajehu'v, 'the straight arroyo' (taje 'straightness' 
'straight': ha'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

The course of this large arroyo is very straight; it runs toward 
Nambe Pueblo until it becomes obliterated in the lowlands. Its 
uppermost eoiir<e is called P'etsawihu'u; see [25:46]. Many 
places on its upper course are known by name: see sheet [25]. 
When returning from the mountains northeast of Nambe the bed 
of the Tajehv?u is the favorite route. 

[24:44] Nambe P'awo'oku, J' '""'"pijj.f 'lire medicine hill' 'fire medi- 
cine mountain' (p'a 'fire'; wo 'medicine' 'magic'; 'oku 'hill'; 
i'l') f 'mountain'). 

This hill is very well known at Nambe" Pueblo. The Indian 
name of a boy at Nambe is P'awo. There is a small shrine 
(fcufcaje) on top of the hill. Cf. [24:4.")]. A Nambe schoolboy 
tried to etymologize the name as 'yucca medicine' (p'a 'yucca' 
'Yucca baccata'; wo 'medicine' 'magic') but the old cacique 
laughed at this interpretation. The place gives the name to 
[24:45]. 

[24:45] Nambe P'awopowPi 'hole through road gap' (P'awo, see 
[24:44]: po 'trail', here 'road': wiH 'gap' 'pass'). 

An old wagon road passes through this gap between the hills 
[24:44] and [24:46]. 

[24:4r,| Nambe MahfytenuTcwaje, Mqhy.tenuhwage 'heights at the loot 
of the owl dwelling-place' (mqhy, 'owl' of any species: te 'dwell- 
ing-place' 'house', also -nest ' in the sense of dwelling-place; mfu 
'below' 'beneath': hwaje, lewagt 'height'). The name indicates 

that there was an owl dwelling-place or nest somewhere aboA ' 

on top of these heights, but no such dwelling-place was known to 
the informants. 

This name is applied to the entire length of the ridge from 
[25:5s| to [24:44 j. The ridge is a large one. and its proximity to 
Nambe Pueblo renders it especially well known. 



MAP 25 
CUNDAYO REGION 



w 














CO 
CM 



MAP 25 
CUNDAYO REGION 



HABBIHOTON] li U'K-XAMES 377 

[25] CI M'Al''' SHEET 

This sheet (map 25) shows Topiy ■ mountain [25:1 t] and the country 
;iIm.hi the mountain, including the Mexican settlement of Cunday6. 
Cundayo is the only Mexican settlement known to exist in the area 
shown on this sheet, and i- indeed the only place with a well-known 
Span. name. Hence the sheet has been >-:il l< *<1 the Cunday6 sheet. 
The region east of the mountain Topiyf |25:14| is called by the 
Nambe - Indians ToPunP%y(j< (' ee |25:14|: payygt 'beyond'). 

T'i\<Un\<;\ * ij;j> is Bandelier's 'To B'hi-pang-ge, the former village of 
the Nambe" tribe, s miles northeast of the present pueblo" 1 and Hew- 
ett's "Tobipange, si v milles au nord-est [de Namb£]." 2 As a mat- 
ter of fact Topimpgtjge can be applied to any <<w of the pueblo 
ruins at TopimP%ygi -to [25:18], [25:23], [25:30], and even to[25:8]. 

[25:1] Santa Cruz Creek, Bee [15:18]. 
[25:2] RioChiquito, Bee [22:22]. 

25 1 1 Nainlic' KotsPi, KvisPi 'stone canyon' (Jco, ku 'stone' 'rock'; 
t#Pi 'canyon'). This name is given to the creek canyon both be- 
low and above the junction of [25:15]. 

The wall- arc in many places high rock-elitls. 

(2) Medio Creek. (■ Span.). Span, i li. 

Eng. Cunday6 Creek. (-Span.). Span. (5). 

ill Span. Rio de en Medio, Rio Medio 'creek in the middle' 
'middle "creek'. It appears thai this name is given because the 
upper part of the creek lies between [25:2] and [25:15]. Eng. 
(2). This name appear- to be given especially to that part of the 
creek abo^ e the confluence of [25:15]. 

i.".) Span. Rio de < !unday6, Rio * !unday6 (named after Cundayo 
settlement [25:7]). This name was obtained from a Mexican at 
Cunday6; it appears that it is given especially to the part of the 
creek below the confluence of [25:l.">| in the vicinity of Cunday6 
settlement. See [25:7]. 

This creek ri- - hi Wijo [22:29]. The canyon is large and 
beautiful. Whether the creek has any established Span, or Eng, 
name is doubtful. 
1 25: 1 1 Nambe - Pojegepiyj 'mountain down where the waters or creeks 
come together', referring to [25:5] ee [25:5]; j<ujf 

■ mountain'). 
[25:">| PojeQt "down where the waters or creeks come together' i/»< 
■water' 'creek'; j> 'to meet 1 'to come together'; </■ "down at' 
•o\ er at '). 

The locality of the confluence of the creeks [25:2] and [25:3] 
i- called thus. Cf. [26:4]. 



378 ETHNOGEOGEAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

[25:<>] Nambe Psepofu'u, P$gpofug.t 'deer water point' 'place down 
by deer water point' {pse. 'mule-deer'; po 'water'; fun 'hori- 
zontally projecting point'; g.e 'down at' 'over at'). 

Tbis is a projecting corner of a hill on the northeast side of the 
canyon a short distance below Cundayo settlement [25:7]. There 
are Mexican farms on the bottom lands about this place. The 
Mexicans probably include this place under the name Cundayo. 

[25:7] (1) Nambe Ii/tih'j<-hi-;,li_i/"' 'Mexican settlement at [25:8]' 
{Kiidijo, see [25:8]; Kw%1cy, 'Mexican', modified from 1cwse/cy,yj> 
'iron' 'metal'; H H locative and adjective-forming postfix). Cf. 
Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Cundayo settlement. (<Span.). =Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Cundayo, a corruption of Tewa Jvadijo, see [25:8]. 
= Eng. (2). 

This is a small Mexican settlement on the level land of the can- 
yon bottom. It is mostly on tin? south side of the creek. The 
name Cundayo was obtained from a. Mexican living there. The 
Santa Fe Sheet of the United States Geological Survey, March, 
1894, locates a Mexican hamlet at the site of Cundayo, but calls 
it "Escondillo." This is a mistake. A Mexican hamlet consist- 
ing of two or three houses situated somewhere in the canyon 
[25:3] is called Escondido 'hidden'. Just where this Escondido 
is situated seems not to be generally known even by Mexicans 
living about Nambe. 

[25:8] Nambe Kv&ijdo'rjwQceji of obscure etymology Qcu^ijo unex- 
plained, but evidently containing the augmentative jo as its last 
syllable as in the name Tsimajo [22:18]; 'oywiJceji 'pueblo ruin' 
<\ujwi 'pueblo'. Jceji 'old' postpound). This name refers to 
the ruins of a large adobe pueblo on a level height west of and a 
hundred feet or more above the present Mexican hamlet of Cun- 
dayo [25:7]. 

This is claimed by the Nambe Indians as one of the ancient 
villages of their people. No published reference to the ruin has 
been found. The ruin gives tin- name to [25:7]. 

[25:!»| Nambe, TuuiboM 'round hill of the little bells' (tuud said by 
the old cacique to be an ancient form or mutilated form of tinini 
'little bell"; ball 'large roundish pile' ' round hill"). 
77.//.// appeai-s also in the names [25:10] and [25:11]. 

[25:K>] Nambe T'uuiliiCu 'arroyo of the little bells" (Tuidi, see 
[25:9]; hu'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). Cf. [25:9] and [25:11]. 

This gulch begins at [25:L1] and discharges into Santa Cruz 
Creek [25:1], it is said. 

[25:11] Nambe' TuitiwiH 'little bells gap' (77.'/.//, see [25:9]; »'/''' 
'gap'). Cf. [25:0] and [25:10]. 
This gap is between the hills [25:D] and [25:12]. 



baxbiki PLACE NAMES 379 

[25: 1 -J] Namii.' 'Obukwcyi 'height of 'oftw'ji [25:unlocated]' ('oftu'w, 
under [25:unlocated J: kwaji ' height '). 

[26:13] Nambe' Johukwaji, Bee [22:34]. 

[25:1 1 1 Nambe 1 Topigf ' pinon t ree mountain ' (w ' pinon i pee' L Pinua 
eduli.s ? ; piy.f "innuniaiir). There is a considerable growth <>!' 
pinon mi tin' mountain, hence it i- eas3 to understand why the 
name i< u'ivcn. 

This i- a very high, large, isolated mountain, farther wesl than 
the other high mountains. It gives the name in tin- larg 

.. |\ defined region east of the mountain, which i- called 
'beyond pinon mountain 1 (/"».■< >/','■ "!»• 
under introduction to sheet |25|. page 377. Cf. [25:15]. 

Although several Mexicans and Indians were questioned, no 
Spun, aame for this mountain could be learned. The Indian 
informants said that there is none. Although the mountain is 
clearly -how n on the Santa 1-V sheet of the United Mate, ( reologi- 
eal Survey, March, 1894, no name is given. Mr. Cosme Herrera 
of Nainiie states that the Mexicans do not pretend to have any 
names for mosl of the mountains and crei ks in the wild country 
east of Nambe\ 

[25:15] 1 1 1 N'aml"' Topimp^rfg^irfyhu'u, ToPym,P%ygehv?u 'arroyo be- 
yond 1 > i Ti < • 1 1 mountain', referring to [25:1 1| (2 /». as 
explained in the introduction to sheet [25], above; *yt)f locative 
and adjective-forming postfix; hu'v 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 
The creek is called thus because of its location with reference to 
v - mountain. 
(2) Span. Rio Panchuelo' Panchuelo i- nug. of Pancho, familiar 
form of Francisco, bul how it came to be applied to a creek in this 
region is not known to the writer. Again, it may bea corruption 
of panzuelo, 'big belly'. .Mr. Cosme Herrera of Nambe", who 
knows the country well, says that [25:15] i- the Rio Panchuelo of 
the Mexicans. The Santa l'« Sheet of the United States Geologi- 
cal Survey, March, L894, gives what is unmistakably this creek 
as "Panchuelo Creek." The Indian informants, however, who 
accompanied the author on the foot tour backoi Moun- 
tain, declared that |25:le| is not i he Rio Panchuelo, which thej say 
lies somewhere northeast of [25:15]. The old cacique pointed out 

a trail that leads from [26:15] to the Panchuelo. The N.niilx- 

name of the Panchuelo, according to the old cacique, is \ ■> ■ ' yh />» 
up rock-pine water': see under [28 mnlocated]. The state 
ments are seriously perplexing. 

There are three pueblo ruin- and many place- with names 
along the lower course of [25:15]. The creek form-, a deep can 



oSO ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE Tl'.W A 1XIUANS [bth.ann.29 

yon iu places. The region is quite well wooded; it i- wild and 
very beautiful. 

The portion of the creek in the vicinity of Old Nambe" Pueblo 
[25:30] is said to be called J)esewihu y u\ see [25:28]. 

[25: 1 »> | Nambe Kuty,ywsebo>ii 'round hill of the high stone(s)' (hu 
'stone'; tygwee 'highness' 'high'; bail 'large roundish pile'). 
This little mountain gives the name to [25:17]. 

[25: 17] Nauili<' Kuty,ywa. /),.-■/"[. {bit '». Kutwywsebu'it 'corner by the 
round liill of the high stone(s)' 'corner by the high stone(s)', 
referring to |25:lti] (Kutyywsebo-ii, Kuty,T)W%, see [25:16]; bv!v. 
■ large low roundish place'). 
This low place is between [25:16] and [25:14]. 

[25:1n] Nambe PibiiV Qywijceji 'pueblo ruin of the little red mound' 
(pi 'redness' 'red'; bui "small roundish pile'; qrjw%keji ' pueblo 
ruin' <'oi}ir[ 'pueblo', '!:•)! "old' postpound). Perhaps the 
name refers to the reddish hill on which the ruin stand-. Cf. the 
designation of [25:30], which is also named after a mound. 

This is the ruin of a very ancient pueblo, largely obliterated. 
The potsherds found are commented <>n by Mr. A. Y. Kidder 
as being oi a very archaic type. It is said that the pueblo was 
inhabited by ancestors of the Nambe Indians. The place gives 
the name to [25:20]. See [25:19]. 

[25:l ( .i| Nambe T'^Von^iwe 'where the kind of earth called t'u" is 
or was dug' (/'«"-. see under Minerals, k'oijf 'to dig'; 'iwe 
locative). 

[25:20] Nambe Pibiiihu'u 'little red mound arrovo'. referring to 
[25:LS] (Pibiii, see [25:18]; hu'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

[25:21] (1) Nambe 1 Ku , otsa , i i 'place of the sparkling stones' (hu 
•-tone": 'otsa 'sparkling'; V' locative and adjective-forming post- 
fix). Cf. Nambe" (2). 

(2) Nambe" Wj/tjj'otsoPti 1 ' place of the sparkling earth'; (n&yf 
'earth': 'otsa 'sparkling'; V"' locative and adjective-forming 
postfix). 

The ground on both sides of the creek at this locality contains a 
sparkling substance like mica. This is not utilized in any way. 

[25:22] Nambe Tsikwijcwaj't of obscure etymology (tsi said to sound 
like tsi •eye"; Jcwi unexplained; Jcwaje 'height'). 

[25:23] Nameless pueblo ruin. It closely resembles [25:18] in appear- 
ance, being on a slight elevation on the south side of the creek. The 
old cacique tried hard to think of its name but it had slipped his 
memory. lie said that he had known the name but had not 
thought of it for years. 

The ruin is claimed as one of the homes of the ancestors 
of the Nambe people. 



l'l \i l [TAMES 381 

[26:24] Namhe /■ij' , -',,;j,->r.,;; 'height of the sparkling black mineral 
called ./Y-' C/V" see under Minerals; n\ said to I"- Eor 
locative and adjective-forming posttix; hvaji 'height'). Cf. 
[26:25]. 
This is a height or mesa at which the black pigment called 
. used for body painting, Lb found. Sec TsifyJcwafe under 
[25:unlocated |. 

[26:25] Nluii1»' /•)_/'-/// /"/'" 'plat e sparkling black mineral 

culled fi/'- r . referring, it La said, to [26:24] {j%^n\ . see [25:24]; 
/,//"</ • below ' 'at the fool of). 

[25:l''".| Namhe Pdk&nftfda?, Pok%7)fv?apiyj> 'bitumen -lope" 'bitu- 
men slope mountain', referring to [26:27] see [25:27; 
'steep slope'; piyj 'mountain'). The deposil of bitumen 
or tar-like earth [25:27] about half way up the southern slope of 
tins mountain gives the name. 

[25:i'T] Nambe* Pok^nfu , i >i 'place of the bitumen or tarrj earth' 
(pokgnfu 'bitumen', see under Minerals; V' locative and ad- 
jective-forming postfix). 

