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Author of "German Universities" 


Scholar in Old English 



The present volume is an attempt to be of service 
to those who are beginning the study of our language, 
or who desire to acquaint themselves with a few speci- 
mens of our earliest literature. It has seemed to the 
author that there were two extremes to be avoided 
in its compilation — the treatment of Old English as 
though it consisted of wholly isolated phenomena, and 
the procedure upon a virtual assumption that the student 
was already acquainted with the cognate Germanic tongues 
and with the problems and methods of comparative phi- 
lology. The former treatment robs the study of its 
significance and value, which, like that of most other 
subjects, is found in its relations ; the latter repels and 
confounds the student at a stage when he is most in 
need of encouragement and attraction. 

How well the author has succeeded must be left to 
the judgment of others — the masters whom he follows 
at a distance, and the students whose interests he has 
constantly borne in mind. Of one thing, however, he 
can assure such as may care to inspect his book — that 
he has spared no pains in treading the path which 
seemed to be thus marked out for him in advance. Errors 
there doubtless are — errors of judgment, and errors of 
fact; but for both he must plead the best excuse eve^ 


offered for similar imperfections, that of King Alfred 
in the last sentence on page 162 of this volume. 

The selections have been made with reference to giving 
a fairly just, though necessarily incomplete, view of the 
surroundings, occupations, problems, ideals, and senti- 
ments of our English ancestors. The earlier pieces of 
both prose and poetry are short; the longer ones that 
follow either have more sustained interest, or are sup- 
ported by their reference to preceding ones ; but they, 
too, fall into natural subdivisions, partially indicated in 
the printing, so that they may be read as successions 
of short extracts. 

It may be objected that Latin and Greek have been 
too freely used for illustration. The reply to such an 
objection is twofold : that the book is likely to fall 
into the hands of some who possess at least an elemen- 
tary acquaintance with one or both of these languages, 
and that to these the disclosure of the relations involved 
in a comparison with the ancient tongues will materially 
increase their pleasure and their gain; and, secondly, that 
the book may be intelligently read, from cover to cover, 
without the slightest knowledge of either Greek or Latin. 

The passages from Bede have been taken from Miller's 
edition ; the portion of ^If ric's Colloquy from the Wright- 
Wiilker Vocabularies ; the extracts from Wulfstan from 
Kapler's edition; the selections from BeowuK and Andreas 
are based upon the Grein-Wiilker edition of the Bibliothek 
der Angelsachsischen Poesie ; that from the Judith upon my 
own edition. The originals of the others are either indi- 
cated, or will be patent to scholars. 


The normalization of the texts to an Early West Saxon 
basis — Cosijn's Altwestsachsische Grammatik being the 
chief authority for norms — will doubtless be criticised 
by some scholars whose judgment is entitled to respect ; 
but here again the author has had in mind the beginner, 
for whose especial use the book is intended. If he wel- 
comes this introduction on account of its greater ease, 
and is yet not led astray by it ; if he becomes solidly 
grounded in the elements, so that further progress is 
faci> -tjated, while yet he has nothing to unlearn in the 
future ; the author will be consoled by his approbation 
for the censure of those who entertain a different opinion 
on this head. 

To the normalization of the texts exception has been 
made in the case of the poetry. For this there are two 
reasons. In spite of the greater difficulty of the poetry, 
the student should have had sufficient practice in reading, 
and particularly in parsing — the importance of which 
cannot be too much insisted upon — to proceed in the 
poetry without great obstruction from the retention of 
manuscript forms, especially as the cross-references of the 
Vocabulary will furnish him with the necessary assist- 
ance ; and, secondly, the normalization of the poetry would 
sometimes have been attended with considerable uncer- 
tainty, an uncertainty which is decidedly less in the case 
of the prose. Besides, such profit as accrues to the 
student from the inspection of the irregular orthography 
of the manuscripts may, by the literal reproduction of 
the orthography, be gained from this part. 

The device noted on page 202 is presented with some 


persuasion of its utility, though frankly as an experi- 
ment on which the author would gladly take, after 
sufficient trial, the judgmeDt of his colleagues. 

The Grammar is the merest outline. Its condensation 
has been largely effected by confining the treatment 
almost entirely to Old English itself, excluding all refer- 
ences to the theoretical Primitive Grermanic. This method 
is accompanied with some loss ; but, again, it is the 
beginner whom the author has had in view. More doubt- 
ful, perhaps, is the expediency of an empirical classi- 
fication of nouns, instead of the scientific arrangement 
according to stems ; many of us have unquestionably 
found, however, that the more purely scholarly classi- 
fication occasions not a little trouble in practice, and that 
its theoretical advantages are dearly purchased at this 
stage, before there is any adequate conception of com- 
parative philology and its postulates. The author is not 
so clear with regard to the probable utility of paragraphs 
12-14, on original and derivative vowels; criticism on this 
point will be especially welcome. 

The Appendixes include illustrative matter for which 
there was no natural place elsewhere, or materials and 
hints for those who would prosecute their researches a 
little further. The first three of them carry their mean- 
ing on their face ; the last is provided in order to facilitate 
the beginning of dialectic study. It — Appendix IV. — 
has cost more thought than is likely to aj^pear on the 
surface. The dialects have as yet been but imperfectly 
discriminated ; it is easier to say what is non-West Saxon 
than what is Mercian or Kentish ; the residuum of demon- 


strably pure Northumbrian forms in Csedmon's Hymn, for 
example, turns out to be surprisingly small. 

Care has been devoted to the unification of the book — 
to making its parts mutually coherent ; the illustrations 
of syntax are therefore taken from the texts printed in 
the Reader, and the Vocabulary contains copious refer- 
ences to the Grammar. It is hoped that this plan will 
prevent distraction on the part of the student, and con- 
duce to a nearly absolute mastery of the matter here pre- 
sented. The book ought to occupy at least a semester, 
and could readily be used for a longer time. The author 
believes that the history of the English language may 
most profitably begin with such a manual, studied under 
a competent teacher and with access to a few good refer- 
ence books. Thus used, it might advantageously be intro- 
duced into the earlier part of College courses, and perhaps 
into the better sort of High Schools and Academies. 

In conclusion, it is a pleasure to the author to acknowl- 
edge his indebtedness to Miss Elizabeth Deering Hanscom, 
graduate student of Yale University and American Eellow 
of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae, who has rendered 
material assistance in the preparation of the Vocabulary. 

Yale University, December 11, 1893. 


The favorable reception accorded to the first editior^ 
has encouraged the author, besides correcting several 
small errors, to amplify Appendix I., and to add a new 
Appendix, numbered V. The provision of a brief bibli- 
ography has been so generally welcomed that it has 
seemed desirable to append a list of books of a more 
advanced character, while retaining the former one essen- 
tially unchanged. No attempt at completeness has been 
made, but perhaps not many books of primary value have 
been omitted. The illustration of umlaut from Gothic, 
suggested by a reviewer, now constitutes Appendix V. 

Certain teachers having expressed a wish that the 
Vocabulary should give the gender of nouns, the authoi 
thinks it proper to state the principle upon which the 
designation of gender was omitted. This principle was 
that the Grammar should be in constant use. The car^ 
dinal use of a knowledge of the gender is with reference 
to declension ; given the declension, and the gender fol- 
lows. Now the references to the Grammar under nouns 
primarily indicate the declensions. If, then, the student 
recognizes the meaning of such references as 43, 47, etc., 
it is a proof that he is sufficiently acquainted with the 
paradigms they indicate ; if not, it is a clear sign that 
he ought to refer to them, and that a mere knowledge 


of the gender would not suffice. This is the author's 
opinion, but he holds himself prepared to defer to the 
expressed wish of his colleagues, when he can believe 
that that wish is at all general among those who have 
given the book a fair trial. 

The author hopes soon to issue a small companion 
volume of exercises in Old English, designed chiefly to 
facilitate drill on inflections. These exercises will con- 
sist of brief sentences for translation into Old English, 
based upon the successive prose selections of the Eeader, 
together with an English-Old English Vocabulary. 

A final word to those who use this book - — a word 
based upon experience with it : Look up carefully every 
foot-note, and constantly refer from the Vocabulary to the 
Grammar, with reference to the speedy mastery of the latter, 
supplementing this process by the committal to memory of 

Yale University, December 31, 1894. 


In this edition Appendix I. has again been revised and 
amplified ; Appendix YI. has been added, as Appendix IV. 
was in the second edition ; and a few minor errors have been 

Certain kindly critics have desired changes which would 
virtually mean the introduction of a larger element of com- 
parative Germanics, but I have not seen my way clear to 
satisfy them, for the reasons stated on p. viii ; such persons 
can always find what they desire in Sievers' Old English 
Grammar, in Btilbring's Altenglisches Elementarhuch, or in 
my Phonological Investigation of Old English. Any curi- 
osity about the general appearance of the other Germanic 
tongues may now be gratified by a glance at Appendix VI. 

The Exercises in Old English, based principally upon the 
earlier prose texts of this book, has proved its utility as a 
means of securing grammatical drill with a comparatively 
small expenditure of effort and time, and may therefore be 
commended to teachers with some confidence. 

Yale University, December 20, 1902. 


For a new impression of this book I now have the opportunity of 
consulting Krapp's edition of the Andreas^ and have conformed a fe\y 
readings to his, besides emending aece to secge (216. 5). 

Yale University, June 28, 1906. 



GRAMMAR ..,,....,,. , 1 

Introduction » . . . 3 

Dialects and Periods 3 

Phonology . 5 

Letters and Sounds 5 

Effects and Relations of Sounds ........ 10 

Consonantal Loss and Change ...,,.... 21 

Inflection 26 

Declension of Nouns « 26 

Declension of Adjectives 38 

Comparison of Adjectives 42 

Formation and Comparison of Adverbs 44 

Numerals » . . . . . 46 

Pronouns , . . « , . . . . . 48 

Verbs « , » 53 

Formation of Words ....,»,... o . . 81 

Syntax ,....,« o «... . 88 

Nouns ,,..,,.... 88 

Adjectives . ..,....» ... c », . 99 

Adverbs 100 

Pronouns .... o .... 100 

Verbs 101 

Prepositions » 106 

Conjunctions 107 

Prosody 108 


I. The Creation of the World 122 

11. Trades and Occupations 129 

III. The Day of Judgment 134 

IV. Bede's Description of Britain 137 

V. -^THELWALD CALMS THE SeA ......... 141 



VI. The Invasion of Britain by the Picts and Scots . 144 

VII. The Passing of Chad 150 

VIII. The Dangers of Greatness 156 

IX. Duties of the Rich toward the Poor 159 

X. Alfred's Preface to Boethius 162 

XI. A Prater of King Alfred 163 

XII. Apollonius of Tyre 164 

The Shipwreck 165 

Apollonius and the Fisherman 166 

The Incidents in the Gymnasium 168 

Apollonius at the Feast 170 

Entry of the Princess 172 

A Lesson in Music 174 

Apollonius as Teacher 177 

The Three Suitors 178 

The Princess chooses 180 

Apollonius relates his Adventures 184 

The Recognition 185 

The Fisherman's Reward ...,,.... 186 

The End 187 

Xm. The Six Days' Work of Creation 189 

XIV. The Song of the Gleeman . . . 200 

XV. The Rout of the Assyrians 202 

XVI. Selections from the Andreas 210 

Conversation between Andrew and the Sea-Captain 211 

The Voyage. — Storm at Sea 218 

Andrew relates Christ's Stilling of the Tempest . . 222 

Andrew desires Instruction in Seamanship . . . 225 

The Pilot recognizes God's Presence with Andrew . 227 

Andrew is carried to the City 228 

Andrew's Disciples relate their Adventure . . . 230 


Appendix I. Some Useful Books for the Study of Old English 235 
Appendix II. Correspondences of Old English and Modern 

German Vowels 245 

Appendix III. Andrew's Negotiations with the Steersman . 247 

Appendix IV. Specimens of the Dialects 250 

Appendix V. I-umlaut illustrated from Gothic 268 

Appendix VI. Specimens of Old Germanic Dialects . . . 270 




Dialects and Periods. 

1. Old English (sometimes called Anglo-Saxon) is 
the name of the Germanic language spoken in Eng- 
land between the middle of the fifth and the middle 
of the twelfth century. Its literature extends from 
the eighth to the twelfth century, and there are no 
Old English words found in documents earlier than 
the seventh century. The principal prose texts date 
from the period of King Alfred (871-901 A.D.), or 
from that of Abbot ^Ifric (pronounced Alfric), who 
flourished about the year 1000 a.d. The poetical 
pieces are mostly of uncertain dates, ranging from 
the eighth to the tenth or eleventh century. 

There are four dialects of Old English, the Nor- 
thumbrian, Mercian, Kentish, and West Saxon; of 
these the Mercian is intermediate in its characteris- 
tics between the Northumbrian and West Saxon. The 
Northumbrian dialect formed the basis of modern 
Scotch and Northern English, the Mercian of stand- 
ard literary English. The literature of Old English 
is chiefly extant in West Saxon, though the poetry, 


and some of the prose, contains forms from other dia' 
lects, chiefly from the Northumbrian. 

Since the remains of the other dialects are compara- 
tively small, West Saxon is the principal existing 
representative of Old English, and hence the two 
terms are often used interchangeably. West Saxon 
is divided into Early West Saxon (EWS.) and Late 
West Saxon (LWS.). The former is the language as 
written in King Alfred's time, the latter as in that 
of Abbot ^Ifric and his successors. A hundred years 
made some changes in the language, but rather with 
respect to syntax, euphony, and style in general than 
to the forms of words, though these also underwent 
some modification. 

In this work, the forms are those of Early West 
Saxon, which is assumed as the standard, even when 
the selections are from Late West Saxon. 


Letters and Sounds. 

2. Alphabet. — The Old English alphabet has the let- 
ters of Modern English, with the exception of y, h^ q^ 
v., and 2, and with the addition of tf and J?, both of 
which represent the modern th. Of these, J and v 
are never used, being represented by g (or i) and f, 
respectively; ^, q^ and z but rarely, k being commonly 
represented by c, ks(^cs^ by x, q(u^ by c(w), and 
z by ts. The two unfamiliar characters tf and ]? are 
pronounced eth (eth in brethren^ and thorn, respec- 
tively; they are used interchangeably in the manu- 
scripts ; in this book tf will, in general, stand for both. 

3. Vowels and diphthongs. — The vowel-letters are 
those of Modern English, with the addition of se. Mod- 
ern editors employ ^ and 9 to denote respectively an e 
and o which sprang from an original a (but ^ occasion- 
ally from o ; 17, 25). The vowels may be either short 
or long. 

The diphthongs are represented by ea, eo, and ie, 
both short and long. The second vowel sound in 
each diphthong is scarcely heard in pronunciation, the 
first element being the one which receives the stress. 



The vowel of every syllable is to he pronounced^ but in 
an unstressed syllable the sound is less distinct (23). 

4. Quantity. — Long vowels and diphthongs must be 
carefully distinguished from short ones. In normal- 
ized texts, length is indicated by the acute accent (') 
or the macron ("), placed over a vowel or the first 
element of a diphthong. For instance, OE. god is 
Mod. Eng. god, but OE. g6d or god is Mod. Eng. 
good ; so for, for, but for, went ; baer, bare, but bser, 
bier; ac, but, but ac, oaJc ; geat, gate, but geat, 
poured; is, is, but is, ice; man, man, but man, crime; 
tol, toll, but tol, tool ; w^nde, went, but wende, weened. 
Beginners should never fail to note whether the radi- 
cal vowel of each word is long or short, and should 
no more confound a with a than a with y. 

The length of a syllable must be distinguished from 
that of a vowel. Every syllable containing a long 
vowel is itself long, but so is also one which con- 
tains a short vowel followed by any two consonants 
or a double consonant. In the latter case, the syllable 
is said to be long by position ; in the former,' by nature. 

5. Pronunciation of vowels and diphthongs. — The pro- 
nunciation of the vowels and diphthongs can only be 
mastered by ignoring their pronunciation in Modern 
English. Any modern language, or Latin or Greek as 
pronounced by the Continental method, would be a 
safer guide. 


The exact pronunciation of the Old English vowels 
and diphthongs can be but imperfectly represented. 
The learner will not be far astray if he follows the 
pronunciation indicated in this table : — 


as in last (not a in man) 



" far 



" man 



" care 


e, ^ 

" men 

help, m^nn 


" they 



« fin 



" machine 


O, Q 

" broad (but shorter; 



" tone 




f uU 


" rune 



^^ f dunn (Germ.) 

Idin (less accurate) 



^^ J griin (Germ.) 

I green (less accurate) 



= ae + uh 



= e + ah 



= e + 



= e + 



= i + eh 



= i + eh 


Note. — The true sounds of y and y are most readily produced 
by placing the lips in the position for pronouncing long oo^ and, 
while retaining the lips in this position, pronouncing respectively 
the i in if, and the ee in deem. 

6. Consonants. — The consonants are divided into — 
labials^ w, m, p, b, f . 
dentals^ r, 1, n, t, d, 3", s. 

gutturals (sometimes palatals)^ (ii^)? c, g, h. 


7. Pronunciation of consonants. — w was pronounced 
as in Mod. Eng., also distinctly in the combinations 
wr, wl ; m, p, and b as in Mod. Eng. ; f as / and as 
V (2). 

r and 1 were pronounced nearly as in Mod. Eng. (but 
see 21) ; n, t, d, as in Mod. Eng. ; tf as th in thin and 
in the ; s as s and as z. 

ng- was pronounced like Mod. Eng. ng in finger; 
when palatal (10) it resembled ng in singe, c was pro- 
nounced like Mod. Eng. A;, or, when palatal, like English 
ch in child^ and was distinctly heard as k in the com- 
bination en; eg like dg in Mod. Eng. bridge (see 11). 
g was pronounced as g (but see 9) and as y (10). h 
was pronounced as in English, even in the combinations 
hi, hn, hr, hw ; when final, and in the combinations ht, 
hty, and hh, it had the sound of German cA, as in ach 
or in ich. hs was pronounced like Mod. Eng. x (cf. 2). 

When c was pronounced as k^ g as g^ and h as Ger- 
man ch in ach^ these letters are to be regarded as gut- 
turals ; when as eh in child^ y^ and ch in ich respectively, 
as palatals (10). 

8. Surds and sonants. — The consonants p, t, c, to- 
gether with f, s, tS when pronounced like Mod. Eng. 
/, 8, th in thin^ are called surds. All the other con- 
sonants, and all the vowels and diphthongs, are called 

f, s, and tS are surds when beginning a syllable, or 
following a surd at the end of a syllable ; they are 


sonants, that is, are pronounced like v^ 2, and tJi in 
the^ when they occur between two sonants, or follow 
a sonant at the end of a syllable. To the foregoing 
rule there may be some exceptions ; in case of doubt, 
the analogy of Modern English may be followed. 

9. Spirants and stops. — Spirants are consonantal 
sounds producible by a continuous emission of breath. 
Stops are momentary or explosive. The spirants are 
f , s, 9", and h (properly also g) ; to f and tS correspond 
the surd stops p and t, and the sonant stops b and d. 

10. Gutturals and palatals. — The consonants c, g-, h, 
are gutturals when occurring before consonants or the 
vowels a, a, e, o, q, o, u, u, y, and y (and sometimes 
se). They are palatals when occurring before, and 
sometimes after, the palatal vowels se, e, ^, i, i, ea, ea, 
eo, eo, ie, ie (sometimes se) ; c and g" medially (that is, 
in the middle of a word), when they are or may be fol- 
lowed by e or i ; c likewise in the combination sc (pro- 
nounced almost like sh) ; g- in the medial combination 
eg ; and c(cc, nc), g(ng) often medially and finally after 
a palatal vowel, but at least ng not always : e.g.^ ^ngel, 
Englisc have not ng = nj. For the pronunciation of 
these consonants as palatals see 7. 

11. Double consonants. — Double consonants must 
not be pronounced as in Mod. Eng., except at the end 
of a syllable. When medial, each consonant is pro- 


nounced separately : sunnum as sun-num^ the w's as 
in Mod. Eng. penknife. 

Double f, when sonant, is always represented by bb, 
and double g is usually written eg. The only con- 
sonant never doubled is w. 

Effects and Relations of Sounds. 

12. Original and derivative vowels. — Of the vowels 
and diphthongs of Old English, some are original, in 
the sense of being more directly an inheritance from 
the Parent Germanic tongue, while others are deriva- 
tive, or result from modifications of those that we call 

The original vowels and diphthongs are the fol- 
lowing : — 

a, a, ae, se (sometimes), e, e (rarely), i (sometimes), 
1, o, o, u (regularly), u, ea, eo (sometimes). 

The derivative vowels and diphthongs are : — 

ae (sometimes), se (sometimes), ^, e (usually), i 
(sometimes), <?, u (occasionally), y, y, ea, eo, eo (some- 
times), ie, le. Though ea, eo, ie when short are all 
derivatives, ie may be called a derivative of the sec- 
ond order, since it arises from one of the two others. 

13. Relation of original to derivative vowels. — The 
relations between original and derivative vowels may 
thus be shown (see 17, 18, 20, 21, 25): — 





SB, ^5 

Q, ea, 





i, eo, 

le, o 


eo, u 




^, eo 


e, eo 









14. Relation of derivative to original vowels. — Revers- 
ing the order of the last table, we obtain ; — 








a, Q, o 












a (se) 

ea (rarely) 



e, i, o 




a(ea), ^, 

e (eo), i (eo) 


ea, eo 

Occasionally (28, 29, 30) se is derived from ae, e from 
e, i from i, 6 from o or a, u from u, y from y, 
ea from ea, and eo from eo. Rarely are o and u 
derived from e and 1 (26). 


It must he observed that not every vowel standing in 
the column of derivatives belongs exclusively there. Thus 
i, for example^ is sometimes original (12). 

15. TJmlaut. — Umlaut is a change effected in the 
vowel of a stressed syllable by the vowel of a following, 
usually the next following, syllable. 

There are two chief kinds of umlaut, the i-umlaut 
(pron. ih'-ooin'-loivt')^ and the u- or o-umlaut (oo-or oA-). 

16. The i-umlaut. — i-umlaut is a change effected in 
a vowel or diphthong by palatalization, such palatal- 
ization consisting in an approximation of the umlauted 
vowel or diphthong to the sound of i (th'). The cause 
of i-umlaut was in all cases an i or a j (pronounced like 
Mod. Eng. ?/) of a following syllable, but the i or j 
usually disappeared before the period of historic Old 
English, or was turned into e. When the word umlaut 
is used without qualification, i-umlaut is to be under- 
stood. See Appendix Y. 

17. lUustrations of i-umlaut. — The effect of i-umlaut 
will be shown by the following table : — 


Umlaut Vowbl. 
















Original Vowel. 

Umlaut Vowel. 



ea (from a) 




eo (from e) 




Examples are : mann (man), m^nn (men) ; lar 
(lore), IJeran (teach) ; helpan (help), hilpST (helps) ; 
mQnn (man), m^nn (men) ; oxa (ox), ^xen (oxen) ; 
dom (doom), deman (judge) ; wuUe (wool), wyllen 
(woollen); brucan (use), brycST (uses); eald (old). 
ieldu (age) ; heah (high), hiehra (higher) ; weorpan 
(throw), wierpar (throws) ; hreowan (rue), hriewSF 

Sometimes two words are so related that y seems 
to be i-umlaut of o, like gold (gold), gylden (golden) ; 
but in such cases the o came from an earlier u. 

The umlaut of a is generally ^, but in some words 
se is found. 

Strictly speaking, i is not the umlaut of e-, but the 
phenomenon, though resulting from a somewhat dif- 
ferent cause, is virtually the same. 

18. Palatal influence. — Initial g, c, and sc, change 
86 (from a) to ea, se to ea, and ^, e to ie ; and sc 
sometimes changes a to ea, a to ea, o to eo, and 6 
to eo. Examples : gaef (gave), geaf ; gsefon (gave, 
plur.), geafon ; sc^ppan (create), scieppan ; gefan 
(cfive), giefan ; scacan (shake), sceacan ; scadan 


(separate)^ sceadan; scop (^poef)^ sceop; scoh (^shoe)^ 
sceoh. Even eo from ii : sceor, from scur, shower. 

In the following words, the ge represents original j 
(pron. y^ : geoc, yoke (orig. joe) ; geond, through 
(orig. jond) ; geong, young (orig. jung) ; geoguST, 
youth (orig. juguQ") ; geomor, grief (orig. jomor) ; 
gea, yea (orig. ja) ; gear, year (orig. jar) ; ge, ye 
(orig. je). Perhaps better sceadan, geomor, etc. 

The i found in the present stem of some weak verbs 
(116) stands for original j (pron. y), and, as g repre- 
sents this j in the words just instanced, so it often 
appears in the endings of these weak verbs, sometimes 
alone, sometimes followed by e, sometimes in one of 
these two forms preceded by i. Thus n^rian, save, 
occurs also as n^rgan, n^rigan, n^rigean, etc. ; the 
ind. pres. 1st sing, n^rie as n^rge, n^rige, etc. 

Wherever in or just preceding the inflectional end- 
ing of a word, c or g is followed by e before another 
vowel, the e must be understood to indicate an 
original j (pron. «/), and an alternative form without 
e also exists. Thus secean and secan, seek; m^nigeo 
and m^nigo, multitude. Similarly, the i and g in the 
inflectional endings of nouns like h^re, army (44. 2) 
represent original j (pron. y). 

19. y and y for ie and le. — y and y properly repre- 
sent the i-umlaut of u and u, but are also frequently 
found for ie and ie. Sometimes, again, the latter 


are represented by i and i. Hence, in looking for 
words containing these letters, it is never safe to con- 
fine the search to any one of the three. From eald, 
old^ is formed by means of i-umlaut the noun ieldu, 
age (17) ; but the latter might occur in a text or 
glossary as yldu. Contrariwise, on finding yldu in a 
text or glossary, it would not be safe to conclude that 
the y represented the i-umlaut of u, since, as we have 
just seen, it really goes back to ea and a. Again, 
were the word to be found as ildu, it should not be 
inferred that the i is either original or derived from 
e (17), for the reason just adduced. 

Hemember that j or i, short or long^ may stand for 
ie, short or long. 

20. The u- or o-umlaut. — This umlaut is ^ change 
effected in the vowels a, e, or i by a u or o of the 
following syllable. By it a is converted to ea, and 
e or i to eo (sometimes i to io). Examples : caru, 
care^ becomes cearu ; weruld, worlds becomes weoruld ; 
miluc, milh^ becomes meoloc or mioloc. The change 
of vowel is, however, not invariable in these circum- 
stances, and, on the whole, may be regarded as excep- 

The explanation of this phenomenon is that the 
vowel sound of the following syllable is anticipated, 
as it were. The vocal organs, while pronouncing the 
a (properly se) of caru (caeru), are already shaping 


themselves to pronounce the u; hence the result is 
caeuru, very nearly, which is further modified into 
cearu. For weoruld the explanation is similar, but 

21. Breakings. — Before r + consonant, 1 + conso- 
nant, and h 4- consonant or h final, a is regularly con- 
verted into ea, and e or i frequently into eo. This 
change is called hreahing^ because the one vowel is, 
as it were, broken into two. Examples : — 

a) a to ea : arm (arm)^ earm ; aid (old^^ eald ; 
ahta (eighf)^ eahta. 

6) e or i to eo (io sometimes from i): erSTe (eartK)^ 
eorare ; elh (ellc)^ eolh ; fehtan Q fight) ^ feohtan ; Piht 
(^Picf), Pioht, Peoht. 

It must be remembered that the sound of e in ea 
differs materially from that of the same letter in eo 
(5 ; cf. 20). 

The explanation of breaking lies in the fact that 
the vowels which experienced breaking were formed 
with a position of the vocal organs quite different 
from that concerned in the production of r, 1, and h, 
as pronounced in Old English. These consonants, at 
the time when they caused breaking, were gutturals; 
the vowels that underwent breaking were palatais 
(strictly speaking, when we say that a was broken, 
we should rather say that it was ae). In the produc- 
tion of these consonants, the back part of the mouth 


was chiefly concerned; in that of the vowels it was 
the forward part. Hence, in passing from the vowel 
position to that of the consonant, an intermediate vowel 
sound or glide was produced, akin in position and 
sound to the consonant which it preceded. Although 
these consonants have at present a pronunciation which 
cannot be called guttural, yet it is possible to pro- 
nounce a sentence like ' What ails you ? ' in so 
drawling a manner, especially as regards 'ails,' that 
this word shall have nearly the sound of d-uls. The 
obscure wA-sound thus developed may be compared 
to the second element of the diphthong in ea and eo. 
Here may be adduced Shakespearian lines such as — 

Strikes his breast hard (liali-urd), and anon he casts. 

— Hen. Vin. 3. 2. 117. 

Look how he makes to Caesar, mark (mah-urk) him. 

—Jul. C^s. 3. 2. 18. 

My lord (law-urd;, will it please you pass along. 

— Rich. in. 3. 1. 136. 

In all these, metre seems to demand that the itali- 
cized words shall be pronounced as disyllabic (Abbott's 
Shakespearian G-rammar^ § 485). 

22. Ablaut. — Ablaut (pron. ahp^owf) is a prehistoric 
relation existing between the vowels of different tense- 
stems derived from the same verbal root. Thus the 
relation of z, a, and w, in the Mod. Eng. sing^ sang, 
sung^ is an ablaut relation, and so is the relation of 


I, 0, i in the Mod. Eng. drive, drove, driven. In Old 
English the tense-stems of these verbs would be sing-, 
sangr, sung-, sung- (104) ; drif-, draf, drif-, drif- (102). 
In the former, i, a, u, u stand in an ablaut relation; 
in the latter, i, a, i, i. 

It must be observed that the verbal stems concerned 
sometimes appear in nouns and adjectives, as well as 
in verbs. Thus the vowel of the Mod. Eng. noun 
song stands in an ablaut relation with those of the tense- 
stems sing and sung. Again, in Old English, the i 
of the noun bite, bite, stands in an ablaut relation 
with the other vowels of the tense-stems of bitan, 
bite. The latter are bit-, bat, bit-, bit- (102), and 
hence the radical vowel of the noun is identical with 
that of the third and fourth stems. 

Ablaut is not to be confounded with umlaut. TJimr 
laut admits of explanation; ablaut must, so far as Old 
English is concerned, be merely accepted as a fact. 

23. Stress, and the vowels of unstressed syllables. — 

The stressed syllable is the principal one, and usually 
the first one of the word, except in compounded verbs, 
and nouns or adjectives with the prefixes be-, ge-, and 
sometimes for-; these stress the root syllable. The 
laws relating to vowels hold only of stressed syllables. 
In unstressed syllables, especially in the second sylla- 
ble of trisyllabic words, the vowel is liable to pass into 
a neutral sound, often represented by e, or to disappear 


altogether. When the vowel disappears, the trisylla- 
bic word of course becomes disyllabic : ^ngel, angel^ 
gen. angles (instead of ^ngeles) ; heafod, head^ gen. 
heafdes (instead of heafodes). Syncope, as such dis- 
appearance is termed, is most apt to occur after a long 
syllable (4). 

24. Representation of Old English vowels in Modern 
English. — The same Old English vowel letter is not 
always represented by the same Mod. Eng. letter, nor 
its sound by the same Mod. Eng. sound; yet there is 
a certain uniformity, differing in degree with different 
vowels, in the representation of both sound and letter. 
Some of the more regular correspondences are given 
in the subjoined table, though it must be understood 
that exceptions are numerous. The Mod. Eng. sound 
or letter that is first given is the commonest ; the 
second is often comparatively rare. The figuration 
of the Mod. Eng. vowel sounds is that of Webster's 
Dictionary. For details, see Mayhew's Synopsis of Old 
English Phonology, 



Mod. E. 

Mod. e. 




3jf 3i 

nama, name ; land, land 

But ag 



haga, haw 


0, oa 

o; 6" 

before rham, hoine ; ar, oar 



H'j ot 

glaed, glad ; faeder, father 

But aeg 

ai, ay 


braegn, brain ; daeg, day 


ea, ee, e 

e, e 

<1<^1, deal ; seed, seed ; fleesc 



OE. Mod. E. 

Letters. Letters. 

e, ^ e, ea 

But eg ai, ay, a 

ee, e 

But ig i 

i 1 

o, Q o, oa 

Mod. E. 

e, e 




CO, u. 







u, 66 






ou, ow, 


ou, u 

1, u, o 






h, si, a 





(Anglian i 




e, e 






ea, e, u 

e, u 



ar, ear 



ee, ie, e 

e, e 






e, ie 

e, e 


See e 

feiSFer, feather ; tw^lf , twelve ; 
spere, spear 
a regn, rain ; weg, way ; 3'egn, 

e (seldom e) c-wen, queen ; her, here ; 

(bletslan, bless) 
i ; 1 before fisc, fish ; mllit, might ; 

ht, nd. Id blind, blind ; cild, child 
1 nigon, nine 

1, i rim, rime ; -wisdom, wisdom 

6, 6 ; 6 be- bodig, body ; iQng, long ; 
fore r boUa, bowl ; herd, hoard 

hrof, roof ; offer, other ; boo, 

blovran, blow 
lufu, love ; wulf, wolf 
hund, hound 
Mad, loud ; bur, bower; 

butan, but 
cyniug, king ; byraTen. bur- 
then ; -wyrm, worm 
bryd, bride ; :^st, fist 
weaxan, wax ; heard, hard j 
eall, all 

beald, bold 


beacen, beacon ; dead, dead 

deaw, dew 

eorffe, earth : beorg, berg ; 

ceorl, churl 
heorot, hart ; heorte, heart 
deop, deep ; feond, fiend ; 

deofol, devil 
bleow, blew 
hierde, herd; gieldan, yield 

1, u 


25. Influence of nasals. — The nasals m and n change 
a preceding a to <?. Usage is not uniform ; some 
texts have a in this position, and others q. 

When a word cannot he found under a, look for it 
under <?, and conversely. 

26. Influence of w. — In cases where e or i has be- 
come eo or io (20, 21), a preceding w is apt to change eo 
to o or u, and io to u. For example, weruld (world^ 
becomes weoruld through the influence of u-umlaut 
(20), and this may then become woruld. Simi- 
larly, widuwe (widow') becomes wioduwe, and then 
wuduwe. For the o and u thus produced, y is some- 
times found. 

When o, u, or y immediately follows w, it may he 
suspected^ though it must not he assumed^ that the vowel 
was once eo or io, originally e or i. 

Consonantal Loss and Change. 

27. Loss or vocalization of w. — Some words ending 
in a long vowel or diphthong originally ended in w, 
and the w is still found in the oblique cases of these 
words. Thus, nom. cneo (hnee)^ gen. cneowes, etc., 
and occasionally in the nominative, cneow (47. 3). 

At the end of a word, and following a short syllable 
which ends in a consonant, u often stands for original 
w, the latter having undergone vocalization in that 
position. When an inflectional syllable is added 


beginning with a vowel, the w reappears. Thus, 
nom. gearu (ready)^ gen. g-earwes, etc. (57. 5). 

There is frequent loss of initial w in the negative 
forms of the verbs wesan, 5e, witan, know^ willan, 
will: naes, was not, nat, knows not, nolde, would not, 
etc. It also disappears in na(u)ht for nawilit, naught, 
cue for cwic, alive, and a few other words. 

28. Loss or replacement of g. — Before d and n (and 
before 3" in the word tiSTian, granf), g is often lost, 
the preceding vowel being lengthened by way of 
compensation : maegden and mseden, maiden ; tfegn 
and iSTen, thane. Properly speaking, the palatal g, 
already in such cases pronounced almost like a vowel, 
becomes indistinguishable from i or y in pronunciation, 
and by this time its effect is simply to lengthen the 
vowel which precedes. In a similar manner, ig may 
be contracted into i, sometimes shortened to i: hun- 
grig and hungri, hungry/; ligetf and IW, lies (from 
licgan) ; stigrap and stirap, stirrup. The above losses 
are regular only after palatal vowels (10). 

After a guttural vowel (10), after r, or (especially 
in LWS.) before -st and -tf, endings respectively of 
the 2d and 3d sing. pres. ind., g frequently becomes 
h, occasionally gh : genog and genoh, enough ; burg 
and burh, citi/ ; stlgtf and stihST, climbs. 

29. Loss of h. — Certain words ending in h lose the 
h before an inflectional ending beginning with a vowel, 


at the same time lengthening the vowel of the stem, 
if short : feorh, life^ gen. feores ; feoh, property^ gen. 
feos. There are besides a number of contract verbs 
(101) in which an original h has been lost before 
vowels (100); gefeon, rejoice^ orig. gefehan. 

The initial h of certain indefinite pronouns, and of 
the various forms of habban, Tiave^ is frequently lost 
after ne, not: nawSTer, naSTer (27) for ne ahwaeS'er, 
neither; naefde, had not, 

30. Loss of m and n. — Before the spirants f , s, and 
tS there has been in some words the loss of an original 
m or n, with a lengthening of the preceding vowel : 
osle, ousel^ orig. amsala ; us, us^ orig. uns. When the 
resulting vowel is o, or its umlaut e (17), the origi- 
nal vowel was a (<? before nasal, 25) : gos, goose, 
orig. gans ; est, favor, orig. ansti. 

31. Metathesis of r. — In some words in which a 
vowel was originally preceded by r, the r has changed 
places with the vowel. Thus burna, fountain, hrooJc 
(cf. Scottish burn), was originally brun(n)a (cf. 
Germ. Brunnen) ; hors, horse, orig. hros (cf . Germ. 

32. Metathesis of sc. — After a vowel, sc frequently 
becomes cs, often represented by hs or x (2). Thus 
ascian, ask (cf. Germ. (Ji)eischen) becomes acsian, 
ahsian, axian (dial. Mod. Eng. axe). 


33. Change of d to t. — When d either precedes or fol- 
lows a surd (8) in the same word, it regularly becomes 
t. Thus from bindan, hind^ the ind. pres. 2d sing, is 
formed by adding -st (though sometimes -est), thus, 
binds t ; but, in accordance with this principle, bindst 
becomes bintst. So from lecan, increase^ the ind. pret. 
3d sing, is formed by adding -de, thus, ieede ; but iecde 
becomes iecte. 

34. Changes of ts in conjunction with other dentals. — 
Whenever d or t comes to stand immediately before 
9", the combination becomes tt, which is sometimes 
simplified to t (35). Thus bindeST, ind. pres. 3d 
sing, of bindan, becomes binder by elision of the e 
in an unstressed syllable (23) ; but bindS" invariably 
appears as bint ; bidST and bitST, respectively from 
bidan, await, and bitan, bite, both become bitt or bit. 

By a somewhat similar change, stf often becomes st. 
For tSs is usually found ss, which may be simplified 
to s (35). 

Suspect that t near the end of a verb may stand for 
d or 9", or be the result of contraction, 

35. Gemination simplified. — Double consonants are 
of frequent occurrence, especially before an inflec- 
tional syllable beginning with a vowel. Thus swim- 
man, swim, b^dde, to a bed, etc. But gemination 
is frequently simplified, or, in other words, the sec- 


ond consonant is dropped, (a) at the end of a word, 
(5) before another consonant, (c) in certain other 
situations. Thus : — 

(a) mannes, gen. sing., but mann or man, man^ 
nom. sing. ; (5) ealles, gen. sing, of eal(l), all^ but 
ealne, ace. sing. masc. ; (c) oarer, other^ with gen. 
plur. ending oarerra, but usually oSTera, oaFra. 

36. Gemination pointing to original j. — In many 
words which contain a double consonant, especially 
those whose stem vowel is ^, the stem was originally 
followed by j (pron. y), and the consonant was not 
geminated, but single : s^llan, give^ orig. sal j an. This 
was always the case with words containing eg, which, 
it will be remembered, is the representative of ^^ (11) : 
s^egan, say., orig. sagjan ; hrycg, hack., orig. hrugjo-. 

37. Grammatical change. — As between certain re- 
lated words, there is an interchange of tS and d, s and 
r : inf. ceosan, choose., past part, eoren ; inf. e weSTan, 
say., past part, cweden (cf. the noun cwide, discourse). 
This is technically known as grammatical change. 
Under similar circumstances, there is a like change 
between h and g, and h and w, but owing to a partial 
disappearance of the h (cf . 100) this is less noticeable : 
sliehSr, strikes (inf. slean), slog, struck; siehar, sees 
(inf. seon), sawon (they) saw. 


Declension of Nouns, 

38. Gender of nouns. — Nouns are either masculine, 
feminine, or neuter. Names of males are masculine, 
and those of females feminine, except msegden, meeden 
(28), girl^ wif, wife^ and bearn, cild, child, which are 
neuter. The gender of most nouns must be learned 
from the dictionary ; but all nouns ending in -a are 
masculine, and belong to the weak declension (53) ; 
all ending in -dom, -els, -ere, -had, and -scipe, and most 
in -end, with names of persons in -ingr and -ling, are 
strong masculines ; those ending in -estre, -nes, -raeden, 
-9'(u) (-SCo), -ung, most in -u, and a few abstracts in 
-ing", are strong feminines. 

Compound nouns take the gender of their last com- 
ponent ; thus wifman, woman, is masculine, because 
man(n) is masculine. 

39. Strong and weak nouns. — According to their 
declension, all nouns are either strong or weak. The 
nominative of weak nouns always ends in a vowel, 
either -a or -e, but not all nouns ending in -e are 



40. Cases of nouns and adjectives. — Old English has 
six cases, though in general only four are distinguished. 
These four are the nominative, genitive, dative, and 
accusative; the two additional are the vocative, the 
case of direct address, and the instrumental, which is 
virtually indistinguishable from the dative, except in 

The nominative is used as in English. The genitive 
is the case denoting possessor, source, or cause; its 
sign is of. The dative denotes the indirect object of 
an action; its sign is to or for. The accusative denotes 
the direct object; it has no sign. The instrumental 
denotes the means by which an action is performed; 
its sign is bi/. 

The instrumental of nouns is included in the declen- 
sions under the dative. 

41. TJnifonn case endings. — All nouns, whatever their 
declension, end in -um in the dative plural. The gen- 
itive plural always ends in -a, either appended directly 
to the stem, or with -en- (rarely -r-) interposed (43. 6) ; 
accordingly the genitive plural, to speak more strictly, 
always ends in -a or -ena (very rarely -ra). 

Instead of -um is occasionally found -un, -on, or -an, 
and in later Old English these endings grow common. 

42. Strong masculine endings. — All strong masculines, 
except umlaut masculines (46) and those in -u (45), 
take the following as regular endings (for exceptions 


see 43. 5-9; 44. 4), where — represents the form of 
the nominative singular : -— 



N.V.A. ^- 


G. -es 


D. -e 


43. Masculines ending in a consonant. — The greater 
number of strong masculines are declined like fisc, 
fish: — 



N.V.A. fisc 


G. fisces 


D. fisce 


1. A very few words ending in -eg may insert -e- 
before the endings of the plural: s^cgeas, etc. (18). 

2. If the radical vowel of the nominative is ae before 
a single consonant, this is changed in the plural to a : 
dsegr, day^ but plur. dagas, daga, dagrum. 

3. Nouns ending in h lose this consonant before a 
case ending, and in so doing lengthen the radical 
vowel or diphthong. Thus fearh, swine, but feares, 
etc. (29). If the h is preceded by a vowel, the vowel 
of the ending is lost: scoh, shoe, but nom. plur. scos, 
not scoas. 

4. Disyllabic nouns generally lose the vowel of the 
second syllable before all endings, when the stem is 
long by nature or position (4, 23), if the second syllable 
is not long by position. Otherwise the vowel of the 


second syllable is regularly preserved. Examples are 
as follows : — 

a. Stem long by nature, and second syllable short: 
ei0rel, country^ gen. eSTles, not eSTeles. 

h. Stem long by position, and second syllable long 
by position : h^ngest, stallion^ dat. h^ngeste, not 

c. Stem long by position (vowel before two conso- 
nants), and second syllable short: dryhten, lord^ gen. 
dryhtnes, not dryhtenes. 

d. Stem short by nature, and second syllable short: 
heofon, heaven^ dat. heofone, not heofne. 

Occasional exceptions are found: dryhtenes, heofne. 
The retention or loss of the vowel is in part dependent 
upon the date of the particular text. 

5. In a few words there is an occasional gen. and 
dat. sing, and nom. plur. in -a : f eld, fields ford, ford^ 
winter, winter^ sumer, summer^ and a few others of 
rare occurrence. 

6. Nouns in -end, originally present participles (143), 
take the gen. plur. in -ra, instead of -a, and the plur. 
nom. voc. ace. in -e, or without ending, as well as in 
-as, the latter being rare. Thus nom. plur. hselend, 
haelende, as well as hgelendas; gen. hselendra. 

7. A single word, beam, grove^ has the nom. 
sing, in -u, and takes w instead of the -u before all 
inflectional endings: nom. sing, beam, gen. bearwes, 
etc. (27). 


8. The noun f aeder, /(^^Aer, frequently omits the ter- 
minations of the sing. gen. and dat. 

9. Hseletf, Jiero^ and monaST, months sometimes omit 
the termination of the nom. ace. plur. 

44. Masculines in -e. — The declension of strong mas- 
culines in -e is almost identical with that of fisc. The 
sing. nom. ace. voc. takes -e; other exceptions will be 
noted below. Ende, end^ is thus declined : — 



N.V.A. ^nde 


G. ^ndes 


D. ^nde 


1. Here belong important classes of nouns ending 
in -ere (143) and -scipe, besides some others. They 
are much less numerous, however, than those of the 
preceding declension. 

2. The noun h^re, army^ sometimes takes -g- or -ig- 
before the endings of the singular, and the same, or 
-ige-, before the endings of the plural: h^r(i)ges, etc. 
Two words sometimes have the gen. plur. in -ig(e)a, 
-ia : wine, friend^ I>^ne, Danes, gen. plur. winigea, 
D^niga, D^nia (18). 

3. Nouns ending in -ce may retain the -e before 
the endings of the plural : Isece, physician, nom. plur. 
Iseceas, as well as Isecas (18). 

4. A few masculine nouns in -e occasionally take 
the nom. ace. plur. in -e, instead of -as : wine, or 


winsis, friend. The following are found in the plural 
only: leode (also leoda), people.^ ielde, men, ielfe, elves, 
and the proper nouns Engle, Angles, Seaxe, Saxons, 
Mierce, Mercians. 

45. Masculines in -u. — Here belong the words sunu, 
wn, wudu, wood, ine(o)du, mead, magu, hoi/, bre(o)go, 
prince, heoru, sword, lagu, lake, si(o)du, custom, spitu, 
spit Sunu is thus declined : — 



N.V.A. sunu 


G. suna 


D. suna 


1. The ending of the nom. sing, -u (sometimes -o) 
is liable to intrude everywhere except in the dat. plur. 
and gen. sing, and plur. 

2. Besides sunu and wudu, the nouns above given 
are scarcely found except in the nom. ace. sing. 

3. In later Old English these words begin to 
assume the endings of fisc (43) : gen. sunes, nom. 
plur. sunas, etc. 

46. Umlaut masculines. — Here belong fot, foot, totf, 
tooth; nian(n), man; feond, enemy, freond, friend, 
(142) ; broSTor, brother. These take umlaut of the 
radical vowel (17) in the dat. sing, and nom. voc. 
ace. plur., and have no ending in those cases. Fot 
is thus declined : — 





N.V.A. fot 


G. fotes 


D. f et (fote) 


1. BroSTor is irregular, forming its nom. voc. ace. 
plur. as broSTor or broacru, instead of breiarer. 

2. Occasionally there is found a plur. fotas, toSTas, 
instead of fet, tecT. 

3. Feond and freond usually have dat. sing. 
feonde, freonde, sometimes plur. feond, freond, or 
even feondas, freondas. 

47. Strong neuters. — In general, the chief distinction 
between the declension of masculines and that of neu- 
ters is in the plur. nom. ace. Where the masculine 
has -as, the neuter, if its radical syllable be short, has 
-u, or sometimes -o ; if long^ has no ending whatever 
(cf. 23, and especially its final sentence). When the 
radical syllable is short, the paradigm accordingly is 
(hof, dwelling^: — 



N.A. hof 


G. hofes 


D. hofe 


With a long radical syllable (4), the paradigm is 
(word, word^ : — 


N.A. word word 

G. w^ordes w^orda 

D. worde "wordum 


1. Disyllables are sometimes without ending in the 
nom. ace. plur., and sometimes take -u : W8ep(e)n 
and waepnu, weapons; but usually maegenu, forces^ 
nietenu, cattle^ earfoSTu, labors^ waet(e)ru, waters^ 
heafdu, heads^ wundor, wonders, 

2. Occasionally the nom. ace. plur. takes -o or -a 
instead of -u. 

3. Treo, tree, and cneo, knee, take -w before all 
case endings, and sometimes in the nom. sing. : 
treowes, etc. (27). Nom. ace. plur. treowu, cneowu. 

