Skip to main content

Full text of "The Farmer's journal"

See other formats




North Carolina State Library 




■^^'•'^' -jdM 



1i 



of 



i% 6*^ 






THE 



FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



BY 



:\ i)]\^ Y\ TOMPKINS. M h 



VOL. 1. 



J5ATH, N'OliTll UAIi'>Ll\'A. 
iS.52. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 
State Library of North Carolina 



http://www.archive.org/details/farmersjournal1852tomp 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



VOL. 1. 



BATH, N. C, APRIL, 1852. 



NO. 1. 



JOHN F. TOMPKINS, M. D., Editor and Proprietor. 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 

The subscriber will publish in the town of 
Bai.h, Beaufort county. N. C, a monthly pa- 
per under the above name. This paper will 
be devoted exclusively to the setting forth of 
the various popular improvements in Agricul- 
ture, Horticulture, and the household arts. 
That there is a demand for such a paper in 
our State, anl more especially in the east- 
ern part^ no one will deay. 

As evidence of the good effects of such pa- 
pers, wehaveouly to look at the rapid strides 
which have been made in firming in those 
States of our Union where they exist. But 
this great advancement made in the science 
of Agriculture in other States, is but little 
known to the fivrmers of North Carolina. 
There are several scientific, as well as prac- 
tical farmers, among us ; but for want or a 
medium through which to communicate their 
agricultural knowledge, it is still confined 
to a small compass Our good old State is 
fat behind the age in agricultural, as rell 
as every other improvement. As a people, 
we are greatly wanting in State pride, which 
is highly important to place us in that posi- 
tion which we ought to occupy. In New 
York, Maryland, Georgia, and several other 
States, annual Fairs are held for exhibiting 
the products of each, which clearly have a 
tendency to great improvements. Nature has 
thrown no impediment in the way to prevent 
our agricultural advancemfnt; but she has 
lavishly heaped upon us her inestimable 
gifts. vWe have among us a sufficiency of 
both organic and inorganic matter to enrich 
every acre of our worn-out land, and oursoil 
and climate cannot be surpassed in adapta- 
tion to the production of the various plant?. 

All th it is now needed to elevate our St.ate 
to the position which she should occupy a- 
mortgher sisters, is energy and enterprise on 
the part of her Citizens. There must be a 
Btop put to this great tide of immigration 



from our State j for, daily, many ot our msst 
talented and energeiic young men seek a new 
home in the West •, thvy s.iy that they cuu- 
notget their conseiit to lenii.iu «monga pt:0- 
ple possessed of so little eniorpri.>^eas weare. 
The subscriber has not bt en engaged in farm- 
ing many years, but he feels justified in say- 
ing Jiat he began upon the n^ht plan — that 
of deep ploughing, hi !ivy manuring ai d tho- 
rough draining. lie lii.s visited some good 
farms in our State, as well as in others, purely 
for agricultural insiiuction ; and lor some 
time past he has been engHged in useful iig- 
riculturalreadingjto prtpaie liinifelf loi the 
post which he now proposes to occupy. 

The subscriber feels coiitidt lit thai this un- 
dertaking shall not fail fioiii a waut ol ener- 
gy on his parti He is nsolved to use every 
effort toobta-n a largf .subscription list, and 
for this purpose he will cmvass several coun- 
ties within the next two mon.hs. 

He hopes that by showing such a determi- 
nation to do something for the inesint dC" 
graded condition of the faimer, to be suis- 
tained, and receive a liberal patronage licm 
a generous public. 

flach number will ccntnin one or more ar- 
ticles from the pen of tjje Editor, and several 
comminicationsfrom our best farmers ; and 
the remiinder will bt filled with ; riicus se- 
lected from other AgiicuhurhlJ urnals.such 
as may be deemed by the Editor applicable 
to our climate and soil. 

In conclusion, the subseribcr a?ks the aid 
of every man in the pro.'-ecution of this great 
work; for he is sure that there will be a 
good bargain made by tlie fiirmei s. '1 be t(;]- 
vancement of farming sliculd excitean inicr- 
c t in the breast of eveiy iniin ; for upon tbe 
success of the farmer greatly depends that 
of every trade and profession. 

Terms — One copy. SI ; six copies, $5 ; 12 
copies, $10; 30 copies, S'.20 — invaii..My iu 
advance. JOHN F. TUMrKlJSS. ■. 

Bath, N. C, April 1 , 1 SGx;. 



■JfoTtK (5, 



^J'^5^ 



^1 



JkJ^^ 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



For the Farmer's Journal. 
Doeior Tompkins : Allow me to con- 
f^ratulate you, and our farmers, on the 
establishment of your "Farmer's Jour- 
nah" It will form a new era in our agri- 
cultural history. Your practical know- 
ledge of farming, and acquaintance with 
chemistry, will enable you to diffuse 
much light through our benighted re- 
gion ; and I am happy to say that a 
spirit of inquiry exists among our farm- 
Xng community. Give them information 
as to the proper application of their la- 
bour and resources, and I hazard noth- 
ing in saying that the agricultural pro- 
ducts of Beaufort county will increase 20 
per cent, annually for years to come. 

Three years ago, I thought book farm- 
ing- a humbug — that the mechanical 
eondiiion of the soil was all that requir- 
ed a farmer's attention ; and the man 
that talked oxygen, hydrogen, and such 
hard words tome, I thought was making 
fun, because I supposed that none but 
educated men, wlio had devoted their 
minds to the study of chemistry, could 
understand such matters ; and that farm- 
ers had no occasion to know anything of 
the subjec*.. But Professor Mapes sent 
to our post office, at that time, a single 
number of his "Working Farmer," as a 
sample. I read it, and subscribed for it, 
and have paid |a,00 for the privilege of 
reading it three years. How much do 
you suppose I gained the last year by 
tbllowing the advice given in his paper ? 
i gained ninety barrels of corn on thirty 
acres of land above any product of the 
same since 1840, which is as far back as 
I have an account of the product of my 
farm. This improvement cost me, for 
300 bushels shells and 60 bushels salt, 
|.33. The labor of collecting mud and 
other organic matter for composting, was 
done mostly by the "ti-ash gang," at a 
leisure season^ Nor is this all the gain : 
The same manure will probably give an 
increase of sixty barrels more in suc- 
ceeding crops ; and I have greatly im- 
proved the balance of my farm by fol- 
lowing his advice in the use of the sub- 
soil plough. 

Our farmers must imderstand the ad- 



vantage of raising two crops in one sea- 
son ; or, in other words, doubling the- 
yield of each acre. It reqmres but four 
months of the year to till a crop, leav- 
ing eight months for other work. Now^ 
allowing four of the eight mooiths for 
housing crops, mending fences, &c., there 
still remains four months to be devoted 
to the making of manure, which, if pro- 
perly made and applied, will double the 
crops on ordinary land, with an increase 
each succeeding year. 

Suppose a farmer to put a hog up to 
fatten, would he be content to give it 
only food enough to prevent starvatioa ? 
Certainly not; because the hog could 
never make good pork until it became 
fat. It is ascertained that, as a general, 
rule, nourishing food to the amount of 
2 1-2 per cent, of the weight of a live ani- 
mal, is required daily to support life. 
Now, if a hog weighing 100 lbs. receives 
but 21-2 lbs. of corn, or its equavalent, 
daily, it cannot thrive. Life will be sup- 
ported and that is all. But add another 
pound, and the hog takes on fat and 
becomes good pork, thus not only saving 
the pound, but also the 2 1-2 lbs. which,, 
but for the extra food, could never have 
accomplished the object designed. The 
same principle applies to crops. A farm- 
er tills the soil to make money. We 
will suppose he has fifty acres that will 
yield three barrels of corn per acre^ 
which is, I believe, the average quantity 
and quality of our farms. To keep the 
land up to this product, without manure,, 
half of it must be rested alternately. — 
The twenty-five acres in tillage, then, will 
yield seventy-five barrels all of which is 
generally required to support the family. 
The owner, at the end of every year, finds 
himself just where he began, and if hi.> 
family increases, his condition is worse^ 
He literally fulfils the original decree — 
"eats his bread in the sweat of his brow ;" 
and that^ too, probably, without meat ;■ 
for, when corn is scarce with farmers, 
meat is absent. But, if he will give his 
crops some extra food — if he will devote 
four of the leisure months of the year to 
the making of manure, and add to his 
compost heaps such ingredients as hia 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



3 



crops are composed of, and of which his 
soil is defic;ent, then, he may take my 
word for it, his crops will double. They 
will take on fat, and make his pockets 
heavy and his mind cheerful, and confer 
the means of educating his children, 
which is the most important of all. Here 
there are two crops of the ordinary 
quaatity, made on the same soil, in the 
same season, with the same tillage, fenc- 
ing and ditching; and the time employ- 
ed in making the manure would other- 
wise have been, in a great measure, lost. 
One ploughing, too, is saved in the til- 
lage — a fact well known to every farmer 
with a luxuriant crop. Nor is this all. 
His land is in a better condition, and 
with the same treatment, will increase 
his crops each succeeding year. It is as 
easy to raise ten as three barrels of corn 
per acre, and this will appear reasonable 
to every farmer, when it is known that 
thirty-seven barrels per acre have been 
raised by giving proper attention to its 
requirements. 

Another important matter is deep 
ploughing. It is a well established fact, 
that no soil can produce a maximum crop 
unless it be disintegrated to the depth of 
twelve inches. Many soils that have been 
tilled three, and afterwards six inches, 
have doubled the crops ; and after hav- 
ing been tilled six, and then broke to the 
depth of twelve inches, the crops have 
still been doubled. Beyond twelve inch- 
es, the increase is not so great, though 
Prof. Mapes breaks his lana with surface 
and sub-soil plough to the depth of thir- 
ty-four inches, and obtains enormous 
products. 

Many sub-soils are rich in inorganic 
substances, particulai'ly potash and phos- 
phate of lime, which are important ele- 
ments in the formation of crops. Your 
paper will, I doubt not, inform your read- 
ers of the constituents of the different 
crops, and of the propriety of having 
their soils analyzed to determine Avhat 
kind of manures are wanted. 

Every crop requires a variety of ma- 
terials. They are designed by the Creator 
to support animal life, and every man 
knows that his body is composed of 



many substances, which are derived from 
the food he eats, and that the most of 
this food is supplied by the vegetable 
kingdom. 

Let no farmer be deterred by hard 
words. A few months' careful reading 
will enable him to comprehend the im- 
portant points of a subject. When the 
meaning of a technical term is explained, 
of which the reader was ignorant, if his 
memory be not good, he should write it 
down, for future reference. 

Beaufort. 



Lime as a Manure. 

Lime is extensively used, and, in most 
cases, may be used by agriculturists with 
advantage. But the reasons why it pro- 
duces good results are often misstated. 

Lime is not a manure of itself, and 
forms so small an integrant in the compo- 
sition of most plants, that very few lo- 
calities need its addition, for this supply. 

Many soils, however, ai-e charged with 
vegetable and other substances, not in a 
state of decay, and therefore are mistaken 
for sterile soils. In such cases lime may 
be used with great advantage, for, by its 
chemical effects, it decomposes many sub- 
stances otherwise inert, and renders them 
available for the use of plants. 

The plan proposed by Prof. Johnson, 
of making an admixture of lime and 
salt, for decomposing vegetable and ani- 
mal matters, adds materially to its value, 
Common salt is composed of chlorine 
and soda, (chloride of sodium,) and if 
three bushels of shell lime, hot from the 
kiln, be mixed with one Jjushel of salt, 
previously dissolved in water, the caustic 
lime will decompose the salt, combining 
with chlorine, and forming chloride of 
lime, thus setting free the soda which 
combines with carbonic acid from the at- 
mosphere, and forms carbonate of soda. 
Both chloride of lime and carbonate of 
soda are capable of decomposing woody 
fibre, or other organic matters, better 
than lime ; and, in doing so, unlike the 
lime, they do not drive out the ammo- 
nia, and are therefore preferable, to lime. 

The mixture should be turned every 



4 



TEIE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



ot'ier il ly, to.- te.i d lys, and then mixed 
witli in.ulc or cjiii^j )st,at the rate of four 
L ishyh p.ir ord, vvaich will be found 
fully SI Hjient for its decomposition. By 
tuniiii^ o/er the ca.npost ;.„ the end of 
thirty^ d lys, t!ia in iss will be short and 
reily f)r me in sixty days, in summer, 
or ninety in winter. 

Ten ba^'iels to t'le acre, of lime and 
salt, well intermixed and made as above, 
if to^) dressed and harrowed in, on boggy 
or pe ity land, will render it fertile. 

Cjniposts m ide with the lime and salt 
mi :tu,'e \vill n.)t breed worms, and has 
eo I i of the edects of salt in destroying 
gr ib'^, wlien applied to land, and without 
any daletei'iaui edejts. 

Saell iiini i^ preferable to stone lime, 
8.-i the latter ganerally contains magnesia, 
wliioh, in m )-it s;>iU, is detrimental to ve- 
g '.table growtli. S lell lime also contains 
B)M}. piu-iphate of lime, the same as 
ei ''ity-live pjr cent, of the composition of 
bo.ics, an. i IS therefore preferable. Clayey 
Boils are rendered nmoh more pulveru- 
lent by the use of lime, and are perma- 
nently re ilered cap ible of appropriating 
a lar^ar aiiouat of manure to vegetable 
groivth. * 

If land be already void of vegetable 
matter, Vinii will not assist itS' activity; 
1)ut if land be so thoroughly worn out, 
any m mure will recover it but slowly, 
without the addition of lime. Its use 
should generally be confined to the sur- 
face, or its effects will soon be lost; for, 
ftlt'io igh ni uUires of a volatile character 
^'ill be equ dly effective, if buried deeply, 
fro n the risi;ig of their gasses, still, as 
the lim3 is not volatile, as soon as it gets 
belo V the p irt of the soil containing 
manur s, its only benefit (decomposing 
power) is lost. With clayey sub-soils, 
however, liiae may be employed before 
the ploughing, as well as after, as it is 
worm It. cot-t, fur the beneficial effect it 
will have in rendering the subsoil free 
and pulverulent. — Working Farmer. 



Farmers should write communications 
for agricultural papers, as a duty. 

Industry and perseverance merit suc- 

C3SS, 



Impruveinent. 

This is a word of very comprehensive 
signification, and, when used in reference 
to agricultural matters, ought always to 
be understood in its broadest sense. 

Some farmers exhibit a very commen- 
dable spirit, endeavor to excel in their 
calling, and are always anxious to acquire 
instruction and knowledge; and while 
others manifest the most illiberal spirit, 
openly decry every movement which does 
not quadrate precisely with their own 
views, or vvhich is not strictly consenta- 
neous with the theories and traditionary 
usages of their predecessors, of a darker 
age, they can perhaps, discourse "elo- 
quently" upon mooted points, of no 
practical importance, in metaphysics and 
theology, and often engage in political 
discussions, involving questions too pro- 
found for the ablest statesman ; but on 
agriculture they rarely bestow a thought. 
They can plough, plant, reap and mow, 
and this is the extent of their capability; 
of the fundamental principles of the sci- 
ence, they are as ignorant and uninform- 
ed as though such did not exist. Visit 
their dwellings, and you will find them 
without an agricultural paper; they pat- 
ronize the party and sectarian publica- 
tions of the day, drink deeply at the 
bitter fountains of polemical and politi- 
cal disputation, and are ever ready to 
enlist their energies in the promotion of 
any enterprise except that in which they 
are most nearly interested and engaged. 

It is of little avail to reason or remon- 
strate with such people. Like Moses 
Primrose, in the Vicar of Wakefiel ., they 
make a poor swap, at best, and will find, 
in the end, that they have exchanged for 
something less valuable than tinsel spec- 
tacle, in shagreen cases, that which is 
virtually of intrinsic value and solid 
worth. — Maine Cultivator. 

The above is a fair description of the 
two classes of farmers named. When- 
ever we hear a stupid, ambitionless, self- 
conceited drudge, railing out against 
improvements in agriculture, calling all 
processes requiring the slightest cultiva- 
tioa of the mind to understand them, 



TIU F.V?t\n.TS JOUIIX.VL. 



well attempt to paiut a picture, wraiout 
tirst leHniing to draw, vr a scholar to writ« 
a language, without tiist learning its al- 
phabet, as tor a farmer to ho}>e for suc- 
cess in his business, at this day, without 
reading agricultural books and p..pers. — 
[[' ooking Fa r me <". 



** bjok farming," ani this, loo, in den- 
s'.on, we are reniinJed of an anecdote of 
oar childhood; 

A conceited, self-sufficient, and very 
ifriiorant mother, who, by tiie industi-y 
of a more intelligent husband, had be- 
come wealthy, called at our school, and 

thus addressed tlie teacher : "xMr, 8 , 

I thought as how Tde just drop in to see 
you 'bout my John. You gin him hich 
nonsensical lessons that it tires him clean 
out, and don't do him no good nuther. 
Now. Mr. S , I say this here gram- 
mar is all sturt". 1 never larut any on it, 
and 1 guess 1 can speak as good inglish 
as you can. I warnt you to laru John 
readin, writin and siferin, and a leetie 
jogrupii}' ; but you mus'nt waste his time 
on grammar." Every boy in that school 
could well attbrd both to pity and to 
thank tlie unfortunate mother, for by her 
errors they were convinced of the neces- 
sity of learning their language gramma- 
tically. 

The practical farmer, of all others, can 
be most benefitted by reading the results 
obtained by other practical farmers, be- 
cause, from his own experience, he can 
understand and prolit by tlieir improve- 
ments ; or, if he should read the ration- 
ales of scientitic men, who are upt prac- 
tical tis agriculturists, he can readily de- 
tect their errors, uliile the self-evident 
truths, which may not have before oc- 
curred to him, will be readily applied, as 
useful improvements. Why do not these 
self-suffiviients refuse to avail themselves 
of the sj>eed of locomotives, when dasi- 
ring to travel rapidly and cheaply ? For, 
without the use of books to register the 
gradual improvements in mech-inical phi- 
losophy, they would still have been com- 
pelled to travel in wagons. Success, 
usefulness, happiness, all depend upon 
education, nor is education at all incom- 
patible with industry. Why do not 
these wiseacres select divines who are 
"uneducated \ or doctors who have learn- 
ed their profession without reading ? or 
lawyers who practice without consulting 
books? Chemistry, natural philosophy, 
and natural history, constitute the giaoi- 
mar of agriculture. An artist might as 1 



From the American Farmer, 
Prize Essay on the R siioTatiou of 
VVoni-out Lands. 

BY EDWARD STABLEK, 
Of Sandy Sp iig Montyoin-'rg Coimty, Md. 

In submitting the following essay upon 
the "lienovation of Woin-out Lands," it 
is deemed proper to state, that the wiiter 
understands the main ol>ject in view of 
the Editor of the American Farmer, to 
be, the eliciting of such information as is 
best adai>ted to the wants of the great 
majority of farmers; those who are de- 
pendant on the product or the soil for 
a support, and wlitjse resources are com* 
paratively limited : for, although it may 
be equally desirable to those with moro 
ample m^ans, to improve their lands at 
the least expense of time and money, yet 
the number of such is comparatively 
small ; and it is not perceived why the 
same plan may not suit both ; the one 
who "lives by the sweat of his brow" 
improves his ten acres; while he with the 
'•plethoric purse" may, in the same time, 
enrich his hundred acres. With the view, 
thel'efore, to adapt it to the more nu- 
merous class of readers, the eflbrt will 
be made to condense the essay as much as 
possible, and so piain and free from tech- 
nicalities, that "he that runs may read." 

It is almost impossible to establish a 
theory or mode of farming that can be 
made to suit alike, all localities — of soil, 
climate, and the facilities of obtaining 
the various kinds o manure now in use, 
in different sections of the country. But 
it is believed that with proper energy 
and industry on the part of farmers, and 
even with the present facilities of trans- 
portation, an increase of double, if not 
quadruple, the lime, marl and bones, 
might be used to advantage; the two 
former, in many sections of our country, 
are inexhaustible for generations to come ; 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



and a much greater amount of the lat- 
ter might be obtained in sections where 
they are not used, but greatly needed, if 
more attention was paid to their collec- 
tion and preservation. 

The first step I would advise towards 
the "renovation of worn-out lands," is a 
complete and thorough draining, both 
surface and under drains, where the lo- 
cation and nature of the soil render it 
too reteijtive of moisture late in the 
epring. It retards early seeding — the 
winter grains and gra«s roots are very 
■liable to be thrown out and injured by 
frosts ; aud on such land the injury from 
drought is much more severely felt. — 
The writer has not known a case where 
this operation was performed with ordi- 
nary skill and judgment, that did not 
fully repay the expense ; and in some 
cases the product was increased from five 
to tenfold. 

To go into a full description of the 
methods used in different sections, to ac- 
complish this most important branch of 
the husbandman's duty, would require 
diagrams, and also too much space ; nor 
is it considered necessary ; for in the 
"American Farmer" (which every tiller 
of the soil ought to possess) very full 
and ample information may be obtained 
on the subject. A few general observa- 
tions here may suffice. If the soil is 
rendered too wet by springs, whose 
sources are lower than the surrounding 
land, the drains must be extended to at 
least the same level, be the distance or 
depth what they may ; or to a sufficient 
dentil below the surface, to admit of un- 
der-draining clear of the plough. This 
may sometimes be effected, by going 
through the clay sub-soil, and without 
much expense of ditching ; as the water 
can then pass off" thi-ough the under stra- 
tum of gravel or sand. 

Wherever the under-drains will an- 
swer the purpose, they should be adopt- 
ed; for the land thus reclaimed is often 
the most profitable for cultivation ; and 
where the expense of brick or tile is too 
freat, or suitable stone cannot be had to 
coustmdi trunks, a good substitute is 
geueialsy within reach by twelve to fif- 



teen inches in depth of small loose stones; 
covering first with leaves, straw, or small 
brush, to prevent filling the interstices 
with the returned earth. Logs or poles, 
laid lengthwise, also form good under- 
drains ; but are more liable to clog from 
decay. 

The next important step, in my opin- 
ion, in "renovating worn-out lands," is 
to plough deep, and thus expose a new 
surface to the action of frosts and atmos- 
pheric influence, in order to make a soil, 
in place of the one provided by nature ; 
but which, either from cupidity or bad 
management — perhaps both — man has 
destroyed. It is considered one of the 
most certain means to attain this desira- 
ble end ; and although sub-soil plough- 
ing is fullj approved of, it is considered 
less important than to break up the 
earth from seven to ten inches, if the 
subsequent treatment is properly attended 
to. 

The writer is well aware there is a 
strong feeling of prejudice in the minds 
of many individuals against this prac- 
tice. What are the arguments of the 
advocates of shallow ploughing ? They 
say, in so many words, "our soil is only 
a few inches deep, and if we do not 
plough shallow, we shall turn up so 
much clay or dead earth, as to raise no 
crop at all." If two or three inches of 
soil is buried in the spring, under a bed 
of five or six inches of clay, and thus 
left without further aid, the result would 
be as stated. That shallow ploughing 
enables the farmer to get clear much 
more readily of the little soil or mould 
he may have on his worn-out lands, is 
susceptible of easy demonstration ; nor 
is it less so, that either in a very wet or 
very dry season the crop from this cause 
generally suffers. 

During the summer months, the 
greater portion of the rains fall hastily ; 
and whenever the gi'ound is not openq^ 
and pervious to a suflScient depth to im- 
bibe the whole, before the surplus water 
can penetrate and be absorbed by the 
compact sub-soil, a large portion of ,the 
surface becomes fluid, and rapidly pas- 
ses off" or " washes away," unless the 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



knd is perfectly level. What reiuaias 
after being so thoroughly saturated, has 
a tendency to settle into a compact mass ; 
soon parting with its scanty supply of 
moisture under a hot summer's sun, and 
rendering it impervious to the roots of 
plants. If a drought succeds, a soil in 
such state can afford but a meagre sup- 
ply of moisture to nourish a crop ; and 
at a period too, when the greatest amount 
is needed. Nearly all plants imbibe 
more or less moisture from the earth 
by their roots; and if this support is 
withheld, they cannot continue in a 
healthy and vigorous state ; indeecl, so 
necessary is this element, that many of 
our grass seeds and plants will not only 
vegetate, but grow vigorously for a con 
eiderable period, with no other support 
to their roots than what can be derived 
from pure water. 

I am confident that in most of our 
lands that have become sterile, the cause 
is to be attributed more to shallow 
ploughing and washiig away of the 
little soil they possessed, than to the ex- 
traction of the vegetable nutriment by 
•the growth of plants ; in fact, it is al- 
most a necessary consequence of this 
pernicious practice. If the toiling farm- 
er or planter is able to purchase a dress- 
ing of mineral manure, or fortunate 
enough to scrape together a scanty sup- 
ply of vegetable matter from the re- 
sources of the farm, a large portion of it 
is carried off by the first dashing rain, to 
enrich still more the beds of creeks and 
rivers. 

Having stated some of the disadvan- 
tages which attend shallow ploughing, 
we will briefly enumerate some of the 
advantages of deep ploughing, when ju- 
diciously pursued. 

In the successful cultivation of all our 
erops, it is necessary that ample /ooi be 
provided, and in an accessible form ; 
and that moisture equally necessary, be 
administered in neither too great or too 
small quantities. This will probably be 
admitted by all, and it is presumed the 
admission will also be made that the 
greatest amount of nourishment derived 
hj all our field crops is from the earth. 



By deep ploughing, it rarely occurs that 
a fall of rain is so great or sudden, as- 
completely to saturate the body of earth 
acted on by the plough ; and until such 
is the case, but little danger is to be ap- 
prehended of " washing away ;" and just 
as Httle that the plants will so soon re- 
quire a renewal of moisture, caused by 
evaporation. The soil much longer re- 
tains its loose and friable texture, and 
enables the roots readily to extend in all 
directions, in search of their appropriate 
nourishment ; for the same reason, deep 
tilth admits of closer proximity of the 
plants, without sustaining equal injury 
from drought and turning yellow, or 
firing, in common parlance. 

I would ask the advocates of shallow 
ploughing, or the skinning system, as it 
has been aptly termed, if they have not 
observed the beneficial effects of earths 
taken out of cellars, wells, pits, &c., when 
applied to very poor land ? And have 
they not observed a luxuriant growth of 
grass and weeds on ditch banks and mill 
races ; even to the highest points, when 
level enough to retain the luoisture that 
falls ? I have often noticed such effects, 
and have almost uniformly observed^ 
that if earth thus taken from below the 
surface was capable of being pulverized 
by frost or tillage, increased fertility was 
the result. Such being the case, is there 
any valid reason for supposing that still 
nearer the surface so much difference' 
can exist, that while one will render the 
same land sterile, the other will posi- 
tively enrich it? If advantage will re- 
sult from mixing with the soil the earth 
taken from many feet below the surface 
— and that such is the case I have had 
repeated evidence, and using it for this 
express object — I cannot perceive why a 
portion of the same fertilizing property 
may not be found in the earth, only a 
few inches or a foot below the surface, 
And last, though not least, in the cata- 
logue of advantages, the all important 
item of manure is rendered more avail- 
able, and consequently, the land ie 
both immediately and permanently ben- 
efitted. 

But deep ploughing alone, much aa k 



8 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



is advcicated, will not speedily make 
poor land rich, it also requires some 
judgment, when, and to what extent it 
should be carried. Lands that are to be 
ploughed much deeper than usual, should 
be broken up in the fall ; no crop should 
be seeded the ensuing season that does 
not admit of frequent ploughing or har- 
rowing ; and, if practicable, give it a 
dressing before planting, (unless previ- 
ously prepared for the operation by li- 
ming a year or two in advance,) of lime, 
or some other kind of manure. 

These two branches, viz : Draining and 
Ploughing, are considered important in 
the system of renovation, and more might 
be added ; but perhaps sufficient space 
has been devoted to them with the fur- 
ther remrk, that no land with a clay sub- 
eoil, should be ploughed either deep or 
shallow, when in a state too wet to crum- 
ble, or break freely before the plough. 
The injury is irreparable, at least for that 
season, as nothing short of a winter's 
frost will eftectually pulverize it. 

We will now proceed to the third im- 
portant step in the process of ''renova- 
ting worn out lands." The proper kind 
and application of manui-es, viz : stable 
manure and vegetable matter produced 
by the farm ; lime, marl, bones, ashes, 
guano, plaster, and turning in green 
crops. 

It may be considered almost an ax- 
i; m in farming operations, that no one 
should go in debt for any kind of ma- 
nures, unless in favored situations where 
th e price is very low, and the transporta- 
tion i>! cheap, (except perhaps lor lime,) 
without first having fully availed hini- 
feelf of all his own resources; and his 
manure heap, too, should be his first care. 
No farmer should ever be at a loss for 
profitable employment for himself and 
hands, in adding to his stock of this all- 
impoitanft requisite to successful opera- 
tions ; anJ in preventing the loss and 
waste of what is already accumulated. 
When not necessarily otherwise engaged, 
the time is well employed in many situ- 
ations, by hauling the rich earth, and 
decom])osed vegetable matter, which has 
accumulated in the marshes, leaves, &c., 



and incorporating tliem with the contents 
of his barn-yard; independent of their 
own fertilizing properties, they are valu- 
able as absorbents, to receive and retain 
the more volatile ingredients that other- 
wise might be lost in the process of fer- 
mentation and decomposition ; a few bu- 
shels of plaster may be used with much 
advantage for the same object. 

It was the maxim of a wise man, who 
began the world with nothing and be- 
came independent — and that too without 
the charge of dishonesty or extortion 
ever having been alleged against him — 
that a 'penny saved is two pence grined.' 
It is emphatically true, with regard to 
the saving and judicious application of 
manure. 

As an evidence of what care and at- 
tention in regard to making and saving 
manure will accomplish, it is within the 
knowledge of the wiiter, that two loads 
of manure, with (two yoke of oxen,) 
have been hauled out this season for 
every acre of ar?ble land on the farm? 
and, with a small exception, produced on 
the farm itself, without extraneous aid. 

As gerraain to our present purpose 
and object, I will here remark, that njany 
farmers whose lands most require "re- 
novating," keep too many liorses, in 
nineteen cases out of twenty; and for 
nearly all farm purposes, one or two 
good yoke of oxen are decidedly prefer- 
able. They cost no more at first, and 
will perfoim twice the labor, save in ex- 
pense of harness, and still more in keep- 
ing ; and after working five to six years, 
under good management, are usually 
worth more than the first cost for the 
shambles. 

Marl. — I can say but little from ex- 
perience, in the use of calcareous ma- 
nures; but am fully satisfied, both by 
information derivea from others, and 
from personal observation, that wherever 
it abounds, it might be made a mine of 
WEALTH to the proprietor, and the adja- 
cent districts which admit of water trans- 
portation. 

The only apparent reason wliy they 
are not more so, is either ignorance of 
its great fertilizing properties, or a lack of 



TEE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



the necessary enterprise and iuiustry to 
BECOMS Ricfl, when every f.uility for 
the purpose, is, as it were, laid at tlieir 
Tery doors. Tlie quantity of in irl re- 
quired to the acre, to produce much be- 
neficial result, doi!s not admit of extend- 
ed land transportation ; but there are 
thousan is, if not tens of thousands of 
acres, borderinjr on, and near tide-water, 
both in this and neigiiboring States, now 
thro^vn out as waste lands, because they 
will n) longer yield even a stinted growtii 
of vegetation ; most, if not all of which, 
migat be reclaimed by the judicious use 
of marl; and at one-fourth the cost per 
acre, that lands in the interior — origi- 
nally no better, if so g)od — are made 
to yield ten to twelve barrels of corn, or 
thirty to forty bushels of wheat to the 
acre. 1 have been informed by some ot 
tlie large landed propiietors — not (own- 
ing nor residing within less than eiglitto 
ten miles of the marl beds — that a boat 
load of a thous^ind to twelve hundred 
bushels of m.irl, rich in carbonate of 
lime, oould be delivered at many of their 
landings, at an expense not exceeding ^8 
to $10. Yet not one bushel was ever 
used ! 

But as was justly remarked by one of 
these very intelligent and hospitable 
gentlemen, "it's no use to preach to a 
deiif congregation," and a further re- 
mirk or two will only be added; not 
alto^r-ther without t!ie hope that Sfime 
tkitif^ will eventually "stir them up," 



with which I am acquained, whether 
mineral, animal or vegetable; and when 
it can be obtained at a reasonable cost, 
even with some miles hauling in addi- 
tion, it is generally to be preferred, if 
only one kind of "bought manure" is 
to be used. It may, however, be used 
freely in conjunction with ail other ma- 
nures, and with decided advantage, if 
done with judgment. 

After m my years' experience in the 
use of lime, 1 would advise, in all cases 
where it can be accomplished, to spread 
it on the surface from one to three or 
four years before the land is broken up. 
The ertect of a single winter's frosts and 
rains, will more etfectually dissolve, and 
bring it into action, and benefit the suc- 
eeding crop, as also the land itself, than 
is attained in a longer period, by plough- 
ing it in as soon as applied. In this 
way, also, a much larger quantity may 
be safely applied to the same land at a 
single dressing, As there is no kss to 
lime from atmospheric influence, it should 
be kept near the surface ; and the pro- 
pe.r quantity to use to the best advan- 
tage, can only be determined by tho 
price, and the state the land may be in 
•at the time. With a good sod of grass 
roots to receive it, one hundred, or even 
one hundred and fifty bushels to the 
acre, wU\ do no harm ; but on stiff 
clays, with little soil or mould on the 
surface, fifty bushels would be a very 
iberal application as a first dressing, if 



and induce a trial at least, of this valu- put on immediately after ploughing. It 
able manure. It matters less, how, would be better to apply a less quantity 



when, or what quantity of marl or lime 
is applied; only make ruE applicationt, 
and tliat pretty liberally. Its applica- 
tion, like lime, is best made one, two, 
or three years, and on the surface, before 
breaking up the land ; and thus give 
it the benefits of the winter's frosts and 
sno.vs to dissolve and incorporate it with 
the soil. 

Li.nie — This, next to the proper drain- 
ing (vviien necessary, for even lime will 
not ena'tle us to dispense with it,) and 
deep tillage, I consider the most certain 
an I nT'n'n^nt aiwut in "renovHtine 
worn-out lands," of any other substance 



at first, and renew it as soon as an in- 
creased growth of vegetation could be 
obtained. 

When lime is applied in very large 
quantities, and immediately incorporat- 
ed with a poor soil, having little or no 

vegetable matter in it, the eftect is to 

. . . . ^' . 

combine with the silicious particles — 

abounding more or less in all clay soils — 
and form hard compact masses that 
are not separated by years of sifter-til- 
lage. This mode, therefore, to say the 
least, is like " burying the talent;" for 
so much capital lies dormant, and nei- 
ther benefits the farmer or his land. 



iff 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



Twenty-five or thirty bushels, as a first 
application, particularly if aided by even 
a light dressing of vegetable manure, 
will make a much quicker return for the 
outlay. 

As to the modus operandi of lime, 
much has been written ; and various, if 
not conflicting, theories put forth ; nor do 
all agree as to the most judicious mode 
of application. 

I consider it altogether unnecessary 
here, to attempt any explanation of the 
chemical changes produced in tbe soil by 
its use, or to give my own opinion on the 
subject, though formed after careful ob- 
"^ervation and from years' experience. To 
the inexperienced, however, it is of much 
more importance to he informed how to 
use it to the best advantage. And as 
previously remarked, it is of still less 
consequence how or tvhen applied, so thai 
it is done. 

Lime will act very beneficially, as 1 
know from experience, on stiff, tenacious 
clays, and so near a state of sterility as 
scarcely to re-produce the seed sown on 
them. But if used under such circum- 
stances, and without the aid of any kind 
of manure, considerable time must elapse 
before much amelioration of the soil need 
be expected. 

Theoiy without practice does not of- 
ten carry much weight with it ; and on 
the mind of the farmer, generally speak- 
ing, it acts with less foi-ce, perhaps, than 
with most other classes in the communi- 
ty ; for unless an array of facts or good 
evidence is adduced to inspire confidence, 
he is slow to change ; the more so when 
he knows that even a partial failure in a 
single crop from experimenting, will be 
sensibly felt in the slender income, and, 
perhaps, for a year to come. This feel- 
ing, to a certain extent at least, is all 
right and proper; for experiments to 
test any new theory, are best undertaken 
on a limited scale : time may be lost 
thereby, but money may be saved in the 
tnd. 

I will noAv briefly give some account 
of the practical operation of my theory. 
My first application of lime to any ex 
teat was two hundred bushels, mostly 



air-slaked, hauled six miles, and applied 
to four acres just broken up for a corn 
crop, and harrowed in. This portion of 
the field particularly, was so thoroughly 
exhausted by bad management, that the 
yield in corn was only some five or six 
bushels to the acre; nor was the crop 
sensibly increased by the lime. As the 
main object in cultivation was to set the 
field in grass, the corn was followed by 
a crop of small grain and a liberal sup- 
ply of clover, timothy seed and plaster ; 
the latter produced no visible eftect what- 
ever, and nearly all the grass seed per- 
ished, leaving the surface as bare as be- 
fore. But before the field again came 
in course of cultivation, the good eftect 
of the lime was so evident by the growth 
of white clover — a new variety in that 
vicinity — that I was encouraged to lime 
the whoie field, containing about twelve 
acres, and also including this four acres, 
put on as before, just after breaking up 
for corn. The crop on this portion was 
increased fully five to sixfold over that 
adjoining, and but recently limed ; thus 
liberally paying all expenses, and has 
continued ever since to produce profita- 
ble crops. Plaster now acts on it with 
marked effect. The first application was 
made some eighteen to nineteen years 
since ; and to test the durability of lime, 
these four acres have been kept for expe- 
riment, and without the addition of other 
manure, except a portion intended for 
still further experiment. About twa 
acres were sown in broadcast corn, with 
200 lbs. Peruvian guano ; then followed 
wheat on the four acres, and with 200 
lbs. guano to the acre, leaving two lands 
without guano. 

The corn was materially benefitted by 
the guano ; but the wheat was not bene- 
fitted by the previous application of it, 
though it was nearly or quite doubled 
over the two lands left without any gua- 
no ; the wheat was harvested two yeai's 
since, and no one could now point out 
by the growth of the clover, uniformly 
good on the whole, and equally limed, 
which portion had, and which had no 
guano : the conclusion is, that the " re- 
novating" effects of lime are thus far 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



11 



TEN times as durable as guaao ; how 
much longer remains to be seen. 

Some nine or ten years since, I deter- 
mined to reclaim an adjoining field, at 
whatever cost. I was told long previous 
by one of my neighbors, who sold his 
farm, and removed to the West, in or- 
der to settle on better land, that the at- 
tempt would be futile ; or, if it ever was 
made productive, it would cost a great 
deal more than the land was worth. The 
prospect was forbidding ; for the larger 
portion was as much reduced as could 
be, by shallow tillage, no manure, no 
grass seed sown, and constant washing, 
even to gullies, producing little else than 
running briars. It was broken up in the 
fall and winter to a much greater depth 
than it was ever ploughed before ; sixty 
bushels of quick lime to the acre were 
applied in the spring, the ground well 
harrowed and planted in corn ; such por- 
tions as required it having been well un- 
der-drained — some two to three acres — 
and which were about the amount that 
produced anything of a crop, or that 
more than paid the expenses of plough- 
ing. A crop of oats and grass seed fol- 
lowed, as it was not considered worth 
the trouble and expense to put in a crop 
of wheat on two-thirds of the field. Af- 
ter six or seven years, the same field again 
coming in course, exactly the same plan 
was pursued as to ploughing and lime, 
but rather increasing the depth than 
otherwise. 

The crop of corn, though injured by 
the bud worm was good, enabling me to 
do what I had rarely or never done be- 
fore, se/Z from one-quarter to one-third of 
the crop, Oats followed on about two- 
thirds of the field, with some five or six 
buihels of bones to the acre, and wheat 
on the balance, with guano : both heavy 
crops, and lodging over the greater part 
of the field. Then followed a wheat 
crop on the whole, manured, as much as 
possible, from the barn-yard, and then, 
on the balance, a light dressing of guano 
of some eighty to one hundred pounds 
to the acre. 

The average yield of the field was 
over thirty-three bushels to the acre. 



These results are attained with cer- 
tainty ; for every field and lot are accu-^ 
rately surveyed, and the contents noted 
on the plat of the farm ; anjd the product 
of this field was kept separate, thrashed 
and measured by itself. The greater 
portion suffered from the drought early 
last year ; and the harvesting was badly 
done, owing to the fallen and tangled 
state of the grain from a storm about the 
time of ripening ; but I have no doubt 
several contiguous acres might have been 
selected on the lowest ground (the por- 
tion under-drained) on which the yieldl 
was over forty bushels to the acre.* 
This season the same field yielded the 
heaviest crop of grass I ever harvested ; 
and even on what was originally the 
poorest part, thei'e is now a luxuriant 
crop of second growth clover, and in- 
tended for seed that is lodging over the 
whole extent. We will estimate tha 
profit and loss by figures ; 
To 60 bushels of lime, costat kiln 16c. $9 60 
7 years' interest (though it paid 
in pasture in less time,) 4 OS 

60 bushels of lime, cost at kiln 12c, 7 50 
3 years' interest, 1 85 

6 bushels ground bones, at 50c., 3 00 

100 pounds guano (African,) 2 00 



$27 48 



CONTRA. 



By 33 bushels of wheat, average 

price sold at $1 31 $43 23 

Estimate increase of corn crop 
at least 6 barrels, at $2, (en- 
tirely owing to the lime,) 12 00 

Estimate increase of oat crop 
20 bushels, at 40c., (owing 
entirely to the lime,) 8 00 

Estimate increase of hay, 1 ton, 

(owing entirely to the lime,) 10 00 

Estimate value of clover seed, 
(there would have been none 
without the lime,; 1 1-2 bu- 
shels, at §4, 6 00 

To 2a 

$51 TI 
Making, in round numbers, |50 per acre 



*It was gleaned with the horse rake, and 
by the hogs ; yet suiHcient seed was left on 
the land to produce this year a volunteer croj* 
of wheat with the grass, estimated by many 
who saw it as well worth harTesting, 



12 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



in favor of " renovating ;" nor is tiie es- 
timate a forced one. Tiie actual increase 
of the crops is greater than tlie aniounis 
assumed, and if a fair average v\as made 
of the wheat, in the joint crop of oats 
and wheat, the aggregate resuit \sould 
be increased some live to six dollars per 
acre. 

Tiiere sho'ild, perliaps, in the view of 
some, be a charge for diaining, and for 
liauling and spreading tlie lim*' ; also for 
the manure fur the crop of wheal; and 
for the expense of harvesUMg the in.c^ eased 
crops. 

Tiie two former are amply paid for in 
the incre.ised })asture ; and tiie manure 
was no more than the actual yield ot 
the land itself, after the use of lime, tfec, 
which are charged in the accoiuit, and 
at more than t .e cost; antl it is believed 
the increased product in straw and fod- 
der fully re}>ays the expense of harvest- 
ing, to say nothirg of the jaesent state 
of the land, as conipaied to what it was 
originally. It is now tadualiy and pe.i- 
mdiipiilly improved. 

When li'iie lias been freely used, plas- 
ter will gtneraily, if not always, act 
promjjtly and ttliciciitly ; and thus, al 
very sma.l exp( use, maltrially ai<l in per- 
petuating tlie imj)rovenieul. I'n vious 
to its api)licalion in this case, plaster was 
liberally u.-^ed, but with no vissible etiect 
whatever ; no\v its action is as marked 
on the sitvi'- land as 1 have ever seen 
anywhere. 

Wherever lime can be obtained at a 
reasonable price — say from twelve to 
twent}'^ cents j»er bushel in a caustic 
state, (or at half price if aii- slaked,) with 
even rive to ten miles hauling, it nniy be 
. used to much sidvantjige on tiiost, if not 
all, stiff clay soils. 

In some sections these prices nie paid, 
and it is hauled fifteen to twenty miles, 
and by a class of men unsurj^assed for 
industry and thrift. 'i'he writer has 
known no instance wlieie its u>e was jier- 
severed in, under whatever disadvan 
tage it might be, in which success, to a 
greater or less extent, did not crown the 
efibrt; and many who boriowed nionev 
to ])rocure it in the first instance, liaNe 



mainly by its use be. ome independent 
and money lenders tin rnselves. 

Doiim — Composed principally of phos- 
pTiate of lime and gelatinous animal 
matter, wlien, crushed or ground, form 
one of the richest manures. It acts well 
eitliei' alone or with other manures, and 
is particularly valuable to aid the growth 
of clover ; for this reason I class it de- 
cidedly befoie giiano, at an eipnd exjien- 
diture of money, for "renovating worn- 
out lands.' Although not so prompt 
in acting, it is far more durable, an.i 
more likely to produce a good crop of 
clover to turn under. Clover being al- 
most the only "green crop" that 1 have 
ever found much advantage from turning 
in. 

I prefer its use fol'owing the lime ai d 
on the oat cro]>, at the rate of from • x 
t ) ten bushels, or as mucli more as tie 
renovator may jjlease, for an increased 
(juantity will do no injiry. On the 
wheat succeeding tlie o;its, my practice 
is to apj)ly a light dressing of guano — 
say eighty to one linndred jMrni ds lo t' e 
acre — to manure and jxerfect the grain, 
and only on such p"rtionsof the field as 
the manure from the bam-yard will not 
> xtend to. IJy the time the cl'«ver re- 
(pures the aid of the bone, it will have 
become sufficiently disintregated and in- 
cor])oiated with the soil, to give the clo- 
ver a vigorous stai't ; and its ettect on the 
grass crops, is generally more durable 
1 than the vegetable manu'es. 

Ibe sujiply of ^fmnd bones is a lim- 
ited fme ; but when to be liad at a rea- 
sonable pricj', (usually selling at forty to 
fifty cents the bushel.) it may be u.-ed to 
julvano^ge on all crn]>s and on all soils; 
but with decidedly /^.vv advantage after 
])asslng through tlie nJunbick of the 
g'tie maimfacturer, (as 1 have jnoved. at 
le;i.-t to my SMtisfaclion.) tl us depriving 
i; of much of its ferlili/ing pioperty. — 
It is u-ually harrowed in with tlie seed, 
as it loses less bv ex])osu;e to the atmos- 
])|ieielhan most kinds of ]iutiesc4n1 ma- 
in'ips. 

Giii,/,n — This is one of tl e niost ac- 
tive of all imiinnes; a^d if tl e ]rice 
Mould justify the rj plicalicn in ti.ffi- 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



13 



cient quantities, it aught aid very jnate- 
rially iu " renovatiug worn-out lands," 
But considering the evanescent nature 
of its most active piinciple, ainraonia, 
and the present higli maiket price, viz: 
the Peruvian, at ^60 to $70, and the 
more inferior kinds at $45 to $55, for 
the ton of 2000 lbs., it is much doubt- 
ed whether the ultimate advantage cal- 
culated on by many will be realized. If 
the Peruvian could be obtained at about 
half this price — and it is believed such 
■would be the case with a fair competi- 
tion in the Peruvian market — the case 
might be different. 

The writer has made li'eral use of 
guano, -and generally to profit as to im- 
mediate i-eturn ; but in no case has much 
benefit been deiived beyond the first 
cro[), and rarely was any material effect 
perceived after the second year. 

Tliis opijiion, so different fi-om that 
entertained by some others, is not lightly 
formed, nor without several years' caie- 
ful observation; and also testing the 
matter by numerous experiments, and on 
a scale sufficiently extended to prove the 
truth or fallacy of the doctiiiie held by 
some tliat it is only a stimulant. Re- 
ference to one experiment may suffice, 
as they all tend to the same result and 
nearly to the same degree. 

In a field of some ten acres, one acre 
was selected near the middle, and ex- 
tending through the field so as to em- 
brace any diflerence of soil, should theie 
beany. On this acre t^\o hundred lbs. 
of Peruvian guano, at a cost of about 
$5, were sown with the wlieat. Adjoin- 
ing the guano on one side, was manure 
from the barn-yard, at the rate of twenty- 
five cart loads to the acre ; and on the 
opposite side (separated by an open dram 
the whole distance) ground bones were 
applied on the balance of the field, at a 
cost of $6 to the acre — the field equally 
limed two years preceding. There was 
no material diftei'ence in the time or 
manner of seeding, except that the ma- 
nure was lightly cross ploughed in, and 
the guano and bones harrowed in with 
the wheat. 

The yield on the guanoed acre was 



thirty-five bushels; the adjoining acre 
with bone, as near ;.s iculd be i; i iniutd 
by dozens, and c< nipared with the gua- 
no, was about twdil} -seven lii>l.els, f.nd 
the manured about l\\ ent^'-f< ur 1 ii.- 1 els. 
The season w?s unus-naily diy ; snd the 
manured portion snfieitd muie licm this 
cause tliJin eiiher of the others, tl.e land 
being considerably eltvj.led and a ^culh 
exposure. 

The fie'd has since letn mow(d thiee 
times; the _^r5^ cup of jiirisb was tvi- 
dently in favor of li.e bci.ed pari; die 
second and thiid weie fuily iv^o to cue 
over the •^■uano, and al>-o _^ ieiuiig much 
heavier crops of c;< vei' stul. On a pait 
of one laud, eighietn In^liels io the 
acre of the finest <.f iht bene were u^^,d; 
on this, the wheat v\as as heavy as on 
the guanoed, and the g,ass gcntially 
lodges before ha^vtst, as it also coes en 
much of the adjoiuiug hnid witli twelve 
bushels of bone. 

The action and durabi:iiy of guano, 
probably vary on dihtrtiii M;i!s; M.d al- 
though it may, gtne'al y be ustd to ad- 
vantiige in aid of a siii<, ic cm ]>, J liave, 
as yet, no Sfiiis!ac'iO>y evidiiice thai its 
fertilizing pvcpcr;it.s me \eiy (..u:<-l.le; 
unless applied in such quaiituitsas n».y, 
in the end, "cost ni<;,e tiij.n it ctnus io." 

Guano shoii'd n< L le iiMd wilh cf;us- 
tic lime, oi- ashes; i,( v \t'iy m ui nic- 
ceeding their a]»iili(\;ii<ii. Ii ni;_\, wiih 
decided advantage, l.e ni'xcJ \- idi plas- 
ter, to fix and reu.in l! e ; n iigiia ; ;>;,d 
for nearly, if net cii' (.iejs. it is l*^t to 
sow it b'oadeast, ai.d j.li.ig/i. in in.nAdi- 
ately. 

Leached Ashes^. — ll.eie jiie Aw, or 
none, who are igncrmt ( !' t!.e va'ue of 
this article as raa^ube, ] uL as the sup- 
ply is la/ely, if evec, (h/iuJ to iLe ee- 
maud, much need i;f t I e M/d ( u tl.e 
subject. At eight 'r.) leu le^ils j ts lu- 
shel, if the cost of i ;us[>( ;i< iidi is liot 
too heavy, they nifv n'v^ays le ]>.( lita- 
bly used; ,in duval-ii'iy tl (y ?':e luxt to 
lime, and the acticri iinnudiaLe. Ftw 
comparaLivtiy, e.\cept within the viciiiily 
of cities or villages, oi- tlo.se wiih vuiier 
or railroad fiicilit'es, can juecuje or af- 
ford to use them . 



14 



THE FARMERS JOURNAL. 



Poudrette. — Much profit has not re- 
sulted in the use of this (the merchanta- 
ble) article, so far as I have observed its 
eifects on my own or the crops of others. 
Such as I have purchased, has, as yet, 
but slightly beneficial efiects on the 
crops to which it was applied. Its fer- 
tilizing property was diffused through 
such a mass of inert matter, that I con- 
cluded with half, if not one-third of the 
expense, more benefit might be derived 
from the purchase of some other kind of 
manure. 

In the neighborhood of cities, where a 
supply can be obtained without so much 
adulteration, its use may be made very 
profitable. 

Turning in Green Crops. — This plan 
of "renovating worn-out lands" has long 
been advocated by many. I have also 
given it a fair trial ; and, with the ex- 
ception of clover as the green crop, little 
advantao-e has resulted from its adop- 
tion ; very poor land, without some ex 
traneous aid, will not produce a green 
crop worth the turning in. It is ques- 
tionable, whether the same amount of 
time and labor (supposing the occupant 
without the means to purchase manure 
of any kind) could not be better employ- 
ed on such land in adding to his stock 
of manure by composts ; prepared from 
decaying vegetable matter, alluvial soil, 
&c., &c., abounding more or less on all 
farms. If the land possess fertility to 
produce sufficient clover for pasture, the 
use of plaster, either svithout, or certain- 
ly with the aid of lime, will, with good 
management, make it yield a luxuriant 
crop. But it should be borne in mind, 
that to improve in this way, little mow- 
ing, and less pasturing, must be permit- 
ted. The land is not only benefitted by 
what is turned in, but is also materially 
aided in the process of renovation by 
what is left out, and on the surface ; 
to shield and protect the soil from a 
parching sun, prevent throwing out the 
clover roots by the winter frosts, and 
washing away of the soil by heavy dash- 
ing rains. 

This brings to mind another matter, 
though perhaps not strictly "in the bar- 



gain," but which is of much more im- 
portance than many seem to be aware 
of, and as yet only incidentally alluded 
to. It is the preservation of the land 
after it is renovated, from washing away 
of the soil, and into gnllies, and galled 
places, as they are called ; this is best 
done by regular water furrows made 
with the barshare plough, and throwing 
the earth on the lower side. I will at- 
tempt a brief description of my plan of 
operations ; but without a diagram some^ 
may possibly be at a loss. 

The points to commence at are deter- 
mined by the eye ; a cheap spirit leveU 
costing but a trifle, will soon give the 
termination with precision, and the pro- 
per inclination. The operator takes a 
station some 80, to 100 yards distant 
from the designated point ; the assistant 
having the staff, with a moveable target, 
and also a bundle of stakes, some two to 
three feet long", places one in the ground, 
and by its side raises the staff and moves 
the target up or down, to range with the 
sight from the level ; the target is then 
raised six inches and confined by a screw: 
the assistant walks seventeen steps, and 
raises his staff; the operator, by merely 
turning his level, and not otherwise va- 
rying its position, soon determines the 
point of the second stake, by the assis- 
tant moving the staff, backwj^rds or for- 
wards, (keeping his distance from the 
first stake, until the target again ranges 
with the level ; then set anotlier stake, 
and raising the target six inches at each 
station, throughout the field. One posi- 
tion for the level, if selected with judg- 
ment, will serve for eight or ten sights ; 
they should be taken in advance, and on 
or near the supposed line of the furrow. 
With a little practice the levelling is 
done very expeditiously, and by any 
person of ordinary capacity. When 
ready for the plough, the leveller walks 
before it, (the ploughman guided by his 
steps,) picks up the stakes as they are 
reached — and if necessary by much ine- 
quality in the land — varies tlie line a lit- 
tle -between the stakes, still more to pre- 
serve the level. 

This gives a uniform escape for all 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



IS 



s'Qrplus water, with a regular tall of about 
one foot in the hundred. My experience 
has proved, that if the furrows are not 
too far apart, (one for each fall of five to 
six feet will generally suffice,) they efl:ec- 
tually prevent washing ; and the gradual 
descent of the water does not form gul- 
lies. They are made directly after seed- 
ing wheatr— are as carefully attended to 
as the seeding itself — and remain open 
until the land is again broken up. They 
are valuable on all lands liable to wash, 
and have materially aided in my eftbrts 
in "renovating worn-out lands." All the 
unsightly "gullies and galled places" 
have "disappeared. 

Rolalion of Crops. — This is also a 
subject of importance; and it is also one 
on Avhich much divei'sity of opinion ex- 
ists. Nothing short of the concurrent 
testimony of a neighborhood will estab- 
lish one plan as the best; yet, iu ano- 
ther, a different one has equally strong 
advocates; for in some sections of the 
countiy "the three field shift" is preferred 
— in another five — and a third will adopt 
the six or seven field rotation. Different 
"localities" and other circumstances, may 
perhaps afford good grounds for this va- 
riety of opinion. But, as a general rule, 
it is believed, that where the latter mode 
is adopted, or nearly so, other circum- 
stances being equal, the forming is bet- 
ter done, is more profitable, and the 
lands more permanently, if not more 
rapidly improved ; close pasturing and 
*' renovating worn-out lands," may do in 
theory, but are not very likely to succeed 
in practice. The seven field rotation 
■certainly admits of a better opportunity 
to benefit by the aid of the artificial 
grasses; and whenever they can be suc- 
cessfully invoked, the good work is more 
than half accomplished. 

Before taking leave of my readers, the 
majority of whom, perhaps, are engaged 
in agricultural pursuits, I would again 
briefly recur to the more important sub- 
ject of manures — one of scarcely less 
moment to the tiller of the soil, than is 
the mariner's compass to the tempest- 
tossed sailor — for mainly to their agency, 
In some form or other, must we be in- 



(jebted for success in the " renovation of 
worn-out lands " My preference, as may 
have been seen, is given to lime over all 
others, when an expenditure of the slen- 
der resources of the fai-m is devoted to 
this subject ; and although it is not a 
panacea, to cure all the ills incident to 
the calling, nor will it, like the fabled 
Satyr, "blow hot and cold with the same 
breath ;" yet on aU soils to which I have 
seen it applied — from thestiffest clays to 
the blowing sands-— does it appear to bo 
a renovator, in a greater or less degree ; 
the one it will lighten and mellow, while 
the other is rendeied more comjjact, and 
more retentive of moisture. I would, 
therefore strongly advise the use of lime>, 
as decidedly the most efficient and dura- 
ble agent for improving most kinds of 
soils. If its action may be considered ' 
comparatively slow, ll is sure in its fer- • 
tiHzing effects; and will generally, in the 
end, prove also to bo the most economi- 
cal, whenever it can be obtained at a rea- 
sonable price. The three kinds of bought 
manures most extensively in use in this 
State, for improving our worn-out lands, 
(plaster of course, excepted,) might be 
classed somewhat like the following : — 
Lime for the landlord, guano for the 
tenant, and gTound bones for both. All 
may be used to profit, under favorable 
circumstances ; but they are believed to 
differ materially in their relative values, 
in proportion to the amount of money 
usually expended, if the improvement of 
the land is a primary object with th^ 
husbandman. 

Experience, however, in this, as well 
as in most other things, is the best 
teacher; provided we do not pay too 
dear for it. And without intending, ia 
the least degree, to check the energy 
and spirit of agricultural improvement, 
now so widely extending, I would ven- 
ture a caution to those who have but 
little money to expend for the purchase 
of high-priced manures, to do it rather 
for such as are known to be durable "^ 
and which will, eventually, be the most 
certain to return both principal and in- 
terest. I feel confident that all I have 
expended for lime has been returned in 



16 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



the increased product of the soil : and 
%vith nearer six times six than six per 
cent. Interest. If the market value of 
the land has not been enhanced in equal 
proportion, (most probably the case,) it 
certnlnly has not deteriorated any in 
quality. 

As remarked at the beginning of my 
essay, no exciuMve method of improve- 
ment is alike suited to all occasions and 
circumstances ; but I trust a plan is sub- 
mitted that will very generally succeed, 
if persevered in ; it will not only make 
the grain, bui the grass grow; and will, 
at the same time, ettectually "Renovate 

WURN-i-UT LANDS." 

Ei/WARD Stabler. 
Iltrewood, 8/A mo. 28, 1848. 



£xp9siire or >f .inure in Barn-Yards. 

MAKING OF COMPOSTS. 

"We once had an eccentric friend, who 
insisted upon wearing the nap, or soft 
side of his stoc'dngs toward his foot, or 
what is usu.illy called wrong side out. 
Ileiniistel upon it, that the stockings 
would wear for a longer time, and that 
as he had more respect for his foot than 
]iis boot, he should .so continue to wear 
liis stocking-;. When asked why others 
did not follow his plan, he answered, 
that they folio >^ed example rather than 
to take t!ie troub'e to think. Is it not 
so with our farmers, in permitting ma- 
nures to lie confinually exposed on the 
surface of an rpe i gr amd ? When they 
caii out manures to spread on ground 
before p!ough!n.>-, they are always anx- 
ious to spre id no more than they can 
ploHgli under the same day, to prevent 
Joss by evaporation; and still are will- 
ing to leave itex])osed all winter to con- 
tinued evaporation. And not only do 
they lose the volatile part of the manure 
l>y suL-h exposure, but the treading of 
Jie c.ittle upon it is continually displac- 
ing atmosphere from between the parti- 
c'es, and enabling new quantities to enter 
for fur, her evaporation. All the liquid 
unanurps are lost at an accelerated rate 
b'- Vie'n r kppt in continuous motion, 
not only bysjhe feet of cattle, but by 



i capillary attraction from straw, corn- 
j stalks, &c. Notwithstanding that it has 
I been clearly established that seventy-five 
per cent, of the value of manures is lost 
by such treatment, still the practice is 
adhered to without change. Instead of 
such exposure and loss of manures, why 
not build sheds facing the barn-yard to 
hold manures, and throw the quantity 
produced under these sheds each morn- 
ing before the sun has had full power 
upon it, and by there mixing it with 
muck, headlands, or any other divisor, 
increase the quantity of manures, in 
addiiton to the saving of seventy-five per 
cent, by preventintf evaporation? Every 
one who has tried it, knows that one 
load of fresh manure mixed with several 
loads of muck, or even headlands, under 
covers, will cause eaeh load of the mass 
to become equal to its bulk of clear ma- 
nure for purposes of fertilization, and 
that this arizes from the escaping gases 
given off from the manure during fer- 
mentation, being absorbed by the divi- 
sor; and still we see farmers continuing 
this barn-yard deposit, notwithstanding 
the fact that in many cases they are 
compelled to buy manures in the spring. 
Let them, if they will, continue the barn- 
yard system, at least throw muck, char- 
coal dust, gypsum, or all three of them, 
on the surface of the ground each day, 
after cleaning up tne yard, and thus .save 
a larger proportion of the liquid ma- 
nures by retaining the ammonia. We 
have found that by placing proper ab- 
sorbents in our ox, cow and horse stables, 
so as to receive the fluid manures before 
they lose the animal heat, that eighteen 
loads of muck may readily be used with 
every load of fresh manure; thus giving 
us nineteen times the bulk of manures 
that we should have on the old system, 
and even with such divisor, the heat of 
our manure heaps is fully suflicientfor the 
purposes of decomposition ; but our cat- 
tle do not run at large in a barn-yard, nor 
do we believe it is necessary tor their 
health that they should do so. For work- 
ing cattle, certainly exercise is unneces- 
sary, and to air a well-regulated stable, 
having no escape gases from manures, 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



will furnish better air than a putrid and 
offensive barn-yard. If the object be to 
fatten cattle, it has long been decided that 
they fatten more readily witliout a con- 
tinuous motion than with it, and for 
milch co"s the stall system cannot be 
doubted as being the most economical, 
both as relates to tlie quantity of milk 
and food, as well as in the saving of ma- 
nure. 

A moderate quantity of salt should 
be used in the manure or compost heap 
It is well known that although a large 
quantity of salt will prevent active fer- 
mentation, still a moderate quantity will 
accelerate decomposition, — and at the 
same time destroy the seeds of many 
kinds of weeds, grubs, <kc. 

Farmers who raise wheat, rye, corn, 
oats, barley, clover, turnips and potatoes, 
should either have in their soil or add to 
their compost heaps a variety of inor 
ganie ingredients which these crops con- 
tain. Thus, if after having an analysis 
of their soil, they should find it to con- 
tain potash, soda, lime, mngnesia, phos- 
phoric acid, sulphuric acid, soluble sili- 
cates, chlorides and azotized matters, 
there they may raise any or all of the 
crops before named, by only adding so 
much manure as will supply the carbo- 
naceous substances required ; or if the 
.soil be well filled, this carbon will be 
.supplied from the corbonic acid of the 
atmosphere. 

But should any of these ingredients 
be missing from the soil and not be con- 
tained in the manure used, the crop for 
which it is required cannot possibly suc- 
ceed, however rich the soil may be iu 
other ingredients. 

After ascertaining in what the soil is 
deficient, the farmer can readily sui)ply 
it in the compost, and generally from 
cheap materials ; thus potash from ashes, 
soap-suds, &c. ; soda chlorine from dirty 
salt or the salt ley (soapers' vvaste) of 
the soap-boilers; sulphuric acid and lime 
from plaster of Paris ; phosphoric acid 
from bones, and a small portion is con- 
tained in shell lime, night soil, and in 
deed most animal matters will supply 
both phosphoric acid aid azotized mat- 



ter. Soapers' waste is rich m the solu- 
ble silicates, or if the coraptsfit contain 
excess of alkali of aB>y kind, She silex of 
the earth will be combined with k, and 
thus be rendered available for the ase of 
plants. — Workioff Earmer 

BAia. N. g, APRIL, 1852^ 

TERMS : 

The Farmer's Jocrnai, will be published 
montiily, at $1 j)er ann»ni, in advance; six 
copies for !?5; twelve co|>ies for $10 ^ thirty 
copies for $'20. 

Advkrtjsements. — A limited nnniber of 
advertisements will beiBserted atihe follow- 
in*^ rates; For one square of twelve- lines, 
for each insertion, $1 ; one square, pt-r an- 
num, $10; halfcolnnie, do^ $80; one col- 
umn, do, $50 larger advertisements ia pro- 
portion. 

All communications slionld he addressed 
to JOHN F. TOPMKINS. 

Edi'orand Proprietur, l^alh, K.C 



Editor's Iiitroduetion. 

Js entering upon the duties belonging^ 
to the Rlitor of an Agricultural paper, 
it is but natural that we should, in the 
beginning, exhibit that timidity, especi- 
ally in writing, which must ever charac- 
terize one truly desirous to render him- 
self useful to the reading public. 

But in the very commencement of our 
task we have this consolation to cheer ns 
on, — that our lot is cast in a truly repub- 
lican country, and among a people who 
are ever ready to render one assistance 
in climbing the hill of Science. 

To our readers Ave would say, that we 
shall be ever mindful of the importjince 
of our station, and our constant aim 
shall be to cherish and promote tlie agii- 
cultural interest of our State. We shall 
be cautious how we set forth or enc<^ur- 
age new theories or hypotheses, ever 
mindful of the large number we may 
Ic'id into error by such a ct)urse. 

Thire is in our State a field for agri- 
cultural advancement, wide in extent, 
reaching from the mountains to the sea- 
board. And, by a correct dissemination 



18 



THE FARMER'S JOUR If AL. 



t3f such knowledge as is necessary to the 
development of our resources, the day 
will soon come when every North Caro- 
linian will rejoice that he claims a citi- 
zenship within her limits. It is our in- 
tention to advocate only such principles 
in agricultural improvement as have 
been proved to he correct. 

The fundamental principles of success- 
ful farming are the same everywhere. — 
Deep ploughing, thorough draining and 
heavy manuring, are the most essential 
mechanical means of raising heavy crops. 
Without these, all other means are sure 
to fail to accomplish much. Upon these 
three are based all other permanent im- 
provements of the soil. Though this fact, 
when having been made p'ahi, seems no 
longer to be difficult of comprehension, 
yet the time has not long past v/hen to 
plough deep, was thought to destroy the 
growth of plants and inllict a permanent 
injury upon the soil. And such was the 
great carelessness and indifference wnth 
regard to drainage, that it was indeed a 
rare sight to see a ditch in a field to 
carry away the stagnated water from the 
surface. And for a long time did our 
farmers resist the idea that worn-out 
lands could be renovated at less expense 
than they could clear new fields. 

But there has sprung up a new era in 
the agricultural history of our country. 
Men of great scientific attainments are 
HOW applying themselves assiduously to 
practical agriculture, and they are cre- 
ating a new zeal among that worthy class 
of men — the farmers. The great chem- 
ist. Baron Liebeg, may truly be said 
to be the first to prove that agriculture 
held a high rank among the various sci- 
ences of our country, and the farmers 
over the civilized world are greatly in- 
debted to him for the present flourishing 
condition in those countries where scien- 
tific knowledge has been reduced to prac- 
tice in fanning. To Prof. J. J. Mapes 
we are greatly indebted for what agricul- 
tural information we have acquired ; and 
we feel that we could not, in the whole 
Union, make a better selection as a guide 
in our mtercouse with our readers, than 
the above named gentleman. He is a 



ripe scholar, and the whole agricultural 
press of our countiy have yet to make 
the first attack upon the principles of 
improved farming set forth and advo^ 
cated by him. With such a leader w© 
are sure that we shall soon gain the en- 
tire confidence of our readers, and render 
them invaluable service in our particular 
station. 

Let us here remark that we have set 
forth, in a measure, our duty towards 
our readers, and we hope that it will not 
be thought unkind to mention here what 
must be their course towards us, in order 
that the work which we have begun shall 
succeed. It will be your duty to make 
accurate experiments and test of such of 
the various improvements set forth by 
us, and correctly repoi't the same to us. 
And let us here remind you not to dis- 
credit anything which you may see in 
our columns, before giving it a fair trial, 
for 3^ou may rest assured that we shall 
advocate nothing that is not strictly in 
accordance with scientific farming. 

After we have laid down the correct 
principles by which successful farming 
has been accomplished, we shall requre 
you to follow the track before you ex- 
press an opinion against them ; and, our 
word for it, in less than ten years you 
will rejoice that the '''■Farmer's JournaV^ 
has its existence. We shall hold ourselves 
prepared to answer through our col- 
umns, any question connected with ag- 
ricultural improvement, and shall put to 
flight error, come whence it may. We 
shall be ever pleased to afford our col- 
umns to the friendly discussion of any 
point which is yet unsettled among the 
farmers. What we have here said, we 
hope will entitle us to a fulFacquaintance 
with our readers ; and we now throw off 
all reserve, and extend to them the hand 
ot friendship. The promotion of the 
agric'iltural interest of North Carolina 
shall be our constant aim ; and by show- 
ing ourselves the warm friend of that in- 
terest, we hope to secure the friendship 
of every North Carolinian. 



The idea about the want of time is a 
mere phantom. 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



19 



The Importance of a Knowledge of 
Soils and Manures. 

The system of cultivation in our State 
has heretofore been of that kind which 
has greatly depreciated the value of those 
lands vi'hich have been under tillage for 
any length of time. Those under whose 
management they have been, have pur- 
sued the plan of taking from the field, 
not only the crop, but the stalks and 
vines besides. Nature has so constituted 
the various soils as to render them, in 
their primitive state, adapted to the 
growth of the various plants which aie 
necessary for the sustenance of man and 
animals. 

It is an established fact, that like causes 
produce like effects; and upon this prin- 
ciple it is that the soil must contain the 
constituents of the plant to be grown 
upon it. By pursuing the course of de- 
priving the land of every thing raised 
upon it, and leaving nothing to be re- 
turned to the soil for the reproduction of 
tlie succeding crop, our lands, Avhich 
have been cultivated for any length of 
time, have become exhausted. 

The subject which should engage the 
mind of the farmer at this time, is the 
discovery and use of tliose fertilizers 
which will, in the most efficient and least 
expensive way, supply those constituents 
which enter into the plant he may wish to 
cultivate, and which are wanting in the 
soil which he designs for its growth, — 
Here arises at once the question, how 
can this be done ? What is the first 
step to be taken ? The answer is this : 
Let the soil be analyzed, and ascertain at 
once what is wanting in the soil which 
the plant requires for its growth. This 
is highly important, for the reason that 
without this knowledge, the farmer may 
go to work and gather, at a great deal of 
unnecessary trouble and expense, a large 
quantity of manure, which, when accu- 
mulated, inay not contain to a sufiicient 
extent those elements which are wanting 
in the soil. Those farmers who are un- 
educated, and who have not seen practi- 
cal illustrations of this fact, may be dis- 
posed not to attach that weigbt to the 
subject which it deserves. They may say 



that they can, with the common barn- 
yard manure, make their land highly 
fertile ; but why is this the case ? For 
the plain reason that this manure con- 
tains all the constituents required for the 
growth of plants. But this barn-yard 
manure is, strictly speaking, the very 
crops themselves, which, after losing to a 
great degree their strength in the nour- 
ishment of animals, are then to be used 
for the reproduction of the same crops 
during the succeding year. We are a 
strong advocate for the use of barn-yard 
manure, but in many instances a man 
may be a lifetime in supplying his soil 
with that or those constituents which 
may be wanting by its use, when, with 
an analysis of his soil, he may accomplish 
his end at perhaps a third of the expense. 

The perfect soil consists of fourteen 
elements, a part of which are inorganic 
or mineral, and a part organic or vegeta- 
ble. Those minerals, wliich enter most 
largely into the formation of soils are, 
lime, silex or sand, alumina or clay, — 
Silex and alumina are rather the bases 
of sand and clay than the minerals them- 
selves. Lime, of all other minerals, is 
most required in the soil to produce ve- 
getables to any degree of perfection, and 
is most sought for by the practical agi'i- 
culturist. It is, in truth, "the basis of 
all good husbandry," and the foundation 
of all permanent improvement. When 
properly applied, it rarely fails to meet 
the expectations of the farnier ; but when 
misapplied, it only produces disappoint- 
ment. 

If the soil upon which we purpose to 
use lime is already highly calcareous, it 
would be evident to the practical farmer 
that its use would only serve as a poison 
to plants, and if there does not exist 
much vegetable matter in the soil for its 
action, it should be used only in a small 
quantity, "Lime supplies a kind of in- 
organic food for plants, which appears to 
be necessary for their healthy growth, — 
It neutralizes acid substances, which are 
naturally formed in the soil, and decom- 
poses or rendei-s harmless other noxious 
compounds which are not unfrequently 
within the reach of the roots of plants^ 



20: 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



It causes, facilitates and enables other 
useful cuin|>(jurids, both organic and in- 
organic, to be{):oduced in the t^oil, or so 
promotes the decomposition of existing 
conij)ounds, as to prepare them moie 
speedily for entering into the cij-cuhition 
of phintii." Lime may be used upon 
newly -cleared delds as well as on tho^e 
worn out. Indeed, we liave been in- 
formed by Mr. Josiah Collins, a very ex- 
tensive and highly educated farmer in 
VVasiiiiigtoa county, in this State, that 
he used lime upon his newly-cleared land 
which luus tlie effect to neutralize the 
vegetable acitls which pievail in new 
lands tiiat have not been long drained. 
This gentleiuan has succeedeil, l»y the use 
of liiue, in reclaiming a portion of sa- 
vannaii land which was thought by those 
who knew it to be almost valueless. 

The use of lime as a fertilizer, is of 
ver}^ ancient date. The Roinan agricul- 
tuiists used it in the cultuie of fiuit trees, 
and the Ai-abs of Spain also used it suc- 
cessfully. Until within a few years [>;.st, 
its value as a fertilizer has not been geii- 
erahy known in this country. Our farm- 
ers now ai'e beginning to learn that there 
are correct principles by wiiich they are 
to be guided in its applieation. Sand, 
though really non-producave alone, is 
highly necessjiry in tlie soil to the luxuri- 
ant growth of plants. Renters largely into 
the foimation of the stalk of the various 
grain crops, and when it is wanting to a 
great extent, the stalks particulai'iy of 
the various small grain crops, are \\eak 
and unable to sui)port the ear, and con- 
sequently lodge and are difficult to leap. 
Wliere a soil is principally clay, it is 
found to be too tenacious, and it becomes 
necessary to mix in sand with it, which 
will gi'eatly increase the product, besides 
rendering the land less difficult to culti- 
vate. Clav does not enter as a constitu- 
ent in plants, but it is essentially neces- 
sary in the soil, in order to render it suf- 
ficiently compact and tenacious as to be 
adapteil to tlie growth of plants. The 
remaining minerals are tl e phosphates 
and alkalies, which are really important 
to the growth of plants, and when defi- 
cient, can easily be supplied. Vegeta'de 



mould is the natural manure of the soil, 
and all exhausted and worn out lands are 
deficient of it to a great extent; but it 
may be easi y supplied by resorting to 
the swamps and bogs, and to the wcods, 
B}' a proper u.-<eof ame, ashes, salt, soda, 
bone-uu.-t, muck and woods-mould, the 
farmer need not have exhausted fields; 
for by a projter combination of these, as 
each is requied, he can soon have his 
land in a moie fertile condition than per- 
haps it was in its piimitive state. 

lint what we have already said, we 
are sure that every thinking and reading 
farmer will at once see how impoitantit 
is to be acquainted with the natuj'e of 
the soil he cultivates, and the action of 
the manures he accumulates. There is 
scarcely any ])art of our State in which 
iime, she Is, or marl, may not be had at 
such cost as to justify the farmer in using 
them as fertilizeis; and the swamps, bogs 
and salt-maishes are almost innumerable. 
The Supieme Ru er has been all-wise in 
his jMovisions; for wherethesoilis easily 
exhausted, there may be found the veij 
materials for enriching it and making it 
more fertile than before. 

What is wanting in our State to ele- 
vate the farmer to that position winch 
he has a right to claim, and ought to oc- 
cupy, is to iujpress upon him the great 
iuiportance of a liberal education in the 
jnosecution of his business successfully. 
Let the thousands of boys attending our 
common schools, and designed to be- 
come farmers, be instiucted in the ele- 
ments of agriculture. This may not 
make them at once good farmei'S, but it 
w ill lay the foundation for it. We hope 
that every teacher in the State will at 
once intioduce into his school a little 
woik on the elements of agriculture, pub- 
lished in France, and re-published in this 
country by F. G. Skinner, adapted to tlie 
schools of our country. This book may 
be had at the bock store of C M. Saxton, 
in New York. Lideed, the best way of 
getting this book introduced into schools, 
is for those who deal in books in our 
State to obtain them, and then urge 
their use, which we are sure they will 
do after reading it. 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



21 



We sliali iueaoli i umber of our paj-er 
treat on some one of tlie ferliizers which 
may be used to atl vantage by our farmers. 



To Our Correspondents. 

When we tij'st concluded to begin tlie 
Journal^ we addressed several gentlemen 
in the State, wjiom we knew to be good 
farmers, and solicited thtm to become 
regu lar correspondents to our pa])er. W e 
found that tliey all seemed wi' dug to con- 
tribute their aid to our enterprise, each 
one promising that we should hear from 
him soon ; but the promise is al' tliat 
we have received from the most of tliem, 
each one expecting that the others would 
contribute sufficient for the preh<^nt. This 
is a bad conclusion for them to come to. 
There are many farmers in the State with 
wliom vv e have no acquaintance, who 
are well able to deal out instiuction to 
the farming comiiimiity. To these we 
won d say, do not wait for a s-peciai invi- 
tation from us to contribute to our col- 
umns, but come and wiite for and sus- 
tain the i)aper devoted to your inteiest. 
Unless (ur correspondents are regular in 
their contributions, we shall only be able 
to lay belbre our readeis such ext)actsas 
we may tind in our exchanges suited to 
our climate and soil, and our oun edito- 
rials. 

Unexpected Delay. 

"We have been c( mpelled todelay issu- 
ing the first nund^er of our paper until 
the fiist of April, on account of being dis- 
appointed in geltirg the printing done 
w here we first contracted foi it. Wherever 
we have been of late, there seems to be 
consideiable anx'ety en the part of the 
fanners to see us succeed ; 1 ut still we do 
not perceive that inteiest manifested by 
them in the enterprise which we thinl. 
ouglit to besltown. Already weliaveex- 
P' nded a great deal of time and money 
in getting up this psiper, and without the 
fainiers Liy hold of it, what we have 
done in the piemises, cannot profit either 
us or tliem. We have not near enough 
subscribers to justify tie undertMking, but 
we aie resolved to venture cut, and de- 
pend upon those whose interests we ad- 



vocate to to bear us up. If every subscri" 
ber wi.l, upon the reception of tlie first 
number, send in his dollar, with four 
others, we shall at once be upon safe 
ground. This, we think, is but a a very 
light burden imposed upon each subscri- 
ber, when comjiaied with what we have 
undergone. Since the Prospectus came 
out, we have received from one gent cman 
forty names, and he is not afairaer but a 
physician, residing in the southern part of 
our State, a native born son of Eeaufort 
county. If there Avere fifty such young 
men in our State, possessed of the same 
State pride and iron eneigy which distin- 
guishes him, it would not be long befire 
our li^t would be ten thousand. Since 
we have begun this enteiprise, we have 
given it strict attention, and have closely 
jijipiied ourself to such study as will in a 
.sliort time enable us to discharge our 
whole duly to our readers. We shall con- 
tinue to })ursue this course, if the farmers 
of North Carolina will only give us that 
encour;ioenient which we shall endeavor 
to me) it. Our location is m the eastern 
part of the State, but we can assure our 
I'eaders, let them be in what part of the 
State tliey may, we shall ever be I'eady to 
do any thing to forward their inteiest. 
We claim to be free from any sectional 
feeling in this matter; we desire to see 
the entire St;ite fiourish in every re.spect, 
and it would aflord us great gratification 
to know that we had been, even in a 
small way, the means of disseminating 
agricultural knowledge among our farm- 
ers. Let us, in conclusion, entreat every 
reader t)f The. Juvival to use his infiu- 
ence with his neighbors to cease to re- 
pulse any longer information in regard 
to the daily occupation of his life. 



Agricultural Journals Increasing- 
How Encouraged. 

While it is gratifying to see that the 
number of Jomnals devoted to the in- 
terest of this great pursuit is rather in- 
creasing, it is'at the same time mortify- 
ing to vxitnesshow languid is tlie demand 
compared with that which calls new party 
papers into existence exery day ; and yet 
more, to see how miserably and meanly 



22 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



the proprietors of agricultural papers are 
rewarded for all their outlay and wear 
and tear of pocket, of mind, and of body. 
That kind of reading which is most 
strictly in connection with the interest of 
the farmer and planter, seems to be held 
in the very lowest esteem ; and hence the 
necessity for placing the price of Agricul- 
tural Journals below that of the meanest 
and most vulgar vehicle of party trash 
to be found in the country. You may 
find hundreds of men, in any State in 
our Union, who boast of their patriotism 
and pride themselves upon their know- 
ledge, who do not hesitate to wager ten 
dollars on a horse race or an election,wlio 
yet refuse to give as much as one dollar 
for an Agricultural Journal, that shall 
keep them well posted up in all the prac- 
tical improvements making in the very 
pursuit which is the business of their 
lives, and for ignorance of which, if pos- 
sessed of the proper pride, they ought to 
hang their heads in shame and confusion. 
It is true that those who have been raised 
to read books, and to un'lerstand the 
knowledge and enjoyment to be derived 
from them, rarely become alive to the 
great benefits to be derived from them 
until they become settled in their habits. 
Thus it is, that with them a large portion 
of life, which, with the man fond of 
reading, is looked upon as by far the 
most important and pleasant, passes in 
sullen apathy, or in beastly sensuality. 
But has such a man no thought for his 
children ? Has he any regret at with- 
holding from his sons, while their habits 
are being formed, the most fruitful sources 
of knowledge in the way of their future 
advancement, and the most powerful 
stimulus to excellence, because he has not 
enjoyed them himself? Of what, we 
would like to know, has a son so much 
right to complain of a father as for with- 
holding from him the means of know- 
ledge ? — another word for virtue as well 
as power. 

But words cannot characterize the im- 
providence, to say nothing of the cruelty, 
of the father, who can easily impart and 
yet withhold from his children, informa- 
tion, and the means to gratify it. What 



a sight it would be, indeed, to the scholar 
to see the library of many farmers, with 
whom we are acquainted, who are well 
to do in the world ! There are many, 
and very many, who have not the first 
agricultural paper, nor literary one either, 
and very possibly not even the political 
paper of their county town ! Still, when 
you hear a man speaking of we Ameri- 
cans, he iuvaricibly says that we are the 
most enlightened, thj bravest, and the 
most progressive people in all creation. 

Agricultural Societies. 

We shall begin with the first number 
of the Journal to urge upon the farmers 
to form themselves into Agricultural So- 
cieties, in the diti'erent counties through- 
out the State ; for in imion there is 
strength. Agricultural Societies are one 
of the very best means of disseminating 
knowledge among farmers, and the pre- 
sent condition of our farming interest in 
this State, loudly calls for prompt action 
in the premises. We see that medical 
men, merchants, and meciianics, are 
forming associations to promote the in- 
terest of their respective avocations ; and 
still the farmers, thinking themselves na- 
turally smart, do not seem to wish to 
know any thing more than what their 
grand-papas knew, and this they have 
learned to hold sacred. 

We say, let the farmers in each county 
in the State lend their aid in establishing 
at once such societies. Do not wait '.mtil 
Court-week to do this, for then farmers 
have other business to call their attention 
from such matters. Let it not be said, 
after three months, that there is a single 
county in the State that has not its Agri- 
cultural Society ; and if the farmers do 
not consider their time so very precious 
that they cannot spend a few hours at 
the meetings, we shall soon see the good 
effects of such associations. 



Franklin found time, in the midst of 
all his labors, to drive into the hidden 
recesses of philosophy, and to explore the 
untrodden path of science. Want ot 
time, therefore, is but a poor excuse for 
ignorance of one's profession. 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



25 



Fine Stock. 

We had the pleasure, a few weeks 
since, of being upon the farm of Thos. 
Jones, Es<j., of Martin county, and we 
were much pleased with the farm, and 
its owner besides. Mr. Jones is turning 
his attention to the breeding of improv- 
ed stock, both of cattle and sheep; and 
from his great success in the beginning, 
we are much inclined to think that he will 
succeed. Several farmers who ai-e dis- 
posed to raise improved stock, have met 
with poor success in this State ; they 
very often kill them with kindness. — 
"What we mean by that is, that they 
generally purchase them at a fair in 
some State, when they are fattened for 
the very purpose of making a fine show; 
and farmers in this State who buy them, 
generally think that they must still be 
kept in this condition, and they have 
them fed high, and very often over-feed- 
ing by negroes who manage them, kill 
them. Mr. Jones informs us that he 
allows his improved stock to fare the 
same as his other, and he thinks that by 
this process he is fortunate enough to 
save them. We saw some fine Devon 
cows, and a very fine three-year-old bull 
— as noble an animal as we ever looked 
at — which would compare with bulls of 
the same age anywhere. We saw, also, 
several Cotswald sheep, which are gene- 
rally looked upon as the best breed of 
that kind of stock. We hope that Mr. 
Jones will favor us occasionally with 
hints upon the raising of fine stock ; for 
we are well assured, from our little con- 
versation, that he is well posted up on 
that subject, as well as most others in 
connection with the various improve- 
ments belonging to farming. 



Holland's Blapure Cart. 

We take great pleasure in recom- 
mending to the favorable consideration 
of our readers the above cart. Though 
it is, like many other pieces of useful 
machinery, simple in its structure, yet it 
seems to us to be the very thing which 
every farmer wants. We have seen the 
operation of it, and we ure well satisfied 
of its usefulness in the distribution of 



manures, either broadcast or in the drill, 
and the price is such that most farmers 
can avail themselves of its use. The 
cart, ready for manuring, costs about 
forty doUai-s ; and when it is not em- 
ployed for this purpose, it can be used 
for any work which any other cart can. 
This is an invention by a native North- 
Carolinian, and we do hope that our 
farmers will not wait for a slight modifi- 
cation of it to come from the North, 
before they can be induced to give it 
their patronage. 



From the Cheraw (S. C.) Gazette. 

Agricultural Letter from General 

Washington. 

We are indebted to the kindness of 
an old friend for the following valuable 
document — valuable not only because of 
the reverend source from which it emn- 
naies, but because it aftbrds many excel- 
lent lessons from an able and practital 
farmer, It is, too, strongly characteristic 
of the American hero. We see here the 
exercise, in private life, of that attention 
to detail, that inflt-xible devotion to order 
and discipline, which so eminently mark- 
ed the public character of Washington. 
No one can read this leter without seeing 
at once that the writer was an industrious, 
sound, pradiral farmer. He whose in- 
domitable energy had given freedom to 
the world, did not esteem the most mi- 
nute details of agiiculture unworthy his 
attention. 

It will probably surprise the reader to 
find General Washington insisting upon 
the use of harrows and cultivators in the 
culture of his corn. This we have been 
accustomed to plume ourselves upon as 
a much more modern invention. 

The letter, directed to his overseers, is 
taken from the manuscript copy, in 
Washington's own hand-writing, and, as 
we are informed, now appears in print 
for the first time : 

Philadelphia, July 14, IVQS. 

Gentlemen : — It being indispensably 
necessary that I should liave some person 
at Mount Vernon, through whom I can 
communicate my orders, who will see 
that those orders are executed, or, if not 



24 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



obeyeil, who will inform me why they 
are not; who will receive the weekly re- 
ports and transmit them; receive money 
and pay it; and, in general, to do those 
things wiiich do not appertain to any in- 
dividual overseer, I have sent my nephew, 
Mr. Howell Lewis, (who lives with me 
here,) to attend to tlietn until I can pro- 
vide a manager of established reputation 
in those matters. You will, therefore, 
pay due regard to such directions as you 
may receive fnjm him, considering them 
as coming immediately from myself. But 
that you may have a general knowledge 
of what I expect from you I shall convey 
the following vie-v which I have of the 
business committed to your cliarge, as it 
appears (o me, and direct you to govern 
yourself by it, asl am pursuaded nothing 
inconsistent therewitli will be ordered by 
Mr. Lewis, without authority from me to 
depart from it. 

1st. Although it is almost needless to 
remark that the corn ground at the farm 
you overlook ought to be kept clean and 
we!l ploughed, yet, because not only the 
goodness of that crop depends upon sucli 
management, but also the wlieat crop 
which is to succeed it, I cannot forbear 
urging the propriety and necessity of the 
measure in very strong terms. 

2d. The wheat is to be got into the 
barns, or into stacks, as soon as it can be 
done with any sort of convenience, that 
it may not (especially wheat, which is 
subject to injury by bad weather) sustain 
Joss in shocks ; and because the shattered 
grain in fields miy be beneficial to the' 
stock ; but no hogs are to be put on stub- 
ble field>, in which grass seeds were sown 
last fill, winter or spring. Other stock, 
however, may be turned on them, as it 
is ro)tingthat would be prejudicial. 

3d. The whole swamp, from the road 
from Minley's bridge up to the lands 
leading to the ne-v barn, is to be got 
into the best and most complete order 
for sowing g-ass seeds in August, or, at 
th^ f irthest, by the middle of September. 
The lowest and wettest part thereof is 
to be sown with timothy seed alone. 
All the other parts of it are to be sown 
with timothy and clover seeds mixed. 



The swamp on the other side of the 
aforesjiid lane, (now in corn and oats) is 
to be kept in the best possible order, that 
the part not already sown with grass 
seeds may receive them this autumn, (as 
soon as the corn may be taken off with 
safety,) or in the spring, as circumstances 
shall dictate. 

No exertions or pains are to be spared 
at Dogue run, to get the stvamp from 
Manley's bridge up to the meadow above, 
and the two enclosures in the mill swamp, 
in the highest order for grass, to be sown 
in the time and manner above mentioned; 
but, that no more may be attempted 
than can be execute<l well, proceed in the 
following order with them, according as 
I the waether may happen to be — for this 
must be consulted, as the dry weather 
will answer to work the low parts best, 
whilst the higher grounds may be worked 
at any time : 

1st. Begin with the swamp from Man- 
ley's bridge, and get all that is not al- 
ready in grass well prepared for it, and, 
indeed, sown. 2d. that part of the low 
meadow on the mill-run which lies be- 
tween the old bed of it and the race and 
within the fences. 3d After this is done, 
take that part of the enclosure above, 
(which was in corn last year,) lying be- 
tween the ditch and fence No. 1, up and 
down to cross fences. 4th. Then go over 
the ditch, and prepare slipe after slipe, 
as the ditch runs from the one cross fence 
to the other, and continue to do as long 
as the season will be good, or the seed 
can be sown with propriety and safety. 

I conceive that the only way to get 
these grounds in good order, and v\ ith 
expediti >n, is to give them one good 
ploughing, and then to tear them to 
pieces with heavy harrows. Whether it 
l)e necessaiy to cut down and take oft' 
the weeds, previous to tliose workings, 
can be deci led better by experiments on 
the spot than by reasoning at a distance. 
My desire is tiiat the ground shall be 
made perfectly clean, and laid down 
smooth, without which, n) adows vrill 
always be foul, much grass left in them, 
and many sythes broken in cutting what 
is taken oft. 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



25 



4th. The buckwheat which has been 
sown i'or manure, ought to be ploughed 
in the moment a sufficiency of seed is 
ripe to stock the ground a second time ; 
otherwise, so i'ar from answering the 
purpose of manure, it will become an ex- 
hauster. For this reason, if the ploughs 
belonging to the farm are unable to turn 
it in time, those of Muddy Hole, Dogue 
Run and Union Farm, must combine to 
do it, the work to be repaid by the farm 
which receives the benefit, as soon as the 
work is accomplished thereat. 

5th. Where clover and timotliy seeds 
are mixed and sown together, allow five 
pints of the first and three of the latter 
to the acre; and where timothy only is 
sown, allow four quarts to the acre. Let 
the seed be measured in the proportions 
here allotted, and put into a half bushel, 
and the half bushel filled with sand or 
dry earth, and extremely well mixed to- 
gether, in your own presence, or by your- 
self, which will answer two good purpo- 
ses, viz: 1st. To jirevent tin ft, for seeds 
thus mixed would not sell ; and 2dly. 
The seedsman, being accustomed to sow 
a bushel of wheat to the acre, would be 
at no loss to cast a bushel of this, or any 
thing else, regularly on that quantity of 
ground. 

6th. It is expected you will begin to 
sow wheat early in August, and in ground 
perfectly clean and well pluuglied. I 
would have, and do accordingly direct, 
that not less than five pecks of seed be 
sown on each acre. Tlie plan of the 
faim over which you look is given to Mr. 
Lewis, from which the contents of each 
field may be known. And it is ray ex- 
press direction, that every watch and the 
best attention may be given, to see that 
this quantity actually is put in : for I 
have strong suspicions (but this ought 
to be hinted to them) that the seedsmen 
help themselves to a pretty large toll. 

7th. As soon as you have done sowing, 
and even before, it it can be done conve- 
niently, you are to set heartily about 
threshing or treading the wheat, and, as 
as fast as it is got out, to have it delivered 
at the mill, or elsewhere, according to 
"directions. The longer this business is 



delayed, the more waste and embezzle- 
ment will there be of the crop. The 
wheat is to be well cleaned, the chafi:' 
and light wheatare to bf properly taken 
care of, for the horses or other stock, and 
the straw stacked and secured as it ought 
to be agamst weather and other injuries ; 
and, until the whole be delivered, it will 
require your constant and close attention, 

8th. The or.ts at the faim you over- 
look are, I presume, all cut. In that case, 
let all sythes, and cradles, and rakes, 
which you have received, be delivered 
over to the mansion house ; or if you 
choose to keep thfm against next harvest, 
you must be responsible for them yourself. 

9th. The presumption also is, that the 
flax is, ere this, pulled. Let it be well 
secured, and, at a proper season, stripped 
of its seed and spread to rot. Duiing 
this operation, let it be often turned and 
examined, that it be not overcome, or 
receive injury, in any other respect, by 
lying out too long. 

lOtli. Get the cleanest and best wheat 
for seed, and that which is fi-eeest from 
onions. I would have about one-third of 
my whole crop sown with the common 
" 'ieat; one-third with the white ; and 
the other third with tjje yellow-bearded 
wheat. The overseers (witli Davy, as 
he knows the state of his own f^iim, and 
the quality of 'wheat which grows upon 
it) may meet/^d decide among them- 
selves whether it would be best to have 
some of each of these sorts on every farm ; 
or, in order more eftectually to prevent 
mixture, to have one sort only on a faim. 
In the latter case, the cutting of that 
which ripens fiist, and so on, must be 
accomplished by the force of all the farms, 
instead of each doing its woik. If the 
seed on one farm Avas to be sown on an- 
other, especially if seed which git won a 
light soil was to be sown on a stifl[' one, 
and that which grew on a stitt' one sown 
on a light ground, advantages would un- 
questionably result from it. 

11th. The potatoes at the mansion 
house must be Avorked by the ploughs 
from Union Farm, and, when this is re- 
quired, it would be best, I conceive, to 
accomplish the Avork in a day. 



26 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



12 th. It is expected that the fences 
will be made secure, aad no damage per- 
mitted within them, by creatures of any 
kind, or belonging to anybody — mine 
any more than others. 

13 th. The greatest attention is to be 
paid to stocks of all kinds on the farms, 
and the most that can be made of the 
manure and litter. They are to be count- 
ed regularly, that no false reports may 
be made, and missing ones, if any, hunt- 
ed for until found, or the manner of their 
going accounted for satisfactorily. 

14th. A weekly report, as usual, is to 
he handed to Mr. Levvis. In this report, 
that I may know better how the work 
goes on, mention when you begin to 
plough, hoe, or otherwise woi'k in a field, 
and when the field is finished. The in- 
crease and changes to be noted as here- 
tofore. And, let me ask, 

15th. Why are the corn harrows 
thrown aside, or so little used, that I 
rarely, of late, see or hear of their being 
at work ? I have been run to a consi- 
derable expense in providing these, and 
other implements for my farms, and, to 
my great mortification and injury, find, 
generally speaking, that wherever they 
were last used they remain, if not stolen, 
till required again; by which means 
they, as well as the carts, receive so much 
injury from the wet weather, and the 
heat of the sun, as to be unfit for use. To 
repair, or supply the place of which with 
new ones, my carpenters (who ought to 
be otherwise employed) are continually 
occupied in these jobs. Harrows, after 
the ground is well broken, would cer- 
tainly weed and keep the corn clean 
with more ease than the ploughs. I hope, 
therefore, they will be used. And it is 
ray express orders, that the greatest care 
be taken of the tools of every kind, carts 
and plantation implements, in future — 
for I can no longer submit to the losses 
[ am continually sustaining by neglect. 

16th. There is nothing I more ardent- 
ly desire, nor, indeed, is there any more 
essential to my permanent interest, than 
4he raising of live fences, on proper ditch- 
«s or banks; yet nothing has ever been, 
ia a general way, more shamefully ne- 



glected or mismanaged : for, instead of 
preparing the ground for the reception 
of the seed, and weeding and keeping 
the plants clean after they come up, the 
seeds are hardly scratched into the 
ground, and are suffered to be smothered 
by the weeds and grass, if they come up; 
by which means, the expense I have been 
at, in purchasing and sending the seeds, 
(generally from Philadelphia,) together 
with the labor, such as it is, that has been 
incurred, is not only lost, but (and which 
is of more importance to me) season 
after season passes away, and I am as 
far from the accomplishment of my ob- 
ject as ever. I mention the matter thus 
fully, to show how anxious I am that all 
the seeds which have been sown or plant- 
ed on the banks of the ditches should be 
properly attended to, and the deficient 
spots made good, if you have or can ob- 
tain the means for doing it. 

17 th. There is one thing that I must 
caution you against, (without knowing 
whether there be cause to charge you 
with it or not,) and that is, not to retain 
any of my negroes who are able and fit 
to work in the crop, in or about your own 
purposes. This I do not allow any over- 
seer to do. A small boy or girl, for the 
purpose of fetching wood or water, tend- 
ing a child, or some such thing, I do not 
object to; but so soon as they are able 
to work out, I expect to reap the benefit 
of their labor myself. 

18th. Though last mentioned, it is not 
of the least importance, because the peace 
and good government of the negroes de- 
pends upon it, and not less so, my interest 
and your own reputation. I do, therefore, 
in explicit terms, enjoin it upon you to 
remain constantly at home, (unless called 
off by unavoidable business, o-r to attend 
divine worship,) and to be constantly 
with your people when there. There 
is no other sure way of getting work well 
done by negroes : for when an overseer's 
back is turned, the most of them will 
slight their Avork, or be idle altogeth- 
er, in which case correction cannot re- 
trieve either, but often produces evils 
which are worse than the disease. Nor 
is there any other mode than this ta pre- 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



27 



vent thieving and other disorders, the 
consequence of opportunities. You will 
recollect that your time is paid for by 
me, and if I am deprived of it, it is worse 
than the robbing of my purse, because it 
is a breach of trust, which any honest 
man ought to hold most sacred. You 
have found me, and you will continue to 
find me, faithful to my part of the agree- 
ment which was made with you, whilst 
you are attentive to your part ; but it is 
to be remembered that a breach on one 
side releases the obligation on the otlier. 
If, therefore, it shall be proved to me that 
you are absentingyourself from the farm 
or the people, without just cause, I shall 
hold myself no more bound to pay the 
wages than you do to attend strictly to 
the charge which is intrusted to you by 
one who has every disposition to be your 
friend and servant. 

George "Washington. 

Remarks bt the Editor. — We have 
set before our readers this letter from the 
father of our country, to show them, in 
the beginning, how much interest he 
took in a correct system of culture, at a 
time when others entirely neglected the 
farming interest. 

This letter is truly in character with 
the author, expressive of decided firm- 
ness, with a strict determination to carry 
out what he had undertaken. He shows 
very clearly how necessary it is to pay 
strict attention to the details of the 
farm, and that, by neglecting one branch 
of the farm, every other is made to suf- 
fer. His remarks, in conclusion, to his 
overseer, with regard to his duty, cannot 
be improved. He truly says, that after 
a man is paid by another to discharge 
certain duties, and he then absents him- 
self from the farm, without just cause, 
he is acting a worse part than if he were 
to rob the pocket of his employer. 



The prosperity of a country is in the 
ratio of its agricultural industry. 



Sub-Soil Ploughing. 

We have written so much, and spoken 
so often on this subject, that we feel fear- 
ful of tiring our friends by repeating the 
arguments in its favor ; but the daily 
questions asked in relation to sub-soil 
ploughing, convinces us that, like Billy 
Lackaday's recital of his sorrows, it must 
be repeated again and again to insure its 
dissemination. 

In the fiist place, then, many surface 
soils are underlaid by sub-soils which are 
considered less capable of supporting ve- 
getation than themselves, and therefore 
it becomes necessary to treat this sub- 
soil in such a manner as to render it 
available for the use of plants. Experi- 
ence has proved that if the sub-soil can 
be brought in contact with the atmos- 
phere, that chemical-changes take place 
Vr'hicli render it capable of sustaining 
plants, and the sub-soil plough, while it 
admits the atmosphere to percolate the 
sub-soil, does so without necessarily mix- 
ing the sub with the surface soil, and that 
most sub-soils after frequent ploughings 
are rendered fully equal in quality to the 
superincumbent soil. Sometimes surface 
soils are found to be too thin to contain 
sufficient pabulum for plants, and there- 
fore that they must be deepened ; but 
that if this be done by turning up imme- 
diately a considerable portion of the sub- 
soil, the mass will not have the necessa- 
ry qualities desired ; and therefore it is 
preferable to prepare the sub-soil by ad- 
mission of atmosphere before combining 
large quantities of it with the surface- 
soil ; that after one or two years thorough 
sub-soil ploughing, we may then combine 
the two without fear of injuring our crops, 
but on the contrary, we find them im- 
proved by such treatment. 

Sometimes the sub-soil is composed 
principally of clay, and will not permit 
the surface-water to pass freely down, 
thus causing the surface to become acid, 
too compact by extreme wet, &c., and 
the plants from such excess of moisture 
cannot thrive. In some localities we 
find a thin surface soil, underlaid by a 
hard pan sub-soil, which is so compact 
that the roots of plants cannot penetrate 



23 



THE FAUMER'S JOUIiXAL. 



it, and thus for want of bi3iii,;; able to 
adopt their natural configuration, the 
plants die. 

In both these c;uses sub-soil ploughing 
is found to remedy the evil. VVitli the 
clayey sub-soil, the cut made in or 
throu'>'!i it, often permits the excess of 
water to escape, and the hard-pin sub- 
soil, by the mechanical disintegration of 
the plough, is rendered permiable to the 
roots of plants ; and in both cases the 
constituents of the atmosphere and the 
gases it contains can reach the roots of 
plants, even to their termini, which could 
not be the case unless by the assistance 
of the sub-soil plough. Nor does the 
advantages of sub-soil ploughing end 
here. Soils may not only be deepened, 
sweetened, and otherwise improved by 
this practice, but in seasons of excessive 
rains or droughts, the crops are more 
likely to succeed than if the ground had 
not been sub-soiled. 

Excess of rains may pass down, while 
in the drought the roots may g) down 
to a lower point to find moisture, and 
thus the whole plant is sustained. Dur- 
ing the drought of 181:3, we had a fair 
opportunity of observing this fact. While 
parts of our crops on soils not sub-soiled, 
-ivere literally lost, the same crops on the 
sub soiled parts flourished with exceeding 
vigor. 

Less manure will produce equal results 
on sub-soiled land. The ammonia and 
carbonic acid gass of the atmosphere 
are received and retained for the use of 
plants in deeply disintegrated soils — 
whereas in shallow soils these gases, re- 
ceived at night, with the dews, are parted 
with again by the efl:ects of a morning 
sun. 

During heas'y rains shallow soils can 
Tob the water of the ammonia it has 
brought down from the atmospher,e only 
in proportion to the quantity of surfaces 
of particles of earth exposed, and the ex- 
cess runs off to the rivers and streams 
with the excess of water parting over its 
surface. But in deepened and well dis- 
integrated soils, all these gasses can be 
absorbed, and if the rains be still in ex- 
cess, they cannot carry off the fertilizing 



properties wnich were first received. Ue- 
collect also, that no m mure is available 
for tlie u^e of plants, unless either in the 
form of a ga-i or in xo/.ulio/L in water ; 
both of which states are njore likely to 
transpire in sub-soiled land than in land 
\vhich is slightly ploughed. 

Tiie roots of all plants are much longer 
than is generally su[)posed. Long after 
they become too miiiute at their ends to 
be visible to the naked eye, tliey continue 
to elongate, and as they receive their 
food principally at their termini, or ends, 
the land should be in a condition to ad- 
mit and supply the food. Tne average 
length of tlie roots of the corn-stalk is 
found to be from five to six feet; of the 
onion eighteen inches, and other plants 
in proportiini. 

\Vhy do we disturb the suiface of the 
ground between hills of corn or potatoes, 
and lin.,1 that we benefit our crops there- 
by ? Does sueli treatment increase the 
fertilizing materials we have previously 
put in tlie ground, or does it open the 
surface for the admission of air to the 
roots ] If the latter, must not the same 
facts apply to the lower as well as to the 
upper roots : 

Practically, we have settled these ques- 
tions to our own satisfaction, as well as 
to that of our neighbors.' Many who at 
first were unbelievers in the use of the 
sub-soil plough, now admit its necessity, 
and none who have witnessed its opera- 
tions pretend to continue their objections. 

Our practice at present is to plough 
with our surface plough full seventeen 
inches, deep, where the surface soil will 
admit of it, and then to follow in the fur- 
row with a sub-soil plough, which cuts 
through, without turning over, to the 
depth of seventeen inches more below the 
bottom of the furrow, and this treatment 
has done more for our land than even 
the manures used upon it. We shall 
finish these particulars in a future article 
on deep ploughing, and we do not fear 
but that our prar/Acal readers who are 
not already converts to this system, will 
soon become so. How often do we hear 
of meadows runniitg out, and on exam- 
ining the roots of the grasses, we find 



TUE FARMEirS JOURNAL. 



29 



that tliey li;ive re.iolied the impermeable 
soil biilo.v, HiiJ tiieii cinnaieuced their 
deciy ? Wlm ever liearJ of a meadow 
nuiiiing out which had been previously 
fuily «ub-soiled i — Working Farmer. 



The Agricultural Survey. 

The reader is doubtless already inform- 
ed that the last Legislature of North 
C iroliiia passed an act making it the duty 
of the Governor to select a competent 
person to conduct a geological, minoralo- 
gi ;.-il, and agricultural survey of the State. 
The appointment has fallen upon Prof 
E. Emmons, a distinguished scientitio 
gentleman of the State of New York, 
who has already commenced operations, 
and made a preliminary survey of seve- 
ral portions of the State. From this sur- 
vey we anticipate large benefits to the 
citizens of North Carolina, partic darly 
to the agricultural community. As it 
progresses, and reports are given to the 
public, we shall take the liberty of trans- 
ferring whatever relates particularly to 
the interests of agriculture, to our pages. 
We present below a letter from the State 
Geologist to Governor Reid, giving some 
account of the marl formation on the 
Gape Fear. It will be perused with in- 
terest by the farmers in the East particu 
larly, as the general formation of nearly 
ail tlie counties towards the seaboard is 
the same as that of the counties on Cape 
Fear. Without further remark at the 
present time, we subjoin the letter al- 
luded to : 

GoLDSBOROUGH, March 6, 1852. 
To His Excellency., David S. Reid: 

Sir, — In view of the improvements 
which are in progress on Cape Fear 
river, also in expectation of finding depo- 
sits imDortant to the agriculturists upon 
its banks, and in the upper country on 
Deep river, I deemed it proper and best 
to make explorations on its course and 
banks while its waters were low, I have, 
accordingly, made numerous examina- 
tions of the formations on this river, and 
an able to state facts of considerable im- 
portance as to its geology, hut more par- 
ticularly of the deposits of marl which 



abound upon its banks, and at a dis- 
tance from its course. 

Pi-obably no subs.tance iias been dis- 
covered wliich is so importfint to the in- 
terest of agriculture of the lower counties 
of North Carolina, as marl. Tue lands, 
especially those in which sand predomi- 
I nates, have been worn out — 1 niight, 
' perhaps, say more than once. Now it i* 
by means of marl employed as the basis 
of a fertilizer, that these lands may be 
cheaply renovated. On the poorest, how- 
ever, of these lands, it is not to be ex- 
pected that this substance can siip]>ly a// 
that is wanting to impart to them their 
original fertility; inasmuch, jis in the 
progress of long ciiltivation antl the pro- 
duction of a variety of crops, the soil is 
exhausted of those elements which marl 
by itself does not contain. 

There are two kinds of marl upon 
Cape Fear river. One is known as shell 
marl, and belongs rather to the upper 
parts of the river, or I may rather say it 
is in thicker beds at distant points from 
the oceal. The other marl is known as 
the blue marl, and is found at points 
nearer the ocean than the former. The 
shell marl reaches to a point at least 
twelve miles above Elizabethtown, and 
is usually well exposed at different points 
on the banks of the river. So, also, it 
is often met with in ravines at points 
distant from the river. H nee it be- 
comes more accessible to planters, and 
requires less expense in hauling it. These 
beds varj' considerable in extent. Some 
are visible one-fourth of a mile on the 
banks ; others appear to have been depo- 
sited in insulated particles. Their thick- 
ness varies from a foot to seven feet. — 
They are not continuous deposits. The 
composition of the shell marl is to the 
eye calcareous, varying, however, from a 
very sandy marl to a perfect lime depo- 
sit — consisting of carbonate of I'me. — 
Many analyses should be made of the 
marl, as it is only in this way that its 
real value can be determined. 

The blue marl is a different substance 
from the shell marl. It is, by the wa^^ 
the substance known as the green sand, 
in New Jersey, and has long been in use 



30 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



there, and to the very great advantage of 
farmers. It belongs to the cretaceous 
formation of geologists. The upper bed 
of this marl I now believe extends above 
Elizabethtown. It is, however, quite 
sandy, and I was unable to find at this 
point its characteristic fossils. Farther 
down the river, however, at Brown's 
bluff and Robinson's bluft', I found, in 
■what I now regard as the upper green 
marl, the characteristic fossils — the Exo- 
gyne costata ; and at Syke's landing, the 
Belemnile. At Black Rock, however, 
the lower green marl is in great force, 
and I believe at many other points it 
■would be easy to expose it, so that an 
jnexhaustible supply of this substance 
might be obtained for the use of planters 
on the Cape Fear and Deep rivers. 

From the foregoing it will probably be 
perceived that the banks of the Cape 
Fear, and the numerous runs which en- 
ter it from the South, are rich in these 
fertilizers ; and it only requires an addi- 
tional spirit of improvement on the part 
of the planters, to double the products of 
their plantations. It is proper to ob- 
serve here that the marl deposits are 
found mainly on the left or south bank 
of the river. I am well satisfied that the 
time is not distant when these rich de- 
posites will be fully emploj^ed, and that 
their value will be well understood. It 
is true that experience will be necessary 
to determine some points in itsusS; For 
instance, the most economical mode of 
preparing it in order to adapt it to the 
varieties of soil on which it is proposed 
to employ it. The blue marl, especially, 
requires an analysis in order to deter- 
mine its composition. The Jei^sey marl 
contains potash, and this substance is re- 
garded as the principal fertilizer in it ; 
and I hope it will be found that potash 
and also phosphate of lime are elements 
of the marls of this State. These two 
are the expensive fertilizers, and are, 
above all others, to be sought for, for 
without them the cereals would cease to 
produce perfect seed. 

I have not attempted to give a detail- 
ed account of our examination upon the 
Cape Fear, but simply a statement of a 



few facts which I supposed might be in- 
teresting to your Excellency, or so far as 
to satisfy you that the work is in pro- 
gress. I am pleased with the attentions 
and intelligence of the gentlemen whom 
I have met, and the facilities which all 
wish to render, and especially the anxie- 
ty which is manifested in regard to the 
work. 

Most respectfully, your ob't serv't, 
E. Emmons, 



From the Soil of the South. 
Corn-Coband Shuck Crusher. 