(25:-JsJ Nambe" />.<<//"/ ( ,t' obscure etymology (4e 'coyote': s< unex- 
plained : ir,"; 'gap'). This name refers to B narrow place ill the 
canyon. The creek at this place may be called h 
/' . wipo (hu'u ' large groove : 'arroyo'; f>o 'water'). 
The place i- north of the pueblo ruin [25:30]. 

[25:i"-'| Nambe" Poiss^itVi 'place of the white water' (fo' water'; 
'whiteness' "white": '/-/•, locative). This name is given to the 
locality of a spring <>n the north Bide of the creek. 
The informants were not sure whether thej found the spring, 

but the place is certainly correctly located. 

[26:80] Namhe \<:,,,/_j.',,i r ' •',.", ' pueblo ruin of the roundish 

earth', probably referring to a mound of earth arth'; 

; '. ' equivalent to \eg.i 'smallness and roundishness ' "small and 
round'). The name i- said to referto a small mound of earth. 

and this meaning is confin I bj the Picuris form [23:5], (2). It 

i- possible, however, thai the name refers to a number of small 
mounds or humps of earth, or even to roundish clods or balls of 
earth. The informant- stated thai the mound like height on 
which the ruin lies might be called a n<i.J>'.. This pueblo ruin 
gives the name to Nambe' Pueblo ' 23 : ■"■ | . For quoted forms of 
the name see [28:5]; all of these forms refer to [28:5]. Cf. the 
name y;/)/./ .",,/;//-,/.;; |25:l>|. which also refers to a mound. 

The remains of the village can be traced as disintegrated adobe 
mounds on top of a slight elevation on the south side of the creek. 
This U ' )ld Nambe*, one of the ancient \ illages of the Namhe peo 
pic. The ruin gives the name- to the gulches |25::;i |. 



382 ETHNOGEOGKAFHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. ann. 29 

[25:31] Nambe" N&mbehu'u 'arroyosof [25:30]' (Nq.mbe'e, see [25:30]; 

In:', i 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 
These gulches are respectively on each side of tin' height on 

which the ruin [25:30] lies. 
[25::»l'| Nambe" Tsejinu'n 'below the yellow ', referring to [25:33] 

'.' . gee [25:33]; nv!u ' below '). 
[25:33] Nambe Tsejipiyj 'yellow mountain' {tseji 'yellowness' 

'yellow': piyj 'mountain'). Cf. [25:32]. 
[25:34] Nambe' Knwaui\ 'little place of the strewn stones' (feu. leo 

'stone'; wa-ii 'strewn'; '< diminutive), "in- informant called 

the place also Kuwa-idnu^u, which would presuppose a KuwaJAr 

l:irir'/r (//(/'// 'below": TcWdje "above'). 

|25::'.e| Nambe T$etwabe\ of obscure etymology ('■--■< 'yellowness' 
'yellow'; wa unexplained; b£e 'small low roundish place'). 
This dell is east .,1' [25:26], 

[25:36] Nambe 1 Qw%£ipir)j of obscure etymology (qwse 'mountain 
mahogany' ' Cercocarpus parvifolius'; t'i unexplained, it is said 
i<> sound like/'/ 'fragment' and may well be this word; pijj.f 

■ mountain '). 

[25::'.~] Nambe Simitakwaji 'coarse flour height' {si,mita 'a kind of 

coarsely ground flour'; kwaje 'height'). 
[25::;s| Nambe Piyk'yfeona. 'dark round mountain' (pirjf 'mountain'; 

lc'y, 'darkness' 'dark'; bo 'roundishness' 'roundish'; na_ locative). 
[25:39] Nambe" Qw%tebileeu}< of obscure etymology {yw%. •mountain 

mahogany' 'Cercocarpus parvifolius'; teii unexplained; Icewe 

■ height ' ' peak '). 

|25:li»] Nambe KttpitsiH, Kupiwcuii 'red rock canyon' "red rock gap' 
rock' •stone": pi 'redness' 'red'; tsPi 'canyon': wa-ti "wide 

e:i])'). The uppermost course of the Uusoge [24:l| is called by 

this name. See [25:41], [25:4-J|. and Nambe" KupifsPoywilceji, 

Kiij)iii-nJi'i)i)ir'il:.ji [25:unlocated |. 
|25:tl] Nambe Ojifs%7iu , u "at tin' base of the white ice' ('oji 'ice'; 

tsi§ 'whiteness' 'white"; mUti 'below"). 
This is a spring. Cf. [25:42]. 
[25:42] Nambe Velcanvtu 'below coyote thicket" (.7- 'coyote'; lea 

'denseness' 'dense 5 'thicket' 'forest'; nu'u 'below'). 
This is a spring. C(. [25:41 |. 
[25:43] Nambe Pibuhu'u, see [24:39]. 
[25:44] Nambe PibukwajZ, see [24:42]. 
[25:45] Nambe P'etsawiH "cut woodgap' (j>\ 'wood' 'timber' 'log'; 

tsa 'to cut across the grain'; wiH 'gap'). Firewood is or was 

cut at this gap; liencethename.il is said. Cf. [25:46]. 
[25:H',| Nambe P'etsawihu'it "arroyo of cut wood gap' (P'etsawi'i, 

see [25:45]; /<</'" 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 



ros] P] m I. N 1 383 

A wagon road passes along tlii- arroyo; this is said to be used 
for »od. 

[25:47] Namta Tajihu'v, see [24:43]. 

[25:4s| Namb6 "f%iehv?u 'arroyo of the little Douglas spruce(s)' (ise 
'Douglas spruce' 'Pseudotsuga macronata'; '• diminutive; 
• large groove 3 'arroyo'). 

[25:4i' ] '■ ' trail going back of pifion mountain' 

referring to [25:14] (2 ei under introduction to sheel 

[25 j. page 377; 'ui- locative and adjective-forming postfix; po 
'trail'). 

This old trail follows the creek [25:15] closely, here on one 
side, there on the other, until somewhal '-a-t of the ruin [25:30]. 
It then passes through [25:45] and along [25:49] until it reaches 
the place indicated by the number [25:49]. It proceeds straight 
toward [25:54] until it Btrikes the Tafifafu [25:47] the bed of 
which it follow- for the greater pari of the distance to Namb6 
Pueblo [23:5 . 

[25:50] Namb 'skunk-bush coin kunk bush' 'Rhus 

trilobata'; b»'» 'large low roundish place'). One informant said 
K>jbr'r (bf'r ' small low roundish place') instead of Ky&u'u, bul 
this ma}- have been a mistake. 

This dell is north of the ruin [25:53]. It gives the name to 
25 

[25:.'.l] Nunil >•'■ Kybuhu'u 'arroyo of skunk bush corner', refei 
!25:. see[25:50]; hu'it 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

[25:52] Nambe* Kosiitstbii 'chifonete eye corner' (kosh 'chifonete'; 
(•': be 1 , 'small low roundish place'). 
( Ihifonete'a eyes are sometimes represented in Tewa dravi ings 
li\ concentric circles, sometimes by two small circles from the 
circumferences of which lines radiate. Why the place i- called 
thus i- not known. It appears to give the name to the little 
ruin [25:5 

Nambe* ftoshteibetekeji 'ruined dwelling-place at chifonete 
eye corner', referring to [25:52] (E see 25:52]; tekeji 

'ruined dwelling-place' < te 'dwelling place' 'hi I 'old' 

post poui 

A -mall in in is Said to c\i-t in this little low dell, bul I lie writ ci- 
lia- not Been it. and no details about it or it- history could be 
learned. 
[25:.">l| Nambe' 'CPjawUi 'cheek point' l wui 'horizon- 

tally projecting poinl '). 
Tli.' trail 25:49 leaves the Tajihu'u [25:47] opposite this hill. 



384 ETHNOGEOGKAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [BTH. ANN. 29 

[25:55] Nambe KuFggde'' 'gravel p> lint^* 'gravel turrets* 0cu¥% 
'gravel' 'coarse sand' < kit 'stone', i'g as in 'o'ksg 'sand'; </."<' 
•small cone' "upward projecting cone of small size' 'turret'). 

The bill has gravelly turrets, hence the name. It is quite a 
long ridge. 

[25:56] Nambe Tsijfahu'v, 'flaking-stone tire arroyo' (tsi'i 'flaking- 
stone'; 'p'a 'fire'; huhi 'large groove' 'arroyo'). Cf. [25:57]. 

[25:57] Nambe Tsip'akwaje 'flaking-stone fire height' (Tsip'a-, see [25: 
56]; kwaje 'height'). 
This height is for the greater part north of the Tsip'ahu'u [25:56]. 

[25:58] Nambe Tsyisenfipiyf 'mountain of the yellow weed called 
/.w/.' (tsy, 'an unidentified weed said to hear yellow flowers'; tet nfi 
an old form meaning 'yellowness' "yellow", used in the name of 
the Yellow Corn Maiden and in some place-names; \>h)f 'moun- 
tain'). 

This long narrow range of hills extends from [25:55] to [25:62]. 
Cf. [25:59]. 

[25:59] Nambe Tsyisenfipowi'i 'road gap of the yellow weed called 
/.w/' i Tsy,fsenj>i; po 'trail' 'road': wiH 'gap'). Cf. [25:58]. 
An old wagon road passes through a gap at this place. 

[25:60] Nambe Johv?u, Jobuhrfu 'cane-cactus arroyo' 'cane-cactus 
coiner arroyo' (jo 'cane cactus' 'Opuntia arborescens'; bu'u 
• large low roundish place'; hjfu 'large groove' 'arroyo"). The 
name presuppose- a Jobu'u] see. under [25:unlocated]. 

[25:<d] Nambe' Pop'eweM&ewe of obscure etymology (po 'water': 
'/'unexplained; kewe 'height' 'peak'). 

[25:62] Nambe Mahytmuhvqje, see |24:b',|. 



Nambe ' Ab, j'[ij f ' of obscure etymology ('a6< unexplained; piyf 'moun- 
tain'). This appears to be the name of a mountain situated some 
where in the area covered by the eastern part of this sheet. Cf., 
however, [25:li'] with which it may be identical, 'a being f or '0 
and bt '■ the counterpart of bi/'i/. 

Nambe Jobu'u 'cane-cactus corner' (jo 'cane cactus' ' Opuntia arbor- 
escens': bu'u 'large low roundish place'). The designation Jobu- 
lui' a [25:60] presupposes this name. 

Nambe" KehowhitsPi of obscure etymology Qeekowa unexplained; tsVi 
'canyon'). 
This is a canyon not very far east of [25:'24]. it is said. 

Nambe Kupiist'oywikeji, SMpiwcui'oywikeji "red rock canyon pueblo 
ruin' 'red rock gap pueblo ruin', referring to [25:JrGj (Kupitsi'i, 
Kupiwcui, see [25:4oJ; 'mjirik;ji 'pueblo ruin' < 'oywi 'pueblo', 
Iceji 'old' i>ostpound). 



MAP 26 
TESUQUE REGION 




01 

CM 






MAP 26 
TESUQUE REGION 



HAUKINr.TO.N] I'! Ml. XAM1.S '.\S') 

This evidently is the rain ''Kopiwaxi" previously mentioned 
(page 360, note 6) as recorded by Mr. Hodge in L895, and noted 
by 1 j i iii as situated about 5 miles north of Nainhe Pueblo. 

Nambe - 'Obu'uof obscure etymology ('<? said to sound like neither 'o 
'handquern' nor 'o 'scar'; perhaps it is the demonstrative '■■ 
'there'; bu'u 'large low roundish place'). The name of the Little 
mountain |25:1_' presupposes this name, but the informants did 
not know to which corner this name should be applied. 

Nambe 1 Tsif^tkwc^i 'eye sparkling black stun* height, (7*/ 'eye'; fy.™ 
'a sparkling black mineral used as face paint'; Jcwaji 'height'). 
It is said that tsi 'eye' is propounded because daubs of the min- 
eral are put at the corners of the eyes in face painting. This may 
be a second name for the place [25:-_ ; l |. 

[26J TEST QT E Mil IT 

This sheet (map 26) shows some of the places with Tesuque names 
in the immediate vicinity of Tesuque Pueblo. Owing to the atti- 
tude of the Tesuque Indians the author's work was made difficult and 
after a short time forbidden altogether, so that it was impossible to 
collect the place-names known to the Tesuque as completely as in 
the case of the other Rio Grande Tewa Pueblos. It is regretted 
especially that permission to study the place-names of the wild 
countn east and southeast of the Tesuque Pueblo was withheld. 

No pueblo ruins are shown on the sheet. Pueblo ruins are known 
to exist in the area, but their names and sites have not been learned. 
Bandelier 1 says: " Higher up [than Kujt mug.< ; see [21:24]], in theTezu- 
que valley proper, are various sites which the Indians of Te tzo-ge 
(Tezuque) state are those of settlements of their forefathers. I have 
not been able to learn their names of these ruins, most of which are 
almosl obliterated." Hewetl says: " Dans la vallee de Tesuque, au- 
dessus du village, on t rai erse quelques ruines pre'historiques qui n'ont 
pas de noiu." So far a- know n. Tw itchell i- the <>nlv w riter who pub- 
lishes the name of one of these ruin-; see "Pio-go" under [26 :unlo- 
cated]. .Mr. Hodge states that he "was informed by tin 1 Tesuque In- 
dians in L895 that the site of the original Tesuque thepuebl jcu- 

pied at tin' first coming of the Spaniards and bearing the same name 
i I • i - . •_■• i was situated about 3 miles east of the present villa 
See [26 

[26:IJil» Tat'vygePohiifu 'dry spotted plan' creek', referring to 
|26:^| i '/'■//' ijij-j., see [26:*|; pohu'u 'creek with' water in il 
'water', ''■'■■ 'large groove' 'arroyo'). This is the old Tewa 
nam.-. < f. Tewa (2), Eng. (3), -pan'. (4). 

25 



386 ETHNOGEOGRAPHV OF THE TEWA 1MUA.XS [bth.ann.29 

(2) Tetsug.epohu'u 'Tesuque creek' (Tetsuge, see |26:-^|: pohu'u 
'creek with water in it' <po 'water', hu'u 'large groove' 
'arroyo'). Of. Tewa (I). Eng. (3), Span. (4). 

(3) Eng. Tesuque Creek. (<Span.). =Span. 4. Cf. Tewa 
(1), Tewa (2). 

(4) Span. Rio de Tesuque 'river or creek of [26:8]'. =Eng. 
i. Cf. Tewa (1). Tewa (-2). 

This great creek is the largest tributary of Pojoaque Creek 
[19:3]. It flows pasl the pueblo of Tesuque and the greater part 
of its drainage was formerly held by the Tesuque Indians; hence 
the name. Cf. [26:6]. 

|26:2] Tesuque 'Aty,yw% /"'■' p<7< 'irjkohu'u •arroyo beyond the tall steep 
slope", referring to [26:3] ('Atu-ywx, see [26:3]; pseyge 'beyond'; 
'ijjj' locative and adjective-forming postfix; Icohu'u "arroyo with 
barrancas' <Jco 'barranca', hu'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 
This dry arroyo is tributary to Tesuque Creek [26:1]. 