4. For a change in the radical vowel of the plural, 
see 43. 2: fset, vessel, but fatu, fata, fatum. 

5. For the loss of final h, see 43. 3; feoh, money, 
fee, gen. feos. 

6. For the loss (syncopation) of the vowel of the 
second syllable, see 43. 4: heafod, head, nom. plur. 
heafdu, not (usually) heafodu; tungol, star, nom. 
plur. tunglu, not tungolu ; waeter, water, gen. wae- 
teres, not (regularly) waetres. Syncopation is, how- 
ever, less constant in the nom. ace. plur. of neuters, 
in cases corresponding to 43. 4. a. 

7. Neuters ending in -en and -et sometimes double 
the final consonant before a case ending: sefen, even 
Q-ing), gen. sefenes or sefennes, etc. These nouns 
retain the -e of the second syllable. 

48. Neuters in -e. — These are declined like word, 
except that the sing. nom. voc. ace. has -e, and the 


plur. nom. voc. ace. has -u. Paradigm (wite, pun- 
ishment) ; — 



K.V.A. wTte 


G. wites 


D. wIte 


1. If the -e of the nom. sing, is preceded by c or g", 
the endings of the plural may be preceded by i (or e) : 
ricu or riciu, rica or ricia, etc. (18). 

49. Neuters in -u. — These are declined like bearu 
(43. 7), except that they take -u in the plur. nom. 
ace, instead of -as. There are only half a dozen 
in all, and these are not of common occurrence: 
bealu, evil^ gen. bealwes, etc. 

50. Irregular neuters. — The three words lamb, lamh^ 
cealf, calf^ seg, egg^ and sometimes cild, child^ are de- 
clined regularly in the singular, but take r in the plural 
before the endings -u, -a, -um : lamb, gen. lambes, but 
nom. plur. lambru. 

In LWS. the regular forms, without r, occur. 

51. Strong feminines. — Feminine disyllables ending 
in -u, and having a short radical syllable, belong 
here ; monosyllables with a long radical syllable, 
and most disyllables, discard the -u of the nom. 
sing. Abstracts, though long, follow a. 


a) Paradigm of the short stems, giefu, gift: — 

Singular. Plural. 

N.V. giefu, -o glefa, -e 

G. giefe giefa (-ena) 

D. giefe giefum 

A. giefe giefa, -e 

Occasionally the ending -u or -o is found in the 
oblique cases of the singular and in the nom. ace. 
plural. Duru, door, has -a in the gen. dat. sing., and 
in the whole plural except the dative. Two or three 
nouns in -u take -w before the ending in the oblique 
cases : beadu, battle, gen. beadwe, etc. 

5) Paradigm of the long stems and polysyllables, 
glof, glove : — 



N.V. glof 

glofa, -e 

G. glofe 


D. glofe 


A. glofe 

glofa, -e 

1. A few nouns discard the -e of the ace. sing. : 
deed, deed, tid, time, woruld (20, 26), world, 

2. Only rarely does the gen. plur. of long stems take 

3. Disyllables in -ung often have -a instead of e in 
the dat. sing., and sometimes in the gen. ace. sing. : 
leoruung, learning, dat. leornunga. The words hand, 
hand, flor, floor, and woruld, world, occasionally make 
the same change. 

4. Disyllables syncopate the vowel of the second 


syllable according to 43. 4 : sawol, soul^ gen. sawle, 

5. Polysyllables in -nes, -en, -el, and -et double the 
final consonant when a syllable is added, and retain the 
preceding -e : gen. dat. ace. sing. eaVmodnesse, humility^ 
byrtJenne, burden, etc. 

52. XTmlaut feminines. — These modify the root vowel 
by umlaut in the dat. sing, and nom. voc. ace. plur., 
and often in the gen. sing., that is, change a to se, 
o to ^, o to e, u to y, and u to y. The gen. sing., and 
occasionally the dat. sing., is sometimes formed regu- 
larly, without umlaut, and with the ending -e. Para- 
digm, (gos, goose) : — 



N.V.A. gos 


G. ges, gose 


D. ges 


The principal nouns which belong here are : ac, oak^ 
gat, goat; boc, booh, broc, trousers, gos, goose, wloh, 
fringe; burg, castle, city, furh, furrow, sulh, plough, 
turf, turf ; eu, cow, grut, grouty grits, lus, louse, mus, 
mouse, scrub, trough; ea, river; nibt, night, 

1. The dat. (gen.) sing, of burg is usually byrig, 
not byrg. 

2. Modor, mother, and debtor, daughter, are declined 
like broSCor (46. 1), except that modor has only the nom. 
ace. plur. niodru, -a, and both may have an umlaut gen. 
sing, in LWS. (but usually modor, dohtor). 


3. Sweostor, sister^ is without umlaut in any case ; 
it remains sweostor in every case except the gen. plur. 
sweostra and dat. plur. sweostrum. 

53. Weak nouns. — Masculines end in -a, feminines 
and neuters in -e ; but the neuters may be conveniently 
disregarded, only eage, eye, and eare, ear, belonging 
to this declension. Paradigms (mona, moon, tunge, 
tongue^ : — 



Sing. N.V. mona 



D. l-monan 


A J 

Plur. N.V. A. monan 


G. monena 


D. monum 


1. The number of feminines thus declined is com- 
paratively small. The commonest are perhaps eorSTe, 
earth, heorte, heart, lufe, love, cirice, church, tunge, 
tongue, liearpe, harp, siinne, sun, nsedre, viper, and 
selmesse, alms. The masculines are, on the contrary, 
very numerous. 

2. The declension of the neuters eage and eare 
differs from that of the feminines only in the ace. 
sing., which is like the nom. Their gen. plur. is 
often eagna, earna. 

3. The weak feminine heofone, heaven, should be dis- 
tinguished from the strong masculine heofon. Besides 
the weak lufe, there is also a strong lufu, love (51. a). 


54. Proper names. — Native names are declined like 
common nouns, except that feminines ending in -burg 
take the dative in -e and are without umlaut. Foreign 
names are sometimes naturalized, and sometimes take 
their original case endings, but not always with entire 
consistency. The words C^nt, C^rt, I, T^net, and 
Wiht are indeclinable, except that Wiht has the gen. 

Declension of Adjectives. 

55. Weak and strong adjectives. — Adjectives are de- 
clined weak when in the comparative, and usually when 
in the superlative ; when ordinals (except oarer, second^ 
78, 80); when preceded by a demonstrative; when used 
as masculine or feminine nouns preceded by the definite 
article ; in direct address ; sometimes when preceded 
by a possessive pronoun ; and exceptionally in poetry 
in place of the strong adjective. Otherwise adjectives 
are always used in the strong form. 

56. Strong declension of adjectives. — Here it is neces- 
sary to distinguish between long monosyllables on the 
one hand, and short monosyllables (comparatively few) 
and disyllables on the other. 

57. Disyllables and short monosyllables. — Paradigm, 
glaed, glad : — 




Sing. N.V. glaed 



G. glades 






D. gladum 


A. glcedne 



I. glade 

'. N.V.A. glade 

gladu, -e 

glada, - 





1. Italicized words indicate differences from the noun 
declension ; cf. these with the pronominal declensions 
(81, 84, 85). 

2. When the radical vowel is ae, it is changed as in 
the paradigm. Otherwise it remains unchanged. 

3. Disyllables take the same endings as in the para- 
digm, but frequently syncopate the vowel of the second 
syllable before an ending beginning with a vowel, as in 
eadig-, blessed, gen. eadges (23; cf. 43. 4), and some- 
times conform the nom. sing. fem. to the masc. and 
neut., and the neut. plur. nom. voc. ace. to the sing. : 
halig, hol^, not hal(i)gu. 

4. For the ending -u sometimes occurs -o, and for 
-um the LWS. -on, -an (cf. 41). 

5. Adjectives ending in -u (-o) change the u to w 
before vowels (27) : gearu, ready, gcii- gearwes, etc. 

58. Long monosyllables. — The only difference be- 
tween the declension of the long and that of the short 
monosyllables is that the ending -u of the latter is 
dropped, and that the radical vowel always remains 
unchanged. Paradigm, god, good: — 






Sing. N. god 



Plur. N. gode 


gode, -a 

1. Adjectives ending in h drop the h in disyllabic 
forms, and lengthen the radical vowel or diphthong 
(29) : iSTweorh, transverse, gen. tTweores ; but heah, 
high, often assimilates the final h to a following con- 
sonant: heanne, hearra, etc. In LWS. the h is often 
changed to g before a vowel : heagum, etc. 

2. Words ending in a double consonant usually re- 
tain this only before a vowel (35). 

59. Adjectives in -e. — These are quite numerous. 

They are declined like the short monosyllables, except 
that the^/ always retain their -e when no other ending is 
provided, hut lose it before an ending. Paradigm, grene, 
green : — 




Sing. N.Y. grene 



G. grenes 


Plur. N.V.A. grene 



grena, -e 

From an ace. masc. sing., like grenne, bli9'ne, for ex- 
ample, it is therefore not safe to infer a dictionary form 
gren, bliS". 

In consulting the lexicon, care should he taken to distin- 
guish adjectives in -e from such as end in a consonant. 

60. Weak declension of adjectives. — This is the same 
as that of nouns, except that the gen. plur. is regularly 


formed in -ra (only exceptionally -a or the regular 
weak ending -ena). Paradigm, groda, the good: — 




Sing. N.V. goda 







A. godan 



Plur. N.V. A. 






1. In LWS. -um frequently becomes -an. 

2. When, in consequence of contraction, too many 
r's or n's are brought together, one of them is rejected. 
Thus gearu, ready^ forms a comparative gearura. This 
comparative, in turn, would form a gen. plur. gearu- 
rara. By contraction this would reduce to gear(u)- 
r(a)ra ; but the three r's are simplified to two, and the 
resulting gen. plur. stands as gearra. 

61. The present participle. — The present participle in 
-ende is not to be confounded with the noun in -end 
(for which see 43. 6). It is declined like grene (59). 
When used in the predicate as nom. or ace. it is gener- 
ally uninflected. The present participle, like the adjec- 
tive, is also declined weak. 

62. The past participle. — The past participle has the 
double declension of the adjective, both strong and 
weak. When used in the predicate it is generally 
indeclinable, or ends like the strong masculine. 



Comparison of Adjectives. 

63. Regular comparison. — The comparative is formed 
by adding -ra to the stem of the positive, and the super- 
lative by adding -osta (-esta) ; with the latter of. Greek 
-fco-T09. The final -a represents the masculine termina- 
tion of the weak adjective (60), and undergoes all the 
replacements of the weak declension. More rarely the 
superlative is found in -ost (-est), which is then re- 
garded as strong. A final -e of the positive is dropped 
in comparison (^e.g. eai^re, easy^ comp. ie^Tra, not iearera) 
and a radical ae becomes a in the superlative (e.g. smael, 
small, superl. smalost, not smaelost ; cf . 43. 2). 

64. Comparison without umlaut. — This is the usual 
mode : — 




heard, hard 


heardost, -esta 

leof, dear 


leofost, -esta 

rice, powerful 


ricost, -esta 

smael, small 


smalost, -esta 

65. Comparison with umlaut. — This is followed by a few 
adjectives. The superlative generally ends in -esta : — 




eald, old 



lang, long 



geong, young 



sceort, short 



heah, high 

liielira (hierra) 


great, great 



calSFe, easy 





1. For some of these, unumlauted forms are also 
found: heahra, heahsta, etc. 

2. Syncope of e in the superlative occurs in LWS. : 
l^ngsta, etc. ; in hiehsta this is also EWS. 

3. For -ost may occur -ust. 

66. Different stems in comparison. — In the following 
the comparative and superlative are not formed from 
the same stem as the positive ; — 




god, good 

I sella, selra 



yfel, had 



mlcel, great 



lytel, small 



67. Comparison defective. — In four cases the positive 
is wanting as an adjective, but may be supplied as an 
adverb or preposition : — 




(feor, far) 



(neah, near) 



(ser, earlier) 



(fore, before) 



68. Superlatives in -ma. — Besides the superlative in 
-est, there is one in -ma (cf. Lat. '^T\-mus). Two exam- 
ples are found: forma, the first; hindema, the hindmost 

69. Superlatives in -ma -1- -esta = -mest(a). — These 
double superlatives, as they may be called, are chiefly 



formed from adverbs and prepositions. The compara- 
tive is peculiar in being generally formed in -erra, 
instead of -ra : — 




(siS", late) 



(laet, late) 



(inne, wWiin) 

inn erra 


(ute, without) 

uterra, yterra 

utemest, ytemest 

(ufan, above) 

uferra, yferra 

ufemest, yfemest 

(niffan, below) 



(fore, before) 



(aefter, after) 



(mid, mid) 


(nor'S, northward) 

norigferra, nyrlSFerra 


(suS", southward) 

suaCerra, syfferra 


(east, eastward) 



(west, westward) 



Formation and Comparison of Adverbs. 

70. Adverbs formed from adjectives. — Adverbs are 
formed from adjectives by the addition of -e, -lice, and 
-unga or -inga. Examples are : wid, wide^ wide, widely ; 
swiST, strong^ swi^Fe, very ; soSf, true^ soSTlice, truly ; 
eall, all^ eallunga, eallinga, entirely. Occasionally 
-unga, -inga is employed to form adverbs from other 
parts of speech. 

71. Adjectives in the genitive as adverbs. — The ending 
-es of the gen. sing. neut. is employed to form a few 
adverbs from adjectives : ealles, altogether : tfweores 
(58. 1), perversely i etc. 


72. Adjectives in the dative plural as adverbs. — Exam- 
ples are : miclum, very; lytlum, little. 

73. Adjectives in the accusative as adverbs. — Exam- 
ples are : full, fully ; genog, enough. 

74. Adverbs from nouns. — From the genitive : dseges, 
hy day; niedes, needs; etc. From the instrumental: 
sare, sore^ etc. From the dative plural : dropmgelum, 
drop hy drop^ etc. (cf. piecemeal). 

75. Adverbs of place. — These are of three classes, ac- 
cording as they answer the question. Where? Whither? 
or Whence? Examples are: — 

Where ? 

Whither ? 

Whence ? 










76. Comparison of adverbs. — Adverbs from adjectival 
stems are regularly compared by adding -or for the 
comparative and -ost for the superlative. Example : 
strangor, more strongly., strangest, most strongly (cf. 

77. Irregular comparison of adverbs. — A few adverbs 
have no termination in the comparative. They are 
always monosyllabic, and have usually undergone um- 
laut. Such are b^t, better; ma, mse, more; near, 

nearer : etc. 



78. Numerals. — The numerals are as follows : — 



1 . . 

, . an 

forma, seresta 

2 . . 

. twegen, twa (tfi) 

oiaCer, sefterra 

3 . . 

, . SSfrie, iaPreo 


4 . . 

, . feower 


5 . . 

. fif 


6 . . 

, . siex 


7 . , 

, . seofon 


8 . , 

. . ealita 


9 . , 

. . nigon 


10 . , 

. . tien 


11 . , 

. . endlefan 


12 . 

. . tw^lf 


13 . 

. . gfreotiene 


14 . 

. . feowertiene 


15 . 

. . fiftiene 


16 . 

. . siextiene 


17 . 

. . seofontiene 


18 . 

. . eahtatiene 


19 . 

. . nigontiene 


20 . 

. . tTV^entig 


21 . 

. . an and twentig 

an and IwentigoiaPa 

30 . 

. . ffritig 


40 . 

. . feowertig 


50 . 

. . fiftig 


60 . 

. . siextig 


70 . 

. . hundseofontig 


80 . 

. . (hund)ealitatig 


90 . 

. . hundnigontig 


100 . 

. . hund, hundred, hundteontig 

110 . 

. . hundendlefantig 


120 . 

. . hundtw^lftig 


200 . 

. . twa hund, tu hund 

1000 . 

. . (S'asend 


1. Other ordinals for 1 are fyresta, fyrmesta. 

2. Another form of ordinal for 21 is an eac twen- 

3. Endlefan and tw^lf probably stand for anlif and 
twalif (representing twalif). The -lif may mean left. 
After counting on the fingers up to 10, one left (anlif) 
would be 11 ; two left (twalif), 12. The final -an (-on) 
of endlefan may have been added after the analogy of 
seofon, nigon, etc. 

4. Fractions are usually formed by the help of djel, 
part: ffridda diel, one-third ; seofotTa dgel, one-seventh. 
For one and a half occurs oi^fer liealf (cf. Germ, andert- 
halh) ; so larridde healf, two and a half ; in other words, 
the OE. ordinal indicates the cardinal from which |- 
must be subtracted. 

5. Interesting forms, which actually occur, are : 19, 
an Ises twentig ; 39, an Ises feowertig ; 59, anes wana 
siextig (cf. Greek ho<i hiovTe<^ eUoaC) ; 450, fiftig and 
feower hund, fifte healf hund; 482, feower hund 
and twa and liundeahtatig ; 100,000, an hund STu- 
senda; 1,500,000, fiftiene hund iSTiisend. Note also 
fiftiena sum, one of fifteen., i.e. with fourteen com- 

79. Declension of cardinals. — An is declined like 
god (58), but with ace. sometimes senne, inst. sene. 
When declined weak, ana, it signifies alone. Twegen 
is declined thus : — 


Masculine Neuter. Fkminiitb. 

N.A. twegen twa, tu twa 

G. tweg(r)a 

D. twgem, t^valn 

So also is declined begen, both. Drie, SFreo is de- 
clined : — 




N.A. iaPrie 







The cardinals between 3 and 20 are usually inde- 
clinable. Those ending in -tig" are sometimes treated 
as neuter nouns (in which case they are followed by 
a partitive genitive), sometimes as adjectives, and 
are sometimes uninflected. Hund and ariisend are 
sometimes undeclined, but there is also a plural of 
hund, nom. hunde, dat. hundum ; and of arusend, 
nom. iarusendu, gen. -da, -dra, dat. -dum. These nu- 
merals are always followed by the genitive. 

80. Declension of ordinals. — All are declined like 
weak adjectives (60), except o9'er, second^ which is 


81. Personal pronouns. — 

First Person. 

Second Person, 

Sing. N. ic 


G. min 


D. me 


A. me 



First Person. 

Second Person. 

Dual N. wit 


G. uncer 


D. unc 


A. unc 


Plur. N. we 


G. fire 


D. us 


A. us 


Third Person. 




Sing. N. 















Plur. N.A. 








1. Less common forms are : in the accusative, mec, 
afec, usic, eowic ; hi(e) for heo, and conversely. Hio 
is frequent, parallel with heo, and user is found for tire. 

82. Reflexive pronouns. — In place of the reflexive, 
which does not exist as an independent form, is used 
the personal pronoun (81). 

83. Possessive pronouns. — Two sorts of possessives 
must be distinguished, the declinable and the inde- 
clinable. All of these are identical in form with the 
genitive of the personal pronoun, except sin, which 
is formed from a lost reflexive. The declinable pos- 


sessives are min, my^ tSlu^ tJiy^ tire, our^ eower, your^ 
sin, his, and the seldom used uncer, of us two, and 
incer, of you two. These follow the strong declen- 
sion of adjectives (57, 58). The indeclinahles are his, 
his, hi(e)re, her, and hi(e)ra, their, the genitives of 
the third personal pronoun. 

84. The demonstrative 'that.' — The pronoun se, seo, 
STset, is at once the equivalent of Mod. Eng. that 
and of the article. Like that, it is employed in a 
relative as well as a demonstrative sense, and fre- 
quently does duty for the third personal pronoun. 
The demonstrative pronouns have an instrumental 
case, as does the neuter of the interrogative hwaet. 




Sing. N. 

se (emphatic se) 







S'gem (afam) 







ffy, ffon 

Plur. N.A. 



afara ( 9" sera) 


S'sem (ffam) 

1. The conjunction arset, and the adverb STa (= there, 
then, etc.), must not be confounded with the pronoun, 

2. Parallel with se, seo, is a rare are, areo, which 
eventually supplants the former. 

3. osem, araiu becomes aran, tSon in such words 
as siararan, since (= siai" acam). 


4. The forms of this pronoun should be carefully 
distinguished from those of the next. 

85. The demonstrative 'this.' — Mod. Eng. this is rep- 
resented by the demonstrative iSTes, Sfeos, SCis. 




Sing. N. 
















Plur. N.A. 






1. Alternative or occasional forms are nsf, arios ; 
gsf. dsf. 3'is(se)re ; dat. ariosum (20). 

86. Minor demonstratives. — Less important demon- 
stratives are ilea, same^ which is declined weak, and 
self, self^ which takes both declensions. 

87. Relative pronouns. — The office of the relative 
is assumed : 

a) by the demonstrative se, seo, acaet, the reference 
being rendered explicit by the case form. 

5) by the demonstrative se, seo, arset, with the parti- 
cle are appended. 

c) by the indeclinable are, the reference being ren- 
dered explicit by an appended personal pronoun in 
the proper case form 


d) by the particle i^re alone, representing all nun> 
bers, genders, and cases, the reference being much 
less explicit. 

Illustrations of each of these modes would be: — 

a) Se Stan, ffone STa wyrhtan awurpon. 

{The stone, which the builders rejected.) 

h) Se Stan, ffone ffe ija wyrhtan awurpon. 

c) Se Stan, iSe Wne ffa ^vyrhtan awurpon. 

d) Se Stan, STe ffa w^yrhtan aw^urpon. 

88. Interrogative pronouns. — The most important is 
hwa, who? of both genders, with its neuter hwaet, 
what? what sort of a? 

Masc. Fbm. 








hwsem (hw^am) 





hwy, hwon 

Hwilc, which ? hwaeO'er, which of two ? and htilic, of 
what sort? are declined like strong adjectives (57, 58). 

89. Indefinite pronouns. — The indefinites are : — 
a) an, sum, a^ a certain^ senig-, any^ nan, nsenig", 
Tio, none^ selc, gehwilc, each^ segacer, ahwaeSTer, either^ 
nahwsearer, neither^ oSfer, other, swilc, such, are de- 
clined like strong adjectives. 

5) awiht, oht, anything, and nawiht, noht, nothing, 
with the compounds of -hwega (hwaethwega, any- 
thing, etc.) are indeclinable. 

VERBS. 53 

c) hwa, any one (and its compounds) is declined 
like the interrogative. 

<I) Indefinite relatives are formed from the inter- 
rogatives by swa-swa: swa-hwa-swa, whoever^ etc. 

e) man (originally maiin), one (cf. French on^ 
Ger. man^^ is used only in the nom. sing. 


90. Classification of verbs. — Verbs are either strong 
(92) or weak (96); besides which there are two small 
classes of important verbs, called respectively preteri- 
tive presents (124 ff.) and anomalous (137 ff.). Weak 
verbs are in general derivative ; and the stem can 
usually be detected as existing in some other inde- 
pendent word, often a noun or adjective, or the pret. 
sing, tense-stem of a strong verb. 

91. The present stem. — The present stem of a verb 
is what remains after cutting off the infinitive ending 
-an or -ian (in contract verbs, -n). The radical vowel 
is the vowel of this stem ; and the consonant or con- 
sonants which terminate the stem are, when such 
exist, called stem-finals. The stem as obtained above 
is one of the four tense-stems of strong verbs, or of 
the three tense-stems of weak verbs. 

92. Tense-stems of strong verbs. — Strong verbs change 
the radical vowel to form the different tense-stems, like 


the verbs called irregular in Modern English. As in 
Modern English the verb drive has the preterit drove 
and past participle driven^ so in Old English the same 
verb has the pret. sing, draf and past participle drifen. 
However, instead of the three tense-stems of Modern 
English, there are four in Old English for strong 
verbs, the preterit being subdivided into preterit sin' 
gular and preterit plural. 

The four stems of drifan, drive, are : — 

Present. Pret. Sing. Pret. Plur. Past Part. 

drif- draf drif- drif- 

93. Forms derived from each stem. — From the present 
stem are formed the whole of the present indicative and 
optative, the imperative singular and plural, the infini- 
tive, the gerund, and the present participle — in all 
seventeen forms. 

From the pret. sing, stem are formed only the 1st 
and 3d persons singular — two forms. 

From the pret. plur. stem are formed the whole pret. 
plur. of indicative and optative, the whole pret. sing, 
of the optative, and the 2d person singular indicative 
— ten forms. 

From the past participial stem is formed only the 
past participle — one form. 

94. Commonest forms of the verb. — From the present 
stem the form in commonest use is the ind. pres. 3d 
sing.; from the pret. sing, stem, the ind. pret. 3d sing.; 

VERBS. 65 

from the pret. plur. stem, the ind. pret. 3d plur. 
Umlaut (17) and contraction (34) are apt to obscure 
the origin of the first of these, but not of the other 
two. Thus from standan, stand — whose principal 
parts are standan, stod, stodon, standen — the ind. 
pret. 3d sing, is stod, the ind. pret. 3d plur. stodon, 
but the ind. pres. 3d sing, st^nt (instead of standeS"). 

95. Conjugation of a strong verb. — Types are : bindan, 

hind; (for contracts) f on, sez'^g ; — c.^ 

Indicativb. Optative. I 

Pres. Sing. 1. binde; fo binde; fo - — 

2, bind(e)st, bintst; fehst binde; fo 

3. bind (e) fS, bint ; fehff binde ; f o 
Plur. bindad", binde ; f oij binden ; f on 

Pret. Sing. 1. band; feng bunde; fenge 

2. bunde; fenge bunde; fenge 

3. band; feng bunde; fenge 
Plur. bundon ; f engon bunden ; f engen 

Imper. Sing, bind; foh Infin. bindan; fon 

Plur. bindatS", binde; foS" Gerund to bindanne; to fonne 
Pres. Part, bindende; fonde Past Part, (ge)bunden; (ge)fangen 

The 2d sing. pres. ind. is sometimes formed in -stf. 

The tf is derived from the tSu of the personal pronoun, 

the old ending having been s. This s, followed by the 

personal pronoun, became sS", which should regularly 

become st (34), but does not always. 

Note. — The ind. and imper. (sometimes opt.) plur. binde is used 
when the verb is immediately followed by a pronoun as subject: binde 
we, not bindaiS' we, we bi7id, let us bind; binde ge, not bindad* ge, 
bind ye; similarly, do we, noXde ge. 


96. Conjugation of the weak verb. — Weak verbs form 
the preterit by tlie addition to the present stem of -de 
for the singular (ind. pret. 2d sing, -dest), and -don 
(-den) for the plural. A few verbs take -e before 
the -de, and many take -o. The vowel of the present 
stem is never changed before -ede and -ode, but in 
some verbs is changed before -de; a list of the latter 
is given in 114. 

The past participle of weak verbs is formed by the 
addition of -ed (-od, -d). 

The -d of the endings -de, etc., and -ed, is changed 
to -t after certain stem-finals (33), and is lost in other 
situations ; for details see 113 and 114. Certain stem- 
finals also undergo change before the same endings ; 
for details see 114. 

97. Classes of strong verbs. — Under strong verbs are 
included two principal divisions, according as their 
tense-stems were originally formed in one manner or 
another. Strong verbs are accordingly divided into 
Ablaut Verbs and Reduplicating Verbs. This dis- 
tinction is mainly historical, and for practical pur= 
poses need not be insisted on at the outset. 

98. Ablaut verbs. — Of these there are six principal 
classes, for which see 102-107. 

99. Vowels of the present stem. — To facilitate the 
assignment of verbs to their proper classes, the follow- 

VERBS. 57 

ing table may be useful, in conjunction with 101-110. 
The Ablaut Classes are distinguished by the Roman 
numerals, and the Reduplicating Verbs by Red. 

Shokt Radical Vowel. 



VI, Red. 





e + r or 1 (also brecan) 


e + any single cons, but r or 1 


e + two cons. 


i followed by nasal 


i followed by non-nasal 


Q, see a 

u in cuman 


u in other verbs 



VI, Red. 




m, V, VI 

Long Radical Vowel. 















VI, Red. 

eo in contract verbs 


eo in other verbs 


100. Contract verbs. — Contract verbs are strong verbs 
whose stem-final was originally h. This h was lost 
before vowels (29), and the preceding vowel was then 


amalgamated with the following. The resultant diph- 
thong (or vowel) is eo in the case of ten verbs, ea in 
that of four, and 6 in that of two. The o-verbs belong 
to the Reduplicating Class, the ea-verbs to the Sixth 
Ablaut Class, and the eo- verbs to the First, Second, 
and Fifth Ablaut Classes. 

101. Contract verbs according to classes. — Distributed 
according to classes, the contract verbs are as follows: — 

I. leon (orig. lihan), lend; seon, sift; teon, censure; KTeon, 
thrive; wreon, cover. 

11. fleon (orig. fleohan), flee; teon, draw. 

V. gefeon (orig. gefehan), rejoice; pleon, venture; seon, see. 

VI. flean (orig. flahan), flay; lean, blame; slean, strike; 
ffwean, wash. 

Red. fon (orig. fanhan > fohan), seize; h5n, hang. 

Of these the most important are teon, censure^ Kyeon, 
thrive^ wreon, cover; fleon, flee^ teon, draw; gefeon, 
rejoice.) seon, see; slean, strike., iBTwean, wash; fon, 
seize., and hon, hang. 

Teon, draw (II), should be carefully distinguished 
from teon, censure (I); and likewise seon, see (V), 
from seon, sift (I). The principal parts of teon, 
draw., are : — 

teon teah tugon (ge)togen 

of teon, censure., are : — 

teon tab tigon (ge)tigen 

VERBS. 59 

But there is a tendency on the part of contract verbs 
like the latter of these (I) to assume throughout the 
forms of the former (II). 

Deon, thrive (102), has past part. STigren and 9'ungen. 

The imp. sing, always ends in h, and has a long 
vowel in verbs of the First, Second, and Redupli- 
cating Classes, a short vowel in the Fifth and Sixth. 
Examples: (I) teon, censure^ imp. tih; (II) teon, 
draw^ imp. teoh; (V) seon, see, imp. seoh; (VI) slean, 
strike^ imp. sleah ; (Red.) fon, seize^ imp. foh. 

102. Strong verbs of the First Ablaut Class. — 

Stem vowels (normally) i, a, i, i 

Typical verb drifan, drive 

Four stems drifan draf drifon drifen 

Like drifan are conjugated all strong verbs with i in 
the present stem. Here belongs any strong verb with a 
in the first preterit stem, i in the second preterit stem, or 
i in the past participial stem. Among the more common 
are: bidan, remain; bitan, hite; ridan, ride; (a)risan, 
arise; sciDan, shine; slitan, tear; stigan, ascend; swi- 
can, abandon; (ge)witaii, go ; writan, write. 

Umlaut does not affect the vowel of the present 
stem (94). 

The 2d and 3d sing. pres. ind. are thus formed 
(33,34): — 

d-stems bidan bitst, bit(t) 

t-stems bitan bitst, bit(t) 


8-stems risan rist, rist (rigs') 

ij-stems sniaPan snist, sni9'((5') 

Contracts (101) Avreon -wrihst, wrihS" 

Others are normal drifan drifst, drif 15 

The second preterit and past participial stems of the 
verbs sniaran, cut^ liaran, go^ and scriaran, proceed^ take 
d instead of tS (37) : snidon, sniden, etc. Other verbs 
in ar retain the ts. 

103. Strong verbs of the Second Ablaut Class« — 

Stem vowels eo or 5, ea, u, o 
Typical verbs beodan, offer; brucan, enjoy 
Four stems beodan bead budon boden 

brucan breac brucon brocen 

Like beodan are conjugated all strong verbs having 
eo in the present stem, except some contracts, and 
like brucan all having u. Here belongs any strong 
verb having ea in the first preterit stem. Among 
the more common are : ceosan, choose ; dreogan, 
endure; lireosan.^ fall ; (for)leosan, lose; teon, draw; 
bugan, how. 

Stems in s, 9", and contract vowel (37) : — 









teon (101) 




Like ceosan are formed stems in s ; like seoSTan, 
abreoSTan, frustrate ; like teon, fleon, Jlee. 

Umlaut changes the eo of the present to ie (or i), 



and u of the present to y, in the 2d and 3d sing, 
pres. ind. : forliest, brycar. 

The 2d and 3d sing. pres. ind. are thus formed 
(33, 34): — 



bietst, biet(t) 



gietst, giet(t) 



forliest, forliest (-sS") 

g-stems (28) 


driegst (hst), driegS" (-hS*) 

Contracts (101) 


tiehst, tiehS" 

Others are normal 


criepst, criepS" 

104. Strong verbs of the Third Ablaut Class,— 

Stem vowels various, but all short 

Typical verbs bindan, bind; helpan, help; gieldan, yield; weorpati; 
throio ; berstan, hurst 






















Like bindan are conjugated all strong verbs in in 
or im + consonant, besides iernan, run, beornan, 
burn, originally rinnan, brinnan. 

Like helpan are conjugated all in el + consonant, 
besides feolan, reach, which is irregular. 

Like gieldan are conjugated all in iel + consonant. 

Like weorpan are conjugated all in eor or -eoh + 
consonant (21. ^). 

Like berstan are conjugated STerscan, thresh; bregd- 
an, brandish; stregdan, strew; besides frignan, in- 



quire^ which resembles it in all except the vowel of 
the present. 

The stems of weorSfan, become^ are (37) : — 





Bregdan and frignan may drop g, and lengthen 
the preceding vowel (28): brsed, frinan. 

Findan, jind^ likewise forms its 3d sing. pret. ind. 
as funde, which is indeed the usual form. 

Among the more common verbs are : drincan, 
drink; findan, find; (on)ginnan, begin; winnan, 
strive; limpan, happen; belgan, he angry; hweorfan, 
turn; feohtan, fight. 

Umlaut changes the eo of the present to ie in the 
2d and 3d sing. pres. ind. : wierpSf. A similar change, 
though not due to precisely the same cause (17), is 
found in presents in e, which is converted to i or ie: 
hilpst, bierst. 

The 2d and 3d sing. pres. ind. are thus formed 
(33, 34): — 



bintst, bint 



fiehtst, fieht 



bierst, bierst 



wier(9')st, wierSf 



winst, winS" (35, h) 

Others are 



singst, sing* 

The stems of feolan, reach^ are : — 
feolan fealh fulgon (f^lon) 


VERBS. 63 

Exceptional forms are the 3d sing. pres. ind. of 
bregdan and stregdan: britt, stret(t), 

105. Strong verbs of the Fourth Ablaut Class. — 

Stem vowels e se ai o 

i (u) o o u 

Typical verb beran, hear 
Four stems beran, baer, bseron, boren 

Like beran are conjugated teran, tear ; scieran (18), 
shear ; cwelan, die ; helan, conceal ; stelan, steal ; 
hwelan, roar; brecan, break. 

The two irregular v^erbs of this class are among 
the most important in the language : niman, take^ 
and cuman, come. Their stems are : — 

niman nom nonion numen 

cuman c(w)om c(w)omon cumen (cymen) 

Umlaut changes the u of cuman to y in the 2d 
and 3d sing. pres. ind. : cymst, cymSF. A similar 
change, though not due to precisely the same cause 
(17), is found in the presents in e, which is changed 
to i or ie: bi(e)rst, stilST. 

106. Strong verbs of the Fifth Ablaut Class. — 

Stem vowels (normally) e, ae, «, e 

Typical verbs sprecan, spea^ ; cweffan, sa?/; giefan,grire; biddan, 
request ; gef eon, rejoice 

Four stems sprecan spraec spr^con sprecen 

cweS'an ewae'3' cweedon (37) cvsreden 

giefan (18) geaf geafon giefen 


Four stems biddan bsed bsedon beden 

gefeon (101) gefeah gefaegou 

Like sprecan are conjugated etan, eat; tredan, 
tread; metan, measure; wrecan, pursue; and a few 

Like cweSTan is conjugated no other verb. 

Like g-iefan is conjugated gietan, get (18). 

Like biddan are conjugated licgan, lie; sittan, sit. 

Like gefeon is conjugated seon, see^ except that its 
pret. plur. is sawon, and past participle sewen, segen. 

Umlaut, or a change analogous to it (17), converts 
the e of the present to i in the 2d and 3d sing. pres. 
ind.: cwi^T; in contracts we have ie, not ie, since the 
vowel of the present was originally short: siehiar. 

The 2d and 3d sing. pres. ind. are thus formed 
(33, 34): — 



tritst, trit(t) 



gietst, giet(t) 



cwist, crsisrW 

g-stems (28) 


ligst (list), ligar (lliS) 

Contracts (101) 


siehst, siehlfif 

Others are normal 


spriest, spriciSr 

The vowel of the pret. sing, is sometimes long in 
verbs in et: set, meet. Imp. sing, bide (cf. 107). 

107. Strong verbs of the Sixth Ablaut Class. — 

Stem vowels (normally) a, o, o, a 

Typical verbs faran, go; slean, strike; standan, stand; h^bban, 

VERBS. 65 

Four stems faran for f oron faren 

slean (101) slog slogon (37) slaegen (sl^gen) 

standan stod stodon standen 

h^bban (11) hof hofon hafen 

Like faran are conjugated sacan, dispute^ wacan, 
wake^ tosc(e)acan, depart^ and one or two others. 

Like slean are conjugated lean, blame, (STwean, wash. 

Like standan is conjugated no other verb. 

In the main like h<^bban are conjugated the fol- 
lowing : — 

hliehhan (36) , laugh Mob hlogon (37) 

scleppan (18), create scop (sceop) scopon (sceopon) sceapen 

staeppan, step stop stopon stapen 

sw^rian, swear swor sworon sworen 

Umlaut changes the a of the present to ^ (se), and 
the ea of the present (see 101) to ie (not ie), in the 
2d and 3d sing. pres. ind. : st^nt, fserst, sliehac. 

The 2d and 3d sing. pres. ind. are thus formed 



st^ntst, st^nt 



h^fst, h^f 9" 

Contracts (101) 


sliehst, sliehS' 

Others are normal 


faerst, faerar 

The verbs like h^bban are peculiar in having 
umlaut in the present stem, which causes them, in 
so far, to resemble the Weak Verbs of the First 
Class (111). Like s^llan, etc., they have the imp. sing, 
in -e: h^fe, sw^re, etc. (cf. 117). The umlaut is due 
to the fact that the stem of this group, unlike that of 



most strong verbs, was followed by a j (16). Thus 
the inf. staeppan stands for original stapjan; were it 
not for the umlaut-causing -j-, the infinitive would 
have been stapan; and so in the other four verbs. 

108. Reduplicating verbs. — Stem vowels various. 

A peculiarity of this class — shared, however, by a 
very few verbs of the Sixth Ablaut Class (107) — is 
that the vowels of the first and fourth stems are 
identical (with two or three exceptions noted below), 
and that those of the second and third stems are 
likewise identical. The vowel (diphthong) of the 
preterit is sometimes eo, less frequently e. 

109. Reduplicating preterits in eo. — The present 
stem has ea (rarely a), a, ea, o, or e. 

Typical verbs feallan, fall; bannau, summon; cnawan, know; 
heawan, hew ; flowan, flow ; wepan, weep 

Four stems 

























Like feallan are conjugated verbs in eal + conso- 
nant, besides weaxan, grow (originally of the Sixth 
Ablaut Class, 107) : healdan, hold ; wealdan, gov- 
ern^ etc. 

Like bannan (very rare) is conjugated gangan, go 
(but usually as gan, 141). 

VERBS. 67 

Like cnawan are conjugated verbs in aw, besides 
swapan, sweep : — blawan, blow ; sawan, sow, etc. 

Like beawan are conjugated verbs in ea; beatan, 
beat; hleapan, leap. 

Like flowan are conjugated verbs in o: blowan, 
bloom (not to be confounded with blawan, blow^ ; 
growan, grow; spowan, thrive; rowan, row. 

Like wepan is conjugated no other common verb; 
in wepan (orig. wopjan) the stem vowel of the present 
is derived by umlaut from o, the latter reappearing in 
the past participle. — Umlaut as in 94. 

110. Reduplicating preterits in e. — The present stem 
has a, se, or 5. Umlaut as in 94. 

Typical verbs Isetan, let ; hatan, call ; f on, seize 

Four stems leetan let leton Iseten 

hatan het heton baten 

fon (101) feng fengon fangen 

Like Isetan are conjugated drsedan, dread; rsedan, 
consult, read (usually weak); slsepan, sleep. 

Like hatan is conjugated lacan, jump; scadan, 
sceadan (18), separate. 

Like fon is conjugated bon, hang (3d sing, febar, 

111. Weak verbs of the First Class. — The stem vowel 
of the present always has umlaut (except that eo some- 
times persists, i.e., does not become ie). The infinitive 
ends in -an or -ian, the latter being infrequent. 



112. Weak infinitives in -an. — These take the pret- 
erit either (113, 114) in -de (-te) or (115) in -ede, the 
past participle in -ed or in -d (-t). 

113. Weak preterits in -de (-te), with retention of the 
stem vowel. — Here belong verbs whose stem vowel is 
long by nature (4), and a number in which the stem 
syllable is long by position as a result of gemination 
(36). The past participle is formed in -ed, contraction 
taking place in t- and d- stems. The infinitive always 
ends in -an. Simplified gemination by 35. 

Three stems hieran, hear 



fyUan, fill 

fylde (35) 


cyssan, kiss 

cyste (33, 35) 


s^ttan, set 

s^tte (33) 


s^ndan, send 



leedan, lead 



lecan, increase 

iecte (33) 


ehtan, persecute 



metan, find 



gierwan, prepare 



Like hieran are conjugated all verbs not belonging 
to any of the following divisions. 

Like fyllan are conjugated stems ending in a double 
consonant, excepting those like cyssan and s^ttan, and 
under 114 and 115. 

Like cyssan are conjugated stems ending in ff, pp, 
and ss. 

Like saltan are conjugated stems ending in tt (imp. 
sing. s^te). 

VERBS. 69 

Like s^ndan are conjugated stems ending in a con- 
sonant + d. 

Like Isedan are conjugated stems ending in a 
vowel -h d. 

Like lecan are conjugated stems ending in c, p, 
and X. 

Like ehtan are conjugated stems ending in a con- 
sonant + t. 

Like metan are conjugated stems ending in a 
vowel -I- t. 

Like gierwan are conjugated stems ending in rw 
and Iw. The forms of the present sometimes retain 
the w, sometimes not. 

114. Irregular preterits and past participles. — Certain 
verbs, in other respects like those of the last para- 
graph, and whose stems end in II, cc, c (nc, re), or 
g (eg, ng), form their preterits and past participles 
from a stem without umlaut. In the case of the 11-, 
ce-, and simple e-verbs, to determine, from the pies- 
ent stem, what form the past stem will assume, 
find the original vowel corresponding to the umlaut 
vowel of the present, and consider what changes, if 
any, will be caused by breaking (21). The 1-verbs 
take -de and -d, the e- and g-verbs -te and -t. The 
e- and g-verbs often insert -e- before the infinitive 
ending (18). Stems ending in e and g change these 
consonants to h before the t of the ending. 



The list is as follows : — 


c-w^^llan, kill 
dw^llan, deceive 
s^llan, give 
st^llan, place 
t^Uan, count 


(ge) eweald 


cw^cc (e) an, shake 
dr^cc(e)an, vex 
l^cc(e)an, moisten 
r^cc(e)an, expound 
str^cc(e)an, stretch 
i5'^cc(e)an, cover 
w(r)^cc(e)an, wake 



laecc(e)an, seize 




r8ec(ejan, reach 



tsec(e)an, teach 



rec(e)an, recc(e)an, reck 



sec (e) an, seek 




9'^nc(e)an, think 



9'yne(e)an, seem 




wyrc(e)an, work 



eg- verb 

byeg(e)an, buy 




bringan, tring 



The preterit and past participle of r8ec(e)an and 
t8ec(e)aii should properly have a: rahte, etc. This 
does, indeed, sometimes occur, but is much less com- 
mon than the se. 

115. Infinitives in -an, with preterit in -ede. — Here 

belong two groups of verbs whose infinitives end in 
-an (exceptionally -ian). 

(a) The first group comprises the following verbs 
with stems ending in a double consonant (cf. 11) ; 

VERBS. 71 

fr^mman, perform ; gr^mman, provoke ; tryminan, 
confirm; ^T^nnan, extend; w^nnan, accustom; dynnan, 
hlynnan, resound; cnyssan, heat; sc^9'9'an, injure 
(sometimes strong) ; sw^bban, quiet ; w^cg(e)an, 

agitate; 9'icg(e)an, receive (sometimes strong). Occa- 
sionally these verbs take an infinitive in -ian (116). 

(5) The second group comprises stems ending in 
a consonant + either 1, n, or r. This group is some- 
what irregular, occasionally having preterits like 
hyngerde, instead of the more regular hyngrede, 
n^mde for n^inn(e)de, named^ and ^fnde for ^fnede, 

Typical verbs (a) fr^mman, perform fr^mede (ge) framed 

(6) hyngran, hunger hyngrede (ge)liyngred 

Note. — Ii^cg(e)an, lay^ is irre^lar in the preterit and past part.: 
l^gde (lede), (ge)l^gd (-led), instead of l^gede, (ge)l^ged. 

116. Infinitives in -ian with preterit in -ede. — Here 
belong a few weak verbs of the First Class. They 
have a short stem ending in r, or occasionally in 1, 
m, n, or one of the spirants. The vowel of the stem 
is usually ^ (ie) or y. Examples are : n^rian, save ; 
h^rian, praise ; byrian, pertain ; h^lian, conceal ; 
trjrmian, confirm (see 115. a). 

Three stems n^rian n^rede (ge)n^red 

117. Paradigms of the First Class. — For the conju- 
gation of weak verbs of the First Class we may 



choose : hieran, hear (113) ; s^Uan, give (114, 36) ; 
fr^mman, perform (115); n^rian, save (116). 

Sing. 1. hiere 

2. liierst (^23) 

3. hierlff 

Plur. hieran 

Sing, hiere 
Plur. hieren 

Sing, hier (23) 
Plur. hieraff 


s^Ue fr^mme n^rie 

s^l(e)st fr^mest n^rest 

s^l(e)9' fr^meST n^re8f 

s^UaSf fr^inmaSS' n^rialST 

s^Ue fr^inme n^rie 

s^Uen fr^mmen n^rien 

s^le fr^me n^re 

s^UatSP fr^mmatS' n^riaSf 

s^Uan fr^mman n^rian 

hierende s^Uende fr^mmende n^rlende 



Sing. 1. 










































VERBS. 73 

118. Weak verbs of the Second Class. — These are 
very numerous. Many are formed from nouns and 
adjectives (cf. 90). The infinitive always ends in 
-ian, or its equivalent -ig(e)an (18). Though the 
i of an ending usually causes umlaut, it does not in 
these verbs, because of its comparatively late origin, 
the older termination having been -ojon (that is, 
-o-yon), which was incapable of causing umlaut, since 
it was -0-, rather than -j- (that is, -y-), which imme- 
diately followed the stem. 

Hence it is easy to distinguish verbs of this Class 
from verbs in -ian of the First Class (116): — 

1. Of those verbs there are but few; of these, many. 

2. Of those the vowels are always umlauted (usually 
^ or y) ; of these, rarely, and only when the verb was 
formed from a noun or adjective whose vowel was 
already umlauted. 