Mr. Editor : — I give you a description 
of my corn-cob and shuck crusher, and 
should you think it worthy of publica- 
tion, and my brother planters 'vvill be 
benefited by it, I shall have no objection. 
I contend that one-third of corn is saved, 
and that stock will do better with one- 
third less corn, than fed on corn entirely, 
from the fact that my mules and horses 
have improved in flesh, doing the same 
work, with an allowance of corn one-third 
less. The work to build one is simple 
and at but little cost. I built a frame on 
the floor of a gin-house thirty-feet square, 
post eight feet high, roofed it and planked 
it around, had a rock cut four and a half 
feet in diameter, twelve inches thick, with 
a square hole in the middle eight by eight 
inches. The floor for this rock to run on 
I have made of white beech timber, 
eight inches thick, twenty inches wide, 
cut to fit a circle of twenty-four feet in di- 
ameter, leaving three feet from each post 
round for a track for the mule to walk. 
The timber for the floor on the outside 
is made rounding to fit the circle on the 
inside ; put down as cut from the piece 
five feet long, and cut so as by reversing 
top and bottom to fit like the fellows of 
a wagon wheel. So but little is required 
to be taken off at each end to make it 
rounding. A plank one foot wide is put 
on the out and inside. Plank sawed in 
so as to bend it conveniently, so as to fit 
the out and inside of the timber of the 
floor. Stabs drove down on the out and 
inside to nail the plank to ; a shaft in 
the middle of the circle, with a gudgeon 
at each end. The top working in a sill 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



31 



running across the middle of the house; 
the bottom working in a block in the 
middle of the circle, with a lever running 
and turning in the shaft and through the 
rock on the plump of a bark mill used 
by tanners to crush tan bark. On this 
floor, which is seventy-two feet in circum- 
ference, there can be put twenty bushels 
of corn — shell measure — and by turning 
the rock round over the corn — which 
can be pulled by one mule with ease — 
in two hours the shuck is torn from the 
Corn and mashed sufficiently by frequent 
stirring. The shuck is then separated 
from the corn and thrown inside the cir- 
cle. Moving the rock from two to three 
hours longer, your cobs and corn are suf- 
ficiently tine. This is then thrown with 
a spade on the shuck ; and so with every 
floor full. By the time you have the cir- 
cle full up to the lever that runs through 
the rock, all is well mixed together. We 
crush forty bushels a day with ease. The 
plan of feeding the crushed food, we 
have a box that holds enough for one 
feeding, and sprinkle it with salt and 
water, so as to have the box-full well 
moistened, which remains from six to 
twelve hours. My stock eat it greedily 
and clean, leaving neither shuck nor cob. 
Very respectfully, 

H. W. Todd. 
Chambers Co., Ala., Jan. 15, '52. 



Increase of the Manure Heap. 

Good farmers will now cart matter into 
their cattle-yards to increase their manure 
heap. There is no other mode of pre- 
venting the waste of manure so certain 
as the mixing of the excrements of ani- 
jnals with such materials as will retain 
their virtues. We must have bulky 
heaps, and we have no faith in the doc- 
trine that a little essence carried in one's 
pocket can possibly be equal in virtue to 
a good cart load of matter. 

Peat mud is not the only matter suit- 
able for the cattle-yard. Soil from the 
side of the road, or from the side of 
fields next to a wall, are often found to 
be quite as good as peat mud — though 
there is as much difference in peat mud 
as in soils. Some men are much de- 



ceived by the color of the article they put 
into their yards. Black mud is supposed 
to be richer than that of other colors, 
but this is not always the case. Still any 
kind of mud or sc»il will answer a good 
purpose, compared with the poor prac- 
tice of yarding cattle in summer %?ithout 
supplying the means of retaining all the 
rich matter which is dropped there. — 
Yards ought to be cleared out twice 
each year — onee for planting in the 
spring, and again for sowing down in 
August and September. If no sowing is 
then done, the summer manure may b(v 
used to much advantage on grass land* 
in October. But by all means take care 
and keep a good quantity of matter vx 
the cattle-yard and in the hog-pen, for 
otherwise you waste what cannot be easi- 
ly replaced. 

All have leisure enough, after planting, 
to attend to this business — a business 
that was not much attended to fifty years- 
ago. Then not one farmer in fifty took 
care to supply his cow yard with matter 
to retain or increase his manures. Wheis 
the soil was first broken up and unex- 
hausted, crops were expected and actu- 
ally obtained without the application of 
manures. — Plowman. 



Farmer's Dwellings. 

We need a gi-eat improvement m this 
respect ; we need a distinctive Rurat 
style of building — comfort and conve- 
nience combined with neat aio/d simple 
elegance. Nothing expensive-, gaudy or 
obtrusive, but graceful in form, chaste in 
ornament, with quiet, neutral colors. 
sweetly blending with the surrounding 
green, all breathing an air of peaceful, 
calm repose, on which th ■. eye may rest 
with pleasure. I would gladly enlarge 
upon this did time permit. The house 
should not only be sheltered, but adorn- 
ed with trees — none more beautiful than 
those of our own forests. 

A few choice fruit trees of variou;* 
kinds, with grapes and smaller fruits, 
which need but little care, with flow- 
ing shrubs and ornamental climbers,^ 
should be there. None of the adorn- 
ments of beauty are more graceful qjp 



32 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



attractive than fragrant and blooming 
vines around the rustic porch. And let 
there be a garden, too — it may not be a 
large one — not the unsightly patch of 
neglected earth sometimes so miscalled, 
inteJided for potatoes and cabbages, but 
filled with burdock ajid nettles — but a 
neatly arranged plat for shrubs and flow- 
ers, laid out with taste and kept with 
■care — cultivate a taste for flowers, and 
teach your children to love them. In 
■doing so, yoa give them new sources of 
pletisure — new facilities for enjoyment. 
And do not deem the time they bestow 
upon them lost time ; it is well bestowed, 
and will yieW a rich return in pure : nd 
simple j' y, and the cheerful love of 
home. — Aid ess of T D. Burra/l, be- 
fore the O Mario AgrkuUural Society 



Moles. 

It is qu'estionable whether moles do 
not do more good than harm. They feed 
«pon slugs, worms, snails and insects, and 
consequently do much good in this ivay. 

They ai-e caught and destroyed in va- 
rious ways. Sometimes they ire hunted 
by teniers^ who, after a little training, 
hunt and kill them of their own accord. 

Ihey are sometimes caught in traps. 
At others they are suftbcated in this way : 
a, hole is inode in one end of their tracks, 
into that, tow or cotton, saturated with a 
mixture of rosin and sulphur, is placed, 
and set fire to. Again — wheat flour is 
sprinkled over with arsenic, made into a 
dough, divided into pellets, and placed 
in their holes. They eat the dough and 
are poisoned. 

Ten or a dozen plants of the Palma 
christa or Castor oil bean, distributed 
over an acre, will, it is said, banish them 
from the ground. Alder,, it is said, is of- 
fensive to them, and will drive them oft". 

Collect earth worms, kill them, mix 
them up with nux vomica., or any other 
poison, place one or tw^o worms in the 
holes or tracks of the moles ; the moles 
€at them, and, as a consequence, are 
killed. 

Place the broad end or neck of a 
•quart bottle at the mouth of their track ; 
they will entef but cannot get through 



the small end, as for want of a foot holdj 
they cannot push their way through the 
mouth end of the bottle, and as they 
cannot tuin round they are trapped. 

Marlikg an Old Field. — A subscri- 
ber in Surry county, Va,, under date of 
21st June, writes us thus : 

" I have an old field that is grown up 
in pines, that has not been cultivated for 
25 or 80 years, which I want to clear 
and marl, and would like to know the 
best way to apply marl, and the quantity 
per acre." 

We would advise the application of 
100 bushels of marl per acre, and that 
it bespread evenly over the land as soon 
after the pines are cut down as possible; 
the sooner it is thus placed the better. It 
would aid its action on the soil, if it was 
harrowed in together with the pine shat- 
ters. This operation would encourage 
the decomposition of the latter, and 
bring their virtues earlier into play. 



TABLE OF COI^TEKTS. 

Prospectus, 

Communication, 

Lime as a Manure, 

Improvement, 

Prize Essay on the Renovation of 

Worn-Out Lands, 
Exposure of Manure in Barn-Yards 

— Making of Composts, 
Editoi''s Introduction, 
The Importance of a Knowledge 

of Soils and Manures, 
To our Correspondents, 
Unexpected delay. 
Agricultural Journals Increasing — 

How Encouraged, 
Agricultural Societies, 
Fine Stock, 

Holland's Manure Cart, 
Agiicultural Letter from General 

Washington, 
Sub-soil Ploughing, 
The Agricultural Survey, 
Corn-Cob and Shuck Crusher, 
Increase of the Manure Heap, 
Farmers' Dwellings, 
Moles, 
Marling an Old Field. 



Page, 
1 
2 
3 
4 



16 
17 

19 
20 
20 

20 
22 
23 
23 

23 
27 
29 
30 
31 
31 
32 
32 



THE FAPtMEPi'S JOURNAL, 



VOL. L 



BATH, N. C, MAY, 1852. 



KO. 2« 



JOK¥ F. TOMPSmS, M. D., Editor and Proprietor. 



For the Farmer's Journal. 
Dr. Tojipkins : 

Dear Doctor: — The first number of 
"The Farmer's Journal" has been re- 
ceived by your numeious subscribers 
in New Hanover county. It contuins 
a vast amount of rich an i valuable ag 
ricultural knowledge. I hear a hearty 
expression ot satisfaction ami approba- 
tion of its appearance and contents 
among its many readers in this seeiion. 
Not the first subscribtM' Lave I seen 
who is not ready to exclaim that the 
first or April number is ■worth more 
than than the year's subscri|;tion price. 
Rest assured, Sir, your debut as a Jour- 
nalist has maiie a most fuvi;rable im- 
pression in this reoion. Every one is 
ready to say to you •' • God speed' you 
Doctor, in your use.'"ul enlc r^rise, and 
in your patriotic and Z( alous endeavors 
to improve the aoricul'ural condition 
and character af North Carulina." Go 
on as you have so well coraraeuced, and 
it needs no spirit of prophecy to see, 
that you will soon arouse the farmers to 
a jusier sense of ibeir interest and their 
backward condition, and that at no dis- 
tant day you will effi ct a most needed 
and beneficial agricultural reform in 
our goo J ol 1 State. Let the people be 
aroused to the impor'.ance of sus'.ainino- 
you in this laudable undertaking. It 
will be a reproach to the Stale, and a 
di?gyaca to the farmers, if this, the only 
Agricultural Journal in the State, is 
Qot ade(3^uately encouraged. Every 



North Carolinian should aid and en- 
courage your enterpriss wiih pride and 
pleasure. Let eveiy good citizen re- 
member that he is interested in the 
advancement of AgricuLure, whether 
a farmer or not, and Jet h;m consider 
it therefore a duty, as it ought to be a 
gratification, to take hold of your paper, 
and give it his patronage and fostering 
support. Until you have got unde'ir 
good headway, and placed your excel- 
lent " JouiHiil" on an enduring and 
prosperous basis, let our citizens who 
subsi'ribe to Northern Agricultural 
Journals, and who offer this as an ex- 
cus-e for not taking yours, subscribe 
at once to yours, and stop llieir North- 
ern Journi'ils. "We now have at home 
a farming Journal that appeals for pat- 
ronage to Southern men. Let it take 
the place of the numerous Norlhera 
fiirming papers that circulate among us. 
Yours is conducted by a native born 
scnof Noith Carolina, whose interest is 
identified with our own, and whose fino 
talents and well kncwn enthusiasm m 
behalf of Agricultural Seit-nce, we 
ought all to be proud of; and you adapt 
the '-Journal" to th^ soil and climate of 
our State, and to the condition and 
circumstances of our farmers. The 
Norlhern Agricuilural, like the North- 
err: religious and political newspapers, 
have very little feeling in cemmon with 
us; they are more disposed to abuse 
our habits, and revile our customs and 
institutions, than they aie to do us good^ 



M 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



and to uphold our reputatiou ; and they 
are not adapted lo ihe akeied condiiiou 
of our soii, clin:iate and wants, as farm- 
ers. Ws have too long been paying 
Northern Editora for. abusing and mis- 
representing us. The warm sunshine 
of Southern patronage too often warms 
into being, and gives strength and 
growth to tLese Northern papers, and 
we nourish tht-m in our bosoms, like 
vipers, to sting and destroy us Let 
us wake up to the evils of this ruinous 
plan, so fashionable in our Slate. Let 
us adopt in practice, as well as in theory, 
the motto of " Home Protection " to 
our newspapers, and in the name of 
State pride, of justice, and of common 
sense and common patriotism, cease our 
degraded vassalage to Northern news- 
papers and magazines, and to Northern 
institutions. 

You shoultl canvass the State in 
person when you can,and get acquaint- 
ed with the people. Ycu ought to do 
this, and make public addresses at stated 
times and places on agricuhural sub 
jects. By so doing you will better in- 
crease your subscription list, and better 
succeed in arousing a much needed 
Spirit of Agricultural improvement 
generally. Our people are slow to 
move and reluctant to give up old waj's 
of farming. It requires 'dine upon line 
and precept upon precept" to induce 
them lo fall into the improved modes 
of the times. Like all other useful 
reforms, that of agricultural reform 
must meet with its hindrances, and can 
only be gradual. Your living presence 
among thern for a few hours, in sober 
earnest talk on farming, will in many 
instances do much, that you might 
never do with your pen. I say to you 
then, visit this and other counties in 
the State all you can. and let us see 
and hear you. You are now doing 
your State an important service, and 1 
trust that wherever you may go, your 
patriotic and scientific efforts will be 
duly appreciated. 

The public mind is now eagerly di- 
jrected to the Mineralogical, Geological. 
4ind Agricultural Survey of the State,- 



This dates a new era in our history. It 
is, I am sure, the harbinger of better and 
brighter times among us. We all con- 
template it, as we do every judicious 
effort to improve North Carolina, with 
much interest and gratification. Prof, 
Emmons is tel'icg us where, and what, 
our agricultural advantages and resour- 
ces are ; we look to you for instruction, 
as to the best means of developing and 
using them. In the duties before you, 
a fine theatre is selected for obtaining 
honest fame, as well as for usefulness, 
AgriculturalScience affordsa wide field 
for the exercise of the finest intellectual 
parts. Some of the beet minds in this 
country and in Europe are engaged in 
its investigations and teachings. Go 
on then, Doctor, and work, toil, labor, 
persevere in your arduous duties, and 
besides the good you will do the State, 
and the obligations you will place us 
all under to you, rest assured you will 
wear chaplets of glory around your 
youthful brow, that may well be envied 
by brillia'it minds m other arts and 
sciences and professions, that are anx- 
iously seeking renown. 

I have long been aware that many of 
our fashionable modes of farming, ought 
to become obsolete. Many a man re- 
fuses to alter the road that passes his 
dwelling, or the fence that encloses his 
field, or the ditch that drains his land, 
merely, and for no other reason, than 
because his father, or grand father did 
not make such an alteration. Away 
with such idolatrous, devotion to the 
past; it is totally at variance with the 
rational progress of the age. It is our 
unwise system of farming that has im- 
poverished the State, and done such 
vast injury to all pursuits and trades in 
the State. I have not the time nor 
space to decant upon the relations of 
Agriculture to the other occupations of 
life, and to show the dependencies of 
all the rest upon it, as the basis and 
life-sustaining pov/er of them all, nor to 
delineate how, by ruinous processes of 
farming, agriculture has been dropped 
down to its low estate in North Caro- 
lina. Suflioe it to saj', that we hetd; 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



35 



the galvanic touch of aa enlightened 
system of agriculture in operation 
among us, instead of the many misera- 
ble features iu farming now m vogue. 
This would arouse the drooping ener- 
gies of the State, give a new prosperity 
to all our citizens, and tidd to the 
comfort and wealth of all. Let us but 
have an application of the enlightened 
principles of agriculture among the 
farmers generally, let them but learn 
ihe value of a_knovvledge of the analy- 
sis and want3 of their soils, let their 
minds be but roused up properly to 
manuring, draining, and resting their 
landSjlet these and such things as these 
but receive their merited appreciation. 
and you will sf on cease to hear of hard 
times and no money : you will hear 
less sighing after homes in the South 
and West: you will see fewer of our 
citizens meeting about at grog shop? 
and cross roads, spending whole days 
in visionary schemes of speculation, and 
of California Gold ; you will see gen 
eral activity an:l prosperity rising up 
on the ruins of former poverty and 
stagnation; and in place of dilapidated 
farncs, worn out soils, old fields taken 
with broom grass and pine saplings, 
and decaying towns and villages, now 
the sad picture so generally seen in the 
Slate, you will see every where before 
you rising up, fine farms and thrilty 
farmers, money will poor faster into 
the coffers of all, contentment and en- 
terprise will take hdld of our citizens, 
and the busy hum of business be heard 
in numerous rising towns and thriving 
vilh^ges. We have the soil and climate, 
and mo.«t of the advantages ever fur 
nished by a Tsind Providence to any 
people ; we have everything but the 
eyiierpnse and hulustry^ and the will 
to use the means for improvement pro- 
fusely scattered every where around. 
The Farmer's life ! More conducive 
than any other to the pleasure, inde- 
pendence and dignity of man. No 
calling so efTectually tends to the de 
Yelopment of man's moral, physical and 
intellectual nature ; none is so favour- 
able to the exercise of his reflective 



faculties ; and no other is so much in 
unison with the exercise of his reli- 
gious sentiments. Hence, our greatest 
Statesmen, Philosophers and Divines, 
have been rai-ed in the country and on 
the farm. History shows loo, that this 
occupation exerts a pre-eminent influ 
ence in instilling and fostering the 
noble sentiment of patriotism in the 
human breast. No class of men are so 
devoted to the genuine principles oi 
liberty as the farmers. Ancient as well 
as modern times, bear abundant testi- 
mony, that the farmers are the foremost 
to rally in times of alarm and danger 
around their Country's flag. The Re- 
volution, and in later times, the Mexi- 
can war, will ever furnish records and 
proofs, memorable and lilustrious.of the 
proverbial readine.^s of agriculturists 
to pour out their blood, and if needs 
be, to lay down their lives in defence 
of their country. 

The occupation of the farmer is 
peacfefal and productive in a peculiar 
degree of happiness. The wear and 
tear of mental constitution, incidental 
to the upsand downs and severities of 
other pursuits, the farmer is principally 
exempt from. Hence he is as a general 
rule, the longest lived. The precarioue- 
ness and corroding anxieties and hard- 
ships of professional life, the vexatious 
cares of commercial pursuits, and the 
absorbing thoughts of trade and specu- 
lation, disturb not the more quiet and 
peaceful life of the farmer. His pur- 
suits are favouraMe to health, to seren- 
ity of mind, and to old age. That 
irritability of temperament, so naturally 
engendered by profe.-ssional life, atid 
those sleepless nights and pallid 
cheeks, and exhausted frjiinc- of the mart, 
ambitious of literary and scienitfic dis- 
tinction, rob none of the- farmer's hap- 
piness and health. Freed from the 
tumults of public life, not dependent 
on the fluctuating nature of popular 
sentiment for a living, he enjoys in ease 
and independence, the honest gains of 
his own toils, so uniformly productive 
of plenty. He sits "under his own 
vine and fig tree, with none to make 



m 



THE FARMEE'S JOURNAL. 



Iiim afraid "' Constantly surrounded 
by circumstances which give nuiriment 
to Lis rninJ, and baoyancj to- his fe-lr 
ings, he experiences- those mental de- 
lights, and pleasures from the contem- 
plation of the beautiea of nature, un- 
known to the resident, pent up amid 
the busy bustle and sameness and tu 
snuliuousness of town life. His own 
labours are lightened by the genial 
infiuences around him, and the harmo- 
nious operations of nature and nature's 
laws, eveiy where shedding their beau- 
ty around. The pure air he breathes, 
the fragrance of living flowers, the 
scenery of the fields and the sky, the 
eiaging of bird?, the running streams 
and murmuiing brouks, thu waving 
grain and ripening fields, afford rich 
feasts to his mind, and music to his 
souljmore congnnial and desirable iha-n 
the chorousscs of your Jeauy Lindj or 
your Catherine Hayes. 

" In his retired domicii, he is safe 
from the whirlwind of selfish ambidon, 
and from the tornado of faction. Be- 
fore he is aroused to participate in vio- 
lent action, he bears muoh, reflects 
deeply, and rc^olyesnoLily. But when 
the oppression of rulers becomes sj in- 
tolerable as to induce the farmers of a 
country to leave their plovvsand peace- 
ful firesides, and draw the avenging 
sword, a day of retribution is near." — 
" There is one class of men," says Dr. 
John Todd, " on ".vhich we can rely 
— I mean the farmers. They were 
Ejevcr. known to trample on law and 
right. Were I to commit my charac- 
ter to any class of men, my family and 
my couotiy's safety, it would be le the 
farmers. They are a class of men such 
ns the world never saw for honesty, 
intelligence, and Roman viitue, sweet- 
ened by the Gospel of God. And when 
this nation quakes^ they and their sons 
are those who will stand by the/ sheet 
anchor of our liberiies, and hold the 
ship at her moorings till she outrides 
the storm." 

" Drive on, thou sturdy farmer^ 
Drive cheerfully o'er the field, 

The-pleasures of a farmer's life, 
JH^ other life can yield. 



Thoti risest with the morrving.sun, 

To till the fruitful earth, 
And when thy daily task is done, 

Thou seek'st thy peacoful hearth. 

Thou lovest not the gaudv town, 

With its tumultuous roar; 
Plenty and peace thy fireside crown, 

And thou dost ask no more. 

Monarchs in robes with crimson dyed,- 
Are low, compared with thee ; 

They are pampered sons of pride. 
Thou art God's nobility. 

Go -on, thou sturdy farmer. 

Tread proudly on thy, sod, 
Thy proud and goodly heritage, 

Thou chosen son of God." 

KEVV HANOVER. 

April, 1853. 



For the Farmer's Journal, ■ 
DooTOR Tompkins : 

The appearance of the first number" 
of the '-Fanner's Journal" gives inQ 
much pleasure, it will, I doubt not, 
be the means of communicating much 
useful information to our farmers, and 
enable them oenerally to improve their 
condition. In fact, many who think 
iheraseives poor, are in reality rich, if 
they did but know it. They have the 
resources, and only require the know- 
ledge to apply them properly to becomo- 
so. 

If a man has a valuable gold mine, 
he thinks himself rich ; and if he haa 
a farm with all the materials around 
him to make it productive, though it 
be poer. he is also rich. 'J'he soil has 
to be dug in both cases: 'i'here is thiS' 
difference however, and it is a natural 
one. The mine may fall to yield its 
preciotis metal which is beyond reme- 
dy, and the owner and iiis family must 
look for other employment and another 
home in sad ditappointrnent. The 
farm with proper management will 
never fail, but continue to furnish a 
home with the necessary sustenance to 
parents and children, from generation 
to generation, with perhaps many pleas- 
ing associations and reminiscences.— 
Give me therefore a North Carolina- 
farm m preference to a California 
gold mine. 

But how is the farm to he mads^ 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



W'. 



to furnish the "kindly fruits of the 
earth" in abundance. By thorough 
drainina:, deep plowing-, and proper 
manuring. Of the latter only, I propose 
at this time to treat. 

Food is as necessary for a plant, as 
an animal. The latter has the power 
of locomotion and can go in que.<t of 
it; the former is confined to some spot 
of earth and is supplied by a benificent 
Creator with fertilizing gases prepared 
by nature's great laboratory from orgin 
ic remains. The most of soils in their 
primitive state have all the elements 
of plants,but man, by constant cropping, 
taking all away and returning noihing, 
exhausts these matt/rial?-, and, aa the 
inorganic parts cmuot be supplied by 
the atmosphei'e, they must be restored 
by the hand of man, It is my opinion 
that it IS this class of manures that our 
worn out lands mostly need, and that 
they can be supplied in a great measure 
from our forests. So far as my expe- 
rience goes, wood ashes have all the 
chemicc 1 effects of iime in decomposing 
vegetable matter and neutralizing acid::, 
and at the same time furnish large 
quantities of potash and phosphates 
Leibeg says that 100 lbs. of the ashes 
of beech will furnish to the field phos- 
phoric acid sufficient for the producion 
of 2,000 lbs. of wheat; and so great is 
the value placed upon wooJ ashes in 
Ci-ermany, lhalih*-y are sent for upwaids 
of 20 miles. If we examine the analy- 
sis of corn we will find in 1 00 parts, 49 
of phojpnoric acid and 23 of potash, 
which sahstancGS can be cheaply and 
abundantly supplied from ashes. 

Profejsor Mapi s re.marks that in the 
analysis of 100 different soils he found 
m every case a deficiency of phosphates. 
We may therefore reasonably expect 
to be benefi.tied in the application of 
ashes to any of our land, for, if used in 
excess, they are not volatile but will 
remain in the soil for succeeding crops. 
The ashes of beech, poplar and pine 
contain the most phosphates, according 
lo the analysis of Leibeg, but I have 
found the ashes of all trees valuable. 
The brataches and leavea contain a 



greater per centage of fertilizing ma- 
terials than the trunk, though all wiU 
pay well the labour of burning, i 
know from expeiience that a hand caa 
collect and burnt n quantity of wood 
daily that will yield 6 lo 8 bushels of 
ashes, which, if used in compost, will 
serve the double purpose of decompo- 
sing other substances, aad at the same 
lime furnish valuable materials to tha 
soil. The adv^aatage of composting 
consists in the facility of applying 
different substances in the required 
proportions, Vo compost a cord, mark 
out a bed on the grotiiid 5 by 10 feet, 
add a few inches of mud, then a small 
quantity oflime or ashes with salt, then 
continue the mud and other articles 
alternately in the required proporiions 
to the height of 4 feet, drawing in the 
sides and ends gradually lo 3 by 6 at 
top, which will give an average of 4 by 
8 feet, and save the expense of making 
pens to keep the sides and ends perpen-' 
dicular. VVhen the mass has thua 
re.iiained a month or two it will be 
found decomposed by the action of the 
lime or ashes, and is then ready fcr the 
admixture of stable or other Yolatiia 
manures. 

Those who cannot obtain lirne can 
make an excellent compost by mixing 
with 1 cord of muJ, 8 bushels of ashes, 
1 bushel cf salt, and one tenth cord of 
stable manure. If lime be used, vats or 
troughs should be made, and salt dis- 
solved in wa'.er, to which add 3 bushels 
lime hot from the kiln. If the proper 
qu£snli*y of water has-been used, the 
mixture will be of the consistence of 
mortar, which should then be turned 
over every other day for 10 d;iys, when 
it will be ready for use; add 4 bushels 
to the cord of mud. and 4 to 8 bushels 
ashes, if at hand, will greatly improve 
it. Two cords per acre applied in drill, 
and double that quantity broadcast, will 
give aatisfactory results. Mud is a fer- 
tilizer after ihe acid which usuallj 
exists in it, has been neutralized by the 
action of lime or ashes, but it imswert 
another valuable purpose in absorbing 
and retailing the ammonia thai saaj 



38 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



result from the decomposition of stable 
or other voLitile manures with which 
it is intermixed, and which would oth- 
erwise pass off through many soils m a 
gaseous form. BEAUFORT. 



Regarding lime as the basis of all 
permanent improvement in Agriculture, 
we deem it highly important to call 
the attention of our readers in the be- 
ginning, to a proper use of it. In doing 
this, we can only set before them the 
opmions of those who have been most 
successful in its use, and add thereto 
what experience we have had in the 
application of it. We have come to the 
conclusion to lay before our readers the 
article below, written by Professor 
Johnson, extracted from the Transac- 
tions of the Highland Agricultural 
Society of Scotland, which we regard 
as highly valuable. Many are of opin- 
ion ttiat it is strictly necessary to apply 
large quantities of this eajth to tneir 
lands at one time in order to obtain 
any benefit from its use ; but such is 
not the fact. The quantity used in 
making the salt end lime mixture is 
enough to apply annually for the use 
of the various crops, provided a suffi- 
cient quantity of the compost be used 
to the acre of lan\i, say fifty or one 
hundred loads. Lime is a great es- 
'hauster of lands. It has been truly 
remarked that the extensive ilse of it 
makes the father rich and the son poor, 
for the reason that it forces the other 
constituents of the soil to their utmost 
in the production of crops. By the 
use of it in the 'way mentioned — only 
in compost, but a small quantity is 
needed, which will enable those who 
have some difficulty in obtaining it, to 
avail themsL'lves of its use. — JEditor, 



TKEUSE OF LIME IN AGRICULTURE. 

The theory of the action of lime upon 
the land has occupied much attention 
among practical men in various coun- 
tries. It may still be difficult to clear 
up every fact regarding it in a S'ltisfa:- 
tury 'in.anner. Yet in the following 



sections I hope to present such an ex- 
planation of the mode in which it acts, 
and of tiie chemical principles by which 
its action is regulated, as shall be both 
intelligible to the ordinary reader, and 
generally satisfactory to all. 

General action of Lime as a chemical 
constituent of the Soil. 

Lime, as 1 have already shown, acts 
in two ways upon the soil. It produces 
a mechanical &\ti^T-A\'v:)n.^ which is simple 
and easily understood^ and is the cause 
ot a series of chemical changes, which 
are really obscure, and are as yet sus- 
ceptible of only partial explanation. 

In the finely-divided state of quick- 
lime, of slaked lime, or of soft and 
crumbling chalk, it siifTens very loose 
soils, and opens the stifTer clays ; while, 
in the form of limestone gravel or of 
shelLsand, it may be employed either 
for opening a clay soil or for giving 
body and firmness to bogg/ land. — 
Ttiese effects, and their explanation, 
are so obvious that it is unnecessary to 
dwell upoa them more than has already 
been done. 

The purposes served by lime as a 
chemical constituent of the soil are at 
least of four distinct kinds. 

1. In every s'ate of chemical combi- 
nation it supplies one or more kinds of 
inorganic food, which appear to be ne- 
cessary to the healthy growth of all 
our cultivatt.d plants. 

2. In the state of quick-lime or of 
carbonate it performs three additional 
functions. 

a It neutralizes acid substances 
which are naturally formed in the soil, 
and decomposes other noxious com- 
pounds which are not unfrequently 
within reach of the roots or plants, pro- 
ducing in their stead substances which 
are not onlv harmless but often direct- 
ly useful to vegetation. 

b. It changes the inert vegetable 
matter in the soil, liberates the inor- 
ganic substances it contains, and thus 
gradually renders it useful to vegeta- 
tion. 

c. It aids and promotes the decom- 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



3f9 



position of the mineral or rocky frag- 
mei.ts of which so much of all our soils 
consists, sets free the mineral sub- 
stances they contain, and thus enables 
them to become useful to the growth 
of plants. 

These several modes of action it will 
be necessary to illustrate in some de- 
tail. 

Of Lime as ike food of Plants. 

On examining the chemical nature 
of the ash of plants, it is found that 
lime in all cases forms a considerable 
proportion of its whole --veight. Hence 
the reason why lime is regarded as a 
necessary food of plants. and hence also 
one cause of its beneficial influence in 
general agricultural practice. 

The quantity of pure lime contained 
in the crops produced upon one acre, 
during a four years' rotation, amoun's 
on an average to abaut 200 lb^•., equal 
to 360 lbs. (say 3 1-2 cwt.) of carbon- 
ate of liine. in the state of mail, shell- 
sand, or iimestone gravel. It is ob- 
vious, therefore, that one of the most 
intelligible purposes served by lime^ as 
a chemical constituent of the soil, is to 
supply this comparatively large quan- 
tity of lime, which, in some form ov 
other, must enter into the roots of 
plants. 

But the 'different crops*, which we 
grow contain lime in vinlilvc pioporuons. 
Th'7s the average produce of an acre 
of land under the following crops con- 
tains of lime — 

Lime iu tlio 



Wheat, 

Barley, 

Oats, 

Rye, 

Beans, 



r ^ 

Per Acre. Grain. Straw orrooots. Total. 



25 bush. 
40 bush. 
50 bush. 

26 bush. 
25 buih. 



Turnips, 20 tons. 
Potatoes, 8 tons. 
Red clover,2 tons. 
Rye grass, 2 tons. 



1 

I 1-2 
3 

1 1-2 

2 1-2 
46 



12- 
15 1-2 
19 

154-2 

34 

72 

31 

77 

30 



13 lb! 

17 lbs. 

22 lbs. 

17 lbs. 
36 1-2 " 

118 lbs. 

39 lbs. 

77 lbs. 

30 lbs. 



These quantities are not constant, 
and generally all onr crops contain 
more lime -Afhea grown upon land to 
which lime has been copiouslv applied. 
Eut the very different quantities con- 
•tained in. the several crops, as above. 



exhibited, show that one reason why 
lime favors the growth of some crops more 
ihan others i'S, that some actually tali;e 
up a larger quantity of lime as food. 
These crops, therefore, require the pre- 
sence of lime in greater proportion in. 
the soil, in order that they may be able 
to obtain it so readily that no delay 
may occur in the performance of those- 
funclions, or in the growth of those- 
part?, to which lime is indispensable. 
Relation of the period of groicth of w 

plant to the effect and proportion of 

Lime in the Soil. 

In connexion with the quantities of 
lime actually found in plants, another 
important circumftance must be takea 
into consideration. 

Whatever kind or amount of food a 
plant may require to bring it to matu- 
rity, it must collect the whole during 
the time usually cllotted to its growth.. 
Thus the longer a crop is in the ground,. 
— the slower it grows, and the loiager 
it usually takes to come to maturity — 
the more time it has to collect its food 
from the soil by means of its roots. ■^- 
Barley germinates and; ripens its seed^ 
within three months — in Sicily some- 
times wiihin three weeks — while wheat 
IS from six to ten months in the ground. 
The roots of barley, therefore, must do 
much more work iri the same time than 
thos« of wheat. They must, omong 
oiher things, take up the 1-7 lbs. of lime 
in the above table in three months, 
while wheat takes up on an average 
only 13 lbs. in six months. Ii'ow, to 
effect this in the same soil, it must 
send out more roots in quest of this 
kind of food than the wheat plant will 
require to do, and thus it mu.=;t waste 
more of its vegetative strength under 
ground. But if we make the supply 
of lime in the soil more abundant, we 
diminish the labor of the barley plant, 
and greatly facilitate its growth. 

Thus we arrive ata the cor elusion 
that the proportion of lime contained 
in the soil ought to be adapted no* 
only to the proportion which the perfect 
plant is found to comain and require,, 
but- to. the p4;riod also which is allotted.; 



40 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



to its natural growth. For crops which 
Tun their course quickly, a laig' r |ito- 
portfon of lirae, as well as of hiI other 
kinds of food, will be requi ed, or will 
Ibe beneficial, than for ciops that are 
longer in comino- to pcrAciioii. lias 
this fact any thing to do wiih theeai- 
lier harvests upon uell-linicd laiid. or 
with its peculiar fitness fur the giowlh 
of barley 1 
The chemical action of Lime is cxciBd 

chipfly upon the organic mcdter of tin 

Soil. 

There are four circumstances of great 
practical iinporiance uh ch cannot be 
too carefully cnns:der( d in referfnc-e 
to the theory of the operation of lime. 
These are — 

1. That litnc, unloss in the fcirni of 
compost, has eomparntivcly little or no 
efi"ect upon soils in which o gaaic mat- 
ter is defii^icnt. 

2. That its apparent ofP.;ct. nt least 
upon the -corn crop, is incorisidenibie 
during the first year afti r its ap|dica- 
tion, compared with that which it 
produces in the second and third years. 

3. That its effect is most sens ble 
when it is kept near the surftrce of the 
foil, and gradually beooraes less as it 
sinks towards the subsoil. And 

4. That, under the influence oi lime, 
the organic rnat'or of the st-il dis:ip- 
pears more rapidly than it otheiwise 
would do, and that, &fter it hiJS thus 
disappeared, equal additions of lime are 
much less beneficial than before. 

It is obvious, from these facts, that 
in general the main beneficial purpose 
served by lime is to b^ sought for in 
tha nature of its chemical action upon 
the organic matter of the soil — an ac- 
tion which takes place slowly, which is 
hastened by the access of air, and 
which causes the organic matter itself 
ultimately to disappear. 
Of the forms in nihich organic matter 

usually exists in the Soil. 

The organic matter which limo thus 
> causes to disappear is presented to it 
in one or orher of five diiTcranl foims: — 

1. In that' of lecert. orten green, 
moist„ ti!'d undccomposed roois, leaves, 



and stems of plants. 

2. In that of dry and still undecom* 
posed vegetable ma'.ter, such as straw 

3. In a more or less decayed or de- 
ca3ing state, genf rally black or brown 
in color, and ofien in some degree 
soluble in water. In such a state vi^e 
slc it in peat. 

4. In what is called the inert state, 
when spontant ous d( coy ceasts to be 
sensibly observi d. And — 

5. In the s a'e of chemical combina- 
tion with the tarthy substances, form- 
ing humat-es, uUuaus, &t?. with the 
alumina, and with tht- lime or magne- 
sia wliich (sist in the soil. 

Upon these several varieties of organ* 
ic matter lime acts with difierent de- 
grees of rapidity. 
Circumstances micler which thedecompo- 

sltlon of the organic matter may take 

flcice 

TIjc final renilt of the decomposition 
of the-e teveial formsof I rgaiiis; matter, 
when they contain no nitrogen, is their 
conversion into cai bonic acid and water 
only. They pass, however, through, 
several intermediate stages before they 
ri ach this point — the, number and ra- 
j-idi'y of wliich, and the kind of changes 
they undeigo, at each stage, depend 
ufooa the ciicums'ances under which 
the decomposition is cflected. Thus 
the substance may decompose — 

1. Alone, in vvhicli case the changrs 
that occur proceed slowly, and arise 
slowly from a new arrangement of its 
own particles. This kind of decompo- 
sition rarely occurs to any extent in 
the soil, and then oni'y in such as ara 
very coai]facl, and impervious to air and 
water. 

2. In the j^reseiice of water only.-Thls 
also seldom takes place in the soil — 
Trees, iongbuiied in moist clays im- 
preyious to air, exhibit the kind of 
tlow alteration which results from the 
persence ol wdt.i alone. In the bot- 
toms of lakes, ditches, nnd boggy places 
also, from which inflammable gases 
arise, WL.t:n io the princip-al caiise of the 
more rapid decompotilion. 

3. l.i. ihc 'presence ofaironly, — In na- 



THE FAR^:ER'S JOURNAL. 



41 



lure, organic matter is never placed in 
this condition, the air of our atmosphere 
being always largely mixed with moist- 
ure. In drj air, decomposition is ex- 
ceedingly slow, and the changes which 
dry organic substancrs undergo in it 
are often scarcely percepiibic. 

4, 111 the presence of both water and 
air. — This is the almost univeisal con- 
dition of the organic matter in our fjield.? 
and farm-yards. The joint action of 
air and water, and the tendency ( f the 
elements of the organic mailer lo enter 
into new combinations, cause new 
chemical changes to succeed each oiher 
with much rupidiiy. It will, of course, 
bo understood ihai luodtrate warmth is 
necessary to the 2)ruduclion of these 
effects* 

5. In the pj-esetice of lime, or of some 
other alkaline substance, (potash, soda, 
or magnesia.) Organic mattt-r is ofien 
found in the soil jn such a state, that 
the conjoined action of both air and 
water are unable, without other aid, to 
hasten iis decomposition. A new chem- 
ical agency must then be introduced, 
by which the elements of the organic 
matter may i:ga!n be set in motion. — 
Wood uslies, kelp, caibonalc of soda, 
&c., act in this way ; bub lime is the 
agent which, far this purpose, is most 
largely employed iii practical agricul- 
ture. 

General action of alkaline substances 



•A familiar illustration cf the conjoine deffi- 
cacy of air and water, in producing oxidation 
(rusting-,) is e.xhibited in their action upon 
iron. Ifa piece of polished iron be kept in 
perfectly dry air, it will not rust. Or if it be 
completely covered over with pure boiled 
water, m a well stopped bottle, from, v^hich 
air is excluded, it will remain bright and un- 
tarnished. But ifa polished rod of iron be 
put into an open vesG&l half full of water, so 
that one part ofits length only is under water, 
then the rod will begin very soon to rust at 
the surface of the water, and a brown ochrey 
nng of oxide will form around, it, exactly 
where the air and water meet. F'rom this 
point the rust will gradually spread upwards 
a,nd downwards. So it is with the organic 
Ji»atter of the soil. Wherever the air and wa- 
ter meet, thpir decomposing action upoa it, 
m ordinary temperaJiureS;^ scou beconiLS pcr- 
ceptibl«i.. 



[potash^ soda, c]'c..) upon organic mai- 
ler. 

It is this aciion of alkaline matters 
upon the organic substances of the soil, 
in the presence of air and water, that 
we are principally to investigate. 

When organic matter undergoes de- 
cay in the presence of air and water 
only, it first rots, as it is called, and 
bhickeiis, giving off water or its elements 
chi fly, ;>ad iDiming Immus — a mixture 
oC humic, ulmic, and some other acids, 
with decaying vegetable fibre. It then 
tommences, at the expense of the oxy- 
gen of the air and of water, to form 
other more soluble acids, (malic, acetic, 
lactc, cienic, mudcsic, &c.,) among 
which IS a portion of carbonate acid ; 
while, by the aid of the hydrogen o^'the 
water which it decomposes, it pioduces 
also one or .inore of the many inflamma- 
ble compounds of carbon and hydrogen, 
which oiten rise up, as marsh-gas does 
from stagnant pools in summer, and 
escape into the air. 

Thus there is a tendency towards Iha 
accumulation ol acid substances of vc|j- 
etable origin in the so:l, and this is 
more especially the case when the soil 
is moist, and where much vegetable 
matter abounds. The effect of this 
superabundance of acid matter is, on 
the one hand, to arrest the further nat- 
ural decay of the organic matter, and 
on the other to render the soil unfavor- 
able to the healthy growth of young 
and lender plants. 

The general effect of the presence of 
alkaline subsia.''ices Jn the soil is to 
counteract ihese two evils. '1 hey com- 
bine with and thus remove the sourness 
of the acid bodies as they are foimed. 
In consequence of this the soil become* 
sioeelerfiT more propitious to vegetation,, 
while the natural tendency of the vege- 
table matter to dec;iy is no longer ar- 
rested. 

It is thus clear that an immediate 
good effect upon the land mu;t follow 
either from the ariifi:ial application,or 
fiom the natural presence, of alkaline 
matter in the soil — while at the same- 
time it will cause the vegeiaLie maties' 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



to disappear more rapidly than would 
otherwise be the case. But the eff'^ct 
of such substances does not end here. 
They actually dispose or provoke — 
predispose chf^rnists call it — the vegeta 
ble matter to produce acid substances, 
in order that they may combine with 
them, and thus cause the organic matters 
to disappear raore rapidly than they 
otherwi-se would do — in other words, 
they hasten forward the exhaustion of 
the vegetable matter of the soil. 

Such is the general action of a^t alka- 
line substances. This action they ex 
hibit even in close vessels. Thus a 
solution of grape sugar, mixed with 
potash, and left in a warm place, slow- 
ly forms a sour substance called melas- 
dc axid — while, in cold lime-water, the 
same sugrr is gradually converted into 
i another acid called tlie ^/^cic. But in 
the ciir other acids are formed in the 
same mixtures, and the changes proceed 
jnore rapidly. Such is the case, also 
in the soil, where the elements of the 
air and of water are gcnera?!ly at hand 
to favot the decorapoiition. 

But the ncdvrf, of the alkaline matter 
which is pri.sent determines also the 
rapiditv vvhh which such changes are 
prudueed. 'i'he most powerful alkaline 
substances — pntash and soda — produce 
;ill the above effects most quickly ; lime 
»nd magnesia are next in order ; and 
!he alumina of the clay soils, though 
jnuch inferior to all these, is far from 
being Vi^iihout an important influence 

Hence one of the benefits which re- 
sult from the use of wood ashes contain- 
ing carbonate of pota.«h, when employ- 
ed in smiiU quaniities, and along with 
vegetable and animal manures, as they 
are in this country; but hence also the 
evil effects which are found to follow 
frora the application of them in too 
iaige doses, or too frequently repeated. 
Thus in countries where wood abounds, 
and where it is usual, as in Sweden and 
Northern Russia, to burn the lorests 
and to Iny on their ashes as rnan'jre, 
the liilage can be continued for a few 
.Tears only. After two or throe crops 
*1jo iaflu 1.S exhausted. anJ must a^ain 



be leit lo its natural produce. 

Special effects of Caustic Lime upon the 

several, varieties cf organic matter in 

the Soil. 

The effects of lime upon organic 
matter are precisely the same in kind 
as those of alkaline substances in gen- 
eral. They are only less in degree, 
or take pluce more slowly, than when 
soda or potash is employed. Hence 
the greater adaptation of iime to the 
purposes of practical agriculture. 

1 Aclion of caustic lime alone upon 
vegetable viatler. — If the fiesh leaves 
and twigs of plants, or blades and roots 
of grass, be introduced into a bottle, 
surrounded with slaked lime, and cork- 
ed, they vt'ill slowly undergo a certain 
change of (-oLir, but they may be pre- 
served fur years without exhibiting any 
striking change of texture. If dry 
straw be so mixed with sluked lime, it 
will exhibit still less alieration. Jn. 
either case, aho, the changes will be 
even less perceptible if, instead of 
slaked limo, the carboii.aie (or 7nild 
lime.) in any of its forms, be mixed with 
these varieties of vegetable mailer. On 
some other varieties of vegetable mat^ 
fer — such, for example, as are under-- 
going rapid decay, or have already 
reached an advanced stage of decompo- 
sition — aa admixture of slaked limrt 
ptoduces certain perceptible chang s 
immediately, and mild lime more slow- 
ly ; but these changes being completed, 
tlie tendency of lime alone is lu arrest 
rather ttan to promote further rapid 
alterations. Hence the following opin- 
ions of experienced practical observers 
must be admitted to be theoretically 
correct, in so far as they refer to sloJctd. 
lime acting alone. 

•' If stiaw or long dung be mixed 
with slaked lime, it will be preserved." 
—Morton on Seils, 3d edition, p. 181. 

"Lime, mixed in a mass of earth 
containing the live roots and seeiis of' 
plants, Will ?i,nt destroy them." — Idid. 

" Sir H. Pavy's tiieory, that lirco 
dissolves vegetable matter, is given up ; 
in fact, it haidens vegetable matter." — • 
Mr. Pu$cy, Royal Agricultural Jouf 



THE FRAMER'S JOURNAL. 



43 



na/) iii., p. 212. 

These opinions, I have said, are pro- 
bably collect in so far as regards the 
unaided action of slaked lime. They 
oven express, with an approach to ac- 
curacy, what will take place in the in- 
terior of compost-heaps of a certain 
kind, or in some very dry soils; but 
that they cannot apply to the ordinary 
action of lime upon the soil, is proved 
by the other result, of universal obeer- 
vation, Ihallime.. so far frovi preservbig 
the organic malicr of the land to ivhich 
it is applied^ in, realil/j wastes it — causes, 
that is, or disposes it to disappear. It 
is unfortunate indeed, that opinions 
such as those above cjuoted should be 
so generally or broadly expressed by 
practical men, as they tend to propa- 
gate erroneous impressions. 

2. Action of caustic Uvie on organic 
maUerin the presc?i.ceofair and water. — 
In the presence of air and water, when 
assisted by a favoring temperature, 
vegetable inatier, as we have already 
seen, undergoes spontaneous decompo- 
sition. In the same circumstances 
lime promotes and sensibly hastens 
this decomposition, altering the forms 
or stages thiough which tlie orgatiic 
matter mutit pass, but biinginjj about 
more speedily its final conversion into 
carbonic acid and water. During its 
riatural decay in a moist and open soil, 
organic matter gives off a portion of 
carbonic acid gas, which escapes into 
the air, and forms at the same time cer- 
tain other acids, which remain in the 
dark mould ol the soil itself. Whsn 
quick or slaked lime is added to the 
land, its first effect is to combine »viih 
the.'be acids — to form carbonate, hurn- 
ate, &c., of lime — till vhe whole of the 
f^cid matter existing at the time is ta- 
ken up. That portion of the hme 
which remains uncombined, either slow 
ly absorbs carbonic acid from the air. or 
unites with the carbonic already formed, 
to produce the known compound of 
hvdrata with carbonate of lime* — 



* That coinpoiind, namely, which is pro- 
duced when quick-lime slakes epontaneouslv 



in tae air. 



waiting in this state in the soil till 
some tresli portions of acid matter aie 
formed wiiti which it may combine. — 
But it does not inactively wait ; it per- 
suades and influences the ora^anic mat- 
ter to combine with oxygen ol the air 
and of the water with which it is sur- 
rounded, for the production of such 
acid substances — till, finally, the wbole 
of the lime becomes combined either 
wiih carbonic acid, or with tome other 
acid of organic origin. 

Nor at this stage are the action and 
influence of lime observed to ceaso. — ■ 
On the contrary, this result will, in 
most soils, be arrived at in the course 
of one or two years, v/hib tiie benefi- 
cial action of the lime itself may be 
perceptible for twenty or thiny yeais. 
Hence there is much apparent ground 
i^or the opinion of Lord Karnes, '' thn.t 
lime is as efficacious in its (so-called) 
effete as in iis caustic state." Eveti 
the more strongly expressed opinion 
of the same acute observer, '■ that limo 
produces little ofTect upon vegetables 
till it becomes efi'etc," derives much 
support from e.vperience, since lime is 
is known lo have comparatively little 
effect upon the productiveness of tho 
land till one or two yetirs afier its ap- 
plication; and this peiiod, as I have 
said, is in most localities sLifficient to 
deprive even slaked lime of ail its 
caustic properties. 

Of the saline compounds* which 
caustic lime thus forms, either imme- 
diately or ultimately, some, like tho 
caibcnate and bumat-e, being very 
sparingly soluble m water, remain 
more or less permanently in the soil ; 
others, like the acetate of lime,t being 
readily soluble, are either washed out 
by the rains, or are sucked up by ihe 
roots of the growing plaots. In the 
former case they cause tic removal of 
both organic matter and of lime from 
the land ; in the latter they supply the 



* Saline compounds or salts are always 
formed when lime, magnesia, potash, soda„ 
&c., combine ^4;ith. acids. 

f Acetate of lime, consists of acetic acid,. ^' 
vinegar, and lime. 



m 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL, 



plant with a portion of organic food, 
«nd at the same time with lime — with- 
out which, as we have frequently • be- 
fore remarked, plants cannut be main- 
tained in their most healthy condition. 
Aciinn of Mild or Carbonate of Lime 

upon vegetable mailer of Ike Soil. 

The main utility of lime, therefore, 
after ii has first remov-ed the so>'arness 
it found in the soil, depends U[ on its 
prolonged afler-aciion upon the vegeta- 
ble matter. Vfhat is this ac'ion, and 
in what consist the benefils lo which it 
g'ves rise ? 

In answering this question, it is of 
ianporiance to obseive that all the ef- 
fects produced by alkaline substances 
in general, whether by lime or by pot- 
ash, in the caustic st^te, are pi educed 
in kind also by the same substunces in 
the state of carbonate, 'i'he carbonic 
acid with which they are united is re- 
tained by a comparatively ft eble afBni- 
nity, and is displaced with greater or 
less ease by almost every other acid 
compound which is prodaced in the 
fiord. Wi'h this displaceni is cnnnecieJ 
an intere.-ting series of beautiful reac- 
tions, which it is of consequence to un- 
derstand. 

The end or termination which na- 
ture, so to speak, has in view, in all 
the changi'S to which she subjects or 
^anic matter in the soil, is to convert 
it, with the exception of its nitrogen, 
into carbonic acid and water. For 
this purpose it combines, at one time, 
with the ox3'gen of the air, while at 
another it decomposes water, and unites 
with the oxygen or the hydrogen which 
are liberated, or with both, to foim 
new chemical combinations. Each of 
those new ccrabinations is either im- 
mediately preliminary to, or is attend- 
43d by, the conversion of a portion of 
4he elements of the organic matter into 
one or other of those simpler forms of 
matter on which plants live. Now, 
during these preliminary or prepara- 
tory steps, acid svibstances, as I have 
already explained, ar > among others 
(Constantly |ir;'duced. With ih^ se acids 
Jiie caihoi.ate of iimej when prtsent in 



the soil, is ever ready to combine : but, 
in so combining, it gives cff the car- 
bonic acid with which it is already 
united; and thus a continual, slow 
evolution of carbonic acid is kept up 
as long as any undecomposed carbon- 
ate remains in the soil. 

I do not atte mpt to specify by namB 
all ihe various acid substancis whicti 
are thus finned during the oxidation 
of the organic matter, and which suc- 
cessively unite with the lime ; because 
the entiie series of interestinn; and 
highly importatit changes, which or- 
ganic substances undergo in the soil, 
has as yet been too little investigated, 
to permit us to do more than speak in 
general terms of the nature of the 
chemical compounds which are most 
abundantly produced. Of two facta^ 
howevt r. in regard to them, we ara 
certain — that they are simpler in their 
constitution than the original organie 
matter i'self from which they arc de- 
rived, and that they have a tendency 
to assume still simpler forrns, if they 
continue to be exfiosed to the same 
united action of air, water, and alka- 
line substances. 

Flence the compounds which lima 
Ims formed with the acid subs'anccs of 
the soil — the humate, ulihate, &c., — 
thcEaselves hasten forward to new de- 
compositions, unite with more oxygen, 
liberate slowly portion after portion of 
their. carbon, in the form of carbonio 
acid, and of their hydrogen in the form 
of water, till at length the lime itself 
is left again in the state of carhonate,or 
in union with caibonie acid only, This 
residual carbonate of iirne begins again 
the same round of changes through 
which it had previongly passed. It 
gives up its carbonic acid at the biddintr 
of some more powerful organic acid 
produced in its neighborhood ; while 
this acid, by exposure to the due influ- 
ence?, undergoes new alterations, till it 
also is finally resolved into carbonia 
acid and water. 

Two ciicumstances deserve to be 
borne in mind in leference to these 
&uccfi,s.sive de,Go,mpQSiUons— ilxs.t^ ih&t, 



THE FAEMER'S JOURNAL. 



48 



&s they proceed, more easily soluble 
compounds of lime are now and then 
formed, -Eorne of which are washed out 
by the rains and .escape from the soil, 
while others minister to the growth of 
plants ; — and, second, that very much 
carbonic acid is produced as their final 
result, of which also part is taken up 
by the roots of plants, and part escapes 
into the air. I'hus at every successive 
6tage a portion of organic matter is lost 
to the soil If this quantity be greater 
than that which is yearly gainf d in the 
form of roots, or decayed leaves and 
•terns of pIants,or of rnan-ure artificially 
added, the soil will be gradually ex- 
hausted — if lets, it will every ye;tr be- 
come more rich in vegetable matter. 

It is also to be borne in mind, that 
although, for the purpose ofillustrauon, 
1 have supposed the carbonate of lime 
first formed in the soil to be subsequent- 
ly combined with other acids, whirh 
gradually decompose and leave it again 
in the state cfcarbonate, yet it will 
rarely happen that the whole of the 
carbonate of lime m the soil will be 
brought, at one and the same lime, into 
any of these new slates of combination. 
In general, a part of it only is thus at 
any time employed in working up the 
acid substances produced. But it is 
necessary that it should be universally 
■diffused through the soil, in order that 
it may be everywhere at hand to per 
form the important part of its functions 
above explained. It is only where lit- 
tle lime is present, or where decaying 
Tegetable matter is in ezceeding 
abundance, that the whole of the car- 
bonate can at one and the same lime 
disappear. 
Savnnary of the chemical changes which 

Lime ami organic matter mutually 

undergo in the Soil. 

The changes, therefore, which lime 
and organic matter, supposed to be free 
from nitrogen, respectively undergo, 
and their mutual action in the soil, may 
be summed tip as follows : — 

1. The orgai^ic matter, under the 
influence of air and moisture, ?ponta- 
ceottslj desoiB^QseSj aad^ besides car- 



bonic. acid which escapes, forms also 
other acid substances which linger in 
the soil. 

2. With these acids the quick-lime 
combines, and, either by its union wilk 
them, or with carbonic acid ficm the 
air, gradually losps its cau.^iic state. 

3. The production of acid substances, 
by the oxidation of the organic matter, 
goes on more rapidly under the pre- 
disposing influence of the lime, whether 
caustic or carbonated. 'J'hese acida 
combine with the l;me, liberating from 
it, when in a state of carbonate, a slow 
but constatit -current of caibonic acid, 
upon which plants at least partly live. 

4. The acid organic matter v\hich 
thus unites with the lime continues it- 
self to be acted upon by the air and 
water, aided by heat and I'ght— itself 
passes tnrough a suoces.^ion of stages of 
decomposition, at each of wliich it gives 
off water or carbonic acid, retaining 
still its hold of the 'ime.till at last, being 
wholly decomposed, it leaves the lime 
again in the slate of caibonate — ready 
10 begin anew the same round of 
change. 

5. During this series of progressive 
decompositions, certain more soluble 
compounds of lime are formed, by which 
plants are in part at least supplied 
with this earth, ani the production of 
which enables ihe rains to carry ofif both 
lime and organic matter from the soil. 

And. again, the more rapid the pro- 
duction of the acid substances which 
result from the union of the organic 
matter with oxygen, the more abund- 
ant in general also is the production of 
those gaseous and volaiile compounds 
which it forms by uniting with hydro- 
gen — so that, in promoting the forma- 
tion of the one class of bodies, lime also 
favors the evolution of the other ia 
greater abundance, and thus in a double 
measure contributes to the exlmusiioa 
of the soil. 

The disposing action of lime io this 
twin form of decomposition, few varie- 
ties of organic matter can resist — and 
hence arises the well-known efficacy of 
Jime. in resolving and rendering usefai 



46 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



the apparently inert vegetable substan- 
ces that not unfrcquently exist in the 
soil. 
Of the comparative utilily of burned and 

unburntd Lime. 

Is there no advantage, then, we may 
ask, iti using caustic or buried raiher 
than carbonated or unburned lime? — 
If the uliimate efi^cls of both upon the 
Jand be the same, why be at the espense 
of burning? Among other benefiis 
arising from the use of burned lime, 
may be enumerated the following; — 

1. By burning and slaking, the lime 
is reduced to the state ofan impalpable 
powder^ finer than could be obtained 
tsj any available method of crushing. 
It can in eonsefpence be difTuscd more 
uniformly through the soi^, and hence a 
smaller quantity will produce an equal 
eflcct. This minute state of division 
also promotes in a wonderful degree 
ihe chemical action of the lime. In all 

■cases chemical action takes place be- 
tween exceedingly minute particles of 
matter : and among solid substances 
the action istnoro rapid the finer the 
powder to which they can be reduced 
■ Thus a mass of iron or lead slowly 
rusts or tarnishes in the air, but if the 
mass of either meial be reduced to the 
state of an impalpable powder — which 
can be done by certain chemical means 
— it will take fire when simply esposed 
to the air at the ordinary temperature, 
and will burn till it is entirely convert- 
ed into oxide of iron, or oxide of lead. 
By mere mechanical division, the ap- 
parent action of the oxygen of the air 
upon metals is augmented and hasten- 
ed in this extraordinary degree; and a 
similar heigrhtening of the chemical in- 
fluence of lime takes j^plaoe when it is 
brought, in an impalpable stale, into 
contact with the vegetable matter upon 
vhich it is intended to act. 

2. The effect of burned lime is more 
powerful and more immediate than 
that of unbiirned lime in the form of 
chalk, marl, or shell sand. Hence it 
sooner neutralizes the acids which exist 
in the coil, and sooner causes that de^ 
composition of vegetable matter of every 



kind to commence, upon which its effi- 
cacy, m a great degree,depends. Hence, 
when it can easily be procured, it is 
better for sour grass or arable lands, 
for such as contain an excess ot vegeta- 
ble matter, and especially for such as 
abound in that deud or inert form of 
organic nialter which rf quires a strong- 
er s:imulus - the presence of more 
powerful chemical afiiuiiies, that is — 
to bring it into active decomposition, — 
In such cases, the lime has already done 
much good before it has been brougljt 
into the mild state — by exposure in the 
soil — and, remaining afterwards in this 
state in the soil, it still serves, in a great 
measure,the same slower after-purposes, 
as the original addition of carbonate 
would have done. 

3. Besides, if any portion of il, after 
the lap'Se of two or three years, still 
linger in the caustic state, it will con- 
tinue to provoke more rapid changes 
among the organic substances in the 
soil, than mild lime 'dlone could have 
done. 

4. Further, quick-lime is soluble in 
water, and hence every shower that 
falls and sinlcs into the soil carries with 
it a portion of lime, so long as any of it 
remains in the caustic state. It thus 
reaches acid matters that lie beneath 
the surface, and alters and araelioraiea 
even the sub soil ;tself 

5. It is not a small additional re- 
commenddtion of quick-lime, that iime 
stone, by burnmg, loses about 44 p?T 
cent of its weight — chiefly carbonic 
acid — thus enabling neatly twice the 
quantity of lime to be conveyed from 
place to place at the same cost of trans- 
port. 1'his not only causes a direct 
saving of money- — as when the burned 
chalk of Antiini is carried by sea to the 
Ayrshire coasts — but an additional sa« 
viC)g of labor also upon the farm — 
where tlie n^'mber of hands and horses 
is often barely sufficient for the neces- 
sary work. 

{To be continued.) 



It is as difficult to preservs fame, as 
It was at first to acquire it, 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



47 



MANURES ON DRAINCB AND UN- 
DRAINED LAND. 

Every practical farmer has noticed 
the difference in the effects of manures 
applied to even a single field, but few 
iiave been able salisfaciorily to account 
/or the same. This difference has been 
tnore especially observable upon heavy 
lands with a clayey sub-soil, where 
there were low spots occasionally 
swamped with water. In such wet 
places however higbly manured, it has 
been found impossible to produce good 
crops 

In England, draining has come to be 
considered the ground work and found- 
ation of nil productive farming. Sterile 
and worthless lands have in this way 
been brought into use, becoming the 
most fertile and valuable. Draining 
renders the land penetrable to water, 
eavs Dr. Buckland, ''enabling the rain 
10 descend freely through it, carrying 
to the roots these fei tilizing elements of 
carbonic acid and ammonia, with which 
rain wa'er is always charged." These 
may be supplied by the manure, but 
they must float upon the surface of 
undrained land, for the wet, clayey sub- 
soil will not allow them to penetrate so 
that they may be taken up by the roots 
of the plants. Yet let these lands be 
thoroughly drained, and no soil will 
belter repay the applicaiion of manures. 
Instead of late and imperfect crops, we 
shall then ;jet early and abundant ones, 
for well drained land can be worked 
luueh earlier than the wet, and will 
sooner bring the crops to perfection. 

The elements of manure act only 
when in a state of solution, hence it is 
of the greatest importance that they be 
so applied, arid that the soil be so pre- 
pared, that they may, not only be readi- 
ly dissolved by the rain, but that ihe 
rain may freely pass through the soil, 
and the soil acting as a filter, arrest 
l.hem and hold them where they will 
best serve as food for vegetation. An 
ill-drained field is poorly prepared for 
this. The rain must either run off' on 
the 6urfa-ce, or pas? by evaporation —in 
either ease carrying with it the greatsr 



portion of the manurial elements it may 
contain. And rain-water is always 
charged with these. Carbonic acia is 
continually supplied to the air from the 
lungs of animals, from the consumptioa 
of fuel, from putrefying animal and 
vegetable matter, and numerous other 
sources — it is ever floating in the at- 
mosphere m a gaseous form, and is 
brouglit down again by every fall of 
snow and every shower of rain. Both 
are '-the poor man's manure." 

It is the true [lolicy of the farmer to 
use every means in his power of re-»i- 
dering his manures efficient and his 
fields productive, and in no way can 
this better be accomplished than by 
draining and deepening the soil. The 
immediate effects of such an improve- 
ment, in increasing the value of the 
crops are generally such as will repay 
the outlay required in two or three 
years at least, and all after that for 
untold years to come, maybe set down 
as clear profit — as a result which would 
not have been obtained but for this 
simple but effectual change in the char- 
acter of the soil, as regards its retentive- 
ness of water. — Rural New Yorker. 



Manure for. Fruit Trees. -Manure 
for fruit trees should always be cool 
carbonaceous matters, with an eseess 
of alkali. Thus mock drcompf^sed by 
salt and lime, before being applied, may 
be used ivith safety, and an addition of 
lime,or ashes, as maybe most desirable, 
added. The surface of the ground 
around fruit trees should always be top 
dressed to a moderate extent, with 
charcoal dust or gypsum, which would 
assist to render the muck available to 
the roots, by the assistance of the am- 
monia, which would be arrested by 
these ingredients from the atmosphere, 
and cariied to the under manure by 
rains dews, &e. Such treatment would 
materially lessen the attacks of insects 
on fruit trees. — W or kim:; Farmer. 



Nothing more easy than to do mis- 
chief; nothing more difficult than to 
suffer without complaining. 



43 



THU FAEMER'S JOURNAL, 



FARMER'S JOURNAL. 

BATH, If. C, MAY, 1852. 



TERMS :. 
The Farmer's Journal v/ill be published 
monthly, a* $1 per annum, in advance ; six 
copies for ^5 ; twelve copies fqr ^10 ; thirty 
copies for ^30. 

Advertisemexts. — A limited number of 
advertisements will be inserted at the follow- 
incT rates : For one souare of twelve lines, for 
each insertion, ijjil ; one square, per annum, 
flO ; half column, do., ^.30 ; one column, do., 
§50; l-arger advertisements in proportion. 
JOHN F. TOMPKINS, 
Editor and Proprietor, Bath, N . C._ 



TO THE FARMERS OF NORTIi, CARO- 
LINA. 

For a long t\u^e we have looked 
^pon the digiaded condition oi' the Ag 
ncultural. interest of our State with 
a great degree of mort.fc-ation, and 
being well satisfied that a correct dis- 
semination of knowledge was necessa- 
sary to put to flight the many errors 
among on r farmers, we have venlured 
to assume the task ot making this cor- 
rection. We have carrfuDy watched 
the rapid progress which has recently 
been made in.thoseStatas arouiid liiS.and 
Itave taken much care to inform our- 
self, what have been the most efficient 
means of promoting ihii rapid advance- 
snent in. Ag'icultiiral iiBproyement — 
The result of that investioaiion has been 
that Agricultural papers and iVgricul- 
4ural Societies have shown ihemst Ives 
to be the mainsprings of this improve- 
ment. 

Being fully convinced that the farm 
ens of our Siate stand greatly in. need 
of a channel throiigh whieh they may 
eomnnunicate with each othei-, we have 
issued a paper t& be devoted entirely 
to their interests. The tide of Agiicul- 
ftural improveojcnt is just making its 
food among us, and now we think is 
the time to offer the farmers such a 
publication. We liave begun this en- 
terprise without a sufrieient evidence 
from those whcso interests \vc advojaie 
ikaS we skall be sustained.. 



Wherever wo go we are told that we 
have entered upon a noble work, and 
we seem to have the good wishes of all 
for our success, but this alone will not 
sustain the enterprise; it is too much in 
character wiih what our State has been 
heretofore, a'l talk and but little work. 
If the farmers of North Carolina feel 
that they stand in need of such a paper 
as ours, just let Ih^ m show it by their 
actions and not by word alone. Let every 
inudligcnt farmer who may see The 
Journal make it his business to go 
among his neighbours tuid get them to 
subscribe, and we shall at once feel 
greatly encouraged to goon. 

We have visned several counties in 
the last ftw, months for the purpose of 
addressing the people upon the subject 
of Agrieulture and aiousing them to 
action, but as we are now siiuated with 
but a small list ia comparison with 
what we should have, wc find that our 
expenseb are loo heavy. If the farmer* 
will; give us that encourageiiient which 
we shall endeavour to merit, we shall 
in the next year visit every part of 
North Carolina, and proclaim to the 
people in one part what those in ano- 
ther are doing in ih® way of improvft- 
ment in farming. 

What we have already said is suffi« 
cient to convince every right thinking 
Rian that t^-g feel a deep interest in tha 
luture welfare of our btate, and if ihi.i 
will not stimula.'e the frunds. of tho 
("aiming inteiest to action, we niijaht 
u-rite a volume and the efiecl would ba 
the same. 

We shall send several copies of this 
number 5o the va' ious Post offices ia 
the Slate and also to several farmers 
who have not subscribed,. arid w^e hope 
that they will each get at leasl five 
naoie and send us the cash, and let us 
enter their names upon out list. Farm- 
ers of North Carolina let us hear from 
you and si-e whether you are disposed 
to sustain a paper devoted to your par- 
ticular interest, or that you are still 
content to derive your Auj'icultural 
informatiiin from otha* States tbaa 
horn amoBg yaursabies. 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL, 



49 



OUR RECENT VISIT. 

We have just returned from a tour 
over several counties, and we never 
enjoyed curself moie than on this os- 
casion. Foi the reason that we saw a 
great disposition on ti.e part of every 
commuiiity where we have been to im- 
prove the present degraded condition 
of the Agriculiur.il inierest of the Stale. 
We saw in passing thtoiigh the county 
of Greene lo Sno>v-Hill, the very fine 
farm of Benjamin Sireeter, Esq., of 
which we have often hetird so much, 
and we do not he.sitate to say that this 
farm has,not been over rated. 

This genilt^man has made a very ex- 
tensive us;^ of the mnrl and muck in 
compost and vvith great success; he has 
displayed fine judgement in the dis- 
tribution of his (oanure upon his fields. 
Instead of placiniT- his manure heaps 
without any respect to order, he has 
placed them at iqua! distances apart, 
wh.ch will have me tend- ncy to tho- 
roughly improve his laud. We saw 
in Greene several larms possessed of 
the same advantages as the one just 
alluded to, and by the same plan of 
treatment would be equally produc'.ive. 
The ppi it of Agricultural improve- 
ment in t'lafc cuuiity is progressing, 
and when the farmers turn their a'len- 
tion more to reading, the improvement 
will be much greater than what one 
vould have an idea of. 

There is an Agricultural Society 
established in that county, and the 
officers are men who feel a deep inter- 
est in farming, and we will vouch for its 
cffi^ctiDg much gc-od to the farrneis — 
From this couniy we went into Wayne, 
where we spent S':!veral days vory pleas- 
antly, and had the gra'ificaiion of being 
present at the second meeting of the 
Agricultural Society cf that county, 
which has commenced under very fa- 
vourable auspices. Much good has 
already result, d from the recent visit 
of Prof. Emmons to this county. lie 
examined several marl deposites and 
made discoveries of new ones, and 
caused several farmers to make search 
for them, which tias resulted in theif 



discovery. 

At this meeting of th"^ society we 
saw several specimens of different mails 
bruuijht by the farm, rs for exhibition, 
many of v/hich are highly valuable. — 
There seems to be a full determination 
on ihe part of these farmers not lo be 
left behind in the great race of Agri- 
cultural advai'.c. raent in our State. — 
From what we sav7 of the county around 
we do not hesitate to sny that the farm- 
ers there have everv advantage for la- 
king a high s>and arnong the best of 
the State. It is. true that by pursuing 
the eld system of taking every thing 
from the field and leaving noihing (or 
the reproduction of the succeeding 
crop, thtir lands, many of them, are 
very much worn. But ihey have or- 
o-anic and intrganie matter on every 
side, enough to rcsiore llaeir lands to 
their original (ertijiiy, and the most of 
ihe locations we saiv were rinely situa- 
ted. Guldsboio, the county seat, is 
pleasantly S'tuated. and is qu.ite a Ii''e- 
ly town, having the far famed iron hors* 
passing through its limit.s several timei 
during the day. The citizens of thit 
place seem lo be a very enterprising 
people; there is es;abli.slied there, tho 
only rnechdnics association in our Stutp, 
which example is worihy of being fol- 
lowed by the people of every town and 
village among us. We found most of 
the citizens in the town belonging lo 
lliis association and using their exer- 
tions to elevate that interest to that p'>' 
sition which it should O'cupy. W» 
look a flying trip to Wilnaington and 
went a short distance in the country. 
Indeed our visit was so very hurried 
that we cannot speak from our own 
observation of that flouiishing young 
city, and the country around os we 
would wish, but we will venture to gay 
that thero is m.ore enterprise iu WiJ- 
nvngton than in every other seaporS 
town in the Stale. 'I'hire the capitul- 
isb expends his funds in a way that 
will pay a good per cent to himself and 
also to he ofadvantage to those around 
Itirn. If the same .'p rit existed in 
NevvBerne and Washin:.itoa as doea 



50 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



there, what a change would be soon 
wrought ill those towns ! 

We next came into the county of 
Lenoir, where we saw fine fields for 
Agricultur;il improvement. Indeed we 
saw ill this county the finest specimens 
(if marl that we ever saw any where, 
many of the beds containing a large 
quantity of phosphate of lime, which 
is highly Vijlua'ole as a fertilizer. We 
obtained a large list of subscribers to 
the Farmer's Journal in that county, 
mainly through ihe active part taken 
by one genileman, Mr. John C. Wa.'^h- 
iugton, who in two days, during Court 
week, handed us seventy-nine names 
accompanied by the cash. Mr. Wash- 
ington is a thorouiih going man; he is 
making fine improvements upon his 
farm, which is beautifully situnn d near 
Kinston. The town is improving rap 
idly, steamboats passing dady on the 
Neuse river near by, and there is a 
large coach making establishment there, 
owned by those energetic gentlemen, 
the Messrs. Dibbles, vfhich adds nuich 
to the place. After leaving these 
counties, we went mlo old Eduecombe, 
which is known to be the fountain head 
of Agricultural imDroveniont in our 
State. In passing up to Tarboro we 
saw some very fine farms, but as most 
of the farmers had already distributed 
iheir manure, we did not have a fair 
chance to see what was being done in 
the way of manuring, but we saw 
enough to satisfy us that those farmers 
were making money. We were pre- 
sent at the meeting of the Agricultural 
Society in that Cjunty, and we were 
highly pleased with the proceedings. 

We listened to a very able rt-port 
«poo a proper rotation of crops tVr 
Edgecombe wh'ch was read by Ralph 
]<]. iVlcNair, Esqr , the chairman of ihe 
ooramitLee appointed for that purpose. 
This report we hope to lay before our 
readers in the June number of our pa- 
j>er. We also heard the question, can 
land be drained too dry for Agriculiu- 
fal purposes? ably discussed bv sever- 
al g'^ntiemen. which seemed to enlist the 
atioHtion cf ihe whole b'jdy. We are 



glad to say that there was quite a num- 
ber joined the society at that meeting, 
and we hope before another year expires 
to see every farmer in that county a 
member. The Farmer'sJournal bids fair 
to have a large circulation in old Edge^ 
combe, and we flatter ourse'f thai the 
lact of its passing lavorably there will 
be a sufficient guarantee of its merits. 
Indeed if those farmers give us a large 
list we are sure that it will aid us, ma' 
terially in getting a large number in 
other counties, and we are quite sure 
that such will be the case, for we were 
handed forty names by our friend H. 
B. Bryan, and there are others who are 
resolved to makeEdgecombe the banner 
county in point of numbers. 



I-IUSBANDIKG MANURES FOR THE 
FARM. 

Every farmer who has availed him- 
self of their use, must see the great 
importance of collecting manures for 
his crops from the various resources 
around him. Those with whom we 
have been associated have ever been 
ready to admit the good effects resulting 
from the proper application of manures, 
but at the same tune they seem to be 
blind to the many resources which they 
have for obtaining them. 

This ignorance on their part is caused 
from the fact that they have neglected 
to read from the experience and re- 
search of those farmers who have the 
advantage of education and have farm- 
ed with success. 

We recollect very well that four 
years past, in our county, one hundred 
and filty loads of manure hauled out in 
the Spring upon a large farm, was con- 
sidered a large quantity, for the reasOQ 
that our farmers then thought them- 
selves all-wise and had not learned the 
many vv'ays by which manure might bij 
made. At thatiime the barnyard and 
stables vv'erc their only dependence, and 
from these they did not make the tenth 
load which might have been made wiili 
a little caie and attention on their pari. 
A short time after this, Prof Mapes 
began the publication of the Working 



Cf,^-.'^,. '^••%rartr« 



THE FARMER'S JOUENAL. 



51 



Faimer in New York, anci we became 
a subscriber and a cloie reader, and wc 
very soou found that we had been doing 
no'.hing in the way of making manure, 
though we had kept pace wiih our 
neiglibors. We read his articles upon 
the mixiure of salt lime and muck, 
which we published in our April num- 
ber, and wc soon discovered that we had ! 
resources for making thousands of loads j 
of good manure^ from tht; fact thai just j 
adjoining our farm, was located a hirge 
eait marsh, upon which the tide ebbed 
and flovved. We went to work and 
oomposted a quantity for the corn crop, 
and the next years growth of corn bore 
the best tes;iniony of its utility. Prof 
Mapes also recommended the digging 
of tlie stables out to the depth of two or 
more feet, and supplying the place of 
the clay once in a tnonth with muck 
or woods mould, by which plan all of 
ihe urine cf ihc horse or ox is retained 
in the muck, and by placing in ten 
loads at a time, you niakeone hundred 
and twenty loads ot good manure from 
every stable used. 'J he muck or mould 
should afe.-- being in the stable two 
weeks, be dug up and turned top side 
down, and then let a l.'ght coating of 
.^iraw of some kind be placed over it. 
Every farmer's barn-yard should bo 
dug out in the form of a basin, leaving 
a space of tea feet ail around for the 
cari.3 to pass, and the person whose 
business it is to visit the barn and stabler 
to walk dry footed. !By doing this the 
iairaer will save all of his liquid ma- 
DU.'-es, which we notice upon most farms 
are sufFdred to run off, probably to 
manure a lot of cypress knees or a bog- 
near by. 

The sheltering of manures is of oreat 
importanco to the farmer, for by suffer- 
ing matiures to be daily exposed to the 
effects of the rays of the sun, and the 
beating rains, it is deprived of the am 
monia, which is the manuring principle 
in decomposed vegetable matter. By 
suffering the manure to remain through 
the whole winter exposed, many farm- 
ers are disappointed in their crops from 
. its appiiuationj and they are often in- 



clined to discredit the great advantages 
resulting from its use. Tlie last year 
we made an experiment upon coia 
with sheltered manure, and that which 
was not sheltered, and the crop from 
that which was sheltered was twice as 
good as from that which had been ex- 
posed to the air. This experiment w© 
look upon as being quite a fair test, for 
the reason that ii was only on twelve 
rows that we applied it, and they were 
side by side. We have often been'- 
amused when passing by the farms in 
our county, to see how very particular 
the fartner is, not to spread any more 
manure than he can turn under during 
the day, when in fact the manure had 
been exposed a whole year perhaps to 
the sun and rains. 

The use of plaster in the stables and 
over ihe barnyard is of great advantagw 
in retainino; the ammonia. After using 
it considerably we discovered that our 
stable manuio wda to the smell twice 
us strong as before using it. Farmers 
in our State have but little idea how 
nsuch manure could be oblained from 
the various fowls upon the farm. They 
seem to be eager to obtain the far famed 
guano, when if they were to turr. thtir 
attention to their fowls,they could rnaku 
a largH quantity of manure which is 
but litila inferior to the guano. 

VVi!h the quantify of uncleared lands 
which we have, our farmers could ac- 
cumulate a large quantity of ashes 
which area fine manure when apitiied 
to those soils which are deficient of thu 
constituents of which they are mainly 
composed, viz : lime, potash and Boda, 
and we are sure that most cf thevvom 
out lands of our State are greatly de- 
ficient in th'se constituents. We hav« 
been informed by a large farmer in 
Edgecombe, that with his trash gang hu 
gathered six hundred barrels of ashej 
in a very few da^/s on a field near the 
river where the freshet in the Sp'ing 
had left a large quantity of timber. — 
Ashes should be burnt fioui small heaps 
of v.'ood, for the reason that when ihti 
heap is large, the greater quantity of 
the ashes are blown away by the cur- 



St 



THE FARMER'S JGUENAL. 



rent of wind which is creaieH by a large 
file. We hope ibat our farmers will 
not continue a^y Ioniser 'o repulse in- 
formation in reif-aid to this daily busi- 
nesa of their Iwvfs, and at once begin 
to read and inforin themselves of what 
is being done in Agricultural improve- 
inenD iu other parts of the woild. 



A. NATIONAL AGRICULTURiUL. CON- 
VEI\^TION. 

We have seen with much pleasure a 
move made by ttie State Ag iculiural 
Society of Penasylv iUia, to get up a 
KatiunalAg icul:-uraiC()nventioii,wl)ich 
is proposed lo be called to^rether at 
Washington Crt}' as !^0(in as ihe vVgri- 
culturalSoceius ul five Slates acquieice 
in the moveineni. 

The State Agrirultural Society of 
Maryland has already approved of this 
plan, and has adopted resolutions lo 
that e{?^,ct. North Carolina is in this, 
as in eve'y other improvement, in the 
background. She has no State Agri- 
cultural Sucieiy, and but few county 
Societies, which, wiihout prompt ac- 
tion upo-n her part, will preclude the 
Agricultural interest of her citizf'ns 
being reprrsented in ifea-t Convention. 

'I'iie great good which must result 
from such a couveution can be plainly 
«OGn by a ref-.rence to what great im- 
provement has been made in Agricul- 
ture in various parts of Europe, by 
enlisting the whole people in its favour. 
See what has b^en done in England 
hy such a course. It is an established 
fact, that the present population of that 
country, which is tvi'enty millions, are 
supported upon the same area of Lind 
upon wiiich nine miluons subsisted a 
few years past, and this has undoubted- 
ly been done by a superior system of 
cultivation, for the amount of land is 
the same. 

The government of England cherish- 
'es the in'erests of the farmer so much, 
than an annual appropriation is made 
of a large amount fjr inid'-M draining his 
\:ind. 'I'his tund is loaned in such a way 
that in twenty years lime tiie farmer is 
enabled by the inci:.sased product of bia 



landjwhicli results fiom thorough drain* 
age, to pay back both principle and in» 
lerest. By this apprGirriation. both thd 
national and individual wealth of tho 
country is increased, for the greater th» 
value of the land, the larger is tha 
amount of ta.\es, and the better able is 
the individual to pay. 

The gr^at importance of cherishing 
the Agric'ulturitl interest of our country 
by the government, was urged by the 
iinmoitalWaihington, and the attention 
of our legislators has been called to this 
fact time after time, but they have 
greatly neglected it. The conventioB 
spoken of, is we tiiinl:, ytsi the thing 
to bring about a change in regard to 
this matter; such a step taken by the 
farmers in the different States, will 
create a deep interest in Agricultural 
improvement. We say again, lec ei'cl^ 
.c.iunty establish an Agricultural So- 
ciety, and in the month i f July next, let 
delegates be sent from those Societies 
to Ilaleigh for the puipose of forming a 
State Agricultural Society, which will 
redound to the good of the whole farm- 
ino' community. All that is wanting 
to carrys^h.'s into effect is.a little energy^ 
for when we North Carolinians become 
fully alive to our interest we are just 
the people for putting things through. 
As evidence ol this fact ju-t look at 
Edgecombe, and see w^hat^a broad row 
she is weeding, known and celebrated 
for her rapid advancement in farming, 
not only in this S'.ate but throughout 
the whole Union. 

We hope that the farmers will pay 
attention to this matter, and when, a 
county Agricultural Sc-ciety is formed, 
just send us an accoun.t ot the fact an<l 
our readers sliall hear when the ball is 
being put in motion. 

VVe shall be pleaded to hear the sen- 
timents of the farmers with regard to 
the propriety of a meeting being held 
in Kaleigh in July_ for forming a State 
Agricultural Society. 



Ilrtsty words often bring confusion, 
but the wise man weighe'h well their 
vailue ere he sendeth them foriL 



THE FARMEE'S JOURNAL. 



St 



I'HE SWAMP LANDS OF BEAUFORT 
COUNT r. 

We would call the attention of our 
readers to the fa«t that there are in 
this county a large quantity of swamp 
lands which aie highly valuable fot 
calliva'ion, which can be bought cheap 
These lands are ouned by a few indi- 
iriduals who have more than th^y have 
any pos;ible need for, and would sell 
them cheap in order lo get up a spirit 
of improvement auiong our larmi rs. 

The location of these lands is such 
as to render iheni easily drained, and 
are 30 situated that farms cleared in 
themwi.l be near navigable water, and 
ara free f oni the storm tides which 
greatly injure manv of" !he valiiahle 



they are compellf^d to sell out nnd 
move away. 'I'o these we say, do not 
leave your native State, but come into 
Ue-rfufort county where we need popu- 
lalioQ, and you shall be supplied with 
land the growth of which is gum, ash, 
poplar, white oiik, and hickory; in many 
the poplar is a common growth. 

AGRICULTURAL IMPROVEMENT lit 
EDGECOxMBE COUNTY. 

We lay before cur readers an cxtraft 
from a letter written by Jesse li. Powell, 
Efq., of Edgecombe, which we are sure 
will be read with a deep interest by 
every farmer who E:.ay see it. W» 
know the writer well; he is a erentleman 



. . . _ of fine talents, and has acquired a great 

swamplands in Eastern Carolina. The | deal of useful informati(m upon almost 



surface soil is about two feet and a half 
deep, and foumfed upon a good clay 
eub-soil ; the sob's of some are vegeta- 
ble and some calcarious,ai)d the product 
in the prim'tive state is about ten bar- 
rels of coi'n, and with proper drainage 
and good culture it wou'd be twelve 
barrels per acre. AVe will take great 
pleasure in affording any information 
to our readers upon this subject which 
we may have, and we know of no bet- 
ter way of recommending thefc lands 
than to. give the reinarks of General 
Gaither, a very extiensive and highly 
educated farmer of Alary land when he 
■visited the large farm of Gen. Wm. A. 
Blount, which is located in one of these 
swamps. He said that he would never 
again be content to farm in tho State 
of Maryland, and that he would advise 
those farmers of that State who wished 
to emigrate to come to Beaufort county, 
North Carolina. 

It is the impression with many that 
we have a very sickly country, but by 
a reference to the last census it will be 
Been that according to population there 
have been wi'.hin the last ten years a 
larger number of deaths in Edgecombe 
than in Beaufort. In many counties 
of our State thy arable binds have been 
generally cleared, and ihe force of 
many farmers has increased so as to 
become too Jar^e fjr their farms, and 



every subject How much longer will 
our farmers continue to be ignorant of 
their daily pursuit in life, when thej 
have such testimony as is contained in 
this extract to prove what are the good 
results of reading Agricultural paper?, 
and becoming members of Agricultural 
Societies. The bright example set by 
the farmers of Edgecombe is worthy of 
being followed by every county in our 
State, and we do not hesitate to say 
that the same energ}' used, and tho 
same knowledge of farming put into 
practice in other countie--, will be 
Clowned with the same success. Wn 
hope that Mr. Powell will become a 
coriespondent to The Journal, and 
cuntinue to diffuse the light among the 
farmers of the Stale which he has beguu 
in this letter : 

BaUkboro\ Edgecombe co., 
March 12, 185'i. 
" Having a little le'sure, and belie-y- 
ing that you and others in the upper 
counties aie too much disposed to at- 
tribute the improvement in farming in 
this country, now in Us infancy, to 
Marl, and in order to show you that 
kind Nature has put in your reach tho 
materials of improvement m abundance, 
I am induced to make some remarks. 
A portion of this county ( i ovvUj^Cri ek) 
which has, I belie ve, thti best practisui 



54 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



faimers iu tha State, and who realize 
the largest profits, is almost destitute 
of Marl — but one farmer in iliat region 
Laving used it at all, and he only 
during ihi pist year. A great deal of 
this land, formerly quite poor, is now 
producing 1200 lbs. seed cotton to the 
ttcre, and one farmer has averaged over 
a bale (100 lbs) to the acre — his crop 
Bsventy odd bags. Swamp mud, fence 
sci apings, diich bank, ushes, stable 
manure, and th.^ir surplus cotton s^ed, 
are the materials used. 

" Havaig committed some errors and 
improved by esperience, though only 
a medium farsner, permit me to submit 
my present plans of operation in im- 
provement, not doubling thai you carrv 
it much fuither. The land intended 
to be manured is first staked of!" 70 
yards apart, wtuch p\!ts it m acre lota 
In the ceutie of this I begin my heap; 
if the land is very poor, and the larcer 
pon;on is of this kind^ I first put down 
20 loads of Muck in a ciioular form of 
15 or 18 feet ia dian:eter, which is made 
level with the hoe, on which is put 
(measured) 8 or 10 bushels of coiton 



seed, a4id 



Ji^ular 



y over. 



now put 0.1 17 or eighteen loads more 
of muclf (dimuiisiung the numh'.-r of 
loads as I laise the heap) which is fol- 
lowed by 12 or 15 bushels stable 
manure — contiiiuing in this way until 
the heap is iiaished, generally having 
two layers of seed and two of manure — 
the whule to be capped off with 10 or 
12 bushels unleached ashes. The whole 
pile vv'hen finished, is not more than 
30 or 36 inches high. The advantage 
in having the pile so large for the 
height is in order lo drive up the mules 
oil the heap and pour out, thereby 
BHving much labor. I prefer putting 
in saveral kinds of manure in the heap 
■ — the one containing fertilizing prop- 
erties thai the other does not. The 
tize of heaps i.s made to contain just 
the number of loads intended for an 
acre. Some of the heaps are made en- 
tirely of ditch bank and ashes, the 
pioporiion about 10 or 12 bushels ashes 
to 20 loads ditch bank. 



" Ivly cans are made to hold, when 
heaped, about 6 bushels. This prevents 
overloading and renders the application 
on land more regular. If 1 wish to 
Use manure on corn, the shovels full 
that are required to fill the cart are 
carefully counted, and the load dropped 
accordingly — shovel full to the liill, on 
the grain of corn. This will work out 
exactly, neither too mu-h nor loo 
little. 

"The improvement now going on in 
this county, is grea'er than ever seen 
before. The increased quantity of 
manure is supposed to be double that of 
last year. Thorough draining is certain 
to follow this system — old ditches must 
be cut deeper in order to furnish rra- 
terial for the compost heaps, and new 
ones cut from the same cauge. 

" I raised last year, 3000 loads of 
manure, this season over 5000, and am 
now convinced, by beginning my oper- 
ations as soon as the present crop is 
laid by, I can with more ease put up 
10,000. I have reserved some cotton 
seed to begin with, and shall reserve 
all the manure raised from ist April 
j until August. The raits that havn 
j formed in my low grounds, together 
I with dead trees, will be converted into 
I a^hes. This last aiticle I am careful 
I to use immediately after the fire is out. 
iManure put up so long before it is 
used and exposed to the weather, will 
require a small portion of charcoal 
(powdered )or plaster applied to prevent 
the volatile property from escaping. 
1 am at this time breaking my compost 
heaps and hauling on the l«.nd. A 
man will load and drive and carry out • 
75 loads a day. 

" I believe we, living in the cotton 
region, should set aaide an improving 
force, to be constantly devoted to that 
branch of business. Under our present 
system there is loo much work crowd- 
ed in the first three months of the year; 
consequently, it is not done (ploughing 
particularly) as well as it should be 

" Other changes besides improvement 
in the lands have taken place : emigra- 
tion has ceased to flow from our coun- 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



55 



ly; not a sinole instance can I now 
remeniber of any persons having moved 
from here in two years ; a degree of 
health which was never known before; 
and a perceptible improvement in the 
morals of ihe community. What has 
caused this ? 

"I see with pleasure your county is 
roused upon tiie subject of improve- 
ment. You have biu to go on for a 
year or two. and there will be no stop- 
ping it. Men do not recede from their 
interest. We are but a step or two 
ahead of you. In less than ten years 
(mark the prediction !) your best farm- 
ers Will be raising their bag of cotton 
to the acre ; for you have some advant- 
age over us — a city in the centre of 
your county, furnishing a largo quanti- 
ty of manure — your population greatly 
increased, togetlier with every evidence 
of weahh, piosperity and happiness. 
V'ery resnecifullv yours. 
JESSE H. POWELL." 

The following meinorandum accom- 
panies the leiier. It shows the progress 
of Improvement on Mr. Bullock's farm 
during tbree years 'I'he Inst yeiir, it 
will bs seen, the product nearly doubles 
that of the first 1 Will any farmer still 
be t.0 stupid as to say "thtre is no ad- 
vantage to be gained by reading" — "no 
good m book farming" — that ''aoricul- 
tural societies are useless institutions — 
humbugs!" Why, these very means 
have led Mr. Bullock to make enough 
in a single crop for a small capital to 
begin lite with. Farni'^rs, arouse I and 
read! and think I and wo! k I A bright- 
er day is dawning ! 

MEJIORANDU.'M. 

" 18 to 20 hands— 3 men— the bal- 
ance women and children. 

1849. 1850. 1851. 

50 biles. 61 bales. 9R bales. 
D. W. BULLOCK." 



A Thing which Every Farmeu. 
SHOULD Know. — If you wish to drive a 
cvit nail into seasoned oak litnber, am) 
not have it break and bend, ju^t have a 
small quantity of oil near by, and dip 
the end of the nail into it before dr}- 
vino-j and it wilt never fail to go. A 
knowledge of this one thing will pay 
every farmer in ten years for the money 
spent in taking The Farmer's Journal 
for half that time. In mending cans 
and ploughs, this is of great advantage", 
for they are generally made mostly of 
oak woud. 



For the Farmer's Journal, 

Mr. Editor: Please give us your 
views on Guano. Is it the best mate- 
rial to manure with in general, con- 
sidering the price of it, and the charae- 
ter of our soil generally in the Eastern 
Counties 1 

How is the best way to use it ? Is 
there not some danger of doing injury 
to grain, corn for iribtance. unless used 
in a certain way 1 

Please answer these enquiries in 
your May or June number. 

April 18th, 18.5-3 A Fap.mer. 



Bones as a Manure. — A single 
pound of bones cont;»ins a? much phos- 
phoric acid, (one of the essential ingre- 
clients of wheat.) a.s 100 pounds of 
wheat. 



Good Corn Crop. — If any man 
doubts for a moment the etficiency and 
certainty of deep tillage, we Vv'ould lik«-? 
to rtfer them to the result of a field on 
the farm, of Daniel Bulla, a little north 
oi this city. The field alluded to, has 
} been cleared some thirty years or more, 
and has been regularly tilled in the or- 
j dinary manner during this time. In 
I the spring of 1850, Mr. Bulla applied 
a fair dressing of manure, and pioweW 
the field for corn. Weaily one-half c^f 
the field was sub-soiled by the use of a 
shovel plow. The crop was a (air one, 
and much the best where ii had beeti 
jub soiled. Last spring the ground was 
again plowed on an average ot some- 
thing like ten inches in depth. 'Vb% 
corn was planted in drills four feeS 
apart, and iVlr. Bulla has just harvesied 
eight hundred bu$kels oi superior cora 
from nine and oae-half seres. — la. 
Farmer. 



m 



THE f ARMER'S JOURNAL. 



IMPROVEMENT-DUTY OF FARMERS. 
Thes )ir:t wliich auimrites our peo- 
ple, is that, of progress — improvement 
Ever since ihe Ueclcrauou of Inde- 
pendence, Eatcrprise has been a dis- 
tinguishing lr.;it of the American 
oharacter — and at no period of our 
nation's history have ih.e skill and in- 
dustry of our populaiion been mors 
wiselv and profitably employed than at 
this mornerit. Look at the progress 
whicU has b^'en made dudng the last 
ten years — theimprDvemeiits now being 
introduceJ into almost every depart- 
ment of agr cuhure and n:ianufaciures, 
trade and coiTjmeice — and consider the 
vast influence which this rapid and 
Blighty change must h'lve upon the 
desiinv of our people and country ! It 
is true that this sp'ril does not wholly 
prevail.especially among agriculturists; 
but the period is fast approaching, when 
those farmers who now stand aloof 
from the aid of science, will be com- 
pelled to adopt the inventions and 
improvements of the age, in order to 
compete with the more shrewd and 
enterprising. For example : If A 
by the adof/iion of a superior mode of 
ciiiture, and the use of labor-saving 
implements, Ciin produce one hundred 
bushels of wheat at an expense of $50, 
while ihe same mmiber of bushels costs 
B. $75. it is clear that the latter cannot 
Buccessfully or faiily compete with the 
former, in the same market. And so, 
also, in the raiding ofsitock, the growih 
of wool, and t!ie produedon of pork, 
butter, cheese, &/C. Those who pro- 
duce these ar'icles at the least expense 
will ever be tlie most successful m the 
liccumulation of wealth. 

Admitting the correctness of our 
premises, it is the bounden duty of 
American farm^rs to adopt every im- 
provement within their reach — a duty 
which they owe equally to themselves, 
their children, and country. There- 
iponsibility which lests upon our rural 
populadon is one of great importance, 
arid from which none can shrink blame- 
lc:8sly. As the moitoof the age is "on- 
ward;" £0 also should be that of indi- 



viduals Each and all should work 
both indivijually and collectively, for 
the advancement of themselves and 
their professions. 

As au individual, the farmer can da 
mach towar Is the introduction ol im- 
provements in neighboihoods and com- 
munities. By a c.u'eful study, of his 
profession — the adojition of improved 
modes of culture and management of 
crops and stock — the use ol judicious 
labor-saving implements, and a wisa 
economy in all branches of husbandry 
— any farmer can arouse a laudjbla 
spirit of inquiry, which must lead to 
improvement among those engaged in 
the same Cciliirg in his immediate vi- 
cinity. But he can estabbsh s'dll mora 
in another manner. By oornmunica- 
ting the results of h's well directed 
efforts to the agricultural and county 
pre.-ses, thousand-', instead of dozens, 
would, be benefited by a knowledge of 
bis management and success. The 
iniroduciioa of agricultural books 
among- his neighbors will likeV7ise prove 
beneficial to t!ie community. 

In a collective capacity, farmers can 
exert a poweiful influence for improve- 
ment, and also promote their individual 
interests. And here let us for a moment 
consider the importance of Agricultural 
Associations, ss a means of improve- 
ment. Are not the State and County 
Societies, now m operation, advancing 
the true interests of the farmer 1 And 
if so, is it not all important ih:it these 
associations be well sustaitied, and 
others organlz'^d throughout the chVLrt- 
[ryl We think every intelligent read- 
er will answer these qufstions affirma- 
tively ; and we beg to su^rgesl that they 
hare a duty to perform in this matter. 
It may truly be snv\ of tnany farmers, 
concerning this as well as vaiious other 
subjects, which demand their attention, 
tliat 
" Thoy Imow the right, and they approte U. 

too, 
Condsnin the wrong, and still the wrony 

pursue." 

They admit the benefit of association, 
but year after year decline or neglect 



THS FAKMEK'S JOURNAL. 



57 



to become active, inteiosted rnembeis 
of the societies aiid'clubs in 'tie-ir lo- 
calities. Friends, we respi ctfully but 
plainly remark, that you are not dis- 
charging your duty in this matter — 
and beg you to con.^ider whether some 
action is not necessary. I'iie present 
is a favorable tune for exertion in the 
direction in'licateiJ. I'he annuiil ex- 
hibitions of the various associ itions are 
to be soon helJ, and your aid ana in- 
fluence would add to their iniei est and 
value. iS'o matter it you have nulliing 
to exhibit this year — go' and see what 
others have ciccorn|)liihed. Attend the 
fair of your jMjijiity society, and you 
will not fail of learning something use- 
ful while mingiing witli olhiTS of T.he 
same calling, and witnessing an exhi- 
bition of the iroducts cf thtir skill and 
labor — and do nnt forget to emol your- 
self as a regular, paying memher i^f the 
association. In this manner yiu can 
essentially ai I in piomotmg the lauda- 
ble objects in vIhw. 

Thtre are various other means of 
improvement familiar to thi^inte'ligeni 
farmer, that shouki neiiher be neghci 
ed or oveilo'ikel by tho^e who desiie 
to keep face with the prcgressive spirit 
of the age. — Gca. Farmer. 



SCIENCE AND AGRICULTUR,E. 

The iniprovemen'.s which have taken 
place in ag.icul'ure dui ing ihe last (cvv 
years, thoui^h male mainly by practical 
men, have been in a verygrtai measure 
due to the ativanees whieh tcieuce has 
mad3,anci espec ally the scientific views 
men have been Ifd to carry into every 
branch o( physical nature ; and altho' 
science may not have originated n:any 
of the disrovi ries which have taken 
place in the cultivation of the soil, still 
by investigating the causes of which 
accidental circumstances have been the 
insiruiDent in developing, a much wider 
and more judicious extent of advantage 
has been reaped. 

Take as an instance, bone manure — 
Of so little use were these valuable 
fertilizers once considered to be. thut 
^hey were alloy/ed to accumula'o iti 



large quaniiiii s, if n-jt removed at con- 
siderable expense. On being carted 
away and spread the greatest possibls 
amount of advantage was found to re- 
sult, and no little pains were taken to 
ascertain to what their fertilizing qual- 
iti'S weie due. A gteat mass ot facts 
were collected. It was found, for in- 
stance, that they did not answer on cold 
clay so Is; t'fiat Ofi some other soils ihey 
St eined to be of little service : that 
th-y were more successful in a wet 
season than in a dry ; and that thay" 
Wfie the most successful on peaty or 
sandy s.d's. Stll practice could not 
unravel the mys'.ery of their success. 
One man found, and demonsiratcd by 
absolute cspt'riment, that boiled bones 
were as usiiful as fresh — nay, others 
said that burnt b incs had an eScacy 
equal to raw. Hence, a va'ii^ty oltheo- 
rns sprang up. One set of p'liiosophers 
diclared, that to ihe phosphate of lima 
alone if, was that thcv w'ere so icrtili- 
zmg ; another, tiu.t it was due only to 
iheir niiiogtn. One I. inner claimed 
merit for the animal matter, and anoth- 
er lor the gelaiiue ; and the '^ne sought 
green bones from tlie kennels, and tha 
other procured them only fiom ihegluo 

bod'MS. 

Science came to all their rescue, and 
prevented the waste of thousands in 
abor and money. She showed that 
ammonia and [diosphoric acid are, iu 
fact, the great clemviits of success in 
turnip growing. In some soils the 
former, and in cthc.s t'^e latter was 
deficient ; and hence, slie at once aa^ 
counted for the burnt bones ansvvering 
m one locality b- tter, and for the dry 
in another BvA she went further : sho 
manifested '.he necessity for the ele- 
ments being in as slight a degree of 
fixation as possible ; that a sirsaller 
amount of viial energy should be re- 
quired in the plant to procure its ne- 
cessary food, aiid le!t this energy free, 
so to speak, '0 eJimiirite and assimiiata 
the fco.i available for its wants. 

Hence, it was ?ci'ence alone which 
showed the value of rendering bonee 
soluM-.'.bv tiealii.g them with sulpliw- 



THE FAEMEH'S JOURNAL. 



ric acid. This rendered the phosphoric 
acid more free — more soluble, so to 
speak ; and tiie same as regards the 
geialine and animal uiatteis; and thus 
the great secret of success in ike ap- 
plication ol bones was solved by ihe aid 
of science alone. To show the advant- 
ages in a national and economical point 
0-; view, we need only show the saving 
of the latter process over the old mode 
By the old mode : — £ s. d. 

Two quaneis of bcaes at say, 
, 18s. per quarter. 1 16 

Cartage, say 2 



Per acre. £1 18 

By the new mode: — £ s. d. 

Four bushels of bones at IBs. 

per quarter. 9 

Four stone of su'phuric acid, 

at Is. 2d. per stone. 4 8 

Mixing. 2 



£0 15 8 
Showing a saving- per acre, of one 

pound three shiliino-s. 

Taking M'Culloch's estimate of the 
quantity of tuinipSj in England 

at 2,000.000 acres. 

uud Scotland, at 450.000 " 



2,450,000 " 
this, at the saving alone of one pound 
three shillings per acre, will amount to 
£2,817,500. 

Nor is this all. There are few 
eases where a belter crop of lurnips will 
Tiot be obtained by vitriolized bones, 
than by any quantity of bones applied 
ill an undissolved state; and- though the 
Itenencial effects of the latter may be 
somewhat mora permanent than the 
former, still, as the objeci of green-crop 
cultivators is mainly to gain a root 
crop, and leave its consumption on the 
land, to keep it in condition, this is 
effected most admirably by the vitriol- 
ized application. 

Bat science once let in, it did not rest; 
it began its researches in order to in- 
vestigate where this valuable principle 
in turnip cultivation could be discover- 
ed in. nature, and procured aL less ex- 



pense than searching on the continent 
for the bones of men, and biingmg 
them at a great expense, from these 
distant regions. She pointed to the 
green-sand formation, as containing one 
at least, of these valuable elements,and 
showed on a map how these inexhaust- 
ible mines of feitility were a more 
prominent object on a map of England 
than were the Guano Mountcjins of 
Peru upon that of America ; and she 
soon, moreover, reasoned, that if it 
were in the green-sandstone formation, 
it weve also in the gault, and might 
be expected to be found in the moun- 
tain lime-stone, because there the or- 
ganic remains might be expected to 
contain it. And so indeed it has proved. 
The analysis of various limestones s'ives 
as much as a per-cent;ige varying from 
one half to one pe? cent; and this 
alone is a large application of the 
panieular principle required — the phos- 
phate. 

Nor has science stopped at the ap- 
plication of solvents to bones; sulphu- 
ric aoil having the tendency to charge 
the lime vvith a double portion of 
pliosphoric acid, and thus to render 
the latter more readily available for 
plants, as we before intimated ; and 
chemistry taught that the same might 
be done with other substances con- 
taining the same principle, and the 
coproliies found in several parts of the 
island, sO' hard as to be almost im- 
pregnable by the ordinary operations 
of nature, are by it macerated and ren- 
dered soluble, and filling up an hiatus 
instead of sending our ships -to foreign 
countries for bones. 

The above is one instance of what 
science ha& done for agriculture, and it 
is quite suflieient to show that we are 
indebted ta it for many and great ad- 
vantages, whatever Mr. Sandford How- 
ard or any of the disparagers of science 
may assert to tkie contrary. 

But it is not the only one. Our 
drainage works have been rendered 
almost perfect by the application of the- 
principles of physicS: Oar farms majr- 
be adv-aniageously improved by a know* 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



69 



ledge of the principles of geological 
science. Our farm-buildings may be, 
improved and benefited by atlention to 
the principles of animal physiology, and 
applying ihese principles to the rearing 
and ialtening oi stock. While a know- 
ledge of mechanics will lessen the labor, 
and reduce the expense of carrying on 
a farm, in a degree which is very con- 
Biderable. 

The application of science is more 
than ever necessary. Our soils are old 
and worn out, and have now been called 
upon to compete with the virgin soils of 
the continents of Europe and America, 
in boih corn and meat ; and, if we are 
to do this successfully, it is only by the 
greatest esertions, and by availing our- 
selves of all the appliances and means 
which science places wnhin our reach. 
— Gardeners' and Farmers' Journal. 



•Looking-Glasses for Birds. — A 
correspondent ofthe Gardener s Chron- 
icle says : 

"The following plan is perfectly 
efficacious for scaring birds from fruit 
and other produce. One of my servants 
having by chance broken a looking- 
glass, it occurred to me that the broken 
pieces, suspended by a string, so as to 
turn freely in every direction, would 
give the appearance of something mov- 
ing about, which would alarm the birds. 
I accordingly tried the plan, and found 
that no bird, not even the most fool-hardy 
of them, dare come n^ar. They had 
attacked my peas ; on suspending a 
few bits of looking-i:la3s amongst them, 
the marauders left the place. The 
tomtits attacked my seckle pears, to 
which they seem very partial. A bit 
of looking-glass suspended in front of 
the tree put a slop to the mischief, Wy 
grapes were then much damaged, be- 
fore they were ripe, by thrushes and 
starlings ; a piece of looking-glass drove 
these away, and not a grape was touch- 
ed afterwards. I had before tried many 
plans, but never found any so effectual 
as the above." 

Plow deep, and manure well. 



LARGE AND SMALL POTATOES 

Eds. Cullivalor : — I perceive by re- 
cent communications in your paper 
that although potatoes have been raised 
for more than two hundred years, it is 
stiii disputed whether large or small 
ones are the most profitable to plant 
for seed. Being myself in the daik on 
this point, I concluded to contribute 
my mite, towards the sdution of the 
problem by submitting it to the test of 
experience. 

On the 30ih of April, 1851, I plant- 
ed. on one square rod of ground in seven- 
ty-two hills, seventy-two small pota- 
toes, from the size of a hickory nut to 
that of a hen's egg, The seed mea- 
sured about two quarts, and weighed 
three and a half pounds. To plant an 
acre in this manner, would require ten 
bushels of seed. On the same day, on a 
square rod adjoining, 1 planted seven- 
ty-two largo potatoes, in seventy-two 
hills, placitiff one in each hill, v/ilhout 
cutting. The seed measured moro 
than a peck, and weighed fifteen 
pounds. 

On the 20ih of August I dug both 
patches. The product of the small po- 
tatoes was five pecks, weighing eighty- 
four pounds, which would give a yield 
.of two hundred bushels to an acre, — 
The product of the large potatoes was 
one hundred and fifty-eight pounds, 
measuring nine pecks, which would 
give three hundred and sixty bushels 
to the acre. I'he vines averaged four 
to each hill, while those of the small 
potatoes were only three. I'he vines 
from the large potatoes grew much 
faster and larger than the others, but 
in the size of the potatoes there was 
no great difference. 

Last year there was no rot amoBg 
the potatoes in this part of the country. 
The early part of the seoson was cold 
and very dry. The same kind of po- 
tatoes on the samo farms, with the 
same cultivation, are now rotting badly. 
I attribute the prevalence of the rot to 
the great amount of rain that has fal- 
len the present season. T, v. 

StjiOj Mich, Aug. 1851. 



60 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



MR. WEBSTEIVS OPINION OF THE 

IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE. 

We copy llie following from an ar- 
ticle in the Cultivator^ purporting to 
be a desciipiion of Mr. VVebsier's larm 
at Marsbfield. 'Ike article closes with 
the following quotation froia a former 
jjaper by Mr. Websier : 

"Agriculture feeds us; to a great 
extent it clothes us : withutit it we 
should not have manufactures, and we 
should not have commerce. These all 
stand together, but they stand together 
like pillars in aclusttr, and the largest 
ii agricL'lture.'' 

' Let lis remember, too,, that we live 
in a country of small firms, and free- 
hold tenements ; in a country in whicli 
snen cultivate with their ovvn hatvds^ 
their own fee sin^ple acres ; drawmg 
not only their subsistence, but their 
E.piri^ of independence and manly free- 
dom from the ground they plow. They 
are at once its owners, its cultivators, 
and its defenders, and whatever else 
may be undeivalued or overlooked, let 
ins never forgpt that the cultivation of 
the earth is the most imporiant labor of 
man. 

' Man may be civilized in some de- 
gree, without any grent progress in 
Enanufactures, and with litt'e com- 
tnorce with h;s distant neighbors. But 
without the cultivation of the earth, he 
is in all countries a savage. 

" Until he stops from the chnse and 
fixes himself in soma place, and seeks 
ai livmg from the earth, he is a barbari- 
en. When tills ge begins other arts 
follow. The larmprs, therefore, are 
the founders of civilization." 

VVc were sensibly struck with the 
fact, that many of the leading men of 
Gur country have always been practi 
cal agriculturists. Commencing wi;h 
OTir beloved Washington, we see most 
of our statesmen, Cincirmatus like, re- 
tire to the plow ; thus the late Hon. 
Silas Wright, Hon. Honry Clay, and 
Hon. Daniel Webster, each leaders of 
prominent political parties, rush to their 
«xlen.sive farms during recesses from 
|>ublio duties, and there only seem to 



exhibit their true characters as men, 
Gen. 'I'aylor wag also an agriuulturist, 
and\vheD not engaged in the publi<y 
servi<-e was always lound at home in- 
du'ging in his favorite science of agri' 
culture. 

Thanks to Leibeg and others, our 
farmers are rapidly becoming highly 
educated as a mass; their imporiancor 
as a part of the body p!)litic is being 
fairly felt, and for the luture we may 
anticipate that the rising generation of 
farmers will count among their numbers, 
fully the average of great men. Those 
who do not edufale themselves, will 
make but sorry agriculturists, for tha 
rapid application of chemistry, natural 
philosophy, mechanics, &c., to agricul- 
ture, will soon render uneducated far- 
mers inadecfuate to pursue their labors-, 
except as day laborers, Su'ih cannot 
compete against the augmented profits 
arising out of a scientific application 
of manure, labor, &c., to the purposa 
of the farm. 



PLOWING HEAVY SOILS WHEN WETv- 
Sandy or light loams which requira 
compacting, may be plowed in spring 
before they become perfectly diy and 
powdery, but cl yey soils which are 
already too reienuve of m -isture, should 
not be disturbed until faiily dry I| 
must be evident to the most casual ob- 
server, that the action of the mould 
board of any plow, must be to compress 
the soil turned by the plo.v to esactly 
the extent of the weiglit and tenacity 
of the removed portions, and as clay 13 
malleable and but slightly elastic, it will 
not swell again after being compressed, 
and one plow'ng of clayey soil when 
too wet, vvill do it more harm than can 
be remedied by twenty afier plowings 
in dry weather. 

If you have a field which is not ready 
for the plow early enough for spring 
crops, make up your mind to under- 
drain it during summer, and do nol 
sub'-soil plow it until after it has been 
under-drained. Next full have it ridged 
and back furrowed, so as to ensure its 
being rendered pulverulent by nest 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



er 



winter's frosts. 