[26::iJ Tesuque 'Aty,yw% 'tall steep slope' ('a'a 'steep slope'; tu-yw% 
'tallness' 'tall'). This name applies to the ridge as a whole. 
Portions of the ridge are also known by separate names: see 
[26:11] and [26:12]. All the vague region beyond, i. e. west of, 
the ridge is known as 'Aty,yw%p%y(jt ' beyond the tall steep 
.-lope' {' Alijijil':i_ , see above: p%yge 'beyond'). Cf. [26:2]. 

[26:4] (1) Tesuque Tsehu'u, Tsepohu'it 'eagle arroyo' 'eagle creek' 
(tst 'eagle'; hu'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'; fohu'ii 'creek with 
water iti it' <po 'water', hu'u 'large groove' 'arroyo'). 

(2) Span. Kio Chupadero 'sucking place riser or creek'. For 
the name cf. [22:51], [23:25]. [14:87]. This may be a mistake: at 
any rate notice the proximity of this creek to the upper course 
of [23:25], the latter being called with certainty Kio Chupadero. 

[26:5] Tesuque TopdbVdku 'piiion flower hill' (/" 'pifion tree' 'Pinus 
edulis'; poth 'flower'; '<</.•" 'hill'). 

[26:6] (1) Tafu-ygekohu'it 'dry spotted place arroyo'. referring to 
Tesuque |26:^J (Tatfu-yge, see [26:8]; Icqhu'u 'arroyo with bar- 
rancas' <Jco 'barranca', hu'u ' large groove ' 'arroyo'). 

(2) Tetsug.ekqhu'u 'Tesuque Arroyo' ( Tetsug.e,see [26:8]; Icqhu'u 
'arroyo with barrancas' <Tcq 'barranca.', /n/'n 'large groove' 
'arroyo'). 

This dry arroyo has its course just west of Tesuque Pueblo. 
Notice the tributaries [26:21], [26:24], and [26:23]. Cf. [26:1]. 

[26:7] (l)TV' 'uij'j'bu' u 'dry spotted placecorner', referring to Tesuque 
[26:8] (Tafy,yge, see [26:8]; /"<"" 'large low roundish place'). 

(2) Tetsug.ebu'u 'Tesuque corner' ( /- tsug.t , sec [26:sJ: hu'u "large 
low roundish place'). 



HARBIN! P] U I. N VMI'.S 387 

The cultivated dell <>r locality where Tesuque Pueblo is situated 
is called thus. 
[26: s | ili "•/ 'pueblo down at the dry spotted place 9 (fa 

'dryness' 'dry'; t'y 'spottedness' 'spotted'; <j> 'down at' 'over 
:it": 'otfloi 'pueblo'). This is the old Tewa name of the pueblo. 
Why the name was originally given is do! known. All the Forms 
□ below, with exception of Oraibi Sopi (9) and the saint- 
names, are probably corruptions, adaptations, or dialectic forms 
of /''//' ijij'jr. Span. Tesuque i- probably a corruption of Tat'y,yg, 
or of :i Keresan form. At the present time there arc many Tewa 
who know only the Span, corruption and the Tewa corruption of 
the Span, corrupl form; see Tewa (2), below. "San Lorenzo 
Tezuqui". 1 "San Lorenzo deTezuqui". 8 "Thezuque". 8 "Te- 
zuque'V "Tesuque". 5 "Tesuqui". 8 "Tusuque".' "Zesu- 
qna". 8 "Temque*". 8 ""San Diego de Tesuque". 10 "Tosugui". 11 
"Tersaque", "Tesuke". 18 "Tejugne"." "Teseque". 1 "T 
suki ! 

(2) Tetmgjs. (<Span. (12)r, below). This is the current Tewa 
c irruption of Span. Tesuque, Tezuque (pronounced tesuh or 
teeuke), whicli in turn is a corruption of Tewa fat'y.rftfe. At 
tempts tn etymologize Tetsugt in its corrupted form lead of 
course to error. "Te-tzo-ge." 1 ' "Tets6gi", given as the llano 
Tewa form of the name. " Tet-su'-ge", 18 given as tin- Tew a name, 
meaning ' cottonwood-tree place'. "T81 su-ge'", " given as the 
San Juan pronunciation of the Tewa name. " Tetsogi", w given 
as the Efano Tewa form of the Dame. "Tai-tzo-gai." 21 

(3) Taos " Tutsuiba", 18 given as meaning 'small pueblo.' = 
Picuris i I ). 

■ Vetai 

Ml.i.l.. iv, p. 274. 

■Vargai (l Till i quoted by Bandolier In Final Report, pt. I, p. I* 
[] p. 118, 1748. 
p. 101, 1789. 
War, 2d map 
DOlcralt, Ind. 1 1 

no b, Dexerta X. Ajner . II, p. 63, I860. 

'< Morg 

■ f..r 1870, p. II • 

■ • Dufoarl In • 

I 

9, 1004. 

13, 1906 



388 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [hth.ann.29 

(4) Picuris " TS-tsur-ma'." ' "Totserna." 2 These two Picuris 
■ forms are evidently equivalent to Taos (3), above. 

(5) Isleta "Tucheaap." 1 

(6) Jemez and Pecos "Tso'-ta." 1 

(7) Cochiti Tfwtsvko, Tfutsukotsai (ts% locative). " Tyu'- 
tsu-l-ii:" 1 this form, like Santa Ana (8), appears to lie derived 
from the Tewa dialect of Tanoan or from .some very ancient 
Tew a form. The Cochiti and other Kercsan Indians also use the 
Span, form '!■ s 

(8) Santa Ana " Tiotsokbma :" 5 this form is evidently the same 
as Cochiti (7); m<i for ma 'people.' 

('.') Oraibi Hopi TokwiviMewa "Tewa near the mountains' 
{tokwi •mountain' •mountain ranee": *;'■' "at* •near': Tewa 
<Tewa Tewa 'Tewa'). Tins name is applied by the Hopi to the 
Nambe and Tesuque Tewa. 

(10) Oraibi Hopi Test'tJce. (<Span.). =Span. (12). 

(11) Eng. Tesuque. (Span.). = Span. (12). 
lli') Span. Tesuque. (<Tew&). See Tewa (1). 

(13) Span. ''San Lorenzo Tesuqui." 3 "San Lorenzo de 
Tezuqui:" 3 the name means Saint Lawrence: this appears to be 
the saint-name of the Span, mission established at Tesuque Pueblo 
early in the seventeenth centuiy. 

(11) Span. ■•San Diego de Tesuque." * "S. Diego:'' 5 the name 
means Saint James. 

Interesting facts about Tesuque Pueblo are that it is the most 
southerly of the present Tewa pueblos' 1 and that it and a pueblo 
near Cienega [29:21] were the Indian villages nearest to the site 
of Santa Fe when the Spaniards first came to New Mexico. 7 For 
information furnished by Mr, Hodge regarding a pueblo ruin by 
the same name, located three miles from Tesuque. see page 385. 

[26:'.'] Tesuque Pot&ibe't •marshy corner' (potsi ' marsh ' < po 'water'. 
tsi 'to cut through'; hie 'small low roundish place"). 

[26:lo] Tesuque Huiahu ,/ u 'dry gulch arroyo' (//»'« "large groove' 
'arroyo'; ta 'dryness' 'dry'). 

[26:11] Tesuque Kwdafifflf 'head mountain' (fcwa'a 'bead'; pVQf 
■ mountain"). 

[26:12] Tesuque T , &ntefu , u, T'q.ntefu'oku 'sun dwelling-place point' 
' sun dwelling-place point hill' {t'<lyf 'sun': te 'dwelling-place' 
'house'; /'-/'// •horizontally projecting point'; 'oku 'hill'). 

' Hodge, field no B er. Ethn., 1895 < Ward in Ind. Aff. Rep. for 1867, p. 213, 1868 

(Handbook Inds., pt. J. p. 735, 1910). 5 Bancroft. Ariz., and X. Mex., ,.. 281, 1889 

- s, MS., 1910. ' Hewett, Communautes, p. 33, 190S. 

16 i in Teatro Mex., in. p. 316, T Twitehell, in Santa iV .V. w M xican . Sept. 22, 

1871. 1910. 



HARiir. PLACE N \ 389 

[26:13] Tesuque P*apinn% 'yucca mountain 3 (/<'•/ 'yucca 5 'Yuri-;! 

baccata'; ^l^y 'mountain'; .< ■ Locative). 
[26:1-1 j Tesuque 'Okuty,gw% ■■ 'the ktv bigh hill' ('oku 'hill 

'high ess' 'high'; jo augmentative I 
Thi> is the sacred liill of the Tesuque. There La a stone -i 

on top and a well-worn path Leads from tlie pueblo to the summit. 

See [26:15]. 
[26:1">| Tesuque Kul • ri 'largeround- 

ish pile'). 
This is tb" stone shrine menl ioned under [26:1 1 1. 
[26:K>| Tesuque JokabJt 'cane-cactus thicket corner 5 ( jo 'cane cactus' 

'Opuntiaarborescens'; ' i 'denseness 5 'dense 5 'thicket 5 'forest'; 

!>■', ' small low roundish place'). 
[26:17] Tesuque 'bluebird mountain 5 (a 'bluebird'of sev- 

eral species; i'ijj.r 'mountain": n% locative). 
[26:1^] Tesuque Za waJinu'u 'below eagle point', referring to [26 :1 '.*] 

HUi, see [26:19]; mfiu 'belovi '). 
[26:1'.'| Tesuque TsewaM 'eagle point' (fe< "eagle'; waud. 'horizontally 

projecting point '). 
[26:l'o| Tesuque Mah said to mean 'where the owl Ls 5 (maky 

'owl' of any species; tfqyj 'to be in a place'; 'i" locative and 

adjective-forming postfix |. 

A Mr. Miller bad a ranch at this Ideality in L910, it was said. 
[26:lM] Tesuque i ' corner where an unidentified kind of 

rodents resembling wood-rats live 5 (qw%njjo an unidentified 

species of rodent <Qw%r)f an unidentified species of rodent, jo 

augmentative; J'a'tolive'; !>'■ ' small lovi roundish placi 
This corner gives the name to the arroyo [26:22]. 
[26:-_'-_'| Tesuque Qw%n tjot'ahuhi 'arroyo of the corner where an uni- 
dentified species of rodents resembling wood rats livo', referring 

to [26:21] (Q ee [26:21]; hu'u* large groove' 'arroj o'). 

[26:23] Tesuque 'place of the white prickly -pear cactus 5 

'prickly-pear cactus' <>( the species 'Opuntia comanchica 5 

and ' Opuntia poly acantha'; teg 'whiteness 5 'white'; '^''locative 

and adjective-forming postfix). 
[26:24] Tesuque Kumahu'u of obscure etymology 0cu 'stone'; 

unexplained; hii'it ' large groove 5 'arroyo'). 
[26:25] Tesuque Pinty,j)w%hvag.t 'high mountain height 5 Q 

" mm lain '; /-y/y/v? 'highness 5 'high'; hwag, 'height 5 ■ lint - 

topped height '). 

I his i- a Largi . rather flat hill. 



390 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [hth. ANN. 29 

Unloi a r; i> 

Tesuque (?) " Pio-go ".* This appears to be the only one of numerous 
pueblo ruins in the vicinity of Tesuque Pueblo the name of which 
has been published. Mr. Twitchell says: " Eastward and south- 
east of Tesuque, toward the mountains there is the ruin of 
Pio-go." This may be merely a mistake which Mr. Twitchell has 
made. See the mention of pueblo ruins in the introduction to 
sheet [26J, page 385. 
Tesuque ''Okuhenfi 'the long hill' ^oku 'hill'; lunfi 'length' 
• long '). 
Tins is a hill about three miles south of Tesuque. 
Tesuque ' OkupVi H 'the red hill' ('oku 'hill'; pi 'redness' 'red'; V 
locative and adjective-forming postfix). 
This is a hill about three miles south of Tesuque. 
resuque S%bo<il ' round hill of the prickly-pear cactus' (sr ' prickly- 
pear cactus' of the species ' Opuntia comanchica ' or ' Opuntia 
polyacantha'; hn.il 'large roundish pile'). 
This is a hill not far south of Tesuque Pueblo. 
Tesuque settlement. In Span, and Eng. Tesuque is applied rather 
vaguely to the whole region about Tesuque Pueblo, and especially 
to the locality along Tesuque Creek [26:1] above Tesuque Pueblo, 
where there are a number of good farms belonging to Americans 
and Mexican-. 

[27J JEMEZ SHEET 

Thissheet (map 27) shows, ro ughly speaking, the country of the Jemez 

Indians. These Indians, together with the remainder of the Pecos 
Tribe, who spoke a closely related dialect of the same language, live at 
Jemez Pueblo [27:35]; in this connection see pages 477-78. The 
names of the places shown on the sheet are mostly in the Jemez, Cochiti, 
and Tewa languages. The whole country of the Jemez is called by 
the Tewa W&yge'iniowafii myge 'country of the Jemez people' 
(W^yge'inhwa, see under [27:35]; li possessive; nayje ' country '< 
in'iyf 1 - earth', Q.e 'down at' 'over at'). All the mountains about 
Jemez Pueblo are called vaguely by the Tewa Wq.mpi'Qf 'Jemez 
mountains' ( W4y/-, see [27:35]; piyf 'mountain'). 

The numerous pueblo ruins shown arc all claimed as ancestral 
homes by the Jemez people. 

[27:1] (1) Eng. Guadalupe Canyon. (<Span.). = Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Canon de Guadalupe 'Guadalupe Canyon'. =Eng. 
(1). "Rio de Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe." 2 



ir. E. Twitchell in Santa F< Nev " - p1 22,1910. 

lier, Final Report, pt. II, p. 201, 1892. 



MAP 27 
JEMEZ REGION 



MAP 27 
JEMEZ REGION 



liARi-.iN i !•] A< ■ I (TAMES 39 1 

[27:2] (1) Eng. Nacimiento Mountains. (<Span.). Span. 

(2) Span. Sierra del Nacimiento, Sierra Nacimiento 'mountain 
range of the birth (of Jesus '. Eng. < 1 1. 
[27:3] (1) Eng. Cebollo Creek. I Span.). Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Kit<> del Cebollo 'onion creek'. Eng. (1). Cf. 
[27:24]. 
[27:4] Jemez W&vem of obscure etymology. 

This i^ a very large mountain north of the Valle de San Antonio 
[27:6]. 
[27::. | Santa Rosa Valley, see |16:H|. 
|27:<;j (I) Eng. San Antonio Valley. ('-'Span.). = Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Valle de San Antonio 'Sainl Anthony's valley.' 
= Eng. 111. "Valle <1>' San Antonio." 1 Cf. San Antonio ho( 
spi ings [27:unlocati 

This is one of the high grass; meadow-valleys like [27:5] and 
[27:7]. See [27:11]. 
[27:7] Grande Valley, Valle Grande, see [16:131]. 
[27:8] (h . 'place of the boiling water' \j>o 'water'; 

'to boil'; "'"' locative). 
(2) Jemez P&tfofuhmy 'place of the boiling water' {pd 
'water'; tfoful/u said to mean 'toboil'; ny locative). Cf. 
[27:13.]. 