3. Of those the stem usually ends in r; of these, 
in any consonant or consonant combination. 

119. Paradigm of the Second Class. — As a typical 
verb we may select lufian, love. 

Indicative. Optative. Imperativb. 

Sing. 1. lufie ^ Sing, lufa 

2. lufast I lufie Plur. lufiaff 

3. lufaiaP J 

Plnr. lufial^ lufieu 

Infin. lufian Part, lufiende 






Sing. 1. 

lufode -k 


lufodest V 



lufode J 


lufedon, -odon 

lufoden, -eden 



In the endings, ig(e) or g is frequently found for 
i (18). 

Sometimes, instead of -ode, the ending is -ade, 
-ude, or even -ede; but -ode is normal. 

120. Weak verbs of the Third Class. — These com- 
prise habban, have; libban (lifian), live; s^cg(e)an, 
sai/ ; hycg(e)an, think. These are conjugated partly 
according to the First Class (117), and partly accord- 
ing to the Second (119). 

121. Conjugation of habban, have. — Habban, have; 
nabban, have not (29). 


Pres. Sing. 1. lisebbe 

2. liaefst (hafast) 

3. haefar (hafaS") 

Plur. iiabha'S (haebbaff) 

Pret. Sing, haefde, etc. 

Plur. haefdon 

Imper. Sing, hafa 

Plur. habbaiar 

Pres. Part, hsebbende 




Infin. habban 

Past Part. (ge)haBfd 




Pres. Sing. 1. 




naefst (nafast) 



naefS" (nafaff) 





Pret. Sing. 

naefde, etc. 





Imper. Sing. 



nab ban 

Plur. nabbalgf 
Pres. Part, naebbende 


Past Part, (ge)naefd 

122. Conjugation of libban, live. — 

Pres. Sing. 1. libbe 

2, leofast (20) 

3. leofaiar 

Plur. libbaS", lifiaff 

Pret. Sing, lifde, etc. 
Plur. lifdon 

Imper. Sing, leofa (20) 

Plur. libbaiar, lifiaSr 

Pres. Part, libbende, lifiende 

libbe, llfle, etc. 

Ubben, lifien 


Infin. libban, lifian 
Past Part. (ge)Ufd 

123. Conjugation of s^cg(e)an, sa^. 

Pres. Sing. 1. s^cge 

2. saegst, s^gst, sagast 

3. ssegtS, s^giac, sagaiS" 
Plur. 8^cg(e)a3' 

Pret. Sing, saegde, ssede (28), etc. 
Plur. saegdon, saedon 

Imper. Sing, saga, s^ge 
Plur. s^cg(e)ai5 

s^ege, etc. 


saegde, sade 
saegden, saeden 

Infin. s^cg(e)an 

Pres. Part, s^cgende 

Past Part, (ge)saegd, (ge)88ed 


124. Conjugation of hycg(e)an, think. — 

Indicative. Optative. 

Pres. Sing. 1. hycge hycge, etc. 

2, hygst, hogast 

3. hygiar, hogalSF 

Plur. hycg(e)aaF hycgen 

Pret. Sing, hog(o)de, etc. • hog(o)de 

Plur. hog (o) don hog (o) den 

Infill. hycg(e)an 

Imper. Sing, hoga 

Plur. hycg(e)aiar 
Pres. Part, hycgende Past Part. (ge)hog(o)d 


125. Preteritive presents. — A small group of verbs 
have strong preterits with present meaning (the old 
presents being lost), and form new weak preterits 
from these. They are : witan, know ; agan, own ; 
dugan, avail; unnan, grant; cunnan, know ; STurfan, 
need; durran(?), dare; sculan, shall; munan, intend; 
inugaii(?), can; nugan(?), suffice; in6taii(?), may, 

126. Conjugation of witan, know. — Ind. pres. sing. 
1. 3. wat, 2. wast ; plur. wi(e)ton ; pret. wiste 
(wisse), etc. Opt. pres. wi(e)te, etc. ; pret. wiste 
(wisse), etc. Imper. wite. Infin. wi(e)tan. Pres. 
part, witende; past part, (ge)witen. 

For wi(e)tan, etc., is found wiotan, etc. 

Like witan is conjugated nytan, not to know : 
nat, etc. Wherever, in the forms of witan, i (ie, io) 
occurs, y is here to be substituted. 

VERBS. 77 

127. Conjugation of agan, possess. — Ind. pres. sing. 
1. 3. ah, 2. ahst; plur. agon; pret. ahte, etc. Opt. 
pres. age, etc. ; pret. ahte. Imper. age. Infin. agan. 
Pres. part, agende; past part, agen, own (adj.'). 

So nagan, not to possess. 

128. Conjugation of dugan, avail. — Ind. pres. sing. 
1. 3. deah ; plur. dugon ; pret. dohte, etc. Opt. 
pres. dyge, duge, etc. Infin. dugan. Pres. part. 

129. Conjugation of unnan, grant. — Ind. pres. sing. 
1. 3. an(n); plur. unnon ; pret. uiare. Opt. pres. 
unne, etc. ; pret. uSTe, etc. Imper. unne. Infin. 
unnan. Pres. part, unnende; past part, (ge)unnen. 

130. Conjugation of cunnan, know. — Ind. pres. sing. 
1. 3. can(n), canst; plur. cunnon ; pret. cuSre, etc. 
Opt. pres. cunne, etc. ; pret. cuare, cySTe, etc. Infin. 
cunnan. Past part, (ge)cunnen, and cuST (adj.'). 

131. Conjugation of arurfan, need. — Ind. pres. sing. 
1. 3. arearf, 2. arearft ; plur. STurfon ; pret. arorfte, 
etc. Opt. pres. aryrfe, arurfe, etc. ; pret. arorfte, etc. 
Infin. arurfan. Pres. part, iarearfende. 

132. Conjugation of durran, dare. — Ind. pres. sing* 
1. 3. dearr, 2. dears t ; plur. durron ; pret. dorste^ 
etc. Opt. pres. dyrre, durre, etc. 


133. Conjugation of sculan, shall. — Ind. pres. sing. 
1. 3. sceal, 2. scealt ; plur. sculon ; pret. sc(e)olde, 
etc. Opt. pres. scyle, scule, etc. Infin. sculan. 

134. Conjugation of munan, intend. — Ind. pres. sing. 
1. 3. man, 2. manst ; plur. munon (munaS") ; pret. 
munde. Opt. pres. myne, mune, etc. Imper. sing. 
mun ; plur. munad'. Infin. munan. Pres. part. 
munende; past part, (ge)munen. 

135. Conjugation of mugan, can. — Ind. pres. sing. 
1. 3. mseg, 2. meaht ; plur. magon ; pret. meahte, 
etc. Opt. pres. msege, etc. 

136. Conjugation of nugan, suffice. — Ind. pres. sing. 
3. neah ; plur. nugon ; pret. nohte, etc. Opt. pres. 
nuge, etc. 

137. Conjugation of motan, may. — Ind. pres. sing. 
1. 3. mot, 2. most ; plur. moton ; pret. moste, etc. 
Opt. pres. mote, etc. 


138. Conjugation of wesan, beon, he. — 

Indicative. Optative. 

Pres. Sing. 1. eom ; beo sie ; beo, etc. 

2. eart; bist 

3. is ; biff ; neg. ni8 

Plur. sind, -t ; sindon ; beoSf sien ; beon 



Pret. Sing. 1. waes ; neg. naes 

wsere ; neg. nsere 
waes ; neg. naes 
wseron ; neg. nseron 

Imper. Sing, wes ; beo 

Plur. wesaS" ; heotS 

wsere; neg. naere 
wsere ; neg. nsere 
wsere; neg. neere 
wseren; neg. nseren 

Infin. wesan ; be on 
Pres. Part, wesende; beonde 

139. Conjugation of willan, will. — 

wille, etc, ; neg. nelle, 
nylle, etc. 


Pres. Sing. 1. wil(l)e; neg. ne(l)le, ny(l)le| 

2. wilt; neg. nelt, nylt 

3. wil(l)e; neg. nel(l)e, nyl(l)e 

T^i .,, ^ .^ ^ ■.-. ^ ( willen ; neg. nellen, 

Plur. wiUaS" ; neg. neUaff , nyllaaf < ' o > 

l nyllen 

Pret. Sing, wolde, etc. ; neg. nolde, etc. wolde ; neg. nolde 
Plur. woldon ; neg. noldon wolden ; neg. nolden 

Imper. Plur. neg. neUaS", nyllaiy Infin. -willan 

Pres. Part, willende 

140. Conjugation of don, do. — 


Pres. Sing, 1. do 

2. dest 

3. dear 

Plur. doff 

Pret. Sing, dyde, dydest, dyde 

Plur. dydon 

Imper. Sing, do 

Plur. dots 

do, etc. 

Pres. Part, donde 



Infin. don 

Past Part, (ge)don 



141. Conjugation of gan, go. — 

Pres. Sing. 1. ga 

2. gsest 

3. gseff 

Plur. gaU 

Pret. Sing, eode, etc. 
Plur. eodon 

Imper. Sing, ga 
Plur. gaff 

Pres. Part, gande 

ga, etc. 



Infin. gan 
Past Part, (ge)gaiii 


142. Prefixes. — Many Old English prefixes are self- 
explanatory. Others, with their meanings, are as 
follows : — 

a- (1) = 'up,' 'out' (Ger. er-): afyllan, fill up, asceot 
an, shoot out. 

(2) representing on : aweg = on weg, away. 

(3) = ' any ' : ahwser, anywhere. 

(4) practically meaningless : abidan, await. 
'«f-, see of-. 

seg- = ' any,' ' each ' : seghwa, any one. 

get- (1) = ' at,' ' to ' (Lat. ad-) : setwitan, twit, aetgaed- 

ere, together. 
(2) = 'from,' 'away' : setwindan, escape from. 
and-, Qnd- is found as the prefix of a few nouns ; for 

its meaning see on-, 
be- (Ger. be-) : 

(1) = ' about ' : besorgian, he anxious about. 

(2) makes an intransitive verb transitive : behycgan, 

think about, consider. 
(8) privative: beninian, take from, c?epni^e, beheafd- 
ian, behead. 



(4) practically meaningless : bebeodan, com- 
ed- (1) = ' counter-,' ' re-' (Lat. re-) : edlean, recom- 
(2) occasionally for set- : edwitan, twit. 
for- (Ger. ver-, fiir-, vor-) : 

(1) = 'away,' 'up,' 'utterly,' 'very,' denoting 

destruction effected by the action of the 
simple verb: fordon, destroy. 

(2) negative : forbeodan, forbid. 

(3) = ' falsely ' : f orsw^rian, forswear. 

(4) = ' down upon ' : forseon, despise. 

(5) = ' in behalf of ' : f orstandan, stand up for. 

(6) = ' fore-' : forsceawian, foresee. 

fore- = ' fore-' (Lat. prae-) : f oreseon, foresee^ provide. 
ge- (Ger. ge-, Lat. con-) : 

(1) = ' together ' : gef era, companion. 

(2) = ' attain by ' the action of the simple verb : 

thus, winnan, fight^ but gewinnan, gain 
by fighting^ conquer. 

(3) usual sign of past participle, when the verb 

lacks any other prefix : gegan, gone. 

(4) practically meaningless : gebed, prayer. 
mis- = ' mis-' : misw^ndan, pervert. 

n- (for ne-) = ' not ' : na (= ne + a, not ever), not at all; 

nis, is not. 
of- (1) = ' off,' ' from ' (Lat. de-, ab-, pro-, ex-) : of- 

spring, offspring. 


(2) = ' upon ' : of sittan, sit upon, oppress. 

(3) denoting offence, injury, death (Lat. ob-) : 

offfyncan, displease, ofstingan, stab to 

(4) = ' attain by ' the action of the simple verb : 

offaran, catch up with, ofascian, learn hy 

(5) intensive : ofhyngrod, very hungry. 
ofer- (1) = ' over ' : oferbrsedan, overspread. 

(2) negative : of ergietan, forget. 
on- (1) = ' on,' ' of ' ; ondrincan, drink of. 

(2) = 'from,' 'out of: onspringan, hurst forth. 

(3) = ' un-' : onlucan, unlock. 

(4) intensive : onstyrian, agitate. 

or- = ' without ' : orsorg, without anxiety, orwene, with* 

out hope, desperate. 
63"- = ' away ' (Lat. ex-, ab-, de-) : oarfleon, flee away. 
to- (1) = ' to ' : tocyme, advent. 

(2) = ' asunder ' (Ger. zer-, Lat. dis-) : toteran, 
tear apart, tocnawan, discern. 
un- (1) = ' un-' : unforht, fearless, unrim (unnum- 
her'), multitude. 
(2) = ' bad ' : undsed, ill deed. 
wiSTer- (1) = ' again ' : wiacertrod, return. 

(2) = ' against ' : wiiaFersaca, adversary. 
ymb- = ' around ' (Lat. circum-) : ymbgang, circuit, 
ymbsittan, hesiege. 


143. Suffixes of masculine nouns. — The more important 
are -end, -ere, -ing, -ling, besides the originally inde- 
pendent words -doni, -had, and -scipe. The first four 
denote persons ; the last three, qualities or abstractions. 
Besides these, there is a masculine suffix -els, denoting 

-end (orig. -ende, forming present participles) = '-er,' 
'-or': scieppend, creator. Contract nouns with 
this ending are feond, enemy ^ freond, friend. 
-ere ='-er': hearpere, harper^ 'bocere, scribe. 
-ing (1) = ' son of ' : ^gEarelwulfing, son of Athelwulf 
Adaming, son of Adam. 
(2) more generally : Canting, inhabitant of Kent., 
cyning, king^ pining, penny. The i sometimes 
causes umlaut, sometimes not. 
-ling : geongling, youngling^ hyrling, hireling. 

-doni (Ger. -thum)= '-dom,' '-ity,' '-ism,' '-ship,' '-acy': 
Cristendom, Christianity^ cynedom, kingship. 

-had (Ger. -heit, -keit)= '-hood,' '-head,' '-ity': cild- 
had, childhood., maegdenhad, virginity. 

-scipe (Ger. -schaft) = '-ship,' '-hood,' '-ness,' '-ity': 
freondscipe, friendship^ f eondscipe, enmity. 

-els : byrgels, tomb^ rsedels, riddle. 

144. Suffixes of feminine nouns. — The chief are -estre, 
-nes, -9", -tSu. (-2^o), -ung (-ing), and the originally inde- 
pendent -rseden. 

-estre = ' -tress ' : Iserestre, instructress. 


-nes (Ger. -nis)= '-ness,' '-ity,' forms abstracts from 
the present and past participial stems of verbs, 
but especially from adjectives; ebtoes, persecution, 
forsewennes, contempt^ halignes, holiness. 

-tf, -STu, -tSo = ' -th ' : hgeiar, health, str^ngSru, strength. 
This ending was originally -iara, the -i of which 
caused umlaut. 

-ung (occasionally -ing)= '-ing,' '-ation,' forms nouns 
from the present stem of (usually weak) verbs : 
bletsuiig, blessing, costung, temptation. 

-raedeii = ' -red,' '-ship,' '-ity': hierdrs^den, guardian- 
ship, guard, 

145. Suffixes of neuter nouns. — The two principal, -lac 
and -rice, were originally independent words : — 

-lac (Mod. Eng. -lock, -ledge) : brydlac, wedding. 
-rice = 'rule,' 'realm,' 'region': biscoprice, bishopric, 
heofonrice, kingdom of heaven. 

146. Adjective suffixes. — The principal are -en, -ig, -Iht, 
-isc, and -ol, besides the originally independent -bsere, 
-cund, -fsest, -feald, -full, -leas, -lie, -mod, -sum, -weard, 
-w^nde, -weorar, -wierSTe, and -wis. The first four some- 
times cause umlaut, sometimes not. 

-en (Lat. -inus)= '-en': linen, linen, gylden, golden. 
-ig (Ger. -ig)= '-y': eadig, blessed, grsedig, greedy. 
-ibt (Ger. -icht) = ' -y ' : hreodiht, reedy, stsenibt, stan- 
iht, stony. 


-isc (Ger. -isch) = ' -ish ' : forms adjectives from com- 
mon, but especially from proper nouns : hjei^renisc, 
heathenish, Englisc, English. 

-ol (Lat. -ulus) = ' disposed to ' : swicol, deceitful. 

'hsere (Ger. -bar, Lat. -f erus, -f er, -ger) : cwealmbsere, 
deadly, lustbsere, agreeable. 

-cund = '-ly ' : heofondcund, heavenly, 

-fsest (Ger. -f est) = ' possessing,' ' firm in ' : st^defaest, 
possessing, or firm in, one's place, steadfast, arf sest, 
merciful, pious. 

-feald (Ger. -fait) = '-fold' : feovfertesii^, fourfold. 

-full (Ger. -voll) = ' -f ul ' : geleaff uU, faithful, synf uU, 

-leas (Ger. -los) = '-less ' : arleas (Ger. ehrlos), infamous. 

-lie (Ger. -lich) = '-ly,' '-al': eynelie, royal, eoraFlie, ter- 

-mod (cf. Ger. -miitliig)= '-minded': anmod (cf. Ger. 
einmiithig), unanimous, eaSFmod, humble. 

-sum (Ger. -sam)= '-full,' '-some,' '-able': lufsum, lov- 
able, 'wynsum, winsome. 

-weard (cf. Ger. -warts) = '-ward': hamweard, home- 
wCLTd^ on the way home, andweard, present. 

-w^nde = '-ary': halw^nde, salutary. 

-weorar, -wur9'= '-worthy': arweorar, arwurSr, venerable. 

-wierare, -wyrSTe (cf. Ger. -wiirdig)= '-worthy': nyt- 
wierSTe, useful. 

-wis = '-wise ' : gesceadwis, intelligent, rihtwis, righteous. 


147. Composition. — Compounds are numerous in Old 
English. In this respect it resembles German and 
Greek, while Modern English has allowed this power 
of forming compounds to fall into disuse, largely 
throucrh the influence of Latin and French. For this 
reason it would often be easier to make an idiomatic 
translation into Old English from Greek than from 
Latin ; in its plastic and pictorial quality a page of 
Old English poetry suggests Homer or Pindar rather 
than Virgil or Horace, and among Roman poets the 
earlier, such as Lucretius. 

The relation of the first element of compounds to 
the second should always be noted. The first limits or 
defines the second, and for this reason takes the stress ;' 
but the precise relation of the two elements is now of 
one sort, now of another. Sometimes it may be ex- 
pressed by a preposition, sometimes by the sign of a 
case, sometimes by an adjective : gaers-hoppa, gaers- 
stapa, grasshopper^ hopper in or through the grass ; 
han-cred, coeVs-crowing ; heah-^ngel, high-angel^ arch- 
angel ; gim-stan, gem-stone^ jewel. 

Although compounds should be studied with refer- 
ence to the meaning and relation of their components, 
they should frequently be translated by a simple Mod- 
ern English word. Thus gaershoppa may sometimes 
be translated by locust; gimstan should never be 
translated gemstone ; and heahfaeder should always 
be rendered by patriarch or father. 


148. Object of this sketch. — The object of the present 
sketch is not to present a complete view of Old English 
syntax, even in outline, but rather to call attention to 
such peculiarities as are most likely to cause difficulty. 
Many constructions common to all the cultivated Euro- 
pean languages, especially to the inflected ones, will 
either be passed over without notice or but briefly 
touched upon. 


149. Subject. — The subject of a finite verb is in the 
nominative case. For that of an infinitive, see 169. 

150. Predicate nominative. — A predicate noun (or 
adjective), denoting the same person or thing as its 
subject, agrees with it in case. Examples: ic eom 
Apollonius; tfset ic gewurde wseclla. 

151. Apposition. — A noun annexed to another noun, 
and denoting the same person or thing, agrees with 
it in case. Examples : and wende tfset heo Diana 
waere, seo gyden; Arcestrates (gen.) dohtor tfses 

Note hie sume = some of them. 


NOUNS. 89 

152. Vocative. — The vocative, which is identical in 
form with the nominative, is used in direct address. 
It may be preceded by an interjection, the second 
personal pronoun, or a possessive pronoun ; this pos- 
sessive pronoun, when followed by an adjective, usually 
takes before the latter the demonstrative pronoun se. 
Examples: tfu. see Neptune; mm se leofesta faeder. 

153. Genitive with nouns. — The genitive is distinc- 
tively an adnominal case ; that is, its principal function is 
to limit the meaning of a noun. Its sign is of. It denotes 
various relations, not all of which can be strictly defined. 

«) Relationship: tire ealra modor. 

5) Source: sunnan and monan leoman; i^Tgere 
hearpan sweg- ; fr^mdra tfeoda ungearwsernes, 

c) Subject. The noun in the genitive stands for the 
author of the action denoted by the noun upon which 
the genitive is dependent. Example: arinra hal- 
gena earnungum. 

c?) Object. This may be known by the possibility 
of turning the noun upon which it is dependent into 
a cognate verb, when the noun in the genitive will 
become the object of that verb; for example, in Frean 
^g-esan, Frean is an obj. gen., because, if we substi- 
tute for the noun ^gesa, fear, the verb fear, the noun 
Lord becomes the object of the verb. Examples: STaes 
dseges ITehtinge ; lifes tilungum ; unsc^SFafigra 
beswicend; laeswe sceapa and neat a; hyht hgele, 


e) Cause (denoted by for')-, lean Srissa swses- 

/) Characteristic : meregreotan selces hiwes; 
treowum missenlicra cynna; setl his mseg- 
enSTryinnesse. Herej perhaps, belongs: werhades 
and wifhades he gesceop hie. 

g) Specification of time: anes monares fierst. 

K) Specification of place: garsecges igland (Latin 

i) Unclassified: isrsere neowolnesse bradnes ; 
STaet maegen lufe; l0rgere sprsece ^nde. 

154. Partitive genitive. — The genitive denotes the 
whole, with words denoting a part. 

a) With nouns ■. unrim c e a s t r a ; f ela g e a r a ; 
lythwon cwicera cynna. 

5) With pronouns: manna senigne; hi era nan; 
hwilc eower; gumena gehwsene ; hwaethwugu 
swilces; se manna. Note the peculiar anra 
gehwilc, each one. 

c) With numerals : eahta f o t a ; f eower hund 

<:?) With superlatives : b e a c n a beorhtost. Simi- 
larl}^ with a cognate noun, to denote eminence : 
dryhtna Dryhten. 

155. Genitive with adjectives. — The genitive is used 
to define an adjective with respect to the part or 
relation in which the quality is conceived. Such 

NOUNS. 91 

adjectives are frequently akin to verbs which take 
the genitive (156), and sometimes correspond to Latin 
adjectives of inclination in -ax. They may be roughly 
classified as follows : — 

a) Want: dselleas mines renes; idel and unnyt 
goda (154. V) gehwilces. 

F) Fulness : berende (Lat. ferax) missenlicra 
f ugla. 

c) Desire: aetes georn. 

d) Retentiveness : f aesthaf ol (Lat. tenax) m i n r a 

e) Knowledge: wordes wis. 

156. Genitive with verbs. — The genitive is used with 
many verbs, mostly such as denote mental action, but 
also with those of cessation and refusal, and some 
others. Frequently the underlying notion is a parti- 
tive one ; that is, the object is conceived as affected 
in part. 

a) Desire: friS'es wilnedon. 

5) Request: biddende minragoda. 

<?) Rejoicing: ]7 8es se hlanca gefeah. 

d) Experiment: waeda cunnedan. 

e) Use: eardes brucaar. 

/) Care: giemden araes dseges. 
g) Supposition or belief: nohtes ^lles wendon; 
9 8es geliefan. 


K) Fx3ar: ne ondrsed tSvL STe seuiges fringes. 

i) Granting: ara unnan. 

y) Refusal: tiiare forwierndest. 

h) Cessation : ges wac his weorces. 

l) Awaiting: iaraes wordes bad. 
m) Approaching: ceoles neosan. 
n) Producing: gasta streonan. 

157. Adverbial genitive. — Certain adverbial relations 
may be expressed by the genitive (cf. 71). Example: 
hine gew^nde Sfaes weges. 

1. The demonstrative STaet is frequently used in the 
genitive in various adverbial senses. Thus of time, 
tfaes (tSe) = from the time that^ after, afterwards; 
of manner, = as far as^ as ; of cause, = for this, 
because; etc. 

158. Genitive with prepositions. — The genitive is occa- 
sionally used with certain prepositions, such as wiS", to, 
and wana. Examples: wiST arses f sestengeates ; 
to arses; anes wana siextig (78. 5). 

159. Genitive with other cases. — Verbs which take a 
genitive denoting the thing, may also take a dative or 
accusative of the person. 

a) With dative (including reflexives, 184) : him 
(164. a) ne utfe (156. 2) God l^ngran lifes; 
nolde ge me (dat.) w se d a tiarian (156. ^) ; ge 
me (dat.) setes forwierndon (156. j^; Apollonius 

NOUNS. 93 

hiere (164. c) ©"aes tFancode; ne ondrsed (156. K) 
tSvL tSe (161. 1) seniges fringes. 

6) With accusative (including impersonals, 190): 
tSe (ace.) ohtes axian; hine fultumes bsedon; 
SrTe tweonie STsere sprsece; m^reliarendum (161) 
m i 1 1 s a biddan wuldres Aldor (ace.) ; <Tegnas 
arearle gelyste (190) gargewiiines. 

160. Dative in general. — The dative denotes the 
indirect object, usually the person to or for or with 
reference to whom something is done. When used 
with verbs (164), the general notion of the verb may 
often be regarded as implying some sort of giving (or 
its opposite), if this term be employed in its widest 

1. The dative is sometimes used for the instru- 
mental (174): cleopode micelre stefne. 

161. Dative of benefit or interest. — The sign of this 
dative is for. Examples : scipu eow eallum ic 
wyrce. Perhaps also: arinre eord'an ne Tints. 

1. Akin to this is the reflexive dative (184) : i^raet 
hie him (/or themselves) wsepnu worhten. 

2. Similar, too, is the dative of possession^ which, 
without much change in the sense, might be replaced 
by the genitive : him f eollon tearas of tSs&ra eagum 
(so Ger. ihm fielen Thrdnen von den Augeri) \ him 
mQn feaht on last; wulfum to willan. 


162. Dative of deprivation. — Some verbs of depriva- 
tion (cf. 177) take the dative of the object removed, 
sometimes with an accusative of the person from 
whom. Examples: he hine unscrydde iBrgeni healf- 
an sciccelse; aringum ongierede and genac- 

163. Dative of resemblance or approach. — This is 

a) With verbs : geflit cymST tSs^ra beheald- 

H) With adjectives (cf. 165): fugole gelicost. 

164. Dative with various verbs. — Such are verbs 
of (160) — 

a) Giving or imparting: arearfum dselan. 

6) Speaking: hiere areahte; him gecyiSran. 

c) Thanking: Gode aranciende. 

cT) Promising: behet minum lareowe. 

e) Serving and benefiting : he him larenode \ 
f r^mme gehwilc oSSTrum; him f eng God on 
f ultum ; manigumL genyhtsumian. 

/) Obeying and following: gehiersumian minum 
willan; tSe hiere folgode. 

^) Pitying : gemiltsa m e. 

K) Requiting: forgieldan ^ghwilcum. 

i) Ruling: afeodum racian. Similarly, ySTum 

y) Receiving: onfeng arjere wununge. 

NOUNS. 95 

Tc) Pleasing and suiting: him eallum licode; tSe 

l) Seeming: me tSynctS. 
m) Opposing: worulde wiarsacan. 
71) Betraying or deserting: swicaiSr (Te. 
o) Using (rare): notaar craefte minum. 

165. Dative with adjectives. — The dative is chiefly 
employed with adjectives signifying dear^ generous^ 
useful^ obedient^ etc., and their opposites. Examples : 
lidwerigum este; Gode afone leofan faeder (the 
father dear to God); behefe ic eom cyninge; 
f oleum fracoar. 

1. The dative of want or deprivation (cf. 162) is 
also found here : Gode orf eorme. 

166. Dative with prepositions. — The dative is by 
far the commonest case with prepositions. Examples 
would be superfluous. 

1. After the preposition on (in), certain adjectives, 
like mid and ufanweard, agree with the following 
noun, instead of being treated like nouns governing 
it in the genitive, as are their counterparts in Mod. 
Eng. Examples : on midre i0F8ere sse (so Lat. 
in medio mari, but Mod. Eng. in the midst of the 
sea); on Sfsem faestene ufanweardum. 

167. Dative absolute. — A noun and a participle, not 
involved in the main construction of the sentence, 


may stand by themselves in the dative, and consti- 
tute an adverbial clause, most frequently of time. 
This construction is imitated from the Latin ablative 
absolute. Examples: onfangeure his bletsunge; 
Visum eallum tSus gedonum. 

168. Accusative after transitive verbs. — The direct 
object of a transitive verb is put in the accusative. 
Examples: he swang STone top; ealne norafdsel 

1. A special case of the foregoing is the cognate 
accusative, in which the object is etymologically akin 
to the verb: libbatT hiera lif. 

169. Subject accusative. — The subject of an infini- 
tive is put in the accusative. Examples : geseah he 
sumne fiscere gan ; he gehierde iiTone bliss6- 
saug upastigan. 

170. Accusative of extent. — The accusative may de- 
note extent of time or space. Example : wses se 
storm ealne arone dseg swi9'e micel and Strang. 

171. Accusative after impersonals. — Impersonals (190) 
of appetite or passion govern an accusative of the 
person suffering. Example : m e hyngrede. 

172. Accusative after prepositions. — Some preposi- 
tions always govern the accusative, others only under 

NOUNS. 97 

certain circumstances. Those of the former class 
are geond, oar, tTurh, and yrab(e) ; of the latter, 
a large number that more frequently take the 
dative (166). 

1. Of the second class, on (in) is perhaps the com- 
monest representative, taking the dative when denoting 
rest in^ the accusative when denoting motion towards; 
this distinction, however, is not invariably observed. 
Examples of accusative: ineode on cTaet baeSF; in 
arset mynster eode. 

Exceptions to the rule are: on i^rone seofoisran 
daeg; mid STone bisceop. 

173. Two accusatives. — Verbs signifying to make, to 
name, to regard, and the like, may take a predicate 
accusative besides the object accusative. Examples : 
God hine (obj. ace.) g-eworhte wundorlicne and 
fsegerne; God geciegde STa dryg-nesse (obj. ace.) 
e or 9" an; hwonne gesawon we 9'e (obj. ace.) hun- 

174. Instrumental in general. — The instrumental, 
which in form is sometimes (especially in the plural) 
indistinguishable from the dative (see 160. 1), denotes 
manner, means, instrument, or material. Its sign is hy 
or ivith. Examples: geseab bliSTuni andwlitan; 
gestaarolade strangum mihtum; gefsestnade 
f o 1 m u m ; gef raetwade f oldan sceatas 1 e o m u m 
and leafum. 


This case is more common in poetry than in 
prose, where its place is often taken by mid with 
the dative ; even in poetry, the simple instrumental 
sometimes alternates with the dative accompanied by 
mid, e.g. (^Andreas, 320) sarcwide occurs in the same 
construction as mid oferhygdum. Occasionally the 
instrumental is employed where Modern English 
would use an accusative : m u n d u m brugdon, thei/ 
waved (witK) their hands. 

The instrumental being one of the more difficult 
cases to master, a few of its regular combinations are 
separately appended: — 

a) With verbs of journeying and transporting, where 
its sign may almost be regarded as m; ceolum lid'an; 
f ae 9" m u m f ^rian ; s i 3" e gesohte. So with libban : 
dream um lifdou. 

5) With verbs of speaking, to indicate voice or lan- 
guage (see also 160. 1): wordum cwseST; ondsweor- 
odon gencwidum. 

(?) With past participles, generally preceding the 
latter (common in poetry): sweordum geheawen; 
hilde gesseged; dome gedyrsod. 

c?) With adjectives (generally in poetry), to denote 
in what respect^ or sometimes instrumentality: fe&er- 
um hremig ; ^cgum gecoste ; mundum freorig; 
synnum wunde. These last two afford the met- 
rical combinations exhibited in 217. 1 — among the 
commonest in Old English. 


175. Instrumental with prepositions. — Mid, which fre- 
quently takes the dative, is sometimes found with the 
instrumental, especially in the Anglian dialect ; so 
occasionally for. Examples: mid ealle; niid micle 
sige; mid tfy readestan godw^bbe; for hwy. 

176. Adverbial instrumental. — The instrumental may 
denote adverbial relations, especially time when. Exam- 
ples: sume dsege; sffy seofoiSFan daege; selce 
geare; word stunde ahof. 

1. It may also denote the number of times : siex- 
tiene si (arum. 

2. The instrumental may denote the way: tff ilcao 

177. Instrumental of deprivation. — Some verbs of 
deprivation may take an object of which in the 
instrumental (cf. 162). Examples: maarmum be- 
dseled; sehtum bensemde. 

178. Instrumental of difference. — The instrumental 
denotes the measure of difference. Examples: micle 
l^ngran ; 9" y bealdran ; J? o n cymlicor ; str^ngre 
eallum tSsem sergedoaum. 


179. Agreement of adjectives. — Adjectives agree with 
their nouns in gender, number, and case. This applies 
also to demonstrative, possessive, and indefinite pro- 

100 SYNTAX. 

nouns, and to participles, when used as adjectives. 
When used predicatively, however, participles may 
be uninfected. 

180. Strong and weak adjectives. — For the distinc- 
tion in the use of strong and weak adjectives, see 55. 

181. Adjectives as nouns. — An adjective may be used 
as a noun (see 55). Examples: tfsi ymbsittendan; 
hwa gieftf tfsbm. uncud'an lifes fultum. 


182. Use of adverbs. — Adverbs qualify verbs, adjec- 
tives, and other adverbs. 

183. Two negatives. — Two or more negatives 
strengthen the negation, instead of making an affirma- 
tive. Example: tfiu nis nan wiht. 


184. Reflexive pronouns. — The reflexive pronoun 
(82), in the dative (161. 1 ; cf. 159) or accusative, 
is used with certain verbs whose counterparts in 
Mod. Eng. would not necessarily require it. 

a) Dative : worhton him hocas ; bser him eaxe 
on handa ; him land curon ; gewat him; far tS e ; 
cierde we iis. 

VERBS. 101 

i) Accusative : he ger^ste h i n e ; STaet treow 
brset bit; bew^nde bine; bine gem^ngde ; 
eow fysan. 

185. Relative pronouns. — For these see 87. 


186. Forms of the verb. — Old English verbs are 
either transitive or intransitive. They have two 
voices, — active and passive ; three moods, — indica- 
tive, optative, and imperative — besides the infinitive, 
gerund, and participles ; and five tenses, — present, 
preterit, perfect, pluperfect, and future. The uses 
of these forms correspond, in general, to those of 
the same forms in other languages. 

187. Voices. — The forms of the active voice are 
given in 95 ; those of the passive are formed by 
adding the past participle to the appropriate tense of 
wesan (beon), he^ or weorSran, become. 

188. Tenses. — Only two independent tenses are dis- 
tinguished by their stems, — the present and the pret- 
erit. The present may also be used for the future ; 
the preterit, for any of the three past tenses. Other- 
wise the distinctions of tense are indicated by means 
of auxiliaries, as in Modern English: the future being 
formed by the infinitive with sculau, shall (133), and 

102 SYNTAX. 

willan, will (139); the perfect and pluperfect, by the 
past participles with the appropriate tenses of hab- 
ban, have (121), in the case of transitive verbs, and 
of wesan, he (138), in the case of intransitives. 

189. Agreement. — A finite verb agrees with its sub- 
ject in number and person. Exceptions are : — 

1. When the subject consists of two nouns denoting 
essentially the same thing, united by a conjunction, 
the verb in agreement may be in the singular: sie 
sibb and geSTweernes betweoh us. 

2. A collective noun may take a verb in the plural: 
seo cneoris wagon and Iseddon. 

3. A plural verb, with a predicate in the plural, 
may be introduced by a neuter singular: 3" set wseron 
^ngla gastas ; bit aronne wseron mine wseteru. 

Note. — The subject is sometimes to be supplied (cf. 190) : het 
5aet leoht Daeg. 

190. Impersonals. — Impersonal verbs are those whose 
subject is an implied hit, it. They are often transi- 
tive, taking an object in the dative or accusative (164. 
k^l; 171). Examples: me ©"yncSf; me hyngrede; 
swa gesselde iu; hu byre set beaduwe gespeow^. 
Sometimes they take two cases : J^egnas g e 1 y s t e 
gargewinnes (159. 5). 

191. Indicative. — The indicative has the functions 
common to it in most languages. 

VERBS. 103 

192. Optative in general. — The optative, sometimes 
called the subjunctive, is used to express an action 
or state simply as conceived by the mind. It is 
employed either in independent sentences or in sub- 
ordinate clauses. Of these subordinate clauses there 
are two principal kinds, — substantive or noun clauses, 
and adverbial clauses. Of these, the noun clauses, 
generally introduced by STaet, are the more important. 
Whenever the conjunction tfset can be translated in 
order that or so that, it introduces an adverbial clause ; 
otherwise, a noun clause. Other adverbial clauses are 
those of place, time, and manner. Less frequent are 
adjective clauses, introduced by or implying a relative 

193. Optative in independent clauses. — Under this 
head falls the use of the optative (c?) to express a 
command or an emphatic wish; (h') in doubtful ques- 
tions implying a negative answer; and (c) in hypo- 
thetical sentences. 

a) Command: beo nu leoht; adl are fornime; 
gan we secean. 

6) Question: hwset aronne me fr^mede gedeorf 

c) Hypothesis: sie araet tSu. sie. 

194. Optative in noun clauses. — The noun clause 
takes the place either of the subject (or predicate 
nominative) or of the object of a principal clause. 

104 SYNTAX. 

The object clause is commonest after verbs of knowl- 
edge, affirmation, command, and desire, such as know^ 
%ay^ order ^ wisJi^ etc. 

a) Subject clause : licaS" SFe Sfaet ApoUonius tJus 
heonan fare; wen is STset tSvi gemete sumiie. 

ft) Object clause : g-ewite hwaet se geonga mann 
s i e ; ne meahte findaii hwilc hi era forliden 
w se r e ; ic STe bebeode STset tSvi STaet nsenigum 
m^nn c y ST e ; ic wysce ©"set ic ^ft forlidennesse 
gef are. 

Note, — Certainty is rendered by the indicative : ic oncnawe 
IgTaet Sfu eart Tvel geleered. 

195. Optative by attraction. — This is a name given 
to the optative found in clauses following another 
optative. Examples : sprytte (193. a) seo eord'e 
treow, iSfses ssed sie on him selfum; wen is ©"set 
tSvL gemete (194. a) sumne STaet STe gemiltsie; 
iSTses-STe tSvL geare forwite (196. /) hwsem tSvL 
g-emiltsie ; acaet sum gestreon ic me begiete 
(196. /), (OTanan ic me af ede. 

196. Optative in adverbial clauses. — These are clauses 
of place (where)^ of time (before^ until, when, whiW), 
of manner («s if), conditional 0/), concessive 
(though), final (m order that), and consecutive (so 
that). Hypothetical or indefinite character in some 
measure attaches to the optative in each. 

VERBS. 105 

a) Place : tfset tSu wer geceose tSaer tSu self 

5) Time: ser se daeg cume; bid oar-aFset he cume. 

<?) Manner: swilce he cuma wsere. 

6?) Conditional: git tfn ne finde nsenne, w^nd 
aronne hider ongean ; swa hit tfe ne mislicie. 
But sometimes indicative: gif tfu me geliefst. 

e) Concessive: iBTeah sSTu stille sie. 

/) Final : and ges^tte hie on tfsere heofonan, 
STset hie so in en ofer eori0ran. So with tfses-tfe : 
tfses-tfe tfn geare forwite. Negative: tSy-lses-tfe tSe 

g) Consecutive : adl i^re fornime, araet tSu ne 
beo hal. 

197. Optative in adjective clauses. — Whenever a 
sentence introduced by an actual or virtual relative 
implies an element of doubt, it may take the opta- 
tive. Examples: geceose senne, hwilcne tfu. wille 
(hwilcne is a virtual relative) ; swa-hwaet-swa ffu 

198. Imperative. — The imperative is used in com- 
mands, sometimes with the second personal pronoun, 
sometimes without. Examples: beo bliiare mid iis; 
wite (0ru ; ge ^fthw^rfaO" to ciricean 

199. Infinitive. — The infinitive is construed as a 
neuter noun, the subject or object of a finite verb. 

106 SYNTAX. 

When the object, it may itself have a subject noun 
or pronoun in the accusative (169). 

a) Subject (or pred. nom., 150) : micel hienar and 
sceamu hit is n ell an. 

5) Object : nellan w e s a n ; het hyre Sfinenne 
heafod onwriiSTan. 

1. An object infinitive is sometimes used for pur- 
poses of specification. With verbs of motion this 
may often be translated by the present participle, 
occasionally by the infinitive of purpose (= in order 
to~). Examples : comon li^'an ; gewat him gangan ; 
feran gasta streonan (purpose). 

200. Gerund. — The gerund may usually be trans- 
lated by the Mod. Eng. infinitive, in a variety of 
senses. Examples: comon minre dohtor to bid- 
da n n e ; land swiare f eorr to geseceanne; tfa, 
estas him beforan l^gde tfe he him to beodanne 


201. Cases governed. — For the cases governed by 
prepositions, see 158, 166, 172, 175. 

1. The preposition sometimes follows its object, or 
immediately precedes the verb, and at times is diffi- 
cult to distinguish from an adverb, or a prefix of the 
verb. Examples: tfe (87. c) tfu sefter axodest; i0re 
tfu swa wel witS gedest. 



202. Correlatives. — Some of the more common cor- 
relatives are the following : — 

a) ge ge, both and, 

5) are are, whether . . . or. 

c) ne ne, neither. . . . nor. 

ara-ara ara 1 

of) H tSsL STa L when (then'). 

Sfonne .... STonne j 

e) areah areah, though .... (jjef). 

/) swa-STva . . . swa, so as. 

g) swa swa, the theo 


203. Old English verse stichic. — Old English verse is 
rarely strophic, but almost without exception stichic: 
that is, consists of ungrouped lines, following each 
other as in Modern English blank verse. 

204. The line and the hemistich. — The line of poetry- 
consists of two hemistichs, separated by the caesura. 
Example : — 

bord and brad swyrd, brane belmas. 

The hemistich may be either normal or expanded. 
A normal hemistich contains two metrical feet. Ex- 
ample : — 

. cene under cumblum. 

An expanded hemistich contains three metrical feet. 

Example : — 

swiiymod sinces ahte. 

205. The foot. — A metrical foot is a portion of a 
line containing one primary stress. The syllable re- 
ceiving the primary stress may or may not be fol- 
lowed or preceded by one or more lighter or slurred 



Of the lighter syllables following or preceding a pri- 
mary stress, one may, under certain circumstances, re- 
ceive a secondary stress (23). A syllable which receives 
neither primary nor secondary stress is called unstressed. 

206. Stressed and unstressed syllables. — The primaiy 
stress nearly always falls upon a long syllable ; this 
long syllable may, however, be represented by two 
syllables, of which the first is short, and the second so 
light as to admit of syncopation. The substitution of 
two such short syllables for a single long one is called 

A long syllable is one which contains a long vowel 
or diphthong, or a short vowel followed by two conso- 
nants. A short syllable is one which contains a short 
vowel followed by a single consonant (4). Long and 
short syllables, when stressed, are represented in metri- 
cal schemes by the macron, — , and the breve, w, respec- 
tively. Stressed syllables are indicated by the acute 
or grave accent, according as the stress is primary or 
secondary. Unstressed syllables, whether short or long, 
are represented by the oblique cross, x . 

The syllable which receives the primary stress is 
usually the root syllable of a word, while the lighter 
or slurred syllables comprise the terminations, enclitics, 
and proclitics ; occasionally, however, the second ele- 
ment of a compound word is reckoned as a slurred 
syllable, though usually it takes a secondary stress. 


207. Classification of feet. — The terms iambic^ trochaic^ 
etc., are used analogically, with reference to stress, and 
not, as in Greek and Latin prosody, with primary refer- 
ence to quantity. This being understood. Old English 
metrical feet may be classified as follows : — 

1. Monosyllabic : The monosyllabic foot regularly 
consists of a long syllable under the primary stress, — . 
This foot is never found except in conjunction with one 
of the dactylic type having a secondary stress (1. A to 
1. h, 216). 

2. Disyllabic : The disyllabic foot may be either tro- 
chaic, j^ X , or iambic, x ^. In the trochaic foot, the 
unstressed syllable may be replaced by a long syllable 
under the secondary stress. The dactyl formed by the 
resolution of the trochee may be called the light dactyl, 
to distinguish it from the heavy or normal dactyl, in 
which the first syllable is long. 

3. Trisyllabic : The trisyllabic foot is either dactylic, 
^ X X , or anapsestic, x x ^. If dactylic, either the second 
or third syllable has in some cases secondary stress. 

4. Polysyllabic : If tetrasyllable, this foot resembles 
either a first pseon, j1 x x x , or a fourth paeon, x x x ^. 
If it contains a greater number of syllables, it is still 
essentially dactylic or anapaestic in effect, ^ x x x ..., or 

...X X XjI. 

In any of the foregoing feet, resolution may take 
place, thus apparently increasing the number of typical 


208. Anacrusis. — Before hemistichs beginning with 
a primary stress, one or more unstressed syllables may 
occur. These unstressed syllables constitute what is 
known as the anacrusis. It is rare at the beginning 
of the second hemistich, but more frequent before the 

209. Expanded hemistichs. — These are formed by pre- 
fixing a foot of the form ^x... (less frequently ^, and 
rarely in the first hemistich x^) to a regular hemistich 
of two stresses. Expanded lines are employed in pas- 
sages of peculiar elevation and solemnity, or expressive 
of unwonted agitation. The expanded hemistich has 
three stresses, instead of the normal two, since the pre- 
fixed portion differs from the anacrusis in having a 
primary stress. As a rule, the first and second stresses 
of the first hemistich, when expanded, take alliteration, 
while in the second hemistich the place of the allitera- 
tive syllable is unchanged, coinciding normally with the 
(new) second stress. Example : — 

beaga and beorhtra mad'ina, hi ]>aet )>£ere beorhtan Idese. 

210. Alliteration. — Alliteration is a poetical ornament 
which is a distinctive feature of Old English verse. It 
consists in the employment of the same or similar 
sounds at the beginning of two or more syllables which 
receive the primary stress. The second hemistich con- 
tains one such alliterative syllable, as a rule that which 


has the first primary stress ; the first heniistich has reg- 
ularly two, though frequently only one. The allitera- 
tive sound must be the same throughout, if consonantal ; 
if vocalic, it is usually different in the three syllables. 
Examples are : — 

a) grrame gruff frecan, graras s^ndon. 

b) on iffaet rfaegred sylf, ciynedan scildas. 

c) earn wtes georn, wrigfeffera. 

In expanded lines, the additional foot frequently 
takes alliteration, thus removing it from one of its 
normal positions. 

211. Alliteration in relation to stress. — The accentual 
principles observed by Old English poets in their man- 
agement of alliteration virtually reduce themselves to 
one : that the most important syllables of the most im- 
portant words should receive primary stress. It must 
be borne in mind, however, that the stress is sometimes 
rhetorical, that is, depends not so much upon the intrin- 
sic weight of the word as upon that which belongs to 
it in virtue of its relation to other words in the same 
sentence. For example, a preposition might be ex- 
pected to have less intrinsic weight than a following 
noun, yet instances occur where the preposition allit- 

One general rule is that if a noun and a verb are 
found in the same hemistich, it is the noun that allite- 


212. Difference between the two hemistichs. — The first 
hemistich frequently differs from the second, not only 
in the number of its alliterative syllables, but also in 
that of the unstressed syllables admitted between two 
primary stresses, or in the form of anacrusis. 

213. Rime. — Rime and various forms of assonance 
are occasionally employed by Old English poets, some- 
times for the purpose of uniting more closely the two 
halves of the same line, less frequently to associate the 
second half of a line with the first or second half of the 
following line, rarely in formulas or compounds within 
the same hemistich. 