If any field bo so sandy as to be en- 
tirely too free 'or mid summer usp,npply 
the ruller to it ntst iall, and Itave it 
levelled surfaced during winter, and it 
will be less blowey next summer. 

If your soil is inclined to lump in 
plowing, use decomposed muck or char- 
coal dutt whenever vou can, and cor- 
rect its lesture. Use tlie roller on such 
eoils before harrowing — one rolling and 
one harrowing wiil do moi« good than 
five harrowings wi'.hout the roller. Bo 
not fear that a large roller will eornpaci 
the soil to any m;.teiial depth, and if 
you walk after the roller you wi 1 sink 
in a free soil ankle deep. Light seeds 
which destroy by the sun's- heat or 
from too det p planting, like the carrot, 
parsnip, &c., should be rolled so that 
each seed may be touched in all its 
parts by the soil, and be thus prevented 
from baking. Many weeds- about 
coming ihrouLjh the Suil are destroyed 
by the roller from the breakmg of their 
crowns by the pressure downwards of 
their upright stems, and many crowns 
are freed Irom thiir roots. Soil when 
compressed on the immediate surface, 
do not harbor insects as when left un- 
rolled. — Worki?isr Farmer. 



TREATMENT OF BONES PREVIOUS 
TO USING- THEM AS MANURES. 

The necessity of adding phosphates 
to much of the soil of the middle and 
easterp states, renders all facts in rela- 
tion to bones, of interest. 

The bones of animals are composed 
of phosphoric acid at.d lime, combined 
as phosphate cf lime and gelatine — 
this latter substance durino- the decom- 
oosition of the bone, yields nitrogen 
in large quantities, wlailc the phosphate 
of lime is so slowly decomposible in the 
Roil, that it has been found nespssary 
fto grind them before being used by the 
ikrmer. 

Bones are said to be a very tasting 
Rianure ; but as all farmers who un- 
derstand their business would ptefer to 
eva.il themselves of the beneficial prop- 
♦^ties of their fertilizers as rapidly as 



the plants are capable of appropriating 
them, they would [irefera quick return 
of capital, and therefore any cheap 
method ot rendering bones m-ore activ® 
is desirable. 

The oldf st. and perhaps the best aad 
cheapest meth<)d known, is to hoil the 
bones in water under great pressure, 
and thus the mass may be rendered 
fluid while hot, and in that state per- 
mitted to ran out upon some divisor 
capable of absorbing and dividing it — 
In Fiance bonts are so- dissolved, and 
the gelatine is cast in forms and dis- 
tributed to the poor for making soup. 
A piece of t\v.9 gelatine half the size of 
an orcinary biick, when boiled with 
watir, will make three gallons of nu- 
tiitious soup. The necessary appara- 
tus is astearn boibr, strong enough to 
bear a pressure of five hundred pounds 
to the inch, wiih a safuiy valve which 
will raise and relieve the pressuie when 
ai the proper point. Such a boiler, 
capable'of holding five bushelsof bones, 
and propeilv set m biick-work, will 
cos*; §100. 

In the end of the boiler should be & 
man hole plate, wlii'^h could be readily- 
removed, and after filling the boiler 
with bones, replaced — at the opposite 
end of ihe boiler should be a cock with* 
a pipe attached, from which the solu- 
tion should be permitted to escape after 
the bones are dissolved, and as it es- 
capes and befoie cooling, it should btt 
mixed with a larger quantity of water 
lor dilution, and then further subdivided 
by admixture with earth or some other 
divisor — on top the boiler should be % 
coek for the admission of water when 
required, and if a foice-pump of suffi- 
cient strength be added, the feed of 
waicr could be re-supplied, even when 
under pressure. Part of the solution 
thus formed could be used with the hog 
feed, and in addition to its high nutri- 
tive properties, the escess of its valuo 
as manure would not be lost. Ey such 
treatment the whole value of the bones 
could be rendered available the same 
season, and thus one bushel of bone* 
could be made to give gs largo an lEa- 



62 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



intdiate leiurn, aslhree bushels ground 
and rot boiled. Boiling boii3S in an 
open vessel, and consequently without 
pressure, will noi rendr ihera maieiiall.y 
more soluble, it, is only when boilrd at 
the high temperature consequent upon 
heavy pressures, that the water is capa 
ble of acting as a solvent. 

A more recent method is to sosk the 
bones or bone-dust in diluted sulphuric 
acid : say one part acid to one hundred 
parts water — by this treatment the 
phosphate of lime contained in the 
bones is changed to a super-phosphate, 
The phosphate of lime irf,not soluble in 
water, but the super-phosphate dissolves 
readily, and is thus sooner rendered 
available for the use of r)iants. 

The action of the sulphuric acid may 
be thus understood: — 

Phosphate of lime (the principal 
component of bore?,) is composed of one 
atom of phosplioric acid, combined with 
one atom of lime. When dilute sul- 
phuric acid is added, it combines with 
half the lime, chat:ging it to sulphate 
of lime, while the remaining half of the 
lime, by having a double pro[ortion of 
phosphoric acid, becomes super-phos- 
phate of lime, and is then soluble in 
water, and consequently the mass is 
more eneroretic tban befo/e such treat- 
ment. The present low price of sul- 
phuric acid renders this treatment 
much moie economical than to use the 
borsesin their original staie. 

This super phosphate of lime is much 
used in England, and with great profit 
with their turnip crop, m many mstan- 
ces the crop being doubled by its 
mse. — Working; F'.rmcr. 



ABOUT HORSES. 

Swelled legs,j on old horses may often 
be easily removed by giving more in- 
vigorating food such as meal and oats 
ground together, and by wrapping the 
legs, with h:iy or straw bands so as to 
cause modeiTite pressure while the horse 
IS standing in the stable. Grease as it 
is termed in most cases arises from ne- 
glect and bad stable mauagenient. It 



is common to be met with in stables, 
when indolence, or bad economy, per- 
mits the horse to stand the winter thro' 
without cleaning the stables more than 
once or twice a month. It is perhaps 
more generally known by many farm- 
ers as "scratches," in truth such was 
the term we heard applied to the dis- 
ease until v' e had read of it and made 
it a study for the purpose of curing a 
fanL:y nag years since. 

Some veterinarians advise strong 
doses of medicines, with esciting or 
heating washes : but our practice has 
been contrary to any such courses, and 
we have found the disease usually give 
way to careful, cleanly treatment, viz. ^ 
washing, first with warm water and 
Castile soap, wiping dry with a wcolen 
rag and applying neals foot oil with 
the hand. 

Youatt, one of the fir.'^t writers on 
diseases of the horse, has the following 
regarding this disease and which we 
are induced to give at this time from 
having noticed many horses afTecied 
wiih it : — 

Grease is a specific inflammation of 
the skin of the heels, sometimes of the 
fore foot, but ofiener of the hinder ones. 
It is not a contagious disease, as some 
have asserted, although when it once 
appears in a stable it frequently attacks 
almost every horse in it. Bad stable 
management is the true cause of it. 

There is a peculiarity about the skin 
of the heel of the horse. In its healthy 
state there is a secretion of greasy mas- 
ter from it, m order to prevent excoria- 
lion and chapping, and the skin is soft 
and pliable. Too ofien, however, from 
bad management, the secretion of this 
greasy matter is stopped, and the skin 
of the heel becomes red, and dry, and 
scurfy. The iomt still continuing to be 
extended and flexed, cracks of the skin 
begin to appear, and the-e, if neglected, 
rapidly extend, and then becomes a 
massof fcoreness, ulceration, and fungus. 

The distance of the heel frcm the 
centre of circulation, and the position 
of the hind limbs, render the return of 
blood slow and difficult. There is also 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



@S 



more variation of lemperalure here than 
any other part of the frame. As the 
horse- stands in the closed stable, the 
heal of this part IS loo often increased 
by iis being embedded m straw. When 
t^e stably door is open, the heels are 
nearest to it, and receive first, and mosi 
powerfully, the cold current cf air. — 
When he is taken from his stable to 
work, the heels are Irequently covered 
with mire and wet, and ihey are o.f^ten- 
est and most intensely chilled by the 
long and s^low process of evaporation 
which is taking place from them. No 
one, then, can wonder at the frequency 
with which the heels are attacked by 
inflammation, and the diiSculty there 
is in subduing it. 

Much error has prevailed, and it has 
led to considt-rablei bad practice, from 
the notion of hurnora flying about the 
horse, and which, it is said, must have 
vent somewhere, and attack the heels 
as the weakest part of the frame — 
Thence arise the physicing-, and the 
Ion J course of the diuretics, which trulj/ 
weaken the animal^ and olten do irre- 
parable mischief. 

Crrease is a local complaiilt. It is 
produred priiicipally by causes that 
act locally, and it is most succe.rsfully 
treated by local applications. Diure- 
tics and purga'.ives may be useful in 
abating inflammation; but the grand 
object 13 to get rid of the inflammatory 
action which exists in the skin of the 
heel, and to heal the wounds, and rem- 
edy the mischief it has occasioned. 

The first appearance of grease is 
usually a dry and scurfy state of the 
skin of the heel, with redness, heat, and 
itchiness. The heel should be well 
but gently washed with soap and water, 
and as much of the scurf detached as is 
casilv removable. — 0/iio Farmer. 



Leached Ashes. — On good roads it 
will pay to haul leached ashfs five miles; 
they should, however, be mi.xed witli 
lime before their application, unless tlve 
soil abounds in calcareous matter. — 
Eventually, your wheat and clover 
rotation uill exhaust your l;ind, if you 
do not renovate it occasionally with 
manure or ashes, lo restore potash and 
bone earth removed in the seeds of 
wheat. 

Clover draws the earthy ineredients 
from the sub-soil for the benefit of 
wheat plants ; but the supply wilt no6 
last a century without adtquaie rtsti- 
tuiion. Beware of "clover sick" fieldu. 
— Genesee Farmer. 

Make hay while the sun shines. 



\mi 



mmi, 



Counsel to the Dyixg. — ThooS 
■Wto dye, generally turn all colors. — 
To such the following recipe may not 
be unacceptable : — To get blue. Take 
two bottles of Heidseck, seven juleps. 
a quarter of strong punchj and a great 
tieal of egg nog. 



TET every True North Carolinian throw 
J his might into the hands of our own 
I'lechanics, and by this means, with our Ag«- 
ricultural advancement, we are bound to 
become an independent people. So let the 
citizens of Edgecombe, and the neighbouring 
counties, call and examine the magnificent 
stock of 

F U R N J '1' U E E , 

which is offered for sale at F. Jj. Bond's 

Furniture Store, inTarboro', consisting ofths 
following articles, viz : 

Ladies' Marble and Mahogany Top Dres- 
sing Bureaus ; Ladies Marble Top Wash 
Stands ; Sideboards and Flain Bureaus ; Ward 
Robes and Book Cases ; Sofas and Mahogany 
Rocking Chairs; Mahogany and Walnut 
Tables ; Tete-a-tetes and Divans ; Mahogany, 
French, and Cottage Bedsteads ; Stationary 
and Portable Writing Desks ; Wood and 
Cane Seat E,ocking Chairs ; OtRce, Windsor, 
Cane and Rush Bottom Chairs ; a large as- 
sortment of cheap Bed Steads ; Wash Stands 
and Candle Stands; China Presses, various 
patterns ; also, a few Nymphs and Nuptials. 

Old Furniture and Sofas repaired and made 
to look as good as nev/. Old Bachelors ren- 
ovated in such a style as will make them 
accessible to the smiles of young ladies and 

old M B at least. Furniture kept on hand 

to suit any age or sext. 

N-ow one word to the public : What is life 
to any one, if they do not avail themselves of 
the comforts and conveniences that are offered 
for sale at F. L. BOND'S Ware Room .' An- 
«xaminatioa by the public is- earnestly 
solicited. F. L. B- 

Tarbora', N. C.;^ 



54 



THE FARMER'S J^OUENAL. 



THE FARMERS JOURNAL. 

The Subscriber will publish in the town of 
Bath, Beaufort county, N. C, a monthly 
paper under the above name^ This paper will 
be devoted exclusively to the setting forth of 
the various popular improvements in Agricul- 
ture, Horticulture, and the househjld arts. — 
That there is a demand for such a paper in 
our State, and more especially in the Eastern 
part, no one v/ili deny. 

As evidence of tlie good effects of such pa- 
pers, we have only to look at the rapid strides 
which have been made in fs,nr!ing in those 
gtates of our Union v/here they exist. But 
this great advancement made in the science of 
Agriculture in other St ites, is b\it little known 
to the farmers of North-Carolina. There are 
several scientific, as well as practical farmers, 
among us; but for the want of a medium 
through which to communicate thoir agricul- 
tural knowledge, it is sti 1 confined to a small 
compass. Our good old State is far behind 
the ao-e in agricultural," as well as every other 
improvement. As a people, we afe greatly 
wanting in State pride, which is highly im- 
portant to place us in that position which we 
ought to occupy, in New- York, Maryland, 
Georgia, and several other States, annual 
Fairs are held for exhibiting the products of 
each, vvhicli clearly ha.ve a tendency to great 
improvements. Nature has thrown no iniped- 
ifnent in the way to prevent our agricultural 
advancement ; but slio has lavishly heaped 
upon us her inestimable gifts. We have 
among us a sudicicncy of both organic and 
inorganic matter to enrich every acre of our 
worn-out land, and our soil and climate can- 
not be surpassed in adaptation to the produc- 
tion of the various plants. 

All that is now needed to elevate our State 
to the position which she should occupy 
among her sisters, is energy and enterprise on 
the part of her citizens. There must be a stop 
put to this greattide of emmigration from our 
State; fo:, daily, many of our most talented 
and energetic young men seek a new home in 
the West ; t!iey say that they cannot get tlieir 
consent to remain among a people possessed 
of so little enterprise as we are. The sub- 
scriber has not been engaged in far iiing many 
years, but he feels justified in saying ihat he 
began upon the right plan — that of deep 
ploughing, heavy manuring, and thorough 
draining. He has visited some good fiirms in 
our State, as well as iji ethers, purely tor 
agricultural instruction ; and for some time 
past ho has been engaged in useful agricul- 
tural reading, to prepare himself for the post 
which he nov»r propr ses to occupy. 

The subscriber feels confident that this un- 
dertaking shall not fail from a want of energy 
on his part. He is resolved to use every effort 
to obtain a large subscription list, and for this 
purpose he v.'ill canvass several counties with- 
in the next two months. 

Ke hopes tiiat by showing such a determi- 



nation to do something for the present degra«> 
ded condition of the iarme'r, to be sustained, 
arid receive a liberal patronage from a gener* 
ous public. 

Each number will contain one or more 
articles from the pen of the Editor, and several 
communications from oiir bfist farmers; and 
the remainder will be filled v/ith articles s&» 
lected from other Agricultural Journals, such 
as may be deemed by the Editor applicable to 
ourclimate and soil. 

In conclusion, the subscriber asks the aid of 
every man in tire prosecution of this great 
'work ; for he is sure that th.cre will be a good 
bargain made by the farmers. Tlie advance- 
ment of farming should excite an interest in 
the breast of every man ; for upon the success 
of the farmer greatly depends that of every 
trade and profession. 

Terms — One copy, ^1; six copies, $5^ 
twelve copies, ^10; thirty copies, «,20 — inva- 
riably in advance. 

JOHN F. TOMPKINS, 

13ATn, N.C., April 1, 1852. 



GPLICS & EICIIAEBSOI^, 

ARE PEEPAKED TO EXECUTE ALL ORDERS 0¥ 

iS(D©is 4 ^m ramf Mis 

WITH NEATNESS AND DESPATCH. 

GOLD&BORO', N. C. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Fag^ 
33 



Communication by " New Hanover," 

Communication by "Beaufort," 

Lime, 

Manures on Drained and Uildrained 

lands, 
Manure for Fruit Trres, 
To the Farmer's of North Carolina, 
Our Recent Visit, 
Husbanding Manures for the Farm, 
A National Agvicultur-.l Convention, 
The Swamp Lands in Beaufort, 
Agricultural Improvement in Edgecombe, 53 
Bones as a Manure, 53 

A Thing which every Fatmer should 

Know, 
Good Corn Crop, 
An Enquiry, 

Improvement — Duty of Farmers, 
Science and Agriculture, 
Looking Glasses for birds. 
Large and Small Potatoes, 
Mr. Webster's opinions of the Iraporfr- 

ance of Agriculture, 
Ploughing Heavy Soils when Wet, 
Treatment of Bo!:,s previous to using 

them as Manures, 
About Horses, 
Leached Ashcsj 



55 

55 
55 
56 
C7 
59 
59 

60 

m 

61 

Si 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



YOL. 1. 


BATH, N. C, JUNE, 1852. 


NO. 3. 




JOH]^ F. TOMPKINS, M. D., Editor and Proprietor. 





Edgecombe County Agricultural 
Society. 

A report of the Coviniittee on a rotation 
•of crops. — We lay before our readers 
in tliis mimber, the very valuable report 
on a proper relation of crops for the 
county of Edgecombe, which was read 
before the last meeting of the society, 
by E,. E. McNair, Esq., Chairman of 
the Committee to report upon that 
subject. The report speaks for itself 
and needs no comment from us, and we 
therefore only suggest that this rotation 
would be especially suitable to the 
Eastern part of our State, as the pro- 
ducts are generally the same as in this 
one county. We hope to be able fre- 
quently to lay before our readers inter- 
esting communications from the enter- 
prising farmers of Edgecombe, which 
will add much to the value of our paper; 
and we would here remark that while we 
are using every effort to elevate the Ag- 
ricultural interest of our State, we think 
it as little as any farmer could do, to go 
among his neighbors and urge them to 
send in their dollar for the Journal, and 
enter upon the great race of advance- 
Snent in farming in the State : 

Nature herself has established an or- 



der in which different crops shall suc- 
ceed each other. 

Our pjne forests present a familiar 
instance of this. Men are now living 
who can remember when the pine had 
almost exclusive possession of our ex"- 
tensive inland plains, entirely free from 
under growth, which at present dense 
thickets of hickory, oak, dogwood, &Ci. 
&c., are fast usurping, or rather taking 
legitimate possession of the soil under 
nature's law of succession. So th6 
prairies of the West, and savannahs of 
the East, are becoming covered with, 
timber ; and it is well known that when 
the original timber has been burnt off 
or removed from land m any way, and 
the land left uncultivated, other kinds 
of growth different from the original 
will take or share possession of the soil. 
In these and many other ways nature 
indicates her law of rotation. Yet, how- 
ever apparent the necessity of such a 
law may now be to us, still it is as- 
serted by some writers, that it was not 
till the middle of the last century that 
the principle was applied to the ad*- 
vancement of agriculture. 

Among others,ArihurYoung and the 
great Chemist, Davy, advocated the 
adoption of a rotation of crops. But no 
matter when or by whom it may have 
been introduced, the wonderful benefits 
which followed its adoption in Europe 
must ever mark the period as a new 
era in agricultural history. Indeed^ 



66 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



with the developments of Chemistry 
and Geology before us, \vc are author- 
ized to say that the law of relation is m 
Nature a law of abs&lute necessity; ibat 
the question ia really between asucrces- 
sion of different kinds of crops, and 
absolute barrenness. I< is well known- 
that all productive soils contain only 
some 15 or 16 elements as food for plants 
— such as- the inorganic earthy elements 
of lime, potash, soda, magnesia, phos- 
phorus, manganese,iron,.stilphury mliea, 
alumina, chlorine and iodine, in union 
with the organic elements of carbon.oxy- 
gen, hydrogen, and nitrogen — of- which 
the last four are moatiy supplied by the 
atmosphere. Now although every plant 
we cultivate requires a portion of near- 
ly all these elements fori-ts perfect pro- 
duction, yet difterent plants require 
them in different proportions — one more 
lime, another more potash, a third more 
matrnesia, &c.; while others may require 
chiefly the organic elements, oxygen, 
hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon,suppl'ied 
by the atmosphere. It is evident then 
that plants of such different appetites 
and habits can very properly succeed 
each other, because one crop leaves in 
the soil the food necessary to support 
that which ought to succeed it. Thus, 
if Tobacco, for instance, has been cul- 
tivated on a soil till all its elementary 
food has been taken therefrom, we must 
either not cultivate the same soil at all, 
or put on it some crop whose food the 
Tobacco has left behind, for no other 
crop requiring the same constituents can 
grow there, unless we replace the ex- 
hausted elemems. As to those plants, 
whose opposite characteristics, appetites 
and habits, may be best adapted to 
succeed each other in a rotation, we 
malce the following general suggestions: 

1. That all broad-leaved plants, 
whether tap-rooted or not, draw a larger 
portion of their nutrimsnt from the at- 
mosphere than narrow leaved ones. 

2. Broad-leaved tap-rooted plants, 
injure the surface soil less than others 
not so, because while the broad leaves 
feed on the atmosphere, the tap-root 
pastures deep in the siibsoiil. 



3. Plants valuable for their roots, as 
the beet, turnip, potatoe, &c.. especiaily 
those having broad leaves, feed mostly 
on the subsoil and atmospheie. 

4. The narrow leaved valuable graina 
and grasses derive their nutriment al- 
most entirely from the surface soil, ex- 
cept those which have tap roots; cons»- 
quently both these exhaust the soil of 
its valuable constituents more rapidly 
than those of different habits and or- 
ganization. We naturally conclude 
therefore that plants so different in their 
characteristics may succeed each other 
with advantage. We accordingly find 
them succeeding each oiher in a rota- 
tion with the greatest benefit in the best 
agricultural countries in the world. 
Still there is an apparent incongruity 
between theory and practice in regard 
to improving the soil with green crops, 
for which it is difficult to find a consis- 
tent explanation. It IS this: We know 
that the grasses, peas, clover, and roots 
are generally esteemed ameliorating 
crops, or but slightly injurious, evei 
when 'aken off the soil, and whei 
ploughed under are decidedly benefi 
cial. Now the tables of analyses shov 
that these very crops, which we deem 
so ameliorating to the soil, contain a 
larger proportion of valuable earthy salts 
than wheat, oats and some other val- 
uable crops really more exhausting. 

The following tables show in pounds 
what amount of phosphate, lime, mag- 
nesia, potash and soda, certain crops 
remove from 1 acre of land: 



2 
WHEAT. 1 -%. 

S J 


6 


C3 
fcX) 


1 
o 

PL. 


O 
ID 


Grain, 23^6 19,31 


1,38 


5,70 


12,17 


0,76 


Stw.&Chff,67,r2 12,23 


7,50 


7,00 


27,06 


1,38 


Total. 90,G8 31p4 


8,88 


12,70 


39,23 


2,14 


OATS. 










Grain. 20,16 15,20 


2,20 


3,80 


9,20 


0,90 


Stw.&ChfT. 30,24 7,10 


9,80 


5,30 


27,30 


2,70 


Total. 50,40 22,30 


12,00 


9,10 


36,50 


3,60 


FLAX. 










Seed, 11,20 12,90 


2,80 


4,40 


11,40 


0^ 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAli. 



67 



Susks. 
Straw. 



10,08 1,70 17,20 
44,80 11,00 31,10 



1,C0 
6,10 



16,60 
31,50 



0,00 
5,40 



Total, 66,08 25,60 51,10 12,10 59,50 6,00 

BEANS. 

Seed, 15,75 23,67 3,63 5,03 22,63 6,68 

Stxaw, 28,00 12,16 33,58 11,24 89,17 2,69 

Total, 43,75 35,83 37,21 16,27 111,80 9,37 



With US the preceding crops are 
considered the most exhausting we can 
put on our lands. White Indian corn, 
cotton and sweet potatoes are deemed 
much less so, and the various field peas, 
red clover,Insh potatoes. and son:ie other 
roots and grasses, actually ameliorating; 
yet the following tables would lead to a 
different conclusion : 



Iitd'n. Corn a 



S ^ 



Kernels, 
iBt'ks.,cobs 


Hh Oh >-5 f^ 

47,20 22,19 0,10 1,51 

, 37,28 71,32 13,67 3,78 


P-i U2 

14,95 14,12 
53,87 48,30 


Total, 


84,48 93,51 13,77 5,29 


68,82 62,42 


Cotton. 

Seed, 12,00 20,95 13,76 0,00 
Wool, 5,00 0,61 0,85 0,16 
St'sB'kL'vs 51,00 70,10 49,55 7,60 

Total, 68,00 91,66 64,16 7,82 


6,96 (?) 

1,55 (?) 

60,22 (?) 

70,73 


Sweet Potato, 

Tubers, 180,00 41,00 0,66 098 

L'vs., stems, I0,oo 6,24 1,84 ooo 


94,89 9,85 
4,o4 2,o7 


Total, 


190,00 48,14 2,50 o,93 


98,93 11,92 


Irish Potato. 

Tubers I2o,oo 37,71 6,21 15,84 157,25 5,58 

Tops, 7,50 Io,28 22,9o 9,57 37,82 21,95 


Total, 


127,50 47,99 29,11 25,41 I95,o7 27,53 


Pea. 

Seed, 
Sti-aw, 


3,200 32,13 5,16 8,2o 
5,600 16,23 184,49 23,11 


35,85 6,82 
15,89 0,00 


Total, 


8,800 48,41 189,65 31,31 


51,74 6,82 


EedCl'ver4o,oo 5I,o9 43,21 9,75 


64,31 36i79 


Meadow "l 

Hay of 5 195435730 74,oo I9,7o 
gf ses m xd j 
1st 2d crops. 


273,3o e^So 



The foregoing estimates on products 
are unusually large per acre. One half 
the amount of crops given would suit the 
meridian of most places in the U. S., 



but a large amount of product is neces- 
sary to make many constituents appre- 
ciable in quantity. Now these valuable 
earths and salts can only come from the 
soil. If then these are taken ofT the 
soil <ve would suppose they would in- 
jure it more than those of wheat, oats, 
beans and flax, since the tables show 
that corn, cotton, roots and grasses gen- 
erally remove a heavier amount of val- 
uable constituents than the former val- 
uable crops. Yet the first four crops 
we deem land killers, while all the last 
form our staple productions ; and many 
of these last crops are often plowed 
into the soil as a manure crop with fine 
effect. Yet according to theory they 
would return to the soil very little else 
than the earthy sails which they had 
taken from it. Hovv then are these 
crops less injurious or ameliorating, 
and especially, how is it, that, in a rota- 
tion, some of them actually improve and 
prepare the soil for a subsequent crop 
of valuable grain? The best reasons 
we can assign for these phenomena are, 
that broad-leaved plants draw a larger 
portion of their nutriment from the at- 
mosphere than those of narrow leaves, 
principally carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, 
& oxygen, and probably much more olh* 
er gases and acids than is usually sup- 
posed, and when such plants are tap, or 
deep-rooted, they prey on the subffoil 
almost exclusively, so th?.t the surface 
soil remains untaxed often improved by 
shading, and by the decay of a mass of 
vegetation derived almost from the sub- 
soil and atmosphere ; for such deep 
rooted plants and grasses, wheihei re- 
moved from the surface or not, leave in 
the soil down to the sub-soil a mass of 
roots equal, it is said, 10 the quantity of 
product on the .«urface. However all 
this may be, it is certain that practical 
farmers push their lands to the highest 
state of improvement by a judicious 
rotation oTthebe very crops, and under 
some systems do not manure oftener 
than once in five, sometimes only once 
in twelve years, the farm producing 
heavily during the whole time. 

By simple manuring we prevent es- 



THE' FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



haustion, by actually replacing the 
©lernenls in the soiL To do this is a 
herculean task, even on a much less ex- 
lent of sutfase- than we usually culii- 
Yate, especially for our cheap staples 
which tax the soil so heavily: and those 
who^e great energy has accomplished 
it, ivithout a system of rotation, findlhey 
have done little more than put on the 
soil one year, what the crop takes ofl 
the next, — thus skiving themselves a 
yearly task to perform on a large scale, 
which in most cases finds liule or no 
permanence in the soil. 

The object of manuring is to put 
land in good condition. That of a ro 
tation is to keep it so, so that manuring 
at long intervals may insure its pro- 
duciiveness at the It-ast possible cost 
In manuring land with proper mate- 
rials, a jiuciiGious rotation connected 
with the process, must lessen the ex- 
pense- and labor, give greater perma- 
nence to the improvement, more variety 
and profit to production, and faeilitate 
agricultural operations in many ways of 
which we have but a slight conception. 
Under such a process land may and no 
doubt does assume the peculiarities of 
some old diing-hilla we know of, which 
absolu-tely lefuse <o be killed offby the 
severest treatment, which with one or 
two years rest will resume ail their 
original power of production.. Why is 
this so ? Having long been the reeep- 
tacle of the washings and refuse of a 
homestead, — the soil no doubt contains 
the earthy elements which enable it to 
attract from the atmosphere all those 
eonstituents necessary to renew its pro- 
ductive power. May not a similar thing 
take place in land properly maniiired 
for a rotation of crops. When the first 
crop of a rotatioa is takmg fromi the 
soil a portion of elements for its own 
developement,. why may not the re- 
maining elements be abstracting from 
the atmosphere others appropriate for 
the crops to succeed it ? And when the 
second is growing, why may not the 
atmosphere pay a similar tribute to the 
soil for the third, and so on till in due 
tome the soi' i« nctpnllv nrenared for a 



return of the first crop of the rotation 1' 
If this be not ihe actual, it is not aa 
improbable process, in a soil properly 
manured for a rotation — and we can- 
easily give certainty to the operation by 
manuiing a smaller extent of surface at 
longtr intervals of time. 

A plausible objeciioa is sometimes- 
urged against a rotation of crops, that 
the same force could not under any ro- 
tation manure land enough to employ 
them in cultivation during one crop 
season, not even the smallest amount of 
surfiice usually cultivated here. This 
is no doubt true,, for there is hardly anv 
country where ihe farmer will attempt 
to cultivate a larger, if so large a sur- 
face as we do in Edgecombe ; from 35' 
to 40 acres in corn or its proportion in 
corn and cotton, besides small grain and 
potatoes, is but common. Of course it 
must be badly executed. If then any 
system would have the tfFect of i edu- 
cing the extent of surface in tillage, 
and thereby give proper. ionale improve- 
ment to its quality, it would be a for- 
tunate result ; but vhe actual reduction 
would not be really as great as it would 
seem. It would extend chiefly to those 
crops which we usually keep under the 
plow during the crop season, while 
almost any rotation would actually ex- 
tend the surface of all those which we- 
may axW permanent crops, such as 
small grains,, grasses, &c. Thus, while ' 
we have corn on one field of a rotation 
and cotton on another, it does not pre- 
vent having other crops on one or all 
the other fields. Thus a judicious- 
rotation prevents capital vested in land 
from lying idle,, since its object is to 
keep the largest extent of surface pro- 
ducing something. In fact, a larger 
extent of surface is productive under a 
judicious rotation, than when one-half 
the land lies at rest. 

But we are called upon to say what 
rotation we think the best for Edge- 
combe? Our present system is no ro- 
tation at all. It is the common two- 
shift system — that is. cultivate one-half 
the farm this year while the other halfi 
rests in weeds or is grazed to death. — 



TBE FARMEE^S JOURNAL. 



m 



To manure wiih any effect under ibis 
system, we must do so with a frequency 
and extent alarming to many men but 
those of the greatest energy, and the 
task must be repeated every year or two 
to prevent going backwards.. Without 
attempting to present the merits and 
defects of different systems of rolalions, 
we will simply give our preference for 
a six field rotation as the shortest which 
ought lobe adopted to include cotton 
or tobacco ; but as almost every farm 
in Edgecombe will have for years ta 
come more or less new land brought in 
to cultivation, cotton or tobacco oou;ld 
be put on an extra field or included in 
the rotation at the discretion of the 
planic. 

In the present condition of our 
farms it is apparent that any system 
must begin with a thorough manuring; 
and if this could be done under the 
direction of a competent Chemisi, hun- 
dreds of dollars would be saved to the 
hard workintj farmer which he now 
looses by injudicious manuring. 

Let us suppose then a farm of ISO 
acres divided into fields of thirty acres 
each.(uot by fenGes,but lines,)presuming 
that no field will produce more than 
four hundred pounds of cotton or 2 1-2 
barrels of corn per acre without manure, 
while many of them will produce less. 
It is believed that the average expense 
of cultivating land m corn, in a manaer 
not absolutely barbarous, is not less 
than five dollars an acre. It is probable 
then that such a farm wouM not pay 
the expense of cuhivatioQ, and no doubt 
it has its prototypes even in Edgecombe. 
Having divided our farm into six Selds 
of 30 acres each, we will proceed in the 
following manner : — The first year is 
necessarily one of expense, which we 
must begin by raising or buying majnure 
enough for two fi;elds of our rotation; 
liming or marling as many of them as 
possible, whether in or out of cultiva- 
tion, for lime and marl: is all the better 
for being on the land one or two yeai's 
before it is cultivated. Thus the 1st 
jear : 

Ho. 1, manure for corn,. 



No. 2, manure for cotton. 

No. 3, pea& and plaster broad cast. 

Nos. 4. 5, and 6, cultivate in any 
crop we choose, or under some precess 
of improvement. 

In Summer sow peas and plaster ori 
No. 1, on laying by corn. In the Fall 
or Winter, lime the peas of no 1, for 
wheat, and lime cotton stubble of no. 2,, 
for corn nest Spring, using ashes and 
salt ad libitum all the time. 2nd year :; 

No. 1, in wheat, with clover or pea&. 

No. 2, limed for corn oa eoStors 
stubble. 

No. 3, manure for cotton on psag; 
and lime. 

No. 4, peas and plaster, a&hea ad 
libitum. 

Nos. 5, and 6-, at the mercy e-f t\\& 
farmer. 

Sow peas at the last plowing of corn^ 
and plaster ibem before half grown. 3d 
year : 

No. 1. put in clover. 

No. 2, lime pea stubble for wheat 
and clover. 

No. 3, lime cotton stubble for corn^ 
with pens brond-cast. 

No. 4, manure on peas stubble for 
cotton. 

No. 5, broad cast in peas, with plaster. 

No. 6, use as we please,and so on. 

Continue this or some similar process- 
according to the judgement of the farm- 
er with every field in rotation through) 
the whole six years, when the course 
will commence again at no. 1. on the^ 
seventh year. Of course, lime, salt^ 
ashes, marl, shells, (fce., will be used 
at discretion, whenever attainable. 
We are conviiieed that heavy doses of 
lime in any form are unnecessary, and 
that from twenty to forty bushels, or its 
equivalent in marl or shells half burnt,, 
at interval's of from two to &ix years, is- 
preferable ; although, sometimes more- 
may be advantageously used andoften- 
er. We append a table of a six year& 
rotation, illustrating cur conception of 
the subject as connected with our stapleSj. 
and Without too wide a departure fromi 
our preconceived habits and notions. 
In practice it may be toe severe for moati 



70 



THE FARMER'S JOUHNaL. 



land, although we have tried to give 
many reliefs from stubble crops and 
rest. We think it defective in not hav- 
ing a longer routine of other grasses than 
clover and peas, for it was not intended 
to include meadow lands proper in the 
system. We trust it will induce abler 
men to give the subject their attention 



ject unknown in our practical husband* 
ry. If the pea could be substitnted 
for clover, our farmers could no doubt 
establish a system cheaper and far less 
complex than the one proposed. Th6 
main thing is to begin sotne plan, and 
practice and experience will soon give 
a better one. 



who may give practical effect to a sub- 

SIX FIELD OR SIX YEAR ROTATION. 

Put Lime or Marl and Ashes ichenever convenient, on any field of the swt, 
"whether in or out of cultivation. 

1 2 3 4 5 6 

Years — ^ ^-^ — ' '■■ 



1 . Manure and 
Corn, Peas 
and plaster 
last plowing 


nr ^ Peas & Plaster 
Manure and t • j ■ i.i 
r^ t.A. ^ Limed in the 
Cotton. -p ,, 


Crop or rest 
in weeds. 


Crop or 
r'stin wd's 


Crop or 
rest in 
weeds. 


'**• Lime and 
wheat in 
fall with clo- 
ver. 


Lime and p , 

Corn, Peas Manure and r>^ ' + Any or no 

1 ^ ., Plaster X 

and Cotton. t • ;i Crop. 

Plaster. ^""^^^ ^ 


Any of 
no Crop. 


vi Lim€ <fe Corn . Peas and 
E'€st in Wheat and i by spring, Manure and Plaster 
Clover. Clover Peas tfe Plas- Cotton. Limed, 
ter summer 


Any OP 
no Crop. 


4. Lime & elo- j . tr • 1 
v'r pl'w'd in Rest in Wheat and p '^ -, ' Manure & 
for wh't, e'rn Clover. Clover, Plnaf r Cotton, 
or potatoes. ' : 


Peas and 
Plaster 
Limed. 


'S- Oats or 
wheat with 
vclover or 
Peas. 


Oats, wheat 

Cotton or Hest in 
potatoes or Clover. 
Clover. 


Wheat and 
Clover. 


Lime and 

corn, peas 

and 

Plaster. 


Manure 

and 
Cotton. 



Any crop 
or none. 



Potatoes, 
corn or 
Wheat. 



Wheat, corn 
or oats. 



Rest in 
clover. 



Wheat & 
clover. 



Lime and 
corn,pea« 

and 
Plaster. 



LIME. 

[Contmued from P«ge 46.] 

THE USE OF LIME IN AGRICULTURE. 

Action of Lime on organic substances 
which contain nitrogen — production of 
nitric acid and ammonid. 
I have hitherto, for the sake of sim- 
plicity, treated onl}) of the action, wheth- 
er immediate or remote, which is 
exercised by lime upon organic matter 
svipposed to contain no nitrogen. Its 
action upon compounds in which nitro- 



gen exists, is no less beautiful and 
simple, perhaps even more intelligibia 
and more obviously useful to vegeta- 
tion. 

There are several well-known facts 
which it is here of importance to con- 
sider — 

1. That the black vegetable matter 
of the soil always contains nitrogen. — 
Even that which is most inert retains 
a sensible proportion of it. It exists in 
dry peat to the amount of about two per 
cent, of its weight, and still clings t-® 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



71 



the other elements of the organic mat- 
ter, even after it has undergone those 
prolonged changes by which it is finally 
converted into coal. Since nitrogen, 
therefore, is so important an element 
in all vegetable food, and so necessary 
in some form or other to the healthy 
grov^lh and maturity of plants, it must 
be of consequence to awaken this ele- 
ment of decaying vegetable matter, 
when it is lying dormant, and to cause 
it to assume a form m which it can 
enter into and become useful to our 
cultivated plants. 

2. That if vegetable matter of any 
kind be heated with slaked lime, the 
whole of the nitrogen it may contain,in 
whatever state oi combination it may 
previously exist, will be given off in 
the form of ammonia. The same takes 
place still more easily if a quantity of 
caustic potash or caustic soda be mixed 
with the caustic lime. Though it has 
not as yet been proved by direct expe- 
riment, yet I consider it to be exceed- 
ingly probable that what takes place 
quickly in our laboratories, at a com- 
paratively high temperature, may take 
place more slowly also in the soil, and 
at the ordinary temperature of the at- 
mosphere. 

3. That when animal and vegetable 
substances are mixed with earth, lime, 
and other alkaline matters, in the 
so called nitre beds,* ammonia and 
nitric acid are both produced — the 
quantity of nitrogen contained in the 
weight of these compounds extracted, 
being much greater than was originally 
present in the animal and vegetable 
matter employed (Dumas.) Under the 
influence of alkaline substances, there- 
fore, even toheri not in a caustic staie,\.h.Q 
decay of animal and vegetable matter 
in the presence of air and moisture, 
causes some of the nitrogen of the at- 
mosphere to become fixed in the soil 
in the form of ammonia or of nitric 



* The nitre beds of the continent of Europe 
are in reality large compost heaps, which are 
turned over and washed once or twice a year. 
The washings, when boiled down, yield salt- 



! acid. What takes place on the con- 
tined area of a nitric bed, happens with- 
out doubt in our lime composts, and 
may take place to some extent also in 
the wider area of a well-limed and well 
manured Seid. 

In the action of alkalies in the nitre 
bed, disposing to the production of nitric 
acid,we observe the same kind of agency 
as we have already attributed to lime, 
in regard to the more abundant ele- 
ments which exist in the vegetable 
matter of the soil. It gently persuades 
all the elements — nitrogen and carbon 
alike — to unite with the oxygen of the 
air and with that of water, and thus 
ultimately to form acid compounds with 
which it may itself combine. 

The action of lime upon such organic 
matters containing nitrogen as usually 
exist in the soil, may, therefore, be 
briefly stated as follows : 

1. These substances, like all other 
organic matter, undergo, in moist air — 
and, therefore, in the soil — a spontaneous 
decomposition, the general result of 
which is, the produciion of ammonia, 
and of an acid substance with which the 
ammonia may combine. This change 
is precisely analogous to that which 
takes place in such substances as starch 
and vegetable fibre, which contain no 
nitrogen. In each case, one portion 
of the elements of the organic substance, 
unites with oxygen to produce an acid, 
the other poition with hydrogen to 
form one or more compounds possessed 
of alkaline or different properties. 
Thus: 

Vegetable matter produces with oxy- 
gen, caibonic, ulmic, and other acids ; 
with hydrogen, marsh gas or other car- 
bureted hydrogens. Animal matter 
produces with oxygen, carbonic, nitric^ 
ulmic, and other acids ; with hydrogen, 
ammonia. 

If the ammonia happen to be pro- 
duced in larger relative quantity than 
the acids wiih which it is to combinp, 
or if the carbonic be the only acid with 
which it has the opportunity of uniiing,. 
a portion of it may escape into the air. 
This rarely happens, however, in the 



72 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



soil — the absorbent properties of the 
earthy and other raatiers of which the 
soil consists being in most cases sufli- 
cient to retain the ammonia, till it can 
be made available to the purposes of 
vegetable life. 

When caustic lime is added to a soil 
in which ammonia exists in this state 
ot combination with acid matter, it 
seizes upon the acid and sets the ammo- 
nia free. This it does with compora- 
tive slowness, however — for it does not 
at once come in contact with the whole 
of the ammoniacle matter. It does so 
by degrees, therefore, so as to store up 
the ammonia in the pores of the soil (ill 
ihe roots of plants can reach it, or till 
the ammonia can itself undergo a further 
change by which its nitrogen may be 
zendered more mixed. 

Carbonate of lime, on the oiherhand, 
still more slowly persuades the ammo- 
nia to leave the acid substances (ulmic, 
nitric, &c.) with wh'ch it is combined, 
and, yielding to it in return its own 
carbonic acid, enables it in the state of 
soluble carbonate of ammonia to become 
more immediately useful to vegeta- 
tion. 

2. But in undergoing this spontaneous 
decay, even substances containing ni- 
trogen reach at length a point at which 
decomposition appears to stop — an inert 
condition in which, though nitrogen be 
present in them as it is in peat, they 
cease sensibly to give it ofl' in such a 
form or quantity as to be capable of 
ministering to vegetable growth. Here 
caustic lime steps in more quick!y,and 
mild lime by slower degrees, to promote 
the further decay. It induces tho car- 
bonaceous matter to take oxygrn from 
the air and from water, and to form 
acids, and the nitiogen to unite with 
the hydrogen of the water for the pro- 
duction of aminouia — thus lielping for- 
ward the organic matter in its natural 
course of decay, and enab.ing it to fuliil 
its destined purposes in referenco- to 
vegetable life. 

3. But the ammonia which is thus 
disengaged in the soil by decaying 
©rganic matter, though not immediately 



worked up, so to speak, by living plants, 
is not permitted to escape in any large 
quantity into the air. The soil, as I 
have already stated,is usually absorbent 
enough to retain it in its pores for an 
indtfinite period of time. And as in 
nature, and upon the earth's surface, 
the elements of matter are rarely per- 
mitted to remain in a state of repose, 
the ammonia, though retained appa- 
rently inactive m the soil, is yet slowly 
uniting with a portion of the surround- 
ing oxygen,* and forming nitric acid. 
When no other base is present, this 
nitric acid, as it is produced, unites 
with some of the ammonia itself, which 
still remains, forming nitnile of ammo- 
nia ; but if soda, or potash, or lime, be 
preaeut within its reach, it unites with 
them in preference, and forms nitrate 
of soda, niirale of potash, or nitrate of 
lime- 

]3ut lime, if present, is not an inact- 
ive spectator, so to speak, of this slow 
oxidation of ammonia. On the contrary, 
it promotes this final change, and, by 
being ready to unite with the nitric 
acid its it forms, increases and accele- 
rates its production, at the expense of 
the ammonia which it had previously 
been instrumental in evolving. 

4. One other important action of 
lime, by which the same compounds of 
nitrogen are produced in the soil, may 
in this place be most properly noticed. 
It is a chemical law of apparently ex- 
tensive application, that, when one ele- 
mentary substance is undergoing a 
direct chemical union with a second in 
the presence of a third substance, a 
tendency is imparted to the third to 
unite also with one or with both of the 
other two, although in the same circum- 
Ptancos it would not unite with either, 
if present alone. Thus, when the car- 
bonaceous matter of the soil is under- 



* Nitric acid consists of nitrogen and oxygen. 
Water consists of hydrogen and oxygen — 
Ammonia consists of nitrogen and hydrogen. 
Wlien ammonia combines with, or is oxidised 
by the oxygen of the atmosphere, its hydrogen, 
forms water, while its nitrogen produces nitris 
acid. 



THE FAEMER'S JOURNAL. 



73 



going oxidation in the air — ihat is, 
combining with the oxygen of the at- 
mosphere — it imparts a tendency to the 
nitrogen also of the air to unite with 
oxygen, which when mixed with that 
gas alone* it has no known disposition 
to do. I'he result of ihis is the produc- 
tion of a small, and always a variable, 
proportion of nitric acid during the 
decomposition in the soil of organic 
matter, which itself contains no ni- 
trogen. 

Again : it i? an efjnally remarkable 
chemical law that elementary bodies 
which refuse to combine, however long 
we may keep them together m a state 
of mixture, will yet unite readily when 
presented to earh other in what is called 
by chemists the nascent state — that is. 
at the moment when one or the other 
of them is produced or is separated 
from a previous slate of combination. 

Thus when the organic matter of the 
soil decomposes water in the presence 
of atmospheric air, its oarbon unites 
with ihe greater part of ihe oxygen and 
hydrogen which are set at liberty, and 
at the same lime with more or hss of 
the oxygen of the atmosphere — but at 
the same instant the nitrogen of the 
atmosphere, which is everywhere pres- 
ent, seizes a portion of the hydrogen of 
the water, ani forms ammonia. Thus 
a variable, and in any one limited spot, 
a minute, but over the entire surface of 
the globe, a laige quantity of ammonia 
is produced during the oxidation even 
of the purely carbonaceous portion of 
the organic matter of the soil. 

Now in proportion as the presence 
of lime promotes this decay of vegetable 
and other organic matter in the soil — 
in the same proportion does it promote 
the p'oduction of ammonia and nitric 
acid, at the expense of the free nitrogen 
of the atmosphere, andi this may be re- 
garded as one of the valuable and con- 
stant purposes served by the presence 
of calcareous matter in the soil. 

How ihe chemical changes produced ly 



Lime upon organic matter directly 

henefii x^gctaliou. 

The reader may not inquire how all 
these inteiesling chemical changes ia 
the organic matter, which attend upon 
'.he presence of lime in the soil, are 
directly useful to vegetation, and yefe 
ii may be useful shortly to answer the 
question. 

1. Lime combines with the ac'd sub- 
stances aire ady existing in the soil, and 
thus promotes the decomposition of 
vegetable matter which those acid sub- 
stances arrest The further decompo- 
sitions which ensue are attended at 
every step ^'y the production either of 
gaseous compounds — such as carbcnid 
acid and light carbureited hydrogen* — 
which are more or les* abundantly ab- 
sorbed by the roots and leaves of plants, 
and thus help to feed them — or of acid 
and other compounds, soluble in water, 
which, ent'iing by the roots, bear into 
the circulation cf the plant not only 
organic food, but that supplv of lime 
also which healthy plants require. 

2. The changes it induces upon sab- 
stances in which nitrogen is present, 
are still more obviously useful to vege- 
tation. It sets ammonia free from the 
compounds in which it exists already 
formed, and promotes its slow eonver-- 
sion into nitric acid, by which the 
nitrogen is rendered more fixed in the 
soil. It disposes the nitrogen of more 
or less inert organic matter, to assume 
the forms of ammonia and nitric acid, 
in which states expeiien&e has long; 
shown that this element is directly 
favorable to the growth of plants. — - 
And— 

3. It influences, in an unknown de- 
gree, the nitrogen of the atmosphere to 
become fixed in lat-ger proportion in the 
soil, in the forms of nitric acid and 
ammonia, than would otherwise be the 
case ; and tbis it does both by the 
greater amount of decay or oxidation 
which it brings about in a given time,, 
and by the kind of compounds which,. 



'The atmosphere consisting, as the rea.der | * Light carburetted hydrogen or marsh gaa 
ijcijll re.cqU.ect,. 9f ly.trogen and oxygea. j consLsts of carbouaad hydrogeru 



74 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



under its influence, the organic matter 
is persuaded to form. I'he amount of 
nitrogenous food placed within reach of 
plants by this agency of lime wiil vary 
with the climate, with the nature of 
the soil, with its condition as to drain- 
age, and with the more or less liberal 
and skillful manner in which it is 
farmed. 

Why Lime should be kept near the sur- 
face. 

The considerations presented in the 
preceding sections suofgpst important 
reasons why lime should be kept near 
the surface of the soil, since — 

1. The action of lime upon organic 
matter is almost nothing in the absence 
«r air and moisture. If the lime sink, 
therefore, beyond the constant reach of 
fresh air, its efficacy is in a great degree 
lost. 

2. But the agency of the light and 
heat of the sun, though I have not 
hitherto specially insisted upon their 
action, are scarcely less necessary to 
ihe full experience of the benefits which 
lime is capable of conferring. 'I'he 
light of the sun accelerates nearly all 
the chemical decompositions that take 
place in the soil, while some it appears 
especially to promote. The w.*^rmth of 
the sun's rays may penetrate to some 
depth, but their light can only act upon 
the immediate surface of the soil. — 
Hence the skillful agriculturist will 
endeavor, if possible, to keep some of 
his lime at least upon the very surface 
of his arable land. Perhaps this in- 
flTience of light might even be adduced 
as an argument in favor of the frequent 
application of lime in small doses, as a 
means of keeping a portion of it always 
within reach of the sun's rays ; and 
this more especially on grass lands, to 
which mechanical means can with diffi- 
oulty be applied for the purpose of 
blunging again to the surface the lime 
that has sunk. 

There are, at the same time, good 
reasons also why a portion of the lime 
ehould be diffused through the body of 
ihe soil, both for the purpose of com- 
feinijog- with organic acids already ex- 



isting there, and with the view of act- 
ing upon certain inorganic or mineral 
substances, which are either decidedly 
injurious, or, by the action of lime, may 
be rendered more wholesome to vese- 
tation. 

In order that this diflusion may be 
effected, and especially that lime may 
not be unnecessarily wasted where 
pains are taken by mechanical means 
to keep it near the surface, an efficienl 
system of under-drainage should bo 
carefully kept up. Wh^re the ruins 
that fall are allowed to flow off the 
surface of the land, they wash mora 
lime away the more carefully it is kept 
among the upper soil ; but where a free 
outlet is afforded to the waters b<^neaih, 
they carry the lime with them as they 
sink towards the sub-soil, and may have 
been robbed again of the greater part 
of it before they escape into the drains. 
Thus, on drained lands the rains that 
fall aid lime in producing its beneficial 
eflects, while in undrained land they 
in a greater or less degree counteract 
it. 
Action of Lime upon ihe inorganic or 

mineral matter of the soil. 

I have hitherto spoken only of the 
action of lime upon the purely organic 
part of the soil — that which contains 
only carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and 
nitrogen. But its operation in regard 
to the inorganic substances contained 
in the soil is no less important. 

1. The decaying vegetable viatter in 
the stems, roots, and leaves of plants, 
which form the so-called humus of the 
soil, contain a large proportion of the 
inorganic matter which was neoesfary 
to their existence in the living state. 
As they decompose, this inorganic mat- 
ter is liberated. By promoting this de- 
composition, therefore, lime sets fre« 
this mineral matter, and provides at 
once abundant organic and inorganie 
food to the growing plant. This result 
of the action of lime is no less important 
in reference to its fertilizing quality 
than that by which it causes the pro- 
duction of those numerous changes in 
the purely organic matter of the soil 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



75 



to which I have already adverted. 

If the vegetable matter decay rapidly, 
it will supply in abundance all the 
materials, both organic and inorganic, 
■which new races of plants require to 
form their entire substance. If it be 
in an inert state, or decompose slowly, 
the food it contains remains locked up 
and comparatively useless to vegetation. 
In quickening the decay of tnis inert 
or slo-.vly df;composing matter, it is 
easy to see, therefore, how lime should 
render the land more fertile, and should 
do so more sensibly where vegetable 
matter is more abundant. 

2. The mineral and rocky fragments 
in the soil are acted upon in a similar 
manner. 

Among the earthy constituents of 
soils there often exist fragments uf fel- 
spar and other minerals derived from 
the granitic and trap rocks, as well as 
portions of the slaty and other beds 
from which the soils have been formed, 
and which, as they crumble down, yield 
more and more of those inorganic sub- 
stances on which plants live. 

The decomposition of these minerals 
and rocks proceeds more or less rapidly 
under the conjoined action of the oxy- 
gen, the carbonic acid, and the moisture 
of the atmosphere. But the presence 
of lime promotes this decompositijn, 
and the consequent liberation of the 
inorganic substances which the rocks 
contain. 

The silicates of potash and soda are 
among the most important compounds 
which these mineral and rocky frag- 
ments contain. These silicaieSj after 
being healed to redness with quick- 
lime, readily yield a portion of their 
potash or soda to water poured upon 
the mixture. The same result follows, 
but more slowly, when, without being 
heated, the silicates and the lime are 
mixed together into a paste with water, 
and left for a length of time at the 
ordinary temptrature of the atmosphere. 
It IS reasonable, therefore, to suppose 
that, in the soil of our fields, a similar 
decomposition will slowly take place 
when quicklime is mixed with it. It 



will take place,, also, though still more 
slowly, when lime is added to it in the 
lorm of carbonate. 

By some the liberation of potash and 
soda in this way is supposed to be the 
mostimportant action exercised by lims 
in rendering the land more productive. 
With this extreme opinion I do not 
agree, though it must be conceded, I 
think, that in numerous instances a 
certain amount of benefit must follow 
from the chemical action it is thus fitted 
to exercise. 

I have spoken of lime as liberating- 
the inorganic constituents of the decay- 
ing vegetable matter of the soil. The 
stalks of the grasses and the straw of 
our grain-bearing plants, also contain 
silicates of potash and soda, which lime 
sets free in hastening the decomposition 
of the vegetable matter in which they 
form a part. Besides liberating, it fur- 
ther decomposes these silicates, as it 
does those of the minerals in the soil;^ 
and sets their potash and soda free to 
perform those important functions they 
are known to exercise in reference to 
the growth of plants. I am inclined 
to cnnsider this part of the action of 
lime as of nearly equal importance to 
vegetation, in many instances, with 
that which it exeic.ises upon the mineral 
silicates. 

While the potash or soda is set Ueo. 
in a soluble state, the lime unites with 
a portion of silica, forming a silicate of 
lime, of which traces are to be met with 
in nearly all soils. This silicate, again, 
is slowly decomposed by the agency of 
the carbonic acid of the atmosphere and 
of the soil as I have already explained 
when speaking of this compound as one 
of the causes of the known iertility of 
soils formed from the decay of trap 
rocks. 

3. Potash and soda exist sometimes 
in considerable quantity, in our stifT 
clay soils, in combination with the silica, 
and alumina, of which they chiefly 
consist. From their extreme tenacity, 
the air is in a great measure excluded 
from these soils, and hence chemicaj 
decomposition proceeds in them very 



7'6 



THE FAKMER-'S JOURNAL. 



slowly. The addilioa of lime alters 
their physical character, and, by making 
ithem more open, admits the air, and 
thus promotes its decomposing action 
«pon them. But it acts chemically 
also, in the same way as it does upon 
the Silicates already spol(<en of, and thus 
compels thera to give up more freely 
to the roots of plants those mineral 
substances by whicii their growth is to 
he made more luxuriant. 
Action of Lime on sails of iron, mag- 
nesia, aluviina, a)ui soda, when con- 
tained in the soil. 

1. Salts of Iron. — Lime, either in 
iJhe mild or in the caustic state, posses- 
tses the property of decomposing the 
.•sulphate and other saline compounds 
cf iron, which especially abound m 
moon'sh and peaty soils, and in many 
localities so saturate the sub soil, ns to 
make it destructive to the roots of 
plants. Sprengel mentions a case in 
which the first year's clover always 
.grew i^ell. while in the second year it 
always died awny. This, upon exami- 
nation, was found to be owing to the 
ferr'aginous nature of the sub-soil,vvhick 
"Caused the death of the plants as soon 
■as the roots begin to enter into H. 

When land is rendered unproductive 
5)y the presence of salts of iron, a dres- 
sing with lime will briag the land into 
-a wholesome state without other aid 
ihan those of the drain and the sub-soil 
plow. If sulphate of iron be the cause 
■of the evil, the lime will combine with 
the acid and form gypsum, (sulphate of 
lime.) while t\ifi first oxide o( iron which 
is set ixee will, by exposure to the air, 
be converted into the ■second or red ox- 
ide, in which state this metal is no long- 
■er hurtful ts vegetation. 

The drain and the sub-soil plow are 
■laiseful auxiliaries to the lime in lessen- 
ing the injurious efiec's of the com 
pounds of iron, because they allow the 
rains to descend and gradually lo wash 
^way the noxious matter which has 
-accumulated in the under soil — because 
they permit the descending water to 
•carry with it portions of the lime in a 
sta.te ol solution^ and thus to spread its 



good effects through the whole soii-^ 
and because they admit successive sup- 
plies of air as deep as the bottom of the 
drait.s, by which, while the action of 
the liaie is promoted, those other good 
efTeets also are produced which the 
oxygen of the atmosphere can alone ac- 
complish. In fact, unless an outlet for 
the surface water be thu^s provided 
beneath, by which the lime may be 
enabled to descend, and the rains to 
wash away slov\ly the noxious sub- 
stances from the sub soil, even the ad- 
dition of a copious dose of lime will 
only produce a temporary improve- 
ment. 

2. Salts of mGgnesia and ahimina, 
— Lime decomposes also the sulphates 
of magnesia and of alumina, both of 
which, but especially the former, are 
occasionally found in the soil in too 
large proportions, and, being very solu- 
ble salts, are liable to be taken up by 
tlie roots in such quantity as to be hurt- 
ful to growing plants. With the sul- 
phuric acid of these salts the lime forms 
gypsum, as it does with the acid of 
sulphate of iron when this salt is present 
in a soil to which it is added ; besides 
removing the evil effects of these very 
soluble sulphates, therefore, it exercises 
the beneficial action which gypsum is 
known to exhibit upon many of our 
cultivated crops. 

Alumina has the property of combi- 
ning readily with many vegetable acids, 
and in the clay soils exercises a constant 
influence — though more feeble in de- 
gree than that of lime — in persuading 
organic matter lo those forms of decay 
in which acid compouuds are more 
abundantly produced. Hence, clay 
soils almost always contain a portion 
of alsimina in combination with organic 
matter. These organic compounds are 
decomposed by lime, and, by the more 
energetic action of this substance, their 
constituents are sooner made available 
to the wants of new races of plants. 

3 , Commen salt and sulphate of soda. 
— I shall bring >under your notice oidy 
one other, but a highly important, de- 
composing actioRj which Jime exer>cLses 



THE FEx\MEIl'S J'OURNAla. 



n 



in soils thai abound m vegetable matter. 
In the presence of decaying organic 
substances, the carbonate of lime is 
capable of slowly decomposingcommon 
salt, producing carbonate of soda and 
chloride of calcium. It exercises also 
a similar decomposing effect even upon 
the sulphate of soda, and according to 
Berthollet,* instances of carbonate of 
sodaf are observed on the surface of 
the soil, wherever carbonate of lime and 
common salt are in contact with each oth- 
er. If we consider that along all our 
coasts, common salt may be said to 
abound in the soil, being yearly sprin- 
kled over it by the salt sea winds, we 
may safely conclude, I think, that the 
decomposition now explained must 
take place extensively in all those 
parts of our island which are so situa- 
ted, if lime in any of its forms either 
exists naturally or has been artificially 
added to the land. The same must be 
the case also in those districts where 
salt springs occur, and generally over 
the new red-sandstone formation, in 
which sea-salt more especially occurs 
And if we farther consider the im- 
portant purposes which the carbonate 
of soda thus produced may serve in re- 
ference to vecretation— that it may dis- 
solve vegetable matter and carry it into 
the roo's — that it may form soluble 
silicates, and thus supply the necessary 
silicious matter to the stems of th« 
grasses and other plants — and that ri- 
sing, as it naturally does, to the surface 
of the soil, it there, in the presence of 
vegetable matter, provokes to the form- 
ation of nitrates, so wholesome to vege- 
table life — we may regard the decom- 
posing action of lime by which the 
carbonate of soda is produced from 
common salt, as in many localities fully 
eqiial in importance to that by which it 
liberates alkaline .^natter from the min- 
eral silicates, or from those which exist 
in the parts of plants. 



* Damas, Traite de Chimie, ii. p. 334. 

f Of Trona or Matron which is what is 
«alled a sesq ui-carbonate of soda — containino- 
•one-half more of carbonic add than the com- 
mo» soda of the ^liops. 



Of the exhausting effects of Lime. 

The theory of the action of lime, as 
above explained, shows cleaily how i^ 
comes to be exhausting. 

Several important facts, in regard to 
what may be called thehistorical action 
of lime, are familiar to practical men. 
Th-us — 

X. When lime is applied to the land 
for the first time, it produces a remark- 
ably fertilizing efTect. 

2. This effect continues for many 
years, the land yielding frequent crops 
of corn, or long years of rich pasture, 
without any addition of manure, 

3. New doses of lime renew its fertil- 
ity again as it begins to flng^ but each 
successive dose must be larger than the 
lormer to produce an equal effect. 

4. But at last the crops begin to fail 
beyond the power of lime to restore 
them : new additions of lime produce 
no sensible effect , and thus the use of 
lime IS sometimes given up as a waste 
of money m one district, while the prac- 
tice is vigorously prosecuted in another. 

"An overdose of mavl," says Lord 
Karnes, " produces for a time large 
crops, but at last renders the soil inca- 
pable of bearing either corn or grass, of 
which there are many examples." 

In the district of the Isere in France, 
a tract of country, which produced in 
its natural state no grain but rye, and 
yielded only three returns of the seed, 
grew wheat readily when marled, and 
gave eight returns for the seed. Eight 
returns of wheat instead of three re- 
turns of rye ! But, after forty years 
marling, it yields now only four returns 
of wheat. It continues to grow the 
more valuable grain, but the crops are 
only one half their original bulk. 

The same i'r) true of lime in all its 
forms. And when land is brought into 
this condition,even rich manure scarely 
succeeds, after years of carefully-resto- 
rative treatment, in bringing the soil 
back again to its former productive 
condition. 

Hence the proverb, which has obtain- 
ed a place in almost every Europeaoa 
language — Lime enriches the fathers 



T8 



THE FARMEE'S JOURNAL. 



and impoverishes the sons. 

Two questions naturally arise in re- 
ference to this result: — 

How does lime cause the land to 
become exbausted? 

Is this a necessary consequence of the 
use of lime, and ought it therefore to 
he forbidden or discontinued ? 

How hime exhausts the land. 

Lime acts in several ways so as ulti- 
mately to lead to this vesuU. Thus — 

1, As the org:anic matter decays more 
rapidly, the mineral substances which 
exist in it are also liberated in Jarger 
proportion than if the land had not 
been limed, and are thus brought into 
a condition in which they can be more 
abundantly removed fiom the soil by 
the agency of natural causes. 

2. The same is true of the soluble 
substances contained in the mineral 
and rocky fragments which are mixed 
with the soil. Whatever amount of ac- 
tion lime may exercise in liberating 
potash, soda, magnesia, silica, sulphuric 
acid, or phosphoric acid from these 
fragments, it will to that extent make 
these substances more easily and quick 
I}'- removable from the soil. 

But as the absolute quantity of pot- 
ash, soda, &(!., in all our soils is really 
enormous, though the proportion com- 
pared with their other constituents is 
small, it does not at first appear how 
the mere removal of a certain part of 
these substances should have a very 
serious effect upon the general fertility 
of any piece of land. Still it is not 
difficult to comprehend one way, in 
which the liberation of potash and oth- 
er valuable matters from this source 
may by the action of hme be for a tune 
rendered large, and may afterwards, 
for another period, be very greatly di- 
minished. 

All the mineral fragments are of an 
appreciable size. The lime acts upon 
the exterior of these fragments, and 
liberates, we shall suppose, the alkaline 
matter. But the surface of the frag- 
ment does not on that account neces- 
sarily crumble down and expose a fresh 
aoe to the action of the lime. On the 



contrary, the old surface may adhere, 
surrounding the fragment with a coatr 
ing through which the lime cannot act 
and may thus prevent the further liber- 
ation of alkaline or other soluble sub- 
stances, though these may still be 
abundant in the interior of the mineral 
mass. 

By an action of this kind the surfao© 
of all stones — except limestones-which 
lie immediately beneath a layer of peat, 
seem to have the same uniform gray 
silicious covering, so that the real na- 
ture of the stones can only be discover- 
ed by breaking them. The acid matter 
of the peat dissolves their iron fiom rod 
sandstones, the alumina from hard clay 
stones; the lime, magnesia, and alkaline 
matter from fragments of whin-stone, 
and even upon flint it acts in a similar 
manner, leaving the same insoluble 
silicious coating upon all. It is so with 
the fragments of rock upon which lime 
acts in the soil ; and it is easy, there- 
fore, to understand how any liberation 
of alkaline or other matter from such 
fragments as may at one time be large^ 
and yet may afterwards diminish in a 
very sens;ble degree. 

3. Now these various substances, or- 
ganic and inorganic, being decomposed, 
and their constituents set free more 
abundantly and more rapidly, the roots 
of plants obtain them more readily and 
in greater abundance ; and thus the 
plants themselves grow more rapidij 
and to a larger s ze, and perfect all 
their parts more completely. In other 
words, larger crofs are grown, and by 
those larger crops much more matter 
of every kind is carried off' the soil. 

Bui besides the nitrogen, carbon,an(3 
other so-called organic elements which 
the plant draws from the soil, it takes 
up at least eight or nine mineral sub- 
stances in greater or less proportion. — 
These are sulphur, phosphorus, chlorine, 
potash, soda, lime, magnesia, and the 
oxides of iron and manganese. The 
larger the crop the greater the quantity 
of each of these which is carried off; 
and therefore, in so far as lime is the 
means of causing larger crops to growj 



THE FARMER'S JOUENAL. 



79 



in like proportion must it be the means 
of causing the land to be more rapidly 
leshausted of all these substances. — 
The more rapid exhaustion of limed 
land, therefore, is caused mainly by the 
production and removal of a larger 
amount of produce in a given time. 

Other considerations, however, have 
also a direct bearing upon this subject. 
In our climate, the rains which fall 
upon the soil cannot £ail to wash solu- 
ble matter out of it. When the land 
is thoroughly drained and sub soiled, 
fio that the r&in sinks where it falls, and 
makes its way through nearly three feet 
of soil befoxe it ■escapes, it is a question 
whether, in ordinary circumstances, it 
will carry away much more than i*. 
brings with it from the air. The vege- 
table matter of the soil tends to retain 
the soluble saline matter, and to keep 
it from being washed away^ and this 
is another of the useful purposes on ac- 
count of which its presence, in consider- 
able proportion,becomes desirable where 
we wish to maintain a soil in a state 
of high fertility. 

But the lime, as we have seen, di- 
nrinishes the prap©rtion of vegetable 
matter in the soil, and at the same time 
increases the amount of soluble matter 
set free : that is to say, it brings more 
valuable matter into a soluble condition, 
while it renders the soil less capable of 
retaining it. The rains,therefore,ought 
to have more power over highly and 
frequently limed land in washing out 
the valuable kinds of food for plants 
which it contains. They may in fact 
be one of the natural instruments by 
which the exhausting of limed land is 
immediately produced. 
Doa Lime lucessarily exhaust the land 1 

To this question the considerations 
above presented enable us to answer in 
the negative. We have already laid 
down, as a principle in practical agri- 
eulture.that, in our elimate,the addition 
of Buccsssive doses of lime at certain 
intervals is necessary to the highest 
fertility of the land. It is the part of 
enlightened practice so to treat the land 
t-esides, that this addition of lime shall 



not prove an instrument of final ex- 
haustion. The exhaustion produced by 
the use of lime has always been observ- 
ed in places where either successive 
doses of lime had been lawi on as the 
sole application to ihe land, or where 
too scanty supplies of other manure 
had been given -to the .fields. 

Now, where lime only is given to the 
land, it is most unreasonable to expect 
its fertility to be maintained. Besides 
the purely organic matter carried off, 
the nine mineral substances .mentioned 
in the preceding section are yearly 
removed from the soil by the crops, and 
only one of these, the lime, is returned 
in the form of an artificial application. 
Can anything else but exhaustion fol- 
low from such practice ? 

Again: the crops are greatly larger 
than before, and, therefore, the quantity 
of &\i these suhstances cai'ried off must 
be much greater than usual. A more 
speedy exhaustion, therefore, must be 
expected than if only the ordinary poor 
crops had been reaped. 

Nor do small manurlngs of other 
kinds suffice to prevent this exhaustion. 
If an ordinary manuring be applied 
while an extraordinary cirop, or a series 
of extraordinary crops, is carried off 
the land, exhaustion must follow as rer- 
tainly,though more slovvly,as if nothing 
but lime had been laid on. 

To keep land in good condition, we 
must, as a general rule, add as much of 
everything as we carry off. Let this 
be done upon limed land, and no ex- 
haustion need be feared. If the land 
yield us large crops, we ought as liber- 
ally to manure it. We cannot take out 
of the land constantly, and add nothing, 
without impoverishing it ; but we can 
add enough to supply all we carry off, 
and yet farm our land profitably. 

This is now understood by our best 
practical men, and in Grermany is ex- 
pressed by the rhyme — 

The use of marl without manure 
Will only make the farmer poor. 

Ought the %se of Livie ever to be forbid- 
den^ or ought it to be continued, resu- 
med, and reguloied ? 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL; 



The function of lime in the soil, and 
the cause of the exhaustion produced 
by it, being both clearly understood, 
the proper course to be adopted, both 
by landlord and by tenant, in regard to 
the use ol it, becomes plain and intel- 
ligible also. 

1. Ought the use of Jjime ever to be 
forbidden ? It would be improper to 
decide ibis so absolutely in the negative, 
as to say that a proprietor should have 
ao discretion in any case to forbid a bad 
tenant from continuing to add lime to 
the utter exhaustion ot his land. It is 
belter, however, to oive such a tenant 
notice to quit, than by enforcing a regu- 
lation which is inconsistent with high 
farming (o put it out of the power of a 
good husbandman to bring hii land into 
the highest state of culuvation. 

Seeing how often, during a former 
g-eneration. uninstructed tenants ruined 
their land by constant liming — and 
being themselves ignorant of the way 
in which Lme operated, and unable 
therefore to see any remedy, except in 
prohibiting the use of lirae altogether — 
both proprietors and ugei.ts have in- 
troduced clauses into their agreements, 
by which the farmers over entire estates 
have been forbidden for the future to 
add a particle of lime to their land. — 
The ancient illustration of forbidding 
the use of fire, because of ihe dangerous 
burnings it sometimes caused, applies 
to this as well as to many other cases. 
It is profitable to apply lime : it is 
not necessarily exhausting — why then 
should it be forbidden 1 

2. Ought the use of Lime io be resumedl 
—In some districts, in consequence of 
the total absence of any good effect from 
further applications, the use of lime has 
been voluntarily abandoned by practical 
U'jen. Ought it in such districts to be 
again brought into use 1 

As a general rule it ought. And the 
reasons are plain to the reader of the 
preceding pages. Theory says that a 
certain small proportion of hme is ne- 
cessary to every ^lant, as part of its 
natural 'food, and this it ought to be 
able to collect easily and rapidl3^ Ex- 



perience says, that land otherwise well 
treated ceases to produce good crop*/ 
unless a certain quantity of lime bo 
added to it along with the manures 
usually applied. No district,therefore, 
to which lime or marl has in former 
years been found to be of service, can 
long be maintained in a high state of 
fertility, unless calcareous matter in 
some form be mixed with it from time 
to time. But, in special cases, it maj 
not be proper at once to resume ihe ap- 
plication of lime. So much may have 
been incorporated with the soil m past 
ycar,«. that it may be necessary, and 
therefore inexpedient, to recommence 
the practice of liming or marling for 
years to come. The past history of the 
farm, however, or a chemical analysis 
of the soil, can alone determine where 
such special cases exist. 

3. Ought the a^yplicaiion of lime io be 
regvlated? — Were nur tenacity once 
adequately instructed, neither restric- 
tions as to crops nor regulations as to 
lime would be required. This proper 
slate of education among the agricul- 
tural classes of the country, constitutes 
that Utopian condition lo which we look 
forward as the highway to that great 
and rapid improvement which British 
agriculiure is hereafter destined to at- 
tain. But while education is spread- 
ing, restrictions and regulations cannot 
in most cases be avoided.. 

In regard to lime, therefore, the erro- 
neous idea must be dispelled from the 
minds of all parties, that lime and ma- 
nure, in the ordinary sense of the term, 
aie identical. Clauses vill then disap- 
pear from agreements— -such as that 
tenants shall lime or manure once with- 
in so many years — that for every ton of 
hay or straw sold off the farm, so much 
manure or lime shall be brought back, 
and so on. Clauses such as these are 
not only evidences of defective knoTv- 
ledge, but they encourage and hasten 
on the very evils which protracted and 
injudicious liming is sure in the end to 
produce. 

In like manner, tenants who lime 
once and manu,re once in ^^ seven years' 



THE FARMER'S JOUENAL. 



81 



rotation, will no longer speak of hav- 
ing manured twice in seven years, and 
thus having done well by their land — 
bat the functions of each application 
being rightly understood, the manuring 
will be prosecmed more, while the li- 
ming may not be attended to less. 

The addition of lime to land in or- 
dinary condition should be regulated so 
that for every ton of lime so many — 
perhaps ten at least — of farnryard ma- 
nure should be added. Or, in the ab- 
sence of farm yard manure an equiva- 
lent of some other analogous manure — 
guano, rape-cake, bones, &c., should be 
substituted. The condition of the land 
of course, its richnes.s or poverty — its 
condition as to previous liming, &c., 
must betaken into consideration in de- 
termining the relative proportions in 
which the lime and manure are to be ! 
added. And in districts where yearly 
holdings exist, all compensation for un- 
exhaui^ied lime should be contingent 
upon the application also of the due 
proportion of enriching manure. 



FARMER'S JOURNAL. 

BATH, H. C, JVNE, 1852. 



Balky Horses. 

The practice of an English friend, 
who has cured numbers of them, is to 
hitch a steady horse or team behind 
them and pull them backwards. It 
should be done on smooth fair ground. 
The l-efractory beast will not relish 
such treatment, and will soon be glad 
to go forward at the word of command. 
The most stubborn will yield and be 
perfectly true and tractable after three 
of four such tutorings. The afore- 
mentioned friend, tells me he never 
failed to conquer in a single instance, 
and that too without the stroke of a 
vrhip or otherwise maltreating the 
animal. 

T. E. W. 

Rural Ncic Yorker. '\ 



To Fatten Poultry. — Shut them 
up in the dark — give them a little light 
two or three times a day, long enough 
to fill themselves with food, and then 
shut them up quite dark, and keep them 
ten or twelve days, at farthest. 



Reasons why EdgecoKibe lias mad® 
such Advancement in Farming. 

Most or indeed all of our readers 
have heard of the great improvement 
made in farming in this county within 
the last few years, and how this im- 
provement has been made seems to have 
become a subject of general interest 
and enquiry. We shall in this article 
attempt to account for what to many 
aeems yet to be quite a mystery, judg- 
ing from the frequency of our being 
questioned as to the reason of Edge- 
combe being so far ahead of other 
counties in our State in Agricultural: 
advaneeuieut. If we mistake not^ it 
wns in this county that the cultivation 
of that great cvrse to our State, turpen- 
tine, was first introduced among us, and^ 
as it h'4d out such flattering in- 
ducements to the farmer to leave the 
plow-share in ihe field, and repair to 
the woods, it is but reasonable to sup- 
pose, that every one who had land 
adapted to the cultivation of the stuff", 
went into it with his whole soul. And 
as it only proved with them as with 
those who have followed their example^ 
to be only a temporary resource, they 
were first forced from its pernicious 
influence. When this resource failed, 
they then, through necessity, turned 
their attention to the cultivation of 
their farms and began to look around 
to discover the advantages which were 
in their midst, but hitherto unob- 
served. I'o every one who is at all 
familiar with the history ot our univer- 
sity, it is a well known fact, that Edge- 
combe has had more young men to 



62 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



graduate than any other county in the 
State, and then to become farmers. — 
These young men aided by the expe- 
nence of their fathers, who were gener- 
ally good farmers of the old school, 
Boon brought science to bear upon their 
farming operations and developed those 
resources which are now making such 
a noise in the Agricultural community. 
They were taught those branches of 
science which had a great tendency to 
bring to their view the many pleasures 
and enjoyments properly belonging to 
the life of the farmer. They plainly 
(Saw that the man who knew noihmgof 
the process of vegetation from the time 
ihe seed germinated in the land up to 
the ripening of the fruit, had never 
looked upon the beauties of his profes- 
sion. Impressed with such thoughts 
as these, they were induced to ask them- 
selves the question — if the barren sands 
of Massachusetts would be made fertile, 
why not the lands of Edgecombe? They 
alearly saw that by the application of 
proper principles to farming there, that 
ii was bound to become a great source 
of profit. Thus we see that education 
ie indispensably necessary to much ad- 
vancement in farming, that we should 
at once abandon the idea that we are 
■elf-wise, and know everything which 
a man of our business should know. — 
Within two years past there has been 
double the quantify of manure applied 
to the lands of this county, to what had 
been applied for two years previous. 
The quantity of manure made by those 
farmers, would astonish one who had 
not a correct idea of what could be done 
in the way of manuring. The farm- 
ers there now, make thousands of loads, 
where they once made hundreds ; and 
the effect of this improvement in farm- 



ing is to be seen, and is felt by every 
man in the county. The county seat, 
Tarboro', has undergone a great change 
for the better m a few years ; the mer- 
chant, lawyer, physician, and mechanic, 
are all well satisfied with their homes, 
and emigration has ceased to flow from 
that county. Not a single man has left it 
in two years time. It is a fact, that 
men from other counties are anxious to 
buy farms there for their sons, not thai 
they believe the land naturally bettei 
than in other counties, but for the reas- 
on that there is in that county a spirit 
of enterprise which is not to be seen in 
any other in the State. There is not a 
citizen in Edgecombe that does not feel 
proud of his home, indeed "their hearts 
swell with gladness whenever they name 
her, they love and cherish, and are evei 
ready to defend her." Why may not 
our wholeState present this appearance) 
We say let every farmer arouse at once, 
and look to his interests, let him edu- 
cate his son whom he designs to enter 
upon the duties of that profession which 
is the most honorable in the world, and 
which is more closely blended with the 
various branches of science than any 
other. What our farmers have here- 
tofore regarded as economy, is really 
extravagance in the extreme ; just think 
of a man cultivating land that will not 
produce corn enough to feed the horsa 
while cultivating it. We say again, 
let every farmer who takes The Journal 
make it his business to obtain six sub- 
scribers and send us at once; we feel 
that we are speaking to North Caroli- 
nians, and that our appeal will ba 
listened to. We are now devoting our 
whole time and whole talents we have 
to the farming interest of our State, 
and we pboukl like to iaow at once, if 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



83 



It is to be so, that those whose interest 
we advocate, are resolved to let us sink. 
We are really in earnest about this 
matter, and should like to know our 
fate in time to save ourself. 



Guano. 

A farmer in our May number wishes 
to know our views in relation to this 
far-famed fertilizer, and also asks some 
que."?tions in relation to its general and 
special use. 

The Guano is a manure, which but a 
short lime since was imported into Eng- 
land, for the improvement of the soil, 
which for some time had been used by 
the cuitivaior of the soil in Peru. This 
manure is the excrements of the sea 
birds, and, like that produced by all 
animals feeding on animal food, is very 
powerful in its nature. It is highly 
volatile for the reason that it is compo- 
sed in part of carbonate of ammonia, 
which can easily be detected m its smell, 
and cannot of course be permanent in its 
effect upon land. Our personal expe- 
rience in tiie use of Guano is but little 
indeed ; the experiment was so very 
imperfectly made, that we do not feel 
warranted in bringing it before our 
readers. We know of an experiment 
made with Guano and barn-yard ma- 
nure : there was one acre manured •vaiih 
each, applied to corn, and the result 
proved very clearly that for the first 
year it was equal in point of value to 
barn-yard manure. What we mean by 
this is when we take into consideration 
the cost of hauling and spreading the 
barn-yard manure. The Guano in this 
case was applied in the drill, put in very 
deep^ at the rate of two hundred pounds 
to the acre. We are of opinion that 
the beat manner of applying it to corn 



is this ; when you are ready to plow 
your corn the first time, take a small 
plow and run the bar next to the corn 
about six inches from it,letiing the plow 
in to the depth of six inches. Then ap- 
ply in this furrow beside each hill of 
corn a table spoonful of Guano, after 
being mixed with plaster at the rate of 
25 lbs. of the plaster to 100 lbs. of 
Guano; spread it along about six inch- 
es in length, and then let another plov7 
follow on and cover the Guano. By 
applyinjT it in this way, it will take 
about 60 lbs. to the acre ; and it seems 
to us that it might be so applied and 
rendered a great adjunct to other ma- 
nures. From its powerful qualities it 
is but reasonable to suppose that if 
suffered to come immediately in contact 
with the corn roots while young, il 
would certainly injure them. Being 
as there are so many organic and inor- 
ganic elements in every direction 
around us, it seexns like folly for the 
farmer in this countiy to go from home 
to obtain those elements required for 
the giowth of plants. The stiff clay 
land is best adapted for the application 
of Guano, for the reason that it will 
better retain its volatile properties than 
open and porous soils. We are of opin- 
ion that the small grain crops are those 
to which Guano c^n be applied with 
ncost profif, for the reason that after 
being applied it is not disturbed by 
frequent plowing and hoeing and must 
remain in the soil longer for the nour- 
ishment of the crop. In the Noriheru 
and middle States this manure is ex- 
tensively used in the cultivation of the 
wheat and clover crop, and would no 
doubt pay a better profit to the farmer 
in this State when applied to the.«;e and 
the oat crop than to corn. The Guano 



S4 



TEIE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



is becoming fast adulterated, and our 
farmers sliould be cautious of wbom 
they buy ; indeed it seems to us that 
in those cities where the manure is sold, 
there should be an inspector to detect 
the ffreat adulteration made in it. 



Our thanks to the Press. 

We cannot refrain at this time from 
expressing- omr hearty thanks to our 
brethren of the press, for the warm and 
kind reception with which they have 
welcomed us into the Editorial corps. 
They duly appreciate the spirit which 
has prompted us at this time, to appear 
in defence of the Agricultural in.erest 
of our State, and they make proper ap- 
peals to the two hundred thousand 
farmers of North Carolina, to come out 
and sustain that paper which really is 
theirs. They are well aware that the 
future piosperity of our g-ood old State, 
:greatly depends upon her advancement 
in scientific Agriculture. We hopo 
that they will sliU continue to press 
upon their farmer readers to expend 
another dollar in taking the Farmer's 
Journal, and thereby make their list 
of papers complete. To brethren of tho 
political press of the State, we would 
say "keep this matter before the peo- 
ple," and not let it any longer be said 
that the farmers of North Carolina 
■ounnot and will not support one paper 
■devoted exclusively to their interest. 
To our brethren of the Agricultural 
press we would say, that we shall do 
■every thing in our power to promote 
the interest which we advocate, and 
shall hail with pleasure every new la- 
bourer who may enter the field, hoping 
that 'we may all live to see the fruiis 
of our labour in every field in our re- 
spective states. 



Our Yisit to Professor Mapes. 

We had th-e pleasure a few days since 
of seeing Prof. Mapes, the Editor of 
The Working Farmer, at his model 
farm three miles from the city of New- 
ark. 

His engagements were such that we 
could only be with him but a short 
time, but the few hours whioh we spent 
in his company were taken up in our 
asking questions and listoning attentt 
iveiy to the satisfactory answers given 
in regard to ths many experiments being 
made on the farm. He has reduced to 
positive facts many contested points in 
Scientific Agriculture, which before 
were regarded as mere theories and 
hypotheses. Prof Mapes has pursued 
just the course on his farm which every 
man should pursue, who comes into 
possession of a worn out farm ; he has 
made the soil fertile before making the 
ornamental improvements. We saw 
on this farm very plainly, the many 
advantages which the man of science 
has over him, who only deems it im~ 
portanl to attend to the merhanical 
condition of the soil. Many of these 
■experiments are such as to convince 
the most hisrhly prejudiced mind of (he 
great importance of connecting science 
with practical agriculture. We saw 
an apple orchard which had so much 
depreciated that for ten years it failed 
to produce at all, and by a correct treat- 
tnent, the last season, Prof. Mapes as- 
sures us that he gathered from it one 
thousand barrels of apples, and made 
besides, forty barrels of good cider- the 
bark of the trees, which before was 
covered with m.oss and was scaling offj 
now presented a very healthy appear- 
ance. We saw several experiments m 
the cultivation of the peach tree, whieh 



THE FARMER^S JOURNAL. 



85 



were very interesting. There were 
three trees in a row of the same age, 
and by different plans of treatment they 
were of dift'erent sizes. The tree which 
was properly treated, was twice as large 
as those treated as such trees usually 
are, and was to all appearances, much 
more healthy, as the bark plainly show- 
ed. We also saw some experiments in 
the cultivation of the raspberry vine, 
which were highly satisfactory, and 
msny more in the cultivation of the 
various plants, which were equally suc- 
csssful. We wish that every farmer, 
especially in North Carolina, who yet 
contends for the old way of farming, 
could see this farm. The average pio- 
duct when planted in corn, is twenty 
four barrels, and when it came into the 
possession of its present owner, it was 
two barrels. There are those yet who 
refuse to award to Prof. Mapes that 
•eminence in his profession, which he so 
justly deserves, having won it as he has 
in a time when the prejudice against 
"book farmuag,"' as it is called, is so 
great throughout the country. After 
speaking of the scientific attainments 
of this gentleman, we cannot refrain 
from saying that the general manner of 
the man is such as to make the stranger 
feel much at home under his roof,being 
as he is, ever ready to contribute to the 
■enjoyment of those around him. 

Fine Parms. 

We had the pleasure a few days since, 
of being upon the farm of David Mc- 
Daniel, in I^ash county, and we were 
well pleased with the very great spirit 
of improvement evinced by this gentle- 
man. He has taken a large tract of 
poor land, such as was a few years since 
regarded valueless, and has brought it 



to a high state of cultivation, by deep 
plowing, thorough drainage, and heavy 
manuring ; he has a fine stock of cattle 
and hogs, and, by the by, he is the 
man "what" raised those large hogs 
which cannot be beaten any where. — 
We had the pleasure of seeing ihe farms 
of Major G-. Collier, David Everett and 
William Carraway, in Wayne county. 
These gentlemen have fine deposits of 
mari, and they are firmly resolved that 
during the next winter they will be 
among those who get out a large quan- 
tity of this fertiliser, and we are inclined 
to bc4ieve that they areraiher disposed 
to run against Edgecombe ; and we 
glory in their spunk. 



Editor's Table. 

The Ajieuican Farmer. — This pa- 
per comes to us filled as usual with 
valuable information to the farmers. 
It is ably edited, and is contributed to 
by some of the best farmers in Virginia 
and Maryland. 

The Soil of the South. — The May 
number is filled with such matter as 
will be read with interest by its south- 
ern readers. We hail its coming with 
as much pleasure as any exchange we 
have. 

The Southern Cultivator is a 
large paper of the kind, and is devoted 
to Southern culture, and has some able 
articles in those numbers which we have 
seen. 

The Southern Planter gives us a 
hearty welcome into the field of labour- 
ers, in elevating the character of the 
farmer. He cautions us against Prof. 
Mapes, but a& to this there is only a 
difference of opinion between us. 

The New Era. — This paper is pub- 
lished weekly in Goldsboro.' and is 



&6 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



devoted to Agriculture, Mechanics and 
Education, three of the main interests 
of our country. The editor makes a 
little slam at us in the beginning, but 
we would onlv say that we are resolved 
to be a true pilot to the farmer, and we 
have not failed in our idea of deep 
plowing in every character of soil. 

F. L. Bond's WareRoom — We hope 
that our readers in Edgecombe and the 
adjoining counties will give attention 
to the advertisement of this gentleman 
which they will find in our paper. He 
has a right to call upon those around 
him to give him a fair chance to still 
live in the home of his childhood. — 
When articles of furniture can be 
bought at as low prices at home, and of 
a better quality, why do our people still 
believe in the longer the distance an 
article comes, the better it is? Farmers, 
eiing to your young friends who are 
mechanics, and still keep them among 
you by giving them your patronage, 
and let each rejoice in the success of 
the other. 



From the S. C. Farmer and Planter. 
Thoughts by a Farmer. 
Messrs. Editors : — In presenting the 
following thoughts to the consideration 
of my brethren of the plow, my main 
object is to assist if possible in the im- 
provement of the soil. Influenced by 
this consideration, and not with preten- 
sions or conceits. I beg the indulgence 
of a iew columns in your excellent 
Journal. Agriculture is truly our 
nursing mother, which gives food and 
growth, wealth, moral health and cha- 
racter to our country — ^justly has it been 
termed the "parent of Arts;" from it 
a?ll the absolute wants of life are bount- 
ifully supplied ; although other avoca- 
tions may offer greater prizes, yet if 
we compare the great advantages of 
the agriculturist with ihose of any other 



of the common occupations to which 
men devote themselves. We readily per- 
ceive that the farmer has no reason to 
mourn over his lot. No feeling is 
dearer to man than the consciousness 
of independence. And he who is en- 
gaged in agriculture truly enjoys this 
blessed boon. He is not dependent 
upon the smiles of a capricious public, 
but alone upon his Creator. Although 
his business is subject to many calami- 
ties, yet the season which injures one 
often benefits the other crops (thus en- 
forcing the great neces.-ity of mixed 
husbandry;) thus reviewing life, he 
becomes deeply impressed "in the con- 
viction of, and reliance upon, the cara 
of an all-ruling and all-bountiful Pro- 
vidence." From the depths of his heart 
he is brought to exclaim "The Lord is 
my shepherd; 1 shall not wani." Does 
it not become us, then, as wise cultiva- 
tors of the soil, from whence springeth 
all our supplies, to make diligent and 
provident use of the light already given 
that we may enjoy more light ? To do 
tnis, let us gather carefully the crumbs 
afforded by experience and science that 
nothing be lost. If experience discards 
science or science discards experience, 
the fJibric must crumble and fall ; to 
perpetuate ar;d improve, ihey must work 
hand in hand-in ui.iou there is strength. 

To establish a system of agriculture 
that would be adapted to all localities, 
I believe to be impossible, as varieties 
of soil in every section exist, yet the 
general principles of agriculture can be 
universally applied. To give a full 
description of the various methods used 
in different sections to renovate worn 
out soils, would require a larger space 
in your journal than any writer should 
be entitled to, at the same time weary- 
ing the patience of your readers and 
proving unprofitable. I shall there- 
fore confine myself to that which alone 
can, in my humble opinion, benefit the 
agriculturist 

The first and most important step ia 
the reclamation of worn out lands, is a 
complete and thorough draining of soils 
when too great a retention of moisture 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



sr 



exists. The application of manurea to 
wet lands is folly — indeed a full return 
for the manure applied cannot with any 
reason be expected. Sucti lands in no 
instance yields any thing like a fair 
crop during a drought;indeeed all crops 
Buffer more severely on soils of this 
character during a drought than on 
lands thoroughly drained. During wet 
seasons no one but an '■'■Ignoramus^' in 
truth, will look for any but a meagre 
crop. But if completely and thorough- 
ly drained an increase of six to twelve 
fold may be reasonably expected, and 
in many instances an increase of twelve 
to twenty fold has been realized. It is 
unnecessixry here I presume to give in 
full detail the various modes praciised 
in different sections to accomplish this 
very important branch of duty — suffi- 
cient IS the work, vi^hen every foot of 
tilled soil is freed from all excess of moist- 
%re both surface and subsoil — the task 
is incomplete until this is accomplished. 
This may be done frequently by 15 to 
20 inch drains — again by 25 to 36 inch 
drains — in no instance leave the task 
until thorough drainage is effected. If 
nnder (or covered) drains can be made 
\9 answer the purpose, readily adopt 
them, if you have lasting material to 
form ihem, if not, discard them. Stone, 
poles, and brush are used for this pur- 
pose, and, where the expense is not too 
great, good brick is far preferable. In 
English agriculture "tile" is mosrjy 
used, but little has as yet been manu- 
factured in the United States, therefore 
the farmers of the South cannot look to 
this material, even if the expense would 
justify its use with the mass of agri- 
culturists. "The soil being merely the 
reservoir of water, air and heat, and of 
decomposing organic matter, may be 
rendered either fertile by giving it the 
power of storing up and retaining their 
elements for use, in a much greater 
quaotity than before — or sterile, by 
depriving it of the power of receiving, 
retaining, and transmitting them to 
plants." Every operation that tends 
to give or to facilitate the free ingress 
and egre?3 of water, air, and heat to 



the plants, and the soils in which they 
grow, will facilitate theit growth and 
maturity. This, in truth, involves tho 
first principles of agriculture. Second- 
ly, deep plowing is one of the most 
efficient agents in the "renovation of 
worn out soils" — discard it, and no 
permanent improvement can ever be 
effected — adopt it and it will ultimate- 
ly repay an hundred fold. Yet it may, 
in some instances, where the land hag 
been rendered extremely sterile by in- 
judicious cropping, grazing, &c., giv© 
scanty returns (or the first crop or so. 
I am aware that this is, in agriculture, 
a conti'oveited point. Many affirming 
with peculiar confidence that you "muBl 
not plough so deep as to turn up tha 
hard pan of the clay or the white gravel" 
— but I assert with equal confidence, 
backed by experience and science, thai 
all soils, of whatever chararter, being 
thoroughly drained, surface and subsoil, 
of all excess of moisture, should be plowed 
deep, ill order to produce to the best ad- 
vantage ; if the soil should not be suffi- 
ciently deep to admit the use of th« 
furrow plow from 8 to 10 inches, the 
subsoil plow, or one that will pulverize 
or loosen the earth to the depth of 12 
to 24 inches, should be used. We 
would proclaim to the world of agricul- 
turists that the free use of spade and 
subsoil plow, combined with a liberal 
use of the fertilizers to be had alone on 
the premises, will speedily reclaim 
millions of sterile acres. The earth 
that was before compact and compara- 
tively impenetrable to air and water, 
are by this operation completely mel- 
lowed and rendered pervious to all 
gases, dews and rains from above, or 
fountains from below. "One of th« 
chief arguments, however, in favor of ' 
subsoiling, is the ready admission of 
roots to a new store-house of the inor- 
ganic constituents of soils rendered 
soluble by the admission of the atmos- 
phere, and then carried, not only int« 
plants for their suste.iance, but into the 
surface soil as excrementitious matter 
thrown ofTby the surface roots, and thus 
charging the surface soil with an ins- 



88 



THE ^AIl^^ER'S JOURNAL. 



proved quantity of the alkalies, soluble 
gilicatos, &c.,&c." The security against 
drought from subsoiUng cannol be 
doubted. To increase the capacily of 
the soil for the retention of moislure is 
a subject of lasting importance to the 
farmer. Deep plowing and thorough 
pulveiizalion will certainly cffeel this 
object, thereby I'uiniihing a reservoir 
of moisture fur the roots of plants to 
fted upon, when the surface soil is parch- 
ed by lon<r curtinued heat. We may 
further affirm tl:at accurate pulveriza- 
tion imd deep plowing are as yet very 
uncommon among tillers of the soil 
generally, alihough the warm and dry 
seasons loudly call for this practice. — 
As the absolute quantity of moisture 
retained depends on the capacity of the 
soil for retaining, and the capacity of 
the so.l for retaining depends on the 
depth ot the plowing — by llie same 
operation the roots of p!ar)ts are better 
enabled to extend themselves in search 
of nouri,;hment, coniribuiing to their 
growth. ]3y a >;onstant habit of deep 
plowing, although the cbiy or gravel 
Biay be brought to light, be not alarmed 
— in a few years it is not to be seen, 
and you will have formed a soil corres- 
ponding with the depth you have plow- 
ed, "having ilie dark and productive 
qualities confined before to the surface 
t-oii.'' The man who plows deep, from 
8 to 2Z inches, using the furrow plow to 
incorporate the vegetable material.^ left 
on the suiface of his fields, and the sub- 
soil plow to crack up and pulverize the 
heretofore impenetrable subsoil, will, 
under a judicious rotation of crops, one 
that will encourage the growth of the 
grasses, clover and weeds, enrich his 
farm without manure: VVliilst he 
who skims the surface will find his rjiost 
strenuous efTorts unequal to the task." 
If I had a plow that would turn up the 
earth two feel deep, I do not care what 
the subsoil may be, in five years the 
fertile soil would be two feet deep. I 
admit that generally a very stinted 
crop would be produced for the first 
two years. But I also assert, that the j 
Lhi-vd or fourth and all subsequent crops 



will not only pay for all deficiencies of 
the first two or three crops — but nn 
hundred fold interest." The subsoil 
plow is an excellent implement; it ena- 
bles the farmer to avail himself of most 
of ihe advantaijes of deep plowing with- 
out any sacrifice of the first and second 
season's crop?. The writer's experience 
and crops substantiates the opinions ad- 
vanced on deep plowing. '=' 
Thirdly. — The soil having been 
drained of all escess of moisture, and 
the operation of deep plowing commen- 
ced, the soil is changed m character 
and visible signs of improvement are to 
be seen, yet to m.ake the improvement 
more spee(3y and permanent something 
remains to be done. Lime, the basis of 
all and without which in some form no 
permanent improvement can be effected, 
must be applied liberally, if at hand, in 
small doses, if obtained at a distance 
and for which '-hard cash" has to be 
extracted like eye-teeth from the farm- 
er's pocket. When marl can be obiained, 
it is preferable, as it contains other sub- 
stances truly valuable be.<ides the per 
centage of lime. In every instance, not 
regaiding the sterility of the soil, I 
would advise the application of from 
three to five hundred bushels per acre. 
It there is no vegetable matter on the 
soil, such as "broom-sedge." thickly 
set weeds, &c., it should be carted 
from the woodland ; a heavy applica- 
tion of leaves or mould combined with 
marl — land planted in corn — seeding 
peas for wheat in growing corn — seed- 
ing clover with the wheat in the month 
of September, then giving two or three 
years fallow, will ensure the permanent 
in:iprovement of any soil, provided a ju- 
dicious rotation is afterwards adopted, 
and rigidly adhered to, — such as corn, 
wheat, one and two years at rest in 
clover, grasses or weeds as adopted on 
some farms in this and the adjoining 
counttes of Sussex and Prince George. 
Farmers can well afford to pay 18 to 
20 cents per bushel for good lime, de- 
livered on or even in one mile of their , 
farms. Always get the best (I am now 
paying $1 25 cents per cask, R. li. 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



89 



freight 10 cents, delivered in one mile 
of my farm, and I believe I shall be 
amply remunerated for every dime thus 
lai i out) that is to be obtained. [ pre- 
fer the Washington, in casks that will 
slake from 7 to 8 bushels. It is un- 
doubiedly a pure article. I believe it 
to be to the advan'agfe of the fanner to 
discard the cheaper lime.being- a -'dirty 
mess," and purch ise the best. From 
2.5 lo 50 bushels should be applied per 
acre — rather use 10 to 15 bushels to 
the acre than discard its use — giving 
said application at every rotation untd 
100 to 120 bushels have bet^n applied. 
The improvement will be more gratl- 
ual than if the larger quantity had 
been used, yet its effects are "sure and 
certain," — the soil in the mean time 
furnishin.'j vegetable matter for the 
lime to act upon. After years of ex- 
perience in marling, and some little in 
the use of lime, 1 would advise the 
surface application, whenever it can be 
adopted, on the grass sod, and on the 
wheal crop immediately after it is seed- 
ed, or during the winter when the 
ground is frozen, as the effects of a sin- 
gle winter's frosts and rair.s will more 
efifectually dissolve it, thereby produ- 
cing a more speedy action, benefitting 
the succeeding crops, as also the land 
itself, than is attainable by beingplowed 
in. 

Fourihly,— This brings us to consider 
the subject of manures. First foreign 
&c. "manufactured manures." On these 
the Southern Agriculturist cannot de- 
pend as in many instances the location, 
and facility ot getting to market posi- 
tively forbids their liberal use. More- 
over the Southern farmer has placed 
around him abundant materids such as 
leaves, straw.scrapings,ditch-bank earth, 
mud, &c„ which if liberally provided 
in our barn yards^ stables and hog-pens, 
wdl be rapidly converted into good 
manure by well fed, not half starved 
stock. Gruano has effected grtat im- 
provement in the yield of poor soils, but 
!io permanent improvement, so far as 
the writer's observation has extended. 
Like other active manures, it soon ex- 



hausts itself, disengaging an immense 
quantity of ammonia, unless gypsum is 
combined with it to arrest and fix this 
C'^caping ammonia. A heavy applica- 
tion from two to four hundred pounds, 
combined with one third or one half 
gypsum, if applied to the wheat crop 
will, on very poor soils, give fiom 15 
to 30 bushels of wheat — securing a good 
stand of clover, to which plaster should 
be applied at the rate of 1 to 3 bushels 
per acre, immediately after harvesting 
the wheat, and lime early in the month 
of Noveruber. 

Bone dust may be considered one 
of the most active and permanent ma- 
nures to be had. Yet the supply is so 
limited that iarmers find it difficult to 
obtain it. The many nostrums now 
manufactured North, are unworthy of 
notice^ — being as abundant as those 
advertised in our daily papers for the 
restoration of the health of the human 
family, and as worthless. The South- 
ern farmer must live upon his own re- 
sources — :idopting the self renovating 
principle. Our own resources — what 
are they ? Fir^-t, the dung of our horses, 
cattle, hogs and sheep. These c;.re- 
fuUy husbanded and judiciously mana- 
ged by composting them with straw, 
leaves, mud, ashes, ditch-bank earth, 
scrapings, &c. &c., will furnish a mine 
of wealth. Although farmers may differ 
as 10 the mode of applying manures, 
their effect and permanency, we must 
concur in the fact that, if we expect 
large returns for our labor, we must be 
liberal in the application of manure to 
the soil — liberal in seeds and in the 
cultivation of our crop?. 

Respectfully, vour ob't serv't, 
N. T. E. B. 



Agriculture the Leading- Inter- 
est. — It is supposed that three fourths 
of the population of the country are 
employed in agriculture ; the other 
quarter being divided among all other 
employments and professions. Besides, 
the mechanic, the manufacturer, the 
merchant, and the professional man 
are all mainly dependent upon ths 



M 



THE FAKMER'S JOURNAL, 



larmer for patronage and support. — 
When the farmers as a class are pros- 
perous, all others participate in their 
prosperity. From this it follows that 
whatever benefits the agricultural class, 
directly benefits three-fourths of the 
people and indirectly benefits the other 
fourth. 

Surely,then. the farmers have a right 
to demand of the government the means 
to sustain their agricultural societies, 
and to collect and disseminate import- 
ant information relative to their calling. 
Let the light of science and education 
be brought to the aid of agriculture. 
Let our resources be developed, and 
the skill and industry of the husband- 
man be directed into their proper chan- 
nels, and that would soon be obtained 
in which not only the farmer would 
rejoice, but the whole community with 
him. — Maine Farmer 



From the Journal of Agriculture. 

Salt and L-ime Mixture — Decomposi- 
tion of Muck, Etc. 

EY PROF. J. J. MAPES. 

In our paper on "A Divisor for Ma- 
nures, &c." we spoke of "The Salt and 
Lime Mixture," and many intpiries 
have since been made by those who 
have not read the Worlcing Farmer^ as 
to the mode of preparing this mixture, 
its uses, cost, &c. 

Common salt is composed of chlorine 
MQd soda, and when mixed with caus- 
tic lime is changed to chioride of lime 
and carbonate of soda. 

The lime having a stronger affinity 
for chlorine than for soda, combmes 
with it, forming chloride of lime ; the 
soda being set free takes carbonic acid 
from the Atmosphere and becomes car- 
bonate of soda. This rationale may be 
objected to by chemists, as not strictly 
in accordance witJs the facts as to the 
original composition of the salt, &c., but 
ihey will all agree as to the result, which 
is what the farmer requires to know, 
and we have therefore adopted this 
simple rationale. 

The mode usually adopted for ma- 
king the salt and lime miztuxe, is to 



dissolve one bushel of salt in water, and 
with this to slake three bushels of caus- 
tic lime ; lime is said tobe caustic when 
freshly burned, and before receiving 
carbonic acid and moisture from iha 
atmosphere, and unless in the caustia 
state will not ensure the desired resulia 
when slaked with salt water. The 
mixture should be made under a shed, 
or in a buildiDg,as the resultant chlorida 
of lime and carbonate of soda are soluble 
in water, and must therefore not b« 
exposed to rains or dews. 

Unless the lime is really hot (purely 
caustic) when the salt water is added, 
the whole quantity in solution will not 
be received ; but by turning over the 
heap the next day, it will be found to 
have absorbed the former dose and will 
receive the remainder. Sometimes three 
or four applications are necessary before 
the whole of the dissolved salt will ba 
received by the lime. The mixture 
should be shovelled over every other 
day for a fortnight, and it will then be 
ready for use. The older the mixture 
may be, however, the more perfectly 
will the chemical changes have taken 
place. 

Shell lime is preferred to stone lime 
when the latter contains magnesia, aa 
it often does, especially as the shell 
lime contains a small proportion of 
phosphate of lime, which is more valua- 
ble than its other constituents. 

The refuse salt procurable from the 
pork, beef, and fish inspection ware- 
houses, taken from the barrels when 
re-packing, is better for our purpose than 
clean salt, as the grease and other mat- 
ters attached to it are valuable as ma- 
nure. Farmers living near the salt 
water should slake their lime for agri- 
cultural purposes with it instead of 
fresh water. 

Uses. — The chloride of lime and car- 
bonate of soda, prepared as above re- 
commended, is of iiself an admirable 
manure for all soils deficient of chlorine, 
lime or soda ; and also for peaty and 
other soils comaining an excess of or- 
ganic matter. Green crops, when top- 
dressed with the mixture before being 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



91 



plowed under, are less liUely to render 
the soil dover-siok than when the mixt- 
ure is not used. Many insects are re- 
moved by the use of the mixture. In 
preparing a general divisor for manures 
for farm use, the mixture is almost 
indispensable; for while it renders foeiid 
substances inodorous, and prevents the 
formation and liberation of sulphuretted 
hydrogen and other noxious gases, it 
' entirely neutralizes all acidity of muck, 
swamp-mud, river deposit, &c., &c. 

Four bushels of tke mixture, when 
properly and thoroughly prepared and 
mixed through a cord of any of the 
above named substances, or even with 
saw dust, soent tan, or any other sub- 
Btance requiring to be rendered pulver- 
ulent, will cause its disintegration, and 
will render the component parts acces- 
sible to plants. 

The quantity o^ the mixture used for 
decomposing cheap organic matter may 
be increased to eight bushels per cord, 
or more, when the soil to which it will 
eventually be applied requires additions 
of any of its integrants. 

Composts to which the mixtu-i-e has 
been added, should always be kept in a 
moist (not wet) state to ensure speedy 
and effective action. 

A farmer who has a full supply of 
organic matter decomposed as above, 
can render his stable manures many 
times more valuable by composting 
them with it ; for all the ammonia given 
off by the fasces during fermentation 
and decomposition, will be readily ab- 
8orbed*by decomposed muck, and thus 
ten loads of stable manure, composted 
as fast as made with ten times its bulk 
of muck, or other organic matter which 
has previously been treated with the 
salt and lime mixture, will make a 
manure of but little, if any, less value 
than that taken in its pure form from 
the stables. For soils deficient of or- 
ganic matter, and most soils are so, 
these composts are invaluable. 

The decomposed organic matter has 
many other uses beside composting with 
stable manures, for its deodorizing pow- 
ers are nearly equal to those of charcoal 



dust,and the absorbing powers for fluids 
are much greater. Mixed with night 
soil, it forms poudrette, an admirable 
and effective manure for all crops in all 
soils, for the food of man contains ail 
ihe requirements of plants. 

When thoroughly made, the decom- 
posed organic matter may be used as a 
divisor for guano, and with great profit, 
as all the ammonia of the guano will be 
retained until used by plants, instead 
of being wasted in part by evaporation 
in the atmosphere. Sandy soils, by its 
use, are rendered retentive of manures, 
while clayey soils are made to yield 
their tenacity, and to become moF« 
easily workable. 

We have given above all the dire»- 
tions required, in connection with oup 
article on the Management of Compost 
Heaps and Importance of a Divisor for 
Manures, the reader cannot but under- 
stand the use and importance of our 
present recommendation ; but no part of 
the directions must be neglected, for 
the mere mixing together of lime and 
salt will not make chloride of lime and 
carbonate of soda, nor will the putting 
of lime and salt into muck or other 
inorganic matter produce similar resultsr; 
nor can the lime and salt mixture be 
made with slaked lime, nor will salfe 
river water alone without further addi- 
tion of salt make the mixture properly ' 
for the purpose we have named, al- 
though when lime is to be used on land, 
it will prove more valuable when 
slaked with sea water than with spring 
water. Nor will lime added to muck 
produce the same resuhs as the mixture 
proposed, for when lime alone is added 
to muck it will decompose it, but by a 
large loss of its more valuable portions, 
rendered volatile by the lime, while 
other portions of the muck are not pre- 
pared to retain it. Nor will the mixing 
together of manure, muck, and the mix- 
ture, answer so well as first to decom- 
pose the muck or other organic matter 
by the salt and lime mixture, and then, 
and not until then, to compost it with 
the stable and other manures for further 
decomposilion. The farmer who has 



92 



THE FARMER'S JOURi^AL. 



on hand in the fall five hundred loads 
of prepared muck, and the prospect of 
fifty or one hundred loads of manure 
during winter, to compost with it, will 
be better off in two years, than one who 
may have in the spring three hundred 
loads of manure in an open barn-yard 
eomposed of dung and litter alone. 

The Pleasures and Advantages of 
Labor. 

There is a very false notion in the 
world respecting employment. Thou- 
sands imagine that if they could live in 
idleness, they would be perfectly happy. 
This is a great mistake. Every indus- 
trious man and woman knows that 
nothmg is so tiresome as being unem- 
ployed. During some seasons of the 
year, we have holidays, and it is pleas- 
ing on these occasions to see the 
operative enjoy himself; but we have 
gene.ally found that, after two or three 
days of recreation, the diligent mechan- 
ie or laborer becomes quite unhappy. 
He sighs over the wretchedness of 
being idle. The fact is, we were made 
to labor, and our health, comfort and 
happiness depend upon exertion — 
Whether we look at our bodies or ex- 
amine our minds, every thing tells us 
that our creator mlended that we should 
be active. Hands, feet, eyes, and men- 
tal powers show that we were born to 
be busy. If we had been made to be 
idle, a "large portion of our bodily and 
mental faculties would be redundant. 
Sir Chas. Bell has exhibited the won- 
derful structure of the human hand j 
other physiologists have entered into a 
minute description of our bodies gener- 
ally, and have displayed their wonder- 
ful adaptation for the business of life. 
Metaphysicians^ also, have dilated on 
the mind and its operations, and have 
brought forth to view its marvellous 
powers, demonstrating that maa was 
intended to be lord of this lower crea- 
tion. But then all depends upon labor. 
There are the same mind and body in 
^he savage that haunts the wilderness; 
the gourmand that merely eats, and 
drinksjand sleeps: the kdy that lounges , 



on the sofa, and boasts that she never 
does anything.nor ever wets htr fingers; 
and the myriads of active hands and 
hearts that change the desert into a pa- 
radise, and furnish it with all the 
comforts, enjoyments, and luxuries of 
life. Industry and toil make all tho 
difference between the useless and the 
useful. Did the world consist of ladies, 
we should be starved, famished and 
poisoned ; or did it contain none but 
gentlemen unfit for manual labor, we 
must all perish for the want of common 
necessaries of life. A world of kings, 
lords, Alexanders, Ca3£ars, Caligulas, 
or Jezebels, would soon leave the globe 
without an inhabitant. Exertion, ac- 
tivity, study, and toil, all properly di- 
rected to some useful end, are the great 
requisites of every age and country. — 
Give us these, and we can very soon 
have a happy, a prosperous, an enlight- 
ened and a refined era — Excha7is:e. 