Eng. Sulphur springs, The Sulphurs. (■ Span.). Span. 

ill Span. Los Azufres 'the sulphurs . Eng. (3). 

These springs are described in Tfu Land of Sunshine. 2 There 
is a hotel at the springs. Cf. San Antonio springs; see under 
[27: unlocated], 
[27:'.'| Jemez (Dwodojy 'chicken-hawk mountain" {favodo 'chicken 
hawk ' or some species of hawk called by the name chicken haw k; 
/*',/ • mountain '). 

This mountain is jual north of the great mountain |27:1"|. 
[27:1"| (1) Jemez P&mtpfifV' of obscure etymology {pd 'flower' akin 
to Tewa pot\ : flower'; m<jj'<] unexplained; fy 'mountain'). 

(2) < ochili/v; bald mountain ' (j 

■mountain'). This is probablj a mere translation of the Span, 
nami 

(8) Eng. M t Redondo. I Span.). Span. (6). 

Eng. Felado Mountain, Bald Mountain, t Span.). Span. 

Eng. Jara Mountain I Span. |. Span. 

Span. Cerro Redondo ' round mountain'. Eng. (4). This 

i- a popular nam.' for the mountain: it i- given because of it- 
round shape. 



392 ETHNOGEOGKAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth. ANN. 29 

(7) Span. Cerro Pelado "bald mountain'. = Eng. (5). It is 
probably to this mountain that Bandolier 1 refers when he writes: 
"The Jara Mountain, called also Cerro Pelado, is 11,260 feet 
high". Both the Wheeler Survey map and the Jemez sheet of 
the United States Geological Survey, 1S90, give "Pelado" as the 
name of this mountain. Wheeler gives the height as 11,260 feet, 
as Bandelier quotes. 2 The Jemez sheet merely shows by con- 
tour that the mountain exceeds 11,000 feet in altitude. The 
Jemez Indian informants gave Pelado as the Span, name of the 
mountain, which they call I'chiuriifil for the name Pelado. Cf. 
[2:13]. 

(8) Span. Cerro de la Jara, Cerro Jara ' willow mountain', per- 
haps taken from Jara Creek [27 :unlocated]. =Eng. (5). This 
name was not known to the Jemez informants as a name for this 
mountain; but Bandelier writes: "The Jara Mountain, called 
also Cerro Pelado, is 11,260 feet high". 3 

('•>) Span. "Sierra de Jemez". 4 This means 'Jemez Mountains'. 
See T*qmpijei' i piyf [Large Features: S], pages 105-06, where 
another application of the Eng. equivalent of this name will be 
found. " The high Sierra de la Jara, sometimes called Sierra de 
Jemez. because the Jemez region lies on its western base". 4 

This is a very high and conspicuous mountain. The Jemez 
pueblo ruin called Sefdkwa (27: un located] is said to lie at its base. 
See Jara Creek [27:unlocated], and Tsdmj)/'je , P i piyf [Large 
Features: 8], page 105. 
[27:11] (1) Eng. San Antonio Creek, San Antonio Can} T on. 
(<Span.). =Span. (2). 

(2) Rio de San Antonio, Canon de San Antonio, 'Saint An- 
thony's Creek', 'Saint Anthony's River'. Cf. Vallede San Antonio 
[27:6] through which the creek flows. 

This name is given to the north fork of San Diego Canyon 
[27:13] above the junction of the south fork [27:12]. Bandelier"' 
saj 9 of it : 

While the mountainous parts of the Queres [Keresan] range are dry, the 
Valles constitute a water supply for the Jemez country. Two stream* rise in 
it [the Valles'.'], the San Antonio on the eastern flank of the Jara mountain 
[27:10], and the Jara [27: unlocated] at the foot of the divide, over which 
crosses the trail from Santa ( llara. These unite to form the San Antonio 'river', 
which meanders through the Valles de Santa Rosa [27:5] and San Antonio 
[27:6] for 7 miles in a northwesterly direction, and enters a picturesque gorge 
bearing the same name [San Antonio Canyon par excellence], and then gradu- 

' Bandelier, Final Report, pt. II, p. 202, noti . 1892 

- -■ e l T . S. Geographical Surveys West of the 100th Meridian, Parts of Southern Colorado and 
Northern New Mexico, atlas sheet No. 69, 1873-1877. 
3 Bandelier, op. cit. 
' Ibid., p. 72, note. 
It. el , pp. -201-2. 



IIAKIilv PLACE N Ull IS 393 

ally cor vee around through groves until, at LaCueva 

southerly direction. One or two more brooks increase its volume on the way, 
ili»<niling directly Erom the mesa pedestal of the Jara Mountain [27:111], and 

- 

Just w here the change in name occurs is indefinite. See [27:6], 
[27:13]. 
[27:12] South fork of San Diego Canyon [27:13]. 
[27:1".] (1) JemezPdl fofuluny/wimy, 'boiling water canyon' (P< 

fiihnnj. Bee |27:^j; w&nry 'canyon'). Since this is the canyon 
that has hot springs at various places in it, it is naturally enough 
called 'boiling water canyon'. 

(2) Eng. San Diego Canyon. (<Span.). Span. (3). 
(."!) Spun. Canon de San Diego, 'Canyon of Saint James'. Eng. 
(•2). " Kio de San Diej 

This canyon is very deep in its lower portion. The north fork 
of its upper part is called San Antonio Canyon, San Antonio 
Creek; see [27:11]. 
[27:14] Jemez 'JJfagPi ""place where the one seeded juniper trees are' 
Ty 'one-seeded juniper' 'Juniperus monosperma', akin to Tewa 
/"_/ : fd 'to be at a place'; gVi locative, akin to Tewa <;• ). 

This is an ancient pueblo ruin, north of the Soda Dam [27:16] 
and on the western side of the creek. It is separated from the 
pueblo ruin [27:15] by an arroyo. See |27:15]. 
[27:1">1 Jemez Ni&nif&giH "place where the cottonwood trees are' 
.[ 'cottonwood', species undetermined hut probably Populus 
wislizeni; /'</ 't" !"■ ai a place'; gi'i locative). N&ni is probably 
cognate with Tewa nana "aspen" hut is not applied to the aspen. 
•• No-nylsl 

This pueblo ruin is situated a -hort distance south of ruin 
[27:1 1 1, from which it is separated by an arroyo. 
[27:1''»| The Soda Dam (pi. 11). This is what the place is called com 
monly in Eng. No span, or Jemez name was learned. Bandelier 
-a\ - of the place : 

Inthatgorf soda springs issue near the river 

bed, and a short distance above the bathing establishment [27:18] a huge cyl- 
indrical dam trrt\. ■ N, in which steaming currents and cold 
flow p:ir:ill<-l to each other, neither affecting the temperature of the others, 
ily n few inches of rock separate them. 

[27:17] (1) Jemez Gfys* wdtcnvd, said to mean 'pueblo at the hot place' 
referring to Jemez springs |27:ls| (Gyysewd, see [27:18]; towd 
'pueblo'). "Qicinzigua." ' "Qui-umzi-qua." 

[ .mil Report, pt n, p. 200 

51 1910, 

ll r, op. 'H . pp 

- 



394 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ann. 29 

■'Cuunsiora." 1 "Quicinzigua." 2 " Guin-se-ua." 3 "Gin-se-ua." 4 
••( Husewa." 5 

(2) Span. "San Diego de los Emex." 1 "S. Diego." 7 "San 
Diego de Jemez." 8 "San Diego de Jemes." 8 "San Diego de 
James." 10 "San Diego delos Hemes." 11 "San Diego." 12 "San 
Diego de los Temes." 13 "San Diego de Jemez." 14 

For a good account of the Pueblo ruins see Handbook Inds., 
pt. 1. p. 514, L907. 
[27:18] (1) Wdngeposwwa , i H ' hot water place by Jemez' ( TF 

[27:35]; po 'water'; suwa 'hotness' 'hot'; '■"■' locative and adjec- 
tive-forming postfix). 

(2) Jemez Giysewa", said to mean 'hotplace' {giyse, said to mean 
'hot'; wd locative). For quoted forms applied to the pueblo ruin 
near the springs, see [27:17]. 

(3) Eng. Jemez springs. (<Span.). =Span. (6). "Jemez 
Springs." 15 The name of the post office was recently changed 
from Archuleta to Jemez Springs. 

(1) Eng. San Diego springs. (<Span.). =Span. (7). "Hot 
springs of San Diego.*' 10 

(5) Eng. Archuleta. (<Span.). =Span. (8). Until recently 
this was the name of the post office; sec Eng. (3), above. 

(6) Span. Ojo Caliente de Jemez 'hot springs of Jemez.' 
= Eng. (3). This is the commonest Span. name. 

(7) Span. Ojos de San Diego 'Saint James' springs.' This uses 
the saint-name of the pueblo ruin [27:17]. 

(8) Span. Archuleta (a Span, family name). There are Mexi- 
cans named Archuleta still living about the springs. 

Jemez springs are described by Bandelier, 17 also in The Land 
of Sunshine. 18 
[27:19] (1) Jemez Totdsekwiny, 'place of the priests standing' (totdse 
'priest'; Jcwi 'to stand,' cognate with Tewa ywl 'to stand'; ny 
locative). Of. Span. (2). 

'Orozco y Berra in Anales Jfints. Fo n. W, p. I 6, 1882. 

= Ibid., p. 196 (quoting Vargas I. 

delier, Final Report, pt. I, p. 126, 1890. 
'Ibid , pt II, pp. 204, 205, 210, 216, 1892. 
i Bewetl General Vieu . p. 599, 1905. 

•'< MS. of 1643 quoted by Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n. p. 206, note, 1892. 
'D'Anville, Map Amer , Sept., 174''.. 

SAlencaster 1 1805) quoted by Prince, New M< sico, p 37, 1883. 
SAlencaster 1 1805) quoted by Meline, Two Thousand Miles, p. ' 

1868. 
» Vetancurt, Menolog. Finn , p 2/ i, 1871. 

is Bandelier In Arch. I art. Papers, i pp.23, 27, 1881; Hewett, General View, p. 599, 1905. 
"Orozco y Berra, op. cit., p. 255. 
"Bandelier, Final Report, pt. II, pp. 204, 210, 1892. 
is Ibid , pt. I, p. 11, note, 1890. 
! [bid., p. 126; pt. n, p. 202. 
! " Ibid., pt. i, p. 11, note; pt. II, pp 2i I, 20 
"The Laud of Sunshine, a Handbook of Resources of New Mexico, pp. 167, 169, 1900. 



UABEixGTox) PLACE-NAMES .".!»."> 

(2) Span. LosTres Padres 'the three priests. 9 
These names refer to three projections al the top of the red- 
colored cliff of the easl \\;ill of San Diego Canyon [27:13] 
itiv south of east of Jemez springs [27:18]. 

[27:20] Jemez E/w&stPjuhwd 'place of the rock-pine locust' (hwdstt'jii 
'rock-pine locust,' a kind of locust which is said to sing as loud 
as a rattlesnake rattles • hwd 'rock pine' 'Pinus Bcopulorum,' 
cognate with Tewa yw% ij.r ' rock pine'; sti'jii any species of locust ; 
hwd locate e). 

This is the pueblo ruin on the high mesa-top nearest to Jemez 
Springs [27:18]. It was at thi- ruin that excavation wascond 
jointly by the Bureau of American Ethnology and the School of 
American Archaeology in the summer of L911. By mistake this 
ruin has been confused by some persons with [27:23]. The name 
given above was obtained from four Jemez Indians independently. 

[27:21] Jemez Tova ,a Jewd 'place of U ord said when in 

certain ceremonies a cigarette is touched bj our person to the 
foot of another; hwd locative). "To ua qua". "To-wa kwa". 2 
This pueblo ruin gh es the name to the arroyo [27:22]. 

[27:22] Jemez Tova'-wdwd 'arroyo of [27:21]' e [27:21]; 

tv&wd 'arroyo' 'canyon'). 

|27::_':;| (1) Jemez Amy-fyJcwd 'ant-bill place' {amy 'ant' of any 
species; fy 'mountain' 'bill', here referring to an ant-hill or to 
ant-hill-: hwd Locative). "Amoxunqua".' "Amo-xium-qua". 4 
'• Amo-shium-qua". 6 "Amoxunque", 5 apparently misquoting 
Zarate-Salmeron. " Amushungkwa ".' 

Bandelier local fyJcwd indefinitely: "There wasAmo 

xium-qua, on the mesa above the mouth of the great gorge 
[27:K;|". : Again: "Amoxiumqua lies on the mesa that riseswest 
of the springs [27:18]".' Hewetl writes: "Amoxiumqua — on 
the high mesa overlooking Jemez Bol Springs [27:1S]".' 

Of the traditional origin of the people of AmyfyJcwd Bandelier 
writes: "But they- [the Jemez Indians] also say that the people of 
Amoxiumqua first dwell al the lagune of San Jose", 75 miles to 
the northwest of Jemez, and thai they removed thence to the 
pueblo of Afiu-quil-i-jui, between the Salado [29:92] and Jemez 
[27::: I !'V ' In a footnote Bandelier add-: " Anu-quil-i-gui lies 

(Ho 

mi 



396 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. axn. 29 

north of Jemez". See "Anyukwinu" under [27:unlocated] and 
Pdtolcwd [27:29]. Bandelier's and Hewett's statements might lead 
one to suppose that Arnuffykwd is KwdsWjiiTcwa [27:20], which 
according to four reliable Jemez informants, asked independently, 
is not correct. 

(2) Span. Cebollita 'little onion'. According to a reliable old 
Jemez informant this is the Mexican name for Amy,fyJcwd. Cf. 
[27:3]. 

(3) Span. San Jose (?). Bandelier, after studying the writings 
of BenavidesandZarate-Salmeron, concludes: "It seems probable 
that Amoxiumqua was San Joseph de los Jemez." 1 Again: "As 
to San Joseph de los Jemez 1 incline to the belief . . . that it 
was Amoxiumqua." 2 

From studying the documents of Zarate-Salmeron, who lived 
among the Jemez in 1618, Bandelier concludes: "It seems that 
Ginseua [27:17] and Amoxiumqua were then the principal pueblos 
of the Jemez tribe [in 1618]." s For accounts of A?ny,fy,Jcwd, see 
the writings of Bandelier and Hewett above cited. 
[27:25] Jemez HdndJcwd "horned toad place' (hdnd 'horned toad' 
'horned lizard'; lewd locative). "Ham-a-qua." 4 " Han-a-kwa. " 5 

It is said that there are two ruined pueblos by this name, and 
that they may be distinguished by Indian words which mean 
'great pueblo of the horned toad' and 'little pueblo of the horned 
toad'. The two pueblo ruins are not very far apart, and it is not 
certain whether it is the great or the little one which-we show on 

tic sheet. 