214. Masculine and feminine rime. — Masculine or mon- 
osyllabic rime is perfect when the riming vowels are 
identical, and are followed by the same consonants or 
consonant combinations. Example (from Beowulf^: — 

code yrremod : him of eagum st5d. 

Feminine or polysyllabic (usually disyllabic) rime is 
perfect when the first riming syllables are perfect mas- 
culine rimes and the following syllables are identical. 
Example : — 

scildburh scseron, sceotend wseron. 

There are also various sorts of imperfect rime. 

215. Kennings. — A characteristic ornament of Old 
English, as well as of early Teutonic poetry in general, 


are the kennings. This term, which is of Norse origin, 
designates those synonyms or periphrastic phrases which 
are employed to diversify the expression of a thought, 
or to avoid the repetition of the same word, usually a 
noun. Many of these are striking metaphors, but by 
no means all ; some, though metaphorical in their origin, 
were undoubtedly so familiar to the poet and audience 
that their peculiar significance was overlooked, and they 
were regarded as stereotyped and convenient synonyms. 
Examples of kennings for God are : arfsest Cyning, 
mihtig* Dryhten, Metod, Frea selmihtigr. 

216. Ordinary sequences of long and short syllables.^ — 

Before proceeding to examine the metrical constitution 
of the hemistich, it is desirable to consider the ordinary 
sequences of long and short syllables in Old English, 
and particularly in Old English poetry. 

1. Long syllables followed by short or slurred sylla- 
bles. A long stressed syllable may be followed : — 
a) by a derivative or inflectional syllable: scuras Z.x 
6) by a monosyllabic proclitic : ^f t to ^ x 

c) by a monosyllabic prefix: mod a(r6ted) ^x 

d) by a derivative or inflectional syllable + a mono- 
syllabic prefix or proclitic : cenra to ^ x x 

e) by a disyllabic proclitic or prefix : f ynd ofer(wun- 
nen) Z. x x 

1 This section is designed only for reference. 


/) by a monosyllabic proclitic + a monosyllabic pre- 
fix : forST on g-e(ribte) ^x x 

g) by two monosyllabic words : him STa se ^ x x 

7i) by two syllables, derivative or inflectional : mocl- 
igre Z.V X 

i) by the second element of a compound word, with 
or without a derivative syllable interposed : — 

(a) scirmseled Z.^ x 

(yg) hildeleoar /.x^ 

y) by a disyllabic word, with the stress upon its second 
syllable : near aetstop {Beow?) ^ x ^ 

^) by a derivative or inflectional syllable + a mono- 
syllabic word : eaSTe maeg ^ x w 

2. Long syllables preceded by short or slurred syl- 
lables. A long stressed syllable may be preceded : — ■ 

a) by a monosyllabic prefix : gefeoll x z. 

5) by a monosyllabic proclitic : STurh min(e) x^ 

c) by a derivative or inflectional syllable : (frym)ara 
God X /. 

cZ) by a derivative or inflectional ending + a mono- 
syllabic prefix or proclitic : (hlanc)a g-efeah x x jl 

e) by a disyllabic ending : (lar)ena god {Beow.) 

X xZ. 

/) by a disyllabic proclitic: syararan frym9'(e) x x /. 

^) by two monosyllabic words : STa are hwil(e) x x^ 

3. Long syllables followed by long or stressed syl- 
lables. In addition to the cases instanced under 1. h and 
i, which belong under the head of secondary stress. 


stressed syllables proper are here to be considered. A 
long syllable may be followed : — 

a) by a monosyllabic word: brad swyrd ^j^lCZ.^) 

5) when a monosyllable, by the first syllable of a 
disyllabic word : doni ag'(on) jLZ.{^^) 

c) when a monosyllable, by the first syllable of a tri- 
syllabic word : sang" hild(eleoi5') Z.j^{j^\) 

d) when the second syllable of a disyllabic word, by 
the first syllable of a disyllabic word: (g'e)gan h8efd(oii) 

e) when the first syllable of a polysyllabic word (often 
a compound), by the second syllable of the same word: 
nlSTheard, burhleod(uiii) j^Z.(Z.^) 

4. Short stressed syllables followed by short or 
slurred syllables. A short, stressed syllable may be 
followed : — 

a) by a single unstressed syllable, forming with it two 
metrical syllables : cyning 6 x 

6) by an unstressed syllable, forming with it the met- 
rical equivalent of a single long syllable, and capable of 
being substituted for the latter in every position : 8e9'e(le) 

Compounds are metrically regarded, for the most part, 
as composed of two independent words, but their length, 
taken in connection with the invariability of their typi- 
cal forms, restricts the employment of certain compounds 
to particular metrical schemes. Thus, compounds like 
hildensedran are adapted to hemistichs of the trochaic 


type, ^x I Z.X ; those like burlileodum to the type 
^ I ^ X X . 

217. Constitution of the hemistich. — There are five 
normal types of the hemistich, which may be called 
respectively (cf. 207) the 1) trochaic (dactylic), 2) 
the iambic (anapaestic), 3) the iambic-trochaic, 4) the 
monosyllabic-bacchic (or -cretic), and the 5) bacchic- 
monosyllabic. Tyj^es 4 and 5 occasionally become tro- 
chaic-bacchic and bacchic-trochaic respectively. 

Every hemistich ends either in a stressed syllable, or 
in a stressed syllable followed by a single short syllable 
(exceptionally by two short syllables, as in 216. 4. h). 

Occasionally a greater number of unstressed syllables 
than three occur together, but without destroying the 
character of the verse as belonging to one of the fore- 
going types. 

218. Constitution of the various types. — 1. The first or 
trochaic (dactylic) type is formed by^the union of two 
feet like those found in 1. a to 1. g above. Thus : — 

biddaii wylle j^ X | ^ X 

c\vicera cynna <S 2*^ x | ^ X 

ealde ge geonge _/ x x | _^ x 

With anacrusis (208) : — 

o3'3'e sundoryrfes x x | ^ x | ^ x 

Occasionally, by the introduction of two consecutive 
long syllables, as in 3. ^, there occur hemistichs of these 
forms : — 


scildburh scaeron Z. — | Z. X 

helmas and hupseax Z. X X | _/ 2l 

A short stressed syllable is rare : — 

arfaest cyning Z. X | w X 

2. The second or iambic (anapaestic) type is formed 
by the union of two feet like those found in 2. a to 2. g 
above. Thus : — 

se hyhsta dsel X _£ I X Z. 

beraff linde forfS x x Z. I x Z. 

nu ic gumena gehvrsene xxv^2^ |xxw2< 

With extra unstressed syllables in the fii^st foot (207. 

4) : — 
^ Jjset he in }>aet bargeteld x x x X jl | X j^ 

3. The third or iambic-trochaic type is formed by the 
union of two feet like those found in 1. a to 1. g and 2. 
a to 2. ^ respectively. Thus : — 

and CQmpwige x Z 1 j:! x 

and ge dom agon x x Z.\ _^ X 

on ffam sigewQnge x x w 2*^ 1 j^ x 

Rarely a short stressed syllable : — 

of bombogan X Z. | w X 

set fSsLm aescplegan X X Z\ \j X 

With extra unstressed syllables in the first foot : — 

J?e Me ofercuman mihton XXXXw2^|ZLx 

It will be observed that where two long syllables 
meet in the middle of the hemistich there is such a 
sequence as in 3. a to 3. e. 


4. The fourth or monosyllabic-bacchic type is formed 
by the union of a monosyllabic foot with such as are 
found in 1. A and 1. i (a). Thus : — 

msegQ" modlgre _£ I Z. J!l X 

haelea' higerofe 6 25^ I 6 2< 2l x 

Similarly, the monosyllabic-cretic takes groups like 1. i 
(y8), 1. y, and 1. h for the second foot : — 

sang hildeleoiy j:! I Z. X ^ 

An example of the trochaic-bacchic type (found only in 
first hemistichs) is : — 

stopon styrnmode ^ X \ Z-—y- 

Where two long syllables belonging to different feet 
come together in the pure type, we have various cases 
under 3, the one above being under c. 

5. The fifth or bacchic-monosyllabic type is formed 
by the union of such feet as are found in 1. h and 1. i 
(a) with a monosyllabic foot. Thus : — 

scirmseled swyrd jlJl X | Z. 

slgerofe haeleiS w2^ ^ x | 6^^ 

219. Frequency of the various types. — The relative 
frequency of the various types is indicated by their 
order in the last paragraph, though Types 2 and 3 
are not far from equal. Thus, in the poem of Judith^ 
the percentages are, in round numbers, as follows, not 
counting expanded lines, which mostly belong to 
Type 1 (209): — 



First Second 

IIe-mtstich. Hemistich. 

Type 1 47 47 

Type 2 14 26 

Type 3 19 19 

Type 4 15 6 

Type 5 6 3 

220. A specimen of scansion. — The following passage 
(Judith 164-175), accompanied by the scheme of its 
scansion, will serve to illustrate the metrical principles 
contained in the foregoing paragraphs : — 

©"reatum and 9'ryinmum J>rungon and urnon 

ongean iSTa J>eodnes niaegS' Jjusendmgelum, 

ealde ge geonge ; aeghwylcum wearff 

ni^n on S'sei'e medobyrig mod areted, 

sy3'3'an hie ongeaton ]?aet waes luditli cumen 

^ft to eSfle, and 9'a ofostlice 

hie mid eaS'medum in forleton. 

J>a seo gleawe het, golde gefraetewod, 

hyre 9'inenne J?ancolrnode 

}>aes h^rewseS'an heafod onwriSaCan, 

and hyt to behS'e bio dig aetywan 

J>am burhleoduin, hu hyre set beaduwe gespeoWc 


^X X 


1 Z.X X 





X x^ 


1 ^x 




Z.X X 


1 j^:^x 






6x^2< 1 

1 Z.X 







1 X XjL 





^x 1 

1 xx6i< 




X x^ 


1 -^x 




x xjI 


1 ^X X 

6 XX 



X xZ. 


1 ^x 





j^X 1 

1 Z.X X ^ 




^X X 


1 ^X X 






1 X X X X 62^ 






(^Ifric's Translation of Genesis, I.-II. 3.) 

[In the earlier pages, references will be made to the forms of 
words as they occur in the Vocabulary, whenever there might be diffi- 
culty in discovering the latter. Other references are self-explanatory. 

The student should by all means be familiar, before beginning 
this first sielection, with the declension of the third personal pronoun 
(81), the demonstrative se (84), the first seven ordinals (78), the con- 
jugation of -wesan (138) and weorJIFan (95, 104), the prepositions 
aefter, bufan, fram, ofer, on, to, and under, the particle Se (87. d), 
and the distinction between the two 9a's (84. 1) and the two Saet's.] 

On anginne gesceop ^ God ^ heofonan ^ and eor'San. S6o * 
eorSe sotJlice ^ wses ^ idlu and semtigu ; and Siestru ^ waeron ^ 
ofer* t58ere* neowolnesse^ bradnesse ^"^ ; and Godes gast waes^ 
gef ^red" ofer wseteru.^^ God cwsetS^^ ^a, "Geweor^e " leoht "; 
and leoht wear's ^^ geworht.^^ God geseah ^^ (Sa tSaet hit ^* god 

1 See gescieppan, and 18. i° See 166. 

2 The order is probably deter- " waes gef^red = Lat. fereba- 
mined by the Latin : creavit Deus. tur. See gef^rian. 

3 53. 3. 12 See water, and 47. 1, 6. 

* See se. i3 gee cwefSan. 

5 Lat. autem. " See geweoriJan, and 193. a. 

* See wesan. i^ See w^eorigTan. 

7 Plural, like Lat. tenebrcB. i^ Wears' geworht = /ac?a est. 

^ Governs bradnesse. See gewyrcean. 

* Genitive, dependent on brad- ^"^ See geseon. 

nesse (153. i). is See he. 



waes^; and lie gedaelde^ t58et^ leoht fram 8£em^ 'Siestrum.^ 
And het^ tSset^ leotit Dseg, and t$a^ Mestru'* Niht. Da wses^ 
geworden ^ sef en and morgen an dseg/ 

God cwseS^ t5a ^ft,^ "GreweorSe^° nu fsestnes tomiddes 

5 Ssem^ wseterum," and totwseme^^ Sa^ waeteru^^ fram Ssem 
wseterum." And God geworhte 6a fsestnesse, and totwsemde 
6a wseteru 'Se ^^ wseron under tigere f sestnesse fram Ssem 'Se ^^ 
wseron bufan Ssere fsestnesse ; hit waes 6a swa gedon.^* And 
God het 6a fsestnesse Heofonan.^^ And waes 6a geworden 

10 ^fen and morgen o6er^^ dseg. 

God 6a so6lice^'' cw9e6, ^'Beon^^ gegaderode^^ 6a wseteru 
6e^^ sindV under 68ere heofonan, and seteowie^ drygnes^^"; 
hit wses 6a swa gedon. And God geclegde^^ 6a drygnesse 
Eor6an^; and 68era^ wgetera gegaderunga^* he het Sees^'; 

15 God geseah 6a 68et hit god^^ wses. And cw3e6,^ "Sprytte^^ 
seo eor6e growende^ gaers,^ and sted wyrcende,^^ and seppel- 

1 See wesan. - See gedselan. ^^ See gegaderian, and 62. 

3 See se. * See p. 123, note 7. 20 gee aeteowian. 

^ See hatan, and 189, note. 21 Lat. arnda, Or. ^rjpd. 

6 Waes geworden = factum 22 gge geciegan. 

est. See geweoriS'an. 23 gee 173. 

■^ Lat. dies luius. 24 acc. plur. 

8 See cwe3'an. 25 ^cc. plur.; see s«e. 

9 Lat. quoque. 26 gee 4. . 

1"^ See geweorS'aii, and 193. «- 27 cf_ Mod. Eng. quoth. 

11 See wseter, and 47. 1, 6. 28 gee spryttan, and 193. «» 

12 gee totwaeman. Lat. germinet. 

13 gee 87. d. 29 gee growan, and 61. 

14 Past part, ol gedon. ^o gge 31. 

15 gee 173. ^1 See wyrcean, and 61. Gr5- 

16 Lat. secundus. wende gaers and seed w^yrcendp 
1' Lat. vero. = herbam virentem et facientem 
18 See 193. a. semen. 



hMve^ treow, wiestm- wyrcende sefter his cynne,^ Sees saed 
sie^ on him^ self urn ^ ofer eorSan"; hit waes Sa swa gedon. 
And seo eor^e forSateah^ growende wyrt and seed berende^ 
be hiere^ cynne, and treow w^stm wyrcende, and gehwilc^*' 
s£ed^^ hsebbende eefter his hiwe^-; God geseah ^a 'Saet hit 5 
god waes. And wees geworden sefen and m^rgen^^ se Sridda'^ 

God cw3e6 '5a soSlice/^ "Beon nu leoht on^^ ^sere heofonan^" 
fsestnesse, and todgelen^^ daeg and niht, and beon to^^ tac- 
num/^and totidum,^ and to dagum,^^ and to gearum.^ And 10 
hie sclnen^ on ^eere heofonan f-sestnesse, and aliehten t)a 
eorSan " ; hit waes tia swa geworden. And God geworhte 
twa^^ miclu-^ leoht; Sset mare^^ leoht to 'Sees dseges lleht- 
mge,^ and t58et lasse leoht to $^re niht^ llehtinge ; and 
steorran he geworhte. And ges^tte^ hie on Seere heofonan, 15 

1 Lat, pomiferum, Gr. /cdp- 
TTLfxov. See 146. 

2 Ace. sing., after wyrcende. 
^ See cynn. 

4 See 195. 
^ Dat. sing. 
6 See self. 
" Lat. protulit. 

8 Agrees with wyrt. See 

9 Why hiere, instead of Ms ? 
1^ Nom. sing. 

11 Ace. sing. 

12 Lat. speciem. See hiw. 

13 Xote the different form, -= 
m^rgen instead of morgen. 

14 See 78. 

1° Lat. autem. 

16 See 166. 
1"^ Gen. sing. 

18 See todselan. 

19 See tacen, and 24. 

20 See Ud, and 24. 

21 See daeg, and 24. 

22 See gear, and 24. 

23 See 193. a. Write the opt. 
pret. plur. of this verb. 

24 See twegen. 

25 See micel. 

26 See 66. 

2^ What is the relation of the 
siem-vowel to that of leolit ? 

28 For niht, instead of nieht, 
see 19. See 153. d. 

^ See ges^ttan, and 189, note. 



Saet hie scinen^ ofer eorSan, and glemden t5aes dseges^ and 
■Seere niht, and todselden leoM and t5iestru; God geseali Sa 
tJset hit god wses. And wses geworden sefen and m^rgen se 
feorSa^ dseg. 

5 God cwaeS eac swilce,^ "Teon nu t5a waetem fort5^ swim- 
mendu cynn cucu^ on life/ and fleogendu* cynn ofer eorSan 
under t$£ere heofonan fsestnesse." And God gesceop t5a® ■5a 
miclan h.walas/*' and eall libbendu fisccynn and styriend- 
licu,^ ^e^ 'Sa^^ wseteru tugon^* forb^ on hiera hiwnm, and 

10 eall fleogendu cynn sefter hiera cynne ; God geseah 'Sa Saet 
hit god waes. And bletsode^^ hie, ($us cwet5ende/'' "Weaxat5/^ 
and beo^ gemanigfielde/^ and gefyllat5 ^ t^sere see wseteru, and 
■Sa fuglas beon^^ gemanigfielde ofer eort5an." And ^a wees 
geworden gefen and m^rgen se f If ta dseg. 

15 God cw8et5 eac swilce, "Leede^^ seo eorSe forS^cucu nlet- 
enu^* on hiera cynne, and creopendu^ cynn and deor aefter 
hiera hiwum" ; hit wees tSa swa geworden. And God geworhte 
Ssere eorSan deor sefter hiera hlwum, and 5a nietenu and eall 
creopendu cynn on hiera cynne ; God geseah Sa Sset hit god 

1 Opt. pret. = Lat. lucerent. 
What would be the opt. pres. ? 

2 See 156. /. 

3 See 78. 

* Eac swilce = etiam. 

^ Producant = teon . . . forS". 

® See cucu. 

7 See lif. 

8 See fleogan, and 61. 
^ Adverb ; see 84. 1. 

10 See hwael. 

11 Lat. motabilem, 

12 Ace. 

13 Nom. plur. 
1* See teon. 

15 Tugon forts = produxerunt. 

16 See bletsian, and 33. 
1'^ See cwelcTan. 

18 See weaxan, and 24. 

19 Past part, in nom. plur. 

20 See gefyUan. 

21 See 193. a. 

22 See Isedan. 

23 Ligede . . . forfif = producat, 

24 See meten. 

2'' See creopan. 


W8es. And cwaeS, "Uton^ wyrcean mann to andllcnesse and 
to urre^ gelicnesse, and he sie^ ofer t5a fiscas,* and ofer tSa 
fuglas, and ofer t5a deor, and ofer ealle gesceafta/ and ofer. 
eall Sa creopendan tSe styriaS ^ ofer eorSan." God gesceop t5a 
mann to his andllcnesse, to Godes andllcnesse he gesceop 5 
hine ; werhades ^ and wif hades he gesceop hie. 

And God hie bletsode, and cw3et5, "Weaxat5, and beoS 
gemanigjBelde, and gefyllat5 6a eor^an and gewielda^^ hie, 
and habba'S^ on eowrum^^ gewealde ^eere see fiscas, and Ssere 
lyfte fuglas, and eall nietenu t5e styria6 ofer eorSan." God 10 
cwseS t5a, "Efne ic forgeaf " eow^^ eall gaers and wyrta seed^ 
berenda ofer eorSan, and eall treowu, 6a-t5e^^ habbat5 syed 
on him selfum hiera agnes cynnes, 'Sset hie beon eow^* to 
m^te ; and eallum nietenum and eallum fugolcynne and 
eallum tSsem 6e styria'S on eorSan, on Ssem-'Se ^ is lib- 15 
bende ^^ lif,^'' t^set hie hsebben him to ^* gereordianne " ; hit 
wses '5a swa gedon. And God geseah eall tSa t5ing^^ t5e he 
geworhte, and hie wseron swiSe god. Wses^ 'Sa geworden 
sefen and m^rgen se siexta dseg. 

1 = Let us. ^^ See 83. 

2 See 83. Urre properly belongs ^^ See forgiefan. 

to both nouns ; Lat. ad imaginem ^^ See ffn, and 164. a. 

et similitudinem nostram. ^^ See 24. i^^ See 87. 6. 

3 See wesan. 1* See 161. 2. Anth. Vers. : ' to 
^ See fisc. you it shall be for meat.' 

^ See gesceaft. ^* = whom. 

6 See styrian. ^^ See libban. 

■^ See 153. /. ^"^ IJibbende lif = anima viva. 

8 What is the relation of the ^^ See gereordian, and 200. 
stem diphthong to that of ge- ^^ Ace. plur. Why like the 
weald ? singular ? 

9 See habban. 20 gee 189. 1. 



Eornostlice^ 6a weeron fullfr^mecle^ lieofonas and eorSe 
and eall liiera frsetwung.^ And God Sa gefylde^ on 6one 
seofo6an dsQg^ his weorc^ Se he geworhte, and he ger^ste^ 
hine^ on 'Sone seofoSan dseg fram eallum Ssem weorce 6e he 
5 gefr^mede. And God gebletsode Sone seofo6an dseg and 
liine gehalgode,^ for-6on-Se he on Sone dseg geswac^^ his 
weorces" Se he gesceop^^ to wyrceanne.^^ 

^ Lat. igitur. 

2 See f uUfp^inman. Lat. per- 

2 Lat. ornatus, Gr. Kda-fios ; 
array^ or splendid array., would 
perhaps express the original 

* Lat. complevit. 

^ Ace. where we should expect 
dat, ; Lat. die septimo. See 172. 1. 

6 Sing., as the Latin shows. 

■* See ger^stan. Why but one 
t in the preterit ? 

8 See 184. b. 

^ See gehalgian From halig ; 

for loss of i see 23. The root Ic- 
lial ; after unilaut of the stem 
vowel, what would this syllable 
become, and in what words is it 
found ? 

10 See geswican. 

11 His weorces = ab omm 
opere suo. See 156. k. 

1^ gesceop to wyrceanne = 
creavit ut faceret; Marg. of Auth 
Vers., ' created to make.' See 200 

13 Wyrc- not umlaut of "\veorc-. 
The relation here is an ablaut one 
(22) : were and wurc (wore); 
cf. Gr. ep'yov and 6pyavov. 



(From ^Ifric's Colloquy, probably prepared, like his Grammar, for the 
instruction of English youths in Latin. There are two MSS. — ohe in the 
British Museum, the other at Oxford. The Oxford MS. has the rubric: 
Heine sententiam Latini sermonis olini Alfricus abbas composuit, qui meus 
fait magister, seel tamen ego, ^Ifric Bata, multas postea hide addidi 
appendices. This is virtually ^Ifric Bata's sole title to fame. The Old 
English, like the Latin, is probably of the late tenth century.) 

The Merchant cmcl his Merchandise. 

Teacher. Hwaet ssegst^ M, mangere^? 
Merchant. Ic s^cge 'Sset beliefe^ ic eom ge^ cyi4nge^ and 
ealdormanniim,^ and weligum, and eallnm folce. 

1 See 123. 

2 Lat. mercator. Other Old 
English terms for merchant are 
ciepa and ciepmann. From a 
collateral form of the latter, ceap- 
mann, without umlaut, is derived 
Mod. Eng. chapman. How is chap- 
related to cheap 9 See the New 
English Dictionary {Neiv Eng. 
Diet.) under these words. 

3 Lat. utilis. Of. the Mod. Eng. 
noun behoof. 

* ge . . . and = Lat. et . . . et. 
5 Carlyle (Sartor Sesartus, Bk. 
3, Chap. 7) has the following: 

6 Lat. 

'■'■ Konig (King), anciently K'on- 
ning, means Ken-ning (Cunning), 
or which is the same thing, Can- 
ning. Ever must the Sovereign 
of Mankind be fitly entitled King." 
On the other hand Gummere (Ger- 
manic Origins, p. 270): "At the 
head of the family we found, of 
course, the father ; and at the head 
of the state we naturally look for 
the king. The word ' king ' means 
the child or son of the tribe, its 
representative or even creation ; 
man of race, man of rank. Grad- 
ually the king ceases to be re- 




Teacher. And \m ? 

Merchant. Ic astige min scip mid hlaestum^ minum, and 
rowe^ ofer splice ^ dselas/ and ciepe^ mm ^ing, and bycge 
6ing^ deorwierSu,^ 6a on Sisum lande ne beot5 ac^nnede, and 
5 ic hit togeleede'' eow hider mid miclum plihte^ ofer sae, and 
hwilum forlidennesse ic 6olie mid lyre ealra Singa minra, 
unease ^ cwic^ setberstende.^ 

Teacher. Hwilc Sing gelsetst Sti us ? 

Merchant. Psellas^^ and sidan," deorwiert5e gimmas and 
10 gold, seldctiS^ reaf/^ and wyrtgemangjH win and ^le, elpes^: 
ban ^^ and msesling/^ ger '" and tin, swef el and glses, and tSyl- 
lices ^^ f ela. 

garded as a creation of his race ; 
his ancestry is pushed back to 
the gods, and his right is quite 
above all sanctions of popular 
choice or approval." Which of 
these views is confirmed by ety- 
mology ? 

1 Lat. mercibus. 

2 Lat. navigo. 

3 Lat. marinas. 
* Lat. partes. 

5 Lat. vendo. 

6 Lat. res pretiosas. 
' Lat. adduco. 

8 Lat. periculo. Mod, Eng. 
form of pliht ? 

9 Lat. vix vivus evadens. Note 
the love for alliteration, even in 
the Latin. 

10 Lat. purpurum. Cf . Spenser 
(F. Q. 2. 9. 37): «* In a long pwr- 
ple palW'^ 

11 Lat. sericum. From this 
Latin word (indicating what 
country?) comes OE. seol(o)c. 
What Mod. Eng. word from the 
latter (or the equivalent Old 
Norse (ON.) silki)? Cf. Skeat's 
Principles of English Etymology 
(I.) , p. 440 (Skeat, Prin.) . Other 
words in which Eng. I = Lat. r 
(through OE.) are plum = Lat, 
prunus ; purple = Lat. purpura ; 
turtle = Lat. turtur. 

12 Lat. varias, but this looks 
like a mistake. Varius usually 
= mis (sen) lie or manigfeald. 

13 Lat. vestes. 

1* Lat. pigmenta. Translate, 
, 15 Lat. ebur. 

16 Lat. aurichalcum. 

17 Lat. aes. 

18 See 154. a. 



Teacher. Wilt^ 6u s^Uan Sing Sin her eall^ swa*^ (5u hie 
gebohtest Sser ? 

Merchant. Ic nelle. Hwset Sonne me fr^mede^ gedeorf^ 
mm ? Ac ic wille hie ciepan her luflicor* Sonne ic gebycge 
Sser, Sset^ sum gestreon^ me* ic begiete,^ Sanan ic me afede/*' 
and mm wif, and minne sunu. 

The Choice of Occupations. 

^ Teacher. Hwaet ssegst Su, wisa ? Hwilc crseft " "Se is ^ 
geStiht ^^ betweox Sas furSra ^* wesan ? 

Counsellor. Ic s^cge Se, me is ^^ geSuht ^^ Godes Seowdom ^® 
betweoh Sas crseftas ealdorscipe ^^ healdan, swa-swa hit is^^ 
gersed on godspelle, "Fyrmest seceaS rice Godes, and riht- 
wlsnesse^^ his, and Sas Sing eall beoS togeiecte^^ eow." 

Teacher. And hwilc Se is^^ geSuht betweox woruldcraeftas^ 
healdan ealdordom ? ^"^ 

Counsellor. EorStilS,^^ for-Sam se ierSlins:^ us ealle fet.^ 

1 See 139. 

2 = just as. 

3 See 193. h. 

4 Lat. labor. 

^ Lat. carius. 

Possibly mis- 

written for leoflicor. A literal 
translation, not regarding the 
sense ; deorra or dierra, from 
deore or diere, dear, would be 
more normal. 

6 See 84. 1. 

' Lat. lucrum. Ace. sing. 

8 See 161. 1. 

s Lat. adquiram. See 196. /. 

10 See 195. 

11 Lat. ars. 

12 Conjectural ; not in the MSS. 

13 See tfyncean. 

1* Lat. prior. Nom. sing. 

1^ Lat. videtur. 

16 See 143 and 149. 

1'^ Lat. primatum. 

18 See 144. 

1^ Lat. adjicientur. See toge- 
iecan, and 62. 

2c» Lat. artes seculares. MS. 
craeftas woruld. 

21 Lat. agricultura. See 147. 

22 Lat. arator. 

23 See fedan. 




Se smid soeg'd : 

Hwanan •Ssem ierSlinge sulhscear^ oStSe culter,^ Se na gade^ 
hsefS butan of craefte minum ? Hwanan fiscere* angel, ot5'Se 
sceowyrhtan sel, oS6e seamere naedl? Nis hit of.minum 
5 geweorce ? 

Se gedeahtend^ andswarad : 

So6, witodlice, ssegst 'Su^; ac eallum ns leofre is wician' 

mid 'Ssem ierSlinge Sonne mid Se, for-Sam se ierSling s^leS 

us hlaf^ and dr^nc. Dti, liwset shiest Sti^ us on smiSSan 

lo Sinre butan iserne* fyrspearcan,^ and sweginga^° beatendra^ 

sl^cgea^^ and blawendra b^lga? 

Se treowwyrhta ^^ scegcf : 

Hwilc eower^* ne notaS^ crsefte^^ minum — Sonne htis,^' 
and mislicu fatu, and scipu eow^® eallum ic wyrce^? 
15 Se smid^ andwyrt: 

Eala treowwyrhta, for^i hwy^^ swa spriest Su, Sonne ^^ 

1 MS. sylanscear. 

2 Lat. culter. 

3 See 24. 

4 See 161. 

s Lat. consiliarius. 

6 Not in MS. 

■^ Lat. hospitari; see 199. a. 

8 Lat. panem. Bread, which 
is found in Old English, scarcely 
has any other sense than that 
of 1) fragment, 2) broken bread. 
Later it acquires its modern 
meaning. See New Eng. Diet., 
s.v. bread. 

9 Lat. ferreas scintillas. 
10 Lat, sonitus. 

11 Lat. tundentium. 

12 Lat, malleorum. 

13 Lat, lignarius. See 147. 

14 See 154, b. 

15 Lat. utitur. 

16 See 164. 0. 
1'^ Lat. domos. 

18 See 161. 

19 Lat. fabrico. 

20 Lat. ferrarius. MS. gol- 
srniff (S2C). 

21 Lat. cwr; see 175. 

■22 Lat. cw9>i. Other tempo- 
ral conjunctions used to denote 
cause are nu and Sa. Has Mod. 
Eng. any similar idiom ? 



ne furSum' an Syrel btitan craefte minum M ne^ meaht^ 

Se gedeahtend sceg^ : 

Eala, gef eran ^ and gode wyrhtan ! Uton toweorpan 
hwaetlicor^ 6as gefiitu/ and sie* sibb and geSwsernes^ be- 5 
tweoh us, and fr^mme^° anra" gehwilc" otSrum^ on craefte 
his, and getSwserien ^^ simle mid Ssem ier^linge, fSser" we 
bigleofan^"""' us, and fodor horsum tirum habba'S. And tSis 
ge^eaht ic s^lle eallum wyrhtum, 'Sset anra^^ gehwilc craeft 
his geornlice begange,^^ for-'8am se, Se crseft^* his forlset, he^^ 10 
bit5 forlaeten fram Saem craefte. Swa-hwaeSer^ M sie — swa^^ 
maessepreost,^ swa munuc,^ swa ceorl,^ swa c^mpa^^beg'a^ 
•Se selfne on t5isum, and beo 'Saet 'Su eart ; for-Sam micel hienS^ 
and sceamu hit is m^nn nellan^ wesan t5aet he is and Saet he 
wesan sceal.^ 

1 Lat. saltern. 

2 See 183. 

3 Lat. vales. 

^ Lat. facere. 

5 Lat. socii ; see 152. 

6 Lat. citius ; used almost in 
the sense of the positive ; see 76. 

"^ Lat. contentiones. 

8 See 189. 1. 

9 Lat. Concordia. 
1'^ Lat. prosit. 

11 Lat. unusquisque. MS. uruDa 

12 See 160. 

13 Lat. conveniamus. 
" Lat. uM. 

1^ Lat. victum. 
16 See 154. 6. 

17 See 194. b. 

18 Ace. sing. 

19 Lat. ipse. 

20 Lat. sive. 

21 Swa . . . 
, . sew. 

swa = Lat, sive 

22 Lat. sacerdos. 

23 Lat. monachus, from which 
the OE. word is derived. For 
the u cf. OE. munt = Lat. 

24 Lat, laicus. 
26 Lat. miles. 

26 MS. bega o»e behwyrf. 
Lat. exerce. 

27 Lat. damnum. 

28 MS, nelle. See 199, a. 

29 Lat. (If^Jirf. 




(From ^Ifric's Homilies, vol. 2, pp. 106-108; being a paraphrase of 
Matt. 25:31-46.) 

Witodlice^ Mamies Beam cym^^ on his maegenSrymme, 
and ealle ^nglas^ samod mid him to ^sem miclan* dome.^ 
Donne sitt^ he on t^sem setle his msegenSrymnesse/ and- 
beoS gegaderode setforan him ealle ^eoda,^ and he toscset^ 
5 hie on twa, swa-swa sceaphierde ^° toscset sceap" fram 
gatum.-^ Donne gelogaS he Sa sceap on his swiSran^^ 
hand, and Sa g^t ^* on his winstran. Donne cwit5 ^^ se 
Cyning Crist to ■Seem t5e on his swiSran hand standa'S, 
"CumaS ge bletsode^^ mines Eseder/^ and geagniat5 ^aet 

1 Lat. autem. 

2 See cuman. 

3 See ^ngel. What is the his- 
tory of this word before it entered 
Old English ? 

* See 55. 

° In what modern compound 
does this meaning of dom persist? 

6 See slttan. 

7 See 153. /. 

8 Nom. plur. 

^ See tosceadan. Account for 
the vowel se. 

1'^ In compound words, the 
vowel of the first syllable is apt 

to be shortened in Mod. Eng., 
the more general principle being 
that shortening is apt to occur 
before an accumulation of con- 
sonants. Besides sceaphierde, 
shepherd, note e.g. wisdom, wis- 

11 Plural ; account for the form. 

12 See 24. 

13 See swiff. 
1* See 52. 

1^ See cweffan. What is the 
ind. pret. 3d sing. ? 

16 Past part, in nom. plur. 

17 See 43. 8. r 




rice^ Se eow^ gegearcod waes fram frymSe middangeardes. 
Me^ hyngrede,* and ge me gereordedon; me'^ Syrste, and ge 
me^ sc^ncton; ic waes cuma,^ and ge me underfengon^ on . 
eowrum giesthusum; ic waes nacod, and ge me scryddon^; 
ic wa3S geuntrumod, and ge me geneosedon ; ic wges on 5 
cwearterne, and ge comon to me and me gef ref redon.^ " 
Donne andswariatS t5a rihtwisan ^"^ Criste ^^ and cwe5at5, 
"Dry Men, hwonne gesawe^ we t5e hungrigne, and we '^e 
gereordedon ? ot5^e 'Surstigne, and we ^e sc^ncton ? ot56e 
hwonne wsere ^ti cuma/^ and we $e underfengon ? o6Se to 
hwonne gesawe^^^ we 'Se untrumne oSt5e on cwearterne, and 
we ^e geneosedon ? " Donne andwyrt se Cyning •Seem 
rihtwisum 'Sisum wordum/^ ^^ SoS ^^ ic eow s^cge, swa ^® 
lange swa^'' ge dydon anum, 'Sisum Isestan,^^ on minum 

1 Still found as the last sylla- 
ble of bishopric. 

2 See 81. 

3 See 190. 

^ What is the relation of the 
stem-vowel to that of hungrig ? 
See 90. 

5 Dat. 

6 Lat. hospes. 

^ See underfon. 

8 What peculiar senses has the 
verb shroud in Spenser, Shake- 
speare, or Milton ? What form 
would scrydan most naturally 
assume in Mod. Eng. (24) ? 
How can the Mod. Eng. form of 
the verb shroud be accounted 

^ What is the relation of the 

stem-vowel to that of f rofor ? 
See 90. 

10 Nom. plur. See 181. 

11 Dat. 

12 See geseon. 

13 See 150. i^a gee 95, note. 

14 See 174. b. 

15 Lat. amen, Eng. verily. 

16 = so. 

1^ = as. Notice this early use 
of so long as (= Lat. quamdiu) 
in the sense of inasmuch as. 

18 The WS. translation of the 
Gospel has anum of tS'isutn 
mmum Isestum gebroi^ruin, 
which is much more literal. In 
^Ifric's version we must under- 
stand Isestan to be in apposition 
with anum. See 66. 


naman, ge hit dydon me selfum.^" Donne cwiS lie ^ft 
to ■Saem synfullum, tSe on his winstran healfe standat?, 
" Gewitat5 fram me, ge awiergdan, into tSsem ecean fyre, 
tSe is gegearcod ^sem deofle^ and his awiergdum gastum. 

5 Me hyngrede, and ge me setes^ forwierndon ; me 6yrste, 
and ge me drincan ne sealdon; ic wses cuma, and ge me 
underf on noldon ; ic wses nacod, nolde * ge me wseda ^ 
tit5ian^; ic wses untrum and on cwearterne, nolde* ge 
me geneosian." Donne andswariat5^ 'Sa unrihtwisan man- 

10 fullan,^ "La leof, hwonne gesawe** we t5e hungrigne,^ ot5^e 
•Surstigne, oMe cuman, ot5Se nacodne, oStSe geuntrumodne, 
ot5t5e on cwearterne, and we t5e noldon t5enian^"? Donne 
andwyrt se Cyning him, and cwiS, " SoS ic eow s^cge, 
swa lange swa ge forwierndon anum of t5isum lytlum, 

15 and noldon ^"^ him on minum naman tiSian, swa lange ^^ 
ge me selfum his^ forwierndon.'' Donne faraS ?5a uncyst- 
gan^ and t5a unrihtwisan into ecre cwicstisle, mid deofle 
and his awiergdum ^nglum ; and Sa rihtwisan gecierraS 
fram 'Saem dome into Ssem ecean life. 

1 Not = myself; self agrees "^ How is tlie and- of this 
witli me. The Latin has no orig- word related to the anti- of 
inal here for self; ^Ifric adds it Eng. antiphon? 

to strengthen the expression. ^ See 4. 

2 See 161. 9 See 173. 
8 See 159. 10 See 139. 

* See 95, note. ^^ Correlative with the swa 

5 See 159. What is the Mod. lange swa of the preceding 
Eng. form of this word ? clause. 

6 See 28 ; 164. e. 12 gee 65 ; 57. 3 ; 181. 



(Eccl. Hist., Bk. I., Chap. I.) 

[JEUric testifies to a translation of Bede's History having been made 
by Alfred, and so does William of Malmesbury; besides, the MS. of the 
Cambridge University Library twice has this couplet, — 

Historicus quondam fecit me Beda latinum, 
. Alfred rex Saxo transtulit ille pius. 

On the other hand, it has such undoubted Anglian peculiarities that it 
Vtas been suggested (by Miller, its latest editor) that "the version may 
have been executed by Mercian scholars under orders from the king," and 
^hat it was possibly made at Lichfield. ^ 

The distinction between English idiom and imitation of the Latin should 
be remarked, wherever possible. Moberly's edition of the Ecclesiastical 
History, which contains scholarly and interesting notes, may profitably be 

Breoton^ is garsecges^ igland, ^set wees m geara Albion 
haten. . . . Hit is welig — ^is igla-nd — on weestmum and on 
♦-reowum missenlicra cytina/ afid hit is gescrepe on leeswe 
aiceapa* and neata^; and on sumum stowum wingeardas 

Britannia oceani insula, cui quondam Albion nomen fuit. 
. . . Opima frugibus atque arboribus insula, et alendis 
apta pecoribus ac jumentis ; vineas etiam quibusdam in 
locis germinans : sed et avium ferax terra marique gene- 

1 Moberly says: "This descrip- 8 gge 153, f. 
tion of Britain is pieced from the * See 153. d. 

accounts of Plinius, Solinus, Ore- ^ what Mod. Eng. word repre- 

sius, Die Cassius, and Gildas." sents this? What OE. noun-stem 

2 See 153. h. contains the umlaut of this one ? 


138 BEDE's description of BRITAIN. 

growat5. Swilce eac ^eos eort5e is berende missenlicra 
fugla^ and seewihta. . . . And her beoS oft fangene^' 
seolas, and hranas, and m^reswin ; and her beoS oft 
numene^ missenlicra^ cynna weolocscielle ^ and muscule, 

5 and on 'Saeni beo^ oft gemette^ Sa b^tstan® meregreotanT 
selces hiwes. And her beo6 swi^e genyhtsnme weolocas, 
of 'Ssem bi^ geworht se weolocrgada t^lg, Sone ne mseg 
sunne blsecan ^ ne ne regn ^ wierdan ; ac, swa he bit5 
ieldra/^ swa he f segerra bit5. Hit hsef^ ^ eac — t5is land 

10 — sealtsea^as ; and hit hseftS hat wseter, and hat baSu,^ 
eelcre ielde^^ and hade, ^urh todseleda stowa/^ gescrepe. 

ris diversi. . . . Capiuntur autem ssepissime et vituli 
marini, et delphines, necnon et balleuse : exceptis vario- 
rum generibus conch34iorum ; in quibus sunt et musculse, 
quibus inclusam ssepe margaritam, omnis quidem coloris 
optimam inveniunt. . . . Sunt et cochleae satis superque 
abundantesj quibus tinctura coccinei coloris conficitur, 
cujus rubor pulcherrimus uullo unquam solis ardore, nulla 
valet pluviarum injuria pallescere ; sed quo vetustior est, 
eo solet esse venustior. Habet fontes salinarum, habet et 
fontes calidos, et ex eis fluvios balnearum calidarum, 
omni setati et sexui, per distincta loca, juxta suum cui- 

1 This genitive after a present ^ From what adjective is 

participle is exceptional ; cf . the bleecan derived (17) ? 
Latin for an explanation (155). ^ To what might regn con- 

la See f on. 2 gee niman. tract (28) ? 

3 See p. 130, n. 12. * Norn. plur. 10 See 65. 

5 From what noun is the stem 11 See 121. 
of me tan derived ? See 14. ^^ See baeiff. 

6 See 66. ^^ Governed by gescrepe. See 
■^ This word is adapted from 165. 

the Latin, but simulates a com- 1* What does -stow mean in 

pound of m^re, sea, and greot, a proper name like Chep- 
earth, gravel. stow ? 



Swilce hit is eac berende ^ on w^cga orum — ares and 
isernes, leades and seolfres. Her bi6 eac gemett gagates ; 
se stan hv6 blsec gimm; gif man^ hine on fyr det5,^ t5onne 
fleo^ ^ser naeddran"^ on weg.^ Wfes t5is igland^ eac ge- 
weortSod mid Seem ae^elestum ceastruni^^ — anes wana ^rit- 5 
igum^ — 'Sa^Se^ wseron mid weallum/^ and torrum,^^ and 
geatum, and 'S^m trumestum locum getimbrede, butan 
o'Srum l^ssan^^ unrime ceastra. 

And for-'5am-Se '5is igland under ^eem selfum nor^dsele 
middangeardes niehst llt5,^^ and leohte niht on sumera 10 

que modum accommodos. . . . Quse etiam venis metal- 
lorum, seris, ferri, et plumbi et argenti fsecunda, gignit et 
lapidem gagatem plurimum optimumque : est autem nigro- 
gemmeus et ardens igni admotus, incensus serpentes fugat. 
. . . Erat et civitatibus quondam viginti et octo nobilis- 
simis insignita, prseter castella innumera, quse et ipsa muris, 
turribus, portis,. ac seris erant instructa firmissimis 

Et quia prope sub ipso septentrionali vertice mundi jacet, 
lucidas sestate noctes habet ; ita ut, medio ssepe tempore 

1 Cf. the construction of this 
word with that above, p. 138, 1. 1. 

2 See 89. e. ^ gee 140. 
* How did naeddre become 

adder? Cf. OE. nafogar, Mod. 
Eng. auger. See Skeat, Prin., 
p. 216. 

5 There is a parallel form, 
aweg, already in OE. The a- 
is a contraction of on. Mention 
other Mod. Eng. words in which 
the a- represents on. 

6 How does the Mod. Eng. 
island acquire its s ? See Skeat, 
Pnw., p. 380,and note 3, next page. 

^ From Lat. castra. Cf. the 
-caster, -Chester, of Lancaster, 
Winchester, etc. Some of the 
more important of these cities 
were York, Colchester, Winches- 
ter, Canterbury, and Chester (see 
Moberly, p. 7). 

8 Cf. 78. 5 ; 158. The number 
does not correspond to the Latin. 

9 Does this relative have the 
same antecedent as in the Latin? 

i*^ Weall is from Lat. vallum ; 
torr, from Lat. turris. 

11 Agrees with unrime. 

12 See licgan, and 28. 

140 BEUE's description of BRITAIN. 

haeftJ — swa tSset oft on midre niht geflit cymS * Ssem 
behealdendum, hwseSer hit sie (Se^ sefenglomung, Se on 
morgen dagung — is on Ssem sweotol, tset 6is igland ^ 
lisefS micle^ l^ngran dagas on sumera,* and swa eac niht^ 
5 on wintra/ Sonne 6a su8dselas middangeardes/ 

noctis in quaestionem veniat intuentibus, utrum crepus- 
culum adhuc permaneat vespertinum, an jam advenerit 
matutinum . . . : unde etiam plurimse longitudinis habet 
dies aestate, sicut et noctes contra in bruma. 

1 See cuman. ^ See 43. 5. 

2 Lat. utrum . . . an = 'Se ^ Niht belongs under 52. It 
... safe (202. &). has already experienced umlaut 

3 ig. represents ie-, the umlaut in the nominative, and hence does 
of ea, water. Ea goes back to not change in the ace. plur. 

the same Indo-European root as " This last clause is supplied by 

Lat. aqua. the translator. 

4 See 178. 



(Bede, Eccl. Hist., Bk. V., Chap. I.) 

Ic com mid twsem^ otSrum bro^rum to Farne,^ Seem 
iglande. Wolde ic sprecan mid gone'* arwierSan f seder 
iESelwald. Mid-Sy ic Sa wees mid his gesprece wel 
gerett/ and me bletsunge baed, and we ham^ hwurfon/ 
6a we t5a wseron on midre^ Ssere S£e, 6a ^ waes samninga 5 
heofones smyltnes tosliten, (5gere-6e ^° we ser lidon " ut ; 
and swa micel winter ^ us onhreas,^^ and swa re6e storm 
com, Saet we ne mid segle ne mid rownesse awiht 
framgan^^ meahton, ne we us nohtes^ ^lles wendon nefne 

1 This story was related by- 
Abbot Guthfrith to Bede. ^thel- 
wald succeeded Cuthbert as the 
hermit of Fame, dwelling there 
from 687 to 699, when he died. 

2 See 79. 

3 Two miles fromBamborough. 
One of the islands of the group 
was the scene of Grace Darling's 
heroism in 1858. That inhabited 
by ^thelwald was the largest. 

* The ace. with mid is excep- 
tional (172. 1). 5 See 113. 

^ Ace. sing, as adv. ; Lat. 

^ Lat. rediremus. 
8 See 166. 1. 

^ To at = interrupta est sere- 
nitas qua vehebamur. 