From the Soil of the South. 
Farm Economy. 

Mr. Kditor : If it is true that "the 
children of this world are wiser in their 
generation than the children of light," 
it is no less true, "that the God of this 
world has blinded their eyes" When! 
Mr. Editor — when ! let it be asked 
with all the emphasis of deep convic- 
tion and earnestness of imminent ruin, 
when will the cotton planters of the 
Souih open, their eyes to the fact, that 
a crop of two million bales will bring 
them more money than one of two and 
a half or three millions'? We toil and 
struggle through the whole calendar, 
from Christmas to Christmas again,, 
devoting to the cotton crop our best 
lands and our best energies,. and there- 
by exhausting both ; and all to swell 
the number of cotton bales to an amount 
thiit musty in the very natuue of things,, 
depress the price to a figure far below 
remuneration, and keep it there. Thea 
look at the disastrous consequences 
which are inevitable by such a course.. 
Cattle upon the lift, or down beyond 
the hope of resuscitation ; skeleton 
frames reeling to the plow they hay.e 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



Bot Strength lo move ; corn-ciibs empty, 
and meat-bouses desolate. In sections 
visited by the severe drought of last 
year, the little money thnt ivas realized 
from the littSe price of a little crop, has 
all gone to Cheroliee and Tennessee for 
corn. The bacon is yet to be bought, 
either on a credit or with money bor- 
rowed at a high rate of interest ; in 
either case involving llie hap'ess pur- 
ehaser in debt. An argument of five 
minutes will convince ary man that ail 
these calaaiities may be avoided, and 
their opposite blessings secured, by 
planting a smaller erop of cotton and a 
larger crop of grain. Indeed, almost 
every man is already cn-imnced of that 
fact. W]nj is it, then, that we all "con- 
fess the wrong and still the wrong pur- 
sue ?" Each individual is aware that 
his diminished cotton crop will have 
no effect upon the market, and in order 
to get his share of the money, he must 
plant his full proportion of the cotton. 
Now. Mr. Editor, I for one, am resolved 
to pursue a difi'erent couise, from the 
full conviction that it is to my individ- 
ual interest to make a full provision 
crop ; rnd thus, if I could not succeed 
so far as to- have grain and pork to srll. 
I at least will endeavor to avoid the 
humiliating necessity of being compell- 
ed to pay away all, oT nearly all the' 
proceeds of the cotton crop for those in- 
dispensable necessaries. And until 
every planter is convinced by practical 
experience, that, let others do as they 
may, it is for his individual interest to 
do likewise, then, and not till then^ will 
the cotton crop be so restricted as to 
bring about that desirable ftate of 
things, viz : more money., and plenty of 
'provisions. 

I am aware that it is maintained, 
upon quite formidable authority, that 
the extent of the crop has no inflimenee 
in determining the price ; and a learned 
Professor attempts to prove that to be 
true, by the extent of the several crops 
of the last ten years, and the relative 
prices obtained for them. But an ar- 
gument based on those data is incom- 
plete. If a large crop, or even a suc- 



cession of large crops, brought a high 
price, the inference is irresistible that 
short crops, under the operation of 
similar mfluences. would have brought 
a higher one. To maintain that short 
crops cause low prices, is to maintain 
that corn would now be worth one dollar 
per bushel, if every corn ciib in the" 
land were bursting with corn. 

Aliquis. 



Cheap "Wash for Cottages of "W^ood.. 

For the outside of wooden cottages, 
barns, outbuildings, fences, &c , where- 
economy is important, the following 
wash is recommended : — 

Take a clean barrel that will hold 
water. Put in it half a bushel of fresh 
quick-lime, and slake it by pouring 
over it boiling water sulficient lo cover 
it four or five inches deep, and Stirling 
it till slaked. 

When quite slaked, dissolve in water 
and add 2 lbs. sulphate of zinc, (white 
viti iol,) which may be had at any ot lh« 
druggists, and which, in a few weeks, 
will cause the whitewash to harden on 
the wood-work. Add sufficient water 
to bring it to the consistency of thick 
whitewash. This wash is of coursie- 
white, and as white is a color which- 
we think should never be used, except 
upon buildings a good deal surrounded 
by trees, so as to prevent its glare, we 
would make it a fawn or drab color 
before using it. 

To make the above wash a pleasing 
cream color, add 4 lbs. yellow ochre. 

For fawn color, take 4 lbs. umbeTj. 
1 lb. Indian red. and 1 lb. lampblack. 

To make the wash gray or stone: 
color, add 1 lb. raw umbeu and 2 lbs. 
lampblack. 

The color may be put on with a comr 
mon white-wash brush, and will be^ 
found much more durable than com- 
mon white wash, as the sulphate of zinc- 
sets or hardens the white-wash. 

Cheap Wash for Cottages of B rich j. 
Stone. Stucco or Rough Cast. — Pake a 
barrel and slake half a bushel of Jime 
as before mentioned; then fill the barrel 
two-thirds full of water and add ona- 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



bushel of hydraulic cement or waler 
lime. Dissolve it in water and add 3 
lbs. sulphate of zinc. The whole should 
be of the thickness of paint, ready for 
the brush. This wash is improved by 
the addition of a peck of white sand 
Btirred in just before using it. The 
oolor is a pale stone color, nearly white. 

To make it a fawa color, add 1 lb. 
yellow ochre, 2 lbs. raw umber, 2 lbs. 
Indian red. 

To make it a drab, add 1 lb. Indian 
red, I lb. umber, I lb. lampblack. 

This wash, which 'ffe have tested 
thoroughly, sets and adheres very firm- 
ly to brick work and stucco, is very 
durable, ftud produces a very agreeable 
o^ect. 

Common White-ioash. — Slake one 
half peck of lime with boiling water; 
when slaked, reduce it to the consist- 
ency of white-wash, by adding boiling 
water ; dissolve half an ounce of indigo 
blue in hot water, and stir that in ; then 
add half a gallon of chamber-ley and 
stir the whole well, when the wash will 
be ready to be put on. and will prove 
to be a beautiful white color, and not 
• subject to peel off. — Downing'^. Archi- 
tecture. 

From the Farmer and Artisan. 
Raising Poultry. 

T. B. Miner.— Dear Sir :— As the 
season is now at hand when Ham and 
Eggs will be the great luxury of the 
table, there cannot perhaps be a better 
subject to present the majority of your 
readers at this time than that of the 
management of Poultry. The time 
for curing Hams has already passed, 
and they must now be taken as they 
are, whether rightly or wrongly done. 
But let us look out in season for a good 
supply of fresh eggs to go with them. 
I shall here submit my plan for secur- 
ing this important part of the luxury, 
which I will venture to say is a practi- 
• cable one for all who keep but a Iqw 
hens. 

After the last litters are laid in the 
fail, I never stimulate my hens to lay 
until February, for ths reason that ac- 



cording to my observations, it is no6 
natural for them, under any circum- 
stances, to do so ; and also, that they 
have not the constitution to bear any 
more than the rigors of winter until 
about that time, when they have beu 
come stiengthened and invigorated^ 
and naturally begin to lay if the weath- 
er is moderate for the season. I feed 
my hens about sunrise in the morningj 
and just before they go to roost at night 
with all the corn they will pick up, and 
always keep either water or snow 
where they can get it at all times in 
the day. In the winter time I keep 
gravel and lime, or old waste plastei" 
where they can have access to it at all 
times. This is also necessary in sum- 
mer unless there is a garden spot or 
piece of ploughed oround near by, 
those ingredients being indispensible 
in terming the shell and digesting the 
food. About the first of February, I 
discontinue the corn in the kernel, and 
give it to them ground in the ear, madd 
into pudding and fed hot, and also feed 
them once a day with any fresh fat or 
lean refuse meat the kitchen may af- 
ford. This kind of food is nutricioua 
and stimulating, and they will actual- 
ly begin to lay in a week or ten days. 

After they commence laying, I have 
no trouble in procuring eggs enough 
for daily use, and when I have over a 
half dozen hen.a, can spare some for 
market, I continue the ground feed 
until spring opens, and then resume 
the hard grain again, which usually 
keeps them laying until L)ctober, if fed 
regularly and as much as they will eat. 
The following figures will show my 
profits for one year, according to the 
above system : 

Seventeen hens and two 
males consumed what cost S5.00 

Sold 30 dozen of eggs, at 

Is. per dozen, $3,75 



" 120 dozen egos at 10 
cts. doz. 



12.00 15,75 



Profits, $10,75 

This is a small scale, but all will 

agree that it is a handsome profit for 



THE FAEMER'S JOURNAi. 



&5 



the outlay. 

My liens were the Black Poland 
breed, slightly crossed with some mix- 
ed, varieties. Four of the hens were 
four years old, four more were two, and 
the rest early pullets. 



To Prevent Botts in Horses, — A 
persou of much experience in veterinary 
ecience is never troubled with this dis- 
ease in his horses. His simple practice 
during the fall months, is to keep a 
greasy cloth in the stable, and once a 
weep rub with it such parts of the 
animal as may have been attacked by 
the nit-fly. Greaae destroys and pre- 
vents the eggs from hatching. 



Occupation. — Occupation cures one 
half of life's troubles, and mitigates the 
remsinder. A manacled slave work- 
mg at the galleys is happier than a 
self-manacled slave who is without em- 
ployment. 



Impudence is the constant compan- 
ion of that monster Ingratitude. 

AGRlCULTlMl' WARE-HOUSE. 

THE subscribers would respectfully invite 
the attention of Farmers and Planters to 
tlieir varied assortment of 

Agricultural and Horticultural 
Implements, 

aanong which may be found Pouty and Mear's 
celebrated and highly approvedCentreDraught 
Ploughs ; Emery fit'Co.'.s Imported Rail Road 
Horse Power Thresher (all of wliich took the 
first premiums at the late State Agricultural 
Fair, and are unequalled by any now in use,) 
together with a full assortment of the latest 
and most approved Plows, Straw Cutters, Fan- 
ning Mills, Corn Shellers, Seed Sowers, Cul- 
tivators, Harrows, &c. &c., which they will 
sell at as low rates as any similar establishment 
in the United States. 

We shall at all time? have on hand a full 
stock of Field and Garden Seeds, Guano, and 
all other fertilizers in the market, which may 
be had on the most reasonable terms. 

Persons purchasing articles from us may 
rely upon their giving satisfaction, as we in- 
tend keeping only such as we can fully war- 
rant. LONGETT Sf GRIFFING, 
No. 25 Cliff St., New- York. 

April 29, 1852, 6m. 



THE subscriber will make Analysii of 
soils and marls in the most correct mai^- 
ner, and in the shortest possible time after 
receiving them. Specimens can be sent by 
mail at a very small expense. 

For simple Analysis, - - - §5,00 

For Analysis, Advice, and for applicatioH 
of Manures, - - . . ^10,00 

Selections of Specimens of Soil. — In 
the same field different varieties of soil often 
occur, and one or two pounds of soil should 
be taken from each variety, and thoroughly 
mixed together and dried in the open air, or 
by the fire, and then one pound taken from 
this mixture and sent for analysis. If thera 
be only one character of soil, there need b« 
but one pound of that sent, which can be 
secured in strong paper and sent by mail. 

JOHN F. TOMPKINS, M. D. 

Bath, N. C. 



IIOIIE IIAXI'FACTURE. 

LET every True North Carolinian throw 
his might into the hands of our own 
Mechanics, and by this means, with our Ag- 
ricultural advancement, we are bound to 
become an independent people. So let the 
citizens of Edgecombe, and the neighbouring 
counties, call and examine the magnificent 
stock of 

F U K N I T U R E , 

which is offered for sale at F. L. Bond's 

Furniture Store, in Tarboro', consisting oftlie 
following articles, viz : 

Ladies' Marble and Mahogany Top Dres- 
sing Bureaus ; Ladies Marble Top Wash 
Stands ; Sideboards and Plain Bureaus; Ward 
Robes and Book Cases ; Sofas and Mahogany 
Rocking Chairs; Mahogany and Walnut 
Tables ; Tete-a-tetes and Divans ; Mahogany, 
French, and Cottage Bedsteads ; Stationary 
and Portable Writing Desks ; Wood and 
Cane Seat Rocking Chairs ; Office, Winds^, 
Cane and Rush Bottom Chairs ; a large ae^ 
sortment of cheap Bed Steads ; Wash Stands 
and Candle Stands ; China Presses, various 
patterns ; also, a few Nymphs and Nuptials. 

Old Furniture and Sofas repaired and mads 
to look as good as new. Old Bachelors ren- 
ovated in such a style as will make them 
accessible to the smiles of young ladies and 

old M s at least. Furniture kept on hand 

to suit any age or sext. 

Now one word to the public : What is lift 
to any one, if they do not avail themselves of 
the comforts and conveniences that are offered 
for sale at F. L. BOND'S Ware Room ? An 
examination by the public is earnestly 
solicited. F. L. B» 

Tarboro', N. C.^ 



THE FAEMER'S JOURNAL. 



THE FARMERS JOURNAL. 

The Subscriber will publish in the town of 
Bath, IJeaufort county, N. C, a monthly 
paper under the above name. Tliis paper will 
be devoted exclusively to the setting forth of 
the various popular improvements in Agricul- 
ture, Plorticulture, and the househjld arts. — 
That there is a demand for such a paper in 
our State, and more especially in the Eastern 
part, no one will deny. 

As evidence of the good effects of such pa- 
pers, we have only to look at the rapid strides 
which have been made in farming in those 
States of our Union wliere tliey exist. But 
this great advancement made in the science of 
Agriculture in other States, is but little known 
to the farmers of North-Carolina. There are 
several scientific, as well as practical farmers, 
amoiifT us ; but for the want of a medium 
throuo-h which to communicate their agricul- 
tural knowledge, it is still confined to a small 
compass. Our good old State is far behind 
the age in agricultural, as well as every other 
improvement. As a people, we are greatly 
wanting in State pride, which is highly im- 
portant to place us in that position which we 
ought to occupy. In New- York, Maryland, 
Georgia, and several other States, annual 
Fairs are held for exhibiting the products of 
each, v/hich clearly have a tendency to great 
improvements. Nature has thrown no imped- 
iment in the way to prevent our agricultural 
advancement ; but she has lavishly heaped 
upon us her inestimable gifts. We have 
among us a sufticiency of both organic and 
inoro-anic matter to enrich every acre of our 
worn-out land, and our soil and climate can- 
not be siirpassed in adaptation to the produc- 
tion of the various plants. 

All that is now needed to elevate our State 
to the position which she should occupy 
among her sisters, is energy and enterprise on 
thepartof lier citizens. There must be a stop 
put to this greattide of emraigration from our 
State ; for, daily, many of our most talented 
and energetic young men seek a new home in 
the West ; tlicy say that they cannot get their 
consent to remain among a people possessed 
of, so little enterprise as we are. The sub- 
scriber has not been engaged in farming many 
years, but he feels justified in saying that he 
began upon the right plan— that of deep 
ploughing, heavy manuring, and thorough 
draining. He has visited some good farms in 
our Stale, as well as in others, purely for 
agricultural instruction; and for sometime 
past he has been engaged in useful agricul- 
tural reading, to prepare himself for the post 
which he now proprses to occupy. 

The subscriber feels confident that this un- 
dertaking shall not fail from a want of energy 
on his part. He is resolved to use every effort 
to obtain a large subscription list, and for this 
purpose he will canvass several counties with- 
in the next two months. 

He hopes that by showing such a determi- 



nation to do something for the present degra- 
ded condition of the farmer, to be sustained, 
and receive a liberal patronage from a geuer* 
ous public. 

Each number will contain one or mors 
articles from the pen of the Editor, and several 
communications from our best farmers ; and 
the remainder will be filled with articles se» 
lected from other Agricultural Journals, such 
as may be deemed by the Editor applicable to 
our climate and soil. 

In conclusion, the subscriber asks the aid of 
every man in the prosecution of this great 
work ; for he is sure that there will be a good 
bargain made by the farmers. The advance- 
ment of farming should excite an interest in 
the breast of every man ; for upon the success 
of the farmer greatly depends that of every 
trade and profession. 

Terms — One copy, ^1 ; six copies, $5 ; 
twelve copies, !^10; thirty copies, ^20 — inva- 
riably in advance. 

Advertisements. — A limiled number of 
advertisements will be inserted at the follow- 
ing rates : For one square of twelve lines, for 
each insertion, ^1 ; one square, per annum, 
$10; half column, do., PO ; one column, do., 
5^50 ; l-arger advertisements in proportion. 
JOHN F. TOMPKINS. 

Bath, N. C, April 1, 18.52. 



ARE PREPAEED TO EXECUTE ALL ORDERS OF 
WITH NEATNESS AND DESPATCH. 

GOLDSBORO', N. C. 



Table of Contents. 

Edgecombe Co. Agricultural Society, f 5 

Lime, (concluded, J 70 

B?ilky Horses, 81 

To Fatten Poultry, 81 
Reasons why Edgecombe has made such 

advancement in Farming, 81 

Guano, 83 

Our visit to Prof. Mapes, 84 

Our thanks to the Press, 84 

Fine Farms, 8.5 

Editors Table, 85 

F. L. Bond's Ware-Room, 86 

Thoughts by a Farmer, 86 

Agriculture the leading interest, 89 
Salt and Lime Mixture — Decomposition 

of Muck, &c. 90 

The Pleasures and Advantages of Labor, 9^ 

Farm Economy, 9'2 

Cheap Wash for Cottages of Wood, 93 

Raising Poultry, 94 

To prevent Botts in Horses, 95 

Occupation, 95 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



VOL. 1. 


BATH, N. C, JULY, 1852. 


NO 4. 




JOHN F. TOMPKINS, M. D., Editor and Proprietor. 


_- — -BI 



We lay before our readers the very 
interesting letter below, from !B. E. 
Emmous, the son of Dr. Emmons, who 
is making a survey of our State. The 
letter is well written and we have to 
congratulate curself upon having Mr. 
Emmons as a correspondent to the 
Farmer's Journal. Any thmg from 
his pen will be read with interest. We 
hope that after this our farmer's will 
cease to rest their lands and go to ma« 
nuring: 

The System of Resting compared 
with the system of Manuring. 

BY n. E. EMMONS. 

In the eastern part of North Carolina 
:wo systems of culture prevail. One 
may be called the system of resting, 
the other the system of manuring. The 
former has been and may be still the 
predominant system. The latter seems 
only to be coming into use. By the 
system of resting, I mean that plan of 
cultivating a given part of a plantation 
as long as it can possibly produce a 
crop without the addition or use of 
fertilizers, and when its cultivation no 
longer pays, it is turned out to recruit 
itself by a longer or shorter rest. By 
the system of manuring, I mean that 
plan of cultivation by which the culti- 
vated field receives supplies of nutri- 
ment, which successive crops recjuire, 
iand which they necessarily take from 



the soil, and thereby their original fer- 
tility is sustained. Which is the true 
system, or which system will pay the 
planter the best in a longf or short run? 
I shall maintain that the true system, 
the only system which should be follow- 
ed, is the system of manuring. To 
show the soundness of this position, let 
tis see what are the results which follow 
from the first system. 

In the first place, there is a gradual 
exhaustion, iis rapidity depending upon 
the crops which are cultivated. Chem- 
istry demonstrates and proves the fact, 
that every plant takes something from 
the soil. All plants and especially 
those which arc used for the food of man 
and animals, contain those elements 
which constitute the bene, muscle, 
nerve and blood of men and beasts. If 
these elements are consumed and re- 
moved from the plantation in any way 
then, so much is lost, the store of nu- 
triment is diminished. By repetitioa 
this store is so far exhausted that soon 
the supply is too little for the wants of 
a perfect plant, and the whole plant 
dwindles in size, the seed loses in 
weight, and the exhaustion may be 
carried so far as to fail to produce seed 
at all. Such will inevitably be the ef- 
fects of cultivation without manuring. 
Before the crop entirely iaiis, however, 
it IS deemed necessary to cease cuitiva'' 
ting it, and let it rest. Now what ar© 
the results of resting? Experience 



98 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



proves that after a field has lain a few 
years, it will again for a lime produce 
a tolerable crop. How is this, for none 
of the essential elements of bone, muscle 
and blood have been added during the 
time of rest? Still, it produces again, 
and this fact i believe, and indeed there 
is no doubt that it has led to, and per- 
petuated this erroneous system. The 
fact of its producing again is however 
esplainable : soil contains nutritive ele- 
ments in two states. In one state they 
are free or Euf&eienily so to be taken 
up by the roots of plants. In the 
other state they are locked up in com- 
binations which cannot be overcome by 
the roots of plants. To illustrate this 
position I will take a single element, 
potash. A portion of the potash is in 
combination with carbonic acid, or in 
combination with an organic acrd, and 
is therefore soluble. Potash plants can 
and will appropriate this salt of potash ; 
and in the end will take up all of it 
which IS in a condition to be taken up. 
So far then as potash is concerned and 
for potash plants, as tobacco, the soil is 
exhausted. But there is still potash in 
the soil, but it is in combination with 
silica. If the field is turned out to rest 
now, this silicate of potash will undergo 
changes by which it will become avail- 
able to plants. This is mainly effected 
through the influence of carbonic acid. 
It is however of no consequence to our 
argument now, how this liberation is 
obtained. It is a fact that by rest it is 
liberated and tobacco will grow again ; 
but then it is plain enough that the 
original stock of potash is being wholly 
eshausted, The land after its first 
rest requires a renewal of rest after a 
very short interval of cultivation, and 
those lands which are of a poorer sort, 
have finally to be abandoned for many 
•yea,rs. In the constitution, of the soils, 
1 may say of all soils, the valuable ele- 
ments, those which administer to the 
wants of the higher plants especially, 
are in very small proportions. We 
need not attempt to explain it, the fact 
is notorious. Modern chemistry has 
proved it over and over again, — ^com- 



mon observation proves it. If fur ex- 
ample a planter drops his seed into a 
marl bed or a manure heap, it comes 
invariably to nothing. But there must 
be a certain amount of these elements 
in the soil ; the air cannot furnish them. 
I'liG sinallnejs of the quantity renders 
them licible to exhaustion at an early 
day. 

B'.it there is another consequence 
which follows from or is a part of this 
system of rest, it is the necessity of 
cleariijg up new lands, and this after 
the number of cleared acres are already 
sufficient for profitable cultivation. — 
Taking the ordinary growth of timber 
and shrubs at the South, the expense of 
clearing per acre cannot be less than 
12 dollars, and the heavy timbered 
lands of the Roanoke and the valuable 
swamps cannot be less than 15 and pro- 
bably 20 dollars per acre. Now it is 
an erroneous view to take of this matter 
that these timbered lands areof little or 
no value while remaining in the condi- 
tion of forests. This however is a subject 
which requires too much time to speak 
of now, but the expense of clearing 
these wooded lands should be consider- 
ed, for I believe that this expense is 
three times as much as manuring. It 
is to be understood that the clearing of 
new lands is not for the purpose of in- 
creasing the necessary area of cultivable 
lands, but to furnish land as a substi- 
tute for those that are already worn out. 
With this view of the matter then, if 
but a part of the expenditure will suf- 
ficf: for manuring in some v/ay which 
it is necessary to expend in clearing 
then it appears to mo there can be no 
doubt of the preference which should 
be given to the latter system. The 
working of the system of resting too 
speaks for itself ; the deterioration in 
consequence of pursuing it is enough 
to satisfy most minds if they will leok 
at it. Where the system of manuring 
prevails, there the value of lands are 
high, while under the system of rest 
the value has in some cases been re- 
duced in the course of 30 or 40 years 
three-fourths. Under cue system the 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



99 



value of a plantation increases, under 
the other il is reduced. To pursue a 
system ot resting is like borrowing 
money to pay debts — the successive 
pay days must come and the borrower 
is out of pocket for interest. The sys- 
tem of rest obliges the owner finally to 
sell and move away. Years have roll- 
ed on under it ; the planter or farmer 
has but supported the family. The 
wealthy, those who have got rich while 
the soil was fertile and productive, ex 
tetid their plantations by purchase of 
ne fv lands, and they are enabled to live ; 
but in the majority cf cases five old 
plantations with venerable houses and 
tenants are sold for trifles, and the 
forraer owners emigrate to Texas, 
Florida or Arkansas. If such then 
are the results of a system of restino-, 
it should be wholly abandoned. If 
the system of manuring invariably 
causes a rise in a property, then it is 
extremely injudicious not to adopt it. 
Let farmers look the consequences and 
results in the face, and I think they 
will rarely hesitate which system is 
the best. 



For the Farmer's Journal. 
Edgecombe Co., May 24, '52. 
Dr. J no. F. Tompkins : — • 

Sir: According to yoiir request I at- 
tempt to give you a few of the particu- 
lars of my mode of farming, which on 
your reception you may dispose of as 
you think proper. Agricultural papers 
were the first to change my manner of 
farming to a somewhat better. Let me 
here remark a truth that has come 
under my observation, and the expe- 
rience of others I think will hold me 
out, that in each and every case, where 
a farmer has been pursuaded to take an 
agricultural paper and read it too, 
there has been a decided improve- 
ment in their farming Irom that very 
year. The next, if not equal to the 
first, was in visiting the faims of the 



that was to be learned, and to keep 
t'own pride and not feel ashamed to 



take pattern after others. who are doing 
better than myself. It is too often the 
case with farmers to remain at home 
until they come to the conclusion that 
they are doing as well as others if not 
bettor, and settle down into a degree of 
unbelief from which nothing can startle 
them. So. with reading and observation, 
I have learned some of the first import- 
ant truths in successful improvement in 
agriculture, one of which is draining, 
tvhich I have accomplished tolerably 
successful to myself Its effects are 
these — that my crops stand the wet 
and dry seasons much better, that the 
worms have ceased to trouble the young 
corn, that the hogs no longer fill up 
my ditches, finding no more earth 
worms to root after, thereby saving 
labour in cleaning them out, to say 
nothing about the healthiness of it. — 
The eaithor mud which is taken out of 
drains, is worth more in making com- 
post heaps, and filling up the lots, than 
all the labor spent m cutting them, if 
they were of no other benefit. Instead 
of ditches bting a great necessary evil, 
they are looked upon in a great many 
places with us,as veins are to the animal 
body running through every part, carry- 
ing with them the elements of fertili'y 
by the mud upon its banks; so the great- 
er number in reason the better, thereby 
making it more convenient for carrying 
it a shorter distance. The next thing 
I loarned was to plow deeper and deep^ 
er by degrees, until I have succeeded 
in getting a tolerable deep and good 
soil, in some places without ever having 
put any fertilizing manures on thern. 
By turning up the subsoil pregnant 
with valuable minerals which is often 
superior to the old wornout soil upon the 
top, from a once reputed sandy soilj 
by plowing down and mixing the clay 
with it, it appears to have changed its 
appearance, and to have a greater tena- 
city for holding manure. Taking the 
cost into consideration, the amount of 
deep plowing that I have had done, 



greatest reputed improvement in the 

community, with the object to learn all Has paid more profit than any other 



abor done on the farm, the burning and 
applying of ashes for manure excepted, 



100 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL, 



my mode of which I may speak of ano- 
ther time. The next thing in &uccess- 
ful farming is the raising of manure by 
every means in one's power either by 
Lorse, cow or hog lots, coraposl; and 
ashes. There arc some among us who 
ought to know better, say that it will 
not pay ; but there are many who have 
cause to rejoice m the contrary, which 
seems to have awakened a new spring 
ia their interest for farming, and are 
glad that they have been permitted to 
live in this age of raanuiing, making 
such cheerfulness ainong the old farm- 
ers never seen here before,andsre often 
heard to say, "0 ! that we could have 
known these things before, what farms 
■we v/ould have had, what have we been 
at?" — more especially aftur they find it 
&o easy a matter to raise more good 
manure than thpy think can be possibly 
hauled out. M}'' usual way, (and I 
bfclieve it is generally the case with us,) 
is to fill the lots so soon as the crop is 
done, with any earth or litter that is 
convenient, a foot or tft'o deep. When- 
ever the stalls are cleaned out carry 
the contents out, and mix with mud or 
soil; so with a little leaven, you leaven 
a large heap. When the cow lots are 
well trampled, make new ones in the 
same way, which may be done some 
four or five times in a year. Plow up 
the old ones and throw them up ia 
long beds with shovels, being more 
convenient, and not so much surface 
exposed for evaporationj then sow them 
with turnips. I have found that the 
manure and turnips are equal to three 
times the value of the earth. I prepare 
the hog lots in the same way, and find 
the manure nearly equal in value to the 
food they have consumed. A'Hother 
mode of making manure is by compost- 
ing cotton seed with layers of earth and 
seed, and compost ashes in like manner. 
With these and similar nieans, I hauled 
out last Spring ten thousand five hun- 
dred loads, tvv'o thirds of them ox loads; 
done by twenty hands, including men, 
women and children.beiug all the hands 
that were worked on the farm. Others 
np doubt have done better. In prepa- 



ring for planting, 1 first lay ofi'my rows, 
the course and widih they are intended 
to remain year after year, with respect 
to the ditches, fences or paths, so as to 
loose the least ground, and lor conve- 
nience of getting about the farm, and 
the saving of selling up and running 
to slakes every year. I planted corn 
this^ear on land that was ia cotton lasE 
with only four furrows, breaking.streak- 
ing and checking, all done by the four 
furrows, simply using a two hoiSD 
plow for throwing two furrows togeth- 
er, and splitting the remaining space 
with a double mould-board plow, and 
checking in the usual way. By which 
is saved an endless process of beginnirg 
to break the ground in December and 
ending in I\]arch. I planted cotton 
with only four furrows this year, having 
the old ones to go by, which was pre- 
pared similar to the corn ground;-imply 
by reveising the order of planting, you . 
have a high and dry ridge for cotton — 
and by running a subsoil plow in the 
first farrow it is pretty well subsoiled. 
Those who saw the preparation of my 
cotton ground said it was very well 
done. In the tillage of cotton I find 
four or five times plowinof well done, 
equal to a dozen poorly done. Plow it 
as soon as it is well up before chopping, 
so by cutting ofFa|l scattering stalks, 
thereby leaving it out of the power of 
carelesshands to leave them for a s'and; 
likewise leaving them in a straight line 
which makes it easier to plow ever af- 
terwards. Another reason for plowing 
before chopping is that it can be done 
faster, being always a plenty left for a 
stand if some should get covered up, 
and can plow closer; also throw loos© 
dirt to the young cotton for bracing it 
against the first chopping, which always 
falls badly at first, especially if put to a 
stand at the first chopping, which I 
always prefer. I prefer a small quan- 
tify of seed as it takes less tim.e to put 
it to a stand and less subject to disease, 
as all crowded nature cloth teach ns, 
for which I prefer one stalk in a place. 
As soon as chopped out it should be 
sidedjleaving the middles^ which should 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



101 



be split with a double mould-board plow 
at some future time when needed. As 
to ^e culture of coru, I find three plow- 
infTS sufficient, — first with a cultivator, 
the other two in the usual \yay. I ,use 
tlie same tools in the same way for 
making potatoe ridges that I use in 
cotton and coru, and find them all 
sufficient. * ' * * * 



For the Farmer's Journal. 
Doctor Tompki/is :-~ As agricultural 
informarion should be public propert}^, 
it becomes the duty of every man to 
publish such information as he may 
])03se?s for the benefit of his neighbors. 
He who will examine nature, will find 
that a bouulilul Providence has made 
most plenty what is the most useful to 
man, and to each section has distribu- 
ted his bounties as they are most need- 
ed. Ti) the eastern part of the State 
he has given us an annual migration of 
vast numbers of fish, which are taken 
at great expense of labor and money, 
principally as an article of commerce ; 
and the oflal or trimmings, with the 
refuse fish, are used as manure. The 
usual mode of which, is to bury either 
with the plough or hoe, the offal from 
ten or a dozen herrings in a hill, and 
plant corn on each side of it. As fish 
offal is exceedingly rich in nitrogenized 
matter, il is a most powerful fertilizer. 
My object in this communication, is to 
suggest a more economical mode of 
using it. Fish oflai possesses the prin- 
ciple ingredient which gives such as- 
tonishing fertilizing properties to Pe- 
ruvian guano. (its nitrogen ) Suppose its 
volatile principal could be fixed, or pre 
vented from escaping into the atmos- 
phere, a much smaller quantity than 
is now put in a hill would suffice. If 
such be the case, we should manure a 
much larger piece of land than we now 
do, and reap a corresponding benefit, 
How IS this to be done? Simply by 
converting fish ofial into artificial 
guano, or in other words, by fixing its 
fertilizing properties so as to prevent 
their so rapid volatilization. This can 
be done very economically, botia as to 



cost and labor. The mode I would sug- 
gest, would be to construct a vat, made 
tight to prevent leakage, which can be 
done by calking or puttying the cracks 
with fine clay ; put into i' ten parts(by 
weight) fish cffal, to one of common 
salt, (cloride of sodiumjand one of gyp- 
sum (sulphate of lime) commonly call- 
ed plaster of Paris.with as much swamp 
mud or vegetable mould, as the judge- 
ment of any practical man will direct; 
incorporate them well together, and 
you will have a compost far superior to 
fish offal alone. Not that it is stronger 
or even so strong, but because it is 
sufficiently strong, and wnll hold its 
strength a great while longer. I will 
venture to say. that of the ofFa! that our 
farmers put into the hill, if none of it 
disappeared but what was consumed by 
the plant, there would be sufficient to 
make half a dozen crops. I'he farmer 
who uses it in the present manner, is 
like the man who killed his pork' and 
put it away without salt ; he eat what 
he coiild, and the rest took wings and 
fliew away. Whilst he v/ho makes it 
into a compost, uses what he requires 
for the present, and the balance re- 
mains for future use. Why does an 
old dung-hill remain rich so long ? 
Simply because its fertilizing proper- 
ties are composted away, to remain 
from year to year, and only so much is 
consumed as the plant by its-vegetable 
chemistry appropriates to itself. 
Very respectfully yours, 



liCtter to the Editor. 

Takeoro', N. C. June 1,'52. 
D?". Tompkins: 

Dear Sir : — When I took upon my- 
self the responsibility of soliciting sub- 
scribers for your Journal, I thought 
there would be no one in Edgecombe 
that would object to subscribing. 13ut, 
Sir, 1 find that there are many who 
still are of the opinion that a farmer 
gams nothing by reading an agricul- 
tural paper. I applied to some who 
boast of being great farmers, and I 
found that they had never paid one cent 



102 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



for an agricultural paper, and they 
would say that they had read some 
papers which did them more harm than 
good,and declare that they are opposed to 
book farming altogether. I see plain- 
ly that the horse shoe is still hung over 
the doors for the purpose of keeping 
off' witches and hobgoblins, &c. I iu- 
tend still to try and get more sub- 
scribers for your paper. I have re- 
ceived your April and iVIay number, 
and one copy is worth more than 1 
pay for the whole years subscription. 
I will now tell you what 1 have been 
doing in the way of farinmg. In 1849 
I worked 23 hands, 6 of them men, the 
rest women and children. I made 90 
bags of cotton, 800 barrels of corn. In 
1850, I worked 26 hands, 7 of them 
men, the rest women and children, and 
made 123 bags of cotton, G50 barrels of 
corn. In 1851, 27 hands, 9 of them 
men, the rest women and children, and 
made 167 bags, (400 lb, bales) cotton, 
6U0 barrels corn, besides raising a large 
quantity of oats and potatoes. This 
year I work 30 hands, 7 of them men, 
the rest women boys and children. — 
Since the first of January 1852. my 
overseer raised and hauled out 22000 
loads of good manure, besides hauling 
a large quantity of ditch bank, and 
swamp mud. But sir, I am like most 
of farmers. I own too much land for 
my force. I have at least 1100 acres 
ot cleared land now under fence. I 
cannot tend more than one third of it, 
aftd that not tilled in the way I wish, 
Now, I would like to know what I must 
do with the remainder so as to turn it 
out the most profitable, &c. 

Below you will find a list of the sub- 
scribers to your Journal, making the 
number 90, which I have sent you. 
You will also find enclosed, twenty 
dollars. It is the request of the sub- 
foribers that you send them the back 
numbers of your Journal. 

Yours with respect, 



A muck swamp is of more value to a 
farmer than a mine of gold and silver. 



For the Farmer's Journal. 
Doctor Tompkins : — I have been 
much gratified in seeing that you have 
surmounted every difficulty, and com- 
menced ihe publication of an agricul- 
tural paper in our Slate, and it is to be 
hoped that this Journal will not share 
the same fate of the one some time 
since attempted at Raleigh. 

It is to be expected that the planters 
of N. C. will not be so indifferent to 
their own interest as to suffer your en- 
terprise to fail for want of patronage. — 
To make your paper interesting and 
useful, I deem it also necessary, that 
it is the duty o( every farmer to contrib- 
ute whatever knowledge he may have 
derived from practical experience. By 
that means the young and new begin- 
ner will receive information that would 
have cost him years of labour to have 
acquired, and very often the contents 
of one such communication is worth 
more to him than the whole years sub- 
scription. 

In fulfilling this duty, I forward you 
the following short communication : 
To Destroy and Remove Ticks and 
Lice from Animals., 
In my observations on my own farm 
and also on viewing the stock of my 
neighbours, I have been struck with 
horror at the sight ; and have come to 
the conclusion that tifks and lice have 
caused the poverty and death of more 
cattle and hogs than disease or any thing 
else. ^ 

We have in our southern country 
the common woods lick which is of 
large size when grown. These make 
their appearance in the Spring, the 
seed tick in the summer, the yearling 
and shingling tick in the fall and winter, 
the latter of which is more to be dread- 
ed than all the others ; they come to bo 
very large when full grown and will 
hold nearly a spoon full of blood, and 
if not removed will become so numer- 
bus as to cover the whole carcass. The 
reason I presume why they have taken 
the name of shingling, is that when th« 
larger ones have peiforated the thick 
Bkiujthe smaller one's moved by instinet 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



ros! 



to do the same, but lacking strength and 1 
bill sufficient, seek to lake advantage, 
crawl under and insert their own bills in 
the same apertures which have already 
been opened by their sires ; and in this 
way a continual succession go on, and 
the life blood of the poor beast is 
drained ; producing disease, poverty, 
and death, by these abominable crea- 
tures. After trying many remedies to 
exterminate them, 1 find the most eflFect- 
ual one is,to take tobacco and red cedar 
berries, sufficient to make a strong 
decoction, strain off the hquid and mix 
fish oil and a small cpanmy of tar suffi- 
eient to cause it to stick. 

My practice is to keep a common 
paint keg always at the cow lot, with 
directions that as soon as it is discov- 
ered that the animal has licks or lice 
on them, to apply a small quantity of 
this mixture by dipping a small brush or 
mop in it, and rub the part well where 
they are discovered, and if it is well 
done, I will injure the immediate dis- 
truciion of all it is applied to. 

J. B. Mahsii. 

lielmont, May, 1852. 



For the Farmer's Jonrnal. 
DiccoTEAUX, near Wilmington, ) 
N. C, May, 1852. \ 

M R. N. LONGWORTPI : 

Dear Sir: — Your letter published in 
the ^^ Daily CincinJiati Commercial" of 
February 26lh, reached me in due time. 
1 thank you for having thought of me 
by sending me your valuable experience 
as far as co?icer /is your peculiar locality. 

It would be well to clearly locate and 
properly qualify such expressions as 
the following, for fear of discouraging 
others from making further trials : ''i 
have tested, for 35 years, a great num- 
ber of foreign vines, from the Northern, 
Southern, and middle parts of Europe, 
yet never found one suited to our 
elimate." Observe, air, '■•our climate,'^ 
ia a very broad and vague expression 
as applied to so vast a country as the 
United States, and containing so great 
a diversity of " climaies." There is no 
doubt that is yoin: experience, about 



Cincinnati ; but pray, sir, stop there, 
or else ynu will go beyond the proper 
limits of your observation. I think 
you are rather disposed to generalize 
too much on a subject, that it took all 
united Europe, more than 18 centuries 
to arrive at a correct result. 

The history of the introduction of 
the vine in Europe, is too well known 
to you to need its being here but mere- 
ly alluded to. That history warns us 
to be careful and cautious how we shall 
arrive at any conclusion with respect 
10 its introduction iyiio the United States. 
We must preach the doctrine, "try all 
kinds of vines, and adopt those that are 
best suited to your respective locality^^'' 
and that is not only the wisest system, 
but the only one that is going to suc- 
ceed, in my humble opinion. Let each 
act upon this plan, and independently 
of each other, and then each will find 
out in the course of lime, what is best 
for each of us. This is true experimen- 
tal philosophy; this is not putting the 
extinguisher over the minds of others,, 
and barr "the eflbits of generations to, 
come, who no doubt will be made wiser 
by our present trials, and even blun- 
ders. It is a glaring fact to all those who. 
have travelled and observed the produc- 
tion of the vine in North Carolina, that 
even in its natural and wild uncultiva- 
ted condition, it possesses a very high 
character^ whether it be North or South,. 
East or West ; each particular locality- 
possessing its peculiar advantages as, 
to soil and climate ; but adapted to, 
each variety that predominates for its 
excellence. You, as far as we know,are 
correct, when you state, '■Hhat north- 
ern parts of N. 0. will furnish a great- 
er variety of native grapes, and of better 
quality, both for the table and for wines, 
than any other Slate." And still that is 
jumping at conclusions, my dear sir: 
because you happen to have got the Ca- 
tawba, originating from that region, to 
have succeeded remarkably well with 
you^i it is no reason that others, and 
better ones, should not exist. The 
Scuppernong and, its varieties here. 
which are peculiar to the East, neai'i 



104 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



the Ocean, which is emphatically their 
locality, are of a much superior quality 
than the Catawba, or any other within 
my knovrledge ; and because they may 
not do well in your locality, you must 
Dot frown on thsm, JMy neighbor, Gen. 
A. McEae, has made Champaigne with 
the jmrefcrmaitcd juice ol the Scupper- 
nong. Vfhich 1 question whether one 
you made with the Catawba, is equal 
to U, There is a lanquet imparted by 
the scuppernong, that the catawba can 
never have. So you see, sir, that Drs. 
will differ. But to return to my maxim, 
HxmQ will settle all these mooted points." 

That wretched drugged stuff hag 
been sold under the name of Scupper- 
nong V/i'/ie, which is but a poor bever- 
age manufactured with this grape by 
ignorant persons, I do most positively 
affirm ; but that is no proof of Us capa- 
bilities. Wliat has been thus made is 
no tvine, in the true meaning of the 
word, for it is not fermented. A pretty 
stuff, indeed, to be raised to the high 
honor and dignity of a genuine wine! 
Still, sir, the scuppernong and its va- 
rieties, by their many good qualities, 
are destined to raiih as the chavipaignc 
grape par excellence. 

I am at issue with you, if you mean 
to say that a Southern climate, such as 
the best of lands in N. C, and South 
Carolina, embracing these States and 
Avest of them, is not superior to the one 
you inhabit for the culture of the grape. 
Then it is all a fancy, to think any 
longer, that it is its southern climate 
and mean temperature, that imparts to 
the productions of tbe grape of the 
happy sunny regions and hills of South 
of France, of Italy, of Southern S^ain 
and Hungary, the highest character to 
their respective wines! 

Much more might be said, my dear 
sir, on these, interesting topics ; but 
these few remarks, meant in the kind- 
est way, must suffice for the present. 

If I- had. your pecuniary means I 
would soon show you the capabilities of 
otir N. C Scuppernong. 

Very respectfully yours, 

Joseph Togno, 



From the Phila. Sat. Courier. 
Importance of Analysis. 

" You know very well," Science said, 
'■ how your neighbor, old Peter Stub- 
born, went into ihe nest State to buy a 
farm. The owner knew what the farm 
was, and advertised it in spring time, 
when he expected damp weather. I 
advised Peter to take me with him to 
view the strata of rocks below, and to 
analyze the soil on the surface ; to see 
how it laid for draining, and what as- 
pect it presented to the atmosphere. I 
told him I could save him my expenses 
many times over. But Peter scorned 
my advice — he thought he had worked 
more land than I had, and was as good 
a judge of land as any man in the 
State; and he set off, muttering some- 
thing about 'not letting book-tvortES 
make money out of him.' He walked 
carefully over the farm — it looked 
green and flourishing, and not swampy 
even in that damp, wet weather. He 
was delighted with it, and gave forty 
dollars an acre for 300 acres. He paid 
his 12,000 dollars, and took possession^ 
But in the summer time, as 1 passed 
that way, I found that so much praised 
farm burnt up almost with drought, 
and its vegetation drooping and pant- 
ing for moisture, which the soil could 
not supply! Peter had bought alight, 
sandy soil, lying upon what we call, 
geologically, a coal formaiion, with a 
pretty decided slope towards the east- 
ward. ] took a little of the soil and 
analyzed it, and showed him what it 
contained. In one hundred parts there 
were about 90 parts of sand, 5 parts of 
clay, 2 parts of the oside ^f iron, and 3 
parts of organic matter and soluble 
salts, Now, I said, this soil will be 
beautifully productive in wet weather, 
but will be parched in dry weather. 

" Ah," he said, " that was how I was 
taken in. I saw it in a wet spring sea- 
son." 

" If," Science rejoined, " you had 
taken me with you, I would have taken 
a handlul of this soil from various parts 
of the farm, and would have told you 
exactly what it contained, as I do now, 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



105 



I would have told you that sand, which 
predomiuales here, cannot easily retain 
moisture when the sun acts powerfuUy 
on it, as the air readily blows into it 
and the moisture flies off; — neverthe- 
less, 1 would have told you that in cer- 
tain positions this soil might be made 
fruitful, if it lay upon a favorable geo- 
logical formation, and with a moist, at- 
mospheric aspect. I should then have 
examined the geological strata here, 
and have told you it was on a coal for- 
matiot), consisting of beds of limestone 
and blue shale, near the surfare, which 
generally underlays the worst lands — 
and sloping so rapidly towards the east, 
the moi.'^ture would drain away through 
the sands and down the slope, while 
the east wind, the most drying and 
piercing of all winds, wi-uid blow with 
its keen, droughty brea'.h j?iio the sandy 
soil, driving out that moi-sture which 
had not drained away ; that in summer 
your crops would be impoverished, and 
in long droughts probably would not 
grow at all. I could have shown you 
all this, and yoi5 vvould have known 
that the farm was of small value, and 
paved yonr money. Your ignorance 
has caused you to throw away as much 
as you have made in many years cf 
hard work. But,"' I continued. " since 
you have bought it, I can instruct you 
how to improve it. by mixing with other 
soils, and to make a profit from it by 
showing you the composition of the 
land, and the kind of plants it will best 
grow. To gain this knovv'ledge will 
cost you something." 

"O! then," said Stubborn, "I will 
have nothing to do with it, for the place 
lias cost mo too much already." 

I left him to his own course. Now, 
if Stubbo-n had spent a few dollars a 
year in buying books and attending 
lectures, and had employed his hours 
spent in patching up old harness, or in 
taking a sleep over his fire in winter 
evenings, — in reading, study, and expe- 
riment, he would have saved some 
thousands of dollars in his farm, and 
would have known how to make the 
best of it when he had got it. Bat he 



thought me too expensive at a few dol- 
lars and a few evenings per annum, 
and took his own course. He is out of 
pocket by it. He is an extravagant and 
a spendthrift man, though he thinks 
himself saving, even to penury. 

Then, again, on a smaller scale, you 
have another instance. Your neigh- 
bor, Timothy Hearsay, heard that plas- 
ter of Palis was a fine manure, and had 
produced, for a friend of his, a wonder- 
ful crop of turnips. I sa\/ Hearsay 
car'.ing on to his twelve acre field an 
immense quantity of gypsum (or plaster 
of Paris ) I asked him why he did so; 
he said a friend had found it to be a 
good thing for turnips. I asked him 
if he knew what his soil was made of 
— and what the crop he wished to raise 
was composed of. He said he did not, 
I pointed out to him the folly of apply- 
ing a manure which either his soil 
might have in abundance already, or 
which his crop might not require at ai!. 
He gave me an impertinent reply, and 
I possed on. Pie sowed wheat, and had 
a bad crop. I could have told him that 
if he had analyzed good wheat, it.s ash- 
es would not contain above a two hun- 
dred and fiftieth part of plaster to the 
whole — scarcely a trace, and therefore 
in putting gypsurfj to wheat, he put 
what the plant did not live on, and 
would not eat, so to speak. Hence i^s 
labor had been quite useless, and his 
plaster, which cost him, in purchase 
money and labour, thirty dollars, was 
worse than money thrown away. By 
his not. taking me for his guide, he 
spent thirty dollars of hard TOo/ie?y,and 
lost, as far as that field was concernedj 
a year of valuable, irredeemable iirde. 
He looked puzzled at the result, and 
wondered how his friend's turnips 
prospered so well with plaster and his 
wheat so badly. I took a turnip and 
analyzed it ; I showed him that the 
ashes of its root contained 25 per cent, 
of sulphuric acid and lime, and the ash- 
es of its leaves contained no less than 
39 per cent. — proving that nearly one 
third of the whole incombustible matter 
of the plant consisted of the same sub' 



^06 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



stance as plaster of Paris,* which it 
suckeii up from the soil. "Thus you 
see," I said, "the turnip lives greatly 
on ihis manure, while wheat scarcely 
touches it ; a turnip grows fat ou the 
food that wheat would starve with. — 
Had you known the composition of 
wheat and turnips, you would have 
saved your money and crops." 

By and by, Hearsay heard it report- 
ed that I had ,«aid plaster of Pans was 
an excellent thing for clover. To re- 
deem his character, he bought a lot 
more, and applied it with the assurance 
of being right this time. He top-dress- 
ed 12 acres of a 14 acre field in spring, 
with 3 cwt. to the acre, and triumphant- 
ly waited the result. Excessive was 
his chagrin when he found the two 
acres untouched were, if anything, bet- 
ter than the remaining twelve acres he 
had so expensively manured. He com- 
plained to me. I asked him, as before, 
if heknew "the constituents of his soil, 
whether it needed plaster of Paris; and, 
of his crop, whether it required it for 
food 1" No, he said, he had heard 
from me that clover contained plaster 
of Paris, arid he thought he was doing 
light to^ give it some — but he knew no- 
thing about the soil. 

Science analyzed his soil, and found 
that it contained, naturally fresh and 
tincshausted, an abundance of gypsum. 

"Ah, Hearsay,'' said Science, "what 
you would save if you would let me 
come and live with you. I could have 
told you your soil had abundance of 
plaster already ; it wanted no more ; 
and your purchasing plaster, and haul- 
ing it so many miles, was as wise as if 
you had hauled a ton of ooals twenty 
miles, to burn at the mouth of a coal 
pit, where they were lying blocking up 
■the entrance. Here is more money 
thrown away." 

Hearsay took Science to live with 
him at once. He cost him four or 
'five dollars a yeai-, but he raises, ex- 



*PlMter of Paris, or Gypsum, is \.\\e salt, 
^i^^hate cflime, being a combination of sulpliu- 
,mc aoid and lime. 



pands. and delights his mind. In dark 
winter nights, he shows him the beau- 
tiful resources of nature ; they make 
wonderful experiments, which instruct 
and amuse themselves, and teach his 
family. He sees the glorious wisdom 
of our Almighty Father, and he saves 
money and labor at every turn and all 
the year round. 

"Now, friend Practice," continued 
Science, "I won't keep you standing- 
much longer, lest 1 should tire you, 
which I make a rule never to do with 
my pupils ; but I will just give you 
another example how I can save farm- 
ers the small expanse of my mainte- 
nance and residence with them. You 
know your intelligent friend, Sidney 
Experiment, over at TrialValley Faim. 
I had a preat respect for Experiment ; 
he had an a?tive, inquiring mind ; tiied 
all new manure?, and all new plants. 
In some things he succeeded — but in 
more things he failed He often con- 
sulted me, wishing to know if this was 
a good manure for wheat, or that a good 
manure for corn, if this would producu 
a good yield, or that a fine pasture. — 
He used to spend an immense amount 
of money in artificial fertilizers. He 
sent to Peru for Guano— to India ior 
Nitrate of Soda. He burnt down for- 
ests to make potashes — and dug im- 
mense pits to procure brine, and make 
salt. He roasted iron pyrites to make 
sulphuric acid — and made a general 
gathering of bones. In short, he tried 
every thing he could hear of. I often 
pressed him to begin at the beginning, 
and study agriculture as a Science — 
to study first his Land, then his Crops — 
and then his mcmures ; but he was so 
busy with his experiments he had not 
time — nor did he believe me when I 
told him that such a study would per- 
haps save him years of time, which he 
was spending in hap-hazard expeii- 
menis, and expensive, perhaps fruitless, 
or even injurious efforts at manuring. 
I made no impression upon him. He 
worked in his own way, gaining littla 
wisdom, and losing many golden op- 
portunities lor acquiring solid knovx- 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



lor 



l-edge and substantial profits. 

'•One day I called upon him, and 
observed him standing beside a work- 
man, who was culling a tiench to carry 
off a quantity of brown foeid liquid, 
which had gathered in holes in the 
farm-yard, and was sufficient, as he 
gaid, to breed a fever or a pestilence. 
He was going to drain it all into a riv- 
alet. which ran past his house, and so 
get rid of it. Stop, said I, before you 
do that, bring; me a bucket full of that 
liquid. Now, Mr. Experiment, you 
send all the way to Peru, and bring 
guano at a cost of 40 to 50 dollars per 
ton — from India you bring nitrate of 
soda at a cost of seventy dollars per ion 
— bones you gather, grind, and dissolve 
in sulphuric acid, ai a cost of not less 
than fifty or sixty dollars per ton — and 
even at those prices, with judicious ap- 
plication, they are good and profitable 
manures. But is it not wonderful, that 
while you gather these things from 
afar, at a vast expense, and npply them 
with assiduous care, you should throw 
them away when found at your very 
door, blended and mixed in most valua- 
ble proportions, and all ready for use? 
This dirty liquor you are throwing 
away, holds all these ready dissolved, 
and you might as well, and as wisely, 
empty into your rivulet bags ofguano, 
barrels of nitrate of soda, carboys of 
sulphuric acid and bushels of bones. — 
You look amazed. Yet so it is. 

" Inquire how this liquor came into 
those duty pools. It has run from your 
stables and cow-houses, in the form of 
urine, washing down in its course the 
richest of the saline particles of the 
manure lying there. It has also run 
from that large dung-hill, where vege- 
table and animal substances are decay- 
ing and fermenting ; generating, in that 
process of decay, the most valuable of 
all fertilizers. They generate and give 
off carbonic acid gas, one of the most 
nutritious of the foods of plants ; and 
as rainwater falls upon and runs 
through this dunghill, it absorbs this 
carbonic acid, and carries it off with it 
10 the pool of dirty water beneath. Hu- 



mic acid is formed in this heap, by the 
same decomposition, and is so nutritious 
a food for plants, that one and a half 
per cent, of it m a soil would throw 
Liebig into raptures. A portion of 
this is washed down into that dirty 
water. From the ashes and sweepings 
of your house, thrown on this manure 
heap, as well as from the decay of it& 
general matter, a liquid ley is drained, 
which everybody knuws contains potash, 
for which you cut down your forests. 
Again, wherever the decomposition of 
this dung-hill goes on in contact with 
the open air, corrosive acid is formed 
called nitric acid, which is the aquafor- 
tis of the shops, in a state of chemical 
combination with the decaying matter. 
To obtain this valuable salt artificially,, 
you would have to purchase sulphuric 
acid and saltpetre, and mingle them 
together. Yet here you have it ready 
foimtd, and washed into this dirty 
water. This nitric acid, combining 
with the potash, which we just noticed 
as being washed out of the dung hill, 
makes the nitrate of potash — a manure 
for which you would have to pay seven- 
ty or eighty dollars per ton. This same 
nitric acid, combining with the soda in 
the vegetable mass, makes the nitrate 
of soda which you bring from the East 
Indies. From ihe water which has 
flowed out of your cow-barns, piggerie&> 
and stables, are produced the very sub- 
stances for which you so much value 
the guano of distant Peru. Ammonia, 
urea, and phosphates of lime and soda, 
are found in considerable proportion in 
this waste liquor. Gro into your stable 
after it has been pent tip all night, and 
you will find the efiluvia of the ammo- 
nia sometimes strong enough to make 
your eyes smart and intercept your 
breath. Take a little guano in a spoon, 
wet it with water, and mix a pinch of 
quicklime in powder with it to disen- 
gage the ammonia, and then smell it ; 
it will have a powerful and pungent 
odour of the sal ammonia, or volatile 
salts of the druggist; take a spoonful 
of this liquor, as it lies rotting and fer- 
menting in the sun, dash in a smalii 



108 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



powdering of quick-lime, and the am- 
raoniacal gas will fly off with similar 
though weaker effect. Take a thou- 
sand ounces of the urine as it flows into 
the puddle, analyze it, and you ■will 
find it contains 55 ounces of aonmonia 
and urea. I^i ICOO ounces of the gu- 
ano of Peru, by analysis, you will iJncl 
210 ounces of these sanje peculiar and 
powerful chemical agents, not quite 
four times as much, — which proves that, 
in this respect, this dirty filth is worth 
rather more than one-fourth of the 
value of guano : in other words, that 
less than 4 lbs. of this liquid, which you 
were going to dram cfi" by the hun- 
dreds of gallons, is equal in value to i 
lb. of guano. In this analysis you will 
find 8 ounces of the phosphates of am- 
monia, lime or magnesia — the agents 
for which you purchase and dissolve 
"bones ; and about 7 ounces of the sul- 
phates of ammonia and soda, vs^iih 2 or 
3 ounces of common salt; all valuable 
manures, 

'' Thus, Experiment, you would have 
drained away the constituent parts of 
your most valuable and cosily manures. 
Had I been with you, I would have 
taughc you to fix those escaping am- 
moniacal gases which poison your sta- 
bles, and float into the air from your 
dung-hi!l, to the prejudice of the health 
of your animals and your neighborhood ; 
to preserve most carefully all that brown 
waste liquor, either by drains leading 
into tanks, or by draining it into a 
watertight pond beside your manure 
heap, and every other d^ baling it into 
the heap with dry sulphuric acid (or 
plaster of Paris,) to fix its evaporating 
gases, and thus add richea equal to your 
imported manures, daily to your com- 
post, and FREE OF COST TOO. You, of 
all men in the world, must study na- 
ture chemically and scientifically. Let 
me come and live with you, and in your 
leisure hours I will teach you the value 
of the old proverb — ' That muck is the 
mother of money.' " 

Science has lived with him since, 
and he finds the acquisition of Know- 
ledge quite a simple and a pleasant 



thmg ; he smiles at his I'ormer blunders, 
and sees how much he has lost by noi 
beginning his acquaintance sooner.. 



Agricultural Advice. 
By the kindness of the gentleman 
for whom it was prepared, we are en- 
abled to present to our readers, one of 
Prof. Mapes' letters of advice. ^ Any 
scientific farmer can at once perceive 
the benefit to be derived from such 
counsel. — Ed. of Jour, of Agriculture. 

Neware,N, J.,Feb. 1, 1852. 

Dear Sir : — Your favor of the 13tli 
ultimo is received, in which you stat'O 
that you have a supply of '• meadow 
muck, lime, salt, charcoal dust, and 
guano." You do not say if you have 
stable and farmyard manure, but I 
shall take it for granted that you have, 
or will have, a supply. 

Meadow Muck, — ^The value of this 
depends upon its lightness when dry, 
as the best quality (containing mosS 
vegetable matter) is always light. — 
The great value of this anicle is to 
supply organic m-atkr to the soil, anrl 
to act as an absorbent and retabier of 
ammonia in the compost heap ; when 
properly decomposed, it is nearly or 
c[uitG equal to charcoal dust as an ab- 
sorbent of ammonia. 

Tfv.eatment. — Meadow muck should 
be thrown into heaps, or ridges, noi 
more than three feet high, and be ex- 
posed to the freezings and thawings of 
one winter before it is ready for further 
treatment ; it may then be decompos- 
ed by the salt and lime mixture, which 
will render it pulverulent and well 
suited as a divisor for more costly ma- 
nures. (See WorJung Farmer.^ vol. 1, 
pp. 4 and 16.) 

To each half cord of muck add four 
bushels of the salt and lime mixture, 
and if the haap be kept fairly moist, 
and not over wet, it will be finished in 
thirty, sixty, or ninety days, according 
to the wartnth of the weather. When 
finished, this may be called prepared 
muck, and as such may be used to un- 
derlay the bedding of horses and cat- 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



109 



tie ; absorbing the urine and "render- 
iag the stable inodorous. 

in my stable I have it arranged 
thus : — Under the cattle and horses 
the ground is dug out in a semicircle, 
and filled up to the level with prepared 
muck, the bedding overlaying. — 
As they void their urine, it passes 
down through the bedding, into the 
muck, and when they lie down at 
night the warmth of their bodies as- 
sists to decompose the muck. The 
same amount of urine, running to a 
cistern and becoming coldbef(jre being 
usedtin muck, will decompose but one- 
twelfth the quantity ; — in othev words, 
prepared muck should receive the 
urine before it loses the animal warmth. 

This gutter on channel is four feet 
wide, and 5 1-2 (eet deep in the mid- 
dle, holding 7 half cofds, which are 
removed every ten days to ihe manure 
ghed, and a simdar quantity replaced 
in the gutter. The solid excrement is 
removed to the manure shed every 
morning, and eighteen times iis bulk 
of prepared muck thrown over it ; the 
two lurnishing 14 half cords every 
10 days, and about an equal quantity 
of-, each. Thus you will perceive, that 
as compared with the open barnyard 
praclxce, I make 36 times the bulk of 
manure, and of an equal value per 
cord. Let me advise you to sink a 
cistern or hogshead in the ground, at 
the lowest point of your manure shed, 
to receive the drainage of the manure 
heap, and place a pump in it by means 
of which the drainage may be pumped 
back on top the heap twice in each 
week. If the cistern should be empty, 
add water, and continue to do so until 
ihe heap will supply its own drainage. 
Manure thus made will not Jire-fang, 
nor decrease materially in bulk, and 
will not require turning, as the stable 
portions of every layer will be carried 
through every other layer at each pump- 
ing. The wash of the house, or any 
other soluble material may be thrown 
into this cistern and thus find its way 
throughout the heap. 

You will observe the difference be- 



tween prepared muck, and muck com" 
posted with ma7iiire. 

The preparation of muck by the sali; 
and lime mixture does not render its 
ultimate particles soluble ; it only ren- 
ders them pulverulent^ and ready to 
act as an absorbent of fiuids or of am- 
monia, or to be finally decomposed 
when composted with other fermentable 
substances. Its value when so used, 
may be thus understood. The pure 
excretice of animals, when fermented 
to decomposition alone, lose more than 
half their value in the form cf result- 
ant gases,ammonia,&c., which is lost in 
the atmosphere ; when composted wiih 
prepared muck, no such loss takes 
place. 

Thus much, then, for your lime, salt 
and muck. 

As no farm, under ordinary use.", will 
supply as much manure as may be 
used upon it with profit, I am glad to 
find that you intend to Mse gua7io, as it 
is an admirable manure when properly 
used, and but a very tolerable one 
when plowed into the ground in it3 
raw or simple state. 

G-uano is so replete with many of 
the requirements of plants, that for 
want of appropriate balance in its com- 
position, as compfired with the&e re- 
quirements, the phosphoric acid and 
sulphuric acid must be increased. The 
ammonia cf the guano is in the form 
of a carbonaJ;e, and therefore so vola- 
tile as to escape from the soil into the 
atmosphere before plants can use it. 

You will readily perceive, therefore, 
that the sulphudc and phosphoric acids 
require amendment, and the ammonia 
should be changed from a carbonate to 
a sulphate of ammoniaj which is not 
volatile. 

All this may be readily done by dis- 
solving bone dust in dilute sulphuric 
acid, mixing it with the guano and 
then with a sufiScient amount of char- 
coal-dust to render the mass dry and 
pulverulent. The more charcoal-dust 
the better, as it absorbs and retains 
ammonia, and after it is in the soil, will 
continue to perform similar office for 



110 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



many years, only yielding up ammonia 
as required by plants, and receiving 
new portions from rains, dews, &c. — 
The proper portions of sulphuric acid, 
bone-dust, charcoal, and guano, you 
will learn from the various articles in 
the Working Farmer on guano and 
super-phosphate of lime, &c. 

You do not send ine an analysis of 
your soil, nor do you even say where 
your farm is, but merely ask abstract 
questions, which I hope are answered 
to your liking. In all this you do not 
pursue the more profitable course, lor 
if I had an analysis of your soil be- 
fore me, and knew what factory loastes 
and other manures you had wiihin your 
reach, I could then advise with accuia- 
cy as to the best mode to produce max- 
imum crops with certainty and econo- 
niy. 

I remain. Sir, 

Youra respectfully, 

Jas. J. Mapes, 
Consulting- As^riciiUiirist, 



"Can She Spin 7" 

This question was asked by King 
James the First, when a young girl was 
presented to him, and the person who 
introduced her, boasted of her proficien- 
cy in the ancient languages. '-I can 
assure you, your Majesty," said she, 
"chat she can both speak and write 
Latin, Greek and Hebrew." "These 
are rare attainments for a damsel," said 
James, "but tell me, can she spin .?" 

Many of the young ladies of the pres- 
ent day, can boast of their skill in the 
fine arts and polite accomplishments, 
in music, painting and dancing, but can 
they spin ? Of what is perhaps more 
appropriate to the limes, and the modern 
improvements in labor saving machine- 
ry, it may be asked, can they perform 
the domestic duties of a wifeV Do they 
understand the management of house- 
hold affairs? Are they capable of su- 
perintending, in a judicious manner, 
the concerns of a family ? 

A young lady may be learned in the 
ancient and modern languages, may 



have made extraordinary proficiency in 
every branch of literature ; this is all 
very well, and very creditable, and, to 
a certain class of the community, who, 
are not obliged, as was St. Paul, "10/ 
labour with their own hands," is allj 
that is absolutely necessary, but to ^ 
much larger portior: of the community, 
it is of far greater consequence to kno^ 
whether they can spin. 

It is of more importance to a youcg 
mechanic, or merchant, or one o( any 
other class of people who depend upon 
their own industry and exertion.s, if b© 
marries a wife to have one wha knows 
how to spin or perform other domestic 
duties, than one whose knowledge does 
not extend beyond a great proficiency in 
literature and the fine arts. 

Let the fair daughters of our country 
imitate the industiious matrons of the 
past. The companions of those who 
fought in the Revolution were inured 
to hardships, and aecuytomed to neces- 
sary toil, and thup did they educate 
their daughters. Health, contentment, 
and plenty smiled around the family 
altar. The damsel who understood 
most thoroughly and economically the 
management of domestic affairs, and 
was not afraid to put her hands into 
the wash tub, or to -'lay hold of the 
distaff," for fear of destroying their 
elasticity, and dimming their snoivy 
whiteness, was sought by the young 
men of those days as a fit companion 
for life ; but in modern times, to learn 
the mysteries of the household would 
make our fair ones faint away ; and to 
labor, comes not into che code of mo- 
dern gentility. 

Industry and frugality will lead to 
cheerfulness and contentment, and a 
contented mind will greatly soften the 
asperities and smooth the rough paths 
in a man's journey through liie. It has 
been truly said, that a pleasant and 
cheerful wife is a rainbow in the sky, 
when the husband's mind is tossed 
with storms and tempests; but a dis- 
satisfied wife, m the hour of trouble, 
is like a thundercloud, charged with 
elecd'ic fluid. — Exchange, 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



ill 



A Remedy for Stains. 

Take one po^and of chloride of lime, 
(bleaching powder.) and put it into a 
gallon of cold water, stir it well for a 
few minutes, and allow it to settle. — 
Pour off the clear liquor, and keep il 
in tightly coiked bottles. Stained 
clothes — linen or cotton— after being 
washed to free them from grease, by- 
dipping the stained parts in this chlo- 
ride fluid, will cause the stains to be 
removed qui-eker, safer, and with far 
less trouble than by any other known 
means. In the laundry, this fluid 
should be kept in a large stone-ware 
tr glass vessel. It should be large 
eaough lo dip in the articles so as to 
cover them en:irely in the liquor, where 
no harm will result if they lie for some 
hours. A careful laundress should also 
have a vessel of very diluted sulphuric 
acid, to dip the articles of clothing in 
after they are taken out of the chlo- 
ride and washi'd. The clothes should 
he well rinsed, using three waters af- 
terwards. This is a bleaching process, 
nearly the same as that practised in 
bleach- works. 

A little of the salts of oxalic acid 
put on an iron stain, and a little hot 
water poured on it to dissolve it, will 
remove the slain very quickly without 
injury to the cloth. 

Our readers may place the utmost 
reliance in what we have said, we are 
acquainted chemically with the whole 
process. Oxalic acid is a poison and 
should be kept out of the reach of 
children. 

It is very difficult to remove stains 
^ from woolen goods. If the woolen cloth 
IS white, some sulphuric acid in very 
hot water may remove it, if u is an 
iron stain. It may also remove it with- 
out injury from a cochineal red shawl, 
but such jobs should be left to the dyer. 
We only recommend the above piocess 
of ours for white linens. By our ad- 
vice, a number of friends employ it in 
their families and are del'ghted with 
it. — S. American. 



Good season for crops. 



liice on Cattle. 

Having been called on to publish a 
remedy for lice and ticks upon cattle, 
we know of nothing belter than the 
following which we re-publish from the 
Planter of August, 1847: 

Mr. Editor : — It is not often lliat I 
have it in my power to offer anything 
to the public ; hut I think it right that 
each one of us should give to all the 
benefit of his experience, more partic- 
ularly when he can make nothing by 
keeping it to himself and getting out 
a patent right. I saw in some agricul- 
tural work, perhaps your own, that the 
water in which Irish potatoes had been 
boiled, if applied to coivs. &c. would 
kill lice upoa them. 1 tried it several 
times with signal success, and a few 
days ago, ordered my boy to try it on 
my cows, which, at this time of the 
year, generally are full of ticks ; the 
result of which is, that they have all 
taken their departure. Please publish 
this for the benefit of all the commons- 
going cowsof the vicinity of our city-, 
and you will have their eternal thanks. 
Richard Hill, Je,. 

HeriricOj August, 1847. 



Application of Lime to tpiin Sam- 
DY Land. — Slake the lime with salt 
brine ; when it fells into powder, mis 
with every 25 bushels of it, 10 loads 
of clay, layer and layer about ; throw 
it into bulk, and let it remain two or 
three weeks. In the ^ean time, ma- 
nure, plow and harrow the land, then 
shovel over the corapost, so as to inti- 
mately mix the lime with the clay, and 
broadcast eleven loads of the mixture 
evenly over the surface of each acre, 
and harrow and cross harrow, and then 
roll^ when the land will, be fit to re- 
ceive the crop which you may intend 
it for. If lime be thus applied to 
thi7i sandy land, ten loads of putres- 
cent manure will actually perform more 
positive good, than would twenty loads 
applied without the addition of the 
clay, provided a bushel of plaster per 
acre be sowed over the land. 



112 



THE FARMER'S JOUKNAL. 



FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



BATH, H. C, JULY, 1852. 



state Agricultural Convention. 

A Convention will be held in the 
City of Raleigh on the ISlh of October 
next, for the purpose of forming a 
State Agricultural Society. Each 
county Agricultural Society wiirappoint 
ten delegates to attend at that time, 
and let such be appointed as will at- 
tend. 

Errata. 

We have been requested by Mr. R. 
E. McNair, to make the following cor- 
rections of typographical errors in the 
report on " A Rotation of Crops for 
Edgecombe," published in the June 
number of the Farmer's Journal : 

Page G6, 2d column, — Every item 
under tlie head of Product, should be 
read as pounds luithout decimals. 

Page 67, 1st column, — Read "While 
for "T'F/ii/c." In the table m this col- 
umn, read under the head of ^^ Pro- 
duct" whole numbers instead of deci- 
mals. The elements are correctly de- 
cimated. 

Same page, 2d col.. IGlh line from 
bottom, read " entircl]/^' after- "almost." 

Same page, 2d col., 12th line from 
top, read "five" for 'Tour." 

Page 68, 1st col., 5th line from top, 
read "chief" for "cheap." 

Page 69. 1st col., 3d line from top, 
read " ayit/" for " many." 



Delay. 

The Publication of the July num- 
ber of the Farmer^s Journal has been 
delayed by several causes, with which 
we will not trouble its readers. The 
August number will appear about the 
middle of that month. 



Our Farmers Cultivate too mucls 
Laud. 

This is almost a universal error 
among the farmers of our State, and it 
is the first to be corrected, in order to 
any great and permanent improvement 
among them. 

Is it not strange that any reasonable 
man should, for a moment, think of ex- 
pending his labour in cultivating a/ 
large field of land, which he at the very/ 
time knows full well will net pay the 
expense of the cultivation, much lesi 
bex a source cf profit. Though it is 
contrary to good judgem^ent, we see \he 
very great majority of our farirers 
pursuing this course; even in the far 
famed county of Edgecombe this error 
IS very visible in their farming. We 
have actually heard men say, that they 
were cultivating land which would not 
produce a barrel of corn per acre, and 
when asked the question why they did 
it, they would reply Ihat they did not 
know. 

By way of proving to the mmd of 
every reasonable man the great foliy 
of such a course, we propose to maloe 
an illustration, such as to show the 
great advantage the man who has a 
small farm well tilled, possesses over 
him who has a large field already ex- 
hausted. We will suppose that A and 
B are two farmers possessed of the 
same capital in every respect, having 
the same amount of ready money, the 
same nuiuber of hands and team, and 
the same quantity of land. They com- 
mence their opeiations, at the same 
time, say at the beginning of the year, 
each with 150 acres of land, 6 hands, 
three horses, and $1,000 cash capital. 
The quality of the land we will sup- 
pose to be the same, and the conditioa 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL, 



113 



in every respect the same ; indeed we 
\?ili suppose them to take prtcisely the 
game start, and let each then pursue 
his own course. Having' gotten our 
illustration straight thus far, we will 
now proceed to go into the details of 
the management of these two young- 
farmers, and compare cause and effect, 
watch their progress, and see the result. 
Farmer A concludes to cultivate but 
oaie-third of his land, and reasons in 
this way to justify his course: He 
knows full well that it requires two- 
tiiivda less fencing, ditches, plowing, 
and the vaiious kinds of labor to till 
fifty acres of land that would be re- 
quired to till one hundred and fifty 
acres. He knows that when he em- 
ploys his time in accumulating manure 
for this fifty acres, it is better spent 
than it would be in fencing and ditch- 
ing the other one hundred acres, and 
getting it ready for cultivatmg. By 
devoting this time to the making of 
manure he is, the first year, enabled to 
improve the land at least 25 per cent, 
in product. When he has planted the 
crop he only requires the labor of 4 
hands and two horses to cultivate it, 
and the other two hands he keeps em- 
ployed in collecting materials for the 
manure for the next year's crop. Hav- 
ing begun late, he does not make much 
show the first year, though the im- 
provement is very plain to an observing 
man. The second year he doubles the 
crop, the third trebbles it, and so on 
continues to mcrease its fertility until 
he gets it to produce an average of 12 
barrels of corn per acre, which we con- 
tend can be done in five years time. — 
He does not loan this thousand dollars 
to his neighbour at 6 per cent interest, 
but he expends it m obtaining good 



farm implements, labour saving ma- 
chinery, making gates to the fields 
where he found bars; in building good 
barns, good comfortable stables for his 
horses and cattle; m buying lime.guano, 
bone dust and other fertilizers, &c. He 
very soon has the first fifty acres in a 
high state of cultivation, and he then 
takes another fifty acres, and in this 
time he is able with the profit which 
must^arise from cultivating land pro- 
ducing from ten to twelve barrels of 
cora, to buy an extra hand or two. He 
pursues the same course with the 
second fifty, as with the first, and in a 
less time he gets this in a high state of 
cultivation ; and then the third fifty 
acres, and bv this time his profits pj-e 
large, he calls in thousands every year, 
he makes corn, cotton, wheat and oats, 
and makes a surplus on every crop, and 
increases the intrinsic value of his farm 
greatly, and whnt is more his life has 
been a great source of pleasure to him, 
and his example is worthy of being 
followed by those who come after him. 
He has fulfilled the purpose for which 
he was created. Farmer B. during 
this time has been differently employed. 
He has been every year cultivating his 
whole 150 acres of land, probably m 
corn. He has made but little manure, 
he has plowed his land but three inches 
deep, he has used the poorest kmd of 
tools, has abused book farming, often 
speaks of his father's plan of farming, 
sees his land become poorer every year, 
makes a small piece of rich land pay 
the expence of the cultivation of a large 
piece of poor land. The value of his 
farm isfast depreciating,and it isbecom- 
exhausted. He has loaned his money 
to his neighbour at 6 per cent, and 
after struggling hard for years, he at 



114 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



last comes to the conclusion that there 
is really nothing to be made by farm- 
ing. He hears of a rich country re- 
eenfly settled, concludes to sell his worn 
GUI land and emigrate. The land brings 
probably half what it did when he 
bought it. 

This, though but a fancy sketch, will 
I imagine, fit a great majority of our 
farmers. Indeed wo can almost hear 
ihem exclaim, this is my case precisely, 
but how can I quit it, how shall I make 
a support while I manure half my land 
and only till that amount? We an- 
swer that the sooner a man ceases to 
till a large piece of land in N. Carolina, 
which will not pay for cultivation, and 
instead of this, take the Farmer's Journ- 
al, and attend to its precepts, the soon- 
er will our State be hailed as the 
beacon light in Agricultural improve- 
ment as well as she was the beacon 
light in kmdling the spark of freedom 
in ''the times that tried men's souls." 
Let men of influence take the Journal 
and go iimo;.g tlicir neighbours and 
get them to subscribe; they Vv'ill sooner 
do it in this way, than if we were to 
eome among them; we would be suspect- 
ed of wishmg to fill our pockets and 
empty those of the farmers. 



A State Agricultural Society. 

In the May number of our paper we 
sailed the attention of our farmers to 
the great necessity of their forming 
County Agricultural Societies, so that 
we eould form a State Society. In this 
article we suggested the propriety of 
holding a meeting at Raleigh in July 
next. In order to effect this object, we 
asked the opinion of the farmers gene- 
rally upon this subject, but they have 



failed to notice the appeal, and we 
therefore -plainly see that we have got 
the work to do ourself. As an extra 
session of our Legislature is to be 
called in October, we would suggest 
that the various County Societies ap- 
point delegates to assemble at Raleigh 
on Monday the 18th of October next, 
for the purpose of iorming a State Ag- 
ricultural Society. Let ten delegates 
be sent from each CountySociety. Let 
every delegate who is appointed make 
it his business to attend the convention, 
and let the farming interest be well 
represented. 

Let it no longer be said that the 
farmers of Norih Carolina are blind to 
their interest, and that they have no 
spirit of pride as regards the advance- 
ment of farming amorg them. We 
see on every side of us the various States 
are greatly ahead of us in making 
yearly exhibitions of their stocks and 
crops; thereby creating a laudable zeal 
in each to excel the other. Just com- 
pare the stock of North Carolina with 
that of any other State and see what 
a great difference there is against us. 
The time has passed when our lean 
and half starved stock will not be 
noticed by the stranger passing through 
our State. We can have cows giving 
from 6 to 8 gallons of rich milk per 
day just as well as other States ; and 
we can have all kinds of stock which 
would be calculated to excite an. inter- 
est in the mind of every farmer who 
should own them. We say again, do 
not forget, farmers, to attend to this 
matter. We hope each Society will 
appoint their delegates as soon as Au- 
gust and send us a notice of the ap- 
pointments, and we will insert them iu 
the Journal. 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



115 



Thorough Drainage. 

The time will soon arrive when the 
otiltivation of the various crops will 
have been completed for the present 
year, and the farmer can then turn his 
attention to the more perfect drainage 
of his land. It is a fact we believe, 
that the very great majority of the lands 
cultivated in our State, are imperfectly 
drained, and it is also an established 
fact, that thorough drainage is the very 
first step towards improvement of the 
soil. 

We see many farmers who are year 
.after year cultivating land which fails 
in many instances to even appay them 
for the labour expended in its cultiva- 
tion, much less paying a profit, which 
entirely originates from the fact of its 
not being well drained. We often hear 
farmers speak of their farms not being 
productive, and many leave them and 
seek a new home, and if they could be 
impressed with a just appreciation of 
thorough drainage, they would many 
times be possessed of belter farms than 
when they have made the exchange. — 
It is a fact well known to every farmer 
who observes at all, that there is a 
greater need for drainage of heavy 
clay soils, than those which are sandy 
and o( a poorer nature. From the close 
compact nature of the clay soil, it is 
impossible for the water after fall.ng 
upon the land to be carried off by eva- 
poration before the plant suffers a ma- 
terial injury from its effect. But on 
the other hand, m the light sandy soil, 
the water easily penetrates, (especially 
it the subsoil be of a like character with 
the surface,) to such a depth, and in so 
short a time, as not to effect any per- 
manent injury to the plant. 

To the thinking farmer, a few of the 



effects of thorough drainage, will, we 
believe, be shfl&cient to convince him of 
its great importance in making much 
progress m Agricultural improvement. 
In the first place, it has the effect to 
remove from the surlace all stagnant 
water, and to entirely prevent the 
rising to the surface of water by capil- 
lary action, or from springs below, and 
the water can descend below, instead of 
running over ihe land, and many times 
washing away the important elemenlB 
of the surface soil. But when suffered 
to descend, it imparts to the soil thosa 
gasses which are favourable to tb« 
growth of plants, besides washing out 
many obnoxious substances which ac- 
cumulate in the surface soil, and be- 
come really hurtful to plants. 

In order that a permanent advantage 
may be derived from drainage, it is high- 
ly important that the drains or ditchea 
should be kept open by repeated cL.an- 
ing. We contend that every farmer 
should clean out his ditches twice du- 
ring the year, JLJst before he begins lh« 
crop, and just after he completes it. 
Some farmers will no doubt contend 
that this will not pay, but let them re- 
collect that by frequently cleaning, the 
labour each time is not so great, as if 
neglected. We feel it our particular 
duty, to urge our farmer's to pay strict 
attention to this subject, for we regard 
it, indeed we know it to be indispensi- 
bly necessary. Let every farmer tvho 
can obtain the fall in his land, sink his 
main canal to at least five and a half 
feel, and his tributary drains to three 
feet, and by a proper attention to tho 
other mechanical means of improve- 
ment of the soil, the crop will in the 
next year be greatly increased. Let 
the farmer reflect, that without this 



116 



THE FAEMER'S JOURNAL. 



being done, all other efforts towards 
•improvement are very imperfect, and 
he cannot arrive at that success in his 
profession which he aims at. Farmers, 
go to work, use the spadd and shovel 
freely, ar.d our word for it, you will re- 
joice at the result in tlie very first crop. 
Here we speak from experience; we 
Iiave seen the good effects of thorough 
dramage upon our own farm land, 
which. bet'ore would yield but poor crops 
since being drained, has been highly 
productive. 



The Wayee County Agricultural 
Society. 

We do not design as a general thing 
to occupy the time of our readers with 
details at length of the various agricul- 
tural societies, unless reported by some 
member or other person present. But 
we cannot refrain at this time from 
making a few remarks in regard lo the 
proceedings of the May meeiing of the 
Society that heads this article. 

We hati the pleasure of being present 
at the IMay meeting of this body, and 
we there saw the very spirit prevail 
whrch we desire to see diffused through 
every agricultural society in the State. 
Those farmers who comprise this body 
are determined not to be left behind in 
the great race of agricultural advance- 
ment. The chairman of two commit- 
tees, I)r. Andrews and I\laj. Siocumb, 
each made a report, botU of which were 
highly interesting. They were short 
but very practical. A very interesting 
discussion took place with regard to 
the various modes of cultivating the 
Irish potatoe, and Wm. K. Lane, Esq., 
in a statement he made with regard to 
his success in saving this potatoe for 
seed in this country, clearly satisfied us 
that every farmer could save his own 



seed for raising Irish potatoes not only 
for table use, but also as a crop upoa 
which stock could be fed. IVIr. Laoe 
said that from a large bank of L'ish po- 
tatoes taken up this spring for seed, ha 
only detected three rotten ones. H-e 
plants his potatoes which he designs for 
seed in the latter part of May or the 
first of June, and then puts them away 
to keep during the winter in the same 
way as he does the sweet potatoe. The 
reason why ?»1r. Lane succeeded so 
well IS now to us like every other 
mystery, when once made plain, very 
easily accounted for. The Irish pota- 
toe is of very quick growth, and when 
planted early it matures along time 
before it can be taken up to be kept 
through the winter, and by remaining 
in the ground until the proper time for 
taking up, it becomes saturated with 
water to a great extent, and soon de- 
cays when .shut from the air. This dis- 
cussion in the society lasled some lime, 
and all present seemed to be highly in- 
terested in the matter. We hope at 
least that every subscriber to the Jour- 
nal in this County will attach himself 
to the Agricultural Society. 



How badly our FE.rming Implemeiits 
are Made* 

"We wish to call the attention of the 
farmers of our State to the great im- 
portance of their converting their extra 
means to the establishment of different 
kinds of manufactories for their own 
protection. Suppose there were seve- 
ral kinds of manufacturing establish- 
ments in our State, what a great amount 
of what the farmer makes would find 
a market at his door. Look at the bad 
material of which our farming imple- 
ments are now made ; for instance our 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



117 



plow and hoes, two of the most com- 
monly used implements among us. — 
The plows whicli we now buy from the 
'* Yankees" are so badly made that 
they cost us like the Irishman's gun, 
" more than they come to." The beams 
of these are very brittle, for the reason 
that they are got out of wood which is 
Eot suited to the purpose. The iron of 
which the clevis is made, is of the 
meanest kind, and the share has so lit- 
tle steel in it that it poon wears away. 
The hoes are badly made, very often 
breaking at the eye, and will batter 
from the least resistance. If our farm- 
ers would only believe it, we could 
h.%fe our farmmg implements made in 
our own State, and this would furnish 
a home market for our productions. 



The Post Master at Smithfield. 

We sent, a short time since, a small 
circular to the several post offices 
throughout the State, sjliciiing subscri- 
bers to the Farmer's Journal. Some 
few have listened to the appeal, and 
Mr. McPherson, the Postmaster at 
Smithfield, in Johnston Co., has sent 
us five times that number. It is to be 
much regretted, that those gentlemen 
who fillthe office of Post-master, suffer 
60 many opportunities to escape them 
unimproved for benfiiting their fellow- 
man. Wo will venture to say, that 
the gentleman whose name we have 
mentioned, can scarcely miss the time 
spent in obtaining those subscribers for 
our paper. We hope that Post-mfas- 
ters and others will follow the very 
good example set by Mr. McPherson, 
and ^end us as many subscribers. 



To be silent about an injury, makes 
the doer of it more uneasy than com- 
plaints. 



Two Pictures of a Farmer's Home, 

We copy the following whimsical, 
but true picture, from the Rural New 
Yorker, and it is said to have composed 
part of the address of Major Patrick, 
before the Jefferson County Agricultu- 
ral Society. It is scarcely overdrawn 
for some localities we could name, and 
we are sorry that it should apply so 
closely to any. The rising generation 
of farmers will never become students 
unt>l their homes are rendered happy, 
and they are surrounded by a spirit of 
inquiry, such as will induce them to 
study. — [Ed. 

An industrious pair, some twenty or 
thirty years ago, commenced the world 
with strong hands, stout hearts, robust 
health, and steady habits. By the 
blessings cf Heaven, their iudustry has 
been rewarded with plenty, and their 
labors have been crowned with success. 
The dense forest has given place to 
stately orchards of fruit, and fertile 
fields, f nd waving meadows, and ver- 
dant pastures, covered with the eviden- 
ces of worldly prosperity. The log 
cabin is gone, and in its sfead a fair 
white house, two stories, and a wing* 
with kitchen in the rear, flanked by 
barn.s, and cribs, and granaries, and 
dairy houses. 

But take a nearer view. Ha ! wba» 
means this mighty crop of unmown 
thistles bordering the road 1 For vv'hat 
market is that still mightier crop of 
pig-weed, dock and nettles destined that 
fills up the space they call the " gap- 
den?'' And look loo at those wide, 
unsightly thicUets of elm, sumach, and 
briers, and chokeberry, that mark the 
lines of every fence I 

Approach the house, built in the road 
to be convenient^ and save land. Two 
stories and a wing, and every blind 
shut close as a miser's fist, without a 
tree, or shrub, or flower to break the air 
of barrenness and desolation around 
it. There it stands, white, glaring and 
ghastly as a pyramid of bones in the 



118 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



desert. Mount the unfrequented door- 
stone, grown over with vile weeds, and 
knock nil your knuckles are sore. It 
i5 a beauiiful moonlight, October even- 
ing ; and as you stand upon that slone, 
a riiisfing laugh comes from the rtar^ 
and satisfies you that somebody lives 
there. Pass now around to the rear ; 
but hold your nostj when you come 
wiihin range of the piggery, and have 
a care that you don't get swamped in 
the neighborhiiod of tbe sink-spout. — 
Enter the kitchen. Ha! they are all 
alive, and here rhey live.^ all together. 
The kitchen is the L'itchcn, the dining- 
room, the siltmg-room, the room of all 
work. Here father sits with his hat 
on, and in his shiri-sleeves. Around 
him are his boys and hired men, 
gome with hats, and some with coats. 
and som-? with neither. The boys are 
busy shilling corn for .samp ; the hired 
men are scraping whip-siocks and vvhit- 
tlmg bow-pin?, throwing every now and 
then a sheep's eye and a jest at the 
girls, who, with their mother, are doing 
up the house-work. The younger fiy 
aie building cob-houses, parching corn, 
and burning their fingers. Not a book 
IS to be seen, though the winter school 
has commenced, and the master is go- 
ing to board there. Privacy is a word 
of unknown meaning in that family ; 
and if a son or daughter should borrow 
a book, it would be almost impposible 
to read it in that room ; and on no oc- 
casion is the front house opened, ex- 
cept when '-company come to spend the 
afternoon." or when things are dusted 
and " set to rights " 

Yet these are as honest, as worthy 
and kind-hearted people as any you 
will find anywhere, and are studying 
ou( some way of getting their younger 
children into a better position than they 
themselves occupy. They are in easy 
circumstances, owe nothing, and have 
money loaned on bond and mortgage. 
After much consultation, a son is placed 
at school, that he may be fitted into a 
store, or possibly an office, to study a 
profesaion. and a daughter is sent away 
lo learn books, and manners, and gen- 



iiliiy. On this son or daughter, or 
both, the hard earnings of years are 
lavished ; and they are reared up in 
the belief, that whatever smacks of tha 
country is vulgar — that the farmer is 
nccesscirily ill-bred, and his calling ig- 
noble. 

Now, will any one say that this pic- 
ture is overdrawn ? I think not. But 
let us see if there is not a ready way 
to change the whole expression and 
character of the picture, almost without 
cost or trouble. I would point out an 
easier, happier, and more economical 
way of educating those children far 
more thoroughly, while at the samo 
time the minds of the parents are ex- 
panded, and they are prepared to en- 
joy, in the society of their educated 
children, the fruits of their own early 
industry. 

And first ; let the front part of the 
house be thrown open, and the most 
convenient, agreeable and pleasant 
room in it be selected as the family 
room. Let its doors be ever open ; and 
when the work of the kitchen is com- 
pleted, let mothers and daughters be 
found there with their appropriate work. 

Let it be the room where the family 
altar is erected, on which the father of- 
fers the morning and the evening sac- 
rifice. Let it be consecrated to Neat- 
ness, and Purity, and Truth. Let no 
hat ever be seen in that room on the 
head of its owner ; let no coalless indi- 
vidual be permitted to enter it. If la- 
ther's head is bald, (and some there 
are in that predicament,) his daughter 
will be proud !o see his temples covered 
by the neat and graceful silk cap that 
her own hands have fashioned for him. 
If the coat he wears by day is too. 
heavy for the evening, calicoes are 
cheap, and so is cotton wadding. A 
few shillings placed in that daughter's 
hand ensure him the most comfortable 
wrapper in the world; and if his boots 
are hard, and the nails cut mother's 
carpet, a bushel of wheat once in 
thiee years will keep him in slip- 
pers of the easiest kind. Let that ta- 
ble which has always stood under the 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



110 



looking glass, against ike. wall, be 
wheeled into the room, its leaves raised 
and plenty of useful (not ornamental) 
books and periodicals be laid upon ii. 
When evening comes, bring on the 
lights — and plenty of them — for sons 
and daughters — all who can — will be 
most willing students. They will read, 
they^ will learn, they will discuss the 
subject of their studies with each other , 
and parents will often be quite as mucii 
instructed as their children. The well 
conducted agricultuaal journals of our 
day throvv a flood of light upon the 
science and practice of agriculture ; — 
while such a work as Downi?ig^s Land- 
scape Gardening, laid one year upon 
that centre table, will show its effecis 
to every passer by : for with books and 
studies like tlicse, a purer taste is born 
and gi ows most vigorously. 

Pass alcng the road after five j'ears' 
working of this system in the family, 
and what a change ! The thistles by 
the roadside enriched the manure lieap 
for a year or two, and then they died. 
These beautiful maples and gr;.ceful 
elms, that beautify the grounds around 
that renovated home, Tvere grubbed 
Ironi the wide hedge-rows of five yeais 
ago ; and so were those prolific rows of 
blackberries, and raspberries, and bush 
cranberries, thai/show so richly in that 
mal garden, yielding an abundance of 
small fruit in their season. The un- 
sightly out-houses are screened from 
observation by dense masses of foliage ; 
and the many climbing plants th; t 
now hang in graceful festoons from 
tree, and porch, and column, once clam- 
bered along that same hedge-rmo. — 
From the meadow, from the wood and 
from the gurgling stream, many a na- 
tive wild flower has been transplanted 
to a genial soil, beneath the home- 
Btead's sheltering wing, and yields a 
daily offering to the household gods, 
by the hands of those fair pritstesses 
who have now become their ministers. 
By the planting of a few trees, and 
shrubs and flowers, and climbing plants 
around that once bare and uninviting 
houaej it has become a tasteful resi- 



dence, and its money value is more 
than doubled. A cultivated taste dis- 
plays itself in a thousand forms, and 
at every touch of its hand gives beauty 
and value to properly. A judicious 
taste, so far Iroin plunging its possessor 
into expense, makes money for him. — 
The land on which that hedge-row 
grew five years ago, for instance, hae 
produced enough since to doubly pari 
the expense of grubbing it, and of 
transferring Us fiuit briers to the gar- 
den, where ihey have not only supplied 
the family with berries in their season, 
but have yielded many a surplus quart,, 
to purchase that long rovv of red and 
yellow Anlwerps and English goose- 
berries; to say nothing of the scions 
bought with their money, to form new 
heads for the trees in the old orchard. 

Those sons and daughters sigh no 
more for town or city life, but love 
with intense affection every foot of 
ground they tread upon, every tree, 
and every vine, and every shrub, their 
hands liave planted, or their taste has 
trained. But stronger still do their af- 
ieciions cling to \.\\?i\.f amity room, where 
their mmds first began to be developed, 
and to that centre-table around winch 
they still gather with the shades of 
evening, to drink in knowledge, and 
wisdom^ and understanding. 

The stout farmer who once looked 
upon his farm only as a laboratory for 
transmuting labor into gold, now takes 
a widely different view of his posses- 
sions. His eyes are open to the beau- 
tiful in nature, and he looks with re- 
verence upon every giant remnant of 
the forest, that by good luck escaped 
his murderous axe in former days. No 
leafy monarch is now laid low without 
a stern necessity demands it ; but many 
a vigorous tree is planted, in the liope 
that the children of his children may 
gather beneath the spreading branchtt 
and talk with pious gratitude of him 
»vho planted them. No longer feeling 
the need of taxing his physical powers 
to the utmost, his eye takes the place 
of his hand, and when the latter grows 
wearv, and mind directs the operations 



120 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



of labor. See him stand and look with 
delighted admiration at his son?, his 
edi/jCated sons, as they tgke hold of 
every kind of work, and roll it off with 
easy motion, but with the power of 
mind in every stroke. 

But it is the proud mother who takes 
the solid comfort, and wonders that it 
is so easy after all, when one knoios hoto. 
to live at ease, enjoy the society of 
Iiappy daughters and contented sons, 
to whom the ciiy folks make most re- 
spectful bows and treat with special 
deference as truly well bred ladies and 
gentlemen. 

NoW;tliis is no more a fancy picture 
ihan ihe other. It is a process that I 
have watched in many families, and in 
different Stales. The results are every- 
where alike, because they are natural. 
"The same cause will always produce 
the same effects, varying circumstances 
only modifying the intensity." 

Constitution of the Pitt County Ag- 
ricultural Society. 

1. For the purpose of encouraging 
Agriculture, we the undersigned agree 
to form ourselves into a Society, under 
the name of Pitt County Agricultural 
Society. 

2. This Society shall consist of a 
President, lour Vice Presidents, a 
Treasurer. Recording Secretary and 
Corresponding Secretary, who shall be 
elected annually by ballot, to serve one 
year from and after the expiration o{ 
the meeting at which said officers were 
elected. In case of a failure to make 
an election at the usual tune from any 
cause, the officers in ofSce shall con- 
tinue until an election be duly had, 
which shall be held as early as practi- 
cable after said failure. 

3. The President shall preside at 
the meetings of the Society, and govern 
the same according to the constitution 
and rules thereof: if any member be 
dissatisfied with the decision of the 
President, he shall be allowed to ap- 

' peal forthwitb to the Society, whose 
decision when made by a majority of 
the voles given, shall be final. In the 



absence of the President, the Vice Pre- 
sident shall act as Piesident ; in the 
absence of both, or all the Vice Presi- 
dents, a President pro i!e;« shall be ap- 
pointed, and the piesiding officer shall 
in all cases of a tie, give the casting 
vote. 

4. The Recording Secretary ^hall 
record the proceedings of the Societj^, 
subjeet to the revision of the Society, 
and the Treasurer shall keep and dis- 
burse the monies belonging to the So- 
ciety under the direction thereof; and 
all orders for monies shall be signed 
by the presiding officer, and attested by 
the Secretary. 

5. The Society shall have an annual 
meeting, and as many others as it may 
deem proper. 

6- The Society shall appoint all ne- 
cessary committees, make all needful 
rules and regulations for the govern- 
ment thereof, in order to promote the 
ends for which it is established. 

7. Each member of the Society 
shall pay such matriculation fee as the 
Society may direct, and such annual 
taxes as it may assess, and the tax shall 
be paid to the Treasurer at each an- 
nual meeting, and in ease of failure, 
the Treasurer shall proceed to collect 
the same in his own name, for and in 
behalf of the Society. 

8. It shall be the duty of the Society 
to subscribe to one or more agricultu- 
ral papers — or journals. 

9. Twelve members shall be neces- 
sary to transact business, the Presi- 
dent and two Vice Presidents shall 
have power to call special meetings, 
and if twelve members in meeting re* 
quest a called meeting, the President 
shall call she same, having first given 
twelve days notice at the Courthouse 
door ; and no general rules or laws 
shall be adopted at such meetings, un- 
less a majority of the members enrolled 
be present. 

10. This Constitution may be al- 
tered by a vote of a majority of the 
Society, which shall be a majority of 
the whole number of members enroll- 
edj and in every case of a proposed ai- 



V 



THE FAEMER'S JOURNAL. 



121 



teratioD, the motion shall lie over until 
the next regular meeting, which mo- 
tion shall be in writing. 

11. If any member fail to attend the 
meetings of this Society for one year, 
his membership shall cease, unless a 
good and sufficient excuse ibr such ab- 
sence be rendered, and shall be lia- 
ble for all dues and taxes of member- 
ship : provided, however, that any mem- 
ber be allowed to terminate his mem- 
bership at any time by a notice to the 
Society in meeting, by paying up all 
dues against him. 

12. Applications for membership 
shall be made to the Society through 
any of its members, and voted upon by 
ballot, yes or no, and a vote of three- 
fourths present shall be necessary to 
the reception of any member. 

By-L.aw3. 

1st. It shall be the duty of the Pre- 
siding officer after the Society is called 
to order, first, to direct the Recording 
Secretary to read the minutes ; second, 
to direct the Treasurer to make his re- 
gular report ; third, to direct the Cor- 
responding secretary to raaRe report of 
any communications made since the 
previous meeting ; fourth, to entertain 
and submit motions for the considera- 
tion of the Society, and take the votes 
thereon ; fifth, to put interrogatories 
in relat'ion to any matters for the pro- 
motion or advantage of the objects of 
this Society, that any member on mo- 
tion may make or file with the Record- 
ing Secretary. 

•2d. It shall be the duty of the Re- 
cording Secretary to keep a correct 
minute of the proceedings of this So- 
ciety in abound book, and to read the 
minutes of one meeting at the next 
succeeding meeting:. 

3d. It shall be. the duty of the Cor- 
responding Secretary to do the corres- 
ponding business of the Society and to 
make report of the same, and to read 
all communications received by him at 
the following meeting of the Society. 

4th. It shall be the duty of the 
Treasurer to receive and keep the mo- 
nies of the Society, and pay the ex- 



penses of it out of the same under its 
direction ; and so make a report at 
each meeting of his receipts and ex- 
penditures in detail. 

5th. Every member of this Society 
shall pay One Dollar to the Treasurer, 
at the meeting when he becomes a 
member, and One Dollar at every an- 
nual meeting thereafter. 

6th, It shall be the duty of each 
member of the Society to promote tha 
objects of the same, to manifest a deep 
interest in its prosperity, and success, 
and to communicate in the Society to 
each other, the results of their infor- 
mation and experience on agiiculture, 
and all eubjecis therewith connected, 
and more efieciually to carry out thy 
above said purposes, the members may 
file questions or interrogatories with 
the Recording Secretary, either during 
the sittings of the Society or in vaca- 
tion, making inquiry of such matiers 
as they may desire information, to be 
propounded by the presiding officer to 
the Society ni such manner as seems 
fit. 

7th. It shall be the duty of the So- 
ciety to meet nt such times as may be 
fixed by ils adjournments ; and every 
member who fails to attend any meet- 
ing without a satisfactory excuse, to be 
heard at the succeeding meeting, for 
each and every offence, shall be fined 
at the discretion of the Society, which 
fine shall not exceed twenty-five cents. 

8th. The Society will hold its meet- 
ings at the Courthouse in the Town of 
Greenville, which meetings shall be 
either public or private, as a majority 
may determine. 

9th. It shall be the duty of mem- 
bers to collect specimens of their marl- 
beds, the different kinds of shell and 
other fossil remains therein found, for 
the purpose of forming a cabinet of the 
same, to be deposited with such person 
for safe-keeping as the Society may di- 
rect. 

10th. The Treasurer, before enter- 
ing upon his duties, shall give bond and 
8100 security for the faithful pertbrm- 
auce of the duties of his said officoj 



122 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



which bond shall be made payable to 
the President. 

IIth. Every person that becomes a 
member of this Society shall assii^n his 
name to the Constitution thereof, in a 
bound book kept ic.y that purpose. 

12x11. No alteration or amendment 
shall be made to these by-laws, except 
by a majority ol" all the members ea- 
roUed in meeiins? assembled. 



Agricultural Society in Halifax Co. 

In pursuance of notice given, a meet- 
ing of the farmers of Scotland-Neck 
was held at Vme Hill Academy, on 
Saturday the 7th ult. The meeting 
was organized on motion of Mr. R. H. 
Smith, by calling W. J. Hill. Esq, to 
the Chair, and appointing Mr. P. M. 
Edmondston, as Secretary, 'i he Chair- 
man ca.led upon Mr. Smith to explain 
the object of the meeting, who in a few 
words, stated that it had been called by 
those interested in the subject, for the 
purpose of forming an Agricultural So 
ciety — not for the purpose of exhibition, 
but for mutual improvement, where,by 
free and friendly intercourse and dis- 
cussion, they might elicit information 
which would be beneficial, not only to 
themselves, but to the country at large, 
and he expressed the hope that all 
wouldjoin in the good work. Ho then 
moved that a Committee of three be 
appointed by the Chairman to nomi- 
nate officers, and a Committee of iive 
to report a Constitution for the govern- 
ment of the Society, the Chairman 
appointed on the first Committee, Dr. 
J. R, Powell, and Messrs. H. Bishop, 
and Spier Pittman ; and on the second, 
Messrs, T. P. Devereux, R. H. Smiih, 
W. B. Smith, Dr. J. Simmons Baker, 
and Jacob Whitehead. The Committee 
to nominate officers reported the fol- 
lowing names: 

For President, R. H. Smith. 

Vice Fresidcnts. ,^'^ y \TiT§-, \ 

' W. J. Whitaker. 

Secretary, P.M.Ed mondston. 

Treasurer, Dr. J. R. Powell. 

The nominations having been con- 
firmed by the vote of the meeting, the 



Chairman resigned his seat lo the Pre- 
sident elect. 

The Committee to draft a Constitu- 
tion made their report which was oa 
motion unanimously adopted. 

The meeting was then addressed by 
T. P. Devereux, Esq , and Dr. Baker, 
the former of whom proposed as the 
subject for discussion at the next meet- 
ing "The cultivation of Corn, em- 
bracing the method of preparing the 
land, and whether it is best to plant in 
single, double, treble, or quadruple beds" 
Mr. W. J. Hill moved that a Commit- 
tee of five be appointed lo frame By- 
Laws for the regulation of the Society, 
to be reported to the next meeting. — 
The president appointed the following 
Committee: Messrs. W. J. Hill, T. P. 
Devereux, Moses Smith, Alfred White, 
and Jos. Bryan. On motion of Mr. Hill, 
it was resolved that the next meeting 
be held at Vine Hill Academy, at 9 
o'clock A. M., on the first Saturday in 
June next. 

On motion of Mr. Jas. Smith, it was 
resolved thai! Prof. Emmons be inviied 
to address the Society, and to make 
scientific examinations of the soil, etc., 
of the neighbouihood. 

The president appointed the follow- 
ing as the Committee of correspond- 
ence, under the 7ih article of the Con- 
stitution, viz : Dr. Baker, Messrs. Spier 
Pittman and W. R. Smith. 

On motion of Mr. Jas. Smith, it was 
resolved that the proceedings of the 
meeting be published in the County 
papers and in the Agricultural papers 
of the State. 

On motion of Mr. W. J. Hill, the 
meeting then adjourned. 

P. M. Edmondston, Sec'ty, 



Comparative Expense of the Hops« 
And Mule to the Farmer. 

Mr. Editor : — For the last four or 
five years I have devoted my time 
mostly to farming, and during that lime 
have paid a good deal of attention to 
the feeding of my horses ; and, there- 
fore, have learnt pretty well the expense 
of keeping that animal on that farm. 



THE FAEMER'S JOURNAL. 



t2S 



I have long since come to the conclu- 
sion that the mule would be much 
cheaper as a working animal on the 
farrjD than the horse, and have there- 
fore determined, as soon as 1 can dis- 
pose of my horses without too much 
sacrifice in price, to procure a full team 
of them, and use them in all my far- 
ming operations. When I take into 
consideration the very great saving to 
the farmer by ihe use of the mule in- 
stead of the horse, it is a matter of 
great surprise to me that our improv- 
ing and intelligent agriculturists should 
have delayed a thing of such impor- 
tance as this, to this time. I can only 
account for it in this way — that, until 
within a ftw years past, there has been 
no accessible market for our surplus 
corn, and, therefore, it was not consid- 
ered expensive to feed it away lavishly 
to horses ; and thus having become ac- 
customed to the horse and this waste- 
ful mode of feeding him, our farmers 
have come to regard it as all right and 
proper. But we are now placed under 
very different circumstances. Canals, 
plank roads and rail roads now offer 
facilities to various markets for our sur- 
plus grain of all kinds ; and to continue 
now the old, extravagant, and wasteful 
habits of feeding it away to horses, 
when a ready market and remunerating 
prices are offered us, is, to say the least, 
very bad management — management 
decidedly behind the times. 

But a change in this respect has 
commenced. Some of our practical 
and sagacious farmers have commenc- 
ed the work of reform ; have dispensed 
with the horse, and supplied themselves 
with mules. Some of these have as- 
sured me that they were much pleased 
with the exchange ; so much so that 
they would advise their friends to give 
away their horses, if they could not 
sell and purchase mules. 

I propose now, Mr. Editor, to give 
you a calculation in figures of the sav- 
ing to the farmer by the use of mules 
jnstead of horses; and for that purpose 
I will take a team of ten for a period 
of twenty years; will suppose the 



horse to cost at the purchase the sam« 
piice, and will estimate the difference, 
saved in feeding of the mule, of Jndian 
corn, at six barrels each per annum, to 
keep them each in good working order. 
Upon that data 1 make this exhibit : 
10 horses will consume each 12 
bbls. corn per annum, say for 20 
years, which is equal to 2400 
bbls worth on an average, 
§2,50 per barrel, 86000 

Shoeing J horses will c )St $30 
per annum, (§3 each, or more, 
which we have to pay,) say for 
20 years, 600 

Cost of feeding on corn and shoe- 
ing 10 horses for 20 years, §6,000 

lOraules will consume eachObbls. 
corn per annum, say tor 20 
years, which is equal to 1200 
bbls. worth on an average$2,50 
per hairtl— no expense of slweing $oOOO 



Am't. saved in 20 years by mules, 3600 
According to this estimate we have 
the surprising sum nf $3600 in 20 
yearSj or about $200 per annum, gain- 
ed or saved by having mules instead 
of horses ; but large as this sum is, it 
can be fairly augmented to upwards of 
$4000, by taking into the calculation 
the greater longevity and exemption 
from disease of the mule, which items 
are not set down in the above state- 
ment. At the end of 20 year.s how 
will the matter stand ? In ail proba- 
bility, the horses will all, or neaily all, 
be dead, while the mules, we may rea- 
sonably suppose, if not very badly treat- 
ed, will all, or nearly all, be living, and 
be good for service for some five or ten 
years longer, 

I am, therefore, Mr. Editor, the warm 
advocate of the mule. Mules have 
been scarce and high for several years, 
and I have thought it a good plan to 
get some large mares and raise from a 
large jack. They can be raised at a 
very trifling expense, and are ready 
for work at an early age. I have al- 
ready commenced raising, and hav» 
two now for a beginning. 



124 



THE FAEMER'S JOUENAL. 



If my esiiirjale approximate to real- 
ity on this subject — and I feel great 
Gonlidenceit does — then it is a matter 
of grave importance to the whole agri- 
cultural commUuity that they should 
bestow some attention to a matter 
which so largely concerns them. 

That the mule can do as much an-i 
as eflioieat work as the horse, I think 
there is no doubt, especially if the 
mule have size and weight v^hich 
should be the case. Three good mules 
will draiv a three horse plow, and do as 
good worji as three horses, and in the 
Lea t of summer fallow, which is fatal 
to so many horses, you never hear of 
any injury to the mule. 

I have been for several years, Mr. 
Editor, an attentive reader of 3'^our 
very valuable journal, and have derived 
much pleasure and profit from it ; but 
I have never seen an article in it on 
this subject. 1 should like to see it 
discussed and examined. I would be 
pleased to have the views and opinions 
of others, who have more experieoce, 
and if my ideas upon the subject are 
wrong, I would like to have them cor- 
rected. — Cor. Southern Planter. 



Marl, an Anieiioi-ator of tlie Soil. 

Marl is a compound of the carbonate 
of lime, mixed with clay, silica, shells, 
and other inorganic substances, in va- 
rious -proportions. The matters inter- 
mingled and the amount of each, de- 
tsrmme its quality and value, and give 
rise to the several names by which' it is 
known. The calcareous snarls are 
those containing the must carbonate of 
lime, and consequently the richest 
kind. Mti,rl^ properly so called, has 
about half its weighi in calcareous sub- 
stances. Clayey marl is that which 
contains three or four times as much 
cJay as mail, and marly clay is that 
Vv-hich has but a small poition of calca- 
reous carbonate. The marls are also 
distinguished by their colors — white, 
gray, blue, Ac, — and there are numer- 
ous varieties beside those above named, 
which it is unnecessary to describe. 

Marlj like lime, strictly speaking is 



not a manure. When added to the 
soil, it acts as an ameliorator in im- 
proving its texture and modifying its 
natural condition, rather than by giv^ 
ing materials for the growth of vegeta- 
tion lis action upon the soil and ih-e 
benefits derived from its application, 
are' akin to those of lime ; for it is, in 
fact, but the carbonate of lime reduced 
to powder, and mixed with eartuy mas- 
ter. It slacks and expands when ex- 
posed to the air, and in common with 
lime, possesses the property of rendep- 
ing stiff soils friable, easier of cultiva- 
tion, and of giving more compactness 
to those too sandy and light. It also 
promotes the decomposition of vegeta- 
ble matter, neutralizes acid, and reduo 
es the formation of the nitrates requis- 
ite to the highest feitility. !t gives ao^ 
tivity to the inert vegetable matters 
often present in barren soils, as its suc- 
cessful employment in the renovation 
of over-cropped and '.vorn-out lands in 
many districts in this countrv, partic- 
ularly along the sea-board and in the 
South-western States, most abundantly 
proves. 