[27:'_'<i] Jemez Kydtsokwd 'mountain-sheep place' (fcydiso 'mountain- 
sheep'; lewd locative). "Quia-tzo-qua." 4 "Kiatsukwa." 6 
This pueblo ruin is north of Odafy, [27:27]. 

[27:27] Jemez Odafy, 'occipital-bone mountain' dxla 'occipital bone' 
'process on occipital bone' where head and neck join; fy, 'moun- 
tain'). 
This large hill is on the west side of Guadalupe Canyon [27:1]. 

[27:28] (1) Jemez 'Astfdlalcfolcwd, 'AstfdldTcwd of obscure etymology 
('dstfdld unexplained; TcfO apparently meaning 'to lie': lewd loca- 
tive). The full form of the name contains the syllable Rfo, but 
this syllable is frequently omitted. "Ateyala-keokva.'" 7 "Ate- 

1 Bandelier. Final Report, pt. II, p. '205, note, 1892. 
*Ibid., p. 206, note. 
-Ilii.l.. p. L'lt",, n ,,ie. 
* 1 1 . j . 1 p 207, note. 

sHodge, field notes. Bur. Amer. Ethn., 1895 I Handl k [nds , pt. 1. p. 530, 1907). 

sibid., p. 682. 

: Gatsehet, Zwolf Sprachen aus dem Siidwesten Nordamerikas, p. 43, 1876. 



bulbeimi pi aci: names 397 

yala-keokva." 1 "Asht-ia la-qua." J "Ash! ya-laqua." a "Ash- 

cyal-a-qua." 4 "Asht-yalaqua" 8 (confounding' 

with Pdtokwd [27:29]. "AstialakwaV" 1 According to II 

the Jemez assert that there is another pueblo ruin, distinct from 

'.i wd, which is called "Ost'-yal-a-kwa." Hodge thinks 

that this is the same as Bandeliei^s "Osht-yal-a." a 

(2) Jemez Mai wdoi obscure etymology (mqtya unex- 
plained; J"ij 'mountain'; lcj>o apparently meaning 'to lie'; Jcwd 
Locative). This aame wasgiven by several Indians independently 
as referring to the same pueblo ruin as the name , Astydld(/cj'o)}cwd. 

(3) Span. San Juan 'Saint John' (?). See below. 
Hodge w rites of the ruin: 

\ former pueblo of the Jemez, on the i mesa thai separates Ban 
Diego [27:13] and < luadelupe [27:1] canj ons at their mouths. It was proba- 
bly the seal of the Fran. 1 early in the 
17th century." 

[27:i''.i| (1) Jemez PdfoTcwd of obscure etymology (pd apparently pd 
'flower'; 'pueblo' 'dwelling-place', akin toTewafey Jcwd loca- 
tive). "" Batokva". 10 " Bato-kva". u " Patoqua" 9 (confounding it 
with ' > AstfdU^cf6)Jcwd [27:28]). "Patoqua ('village of the 
bear')". 12 The meaning 'village of the bear' i- ool correct, nor 
does "Walatoa", one of the Jemez names of Pueblo, mean 'village 
of the bear' as is stated by I [odgi , 

(2) Jemez WefiileJcwd 'place where they both are,' referring to 
San Diego Canyon [27:29] and Guadalupe Canyon [27:1| (we 
'both,' akin to wif 'two'; fiiL 'to be at a place'; Jcwd locative). 
This is an old name of Pdtokwd, applied because the pueblo was 

at the confluent e. 

(3) .lei iif. /. Jcwd 1 place where they hit or ring the stones' 
'/ •"'" 'stone'; ty ■ to hit'; Jcwd Locative). A slab of stone 
was suspended by a deerskin thong and struck with some hard 
object, producing a clear metallic tone. Such bell-stones used 
tn be struck at Pdtokwd in connection with certain dances; hence 
tliK name, we are told. 

1 1 1 Span. ••>. Josef". M 

1 1..H-W in II /,. I 

■ p. 1G2, 1910. 

' H I p, [Of. 
ip. cit 

Ibooli ln'1- . pi 

"1>,V 171.. 



398 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

"S'. Josef". 1 "S. Josefo". 2 "S. Iosepho". 3 "St. Joseph". 4 

••San Joseph de Jemez". s 
Hodge summarizes the history of Pdtokwd as follows: 
"It seems to have been the seat of the Spanish mission of San 
Joseph de los Jemez (which contained a church as earl; as 1617), 
hut was abandoned in 1622 on account of the hostility of the Nav- 
aho. In 1627, however, it and Gyusiwa [27: In] were resettled 
by Fray .Martin de Arvide with the inhabitants of a number of 
small pueblos then occupied by the Jemez. It was permanently 
abandoned prior to the Pueblo revolt of 1680; The people of this 
pueblo claim to have dwelt at the lagoon of San Jose, 75 miles 
northwest of Jemez, and that they removed thence to a place be- 
tween Salado [29:92] and Jemez [27:34] rivers, where they built 
the pueblo of Anyukwinu." 6 

The migration tradition which Hodge here relates of Pdtokwd is 
strangely similar to what Bandelier says of ArmtfyJcwd: 

But they [the Jemez Indians] also say that the people of the Amoxiumqua 
dwelt first at the lagune [lagoon] of San Jose 1 , 75 mile-? to the northwest of 
Jemez, ami that they removed thence to the pueblo of Afiu-quil-i-jui, between 
the Salado [29:91'] and Jemez [27:34]. 7 

In a footnote Bandelier adds: "Anu-quil-i-gui lies north of 
Jemez". See "Anyukwinu" under [27:unlocated]. 
[27:30] (1) Jemez Gdjy,. (<Span. Canon). = Eng. (2), Span. (3). 

(■J.) Eng. Canon settlement. (<Span.). = Jemez (1), Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Canon 'canyon'. = Jemez (1), Eng. ('2). 

This is a small Mexican settlement below the confluence of San 
Diego [27:13] and Guadalupe [27:1] cain'ons, mostly on the east 
side of Jemez Creek [27:31]. 
[27:31] (1) A" /»"'«</'"'" 'red rock' {k/'a'd 'stone' 'rock'; (fiwo 'red- 
ness' -red-). Cf. Eng. (2). Span. (3). 

(2) Eng. Red Rock. Cf. Jemez (1), Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Pena Colorada 'red rock'. Cf. Jemez (1), Eng. (3). 
This is a large red rock on the east side of Jemez Creek [27:31]. 

The main wagon road passes through the gap between the rock 
and the red cliffs east of the rock. Wild bees have large nests in 
crevices of the rock. On the east face of the rock are some inter- 
esting old pictographs representing deer. 

^'Anville, Wn [i N. Amur, Bolton's edition, 1752 

a Jefferys, Amer. Atlas, map 5, 177(i. 

'< reps Map Amer. Sept . ca. 1783 

<Shc-a, Cath. Missions, p. 80, ls7u. 

sBandelier fl88S) in Compie-rendu Cong. Amir., vn, p. 152, 1890. 

« Hodge in Hand k In. Is., pt. 2, p. 210, 1910. 

'Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n, p. ^07, 1892. 



HABBIXI PI A( i. NAM ES 399 

[27:32] (1) Jemez Hdjdjd of obscure etymology. 

(2) Eng. Vallecito Greek, Vallecito. (<Span.). Span. (3). 

(3) Spun. Vallecito, Kit" del Vallecito ' I i 1 1 K- valley 5 'creek of 
the little valley'. = Eng. (2). 

There are :i Dumber of Mexican farms in the valley of this 
creek. The same names arc applied to the settlement as to the val- 
ley itself. 

27 Jemez Hy,ny,pdwd -place of the owl water' (hy,ny 'owl'; pd 
'water'; tod locative). The aame is applied to springs and to a 
gulch chi the west side of Jemez Creek [27:34] northwest of Jemez 
Pueblo. 

|27:."4] ill W<u)<j. 'in, p". W<iij'j,'ij,. j'i>h ii'h 'creek of [27:35]' ( Wtiyge, 
see [27:35]; 'igj locative and adjective-forming postfix; /><< 
'water'; pohu'tt 'creek with water in it" <f>o 'water', hv!u 

• large grooA e' 'arroyo'). 

(2) Picuris "Hemepane" 'Jemez River'. 1 Evidently "pane" 
means ' river". 

(3) Cochiti PdnfetfSna 'western river' {pdnye •west"; 

• river'). 

(3) P&, P&W&'wti, lhj-i. //tj'i.'iifti'irn. I/iini'int 'the river" 

'the river Canada' 'Jemez River' 'Jemez River Canada 1 'Jemez 
Canada' {pd 'water' 'river'; p&w&'wd ' Canada with a stream 
in it' /»-' 'water', tod'wtf 'caSada'; Hi- Jemez; wd'wd 'arroyo' 
'canada'). 

1 1 1 Eng. Jemez < reek. Jemez River. 

(5) Span. Canada de Jemez, Rio de Jemez, Rito de Jemez 
'Jemez Canada' 'Jemez River' 'JemezCreek'. "Rio de Jemez". 2 
■|.i I 'anada de los Kemes". 

The name Jemez ('reek i- given because Jemez is the principal 
pueblo situated on it. The Keres pueblos Sia |29:'.'l] and Santa 
Ana |29:'.»."i| are on the lower course of the ''reek. Bandelier 2 
notes: "The Que res [Ke res] held and hold to-daj about one-half 
of the course of the Rio de Jemez." ■ 

37 'w>t of obscure etymology I >'■ 'Jemez Indian' 
unexplained: y. "down at' 'over at" Bince the settlement is 
thoughl of as being over beyond or down beyond the mountains; 
'ni)'r[ 'pueblo'). Jemez Indian is called PFS^y, a word of uncer- 
tain etymology. It sounds almosl lii ;e - ..- 'to descend' bul the 
vowel sounds of the two word's are distinct. Jemez [people are 
called either Wdruawh or Wiyg^yrdawh ifowa '\ pie'; '£9/ loca- 
tive and adjective forming postfix). H< yfitdowh is never used, 
perhaps because it is not euphonic. The Navaho are called by the 

■Ibid . 
■Bandelier, Final Report, pt u, p. U I 



400 ETHNOGEOGBAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. asj. 29 

Tewa W&nscibe, literally 'Jemez Athapascan' ( H'.'/y./' 'Jemez In- 
dian'; Saie 'Athapascan Indian' 'Apache' 'Navaho'). "Wfing'- 
ge'": 1 given as the Santa Clara and San Ildefonso Tewa name; 
erroneously said to mean "Navaho plate." 

(2) Hano Tewa "Jemesi, or Jemez." 2 The former name 
is probably borrowed from (Oraibi) Hopi (IS), the latter from 
Span. (22). No doubt the name W&yge exists also among the 
Hano Tewa. 

(3) Picuris "He-mi-ma'." 3 "Hemema'." 4 These Picuris forms 
are evidently some form of the name Jemez plus the locative -id. 

(4) Isleta Iliemai of obscure etymology (Ilium- as in JSiemii, 
'Jemez Indian', evidently a form of the Jetnez word H&-; al 
locative). Jemez Indian is called HiemiJ>e; 2 + plu. Hiemnim (iue, 
nin number-denoting postfixes). "Hiem-ai." 5 Gatschet also 
gives "Hiemide" meaning Isleta Indian, plu. "Hieninin"; see 
forms obtained by the writer, above. "He'-mai." 3 

(5) Jemez Han), llilirt), Ifrjo of obscure etymology (//$ 
Jemez Indian; mi 'at'; lira 'at' 'to'; jo 'at' 'about'). Jemez 
Indian is called lie.; 2 + plu. Hymif {Hi unexplained; m\f plu. 
ending as in ij.mif 'you 2 +', plu. of y, 'you 1'). It is from the 
form Il'iiiiif meaning 'Jemez Indians' 'Jemez people' that the 
Span, and probably all the forms in the other languages with the 
exception of the Tewa and Navaho forms are derived. 

(«i) Jemez Towd, Tokwd, Tbjo 'at the pueblo' 'to the pueblo' 
'the pueblo' (to- 'dwelling-place' 'pueblo,' akin to Tewa te 
'dwelling-place'; ird 'at'; huod 'at' 'to'; jo 'at' 'about'). This 
is the commonest name applied to Jemez Pueblo by the Jemez 
Indians. "Tuhoa:" 6 given as meaning "houses." The name 
means "houses" only in the collective sense of 'pueblo.' 
"Tu'wa." 3 

(7) Jemez Htfowd, Hitokwd, Ilejojo 'at the pueblo of the 
Jemez ' ' to the pueblo of the Jeinez ' ' pueblo of the Jemez ' (lie. 
Jemez Indian: towd, tokwd, tojo as in Jemez (6), above). 

(8) Jemez Wdldtowd, Wdldtokwd, Wdldtbjo, Wd'wdldtowd, 
Wd' wdldtokwd, Wd'wdldtojo, Hqw&wdMtowd, Hewd'' wdldtokwd, 
Iliji-a iralatitja -at the pueblo in the Canada' 'at the pueblo 
in the Canada' 'the pueblo in the Canada' 'at the pueblo in 
Jemez Canada ' ' to the pueblo in Jemez Canada ' ' the pueblo in 
Jemez Canada,' referring to Jemez Canada [27:34], (»•<;. wSwd 

i Hodge, field notes, Bur Amer. Ethn., 1895 (Hand! kinds., pt. 1, p. 631, 1007). 

aFewkesin Nineteenth Hep. Bar. Amir. Ethn., p. 614, 1900. 

: Hodge, op. cit. p. 630. 

•Spinden, Picuris notes, loin 

sQatsehet, Isleta vocabulary, 1885 (Handbook In.lv, pt. l, p. 630, 1907). 

6 Bandelier in Das Ausland, p. 813, Stuttg tit, 1882. 



BABMNOTON] PLACE-NAMES 401 

'arroyo 1 'canada'; 2d 'in' 'at'; tinvd, tohwd, tojo, asinjen* 
above; fig Jemez [ndian, Jemez). This name was applied to dis- 
tinguish Jemez Pueblo |27::'..">] as the pueblo in the Canada of 
Jemez Creek [27:34] in contradistinction to the former pueblos 
of the Jemez in the vicinity of San Diego [27:13] and Guadalupe 
[2*7: 1 ] Canyons. This name is not a corruption of Valladolid, 
nor does it mean "village of the bear", an etymology which is 
due to Bandolier's confusion of wdld- with tpfwdld 'bear.' " Ha 
waw-wah-lah-too-waw," ' evidently for H%wd?wdldtdwd. "Valla- 
toa." s "Walatoa."" "Uala-to-hua ('Village of the Bear,' 
and not a corruption <>l' Valladolid, as Mr. Loew has imagined)." ' 
•• Oal-to-hua." 6 - - Wa'-la-tu-wa." • , 

(9) Jemez " Wa-la-nah:" 'this is certainly a mistake. 

