Skip to main content

Full text of "The every-day cook-book and encyclopedia of practical recipes"

See other formats





^S ' ^-;,,^ A 


P rM^ c '^feU_^uO^l ':C^iy^ 

!^?l!3Kte'W7^3t ^\P^ 

ra A** 'm^^Tb^^-^^^^^^^'&^A 

''tos <^* "' ^ fe- V^3> d 

!W'\ ^ !ffi^fe&K>aR^PnR^ * 


i \^wi\i^p% 

tr v ,A>- ~Si=4\-^- x" \ . / V S n - A\\U / . ^ 

\l/ +S\*$8&vF^& 

2i - '^ T \^4i^ / \ V M 















Yeast 131 

Plain White Family Bread 131 

Graham Bread 132 

Boston Brown Bread 132 

torn Bread '33 

Steamed Brown Bread 133 

Parker House Rolls 133 

French Rolls 133 

Buns 134 

Biscuits 143 

To Make Rusks 134 

Sweet Milk Gems 135 

Breakfast Gems.. 135 

Graham Breakfast Cakes 135 

Buckwheat Cakes 135 

Flannel Cakes 136 

Rice Griddle Cakes 137 

French Pancakes 137 

Pancakes 37 

Bread Fritters 137 

Quick Sally Lunn 138 

Breakfast Cake 138 

Quick Waffles 138 

Johnny Cake 138 

Mush 138 

Corn Mush 139 

Graham Mush 139 


, White Lady Cake 181 

j Macaroons , 181 

I Almo id Icing i^/. 

I To Make Icing for Cakes 182 

I Loaf Cake 183 

' Rich Bride Cake 183 

Lady Fingers 183 

Queen Cake 184 

Chocolate Macaroons 184 

Caramel Cake 184 

Pound Cake 1 85 

Tocoa-nut Sponge Cake 185 

Cocoa-nut Pound Cake 186 

' v PADS 

Cocoa-nut Cup Cake 186 

Cocoa-nut Drops 186 

Citror. Heart Cakes 187 

Imperial Cakes 187 

Plum Cakes 187 

Gold and Silver Cakes 188 

To Make Small Sponge Cakes ig8 

Lemon Cheese Cakes 189 

Snow Cakes 189 

Tilden Cakes 189 

Corn Starch Cakes 189 

Birthday Cakes 190 

Naples Biscuit 190 

Cake Trifles 190 

Ribbon Cake 198 

Jelly Rolf 198 

Delicate Crullers '199 

Savoy Cake 190 

Composition Cake 101 

Almond Cream Cake 191 

Ice Cream Cake 191 

Economical Cake 192 

Dehcate Cake 191 

Orange Cake 192 

Jelly Kisses 193 

Fig Cake 193 

Fried Cake ig j 

Cocoa-nut Kisses 193 

California Cake 154 

White Mountain Cake 194 

Lemon Cake 194 

Strawberry Short Cake 194 

Marble Cake 195 

White Pound Cake 195 

Nell's Chocolate Cake 195 

Rice Cake 196 

Cream Cake 196 

Sponge Cake 196 

Doughnuts 196 

Coffee Cake , 197 

Spice Cake 197 

Soft Ginger Bread 197 

Sweet Strawberry Short Cake 197 

Ginger Nuts >a? 



Complexion Wash 

To Clear a Tanned Skin 

Oil to Make the Hair Curl 

Wrinkles in the Skin 

Pearl Water for the Face 

Pearl Dentifrice 

Wash for a Blotched Face 

Face Powder 


A Good Wash for the Hair 


To Make Green Tea 

To Make Black Tea Make as di- 
rected for Green 

Iced Tea 



Lemon Syrup 

Strawberry Syrup . 

Raspberry Syrup 

Strawberry Sherbet 

Raspberry Vinegar 


Egg Nogg 

Raisin Wine 

Currant Wine 

Ginger Wine 

Fine Milk Punch 

Claret Cup 

Roman Punch 

Cream Nectar 

Red Currant Cordial , 

Elderberry Syrup 



Boiled Custard 200 

Lemon Custard 200 

Snow Custard 200 

Tapioca Custard 201 

Blanc Mangt 202 

Rice Blanc Mange 202 

Apple Trifle 203 

Lemon Trifle 203 

Floating Island 204 

Apple Snow 204 

Tropical Snow 204 

Swiss Cream 205 

Italian Cream 205 

Whipped Cream 205 

Tipsy Cake... jo6 

Snow Pyramids 206 

An Excellent Dessert. 

Apple Fritters 

Jelly Cake Fritters 

Black Meringue 

Charlotte Russe 

Jellied Grapes 

Jelly and Custard 

Lemon Toast 

Dish of Snow Whipped Cream. . 

Omelet for Dessert 

Jelly Fritters <.. 


... 206 
... 207 
... 207 
... 207 
... 208 
... 208 
... 208 
.. 209 
.. 209 
. .. 810 

Boiled Salmon 3$ 

Broiled Salmon 35 

Baked Salmon 35 

Salmon Trout 36 

Spiced Salmon (Pickled) 36 

Salmon and Caper Sauce 37 

Salmon Cutlets 37 

Dried or smoked Salmon 37 

Boiled Cod 38 

Cod Pie 38 

Dried Codfish 38 

Stewed Salt Cod 38 

Codfish Cakes 39 

Boiled Bass 39 

Fried Bass 39 

To Fry or Boil Fish Properly 40 

Baked Black Bass 40 

Broiled Mackerel 40 

Salt Mackerel with Cream Sauce 41 

Boiled Eels.. . 42 

Fricasseed Eels 42 

Fried Eels 42 

Collared Eels 42 

Fried Trout $ 

Trout in Jelly (or other Fish) 43 

Boiled Trout 43 

Broiled Trout 44 

Baked Haddock 44 

Curried Haddock..... 44 

Fricasseed Haddock 45 

Broiled White Fish (Fresh) 45 

Baked White Fish 45 

To Choose Lobsters 46 

Boiled Lobsters 46 

Curried Lobsters 46 

Lobster Chowder 46 



To Fry Smelts 47 

Red Herrings or Yarmouth Bloaters.. 48 

Rolled Fish 48 

Oysters on the Shell 49 




Oysters Stewed with Milk 49 

Oysters Fried in Butter 49 

Oysters Scalloped 49 

Ovsters Fried 5 

Oyster Patties 5 

Oysters Broiled 5' 

Clam Fritters 5< 

Clams, Soft Shelled 5' 

To Broil Soft Shell Clams 5 ' 

Clam Chowder > 5 2 


Currant Ice 227 

Strawberry or Raspberry Ice 227 

Orange and Lemon Ices 227 

Ice-Cream 227 

Vanilla or Lemon Ice-cream , 228 

Strawberry Ice-cream 228 

Chocolate Ice-cream 228 

Cream Candies 2:5 

Pineapple Ice-cream 229 

Italian Cream 230 

To Make Barley Sugar.. 230 

To Make Everton Toffy 231 

Cocoa-nut Drops 231 

Molasses Candy....'. 231 

Chocolate Caramels 231 

Lemon Candy 232 


Port Wine Jelly 240 

Tapioca Jelly . 240 

Arrowroot Wine Jelly 240 

Jellied Chicken 240 

Chicken Broth 241 

To mate Gruel 24 1 

Barley Water 242 

Arrowroot Blanc Mango 242 

Lemonade for Invalids 242 

Mutton Broth 243 

Flax-seed Lemonade 243 

Arrowroot 243 

Stewed Rabbits in Miik 244 

Slippery Elm Bark Tea 244 

Beef Tea 244 

Egg Wine 244 

Toast-Water 245 

Onion Gruel 245 


Roast Beef 53 

FV.,,,,,] of i:,,. f >>...iH... t ,.,....,..,, j 


Beef Salted, or Corned Red 53 

To Boil Corned Beef 5$ 

A Nice Way to Serve Cold Beef 55 

Spiced Beef 55 

Broiled Beefsteak * 56 

Fried Beefsteak 56 

Beefsteak Pie 57 

Boiled Leg of Mutton 57 

Roast Loin of Mutton 58 

Broiled Mutton Chops 58 

Mutton Chop, Fried 58 

Roast Forequarter of Lamb... ...... 58 

Lambs' Sweet Breads 59 

To Roast Veal 60 

Veal Cutlets , 61 

Stuffed Fillet of Veal with Bacon 61 

Veal Cake 62 

Veal Pie 62 

Boiled Calf's Head 63 

Calf's Head Cheese...., 64 

Boiled Calf's Feet, Parsley and 

Butter 64 

Calf's Liver and Bacon 64 

Sweet Breads 65 

Egged Veal Hasli 65 

Roast Beef with Yorkshire Pudding... 66 

Beef Heart, Baked or Roasted 66 

Beef Kidney 67 

Rolled Beef ..., 67 

Boiled Tongue 68 

Fricasseed Tripe 8ft 

Broiled Tripe 6S 

Roast Rabbit 6ij 

Stewed Rabbit, Larded 6q 

Fricasseed Rabbit 7<v 

A Pretty Dish of Venison 70 

To Boil Venison Steaks... 70 

Beefsteak and Kidney Pudding 7. 


Hashed Cold Meat 72 

Potato and Beef Hash 72 

Dried Beef... 73 

Chicken Cultlets 7* 

Beef Patties 74 

Jellied Veal ; 74 

Rice and Meat Croquettes 75 

American Toast 75 

Meat and Potatoes 75 

Breaded Sausages 75 

Ham Croquettes 75 

A Nice Breakfast Dish 76 

Chickeu in Jelly 76 

4 Good Dmb,. . 3$ 





An excellent Hard Soap 249 

To Wash Woolen Blankets 149 

For Clothes that Fade 250 

Lamp Wicks 250 

To Make Old Crape Look Nearly 

Equal to New 250 

A Cement for Stoves 250* 

To Clean Red Gloves 251 

Stains and Spots 251 

To Remove Grease Spots 252 

Stains on Marble 252 

Paint or Varuish 253 

To Remove Ink from Carpets 253 

To Remove Ink from Paper 253 

Feed for Canary Birds 253 

Ink on Rosewood o' Mahogany 254 

Coal Fire 254 

Polish for Bright Stoves and Steel 

Articles 254 

To Prevent Pumps from F'reezing. . .. 254 

To Keep Starch from Sticking 254 

To Keep off Mosquitoes 255 

To Brighten Gilt Frames 255 

To Make Hens Lay in Winter 255 

To Preserve Steel Pens 


Camphor 256 

To Clean Combs 256 

For Cleaning Jewelry .- 256 

For Washing Silver and Silverware... 256 
For Washing Glass and Glassware... 257 

I nsects and Vermin 257 

Moths in Caq^ets 258 

Smooth Sad Irons 258 

To Sweeten Meat 258 

Stove Polish 258 

Cleaning White Paint 259 

To Cleanse the Inside of Jars 259 

Furniture Polish 259 

Squeaking Doors 259 

For Cleaning Mirrors 259 

To Soften Putty 259 

To Remove Stains from Mattresses.. 260 

Kaisoniining 260 

Papering Whitewashed Wa"s 260 

How to Clean Corsets...., .. 261 

To Clean Hairbrushes 261 

How to Wash Flannels 261 

Cleaning Lace 262 

N<-w Keiths 262 

To Keep Flies off Gilt Frames 262 

To Prevent Knives from Rusting 262 

Cement for Glassware 263 



Waterproof Paper 263 

Recipe for Violet Ink 263 

Perspiration 203 

Renewing oid Kid Gloves 264 

Cologne Water 264 

To Cleanse a Sponge 264 

Icy Windo-.vs 264 

To Remove Blood liom Cloth .... 264 

Camphor Ice 265 

Starch Polish 265 

To Clean Feathers 265 

To Test Nutmegs 265 

To Clean Mica 265 

To Soften Hard Water 265 

To Destroy Vermin in the Hair 266 

To Remove Bruises from Furnituie. .. 266 

Pearl Smelling Salts - 266 

Pounded Glass.... 266 

Polish for Boots 266 

To Clean Plate 267 

To Clean Decanters 267 

Spots on Towels and Hosiery 267 

Croup 263 

Poison Ivy or Oak..... 268 

Convulsion Fits 269 

Burns and Scalds ' 269 

Cuts 269 

Cold on the Chest 269 

Bleeding from the Nose . 269 

Chilblains 270 

To Cure a Sting of Bee or Wasp 271 

For Toothache 271 

Choking 271 

Excellent Carminative Powder for 

Flatulent Infants 271 

Cubeb Berries for Catarrh 272 

Diarrhoea 272 

= 76 

For Sick Room 

Bites of Dogs 

Measles and Scarlatina 

Stye in the Eye 

For Constipation 

Leanness . 

Superfluous Hairs 

The Breath 

The Quinine Cure for Drunkenness.. 

For Sore Throa t 

A Good Cure for Colds 

To Stop Bleeding 

A Health Appetizer 

To Remove Discoloration from |!-HII-L' 

To Cure Toothache 

For Felon 



Excellent Deodorizers , 277 

To Cure a Boil 377 

To Cure a Whitlow 278 

Tape Worms 278 

Fora Caked Breast 278 

Remedy for Blistered Feet 278 

Relief for Asthma 278 

Chapped Hands 279 

Lunar Caustic 279 

Rheumatism and Headache 279 

Fever and Ague 279 

For a Fainting Fit 279 

To Restore from Stroke of Lightning. 280 

Relief for Inflamed Feet 280 

Warm Water 280 

Cleaning House, Sitting and Dining 

Room 280 

How to Dust a Room 283 

Girls Learn to Cook 284 

Teach the Little Ones 284 

Children Love Games 285 

Teach Your Own Children 286 

Cultivating Selfishness in Children ... 286 

Packing Away Furs . 288 

Courage 288 

The Art of Beauty in Dress 289 

Home Dressmaking 291 

A Woman's Skirts 293 

To Make Sleeves 294 

All About Kitchen Work 295 

A Nice Clothes Frame 297 

Sunlit Rooms 298 

Pleasant Homes 299 

How to be Handsome 300 

Headache 307 

High-Heeled Boots 309 

Make Home Pleasant 3 10 

Dinner Table Fancies 311 

The Use of Ammonia 312 

Laughter 313 

Items Worth Remembering 314 

Those Ungrateful Habits 314 


Remarks 155 

Christmas Plum Pudding 155 

Boiled Batter Pudding 156 

Batter Pudding 156 

Madeira Pudding 157 

Apple Sauce Pudding 157 

Queen of Puddings. 157 

Orange Pudding 158 

Corn Starch Pudding 158 

French Pudding IS9 


Belle's Pudding 159 

Cream Tapioca Pudding 160 

A Bachelor's Pudding.... 160 

Macaroni Pudding 160 

Baked Indian Pudding , 161 

Boiled Indian Pudding 161 

Marmalade Pudding 161 

Boiled Apple Pudding i^- 

Nelly's Pudding 162 \ 

Rich Baked Apple Pudding . , 163 * 

Snow Balls 163 

Rice Pudding 163 

Apple Charlotte 164 

Ground Rice Pudding 164 

Fig Pudding 164 

Bread and Butter Pudding 165 

Cabinet Pudding 165 

Snow Pudding 165 

Carrot Pudding 166 

Lemon Pudding 166 

Roly-Poly Pudding 166 

Cottage Pudding 166 

Cocoanut Pudding 167 

Cream Pudding 167 

Tapioca Pudding 167 

Common Custard 167 


Rich Wine Sauce 169 

Whipped Cream Sauce 169 

Lemon Sauce 169 

Jelly Sauce 169 

Cabinet Pudding Sauce 1 70 

Foaming Sauce-. 170 

Spanish Sauce 170 

Hard Sauce 170 

Pudding Sauce 170 

Sauce for Plum Pudding 171 

Vanilla Sauce 171 


Very Good Puff Paste 171 

Plainer Paste 173 

Suet Crusts for Pies or Puddings 173 

To Ice Pastry 173 

To Graze Pastry 174 

Mince Meat 174 

Mock Mince Pie 175 

Apple Custard Pie 175 

Apple Meringue Pie 175 

Apple Pie 176 

Lemon Pie . 176 




Custard Pie 176 

Cocoanut Pie.... 177 

Lemon Tarts 177 

Pastry Sandwiches 177 

Cherry Pie 178 

Squash Pie 178 

Cream Pie.. 178 

Tartlets 178 

Peach Pie 179 

Pumpkin Pie 179 

Tart Shells 179 

Mince Pies 180 


To Preserve Plums Without the 

Skins 211 

To Preserve Purple Plums 211 

Preserved Greengages in Syrup 212 

Preserved Cherries in Syrup 212 

Preserved Pears 213 

Preserved Peaches 213 

Preserved Citron 214 

Crab Apples Preserved 214 

Pine Apple Preserved 214 

Gooseberry Jam.... 214 

Black Currant Jam 215 

Raspberry Jam 215 

Quince Preserve 215 

Red Currant Jelly 216 

Apple Jelly 217 

Black Currant Jelly 217 

Crab Apple Jelly 218 

Other Jellies 218 

Wine Jelly 218 

Calves' Feet Jelly 218 

Orange Marmalade 219 

Lemon Marmalade 219 

Quince Marmalade 219 

Peach Marmalade 220 

Apple Butter 220 

Lemon Butter 220 

Peach Butter 221 


Apple Ginger (A Dessert Dish) 221 

Iced Currants 221 

To Bottle Fresh Fruit 222 

To Green Fruit for Preserving in Sugar 

or Vinegar 222 

To Color Preserves Pink....,.,.,,,. 223 

To Color Fruit Yellow... :-> .......... 323 

Canned Peaches ..................... 223 

Canned Strawberries ............... 223 

Canned Pears ....................... 224 

Canned Plums ............ .......... 224 

Canned Currants .................... 224 

Canned Pineapple .................... 225 

Canned Quinces. . . ........... .... 225 

Canned Tomatoes .................... 225 

Canned Corn .......................... 225 


Roast Turkey ...................... 78 

Boiled Turkey .... .................. 79 

To Roast a Fowl or Chicken ......... So 

Boiled Chicken..... ................. Si 

Broiled Chicken ..................... 8 1 

Fried Chicken ........... . ........... 8t 

Fricassee of Chicken . .............. 82 

To Curry Chicken .................... 82 

Pressed Chicken .................... 82 

Chicken Pot-Pie .................... 83 

Chicken Salad ....................... 83 

Chicken, Jellied ..................... 84 

Chicken Pates ........................ 84 

Sage and Onion Stuffing for Geese, 

Ducks, and Pork ................... 84 

To Roast a Goose ............ . ....... 85 

Roast Ducks ......................... 86 

Roast Pigeons .... .................... 86 

To Make a Bird's Nest .............. 87 

Pigeons in Jelly ..................... 87 



Wild Ducks ....................... . 89 

Roast Wild Duck .................... 89 

Wild Turkey ........................ 89 

To Roast Snipe, Woodcock, and 

Plover ............................ 90 

Roast Partridge ...................... 92 

Roast Quail ......................... 9; 

Roast Prairie Chicken ....... . ....... 01 

Larded Grouse ...................... 82 


To Choose Pork ..................... 92 

Curing Hams ......................... 93 

To Roast a Leg of Pork .............. 93 

Pork and Beans ............. . ........ 94 

Pork Sausages ...... . ................ 94 

Pork Chops, Steaks, and Cutlets ---- 95 

Roast Pig .......................... 95 

Pigs' Cheek ......j, ....... ......... <# 




^Roast Spare Rib 96 

Pork Fritters 97 

Baked Ham 97 

To Boil a Ham 97 

To Broil a Ham 98 

Fried Ham and Eggs 98 

Ham Toast 98 

Head Cheese 99 

Pigs' Feet Soused 100 

To Make Lard 100 

To Tell Good Eggs 101 

Keeping Eggs Fresh 101 

Poached Eggs 102 

Dropped Eggs 102 

Stuffed Eggs 102 

Eggs a la Suissie . 103 

Eggs Brouille 103 

EggsCurried 103 

Eggs Creamed 104 

Soft Boiled Eggs 104 

Eggs Upon Toast 104 

Dutcli Omelet 104 

Eggs Poached in Balls 105 

Omelet au Natural 105 

Omelet in Batter 105 

Scrambled Eggs. 106 

Omelet (Splendid) 106 


Remarks on Soups 20 

Stock Soups 22 

White Stock 22 

Skin of Beef 23 

Mutton with Tapioca 24 

Veal 25 

Ox Tail 25 

Vegetable 25 

Macaroni 26 

Vermicelli 26 

Chicken Cream 26 

Mock Turtle 27 

Hard Pea 27 

Green Pea 28 

Potato 2q 

Tomato 29 

Plain Calf's Head 30 

A la Julienne -jz 

Gatn= ... .....-%; 31 

v-eiery 31 

Oyster 31 

Lobster 32 

Egg Balls for Soup 32 

,..,.,.,,. .,,.,.,, ,.,, 32 


Irish Stew 3J 

To get up Soup in Haste 34 

To color Soups 34 


To Make Drawn Butter 124 

Parsley Sauce 124 

Egg Sauce 124 

Onion Sauce 125 

Anchovy Sauce 125 

Bread Sauce 125 

Tomato Sauce 125 

Tomato Mustard 126 

Mint Sauce 126 

Celery Sauce '29 

Governor's Sauce 129 

Cream Sauce 127 

Russian Sauce 127 

Mayonnaise Sauce 127 

Oyster Sauce 128 

Lobster Sauce 128 

Caper Sauce 128 

Mustard Sauce 128 

Curry Sauce ' 2 9 

Cranberry Sauce 129 

Port Wine Sauce for Game 130 

Currant Jelly Sauce 13 

Apple Sauce >y> 


Lettuce 140 

Lettuce Salad 14 

Salmon Salad 141 

Lobster Salad 141 

Tomato Salad 14* 

Sard in? Salad 142 

Salad Dressing 142 

French Salad Dressing 142 

Cream Dressing for Cold Slaw 143 

Chicken Salad . . 143 

Red Vegetable Salad ...' - 

Celery Salad :+4 

Cold Slaw.... ., 144 

iviiad Dressing (Excellent) 144 

Pickled Cucumbers 145 

To Pickk- Onions 145 

Pickled Cauliflowers 145 

Red Cabbage 145 

To Pickle Tomatoes 146 

RipeTonjato Pickles,,......,.,,.,,. 146 



Chopped Pickle 146 

Chow-Chow 147 

Piccalilli 147 

Pickled Walnuts (very good 147 

Green Tomato Pickle 148 

Chili Sauce 148 

Mixed Pickles 148 

Pickled Mushrooms 149 

Favorite Pickles 149 

Tomato Mustard 150 

Indian Chetney 150 

Pickled Cherries 150 

Pickled Plums 151 

Spiced Plums 151 

Peaches, Pears, and Sweet Apples.... 151 

Tomato Catsup 151 

Walnut Catsup 1 52 

Mushroom Catsup 152 

Brine that Preserves Buttera Year.... 153 

Butter in Haste 153 


Boiled Potatoes 107 

Mashed Potatoes 107 

Fried Potatoes 108 

Broiled Potatoes ... 108 

Potatoes and Cream 108 

Potato Puffs 109 

Potato Snow 109 

Potato Border 109 

Potatoes, Whipped 109 

Potatoes, Scalloped no 

Potato Croquettes no 

Potatoes a la Cream no 

To Boil Sweet Potatoes no 

Roasted Sweet Potatoes in 

Baked Sweat Potatoes.. .. in 


French Fried in 

Turnips in 

Spinach in 

Beets n: 

To Preserves Vegetables (or Winter. . 1 1> 

De icate Cabbage 113 

Red Cabbage 114 

Cauliflowers 114 

Mashed Carrots 114 

Boiled Green Corn 114 

Green Peas 115 

To Boil Onions 115 

Fried Onions 115 

Boiled Parsnips 115 

Parsnips Fried in Butter 116 

Parsnips Creamed 116 

Parsnip Fritters 1 16 

Salsify, or Vegetable Oyster 117 

Broiled Vegetable Marrow 117 

Stewed Tomatoes 118 

Baked Tomatoes 118 

Stuffed Tomatoes iiq 

Scalloped Tomatoes 119 

To Peal Tomatoes - 119 

Baked Beans 120 

String Beans 120 

Butter Beans 120 

Asparagus with Eggs 121 

Asparagus upon Toast 12 1 

Mushrooms, Stewed 121 

Mushrooms, Fried 121 

Mushrooms, Baked 122 

Mushrooms, Broiled 122 

Mashed Squash 122 

Baked Squash 122 

Fried Squash 121 

Stewed Celery 123 

Stuffed Egg Plant 123 


OF all the arts upon which the physical well-being of 
man, in his social state, is dependent, none has been more 
neglected than that of cookery, though none is more im- 
portant, for it supplies the very fountain of life. The 
preparation of human food, so as to make it at once 
wholesome, nutritive, and agreeable to the palate, has 
hitherto been beset by imaginary difficulties and strong 

Many persons associate the idea of wealth with culinary 
perfection; others consider unwholesome, as well as ex- 
pensive, everything that goes beyond the categories of 
boiling, roasting, and the gridiron. All are aware that 
wholesome and luxurious cookery is by no means incom- 
patible with limited pecuniary rrieans; whilst in roasted, 
boiled, and broiled meats, which constitute what is 
f ermed true American fare, much that is nutritive and 
agreeable is often lost for want of skill in preparing 
them. Food of every description is wholesome and di- 
gestible in proportion as it approaches nearer to the state 
of complete digestion, or, in other words, to that state 
termed c/iyme, whence the chyle or milky juice that after- 
wards forms blood is absorbed, and conveyed to the heart. 
Now nothing is further from this state than raw meat 
and raw vegetables. Fire is therefore necessary to 
soften them, and thereby begin that elaboration which 
is consummated in the stomach. The preparatory pro- 


cess, which forms the cook's art, is more or less perfect 
in proportion as the aliment is softened, without losing 
any of its juices or flavor for flavor is not only an agreea- 
ble but a necessary accompaniment to wholesome food. 
Hence it follows, that meat very much underdone, 
whether roasted or boiled, is not so wholesome as meat 
W^ll done but retaining all its juices. And here comes 
the necessity for the cook's skill, which is so often at 
fault even in these simple modes of preparing human 

Pork, veal, lamb, and all young meats, when not thor- 
oughly cooked, are absolute poison to the stomach; and 
if half-raw beef or mutton are often eaten with impunity, 
it must not be inferred that they are wholesome in their 
semi-crude state, but only less unwholesome than the 
young meats. 

Vegetables, also, half done, which is the state in which 
they are often sent to the table, are productive of great 
gastric derangement, often of a predisposition to cholera. 

A great variety of relishing, nutritive, and even elegant 
dishes, may be prepared from the most homely mate- 
rials, which may not only be rendered more nourishing^ 
but be made to go much further in a large family than 
they usually do. The great secret of all cookery, except 
in roasting and broiling, is a judicious use of butter, flour, 
and herbs, and the application of a very slow fire for 
good cooking requires only gentle simmering, but no 
boiling up, which only renders the meat hard. Good 
roasting can only be acquired by practice, and the per- 
fection lies in cooking the whole joint thoroughly with- 
out drying up the juice of any part of it. This is also 
the case with broiling; while a joint under process of 
boiling, as we have said, should be allowed to simmer 

WH.h regard to made-dishes, as the horrible imitations of 
French cookery prevalent in Americ^ re tgrmed, 


admit that they are very unwholesome. All the juice* 
are boiled out of the meat, which is swimming in a he- 
terogenous compound, disgusting to the sight, and sea- 
soned so strongly with spice and Cayenne pepper enough 
to inflame the stomach of an ostrich. 

French cookery is generally mild in seasoning, and free 
from grease; it is formed upon the above-stated principle 
of reducing the aliment as near to the state of chyme as 
possible, without injury to its nutritive qualities, render- 
ing it at once easy of digestion and pleasant to the taste. 


In the first place, the housewife ought, where it is pos- 
sible, to do her marketing herself, and pay ready-money for 
everything site purchases. This is the only way in which 
she can be sure of getting the best goods at the lowest 
price. We repeat that this is the only way compatible 
with economy; because, if a servant be entrusted with 
the buying, she will, if she is not a good judge of the 
quality of articles, bring home those she can get for the 
least money (and these are seldom the cheapest); and 
even if she is a go^d judge, it is ten to one against her 
taking the trouble to make a careful selection. 

When the ready-money system is found inconvenient, 
and an account is run with a dealer, the mistress of the 
house ought to have a pass-book in which she should 
write down all the orders herself, leaving the dealer to 
fill in only the prices. Where this is not done, and the 
mistress neglects to compare the pass-book with the 
goods ordered every time they are brought in, it some- 
times happens, either by mistak-e, or the dishonesty of 
the dealer, or the servant, that goods are entered which 
were never ordered, perhaps never had, and that those 
Nvhich were ordered are overcharged; and if these errors 
are not detected at the time, they are sure to be difficult 


of adjustment afterwards. For these and other econo- 
mic reasons, the housewife should avoid running ac- 
counts, and pay ready-money. 


Dr. Hall, on this important subject, gives the follow 
ing advice: 

1. Never sit down to table with an anxious or dis- 
turbed mind; betters hundred times intermit that meal, 
for there will then be that much more food in the world 
for hungrier stomachs than yours; and besides, eating 
under such circumstances can only, and will always, pro- 
long and aggravate the condition of things. 

2. Never*sit down to a meal after any intense mental 
effort, for physical and mental injury are inevitable, and 
no one has a right to deliberately injure body, mind, or 

3. Never go to a full table during bodily exhaustion 
designated by some as being worn out, tired to death, 
used up, overdone, and the like. The wisest thing to be 
done under such circumstances is to take a cracker and 
a cup of warm tea, either black or green, and no more. 
In ten minutes you will feel a degree of refreshment and 
liveliness which will be pleasantly surprising to you; not 
of the transient kind which a glass of liquor affords, but 
permanent; but the tea gives present stimulus and a 
little strength, and before it subsides, nutriment begins 
to draw from the sugar, and cream, and bread, thus al- 
lowing the body gradually, and by safe degrees, to re- 
gain its usual vigor. Then, in a co-uple of hours, a full 
meal may be taken, provided that it does not bring it 
later than two hours before sundown; if later, then take 
nothing for that day in addition to the cracker and tea, 
and the next day you will feel a freshness and vigor not 
recently known. 


No lady will require to be advised a second time, who 
will conform to the above rules; while it is a fact of no 
unusual observation among intelligent physicians, that 
eating heartily, and under bodily exhaustion, is not un- 
frequently the cause of alarming and painful illness, and 
sometimes sudden death. These things being so, let 
every family make it a point to assemble around the table 
with kindly feelings with a cheerful humor, and a cour- 
teous spirit; and let that member of it be sent from it in 
disgrace who presumes to mar the re-union by sullen si- 
lence, or impatient look, or angry tone, or complaining 
tongue. Eat ever in thankful gladness, or away with 
you to the kitchen, you "ill-tempered thing, that you 
are." There was good philosophy in the old-time cus- 
tom of having a buffoon or music at the dinner-table. 


Ox-BEEF, when it is young, will have a fine open grain, 
and a good red color; the fat should be white, for when 
it is of a deep yellow color, the meat is seldom very good. 
The grain of cow-beef is closer, the fat whiter, and the 
lean scarcely so red as that of ox-beef. When you see 
beef, of which the fat is hard and skinny, and the lean of 
a deep red, you may be sure that it is of an inferior kind; 
and when the meat is old, you may know it by a line of 
horny texture running through the meat of the ribs. 

MUTTON must be chosen by the firmness and fineness 
>f the grain, its good color, and firm white fat. It is not 
considered prime until the sheep is about five years 

LAMB will not keep long after it is killed. It can be dis- 
covered by the neck end in the fore-quarter if it has been 
killed too long, the veins in the neck being bluish when 
the meat is fresh, but green when it is stale. In the hind 
quarter, the same discovery may be made by examining 



the kidney and the knuckle, for the former has a slight 
smell, and the knuckle is not firm, when the meat has been 
killed too long. 

PORK should have a thin rind ; and when it is fresh, the 
,meat is smooth and cool ; but, when it looks flabby, and is 
(clammy to the touch, it is not good ; and pork, above all 
'meat, is disagreeable when it is stale. If you perceive many 
enlarged glands, or, as they are usually termed, kernels, in 
the fat of the pork, you may conclude that the pork cannot 
be wholesome. 

VEAL is generally preferred of a delicate whiteness, but 
it is more juicy and well-flavored when of a deeper color. 
Butchers bleed calves profusely in order to produce this 
white meat ; but this practice must certainly deprive the 
meat of some of its nourishment and flavor. When you 
choose veal, endeavor to look at the loin, which affords 
the best means of judging of the veal generally, for if the 
kidney, which may be found on the under side of one end 
of the loin, be deeply enveloped in white and firm-looking 
fat, the meat will certainly be good ; and the same ap- 
pearance will enable you to judge if it has been recently 
killed. The kidney is the part which changes the first ; and 
then the suet around it becomes soft, and the meat flabby 
and spotted 

BACON, like pork, should have a thin rind ; the fat should 
be firm, and inclined to a reddish color ; and the lean should 
firmly adhere to the bone, and have no yellow streaks in it. 
When you are purchasing a ham, have a knife stuck into it 
to the bone, which, if the ham be well cured, may be drawn 
out again without having any of the meat adhering to it, and 
without your perceiving any disagreeable smell. A short ham 
is reckoned the best. 



TURBOT, which is in season the greater part of the 
year, should have the underside of a yellowish white, for 
when it is very transparent, blue, or thin, it is not good: 
the whole fish should be thick and firm. 

SALMON should have a fine red flesh and gills; the 
scales should be bright, and the whole fish firm. Many 
persons think that salmon is improved by keeping a day 
or two. 

COD should be judged by the redness of the gills, the 
whiteness, stiffness, and firmness of the flesh, and the 
clear freshness of the eyes; these are the infallible 
proofs of its being good. The whole fish should be 
thick and firm. 

WHITE-FISH may be had good almost throughout the 
year; but the time in which they are in their prime is 
early in the year. The white-fish is light and delicate, 
and in choosing it you must examine whether the fins 
and flesh be firm. 

FRESH-WATER FISH may be chosen by similar observa- 
tions respecting the firmness of the flesh, and the clear 
appearance of the eyes, as salt-water fish. 

In a LOBSTER lately caught, you may put the claws in 
motion by pressing the eyes; but when it has been long 
caught, the muscular action is not excited. The fresh- 
ness of boiled lobsters may be determined by the elas- 
ticity of the tail, which is flaccid when they have lost 
any of their wholesomeness. Their goodness, independ- 
ent of freshness, is determined by their weight. 

CRABS, too, must be judged of by their weight, for 
when they prove light, the flesh is generally found to be 
wasted and watery. If in perfection, the joints of the 
legs will be stiff, and the body will have an agreeable 
smell. The eyes, by a dull appearance, betray that the 
crab has been long caught. 



In the choice of Poultry the age of the bird is the 
chief point to which you should attend. 

A young TURKEY has a smooth black leg; in an old 
one the legs are rough and reddish. If the bird be fresh 
killed the eyes will be full and fresh, and tlie feet moist 

FOWLS, when they are young, the combs and the legs 
will be smooth, and rough when they are old. 

In GEESE, when they are young, the bills and the feet 
are yellow and have a few hairs upon them, but they are 
red if the bird be old. The feet of a goose are pliable 
when the bird is fresh killed, and dry and stiff when it 
has been killed some time. Geese are called green till 
they are two or three months old. 

DUCKS should be chosen by the feet, which should be 
supple; and they should also have a plump and hard 
breast. The feet of a tame duck are yellowish, those of 
a wild one, reddish. 

PIGEONS should always be eaten while they are fresh; 
when they look flabby and discolored about the under 
part, they have been kept too long. The feet, like those 
of poultry, show the age of the bird; when they are sup- 
pie, it is young; when stiff, it is old. Tame pigeons are 
fcarger than wild ones. 


VENISON, when young, will have the fat clear and 
bright, and this ought also to be of a considerable thick- 
ness. When you do not wish to have it in a very high 
state, a knife plunged into either haunch or the shoulder, 
and drawn out, will by the smell enable you to judge if 
the venison be sufficiently fresh. 

With regard to venison, which, as it is not an every- 
day article of diet, it may be convenient to keep fot 


Some time after it has begun to get high or tainted, it is 
useful to know that animal putrefaction is checked by 
fresh burnt charcoal; by means of which, therefore, the 
venison may be prevented from getting worse, although 
it cannot be restored to its original freshness. The meat 
should be placed in a hollow dish, and the charcoal pow- 
der strewed over it until it covers the joint to the thick- 
ness of half an inch. 

HARES and RABBITS, when the ears are dry and tough, 
the haunch thick, and the claws blunt and rugged, they 
are old. Smooth and sharp claws, ears that readily tear, 
and a narrow cleft in the lip, are the marks of a young 
hare. Hares may be kept for some time after they have 
been killed; indeed, many people think they are not fit for 
the table until the inside begins to turn a little. Care, 
however, should be taken to prevent the inside from be- 
coming musty, which would spoil the flavor of the stuffing. 

PARTRIDGES have yellow legs and a dark-colored bill 
when young. They are not in season till after the first 
of September 


In putting the hands round the egg r and presenting to 
the light the end which is not covered, it should be trans- 
parent. If you can detect some tiny spots, it is not new- 
ly laid, but may be very good for all ordinary purposes 
except boiling soft. If you see a large spot near the 
shell, it is bad, and should not be used on any account. 
The white of a newly-laid egg boiled soft is like milk; 
that of an egg a day old, is like rice boiled in milk; and 
that of an old egg, compact, tough, and difficult to 
digest. A cook ought not to give eggs two or three days 
old to people who really care for fresh eggs, under the 
delusion that they will not find any difference; for an 
amateur will find it out in a moment, not only by the 
appearance, but also by the taste. 



THE seat for the carver should be somewhat elevated 
above the other chairs; it is extremely ungraceful to carve 
standing, and it is rarely done by any person accustomed 
to the business. Carving depends more on skill than on 
strength. \Ve have seen very small women carve admir- 
ably sitting down ; and very tall men who knew not how 
to cut a piece of beefsieak without rising on their feet to 
do it. 

The carving-knife should be very sharp, and not heavy ; 
and it should be held firmly in the hand ; also the dish 
should be not too far from the carver. It is customary to help 
the fish with a fish trowel, and not with a knife. The middle 
part of a fish is generally considered the best. In helping 
it, avoid breaking the flakes, as that will give it a mangled 

In carving ribs or sirloin of beef begin by cutting thin 
slices off the side next to you. Afterwards you may cut 
from the tenderloin, or cross-part near the lower end. Do 
not send anyone the outside piece, unless you know that they 
particularly wish it. 

In helping beefsteak put none of the bone on the plate. 
In cutting a round of corned beef begin at the top ; but lay 
aside the first cut or outside piece, and send it to no one, as 
it is always dry and hard. In a round of beef d-la mode the 
outside is frequently preferred. 

In a leg of mutton begin across the middle, cutting the 
slices quite down to the bone. The same with a leg of pork 
or a ham. The latter should be cut in very thin slices, as its 
flavor is spoiled when cut thick. 

To taste well, a tongue should be cut crossways in 
round slices. Cutting it lengthwise (though the prac- 
tice at many tables) injures the flavor. The middle part 
of the tongue is the best. Do not help anyone to a 


piece of the root; that, being by no means a favored 
part, is generally left in the dish. 

In carving a fore-quarter of lamb first separate the 
shoulder part from the breast and ribs by passing the 
knife under, and then divide the ribs. If the lamb is 
large, have another dish brought to put the shoulder in. 

For a loin of veal begin near the smallest end, and 
separate the ribs; helping a part of the kidney (as far as 
it wiii go) with each piece. Carve a loin of pork or mut- 
ton in the same manner. 

In carving a fillet of veal begin at the top. Many per- 
sons prefer the first cut or outside piece. Help a por- 
tion of the stuffing with each slice. 

In a breast of veal there are two parts very different in 
quality, the ribs and the brisket. You will easily per- 
cieve the division; enter your knife at it and cut 
through, which, will separate the tvv.j parts. Ask the 
person you are going to help whether they prefer a rib, 
or a piece of the brisket. 

For a haunch of venison first make a deep incision by 
passing your knife all along the side, cutting quite down 
to the bone. This is to let out the gravy. Then turn 
the broad end of the haunch towards you, and cut it as 
deep as you can in thin slices, allowing some of the fat 
to each person. 

For a saddle of venison, or of mutton, cut from the 
tail to the other end on each side of the backbone, mak- 
ing very thin slices, and sending some fat wit'h each. 
Venison and roast mutton chill very soon. Currant 
jelly is an indispensable appendage to venison, and to 
roast mutton, and to ducks. 

A young pig is most generally divided before it comes 
to table, in which case it is not customary to send in the 
head, as to many persons it is a revolting spectacle after 
it is cut off. When served up whole, first separate the 
head from the shoulders, then cut off the limbs, and then 


divide the ribs. Help some of the stuffing with each 

To carve a fowl, begin by sticking your fork in the 
pinion, and drawing it towards the leg ; and then pass- 
ing your knife underneath take off the wing at the joint. 
Next, slip your knife between the leg and the body, to 
cut through the joint ; and with the fork turn the leg 
back, and the joint will give way. Ther take off the 
other wing and leg. If the fowl has be^n trussed (as it 
ought to be) with the liver and gizzard, help the liver 
with one wing, and the gizzard with the other. The 
liver-wing is considered the best. After the limbs are 
taken off enter your knife into the top of the breast, and 
cut under the merry-thought, so as to loosen it, lifting it 
with your fork. Afterwards cut slices from both sides 
of the breast. Next take off the collar-bones, which lie 
on each side of the merry-thought, and then separate 
the side-bones from the back. The breast and wings are 
considered as the most delicate parts of the fowl ; the 
back, as the least desirable, is generally left in the dish. 
Some persons, in carving a fowl, find it more convenient 
to take it on a plate, and as they separate it return each 
part to the dish; but this is not the usual way. 

A turkey is carved in the same manner as a fowl; ex- 
cept that the legs and wings, being larger, are separated 
at the lower joint. The lower part of the leg (or drum- 
stick, as it is called), being hard, tough, and stringy, - 
never helped to any one, but allowed to remain on the 
dish. First cut off the wing, leg, and breast from one 
side; then turn the turkey over, and cut them off from 
the other. 

To carve a goose, separate the leg from the body, by 
putting the fork into the small end of the limb; pressing 
it close to the body, and then passing the knife under, 
and turning the leg back, as you cut through the joint, 
TO take off the wing, put your fork into the small end at 



the pinion, and press it closely to the body; then slip the 
knife under, and separate the joint. Next cut under the 
merry-thought, and take it off; and then cut slices from 
the breast. Then turn the goose, and dismember the 
other side. Take off the two upper side-bones that are 
next to the wings, and then the two lower side-bones. 
The breast and legs of a goose afford the finest pieces. 
If a goose is old there is no fowl so tough; and, if diffi- 
cult to carve, it will be still more difficult to eat. 

Partridges, pheasants, grouse, etc., are carved in the 
same manner as fowls. Quails, woodcocks, and snipes 
are merely split down the back; so also are pigeons, giv- 
ing a half to each person. 

In helping any one to gravy, or to melted butter, do 
not pour it over their meat, fowl, or fish, but put it to one 
side on a vacant part of the plate, that they may use just 
as much of it as they like. In filling a plate never heap 
one thing on another. 

In helping vegetables, do not plunge the spoon down 
to the bottom of the dish, in case they should not have 
been perfectly well drained, and the water should have 
settled there. 

By observing carefully how it is done you may acquire 
a knowledge of the joints, and of the process of carving, 
which a little daily practice w.'K soon convert into dex- 
terity. If a young lady is ign.uant of this very useful 
art, it will be well for her to take lessons of her father, 
or her brother, and a married lady can easily learn from 
her husband. Domestics who wait at table may soon, 
from looking on daily, become so expert that, when 
necessary, they can take a dish to the side-table and 
carve it perfectly well. 

At a dinner-party, if the hostess is quite young, she is 
frequently glad to be relieved of the trouble of carving by 
Ue gentleman vvnosits nearest to her; but if she is familiar 
with the business, she usually prefers doing it herseh. 



BE careful to proportion the quantity of water to that 
of the meat. Somewhat less than a quart of water to a 
pound of meat is a good rule for common soups. Rich 
soups, intended for company, may have a still smaller 
allowance of water. 

Soup should always be made entirely of fresh meat 
that has not been previously cooked. An exception to 
this rule may sometimes be made in favor of the re- 
mains of a piece of roast beef that has been very much 
under-done in roasting. This may be added to a good 
piece of raw meat. Cold ham, also, may be occasionally 
put into white soups. 

Soup, however, that has been originally made of raw 
meat entirely is frequently better the second day than 
the first, provided that it is reboiled only for a very short 
time, and that no additional water is added to it. 

Unless it has been allowed to boil too hard, so as to 
exhaust the water, the soup-pot will not require replen- 
ishing. When it is found absolutely necessary to do so, 
the additional water must be boiling-hot when poured in ; 
if lukewarm or cold, it will entirely spoil the soup. 

Every particle of fat should be carefully skimmed from 
the surface. Greasy soup is disgusting and unwhole- 
some. The lean of meat is much better for soup than 
the fat. 

Long and slow boiling is necessary to extract the 
strength from the meat. If boiled fast over a large 
fire, the meat becomes hard and tough, an I vvlil not 
give out its juices. 

Potatoes, if boiled in the soup, are thought by some to 
render it unwholesome., from the opinion that the water 


in which potatoes have been cooked is almost a poison. 
As potatoes are a part of every dinner, it is very easy to 
take a few out of the pot in which they have been boiled 
by themselves, and to cut them up and add them to the 
soup just before it goes to table. Kemove all shreds of 
meat and bone. 

The cook should season the soup but very slightly with 
salt and pepper. If she puts in too much it may spoil 
it for the taste of most of those who are to eat it ; but 
if too little it is easy to add more to your own 



Four pounds of shin of beef, or four pounds of knuckle of 
veal, or two pounds of each ; any bones, trimmings of poultry, 
or fresh meat, quarter pound of lean bacon or ham, two 
ounces of butter, two large onions, each stuck with cloves ; 
one turnip, three carrots, one head of celery, three lumps of 
sugar, two ounces of salt, half a teaspoonful of whole pepper, 
one large blade of mace, one bunch of savory herbs, four 
quarts and half pint of cold water. 

Cut up the meat and bacon, or ham, into pieces of about 
three inches square ; rub the butter on the bottom of the 
stewpan ; put in half a pint of water, the meat, and all the 
other ingredients. Cover the stewpan, and place it on a sharp 
fire, occasionally stirring its contents. When the bottom of 
the pan becomes covered with a pale, jelly-like substance, 
add the four quarts of cold water, and simmer very gently 
for five hours. As we have said before, do not let it boil 
quickly. Remove every particle of scum while it is doing, 
and strain it through a fine hair sieve. 

This stock is the basis of many of the soups afterwards 
mentioned, and will be found quite strong enough for ordi- 
nary purposes. 

Time : five and one half hours. Average cost, twenty-five 
cents per quart. 


Six pounds knuckle of veal, half pound lean bacon, two 
tablespoonfuls of butter rubbed in one of flour, two 


onions, two carrots, two turnips, three cloves stuck in an 
onion, one blade of mace, bunch of herbs, six quarts of 
water, pepper and salt, one cup of boiling milk. 

Cut up the meat and crack the bones. Slice carrots, 
turnips, and one onion, leaving that with the cloves whole. 
Put on with mace, and all the herbs except the parsley, 
in two quarts of cold water. Bring to a slow boil ; take 
off the scum, as it rises, and at the end of an hour's stew- 
ing, add the rest of the cold water one gallon. Cover 
and cook steadily, always gently, four hours. Strain off 
the liquor, of which there should be about five quarts ; 
rub the vegetables through the colander, and pick out 
bones and meat. Season these highly and put, as is your 
Saturday custom, into a wide-mouth jar, or a large bowl. 
Add to them three quarts of stock, well salted, and, when 
cold keep on ice. Cool to-day's stock; remove the fat, 
season, put in chopped parsley, and put over the fire. 
Heat in a saucepan a cup of milk, stir in the floured 
butter; cook three minutes. When the soup has sim- 
mered ten minutes after the last boil, and been carefully 
skimmed, pour into the tureen, and stir in the hot, thick- 
ened milk. 


Get a shin-bone of beef weighing four or five pounds ; 
let the butcher saw it in pieces about two inches long, that 
the marrow may become the better incorporated with the 
soup, and so give it greater richness. 

Wash the meat in cold water; mix together of salt and 
pepper each a tablespoonful, rub this well into the meat, 
then put into a soup-pot; put to it as many quarts of 
water as there are pounds of meat, and set it over a mod- 
erate fire, until it comes to a boil, then take off whatever 
scum may have risen, after which cover it close, and set 
it where it will boil very gently for two hours longer, 
then skim it again, and add to it the proper vegetables 


which are these one large carrot grated, one large tunip 
cut in slices, (the yellow or ruta baga is best) one leek 
cut in slices, one bunch of parsley cut small, six small 
potatoes peeled and cut in half, and a teacupful of pearl 
barley well washed, then cover it and let it boil gently 
for one hour, at which time add another tablespoonful 
of salt and a thickening made of a tablespoonful of 
wheat flour and a gill of water, stir it in by the spoonful; 
cover it for fifteen minutes and it is done. 

Three hours and a half is required to make this soup; 
it is the best for cold weather. Should any remain over 
the first day, it may be heated with the addition of a lit- 
tle boiling water, and served again. 

Take the meat from the soup, and if to be served with 
it, take out the bones, and lay it closely and neatly on a 
dish, and garnish with sprigs of parsley; serve made mus- 
tard and catsup with it. It is very nice pressed and eaten 
with mustard and vinegar or catsup. 


Three pounds perfectly lean mutton. The scrag makes 
good soup and costs little. Two or three pounds of bones, 
well pounded, one onion, two turnips, two carrots, two 
Stalks of celery, a few sprigs of parsley; if you have any 
tomatoes left from yesterday, add them, four tablespoon- 
fuls of pearl or granulated tapioca (not heaping spoon- 
fuls), four quarts of water. 

Put on the meat, cut in small pieces, with the bones, in 
two quarts of cold water. Heat very slowly, and when it 
boils pour in two quarts of hot water from the kettle. 
Chop the vegetables; cover with cold water. So soon as 
they begin to simmer, throw off the first water, replenish- 
ing with hot, and stew until they are boiled to pieces. 
The meat should cook steadily, never fast, five hours, 
keeping the pot-lid on Strain into a great bowl; let it 
Cool to the fat to the surface; skim and return to 


the fire. Season with pepper and salt, boil up, take off 
the scum; add the vegetables with their liquor. Heat 
together ten minutes, strain again, and bring to a slow 
boil before the tapioca goes in. This should have been 
soaked one hour in cold water, then cooked in the same 
within another vessel of boiling water until each grain is 
clear. It is necessary to stir up often from the bottom 
while cooking. Stir gradually into the soup until the 
tapioca is dissolved. 

Send around grated cheese with this soup. 


To about three pounds of a joint of veal, which must 
be well broken up, put four quarts of water and set it 
over to boil. Prepare one fourth pound of macaroni by 
boiling it by itself, with sufficient water to cover it; add 
a little butter to the macaroni when it is tender, strain 
the soup and season to taste with salt and pepper, then 
add the macaroni in the water in which it is boiled. 
The addition of a pint of rich milk or cream and celery 
flavour is relished by many 


Take two ox tails and two whole onions, two carrots, 
a small turnip, two tablespoonfuls of flour, and a little 
white pepper, add a gallon of water, let all boil for two 
hours; then take out the tails and cut the meat into 
small pieces, return the bones to the pot, for a short 
time, boil for another hour, then strain the soup, and 
rinse two spoonfuls of arrowroot to add to it with the 
meat cut from the bones, and let all boil for a quarter of 
an hour. 


Two pounds of coarse, lean beef, cut into strips, two 
pounds of knuckle of veal, chopped to pieces, two pounds 
of mutton bones, and the bones left from your cold veal, 


cracked to splinters, one pound of lean ham, four large 
carrots, two turnips, two onions, bunch of herbs, three 
tablespoonfuls of butter, and two of flour, one table- 
spoonful of sugar, salt and pepper, seven quarts of 

Put on meat, bones, herbs and water, and cook slowly 
five hours. Strain the soup, of which there should be 
five quarts. Season meat and bones, and put into the 
stock-pot with three quarts of the liquor. Save this for 
days to come. While the soup for to-day is cooling that 
you may take off the fat, put the butter into a frying pan 
with the sliced carrots, turnips, and onions, and fry to a 
light brown. Now, add a pint of the skimmed stock, and 
stew the vegetables tender, stir in the flour wet with 
water, and put all, with your cooled stock, over the fire 
in the soup-kettle. Season with sugar, cayenne *and salt r 
boil five minutes, rub through a colander, then a soup- 
sieve, heat almost to boiling, and serve. 


To a rich beef or other soup, in which there is no sea- 
soning other than pepper or salt, take half a pound of 
small pipe macaroni, boil it in clear water until it is 
tender, then drain it and cut it in pieces of an inch 
length, boil it for fifteen minutes in the soup and serve. 


Swell quarter of a pound of vermicelli Li a quart of 
warm water, then add it to a good beef, veal, Irmb, or 
chicken soup or broth with quarter of a pound of sweet 
butter; let the soup boil for fifteen minutes after it is 


Boil an old fowl, with an onion, in four quarts of cold 
water, until there remain but two quarts. Take it out 


anct let it get cold. Cut off the whole of the breast, and 
chop very fine. Mix with the pounded yolks of two 
hard-boiled eggs, and rub through a colander. Cool, 
skim, and strain the soup into a soup-pot. Season, add 
the chicken-and-egg mixture, simmer ten minutes, and 
pour into the tureen. Then add a small cup of boiling 


Clean and wash a calf's head, split it in two, save the 
brains, boil the head until tender in plenty of water; put 
a slice of fat ham, a bunch of parsley cut small, a sprig 
of thyme, two leeks cut small, six cloves, a teaspoonful 
of pepper, and three ounces of butter, into a stew-pan, 
and fry them a nice brown; then add the water in which 
the head was boiled, cut the meat from the head in neat 
square pieces, and put them to the soup; add a pint of 
Madeira and one lemon sliced thin, add cayenne pepper 
and salt to taste; let it simmer gently for two hours, 
then skim it clear and serve. 

Make a forcemeat of the brains as follows: put them 
in a stew-pan, pour hot water over, and set it over the 
fire for a few minutes, I hen take them up, chop them 
small, with a sprig of parsley, a saltspoonful of salt and 
pepper each, a tablespoonful of wheat flour, the same of 
butter, and one well-beaten egg; make it in small balls, 
and drop them in the soup fifteen minutes before it is 
taken from the fire; in making the balls, a little more 
flour may be necessary. Egg-balls may also be added. 


Many persons keep the bones of their roasts in order 
to convert them into stock for pea soup, which is, to my 
taste, one of the most relishable of all soups, and a fam- 
ous dish for cold weather, with this advantage in its 
tavor, that it may be /nade from almost anything. 