The substance cannot always be dis- 
tinguished by the eye alone, but its 
tests are very sin^ple and can readily 
be applied. The presence of calcare- 
ous matter in any soil is shown by its 
efi'erveccence upon the application of 
an acid. Common vinegar will pro- 
duce this effect. But to ascertain the 
amount of carbonate of lime in any 
specimen of marl or earth, we take a 
set of delicate scales, and after drying, 
without hardening, one hundred grains 
of the earth to be tried, put it in a ves- 
sel of water sufficient to crumble it to 
the consistency of naturally moist 
earth. Upon this a few drops of nitric 
acid are thrown, and the mixture work- 
ed over with a wooden spatula — effer- 
vescence immediately takes place, and 
the carbonic acid gas escapes. This 
last is replaced by the nitric acid, which 
then forms nitrate of lime. This 
nitrate has the property of remaining 
suspended in water, and may by suc- 
cesjive wa&hings be removed from the 



THE FAEMER^S JOURNAL. 



125 



earlhy ma'ter, which, in the process, 
shoul J be allowed to settle at the bot- 
tom of the vesS'jl. The residuum is 
nothing more than clay and silica, the 
weight of which, as compared with the 
quantity submitted to the test, "will de- 
ttirmine the proportion of culcareous 
matter present m the marl — the car- 
bonic acid ga.-< and lime composing it 
having been removed by the process. 

Upon calcareous soils, marl would, 
of cour.-e, be of little benefit, unless 
the clayey kinds were used as a cor- 
I'ective and ameliorator of the lighter 
Band. In this case, so large a quanti- 
ty would need be added that the ex- 
pense would generally prevent the ap- 
plication. Upon all soils which would 
be improved by the application of 
lime, there is no question but marl may 
be used with immediate and important 
benefits. It is found in many places 
in this State, and its cheapxiess — as it 
is to be procured at the mere cost of 
digging and carting — should incite to 
its use, that we maj' test, by actual ex- 
periment, whether it will produce the 
eifects here which it has in other local- 
ities. 

As to the amount to be applied, 
sandy lands need much less than clay- 
ey, and it is on the latter that it produc- 
eg the most decided effect. From 
tv\renty to sixty wagon loads per acre, 
are generally employed. It is best 
applied when it can be drawn out in 
the fall or winter and left in heaps un- 
til spring, as then it can be spread 
more easily and evenly over the sur- 
face. — JS'cw Enirland Cultivator. 



Elements of Plants. 

In order to compete successfully with 
others in the production of crops, or 
stock even, we must bring science to 
our aid. For instance, if we would 
raise an extra crop of wheat, we must 
feed it. It must be well fed. It must 
be fed with the very elements which 
combined, make the wheat — i. e. potash, 
soda, lime, magnesia, oxide of iron, and 
pl'iosphoric acid for the kernel, and in 
addition to form the straw there must 



be alumina, clay, silica or flint, sulphu- 
ric acid, and chlorine. The soil usually 
conialns the larger portions of thesa — 
But were it d( ficient in one item, there 
y, ould be a failure. To be masters of 
our profession we must know these 
facts. Science has developed the facts, 
and science will instruct how to make 
tlie needful application m order to 
have permanent success. 

Much is to be done in the preparation 
and protection of manures suited to 
various crops, It must be protected as 
well as prepared. Many farmers after ■ 
taking great, pains to prepare a compost 
heap, leave it exposed to the ''shines 
and showers" of the season. It would 
be belter economy to leave their coach- 
es and buggies exposed to the weather, 
than their manure heaps. The early 
sutilers were not aware of these facts. 
They were sterling men, wiser by far 
than many of their descendenis. These 
sterile hills and plains were fertile in 
their day. If they sponged the surface 
soil, and lel't it impoverished to their 
descendants, they transferred to them 
the elements of true nobility, generous 
freedom, and priceless institutions. If 
they had once supposed they were de- 
preciating the productions of the soil, 
would not their noble phJanlhropy 
hare led them to a different mode of 
cultivating their lands? The reader 
will pardon this digression to defend 
the "Fathers." Let us copy more fully 
their worthy deeds, and heartily excuse 
their mistakes. They laid the founda- 
tions — we are bound to carry upward 
the structure. How ofteu it is said 
"our fathers did not thus and so, and 
U'c need not," but we inust^ if we would 
not deteriorate vastly more than we 
have already done from them. 

If we would regenerate our soil we 
must be better informed. Farmers 
must study more. They must under- 
stand the method of making manure, 
and proving its productive qualities. — 
They must understand v;hen and hno 
to apply it lo crops. They must sow 
generously, then they will reap plenti- 
fully. 



V2Q 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



We may not expeci to accomplish all 
at once. The mei chant does not es- 
tablish his credit in a day. He may be 
years in doing it, nor can we raise the 
productive capacities of our farms with- 
out much study and unabated effort. 

Despair not, brother farmers. Suc- 
cess will replenish your granaries. It 
will add to your intellectual and moral 
worth as good citizens of this enlight- 
ened community. — American News. 



Effects of Night Air. 

An error which exerts a most perni- 
cious influence, is the belief that the 
nicht air is injurious ; this opinion hin- 
ders introduction of ventilation more 
than all other errors together. Now, 
ihere is not a particle of proof, nor 
have we any reason to believe, that the 
atmosphere of oxygen and nitrogen un- 
dergoes any change during the night. 
But there are certain causes in opera- 
tion at nisrht which are known to exer- 
cise over us an injurious iniluence. — 
We will investigate them, to see if 
closed doors and windows will shut 
them out or stop their operation. Eirst, 
it is known that there is a slight in- 
crease of carbonic acid from plants dur- 
ing the night, but this poison is gene- 
rated in much larger quantity fro.n:i the 
lungs of animals, and accumulated im- 
mensely more in close rooms than in 
the open air. It is therefore certain 
nothing is gained in this respect by re- 
fusing ventilation. The next differ- 
ence between night and day, to be no- 
ticed, is the fact, that sunlight exer- 
cises a most important influence on 
plants, and also on animals; but it is 
evident that shutting out fiesh air will 
not restore his rays. 

Another fact is, that all bodies, ani- 
mate or inanimate, exposed at night to 
the direct rays of a clear sky, radiaJe 
heat with great rapidity, and their tem- 
perature IS quickly and greatly re- 
duced ; and it is well known that it is 
dangerous to the health of men for the 
temperature of their bodies to be great- 
ly and rapidly reduced. But persons 
sleeping in a ventilated room, even if 



the windows are opened, are not ex- 
posed 10 the direct ray.<Jot a clear sky, 
(and the law does not apply to any othtr 
combination of circumstances;) there- 
fore, this frequent source of injury to 
persons exposed does not reach these m 
a sheltered house. As to ihe injury 
to be feared from a cold current of air, 
I would say it is gross carelessnesss for 
any one to expose himself to this dan- 
ger, night or day, whether the house is 
ventilated or -unventilatcd. I believe 
there is not known any other cause 
which can be supposed to produce any 
special injurious effect at night, and 
the least reflection will show that not 
any of those mentioned can by any 
posfibiliiy injure a person more in a 
ventilated than in an unventilated 
house. It therefore follows that the 
objection of the night air being injuri- 
ous is utterly futile. 

The pure atmosphere has nothing 
whatever to do with causing the death 
of persons exposed at night within 
the tropics, nor does it produce the 
cough of the consumptive and asthma- 
tic, nor the languor and misery which 
the sick so frequently experience. 

These and other sufferings experi- 
enced more particularly at night, are 
caused by carbonic acid, absence of 
sun-light, rapid reduction of tempera- 
ture, the air being saturated with mois- 
ture, &c., and not by that air without 
which we cannot live three minutes.^ 
It is absurd to suppose that fresh air 
supports our life and destroys our 
health at one and the same time. The 
same thing cannot possess the utterly 
incompatible characters of good and 
evil, of supporting life and destroying 
it. — Ap'pleton's Mechanics' Magazine. 



To Protect Hams froji Flies akd 
Bugs. — Grind some black pepper fine, 
and put in a box, and as soon as the 
hams are thoroughly smoked, take 
them down and sprinkle the pepper 
over the raw part, and hang them again 
in the smoke house. No fly or bug 
will touch them, 

/ 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



127 



Application or Lime to Stiff 
Clays. — To stiff clays, that may have 
been exhausted by long continued 
cropping, which may need lime, 50 
bushels of lime may be applied, per 
acre. If unslaked, it will be. '.he bet- 
ter by being slaked with salt brine. I( 
slaked, we would mix one bushel of salt 
with every two bushels of lime, layer 
and layer about : let it lie m bulk, un- 
der cover, for three months; then 
shovel it over, and apply it to the land 
after it has been plowed and harrowed, 
at the rate of 50 bushels of the salt 
and lime per acre ; harrow and cioss 
haryow it in, and finish by rolling. 



T 



Salting of Stock. — Stock of all 
kinds should be salted twice or thrice 
a week, or what we think would be bet- 
ter, receive, twice a week, an ounce or 
two of a mixture composed of equal 
parts of oyster-shell lime, salt, and ash- 
es. For Slock, we prefer o.ysler-shell 
lime to stone lime, because it contains 
a very notable per-centage of phosphate 
of lime, a substance eminently necessa- 
ry to supply the wear and tear of old 
animals' bones, and to supply to young 
ones the material for buil(Jing up theirs. 

STATE 
AGRICUL.TUAL "WAUE-HOUSEc 

THE subscribers would respectfully invite 
the attention of Farmers and Planters to 
tlieir varied assortment of 

Agricultural and Horticultural Impliments, 
among which may be found Pouty andMear's 
celebrated and highly approvedCentreDraught 
Ploughs ; Emery & Co.'s Imported Rail Road 
Horse Power Thresher (all of wiiicli took the 
first premiums at the late State Agricultural 
Fair, and are unequalled by any now in use,) 
together with a full assortment of the latest 
.ind most approved Plows, Straw Cutters, Fan- 
ning Mills, Corn Shellers, Seed Sowers, Cul- 
tivators, Harrows, &c. &c., which they will 
sell at as low rates as any similar establishment 
ill the United States. 

We shall at all times have on hand a full 
stock of Field and Garden Seeds, Guano, and 
ail other fertilizers in the market, which may 
be had on the most reasonable terms. 

Persons purchasing articles from us may 
rely upon their giving satisfaction, as we in- 
tend keeping only such as we can fully war- 
rant LONGETT <^ GRIFFING, 
No. 25 Cliff St., New- York. 

April 29, 1852. 6m. 



H E subscriber will make Analysis of 
soils and marls in the most correct maiir 
ner, and in the shortest possible time after 
receiving them. Specimens can be sent by 
mail at a very small expenge. 

For simple Analysis, - - - ^5,0t) 

For Anal3'sis, Advice, and for application 
of Manures, _ . _ - ^^10, 00 

Selectioxs of iSpecimexs of Soil. — In 
the same field different varieties of soil often 
occur, and one or two pounds of soil should 
be taken from each variety, and thoroughly 
mixed together and dried in the open air, or 
by the fire, and then one pound taken from 
this mixture and sent for analj'sis. If thep» 
be only one character of soil, there iieed be 
but one pound of that sent, which can b« 
secured in strong paper and sent by mail. 

JOHN F. TOMPKINS, M. D. ' 

Bath, N. C. 



IET every True North Carolinian throw 
J his might into the hands of our own 
Mechanics, and by this means, with our Ag- 
ricultural advancement, we are bound to 
become an independent people. So let tlje 
citizens of Edgecombe, and the neighbouring 
counties, call and examine the magnificent 
stock of 

FURNITURE, 

which is offered for sale at P. ti. Sontl-'s 
Furniture Store, inTarboro', consisting of the 
following articles, viz : 

Ladies' IMarble and Mahogany Top Dres- 
sing Bureaus ; Ladies Marble Top Wash 
Stands ; Sideboards and Plain Bureaus; Ward 
Robes and Book Cases ; Sofas and Mahogany 
Rocking Chairs; Mahogany and Walnut 
Tables ; Tete-a-tetes and Divans ; Mahogany, 
French, and Cottage Bedsteads ; Stationary 
and Portable Writing Desks ; Wood and 
Cane Seat Rocking Chairs ; Office, Windsor, 
Cane and Rush Bottom Chairs ; a large as- 
sortment of cheap Bed Steads ; Wash Stands 
and Candle Stands ; China Presses, various 
patterns ; also, a few Nymphs and Nuptials. 

Old Furniture and Sofas repaired and made 
to look as good as new. Old Bachelors ren- 
ovated in such a style as will make them 
accessible to the smiles of young ladies and 

old M s at least. Furniture kept on hand 

to suit any age or sext. 

Now one word 1o the public : What is life 
to any one, if they do not avail themselve of 
the comforts and conveniences that are offered 
for sale at F. L. BOND'S Ware Room ? An 
examination by the public is earnestlj 
solicited. F. L. B. 

Tarboro', N. C, 



123 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



THE FARMERS JOURNAL. 

The Subscriber will publish in the town of 
Bath, Beaufort county, N. C, a monthly 
paper under the above name. This paper will 
be devoted exclusively to the setting forth of 
the various popular improvements in Agricul- 
ture, Horticulture, and the household arts. — 
That there is a demand for such a paper in 
aair State, and more especially in the Eastern 
part, no one will deny. 

As evidence of the good effects of such pa- 
pers, we have only to look at the rapid strides 
which have been made in farming in those 
States of our Union where they exist. But 
tills great advancement made in the science of 
Agriculture in other States, is but little known 
to the larmers of North-Carolina. There are 
several scientific, as well as practical farmers, 
amoniT us ; but for the want of a medium 
tlirough which to communicate their agricul- 
tural "knowledge, it is still confined to a small 
compass. Our good old State is far behind 
tile age in agricultural, as well as every other 
improvement. As a people, ws are greatly 
wanting in State pride, which is highly im- 
portant to place us in that position which we 
iCFUght to occupy. In New-York, Maryland, 
Georgia, and several other States, annual 
Fairs are held for exhibiting the products of 
each, which clearly have a tendency to great 
improvements. Nature has thrown no imped- 
iment in the v/ay to prevent our agricultural 
advancement ; but she has lavishly heaped 
upon us her inestimable gifts. We have 
among us a sufficiency of both organic and 
inorganic matter to eiirich every acre of our 
worn-out land, and our soil and climate can- 
not be surpassed in adaptation to the produc- 
tion of the various plants. 

All that is now needed to elevate our State 
to the position v/hich she sliould occupy 
emong her sisters, is energy and enterprise on 
'tlie part of her citizens. There must be a stop 
put to this greattide of emmigration from our 
State ; for, daily, many of our most talented 
and energetic ycung men seek a new home in 
tJie West ; they say that they cannot get their 
consent to remain among a people possessed 
of so little enterprise as we are. The sub- 
scriber has not been engaged in farming many 
years, but he feels justified in saying that he 
began upon the right plan — that of deep 
ploughing, heavy manuring, and thorough 
draining. He has visited some good farms in 
onir State, as well as in others, purely for 
jsgricultural instruction ; and for some time 
past he has been engaged in useful agricul- 
tural reading, to prepare himself for the post 
%vhich he now proposes to occupy. 

The subscriber feels confident that this un- 
dertaking shall not fail from a want of energy 
on his part. He is resolved to use every effort 
to obtain a large subscription list, and for this 
purpose he will canvass several counties with- 
hi the next two months. 

He hopes that by Showing such a determi- 



nation to do something for the present degra- 
ded condition of the farmer, to be sustained, 
and receive a liberal patronage from a gentler- 
ous public. 

Each number will contain one or more 
articles from the pen of the Editor, and several 
communications from our best farmers ; and 
the remainder will be filled with articles se» 
lected from other Asfricultural Journals, such 
as may be deemed by the Editor applicable tx» 
our climate and soil. 

In conclusion, the subscriber asks the aid of 
eveiy man in the prosecution of this great 
work ; for he is sure that there will be a good 
bargain made by the farmers. The advance- 
ment of farming should excite an interest in 
the breast of every man ; for upon the success 
of the farmer greatly depends that of every 
trade and profession. 

Terms — One copy, ^1; six copies, §5; 
twelve copies, §10 ; thirty copies, §20 — inva- 
riably in advance. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Page. 

The system of resting compared with 
the system of manuring ; — Com- 
munication, by .B E. Emmons, 97 
Communication from Edgecombe, 99 
Communication, " loi 
Letter to the Editor, loi 
To Destroy and Eemove Ticks and 

Lice from Animals, 102 

Communication from Dr. Togno, ]CJ3 

Importance of Analysis, 104 

Agricultural Advice, los 

Can She Spin, no 

Lice on Cattle, m 

Application of Lime to Thin Sandy '< 

Lanci, 

A Remedy for Stains, " 

State Agricultural Convention, 112 

Errata, " 

Delay, « 

Our Farmers Cultivate too mncli Land, " 

A State Agricultural Society, 114 

Thorough Drainage, 115 

The Wayne Co. Agricultural Society, 11(3 
How badly our Farming Implements 

are Mad e, •' 
Post i\-'aster at Smithfield, II7 
Two Pictures of a Farmer's Home, " 
Constitution of the Pitt Co. Agricul- 
tural Society, 120 
Agriculturrl Society in Halifax, 122 
Comparative Expense of a Horse and 

a Mule to the Farmer, •' 

JIarl an Ameliator of the Soil, 124 

Elements of Plants, 125 

Effect of Night Air, 126 

Recipe, " 

Application of Lime to Stiff Clays, 127 

Saltinc: of Stock. "■, 



• j^ 



IJ, h 



JfoTih ' 



VOL. 1. 



BATH, N. C, AUGUST, 1852. 



JOHIT F. TOHPXmS, M. B., Editor and Proprietor. 



For the Farmer's JoiirnoJ. 

PaxNTEGO, N. C . > 
June 9, 1S52, ^ 

Dr. Tompkins : — When I first heard 
■of your intention to publish an agri 
cusiiural paper, I must Cinfess J was ap" 
prehensive the tniorprise wouid fail fur 
want of sufficient patronage — so great, 
hitherto has been the apathy and in- 
difference of our farmers, the class 
mostly to be b^'nefited by such an un- 
dertaking. But, from /ecent develop- 
ments, } now cniertnin saaguine anti- 
c patioiisof your ultimate success. 

During the last mon'.h I. travelled 
through a portion cf the counties of 
Pitt, Greene, Lenoir, and Craven. I 
found 'TheEarraer's Journal" at every 
house I visited. Fooling much inter- 
ested in the agriculturul prosperity of 
North Carolina, and believing your 
Journal wull calculated to promote this 
object, by diffusing informrtion suited 
to cur climate and soil, I inquired in 
every instance how it wa3 appreciated. 
All professed to be pleaeed with.it. — 
Several remarked that the informaiion 
derived from the nunnbers already pub- 
feshed, was raore than equivalent to .the 
cost o.f" the annual subscription, 



I trust "Old Flip" is waking up. In 
my travels, the last few years. I have 
observed a general and gradual, though 
lardy, improveuient in farming. New 
grounds have been cleared. Old fields, 
that had been given up to broom sedge 
:ind pine saplings, have been enclosed, 
and again .subjected to the plow. Pdany 
persons have discovered ciTposites of 
marl on their premises, and are malcing 
e.xtensive arrangeraenis for npplying it 
to their farms. Surely a goodly num- 
ber of these persons will not be so blind 
to their own intertst, as not to patron- 
ise some agricultural publication. And, 
if they determine to lake any, why not 
take yours? Why depend for agricul- 
tural papers upon other States, .so dif- 
ferent \n climate, soil, and production.<? 
from their own, when they can obtain 
one published among themselves, ex* 
ac;ly "adapted to their want?, and so 
ccnvenient a medium for the inter- 
change of their thoughts and experi- 
ments? 

There are two classes of farmers who 
ought to patronise your paper: — The 
intelligent and practical farmers, who 
have kept pace with the pgricnltural 
improvements of the age ; — and 'tllein*.- 



130 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



d'astcious husbandmen, who have here- 
tofore aiiaehed but little value, and con- 
sequently have devoted but little atten- 
tion to scientific farming. The former, 
by patronising your paper, and writing 
for its columns, might assist you in riis 
seminating useful information among 
their brothers, and materially alleviate 
your editorial burdens — enabling you 
to travel more extensively, and canvass 
the State from the mountains to the 
seaboard; The latter class would de- 
rive, from the perusal of your Journal, 
advantages of which they have'now no 
adequate conception. 

It is stia-nge but true, that where- 
€yer mankind possess the greatest na- 
tural resources, they make the least 
personal exertions to improve their 
condition. The inbabiiants of the Isles 
of the Pa-eifie are mostly savages-; and 
yet they enjoy a mild and salubrious 
climate, and ferule soil. Though they 
micfht raise several successive crops in 
the year, they live principally on the 
spontaneous productions of the earth. 
In a climate suited to the production 
of cotton, silk,- &o., they go almost in 
a state of nudity. 

May not something of this kind be 
the cause of the- comparatively unim- 
proved condition of Eastern Carolina? 
The salt waters abound in fish and 
oysters ; cattk live through the winter 
with littW expense, and get fat enough 
for beef in summer, running at large in 
the woods. Formerly large quantities 
of oak, cypress, juniper aiad piae tim- 
ber furnished employment for many 
persons. These all operated against 
agricultural improvcmeat by withdraw- 
ing labor from the cultivation of the 
earth. But the time has nearly ar- 
lived; when, our citizens must, either 



move to new countries, or improve their 
agricultural resources. The oaks arc 
mostly dead, or used up. The juniper 
and cypress swamps are monopolized 
by a few. The pines generally are 
worn out. Consequently the greater 
part of the capital invested in these 
pursuits must, if it remain in the Stale, 
seek employment in agriculture. — 
Lands must rise ia value. Soon, I 
trust, under the guidance of such in- 
telligent and patriotic farmers as your- 
self, and other congenial spirits, the 
face of our State will assume a more 
pleasmg appearance ; and the places 
now solitary "blossom as the rose." 

As a lover of my native State, my 
warmest aspirations attend you in your 
enterprise. May you be an instrument 
in the hands of Providence to arouse 
the slumbering farmers of N. Carolma, 
and induce them to exert themselves 
for the agricuitural improvement of the 
Stale. 

Yours truly, 

Thomas J. Latham. 

Fixed Facts in Agriculture. 

These may be assumed as fixed facts 
in agriculture : 

1. All lands on which clover, or the 
grasses, are grown, must either have 
lime in them, naturall}-, or that mine- 
ral must be artificially supplied. It 
matters but little, whether it be sup- 
plied in the form of stone-lime, oyster- 
shell lime, or marl. 

2. All permanent improvement of 
lands must look to lime as its basis. 

3. Lands which have been long in 
culture, will be benefitted by applica- 
tions of phosphate of lime, and it is un- 
important whether the deficiency be 
supplied in the form of bone-dust, gaa,»- 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



131 



no, native phosphate of lime, composts 
of fish, ashes,— or in that of oyster- 
shell lime — or marl— if the land needs 
liming, also. 

4. No lands can be preserved in a 
high slate of fertility, unless clover and 
the grasses are culiivated in the course 
of rotation. 

5. Mould is indispensable in every 
soil,— and a healthy supply can alone 
be preserved through the cultivation of 
clover, and the grasses, the turning in 
of green crops, or by the application of 
composts rich in the elements of mould. 

6. All highly concentrated animal 
manures, are increased in value, and 
their benefits prolonged, by admixture 
with plaster, salt or pulverized char- 
coal. 

7. Deep ploughing greatly improves 
the productive powers of every variety 
of soil, that is not wet. 

8. Sub-soiling sound land, that is 
land that is not wet, is eminently con- 
ducive to increased production. 

9. All wet lands sliould be drained. 

10. All grain crops should be har- 
vested from 7 to 10 days before the 
grain is thoroughly ripe. 

11. Clover, as well as the grasses, in- 
tended for hay, should be mowed when 
in bloom. 

12. Sandy lands can be most effectu- 
all improved by clay. When such 
lands require liming, or marhng, the 
lime or marl, is most beneficially ap- 
plied, when made i ito compost with 
clay. In slaking lime, salt brine js 
better than water. 

13. The chopping oi gnridiiig of 
grain, to be fed to stock, operates as a 
saving of at least twenty-five per cent. 

14. Draining of wet lands, and 
marshes, adds 10 their value, by making 



them produce more, and belter ctops^^ 
by producmg them earlierj — and by 
improving the health of neighborhoods, 

15. To manurie or limfe wet lands, 
is to throw manure, lime and labor 
away. 

16. Shallow ploughing operates to 
impoverish the soil, while it decreases 
production. 

17. By stabling and shedding stock 
through the winter, a saving of one- 
fourth of the food may be eflffeoted— 
that is, one-fourth less iood will an- 
swer, than when such Stock may be 
exposed to the inclemencies of the 
weather. 

18. A bushel of plaster per acre, 
sown broadcast over clovbr, will add 
one hundred per cent, to its produce. 

19. Periodical applications of asheS, 
tend to keep up the integrity of soils, 
by supplying most, if not all of the 
inorganic substances. 

20. Thorough preparation of land, 
is absolutely necessary to ihe success- 
ful and luxuriant growth of crops. 

21. Abundant crops cannot be grown 
for a succession of years, unless care 
be taken to provide, and 'appty, an 
equivalent for the substances carried 
off the land in the products grown 
thrown thereon. 

22. To preserve meadows in their 
prodiiotivsncss, it is necessary to har- 
row them every second autumn, apply 
lop-dressings, and roll them. 

23. All stift clays are benofitted by 
fall and winter ploughings ; but should 
never be ploughed while they are wet. 
If, at such ploughings, thfe furrow be 
materially deepened, lime, marl, or 
ashes, should be applied, 

24. Young stock should \)Q mode- 
rately fed ^ith grain, in winter, and 



13^ 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



-reeeiv^e generous suppli' s of long pro- 
vender, it being esseHtial lo keep tliern 
,in fair condition, in order /hat the. for- 
mation of musele, boni s, &c. may be 
tnco-uraged and conlinuously carried 
on. 

25. Milch cows, in winter, should be 
Iccpt in dry, moJeiaiely warm, but well 
ventilaied, quaiteia. be regulailj frd 
and watered three times a day, ^alte^l 
twice or thrice a week, have clean 
beds, be curried daily, anil, in addition 
to their long provender, should receive 
succulent food, morning and evening. 

26; Full complements of tools, and 
implements of husbandry, are inti- 
mately conr:ecied with the success of 
the husbandman. 

27. Capita! is not 'only necessary to 
agricultural success, but can be as pro- 
fitably used in faimuig, as in any otner 
OGCupaiion. 

28. .Punctuslity in engageinenta, is 
as neeessary to an agricultuiisi, as it is 

,to a merchant. 

29. Every husbandman sLould care- 
fully readj and digest matters connect- 
ed with his business; his success being 
as dependent upon a lull knowledge of 
its piinciples and details, as is that of 
the lawyer, or physician, with a knowl- 
edge of the science of law, or physic. 

30. Wiieat, Rye, Outs and Barley, 
should never follow each other in a 
course of rotation ; there should always 
fee an intervening hoe-crop between 
them. 

31. Weeds should never be permit- 
ted to ma;lure their seed on a farm., but 
"be pulled up or cnt down as often as 
they show themselves, such being the 
only effectual method of eradicating 
them. To ensure this result, the 

,g,roi!i0d should be jilautcd in corn, and- 



that kept clean. 

32. Tune and labor devoted lo the 
eoilei'tion of materials to be cotnerted. 
into manure, nre the rno.-t f uitful 
sources of profit in the whe-le range of 
farm economy. 

33. The 01 chard, to be pioductive of 
goud, fair fruit, r^'quires to be fed as- 
much as does a fi. Id of giain. The 
soil of each requires thai the substan- 
ces abstracted by the ciops shuu^d be 
restoied The soil sliould be kept 
clean_ and open to the m lioiatiiig in- 
fluences of the sun, the deas, tlii- rain 
and the air, — the bark ©f the trees 
shou'd be kept in a heabhfu! c 'ndition, 
by seiajjiiig, when nece-s;;ry, tii d by 
alkaline washes. — American Fciirner. 



[From DeBow's Oommercirtl Review.] 
Agricultural Progress In Virgiaia 
for the Last Thirty Years 
Agriculture in Virji.iia had then 
reached its lowest point of depr. ssion. 
Under the exhausting system of cudti- 
vation — a system which was truly a 
systematic destruction of ilie coun'rv — 
adopted in (he first instance by emi- 
grants, in order to obtain the largest 
immediate profit, and who were uiteriy 
regardless of its ultimate effects^ and 
continued by their descendants, when 
the same cause which had induced it 
had ceased to exist — the land, for the 
most part, no longer paid the expenses 
of cultivation. As a patient who has 
undergone a long and rapid process o[ 
depletion, and has little blood left to 
yield lo the Sangrado practitioner, such 
was the tide-water section of Virginia. 
With such culture — such impeverish- 
ment — and the prospect of a popula- 
tion thus situated, society was rapidly 
declining. It was well said by Mr. 
Ruffin, in aa address to the people «»f 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



133 



his dunly, that at that lime— 

"Almost every nnn was growing 
poorer, or the prospects of his family 
V>°entning worse. The grade of society 
had bpen, and still contmued to be, on 
the decline. The proprietors having 
no hope cf the improvement of their 
lands, or of being renmnerated for ever 
so i?reit industry and devotion to their 
husinpfs, thought it as well to bestow 
very Unlo. Accordingly, like the in. 
habitanta of a city ravaged by the 
plague, they ihought more of present 
enjoyment th n of piovidiug for luture 
wants ; and there prevailed, generally, 
habits of idleness and impr.ividence, of 
pleasure seeking and neglect of busi- 
ness, with ail their necessary conse- 
quences." 

The population fled fronfi the country 
to seek a better fortune in the distant 
West. He continues: 

" There was scarcely a proprietor in 
my neighborhood, and dtriving his in- 
come from cuUivatiun, who did not de 
sire to sell his land, and wlio was pre- 
vented only by the impossibil'y of find- 
ing a purchaser, unless at half the then 
very low value. All wished to sell — 
none to buy. If a stranger had been 
inclined to settle among us, he might 
have chosen almost any farm in the 
oounty, and would scarcely have failed 
to find the owner glad to sell, and at a 
low price." 

The county of Prince George differ- 
ed but very little from all the lower 
part cf Virginia. There seemed no 
refuge from poverty bui emigration. — 
Many of the aristocratic mansions of 
this hospitable and generous population 
were now abandoned in silence and 
rain; and the former inmates, with the 



made their melancholy way to the wilds 
of the West. Many a field which had 
descended from generation to genera- 
tion of the same stock, for long years, 
and which had 'oifered to successive 
heirs green prospects and rich harvests, 
now thinly clad in broom-straw and the 
tiny hen-grass, was given up to the en- 
croaching forest. 

In this state cf things, the subject 
of our sketch entered on his career as 
a farmer. He was totally inexperi- 
enced, and had no knowledge, either 
theoretical or practical of bis business. 
But in this he diflered but lit'.le f^om 
older men of this period in. Virginia. 
He gave himself up wiih enthusiasm 
to his pursuit, labored most indusfeii- 
ously, yet laboied in the dark, and, of 
cou!se, often, went astray; sometimes 
in pursuit of one "ignis fatuus," and 
sometimes of another. He saw clearly 
thai the prevailmg sysiems and prac- 
tices of culture v/ere wrong, and wan- 
dered from expeiimenl to experiment 
to discover what was true. Often mis- 
taken in views adopted '-a prioii,'- he 
soon tested them by care'ul experiment 
and rigid induction. Many invesiiga- 
tions, thus pursued for a series of years 
by one whose logical power equalled 
his industry, naturally and inevitably 
led to great results. "Labor vincifc 
omnia," says the Rlantuan farmer. 

The estate of Cog^in's Point was, 
at that time, extremely poor, the larger 
part not averaging more than teri bosh- 
els of corn per acre, nor more than six 
bushels of wheat, on the better half of 
the land. Bordering it, on the river, 
was a tide-marsh of three hundred acres, 
covered by water when the tide was up, 
but left free when the tide was low. — 



xeiDams of their dilapidated fortunes, One ef the first of Mr. Ruffin'e experi- 



134 



THE f^AltMER'S JOlJRNAL. 



ihents was to reclaim this part of the 
iharsh. He limited his efforts to about 
thirty-two acres, the most favorably 
situated, as he believed, to ensure suc- 
cess. After fivd long years' exertions, 
hi3 succeeded ih drd,iDing this small sec- 
lion, and bfmging It into good culture. 
It produced thrfeb verjr large crops of 
corn, then three others less and less in 
quantity, when the vegetable soil had so 
rotted away that the level of the land 
was now too low for cultivation, and it 
Was abandoned to its former element. 
Such has been the fate of every effort 
of a similar kind on soils of a similar 
character. 

About the year 1813, Col. John Tay- 
lor, of Caroline, published his "Ara- 
tor." It was received with enthusiastic 
^clat. There was a general belief that 
he had discovered the great secret of 
improving Virginia soils, and many 
anxious fatmers now rejoiced, as the 
tempest- tossed sailor on the first sight 
of land after a perilous voyage. Here 
was presented a cure for their misfor- 
tunes; they might remain in their old 
homesteads and retrieve their shattered 
fortunes. The principal feature in his 
system was the protection of the land 
from grazing, and iiiaklng the vegetable 
S'erVe as manure. Another, and sec- 
ondary idea, was to throw the land into 
nigh beds, in cultivating the corn crop, 
by deep plowing. Mr. Ruffin became 
an ardent admirer of " Arator," and 
adopted his opmions and precepts. He 
had not yet learned that the inorganic 
elements of soils, the mineral ingredi' 
ents, are often deficient, and sometimes 
one or more exhausted by cultivation, 
sortietimes not furnished by nature to 
the virgin lands, and ihat their vegeta- 
lile growth will not furnish them. He 



at once carried into practicft the new 
idea, and subjected them to the test of 
experiment. For four or five years he 
used all the means of improvement re- 
commended, and found them, as be 
states, " either profitless, entirely use- 
less, or absolutely, and in some cases, 
greatly injurious." 

What then was to be done ? He was 
not the man to despair, save in a des- 
perate case. But circumstances seem- 
ed singularly to concur in establishing 
the belief that any permanent improve- 
ment was hopeless. Putrescent ma- 
nure, when applied, disappeared in the 
course of two or three years, and left 
not a vestige behind. The country 
seemed destined to sterility. Indeed, 
nature had made barren a portion of 
the tide-water country, and her decree 
was irreversible, with the present ele- 
ments of ihe soil. The virgin lant; 
when first stripped of the primeval for- 
est, would in many localities scarcely 
pay the expenses of cultivation. And 
yet this soil had received the dropping 
foliage and the decaying timber from 
the time of the flood. It is not too 
much to say, that one hundred feet in 
depth of putrescent matter had been 
piled on its surface, and had rotted there 
in the lapse of years, and yet the soil 
had remained siill poor. In this exhi- 
bition of nature herself, was found afl 
answer to Col. Taylor's theory. An 
application of vegetable matter miglit 
restore the soil lo its original produc- 
tiveness, but no more. To make an 
improvement beyond this point, some 
change must be made m its mineral 
constituents. 

l3ut at that period little was known 
in ibis country of the science of agri- 
culture. The investigation of its chem-" 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



1 ''It 



istry had just commenced in England 
by Sir H. Daws, who had entered as a 
pioneer the vestibule of the science 
and raised his torch to dispel the dense 
darkness which had thus far enveloped 
the whole subject. While Mr. Ruffin 
was meditating on the last remedy for 
sterile lands — removal to the West — he 
received a copy of Davy's Agricziiiural 
Chemistry, which had been just pub- 
lished in this country. He read it 
with peculiar interest, though not ac- 
quainted with chemistry It was ob- 
vious that, at least, the true philo.sophi- 
cal mode ot examining questions of 
agriculture had been reached. In the 
perusal of this author, there was one 
statement which appeared to afford 
some hope. As an illustration of the 
chemical defects of land and their re- 
medies, he adduces an example of the 
soil of good apparent texture which was 
sent him from Lincolnshire by Sir Jo- 
seph Banks, as remarkable for sterility. 
Upon analyzing it, he found it con- 
tained sulphate of iron, the copperas of 
the shops ; and he offered the obvious 
remedy of top-dressing with lime, 
which converted the poisonous sub- 
stance into manure. 

It occurred to Mr. Ruffin that the 
soils of his section might be like the 
specimen of Sir Joseph Banks. They 
were of " good apparent texture," and 
they were sterile, and they always had 
been so Putrescent manure made no 
permanent improvement. Might not 
the same poisonous substance exist in 
them? He immediately applied a pro- 
per test, but it disclosed no sulphate of 
iron. This supposition, then, must be 
abandoned. Bat might not some other 
substance, equally deleterious, exist? 
Might there not be some acid? He 



was induced ta present this question to 
himself, and to incline to believe the 
affirmative from several eircumstanees. 
He says : 

" These were, first r That certain 
plants known to contain acid, as sheep 
sorrel (the rumex acetorus) and pine, 
preferred these soils, and indeed were 
almost confined to them, and grew there 
with luxuriance and vigor, proportioned 
to the unfitness of the land for produ- 
cing cultivated crops. Second: That 
of all the soils supposed to be acid, 
which I examined by chemical tests, 
not one contained any carbonate of 
lime. Third : That the small propor- 
tion of my land, and of all within the 
range of my observation, which was 
shelly, and of course calcareous, was 
entirely free from pino and' sorrel, and 
moreover was as remarkable for great 
and lasting fertility, as the land sup- 
posed to be acid for the reverse quali- 
ties. Shells or lime would neceasarily 
combine with and destroy all the pre- 
vious properties of any acid placed in 
contact; and therefore, if acid were pre- 
sent universally, and acting as a poi- 
son to cultivate plants, it seemed plain 
enough why the shelly lands were free 
from this bad quality, and by its ab- 
sence had been permitted to grow rich 
and continue productive. Still I could 
obtain no direct evidence of the pre-- 
sence of acid, either free oz combined, 
by applying chemical tests to soils, nor 
was there any authority in my oracle, 
Davy's Agricultural Chemistry, nor 
any other work which I had read, for 
supposing vegetable acid to be present,, 
in any soil," 

But without any authority from, 
chj&mistry, and in spite of his- own faili- 
■wre to detect any suck ©lements ia. 



136 



THE FAEMER'S JOURNAL. 



soils, by means of the impesfect analy- 
sis which he attempted, he felt a very 
strong confidence that such did exist, 
and that it was the cause of the sterili- 
ty of the lasds and their incapacity for 
durable inriprovement. If his views 
were true, lime fcirnished trie afipro 
priate remedy. Fortunately, the beds 
of fossil shells which underlie nearly 
alUhe tide-water seciions of Virginia 
and the adjacent States, presented the 
material at hand to test the truth of his 
theory. 

He bflgm operations in February, 
1818, and aoplied belw. on one hundred 
and twenty five and two hundred bus'i- 
e^3 from one of these beds per acre, to 
two and a half acres of land. His an- 
ticipations were sanguine, and he watch- 
ed with anxious interest the progress of 
the e.vperirnent. The marl^ as it is 
commonly called, contained thirty-three 
and one-third percent, of ca: bonate of 
lime. The land was planted in corn, 
and vrheo the plants were only a few 
inches high, their superiority over the 
Jidjacent corn was manifest. Thi?; con- 
tinued and increased as the crop ad- 
Tanced, and when the crop was gather- 
ed; it was found that the increase was 
forty psT cent. Ihat of the wheat 
crop, whicb suooeedtd, was still more. 
This stlccesQ on a small orea w?is fol- 
lowed bj estensive applieitions of 
m-aTl from year to year ; and each ap- 
plioation testified to the truth of bis 
tbeory. The acidity of the soil was 
neutralized, the acid plants and acid- 
pines disappeared, the land improved 
from year to year. The lime afforded 
fivbd fo: the plantc, medicine to the 
1, and gare permanenco to the ma- 



ihe most fertile and durable soils known 
were highly calcareoifi^ was manifested 
by the marled land more clearly each 
succeeding year. Mo her earth cliangsd 
her face, and changed her consiitation, 
under the healing iofluences of this 
salutary medicament, and now present- 
ed an appearance as diiierent from bor 
former self, as the h(-a!'hy and rot'ust 
man from tne lingering auti hectic vii.-- 
tim of coMSumjtion. Yeidant fielda 
and abundant harvests were the monu- 
ments of his discovery. Ernom straw 
(andropagon) and poverty crass (aris- 
tida gracilis) eave plaee to lusuyant 
clover, and a poor, thin and stunted 
vegetation disappeared from the now 
smiling landscapes. 

When Archuncdes, in his bath, dis- 
covered that a body immtrsed in fluid 
loseH as much in weight as ihe weight 
of an equal volume of the fluid, and 
deti-'Cted by means of it how much al- 
loy an artist h<id fiaudulently added to 
a crown which King Hiero had order- 
ed to be made of pure gold, be is said 
to have been so overjoyed, that, "ac- 
coutred as he was," he pluno:ed into 
the street, crying " Eureka, Eureka, 
Eureka!" Dr. Eittenijouse, when he 
saw the transit of Venus over the sun's 
disc, fainted with excilea^ent. Dr. 
Fianklin, when he discovered with his 
little kite the identity of lighlnirg and 
electricity, is said to have tsperiencsd 
emotions of great intensity. The Vir- 
i:inia farmer had greater cause for re- 
joicing, excitement and exultation than 
either, for he bad not only extended 
the boundary of science, but had made 
a discovery which added millions to 
the nroductions of his co^intry — which 



r.ures. The retentive capacity whicb would arrest the declining fortunes of 
bad be^n inferred from the fact that his State— which would feed the hua- 



THE FARMER'S JOUKNAL. 



137 



gry, give comfort to the indigent, and 
afford the means of improving the con- 
dition of ihoasands of his race. 

In 1818, Mr. RufJin made a commu- 
nication to the Prince George Agricul- 
tural Societj? on the subject of his dis- 
covery, which formed the basis of his 
work etitiJed '' An Essay on Calcare- 
ous Manure?," published in 1832. It 
is to be re.rro'Jed that the limiis ol this 
sketch vviil not permit the insertion 
here of that comtnanicatioo. it ii the 
nusleus of the ess-ay. In the latter 
jiiojiicuon, the principles ma'niained, 
and wliich were then for the first time 
promulgated in an independent work, 
iind supported by facts and argmjientsj 
ttre the following : 

1. The capacity of soils for being 
eiiriched permanently by putrescent 
maaures is only equal to their original 
or natural de;iree of fertility. 

2. The absence of carbonate of lime 
aiOtost universally in the soils of the 
Atlantic shipe oi Virginia, and by in- 
f.jieiice of most of the oiher States, 
a-.id. moit frequently even in what are 
G died limestone soils. 

3. The general presence of some ve- 
jl-etuble acid in all the naturally poor 
nAls in the district above referred lo, 
;;cting 03 a cause of sterility. 

4. The application of carbonate of ! 
i;iue to neutralize the acid, and by that [ 
and other eifects to prepare the land 
(or speedy arid profitable imorovement. i 

These principles were maintained } 
witii great iagonuity and anility, and 
miidc their way rapidly into public fa- 
vor. They are now generally received { 
Efl true, and form tha basis of agrictJi- I 
tural improvenient jhroughout the ex- \ 
tensive section of eoantry for which j 
theji were inteaded. The Ghamists i 



have detected humic acid in the ssoil ; 
carboncite of lime is acknowledged to 
be generally wanting in the slope of tha 
Atlariic States; and it is equally ad- 
mitted that a considerable mixture of 
the calcareous element is an essential 
ingredient in ail fertile and durable 
soils. 

The essav was soon eagerly sotJght 
— everywhere discussed — and wrought 
a powerful effect on the convictions 
and practices of the proiprietors of 
Eastern Virginia. It passed Ihrcugii ^ 
three editions. Though the cultivators 
of the soils are proverbially slow ia 
changing their usages, in this instance 
the new ideas were rapidly diffused, 
I and, in a short time, large numbers 
Wire engaged in marling. Men ubo 
before had made only a few bandied 
dollars from th. if aouuisl crops, wera 
now found counting up their thousands. 
Aarieulture had become profitable — a 
prospf'Ci wes now prest-nted of coiufoft 
and wealth to the farsaers of the cons- 
try — energy and enterprise succeeded 
!o indolence and idleness, and now it 
was no longer necessary to look for 
homes in the Western forests for them- 
selves and their desceadents. 

In an appendiz to the "^ssay on Gai- 
careous Manures," is an ext.-act froia 
the journal of the Coggin's Point Farsi, 
showing the annual crops made froiu 
1813 t3 1842 From this source wa 
learn that in 1818, when the first espo- 
riraent in marling was made, tha crop 
of wheat on thalestate was 430 bush- 
els, and that of cora 2,6-70 bushels. In 
1843, the product of vvheai was 4,725 
bushels ; that of corri 4.675 bushels.' — 
The quantity of arable land ia lim be^ 
ginning was 472 acres^ but- this was af- 
terwards incroesed, by oleorings of ex- 



138 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



tremely poor land, to 632 acres, which 
diminished the general product per 
acre. 

In continuation of these details of 
success, we avail ourselves of the most 
reJiable information to present some 
evidence of the increase of products 
on the Marl bourne estate, en which Mr. 
R. now resides. The land is, for the 
most part, an alluvial flat on the shore 
of the Paraunkey, originally fertilp, 
but reduced by injudicious tillage to a 
stateof great impoverishment. In 1844, 
Mr. R. removed to this estate. We 
are informed that the ordinary crop of 
wheat, for a considerable time previ- 
ous, did not exceed 1000 bushels, but 
we have no information as to the corn. 
In 1845, after an application the year 
previous of 67,872 bushe's of marl, the 
crop of wheat on 134 acres was 1.977 
bushels; that of corn on 112 acres 
1,600 bushels. In 1848, afier the lapse 
of only three years, the wheat crop 
reached 5,127 bushels on 254 acres, 
and that of corn 3,080 bushels on 106 
acres. This vast improvement — much 
more than a duplicate of product, in- 
deed nearly triple — was effected with- 
out any other fertilizing substance but 
the marl, the manure furnished by the 
crops, and clover sown upon the land. 
The profits upon this estate, including 
price of land, labor, stock, and every- 
thing necessary to its cultivation, were 
in '47, within a fraction of 23 per cent, 
on the whole investment ; in '48, a lit- 
tle upwards of 20 per cent. Nothing 
being said in this estimate of the in- 
crease in the value of the farm, which 
k certainly now worth three times as 

much as it was four years ago. 

* « » # # * 

He has seen his efforts crowned with 



success. It is principally due to his ex- 
ertions that Virginia is going through 
a process of rapid improvement, such 
as has been rarely, if ever before wit- 
nessed. Emigration has for the most 
part ceased ; her sons may now find 
abundant sources of prosperity at home- 
The census of 1850 shows an increase 
in the value of the lands of Eastern 
Virgmia since 1837, of 23 millions of 
dollars. Nor is even this amount a 
fair estimate of the real enhancement- 
The high pi ice of labor, regulated by 
the Southern markets, keeps down the 
profits of the farmer upon the capital 
invested, and, of course, depresses the 
value of the lands. 

In an address of Mr. Ruffin to his 
friends and neighbors of Prince Gcoige 
in 1843, who had assembled to do him 
honor, in the presentation of a service 
of plate, he contrasts their present con- 
dition with what it was twenty five 
years before. The former part of the 
picture has been before adverted to in 
this sketch ; in the latler part he says : 

" In all of this, my old neighbor- 
hood, and, so far as I know, through 
the whole country, not one individual, 
after beginning to marl, has emigrated 
or desired to emigiate. The prices of 
lands here have greatly increased, 
though legs than their true value. But 
I know not how to estimate the rate of 
increase, because sales are now more 
rare than even formerly, though for the 
opposite reason. Then it was that no- 
body would buy ; now nobody will 
sell. 

" I know nowhere a more industri- 
ous and steadily thriving community 
than is exhibited in the present occu- 
pants of these lands. Among them, I 
l^elieve, it would be difficult to findPa 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



139 



young landholder who is not attentive 
to his business, industrious, and thriv- 
ing in his operations ; and if seeking 
pleasure less than his predecessors, 
finding it far more successfully in 
steady attention to the cultivation and 
improvement of his farm. And this 
change, and all the results and benefits, 
economical, social and moral, are main- 
ly owing to this one circumstance, that 
every man has now presented to him, 
in certain prospect, a full and sure re- 
ward for his labors." 

What is here affirmed of the county 
of Prince George, is, to a very great 
extent, true of all Virginia below the 
mountains. 

Mr. Ruffin has thus enriched his 
Stale by his labors — enriched his 
triends, his neighbors and himself. — 
His indelible impress is made on Vir- 
ginia, and time must strengthen it. — 
His monument is truly more lasting 
than bra.*s, for it is the soil of his State. 
He has cause to be conscious that he 
has deserved well of his country. His 
memory will be cherished with grati- 
tude, when many of those who occupy 
so much of the public attention, and 
who are ever parading before the popu- 
lar gaze, shall cease to exist in the re- 
coliecdon of man ; when thf ir evanes- 
cent honors shall have passed away 
with the excitement that gave them 
birth, and, like the consumed candle, 
tlieir light shall have vanished forever. 

Best Mode of Cultivating the Corn 
Crop. 

The committee on the subject of the 
<«Best mode of Cultivating the Corn 
Crop," beg leave to report as follows : 

It would be supposed that, at this 
period, the best mode of cultivating 
corn, our great staple, would be per- 



fectly understood, and its culture dur- 
ing each stage of its growth, from plant- 
ing to maturity, reduced to a fixed and 
acknowledged system. But such is far 
from being the case ; great discrepancy 
of opinion exists, and it is rare to find 
in a neighborhood any two farmers 
agreeing, either in their manner of 
cultivating the corn crop, or in the par- 
ticular variety of corn that they culti- 
vate The different mel|iods pf corn- 
making being as v£(,riou3 a,s the soils 
and situations oil which it is m9,de.-— 
We are far fron^ t^hinkii^g that this di- 
versity of opinion is the result of igno- 
rance or empiricism, the subjept as yet 
being but imperfectly understood. As 
a conclusive proof to the contrary, it 
will be found that good crops are made 
under most of the different systems of 
cultivation, and "csetens paribus/' very 
near as much under one as under ano- 
ther. Different soils require different 
treatment, and the skilful and judici- 
ous farmer, who is wedded to no par- 
ticular system, will vary his mode of 
cultivation to suit the different kinds of 
soil m the several cuts in his field, or 
perhaps in the same cut. In agricul- 
ture, as in the other arts and sciences, 
there are certain general and first prin- 
ciples, which, when kept steadily in 
view, will surely lead to a happy result. 
Acting on these principles, though the 
means differ, being modified by circum" 
stances and situations, the result arrived 
at is the same. 

As far as your committee can lay 
down rules to direct in a matter where 
so many circumstances, and even the 
difference in the seasons require such 
frequent departures from them, they 
will do so to the best of their ability. 
Ist. The quality of the land must \^ 



140 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



considered. That musi be good, or if; 
not, it must be rendered so by manuies 
The skill of the farmer may, indeed, 
■carry the plant through the diflereni 
stages of its growth on an impoverish 
ed soil, but how different is the misfra- 
bie, sickly abortion of a trop in appear- 
ance from the tall, luxuriant g.owih of 
the kinder soil ; and how diffeierstthe 
product, the empty corn houses will bui 
too plainly declare. The ways uf ap- 
plying manure a:e various, "^i'lje land 
may be top-dressed with it at any tiuii.' 
to advantage, or it may be spread upon 
the land just previous to ploughing, or 
after it is pluughed. for corn. Theieby 
eH.ibling us to be at all tinges engaged 
in using that important au5iliar3^ As 
regards the quality of the manurf. the 
rotted is to be. preferred to the course 
and unfermented manures, the good ef- 
fects of which are not only so apparent, 
bat it frequently prove.'i iijuinius by 
checking the growth of the plant, and 
causing it io fire 

2d. The land must be well drained I 
ivuere it is ^^qi.lireti ; excess of mois- 
ture being ini:iiical to all vegetauon 
except the coarse g'asses and weeds 

3d. The land must be well ploughed 

As regards the be&t time and mode of 

performiDg that opeia'.ion, the received 

o:)iaion i?, that the ground should be 

"broken up in the fall and winter. Your 

committee have not suiTicient esperi 

once to speak decidedly on that subject, 

never having been able to effect fall 

ploughing to any considerable extent. 

Some do-abt exi-sts as to the propriety 

of it— thn alternate action of the frosi 

aad Siin injuring by evaporation the 

f.nuiity of the exposed eoil. If there 

33 a heavy cover upon the land, it 

should be ploughed in autumn; noth- 



ing but that, or close grazing, wiil prs- 
vent the destructive ravages ot the cui- 
vvorm ai.d other injects. When plough- 
ed in the fall or early winter, the Lnd 
should be re-pkughed brforc planted, 
and ban owed if necessary. As soon 
as the extreme rigor of ih« winter is 
over, the plough should be staited. — 
The land then is mellow and spongy 
from the action of the frosts and snows 
upon it, thus enabling us to p'lough 
deeply and effectually. Caution is ne- 
cessary that It be not ploughed loo wet ; 
if that should happen, tlie bad - ffects 
will be apparent during the whole sea- 
son. The ploughing should never be 
delayed until late in the spring, (or af- 
tei the grass has grown, and the sod 
covers the land, it is vain to expect a 
(Tdod crop fiom it. 

Our opinion is, that the best mode 
of ploughing is to throw iha land up 
into beds lour feet, or four and a half 
feel apart. The beds to be cummeneed 
with three furrowed list, by "which 
^n. ans the bed is thoroughly broken Tip 
and pulverized. In staiting the bed 
with a two furrowed list, there is too 
much hard ground covered up, so that 
when the bed is split for planting, the 
hard unbiolcen sod is exposed. 

4ih. The Time and Manner ofFlant- 
„,o-,__We should com.menee planting 
con. about the first o! Apiil on the 
light lands, as at thai time ihey begm 
to^'feel the genial influence of the mu. 
With r<gtird to the manner of plant- 
ing, we thmk it better to drill tban to 
cross-plough or check, though much less 
hoe woik is required when the latter 
method is pursued. Cross plougbinvy 
should never be done on land liable 
to the overilowing of water. For plant- 
nc-, the beds should be split, not shai- 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL, 



1' 



low, nor too d«fp. The corn shoul i 
\)Q dionpa i in the drills at a disiance 
varyiiiir fiorn two to three (ect apart, 
according t) the strength of the land. 
The nioal i^-xprdiiious way of coverint!' 
the corn i^ by rnfiansof a light harro.v 
when ih" land is not too rough. 

5th. Thi; next operation to be con- 
si Jered, is weeding. This is accom 
plished by various nieaiis_. all tending, 
with great- r or less effect, to the same 
end. The lof,S'>ning of the soil n-ar 
the young plants, that their roots mny 
spread in sean^h of food, and the re 
moval of the grass and vveeds, that the 
v/arnsth of the 6un and air may not be 
excluded from them. For this purpose 
the h.uvovv is used very successfully 
by some — it is, no doubt, very well 
S'Jiied to the light, loamy soils. Others 
recommend the cultivator — others a^ain 
the plough. Your committee, as far as 
their experience goes, decidedly prefer 
the doubls shovel-plough to all other 
implemenis on most lauds. It loosens 
\ttQ earth to a greater depth, witiuiul 
throwing down the bed, or bringing to 
the surfdce the decomposing vegetable 
waiter that has been turned in by the 
plougii. h can be used with as much 
accuracy in running next (o the corn as 
the plough, leaving very little work for 
the hoes. The hoes should follow in 
all ss.se-:>, leveling the earth about the- 
plants, (not hilling them up.) and weed- 
ing in the step. There are some lands 
on which none of these lighter inp.'e- 
ments can be used, on account of their 
roughness, or from their being a great 
growth of gra.ss and weeds — in sucli 
places the plough alone can be used 
wiih advantage. The corn, in such situ- 
ations, should bo sided with the plough, 
fc3 close aa possible on both sides. On 



wet. lov? land, the earah ougLl to be im- 
mediately thrown back to it, to pre- 
serve the height of the beds, and the 
hoes should fullnw, weeding and level- 
ing the eaith about the corn. 

6th. The next process is ploughing 
the corn, er, as it is commoulv called,' 
'•throwing dirt to it" — This we deem 
the most important ot all the difftrent 
opi rations, it is ihi:; working that stim- 
uluies the corn to a vigorous growth. 
The best mode of plousihing corn ou 
stiff land, liable to be afiVcied by water, 
is to run the first fursow not very deep, 
but the second, and those necessary to 
break out the middles, as deep as possi- 
ble, thereby pulverizing the earth more 
efleciually, and placing ihey.oung corn 
out of the reach of water. ' Light and 
dry lands should 'not be ploughed so 
deep, as the hot sun and wincfe will dry^ 
up the moisture iff thg'bed?. *When 
the corn has attaXne^l a considef^le 
growth before it is plough rd, some cau- 
tion is nec8Ssary-,.Vr ,it may be mate- 
rially injured by teariBg off the lateral 
roots. Tee first Arrows should bl, 
then, made shallo\y.,^^d not close to 
the corn. But whert llje com is of a 
proper size, the earTk' should be well 
Upped up to it. After the corn is 
ploughed, the hoes should be sent 
through it, chopping any weeds that 
may remain, and setiling the earth 
about it. VVc do not recommend iho 
use of barrows, skimmers, &c., after 
the corn is laid by with the plougl), 
as they are rarely necessary. We will 
now priiceed'to' make a few remarks iu 
conclusion. 

As regards re-p!anling, we think that 
the Urst part of the field planted should 
be !"e-!)lanted as it is weeded. When 
the la^tter planting is all up, the w'aole 



142 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



should be replanted. Corn should not 
be thiqneJ until it is out of danger 
from the worm and other insects. — 
When such is the case, it ought to he 
thinned as it is v^eeded. After a rain, 
when the ground is too wet to work the 
corn, the hands should he employed in 
thmning and setting. Suckers should 
always be pulled away ; they prove in^ 
junous in many ways. 

Your committee would above all, re- 
commend that, whatever may be the 
various processes of working the corn, 
it be done in season. Although it may 
be stirred and worked in, apparently 
the roughest n^anner, durmg the early 
part of the season, yet it becomes more 
delicate than the sensitive plant during 
hot, dry weather of mid-summer, when 
It is about to silk and tassel, and will 
not bear the slightest interference with 
the earth near its roots. 

A;il of which is respectfully submit- 
ted.,*|'' TfjQ. L_ Hunter, 

H. M. Tennent. 



,^ Cliimneya. 

Iljln building fine chimneys, in brick 
walls, the inside should be plastered as 
carefully and smoothly as the finishing 
coat of a parlor. Masons do not do 
this; they put on the common lime 
used by them for jointing, and the in- 
terior surface is covered without a pro- 
per regard being paid to the functions 
of the chimney. The reasons for laying 
on the lime coat of a chimney smooth, 
are obvious, if we take into considera- 
tion that the rough edges of the lime, 
when dry, serve as points of ailraction 
and adhesion for soot, because they re- 
sist the passage of the smoke. A smooth 
chimney has « belter draught, to use a 
common term, than one with a rough 
iuterior j the reascr^ pf this js also ob 



vious, because rough surfaces retard the 
passage of smoke, as well as water or 
any other substance in motion is retard- 
ed by them. In the building of houses, 
masons are too careless^ about these 
things; indeed, the majority of them_- 
do not appear to have any knowledge 
of natural philosophy, yet there is no 
man living, be he mason, plasterer, or 
hodcarrier, but stands high as a work- 
man according as he is well informed. 

Were it not for the general form of 
the walls of buildings, it would be much 
better to have the chimneys built of a 
round or oval shape, like the funnel of 
a steamboat. The flues in brick houses 
should be built circular inside ; this 
would be a little more troublesome, but 
the flues would be all the belter for it ; 
yet, if they were only plastered smooth, 
no one would have to complain of a 
square or rectangular form. 

Some chimneys are built with tre- 
mendous gaping fire-places, o'lhcrs are 
built wide at the base, and taper to- 
wards the top : both plans are erroneou» 
A moderate width of fire-place is all 
that is required (we have wonderfully 
improved on our forefathers in this res- 
pect,) and it would be far better, if a 
chimney is built tapering, to have the 
widest part at the lop. where the staoke 
is to make its exit A reason for this 
is, that when the smoke is con&ed 
below, and suddenly allowed lo expand 
at the top, it forms a partial vacuum^ 
which draws up the smokfi. It is upon 
this principle that Prof. Espy's Venti- 
lator is constructed. It may be said 
the open expanse above the chimney^ 
allows the smoke to expand, therefo.re 
It IS of no use to widen the top of the 
chimney inside ; this is very true. 

The rules which should be followed 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



V43 



in the buildingof a chimney, is to build 
it of a uniform diameter from boitom 
to lop, not too wide, and smoothly cov- 
ered with plaster inside. 

The object of writing this arti'cle was 
to direct attention to making the inte- 
rior of chimneys smooth and well cov- 
ered with lime. In many cases there 
are chimneys built fiir small houses, of 
a diarneier which would enable them 
to carry smoke away from one of Col- 
lins' 'steamships. Masons do not ap- 
pear to take into consideration, when 
they build a chimney, what it has to do. 
namely, to carry ofTtbe smoke from 
one or two fires. The narrower the 
chimney the better will it draw, con- 
sequently a wide chimney for a small 
fire — a very common error — embraces 
a scientific principle, as erroneous as it 
would be to array Tom Thumb in a 
suii belonging to Giant Hale, for the 
purpose of refrigeration in the dog- 
days. We have used the term draw, 
in respect to the current in the chimney, 
as it is generally understooJ ; the prin- 
ciple of draught in a chimney has noth- 
ing to do with pulling or drawing the 
smoke ; pressure, expansion, and ab- 
sorption are the governing causes of 
serial currents. 



There is a way of doing good in the 
world, on a small scale, thai is scarcely 
appreciated. A man who educates one 
child faithfully, may effect a work of 
greater benevolence than one who has 
won she name of philanthropist. The 
love concentrated on a family may pro- 
duce richer fruits than that which em 
braces the world. Its action is more 
intense and invisible, but its results 
may go abroad and leaven the whole 
mass of a communitv. 



Manageineut and Profit of the Milclt 
Cow.. 

I am pleased to find tliat others beside- 
myself advocate the milking of the cow 
up to the time of parturition — even if 
the milk be found unfit for fiimily usCj 
when it might be fed to the hogs — satis- 
fied, as I am, that thepracliice will be fol- 
lowed with beneficial results. I once 
owned a small cow tliat seemed to turn 
all she ate into milk, for of a surety but 
little fie&h could ever be found on her 
bone§. She was of the unimproved 
breed of real Jersey cattle, .yet by no 
means was she like the caricature pub- 
lished in the last volume of the New 
York Agricultural Transactions, to throw 
disrepute on the Jersey cow' of twenty 
years ago, but which it has failed to do, 
as every one who knew that breed at that 
time of day will bear me out when I say, 
no such cow as there depicted in ridicule 
was ever seen on that Island. I consider 
all caricatures a species of lying — but I 
am digres.sing. 

Tlie purport of this is, to recommend 
to the dair3'man the benefits arising from 
tlie continual and regular milking of the 
cow until she calves. I have several 
times milked a considerable quantity in 
the evening, and found a fine calf with 
the cow in her large stall next morning ! 

Few persons are aware of the differ- 
ence between the value of a good cow 
and a bad one — one that will go dry for 
three or four months in the year. It 
amounts to more than a diflference of 
cent, per cent., for while the good cow 
gives a profit the bad cow leaves a de- 
cided loss, even when the labor of man- 
agement is not taken into account. — ■ 
Speaking of the -worth of a good cow, 
many, no doubt, have seen an account of 
the "Cramp Cow" of England, Avhose 



144 



TH^a .FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



milking proi^erties qre acknowledged to 
have been almost iinprecedentedly great^ 
but I find in Cobbett, mention made 
of Iier that will, I think, be read Avith in- 
terest hy all Vt'ho have the management 
of that kind of stock. It is there said — 
" I had once a cow that made more 
than tvi'o pounds of butter during the 
v/eek, and had a calf on the Saturdaj^ 
night. , Cows ought always to be milked 
to the \^ry d§,y of their calving, and 
during the whole time of sucking their 
calves. Ill a little publication of 'Mr. 
Cramp, printed by the Board of Agricul- 
ture, it v/as stated, and the proof given, 
that his single cow gave him, clear pro- 
fit, for several successive years, m.ore than 
fifty, pounds sterling a year, or upv/ards 
of two hundred and twenty dollars. — 
This was clear profit ; reckoning the food 
and labor, and taking credit for the calf, 
the butter, and for the skim milk at a 
. penny a qiSart only. Sir. Craxrip's was 
3 Sussex com Mine were of the Alder- 
ney breed, lit#e small-boned things ; but 
two of my G^ws, fed upon three-quai-ters 
^ of an acre t>f "grass ground, in the mid- 
dle of my shrubbery, and festened to 
pins in the ground^, which were shifted 
twice a day, made three hundred pounds 
of butter from the 2Sth of March to the 
2'/th of June.'' — Cor. Boston Cultiva- 
tor. 

BFimctoiis foi" Cattle. 
It 13 not pr(/oably known to many of 
our farmers, that brimstone is valuable 
for cattle in keeping them free frou] 
ticks. These vermin are not only filthy 
in their appearance, but an injury to the 
cattle. A piece of brimstone as large as 
a grain of corn, well pulverized, given 
in a little salt, will cause them to drop 
off and prevent others from getting on 
ibr eight or ten days. I consider brim- 
stone as nec333ary for a cow in summer, 
as salt. 



Hoi-se Shoeing. 
Mr. Miles, the Veterinary Surgeon of 
the English Life Guards, a man famed 
for skill in his profession, makes the fol- 
lowing remarks on the subject of horso 
shoeing : 

The shoe of the horse should be o^ 
equal thickness throughout, with a fiat 
ground surfece, as those with high heels 
which some smiths make in imitation of 
their own, are dangerously absurd. The 
toe, which ought to be raised,, is lowered, 
and nature's plan is reversed, v/hich ele- 
vates the point in order to avoid obstruc- 
tions. The web should be wide, and of 
the same width throughout, instead of 
being pinched in because the smith likes 
to see the shoe well set off at the heels. 
This is both unphilcsophical and detri- 
mental : it deceives the eye of man and 
injures the foot of the horse. TI;eout<:r 
edge of the foot rests on tlie inner edge. 
of the shoe, and the remaining width of 
the v/eb prcjeets beyond the hoof, so 
that the master who thinks that his 
horse has a good open foot, only has to 
be proud of a bad open shoe, which 
both conceals deformities underneath, 
and invites vi-ith open arms a bad road 
to come and do its worst. The heels are 
made bare just v.'here the navicular joint 
is most exposed ; and if that be en- 
fiamed, what must the agony be when 
tlie unprotected foot treads on a sharp 
flint ? The horse falls suddenly lame, or 
drops as if he had been shot — phrases 
in much too common use to require ex- 
planation ; and small is the pity which 
the sp.rTering animal meets with from 
man, who, having first destroyed the use 
of his victim's feet, abuses him because 
he cannot go ; and imputes "grogginess" 
to him as a crime, as if he v/ere in liquor 
like a groom, and not in agony. — Gtr- 
ma-fiioivn Tcirirravh. 



THEFARMER'3 JOLTRNAL. 



J 45 



FAKMEir;S JOURNAL. 

BATH, N. C, AUGUST, 1852. 

I'armers of North Carfiliaa — Awake 

to your Interests. 

" Both ancient and modern liistory 
tejiches us tliat it is upoii the success of 
Agriculture that a nation's success de- 
pends, that it is the foundation of every 
other branch of industry, that Avherever 
■W8 see a proper attention paid to its de- 
tails, we are sure to see every other trade 
and profession in a thriving \vay. Not- 
withstanding we see this to be the re- 
salt of a proper attention to the farming 
interest, Ave still see it sadly ^neglected in 
our State, and our people yet depending 
upon other resources than the cultivation 
of the soil for their support. Let them 
only thinh of what is now the condition 
of Virginia in comparison with what it 
was a few years ago ; and the Eastern 
shores of Maryland are now the most 
fertile part of that State. We would 
ask, has this been done by the constant 
and exhausting plan of cropping, talcing 
every thing from the soil, and leaving 
nothing to reproduce the preceding crops ? 
Has it been the result of the farmers strict- 
ly adhering to the long established plans 
o.^ their fathers, and su3ering no innova- 
tion to be made upon them ? We v/oukl 
answer that this has been by no means 
the case ; but on the contrary, they have 
practised plans precisely the reverse of 
what their fathers did ; instead of plov/- 
ing three inches deep, they have learned 
the benent of deep plowing ; instead of 
applying a small quantity of manure to 
a large quantity of land, they put a large 
quantity upon a few acres. With these 
examples before them, v/hy do our far- 
mers still fold their arms and say that 



we will yet sleep on, we are not yet tired 
of the constant emigration of ou}- young 
men from their homes, we are not yet 
tired of having our State laughed at, 
and her citizens taunted with being call- 
ed the "tar, pitch and turpentine" folks. 
Vie are not at all concerned at seeing 
our population drivelling away jezr after 
year ; we are not anxious to see people 
from other States coming into ours ; we 
want more elbow-room ; we think tliat 
we need more land. Before there isk any 
permanent improvement we must be con- 
vinced of the great importance of read- 
ing from the experience and researcli of 
other men. We must learn not to re- 
pulse information because \vq find it in 
books, and we must cease to pronounce 
a fact or statement false before we give 
it a trial. When we get clear of all of 
these false notions which we have named, 
we will then begin to improve, and our 
corn fields, instead of prodiicing only 
enough to support the horse while tend- 
ing it, will yield us fine crops, and malie 
our hearts light and our purses heavy. 



Good aud Sad Lack. 
The remark is often made tliat some 
men are more fortunate than others, and 
if taken in its proper sense, very justly 
made. But the idea xisually intended to 
be conveyed is certainly very erroneous, 
which is, that fortune dispenses her lots 
v/ith a partial hand — that she often re- 
wards without merit, and disappoints 
laudable exertion. And indeed such 
would seem to be the fe.ct to the superS- 
eial observer, who only considei-s efiecte 
Vi'ithout tracing them to their origin, 
where only the true cause can be detect- 
ed. But on closer examination, our mis- 
fortunes may he mostly traced to our 
ovni errors, oommititad either through 



146 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



ignorance, or that wliich is far less ex- 
cusable, wilful neglect. Thus, the far- 
mer who gives close examination to his 
business, sees thatliis lands are well cul- 
tivated, his fences and farm buildings 
kept in order, his crops planted in proper 
season and good order, his stock of all 
kinds well provided for with shelter, food 
and water, his manure well husbanded 
and secured from waste, and all spare 
time employed in collecting materials 
for increasing the quantity — in short, b}^ 
vigilence in the exercise of such a regu- 
lar course of economy, that the whole 
business of the farm and farming opera- 
tions may be done in due time, and no- 
thing be suffered to waste by putting off 
till tc-;norrow what ought to be done to- 
day — seldom has to take refuge under 
the pitiful plea of bad "luck." 

But, on the other hand, he who fre- 
quently and unnecessarily spends an 
liour or two, perhajis more, at a grog- 
shop, a store, sale, or other public place, 
or Avith a neighbor, not only idling 
away his own time, but hindering his 
friend also, who in all probability would 
at the same time much rather be attend- 
ing to his own concerns, or it may be 
he is peddling about something of little 
or no profit, Avasting his time when his 
farm requires attention, is often a week 
behind business, always pretending to 
have more to do than any other person. 
He does not break his land before he 
plants his corn, for the reason that he 
only half way does any thing which he 
begins. He half plows his corn and 
works his entire crop in a slovenly man- 
ner, and when the harvest comes and he 
does not reap as much as his careful 
neighbor, he will begin to complain, and 
say that some people have better "luck" 
than others, and as for himself, he never 



did have any but "bad luck." 

Reader, the picture drawn above is no 
fancy sketch ; we are willing to leave it 
with you to say whether or not you do 
not know many farmers to whom the 
above will apply. And should any rea- 
der unfortunately find himself describecT 
in this picture, let him take it in good 
part, and resolve at once to mend his 
ways, and have no longer to be com- 
pelled to hide his faults under that flim- 
sy veil, "bad luck." 



Our Paper— Shall it Live 1 

We have made two appeals to the far- 
mers of our State, which Ave regret to 
say, have passed by unheeded ; Ave have 
urged them to come to our rescue, and let 
us live on more than a year. We now 
make another appeal to our subscribers, 
and the last to them. AVe make this ap- 
peal to them for the reason that they have 
seen to some extent the great good Avhich 
we have already done and can do if Ave 
are properly sustained. We urge exevy 
subscriber to lend us his aid — let each 
one Avho takes the Farmer's Journal, go 
at once among his neighbors and get us 
subscribers and send in their names, Avith 
|5, and we shall at once be on safe 
ground. We make this appeal to you as 
our friends and the friends of Agricultu- 
ral Improvement. This is but a small 
task in comparison to Avhat Ave are doing 
for the farming interest of our State.- — 
We have left our home time after time, 
and have gone, up to this time, into 20 
counties, and if Ave meet Avith that en- 
couragement Avhich Ave deserve, Ave shall 
canvass the entire State in six months 
more. This is all that Ave shall say — in- 
deed Ave have said enough — if the far- 
mers Avish us to continue, just speak out 
at once. 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



147 



Our Visit to the Farms of the Messrs. 
Burgwyns. 

Taking into consideration tlae present 
condition of Agi'iculture, we deem it of 
considerable advantage to those who are 
just engaging in Agricultural improve- 
ment to have the examples of those be- 
fore them who have succeeded in makmg 
poor land rich. "We have in our paper 
in a few instances given an accurate de- 
scription of what we consider fine farms, 
and such they really are, — ^but when ta- 
ken in comparison with those of the 
Messrs. Burguyns, they are merely ma- 
king a beginning toward improvements. 

We shall say here, in the veiy begin- 
ning, that these two gentlemen are such 
sous as North Carolina should be proud 
of, and why ? for the reason that they 
have d»ne more to show what our State 
might be in an agricultural point of view, 
than any two gentlemen with whom we 
are acquainted. Farming is the princi- 
pal theme with them, they delight to 
dwell upon its beauties, its pleasures and 
profits. They are constantly making in- 
quiry what tlicy shall do to make greater 
improvements than what they have done. 
Upon these farms we saw land that this 
year, even with the diy season, is esti- 
mated to average from ten to twelve bar- 
rels of corn, and twenty bushels of wheat 
per acre, which ten years since would 
not have made that of corn . per acre, 
and scarcely any wheat at all. These 
are worn out farms improved — taken 
when miserably poor, and by a proper 
course of culture made rich. These gen- 
tlemen have used lime extensively ; their 
improvements are mainly dependent up- 
on lime and clover — though at the same 
time, they have not neglected other re- 
sources for making manures. They have 
practised deep plowing, iuva,riably using 



those horse plows in flushing their lands 
before planting, and they have used the 
sub-soil plow, and the good effects of it 
are to be clearly seen in their present 
crops. They raise a large quantity of 
wheat — about 14,000 bushels each, this 
year — and they use the reaping machines, 
Hussey's we think, for cutting, and T. 
P. Burgwyn gets out his wheat by steam 
power, and H. K. Burgwyn gets out his by 
a very excellent water power. They have 
finely adapted regulations among their 
hands, having good buildings for their 
comfort, and having regular hospitals for 
the sick, and a regular nursery for the 
children. They are raising fine and im- 
proved cattle, making a cross with the 
South Devon and our native cattle. The 
Messre. Burgwyn are well informed gen- 
tlemen, highly entertaining, especially 
upon farming ; they have travelled ex- 
tensively in this country, and H. K. Bur- 
gvfyn has visited some of the finest farms 
in Europe, 

Farmers, Make Manure. 

Tlie cultivation of the various crops in 
this State, is, we presume, by this time 
completed ; and the farmer should begin 
to lay the foimdation for next year's 
crop. In order that the next year's har- 
vest may be a large one, it is highly im- 
portant that a large amount of the right 
kind of manure should be collected, 
ready for application in the spring. , In 
the July number we urged upon tlie far- 
mer to drain his land more thoroughly, 
and this of course must be done with 
his able hands, such as can handle a spade 
well. We now say, let the "trash gang" 
in the mean time be employed in making 
manure, which will enable them to pay 
the amount of good able hands. That 
kind of work required to be done in 



148 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



composting manure, can be done by a 
■vi-oman or boy as well as a man. Many 
farmers would say tliat tliey have not 
the means of making manure — "they 
have no marl," — believing, as many do, 
that it is perfectly useless to undertake 
to manure without marl. This is a gross 
jnistake, for we would refer such as be- 
lieve this, to the letter of Jesse II. Pow- 
ell, in the second number of the Journal, 
■and there he plainly says, that the por- 
tion of Edgecombe in y/hich there has 
been the greatest improvement, is not 
possessed of but one marl bed. The va- 
rious crops which we cultivate are com- 
posed of a variety of elements, some mi- 
neral and some vegetable; and thus it is 
on this account it is necessary that the 
manures which we apply to those crops 
should be composed of mineral as well 
as vegetable elements ; so that it is im- 
portant that the farmer v/ho has not an 
analysis of his soil should make quite a 
combination in putting up the compost 
Iieap. We are very sure that already 
we have furnished in our paper the 
many ways of making manure, and 
therefore deem it useless here to mention 
them again. That mode which is more 
vvithin the reach of every farmer, is the 
salt and lime mixture, in the April niim- 
ber of the Journal ; and we would sug- 
gest that when lime cannot be had with- 
out too much trouble, that ashes be 
U3e5 in its place in the compost. Let 
every farmer make up his mind to make 
more manure than his neighbor, and this 
will stimulate him to make every heap 
that he can. Practice makes perfect in 
manuring as in every thing else ; indeed 
there is no farmer but what will add at 
least a third to the amount of manure 
made every year for a lon.o- time, if he 
caooses to exert his energies. Let every 



farmer begin at once to make manure 
for the next year's crop ; do not put it 
off until winter comes, but begin at once 
to throw up mud, burn ashes, get out 
marl, &c. 



Gen. Wiiiiaisi A. Blount's I^f-ttev. 

We have been furnished by a friend a 
copy of the minutes of an Agricultural 
Society which existed in Beaufort Coun- 
ty in 1823, and among other things of 
interest, we there found a letter from 
Gen. Blount, upon clearing swamp lands. 
Whatever is in print .is public property, 
if w^e give the honor to whom honor is 
due ; and we here take the privilege of 
laying before our readers this very inter- 
esting letter. The writer is a practical 
farmer, we know him to be such, and 
can safely recommend the applicallicn of 
this letter to those who wish to clear 
swamp lands. After having said this 
much, we can imagine that we hear the 
questions asked : V/hy does not General 
Blount write letters for The 'li'armer's 
Journal,' an Agricultural journal in his 
own . county ? Has this gentleman suf- 
fered his State pride to wear away with 
his youth? And why does he, at the 
very time vften his services arc needed, 
shrink back and say that he will not 
make known the result of his long expe- 
rience to the world ? 

Oak Lands, Nov. 15, 1323. 

Sir — Your letter requesting informa- 
tion upon the subject of reclaiming swamp 
land has been received. 

My information 'from the short time 
engaged in reclaiming such land is neces- 
sarily very circumscribed, it will give ran 
pleasure to communicate such as I havo. 

The swamp in which I have coni- 
menced clearing a plantation contains 
about 25,000 acres — the growth a very 



THE FyVE,\iEIl'S JOURNAL. 



149 



ieavy one, consisting of black gum, lau- 
Tel, ■ poplar, pine and oak ; the under 
growth, fetter-hush, low-bush laurel, 
■white and black bay, and gall-berry. — 
The upper and under growth together is 
so very thick as to be almost impervious 
to the rays of the sun at meridian. — 
The soil is black, and varies in depth 
from 4 to 24 inches, the farther in the 
swamp, the deeper the soil ; its general 
depth, about 18 inches — the substratum, 
clay. 

In such land as is here described, a 
hand can cut in a ditch 4 feet wide and 3 
feet deep, or in any less ditch 400 cubic 
feet per day. In a ditch 5 feet wide and 
three feet deep, the size of my main drain, 
a hand can cut 320 feet per day; the 
trees, stumps, &c., in all cases to be taken 
up, and thrown out of the ditch. 

I have cleared, and begun to clear this 
land in various ways. The first plan I pur- 
sued was as follows : The under growth 
was cut down in the Fall and laid with 
tops to the westward, the point whence 
we generally have the hardest winds in 
the Spring ; in March availing myself of 
a fair and hard wind, this under growtii 
was fired, most of it burnt up as it lay, 
the balance was heaped and burnt ; the 
smallest of the heavy growth was then 
cut down, heaped and burnt ; the trees 
that were left, say about 20 per acre were 
^rded or deaded, and have since at' dif- 
ferent times been removed, the land grub- 
bed, and put in good order for the plough. 
In this way, and I think it the worst way 
in which a swamp can be cleared, if cost 
me about |25 per acre, the expense of 
■draining included. 

2nd Plan — The under growth .cut 
down and disposed of as by the first plan 
— all or nearly all of the trees were then 
cut down, the few left were deaded — ^the 



whole thus remained for about twelve 
months, when tliey were fired. I greatly 
prefer this to the first plan ; the fire here 
not only burnt the under growth, but 
most of the limbs of the trees ; the trees 
in many eases where they crossed each 
other were burnt in two, the sap was 
burnt off of many, and some of them, 
burnt entirely up^vfhat were left after 
the fire had performed its office, w^ere cut 
up, heaped and burnt — I have not yet 
got this land to the plough, but I think I 
shall be able to do so for about $18 per 
acre. 

od Plan — Girdle or dead the trees — I 
do not think it important at what sea- 
son of the year this is done ; to produce 
the desired efi'ect it must be done well. 
It is done in tvv'o ways — cut round th o 
tree about 3; inches deep and take out the 
chip : — 2d, cut as deep as -the axe can bo 
buried at one stroke all round the ti-ee, 
hairing no place lincul, and then 
about . four inches above or beiovr, 
cut round the tree in the same way 
again, and leuve the chip. The latter 
plan I prefer ; I find the trees die sooner. 
This done, the land should be left un- 
touched for three years, in which time if 
the work is well executed, nearly all the 
trees will be dead ; many will have fall- 
en down, and the roots rotted. In Au- 
tumn of the third year, before the leaven 
have fallen off the under growth, let it 
be cut doAvn and disposed of as before 
mentioned, and in the ensuing Spring let 
it be fired. This is the plan I have now 
commenced clearing upon, and I feel con- 
vinced, in this way, it will not corst me 
mora than 12 or|15 per acre. The land, 
I think, will produce as well the first year 
as afterwards, which is not the case when 
cleared differently. It will probably be 
more dm-able in cons8C[uence of the ac- 



150 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



cession of vegetable matter. On such 
land as is here desribed 8 barrels of corn 
per acre, may safely be calculated on — 
mine that I have to the plough, has this 
year averaged 10 barrels per acre. 

In conclusion, let me remark — that 
every thing may be said to depend on 
draining effectually in the first instance ; 
I mean before any thing else is done. — 
If this is attended to, 'tis not material 
how the land is cleared, the expense will 
be lessened, and the land will produce 
well ; if it is neglected, the hopes of the 
Cultivator will always be blasted. 
Very respectfully, 
WILL. A. BLOUNT. 
Thos. H. Blount, Esq., 

8ec''y Beaicfort Agri. Society, 
SANS souci. 



Application of Guano to a Growing 
Crop of Corn. 

To the Editor of the American Far- 
mer — 

Dear Sir: — I own a small farm 
lying near Hertford, N. C. — II is of a 
light sandy soil, with clay bottom. 1 
have used as fertilizing manures — and 
ara still using them — swamp mud, mix- 
ed with lime, and ashes, with great 
success. I have already planted my 
corn, (for I cultivate this crop mostly.) 
The first I planted is some four inches 
high. 

1 have bought one ton of guimo to 
use on the present crop. The object 
of thi.« letter is to ascertain the best 
mode of employing it now, and how to 
make the application. Ought it to be 
mixed with any other fertilizing agent 
— with ashes, mud, woods dirt, lime, or 
plaster, or any thing else? My pro- 
fession is that of the Law, and I con- 
fsss I have not devoted as much time as 



I might have done to the late agricul- 
tural improvements. But it is not too 
late to learn. I write this letter to 
get the requisite information — I lake 
your periodieal — invaluable — but I de- 
sire more specific intelligence. 
Yours respectfully, 

John P. Jordan. 

Hertford, N. C, May 1, 1852. 
Reply by the Editor of the American 
Farmer. 

It affords us pleasure to supply the 
information desired by our esteemed 
correspondent. 

1. It would have been better had he 
applied the Guano at the time he 
ploughed the land up for his corn ; then 
the corn plants would have derived ben- 
efil from it in the incipient stage of 
their growth ; but as he did not em- 
brace that opportunity, he may still ap- 
ply it to his land with decided advan- 
tage, as the corn that is up is still low, 
and its roots not extended horizontally 
very far, and the other not up. 

We would form the guano into com- 
post, layer and layer about, with woods- 
mould, marsh, or river mud, (either or 
all of them,) salt and plaster, in the 
following proportions, viz: — over every 
3 double horse-cart loads of the rough 
materials we would strew 200 pounds of 
guano, (which should be first moistened 
and all the I'umps broke with the back 
of a spade ;) over that we would strew 
2 bushels of salt, and 50 lbs. of plaster, 
then three other loads of the rough ma- 
terials, then guano, salt and plaster, 
until the heap of compost was com- 
pleted, then we would shovel the whole 
over so as to intimately mix the several 
substances together; let it lie m a bulk 
a few days, — the upper layer to be 
rough materials, and the heap to be 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



151 



vreJl patted down. 

3. After a week's time we may apply 
the compost between the corn rows, and 
plough it in four inches deep, taking care 
so to proportion 'he compost as to give the 
allotted quantity of guano to each acre. 

4. In the subsequent cultivation of liis 
corn crop our correspondent should use 
the cullivatur and hoCj and not iht> plough, 
as he will thereby obtain two important 
ends ; the manure will remain in place to 
be partaken of by the corn plants, while 
the roots of the plants will remain un- 
lacerated, uninjured, and in full vigor to 
i'e d upon the manure applied to the soil. 
(Juv correspondent is, of course, aware 
that all plants take up their food through 
delicate spongioles at the extreme points 
of their lateral roots, and his discrimina- 
ting mind, and sound judgment, we are 
fcure, Avill coincide with us when we say, 
by breaking off the roots from the stalks 
— which effect is produced by every 
ploughing after the corn plants are a foot 
high — their capacity and power of feed- 
ing is, to a gi-eat extent, suspended until 
new lateral roots are formed. 

5. Lime should never be used in com- 
bination with guano or any other organic 
or anitnal manures : — The more concen- 
trated these may be, the greater will be 
tlie injury, as the tendency of lime in a 
fresh state, is to drive oft' the ammonia- 
cal gases. 

6. If the "cZft?/" subsoil of our corres- 
dondent's ''light sandy soil," can be 
reached by the plough, when he next fal- 
lows it, he should go deep enough to 
turn up two or three inches of the clay, 
cross plough that three or four inches in 
depth, then harrow two or three times, 
until the clay and sand shall be intimate- 
ly commingled together, then spread 
evenly over the surface twenty-five bush- 



els of lime, or fifty or a hundred bushels 
of marl, per acre, harrow that in well, 
and jjlant to corn. The manure for tlie 
corn crop should be applied just previous 
to the cross-ploughing. 

By submitting his land to these pro- 
cesses, he will increase its powers of ab- 
sorption and retention, and render it com- 
petent to produce all kinds of crops. 

'i. Our correspondent should diversify 
his crops. Corn, wheat, clover, and the 
grasses, should follow in succession, as it 
is impossible without such rotation to 
preserve the equilibrium in the soil which 
is essential to prolificacy, -without an in- 
ordinately heavy expenditure for putres- 
cent and mineral manures. 



A Dollar's Worth about Hogs. 

We do not propose to write a long 
es?ay on swine. None would heed it 
and few would read it if we did ; but 
that class of stock generally fare so 
badly in Eastern Virginia that we can- 
not withhold a few words in their be- 
half, not less in tenderness »o the poor 
starvelings themselves than to the in- 
terests of their owner.s. Asgeneially 
managed they are permitted to come 
whenever the boar and sow choose, and 
find a precarious subsistence until they 
are some two years old in old fiidds, 
woods, laups and bare pastures. Then, 
about the first of November, ihey aro 
put up in a lean condition to fatten! 
as it IS called, in a close pen without 
shelter, litter or trough, and suff"ered 
to pick out the corn, their only food, 
and that given to them without any 
regularity, from among the dung, dirt 
and mire which they have accumulated 
in the pen. At or a/ter Christmas 
they are killed, when half fat, weigh- 
ing rnrely more than one hundred and 



152 



THE FAR-'ER'S JOURNAL. 



tweii'y poiin Js, ;ind iiaidly ever to es- 
oeed one hundred and fifiy pounds. — 
This plan is all wroiig, as is proved by 
tile numbers of Western hogs that are 
uanually driven to Eastern Virginia to 
be siaughteri-'d. Its apologists say it 
gives the best faaiily bacon. ^Ye don't 
believe it. As good bacon as we ever 
tasted is made all round us of hogs ihtU 
at eighteen months old average from 
one hundred and sixty to one Irand'ed 
and eighty pounds, wiiich of coirse in 
a I;ir5;8 killing- gives many hog^ that 
over'j;0 two hunJn'd pounds. But if 
it does maUe mce family bacon, it cer- 
t-ainly hiils to make a sum -len.ty of 
sides and shoulders for our negroes, 
who don't often get nice farciy b icon, 
arid don't want; it 

Now for a way in which they may 
be managed '.vitiiout more trouble than 
the present plan Let all your jiigs be 
littered in March. What come in the 
fall eat as roasters, sell, kill, get rid of 
!!i some vray. Let the sow.^ with the 
March broods be well fed until the 
pigs are weaned, feed these well, but 
liot heavily, until ciover comes in, sa}^ 
by the middle of May. If you have 
uo clover field, at least have a clover 
lot for your hog? — cut off the ends of 
their noses if you cannot get rid of the 
rooter any other vvay, and turn them 
in. They won't hurt it half as much 
as one wouhl suppose, ualcss you grase 
11 too close, and won't hurt 'he land at 
ill!. Then fence off a part of your oat 
field into a lot for them and re.Tiove 
;kem from the clover into it as soon as 
the cats are fully in the miik tiate. — 
They vfill eat them Kp clean. By this 
time they will be ready to gleaa your 
wheat fields. As soon as they have got 
through theiBj or beforej if the iveather 



is uet, or the wlieat not out of the 
fi Id, or it is otheiwise unsuitable, be- 
gin to cut up green corn from the corn 
field, iind f ed with tha\ snjlk and all, 
scattered on the ground, just as ?}iuch 
as ikey u-ill eat. This mode of feeding 
will begin commonlv about the nrsl of 
August, when the corn is in roasting- 
ear ; and just then is the very best time 
to coriiinence fittfning hogs. Do not 
be afraid of spoiling the corn, nor be- 
grudge the hogs their fill. The part 
of the crop so usi'd will pay better 
than any other, and we would always 
select the bi^st parts of the fidd for the 
purpose, when convenient, it is ne- 
cessary to have tivo lots for this pur- 
pose, oni. planted wh«n thv balance of 
the crop is pi -nted, somewhat thicker 
than common, and at the late of an 
acre for thiriy ho'iS, and another of the 
same .'^ize planted the fii'^t of June. — 
As Soon as the earl3r lot is exSiausted 
commence on the late one and feed 
urion it until frost. If you see the 
frost coming, cut up your corn and 
shock it, aiming to ki ep it green as 
long as you can. "vVhen this food is 
eiihausted put up your hogs in a pen, 
if you choose, but it is not at ail ne- 
cessarv ; keep them wel' supplied with 
clean litter, and remove it as often a3 
nec'^ssary, give them a plenty of sweet, 
fresh water, running water, if yoa can 
get it, shelter them with a lean to or 
some simple contrivance ; feed them on 
the best you have, and kill them the 
very first cnol (don't wait for cold) spell 
in Noveniber, some afternoon ; hang 
them up ail niohl to extract the aniaial 
heat, and cut out and pack next morn- 
ing by breakfast. Thus you will have 
fattened your hogs in warm v/eather, 
when it will cost about half as much as 



THE FARMER'S TOURNAL. 



153 



to i'l-CLl liiem in oo'd weatiuT. Yo;! 
vrill have moie iiifal v/hh less lanor, 
and can take soine credil to yoursfdf 
for good inan;igeroent and, h'-imane 
feeling-^. 

Turnips, wliicb are the chi^npes'., and 
Oiher roots inav do, fur tho;e uho havf 
thetimn 10 riiise ihetn on a sraall scale. 
as an alti-raiiv'^ and an occasional 
change of d\tt. but they will not fat. 
ten, except thfj be givci' in large 
quantities; an^i to ra!?e enough for a 
pen of t'-venty five or ^nty hogs will 
prove a losing bnsmejs. We tried it 
for f;:ur yp;irs, and have spent on six- 
acres of turnips in one year as much 
labor and manure as would have made 
a good C"('P of tobacco on the same 
land, and, .though Vie^ exhausted the 
]and, made no great shakes of a crop a^- 
that. V/e have fed turnips to baeves 
with very happy effect on the health, 
but not much improvement to the con- 
dition of the animals — a fatting bul- 
lock, bi sides hay at pleasure, will con- 
sume about tvvn bu-hels of common 
turnips in a day, and gain from thetn 
about ivvo ounces of fat! E,ecent ex- 
peiiments have proved that carrots, 
sapposed to be the most nutntive roo', 
will not give as much mi Hi as good hay; 
and sd of flesb, for it is known that milk 
and flesh are convertible tern^s. There- 
fore, we say agjiin^ beTvaie of root crops 
esct'pt on a small scale, and merely as 
a ini/ai!3 of occasionally changing the 
the fo#d of your liogs A much more 
valuable thing is pumpkins, raised 
more easily and with less expense ; if 
made in the corn field, then vrilh no ex 
pense — and lasting as long as your fat- 
teaing season ought to last. But pump 
kin seed are eminently diuretic, and j 
particular care should be taken to di- | 



Vrsi I ach pnnripkJn of them: otherwise 
the hoi^^s will notfcit'en. 

In fei'ding the cornstalks be particu- 
lar to .-pread them in a pen or /n ?omo 
spot so arranged as that cattle cannot 
get to then! For the hog chews the 
ju.cy sialk and spiisout the fibre, virhich 
speeiiily dries; and many ^aUle from 
ciieicc, and all from hungnr, if the pas- 
ture is bare, will eat it ; being indigea- 
tib'e it produL-es violent inflammation 
and death. This is the cause of the 
disease commonly known in many 
placeE as nacl itch, and deemed inca- 
lable. 

Here, then, is a simple and cheap 
pr'scrip'iou for making pork — clover, 
oats, wiieat gleaning and green corn. 
We do not say that each of these va. 
varieties will bo exactly retidy when its 
predecessor is exhausted: variable sea- 
sons and other circumstances will mo- 
dify this, of course ; but so short m in- 
terval, it any, will elapse that the far- 
mer can easily aiiord to keep his hogs 
fiom falling back until it is ready for 
them, by frieiiing cera or whatever eLse 
he may nave. 

N'/r do we say that the present 
breeds nf swine uill at once, without 
impiovement, cotne to the knife the 
fall after the pigs are littered. But 
we assert that any nfieniive man. if he 
will not get improved stock elsewhere, 
as ha should^ may so improve lus own 
hogs in lour years, only taking care to 
avoid the fata! en or of in-and-in breed- 
ing, as to make them weigh more at 
that use than they now do at two 
years old. If it is desired to have 
them larger they must be kept 
over the winter, and be allowed, in 
moderate weather, a good ear of corn 
apiece, and double that quantity in bad 



154 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



or very cold weather. 80 wintered, 
and summered a second time as above. 
every man may have a first rate pen of 
killing hogs that will pay for the labor 
invested, quite as much as the average 
crops of the farm. We say nothing 
here of the manure that may be made 
in this way, nor of the security of fences, 
which are rarely broken through by 
well fed hogs : it is your hungry hog 
that is "rogueish." We wish to see 
the plan tried in its simplicity first, and 
then the incidental advantages may be 
discussed hereafter. We say nothing 
either of other kinds of food, as peas, 
for instance, which are said to make a 
first rate pasturage for hogs. We only 
speak of what we have known to be 
put into practice, and have partly prac- 
tised ourselves, of what we can cinfi- 
dently recommend and warrant. In 
leaving this part of the subject, we will 
observe that the most important part of 
it is the feeding on green corn, and if 
any part is to be neglected we beg that 
it may not be that. We have been re- 
quested once or twice to write on this 
subject, but we have deferred it unti| 
now, simply that men might not forget 
it. We speak of it now just in time. 
Let our readers see to it and rid them- 
selves of the disgrace of buying pork, 
or bacon, for it*is a disgrace to a far- 
, mer to do it. The assertion that it is 
cheaper to buy than to raise is only 
the excuse of indolence or ignorance. 
It is hardly ever cheap to buy any thing 
that you can raise. 

There is another mode by which 
every man with a moderate family and 
a garden can raise one thousand poinds 
of pork a year, and not feel it. We 
always do it. It is to take four pigs and 
put them in a dry, clean, warm, shel- 



tered, floored, littered pen, and feed 
them from the slops of the kitchen, the 
leaves and parings of vegetables, the 
refuse of the garden, especially the 
stalks as the roasting ears are stripped 
from theniy such weeds and grass as 
negio children will be well employed 
in gathering, and a little corn, less than 
a barrel apiece. The manure from this 
pen, which is raked into a hole at its 
foot, the common sink of the establish- 
ment, will pay for all they eat and all 
the trouble taken with them. Let this 
pork be the perquisite of the mistress. 

If your hogs are lousy go to their 
rubbing places, or what ii better, take 
a rough twelve foot house log to the: 
feeding place, and keep it constantly 
smeared with tar. No spaniel ever 
loved water more than a lousy hog loves 
tar, and he applies it himself to the 
most infested spots on his body so ef- 
fectually that the lice speedily disap- 
pear. We have seen ninety five out of 
ninety-six hogs smear themselves with 
tar iu less than thirty minutes after 
they had access to it. And not one 
had ever known its use before. And 
we have heard of other well attested 
cases of the same sort. It was the re- 
medy of the late Daniel Scott of Albe- 
marle, who knew more about all such 
things than any man we ever heard of. 
He was a natural born naturalist, and 
his life if it could be written would be 
an instructive one to the farmer. 

We ui'ge the above upon our< subscri- 
bers. Let them try it. There is no- 
thing difficult in any part of it. We 
hope they have found out by this time 
that we deal candidly, with them, stat- 
ing nothing as fact that we do not know 
to be faot. Lefc them, then, manifest 
towards iss on this occasion, "a little 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



155 



generous confidence." — Southern Plan- 
ter. 



Gatesville, Gates Co., N. C. \ 
June 7, 1852. \ 

To the Editor of the American Farmer, 
Bear Sir : — I am ttyiog an experi- 
ment, and want you to give me some 
information. I have about two acres 
Sowed in oats, which I intend to turn 
in with the plough when they get about 
half ripe, and then sow down in black 
peas, and turn the pea vines and all in 
together in the Fall, with about 40 or 
50 bushels of oyster shell lime. What 
I want to know is, will plaster benefit 
the peas, and will it be any improve- 
ment to the land — when and how much 
to the acre. Sir, the land is very poor, 
and in its present state it will not pro- 
duce, without manure, more than five 
bushels of corn to the acre, and wants 
something to make it produce. I .should 
have described the soil as near as I 
could. It is a fine sandy soil — if it 
has any such a thing as a soil, for it is 
very poor, with a moist sand subsoil — 
after a rain you may see moist places 
about on the land — Ditches will not 
stand, else I should have tried to drain- 
ed it better — It is the worst piece of 
land I have. 

I have been using lime for the last 4 
or 5 years, tvith decided advantage in 
my barn lot and compost heaps, and 
this fall I want to try wheat or oats,and 
seed with clover next spring, by liming 
well this fall. Sir, if you deem my pe- 
tition -;?orthy of your notice, please give 
me what information you may think 
my case needs. 

Very respectfully yours, 

CoRDAY T. Savage. 
P. S.— I forgot to say I hate bought 



a barrel of copperas, which I intend to 
use in my compost heaps, and I wish 
some information about that — Will it 
be profitable to sprinkle over the ma- 
nure in my horse stable, and also sprin- 
kle it over my hog pen while my hogs 
are fattening, (for you will perceive we 
raise pork ) Where will be my saving? 
— Give me advice, for any will be 
thankfully received. 

Yours, &c., C. T. S. 
Reply by the Editor of the American 
Farmer. 
Our advice to our esteemed corres- 
pondent is this : When his oats first 
come into bloom to plow them in, as 
after the seed begins to form, the de- 
mand upon the soil is very heavy, jf 
there be any nutriment in it, and that 
after the leaves begin to dry, all that 
enters into the formation of the seed 
will be derived therefrom, inasmuch, 
as all power to feed upon the atmos- 
phere will have ceased from that period. 
His Peas will be benefitted by a dres- 
sing of Plaster, because, in the first 
place, it will furnish two constituents 
that the plants delight in, viz : /zme.and 
sulphuric acid, and secondly, because, 
from the affinity of sulphuric acid for 
nitrogenous matters, it will prevent loss 
of this essential element of every pro- 
ductive soil ; and because his, from its . 
impoverished condition, cannot afford to 
lose any of it. His Peas, like his oats, 
should, for the same reason, be ploughed 
in when they first come into bloom. — 
Instead of 40 or 50 bushels of Lime to 
the acre, we would advise him to apply 
only half the quantity this fall,deeming 
either 20 or 25 bushels, per acre, an 
ample dose iti the present conditioh df 
his land. 

Mode of Applying the Lime. 
For his two acres of land, we ivould 



156 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



form a corapusfc of 40 loads of clay and 
i50 bushels ot lime^ layer and layer 
iabout, fjrm it inio jsie, as soon as eon- 
venieat, and let it lie in bulk uniil nezt 
fall. We wouhl slake Uie oyscer shell 
lime wiih a strono biine made o[ salt. 
Wheu the lime arri\'-ed for applying the 
iime and clay co.npoit, we \Yoald shovel 
over the heap, so as to thoroughly mix 
the clav and iinfie together. Indeed, 
if time permitied, Siis compost would be 
all the belter of being shoveled over 
every three or four weeks. 

In pirpadng the ground for the 
wheat, we would advise him to plough 
in his peas at least 3 inches deep, then 
roll the ground, and afterwards har- 
row it. This done, let him apply his 
lime and clay compost, b} spreading it 
evenly over the ground. Tnen he 
should sow his u'heat, harrow ond cross 
harrow, and finish bv sowish 2 bushels 
of plaster on his two acres, and rolling 
liis land. 

At the time he sows his Peas, (after 
the oats,)by applying 2 bushels oi Plast- 
er to his two acres, he will economise 
much enriching gases, vfhieh vyould oth- 
erwise be lost. 

If the comvost we have recommended 
should not be adopted, as the medium 
of applying lime to his land ; then, after 
he has sown his wheat, let him sow 50 
bushels of lime on the two acres, and 
rightly harrow and cross-harrow it in, 
then sow 1 bushel per acre of plaster, 
and roll his land. The .clay and lime 
oompost, is, however, the preferable way 
to apply lime to such soil as his. 

If he has woods-mould and leaves, 
or pine shatters, an excellent compost 
might be formed, layer and layer about, 
cf the following in^gredients ; 
40 loads of clav, 



50 bushtds of lime, 
40 loads of woods'-mould, or pine 
shatters, 

10 bashels of a;hi\^, 
2 bushels of salt, and 
2 bushels of plaster,- - 
to be treated as recommended for the 
lime and clay compost. Such a com- 
post as this, would bring his Lmd up at 
once to a productive state, end carry it 
through a rotation, provided he sowed 
his wheal to clover next spring. 

He inay relieve his hind of its super- 
abundant water, by bliud-di:ches, or 
under-diains ; let him dig his trenches 
three feet deep and lay pme po'es on 
either side of ihe bottom, then one on 
the top of the two bot*-om ones, and 
carefully fill in with the tw'gs of pine, 
or cedar, \v;thn;i one foot of the surface; 
then throw in the earth and provide an 
outlet for the water to escape, and- he 
will be no longer troubled with moitt 
places. As h.is lot consists of but two 
acres, he should maiie his improvement 
thorough, as the whole e.x jense involv- 
ed by our pian.wid be but comparatively 
trifling. 

CcqJTieras^ by its sulphuric acid, acts 
as a most powerful disinfectant, as also 
an absorbent of all ammoniacal sub- 
stances. The best plnn to use it in his 
stables and hog pens, would be to dis- 
solve it in the proportion of a pound to 
a gallon of water, and daily sprinkle it 
over such premises. It will be found 
also eminently useful, if used in the 
same way in his compost heaps, as it 
will, like plaster, prevent the loss of the 
ammonia, the most precious elementof 
all manures. A solution of salt and 
wster, would, through the muriatic acid 
of the salt, perform a similar office, 
besides ftsrnishing soda, a very infiiport' 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



157 



am element in tin f.-od Lfin. st phinis. 
Wt^ should be liiLjiiiy giaiifieJ, if our 
cori-e-puruit-nt would make an cifort 
und try either the firsi ur &econu cnn- 
jjosf, and report to us -next y^-ar the 
j'esultof the exjjeiiaieiit, >vheihcr tuc 
eesslul or otherwise. 

Stir the Soil. 
The gieaier the drought, llie more 
recessi y for frequently stirring the seal. 
among our hoed ciops and Im our gar- 
dens. 'Ihe iitiriosplieie even in tue 
holti^st days c )nt dn.s a large aun unt 
of im istnre, as will readily be obse.ved 
■wbfn there is any c lusi- for its conden- 
Bation — such as lliC c^l 1 suriace of a 
pitcher of ice water — upon which it 
gathers from the air, so as lo run down 
its sides in drops of considerable sizt;. — 
The eurth, if light and porous from 
deep plowing and frequent culmre,wil!, 
in the same way, absorb mu:h water 
from the atmosphere. 

The difference in the amount of moist- 
ure gathered by a soil frequently stirred 
and roughened, is much larger than 
generally supposed. The soil when un- 
disturbed soon beooiBcs. from rain and 
other causes, smooth and haid, with a 
much smaller surface and power of at- 

. iractioa than it would otherwise possess. 
'•After disintegratioQ, the atmosphere 
can readily enter the soil, and on meet- 
ing with the colder pai tides below, is 
robbed of the moisture it cotitiiins." 
which process is continually repeated 
where a light and open surface admits 
of coaiinuai absorption. " It is for this 
xeason that frequent hoeing is found so 
beneficial, and also from similar causes 
tibat under-drained and sub soiled land 

'^ suffers least from diougbt." 

-Wot only is moisture best absorbed 



by a friquently stirred soil, but the 
manuriai gases— carbonic acid and am- 
laonia — are a~ore e.xtensively attracted 
and tippropriated from the atmosphere. 
Soils, light from a mixtuie of mucky 
.Hiffer k-ss from drought than most 
others. Tbtre is no danger of any 
deeply plowed soil becoming still dryer 
by the most thorough* esposure to the 
sun and air, as some suppose. Stir the 
soil, then— suffer no weeds to live— and 
you may be ."^uie to reap the rich re- 
ward of thorough and eonstant culture. 
— R,i.iral J'^eiD Yorkc. 



Propagation of Weeds. 
Weeds exiiaust the fertility of tbe soil 
as much as cultivated plants. Though it 
may be too late to prevent their growth 
the present season, it is not too late to 
destroy the seeds of many which have 
been permitted to attain maturity, and 
the labor of doing this will be amply re- 
paid another season, in the comparative 
cleanness of our gardens and fields. It 
is particularly the fault of farmera tO' 
neglect their gardens after mid-summer, 
and to suffer them to be overgrown by 
rant v/eeds, whose seeds multiply an 
hundred fold. A day or two employed 
early in collecting them from the garden 
and fields, will be profitibly spent. They 
may be thrown into the cow-yard or on 
a dung-pile, where fermentation will 
greatly destroy their vitality before the 
dung' is carried to the field in the spring. 
They had better be collected and burnt, 
than suffered to spread their seeds over 
the farm. 



When an implement is no longer 
wanted for the season, lay it carefully 
aside, but let it Sret be well cleaned. 



l58 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



A Tree Worth Cultirating. 

The Osier Willow is worthy a place 
on every farm, because it takes up very 
little ground, requires very little care, 
and furnishes the best materials for bas- 
kets, which are indispensable to the far- 
mer. This, like all the willows, is rea- 
dily propagated by cuttings. Where it 
has taken good root, its shoots, in good 
ground, grow from four to eight feet in a 
season. These shoots should all be taken 
off every Avinter, unless very large wil- 
loAVs are wanted, and the number is 
thereby annually increased. The art of 
fabricating baskets from them is easily 
acquired, and may be practiced in even- 
ings and stormy days in winter without 
cost. For ordinary baskets, the osier is 
used with the bark on, for neat house 
baskets they are peeled. The best way 
to divest them of the bark, is to cut, 
sort and tie the osiers in small bundles, 
say early in March, and place the bun- 
dles in a pool of stagnant water ; and at 
the season the leaf buds are bursting, 
the bark will readily strip off. The 
osiers may then be laid up to be used 
when leisure will permit. A well made 
osier basket is worth three or four made 
of splits. To give them firmness and 
durability, a good rim and ribs, of oak, 
liickory or other substantial wood, are 
necessary. 



Things a Farmer Should Not Do. 

A farmer should never undertake to 
cultivate more land than he can do tho- 
roughly — half tilled land is growing poor- 
er — well tilled land is constantly improv- 
ing. 

A farmer should never keep more cat- 
tle, sheep or hogs, than he can keep in 
good order ; an animal in order the first 
of December, is already half wintered. 



A farmer should never depend on his 
neighbor for what he can, by care and 
good management, produce on his own 
farm ; he should never beg fruit while he 
can plant trees, or borrow tools while he 
can make or buy ; a high authority has 
said, the borrower is a servant to the 
lender. 

The farmer should never be so im- 
mersed in political matters as to forget 
to sow his wheat, dig his potatoes, and 
bank up his cellar ; nor should he be so 
inattentive to them as to I'emain ignorant 
of those gi'eat questions of National and 
State policy which will always agitate 
more or less a free people. 

No farmer should bear the reproach 
of neglecting education to lie against 
himself or family ; if knowledge is pow- 
er, the beginning of it should be early 
and deeply laid in the district school. 



Age of Sheep. 

The age of sheej) may be known by 
examining the front teeth. They are 8 
in number, and appear during the first 
year all of a small size. In the second 
year the two middle ones fall out, and 
their place is supplied by two new teeth, 
which are easily distinguished by being 
of a larger size. In the third year, two 
other small teeth, one from each side, 
drop out, and are rej^laced by tvro large 
ones; so that there are now four large 
teeth in the middle and two pointed 
ones on each side. In the fourth year 
the large teeth are six in number, and 
only two small ones remain, one at each 
end of the range. In the fifth year the 
remaining small teeth are lost, and the 
whole front teeth are large. In the 
sixth year, the whole begin to be worn ; 
and in the seventh, sometimes sooner, " 
some fall out or are brokfen; 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



159 



Plain Facts fou Plain Farmers — 
Farmers are often complaining of the 
burthen of tiigh taxes that weigh ihem 
down. But it is a notorious fact that 
niaety-nine hundredths of our farmers 
lose and waste more valuable manures 
on iheir premises annually, than would 
pav all their taxes for five years. 

We think we hear some of our far- 
mers say thai we are mistaken, because 
they keep their straw and their cattle 
in a yard, and make two or three hun- 
dred loads of manure in a year. True, 
but they lose forty per cent of this 
very manure by improper management 
of it. Generally ii lies on a steep side 
hill below their back b^rns, with all the 
water from the barn running through 
it for nine months, washing out tvveniy 
per cent, of its value, and carrying it 
into the nearest run or creeic, and then 
they haul it into their fields in August, 
and spread it out for two or three weeks, 
on the top of the ground, allowing the 
sun to evaporate twenty per cent, more 
of its valuable properties, befoie it is 
flowed under ground, where it ought 
to have been before it was ever permit- 
ted to become dry. 

STATE 
AGRICULTUAL TVARE-HOUSE. 

THE subscribers would respectfully invite 
the attention of Farmers and Planters to 
their varied assortment of 

Agricidtvral and Horticultural Impliment.i, 
among which may be found Pouty andMear's 
celebrated and highly approvedCentreDraught 
Ploughs ; Emery & Co.'s Imported Rail Road 
Horse Power Thresher (all of which took the 
first premiums at the late State Agricultural 
Fair, and are unequalled by any now in use,) 
together with a full assortment of the latest 
and most approved Plows, Straw Cutters, Fan- 
ning Mills, Corn Shellers, Seed Sowers, Cul- 
tivators, Harrows, &c. &c., which they will 
sell at as low rates as any similar establishment 
in the United States. 

We shall at all times have on hand a full 
stock of Field and Garden Seeds, Guano, and 
all other fertilizers in the market, which may 
be had on the most reasonable terms. 

Persons purchasing articles from us may 
rely upon their giving satisfaction, as we in- 
tend keeping only such as we can fully war- 
rant. LONGETT <Sr GRIFFING, 
No. 25 Cliff St., New- York. 