(10) Pecos " He"-w&' :" 8 evidently equivalent to Jemez /Am/; 
see Jemez (5), abo^ e. 

ill) Keresan (dialect unspecified) "Ha-mish."' " Hae-mish." 1 ' 
(li') Cochiti llu un f,ts;r (Hhmefe 'Jemez Indian or Indians', 
probably borrowed from or akin to Jemez Efemif 'Jemez peo- 
ple'; tea locative). The Cochiti call Jemez [ndian or Indians 
Haemefe. In all tin- Keresan dialects the name i- practically 
identical with the ( lochiti form. 

(13) Santa Ana "He'mi:"* iln- is perhaps a Santa Ana pro- 
nunciation of S|>an. (22). 

(14) Sia " He'-me-shu-tsa." 8 "Jemi/itse." 11 
i L5) San Felipe " Hemeshitee." 

( l»i) Laguna " 1 [emeshitse." " 

(17) Acoma "Hemishitz". 8 The tz is for tea;. 

(18) Oraibi Hopi Hemiei (cf. the Keresan forms). This is 
applied with ] >< >~i tixi-- or postpounds to both pueblo and people. 
i f. the first form quoted under Hano Tewa (2), above. 

(19) Southern Ute Emafi (cf. Jemez Efemif 'Jemez people', 
also tin- Keresan and Hopi forms). Applied with the various 
postfixes or postpounds to both pueblo and people. 

Sep. Be ■ 

I ' p, 2M, \|t i- 
• Bai port, pt i. i'. 260, i". i. 

« II..:. Handbook Inda., pt. I 

]-- 

st.-.^i -.".'I in l'-. 26 



402 



ETHXOOEOfiRAPHY OF THE TEW A INDIANS [ETH. ANN. 29 



(20) Navaho "Mai-dec-kiz-ne", 1 said to mean 'wolf neck'. 
"Mai Deshkis," 2 said to mean 'coyote pass'. "Ma'ideshglzh," 3 
said to mean 'coyote pass', according to the Franciscan Fathers* 
the Navaho call the Jeniez people " Ma'ideshglzh ni". 

(•21) Eng. Hemes, Jemez. (<Span. 22). Spellings such as 
Hemes, Mohave, Navaho are to be preferred. The spelling 
Hemes is phonetically perfect, and at the same time happens 
to be the spelling used by Castafieda about 1565; bul the form 
Jemez has become tixed geographically and officially. 

(22) Span. Jemez. Jemes. Hodge follows Bandelier (see Kere- 
san (11), above) in deriving the Span, form "form Ha-mish, or 
Hae'-mish, the Keresan name of the pueblo. — Bandelier". 5 The 
writer does not see why some of the forms at least may not have 
come directly from Jemez I/ijulf 'Jemez people*, a word which 
probably was found also in the Pecos language. A Zufii name for 
Jemez, so far as can lie learned, has never been published. 
"Hemes"'." " Emexes". 7 "Ameias". 8 "Eineges".' 3 "Emmes". 10 
"Amejes"." "Ameies". 12 ■•Ernes". 13 "Ernes"." "Hemeos". 15 
"Henex". 16 "Gemex'".' 7 ■' Hemes"'. 18 "Amires". 18 "Xemes". 20 
"Gemes". 21 "Gomez".- ••(Jemez".- 3 "Temez". 24 "Jemes". 26 
"Jamez". 26 "Hemez". 27 "Ameries". 28 "Jemas". 29 "Xeuiez". 30 
"Yemez". 31 " James v . 32 '•Jemez". 33 "" Djemez". 31 "Jenies". 35 



1910. 



i\. p. 13 



ls::.s. 



' ten Kate, Synonymie, p. 6, 1884. 

s Curtis, Amer. Ind., I, p. 138, 1907. 

8 Franciscan Fathers, Navaho Ethnol. Diet., 

< Ibid., p. l'JS. 

5 Handbook Inds., pt. 1. 1.. 629, 1907. 

, , ■ 

1 Espejo [1583) >» Doe. Tiled., XV, p. 116, 1871. 

S) quoted by Mi ndoza (1 186) in Eajduyl Soc. Pub., xv, p. 245, 1854. 
1 (1583) in Doc Paid., XV, p. 179, 1871. 
111 < rfiate (1598), ibid., xvi, pp. 102, 260, 1871. 
11 Mendoza in Hakluyt. Voy., in. p. 462, 1600. 
i' Ibid., 
"Villagran, Hist. Nueva Mex., p. 155, 1610. 

14 C6rdova (1619) in Ternaux-Compans, Voy., x. p. til. 1838. 

15 Zarate-Salmeron (ca. 1629) quoted by Bandelier, Final Report, pt.n. p. 205, 1892. 

1629) quoted by Bandelier in Arch. Inst, Papt rs, iv. p. 205. 1892. 
11 Zarate-Salmeron (ca. 1629 quoted by Bancroft, Native Races, 1. p. 600, 1882. 

ted by Gallatin in Nouv. Ann. Voy., 5thser., xxvii, p. 305,1851. 
1. 1671. 

-1 Villa-Senor, rheatro \ r., pt. n, p. 421, 1748. 

■" Arrow-smith, map. X. \.. 1795, ed. 1814. 

a Humboldt, Atlas Nouv. Espagne, carte 1, 1811. 

'-'i Alegre, Hist. Comp. Jesus, 1. p. 336, 1841. 

-■> Mendoza, (174'.') in Meline, Two Thousand Miles, p. 

KGallegas (1844) in Emory, Recon., p. 178, 1848. 

! u w, p. 522, Nov. 1848, mis Seda. 

'-- Squier, ibid., p. 523. 
aWislizenus, Memoir, p. 24, 1848. 
01 Ruxton, Adventures, p. 194, 1848. 
si Latham, Var. of Man. p. 196, 1850 
''■ Marcy in Rep Sec v\ M 1- 196, 1850. 

-Simpson in Rep. Sec. War, p. 59, 1850; Hewett, Antiquities, p. 44, 1906; Hand] k [nds.,pl 1. p. 

629, 1907. 
1 Gallatin in Nouv. Ann. Voy., r>th ser., XXVII, p. 280, 1851. 
» Calhoun in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, in, p. 633, 1853 



harriv PLACE-NAMES 403 

"Hemes".' "Jermz".' "Times".' "Ameges". 4 "Jemex". 1 
"Jeures".' "Amies".' "Amios". 8 "Zemas".' "Jemos". 10 
"Jemes(sprich: chemes)". 11 "Hemes". 12 "Amayes". 1 ' "Temes". 14 
"Hermes". 15 "/ernes"." "Jumez". 1 ' "Emenes"." "Emeaes". 11 
•■ Eaimes". 2 " "Jemmes". 

The Jemez express 'Jemez Indian' notonlyby //<_. pin- //</»i/\ 
but by postpounding ts&'d 'person', plu. tk&'&f 'people', to any 
of the Domerous forms denoting the pueblo. The Jemez lan- 
guage' is similarly expressed by postpounding isd'tity 'language' 
i ■ person ' 'human being'; ty 'to Bpeak'). 
Km- a good account of the history of Jemez Pueblo and of the 
J cine/. Tribe see Bodge in Handbook Inds.,pt. L, pp. 629 31,1907. 
Some of the older men at Jemez remember the history of the 
tribe very accurately. <>t' the shape of Jemez Pueblo Bando- 
lier writes: "Jemez . . . a double quadrangle with two squares." 2 ' 
Bandelier probably exaggerates the amount of Navaho blood at 
Jemez: "Jemez is more than half Navajo, and one of their lead- 
ing men, whom unsophisticated American Indian worshippers are 
wont to admire as a typical and genuine Pueblo, the famous 
Nazle. was Navajo by birth, education, and inclination. ' " We 
oughi to consider that, for instance, the Indian- of Zuni have 
intermarried with and plentifully absorbed Navajo, Tigua, and 
Jemez blood."'-' 

[27:36] San Isidro, see [29:91]. 

[27::'."] Span. Ojo Chamizo "spring greasewood". "( >jo ( ihamiso". 

[27::>| Jemez KwddiQ 'rock-pine mountain' (lewd 'rock-pine' 'Pinus 
scopulorum ': f j ' mountain '). 

i K.-r:. [nd. Tribes, i\ . ; 

■iin'.i 

* Brackenridge, Earl; Bp 

i. Nca. Mex., p] 

i p. for 1867, p. 21 

T I':C. i- 

* U'i'i 

1874. 
1882. 

1« (,-., ! ]--1 

1 lorUl Vol., p, i 

i 



•101 ETHNOGEOGRAPm OF THE TEWA [NDIANS [bth. amn. 29 

[27:39] Jemez Kydtdpdfy 'macaw water mountain ' (Jcydtd 'macaw'; 
water'; fy 'mountain'). Whether there isa spring, lake, or 

creek called Kfdt&pd, from which the mountain takes its Dame, 

was not determined. 
[27:40]Jemez 'lj' v i>li)<i f'j, '!_"'■ piydbu 'cottontail rabbil courting moun 

tains' 'cottontail rabbil courting place' ('y? * 'cottontail rabbit'; 
'to go courting'; fy 'mountain'; bo 'up at' locath e). The 

name refers in two little mountains. The place gives the name 

to the creek [27:41]. See 'W*piydhvd Pueblo ruin under [27: 

unlocated]. 
|27:ll| Jemez 'ty'Vpiydfid 'cottontail rabbil courting water', referring 

to [27:40] Wpivd . see [27:40]; p& 'water' 'creek'). 
This flows into Peralta Creek [27: 1 1 1. 
[27:42] Jemez OwdMfy 'bear mountain' (<j>wdld 'bear'; fy~ 'moun 

tain'). Cf. [27:45]and [27:46]. 
[27:43] See [28:69] for the possible Cochiti name. 
127:ll| Peralta Creek, see [28:71]. 
|27:4.">| (1) Jemez Qwdl&pdwd 'bear spring' (<j>wdld as in |27:4^|; 

Pdwd 'water place' 'spring' <pd "water", wd locative). Cf. 

Cochiti (2), Eng. (3), Span. (1). 
(•_') Cochiti Kohayglcdwef 'bear spring' (kulutijo 'bear'; kdwef 

'spring'). Cf. Jemez (1), Eng. (3), Span. (I). 

(3) Eng. Oso Spring. (• Span.). Span. (4). Cf. Jemez (1), 
Cochiti (2). 

(4) Span. Ojo del Oso 'bear spring'. Eng. (3). Cf. Jemez (1), 
Cochiti (2). 

[27:46] Oso Creek, see [28:103]. 

|27:I7| Span. Arroyo Hondo 'deep arroyo'. 

!i is said that the spring [27:48] is situated in this arroyo. 
|27:ls| Span. Ojo del Borrego ' sheep spring '. 

The sprinu' is in the Arroyo Hondo [27:47], it is said. It gives 
the name to a large Span, land grant situated in the vicinity, also 
to Borrego Creek |27:l'.<|. The Cochiti sometimes call the spring 
BoiTeffokdwgf {icdwef 'spring'). 
[27:49] Borrego Creek, see [29:64]. 

I Mi. \ I I l> 

Jemez "Anu-quil-i-jui ".' "Anu-quil-i-gui ". ' "Anyukw inn". 3 

This is the name of an unlocated pueblo ruin. ISandelier says 

of it: 
Bui the) [the Jemez Indians] also say that the people oi Amoxiumqua 

[27:23] dwelt first at the lagune of San Jos6, 75 miles to the northwest of 

lier,] inal Report, pt. u. p. 207, 1892. 
ote 
Hod e, (li Id noti B, Bui Imei I tun . 1895 I Handbook [nds., pt. I, p. 63, L90 



ii.uu:in.:t..\] place-names 405 

Jemez, and that they removed thence t<> the pueblo of Afiu-quil-i-jni, b 
the Balado [29:92] and Jemez [27:34].' 

Jemez Boletsohwd of obscure etymologj (I 'abalone shell'; tao 

unexplained; Jewd locative). "Bul-itz-e-qua". a 
It i- said thai this is one of the largest of the pueblos formerly 

inhabited by Jemez Indian-. It i- Bituated easl of San Diego 

Canyon [27:13]. 
Jemez "< laal ri". "Cat r6< •". Mentioned by OHate a- an inhabited 

pueblo of tin' Jemez. 
Span. "' i i ro I olorado". 6 The name is given in the manuscripl cited 

as designating a hill at the fool of the nnlocated mesa where the 

Jemez and Santo Domingo Indian- dwelt when visited by Vargas 

in 1692. 
Jemez "Guatitruti".' Mentioned by Onate as an inhabited pueblo of 

the Jemez. 
Jemez "Guayoguia".' Mentioned by Onate as an inhabited pueblo 

of the Jemez. 
Cochiti // 'ice i intain' (hqhrru 'ice'; ko- •mountain'; 

t/g locative). It i- possible thai tin-- i- tin- Cochiti aame of 

[27:10]. 
1 iiti Hotolcawakotfo •willow spring mountain' (Lot" 'willow'; 

kaiwa 'spring'; ko- 'mountain'; \fg locative). Cf. Cochiti 

Hdtokawa, below . 
This i> a large mountain north of [27:45]. 
ill Cochiti Hfyokawa 'willow Bpring' (Uotokawa a- in Hfyokawa- 

kotfg, above). Cf. Cochiti EPotokawa, above. Cf. Span. (2). 
{•-'i Span. Ojo de laJara 'willow spring'. Cf. Cochiti (1). 
This i- a Bpring north of [27: 1.". |. 
Jemez '^r*piydhi>d "at tin- rabbil courting place 1 ('tyvpiyS . see 

[27: W]; hwd locative). 

ThU is a pueblo ruin near |27:4n|. 

(h Eng. Jara Creek. | Span). Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Kito de la Jara "willow- creek'. Eng. (1). It is 
suggested that the creek may give the name "Jara " to the moun- 
tain [27:10]. 

" W hilt- tin' mountainous parts of tin- Queres i inge 

[territory held] tire dry. the Valles \ PimPn //</■ [ Large features: 1 1. 
page 98] constitute a water supply for the Jemez country. Two 

1 Ban ! 
i Ibid. 

.' urn. 

Ml. hi., p. 111. 



400 ETHNOGEOGRAPin OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth.ann.29 

streams rise in it [the Valles?]; the San Antonio |27:11| on the 
eastern Hank of the Jara Mountain ,[27:10] and the Jara at 
(lie fool of the divide, over which crosses the trail from Santa 
Clara [14:71]. These unite soon to form the San Antonio 
'River', which meanders through the Valles de Santa Rosa 1 27:5] 
and San Antonio [27:6] for 7 miles in a northwesterly direction, 
and enters a picturesque gorge bearing the same name, and then 
gradually curves around through groves until, at La Cueva, it 
assumesan almost due southerly direction. One or two more I nooks 
increase it- volume on the way, descending directly from the mesa 
pedestal of the Jara Mountain [27:10], and its name is changed 
from San Antonio to the Rio de San Diego [27:13].'" 

Jemez "Quia-shi-dshi." 2 "Kiashita." 3 

According to Hodge this pueblo ruin is located "in Guadalupe Canyon 
[27:1]." 