Capital stock for pea soup can be made from a knuckle 
of ham or from a piece of pickled pork. Supposing that 
some such stock is at hand to the extent of about two 
u-J3rts, procure, say, two pounds of split peas, wash them 
wrll, and then soak them for a night in water to which 
a v^ry little piece of soda has been added (the floating 
peas shruld be all thro\vn away), strain out the peas and 
place tl'em in the stock, adding a head of celery, a cut- 
down carrot, and a large onion or two, and season with 
a pinch of curry powder, or half an eggspoonful of 
cayenne pepper. Boil with a lid on the pot till all is 
soft, skimming off the scum occasionally, and then care- 
fully strain into a well-warmed tureen, beating the pulp 
through the strainer with a spoon. Serve as hot as 
possible, placing a breakfastcupful of crumbled toast 
(breao) into the tureen before the soup is dished. Much 
of th<* success in preparing this soup lies in the " strain- 
ing," which ought to be carefully attended to. A wire 
skv. is best; but an active housewife must never stick. 
If Vie has not a sieve made for the purpose, she can fold 
a '^iece of net two or three times, and use that. When a 
knuckle of ham has been used to make the stock it 
should form a part of the dinner, with potatoes; or it 
Tnay be used as a breakfast or supper relish. 


Wasn a small quarter of lamb in cold water, and put 
it into a soup-pot with six quarts of cold water; add to 
it two tablespoonfuls of salt, and set it over a moderate 
fire let it boil gently for two hours, then skim it clear; 
add a quart of sheHed peas, and a teaspoonful of pepper; 
cover it, and let it boil for half an hour, then having 
scraped the skins from a quart of small young potatoes, 
add them to the soup; cover the pot, and let it boil for 
half an hour longer; work quarter of a pound of butter, 
and a dessert spoonful of flour together, and add them 


to the soup ten or twelve minutes before taking it off 
the fire. 

Serve the meat on a dish with parsley sauce over, and 
the soup in a tureen. 


Potato soup is suitable for a cold day. Make it in 
the following manner: Get as many beef or ham bones 
as you can, and smash them into fragments. Add a lit- 
tle bit of lean ham to give flavor. Boil the bone and 
ham for two hours and a half at least. The bone of a 
roast beef is excellent. Strain off the liquor carefully, 
empty out the bones and debris of the ham, restore the 
liquor to the pot, and place again on the fire. Having 
selected, washed, and pared some nice potatoes, cut 
them into small pieces, and boil them in the stock till 
they melt away. An onion or two may also be boiled 
among the bones to help the flavor. I do not like thick 
potato soup, and I usually strain it through a hair sieve, 
after doing so placing it again on the fire, seasoning it 
with pepper and salt to taste. A stick of celery boiled 
with the bones is an improvement. Make only the 
quantity required for the day, as potato soup is best 
when it is newly made. 


Tomato soup is a much relished American dish, and 
is prepared as follows: Steam, or rather stew slowly, a 
mess of turnips, carrots, and onions, also a stock of 
celery, with half a pound of lean ham and a little bit of 
fresh butter over a slow fire for an hour or so. Then 
add two quarts of diluted stock or of other liquor in 
which meat has been boiled, as also eight or ten ripe 
tomatoes. Stew the whole for an hour and a half, then 
pass through the sieve into the pan again; add a little 
pepper and salt, boil for ten minutes and serve hot 



After the fish is well cleansed, lay it on a folded towel and 
dry out all the water. When well wiped and dry, roll it in 
wheat flour, rolled crackers, grated stale bread, or Indian 
meal, whichever may be preferred ; wheat flour will gener- 
ally be liked. 

Have a thick-bottomed frying-pan or spider, with plenty 
of sweet lard salted ; (a tablespoonful of salt to each pound 
of lard), for fresh fish which have not been previously salted ; 
let it become boiling hot, then lay the fish in and let it fry 
gently, until one side is a fine delicate brown, then turn the 
other ; when both are done, take it up carefully and serve 
quickly, or keep it covered with a tin cover, and set the dish 
where it will keep hot. 


Eight good-sized onions chopped fine ; half that quantity 
of bread-crumbs ; butter size of hen's egg ; plenty of pepper 
and salt, mix thoroughly with anchovy sauce until quite red. 
Stuff your fish with this compound and pour the rest over it, 
previously sprinkling it with a little red pepper. Shad, 
pickerel, and trout are good the same way. Tomatoes can 
be used instead of anchovies, and are more economical. If 
using them take pork in place of butter and chop fine. 


Pepper and salt to taste, a small quantity of oil. Mack- 
erel should never be washed when intended to be broiled but 
merely wiped very clean and dry, after taking out the gills 
and inside. Open the back, and put in a little pepper, salt, 
and oil ; broil it over a clear fire> turn it over on both sides, 
and also on the back. When sufficiently cooked, the flesh 
**Ki be detached from the bone, which will be in, about ten 



Two grouse or partridges, or, if you have neither, use a 
pair of rabbits ; half a pound of lean ham ; two medium* 
sized onions ; one pound of lean beef ; fried bread ; butter 
for frying ; pepper, salt, and two stalks of white celery cut 
into inch lengths ; three quarts of water. 

Joint your game neatly ; cut the ham and onions into 
small pieces, and fry all in butter to a light brown. Put into 
a soup-pot with the beef, cut into strips, and a little pepper. 
Pour on the water; heat slowly, and stew gently two hours. 
Take out the pieces of bird, and cover in a bowl ; cook the 
soup an hour longer ; strain ; cool ; drop in the celery, 
and simmer ten minutes. Pour upon fried bread in the 


Celery soup may be made with white stock. Cut down the 
white of half a dozen heads of celery into little pieces and 
boil it in four pints of white stock, with a quarter of a pound 
of lean ham and two ounces of butter. Simmer gently for a 
full hour, then drain through a sieve, return the liquor to pan 
and stir in a few spoonfuls of cream with great care. Serve 
with toasted bread, and, if liked, thicken with a little flour. 
Season to taste. 


Two quarts of oysters, one quart of milk, two tablespoon- 
fuls of butter, one teacupful hot water ; pepper, salt. 

Strain all the liquor from the oysters ; add the water and 
heat. When near the boil, add the seasoning, then the 
oysters. Cook about five minutes from the time they begin 
to simmer, until they " ruffle." Stir in the butter, cook one 
minute and pour into the tureen. Stir in the boi'ing milk, 
and send to table. 



Procure a large hen fish, boiled, and with all its coral, if 
possible. Cut away from it all the meat in neat little pieces ; 
beat up the fins and minor claws in a mortar, then stew the 
results in a stew-pan, slowly, along with a little white stock ; 
season this with a bunch of sweet herbs ; a small onion, a 
little bit of celery, and a carrot may be placed in the stock, 
as also the toasted crust of a French roll. Season to taste 
with salt and a little cayenne. Simmer the whole for about 
an hour ; then strain and return the liquor to the saucepan, 
place in it the pieces of lobster, and having beat up the 
coral in a little flour and gravy, stir it in. Let the soup re- 
main on the fire for a few minutes without boiling and serve 
hot. A small strip of the rind of a lemon may be boiled in 
the stock, and a little nutmeg may be added to the season- 
ing. This is a troublesome soup to prepare, but there aie 
many who like it when it is well made. 


Boil four eggs ; put into cold water ; mash yolks with 
yolk of one raw egg, and one teaspoonful of flour, pep- 
per, salt and parsley ; make into balls and boil two min- 


Rub into two eggs as much sifted flour as they will 
absorb ; then roll out until thin as a wafer ; dust over a little 
flour, and then roll over and over into a roll, cut off thin 
slices from the edge of the roll and shake out into long 
strips ; put them into the soup lightly and boil for ten 
minutes ; salt should be added while mixing with the flour 
about a saltspoonful. 



These form excellent and nutritious dishes. The former 
dish can be made from a portion of the back ribs or neck 
of mutton, the fleshy part of which must be cut into cutlets. 
Flatten these pieces of meat with a roller, and dip them in a 
composition of pepper, salt, and flour. Peel potatoes and 
slice them to the extent of two pounds of potatoes for every 
pound of meat. An onion or two sliced into small bits will 
be required. Before building the materials into a goblet, 
melt a little suet or dripping in it, then commence by lay- 
ing in the pot a layer of potatoes, which dust well with pep- 
per and salt, then c layer of the meat sprinkled with the 
chopped onions, and <o on till the goblet is pretty full. Fill 
in about a breakfast-cupful of gravy, if there be any in the 
house ; if not, water will do. Finish off with a treble row of 
potatoes on the top. Let the mess stew slowly for about 
three hours, taking great care to keep the lid so tight that 
none of the virtue can escape letting away the steam is just 
letting away the flavor. Shake the pot occasionally with 
some force, to prevent burning. Some cooks, in prepar- 
ing this dish, boil the potatoes for some time, and then pour 
and dry them well ; others add a portion of kidney to the 
stew ; while extravagant people throw in a few oysters, a 
slice or two of lean ham, or a ham shank. Irish stew 
should be served as hot as possible. It is a savory and inex- 
pensive dish for cold weather. Staved potatoes are prepared 
much in the same way. Cut down what of the Sunday's 
roast is left, and proceed with it just as you would with the 
neck of mutton. Some cooks would stew the bones of the 
roast, in order to make a gravy in which to stove the meat 
and potatoes, but the bones will make excellent potato soup. 
Irish stew is an excellent dish for skaters and curlers. It is 
sometimes known as " hot pot." 



Chop some cold cooked meat fine, and put a pint into a 
stew-pan with some gravy, season with pepper and salt 
and a little butter if the gravy is not rich, add a little flour 
moistened with cold water, and three pints boiling water, 
boiled moderately half an hour. Strain over some rice or 
nicely toasted bread, and serve. Uncooked meat may be] 
used by using one quart of cold water to a pound of 
chopped meat, and letting it stand half before boiling. 
Celery root may be grated in as seasoning, or a bunch of 
parsley thrown in. 


A fine amber color is obtained by adding finely-grated 
carrot to the clear stock when it is quite free from scum. 

Red is obtained by using red skinned tomatoes from which 
the skin and seeds have been strained out. 

Only white vegetables should be used in white soups, as 

Spinach leaves, pounded in a mortar, and the juice ex- 
pressed and added to the soups, will give a green color. 

Black beans make an excellent brown soup. The same 
color can be gotten by adding burnt sugar or browned flour 
to clear stock. 


Fish are good, when the gills are red, eyes are full, and 
the body of the fish is firm and stiff. After washing them 
well, they should be allowed to remain for a short time in 
salt water sufficient to cover them ; before cooking, wipe 
them dry, dredge lightly with flour, and season with 
salt and pepper. Salmon-trout and other small fish 



are usually fried or broiled ; all large fish should be put in 
a cloth, tied closely with twine, and placed in cold water, 
when they may be put over the fire to boil. When fish are 
baked, prepare the fish the same as for boiling, and put in 
the oven on a wire gridiron, over a dripping-pan. 


The middle slice of salmon is the best. Sew up neatly 
in a mosquito-net bag, and boil a quarter of an hour to the 
pound in hot, salted water. When done, unwrap with care, 
and lay upon a hot dish, taking care not to break it. 
Have ready a large cupful of drawn butter, very rich, in 
which has been stirred a tablespoonful of minced parsley 
and the juice of a lemon. Pour half upon the salmon, 
and serve the rest in a boat. Garnish with parsley and 
sliced eggs. 

Here is a recipe for a nice pickle for cold salmon made out 
of the liquor in which the fish has been boiled, of which 
take as much as you wish, say three breakfast-cupfuls, to 
which add vinegar to taste (perhaps a teacupful will be 
enough), a good pinch of pepper, a dessert-spoonful of salt. 
Boil for a few minutes with a sprig or two of parsley and a 
little thyme. After it has become quite cold, pour it over the 


Cut some slices about an inch thick, and broil them over 
a gentle, bright fire of coals, for ten or twelve minutes. 
When both sides are done, take them on to a hot dish ; 
butter each slice well with sweet butter ; strew over each a 
very little salt and pepper to taste, and serve. 


Clean the fish, rinse it, and wipe it dry ; rub it well 
outside and in, with a mixture of pepper and salt, and 


fill it with a stuffing made of slices of bread, buttered 
freely and moistened with hot milk or water (add sage or 
thyme to the seasoning if liked) ; tie a thread around the 
fish, so as to keep the stuffing in (take off the thread 
before serving) ; lay muffin-rings, or a trivet in a dripping- 
pan, lay bits of butter over the fish, dredge flour over, and 
put it on the rings ; put a pint of hot water in the pan, to 
baste with ; bake one hour if a large fish, in a quick oven ; 
baste frequently. When the fish is 'taken up, having cut a 
lemon in very thin slices, put them in the pan, and let them 
fry a little ; then dredge in a teaspoonful of wheat flour ; add 
a small bit of butter ; stir it about, and let it brown without 
burning for a little while then add half a teacup or more of 
boiling water, stir it smooth, take the slices of lemon into 
the gravy boat, and strain the gravy over. Serve with 
boiled potatoes. The lemon may be omitted if preferred, 
although generally it will be liked. 

Dressed the same as salmon. 


Boil a salmon, and after wiping it dry, set it to cool ; take 
of the water in which it was boiled, and good vinegar each 
equal parts, enough to cover it ; add to it one dozen cloves, 
as many small blades of mace, or sliced nutmeg, one tea- 
spoonful of whole pepper, and the same of alspice ; make it 
boiling hot, skim it clear, add a small bit of butter (the size 
of a small egg), and pour it over the fish ; set it in a cool 
place. When cold, it is fit for use, and. will keep for a long 
time, covered close, in a cool place. Serve instead of pickled 
oysters for supper. 

A fresh cod is very nice, done in the same manner ; as is 
also a striped sea bass. 


Two slices of salmon, one quarter pound butter, one 
half teaspoonful of chopped parsley, one shalot; salt, 
pepper, and grated nutmeg to taste. 

Mode : Lay the salmon in a baking-dish, place pieces 
of butter over it, and add the other ingredients, rubbing 
a little of the seasoning into the fish; baste it frequently; 
when done, take it out and drain for a minute or two; 
lay it in a dish, pour caper sauce over it, and serve 
Salmon dressed in this way, with tomato sauce, is very 


Cut the slices one inch thick, and season them with 
pepper and salt; butter a sheet of white paper, lay each 
slice on a separate piece, with their ends twisted; broil 
gently over a clear fire, and serve with anchovy or capei 
sauce. When higher seasoning is required, add a fevs 
chopped herbs and a little spice. 


Cut the fish down the back, take out the entrails, and 
roe, scale it, and rub the outside and in with common 
salt, and hang it to drain for twenty-four hours. 

Pound three ounces of saltpetre,- two ounces of coarse 
salt, and two of coarse brown sugar; mix these well to- 
gether, and rub the salmon over every part with it; then 
lay it on a large dish for two days; then rub it over with 
common salt, and in twenty-four hours it will be fit to 
dry. Wipe it well, stretch it open with two sticks, and 
hang it in a chimney, with a smothered wood-fire, or in 
a smoke-house, or in a dry, cool place. 

Shad done in this manner are very fine. 



Lay the fish in cold water, a little salt, for half an hour. 
Wipe dry, and sew up in a linen cloth, coarse and clean, 
fitted to the shape of the piece of cod. Have but one fold 
over each part. Lay in the fish-kettle, cover with boiling 
water, salted at discretion. Allow nearly an hour for a piece 
weighing four pounds. 


Any remains of cold cod, twelve oysters, sufficient melted 
butter to moisten it ; mashed potatoes enough to fill up the 

Mode : Flake the fish from the bone, and carefully take 
away all the skin. Lay it in a pie-dish, pour over the melted 
butter and oysters (or oyster sauce, if there is any left), and 
cover with mashed potatoes. Bake for half an hour, and 
send to table of a nice brown color. 


This should always be laid in soak at least one night be- 
fore it is wanted ; then take off the skin and put it in plenty 
of cold water ; boil it gently (skimming it meanwhile) for 
one hour, or tie it in a cloth and boil it. 

Serve with egg sauce ; garnish with hard-boiled eggs cut 
in slices, and sprigs of parsley. Serve plain boiled or 
mashed potatoes with it. 


Scald some soaked cod by putting it over the fire in boil- 
ing water for ten minutes ; then scrape it white, pick it in 
flakes, and put it in a stew-pan, with a tablespoonful of 
butter worked into the same of flour, and as much milk as 
will moisten it ; let it stew gently for ten minutes ; add 



pepper to taste, and serve hot ; put it in a deep dish, slice 
hard-boiled eggs over, and sprigs of parsley around the 

This is a nice relish for breakfast, with coffee and tea, and 
rolls or toast. 


First boil soaked cod, then chop it fine, put to it an equal 
quantity of potatoes boiled and mashed ; moisten it with 
beaten eggs or milk, and a bit of butter and a little pepper ; 
form it in small, round cakes, rather more that half an inch 
thick ; flour the outside, and fry in hot lard or beef drippings 
until they are a delicate brown; like fish, these must be 
fried gently, the lard being boiling hot when they are put 
in ; when one side is done turn the other. Serve for break- 


Put enough water in the pot for the fish to swim in, easily. 
Add half a cup of vinegar, a teaspoonful of salt, an onion, a 
dozen black peppers, and a blade of mace. Sew up the fish 
in a piece of clean net, fitted to its shape. Heat slowly for 
the first half hour, then boil eight minutes, at least, to the 
pound, quite fast. Unwrap, and pour over it a cup of drawn 
butter, based upon the liquor in which the fish was boiled, 
with the juice of half a lemon stirred into it. Garnish with 
sliced lemon. 


Clean, wipe dry, inside and out, dredge with flour, and 
season with salt. Fry in hot butfer, beef-dripping, or sweet 
lard. Half butter, half lard is a good mixture for frying fish. 
The moment the fish are done to a good brown, take them 
from the fat and drain in a hot colander. Garnish with pars- 



After the fish is well cleansed, lay it on a folded towel and 
dry out all the water. When well wiped and dry, roll it in 
wheat flour, rolled crackers, grated stale bread, or Indian 
meal, whichever may be preferred ; wheat flour will gener- 
ally be liked. 

Have a thick-bottomed frying-pan or spider, with plenty 
of sweet lard salted ; (a tablespoonful of salt to each pound: 
of lard), for fresh fish which have not been previously salted : 
let it become boiling hot, then lay the fish in and let it fry 
gently, until one side is a fine delicate brown, then turn the 
other; when both are done, take it up carefully and serve 
quickly, or keep it covered with a tin cover, and set the dish 
where it will keep hot. 


Eight good-sized onions chopped fine ; half that quantity 
of bread-crumbs ; butter size of hen's egg ; plenty of pepper 
and salt, mix thoroughly with anchovy sauce until quite red. 
Stuff your fish with this compound and pour the rest over it, 
previously sprinkling it with a little red pepper. Shad, 
pickerel, and trout are good the same way. Tomatoes can 
be used instead of anchovies, and are more economical. If 
using them take pork in place of butter and chop fine. 


Pepper and salt to taste, a small quantity of oil. Mack- 
erel should never be washed when intended to be broiled but 
merely wiped very clean 'and dry, after taking out the gills 
and inside. Open the back, and put in a little pepper, salt, 
and oil ; broil it over a clear fire, turn it over on both sides, 
and also on the back. When sufficiently cooked, the flesh 
can be detached from the bone, which will be in about ten 


minutes for a small mackerel. Chop a little parsley, work it 
up in the butter, with pepper and salt to taste, and a squeeze 
of lemon-juice, and put it in the back. Serve before the 
butter is quite melted. 

Mode: Scale and clean the pike, and fasten the tail in its 
mouth by means of a skewer. Lay it in cold water, and 
when it boils, throw in the salt and vinegar. The time 
for boiling depends, of course, on the size of the fish ; but a 
middling-sized pike will take about half an hour. Serve 
with Dutch or anchovy sauce, and plain melted butter. 

Mackerel baked will be found palatable. Clean and trim 
the fish nicely, say four large ones, or half a dozen small 
ones, bone them and lay neatly in a baking dish, or a bed of 
potato chips well dusted with a mixture of pepper and salt ; 
on the potatoes, place a few pieces of butter. Dust the fish 
separately with pepper and salt, and sprinkle slightly with a 
diluted mixture of anchovy sauce and catsup. Bake three 
quarters of an hour. 


Soak overnight in lukewarm water, changing this in the 
morning for ice-cold. Rub all the salt off, and wipe dry. 
Grease your gridiron with butter, and rub the fish on both 
sides with the same, melted. Then broil quickly over a clear 
fire, turning with a cake-turner so as not to break it. 
Lay upon a hot water dish, and cover until the sauce is 

Heat a small cup of milk to scalding. Stir into it a 
teaspoonful of corn-starch wet up with a little water. 
When this thickens, add two tablespoonfuls of butter, pep- 
per, salt, and chopped parsley. Beat an egg light, pour 
the sauce gradually over it, put the mixture again over 
the fire, and stir one minute, not more. Pour upon the 
fish, and let all stand, covered, over the hot water in the 


chafing-dish. Put fresh boiling water under the dish before 
sending to table. 


Four small eels, sufficient water to cover them ; a large 
bunch of parsley. 

Choose small eels for boiling ; put them in a stewpan with 
the parsley, and just sufficient water to cover them ; simmer 
till tender. Take them out, pour a little parsley and butter 
over them, and serve some in a tureen. 


After skinning, clearing, and cutting five or six eels in 
pieces of two inches in length, boil them in water nearly 
to cover them, until tender ; then add a good-sized bit of 
butter, with a teaspoonful of wheat flour or rolled cracker, 
worked into it, and a little scalded and chopped parsley ; 
add salt and pepper to taste, and a wine-glass of vin- 
egar if liked ; let them simmer for ten minutes and serve 


After cleaning the eels well, cut them in pieces two inches 
long; wash them and wipe them dry ; roll them in wheat flour 
or rolled cracker, and fry as directed for other fish, in hot 
lard or beef dripping, salted. They should be browned all 
over and thoroughly done. 

Eels may be prepared in the same manner and broiled. 


One large eel ; pepper and salt to taste ; two blades cl 
mace, two cloves, a little allspice very finely pounded, six 
leaves of sage, and a small bunch of herbs minced very 

Mode: Bone the eel and skin it; split it, and sprinkla 
it over with the ingredients, taking care that the spices 


are very finely pounded, and the herbs chopped very 
small. Roll it up and bind with a broad piece of tape, 
and boil it in water, mixed with a little salt and vinegar 
till tender. It may either be served whole or cut in 
slices ; and when cold, the eel should be kept in the li- 
quor it was boiled in, but with a little more vinegar put 
to it. 


They must, of course, be nicely cleaned and trimmed 
all round, but do not cut off their heads. Dredge them 
well with flour, and fry in a pan of boiling hot fat or oil. 
Turn them from side to side till they are nicely browned, 
and quite ready. Drain off all the fat before sending the 
fish to table ; garnish with a few sprigs of parsley, and pro- 
vide plain melted butter. If preferred, the trout can be 
Jarded with beaten egg, and be then dipped in bread- 
crumb. The frying will occupy from five to eight minutes, 
according to size. Very large trout can be cut in pieces. 

TROUT IN JELLY (or other fish). 

This is a beautiful supper dish, and may be arranged as 
follows : Turn the fish into rings, with tail in mouth. Pre- 
pare a seasoned water in which to boil the trout ; the water 
should have a little vinegar and salt in it, and may be 
flavored with a shallot or a clove of garlic. When the water 
is cold, place the trout in, and boil them very gently, so as 
not hash or break them. When done, lift out and drain. 
Baste with fish jelly, for which a recipe is given elsewhere, 
coat after coat, as each coat hardens, Arrange neatly, and 


Let the water be thoroughly a-boil before you put in 
the fish. See that it is salt, and that a dash of vinegar 


has been put in it. Remove all scum as it rises, and boil 
the fish till their eyes protrude. Lift them without breaking, 
drain off the liquor, and serve on a napkin if you like. To 
be eaten with a sauce according to taste, that is, it can be 
made of either anchovies or shrimps. 


Clean and split them open, season with a little salt and 
cayenne ; dip in whipped egg, dredge with flour, and bran- 
der over a clear fire. Serve with sauce. 


Choose a nice fish of about six pounds, which trim and 
scrape nicely, gutting it carefully, fill the vacuum with a stuff- 
ing of veal, chopped ham, and bread-crumbs, sew up with 
strong thread, and shape the fish round, putting its tail into 
its mouth, or, if two are required, lay them along the dish 
reversed that is, tail to head ; rub over with plenty of 
butter, or a batter of eggs and flour, and then sprinkle with 
bread-crumbs. Let the oven be pretty hot when put in. In 
about an hour the fish will be ready. Serve on the -tin or 
aisset in which they have been baked, placing them on a 
larger dish for that purpose. Mussel sauce is a good ac- 


Curried haddock is excellent. Fillet the fish and curry it 
in a pint of beef stock slightly diluted with water, and 
thickened with a tablespoonful of curry powder. Some cooks 
chop up an onion to place in the stew. It will take an hour 
to ready this fish. If preferred, fry the fish for a few 
minutes in clean lard or oil before stewing it in the 



First, of course, procure your fish, clean them thoroughly, 
rub them well with salt, and let them Ue for one night, 
after which hang them in the open air, to dry, in a shady 
place. In two days they will be ready for the gridiron. 
Before cooking them take out the backbone and skin 
them, if desired (I never do skin them), broil till ready, eat 
with a little fresh butter. 

Haddocks can be boiled with advantage : all that is 
necessary is to put plenty of salt in the water, and not to 
serve them till they are well done. As a general rule, it 
may be ascertained when fish is sufficently cooked by the 
readiness with which the flesh lifts from the bone. Stick a 
fork into the shoulder of a cod or haddock and try it. If 
living sufficienly near the sea, procure sea water in which to 
boil your haddocks. 


Wash and drain the fish ; sprinkle with pepper and lay 
with the inside down upon the gridiron, and broil over 
fresh bright coals. When a nice brown, turn for a mo- 
ment on the other side, then take up and spread with 
butter. This is a very nice way of broiling all kinds of fish 
fresh or salted. A little smoke under the fish adds to its 
flavor. This may be made by putting two or three cobs 

under the gridiron. 


Fill the fish with a stuffing of fine bread-crumbs and a 
little butter; sew ap (he fish; sprinkle with butter, pep- 
per, and salt. Dredge with flour and bake one hour, 
basting often, and serving with parsley sauce or egg 



These are chosen more by weight than size, the heaviest 
are best ; a good small-sized one will not unf requently be 
found to weigh as heavily as one much larger. If fresh, a 
lobster will be lively and the claws have a strong motion 
when the eyes are pressed with the finger. 

The male is best for boiling ; the flesh is firmer, and the 
shell a brighter red ; it may readily be distinguished from 
the female ; the tail is narrower, and the two uppermost fins 
within the tail are stiff and hard. Those of the hen lobster 
are not so, and the tail is broader. 

Hen lobsters are preferred for sauce or salad, on ac- 
count of their coral. The head and small claws are never 


These crustaceans are usually sold ready-boiled. When 
served, crack the claws and cut open the body, lay neatly on 
a napkin-covered dish, and garnish with a few sprigs of pars- 
ley. Lobster so served is usually eaten cold. 


Pick out the meat of two red lobsters from the shells into 
a shallow sauce-pan, in the bottom of which has been placed 
a thin slice of tasty ham, with a little cayenne pepper 
and a teaspoonful of salt. Mix up half a cupful of white 
soup and half a cupful of cream and pour over the meat. 
Put it on the fire and let it simmer for about an hour, 
when you will add a dessertspoonful of curry, and another 
of flour rubbed smooth in a little of the liquor taken 
out of the pot ; in three minutes the curry will be ready 
to dish. Some add a dash of lemon to this curry (I don't), 
and the cream can be dispensed with if necessary. Put a 
rim of well-boiled rice round the dish if you like, or serve 
the rice separately. 



Four or five pounds of lobster, chopped fine ; take the 
green part and add to it four pounded crackers ; stir 
this into one quart of boiling milk ; then add the lob- 
ster, a piece of butter one-half the size of an egg, a little 
pepper and salt, and bring it to a boil. 


Cut some slices of pork very thin, and fry them out 
dry in the dinner pot ; then put in a layer of fish cut in 
slices on the pork, then a layer of onions, and then po- 
tatoes, all cut in exceedingly thin slices ; then fish, 
onions, potatoes again, till your materials are all in, put- 
ting some salt and pepper on each layer of onions ; split 
some hard biscuits, dip them in water, and put them 
round the sides and over the top ; put in water enough 
to come up in sight ; stew for over half an hour, till the 
potatoes are done ; add half a pint of milk, or a teacup 
of sweet cream, five minutes before you take it up. 


Egg and bread-crumbs, a little flour; boiling lard 
Smelts should be very fresh, and not washed more than 
is necessary to clean them. Dry them in a cloth, lightly 
flour, dip them in egg, and sprinkle over with very fine 
bread-crumbs, and put them into boiling lard. Fry of a 
nice pale brown, and be careful not to take off the light 
roughness of the crumbs, or their beauty will be spoiled 
Dry them before the fire on a drainer, and serve wit-:* 
plain melted butter. 


Smelts, bread-crumbs, one-quarter pound of fresh but. 
ter, two blades of pounded mace ; salt and cayenne IQ 


taste. Wash and dry the fish thoroughly in a cloth, and 
arrange them nicely in a flat baking-dish. Cover them 
with fine bread-crumbs, and place little pieces of butter 
all over them. Season and bake for fifteen minutes. 
Just before serving, add a squeeze of lemon juice, and 
garnish with fried parsley and cut lemon. 


The best way to cook these is to make incisions in 
the skin across the fish, because they do not then require 
to be so long on the fire, and will be far better than 
when cut open. The hard roe makes a nice relish by 
pounding it in a mortar, with a little anchovy, and 
spreading it on toast. If very dry, soak in warm water 
one hour before dressing. 


Take out the backbone of the fish; for one weighing 
two pounds take a tablespoon of allspice and cloves 
mixed; these spices should be put into little bags of not 
too thick muslin; put sufficient salt directly upon each 
fish; then roll in a cloth, over which sprinkle a little cay- 
enne pepper; put alternate layers of fish, spice and sago 
in an earthen jar; cover with the best cider vinegar; 
cover the jar closely with a plate and over this put a 
covering of dough, rolled out to twice the thickness of 
pie crust. Make the edges of paste to adhere closely to 
the sides of the jar, so as to make it air-tight. Put the 
jar into a pot of cold water and let it boil from three to 
five hours, according to quantity. Ready when cold. 


Wash the shells and put them on hot coals or upon the 
top of a hot stove, or bake them in a hot oven; open the 
shells with an oyster-knife, taking care to lose none of 


the liquor, and serve quickly on hot plates, with toast. 
Oysters may be steamed in the shells, and are excellent 
eaten in the same manner. 


Take a pint of fine oysters, put them with their own 
liquor, and a gill of milk into a stew-pan, and if liked, a 
blade of mace; set it over the fire, take off any scum 
which may rise; when they are plump and white turn 
them into a deep plate; add a bit of butter, and pepper 
to taste. Serve crackers and dressed celery with them. 
Oysters may be stewed in their own liquor without milk. 


Half pint of oysters, two eggs, half pint of milk, suf- 
ficient flour to make the batter; pepper and salt to taste; 
wnen liked, a little nutmeg; hot lard. Scald the oysters 
in their own liquor, beard them, and lay them on acloth. 
to drain thoroughly. Break^the eggs into a basin, mix 
the Hour with them, add the milk gradually, with nut- 
meg aud seasoning, and put the oysters in a batter. 
Make some lard hot in a deep frying-pan, put in the 
oysters, one at a time; when done, take them up with 
a sharp-pointed skewer, and dish them on a napkin. 
Fried oysters are frequently used for garnishing boiled 
fish, and then a few bread-crumbs should be added to 
the floui. 


Two tablespoonfuls of white stock, two tablespoonfuls 
of cream; pepper and salt to taste; bread-crumbs, oiled 
butter. Scald the oysters in their own liquor, take them 
out, beard them, and strain the liquor free from grit. Put 
one ounce of butter into a stewpan; when melted, dredge 
in sufficient flour to dry it up; add the stock, cream, and 


strained liquor, and give one boil. Put in the oysters 
and seasoning; let them gradually heat through, but not 
boil. Have ready the scallop-shells buttered; lay in the 
oysters, and as much of the liquid as they will hold; 
cover them over with bread-crumbs, over which drop a 
little oiled butter. Brown them in the oven, or before 
the fire, and serve quickly, and very hot. 


Take large oysters from their own liquor on to a 
thickly folded napkin to dry them off; then make a 
tablespoonful of lard or beef fat hot, in a thick bottomed 
frying-pan, add to it half a saltspoonful of salt; dip each 
oyster in wheat flour, or cracker rolled fine, until it will 
take up no more, then lay them in the pan, hold it over 
a gentle fire until one side is a delicate brown; turn the 
other by sliding a fork under it; five minutes will fry 
them after they are in the pan. Oysters may be fried in 
butter, but it is not so good; lard and butter half and 
half is very nice for frying. Some persons like a very 
little of the oyster liquor poured in the pan after tha 
oysters are done; let it boil up, then put it in the dish 
with the oysters; when wanted for breakfast, this should 
be done. 

Oysters to be fried, after drying as directed, may be 
dipped into beaten egg first, then into rolled cracker. 


Make some rich puff paste and bake it in very small 
tin patty pans; when cool, turn them out upon a large 
dish; stew some large fresh oysters with a few cloves, a 
little mace and nutmeg; then add the )'olk of one egg, 
boiled hard and grated; add a little butter, and as much 
of the oyster liquor as will cover them. When they have 
stewed a little while, take them out of the pan and set 


them cool. When quite cold, la}' two or three oysters in 
each shell of puff paste. 


Drain thu oysters well and dry them with a napkin. 
Have ready a griddle hot and well buttered; season the 
oysters; lay them to griddle and brown them on both 
sides. Serve them on a hot plate with plenty of butter. 


Take fifty small or twenty-five large sand clams from 
th-eir shells; if large, cut each in two, lay them on a 
thickly folded napkin; put a pint bowl of wheat flour 
into a basin, add to it two well-beaten eggs, half a pint 
of sweet milk, and nearly as much of their own liquor; 
beat the batter until it is smooth and perfectly free from 
lumps; then stir in the clams. Put plenty of lard or 
beef fat into a thick-bottomed frying pan, let it become 
boiling hot; put in the batter by the spoonful; let them 
fry gently; when one side is a delicate brown, turn the 


These are very fine if properly prepared. They are 
good only during cold weather and must be perfectly 

Soft-shelled clams may be boiled from the shells, and 
served with butter, pepper, and salt over. 


Wash the shells clean, and put the clams, the edges 
downwards, in a kettle; then pour about a quart of boil- 
ing water over them; cover the pot and set it over a 
brisk fire for three quarters of an hour; pouring boiling 1 


..ater on them causes the shells to open quickly and let 
out the sand which may be in them. 

Take them up when done; take off the black skin 
which covers the hard part, trim them clean, and put 
them into a stew-pan; put to them some of the liquor in 
which they were boiled; put to it a good bit of butter 
and pepper and salt to taste ; make them hot; serve 
with cold butter and lolls. 


Butter a deep tin basin, strew it thickly with grated 
bread crumbs, or soaked cracker; sprinkle some pepper 
over and K its of butter the size of a hickory nut, and, if 
liked, son.j finely chopped parsley; then put a double 
layer of clams, season with pepper, put bits of butter 
over, then another layer of soaked cracker; after that 
clams and bits of butter; sprinkle pepper over; add a 
cup of milk or water, and lastly a layer of soaked 
crackers. Turn a plate over the basin, and bake in a hot 
oven for three quarters of an hour; use half a pound of 
soda biscuit, and Quarter of a pound of butter with fifty 



Prepare for the oven by dredging lightly with flour, 
and seasoning with salt and pepper; place in the oven, 
and baste frequently while roasting. Allow a quarter 
of an hour for a pound of meat, if you like it rare; 
longer if you like it well done. Serve with a sauce made 
from the drippings in the pan, to which has been added 
a tablespoon of Harvey or Worcestershire sauce, and a 
tablespoon of tomato catsup. 


See that it is not too large, and that it is tightly bound 
all round. About twelve pounds or fourteen pounds forms 
a convenient size, and a joint of that weight will require 
from three hours to three hours and a quarter to boil. 
Put on with cold water as the liquor is valuable for 
making pea-soup and let it come slowly to the boil. 
Boil carefully but not rapidly, and skim frequently; as 
a rule, keep the lid of the pot well fixed. The meat may 
be all the better if taken out once or twice in the pro- 
cess of cooking. Carrots and turnips may be boiled to 
serve with the round; they will, of course, cook in about 
a third of the time necessary to boil the beef. 

To keep for years. 

Cut up a quarter of beef. For each hundredweight 
take half a peck of coarse salt, quarter <ji a pound of 


saltpetre, the same weight of saleratus, and a qufc>. of 
molasses, or two pounds of coarse brown sugar. Mace, 
cloves and allspice may be added for spiced beef. 

Strew some of the salt in the bottom of a pickle-tub 
or barrel; then put in a layer of meat, strew this with 
salt, then add another layer of meat, and salt and meat 
alternately, until all is used. Let it remain one night. 
Dissolve the saleratus and saltpetre in a little warm 
water, and put it to the molasses or sugar ; then put it 
over the meat, add water enough to cover the meat, lay 
a board on it to keep it under the brine. The meat is fit 
for use after ten days. This receipt is for winter beef. 
Rather more salt may be used in warm weather. 

Towards spring take the brine from the meat, make it 
boiling hot, skim it clear, and when it is cooled, return 
it to the meat. 

Beef tongues and smoking pieces are fine pickled in 
this brine. Beef liver put in this brine for ten days and 
then wiped dry and smoked, is very fine. Cut it in 
slices, and fry or broil it. The brisket of beef, after 
being corned, may be smoked, and is very fine for boil- 

Lean pieces of beef, cut properly from the hind quar- 
ter, are the proper pieces for being smoked There may 
be some fine pieces cut from the fore-quarter. 

After the beef has been in brine ten days or more wipe 
it dry, and hang it in a chimney where wood is burnt, 
or make a smothered fire of sawdust or chips, and keep 
it smoking for ten days; then rub fine black pepper over 
every part, to keep the flies from it, and hang it in a 
dry, dark, cool place. After a week it is fit for use. A 
strong, coarse brown paper, folded around beef, and 
fastened with paste, keeps it nicely. 

Tongues are smoked in the same manner. Hang them 
by a string put through the root end. Spiced brine for 
smoked beef or tongues will be generally liked 



For convenience make a pickle as mentioned: for beet, 
keep it in the cellar, ready for pickling beef at any t^sne. 
Beef may remain in three or four or more days. 


Put the beef in water enough to cover it. and let it 
heat slowly, and boil slowly, and be careful to take off 
the grease. Many think it much improved by boiling 
potatoes, turnips, and cabbages with it. In this case the 
vegetables must be pealed and all the grease carefully 
skimmed as fast as it rises. Allow about twenty minutes 
of boiling for each pound of meat. 


Cut cold roast beef in slices, put gravy enough to 
cover them, and a wineglass of catsup or wine, or a 
lemon sliced thin; if you have not gravy, put hot water 
and a good bit of butter, with a teaspoonful or more of 
browned flour; put it in a closely covered stew-pan, and 
let it simmer gently for half an hour. If you choose, 
when the meat is down, cut a leek in thin slices, and 
chop a bunch of parsley small, and add it; serve boiled 
or mashed potatoes with it. This is equal to beef a-k> 

Or, cold beef may be served cut in neat slices, gar' 
nished with sprigs of parsley, and made mustard, and 
tomato catsup in the castor; serve mashed, if not new 
potatoes, with it, and ripe fruit, or pie, or both, for des- 
sert, for a small family dinner. 


Four pounds of round of beef chopped fine; take from 
it all fat; add to it three dozen small crackers rolled 
fine, four eggs, one cup of milk, one tablespoon ground 
mace, two tablespoons of black pepper, one tablespoon 


melted 6iktter; mix well and put in any tin pan that it 
will just fill, packing it well; baste with butter and water, 
and bake two hours in a slow oven. 


Lay a thick tender steak upon a gridiron over hot 
coals, having greased the bars with butter before the 
steak has been put upon it; (a steel gridiron with slender 
bars is to be preferred, the broad flat iron bars of grid- 
irons commonly used fry and scorch the meat, imparting 
a disagreeable flavor). When done on one side, have 
ready your platter warmed, with a little butter on it; 
lay the steak upon the platter with the cooked side down, 
tnat the juices which have gathered may run on the 
platter, but do not press the meat; then lay your beef- 
steak again upon the gridiron quickly and cook the 
other side. When done to your liking, put again on the 
platter, spread lightly with butter, place where it will 
keep warm for a few moments, but not to let the butter 
become oily (over boiling steam is best); and then serve 
on hot plates. Beefsteak should never be seasoned with 
salt and pepper while cooking. If your meat is tough, 
pound well with a steak mallet on both sides. 


Cut some of the fat from the steak, and put it in a fry 
ing pan and set it over the fire; if the steaks are not very 
tender, beat them with a rolling pin, and when the fat is 
boiling hot, put the steak evenly in. cover the pan and 
let it fry briskly until one side is done, sprinkle a little 
pepper and salt over, and turn the other; let it be rare 
or well-done as may be liked; take the steak on a hot 
dish, add a wineglass or less of boiling water or catsup 
to the gravy; let it boil up once, and pour it in the dish 
with the steak. 



Take some fine tender steaks, beat them a little, season 
with a saltspoonful of pepper and a teaspoonful of salt 
to a two-pound steak ; put bits of butter, the size of a 
hickory nut, over the whole surface, dredge a teaspoon- 
ful of flour over, then roll it up and cut it in pieces two 
inches long ; put a rich pie paste around the sides and 
bottom of a tin basin ; put in the pieces of steak, nearly 
fill the basin with water, add a piece of butter the size 
of a large egg, cut small, dredge' in a teaspoonful of flour, 
add a little pepper and salt, lay skewers across the basin, 
roll a top crust to half an inch thickness, cut a slit in the 
centre ; dip your fingers in flour and neatly pinch the top 
and side crust together all around the edge. Bake one hour 
in a quick oven. 


Mutton, water, salt. A leg of mutton for boiling should 
not hang too long, as it will not look a good color when 
dressed. Cut off the shank-bone, trim the knuckle, and 
wash and wipe it very clean ; plunge it into sufficient boil- 
ing water to cover it ; let it boil up, then draw the sauce- 
pan to the side of the fire, where it should remain till the 
finger can be borne in the water. Then place it suffi- 
ciently near the fire that the water may gently simmer, 
and be very carettn mat it does not boil fast, or the meat 
will be hard. Skim well, add a little salt, and in about 
two and one quarter hours after the water begins to sim- 
mer, a moderate-sized leg of mutton will be done. Serve 
with carrots and mashed turnips, which may be boiled 
with the meat, and send caper sauce to table with it in a 



Loin A mutton, a little salt. Cut and trim off the 
superfluous fat, and see that the butcher joints the meat 
prope.Hy, as thereby much annoyance is saved to the 
carver, when it comes to table. Have ready a nice clear 
fire (it need not be a very wide, large one), put down the 
meat, dredge with flour, and baste well until it is done. 


Loin of mutton, pepper and salt, a small piece of but- 
ten Cut the chops from a well-hung, tender loin of 
mutton, remove a portion of the fat, and trim them into 
a nice shape; slightly beat and level them; place the 
gridiron over a bright, clear fire, rub the bars with a lit- 
tle fat, and lay on the chops. While broiling, frequently 
turn them, and in about eight minutes they will be done. 
Season with pepper and salt, dish them on a very hot 
dish, rub a small piece of butter on each chop, and serve 
very hot and expeditiously. 


Cut some fine mutton chops without much fat, rub 
aver both sides with a mixture of salt and pepper, dip 
them in wheat flour or rolled crackers, and fry in hot 
lard or beef drippings, when both sides are a fine brown, 
take them on a hot dish, put a wine-glass of hot water 
in the pan, let it become hot, stir in a teaspoonful ot 
browned flour, let it boil up at once, and serve in the pan 
with the meat. 


Lamb, a little salt. To obtain the flavor of lamb in 
perfection it should not be long kept; time to cool is all 


that Is required; and though the meat may be somewha'f 
thready, the juices and flavor will he infinitely uperior 
to that of lamb that has been killed two or three days 
Make up the fire in good time, that li may be clear and 
brisk when the joint is put down. Place it at sufficient 
distance to prevent the fat irom burning, and baste it 
constantly till the moment of serving. Lamb should be 
very thoroughly done without being dried up, and not 
the slightest appearance of red gravy should be visible, 
as in roast mutton: this rule is applicable to all young 
white meats. Serve with a little gravy made in the 
dripping-pan, the same cfc for other roasts, and send to 
table with it a tureen of mint sauce. 


Two or three sweetbreads, one-half pint of veal stock, 
white pepper and salt to taste, a small bunch of green 
onions, one blade of pounded rnace, thickening of butter 
and flour, two eggs, nearly one-half pint of cream, one 
teaspoonful of minced parsley, a very little grated nut. 

Mode : Soak the sweetbreads in lukewarm water, and 
put them into a saucepan with sufficient boiling water to 
cover them, and let them simmer for ten minutes; then 
take them out and put them into cold water. Now lard 
them, lay them in a stewpan, add the stock, seasoning, 
onions, mace, and a thickening of butter and flour, and 
stew gently for one quarter of an hour or twenty min- 
utes. Beat up the egg with the cream, to which add the 
minced parsley and very little grated nutmeg. Put this to 
the other ingredients; stir it well till quite hot, but do not 
let it boil after the cream is added, or it will curdle. 
Have ready some asparagus-tops, boiled; add these ttf 
the sweetbreads, and serve. 

LAMB STEAK dipped in egg, and then in biscuit cr 


bread-crumbs, and fried until it is brown, helps to make 
variety for the breakfast table. With baked sweet potatoes, 
good coffee, and buttered toast or corn muffins, one may be- 
gin the day with courage. 


Rinse the meat in cold water ; if any part is bloody, wash 
it off ; make a mixture of pepper and salt, allowing a large 
teaspoonful of salt and a saltspoonful of pepper for each 
pound of meat ; wipe the meat dry ; then rub the seasoning 
into every part, shape it neatly, and fasten it with skewers, 
and put it on a spit, or set it on a trivet or muffin rings, in a 
pan ; stick bits of butter over the whole upper surface ; 
dredge a little flour over, put a pint of water in the pan to 
baste with, and roast it before the fire in a Dutch oven or 
reflector, or put it into a hot oven ; baste it occasionally, 
turn it if necessary that every part may be done ; if the 
water wastes add more, that the gravy may not burn ; allow 
fifteen minutes for each pound of meat ; a piece weighing 
four or five pounds will then require one hour, or an hour 
and a quarter. 


Cut veal chops about an inch thick ; beat them flat 
with a rolling-pin, put them in a pan, pour boiling water 
over them, and set them over the fire for five minutes ; 
then take them up and wipe them dry; mix a table- 
spoonful of salt and a teaspoonful of pepper for each 
pound of meat ; rub each chop over with this, then dip 
them, first into beaten egg, then into rolled crackers as 
much as they will take up ; then finish by frying in hot 
lard or beef dripping ; or broil them. For the broil have 
some sweet butter on a steak dish; broil the chops until 
well done, over a bright clear fire of coals; (let them do 
gently that they may be well done,) then take them on 


to the butter, turn them carefully once or twice in "it, and 
serve. Or dip the chops into a batter, made of one egg 
beaten with half a teacup of milk, and as much wheat flour 
as may be necessary. Or simply dip the chops without 
parboiling into wheat flour ; make some lard or beef fat hot 
in a frying-pan ; lay the chops in, and when one side is a 
fine delicate brown, turn the other. When all are done, 
take them up, put a very little hot water into the pan, then 
put it in the dish with the chops. 

Or make a flour gravy thus : After frying them as last 
directed, add a tablespoonful more of fat to that in the pan, 
let it become boiling hot ; make a thin batter, of a small 
tablespoonful of wheat flour and cold water; add a little 
more salt and pepper to the gravy, then gradually stir in the 
batter ; stir it until it is cooked and a nice brown ; then put 
it over the meat, or in the dish with it ; if it is thicker than 
is liked, add a little boiling water. 


Two or three pounds of veal cutlets, egg and bread-crumbs, 
two tablespoonfuls of minced savory herbs, salt and pepper 
to taste, a little grated nutmeg. 

Cut the cutlets about three quarters of an inch in 
thickness, flatten them, and brush them over with the 
yolk of an egg ; dip them into bread-crumbs and minced 
herbs, season with pepper and salt and 'grated nutmeg, 
and fold each cutlet in a piece of buttered paper. Broil 
them, and send them to table with melted butter or a good 


Take out the bone from the meat, and pin into a 
round with skewers. Bind securely with soft tapes. 
Fill the cavity left by the bone with a force-meat of 
crumbs, chopped pork, thyme, and parsley, seasoned 



with pepper, salt, nutmeg and a pinch of lemon-peel. 
Cover the top of the fillet with thin slices of cold cooked, 
fat bacon or salt pork, tying them in place with twines 
crossing the meat in all directions. Put into a pot with 
two cups of boiling water, and cook slowly and steadily 
two hours. Then take from the pot and put into a drip- 
ping-pan. Undo the strings and tapes. Brush the meat 
all over with raw egg, sift rolled cracker thickly over it, 
and set in the oven for half an hour, basting often with 
gravy from the pot. When it is well browned, lay upon a hoi 
dish with the pork about it. Strain and thicken the gravy, 
and serve in a boat. 

If your fillet be large, cook twice as long in the pot. Th 
time given above is for one weighing five pounds. 

VEAL CAKE (a Convenient Dish for a Picnic.) 

A few slices of cold roast veal, a few slices of cold ham 
two hard-boiled eggs, two tablespoonfuls of minced parsley 
a little pepper, good gravy, or stock No. 109. 
Cut off all the brown outside from the veal, and cut the 
eggs into slices. Procure a pretty mould ; lay veal, ham, 
eggs, and parsley in layers, with a little pepper between 
each, and when the mould is full, get some strong stock, and 
fill up the shape. Bake for one half hour, and when cold, 
turn it out. 


Cut a breast of veal small, and put it in a stewpan, 
with hot water to cover it ; add to it a tablespoonful of 
salt, and set it over the fire ; take off the scum as it rises ; 
when the meat is tender, turn it into a dish to cool ; take 
out all the smali bones, butter a tin or earthen basin or 
pudding-pan, line it with a pie paste, lay some of the 
parboiled meat in to half fill it ; put bits of butter the 


size of a hickory nut all over the meat ; shake pepper over, 
dredge wheat flour over until it looks white ; then fill it 
nearly to the top with some of the water in which the meat 
was boiled ; roll a cover for the top of the crust, puff 
paste it, giving it two or three turns, and roll it to nearly 
half an inch thickness ; cut a slit in the centre, and make 
several small incisions on either side of it ; lay some skewers 
across the pie, put the crust on, trim the edges neatly with 
a knife ; bake one hour in a quick oven. A breast of veal 
will make two two-quart basin pies ; half a pound of nice 
corned pork, cut in thin slices and parboiled with the meat, 
will make it very nice, and very little, if any butter, will be 
required for the pie ; when pork is used, no other salt will 
be necessary. 


BOILED CALF'S HEAD (without the skin> 

Calf's head, water, a little salt, four tablespoonfuls of 
melted butter, one tablespoonful of minced parsley, pepper 
and salt to taste, one tablespoonful of lemon-juice. 

After the head has been thoroughly cleaned, and the 
brains removed, soak it in warm water to blanch it. Lay 
the brains also into warm wate, to soak, and let them 
remain for about an hour. Put the head into a stew- 
pan, with sufficient cold water to cover it, and when it 
boils, add a little salt ; take off every particle of scum as it 
rises, and boil the head until perfectly tender. Boil the 
brains, chop them, and mix with them melted butter, 
minced parsley, pepper, salt, and lemon-juice in the above 
proportion. Take up the head, skin the longue, and put 
it on a small dish with the brains round it. Have ready 
some parsley and butter, smother the head with it, and 
the remainder send to table in a tureen. Bacon, ham, 
pickled pork, or a pig's cheek are indispensable with calf s 
head. The brains are sometimes chopped with hard-boiled 



Boil a calf's head in water enough to cover it, until the 
meat leaves the bones, then take it with a skimmer into a 
wooden bowl or tray ; take from it every particle of bone ; 
chop it small ; season with pepper and salt : a heaping 
tablespoonful of salt, and a teaspoonful of pepper will 
be sufficient ; if liked, add a tablespoonful of finely chopped 
sweet herbs ; lay a cloth in a colander, put the minced 
meat into it, then fold the cloth closely over it, lay a plate 
over, and on it a gentle weight. When cold it may be 
sliced thin for supper or sandwiches. Spread each slice 
with made mustard. 


Two calf's feet, two slices of bacon, two ounces of butter, 
two tablespoonfuls of lemon-juice, salt and whole pepper to 
taste, one onion, a bunch of savory herbs, four cloves, one 
blade of mace, water, parsley and butter. 

Procure two white calf's feet ; bone them as far as the 
first joint, and put them into warm water to soak for two 
hours. Then put the bacon, butter, lemon-juice, onion, 
herbs, spices, and seasoning into a stewpan ; lay in the feet, 
and pour in just sufficient water to cover the whole. Stew 
gently for about three hours ; take out the feet, dish them, 
and cover with parsley and butter. 

The liquor they were boiled in should be strained and put 
by in a clean basin for use ; it will be found very good as an 
addition to gravies, etc., etc. 


Two or three pounds of liver, bacon, pepper and salt to 
taste, a small piece of butter, flour, two tablespoonfuls of 
lemon-juice, one quarter pint of water. 

Cut the liver in thin slices, and cut as many slices of 


bacon as there are of liver; fry the bacon first, and put 
that on a hot dish before the fire. Fry the liver in the 
fat which comes from the bacon, after seasoning it with 
pepper and salt, and dredging over it a very little flour. 
Turn the liver occasionally to prevent its burning, and 
when done, lay it round the dish with a piece of bacon 
between each. Pour away the bacon fat, put in a small 
piece of butter, dredge in a little flour, add the lemon- 
juice and water, give one boil, and pour it in the middle 
of the dish. 


Three sweetbreads, egg, and bread-crumbs, oiled but- 
ter, three slices of toast, brown gravy. 

Choose large white sweetbreads; put them into warm 
water to draw out the blood, and to improve their color; 
let them remain for rather more than one hour; then put 
them into boiling water, and allow them to simmer for 
about ten minutes, which renders them firm. Take them 
up, drain them, brush over the egg, sprinkle with bread- 
crumbs; dip them in egg again, and then into more 
bread-crumbs. Drop on them a little oiled butter, and 
put the sweetbreads into a moderately heated oven, and 
let them bake for nearly three quarters of an hour. 
Make three pieces of toast; place the sweetbreads on the 
toast, and pour round, but not over them, a good brown 


Chop fine remnants of coal roast veal. Moisten with 
the gravy or water. When hot, break into it three or 
four eggs, according to the quantity of veal. When the 
eggs are cooked, stir into it a spoonful of butter, and 
serve quickly. If to your taste, shake in a little parsley. 
Should you lack quantity, half a cup of fine stale bres*i 
crumbs are no disadvantage. 



Have your meat ready for roasting on Saturday, always, 
Roast upon a grating of several clean sticks (not pine) laid 
over the dripping-pan. Dash a cup of boiling water ovei 
the beef when it goes into the oven ; baste often, and see 
that the fat does not scorch. About three-quarters of in 
hour before it is done, mix the pudding. 


One pint of milk, four eggs, whites and yolks beaten sepa- 
rately ; two cups of flour prepared flour is best ; one tea- 
spoonful of salt. 

Use less flour if the batter grows too stiff. Mix quickly ; 
pour off the fat from the top of the gravy in the dripping-pan, 
leaving just enough to prevent the pudding from sticking to 
the bottom. Pour in the batter and continue to roast the 
beef, letting the dripping fall upon the pudding below. The 
oven should be brisk by this time. Baste the meat with the 
gravy you have taken out to make room for the batter. In 
serving, cut the pudding into squares and lay about the meat 
in the dish. It is very delicious. 