10 Translate in (or with) which. 
The Latin shows that the prepo- 
sition is to be understood. 

11 See liffan, and 37. 

12 Lat. hiems, but no doubt in 
the sense of tempest. 

13 See onhreosan. What is 
the ind. pret. plur. ? 

1* Lat. proficere. 
15 See 156. g. 




deaSes^ selfes. Mid-Sy we 6a switSe lange wi5 6aem winde 
and wi6 Ssem sse holunga^ campedon and wunnon/ Sa set 
niehstan locedon we on baecling, hwseSer wen^ weere* ^set 
we genge^ Singa^ furt5um Sset igland gesecean^ meahton, 

5 (58et we £er tit of gangende'' wseron/ Cierde^ we us Sider 
we cierdon, gemetton^ we us seghwanan gelice^° storme^° 
fores^tte and foretynde, and nsenigne hyht " heele ^ in us 
to^^ lafe^^ standan.^^ Da wses sefter langum fsece Sset we 
lire gesihS feorr^^ tipahofon, 6a gesawon we in Fame, 

10 Ssem iglande, Gode^^ (5one leofan feeder ^tJelwald of his 
diegelnessum ^^ utgangende/'' Saet^^ he^^ wolde^* urne si^fset 
sceawian, and geseon hwaet us gelumpe,^^ for-'Son he ge-. ' 
hierde Saet gebrec Ssera storma and tJses weallendes s^s.^ 
Mid-(5y he 'Sa us eac sceawode, and geseah in gewinne 

15 and in ormodnesse ^^ ges^tte beon,^ 6a biegde he his 

1 See 156. g. 

2 Lat. frustra. 

3 See winnan. 
* Lat. forte. 

^ Lat. aliquo conamine. For 
senige see 174 ; for (SCinga see 
154. b. 

6 Lat. repetere. 

"^ Lat. egressi eramus. The 
pres. part, with the verb is some- 
times used in OE. to denote the 
simple past, as here, and not the 

8 See 95, note. 

^ To foretynde = Lat. inve- 
nimus nos undiqueversum pari 
tempestate prcsclusos. 

w See 174. 

11 Ace. sing., the subj. ol 

12 See 153. d. 

13 Lat. restare. 

1* Translate, from a distance. 

15 Governed by leofan ; = 
amantissimum Deo. See 165. 

16 Lat. latibulis. 

i'^ Translates the Latin past 
part., egressum. 

18 Translate, that he might, in 
order to, to. The Latin has the 
infinitive. i^ See 194. b. 

20 Lat. fragore procellarum ac 
ferventis oceani. 

21 Lat. desperatione. 

22 Supply as as subject ace 



cneowu to Feeder iires Dryhtnes Heelendes Cristes, and 
waes^ gebiddende^ for tirre hsele and for urum life. And 
inid-(Sy he Sa Sset gebed gefylde,^ he 6a samod setgaedere 
ge $one a'Sundnan^ sse gesmylte ge Sone storm gestilde, 
to"* tSon'' Ssette* tSurh^ ealP seo ret5nes Sees stormes waes^ 5 
blinnende,^ and gesyndge^ windas $urh gone smyltestan 
see us set lande gebrohton. Mid-6y we (5a up comon to 
lande, and tire scip eac ^ swilce ^ fram Seem yt5um up 
abseron, t5a sona se ilea storm ^ft hwearf and com,^ se-6e 
for^ urum^ intingan^ medmicel faec^** gestilde, and ealne lo 
gone" daeg^^ swit5e micel and Strang wses, t^sette^^ m^nn 
sweotollice ongietan meahton 'Saette se medmicla fierst 
Ssere stilnesse, 6e Sser becom, to^^ benum^^ (53es Godes^* 
weres^^ for intingan urre hsele^^ heofonlice^^ forgiefen^^ wses. 

1 See above, p. 142, n. 7. 

2 Lat. compleret. 

3 Lat. tumida. 

* Lat. adeo ut, nearly = so that. 
^ Lat. per omnia, = entirely. 

6 Lat. secundi. What letter 
(sound) has been lost from the 
OE. form ? 

■^ Lat. quoque. 

* Supply ^ft. Latin has only 
one verb, rediit. 

^ Lat. nostri gratia. 

10 See 170. 

11 Lat. illo. Translate, that. 

12 From ff set-are (34). 

13 Lat. ad preces. Cf. the Mod. 
Eng. phrase, ' bootless bene.' 

1* Dependent on weres. 

1° Dependent on benum. 

16 Lat. evasionis. 

i'^ Lat. ccelitus = from heaven. 

18 Not forgiven^ but given. 




(Bede, Eccl. Hist., Bk. I., Chaps. XI., XII.) 

Of t5sere tlde^ Romane blunnon^ ricsian on Breotone. 
Hsefdon hie Breotona rice feower hund wintra,^, and, tSses 
f if tan, hundseofontig,'* tSses-Se^ Gains, o5re naman Julins, 
se casere,^ 'Saet ilce igland gesohte. And ceastra, and 
5 torras,^ and strgeta,^ and brycga on Mera rice geworhte 
wseron, 'Sa we to-daeg sceawian magon. Eardodon Bryttas 
binnan ■gsem dice® to stiSdsele, Se we gemyngodon Sset 
Severus,^"^e casere, het Swieres ofer Sset igland" gedician. 

1 Lat. ex quo tempore = Eng. 
from this time forth. 

2 See blinnan. 
8 See 154. c. 

4 So the Latin : post annos 
ferme quadringentos septuaginta. 
Bat the best calculations make 
this to have been about sixty 
years earlier. 

^ Lat. ex quo = Eng. from the 
time that. 

^ Lat. Gaius Julius Ccesar. 

7 Lat. farus, for pharos, from 
Pharos, the name of an island 

near Alexandria in Egypt. The 
lighthouse built on this island 
gave its name to other light- 
houses (cf. Fr. phare). Here 
watch-towers are meant. 

8 Lat. stratce. Are the two 
words connected? See Skeat, 
Prin., pp. 68, 432. 

9 Lat. intra vallum. Mod. Eng. 
ditch is Southern English; dike 
probably Northern. Cf. Eng. 
church with Scotch kirk. 

^0 This wall was between the 
Friths of Forth and Clyde (see 

11 Lat. trans insulam. 



Da^ ongunnon twa f5eOda, Pihtas^ norSan, and Scottas 
westan, hie onwinnan, and hiera sehta niman and h^r- 
gian ; and hie fela geara iermdon and hiendon. Da, on 
Ssere unstilnesse, ons^ndon hie gerendwrecan ^ to Eome 
mid gewritum^ and wependre bene; him fultumes^ beedon, 5 
and him geheton eaSmode hiernesse and singale under- 
tSeodnesse,^ gif hie him gefultumoden t58et hie meahten 

MolDerly's Bede, p. 16), but Bede, 

following Orosius, is no doubt 
thinking of that between the Tyne 
and the Sol way Frith, which was 
built by Hadrian (a.d. 120). Sev- 
erus' wall was built a.d, 207-210. 

1 "[This account] is pieced to- 
gether as an abridgment of Gil- 
das, xi.-XYi. ; but the turgidity 
of his style is chastened, and his 
faulty grammar in several places 
corrected" (Moberly, pp.26, 27). 

2 On the Picts the last edition 
of Chambers^ Encyclopoedia re- 
marks : ' ' Four hypotheses have 
been formed in regard to the 
language and origin of the Picts. 
The first, started by Pinkerton 
and put by Sir Walter Scott into 
the mouth of the 'Antiquary,' is 
that they were Teutons, speak- 
ing a Gothic dialect ; the second, 
maintained by Dr. Skene, is that 
they were Gaelic-speaking Celts ; 
. . . the third, due to Professor 
Rhys, is that the Picts were non- 
Aryans, whose language was over- 
laid by loans from Welsh and 

Irish; and the fourth, held by 
two of the most eminent Celtic 
scholars of the day. Professor 
Windisch and Dr. Whitley 
Stokes, is that they were Celts, 
but more nearly allied to the 
Cymry than to the Gael. . . . 
The conclusion to which we 
come is that the Picts, what- 
ever traces they show of a non- 
Aryan racial element, . . . spoke 
a Celtic language belonging to a 
branch of Celtic allied to the 
Cymric, . . . and that this dia- 
lect of the Gallo-Cymric stock 
was a wave of Celtic speech 
from the continent previous to 
the Gaulish which held England 
when Caesar entered Britain." 

3 Lat. legatos. 

* Lat. epistolis. 

5 See 156. 6. 

6 This pair of phrases renders 
subjectionem continuam. What 
parallel to the use of such synony- 
mous terms may be found in the 
English Prayer-Book ? How is it 
to be accounted for ? 



hiera fiend ^ oferwinnan. Da^ ons^ndou^ hie him micelne 
h^re to fultume, and, soha 'Sses-Se hie on Sis igland comon, 
tSa campedon hie* wiS hiera feondum, and him micel wael 
ongeslogon, and of hiera ^ gemserum adrifon and afliemdon®; 

5 and Iserdon Saet hie f sesten '^ worhten him ^ to gebeorge witS 
hiera feondum ; and swa, mid micle sige,^ ham foron.^*^ 

Da" Sset Sa ongeaton Sa gerran gewinnan,^^ Saet se Roma- 
nisca h^re wses onweg gewiten, •5a comon hie sona mid 
sciph^re on hiera landgemeeru, and slogon^^ ealle and cweald- 

lo on^^ 'Sset hie gemetton, and swa-swa ripe ierSe^'* fortrsedon and 
fornomon, and hie mid ealle ^^ foriermdon. And hie Sa ^ft 
s^ndon gerendwrecan to Rome, and wependre stefne him 
fultumes beedon/^ Sset^'' se^^ earma eSel mid ealle ^^ ne 
fordilgod ne wsere, ne se nama Ssere Eomaniscan Seode/^ 

15 se-6e mid him swa lange scean^^ beorhte/^ fram fr^mdra 

1 See 46. 

2 This may be anywhere be- 
tween A.D. 388 and 420. See 
Mobefly, p. 27. 

3 This clause translates Quibus 
mox legio destinatur armata. Note 
the use of the active for the pas- 
sive, which also appears in other 
sentences of the context. 

* The legionaries, apparently. 

5 Of the Britons ; Lat. socio- 
rum finibus. 

^ Lat. expulit. See above, p. 
145, n. 6. 

■^ Lat. murum. 

8 See 184. a. 

^ Lat. triumpho. See 175. 

10 A passage of the Latin is 

here omitted in the translation, 
describing the construction of 
the (earthen) wall, between the 
Friths of Forth and of Clyde. 

11 These three ffa's respectively 
= when, then, and tJie. 

12 Lat. inimici. 

13 Lat. ccedunt. See above, p. 
145, n. 6. 

1* Lat. segetem. 

1^ Mid ealle = completely. See 

16 Lat. implorantes. 
" MS. ffaet. 

18 Lat. provincice. ' 

19 Lat. claruerat. Is the Old 
English to be translated as perfect 
or as pluperfect ? See scinan (18) 



t5eoda^ ungeSwsernesse ^ fornumen and fordilgod beon 
sceolde. Da wses ^ft h^re^ hider s^nd,^ se waes cumende 
on ungewenedre* tide, on hserfeste. And hie sona wiS 
hiera feondum gefuhton, and sige haefdon, and ealle ^a, 
t5e 6one^ deaS^ beswician^ meahton, ofer Sone sse norS 5 
afliemdon, tSa-tSe ser, gelce geare/ ofer t5one see hloSedon 
and h^rgedon. Da gessegdon Romane on an* Bryttum 
5aet hie no ma ne meahten for hiera gescieldnesse^ swa 
^ewinnfullicum ^° fierdum " sw^ncte ^ beon.^^ Ac hie 
raanedon^^ and^^ Iserdon^^ Saet hie him wsepnu worhten," lo 
and modes str^ngtie nomen/^ ^set hie campoden and wi^- 
stoden hiera feondum. ^^ And hie him 'Sa eac to rsede 
and" to frofre fundon ^set hie gemeenelice fsesten ge- 
worhten him to gescieldnesse — steenenne weall rihtre ^^ 
stige^'' fram eastsse 56 westsge, ^ser Severus,^* se casere, 15 
Tu het dician and eor^ weall gewyrcean; Sone man^® nti 
to-dseg sceawian mseg, eahta fota^ bradne, and tw^lf 
fota^ heahne.^^ Swilce eac on Sses sees wearoSe to su6- 

1 See 153. c. 

2 Lat. improbitate. 

3 Lat. legio. 

* Past part. ; see 113. 
^ Lat. inopinata. 

6 Lat. evadere, not mortem 

7 See 176. 

8 On an = at once ; it is the 
Mod. Eng. anon^ which see in 
the New Eng. Diet. 

^ Lat. defensionem. 

10 Lat. laboriosis. 

11 Lat. expeditionibus. 

12 Lat. fatigari. 

13 Lat. monent. See above, p. 
145, n. 6. 

1* See 194. b. i^ gee niman. 

1^ The translation here is very- 
free, as is much of this selection. 

i'^ Lat. recto tramite ; see 160. 
1 ; 176. 2. 

18 This is wrong; it is Hadrian's 
wall that is meant. See p. 144, 
n. 10, and an article in the Quar- 
terly Beview for January, 1860. 

19 See 89. e. 20 See 154. c. 
21 A comparison of this sen- 



dsele, "(Sanan tSe hie^ sciph^re^ on' becom, torras timbredon 
to gebeorge^ Saes sees. Da, soua Sses-tSe tSis fsesten geworht ' 
wees,. t5a sealdon hie him bysena* maniga hii hie him wsepnu 
wyrcean sceolden, and hiera f eondum witSstandan ^ ; and 

5 hie tSa gretton, and him cySdon Saet hie. n^fre ma hie 
secean woldon ; and hie sigefseste ofer sse ferdon. Da^ 
Sset Sa'Pihtas and Scottas geaxedon, •Sset hie ham gewitene 
w£eron, and eac 'Sset hie hider no^ ^ft ma hie secean ne^ 
woldon, t5a w£eron hie t5y^ bealdran gewordene, and sona 

lo ealne norSdsel Sises iglandes ot5 Sone weall gen5mon^° 
and^° ges^tton.^" 'WitS Sisum stod on tSsem fsestene ufan- 
weardum" se earga^, feSa^^ Brytta, and 'Sger forhtiendre" 
heortan^^ wunode daeges^^ and nihtes.^^ Da sohton hiera 
gewinnan him searwu, and wqrhton him hocas, and mid 

15 Ssem tugon hie earmlice^^ adtin of Seem wealle ; and hie 
wseron sod a deade swa hie eorSan gesohton.^^ Hie 6a 
forleton t5one weall and hiera byrig/^ and flngon ^^ onweg ; 

tence with the original will show - cqgnita Scotti Pictique reditus 
the translator's power and free- denegatione. 


1 Ace. plur.; the Britons. 

2 Nom. sing. ; of the enemy. 
The Latin is different. 

3 Lat. prospectum. 
* Lat. monita. 

5 Free translation. ' - 

6 From this point, to the end of 
the sentence = Lat. et vdledicunt 
sociis tanquam ultra non rever- 
suri. Quibus ad sua remeantihus. 
Probably a.d. 418. 

■^ From here to woldon = Lat. 

.8 See 183. i'^ Lat. capessuni, 
9 See 178. " See 166. 1. 
- 12 Lat. segnis. 

13 Lat. acies. 

14 Lat. trementi corde. See 
160. 1. 

i» See 74. Nihtes is formed 
on the model of daeges, though 
from a feminine niht. 

16 Lat. miserrime. 

1' The whole sentence is" very 
free. 1^ Ace. plur. (52). 

19 See fleon. 


and Tiiera gewinnan hie ehton and slogon/ and on wsel 
fieldon. Wees Sis gefeoht wselgrimre and* str^ngre eallum^ 
tSsem sergedonum.^ For-Son swarswa sceap* fram wulfum^ 
and^ wildeorum^ bee's fornumene, swa Sa earman ceast- 
erwaran toslitene^ and® fornumene® wseron.® fram hiera 
feondum, and hiera sehtum' bensemde, and to ^hungre 

1 See slean. 2 g^e 178. 5 Lat. feris. 

3 Lat. pnoribus, ■ ■ 6 x,at. discerpuntur. 

* See 47. What is the modern plural ? ''See 177. 



(Bede, Eccl. Hist., Bk. IV., Chap. III.) 

Com^ he** mid M^el^rj^e* of East^nglum ; and lie wses 
hiere t5egna,^ and htises,^ and Mere geferscipes,* ofer eall 
ealdormann. Da Godes geleafa Sa weox, and hat wses, 6a 

1 Chad, Bishop of Lichfield, 
died March 2, 672. See the 
Diet. Nat. Biog. 

2 In 660. 

3 Owini. An interesting memo- 
rial of him was discovered, at the 
end of the last century, in the vil- 
lage of Haddenham, near Ely. It 
is a stone which appears to have 
formed the base of a cross, and 
on one of its sides is the following 
inscription : — 



DA . DEVS . ET . 



This is, according to Palgrave, 
perhaps one of the most vener- 
able monuments of Saxon antiq- 


uity. It long served as a horse- 
block, but is now in the south 
aisle of Ely Cathedral. Dean 
Merivale of Ely has suggested 
that the words are meant for a 
pentameter line (the m in lucem 
being elided even before a con- 
sonant) . For further, particulars, 
see Mayor and Lumby's ed. of 
Bede, p. 429, and Bright' s Early 
English Church History, p. 230. 

* St. Etheldred, or Audrey (died 
679), whose choice of the island 
of Ely as the site of a monastery 
led to the erection of the present 
cathedral. She was the daughter 
of Anna, king (not queen) of the 
East Anglians. What is tne ety- 
mology of our modern word taw- 
dry ? 

5 Dependent on ealdormann. 


Sohte he 5aet he sceolde worulde * wiSsacan, and ^set 
unaswundenlice swa gedyde ; and hine middangeardes 
bingum to t5on ongierede^ and^ genacodode^ Saet he eall 
forlet ^a-(Se he hsefde, nefne his anfealdne gegierelan, atid 
com to Lgestinga le-, to Seem mynstre^ Sees arwierSan § 
bisceopes.* Baer him * aexe and adesan on handa ; tac- 
node in^ t5on (Saet he nalaes to idelnesse, swa sume oSre, 
ac to gewinne, in t$8et' mynster eode ; and Sset selfe eac 
swilce mid dsedum gecy^de. And, for-t5on-^e he lyt 
genyhtsumode in smeaunge and in leornunge haligra lo 
gewrita, he 6y^ ma mid his handum wann, and^ worhte 
Sa "Sing Se nied^earflicu waeron. Dses^^ is to tacne, ^set 
he mid Sone bisceop in ^sem f oresprecenum wicum " for 
his arwiert5nesse and for his geornfulnesse^ betweoh t5a 
broSor wses haefd. Donne ^^ hie inne ^* hiera leornunge ij 

1 See 26. The word is origi- * From what Latin (Greek) 
nally a compound, from -wer, word? 

maw, and a hypothetical aid, , ^ See 184. a. 

age (cf. the adj. eald, old). ^ Translate, by. 

From age of man to generation "^ Why the accusative? 

= the people living at one time, ^ What is the form of this word 

mankind ; and from this to in- in Mod. Bng. ? Wherein does it 

habited earth, the transitions are differ from the other Mod. Eng. 

not violent. The similar changes word of the same form ? 

in the meaning of the Lat. scecu- ^ This clause added by the 

lum and Gr. Koa-fjios, especially in translator. 

Biblical usage, will be found sug- 1° Dependent- on tacne. 

gestive. n Lat. mansione. 

2 Lat. exuit ; two words for 12 The double phrase translates 
one. See 162. pro suce reverentia devotionis. 

3 From what Latin word ? i^ _ j^en. 

Has it the same meaning in 1* Adverb;, contrasted with ute, 

' York Minster ' ? next line. 


and hiera becreedinge ' beeodon, Sonne waes he ute wyrc- 
ende, swa-hwaet-swa Searf gesegen^ wees.' 

Da he 6a sume^ dsege^ hwsethwugu swilces* ute dyde, 
and his geferan to byrig to ciricean eodon, swa hie gelom- 

5 lice dydon, and se^bisceop, ana in Ssere ciricean,* o66e in 

becrsedinge o56e in gebedum geornfull waes, Sa gehlerde 

■ he s^mninga, swa-swa,he ^ft sefter Son ssegde, 5a swet- 

estan stef ne ® and Sa fsegerestan, singendra and blis- 

siendra,' of heofonum oS eorSan astigan. Da stefne* and 

TO 6one sang^ he cwaeS Saet he serest gehlerde fram east- 
suSdaele heofones, Saet is fram heanesse Ssere winterlican 
sunnan tipganges; and Sanan to him styccemselum^ nea- 
Isecton, oS-Sset he^* becom to tSsecean^^ Ssire ciricean Se^^ se 
bisceop in waes ; and, ingangende, eall ^^ gefylde, and in 

15 ymbhwyrfte ymbsealde. And he Sa geornlice his mod^^ 
aS^nede ^ in tsL Sing 6e he gehlerde. Da gehlerde he 
^ft swarswa^* healfre tide fsece,^^ of hrofe Seere ilcan 
ciricean •flpastigan Sone ilcan blissesang,^^ , and, Sy ilcan 
wege" Se he ser com, up oS heofonas mid unas^cgendre ^' 

20 swetnesse ^fthweorfan.^® 

i MS. becraedon. ^ Ace. after gehierde. 

2 Lat. videbantur. * See 72. 9» Se sang. 

3 See 176. * See 154. b. ^^ Lat. tectum, for which 1. 17 
* Lat. oratorio loci. The monks has hrof. 

had gone to the church. Cf . below, 11 Governed by in. 

p. 153, 1. 7. 12 Ace. sing. 

^ See 169. For this word see ^^ Lat. animum intenderet. . 

Chaucer, KnighVs Tale 1704. " Lat. quasi. i^ See 176. 

' Lat. vocem suavissimam can- ^^ Lat. loetiticB canticum. See 
tantium atque loetantium. What 169. ^' See 176. 2 

adjective is concealed in bliss- ^^ Lat. ineffabili. 

(see 34) ? ^^ Lat. reverti. 



Da wunode he 5^r sum^ fcBc' tide/ wundriende and 
wafiende; and mid behygdigum mode Sohte and smeade 
■ hwset t5a ^ing beon sceolden. Da ontynde se bisceop ^aet 
eagSyreP t5sere ciricean, and mid his handa slog tacen, 
swa-swa his gewuna waes gif hwilc mann ute wsere, Sset 5 
he in to him eode. Da eode he sona in to him. CwseS 
he, ^e bisceop, him to^: ''Gang hraSe to ciricean,^ and 
hat^ tire seofon brot5or hider to me cuman ; and Sti eac 
swilce mid wes.^" Da hie (5a to him comon, Sa manode 
he hie serest fSset hie betweonan him c^set msegen^ lufe^ 10 
and sibbe,^ and betweon^ eallum Godes mannum geornlice 
heolden ; and eac swilce ^a gesetennesse ^ses regollican 
Seodscipes,^^ Se hie fram him geleornodon, and on him 
gesawon, o6(5e in Saera forSgeleoredra faedra deediim oS6e 
godcundum gemete, Saet hie 6a ungewergedre ^^ geornful- 15 
nesse" fylgden and Isesten.^ ^fter 'Son he underSiedde,^^ 
and him saegde Saet se dseg swISe neah stode his forS- 
fore," and Sus cwseS : " Se leofa^* cuma and se lufiend- 
lica,^^ se-Se ge wunode tire broSor neosian, se com swilce 

1 Lat. aliquantulum horce (ItO). 

2 In what Mod. Eng. word is a 
disguised form of -ffyrel to be 
found ? What is the etymology 
of window ? 

3 See 201. 1. 

4 What is the etymology of 
church f From what language 
is it originally derived ? 

5 See hatan. 

6 Imper, sing. When followed 
by the adj. heel, what Mod. Eng. 
word does it give rise to ? 

7 Lat. virtutem. 
■ 8 See 153. i. 

9 Lat. ad — toward, rather than 

^^ Lat. instituta disciplince regu- 

11 See 174 ; 160. 1. 

12 How is this related to the 
Mod. Eng. verb last^ and to the 
German leisten ? 

13 Lat. subj2inxit. 

1* Dependent on dseg^. 
15 Lat, a,mahilis. 


to-dseg to ' me, and me of worulde ciegde and laSode. 
For-tSon ge Sonne nu ^fthweorfaS^ to ciricean, and biddaC^ 
tire br6t5or Saet hie mine forSfore mid hiera gebedum and 
benum Dryhtne bebeoden^; and swilce eac hiera selfra 

5 fort5fore, Saere tid is unctiS/ tSset hie gemynen* mid wsec- 
cenum and gebedum and mid godum^ forecuman.® 

Mid-t5y he t5a t5as word, and Sises gemetes manigu, to 
him sprecende waes, and hie, onfangenre^ his bletsunge,^ 
switSe unrote fram him eodon, (5a hwearf se^ ana^ ^ft® in 

10 to him se-(5e (5one heofonlican sang gehlerde, and hine 
eaSmodlice on eorSan astreahte fore (5one bisceop, and 
t5us cw8e(5 : " Min feeder, mot ^° ic Se ohtes " axian " ?, 
Cwse^ he: "Axa tSaes " 5u wille." Da cwsecS he: " Ic 
5e la halsie and bidde for Qodes lufe Sset ISu me 

15 ges^cge^^ hwaet se sang weere blissiendr^, (5e^^ ic ge]iierde, 
of heofonum cumendra^* ofer Sas ciricean,^^ and, sefter 
tlde,^^ ^fthweorfendra to heofonum." Andswarode he, 
se bisceop : " Gif Su . sanges stefne gehlerde, and iSu 
heofonlic weorod ongeate ofer us eac cuman, ic (5e 

20 bebeode on Dryhtnes naman Sset Sti Saet neenigum m^nn 

1 Here are two independent ^ l^^ ipg^ solus^ meaning 
verbs, where the Latin has rever- Owini. 

tentes . . . dicite. ^ Belongs with hwearf ; 

2 Lat. commendent. h^wearf ... ^ft = Lat. rediit. 

3 What change of meaning in ^o See 137. 
the modern word uncouth 9 How 11 See 156. 
related to the ancient meaning ? 12 gee 194. 6. 

* See 134. i3 Refers to sang. 

^ According to the Latin, 1* Belongs to T?lissiendra. 

weorcum should be supplied. ^^ Lat. oratorium. See above, 

® Dependent on gemyuen. p. 152, n. 5. 
' See 167. *^ Lat. tempus. 


cy^e^ ne' s^cge^ 2er minre forSfore. Ic (5e soSlice s^cge 
Saette Saet wseron^ ^ngla gastas Se tSaer comon, (5a me to 
Saem heofonlicum medum ciegdon and laSedon 55, ic simle 
lufode and wilnode. And, sefter seofon dagum, hie ^ft- 
hweorfende^ and cumende^ me geheton, and me Sonne 5 
mid him laedan woldon." 

Dset wses swa soSlice mid dsede gefylled swa him to* 
cweden wses. Da wses he sona gehrinen llchamlicre^ 
untrymnesse,^ and seo^ dseghweemlice weox and h^figode ; 
and (5a, Sy seofoSan daege/ swa him gehaten wees, aefter- 10 
5on-f5e his forSfore getrymede^ mid onfangennesse t58es 
Dryhtenlican lichaman and blodes, [Saette^] seo halge 
sa^l waes onliesed fram (5aes lichaman h^fignessum,^^ and 
mid ^ngla latteowdome ^^ and geferscipe, swa riht^^ is to 
gellefanne, Sa ecean gefean and (5a heofonlican eadig- 15 
nesse^^ gestah and gesohte. Is (588t hwilc" wundor 5eah- 
8e he t5one dseg his dea(5es, oS(5e ma/^ 5one, Dryhtnes 
dseg, bllSe gesawe, (5one he simle sorgiende bad ot5-'S3et 
he come ? 

1 Lat. dicas. ® Dem. pron. Translate by 

2 See 189. 3. that. 

3 These translate the Lat. ' See 176. 

future part, redituros. Supply ^ Supply he as the subject. 

would be in translation, or would ^ The MS. has ffaette, but the 
with the finite verb. The future sense does not require it. 

participle of the following clause, 1° Lat. ergastulo. 

adducticros, is translated by a ^^ See 33 (lad-). 

finite verb. ^2 Lat. fas. 

* Governs him, or "may be re- ^^ Ace. plur. 

garded as belonging to the follow- 1* Translate, any. 

ing verb (201. 1). ^^ Lat. potius. 

sSee 174; 160. 1. 



(From Wulfstan'S Homilies, No. 49.) 

[Wulfstan — also known by his Latinized name, Lupus — was Bishop of 
Worcester and Archbishop of York from 1002 to 1023. This homily is one 
of those attributed to him, but, according to Napier, with insufficient 
reason, as a portion of it is found in the Blickling Homilies, the manu- 
script of which bears the date of 971.] 

^ghwilc heah ar, her on worulde, bitS mid frecnessum^ 
ymbseald^; efne swa^ Sa woruldgeSyngSa beo(5 maran, swa 
t5a frecnessa beoS swlt5ran. Swa we magon, be tSsem, t5a 
bysena oncnawan and ongietan.* Daet treow, t5onne, 6e 
5 wiext^ on Saem wudubearwe, tSset® bit hllfa8 up ofer eall 
tSa oSru treowu and brset^* bit/ Sonne s^mninga storm® 
gest^nt, and se stranga wind,® Sonne ^** biS hit swiSlicor 
gewseged and gesw^nged Sonne se oSer wudu.^^ Swa biS 
eac gelice be Seem heaclifum and torrum/^ Sonne hie 

1 See 144. ^ gee 114. i" Frequently the second cor- 

8 Swa . . . maran, swa . . . relative, in such pairs as ffonne 

swiffran = the greater, the fiercer. . . . iafonne, Sfa . . . iffa, need not 

Note the tendency to antithesis. be translated ; it is frequently 

* Observe the redundancy. followed by an inverted order, 
6 See weaxan. ^ = so that. as here, the verb preceding its 
sa See braedan (34). subject. See 202. 

■^ See 184. h. ^^ Se offer wudu = the rest of 

8 Note the alliteration. the forest, not the other wood. 

* Second subject of gest^nt. ^2 probably here = crag, 




hlifia^ feorr tip ofer t5a oSre^ eor^an, hie Sonne s^mninga 
feallan onginnaS,^ and full Searlice hreosan^ to eortSan. 
Swilce^ eac be Ssem heagum* muntum and dtinum,® Sar 
t5e heah standaS ofer ealne middangeard, Sa-hwseSre wite 
habbaS Sses ealdordomes, (5aet hie beof5 geneahhe mid 5 
heofonfyre^ geSreadq and geSrseste, and mid liegum ge- 

1 See p. 156, n. 12. 

2 This resembles the, use of gin 
in Chaucer, almost as an auxiliary 
tense-sign, like do in Mod. Eng., 
the. latter not being thus used in 
OE. In Chaucer it usually occurs 
as the preterit gan, e.g. in the 
Clerk'' s Tale., 392 : "til the sonne 
gan descende. ' ' See Lounsbury 's 
History of the English Language. 
An interesting parallel is to be 
found in New Testament Greek, 
as, for example, Acts 1. 1 : " The 
former treatise I made, The- 
ophilus, concerning all that Jesus 
began {rip^aro) both to do and to 
teach." According to Thayer, 
however {Greek-English Lexicon 
of the New Testament)., there is 
in its employment always a sense 
of beginning, in its proper mean- 

3 Dependent, like feallan, on 
onginnaff. Give the ind. pret. 
plur. ~ 

* It would be interesting to 
know from what literary source 
these illustrations are ultimately 
derived. They remind one of 

Shakespeare (Bich. IIL, 1. 3. 
259-260): — 

They that stand, high have many 
blasts to shake them ; 

And if they fall, they dash them- 
selves to pieces. 

Cf. also 3 Hen. F/., 5. 2. 11-15. 
No doubt many Elizabethan par- 
allels could be found ; I have 
noted in Chapman, Byron^s Con- 
spiracy, Act 3, Scene 1 (p. 232 
of Shepherd's ed.), and Byron^s 
Tragedy, Act 5, Scene 1 (lb., 
p. 272). Perhaps the Eliza- 
bethans may have derived them 
from Seneca; cf. the Chorus in 
Act 4 of the Hippolytus, vv. 
1123-1143 ; Hercules Furens 
201 ; (Edipus 8-11. Seneca 
may have catght a suggestion 
from Sophocles, though the par- 
allel is somewhat remote ; see 
the latter's Antigone, vv. 712- 
717, and Horace, C. 11. 10. 

5 See 58. 1. 

6 Redundant. What is dan in 
Mod. Eng. (24) ? Whence is the 
adverb doicn derived ? 

■^ Note the poetical term. 



■ slaegene. Swa t5a hean mihta ^ her on worulde hr6osaR, 
and feallat5,^ and to lore weorSa'S, and tSisse* worulde^ 
welan weorSaS to sorge, and tJas eorSlican wundor 
weorSa'S to nahte,.* 

5 Deah we ^isse worulde wl^nca^ tilien^ swlt5e, and in 

wuldre'^ sclnen^ swItSe; tJeali we lis gescierpen® mid Sy 

readestan godw^bbe,^ and gefraetwien^ mid^ tSy beorht- 

'^estan golde,^ and mid^ 'Saem deorwierSestum gimmum' 

titan ymbhon®; liwsetSre^ we sculon on nearonesse ^nde*' 

lo gebidan. Deah-^e t5a mihtigestan and t$a ricestan haten^ 
him^^ r^ste gewyrcean of marmanstane/^ and mid gold- 
frsetwum and mid gimcynnum eall astsened, and mid 
seolfrenum rtiwum and godw^bbe eall oferwrigen, and 
mid deorwiertSum wyrtgem^ngnessum eall gestrgd/^ and 

15 mid goldleafum gestreowod ymbtitan, hwsetSre* se bitera 
deatS Saet todselS eall. Donne bit5 seo gl^ng agoten,^ and 
se tSrym tobrocen, and tSa gimmas toglidene, and t^aed 
gold tosceacen, and t5a licbaman tohrorene ^* and to dtiste ^' 

1 This suggests Seneca {(Edi- 
J9WS, Act 1, V. 11): — 

Imperia sic excelsa Fortunae obja- 


2 Pleonastic. 

3 Genitive, dependent on 

* Cf . Mod. Eng. come to naught. 
^ Note the alliteration. 

* In what mood and tense are 
these verbs, and why ? 

■^ Mid governs both the dative 
and the instrumental (175). 

8 This word migh|, be omitted 
in translation ; see p. 156, n. 10. 

9 Object of gebidan. 

10 See 184. a. 

11 Which part of this word is 
native, and which foreign ? 

12 An instance of a strong verb 
(104; cf. 28) which has already 
become weak in OE. 

13 Note the parallelism and the 

1* From what verb (37)? 
16 See 24. 


(From the same Homily as the last.) 

Se Hselend cwseS to tSsem wlancan^: "For hwy wsere 
6u swa faesthafol minra goda, t5e ic ^e sealde ? To 
hwon^ receleasodest M tSsere giefe, ^e ic Se geaf? Ic 'Se 
aii afierre ^ f ram minre s^lene, 'Se ic 'Se f orgeaf ; Sonne 
>bist^ Su w^dla on woruldlife. For hwon^ noldest* tSu 5 
geS^ncean Sset ic wille^ forgieldan seghwilcum m^nn ane 
gode dsed, Se for minum naman mann gedeS ? Mid 
hundteontigum ic hit him forgielde,^ swa hit is on 
miniim godspelle gecweden and gessed,^ ^Swa-hwaet-swa^ 
ge s^llaS annm of minum Saem Isestnm/ ge hit simle me 10 
s^UaS,^ and ic eow wiS^*^ Ssem ges^lle^ ecne dream ^^ on 

1 From what OE. word is the ^ Pleonastic. 

Mod. Eng. rich derived (see Skeat, ^ What portion of this is lost, 

Prin., p. 61)? Erom what OE. and how is it replaced, in the 

meaning is the modern significa- Mod. Eng, whatsoever f 
tion derived ? 8 See 66. 

2 Note Wulf Stan's use of to ^ Cf. the form of this sentence 
hwon, for hwon, in the sense with that on p. 135, 1. 14. 

of why. See 88. 10 = in return for. How is this 

3 See 188. * See 139. to be reconciled with other senses 

5 Why should not the preterit of wiac ? 

be used here ? n Not dream, but joy, bliss. 



Du mann, to hwon eart ^u me swa unge^ancfull minra* 
giefena ? Hwset ! ic t5e gesceop and geliffseste, and £eg- 
hwaet^ tJses t5e t5u haefst^ ic t5e sealde. Mm is eall tSset 
M haefst, and t5in nis nan wiht.* Ic Mt eall afierre 

3' fram 'Se; M leofa^ btitan me, gif M maege.^ De ic hit 
sealde, to^ Son'' ^sef 6u hit sceoldest^ Searfum dselan. Ic 
sw^rie Surh me* selfne Sset ic eom se ilea- God Se Sone 
weligan and Sone heanan geworhte mid minum handum. 
Daet^ ic wolde, Sset 6u mine Searfan feddest,^ Sonne hie 

lo wseron Se biddende minra^*^ goda,^^ and Sti him simle 
tiSe" forwierndest. For hwon noldest Sti hit^ geS^ncean, 
gif Su him mildheortnesse on' gecySdest/^ Sset Su ne 
sceoldest^ Sses^ nan Sing forleosan, Se^* Su him dydest, 
ne me on Saere s^lene abelgan mines ^^ agnes ^^ ? To 

15 hwon agnodest Sti Se anum Sset ic inc^^ bsem^'' sealde? 
To hwon feddest Sti Se senne of Ssem Se ic inc^® bsem^^ 
gesceop to^* welan, and to^^ wiste, and to^* feorhn^re? 
To hwon heolde^^ Su hit Se anum and Sinum bearnura, 
Sset meahte manigum genyhtsumian^? UnieSe Se waes 

1 See 155. 

2 See 89. c. 3 See 121. 

* In what two Mod. Eng. words 
does wiht appear ? From what 
OE. forms are aught and naught 
derived ? 

5 See 122 and 198. 

6 = canst, not mayst (135). 

7 = in order that. 

8 What has this accusative be- 
come in Mod. Eng. ? 

^ Anticipative of the following 

10 See 156. 6. 

1' Not to be confounded with 
tide. See 156. j. 

12 Optative more regular. . 

13 See 164. a. 

1* Refers to its antecedent 

15 Dependent on s^lene. 

16 Note this rare dual (81). 

17 See 79. 

18 = for, as. 

19 From what infinitive ? 

20 The sense is pluperfect. 


Sset 6u hit eall ne meahtest gefsestnian, n6 mid inseglum 
beclysan. Wenst 6u Sset hit ^ 6m . sle tJset seo eortJe te 
forSbringS ? Heo^ 5e grewS,^ and blewt5,^ and s^d Iddi* 
and andlifan bringS. Ic nti alierre minne fultum fram 
Se; hafa* t5u aet^ ^Inum gewinne t5aet 'Su maege, and set® 5 
6mum ges wince. . Ic t^e^ setbrede* mine renas,^ Sset hie 
t5mre eorSan^ ne rlnen.^^ Ic afierre fram t5e mine mild- 
h6ortnesse, and Sonne bi6 sona gecySed t5in iermSu, and 

Gif •Sti wene" 'Sset hit 6m bocland^ sle Sset 6u on 10 
eardast, and on agne seht^^ geseald, hit Sonne wseron^" 
mine wseteru, Sa-Se on heofonum wseron, Sonne ic mine . 
giefe eorSwarum d«lde. Gif Su miht haebbe/^ dsel renas 
ofer Sine eorSan. Gif Su Strang sle, s^le wsestmas Sinre 
eorSan. Ic' ahierde mine sunnan, and heo gebierht ; Sonne 15 
forbsernS^^ heo ealle Sine aeceras, and Sonne bist^^ Su dsel- 
leas^^ mines renes," and Se Sonne biS" Sin eorSe Idel and 
unnyt goda^^ gehwilces.^^ Mine Searfan libbaS be me; gif 
Sti msege," wuna btitan me. Mine Searfan me ealne* weg* 
habbaS, and ic hie neefre ne forlsete." 


1 Anticipative of iSfaet. erty. The term is explained by 

2 Refers to what ? the following clause. 

3 See 109. i3 See 172. 1. ■ 
* See Isldan. i* See 189. 3. 

^ See 121 and 198. ^^ Are these presents or futures? 

6 =: from; cf. at one's hands. ^^ See 146. 

7 See 164. » See 28. i^ See 155. a. 

^ See 161. -^0 MS. rinaS". ^^ Dependent on gehwilces. 

11 See 196. d. See 154. b. 

12 Land held by boc or char- i^ Dependent on idel and 
ter, /reeAoZcZ esfa^e ; distinguished unnyt. See 155. a. 

from folcland, communal prop- 20 See 170. Mod. Eng. alway. 


(Prefixed to his translation.) 

-Alfred cyning wses wealhstod^ •gisse bee, and hie of 
Boclsedene^ on Englisc w^nde, swa heo nu is gedon. 
Hwilum he s^tte word be worde, hwilum andgiet of 
andgiete, swa-swa he hit 'Sa sweotolost and andgiet- 

5 fullicost ger^ccean meahte for tSsem mislicum and manig- 
fealdum woruldbisgum Se hine oft segSer ge on mode 
ge on lichaman bisgedon. Da bisga ^ tis sind switSe 
earfotSrIme Se on his dagum on tSa ricu becomon tSe hS 
underfangen hjxifde, and 'Seah, '5a he ^as boc hsefde 

10 geleornod, and of Lsedene to Engliscum spelle gew^nd,- 
t5a geworhte he hie §ft to leo^e, swa-swa heo nil gedon 
is. And nu bitt* and for Godes naman balsa's eelcne 
tJsera tSe tSas boc rsedan lyste,* Sset he for hine gebidde, 
and him ne wite gif he^ hie rihtlicor ongiete t5onne he' 

15 meahte ; for-tSam-^e aelc mann sceal be his andgiet es 
mae^e, and be his semettan, sprecan t5set he spric5, and 
don ^set-'Sset he de^. 

1 Wealh- signifies foreign (see 2 Perhaps originally in contrast 

walnut), and sometimes servant, to the Latin spoken in Britain. 

orig. Celtic, Celt (cf. Wales, Welsh, ^ See 51. a. 

Cornwall)^ from Volcm^ the name * Supply he. ^ See 190. 

of a Celtic tribe (Csesar, Gallic ^ The reader. 

War, Bk. VII.). ^ Alfred. 


' XI. 

(From the end of his translation of Boethius.) 

Dryhten/ aelmihtiga God/ Wyrhta and Wealdend ealra 
gesceafta, ic bidde 'be for t5inre miclan mildheortnesse, 
and for "Ssere halgan rode tacne,^ and for Sanctse Marian 
msegShade, and for Sancti Michaeles gehiersumnesse, and - 
for ealra 'Sinra halgena^ lufan and hiera earnungum, ^set 5 
M me gewissie^ b^t t5onne ic aworhte to ^e; and gewiss^ 
me to Sinum willan, and to mlnre sawle Searfe/ b^t Sonne 
ic self cnnne®; and gestaSela mm mod to Sinum willan and 
to minre sawle t5earfe; and gestranga me wit5 'Sses deofles^ 
costnungum; and afierr fram me 'Sa ftilan galnesse and selce 10 
unrihtwisnesse ; and gescield me wit5 minum wit5erwinnum, 
gesewenlicum and ungesewenlicum ; and t£ec me Sinne wil- 
lan^ to wyrceanne; Sset ic msege^ Se inweardlice lufian to- 
foran eallum Singum, mid clsenum getSance and mid claenum 
lichaman. For-'Son-Se Sti eart mm Scieppend,^ and min 15 
Aliesend, min Fultum, mm Frofor, min Treownes, and 
mm Tohopa. Sie Se lof and wuldor nti and a a a, to 
.worulde butan segliwilcum ^nde. Amen. 

1 See 152. * See 194. 6. '^ Object of wyrceanne. 

2 Governed by for. ^ gee 166. » gee 196. d. 

3 See 153. c. e Optative (130). ^ See 150. 



[The Old English version of the Romance of Apdllonius, from which our 
extract is taken, belongs, according to Wiilker, to the second third of the 
eleventh century ; according to Ebert, to its beginning; and according to 
Riese, most probably to the tenth. The original story was almost certainly 
written in Greek, probably in the third century of our era, and by an imi- 
tator of Xenophon of Ephesus. This is lost, and is only represented by a 
Latin version, which may have been made in the same century, and in 
any case not later than the sixth, by a writer of no great education, 
who introduced Christian terms and conceptions, added some things, and 
retrenched others. Over a hundred manuscripts of this Latin version are 
known, of which twelve are in England. Scarcely any two manuscripts 
agree, and the discrepancies are often great; still, for convenience, they 
have been grouped into three main classes. To the third of these, which 
is not the equal of the other two, the immediate original of our version 
must have belonged, resembling most nearly a manuscript of the Bodleian 
Library (Laud H. 39), and, at the next further remove, one of the British 
Museum (Sloan. 1619). 

The popularity of the romance is attested not only by the number and 
variety of the Latin manuscripts, but no less by the mediaeval and subse- 
quent translations into almost every modern language. Thus, for example, 
there is in Old French a romance of Jourdain de Blaie, the scene being 
laid in the time of Charlemagne, and the temple of Diana being converted 
into a nunnery. 

An abridgment of the Latin version found its way into the Gesta Roma- 
norum, as No. 153 of that collection. In the twelfth century the story was 
incorporated into the Pantheon of Godfrey of Viterbo, whence it was turned 
into English verse by Gower, in his Confessio Amantis (Pauli's edition 3. 
284 ff. ; Morley's abridgment, in The Carisbrooke Librartj, pp. 410-431). 
From Gower it was borrowed by Shakespeare, or whoever was the author 
of the drama which passes under his name, as the groundwork of Pericles, 
Prince of Tyre ; the name Pericles being perhaps adapted from the Pyro- 
cles of Sidney's Arcadia. The scenes of Pericles which may be compared 
with our extract are the 1st, 2d, 3d, and 5th of Act IL, and the 3d of Act V. 

The Old English Apollonius was edited by Thorpe, in 1834, from MS. S. 
18. 201 of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge ; and to this edition the student 



is referred for the spelling and punctuation of the original. It is only a 
fragment, breaking off in the midst, and recommencing near the end of 
the tale, as we have indicated below. 

Further information will be found in Rohde, Der griechische Roman, 
Leipzig, 1876; Teuffel, History of Latin Literature, § 489; Singer, Apollo- 
nius von Tyriis, Halle, 1895 ; Zupitza'Sy article on the OE. version in 
Herrig's Archiv 97. 17-35; Warton, History of English Poetry 2. 302-303 ; 
and Riese's edition of the Latin, which is the standard (Leipzig, 1871), and 
costs but a trifle. 

Besides the Tudor versions, there is an English translation in Thorpe's 
edition, and another — of course not adhering closely to our text — in Swan's 
rendering of the Gesta Eomanorum (Bohn Library)]. 

The Shipwreck. 