April 29, 1853. 6m. 



THE subscriber will make Analysis of 
soils and marls in the most correct man- 
ner, and in the shortest possible time after 
receiving them. Specimens can be sent by 
mail at a very small eipense. 

For simple Analysis, - _ . *5,00 
For Analysis, Advice, and for application 
of Manures, .... ^io,00 

Selections of Specimens of Soil. In 

the same field different varieties of soil often 
occur, and one or two pounds of soil should 
be taken from each variety, and thoroughly 
mixed together and dried in the open air, or 
by the fire, and then one pound taken from 
this mixture and sept for analysis. If there 
be only one character of soil, there ueed be 
but one pound of that sent, which can be 
secured in strong paper and sent by mail. 

JOHN F. TOMPKINS, M. D. 

Bath, N. C. 



IIOIIE JIAllfACTl'llE. 

LET every True North Carolinian throw 
his might into the hands of our own 
Mechanics, and by this means, with our Ag- 
ricultural advancement, we are bound to 
become an independent people. So let the 
citizens of Edgecombe, and the neighbouring 
counties, call and examine the magnificent 
stock of 

FURNITURE, 

which is off'ered for sale at F. L.. Bond's 

Furniture Store, in Tarboro', consisting of the 
following articles, viz : 

Ladies' Marble and Mahogany Top Dres- 
sing Bureaus ; Ladies Marble Top Wash 
Stands ; Sideboards and Plain Bureaus; Ward 
Robes and Book Cases ; Sofas and Mahogany 
Rocking Chairs; Mahogany and Walnut 
Tables ; Tete-a-tetes and Divans ; Mahogany, 
French, and Cottage Bedsteads ; Stationary 
and Portable Writing Desks ; Wood anJ 
Cane Seat Rocking Chairs ; Office, Windsor, 
Cane and Rush Bottom Chairs ; a large as- 
sortment of cheap Bed Steads ; Wash Stands 
and Candle Stands ; China Presses, various 
patterns j also, a few Nymphs and Nuptials. 

Old Furniture and Sofas repaired and made 
to look as good as new. Old Bachelors ren- 
ovated in such a style as will make them 
accessible to the smiles of young ladies and 

old M s at least. Furniture kept on hand 

to suit any age or sext. 

New one word to the public : What is life 
to any one, if they do not avail themselve of 
the comforts and conveniences that are oflTered 
for sale at F. L. BOND'S Ware Room .' Ab 
examination by the public ?» earnestly 
solicited. F. L. B. 

Tarboro', N. C, 



160 



THE FASMEE'S JOURNAL. 



THE FARMERS JOURNAL. 

The Subscriber will publish in the town of 
Eiith, Beaufort cosiaty, N. C, a monthly 
paper under the above name. This paper will 
be devoted exclusively to the setting tbrth of 
the various popular improvements in Agricul- 
ture, Horticulture, and the huuseh.nd arts. — 
That there is a demand for such a paper in 
our State, and more especially in the Eastern 
part, no one Vi'ill deny. ' 

As evidence of the good eiTects of such pa- 
pers, we have only to look at the rapid strides 
which have been made in farming in those 
States of our Union where they exist. Eut 
this 2'''eat advancement made in the science of 
Agriculture in other Stites, is but little known 
to the farmers of iN''orth-Carolina. There are 
several scientific, as w^l as practical farmers, 
among us; but for the want of a medium 
through which to communicate their agricul- 
tural knowledge, it is sti 1 confined to a small 
compass. Our good old State is far behind 
the age in agricultural, as well as every other 
improvemeiit. As a people, wo are jrreatly 
v/anting in State pride, which is highlj' im- 
portant to place us in that position wliich v.-e 
■ought to occupy. In j><ew-York, Maryland, 
Georgia, and several other States, annual 
Fairs are held for exhibiting the products of 
each, which clearly have a tendency to great 
improvements. JNature has thrown no imped- 
iment in the wa.y to prevent our agricultural 
advancement ; but she has lavishly heaped 
upon us her inestimable gifts. We have 
among us a sutSciency of both organic and 
inorganic matter to enrich every acre of our 
worn-out laud, and our soil and climate can- 
not be surpassed in adaptation to the produc- 
tion of the various plants. 

All tliat is now needed to elevate our State 
to the position Vvhich she should occupy 
among her sisters, is energy and enterprise on 
the partof her citizens. There mustbe astop 
put to this greattideof emmigration from our 
State ; for, daily, many of our most talented 
and energetic young men seek a new home in 
the West ; they say that they cannot get their 
consent to remain among a people possessed 
of so little enterprise as we are. The sub- 
scriber has not been engaged in faming many 
years, but he feels justi tied in saying that he 
began upon the right plan— that of deep 
ploughing, heavy manuring, and thorough 
draining. He has visited some good farms in 
our Slate, as well as in others, purely for 
agricultural instruction; and for sometime 
past lie has been engaged in useful agricul- 
tural reading, to prepare himself for the post 
which he now propr ses to occupy. 

The subscriber feels confident that this un- 
dertaking shall not fail from a want of energy 
on his part, fje is resolved to use every effort 
to obtairi a h.rgs subscription list, and for this 
purpose he v/iil canvass several counties with- 
in the next two laonths. 

He hopes that by s!\owing such a determi- 



nation to do something fur the present degra- 
ded condition of the farmer, to be sustained, 
and receive a liberal patronage from a gcntle- 
ous public. 

Each number v/ill contain one or rr.oro 
articles from the pen of the Editor, and several 
communications from our best farmers; and 
the remainder \v\]l be filled v.'ith articles se- 
lected from other Agfricultural Journals, such 
as m.ay be deemed by the Editor applicable to 
our climate and soil. 

In conclusion, the subscriber asks the aid of 
every man in tlie prosecution of tliis great 
work ; for he is sure that there v.ull be a good 
bargain made by the farmers. The advance- 
ment of farming should excite an interest in 
the breast of every man ; for upon the succcea 
of the farmer greatly depends that of every 
trade and profession. 

Terms — One copy, f 1 ; six copies, $5; 
twelve copies, $10 ; thirty copies, |20 — inva- 
riably in advance. 

Advertisements. — A limited number of 
advertisements will be inserted at the foliov^- 
ing rates : For one square of twelve lines, for 
each insertion, ||1 ; one square, per annum, 
$\Q ; half column, do., |S0 ; one columm, do., 
f^.50 ; i-arger advertisements in nroportion. 
JOHN F. TOMPKJNS. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

p. 

Commimication'from Thcs. J. Latham, 

Fixed Facts in Agriculture, 

Agricultural Progress in Virginia for the 
Last Thhrty Years. 

Best Mode of Cultivating the Corn Crop, 

Chimnej^s, 

Management and Profit of the ililch Covr, 

Brimstone for Cattle, 

Horse Shoeing, 

Farmers of Worth Carolina — A-wake to 
your Dut]/, 

Good and Bad Luck, 

Our Paper— Shall it Live ? 

Our Visit to the Farms of the Messrs. 
Burgwyns, 

Farmers, Make Manure, 

Gen. V/ra. A. Blount's Letter, 

Application of Guano to a Grovv'ingCrop 
of Corn, 

A Dollar's wortli about Hogs, 

Commraunicationfrom the American Far- 
mer, 

Stir the Soil, 

Propagation of Weeds, 

A Tree >v orth Cultivating, 

Things A Farm.er should not do. 

Age of Sheep, 

Plain Facts for Plain Farmers, 



129 
130 

IS9 
LIS 
143 
114 
144 

14Z 
145 

i4e 

147 
147 

148 

150 



155 
:i57 
157 
153 
IK 
158 
153 



THE FAEIER'5 JOURNAL. 



VOL. L BATH, N. C, SEPTEMBER, 1852. NO. 6. 



JOHN F. TOMPKINS, M. D., Editor and Proprietor. 



Foi' the Farmer's Journal, 

Hertford County, ) 
N. C. August 5tli. [ 

Dr. Tompkins : — I have received 
four numbers of The Farmer's Journal, 
■and I do not hesitate to say that in each 
number I have derived information to 
more than the amount of the whole 
year's subscription. Your paper has a 
large circulation in this county, and what 
is strange to say, I have never heard the 
first man say that he was not already 
paid for his dollar, even if he should not 
receive another j^aper. It is highly gra- 
tifying indeed to see the spirit of energy 
which you have kindled in our county 
by addressing our farmers personally and 
urging them through the columns of 
your paper to lay hold of the various 
improvements now going on in fai-ming. 
<3ur farmers in this, county are now Avide 
awake, and cl^irly^see that they have 
been traducing and blaming the soil for 
what in fact was their own fault. They 
now see that it was quite unreasonable 
in them to expect the soil to return to 
them good crops, when they were by 
their improvident system of farming 
starving it to death ; and now begin to 
see that by a proper system of manuring 



they may soon be able ' to renovate their 
lands. 

There is indeed a sphit of enquiry 
spread among our farmers which did not 
exist before "The Farmer's Journal" came 
among us. Go into what part of the 
county you will, it is now evident that 
the farmers are up and doing ; you may 
see large compost heaps being made 
ditching being done, swamp mud thrown 
up, woods mould collected, and the far- 
mers are heard to say that they never 
were so busy before. K you were never 
to write another line, or deliver another 
address, you have done our county an 
incalculable good ; you have put the ball 
in motion, and we are resolved to keep 
it moving. Our crops next year, with 
fair seasons, will speak trumpet-tongued 
in favor of heavy manuring, deep plow- 
ing and thorough drainage. Our far- 
mers here feel that there is a brighter 
day coming. We have formed an Agri- 
cultiiral society which now numbers 
about fifty members, and every man 
seems to enter into it with a good will, 
and with a determination th^t it shall 
succeed. 

We are resolved that in i}\^ State Ag- 
ricultural Com^ntion, which I. see is i© 



1'62 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



^eet in Raleigli on the 18th October 
next, that the farming interest of our 
county shall be represented. I hope that 
every county in our good old State- "will 
be represented in that (Convention., In- 
deed I highly approve of this call for a 
Convention ; it will I think have a good 
effect, and have a tendency to quell this 
sectional feeling -^Jlttch novsr exists in our 
State. 1 hope on that occasion we shall 
meet the farmers of the West, and every 
man will know, no East, no West, but 
go for the entire interest of the whole 
State. Let our brother farmers in the 
West furnish our Eastern towns with the 
very large quantity of hay which we 
now pay so large an amount of money 
to "Yankeedom" for. 

I hope that your paper will be liber- 
ally sustained by the farmers of our 
State — indeed it must be. Let every 
farmer who now receives advantages 
from it just reflect that if it be stopped 
he will be deprived of those very inter- 
esting and instructive communications 
from Edgecombe, and will no longer 
hear monthly what i^ going on in the 
way of Agricultural improvements, but 
be as we were before you began your en- 
terprise, entirely dependent upon other 
States for our Agricultural papere. j 
say again, let every subscriber make it 
his duty to get subscriberers to the Jour- 
nal; I; have in a few weeks, obtained 
several subscribers, with little or no toou, 
ble ; I shall continue to get them. In- 
deed; I never see a fermer who does not 
take the paper but what I get him to 
siubscribe, unless it is one. of those men 
whom you say believe what is to be will 
be if it never, happens. I, say to the far- 
mers of your State, that it will be a last- 
ing, stigpia upon them, if the third at- 
^a?|)t tp get up a paper of this. kind 



should fail for want of patronage. And 
now, Doctor, to you I would say, still 
bend your energies to this enterprise as 
you have heretofore done, and I do not 
hesitate to say that you will build for 
yourself a name, such as any one would 
be proud of The time is not far distant 
when the whole State will hail you as 
tlie pioneei- of Agricultural improvement 
in, North Carolina. Even now, in the 
beginning of your career, all with Avhom 
I have conversed upon the subject, are 
ready to acknowledge the philosophy of 
your doctrine in an improved system of 
farming. Your hst of subscribers is al- 
ready large in our county, and will con- 
tinue to increase. You have, sir, my 
most ardent wishes for your success. 
Yours truly, 

MENTOR. 



Prize Essay on the Comparative Va- 
lue of Different Manures, 

To wliieli was awarded the Premium of the 
Maryland State Agricultural Society, 

BY WM. D, GRESHAM, 

of Kivg a7id Queen County, Va. 

Tlie hberal offer of the "Maryland 
State Ag-ricultural Society," for the "best 
essay on the comparative value of dif- 
ferent manures, founded upon actual 
experiment," has no doubt awakened a 
spirit of emulation among Farmers, 
and wUl bring fortli to the public an ac- 
count of the experiments which they 
have been so anxibusly and carefully 
practising for several ySars past, with a 
view to the improvement of their worn- 
out land. 

It is. not my design,, on this occasion, 
to introduce any new theory, supported 
by novel experiments ; but I shaJl at~ 
ttemp to compile and arrange my various 
plans and experiments, in such a manner 
as to make them striking and illustra- 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



16c 



live of the benefits received, and to cor- 
roborate those who have preceded in this 
noble cause. Ah-eady have the essays 
of Stabler and others, given an impe- 
tus to the improvement of soils, which 
has placed them high in the estimation 
of the farming community, and will 
cause their names long to be cherished 
by this benefitted class. Nor can I fail 
to mention the great advantage that has 
been given to that community by Ed- 
mund RufBn, the pioneer in the cause of 
the improved agriculture in Virginia, the 
truths of whose writings and practical 
experiments have so eminently rewarded 
the agricultm'ist. 

The anxious desire of the Maryland 
State Agricultural Society for the diffu- 
ion of practical knowledge, and of ren- 
dering itself useful, has placed it high in 
the estimation of the farmers throughout 
the Union, and commands for it an un- 
precedented respect. Nothing is more 
calculated to give so gi-eat an impetus to 
that spirit of improvement which is now 
abroad in the land, than the annual 
meeting of this society; where the agri- 
culturists of the different sections of the 
country are assembled — where an inter- 
change of views and plans are discussed 
or weighed, and where the practical re- 
sults of land and labor are brought to- 
gether in competition. 

Although my experiments with the 
different manures have not been as ex- 
tensive as I would have wished, yet so 
fully have I been convinced of the great 
benefit I have received, that at the risk 
of being considered but a '■^novice' ^ in 
the science of agriculture, I have deter- 
mined to give them. 

Lime. — I shall commence with lime, 
which I regard as the basis of all per- 
manent improvement, the most impor- 



tant element towards the improvement 
of worn-out lands, and without which, 
in some form, all attempts to resuscitate 
them will be vain and fruitless. From 
various experiments I have made with, 
the different kinds of lime, I have be- 
come convinced that shell lime is the 
most eflicacious. The superior fertiliz- 
ing qualities of all shell lime, is in part 
attributable to the phosphorus contained 
in the oyster shell. I have also applied 
stone lime from New York and Balti- 
more, and can Avith certainty say, the 
Baltimore surpasses that from New Yoirk; 
our soil contains magnesia, and on that 
account the alum stone lime acts more 
promptly than the magnesia limes of 
Pennsylvania and New York, 

The Properties of Lime. — The pro- 
perties of lime have been so often de- 
scribed and WTitten upon, that it would 
be unnecessary for me to occupy much 
time and space in going into detail ; but 
so necessary is it, for all to understand 
some of them, that "line upon line" can- 
not be too often repeated. 

We know lime to be an essential ele- 
ment of all productive soils, and upon its 
presence in a manner depends all im- 
provement; so powerfully has it acted 
upon our acid soils, abounding in sorrel 
grass, that its application can with great 
distinctness be traced in the first crops. 
" In correcting the acidity of our soils, 
and decomposing the poisonous metallic 
salts," it has acted most beneficially. — 
Lime renders our soils, which seem to be 
packed and close with a scanty supply of 
grass, much haore pulverous arid easy to 
be cultivated ; giving a life-like appear- 
ance, and renders the cultivation tnucli 
more agreeable to the farmei'^t terrds 
to break down the tenacity of stiff clays', 
improves their friabihty, and prepares 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



them to be acted upon by the atmos- 
pliere ; wbile on the other hand, upon 
light soils it acts equally beneficially, in 
increasing their tenacity, improves their 
power of retention, and may prevent in 
a measure, the loss of nutritive manures 
by exhalation. Lime tends to convert 
the inert vegetable matter into nutri- 
tious food for the growth of plants — it 
is the agent to decompose and feed the 
land with such vegetable matter as would 
otherwise remain undecomposed, and in 
this manner may be regarded as an es- 
sential element of the, soil. 

The mode of applying Lime. — I have 
now been using lime some eight or ten 
years, and had I not been able to have 
procured it for xaj land, I should long 
since have found a home in our ''western 
wilds," for I aui certain I could have 
never improved them without the use of 
lime or other calcareous earths ; for sta- 
ble and putrescent manures did not after 
one or two crops exliibit any very appa- 
rent effect. The mode I have adopted 
in. applying lime has been made easy, 
and never interferes with my other farm- 
ing operations. So soon as I have fin- 
ished my com crop, say about 10th or 
15tli July, I order my lime from Balti- 
more, and commence checking off" my land 
wi^h stakes twenty-one feet. I check the 
field entirely over each way, each check 
contains forty ^nine square yards ; in the 
middle of the square I scrape a small 
space sufficiently large to hold a half 
bushel of lime, which is deposited from 
the wagon and the hands go oa imme- 
diately and spread it, the square .being 
perfectly visible ; the hands can in this 
manner apply it over the wh^Dle space 
with great accuracy. The application is 
within a fraction of fifty bushels of lime 
ta tko acre, as each check contains forty- 



nine square yards; and if we allow 4900 
square yards to make an acre, it would 
be exactly fifty bushels to the acre, but 
it is sufiiciently near for all practical pur- 
poses. I consider it much more benefi- 
cial to apply it over the grass, than upon 
land after it is ploughed ; I would ad- 
vise in all cases, to spread it upon the 
surface ; and if the farmer can spare the 
capital as long, that it should be applied 
two or three years before it is broken up. 
My reason for thus applying lime, is, 
that it is not only more convenient, and 
can be more accurately done, but that it 
more thoroughly mixes with the soil by 
the rains and frosts of winter. I have, 
however, derived very great and perma- 
nent benefit from applying it in the sum- 
mer and breaking it up in the following 
spring — fifty bushels is a good applica- 
tion for the first dressing, unless the land 
should be exceedingly rich, when it 
would bear a much larger quantity. My 
mode is to apply fitly bushels the first 
application, and to follow it with a sec- 
ond application of fifty bushels more 
when the land again comes into regular 
cultivation. From all the agricultural 
information I have upon the lasting ben- 
efit of lime upon land, is that one hun- 
dred bushels to the acre, is a suflacient 
quantity for almost all land, and that its 
fertility can be brought to any extent of 
improvement, provided it is followed by 
other agents and manures ; its effects 
will last from fifteen to twenty years, 
and no other application be needed for 
that space of time. It would be irrele- 
vant and out of place for me here to im- 
press the importance of di'aining and 
deep ploughing in conjunction with any 
and all manures, as essential in the per- 
manent improvement of all worn-out 
lands— let him who expects to reap a 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



165 



crop upon wet or badly ploughed land 
by the application of lime, or any other 
manure, be at once undeceived. 

The necessity of fallowing Lime with 
other agents and assistants in improving 
soils. — Lime being an agent in the soil, 
it is necessary that it should be followed 
by such other manures as the land may 
stand in need of, as a soil may abound 
with lime, and other properties for pro-' 
duction not being present, it would not 
of course supply them. As lime com- 
bines with inert vegetable matter in the 
soil, and converts it into food for plants, 
how necessary is it to follow our applica- 
tions of lime with the grasses ? and above 
all I place Clover, which in conjunction 
with hme I have never yet seen fail to 
produce a fine crop, and upon which 
plaster acts beneficially. I have appKed 
piaster in small quantities, yet I have ]'e" 
ceived but little apparent benefit, unless 
applied to clover — nor have I been suc- 
cessful in raising clover unless preceded 
by an application of lime ; and in con- 
junction with lime it is a great renova- 
tor. My preference has long been given 
to clover, not only for the purposes of 
food %r stock, but the best of all the 
grasses for the improvement of the soil. 
In the words of a distinguished farmer, 
speaking of the action of clover upon 
land, he says : "under the dense shade of 
its foliage, and in the moisture thus pre- 
served at the surface of the soil, some 
subtle process seems to be conducted, 
some natural chemistry or agricultural 
alchemy, which we do not thoroughly 
understand, but which ensures fertihty ;" 
w e know, however, that clover has deep 
\ cots, and draws some of its nutriment 
trom the depths of the soil below the 
plough's range ; and that it extracts from 
the atmosphere both carbon and am- 



monia, in larger quantities than other 
plants. 

The mode of turning in green crops 
after an application of lime or marl is 
one much resorted to by our farmers, and 
the pea more than any other crop used ; 
especially the black and shiney pea ; the 
mode adopted is to fallow their lands 
and sow the pea in the month of May 
and in the fall to plough them in the 
land in the green state, and in this man- 
ner impart gi'eat benefit to the Avheat as 
well as lasting benefit to the land. An- 
other mode is to sow the pea in their 
corn fields, as they ai'e working their 
corn the last time, (say from the 25 th 
June to 15th July,) the pea is sown as 
soon as the corn is worked, and cultiva- 
tors or rakes follow, which both covers 
the pea and prepares the land for the bet- 
ter growth of the corn ; though this 
inode in a measure sometimes fails to 
yield a good growth, owing to the growth 
of corn and a dry spell of weather. 

Green crops contain in their substance 
not only all they have drav,rn from the 
soil, but a great portion they have drawn 
from the air ; plough in these living 
plants and you necessarily add to the 
soil more than they have from it, and of 
course you make it richer in organic mat- 
ter. No subject claims the attention of 
the farmer of greater importance, than 
that of turning in green crops for the 
improvement of their lands, especially 
after an application of lime or marl. — 
The subject has already claimed the at- 
tention of the Essayists and all agricul- 
tural journals. 

Experiments with Lzwe.— Upon six 
acres of land accurately measured there 
was gathered in 1846, thirty-four bushels 
of corn. In the summer of 184S, this 
lot of land was dressed with fifty bushels 



,0 



166 



THE FARMER'S JOUHNAL; 



of lime to the acre, applied as a top 
dressing, and the follo>Ying spring a 
dressing of woods scrapings was added, 
thoroughly ploughed in and well culti- 
vated in corn ; there was gathered in the 
fall of 1850, one hundred and twenty- 
nine bushels of corn ; the same fall this 
lot of land was seeded in wheat, (the 
first time it had been in small grain for 
the last twenty years) the wheat grew 
off finely, and in the spring so flourish- 
ing did it appear, I was induced to seed 
it in clover. The wheat was got out, ac- 
curately measured, and eighty bushels 
the result. The clover has taken finely, 
and with the application of plaster and 
bones, will make one of my finest lots. 

Q,d. In a field containing 130 acres of 
land upon which there was gathered in 
1844 about 500 barrels of corn, was 
limed at the rate Of fifty bushels to the 
acre, in August 1848, and cultivated in 
corn in 1849 ; although the corn suf- 
fered very greatly for rain, there was ga- 
thered 647 barrels of good merchantable 
corn. 

3d. Upon a field of 150 acres of land 
recently purchased, lime was applied at 
the rate of fifty bushels to the acre, in 
the summer of 1850, and well distri- 
buted J it was in corn last year, and by 
good judges it was pronounced the best 
crop that had been upon it for a number 
of years. It is now in wheat, having 
had an additional fallow of peas, (peas 
having been sown last summer in the 
corn.) I beUeve this old field, which 
contained the sorrel and poverty grass, 
lind which was an " eye sore" to all good 
farmers, will this summer present a new 
aspect in the foliage of a good set of 
clover. 

iWarZ.— This is another agent which 
lias been extensively used in this section 



of the country in the renovation of land, 
and much advantage has been derived 
from its application, yet so great is the 
deficiency iji agricultural chemistry and 
chemical analysis, that some of the marls 
which from a superficial view appear to 
have the most shell and other valuable 
properties, have turned out to be very 
.inferioi', and to reward but poorly the 
undertaker. I have frequently seen far- 
mers who were very zealous in marling 
their lands, and so soon as they had ta- 
ken off" their crops would turn in large 
herds of cattle to graze them, and when 
the same fields would come into cultiva- 
tion, (that being every other year,) they 
would declare the marl had done them 
great injury, in rendering their lands 
more sterile and barren. Experience, 
however, has proven their theories falla- 
cious, added to the great improvement 
in the division of lands and the rotation 
of crops. No country has more im- 
proved by the application of marl than 
this section of Virginia. The green sand 
marl acts more efliciently than any ma- 
nure I have ever applied ; and the marl 
to which I have reference, is that found 
along the Pamunkey river, of Virginia, 
and which has rendered the farms along 
that river so valuable, and given them a 
celebrity v/hich is not surpassed by any 
lands in the State. I have seen poor 
lands by the application of this marl 
produce almost double, and it has been 
ascertained that any amount can be ap- 
plied, and to the greatest advantage. — 
It is to this marl that the experiments 
and the five years' profit of farming of 
Edmund Ruflin on his estate in Hanover 
county, Va., and which appeared in the 
pages of the American Farmer, for July, 
1849, is alone to be attributed, and which 
gave a new impetus to the agricultural 



THE FAHMER'S JOURNAL. 



167 



interests of this section of country. An 
attempt is now being made in this 
county, by raising a company and send- 
ressels after this marl, and I believe it 
eould be delivered any where on the bay 
shore or its tributaries at a cost not ex- 
ceeding from six to eight cents per bu- 
shel. And it can in deed and truth be 
said to be "a mine of Avealth to tlie pro- 
prietors, and the adjaeeat districts which 
admit of water transportation." I have 
already occupied more space than in- 
tended upon the subject of lime, and as 
it can with equal propriety be said of 
marl, I shall not elaborate ydih other re- 
marks and experiments. 

Ashes. — The application of leached 
and unleached ashes upon land, has been 
so visible and apparent to every farmer, 
that it would be unnecessary to mention 
their beneficial eft'ects in detail. In sup- 
plying the alkalies to the soil, so neces- 
sary for the production of all crops, ren- 
ders it one of the most important of all 
■manures. Its application to light and 
sandy soils, in supplying the "silicate of 
potash," so necessary for the land, and 
thereby giving them tlie power of pro- 
■duction, renders it most valuable to such 
lands. A sufficient quantity of ashes 
being out of the question for our large 
fields, "the supply not being equal to the 
demand," and the price higher than the 
farmer can in most cases aflbi-d, that 
more need not be said upon their benefi- 
cial application, except to recommend 
them whenever they can be obtained at 
a fair and reasoijiable cost. 

Guaiio.-r-\ have been both successful 
and unsuccessful in the application of 
this manure ; no doubt owing to the fact 
that some of the article used was of in- 
ferior quality, or had been adulterated ; 
and in very dry seasons, its effects are 



often much less marked. And here let 
me advert to the fact, that this manure 
being in the hands of speculators and 
their agents, it becomes us as farmers, 
feeUng a mutual interest, to rescue it from 
their hands, and place it under the con- 
trol of those who have won our confi- 
dence. J^ever has a class in any com- 
munity suffered so much as the farmer 
by speculators ; his lands, his crops, and 
finally his manure is now under their 
controlling influence — yet amid all diffi- 
culties, unaided by "the smiles of pow- 
er," they have continued on, in the even 
tenor of their way. ]\Iy experience in 
this manure shows, that the manner it is 
used, and the land upon which it is ap- 
applied, will alone determine its value.. 
It is the most active of all manures ; the 
large quantities of ammonia it contains 
and its evanescent nature, renders it ne- 
cessary that something should be used tc^. 
fix and retain if possible the ammonia 
in the land ; and it is conceded hj some 
that plaster is the best of all known 
agents in fixing it — plaster being the sul- 
phate of lime, the s^'lphuric acid having 
more affinity §3i- ammonia, readily com- 
bines Avith and forms a sulphate of am- 
monia, which is less volatile, and will, re- 
main in the land to feed the plants.— 
Guano should never be applied as a top- 
dressing, owing to its volatile nature, but 
ploughed in the land siis or eight inches, 
and the seed sown after and raked in ; 
nor do I believe it vyiU, improve land un- 
less followed by some green crop ; and 
nothing aets so well as clover.. I have 
seen poor; land iipon which guano was 
applied; produce most luxuriant clover. 
Upoii. light and saiidy lai^d I. believe its 
efiiect will not be half so apparent, nor do, 
\ believe it will pay as good: a per cent.;, 
but upon the close and baked soils,, 



168 



THE FARMER^S JOURNAL. 



whicli seem in winter to be in a wet and 
mucky state, and in summer to be as 
compact and hard as the winter's fi'ost 
and cold can possibly make them, are 
certainly the lands which derive tjie 
most apparent benefit. 

Experiments with Guano. — 1st. Up- 
on four acres of land of medium soil, I 
applied Guano at the rate of 375 lbs. to 
the acre. I first applied the Guano and 
followed it with cultivators to mix it with 
the soil; I then sowed the wheat and 
the guano in the land. This was the 
first application I ever made with gaiano, 
which was in October, 1846. The wheat 
grew ofi" beautifully, and was apparent 
to the eye the whole winter and spring ; 
the wheat Avas carefully saved and mea- 
sured, and the result was 15 bushels to 
the acre, which was five bushels more 
than the land would have made without 
the guano, and when the same lot was 
again in cultivation, no benefit was per- 
ceived from the previous application of 
guano. 

2d. Five acres of land were selected in 
a field upon which lime had been ap- 
plied in the summer of 1848, and culti- 
vated in corn 1849 ; guano was applied 
at the rate of 200 lbs. to the acre, and 
ploughed in the land six or eight inches ; 
the wheat was soAvn upon the surface 
and thoroughly raked in. The wheat 
was much injured by the rust, (as all the 
•wheat was in this section of the country) 
it was carefully and accurately measured, 
and the result was 18 bushels to the 
acre, weighing 61 1-2 lbs. per bushel. — 
Clover was seeded the following spring, 
with the addition of a bushel of plaster 
to the acre, and which was equal if not 
superior to any I had ever had upon any 
lot. 

3d. Two acres of land upon which 60 



bushels of lime had been spread to each 
acre in the summer of 1844, and another 
application of 50 bushels more had been 
made in the summer of 1848. In the 
spring of the year 1849, an application 
of stable manure was made and the lot 
cultivated in com ; in the following fall, 
200 lbs. of guano was applied to each 
acre and ploughed in. The wheat did 
not during the spring show any advan- 
tage over that around it which had no 
guano upon it, and when gotten out, it 
did not average half a bushel more 
than the wheat around it. The two 
acres were the richest and lightest sandy 
loam I coiild find in the fxcld. 

4th. A piece of poor land, containing 
about four acres, which had never had 
the advantage of any other manin-e, and 
which was a cold and close soil, was fal- 
lowed up in August, 1849, and the last 
of September 200 lbs. of guano was ap- 
plied to each acre and seeded in wheat. 
The wheat grew off rapidly and appear- 
ed superior to any I had the following 
summer ; but unfortunately the seed 
which I got from Baltimore was injured, 
and by good judges, at least one-third of 
it did not come up. I did not and could ' 
not expect a full crop ; nevertheless it 
branched so astonishingly it made a fine 
crop, making ninety-six bushels of good 
wheat. Clover was seeded upon this 
lot of land and raked in, about fifteen ' 
lbs. to the acre ; it was one of the best >. 
sets of clover I saw the following sum-, 
mer. j 

Bo7ie-dust is another valuable manure, ' 
and which is not used in proportion to 
other manures; apart from the phos- 
phate of lime it contains, the oleagenous 
properties in it renders it a permanent 
manure,. Its eff"ects upon crops are not 
in proportion to the benefit imparted to 



THE FAKMER'S JOURNAL. 



169 



land ; it is one of the best manures for 
the grasses, applied at the rate of from 
12 to 20 bushels to the acre, it renders 
the land much improved. I have de' 
rived great and lasting benefit by its 
application ; not so much from the 
increase of crops, (although they were 
considerably increased,) as from the 
great benefit imparted to the land. The 
great difficulty of procm-ing ground 
bones unadulterated, and the high cost 
of them, has caused them not to have 
been applied as liberally as I could have 
wished; consequently my experiments 
with them have not been as full as I 
could have desired. The application of 
bones by difterent modes, is now claim- 
ing the attention of good and practical 
farmers. 

Poudrette — made from '' night soil," 
when properly compounded, .forms a 
good manure. My experience in this 
inanuie has been limited, yet I have 
applied it to corn in the hill ; its effect 
was marked and decided ; it was how- 
ever not so apparent in the increase of 
the crop, as it was in its growth. I 
have derived great bentfit from it upon 
vegetablts and flowers, and consider it 
the best manure for gardens. The 
Foadrette obtained from the Lodi Man- 
ufacturing Company of New York, is 
decidedly the best I have ever used. — 
There are other compounded manures, 
such as "Salts," •'Renovators," &c., 
made by different chemists; the manip- 
ulators themselves differing in their 
compounds and deprecating the use of 
their opponent's, is a sufficient guaranty 
that all their "nostrums" will not an- 
swer the same purpose, and added to 
the additional fact that they have not 
improved or benefitted our lands or 
crops, is sufficient in Warrsi^nting us in 



recommending other and better ma- 
nures. 

Barn-yard and Stable Manures. — 
This is the most valuable and prolific 
source from which the Farmer is by 
his own efforts and economy to improve 
his land. This manure, though not so 
permanent in its effects, yet applied 
after lime or marl, is lasting and bene- 
ficial it is the great reservoir from 
which the farmer is by his own industry 
and management to draw his supplies 
for the improvement of his land, as well 
as in a measure to derive his wealth ; 
and he should husband his resources m 
such a manner as ^'O have a constant 
eye to the accumulation of not only all 
the offal from his stock, but all the 
decaying vegetable matter fiom his 
farm, The greatast negligence prevails 
among many farmers in relation to the 
carelessness with which they attend to 
their barn-yard and stable manures ; 
the voidings from cattle, the evapora- 
tion of the nutritive portion of manures, 
would, if saved and attended to, im- 
prove more land than what little they 
carry out upon them. There is nothing 
which a farmer can more judiciously 
use than plaster, in the absorption of 
the voidings as well as the effect of fix- 
ing the valuable properties of manures, 
which are constantly escaping in the 
form of gases; I would then advise the 
liberal use of plaster in all the vegeta- 
ble manures raised upon the farm; i(s 
is essential in all well regulated and 
ventilated stables and cow sheds, ioi 
preserving the health as well as the 
eyes of the animals, from the noxious 
exhalations of the pungent if not poison- 
ous gases which are constar.tly escaping 
from the manures. Plaster fully re- 
pays the farmer who uses it, tea fold. 



170 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



Much could be said upon this subject, 
but fearing this Essay, already too long, 
may become tiresome, I shall conclude 
this subject by strenuously advising a 
more careful and constant eye to the 
accumulation and preservation of barn- 
yard and stable manures. 

In conclusion, whether you baye tbe 
■sti'(f clays or sandv loams to contend 
■with on your farms, and you desire to 
restore them to fertility, they must ha ve 
t'he advantage oHijne, clover and plasler. 
and a regular lotalion of crops. You 
must lend all your energies to the ac- 
■<;umulation of manures, both animal, 
tjcgetahh and mineral^ — you cannot es- 
pect your lands to yield you remunera- 
ting crops unless you continue to keep 
t:p its fertility by liberal applications of 
manure. Should your barn-yaid and 
stables fail to afford you a sufficient 
supply, you should goto your marshes, 
woods and ditch banks, and there find 
the elements for manure. We know 
the chief element of all manure being 
vegetable matter, and its production 
feeing necessarily slow and laborious on 
exhausted soils, we should take advant- 
age of every assistant in increasing and 
applying it to the soil. 

Hoping that this Essay may be re 
ceived by (armers in the spirit in which 
it is written, and may be the means of 
eliciting better information on the dif- 
I'ereiit manures, it is most respecffuUy 
submitted to tbeir consideration. 



On the Use of and Trade in Guano. 

House of Representatives, 
Washington, April 12th, 1852. 
To the Editors cf the Union and Re- 
public : 

(iJuNTLEMEN : Enclosed I send you a 
cnrrespondence between the Hon. A. 33, 
!?iivis and the Hon. Joseph S. Go4t- 



man, of Maryland, held at my instance, 
on the subject of the procurement and 
practical use of guano lor general agri- 
cultural purposes. Many of my ow» 
constituents in Mississippi, and the 
planters of the South generally, are 
turning their attention to the means of 
redeeming exhausted lands, and the in- 
formation given by Mr. Davis, will 
therefore hi acceptable to a large class 
of agriculturists in the South. 

May I ask of you to give the correa- 
pondence a place in your widely circa- 
laied journals 1 

With respect your obfdipnt servant^. 
JOHN D. FREEMAN. 

House of Representatives. 
April 1 0th, 1852. 
Dear Sir: I enclose you an answer 
to your inquiries in relation to guano, 
from the Hon. Allen Bowie Davis, of 
Montgomery county, Blaryland, which 
I think will be satisfactory and gratify- 
ing to you ; and I venture to suggest 
to you to have it printed for circula- 
tion. 

Very respcctfuUjyour ob't serv't, 
JOSEPH S. COTTMAN, 
Hon. J, D. Freeman. 

Greenwood. Montgomery Co., 
Md., March 29th, 1352. 

Dear Sir : I had the honor by Sat- 
urday's mail to receive your favor of 
the 26th inst., enclosing a letter to you 
from the Hon. John D. Freeman, re- 
presentative in Congress, from the State 
of Mississippi, asking of you informa- 
tion as to the supply, use, and cost of 
guaoo in this State, and what it will 
ccst landed at Mobile or .^ew Orleans, 
which information you ask mc to give, 

I take great pleasure, so far as in 
my power, in complying with your re- 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



171 



quest. 

Gruano, you are aware, is the deposile 
of innumerable sea fowl, and some am- 
phibious animals whose food consists 
almost entirely of marine shells and 
fish, chiefly upon the islands in the 
Souih Pacific ocean. It has been pre- 
served in its greatest purity near the 
Peruvian coast, from the remarkable 
ohenomennn of the almost total ab 
sence of rain or moisture, both coast- 
wise and ir'land, in a considerable por- 
tion of that country. Other guanoes 
hitve been found Soulh of Peru; and, 
recently, a Mexican guano has been in- 
troduced into the port of Baltimore, 
but whether from the Pacific or Gulf 
coast, i have not learned. All of these 
— the Chilian, Patagonian and Mexi- 
can — have been pronounced by chem- 
ist.: (and experimenis so far as my ob- 
servation extends, confirm the correct- 
iies.s of the opinion) inferior to the Pe- 
ruvian, doubtless owing to the presence 
of rain and moisture in all those coun- 
tries, which is almost, as before stated, 
totally unknown upon the coast of 
Peru. 

Its use in Peru as a manure has been 
long known ; but its application is im- 
mediately followed by irrigation, which 
is t.ecessary m that hot and arid coun- 
try lor the developement of its fertiliz- 
ing power. Its introduction into Eng- 
land and the United States is of very 
recent date. The first cargo imponcd 
into Baltimore — it being I believe the 
first in the United States — was in the 
year 1844. It was at first used with 
caution and in very limited quantities, 
from the two-fold reason of, first, its 
high cost, and secondly, the doubt with 
practical farmers of the possibility of 
60 small a quantity of "aust," exerting 



such wonderful power upon vegetation 
as it was represented to do. 

I believe the Hon. Senator Pearce, 
of Kent county, Col. Capron, of Lau- 
rel, Prince George's county, and Ed- 
ward Stabler, of Sandy-Spring, in this 
(Montgomery) county, have the honor 
of being the first, or among the first, in 
this Slate to give the result of these ex- 
periments, to the public. These will be 
found in the first volume of the Far- 
mer's Library, and the first volume, 
new series, of the American Farmer, 
and are interesting as well for the gen- 
eral success of the first application of 
guano, as for the failure or transient 
benefit in some of the experiments then 
made. 

The failure then, as well as the fail- 
ure of similar experiments since made, 
is now well under.itood to result from a 
(00 superficial application of the gua- 
no. Moisture here, as well as m.oistuie' 
in Peru, has been found by experience 
necessary to its full developement — ■ 
This is obtained here by burying the 
guano with the plough, several inches 
below the surface of the soil, and be- 
yond the influence of the sun and dry- 
ing winds to which our climate is sub- 
ject. Some judicious practical farmers 
say eight or ten inches is not too deep, 
though I have no practical experience 
myself in so great a depth. 1 am 
confident that a depth of less than four 
inches in our climate, for a summer 
crop, will hazard the expected benefit 
from its use. 

Since the successful experiments of 
Mr. Stabler upon his single acre of 
wheat, detailed in his letter of Septem- 
ber, 1845, already referred to, from the 
application of the previous autumn^ 
the use of guano has steadily and rap- 



172 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



idly increased in this county, as well 
as in the lower and lide-water counties, 
both on the eastern and wesisrn shore 
of the Chesapeake ; and it has also 
rapidly extended into the State of Vir- 
ginia. From a single cargo in 1844, 
and but two or three in 1845, brought 
into the port of Baltimore, such has 
been the popularity of, and growing 
demand ior this wonderful manure, 
that during the year 1851 — a period of 
only seven years from its first introduc- 
tion — the import inio the same port 
had run up to the large quantity of 
25,000 tons, which was all sold at the 
high price of from $46 to $48 per le- 
gal ton from the vessel. In this coun- 
ty — with a population of less than 16,- 
000 souls — from the small experiment 
already referred to. and one or two 
others not given to the public, last year 
at least 1.500 tons, at a cost of $75,000. 
were bought by our farmers. The re- 
sult has deen an increase since 1845 of 
at least 200 per cent, upon the wheat 
crop — the crop to which it is chiefly ap- 
plied. Upon old worn-out land, long 
considered worthless, the effect has in 
many instances been miigical, fre- 
quently producing from 20 to 25 bush- 
els of wheat from the single application 
of 250 lbs. per acre, when not a return 
for the seed sown could have been ex- 
pected before. Wheat, you are aware, 
is a winter crop, is seeded during the 
autumn months of September and Oc 
lober, and sometimes as late as Novem- 
ber, and matures the latter end of June 
and first of July— consequently the 
low temperature and moisture of the 
winter season, being favorable to the ac- 
lion of guano, intervenes between the 
germination and maturity of the crop, 
ivnd iience its powerful action thereon. 



The usual mode of application is to se- 
perale the fine from the lumps with a 
sieve or riddle, (a plasterer's riddle is 
a convenient instrument;) then with 
a watering pot, with the nose to it, 
moisten the mass sufficiently to pre- 
vent the dust from flying. The lumps 
can be easily reduced with a maul or 
hammer if left in mass for a day or 
two, after being pretty freely watered. 
Then sow the guano with the hand, 
(the ground of course being first p\e- 
"pared,) pari passu with the wheat, at 
the rate of from two to three hundred 
lbs. per acre, and both ploughed in to- 
gether three or four inches deep, with a 
shovel-plough, or a long toothed culti- 
vator. To obtain the above quantity 
with sufficient precition, I lay off my 
ground in lands of seven strides, or 21 
feet, passing up and down on either 
side at a moderate pace, and finishing 
in the middle, with a handful at each 
cast. Some prefer before sowing to 
mis a peck or more of plaster Paris 
with each bag of guann, (the hags 
averaging about 160 lbs.,) and think 
its action both improved and prolong- 
ed. The experiment is worthy of trial, 
though I have succeeded satisfactorily 
without, not having bad the plaster at 
hand. 

Besides the wheat crop, guano has 
been successfully applied to corn, rye, 
oats, buckwheat, potatoes, and gardfo 
vegetables, and also to tobacco. 

Although it gives a vigorous growth 
to the latter crop, yet it imparts a 
coarse texture, urifavorable to the long 
established reputation of our fine silky 
Maryland tabacco. Corn and potatoes 
being gross feeders and of quick growth 
require a larger supply than wheat — 
say from three to four hundred lbs, per 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



i: 



1 acre, turned under with the large two 
'or three horse plough, unless combined 
with other manures, except livne and 
ashes, both of which seem to be un- 
friendly to some of the valuable salts 
contained in guano. But wilh bone- 
<dust, barn-yard, and stable manure, it 
acts promptly and powerfully. The 
finest crop of wheat I ever made was 
from a dressing of guano and bone- 
dust, and the best crop of timothy 1 
ever saw was from a like combination. 

Various opinions exist as lo the dura- 
bility of guano as a manure. Some far- 
mer.s clai'n for it an influence through 
a whole course or rotation of crops, 
while others msist that they can see no 
benefit beyond the first crop to which 
it is applied. It would seem lo be un- 
reasonable lo expect long-continued or 
permiisient benefii from so light a dress 
i ig as from two to three hundred lbs. 
of manure per acre, after so prompt 
and large a return as guano always 
gives, when judiciously applied, from 
the first crop. Yet I am quite confi- 
dent that I have seen a marked influ- 
ence upon the second crop oi clover in 
the third season after its application to 
the wheat crop. Something, however, 
is certainly due to the character of the 
soil to which it is applied. Upon moist, 
compact clays, it not only acts more 
powerfully, but its influence is longer 
seen ; while upon light, sandy soils, it 
gives a less return, and its atter-benefil 
is sooner e.xhausted. Upon limestone 
land, with which I have no experience, 
it is said not to act so well — perhaps 
from the same cause "A'hich renders 
freshly limed land un.^riendly to its ac- 
tion. 

I have thus, at some length, and I 
fear tediously, given you an account of 



the source whence obtained, the use 
and mode of application, and, as the 
best evidence of its value, the growicg 
popularity among our farmers — a body 
of shrewd, practical, intelligent meE, 
industrious and economical in iheir 
habits, and little disposed to waste £flc» 
ney upon useless or doubtful objects. 

I will now proceed to answer Gen'i 
Freeman's last inquiry, as to "where it 
can be-best procured," and at '-what 
expense landed at iMobile or New Or- 
leans." 

As before stated, the original so'jree 
of supply of the best guano is the 
coast of Peru. It is oWued by the go*- 
vernment, and let to contractors, who 
pay a bonus per ton for the privilege of 
digging and sending it abroad for sale. 
These contractors reside in Callao, and 
sell it here through the agency of com- 
mission houses. Up to the present 
year, there have been two agents in thi.s 
country for the sale of Peruvian gua- 
no — one in New York and one in Bal- 
timore, where by far the greatest quan- 
tity (or upon the Chesapeake and it.s 
tributaries) has been disposed of. The 
agents here prefer lo sell it by the car- 
go or in large lots ; and it is eagerly 
bought up by dealers, who retail ii at 
a profit corresponding with the supply 
in market. I have known this profit 
at periods of scarcity, without any ad- 
vance upon the import price, to run up 
to the handsome sum of 815 per ton, 
or 36 per cent, advance. It is now, at 
a period of great abundance in market, 
and considerable competition among 
dealers, retailing at abont 12 per cent. 
profit upon the innport price, which is 
now fixed by the present and, as I un- 
derstand, sole agent in the U. States — 
Mr. Riley, of New York— at the fol- 



74 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



lowing rates: 

For 50 tons of 2,240 lbs. per ton, $48 00 
« 100 » of " " 47 00 

" 300 « of "■ " 4o 00 

at four months, or a discount of 2 1-2 
per cent, for cash, which is equivalent 
to 7 per cent., the legal rate of interest 
m New York. Thus the farmers who 
(■;3,nnot conveniently unite upon so 
large a quantity as 300 tons, will have 
lo pay from 2 to 4 per cent, nio're than 
the dealers, if bought directly from 
i1j3 agent or importer, or from 12 to 30 
per cent., if they rely alone upon the 
dealers. 

la all instances where practicable, 
although at some disadvantage, I would 
advise that purchases be made directly 
Irom the importer. It is not only cLeap- 
or, but safer to do so. Some of the 
dealers advertise Patagoniau as well 
as Peruvian guano: and now Mexican 
IS also miroduced. In this state of 
things, when one kind is in high request 
and another dull of sale, the tempta- 
tion is strong to mix the inferior with 
the superior, or otherwise to adulterate 
the Peruvian — the belter quality. This, 
unfortunately, can be cjnifd on to a 
considerable extent without detection, 
until it is too late or too troublesome 
10 obtain redress for the fraud. The 
inspection in this State affords no pro- 
tection to fiaud — a burden without a 
benefit, I do not wish to be under- 
;?tood as charging fraudulent sales upon 
any of onr dealers in guano. Having 
always myself purchased directly .^rom 
the importer, I have no reason to do 
GO. My object is only to point out the 
course of the trade, and the advantages 
>vhich attend it. I know no reason, 
however, why dealers in guano should 
"be supposed to be less liable to tempta- 



tion, or possess a higher degree of mo- 
rality, than dealers in drugs, who have 
been charged before Congress with ex- 
tensive adulteration of articles and 
medicines intended to " cure the ills 
which flesh is heir to," — a degree of 
cupidity and fraud which should be 
punished with the severest penalty the 
law can inflict. Whether it is in the 
power of Congress to protect the hum- 
ble cultivators of the soil from a like 
imposition, is a question which I leave 
for you. Gen. Freeman, and your hon- 
orable coadjutors to decide. 

What the cost of guano would be, 
"landed at Mobile or New Orleans," I 
have not the means of knowing, with 
the present arrangement of the "sole 
depot" in the city of New York. The 
price in New York having been al- 
ready shown, to that will have to be 
added freight, insurance, and whatever 
port duties may be charged in the 
Southern cities. The freight from 
Baltimore to the cities upon the Poto- 
mac and James rivers, has ranged from 
75 cents to §1 per ton ; sometimes 
higher even than the latter sum. In- 
surance 1-2 per cent., effecting same, 
from 1-4 to 1 2 per cent. From these 
data Gen. Freeman's better acquaint- 
ance with the charges between Ntw 
York and the South will enable him to 
form a pretty correct opinion of the 
cost of the article in Mobile or New 
Orleans. 

Although this letter has already ex- 
tended to a length beyond what I in- 
tended, I will avail myself of the occa>. 
casiop to make a few general observa- 
tions upon the subject. 

From the tenor of Gen. Freeman's 
inquiries, I infer that his object is to 
try the effect of guano upon the great 



THE FARMER'S JOUn:NAL 



i7B 



staple of the South-^the cotton plant. 

If his experiment shall prove suc- 
cessful, which I cannot doubt, if judi- 
ciously applied — seeing that it has been 
long used in a warmer and much more 
arid climate than Mississippi, or the 
other Sou'.hern Slates — it will at once 
enlarge the demar.d for, and consump- 
tion of the article : like all other arti- 
cles of commerce, under such circum- 
stances, its cost or market price may 
be expected to imirease. 

An interesting subject of inquiry, 
then, is, can the use and consumption 
of guano in this country be extended 
without carrying with it a correspond- 
ing increase in price ? It may be said 
that an article •which yields so large 
and prompt a return, is intrinsically 
worth a great deal, and will fairly bear 
a high price. This is true to some ex- 
tent, and seems to be just and plausi- 
ble, looking at one side of the picture 
only. But there are seasons of blight 
and disappointment. We have "rust 
and mildew," as in olden times. And 
I. have not yet seen thai guano even, is 
a barrier against, or panacea for, the 
blighting effects of a precaiious climate, 
or unlooked-for casualties to which the 
husbandman's crops are constantly lia- 
ble. Reverses, then, as well as snccess, 
should be taken into the account, in es- 
timating the value of guano to the far- 
mer. In this view, I am of opinion 
that it is now as high, even higher, than 
it ought to be, and ought not to be in- 
increased. The deposite in Peru being 
inexhaustible, as it is conceded to be — 
consequently no short supply there — 
there is no reason why it should be in- 
creased in price here, or why it should 
not be reduced to a point of reasonable 
profit and just remuneration. That it 



is now much too high, a HCtle reflection^ 
will show. Coal is now mined in the 
mountains of Maryland and Pennsyl- 
vania, transported on canals and rail- 
roads some two hundred miles to tide- 
water, paying high freight and toll, 
transhipped, and delivered and sold in 
New York at from $3 50 to $5 50 pet 
ton: or it is mined at a depth of seve- 
ral hundred feet below the snrfacc, 
transported inland, transhipped at Liv- ' 
erpool, brought across the ocean, and 
sold at about $6 per ton in New \ ork. 
Can it be possible, ihen, that guano— ^ 
the free and bounteous gift of nature— 
with no inland transportation, easily 
dug and shovelled, or poured from its 
elevated position directly down into 
the hold of the largest ships, although 
it may have to traverse the ocean three 
or four times as far as from Liverpool 
to New York — shall yet cost in the 
same port seven or eight times as 
much ? Surely there must be some uri' 
reasonable exactions — some enormous 
profits somewhere. And it behooves a 
government having a just regaid for 
the interests of its citizens, to inquire 
into, and if possible remove an imposi- 
tion and a barrier to the enterprise and 
prosperity of its people. 

I have the honor to be, very respect- 
fully your obedient servant, 

A. B. D4VIS. 

Hon. Joseph S. Cottman. 

JVote hy the Editor of the American Farmer. 

The himps of guano should be moistened, 
before being pulverized, with a strong salt 
brine ; and it would be well to mix a peck of 
plaster, and a peek of salt with everyone 
hundred lbs. of guano; such admixture, ire 
believe, would be found eminently suited to 
the South. 

Two lines only are wanting t> couv 
plete this page. 



1 "l'^ 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



FARMER'S JOURNAL. 

BATH, N.C., SEPTEMBER, 1852. 



To Our Readers. 

"We liope that our readers will bear 
witli us for the first year'of the life of 
Tiie Farmer's Journal, and not expect 
that we can go over the country and 
devii-drag the farmers to get them to sus- 
tain our paper, and at the same time 
give that arrention to the duties which 
devolve upon us as an editor. It is well 
known to many, that had we have only 
sent forth our Prospectus and have re- 
mained at home, we should have died 
out long before this time. Indeed we 
have had a hard row to weed in getting 
our paper this far towards being sustain- 
ed. We have been in more than thirty 
counties, made speeches, and talked gen- 
erally with the farmers. We have been 
at several courts, and once in a while we 
could find a gentleman at the bar who 
felt sufficient interest in our enterprise to 
introduce us to the "audience, with a few, 
veiy few remarks, in favor of a change in 
our system of farming. Indeed we can- 
not refrain from making a few such re- 
marks" as these. We have at several 
county seats been present at the forma- 
tion of County Agricultural societies, and 
v/hen the time of the meeting Avas made 
known by the ringing of the bell, we 
have seen several lawyers sitting in the 
hotels opposite the Court house, seeming 
not to feel a spark of interest in the ad- 
vancement of that interest upon which 
they are so much dependant for the good 
things of tlais life. They may say, what 
should we have done ? We answer that 
they should have gone into these meet- 
ings and spoken as long and loudly as 
thej often do in political meetings, set-. 



ting forth the very gTeat advantages 
which the farmer may obtain from con- 
necting science with his profession. Far- 
mers are not generally talking men, but 
lawyers are, and there is no better way of 
their spending their leisure moments 
when these meetings are held than by go- 
ing in and doing the talking. They may 
say that they are not farmers and they 
know nothing about farming — admit it 
to be true, and still that does not prevent 
their urging the farmer to improvement. 
Those for whom this hint is intended will 
at once recognize it as being true. 



Our Prospects, &,c. 

We are happy to inform our readers, 
and especially those who have been ac- 
tive in aiding us in getting up our paper, 
and who have endeavored to place us 
upon a firm foundation, that we are now 
upon the rock. W'hen we first entered 
upon the enterprise it is true we had our 
misffivino-s as to its success, knowing 
that an effort had been made twice be- 
fore to establish an Agricultural paper 
in our State, and those who engaged in 
the -work had to give up the idea for the 
want of patronage. With these things 
staring us in the face, all will readily ad- 
mit, it was but natural that we should 
have our doubts. ]\Iany told us that the- 
thing would fail, and that it would re- 
sult in mortification to our State pride^ 
and that there w^as not a sufiicient inter- 
est felt in Agricultural improvement to 
sustain us. Having these things con- 
stantly presented to us, wdiich did ha^-e 
a bad effect, they rather threw a damper 
over our energies for the time, yet we 
were determined to "launch our bark,'' 
which we knew to be frail, still we were 
satisfied that the farmers of North Caro- 
lina would come to our rescue in due 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



177 



I time. We saw that the tide of Agricul- 
Itural improvement was just making its 
Wod in om- State, and that this was the 
lime to "weigh anchor" and hoist our 
^ails. We are now affording a means of 
dommunieation between thousands of 
fanners in various parts of the State, and 
many out of our own State, who before 
we began our paper, were almost igno- 
rant of what was going on only near 
their homes. We have been the means 
of spreading abroad that spirit of im- 
provement which was first kindled in 
our own native Edgecombe. We have, 
time after time, told to others, that with 
the same means, our whole State could 
shine as bright as this one county. We 
see already, good resulting from our la- 
. bars, and it is with pride and pleasure 
that we continue the work. We shall 
continue to labor assiduously in the field 
of agricultural advancement. We are 
sure that in ten years, the Old North 
State will be hailed as being at the head 
of the list; she will in that time have 
gotten well xmder way — her resources 
"vvill have been fully developed. We 
say to our readers generally, to let us 
hear from them often — whatever they 
may have learned of value, send it to 
The Farmer's Journal and we will circu- 
cuiate it extensively. Do not wait to be 
specially invited to occupy a place in our 
columns, but come without any formal 
invitation whatever. Though we are 
upon a sure footing, do not stop your ex- 
ertions to obtain additions to our list, 
for tlie larger the number, the larger the 
paper and better will be the matter. 



The State Agricultural Convention. 

We again urge upon the farmers of 
the various counties to form their county 
into Agricultural societies, and appoint 



delegates to this Convention. There are 
several coimties where these societies ex- 
ist, and we call upon the presiding offi- 
cers of these bodies to have' a special 
meeting and appoint delegates forthwith 
to the Convention, and send to us the 
names of the delegates, so that we can 
publish them in the October number of 
The Joui'ual. A word • with regard to 
the appointment of these delegates ^ — 
They should be men who take a deep 
interest in Agricultural advancement — 
men should not be appointed through 
respect, but rather choose such as feel 
interest enoiigh to go, and when there t^o^ 
aid in the prosecution of this gi'eat work. 
We hope that each society will appoint 
at least ten delegates who will attend. — 
We can assure them that in giving their 
attention at this Convention, they will be 
doing their country more service than by 
attending all the political mass raeetings 
held in our State this fall. We shall 
look to old Edgecombe to roll up a good 
number on the 18 th of October. Let 
some of her sons go up and tell their ex- 
perience, their love for their country, and 
the luxuriance of their crops. 



Eastern Carolina. — The Resources 
for Improvement in Farsising, 

We have now, with the exception of 
a few counties, been in the Avhole of 
what is 2>roperly speaking the Eastern 
part of our State, and w^e feel much more 
competent to speak of the lands than we 
did before seeing them. Our opinion 
heretofore in regard to the great advan-* 
tages which this portion of om- State has 
over any other country, has been neces- 
sarily drawn from what others have said, 
though now we have seen these advan- 
tages, and feel no hesitation in saying 
that they indeed have excelled in, many 



178 



THE FAEMER'S JOURNAL. 



parts our most sanguine expectations. — 
The lands in most of the lower counties 
have a good texture, an excellent founda- 
tion, and are generally as fertile as could 
l>i expected, considering the improper 
system of cultivation practiced by those 
who have hitherto had the managemeut 
of them. Wherever they are exhausted, 
it is almost universally the case that there 
is near by the very ingredient to enrich 
them ; marl and muclc abound in abun- 
dance on every side ; and where these do 
not exist, the farmer can find means close 
at hand for renovating his lands. The 
farmers of old Edgecombe will ever be 
remembered as the prime movers of the 
spirit of enquiry, which exists among us 
in relation to improvement in farming. 
They have put tlie ball in motion, and 
Ave are glad to say that they have not 
put their "lights under a bushel," but 
some of them have contributed to the 
farmer's own paper, and by this means 
have told to hundreds Avhat they are do- 
ing and Avhat has been its effects. To 
these we here say, go on, and continue to 
tell to every enquiring farmer Avhat he 
fiiiould do in order to make his home 
cheerful, his business profitable, and his 
life useful. The farmers of our State are 
just awaking from their sluinbers ; old 
men are nov/ heard to say : Why have 
we not known these things before ? — 
AVliat a country we might have had • 
To such we would say, enter upon the 
race at once, and make your last days 
mast useful to your fellow-man — confess 
your ignorance, and abandon the idea 
that a man must be old in order to be 
wise. Go Avherever we will, we hear 
Edgecombe spoken of, and the large sale 
of Mr. nines hxst winter has caused many 
men to open their eyes and be convinced 
that they were doing merely nothing in 



comparison to what these farmers Avere 
doing. The standard of good farming 
is now in a great degree changed. In^ 
stead of a farmer asking his neighbor 
how much he tends or cultivates, it is, 
IIow much do you make ? In retracing- 
our steps in those counties Avhere Ave 
have been, Ave are on all sides hailed as 
being one of the mainsprings of this- 
neAV action. Farmers are beo;inincr to 
say that they are sick of polities, and 
Avant to hear something upon farming. 
We have commanded their attention 
Avherever Ave have been — they 'listen to 
us as though we Avere relating some fancy 
story — their minds seem to be carried 
aAva}^ in Avhat Ave say, especially when 
Ave describe Avhat is being done in our 
old native county, Edgecombe. Indeed, 
if Ave ever become eloquent, it is vvhen 
we speak upon this part of our subject. 
We say noAv, let us keep the ball in m.o- 
tion. Keep it before the farmer, that 
" book farming " is the only plan at this 
time to make money ; and also bear in 
mind that our correspondent, in the July 
No. of this paper, distinctly states that 
Agricult\u-al papere Avere the first cause 
of his making improvements in farming. 
Let those farmers Avho take the Journal 
hand it over to their neighbors to )'eail, 
and see and get them to subscribe. We 
are told almost every day, that every 
number is Avorth the price for the entire 
year, and if Edgecombe farmers Avould 
be more liberal in their contributions, it 
Avould be greatly enhanced in value. — 
Farmers, look up ; there is a better day 
coming. The time is close at hand Avhen 
Ave shall see the first Agricultural Fair 
in our State, held in Tai-boro' — indee<l, 
it is due to the farmei-s of that county. 
When these improvements get Avell un- 
der way, Ave shal4 see many of Carolina s 



THE FAEMER'S JOURNAL. 



179 



I sons wlio have left her to find a more be- 1 
\ nefiicent parent, come flocking back, and 
\ asking a resting-place npon lier bosom. 

Deep Plowing. 

This, one of the most essential me- 
chanical means of improving soils, is 
becoming to be very highly esteemed 
among farmers. ^lany who were once 
stiff-necked in regard to its injurious ef- 
fects upon soils and plants, are now, 
many of them, loudest in its praise. — 
Scarcely a day passes without our hear- 
ing some one S23eak in its favor, and ex- 
pre.ss their astonishment at the results. 
But had our farmers given this subject 
proper reflection they would not be so 
much surprised at its effects ; the sound 
reasoning upon which it is founded is too 
apparent to be doubted for a moment. 
It is by deep plowing only that a soil can 
be made deej)er than what it naturally 
is — manuring may be practiced, and all 
other means of improvement, but with- 
out deep plowing they will fail to give 
the soil a greater depth. "What is meant 
by deep plowing, is not to plow a soil at 
once which is only three inches deep, to 
the depth of six or eight inches the first 
plowing. This would cause too much 
of the clay or sub-soil to be brought to 
t!ie surface at once, and for a time would 
diminish the products of the land. But 
when the farmer begins to plow a soil 
deeper of the nature of the one described 
above, he should the first year turnup 
one or two inches of clay, and then by 
manuring and a continuation of this 
process, he Avill in a few years have a 
soil twelve inches deep, and highly fer- 
tile besides. 

We think that the failure of those: 
who years past plowed deep, may be as- 
cribed entirely to the fact that they would 



take a very thin soil and break it deep, 
very deep, at once, and the succeeding 
crop spoke loudly against this plan ; and 
though in some three years' time the ad- 
vantage was plainly to be seen by an 
observing man, still most of our farmers 
thought so little of investigation in mat- 
ters of this kind, they at once ^^ould say 
that the land was injured, and pay no 
further attention to the matter. Besides 
deepening the soil, deep plowing enables 
the roots of plants to derive moisture 
from a deeper depth in dry weather, and 
allows the surplus rain to descend to a 
greater depth in wet weather. There are 
also in the sub-soil many times certain 
mineral elements which are highly im- 
portant to the growth of the plants, 
which ever in the surface soil have been 
exhausted by continued cropping, and 
the clay being mixed with the top soil, 
affords the elements to the crops. A 
correspondent from Edgecombe, in the 
July No. of the Journal, says that one 
must plow deeper and deeper by degrees, 
and that he has found greater advantages 
from deep plowing than from any other 
labor spent on the farm. Deep plowing 
may not only be practiced with the sur- 
face plow, but also with the sub-soil plov/. 
And Ave would here remark, that if any 
farmer Avishes to buy a sub-syil plow, Ave 
Avould advise him to by first a No. C>, 
Ware's Improved Sub-soil Plow, Avhich 
may be had at any Agricultural ware 
room. This No. of plow is large enough 
to begin Avith, it Avill break the land to 
the depth of eight or ten inches, Avhicli 
Avill be sufficient for the first time. Sandy 
lands, or those Avithout a clay sub-soil, 
of course do not need this kind of plow- 
ing, but all lands witli a c'ay sub-soil 
may be greatly improved by it. We 
have had farmers to tell us that the sub- 



180 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



soil plowing had benefitted their farms 
at least fifty per cent, the first year, which 
will pay the OAvner of a farm for snch la- 
bor as is required to do this kind of work. 
Though we do not pretend to say that on 
every farm it Avill make this .improve- 
ment, yet it will, upon such land as Ave 
have described, pay very Avell. AVe 
would say to the farmer, ploAv deeper and 
deeper, and improA^e your soil, and en- 
large your crops ; and Avhen this is done, 
render in to us your testimony in its ia- 
favor, and let us couAdnce the remaining 
fsAv of the great advantages to be derived 
from this mechanical means of improving 
soils. 



The Seeding of "VYheat. 

October, in our opinion, is the month 
in Avhich Avheat should be soavu, though 
many defer until tlie latter part of No- 
ve]nber; in this particular our fethers 
Avere decidedly in the right. Any obser- 
ving man Avill see that our oldest farmers 
are those A',dio soav their Avheat earliest in 
the tall. Wheat soavu upon a good soil 
for the flourishing groAvth of that grain 
Avill by being soavu early, get a good 
stand 'and arrive at sucli an age as Avill 
■prevent its being injured by the coldAvin- 
ter. The guano is really applicable as a 
manure to jvheat, and in our ophiion it 
sliould . Gtily be applied to those crops 
A\']iere the soil is not required to be stirred, 
for tlieir groAvth. AYliy Ave remark this 
is for the I'eason that by the cultivation 
of a crop Avhere the soil has to be con- 
stantly tui-ned over, the volatile parts of 
the guano Avill certainly escape. Gene- 
rally about 200 lbs. of guano is sufficient 
10 apply to one crop of Avheat — this quan- 
tity is as much as the crop Avill absorb, 
and Avhat remains AA'ill escape before ano- 
ther may be groAvn to derive any advan- 



tage from it. A most excellent plan for 
the improvement of land, is to soav it in 
Avhcat in the fell and apply guano, and 
also SOAV clover ; cut the Avheat in the fol- 
loAving summer, and then if it is your in- 
tention to plant the field in corn the next 
year, turn the clover under in the montli 
of September. The farmer should be 
cautious about the selection of his seed, 
and also in putting it in the ground. — 
The land should be thoroughly broken 
and well pulverized, and the use of the, 
roller Avill be of great advantage Avhere 
the cold has killed out the growth, or 
Avhere it seems to be too forAvard, bidding 
fiiir to be injured by the cold Aveather 
A\'hicli Ave sometimes have in the spring. 
Our Avheat crops for tAvo years past have 
been very fine, Avhich seems to have given 
a greater interest in its culture. AA e 
hope soon to see the time come Avhen oui* 
farmers will see the importance of manu- 
facturing our own flour instead of send- 
ing our Avheat to " Yankeedom," paying 
its expenses there and back, paying 
also for the making of the flour and 
buying our oavu flour. Farmers, Ave 
Avish you to reflect upon these things, — 
Indeed there are many leaks of this kind 
in your pockets Avhich you might ydth a 
little energy stop. 

Old Rip "On tlie Look Out.'' 
That the farmers of the Eastern and 
and Central part of the State are putting 
on their armour," and are preparing for a 
Avarm Agricultural contest, is noAV be- 
yond a doubt. Every mail brings to us 
many cheering letters. 

A gentleman from Dujilin says, in a 
letter of 18th ult., that the people in 
that section are Avaking up to their inter- 
ests. But hear him : 

"Deeper ploAving, better tillage, more 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



J81 



manure, or better seasons, or all com- 
bined, have produced a marked effect on 
our crops. They are better than I 
thought the land capable of producing. 

"The spu'it of enquiry, and desire for 
improvement, is extending among our 
farmers ; and it is of the utmost impor- 
tance to us, that this should be properly 
fostered and rightly directed. For this 
we must depend mostly on our Argricul- 
tural Journals. 

" In encouraging my neighbors to sub- 
scribe for your paper, I offer you the 
best possible evidence of my confidence 
in ^^our ability to aid in the praisewor- 
thy efforts now being made to elevate 
farming and the farmer to that position 
to which they are entitled." 



Attention Farmers I 

The State Agricultural Convention 
will meet in Raleigh, on the 18th of Oc- 
tober next. Let every County Agricul- 
tural Society be represented by at least 
ten members. 



For The Fiirmer's Journal. 
Mr. Editor: 

It is seldom the case that I pretend to 
claim the attention of the readers of 
your, or any other Journal ; but in this 
day, when Agricultural knowledge is so 
much sought after, — ^^vhen the Farmers 
of our good old State are arousing from 
their reverie, with a manifestation to dive 
into the formerly liidden recesses of 
scientific farming, — ^vlien young men, 
throwing aside honorable professions, 
adopt farming for a livelihood, and con- 
sult the Avalks of rural life for happiness, 
I hope that a few practical hints mav 
not be badly received ; and though your 
numerous intelligent readers may not be 
instructed, yet if any thing I may sav 
or write, tends to promote that spirit of 



examination and enquiry so necessary to 
the acquisition of useful laiowledge, I 
shall be satisfied. 

Yourself, sir, or some other gentleman 
possessed of more ability than myself, 
then follow me. 

Every one has observed, in travelling 
through this State, large quantities of 
exhausted land, formerly fenced, and un- 
der cultivation, "lying out." Whether 
for the purpose of resuscitating, or, be- 
cause the owner has an abundance of 
"fresh lands" for cultivation or how they 
became exhausted, I shall not stop to in- 
quire. But let us examine the growth, 
the natural growth that follows upon 
their being exhausted for cultivated 
crops. And I call the attention of plain 
farmers to this. In the place of the tow- 
ering oak, gum, hickory, elm, etc., that 
once covered its bosom, indicating its 
strength and fertility, and pointing the 
husbandman to a spot where he could 
apply his axe and hoe Avith a probability 
of success, a meagre, slender growth of 
pine, persimmon, (fcc, make their ap- 
pearance — monuments of poverty, indr.- 
lence and bad husbandry ; — I may say 
land-murder. 

Let us examine these different trees, 
and we find that the former in their day 
spread widely over a fertile surface, g:i- 
therino- from the strength of that sur- 
face the ingredients necessary for their 
luxuriant growth, and come under the 
denon.iination of spreading trees ; while 
the latter have wlicit are called long tap- 
roots, penetrating deeply the hardest 
clavs, and gathering food to nourish an<l 
suppoj't them. 

Now, Mr. Editor, why is it that the 
kinds of growth originally found upon 
these lands do not again cover them ? — 
The surrounding countrv abounds v>ith 



1S2 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



the same. Is it not because the surface 
has become exhausted of the ingredients 
partly c-omposing them ? and in conse- 
quence of their inability to penetrate 
sufficiently deep to gather those mineral 
substances required in their formation ? 
There may be many other causes, it is 
true, but analysis teaches this fact. 

If, then, this proves any thing at all, 
it certainly proves that there is virtue in 
a sub-soil, and successfidly demonstrates 
to every reasonable and unprejudiced 
mind, the utility of deep surface and sub- 
soil ploughing. 

This result is something Ave see every 
day ; and having it frequently before our 
eyes, should command our attention and 
excite a spirit of inquiry and experiment. 
I am an advocate of "thorough drain- 
ing, deep surface and sub-soil ploughing, 
and high manuring." Reason teaches 
it. Experience proves the efficacy of all. 
It has been ascertained by chemists 
that every drop of rain tliat falls brings 
with it a. large portion of its bulk, of the 
ga.s.ses, or some of the gasses of the at- 
mosphere. 

It is further proved by the experience 
of every farmer, that a soil is easiest im- 
|>roved, which can absorb the greatest 
quantity of Avater, and having at the 
same time depth and tenacity enough 
to distil or strain the Avater in its de- 
scertt. 

Hence, a thin, shallow sub-soil loses 
the benefit of descending rains, to a 
great extent, from the fact that the Ava- 
ter, instead of being filtered by the soil, 
is sufiered for the Avant of deep plough- 
ing to run off, carrying not only the de- 
scending gasses, but the finer particles of 
the soil itself, into the bosom of some 
neighboring stream. 

Deep ploughing, however, instead of 



being beneficial, is of absolute injury,, 
unless preceded by thorough draining ;. 
for Avithout this, the water becomes stag- 
nant on the land, the land sour, and in- 
capable of producing. Drain Avell, and 
the ditches carry off" the surplus Avater 
purified by passing through a deep mel- 
loAv soil ; and if the soil be properly ma- 
nured Avith the different kinds of fertili- 
zers used by us, composted Avith retain- 
ers and absorbents, luxuriant crops are 
bound in reason to foUoAv. 

You may have observed, ish: Editor,, 
in travelling through the loAv lands of 
this State, the effects of heavy rains upon 
shalloAV soils — that "fire fang" often fol- 
loAvs excessive falls of water. 

It is the experience of practical far- 
mers, that if much rain tails in a corn- 
field, and the Aveather continues cloudy 
until the rain is absorbed by the soil, 
" fire fang " seldom takes the crop, par- 
ticularly in a field Avith a deep loose soil. 

This being the case, the conclusion is 
irresistible, that a crop "fires" some- 
times, yes frequently, from the heat of 
the Avater lying upon the soil, in cases 
Avhere roots cannot, because of a shal- 
low ploughing, force themselves beyond 
the action and influence of a mid-day 
Sim. 

I have appropropriated too much of 
your paper to myself already, J\Ir. Edi- 
tor, to go into detail, and endeavor to 
s'hoAV the action of frosts and snoAvs upon 
an exposed sub-soil, or explain the effect 
of drought upon shalloAv land. 

I Avill close by Avishing much success 
to yourself and your "Journal." The 
sun of x\griculture is just rising; and 
the farmers of North Carolina are under 
great obligations to tlie intelligent far- 
mers of the county of Edgecombe for 
their glorious example. Already little 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



153 



Nash feels their influence, and points 
you to her Westry, McDaniel, Sorey's, 
and a list of others, who are striving to 
rival an industrious and persevering sis- 
ter. May you stir up the difl:erent 
counties of the State until each one be- 
comes agriculturally an Edgecombe. 

NASH. 



For the Farmer's Journal. 

At a meeting of a number of Farmers 
of the County of Hertford, held at the 
Court house in AVinton, on Satui-day, the 
14th August, 1852, the following Pre- 
amble and Resolutions were uuanimouslj^ 
adopted : 

Whereas, we, a portion of the Far- 
mers of said coimty, feeling a deep in- 
terest in the great advancement of Agri- 
culture in our State, do form ourselves 
into a body for our mutual benefit as well 
as the special promotion of our profes- 
sion — therefore, 

Resolved^ That this body shall be 
called the Hertford County Agricultural 
Society. 

Resolved^ That for the good govern- 
ment of the Society there shall be elect- 
ed the following officers, once in twelve 
months: A President, two Vice Presi- 
dents, a Recording Secretary and his As- 
sistant, a Corresponding Secretary and 
Treasurer. 

In compliance with the last relsolu. 
tion, the following officers were unani- 
mously appointed : Wm. W. Mitchell, 
Esq., President; Messi-s. Starkey Sharp 
aiid Wm. T. Bynum, Vice Presidents; 
W. L. Daniel, Recording Secretary ; 
Wm. M. Montgomery, Assistant Secre- 
tary ; Dr. R. H. Shield, Corresponding 
Secretary, and Lem'l R. Jernigau, Esq. 
Treasurer. 

On motion, the President appointed a 



committee of the following gentlemen, 
viz : — Dr. R. H. Shield, L. R. Jernigan, 
Starkey Sharp, Abram Thomas and Dan- 
iel Valentine, to draft a suitable Consti- 
tution and By-Laws for the future gov- 
ernment of this Society. 

Dr. John F. Tompkins, Editor of the 
"Farmer's Journal," being present, ad- 
dressed the meeting in an able and elo- 
quent style, setting forth to the satisfac- 
tion of all present the great advantages 
to be derived from science in farming. 

On motion, the thanks of the meet- 
ing were unanimously tendered to Dr. 
Tompkins for his address. 

On motion, the meeting adjourned to 
meet in Winton, at the Court house, on 
Monday evening, 23d inst. 

W. W. Mitchell, Pres't. 

W. L. Daniel, Sec'y. 



Communicated for the Plough, the Loom and 

the Anvil. 

Farmers and Book Learning. 

It is a very common thing to decry 
' boolv-learning," especially in its rela- 
tion to the practical business of life. — 
Something may be said by way of 
apology for ihis habit, but it is unques- 
tionably productive of great evil. All 
readers know a great deal, and about a 
great many subjects. But how much 
of this knowledge is the result of their 
own unaided experience]' Were all 
they have •ac€(uired from other sources 
erased from the tablet of their minds, 
they would be very much inclined to 
shave their heads and play the monli, 
till they have qualified themselves anew, 
for the stations they now occupy. 

Whence was this knowledge chiefly 
obtained? From two sources: reading 
and conversation. This is true of all 
kinds of knowledge, both of the arts 
and the sciences. But conversation 



iS4 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



can be carried on b}' only a liiDited 
number of individuals. Ears are not 
so constituted as to enable us to hear 
all that is said in the world, or even in 
our own neighborhood, not all that is 
worth hearing. The pen and press 
step in, and do what they can to supply 
this deficiency ; communicating with 
multitudes who, without their aid, could 
know nothing of these things. We 
can now hear thousands of miles ; and 
thus is scattered, as on the wings of 
wind, the information which would 
otherwise attract the attention of but 
few. 

In theory, the pen and press com- 
municate the better part of what is 
ihought or spoken ; and though they 
sometimes err, the fault is not unpar- 
donable, nor futal. We should be 
thankful that we are obliged to read 
and hear so little of what is worthless. 

Note another fact. Nine-tenths of 
all that appears in the ponderous vol- 
ume, relating to matters ot general in- 
terest, first appeared in some periodi- 
cal. Neither in the arti nor in the 
sciences do we find an excep ion to this 
reimrk. J^<ay, more. In the periodi- 
cal, tliis truth first appears in a form 
suited to the wants of the public. Af- 
terwards it is remodelled, and being 
clothed in a scholastic dress, forms a 
volume of science, suited only to the 
learned. An illustration of this, fresh in 
the recollection of my readers, is found 
in the '-pendulum experiment," as illus- 
trating the revolution of the earth. — ■ 
You may remember the story of the 
young gentleman, born and bred in the 
o:ty, who, having purchased a farm in 
the country, was offered his choice out 
of a large herd of cows. Though a 
little embarrassed, lest he might dis- 



play his ignorance, he soon made a se- 
lection, saying: "I will take this thick 
necked one." Upon th's, the boy was 
ordered, with a partially suppressed 
laugh from all hands, to drive to the 
young farmer's new establishment a 
fine, stout bull. Had this youth but 
examined even '' the pictures" in our 
agricultural journals, he might have 
avoided ?o ridiculous a blunder, and 
the milk-maid would have been spared 
the mortification of being sent out to 
obtain her supply for the dairy from an 
animal unaccustomed to render such 
service. 

There is a great deal oi fancy farm- 
ing. The incident just detailed be- 
longs to this department. The young 
farmer selec'.ed his "cow" on that prin- 
ciple. Thousands do the same thing. 
Some of this class carry on their farms 
very much as some body is said to have 
bought a library — by the appearance 
of the covers. Each has his own fan- 
cy, and is controlled by it : while true 
science and common sense have not 
even a seat at the conncil-boaid. 

Nor is this class of farmers confined 
to the novice It may bo found among 
those who have grown grey upon the 
farm. True, in outward form, theie 
may sometimes be a fair appearance. 
One may manifest an ardent desire to 
adopt the best modes, and yet may be- 
long in these ranks. He refuses tho- 
roughly to inform himself but is gov- 
erned by his fancy in following the lead 
of a mere pretender. This is his fan- 
cy, he prefers this to ihe study of the 
science. 

I remember visiting one of the best 
farming towns in Massachusetts, some 
two years ago, and when in conversa- 
tion with some of the most intelligent 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



li 



farmers in this place, one of ihem in- 
quired : '' Are ycu concerned in Bom- 
mer's patent?" An emphatic "No, 
sir," and a smile, materially affected a 
visage already unnaturally prolonged 
by the recollection of ten dollars 
thrown away on that humbug. Five 
dollars paid for a single paper that 
explained that mysterious fertilizer, 
would have saved "other five" dollars, 
Lot only for him, but for several of his 
neighbors. "Experience," as the word 
if! popularly used, is but an imperfect 
security against the thousand cheais 
and humbugs to be found in every com- 
munity. 

He is but a fancy farmer who chooses 
t) continue the modes and methods of 
his ancestors. His father and grand- 
father used to do so. and hence it mutt 
be right. This is his only principle of 
action. In other words, it is his fancy 
to do so because thej/ did. He knows 
how to conduct a farm only by imita- 
tion, and looks to the past for his mo- 
dels, without knowing or understand- 
ing the result of his own or their ope" 
ration. To him there is no such thing 
as progress, and failure and success are 
words without meaning. Twenty bu- 
shels of corn to the acre is quite satis- 
factory, so long as he departs from no 
established usage, and is not outdone 
by his neighbors. I know not why he 
should be called a wise man rcore than 
our city born friend before spoken of. 
Both are governed alike by considera. 
lions undeserving of confidence. 

The subject of manures is a great 
science. Our fathers knew but little 
about it. They had less occasion to 
knowr than we have, for they had not 
iso thoroughly exhausted their soils. — 
But the process was carried on with a 



terrible destructive constancy We are 
trying to carry it a little farther, and 
in some instances, the work seems com- 
plete through almost entire Stales. — 
Harvests fail to support the laborer, 
and this, in any other employment, 
would be considered and treated as a 
failure. No other class of men would 
remain contented with this condition. 
The farmer alone manifests patience 
so perfect, and that too when he might 
double and quadruple his income. 

How entire is the revolution in the 
mode of conducting most of the man- 
ual operations of the day ! Every art 
has its improved tools and reformed 
methods. Agriculture ought not to 
be counted an exception. The young- 
est of our readers can remember the 
publication of the first work worthy the 
name of -Agricultural Chemistry ; and 
science necessarily precedes judicious, 
intelligent practice. Under other cir- 
cumstances, we can only blunder upon 
success. We may happen to guess 
right, but the chances are strongly 
against us. Bu* with correct views of 
the chemistry of agriculture, the way 
is opened for the judicious application 
of manures and a wiser succession of 
crops. Hence there is no apology for 
such a condition of things. 

" Poor land " olten means scarcely 
more than that it is adapted only to 
particular products, or that it needs a 
peculiar manure, But circumstances 
forbid the further discussion of this 
subject at present, and I must wait a 
future opportunity. I purpose to re- 
sume it hereafter. iVl. P. P, 



Non-Intervention. — A principle that 
cannot be too strongly recommended in 
ail matrimonial wars ! 



18G 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



From the American Fanner. 
Tlie Utmost Cost at which Lime and 
Ashes can be Profitably Used— The 
Talue of Spent Ley. 

A gentleman in Virginia asks us 
tliese questions : 

'• 1. Lime and leached wood ashes 
are conceded to be good as improvers, 
but as all things have a limit lo their 
value, I wish to know the utmost cost 
at which in your opinion they can be 
profitably used?" 

"2. Quick lime and soda ash are 
used by some soap makers as a substi- 
tute for wood ashes — now what is the 
residium, after learhing of these arti- 
cles, worth, as compared with leached 
wood ashes?" 

" 3. Is the ley after the soap is made 
from these articles, of sufficient value 
(to be poured over and composted with 
liver or creek mud, mould, manure, &e.) 
as to justify being saved, barreled and 
boated some 15 or 20 miles, at an ex 
pense of say 1-4 or 1-2 of a cent per 
gallon? Or if composting is not the 
best mode of using ley, what is?" 

With regard to the firtt question, we 
have to observe, that the intrinsic value 
of lime or ashes to a farmer is govern- 
ed by circumstances — is to be estimated 
by the necessity of the case. If the 
land one owns, and desires lo improve, 
is destitute of lime, a^nd potash, then 
their value is scarcely to be estimated ; 
for without these substances be in a 
soil, we hold that all efforts at improve- 
ment will be futile unless they be arti- 
Scially applied. So satisfied are we of 
this truth, that if we had land in which 
neither were present, we would not 
hesitate a moment to pay fifty cents a 
bushel for either ashes or lime ; the 
former, if to be obtained, we should 
prefer, because it Qoniains within its 



own body a sufficiency of li??ie for all 
the healthy purposes of vegetation. — 
Hard tcood ashes in their normal, un- 
leached state, conl&in 25 per cent, of 
lime — that is, in every 100 bushels of 
such ashes there are 25 bushels of 
lime; besides which, they contain 550 
lbs. of potash, and every other organic 
substance that enters into the constitu- 
tion of all the cultivated plants ; and 
hence, must necessarily be more valua. 
ble than lime, which only contributes 
one element, and that one, found in 
sufficient quantity in the ashes. We 
have for a long series of years been en. 
deavoring to impress upon our readers 
the non-nece^shy of applying large 
doses pf lime, and we think we demon- 
strated in our last number the truth of 
the position we so early assumed, and 
have so strenuously adhered to. Large 
doses, and we look upon one hundred 
bushels to the acre to partake of that 
character — and that quantity may be 
applied to clayey soils rich in vegeta- 
ble remains, without harm — may suit 
the purses of the corpulent, but even 
such farmers should not make such 
needless expenditures, as their exam= 
pie serves to deter those of small means 
from liming, owing to its onerous beai- 
ing upon their disposable funds. 13ut 
why should a man be compelled, by 
custom, to put on a hundred bushels to 
to the acre, when 25 bushels is really 
more than can be consumed by the 
crops that may grow upon the land 
during that number of years. We 
wish here to be understood as restrict- 
ing our remark simply to the consump- 
tion of the crops, as there will, indepen- 
dent of this, be a loss of lime from the 
process of leaching. Now then,, if the 
quantity we haYe named be^ ample— 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



isr 



.and we are sure ihat it is — the ques 
tion of price is hardly worthy of con 
siJeration, as there are bat few fanners 
or planters but could incur so light an 
■outlay as would be necessary. We 
wish all to bear this fact in mind — it is 
not so much the largeness of quantity, 
as it is the presence of all ihe elements 
which plants feed upcn being in the 
soil, that constitute the principle of fer- 
tility which contain less than half a per 
cent, of lime, while others containing 
7dne per cent., though fertile — equally 
remarkable for their productive quali- 
ties, but not more so than the former. 
Whence comes this uniformity in their 
resfective actions? Why, simply be- 
cause they contained, in addition to 
lime, all tjje other constituent elements 
which go to make up the food of 
plants. 

The second and third questions we 
shall treat as orae, as they are identical 
3D all their scope and bearing. We 
shall speak to the third question brief- 
ly, and content ourself to leave the two 
to the solution of Dana^ whose author- 
ity, no enlightened agricultural reader, 
who may have read and studied his ad- 
mirable work, will question. We say 
then, that the waste ley of the soap 
boilers is worth ufon ihe land more 
than quadruple the largest sum named 
by our correspondent, — and we say fur- 
ther, that it will be best to compost it 
with river, creek mud, marsh mud, 
woods-mould, peat, or some other kin- 
dred substance capable of being de- 
composed and converted into mould. — 
One hogshead of spent ley, as it is call- 
ed, will convert 20 loads of such sub- 
stances into good enriching manure m 
a very few weeks, and will also per- 
form the office of conserving whatever 



Tilatile matters there may be in the 
■subs'ances it may be made to act upon 

Speaking of the constitution, value 
and operative effect of spent ley^ Br. 
Dana gives these clear and conclusive 
views : — 

" Among the mixed manures, is the 
salt, or spent ley of the srap boiler. It 
seems to offer a natural passage from 
this class to those consisting of salts 
only. To understand its components, 
the chemical composition of oil and fat 
must be briefly studied. No products 
of life are now better understood than 
the fatty bodies. They are all acids, 
combined with a peculiar organic base, 
which acts the pa/t of an oxide. This 
is never obtained except in combina- 
tion with oxygen and water. In this 
state it has long been known under the 
name ot glycerine. The acids com- 
bined with it are stearic, margaric and 
oleic. By the union of these acids wiih 
glycerine, stearme and margarine* or 
fats and oleine or oil is produced. In 
soap-raaking the alkali used decompo- 
ses stearine and olelne, combining with 
their acids, which are thus converted 
into stearites, margarites, and oleates 
of alkali, or soap, while the glycerine 
remains free in the spent ley with the 
salts which that contains." 

" The proportion of glycerine in fat 
and oil is about 8 per cent. Its com- 
position is— 

f These are in"! 
Carbon 40.07 | such proportions 1 Carbon 24.77 
Oxygen 51,00 <j as to form wa- J- or Car. 
Hydrogen 8.92 I ter, free carbon, I Hyd. 17.85 
tand carb. hyd. J Water 57.37 

" Glycerine is transparent and liquid, 
and was called the sweet principle of 
oils, from its sweet taste." 

" The glycerine is thus the organic 

*A substance very similar to mould. — Ed. 
Amer. Far. 



THE FARMER'S JOUKNAL. 



or geiae part of salt ley. Its propor- 
tion in that will vary, if the spent ley 
is boiled, as is usual, upon a fresh por- 
tion of tallow, which adds its quantify 
of glycerine, in proportion to the alka- 
li in the ley." 

"The salts aire various, and depend 
on the kind of alkali used to form the 
ley. The alkali is derived from ba- 
rilla^ from Soda or white ash, from fot- 
ash, or from ashes. Hence no general 
statement san be given which shall ex- 
press the value of spent ley. That 
some idea may be formed of its compo- 
nents, it may be divided into two kinds : 
ist, that produced from soft soap, ba- 
rilla, or soda-ash. A boil of 2000 lbs. 
of soap requires 150 bushels of ashes) 
and its spent ley contains in addition to 
a little free poia-ih, the following salts 
derived from ashes : 

130 lbs. of sulphate of potash, 
6 " of muriate of potash, 
36 " of silicate of potash, 
allowing the ashes to have been a mix- 
ture of oak, bass and beach wood. Be- 
sides these, in the process of soap-ma- 
king, in order to make the soap grain, 
common salt is added. A chemical 
change is thus induced, the potash 
soap is changed to soda soap, or the soJt 
to hard. The soda of the salt enter- 
ing the soap is replaced by the potash, 
which combines with the acid of the 
salt, that is chlorine, or muriatic acid. 
In other words, common salt, or chlo- 
ride of sodium, or muriate of soda is 
changed to chloride of sodium, or mu- 
riate of potash, which is thus added to 
the spent ley. The proportion of salt 
added, varies, but it may be siated in 
general, 7 bushels or 500 lbs. to 150 
bushels of ashes. In a boil, then, of 
2000 Iba. of soap, 1200 lbs. of fat, or 



tallow, containmg 100 lbs. of glycerine, 
150 bushels of ashes, 4 bushels of salt, 
afford about 200 gallons of spent ley. 
This contains the glycerine and salts 
above (stated,) and affords per gallon^ 

Geine, or glycerine, 1-2 lb. 
q 1, ^ Muriate of potash, 5 1-2 lbs. 
\ Sulphate of potash, 11-2 lb. 

Silicate of potash, 2 1-2 oz. 
The spent ley from soda soap, con- 
tains the sulphate and muriate of soda 
of the soda ash which rarely amounts 
to 12 per cent. As less salt is here 
added, the spent ley is less rich in salts. 
In a boil of 2000 lbs. of hard soap, 600 
weight of white ash are used. Inclu- 
ding in the one bushel of salt usually 
added, the spent ley contains. 

Sulphate of Soda,f 84 lbs. or per gal., 63-4 oz. 
Muriate of Soda, 106 lbs. 1-2 lb. 

Glycerine, 100 lbs. 1-2 lb. 

"The value of spent ley has been 
tested for a series of years. It has 
shown its good effects on grass lands for 
four or five years after its application. 
There is great advantage in carrying 
it out upon snow. It has the effect of 
converting any carbonate of ammonia 
in the snow into sal ammoniac, or a 
volatile into a fixed salt." 

It must be obvious from the exposi- 
tion above given, that spent ley is a 
most valuable manure ; and that it is 
an admirable constituent of the com- 
post heap. We should prefer to use it 
in that way, though if diluted with an 
equal volume of water, it may, with the 
happiest effects, be applied directly to 
the land. 

f Soda, it is affirmed by some chemists, in 
the absence of potash from the soil, will take 
the place of and perform similar offices to it. 

An Irish gentleman lately fought a 
duel with his intimate friend, because he 
jocosely asserted that he was born with- 
out a shirt to his back ! 



THE FARMEK'S JOURNAL. 



189 



Collect Materials for Manure, and 
Compost tbeui. 

The day is fast approachiDg, when 
necessity, if not reason, will force all 
who cultivate the earth for a living, to 
economise everything on their several 
farms that can be converted into ma- 
nure ; for unless they do so, it will be 
impossible for them to carry on their 
cultivation, because loss, instead of pro- 
fit will be the res'ilt of all such at- 
tempts. There is no mystery about 
this matter. The reason must be ob- 
vious to every one who reflects. At 
least a raoiety of all that comprises the 
food of every plant grown, is derived 
directly from the soil. Hence, then, as 
the continuing to grow annual crops, 
creates an incessant drain upon the na- 
tural resources of the earth, and the 
supply is from year to year decreased, 
it follows as a natural consequence, that 
unless artificial supplies of manure be 
periodically applied, an exhaustion of 
the food-yielding powers of the earth 
must take place. 

Vjewing the subject in this light, we 
have for many years been endeavoring 
to impress upon the agricultural mind, 
the propriety of acting upon the princi- 
ple, that manure jnaking ivas the first 
duty of the farmer : that it was his 
business not only to carefully husband, 
but to appropriate every thing on his 
land towards its fertility, that contained 
the elements of nutrition, or which, by 
its affinities and powers of assimilation, 
could be made to subserve the purposes 
of vegetation. Time after time, we 
have named the various substances to 
be found on most farms which could be 
thus appropriated. Time after lime, 
we have pointed out the means by 
which they could be rendered availa- 



ble, and we have frequently had the 
gratificationt to know, that by following 
our advice, agriculturists had improved 
their lands, increased their productive 
capacities, and, as a natural conse- 
quence, bettered their own conditions. 
The knowledge of sudti results, while 
it has been flattering to our pride, and 
grateful to cur feelings, has served to 
increase our energies, and render our 
toils the less irksome. But while such 
evidences have come to our knowledtre 
to cheer us in our course, we have 
sometimes had to encounter the preju- 
dices of those who, wedded to those 
old customs, handed down from father 
to son, for ages, looked upon every im- 
provement as an innovation, and there- 
fore rejected it notwithstanding they 
had the unerring evidences before their 
eyes, in the form of worn-out old fields, 
that the customs of their forefathers 
must have been founded upon errone- 
ous principles, or such results could not 
have occurred. 

We have sometimes asked the owners 
of such farms, why they did not make 
an effort to restore fertility to their 
lands, why they did not gather and 
compost the various refuse substances 
which abounded on every hand? To 
this question, the stereotyped answer 
was — "they had not time !" — as if time 
thus spent, was not, as it is in reality, 
the most lucrative part of farm econo- 
my — as if the detaching a part of a 
force, to collect the rough materials to 
be wrought into manure, would not 
prove to them the farmer's gold mine ; 
as if the effect of appropriating such 
time to such purpose would not enable 
them to produce more on one acre than 
they now get from three — aod as if they 
would not thereby actually save both. 



190 



THE FAEMER'S JOURNAL. 



labor and time ; for it takes no . more 
force lo cultivate an acre of rich, than 
it does one of poor land; while there is 
this difference in the results, the first 
is sure lo end in profit, the latter in dis- 
appointment and loss. 

If the necessity of applying manure 
to restore the abstractions of cuhiva- 
tion, was a new thing, there might be 
some excuse for the indifference mani- 
fested by those who are otherwise in- 
telligent men. But it is no new thing; 
for Marcus Cato, the earliest Roman 
agricultural author, who flourished an 
hundred and fifty years before theChris- 
tian era — who was distinguished alike 
for his eloquence in the forum, lor his 
enlightened Statesmanship as Cojisul 
and Ce?isor^ in the administration of 
government, as he was for his skill and 
and genius as a leader of armies, or as 
a tiller of the soil, incorporated this 
wise and salutary advice m his work on 
agriculture : — 

" Study to have a large Dcng 
HILL — Keep youk. Compost caf^eful- 

LY." 

This was not the advice of a mere 
theorist, but the counsel of an enlighten- 
ed, practical husbandman, who though 
wielding the civil affairs of Rome in 
her days of greatness — of one who we 
find at one time electrifying her senate 
from the forum, by his eloquence — an 
eloquence that caused him to be called 
the Roman Demosthenes — an elo- 
quence that enabled him to find the 
way to the hearts of the people through 
their judgments, though he flattered 
them not — though he rebuked their 
passions — and who, at another, we find 
leading her legions to battle, to victory, 
and to triumph, still had time, and de- 
rived pleasure, from cultivating the 



earth with his own hands, — and who, 
in giving the above advice, spoke from 
the results of his own rich experience — 
an experience which had enabled him 
to take a broad, comprehensive, philo- 
sophic view of the constitution and 
nature of soils — which bad enabled 
him to study and fathom their physical 
wants, and in ten short words, to pro- 
nounce how those want? could be sup- 
plied. And though two thousand 
years have revolved since they were 
uttered, they are as true to-day a,? they 
were when first pronounced ; for the far- 
mer who does not take these precau- 
tions, will, in a few years, realize the 
sad truth, that the fertility of his land 
has departed, as the soil, like human 
beings and other animals, require to be 
fed, to preserve the integrity of its 
strength, and continue its productive 
powers. 



Superficial Farming. 

A prominent cause of small profits 
and poor success in many of our farmei"s, 
is the parsimonious application of capi- 
tal, in manures, implements, physical 
force, and convenient buildings. In their 
eagerness to save at the tap they waste 
freely at the bung. They remind us of 
the cultivator Avho candidly admitted his 
unprofitable system of farming ; " but," 
said he, "I am not yet rich enough to be 
economical." A^ observe by a late num- 
ber of the Mark Lane Express, that the 
present medium estimate in England, of 
the capital required to carry on the busi- 
ness of a farm is £8 (about |40) per 
acre, and no prudent man ought to rent 
more than he has that amount, at least, 
of available capital to go on with ; for a 
smaller possession, with ample means to 
manage it, will yield better returns than 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



191 



a large quantity of land " inadequately 
stocked." Now some of our best farms 
can be bought for about tlie same sum 
tiiat the English farms are rented^ and if 
the above remark is applied to purchas- 
ing instead of renting, it will constitute 
excellent advice to Americans. This is a 
subject for a large volume ; and we have 
only space now to say that if the land- 
owner has not suitable buildings, the va- 
lue of the grain and fodder wasted in con- 
sequence, would soon pay for them ; and 
the food and flesh wasted by exposed 
and shivering animals would soon pay 
for them a second time. The want of 
manure will prevent the value of crops 
from rising higher than the cost of cul- 
tivating them ; and the want of heavy 
crops to feed animals, Avill preclude keep- 
ing enough to make plenty of manure. 
In other words, a poor and badly culti- 
vated farm will react, and only support a 
poor and badly fed race of animals and 
men; just in the same way that a fertile 
and thoroughly tilled piece of land will 
sustain animals enough to manure it and 
keep up its fertility, and men enough to 
give it thorough tillage. — Albaiiy Culti- 
vator. 

STATE 
AGRICULTUAL WARE-HOUSE. 

THE subscribers would respectfully invite 
the attention of Farmers and Planters to 
tlicir varied assortment of 

Agricultural and Horticultural Impliments, 
among which may be found Pouty and Mear's 
celebrated and highly approvedCentreDraught 
Ploughs ; Emery &"Co.'s Imported Rail Road 
Horse Power Thresher (all of wliich took the 
first premiums at the late State Agricultm-al 
Fair, and are unequalled by any now in use,) 
together with a full assortment of the latest 
and most approved Plows, Straw Cutters, Fan- 
ning Mills, Corn Shellers, Seed Sowers, Cul- 
tivators, Harrows, &c- &c., which they will 
sell at as low rates as any similar establishment 
in the United States. 

We shall at all times have on hand a full 
stock of Field and Garden Seeds, Guano, and 
all other fertilizers in the market, which may 
be had on the most reasonable terms. 

Persons purchasing articles from us.may 
rely upon their giving satisfaction, as we in- 
tend keeping only such as. we can fully war-- 
rant. LONGJETT Sf GRIFFING, 

No. 25 Cliff St., New- York. 

4priI29, 1852, em.. 



THE subscriber will give any special ad- 
vice to Farmers, by their addressing him 
and giving a description of their farms. His 
charge will be moderate. He will make 
analysis of soils and marls, and write out the 
analysis for application of manures. 
For analysis of soils, - - - $5 00 
Writing out analysis, ... 5 qq 

JOHN F. TOMPKINS, M. D. 



GULI^K & RICHARDSON, 

ARE PREPARED TO EXECUTE ALL ORDERS OF 
WITH NEATNESS AND DESPATCH. 

GOLDSBORC, N. C 

HOME MAEIACTLIRE. 

LET every True North Carolinian throw 
his might into the hands of our own 
Mechanics, and by this means, with our Ag- 
ricultural advancement, we are bound Xa 
become an independent people. So let the 
citizens of Edgecombe, and the neighbouring 
counties, call and examine the magnificent 
stock of 

FURNITURE, 

which is offered for sale at F. L. Bond's 

Furniture Store, inTarboro', consisting of the 
following articles, viz : 

Ladies' Marble and Mahogany Top Dres- 
sing Bureaus ; Ladies Marble Top Wash 
Stands ; Sideboards and Plain Bureaus; Ward 
Robes and Book Cases ; Sofas and Mahogany 
Rocking Chairs; Mahogany and AValnut 
Tables ; Tete-a-tetes and Divans ; Mahogany, 
French, and Cottage Bedsteads ; Stationary 
and Portable Writing Desks ; Wood and 
Cane Seat Rocking Chairs ; Office, Windsofj 
Cane and Rush Bottom Chairs ; a large as- 
sortment of cheap Bed Steads ; Wash Stands 
and Candle Stands ; China Presses, various 
patterns ; also, a few Nymphs and Nuptials. 

Old Furniture and Sofas repaired and made 
to look as good as new. Old Bachelors ren- 
ovated in such a style as will make them 
accessible to the smiles qf young ladies and 

old M s at least. Furniture Kept on hand 

tp.suit any age or sQxt. 

Now one word to the public : What is life 
tp any one, if they do not, avail themselve of 
the comforts and,conveniences that are offered 
for sale at F..L, BOND'S- Ware Room ? An 
examination by the public is earnestly 
solicited. F- L. B= 

Tarboro',.N..C.,, 



192 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



THE FARMERS JOURNAL. 

Tlie Subscriber will publish in the townof 
Bath, Beaufort county, N. C, a monthly 
paper under the above name. This paper will 
be devoted exclusively to the setting forth of 
the various popular improvements in Agricul- 
ture, Horticulture, and the household arts. — 
That there is a demand for such a paper in 
our State, and more especially in the Eastern 
part, no one will deny. 

As evidence of the good effects of such pa- 
pers, we have only to look at the rapid strides 
which have been made in farming in those 
States of our Union where they exist. Bui 
this great advancement made in the science of 
Ao-riculture in other States, is but little known 
to the farmers of North-Carolina. There are 
several scientific, as well as practical farmers, 
among us ; but for the want of a medium 
through which to communicate their agricul- 
tural knowledge, it is still confined to a small 
compass. Our good old State is far behind 
the age in agricultural, as well as every other 
improvement. As a people, we are greatly 
wanting in State pride, which is highly im- 
portant to place us in that position which we 
ought to occupy. In New- York, Maryland, 
Georgia, and several other States, annual 
Fairs are held for exhibiting the products of 
each, which clearly have a tendency to great 
improvements. Nature has thrown no Imped- 
iment in the way to prevent our agricultural 
advancement ; but she has lavishly heaped 
upon us her inestimable gifts. We have 
among us a sufficiency of both organic and 
inorganic matter to enrich every acre of our 
worn-out land, and our soil and climate can- 
not be surpassed in adaptation to the produc- 
tion of the various plants. 

All that is now needed to elevate our State 
to the position which she should occupy 
among her sisters, is energy and enterprise on 
the part of her citizens. There must be a stoji 
put to this greattide of emmigration from our 
State ; for, daily, many of our most talented 
and energetic young men seek a new home in 
the West ; they say that they cannot get their 
consent to remain among a people possessed 
of so little enterprise as we are. The sub- 
scriber has not been engaged in farming many 
years, but he feels justified in saying that he 
began upon the right plan — that of deep 
ploughing, heavy manuring, and thorough 
draining. He has visited some good farms in 
our State, as well as in others, purely for 
agricultural instruction ; and for some time 
past he has been engaged in useful agricul- 
tural reading, to prepare himself for the post 
which he now proposes to occupy. 

The subscriber feels confident that this un- 
dertaking shall not fail from a want of energy 
on his part. He is resolved to use every effort 
to obtain a large subscription list, and for this 
purpose he wiH canvass several counties with- 
in the next two months. 

He hopes that by showing such a determi- 



nation to do something for the present degra- 
ded condition of the farmer, to be sustained, 
and receive a liberal patronage from a gener- 
ous public. 

Each number will contain one or more 
articles from the pen of the Editor, and several 
communications from our best farmers 3 and 
the remainder will be filled with articles se- 
lected from other Agricultural Journals, such 
as may be deemed by the Editor applicable to 
our climate and soil. 

In conclusion, the subscriber asks the aid of 
every man in the prosecution of this great 
work ; for he is sure that there will be a good 
bargain made by the farmers. The advance- 
ment of farming should excite an interest in 
the breast of every man ; for upon the success 
of the farmer greatly depends that of every 
trade and profession. 

Terms — One copy, $1 ; six copies, $5 ; 
twelve copies, $10 ; thirty copies, ^20 — inva- 
riably in advance. 

Advertisements. — A limited number of 
advertisements will be inserted at the follow- 
ing rates : For one square of twelve lines, for 
each insertion, $1 ; one square, per annum, 
$10; half column, do., $30 ; one column, do., 
$50 ; larger advertisements in proportion. 
JOHN F. TOMPKINS. 

Bath, N. C, 1852. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Communication by "Mentor," 161 
Prize Essay on the Comparative Value 

of Different Manures. I G'2 

On the Use of and Trade in Guano, 170 

To Our Readers, 176 

Our Prospects, &c., 176 

The State Agricultural Convention, 177 
Eastern Carolina — The Resources for 

Improvement in Farming, 177 
Deep Plowing, 179 
The Seeding of Wheat, 180 
Old Rip " On the Look Out,» ' 180 
Attention, Farmers ! 181 
Communieatioruby "Nash," 181 
Communication, 183 
Farmers and Book-Learning, 1 83 
The Utmost Cost at which Lime' and 
Ashes can be profitably used — The 
Value of Spent Ley, 166 
Collect Materials for Manure, and Com- 
post them, 189 
Supfel-fidal Farming, I 



THE FARMER'S JOURi^AL. 



VOL. 1. 



BATH, K C, OCTOBER, 1852. 



NO. 7. 



JOHN F. TOMPKINS, M. D., Editor and Proprietor. 



For the Farmer's Journal. 

DiccoTEAux, near Wilmington, N. C, 

August SOtii, 1852. 
Sir : — 

Your letter of the 12tli inst. lias come 
to hand, and its contents and queries 
about my experience with respect to the 
introduction of the European varieties of 
grape vines, are sufficiently numerous, if 
fully treated of, to make up a small vol- 
ume ; yet I will try to show you mj'- wil- 
lingness to gratify you to some extent ; 
for, the persons who take any real inter- 
est in this matter are so very few, that 
when I find one, I am very much pleased 
to see that there is a fellow laborer in 
the Southern vineyard, and that in Tex- 
as. It is natural that such a j^erson 
mth fellow-feeUng and love for the same 
pursuit, should make as wonderous kind. 

I take this means of answering your 
queries, because I intend hereafter to 
convey to those interested in this impor- 
tant branch of agriculture, my experi- 
ence, through the columns of the " Far- 
mer's Journal," a publication deserAdng 
an extensive circulation among Southern 
planters. In the July number you will 
find a letter of mine to N. Longworth, 
Esq, of Cincinnati, on this same subject, 



that may interest you ; therefore sub- 
scribe, and get your neig'hbors to do the 
same. 

The history of my trials in this de- 
partment of agriculture, though long 
and diversified, may not be altogether 
unprofitable to you and the farmers at 
large. I began my first plantation of 
European vines, remark, imported bif 
myself directly from different parts of 
Europe, in A2:)ril, and even a^ late as 
May, 1850. The cuttings and rooted 
vines had sufi'ered a good deal on their 
transit here, and therefore out of many 
thousands, constituting several hundi-ed 
varieties, I succeeded in saving compara- 
tively very few of some of the varieties. 

While I was doing this I did not ,neg - 
lect to form seedlings of European varie- 
ties, and grafting the European kind on 
the wild native vines ; being convinced 
hat these two methods, as well as that 
of improving by proper cultivation and 
education our best native varieties, to be 
of the utmost importance, in order t-o 
obtain acclimated stocks and hardy va- 
rieties. 

My seedlings promise well, iind m\' 
grafts succeeded very well, and yielded 
abundant fruit the year after they bad 



THE FAKMER'S JOURNAL. 



been grafted ; tJie wood grew to an 
©aoa-mous size and length. 

I ouglit to give you an idea of my 
locality and topography before I proceed 
mxj farther. It is a series of undulating 
hills formir^ the shore of a considerable 
creek, whose waters fall into the Cape 
Fear river just above Wilmington, N. G. 
Most of these hills on their surface were 
made up of pure sand, but with clay sub- 
soil at difterent depths, and furthermore 
imderlayed by beds of the richest varie- 
ties of marl in tlie world, containing 80 
and even 90 per cent. I took of course 
a<lvantage of these elements of fertility, 
to compound the soil of my vineyard • 
and its success was made evident by the 
luxuriant vegetation on it, so far aa soil^ 
attention, care and management of the 
plants were concerned ; but the seasons 
and the elements I cannot control, and 
for two years they seem to have com- 
bined for my destruction. ¥/e have had 
] ate and early frosts, when the vines were 
just growing with a promise of a fine 
vintage; snow stoiins have not been 
wanting to da their full miachief, nor 
long dry spells, succeeded by equally 
rainy seasons when most fatal to the viia- 
t^ge. The excessive humidity produced 
by it caused the beiiies of the branches 
to become dropsical, swell with an undue 
quantity of indigested ci'ude sap, produ- 
cino- gangrene and rot of each berry in 
succession, there being at the time 
scarcely any exhalation from the leaves^ 
owing to the hygrometrio condition of 
the atmosphere, added to the exhalation 
or evaporation fi'om the river, &c., the 
liydroscopicity of the soil, all concurring 
more or less ta produce this unhapy re- 
sult. 

This state of things would occur if the 
xainy and prolonged cloudy season at the 



period of maturity did not exist. Stilly 
notwithstanding the existence of all these- 
concurring and simultaneous unfavorable 
causes, I have had the Muscat de Froiv 
tignan, the Chasselas, Persilade, Mu^-a^ 
of Alexandria, and other delicate aad 
diiScult grapes, to arrive to perfectfcn^ 
to do so in favorable localities, with as rich 
flavor and saccharine taste as I have ever 
eaten in southern Italy or south of 
France. The localities where the Ekeo- 
pean varieties will most hkely suoKsed 
with respect to soil are in territory %>- 
mation abounding in calcarious remLains. 

Your locality, like mine, I fancy, is 
rather two low, the- country too woodj?, 
and abundantly watered by streams fti 
the neighborhood of low marshy grounds. 
I selected mine, not as a matter of chofce, 
but of necessity ; thousands better anil 
more appropriate places are to be found 
in N. and S. Carolina, and other smiths 
ern distiicts, where the fortunate vinfei- 
ger would have few or none of the dii3- 
culties that beset my locality. Then, 
sir, my appai'ent failure tor the pasi 
ought and must not be considered as a 
precedent v/hich is to deter others f^m 
a weU directed effort. Indeed I hav^s lio 
great cause to complain — on the oonfia- 
ry, considering that similar causes, as 
those that have operated to the desttiK- 
tion of my grapes, have also prevailed 
in the most favored spots in the A^rkl, 
France and Madeira. 