Cut a beef heart in two, take out the strings from the in- 
side ; wash it with warm water, rub the inside with pep- 
per and salt, and fill it with a stuffing made of bread 
and butter moistened with water, and seasoned with pep- 
per and salt, and, if liked, a sprig of thyme made fine ; 
put it together and tie a string around it, rub the outside 
with pepper and salt ; stick bits of butter on, then dredge 
flour over, and set it on a trivet, or muffin rings, in a 
dripping pan ; put a pint of water in to baste with, then 


roast it before a hot fire, or in a hot oven; turn it around 
and baste frequently. One hour will roast or bake it; 
when done, take it up, cut a lemon in thin slices, and put 
it in the pan with a bit of butter; dredged in a teaspoon- 
ful of flour; let it brown; add a sma'l teacup of boiling 
water, stir it smooth, and serve in a ravy tureen. 


Cut the kidney into thin slices, flour them, and fry of 
a nice brown. Whe'i done, make a gravy in the pan by 
pouring away the fat* putting in a small piece of butter, 
one quarter pint of boiling wate ,pepper and salt, and a 
tablespoonful of mushroom catsi' p. Let the gravy just 
boil up, pour over the kidney, and serve. 


Two pounds of lean beef, one tablespoonfuf of water, 
one quarter pound of butter, a seasoning to taste of salt, 
cayenne, pounded mace, and black pepper. Procure a 
nice piece of lean beef, as possible from gristle, skin, etc., 
and put it into a jar (if at hand, one with a lid) with one 
teaspoonful of water. Cover it closely, and put the jar 
into a saucepan of boiling water, letting the water come 
within two inches of the top of the jar. Boil gently for 
three and a half hours, then take the beef, chop it very 
small with a chopping-knife, and pound it thoroughly 
in a mortar. Mix with it by degrees all, or a portion of 
the gravy that will have run from it, and a little cLrified 
butter; add the seasoning, put it in small pots for use, 
and cover with a little butter just warmed and poured 
over. If much gravy is added to it, it will keep but a 
short time; on the contrary, if a large proportion of but- 
ter is used, it may be preserved for some time. 



One tongue, a bunch of savory herbs, water. In 
choosing a tongue, ascertain how long it has been dried 
or pickled, and select one with a smooth skin, which de- 
notes its being young and tender. If a dried one, and 
rather hard, soak it at least for twelve hours previous to 
cooking it; if, however, it is fresh from the pickle, two 
or +'iiree hours will be sufficient for it to remain in soak. 
Put the tongue into a stewpan with plenty of cold water 
and a bunch of savory herbs; let it gradually come to a 
boil, skim well, and simmer very* gently until tender. 
Peel off the skin, garnish with tufts of cauliflowers or 
Brussels sprouts, and serve. Boiled tongue is frequently 
sent to table with boiled poultry, instead of ham, and is, 
by many persons, preferred. If to serve cold, peel it, 
fasten it down to a piece of board by sticking a fork 
through the root, and another through the top, to 
straighten it. When cold, glaze it, and put a paper 
ruche round the root, and garnish with tufts of parsley. 


Cut a pound of tripe in narrow strips, put a small cup 
of water or milk to it, add a bit of butter the size of an 
egg, dredge in a large teaspoonful of flour, or work it 
with the butter; season with pepper and salt, let it sim- 
mer gently for half an hour, serve hot. A bunch of par- 
sley cut small and put with it is an improvement, 


Prepare tripe as for frying: lay it on a gridiron over a 
clear fire of coals, let it broil gently; when one side is a 
fine brown, turn the other side (it must be nearly done 
through before turning); take it up on a hot dish, butter 


it, and if liked, add a little catsup or vinegar to the 


Empty, skin, and thoroughly wash the rabbit; wipe it 
dry, line the inside with sausage-meat and force-meat 
(the latter of bread-crumbs, well-seasoned, and worked 
up). Sew the stuffing inside, skewer back the head 
between the shoulders, cut off the fore-joints of the 
shoulders and legs, bring them close to the body, and 
secure them by means of a skewer. Wrap the rabbit in 
buttered paper, keep it well basted, and a few minutes 
before it is done remove the paper, flour and froth it, 
and let it acquire a nice brown color. It should be done 
in three-quarters of an hour. Take out the skewers, and 
serve with brown gravy and red-currant jelly. To bake 
the rabbit, proceed in the same manner as above; in a 
good oven it will take about the same time as roasting. 
Most cooks garnish the rabbit with slices of lemon and 
serve up with currant jelly. Sometimes the head is cut 
off before sending to the table; but this is a matter of 
individual taste. 


One rabbit, a few strips of bacon, rather more than 
one pint of good broth or stock, a bunch of savory herbs, 
salt and pepper to taste, thickening of butter and flour, 
one glass of sherry. Well wash the rabbit, cut it into 
quarters, lard them with slips of bacon, and fry them; 
then put them into a stewpan with the broth, herbs, and 
a seasoning of pepper and salt; simmer gently until the 
rabbit is tender, then strain the gravy, thicken it with 
butter and flour, add the sherry, give one boil, pour it 
over the rabbit, and serve. Garnish with slices of one 



The best way of cooking rabbits is to fricassee them 
Cut them up, or disjoint them. Put them into a stewpan ; 
season them with cayenne pepper, salt and some chopped 
parsley. Pour in a pint of warm water (or of veal broth, U 
you have it) and stew it over a slow fire till the rabbits are 
quite tender ; adding (when they are about half done) some 
bits of butter rolled in flour. Just before you take it from 
the fire, enrich the gravy with a gill or more of thick cream 
with some nutmeg grated into it. Stir the gravy well, but 
take care not to let it boil after the cream is in, lest it 
curdle. Put the pieces of rabbit on a hot dish, and pour the 
gravy over them. 


Cut a breast of venison in steaks,, make quarter of a 
pound of butter hot, in a pan, rub the steaks over with a 
mixture of a little salt and pepper, dip them in wheat 
flour, or rolled crackers, and fry a rich brown"; when 
both sides are done, take them up on a dish, and put a 
tin cover over; dredge a heaping teaspoonful of flour in- 
.to the butter in the pan, stir it with a spoon until it is 
brown, without burning, put to it a small teacup of boil- 
ing water, with a tablespoonful of currant jelly dissolved 
into it, stir it for a few minutes, then strain it over the 
meat and serve. A glass of wine, with a tablespoonful 
of white sugar dissolved in it, may be used for the gravy, 
instead of the jelly and water. Venison may be boiled, 
and served with boiled vegetables, pickled beets, etc., and 


Let the gridiron become hot, rub the bars with a bit ol 
suet, then lay on the steaks, having dipped them w 


^''foiled crackers or wheat flour, and set it over a bright, 
clear, but not fierce fire of coals; when one side is done, 
take the steak carefully over the steak dish, and hold it 
so that the blood may fall into the dish, than turn them 
on the gridiron, let it broil nicely; set a steak dish where 
it will become hot, put on it a bit of butter the size of an 
egg for each pound of vension, put to it a saltspoon of 
salt, and the same of black pepper, put to it a table- 
spoonful of current jelly, made liquid with a tabiespoon- 
ful of hot water or wine, lay the steaks on, turn them 
once or twice in the gravy, and serve hot. Or they may 
be simply broiled, and served with butter, pepper, and 
salt; or having broiled one side, and turned the steaks, 
lay thin slices of lemon over, and serve in the dish with 
the steaks. 


Two pounds of rump-steak, two kidneys, seasoning to 
taste of salt and black pepper, suet crust made with 
milk (see PASTRY), in the proportion of six ounces of suet 
to each one pound of flour. 

Mode : Procure some tender rump-steak (that which 
has been hung a little time), and divide it into pieces 
about an inch square, and cut each kidney into eighth 
pieces. Line the dish (of which we have given an en- 
graving) with crust made with suet and flour in the 
above proportion, leaving a small piece of crust to over- 
lap the edge. Then cover the bottom with a portion of 
the steak and a few pices of kidney; season with salt and 
pepper (some add a little flour to thicken the gravy, but 
it is not necessary), and then add another layer of ste.^k. 
kidney, and seasoning. Proceed in this manner till the 
dish is full, when pour in sufficient water to come with- 
in two inches of the top of ihe basin. Moisten the edges 
oi the crust, cover the pudding over, press the two crustt 


together, that the gravy may not escape, and turn up 
the overhanging paste. Wring out a cloth in hot water, 
flour it, and tie up the pudding; put it into boiling 
water, and let it bcil for at least four hours. If the water 
diminishes, always replenish with some, hot in a jug, as 
the pudding should be kept covered all the time, and 
not allowed to stop boiling. When the cloth is removed, 
cut a round piece in the top of the crust, to prevent the 
pudding bursting, and send it to table in the basin, 
either in an ornamental dish, or with a napkin pinned 
round it. Serve quickly. 



Take your bones, and stew them in a little water 
an onion, some salt and pepper, and, if you like, a little 
savory herbs; when the goodness is all out of the boaes, 
and it tastes nice, thicken the gravy with a teaspoonful 
of corn starch, and if it is not very strong put in a b't of 
butter, then place your stew pan on the hot hearth, and 
put in your slices of meat. Warm but not boil. Serve 
with toasted bread. 


Mince some cold beef, a little fat with the lean, put to 
it as much cold boiled potatoes chopped as you like, (the 
quantity as of meat or twice as much,) season with pep- 
per and salt; add as much gravy or hot water as will 
make it moist, then put in a stew-pan over a gentle lire: 
dredge in a small quantity of wheat flour;, stir it about 
with a spoon, cover the stew-pan, and let it simmer for 
half an hour take care that it does not burn. Dish it 
with or without a slice of toast under it, for breakfast 
This hash may be made without potatoes; if water is 
used instead of gravy, a bit of butter may be added, more 
or less, according to the proportion of tat with the lean 



The most common way of serving dried or smoked 
beef is to shave it into thin slices or chips, raw; but a 
more savory relish may be made of it with little trouble. 
Put the slices of uncooked beef into a frying pan with 
just enough boiling water to cover them; set them over 
the fire for ten minutes, drain off all the water, and with 
a knife and fork cut the meat into small bits. Return to 
the pan, which should be hot, with a tablespoonful of 
butter and a little pepper. Have ready some well-beaten 
eggs, allowing four to a half pound of beef; stir them 
into the pan with the minced meal / and toss and stir the 
mixture for about two minutes. Send to table in a 
covered dish. 


Season pieces of cold chicken or turkey with salt and 
pepper. Dip in melted butter; let this cool on the meat, 
and dip in beaten egg and in fine bread-crumbs. Fry in 
butter till a delicate brown. Serve on slices of hot toast, 
with either a white or curry sauce poured around. Pieces 
of cold veal make a nice dish, if prepared in this manner. 


Chop fine some cold beef; beat two eggs and mix with 
the meat and add a little milk, melted butter, and salt 
and pepper. Make into rolls and fry. 


Boil the veal tender, pick it up fine, put in a mould, add 
the v>ater it was boiled in, and set it in a cold place; 
season with salt and pepper to taste; a layer of hard- 
boiled eggs improves it. 



One cupful of boiled rice, one cupful of finely-chopped 
cooked meat any kind; one teaspoonful of salt, a little 
pepper, two tablespoonfuls of butter, half a cupful of 
milk, one egg. Put the milk on to boil, and add the 
meat, rice and seasoning. When this boils, add the egg, 
well beaten; stir one minute. After cooling, shape, dip 
in egg and crumbs, and fry as before directed. 


To one egg thoroughly beaten, put one cup of sweet 
milk and a little salt. Slice light bread, and dip into the 
mixture, allowing each slice to absord some of the milk; 
then brown on a hot buttered griddle; spread with but- 
ter, and serve hot. 


Mince beef or mutton, small, with onions, pepper and 
salt; add a little gravy, put into scallop shells or small 
cups, making them three parts full, and fill them up with 
potatoes mashed with a little cream, put a bit of butter 
on the top and brown them in an oven. 


Wipe the sausages dry. Dip them in beaten egg and 
bread-crumbs. Put them in the frying-basket and plunge 
into boiling fat. Cook ten minutes. Serve with a gar- 
nish of toasted bread and parsley. 


One cupful of finely-chopped cooked ham, one of 
bread-crumbs, two of hot mashed potatoes, one large 
tablespoonful of butter, three eggs, a speck ct cayenne. 
Ueat the ham, cayenne, butter, and two of the eggs into 


the potato. Let the mixture cool slightly, and shape it 
like croquettes. Roll in the bread-crumbs, dip in beaten 
egg and again in crumbs, put in the frying-basket and 
plunge into boiling fat. Cook two minutes. Drain, and 


Chopped cold meat \vell seasoned; wet with gravy, if 
convenient, put it on a platter; then take cold rice made 
moist with milk and one egg, season with pepper and 
salt; if not sufficient rice, add powdered bread-crumbs; 
place this around the platter quite thick; set in oven to 
heat and brown. 


A little cold chicken (about one pint), one cupful of 
water or stock, one-fifth of a box of gelatine, half a tea- 
s A .6onful of curry powder, salt, pepper. Cut the meat 
from the bones of a chicken left from dinner. Put the 
bones on with water to cover, and boil down to one cup- 
ful. Put the gelatine to soak in one-fourth of a cupful 
of cold water. When the stock is -reduced as much as is 
necessary, strain and season. Add the curry and chicken. 
Season, and simmer ten minutes; then add the gelatine, 
and stir on the table until it is dissolved. Turn all into 
a mould, and set away to harden. This make a nice 
relish for tea or lunch. If you have mushrooms, omit 
% the curry, and cut four of them into dice. Stir into the 
mixture while cooking. This dish can be varied by 
using tha whites of hard-boiled eggs, or bits o*" boi.ed 
ham. To serve: Dip the mould in warm water, and turn 
Jut or .he dish. Garnish with parsley. 


Mince cold beef or lamb; it beef put in a pinch of pul- 
verized cloves; if lamb, a pinch of summer savory ju 


season it, very little pepper and some salt, and put it in 
a baking dish; mash potatoes and mix them with cream 
and butter and a little salt, and spread them over the 
meat; beat up an egg with cream or milk, a very little; 
spread it over the potatoes, and bake it a short time, 
sufficient to warm it through and brown the potatoes. 


In choosing pouitiy, the best way to determine whether 
it is young, is to try the skin under the leg or wing; if 
it is easily broken, it is young; or, turn the wing back- 
wards; if the joint yields readily, it is tender; a fat fowl 
is best for any purpose. 

After a chicken or fowl is killed, plunge it into a pot 
of scalding hot water; then pluck off the feathers, taking 
care not to tear the skin; when it is picked clean, roll up 
a sheet of white wrapping paper, set file to it, and singe 
off all the hairs. Poultry should be carefully picked, 
and nicely singed. 

If a fowl is fresh killed, the vent will be close, and the 
flesh have a pleasant smell. 


Carefully pluck the bird, singe it with white paper, 
and wipe it thoroughly with a cloth; draw it, preserve 
the liver and gizzard, and be particular no* to break the 
gall-bag, as no washing will remove the bitter taste it 
imparts where it once touches. Wash it inside well, and. 
wipe it thoroughly with a dry cloth; the outside merely 
requires wiping nicely. Cut off the neck close to tl 1 ^ 
back, but leave enough of the crop-skin to turn over; 
break the leg-bones close below the knee; draw out the 
strings from the thighs, and flatten the breast-bone to 
make it look plump. Have ready, your dressing of 


bread-crumbs, mixed with butter, pepper, salt, thyme or 
sweet marjoram; fill the breast with this, and sew the 
neck over to the back. Be particular that the turkey is 
firmly trussed. Dredge it lightly with flour, and put a 
piece of butter into the basting-ladle; as the butter melts, 
baste the bird with it. When of a nice brown and well- 
frothed, serve with a tureen of good brown gravy and 
one of bread-sauce. The liver should be put under one 
pinion, and the gizzard under the other. Fried sausages 
are a favorite addition" to roast-turkey; they make a 
pretty garnish, besides adding much to the flavor. 
When these are not at hand, a few force-meat balls 
should be placed round the dish as a garnish. Turkey 
may also be stuffed with sausage-meat, and a chestnut 
force-meat with the same sauce is, by many persons, 
much esteemed as an accompaniment to this favorite 

SECOND RECIPE. After drawing and cleansing the 
turkey, prepare a dressing of chopped sausage and bread 
crumbs, mixing in butter, pepper, salt and thyme to 
flavor. Fill the craw and the body of the turkey with 
this, and sew up carefully. Dredge with flour and put 
in the oven to roast, basting freely first with butter and 
water, then with the gravy from the pan. The time it 
takes to roast will depend both on the age and the 
weight of the turkey. If you have a good fire, you will 
be safe to allow ten minutes or so to the pound. Roast 
to a fine brown, and serve with the chopped giblets, 
which should be well stewed, add cranberry sauce. 



Hen turkeys are the best for boiling. They eye the 
whitest, and, if nicely kept, tenderest. Of course the 
rinews ms>"t be drawn, and they ought to be trussed witfc 


the legs out, so as to be easily carved. Take care to clean 
the animal well after it has been singed. Place the fowl 
in a sufficiently large pot with clean water sufficient to 
cover it, and a little more; let the fire be a clear one, but 
not too fierce, as the slower the turkey boils the plumper 
it will be. Skim carefully and constantly, and simmer 
for two hours and a half in the case of a large fowl, and 
two hours for a smaller beast, and from an hour and ten 
to an hour and forty minutes for still smaller turkeys. 
Some people boil their turkeys in a floured cloth. I 
don't; the whiteness being mostly in the animal itself. 
My stuffing for a boiled turkey is thought good. I pre- 
pare it of crumbs of stale bread, with a little marrow or 
butter, some finely-shred parsley, and two dozen of small 
oysters, minus their beards, of course, and neatly trim- 
med. Stuff with this and a little chopped ham in ad- 
dition if desired. 


Have a bright, clear, and steady fire for roasting poul- 
try; prepare it as directed; spit it, put a pint of hot water 
in the dripping pan, add to it a small tablespoonful of 
salt, and a small teaspoonful of pepper, baste frequently, 
and let it roast quickly, without scorching; when nearly 
done, put a piece of butter the size of a large egg to the 
water in the pan; when it melts, baste with it, dredge a 
little flour over, baste again, and let it finish; half an 
hour will roast a full-grown chicken, if the fire is right. 
When done take it up, let the giblets (heart, liver, and 
gizzard) boil tender, and chop them very fine, and put 
them in the gravy; add a tablespoonful of browned flour, 
and a bit of butter, stir it over the fire for a few minutes, 
then serve in a gravy tureen. Or put the giblets in the 
pan and let them roast. 



Clean, wash, and stuff as for roasting. Baste a floured 
cloth around each, and put into a pot with enough boil- 
ing water to cover them well. The hot water cooks the 
skin at once, and prevents the escape of the juices. The 
broth will not be so rich as if the fowls are put on in 
cold water, but this is a proof that the meat will be more 
nutritious and better flavored. Stew very slowly, for the 
first half hour especially. Boil an hour or more, guiding 
yourself by size and toughness. Serve with egg or bread 


Prepare in the same way as for boiling, cut them in 
two through the back, and flatten them ; place on a cold 
gridiron over a nice red fire. After a little time, when they 
have become thoroughly hot, set them on a plate or other 
dish, and lard them well with a piece of butter ; pepper 
and salt them to taste, chiefly on the inside, then place 
them on the brander and continue turning till done they 
will take fully twenty minutes. Serve hot, with a little 
dab of butter and plenty of stewed mushrooms a delightful 


Cut the chicken in pieces, lay it in salt and water, which 
change several times ; roll each piece in flour ; fry in very 
hot lard or butter, season with salt and pepper ; fry pars- 
ley with them also. Make a gravy of cream seasoned with 
salt, pepper and a little mace, thickened with a little flour 
in the pan in which the chickens w ere fried, pouring off the 



Cut into joints, scald and skin, place in a stewpan, with 
two raw onions cut into eight parts, a little chopped parsley, 
salt and pepper, and the least squeeze of lemon juice. 
Add a bit of butter as large as an egg, and fill in a pint of 
water. Stew for an hour under a very close lid, then 
lift and strain off the gravy, into which beat gradually a 
teacupful of cream and the yolks of two eggs ; heat up the 
gravy, taking care that it does not boil, and pour it over the 


Slice an onion and brown in a little butter ; add a spoon- 
ful of curry powder ; allow it to remain covered for a few 
minutes to cook ; add a little more butter and put in chicken, 
veal, etc., etc. ; cut up small, thicken with a little flour. 
This is excellent. 


Cut up the fowls and place in a kettle with a tight 
cover, so as to retain the steam ; put about two teacups 
of water and plenty of salt and pepper over the chicken, 
then let it cook until the meat cleaves easily from the 
bones ; cut or chop all the meat (freed from skin, bone 
and gristle) about as for chicken salad ; season well, put 
into a dish and pour the remnant of the juice in which it 
was cooked over it. This will jeliy when cold, and can 
then be sliced or set on the table in shape. Nice for tea 
or lunch. The knack of making this simple dish is not 
having too much water ; it will not jelly if too weak, or 
if the water is allowed to boil away entirely while cook- 



Skin and cut up the fowls into joints, and put the 
neck, legs and backbones in a stew-pan, with a little 
water, an onion, a bunch of savory herbs, and a blade of 
mace ; let these stew for an hour, and, when done, strain 
off the liquor : this is for gravy. Put a layer of fowl at 
the bottom of a pie-dish, then a layer of ham, then one 
of force-meat and hard-boiled eggs, cut in rings ; between 
the layers put a seasoning of pounded mace, nutmeg, 
pepper and salt. Pour in about half a pint of water, 
border the edge of dish with puff-crust, put on the cover, 
ornament the top and glaze it by brushing over it the 
/oik of an egg. Bake for about an hour and a half, and, 
when done, pour in at the top, the gravy r ade from the 


Take a fine white bunch of celery (four or five heads), 
scrape and wash it white ; reserve the delicate green 
leaves; shred the white part like straws, lay this in a 
glass, or white china dish, in the form of a nest. Mince 
all the white meat of a boiled, or white stewed fowl, without 
the skin, and put it in the nest. 

Make a salad dressing thus : Rub the yolks of two hard- 
boiled eggs to a smooth paste, with a dessertspoonful of 
salad oil, or melted butter ; add to it two teaspoonfuls of 
made mustard, and a small teaspoonful of fine white sugar, 
and put to it gradually (stirring it in) a large cup of strong 

Make a wreath of the most delicate leaves of the 
celery, around the edge of the nest, between it and the 
chicken ', pour the dressing over the chicken, when ready 


to serve; if the dressing is poured over too soon it will 
discolor the celery. 

White heart lettuce may be used for the nest, instead 
of celery. 


Boil a fowl until it will slip easily from the bones; let 
the water be reduced to about one pint in boiling; pick 
the meat from the bones in good sized pieces, taking out 
all gristle, fat, and bones; place in a wet mould; skim 
the fat from the liquor; a little butter; pepper and salt 
to the taste, and one half ounce of gelatine. When this 
dissolves, pour it hot over the chicken. The liquor must 
be seasoned pretty high, for the chicken absorbs. 


Mince chicken that has been previously roasted t>i 
boiled, and season well; stir into this a sauce made of 
half a pint of milk, into which while boiling ateaspoonful 
of corn starch has been added to thicken, season with 
butter, about a teaspoonful, and salt and pepper to 
taste. Have ready small pate pans lined with a good 
puff paste. Bake the crust in a brisk oven; then fill the 
pans and set in the oven a few minutes to brown very 


Four large onions, ten sage-leaves, one quarter pound 
of bread-crumbs ^-.e ?. .i one half ounce of butter, salt 
and pepper to taste, o v gg. Pee. ".he onions, cut them 
>nto boiling water, let ti. n simmer for five minutes or 
rather longer, and, just be. ore they are taken out, put in 
tne sage-leaves for a minute or two to take of their raw- 
ness. Chop both these very fine, add toe bread, season 


ing, and butter, and work the whole together with the 
yolk of an egg, when the stuffing will be ready for use. 
It should be rather highly seasoned, and the sage-leaves 
should be very finely chopped. Many cooks do not par- 
boil the onions in the manner just stated, but merely use 
them raw. The stuffing then, however, is not nearly so 
mild, and, to many tastes, its strong flavor would be very 
objectionable. When made for goose, a portion of the 
liver of the bird, simmered fora few minutes and very 
finely minced, is frequently added to this stuffing; and 
where economy is studied", the egg may be dispensed with. 


Having drawn and singed the goose, wipe out the in- 
side with a cloth, and sprinkle in some pepper and salt. 
Make a stuffing of four good sized onions, minced fine, 
and half their quantity of green sage leaves, minced also, 
a large teacupful of grated bread-crumbs, a piece of 
butter the size of a walnut, and the beaten yolks of two 
eggs, with a little pepper and salt. Mix the whole to- 
gether, and incorporate them well. Put the stuffing 
into the goose, and press it in hard; but do not entirely 
fill up the cavity, as the mixture will swell in cooking. 
Tie the goose securely round with a greased or wetted 
string; and paper the breast to prevent it from scorch- 
ing. The fire must be brisk and well kept up. It will 
require from two hours to two -and a half to roast. 
Baste jt at first with a little salt and water, and then with 
its own gravy. Take off the paper when the goose is 
about half done, and dredge it with a little flour towards 
the last. Having parboiled the liver and heart, chop 
them and put them into the gravy, which must be skim- 
med well and thickened with a little browned flour. 

Send apple sauce to table with the goose; also mashed 


A goose may be stuffed entirely with potatoes, boiled 
and mashed with milk, butter, pepper and salt. 

You may make a gravy of the giblets, that is the neck, 
pinions, liver, heart and gizzard, stewed in a little water, 
thickened with butter, rolled in flour, and seasoned with 
pepper and salt. Before you send it to table, take out 
all but the liver and heart; mince them and leave them 
irv the gravy. This gravy is by many preferred to that 
which comes from the goose in roasting. It is well to 
have both. 

If a goose is old it is useless to cook it, as when hard 
and tough it cannot be eaten. 


Wash and dry the ducks carefully. Make a stuffing 
of sage and onion; insert, and sew up completely that 
the seasoning may not escape. If tender, ducks do not 
require more than an hour to roast. Keep them well 
basted, and a few minutes before serving, dredge lightly 
with flour, to make them froth and look plump. Send 
to table hot, with a good brown gravy poured not round 
but over them. Accompany with currant jelly, and, if in 
season, green peas. 


Clean the pigeons, and stuff them the same as chick- 
ens; leave the feet on, dip them into scalding water, strip 
off the skin, cross them, and tie them together below the 
breast bone; or cut them off; the head may remain on; 
if so, dip it in scalding water, and pick it clean; twist the 
wings back, put the liver between the right wing and 
the body, and turn the head under the other; rub the 
outside of each bird with a mixture of pepper and salt; 
spit them, and put some water in the dripping-pan; for 


each bird put a bit of butter the size of a small egg, put 
them before a hot fire, 'and let them roast quickly; baste 
frequently, half an hour will do them; when nearly done, 
dredge them with wheat flour and baste with the butter 
in the pan; turn them, that they may be nicely and easily 
browned; when done, take them up, set the pan over the 
fire, make a thin batter of a teaspoonful of wheat flour, 
and cold water, when the gravy is boiling hot, stir it in; 
continue to stir it for a few minutes, until it is brown, 
then pour it through a gravy sieve into a tureen, and 
serve with the pigeons. 


Boil some yellow macaroni gently, until it is quite 
swelled out and tender, then cut it in pieces, the length 
of a finger, and lay them on a dish like a straw nest. 

Truss pigeons with the heads on, (having scalded and 
picked them clean,) turned under the left wing, leave the 
feet on, and having stewed them, arrange them as in a 
nest; pour the gravy over and serve. 

The nest may be made of boiled rice, or bread cut in 
pieces, the length and thickness of a finger, and fried a 
nice brown in hot lard, seasoned with pepper and salt. 
Or, make it of bread, toasted a yellow brown. Any 
small birds may be stewed or roasted, and served in this 


Wash and truss one dozen pigeons. Put them in a 
kettle with four pounds of the shank of veal, six cloves, 
twenty-five pepper-corns, an onion that has been fried in 
one spoonful of butter, one stalk of celery, a bouquet of 
sweet herbs and four and a half quarts of water. Have 
the veal shank broken in small pieces. As soon as the 
contents of the kettle come to a boil, skim carefully, and 
se'; for three hours where they will just simmer. After 


they have been cooking one hour, add two tablespoon- 
fuls of salt. When the pigeons are done, take them up, 
being careful not to break them, and remove the strings. 
Draw the kettle forward, where it will boil rapidly, and 
keep there for forty minutes; then strain the liquor 
through a napkin, and taste to see if seasoned enough. 
The water should have boiled down to two and a half 
quarts. Have two moulds that will each hold six pig- 
eons. Put a thin layer of the jelly in these, and set on 
ice to harden. When hard, arrange the pigeons in them, 
and cover with the jelly, which must be cold, but liquid. 
Place in the ice chest for six or, better still, twelve hours. 
There should be only one layer of the pigeons in the 

To serve: Dip the mould in a basin of warm water for 
one minute, and turn on a cold dish. Garnish with 
pickled beets and parsley. A Tartare sauce can be 
served with this dish. 

If squabs are used, two hours will cook them. All 
small birds, as well as partridge, grouse, etc., can be pre- 
pared in the same manner. Remember that the bird* 
must be cooked tender, and that the liquor must be s> 
reduced that it will become jellied. 


Clean and truss three or four pigeons, rub the outside 
and in with a mixture of pepper and salt; rub the inside 
with a bit of butter, and fill it with a bread-and-butter 
stuffing, or mashed potatoes; sew up the slit, butter the 
sides of a tin basin or pudding-dish, and line (the sides 
only,) with pie paste, rolled to quarter of an inch thick 
ness; lay the birds in; for three large tame pigeons, cut 
quarter of a pound of sweet butter and put it over them; 
strew over a large teaspoonful of salt, and a small tea- 
spoonful of pepper, with a bunch of finely cut parsley, if 
liked; dredge a large tablespoonful of wheat flour over; 


put in water to nearly fill the pic; lay skewers across the 
top, cover with a puff paste crust; cut a slit in the mid- 
dle, ornament the edge with leaves, braids, or shells of 
paste, and put it in a moderately hot or quick oven, for 
one hour; when nearly done, brush the top over with the 
yolk of an egg beaten with a little milk, and finish. The 
pigeons for this pie may be cut in two or more pieces, 
if preferred. 

Any small birds may be done in this manner. 


Nearly all wild ducks are liable to have a fishy flavor, 
and when handled by inexperienced cooks, are some- 
times uneatable from this cause. Before roasting thei.v 
guard against this by parboiling them with a small car- 
rot, peeled, put within each. This will absorb the uiv 
pleasant taste. An onion will have the same effect; but, 
unless you mean to use onion in the stuffing, the carrot 
is preferable. In my own kitchen, I usually put in the 
onion, considering a suspicion of garlic a desideratum in 
roast duck, whether wild or tame. 


Parboil as above directed; throw away the carrot or 
onion, lay in fresh water half an hour; stuff with bread- 
crumbs seasoned with pepper, salt, sage, and onion, and 
roast until brown and tender, basting for half the: time 
with butter and water, then with the drippings. Add to 
the gravy, when you have taken up the ducks, a tea- 
spoonful of currant jelly, and a pinch of cayenne. 
Thicken with browned flour and serve in a tureen. 


Draw and wash the inside very carefully, as with a! , 
game. Domestic fowls are, or should be, kept up with- 


out eating for at least twelve hours before they are 
killed; but we must shoot wild when we can get the 
chance, and of course it often happens that their crops 
are distented by a recent hearty meal of rank or green 
food. Wipe the cavity with a dry soft cloth before you 
stuff. Have a rich force-meat, bread-crumbs, some bits 
of fat pork, chopped fine, pepper, and salt. Moisten 
with rnilk, and beat in an egg and a couple of table- 
spoomuls of melted butter. Baste with butter and 
water for the first hour, then three or four times with 
gravy; lastly, five or six times with melted butter. A 
generous and able housekeeper told me once that she 
always allowed a pound of butter for basting a large 
wild turkey. This was an extravagant quantity, but the 
meat is drier than that of the domestic fowl, and not 
nearly so fat. Dredge with flour at the last, froth with 
butter, and when he is of a tempting brown, serve. Skim 
the gravy, add a little hot water, pepper, thicken with 
the giblets chopped fine and browned flour, boil up, and 
pour into a tureen. At the South the giblets are not put 
in the grav) r , but laid whole, one under each wing, when 
the turkey is dished. Garnish with small fried sausages, 
not larger than a dollar, crisped parsley between them. 
Send around currant jelly and cranberry sauce with it. 


Pick them immediately; wipe them, and season them 
slightly with pepper and salt. Cut as many slices of 
bread as you have birds. Toast them brown, butter 
them, and lay them in the pan. Dredge the birds \vitk 
flour, and put them in the oven with a brisk fire. Baste 
them with lard, or fresh butter. They will be done in 
twenty or thirty minutes. Serve them up laid on the 
toast, and garnished with sliced orange, or with orange 



Choose young birds, with dark-colored bills and yel- 
iowish legs, and let them hang a few days, or there will 
b" no flavor to the flesh, nor will it be tender. The time 
they should be kept entirely depends on the taste of 
those for whom they are intended, as what some persons 
would consider delicious, would be to others disgusting 
and offensive. They may be trussed with or without 
the head, the latter mode being now considered the most 
fashionable. Pluck, draw, and wipe the partridge care- 
fully inside and out; cut off the head, leaving sufficient 
skin on the neck to skewer back; bring the legs close to 
the breast, between it and the side-bones, and pass a 
skewer through the pinions and thick part of the thighs. 
When the head is left on, it should be brought round 
and fixed on to the point of the skewer. When the bird 
is firmly and plumply trussed, roast it before a nice 
bright fire; keep it well basted, and a few minutes before 
serving, flour and froth it well. Dish it, and serve with 
gravy and bread-sauce, and send to table hot and quickly, 
\ little of the gravy should be poured over the bird. 


Pluck and draw the birds, rub a little butter over them, 
tie a strip of bacon over the breasts, and set them in the 
oven for twenty to twenty-five minutes. 


The bird being a little strong, and its flesh when 
cooked a little dry, it should be either larded or wide 
strips of bacon or pork placed over its breast. A mild 
seasoned stuffing will improve the flavor of old birds. 
Dust a little flour over them, baste occasionally, and 
serve. Pheasant* vnay be managed in the same manner. 



Clean and wash the grouse. Lard the breast ariot 
legs. P_un a small skewer into the legs and through the 
tail. Tie firmly with twine. Dredge with salt, and rub 
the breast with soft butter; then dredge thickly with 
flour. Put into a quick oven. If to be very rare, cook 
twenty minutes; if wished better done, thirty minutes. 
The former time, as a general thing, suits gentlemen 
better, but thirty minutes is preferred by ladies. If the 
birds are cooked in a tin-kitchen, it should be for thirty 
or thirty-five minutes. When done, place on a hot dish, 
on which has been spread bread sauce. Sprinkle fried 
crumbs over both grouse and sauce. Garnish with 
parsley. The grouse may, instead, be served on a hot 
dish, with the parsley garnish, and the sauce and crumbs 
served in separate dishes. The first method is the bet- 
ter, however, as you get in th& sauce all the gravy that 
comes from the birds. 

PORK, HAMS, etc. 

To CHOOSE PoaK. If the rind of pork is tough and 
thick, and cannot easily be impressed with the finger, it 
is old. 

If fresh, the flesh will look cool and smooth; when 
moist or clammy it is stale. The knuckle is the first to 
become tainted. 

Pork is often what is called measly, and is then almost 
poisonous; measly pork may easily be detected, the fat 
being fi \ll of small kernels. Swill or still-fed pork is not 
fit for curing; either dairy or corn fed is good. 

Fresh pork is in season from October to April. 

In cutting up a large hog, it is first cut in two down 
tne back and belly. The chine or backbone should be 
cut out from each side the whole length, and ij either 


boiled or roasted. The chine is considered the prime 
part. The sides of the hog are made into bacon, and 
the inside or ribs is cut with very little meat; this is the 


Hang up the hams a week or ten days, the longer the 
tenderer and better, if kept perfectly sweet; mix for each 
good-sized ham, one teacup of salt, one tablespoon of 
molasses, one ounce of saltpetre; lay the hams in a 
clean dry tub; heat the mixture and rub well into the 
hams, especially around the bones and recesses; repeat 
the process once or twice, or until all the mixture is 
used; then let the hams lie two or three days, when they 
must be put for three weeks in brine strong enough to 
bear an egg; then soak eight hours in cold water; hang 
up to dry in the kitchen or other more convenient place 
for a week or more; smoke from three to five days, being 
careful not to heat the hams. Corn-cobs and apple-tree 
wood are good for smoking. The juices are better re- 
tained if smoked with the hock down. Tie up carefully 
in bags for the summer. 


Take a sharp knife and score the skin across in narrow 
stripes (you may cross it again so as to form diamonds) 
and rub in some powdered sage. Raise the skin at the 
knuckle and put in a stuffing of minced onion and sage, 
bread crumbs, pepper, salt, and beaten yolk of egg, 
Fasten it down with a buttered string, or with Sttewers 
You may make deep incisions in the meat of the largh 
end of the leg, and stuff them also, pressing in the filling 
very hard. Rub a little sweet oil. all over the skin with 
a brush or a goose feather, to make it crisp and of a 
handsome brown. A leg of pork will require from thre<5 


to i'our hours to roast. Moisten it all the time by brush- 
ing it with sweet oil, ; V> with fresh butter tied in a rag. 
To baste it with its own dripping will make the skin 
tough and hard. Skim the fat carefully from the gravy, 
which should be thickened with a little flour. 

A roast leg of pork should always be accompanied 
by apple sauce, and by mashed potatoes and mashed 


Pick over carefully a quart of beans and let them soak 
over night; in the morning wash and drain in another 
water, put on to boil in cold water with half a teaspoon 
of soda; boil about thirty minutes (when done the skin 
of a bean will crack if taken out and blown upon), drain, 
and put in an earthen pot first a slice of pork and then 
the beans, with two or three tablespoons of molasses. 
When the beans are in the pot, put in the centre half or 
three fourths of a pound of well-washed salt oork with 
the rind scored in slices or squares, and uppermost; sea- 
Bon with pepper and salt if needed; cover all with hot 
Ivater, and bake six hours or longer in a moderate oven, 
adding hot water as needed; they cannot be baked too 
long. Keep covered so that the}' will not burn on the 
top, but remove cover an hour or two before serving, to 
brown the top and crisp the pork. 


Take such a proportion of fat and lean pork as you 
jfke; chop it quite fine, and for every ten pounds of meat 
'.ake four ounces of fine salt, and one of fine pepper; 
\lried sage, or lemon thyme, finely powdered, may be 
added if liked; a teaspoonful of sage, and the same of 
ground alspice and cloves, to each ten pounds of meat. 
Mix the seasoning through the meat; pack it down in 


Stone pots, or put it in muslin bags. Or fill the hog's or 
ox's guts, having first made them perfectly clean, thus: 
empty them, cut them in lengths, and lay them three or 
four days in salt and water, or weak lime water; turn, 
them inside out once or twice, scrape them; then rinse 
them, and fill with the meat. 

If you do not use the skins or guts, make the sausage 
meat up the size and shape of sausages, dip them in 
beaten egg, and then into wheat flour, or rolled crackers, 
or simply into wheat flour, and fry in hot lard. Turn 
them, that every side may be a fine color. Serve hc-% 
with boiled potatoes or hominy; either taken fro / the 
gravy, or after they are fried, pour a little boilii ir vater 
into the gravy in the pan, and pour it over them; or first 
dredge in a teaspoonful of wheat flour, stir it un'il i'- .s 
smooth and brown; then add a little boiling water, let 
it boil up once, then put it in the dish with the sausages. 

Chopped onion and green parsley may be added to 
the sausage meat, when making ready to fry. 

Or sausage meat may be tied in a muslin bag, and 
boiled, and served with vegetables; or let it become cold, 
and cut in slices. 


Fry or stew pork chops, after taking off the rind or 
skin, the same as for veal. 

Cutlets and steaks are also fried, broiled, or stewed, 
the same as veal. 


Thoroughly clean the pig, then rinse it in cold water, 
wipe it dry; then rub the inside with a mixture of salt 
and pepper, and if liked, a little pounded and sifted sage; 
make a stuffing thus: cut some wheat bread in slices 
half an inch thick, spread butter on to half its thicknrss, 


sprinkled with pepper and salt, and if liked, a little 
pounded sage and minced onion; pour enough hot 
water over the bread to make it moist or soft, then fill 
the body with it and sew it together, or tie a cord around 
it to keep the dressing in, then spit it; put a pint of 
water in the dripping-pan, put into it a tablespoonful of 
salt, and a teaspoonful of pepper, let the fire be hotter 
at each end than in the middle, put the pig down at a 
little distance from the fire, baste it as it begins to roast, 
and gradually draw it nearer; continue to baste occa- 
sionally; turn it that it may be evenly cooked; when the 
eyes drop out it is done; or a better rule is to judge by 
the weight, fifteen minutes for each pound of meat, if 
the fire is right. 

Have a bright clear fire, with a bed of coals at the 
bottom; first put the roast at a little distance, and grad- 
ually draw it nearer; when the pig is done stir up the 
fire, take a coarse cloth with a good bit of butter in it, 
and wet the pig all over with it, and when the crackling 
is crisp take it up; dredge a little flour into the gravy, 
let it boil up once, and having boiled the heart, liver, 
etc., tender, and chopped it fine, add it to the gravy, give 
it one boil, then serve. 


Is smoked and boiled like ham with vegetables; boiled 
cabbage or fried parsnips may be served with it. 


Trim off the rough ends neatly, crack the ribs across 
the middle, rub with salt and sprinkle with pepper, fold 
over, stuff with turkey-dressing, sew up tightly, place in 
dripping-pan with pint of water, baste frequently, turn- 
ing over once so as to bake both sides equally until a 
rich brown. 



Have at hand a thick batter of Indian meal and flour ; cut 
a few slices of pork and fry them in the frying-pan until the 
fat is fried out ; cut a few more slices of the pork, dip them 
in the batter, and drop them in the bubbling fat, seasoning 
with salt and pepper ; cook until light brown, and eat while 


Cover your ham with cold water, and simmer gently just 
long enough to loosen the skin, so that it can be pulled 
off. This will probably be from two to three hours, ac- 
cording to the size of your ham. When skinned, put in a 
dripping pan in the oven, pour over it a teacup of vinegar 
and one of hot water, in which dissolve a teaspoonful of 
English mustard, bake slowly, basting with the liquid, for 
two hours. Then cover the ham all over to the depth of 
one inch with coarse brown sugar, press it down firmly, and 
do not baste again until the sugar has formed a thick crust, 
which it will soon do in a very slow oven. Let it remain a 
full hour in, after covering with the sugar, until it becomes a 
rich golden brown. When done, drain from the liquor in the 
pan and put on a dish to cool. When it is cool, but not 
cold, press by turning another flat dish on top, with a weight 
over it. You will never want to eat ham cooked in any 
other way when you have tasted this, and the pressing 
makes it cut firmly for sandwiches or slicing. 


Wash thoroughly with a cloth. Select a small size to 
boil, put it in a large quantity of cold water, and boil 
twenty minutes for each pound, allowing it to boil slowly ; 


take off the rind while hot and put in the oven to brown 
half an hour ; remove and trim. 


Cut some slices of ham, quarter of an inch thick, lay 
them in hot water for half an hour, or give them a scald- 
ing in a pan over the fire ; then take them up, and lay 
them on a gridiron, over bright coals ; when the outside 
is browned, turn the other ; then take the slices on a hot 
dish, butter them freely, sprinkle pepper over and serve. 
Or, after scalding them, wipe them dry, dip each slice 
in beaten egg, and then into rolled crackers, and fry or 

FRIED HAM AND EGGS (a Breakfast Dish). 

Cut the ham into slices, and take care that they are of 
the same thickness in every part. Cut off the rind, and 
if the ham should be particularly hard and salt, it will be 
be found an improvement to soak it for about k.n minutes 
in hot water, and then dry it in a cloth. Put it into a cold 
frying-pan, set it over the fire, and turn the slices three or 
four times whilst they are cooking. When done, place them 
on a dish, which should be kept hot in front of the fire 
during the time the eggs are being poached. Poach 
the eggs, slip them on to the slices of ham, and serve 


Mince finely a quarter of a pound of cooked ham with 
an anchovy boned and washed ; add a little cayenne and 
pounded mace ; beat up two eggs ; mix with the mince, 
and add just sufficient milk to deep it moist ; make it 
quite hot, and serve on small rounds of toast or fried 



Having thoroughly cleaned a hog's head or pig's head, 
split it in two with a sharp knife, take out the eyes, take 
out the brains, cut off the ears, and pour scalding water 
over them and the head, and scrape them clean. Cut off 
any part of the nose which may be discolored so as not 
to be scraped clean ; then rinse all in cold water, and 
put it into a large kettle with hot (not boiling) water to 
cover it, and set the kettle (having covered it) over the 
fire ; let it boil gently, taking off the scum as it rises ; 
when boiled so that the bones leave the meat readily, 
take it from the water with a skimmer into a large 
wooden bowl or tray ; take from it every particle of bone ; 
chop the meat small and season to taste with salt and 
pepper, and if liked, a little chopped sage or thyme ; 
spread a cloth in a colander or sieve ; set it in a deep 
dish, and put the meat in, then fold the cloth closely 
over it, lay a weight on which may press equally 
the whole surface (a sufficiently large plate will serve). 
Let the weight be more or less heavy, according as you 
may wish the cheese to be fat or lean ; a heavy weight 
by pressing out the fat will of course leave the cheese 
lean. When cold, take the weight off ; take it from the 
colander or sieve, scrape off whatever fat may be found or. 
the outside of the cloth, and keep the cheese in the cloth in 
a cool place, to be eaten sliced thin, with or without mus- 
tard, and vinegar, or catsup. After the water is cold in 
which the head was boiled, take off the fat from it, and 
whatever may have drained from the sieve, or colander, 
and cloth ; put it together in some clean water, give it one 
boil; then strain it through a cloth, and set it to become 
cold; then take off the cake of fat. It is fit for any 



Scald and scrape clean the feet ; if the covering of the 
toes will not come off without, singe them in hot embers, 
until they are loose, then take them off. Many persons 
lay them in weak lime water to whiten them. Having 
scraped them clean and white, wash them and put them 
in a pot of hot (not boiling) water, with a little salt, and 
let them boil gently, until by turning a fork in the flesh 
it will easily break and the bones are loosened. Take 
off the scum as it rises. When done, take them from the 
hot water into cold vinegar, enough to cover them, add 
to it one third as much of the water in which they were 
boiled ; add whole pepper and allspice, with cloves and 
mace if liked, put a cloth and a tight fitting cover over 
the pot or jar.- Soused feet may be eaten cold from the 
vinegar, split in two from top to toe, or having split them, 
dip them in wheat flour and fry in hot lard, or broil and 
butter them. In either case, let them be nicely browned. 


Take the leaf fat from the inside of a bacon hog, cut 
it small, and put it in an iron kettle, which must be per- 
fectly free from any musty taste ; set it over a steady, 
moderate fire, until nothing but scraps remain of the 
meat ; the heat must be kept up, but gentle, that it may 
not burn the lard ; spread a coarse cloth in a wire sieve, 
and strain the liquid into tin basins which will hold two 
or three quarts ; squeeze out all the fat from the scraps. 
:When the lard in the pans is cold, press a piece of new 
muslin close upon it, trim it off at the edge of the pan, 
and keep it in a cold place. Or it may be kept in wooden 
kegs with close covers. Lard made with one-third as much 
beef suet as fat, is supposed by many persons to keep 



Put them in water if the large end turns up, they are not 
fresh. This is an infallible rule to distinguish a good egg 
from a bad one. 


"All it is necessary to do to. keep eggs through summer 
is to procure small, clean wooden or tin vessels, holding 
from ten to twenty gallons, and a barrel, more or less, of 
common, fine-ground land plaster. Begin by putting on 
the bottom of the vessel two or three inches of plaster, and 
then, having fresh eggs, with the yolks unbroken, set them 
up, small end down, close to each other, but not crowd- 
ing, and make the first layer. Then add more plaster and 
enough so the eggs will stand upright, and set up the 
second layer ; then another deposit of plaster, followed by 
a layer of eggs, till the vessel is full, and finish by covering 
the top layer with plaster. Eggs so packed and subjected 
to a temperature of at least 85 degrees, if not 90 degrees, 
during August and September, came- out fresh, and if one 
could be certain of not having a temperature of more than 
75 degrees to contend with, I am confident eggs could be 
kept by these means all the year round. Observe that the 
eggs must be fresh laid, the yolks unbroken, the packing 
done in small vessels, and with clean, fine ground land plas- 
ter, and care must be taken that no egg so presses on an- 
other as to break the shell." 

Eggs may be kept good for a year in the following man- 
ner : 

To a pail of water, put of unslacked lime and coarse salt 
each a pint ; keep it in a cellar, or cool place, and put the 
eggs in, as fresh laid as possible. 

It is well to keep a stone pot of this lime water ready 


to receive the eggs as soon as laid ; make a fresh supply 
every few months. This lime water is of exactly the proper 
strength ; strong lime water will cook the eggs. Very strong 
lime water will eat the shell. 


Two eggs, two tablespoonfuls of milk, half a teaspoonful 
of salt, half a teaspoonful of butter. Beat the eggs, and 
add the salt and milk. Put the butter in a small sauce- 
pan, and when it melts, add the eggs. Stir over the 
fire until the mixture thickens, being careful not to let 
it cook hard. About two minutes will cook it. The eggs, 
when done, should be soft and creamy. Serve imme- 


Have one quart of boiling water and one tablespoon- 
ful of salt in a frying-pan. Break the eggs, one by one, 
into a saucer, and slide carefully into the salted water. 
Cook until the white is firm, and lift out with a griddle- 
cake turner and place on toasted bread. Serve immedi- 


Six hard-boiled eggs cut in two, take out the yolks 
and mash fine ; then add two teaspoonfuls of butter, one 
of cream, two or three drops of onion juice, salt and pep- 
per to taste. Mix all thoroughly and fill the eggs with 
this mixture ; put them together. Then there will be a 
little of the filling left, to which add one well-beaten 
egg. Cover the eggs with this mixture, and then roll in 
cracker crumbs. Fry a light brown in boiling fat. 
Plain baked eggs make a quite pretty breakfast dish. 
Take a round white-ware dish thick enough to stand the 


heat of the oven, put into it sufficient fresh butter, and 
break as many eggs in it as are desirable, putting a few 
bits of butter on the tap, and set in a rather slow oven 
until they are cooked. Have a dish of n ; cely made but- 
tered toast arranged symmetrically on a plate, and garnish 
it and the dish of eggs with small pieces of curled pars- 


Spread the bottom of a dish with two ounces of fresh 
butter; corer this with grated cheese; break eight whole 
eggs upon the cheese without breaking the yolks. Sea- 
son with red pepper and salt if necessary; pour a little 
cream on the surface, strew about two ounces of grated 
cheese on the top, and set the eggs in a moderate oven 
for about a quarter of an hour. Pass a hot salamander 
over the top to brown it. 


Six eggs, half a cupful of milk, or, better still, of 
cream; two mushrooms, one teaspoonful of salt, a little 
pepper, three tablespoonfuls of butter, a slight grating o{ 
nutmeg. Cut the mushrooms into dice, and fry them 
for one minute in one tablespoonful of the butter. Beat 
the eggs, salt, pepper, and cream together, and put 
them in a saucepan. Add the butter and mushrooms to 
these ingredients. Stir over a moderate heat until the 
mixture begins to thicken. Take from the fire and beat 
rapidly until the eggs become quite thick and creamy. 
Have slices of toast on a hot dish. Heap the mixture on 
these, and garnish with points of toast. Serve immedi- 


Slice two onions and fry in butter, add a tablespoon 
curry-powder and one pint gooc> hroth or stock, stew till 


onions are quite tender, add a cup of cream thickened 
with arrowroot or rice flour, simmer a few moments, 
then add eight or ten hard-toiled. eggs, cut in slices, and 
be* them well, but do not boil. 


Boil six eggs twenty minutes. Make one pint of 
cream sauce. Have six slices of toast on a hot dish. 
Put a layer of sauce on each one, and then part of the 
whites of the eggs, cut in thin strips; and rub part of 
the yolks through a sieve on to the toast. Repeat this, 
and finish with a third layer of sauce. Place in the oven 
for about three minutes. Garnish with parsley, and 


Place the eggs in a warm saucepan, and cover with 
boiling water. Let them stand where they will keep hot, 
but not boil, for ten minutes. This method will cook 
both whites and yolks. 


Put a good lump of butter into the frying-pan. When 
i is hot, stir in four or five well-beaten eggs, with pepper, 
salt, and a little parsley. Stir and toss for three min- 
utes. Have ready to your hand some slices of buttered 
toast (cut round with a tin cake cutter before they are 
toasted); spread thickly with ground or minced tongue, 
chicken, or ham. Heap the stirred egg upon these in 
mounds, and set in a hot dish garnished with parsley 
and pickled beets. 


Break eight eggs into a basin, season with pepper and 
salt, add two ounces of butter cut small, beat these well 


together, make an ounce of butter hot in a frying-pan, 
put the eggs in, continue to stir it, drawing it away 
from the sides, that it may be evenly done, shake it now 
and then to free it. from the pan; when the under side is 
a little browned, turn the omelet into a dish, and serve; 
this must be done over a moderate fire. 


Put three pints of boiling water into a stewpan; set. 
it on a hot stove or coals; stir the water with a stick un- 
til it runs rapidly around, then having broken an egg 
into a cup, taking care not to break the yolk, drop it into 
the whirling water ; continue to stir it until the egg is 
cooked; then take it into a dish with a skimmer and set 
it over a pot of boiling water; boil one at a time, until 
you have enough. These will remain soft for a long 


Break eight or ten eggs into a basin; add a small tea- 
spoonful of salt and a little pepper, with a tablespoonful 
of cold water; beat the whole well with a spoon or 
whisk. In the meantime put some fresh sweet butter 
into an omelet pan, and when it is nearly hot, put in an 
omelet; while it is frying, with a skimmer spoon raise 
the edges from the pan that it may be properly done. 
When the eggs are set and one side is a fine brown, 
double it half over and serve hot. These omelets should 
be put quite thin in the pan; the butter required for 
each will be about the size of a small egg. 


Fry an omelet; when done, cut it in squares or dia- 
monds; dip each piece in batter made of two eggs and a 


pint of milk with enough wheat flour, and fry them ii, nice 
salted lard to a delicate brown. Serve hot. 


Four eggs, one tablespoo'nful of butter, half a tea- 
spoonful of salt. Beat the eggs, and add the salt to 
them. Melt the butter in a sauce-pan. Turn in the beaten 
eggs, stir quickly over a hot fire for one minute, and 


Six eggs, whites and yolks beaten separately ; half pint 
rnilk, six teaspoons corn starch, one teaspoon baking powder, 
and a little salt; add the whites, beaten to a stiff froth, last; 
cook in a little butter. 



Old potatoes are better for being peeled and put in 
cold water an hour before being put over to boi'. 
They should then be put into fresh cold water, when set 
over the fire. New potatoes should always be put in o 
boiling water, and it is best to prepa -e them just in time 
for cooking. Are better steamed th.-.i- boiled. 


Potatoes are not good for mashing until they .ire full 
grown; peel them, and lay them in water for an hour or 
more before boiling, for mashing. 