Apollonius^ hie bged ealle gretan,^ and on scip astah.^ 
Mid-t5y-t$e hie ongunnon -ga rowan,^ and hie for^weard 
wgeron on hiera weg, f5a weart5 Seere see smyltnes aw^nd 
f^ringa betweox twam tidum,^ and wearS miclu hreohnes 
aweaht, swa tSaet seo see cnysede 'Sa heofonlican tnnglu/' 5 
and t$8et gewealc ^eera y^a hwatSerode mid windnm. Deer- 
to-eacan comon eastnorSerne windas, and se angrislica 
suSwesterna wind him ongean stod/ and Sset scip eall 

1 Apollonius, King of Tyre, has Cyrene, on the African coast. It 

fled from the cruelty and treach- is at this point that our selection 

ery of Antiochus, King of Anti- begins. 

och, on a richly freighted vessel, 2 Observe the ellipsis, — bade 
and taken refuge with the citi- greet them all — where the sub- 
zens of Tarsus. Finding the citi- ject of the infinitive is to be 
zens in extremity, on account of a supplied, 
prevalent famine, he relieves their ^ gee 28. * See 199. 6. 
necessities by liberal gifts, where- ^ j^at. intra duas horas diet 
upon they erect a statue of him 6 -phis seems to be a reminis- 
in the market-place. But not- cence of Virgil, j^Eneid I. 103. 
withstanding the gratitude of his "^ Lat. (verse): Hinc Notus,hinc 
beneficiaries, he finds it expedient Boreas^ hinc horridus Africus in- 
to leave them, and embarks for stat. 



tobserst on t5isse ^geslican hreohnesse. Apollonius^ geferan 

ealle forwurdon^ to desc6e, and Apollonius ana^ becom mid 

sunde to Pentapolim •Seem Cyreniscan lande, and Seer tipeode 

on tSsem strande. Da stod he nacod on t^sem strande, and 

5 beheold '6a see, and cwseS : , 

" Eala ! 611 see Neptune ! manna bereaiiend^* and unsc^6- 

6igra beswicend'^^! 6u eart weelhreowra tSonne Antiochus se 

cyning. For minum 6ingnm 6u geheolde 6as wselbreow- 

nessCj 68et lo, Surh 6e gewurde^ weedla^ and 6earfa, and 

10 6set se weelbreowa cyning me 6y ie6^ fordon meahte. 

Hwider meeg ic nu faran? Hwses^ meeg ic^ biddan ? 

066e hwif gief6^ 6eem uncu6an^ lifes fultum?'' 

'' Apollonius and the Fisherman. 

Mid-6y-6e be 6as Sing wses sprecende to him selfum, 

•Sa f eeringa geseah he sumne fiscere ^^ gan, to Seem ' he 

15 beseahj and Sus sarlice cweeS": "Gemiltsa me,^ Sti ealda 

mann, sie^^ Seet Sti sie. Gemiltsa me nacodum forlid- 

enum. Nses^* na of earmlicum^ byrdum^^ geboren; and, 

1 The Latin endings of proper 
nouns are not always a guide to 
the case (54) . Here we have the 

2 See forTveorffan. 

3 See 79. ^^^ See 43. 6. 
* MS. gewurfSe. 

6 See 150. 

6 MS. eaiS^e. See 178. 

7 See 156. &. 

8 Zupitza's emendation for MS. 

9 See 55 and 181. 

10 See 169. 

11 In the original, he falls at 
the fisherman's feet, and bursts 
into tears. What reason may 
have led to the change ? 

i2 See 164. g. 
18 See 193. c. 

14 See 189, note. 

15 Lat. humilibus. 

16 Plural, where we should ex- 
pect the singular. 



•Saes-^e^ 'Su geare forwite liweem ■Su gemiltsie,^ ic eom 
Apollonius, se Tyrisca^ ealdormann.* 

Da, sona swa se fiscere^ geseah 'Saet se geonga mann 
set his fotum l?eg, lie mid mildheortnesse hine upahof, 
and l^dde hine mid him to his hiise, and t5a estas^ him 5 
beforan l^gde t5e he him to beodanne hsefde. Da giet he 
wolde, be his mihte, maran arf sestnesse ^ him gecySan ; 
toslat Sa his wsefels on twa, and sealde Apollonie Sone 
healfan dsel, t5us cweSende : "Nim t^set ic t5e to s^llanne 
hsebbe, and ga into ^sere ceastre. Wen^ is^ t^set (5u i: 
g,ei;Qete^ sumne t^aet^ t5e gemiltsie.^° Gif 'Su ne finde" 
iisenne Se t5e gemiltsian wille, w^nd Sonne hider ongean, 
and genyhtsumien^^ unc^^ beem mine lytlan^^ sehta; far Se ^ 
on fiscnoS^^ mid me. Deah-hwseSre ic myngie Se, gif Sti, ful- 
tumiendum^^ Gode, becymst to STnum gerran weorSmynte, 15 
Sset Sti ne forgiete^^ minne Searfendlican gegierela^'." 

Da cwseS Apollonius: "Gif ic Se^^ ne geS^nce Son e me 
b^t biS,^*^ ic wysce^^ Sset ic ^ft forlidennesse gefare, and, 
Slnne^ gelican^ ^ft ne gemete." 

1 Here = in order that. See 
157. 1. 

2 See 195. 

3 Proper adjectives in -isc, fol- 
lowing the Latin, are often used 
where we employ the genitive. 
Translate, of Tyre. 

* Lat. pri?iceps. ^ See 143. 
6 Lat. epulas. 

' MS. fsestnesse. Lat. pietati. 
8 Lat. forsitan. ^ See 194. a. 
9a Neut. for masc. ! 1° See 195. 
11 See 196. d. 

12 See 193. a. 

13 Note the rare dual (81). 

1* See 55. i^ See 184. a. 

16 See 172. 1. 

1''^ See 167. Gode is supplied ; 
the Latin has deo fave7ite. 
18 See 194. b. i9 Ace. 

20 Present or future ? Could 
Mod. Eng. is be used to trans- 
late it ? 

21 See 30, and 194. b. 

22 Mod. Eng. still has thy like. 
See 181. 


The Incidents in the Gymnasium. 

^Efter t5isuni worduni he eode on 6one weg 6e him 
getseht^ waes, oS-'Sset he becom to Ssere ceastre geate, and 
Sser ineode. Mid-t5y-'5e he t5ohte hwone he biddan meahte 
lifes fultumes,^ 6a geseah he senne nacodne cnapan geond 
5 t$a strsete iernan. Se wees mid^ ^le gesmierwed, and mid 
scietan begyrd, and bser geongra^ manna^ plegan^ on handa, 
to tSsem bseSst^de^ belimpende.^ And cleopode' micelre 
stef ne,^ and cwseS .: " Gehiere,^ ge ceasterwaran ^° ! Gehiere, 
ge ^lt5eodige,^ frige and Seowe, se'Sele and unseSele ! Se 

10 bset^st^de is open.'' 

Da-6a ApoUonins ^aet gehierde, he hine unscrydde Ssem^ 
heaifan sciccelse 'Se he on hsefde, and eode into Seem Sweale.-^^ 
And mid-6y-t5e he beheold hiera anra^* gehwilcne on hiera 
weorce, he sohte his gelican/^ ac he ne meahte hine Seer 

15 findan "^u 'Seem flocce. Da feeringa com Arcestrates, ealre 
Ssere /Code^^ cyning,^'^ mid micelre m^nige his manna/^ and 
ineode on Sset bseS. Da agan se cyning plegian wiS^^ his 
geferum mid SoSore.^ And Apollonius hine^^ gem^ngde,-^ 

1 See 187. and what is its form in that lan- 

^_^,^ 2 MS. fultum. See 159. h. guage ? 
HPt 8 See 174. ^^ Lat. peregrini. See 152. 

* Lat. lusus juvenales. 12 gee 162. ^^ Lat. lavacrum. 

5 Lat. gymnasium. ^* See 154. b. 

6 Modifies plegan. ^^ Lat. pai-em, Eng. peer. 
■^ See 20. ^^ Lat. regionis. 

8 See 160. 1. This word is the i^ See 151. 

Chaucerian Steven. ^^ Lat. famularum. See 154. a. 

9 See 95, note. i^ Why not mid ? 

10 This is a compound word, 20 This curious word is very 

formed of a Latin and an Eng- rare in Old English, 
lish element. Which is Latin, 21 j^^X. miscuit se. See 184. b. 


swa-swa God Wolde, on ^aes cyninges plegan, and, iern- 
"ende, Sone ^o^or gelsehte/ and, mid swiftre hraednesse 
geslaegene,^ ongean ges^nde to Ssem plegiendan cyninge. 
lEft lie agean as^nde ; he hraedlice slog, swa he hine ^ 
nsefre feallan ne let. Se cyning 'Sa oncneow tJses geongan 5 
snelnesse/ 'Sset he wiste^ Sset he nsefde his gelican on 
t58em plegan.® Da cwseS he to his geferum : " Gat5 eow 
heonan ; tSes cniht, t58es-^e me 6ync6,' is mm gelica." 

Da-t5a ApoUonius gehierde t^set se cyning hine h^rede, 
he am hraedlice, and genealsecte to ^sem cyninge, and 10 
mid gelseredre® handa® he swang^'' t5one top mid swa 
micelre swiftnesse 'Sset Ssem cyninge wses geStiht swilce 
he of ielde to geoguSe gew^nd wsere. And, sefter ^sem, 
on his cynesetle he him ^^ gecwemlice ^ 'Senode ^^ ; and, 
•5a-Sa he uteode of 'Ssem bsetSe, he" hine^^ Isedde be Ssere 15 
handa, and him^® Sa siSSan Sanan gew^nde, Sses weges^'^ 
t5e he ser com. 

1 See 114. and 164. 1. What Mod. Eng. word 

2 Lat. suhtili velocitate percus- comes from me aPynciSf ? 
sam. The OE. participle is a ^ j^at. docta. 

^.ittle awkward. 9 See 51. 3. 

3 The ball. 10 Here the^ English departs 
* Lat. velocitatem. from the Latin : ceroma fricavit 

5 See 126. What is the latest eum tanta subtilitate, ut de sene 
English quotation that you can juvenem redderet. Top would 
find for this word ? seem to signify the same as fSofSoT. 

6 This clause is not very clear. 11 See 164. e. 
The Latin has: et quia sciebat se ^^ Lat. gratissime. 
{i.e. Archistrates) in pilce lusu ^^ See 28. 
neminem parem habere, ad suos 1* ApoUonius. 
ait, famuli, recedite ; hie enim i^ Archistrates. 
juvenis, etc. 16 g^e 184. a. 

■^ Lat. ut suspicor. See 157. 1 ^ See 167. 



Da cwaet5 se cyning to Ms manniim/ sit5San Apollbnius 
agan^ waes : "Ic sw^rie t5urli t5a gemsenan hsele^ tSset ic . 
me nsefre b^t ne ba^ode 6oiine ic dyde* to-dseg, nat ic 
■gurh.^ hwilces geonges mannes tJenunge." ® Da beseah he 

5 bine to anum bis manna, and cwseS : " Ga, and gewite 
bwsef se geonga mann sle, Se me to-dseg swa wel gebler- 

Se mann Sa eode sefter Apollonio. Mid-Sy-6e be geseab 
■Sset be^ wses mid borgnm^ sciccelse bewgefed, t5a w^nde 

TO be ongean to t^sem cyninge, and cwseS : " Se geonga mann 
•5e^° Su eefter ascodest is forliden" mann,-^^" Da cwseS se 
cyning: "Durb^ bwset^ wast^^ t5u t5set ? " Se mann bim 
andswarode, and cw3et5: "Deab be bit self forswige,^* bis 
gegierela bine gesweotolat5." Da cw8et5 se cyning : " Ga 

15 brsedlice, and s^ge bim t58et^^ ^se cyning bitt tSe tSaet t5u 
cume^^to bis gereorde.'" 

ApoUonius at the Feast. 

Da Apollonius tSset gebierde, be Ssem gebiersumode, and 
eode forS mid tSsem m^nn, oS-t5set be becom to t5ses cyninges 

1 Lat. amicos. 

2 How is the sense of Mod. Eng. 
ago related, to that of this word ? 

3 This phrase shows Christian 

4 Note this use of don to re- 
place a verb of specific meaning. 

5 Governs iSTenunge. 

6 See 28. 

7 How does this, as here used, 
differ in meaning from hwa ? 

8 Apollonius. 9 Lat, sordido. 

10 Governed by aefter. See 
87. c and 201. 1. 

11 Lat. naufragus. 

12 Lat. unde. 

13 See 126. i^ gee 196. e. 
1° Confusion of two construc- 
tions, the direct and the indirect. 

16 Lat. ut venias. Translate by 
the infinitive, as often in such 


healle.^ Da eode se mann in beforan to Ssem cyninge, 
and cwae'5: "Se forlidena^ mann is cumen, «e M sefter 
s^ndest^; ac he ne maeg for sceame ingan butan scriide." 
Da het se cyning bine sona gescrydan mid weorSfuUum* 
scrtide, and bet bine ingan to t^eem gereorde. 5 

Da eode Apollonius in, and gesset, t$£er bim geteebt^ 
waes, ongean ■gone cyning. Da^ weart5 ^a seo tSenung.^ 
ingeboren, and, aefter S^m, cynelic ^ gebeorscipe.^ And 
Apollonius nan 'Sing ne set, t5eab-t5e ealle o^re m^nn seton 
and blit5e wseron. Ac be bebeold t^set gold, and t5set ic 
seolfor, and Sa deorwurSan^ reaf, and Sa beodas, and Sa 
cynelican Senunga.^^ Da-'ba be 6is eall mid sarnesse" 
bebeold, ^a sset sum eald and sum^^ aefestig ealdormann 
be t^eem cyninge. Mid-t5y-t5e be geseab ^aet Apollonius 
swa sarlice sset, and eall tSing bebeold, and nan Sing ne 15 
set, Sa cw3e(5 be to tSsera cyninge: "Du^^ goda cyning, 
efne, 'Ses mann t5e" M swa wel wiS gedest, be is swi6e 
sefestfull for t^inum gode.'^ Da cwseS se cyning: "De^ 
mis6ynct5; sot5lice '5es geonga mann ne aefestatS on nanum 
■gingum 6e be ber gesiebS, ac be cytS^^ Sset bsefS^'' fela 20 

1 Lat. ad regent. ^ Lat. cewa regalis. 

2 See 55. 9 See 146. 

8 Is this present or preterit i*^ Lat. ministeria. 

(113)? 11 Lat. (Zo?ore. 

* Lat. dignis. 12 -^qiq the curious repetition 

5 See 187. of sum. The Latin has senex 

6 It has been suggested that invidus. 

the account of this feast may i^ ^at. bone rex. See 152. 

have been imitated from that in 1* Governed by wiS". 

Odys. 4. 71 ff. 15 See 164. I. 

■^ Lat. gustatio, a sort of first i^ L^t. testatum 

course. i'^ See 189, note. 


forloren.^" Da beseah. Arcestrates se cyning bMum* 
andwlitan^ to ApoUonio, and cwsetJ : " Dli geonga mann, 
beo^ blTt5e® mid lis, and gehybf* on God, tSset tSti mote 
self to tSsem selran becuman." 

Entry of the Princess. 

5 Mid-'6y-t5e se cyning t5as word gecwsetJ, tSa fseringa tSser 
eode in Sees cyninges geong dohtor,* and cyste hiere 
fseder and Sa ymbsittendan.^ Da'' beo becom to Apol- 
lonio, '8a gew^nde beo ongean to hiere faeder, and cwaeS : 
**Du goda cyning, and min se^ leofesta^ feeder, bwaet^*" 

10 is ^es geonga mann, ^e ongean tSe on swa weorSlicum 
setle sitt, mid sarlicum^^ andwlitan; nat^ ic bwaet he 
besorga^.^^" Da cwsetS se cyning: "Leofe" dohtor, "Ses 
geonga mann is forliden; and be gecwemde me manna 
b^tst^ on •Seem plegan. For-Sam ic bine gelatiode to 

15 Sisum urum gebeorscipe. Nat ic bwaet be is, ne hwanan 
be is ; ac gif 8u wille witan bwaet be sie, asca bine, 
for-«am Se^^ gedafenatS^^ Saet M wite.^^" 

Da eode ^aet maeden to Apollonio, and mid forwand- 
iendre^^ spraece cwaetS : "Deah M stille^ sie and unrot, 

1 See forleosan, and 37. ® Lat. optime. ^^ Lat. quis. 

2 Lat. hilari vultu. See 174. 11 Lat. flebili. 12 gee 126. 
8 Lat. epulare. ^^ Lat. dolet. 

* Lat. spera. See 197. 1* See 55. Lat. dulcis. 

s What state and period of civ- i^ gee 66 and 154. d. Nom., 
ilization is indicated by the pres- belonging to he. 

ence of the girl at the banquet ? i^ gee 164. k. 1^ Lat. deceX. 

6 See 181. "^ See 202. d. i^ gee 194. a. 

8 Redundant, according to our 1^ Lat. verecundo. 

conceptions. See 152. 20 gee 69. 

apollo:nius of tyre. 


^6ah^ ic Sine seSelborennesse ^ on 6e geseo. Nu^ Sonne,* 
gif Se* to h^fig ne t5ynce,^ s^ge me Sinne naman, and Sin 
gelimp^ ar^ce me." Da cw8e8 Apollonius : '^Gif M for 
Qiede " ascast sefter mlnuni naman, ic s^cge 5e, Ic hine 
forleas on sse. Gif t5u wilt mine geSelborennesse witan, 5 
wite M Saet ic hie forlet on Tharsum.®" Dset mseden 
cwaeS : " S^ge me gewislicor,^ Sset ic hit msege under- 
standan." Apollonius Sa soSlice hiere areahte ^'^ eall ^^ 
his gelimp, and set SSre sprsece ^^ ^nde him ^^ feollon 
tearas of Saem eagum. 10 

Mid-t5y-Se se cyning Saet geseah, he bew^nde hine Sa 
to ^seie dehter/"* and cwaeS : " Leofe dohtor, Sii gesyn- 
godest, mid-'Sy-Se^ 6u woldest witan his naman and his 
gelimp. DtL hsefst nu geedniwod his eald sar/*^ ac ic 
bidde Se Saet M giefe him swa-hwset-swa 'Su wille. 15 
Da-Sa Saet meeden gehierde Saet hiere wses aliefed fram 
hiere faeder^^ Sset^^ heo ger hiere ^^ self^^ gedon wolde, Sa 
cwaeS heo to Apollonio : "Apolloni, soSlice 'Su eart ure^; 

1 Second correlative = Lat. 
tamen. Translate yet, or omit 
(201. e). 

2 Lat. nohilitatem. 

3 Are these notes of time ? 
Th.e Latin has nothing similar. 

* See 164. 7. 5 See 196. d. 

6 Lat. casus tuos. Observe the 
general resemblance to the story 
of Dido, in the ^neid. 

■^ MS. neode. Lat. necessi- 

8 See p. 165, n. 1. 

9 Lat. apertius. 

10 See 114. 

11 Plural. 

12 See 153. i. 

13 See 161. 2. 
1* See 52. 2. 
15 Lat, dum. 

^6 Lat. veteres ei renovasti dolo- 
res, a reminiscence of the Yirgil- 
ian {^n. II. 3) juhes renovare 
dolor em. 

i'^ See 43. 8. " = yjjiat. 

19 Lat. ipsa. 

2*5 Note this predicate use of fire, 
= Lat. noster es (cf. ^n. II. 149). 



forlset Sine murcnunge ^ ; and, nu^ ic mines faeder^ leafe 
haebbe, ic gedo* t5e weligne." Apollonius Mere Sses 'San- 
code/ and se cyning blissode on his dohtor welwillend- 
nesse/ and hiere to cwseS: "Leofe dohtor, hat f^ccean 
Sine hearpan,^ and gecieg Se to Sinum friend,* and afiersa 
fram Seem geongan his sarnesse." 

A Lesson in Music. 

Da eode heo nt,^ and het f^ccean hiere hearpan. And 
sona swa heo hearpian ongann, heo mid wynsumum sange 
gem^ngde S^re hearpan sweg. Da ongunnon ealle Sa 
m^nn hie h^rian on hiere swegcrsefte ; and Apollonius 
ana^^ swigode. Da cwseS se cyning: "Apolloni, nti Su 
•dest" yfele, for-Sam-Se ealle m^nn h^riaS mine dohtor 
On hiere swegcrsefte,^ and Sti ana hie, swigende,^^* tselst.^^" 
Apollonius cwseS : " Eala, Sii goda cyning, gif Sti me 
geliefst,^^ ic s^cge Saet ic ongiete Sset soSlice Sin dohtor 
gefeolP^ on swegcrseft, ac heo nsefS hine na wel geleornod; 
ac hat me^^ nil s^llan Sa hearpan, Sonne wast^^ Sti nti Sset 
Sti giet nast.-^''" Arcestrates se cyning cwseS : "Apolloni, 

1 Lat. mcerorem. of course it does not translate 

2 JSfow, or since? these words. 

3 See 43. 8. ^ Not in the Latin. 

4 Future sense, will make. See ^^ See 79. ^^ See 140. 
173. 12 Lat. arte musica. 

^ See 159. a. ^^^ For swigiende. 

6 Lat. benignitate. ^^ Lat. vituperas. 

7 Lat. lyram. i* See 196. d. 

8 This clause is not altogether ^^ Lat. incidit. Translate, has 
clear. It seems to stand for the chanced. 

Lat. exhilara convivium^ though ^^ See 164. a. ^^ See 126. 



ic oncnawe sotSlice ^aet 'Su eart^ on eallum Singum wel 

Da het se cyning s^llan Apollonie 'Sa liearpan. Apol- 
lonius 'Sa titeode, and hine scrydde, and s^tte senne 
cynehelm upon his heafod, and nom Sa hearpan on his 5 
hand, and ineode, and swa stod tSaet se cyning and ealle 
•Sa ymbsittendan wendon Sset he naere* Apollonius, ac Saet 
he wsere Apollines,^ Ssera heeSenra god. Da wearS stilnes 
and swige^ geworden innan Saere healle. And Apollonius 
his hearpensegl genom, and he Sa hearpestr^ngas mid 10 
craefte astyrian ongan, and Seere hearpan sweg mid wyn- 
sumum sange gem^ngde.* And se cyning self, and ealle 
Se Sser andwearde wseron, micelre stefne cleopedon and 
hine h^redon. ^fter Sisum forlet^ Apollonius Sa hearpan, 
and^ plegode, and fela fsegerra Singa^ Saer forSteah,^ Se 15 
Ssem folce ungecnawen wses and ungewunelic. And him^ 
eallum Searle licode selc Ssera Singa'' Se he forSteah. 

SoSlice, mid-Sy-Se Saes cyninges dohtor geseah Sset Apol- 
lonius on eallum godum crseftum swa wel wses getogen,^*' 
Sa gefeoU hiere mod on his lufe. Da, sefter Sses beorscipes 20 
ge^ndunge, cwaeS Sset mseden to Seem cyninge : "Leofa" 

1 See 194, note. 2 Apollo. 

3 We are reminded of ^n. II. 
1, Conticuere omnes. 

* To this sentence there corre- 
sponds in the Latin : — 

arripuit plectrum, animumque ac- 

commodat arti ;- 
cum chordis miscetur vox cantu 


^ Lat. deponens^ 

6 The rest of this sentence para- 
phrases : induit statum comic um 
et inauditas actiones expressit, dC' 
inde tragicum. 

7 See 154. a, h. 

8 Lat. expressit. 

9 See 164. k. 

10 See geteon. What relation 
has getogen to Mod. Eng. wanton? 

11 See 55. 


faeder, t5u liefdest me, lytle^ ser/ tSset^ ic^ moste^ giefan 
Apollonio swa-hwset-swa ic wolde of ^inum goldhorde." 
Arcestrates se cyning cwseS to hiere : " Gief him swa- 
liwaet-swa M wille.^" Heo ^a swiSe bliSe titeode,'* and 
5 c wee's : "Lareow* Apolloni, ic giefe 'Se, be mines feeder 
leafe, twa hund punda^ goldes/ and feower hund punda^ 
gewihte^ seolfres/ and 'Sone meestan dsel deorwurSes^ 
reafes, and twentig ^eowa^® manna.^*^" And heo t5a 'Sus 
cwae'S to Ssem t5eowum mannum : "Berat5 t5as 'Sing mid 

10 eow, tSe ic behet Apollonio minum lareowe, and l^cgea'S 
innan btire^^ beforan minum freondum." Dis weart5 'Sa 
Sus gedon, sefter 'Ssere cwene heese^; and ealle Sa m^nn 
hiere giefa h^redon Se^^ hie gesawon. Da soSlice ge^nd- 
ode se gebeorscipe, and 'Sa m^nn ealle arison/'* and 

15 gretton Sone cyning and Sa cwene, and b^don hie 
gesunde beon,^^ and ham gew^ndon. Eac swilce Apol- 
lonius cw8et5: "Dti goda cyning, and earmra^^ gemiltsiend, 
and Sti cwen, lare ^^ lufiend, beon ge gesunde.^^ '^ He 
beseah eac to 'Ssem 'Seowum mannum, ^e Seet mseden him 

20 forgief en hsefde,^^ and him cwseS to : " Nimat5 Sas 'Sing mid 

1 Lat. paulo ante. See 178. ^^ Lat. triclinio. 

2 Translate by the infinitive 12 gee the derivation of Mod. 
sign, to. The OE. follows the Eng. behest. 

Latin. 1^ Refers to m^nn. 

3 See 197. 1* So in Beowulf (653-655) : 
* Not in Latin. " Werod eall aras; grette )>a . . , 
fi Lat. magister. guma ot5erne, . . . and him h^l 
6 See 154. c. ahead." 

' See 153. /. ^^ Lat. vale dicentes. 

8 See 174. le See 153. d. 

® MS. deorwurSaCan. ^"^ Lat. valete. 

■ 10 Lat. servos. ^^ See 188. 


eow, t5e me seo cwen forgeaf, and gan^ we secean ure 
giesthtis, Saet we msegen us^ ger^stan." 

ApoUonius as Teacher. . 

Da adred ^set mseden iSsdt heo neefre ^ft Apollonium 
ne gesawe swa^ hraSe swa heo wolde; and eode t5a to 
hiere faeder, and cwsetS : " Du goda cyning, licaS t3e wel 5 
^aet Apollonius, «e 'Surh us to-dseg gegodod"* is, "Sus 
heonan fare/ and cumen yfele m^nn and bereafien 
hine?" Se cyning cwsetS : "Wel M cwsede. Hat hine^ 
findan hw£er he hine msege weor'Slicost ^ ger^stan." Da 
dyde tSset meeden swa hiere beboden^ wses ; and Apol- 10 
lonius onfeng 'Sgere wununge 6e him betseht waes, and 
Saer ineode, Gode^ ^anciende, t5e him ne forwiernde^" ■ 
cynelices weort5scipes and frofre. Ac t5aet mseden hsefde 
unstille" niht, mid tSeere lufe onseled tSsera worda^^ and 
sanga t5e heo gehierde set Apollonie. And na l^ng^^ heo 15 
ne gebad t5onne hit dseg wses, ac eode sona swa hit 
-leoht wses, and gesset beforan hiere f seder" b^dde. Da 
cw8et5 se cyning: "Leofe dohtor, for hwy^^ eart^^ t5u tSus 
serwacol ? " Dset mseden cwset5 : " Me aweahton Sa ge- 
cneordnessa^^ tSe ic giestran-dseg^^ gehierde. Nu bidde ic 20 

1 See 193. a. ^^ See 159. a. 

"' See 184. b. ^^ Lat. inquietam. 

3 Swa . . . wolde not in Latin. 12 Dependent on lufe. 

* Lat. diYafws. i3 see 77. i* See 43. 8. 

6 See 194. a. i^ See 175. is See 138. 

6 MS. him. '" Lat. studia. Translate, ac- 

' See 76. complishments. 

8 See 187. ^^ Lat. hesterna. Is giestran 

8 See 164. m. related to the Latin word ? 


•Se, for-Sam/ 'Saet ^u befseste^ me urum cuman/ Apol- 
lonie, to"* lare.^" Da wearS se cyning t5earle geblissod, 
and het f^ccean Apollonium, and him to cwae^ : " Mm 
dohtor giern5 Sset heo mote leornian set Se 6a gesseligan 

5 lare Se Su canst ^; and, gif Su wilt Sisnm Singnm^ 
gehiersum beon, ic sw^rie Se, Surh. mines rices msegenu/ 
Sset swa-hwset-swa Sti on see forlure, ic Se Sset on lande 
gestaSelie.^ " DarSa Apollonius Saet gehierde, he onfeng 
Ssem^ mseden to lare, and hiere tsehte swa wel swa he 

lo self geleornode.^^ 

The Three Suitors. 

Hit gelamp Sa sefter Sisum, binnan f eawum tidum," 
Sset Arcestrates se cyning heold Apollonius hand on 
handa ; and eodon swa tit on Ssere ceastre streete. Da, 
set niehstan, comon Sser g^n^^ ongean hie Srie gelgerde^^ 
15 weras and geSelborene, Sa lange ser gierndon^^ Saes cyninges 
dohtor. Hie Sa ealle SrIe togsedere anre stefne^ gretton 
Sone cyning. Da smercode^^ se cyning, and him to beseah, 

1 Lat. itaque. "^ Lat. vires. 

2 Lat. tradas. ^ Lat. restituam. 

3 Lat. hospiti. ® See 164. j. 

* Lat. studiorum percipiend- 1° Here follows, in the Latin, 

orum gratia. an account of how the girl feigned 

5 Cf . Chaucer, Miller'' s Tale illness, on account of her love for 
18: "I can a noble tale." This Apollonius. 

sense occurs as late as the mid- ^^ Lat. post paucos dies. 

die of the 17th century; Lovelace 12 gee 199. 1. 

has: " Yet can I music too." So ^^ Lat. scholastici. 

Jonson, Magnetic Lady 1. 1: "She 1* Lat. in matrimonium petie- 

cowZcZ the Bible in the holy tongue." runt. Pluperfect (188). 

6 Jjdit. desiderio natoe meoe. See i^ See 160. 1. 
165. ^^ Lat. subridens. 


and Sus cwae6 : " Hwset is ^sdt. Sset ge me anre stefne 
gretton ? " Da andswarode hiera an, and cwaeS : " We 
b^don gefyrn ■ginre dohtor; and M us oft hraedlice mid^ 
^Icunge^ gesw^nctest.^ For-'Sani we comon hider to-daeg 
■Sus togaedere. We sindon Sine ceastergewaran, of seSelnm 5 
gebyrdnm- geborene ; nu bidde we tJe 'Saet M geceose Se^ 
genne of ils t5rlm, hwilcne Su wille t5e^ to^ at5ume habban." 
Da cwse'S se cyning : " Nabbe ge na godne^ timan aredod.^ 
Mm dohtor is nu swi'Se bisig ymb Mere leornunga/ Ac, 
Sy-lses-'Se^ ic eow a l^ng slacie,** awritaS eowre naman on 10 
gewrite, and Mere morgengief e ^° ; t5onne as^nde ic Sa 
gewritu minre d^hter, Saet beo self geceose hwilcne 
eower^ beo wille." Da dydon t5a cnihtas swa ; and se 
cyning nom^ tSa gewritu, and geinseglode Me mid his 
liringe, and sealde Apollonio, Sus cwetSende : " Nim nu, 15 
lareow Apolloni, swa hit Se ne mislicie,^^ and bring Sinum 
l^ringm^dene.^^ " Da nom Apollonius Sa gewritu, and 
eode to Seere cynelican healle.^^ 

1 Lat. differ endo crucias. after marriage, according to Teu- 

2 x,at. natalibus. tonic nsage. Cf . Mod. Grer. 
^ See 161. Morgengabe. 

^ Cf. Mod. Eng. Hake to wife.' " MS. eoweme. 

5 Lat. apto. 12 See 105. 

^ MS. aredodne. ^^ Lat. si7ie contumelia tua ; an 

"^ Lat. studiorum. apology for sending Apollonius on 

^ Lat. lie. an errand. See 196. c. 

® Lat. videar . . . differre. 1* Lat. discipulcB. 

'^^ IjQX. dotis qiiantitatem. The '^^±,QX.domum. The Latin adds 

present given on the morning introivit cuhiculum. 


The Princess Chooses. 

Mid-t5am-Se Saet maeden geseah. ApoUonium, 'Sa cw8et5 
heo : "Lareow, hwy gaest M ana^?" Apollonius cwaeS: 
"Hlsefdige^ — ^naes giet yfel wif^ — nim 'Sas gewritu, 'Se 
t5iii feeder tSe s§nde/ and reed." Dset mseden noui, and 
5 rsedde tSsera 'Sreora cnihta naman; ac heo ne funde^ na 
tSone naman Sseron t5e heo wolde. Da heo tSa gewritu 
oferrsed hsefde, t$a beseah heo to Apollonio, and cw9et5: 
''Lareow, ne of^yncS^ hit tSe gif ic t5us wer geceose?" 
Apollonius cw8e6 : " Na ; ac ic blissie swit5or ^ tSaet t5u 

10 meaht, tSurh t5a lare tJe M set me underfenge, 'Se self on 
gewrite gecySan hwilcne hiera Sti wille.^ Mm willa is 
t53et Sti Se wer geceose Sser Su self wille.^" Dset mseden 
cwaeS : " Eala lareow, gif Sti me lufodest, Sti hit besorg- 
odest.^°" yEfter Sisum wordnm heo mid modes ^^ anrsed- 

15 nesse" awrat oSer gewrit, and tSset geinseglode, and 
sealde Apollonio. Apollonius hit Sa tit bser on Sa 
strsete,^ and sealde Seem cyninge. Daet gewrit waes Sus 
gewriten : " Du goda cyning, and mm se leofesta feeder, 

1 The OE. is not clear. The ^ She has evidently learned 
Latin has : Quid est quod sin- from him how to write, according 
gularis cuhiculum introisti 9 to the English. The Latin has : 

2 Lat. domina. How is hlsef- Immo gratulor quod hahundantia 
dige related in meaning to studiorum percepta me volente 
hlaford ? nubis. 

2 Not clear either in the Latin ^ See 196. c. 

or the English. Some MSS. have, 1° Lat. doleres. Indicative, 

nondum mulier et mala ; one has, where the optative might be ex- 

non unquam mulier fuit mala. pected. 

* Translate, has sent. See 188. 11 Lat. amoris audacia. 

^ See 104. ^ Lat. dolet. 12 j^^H^ forum, as above, p. 178, 

^ Translate, rather. See 76. 1. 13. 


nu 'Sm inildheortnes me leafe sealde Saet ic self moste 
ceosan hwilcne wer ic wolde, ic s^cge ^e to soSum, Sone 
forlidenan mann ic wille ; and gif M wundrie ^set swa 
sceamfsest^ faemne^ swa unforwandiendlice^ Sas word 
awrat, t5onne wite^ tSfi 'Sset ic lisebbe 6urh weax aboden,* 5 
t$e nane sceame ne can/ t^aet ic self 'Se for sceame s^cgean 
ne meahte." 

Da-t5a se cyning hsefde ^set gewrit oferrsed,^ t5a nyste 
he hwilcne forlidenne heo n^mde. Beseah Sa to t5aem 
5rim cnihtum, and cwset^ : " Hwilc eower is forliden ? " 10 
Da cw8et5 hiera an, se hatte Ardalius : " Ic eom for- 
liden." " Se o8er him andwyrde, and cwsefS : " Swiga M. 
Adl tSe fornime,^ Sset M ne beo^ hal ne gesund. Mid 
me '6u boccraeft^*^ leornodest, and M nsefre butan 'Ssere 
ceastre geate fram me ne come. Hwser gefore^^ ■8u for- 15 
lidennesse ? " Mid-tSy-Se se cyning ne meahte findan 
hwilc hiera forliden wsere,^ he beseah to Apollonio, and 
cwaeS : " Nim ^u, Apolloni, 6is gewrit, and rsed hit ; 
eaSe maeg geweorSan ^aet M wite ^aet ic nat, 'Su tSe 
tSaer andweard wsere.^^" Da nom Apollonius ^aet gewrit, 20 
and rsedde. And sona swa he ongeat tSaet he gelufod 

1 Lat. pudica virgo. careful the English have been to 

2 Lat. impudenter ; one MS. im- preserve than to acquire. Why 
prudenter. have we lost, or all but lost, the 

^ See 198. ver or for as a prefix, — fordone, 

* Lat. mandavi. forwearied, etc. ; and the zer or 

^ See above, p. 178, n. 5. to, — zerreissen, to rend, etc.? " 
6 Lat. perlectis. s gee 193. a. » See 196. g. 

' On for- see Coleridge, Omni- 1° Lat. litteras. 

ana (Bohn ed., p. 414): "It is " See 107. 12 gee 194. 6. 

grievous to think how much less i^ ig this optative ? 


wses fram tSsem meedene, Ms^ andwlita^ ealP a^eadode.^ 
Da se cyning ^set geseah, ^a nom he Apollonies Tiand, 
and hine^ hwon fram tSaem cnilituiii gew^nde, and cwseS : 
^^Wast^ t5u tione forlidenan mann?" Apollonins cw8et5: 

5 "Du god a cyTLing, gif 'Sm willa biS, ic Mne wat/' Da 
geseah se cyning tJset Apollonins mid rosan* rnde* wses 
eall oferbrseded.^ Da ongeat he ■gone cwide, and Sus 
cwaeS to him : " Blissa, blissa, ApoUonij f or-Sam-6e mm 
dohtor gewilna^ t5ses^ Se mm willa is. Ne maeg sot5lice 

10 on Syllicnm Singum^ nan^ 'Sing geweorSan btitan Godes^ 
willan." Arcestrates beseah to Ssem Srim cnihtnm, and 
cwseS : "So6^° is^^ Sset ic eow £er ssede, Saet ge ne comon 
on gedafenlicre ^ tide minre dohtor to biddanne, ac 
Sonne ^ heo mseg hie fram hiere lare geaemetgian, Sonne 

15 s^nde ic eow word.-^^" 

Da gew^ndon hie ham mid Sisse andsware, and Arces- 
trates se cyning heold forS on Apollonins hand, and hine 
l^dde ham mid him, na swilce. he cnma weere,^* ac swilce 
he his aSum wgere. Da, set niehstan, forlet se cyning 

20 Apollonins hand, and eode ana into Seem btire Seer his 
dohtor inne wses, and Sus <iwseS : "Leofe dohtor, hwone 
lisefst Su Se gecoren to gemseccean ^^ ? " Dset mseden ^^ 
Sa feoll to hiere f seder fotnm, and cwseS : ' "Dti arfsesta^'^ 

1 Lat. eruhuit. ^ A Christian trait. 

2 See 184. h. 1° Lat. certe. 

3 See 126. Lat. invenisti. ^^ Lat. apto. See p. l'^9, 1. 8. 
* Lat. roseo rubore. ^2 See 202. d. 

s Lat. perfusam. ^^ Note the English idiom. The 

6 See 156. a. Latin has, mittam ad vos. 
^ Lat. hujusmodi negotio. " See 196. c. i^ Lat. conjugem. 

8 See 183. ^^ See 28. ^'^ Lat. piissime. 


f seder, gehler Sinre dohtor willan.^ Ic lufie 6one for- 
lidenan mann, «e wses 6urh ungelimp^ beswicen-; ac, 
8y-laes-6e^ t5e tweonie* Ssere sprsece, Apollonium ic wille, 
minne lareow ; and gif M me him ne shiest, tSti forl^tst 
olne dohtor." Se cyning Sa soSlice ne meahte arsefnian^ 5 
his dohtor tearas, ac areerde hie tip, and hiere to cwsetS: 
^'Leofe dohtor, ne ondrsed «u Se ^niges« Singes.^ Du 
haefst gecoren t5one wer t5e me wel licaS." Eode t5a ut, 
and beseah to Apollonio, and cw8et5 : " Lareow ApoUoni, 
ic smeade minre dohtor modes willan ; Sa areahte heo lo 
mid wope^ betweox 66re sprgece, «as Sing Sus cwet5ende : 
^Dti geswore Apollonio, gif he wolde gehiersumian minum 
willan on lare, Seet Sti woldest him geinnian^ swarhwset- 
swa seo see him setbrsed.^ Nti, for-t5am-Se he gehiersum 
wses 'Sinre hsese and minum willan, ic for sefter him 15 
[mid willan and mid lare^''].'" 

1 Lat. desiderium. hears of the death of King Antio- 

2 jj2it. fortuna deceptum. chus, and, with his wife, sets sail 

3 OE. iSy-l^s-iafe gives Mod. for Antioch. There follow the 
Eng. lest. AVhat phonological events related in the Shake- 
rule determines the final i ? spearean Pericles, in the main 

4 See 159.-5 and 196. /. as in Acts III., lY., and V., 
^ Lat. sustinens. though with not a few differ- 
6 Lat. de aliqua re. ences. The infant daughter has 
' Lat. lacrimis (cf. ^n. III. grown up, and, after a variety 

348). of experiences, has been restored 

8 Lat. dares. ^ Lat. abstulit. to Apollonius. His queen is 

10 The OE.'' MS. breaks off at priestess of Diana of Ephesus, 

him. I have supplied what fol- and thither he proceeds, being 

lows according to the Latin, warned by an angel in a dream 

voluntate et doctrina. The story to make that, instead of Tarsus, 

thus continues in the Latin : his next goal. At this point the 

After the marriage, Apollonius OE, fragment recommences, 



Apollonius relates his Adventures. 

Da wses .hiere^ gecySed, ^e 'Seer ealdor^ wses,' Sset Saer 
w'gere sum cynirig, mid his aSume and mid his d^liter, 

- mid miclum giefum. Mid-6am-Se heo Sset gehifirdd, heo 
hie selfe mid cynelicum reafe gefrsetwode and mid pur- 
pran gescrydde, and hiere heafod mid golde and mid 
gimnium gegl^ngde, g,nd, mid miclum feemnena heape 
ymbtrymmed,^ com togeanes Seem cyninge. Heo wses^ 
so^lice dearie wlitig ; and, for Seere miclan lufe t^sere 
clsennesse/ hie ssedon ealle Sset 6aer nsere nan Dianan 

> swa gecweme^ swa heo. 

Mid-^am-6e Apollonius Sset geseah, he mid his a^ume 
and mid his d^hter to hiere urnon,^ and feollon ealle to 
hiere fotum, and wen don ^ Sset heo Diana wsere, seo gyden, 
for hiere miclan beorhtnesse and wlite. Dset halig^ sern* 

5 wear^ "Sa geopenod, and 'Sa lac^ w^ron ingebrohte, and 
Apollonius ongan ^° Sa sprecan and cweSan : " Ic f ram 

1 The wife of Apollonius. 

2 Chief, i.e. chief priestess. 

^ Lat. virginum constipata ca- 
tervis. An epic trait. Thus in 
the uEneid (4. 136), Dido goes 
forth, magna stipante caterva. 
Thus in the Odyssey (16. 413), 
Penelope "went on her way to 
the hall, vnth the women he'r hand- 
maids.'''' And thus in Beowulf 
(923-925), Hrothgar 

tryddode tirfaest getrume micle 
cystum gecy^ed, and his cwen mid 

medostig gem set mseg^d hose. 

* Lat. castitatis. 

5 Lat. gratam. See 165, 

6 See 104. Does this verb agree 
with its subject ? 

' Cf. Chaucer, KnighVs Tale 
243 ff.: — 
I not whether sche be womman or 

goddesse ; 
But Venus is it, sothly as I gesse. 

8 Lat. sacrario. JErn forms 
part of the Mod. Eng. barn ; what 
does the other element of this word 
stand for ? 

9 Lat. miinprihiis. 
1"^ Lat. co^pit. 


cildhade waes Apollonius gen^mned, on Tyruin geboren. 
Mid-Sam-Se ic becom to fullum andgiete/ 'Sa nses nan 
craeft^ '5e weere^ fram cyningum began, oSSe fram 
set^elum mannum, tSset ic ne cu6e.* . . . Da wearS ic 
on sse forliden, and com to Cyrenense. Da underfeng 5 
me Arcestrates se cyning mid swa micelre lufe Sset ic 
set niehstan geearnode Sset he geaf me his ac^nnedan^ 
dohtor to gemaeccean. Seo^ for Sa mid me to onfonne 
rainum cynerice, and ^as mine dohtor, ^e ic beforan ^e, 
Diana, geandweard haebbe, ac^nde on sae, and hiere gast 10 
alet. Ic t5a hie mid cynelicum reafe gescrydde, and mid 
golde and gewrite on ciste al^gde, ^aet se, Se hie fnnde, 
hie weort5lice bebyrgde''; and t5as mine dohtor befaeste^ 
tSaem manf ullestum ^ mannum^ to fedanne.-^*^ For me Sa 
to Egypta lande feowertiene gear on heofe. Da ic 15 
ongean com, Sa saedon hie me Saet mm dohtor waere 
forSfaren,^^ and me waes min sar eall geedniwod." 

The Recognition. 

Mid-t5am-Se he Sas Sing eall areaht haefde, Arcestrate 
soSlice, his wif, up aras' and hine ymbclypte. Da nyste 
na^ Apollonius, ne^^ ne^ geliefde, Saet heo his gemaeccea 20 

1 Lat. scientiam. ' See 196. d. 

2 Lat. ars. ^ See 197. ^ Lat. commendavi. 

* I have omitted the portion ^ MS.manfullestanniannan. 

which relates to his adventures Lat. nequissimis hominibus. 
before his shipwreck, 10 Lat. nutriendam. 

5 Translate, own. ^^ Lat. defunctam. 

6 Used almost as personal pro- ^'^ See 183. 

noun. From what source is Mod. i^ How do ne and ne differ in 

Eng. she derived ? meaning ? 


wsere,^ ac sceaf^ hie fram Mm. Heo Sa micelre stefne 
cleopode, and cwsetS mid wope : " Ic eom Arcestrate t5m 
gemaeccea, Arcestrates dohtor 'Sses cyninges, and tu eart 
Apollonius mln lareow, t5e me Iserdest. Du eart se for- 

5 lidena mann «e ic lufode. . . . Hweer is mm dohtor?'' 
He bew^nde hine t5a to Thasian,^ and cwseS : " Dis heo 
is." And hie weopon t5a ealle, and eac blissedon.^ And 
tSaet word sprang geond eall tSset land tSset Apollonius, 
se msera cyning, haefde funden his wif. And Sser wearS 

10 ormeete^ bliss, and t5a organa weeron^ getogene,^ and t5a 
bleman geblawene, and 'S^er wearS bliSe gebeorscipe 
gegearwod betweox 'Ssem cyning and Ssem folce. And 
heo ges^tte Mere gingran, 'Se Mere folgode, to sacerde, 
and, mid blisse and heofe ealre Seere msegt^e on Efesum, 

15 heo for mid hiere were, and mid hiere aSume, and mid 
Mere d^hter, to Antiochian, Seer ApoUonio waes tSset 
cynerice gehealden/ ... 

The Fisherman's Reward. 

Disum eallum Sus gedonum,* eode Apollonius, se msera 

cyning, wit5 ^a see. Da geseah he Sone ealdan fiscere, 

20 t5e hine ser nacodne underfeng. Da het se cyning hine 

1 See 194. h. ^ Lat. repelUt. "^ At this point, there is an 

3 More properly, ' Tharsian ' ; account of Apollonius' travels 
but cf. Shakespeare's Thaisa. among his former acquaintances, 

4 Cf. Macaulay's " With weep- rewarding them according to 
ing and with laughter still is the their deserts, and cheering the 
story told." last hours of Archistrates, who 

5 Lat. ingens. divides his kingdom between his 

6 Lat. disponuntur. Translate, daughter and Apollonius. 
were played, ^ See 167. 


fserlice gelaeccean, and to tSsere cynelican^ healle^ gelsedan. 
Da-'Sa se fiscere t5aet geseah, tJset hine t5a c^mpau^ woldon 
niman, ^a wende lie serest t5aet hine man sceolde ofslean; 
ac, mid-^am-^e he com into 'Saes cyninges healle, t5a het 
se cyning hine l^edan toforan ^sere cwene, and Sus cwaeS : 5 
"Eala, t5u eadge cwen, $is is mln tacenbora,^ 6e me 
nacodne underfeng, and me get^hte ^set ic to 6e becom." 
Da beseah Apollonius se cyning to ■ggem fiscere, and 
cwseS : "Eala, welwillenda^ ealda,^ ic eom Apollonius se 
Tyrisca, 'Ssem M sealdest healfne t)Inne weefels." Him 10 
geaf ^a se cyning twa hund gyldenra^ p^ninga/ and 
hsefde hine to geferan ^arhwile-8e he lifde. . . . 

The End. 

^fter eallum ^isum Apollonius se cyning . . . wel- 
willendlice lifde mid his gemseccean seofon'' and hund- 
seofontig geara, and heold t^set cynerice on Antiochia, 15 
and on Tyrum, and on Cyrenense. And he lifde on 
stilnesse and on blisse ealle t5a tid his lifes sefter his 
earfot5nesse. And twa bee he self ges^tte be his fare^; 
and ane as^tte on ^aem temple Diane, o6re on bib- 
liotheca. 20 

Her ^nda^ ge wea ge wela Apollonius ^ses Tyriscan. 