You have, sir, in common with roos^ 
of the individuals that have tried the 
cultivation of the European varieties &r 
the open field, committed the same er- 
ror, you have applied to norther nursery- 
men. Vines rooted in hot houses, havfi 
the time struck with a jjremature old 
age, though as yet a young plant, and. I 
will prove so when planted in the c^n. 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



195 



sir. They are generally subject to ul- 
ceration and decay, owing to tlie lierba- 
dous and spongy texture of tlieir wood. 
My idea may appear strange to you, and 
you may think that I refine too much ; 
l>nt it is no less true, and that you will 
never succeed with rooted vines coming 
from sucli a source. My ohservations 
for the space of 32 years, with respect to 
this fact in this country, is sufficient to 
satisfy me ; while on the contrary, expe- 
ricaice comes in to prove that every suc- 
cessive generation of cuttings taken from 
cmo another and cultivated in the open 
isit, renders each successive filiation more 
and more hardy. Time and the experi- 
oiice of others will prove to the Ameri- 
can vine-dresser that I am right 

The European vines marry very rea- 
dily with our native vines by gi-afts,with 
tJie e.xception of the scuppernong and its 
varieties, '.hich sturdily refuse all union 
wi'tli these outlandish strangers. But a- 
propos of the scuppernong, you must 
know that I entertain a great opinion 
and expect great things from this vine, 
wlien it shall be educated like the Euro- 
l>ean vines, for a number of years. I 
have it under training, and expect to ob- 
tain a greater nun\ber of berries on each 
l>unch, their simultaneous maturity to 
soften their tough and thick skin, to ren- 
der more juicy and crisp the pulp, 
jsnd to diminish the number of big, coarse 
soed that fill up' the berry. These are 
ail characters of a greater civilization, 
which is synonimous with a greater deli- 
oticy, and made a fit subject for a uniform 
maturity and vintage, and of course of 
that fermentation, the which, in its pre- 
s^.nt disorderly maturity, is an impossi- 
bility. ■ ■ ' 

This is also the Case to a certain ex- 
'iant witli the Catawba, a most valuable 



\'ine for making the claret varieties of 
wines ; while our white scuppernong will 
be that of the champaigne par excel-~ 
lence. I repeat : time and laborers in 
the wlneyard wiU show the truth of thes^ 
views. Let us not be weary in well-do- 
ing ; let us set the example to a genera- 
tion of imbelievers that laugh at our tri- 
als, because they are satisfied in theiT 
conceit that it is impossible to raise, in 
the oj)en field cuUwe, any of the Euro- 
pean varieties. The native Americans, 
who never doubt of the j^ossibility and 
capability of any thing about their happy 
country, still doubted all along the 
possibility of the introduction of the Eu- 
ropean varieties in this country. It took 
Europe many centuries to settle the f[ue.?- 
tion of appropriate locality to certain va- 
rieties, and still the Americans have 
jumped at the conclusion after a moFt 
imperfect trijil of a few unaided individ- 
uals. I have no doubt that in the course 
of time appropriate localities will he 
found in our immense southern region, 
for every European variety. This is my 
opinion, and the high character of even 
the native varieties seem to sustain me 
in that conviction. 

More could be said, but this must suf- 
fice for the present. 

Very respectfully, 

JOSEPH TOGNO. 



The following anecdote, Illustrative 
of railroad facility, is very pointed. . A 
traveller inquired of a negro the dis- 
tance to a certain point. "Dat pends 
on circumstance," replied the darkey,. 
"If you gwine afoot, it'll take you about 
a day ; if you gwine in de stage or de 
homneybua.'you make it in half a day ; 
but you get in one of dese smoke wag- 
ons, vou he almos' dar now!" 



196 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



For the Farmei-'s Journal. 
Plymouth, Sept. 5ta, 1852. 
Dr. Tompkins — 

Dear Sir : The " Farmer's Journal" is 
doing great good iu this section of the 
State. Its effects are seen on almost 
every farm. Beds of manure, compost 
heaps, piles of muck, lime and ashes, 
may be seen, where, a short time since, 
none appeared. Your paper will work 
a perfect revolution, among our farmers. 
1 have no feai-s of the success. The in- 
telligent and enterprising farmers of our 
State know their interest too v/ell, to let 
so valuable a work go down for the want 
©1 patronage. 

For yourself, sir, you are pursuing a 
course- which will give you the enviable 
reputation now given to Mr. Ruffin, and 
so appropriately expressed in the conelu 
■fiion of an article in your August number; 
on "Agricultural Progress in Virginia for 
the last Thirty years." You will have 
beea the means of "making two ears of 
eoni, or two blades of grass, to grow 
where only one grew before," and will 
" deserve more of mankind than the 
whole race of politicians put together." 

I frequently pass through Edgecombe 
county, and have not been a careless ob- 
server of the rapid progress in agricul- 
ture made by her farmers. I have fre- 
q^uently remarked that she was twenty 
years ahead of any of the adjoining 
counties. The farmers there cut more 
ditches, clear more land, and make more 
manure, than any others withui my 
knowledge. They have more work done, 
and done better, with system and science, 
aad there is nothing but success and pros- 
perity before them. 

In the July number of your paper* 
■^hefe is a communication dated Edge- 
comhQ county, May 24, '52, which eon- 



tains much valuable information, and I 
beg leave to tender to your enterprising 
correspondent my thanks therefor, and 
promise him to profit thereby ; and hope 
he will not fail to give the information 
which he promised, viz : his manner of 
burning and applying ashes for manure. 
He states that with these and similar 
means, he hauled out last spring 10,500 
loads of manure, two-thirds of them ox 
loads, done by 20 hands, including men, 
women and children, being all the hands 
that were worked on the farm." This is 
indeed, very good work. If he did not 
commence hauling out before the 1st of 
February, and finished by the 1st May, 
he was employed three months — allow- 
ing 26 working day's to the month ; he 
was engaged 78 days ; which divided 
into 10500, gives 134 loads haided out 
per day for that time ; and being only 
6 2-3 loads per day each, for the twenty 
hands, men women and children. 

In the same number of the "Farmer's 
Journal" I find a letter to tlie Editor, 
dated Tarboro', N. C, June 1, '52, in 
which your correspondent makes the 
following statement. "This year I work 
30 hands, 7 of them men, the rest women, 
boys, and children. Since the 1st Jan'y 
1852, my overseer has raised and haul- 
ed out 22000 loads of good manure, be- 
sides hauling a large quantity of ditch 
bank and swamp mud." The quantity 
of manure made and hauled out on this 
Farm, is very large, but industry and 
systematic management, can accomplish 
it easily — let us see — from 1st January 
to 1st June, (the date of the Communica.- 
tion is 5 months, 26 working day's to 
the month, give to the 5 months 130 
days.) Divide 22000, (the number of 
loads) by 130, (the number of day's) and 
it gives 165 30-130, say 1*70 loads per 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



195 



<iay ; wliicb sum divided by 30, {the 
number of hands) and it gives only 5 
"2-3 loads per day, for each man, woman^ 
boy and child. Now, many of our Farm- 
ers, who can lay no great claim to ener- 
gy, and who do things in the old way, 
may doubt this ; — that each hand, (men, 
women, boy's and children,) on the Farm, 
can mate and haul out, fi-om the 1st Jan- 
uary to the 1st July, 5 2-3 loads of good 
manure per day ; and the same hands 
do all the clearing, ditching, plowing, 
planting, &c. &c., required to be done 
■on the farm, during these 5 months, is 
very good work. 

But it is possible that the hands on 
this Farm were not employed at making 
.and hauling out manure, during the 
whole five months. The work of hauling 
out, may not have commenced before 1st 
February, and it is probable, did not con- 
tinue longer than 1 5thMay. This would 
give 3 1-2 months employed at hauling 
out the manure, which is equal to 91 
working days; which makes 241 loads 
per day, and is equal to 8 loads per daj, 
for each man, woman,, boy and child, 
from 1st Feb. to loth May. Though 
this may seem rather extravagant, yet it 
has been done, and can be done again. 
I am determined to try. I need some 
information of the plan possessed by your 
enterprising correspondent, and I hope 
lae will favor us with the system adopted 
by him, as I believe he will thereby do 
great service to the Farmer's generally ; 
and I promise to use one effort to follow 
his example. 

[note bv the editor.] 

The above is from the pen of one of 
the Baost intelligent gentleman of Wash- 
ington county — a gentleman that would 
-honor any profession ; and we hope our 
Jn.t«lligent correspondent of Edgecombe, 



v.'ill come out in our next issue, and 
spread upon the pages of the "Journal" 
the system under the operation of whicli 
they accompliah so much. It will be a 
source of much satisfaction to our cor- 
respondent, and will furnish to industri- 
ous and enterprising fai-mers, a system 
for the management of tli-eir labour. 

Come out then gentlemen ; give the 
old " North State " your plans, and let 
all h^r sons " spread themselves." 



For the Farmer's Journal. 
A Dialogue betweea Three Farmers^ 

A. — I think it high time, my friends, 
that we were beginning to improve our 
lands ; most of us are just where our 
fathers v/ere in the way of improvement. 

B. — I would gladl}' improve my land, 
if I only knew what materials to use ; 
there are so many means prescribed that 
I am at a loss which to undertake ; there 
is marl for instance, I have been told 
that marl is a good manure, and if so, I 
have a goodly quantity of it. 

C. — Marl is not worth a d — n. I tried 
it last year, and it done more harm than 
good, a plaguey sight. I put a shovel 
full to each hill of corn and it killed it. 

A. — But you did not rightly apply it. 
In the first place, you put too much, and 
you should have applied it broadcast, in- 
stead of putting it in the hill. If your 
land had but little vegetable matter in 
it, you should have applied but a small 
quantity, and you should have known 
the quality of the marl as well as that of 
the land. 

B. — I should think that there was real- 
ly reason in what you say, and I shall 
make a trial with it, and will endeavor 
to apiply the proper quantity. 

C, — Well, all who wisJk it may use 
marl, but I shall go on a& I have doxk 



198 



THE FARRIER'S JOURNAL. 



heretofore, and as my father directed. 
can tell you what it is, this nianuniig is 
.roing to riiiB the country any way ; you 
will soon see corn selling at 50 cents per 
barrel, and then what a body makes will 
not turn out any thing. 

;B.— How much corn do you make to 
sail, that you seem to be so very uneasy 
about the price being so low ? 

n__l don't make any to sell now, but 
I live in hopes that I shall have some to 
sell; hut if this manuring keeps on it 
will he worth nothing. 

^,_p>ut corn is not the only crop 
which you can make; there is wheat, 
oats, cotton, &c., all of which crops you 
may raise to advantage if your land be 
in good order. 

C._I know that I could raise these 
crops, but "Daddy" never used to do it, 
and I dont intend to depart from the old 
man's plans. 

A. ^But you must leave off these old 

plans and go into the improved system 
of farming, the same as is practiced by 
many in Edgecombe county. Take The 
Farmer's Journal and read it, and you'll 
be pleased with it. 

C— I be hanged if I am going to 
read books to learn that which I know 
already better than any of these who are 
called book farmers. Daddy farmed in 
this way, and vrhen he died he left a 
o-oodly quantity of the change. 

'^ A. ^But your father had your land 

when it was rich in all of the elements 
of crops, and he by bad management 
has completely ruined it. 



A ten acre Held, costing fifcy dollars 
per acre, and ditched, manured, and 
improved at fifty dollars more, so as 
to give double crops, is much more val- 
uable and profitable than t^venty.acres 
■unimproved, eo^fi'-f +1i« ^"'"" rv,,.,--- 



National Agriculture. 
The total value of the anuuai pro- 
ducts of the soil of the United Slaves is 
now about One Thousand JMilhons of 
T^ollars ; and no ore who knows what 
Science has done for Agriculture will 
doubt that the same amount of labor 
which IS now employed in producing this 
•aggregate might be so applied as to se- 
cure a total produce thirty per cent, 
greater, or One Thousand Three 
Hundred Millions. But scientific, 
skillful, thorough Agriculture always 
employs more labour than the shiftless. 
slouching sort too generally prevalent ; 
and it is certainly within bounds to 
estimate that our Agriculture might 
be so improved as, by the help of ad- 
ditional labor now unemployed and 
unproductive, to give an additional 
product of fifty per cent, or Five Hun- 
dred Millions per snnum — an achieve- 
ment which would double the wealth 
of the country every eight or ten years. 
Whoever will carefully review the 
Agriculture of a single State, or even 
an average County, in any part of the 
Union, and estimate how much its pro- 
duct micht be enhanced by Irrigation, 
Manuring, Deep Plowing, Draining 
&c., will perceive that our calculation 
is far wiihin the truth. 

But suppose that only half of it, or 
an addition of Two Hundred and Fifty 
Millions per annum to our annual 
Agriculture Product, is attainable, what 
an immense addition to our National 
wealth would thereby be ensured ! — 
Four fifths of this would probably be 
permanently ?idded to the wealth of 
the countvj^ — that i?, the farmer whose 
annual product tbould be swelled from 
$!,000 to Sl,250, or from ©2^000 ta 
&,->rm. - "t'l "-' -•- - "• • •- xxu the' 



THE FARMEIi'S JOUHNAL. 



19& 



surplus, but would invest the greater 
part of it la new buildings, fences, 
barns, implements, furniture, &c., &c , 
giving- profitable imployment to me- 
dianics and laborers and largely in- 
oreasing the business of merchants and 
the incomes of professional men. — 
Such an addition to the annual product 
af our Agriculture would increase the 
odusumption of Manufacturers, domes- 
tic and imported, in far greater ratio, 
since from the annual product of every 
farm the food of those making a living 
an it must be first taken for home use, 
affording no business or profit to any 
one else, leavmg only the sutplus to 
form the staple of Trade ; and an addi- 
tion of twenty-five per cent, to the an- 
nual product of each farm would pro- 
bably double the annual exchanges 
and general trade of the country. 

This addition may speedily be made, 
through the diffusion of science and 
knowledge. There is hardly a town- 
ship wherein vast elements of fertility 
ire not now lying useless or running to 
ivasie which might profitably be se- 
:ured and applied. And, while indi- 
vidual and local efforts must main- 
y be relied on to forward this as all 
nhev improvements and reforms, it 
;eems but reasonable that the Federal 
xovernment should do a little — the 
rerylitt'e that is asked of it — toward 
ihe accomplishment of the good work. 
\. National Bureau of Agriculture, 
osting at the outside ^10G,0C0 per 



grown artiele probably cheaper and 
certainly more wholesome (because un- 
adulterated) than the Chinese leaf- 
Beet sugar is rapidly supplanting in 
Europe that produced from the Cane, 
though the latter is sold far cheaper 
there than it ever was till very recent- 
ly ; our prairies and intervales are na- 
turally better adapted to Beet culture 
than most of "he lands devoted to it in 
Europe. In fruit culture we have 
done nothing as yet to what we must 
and will do; there are scores of deli- 
cious Fruits well adapted to one or 
more of our climates which arc hardly 
known among us even by name. Many 
a farmer now possesses treasuries in 
Marl or Muck, Plaster or Phosphate 
of which he is utterly ignorant, and 
likely to remain so. We will need; 
light; but Agriculture does not keep 
pace with other departments of Pro- 
ductive Industry in improvement, pri 
marily because it has not received 
equal attention from those capable of 
shedding the light of Science upon ii& 
onward way. 

We know and feel the force of the 
prime objection to an Agricultural 
Bureau at Washington — namely, that 
it is very likely lo be made a hospital for 
partisan invalids, as too many Bureaus 
have already been. But we urge 
against this view that, while the neces- 
sary cost would be small, the certain 
benefits would be very great if this 
Bureau were ditecled by the poorest 



,nnum in all, might procure Seeds, I stick that could be raked from the gut- 



i^lants. Trees, &e.;, from India, Austra- 
ia, the Pacific, &c,. which would na- 
uralize the Tea shrub or tree among 
IS, determine what American soil and 
limate, are best adapted to it, and sup- 
ily us after a few years, with a home- 



ters of Political bankruptcy and de- 
crepitude. If he will do nothing but 
receive the contributions toAgricultural 
Science that could not fail to be sent 
him, allowing some clever clerk to 
transcribe and reduce the substance, no, 



2 00 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



printing, at all, but allowing it to be 
copied and printed by such Agricultu- 
ral and other Journals as should see 
fit, it would at least pay its cost, But 
an ordinary, office seeking hack could 
not fail to do far more than this, in pro- 
curing Seeds, Plants, &c.; and now and 
then the right man would tumble into 
the Bureau by accident, and do more 
to advance American Agriculture in 
the course of four years than the cost 
of the Bureau would amount to in a 
hundred years. — Ex paper. 

Scotch Ireland Agricultural Society. 

Mineral Spring, Aug. 9, 1852. 

The Society met according to ad- 
journment for the purpose of adopting 
the Constitution. The President iook 
the Chair and called upon the Commit- 
tee on the Constitution to report. On 
motion of Dr. J. G. Ramsay, before 
the Committee reported, all persons 
present were invited to become mem- 
bers and take part in the business of ihe 
day. 

The Committee then reported and 
asked to be discharged. 

The Constitution presented by the 
Committee was, after some alteration 
and amendment, adopted. 
Constitution. 

Art. 1. This Association shall be 
called the Scotch Ireland Agricultural 
Society. 

Art. 2. The officers of this Society 
shall consibt of a President, four Vice 
iresidents, one Recording and one 
Corresponding Secretary, a Treasurer, 
and a Committee of Correspondence 
consisting of three. 

Art. 3. The duties of the Chair 
shall devolve on the President, and in 
his absence on the Vice Presidents se 



verally, according to seniority. 

Art. 4. The Society thall have pow- 
er to elect temporary officers when nec- 
essary. 

Art. 5. It shall by the duty of the 
President to call the Society together 
at all its meetings, attend the same, take 
the Chair, call the house to order, and 
see that the Constitution and By-Laws 
are strictly enforced : he shall also up- 
on consultation with the Vice Presi- 
dents, if a majority shall think proper, 
call irregular meetings of the Society 
at such times and places as in their 
opinion best subserve the interests of 
the Society. 

Art. 6. It shall be the duty of the 
Recording Secretary to keep a record 
of all the public p'oceedings of the So- 
ciety ; preserve all its papers, and ex- 
hibit and read the same when desired 
by the Society. 

Art. 7. It shall be the duty of the 
Corresponding Secretary to wait upon 
the Committee of Correspondence ; 
write all their communications ; make 
their reports to the Society, and reyise 
all the proceedings of the Society be- 
fore they are published. 

Art. 8. It shall be the duty of the 
Treasurer to keep the funds of the So- 
ciety and disburse them on the order of 
the Society ; to make a report annual- 
ly of the state of the Treasury and 
quarterly if desired. 

Art. 9. It shall be the duty of the 
Committee of Correspondence to com- 
municate with other Societies and intel- 
ligent farmers in different sections ot 
the country ; to collect as far as they 
can valuable specimens of grains, 
seeds, pknts, farming implements, and 
whatever they may deem useful for the 
advancement of Agriculture in our 



THE FARMEK'S JOURNAL. 



201 



country and among; our members. 

Art. 10. The Society shall have 
power to lery a tax upon its members 
to be coUocied at any of the quarterly 
meetings for the purpose of defraying 
the necessary expenses of the Society 
and for awarding premiums ; provided 
such tax shall not exceed the sum of 
two dollars per annum. 

Art 11. The Scciety shall meet 
quarterly, viz ; One on the second 
Thursday in October, which shall be 
the annual meeting, also on the second 
Thursday in January. April and July- 
Art. 12. The regular members of 
this Society shall be divided into 



ed at the annual meetings, and shall 
bold their office for one year or during 
good behaviour. 

Art. 18. Any article in this Consti- 
tution may be altered or amended at 
any regular meeting by a vote of two- 
thirds of the regular members, or the 
Society may order any proposed amend- 
ment to be postponed for three months, 
when a vote of two-thirds shall alter 
the same. 

The Constitution having been adopt- 
ed, on motion of Dr. Ramsay, a Com- 
mittee cf five were appointed to nomi- 
nate permanent officers. 

The Committee after bavins retired 



eight parts or Committees, two of reported through Dr. Raniiay as fol- 
which committees shall report quarter- lows : 



ly upon whatever subject shall be as- 
signed them. 

Art. 13. It shall be competent for 
this Society if it shall dpem it proper 
to cause one or more addresses or lec- 
tures to be delivered at any of its meet- 
ings. 

Art. 14. It shall be competent for 
this Society at its annual meetings to 



Presiflent — Otho Gillespie. 

Vice VresidenU — James Cowan. W. 
P. Grah;im, J. Krider, J, Luckey. 

Recording Secretary — P. B. Cham- 
bers. 

Corrcspo?idif>g Secretary- A, J. Flem- 



ing. 



Treasurer— 0. G. Foard. 
Corre^ponchjig ComviiUce — Dr. S.D. 



hold Fair.? and award premiums upon I Rankin. Dr. D. B. Wood, J. G-. Flom 

whatever productions it may think 

proper ; provided that none but mem 

bers of this Society shall be cOiUpelitors 

for premiums; and provided further, 

that nothing in this article shall be so 

construed as to prevent the Society 

from awarding honorary premiums. 

Art. 15. Theofficersof this Society 
shall constitute a Committee to award i " Cattle," with particular attention to 



Finding it inconvenient to arrange 
the Business Committees in a short 
time, 

On motion cf J. D. Johnson, two 
(Committees were appointed to report to 
the next meeting on the following sub- 
jects, viz; Reclaiming "Land'' and 



premiums; provided the same is not 
otherwise arranged by the Society. 

Art, 16, Ten members shall form a 
quorum for the transaction of business, 
but a less number may adjourn from 
day to day until a quorum shall be ob- 
tained. 

Art. 17, T^9 oncers shall be elect- 



tbe disease known in this country as, 
distemper. 

On Land— A, J. Fleming, J. Gc. 
Ramsay, J. Krider, F. S. Neely, J. W. 
Steele. 

On Cattle— Samuel Barr, Dr. S. D. 
Rankin, J. Cowan, W. P. Graham, N. 



■202 



THE FAEMER'S JOURNAL. 



H, Neely. 

On motion, it was 

Resoh-ed, That the officers be appoint- 
ed n, Committee to arrange the eight 
Business Committees and assign them 
subjects. 

Dr. A. Torrence, J. G. Fleming and 
Eobt. Harris, were appointed to select 
a place for the futuie meeting of the 
Society. 

The Society was then addressed by 
Dr. D. B. Wood and A. J. Fleming. 

Dc. S. D. llankin was appointed to 
■address the society at its next raeeiirig. 

On- motion of J. K Graham, it was 

Resolved, That the proceedings of 
this laeeiiog-, together with the Consti- 
tution, be published in the Carolina 
Watchman and Farmer's Journal. 

On motion, the S.-ciety adjourned. 
A. J. Fleming, Cor. Sec. 



Prevention of Smut in Wheat. — 
Putche's (German) Eccyclcpedia ol 
Agricul'uro gives the following as thi* 
-celebrated recipe of Mons. Sckrnitz.of 
Duererr, in the province of Suliers^ 
(Prassia) for prcfaring, seed wiitat so 
as to prevent smut in the crop. So 
confident was Mr. S. in ihe elBcacy of 
his method, that he oiiered a stamiiiu' 
reward of a ducat, for everv head of 
smi-itted wheat fourid in bis fields. 

For every 500 lbs. seed wheat, take 
1 lb. of alum, 1 lb. coppeias, 1-4 lb, ; 
f-altpeter. 1-4 lb. verdigris. Pulveiiie 
these ingredients and disscdvo ihi m in 
a suiScient quantity of boiling watei.— 
"When the solution has become coir 
add as much more water as will be 
Ti quired to moisten the whole thoi- 
■ODghly. The heap should then be ; 
turned -sevpral times within ih.'. ens» /: 
ing twenty-four hour,', and well mixer ' 
and it is ceadv for seedinir. 



Uisparagement of the Farming Prc- 
fession. 

A very common and most pernicious 
error which prevails to a considerable- 
extent m neaily every portion of the 
communiiy is, that farming is the sim- 
plest of all arts, requiring nothing more 
than mere physical strength to manage^ 
it in all its details. The idea that men- 
tal exertion is in any degree requisite, 
is wholly lost sight of. Many believe 
thiit when a man, endowed with good 
stout limbs, and a strong consiituiion, 
has proven himself mentally unfit for 
other pursuits, that he is just the person 
to make an excellent farmer. Farjn- 
ers themselves frequently entertain the 
same opinion ; especiall}?' those wiro 
cling so tenaciously to ihe ''giiod old 
way" and reject the advantages of which 
science so earnestlv invites them to 
avail themielvcs. Now this is all error 
— hurtful error — and the sooner it is 
banished, the sooner shall we find hus- 
bandry assuming its rightful posiiion — ■ 
So long as men are led to rank agricul- 
ture as a calling fitted only to broad ] 
shoulders and empty minds — just f-o ^ 
long will the pursuiiis of the farmer be 
lowered in ihe estimation of the other 
professions. 

Eut why should this be so? Y/hat 
single argument can be advanced in fa- 
vor of such an absurd opinion, and what 
po-ssibie excuse can be offered m exten- 
uation, by those farmers who thus dis- 
parage the high character of their pro- 
fV'Ssion? If there be any one pursui& 
in life mors closely allied to science 
than all others; that pursuit is agricui- 
tuie. Science is made to play a patt 
m the daily operations of the farm — 
Geology and mineraio^iy explain to the 
farmer the formation of the earth'd 
:rast — ihe character and quality of the 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



20c 



rocks and soils which compose it, and 
the various propeiiies and uses of the 
minerals hidden benfalh U. Chemistry 
his bountiful mistress extends to him 
her fostering care. She leaches him 
to analyse his soils as well as his plants, 
ajid uaderstanJing the consiituents of 
each enables him to adapt the one to 
tlic other^ and thus produce the most 
successful results. She analyses the 
food he prepares for his stock, and with 
the UQening certainty of science points 
out the proper.'ies and V'due of the dif- 
lerent Icnids of grain, roots, &e., so that 
lie clearly understands what kinds pos- 
sess fattening" qualities, what muscle 
forming, and what suj;p1y and stiengih- 
t«i the bones. 

We might thus refer to every depart- 
ment of scietsce — to mineralogyjbotany, 
natural philosophy, &3. — and show the 
iutiinate relationship that holds between 
tliem and agriculture ; but'enough has 
been s;Md to disprove the disparaging 
assertions already alluded to. From 
tlie most trifling operation on the farm, 
to the minutest analysis of soils and 
plants, science is the ready and wilTiLg 
Landmaid of the farmer. The simple 
truths every day presented to his obser- 
vation, (simple, however, only when 
practically demonstrated.) are the bril- 
liant results of persevering research of 
jnen of the most exalted genius. How 
few there are, who appreciate the wast- 
ing toil and energy that were tequired 
to develope and demonstrate these ap- 
parently trifling yet all important 
irathsl' 

And yet, in the face of all these facts, 
men will tell us that physical strength 
is the only essential requisite for the 
iarmer and what is worse still, many 
isruiers themselves, if not by their 



words, sanction by their actions, this 
slander. If a son gives evidence of an 
intellect a little superior to that of his 
sire, the farm becomes too limited a 
field for his genius, and agriculture loo 
insignificant a profession for his trans- 
cendent powers. The lawyer, the di- 
vine, or the physician's office is consi- 
dered his legitimate sphere, and the 
youth who might become an excellent 
farmer, ends his career as a second or 
third rate lawyer, preacher or doctor. 
When shall there be an end of this ? — 
Vvhen will the science of farming be 
esteemed as it should be ? vVe answer, 
when the spirit ofprrgress shall have 
penetrated to every farm-house — when 
the sons of our farmers shall be taught 
to respect and reverence I he profession 
of their fathers — when they shall learn 
to know and feel that education will 
supply that skill and that interest, 
which Will render farming as lucrative 
and honorable as any other pursuit. It 
will end when the thousands ol Amer- 
ican farmers who are possessed of the 
means, will venture beyond the beaten 
track of their ancestors — esiDlore the 
hidden mysteries of nature — exaniiae 
and undei stand her various processes, 
and thus fit themselves to till the earth 
more succLSsfuUy— -whoa every blade 
of grass, every leaf and plant and vege- 
tiible will possess for them an interest 
sufficient to lead them to investigate 
its character, and understand the broad 
principles upon which its germination, 
developement and maturity depend. It 
will end when every tiller of the soil 
learns to regard his own profession as 
one of the most honorable, ennobling 
and scientific of human pursuits— when 
menial as well as physical energy will 
be deemed absolutely e£sei.-t:al to sue 



>04 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



eessful husbandry, and when the idea | 
that men who are unfit for every other j 
pursuit, will make good farmers, shall ! 
be fully ex^p\odc(i."-Pcnns]/lvaniaFarvi 

Jour 71 ill. 

From the Journal ofjAgriculture. 
The Economy of food. 

KY C. C. <;OFFIN. 

Mr. Editoh. — Thoj theme of a form- 
er article by in your Jonrnal, was ihe 
necessity of fur fiis king food s^uited to the 
ivants of stock. As was then said, cli- 
male has] a vast deal to do — not only 
■with the daily wants of man, but with 
the duration of his existence. 

It is a well known fact, ihat life, in 
the low latitudes, is like a forced phmt 
— quickly men come to maturity, and 
as quickly pas3 away, "^('here are va- 
rious causes for this decay, it is an 
anomaly \o think the structure, erect 
ec! in a day, will bear the ravages of 
time, hence the life that springs so 
swiftly will as swiftly pass. The as" 
centand descent are the same. It is a 
geometrical figure, equal in its sides — 
Vegetable and animal are under the 
parne law. The Almighty has made 
it so. Science gives theoiies; they 
may or may not be correct ; but the 
evidence is sure, that temperate heat, 
carbonaceous food, a,nd nncontamina- 
."ted oxygen, are the requirements of 
■grey hair?. 

We dare not enter upon the broad 
field, which might be opened on this 
•subjoct; but have resorted to it, mere- 
ly to show the fact that the food of the 
tropics cannot support life at the pole; 
and hence infer, the crops to be culti- 
.vaied in the temperate zone. 

Life, be it animal or vegetable, soon 
assimilates itself to the climate. The I 
white Englishman soon becomes swar- 1 



thy at the West Indies? The smaU 
corn of Canada changes into the large 
kernel of Massachusetts. Without go- 
ing into the why and wherefore, asvJ 
the rationale of the thing, we will take 
Qp the part which relsjies to the feeding 
of stock. Why do the livery. stable 
keeper anu ihe circus rider give their 
hoises oats, in preference to corn? — 
Because they contain the yery things 
that give life and energy. Think yot? 
the «ame agility would be seen in the 
arena after a feed of meal? Not at all. 
The favorite steed w-ould be as lazy as 
an alderman after dinner. Why does 
the farmer withhold fattening food from 
the young animal 1 Because it is nec- 
essary to develop the system in all its 
parts first. A judicious farmer will 
not give the young pig aiuch meal ; he 
will give it milk and other food that 
will contribute to the growth, rather 
than obesity. The different periods o*- 
life require different qualities of food. 
The infant needs milk ; solid food can- 
not be used till the system has become 
strong. Stimulants are hurtful to the 
young, and they are not necessary to 
the system in its prime. It is only 
when the blood begins to be sluggish 
and thick, that they are necessary, — 
Wine, for the young man, is fuel for 
the fire ; and just in proportion as that 
fuel is heaped on, so much fiercer will 
it blaze, and so much quicker will come 
ashes. Judicious farmers understand 
this principle, and hence do not give 
the young colt oats and meal in abun- 
dance. 

It is ofter? the case that the owner of 
a well formed colt — anxious to bring 
him out before his lime, and exhibit 
him a& something extraordinary — in- 
troduces the forcing system. Gives 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



205 



high feed, and makes the animal a hot- 
house plant, as it were. Before long 
the consequences are manifest — in ten- 
der feet, swelled lunbs, and overgrown 
joints. It is clearly a pernicious prac- 
tice to give colts meal or oats in large 
quantities. 

The food required for animals, or 
men, must be adapted to heir business. 
The farmer that holds the plow, or 
exhausts his strength in pilcino; up the 
stones that build the wall, devours heel 
and pork with a vengance ; but your 
sedentary man, that studies all day 
long and scribbles the foolscap : or the 
strippling, that measures tape to the 
ladies, eschew such vulgarities. It de- 
pends, to be sure, somewhat upon the 
physical constitution of the individual ; 
but the great principle is true, that for 
the full and proper developement of 
the system, such food must be used as 
will produce such developement. Let 
the doctrine of the vegetarians be car- 
ried out for a few generations, — lot us 
eat nothing but bran bread, — and hu- 
manity would be walking skeletons, 
dry and husky, rattling like shrivelled 
parchment. Or eat potatoes and salt 
esclusively for an hundred years, and 
the biain would be water soaked and 
worthless. It is useless to attempt to 
reverse nature's laws. They may not 
be changed ; ond a thorough study of 
their operation becomes therefore of 
essential importance to the successful 
agriculturist. By successful, I do not 
merely mean one who puts the most 
dollars in his pocket ; but rather one 
who makes himself happy ; obtains a 
competency of this world's goods and 
confers a blessing upon mankind. 



Make hay while the sun shines. 



From the Working Farmer. 
Advancement in Agriculture. 

Our last number completed the halt- 
year of the Working Farmer, being- 
three and a half years since its coin 
mencement. At that time our advocacy 
of sub-soil plows, deep plowing, analy- 
sis of soils, (fee, was without support.— 
Not one farmer in one thousand, believed 
in the usefulne.ss of either of these ne- 
cessary adjuncts to agi'icnhure. Since 
that time we have been steadily employ- 
ed in the analysis of soils, writing It-itpv,'? 
of advice, founded upon such an.-ilvf-is, 
(fee, until, at this time, we find it impos- 
sible to meet the demands of all. Our 
table is loaded down with new samples 
for analysis, and each day brings one or 
more new applicants for agricultural ad- 
vice. Several of our pupils are busily 
engaged as practical farmers, and in 
every case with success. 

Sub-soil plows are now to be found in 
every' county, and it is no longer neces- 
sary for us to contimie to keep thfjr 
merits before the public. Farmers are 
beginning to learn that the term lasting 
manure, is often misapplied ; that* ma- 
nures which give out their influences h^--^ 
slowly as to last ten or twenty years, in 
the soil, can benefit each crop slightly, 
and they now prefer such manures tis 
will last until used up by crops, and 
such only of these as will produce the 
crops rapidly. A manure applied oii.^ 
year which will give the effects of it^s 
energy upon the current crop, and upi.ji 
the succeeding drops of the rotation, in- 
creasing the amount of these crops ma- 
terially, is preferable to one Avhich will 
give less increase of product per year, 
and spread over a greater number of 
years. A good manure is now knov.n 
to be such as is prepared with refereno;: 



305 



THE FAEMER'S JOURNAL. 



to preventing its loss by evaporation in 
the atmosphere, and its pecuhar adapta- 
tion to the wants of plants. 

Guano, which was but slightly used 
when our paper commenced, is now an 
article of large import ; but few farmers 
are found who are willing to use it in 
its raw or unaltered state. All who read, 
nov/ know, that the volatile portions of 
guano, by proper admixture, may be 
rendered non-volatile, and hence, cause 
the production of greater amount of 
crops. Almost every count}^ contains 
one or more scientific farmer, and the 
term scientific Juniier^ is no longer ap- 
plied to chimerical visionaries, but to 
those who apply knowledge, reduced to 
a system, to the art of agriculture. The 
influence of these farmers is fast spread- 
iii;g itself, and whole districts are now 
producing improved products, both as to 
(|uaiity and c[uan.tity. 

New beginners who adopt the. im- 
proved methods, have been annoyed by 
the doubts -of friends, and like ourself, 
probably, have been occasionally dis- 
cojiraged. Every city friend who met us 
during the first tv/o or three years of our 
a^'ricultural progress ad^ased us to aban- 
(ion the project. "Everybody knows," 
said they, ''that money cannot be made 
by farming ; and even if you are success- 
ful, and prove yourself to be right in the 
adaptation of science to agriculture, the 
fai-mers will not believe you nor follow 
your recipes." 

This and similar counsel, we met at 
ir•}$^'J turn ; but thanks to the truths of 
science, we have out-lived every cavil. — 
Had we two lives instead of one, we could 
employ each at the request of inquiring 
farmers. It is only those who do not, 
nor cannot read, v/ho at this time have 
a solitary doubt as to tlie improvements 



in agriculture brought about by the as- 
sistance of science. 

Barn-yards, instead of being a means 
for wasting fertilizing materials, are fiisi 
being changed into well constructed man- 
ufactories for creating manures. Those 
who believed lime to be the only means 
of impro-vdng land, now understand that 
it is simply a means of rendering in-eri 
portions of soil active, and where such 
inert portions do net exist, the u^ of 
lime is rapidly being discontinued. 

Farmers are no longer frightened by 
the terms organic and inorganic cons-ti- 
tuents of soil. Many of them now uii- 
derstand what these terms mean, and 
well know how to replenish either, in an 
economical manner. A few years, ami 
the truths of science, nov.^ only repudi- 
ated by the ignorant, Avill be admitted 
by all. Farmers will cease to be the 
mere mass of society, regulated and ban- 
died as an immense political machine in 
the hands of the few, and the spirit of 
inquiry is fast teaching them their rights 
as members of the body politic, and they 
will rise in their strength and demand of 
our legislators, that protection to their 
art Y^liieh has been so long withheld A 
lev/ years, and a Secretary of Agricul- 
ture at the head of a department of tlie 
general government, Avill be viewed atj 
one of its most important officers. Tl^e 
character of Cincinnatus will be foun^l 
among modern, as among ancient fer- 
mei'S. Advancements in the great art 
will receive the thanks of the public, as 
do now those of lesser importance. In 
the absence of famine, we forget that 
famine would now exist, v/ere it not Ibr 
the advancement already brought about 
by the application of science to agricul- 
ture. England at this moment, with 
ao-riculture as it was a century ago, could 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



201 



not, sustain lier population ; and even 
with our broad lands, with all their jDlen- 
l5tude, double the number of acres now 
used, would be required to sustain our 
pTpulation, if the slovenly methods cf 
ocur ancesters were alone in use on the 
wcRTi-down acres of tlie Atlantic sea- 
board. Our breadstuff's, a few years 
snce, were less than half per acre what 
they were but forty years ago. But now 
mi occasional farmer is found who, on 
hmds vrhich were supposed to have been 
wan\ out, produces crops superior in 
aaiiovnt to those of the olden time, and 
tJns k due entirely to the application of 
tJio sciences to agriculture. 

The amount of improved super-phos- 
j-^iate of lime used during the months 
<if May and June alone, has increased the 
crops of those A\ho used it, an average 
oi' more than 30 per cent., with an ex- 
panse of less than half the ratio as com- 
|)ared with the crops of former ye;irs. — 
Agi'ieultural societies cease to have ene- 
mies — their fairs are no longer looted at 
SB mere holidays for fiinners, but as 
days requiring their best energies, and 
ciosest observations. The idlers and cu- 
•riosity-mongcrs to be found at our fairs, 
as-e not farmers ; among them may occa- 
fiianally be found an ignorant farmer's 
laborer, or a land-holder, only competent 
to act as such; but the busy throng 
seround the exhibitions of improved 
Iweeds of cattle, improved agricultural 
implements and specimens of improved 
poducts, are farmers, adopting the im- 
proved methods of the day. 

It is estimated on good find sufficient 
data that the gross aggregate of the 
public lands belonging to the U. States 
is. in round numbers, fonrtesn hundred 
and fiftv millions [1,450,000,000] of 
acres.— Walckvian. 



Labor Honorable. — The man wh© 
is able to work and does not, is to be 
pitied as well as despised. He know? 
nothing of sweet sleep and pleasant 
dreams. He is a miserable drone, and 
eats a subsiance he does not earn. Per- 
haps he thinks it is not genteel to work 
His kind of gentility is (he most worth- 
less and contemptible of ail gentility. 
Had not those before him, near or re- 
mote, toiled hard, the degenf:rate son 
or daughter would be compelled to earn 
their bread, instead of being a bogus 
aristocracy upon property they never 
earned. One generation labors hard 
to accumulate property for a genera- 
tion of simpletons to squander. Persons 
should be respected for their virtue and 
usefulness, but such drones aie neither 
virtuous nor useful. 

To Prevea't a Cow Failing in her. 
Milk. — Wash the Cov/'s udder and 
teals with pure cold water before milk- 
ing, and then milk her morning and 
evening as dry as possible ; negligeno.6 
in this latter precaution is one of the 
causes of cows failing in their milk. 
The cov,' should, if possible, be always 
milked by the same person, and while 
the process is going on a small quatitiiy 
of hay should be placed before the ani- 
mal. This furnishes employment for 
the jaws, and draws her attention from 
what is going on, and the milk is in 
consequence yielded freely. — Americaii 
Vetsnna'y Journal. 



The number of landholders, that is, 
pf:rjons owning farms in this country, 
is about a million and a half out of 
twenty millions of white population. — - 
In Great Biitain, the number ofiand- 
holders is only SO'OOO out of a popula* 
tion of 27,000.000. 



208 



THE FAKMER'S JOURNAL. 



FARMER'S JOURNAL. 

BATH, N.C., OCTOBEE, 1852. 

Unavoidable Delaj'. 

I'he appearance of tlie present niim- 
,i)er of the Farmer^ Journal has been 
delayed for several weeks owhig to cir- 
cumstances over which the Editor had 
BO control. He hopes that his sub- 
scribers will excuse the delay this time ; 
lie is assured by his publishers that ar- 
rangements have been made to insure 
ite promt appearance hereafter. The 
.IMovember number will appear in tAvo 
week^, and the December number in 
four weeks from the publication of the 
jjresent number. The subscribers to the 
Journal will readily believe that the 
Editor has met with difficulties in the 
commencement of this enterprise he had 
))ot anticipated ; but he is happy to 
say that every thing has no.w been ar- 
ranged on a permanent basis, so as to 
avoid disappointment in future. 



FanoSa, tSue Model Farm in tlie Far- 
famed Edgecombe. 

From what we have heard recently, 
this farm is worth riding many miles to 
f^ee. The enterprising proprietors, Messrs. 
J)3ncy & Norfleet, have already added 
much to its fertility. They are accumu- 
]Tinlating large quantities of manure, — 
Indeed, we learned that since the com- 
pletion of the present crop, they have 
put up 8,000 loads of compost for the 
ensuing year's crop. Their buildings, 
we are told, are well arranged; indeed, 
the gentleman who told us this, said that 
lie had never seen such a farm in the 
whole South, over all of which he liad 
traveled. These gentlemen had an an- 
aiysi<> of their different soils, and they 



made an application of their manures ac- 
cording to the directions for the analysis. 
This experiment we hope will serve to 
convince the stubborn few to believe that 
scientific farming may be practiced with 
profit in North Carolina as well as in 
other States, 



Protect Your Cattle Through the 
Winter ! / 

There is no duty which the farmei^in 
North Carolina more sadly neglects than 
attention to his cattle, both as regards 
shelterina: and feedinp" them through the 
Avinter. Every one is ready and wil- 
ling to admit the many comforts which 
are afforded us in the various ways in 
which cattle are made useful; yet when 
the cold and chilly winds of winter are 
blowing and the trees are heavy Jaden 
with ice, they are seen to seek the only 
shelter which is generally aflbrded them 
in the old piney fields. If the wea- 
ther be extremely cold, they may have a 
few shucks and a httle strav/ given them 
to pi'event death at that time. 

We ask, is it to be supposed that un- 
der such treatment as this, tiie farmers in 
this State should have such fine cattle i 8 
we see in those States Worth of us ? — 
There are many reasons for our cattle 
looking so small and badly, all of which 
we shall not set forth at this time ; yet 
those which we do set forth, are such aa 
none can deny the truth of. In the first 
place, nine-tenths of our farmers have too 
many cattle by three-fourths, which pre- 
vent their feeding them in such a way as 
to make them a source of profit; they 
divide among forty head the food which is 
really required for ten — by which means, 
they have a lot of lean and lank cows, 
such as we see described in the Yankee 
almanacs as characteristic of Southern 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



209 



cattle. There are many farmers who do 
not see their cattle during the whole win- 
ter, the woods being well set with reeds, 
which serve to feed them dm-mg that 
time ; but such as practice this plan, lose 
the manure and the milk besides, and 
their stock are only of use to them one 
half the year. 

How much better Avould it be for the 
farmer only to keep as many cows as he 
can feed and shelter through the winter, 
and tlien he would have liue milk and 
fresh butter all the while, besides the ma- 
nure, which will pay the expenses of the 
feed if they are properly attended to. — 
Another reason why our cattle look so 
small is this : when a cow has a calf, in 
four weeks time she is turned away from 
it in the morning, and is not suffered to 
return to it until night, and then the calf 
is allowed only about half the milk, 
which is not enough, when the cow has 
only obtained what she could from the 
woods. Indeed, our farmers are by their 
cows as by their land. The question 
generally asked is, how many cows do 
you milk — not how much milk do you 
get. The calf under this treatment, is 
about at the end of the year half as 
large as he should be ; he is checked in 
his growth in his infancy, and he never 
gets over it. As proof of this fact, we 
■will remark that we have tried this ex- 
periment, by taking the milk from one 
cow and letting the calf have the whole 
of it from the other, and there was a 
marked difference in favor of the calf 
that had all of the milk. But, says the 
farmer, shall I give all of the milk to the 
c-ilf, and go without any butter ? We 
say not, but feed the cow, and she ^vill 
give an increased quantity, enough for 
the calf and the family besides. The 
best plan tiiough, we think, is for the 



farmer to have a lot of cows for raising 
fi'om especiallj', and another lot for milk- 
ing. We know from Avhat we have 
seen, that by tliis treatment, our stock 
may be very much improved; for we 
have seen the past summer, on the farm 
of David Carter, Esq., of Hyde county, 
six as fine cows raised by him as you 
would wish to see. He had them graz- 
ing on a clover field, and they gave each 
two gallons of milk daily. 

Farmers, attend well to your stock, 
for next fall we wish to see a fine turn 
out at Tarboro', at the first Agricultural 
Fair in North Carolina. Here some fel- 
low says : What, Fair in North Caroli- 
na ! Poh ! You may make light of it, 
yet if you live and attend you shall see it. 



Cure for Cancer. 

A Mr. Benson, of Franklin Co , has 
been cured of cancer by the following 
means : He procured a peck of clean- 
ed oak bark, by first cutting off the 
rough outside, and put it into a vessel 
containing about two gallons of water 
which he boiled over a slow fiie until 
the ooze became quite strong, when he 
strained it through a cloth to remove 
all the particles of the baik ; then he 
again put it into a clean vessel, and 
simmered it over a slow fire, till it came 
to the consistency of molasfes, when it 
is fit for use . It is then spread upon a 
piece of silk, or other rag, and applied 
to the diseased part. He used about 
two plasters each week, until the can- 
cer was removed and the wound heal 
ed. He says it is not painful, but be- 
lieves it an infallible remedy. At all 
events, he feels such lively gratitude 
for his own deliverance from so fatal A 
disea.se, that he-desires to let all know 
the means by which he believes he has 
been rescued from the hands of de^th. 






THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



Preserving Sweet Potatoes. 

We publisli below a most excellent 
^itan for keeping the sweet potatoe, whicli 
to tlie iarraej- in this couutiy is quite an 
■G^ject. We feel no hesitation in recom- 
niending- this plan, for the reason that in 
July last, we had the pleasure of eating 
scane of these potatoes, preserved by Dr. 
G. G. Marcliant, and we were told that he 
Ticver failed to keep them from year to 
yeuv : 

Ikman Towk, N. C, Oct. 29, '51. 

Dear Sir : — Your letter of the 8th 
iuBt.^ soliciting information as to the best 
3»anner of preserving sweet potatoes, af- 
tej- taking up, came to hand last mail. — 
I embrace the first opportunity to give 
you the result of my experience ; in do- 
iiiig' which, I shall begin a little sooner 
tlian the time pointed out, and give you 
also tlie plan pursued in taking them 

Every cultivator of potatoes knows 
that they grow best in light sandy land, 
and tliat by the tinie they should be 
Loused (between the 20th and 31st o^ 
October) much of the dirt is washed from 
the top of the hills or ridges, tliereby 
leavin'g the ends of the roots naked. — 
They also know that in removing the 
vines with a lioe, ■ many of the top ends 
we bruised and broken off. To prevent 
tJius injuriiig them, I use a common 
butcher knife, with which the vines are 
out about six inches above the stem. — ; 
.This is'tlie most expeditious as well as 
■aafest Vv'ay, particularly when the vines are 
sftout and numerous. The operatioii is 
performed by the small hands ; in doing 
which, they walk backwards. After 
the ■sines are cut, a small furrow is made 
,00. each side, as close up as it can be 
done without interfering with the pota- 
toes. This saves much hoc labor and 



completely covers 'up the vines. Tlse 
remaining earth is then carefully «©- 
moved with hoes, and the potatoes tur 
ken out and placed in tubs. With- a 
cart, having a long body, the tubs ais© 
taken to my cellar, and the potatoes ajse 
stowed away v/ith great care. The 
room in which they are kept is fifteen 
by thirty-six feet, the floor of which is 
1 2 inches below tlie surfece of the earth. 
It has three windows, with shutters, aaii 
a partition door, so placed that the room, 
or at least one end of it, can be freely 
ventilated without a curi-ent of air eitber 
passing through or over the potatoea? — 
The lioor is of brick, over which I put a 
good bed of pine leaves or flag trtish-; 
and to protect the roots from cold, tlie 
walls are lined with the same. To pro- 
tect them from an undue quantity of air, 
a thin covering is placed over them of 
pine leaves, which should be increased 
in thickness in very cold weather. The 
partition door and one of the windo^vB, 
remain open, except in extreme cokl 
weather, all the winter. Much of tbe 
air that passes through the potato room, 
first passes through an adjoining room 
of much larger size, in wliich salte<:l 
meats and salt are constantly kept — 
This, I think, aids in preserving them, 
although too much salted air will bo* 
them in a very short time. 

The whole secret consists in placing 
them away without b'using them. — in 
keeping them at a proper temperature, 
in a la-ige room,' freely ventilated — and 
in preventing a current of air from p^^ 
sing through or over them. 

My cellar is never clear of potatoes, — 
I have kept them eighteen months as 
sound, and 'nearly as heavy as tliey were 
when taken from the earth. 

If in summer they put forth sprouts, 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



211 



let them carefully be rubbed otf. Pota- 
toes are not injured after the first of 
May by haudhng, if not roughly done. 
Potatoes thar are kept too warm in win- 
ttT "VNall sprout, lose their flavour, and 
become corky and worthless. If kept loo 
add, they will continue good until 
spring, and will then rot about as fast as 
unsalted meat. 

I forgot to say that the room over the 
potatoes is used as a dining room, and is 
well carpeted, and that the potatoes are 
j)iaced in the chimney end. 

Very respectfully, 

Gideon C. Marcjiaxt. 

[At the suggestion of Dr. G. B. Smith, 
iirtbrmation which we sought on the 
jjreservation of the sweet potato, after 
being taken from the groimd, was asked 
lor, of Dr. Marchant, and we retuni him 
cnir thanks for his prompt and very sat- 
irfactory reply. — Ed.] 



C*ay soils and tlieir Management, 

Clayey soils are often left as pasture 
fidds, from the difficulty of plowing 
tlicm — their texture rendering this ope- 
ration more expeiisive than when ap- 
j-^ied to other classes of soils, The faults 
fjttributed to clayey soils are, so close a 
texture as to prevent the admission of 
atmosphere, the free passage of water, 
mid the easy percolation necessary for 
tSie roots of many crops. To this may 
be added, that sometimes the salts of 
iron, and other substances unfriendl}' to 
v^-etable growth, are resident in clay 
soils, and cannot be removed by the 
same natural remedies which would 
wash them from a soil of a more sandy 
texture ; the impracticability of surface 
disintegration by the use of small tools, 
for the removal of weeds : the cracking 
of the soil during the heat of summep 



and consequent abrasion of fibrous roots.; 
all these too often cause the neglect of 
clayey soils, but by proper managensenS 
these difficulties may be removed. 

Remedies. Deep and sub-soil pk)\v- 
ing will admit atmosphere to cause thse 
necessary chemical changes, and if ao- 
companied by under-draining, these 
changes will rapidly occur. Clays ck) 
not refuse to absorb water, pro'^dded an 
excess does not pre\aously occupy ite 
lower stratum. Judicious application* 
of lime for under-drained and sub-soiWl 
plowed soils, ensures an alteration in 
their texture. Charcoal dust, s\v:imp- 
muck, and other cheap organic substaiv 
ces, will mechanically hold the adhesi\ne 
molecules apart, and by their gradual (fo- 
cay, will leave spaces through which tli© 
atmosphere may enter. The carbonar 
ceous matter which does not decay, will 
always enabje the atmosphere and mois- 
ture to percolate them. Ridging aud 
back-furring in the fall, cause cfeyey 
soils to become thoroughly disintegratol 
by the frequent freezings and thawinggs 
of winter. Some of the best gt^rcben 
soils in the world were originally cfoy 
soils, reclaimed with the kind of niears 
we have stated. Slight additions of saiid 
may sometimes be made with great bene- 
fit. The advantages arising from clay in 
soils, are numerous — for after the kind 
of ti-eatment we have named, clayey soik 
will neither crack nor break by summer 
heat ; they will retain putrescent ma- 
nures until used up by plants : for akv 
mina, the chief constituent of clayey soils, 
has peculiar powers for retaining anrv 
monia, and hence fertilizing materials 
may be fea;rlesslT and liberally add«l to 
a soil entirely capable of holding thiem 
until required as sustenance for plants — 
Salts of iron, and ether poiaono^is ma- 



212 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



terials, sometimes found in clayey soils 
as well as in other soils, are readily part- 
ed with from clay soils after they have 
been properly treated. Well reclaimed 
clays are retentive of jnoisture, although 
never excessively wet, nor do they pre- 
sent any mechanical difficulties to the 
travel of the roots of plants. Their tex- 
ture is always more even than that of 
other soils, and when rendered suitable 
for the raising of roots and other crops, 
the shapes of the products are more re- 
gidar than in more variable soils. In 
such soils, 13eets, Parsnips, Carrots, and 
other crops, the value of which is de- 
pending in part upon the symmetry of 
their iigure, may be raised with a cer- 
tainty of success. The difficulties aris- 
ing from a bad selection in rotation of 
crops, do not produce such disastrous 
results in clay as in other soils, for the 
excrementitious matter of plants, which 
always annoys the growth of those of the 
same family following in succession, is 
received by the alumina, and sooner ren- 
dered fit food for future germinations. — 
There are few clayey soils which will not 
pay, by the consequent improvement in 
their quality, for the kind of treatment 
Ave have recomiaended. — W o rkin <r Far- 



Soil best Adapted for the Culture of 
Wheat. 

All of our commonly cultivated plants 
ai^e composed precisely of the same ele- 
ments, the only chemical difference be- 
tween the vast varieties of plants being 
tlie relative -proportion in which the same 
elements unite to form the plant ; so that 
if a soil will produce any one of our cul- 
tivated crops, it possesses the capacity, so 
far as the elements of plants are concern- 
ed, of growing any other crop, to some 



extent. In judging of the best kind of 
plants to be cultivated on any particular 
soil, therefore, we have to look to the re- 
lative jjroportion in which the elements 
of plants exist in the soil, and adopt that 
class of plants which requires most of 
the particular elements in which the soil 
abounds, or requires least of those iur 
which it is deficient. This would seem 
to be a common sense \dew of the sub- 
ject, yet there are many other circumstan- 
ces, often overlooked, which, if consider- 
ed, would materially affect our conclu- 
sions. In a large crop of corn there are 
all the elements Avhich a large crop of 
wheat contains, and also in larger quan- 
tities, yet there are thousands of acres 
of land that produce immense crops of 
corn that cannot be profitably cultivated 
with wheat. A good wheat soil will al- 
ways produce a good crop of corn, if 
properly tilled, while much of our best 
corn land will not produce wheat imder 
ordinary culture. The cause of this; 
fifreat difference is not, we have shownr 
owing to a deficiency in the soil of any 
element of the Vv'beat plant ; for the re- 
Cjuiremeuts of the corn crop are identi- 
cal in kind and g-reater in quantity, than 
that of Avheat. It must, therefore, be 
owing either to the manner in which tlie 
various elements are assimilated by the 
plant, or to the existence in the soil of 
some substance, Avhich though, sufficient 
of it may exist in a corn soil for the ac- 
tual demands of the wheat crop, yet 
from the different habits of groAvth of 
the tAvo plants, a much larger quantity 
may be necessary for the performance C'f 
the healthy fuctions of the Avheat than 
of the corn plant. This substance is 
most probably clay ; for all soils Avhicli 
experience proves to be best adapted to 
wheat cidture, abound Avith this sub- 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



215 



stance and lime. The reason why clay 
i-s so much more necessary and beneficial 
for wheat than for corn, is not clearly 
understood. In light soil the wheat 
plant is found to throw out its lateral 
roots very near the surface, while in a 
oJayey or heavy one it is more inclined 
to tap, and the lateral, fibrous roots r.re 
at a greater depth. In the former case 
the plant would be more exposed to the 
influence of frost and thaw, and would 
be more likely to heave out in the spring, 
while in the latter it would be better able 
to stand all the vicissitudes of cold and 
heat, from the roots being at a greater 
depth, and having a firmer hold of the 
soil. It is therefore probable that one of 
the benefits Avhich the wheat plant de- 
rives from clay, is its preventing the ex- 
tension of fibrous surface roots, and for- 
cing the plant to throw out a single i ip 
root, which descends nmch deeper and 
takes a firmer hold of the soil. 

If this is a right view of the subject, 
we should loosen the subsoil of all our 
wheat fields, by deep plowing and sub- 
Boiling ; while on soils rather too light 
for wheat, e\'ery possible means should 
be used to render the surface soil com- 
pact and firm. Treading the wheat in 
the fall "with sheep has been practiced 
with advantage ; but in doing so, cau- 
tion is necessary to prevent serious in- 
jury in case winter immediately sets in. 
On all soils which produce good crops of 
corn, we believe wheat may be grown, 
inasmuch as there is nothing lacking 
which enters into the Avheat plant, and 
all that is necessary is to impart to the soil 
a certain degree of texture and tenacity, 
which all good natural wheat soils pos- 
sess. For this purpose, heavy rollers 
and other mechanical means must be 
employed ; and a presser something simi- 



lar to CroskilVs Clod Crusher, of whicb 
we have often spoken, would be of great, 
benefit. We do not wish to be under- 
stood to say that consolidation is the on- 
ly thing necessary in all cases, to ensure 
a wheat crop on soil where corn, barley, 
and oats flourish ; for the land may in 
winter be so wet as to destroy the plant : 
yet if drained, and means bo taken to 
render the surface compact, we believe 
such soils would produce first rate crops 
of wheat. 



Forest Ciiltw^e. 

Those that want young forest irees 
to grow well must not^permit cattle nor 
sheep, in any considerable numbers, to 
run among them and feed upon their 
leaves and young twigs. Nor should 
the leaves that full in the autum be re- 
moved from a forest which one wishes to 
cultivate. The decay of their annual 
foliage ia a necessary provision of ns', 
tare to apply mould and nutriment to 
the long lived products of the earth. — 
Putting forest leases about apple and 
peach trees is a good way to manure 
the ground in which they grow. — 
Liine mixed with forest leaves im- 
proves their fertilizing power very 
much, whether they are designed by 
the agriculturist to enrich' the soil for 
the benefit; of fruit, forest, or ornamen- 
tal trees. In Europe forests are limed 
not less than meadows, pastures and 
tilled land. 



To double the crops on most farms 
about all that is necessary is for our 
agriculturists, to sell off one half their 
land, and with the proceeds buy ma- 
nure for the other. The larger a farm, 
the less a man grows to the acre. — 
Bridgeton Chronicle. 



ei4 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



Rotation of oar Forest Trees. 

^¥e desire here to allude to a subject 
\diicli lias an important indirect bearing, 
at least, on tlie subject of agriculture, 
bex^ai;se it illustrates the great rotation 
pdnciple, in tlie vegetable kingdom. 

The forests in many parts of our coun- 
try fire about clianging their tenants. — 
In our vicinity, the great burden of our 
ft»-cst timber, as found here by the first 
settlers, was white oak. This is about 
giving place to the black oak, especially 
osi elevated ridges, or where the land is 
inclined to be sandy. The A'enerable 
>vliite oaks, Arith diameters from thirty 
t'} titty inches, are, in most instances, sur- 
riieunded by a crop of sapling black oaks 
having beneath their shade nothing lo 
pa-jretuate their kind. 

If v/e are not mistaken in our judg- 
mesrt, the cause of this is not very liard 
to deiine. It is a matter well understood, 
hy tliose Avho liave given any attention 
to tiie subject, that there is, in every 
portion of the earth, certain elements or 
principles, which go into the composi. 
tion of vegetable matter. That any par- 
ticular species of vegetable will sooner 
or later consume out of the earth that 
vf^iieh is pecuhar to its nature, after 
wliich that particular kind will not pros- 
per until the* principle which nourishes 
it is reproduced, either by resting tlie 
Ifmdj or by special manuring. 

Some vegetables exhaust from the 
sit\ their peculiaEfood more rapidly than 
<34hafs. Flax, for instance. It used to 
be vsaid by old farmers, that a piece oi 
grouiid that liad borne a crop of flax 
woiiid not bear another for .seven years. 

It is on this principle that the rotation 
ill c5-ops is predicated; a doctrine, for 
the knowledge of wliich we are in 
debtcfl to our experimental fiarmerS; 



and to book reading. This principle 
of the rotation in crops, is probably a» 
well understood at this time, as anything 
connected with the science of agricul- 
ture. And this is the principle, no doubt, 
which explains why it is that the whife 
oak is leaving our forests and giving 
place to the black oak timber. It lias 
been so long the undisputed tenant of 
our woods, that, having exhausted from 
the soil that aliment upon which it livse* 
it retires, in the order of Providence, to 
give place to a successor Avhose special 
food yet remains in rich abundanoe in 
the earth. 

Every farmer who has attentively ob- 
seived the j^rogress of vegetation in his- 
own lane and yard, must have noticed 
tiie operation of this principle. The o?- 
der of our grounds is something like tliiB 
— the first occupant was the smart weed, 
then the dog fennel, and now the yarrow 
is coming. As soon as the aliment v/a» 
extracted that nourished each particukr 
kind, it died for the want of something 
to live on, and was succeded by aaotber 
species, and perhaps mere accident cte" 
termined the successor 

vSince our attention has been directed 
to this transition in the forest, Ave hawe 
made the subject a matter of inquiry, 
when favored A\'ith the company of men 
.Avho would be likely to notice tilings of 
this kind 

Having been referred, with reftrenoe 
to this matter, to Joshua Copperthwaite, 
of Medford, K. J., whqre they have tim- 
ber lands, V/hieh have frequently been 
cut off lor the supply of wood to tbe 
Philadelphia market, we wrote to thai 
gentleman upon the subject, and ha\r« 
received his answer, from which we tabs 
the following extract : " If the pine is 
cut off the oak will grow, and if thto 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



21-5 



<xk is cut off the pine will grow." 

At tlie late State Fair, at Cincinnati, 
"sve met with, an intelligent fruit gro\ver 
from Illinois, to whom we mentioned 
this subject, and found that he had no- 
ticed, this change going on among the 
trees of the wood. At our request he 
peaciled clown and handed us the foUow- 
iowing statement. He was formerly a 
a?eBident of Ohio, and his remarks refer 
to this State : — 

" I have long been convinced that two 
gaierations of the same kind of forest 
ti'ets seldom or never succeed each other 
<m the same tract of land. A crop of 
trees, nearly all of one kind, whicli last 
trom two to four, and sometimes to live 
centuries, seems to exhaust the soil of 
that peculiar nutriment which is adapted 
to that sort, and at the same time pre" 
pares it for some other. 

"Instances: there is the track of an 
<Ad tornado, which passed through Dehr 
was-e county, the north-east corner of 
ficldng, and finally into the south-east 
jiart of Knox, which, upon counting the 
asmuals on a number of 6tumi;s, I ascer 
tained to have occurred about the year 
1740. In the track of this tornado, the 
timbex is essentially ditierent from the 
dder timber en each side of it. Again, 
most of the west part of Knox county 
was, tiiirty years ago, when I first be- 
ceme acquainted with it, covered with a 
growth of beech, slightly mixed vdth 
other timber. That this growth had 
succeeded an oak forest, was quite plain, 
from the fact tliat oak trees of enormous 
»ize, in a state of decay, v/ere to be found 
m every direction." 

The foregoing extract is taken from 
the agricultural Report of the State of 
Ohio, a large volume, for which we ai-e 
indebted to our respected friend., C- j 



Springer, of O., who directed our atten- 
tion to this subject, Avhich is contained in. 
a letter to E. Harkness, of Muskingitm 
county. 

AVe have noticed, and we have heard 
many farmers remark, that white oak 
and maple came up after pines were ctit 
down. We have seen this in the pine 
forests, in the counties of Albany and 
Oneida in this State, but we have ue«r 
examined the subject so attentively as t~) 
perceive the existence of a certain laAV in 
these changes. The sul>ject, we beliew,, 
demands further investigation, for it is 
one of great interest to every class of our 
citizens. — Scientific American. 



From the Boston CuItiTatos. 
Foundered Horses. 
Mb. Editor : — What is a foundeeed 
horse 'i As it respects their feet, it ia a 
lame horse. Are all horses that are lame 
foundered'? Some people say so vv'lten 
they don't know what ails them. I liay>e 
seen horses that I was told had been. 
lame for years, and were called foundered, 
when nothing but the shoeing, from tiuw 
to time, kept up an irritation ; but th£J%> 
is a permanent lameness, such as a coit- 
traction of tlie ht-els, and swelling or bul- 
ging out in front of the foot, which is m 
permanent lameness. This' is owing k> 
his foot not being placed naturally und^r 
him. He sprains his foot joint, and ex- 
tends his foot forward, and when cjuite 
lame, he raises his heel and rests on his 
toe. Let the foot be placed directly un- 
der him, by raising or pulling off his 
shoe, and placing him in some soft pla^, 
like abarn-yprd, and he will get well, if 
attended to the first two mouths — ti>9 
sooner the better. . 

. What .is the cause of this ? I neve^ 
heard any one express any other opinion 



216 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



than that they supposed it was done by 
eating grain or drinking water. I have 
examined the subject a number of years, 
and have every reason to believe it to be 
a mistake ; the thing con\'icts itself. How 
can it be reasonable to believe what a 
horse eats for food, should single out one 
foot, and that always a fore foot, and al- 
ways a concave, or dishing foot, never a 
flat one, and commonly the fleetest tra- 
velling horses. I ask how all this should 
take place on one fore foot, and all the 
others in good health, or both, after a 
while, and is then called chest-foundered 
— one and the same thing; it has to favor 
tire lame foot, and that comes on imper- 
ceptibly. Now there is a cause for all 
the lameness in a horse's foot, and that 
cause, I have reason to believe, is produ- 
ced by improper shoeing ; except acci- 
dents, such as wounds and bruises. The 
process of shoeing is very easy ; if we 
follow the case pointed out, we will sup- 
pose a horse has got his shoe off, and 
broken the sides of his hoof. The heel 
and toe are commonly entire ; just rest 
the shoe on the heel and toe, so they 
may not rock or tilt, and if the shoe does 
not touch the sides, within an eighth of 
an inch, it will not aft'ect his travelling 
at all, and the next time he wants shoe- 
ing, his hoof will be grown up square 
again, and may go through life in that 
way, without being lame, and his foot as 
perfect at the last shoeing as at the first. 
Corns seem to think they have a right 
to put in for a share in laming horses. I 
sliod horses thirty-five years, before I 
ever heard or saw the name of corns 
mentioned, and have shod twenty-one 
since, and have seen but three that lamed 
tliem ; it was something else, put to their 
account. Three times within thirty 
years, the English mode of shoeing 



horses has been published in one news- 
paper ; the amount of it is, a shoe with- 
out heel or toe, and have the frog freely 
touch the ground. It might do for a 
convex foot, because the frog is small 
and insensible, but a flat-footed horse has 
a larger, sensitive frog, and the shoe and 
heel should be high enough to clear the 
frog, or he will cripple. Its other objec- 
tion is, when the heads of the nails are 
worn down, it becomes a skate, and can- 
not hold. 

Much has been said and done to keep 
hoofs in order ; two things are necessary 
— without them, all that I have seen 
done is of little consequence ; with them, 
there is not anything else wanting. — - 
Keep the horse in the stable instead of 
pasture, and shoe him once in two 
months correctly, and a foundered horse 
will be a scarce article. 

What I have written I believe to be 
true, and if it should be the means of 
saving one poor horse from being lame 
or foundered, I shall be richly compensa- 
ted for my trouble. Joel Miner. 



From the Cultivator. 
Thoughts and Experience. 

Eds. Cdltivator — It is astonishing to 
me that farmers do not read agricultural 
works. It is uniformly the case, tliat 
when a man takes The Cultivator, or 
any other good work of the kind, you 
can tell it at once by the appearance of 
his place. Talk with him, and it will 
soon be evident whether he is a friend o^ 
improvement, for a man who never read^ 
is never a wise nian. 

I have been a' subscriber to Agricultu- 
ral papers for the last twenty-five year?, 
sometimes taking as many as three, and 
have been the gainer by ten, yes twenty 
fold. I o^vn a small farm of some 46 t^o. 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



217 



48 acres of working land. My crop last 
year was 326 bushels of wlieat, 206 bu- 
sliels oats, 350 bushels corn, 103 bushels 
potatoes, 21 tons prime hay, besides 
many other smaller products. The land 
ill this section of Frederick county is se- 
cond rate, being of the red sand forma- 
tion. Many of my neighbors have twice 
as much land, and do not raise half as 
much — their soil is worn out, mine is 

mproving. 

^ I have plowed my corn land eleven 
inches deep in the fall, as that is the only 
time that the soil can well be plowed to 
such a depth. By this means five more 
inches of soil is exposed to the winter 
frost, becomes disintegrated and mixed 
with the top soil, and the roots of the 
corn have eleven inches instead of six, 
in which to find their nourishment. 

Some years ago, I invited a fi'iend to 
see my plowing. It Avas late in the fiiU, 
and the land was covered with a heavy 
body of grass, clover and timothy. He 
said to me, " ^^liy do you not let your 
cattle feed here, and not waste your grass 
in this way ?" I replied that I wanted 
the grass which was being turned under 
to feed my horses, to fatten my hogs, 
and some to sell. " How is that ?" was 
the interrogation. I explained to him, 
that in the first place it was necessary to 
feed the corn, and that^then it would 
thrive, and repay principle and interest, 
and not only so, but would make proxd- 
sion for the wheat crop next year. To 
expect crops without something in the 
ground to produce them, is the height of 
folly ; and thousands of farmers are la- 
boring, like one beating in the air, from 
ignorance or what preparation is neces- 
sary in order to insure fertility. 

If the Legislature of Maryland would 

pass a law, giving some good agricultu- 



ral journal to every farmer in the State, 
and a dollar yearly to read it, and at the 
end of three years tax each one ten dol- 
lars, in nine cases out of ten the farmers 
would be largely the gainers. 

I advise my neighbors to plant one 
more row of corn or potatoes, or some- 
thing additional, to pay for a paper ; but 
after all, their apathy is surprising. 

I do not think a man can be called a 
good citizen, or a useful niember of so- 
ciety, who allows his land to lie a barren 
waste, and lives in poverty. His children 
are uneducated, often brought up in idle- 
ness and vice, and thus his example is 
handed down, a legacy of ruin to his 
posterity, and of injury to the commu- 
nity. Cannot this state of things be 
done away with? — Wm. Todd, Utica 
Mills, Md., Jan. 16, 1852. 



Practical Effect of Draining. — 
"In an enclosure of about six acres which, 
excepting a little short of two acres, had 
been in cultivation for several years by 
the predesessor of .(tr. Lascelle, there 
was this excepted strip, that lay wholly 
neglected, being a wet, boggy piece, pro- 
ducing only a growth of coarse, sour 
grass, unpalatable even to a starved 
animal. To this quagmire the plow was 
faithfully applied, and in due time 
trenches at the distance of about 20 feet 
apart were dug to the depth of about 18 
or 20 inches. Into the trenches, extend- 
ing the whole length of the piece, stones 
were thrown loosely, so as to admit a 
passage for the water; the earth was 
then filled to the surface, and the ground 
prepared for the reception of winter seed 
Avheat, and the yield from this acre and 
seven-eighths, of an acre, which before 
had been entirely worthless, was a little 
over 66 bushels of good wheat." — N. Y, 
Slate Ag. Society Transactions. 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



Coal Dust as a Manure. 

Belfort), N. C, ? 
Juiy 5, 1852. ] 

To the Editor of the American Far mer : 
I have large quantities of coal dust, 
with considerable quantities of coarse 
CTial among it, where I have been burn- 
iRg coal for several years for the use of 
my blacksmith shop. I discovered last 
year, one of the dryest ever know in 
this section of country, that wherever 
peas had been sown on one of those 
places where a coal kiln had been 
b«rnt, the peas were very fine and 
ripened early, when all around those 
spots the peas were small and never 
niaturi^d. I have an idea, after litter- 
ing my barn-yard andcatlle pens with 
fine straw, to haul on a quantity of 
this coal dust and scatter over the lit- 
ter — -would it not be better to grind it 
up in a mill suitable for the purpose, 
in consequence of there being- so much 
coarse coal among it, or will it answer 
wilhaut? I have also a large quantity 
of coal cinders at my blacksmith shop, 
which has been accumulating there for 
matiy years — is that worth hauling 
o«t? — if so, how should it be used ? — 
upon what crops and soils would it suit 
be^t? Gr. Sills. 

Replp by tlie Editor of the American 
Farmer. 

Goal dust is suited to any soil and 
to all crops. The finer the dust may 
be, the more efficiently as an absorber 
and retainer will it act. 

If applied to the soil alone, coal dust 
should be sown broadcast, after the 
Ia«d has been ploughed and harrowed. 
It can be applied as an ingredient of 
a compost heap, or spread over the ma- 
i}«re in the cattle and stable yards. — 



The old coal dust which our correspon- 
dent represents as having been accu- 
mulating for years, would form an ex- 
cellent material to mix with his barn- 
yard and stable manures. Grinding 
the coarse parts will be productive of 
good; the nearer coal dust approaches 
to an impalpable powder the better. 

The coal cinders at our correspon- 
den'.'s blacksmith shop, had best be ap- 
plied to his stiff clay, if he has such 
land. Twenty bushels to an acre will 
be about the right dose. 



LfCaclied Aslies on Wheat, 
"Whatever diiference of opinion there 
may be respecting the particular ingre- 
dients to which the fertilizing poAver of 
leached ashes are owing, nearly all agree 
that they are a valuable manure for th» 
wheat crop. And as there are, in di^r- 
ent parts of the coimtry, old asheries fiiam 
whence old leached ashes can be obtain- 
ed at a mere nominal price, we are sup- 
prised that they are not more entensire- 
ly used than they are. The good eftee.ts 
of 100 to 200 bushels of old leached 
ashes per acre are most decided on all 
light Avheat soils, and are visible oflten 
for years after their application. ThJB 
prolonged benefit is probably derived 
from the lime, of which the leached asb- 
es contain some 30 per cent. It is not 
impossible, however, that leached asbes 
contain the double salt of silicate of ah>- 
mina and soda, which Prof. Way found 
was the real agent of soils in retaining 
ammonia and other fertilizers, and tha* 
therefore by adding leached ashes, we 
add ammonia, or at least the means- of 
obtaining it from the atmosphere in tlie 
most available form for the wheat plan.t? 
and that it is this alkali that so much 
benefits the crop, and not tlie potash and 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



2 m 



SA.'da "wliicli may be left undissolved frcia 
tiie ashes. If this is the case, th.e older 
■die leached ashes are, the better ; — the 
inoa-e they hate been exposed to the 
raan and the air, the more ammonia will 
tSiey contain, and the moTe good will 
they do to the wheat crop. And it 
wtRild indicate that on all our wheat 
soils leached ashes would do more good 
iian the unleached ashes, from tlie fact 
that ammonia is so much more necessary 
as a manure for wheat than the alkalies 
|K7tash and soda, which are washed out 
in leaching. 

These views, however are at pres^ 
aosnewhat hypothetical, and fertherex- 
p^iments are necessary to confirm or re- 
fute them; yet the fad that leached ashes 
as-e a first rate fertilizer, i-emains a fact 
tftill, though we cannot decidedly account 
f<>r their good effect ; and we would re- 
orj«imeiid all farmers wl»o can obtain 
them, to do so, and apply them to their 
light soils previous to sowing wlieat this 
Inonth, 



Corn in the Ear. 

E. J. Holmes, Esq., of Kingston, has 
mieasured and weighed some of his corn 
to determine how much it shrinks on 
drying. In Oct., 1851, he selected 100 
pounds of corn, weighed i^ the ear. — 
He shelled it March 2nd, 1852. The 
corn vveighed sixty-five pounds and 
eieven ounces — the cob eleven pounds 
and eleven ounces — making seventy-six 
jjounds and thirteen oimces — shrinking 
twenty-three pounds and three ounces. 

The shelled corn measured one bushel 
and three pints. 

Thus we see that instead of calling 
aeventy-fi.vG poimds of corn a bushel v/e 
should come nearer the mark by calhng 
om huacir-id poiui-l.; a biishel Tl:^ 



Plymouth Society has altered tlieir ruto 
of weiglring and now call eighty fi'ae 
pounds of ears equal to a bushel of sbei- 
led corn. 

This will do if it is shelled by the fii-st 
of November. Mr. Holmes kept his on 
the ear about five mouths. When 
corn is perfectly dry it looses more than 
one quarter of its weight compared with 
the first of November — Ploughman. 

Eemakks. — Our corn growing frit'nds 
as well as the officers of Agricultural 
Societies may be interested in tlie facte 
set forth in the foregoing article. 

This experiment proves pretty in- 
clusively that a fair comparison of the 
yield of corn from ditFerent fields can 
only be made by requiring it all k) he. 
shelled at a given time, or nearly so 
and even then the difi'erence in condi- 
tion makes a groat difference in tbe 
yield per acre. We strongly suspect 
that some of the premium crops of 100 
bushels to the acre were measured ami 
weighed rather green. "We tru.st that 
Konie rule may be adopted upon this 
subject which shall lead to imiformity 
in arriving at results. This is most cer- 
tainly desirable if we would derive the 
the greatest benefit from the system of 
premiums paid by our County and State 
Societies. 



Poultry. — Feed your hens wtdl and 
they will start opposiiion lines with 
great competition, and lay eggs at low 
prices ; then will be the lime to set for 
hatching. Set two or three hens at ths 
same time, and when they hatch, put 
all the chickens to one of thfm and let 
the others go to laying. Eai !y chick- 
ens are the most, prcfitablc for market 
and early. puliets will be the best layers 
reit winter,- — Grfi.cn Co. W/ng, 



.220 



THE FARMER^S JOURNAL. 



From the Southern Cultivator. 
From the Old North St^-te. 

Messrs. Editors. — The February 
number of your Journal contains a 
•communication from Dr. Cloud, which 
is invaluable to any Planter who will 
muster the nerve to "go and do like- 
wise." It is just the thing for the 
Southern country. Such a system 
must root out the present one, or 
we will have, at the end of the twenty- 
five years, the most perfectly beggared 
oountry in the Union. 

Here, in the Old North Statf^, thg^ 
cut-down and wear-out system has 
reached the turnmg point ; and it af- 
fords me pleasure to state, that the gal 
lant old county of Edgecombe is ta- 
king the lead in Agricultural improve- 
ments. Do you wish to know what 
lias brought about th^e change ? Law 
and Medicine are no longer considered 
•the only respectable callings for our 
educated young men. Many of them 
have co)bdescended to b-ecome "clod-hoc- 
perSj" and are bringing to bear a zeal 
and ictelligence, which tells its own 
tale. They read the Southern Culti- 
vator, the Amtrican Farjner^ the Wor- 
kins Farmer, the Southern Planter 
and exhort their neighbors to subscribe 
for and read them. Our village paper, 
the Southerner, devotes one page to the 
best extracts from the papers named, 
.and of Itself is a good agricultural work. 
The number of free-holders in this 
county, is between five and six hund- 
red, and I feel sure I am in the pale of 
truth in saying that over half are sub- 
scribers to an agricultural paper, 

A friend and myself are farming it. 
jointly, on a 900 acre tract — 600 arable 
500 woodland — and our aim and pur- 
pose is, to k^cp .the land steadily im- 



proving by a system of rotation. We 
are now manuring 100 acres, at the 
rate of 800 bushels to the acre, of cotn- 
post, made of cotton seed, ashes, stable 
manure, hog-lot manure, and plaster. 
This 100 acres is for cotton: next year, 
corn ; then small grain and clover. 

We have the greatest abundance of 
material for manure-making for the 
next hundred years — indeed, it is in- 
exhaustible: the low ground of the 
farm being overflowed, occasionally, by 
freshets of the River, (Tar,) leavinof a 
deposit rich in all the fertilizing ele- 
ments. 

Will you believe me when 1 sav, 
that 3000 pounds of seed cotton have 
been made on an acre, in Edgecombe, 
and 20 barrels of com? During the 
past year, sixty 400 lb. bales cotton 
were made on sixty acres ; and two 
hundred and sixty bales, averaging 
380 lbs., were made on two hundred 
and sixty acres. There are thirty or 
forty farms in this county that make 
over 1000 pounds to the acre. Gruanoj 
plaster, lime, bone-dust, and salt are 
being used freely for manuring purpo- 
ses. 

What we most need no'.v is abun- 
dance of Grass for winter and summer 
use, and this thing is beginning to at- 
tract attention. Another decade will 
place old Edgecombe high on the road 
to agricultural fame. 
Respectfully yours, 

John S. Dancy. 

Tarboro, N. C. March, i852. 



For your Cattle and IIorses. — 
Mix occasionally one part of salt with 
four parts of wood ashes, and give the 
mixture to different kinds of stock, sum 
mer and winter. It promotes their ap- 
petites and tends to keep them in a 
healthy condition. It is said to be good 
against botts in horses, murrain in cattle, 
and. rot in sheep. 



rHE FAKMER'S JOURNAL. 



221 



Shade Trees. 

But few farmers are inclined to beauti- 
fy the \icinity of their residences with a 
sufficient number of shade trees, and those 
who are seeking locaUties, wilhngly pay 
advanced prices for sucli as supply build- 
inrr spots well protected by shade trees. 
Our ancestors, in some cases, have placed 
xm under a debt of posterity, and each 
farmer sheuld contribute to its liquida- 
tion. To see a square-ended bare house^ 
is indicative of a mean, sordid disposi- 
tion. A few square feet of land may be 
spared from more active cultivation for 
lawns, shade trees, &c., for both health 
And comfort are advanced by such prac- 
tice. It is useless to argue at this date 
that mere matters of ornament are use- 
less to the former. It is true that Queen 
Elizabeth brealdasted on eeef steaks and 
ale, without the appendage of a knife 
and fork; but because her majesty so 
breakfasted, it is no argument why any 
farmer's daughter at this time should 
partake of a similar meal. Because oiir 
fathers left our houses bare of shade, we 
should not follow so bad a development 
of taste. A roadside properly shaded, 
gives an increased valjie to the adjacent 
farms, and if each would contribute his 
quota to this improvement, the interest 
of all would be advanced. We would 
iave the thanks of the weary traveller, 
and many a tired beast would be bene, 
titted by an afternoon shade. A desert- 
like absence of shade trees is reprehensi- 
ble, and denotes a slothful neighborhood. 
We are glad to see that some of the 
agricultural societies are giving pre- 
miums to the persons planting the great- 
est number of shade trees. How often 
do we see pasture fields, which within a 
few years had been denuded of every 
iree, when a.feAV might have been left 



with profit, as a protection to animals 
against a noon-day sun. As a mere 
•matter of profit, a sufiicient number 
should be left for this purpose, as the fat- 
ting animal, or the milch cow cannot 
succeed so well without them.. Horses 
and sheep require tliem. The maple, 
oak, ash, elm, hickory, burr-oak, and 
many others, may be selected from, 
among our native trees for this purpose. 
The burr-oak grows to the height of 80 
feet, and with a spreading top. Its dark 
green shining leaves, and the fine figure 
of its head, render it deservedly a favor- 
ite. — Workins: Farmer. 



Clover Hay for Horses. 

I have frequently heard it observed, 
that horses fed for any eonsiderable 
length of time on clover hay, are liable 
to be attacked by cough. It is also as- 
serted that this kind of feed greatly ag- 
gravates, if it does not occasion the 
heaves. Now there are two remedies 
for this, either of which, if applied judi- 
ciously, will prove entirely elfectual. — 
One is to feed from a manger, instead 
of the common horse rack. The com- 
mon method of curring cl()ver hay, ren- 
ders the foliage so dry and crisp, that it 
crumbles in being forcibly drawn through 
the slats or rounds of the rack, occasion- 
ing a fine, almost impalpable dust which, 
on being inhaled, irritates the lungs, and 
occasions coughs, <fec. Another and 
more economical method is to cure 
clover hay in the proper way. By cur- 
ing it in the cock, its foliage wiU wUt 
and dry without being deprived of its 
sweetness or elasticity, and will not crum- 
ble. Tnis I hold to be the most eco- 
nomical, as it enables us to save much 
trouble in the busy season of haying. — 
Germantown Telegraph. 



'■222 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



From the "Soil of the South." 
CjsdarTown, Geo., July 10, '52. 
Hill-Side Bitching. 
Mr. Editor: — I received the seven 
-oopies of the Soil of ike Soulh, and am, 
SB I supposed I should be, well pleased 
v/itk it. The agricultural interest of tlie 
South is slowly hut steadily gaining 
gTonnd. But there is still room lor im- 
jM*ovement. The gullied hill-sides and 
worn out land of Georgia, speak in tones 
of thunder that our present system of 
IiusJjandry is defective. Hill-side ditch- 
mg is too little attended to in Georgia ; 
it is the fundamental groundvvorh of ag- 
ricultural improvement. You may alter- 
tmte your crops, make and save all the 
iimnure you can, and apply it judiciously; 
l>tit if you fermit your hill-sides to v^ash 
into tlie creeks and ocean, you Vi'ill never 
i^^in your object. You v.dll still be a 
b£id farmer. Any man of common ener- 
gy and skill can improve his lands by 
lull-side ditching,running horizontal rows, 
aaid rotation of crops, without manuring, 
and by attending to all these, can improve 
liis lands seven per cent, annually. I 
have stopped gullies this 3- ear by ditch- 
ing, from one to three feet deep, and corii 
is now growing in the bottoms of these 
gullies. I can locate a ditch half a miie 
iozig, with my compass and level, in ten 
minutes. 

I give my ditches one to tliree inches 
fall in twelve feet, according to the steep- 
ness of the land, I commence laj-ing off 
my ro-\vs with tlie ditches on the louver 
side of the upper ditch, lettmg the rows 
fanpty into the second, and so on, until 
the field is laid off. It is desirable that 
all the rows should be of the same width. 
•This I effect by getting a stake as long 
a-gain as I want my roM's, and tying one 
07id of it to the bits of the bridle, and a 



boy carries the other end right over tlte 
first furrow — a hand following behind>-^ 
and "split out." In this simple wa,y I 
have rows perfectly regular. 
Yours, &c., 

G. D. Harmon. 



What is 'Wortii Doing do Well. 

To none of the business of life does 
this injunction apply with so much force 
as to that of the farmer. The mechanis 
and the professional man are also re- 
minded that their work should be donse 
well. All classes of men and all brandi- 
es of business prosper in proportion to 
the strictness with which this rule is 
lived up to. It is safe every wliei-e fe> 
conclude that if a thing is worth doiiig 
at all, it may be miifxa profitable genar^X^ 
ly by doing thoroughly and well Tfte 
farmer who occupies a farm of two hun- 
dred acres, when his means would allow 
liim to take proper care of but fifty acres, 
does his work badly and gets but poor 
returns. Ffty acres of laud made good 
and productive, is more profitable than 
one hundred acres of laud, tolerably good 
and but indifferently cultivated. AikI 
yet are seen hundreds of farmers who 
have large forms under their direction 
Avho get but scanty crops. They labor 
hard, but don't seem to get, along well. 
The truth is, they get but half cit)|)s, 
while their outgoes, in the shape of extKi 
labor, extra interest on investment hc.^ 
are doubled. The testimony of all is 
that such a course is bad policy, and it 
undoubtedly is bad policy, but still hun- 
dreds pursue it, working hard all ihe\r 
life time, and conclude that the business 
of tilling the soil is a bad business. Let 
them adopt the motto do well whatever 
you do, and tilhng the soil isnotso hard' 



THE FAKMEil'S J0URNA:L. 



223 



liiquid Manuring. 

There is probably no one source of 
wagte among our f-irmcrs and gardeners^ 
greater, if so great, as that of the liquid 
manures. We were nrging upon an 
saciateur gardener, a short time since, the 
freee use of liquid manure upon some 
piants that were backward, when he 
tui-ned tons with the remark that he had 
tried it and had destroyed his plants. — 
On tins account he let every particle of 
it run to waste. We assured him that 
the trouble lay not in the use of the 
manure but in the strength. It needs 
to-be very largely diluted ere it can be 
sately applied to plants. A writer in 
fJie Gardener's Chronical says, "let the 
manm-e be very weak," and again, "to use 
liquid manures very weak and very often, 
is in fact to imitate nature, than whom 
we cannot take a safer guide." The 
daiiger lies not on the side of the weak- 
ness but of strength. 

The amount in nutrient value of tlie 
liquid manures manufactured about an 
establishment is probably much greater 
than that of the solid. Every farmer or 
gardener who has not tried the experi- 
ment would be greatly astonished at the 
Rsnonnt he would hffv'e in addition to 
liis. annual manufacture from the solid 
droppings and composts made therewith, 
did he but carefully save all the liquid 
manure of his stables, and the soap suds 
and sink waste of his house. 

When this is lost, dollars are taken 
from the pockets as eflectually as if a 
pickpocket had had the fingering of 
tiiem. The real secret of getting large 
crops is to feed the soil largely ; and he 
wlioby waste of his liquid manures loses 
csae-hundred per cent, of his fertilizing 
material, has but feeble notions of tnie 
©caagmy, — Gra?iite Farmer. 



Lice on Hogs. — . — "Broomsedge'* 
complains in the Nevj York Ploio for 
August, that his hogs have sufieseid 
much from lice, and asks the editor or 
some correspondent, for a remedy. A* 
the subject is of general interest, we sug- 
gest su'ij/iur, to be given in food ea^nr 
by the swine, as a preventive. This well 
known mineral is particularly obnoxioiis 
to all insects, and has never failed to clear 
cattle of ticks Avhen ted to them in tlieir 
salt. The itch or scab insect that blip- 
rows in the skins of sheep, is destroyotl 
by sulphur ; and ■\\'e doubt not that lice 
on hogs and calves may be driven off 
by the same remedy. It is said to ctear 
fruit trees of parasitic insects and fungi, 
either by filling with sulphur holes bo?ed 
into their trunks, which are then pli^ 
ged, or by putting it around their roots. 
We hope that "Broomsedge'^ will try 
this remedy, and report the resulfk 



How often do men mistake the low 
of their opinions for the love of truth ! 

STATE 
AGRTCULTUAL. ■WAE.E-HOUSBc 

THE subscribers would respectfully invite 
the attention of Farmers and Planters to 
their varied assortment of 

Agric'iltiind and Jlorti cultural Impliments, 
among which may be found Pouty and Meal's 
celebrated and highly appro vedCentreDraught 
Ploughs ; Emery & Co.'s Imported Rail Road 
Horse Power Thresher (all of which took the 
first premiums at the late State Agricultural 
Fair, and are unequalled by an}' now in use,) 
together with a full assortment of the latest 
and most approved Plows, Straw Cutters, Fa.it- 
ning Mills, Corn Sfaellers, Seed Sowers, Cul- 
tivators, Plarrows, &c. &c., which they will 
sell at as. low rates as any similar establishment 
in the United States. 

We shall at all tTmes have on hand a full 
stock of Field and Garden Seeds, Guano, and. 
all other fertilizers in the market, which may 
be had on the most reasonable terms. 

Persons purchasing articles from us may 
rely upon their giving satisfaction, as we iiv 
tend keeping only such as we can fully wap- 
rant. LONGETT <^ GRIFFING, 

No. 25ClitTSt., New-York 

ApriL29, 1852. 6m, 



224 



THE FAJIMEK'S JOURNAL. 



THE FARMERS JOURNAL. 

The Subscriber will publish in the town of 
Bath, Beaufort county, N. C, a monthly 
paper under the above name. This paper will 
be devoted exclusively to the setting forth of 
the various popular improvements in Agricul- 
ture, Horticulture, and the househi^ld arts. — 
That there is a demand for such a paper in 
our State, and more especially in the Eastern 
part, no one will deny. 

As evidence of the good effects of such pa- 
pers, we have only to look at the rapid strides 
which have been made in farming in those 
States of our Union where they exist. Bui 
this great advancement made in the science of 
Agriculture in other States, is but little known 
to the farmers of No rth-arolina. There are 
several scientific, as well as practical farmers, 
among us ; but for the want of a medium 
through which to communicate their agricul- 
tural knowledge, it is still confined to a small 
compass. Our good old State is far behind 
the age in agricultural, as well as every other 
improvemeut. As a people, we are greatly 
wanting in State pride, which is highly im- 
portant to place us in that position which we 
ought to occupy. In New-York, Maryland, 
Georgia, and several other States, annual 
Fairs are held for exhibiting the products of 
each, which clearly have a tendency to great 
improvements. Nature has thrown no imped- 
iment in the way to prevent our agricultural 
advancement ; but she has lavishly heap';^d 
upon us her inestimable gifts. We have 
among us a sufficiency of both organic and 
inorganic matter to enrich every acre of our 
worn-out land, and our soil and climate can- 
not be surpassed in adaptation to the produc- 
tion of the various plants. 

All tliat is now needed to elevate our State 
to the position which she should occupy 
among her sisters, is energy and enterprise on 
the part of her ci tizens. There must be a stop 
put to this greattideof enimigration from our 
State ; for, dail}', many of our most talented 
and energetic young men seek a new home in 
the West ; they say that they cannot get their 
consent to remain among a people possessed 
of so little enterprise as we are. The sub- 
scriber has not been engaged in farming many 
years, but he feels justified in saying that he 
began upon the right plan — that of deep 
ploughing, heavy manuring, and thorough 
draining. He has visited some good farms in 
our State, as well as in others, purely for 
agricultural instruction; and for sometime 
past he has been engaged in useful agricul- 
tural reading, to prepare himself for the post 
which he now proposes to occupy. 

The subscriber feels confident that this un- 
dertaking shall not fail from a want of energy 
on his part. He is resolved to use every effort 
to obtain a large subsci'iption list, and for this 
purpose he will canvass several counties with- 
in the next two months. 

He hopes tJiat by showing such a determi- i 



nation to do something for the present degrar 
ded condition of the farmer, to be sustained, 
I and receive a liberal patronage from a gener- 
ous public. 

Each number will contain one or more 
articles from the pen of the Editor, and several 
communications from our best farmers ; and 
the remainder will be filled with articles se- 
lected from other Agricultural Journals, such 
as may be deemed by the Editor applicable to 
our climate and soil. 

In conclusion, the subscriber asks the aid of 
every man in the prosecution of this great 
work ; for he is sure that there will be a good 
bargain made by the farmers. The advance- 
ment of farming should excite an interest in 
the breast of every man ; for upon the success 
of the farmer greatly depends that of every 
trade and profession. 

Terms — One copy, f 1 ; six copies, $5; 
twelve copies, 10; thirty copies, $20 — inva- 
riably in advance. 

Advertisements. — A limited number of 
advertisements will be inserted at the follow- 
ing rates : For one square of twelve lines, for 
each insertion, ^1 ; one square, per annum, 
^10 ; half column, do.,pO ; one column, do., 
;^50 ; larger advertisements in proportion. 
JOHN F. TOMPKINS. 

Bath, N. C, 1852. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Communication from Dr. Togno, 193 

Communication, 196 

A Dialogue between three farmers, 197 

National Agriculture, 19S 

Scotch island Agricultural Society, 200 

Prevention of Smut in Wheat, _ 202 

Disparagement of the Farming Profession, 202 

The Economy of Food, 204 

Advancement in Agriculture, 205 

Labor Honorable, 207 

To pi-eveut a Cow Falling in her Milk, 207 

Unavoidable Delay, 208 
Panola, the Model Farm in the far-famed 

Edgecombe, 208 

Protect your Cattle through the Winter, 208 

Cure for Cancer, 209 

PreseiTing Sweet Potatoes, 210 

Clay Soils and their Management, 211 

Soils best adapted to the Culture of Wheat, 2] 2 

Forest Culture, 213 

Rotation of our Forest Trees, 214 

Foundered Horses, 215 

Thoughts and Experience, 216 

Practical Efieet of Drainingf 217 

Coal Du?t as a Manure, 218 

Leached Ashes on Wheat, 218 

Com in the Ear, 219 

Poultry, 219 

From the Old North State, 220 

For your Cattle and Horses, 220 

Shade Trees, ■ 221 

Clover Play for Horses, 221 

Hill-side Ditching, 222 

What is Worth Doing do Well, 222 

Liquid Manuring, 223 

Lice on Hogs, 223 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



VOL. L BATH, N. C, NOYEMBER, 1852. NO. 8 



JOHN F. TOMPKINS, M. D., Editor and Proprietor. 



AN ADDRESS, 

Delivered before the Edgecombe Agricultu- 
ral Society, at its Annual Meeting for 
1852. 

BY Dr. JAS. J. PHILLIPS. 
Gentlemen of the Edgecombe Ag- 
EicuLTURAL Society : Your partiali- 
ty has assigned to me the duty of ad- 
dressing you to-day — the third of our 
annual meetings, if I had been left free 
to follow the promptings of my own 
judgment, or the impulses of my will, 
this duty would have devolved upon a 
wiser head and more experienced 
hand than mine ; but \pu have made 
it my duty, and such I regard it, and 
endeavor to lulfilit to the best of my 
ability. 

From time immemorial agriculture 
has been pursued as an art : but, it is 
only of recent date, that attempts have 
been made to found it upon scientific 
principles ; and it may properly be re- 
garded as a science in its infancy. Ag- 
riculture cmbracea within its circle, 
Botany, Geology, Physics, Vegetable 
Physiology. Meiihanics and Chemistry, 
as its correlatives ; and however 
much it may be in its infancy as a sci- 
ence, as it is founded u|)'on or eonnectk 
ed ^ith these, we may very properly 



term it a conglomerate science, which 
requires much investigation of nature's 
lawn. 

The subject which I have selected 
for your consideration to-day. is that of 
Chemistry ; and the value, and impor- 
tance of a knowledge of its laws and 
general principles, to the successful and 
scientific agriculturist. 

Chemistry had its origin in the cu- 
pidity of man. We are informed that 
it was practiced; as early as the third 
century, under the title of Alchemy — 
the secret or occult art ; with the view 
of discovering some way, by which 
the baser metsils could be converted in- 
to the mors valuable. It continued to 
linger in this dark state until the thir- 
teenth century ; in which tinfie until 
the seventeenth century, it was sought 
by its operations, not only to trans- 
mute the baser metals into the more 
precious, but to discover a universal 
solvent or alkahest, a universal reme- 
dy ior all the diseases of man ; and 
many other ridiculous ihinga, which 
are now adverted to as only the dark 
visions of the past. 

In 1774 the btilliant discovery made 
by Dr. Priestly of oxygen gas. as an 



226 



THE FAEMER'S JOURNAL. 



elementary principle, caused the scien- 
tiSc world to direct the attention to 
Chemistry nfiore than before ; and to 
seek by its operations, for other and 
new discoveries — from which period to 
the present time, its progress as a sci- 
ence has been onward and rapid, and 
its discoveries almost innumerable. 

Chemistry is the science of matter, 
and consequently is of vast scope, and 
as boundless as matter itself. By it 
alone can we discover the nature, prop- 
erties, and elementary principles of all 
material substinces ; and the phenom- 
ena of iKeir various changes, and mu- 
tual action. 

As the dealing with matter is the 
primary occupation of man, it surely 
becomes a first or primary duty of 
man to investigate those laws and gen- 
eral principles which influence and 
govern matter. By it alone can he 
aot understandingly in agriculture, or 
many oiher branches of business, for 
many of the most common operations, 
psiformed in the daily round of busi- 
ness of the farm of the agriculturist, 
or even the domestic duties of the 
housewife, must come under, and ac- 
knowledge the influence and force of 
chemical laws. 

The ancients who had not the lights 
of chemistry, believed that there were 
but four elementary substances; by its 
operatious however are we taught, that 
the elementary substances, now, are 
known to number sixty-five. By conven- 
tional usage these elementary ■sub- 
stances are class'd mto the inorganic-,and 
organic : the first having reference to, or 
taking their names from their connec- 
tion with inanimated substances: and 
the last, from^ being connected! with 
iife and organization. These last 



alone shall we consider to day, as be- 
ing ihose interesting to you as knowing 
scientific and successful agriculturists. 
As we may have frequent occasiao 
before we get through, to advert to 
these organic elements^ I request you 
to accompany me with your attention 
while we call them over: Manganesa, 
Iron, Silicon, Aluminum, Magnesium, 
Calcium, Sodium, Potasaeum, Oxygen, 
Hydrogen, Nitrogen, "Chlorine, Fluor- 
ine, Carbon, Sulphur, and Phosphorus, 
Now, gendeinen, upon all of these, 
or a part of these, combined in varioua, 
and different forms r.nd proportions 
must every vegetable, and every ani- 
mal — indeed every thing in life, de- 
pend for its firmness, form, structure, 
organization, growth, and maintenanee 
of^hfe. 

These organic elements, as you will 
discover, are but sixteen in number ; or 
if gentlemen will have it so, there ave 
but sixteen hard names to recollect ; 
but chemistry as a science, must have 
its nomenclature or technical terms, or 
names of things, by which to describe 
and convey an idea of the thing named 
to mind ; and it cannot and should not 
be expected of science to stoop in itis 
nomenclature, to the capacity of all 
men : but it behooves man to raise his 
capacity, to the point of understanding 
the terms and principles of that sci- 
ence, which is connected with his dai= 
ly business. As before remarked, 
these sixteen simple or elementary 
substances constitute all those elements 
which enter into, and make up the ob- 
gans, both the vegetable and ammal 
kingdom; but their office does not 
cease here, they constitute the greater 
portion of these hard, rocky and con,- 
'solidaJftd masses, which foj-m the crust. 



THE FARMER'S JOUKNAL. 



227 



of the earth. 

Properly speaking, organic chemistry 
has reference to the result of the com- 
bjnationof these elements in the living 
being, whether in an animal or vege- 
table, so as when combined under 
chemical laws, modified by physical 
agencies, and the forces of life, to pro- 
duce a new substance, which is deposit 
ed for structure and growth, and con- 
sequently becomes organized matter. 
It not only teaches us the elementary 
coBSiiluents of which these organic 
compounds are formed, but the nature 
aJ the growth, and cause of the vari 
OTIS changes, which are constantly go^ 
ing on in the living vegetable, by reno- 
vation and dtcay : or the addition of 
new matter, and the elimination of that 
vChich is either thrown off as nosious 
to vegetable life, or as effete or useless 
to its organization. Minerals and 
earth, are taken up or absorbed into 
vegetable, and deposited as chemical 
agents and lor the solidity and firm- 
ness of its stamina, and into its seed or 
young to answer some wise purpose, for 
(he continuance of its species, by pro- 
moting its growth in li^e early period 
of germination, before the tender em- 
bryo has acquired vigor lo shoot a radi- 
cle into the earth. All that is left of 
llie vegetable, however, by destructive 
combustion, is known as the ash or in- 
organic matter of the vegetable, 

Nov?, gentlemeh, as it is the prima- 
iry business of an architect, when about 
to erect a building, to begin at the sill 
and brace work ; and square that up, at 
a foundation upon which his super- 
structure is to be formed: so even as 
die risk of becotoing tiresome to you, or 
being myself charged with pedantry, I 
purpose to take up these elements 



under cursory review, and show 
some of their properties and use to you 
as farmers. To some of you who have 
not devoted any attention to chemistry, 
this detail must appear uninteresting 
at first, but it is my object to irifpress 
your minds with the great importance 
of a knowledge of these elements of or- 
ganization and the Jaws by which they 
are governed, that you may pursue 
their investigation at your leisure, as 
the fundamental principles of agricul- 
ture. And should I be so fortunate as 
to interest your minds to this pursuit ; 
and that you shall find the subject at 
first difficult of comprehension, and 
even the names hard to retain, I assure 
you it is because you have not made 
yourself acquainted with the available 
value of the articles named, to agricul- 
ture under the rule of science. 

In your intercourse with your fami- 
ly physician, you have not only learned 
the names of many medicines, and the 
proper use of such medicines, but ma- 
ny other technical terms in reference to 
diseases. Suppose gentlemen, you had 
not had this free intercourse with your 
physician, and had not made yourselves 
acquainted with calomel, jalap, quinine, 
and others of like class ; these indeed 
would be callevl hard names ; and wheu 
named, they would convey no idea to 
the mind of their proper value ; but 
they are now as familiar to you as 
household words, and not only so, yoa 
are so well informed of their value and 
properties, that you prescribe them in 
your families, with a certainty, in view 
of the result of their action. This 
knowledge you have acquired not by 
reading, not by the study of medicine 
as a science : but it has been gradually 
instilled lato your minds by your phy- 



THE FAKMER'S JOURNAL. 



sician, in a way for which you are hard- 
ly able to account. 

Now gentlemen, man cannot sudden- 
ly leap into a knowledge of science, or 
ihe rules af science ; he must be grad- 
ually led on step by step, as a child 
must be led by the hand in his first ef- 
forts at walking ; and I assure you it 
is my candid belief, that every agricul- 
tural community should have an agri- 
cultural chemist located in their midst 
to lead them on step by step to correct 
experimental results. At any rates 
until by a proper analysis of the soil, 
not one sample for every five or ten 
miles square, but a sample for every 
field, and if the field ia large with a va- 
riety of soil, several analyses should be 
made ; he should inform himself of 
what ingredients such soil is deficient, 
or what it differs from a well balanced 
soil in the inorganic and organic vege- 
table material. 

As it is the first duty of a physician 
to discover m what the system deviates 
from health, that he may ascertain the 
cause, and fix the location of disease, 
before be can prescribe understanding- 
ly for its cure : so it is the first duty of 
every farmer to have a proper and cor 
rect analysis of his soil, that he may 
fee able to ascertain in what ingredients 
it deviates, from a well balanced soil 
that he may apply the deficient materi- 
al 

The first of these elementary sub- 
Stances which we shall take up is man- 



Manganese is a metal or metalic 
base. It is extensively diffused through 
nature, though not in large quantities^ 
eompared with many other metali. It 
is seldom or never found in the eai th in 
liH pure metalic state; but combined 



with oxygen gas forming the oside of 
manganese. Traces of it are found 
both in the animal and vegetable king- 
dom. Its atomic weight is to that of 
hydrogen gas as 28 to 1 : or in other 
words^ an atom of hydrogen gas, the 
lightest of all known substances being 
one, an atom of manganese is 2S times 
heavier than that. 

Iron is a metalj seldom or never 
found in its metalic state, in a state of 
nature: but combined with oxygen 
gas, forming the oxyde of iron— with 
carbonic acid forming the carbonate of 
iron. At other times it is found united 
with sulphur in its state of ore, form- 
ing the iron pyrites. It is found exten 
sively diffused in the soil, and it is from 
the presence of the oxyde of iron that 
the soils take their red or brown color. 
Its atomic weight is as 28 to 1, com^ 
pared with hydrogen. Iron enters as a 
constituent both of the animal and veg- 
etable, and is indispensable to its struo- 
ture and growth. 

Silicon is ranked as a metal, though 
it seems to possess the qualities in ma- 
ny things of an acid. When united 
tvith oxygen gas, the form in which 
we more commonly meet with it in the 
earth, as sand, quartz sand, or silex, it 
forms the oxyde of silicon, and consti- 
tutes a large portion of the hard sub- 
stances of the earth,and rocky masses of 
mountainous countries. In a certain 
state it is soluble, and enters freely 
through the absorbents of many, if not 
all vegetables. To the stalk, leaves, 
and husk coy'ering the grain, it gives a 
hardneas, firmness and glossiness ; and 
performs that office to the vegetable ia 
giving firmness to its structure, that 
lime does to the animal in giving firm- 
ness to the bony structure. It unites 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



229 



freely wiihlime, soda, potash, and oth- 
ers of that class — forming with these 
substances silicates, io which state it is 
rendered more soluble ; and is more 
readily taken up by the absorbents of 
the vegetable. Its alonnic weight is to 
that of hydrogen as 22 to 1. 

Aluminum is a metalicbase; chem- 
jcally united with oxygen gas in the 
proportiao of 2 atoms of Aluminum to 
3 atoms of oxygen gas, it forms alum- 
ina or the clay of the soil, and, I sup- 
pose upon an average it makes about 
one tenth of what we cail stiff clay soil. 
In sandy sdkls the per cent, of alum- 
ina is smajl and comparatively much 
less. Aluminum enters into minerals? 
and forms a part of their body ; hence 
it is very rare to find a rock or even 
flint, that does not contain a portion of 
it. 

Alumina or clay, performs an im 
portant part in the growth of vegeta- 
bles by its properties of absorbing to a 
great extent, water and the fertilizing 
gases ; which it retains with great te. 
iiacity for the growth of plants. By 
gome writers it has been contended, 
fhat.it does not enter into the vegetable, 
nor form any part of its constituency ; 
but chemical analysis has discovered it 
in the ash of many plants, in some 
probably accidentally. Many sub- 
stances, however, which are not con- 
sidered as decidedly necessary to the 
vegetable constitution, as lead and otii- 
firs, have been found in the ash of veg- 
etables. Clay united with silex or 
sand, constitutes the mean bed of all 
aoils, to which it requires the addition 
of all per cent, of the fertilizing min- 
erals, or alkalies, as that of potash; 
Mate, soda and others of that class and 
their compounds to constitute a produc- 



tive and well balanced soil in the inor- 
ganic elements, whenever the proper or- 
ganic material is brought in connection. 
The atomic weight of aluminum is to 
(hat of hydrogen as 14 to 1, 

Magnesium, is a metalic base. It is 
better known as magnesia, which is a 
compound of one atom of magnesia and 
one of oxygen gas. It exists ptentifully 
in soils and rocks and is found iu the 
ash of nearly all plants ; hence we discover 
that it is designed to fulfil some impor- 
tant part in the vegetable kingdom, in- 
deed with some plants it is a primary 
constituent of the inorganic materials. — 
The atomic weight of magnesium is to 
that of hydrogen gas as 13 to 1. 

Calcium is likewise a metalic base. — 
When uui%ed with oxygen gas in the 
proportion of an atom of each, i* forms 
the oxyde of lime, or what is ordinarily 
known as quick lime. Lime unites 
with water in the proportion of 3 to 1, 
which constitutes the hydrate of lime. — 
Lime in union with carbonic acid forms 
carbonate of lime or chalk ; with sulphu- 
ric acid, sulphate of lime or plaster of 
paris ; with phosphoiic acid, phosphate 
of lime or bone earth. In the soil it is 
often cheanically united with silica, con- 
stituting the silicate of lime. Lime ex- 
ists abundantly in nature, but is irregu- 
larly diffused; in some soils it exists 
abundantly ; in others, only a trace of it 
is found. I have no doubt that many of 
the unproductive soils of our country, 
can, by chemical analysis, be discovered 
to possess only a traee of lime, though 
lying adjacent to, or even over a marl 
bed. No-gr gentlemen, no soil can be y&~ 
lied upon as productive, which is defi- 
cient in this necessary ipgredient. To 
many of those vegetables cultivated, it ig 
their primary basis to rely upon ; anij j§ 



2B0 



tTHE FAKMER'S JOUR^^AL. 



necessary to all, hence it becomes of 
much importance to the agriculturist to 
know whether his soil has or not a due 
proportion of it. Lime constitutes a ^^or- 
tion of the rocky formations, and is found 
in the ash of nearly all vegetables. Its 
atomic weight to hydrogen is 20 to 1. 