Old potatoes, when unfit for plain boiling, may be 
served mashed; cut out all imperfections, take off all the 
skin, and lay them in cold water for one hour or more; 
then put them into a dinner-pot or stewpan, with a tea- 
spoonful of salt; cover the stewpan, and let them boil 
for half an hour, unless they are large, when three 
quarters of an hour will be required; when they are 
done, take them up with a skimmer into a wooden bowl 
or tray, and mash them fine with a potato beetle; melt 
a piece of butter, the size of a large egg, into half a pint 
of hot milk; mix it with tne mashed potatoes until it k- 
taoroughly incorporated, and a smooth mass; then put 
it in a deep dish, smooth the top over, 'and mark it 
neatly with a knife; put pepper over, and serve, The 


quantity of milk used must be in proportion to the quantity 
of potatoes. 

Mashed potatoes may be heaped on a flat dish ; make it 
in a crown or pineapple; stick a sprig of green celery or 
parsley in the top ; or first brown it before the fire or in an 

Mashed potatoes mny be made a highly ornamental 
dish ; after shaping it, as taste may direct, trim the edge 
of the plate with a wreath of celery leaves or green pars- 
ley; or first brown the outside in an oven or before the 


Peel and cut the potatoes into thin slices, as nearly the 
same size as possible ; make some butter or dripping quite 
hot in a frying-pan ; put in the potatoes, and fry them on 
both sides of a nice brown. When they are crisp and 
done, take them up, place them on a cloth before the fire 
to drain the grease from them, and serve very hot, after 
sprinkling them with salt. These are delicious with rump- 
steak, and in France are frequently served thus as a 
breakfast dish. The remains of cold potatoes may also be 
sliced and fried by the above recipe, but the slices must be 
cut a little thicker. 


Cut cold boiled potatoes in slices lengthwise, quarter 
of an inch thick; dip each slice in wheat flour, and lay 
them on a gridiron over a bright fire of coals ; when both 
sides are browned nicely, take them on a hot dish, put 
a bit of butter, pepper and salt to taste over, and serve 


Mince cold boiled potatoes fine ; put them into a spider 
with melted butter in it; let them fry a little in the but- 


ter, well covered; then put in a fresh piece of butter, 
seasoned with salt and pepper, and pour over cream or 
rich milk; let it boil up once and serve. 


Prepare the potaotes as directed for mashed potato. 
While /iot, shape in balls about the size of an egg. Have 
a tin sheet well buttered, and place the balls on it. As 
soon as all are done, brush over with beaten egg. Brown 
;n the oven. When done, slip a knife under them and 
slide them upon a hot platter. Garnish with parsley, 
and serve immediately. 


Choose large white potatoes, as free from spots as 
possible; boil them in their skins in salt and water until 
perfectly tender, drain and dry them thoroughly by the 
side of the fire, and peel them. Put a hot dish before 
the fire, rub the potatoes through a coarse sieve on to 
this dish; do not touch them afterwards, or the flakes 
will fall, and serve as hot as possible. 


Six potatoes, three eggs, one tablespoonful of butter, 
&ne of salt, half a cupful of boiling milk. Pare, boil and 
mash the potatoes. When fine and light, add the butter, 
salt and pepper and two well-beaten eggs. Butter the 
border mould and pack the potato in it. Let this stand 
on the kitchen table ten minutes; then turn out on a dish 
and brush over with one well-beaten egg. Brown in the 


Instead of mashing in the ordinary way whip with a 
*ork until light and dry; then whip in a little melted 


butter, some milk, and salt to taste, whipping rapidly 
until creamy. Pile as lightly and irregularly as you can 
in a hot dish. 


Prepare in this proportion: Two cups of mashed po- 
tatoes, two tablespoonfuls of cream or milk, and one of 
melted butter; salt and pepper to taste. Stir the pota- 
toes, butter, and cream together, adding one raw egg. 
If^the potatoes seem too moist, beat in a few fine bread 
crumbs. Bake in a hot oven for ten minutes, taking care 
to have the top a rich brown. 


Pare, boil, and mash six good-sized potatoes. Add 
one tablespoonful of butter, two thirds of a cupful of hot 
cream or milk, the whites of two eggs well beaten, salt 
and pepper to taste. When cool enough to handle, work 
into shape, roll in egg and bread crumbs, and fry in hot 


Heat a cupful of milk; stir in a heaping tablespoonful 
of butter cut up in as much flour. Stir until smooth 
and thick; pepper and salt, and add two cupfuls of cold 
boiled potatoes, sliced, and a little very finely chopped 
parsley. Shake over the fire until the potatoes are hot 
all through, and pour into a deep dish. 


Wash them perfectly clean, put them into a pot or 
stewpan, and pour boiling water over to cover them; 
over the pot close, and boil fast for half an hour, or 
more if the potatoes are large; try them with a fork; 


(vhen done, drain off the water, take off the skins, and 

Cold sweet potatoes may be cut in slices across or 
lengthwise, and fried or broiled as common potatoes; or 
they may be cut in half and served cold. 


Having washed them clean, and wiped them dry, roast 
them on a hot hearth as directed for common potatoes; 
or put them in a Dutch oven or tin reflector. Roasted 
or baked potatoes should not be cut, but broken open 
and eaten from the skin, as from a shell. 


Wash them perfectly clean, wipe them dry, and bake 
in a quick oven, according to their size half an hour fof 
quite small size, three quarters for larger, and a full hour 
for the largest. Let the oven have a good heat, and do 
not open it, unless it is necessary to turn them, until they 
are done. 


Prepare and fry the same as the white potatoes. Or 
they can first be boiled half an hour, and then pared, cut 
and fried as directed. The latter is the better way, as 
they are liable to be a little hard if fried when raw. 


Boil until tender; mash and season with butter, pepper, 
salt, and a little rich milk or cream. 


An excellent way to serve spinach is to first look it over 
carefully; wash it in two or three waters. If the stalks are 


net perfectly tender, cut the leaves from the stalk. Boil 
for twenty minutes in water with enough salt dissolved in 
it to salt the spinach sufficiently. When done let it drain, 
then chop it fine, put it on the stove in a saucepan, with 
a lump of butter, salt, and pepper, and enough milk to 
moisten it. When the butter is melted and the spinach 
steaming, take from the fire and put it in the dish in 
Which it is going to the table. Garnish with hard-boiled 
eggs cut in slices or in rings that is, with the yolk re- 
moved and rings of the white only left. 


Clean these nicely, but do not pare them, leaving on a 
short piece of the stalk. Then put over to boil in hot 
water. Young beets will cook tender in an hour; old 
beets require several hours' boiling-. When done, skin 
quickly while hot, slice thin into your vegetable dish, put 
on salt, pepper, and a lettle butter, put over a little vine- 
gar, and serve hot or cold. 


Green stringed beans must be picked when young; 
put a layer three inches deep in a small wooden keg or 
half barrel; sprinkle in salt an inch deep, then put an- 
other layer of beans, then salt, and beans and salt in al- 
ternate layers, until you have enough; let the last be salt; 
cover them with a piece of board which will fit the in- 
side of the barrel or keg, and place a heavy weight upon 
it; they will make a brine. 

When wanted for use, soak them one night or more 
in plenty of water, changing it once or twice, until ih2 
salt is out of them, then cut them, and boil the same as 
when fresh. 

Carrots, beans, beet-roots, parsnips, and potatoes 


keep best in dry sand or earth in a cellar; turnips keep 
best on a cellar bottom, or they may be kept the same as 
carrots, etc. Whatever earth remains about them when 
taken from the ground,. should not be taken off. 

When sprouts come on potatoes or other stored vege- 
tables, they should be carefully cut off. The young 
sprouts from turnips are sometimes served as a salad, or 
boiled tender in salt and water, and served with butte/- 
and pepper over. 

Celery may be kept all winter by setting it in boxes 
filled with earth; keep it in the cellar; it will grow and 
whiten in the dark; leeks may also be kept in this way. 

Cabbage set out i-n earth, in a good cellar, wiil keep 
good and fresh all winter. Small close heads of cabbage 
may be kept many weeks by taking them before the 
frost comes, and laying them on a stone floor; this will 
whiten them, and make them tender. 

Store onions are to be strung, and hung in a dry, cold 


Remove all defective leaves, quarter and cut as for 
coarse slaw, cover well with cold water, and let remain 
several hours before cooking, then drain and put into 
pot with enough boiling water to cover; boil until thor- 
oughly cooked (which will generally require about forty- 
five minutes), add salt ten or fifteen minutes before re- 
moving from fire, and when done, take up into a colan- 
der, press out the water well, and season with butter and 
pepper. This is a good dish to serve with corned meats, 
but should not be cooked with them; if preferred, how-, 
ever, it may be seasoned by adding some of the liquor 
and fat from the boiling meat to the cabbage while cook" 
ing. Drain, remove, and serve in a dish with drawn but- 
ter or a cream dressing poured over it. 



Select two small, solid heads of hard red cabbage ; di- 
vide them in halves from crown to stem ; lay the split 
side down, and cut downwards in thin slices. The cab- 
bage will then be in narrow strips or shreds. Put into a 
saucepan a tablespoon of clean drippings, butter, or any 
nice fat ; when fat is hot, put in cabbage, a teaspoonful of 
salt, three tablespoons vinegar (if the latter is very 
strong, use but two), and one onion, in which three or 
four cloves have been stuck, buried in the middle ; boil 
two hours and a half; if it becomes too dry and is in 
danger of scorching, add a very little water. This is very 


Boil a fine cauliflower, tied up snugly in coarse tarla- 
tan, in hot water, a little salt. Drain and lay in a deep 
dish, flower uppermost. Heat a cup of milk ; thicken 
with two tablespoonfuls of butter, cut into bits, and 
rolled in flour. Add pepper, salt, the beaten white of an 
egg, and boil up one minute, stirring well. Take from 
the fire, squeeze the juice of a lemon through a hair sieve 
into the sauce, and pour half into a boat, the rest over the 


Scrape, wash, lay in cold water half an hour ; then cook 
tender in boiling water. Drain well, mash with a wooden 
spoon, or beetle, work in a good piece of butter, and season 
with pepper and salt. Heap up in a vegetable dish, and 
serve very hot. 


Choose young sugar-corn, full grown, but not hard ; 
t*gt with the nail. When the grain is pierced, the milk 



should escape in a jet, and not be thick. Clean by strip- 
ping off the outer leaves, turn back the innermost covering 
carefully, pick off every thread of silk, and re-cover the ear 
with the thin husk that grew nearest it. Tie at the top with 
a bit of thread, put into boiling water salted, and cook fast 
from twenty minutes to half an hour, in proportion to size 
and age. Cut off the stalks close to the cob, and send 
whole to table wrapped in a napkin. 

Or you can cut from the cob while hot and season with 
butter, pepper, and salt. Send to table in a vegetable 


Shell and lay in cold water fifteen minutes. Cook from 
twenty to twenty-five minutes in boiling salted waier. 
Drain, put into a deep dish with a good lump of butter ; 
pepper and salt to taste. 


Take off the tops and tails, and the thin outer skin ; 
but no more, lest the onions should go to pieces. Lay 
them on the bottom of a pan which is broad enough to con- 
tain them without piling one on another ; just cover them 
with water, and let them simmer slowly till they are tender 
all through, but not till they break. 

Serve them up with melted butter. 


Cut them in thin slices and season them ; have a piece of 
fat bacon frying to get the juice, take it out, and put the 
onions in and stir until a pretty brown. 


Wash the parsnips, scrape them thoroughly, and with 
the point of the knife, remove any black specks about 


them, and should they be very large, cut the thick part into 
quarters. Put them into a saucepan of boiling water, 
salted in the above proportion, boil them rapidly until 
tender, which may be ascertained by thrusting a fork in 
them ; take them up, drain them, and serve in a vegetable 
dish. This vegetable is usually served with salt fish, boiled 
pork, or boiled beef ; when sent to table with the latter, a 
few should be placed alternately with carrots round the dish 
as a garnish. 


Scrape the parsnips and boil gently forty-five minutes. 
When cold, cut in long slices about one third of an inch 
thick. Season with salt and pepper. Dip in melted butter 
and in flour. Have two tablespoonfuls of butter in the fry- 
ing-pan, and as soon as hot, put in enough parsnips to cover 
the bottom. Fry brown on both sides, and serve on a hot 


Boil tender, scrape, and slice lengthwise. Put over the 
fire with two tablespoonfuls of butter, pepper, and salt, and a 
little minced parsley. Shake until the mixture boils. Dish 
the parsnips, add to the sauce three tablespoonfuls of cream 
in which has been stirred a quarter-spoonful of flour. Boil 
once, and pour over the parsnips. 


Boil four or five parsnips ; when tender, take off the 
skin and mash them fine, add to them a teaspoonful of 
wheat flour and a beaten egg; put a tablespoonful of 
lard or beef dripping in a frying-pan over the fire, add to 
it a saltspoonful of salt ; when boiling hot, put in the 
parsnips, make it in small cakes with a spoon ; when one 


side is a delicate brown, turn the other; when both ar* 
done, take them on a dish, put a very little of the <at in 
which they were fried over, and serve hot. These re- 
semble very nearly the taste of the salsify or oyster 
plant, and will generally be preferred. 


Boil and serve as directed for parsnips- ither plain 
boiled, or fried, or made fritters. 


Have ready a saucepan of boiling water, properly 
salted; put in the marrows after peeling them, and boil 
them until quite tender. Take them up with a slice; 
halve, and, should they be very large, quarter them. 
Dish them on toast, and send to table with them a tureen 
of melted butter, or, in lieu of this, a small pat of salt 
butter. Large vegetable marrows may be preserved 
throughout the winter by storing them in a dry place; 
when wanted for use, a few slices should be cut and 
boiled in the same manner as above; but, when once be- 
gun, the marrow must be eaten quickly, as it keeps but 
a short time after it is cut. Vegetable marrows ^ e also 
very delicious mashed: they should be boiled, then 
drained, and mashed smoothly with a wooden spoon. 
Heat them in a saucepan, add a seasoning of salt and 
pepper, and a small piece of butter, and dish with a few 
snippets of toasted bread placed round as a garnish. 

Vegetable marrows are delightful when sliced and 
fried for ten minutes in butter. Before being fried they 
may be .dipped in a batter of flour and water, seasoned 
with a little salt. Vegetable marrows may be also 
dressed as follows: Boil one, and when it is about ready 
cut it in pieces, which place in a fresh saucepan, covered 
with soup stock, either white or brown; add a little salt 


in stewing. Serve in a deep dish when thoroughly ten- 
der. Vegetable marrows are very nice plain boiled, and 
served upon buttered toast. Peel them and cut them so 
as to be able to remove the seeds. Marrows will take 
from twenty minutes to an hour to boil, according to size 
and age. After being parboiled, they may be sliced 
down, dipped in egg, and then rubbed among bread 
crumbs, and fried; serve them as hot as possible. 

Tomatoes may be sliced thin, and served with salt, 
pepper, and vinegar over, for breakfast ; or sliced, and 
strewn with sugar and grated nutmeg, for tea ; for din- 
ner they may be stewed or broiled, or baked. 

Tomatoes may be preserved in sugar, or as catsup, 
when out of season. Such as like them, declare them to 
be equally excellent in each and every form or dressing. 


Pour boiling water over six or eight large tomatoes, 
or a greater number of small ones; let them remain for 
a few minutes, then peel off the skins, squeeze out the 
seeds, and some of the juice, by pressing them gently in 
the hand; put them in a well tinned stewpan, with a 
teaspoonful of salt, a saltspoonful of pepper, a bit of 
butter, half as large as an egg, and a tablespoonful of 
grated bread or rolled crackers; cover the stewpan 
close, and set it over the fire for nearly an hour; shake 
the stewpan occasionally, that they may not burn; serve 

This is decidedly the best manner of stewing toma- 
toes; they may be done without the bread crumbs, and 
with less stewing if preferred. 


Wash five or six smooth tomatoes; cut a piece from 
the stem end, the size of a twenty-five cent piece; put a 


saltspoonful of salt, half as much pepper, and a bit of 
butter the size of a nutmeg, in each ; set them in a dish 
or pan, and bake in a moderate oven for nearly one 


Twelve large, smooth tomatoes, one teaspoouful of 
salt, a little pepper, one tablespoonful of butter, one of 
sugar, one cupful of bread crumbs, one teaspoonful of 
onion juice. Arrange the tomatoes in a baking pan. 
Cut a thin slice from the smooth end of each. With a 
small spoon, scoop out as much of the pulp and juice as 
possible without injuring the shape. When all have 
been treated in this way, mix the pulp and juice with the 
other ingredients, and fill the tomatoes with this mixture. 
Put on the tops, and bake slowly three quarters of an 
hour. Slide the cake turner under the tomatoes and 
lift gently on to a flat dish. Garnish with parsley, and 


Turn nearly all the juice off from a can of tomatoes. 
Salt and pepper this, by the way, and put aside in a cool 
place for some other day's soup. Put a layer of bread 
crumbs in the bottom of a buttered pie-dish; on them 
one of tomatoes ; sprinkle with salt, pepper, and some 
bits of butter, also a little sugar. Another layer of 
crumbs, another of tomatoes seasoned then a top 
layer of very fine, dry crumbs. Bake covered until bub- 
bling hot, and brown quickly. 


Put the tomatoes in a frying basket and plunge then* 
into boiling water about for three minutes. Drain 



Pick one quart of beans free from stones and dirt. 
Wash, and soak in cold water over night. In the morn- 
ing pour off the water. Cover with hot water, put two 
pounds of corned beef with them, and boil until they 
begin to split open (the time depends upon the age of 
the beans, but it will be from thirty to sixty minutes). 
Turn them into the colander, and pour over them two or 
three quarts of cold water. Put about half of the beans 
in a deep earthen pot, then put in the beef, and finally 
the remainder of the beans. Mix one teaspoonful of 
mustard and one tablespoonful of molasses with a little 
water. Pour this over the beans, and then add boiling 
water to just cover. Bake slowly ten hours. Add a little 
water occasionally. 


String, snap and wash two quarts beans, boil in plenty 
of water about fifteen minutes, drain off and put on again 
in about two quarts boiling water ; boil an hour and a 
half, and add salt and pepper just before taking up, stir- 
ring in one and a half tablespoons butter rubbed into 
two tablespoons flour and half pint sweet cream. Or 
boil a piece of salted pork one hour, then add beans and 
boil an hour and a half. For shelled beans boil half an 
hour in water enough to cover, and dress as above. 


With a knife cut off the ends of pods and strings from 
both sides, being very careful to remove every shred ; 
cut O 7 ery bean lengthwise, in two or three strips, and 
<eave them for half an hour in cold water. Much more 
than cover them with boiling water; boil till perfectly 


tender. It is well to allow three hours for boiling. 
Drain well, return to kettle, and add a dressing of half a 
gill cream, one and a half ounces butter, one even tea- 
spoon salt, and half a teaspoon pepper. This is sufficient 
for a quart of cooked beans. 


Boil a bunch of asparagus twenty minutes ; cut off the 
tender tops and lay in a deep pie-plate, buttering, salt- 
ing, and peppering well. Beat four eggs just enough to 
break up the yolks, add a tablespoonful of melted butter, 
with pepper and salt, and pour upon the asparagus. 
Bake eight minutes in a quick oven, and serve imme- 


Tie the bunch of asparagus up with soft string, when 
you have cut away the wood, and cook about twenty-nYe 
minutes in salted boiling water. Have ready some slices 
of crustless toast; dip each in the asparagus liquor; but- 
ter well while hot and lay upon a heated dish. Drain 
the asparagus, and arrange upon the toast. Pepper, salt, 
and butter generously. ^ 


If fresh, let them lie in salt and water about one hour, 
then put them in the stewpan, cover with water and let 
them cook two hours gently. Dress them with cream, 
butter and flour as oysters, and season to taste. 


When peeled put them into hot butter and let them 
heat thoroughly through too much cooking toughens 


them. Season well with butter, pepper, and salt. Serve 
on buttered toast; a teaspoon of wine or vinegar on each 
mushroom is a choice method. 


Place some large flat ones nicely cleaned and trimmed 
on thin slices of well buttered toast, putting a little 
nudgel of butter in each, as also a snuff of pepper and 
salt; lay them on a baking tray, and cover them care- 
fully; heap the hot ashes upon them, and let them bake 
on the hearth for fifteen or twenty minutes. 


Choose the largest sort, lay them on a small gridiron 
over bright coals; the stalk upwards. Broil quickly, arid 
serve, with butter, pepper, and salt over. 


Peel, seed, and slice fresh summer squashes. Lay in 
cold water ten minutes; put into boiling water, a little 
salt, a"nd cook tender. Twenty minutes will suffice if the 
squash be young. Mash in a colander, pressing out all 
the water; heap in a deep dish, seasoning with pepper, 
salt and butter. Serve hot. 


Cut in pieces, scrape well, bake from one to one and 
a half hours, according to the thickness of the squash; 
to be eaten with salt and butter as sweet potatoes. 


Cut the squash into thin slices, and sprinkle it with 
salt; let it stand a few moments; then beat two eggs> 
and dip the squash into the egg; then fry it brown in 



Is an excellent winter dish, and is very easily cooked. 
Wash the stalks thoroughly, and boil in well-salted water 
till tender, which will be in about twenty minutes. After 
it is made ready as above, drain it thoroughly, place it 
on toasted bread, and pour over it a quantity of sauce. 
A sauce of cream, seasoned with a little mace, may be 
served over the celery. It may also be served with melted 


Cut the egg plant in two; Scrape out all the inside 
and put it in a saucepan with a little minced ham; cover 
with water and boil until soft; drain off the water; add 
two tablespoonfuls grated crumbs, tablespoonful butter, 
half a minced onion, salt and pepper; stuff each half of 
the hull with the mixture; add a small lump of butter to 
each and bake fifteen minutes. 



Put half a pint of milk in a perfectly clean stew-pan, 
and set it over a moderate fire; put into a pint bowl a 
heaping tablespoonful of wheat flour, quarter of a pound 
of sweet butter, and a saltspoonful of salt; work these 
well together with the back of a spoon, then pour into it, 
stirring it all the time, half a pint of boiling water; when 
it is smooth, stir it into the bailing milk, let it simmer 
for five minutes or more, and it is done. 

Drawn butter made after this receipt will be found to 
be most excellent; it may be made less rich by using less 




Make a drawn butter as directed, dip a bunch of par- 
sley into boiling water, then cut it fine, and stir into the 
drawn butter a few minutes before taking it up, 


Make a drawn butter; chop two hard->oiled eggs quite 
fine, the white and yolk separately, and stir it into the 
sauce before serving. This is used for bolied fish or 



Peel some nice white onions, and boil them tender, 
press the water from them; chop them fine, and put them 
to a half pint of hot milk; add a bit of butter, and a tea- 
spoonful of salt, and pepper to taste. Serve with boiled 
veal, or poultry, or mutton. ^ 


Make the butter sauce, and stir into it four tablespoon- 
fuls of essence of anchovy and one of lemon juice. 


One pint milk, one cup bread-crumbs (very fine), otte 
onion, sliced, a pinch of mace, pepper and salt to taste, 
three tablespoonfuls butter. Simmer the sliced onion in 
the milk until tender; strain the milk and pour over the 
bread crumbs, which should be put into a saucepan. 
Cover and soak half an hour; beat smooth with an egg- 
whip, add the seasoning and butter; stir in well, boil up 
once, and serve in a tureen. If it is too thick, add boil- 
ing water and more butter. 

This sauce is for roast poultry. Some people add some 
of the gravy from the dripping-pan, first straining it and 
beating it well in with the sauce. 


Can be cheaply made either from the fresh fruit or from 
the canned tomatoes, which are on sale in every grocer's 
shop. Squeeze as much as you require through a sieve, 
and then simmer slowly for a little time in a few table- 
spoonfuls of beef gravy, season with pepper and salt 
Excellent for chops and cutlets, or for roasted beef. 



One peck of ripe tomatoes; boiled with two onions, 
six red peppers, four cloves of garlic, for one hour: then 
add a half-pint or half-pound salt, three tablespoons 
black pepper, half-ounce ginger, half-ounce allspice, half- 
ounce mace, half-ounce cloves; then boil again .for one 
hour longer, and when cold add one pint of vinegar and 
a quarter-pound of mustard; and if you like it very hot, 
a tablespoonful of cayenne. 


Mix one tablespoon of white sugar to half a teacup of 
good vinegar; add the mint and let it infuse for half an 
hour in a cool place before sending to the table. Serve 
with roast lamb or mutton. 


Mix two tablespoons of flour with half a teacup of 
butter; have ready a pint of boiling milk; stir the flour 
and butter into the milk; take three heads of celery, cut 
into small bits, and boil for a few minutes in water, 
which strain off; put the celery into the melted butter, 
and keep it stirred over the fire for five or ten minutes. 
This is very nice with boiled fowl or turkey. 


One peck green tomatoes, four large onions, six red 
peppers, one teacup grated horseradish, one teaspoon 
cayenne and one o black pepper, one teaspoon mustard, 
half cup sugar; slice the tomatoes and sprinkle one tea- 
cup salt on, and lay all night; drain well in the morning, 
then simmer all together till cooked through. 



One cupful of milk, a teaspoonful of flour and a table- 
spoonful of butter, salt and pepper. Put the butter in a 
small frying-pan, and when hot, but not brown, add the 
flour. Stir until smooth; then gradually add the milk. 
Let it boil up once. Season to taste with salt and pep 
per, and serve. This is nice to cut cold potatoes into 
and let them just heat through. They are then creamed 
potatoes. It also answers as a sauce for other vegeta- 
bles, omelets, fish and sweetbreads, or, indeed, for any- 
thing that requires a white sauce. If you have plenty of 
cream, use it, and omit the butter. 


(Piquant) may be thus made: Grated horseradish four 
tablespoonfuls, weak mustard one spoonful, sugar half a 
spoonful, a little salt, two or three grains of cayenne, 
and a spoonful or two of vinegar. Mix thoroughly, and 
serve to cold meat. When wanted for fish, let it be 
added to melted butter two parts butter to one of 


Mix in a two-quart bowl one even teaspoon ground 
mustard, one of salt, and one and a half of vinegar; beat 
in the yolk of a raw egg, then add very gradually half a 
pint pure olive oil (or melted butter), beating briskly all 
the time. The mixture will become a very thick batter. 
Flavor with vinegar or fresh lemon-juice. Closely cov- 
ered it will keep for weeks in a cold place, and is 



Take a pint of oysters, and save out a little of their liquor. 
Put them with their remaining liquor, and some mace and 
nutmeg, into a covered saucepan, and simmer them on hot 
coals about ten minutes. Then drain them. Oysters foi 
sauce should be large. Having prepared in a saucepan some 
drawn or melted butter (mixed with oyster liquor instead of 
water), pc-ur it into a sauce-boat, add the oysters to it, and 
serve it up with boiled poultry, or with boiled fresh fish. 
Celery, first boiled and then chopped, is an improvement to 
oyster sauce. 


Put the coral and spawn of a boiled lobster into a mortar, 
with a tablespoonful of butter, pound it to a smooth mass, 
then rub it through a sieve ; melt nearly a quarter of a pound 
of sweet butter, with a wineglass of water, or vinegar ; add a 
teaspoonful of made mustard, stir in the coral and spawn, 
and a little salt and pepper ; stir it until it is smooth, and 
serve. Some of the meat of the lobster may b chopped 
fine, and stirred into it 


Make a butter sauce, and stir into it one tablespoonfui 
of lemon juice, two of capers, and one of essence of 


Stir three tablespoonfuls of mixed mustard and a speck of 
cayenne into a butter sauce. This is nice for devilled turkey 
and broiled smoked herrings. 



One tablespoonful of butter, one of flour, one teaspoonful 
of curry powder, one large slice of onion, one large cupful of 
stock, salt and pepper to tasta. Cut the onion fine, and fry 
brown in the butter. Add the flour and curry powder. 
Stir for one minute, add the stock, and season with the 
salt and pepper. Simmer five minutes ; then strain, and 
serve. This sauce can be served with a broil or sauft of 
meat or fish. 


After removing all soft berries, wash thoroughly, place 
for about two minutes in scalding water, remove, and to 
every pound of fruit add three-quarters of a pound granu- 
lated sugar and a half pint water ; stew together over a 
moderate but steady fire. Be careful to cover and not to stir 
the fruit, but occasionally shake the vessel, or apply a gentler 
heat if in danger of sticking or burning. If attention to 
these particulars be given, the berries will retain their shape 
to a considerable extent, which adds greatly to their appear- 
ance on the table. Boil from five to seven minutes, remove 
from fire, turn into a deep dish, and set aside to cool. If 
to be kept, they can be. put up at once in air-tight jars. 
Or, for strained sauce, one and a half pounds of fruit should 
be stewed in one pint of water for ten or twelve minutes, 
or until quite soft, then strained through a colander or fine 
wire sieve, and three-quarters of a pound of sugar thoroughly 
stirred into the pulp, thus obtained ; after cooling it is 
ready for use. Serve with roast turkey or game. When 
to be kept for a long time without seali.ig, more sugar 
may be added, but its too free use impairs the petculiar 
cranberry flavor. For dinner sauce half a pound is more 
economical, and really preferable to three-quarters, aa 


given above. It is better, though not necessary, to use 
a porcelain kettle. Some prefer not to add the sugar till the 
fruit is almost done, thinking this plan makes it more tender, 
and preserves the color better. 


Half a tumbler of currant jelly, half a tumbler of port 
wine, half a tumbler of stock, half a teaspoonful of salt, 
two tablespoonfuls of lemon juice, four cloves, a speck of 
cayenne. Simmer the cloves and stock together for half 
an hour. Strain on the other ingredients, and let all melt 
together. Part of the gravy from the game may be added 
to it. 


Three tablespoonfuls of butter, one onion, one bay leaf, 
one sprig of celery, two tablespoonfuls of vinegar, half 
a cupful of currant jelly, one tablespoonful of flour one 
pint of stock, salt, pepper. Cook the butter and onion 
until the latter begins to color. Add the flour, and 
herbs. Stir until brown ; add the stock, and simmer 
twenty minutes. Strain, and skim off all the fat. Add the 
jelly, and stir over the fire until it is melted. Serve with 


Peel, quarter, and core, rich tart apples; put to them a 
very 1'ttle water, cover them, and set them over the fire ; 
when tender, mash them smooth, and serve with roasted pork, 
goose, or any other gross meat. 



Put two quarts of water and two tablespoonfuls of hops 
on to boil. Pare and grate six large potatoes. When 
the hops and water boil strain the water on the grated 
potatoes, and stir well. Place on the stove and boil up 
once. Aid half a cupful of sugar and one-fourth of a cup- 
ful of salt. Let the mixture get blood-warm ; then add one 
cupful of yeast, or one cake of compressed yeast, and let it 
rise in a w,rm place five or six hours. When well risen, 
turn into a stone jug. Cork this tightly, and set in a cool 


Take one pint of flour and half a pint of good hop yeast 
and stir it together about five o'clock in the afternoon ; at 
nine put one half gallon of flour in a tray, put the sponge 
in the middle of the flour with a piece of lard as large as 
a walnut. Knead it all up with tepid water made salt 
with two teaspoonfuls or more to taste ; work it well, and 
put it in a jar to rise. Next morning knead it over with a 
little flour, make it in two loaves, and set it in a warm 
place or oven until ready ; then put it to bake, and when 
done, wrap it in a nice coarse towel. If you have no sugar 
in the yeast you use, stir a large teaspoonful in it before put- 
ting it in the flour. 



Take a little over a quart of warm water, one-half cup 
brown sugar or molasses, one fourth cup hop yeast, and 
one and one half teaspoons salt; thicken the water with 
unbolted flour to a thin batter; add sugar, salt and 
yeast, and stir in more flour until quite stiff. In the 
morning add a small teaspoon soda, and flour enough 
to make the batter stiff as can be stirred with a spoon; 
put it into pans and let rise again; then bake in even 
oven, not to hot at first; keep warm while rising; smooth 
over the loaves with a spoon or knife dipped in water. 


One heaping coffee-cup each of corn, rye and Graham 
meal. The rye meal should be as fine as the Graham, 
or rye flour may be used. Sift the three kinds together 
as closely as possible, and beat together thoroughly with 
two cups New Orleans or Porto Rico molasses, two cups 
sweet milk, one cup sour milk, one dessertspoon soda, 
one teaspoon salt; pour into a tin form, place in a kettle 
of cold water, put on and boil four hours. Put on to 
cook as soon as mixed. It may appear to be too thin, 
but it is not, as this recipe has never been known to fail. 
Serve warm, with baked beans or Thanksgiving turkey. 
The bread should not quite fill the form (or a tin pail 
with cover will answer), as it must have room to swell. 
See that the water does not boil up to the top of the 
form; also take care it does not boil entirely away or 
stop boiling. To serve it, remove the lid and set it a 
few moments into the open oven to dry the top, and it 
will then turn out in perfect shape. This bread can be 
used as a pudding, and served with a sauce made or 
thick sour cr^am, well sweetened and seasoned with 
rufr*?r: or it is good toasted the next day. 



Sift three quarts of corn meal, add a tablespoonful of 
salt, one teaspoonful baking-powder, and mix sufficient 
water with it to make a thin batter. Cover it with a 
breaJ -cloth and set it to rise. When ready to bake stir 
it we. nour it into a baking-pan, and bake slowly. Use 
cold wa. - ir summer and hot water in winter. 


One quart each of milk and Indian meal, one pint rye 
meal, one cup of molasses, two teaspoonfuls of soda. 
A<1 I a ' ttle salt and steam four hours. 


One teacup home-made yeast, a little salt, one table- 
spoon sugar, a piece of lard size of an egg, one pint milk, 
flour sufficient to mix. Put the milk on the stove to scald 
with the lard in it. Prepare the flour with salt, sugar 
and yeast. Then add the milk, not too hot. Knead thor- 
oughly when mixed at night; in the morning but very 
slight kneading is necessary. Then roll out and cut 
with large biscuit cutter. Spread a little butter on each 
roll and lap together. Let them rise very light, then 
bake in a quick oven. 


One pint of milk, scalded; put into it while hot half a 
cup of sugar and one tablespoon of butter. When the 
milk is cool, add a little salt and half a cup of yeast, or 
one compressed yeast cake; stir in flour to make a stiff 
sponge, and when light, mix as for bread. Let it rise 
until light, punch it down with the hand, and let it rise 
again repeat two or three times ; then turn the dough 


on to the moulding-board and pound with the rolling- 
pin until thin enough to cut. Cut out with a tumbler, 
brush the surface of each one with melted butter, and 
fold over. Let the rolls rise on the tins ; bake, and 
while warm brush over the surface with melted butter 
to make the crust tender. 


Break one egg into a cup and fill with sweet milk; 
mix with it half cup yeast, half cup butter, one cup 
sugar, enough flour to make a soft dough; flavor with 
nutmeg. Let rise till very light, then mould into bis- 
cuit with a few currants. Let rise a second time in pan; 
bake, and when nearly done, glaze with a little molasses 
and milk. Use the same cup, no matter about the size> 
for each measure. 


Dissolve one rounded tablespoon of butter in a pint 
of hot milk; when lukewarm stir in one quart of flour, 
add one beaten egg, a little salt, and a tea-cup of yeast; 
work into dough until smooth. If winter, set in a warm 
place; if summer, in a cool one to rise. In the morning 
work softly and roll out one-half inch and cut into bis- 
cuit a id set to rise for thirty minutes, when they will be 
ready lo bake. These are delicious. 


To every pound of flour allow two ounces of butter 
one quarter pint of milk, two ounces of loaf sugar, three 
eggs, one tablespoonful of yeast. Put the milk and butter 
into a saucepan, and keep shaking it round until the 
latter is melted. Put the flour into a basin with the 
sugar, mix these well together, and beat the eggs. Stir 


them with the yeast to the milk and butter, and with 
this liquid work the flour into a smooth dough. Cover 
a cloth over the basin, and leave the dough to rise by 
the side of the fire; then knead it, and divide it into twelve 
pieces; place them in a brisk oven, and bake for about 
twenty minutes. Take the rusks out, break them in 
half, and then set them in the oven to get crisp on the 
other side. When cold, they should be put into tin can- 
isters to keep them dry; and, if intended for the cheese 
course, the sifted sugar should be omitted. 


Beat one egg well, add a pint new milk, a litte salt, 
and Graham flour until it will drop off the spoon nicely; 
heat and butter the gem-pans before dropping in the 
dough; bake in a hot oven twenty minutes. 


One cup sweet milk, one and a half cups flour, one 
e gg> ne teaspoon salt, one teaspoon baking powder 
beaten together five minutes; bake in hot gem-pans iu 
a hot oven about fifteen minutes. 


Two cups of Graham flour, one cup of wheat floui, 
two eggs well beaten; mix with sweet milk, to make a 
very thin batter; bake in gem irons; have the irons hot, 
then set them on the upper grate in the oven; will bake 
in fifteen minutes. 


One quart buckwheat flour; four tablespoonfuls yeast; 
one teaspoonful salt; one handful Indian meal; two 


tablespoonf uls molasses not syrup. Warm water enough 
to make a thin batter. Beat very well and set to rise in 
a warm place. If the batter is in the least sour in the 
morning, stir m a very little soda dissolved in hot water. 
Mix in an earthen crock, and leave some in the bottom 
each morning a cupful or so to serve as sponge for 
the next night, instead of getting fresh yeast. In cold 
weather this plan can be successfully pursued for a week 
or ten days without setting a new supply. Of course 
you add the usual quantity of flour, etc., every night, and 
beat up well. Do not make your cakes too smaL>. 
Buckwheats should be of generous size. Some put two- 
thirds buckwheat, one third oat-meal, omitting the In- 



Beat six eggs very light, stir in them two pounds of 
flour, one gill of yeast, small spoonful of salt, and suf- 
ficient, milk to make a thick batter. Make them at night 
for breakfast, and at ten in the morning for tea. Have 
your griddle hot, grease it well, and bake as buckwheat. 
Butter and send '.nem hot to *he table, commencing 
after the family are seated 


Boil half a cup rice; when cold mix one quart sweet 
milk, the yolks of four eggs, and flour sufficient to make 
ti stiff batter; beat the whites to a froth, stir in one tea- 
spoon soda, and two of cream tartar; add a little salt, 
and lastly, the whites of eggs; bake on a griddle. A 
nice way to serve is to spread them while hot with but- 
ter, and almost any kind of preserves or jelly; roll them 
up neati) cut off the ends, sprinkle them with sugar, and 
serve immediately. 



Two eggs," two ounces of butter, two ounces of sifted 
sugar, two ounces of flour, half pint of new milk. Beat 
the eggs thoroughly, and put them into a basin with the 
butter, which should be beaten to a cream; stir in the 
sugar and flour, and when these ingre^ents are well 
mixed, add the milk; keep stirring and beating the mix- 
ture for a few minutes; put it on buttered plates, and 
bake in a quick oven for twenty minutes. Serve with a 
cut lemon and sifted sugar, or pile the pancakes high on 
a dish, with a layer of preserve or marmalade between 


Two cups of prepared flour; six eggs; one saltspoon- 
ful of salt; milk to make a thin batter. Beat the eggs 
light; add salt, two cups of milk, then, the whites an^' 
flour alternately with milk, until the batter is of the rig'r 
consistency. Run a teaspoonful of lard over the bott 
of a hot frying-pan, pour in a large ladleful of be,;* 
and fry quickly. Roll the pancake up like a shee 
paper; lay upon a hot dish; put in more lard, and fry 
another pancake. Keep hot over boiling water, sending 
naif a dozen to the table at a time- 


One quart milk boiling hot; two cups fine bread- 
crumbs; three eggs; one teaspoonful nutmeg; one table- 
spoonful butter melted; one saltspoonful salt, and the 
same of soda, dissolved in hot water. Soak the bread 
in the boiling milk ten minutes, in a covered b>>wl. 
Beat to a smooth paste; add the whipped yelks, the but- 
ter, salt, soda, and finally the whites, whipped stiff. 



One cup of sugar, half cup of butter ; stir well together, 
and then add one or two eggs ; put in one good pint ol 
sweet milk, and with sufficient flour to make a batter 
about as stiff as cake ; put in three teaspoons of baking- 
powder ; bake*and eat hot with butter, for tea or break- 


One pint of flour, three tablespoons of butter, three 
tablespoons of sugar, one egg, one cup sweet milk, one tea- 
spoon cream tartar, half teaspoon soda ; to be eaten with 




Two pints sweet milk, one cup butter (melted), sifted floui 
to make a soft batter ; add the well-beaten yolks of six eggs, 
then the beaten whites, and lastly (just before baking) four 
teaspoons baking-powder, beating very hard and fast for a 
few minutes. These are very good with four or five eggs, 
but much better with more. 


Two thirds teaspoon soda, three tablespoons sugar, one 
teaspoon cream tartar, one egg, one cup sweet milk, six 
tablespoons Indian meal, three tablespoonfuls flour, and a 
little salt. This makes a thin batter. 


Indian or oatmeal mush is best made in the following 
manner: Put freshwater in a kettle over the fire to boil, 
and put in some salt ; when the water boils, stir in hand- 
ful by handful corn or oatmeal until thick enough for 


use. In order to have excellent mush, the meal should 
be allowed to cook well, and long as possible while thin, 
and before the final handful is added. When desired to 
be fried for breakfast, turn into an earthen dish and set 
away to cool. Then cut in slices when you wish to fry; 
dip each piece in beaten eggs and fry on a hot griddle. 


Put four quarts fresh water in a kettle to boil, salt to 
suit the taste; when it begins to boil stir in one and a 
half quarts meal, letting it sift through the fingers slowly 
to prevent lumps, adding it a little faster at the last, until 
as thick as can be conveniently stirred with one hand; 
set in the oven in the kettle (or take out into a pan), 
bake an hour, and it will be thoroughly cooked. It takes 
corn meal so long to cook thoroughly that it is very dif- 
ficult to boil it until done without burning. Excellent 
for frying when cold. Use a hard wood paddle, two feet 
long, with a blade two inches wide and seven inches 
long, to stir with. The thorough cooking and baking in 
oven afterwards takes away all the raw taste that mush 
is apt to have, and adds much to its sweetness and de- 
licious flavor. 


Sift rneal slowly into boiling salted water, stirring 
briskly until it is as thick as can be stirred with one hand ; 
ser r e with milk or cream and sugar, or butter and syrup. 
It is riuch improved by removing from the kettle to a 
pan ;'$ soon as thoroughly mixed, and steaming for three 
or <our hours. It may also be eaten cold, or sliced and 
fr ; t.c like corn mush. 



The early lettuce, and first fine salad, are five or six 
leaves in a cluster; their early appearance is their greatest 
recommendation; cabbage or white-heart lettuce is later 
and much more delicate; break the leaves apart one by 
one from the stalk and throw them into a pan of cold 
water; rinse them well, lay them into a salad bowl or a 
deep dish, lay the largest leaves first, put the next size 
upon them, then lay on the finest white leaves; cut hard- 
boiled eggs in slices or quarters and lay them at equal 
distances around the edge and over the salad; serve 
with vinegar, oil, and made mustard in the castor, 
Or, having picked and washed the lettuce, cut the 
leaves small; put the cut salad in a glass dish or bowl, 
pour a salad dressing over and serve; or, garnish with 
small red radishes, cut in halves or slices, and hard-boiled 
eggs cut in quarters or slices; pour a salad dressing over 
when ready to serve. Serve with boiled lobster, boiled 
fowls, or roasted lamb or veal. 


Take the yolks of three hard-boiled eggs, add salt and 
mustard to taste; mash it fine; make a paste by adding 
a dessertspoon of olive oil or melted butter (use butter 
always when it is difficult to get fresh oil); mix thor- 
oughly, and then dilute by adding gradually a tea cup of 


, and pour over the lettuce. Garnish by slicing 
Another egg and laying over the lettuce. This is suffi- 
cient for a moderate-sized dish of lettuce. 


One quart of cooked salmon, two heads of lettuce, two 
f ablespoonfuls of lemon-juice, one of vinegar, two of ca- 
pers, one teaspoonful of salt, one third of a teaspoonful 
of pepper, one cupful of mayonnaise dressing, or the 
French dressing. Break up the salmon with two silver 
forks. Add to it the salt, pepper, vinegar and lemon- 
juice. Put in the ice-chest or some other cold place, for 
two or three hours. Prepare the lettuce as directed for 
lobster salad. At serving time, pick out leaves enough 
to border the dish. Cut or tear the remainder in pieces, 
and arrange these in the centre of a flat dish. On them 
heap the salmon lightly, and cover with the dressing. 
Now sprinkle on the capers. Arrange the whole leaves 
at the base, and, if you choose, lay one fourth of a thin 
slice of lemon on each leaf. 


Put a large lobster over the fire in boiling water 
Slightly salted; boil rapidly for about twenty minutes; 
when done it will be of a bright red color, and should 
be removed, as if boiled too long it will be tough; when 
cold, crack the claws, after first disjointing, twist off the 
head (which is used in garnishing), split the body in two 
lengthwise, pick out the meat in bits not too fine, saving 
the coral separate; cut up a large head of lettuce slightly, 
and place on a dish over which lay the lobster, putting 
the coral around the outside. For dressing, take the 
yolks of three eggs, beat well, add four tablespoons 
salad oil, dropping it in very slowly, beating all the 


time; then add a little salt, cayenne pepper, half tea- 
spoon mixed mustard, and two tablespoons vinegar. 
Pour this over the lobster, just before sending to table. 


Take the skin, juice, and seeds from nice, fresh toma- 
toes, chop what remains with celery, and add a go^oi 


Yolks of two hard-boiled eggs rubbed very fine and 
smooth, one teaspoon English mustard, one of salt, the 
yolks of two raw eggs beaten into the other, dessert- 
spoon of fine sugar. Add very fresh sweet-oil poured in 
by very small quantities, and beaten as long as the mix- 
ture continues to thicken, then add vinegar till as thin 
as desired. If not hot enough with mustard, add a little 
cayenne pepper. 


Arrange one quart of any kind of cooked fish on a 
bed of crisp lettuce. Split six sardines, and if there are 
any bones, remove them. Cover the fish with the sar- 
dine dressing. Over this put the sardines, having the 
ends meet in the centre of the dish. At the base of the 
dish make a wreath of thin slices of lemon. Garnisti 
with parsley or lettuce, and serve immediately. 


Three tablespoonfuls of oil, one of vinegar, one salt- 
spoonful of salt, one-half a saltspoonful of pepper. Put 
the salt and pepper in a cup, and add one.,tablespoonful 
of the oil. When thoroughly mixed, add the remainder 


of the o'l and the vinevar. This is dressing enough for 
i salad forsix persons. If you like the flavor of onion, 
grate n little juice into the dressing. The juice is ob- 
ta : n^'l by first peeling the onion, and then grating with 
a crar.-;e grater, using a good deal of pressure. Two 
r t.roke> will give about two drops of juice. 


Two tablespoons whipped sweet cream, two of sugar, 
and four of vinegar; beat well and pour over cabbage, 
previously cut very fine and seasoned with salt. 


Boil one chicken tender; chop moderately fine the 
whites of twelve hard-boiled eggs and the chicken; add 
equal quantities of chopped celery and cabbage; mash 
the yolks fine, add too tablespoons butter, two of sugar, 
one teaspoon mustard; pepper and salt to taste; and 
lastly, one half-cup good cider vinegar; pour over the 
salad, and mix thoroughly. If no celery is at hand, use 
/.hopped pickled cucumbers or lettuce and celery seed. 
T/>is may be mixed two or three days before using. 


One pint of cold boiled potatoes, one pint of cold 
boiled beets, one pint of uncooked red cabbage, six 
tablespoonfuls of oil, eight of red vinegar (that in which 
beets have been pickled), two teaspoonfuls of salt (unless 
the vegetables have been cooked in salted water), half a 
teaspoonsful of pepper. Cut the potatoes in thin slices- 
and the beets fine, and slice the cabbage as thin as pos- 
sible. Mix all the ingredients. Let stand in a cold 
place one hour; then serve. Red cabbage and celery 
may be used together ^ 



One boiled egg, one raw egg, one h.blespoonful sala 
oil, one teaspoonful white sugar, one saltspoonful of 
salt, one saltspoon of pepper, four tablespoonfuls o/ 
vinegar, one teaspoonful made mustard. Prepare th4 
dressing as for tomato salad; cut the celery into bitj 
half an inch long, and season. Eat at once, before th 
vinegar injures the crispness of the vegetable. 


Chop or shred a small white cabbage. Prepare a 
dressing in the proportion of one tablespoonful of oil to 
four of vinegar, a teaspoonful of m^de mustard, thd 
same quantity of salt and sugar, and half as much pep' 
per. Pour over the salad, adding, if you choose, three 
tablespoonfuls of minced celery; toss up well and put 
into a glass bowl. 

SALAD DRESSING (Excellent). 

Four eggs, one teaspoonful of mixed mustard, one- 
quarter teaspoonful of white pepper, half that quantity 
of cayenne, salt to taste, four tablespoonfuls of cream, 

Boil the eggs until hard, which will be in about one- 
quarter hour or twenty minutes; put them into cold 
water, take off the shells, and pound the yolks in a mor- 
tar to a smooth paste. Then add all the other in- 
gredients, except the vinegar, and stir them well until 
the whole are thoroughly incorporated one with the 
other. Pour in sufficient vinegar to make it of the 
consistency of cream, taking care to add but little at a 
time. The mixture will then be ready for use. 



Wash and wipe six hundred small cucumbers and two 
quarts of peppers. Put them in a tub with one and a 
half cupful of salt and a piece of alum as large as an 
egg. Heat to the boiling point three gallons of cider vin- 
egar and three pints of water. Add a quarter of a pound 
each of whole cloves, whole allspice and stick cinnamon, 
and two ounces of white mustard seed, and pour over the 


Peel the onions until they are white, scald them in strong 
salt and water, then take them up with a skimmer ; 
make vinegar enough to cover them, boiling hot, strew 
over the onions whole pepper and white mustard seed, pour 
the vinegar over to cover them ; when cold, put them in 
wide-mouthed bottles, aud cork them close. A tablespoon- 
ful of sweet oil may be put in the bottles before the cork. 
The best sort of onions for pickling are the small white 


Two cauliflowers, cut up ; one pint of small onions, three 
medium-sized red peppers. Dissolve half a pint of salt 
in water enough to cover the vegetables, and let these 
stand over night. In the morning drain them. Heat two 
quarts of vinegar with four tablespoonfuls of mustard, until 
it boils. Add the vegetables, and boil for about fifteen 
minutes, or until a fork can be thrust through the cauli- 


Procure a firm good-sized cabbage, and after taking 
off any straggling or soiled leaves, cut it in very narrow 


slices, which, after you sprinkle them well with salt, lay 
aside for forty-eight hours. Next drain off the salt 
liquor which has formed, and pour over the cabbage a 
well-seasoned pickle of boiling hot vinegar; black pep- 
per and ginger are best for seasoning. Cover the pickle 
jars till the cabbage is cold, and then cork. 


Take the round smooth green tomatoes, put them in 
salt and water, cover the vessel and put them over the 
fire to scald; that is, to let the water, become boiling hot; 
then set the kettle off; take them from the pot into a ba- 
sin of cold water; to enough cold vinegar to cover them, 
put whole pepper and mustard seed; when the tomatoes 
are cold take them from the water, cut each in two 
across, shake out the seeds and wipe the inside dry with 
a cloth, then put them into glass jars, and cover with the 
vinegar; cork them close or with a close fitting tin 


To seven pounds of ripe tomatoes add three pound? 
sugar, one quart vinegar; boil them together fifteen 
minutes, skim out the tomatoes and boil the syrup a few 
minutes longer. Spice to suit the taste with cloves and 


One peck of green tomatoes, two quarts of onions 
and two of peppers. Chop all fine, separately, and mix, 
adding three cupfuls of salt. Let them stand over 
night, and in the morning drain well. Add half a pound 
of mustard seed, two tablespoonfuls of ground allspice, 
two of ground cloves and one cupful of grated horse 
radish. Pour over it three quarts of boiling vinegar. 



One peck of green tomatoes, half peck string beans, 
quarter peck small white onions, quarter pint green and 
red peppers mixed, two large heads cabbage, four table- 
spoons white mustard seed, two of white or black cloves, 
two of celery seed, two of allspice, one small box yellow 
mustard, pound brown sugar, one ounce of turmeric; 
slice the tomatoes and let stand over night in brine that 
will bear an egg; then squeeze out brine, chop cabbage, 
onions and beans; chop tomatoes separately, mix with 
ihe spices, put all in porcelain kettle, cover with vinegar 
and boil three hours. 


One peck of green tomatoes; (if the flavor of onions is 
desired, take eight, but it is very nice without any); four 
green peppers; slice all, and put in layers, sprinkle on 
one cup of.salt, and let them remain over night; in the 
morning press dry through a sieve, put it in a porcelain 
kettle and cover with vinegar; add one cup of sugar, a 
tablespoon of each kind of spice; put into a muslin bag; 
stew slowly about an hour, or until the tomatoes are as 
soft as you desire. 


One hundred walnuts, salt and water. To quart 
of vinegar allow two ounces of whole black pepper, one 
ounce of allspice, one ounce of bruised ginger. Procure 
the walnuts while young; be careful they are not woody, 
and prick them well with a fork; prepare a strong brine 
of salt and water (four pounds of salt to each gallon of 
water), into which put the walnuts, letting them remain 
nine days, and changing the brine every third day; 


drain them off, put them on a dish, place it in the sun 
until they become perfectly black, which will be in two 
or three days; have ready dry jars, into which place the 
walnuts, and do not quite fill the jars. Boil sufficient 
vinegar to cover them, for ten minutes, with spices in 
the above proportion, and pour it hot over the walnuts, 
which must be quite covered with the pickle; tie down 
with bladder, and keep in dry place. They will be fit 
for use in a month, and will keep good two or three 


One peck green tomatoes sliced, six large onions 
sliced, one tea-cup of salt over both; mix thoroughly 
and let remain over night; pour off liquor in the morn- 
ing and throw it away; mix two quarts of water and one 
of vinegar, and boil twenty minutes; drain and throw 
liquor away; take three quarts of vinegar, two pounds 
of sugar two tablespoons each of allspice, cloves, cinna- 
mon, ginger, and mustard, and twelve green peppers 
chopped fine; boil from one to two hours. Put away in 
a stone crock. 


Eight quarts tomatoes, three cups of peppers, two 
cups of onions, three cups of sugar, one cup of salt, one 
and a half quarts of vinegar, three teaspoonfuls of cloves 
same quantity ot cinnamon, two teaspoonfuls each of 
ginger and nutmeg; boil three hours; chop tomatoes, 
peppers, and onions very fine; bottle up and seal. 


Three hundred small cucumbers, four green peppers 
*liced fine, two large or three small heads cauliflower. 


three heads white cabbage shaved fine, nine large onions 
sliced, one large root horseradish, one quart green beans 
cut one inch long, one quart green tomatoes sliced; put 
this mixture in a pretty strong brine twenty-four hours; 
drain three hours, then sprinkle in a quarter pound 
black and a quarter pound white mustard seed; also 
ne tablespoon black ground pepper; let it come to a 
good boil in just vinegar enough to covet it, adding a 
little alum. Drain again, and when cold, mix in a half 
pint ground mustard; cover the whole with good cider 
vinegar; add turmeric enough to color, if you like. 