1 Lat. palatium. ducted him, as it were, to his 

" Lat. militibus. bride. 

3 Lat. paranymphus. The OE. * Lat. benignissime. 

word properly translates Lat. sig- ^ See 55 and 181. 

nifer. Render here by grooms- ^ Lat. sestertia auri. 

man ; the fisherman had con- "^ But Lat. quatuor. 

^ Lat, casus. 



Esede ^ se t5e wille ; and gif hie hwa ^ rsede, ic bidde 
Sset lie tJas aw^ndednesse ne tsele, ac 'Sset lie hele swa- 
hwset-swa Saeron sie to tale.^ 

1 See 193. a. 

'^ Any one. Still found in the 
phrase, ' as who should say ' 
{Mach. 3. 6. 42). In Dekker's 

Satiromastix (a.d. 1602) there oc- 
curs, "Suppose who enters now." 
3 Cf. Alfred's adjuration at p. 
162, 1. 12 ff. 


(From uElfric's Hexameron.) 

[This may serve as a commentary on Selection I., which, it will be 
remembered, is a translation by -iElfric. Of the present work its editor, 
Norman, says (p. vii) : " The treatise which is styled by Hickes in his 
'Thesaurus' the 'Hexameron of St. Basil' is by no means a literal trans- 
lation of the well known work of that father, but is partly original, and 
partly compiled from that work, and from the commentaries of the Ven- 
erable Bede upon Genesis. The author of it, from internal evidence, may 
be pronounced to be ^Ifric, as frequent references are made to his homi- 
lies, and to his epistles on the Old and New Testament." 

Of Basil's (d. 379) delivery of the original Hexameron, there is a brief, 
but spirited, account in Villemain's Tableau de V Eloquence Chretienne au 
IV' Siecle (p. 116 ff.), from which we extract the following: "It is more 
interesting to survey him in the act of instructing the poor inhabitants of 
Caesarea, elevating them to God by the contemplation of nature, and ex- 
plaining to them the miracles of creation in discourses where the science of 
the orator who had been trained at Athens is concealed under a persuasive 
and popular simplicity. Such is the subject of the homilies which bear 
the name of Hexameron. Together with the errors in natural philosophy 
which are .common to all antiquity, they contain many correct views, and 
descriptions at once felicitous and true."] 

On tSseni forman daege tire Dryhten gesceop seofonfeald^ 
weorc : tSset wseron ealle ^nglas ; and ^aes leohtes anginn ; 
and ^aet antimber Se^ he of gesceop si^San gesceafta; ^a 
uplican heofonan and ^a ni^erlican eorSan ; ealle waeter- 
scipas^;. and t5a widgillan see; and 'Sset uplice* lyft; eall 5 
on anum daege. Da ^nglas he geworhte on^ wundorlicre 

1 See 146. ^ Governed, by of. * MS. uplican. 

3 See 143, and p. 226, note 22. ^ Translate, of. 


190 THE SIX days' work OF CREATION. 

fsegernesse, and 'on^ micelre str^ngSe,^ manige Msenda, 
ealle llcliamlease, libbende on gaste ; be Seem we saedon 
hwilum £er sweotollicor on gewrite. Nses na God butan 
leohte t5a-Sa lie leoM gesceop, — lie is' him self leoht ^e 

5 onlleht^ eall ^ing ; ac lie gesceop t^aes dseges leoht, and 
hit siS^an geeacnode mid tSsem scinendum tunglum, swa- 
swa hersefter ssegS.^ Daeges leoht he gesceop, and to- 
drsefde ^a ^lestru, Sset Sa gesceafta gesewenlice warden 
t5urh Saes daeges liehtinge on l^nctenlicre^ tide; fdr-Sam 

10 he on l^nctentide, swa-swa us lareowas secgea^, gesceop 
Sone f orman daeg Sisse worulde — t5aet is on gerimcraefte 
XV cl. Aprilis® — and si^t5an Sa gesceafta, swa-swa we 
s^cgeatJ her. Da uplican heofonas, t5e ^nglas onwuniat5, 
he geworhte eac ^a on ^aem ilcan daege ; be ^aem we 

£5 singat5 on sumum sealme "^ 'Sus : Opera manuum tua- 
rum sunt coeli — " Dinra handa geweorc sindon heofonas, 
Dryhten." Eft on oSrum^ sealme sang se ilea witga: 
Ipse dixit, et facta stint; ipse mandavit, et creata sunt — 
"He self hit gecwaet5, and hie wurdon geworhte; he self 

20 hit bebead, and hie wurdon gesceapene." Daet waeter and 
seo eor^e waeron gem^ngde o^ t)one Sriddan daeg ; t5a 
todyde hie God, swarswa heraefter saegS on ^isse ges^t- 
nesse. Daet lyft he gesceop to ures lifes strangunge ; 
•gurh t5aet we orSiaS, and eac t5a nietenu ; and ure fnaest 

25 ateoratS gif we ateon ne magon, mid urum orSe, into us 

1 Translate, of. * = it saith, is described. 

2 From what adjective ? The ^ From l^ncten is derived Mod, 
original ending is -iSfa. Eng. Lent. 

3 How is this stem related to ^ March 18. ^ pg, 102, 25. 
leoht? Cf. Jn. 1. 9. » Ps. 33. 9. 


Sset lyft and ^ft utablawan^ t5a-hwile-'6e we beoS cuce. 
Dset lyft is swa heah. swa-swa t5a heof onlican ^ wolcnu, 
and eac ealswa brad swa-swa Ssere eorSan bradnes. On 
Ssere^ fleoga'6 fuglas, ac hiera fi^ru ne meahten nahwider 
hle^ aberan gif hie ne abaere seo lyft. 5 

Secunda die fecit Deus Jirmamentum — " On ^eem o^runi 
dsege ure Dryhten geworhte firmamentum/ " ^e m^nn 
hata^ rodor. Se^ belyc^^ on his bosme ealle eor-San^ 
bradnesse/ and binnan him is gelogod eall 'Ses middan- 
geard ; and he sefre gse^ abtitan swa-swa iernende hweol, lo 
and he nsefre ne st^nt stille on anum, and on anre 
w^ndinge. Da-hwile-^e he aene betyrnS, ga(5 witodlice 
for^ feower and twentig tida — ^set is ^onne ealles an 
dseg and an niht. Done rodor God gehet heofon. He 
is wundorlice healic and wid on ymbhwyrfte ; se^ gaecS 15 
under Sas eorSan ealswa^ deop swa bufan, ^eah-^e Sa 
ungelaeredan m^nn tSaes^ geliefan ne cunnon. And God 
^a todaelde 6urh his dryhtenliean miht Sa niSerlican 
wseteru ^e waeron under Ssem rodore fram ^aem uplicum 
waeterum ^e waeron bufan ■Ssem rodore. Be ^aem ujjlicum 20 
waeterum awrat se witga ^^^ Sus : Laudate eum cadi coelo- 
rum, et aquae quoe, super coelos sunt, laudent nomen Domini 
— '^H^riaS hine heofonas, 'Sara heofona heofonas, and eac 
t5a waeteru t5e bufan heofonas sind, h^rien hie Godes 

1 Translate, of heaven. ^ Nearly = he. 

2 Nearly = Mere. Lyft fluctu- ^ See belucan. 
ates in gender, in this extract, be- ^ See 24. 

tween fern, and neut. ^ What is the difference of deri- 

3 Ace. plur, vation between also and as ? 
* How is this word rendered in ^ See 156. g. 

p. 124, 1. 4. 10 Ps. 148. 4. 

192 THE SIX days' work of creation. 

naman." Dus saeg'S 'Sset halge gewrit. Ne li^ria6 S5 
wseteru mid nanuni wordum God, ac t5urli Sa gesceafta^ 
t5e he gesceop wundorlice, his miht is gesweotolod, and 
he bi^ swa geh^red. 
5 On Ssem Sriddan dsege lire, Dryhten gegaderode t5a 
sselican^ y^a fram 'Saere eorSan bradnesse. Seo eorSe 
waes set fruman eall ungesewenlic, for-Sam-^e heo eall 
wses mid ySum ofertSeaht^; ac God hie asyndrode fram 
/6«m sselicum ySum on hiere agenne st^de, swa-swa heo 

xo st^nt ot5 6is.^ Heo ne liS* on nanum twinge, ac on^ lofte^ 
heo st^nt Surh tJses Anes miht 5e® eall 'Sing gesceop; 
and he eall ^ing gehielt^ btitan geswince, for-t5am-t5e his 
nama is Omnipotens Deus, ^aet is on Englisc, "^Imihtig 
God." His willa is weorc, and he werig ne bit5, and his 

15 micle miht ne mseg nahwser swincan, swa-swa se witga^ 
awrat be him, cweSende, Quia in manu ejus sunt omnes 
fines terras, — " For-6am-t5e on his handa sindon eall tSsere 
eor'San gemsern." Da sse he gelogode swa-swa heo iTS^ 
giet wi^innan ^a eor^San on hiere ymbhwyrfte ; and t5eah- 

20 Se heo brad sie, and gebieged gehn, and wundorlice deop, 
heo wunatS eall swa-Seah on Ssere eort5an bosme binnan 
hiere gemserum. God self geseah Sa tSaet hit god waes 
swa, and het Sa eorSan arodlice spryttan growende gaers, 
and Sa grenan wyrta mid hiera agnum saede to manig- 

25 fealdum laececraef te ^ ; and t5a wyrta sona wynsumlice 

1 Translate, of the sea. ^ Refers to Anes. 

2 See 114. '' See gehealdan. Present or 
8 Until this, until now. preterit ? 

* See 28. ^ Ps. 95. 4. 

^ Mod. Eng. aloft. ^ Cf. Bom. and Jul. 2. 3. 16 ff. 

THE SIX days' work OF CREATION. 193 

greowon/ mid manigfealdum blostmum, mislice gebleode. 
God het hie eac spryttan, t5urh his godcundan niiht, 
manigfeald treowcynn, mid hiera wsestmum, mannum to 
ofetum and to o^rum nledum. And seo eorSe, sona swa- 
swa hiere^ God behead, stod mid hoi turn agrowen, and 5 
mid healicum cederbeamum and mid manigum wudum on 
Mere widgilnesse, mid seppelbeerum treowum and mid ort- 
geardum, and mid selcum treowcynne mid hiera agnum 

On ^sem feorSan dsege tire Dryhten gecwseS, "GeweorSen 10 
nil leoht '' — tSset sind, 6a leohtan steorran on tSsem heo- 
fonlican rodore — "Sset^ hie todselan msegen dseg fram niht, 
and hie beon to tacne, and tida gewyrcen dagum and 
gearum, and semen on tSsem rodore, and onliehten t5a 
eorSan." God geworhte t5a sona twa scinendu leoht, 15 
miclu and mseru, monan and sunnan — Sa sunnan on 
m^rgen to Saes daeges liehtinge, Sone monan on sefen 
mannum to liehtinge on nihtlicre tide mid getacnungum. 
And ealle steorran he eac '6a geworhte, and he hie 
gefaestnode on tSsem faestan rodore, tSaet hie t5a eortSan 20 
onliehten mid hiera manigfealdum leoman, and 6aes 
daeges giemden* and eac ^aere niht, and tSaet leoht to- 
daelden and t5a ^lestru on twa. Naeron nane tIda on 
'Saem gearlicum getaele 8er-t5am-6e se aelmihtiga Scieppend 
gesceop 6a tunglu to gearlicum tidum, on manigum 25 
getacnungum, on l^nctenlicre emnihte — swa-swa lareowas 
s^cgeaS on gerlmcraefte, xii kl. Aprilis/ And ne beoS 

1 See growan. 3 cf . p. 125, 1. 9 ff. 

2 Dat. sing. 4 cf . p. 126, 1. i ff. 

s March 21- cf . p. 190, 1. 12. 


THE SIX days' work OF CREATION. 

nsefre Eastron^ ser se dseg cume tSset t^set leoht hsebbe t5a 

•giestru oferswi^ed, Sset is, 'Sset se dseg beo l^ngra^ Sonne 

seo niht. Be Ssem oSrum tidum cwiS Seos ilce boc swa- 

^swa God S£ede him self to Noe : "Seedtima and hserfest, 

5 sumer and winter, ciele and ligetu, dseg and niht, ne 
geswicatS n^fre." ISTe standaS na ealle steorran on tSsem 
steapan rodore, ac hie^ sume® habbaS synderlicne gang 
beneot5an tSsem rodore, mislice ge^ndebyrde ; and 6a, t5e 
on Ssem rodore standatS, tyrnaS* sefre abtitan mid Seem 

10 bradan rodore on ymbhwyrfte 'Ssere eor'San, and hiera* 
nan ne fielS^ of 'Seem fsestan rodore Sa-hwile-Se Seos 
woruld wunaS swa gehal. Eall swa gseS seo sunne,^ and 
soSlice se mona,'' abtitan Sas eorSan mid bradum ymb- 
hwyrfte, eall swa feor beneoSan swa-swa hie bufan lis gaS. 

15 On Seem fiftan daege ure Dryhten gesceop of wsetere 
anum ealle fiscas on see and on eaum, and eall Sset on 
him criepS,^ and Sa miclan hwalas on hiera cynrenum, 

1 A plural (see the verb) used 
as singular. Eastre (North. 
Eostre) was, as Bede tells us, 
the name of a goddess whose 
festival was celebrated at the 
vernal equinox; it is a deriva- 
tive of east {east, cognate with 
Skr. ushds, dawn), and this 
Indicates that she was originally 
a goddess of the dawn. Bede 
adds that the pass over-tide was 
so called, " Consueto antiquse 
observationis vocabulo gaudia 
novse solemnitatis vocantes." 

2 See 65. 

3 See 151. 

4 From the Greek word rSpvos, 
one of whose senses is lathe- 
chisel, comes the Greek, and 
hence the Latin (tornare) verb 
meaning 'to turn in a lathe,' 'and 
hence ' to fashion,' ' smooth ' ; 
from the Latin is derived the 
English verb. 

s Dependent on nan. 

6 See feallan. 

7 Are these genders what one 
would expect ? What determines 

8 See creopan. 



and eac eall fugolcyim ealswa of waetere, and forgeaf 
■Ssem fuglum flyht geond ^as lyft, and tSaem fiscum sund 
on t5«ni flowendum y^um. God hie gebletsode ^a, Sus 
cwe(Sende to Caem fiscum, "Weaxa6^ and beo^ gemanig- 
fielde, and gefyllatS ^a sae '^ ; and eac, " Da fuglas beon 
gemanigfielde bufan ^aere eorSan " ; and hit gewearS t5a 
swa. Da fuglas, soSlice, Se on flodum wunia^, sindon 
flaxfete be Godes foresceawunge, 6aet hie swim man 
maegen and secean him fodan. Sume beotJ langsweorede,^ 
swa-swa swanas^ and ielfetan, ^set hie argecean him 
msegen m^te* be^ tJsem grunde. And •8a, Se be^ flsesce 
libbaS, sindon cliferfete,^ and scearpe gebilode,^ Sset hie 
bitan maegen on*^ sceortum sweorum, and swiftran* on 
flyhte, Saet hie gelimplice beon to hiera lTfes^° tilungum. 
Nis na eall fugolcynn on Engla tSeode, ne on naimm 
earde ne bi8 naht ea8e eall fugolcynn, for-Sam-^e hie 
fela sindon, micle on waestme, and hie mislice fleogat5, 
swa-swa us bee s^cgeatS sweotoUice be^^ t5sem. 

1 Cf. p. 126, 1. 11 ft. 

2 Not past participles, though 
with the same ending. 

^ Swanas and ielfetan are 
here virtually identical ; in ON. 
swanr is the poetical, alft the 
ordinary designation. Swan has 
been doubtfully derived from the 
root of Lat. sonare, and ielfete 
(cf. the ON. form) from that of 
Lat. alhus. 

* Object of araecean. 

s Here = from ; cf . ' hy the 
roots. ' 

6 Cf. "Man shall not live hy 
bread alone." 

"^ Clifer- is apparently related 
to cleave — adhere. 

8 Translate, with. ^ See 64. 
1'^ An interesting word, related 
to Mod. Eng. leave. Germ. h{e)leih- 
en, Gr. \nrape7v = hold out, persist ^ 
originally, therefore, life = a hold- 
ing out, continuance. In German, 
hody, one of its older meanings, is 
the commoner one for Leih. Here 
= livelihood. 

11 So in Fielding's ^meZm (8.2): 



On 'Saein siextan daege tire Dryhten gecwaetS: "Ac^nne^ 
seo eorSe nil cucu nietenu on hiera cynrene, and tSa 
creopendan wyrmas, and eall deorcynn on hiera cyn- 
renum/^ Hwaet^! t5a God geworhte, Surli Ms wunderlican 

5 milit, eall nletencynn on hiera cynrenum, and Sa wildan 
deor Se on wudnm eardia^, and eall ^aet fiSerfete^ bits, 
of .Ssere foresaedan eor^an, and eall wyrmcynn tSa-tSe 
creopende beoS, and Sa reSan leon,^ 6e her on lande ne 
beo8, and Sa swiftan tigres,"* and tSa sellican pardes,* 

10 and tSa ^geslican beran, and tSa ormaetan elpas, tSa-'Se on 
Engla tSeode ac^nnede ne beo'5, and fela oSru cynn 'Se ge 
ealle ne cunnon. Da beoS langsweorede tSe libbaS be 
gaerse, swa-swa olfend^ and assa, bors and hrySeru, 
beadeor and rah deor, and gehwilc oSru ; and aelc bit5 

15 gelimplic to bis lifes tilunge. Wulfas, and leon, and 
witodlice beran, babba^ strangne sweoran, and sciertran^ 
be^ daele/ and maran tuscas, to hiera m^tes tilunge, for- 
Sani-t5e bie libbat5 biera lif^ be reaflace, swarswa gebwilc 
oSrn deor® tSe d^riaS 'Saeni oSrum. Da elpas beo6 swa 

20 micle swilce o6re muntas,^" and bie magon libban Sreo 
bund geara, and man maeg bie w^nian to wige mid 

" I always love to speak hy people 
as I find"; Shak., M. V. 1. 2. 58 : 
" How say you hy the French 
lord ? " 

1 Cf. p. 126, 1. 15 ff. 

2 Translate, Lo 1 

^ Fiffer- is akin to Lat, quattuor. 

* From Latin. With pard cf. 
Shakespeare's "Bearded like the 

^ l^ot elephantj'but camel. EIp 
(longer form, elpend) is elephant. 

6 See 65. 

■^ Translate, in part. 

8 See 168. 1. 

^ Cf. Shakespeare's {King Lear 
3.4.143): " Mice and rats and such 
small deer." What is the German ? 

10 So the ME. Bestiary (ca. 
1220) says (1. 604): "Elpes arn 



craefte, swa Saet m^nn wyrceaS wighus him on uppan, 
and of tSsem f eohtaS on hiera fierdinge ; •Sonne fllehS selc 
hors^ afsered^ 6urh t5a elpas, and, gif him hwa wiSst^nt, 
he bis sona oftreden.^ Ac we nellaS na swItJor nu ymb 
Sis sprecan. 5 

On Saem ilcan daege lire Dryhten wolde mannan ge- 
wyrcean of Saere ilcan eorSan, for-Sam-^e on Sisum fierste 
afeoll se deofol of Ssere healican heofonan, mid his 
gegadum, for his upahsefednesse, into h^lle wite. IJre 
Dryhten cwaeS be him on his halgan godspelle/ In veri- lo 
tate non stetit, quia Veritas non est in eo — " He ne wunode 
na on soSfsestnesse, for-^am-Se seo soSfsestnes nis nates- 
hwon on him.'' God hine geworhte wundorlicne and 
fsegerne. Da sceolde he, gif he wolde, weor^ian his 
Scieppend mid micelre eaSmodnesse, tSe hine swa mserne 15 
gesceop. Ac he ne dyde na swa, ac mid dyrstigre 
modignesse cwseS^ 'Sset he wolde wyrcean his cynesetl 
bufan Godes tunglum, ofer tSsera wolcna heanesse on 
•Ssem norSdeele, and beon Gode gelic. Da forlet he 
t5one uElmihtigan, Se is eall soSfsestnes, and nolde 20 
habban his hlafordscipe, ac wolde beon him self on his 

in Inde riche, on bodi borlic 
[burly] berges Hike.'''* 

1 This seems to indicate that 
^Ifric employed Ambrose's adap- 
tation of Basil's Hexameron, since 
the original does not contain this 
thought. Ambrose has (Bk. VI., 
Chap, v.): "Quid faciat eques, 
cum equus ejus perterrefactus 
tantse bestise immanitate diffu- 

giat." Above, where elephants 
are compared to mountains, Basil 
has, ^ovvol Tives adpKLvoi ; Am- 
brose, " velut quidam mobiles 
montes versantur in prseliis," etc. 

2 So Shak., Macb. 5. 1. 41: 
"A soldier, and afeard.^^ 

3 See 142. 

* Jn. 8. 44. 
5 Isa. 14. 13. 

198 THE SIX days' wokk of cbeation. 

selfes anwealde. Da naefde he nane faestnunge, ac feoll 
sona adune, mid eallum 'Ssem ^nglum Se aet Ms rsede 
waeron, and hie wurdon aw^nde to awiergdum deoflum. 
Be t5£em cwseS^ se Hgelend her on ■Sisum life, "Ic geseah 
5 t5one scuccan swa-swa scinende lieget feallende adtin 
dreorig of heofonum," for-Sain-5e he ahreas ungerydelice. 
Da wolde God wyrcean, ^urh his wundorlican miht, 
mannan of eorSan, ^e mid ea^modnesse sceolde geearnian 
■Sone ilcan st^de on t5£era ^ngla geferreedene $e se deofol 

10 forworhte mid his dyrstignesse ; and God self cw9et5 t5a, 
swa-swa ns saegS t5eos hoc, Faciamus hominem ad imdg- 
inem nostram et similitudinem nostram, et reliqua, etc., 
tSaet is on Engliscre spreece, "Uton gewyrcean mannan 
to tirre anllcnesse and to iirre gelicnesse, 'Sset he anweald 

15 haebbe ofer eallum fiscum, and ofer fugolcynne, and ofer 
wildeorum,^ and ofer eallum gesceafte." Her ge magon 
gehieran 6a halgan 'Srlnesse and soSe annesse anre god- 
cundnesse. "Uton wyrcean mannan" — Saer is seo halge 
brines. " To urre anllcnesse " — tSser is seo annes, to 

20 anre anllcnesse, na to 'Srim anlicnessum. On Saes mannes 
sawle is Godes anlicnes, for-6am is se mann selra^ 6onne 
•Sa sawulleasan nietenu, 6e nan andgiet nabba'6 ymb hiera 
agenne Scieppend. God Sa geworhte of tJaere eorSan 
lame,^ mid his halgum handum, mannan to his anlic-^ 

25 nesse, and ableow on his ansiene liflicne bleed ; and he 
wear^ mann geworht on libbendre sawle. God self Sa 
sitJtSan gesceop him naman Adam, and of his anum ribbe 

1 Lk. 10. 18, 

2 What is the etymology of wilderness? Cf. 35. 

3 See 66. * See 24. 

THE SIX days' work OF CREATION. 199 

worhte him gemacan.^ Hiere nama wses Eva, tire^ ealra 
modor. And God hie 'Sa gebletsode mid ^isse bletsunge, 
" WeaxatS and beo6 gem^nigfielde, and gefylla^ t5a eor^an, 
and habba^ eow anweald ofer tSa eor^an, and ofer sse 
fiscum, and ofer Saem fleogendum fuglum, and ofer eallum 5 
Seem nietenum ^e styriaS ofer eortSan." God gesceawode 
Sa eall his weorc, and hie waeron swi^e god. And se 
siexta dseg wear^ swa ge^ndod. 

And God ^a gefylde on (Saem seofo(5an dsege his weorc 
^e he worhte on wundorlicum dihte, and hine'^ 'Sa ger^ste, ^° 
and t56ne dseg gebletsode, for-Sam-Se he on ^sem seofo^an 
daege geswac his weorces.* Naes he na werig, Seah-Se hit 
swa awriten sie ; ne he mid ealle ne geswac t$a gesceafta 
to edniwianne,^ ac he geswac t^ses dihtes** Sses deoplican 
crseftes, swa 'Saet he seldctiSe siSSan scieppan nolde, ac ^5 
^a ilcan geednlwian 66 ^nde 'Sisse worulde, swa-swa tire 
Haelend on his halgan godspelle gecwaeS,^ Pater mens 
usque modo operatur, et ego operor, 'Sset is on Englisc, 
"Mm Fseder wyrcS glet oS Sisne andweardan dseg, and 
ic eac wyrce." ^Ice geare^ bi^ orf ac^nned, and m^nn- 20 
isce^ m^nn^ to mannum ac^nnede, $a-^e God gewyrcS 
swa-swa he geworhte 'Sa serran ; and he ne sciep6 nane 
sawle butan ^sem cildum anum, and eall nietenu nabba6 
nane sawle.^ 

1 In Chaucer's Sir Thopas we ^ ggg i84. b. 

have: "For in this world no * See 156, yfc. ^ See 142. 

womman is Worthy to be my 6 jn_ 5^ 17^ 7 gee 176. 

ma/ce." So in Spenser (F. Q. 3. » Translate, human beings. 

11. 2): "That was as trew in » Based upon Basil 82, where 

love as turtle to her make.'''' he is combating the theory of 

^ See 153. a. the transmigration of souls. 



(Beowulf 89-100.) 

[Hrothgar, King of the Danes, builds a spacious hall for the assembly of 
his retainers. There, from time to time, they are entertained by minstrelsy, 
— sometimes that of a professional gleeman, and sometimes improvised by 
one of the warriors, or even by the king himself (cf . Iliad 9. 185-189) . 

In reading the poetry, the paragraph of the Preface relating to the 
retention of MS. forms should be borne in mind.] 

peer wses hearpan sweg, 
swutol sang scopes.^ Saegde se fe c1i|>e [90] 

frumsceaft fira feorran r^ccan, 
cwse^^ J)8et se ^Imihtiga^ eort5an worhte, 

1 For the accord of harp and 
voice see p. 175, 1. 11, and Odyssey 
8. 266: "Now as the minstrel 
touched the lyre, he lifted up his 
voice in sweet song." 

2 Thorkelia, the first editor of 
Beowulf, already noticed the re- 
semblance between this song and 
that of lopas in Virgil (^n. 1. 
740-747), though this is Chris- 
tianized in its execution. An 
earlier sketch of the same con- 
ception was that in the Georgics 
(2. 475-482), of which Coning- 

ton says: "Virgil probably had 
in his mind here not only Lucre- 
tius and the Greek didactic poets, 
such as Xenophanes, Empedocles, 
and Aratus, but the legendary 
reputation of the poetic teachers 
of early Greece, such as Orpheus 
and Musseus. His own notion of 
an ancient bard is that of a hiero- 
phant of nature. . . . The con- 
ception belongs not to Augustan 
Rome, but to primitive Greece, 
where science was theological and 
imaginative, and verse the natu- 

3 Cf. p. 124, 1. 4 ff. 



wlitebeorhtne wang, swa^ waeter bebuge'8^; 
ges^tte^ Sigelirepig sunnan* ond monan* 
leoman to leohte landbuendum, [95] 

and gefrsetwade foldan sceatas 
leomum ^ ond leafum ; lif eac gesceop ' 

cynna^ gehwylcum })ara fe cwice hwyrfaj?/ 
Swa 'Sa drihtguman dreamum lifdon 
eadiglice. [100] 

ral vehicle of all knowledge and 
thought. It had, however, been 
partially realized by Lucretius, 
whose example exercised a strong 
influence on Virgil's imagina- 
tion." As to the possibility of 
an Old English poet's being famil- 
iar with Virgil, compare the testi- 
mony of Bede {Eccl. Hist. 4. 2) 
concerning the pupils of Theo- 
dore and Hadrian : " Usque hodie 
supersunt de eorum discipulis 
qui Latinam Greecamque lingnam 

aeque ut propriam, in qua nati 
sunt, /lorunt." 

1 Almost = which. In archaic 
German so is thus used: "Von 
alien, so da kamen." 

2 This phrase is found again in 
the Andreas. See p. 216, 1. 18. 

3 Cf.p.l25,1.12f£. 4 See 153. 6. 
^ See lim, and 174. 

^ Dependent upon gehwylcum 
(154. 6). 

■^ Here ends the song. The rest 
refers to Hrothgar's retainers. 



(From the Judith.) 

[Of this extract Ten Brink has said {Early English Literature) : " To a 
lucid, well-constructed narrative are joined epic profusion, vigor, and ani- 
mation. In the highest degree effective is the portrayal of Judith's return 
to Bethulia, of the warlike advance of the Hebrews, of the surprise of the 
Assyrian camp, the terror of the Assyrian nobles, who dare not disturb 
their lord in his rest, and finally of the disbandment and flight of +;he 
heathen host." 

The portion here given omits the discovery of Holofernes' dead body by 
the Assyrians. It is based upon the Apocryphal book of Judith, the first 
few verses of the fifteenth chapter, especially verses 2, 5, 7, and 11. For 
further particulars see my edition of the Judith. 

Attention is called to the device employed for indicating parallel or 
synonymous expressions, which have constituted one of the chief diffi- 
culties of OE. poetry. The device consists in the enclosure between 
reference-letters of the parallel expressions, the synonyms being desig- 
nated by the same letters. For an example, see p. 204, 11. 5-7.] 

pa wurdon bliSe burhsittende/ 
sy66an hi gehyrdon^ hii seo halge^ spraec [i6o] 
ofer heanne'* weall. H^re wses on lustum, 
wits ]>8es f sestengeates ^ folc onette, 
5 weras wif somod^; wornum and heapnm, 
tSreatum^ and tSrymmum |)rungon and urnon 
ongean 'Sa peodnes msegS J^usendmselum, [165] 

1 See 28. 2 gee 19. « Here almost = and. Through- 

3 See 55. ^ See 58. 1. out the following poetry, remem- 

s Wiff sometimes governs the ber 25. 

genitive ; see 158. '> See 220. 




ealde ge geonge; geghwylcuin ^ weartJ 

m^n on ^sere medobyrig mod^ areted,' 

sy6(5an hie ongeaton j^aet wses* Itidith cumen 

^ft to eSle,* and Sa ofostlice 
5 hie® mid ea'Smedum in forleton. [170] 

pa seo gleawe^ het golde gefraetewod^ 

hyre ^inenne^ J)ancolmode ^ 

Jjses h^rewaeSan heafod^° onwrI(5an, 

and hyt" to^ behSe^ blodig^^ getywan 
10 ])am burhleodum,^^ hti hyre set beaduwe^* ge- [175I 

Sprsec^'' ^a seo se^ele to eallum })ani folce: — 

"Her ge magon sweotole, sigerofe haele^,^^ 

leoda rseswan,^^ on ^aes laSestan 

hse^nes hea^orinces heafod starian, 
15 Holofernns^^ unlyfigendes,^ 1 180] 

]>e us monna msest^^ *mor6ra* gefr^mede, 

1 Belongs to m^n. 

2 Subject. 

3 What is the normal form of 
this word (113)? 

4 Note the auxiliary: was come, 
not had come. 

5 See 23. 

^ Ace. sing. 

7 See 181. 

8 Modifies gleaTve. 
^ Ace. sing. 

10 Object of onwrilSfan. 

11 For hit. 

^^ = as a sign. 
13 Modifies hyt. 

14 Construe, and aetywan hyt, 
blodig, ]>ain burhleodum, t6 
behi^fe ha hyre, etc. 

15 Unusual form for beadwe, 
from beadu. 

16 See 190. 

1' For the order cf . Tennyson's 
line from the song in The Prin- 
cess : "Rose a nurse of ninety 

18 See 152. 

19 Genitive. 

20 y is sometimes found for 1, 
as well as for ie (19) . 

21 Msest seems to have two 



sarra 'sorga*, and ])8et swy5or^ gjt^ 

yean' wolde; ac Mm ne uSe^ God 

l^Dgran lifes,* ]>ddt he mid IgeSSum us 

^glan moste*; ic him ealdor^ ot^jiiQng^ [185] 

5 |)urh Godes fultnm. Nu ic ^gumena** gehwsene^ 
])yssa^ ^burgleoda*' biddan wylle/ 
^'randwiggendra^, ]>ddt ge recene eow^ 
fysan^^ to gefeohte; syS'San *=frymt5a God°, 
'^arfaBst Cyning'^, eastan s^nde [190] 

10 leohtne leoman, beraS "^linde^ fop's, 
^bord* for breostum and byrnhomas, 
scire helmas in sceat5ena gemong. 
fyllan^ ^folctogan® fagum sweordum, 
faege ®f^umga^as^ Fynd^ syndon eowere^^ [195] 

15 gedemed to deat^e and ge *"dom^ agon/^ 
^tir^ set tohtan, swa eow getacnod hafatS^^ 
mihtig Dr3''hten )?urh mine hand." 
pa'wearS ^snelra^ werod snude gegearewod, 

senses and two constructions in 
this and similar passages. In one 
it apparently = chiefest, and is 
construed with the preceding geni- 
tive ; in the other = most in num- 
6e"r, and is construed with the fol- 
lowing genitive. Cf . Andr. 1447 : 
" Jja t>e heardra msest hearma ge- 
fr^medan" ; Beow. 2645: "for- 
^am he manna mgest mser^a 
gefr^mede" ; etc. 

1 See above, p. 203, n. 20. 

2 See 19 ; 199. 1. 
« See 129. 

4 See 159. a. 
6 See 137. 

6 Neuter. 

7 See 142. 

8 LWS. ace. of gehwa. See 1 
154. h. 

9 See 184. h. 

1° Opt. pres. 2 plur. 

11 Construe, eowere fynd 
syndon gedemed, etc. 

1- See 127. What two words 
in this line have the same root? 
Which is the derivative ? 

13 Is this the usual form ? 



*^cenra^ to campe; stopon^ cynerofe [200] 

s^cgas and gesiSas, bseron [sige] })uf as, 

foron to gefeohte forS on gerihte, 

hseletS^ under helmum of^ tSsere halgan byrig 

5 on* Sset dsegrgd sylf; ^dynedan* scildas, 

hltide *hlummon*. paes se hlanca gefeah* [205] 

wulf in walde,^ and se wanna hrefn, 

wselgif re f ugel : wistan ^ begen 

])ddt him^ 'Sa peodguman )?ohton^ tilian 

o fylle^° on feegum; ac him fleah" on last 

earn setes^^ georn, urigfeSera/^ [210] 

salowigpada** sang hildeleo'5, 
hyrnedn^bba. Stopon ^beaSorincas'', 
^beornas** to beadowe '^bordum*^^ be^eahte, 

^ See stseppan. 

2 Nom. plur. See 43. 9. 

3 = from, not of. 
* = at. 

^ See gef eon. 

6 Is this the usual form ? 
See 21. 

7 Irregular for wlston (126). 

8 Not reflexive. 
^ See 3'^ncean. 

10 = feast. See Iliad 22. 42 : 
"Then quickly would dogs and 
vultures devour him on the 

11 See fleogan. 

12 See 156. c. 

13 See Shelley's description of 
the rooks, in the Lines written 
among the Euganean Hills : — 

Gathering round with wings all 

Through the dewy mist they soar. 

So their plumes of purple grain, 
Starred with drops of golden rain, 
Gleam, etc. 

Perhaps Milton may have bor- 
rowed the word from OE. in II 
Fens. 146 : " dewy -feathered 

1* Note the three similar epi- 
thets of the earn. 

1^ Bord, border, like rand, 
same meaning (see above, p. 204, 
1. 7), is poetically used for shield. 
So Gr. trvi (akin to Eng. withe) 
meant a) a circle or rim made of 
willow ; h) the outer edge or rim 
of the shield (like dvrv^y, c) the 





•^hwealfum lindum^/ fa t5e hwile^ ser 

^ItSeodigra^ *edwit^ ]?oledon, [215] 

h8et5eiira ^liosp*; ^Mm^ ]78et hearde wear^ 

set t5ani aescplegan* eallum^ forgolden 

^Assyrium^, sytS^an Ebreas 

under gutSfanum gegan^ hsefdon^ 

to Sam fyrdwicum. Hie Sa fromlice [220] 

leton forS fleogan flana scuras, 

•^hildensedran*^ of hornbogan, 

*^streelas° st^dehearde; styrmdon hlude 

grame guSfrecan, garas^ s^ndon 

in heardra gemang. '^HseletS'* wseron yrre,^ [225] 

"^landbtiende^ laSum cynne, 

stopon '^styrnmode*^, ^st^rcedferlit5e'^ 

wr^hton unsofte ealdgeniSlan^ 

round shield itself. A good illus- 
tration of its use is in Euripides, 
Tro. 1196-97, where Hecuba is 
speaking of Hector's shield. Pot- 
ter translates : — 

Yet how sweet to trace 
The mark of his strong grasp, and 

on the verge 
Of thy high orb (trvos) the sweat. 

1 The material for the weapon, 
linden for shield. 

2 Ace. sing.: for a time. 

3 Dependent on edwTt. 

* On ash as the designation of 
a spear, see Shakespeare, Coriol. 

3.5.112-115: — 

Let me twine 
Mine arms about that body, where 

My grained ash an hundred times 
hath broke^ 

And scarr'd the moon with splin- 

See also Iliad 22. 225 (where 
fieXir], ash, is used for spear): 
" Stood leaning on his bronze- 
pointed (xaX/coYXc^xfos, like the 
sergescod of Beowulf 2778) 
ashen-spear." For aescplega cf. 
* sword-play.' 

5 Agrees with him (164. h). 

6 Note this pluperfect, formed 
with an auxiliary. 

■^ What is the meaning of the 
gai'- in Mod. Eng. garlic f 

8 See 19. 

9 Ace. plur. (168). 



medowerige ^ ; mundum^ brugdon 
scealcas of scea(5um sclrmseled swyrd^ 
^cgum gecoste,^ slogon eornoste 
Assiria^ ^oretmsecgas*, 
^Di6hycgende% nanne ne sparedon 
))ses ^h^refolces^ heanne^ ne ricne 

|>e hie ofercuman mihton. 
Him^ mon^ feaht on last, 
6t5 se msesta dsel 
hilde gesaeged 
sweordum^^ geheawen, 
and eac wselgifrum 
Flugon ^a t5e lyfdon 
Him on laste for 


^cwicera manna^ 

maegeneacen^ folc, 


10 fses h^riges^^ Iseg 
on Sam sigewonge, 
wulfum to Avillan,^ 
fuglum to fro f re. 
laSra lindwiggendra. 


15 sw6ot Ebrea^^ ^sigor^^ geweorSod^ 

*dome gedyrsod^; him^^ feng ^Dryhten God^ [300] 
f^gre on^'' fultum," ^Frea 3elmihtig^ 
''Hi*^ ■8a fromllce fagiim swyrdum 
'^hsele'S higerofe'^ li^rpaS^^ Avorhton 

1 Ace. plur. ; agrees with eald- 

2 See 174. 

3 Ace. plur. ; irregular for 

* Agrees with swyrd. See 
174. d. 

^ Gen. plur. 

6 From hean, not heah. 

■^ The Assyrians. 

8 See 89. e. 

9 See 147. 

10 See 44. 2. 

11 See 174. c. 

12 = (^as) a delight to wolves. 
See 161. 2. 

18 Depends on ffa. 

1* Gen. plur. 

1^ Inst, without ending. 

16 The Hebrews. 

1" =z to {their) help. For the 
construction see 164. e. 

IS Irregular for h^repaff (for 



|)urh latSra gemong, linde heowon, 

scildburh. scseron: '^sceotend'^ wseron [305] 

gut5e gegr^mede, '^guman Ebreisce*^j 

pegnas on tSa tid pearle gelyste^ 
5 gargewinnes. peer on greot gefeoll 

se hyhsta^ dsel heafodgerimes 

"Assiria* ealdorduguSe,^ [310] 

*laSan cynnes*: lythwon becom 

cwicera* to cy^Se. Cirdon^ cynerofe, 
10 wiggend^ on wit5ertrod, ^waelsc^P oninnan,® 

^'reocende hrsew^; riim^ wses to nimanne 

londbiiendum on Sam '^latSestan'^, [315] 

hyra '^ ealdf eondum unlyfigendum "^ 

heolfrig h^rereaf, — hyrsta^ scyne,^ 
15 bord and brad swyrd, brtine helmas, 

dyre^ madmas. Hsefdon domlice 

on t5ani folcst^de fynd^ oferwunnen [320] 

eSelweardas/^ ealdh^ttende ^ 

swyrdum asw^fede^; hie on swaSe r^ston, 
20 ]>a Se him to life laSost wseron 

cwicera cynna. Da seo cneoris eall, 

1 See 190. 2 See 19. 

8 Either dependent upon, or 
parallel to, heafodgerimes. 
* Dependent on lythwon. 

5 For ig is sometimes found, 
as here, Igg. What does this 
signify ? 

6 Governs waelsc^l and hrsew; 
the latter is an ace. plural. 

' Translate, there was a chance 

for the natives to capture from 
the most hated ones (laffestan 
for -um) . 

8 These nouns are all ace. plur. 

^ Ace. plur. 1"^ Norn. plur. 

11 Supply haefdon. With a- 
sw^bban, in the sense of 'slay,' 
cf. the similar use of the Lat. 
sopire and the Gr. evvd^eiv (the 
latter in Sophocles). 


msegSa mgerost, anes moii'Ses fyrst/ [325] 

wlanc^ wundenlocc ^ wagon' and laeddon* 

to tSeere beorhtan byrig Bethuliam 

helmas and hupseax,* hare byrnan, 
5 gtitSsceorp gumena golde gefrsetewod, 

mserra^ madma fonne mon aenig [330] 

as^cgan msege searojjoncelra^ ; 

eal ]?8et 6a Seodguman )>rymme geeodon, 

cene^ under cumblum on compwige 
10 ]>uTh luditlie^ gleawe lare 

maegS^ modigre. *Hi* to mede® byre [335] 

of ■Sam si'Sfate^^ sylfre^^ brobton 

*eorlas aescrofe* Holof ernes ^^ 

sweord and swatigne^^ helm, swylce eac side byrnan, 
15 gerenode readum golde, and eal jjaet se rinca baldor 

swiSmod" sinces^ ahte o^^e sundoryrfes,^^ [340] 

beaga^ and beorbtra matSma,^^ hi Jjset pgere beorhtan 

ageafon gearo))oncolre. 

1 See 170. ^ See Mayhew, OE. Fhonol- 

2 Agreeing with cneoris. ogy, § 365. 

3 See wegan, and 189. 2. 10 See 43. 2 ; here the a In- 
'i Ace. plur. trudes even into the sing. 

5 Comp. and gen. plur.; see 60. 11 For self re (166). 
2. The position would seem to 12 Genitive. 

require mgerran madmas. ^^ Lit. sweaty, hut in poetry 

6 Depends on eenig. swat usually = blod. 

'' Modifies, or is parallel to, 1* Agrees with baldor. 

iS'eodguinan. ^ Gen. sing. i^ Dependent on eal. 


[The Andreas is a poem of about 1722 lines (the numbering differs 
according to the edition). Jacob Grimm considered it and the Elene to 
be (Preface to his edition, p. iv) "the most ancient and instructive pro- 
ductions of Old English poetry, next to the Beowulf.^' With the help of 
Thilo, Grimm discovered (pp. xvi ff.) its source to be the Acts of Andrew 
and Mattheic, written in Greek, and now published in Tischendorf's Acta 
Apostolorum Apocrypha, pp. 132-166. Besides this poem, there is a prose 
version which may be profitably consulted, and which is to be found in 
Bright's valuable Anylo-Saxon Reader, pp. 113-128. It is believed by many 
scholars that both these versions were made from a Latin translation of 
the Greek original, but this cannot be said to have been demonstrated, 
at least for the poem. The Greek original is discussed at length by Lip- 
sius. Die apokryphen Apostelgeschichten und Apostellegenden, pp. 646 ff. 
A portion of the Greek, corresponding to lines 235-349, is printed in 
Appendix III. 

According to Lipsius, the scene of the poem is the northern coast of 
the Black Sea ; though the Old English poet had Africa in mind (cf . 1. 198) , 
perhaps because the region about Colchis had by some been called the 
inner or second Ethiopia. The Marmedonia (1. 30) or Mermedonia of our 
text has been identified with Myrmecium, Gr. Mvpix-^jKLov, near the modern 
Yenikale, in the Crimea. Here are supposed to have dwelt the Cimme- 
rians of Homer, and here, in classic times, were settled various Scythian 
tribes. Of the Tauri (Crimea was anciently the Tauric Chersonesus) 
Herodotus says (4. 103) : " They sacrifice to the virgin all who suffer 
shipwreck, and any Greeks they meet with driven on their coasts, in the 
following manner: having performed the preparatory ceremonies, they 
strike the head with a club ; some say they throw the body down from a 
precipice. . . . The Tauri themselves say that this deity to whom they 
sacrifice is Iphigenia, daughter of Agamemnon " (cf. Euripides' Iphigenia 
in Tauris, and Goethe's Iphigenie). This reputation clung to the region, 
for Tertullian says (Adv. Marcionem 1. 1) : " Pontum ferocissimas gentes 
inhabitare, parentum cadavera cum pecudibus csesa convivio convorantes." 
Nor was the evil fame of the district diminished by the fact that Huns 
were settled here from the fourth to the sixth century, then Goths, and 

afterward Tartars. 

210 . 


The story of the poem, up to the beginning of our extract, is brietiy 
this: St. Matthew was in imminent danger among the Mermedoniaus, a 
race of cannibals. In this extremity God appears to Andrew, and exhorts 
him to go to Matthew's assistance, which, after some reluctance, he pre- 
pares to do. 

Bits of translation and interesting comments (not always correct), 
embracing much of our extract, are given by Brooke, Hist. Early Erig. 
Lit. pp. 169 £f., 413 ff.] 

Conversation between Andrew and the Sea-Captain. 

Gewat^ hiin )>a ^on uhtan* "mid gerdsege" [235] 

ofer sandhleoSu to s^s farut^e 
j)r]ste on ge))ance, ond his )>egnas mid, 
gangan^ on greote ; garsecg^ hlynede,* 
5 beoton brimstreamas. Se beorn waes on^ byhte,^ 
syS'San he on waniSe widfseSme® scip [240] 

modig gemette. pa com ''morgen torht**, 
^beacna beorhtost**, ofer breomo sneowan, 
halig of heolstre ; heofoncandeF blac^ 

1 See 184. a. ^ See 199. 1. chafe, rage; the -ric as in Ger. 

3 Sweet {Engl. Stud. 2. 314- imlterich ; so that gasrlc would 

316) explains this word as being, = the rager. 

not a compound of gar and s^cg * Brooke translates this line : 

(= spear + man, according to " Trampled o'er the shingle. 

Bos worth, as if a personification Thundered loud the ocean." 

like Neptune with his trident ; ^ Nearly = joyful, rejoiced. Gr. 

or = spear 4- sedge, with Leo, ' rejoiced with very great joy.' 

the tips of the waves being ^ Poetic license ; Gr, ' a little 

likened to spears), but as aris- ship.' Cf. the Homeric ko^Xt; vt/Os. 

ing by metathesis from the Runic "^ = the sim. Of ' candle ' the 

word gasric (cf. the name of the New Eng. Diet, says: "One of 

Vandal king, Gaisaricus), as if the Latin words introduced at 

gas + ric. The gas- would cor- the English Conversion, and long 

respond to Old Norse geisa, to associated chiefly with religious 

8 See blican. 



ofer lagoflodas. He tSaer '^lidweardas" 

])rymlice fry ''fegnas*^ gemette/ [245] 

•^modiglice m^nn*', on m^rebate 

sittan siSfrome, swylce hie ofer sse comon.^ 
5 p9et^ wses Drihten sylf, duge^a* Wealdend/ 

ece, selmihtig, mid his ^nghim twam. 