Sodium is a metal or metalic base. — 
When united with oxygen gas in the 
proportion of an atom of each, it becomes 
what is more familiarly known as soda. 
Chemically united with acids, it forms a 
class of neutral salts ; as with carbonic 
acid, carbonate of soda; with sulphuric 
acid, sulphate of soda ; with chlorine 
chloride of soda, or sea salt Avith which 
you are all quite famihar. Soda exists 
in the soil, and is found in the ash of 
most of our cultivated plants ; as such we 
must view it as a necessary material in 
the soil in a free or available state. Its 
atomic weight to hydrogen is as 23 to 1. 
Potassium is likewise considered a 
metal or metalic base. Chemically 
united Avith oxygen gas in equivalent 
proportion of atoms, it constitutes potas- 
sa, or potash. Potassium has so strong 
an affinity to oxygen gas, that when 
thrown in water or even upon ice, its 
union with the oxygen of the water is so 
rapid that it burns with a beautiful 
flame, until the potassium has acquired 
from the water an equivalent atomic 
proportion of its oxygen to satisfy the 
laws of chemical affinity in union Avitli 
itself. But I find I am disposed to di- 
giess from the main object in view, and 
will return to it again; for it is Avith 
ihese elements or substances, ajpplied to 
agriculture, or the growth of plants, that 
we to-day have to deah I need ilot,gen- 
tlemen, impress on you the importance 
of havdng a due portion of potash in 
your soils, for a full maturity of A-egeta- 



ble groAvth. You are now aware of it, 
as is evidenced by the free application of 
ashes to your soils; A chemical analys- 
is of the ash of all vegetables, except 
some of those of the sea or ocean, estab- 
lishes the fact that potash constitutes an 
indispensable portion of the A'eo-etable 
kingdom. Its atomic weight is to hydro- 
gen as 39 to 1 — and the heaviest in 
atomic Aveight of any of those inorgan- 
ic elements, Avhich are considered neces- 
sary to organized structure, or livino- be- 
ings. 

Chlorine is a gas. Its atomic 
Aveight as compared Avith hydrogen 
gas is as 35 to 1. Chlorine has the 
properties of an acid, and as such 
forms a class of haloid salts, Avhen uni- 
ted Avith bases, known as chlorides, in 
which state it is necessary, to form, has- 
ten, or stimulate vegetable groAvth; We 
are informed by Baron Humboldt, th-a 
eminent historian and scientific traveller 
that old seed, which could not be made 
to germinate by any other process, ger- 
minated promptly Avlien steeped in a 
Aveak solution of chlorine in Avater, and 
grcAV off finely. Should not formers 
avail themselves of this hint, and use 
salts more freely in their compost ma- 
nures ? A combination of one bushel of 
salt to three of lime, Avith the addition 
of water, to render the combination a 
soluble mass, is an iuA^aluable manure, 
Avhen united Avith muck or decomposed 
vegetable matter. Salt is a compound 
of chlorine and soda, but Avhen we re- 
ceive it as prepared by the evaporation 
of sea Avater it has united Avith it, all 
the saline compounds of the sea Avater ; 
as that of chloride of magnesia, sul- 
phate of magnesia, carbonate -of lime, 
and sometimes a trace of the salt of 
iron. So gentlemen, yoii ivill discover 



THE FARMEK'S JOURNAL. 



231 



that sea salt contains many and valua- 
ble fertilizers. 

Fluorine is a gas and exists in na- 
ture combined with lime. Its atomic 
weight to hydrogen is 19 to 1 — and 
wlien these two elements are thus uni- 
ted, it forms a powerful solvent of silica 
or sand, and is the only article known 
tliat will dissolve glass. When fluorine 
is united with lime, it forms a portion 
of tlie structure of the bones of ani- 
mals, and can be easily detected in 
their teeth ; and as animals derive their 
nourishment from the vegetable king- 
dom, it must be derived from this 
source. It is thought, however that 
fluorine performs but a small part in 
vegetable chemistry. 

Sulphur, is a substance well known 
to you — its atomic weight as compared 
with hydrogenis as 15 to 1. Sulphur 
has a very extensive range of affinity, 
It combines with the metuls forming 
the sulphates ; with oxygen gas in 
the propordon of one atom of sulphur 
to 3 atoms of oxygen gus, it forms sul- 
phuric acid, or the oil of vitrol of com- 
inerce. This sulphuric acid unites to 
alkaline and metalic bases, to form a 
nurneious class of sails knovvn as the 
sulphates ; as with linne, iron and others; 
many of which are valuable to '.he ag- 
riculturist when properly applied. — 
Sulphur is found both in plants and 
animals, and is an essential ingredient 
in all soils for vegetable growth. 

PiiosrHORUs is a remaroiable sub- 
stance, and it is quite probable that the 
office which it fulfils in the phenomena 
of nature is not half known. We how. 
ever,know that it perforins a very impor- 
tatit part in the vegetable and animal 
"economy. United with oxygen gas in 
the proportioa of one atom of phospho- 



rus to 5 of oxygen ga?, it constitutes 
phosphoric acid ; wiiich acid when 
united to a base, forms a class of com- 
pound.s known as the phospates — as 
that of phosphate of linre, or bone 
earth. It exiiis in soils and is known 
to constitute a part of the vegetable 
structure, as well as that of the animal ; 
and its presence in due proportion m 
all soils is considerea indispensable to 
vegetable growth. Itsatomic weight is 
as 32 to I — compared with hydrogen. 
These, gentlemen, are those elementa- 
ry substances, which are usually found 
in the ash of vegetcibles by combination 
and are consideied the inorganic ma- 
terial. Other elements are some- 
times found to be present as that of 
iodine in some of the marine plants, 
but as they are not thought material to 
organized structure, or organization, 
they are not classed or considered as of 
primary necessity. But, gentlemen, the 
four mogt material substances are yet 
to be taken under consideration ; they 
are the true material of growth and are 
properly termed the alphabet of vegeta- 
ble chemistry. They are hydrogen, car- 
bon, oxygen and nitrogen. These are 
the true organic elements — the materi- 
al of growth ; without which an organic 
cell eould not be formed, nor exist eith- 
er in the vegetable or animal kingdom. 
The first which we shall lake up is oxy- 
gen. 

Oxygen gas exists extensively in na. 
ture and figures more largely, in union 
or connection with other elementary sub- 
stances, than any other ; indeed it must 
have something to do with almost every 
change, that is going on in the 
material world. It may be well termed 
the elemental monarch, among elements. 
It constitutes near one-fourth of the at_ 



232 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



mospliere — eiglit-nintlis of all water, 
wherever found, either in earth, air, or 
the deep expansive ocean — united chem- 
ically with minerals and earth, it con- 
stitutes nearly one-half of the solid crust 
of our globe, in which vegetables must 
take their foot-hold, and upon which 
animals must perform their daily round 
of locomotion. It is indeed so exten- 
sively diftused that it is hard to say 
where it is not to be found. It is ehenir 
ically united with the clothes on our 
bodies which afford us warmth, with our 
houses which shelter us from the inclem- 
ency of the boisterous elemente without 
though itself giving more than half the 
force and power to those elements. We 
breathe it, we eat it, we drink it, and we 
wear it ; and not only that, Ave walk 
upon it ^yii\l a careless and unmindful 
step. It is the supporter of combustion, 
and of respiration with animals ; with- 
out it we could not build a fire for our 
warmth ; neither could animal or vege- 
tables continue to live — and gentlemen, 
but just think of it — this is only an in- 
visible gas which performs so wonderful 
a part in nature. 

Though oxygen gas is so essential to 
the support of lite, imder whatever shgfpe 
it may be found, either in the animal or 
vegetable kingdom : it yet performs a 
most destructive office to all combina- 
tion of matter : and by this destructive 
force, or chemical action, of oxygen gas 
iipon other matter, are the forces of life 
kept in the proper balance, and continu- 
ed healthy action. As soon as any mass 
of matter becomes united under the force 
of life, and physical action, so as to form 
a system either of the vegetable or ani- 
mal, the chemical changes which take 
place are remarkable, and wonderful in- 
deed. As soon as life begins,- the power 



of the hand of death is proclaimed, and 
never for a moment absent. While ren- 
ovation, in the addition of new elemen- 
tary matter^ is being constantly applied 
by absorption, Ave see the emunetories 
or the exhalents, performing a counter 
action, that of throAving off the effete, 
useless or dead matter, which has but 
just passed the round of circulation. This 
action of absorption and exhalation, aa 
one of the phenomena of life, is equally 
applicable to the vegetable and animal, 
and differs only in mode and degree, un- 
der complicated organism, and varied 
functional action. In youth or tlie 
growing period of life, both in the ani- 
mal and vegetable, the power of the ab- 
sorbents is greater than the exhalents, so 
far as to afford a deposition of matter ta- 
ken up for their growth ; until that pe- 
riod fixed by an all-Avise being shall ar- 
rive Avhen the reverse action takes place, 
the function of absorption becomes Aveak, 
Avorn down, renovation cannot be kept 
up, Avhile the laAvs of decay are ever ac- 
tive. So, gentlemen, you Avill discover 
that a»soon as Ave begin to live, Ave be- 
gin to die, — as soon as life takes his seat 
upon his throne, dearth proclaims his law; 
and the most active agent under this law 
is oxygen gas. 

An animal confined in oxygen gas, 
breathes rapidly, heat is raised, a fever- 
ish excitement prevails ; he lives fast — 
lives much in a few minutes : but the 
carbonaceous matter in his system is 
soon burnt up or consumed in the act of 
respiration, loss of balance takes place 
and an early death is the result. 

We daily Avitness, Avhat we call the 
action of the air or atmosphere iipon 
dead vegetable matter ; or the rotting of 
Avood in its various stages of decay. — 
This change is due to oxygen gas, and k 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



233 



as mucli a process of combustion as 
when fuel is tlirown into the fire, and 
seen to become less by degrees until 
nothing is left but its inorganic matter. 
The rottrng of wood ditlers from its com- 
bustion only in degree ; the first is slow, 
tlie last is quick and rapid ; in the first, 
heat is given out slowly and impercepti- 
bly to our senses ; in the last, it is evol- 
ved rapidly and perceptibly ; but a log 
of wood in rotting, or under the slow ac- 
tion of oxygen gas, must, and does, un- 
der a fixed law of nature, eliminate as 
much heat as when being consumed by 
fire — hence it is perceptible, that soils 
may be rendered warmer by the free ap- 
plication of vegetable matter in a state 
of decomposition, and in this way, the 
effect of climate has been counteracted, 
and Edgcombe made more productive 
of cotton. Though it is not my design 
to say much upon the philosophy, or the 
action of a counterpart performed by the 
rays of light, to the destructive action of 
oxygen j^b^. 

The force of oxygen gas is constant- 
ly directed to the destruction of, or re 
duction of organized matter into its 
elementary principles: this is indeed 
a wise provision. If it were not for 
this destructive power of oxygen gas, 
the animal and vegetable accumulation 
upon the surface of the earth after the 
cessation of life, would soon become 
great. And finally as soon as the or- 
ganic material as previously prepared 
by oxygen was worked up, reproduc- 
tion would cease, and both animals and 
vegetables become extinct. As soon, 
however, as oxygen gas disintegrates 
matter, or reduces it to its molecular or 
elamentary state, it is the office of 
light to put it together under life in a 
new state 8ga|B, As fast as oxygen 



gas can furnish the dead or inanimate 
matter in a sufficiently decomposed 
state, it is the office of light, assisted 
by other physical action, to work up 
this matter into a renovated stale; 
and this action of light is supposed to 
exist more in the yellow ray than any 
other. If it were not for this renova 
ling power of light, and the force of 
oxygen gas should continue, it is per- 
ceptible likewise that life would soon 
cease upon this earth from this cause, 
and all nature be dissolved into her 
primitive elemenis. This antagonis- 
tic action of oxygen gas and light, is 
but one of the many laws, by which all 
nature is held in proper balance, and 
continued normal action. 

The more we become acquainted 
with the laws of nature the more are 
we impressed, with the awfully grand 
power, and wonderful wisdom of that 
being wh© is the creator of all things, 
and whose law is but the balance pow- 
er of his works. Oxygen gas, by union 
with various substances, forms a nu- 
merous class of acids: with sulphur, it 
forms sulphuric acid ; with carbon, 
carbonic acid ; with phosphorous, phos 
phoric acid ; and so vi'ith others. Its 
atomic weight is to hydrogen gas as 8 
to 1. 

Carbon. The diamond is the purest 
form in which carbon is known. We 
are more familiarly acquainted with 
it, however, in an inrpure state, as 
coal or charcoal. Carbon exist."! abun- 
dantly in nature; and in union with 
other substances performs an impor- 
tant part in all organized matter. In- 
deed it may be viewed as the basic cle- 
ment to be acted upon by other ele- 
ments, in the formation of organized 
material, for both plants and animals- 



234 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



When plants are dried or deprived of 
their water, charcoal, or carbon, con- 
stitutes near one-half of their bodjr, or 
of what is U'ft. It is estimated by 
Baron Lii big, that a cubic inch of 
charcoal must have, at lea>l a surface of 
100 square feet, within its pores. It is 
owing to this porous state^ that it has so 
povverful absorbent qualities, and be- 
comes so valuable in our soils, and in 
combinaiion witn all fermenting ma- 
nures, contaiainj? nitrogenous and am- 
moniacai gases. Of ammonia it has 
the capacity o( absorbing and conden- 
sing within its pores, ninety times its 
own bulk : which it is reluctant to give 
up. except to the demands of the hun- 
gry jdant. Hence from this quality 
alone, it is too much neglected by far- 
mers. Its action upon manures is how- 
ever unlike that of the sulphates. — 
Charcoal merely absorbs without 
chemical action. Sulphate of lime, or 
plaster of riaris, biingsabuuta chemi- 
cal action — the sulphate of lime is de- 
composed, and its sulphuric acid unites 
to the ammonia, and forms (he sul- 
phate of ammonia, a fixed salt, not 
volatile : while the carbonic acid elimi- 
nated from the decomposing vegetable 
matter unites to the lime making 
chalk. In this state the ammonia oan 
be retained, and applied as food to the 
growing vegetable. Hence the ex- 
pression so often used, that it requires 
.sulphate of lime, or plaster, to fix 
down the ammonia, and prevent its 
volatilization until the demands ol the 
vegetable for its growth take place. 

In union with oxygen gas it forms 
several compounds, the strongest of 
which is carbonic acid, in which state it 
i"*, by vegetables, required, as food, or 
to help in tke formation of organized 



compounds. The souices of carbonic 
acid gas are abundant : as may be read- 
ily seen, from the abundant quantity 
in nature of the two materials which 
form it, and the formation too constant- 
ly taking place by the action of phyt-i- 
cal causes even at an ordinary temper- 
ature. Animals inhale atmospheric 
air and throw ofTcarbonic acid gas in 
the act of respiration. Flants perform 
a counter pan, they absorb carbonic 
acid, and throw off" oxygen gas. The 
atomic weight of carbon is as 6 to 1, 
compared with hydrogen. 

Nitrogen Ga^. This gas is lighter 
than atmospheric air, of which it cim- 
stituies near three-fourths. We have 
mentioned the activity of oxygen gas, 
the article which constitutes nearly the 
other fourth of atmospheric air, upon 
the vital forces of an animal. It ap- 
pears that one of the designs of wis- 
dom, in combining nitrogen gas with 
oxygen, ui the above proportion, is to 
dilute il, so that the destructive action 
of oxygen shall be reduced to a slow 
combustion ; and that the balance of 
power shall not be destroyed between 
ihe decomposing effect of oxygen gas 
and the renovating power of lights — 
Nitrogen gas is quite careless and in- 
dependent in its union with other sub- 
stances : and when a union is formed 
with them, its proneness to e.-^cape is 
so great, that quite unstable compounds 
are formed. It is quite an important 
element in plants and en'crs as a con- 
stituent of their quartenary compounds 
as albumen, gluten and others. These 
nitrogenized or proteinaccous com- 
pounds of the vegetable, are the true 
flesh forming material of the animal. — 
Nitrogen exists m the muscles and tis- 
sues of animals, of which it consuls- 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



235 



tes about seventeen per cent. Its atom- 
ic weight is as 14 to I. 

Hydrogen Gas We have frequent- 
ly referred to this gas as the lightest of 
all known simple substances. It is 
1-14 ofthe weiirht of atmospheric air. 
It is never found free or unccmbined 
except by the force of chemical action : 
but it exists abundantly in combination 
of other elements. Of water it c^m- 
stitutes one-ninth of its weight. Hy 
diogen is a necessary material to both 
J lants and animals. Its atomic weight 
is assumed as one ; which as being the 
lightest of all simple substances, is ta- 
ken as a basis by which the atomic 
weight ofthe others is compared 

With this, gentlemen, we have fin- 
ished a general outline of the organic 
material. 1 will not wciiry you with 
a detail of the minuiife of their vari- 
ous combinations. The study of this 
should be the business of your leisure 
hours, at more private limes, at home: 
but these are the materials, with which 
you daily toil upon your farm, and 
which you endeavor to put together in 
such a way as to make a luxuriiint 
crop. I am well aware that upon oc- 
ca'^ions like the present it is unusual to 
take up in detail so dull a matter as is 
presented ; and in doing sol am more- 
over aware, that we have been travel- 
ling through dark ways, and obscure 
paths — that we have liad mists and 
fogs hanging over our course. But 
genliemen, the darkest part of the day 
is usually in the mists and fogs of the 
morning, which are soon dispelled by 
the genial rays of a bright sun: to 
which the laborer looks with cheerino- 

o 

hope, while pursuing his regular round 
of labor. The business or object which 
I have allotted to myself today, is to 



illustrate general principles; and to 
impress upon your minds, the great 
value, of at least a knowledge 'of the 
general principlts of chemistry, to you 
as knowing men, and successful agri- 
culturists. It is certainly not expected 
that every practical farmer, shall or can 
become learned in chemistry — by no 
means; but he should be acquainted 
with iis principles and laws, however, 
so far as, not only to know what he la 
doing upon his farm, and what imme- 
diate changes are likely to take place ; 
but what ultimate result is to be pro- 
duced under favorable physical infiu- 
ences. To know and understand this, 
he should know the force of matter, and 
the general laws which govern it Not 
to know this is to rely upon blind ex- 
periment, and many have to be made, 
at vast expenditure of labor, before one 
proves successful. 

Aeiicul'.ure, gentlemen, IS a science 
— a fixed science — having chemistry, 
and physics, with their correlative 
branches as its basis ; and it is no ob- 
jection to it as a science, that the ap- 
plication of these principles to it are yet 
m infancy, and that it is in a forming 
stale. It is not derogatory to the stand- 
ing of an agriculluiist to acknowledge 
his ignorance of these fundamental 
principles, because it is only of late 
that the talents and science of the woild 
have been directed in the way of throw- 
ing their light upon agriculture and 
accounting for many of its phenomena. 
But, gentlemen, should you feel as you 
are, that you ar3 yet in the darlc, 
and that you are unable to account 
for the cause of either success or dis- 
appointment in your farming opera- 
tions; that the mists and fogs yet 
hang over your way, and blind you 



236 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAI*. 



experimental course ; and that in this 
nineteenth century, you are in the in- 
fancy of the profession of your choice — 
the most noble pursuit vvhich ever oc- 
cupied man ; and the true basis upon 
which all others are founded. If all 
these diiSculties hang over ihe way to 
snore perfect success, is it not time 
•'that ye be prepared, your lamps trim- 
med, and your oil ready, that when the 
bridegroom cometh you may enter in 
and reap the fruits of your foresight and 
precaution." As i» has been indicated 
to you that these sixteen elementary 
substances, form the ground work of 
all aofricultural operations — e.xist in 
their elementary state, in the soil, the 
vegetables, and even in the imple- 
ments of husbandry : for though in 
combination, and grouped together in 
iliis way their elements can be separa- 
ted and recombined in various forms so 
as to produce quite a difTt-rent com- 
pound or substance— it becomes necessa- 
ry to know something of the laws which 
bring about those changes. 

As it is only my object to day to i!" 
lustrate a .fundamental piinciple, as 
founded upon primary materials; and 
to take up but few of those material.s or 
elementary substances for such illustra- 
tion and show the general principles 
which govern or rule their combination, 
and fitihem to perform so important a 
part, and figure so largely in organiza- 
tion and life, it becomes tieces.sary to 
know something of the atomic theory; 
and those laws of chemical aflfinity 
which rule in the combination, of either 
(elementary or compound matter. — 
Chemical affinity or attraction, is that 
power which brings two or more ma- 
terial substances, by contact, into chem- 
ii al union : so that a substance, quite 



different from the original materials, is 
produced. As when oxygen sas be- 
comes united with iron, it is reduced 
to a brown powder, the oxyde of iron .- 
or potash to oil, which forms soap. 

The force which governs chemical ai^ 
traction or affinity is different between 
different substances ; if carbonic acid 
is added to lime, chalk is formed which 
is a neutral salt, possessing the quali- 
ties of neither the acid or lime; if t<j 
this challc -ve add vinegar, there is a 
greater affinity between the vineg«r 
and lime than between the carbonic 
acid and lime, consequently the vinegar 
take.'' the place of the carbonic acid, be- 
comes united with the lime chemically, 
and the carbonic acid escapes as gfas. 
If we prish to illustrate chemical affini- 
ty still further, we will add sulphuric 
acid, to this combination of vinegar and 
lime, when the salphuric acid formg a 
union with the lime and forms sulphate 
of lime, and the vinegar is set fee. — 
By this illustration you will discover, 
that ibe attraction between the vinegar 
and the lime is greater than between 
the carbonic acid and lime ; and that 
the attraction between sulphuric acid 
and lime is greater than either. A 
correct knowledge of this chemical at- 
traction or affinity, between different 
elementary substances, which is equal- 
ly applicable to all, is essentially nec- 
essary to all correct chemical analyses 
and synthesis. 

We have spoken of atoms and ele- 
ments. An elenrientary substance is 
that which cannot, by any operation 
known to man, be again divided ; an 
atom of a simple or elementary sub- 
stance, is one multiple — atom — or in- 
tegral part of such elementary sub- 
stance, and unchangeable. Atoms of 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL, 



23? 



the same element are always of the 
same weight, but of different elements 
compared one with the other, of differ- 
ent weights. All combinations of ele- 
ments must represent their respective 
atomic weights or multiple proportions ; 
as when we speak of water, as being 
composed of oxygen and hydrogen gas, 
we shall bear in mind that an atom of 
the hydrogen gas is 1 in weight, and 
that an atom of oxygen gas as compar- 
ed with that is 8. We therefore say 
that water is composed of one part of 
hydrogen gas and eight parts of oxygen 
g&3 ; and that these elements have a 
chemical affinity to unite in this propor- 
lion to form water, and in no other 
mode of combination can they be made 
to unite so as to constitute it. If we 
wish to form ammonia, we must com- 
bme three atoms of hydrogen, to one of 
nitrogen w})en a chemical action under 
the laws of affinity takes place, and 
ammonia is produced ; and under no 
o'her combining numbers can thoy be 
made to unite so as to form ammonia. — 
The laws of chemical affinity are but 
the laws of nature or those forces 
which govern and regulate the materi- 
al world. They are ever unchangea- 
ble and unalterable ; as thev emanate 
from that almighty hand — all-wise 
source — the creator of all matter : with 
whom an atom is a world, and a world 
but an aggregate collection of atoms, 
held, together by the force' of his laws. 

It is granted to man the power of 
availing himself of the force of these 
laws upon matter. He may combine, 
the various matter with which he is 
rurrounded, in such a way as to be 
practically benericial to his varions ope- 
rations, and useful to himself; yet the 
chemical changes which take place, 



though probably unseen or unknown 
to him ; are under the government of 
the'3e unchangeable laws. He ean 
change matter, or alter its outwaid 
character in this combination ; but he 
can neither create or destroy one atom, 
or alter the laws which act upon it. — ■ 
Our servant brings in the combustible 
material, or wood, and sets it to burn- 
ing ; in this he brings about a chemi- 
cal action. We take our seat by it 
and enjoy the heat emanating therefrom 
with great luxury ; we see the fuel be- 
coming less by degrees, leaving finally 
but a small remnant behind — the ash. 
Yet the servant knows nothing of the 
chemical changes produced ; he only 
knows the effect — the result. I will 
not insult your understanding, gentle- 
men, by saying that in many mstances 
the master is as ignorant of this chemi- 
cal action as the servant himself. In 
this combustion not an atom is destroy- 
ed, or lost to nature. The organic ma- 
terials in combination in the wood, are 
diffused in a gaseous state, and wafted 
by the aimosphere to different parts. — - 
In this gaseous state, it is soon deman- 
ded by some vegetable, becomes united 
with its organized material in a new 
home ; and in this way those elements 
which could boast of having had a hab- 
itation in the majestic and lofty oak of 
the forest, may be forced to take their 
abode in the thorny shrub, the noxious 
weed, or the insignificant and contemp- 
tible grasses. You gather up the ma- 
terials from the vegetable kingdom, 
^ a state of decomposition, in yoiir 
farm yards, of compost heaps, with a 
design of preparing food foT the favor- 
ite plants of your farm ; they are com- 
bined with other fertilizers, or expect- 
ed to absorb the excretiae of animalsj 



238 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



ae deposited. These under various 
stages of decomposition are hauled out 
as manure. You manure in various 
other ways — some with marl, some with 
purchased lime or plaster, or guano, 
and some with much labor vs^ill hunt 
up the dead trees in their fjresl lands, 
cut them down, throw them in heaps, 
burn them and apply their ash to the 
soil. Various other experiments are 
pursued, and being carried out upon 
your farms, for you are not unmind- 
ful that you live in an age of pro 
gress. But gentlemen, permit me in 
candor and sincerity to ask you ; do 
you know what jou are doing in tliis 
vast expendi'.ure of labor, this laborious 
round of hauling from your barn yard 
or compost heap into your fields, fully 
ninety per cent, of the material com- 
posed of oxygen, hydrogen, carbon and 
nitrogen, and which exist abundantly 

] the air and water of the firmament ; 

; 1 d which are brought down by every 
f !:ower of rain ? Even of the element.s 
<f water and air, alone, it requires no 
strained calculation to say that in every 
load of the dryest manure composed of 
vegetable matter alone which you 
haul out upon your farm, they make 
about 40 per cent. Charcoal or car- 
bonic acid constitutes the great portion 

f the balance, and leaving when we 
allow the greatest estimate, only about 
or less than ten per cent of inorganic 
matter. Yes gentlemen, work it ns 
you will, — calculate it under scientific 
rules in the most favourable way im- 
aginab!e, — you must arrive ultimately 
to this, that you haul out about nine 
per cent, of ^those gases which consti- 
tute water and air, and that which 
floats with it in the state of carbonic 
acid gas. These gases are mdeed veg- 



etable food, abundantly provided by 
nature's hand ; and dispensed as such 
for the benefit of all men. Do you 
know what you: soils contain, either of 
organic or inorganic material? for to 
know what is needed, requires first ix> 
know what is aiready contained there- 
in. Do you know what the vegetable, 
which you design to cultivate upon any 
portion of your soil, requires of either 
organic or inorganic inat'er as food 
particularly the last? And lastly do 
you know that your soil contains the 
proper elements for the growth of such 
vegetables ; or that your manures con- 
tain them, particularly those of the in- 
organic or fixtd class? 

These gentleaien, are fundamertal 
principles of knowledge, and indispen- 
sable to agricultural success ; and 
worthy of having all the light which 
analytical chemistiy can give, and 
which can be derived from no other 
source That agneulturul chemistry 
is, as a science, in somewhat an embry- 
otic state must readily be admitted, 
when viewed in its vast fields or ^;copa 
of detail ; but that analytical chernis- 
trv can ascertain the constituent ele- 
ments of soils, and vegetables must be 
equally admitted a^ well known Now 
it the agriculturist can have this knowl- 
edge as a basis, a fact, to rest his e.t- 
periments and farm operations upon, 
some of the mi-ts and fogs which hang 
over the way of success are dispell jd 
and by these lights of sci^nse, his way 
is made clear. Not to Icnow this, not 
to have this light, it is perceptible that 
all his operations and experiments, are 
under no laws, but those of chance, or 
accidental success, if success, is tbe re- 
sult ofany. And when such successful 
1 result becomes known to others, yiop- 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



239 



led by ihem, and carried out in plan 
and principle in accordance with Us 
discovery, it is without any of them 
being able, by the application of natural 
laws to account for any of those phe- 
nomena, or changes of matter which 
lead tc such successful result. When 
if the laws of chemistry were applied 
to it, in many cases a general principle 
ii>ay be established upon a scientific 
basis, and the same result attained in a 
shorter way, and at great saving of 
time and money. 

[remainder in our next.] 



From the Albany Cultivator. 
linproviiig old Lands. 

Messrs. Editors — As 'time is money,' 
and all labor-saving inventions the econ- 
omy of time, I have concluded to give 
my experience and observation on a point 
of agriculture in which all who cultivate 
tlie soil are interested, especially those 
that work poor or worn lands. This is 
tiie case with most of us ; at least those 
vriio till the lauds of Madison county, 
Miss. Originally the laud of this county 
was productive, and paid well for culti- 
vtction, but that time is nuriibered with 
tlie things that were, and unless some 
plan is speedily adopted for the renova- 
tiou of our soil, we will be either reduced 
to beggary, or we will have to change 
our homes for one that will remunerate 
us for our labour. This county is com- 
paratively level, with a clay foundation 
— ^ foundation that is susceptible of as 
jnucli improvement as any other in the 
uuiverse. Where there is soil, our lands 
produce equal to any. A little manure 
has a greater efiect here than in any 
country I ever was in ; but from the ap- 
pearance of most of the farms in this re- 
gion, you would think but few bad found 



out the secret that manure would cause 
the earth to produce niore abundantly. 
Red bills, gullies, and the waste of fertil- 
izers, announce in tones of thunder the 
suicidal course that has been pursued in 
this country. The plan has been to take 
away as much as possible and return no- 
thing to failing nature. "Rip the goose 
that lays the golden egg." The crisis 
has at last arrived : we begin to appre- 
hend our danger ; but, alas, too late to 
save many of our most choice farms from 
that dearth w^hich has come upon them. 
But there may be a great deal done yet 
to bring back our old lands to their pri- 
meval state, if men wdio pass themselves 
off for men of intelligence, would take 
and read agricultural works, and lay 
aside the old adage, that because their 
daddies carried a pumpkin in one end of 
the bag, and a rock in the other, that 
they )nust do the same. They had bet- 
ter learn something,' if it is 'booklarnin.' 
I say the time has arrived that some sys* 
tem must be adopted to protect and ne- 
novate our lands. I propose a system, 
which, if carried out, will pay any man 
at least for his trouble. Try it, and I 
will vouch for your success. 1st. Cut 
hill side ditches around all your hill or 
slanting lands that you have in cultiva- 
tion, from fifty to one hundred yards 
apart, according to the slant, with, a fall 
of one inch for each rod ; these ditches 
are very easily made by runniiig a two 
horse plow with mold down hill, always 
beginning the furrow at tlie same end, 
hoes folIoAving to draw out loose dirt. — 
If your bottom lands are inclined to be 
too wet, ditch and drain them well, by 
running too parallel ditches, from four to 
eight feet apart, owing to the amount of 
Avater that you wish to draw off; place 
the dirt between the t^ro, then run your 



240 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



rows so as to empty into your ditches on 
eitlier side ; then sow down one fourth of 
your land in the fall or spring, in small 
jo-rain. After you have harvested your 
grain, turn in your stock ; let them pick 
off what grain may be left ; then take 
them off, and about the first of July plant 
your stubble land with peas, lay off 3 1-2 
feet with a one horse plow, cover with 
same kind of plow, by throwing two fur- 
rows ; then run over with a harrow. — 
After the peas are up, bar off and scrape 
■out. In eight or ten days, plow out and 
throw dirt to your peas, and such another 
coat of manure you never dreamed of. — 
You can manm-e ten acres in this way 
as easy as you can in any other way. — 
As early in the fall or winter as possible, 
take a two horse plow, lay off your land 
at planting distance, then run a subsoil 
plow after your turning plow, follow 
with hoes, draw in all the vines and other 
trash, then bed on this; next spring 
plant in cotton, and if you are not remu- 
aierated in the fall for your labor, I'll give 
it up. EusTicus. 

Last Chance, Miss., July^o2. 



To Make Prime Vinegar. — A cor- 
respondent of the Ohio Cultivator vouch- 
es for the merit of the following recipe 
for making vinegar: — "Take and mix 
one quart of molas.'Jes, three gallons of 
(rain) water, and one pint of yeast. Let 
it ferment and stand for four weeks, and 
thee will have the best of vinegar." 



Investigations have been made in Lon- 
don, of cayenne pepper, which have re- 
sulted in detecting its adulteration with 
some deadly poison, such as red lead, 
mixed with certain earths. This is real- 
ly disgraceful to humanity — there are 
piany beasts in the form of men. 



FARMER'S JOURNAL. 

BATH, N.C., NOVEMBER, 1852. 



Dr. Phillips' Address. 

We lay before our readers the very 
able address of Dr. Phillips before the 
third annual meeting of the Edgecombe 
county Agricultural Society. This pro- 
duction needs no bolstering up from any 
one, it only requires to be read in order 
to be appreciated. The style is plain 
though beautiful, the reasoning is deep 
though powerful. We are sure that 
when our readers examine this address 
they will exclaim with us, that here is 
a son of whom any State might feel 
proud. He, during the early part of his 
life, devoted himself assiduously to the 
practice of his profession, fi-om which he 
has now retired amid the love and ad- 
miration of all who know him. We find 
him applying himself with his former 
energy to a science which now is just in 
its infancy, using every effort to reduce to 
fixct what has heretofore been regarded as 
theoiy and hypothesis. Dr. Phillips is a 
native son of old Edgecombe, and we feel 
proud to claim as our birth place the 
land which claims him as one of her 
jewels. In his own County all who know 
him love him and this production will 
we are sure endear him to every true 
North Carolinian. 



To the Members of the Legislature 
of North Carolina. 

We hope that we shall not be consid- 
ered presumptious at this time in making 
an appeal to you, as the guardians of the 
various interests of our State in behalf of 
that one which by all is acknowledged 
to be the true basis of a nation's prosperi- 
ty. Heretofore every other branch of in- 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



241? 



dustry has received aid by Legislative 
enactment, -n-liile the Agricultural inter- 
■eet has been suffered to remain entirely 
neglected, without making scarcely any 
progress in our State within the last fifty 
years. The blarae for this condition of 
things is not to be attached so much to 
onr Legislature, as to the Farmers them- 
selves ; for it is not to be expected that 
any grievance will be redressed before 
complaint is made, and your attention is 
xjalled to it 

Such a great degree of apathy has 
until now existed among our farmers, 
that they have not felt the need of aid 
from any quarter, much less from the 
Legislature. Their lands until recently 
have borne up under the murderous 
tillage practiced by them, and they have 
not looked at the matter in its proper 
light, and consequently have failed to 
aee their real position. The fact though 
now is perfectly apparent, that North 
Ciirohna is^a long way behind her sister 
-States in Agricultural advancement, and 
idiifei-ent means must be employed from 
any heretofore used to rescue her from 
her present unenviable position. We 
have for some time pa»t looked upon the 
gradu^i decline of our State with feelings 
of regiet, and have plainly seen that 
something must be done, or a few of her 
sons would be left to mourn over the 
departure of the many. 

In making this appeal, gentlemen, we 
feel that we are as it were invoking aid 
from a number of sons who have it in 
their power to assist a ca^e-^worn and ex- 
Laaisted mothei". We feel sure that we 
are addressing those whose "hearts swell 
■with gladness " whenever they hear the 
naiQe of the good old North State, and 
tliatyou are ready to do any thing that 
'wai have a tendency to elevate and pro. 



mote this interest which has been so 
long neglected among us. Relying 
upon your liberality of feeling, we ven- 
ture to make a few suggestions in re- 
gard to the most speedy and effectual 
way of advancing the farming interest 
of out Slate. While on a recent visit to- 
Raleigh, we had the pleasure of inter- 
changing ideas and opinion'with many of" 
you in regard to this matter, and we are 
pleased to say that those with whom we- 
conversed seemed to be fully alive to the 
importance of doing something, and that 
very soon, in order to elevate our farmers- 
from their present degraded position. 
Some were of opinion that we should ajr- 
point a State Chemist, whose duty it 
should be to make analyses of the farm- 
er's soils and marles; these gentlemen 
giving as their reasons, for the appoint- 
ment of such an ofScer that in those 
States where Agriculture was advancing 
most rapidly there were Chemists ap- 
pointed by the State to discharge these 
duties. That such is the fact we will not 
deny. There are in the Stiites of Mas- 
sachusetts and Maiyland a State Chem- 
ist, and the appointment there is condu- 
cive of great good. Bat we would here 
remark that, the farmers there have long 
since looked upon their profession as 
truly an honorable one, and as founded 
upon real scientific' principles, and that 
they really had arrived at ag great a de- 
gree of perfection in it as possible with- 
out such aid as the Chemist only could 
afford them. But we would ask is this 
the case with the farmers of North Caro- 
lina. Hare they ever employed proper- 
ly those mechanical means, viz : drain- 
age and plowing of lands to that degree 
which is strictly necessary in order that 
chemical improvement could be properly 
brought to bear ? You must recollect,. 



242 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



gentlemen, that our farmers have just 
awaked fi'om their long slumbers, and 
that to furnish means for their general 
improvement such as could not be gen- 
-eraJly applied, would be futile indeed & a 
tiseless expenditure of money. There ai'e, 
we regret to say, very many farmers in 
North Carolina who yet firmly resist 
the idea that it is at all important that 
the farmer should have a knowledge of 
liis soil in order to practice his profession 
successfully. There are still many who 
boiist of having never re^id a book upon 
filming, and consequently contend that 
their fathers knew more about land and 
t!ie manner of cultivating it, than any of 
«3 who live at the present day. There 
jsre many wlio still say "ha^ig this 
book farming," that they will still cling 
to the old way of skimnung the earth's 
surface instead of plowing deep and ar- 
riving at the real fertility of the soil. — 
And besides these the area of land is 
<juite too large for any one man to per- 
foi'm the duties satisfactorily to our farm- 
ers. Indeed, it would t^ke him a 
iHiraber of years to cajTy out the full 
c^jex:;t of his appointment As we said 
before, our farmers are ju t beginning to 
improve, and the appointsuent of this of- 
dce at this time would seem to us pre- 
mature ; indeed, it would seem like put- 
ting a boy to spelling iu ' crucifix' before 
he had fairly learned his letters. We 
uiuat begin with the first principles and 
j*ivauce properly in order to accomplish 
tliat degree of perfection in farming which 
we have it iu our power to do. But say 
you, what do you propose to do ; and 
fur fear you may becomo weary, we will 
pnxieed to submit our plan for your con- 
^d-eration. We propose to divide the 
State into four sections, and appoint as 
many persons to give lectures through- 



out the year upon the various branehee 
of Agriculture in their respective sections. 
Let the salary be sucK as to obtain, tlw 
services of such men as are competent fr) 
discharge the duties of the position; — 
Suppose V e say an appropriation of ten 
thousand dollars anai'aally, allowiug each 
a salary of tweenty-five hundred dollars 
a year, he pa}dng his expenses out of 
this amount. Let these Lecturei-s c-on- 
tinue even for one year, and we hazajd 
nothino' in saying that at the next Ses- 
sion of your body, you will hear a good 
account of their labors, from every meni- 
ber of this Legislature. In j ustification of 
this plan we woidd say, that for the last 
eight months we have traveled over a 
goodly portion of the State, and deliver- 
ed lectures upon such subjects as spol&n 
of above, and we need go no farther than 
among the members of your respecti^K 
bodies to obtain full testimony of the 
great good whicli has already resulted 
from our labours. In many counties 
where we went, it was at first difficult ft> 
obtain a hearing, the good people weR3 
so anxiously looking after the Govern- 
ment ; but after repeated eftbrts we final 
ly obtained a hearing, and many woukl 
listen with child-like wonder, as if it 
were a fancy stoiy which we were r^ 
lating instead of truth. AVhen we tokl 
them of what was done in the far-^med 
county of Edgecombe, they would e3i>- 
press as much surprise as if they believ- 
ed these things could Rot be done; 
and there were many who no doubt 
did not believe what we said. In ma- 
king these suggestions we hope that we 
shall not be considered dictatorial, for 
such is not our intention or wish. Whai 
we have here said has been from the 
jmrest of motives, anxious as we are to 
see our o-ood Old North State throw oif 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



243 



tlie frequent taunts and sneers which are 
heapea upon her. There is, gentlemen, 
no good reason why North Carolina 
jdiould not be the first Agricultural State 
in the whole South. She is possessed ^ 
a dimate as pleasant as we could wish, 
anil a soil in its native state whose fer- 
I ility cannot be surpassed, and her natur- 
al advantages are great from her "green 
mountains to her ocean-washed sea- 
sJiiire.'' 

In conclusion, gentlemen, we say come 
to the rescue of North Carolina, save 
her from being stripped of her energy, 
hei- talent, and her Avealth. Let us all 
put our shoulders to the wheel and give 
her a push up the hill. The people are 
re^dy for some such move as this, and 
we know of our personal knowledge 
that such is their wish, and when the 
people speak they should be heard. In 
coining to any determination about this 
matter which you in your wisdom may 
think best, let us entreat you to act as 
true North Carolinians, knowing no 
]'];i.st, no West, but have in view the 
gO(xl of the State at large. And we ai-e 
sure that in making some such appro- 
jn'ialion as the one we have spoken of, 
that you will upon your return to your 
homes, have the n")yfui greeting of "well 
done thou good ;*iid faithful servant" 



TLe State Agricultural Convention. 

This body met on tlie ] 8tli of October 
in RaJeigh, and the proceedings we 
have given in another place in this num- 
ber of the '■'•Journal''' but v\^e cannot al- 
low this opportunity to pa-ss without ma- 
king- soine farther remarks upon this sub- 
ject.. We must confess that it was with 
*ham6 and mortification, that we on the 
ap|x>inted day for tlie meeting of tlie 
ConvGintic '"^.upon looking around found 



that there were onl)^ seven del egat<^-s from 
County Societies present, except tiiose 
from the Wake county Society, and such 
members of the Legislature as were del 
egates. We are sure that ' some would 
say that we should give a high coloring 
to this thing, and induce all who read 
our paper, that there was a grand dis- 
play of feeling and enthusiasm manifes- 
ted on the occasion. This we cannot 
do, for we think it nothing but right to 
show up our farmers in their true po- 
sition ; let the world see how much in- 
terest they take in their profession and 
its advancement, and then it will be 
more easily accounted for why we have 
such barren fields as to cause the travel- 
er so frequently to remark that as soon 
as he crosses the line either North oir 
South, '-here we are in the land of tar^ 
pitch and turpentine." Yes, we say it 
should be known that the present unen- 
viable position of North Carolina is rath- 
er to be attributed to a want of energy 
on the part of her citizens tlian to th-e 
sterility of h-er soil. 

We must confess that we were sadly 
disappointed in not seeing all of the ten 
delegates appointed from Edgecomba, 
for we did think that a ■•iroper degree of 
interest was felt in this m-itter by tbe 
fai-mers of that County, to cause them to 
b& fully represented, for they if any peo- 
ple in our State know the good which is 
to result from such an institu-ion as tlie 
one which we^met to "form. 

Amid oiir regret we are glad to smy 
that there were a few spirits there coi>- 
genial with ours ; there were present 
some who looked around upon the inany 
vacant seats in the Commons Hall witli 
the same sad feelings which we did. — 
During the session of this body the que^ 
tion frequently arose in our mind, .,wh<?re 



244 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



are the many good people of the city of 
Oaks, "tt'ho should we know feel a deep 
interest in the object of our assembly ? 
"VMiy are they not here doing "that 
something" w^hich a friend wrote us 
every man should do ? Surely they 
could have left their respective Occupa- 
tions long enough to be present a few 
hours each day to show their approba- 
tion and give what encouragement they 
<'cvuld to the move. They certainly did 
not think that they were dependent 
upon the farmer for all of the splendor 
in which they were living, and that in 
order to incre^ise or even to continue 
this as it now is, they should nurture the 
farming interest. As our readers have 
seen there were officers appointed for the 
State Agricultural Society, and a Con- 
stitution and By-laws adopted, and that 
some steps were taken in order to have 
a State Agricultural Fair next f^xll in or 
near Raleigh. Xow a word about this 
Fair. We would here saj'^ that these 
few who have put their shoulder to this 
mighty wheel are firmly resolved to 
have it, if they only show tliree pump- 
kins and as many potatoes. Our rea- 
ders will see that we elected unanimous- 
ly to the office of President John S. 
I>ancy, Esq., of Edgecombe, Avho is every 
way worthy and qualified for the position. 
He is one among the very few young men 
uf Xorth Carolina, who after ha\nng re- 
ceived a finished education thought the 
life of a farmer suffi.ciently honorable for 
him to pursue. We say "honor to whom 
honor is due," and this appointment is 
due to Mr. Dancy, and tlie County which 
he represented. His County is the first 
in Agricultural advancement, and he is 
<ffie of the most scientific farmers in the 
County. The Recording Secretary, Col. 
James F. Taylor, of Raleigh, is as good 



an appointment Jis could have been 
made, for he is a red-hot North Caroli- 
nian, and one of the best informed men 
in the State. He takes a great pride in 
doing any thing which will have a teiv- 
dency to advance the interest of Nc^rth 
Carolina. The Corresponding Secretary, 
we will vouch for it, will do every thing 
in his power to throw any light upon 
all subjects in connection with the best 
interests of the Institution. Thr Trea- 
surer, we are satisfied, is a most excel- 
lent choice, faithful to any trust im- 
posed in him, and a true lover of that 
land which gave him birth. And now a 
word to these three who together with 
us make up the crew who are appointetl 
to take charge of this new ship. Let us 
cling together lenditig each other any 
assistance in oui' power at all timeS;' — 
We are now upon untried waters, and 
steering a diiferent kind of craft from 
what ^^'e have ever managed before, and 
there are we doubt not many shoals and 
rocks upon which we may split and he 
dashed to pieces ; yet by a steady course 
a straight observation of our duty, and 
sharp lookout for the danger, we may 
land our ship safe in port, and -nn hen ^v<^ 
take our discharge we may each be 
hailed as good and expert seamen. 



Swamp Lands in Beaufort County. 

Li the second number of the Farmers 
Journal, we spoke of the great fertility of 
the swamp lands in the above named 
County. We entreated those farmers of 
our State who wished to naove from their 
present farms on account of not having 
a sufficient quantity of land for their 
forces, to come to Beaufort county. In 
making this appeal we are not prompted 
by selfish motiws, but from a Avish to see 
our young men and old men too, instead 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



245 



cif deserting tlie land of their birth, if 
tliey make a move come into that part of 
<nir State Avhere the lands are as fertile 
;i5 one could wish, and are sold at prices 
such as to justify the purchaser in buy- 
ing. The situation of these lands are 
such as to render them highly desirable ; 
they mostly are located parallel with the 
Pamplico river on each side, and are fre- 
quently interspersed with creeks, Avhich 
will serve as outlets for drainage and for 
the getting off of produce. "We are sure 
that lighter boats carrying from one 
lundred and fifty to two hundred barrels 
ciin go up these creeks with perfect ease, 
and they are not overflowed by any 
storm tide. They have quite enough 
fall for drainage and will produce from 
eight to twelve barrels of corn the tirst 
year. The foundation is clay, and many 
of them are underlayed with marl of an 
iiscellent character. Some of them are, 
])roperly speaking, vegetable soils, and 
others are of a closer texture, and are 
Well adapted to the growth of wheat. — 
The farm of (^en. Wm. A. Blount, whose 
letter we published in the August num- 
ber of the '■'•Jaurnal^'' is located in one 
of these swamps which consists of 2,- 
500 acres. These lands have never 
been brought into requisition by our 
own citizens,because heretofore,they have 
been engaged in the cultivation of turpen- 
tine on the }>iney lande, and in getting 
the various kinds of3 lumber. Indeed, 
nature has heretofore done so much for 
■our people that they have been living at 
tlieir ease, and have consequently neglec. 
te<_l to ditch and clear up these rich lands. 
We say to our readers, that if they wish 
to own good lands in North Carolina 
and get them cheap, come down into 
Bejiutbrt county, and we or some one 
else will show them as good land as they 



could wish. We have seen in some of 
wTiat are called the North counties, for 
instance Perquimans, snch land selling 
for ten dollars per acre as people in tliis 
county would regard as woithless. But 
theo-e we find a scarcity of land and an 
improving people. 



Records of the State Agrieulturai 
Society of North-Carolina. 

Raleigh Monday Oct. 18, 1852. 
The North Carolina Agricultural 
Convention was temporarily organized, 
on motion of Dr. Tompkins, of Beau- 
fort county Society, l.>y the appointment 
of Charles L. llinton, of Wake, the 
President pro tanpoie, and James F. 
Taylor, of Raleigh, Recording Secreta- 
ry. 

Delegates from the following county 
societies then came forward and enrolle«.l 
their names, to wit : 

Frovi Beaufort County Socifi'i/ — 
■Messrs. J. F. Ton)pkins, AVilliara 11. 
Trij.p. 

From Edgecombe County Society — 
Messrs. J. S. Dancy, J. D. Jenkins. 

From Onslow Cou/ili/ Society — Messrs 
L. W. Humphrey, J. A. Everett. 

From, Wake Agricultural Society' — 
Messrs. R. H. Battle, Will. Boylan Will 
M. Boylan, R. W. Haywood, C. L. Hin- 
ton, David Hinton, Henry Morde«U5 
Alpheus Jones, Caswell Powell, Will. R. 
Pool, R. Seawell, Needh^vm Price, C. B. 
Root, Will. A. Scott, J. G. B. Roulha<«, 
Jas. F. Taylor, Syl'r Smitli, Alfred Wil- 
liams, Wilson W. Whitaker, Willis 
Whitaker, E. P. Guion, W. F. Collins, 
T. J. Lemay, L- O'B. Branch.— 24. 

Dr Tompkins, of Beaufort, moved 
that a committee of five be appointed by 
the temporary President to prepare reso- 
lutions, and take the necessary measures 



246 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



foi" tlie org-aiiization of tlie State Society 
at' agriculture. The motion was adopted, 
aiid the President appointed the follow- 
ing gentlemen on the committee of or- 
ganization, viz : 

Messrs. J. F. Tompkins, of Beaufort ; 
J. S. Dancy, of Edgecombe; A. J. Leacli, 
(rf Johnston ; L. W. Humphrey, of Ons- 
low ; J. G. B. Roulhac, of Wake, 

The meeting then adjcmrned to meet 
again at three o'clock in the Commons 
Hall of the Capitol. 



moj;day afternoox, commons hall. 

The N. C. Agricultural State Conven- 
tion met at 3 o'clock according to ad- 
joui'nment in tlie Commons Hall; Mr, 
Charles L. Iliiiton, of Wake, taking the 
tiiair, and J. F. Taylor acting as Secre- 
tary. 

Dr. Tompkins, of Beaufort, tlien re- 
ported fi-om the committee of five on the 
tn-ganization the following preamble and 
resolutions, viz : 

To improve the gi'eat and growino- 
interests of agriculture in the Old North 
State, to arouse a laudable State pride 
and render tlie occupation of the ]>lant- 
er and farmer a more respectable and 
hf.ffiorable c;dling, we recommend the 
adoption and cai'rying out of the follow- 
ing resolutions : 

Jx-esolved, Ist, That Ave recommend 
the formation of a Society to be known 
fj* . tJie State Agricultural Society of 
Xortli Carolina. 

'2nd. For the government of said So- 
ciety, we recommend the appointment 
oi" a President and four Vice Presidents, 
a Recording Secretary, a Corresponding 
S<"oretary and Treasurer. 

Srd, For the advancement of the 
eause, we earnestly recommend to eveiy 
County in tJie State the formation of one 



or more Agricultural Societies to aid ami 
co-operate with the State Society. 

4th. A committee of ten to draw up 
and report a Constitution and By-Laws 
f )r the future government of the Soci©- 

Dr Tompkins moved that the S'X'iety 
immediately go into the election of pe?- 
manent officers which motion was car- 
ried. He nominated J. S. Dancy, of 
Edgecombe county, for President, which 
was agreed to by acclamation ; and Jfr^ 
Dancy was conducted to the chair, by 
Messr. Tompkins and Cherr}', and ra;K:te 
his acknowledgements in appropriate 
style. 

'Messrs. Will. R. Pool, of Wake, N. 
W. AVoodfin, of Buncombe, Daniel Mo- 
Dairmid, of Cumberland, and Ralph 
Gorrell, of Guilford, were then elected 
Vice Presidents. 

J. F. Taylor, of Raleigh, was electe<;l 
Recording Secretary, and Dr. Tompkins, 
of ]3eaufort. Corresponding Secretary. 

Mr. Wilson W. AVhitaker of Wak^, 
was then elected Treasurer. 

The following additional number of 
gentlemen came forward and enrolled 
tlieir names as delegates from County 
Societies, to wit : 

From Bertie — Ijewis Thompson, S. B. 
Spruill, J. R. Cherry. 

From Beaufort— W. XL Tripp, Dr. J. 
F. Tompkins. 

From G ui/ ford— J olm A. Gilmer, C. 
II. AViley, D. F. Caldwell, Caswell John- 
son. 

From Rowan — J. A. Liliington. 

From Halifax — Richard H. Smith. 

Fro77i Pif4—K G. Albritlon. 

From Hertford — R. G. Cow2>er, l^en- 
neth Ravner, \V. L. Daniel. 

From' Waym—^y. T. Dortch. 

From Rutherford — J. G. Bynum. 



THE FARMER'S JOURJ^AL. 



247 



From Cumberland — Xeill McDou- 
;g-ald. 

From Brunsviic/c — H. Il.Watters. 

From Carteret — D. W. Whitehurst. 

From Haywood — W. H. Thomas. 

From Greene — B. F. Williams. 

From Halifax — 8. Weller. 

From Richm.ond — Walter L. Steele. 

From Cumberland — Will. J. Smith. 

A resolution Avas oifered and passed, 
authorizing- tlie President to appoint a 
Connnittee consisting' of eleven, to re- 
jwrt a Constitution and By-Laws, at 
next meeting on Tuesday afternoon at 
three o'clock, for the government of 
this association; v.hcn the followino- 
gfflitlemen were appointed by the Presi- 
dejtit, to wit : 

Lewis Thorap?!on, of Bertie ; John A. 
Gflmer, of CJuilford ; J. A. Lillington 
<-d' Powan; L. W. Humphrey, of Ons- 
low ; Kennetli Rayner, of Hertford ; W. 
T. Dortch, of Y/ayne ; R. W. Haywood, 
rtf Wake; R. H. Smith, of Halifax; A. 
J. Leach, of Jolmston ; J. G. Bynum, of 
Rutherford; J. F. Tompkins, of Be-ui- 
fort. 

Mr. Rayner, of Hertford, introduce.:! 
the tollowing- resolution, which was read 
arud adopted, viz : 

Resolved, That the "Farmer's Jour- 
tial," an agricultural paper published in 
Goldsboro' in this State, be recommen- 
ded to the favourable consideration of 
the fanners of North Carolina, as enti- 
tled to their confidence and support 
^ Mr. Spruill, of Bertie, asked the eon- 
5idej-ation of the following resolution, to 
wit : 

Resolved, That it be recommended to 
the ditierent Counties in North-Carolina 
to .form agricultural societies in their 
res])ective counties; and we do cordially 
invite Uiem to send delegates to the next 



meeting of the State Agricultural Asso- 
ciation, to unite with us in endeavoring 
to awaken the people to the importance 
of agricultural improvement. 

Wliich, after some discussion, on the 
great benefit to be derived to the best 
interests of the State, in fostering and 
encouraging county societies, and tbe 
State society, was unanimously adopted. 

When the Society adjoui'ned to meet 
to-morrow aftenioon at three o'elo.ck. 



TUESDAY AFTKRXOOX, 3 o'clock. 

The State Agricultural Society met 
according to adjournment. Mr. Yioe 
President N. W. W^oodfin, of Buncombe, 
taking the chair. 

Dr. Tompkins, on the part of the eoirv 
mittee of eleven to prepare a Constitiv- 
tion and By-Laws for the government of 
the Society, reported the followdng ooit- 
stitution and rules to wit : 

COXSTITUTIOX AXD By-LaWS OF THH 

State. AGRicuLruRAL Society ob' 
North 'Carolina. 

Whereas, We, a portion of the Fat- 
mers of North Cra'oliiia, feeling a d<?ep 
interest in the prospei'ty of our proiit^- 
aion, are desii'ous to do everything in 
our power to promote and elevate its 
character : Therefore, v^'e have associated 
ourselves into a body for the purpose of 
aftbrding mutual instruction, arousing a 
proper spirit of State piide and a disjxj- 
sition to excel among the Farmers gen- 
erally. 

Art. 1st. Resolved, That tliis Asa^- 
cii^tion shall be called the North Caroli- 
na State Agricultural Society. 

Art. 2nd. That for the good govern- 
ment of this Society, there shall be elec^ 
ed the following officers : A President 
four Vice-Presidents, a Recording Secm- 
tary, a Corresponding Secretary, and a 



248 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



Treasurer. 

Art. 3rd. That it shall be the duty of 
the President to preside over the meet- 
ings of the Society, to place before it all 
questions for action ; and whenever there 
be a tie among the members in voting 
on any question, he shall give the cast- 
ing vote. 

Art. 4th. It shall be the duty of the 
^'ice Presidents to aid and assist the 
President in the discharge of his duty, 
wlienever necessity requires ; and in the 
a^isence of the President from any meet- 
ing of t he Society, the Senior Vice Presi- 
dent shall discharge his duties. 

Art. 5th. That it shall be the duty 
of tlie Recording Secretarj", to call the 
roll at the opening of the meeting, to 
read all motions placed before the So- 
ciety, to keep a correct account of the 
proceedings of the same, and to dis- 
charge all other duties properly belong- 
ing to the office. 

Art. 6th. That it shall be the duty of 
the Treasurer, to receive all funds be- 
longing to the Society and pay all claims 
upon the same, when properly authenti- 
cated ; and tliat upon entering upon the 
duties of his office, he shall be required 



Art. 8th. That the officers above 
named, shall be elected annually, and 
sliall be voted for by ballot, beginning 
with the President and continuing the 
election in regular rotation. 

Art. 9th. That the regular meeting 
of the Society shall be held annually on 
tliQ 18th day of October, in Raleigh. 

Art. 10th. That 25 members shall 
constitute a quorum for the transaction 
of business before the Society. 
Bv-Laws. 

Resolved, That each member, upon 
joining tlie Society, shall pay the sum 



of five dollars, and shall be subject to an 
annual tax of the same amount. 

2nd. That it shall be the duty of 
each member to report to the Society 
the result of any experiment made by 
him, which may tend to the advance- 
ment of Agriculture. 

3rd. That it shall be the duty of the 
President to appoint a committee of 
three to procure a speaker to deliver au 
annual address upon some agricultural 
subject. 

4th. That there shall be an annual 
State Agricultural Fair, in or near the 
city of Raleigh, to begin on the 18th of 
October, where an exhibition of the best 
specimens in the various branches in 
husbandry may be exhibited. 

6th. That the President shall annual- 
ly appoint a committee often, to be call- 
ed Committee of Arrangements, who^ 
duty it shall be to make all necessary 
preparations for liolding the State Agri- 
cultural Fair. 

6th, That it shall be the duty of the 
President to appoint annually a com- 
mittee of fifteen, to be styled the execu- 
tive Committee, who shall have the' 
power to award such premiums as shall 
hereafter be deemed necessary by the 
Society, to encourage a proper spirit of 
competition among the Planters, Far- 
mers and Mechanics of our country, at 
the annual Fair. 

7th. That it shall be the duty of the 
President to appoint one Chief Marshal 
and five assistants, wdio shall appear on 
horse-back, with a proper emblem of 
their office, to see that proper order ia 
maintained. 

8th. That it shall be the duty of the 
Corresponding Secretary to report an- 
nually all tlie information he may a,c- 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL: 



249 



quire in discharging the duties of his of- 
fice. 

9th. That it shall be the duty of the 
Treasurer to make a report, at the expi- 
ration of his term of office, of all monies 
received and expended, by him, for the 
Society. 

10th. That a majority of the mem- 
bers of the Society thall liave the poAver 
at any one of the regular meetings, to 
amend or alter the Constitution and By- 
Laws of said Society. 

The forffoinfif Constitution and Rules 
after being read and discussed, were 
adopted. A letter was received from 
Mr. L. O'B. Branch, a member of the 
association proposing to raise, on the 
part of as many members as will agree 
to enter, an AgricuUural Sweep-Slakes, 
to be given to the former or planter who 
will produce the largest quantity of In- 
dian Corn or Maize on any given num- 
ber of acres. The letter Avasgread^for the 
information of the Society, and then or- 
dered to lie on the table. 

Mr. Wiley of Guilford, introduced the 
following resolution, which, after a few 
remarks, upon the subject of sending 
the proceedings printed to all our farm- 
ers, who will probably take interest in 
our attempt to form an association upon 
a firm basis, was passed, and ordered to 
be put into immediate eftect : 

Resolved, That the Recording and 
Corresponding Secretaries and Treasurer 
have printed, in pamphlet form, the Con- 
stitution and By-Laws, and act of in- 
corporation of this Society, and send ten 
copies to each member of the same ; 
that the cost of the printing be defrayed 
out of the first funds coming into the 
hands of the Treasurer of said Society. 

Mr. Smith of Halifax, after a few dis- 
cursive remarks, on the assistance afford- 



ed by the Legislature to internal im- 
provements el eel., introduced the follow- 
ing resolution, which was unanimously 
adopted : 

Resolved, That a committee of five be 
appointed by the Chairman for the pui- 
pose of presenting a memorial to the 
General Assembly, asking for an ap- 
propriation of money, to aid in carrying 
out the objects specified in the Constitu- 
tion and By-Laws of the Xorth Carolina 
State Agiicultm'al Society. 

Messrs. Smith of Halifax, Rayner of 
Hertford, Wiley of Guilford, Thompson 
Bertie, and Lemay of Wake, were ap- 
pointed by the president a committee to 
carry out the purposes of the foregoing 
resolution, and, on motion of Mr. Wiley, 
the Vice-President, N. AV. Woodfin of 
Bmicombe, then in the chair, Avas added 
to the committee. 

On motion of Mr. Wiley of Guilford, 
it Avas ordered that the Chairman, Re- 
cording and Corresponding Secretaries 
and Treasurer of the Society be appoint- 
ed to draft, and have introduce<l into the 
Legislature a 1)111 to incorporate the 
North Carolina State Agricultural Socie- 

ty. 

Resolved, That one of the members* 
of this Association be appointed by bal- 
lot, for tr ./.veiling Agent, to visit ea-cli 
county in North Carolina, that has not 
already established an Agricultural So- 
ciety, for the express object of establish- 
ing such Society ; and that the expenses 
necessary of said agent be defrayed out 
of the funds of the State Agricultural As. 
sociation. 

The foreo'oina: resolution was introdu- 
ced, . and advocated by Mr. Taylor of 
Wake, and at the request of several 
members, postponed for future considera- 
tion. 



250 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



On motion, it was 

Resolved, That all tlie newspapers of 
the State friendlj^ to the objects of this 
Association, be requested to pubhsh 
tlie*se proceedings. 

The Association then adjourned to 
meet again at the regular annual meet- 
ing, in the City of Raleigh, next October, 
St which time and place a State Fair of all 
industrial pursuits will be held, and all 
the members are expected to attend. 
N. AV. WOODFIN, V. PresH. 

J. F. Taylor, Rec. Sect'y. 



A iSIEMORIAL 

To the Honorable, the General Assembly 
of jVorlh Carolina. 

Your Memorialists respectfully show, 
that on Monday, the 18th day of Oct. 
1852, there was formed in the City of 
Raleigh, a State Agricultural Society, 
4:'omposed of Delegates representing 
County iVssociations, and of citizens from 
ditferent parts of the State, all interested 
ill tlie gi'eat cause of Agriculture, the 
leading interest of North Carolina : — 
That the Society was duly organized on 
a permanent basis, officers elected, and 
a constitution and by-laws adopted; and 
that this Association, whose object is the 
advancement of the industrial interests 
of the Commoia wealth, having made an 
auspicious beginning, it was deemed im- 
]x>rtfmt to its continued existence and 
success that it receive the countenance 
and support of the State ; it was, there- 
fore, resolved to memorialize your honor- 
able body, on the justice and exjiediency 
of an appropriation from the State Trea- 
sury, to promote these objects ; and the 
undei"signed were appointed a commit- 
tee to draft said Memorial. 

In obedience to said resolution, your 
Memorialists respectfully solicit the atten- 



tion of your honorable body to this inte- 
resting subject, and earnestly request 
}'our favorable consideration of the same. 

They would respectfully represent, that 
the cause of agriculture has, heretofore^ 
been in a languishing condition in No. 
Carohna — that it has been too much ne- 
glected by men of science, and that with 
a climate and soil unsurpassed, our he^ 
loved State has taken a humiliating po- 
sition in the rear of her sisters, in Agri- 
cultural and Industrial Improvement. 

They would further represent ancl 
allege, that one great cause of this is the 
neglect by the State, of her farming in- 
terests and the interests of her laboring 
classes, and that since her existence as a 
distinct sovereignty, North Carolina, ab- 
sorbed in federal politics and seemingly 
unmindful of her true interests, has never' 
encouraged by example, by bounties or- 
by special legislation, competition and! 
skill in the development of her great Ag-- 
ricultural resources. 

And your Memorialists further allege- 
that, in modern countries, our career as 
a State is, in this respect, Vvdthout an es- 
ample or parallel; ajid that we have ar- 
rived at a period when a change is im- 
peratively demanded by the honor ami 
the welfare of the State, and by the in- 
creasing wants and necessities of the 
times. 

And as for a further reason for a 
change in this respect, your INIemorialists 
respectfully represent, that there are visi- 
ble signs of an awakening among our 
people — that they are beginning to ap- 
preciate their natural advantages, to de- 
plore their backwardness in industrial 
improvements, and to seek for means to 
retrieve the neglect of former years. At 
such a crisis, the example of the public 
authorities can be made very effective 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL: 



251 



for good ; and a State Agricultural So- 
dety, properly endowed, can give a pow- 
erful impetus, to the forward movement, 
by begetting and fostering a general ri- 
vairv in the race of improvement, by 
diffusing valuable information, by en- 
hancing the dignity of labor, and of 
sdenee directed to the most important 
pursuits of man, by adding also more in- 
tei'est, excitement and pleasure to this 
calling in the eyes of those who follow it, 
by breaking dov*-n the barriers of section- 
d. prejudices that divide our citizens, 
hrinoing them together, in pleasant as- 
sociation, from the east, the west, the 
iKjrrth and the south, and thereby adding 
to their knowledge of ihe products and 
people of different sections of their own 
common wealth ; and by helping to cre- 
ate and stimulate to a healthful vigor, 
im>per feelings of State pride, and inter- 
est in North Carolina as one, undivided 
State of various interests, and abounding 
resources, true to itself and devoted to 
the welflxre of its inhabitants. 

The farmers and Mechanics compose 
tlie majority of the constituents of your 
[lonorable body — their prosperity is the 
[TTOsperity of our common State, and 
now, amid the din of politics, they ven- 
ture to appeal to Vour honorable body 
for a slight exertion of authority in their 
belialf. 

A small appropriation will give endu- 
ring vitality to our Institution, giving 
n-reat promise of usefulness to them and 
to us all ; and such an appropriation will 
be returned with teh-fokl interest, in the 
taxes collected from a prosperous com- 
in-unity, Avith means and resources mul- 
tiplied by your liberality. Without such 
m\ appropriation, the Stite Agricultural 
Society, so auspiciously organized, may 
some to a preinature end-, thus adding 



to the gloom that surrounds us, and giv- . 
ing new force to the sad vaticinations of 
those who assert that every enterprise 
must prove a failure in North Carolina. 
And your memorialists as in duty boimd, 
(fee, &c. 

K. Rayn'er, 

N. W. WoODFIN, 

Thos. J. Lemay, 
Rich'd H. Smith, 
Lewis Thompson, 

C. H. V/lLEY, 



Commit- 
tee. 



From the Southern Cultivates. 
Thoughts on the Vocation of the 
Farmer. 

Messrs. Editors — Your known friend- 
liness to the agriculturist, and 3'our laud- 
able solicitude to promote his interest, 
have emboldened me to send you a few 
remarks, Avritten in such brief intervals of 
leisure as an active life on a plantation 
afforded. I Avish they possessed some 
charms of style to palliate the want of 
method and clearness, but I indulge tlsi 
ho2)e that the reader Avill cheerfully OA-er- 
look faults, Avhich are frankly confessed. 
It is not my purpose at present ti) 
descant upon the different modes of cul- 
tivation, in vogue, nor to enumerate tlae 
implements daily invent'^d to simphfy 
and diminish labor, but to endeavor to 
the best of my ability to inspire resj-vect 
for agricultural pursuits, and . to renwvie 
the silly prejudices cherished against 
them. It is a prevalent notion in mmei 
quarters, that the farmer leads a drudg- 
ing, undignified, and dull life ; that the 
nature of his avocations utterly disquali- 
fies him for participation in the refined 
pleasures of social life ; and that, if be 
enters life as a man of any scientific, or 
literary attainments, he unavoidably lose.*^ 
them, and sinks down into a country 
bumnkin, These notions have ixife<Jted 



252 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL, 



tlie women, nncl in some cases lead to 
tlie banishment of the domestic employ- 
ments, which once so honorably distin- 
miished our ladies. The vomio; ladies 
are only ambitious of forming a connec- 
ti(-)n with a resident of the neicfliborino- 
dty, or town ; and in pursuance of this 
unwise resolution, refuse advantageous 
connections on account of their being 
farmers. The son before he has fairly 
■escaped from clouts, begins to regard his 
fai-mer father as an antedeluvian relic, 
ajid by the timb he is eighteen, has re- 
solved to enter upon the study of a pro- 
fe.ssion. What are the consequences of 
liis fatuity ? He has attempted to move 
the world without having a power com- 
mensurate to the enterprise, and makes 
&, shameful and ignominous failure. He 
l>ecomes a di'one in society, consuming a 
substance he does not help to create, a 
tax to his friends, and frequently is so 
juaddened by chagrin, that he recklessly 
plunges into the most brutal dissipation 
in search of a Lethe for his own reproach- 
es. Such is a condensed history of hun- 
dreds and thousands of young men who, 
squandering the patrimonial pittance left 
to tliem, in acquiring a profession, and 
in vainly waiting for business, fall Adc- 
tims to dissipation in the prime of man- 
hood, from lack of ability to maintain a 
respectable position in society. Lawyers 
and doctors multiply so rapidly as to re- 
mind one of the wish of Sir Thos. Brown, 
tliat "men might procreate like trees." 
!Must a man belong to one of the learned 
professions to command respect ? For 
one, I differ from any such opinion. 

Is not the farmer more independent, 
in the true sense of the term, than all 
other classes ? Is there anything in his 
pursuits incompatible with the culture of 
Lis mind? He lives in dailv and hourlv 



commuuicaa with nature,enjoys unlimited 
opportunities for observation and reflec- 
tion, and may ramble at pleasure among 
the beauties of animated nature. Tlie 
vernal bloom of spring and the mellow 
affluence of autumn, dispose his mind t» 
contemplation, and lead him to look up 
to the "Giver of every good and perfect 
gift," with a heart melted with gratitude. 
Nor is he precluded by his avocation .<^ 
from the improvement of his mind by 
reading and study. There are many 
moments when reading stands to him in 
the stead of the boisterous gabble of the 
bar-room, and the bestial orgies of the 
brothel. When prevented from stirring 
abroad, reading becomes a solace and 
amusement, instead of being resorted to 
merely to kill time. These moments, 
rightly improved by judicious reading, 
will enable him to accumidate stores of 
information. The ant hill is formed by 
successive accretions of the minutest par- 
ticles, and knowledge is gathered in tfae 
same way. Let us compare him with 
the members of the learned professions, 
that we may reach a just conclusion in 
reference to his means of mental culture 
and capacity for happiness. 

The physician stands so much by the 
couch of sickness and«beholds so much 
suffering, that his finer feelings and im- 
pulses are blunted and chilled. If he is 
a man of proper feelings, the conviction 
of his inability to relieve the sufferings of 
his fellow mortals, and to arrest the fatal 
ravages of disease, must harrow his soul. 
He who hourly witnesses so much suf- 
fering, is but too apt to become cold in 
heart and callous in feeling. 

The lawyer is a telescope to expose 
the depravity of human nature. His 
ear is stunned with the confessions of 
shocking crimes. The turpitude of the 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



255 



Luinau mind, the ebullition of guilty pas- 
sion, the griping usury of the miser, deep 
planned knavery, and the sneaking 
])usiilanimity of tie poltroon, furnish 
him employment and bread. Crime is 
sifted in all its loathsome details, and 
sounded to its darkest depths of infamy. 
He sees human nature in its worse phase 
lie sees the human heart denuded of all 
the flimsy disguises by which its work, 
ings are hid from the world, blackened 
with crime, scorched with passion, and 
dwarfed by selfishness, until he comes to 
regard virtues as an empty name to 
cozen fools with, and friendship but the 
jargon of unprincipled knaves. Such 
impressions, however unjust to mankind, 
utterly preclude him from the noble en- 
joyments of reciprocal friendship. The 
lawyer by pleading on all sides, is too 
apt to lose sight of the great principle of 
truth, and to multiply crimes by the 
facility of esdape. 

Let us, uudazzled by the glare of pub- 
lio life and the trappings of office, take 
the guage and dimensions of the happi- 
ness of the politician. Tl\e sword of 
Damocles hangs over him day and night. 
His life is an oscillation between hope 
and fear. He is the object of general 
abuse and calumny. His motives are 
rancorously assailed, his integrity called 
in question, and his course however open, 
is misrepresented and calumniated. To- 
day, tJiousands, guided by caprice, or 
tickled by his tinsel rhetoric, conspire to 
make him a demi-god, but to-morrow a 
rival, whom he had overlooked, forces 
him into retirement. He may plant his 
foot on the topmost round of the ladder 
of fame ; vast assemblies may hang on 
his words, and newspapers vie with emu- 
lative toadyism in fulsome adulation, 
but the next -gyration of the political 



wheel hurls him to the dust amid the 
jeers and exultings of his foes, and the 
simulated regrets of his party friends.. — 
The evening of his days, instead of l:>e- 
ing enlivened by cheerfulness, is queni- 
lous, discontented, and embittered by 
chagrin and party hatred. 

These wayside reflections have allured 
me into a slight defection from the sub- 
ject matter of this article, but I flatter 
myself they will facilitate the aecora- 
plishment of the object so much and so 
earnestly desiderated by all farmers, viz : 
the removal of the absurd prejudices 
against the vocation of the agriculturist. 

Do not misconceive ray meaning. I 
am not attempting to show that farmers 
son's are unequal to the performance of 
the duties of the learned professionss — 
Whence sprung the orators, who have 
successfully contested the palm of elo- 
quence with the laiireled sages of anti- 
quity ; and tlie statesmen, who have 
guided the vessel of State, and shed 
such lustre on our national history V — 
They were not the puling scions of a 
purse-proud aristocracy, nor the sickly 
products of the feculent hot beds of fash 
ion. They were not reared amid scenes- 
of luxury and profusion, nor initiated 
into the grog-shop and brothel, ere they 
got rid of clouts. They were not taught 
to prefer glossy broad-cloth to tlie trea- 
suries of knowledge and the corruscations 
of art, and to regard manual labor as a 
badge of servitude, and illness as the 
patent of nobility. They were reared 
for the most part in the seclusion of the 
country, exercise gave them robust health 
and strength ; remoteness from large 
cities rendered them moral and upright, 
and their minds ha\'ing been self-taught, 
are self-relying, vigorous and indepen- 
dent. .Ihe city manakin may bow with 



254 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



more courtliness of manner, and stare at 
a lady ■with more unabashed impudence 
tlian a j^lain faj'mer, who liangs out no 
false signs of Avealth — but his highest 
Bchievement is to ci'ack a "watchman's 
head as his ambition is to copy the dress 
of tha cast-off footmau of some English 
lordling. 

At least two-thirds of our most distin- 
guislied orators, generals, and authors, 
were bred in the country ; and to the 
habits there formed, their success in the 
battle of life was mainly owing. Wash- 
ington appears more truly great when' 
rehnquishing the trappings of office, and 
seeking happiness on Mt. Vernon, than 
■eiien shadowed with the laurels of the 
"VEairior, or invested with the presidential 
jrurple. Andrew Jackson thought it no 
dlsorace to be a farmer, and the Aiuerican 
masses decided that it should be no 
ground for his exclusion from the Chief 
Magistracy. 

Now, the question arises how is tlie 
farmer to be elevated to his legitimate 
rank into society, and the annual ac- 
cessions to the professions ended ? As I 
mil a fanner, I shall make no apology for 
addressing myself to this question with 
earnestness. 

In the first place ; it is of primary im- 
portance that more attention should be 
devoted to such sciences as aid us in the 
analysis of our soils, and the application 
of manure. Chemistry should form the 
study of every person, who designs to 
become a cultivator of the soil. Knowl- 
■edge of agricidtural chenristry is the 
oorner-stone in the character of the farm- 
o:. Independently of the pleasure to 
be derived from its study, it will jjrove 
higlily useful to one who tills the ground. 
We -all know that some manures cause 
botli corn and cotton to "fire," a^d to fail 



in seasons of drouth ; yet how few cak 
give a rational exj^lanation of this phe- 
nomenon. I am not recommending 
people to grasp shadows, or to adopt 
every untried theory, but to acquire a 
practical knowledge of all that diminish- 
es labor, and prevents the exhaustion of 
the soil ; to increase the usefulness and 
respectability of their vocation by mental 
improvement ; and to lay aside the cus- 
toms of past times, as things that have 
been superseded by new inventions. 

Secondly as inatters now stand, every 
one feels the evils resulting from the latfe 
of the esprit du corps^ which common 
habits, homogeneous interests, and kind- 
red pursuits should iuspu-e. Each man 
depends on his own stock of knowledge, 
and neighborhood is divided from neigh- 
borhood as if by an impassable gul£ ^Ve 
know nothing of what is transpiring ou1^ 
side of our own neighborhood, and not 
unfrequently never see our nearest neigl>- 
bors more than once in six monthss*— 
The wisely observant man may pick a 
speculation out of the conversation of 
the most stupid, and improve by the blmv 
ders of others. But do we manifest any 
desire to gain information, to abandon 
our false notions, and to avail ourselves 
of the salutary improvements of the age ? 
The mass of agriculturists seem iruhs- 
solubly wedded to the customs of their 
fathers. "Book farming" is a synonym 
of arrant folly and ill success. 

This is a serious obstacle to improve- 
ment. If farmers would organize coun- 
ty societies for the distribution of premi- 
ums, the interchange of individual expe- 
riences, the discussion of new improve- 
ments and theories, they would add to 
their stock of knowledge, and give a 
fresh impulse to agricultural progress*— 
The social relations and neighborly char- 



THE FAEMER'S JOURNAL. 



255 



ities, tliat s&ch. re-unions would produce, 
are alone enougli to justify the formation 
of tliese county societies. We must act 
•witli concert, if we would accomplisli 
anytliingof moment. 

I shall conclude this article by invo- 
king plantei-s, however meagre their early 
education may have been, or much neg- 
lecte'J, to take agricultural papers, to 
tJirow ?iside their aversion to book far- 
ming, and to improve their minds by a 
judicious course of reading. Do not lag 
l.)ehind the age, nor cling to customs 
winch have long since been condemned. 
But above all, employ all your arts of 
persuasion and influence, to dissuade 
ymir sons from embarking in professions 
now too nnich overstocked. Agriculture 
opens a fair field for the exercise of their 
talent, and aftbrds full scope for their am- 
lation. Edmund Ruffin has earned a 
faille that time cannot eftace. He is 
more of a benefactoi- of his race than the 
liero, whose claims to fame are recorded 
in blood. Eespectfiilly, yours. 

A. W. DiLLARD. 

Simiter Co., Ala., August, 1852. 



Inquiries about Manures. 

We often have inquiries whether long 
or short manure is best ; whether straw 
]:)lowed in is beneficial ; whether chip- 
dirt is hurtful or advantageous, etc. Gen- 
eral inquiries cannot always receive a 
general answer. For instance, we have 
known long manure, or that which was 
composed of much straw mixed with 
strongly fertihzing materials, prove ac- 
tually hijurious on light soils, and in dry 
seasons. On the contrary, we have known 
straw alone to prove highly beneficial on 
heavy and rather wet soils, by increasing 
the lightness and porosity, and facilita- 
tiii^ drainage. 

To prevent bad results on light land, 
all manure, but more especially that 
which is unfermented and mixed with 
straw, should be as much pulverized and 
mingled with the soil as possible. It 
^lould be first spread, and allowed to 
Xj H few hours, the loss by evaporation 



being far less than the loss by want of 
pulverization. It can then be thorouglk- 
ly torn to pieces by repeated harrowings, 
which will mix it thoroughly at the sanif. 
time with tlie surface soil. When turned, 
umler by the plow, none of it will remain 
in lumps, and by being well intermixed, 
it >vill serve ratlier to preserve than to 
dissipate the moisture. The same treat- 
ment on heavy soils, will also have a 
beneficial result, by increasing the fria- 
bility of the parts. In soils not over sujv 
plied with vegetable matter, straw and 
chip-dirt become useful as soon as th^y 
decay ; and in adhesive soils they -dm 
usefid by lessening the tenacity and pnv 
moting drainage. But on light s<;)i}s, 
they often prove hurtful, and most so hi 
dry seasons. — Albany Cultivator. 



ME 



LET every True North Carolinian throw 
his miglit into the hands of our own 
Mechanics, and by this means, with our Ag«- 
ricultural advancement, we are bound to 
become an independent people. So let tliB 
citizens of Edgecombe, and the neiglibourirar 
counties, call and examine the magnificent 
stock of 

F U R N 1 'i^ U R E , 

which is offered for sale at F. Li. Bonil's 

Furniture Store, in Tarboro', consisting oftiie 
following articles, viz : 

Ladies' Marble and Mahogany Top Dres- 
sing Bureaus ; Ladies Marble Top Wash 
Stands ; Sideboards and Plain Bureaus; Ward 
Robes and Book Cases: Sofas and Mahogany 
Rocking Chairs; Mahogany and Walnut 
Tables ; Tete-a-tetes and Divans ; Mahogajiy, 
French, and Cottage Bedsteads ; Stationary 
and Portable Writing Desks ; Wood and 
Cane Seat Rocking Chairs ; Office, Windsor, 
Cane and Rush Bo'ttom Chairs ; a large as- 
sortment of cheap Bed Steads ; Wash Stands 
and Candle Stands; China Presses, varioua 
patterns ; also, a few Nymphs and Nuptials** 

Old Furniture and Sofas repaired and made 
to look as good as new. Old Bachelors ren- 
ovated in such a style as will make tliera 
accessible to the smiles, of young ladies and 

old M s at least. Furniture kept on hand 

to suit any age or sext. 

Now one word to the public : What is U& 
to any one, if they do not avail themselve of 
the comforts and convenieaces that are offered 
for sale at F. L. BOND'S' Ware Room ? Ajsi 
examination by the puWic is earne^tfj: 
solicited. F. L. B. 

Tarboro.^ N. C.^ 



556 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



THE FARMERS JOURNAL. 

The Subscriber will publish in the town of 
Bath, Beaufort county, N. C, a monthly 
paper under the above name. This paper will 
he devoted exclusively to the setting forth of 
the various popular improvements in Agricul- 
ture, Horticulture, and the household arts. — 
That there is a demand for such a paper in 
our State, and more especially in the Eastern 
part, no one will deny. 

As evidence of the good effects of such pa- 
pers, we hav« only to look at the rapid strides 
which have been made in farming in those 
States of our Union where they exist. But 
tliis great advancement made in the science of 
Agriculture in other States, is but little known 
to the farmers of No rth-arolina. There are 
several scientific, as well as practical farmers, 
among us ; but for the want of a medium 
through which to communicate their agricul- 
tural knowledge, it is still confined to a small 
compass. Our good old State is far behind 
tlie age in agricultural, as well as every other 
improvement. As a people, we are greatly 
wanting in State pride, which is highly im- 
portant to place us in that position which we 
ought to occupy. In New- York, Maryland, 
Georgia, and several other States, annual 
Fairs are held for exhibiting the products of 
•each, which clearly have a tendency to great 
improvements. Nature has thrown no imped- 
iment in the way to prevent our agricultural 
advancement ; but slie has lavishly heaped 
upon us her inestimable gifts. We have 
among us a sufficiency of both organic and 
inorganic matter to enrich every acre of our 
worn-out land, and our soil and climate can- 
not be surpassed in adaptation to the produc- 
tion of the various plants. 

All that is now needed to elevate our State 
to the position which she should occupy 
■among hersisters, is energy and enterprise on 
tlie part of her citizens. There must be a stop 
put to this greattide of emmigration from our 
State ; for, daily, many of our most talented 
and energetic young men seek a new home in 
tlie West ; they say that they cannot get their 
consent to remain among a people possessed 
■of so little enterprise as we are. The sub- 
scriber has not been engaged in farming many 
years, but he feels justified in saying that he 
tegan upon the right plan — that of dedp 
ploughing, heavy manuring, and thorough 
draining. He has visited some good farms in 
our State, as well as in others, purely for 
agricultural instruction ; and for some time 
past he has been engaged in useful agricul- 
tural reading, to prepare himself for the post 
which he now propcses to occupy. 

The subscriber feels confident that this un- 
dertaking shall not fail from a want of energy 
on his part. He is resolved to use every effort 
to obtain a large subscription list, and for this 
purpose he will canvass several counties with- 
in the next two months. 

He hopes that by showing such a determi- 



nation to do something for the present deor,- 
ded condition of the farmer, to be sustaindj 
and receive a liberal patronage from a genee 
ous public. 

Each number will contain one or more 
articles from the pen of the Editor, and several 
communications from our best farmers; and 
the remainder will be filled with articles se- 
lected from other Agricultural Journals, such 
as may be deemed by the Editor applicable to 
our climate and soil. 

In conclusion, the subscriber asks the aid of 
every man in the prosecution of this great 
work ; for he is sure that there will be a good 
bargain made by the farmers. The advance- 
ment of farming should excite an interest in 
the breast of every man ; for upon the success 
of the farmer greatly* depends that of every 
trade and profession. 

Terms — One copy, $1; six copies, $5; 
twelve copies, 10 ; 'thirty copies, |20— inva- 
riably in advance. 

Advertisements. — A hmiled number of 
advertisements will be inserted at the follow- 
ing rates : For one square of twelve lines, for 
each insertion, |1 ; one square, per annum, 
$10 ; half column, do., po ; one column, do., 
|50 ; larger advertisements in proportion. 
JOHN F. TOMPKINS. 

Bath, N. C, 1852. 



THE subscriber will give any special ad- 
vice to Farmers, by their addressing him 
and giving a description of their farms. His 
charge will be moderate. He will make 
analysis of soils and marls, and write out the 
analysis for application of manures. 
For analysis of soils, - - - $5 00 
Writing out analysis, - - - 5 OO 

JOHN F. TOMPKINS, M. D. 



GVLKK & EICHARBSON, 

ARE PREPARED TO EXECUTE ALL ORDERS OF 

iB(D(DE is MiB wmmmim, 

WITH NEATNESS AND DESPATCH. 

GOLDSBORO', K. C. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Page, 

Address by Dr. J. J. Phillips, 225 

Improving old Lands, 23£> 

To make prime Vinegar, 240 

Dr. Phillips' Address, _ 240 
To the Members of the Legislature of 

North Carolina, 240 

The State Agricultural Convention, 243 

Swamp Lands in Beaufort County. 244 
Records of the State Agricultural 

Society of North Carolina, 245 

A Memorial, 250 
Thoughts on the vacation of the Farmer, 251 

Inquries about Manures, 255 



THE FAEMER'S JOUHNAL. 



VOL. 1. 



BATH, N. C, DECEMBER, 1852. 



m. 9. 



JOHN F. TOMPKINS, M. D., Editor and Proprietor. 



AN ADDRESS, 

f 
Delivered before the Edgecombe Agricultu- 
rftl Society, at ita Annual Meeting for 
1852. 

Br Dr. J AS. J. PHILLIPS. 
CONCLUDED. 

I should look upon uayself gentlemen 
ns departing from the duties assigned 
uie to day, to wile you with any ex- 
pressions of flattery; but candor and 
truth force me to the declaration, that I 
am now addressing myself to as intelli- 
gent, industrious, energetic, and success- 
ful a body of farmers, as can be assem- 
bled in any one county, not only of 
North CaroHna, btxt of any State in the 
LTnion. But while I say tliis, and be- 
lieve what I say, permit me again to 
a-sk you, do you know any thing of these 
fundamental principles of agriculture, to 
which your attention has been drawn — 
do von know any thing about the ele- 
ments contained in your soils, your man- 
ures or your vegetables ? I pause for 
TOur consideration. Now if yon know 
no lavf, and are under the government of 
no law in your farming operations, it is 
plain that if you shall be so successful 
as to stumble upon a correct principle 
and attempt to carry it out, it may be 
defective in mode or degree or both. If 



you apply lime to your soil, the general 
principle is correct, for all well balanced 
soils should have a due proportion <:>f 
this necessary ingredient. If you shall 
apply lime to a soil Avhicli already has u 
plenty 'of it, you pervert this correct prin- 
ciple, and use it Avholly wrong. If you 
shall apply the same quantity of lime to 
a soil, partially, as to one entirely want- 
ing in it ; yom- error in this consists, in 
degree, or the manner of using a correct 
principle. If the vegetable which you 
wish to cultivate delights more in potasli 
than lime, and you shall apply the latter 
for its use, it is quite perceptible, that, 
in this substitution of one article for an- 
other of primary choice, yoit attempt to 
train nature, beyond those correct and 
fixed laws which govern lier, and that 
you use a correct material for all soils, to 
an improper design in this instance. I 
might multiply these examples to an al- 
most innumerable extent; not only as 
applicable to the present system of ma- 
nuring, but to various other business op- 
erations upon your farms ; and in candor 
and truth say to you that they must con- 
tinue as such, and probably will ever 
continue, until corrected by the lights of 
analytical chemistry and physics. I as- 



%SS' 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL, 



sure you tliat physical nature requires, 
that, to produce a perfect result, a correct 
sause must be resorted to. In your at- 
tempts to-grofr a vegetable it is with .the 
view of making -it as perfect as possible., 
J >y the application cf manures to your 
soil, your object in, view is to obtain this 
i;esult or perfect growth. Now to obtain 
this r.esult, or perfect vegetable growth, 
i^equires: that every vegetable shall be 
nourished with that material in which it 
most delights. To have a more perfect 
understanding of your business, the first 
inquiry which should present itself to 
vour mind, should be, of what elementa- 
TV principles is the vegetable composed, 
which you design to grow. The second 
inquiry should be directed- to ascertain 
of what elementary matter is the soil 
composed on which it is designed to 
atow.such" vegetable. Does it contain 
that elementary matter, particularly of 
the inorganic elements, necessary to the 
growth of the vegetable ? -if not, it be- 
comes the primary duty of th-e farmer to 
furnish his soil with the wanting material; 
be it one or more substances. Some 
dements aferequired in larger quantity 
tiian othei-3. In looking over the con- 
stituents of 'the ash of the cotton plant, 
in its various parts- — the stalk, the seed, 
at!.d; the wool, it is discoverable, that 
though there is a similarity of constitu- 
ency in each, in its inorganic matter, yet 
the proportion in each varies much. — 
Tiiose elements which figure larger than 
others are potash, litne and phosphoric 
acid ; this is likely to direct the mind to 
tiaese, as, those only of primary necessi- 
ty; and to, tlie -neglefit of ■ the smaller 
quantity constituents, as that of Silica, 
M;i^nesia, Chlorine, Sulphuric acid and 
<^VGU Iron — neither the lav>^s of nature or 
%!3 laws of diemical aiSnity, allow of, 



any more importance to be attached to> 
those larger quantity ingredients than tc^ 
the smaller : for as a small wheel in com- 
plicated machinery, becomes necessary 
to 4he complete mechanism of the whole, 
without v/hich the machine is not com- 
plete or available, so these smaller quan- 
tity ingredients in combination, of tha- 
.various parts of the cotton plant, per- 
form important offices, and are as essen- 
tially necessary to the formation, and. 
-healthy organization^ and growth of the 
plant as those larger constituents. Both- 
the larger and smaller ingredients per- 
form their part in life, and none however 
small or insignificant to the fanner can 
be dispensed with ; and what has been 
illustrated by the cotton plant, is equally 
applicable to other vegetables, of differ- 
ent and various constituents. 

I do not design to enter into a minute 
investigation of vegetable analysis : but 
by v,"ay of illustrating a .general princi- 
ple still further, we will take from the 
cotton plant two of its elements, phoe- 
phoric acid and lime — in the ash of tho 
stalk Y/e discover, leaving,; fractions out, 
that of one hundred parts, lime mates 
up one nineteenth and phosphoric acid 
one twenty-eighth part. These two sub- 
stances in combination, make phosphate 
of lime or bone earth ; by examining the 
ash of the seed we discover that of on© 
hundred parts, phosphate of lime or bone 
earth make 61 percent. — and of that of. 
thevfool 2 5. per cent. Now suppose your 
soil is naturally deficient in this com- 
pound and it is not suj)plied, do you ei- 
pect you would produce a perfect vegeta- 
ble in all its parts ? Certainly you do. 
not. If your soil contains a sufficiency 
of the phosphate of lime to complete ilm, 
stalk in luxuriant growth, in union with, 
the other necessary ingredients ; audi 



THE FARM]2R'3 journal. 



259 



that it shall then become deficient, or 
wanting in the soil, to the degree of not 
manuring the seed and wool, is it not 
reasonable to suppose that you may have 
an early, thrifty plant which will not 
bear, or produce the cotton wool, the 
true object in view of its growth? 

It is a fact well known to practical 
farmers that some vegetables will obtain 
better growth in some soils than otbers. 
There is no doubt, you have often heard 
the remark made in your intercourse 
with your neighbors, that they had dis- 
wvered by experiment, they could pro- 
duce some articles, orf their lands, better 
tlian others. Some cannot grow wheat, 
some cotton, some potatoes. Some will 
say they can produce a beautiful cotton 
weed, but it will bear but little cotton, — 
Now whenever you hear these com- 
plaints olfered, you may very correctly 
conclude that the soil is deficient in the 
inorganic matter which the vegetable 
needs, and that all attempts to grow the 
vegetable on such soil, without fii'st ren- 
ovating it with the required elements, is 
but to endeavor to obtain an effect with- 
out a proper cause. When we cast our 
observation over the animal kingdom, 
■we discover that every genus and even 
every species has an external appearance 
and organization peculiar to itself ; if we 
extend our observation still further we 
discover that each race has some pecu- 
liarity in its moele of feeding ; some de- 
light in one kind of food, and othei's in 
other kinds: and that they have the 
poAver of loco-motion to go in pursuit of 
that diet in which they most delight. If 
we, in contrast, examine the vegetable 
kingdom we discover likewise the same 
gxeat difl:erence in external appearances, 
and organized structure, as compared 
^11© with the other ; but if we wish to 



extend our observation still further in re- 
gard to their food, which we cannot see, 
or know any thing about, except from 
the effect or result growing out of it, we 
are reduced to the necessity, whenever 
we wish to grow them in greater per- 
fection, to resort to analytical experi- 
ment, and inductive reasoning, to dis- 
cover their wants. And deprived a? 
they are of the power of locomotion, if 
these wants are not within their reach, it 
becomes the business of the farmer to 
furnish them. 

I will venture an opinion, that there 
is not a member of this society, vvdio, if 
made acquainted, by chemical analysis, 
with the constituents of his soil as a ba- 
sis for his experimental operations, and 
with the benefit of readino- the a^'ricub 
tural periodicals, and I assure you every 
farmer should take them, and read them 
likewise, will find much difficulty in 
growing liis crop of vegetables upon a 
proper soil. But this however should 
not be "Wholly relied upon at first; you 
should have the advice, and direction o -^ 
one who is sufliciently well acc|uainted 
with the mutual action, and changes, pro_ 
duced in combined matter, by chemical 
forces. 

There is much 2")rejudice to overcome 
in all new changes — people are reluctant 
to give up old habits, and usages, and to 
adopt nevf, or to them untried exppri- 
raents. It is indeed perfection enough 
with some to know how their ancestors 
worked, and to follow in their foot-steps; 
but those gentlemen should bear in 
rhind, that their ancestors had control of 
virgin lands, which were brought under 
tillage with an expectation of exhausting 
them. And truly this has been fiilh 
realized ; for many soils, which wera 
originally fertile and productive, are novr 



260 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



seen to grow only the pine bush and 
other growth pecuhar to soils exhausted 
of their inorganic material. 

This gentlemen, is the age of discove- 
ry ; it is the age of peace, work, and 
progress. To stand still is to soon get 
behind the times. There are now man j 
worthy men directing their talents to 
establish agriculture upon a firm scien- 
tific basis ; and why shall we not contri- 
bute our part '^ Edgecombe is far ahead 
cf her neighbors in experimental, and 
S'icc.essful farming. She is viewed as 
-the bright star in the farming galaxy of 
North Carolina by her sister counties — 
her modes of culture are looked upon as 
proper samples to guide their own — she 
Las the start ahead, let her hold it. — 
.L-et her course be onward and progres- 
sive in agricultural experiments, that her 
-example may continue to be sought, and 
thought worthy of imitation. Let her 
so shape her course, that through all 
time to come, she will be a light and a 
guide. Marl is plenty — ashes and char- 
coal can be had by the labor of burning 
the wood, salt is cheap, organic materials 
Inexhaustible. If however by an analy- 
Hia of the soil anything is found wan tin a-, 
it should be supplied. Let these experi- 
ments in farming be continued ; but let 
them be directed by the lights of science. 
We do not live in those primitive ages, 
Vi'iien man relied upon the spontaneous 
production of the earth for his support ; 
we do not live in the second age which 
relied only upon physical force in stir- 
ring the soil a little, and at an early 
period of the growth of the plant turning 
it over into the hands of nature to com- 
plete its maturity. 

A •ftTong principle at the foundation 
will carry itself, through all the ramifi- 
cations and show itself in the most mi- 



nute details of agriculture, as turbid 
water must ever tlow in the various 
branches and little streams, which taki> 
their origin in an impure fountain ; then 
you should be mindful to start from a 
correct principle at the fountain. One 
correct principle well understood is cal- 
culated to lead to others ; and to correct 
innumerable errors in the detail of small 
matters. We have now arrived at the 
last stage of fi;irming, when the light of 
science is to account for the success of 
the past, and direct it to the improve- 
ment of the future. 

Art has ever been the precursor of 
science, and agriculture has been pursu- 
ed merely as an art — an imitative art. 
Science has ever been slow to lend hei- 
assistance to any branch of business, un- 
til it has worked its way by experiment 
into a respectable stand ; then will 
science follow on, and write in legible 
language all that is worth preserving, 
and blot out the errors of the past. — 
Observation and experiment taught the 
first cultivators of the soil, that a certain 
natural growth indicated a soil which 
would pay for its cultivation — this may 
be viewed as nature's unerring guide : 
but the unnatural process of tillage has. 
in many parts, done away with this fact, 
and other modes of arriving at a correct 
knowledge must be resorted to. The 
days are passed, or passing away quite 
fast, Avhen the farmer can subdue the 
natural forast, exhaust it by tillage, and 
go in pursuit of more of like quahty. — 
He begins to discover the necessity and 
value of manure, as the only availabfe 
means of perfect success ; and to seek 
more correct knowledge of its formation 
and application. He feels the want of 
knowing what his soil needs ; he feels 
the want of knowing the most easy and 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



26 i 



direct way of supplying this want ; 
thougli in tlie way of improvement, lie 
has done much, that is correct in princi- 
ple, without being able to say any thing 
more about it than he has applied ma- 
nure. Indeed this is all ; and business 
conducted in this way is well calculated 
to lead to an imitative routinism in de- 
tail, and the estabhshing of panaceas, or 
empirical fact^. Ask a farmer how he 
lias succeeded in ^he production of cer- 
tain crops ? he will tell you, that he did 
it by the use of a certain system of ma- 
nuring. Ask his neighbor who has 
pursued the same system, why he has 
not been equally as successful ? and he 
will at once candidly acknowledge that 
he don't know. lie will probably con- 
demn the whole plan as useless, at any 
rate upon his farm. Now if all soils 
were alike, the same system of manage- 
ment would lead to the same result, and 
prove equally beneficial ; but as they are 
not, it certainly behooves every man to 
know, what his soil has, and in what it 
is deficient, in the inorganic material ; 
and there is but one way to do this, and 
that is by a correct analysis. Upon 
this alone must agriculture depend to 
relieve itself from superstitious habits^ 
and the belief in panaceas and universal 
remedies. 

Then, gentlemen, I appeal to your 
judgement, your good understanling. — 
Is it not high time that you should have 
your agricultural chemist ? Is it not 
time that this society shall break through 
the prejudice of the age, and show to 
the world, that it is not so devoted to old 
habits, and usages, as to forever follow 
the same blind experimental course ? K 
you are then prepared to enter into it, 
however untried it may be in this minute 
way, say so at once, and act at once. — 



An over-cautiousness has ever been the 
stumbling block to improvement — a toc> 
penurious calculation has always had a 
baneful efiect upon agriculture, as you 
daily discover ; for some men can never 
see the benefit to be derived from spend- 
ing one dollar in the improvement of 
the soil, that two may be realized. — 
Then if you can bring your minds to a 
knowledge of the necessity of employing 
an agricultural chemist, suiier no pro- 
crastination, no delay, but do it at once. 
You should be the first to break through 
the prejudice of the times, raid show to 
the world that what was once in ridi- 
cule and derision applied to Edgecombe 
on another and difterent subject, is not ap- 
plicable to this society in regard to ag- 
riculture "that where ignorance is bliss,^ 
'tis folly to be wise." You should act 
promptly, decidedly, and effectively : act 
at once and let the thing be done. I am 
well aw^are that the expense will appear 
heavy upon the society, but it is an ex- 
pense, that will probably oot last beyond 
one year ; and by this expenditure each 
member will have a correct basis for his 
experimental operations for many suc- 
ceeding years. Under these succeeding 
operations, you will bo enabled to ac 
count for the laws of disappointment or 
success, and will have contributed much 
to found the science of agriculture upon 
correct principles ; for to establish this 
upon a firm basis, and correct principle, 
requires both science and experiment, 

In the capacity of a society we can do 
much. We can do it with jpwch. more 
ease and economy than m any other 
way. Gentlemen, w^iat is a society, but 
a concrete aggregate <pf many parts, com- 
bined for mutual protection, mutual as- 
sistance a^d mutual benefit : with a de- 
sign to accompli^i in this collective or 



262 



THE FAEMER'S JOURNAL. 



aggregate capacity, tliat wliich cannot 
be so easily or economically accomplish- 
ed by any one of its internal parts. — 
Edgecombe is our mother, she gave us 
liirth and sustained us to manhood : 
should we ever think of deserting her ? 
•certainly not. But rather than that, the 
responsible duty falls upon us to assist 
her in her old age, and broken dovpn 
condition. If vre can judge by the ener- 
gy and spirit of the past, as exliibited by 
the members of tiiis society ; and look a 
little into the future, I think there can 
be but one view taken, in regard to the 
plan of founding agriculture upon those 
analytical principles, which I have in- 
dicated ; and that the county of Edge- 
combe will be the pioneer in this untried 
field : for I know of no instance, in 
which either a State or county society 
lias employed a Chemist to carry out 
analysis for agricultural pui'poses, in sys- 
tematic, minute and precise detail, and 
special benefit to esch member. 

It should ever be a maxim to be foUow- 
€d, that what is worthy of doing, is 
worthy of being done well ; and if we 
are not prepared to do it well, then 
should we not do it at all. Upon the 
subject before us, this ra^xim is decided- 
ly applicable. If we employ an agri- 
-cultural chemist, we should not stultify 
ourselves by employing any pretender to 
this art. And there are indeed quite a 
number of these springing ijip, who will 
work cheap. Cheap chemists are all of 
mushroom growth, and not reliable. A 
man, thoroughly acquainted with analy- 
tical chemistry, cannot be obtained for 
less than $2000 par year; but analysis 
performed by a competent chemist can 
be relied on.; and if the analysis cannot 
Ite relied on, but give U3 a false basis, Wo 
liad certainly better have none. AJl 



pretenders to an art, of which they know 
but little or nothing, should be kept out 
of the path of science, as teachers; for 
the world is too much inclined to be- 
lieve in the pretensions of those intruder* 
into nature's laws, whether as apphed to 
agriculture, chemistry, medicine or other 
branches, having the investigation of th« 
laws of nature in view. 

There are empyrics in all branches of 
learning; empyrics in medicine, em- 
pyrics in law, empyrics in chemistry and 
empyrics in all useful and honorable oc- 
cupations. Yes even empyrics with a 
license. Like the ignis fatuus or jack 
with the lantern, they spring up and de- 
light in dark places, and have often led 
the unwary into obscure and doubtful 
ways. But if it does cost the society two 
thousand dollars per year, I feel perfect- 
ly safe in pledging my reputation as ^ 
man of judgement, that in less than five 
years you will all be pleased with the ex- 
periment, and pleased with your expen- 
diture : and Avill moreover have realized 
at the expiration of such time, fourfold, 
probably tenfold, your expenditure.— 
Yoi; now support some half dozen law- 
yers and probably twice that number of 
physicians in this county, for the pur- 
pose of receiving the protection of their 
science and skill, at a yearly expense of 
fire or ten times the wages of an agricul- 
tural chemist ; and I cannot and will not 
believe, until it is proved to the contrary, 
that the members of this society will not 
avail themselves of that light in their 
agricultural operations which the laws of 
chemistry can aftbrd. I know the in- 
telligence of this society. I know the 
liberality of its members. I know some- 
thing of their yearly expenditure of la- 
bor and money in their various attempts 
at improving thei rsoils ; and I am tbo- 



THE FARMER'S JOURt\AL. 



26S 



•ses^ 



roughly convinced that a Uttle retiection 
will show to them, that the same system 
of improvement will not suit all soils 
alike ; nor the same plant grow with the 
same luxuriance upon soils thus treated ; 
and that they are free and willing to 
make this light expenditure for one year 
in the wages of a scientific chemist and 
experienced operator, by which doubts 
«an be explained, and experiments made 
elear. 

Yuu have worked hard, you have la- 
boured much in the improvement of 
your lands, you have ^onemuch within 
the last five or ten years, and I am well 
aware that the result has been marked 
with much success in the increase of 
crops ; but this should not satisfy you 
in this age of advancement, for it is not 
inown to what degree of productive- 
ness the soil may be brought. You 
have full evidence of this in some of 
your lands now yielding 1000 jT^ounds of 
»oe<l cotton per acre, which a few years 
ago would not have produced 300 
pounds. If I can be permitted to look a 
little into futurity, and exercise the priv- 
ilege of a prophet (though I claim no 
power in that way more than other 
men) I sliould say that by a proper im- 
provement of the soil, it will not be a 
hard matter for you, in a few years, un- 
der such seasons, as the last two years, 
to raise the productiveness of your soils 
to the point of yielding 2000 or 2500 
pounds of cotton per acre. This is no 
visionary hope, but judging from the 
past, I think it perfectly practicable. — 
Only a few years ago, 100 pounds of 
cotton was thought fine work for a hand 
to pick out in one day ; if at that pe- 
riod a prediction had been made that in 
a fe V years, the same hand would pick 
4>ut 5 or 600 poimds, who would have 



believed it ? and yet it is done. 

JSTow gentlemen, it is known, that 
there is a point beyond which human 
power cannot be carried ; but it is not 
known by any experiments yet made, to 
what ultimate point the productiveness 
of the soil can be carried ; and I have 
no doubt that if under scientific princi- 
ples, the same exertions were, for tho 
next ten years, directed towards the im- 
provement of the soil, as have been 
used for the last ten years to stimulato 
labor, the increase of productiveness will 
be 100 per cent. . This indeed should be 
a primary consideration. The most of 
farmers in the South cultivate too much 
land for their force, and even with the 
best cultivate it too slovenly. The sys- 
tem of manuring in such a way as to 
feed the vegetable of the gi'owing crop, 
instead of feeding the soil, for the 
growth of a sucecs ion of crops of vege- 
tables, I think must be abandoned in 
part, as too laborious^ snd the clover 
and the grasses raised more largely and 
turned in more freely in a green state. 
It is certainly a more pleasant mode of 
fanning, to cultivate one hundred acres 
of land which will yield as much as tw/); 
and withal there is much saving of la- 
bor by it, and the man who first lays 
the example, becooaes a benefactor to his 
race. 

We hare heard much said in regard 
to book farming, and I am sorry to say 
that I have heard of its being used, by 
way of derision, by good men of our 
own county. I hardly know what to 
say of these old-fashioned, stand-still, 
penny-wise class of formers. If they are 
contented with the routine plans of the 
last century or the century before, as 
handed down from father to son — a& 
contentment is a 'desirable thing in this. 



•^64 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



vtorld of trouble, we should not disturb 
their quietude. But as many of these 
are good men, but mistaken in their 
views, or without the proper lights of 
science ; we should meet them friendly, 
we should treat them politely ; we should 
indeed look upon their acts as excusable. 
Indeed I am. willing that we shall go 
still further and view their course as em- 
inently excusable ; and it certainly can- 
not be considered offensive to say, that 
tlie acts of a man are excusable or emi- 
nently so. 

Yes, gentlemen, we must construe the 
acts and words of all such men as ema- 
nating from a most excusable weakness. 
Nothing in the way of change of old 
usages and habits, to new, however rea- 
sonable or plausible, can be brought for- 
ward, but up starts at once a part}^, v,'ith 
derision and ridicule, their only availa- 
ble weapons, against reason and science, 
and with bitter enmity will endeavor to 
put it down. This however should not 
in the least disturb us ; but strong in 
the conviction of the correctness of our 
plans, we should pursue our way to a 
tinal and successful result, undisturbed 
by any set of men ; while we quietly suf- 
fer them to grope their way in the dark, 
until the light of scientific experiment is 
raised before them, which as imitating 
animals, they will certainly adopt. — 
There must and will be laggards and 
drones in all communities ; and to the 
best of causes. Experimental art is tlie 
foundation of all science of matter. It 
has been the fate of the arts, to first lead 
the way in the dark, by varied, and 
loathful experiment ; as a blind man will 
feel around tlie walls of a house and 
stumble; over chairs in his endeavors to 
find the door ; and it is never until many 
of ihese experiments have been reduced 



to a successful refeult, that the correlative 
sciences will come forward, with their 
laws and show the phenomena of chan- 
ges and the cause of success. 

Chemistry has probably been direeteit 
more to the science of medicine than 
any other branch of learning ; in faet 
within the last 30 years that science has 
been completeh^ revolutionized by it,, 
particularly in discovering the proximate 
principles of medicine. Many of the 
older members of this society can recol- 
lect Avlien his physician gave him hi& 
ounce of bark to swallow in the day. It 
is to chemistry that the world is indebt- 
ed for the discovery of the active princi- 
ple of bark ; and what had formerly to 
be accomplished with an ounce of bark, 
can now be affected by its active princi- 
ple in a few grains of quinine ; may we 
not look forAvard to the period, when 
chemical analysis will so shed its lights- 
over agricultural experiment, as to ren- 
der the system of the improvement of 
the soil and vegetable culture, more easy; 
that farmers will be relieved from this 
laborious system of manuring as pur- 
sued at the present day, as in the taking 
of a fcAV grains of quinine in lieu of th« 
ounce of bark ? Shall we not look for- 
ward with hope to the time, when some 
more concentrated principle will be dis- 
covered, that will relieve the agriculturist 
from the tedious gathering up and haul- 
ing so large an amount of the elements 
of water, air and carbon ? 

Though chemistry has been directed 
towards agriculture but a few years, yet 
within these few years much good has 
been done ; but yet there is much to in- 
vestigate, and it will probably be several 
years before a sufficient nuinber of facts 
can be established to found agriculture 
upon a firm scientific "basis ; diis how- 



THE FAPtMEli'S JOURNAL. 



165: 



<3ver is no plausible reason why we shall 
not avail ourselves of the discoveries 
already made. To make proper advan- 
ces requires the co-operation of chemis- 
try and experiment. Formerly, agricul- 
ture had to rely upon experiment alone, 
but the period has now arrived when 
many experiments can be directed by 
chemistry ; for instance that of professor 
Shephard, in his analysis of the sweet 
potatoe ; by this analysis, he amved at 
the conclusion that potash would be a 
good manure for the growth of this de- 
licious esculent. Th^ experiment was 
tried and proved correct. Here we see a 
man who probably never grew a pota- 
toe in his life, speaking from his labora- 
tory, through the light of chemistry, re- 
commending a principle which experi- 
ment proved to be correct; and by 
which a scientific fi^ct was established. 
Many other facts have been discovered 
by the snme process, and many are yet 
being in a way of projDer investigation. 
Gentlemen, you may think and say 
they are now doing well, under the old 
experimental system. In reference to 
to the past, it must be acknowledged 
that this is comparatively correct ; but 
if applied to the future, I beg the privil- 
edge to offer my dissent to it. Prophe- 
sy is novr a cheap commodity, and the 
common privilege of all men ; and I will 
\v.nture again to look into futurity. — 
Now I have no doubt of this feet, and 
time the recorder of events of every 
present moment, that such events may 
be brought up in comparison with the 
recorded events of any future moment, 
may record this : that the time is not 
far distant, when, if there is a tract of 
land for sale, one of the material points 
of information given or required, will be 
the constituent elements of its soil ; and 



t