Sufficient vinegar to cover the mushrooms; to each 
quart of mushrooms, two blades pounded mace, one 
ounce ground pepper; sale to taste. Choose some nice 
young button-mushrooms for pickling, and rub off the 
skin with a piece of flannel and salt, and cut off the 
stalks; if very large, take out the red inside, and reject 
the black ones, as they are too old. Put them in a stew- 
pan, sprinkle salt over them, with pounded mace and 
pepper in the above proportion; shake them well over a 
clear fire until the liquor flows, and keep them there un- 
til it is all dried up again; then add as much vinegar as 
will cover them; just let it simmer for one minute, and 
store it away in stone jars for use. When cold, tie down 
with bladder, and keep in a dry place; they will remain 
good for a length of time, and are generally considered 


One quart raw cabbage chopped fine; one quart boiled 
beets chopped fine; two cups sugar, tablespoon salt, one 
teaspoon black pepper, a quarter teaspoon red pepper, 


one teacup grated horse radish; cover with cold vinegar 
and keep from the air. 


Slice and boil for an hour, with six small red peppers, 
half bushel of ripe tomatoes; strain through a colander 
and boil for an hour with two tablespoonfuls of black 
pepper, two ounces ginger, one ounce allspice, half ounce 
cloves, one eighth ounce mace, quarter pound salt. 
When cold add two ounces mustard, two ounces curry 
powder, and one pint of vinegar. 


Eight ounces of sharp, sour apples, pared and cored, 
eight ounces of tomatoes, eight ounces of salt, eight 
ounces of brown sugar, eight ounces of stoned raisins, 
four ounces of cayenne, four ounces of powdered ginger, 
two ounces of garlic, two ounces of shalots, three quarts 
of vinegar, one quart of lemon-juice. Chop the apples 
in small square pieces, and add to them the other ingre- 
dients. Mix the whole well together, and put in a well- 
covered jar. Keep this in a warm place, and stir every 
day for a month, taking care to put on the lid after this 
operation; strain, but do not squeeze it dry; store it away 
in clean jars or bottles for use, and the liquor will serve 
as an excellent sauce for meat or 


Five pounds of cherries, stoned or not; one quart o 
vinegar, two pounds of sugar, one half ounce of cinna 
mon, one half ounce of cloves, one half ounce of mace. 
boil the sugar and vinegar and spices together, (grind 
the spices and tie them in a muslin bag), and pour hot 
ever the cherries. 



To seven pounds plums, four pounds sugar, two ounces 
stick cinnamon, two ounces cloves, one quart vinegar, 
add a little mace ; put in the jar first a layer of plums, then 
a layer of spices alternately ; scald the vinegar and sugar 
together, pour it over the plums ; repeat three times for 
plums (only once for cut apples and pears), the fourth time 
scald all together, put them into glass jars and they are 
ready for use. 


Make a syrup, allowing one pound of sugar to one of 
plums, and to every three pounds of sugar a scant pint of 
vinegar. Allow one ounce each of ground cinnamon, 
cloves, mace, and allspice to a peck of plums. Prick the 
plums. Add the spices to the syrup, and pour, boiling, over 
the plums. Let these stand three clays ; then skim them 
out, and boil down the syrup until it is quite thick, and pour 
hot over the plums in the jar in which they are to be kept. 
Cover closely. 


For six pounds of fruit use three of sugar, about five 
dozen cloves, and a pint of vinegar. Into each apple, pear, 
or peach, stick two cloves. Have the syrup hot, and cook 
until tender 


Take one gallon of skinned tomatoes, four tablespoonfuls 
of salt, four ditto of whole black pepper, half a spoonful of 
allspice, eight pods of red pepper, and three spoonfuls of 
mustard, boil them together for one hour, then strain it 
through a sieve or coarse cloth, and when cold, bottle for 
use : have the best velvet corks. 



Bruise to a mass one hundred and twenty green walnuts, 
gathered when a pin could pierce one ; put to it three 
quarters of a pound of salt and a quart of good vinegar; 
stir them every day for a fortnight, then strain and squeeze 
the liquor from them through a cloth, and set it aside, put to 
the husks half a pint of vinegar, and let it stand all night, 
then strain and squeeze them as before ; put the liquor from 
them to that which was put aside, add to it one Ounce and a 
quarter of whole pepper, forty cloves, half an ounce of nut- 
meg sliced, and half an ounce of ginger, and boil it for half 
an hour closely covered, then strain it ; when cold, bottle it 
for use. Secure the bottles with new corks, and dip them in 
melted rosin. 


To each peck of mushrooms one half pound of salt ; to 
each quart of mushroom liquor one quarter ounce of 
cayenne, one half ounce of allspice, one half ounce of 
ginger, two blades of pounded mace. Choose full- 
grown mushroom-flaps, and take care they are perfectly 
fresh-gathered when the weather is tolerably dry ; for, if 
they are picked during very heavy rain the catsup 
from which they are made is liable to get musty, and 
will not keep long. Put a layer of them in a deep 
pan, sprinkle salt over them, and then another layer of 
mushrooms, and so on alternately. Let them remain 
for a few hours, then break them up with the hand ; put 
them in a nice cool place fur three days, occasionally 
stirring and mashing them well to extract from them as 
much juice as possible. Now measure the quantity of 
liquor without straining, and to each quart allow the 
above proportion of spices, etc. Put all into a stone jar, 
cover it up very closely, put it in a saucepan of boiling 


water, set it over the fire, and let it boil for three hours. 
Have ready a nice clean stevvpan ; turn into it the contents 
of the jar, and let the whole simmer very gently for half 
an hour; pour it into a jug, where it should stand in a 
cool place till the next day; then pour it off into another 
jug, and strain it into very dry, clean bottles, and do not 
squeeze the mushrooms. To each pint of catsup add a 
few drops of brandy. Be careful not to shake the con- 
tents, but leave all the sediment behind in the jug; cork 
well, and either seal or rosin the cork, so as perfectly to 
exclude the air. When a very clear, bright catsup is 
wanted, the liquor must be strained through a very fine 
hair-sieve, or flannel bag, after it has been very gently 
poured off; if the operation is not successful, it must be 
repeated until you have quite a clear liquor. It should 
be examined occasionally, and if it is spoiling should be 
reboiled with a few peppercorns. 


To three gallons of brine strong enough to bear an 
egg, add one quarter pound good loaf sugar, and one 
tablespoonful of saltpetre; boil the brine, and when it is 
cold strain carefully. Pack butter closely in small jars, 
and allow the brine to cover the butter to the depth of 
at least four inches. This completely excludes the air. 
If practicable make your butter into small rolls, wrap 
each carefully in a clean muslin cloth, tying up with a 
string; place a weight over the butter to keep it all sub- 
merged in the brine. This mode is most recommended 
by those who have tried both. 



Take milkfresh from the cow, strain it into clean pans> 
set it over .erentle fire until it is scalding hot; do not let 


it boil; then set it aside; when it is cold skim off the 
cream; the milk will still be fit for any ordinary use; 
when you have enough cream, put it into a clean earthen 
basin; beat it with a wooden spoon until the butter is 
made, which will not be long; then take it from the 
milk and work it with a little cold water, until il is free 
from milk, then drain off the water, put a small table- 
spoonful of fine salt to each pound of butter, and work 
it in. A small teaspoonful of fine white sugar, worked 
in with the salt, will be found an improvement sugar is 
a great preservative. Make the butter in a roll; cover it 
wilh a bit of muslin, and keep it in a cool place. 

This receipt was obtained from one who practiced it 
for several winters. 



All boiled puddings should be put on in boiling 
which must not be allowed to stop simmering, and the 
pudding must always be covered with the water ; if requi- 
site the saucepan should be kept filled up. To prevent a 
pudding boiled in a cloth from sticking to the bottom of 
the saucepan, place a small plate or saucer underneath it, 
if a mould is used, this precaution is not necessary ; but 
care must be taken to keep the pudding well covered with 
water. For dishing a boiled pudding as soon as it comes out 
of the pot, dip it into a basin of cold water, and the cloth 
will then not adhere to it. Great expedition is necessary 
in sending puddings to table, as, by standing, they quickly 
become heavy, batter puddings particularly. For baked or 
boiled puddings, the moulds,, cups, or basins should be 
always buttered before the mixture is put in them, and 
they should be put into the saucepan directly they are 


One pound butter, one pound suet, freed from strings 
and chopped fine, one pound sugar, two and a half pounds 
flour, two pounds raisins, seeded, chopped and dredged 
with flour, two pounds currents, picked over carefully 
after they are washed, one quarter pound citron, shred 
fine, twelve eggs, whites and yolks beaten separately, 
one pint milk, one cup brandy, one half ounce cloves, 


one half ounce mace, two grated nutn.egs. Cream tho 
butter and sugar, beat in the yolks when you have whipped 
them smooth and light ; next put in the milk, then the 
flour, alternately with the beaten whites, then the brandy 
and spice, lastly the fruit, well dredged with flour. Mix 
all thoroughly ; wring out your pudding-cloth in hot 
water, flour well inside, pour in the mixture and boil five 


Three eggs, one ounce butter, one pint milk, three 
tablespoonfuls flour, a little salt. Put the flour into a 
basin, and add sufficient milk to moisten it ; carefully rub 
down all the lumps with a spoon, then pour in the re- 
mainder of the milk, and stir in the butter, which should 
be previously melted ; keep beating the mixture, add the 
eggs and a pinch of salt, and when the batter is quite 
smooth, put it into a well-buttered basin, tie it down 
very tightly, and put it into boiling water ; move the 
basin about for a few minutes after it is put into the 
water, to prevent the flour settling in any part, and boil 
for one and one quarter hour. This pudding may also 
be boiled in a floured cloth that has been wetted in hot 
water ; it will then take a few minutes less than when 
boiled in a basin. Send thes" puddings very quickly to 
table, and serve with sweet sauce, wine sauce, stewed 
fruit, or jam of any kind ; when the latter is used, a little of 
it may be placed round the dish in small quantities, as a 


One quart milk, four eggs, six ounces flour, a little 
soda and salt. Mix the flour very carefully with a little 
milk so it will not be lumpy. Bake twenty minutes. Serve 



One half pound cheap suet, three quarters of a pound 
bread-crumbs, six ounces moist sugar, one quarter pound 
flour, two eggs, two wineglasses of sherry ; mix the suet, 
bread-crumbs, sugar and flour well together. When these 
ingredients are well mixed, add the eggs and two glasses of 
sherry, to make a thick batter ; boil three hours and a half, 
Serve with wine sauce. 


One cup sago in a quart of tepid water, with a pinch 
of salt, soaked for one hour ; six or eight apples, pared 
and cored, or quartered, and steamed tender, and put in 
the pudding dish ; boil and stir the sago until clear, add- 
ing water to make it thin, and pour it over the apples ; this 
is good hot with butter and sugar, or cold with cream and 


One large cup of fine bread-crumbs soaked in milk, three 
quarters cup sugar, one lemon, juice and grated rind, six 
e gg s > one half pound stale sponge-cake, one half pound 
macaroons almond, one half cup jelly or jam, and one 
small tumbler of sherry wine, one half cup milk poured 
upon the bread-crumbs, one tablespoonful melted butter. 
Rub the butter and sugar together ; put the beaten yolks 
in next, then the soaked bread-crumbs, the lemon, juice 
and rind, and beat to a smooth, light paste before adding 
the whites. Butter your mould very well, and put in the 
bottom a light layer of dry bread-crumbs, upon this one 
of macaroons, laid evenly and closely together. Wet 
this with wine, and cover with a layer of the mixture, 
then with slices of sponge-cake, spread thickly with jelly 


or jam; next macaroons, wet with wine, more custard, 
sponge-cake and jam, and so on until the mould is full, 
putting a layer of the mixture at the top. Cover closely, 
and steam in the oven three quarters of an hour; then 
remove the cover to brown the top. Turn out carefully 
into a dish, and pour over it a sauce made of current 
jelly warmed, and beaten up with two tablespoonfuls 
melted butter and a glass of pale sherry. 


Peel and cut five sweet oranges into thin slices, taking 
out the seeds, pour over them a coffee-cup of white 
sugar, let a pint of milk get boiling hot, by setting it in 
a pot of boiling water; add the yolks of three eggs well 
beaten, one tablespoon of corn starch, made smooth with 
a little cold milk; stir all the time; as soon as thickened 
pour over the fruit. Beat the whites to a stiff froth, 
adding a tablespoon of sugar, and spread over the top 
for frosting; set it in the oven for a few minutes to 
harden; eat cold or hot (better cold), for dinner or 
supper. Berries or peaches can be substituted for 


One pint sweet milk, whites of three eggs, two table- 
spoons corn-starch, three of sugar, and a little salt. Put 
the milk in a pan or small bucket, set in a kettle of hot 
water on the stove, and when it reaches the boiling point 
add the sugar, then the starch dissolved in a little cold 
milk, and lastly the whites of eggs whipped to a stiff 
froth; beat it, and let cook a few minutes, then pour 
into teacups, filling about half full, and set in cool place. 
For sauce, make a boiled custard as follows: Bring to 
boiling point one pint of milk, add three tablespoons 
sugar, then the beaten yolks thinned by adding one 


tablespoon milk, stirring all the time till it thickens; 
flavor with two teaspoons lemon or two of vanilla, and set 
to cool. In serving, put one of the moulds in a sauce- 
dish for each person, and pour over it some of the boiled 
custard. Or the pudding may be made in one large 

To make a chocolate pudding, flavor the above pud- 
ding with vanilla, remove two thirds of it, and add half a 
cake of chocolate softened, mashed, and dissolved in a 
little milk. Put a layer of half the white pudding into the 
mold, then the chocolate, then the rest of the white ; or 
two layers of chocolate may be used with a white between ; 
or the center may be cocoa (made by adding half a 
cocoanut grated fine), and the outside chocolate ; or 
pine-apple chopped fine (if first cooked in a little water, 
the latter makes a nice dressing), or strawberries may be 


One quart of milk, three tablespoons of corn-starch, 
yolks of four eggs, half cup sugar and a little salt ; put part 
of the milk, salt and sugar on the stove and let it boil ; 
dissolve the corn-starch in the rest of the milk ; stir into the 
milk, and while boiling add the yolks. Flavor with 

FROSTING. Whites of four eggs beaten to a stiff froth, half 
a cup of sugar ; flavor with lemon ; spread it on the pudding, 
and put it into the oven to brown, saving a little of the frost- 
ing to moisten the top ; then put on grated cocoanut to give 
it the appearance of snow-flake. 


Soak for an hour in a pint of cold water one box of 
Cox's sparkling gelatine, and add one pint of boiling 
water, one pint of wiue, the juice of four lemons, and 


ihree large cupfuls of sugar. Beat the whites of four eggs 
to a stiff froth, and stir into the jelly when it begins to 
thicken. Pour into a large mould, and set in ice-water 
in a cool place. When ready to serve, turn out as you 
would jelly, only have the pudding in a deep dish. Pour 
one quart of soft custard around it, and serve. 


Soak three tablespoons of tapioca in water over night; 
put the tapioca into a quart of boiling milk, and boil 
half an hour; beat the yolks of four eggs with a cup of 
sugar; add three tablespoons of prepared cocoanut; stir 
in and boil ten minutes longer; pour into a pudding- 
dish; beat the whites of the four eggs to a stiff froth, 
stir in three tablespoons of sugar; put this over the top 
and sprinkle cocoanut over the top and brown for five 


Four ounces of grated bread, four ounces of currants, 
four ounces of apples, two ounces of sugar, three eggs, 
a few drops of essence of lemon, a little grated nutmeg. 
Pare, core, and mince the apples very finely, sufficient, 
when minced, to make four ounces; add to these the cur- 
rants, which should be well washed, the grated bread, 
and sugar; whisk the eggs, beat these up with the re- 
maining ingredients, and, when all is thoroughly mixed, 
put the pudding into a buttered basin, tie it down with 
a cloth, and boil for three hours. 


One half pound macaroni broken into inch lengths, 
two cups boiling water, one teaspoonful butter, one 
large cup milk, two tablespoonfuls sugar, grated peel of 


half a lemon, a little cinnamon and salt. Boil the maca- 
roni in the water until it is tender, and has soaked up the 
liquid. It must be cooked in a farina-kettle. Add the 
butter and salt. Cover for five minutes without cook- 
ing. Put in the rest of the ingredients. Simmer, after 
the boil begins, ten minutes longer, before serving in a 
deep dish. Be careful in stirring, not to break the maca- 
roni. Eat with butter and powdered sugar, or cream and 


Two quarts scalded milk with salt, one and one-half cups 
Indian meal (yellow) ; one tablespoon ginger, letting this stand 
twenty minutes ; one cup molasses, two eggs (saleratus if no 
eggs), a piece of butter the size of a common walnut. Bake 
two hours. Splendid. 


Warm a pint of molasses and pint of milk, stir well to- 
gether, beat four eggs, and stir gradually into molasses and 
milk ; add a pound beef suet chopped fine, and Indian 
meal sufficient to make a thick batter ; add a teaspoon 
pulverized cinnamon, nutmeg and a little grated lemon-peel, 
and stir all together thoroughly ; dip cloth into boiling 
water, shake, flour a little, turn in the mixture, tie up, leav- 
ing room for the pudding to swell, and boil three hours ; 
serve hot with sauce made of drawn butter, .wine and 


Half pound suet, half pound grated bread crumbs, half 
pound sugar, three ounces orange marmalade ; mix these 
ingredients together with four eggs ; boil four hours. 
Lay a few raisins open in the bottom of the mould. 


Sauce : Two ounces butter, and two ounces white sugar ; beat 
to a cream and flavor with brandy or lemon. 


Add to two cups sour milk one teaspoon soda, and one 
salt, half cup butter, lard, flour enough to make dough a 
little stiffer than for biscuit ; or make a good baking-powder 
crust ; peel and core apples, roll out crust, place apples on 
dough, fill cavity of each with sugar, encase each apple in 
coating of the crust, press edges tight together, (it is nice 
to tie a cloth around each one), put into kettle of boiling 
water slightly salted, boil half an hour, taking care that the 
water covers the dumplings. They are also very nice 
steamed. To bake, make in same way, using a soft dough, 
place in a shallow pan, bake in a hot oven, and serve with 
cream and sugar, or place in a pan which is four or five 
inches deep (do not have the dumplings touch each other); 
then pour in hot water, just leaving top of dumplings un- 
covered. To a pan of four or five dumplings, add one teacup 
sugar and half a teacup butter; bake from half to three- 
quarters of an hour. If water cooks away too much, add 
more. Serve dumplings on platter and the liquid in sauce- 
boat for dressing. Fresh or canned peaches may be made 
in the same way. 


Half pound flour, half pound treacle, half pound suet, the 
rind and juice of one lemon, a few strips of candied lemo^- 
peel, three tablespoonfuls cream, two eggs. Chop the suet 
finely ; mix with it the flour, treacle, lemon-peel minced, and 
candied lemon-peel ; add the cream, lemon juice, and two 
well-beaten eggs ; beat the pudding well, put it into a but- 
tered basin, tie it down with a cloth, and boil from three and 
a half to four hours 



Half pound the pulp of apples, half pound loaf sugar, six 
ounces butter, the rind one lemon, six eggs, puff paste. 
Peel, core and cut the apples, as for sauce ; put them into 
a stew-pan, with only just sufficient water to prevent them 
from burning, and let them stew until reduced to a pulp. 
Weigh the pulp, and to every half pound add sifted sugar, 
grated lemon-rind, and six well-beaten eggs. Beat these 
ingredients well together ; then melt the butter, stir it to 
the other things, put a border of puff paste round the dish, 
and bake for rather more than half an hour. The butter 
should not be added until the pudding is ready for the 


Pick all imperfections from a half pint of rice, put it in 
water, and rub it between the hands ; then pour that water 
off, put more on, stir it about in it, let the rice settle, then 
drain the water off ; put the rice in a two-quart stew-pan, 
with a teaspoonful of salt, and a quart of water; cover the 
stew-pan, and set it where it will boil gently for one hour, or 
until the water is all absorbed; dip some teacups into cold 
water, fill them with the boiled rice, press it to their shape ; 
then turn them out on a dish, and serve with butter and su- 
gar, or wine sauce. 


One teacup rice, one teacup sugar, one teacup raisins, 
small piece butter, a little salt, two quarts milk. Bake 
from an hour and a half to two hours. Serve with 



Cut slices of wheat bread or rolls, and having rubbed 
the bottom- and sides of a basin with a bit of butter, 
line it with the sliced bread or rolls ; peel tart apples, 
cut them small, and nearly fill the pan, strewing bits of 
butter and sugar between the apples ; grate a small nut- 
meg over ; soak as many slices of bread or roll as will 
cover it ; over which put a plate, and a weight, to keep 
the bread close upon the apples ; bake two hours in a 
quick oven, then turn it out. Quarter of a pound of but- 
ter, and half a pound of sugar, to half a peck of tart 


This is an economical pudding, made with two pints of 
sweet milk, a teacupful of ground rice, two tablespoonfuls of 
sugar, three eggs, and a little ground nutmeg. Bring half 
the quantity of milk to the boiling point, with the nutmeg or 
any other flavoring matter, and sugar. In the other half 
of the milk beat up the rice flour into a thin batter, add- 
ing to it through a strainer the hot seasoned milk, stirring 
all the time. The eggs well whisked should next be added. 
A sprinkling of salt is an improvement. Bake this mixt- 
ure in a moderate oven for a little over an hour, say sev- 
enty minutes, or boil in a buttered basin or shape. Serve 
with apricot preserve, or marmalade, or indeed any kind ?.. 


One half pound figs, one quarter pound grated bread, 
two and a half ounces powdered sugar, three ounces but- 
ter, two eggs, one teacup of milk. Chop the figs small 
and mix first with the butter, then all the other ingredi- 

THE E VEK I '-DA Y CO OA'-OOA\ z 65 

ents by degrees ; butter a mould, sprinkle with bread crumbs, 
cover it tight and boil for three hours. 


Place as many slices of thin cut bread and butter as 
you like in a pie dish, say ten or twelve slices, sprinkle a 
few well-washed currants between the layers, beat up half 
a dozen of eggs in two pints of new milk, adding sugar to 
taste and a little flavoring, such as nutmeg or cinnamon, 
and pour over the bread and butter. Bake for an hour 
and ten minutes, and send it to table in the dish it has been 
baked in. 


One quart of milk, four eggs, four tablespoonfuls of sugar, 
half a teaspoonful of salt, one tablespoonful of butter, 
three pints of stale sponge cake, one cupful of raisins, 
chopped citron and currants. Have a little more of the 
currants than of the two other fruits. Beat the eggs, sugar, 
and salt together, and add the milk. Butter a three-pint 
pudding mould (the melon shape is nice), sprinkle the 
sides and bottom with the fruit, and put in a layer of 
cake. Again sprinkle in fruit, and put in more cake. Con- 
tinue this until all the materials are used. Gradually pour 
on the custard. Let the pudding stand two hours, and 
steam an hour and a quarter. Serve with wine or creamy 


One half package Coxe's gelatine ; pour over it a cup 
of cold water and add one and one half cups of sugar ; 
when soft, add one cup boiling water, juice of one lemon 
and the whites of four well beaten eggs ; beat all to- 
gether until yery light ; put in glass dish and pour over 


it custard made as follows: One pint milk, yolks of 
tour eggs, and grated rind of one lemon; boil. Splen- 


One pound grated carrots, three fourths pound chop- 
ped suet, half pound each raisins and currants, four 
tablespoons sugar, eight tablespoons flour, and spices to 
suit the taste. Boil four hours, place in the oven for 
twenty minutes, and serve with wine sauce. 


Half pound of sugar, half pound of butter, five eggs, 
half gill brandy, rind and juice of one large lemon; beat 
well the butter and sugar, whisk the eggs, add them to 
the lemon, grate the peel, line a dish with puff paste, and 
bake in a moderate oven. 


Take one quart of flour; make good biscuit crust; 
roll out one half inch tliick and spread with any kind of 
fruit, fresh or preserved; fold so that the fruit will not 
run out; dip cloth into boiling water, and flour it and 
lay arou-nd the pudding closely, leaving room to swell; 
steam one or one and one half ho"rs; serve with boiled 
sauce; or lay in steamer without .loth, and steam for 
one hour. 


. One half cup of sugar, one cup of milk, one pint of 
flour, three tablespoonfuls of melted butter, one tea- 
spoonful soda, two of cream of tartar, two eggs, a little 
salt; bake one quarter of an hour in small pans. 



Beat two eggs with one cupful of new milk; add 
quarter of a pound of grated cocoanut; mix with it threes 
cablespoonfuls each of grated bread and powdered 
sugar, two ounces of melted butter, five ounces of 
raisins, and one teaspoonful of grated lemon-peel; beat 
the whole well together; pour the mixture into a but 
tered dish, and bake in a slow oven; then turn it out, 
dust sugar over it, and serve. This pudding may bt 
either boiled or baked. 


Stir together one pint cream, three ounces sugar, thj 
yolks of three eggs, and a little grated nutmeg; add the 
well-beaten whites, stirring lightly, and pour into a but- 
tered pie-plate on which has been sprinkled the crumbs 
of stale bread to about the thickness of an ordinary 
crust; sprinkle over the top a layer of bread-crumbs aad 


Cover three tablespoons tapioca with water; stand over 
night; add one quart milk, a small piece of butter, a lit- 
tle salt, and boil; beat the yolks of three eggs wi'.h a 
cup of sugar, and boil, the whole to a very thick custard' 
flavor with vanilla; ^n cold cover with whites of eggs 


Beat either four or five fresh eggs light; then stir 
them into a quart of milk; sweeten to taste; flavor with 
a teaspoonful of peach water, or extract of lemon, or 
vanilla, and half a teaspoonfu! of salt; rub butter over 
the bottom and sides of a baking dish or tie baaip; 


in the custard, grate a little nutmeg over, and bake in 
a quick oven. Three quarters of an hour is" generally 
enough. Try whether it is done by putting a teaspoon 
handle into the middle of it; if it comes out clean, it is 

Or butter small cups; set them into a shallow pan of 
hot water, reaching nearly to the top of the cups; nearly 
fill them with the custard mixture; keep the water boil- 
ing until they are done. The pan may be set in an oven, 
or over a fire; if over the fire, it is best to brown them 
with a hot shovel. 



One cupful of butter, two of powdered sugar, half a 
cupful of wine. Beat the butter to a cream. Add the 
sugar gradually, and when very light add the wine, 
which has been made hot, a little at a time. Place the 
bowl in a basin of hot water and stir for two minutes. 
The sauce should be smooth and foamy. 


Whip a pint of thick sweet cream, add the beaten 
whites of two eggs, sweeten to taste ; place pudding in 
centre of dish, and surround with the sauce ; or pile up 
in centre and surround with moulded blanc-mange, or 
fruit puddings. 


One cup of sugar, half a cup ox butter, one egg, one 
lemon, juice and grated rind, three tablespoonfuls of 
boiling water; put in a tin pail and thicken over steam. 


Melt one ounce of sugar and two tablespoons grape 
jelly over the fire in a half pint of boiling water, and stir 
into it half a teaspoon corn starch dissolved in a half cup 
cold water; let come to a boil, and it will be ready for use. 
Any other fruit jelly may be used instead of grace. 




Take the yolks of five eggs and whip them lightly ; ex- 
press the juice of a lemon and grate down a little of the 
peel. The other ingredients are a tablespoonful of but- 
ter, a cup of sugar, a glass of good wine, and a little 
spice. Mix the sugar and butter, adding the yolks, spice, 
and lemon juice. Beat fifteen minutes, then add the wine, 
and stir hard. Immerse in a saucepan of boiling water, beat- 
ing while it heats. 


Beat whites of three eggs to a stiff froth ; melt teacup 
of sugar in a little water, let it boil, stir in one glass of 
wine, and then the whites of the three eggs ; serve at 


One half cup of boiling water, one tablespoon corn starch, 
two tablespoonfuls vinegar, one tablespoonful of butter, one 
cup sugar, one half nutmeg. 


Beat to a cream a quarter of a pound of butter, add 
gradually a quarter of a pound of sugar ; heat it until 
very white ; add a little lemon juice, or grate nutmeg on 


One cup of sugar, one half cup of butter, yolks of three 
eggs ; one teaspoon of corn starch or arrow-root ; stir the 
whole until very light ; add sufficient boiling water to make 
the consistency of thick cream ; wine or brandy to suit the 




The yolks of three eggs, one tablespoonful of powdered 
sugar, one gill of milk, a very little grated lemon-rind, 
two small wineglassfuls of brandy. Separate the yolks 
from the whites of three eggs, and put the former into a 
stewpan ; add the sugar, milk, and grated lemon-rind, and 
stir over the fire until the mixture thickens ; but do not 
allow it to boil. Put in the brandy ; let the sauce stand by 
the side of the fire, to get quite hot ; keep stirring it, and 
serve in a boat or tureen separately, or pour it over the 


The whites of two eggs and the yolk of one, half a cup- 
ful of powdered sugar, one teaspoonful of vanilla, three 
tablespoonfuls of milk. Beat the whites of the eggs to a stiff 
froth, next beat in the sugar, and then the yolk of the egg 
and the seasoning. Serve immediately. This sauce is for 
light puddings. 



To every pound of flour allow one pound of butter, 
and not quite one half pint of water. Carefully weigh 
^the flour and butter, and have the exact proportion; 
squeeze the butter well, to extract the water from it, 
and afterwards wring it in a clean cloth, that no moisture 
may remain. Sift the flour; see that it is perfectly dry, 
and proceed in the following manner to make the paste, 
using a very clean paste-board and rolling-pin. Sup- 
posing the quantity to be one pound of flour, work the 
whole into a smooth paste, with not quite one half pint 
of water, using a knife to mix it with; the proportion of 
tins latter ingredient must be regulated by the discretion 
of the coojc; if too much be added, the paste, when 
baked, will be tough. Roll it out until it is of an equal 
thickness of about an inch; break four ounces of the but- 
ter into small pieces; place these on the paste, sift over 
it a little flour, fold it over, roll out again, and put an- 
other four ounces of butter. Repeat the rolling and 
buttering until the paste has been rolled out four times, 
or equal quantities of flour and butter have been used. 
Do net omit, every time the paste is rolled out, to dredge 
a little flour over that and the rolling-pin, to prevent 
both from sticking. Handle the paste as lightly as pos- 
sible, and do not press heavily upon it with the rolling- 
pin. The next thing to be considered is the oven, as the 
baking of pastry requires particular attention. Do not 
put it into the oven until it is sufficiently hot to raise the 


paste; for the best-prepared paste, if not properly baked, 
will be good for nothing. Brushing the paste as often 
as rolled out, and the pieces of butter placed thereon, 
with the white of an egg, assists it to rise in leaves or 
fiakes. As this is the great beauty of puff-paste, it is as 
well to try this method. 


One pound of flour, a little more for rolling pin and 
board, and half a pound of butter and half a pound of 
lard. Cut the butter and lard through the flour (which 
should be sifted), and mix with sufficient ice water to roll 
easily. Avoid kneading it, and use the hands as little as 
possible in mixing. 


To every pound of flour allow five or six ounces of 
beef suet, one half pint of water. . Free the suet from 
skin and shreds; chop it extremely fine, and rub it well 
into the flour; work the whole to a smoth paste with the 
above proportion of water; roll it out, and it is ready 
for use. This crust is quite rich enough for ordinary 
purposes; but when a better one is desired, use from 
one half to three quarter pounds of suet to every pound 
of flour. Some cooks, for rich crusts, pound the suet in 
a mortar, with a small quantity of butter. It should 
then be laid on the paste in small pieces, the same as for 
puff-crust, and will be found exceedingly nice for hot 
tarts. Five ounces of suet to every pound of flour will 
make a very good crust; and even one quarter pound 
will answer very well for children, or where the crust 
is wanted very plain. 


To ice pastry, which is the usual method adopted for 
fruit tarts and sweet dishes of pastry, put the white of 


an egg on a plate, and with the blade of a knife beat it 
to a stiff froth. When the pastry is nearly baked, brush 
it over with this, and sift over some pounded sugar; put 
it back into the oven to set the glaze, and in a few min- 
utes it will be^||pne. Great care should be taken that 
the paste does not catch or burn in the oven, which it is 
very liable to do after the icing is laid on. 


To glaze pastry, which is the usual method adopted 
for meat or raised pies, break an egg, separate the yolk 
from the white, and beat the former for a short time. 
Then, when the pastry is nearly baked, take it out of the 
oven, brush it over with this beaten yolk of egg, and put 
it back in the oven to set the glaze. 


Take five or six pounds scraggy beef a neck piece 
will do and put to boil in water enough to cover it; 
take off the scum that rises when it reaches the boiling 
point, add hot water from time to time until it is tender, 
then remove the lid from the pot, salt, let boil till almost 
dry, turning the meat over occasionally in the liquor, take 
from the fire, and let stand over night to get thoroughly 
cold; pick bones, gristle, or stringy bits from the meat, 
chop very fine, mincing at the same time three pounds 
of nice beef suet; seed and cut four pounds raisins, 
wash and dry four pounds currants, slice thin a pound 
of citron, chop fine iour quarts good-cooking tart ap- 
ples; put into a large pan together, add two ounces 
cinnamon, one of cloves, one of ginger, four nutmegs, 
the juice and grated rinds of two lemons, one tablespoon 
salt, one teaspoon pepper, and two pounds sugar. Put 
in a porcelain kettle one quart boiled cider, or, better 
still, one quart currant or grape juice (canned when 


grapes are turning from green to purple), One quart 
nice molasses or syrup, also a good lump of butter, 
let it coine to boiling point, and pour over the 
ingredients in the pan after having first mixed them 
well, then mix again thoroughly. Pack in jars and put 
in a cool place, and, when cold, pour molasses over the 
top an eighth of an inch in thickness, and cover tightly. 
This will keep two months. For baking, take some ou-t 
of a jar; if not moist enough add a little hot water, and 
strew a few whole raisins over each pie. Instead of 
boiled beef, a beef's heart or roast meat may be used; 
and a good proportion for a few pies is one third chop- 
ped meat and two thirds apples, with a little suet, raisins, 
spices, butter, and salt. 


One egg, three or four large crackers, or six or eight 
small ones, one half cup of molasses, one half cup sugar, 
one half cup vinegar, one half cup strong tea, one cup 
chopped raisins, a small piece butter, spice and salt. 


Peel sour apples and stew until soft and not much 
water is left in them, and rub through a colander. Beat 
three eggs for each pie. Put in proportion of one cup 
butter and one of sugar for three pies. Season with- 


Pare, slice, stew and sweeten ripe, tart and juicy ap- 
ples, mash and season with nutmeg (or stew lemon peel 
with them for flavor), fill crust and bake till done; spread 
over the apple a thick meringue made by whipping to- 
froth whites of three eggs for each pie, sweetening with 
three tablespoons powdered sugar; flavor with vanillg, 


beat until it will stand alone, and cover pie three quar- 

ers of an inch thick. Set back in a quick oven till well 

* set," and eat cold. In their season substitute peaches for 


Stew green or ripe apples, when you have pared and 
cored them. Mash to a smooth compote, sweeten to 
taste, and, while hot, stir in a teaspoonful butter for each 
pie. Season with nutmeg. When cool, fill your crust, 
and either cross-bar the top with strips of paste, or bake 
without cover. Eat cold, with powdered sugar strewed 
over it. 


The juice and rind of one lemon, two eggs, eight heap- 
ing tablespoonfuls of sugar, one small teacupful of milk, 
one teaspoonful of corn starch. Mix the corn starch with 
a little of the mijk. Put the remainder on the fire, and 
when boiling, stir in the corn starch. Boil one minute. 
Let this cool, and add the yolks of the eggs, four heap- 
ing tablespoonfuls of the sugar, and the grated rind and 
juice of the lemon, all well beaten together. Have a 
deep pie plate lined with paste, and fill with this mixt- 
ure. Bake slowly half an hour. Beat the whites of the 
eggs to a stiff froth, and gradually beat into them the re- 
mainder of the sugar. Cover the pie with this, and brown 


Make a custard of the yolks of three eggs with milk, 
season to the taste ; bake it in ordinary crust ; put it in 
a brick oven, that the crust may not be heavy, and as 
soon as that is heated remove it to a place in the oven 
of a more moderate heat, that the custard may bake 


slowly and not curdle; when done, beat the whites to a 
froth; add sugar and spread over the top, and return to* 
the oven to brown slightly; small pinch of salt added to 
a custard heightens the flavor; a little soda in the crust 
prevents it from being heavy. Very nice. 


One half pound of grated cocoa-nut, three quarter 
pounds of white sugar (powdered), six ounces of butter, 
five eggs, the whites only, one glass of white wine, two 
tablespoonfuls rose-water, one tablespoonful of nutmeg. 
Cream the butter and sugar, and when well mixed, beat 
very light, with the wine and rose-water. Add the cocoa- 
nut with as little and as light beating as possible; finally, 
whip in the stiffened whites of the eggs with a few skil- 
ful strokes, and bake at once in open shells. Eat cold, 
with powdered sugar sifted over them. 


Mix well together the juice and grated rind of two 
lemons, two cups of sugar, two eggs, and the crumbs of 
sponge cake; beat it all together until smooth; put into 
twelve patty-pans lined with puff-paste, and bake until 
the crust is done. 


Puff-paste, jam of any kind, the white of an egg, sifted 

Roll the paste out thin; put half of it on a baking 
sheet or tin, and spread equally over it apricot, green- 
gage, or any preserve that may be preferred. Lay over 
this preserve another thin paste, press the edges together 
all round, and mark the paste in lines with a knife on 
the surface, to show where to cut it when baked. Bake 
from twenty minutes to half an hour; and, a short time be 


fore being done, take the pastry out of the oven, brush 
it over with the white of an egg, sift over pounded sugar, 
and put it back in the oven to color. When cold, cut it 
into strips; pile these on a dish pyramidically, and serve. 
These strips, cut about two inches long, piled in circular 
rows, and a plateful of flavored whipped cream poured 
In fhe middle, make a very pretty dish. 


Line the dish with a good crust, and fill with ripe cher- 
ries, regulating the quantity of sugar you scatter over 
them by their sweetness. Cover and bake. 

Eat cold, with white sugar sifted over the top. 


Two teacups of boiled squash, three fourths teacup of 
t?own sugar, three eggs, two tablespoons of molasses, 
one tablespoon of melted butter, one tablespoon of gin- 
ger, one teaspoon of cinnamon, two teacups of milk, a 
little salt. Make two plate pies. 


Pour a pint of cream upon a cup and a half powdered 
sugar; let stand until the whites of three eggs have been 
beaten to a stiff froth; add this to the cream, and beat 
up thoroughly; grate a little nutmeg over the mixture, 
r.nd bake in two pics without upper crusts. 


Puff-paste, the white of an egg, pounded sugar. 

Mode. Roll some good puff-paste out thin, and cut it 
into two and a half inch squares; brush each square over 
with the white of an egg, then fold down the corners, so 
that they all meet in the middle of each piece of pa:* 1 ** 


slightly press the two pieces together, brush them oVer 
with the egg, sift over sugar, and hake in a nice qi;ic!v 
oven for about a quarter of an hour. When they are 
done, make a little hole in the middle of the paste, and 
fill it up with apricot jam, marmalade, or red-currant jelly. 
Pile them high in the centre of a dish, on a napkin, and 
garnish with the same preserve the tartlets are filled 


Line a pie-tin with puff-paste, fill with pared peaches 
in halves or quarters, well covered with sugar; put on 
upper crust and bake; or make as above without uppei 
crust, bake until done, remove from the oven, and cover 
with a meringue made of the whites of two eggs, beaten 
to a stiff froth with two tablespoons powdered sugar; re- 
turn to oven and brown slightly. Canned peaches may 
be used instead of fresh, in the same way. 


Roll out thin a nice puff-paste, cut out with a glass 01 
biscuit cutter, with a wine-glass or smaller cup cut out 
the centre of two out of three of these, lay the rings thus 
made on the third, and bake immediately; or shells may 
be made by lining patty- pans with paste. If the paste 
is 1' r ht, the shells will be fine, and may be used for tarts 
O~ ^yster patties. Filled with jelly and covered with 
me'"ngue (tablesp on sugar to white of one egg), and 
fc> >wned in oven tfley are very nice to serve for tea. 


One quart of stewed pumpkin, pressed through a sieve; 
nine eggs, whites and yolks beaten separately; two scant 
quarts of milk, one teaspoonful of mace, one teaspoonfu*. 
o f cinnamon, and the sar. t of nutmeg; one and a half cup 


of white sugar, or very light brown. Beat all well to- 
gether, and bake in crust without cover. 


Three pounds of raisins, stone and chop them a little; 
three pounds of currants, three pounds of sugar, three 
pounds of suet chopped very fine, two ounces candied 
lemon peel, two ounces of candied orange peel, six large 
apples grated, one ounce of cinnamon, two nutmegs, the 
juice of three lemons and- the rinds grated, and half a 
pint of brandy. Excellent. 



Beat tho whites of eight eggs to a high froth, add 
gradually a pound of white sugar finely ground, beat 
quarter of a po'jina of butter to a cream, add a teacup of 
sweet milk with a small teaspoonful of powdered volatile 
salts or saleratus dissolved in it; put the eggs to butter 
and milk, add as much sifted wheat flour as will make it 
as thick as pound-cake mixture, and a teaspoonful of 
orange-fl jur water or lemon extract, then add quarter of 
a pound of shelled almonds, blanched and beaten to a 
paste with a little white of egg; beat the whole together 
until light and white; line a square tin pan w'th but- 
tered paper, put in the mixture an inch deep, and bake 
half an hour in a quick oven. When done take it from 
the pan, when cold take the paper off, turn it upside 
down on the bottom of the pan and Ice the side which 
was down; when the icing Is nearly hard mark it in 
slices th~ width of a finger, and two : nches ano a hall 


One half pound of sweet almonds, one half pound ol 
sifted loaf su^ar, the whites of three eggs, wafer-paper. 
Blanch, skin, and dry the almonds, and pound them weh 
with a little orange-flower water or plain water; then 
add to them the sifted sugar pnd the whites of the eg"gs, 
which should be beaten to a ftiff trotn, and mix all the 
ingredients well together. When the p^ste looks soft 


drop it at equal distances from a biscuit-syringe on to 
sheets of wafer-paper; put a strip of almond on the top 
of each; strew some sugar over, and bake the macaroons 
in rather a slow oven, of a light brown color. When 
hard and set, they are done, and must not be allowed to 
get very brown, as that would spoil their appearance. 
If the cakes, when baked, appear heavy, add a little more 
white of egg, but let this always be well whisked before 
it is added to the other ingredients. We have given a 
recipe for making these cakes, but we think it almost or 
quite as economical to purchase such articles as these at 
& good confectioner's. 


Whites of four eggs; one pound sweet almonds; one 
pound powdered sugar; a little rose-water. Blanch the 
almonds by pouring boiling water over them and strip- 
ping off the skins. When dry, pound them to a paste, a 
few at a time, in a Wedgewood mortar, moistening it 
with rose-water as you go on. When beaten fine and 
smooth, beat gradually into icing. Put on very thick, 
and, when nearly dry, cover with plain icing. 


Beat the white of two small eggs to a high froth; then 
add to them quarter of a pound of white sugar, ground 
fine, like flour; flavor with lemon extract, or vanilla; 
beat it until it is light, and very white, but not quite so 
stiff as kiss mixture; the longer it is beaten, the more 
firm it will become. No more sugar must be added to 
make it so. Beat the frosting until it may be spread 
smoothly on the cake. This quantity will ice quite a 
large cake, over the top and sides. 



One pound of butter beaten to a cream, two pounds 
of sugar rolled fine, three pounds of sifted wheat flour, 
six well beaten eggs, three teaspoonfuls of powdered 
saleratus, dissolved in a little hot water, one tablespoon- 
ful of ground cinnamon, and half a nutmeg grated; add 
one pound of currants, well washed and dried, one pound 
of raisins stoned and cut in two; work the whole well 
together, divide it in three loaves, put them in buttered 
Basins, and bake one hour in a moderate oven. 


Take four pounds of sifted flour, four pounds of sweet 
fresh butter, beaten to a cream, and two pounds of white 
powdered sugar; take six eggs for each pound of flour, 
an ounce of ground mace or nutmegs, and a tablespoon- 
ful of lemon extract or orange-flower water. 


Take eight eggs; whip the whites to a firm snow. In 
the meantime, have the yolks beaten up with six ounces 
of powdered sugar. Each of these operations should be 
performed at least one hour. Then mix all together 
with six ounces of sifted flour; and when well incor- 
porated, stir in half a pint of rose or orange-flower 
water; stir them together for some time. 

Have ready some tin plates, rubbed with white wax; 
take a funnel with three or four tubes; fill it with the 
paste, and press out the cakes upon the plates, to the 
size and length of a finger; grate white sugar over each; 
let them lay until the sugar melts, and they shine: then 
put them in a moderate oven, until they have ^ nne 
color; when cool, take them from the tins, and lay liiem 
together in couples, by the backs. These cakes mny be 


formed with a spoon, on sheets of writing-paper. Half 
this quantity will be trouble enough at one time. 


Beat one pound of batter to a cream, with a table 
spoonful of rose-water; then add one pound of fine 
white sugar, ten eggs, beaten very light, and a pound 
and a quarter of sifted flour; beat the cake well to- 
gether; then add half a pound of shelled almonds, 
blanched, and beaten to a paste; butter tin round basing 
line them with white paper; put in the mixture an inch 
and a half deep; bake one hour in a quick oven. 


Put three ounces of plain chocolate in a pan and melt 
on a slow fire; then work it to a thick paste with one 
pound of powdered sugar and the whites of three eggs; 
roll the mixture down to the thickness of about one 
quarter of an inch; cut it in small, round pieces with a 
paste-cutter, either plain or scalloped; butter a pan 
slightly, and dust it with flour and sugar in equal quan- 
tities; place in it the pieces of paste or mixture, and bake 
in a hot but not quick oven. 


One cup butter, two of sugar, a scant cup milk, one 
gnd a half cups flour, cup corn starch, whites of seven 
eggs, three teaspoons baking powder in the flour; bake 
m a long pan. Take half pound brown sugar, scant 
ouarter pound chocolate, half cup milk, butter size of 
an egg, two teaspoons vanilla; mix thoroughly and cook 
as syrup until stiff enough to spread; spread on cake 
end set in the oven to dry. 



One pound of butter, one and one quarter pound of 
Hour, one pound of pounded loaf sugar, one pound of 
currants, nine eggs, two ounces of candied peel, one half 
O'dnce of citron, one half ounce of sweet almonds; when 
liked, a little pounded mace. Work the butter to a 
cream; dredge in the flour; add the sugar, currants, 
candied peel, which should be cut into neat slices, and 
the almonds, which should be blanched anr*. chopped, 
and mix all these well together; whisk the eggs, and let 
them be thoroughly blended with the dry ingredients. 
Beat the cake well for twenty minutes, and put it into a 
round tin, lined at the bottom and sides with a strip of 
white buttered paper. Bake it from one and one half 
to two hours, and let the oven be well heated vhen the 
cake is first put in, as, if this is not the case, the currants 
will all sink to the bottom of it. To make this prepara 
tion light, the yolks and whites of the eggs should b? 
beaten separately and added separately to the other in- 
gredients. A glass of wine is sometimes added to the 
mixture; but this is scarcely necessary, as the cake will 
be found quite rich enough without it. 


Beat the yolks of six eggs with half a pound of sugar 
and a quarter of a pound of flour, add a teaspoonful of 
salt, a teaspoonful of lemon essence, and half a nutmeg, 
grated; beat the whites of the eggs to a froth, and stii 
them to the yolks, etc., and the white meat of a cocoa- 
nut, grated; line square tin pans with buttered paper, 
and having stirred the ingredients well together, put the 
mixture in an inch deep in the pans; bake in a quick 
oven half an hour; cut it in squares, to serve with or 
without icing. 



Beat half a pound of butter to a cream ; add gradually 
a pound of sifted flour, one pound of powdered sugar, 
two teaspoonfuls of baking powder, a pinch of salt, a 
teaspoonful of grated lemon-peel, quarter of a pound of 
prepared coacoanut, four well-beaten eggs, and a cupful 
of milk; mix thoroughly; butter the tins, and line then; 
with buttered paper; pour the mixture in to the depth of 
an inch and a half, and bake in a good oven. When 
baked take out, spread icing over them, and return the 
cake to the oven a moment to dry the icing. 


Two cups of sugar, two cups of butter, one cup of 
milk, one teaspoonful of essence of lemon, half a nutmeg 
grated, four well-beaten eggs and the white meat of a 
cocoanut grated; use as much sifted wheat flour as will 
make a rather stiff batter; beat it well, butter square tin 
pans, line them with white paper, and put in the mixture 
an inch deep; bake in a moderate oven half an hour, or 
it may require ten minutes longer. When cold, cut in 
small squares or diamonds; this is a rich cake and is much 
improved by a thin icing. This cake should be made 
with fine white sugar. 


Break a cocoanut in pieces, and lay it in cold water, 
then cut off the dark rind, and grate the white meat on 
a coarse grater; put the whites of four eggs with half a 
pound of powdered white sugar; beat it until it is light 
and white, then add to it a teaspoonful of lemon extract, 
and gradually as much grated cocoanut as will make it as 
thick as can be stirred easily witl* spoon; lay it in heaps 


the size of a large nutmeg on sheets of white paper, place 
them the distance of half an inch apart; when the paper 
i.s full, lav it on a baking tin, set them in a quick oven; 
when they begin to look yellowish, they are done; let 
them remain on the paper until nearly cold, then take 
them off with a thin-bladed knife. 


Beat half a pound of butter to a cream, take six eggs, 
beat the whites to a. froth, and the yolks with half a 
pound of sugar, and rather more than half a pound of 
sifted flour, beat these well together, add a wine-glass of 
brandy, and quarter of a pound of citron cut in thin 
slips, oake it in small heart-shaped tins, or a square tin 
pan, rubbed over with a bit of sponge dipped in melted 
butter, put the mixture in half an inch deep, bake fifteen 
or twenty minutes in a quick oven. These are very fine 
cakes. Shred almonds may be used instead of citron. 


One pound of flour, half a pound of butter, three 
quarters of a pound of sugar, four eggs, half a pound of 
currants, well washed and dredged, half a teaspoonful of 
soda dissolved in hot water, half a lemon, grated rind and 
juice, one teaspoonful of cinnamon. Drop from a spoon 
upon well-buttered paper, lining a baking pan. Bake 


Make a cake of two cups of butter, two cups of mo- 
lasses, one cup of sweet milk, two eggs, well-beaten, one 
teaspoonful of powdered saleratus, dissolved with a litcle 
hot water, one teaspoonful of ground mace or nutmeg, 
one teaspoonful of ground allspice, a tablespoonful of 
cinnamon, and a gill of brandy; sti % in flour to make & 


batter as stiff as may be stirred easily with a spoon; beat 
it well until it is light, then add two pounds of raisins, 
stoned, and cut in two, two pounds of currants, picked, 
washed, and dried, and half a pound of citron, cut in 
slips. Bake in a quick oven. This is a fine, rich cake, 
easily made, and not expensive. 


Gold Part. Yolks of eight eggs, scant cup butter, 
two of sugar, four of flour, one of sour milk, teaspoon 
soda, tablespoon corn-starch; flavor with lemon and 

Silver Part. Two cups sugar, one of butter, four 
(scant) of flour, one of sour milk, teaspoon soda, table- 
spoon corn-starch, whites of eight eggs; flavor with al- 
mond or peach. Put in pan, alternately, onespoontul of 
gold and one of silver. 


The weight of five eggs in flour, the weight of eight in 
pounded loaf sugar; flavoring to taste. Let the flour be 
perfectly dry, and the sugar well pounded and sifted. 
Separate the whites from the yolks of the eggs, and beat 
the latter up with the sugar; then whisk the whites until 
they become rather stiff, and mix them with the yolks, 
but do not stir them more than is just necessary to 
mingle the ingredients well together. Dredge in the 
flour by degrees, add the flavoring; butter the tins well, 
pour in the batter, sift a little sugar over the cakes, and 
bake them in rather a quick oven, but do not allow them 
to take too much color, as they should be rather pale. 
Remove them from the tins before they get cold, and 
turn them on their faces, where let them remain unti; 
quite c old, when store them away in a closed tin canister 
er wide-mouthtd glass bottle. 



Two cups sugar, half cup tmtter, three-quarters cup 
sv, r eet miik, whites of six eggs, three cups flour, three 
teaspoons baking powder. 

juice of two lemons, yolks of three eggs, half cup butter, 
one cup sugar: mix all together, and set on stove, and 
cook till thick as sponge, stirring all the time; then use 
like jelly between the cakes. 


On" r-cu::^ of arrowroot, half pound of pounded white 
sugar, half pound of butter, the whites of six eggs; flavor- 
ing to taste, of essence of almonds, or vanilla, or lemon. 

Mode'. Beat the butter to a cream; stir in the sugar 
ard ~r ov.root gradually, at the same time beating the 
mixture. Whisk the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, 
add them to the other ingredients, and beat well for 
twenty minutes. Put in whichever of the above flavor- 
ings may be preferred; pour the cake into a buttered 
mould or tin and bake it in a moderate oven from one to 
one and a half hour. 


One cup butter, two of pulverized sugar, one of sweet 
milk, three of flour, half cup corn-starch, four eggs, two 
teaspoons baking-powder, two of lemon extract. This 
is excellent. 


Whites of six eggs, one cup of butter, <:wo cups of 
flour, one cup of corn-starch, two cups of sugar, one cup 
of sweet milk, one half-teaspoonful of soda, one of creanv 
of tartar. 



One pound and a half of fine sugar, one pound and a half 
of butter, three pounds and a half of currants, two pounds of 
flour, one half pound candied peel, one half pound almonds, 
two ounces spices, the grated rind of three lemons, eighteen 
eggs, one gill of brandy. Paper the hoops, and bake three 
hours. Ice when cold. 


Beat eight eggs light ; add to them one pound of fine 
white sugar, and one pound of sifted wheat flour; flavor with 
z: teaspoonful of salt, and essence of lemon or orange-flower 
water; beat it until it rises in bubbles; bake in a quick 


Bake a Naples biscuit ; cut out the inside about one inci 
from the edge and bottom, leaving the shell. In placf 
of the inside, put a custard made of the yolks of four eggs, 
beaten with a pint of boiling milk, sweetened, and flavored 
with half a teaspoonful of peach-water ; lay on it some jell)* 
or jam ; beat the whites of two eggs, with white groun 1 
sugar, until it will stand in a heap ; put it on the jelly, an 1 


The weight of four eggs in pounded loaf-sugar, tl e 
weight of seven in flour, a little grated lemon-rind, fr 
essence of almonds, or orange-flower water. Break tl e 
seven eggs, putting the yolks into one basin and tie 
whites into another. Whisk the former, and mix wilh 
them the sugar, the grated lemon-rind, or any othor 
flavoring to taste ; beat them well together, and add the 


whites oi' the eggs, whisked to a froth. Put in the flour 
by degrees, continuing to beat the mixture for one 
quarter of an hour, butter a mould, pour in the cake, and 
bake it from one and a quarter to one and a half hours. 
This is a very nice cake for dessert, and may be iced for 
a supper table, or cue ^nto slices and spread with jam, 
which converts it into sandwiches. 


Five cups of flour, two cups of butter, three of sugar, 
one of milk, five eggs, one teaspoon of soda; two of 
cream of tartar, fruit as you please, cinnamon, nutmeg 
and clove to taste. 


On beaten whites of ten eggs, sift one and a half gob- 
lets pulverized sugar, and a goblet of flour through which 
has been stirred a heaping teaspoon cream tartar; stir 
very gently and do not heat it; bake in jelly-pans. For 
cream, take a half pint sweet cream, yolks of three eggs, 
tablespoon pulverized sugar, teaspoon corn-starch; dis- 
solve starch smoothly with a little milk, beat yolks and 
sugar together with this, boil the cream, and stir these 
ingredients in as for any cream-cake filling, only make a 
little thicker; blanch and chop fine a half pound almonds 
and stir into the cream. Put together like jelly cake 
while icing is soft, and stick in a half pound r^ almonds, 
split in two. 