.feme/ Kf&tsdkwd. of obscure etymology (Jc ><i 'crow'; tso unexplained; 
locative). "Quia-tzo-qua." ' " Kiatsfikwa." 5 
This is a pueblo ruin somewhere east of San Diego Canyon 
[27:13]. 

Span. I. a Cueva 'the cave'. See Bandelier's reference to La Cueva 
under (1) Eng. Jara Creek, above. 

Jemez "Leeca." a "Ceca."' Mentioned by Onate as an inhabited 
Jemez pueblo. 

Jemez "Mecastria." 8 Mentioned by Onate as an inhabited Jemez 
pueblo. 

Jemez "No-cum-tzil-e-ta." 2 "No-kyun-tse-le-ta'." 10 Named as a 
Jemez pueblo ruin of undetermined location. 

Jemez "Pem-bul-e-qua." 2 "Pe'-bu-li-kwa." 10 Named as a Jemez 
pueblo ruin of undetermined location. 

Jemez "Pe-cuil-a-gui." 11 " Pe'-kwil-i-gi i'." 1 - 
Bandelier -ays of the ruin: 

[n conclusion, I would call attention to the name of one of the old Jemez 
pueblos, given to me by the Indians as 'Pe-cuil-a-gui'. 'Pa-cuil-a' [Pdkicil&~\ 
is the name for the tribe of Pecos, and tin- Pecos spoke the Jemez language. It 

i Bandelier, Final Report, pt. it, pp. 201-0 

I p. 207, note. 
3 TI ... ' i Bur. Amer. Ethn., 1895 (Handbook Inds., pt. 1, p. 681, 1907). 

i Bandelier, op.cit., p, 207. 

Hodge, "i'. <-it.. p. 682. 
.*on:iti. (1598) quoted bj Hodge, op, i it., p. 225. 
'Ibid., pp. 225, 629. 

I . 829. 
•Hodge, ..p. cit., pt. 2, p. SO. 

tier, op. cit., p. 207, note, and p. 216. 
' i! idge, op. cit., p. 223. 



I 'I U I N 1 107 

would be well to investigate whether Pe-cuil-a-gui designates a Jemez pueblo 
inhabited pre^ iouslj to I 

Cf. 129::;:;]. 

Span. Cerro Pelado 'bald mountain'. It is said that a bare peak s< ■- 

whereabout the headwaters of Peralta Creek [28:71] i- called bj 
this Dame. 
Jemez "Potre." 3 "Poze."' Mentioned by Onate as an inhabited 
pueblo of tin; Jemez. 

y. San Antonio springs. (<Span.). Spat 

(2) Span. O San Antonio 'Sainl Anthony's springs'. For 

r ime cf. [27:6] and [27:11]. 
These springs appear to be situated somewhere in San Antonio 
Canyon [27:11]. There area bath-house and 6ther houses at the 
place, it is said. Bandolier says: 

In the gorge of San Antonio [27:11] rises a Bpring, the temperature of which 
ith of it are mud-baths [27:8?], on thi 
that separate the Valles from the San Diego gorge. 4 

If the identification of the "mud-baths" as Sulphur springs 
]27;s| i~ correct, San Antonio springs would appear to be some- 
where north or west of the mountain north of Sulphur springs. 
//• Land of Swnshiru locates them wesl of Sulphur spring 

Font to ^i* miles west of the Sulphurs [27:8] are the San Antonio Springs, 
which resemble the Jemez Springs [27:1*] and arc equally efficacious in kM- 
and stomach disord 

Bandelier' gives the altitude: "The springs of San Antonio lie 
at an altitude of 8,586 feel ". 
Jemez SefoTcwd 'eagle dwelling place' 'eagle nesl place' (s< 'eagle'; 
'tolive' 'todwell'; fcwd locative). "Se'-shiu-qua."' 
sha-k 

This is a pueblo ruin situated somewhere south of Cerro Pelado 
[27:10], 
Jemez "Se-to-qua."' "Setokwa." 10 This is given as the name of a 

puebloruin, situated, according t" Hodge, al t 2 miles routb of 

Jemez Pueblo. 

I, 1871. 
■ 
Handbook Ind 



408 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

Span. "Sierradela Bolsa".' The name, which means 'pocket range', 
is given as that of a mountain of the Jemez Range between Sierra de 
Sua Miguel [27 :unlocated] and Sierra de laPalisada[27:unlocated]. 

Span. "Sierrade la Palisada".' The mime meaning 'palisade range', 
is given as referring to a mountain south of Sierra de la Bolsa [27: 
unlocated]. 

Span. " Sierra de Toledo". 2 The name means 'range of Toledo 1 (a city 
in Spain). "Toledo range". 3 Bandelier locates the mountain 
somewhere south of the Cerro Pelado [27:10]. 4 See Valle de 
Toledo [27:unlocated], below. 

Span. Valle de Toledo 'Toledo Valley," referring to the "Sierra de 
Toledo" [27:unlocated]. "On the west a huge mountain mass, 
the Sierra de la Jara [27:10], interposes itself between the princi- 
pal valley, that of Toledo, and the Jemez country"."' This is evi- 
dently a name for one of the Valles. See Pimp^ ij<J> [Large Fea- 
tures], page 98, and •'Sierra de Toledo" [27:unlocated], above. 

Jemez "Trea". 8 Mentioned by Onate as an inhabited Jemez pueblo. 

Jemez "Tya-juin-den-a".' Given as the name of a pueblo ruin. 

Jemez "Tyasoliwa". 8 Given as the name of an unlocated pueblo ruin. 

Jemez "Ua-h§,-tza-e". 7 Given as the name of an unlocated pueblo 
ruin. 

Jemez W&b&kwd of obscure etymology (wdbd unexplained: lewd loca- 
tive). " Wa-ba-kwa". 9 The name refers to a pueblo ruin some- 
where east of San Diego Canyon [27:13]. 

Jemez Wdgikd (the name is said by the informant to mean "rubber 
weed"). It is uncertain whether this name refers to a pueblo 
ruin or merely to a locality. 

Jemez "Yjar". 10 Mentioned by Onate as an inhabited Jemez pueblo. 

Jemez "Zo-lat-e-se-djii".' "Zo-la-tu n -ze-zhi-i"." Givenas the name 
of a pueblo ruin. 

Warm springs at the head of San Diego Canyon [27:13]. •'Warm 
springs have been located at the head of San Diego Canon above 
the Jemez springs [27:18]". 12 Just where is meant by the •'head 
of San Diego Canyon" [27:13] is uncertain. Are the springs at 
the Soda Dam [27:16] intended; 

' Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n. p. 72, note, 1892. 
; Ibid., i>i». 11. 64, and 72, note. 
3 Ibid., p. 65. 

• Ibid., p. 72, note. 
'Ibid., p. 2iil. 

L598) quoted by Hodge in Hand! k Inds., pt. 1, p. I 29, 1907. 

7 Bandelier, <.i>. cit., p. 207, note. 

• Hodge in Handl k Inds., pt. 2, p. 859, 1910. 

Ibid., p. 884. 

I 'f .in 1598) quoted by Hodge, ibid., p. 997. 
« Hodge, ibid., p. 1015. 
i=T.he Lund of Sunshine, a Handbook of the Resources . . of New Mexii ... p. 177. 1906. 



MAP 28 
COCHITI REGION 










CM 



WIK^ 



MAP 28 
COCHITI REGION 



ton] PLACE \ \\l IS 409 

[28] OOOHXT1 SHEET 

This sheet (map 28) showa the count rj aboul < Jochiti Pueblo. This 
a is claimed by the Cochiti Indians, who belong to the Keresan 
linguistic stock. Hewett refers to 1 1 j I — region as "'It- districl de 
Cochiti". 1 It is said by the Tewa thai the ancient boundary between 
their territory and that of the Cochiti west of the Rio Grande runs 
somewhere between Audio Canyon [28: 1 1 and Frijoles Canyon |28:t;|. 
The northern boundary of the Cochiti sheet has been placed therefore 
in that vicinity. "The Rito de los Frijoles [28:6], with its numerous 

cave dwellings, forms whal ms to bea boundary line dividing the 

Tehuas from the Queres [Keresan] stuck".- "'Lcs gorge* profondes 
(in Rito de los Frijoles [28:»'>] separenl les deux districts [Cochiti dis- 
trict and Pajarito district], et la tradition en fait 1'ancienne lignede 
division entre les deux branches de Tewa el des Ke"res, qui, a ce qu'il 
parait, e*taient rarement en paix Tunc avec I'autre". 1 The Tewa in- 
form the present writer that the dividing Line was north of Frijoles 
on |28:<>], a fact also evident from statements made by Bando- 
lier and Hewett to the effect that the pueblo village [28 : 1 ir | and cliff- 
dwellings in Frijoles Canyon were built by Keresan people; see quo- 
tations under [28:12]. 

[28: 1 1 Pajarito Canyon, see [17:30]. 
[28:2] Colt Arroyo, see [17:42]. 
[28:3] Water Canyon, see [17:58]. 
[28:4] Ancho Canyon, see [17:62]. 

[28:."i| (J) Tem&pigj 'Keresan Mountains' {Temh 'Keresan Indian': 
'mountain'). Cf. Eng. (2), Span. (:•!). 

(2) Eng. Cochiti Mountains. Cf. Tewa (1), Span. (3). "Moun 
tains of < lochiti ". 

(3) Spun. Sierra de Cochiti 'Cochiti Mountain-'. Cf. Tewa 
(l),Eng.(2). 

These terms apply indefinitely to the mountains west of Cochiti. 
Bandolier refers to them when he writes: "The mountainous 
parts of the Queres [Keresan] range [i. e. territory] are dry". 4 
"Tht arid hills that separate Jemez [27:35] from PeHa Blanca 
[28:93]".' 
|28:''.| (1) Puqwig.^intsi'i •canyon of the place where they scrape(d) 
or wipe(d) the bottoms (of the pottery vessels)', referring to 
|28:1l'| (Pugwige, see [28:l_'|: \\ijf locative and adjective-form- 
ing postfi 3ee pi. 15. i 

i Hewett, CommmMOl 



410 ETHNOGEOGBAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [bth.aun.29 

(2) Tewa "Tupoge". 1 This is for Tupoge 'down to or at bean 
creek' (tu 'bean'; po 'water 1 'creek'; ge 'down to' 'over to'), a 
mere translation of the Span, name, never used by the Tewa. 
Cf. [17:62]. 

(3) Cochiti T fo'onj'elcdiKja of obscure etymology, referring 
to [28:12] {Tf6\m,fe, see [28:12]; IcaiKja 'canyon'). 

(1) Eng. Frijoles Canyon, Rito de los Frijoles. (<Span.). 
= Span. (5). 

(.")) Span. Hi to de los Frijoles, Canon de los Frijoles 'bean 
creek' 'bean canyon '. This is a common name in Spanish-speaking 
America. Cf. Rio de los Frijoles, Rito de los Frijoles [22 :unlo- 
cated], page352. It isquitelikely that the Span, name was applied 
without influence of Tewa nomenclature. Another origin, how- 
ever, suggests itself. The Tewa give assurance that the old Tewa 
name of Ancho Canyon [28:1] is Tunribaku'u 'bean field arroyo' 
'bean field Canada', and think that the Span, name Rito de los 
Frijoles is a translation of this Tewa name applied to the wrong 
canyon. Frijoles Canyon is the next large canyon south of Ancho 
Canyon. 

This canyon is described by Bandelier 2 and by Hewett. 3 The 
documentary history of the canyon has been studied by Mr. S. G. 
Morley, of the School of American Archaeology. The canyon was 
not inhabited by Indians at the time of the Spanish conquest. 
Mexicans settled in it in early times and farmed the cultivable 
lands above the falls [28:14] nearly down to the present time. 
At one time in the eighteenth century the canyon was the rendez- 
vous of Mexican bandits. Bandelier writes: 

I have not been able to examine Cue papers relating to the grant of the Rito; 
lint that cattle and sheep thieves made it their hiding place is said to be men- 
tioned in them. The tale is current among the people of Cochiti and Peiia 
Blanca. 4 

It is said that no one lived permanently at Frijoles Canyon for 
many years previous to 1907, in which year Judge A. J. Abbott 
settled at the cultivable land about [28:12]. Judge Abbott has 
built a house from tufa-blocks of the ruin [28:12] and has made 
many improvements. He has been given a permit by the United 
States Forest Service to remain on the land temporarily. Judge 
Abbott has named his place "Ten Elder Ranch", referring to some 
box-elder trees growing there. See the various numbers indicat- 
ing places in and about the canyon for which names have been 
obtained, especially [28:12]: see also plate 15. 
[28:7] North fork of Frijoles Canyon [28:6]. 

■Bandelier, Delight Milkers p. 178, 1890. 

= Fiiml Report, pt. n, pp. 139-49, 1892. 

'Papers School Amer. jr./,.,,,/.. No. 5, 1909, and No. 10, 19C9 

'Bandelier, <>p. cit,, p. 142, note. 



PLAC'I NAMES 411 

[28- 1 South fork of Frijoles Canyon [28 :6]. 

[28:; '| /'■ ,..'/>■'■'• water tube corner' ($0 'water'; tegy 'tube'; iw'-u 
'large low roundish place'). This name is given to the dell where 
[28:7] and [28 >| join [28:6]. It is said thai the dell and the sur- 
rounding canyons are tube-like; hence the name. 

[28:1") San [ldefonso K'avng.e'inisi'i 'corral gap canyon' (JTavoPi 
see [28:unlocated]; g< 'down at' 'over at'; 'ivy locative and 
adjective-forming postfix; tsPi 'canyon'). 

[28:11J Pajarito Mesa, see [17:36]. 

[28:l-_'] (1) Pugyaig^qywikeji 'pueblo ruin where the bottoms of the 
pottery vessels were wiped or smoothed thin' {pu 'base' 'bottom 
of ;i vessel ' 'buttocks' of an animal, 'root' of a plant, here being 
equivalent to &-/<" 'bottom of vessel' <be, 'pottery vessel', pu 
'base'; tpoi 'to wipe smooth' 'to wipe 5 'to scrape', commonly 
employed in its fuller form qwigi <>f same meaning; g< 'down 
where' 'overwhere'; \>/y»'//, ',' 'pueblo ruin' <'oij>r[ 'pueblo, 
'old' postpound). See plates 16, 17. It i^ said thai the 
ancient inhabitants used t<> make the bottoms of their pottery 
vessels very thin; hence the name. Several times the writer has 
heard the name m> pronounced that it approximated in sound 
Puh ay, . which could Ik- analyzed &spu 'base'; /<"'" 'large groove' 
'arroyo'; y- "down at' 'overat'. The form PuhvQt is however 
merely a corruption of Puqvng.e, probably due to vowel harmony. 
\ certain etymology of obscene meaning is given only by Indians 
who do not know the correct explanation. So far asis known, 
the Tewa name has uo< before been published. 
(2) Cochiti 7 Tf&onfeh&aftdLfy 7 

f aot obscure etymology {Tf&onfi unexplai I, it probably 

has nothing to do with Tf6n/{ 'immediately' 'righl now'; 
JuVaftetg, 'pueblo'; I f ■ 'pueblo ruin 5 kd'matsj 'set- 

tlement', f6ma 'old'). "Vii-fm ye": ' the tj> was probably beard 
as y, or the P may be a misprinl for F. "Tyuonyi".' 