Make good sponge-bake, bake half an inch thick in 
jelly-pans, and let them get perfectly cold; take a pint 
thickest sweet cream, beat until it looks like ice-cream, 
make very sweet, and flavor with vanilla; blanch and 


chop a pound almonds, stir into cream, and put 
thick between each layer. This is the queen of ?1) cakes. 


One pound of flour, one quarter pound of sugar, one 
quarter pound of butter or lard, one half pound of cur- 
rants, one teaspoonful of carbonate of soda, the whites 
of four eggs, one half pint of milk. In making many 
sweet dishes, the whites of eggs are not required, and if 
well beaten and added to the above ingredients, make 
an excellent cake, with or without currants. Beat the 
butter to a cream, well whisk the whites of the eggs, and 
stir all the ingredients together but the soda, which must 
not be added until all is well mixed, and the cake i^ 
ready to be put into the oven. When the mixture has 
been well beaten, stir in the soda, put the cake into a 
buttered mould, and bake it in a moderate oven for one 
and a half hours. 


Three cups flour, two of sugar, three-fourths cup sweet 
milk, whites of six eggs, half cup butter, teaspoon cream 
tartar, half teaspoon of soda. Flavor with lemon. 


One cup of sugar, half a cup of butter, half a cup of 
,sweet milk, two cups of flour, three eggs, one and a half 
teaspoonfuls of baking-powder; bake in jelly tins. 

ORANGE FROSTING FOR SAME. One orange, grate off 
the outside, and mix with juice, and add sugar until 
quite stiff, and make like jelly cake; make four layers of 
the cak 



One cup of sugar, two eggs, half a cup of shortening, one 
teaspoon of soda, one cup of sour milk, cut in rings; have 
your lard very hot, in which place a peeled potato to keep 
lard from burning, and drop in your cakes ; they will come 
to the top of lard when light ; fry a dark brown ; when taken 
out sprinkle sugar over them. 


Kisses, to be served for dessert at a large dinner, with 
other suitable confectionery, may be varied in this way : 
Having made the kisses, put them in a moderate oven, 
until the outside is a little hardened ; then take one off care- 
fully, as before directed ; take out the soft inside with the 
handle of a spoon, and put it back with the mixture, to 
make more ; then lay the shell down. Take another, and 
prepare it likewise ; fill the shells with currant jelly, or 
jam ; join two together, cementing them with some of the 
mixture ; so continue until you have enough. Make kisses, 
cocoanut drops, and such like, the day before they are 


Make a kiss mixture ; add to it half of a cocoanut, 
grated (the white meat only) ; finish as directed for 


Silrer Part, Two cups sugar, two thirds cup butter, not 
quite two thirds cup sweet milk, whites of eight eggs, three 
heaping teaspoons baking-powder thoroughly sifted, with 
three cups flour ; stir sugar and butter to a cream, add milk 
and flour, and last white of es. 


Gold Part. One cup sugar, three-fourths cup but- 



ter, half cup sweet milk, one and a half teaspoons baking, 
powder sifted in a little more than one and a half cups flour, 
yolks of seven eggs thoroughly beaten, and one whole egg, 
one teaspoon allspice, and cinnamon until you can taste it ; 
bake the white in two long pie-tins. Put half the gold in a 
pie-tin, and lay on one pound halved figs (previously sifted 
over with flour), so that they will just touch each other ; put 
on the rest of the gold, and bake. Put the cakes together 
with frosting while warm, the gold between the white ones, 
and cover with frosting. 


Two cups sugar, one cup butter, one cup milk, two 
eggs, three teaspoons baking-powder, put in three cups 
sifted flour, flavor and add fruit. This receipt makes two 


One cup sugar, one half cup of butter, one half cup sweet 
milk, one half cup corn starch, one cup flour, whites of six 
eggs, a little vanilla, two teaspoonfuls baking powder. Bake 
in layers. 

FROSTING FOR ABOVE.- Whites of five eggs, twenty table- 
spoonfuls sifted sugar, beaten very light ; a little vanilla. 
Spread between layers and outside of cake. 


One half cup of sugar, one teaspoon butter, one table- 
spoonful of milk, three eggs, one cup flour, one teaspoon 
baking-powder, bake in jelly-tins, put between two apple and 
one lemon, grated together with a little sugar. 


Make good biscuit crust ; bake in two tins of same 
shape and size; mix berries with plenty of sugar; open 


the shortcake, butter well and place berries in layers, alter- 
nated with the crust ; have the top layer of berries and over 
all put charlotte russe or whipped cream. 


White Part. Whites of seven eggs, three cups white 
sugar, one of butter, one of sour milk, four of flour, sifted 
and heaping, one teaspoon soda ; flavor to taste. 

Dark Part. Yolks of seven eggs, three cups brown 
sugar, one of butter, one of sour milk, four of flour, sifted 
and heaping, one tablespoon each of cinnamon, allspice and 
cloves, one teaspoon soda; put in pans a spoonful of white 
part and then a spoonful of dark, and so on. Bake an 
hour and a quarter. Use coffee-cups to measure. This 
will make one large and one medium cake. The white 
and dark parts are alternated, either putting in a spoonful of 
white, then of dark, or a layer of white and then of dark 
part, being careful that the cake may be nicely " marble- 


One pound sugar, one of flour, half pound butter, whites 
of sixteen eggs, teaspoon baking-powder sifted thoroughly 
with the flour ; put in cool oven with gradual increase of 
heat. For boiled icing for the cake, take three cups sugar 
boiled in one of water until clear; beat whites of three eggs 
to very stiff froth, and pour over them the boiling liquid, 
beating all the time for ten minutes ; frost while both cake 
and icing are warm. 


One cup of butter, two of sugar, five eggs, leaving out 
two of the whites, one scant cup of milk, two full tea- 
spoons of baking-powder; mi$ well ir tfyree pups flour* 


bake in two long shallow tins. Dressing : Beat the whites 
of two eggs to a stiff froth, add a scant cup and a half of 
sugar ; flavor with vanilla, add six tablespoons of grated 
chocolate ; add the dressing when the cake is cold, and cu/; 
in diamond slices. 


One cupful of butter, two of sugar, two and one fourth of 
rice flour, six eggs, the juice and rind of a lemon. Beat the 
butter to a cream ; then gradually beat in the sugar, and add 
the lemon. Beat the yolks and whites separately, and add 
them to the beaten sugar and butter. Add also the rice 
flour. Pour into a shallow pan, to the depth of about two 
inches. Bake from thirty-five to forty-five minutes in a 
moderate oven. 


Two eggs, one cup of sugar, one cup of cream, two cups of 
Jiour, one teaspoonful of cream of tartar, and one teaspoon- 
ful of soda. 


One cup of sugar, two eggs, two tablespoons of melted 
butter, two thirds cup of milk, two even teaspoons of cream 
tartar, one even teaspoon of soda, flour enough to roll, sal;: 
and nutmeg. 


One pound sugar, one of flour, ten eggs. Stir yolks of 
eggs and sugar till perfectly light ; beat whites of eggs and 
add them with the flour after beating together lightly ; flavor 
with lemon. Three teaspoons baking-powder in the flour 
will add to its lightness, but it never fails without. Bake ia 
a moderate oven. 



Two cups brown sugar, one of butter, one of molasses, 
one of strong coffee as prepared for the table, four eggs, 
one teaspoon saleratus, two of cinnamon, two of cloves, one 
of grated nutmeg, pound raisins, one of currants, four cups 


Six cupfuls of flour, three of molasses, one of cream, one 
of lard or butter, two eggs, one teaspoonful of saleratus, and 
two of ginger. This is excellent. 


One and one half cups of sugar, half cup butter, half of 
sour milk,, two cups of raisins chopped, three eggs, half 
a nutmeg, one teaspoon cinnamon, one of cloves, one 
saleratus ; mix rather stiff ; bake in loaf tins in moderate 


Three eggs, one cupful sugar, two of flour, one tablespoon- 
ful of butter, a teaspoonful, heaped, of baking powder. Beat 
the butter and sugar together, and add the eggs well beaten. 
Stir in the flour and baking powder well sifted together. 
Bake in deep tin plates. This quantity will fill four plates. 
With three pints of strawberries mix a cupful OL sugar. 
Spread the fruit between the layers of cake. The top 
layer of strawberries may be covered with a meringue made 
with the white of an egg and a tablespoonful of powdered 


One and three quarter pounds of syrup, one pound ot 
moist sugar, one pound of butter, two and three quarter 


pounds of flour, one and a half ounces of ground ginger- 
one and a half ounces of allspice, one and a half ounces 
of coriander seed, sal volatile size of a bean, a little 
cayenne, flour enough to roll out but not thin, cut with 
a wineglass or roll between your hands into small balls, 
and pinch. 


Two" cupfuls of sugar, one of butter, one of milk, four of 
flour (rather scant), four eggs, half a teaspoonful of soda, 
one of cream of tartar. Beat the butter to a cream. Add 
the sugar gradually, beating all the while ; then the flavoring 
(lemon or nutmeg). Beat the eggs very light. Add them 
and the milk. Measure the flour after it has been sifted. 
Return it to the sieve, and mix the soda and cream of tar- 
tar with it. Sift this into the bowl of beaten ingredients. 
Beat quickly and vigorously, to thoroughly mix, and 
then stop. Take three sheet pans of the same size, and 
in each of two put one third of the mixture, and bake. To 
the other third add four teaspoonfuls of cinnamon, a cup- 
ful of currants and about an eighth of a pound of citron, 
cut fine. Bake this in the remaining pan. When done, 
take out of the pans. Spread the light cake with a thin 
layer of jelly, while warm. Place on this the dark cake, 
and spread with jelly. Place the other sheet of light cake 
on this. Lay a paper over all, and then a thin sheet, on 
which put two irons. The cake will press in about two 


Make the sponge cake mixture as for lady-fingers, and 
bake in one shallow pan twenty minutes. While it is 
yet warm cut off the edges, and spread the cake with, 
any kind of jelly. RoJJ yp f and pin a {&$] around it, 



Put in a cool place until serving time. Cut in slices with a 
sharp knife. 


Take four eggs, four tablespoonfuls of lard, four table- 
spoonfuls of sugar, a teaspoonful of salt, and half a nutmeg 
grated, a teaspoonful of lemon extract may be added ; work 
into these as much sifted flour as will make a nice dough, 
roll it to about an eighth of an inch thickness, and fry as 
directed for doughnuts and crullers. 

To make little baskets, cut the paste in strips an inch 
and a half wide, and three inches long, and with a gig- 
ling iron, cut slits across it from one side to the other, 
within a quarter of an inch of either edge, and quarter 
of an inch apart ; then join the two ends together in a 
circle, forming the basket ; press it down slightly, that 
the strips may bulge, and so form the basket, like those 
made for fly traps of paper ; as soon as they are taken 
from the fat, (five minutes will do them,) grate -white sugai 



One quart milk, eight eggs, one half pound of sugar ; beai 
to a good froth the eggs and sugar. Put the milk in a tin 
pail and set it in boiling water ; pour in the eggs and sugar 
and stir it until it thickens. 


Beat the yolks of eight eggs till they are white, add 
pint boiling water, the rinds of two lemons grated, and 
the juice sweetened to taste ; stir this on the fire till it 
thickens, then add a large glass of rich wine, and one 
half glass brandy ; give the whole a good boil, and put 
in glasses. To be eaten cold. Or, put the thin yellow 
rind of two lemons, with the juice of three, and sugar 
to taste, into one pint of warm water. As lemons vary 
in size and juiciness, the exact quantity of sugar cannot 
be given. Ordinary lemons require three gills. It will 
be safe to begin with that quantity, more may be added 
if required. Beat the whites to a stiff froth, then the 
yolks; then beat both together, pour in gradually while 
beating the other ingredients ; put all in a pail, set in a 
pot of boiling water, and stir until thick as boiled custard ; 
strain it in a deep dish ; when cool place on ice. Serve in 


Half a package of Cox's gelatine, three eggs, two 
cups of sugar, juice of one lemon ; soak the gelatine one 


hour in a teacup of cold water, add one pint boiling 
water, stir until thoroughly dissolved, add two thirds of 
the sugar and the lemon juice ; beat the whites of the eggs 
to a stiff froth, and when the gelatine is quite cold whip 
it into the whites, a spoonful at a time from half an 
hour to an hour. Whip steadily and evenly, and when 
all is stiff pour in a mould, or in a dozen egg-glasses pre- 
viously wet with cold water, and set in a cold place. In 
four or five hours turn into a glass dish. Make a custard 
of one and a half pints milk, yolks of eggs, and remainder 
of the sugar, flavor with vanilla, and when the meringue or 
snow-balls are turned out of the mould, pour this around the 


Three ounces of tapioca, one quart of milk, two ounces 
of butter, quarter of a pound of sugar, four eggs, flavor- 
ing of vanilla or bitter almonds. Wash the tapioca, and 
let it stew gently in the milk by the side of the stove for 
quarter of an hour, occasionally stirring it ; then let it 
cool ; mix with it the butter, sugar, and eggs, which 
should be well beaten, and flavor with either of the above 
ingredients. Butter a pie-dish, and line the edges with 
puff-paste; put in the pudding, and bake in a moderate 
oven for an hour. If the pudding is boiled, add a little 
more tapioca, and boil it in a buttered basin one and a half 


One quarter pound of sugar, one quart of milk, one 
and a half ounces of isinglass, the rind of half a lemon, 
four laurel leaves. Put all the ingredients into a lined 
saucepan, and boil gently until the isinglass is dissolved; 
taste it occasionally to ascertain when it is sufficiently 
flavored with the laurel leaves ; then take them out, and 


keep stirring the mixture over the fire for about ten min- 
utes. Strain it through a fine sieve into a jug, and, when 
nearly cold, pour it into a well-oiled mould, omitting the 
sediment at the bottom. Turn it out carefully on a dish, 
and garnish with preserves, bright jelly, or a compote of 


Soak one ounce of gelatine for ten minutes in a little 
cold milk and pour over the gelatine, and stir it constantly 
until it is all dissolved ; it may be placed in the dish and set 
on top of a boiling tea-kettle for a few minutes ; remove it 
and add a small cupful of sugar and two tablespoonfuls of 
sherry wine. Strain into moulds. 


One quarter pound of ground rice, three ounces of 
loaf sugar, one ounce of fresh butter, one quart of milk, 
flavoring of lemon peel, essence of almonds or vanilla, 
or laurel leaves. Mix the rice to a smooth batter with 
about one half pint of the milk, and the remainder put 
into a saucepan, with the sugar, butter, and whichever of 
the above flavorings may be preferred; bring the milk 
to the boiling point, quickly stir in the rice, and let it 
boil for about ten minutes, or until it comes easily away 
from the saucepan, keeping it well stirred the whole 
time. Grease a mould with pure salad oil ; pour in the 
rice, and let it get perfectly set, when it should turn out 
quite easily ; garnish it with jam, or pour round a com- 
pote of any kind of fruit, just before it is sent to table. 
This blanc-mange is better for being made the day be- 
fore it is wanted, as it then has time to become firm. If 
laurel leaves are used for flavoring, steep three of them 


in the milk, and take them out before the rice is added ; 
about eight drops of essence of almonds, or from twelve to 
sixteen drops of essence of vanilla, would be required to 
flavor the above proportion of milk. 


Ten good-sized apples, the rind of one half lemon, six 
ounces of pounded sugar, one half pint of milk, ona 
half pint of cream, two eggs, whipped cream. Peel, 
core, and cut the apples into thin slices ; and put them 
into a saucepan, with two tablespoonfuls of water, the 
sugar, and minced lemon rind. Boil all together until 
quite tender, and pulp the apples through a sieve ; if they 
should not be quite sweet enough, add a little more sugar, 
and put them at the bottom of the dish to form a thick 
la) or. Stir together the milk, cream, and eggs, with a little 
sugar, over the fire, and let the mixture thicken, but do 
not allow it to reach the boiling point. When thick, take it 
off the fire ; let it cool a little, then pour it over the 
apples. Whip some cream with sugar, lemon peel, etc., 
the same as for other trifles; heap it high over the cus- 
tard, and the dish is ready for table. It may be garnished, 
as fancy dictates, with strips of bright apple jelly, slices of 
citron, etc. 


Juice of two lemons and grated peel of one, one pint 
cream, well sweetened and whipped stiff, one cup of 
sherry, a little nutmeg. Let sugar, lemon-juice, and 
peel lie together two hours before you add wine and nut- 
meg. Strain through double tarlatan, and whip grad- 
ually into the frothed cream. Serve very soon, heaped 
in small glasses. Pass cake with this, as well as with the 



Take a quart of rich cream, and divide it in half, 
Sweeten one pint of it with loaf sugar, and stir it into 
sufficient currant jelly to color it of a fine pink. Put it 
into a gla3o bowl, and place in the centre a pile of sliced 
almond sponge cake, or of lady cake ; every slice spread 
thickly with raspberry jam or marmalade, and laid even- 
ly one on another. Have ready the other pint of cream, 
flavored with the juice of two lemons, and beaten to a 
stiff froth. Heap 'it all over the pile of cake so as en- 
tirely to cover it. Both creams must be made very 


Forms a showy, sweet dish, and may be made as fol- 
lows : Ten or a dozen apples prepared as before, flav- 
ored with a little lemon juice ; when reduced to a pulp let 
them stand to cool for a little time, meanwhile beat up the 
whites of ten or a dozen eggs to a froth, and stir in to the 
apples, as also some sifted sugar, say a teacupful ; stir till 
the mixture begins to stiffen, and then heap it up in a glass 
dish or serve in custard cups, ornamented with spots of red 
currant jelly. Thick cream should at table be ladled out to 
he snow. 


Ten sweet oranges, one cocoanut, pared and grated, two 
glasses sherry, one cup powdered sugar, six bananas. Peel 
and cut the oranges small, taking out the seeds. Put a layer 
in a glass-bowl and wet with wine, then strew with sugar. 
Next, put a layer of grated cocoanut, slice the bananas thin, 
and cover the cocoanut with them. When the dish has been 
filled in this order, heap with cocoanut. Eat soon or the 
oranges will toughen. 




One quarter pound of macaroons or six small sponge- 
cakes, sherry, one pint of cream, five ounces of lump sugar, 
two large tablespoonfuls of arrowroot, the rind of one lemon, 
the juice of half lemon, three tablespoonfuls of milk. Lay 
the macaroons or sponge-cakes in a glass dish, and pour over 
them as much sherry as will cover them, or sufficient to soak 
them well. Put the cream into a lined saucepan, with the 
sugar and lemon rind, and let it remain by the side of the 
fire until the cream is well flavored, when take out the 
lemon-rind. Mix the arrowroot smoothly with the coid milk ; 
add this to the cream, and let it boil gently for about three 
minutes, keeping it well stirred. Take it off the fire, stir 
till nearly cold, when add the lemon-juice, and pour the 
whole over the cakes. Garnish the cream with strips of 
angelica, or candied citron cut thin, or bright-colored jelly 
or preserve. This cream is exceedingly delicious, flavored 
with vanilla instead of lemon : when this flavoring is used, 


the sherry may be omitted, and the mixture poured over the 
dry cakes. 


Take one quart of cream, one pint of milk s.weetened very 
sweet, and highly seasoned with sherry wine and vanilla ; 
beat it with a whip dasher, and remove the froth as it rises, 
until it is all converted into froth. Have ready one box of 
Cox's sparkling gelatine dissolved in a little warm water; 
set your frothed cream into a tub of ice ; pour the gelatine 
into it, and stir constantly until it thickens, then pour into 
moulds, and set in a cool place. 


Mix one pint of cream with nine tablespoons of fine sugar 
and one gill of wine in a large bowl ; whip these with the 


cream dasher, and as the froth rises, skim into the dish in 
which it is to be served. Fill the dish full to the top, and 
ornament with kisses or macaroons. 


One moulded sponge or Savoy cake, sufficient sweet 
wine or sherry to soak it, six tablespoonfuls of brandy, 
two ounces of sweet almonds, one pint of rich custard. 
Procure a cake that is three or four days old either 
sponge, Savoy, or rice answering for the purpose of a 
tipsy cake. Cut the bottom of the cake level, to make it 
stand firm in the dish ; make a small hole in the centre, and 
pour in and over the cake sufficient sweet wine or sherry, 
mixed with the above proportion of brandy, to soak it nice- 
ly. When the cake is well soaked, blanch and cut the al- 
monds into strips, stick them all over the cake, and pour 
round it a good custard, allowing eight eggs instead of five 
to the pint of milk. The cakes are sometimes crumbled and 
soaked, and a whipped cream heaped over them, the same as 
for trifles. 


Beat to a stiff foam the whites of half a dozen eggs, 
add a small teacupful of currant jelly, and whip all to- 
gether again. Fill as many saucers as you have guests half 
full of cream, dropping in the centre of each saucer a 
tablespoonful of the beaten eggs and jelly in the shape of a 


One can or twelve large peaches, two coffeecups of 
sugar, one pint of water, and the whites of three eggs ; 
break the peaches with and stir all the ingredients to- 
gether ; freeze the whole into form; beat the eggs t 4 




One teacup of sweet milk, one tablespoon of sweet light 
dough dissolved in milk, three eggs beaten separately, one 
teaspoon of salt, one and a half teacups of flour, one table- 
spoon of sugar, and the grated peel of a lemon, peeled ap- 
ples sliced without the core ; drop into hot lard with a piece 
of apple in each one ; sprinkle with powdered or spiced su 
gar. Let them stand after making and they will be lighter. 


Some stale sponge, or plain cup cake, cut into rounds 
with a cake-cutter. Hot lard, strawberry or other jam, or 
jelly, a little boiling milk. Cut the cake carefully and fry a 
nice brown. Dip each slice for a second in a bowl of boiling 
milk, draining this off on the side of the vessel ; lay on a hot 
dish and spread thickly with strawberry jam, peach jelly, or 
other delicate conserve. Pile them neatly and send around 
hot, with cream to pour over them. This is a nice way of 
using up stale cake, and if rightly prepared, the dessert is 
almost equal to Neapol tan pudding. 


Pare and quarter (removing stones) a quart of sound, 
ripe peaches, place them all in a clish that it will not in- 
jure to set in the oven and yet be suitable to place on 
the table. Sprinkle the peaches with sugar, and cover 
them well with the beaten whites of three eggs. Stand 
the clish in the oven, until the eggs have become a 
delicate brown, then remove and, when cool enough, set 
the dish on ice, in a very cool place. Take the yolks 
of the eggs, add to them a pint of milk, sweeten and 
flavor and boil same in a custard kettle, being careful to 


keep the eggs from curdling. When cool, pour into a 
glass pitcher and serve^ with the meringue when ready to 


Whip one quart rich cream to a stiff froth, and drain 
well on a nice sieve. To one scant pint of milk add six 
eggs beaten very light; make very sweet; flavor high 
with vanilla. Cook over hot water till it is a thick cus- 
tard. Soak one full ounce Cox's gelatine in a very little 
water, and warm over hot water. When the custard is 
very cold, beat in lightly the gelatine and the whipped 
cream. Line the bottom of your mould with buttered 
paper, the sides with sponge cake or lady-fingers fastened 
together with the white of an egg. Fill with the cream, 
put in a cold place or in summer on ice. To turn 
out dip the mould for a moment in hot water. In drain- 
ing the whipped cream, all that drips through can be 


A very delicate dish is made of one-third of a cup of 
rice, two cups of grapes, half a cup of water, and two 
spoons of sugar. Sprinkle the rice and -sugar among the 
grapes, while placing them in a deep dish; pour on the 
water, cover close and simmer two hours slowly in the 
oven. Serve cream as sauce, or cold as pudding. If 
served warm as pudding, increase slightly the proportion 
of rice and sugar. 


One-half package of gelatine, soaked in water enough to 
cover it, when soaked pour one pint of boiling water over 
it, then add one cup of white sugar and squeeze the juice 
of one large lemon into it and a little essence of lemon 
and set aside to stiffen. 


Make a custard with a pint and a half of milk, the 
yolks of three eggs, one tablespoonful of corn-starch ; 
sugar and flavoring. When the jelly is set, and just be- 
fore using, cut the jelly into squares, laying them in 
layers at intervals in the bottom of the dish, then pour in 
some of the cold ustard, another layer of jelly, and so on 
until the custard is all used. Beat the whites of the eggs 
to a stiff froth, adding two or three teaspoonfuls of con- 
fectioner's sugar and lay on in pieces with jelly between. 
All these receipts are best when prepared in a tin set inside 
of another in which there is a little water to prevent danger 
of burning. 


Take the yolks of six eggs, beat them well and add three 
cups of sweet milk ; take baker's bread not too stale and cut 
into slices ; dip them into the milk and eggs, and lay the 
slices into a spider, with sufficient melted butter, hot, to fry 
a nice delicate brown ; take the whites of the six eggs, and 
beat them to a froth, adding a large cup of white sugar ; add 
the juice of two lemons, heating well, and adding two cups 
boiling water. Serve over the toast as a sauce, and you will 
find it a very delicious dish. 9 


To the whites of three eggs beaten to a froth, add a pint 
of cream and four tablespoonfuls of sweet wine, with three 
of fine white sugar and a teaspoonful of extract of lemon or 
vanilla ; whip it to a froth and serve in a glass dish ; serve 
jelly or jam with it. Or lay lady-fingers or sliced sponge- 
cake in a glass dish, put spoonfuls of jelly or jam over, and 
heap the snow upon it. 


Beat six eggs light, add a teaspoonful of salt, and four 
or five macaroons pounded fine, beat them well to* 


gether ; fry as usual ; stew plentifully with sugar, 


Make a batter of two eggs, a pint of milk, and a pint bowl 
of wheat flour or more, beat it light ; $ut a tablespoonf ul 
lard or beef fat in a frying or on.elet pan, add a saltspoonfwl 
of salt, make it boiling hot, put in the batter by the large 
spoonful, not too close ; when one side is a delicate brown, 
turn the other ; when done, take them on to a dish with a 
doily over it, put a dess 'spoonful of firm jelly or jam on 
each and serve. 



Pour boiling water over large egg or magnum bonum 
plums, cover them until it is cold, then pull off the skins. 
Make a syrup of a pound of sugar and a teacup of 
water for each pound of fruit, make it boiling hot, and 
pour it over ; let them remain for a day or two, then drain 
it off and boil again; skim it clear and pour it hot over 
plums ; let them remain until the next day, then put 
them over the fire in the syrup, boil them very gently 
until clear ; take them from the syrup with a skimmer 
into the pots or jars ; boil the syrup until rich and thick, 
take off any scum which may rise, then let it cool and settle, 
and pour it over the plums. If brown sugar is used 
which is quite as good except for greengages, clarify it as 


Make a syrup of clean brown sugar, clarify it as di- 
rected in these receipts ; when perfectly clear and boil- 
ing hot, pour it over the plums, having picked out all 
unsound ones, and stems ; let them remain in the syrup 
two days, then drain it off; make it boiling hot, skim it 
and pour it over again ; let them remain another day or 
two, then put them in a preserving kettle over the fire, 


and simmer gc-ntly until the syrup is reduced and thick er 
rich. One pound of sugar for each pound of plums. Small 
damsons are very fine, preserved as cherries or any other 
ripe fruit ; clarify the syrup and when boiling hot put in the 
plums ; let them boil very gently until they are cooked and 
the syrup rich. Put them in pots or jars; the next day 
secure as directed. 


To every pound of fruit allow one pound of loaf sugar, 
one quarter pint of water. Boil the sugar and water to- 
gether for about ten minutes ; divide the greengages, take 
out the stones, put the fruit into the syrup, and let it sim- 
mer gently until nearly tender. Take it off the fire, put 
it into a large pan, and, the next day, boil it up again for 
about ten minutes with the kernels from the stones, which 
should be blanched. Put the fruit carefully into jars, 
pour over it the syrup, and, when cold, cover down, so that 
the air is quite excluded. Let the syrup be well skimmed 
both the first and second day of boiling, otherwise it will not 
be clear. 


Four pounds of cherries, three pounds of sugar, one 
pint of white-currant juice. Let the cherries be as clear 
and as transparent as possible, and perfectly ripe ; pick off 
the stalks, and remove the stones, damaging the fruit as 
little as yoi' can. Make a syrup with the above propor- 
tion of sugar, mix the cherries with it, and boil them for 
about fifteen minutes, carefully skimming them; turn, 
them gently into a pan, and let them remain till the next 
day ; then drain the cherries on a^ieve, and put the syrup 
and white-currant juice into the preserving-pan again. 
Boil these together until tne syrup is somewhat reduced 
and rather thick ; then put in the cherries, and let them 



boil for about five minutes ; take them off the fire, skim 
the syrup, put the cherries into small pots or wide- 
mouthed bottles ; pour the syrup over, and when quite 
cold, tie them down carefully, so that the air is quite ex- 


To six pounds of pears, four pounds of sugar, two coffee 
cups of water, the juice of two lemons, and the rind of 
one, a handful of whole ginger ; boil all together for 
twenty minutes, then put in your pears and boil till soft, 
say about a quarter of an hour ; take them out and boil 
your syrup a little longer; then put back your fruit and give 
it a boil ; bottle while hot ; add a little cochineal to give them 
a nice color. 


Peaches for preserving may be ripe but not soft ; cut 
them in halves, take out the stones, and pare them, neatly; 
take as many pounds of white sugar as of fruit, put to each 
pound of sugar a teacup of water ; stir it until it is 
dissolved, set it over a moderate fire, when it is boiling hot, 
put in the peaches, let them boil gently until a pure, clear, 
uniform color; turn those at the bottom to the top carefully 
with a skimmer several times ; do not hurry them ; when 
they are clear, take each half up with a spoon, and spread 
the halves on flat dishes to become cold ; when all are 
done, let the syrup boil until it is quite thick, pour it into 
a large pitcher, and let it set to cool and settle. When 
the peaches are cold, put them carefully into jars, and 
pour the syrup over them, leaving any sediment which has 
settled at the bottom, or strain the syrup. Some of the 
kernels from the peach stones may be put in with the 
peaches while boiling. Let them remain open one night, 
then cover 



Pare the citrons and cut them into slices about an inch 
and a half thick, then into strips the same thickness, leaving 
them the full length of the fruit ; take out all the seeds with 
a small knife, then weigh, and to each pound of citron 
put a pound of white sugar, make a syrup ; to ten pounds 
put a pint of water, and simmer gently for twenty minutes ; 
then put in the citron and boil for one hour, or until tender ; 
before taking off the fire put in two lemonn, sliced thin, 
seeds taken out, and two ounces of root ginger ; do not let 
them boil long after the lemon and ginger are put in ; do not 
stir them while boiling. The above is very fine if carefully 
attended to 


To each pound of fruit allow half a pound of sugar, and 
a pint of water to three pounds of sugar. When the syrup is 
boiling hot, drop in the apples. They will cook very quickly. 
When done, fill a jar with the fruit, and fill it up with 


Pare the fruit, and be sure you take out all the eyes and 
discolored parts. Cut in slices, and cut the slices in small 
bits, taking out the core. Weigh the fruit, and put in a pan 
with half as many pounds of sugar as of fruit. Let it stand 
over night. In the morning put it over the fire and let it 
boil rapidly for a minute only, as cooking long discolors it 
Put it in the jars as directed. 


To every eight pounds of red, rough, ripe gooseberries, 
allow one quart of red-currant juice, five pounds of loaf 
sugar. Have the fruit gathered in dry weather, and cut 


off the tops and tails. Prepare one quart of red-currant 
juice, the same as for red-currant jelly ; put it into a pre- 
serving-pan with the sugar, and keep stirring until the latter 
is dissolved. Keep it boiling for about five minutes ; skim 
well; then put in the gooseberries, and let them boil 
from one half to three quarters of an hour ; then turn the 
whole into an earthen pan, and let it remain for two days. 
Boil the jam up again until it looks clear ; put it into pots, 
and when cold cover with oiled paper, and over the jars put 
tissue paper, brushed over on both sides with the white of 
an egg, and store away in a dry place. Care must be taken 
in making this to keep the jam well stirred and well skimmed, 
to prevent it burning at the bottom of the pan, and to have 
it very clear. 


Pick the currants carefully, and take equal quantities 
of fruit and sugar. Pounded loaf-sugar is best. Dissolve 
it over or mix it with the currants. Put in a very little 
water or red-currant juice, boil and skim for twenty five 


To five or six pounds of fine red raspberries (not too 
ripe) add an equal quantity of the finest quality of white 
sugar. Mash the whole well in a preserving kettle ; add 
about one quart of currant juice (a little less will do), 
and boil gently until it jellies upon a cold plate ; then 
put into small jars ; cover with brandied paper, and tie a 
thick white paper over them. Keep in a dark, dry, and 
cool place. 


Pare, core, and quarter your fruit, then weigh it and 
allow t\n equal quantity of white sugar. Take the par* 


.arf^ cores and put in a preserving kettle; cover them 
water and boil for half an hour; then strain through 
a hair sieve and put the juice back into the kettle and 
boil; the quinces in it a little at a time until they are ten- 
der; lift out as they are done with a drainer and lay on 
a dish ; if the liquid seems scarce add more water. When 
all are done throw in the' sugar and allow it to boil ten 
minutes before putting in the quinces ; let them boil until 
they change color, say one hour and a quarter, on a slow 
fire ; while they are boiling occasionally slip a silver spoon 
under them to see that they do not burn, but on no ac% 
count stir them. Have two fresh lemons cut in thin slice ,, 
and when the fruit is being put in jars lay a slice or two in 


Red-currants ; to every pint of juice allow three quarter 
pounds of loaf-sugar. Have the fruit gathered in fine 
weather ; pick it from the stalks, put it into a jar, and 
place this jar in a saucepan of boiling water over the 
fire, and let it simmer gently until the juice is well drawn 
from the currants ; then strain them through a jelly-bag 
of fine cloth, and, if the jelly is washed very clear, do not 
squeeze them too much, as the skin and pulp from the 
fruit will be pressed through with the juice, and so make 
the jelly muddy. Measure the juice, and to each pint 
allow three-quarter pounds of loaf-sugar ; put these into 
a preserving-pan, set it over the fire, and keep stirring 
the jelly until it is done, carefully removing every parti- 
cle of scum as it rises, using a wooden or silver spoon 
for the purpose, as metal or iron ones would spoil the 
color of the jelly. When it has boiled from twenty 
minutes to a half hour, put a little of the jelly on a plate, 
and if firm when cool, it is done. Take it off the fire, 
pour it into small gallipots, cover each of the pots with 


an oiled paper, and then with a piece of tissue paper 
brushed over on both sides with the wfyite of$negg. Label 
the pots, adding the year when the jelly was made, and store it 
away in a dry place. A jam may be made with the currants, 
if they are not squeezed too dry, by adding a few fresh 
raspberries, and boiling all together %ith sufficient sugar 
to sweeten it nicely. As this preserve is not worth stor- 
ing away, but is only for immediate eating, a smaller 
proportion of "Stigar than usual will be found enough ; it 
answers very well for children's puddings, or for a nursery 


Apples, water ; to every pint of syrup allow three quar- 
ters of a pound of loaf-sugar. Pare and cut the apples 
into pieces, remove the cores, and put them in a pre- 
serving-pan with sufficient cold water to cover them. Let 
them boil for an hour ; then draiij the syrup from them 
through a hair sieve or jelly-bag, and measure the juice ; 
to every pint allow three quarters of a pound of loaf- 
sugar, and boil these together for three quarters of an 
hour, removing every particle of scum as it rises, and 
keeping the jelly well stirred, that it may not burn. A 
little lemon-rind may be boiled with the apples, and a 
small quantity of strained lemon-juice may be put in the 
jelly, just before it is done, when the flavor is liked. This 
jelly may be ornamented with preserved greengages, 
or any other preserved fruit, aryi will turn out very 
prettily for dessert. It should be stored away in small 


Pick each currant individually, and heat the lot in a jar 
set in boiling water, squeeze as before, and allow a pint 
of juice to a pound o sugar, a little water may be added 


if thought proper, or a little red-currant juice. Boil foi 
half an hour, carefully removing the skimmings. Anothei 
way : Clarify the sugar, and add the fruit to it whole s 
boil for twenty minutes, and strain, then boil a few minutes 
additional. Pot it and paper it when cool. The refuse 
berries may be kept as black-currant jam, for tarts, dump- 
lings, etc. 


Wash the fruit clean, put in a kettle, cover with water, 
and boil until thoroughly cooked. Then pour it into a 
sieve, and let it drain. Do not press it through. For each 
pint of this liquor allow one pound of sugar. Boil from 
twenty minutes to half an hour. 


Jellies can be made from quinces, peaches and apples by 
following the directions for crab-apple jelly. 


One box of Cox's gelatine, dissolved in one pint of cold 
water, one pint of wine, one quart of boiling water, one 
quart of granulated sugar, and three lemons. 


Should be made at any rate the day before it is re- 
quired. It is a simple affair to prepare it. Procure a 
:ouple of feet and put them on the fire in three quarts 
Df water ; let them boil for five hours, during which keep 
skimming. Pass the liquor through a hair seive into a 
basin, and let it firm, after which remove all the oil and 
'at. Next take a teacupful of water, two wineglassfuls 
jf sherry, the juice of half-a-dozen lemons and the rind 
>f one, the whites and shells of five eggs, half-a-pound 


of fine white sugar, and whisk the whole till the sugar be 
melted, then add the jelly, place the whole on the fire in an 
enameled stew-pan, and keep actively stirring till the compo- 
sition comes to the boil ; pass it twice through a jelly-bag, 
and then place it in the moulds." 


Allow pound for pound. Pare half the oranges and cut 
the rind into shred-s. Boil in three waters until tender, and 
set aside? Grate the rind of the remaining oranges ; take off 
and throw away every bit of the thick white inner skin ; 
quarter all the oranges and take out the seeds. Chop, or 
cut them into small pieces ; drain all the juice that will come 
away, without pressing them, over the sugar; heat this, stir- 
ring until the sugar is dissolved, adding a very little water, 
unless the oranges are very juicy. Boil and skim five or six 
minutes; put in the boiled shreds, and cook ten minutes; 
then the chopped fruit and grated peel, and boil twenty min- 
utes longer. When cold, put into small jars, tied up with 
bladder or with paper next the fruit, cloths dipped in wax 
over all. A nicer way still is to put away in tumblers with 
self-adjusting metal tops. Press brandied tissue paper down 
closely to the fruit. 


Is made as you would prepare orange allowing a pound 
and a quarter of sugar to a pound of the fruit, and using but 
half the grated peel. 


Gather the fruit when fully ripe ; pare, quarter and 
core it ; boil the skins with as many teacupfuls of water, 
as you have pounds of quinces ; when they are soft, mash 
them, and strain the water from them, and put it to the 


quinces ; boil them until they are soft enough to mac* 
them fine ; rub them through a sieve ; put to the pulp a 
many pounds of sugar ; stir them together, and set them 
over a gentle fire, until it will fall from a spoon, like 
jelly ; or try some in a saucer. If it jellies when cold, it is 

Put it in pots or tumblers, and when cold, secure as di- 
rected for jelly. 


Peel ripe peaches, stone them, and cut them small ; weigi 
three quarters of a pound of sugar for each pound of cut 
fruit, and a teacup of water for each pound of sugar ; set it 
over the fire ; when it boils, skim it clear, then put in the 
peaches, let them boil quite fast ; mash them fine, and Jet 
them boil until the whole is a jellied mass, and thick, then 
put it in small jars or tumblers ; when cold, secure it as di- 
rected for jellies. Half a pound of sugar for a pound of 
fruit, will make nice marmalade. 


Boil one barrel of new cider down half, peel and core 
three bushels of good cooking apples ; when the cider 
has boiled to half the quantity, add the apples, and when 
soft, stir constantly for from eight to ten hours. If done 
it will adhere to an inverted plate. Put away in stone 
jars (not earthen ware), covering first with writing-paper 
cut to fit the jar, and press down closely upon the apple 
butter ; cover the whole with thick brown paper snugly 
tied down. 


Beat six eggs, one fourth pound butter, one pound 
sugar, the rind and juice of three Demons; mixed to 


gether and set in a pan of hot water to cook. Very nice for 
tarts, or to eat with bread. 


Take pound for pound of peaches and sugar; cook 
peaches alone until they become soft, then put in one half 
the sugar, and stir for one half hour ; then the remainder of 
sugar, and stir an hour and a half. Season with cloves and 


Two pounds of any kind of hard apples, two pounds 
of loaf sugar, one and one half pint of water, one ounce 
of tincture of ginger. Boil the sugar and water until 
they form a rich syrup, adding the ginger when it boils 
up. Pare, core, and cut the apples into pieces ; dip them 
in cold water to preserve the color, and boil them in the 
syrup until transparent ; but be careful not to let them 
break. Put the pieces of apple into jars, pour over the 
syrup, and carefully exclude the air, by well covering 
them. It will remain good for some time, if kept in a dry 


One quarter pint of water, the whites of two eggs, cur- 
rants, pounded sugar. Select very fine bunches of red 
or white currants, and well beat the whites of the eggs. 
Mix these with water ; then take the currants, a bunch at 
a time, and dip them in ; let them drain for a minute or 
two, and roll them in very finely pounded sugar. Lay 
them to dry on paper, when the sugar will crystallize 
round each currant, and have a very pretty effect. All 
fresh fruit may be prepared in the same manner ; and a 


mixture of various fruits iced in this manner, and ar- 
ranged on one dish, looks very well for a summer des- 



Fresh fruit, such as currants, raspberries, cherries, 
gooseberries, plums of all kinds, damsons, etc.; wide- 
mouthed glass bottles, new corks to fit them tightly. 
Let the fruit be full grown, but not too ripe, and gathered 
in dry weather. Pick it off the stalks without bruising 
or breaking the skin, and reject any that is at all blem- 
ished ; if gathered in the damp, or if the skins are cut at 
all, the fruit will mould. Have ready some perfectly dry 
glass bottles, and some nice new soft corks or bungs ; 
burn a match in each bottle, to exhaust the air, and 
quickly place the fruit in to be preserved ; gently cork 
the bottles, and put them into a very cool oven, where let 
them remain until the fruit has shrunk away a fourth 
part. Then take the bottles out, do not open them, but 
immediately beat the corks in tight, cut off the tops, and 
cover them with melted resin. If kept in a dry place, 
the fruit will remain good for months ; and on this 
principally depends the success of the preparation, for 
if stored away in a place that is the least damp, the fruit will 
soon spoil. 


Apples, pears, limes, plums, apricots, etc., for pre- 
serving or pickling, may be greened thus ; Put vine- 
leaves under, between, and over the fruit in a preserving 
kettle ; put small bits of alum, the size of a pea, say a 
dozen bits to a kettleful ; put enough water to cover 



the fruit, cover the kettle close to exclude all outer air, 
set it over a gentle fire, let them simmer; when they are 
tender drain off the water; if they are not a fine green 
let them become cold, then put vine-leaves and a bit of 
saleratus or soda with them, and set them over a slow 
fire until they begin to simmer; a bit of soda or saleratus 
the size of a small nutmeg will have the desired effect; 
then spread them out to cool, after which finish as 
severally directed. 


By putting in with it a little cochineal powdered fine; 
then finish in the syrup. 


Boil the fruit with fresh skin lemons in water to cover 
them, until it is tender; then take it up, spread it on 
dishes to cool, and finish as may be directed. 


After the berries are pulled, let as many as can be put 
carefully in the preserve kettle at once be placed on a 
platter. To each pound of fruit add three-fourths of a 
pound of sugar; let them stand two or three hours, till 
the juice is drawn from them; pour it in the kettle and 
let it come to a boil, and remove the scum which rises; 
then put in the berries very carefully. As soon as they 
come thoroughly to a boil put them in warm jars, and 
seal while boiling hot. Be sure the cans are air-tight. 


Select some fine, free-stone peaches; pare, cut in two 
and stone them. Immerse in cold water, taking care 
not to break the fruit. See that the peaches are not 



over ripe. Place in the kettle, scattering sugar between 
the layers the sugar should be in the proportion of a 
full tablespoonful to a quart of fruit. To prevent burn- 
ing put a little water in the kettle. Heat slowly to a 
boil, then boil for three or four minutes. Can and seal 
the fruit. 


Prepare and can precisely like peaches in preceding re- 
cipe, except that they require longer cooking. When done 
they are easily pierced with a silver fork. 


To every pound of fruit allow three quarters of a pound 
of sugar; for the thin syrup, a quarter of a pound of sugar ; 
to each pint of water. Select fine fruit, and prick with a 
needle to prevent bursting. Simmer gently in a syrup made 
with the above proportion of sugar and water. Let them 
boil not longer than five minutes. Put the plums in a jar, 
pour in the hot syrup, and seal. Greengages are also deli- 
cious done in this manner. 


Look them over carefully, stem and weigh them, 
allowing a- pound of sugar to every one of fruit ; put 
them in a kettle, cover, and leave them to heat slowly 
and stew gently for twenty or thirty minutes ; then add 
the sugar, and shake the kettle occasionally to make it 
mix with the fruit ; do not allow it to boil, but keep as 
hot as possible until the sugar is dissolved, then pour it 


in cans and secure the covers at once. White currants are 
beautiful preserved in this way. 


For six pounds of fruit when cut and ready to can make 
syrup with two and a half pounds of sugar and nearly 
three pints of water , boil syrup five minutes and skim or 
strain if necessary; then add the fruit, and let it boil up; 
have cans hot, fill and shut up as soon as possible. Use 
the best white sugar. As the cans cool, keep tightening 
them up. 


Cut the quinces into thin slices like apples for pies. 
To one quart jarful of quince take a coffee-saucer and a 
half of sugar and a coffee-cup of water; put the sugar 
and water on the fire, and when boiling put in the 
quinces ; have ready the jars with their fastenings, stand 
the jars in a pan .of boiling water on the stove, and when 
the quince is clear and tender put rapidly into the jars, 
fruit and syrup together. The jars must be filled so that 
the syrup overflows, and fastened up tight as quickly as 


Scald your tomatoes, remove the skins, cut in small pieces, 
put in a porcelain kettle, salt to taste, and boil fifteen min- 
utes ; have tin cans filled with hot water ; pour the water out: 
and fill with tomatoes; solder tops on immediately withf' 
shellac and rosin melted together. 


Dissolve an ounce tartaric acid in half teacup water, 
and take one tablespoon to two quarts of sweet corn ; 


cook, and while boiling hot, fill the cans, which should 
be tin. When used turn into a colander, rinse with cold 
water, add a little soda and sugar while cooking, and 
season with butter, pepper and salt. 



One pint of currant juice, one pound of sugar, and 
pint of water; put in freezer, and when partly frozen 
r.dd the whites of three eggs well beaten. 


One quart of berries. Extract the juice and strain; 
one pint of sugar, dissolved in the juice; one lemon, juice 
only; half pint of water. 


The rind of three oranges grated and steeped a few 
moments in a little more than a pint of water; strain one 
pint of this on a pound of sugar and then add one pint 
of orange or lemon juice; pour in the freezer, and when 
half frozen add the whites of four eggs beaten to a stL'f 


One quart of new milk, two eggs, two tablespoons of 
corn-starch; heat the milk in a dish set in hot water, then 
stir in the corn-starch mixed smooth in a little of the milk; 


let it boil for one or two minutes, then remove from stove 
and cool, and stir in the egg and a half pound of sugar. 
If to be extra nice, add a pint of rich cream, and one 
fourth pound of sugar, strain the mixture, and when 
cool add the flavoring, and freeze as follows: Prepare 


freezer in the usual manner, turn the crank one hundred 
times, then pour upon the ice and salt a quart of boiling 
water from the tea-kettle. Fill up again with ice and 
salt, turn the crank fifty times one way and twenty-five 
the other (which serves to scrape the cream from sides of 
freezer); by this time it will turn yery hard, indicating 
that the cream is frozen sufficiently. 


Take two drachms of vanilla or lemon-peel, one quart 
of milk, half a pound of sugar, one pint of cream, and 
the yolks of three eggs; beat the yolks well, and stir them 
with the milk, then add the other ingredients; set it over 
a moderate fire, and stir it constantly with a silver spoon 
until it is boiling hot, then take out the lemon peel or 
vanilla, and, when cold, freeze it. 



Sprinkle strawberries with sugar, wash well and rub 
through a sieve; to a pint of the juice add half a pint of 
good cream; make it very sweet; freeze, and w r hen be- 
ginning to set, stir lightly one pint of cream whipped, 
and lastly a handful of whole strawberries, sweetened. It 
may then be put in a mould and imbedded in ice, or kept 
in the freezer; or mash with a potato-pounder in an 
earthem bowl one quart of strawberries withone pound of 
Sugar, rub it through a colander, add one quart of sweet 
cream and freeze. Or, if not in the' strawberry season, 
use the French bottled strawberries (or any canned 
ones), mix juice with half a pint of cream, sweeten and 
freeze; when partially set add whipped cream and str"V- 



Take six ounces of chocolate, a pint of cream, half a pint 
of new milk, and half a pint of sugar. Rub the chocolate 
down into the milk and mix thoroughly, adding the cream 
and sugar. The milk should be heated almost to boiling. 
Heat until it thickens, stirring constantly. Strain and set 
aside to cool, afterwards freeze. This makes perhaps the 
most favorite of ice-creams. 


Three and one half pounds of sugar to one and one half 
pints of water ; dissolve in the water before putting with 
the sugar one quarter of an ounce of fine white gum arabic, 
and when added to the sugar put in one teaspoon of cream 
of tartar. The candy should not be boiled quite to the 
brittle stage. The proper degree can be ascertained if, 
when a small skimmer is put in and taken out, when blow- 
ing through the holes of the skimmer, the melted sugar 
is forced through in feathery filaments ; remove from the 
fire at this point and rub the syrup against the sides of 
the dish with an iron spoon. If it is to be a chocolate 
candy, add two ounces of chocolate finely sifted and such fla- 
voring as you prefer, vanilla, rose, or orange. If you wish 
to make cocoanut candy, add this while soft and stir until 


Three pints of cream, two large ripe pineapples, two, 
pounds powdered sugar; slice the pineapples thin, scat- 
ter the sugar between the slices, cover and let the fruit 
stand three hours, cut or chop it up in the syrup, and 
strain through a hair sieve or double bag of coarse lace ; 
beat gradually into the cream, and freeze as rapidly as 
possible ; reserve a few pieces of pineapple unsugared. 


:ut into square bits, and stir through cream when half 
frozen, first a pint of well-whipped cream, and then the 
fruit. Peach ice-cream may be made in the same way. 


Put one ounce of soaked isinglass, six ounces of loaf- 
sugar, half a stick of vanilla, and one pint of milk into a 
saucepan; boil slowly; and stir all the time until the isin- 
glass is dissolved; strain the mixture, and when a little 
cool mix it with a pint of thick cream. Beat thoroughly 
until it thickens. Pour into a large or individual moulds, 
and put in ice-box until wanted. 


To every pound of sugar allow one half pint of 
water, one half the white of an egg. Put the sugar 
into a well-tinned saucepan, with the water, and when 
the former is dissolved, set it over a moderate fire, 
adding the well-beaten egg before the mixture gets 
warm, and stir it well together. When it boils, re- 
move the scum as it rises, and keep it boiling until 
no more appears, and the syrup looks perfectly clear; 
then strain it through a fine sieve or muslin bag, and 
put it back into the saucepan. Boil it again like 
caramel, until it is brittle when a little is dropped in a 
pasin of cold water; it is then sufficiently boiled. Add 
4 little lemon juice and a few drops of the essence of 
temon, and let it stand for a minute or two. Have ready 
a marble slab or large dish rubbed over with salad oil; 
pour the sugar on it, and cut it into strips with a pair of 
scissors; these strips should then be twisted, and the bar- 
ley-sugar stored away in a very dry place. It may be 
termed into lozenges or drops, by dropping the sugar in a 
Very small quantity at a time on to the oiled slab or dish. 




One pound of powdered loaf-sugar, one teacupful of 
water, one quarter pound of butter, six drops of essence of 
lemon. Put the water and sugar into a brass pan, and beat 
the butter to a cream. When the sugar is dissolved, add 
the butter, and keep stirring the mixture over the fire until 
it sets when a little is poured on to a buttered dish ; and,, 
just before the toffee is done add the essence of lemon. 
Butter a dish or tin, pour on it the mixture, and when 
cool it will easily separate from the dish. Butter-Scotch, 
an excellent thing for coughs, is made with brown, in- 
stead of white sugar, omitting the water, and flavored with 
one half ounce of ginger. It is made in the same manner as 


To one grated cocoanut add half its weight of sugar and 
the white of one egg, cut to a stiff froth ; mix thoroughly 
and drop on buttered white paper or tin sheets. Bake fifteen 


One cup c*f molasses, two cups of sugar, one tablespoon 
vinegar, a little butter and vanilla ; boil ten minutes, then 
cool it enough to pull. 


Two cups of brown sugar, one cup of molasses, one cup 
chocolate grated fine, one cup of boiled milk, one table- 
spoon of flour ; butter the size of a large English walnut ; 
let it boil slowly and pour on flat tins to cool ; mark off while 



Put into a kettle three and one half pounds of sugar, one 
and one half pints of water, and one teaspoon of cream of 
tartar. Let it boil until it becomes brittle when dropped in 
cold water ; when sufficiently done take off the fire and pour 
in a shallow dish which has been greased with a little butter. 
When this has cooled so that it can be handled, add a tea- 
spoon of tartaric acid and the same quantity of extract of 
lemon, and work them into the mass. The acid must be fine 
and free from lumps. Work this in until evenly distributed, 
and no more, as it will tend to destroy the transparency of 
the candy. This method may be used for preparing all other 
candies, as pine-apple, etc., using different flavors. 



Have ready a kettle of water boiling fast, pour some 
the teapot, let it remain for a few minutes, then 
throw it out ; measure a teaspoonful of tea for each two 
persons, put it in the pot pour on it about a gill of boil- 
ing water, cover it close for five minutes, then fill it up ; 
have a covered pitcher of boiling water with it ; when 
two cups are poured from it, fill it up; you will thus 
keep the strength good and equal. If the company is 
large, it is best to have some of the tea drawn in the 

O ' 

covered pitcher, and replenish the tea-pot or urn when it 13 


Make as directed for green tea. 


Prepare tea in the morning, making it stronger and 
sweeter than usual ; strain and pour into a clean stone 
jug or glass bottle, and set aside in the ice-chest until 
ready to use. Drink from goblets without cream. 
Serve ice broken in small pieces on a platter nicely 
garnished with well-washed grape-leaves. Iced tea may 
be prepared from either green or black alone, but it is 
considered an improvement to mix the two. Tea made 


like that for iced-tea (or that left in the tea-pot after a 
meal), with sugar to taste, a slice or two of lemon, a little 
of the juice, and some pieces of cracked ice, makes a de- 
lightful drink. Serve in glasses. 


Take a good-sized cupful of ground coffee, and pour 
into a quart of boiling water, with the white of an egg 
and the crushed shell. Stir well together, adding a half- 
cupful of cold water to clear. Put into the coffee-boiler 
and boil for about a quarter of an hour; after standing 
for a little to settle, pour into your coffee-pot, which 
should be well-scalded, and send to the table. The coffee 
should be stirred as it boils. To make cofffa au lait, take 
a pint each of hot made coffee and boiling milk; strain 
through thin muslin into coffee-pot, to get rid of the 
grounds, and serve hot. 