Tyuo-nyi . . . a word having a signification akin to that of i 
It w:is bo called because of a treaty made there al somi od, by 

which certain of the Pueblo tribes, probably the Querea [Keresan], Tehuaa 
[Tews] and p Jemez, agreed thai certain rai defined 

ghoold belong In the fatal them exclusi' i 

The writer's Cochiti informants knew of do such ety log 

tradition. "Tj uonj i".' "Tyuonj i (place du p 

' <///'/'«/,//,'. unexplained *■ ' 



■ 

■ 
■ 



412 ETHNOGEOGBAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [eth. ANN. 29 

(3) Eng. Frijoles Canyon pueblo ruin, pueblo ruin in the Kito 
de Ins Frijoles. referring to [28:6]. Of. Span. (4). 

(4) Span. Pueblo Viejo del Rito de los Frijoles, referring to 
[28:6.] Cf. Eng. (3). 

The pueblo ruin, cliff-dwellings, and outlying ruins of this 
ancient settlement have been described most fully by Bandelier, 1 
andby Hewett. 2 This settlement is claimed by the Cochiti Indians 
:is a home of their ancestors, and two old San Udefonso Tewa 
informants have stated positively that it was a Tewa [Keresan] 
village. Bandelier says: 

The people of ' lochiti told me that tin- caves of Rito [28:6], as well as the 
three puehlo ruins [situated near together 'on the floor of Frijoles Canyon], 
were the work of their ancestors, when the Queres [Keresans] all lived there 
ther, in times much anterior to the coming of the Spaniards. : 

The ancient boundary between tin 1 Tewa and Keresan territory 
is said to have been somewhat north of Frijoles Canyon ; see under 
[ 28:*'>]. This settlement is claimed by the Cochiti Indians to have 
been their earliest home. Abandoning this village, they, built, 
occupied, and abandoned several pueblos, now in ruins, south of 
TfS'on.fe until at last they moved to their present site [28:77]. 
For discussion of this tradition see under [28:77], See also [28:6], 
[28:13]; plates 16 and 17. The fields shown in the latter lie below 
the pueblo ruin and above the waterfall [28:14]. 

[28:13] The so-called "ceremonial cave'. 

This great natural cave is in the north wall of the canyon [28:6]. 
about 150 feet above the waters of the creek. In it are the re- 
mains of an ancient estufa, or kiva and of several small houses. 
The cavern has been described by Hewett. 4 

[28:14] (1) Puqwig.epqjemug.1 ' waterfall down by the place where the 
bottoms of the pottery vessels were wiped or smoothed thin' 
referring to [28:li'] (Puqwig.e, see [28:12]; pojemug.t 'waterfall' 
<po 'water', jemv. 'to fall', said of 3+, g. 'down at' 'over at"). 

(2) Cochiti Tfo'onfeftj'ifi'kanfif of obscure etymology 
{Tfoonfe, see [28:12]; ftj-ifilcan/if 'waterfall'). 

(3) Eng. Frijoles Canyon Waterfall, referring to [28:6], 

(1) Span. Salto de Agua del Rito de. los Frijoles 'bean creek 
waterfall", referring to [28:6]. 

This waterfall is perhaps 60 feet high and the canyon is so nar- 
row at the place that there is not room to build a wagon road at 
the side of the falls. One can seethe Rio Grande from the 
waterfall. 

• Final Report, pt. II, pp. 139-49, 1892. 

'Papers S< / ' Amer. Archseol., N.». ."wind in, 1909. 

3 Bandelier, op. cit., p. 145. 

< Papers School Amer. Arclucol., No. 10. pp. 661-66, 1909. 



Wm!.-\ 







PLACE X WIKS 413 

[28:1.". j (1) Eng. Frijolito Pueblo ruin. (<Span.). -Span.. (2). 

(2) Span, Pueblo Viejo Frijolito ' little bean pueblo ruin', dimin- 
utive of the nam.' Frijoles; see |28:<;|. [28:12]. The name was, 
so far aa the writer know-, first applied by Mr. A. V. Kidder in 
-. TheTewa and Cochiti Indiana apply to the ruin names 
which merely describe it- location. 
Tin- is a small pueblo ruin, of about ■'■" rooms, on top of the 
a [28:16] south of Frijoles Canyon [28:6]. Ii is opposite the 
pueblo ruin [28:1.] and about L5 yards from the ruin of the mesa. 
[28:1.;] Span. "Mesa del Rito". 1 The name means 'mesa <>f the 
ferring t<> [28:0]. 
Bandolier 

The Mesa del Rito borders on the south ti ■ e 'Tyonyi', and i- 

covered with bushes and with groves of taller trees like Piflon 
and /'. M (rreyana I. Whether there are ruins on this long and comparatively 
narrow plateau La doubtful, as I have seen none myself, and the statement 
Indians are contradictory on this point. Across this mesa a trail Iron. 
west, formerly much used by the Navajo Indians on their incursions against 
the Spanish and Pueblo settlements, creeps np from tin- Rio Grande, and, 
i. rises to the crest of the mountains almost 

ir cattle and horses to ascend the dizzy slope, yet the savages more 
than riven their living booty with merciless baste overt 

to th.-ir distant b Bitoat6 miles 

from north to south. 1 

-1 1 1 - 1 where the old Navajo trail referred to runs is not known 
to the writer. The Tewa informants called [28::.'>| a Navajo 
trail. See Navajo trafl [28: relocated]. Cf. [28:17], [28:19]. 
[28:17] Nameless ran;. 

This canyon starts as a slight ravine in the pine-grown mesa- 
top west of the ruin [28:1.".] and grows gradually deeper and more 
on-like until it reaches the Riot rrande. A couple of hundred 
yard-, before it reaches the riverita bed drops precipitously a 
hundred feet or more, thus forming the low dell [28:1 s ] at it- 
iiioii tli. This canyon may be the "Cation del Rito" of Bandelier; 

: eference thereto in excerpt from Bandelier under [28: i 
Bandelier's description fits [28:17] except that it can not be deter- 
mined how he makes tho Potrero del Alamo [28:23] bound iton 
the west and southwest. The writer has walked down the canyon 
[28:17] from the vicinity of the ruin [28:15] to Grande. 

e [28:18]. 
[28:1>| Nameless low dell at the mouth of the canyon [28:17]. This 
appears to be not the same as the dell described by Bandelier in 
the quotation under [28:22], q. v. See also [28 

1 Hh 



414 ETHNOGEOCRAPIIY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [BTH. ANN. 29 

[28:i:»] (1) Keresan [Cochiti?] "Kan-a Tshat-shyu." 1 

(2) Span. "Chapero." 2 It is said that the name menus in New 
Mexican Span, 'abrupt point of a mesa.' also "old slouch hat.* 
Bandelier says: 

[estimate the length of the Mesa del Eito [28:16] at 6 miles from north to 
smith; it terminates at what is called the Chapero in Spanish, and Kan-a 
l liat-shyu in Queros [Cochiti?]. This is an elevation of trap or basalt, rising 
almost vertically from the hanks of the Rio ( .rande to the surface of the mesa, 
above which its slope becomes quite gentle to the top, which is flat ami 
elliptical. On the west the descent is precipitous for more than a hundred 
feet. The Chapero in former times was the scene of reckless butcheries of 
game, termed communal hunts. The adult males of Cochiti, or sometimes those 
of that village and of Santo Domingo combined, forming a wide circle, drove the 
game to the top of the Chapero, from which it could escape only by breaking 
through the line of hunters. Mountain sheep oftentimes precipitated them- 
selves headlong from the precipiceon the west. On such occasions the slaugh- 
ter of game was always very great, while panthers, wolves, and coyotes, 
though frequently enclosed in the circle, usually escaped, the hunters not ear- 
in- to impede their flight. At the foot of the Chapero, a deep, narrow gorge, 
the Cation del Rito [28:17?], comes in from the northwest. The Mesa del 
Rito [28:16] bounds it on the north and northeast, and the high and narrow 
plateau called Potrero del Alamo [28:2:;] i in Queres [Cochiti'?], Dish-ka, Tit-yi 
Han-at) on the west and southu est. 

See [28:16], [28:18], [88:20]. 
[28:20] (1) P£Hyyw%jog.e , vntsi''i 'high thread place canyon', referring 

to /'ri/ijijir.-i '/o(ie [28: uulovatod] (iyy locative and adjective-form- 
ing postfix; isi'i 'canyon') 

(2) Cochiti WeflcaTcaWjaoi obscure etymology (weflca unex- 
plained; IcalKja 'canyon '). 

(3) Eng. Alamo Canyon. (<Span.). = Span. (4). 

(1) Span. Canon del Alamo 'cottonwood canyon'. = Eng. (3). 
"Cation del Alamo". 4 •'Alamo''. 5 

Alamo Canyon is the first large canyon south of Frijoles Can- 
yon [28 :6]. Its mouth is at the Chapero [28:19] : 

As we look into the mouths of the Canon del Alamo and of the Canada Honda 
[28:21], from the little bott.au [28:21'] at the foot of the Chapero [28:19], they 
open like dark clefts of great depth between the cliffs of the lofty mesas. 6 

The walls of Alamo Canyon are at places in its upper course a 
hundred feet or more high. There are cliff-dwelling ruins some- 
where in its upper course: 

In the gorges both north and south of the Potrero [28:25] are quite a num- 
ber of artificial caves. Those on the north, in the Canada Honda [28:21] and 

'Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n, p. I 1 ". 1892. 

"■ Ibid., pp. 147, 14s. 

3 Ibid., pp. 147-148. 

' Ibid., pp. 119. 156; Hewett (quoting Baudelier), Antiquities, p. 30, 1906. 

5 Hewett, Communauies. p. 24, 190S. 

,L Bandelier, op. eit., p. 1 19. 



bibbiitoton] PLACE-NAMES 415 

the upper part oi the Cafion del Alamo, are fairly preserved. The upper 
pan of that gorge [Cafion Tel Alamo] is wooded, and the caves wei 
somewhat sheltered. They offer nothing worthy of special mention, and do 
not cm] i pan' in numbers with the settlement at the Rito [28:12], Thi 
[Kereeans] say that these caves also are 'probably' the work of their an 

The location of the plao y%jog.e, which gives the can 

yon it- Tewa Dame, was aoi known to any of the informants. 
[28:21], [28:22], [28:23], and pueblo ruin in the dell at the 
mouth of Alamo Canyon [28 : unlocated], page 153. 
[28:21] (1) Eng. Hondo Canyon, i- Span.). =Span. 

(2) Span. Canon Hondo. Canada Honda 'deep canyon' 'deep 
Canada'. "Canada Honda". 

This is a large and deep southern tributary of Alamo Canyon 
[28:1'"]. Doctor Hewett states thai it enters Alamo Canyon 
about a quarter of amile from the mouth of the latter. See ex- 
cerpts 'from Bandelier under [28:20] (4). See also [28:22]. 
[28:22] Dell at the mouth of Alamo Canyon [28:20]. 

At the foot of the Chapero [28:i!»], a deep, narrow gorge, the Cafion del 
from the northwest The Mesa del Rito [28:16] 
bounds it on the north and northeast, and the high and narrow plateau 
Potrero del Alamo [28:23] (in Queree [Keresan], Oish-ka Tit- \ i 1 1 . > < 
the west and southwest. This gorge [28:17?] empties into a little ba 
the wesl hank of the Rio Grande, and as low as the level of that stream. 
From this basin, the geological features of the surrounding heights can be 
very clearly Been. The cliffs near the stream art- of dark-hued trap, basalt, 
and lava, forming a narrow strip along the river . . . while all tin- rocks 

west of it are of light-col 1 pumice and tufa. The basin is not mop' th: n 

quarters of a mile in dial i row on its fer- 

tilesoil. A small ruin [Pueblo ruin in the month ol I 

[28:iuilocate<1]] . . . From this basin the cliffs surrounding it on threi 
ri.-e to towering heights, and the Potrero del Uamo [28:23] especially pre- 
Bentsagrand appearance. On the east side of the Rio Grande the frowning 
walls of the Oaja del Rio loom up, with their shaggy crests of la 
tic rock ... As we look into the month- of the Cafion del 
[28:20] and of th< ada [28:21], from the littli 

of the Chapero [28:r>], they open like dark clefts of great depth between 

Eb of the lofty i as. On the south a crest, perl i 'I feel 

high, rises above the western bank of the river, crowned by battlem 

hi Mesa Prieta [28:24], or Kom-asa-ua Co te, from which a 
\ith volcanir debris, bard ami son. Dp this 
e toils the almost (indistinguishable trail 

Doctor Hewett states thai Alamo Canyon |28:-_'n] and Hondo 
on (28:'_M | unite aboul a quarter of a mile above the con- 
fluence with the Rio Grande, and form a little bottom. The 
writer passed what is believed to be this dell in walking down the 
: bank of the Rio Grande. See [28:20], [28:21], [28:24], and 

■ [bid . pp. 1 1 
•Ibid . pp i 



416 ETHNOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TEWA INDIANS [etii. a.nn. 29 

pueblo ruin in the dell at the month of Alamo Canyon [28:iml<>- 
cated], page 453. 
[28:23] (1) Keresan [Cochiti?] " Uish-ka Tit-yi Ha-nat." 1 

(2) Eng. Alamo Mesa. (<Span.). = Span. (3). 

(3) Span. Mesa del Alamo, Potrero del Alamo, 'cottonwood 
mesa' 'cottonwood land-tongue', referring to [28:20]. 

The mesa has been located by Doctor Hewett. The location 
can not be determined definitely from Bandelier'3 description 
(quoted under [28:22]). 

The mesa lies between [28:21] and [28:20], taking its name from 
the latter. See [28:20], [28:22). and Pueblo River in the dell at 
the mouth of Alamo Canyon [28:unlocated], page 453. 
[28:24] (1) Keresan [Cochiti?] "Kom-asa-ua Ko-te." 2 

(2) Span. Mesa Prieta 'dark mesa'. Evidently so called be- 
cause of its color. 

For Bandelier's description of this mesa, see excerpts from his 
Final Report, under [28:22] and [28:25] (2). 
[28:25] (1) Fug. Vacas Mesa, Potrero de las Vacas. (<Span.). 
= Span. (2). 

(2) Span. Potrero de las Vacas ' land-tongue of the cows', prob- 
ably so railed because cattle are pastured there. "Potrero de las 
Vacas." 3 

Bandelier writes of this mesa: 

From the crest [of 28:24] we overlook in the south a series of rocks and 
wooded heights, and in the west a ridge flanked by gorges on both sides. 
This ridge is the end of a long, narrow plateau, sloping gently toward the Mesa 
Prieta [28:24] from the eastern base of the Sierra de San Miguel [28:29]. The 
name of this tongu