Take six tablespoons scraped chocolate, or three of 
chocolate and three of cocoa, dissolve in a quart of boil- 
ing water, boil hard fifteen minutes, add one quart of 
rich milk, let scald and serve hot; this is enough for sis 
persons. Cocoa can also be made after this receipt. Som<. 
boil either cocoa or chocolate only one minute and ther 
serve, while others make it the day before using, boiling 
it for one hour, and when cool skimming off the oil, and 
when wanted for use, heat it to the boiling point and add 
the milk. In this way it is equally good and much mort 
wholesome. Cocoa is from the seed of the fruit of a 
small tropical tree. There are several forms in which it 
is sold, the most nutritious and convenient being choco- 
late, the next cocoa, then cocoa nibs, and last cocoa 
shells. The ground bean is simply cocoa; ground fine 
and mixed with sugar it is chocolate; the beans broken 
into bits are "nibs." The shells are the shells of the 


bean, usually removed before grinding. The beans are 
roasted like coffee, and ground between hot rollers. 


lake the juice of twelve lemons, grate the rind of six 
in it, let it stand over night, then take six pounds of 
white sugar, and make a thick syrup. When it is quite 
cool, strain the juice into it, and squeeze as much oil 
from the grated rind as will suit the taste. A table- 
spoonful in a goblet of water will make a delicious 
drink on a hot day, far superior to that prepared from 
the stuff commonly sold as lemon syrup 


Take fine ripe strawberries, crush them in a cloth, and 
press ihe juice from them; to each pint of it put a pint 
of simple syrup, boil gently for one hour, then let it be- 
come cold, and bottle it; cork and seal it. When served, 
reduce it to taste with water, set it on ice, and serve in 
small tumblers half filled. 

Make as directed for strawberry. 


Take fourteen ounces of picked strawberries, crush 
,hem in a mortar, then add to them a quart of water; 
pour this into a basin, with a lemon sliced, and a tea- 
spoonful of orange-flower water; let it remain for Jwo 
or three hours. Put eighteen ounces of sugar into an- 
other basin, cover it with a cloth, through which pour 
the strawberry juice, after as much has run through as 
will; gather up the cloth, and squeeze out as much 
juice as possible from it; when the sugar is all dissolved, 


strain it again; set the vessel containing it on ice, until 
ready to serve. 


To four quarts red raspberries, put enough vinegar to 
cover, and let them stand twenty-four hours; scald and 
Strain it; add a pound of sugar to one pint of juice; boil 
it twenty minutes, and bottle; it is then ready for use 
and will keep years. To one glass of water add a great 
spoonful. It is much relished by the sick. Very nice. 


Take half a pound of loaf-sugar and reduce it to a 
syrup with one pint of water; add the rind of five lem- 
ons and let stand an hour; remove the rinds and add 
the strained juice of the lemons; add one bottle of 
" Apollinaris" water, and a block of ice in centre of bowl. 
Peel one lemon and cut it up into thin slices, divide each 
slice in two, and put in lemodade. Claret or fine cordials 
may be added if desired. Serve with a piece of lemon 
in each glass. 


Whip the whites and yolks of six eggs into a stiff 
cream, adding a half cupful of sugar. Pour into a quart 
of rich milk, adding a half pint of good brandy, and a 
little flavoring of nutmeg. Stir up and thoroughly mix 
the ingredients, and add the whites of three additional 
eggs well whipped. 

' . * 


Take two pounds of raisins, seed and chop them, a 
iemon, a pound of white sugar, and about two gallons 
of boiling water. Pour into a stone jar, and stir daily 


for six or eight days. Strain, bottle, and put in a cool 
place for ten days or so, when the wine will be ready 
for use. 


The currants should be quite ripe. Stem, mash, and 
Strain them, adding a half pint of water, and less than a 
pound of sugar, to a quart of the mashed fruit. Stir 
well up together a.:d pour into a clean cask, leaving the 
bung-hole open, or covered with a piece of lace. It 
should stand for a month to ferment, when it will be 
ready for bottling. 


One half pound of cinnamon bark, four ounces of 
pimento, two ounces of mace, three-quarters of an ounce 
of capsicum, three-quarters of a pound of ginger root, 
five gallons of alcohol ; macerate and strain or filter, after 
standing fifteen days. ' Now make syrup, thirty pounds 
of white sugar, half pound of tartaric acid, one and a 
half pounds of cream tartar, dissolved with warm water, 
clarify with white of two eggs, and add soft water to 
make forty gallons. Color with cochineal and let it 
stand six months before use. 


Pare off the yellow rind of four large lemons, and 
steep it for twenty-four hours in a quart of brandy or 
rum. Then mix with it the juice of the lemons, a pound 
and a half of loaf-sugar ; two grated nutmegs, and a 
quart of water. Add a quart of rich unskimmed milk, 
made boiling hot, and strain the whole through a jelly- 
bag. You may either use it as soon as it is cold, or make 
a larger quantity (in the above proportions), and, bottle 
it. It will keeo several months. 



One quart bottle of claret, one bottle of soda water, 
one lemon cut very thin, four tablespoons of powdered 
sugar, quarter of a teaspoon of grated nutmeg, one 
liquor glass of brandy, one wine glass of sherry v r ine. 
Half an hour before it is to be used, put in a large piece 
of ice. so that it may get perfectly cold. 


Grate the yellow rinds of four lemons and two oranges 
upon two pounds of loaf-sugar. Squeeze on the juice of 
the lemons and oranges; cover it, and let it stand till 
next day. Then strain it through a sieve, add a bottle 
of champagne, and the whites of eight eggs beaten to 
froth. You may freeze it or not. 


Dissolve two pounds of crushed sugar, in three quarts 
of water; boil down to two quarts; drop in the white of 
an egg while boiling; then strain, and put in the tartaric 
acid; when cold drop in the lemon to your taste; then 
bottle and cork. Shake two or three times a day. 


To two quarts of red currants put one quart of 
whiskey; let it stand twenty-four hours, then bruise and 
strain through a flannel bag. To every two quarts of this 
liquor, add one pound of loaf-sugar, add quarter of a 
pound of ginger well bruised and boiled; let the whole 
stand to settle, then strain or filter; bottle and cork, seal 
the corks tightly. It is an improvement to have half 
red raspberry juice if the flavor is liked. The above 
is fit for use in a month. 



Take elderberries perfectly ripe, wash and strain them, 
put a pint of molasses to a pint of the juice, boil it 
twenty minutes, stirring constantly, when cold add to 
each quart a pint of French brandy; bottle and cork it 
tight. It is an excellent remedy for a cough. 



Melt in a little warm water an ounce of isinglass; sti? 
k into a pint of port wine, adding two ounces of sugaf 
candy, an ounce of gum arabic, and half a nutmeg, grated. 
Mix all well and boil it ten minutes; or till everything is 
thoroughly dissolved. Then strain it through muslin and 
set it away to get cold. 


Wash the tapioca carefully in two or three waters, then 
soak it for five or six hours, simmer it then in a stewpan 
until it becomes quite clear, add a little of the juice of a 
lemon, vine if desired. 


One cup boiling water, two heaping teaspoons arrov/- 
root, two heaping teaspoons white sugar, one tablespoon- 
ful brandy or three tablespoonsful of wfne. An excellent 
corrective to weak bowels. 


Cook six chickens in a small quantity of water, until 
the meat will part from the bone easily; season to taste 
with salt and pepper; just as soon as cold enough to 
handle, remove bones and skin; place meat in a deep pan 
or mold, just as it comes from the bone, using gizzard, 
liver and heart, until the mould is nearly full. To the 


water left in the kettle, add three fourths of a box of 
Cox's gelatine (some add juice of lemon), dissolved in a 
little warm water, and boil until it is reduced to a little 
less than a quart, pour over the chicken in the mould, 
leave to cool, cut with a very sharp knife and sefvA. The 
slices will not easily break up if directions are followed. 


Half fowl, or the inferior joints of a whole one, one 
quart of water, one blade of mace, half onion, a small 
bunch of sweet herbs, salt to taste, ten peppercorns. If 
a young one be used for this broth, the inferior joints 
may be put in the broth, and the best pieces reserved for 
dressing in some other manner. Put the fowl into a 
saucepan, with all the ingredients, and simmer gently 
for one and a half hours, carefully skimming the broth 
well. When done, strain, and put by in a cool place 
until wanted; then take all the fat off the top, warm up 
as much as may be required, and serve. This broth is, 
of course, only for those invalids whose stomachs are 
strong enough to digest it, with a flavoring of herbs, etc. 
It may be made in the same manner as beef-tea, with 
water and salt only; but the preparation will be buttaste-? 
less and insipid. When the invalid cannot digest this 
chicken broth with the flavoring, we would recommend 
plain beef-tea in preference to plain chicken tea, which it 
would be without the addition of herbs, onions, etc.. 


One tablespoonful of Robinson's patent groats, two 
tablespoonful of cold water, one pint of boiling water. 
Mix the prepared groats smoothly with the cold water 
in a basin; pour over them the boiling water, stirring it 
all the time. Put it into a very clean saucepan; boil the 
gruel for ten minutes, keeping it well stirred; sweeten to 


taste, and serve. It may be flavored with a small piece 
of lemon-peel, by boiling it in the gruel, or a little grated 
t*utmeg, may be put in; but in these matters the taste of 
the patient should be consulted. Pour the gruel in a 
tumbler and serve. When wine is allowed to the invalid, 
two tablespoonful of sherry or port make this prepara- 
tion very nice. In cases of colds, the same quantity of 
spirits is sometimes added instead of wine. 


Put a large tablespoonful of well-washed pearl-barley 
into a pitcher; pour over it boiling water; cover it, and 
let it remain till cold; then drain off the water; sweeten 
to taste, and, if liked, add the juice of a lemon, and 
grated nutmeg. 


Put a quart of milk to boil, take an ounce of Bermuda 
arrowroot ground fine, make it a smooth batter with 
cold milk, add a teaspoonful of salt; when the milk is 
boiling hot, stir the batter into it, continue to stir it over 
a gentle fire (that it may not be scorched) for three or 
four minutes, sweeten to taste with double refined sugar, 
and flavor with lemon extract or orange-flower water, 01 
boil a stick of cinnamon or vanilla bean in the milk be- 
fore putting in the arrowroot; dip a mould into cold 
water, strain the blanc-mange through a muslin into the 
mould, when perfectly cold turn it out; serve currant 
jelly or jam with it. 


One half a lemon, lump sugar to taste, one pint of boil 
ing water. Pare off the rind of the lemon thinly; cut the 
lemon into two or three thick slices, and remove as much 


as possible of the white outside pith, and all the pips. 
Put the slices of lemon, the peei, and lump-sugar into a 
jug; pour over the boiling water; cover it closely, and in 
two hours it will be fit to drink. It should either be 
strained or poured off from the sediment. 


is frequently ordered as a preparation for invalids. For 
the sick-room such broth must be made as plainly as 
possible, and so as to secure the juice of the meat. Boil 
slowly a couple of pounds of lean mutton for two hours, 
skim it very carefully as it simmers and do not put ; n 
very much salt. If the doctor permits, some vegetable 
as seasoning may be added, and for some broths a little 
fine barley or rice is added. 


Four tablespoons flax seed (whole), one quart boiling 
fvater poured on the flax seed, juice of two lemons, leav- 
ing out the peel. Sweeten to taste; steep three hours in 
a covered pitcher. If too thick, put in cold water with 
the lemon juice and sugar. Ice for drinking. It is 
splendid for colds. 


This is very nourishing and light, either for invalids or 
infants; make it with milk or water put a pint of either 
into a stew-pan, make it boiling hot, add a saltspoonful 
Df salt, put a heaped teaspoonful of ground Bermuda 
arrowroot into a cup, make it smooth with cold milk, stir 
it into the stew-pan, and let it simmer for two or three 
minutes; then turn it into a bowl, sweeten and grate 
nutmeg over, if liked; should it be preferred thin, use 
less arrowroot This should be made only as much as is 
wanted at a time, since it will become as thin as water if 
neated over. 



Two very young rabbits, not nearly halt grown; one 
and one half pints of milk, one blade of mace, one des- 
sertspoonful of flour, a little salt and cayenne. Mix the 
flour very smoothly with four tablespoonfuls of the milk, 
and when this is well mixed, add the remainder. Cut up 
the rabbits into joints, put them into a stew-pan with the 
milk and other ingredients, and simmer them very gently 
until quite tender. Stir the contents from time to time, 
to keep the milk smooth and prevent it from burning. 
Half an hour will be sufficient for the cooking of this 


Break the bark into bits, pour boiling water over it, 
cover and let it infuse until cold. Sweeten, ice, and 
take for summer disorders, or add lemon juice and drink 
for a bad cold. 


One pound lean beef, cut into small pieces. Put into a 
jar without a drop of water; cover tightly, and set in a 
pot of cold water. Heat gradually to a boil, and con- 
tinue this steadily for three or four hours, until the meat 
is like white-rags, and the juice all drawn out. Season 
with salt to taste, and when cold, skim. 


One egg, one tablespoonful and one half glass of cold 
water, one glass of sherry, sugar and grated nutmeg to 
taste. Beat the egg, mixing with it a tablespoonful of cold 
water; make the wine and water hot, but not boiling; 
pour it on the egg, stirring all the time. Add sufficient 
lump-sugar to sweeten the mixture, and a little grated 


nutmeg ; put all into a very clean saucepan, set it on a 
gentle fire, and stir the contents one way until they thicken, 
but do not allow them to boil. Serve in a glass with sippets 
of toasted bread or plain crisp biscuits. When the egg is 
not warmed, the mixture will be found easier of digestion, 
but it is not so pleasant a drink. 


Slices of toast, nicely browned, without a symptom of burn- 
ing. Enough boiling water to cover them. Cover closely, 
and let them steep until cold. Strain the water, sweeten to 
taste, and put a piece of ice in each glassful. 


is excellent for a cold. Slice down a few onions and boil 
them in a pint of new milk, stir in a sprinkle of oatmeal 
and a very little salt, boil till the onions are quite tender, 
then sup rapidly and go to bed. 



Put in a vial one drachm of benzoin gum in powder, owe 
drachm nutmeg oil, six drops of orange-blossom tea, or 
apple blossoms put in half pint of rain-water and boiled 
down to one teaspoonful and strained, one pint of sherry 
wine. Bathe the face morning and night ; will remove 
all flesh worms and freckles, and give a beautiful com- 
plexion. Or, put one ounce of powdered gum of benzoin in 
pint of whiskey ; to use, put in water in wash-bowl till it is 
milky, allowing it to dry without wiping. This is perfectly 


Wash with a solution of carbonate of soda and a little 
lemon juice ; then with Fuller's earth water, or the juice of 
unripe grapes. 


Olive oil, one pound ; oil of organum, one drachm ; oil 0! 
rosemary, one and one half drachms. Mix. 


White wax, one ounce ; strained honey, two ounces ; ju 'f 
of lily bulbs, two ounces. The foregoing melted and stir* 4 
together will remove wrinkles. 




Put half a pound of best Windsor soap scraped fine into 
half a gallon of boiling water ; stir it well until it cools ; add 
a. pint of spirits of wine and half an ounce of oil of rose- 
mary; stir well. This is a good cosmetique, and will re- 
move freckles. 


Prepare chalk, one half pound ; powdered myrrh, two 
ounces ; camphor, two drachms ; orris root powdered, two 
ounces. Moisten the camphor with alconoi and mix all 
well together. 


Rose water, three ounces ; sulphate of zinc, one 
drachm ; mix. Wet the face with it, gently dry it and 
then touch it over with cold cream, which also gently 
dry off. 


Take of wheat starch one pound ; powdered orris root, 
three ounces ; oil of lemon, thirty drops ; oil of berga- 
mot, oil of cloves, each fifteen drops. Rub thoroughly 


To one quart of rose water add an ounce and a half of 
gum tragacanth ; let it stand forty-eight hours, frequently 
straining it, then strain through a coarse linen cloth ; let it 
stand two days, and again strain ; add to it a drachm of oil 
of roses ; used by ladies dressing their hair, to make it lie in 
any position. 


One pennyworth of borax, half a pint of olive oil, one pint 
of boiling water. 

Mode: Pour the boiling water -over the borax and oil ; let 
it cool ; then put the mixture into a bottle. Shake it 
before using, and apply it with a flannel. Camphor and 
borax, dissolved in boiling water and left to cool, make a 
very good wash for the hair ; as also does rosemary water 
mixed with a little borax. After using any of these washes, 
when the hair becomes thoroughly dry, a little pomatum 
or oil should be rubbed in, to make it smooth and 



Pour twelve quarts soft boiling water oti two and one 
half pounds of unslacked lime: dissolve five pounds sal 
soda in twelve quarts soft hot water; then mix and let 
them remain from twelve to twenty-four hours. Pour 
off all the clear Huid, being careful not to allow any of 
the sediment to run off; boil three and one half pounds 
clean grease and. three or four ounces of rosin in the 
above lye till the grease disappears; pour into a box and 
let it stand a day to stiffen and then cut in bars. It is 
as well to put the lime in all the water and then add the 
soda. After pouring off the fluid, add two or three gal- 
lons of water and let it stand wilh the lime and soda 
dregs a day or two. This makes an excellent washing 
fluid to boil or soak the clothes in, with one pint in a 
boiler of water. 


Dissolve soap enough to make a good suds in boiling 
water, add a tablespoon of- aqua ammonia; when scald- 
ing hot, turn over your blankets. If convenient, use a 
pounder, or any way to work thoroughly through the 
suds without rubbing on a board. Rinse well in hot 
water. There is v.sually soap enough from the first suds 
to make the second soft; if not, add a little soap and 
ammonia; and after being put through the wringer let 
two persons, standing opposite, pull them into .shape; 


dry in the sun. White flannels may be washed in the same 
same way without shrinking. Calicoes and other colored 
fabrics can, before washing, be advantageously soaked for a 
time in a pail of water to which a spoonful of ox gall has 
been added. It helps to keep the color. A teacup of lye to a 
pail of water will improve the color of black goods when 
necessary to wash them, and vinegar in the rinsing water of 
pink or green will brighten those colors, as will soda for 
purple and blue. 


One ounce sugar of lead in a pail of rain water. Soak 
over night. 


To insure a good light, wicks must be changed often as 
they soon become clogged, and do not permit the free passage 
of the oil. Soaking wicks in vinegar twenty-four hours before 
placing in lamp insures a clear flame. 


Place a little water in a teakettle, and let it boil until 
there is plenty of steam from the spout ; then holding the 
crape in both hands, pass it to and fro several times 
through the steam, and it will be clean and look nearly equal 
to new. 


If the stove is cracked, a good cement is made for it as 
follows : wood ashes and salt in equal proportions, reduced to 
a paste with cold water, and filled in the cracks when the 
stove is cool. It will soon harden. 



Rub with very slightly damp bread-crumbs. If not 
effectual, scrape upon them dry fuller's earth or French 
chalk, when on the hands, and rub them quickly together 
in all directions. Do this several times. Or put gloves 
of a light color on the hands and wash the hands in a 


basin of spirits of hartshorn. Some gloves may be washed 
in a strong lather made of soft soap and warm water or 
milk; or wash with rice pulp; or sponge them well with 
turpentine, and hang them in a warm place or where there 
is a current of air, and all smell of turpentine will be re- 


Children's clothes, table linens, towels, etc., should be 
thoroughly examined before wetting, as soap-suds, wash- 
ing-fluids, etc., will fix almost any stain past removal. 
Many stains will pass away by being simply washed in 
pure soft water ; or alcohol will remove, before the arti- 
cles has been in soap-suds, many stains. Ironmold, mil- 
dew, or almost any similar spot, can be taken out by 
dipping in diluted citric acid ; then cover with salt, and 
lay in the bright sun until the stain disappears. If of long 
standing, it may be necessary to repeat the wetting and the 
sunlight. Be careful to rinse in several waters as soon as 
the stain is no longer visible. Ink, fruit, wine, and mil- 
dew stains must first be washed in clear, cold water, re- 
moving as much of the spots as can be ; then mix one 
teaspoonful of oxalic acid and half a pint of rain water. ^ 
Dip the stain in this, and wipe off in clear water. Wash 
at once, if a fabric that will bear washing. A table- 
spoonful of white currant juice, if any can be had, is 
even better than lemon. This preparation may be used 
on the most delicate articles without injury. Shake It 


up before using it, and be careful and put out of the reach of 
meddlers or little folks, as it is poisonous. 


An excellent mixture to remove grease spots from boys' 
and men's clothing particularly, is made of four parts alcohol 
to one part of ammonia and about half as much ether as am- 
monia. Apply the liquid to the grease spot, and then rub 
diligently with a sponge and clear water. The chemistry of 
the operation seems to be that the alcohol and ether dissolve 
the grease, and the ammonia forms a soap with it which is 
washed out with the water. The result is much more saJis- 
factory than when something is used which only seems to 
spread the spot and make it fainter, but does not actually re- 
move it. If oil is spilt on a carpet and you immediately 
scatter corn-meal over it, the oil will be absorbed by it. Oil 
may also be removed from carpets on which you do not dare 
put ether and ammonia by laying thick blotting paper over it 
and pressing a hot flat-iron on it. Repeat the operation sev- 
eral times, using a clean paper each time. 


Iron-rust stains on marble can usually be removed by rub- 
bing with lemon juice. Almost all other stains may be taken 
off by mixing one ounce of finely powdered chalk, one of 
pumice-stone, and two ounces of common soda. Sift these 
together through a fine sieve, and mix with water. When 
thoroughly mixed, rub this mixture over the stains faithfully, 
and the stains will disappear. Wash the marble after this 
with soap and water, dry and polish with a chamois skin, and 
the marble will look like new. 

A thin coating of three parts lard melted with one part 
rosin applied to Stoves and grates will prevent their rusting 
in summer. 




Oil of turpentine or benzine will remove spots of paint, 
varnish, or pitch from white or colored cotton or woollen 
goods. After using it they should be washed in soapsuds. 


When freshly spilled, ink can be removed from carpets 
by wetting in milk. Take cotton batting and soak up all 
of the ink that it will receive, being careful not to let it 
spread. Then take fresh cotton, wet in milk, and sop it up 
carefully. Repeat this operation, changing cotton and milk 
each time. After most of the ink has been taken up in this 
way, with fresh cotton and clean, rub the spot. Continue till 
all disappears ; then wash the spot in clean warm water and 
a little soap ; rinse in clear water, and rub till nearly dry. If 
the ink is dried in, we know of no way that will not take 
the color from the carpet as well as the ink, unless the ink 
is on a white spot. In that case salts of lemon, or soft soap^ 
starch, and lemon juice will remove the ink as easily as if on 


Put one pound of chloride of lime to four quarts of 
water. Shake well together and let it stand twenty-four 
hours ; then strain through a clean cotton cloth. Add one 
teaspoonful of acetic acid to an ounce of this prepared 
lime water, and apply to the blot, and the ink will disap- 
pear. Absorb the moisture with blotting-paper. The re- 
mainder may be bottled, closely corked, and set aside for 
future use. 

An occasional feed of hard-boiled eggs made fine and 
mixed with cracker crumbs is good for canary birds. Feed a 
couple of thimblefuls at a time. 



If ink has been unfortunately spilled on mahogany, 
rosewood, or black walnut furniture, put half a dozen 
drops of spirits of nitre into a spoonful of water, and 
touch the stain with a feather wet in this; as soon as the 
ink disappears, rub the place immediately with a cloth 
ready wet in cold water, or the nitre will leave a white 
spot very difficult to remove. If after washing off the 
nitre the ink spot still lingers, make the mixture a little 
stronger and use the second time, and never forget to 
wash it off at once. 


If your coal fire is low, throw on a tablespoon of salt 
and it will help it very much. 


One tablespoonful of turpentine; one tablespoonful of 
sweet oil; emery powder. Mix the turpentine and 
sweet oil together, stirring in sufficient emery powder to 
make the mixture of the thickness of cream. Put it on 
the article with a piece of soft flannel, rub off quickly 
with another piece, then polish with a little emery pow- 
der and clean leather. 


Take out the lower valve in the fall, and drive a tack 
under it, projecting in such a way that it cannot quite 
close. The water will then leak back into the well or 
cistern, while the working qualities of the pump will not 
be damaged. 


To keep starch from sticking to irons rub the irons 

with a little piece of wax or spern. 




Rub exposed parts with kerosene. The odor is not noticed 
after a few minutes, and children especially are much re- 
lieved by its use. 


Take sufficient flour of sulphur to give a golden tinge to 
about one and one half pint of water, and in this boil four 
or five bruised onions, or garlic, which will answer the 
same purpose. Strain off the liquid, and with it, when 
cold, wash, with a soft brush, any gilding which requires 
restoring, and when dry it will come out as bright as new 


Keep them warm ; keep corn constantly by them, but do 
not feed it to them. Feed them with meat scraps when lard 
or tallow has been tried, or fresh meat. Some chop green 
peppers finely, or mix cayenne pepper with corn-meal to 
feed them. Let them have a frequent taste of green food, a 
little gravel and lime, or clam-shells. 


Steel pens are destroyed by corrosion from acid in the ink. 
Put in the ink some nails or old steel pens, and the acid 
will exhaust itself on them, and the pens in use will not 


'Pumpkin seeds are very attractive to mice, and traps 
baited with them will soon destroy this little pest. 



Placed in trunks or drawers will prevent mice from 
doing them injury. 


If it can be avoided/ never wash combs, as the water 
often makes the teeth split, and the tortoiseshell or horn 
of which they are made, rough. Small brushes, manu- 
factured purposely for cleaning combs, may be purchased 
at a trifling cost; with this the comb should be well 
brushed, and afterwards wiped with a cloth or towel. 


Ink-spots on the fingers may be instantly removed by 
a little ammonia. .Rinse the hands after washing in 
clear wate**. A little ammonia in a few spoonfuls of 
alcohol is excellent to sponge silk dresses that have 
grown " shiny" or rusty, as well as to take out spots. 
A silk, particularly a black, becomes almost like new 
when so sponged. 


For cleaning jewelry there is nothing better than am- 
monia and water. If very dull or dirty, rub a little soap 
on a soft brush and brush them in this wash, rinse in 
cold water, dry first in an old handkerchief, and then 
rub with buck or chamois skin. Their freshness and 
brilliancy when thus cleaned cannot be surpassed by any 
compound used by jewelers. 


For washing silver, put half a teaspoonful ammonia into 
the suds; have the water hot;, wash quickly, using a small 
brush, rinse in hot water, and dry with a dean linen 


towei; then rub very dry with a chamois-skin. Washed 
in this manner, silver becomes very brilliant, requires no 
polishing with any of the powders or whiting usually 
employed, and does not wear out. Silver-plate, jewelery, 
and door-plates can be beautifully cleaned and made to 
look like new by dropping a soft cloth or chamois-skin 
in a weak preparation of ammonia-water, and rubbing 
the articles with it. Put half a teaspoonful into clear 
water to wash tumblers or glass of any kind, rinse and 
dry well, and they will be beautifully clear. 


For washing windows, looking-glasses, etc., a little 
ammonia in the water saves much labor, aside from 
giving a better polish than anything else; and for gene- 
ral house-cleaning it removes dirt smoke, and grease, 
most effectually. 


Dissolve two pounds of alum in three or four quarts 
of water. Let it remain over night, till all the alum is 
dissolved. Then, with a brush, apply, boiling hot, to 
every joint 01 crevice in the closet or shelves where Cro- 
ton bugs, ants, cockroaches, etc., intrude; also to the 
joints and crevices of bedsteads, as bed bugs dislike it 
as much as Croton bugs, roaches, or ants. Brush all the 
cracks in the floor and mop-boards. Keep it boiling hot 
while using. 

To keep woollens and furs from moths, two things are 
to be observed first, to see that none are in the articles 
when they are put away, and second to put them where 
the parent moth cannot enter. Tin cases, soldered 
tignt, whiskey barrels headed so that not even a liquid 
can get in or out, have been used to keep out moths. A 
piece of strong brown paper, with not a hole through 


which even a large pin can enter, is just as gool Put 
the articles in a close box and cover every joint with 
paper, or resort to whatever will be a complete covering. 
A wrapper of common cotton cloth, so put around and 
secured, is often used. Wherever a knitting needle will 
oass the parent moth can enter. Carefully exclude the 
insec: and the articles will be safe. 


Persons troubled with carpet moths may get rid of 
them by scrubbing the floor with strong hot salt and 
water before laying the carpet, and sprinkling the carpet 
with salt a week before sweeping. 


To have your sad-irons clean and smooth rub them 
first with a piece of wax tied in a cloth, and afterward 
scour them on a paper or thick cloth strewn with coarse 


A little charcoal thrown into the pot will sweeten meat 
that is a little old. Not if it is anyway tainted it is 
then not fit to eat but only if kept a little longer than 
makes it quite fresh. 


Stove lustre, when mixed with turpentine and ap- 
plied in the usual manner, is blacker, more glossy, and 
more durable than when mixed with any other liquid. 
The turpentine prevents rust, and when put on an old 
justy stove will make it look as well as new. 



Spirits of ammonia, used in sufficient quantity to 
soften the water and ordinary hard soap, will make the 
paint look white and clean with half the effort of any 
other metftod I ever have tried. Care should be taken 
not to have too much ammonia, or the paint will be in- 


This can be done in a few minutes by filling up the 
jars with hot water (it need not be scalding hot), and 
then stirring in a teaspoonful or more of baking soda. 
Shake well, then empty the jar at once, and if any of the 
former odor remains about it, fill again with water and 
soda; shake well, and linse out in cold water. 


Equal proportions of linseed-oi'^ turpentine, vinegar, 
and spirits of wine. 

Mode : When used, shake the mixture well, and rub on 
the furniture with a piece of linen rag, and polish with 
a clean duster. Vinegar and oil, rubbed in with flannel, 
and the furniture rubbed with a clean duster, produce a 
very good polish. 

Squeaking doors ought to have the hinges oiled by a 
feather dipped in some linseed oil. 

A soft cloth, wetted in alcohol, is excellent to wipe off 
French plate-glass and mirrors. 

A reel-hot iron will soften old putty so that it can be 



Make a thick paste by wetting starch with cold water. 
Spread this on the stain, first putting the mattress in the 
sun ; rub this off after an hour or so, and if the ticking is not 
clean try the process again. * 


For plain white use one pound white glue, twenty pounds 
English whiting ; dissolve glue by boiling in about three 
pints of water ; dissolve whiting with hot water ; make the 
consistency of thick batter ; then add glue and one cup soft 
soap. Dissolve a piece of alum the size of a hen's egg, add 
and mix the whole thoroughly. Let it cool before using. 
If too thick to spread nicely add more water till it spreads 
easily. For blue tints add five cents worth of Prussian blue 
and a little Venetian red for lavender. For peach blow use 
red in white alone. The above quantity is enough to 
cover four ceilings, sixteen feet square, with two coats, 
and will not rub off as the whitewash does made of 


There are many ways, but we mention those that are 
the most reliable. Take a perfectly clean broom, and 
wet the walls all over with clean water ; then with a 
small sharp hoe or scraper scrape off all the old white 
wash you can. Then cut your paper of the right length, 
and, when you are all ready to put on the paper, wet the 
wall with strong vinegar. Another way is to make very 
thin paste by dissolving one pound of white glue in five 
quarts of warm water, and wash the walls with it before 
putting on the paper. A very good way is to apply the 
paste to both paper and wall. The paste may be made 
from either wheat or rye flour, but must be put on warm. 



Take out the steels at front and sides, then scrub 
thoroughly with tepid or cold lather of white castile 
soap, using avdy small scrubbing brush. Do not lay 
them in water. When quite clean let cold water run on 
them freely from the spigot to rinse out the soap thor- 
oughly. Dry without ironing (after pulling lengthwise 
until they are straight and shapely) in a cool place. 


Do not use soap, but put a tablespoon of hartshorn 
into the water, having it only tepid, and dip up and 
down until clean; then dry with the brushes down, and 
,hey will be like new ones. If you do not have ammo- 
nia, use soda; a teaspoonful dissolved in the water will 
do very well. 


There are many conflicting theories in regard to the 
proper way to wash flannels, but I am convinced, from 
careful observation, that the true way is to wash them 
in water in which you can comfortably bear your hand. 
Make suds before putting the flannels in, and do not rub 
soap on the flannel. I make it a rule to have only one 
piece of flannel put in the tub at a time. Wash in two 
suds if much soiled; then rinse thoroughly in clean, 
weak suds, wring, and hang up; but do not take flannels 
out of warm water and hang out in a freezing air, a| 
that certainly tends to shrink them. It is better to dri 
them in the house, unless the sun shines. In washing 
worsted goods, such as men's pantaloons, pursue the 
same course, only do not wring them, but hang them up 
aiid let them drain; while a little damp bring in and 
press smoothly with as hot an iron as you can use with- 


out scorching the goods. The reason for not wringing 
them is to prevent wrinkles. 


Cream-colored Spanish lace can be cleaned and made 
to look like new by rubbing it in dry flour; rub as if you 
were washing in water. Then take it outdoors and 
shake all the flour out; if not perfectly clean, repeat ihe 
rubbing in a little more clean flour. The flour must be 
very thoroughly shaken from the lace, or the result wiil 
be far from satisfactory. White knitted hoods can be 
cleaned in this way; babies' socks also, if only slightly 


The best way to prepare a new iron kettle for use is to 
fill it with clean potato peelings, boil them for an hour 
or more, then wash the kettle with hot water; wipe it 
dry, and rub it with a little lard; repeat the rubbing f<jr 
half a dozen times after using. In this way you v. ill 
prevent rust and all the annoyances liable to occur in 
the use of a new kettle. 


Boil three or four onions in a pint of water and apply 
with a soft brush. 


In laying aside knives, or other steel implements, they 
should be slightly oiled and wrapped in tissue paper to 
prevent their rusting. A salty atmosphere will in a short 
time quite ruin all steel articles, unless some such pre- 
caution is taken. 



For mending valuable glass objects, which would be 
disfigured by common cement, chrome cement may be 
used. This is a mixture of five parts of gelatine to one 
of a solution of acid chromate of lime. The broken 
edges are covered with this, pressed together and ex- 
posed to sunlight, the effect of the latter being to render 
the compound insoluble even in boiling water. 


Excellent paper for packing may be made of old news- 
papers; the tougher the paper of course the better. A 
mixture is made of copal varnish, boiled linseed oil and 
turpentine, in equal parts. It is painted on the paper 
with a flat varnish brush an inch and a half wide, and 
the sheets are laid out to dry for a few minutes. This 
paper has been very successfully used for packing plants 
for sending long distances, and is probably equal to the 
paper commonly used by nurserymen. 


To make one gallon, take one ounce of violet analine; 
dissolve it in one gill of hot alcohol. Stir it a few mo- 
mente. When thoroughly dissolved add one gallon of 
boiling water, and the ink 'is made. As the aniline co' 
ors vary a greac deal in quality, the amount of dilut'^ 
must vary with the sample used and the shade deter* 
mined by trial. 


The unpleasant odor produced by perspiration is fre- 
quently the source of vexation to persons who are sub- 
ject to it. Nothing is simpler than to remove this odor 


much more effectually than by the application of such 
costly unguents and perfumes as are in use. It is only 
necessary to procure some of the compound spirits of 
ammonia, and place about two tablespoonsful in a basin 
of water. Washing the face, hands, and arms with this 
leaves the skin as clean, sweet, and fresh as one could 
wish. The wash is perfectly harmless and very cheap. 
It is recommended on the authority of an experienced 


Make a thick mucilage by boiling a handful of flax seed; 
add a little dissolved toilet soap; then, when the mixture 
cools, put the glove on the hands and rub them with a 
piece of white flannel wet with the mixture. Do not wet 
the gloves through. 


Take a pint of alcohol and put in thirty drops of oil of 
lemon, thirty of bergamot, and half a gill of water. It 
musk or lavender is desired, add the same quantity oJ 
each. The oils should be put in the alcohol and shakes 
well before the water is added. Bottle it for use. 


By rubbing a fresh lemon thoroughly into a soured 
sponge and rinsing it several times in lukewarm water, 
'*, will become as sweet as when new. 


^indows may be kept free from ice and polished by 
rubbing the glass with a sponge dipped in alcohol. 

To remove blood stains from cloth, saturate with kero- 
sene, and after standing a little wash in warm water. 



One ounce of lard, one ounce of spermaceti, one ounce 
of camphor, one ounce of almond oil, one half cake of 
white wax; melt and turn into. moulds. 


Take one ounce of spermaceti and one ounce of white 
Wax, melt and run it into a thin cake on a plate. A 
piece the size of a quarter dollar added to a quart of 
prepared starch gives a beautiful lustre to the clothes 
and prevents the iron from sticking. 


Cover the feathers with a paste made of pipe-clav and 
water, rubbing them one way only. When quite dry, 
shake off all the powder and curl with a knife. Grebe 
feathers may be washed with white soap in soft water. 


To test nutmegs prick them with a pin, and if they are 
good the oil will instantly spread around the puncture. 


Mica in stoves when smoked, is readily cleaned by tak. 
ing it out and thoroughly washing with vinegar a httls 
diluted. If the black does not come off at once, let if 
soak a little. 


Add half a pound of the best quick lime, dissolved in 
water to every hundred gallons. Smaller proportions 
may be more conveniently managed, and if allowed to 


stand a short time the lime will have united with the 
carbonate of lime and been deposited at the bottom of 
the receptacle. Another way is to put a gallon of lye 
into a barrelful of water. 


Powdered cevadilla one ounce, powdered staves-acre 
one ounce, powdered panby seed one ounce, powdered 
tobacco one ounce. Mix well and rub among the roots 
of the hair thoroughly. 


Wet the bruised spot with warm water. Soak a piece 
of brown paper of several thicknesses in warm water, 
and layover the place. Then apply a warm flat iron until 
the moisture is gone. Repeat the process if needful, and 
the bruise will disappear. 


Powdered carbonate of ammonia, one ounce; strong 
solution of ammonia, half a fluid ounce; oil of rosemary, 
ten drops; oil of bergamot, ten drops. Mix, and while 
moist put in a wide-mouthed bottle which is to be well 


Pounded glass, mixed with dry corn-meal, and placed 
within the reach of rats, it is said, will banish them from 
the premises; or sprinkle cayenne pepper in their holes 


Take of ivory-black and treacle each four ounces; sul 
phuric acid, one ounce; best olive oil, two spoonfuls, besl 
;vh He- wine vinegar, three half-pints; mix the ivory-black 


and treacle well in an earthen jar; then add the sulphuric 
acid, continuing to stir the mixture; next pour in the oil; 
and^ lastly, add the vinegar, stiring it in by degrees un- 
til thoroughly incorporated. 


Wash the plate well to remove all grease, in a strong 
lather of common yellow soap and boiling water, and 
wipe it quite dry; then mix as much hartshorn powder as 
wul be required, into a thick paste, with cold water or 
spirits of wine; smear this lightly over the plate with a 
piece of soft rag, and leave it for some little time to dry. 
When perfectly dry, brush it off quite clean with a soft 
plate-brush, and polish the plate with a dry leather. It 
the plate be very dirty, or much tarnished, spirits of wine 
will be found to answer better than the water for mixing 
the paste. 


Roll up in small pieces some soft brown or blotting 
paper; wet them, and soap them well. Put them into 
the decanters about one quarter full of warm water; 
shake them well for a few moments, then rinse with clear 
cold water; wipe the outsides with a nice dry cloth, put 
the decanters to drain, and when dry they will be almost 
as bright as new ones. 


Spots on towels and hosiery will disappear with htdva 
trouble if a little ammonia is put into enough water to 
soak the articles, and they are left in it an hour or two 
before washing; and if a cupful is put into the water in 
which white clothes are soaked the night before washing, 
the ease with which the articles can be washed, and theii 
great whiteness and clearness when dried will be very 


gratifying. Remembering the small sum paid for three 
quarts of ammonia of common strength, one can easily 
see that no bleaching preparation can be more cheaply 

No articles in kitchen use are so likely to be neglected 
and abused as the dish-cloths and dish-towels; and in 
washing these, ammonia, if properly used, is a greater 
comfort than anywhere else. Put a teaspoon ful into the 
water in which these cloths are, or should be \vasheq 
every day; rub soap on the towels. Put them in the 
water; let them stand a half hour or so, then rub them 
out thoroughly, rinse faithfully, and dry out-doors in 
clear air and sun, and dish-cloths and towels need never 
look gray and dingy a perpetual discomfort to all house- 


Croup, it is said, can be cured in one minute, and the 
remedy is simply alum and sugar. The way to accom- 
plished the deed is to take a knife or grater, and shave 
off in small particles about a teaspoonful of alum; then 
mix it with twice its amount of sugar, to make it palata- 
ble, and administer it as quickly as possible. Almost 
instantaneous relief will follow. 

In the summer season it is not an uncommon thing 
r persons going into the woods to be poisoned by con- 
tact wi*h dogwood, ivy, or the poison oak. The severe 
itching and smarting which is thus produced may be re- 
lieved by first washing the parts with a solution of 
saleratus, two teaspoonfuls to the pint of water, and then 
applying cloths wet with extract of hamammellis. Take 
a dose of Epsom salts internally or a double Rochelle 



Convulsion fits sometimes follow the feverish rest- 
lessness produced by these causes; in which case a hot 
bath should be administered without delay, and the 
lower parts of the body rubbed, the bath being as hot as 
it can be without scalding the tender skin. 


A burn or scald is always painful; but the pain can be 
instantly relieved by the use of bi-carbonate of soda, or 
common .baking soda (saieratus). Put two tablespoons- 
lul of soda in a half cup of water. Wet a piece of linen 
}oth in the solution and lay it en the burn. The pain 
will disappear as if by magic. If the burn is so deep 
that the skin has peeled off, dredge the dry soda direc* 
tly on the part affected. 


For a slight cuts there is nothing better to control the 
hemorrhage than common unglazed brown wrapping 
paper, such as is used by marketmen and grocers; a 
piece to be bound over the wound. 


A flannel dipped in boiling water, and sprinkled with 
turpentine, laid on the chest as quickly as possible, will 
relieve the most severe cold or hoarseness. 


Many children, especially those of a sanguineoui 
temperament, are subject to sudden discharges of blooo 
from some part of the body; and as all such fluxes ar* 
\n general the result of an effort of nature to relieve th* 


system from some overload or pressure, such discharges, 
anless in excess, and when likely T produce debility, 
should not be rashly or too abruptly Checked. In gen- 
eral, these discharges are confined to the summer o** 
spring months of the year, and follow pains in the head, 
a sense of drowsiness, languor, or oppression ; and as 
such symptoms are relieved by the loss of Wood, the 
hemorrhage should, to a certain extent, be ei rouraged. 
When, however, the bleeding is excessive, or i\vvrns too 
frequently, it becomes necessary to apply meanv \o sub- 
due or mitigate the amount. For this purpose tk % s ud- 
den and unexpected application of cold is itself suffidea^ 
in most cases, to arrest the most active hemorrhage. * - 
wet towel laid suddenly on the back, between the shou! 
ders, and placing the child in a recumbent posture i? 
often sufficient to effect the object; where, however, the 
effusion resists such simple means, napkins wrung out of 
cold water must be laid across the forehead and nose, 
the hands dipped in cold water, and a bottle of ho; 
water applied to the feet. If, in spite of these means, 
the bleeding continues, a little fine wool or a few folds 
of lint, tied together by a piece of thread, must be 
pushed up the nostril from which the blood flows, to act 
as a plug and pressure on the bleeding vessel. When 
the discharge has entirely ceased, the plug is to be pulled 
out by means of the thread. To prevent a repetition of 
the hemorrhage, the body should be sponged ever morn- 
ing with cold water, and the child put under a course of 
steel wine, have open-air exercise, and, if possible, salt- 
water bathing. For children, a key suddenly dropped 
down the back between the skin and clothes, will often 
immediately arrest a copious bleeding. 


Chilblains are most irritating to children. The fol- 
lowing is an infallible cure for unbroken chilblains; 


Hydrochloric acid, diluted, one quarter ounce; hydro- 
cyanic acid, diluted, 30 drops; camphor-water, six 
ounces. This chilblain lotion cures mild cases by one 
application. It is i. deadly poison, and should be kept 
under lock and key. A responsible person should apply 
it' to the feet of children. This must not be applied to 
broken chilblains. 


Mix common earth with water to about the consistency 
of mud. Apply at once. 


Alum reduced to an impalpable powder, two drachms; 
nitrous spirit of ether, seven drachms; mix and apply to 
the tooth. 


A piece of food lodged in the throat may sometimes 
be pushed down with the finger, or removed with a. hair- 
pin quickly straightened and hooked at the end, or by 
two or three vigorous blows on the back between the 

A very excellent carminative powder for flatulent in- 
fants may be kept in the house, and employed with ad- 
vantage, whenever the child is in pain or griped, by 
dropping five grains of oil of aniseed and two of pepper- 
mint on half an ounce of lump sugar, and rubbing it ire 
a mortar, with a drachm of magnesia, into a fine powder. 
A small quantity of this may be given in a kittle water 
at any time, and always with benefit. 



A new remedy for catarrh is crushed cubeb berries 
Smoked *n a pipe, emitting the smoke through the nose; 
after a few trials this will be easy to do. If the nose is 
stopped up so that it is almost impossible to breathe, one 
pipeful will make the head as clear as a bell. For sore 
throat, asthma, and bronchitis, swallowing the smoke 
effects immediate relief. It is the best remedy in the 
world for offensive breath, and will make the most foul 
breath pure and sweet. Sufferers from that horrid dis- 
ease, ulcerated catarrh, will find this remedy unequaled, 
and a month's use will cure the most obstinate case. A 
single trial will convince anyone. Eating the uncrushed 
berries is also good for sore throat and all bronchial 
complaints. After smoking, do not expose yourself to 
cold air for at least fifteen minutes. 


For any form of diarrhoea that, by excessive action, 
demands a speedy correction, the most efficacious remedy 
that can be employed in all ages and conditions of child- 
hood is the tincture of kino, of which from ten to thirty 
drops, mixed with a little sugar and water in a spoon, 
are to be given every two or three hours till the undue 
action has been checked. Often the change of diet to 
rice, milk, eggs, or the substitution of animal for vegeta- 
ble food, vice versa, will correct an unpleasant and almost 
chronic state of diarrhoea. 

If it is not convenient to fill flannel bags for the sick 
room with sand, bran will answer the purpose very well r 
and will retain the heat a long time. 




The only safe remedy in case of a bite from a dog sue- 
pected of madness, is to burn out the wound thoroughly 
with red-hot iron, or with lunar caustic, for fully eight 
seconds, so as to destroy the entire surface of the wound. 
Do this as soon as possible, for no time is to be lost. Of 
course it will be expected that the parts touched with the 
caustic will turn black. 


Measles and scarlatina much resemble each other in their 
early stages ; headache, restlessness, and fretfulness are the 
symptoms of both. Shivering fits, succeeded by a hot skin ; 
pains in the back and limbs, accompanied by sickness, and, 
in severe cases, sore throat ; pain about the jaws, difficulty 
in swallowing, running at the eyes, which become red 
and inflamed, while the face is hot and flushed, often 
distinguish scarlatina and scarlet fever, of which it is only 
a mild form. While the case is doubtful, a dessertspoonful 
of spirit of nitre diluted in water, given at bedtime, will 
throw the child into a gentle perspiration, and will bring 
out the rash in either case. In measles, this appears first 
on the face ; in scarlatina, on the chest ; and in both cases, 
a doctor should be called in. In scarlatina, tartar-emetic 
powder or ipecacuhana may be administered in the mean- 


Styes are little abcesses which form between the roots 
of the eyelashes, and are rarely larger than a small pea. 
The best way to manage them is to bathe them frequently 
with warm water ; or in warm poppy-water, if very pain- 
ful. When they have burst, use an ointment composed 
of one part of citron ointment and four of spermaceti, 


well rubbed together, and smear along the edge of the eye- 
lid. Give a grain or two of calomel with five or eight 
grains of rhubarb, according fo the age of the child, twice 
a week. The old-fashioned and apparent^ absurd practice 
of rubbing the stye with a ring, is as good and speedy a cure 
as that by any process of medicinal application ; though the 
number of times it is rubbed, or the quality of the ring 
and direction of the strokes, has nothing to do with its 
success. That pressure and the friction excite the vessels 
of the part, and cause an absorption of the effused matter 
under the eyelash. The edge of the nail will answer as well 
as a ring. 


One or two figs eaten fasting is sufficient for some, and 
they are especially good in the case of children, as there is 
no trouble in getting them to take them. A spoon of wheat- 
en bran in a glass of water is a simple remedy and quite 


Is caused generally by lack of power in the digestive 
organs to digest and assimilate the fat-producing elements 
of food. First restore digestion, take plenty of sleep, drink 
all the water the stomach will bear in the morning on 
rising, take moderate exercise in the open air, eat oatmeal, 
cracked wheat, Graham mush, baked sweet apples, roasted 
and broiled beef, cultivate jolly people, and bathe 


Are best left alone. Shaving only increases the strength 
of the hair, and all depilatories are dangerous and 
sometimes disfigure the face. The only sure plan is 
to spread on a piece of leather equal parts of gar- 


banum and pitch plaster, lay it on the hair as smoothly 
as possible, let it remain three or four minutes, then re- 
move it with the hairs, root and branch. This is severe 
but effective. Kerosene will also remove them. If sore 
after using, rub on sweet oil. 


Nothing makes one so disagreeable to others as a bad 
breath. It is caused by bad teeth, diseased stomach, or 
disease of the nostrils. Neatness and care of the health 
will prevent and cure it. 


Pulverize one pound of fresh quill-red Peruvian bark, 
and soak it in one pint of diluted alcohol. Strain and 
evaporate down to one half pint. For the first and 
<econd days give a teaspoonful every three hours. If 
too much is taken, headache will result, and in that case 
the doses should be diminished. On the third day give 
one half a teaspoonful; on the fourth reduce the dose 
to fifteen drops, then to ten, and then to five. Seven 
days, it is said, will cure average cases, though some re- 
quire a whole month. 


Cut slices of salt pork or fat bacon; simmer a few 
moments in hot vinegar, and apply to throat as hot as 
possible. When this is taken off, as the throat is re- 
lieved, put around a bandage of soft flannel. A gargle 
of equal parts of borax and alum, dissolved in water, is 
also excellent. To be used frequently. 


Boil two ounces of flaxseed in one quart of water; 
strain and add two ounces of rock candy, one half m"" 


of honey, juice of three lemons; mix, and let all boil 
well; let cool, and bottle. Dose : one cupful on going to 
bed, one half cupful before meals. The hotter you drink 
it the better. 

A handful of flour bound on the cut. 


How often we hear women who do their own cooking 
say that by the time they have prepared 'a meal, and it is 
ready for the table, they are too tired to eat. One way 
to mitigate this is to take, about half an hour before din- 
ner, a raw egg, beat it until light, put in a little sugar 
and milk, flavor it, and "drink it down;" it will remove 
the faint, tired -out feeling, and will not spoil your appe- 
tite for dinner. 


Appiy a cloth wrung out in very hot water, and renew 
frequently until the pain ceases. Or apply raw beef- 


There is scarcely any ache to \vhich children are sub- 
ject so hard to bear and difficult to cure as the earache; 
but there is a remedy never known to fail. Take a bit 
cf cotton batting, put upon it a pinch of black pepper, 
gather it upan.l tie it, dip in sweet oil and insert into 
the ear; put a flannel bandage over the head to keep it 
warm. It will give immediate relief. As soon as any 
soreness is felt in the ear, let three or four drops of the 
tincture of arnica be poured in and the orifice be filled 
with a little cotton wool to exclude the air. If the arni- 
ca be not resorted to until there is actual pain, then the 


cure may not be as speedy, but it is just as certain, al- 
though it may be necessary to repeat the operation. It 
e, a sure preventive against gathering in the ear, which 
/s the usual cause of earache. 


The worst toothache, or neuralgia coming from the 
teeth, may be speedily and delightfully ended by the ap- 
plication of a bit of clean cotton, saturated in a solution 
of ammonia, to the defective tooth. Sometimes the late 
sufferer is prompted to momentary laughter by the ap- 
plication, but the pain will disappear. 


Take common rock salt, as used for salting down pork 
or beef, dry in an oven, then pound it fine and mix with 
spirits of turpentine in equal parts; put it in a rag and 
wrap it around the parts affected; as it gets dry put of 
more, and in twenty-four hours you are cured. Tt, 
felon will be dead. 

Coffee pounded in a mortar and roasted on an iron 
plate; sugar burned on hot coals, and vinegar boiled with 
myirh and sprinkled on the floor and furniture of a sick 
room are excellent deodorizers 

THE skin of a boiled egg is the most efficacious rem- 
edy that can be applied to a boil. Peel it carefully, wet 
and apply to the part affected. It will draw off the mat- 
ter, and relieve the soreness in a few hours. 



As soon as the whitlow has risen distinctly, a pretty 
large piece should be snipped out, so that the watery 
matter may readily escape, and continue to flow out as 
fast as produced. A bread-and-water poultice should be 
put on fora few days, when the wound should be bound 
up lightly with some mild ointment, when a cure will be 
speedily completed. Constant poulticing both before 
and after the opening of the whitlow is the only practice 
needed; but as the matter lies deep, when it is necessary 
to open the abscess, the incision must be made deep to 
reach the suppuration. 


Tape-worms are said to be removed by refraining 
from supper and breakfast, and at eight o'clock taking 
one third part of two hundred minced pumpkin seeds, 
the shells of which have been removed by hot water; at 
nine take another third, at ten the remainder, and follow 
it a eleven with strong dose of castor oil. 


Batce large potatoes, put two or more in a woollen 
vtocking; crush them soft and apply to the breast as hot 
fc ; can be borne; repeat constantly till relieved. 

A GOOD remedy for blistered feet from long walking is 
to rub the feet at going to bed with spirits mixed with 
tallow dropped from a lighted candle into the palm of 
ihe hand. 

A I.ADY writes that sufferers from asthma should get a 
muskrat skin and wear it over their lungs, with the fur 
side next t.o the body. It will bring certain relief. 



Powdered starch is an excellent preventive of chap- 
ping of the hands, when it is rubbed over them after 
washing and drying thejn thoroughly. It will also pre- 
vent the needle in sewing from sticking and becoming 
rusty. It is therefore advisable to have a small box of it 
in the work-box or basket, and near your wash-basin. 


Lunar caustic, carefully applied so as not U< touch the 
skin, will destroy warts. 



Finest Turkey rhubarb, half an ounc^,; carbonate mag- 
nesia, one ounce; mix intimately; keep well corked in 
glass bottle. Dose: one teaspoonful, in milk and sugar, 
the first thing in the morning; repent till cured. Tried 
with success. 


Four ounces galangal root in a quart of gin, steeped 
in a warm place; take jften. 

FOR a simple fainting fit a horizontal position and 
fresh air will usually suffice. If a person received a se- 
vere shock caused by a fall or blow, handle carefully 
without jarring. A horizontal position is best. Loosen 
all tight clothing from the throat, chest, and waist. If 
the patient can swallow, give half teaspoonful aromatic 
soirits of ammonia in a little water. If that cannot be 
procured, give whiskey or biandy and water. Apply 
warmth to the feet and bowel/,. 



Shower with cold water for two hours; if the patient 
does not show signs of life, put salt in the water, and 
continue to shower an hour longer. 


The first thing to be done is to take off and throw 
away tight-fitting boots, which hurt the tender feet as 
much as if they were put into a press. Then take one 
pint of wheat bran and one ounce of saleratus, and put 
it into a foot-bath, and add one gallon of hot water. 
When it has become cool enough put in the feet, soak 
them for fifteen minutes, and the relief will be almost 
immediate. Repeat this every night for a week, and the 
cure"will be complete. The burning, prickly sensation 
is caused by the pores of the skin being closed up so 
tightly by the pressure of the boots that they cannot 
perspire freely. 


Warm water is preferable to cold water as a drink to 
persons who are subject to dyspeptic and bilious com- 
plaints, and it may be taken more freely than cold water, 
^nd consequently answers better as a diluent for carry- 
/ig off bile, and removing obstructions in the urinary 
secretion, in cases of stone and gravel. When water of 
a temperature equal to that of the human body is used 
for drink, it proves considerably stimulant, and is par- 
ticularly suited to dyspeptic, bilious, gouty, and chloro- 
tic subjects. 



By the time the upper part of the house is well cleaned 
and in good order, if it have been taken one room at a 


time, and leisurely, probably, the dining-room can be 
torn up on a warm and pleasant day, and unless the al- 
terations are to be extensive, scoured and gotten to 
rights again before nightfall. And the sitting-room on 
another day. House cleaning, unless conducted on some 
plan which occasions little if any disturbance in the 
general domestic arrangement, is a nuisance, particularly 
to the males of the household. Nothing can be (next to 
a miserable dinner) more exasperating to a tired man, 
than to come home and find the house topsy-turvy. 
And it certainly raises his opinion of his wife's executive 
ability to find everything freshened and brightened, and 
that without his having been annoyed by the odor of the 
soapsuds, or yet having been obliged to betake himself 
to the kitchen for his meals. 

But if the order of work is well laid out the night be- 
fore-hand, the breakfast as leisurely eaten as usual, and 
the family dispersed in their various ways before com- 
mencing operations, then by working with a will wonders 
can be accomplised in a very short time. It is not worth 
while to undertake a thorough cleaning of all extra china, 
silver and glassware, which may be stored in the china 
closet in addition to the room itself. They can readily 
wait over until another morning, as can the examination 
of table linen. In cleaning any room after the furniture 
and carpets have been taken out and the dust swept out 
with a damp broom, the proper order is to begin with 
the ceiling, then take the walls and windows, and lastly 
the floor. Kalsomine or whitewash dries most quickly 
exposed to free draughts of air, the windows being 
thrown wide open for the purpose, this process can also 
be aided by lighting a fire in the room, either in the 
stove left for the purpose, or in the grate. These means 
are equally good for drying a freshly-scoured floor. 

In lieu of regular carpet wadding, layers of newspapers 
arc very good padding under a carpet, or better yet, 


sheets of thick brown paper will answer very well. Mat- 
ting and green linen shades are delightfully cool in either 
sitting or dining room for summer use, or all through the 
hottest weather if the dinning-room can be left with a 
bare floor, and lightly washed off with cold water before 
breakfast each day it will add greatly to the coolness of 
the room. A fire-place can be arranged with a screen 
before it, or it can be left open, the fixtures taken away, 
and a large stone or pottery jar filled with fresh flowers 
daity set into it. Very showy flowers can in this way be 
made effective in decorating a room. Jars covered with 
pictures of delcalcomania are tawdry-looking. Better 
far to paint them a dull black or bottle-green, or a brick- 
red, with a plain band or geometric design traced in 
some contrasting color. 

In dining-room furniture oak wood with green trim- 
mings and light paint are good contrasting colors, while 
black walnut or mahogany, with red carpet and shades 
of red predominating about the room, look well with 
dark paint. 

In arranging a sitting-room large spaces left empty 
V>ok more comfortable and are more convenient in every 

y than a room huddled too full of furniture. A home 
is not a furniture ware-room nor a fancy bazaar, but a 
place for people to live in, and to grow in, and to move 
about in. 

House-cleaning time presents an opportunity for dis- 
posing of many ostensibly ornamental articles which only 
serve to fill up place, without being either beautiful or 
well made of their kind. 

An empty wall looks better than one hung with 
daubs. Good engravings and plain cheap frames are 
now obtained at such a trifling cost that almost every 
one can afford one or two excellent ones in their sitting- 
room. People living at a distance can easily send to 
some large city for an engraving or two. or. if they prefer 


colored pictures, to some well-known establishment for 
two or three good chromos. I have seen some of the 
best newspaper engravings pinned upon the sitting room 
wall, framed in pressed ferns, with very good effect, in- 
deed. Once a very simple bracket held a glass bumper 
of unique pattern, from which was trailed cypress vines, 
and, mingled with them, a bunch of scarlet lychnis. 
Against the white wall of the room they looked brilliant, 
and the effect was really beautiful. 

When the sitting-room is torn up frequently an array 
of newspapers, missing books, etc., are found huddled 
together in some corner. In setting the room these 
should find their proper places, and .'t would be a good 
thing to keep them there ever after, for, no matter how 
thorough is the cleaning process, untidiness and litter 
will soon make any room appear nearly as badly as 
before it was scoured. 


Soft cloths make the best of dusters. In dusting any 
piece of furniture begin at the top and dust down, wip- 
ing carefully with the cloth, which can be frequently 
shaken. A good many people seem to have no idea wha\. 
dusting is intended to accomplish, and instead of wiping 
off and removing the dust it is simply flirted off into the 
air and soon settles down upon the articles dusted again. 
If carefully taken up by the cloth it can be shaken off 
out of the window into the open air. If the furniture 
will permit the use of a damp cloth, that will more easily 
take up the dust, and it can be washed out in a pail of 
soap-suds. It is far easier to save work by covering up 
nice furniture while sweeping, than to clean the dust 
out, besides leaving the furniture looking far better in 
the long run. The blessing of plainness in decoration is 
appreciated by the thorough housekeeper who does her 
own work while dusting. 



Yes, yes, learn how to cook, girls; arid learn how to 
cook well. What right has a girl to marry and go into 
a house of her own unless she knows how to superintend 
every branch of housekeeping, and she cannot properly 
superintend unless she has some practical knowledge 
herself. It is sometimes asked, sneeringly, " What kind 
of a man is he who would marry a cook ?" The fact is, 
that men do not think enough of this; indeed, most men 
marry without thinking whether the woman of his choice 
is capable of cooking him a meal, and it is a pity he is so 
shortsighted, as his health, his cheerfulness, and, indeed, 
his success in Hfe, depend in a very great degree on the 
kind of food he eats; in fact, the whole household is in- 
fluenced by the diet. Feed them on fried cakes, fried 
meats, hot bread and other indigestible viands, day after 
day, and they will need medicine to make them well. 

Let all girls have a share in housekeeping at home be- 
fore they marry; let each superintend some department 
oy turns. It need not occupy half the time to see that 
the house has been properly swept, dusted, and put in 
srder, to prepare puddings and make dishes, that many 
Toung ladies spend in reading novels which enervate 
Ooth mind and body and unfit them for every-day life. 
Women do not, as a general rule, get pale faces doing 
housework. Their sedentary habits, in overheated rooms, 
combined wJth ill-chosen food, are to blame for bad 
health. Our mothers used to pride themselves on their 
housekeeping and fine needlework. Let the present 
generation add to its list of real accomplishments the art 
of properly preparing food for the human body. 


There is scarcely a busy home mother in the land who 
has not at some time or other felt how much easier it 


would be to do all the work herself than to attempt to 
teach a child to assist her, whether it be in household 
matters or in sewing. Now, we would speak particularly 
of the latter. But it seems almost the right of e^ery 
little girl to be taught to sew neatly, even if it does cost 
the mother some self-sacrifice. Very few grown women 
are wholly exempt from ever using a needle. On the 
contrary, almost every woman must take more or less 
care of her own wardrobe, even if she has no responsi- 
bility for that of any one's around her. Machines cannot 
sew up rips in gloves, replace missing buttons, or make 
or mend without any needlework by hand. Some 
stitches must be taken, and how to sew neatly is an 
accomplishment quite as necessary, if not more so, to 
the happiness of a majority of women than any other. 
If a little girl be early taught how to use her needle, it 
very soon becomes a sort of second nature to her, and 
very little ones can learn to thread the needle and take 
simple stitches. Only the mother must be patient and 
painstaking with them, not letting poor work receive 
praise or permitting the child to slight what she under- 
takes. The stint can be a very short one with very 
little children. It is usually best so, but frequent les- 
sons should be given. 


Take advantage of this to give them physical training. 
Furnish them the apparatus for games which requires a 
good deal of muscular exercise. Those curious little 
affairs which require them to sit on the floor or gather 
about the table and remain in a cramped position, are 
not advisable. 

It is particularly desirable that the games should call 
them into the open air and sunshine. In this way chil- 
dren lay in a stock of health and strength. Remember 
that, particularly in our early years, this is infinitely 


more important than all adornments of the person or 
study of books. 

Let it not be forgotten that symmetrical development 
of the body is of the utmort importance. A child, for ex- 
ample, is weak and round-s);ct'ldered. It is important that 
he should be made strong. It is not less important that 
he should be made straight. Every conceivable exercise 
may tend to increase the strength, but only special exer- 
cises tend to draw the shoulders back, and thus secure 
the rectitude which is the basis of spinal and visceral 
tone. It is not difficult to give children such games and 
sports as will have this special tendency. 


Some parents allow their children to acquire the very 
fude and unmannerly habit of breaking in upon their con- 
versation and those of older persons with questions and 
remarks of their own. It is very uncivil to allow them to 
do so. So, even among their own brothers and sisters 
and schoolmates, of their own age, let them speak with- 
out interrupting. If one begins to tell a story or bit of 
news, teach them to let him finish it; and if he makes 
mistakes that ought to be corrected, do it afterwards. 
Don't allow them to acquire the habit of being interrup- 
ters. Most of those who allow their own children to 
form this disagreeable habit will be exceedingly annoyed 
at the same conduct in other folks' children. The fault 
is that of the parents in not teaching their children. If 
they interrupt at home, tell them to wait till they can 
converse without annoying, and see that they do it. 


The mother who in the fullness of generous love runs 
hither and thither continually to do for the various mem- 
bers of the family those things which th*y should do 


themselves, comes to be regai ded as a useful piece of 
machinery, suited to minister to their wants, but she is 
not regarded with one whit more of love or reverence, 
rather the reverse. By and by, when the mother is 
Worn out in body and spirit, when the child, grown 
older, feels no need of her as its slave, it finds other more 
attractive playmates and companions. 

The mother has necessarily far more labor, care, and 
anxiety than any other member of the household. She 
is continually occupied, and her work seems to have no 
end. Neither husband nor children will love her the 
more for sacrificing herself wholly to them, as many a 
sad, weary mother has learned to her cost. Let her be 
just to herself. Not that she should make slaves of the 
children any more than they should make a slave of her. 
But children like to be useful, like to feel that they are a 
real help to older persons, and if a little praise and per- 
haps, too, a little money is given them, they will learn to 
enjoy the pleasure of helping mother and of earning 
something for themselves, and early taught the dignity 
of labor as well as save their mother a little time to keep 
herself in advance of them in study and thought, in gen- 
eral information, and in spiritual growth, so as to be al- 
ways reverenced as their intellectual and spiritual guide 
and friend and counsellor. 

It has been truly said by Miss Sewell, author of an ex. 
cellent work on education, that " Unselfish mothers make 
selfish children." This may seem startling, but the truth 
is, that the mother who is continually giving up her own 
time, money, strength, and pleasure for the gratification 
of her children teaches them to expect it always. They 
learn to be importunate in their demands, and to ex- 
pect more and more. If the mother wears an old dress 
that her daughter may have a new one, if she work that 
her daughter may play, she is helping to make her vain, 
selfish, and ignorant, and very likely she will be ungrate- 


ful a,nd d : 5-*espectful, and this is equally true of the hus- 
band, and other members of the family. Unselfish wives 
make selfish husbands. 


All furs should be well switched and beaten lightly, 
free from dust and loose hairs, well wrapped in newspa- 
per, with bits of camphor laid about them and in them, 
and put away in a cool dark place. If a cedar closet or 
chest is to be had, laid into that. In lieu of that new 
cedar chips may be scattered about. It is never well to 
delay packing furs away until quite late in the season, 
for the moth will very early commence depredations. 
In packing them they should not be rolled so tightly as 
to crushed and damaged. 


One may possess physical courage, so that in times of 
danger, a railroad accident, a steamboat collision or a 
runaway horse, the heart will not be daunted or the 
cheek paled, while on the other hand, one may be mor- 
ally brave, not afraid to speak a word for the right in 
season, though unwelcome, to perform a disagreeable 
duty unflinchingly or to refuse to do a wrong act and yet 
be a physical coward, trembling and terrified in a thun- 
der-storm, timid in the dark, and even scream at the 
sight of a mouse. Courage, both moral and physical, is 
one of the finest attributes of character, and both can be 
cultivated and gained if desired and sought after. Some 
girls think it interesting and attractive to be terrified at 
insects, and will shriek with fright if they happen to be 
chased a few rods by a flock of geese, but they only excite 
laughter and do not gain the admiration which a brave 
girl whp tries to help herself, would deserve. 



It is far easier to find fault with existing customs than to 
Revise and put into practice other and better ones. 

Ladies do not like to appear singular, and make them- 
selves conspicuous by wearing such articles of dress as are 
laughed at, possibly, certainly not worn by any other persons 
in the city or country in which she may belong. And so 
the matter goes on. Manufacturers, dry goods dealers, 
and milliners, and dressmakers carry the day with a high 
hand. Yet there is always some choice, and as, thanks to 
our civilized habits, a full-length mirror is obtainable by 
most ladies, given the resolution to make the most and 
the best of themselves, the greater number of women can 
so study the art of dressing well as to produce some excellent 

. It will hardly do to copy the old masters of painting in 
the arrangement of drapery, at least anyways closely, for no 
matter how well the voluminous folds may look painted, 
they certainly would be very much in the way in real life, 
and impede any free action of the muscles somewhat, while 
the length of sweeping gowns certainly looks more in place 
on painted canvas than it can do on an ordinary walking 
dress. Ladies have realized this fact however, and the short 
walking-skirt at once pretty and convenient, has been the 

In some places the common-sense shoe can be found 
and this permits the muscles of the foot, i not the 
freest, yet fair play. One great mistake in the dressing 
of the feet is in getting the covering too short. It will 
throw back the toe joints, and a bunion is only too fre- 
quently the result. If the soles of the shoes are too thin, 
the feet become chilled, and disease ensues. Yet in re- 
peated instances they have been known to draw the feet 
and made them exceedingly tender and sore. A light 
cork sole sewed to a knitted worsted slipper will give a 


foot covering equally light and far less injurious in its 
results. , 

There are ladies who wholly ignore woollen hosiery, 
preferring lisle thread, cotton or silk. Yet in winter 
time, particularly for children, woollen stockings are al- 
most a necessity, particularly if woollen is worn over the 
rest of the body. There are some few people who can- 
not abide the feeling of woolen garments next the skin, 
and they are obliged to get their warmth of clothing in 
other than their undergarments. Heavy outside gar- 
ments are never quite so graceful as those of softer and 
lighter material.. But if they must be worn they will 
bear a plainer cut than such clothes as are naturally 
clinging, and adapt themselves to the figure. 

Solid and plain colors have a greater richness than 
mixed shades. If combined tints are used, they should 
only be such ones as harmonize well, and in the full- 
length figure give a good personal effect. Probably 
more ladies err in getting good general effects than in 
any other one particular. They have various garments, 
pretty enough, possibly, in t-hemselves, yet which do not 
harmonize well together either in material, color or cut, 
or possibly with their particular style of figure and shade 
of hair and complexion. For example, the skirt will 
have one style of trimming, the waist another, "the bon- 
net may look exceedingly well with one suit, and be 
quite out of keeping with another. A short dumpy per- 
son will wear flounces, a tall slim one stripes, while 
some red-haired woman will fancy an exquisite shade of 
pink, while green or blue would have been much more 

Black generally makes people look smaller, and white 
larger. A very pale person can bear a certain amount of 
bright red. Any delicate complexion looks well with 
soft ruchings or laces at neck and wrist. Lace is so ex- 
pensive that it cannot be so generally worn as it might 


be, with excellent effect. Probably no prettier head 
covering has ever been designed than the veils worn by 
the Spanish women. Certainly they are infinitely more 
graceful than a modern poke bonnet. 

Dress goods cut up into little bits and sewed together 
into fantastical shapes called trimmings, are apt if too 
freely used to give an air of fussiness to the dress, and 
be withal a source of endless annoyance in catching 
dust and dirt. The former ideas of a border or hem to 
finish, has become the greater part of the garment. 

Nothing is gained in grace by making any outside 
garment skin-tight, while much is lost in comfort by so 
doing. A sleeve, for instance, to be serviceable, and 
look well, should be loose and adapt itself somewhat to 
the curve of the arm. Likewise a dress waist looks far 
better a little loose as well as being more healthful and 
wearing better. 

Large, stout persons can add to their appearance much 
by wearing all outside skirts buttoned on to fitted under- 
garments below the hips several inches, for gathers 
about the waist only add to their stoutness of look, and 
are uncomfortable to carry about. A yoked petticoat 
answers the purpose very well in lieu of the buttoned 

A wrapper for a tall slim person can have a Spanish 
flounce, while a slashed skirt with kilt inserts is more 
becoming to a short figure. Large folds are always 
more graceful than small pleats and puckers. One very 
great fault of our dressmaking lies in not allowing the 
goods to fall in large and natural folds, but in bunching 
and pleating it in folding, and pressing the goods down 
into fantastic and inartistic shapes. Added to this, 
paniers, and padding bustles, and hoops, until an ordi* 
nary woman is forced to appear like a stuffed figure in- 
stead of a living human being. 

Every woman can modify, and arrange, and simplify 


and that without becoming either ultra or conspicuous. It 
will take time. That cannot be helped, yet possibly the 
saying in comfort and expense may fully compensate for the 
few hours spent in studying her own dress with the mirror 
before her, and with the determination to make the very 
best and most of herself. 


The art of dressmaking in America has been of late years 
so simplified that almost any one with a reasonable degree 
of executive ability can manufacture a fashionable costume 
by using an approved pattern and following the directions 
printed upon it, selecting a new pattern for each distinct 
style ; while in Europe many ladies adhere to the old 
plan of cutting one model and using it for everything, 
trusting to personal skill or luck to gain the desired 
formation. However, some useful hints are given which 
are well worth offering after the paper pattern has been 

The best dressmakers here and abroad use silk for lining, 
but nothing is so durable or preserves the material as well 
as a firm slate twill. This is sold double width and should 
be laid out thus folded : place the pattern upon it with the 
upper part towards the cut end, the selvedge for the 
fronts. The side pieces for the back will most probably 
be got out of the width, while the top of th<: back will fit 
in the intersect of the front. A good yard of stuff may be 
often saved by 'aying the pattern out and well considering 
how one part cuts into another. Prick the outline 
on to the lining ; these marks serve as a guide for the 

In forming the front side plaits be careful and do not 
allow a fold or crease to be apparent on the bodice be- 
yond where the stitching commences. To avoid this, 
before beginning stick a pin through what is to be the 
{op of the plait. The head will be on the right side, 


and holding the point, one can begin pinning the seam 
without touching the upper part of the bodice. To as- 
certain the size of the buttonholes put a piece of card 
beneath the button to be used and cut it an eighth of an 
inch on either side beyond. Having turned down the 
piece in front on the buttonhole side, run a thread a six- 
teenth of an inch from the extreme edge, and again an- 
other the width of the card. Begin to cut the first 
buttonhole at the bottom of the bodice, and continue .av 
equal distances. The other side of the bodice is left wide 
enough to come well under the buttonholes. The but- 
tonholes must be laid upon it and a pin put through the 
centre of each to mark where the button is to be placed. 
In sewing on the buttons put the stitches in horizontally; 
if perpendicularly they are likely to pucker that side of 
the bodice so much that it will be quite drawn up, and 
the buttons will not match the buttonholes. 


Observe the extra fatigue which is insured to every 
woman in merely carrying a tray upstairs, from the 
skirt of the dress. Ask young women who are studying 
to pass examinations whether they do not find loose 
clothes a sine qua non while poring over their books, and 
then realize the harm we are doing ourselves and the 
race by habitually lowering our powers of life and 
energy in such a manner. As a matter of fact it is 
doubtful whether any persons have ever been found who 
would say that their stays were at all tight; and, indeed, 
by a muscular contraction they can apparently prove 
that they are not so by moving them about on them- 
selves, and thus probably believe what they say. That 
they are in error all the same they can easily assure 
themselves by first measuring round the waist outside the 
stays; then, taken them off, let them measure while they 
take a deep breath, with the tape merely laid on the 


body as if measuring for the quantity of braid to go 
round a dress, and mark the result. The injury done 
by stays is so entirely internal that it is not strange that 
the maladies caused by wearing them should be attrib- 
uted to every reason under the sun except the true one, 
which is, briefly, that all the internal organs, being by 
them displaced are doing their work imperfectly and 
under the least advantageous conditions; and are, there- 
fore, exactly in the state most favorable to the develop- 
ment of disease, whether hereditary or otherwise. Mac- 
millan s Magazine. 


As to sleeves. Measure from the shoulder to the 
elbow and again from elbow to the wrist. Lay these 
measurements on any sleeve patterns you may have, and 
lengthen or shorten accordingly. The sleeve is cut in 
two pieces, the top of the arm and the under part, which 
is about an inch narrower than the outside. In joining 
the two together, if the sleeve is at all tight, the upper 
part is slightly fulled to the lower at the elbow. The 
sleeve is sown to the armhole with no cord ings now, and 
the front seam should be about two inches in front of 
the bodice. 

Bodices are now worn ve"ry tight-fitting, and the 
French stretch the material well on the cross before 
beginning to cut out, and in cutting allow the lining to 
be slightly pulled, so that when on the outside stretches 
to it and insures a better fit. An experienced eye can 
tell a French cut bodice at once, the front side pieces 
being always on the cross. In dress cutting and fitting, 
as in everything e!:.e, there are failures and discourage- 
ments, but practice overrules these little matters, and 
" trying again" brings a sure reward in success. 

A sensible suggestion is made in regard to the finish 
in necks of dresses for morning wear. Plain colors have, 


rather a stiff appearance, tulle or crepe lisse frilling are 
expensive and frail, so it is a good idea, to purchase a few 
yards of really good washing lace, about an inch and a 
half in depth; quill or plait and cut into suitable lengths 
to tack around the necks of dresses. This can be easily 
removed arid cleaned when soiled. Apiece of soft black 
Spanish lace, folded loosely around the throat close to 
the fallings, but below it, looks very pretty; or you may 
get three yards of scarf lace, trim the ends with fallings, 
place it around the neck, leaving nearly all the length in 
the right hand, the end lying upon the left shoulder b^'.ng 
about half a yard long. Wind the larger piece twice 
around the throat, in loose, soft folds, and festoon the 
other yard and a half, and fasten with brooch or flower 
at the side. Philadelphia Times. 


A lady who for a time was compelled to do all of her 
own kitchen work says: " If every iron, pot, pan, kettle , 
or any utensil used in the cooking of food, be washed a 
soon as emptied, and while still hot, half the labor vvil 
be saved." It is a simple habit to acquire, and the wash 
ing of pots and kettles by this means loses some of its 
distasteful aspects. No lady seriously objects to wash- 
ing and wiping the crystal and silver, but to tackle the 
black, greasy, and formidable-looking ironware of the 
kitchen takes a good deal of sturdy brawn and muscle as 
well as common-sense. 

If the range be wiped carefully with brown paper, 
after cooking greasy food, it can be kept bright with lit- 
tle difficulty. 

Stoves and ranges should be kept free from soot in all 
compartments. A clogged hot-air passage will prevent 
any oven from baking well. 

When the draught is imperfect the defect frequently 


arises from the chimney being too low. To remedy th. 
evil the chimney should be built up, or a chimney-pot 

It is an excellent plan for the mistress to acquaint her- 
self with the practical workings of her range, unless her 
servants are exceptionally goo'd, for many hindrances to 
well-cooked food arise from some misunderstanding of, 
or imperfection in, this article. 

A clean, tidy kitchen can only be secured by having a 
place for everything and everything in its place, and by 
frequent scourings of the room and utensils. 

A hand-towel and basin are needed in every kitchen 
for the use of the cook or house-worker. 

Unless dish-towels are washed, scalded and thoroughly 
dried daily, they become musty and unfit for use, as does 
also the dishcloth. 

Cinders. make a very hot fire one particularly good 
for ironing days. 

Milk keeps from souring longer in a shallow pan than 
in a milk pitcher. Deep pans make an equal amount of 

Hash smoothly plastered down will sour more readily 
than if left in broken masses in the chopping bowl, each 
mass being well exposed to the air. 

Sauce, plain, and for immediate use, should not be put 
into a jar and covered while warm, else it will change 
and ferment very quickly. It will keep some days with 
care in the putting up. Let it stand until perfectly cold, 
then put into a stone jar. 

To scatter the Philadelphia brick over the scouring 
board on to the floor, to leave the soap in the bottom of 
the scrubbing pail, the sapolio in the basin of water, and 
to spatter the black lead or stove polish on the floor are 
wasteful, slattern!,)' habits. 

A clock in the kitchen is both useful and necessary. 



Our kitchen is very small; too small, in fact, to be very 
comfortable in, and, moreover, has to serve the double 
purpose of kitchen and laundry. There was no room to 
spare for the large clothes-horse \ve had been accustomed 
to use, nor even for a smaller clothes-screen we thought 
of purchasing. In this emergency we happened upon a 
nice frame, which consists of bars of wood secured at one 
end in an iron clamp, which screws on to the side of the 
window frame. These bars move freely around, and 
quite a respectable sized ironing can be* aired upon 
them. We found they were invented and made by a 
dealer in the country who had no patent upon them, and 
so, of course, his sales must be limited, yet they are very 
convenient. The clothes are hung quite out of the way, 
and yet can be well aired. 


A great deal of the sickness families suffer could be 
easily traced to the cellar. The cellar not unusually 
opens into the kitchen, the kitchen is heated, and the 
cellar is not. Following natural laws, the colder air 
of the cellar will rush to take the place of the warmer 
and, therefore, lighter air of the kitchen. This would 
be well enough if the cellar air was pure, but often it is 
not; partly decayed vegetables may be there, or rotten 
wood, etc. A day should be taken to throw out and 
jarry away all dirt, rotten woods, decaying vegetables, 
and other accumulations that have gathered there. 
Brush down the cobwebs, and with a bucket of lime give 
the walls and ceiling a good coat of whitewash. If a 
whitewash brush is not at hand take an old broom that 
the good wife has worn out, and spread the whitewash 


on thick and strong. It will sweeten up the air m the 
cellar, the parlor, and the bedrooms, and it may save the 
family from the afflictions of fevers, diphtheria, and doe- 


No article of furniture should be put in a room that will 
not stand sunlight, for every room in a dwelling should have 
the windows so arranged that some time during the day a 
flood of sunlight will force itself into the apartments. The 
importance of admitting the light of the sun freely to 
all parts of our dwellings cannot be too highly estimated. 
Indeed, perfect health is nearly as much dependent on pure 
sunlight as it is on pure ^ir. Sunlight should never be 
excluded except when so bright as to be uncomfortable 
to the eyes. And walks should be in bright sunlight, so 
that the eyes are protected by veil or parasol when incon- 
veniently intense. A sun-bath is of more importance in pre- 
serving a healthful condition of the body than is generally 

A sun-bath costs nothing, and that is a misfortune, for 
people are deluded with the idea that those things only can 
be good or useful which cost money. But remember that 
pure water, fresh air and sunlit homes kept free from damp- 
ness, will secure you from many heavy bills of the doctors 
and give you health and vigor, which no money can pro- 
cure. It is a well established fact that people who live 
much in the sun are usually stronger and more healthy than 
those whose occupations deprive them of sunlight. And 
certainly there is nothing strange in the result, since the 
same law applies with nearly equal force to every animate 
thing in nature. It is quite easy to arrange an isolated 
dwelling so that every room may be flooded with sunlight 
some time in the day, and it is possible many town houses 
could be so built as to admit more light than they now re* 



Handsome furniture will not, unaided, make rooms 
jiieerful. The charm of a cosy home rests principally 
with its mistress. If she is fortunate enough to have 
sunny rooms, her task is half done. In apartments into 
which the sun never shines recourse must be had to 
Various devices to make up, so far as may be, for this 
grave lack. A sunless room should have bright and joy 
DUS color in its furnishings. The walls should be warm- 
ly tinted, the curtains give a roseate glow to the light 
that passes through them. An open fire may diffuse the 
sunshine but lately imprisoned in oak or hickory, or 
ages ago locked up in anthracite. Ferneries and shade- 
loving plants may contribute their gentle cheer to the 
room and suggest quiet forest nooks. An attractive 
room need not be too orderly. A book left lying on the 
table, a bit of needle-work on the window-sill, an open 
piano, may indicate the tastes and occupations of the in- 
mates without suggesting that there is not a place for 
everything in that room. There is such a thing as being 
too neat and nice to take comfort in everyday life, and 
this is anything but cheerful. And then there is such s> 
thing as being so disorderly and negligent that comfort 
and cheer are impossible. If the house-mother cannot 
rest while there is a finger-mark on the paint or a spot on 
the window-panes, she may make a neat room, but hei 
splint will keep it from ever being cheerful. If she has 
no care for the " looks of things" her failure will be 
equally sure. A bird singing in the window, an aqua- 
rium on the table in some corner, plants growing and 
blooming, domestic pets moving about as if at home, 
these give life and brightness to an apartment, and afford 
constant opportunities for the pleasantest occupation 
and companionship. Books people a room, and pictures 
on the walls, if selected with taste, are ever fresh sources 


of enjoyment. You may gauge the refinement and 
Cultivation of a family by these infallible tests, unless 
they have been selected by some outsider. Bits of em- 
broidery, of scroll-work, and a thousand tasteful devices 
may contribute to the charm of a room and make it 
irresistibly attractive. 


Where is the woman who would not be beautiful? If 
such there be but no, slie does not exist. From that 
memorable day when the Queen of Sheba made a for- 
mal call on the late lamented King Solomon until the re- 
cent advent of the Jersey Lily, the power of beauty has 

controlled the fate of ^vnasties and the lives of men. 

"*". * 
How to be beautiful, and consequently powerful, is a 

question of far greater importance to the feminine mind 
than predestination or any other abstract subject. If 
women are to govern, control, manage, influence, and re- 
tain the adoration of husbands, fathers, brothers, lovers, 
or even cousins, they must look their prettiest at all 

All women cannot have good features, but they can 
look well, and it is possible to a great extent to correct 
deformity and" develop much of the figure. The first 
step to good looks is good health, and the first element 
of health is cleanliness. Keep clean wash freely, bathe 
regularly. All the skin wants is leave to act, and it takes 
care of itself. In the matter of baths we do not strong- 
ly advocate a plunge in ice-cold wat*,r; it takes a woman 
with some of the clear grit that Robert Collyer loves to 
dilate on and a strong constitution to endure it. If a hot 
bath be used, let it come before retiring, as there is less 
danger of taking cold afterward; and, besides, the body 
?s weakened by the ablution and needs immediate rest. 
It is well to use a flesh brush, and afterwards rinse off 
the soapsuds by briskly rubbing the body with a pair o? 


coarse toilet gloves. The most important part of a bath 
is the drying. Every part of the body should be rubbed 
to a glowing redness, using a coarse crash towel at the 
finish. If sufficient friction cannot be given, a small 
amount of bay rum applied with the palm of the hand 
will be found efficacious. Ladies who have ample leis- 
ure and who lead methodical lives take a plunge or 
sponge bath three times a week, and a vapor or sun bath 
every day. To facilitate this very beneficial practice a 
south or east apartment is desirable. The lady denudes 
herself, takes a seat near the window, and takes in the 
warm rays of the sun. The effect is both beneficial and 
delightful. If, however, she be of a restless disposition, 
she may dance, instead or basking, in the sunlight. Or, 
if she be not fond of dancing, she may improve the shin- 
ing hours by taking down her hair and brushing it, using 
sulphur water, pulverized borax dissolved in alcohol, or 
some similar dressing. It would be surprising to many 
ladies to see her carefully wiping the separate locks on a 
clean, white towel until the du..3t of the previous day is 
entirely removed. With such care it is not necessary to 
wash the head, and the hair under this treatment is in- 
variably good. 

One of the most useful articles of the toilet is a bottle 
i>f ammonia, and any lady who has once learned ita 
olue will never be without it. A few drops in the water 
takes the place of the usual amount of soap, and cleans 
out the pores of the skin as well as a bleach will do. 
Wash the face with a flesh brush, and rub the lips well 
' o tone their color. It is well to bathe the eyes before 
put rig in the spirits, and if it is desirable to increase 
*he:r brightness, this may be done by dashing soapsuds 
nto them. Always nib the eyes, in washing, toward the 
nose. If the eyebrows are inclined to spread irregular- 
ly, pinch the hairs together where thickest. If they 
show a tendency to meet, this contact may be avoided 


by pulling out the hairs every morning before the 

The dash of Orientalism in costume and lace now turns 
a lady's attention to her eyelashes, which are worthless if 
not: long and drooping. Indeed, so prevalent is the desire 
far this beautiful feature that hair-dresser sand ladies' artists 
have scores of customers aider treatment for invigorating 
their stunted eyelashs and eye-brows. To obtain these 
fringed curtains, anoint the roots with a balsam made of two 
drachms of nitric oxide of mercury mixed with one of leaf 
lard. After an application wash the roots with a camel's 
hair brush dipped in warm milk. Tiny scissors are used, 
with which the lashers are carefully but slightly trimmed 
every other day. When the obtained, refrain from rubbing 
or even touching the lids with the finger-nails. There is 
more beauty in a pair of well-kept eye-brows and full, sweep- 
ing eyelashes than people are aware of, and a very inat* 
tractive and lustreless eye assumes new beauty when it 
looks out from beneath elongated fringes. Many ladies 
have a habit of rubbing the corners of their eyes to re- 
move the dust that will frequently accumulate there. 
Unless this operation is done with little friction it will be 
found that the growth of hair is very spare, and in that 
case it will become necessary to pencil the barren corners. 
Instead of putting cologue water on the handkerchief, which 
has come to be considered a vulgarism among ladies of cor- 
rect taste, the perfume is spent on the eyebrows and lobes of 
the ears. 

If commenced in youth, thick lips may be reduced by 
compression, and thin linear ones are easily modified by 
suction. This draws the blood to the surfaces, and pro- 
duces at first a temporary and, later, a permanent infla- 
tion. It is a mistaken belief that biting the lips reddens 
them. The skin of the lips is very thin, rendering them 
extremely susceptible to organic derangement, and if the 


atmosphere does not cause chaps or parchment, the re- 
sult of such harsh treatment will develop into swelling 
or the formation of scars. Above all things, keep a 
sweet breath. 

Everybody cannot have beautiful aands, but there is 
no plausible reason for their being ill-kept. Red hands 
may be overcome by soaking the feet in hot water as 
often as possible. If the skin is hard and dry, use tar 
or oatmeal soap, saturate them with glycerine, and wear 
gloves in bed. Never bathe them in hot water, and 
wash no oftener than is necessary. There are dozens of 
women with soft, white hands who do not put them in 
water once a month. Rubber gloves are worn in mak- 
ing the toilet, and they are cared for by an ointment of 
glycerine and rubbed dry with chamois skin or cotton 
flannel. The same treatment is not unfrequently ap- 
plied to the face with the most successful results. If 
such methods are used, it would be just as well to keep 
the knowledge of it from the gentlemen. We know of 
one beautiful lady who has not washed her face for three 
years, yet it is always clean, rosy, sweet, and kissable. 
With some of her other secrets she gave it to her lover 
for safe keeping. Unfortunately, it proved to be her last 
gift to that gentleman, who declared in a subsequent 
note that "I cannot reconcile my heart and my man- 
hood to a woman who can get along without washing 
her face." 


There is as much a "fashion" in complexions as 
:here is in bonnets or boots. Sometimes nature is 
the mode, sometimes art. Just now the latter is in 
:he ascendant, though, as a rule, only in that inferior 
r'iase which has not reached the "concealment of art" 
-the point where extremes meet and the perfection 
of artifice presents all the appearance of artlessness. 


^ T o one of an observant turn of mind, who is accus- 
tomed to the sight of English maids and matrons, can 
deny that making-up, as at present practised, partakes 
of the amateurish element. Impossible reds and whites 
grow still more impossibly red and white from week to 
week under the unskilled hands of the wearer of " false 
colors," who does not like to ask for advice on so deli- 
cate a subject, for, even were she willing to confess to 
the practise, the imputation of experience conveyed in 
the asking for counsel might be badly received, and 
would scarcely be in good tnste. 

The prevalent and increasing short-sightedness of our 
times is, perhaps, partly the cause of the excessive use 
of rouge and powder. The wielder of the powder puff 
sees herself afar off, as it were. She knows that she can- 
not judge of the effect of her complexion with her face 
almost touching its reflection in the glass, and, standing 
about a yard off, she naturally accentuates her roses and 
lilies in a way that looks very pleasing to her, but is 
rather startling to any one with longer sight. Nor can 
she tone down her rouge with the powdered hair that 
softened the artificial coloring of her grandmother when 
she had her day. Powder is only occasionally worn 
with evening dress, and it is by daylight that those 
dreadful bluish reds and whites look th^ir worst. 

On the other hand, there are some women so clever at 
making up their faces that one almost feels inclined to 
condone the practice in admiration of the result. These 
are the small minority, and are likely to remain so, for 
their secret is of a kind unlikely to be shared. The clos- 
est inspection of these cleverly managed complexions re- 
veals no trace of art. 

Notwithstanding the reticence of these skilled artists, 
an occasional burst of confidence has revealed a few of 
their means of accomplishing the great end of looking 
pretty. " Do you often do that ?" said one of these clever 


ones, a matron of 37, who looked like a girl of 19, to a 
friend who was vigorously rubbing her cheeks with a 
coarse towel after a plentiful application of cold water. 

" Yes, every time I corne in from a walk, ride, or drive. 

" Well, no wonder you look older than you are. You 
are simply wearing your face out!" 

" But I must wash ?" 

" Certainly, but not like that. Take a leaf out of my 
book; never wash your face just before going out into 
the fresh air, or just after coming in. Nothing is more 
injurious to the skin. Come to the glass. Do you no- 
tice a drawn look about your eyes and a general streaki- 
in the checks ? That is the result of your violent assault 
upon your complexion just now. You look at this mo- 
ment ten years older than you did twenty minutes ago 
in the park." 

"Well, I really do. I look old enough to be your 
mother; but then, you are wonderful. You always look 
so young and fresh !" 

"Because 1 never treat my poor face so badly as you 
do yours. I use rain-water, and if I cannot get that, I 
have the water filtered. When I dress for dinner I 
always wash my face with milk, adding just enough hot 
water to make it pleasant to use. A very soft sponge 
and very fine towel take the place of your terrible huck- 
aback arrangement." 

Two or three years ago a lady of Oriental parentage 
on her fathei's side spent a season in London society. 
Her complexion was brown, relieved by yellow, her fea- 
tures large and irregular, but redeemed by a pair of love- 
ly and expressive eyes. So perfect was her taste in 
dress that she' always attracted admiration wherever she 
Tvent. Dressed in rich dark browns or dullest crimsons 
CT russets, so that no one ever noticed much what she 
frore, she so managed ilu-i suggestions and hinis no 


>ore of brilliant amber or pomegranate scarlet shoulc* 
^pear just where they imparted brilliancy to her deep 
yoloring, and abstract all the yellow from her skin. A 
'knot of old gold satin under the rim of her bonnet, 
another at her throat, and others in among the lace at 
her wrists, brightened up the otherwise subdued tinting 
'A her costume, so that it always looked as though it had 
been designed expressly for her by some great colorist. 
Here rouge was unnecessary. The surroundings were ar- 
ranged to suit the complexion, instead of the complex- 
ion to suit the surroundings. There can be no doubt as 
to which is the method which best becomes the gentle- 

In addition to the disagreeable sensation of making- 
up, it must be remembered that the use of some of the 
white powders eventually destroys the texture of the 
skin, rendering it rough and coarse. Rimmel, the cele- 
brated perfumer, in his " Book of Perfumes," says that 
rouge, being composed of cochineal and saffron, is harm- 
less, but that white cosmetics consist occasionally of de- 
leterious substances which may injure the health. He 
advises actors and actresses to choose cosmetics, espec- 
ially the white, with the greatest care, and women of the 
world, who wish to preserve the freshness of their com- 
plexion, to observe the following recipe: Open air, rest, 
exercise, and cold water. In another part of this pleas- 
ant book its author says that schonada, a cosmetic used 
among the Arabs, is quite innocuous and at the same 
time effectual. " This cream, which consists of sublim- 
ated benzoin, acts upon the skin as a slight stimulant, 
and imparts perfectly natural colors during some hours 
without occasioning the inconveniences with which 
European cosmetics may justly be reproached." It is a 
well-known fact that bismuth, a white powdev contain- 
ing sugar of lead, injures the nerve-centres when constant' 
iy employed, and occasionally causes paralysU itself. 


In getting up the eyes, nothing is injurious that is n . 
dropped into them. The use of kohl or kohol is quite 
harmless, and, it must be confessed, very effective when 
applied as the famous recipe for salad dressing enjoins 
wiih regard to the vinegar by the hand of a miser. 
Modern Egytian ladies make their kohol of the smoke 
produced by burning almonds. A small bag holding the 
bottle of kohol) and a pin, with a rounded point with 
which to apply it, form part of the toilet paraphernalia 
of all the' beauties of Cairo, who make the immense 
mistake of getting up their eyes in an exactly similar 
manner, thus trying to reduce the endless variety of nat- 
ure to one common pattern, a mistake that may be ac- 
counted for by the fact that the Arabs believe kohol to be 
a sovereign specific against ophthalmia. Their English 
sisters often make the same mistake without the same ex- 
cuse. A hairpin steeped in lampblack is the usual 
method of darkening the eyes in England, retribution 
following sooner or later in the shape of a total loss of 
the eyelashes. Eau de Cologne is occasionally dropped 
into the eyes, with the effect of making them brighter. 
The operation is painful, and it is said that half-a-dozen 
drops of whiskey and the same quantity of Eau de Co- 
logne, eaten on a lump of sugar, is quite as effective. 


One of our English contemporaries has wisely been 
devoting some thought and space to the common and 
distressing fact that a great many English women suf- 
fer from headache. The same trouble prevails in 
America, and men, no matter how selfish they may be, 
are deeply concerned about it, for a wife with a headache 
cannot be companionable; the best of sweethearts with 
a headache is sure to be unreasonable, while a lady who 
has neither husband or other special cavalier to engross 
her aucnt-ipti can ruin the peace of mind of eveuy onl 


the meets while she has a headache of perceptible size. 
No amount of masculine grumbling is likely to change 
all this, but women themselves might change it if they 
would comprehend the causes of the malady, and then 
Apply their nimble wits to the work of prevention or cure. 
The trouble is that all American women who have 
' i-.eadaches live indoors, where the best air is never good 
find the worst is poison, and they have none of the exer- 
isc which saves man from the popular feminine malady. 
Were a strong man to eat breakfast at any ordinary 
American table and then sit down at a work-table or 
even move about briskly from one room to another, he 
would have a splitting headache before noon, and the 
chatter of his innocent children would seem to be the 
jargon of fiends. The midday meal would increase his 
wretchedness, and by dusk he would be stretched in 
misery upon his bed, with one hand mopping his fore- 
head with ice-water, while the other would threaten with 
a club or pistol any one who dared to enter the room or 
make a noise outside. There is no reason why women 
should not suffer just as severely for similar transgres- 
sions of physical law. True, indoor life is compulsory 
for a large portion every day, but special physical exer- 
cise in a well-aired room is within the reach of almost 
every woman, and so is a brisk walk in garments not ^o 
tight as to prevent free respiration. There is very little 
complaint at summer resorts, where windows are always 
open and games and excursions continually tempt 
women who do not value complexion more than health. 
Girls who ride, row, sail, and shoot, seldom have head- 
aches; neither do those unfortunate enough to be com- 
pelled to hoe potatoes or play Maud Muller in hay-fields. 
Let women of all social grades remember that the hu- 
man machine must have reasonable treatment, and be 
kept at work or play to keep it from rusting, then i 
<:hes will be rare enough to be interesting. 



A lady looks infinitely taller and slimmer in a long 
Less than she does in a short costume, and there is 
alutiys a way of showing the feet, if desired, by making 
the front quite short, which gives, indeed, a more youth- 
ful appearance to a train dress. The greatest attention 
must, of course, be paid to the feet with these short 
dresses, and I may here at once state that high heels are 
absolutely forbidden by fashion. Doctors, are you con- 
tent? Only on cheap shoes and boots are they now 
made, and are only worn by common people. A good 
bootmaker will not make high heels now, even if paid 
double price to do so. Ladies that is, real ladies now 
wear flat soled shoes and boots, a la Cinderella. For 
morning walking, boots or high Moliere shoes are worn. 

If you wear boots you may wear any stockings you 
like, for no one sees them. But if 3^011 wear shoes you 
must adapt your stockings to your dress. Floss silk, 
Scotch thread, and even cotton stockings are worn for 
walking, silk stockings having returned into exclusively 
evening wear. Day stockings should be of the same 
color as the dress, but they may be shaded, or striped, 
or dotted, just as you please. White stockings are ab- 
solutely forbidden for day wear no one wears them 
no one dares wear them under fashion's interdiction. 


Grandmother has noticed that some of her boys lately 
have acquired a very bad habit. They go about with 
their backs bent, as if they were fifty years old, and were 
bearing the. responsibilities of age on their shoulders. 
This is all wrong. Stand up straight, boys; don't go 
around with a "stoop in your back," as if you had a 
curvature of the spine. If you do, depend upon it, you 
will have '\: sure enough long before you get to b? 


old. Always stand erect, and when you walk, throw 
back your shoulders, and take that kink out of your 
backbone. This is easier said than done, isn't it? 
Grandma will tell you just how you can do it, and re- 
member every word she says, for she has been through 
it all herself, and has straightened up many a grand- 
child in more respects than one. Here is her rule: 


The whole secret of standing and walking erect con- 
sists in keeping the chin well away from the breast. 
This throws the head upward and backward, and the 
shoulders will naturally settle backward and in their true 
position. Those who stoop in walking generally look 
downward. The proper way is to look straight ahead, 
upon the same level with your eyes, or if you are in- 
clined to stoop, until that tendency is overcome, look 
rather above than below the level. Mountaineers are 
said to be as "straight as an arrow," and the reason is 
because they are obliged to look upward so much. It is 
simply impossible to stoop in walking if you will heed 
and practice this rule. You will notice that all round- 
shouldered persons carry the chin near the breast and 
pointed downward. Take warning in time, and heed 
grandmother's advice, for a bad habit is more easily pre- 
vented than cured. The habit of stooping when one 
walks or stands is a bad habit and especially hard to 


A cheerful, happy home is the greatest safeguard 
against temptations for the young. Parents should 
spare no pains to make home a cheerful spot. There 
should be pictures to adorn the walls, flowers to culti- 
vate the finer sensibilities, dominoes, checkers, and 

other games, entertaining books and instructive new* 


papers and peridiodicals. These things, no doubt, cost 
money, but not a tithe the amount that one of the lesser 
vices will cost vices which are sure to be acquired away 
from home, but seldom there. Then there should be 
social pleasures a gathering of young and old around 
the hearthstone, a warm welcome to the neighbor who 
drops in to pass a pleasant hour. There should be music 
*nd amusements and reading. The tastes of all should 
be consulted, until each member of the family looks 
forward to the hour of reunion around the hearth as the 
brightest one in the twenty-four. Wherever there is found 
a pleasant, cheerful, neat, attractive, inexpensive home 
there you may be sure to find the abode of the domestic 
virtues ; there will be no dissipated husbands, no discon- 
tented or discouraged wives, no " fast " sons or frivolous 
daughters 1 e 


To be thoroughly good form at dinner is the very in- 
florescence of civilized life. Like many other regula- 
tions of social life, dinner-table etiquette is arbitrary, but 
not to know certain things is to argue yourself unknown 
so far as society life goes. To take soup pushing the 
spoon from rather than toward yourself ; to touch the 
napkin as little as possible ; to accept or decline what is 
offered instantly and quietly ; these and other trifles 
characterize the well-bred diner-out. The attempts to 
introduce too much color in dinner-table decorations are 
rather declining. The finest white damask still holds the 
preference, and the centre-piece of plush or velvet under- 
lace is little used now. Fewer flowers, too, are seen, and 
those in very low forms. The dessert plates come in 
deep tones in Dresden china, and the doyley on which 
the finger-bowl rests should be immediately removed 
with the bowl, on reaching the guest. The latest fashion 

in ice-cream plates is the Bohemian gms in ova! form 


with sm*>l handles. Menu cards, hand-painted, hold th 
pre-ier -/ije, but many are seen on tinted cardboard witi 
en;.vru/^d vignette in one corner and the date in another. 


The recent discoveries in science and chemistry are 
fast revolutionizing our daily domestic economies. Old 
methods are giving way to the light of modern investi- 
gation, and the habits and methods of our fathers and 
mothers are stepping down and out, to be succeeded by 
the new ideas, with marvelous rapidity. In no depart- 
ment of science, however, have more rapid strides been 
made than its relations to the preparation and pre- 
servation of human food. Scientists, having discovered 
how to traverse space, furnish heat, and beat time itself, 
by the application of natural forces, and to do a hundred 
other things prcmotive of the comfort and happiness of 
the human kind, are naturally turning their attention to 
the deve'lepment of other agencies and powers that shall 
add to the years during which man may enjoy the bless- 
ings sec before him. 

Among the recent discoveries in this direction, none is 
more important than the uses to which common ammo- 
nia can be properly put as a leavening agent, and which 
indicate that this familiar salt is hereafter to perform an 
active part in the preparation of our daily food. 

The carbonate of ammonia is an exceedingly volatile 
substance. Place a small portion of it upon a knife and 
hold over a flame, and it will almost immediately be 
entirely developed into gas and pass off into the air. 
The gas thus formed is a simple composition of nitrogen 
and hydrogen. No residue is left from the ammonia. 
This gives it its superiority as a leavening power over 
soda and cream of tartar when used alone, and has : n 
duced its use as a supplement to these articles. A smaj. 
quantity of ammonia in the dough is effective in pf< 


duclng bread that will be lighter, sweeter, and more whole- 
some than that risen by any other leavening agent. When it 
is acted upon by the heat of baking the leavening gas 
that raises the dough is liberated. In this act it uses itself 
up, as it were ; the ammonia is entirely diffused, leaving 
no trace of residuum whatever. The light, fluffy, flaky ap- 
pearance, so desirable in biscuits, etc., and so sought after 
by professional cooks, is said to be imparted to them only by 
the use of this agent. 

The bakers and baking-powder manufacturers producing 
the finest goods have been quick to avail themselves of this 
useful discovery, and the handsomest and best bread and 
cake are now largely risen by the aid of ammonia, combined 
of course, with other leavening material. 

Ammonia is one of the best known products of the labora- 
tory. If, as seems to be justly claimed for it, the application 
of its properties to the purposes of cooking results in giving 
us lighter and more wholesome bread, biscuit, and cake, it 
will prove a boon to dyspeptic humanity, and will speedily 
force itself into general use in the new field to which science 
has assigned it. 


" The laughter of girls is, and ever was, among the most 
delightful sounds of earth." Truly there is nothing sweeter 
or pleasanter to the ear than the merry laugh of a happy, 
joyous girl, and nothing dissipates gloom and sadness 
quicker, and drives dull care away like a good, hearty 
laugh. We do not laugh enough ; nature should teach 
us this lesson, it is true : the earth needs the showers, but if 
it did not catch and hold the sunshine too where would be 
the brightness and beauty it lavishes upon us ? Laugh 
heartily, laugh often, girls ; not boisterously, but let the 
gladness of your hearts bubble up once in a while, and over- 
flow in a glad, mirthful laugh. 



A sun bath is of more worth than much warming by 
the fire. 

Books exposed to the atmosphere keep in better condition 
than if confined in a bookcase. 

Pictures are both for use and ornament. They serve to 
recall pleasant memories and scenes ; they harmonize with 
the furnishing of the rooms. If they serve neither of these 
purposes they are worse than useless ; they only help fill 
ipace which would look better empty, or gather dust and 
anake work to keep them clean. 

A room filled with quantities of trifling ornaments haw 
the look of a bazar and displays neither good taste nor good 
sense. Artistic excellence aims to have all the furnishing^ 
of a high order of workmanship combined with simplicity, 
while good sense understands the folly of dusting a lot ot 

A poor book had best be burned to give place to a better, 
or even to an empty shelf for the fire destroys its poison, ant 
puts it out of the way of doing harm. 

Better economize in the purchasing of furniture or carpeU 
than scrimp in buying good books or papers. 

Our sitting-rooms need never be empty of guests or our 
libraries of society if the company of good books is admitted 
to them. 


A public conveyance brings one awkwardly near the 
faces of strangers. Perhaps from sheer inanity one is 
apt to take undue notice of his fe]J,o\v-passengers. When 
glances meet, the gaze is lowered to the flounces of the 
lady seated near, or to the trim, polished boot of a gent 
at the far end of the car. There are nice people every- 
where, and if one is artistic in taste, there will ever be a 


looking for beauty of face or form, in dress, or carriage, or 
manner, or speech ; but " why is the fresh girl face so often 
marred by the ugly habit of cribbing ? " "A beautiful 
woman," whispered a friend, and the eye was attracted 
toward a grand looking lady with wide, white forehead, from 
which the brown glossy hair was smoothed away without 
the ghost of a crimp ; there were pretty arching brows, 
shading lashes, shapely nose, but, alas ! for the ruby lips 
bitten and moistened so often as to prevent the possibility of 
catching the outline the profile so needful to the sketcher 
of beauty. A poet has somewhere said that "affectation 
begins with the mouth," but " who would charge the gentle 
sex with vanity ! " 

What ! To redden by biting, or brighten by wetting ; 
that folly could not be. Let us rather suppose the fair one 
had by some mishap forgotten to lunch, and all this is due 
to the gnawings of hunger. While thus seeking to palliate 
the fair cribber, a young man becomes noticeable by per- 
sistently pulling at the ends of his mustache, chewing them 
in a hungry way, now changing the exercise by twisting 
them to needle-like points which he seemed to be coaxing 

" From whence has come this ugly habit ? " one is fain 
to ask. Certainly not from pride. A fine flowing beard 
and full mustache ought not to be a cause of folly to the 
owner. The hairs of the face, given to protect the throat 
and Kings, never to be shorn in the cold seasons, can it 
be that there is nutriment in them ? While thus ques- 
tioning, the writer'^ two hands were suddenly jerked 
Irom his side pockets, where they had been comfortably 
resting. The wife's gentlo remonstrance had been brought 
to mind by the entrance of an awkward fellow, with hands 
deeply thrust in the pockets of his torn pants. A carica- 
ture of one's self is often a tacit reproof. That very 
morning the dear wife had said: "Those torn side-pockets 
are the most difficult of tears to mend-" And the inward 

3 r 6 THE E l r ER Y-DA V COOA'-BOOA~. 

monitor asked : " From whence has come this indolent 
habit ? From love of ease or want of mittens, which ? 
Perhaps indifference of the patient mender's." And again 
the monitor asked : 

" What of that habit not comparable to weeds for 
growth ? " 

" What mean you ? " was meekly asked. 

"That of looking well to one's own faults, that lesson the 
hardest and latest learned : to know thyself. Then the 
writer realized that he, too, was not quite perfect. 

^^ft/^K^/A 4@^'P ^ 


\ TP * 

w^ l/^ X P^ I^MN^( ^ ^ 1 


^xC^^N/ \l \ 

^> \ / e^^sZr/ 1 


^^ ^--\<j?U^\L ^i 

r e \ c iM^^^ ^^4? ^?