Wseron "^hie*^ on gescirplan ^ scipf erendmn ^, [250] 

•^eorlas^ onlice ^eallSendum^, 

f)onne hie on flodes faeSm^ ofer feorne weg 
10 on cald wseter ceolum^ lacaS/ 

Hie Sa gegrette se Se on greote stod, 

fus^ on^ faroSe faegn^ reordade : — [255] 

"Hwanon comon ge ceolum litSan, 

macrseftige m^nn, on m^re]?issan 
15 ane'^ gegflotan? hwanon eagorstream 

ofer ySa gewealc eowic ^^ brohte ? " 

Him pa ondswarode selmihti^^ God, [260] 

swa^ ]>8et ne wiste se 'Se ]>9es wordes bad,^* 

observances. . . . This sacred 
character of the word bears on 
the OE. poetic compounds." Cf. 
Bom. and Jul. 3. 5. 9.: "Night's 
candles are burnt out." See 
also Shakespeare's metapliorical 
sense of lamp, and cf. the Gr. 
\a/xirdsj Lat. lampas, in poet- 
ical use. 

1 So Sievers ; not in MS. 

2 = had come. 

3 What is the antecedent of 

* = Lord of hosts. 

5 = expanse, originally embrac- 
ing arms, embrace. 

6 Not keel, but ship. 

■^ The radical meaning is, to 
move in any swift or impetuous 

^ = ready, eager for. One 
would expect the ace. faroff. 
9 MS. fraegn. 1° Inst. sing. 
11 See 81. 1. 12 See 28. 

13 = in such a manner. One 
is inclined to substitute ffeali, as 
making better sense. 

1* See bidan, and 156. I. 



hwset se manna waes meSelhegendra,^ 
\>e he |>8er on warotSe wifS}>ingode : — 
^'We of Marmedonia maegSe syndon 
feorran gef^rede ; us mid flode baer [265] 

5 on hranrade^ "heahstefn^ naca% 

^snellic ssemearh'^^ snude^ bewunden/ 

6^-])ddt we fissa leoda land gesoMon 

wsere^ bewrecene, swa us wind fordraf." 

Him ipa, Andreas eat5m6d oncw8et5 : — [270] 

10 "Wolde ic l^e biddan, J^eh"^ ic fe ^beaga^ lyt, 
^sincweor'Sunga^, syllan meahte, 
|)3et ]?u us gebrohte ^brante^ ceole^, 
^'hea hornscipe*^j ofer hwseles et5el 
on J)£ere meegSe; biS^ 'Se meorS^*^ wiS God, [275] 

15 |)8et^^ ]?u us on lade liSe weorSe." 
Eft him Qndswarode seSelinga Helm^^ 
of^^ ySlide, ^ngla Scippend : — 
" Ne magon ))8er gewunian widf erende, 

1 Cf. the Homeric fxipo\f/ as an 
epithet, and in later use as an 
equivalent, of men, mortals (so 
II. 2. 285), and see p. 222, 1. 9. 

2 With this sense of rad, road, 
may be compared the Gr. K^Xevdos, 
irdpos, as in the Homeric IxdvSevra 
KiXevda (Od. 3. 177), fishy roads; 
see also -^schylus' wSpov oiojvQp 
(Prom. 281), track of birds. 

8 Cf . the Gr. v-^lirpi^pos. 

4 Cf. Od. 4. 708 : " Swift ships, 
that serve men for horses on the 
sea " (aX6j ifTrTrot). See p. 226, 1. 2. 

^ = encompassed with speed, 

6 An unusual word for ocean. 

■^ In this poem, ea (ea) not 
seldom becomes e (e), especially 
before palatal consonants (10). 

8 See 174. a. 

^ Future sense, as frequently 
with bisac. 

1*^ Anglian form for WS. med, 
related to Gr. fxiadbs (Mayhew, 
OE. Phon. § 365). '^'^\>mr~iff 

12 Not helmet., but protector. 

13 — from, as often. 


ne )?8er ^Ij^eodige eardes^ brticaS, [280] 

all in |)3ere ceastre cwealm^ prowiaS 
J?a t5e feorran fyder feorh^ gelgedap^; 
ond fu wilnast* nu ofer widne m^re, 
5 ]>ddt t5u on pa fsegSe pine f eore spilde ? " 

Him pa Andreas agef ondsware : — [285] 

"tJsic lust hw^teS^ on pa leodmearce, 
my eel modes hiht^ to psere mseran byrig, 
peoden^ leofesta, gif pti us pine^ wilt 

10 on m^refaro^e miltse gecySan." 

Him ondswarode ^ngla peoden, [290] 

N^regend^ fira, of nacan^^ stefne: — 
"We Se estlice mid us willa'S 
f^rigan^ freolice ofer fisces^^ bsetS^^ 

15 efne to pam lande, pser^ pe lust mynetS 

to gesecanne, sy$6an^^ ge eoAvre [295] 

^'gafulrsedenne* agifen habba^, 
*sceattas gescrifene''; swa eow scipweardas 
ara^* ofer ySbord unnan willa'S." 

20 Him^ pa ofstlice Andreas wit5; 

winepearfende, wordum mselde : — [300] 


1 See 156. e. en from dryht ; cf . cyning, with 

2 Ace. a different ending, from cyn. 
8 Periphrastic for ' go.' ^ Agrees with miltse. 

* Elliptic, like Shakespeare's ^ See 18. 1° Gen. sing. 

CM. W. 3, 2. 88) "I will to my ^ Kenning (215) for 'ocean.' 

honest knight." 1=2 Almost = that. Cf. there in 

5 A following verb of motion Mod. Eng. thereto. 
understood. i^ _ ^g gQQ^ ^g^ 

6 Here = bent. 1* MS. aras. See 156. i. 
' Formed from 'Seod, as dryht- ^^ Governed by wiS. 


"Naebbe ic fseted gold ne feohgestreon, 

welan ne wiste/ ne wira gespann, 

landes^ ne locenra beaga,^ fset ic ]>e maege *lust' 

^willan* in worulde, swa M worde bee wist."*" 
5 Him ))a beorna Breogo, ]7£er^ he on bolcan saet, [305] 

ofer waro^a^ geweorp^ wi6}>ingode: — 

"Hti gewearS pe fises/ wine leofesta, 

t$3et (5u ssebeorgas secan woldes,* 

m^restreama gemet, ma^muui bedseled 
10 ofer cald cleofu® ceoles^^ neosan? D'o] 

Nafast ])e to frofre on faroSstrsete 

Mafes wiste ne hlutterne^^ 

drync to dugoSe^? Is se drohta^ Strang 

]7am ]>e lagolade lange^^ cunna]?." 
15 Da him Andreas t$urh ondsware, [315] 

1 Not the verb. does not mean wave. I would 

2 The construction suddenly suggest the smiting of the shores, 
changes to the genitive, as if perhaps meaning the plunging of 
some word like aht, aught, had the breakers. 

been introduced. The poet is "^ Anticipatory of the relative 

apparently trying to adapt to sentence, J?aet ]?u, etc. 

this place the landes and loc- ^ On the omission of final t, 

enra beaga of Beowulf 2296, see 95. 

there a partitive genitive. ^ See clif, and 20. 

3 Now only existing as hee, a 1° See 156. m. 

nautical term for a ring or hoop 11 An instance of an originally 

of metal. See New Eng. Diet. long vowel rendered short by the 

s.v. Bee"^. gemination of the following con- 

* See becweffan. sonant. 

5 Nearly = from inhere. ^'^ The Greek has Siarpotpi^v, 

*5 Kemble translates, the dash- sustenance (p. 240). 
ing of the vmves ; but wares' ^^ Adj, • 



WIS on gewitte, wordhord^ onleac^: — 
"Ne gedafenaS^ J>e, nu ]>e Dryhten geaf^ 
"welan ond wiste ond woruldspede, 

mid oferhygdum, 
selre biS geghwam 
swa ]>8et Crist behead, 
We his ))egnas^ synd, 

•Saet M ondsware* 
5 s^cge ** sarcwide ^ : 
)?8et he eaSmeduin 
oncnawe ctiSlice, 
peoden frymfsest. 


gecoren to c^mpum. He is Cyning on^ riht,^ 
10 Weald end ond Wyrhta wuldorjrymmes, [325] 

an ece God eallra gesceafta, 
swa he ealle befehS anes^ ^crsefte* 
hefon^** ond eorSan *halgum mihtum*, 
sigora selost.^ He 'Sset sylfa cwae^, 
15 Fseder folca^ gehwses, ond us feran het [330] 
geond ginne grund gasta^^ streonan: — 
'FaraS" nn geond ealle eorSan sceatas^ 
emne swa wide swa waeter bebugeS,^^ 

1 That is, spoke. 2 See 190. 

3 Translate, hath given. 

* Ace. sing. 4* MS. sece. 

^ Inst, sing., parallel with mid 
oferhygdum (174). 

6 Perhaps adv. (72). 

' When did the word thane 
cease to be employed in liter- 
ature ? 

8 'Either = rightfully, by rights, 
or perhaps an adj. onriht = legiti- 
mate, rightful. 

^ = sole, lit. of one {alone). 

1° Unusual for heofon. 

11 One is inclined to substitute 
s^llend, bestower, which occurs 
three times with sigora in the 
poetry, whereas sigora selost is 
otherwise unknown. 

12 Dependent on gehwaes. 

13 See 156. n ; 199. 1. 

1* An interesting parallel to 
this paraphrase (a free one even 
in the Greek original) of Matt. 
10. 1 ff. is found in the poem of 
Christ, 480-489. 

15 MS. sceattas. 

16 Cf. p. 201, 1. 1. 



o'S'Se st^dewangas strsete^ gelicga)?' 
bodiafS Eefter burgum beorhtne geleafan [335] 

ofer foldan faeSm ; ic eow freoSo healde.^ 
Ne t5urfan* ge on fa fore fraetwe leedan/ 
5 gold ne seolfor; ic eow goda gehwses^ 
on eowerne agenne dom est ahw^tte/' 
Nil M seolfa^ miht SI'S userne^ [340] 

gehyran liyge])ancol ^° ; ic sceal bra^e cunnan 
bwset M us to^^ dugut5um^^ gedon wille." 
10 Him pa ondswarode ece ^ Drybten : — 

"Gif ge syndon pegnas J^ses^^ pe prym abof 
ofer middangeard, swa ge me s^cgap, [345] 

ond ge gebeoldon^* pset eow se Halga bead, 
ponne ic eow mid gefean f^rian wille 
15 ofer brimstreamas, swa ge benan^ sint." 
pa in ceol stigon^^ collenfyrb^e/^ 
^llenrofe ; gegbwylcum wearS [350] 

on m^refaroSe mod geblissod. 
Da ofer y^a geswing Andreas ongann 
'20 m^reMendum^^ miltsa^^ biddan^ 

1 Ace. sing. 2 — j)order. Jits; Gr. ttjv (piXapdpuTriav, (as a) 

3 Future sense. kindness. ^'^ MS. ^ce. 

* For arurfon (131). ^^ = of that one, of him. 

s Not lead, but carry (Gr. 1* Translate, have kept, ob- 

/Soo-Td^ere). served. 

6 Dependent on est. ^^ = petitioners. 

7= supply; not tlie normal '^^ Som'L?itm: ascenderenavem. 

sense of the word. i" -i^^rhiSre irregular for -ferliSre. 

8 See self, and 21. ^^ = for the seafarers. 

9 See 81. 1. 19 See 156. b. 

10 Agrees with arfi. 20 Biddan here takes three 

11 — 

= for (our) benefit, lit. bene- cases after it. Explain. 



wuldres Aldor, ond ])us wordum cwaetS : — 
"Forgife ]?e ^Dryhten* domweorSunga — [355] 
willan in worulde, ond in wuldre bleed — 
"^Meotud manncynnes% swa M me hafast^ 
on }?yssuni siSfsete sybbe gecy^ed!" 

Thk Voyage. — Storm at Sea. 

Gesset him ))a se halga Holmwearde^ neah, 
8et5ele be M^ehun.. Mire ic ne hyrde [360 j 

})on^ cymlicor ceol gehladenne* 
heahgestreonum. *'Haelet5'' ins^ton, 

10 ^peodnas"* ]7rymfulle, '']?egnas^ wlitige. 
Da reordode rice peoden, 

ece, aelmihtig, heht^ his "^^ngel* gan, [365] 

^maerne maguj)egn% ond m^te syllan,* 
frefran feasceaftne^ ofer flodes wylm, 

15 ])ddt hie J)e^ ea^^ mihton ofer ySa gearing 
drohtatS adreogan. pa ''gedrefed'' wearS, 
^onhrered^ hwselm^re; hornfisc plegode, [370] 

glad^^ geond garsecg, ond se grsega msew 

1 Is this the normal form ? 

2 Probably Helmwearde = 

guardian of the tiller or helm,' 
but see Vocabulary. 

3 = than that, inst. of ffset. 

4 This sentence seems to be 
imitated from Beow. 38-39 : — 

Ne hyrde ic cymlicor ceol gegyrwan 
hildewsepnum and hea^'owgedum. 

Note that the past participle is 
substituted in the passage, from 

Andreas for the infinitive of Beo- 
wulf. The former construction 
is unusual. 

5 Anglian (probably identical 
with the original) form for het 

6 For s^llan. 

■^ Meaning Andrew, though the 
next line has hie. 

8 For iff (84) . 9 For ieff. 

^^ See glidan. 



wselgifre^ wand; wedercandel swearc,' 
windas weoxon,^ wsegas grundon, 
streamas styredon, str^ngas gurron/ 
waedo gewsette*; waeter^gsa stod* 
5 })reata ))rytSum. pegnas wurdon 


1 Agrees with maevr. 

2 See sweorcan. 

* There is no hint of any ex- 
traordinary commotion, much less 
of a storm, in the original. Of all 
this long description there is noth- 
ing except, "They were troubled 
because of the sea." Brooke says 
(p. 416): "The storm is now de- 
scribed in words that come, one 
after another, short, heavy, and 
springing, like the blows of the 
waves, and the gusts of wind. 
We know as we read that the 
writer had seen the thing." 

* See georran. 

s-Part of Baskervill's note, in 
his edition, is : " weedo gewaette, 
the wet weeds (sails); wet with 
waters, Kemble ; waves swelled, 
Grein ; replebatur aquis, vadum 
madejiebat, Grimm ; waedo ge- 
waette is in apposition with 
strengas." Waedo (with short 
ae) might be nom. (ace.) plur. of 
waed, sea. But the phrase is 

6 A peculiar use of standan, 
to indicate motion rather than 
rest. In Mod. Eng. this general 

sense is represented by phrases 
like * stand back,' * stand off from 
shore,' ' stand up,' ' stand out,' 
etc. In OE. poetry, standan 
is frequently used with ^ge or 
^gesa (similarly in ON.) ; thus 
in Ps. 104. 33 (105. 38), cecidit 
timor eorum super eos : him }>£er 
^gesa . . . stod, where the King 
James version has, the fear of 
them fell upon them. The trans- 
formation of this idiom into stand 
in awe of is interesting. Note 
that the dative is still retained in 
this quotation, of about a.d. 1380 
( Sir Ferumhras 408) : " Of whame 
men stonde'S aye" [i.e. awje]. 
However, men being eventually 
understood as nom. in such a 
sentence as the last (cf. Towneley 
Mysteries, 305 [ab. 1460]: "/ 
stand great aghe " ) , in was sup- 
plied before awe, as in this from 
Lydgate (ab. 1413): "Of theyre 
lord and god to stande in awen." 
See New Eng. Diet. s.v. awe. 
The Scandinavian influence in 
Middle English confirmed the 
idiom, and assisted in its devel- 



acolmode; senig^ ne^ wende^ 

faet he lifgende land begete, 

fara* fe mid Andreas on eagor stream 

ceol gesohte. Naes* him cuS ])a, gyt [380] 

5 hwa fam sseflotan sund^ wisode. 
Him fa ''se halga* on holmwege 
ofer argeblond "^ Andreas* pa, git, 
*j)egn J)eodfcnhold,* pane gessegde 
ricum Rsesboran, )7a he gereordod wses : — [385] 

10 "De J)issa swsesenda^ •'so^fsest Meotud,^ 
^'lifes Leohtfruma,^ lean forgilde, 
**weoruda Waldend,^ ond ))e wist^ gife, 
heofonlicne hlaf, swa M ^hyldo'' wi^ me 
ofer firigendstream^ '^freode'' gecy6dest! [3Q0] 

15 Nu synt gej^reade ^fegnas mine^ 

^geonge gii^rincas *^ ; ®garsecg® hlymme^, 
*geofon® geotende®; grund^^ is onhrered,^ 
deope^ gedrefed; ^duguS^^ is ges winced, 

1 Translate, no one. ^ See 4. 
8 Dependent on sBnig. 

* For lines 4-14 the Greek has : 
" Andrew answered and said unto 
Jesus, not knowing that it was 
Jesus, The Lord give thee heav- 
enly bread from his kingdom." 

5 = either ocean or course, prob- 
ably the latter ; cf . p. 226, 1. 2. 

6 See 153. e. 

7 = as food. 

^ For firgenstream. 

* MS. heofon ; but this seems 
like an echo of Beow. 1690-91 : — 

sy^^an flod ofsloh, 
gifen geotende 

(= streaming sea; rushing sea, 
Garnett; gurgling currents, Hall; 
rushing ocean, Earle) . 

10 Probably = sea ; an unusual 
sense. Cf. p. 223, 1. 1. 

11 See p. 218, 11. 16, 17. 

12 Adv. 

1^ Kelated to Ger. tugend (cf . 
30), OE. dugan (128), and Mod. 
Eng. doughty. There is an inter- 
esting OE. phrase, duguSS* and 
geogu9 (cf. Beow. 160, etc.), 


^^Diodigra maegen*" myclum^ gebysgod." [395] 

Him of holme ^ oncwseS hselet^a Scyppend : — 
"Lset nil gef^rian *flotan* userne, 
*lid* to lande ofer lagufsesten, 
5 ond J)onne gebidan^ beornas pme, 

aras on earde, hwsenne^ pu ^ft cyme." [400] 

Edre^ him ]?a •'eorlas^ agefan^ ondsware, 
^'fegnas jjrohthearde ^ — ]?afigaii^ ne woldon 
tSaet hie forleton set lides stefnan^ 

10 leofne lareow, ond him^ land curon — ^ 
)^Hwider hweorfa^ we hlafordlease, [405] 

geomormode, gode^° orfeorme, 
synnum^^ wunde, gif we swicaS j^e^^? 
We^^ hio'6 *^laSe*' on landa gehwam, 

15 f oleum "fracoSe*^, ponne fira beam, 

^llenrofe, seht^'* besitta]?, [410] 

which almost = knights and trait of our ancestors — loyalty to 

squires. The word is worth a a rightful lord. See Gummere, 

little study. Germanic Origins^ pp. 261-269 ; 

1 See 72. to the citations given there might 

2 Perhaps mistaken for hel- be added the account of Cynewulf 
man, the helm of the ship. and Cyneheard, from the Saxon 

3 Construe, Iget J>me beornas Chronicle for 755. One sentence 
gebidan. from it will illustrate: "Ond ))a 

* Here = until. cu^don hie haet him ngenig m^g 

° For aedre. leofra nsere >onne hiera hlaford, 

6 For ageafon. "^ See 18. Qnd hie nalfre his banan folgian 

8 See stefna, a collateral form noldon." 

of stefn. 1* .^ht (sometimes eaht) is 

® See 184. a. 1° See 165. 1. not to be confounded with geht 

11 See 174. d. 12 gee 164. 0. (4); aeht besittan = sit in coun- 

13 This reply is largely origi- cil ; here almost = consult, dis-^ 

nal, and exhibits a characteristic cuss, debate. 



hwylc hira selost^ symle geleeste 
Maforde^ set hilde, fonne hand ond rond 
on beaduwange billum forgrunden^ 
set nlt5plegan nearu frowedon." 

Andrew relates Christ^ s Stilling of the Tempest. 

5 pa reordade ^rlce peoden*, [415] 

•^weerfsest Cining'^ word stunde** ahof: — 
"Gif ^ti })egn sie J^rymsittendes 
Wuldorcyninges, swa ^ti worde becwist, 
r^ce }>a gerynu, hu he reordberend^ 

10 Iserde under lyfte. Lang is fes siSfset [420] 

ofer fealnwne fiod ; frefra \m.Q 
msecgas on mode. Mycel is nil gena 
lad ofer lagustream, land swi^e feorr 
to gesecanne^; sund is geblonden/ 

1 Adv. (76). 

2 In Carlyle's Past and Present 
(Bk. 3, Chap. 10) occurs this piece 
of etymologizing : " Ironcutter, at 
the end of the campaign, did not 
turn off his thousand fighters, but 
said to them : ' Noble fighters, this 
is the land we have gained ; be I 
Lord in it, — what we will call 
Law-ward, maintainer and keeper 
of Heaven's Laws: be I Law- 
ward, or in brief orthoepy Lbrd 
in it, and be ye Loyal Men 
around me in it.' " Again (Chap. 
13) : " If no pious Law-ward would 
remember it, always some pious 

Lady {^ Hlaf-dig,^ Benefactress^ 
^Loaf-giver ess ^ they say she ia,-^ 
blessings on her beautiful heart !) 
was there." So Kuskin, in Ses-^ 
ame and Lilies (Of Queens' Gar« 
dens): "Lady means ' bread, 
giver' or 'loaf -giver,' and Lord 
means 'maintainer of laws.'" 

Are these etymologies correct ? 

^ MS. foregrunden. 

^ = at this time, now. 

5 Ace. plur. (43. 6). See p. 213, 
note 1. 

6 Cf. our modern ' far to seek.' 

7 Cf. ^n. 1. 107: "furit sesfcua 
harenis." MS. reads sand. 


grund^ wi6 greote. God eaSe mseg [425] 

heafSoliSendum^ helpe^ gef r^mman.'* '' 
Ongan j^a gleawlTce ^gingran sine* 
^wuldorspedige weras* wordum try mm an : — 

5 "Ge feet gehogodon, J)a ge on holm stigon, 
pset ge on fara^ folc feorh^ geleeddon,^ [430] 

ond for Dryhtnes lufan^ deaS jjrowodon^ 
on -(Elmyrcna® ef^elrice, 
sawle^° gesealdon.^ Ic ])ddt sylfa wat, 

10 J?8et US gescyldeS Scyppend ^ngla, 

weoruda Dryhten. Wseter^gesa sceal, [435] 

gec^yd^^ ond ge^reatod ]jur]i pry^cining, 

lagii lacende, li^ra wyrSan.^^ 

Swa^ gesselde^^ lu fset we on ssebate 

15 ofer waru^gewinn wseda^ cunnedan 

faroSrIdende. Trecne |nihton [440] 

egle ealada; eagorstreamas 

beoton bordstse^u; brim oft oncwaetS, 

y^ oSerre.^® Hwilum uppastod 

1 Probably = sea. Cf. p. 220, ^ Allmurk^y) = Ethiopians; 
Qote 10. but tbe poet is here mistakeno 

2 Perhaps for heahS'o-, in the See the prefatory remarks, p. 210. 
sense of the high sea; cf._Lat. i*^ Here = ??/«. " Cf.p.227,1.19. 
altum. ^ Ace. sing. ^ For weorUan. 

•* It is not till this point is ^^ Brooke remarks (p. 417) : " It 

reached, in the Greek original, is a happy situation which the poet 

that the journey is begun ! conceives, for Andrew, not know- 

5 From fah (43. 3). ing that Christ himself is seated 

6 Periphrastic, something like beside him in the stem, tells Christ 
our 'directed your steps.' a story of Christ." Cf. Mk.4.36ff. 

7 From the weak lufe. 1* See 190. i^ gee 156. d. 

8 Optative. ^^ Dat. sing. Cf. Ps. 42. 7. 


of brimes bosme on bates faetSm 

^gesa ofer y^lid. ^Imihtig ]?8er, [445] 

Meotiid mancynnes, on m^re])yssan 

beorht basnode. Beornas wurdon 
5 forhte on mode; fritJes^ wilnedon, 

miltsa^ to^ Meerum.^ pa seo m^nigo ongan 

clypian on ceole; Cyning sona aras, [450] 

^ngla Eadgifa ytSum^ stilde, 

wseteres wselmiim; windas freade; 
10 see sessade/ smylte wurdon 

m^restreama gemeotu.^ Da iire mod abloh/ 

sytSSan we gesegon^ under swegles gang [455] 

windas ond wsegas ^nd wseterbrogan 

forhte gewordne for Frean® ^gesan. 
15 For-]?an ic eow to sot5e slogan wille 

])ddt n8efre^° forleeteS lifgende God 

eorl on eorSan, gif his ^Uen deah.-^" [460] 

Swa hleoSrode halig c^mpa 

^eawum ^^ ge]?ancul ; ]7egnas Iserde 
20 eadig oreta,^ eorlas trymede, 

o6-S8et hie s^mninga sleep ofereode 

1 See 156. a. ^ Anglian form of gesawon 

2 Here = /row. (106). 

3 Meaning Christ. ^ See 153. d. 

* See 164. i. '^^ This gnomic sentence re- 

5 This word does not otherwise sembles that in Blow. 572-573. 
occur, but the meaning is obvi- Perhaps it is imitated from the 
ous. There is a noun sess, mean- Latin proverb, "Fortune favors 
ing seat. the brave." 

6 See gemet, and 20. " See 128. i^ See 174. d. 
' See 107. ^^ Usually oretta. 


in66e^ be raaeste. M^re sweotSerade, [465] 

»yt$a ongin* ^ft oncyrde, 
*hreoh holmj^racu*. pa fam halgan wearS 
sefter gryrehwile gast geblissod. 

Andrew desires Instruction in Seamanship. 

5 Ongan pa reordigaii rSsdum snottor, 

wis on gewitte wordlocan onspeoun^: — [470] 
"Naefre ic s^lidan^ selran mette, 
macrseftigran, J>8es-t5e^ me )>ynce6, 
rowend rofran, r^dsnotterran, 

10 wordes wisran. Ic wille fe, 

eorl unforcuS, anre^ nti gena [475] 

bene biddan: J)6ah ic j^e "beaga*^ lyt, 
*sincweorSunga*, syllan inihte/ 
"feetedsinces*, wolde ic freondscipe,* 

15 |)6oden j^rymfaest, plnne, gif ic mehte/ 

begitan godne. paes^ ^u gife hleotest/*^ [480] 

haligne hyht on heofon})rymme, 

gif tSii lidwerigum larna J)inra 

6ste" wyr^est. Wolde ic anes^^ to t56, 

20 cynerof hgele^, craeftes ngosan — 

•Sset 'Su m6 get^ehte, nu })6 tlr^^ Cyning [485] 
Qnd miht forgef/^ manna Scyppend, 

1 Agrees with hie. ^ Object of begitan. 

2 See onspannan. ^ = for that. 

8 Ace. sing. ^° Future sense. 

* Here = so far as, as (157. 1). " See 166. i^ See 166. m. 

6 See 166. 6. « See 154. a. ^^ Ace. sing. 

^ Variants of meahte. ^^ Variant of forgeaf. 



hu t5ii 'wsegflotan' waere bestemdon,^ 

*s8eli^iigeste* sund- wisige. 

Ic waes on^ gifeSe^ m ond nil 

syxtyne siSum^ on saebate, [490] 

5 ^'m^re^ hrerendum^ mundum^ freorig/ 

^eagorstreamas*' — is t5ys* ane^ ma — j 

swa^° ic sefre ne geseah senigne maun, 

))iy6bearii liseleS/^ j^e gelicne 

steoran ofer staefnan. Streamwelm liwile^,^^ [495] 
10 beata^-^^ brimstseSo; is 'pes bat ful scrid, 

fsereS famigheals fugole^* gelicost, 

glide's on geofone. Ic georne wat 

paet ic sefre ne geseah. ofer ySlade,^ 

on saeleodan^^ sylllcran^^ crseft. [500] 

15 Is |)on^^ geliccost^ swa^ he^^ on landsceare ^^ 

1 For bestemdan, the (weak) 
past part., according to Wtilker. 
It would then agree with -wseg- 
flotan (dat. sing.). 

2 See p. 213, note 4, and p. 220, 
1. 6. ^ = by chance. 

* See 176. 1. 

2 Governs m^re (and eagor- 
streamas), and agrees with 
mundum. ^ = in hands ? 

' Agrees with ic. 

8 For SFis, neut. nom. sing. 

^ Inst. adv. = once. This 
makes another journey, added to 
the sixteen. The Greek has, " Be- 
hold, this is the seventeenth." 
Brooke (p. 414) attributes this to 
the OE. poet. 1° Almost = yet. 

11 It is unusual to have two 
synonymous nouns thus joined. 

12 See hwelan. 

13 Unusual ending of 3 sing. 

14 Cf. Odyssey 7. 36: "Their 
ships are swift as the flight of a 
bird." See also Od. 13. 86-87; 
11. 125. 

15 MS. yfiflafe, which would 
mean sa?ic?, that which is left by 
the waves. 1^ See seelida. 

1"^ For sel-, contracted from 
seld-, the root of seldom. 

18 = to that. 

1^ For gelicost; see 1. 11. 

20 = as if. 21 = the boat (bat). 

22 zz simply land; the Greek 
has : eirl ttjs 7^s. 


stille stande, fser hine * storm* ne mseg, 
*wind* aw^cgaiij ne wseteriiodas 
brecan brondstsefne ; hwseSere on brim sneoweS ^ 
snel under- segle.* Du eart seolfa geong, [505] 

5 wigendra hleo, nalas wintrum frod: 
hafast feh.^" on fyrhSe, faroSlacende,* 
eorles ondsware, ^eghwylces^ canst 
worda* for^ worulde wislic andgit/" 

The Pilot recognizes GocVs Presence with Anclreio. 

Him ondswarode ece Drjhten : — [510J 

10 "Oft J?set ges^letJ fset we on s^lade, 

*scipum* under ^ scealcum, fonne sceor^ cyme6, 

brecacS^*' ofer bse(5weg ''brimh^ngestum*. 

Hwllum us on jSum earfoSlIce 

ges^leS on s^we/^ |ieh.^ we siSnesan [515] 

15 frecne geferan. Flodwylm ne mseg 

manna ^nigne ofer^^ Meotudes est 

lungre gel^ttan^^; ah^ him lifes ge weald 

se tSe brimu bindet5, brune y^a 

t5yt5 and preataS.^'' He Jjeodum sceal [520] 

20 racian mid rihte, se Se rodor ahof 

1 MS. snoweff. » See 18. 

2 So yet, under sail. -^ MS.J^e. i*^ Almost = break aicay. 

* See 162. ^^ Irreg. dat. ; usually sa. 

* Dependent on andgit. 1- For ffeah. ^^ = against. 

5 Dependent on aghwylces. 1* Cf . Hamlet 1. 4. 85: ''Fll 

6 Almost = in. make a ghost of him that lets 
~ Object of canst (130). me." 

^ = among ; but this half-line ^^ gee 127 ; here reflexive. 

is a little obscure. 1^ See note 13, p. 226. 


ond gefsestnode folmum^ sinum, 
worhte and wr^Sede, wuldras^ fylde 
beorhtne boldwelan; swa gebledsod wearS 
engla eSel ]>urli Ms anes miht. [525] 

5 For-fan is ^gesyne'', sot5^ *orgete*, 
ctiS *oncrLawen% ])3et ^u Cyninges eart 
fegen gejjungen frymsittendes*; 
for-pan J>e sona ^sseholm*' oncneow, 
^'garsecges begang^, fset 'Sti gife hsefdes'^ [530] 

10 Haliges Gastes. ^Hsern^ ^ft on wand, 
•'aryt^a geblond'^; ^gesa gestilde, 
widfseSme wseg; wsedu swsetSorodon 
seo'Sfan hie ongeton ))8et tSe God lisefde 
wsere^ bewunden/ se t5e wuldres blsed [535] 

15 gestaSolade strangum mihtum." 

Andrew is carried to the City} 

pus Andreas ondlangne daeg^ 
h^rede^*^ hleotSorcwidum Haliges lare, 
06-6aet hine s^mninga slsep ofereode^ [820] 

on hronrade Heofoncyninge neh.^ 
20 pa *gel£edan* het^ lifes Brytta 

1 See 174. 7 mS. bewunde. 

2 Perhaps Anglian genitive ; ^ Note the break here (11. 537- 
used for the inst. after :fylde, as 817). The intervalis occupied by 
in the poem of Christ, 11. 408-409. discourses. 

^ Here a noun. ^ See 170. ^^ MS. berede. 

* Agrees with Cyninges. ^^ See p. 224, 1. 21. 

^ Original form (95). 12 -por neah. 

6 = with his covenant. ^^ Construe, het . . . sine ^n- 


ofer y6a geprsec ^nglas sine, 

fseSinum ''f^rigean* on Feeder^ wiere 

leofne mid lissum ofer lagufsesten.^ [825] 


Leton })one halgan be li^restriete 
5 swefan on sybbe under swegles hleo, 

bli^ne^ bidan burhwealle neh/ 

his niSh^tum, nihtlangne fyrst, 

615-\>3dt Dryhten forlet dsegcandelle [835] 

scire scinan. Sceadu sweSerodon 
10 w^nn under wolcnum. pa com wederes bluest/ 

hador heofonleoma, ofer hofu blican. 

Onwoc fa wiges® heard, wang sceawode; 

fore burggeatum ''beorgas" steape, [840] 

^hleo^u*^^ hlifodon; ymbe harne stan 
15 tigelfagan trafu,^ torras stodon, 

windige weallas. pa se wisa^ oncneow 

J)set he Marmedonia maeg^e hsefde 

si^e^'* gesohte, swa him sylf bebead, [845] 

])a^^ he him foregescraf, Fseder mancynnes. 

glas . . . gelaedan leofne . . . * Is construed both with burh- 

ofer lagufsesten ... on Faeder Avealle and niiS'h^tuin. 

waere. ^ Not blast. ^ See 165. 

1 Genitive. "^ See hliS", and 20. 

2 Here follow four Unes which ^ See 47. 4. 
are probably corrupt, and are ^ MS. wis. 
therefore omitted. 1° See 174. a. 

^ = kindly, amiable. " MS. >am. Translate, when. 



Andrew^ s Disciples relate their Adventure. 

Geseh^ he ]:»a on greote^ gingran^ sine, 

beornas beadurofe, biryhte^ Mm 

swefan on slsepe. He sona ongann 

wigend w^ccean, ond worde cwsb'S: — [850] 

5 "Ic eow slogan mseg soS^ orgete,^ 

]>ddt us gy strandsege'^ on geofones stream^ 

ofer arwelan se'Seling f^rede. 

In pam ceole wses cyninga Wuldor,^ 

Waldend wertSeode ^° ; ic his word oncneow, [855] 
10 peh he his ni£egwlite bemiSen hsefde." 

Him ]?a seSelingas ondsweorodon 

geonge * gencwidum *, * gastgerynum "■ : — 

"We ])Q, Andreas, ea^e gecySatS 

si6 tiserne, ])8et ^u sylfa miht [860] 

1 For geseali. 

2 Gr. ' on the earth ' {e-rrl ttjv 
y^v). 3 See 169. 

4 The only occurrence of this 
word ; setrihte, similarly formed, 
is found three times in poetry. 

^ Noun in ace. 

6 Agrees with soS". 

7 See 176. 

8 Cf. the ' stream of Oceanus,' 
Od. 11. 21, and often in Homer. 

9 To this kenning there are 
several analogies in Greek and 
Latin. Thus Ulysses is referred 
to as ' great glory of the Achai- 
ans,' II. 9. 673, and elsewhere; 
the bull is called the ' glory of the 

herd' by Ovid (A. A. 1. 290); and 
decus is used by Virgil (?) almost 
exactly as here, — decus Asterice 
(Cul. 15) for decens or pulchra 
Asteria, like cyninga wuldor 
for wuldorlic cyning. An in- 
teresting mediaeval parallel is the 
line by Hilary, a disciple of Abe- 
lard, and probably an English- 
man, cited by Lenient, La Satire 
en France au Moyen Age, p. 20, 
note: "Papa summus, paparum 
gloria." So he apostrophizes a 
girl with "Ave, splendor puel- 
larum " (Wright, Biog. Brit. Lit.., 
Anglo-Norman Period, p. 93) . 
10 MS. weoriSode. 



ongitan gleawllce gastgehygclum. 
Us saewerige slsep ofereode ; 
]?a comon earnas^ ofer ySa wylm 
faran^ on flyhte fe^erum hremige,^ 

5 us of slaependum sawle abnigdon, 
mid gefean f^redon flyhte^ on lyfte 
brehtmum bllSe/ beorhte ^ ond liSe ^ ; 
lissum^ lufodon ond in lofe wunedon 
J)yer wges singal sang ond^ swegles gong, 

[0 wlitig weoroda heap^ ond wuldres piesit}^ 
titan ymbe M^elne^^ ^nglas stodon, 
|)egnas ymb peoden Jnisendmeelum ; 
h^redon on heli'So halgan stefne 
dryhtna Dryhten.^" 



1 Related to Gr. 6pvLs, a bird. 

2 Not in MS., but supplied for 
the verse-structure. 

2 See 174. d. Like Gr. yavpos ; 
Archilochus has, exulting in his 
curls. ^ Inst. (174. a). 

^ = blithe, joyful. Note the 
rime and assonance in these lines. 

6 Nom. plur. ; or possibly ad- 
verbs. Will the last consonants 
permit of associating liffe with 
Germ, gelirid? 

"^ How may this contain the 
stem (lifS-) of the last word (34) ? 

s Possibly miswritten for 
geond, or perhaps the rare prepo- 
sition and (= in, in presence of); 
this is on the supposition that 
swegles gQng means revolution 

of the sky, cf. p. 224, 1. 12. The 
music of the spheres is even sug- 
gested, though hardly in the poet's 
mind. STvegel may sometimes 
mean music, and possibly so here, 
but then one hardly knows how 
to translate gQng. 

9 So in Shakespeare : Bich. 
III. 2. 1. 53, "Amongst this 
princely heap'''' ; Jul. Cces. 1. 3. 
23, "There were drawn Upon a 
heap a hundred ghastly woinen." 

10 A Hebraism ; multitude of 
glory, nearly = glorious mul- 

^1 Jesus, according to the orig- 

12 Biblical expression; see Rev. 
17. 14;. 19. 16. 




I. A Selection for the Beginner. 

Political and Social History. 

Green, Short History of the English People. (Various editions.) 

Freeman, Old English History. New York, 1876. 

Traill, Social England, Vol. I., Chap. II. London and New 
York, 1894. 

Religious and Cultural History. 

LiNGARD, The Anglo-Saxon Church. London, 1858, 2 vols. 

Bright, Early English Church History. 3d ed. New York, 1897. 

Turner, History of the Anglo-Saxons. London, 1852, 3 vols. 

Giles, Translation of Bedels Ecclesiastical History of England, 
and the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. (Temple Classics.) 

Literary History. 

Ten Brink, Early English Literature. New York, 1883. (The 

Brooke, History of Early English Literature. New York, 1892. 

, English Literature from the Beginning to the Norman Con- 
quest. New York, 1898. 

MoRLEY, English Writers, Vols. I. and II. New York, 1888. 


AssE-R, Life of King Alfred. Boston, 1905. 

Plummer, Life and Times of Alfred the Great. Oxford, 1902, 

White, ^Ifric : A New Study of his Life and Writings. {Yale 
Studies in English II.) New York, 1898. 



Biography. (Continued.) 

Plummer, Life of Bede. (As below, under Religious and 
Cultural History.) 

Bede, Account of CcBdmon. (In Select Translations from Old 
English Poetry, Appendix III.) (See Translations.) 

MuLLiNGER, Schools of Charlcs the Great. London, 1877. 

West, Alcuin and the Rise of the Christian Schools. New York, 

For reference : 

Dictionary of Christian Biography. London, 1877-87, 4 vols. 

Dictionary of National Biography. London, 1885-1901, 63 
vols. , and Supplement, 3 vols. 


Cook and Tinker, Select Translations from Old English Poetry. 
Boston, 1902. (Contains Judith, The Phoenix, Widsith, The 
Battle of Maldon, The Battle of Brunanburh, The Dream of 
the Rood, The Seafarer, The Wanderer, etc. ; selections from 
Beowulf, Genesis, and other poems. ) 

Tinker, Beowulf. New York, 1902. 

Hall (J. R. C), Beowulf, and the Fight at Finnsburg. London, 

Sedgefield, King Alfred^s Version of the Consolations (sic) of 
Boethius. Oxford, 1900. 

Root, Andreas: The Legend of St. Andrew. (Tale Studies in 
English VII.) New York, 1899. 

Whitman, Cynewulfs Christ. Boston, 1900. 

Holt, The Elene of Cynewulf {Yale Studies in English XXI.) 
New York, 1904. 

Hargrove, King Alfred'' s Old English Version of St. Augustine''s 
Soliloquies. (Yale Studies in English XXII.) New York, 1904. 

(See also under Literary History.) 


Sweet, Anglo-Saxon Reader. 7th ed. Oxford and New York, 

Bright, Anglo-Saxon Readpr. .^H ort New York, 1894. 


Readers. (Continued.) 

Zupitza-MacLean, Old and Middle English Reader. New York, 

Baskervill and Harrison, Anglo-Saxon Prose Reader. New 
York, 1898. 

Poetical Texts. 

Wyatt, Beowulf. Cambridge and New York, 1894. 

Cook, Judith. Boston, 1889 ; also in Belles Lettres Series. 
Boston and London, 1904. 

, The Christ of Cynewulf. Boston and London, 1899. 

, Bream of the Rood. Oxford and New York, 1905. 

, Elene. Boston and London, 1905. (Forthcoming.) 

, Phoenix. Boston and London, 1905. (Forthcoming.) 

Strunk, Juliana. Boston and London, 1904. 

Sedgefield, Battle of Maldon, and Short Poems from the Saxon 
Chronicle. Boston and London, 1904. 

Prose Texts. 

Bright, Gospel of St. Matthew. Boston and London, 1904. 

, Gospel of St. Luke. Oxford and New York, 1893. 

, Gospel of St. John. Boston and London, 1904. 

Sweet, Selected Homilies of ^Ifric. Oxford and New York, 1885. 

, Extracts from Alfred''s Orosius. Oxford and New York, 


BoswoRTH AND Waring, GotMc and Anglo-Saxon Gospels, with 
the Versions of WycUffe and Tyndale. London, 1888. 

Cook, Biblical Quotations in Old English Prose Writers, Vol. L, 
New York and London, 1898. Vol. II., New York, 1903. 

History of the English Language. 

Emerson, History of the English Language. New York, 1894. 

, Brief History of the English Language. New York and 

London, 1896. 

LbuNSBURY, History of the English Language. Revised ed. New 
York, 1894. 


History of the English Language. {Continued.) 

Nesfield, Historical English. New York, 1899. 

Champneys, History of English. New York, 1893. 

Cook, English Language. (In the Universal Cyclopcedia. Ne\v 
York, 1903.) 


Skeat, Principles of English Etymology : Series I. , The Native 
Element. New York, 1887. 

(See also Dictionaries.) 


SiEVERS-CooK, Old English Grammar. 3d ed. Boston, 1903. 

Wyatt, Elementary Old English Grammar. Cambridge, 1897. 

Henry, Short Comparative Grammar of English and German. 
New York, 1894. 


Saveet, Primer of Phonetics. Oxford and New York, 1890. 

Bell, English Visible Speech for the Million. London and New 

, Manual of Vocal Physiology and Visible Speech. New York. 


Hall, Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. New York, 1894. 

Sweet, Student's Dictionary of Anglo-Saxon. New York and 
London, 1897. 

Murray, Bradley, and Craigib, New English Dictionary: A- 
Mandragon, 0-Pennached, Q-Reign. Oxford and New York, 
1884-1905. (Cited as New Eng. Diet.) 

II. A Selection for the Advanced Student. 

WiJLKER, Grundriss zur Geschichte der Angelsdchsischen Litte- 
ratur. Leipzig, 1885. 

KoRTiKG, Grundriss der Geschichte der Englischen Litter atur. 
3d ed. Miinster i. W., 1899. 


Bibliography. {Continued.) 

Gross, The Sources and Literature of English History. London 
and New York, 1900. 

Tinker, The Translations of Beowulf: a Critical Bibliography. 
{Yale Studies in English XVI.) New York, 1902. 

Jahresbericht . . . der Germanischen Philologie. Berlin (later 
Leipzig), 1879-. (Section XV is devoted to English.) 

Political and Social History. 

Kemble, The Saxons in England. London, 1876, 2 vols. 

Lappenberg, History of England under the Anglo-Saxon Kings. 
2 vols. (Bohn Library.) 

Green, The Conquest of England. New York, 1884. 

, The Making of England. New York, 1883. 

Freeman, History of the Norman Conquest, Vol. I., Chaps. I.- 
III. Oxford and New York, 1873. 

Palgrave, Rise and Progress of the English Commonvjealth, 
Vol. I. London, 1831. 

Stubbs, Constitutional History of England, Vol. I., Chaps. I.- 
VIII. Oxford and New York, 1875. 

Adams (and others), Essays on Anglo-Saxon Law. New York, 1876. 

Andrews, The Old English Manor. Baltimore, 1892. 

Chadwick, Studies on Anglo-Saxon Institutions. Cambridge, 

Religious and Cultural History. 

Plummer, Venerabilis Bxdce Opera Historica. Oxford and New 
York, 1896, 2 vols. 

Stevenson, Asser''s Life of King Alfred. Oxford and New York, 

GrxMm, Teutonic Mythology. London, 1879-89, 4 vols. 

Haddan and Stubbs, Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents. 
London, 1869-78, 3 vols. 

Padelford, Old English Musical Terms. {Bonner Beitrdge zur 
Anglistik IV.) Bonn, 1899. 

Stevens, The Cross in the Life and Literature of the Anglo- 
Saxons. {Yale Studies in English XXIII.) New York, 19G4 


Religious and Cultural History. (Continued.) 

RoEDER, Die Familie bei den Angelsachsen, I. Teil. Halle, 1899. 

Keary and Grueber, a Catalogue of English Coins in the British 
Museum : Anglo-Saxon Series. London, 1887-93, 2 vols. 

Akerman, Remains of Pagan Saxondom. London, [1852]-55. 

Wright, The Celt, the Roman, and the Saxon. London, 1861. 

Literary History. 

Ebert, Allgemeine Geschichte der Litteratur des Mittelalters im 
Abendlande. Leipzig, 1874-87, 3 vols. (Especially Vols. I. 
and IIL) 

Cook, Biblical Quotations in Old English Prose Writers, Vol. I. 
London and New York, 1898. (Introduction contains a 
sketch of Old Englisli Biblical translations, prose and poet- 
ical, with bibliography.) 


Wright, Biographia Britannica Literaria, Vol. I. London, 1842, 

Montalembert, Monks of the West. Edinburgh, 1861-79, 7 vols. ; 
also London, 1895, 6 vols. (A fascinating work.) 


Grein, Dichtungen der Angelsachsen, stabreimend Ubersetzt. Got- 
tingen, 1857-59, 2 vols. 


Sweet, Second Anglo-Saxon Reader. Oxford and New York, 
1887. (Archaic and dialectal ; consists largely of glosses.) 

Kluge, Angelsdchsisches Lesebuch. 2d ed. Halle, 1897. 

Korxer, Angelsdchsische Texte, mit JJebersetzung, Anmerkungen, 
und Glossar. Heiibronn, 1880. 

RiEGER, Alt- und Angelsdchsisches Lesebuch. Giessen, 1861. 

Poetical Texts. (See also Prose Texts.) 

Grein-Wulker, Bibliothek der Angelsdchsischen Poesie. Eassel, 

Gollancz, The Exeter Book, Part I. London (Early English 
Text Society), 1895. 

Thorpe, Codex Exoniensis. London, 1842. 



Prose Texts. 

Sweet, Oldest English Texts. London (E. E. T. S.), 1885. 

, King Alfred^ s West Saxon Version of Gregory'' s Pastoral 

Care. London (E. E. T. S.), 1871-72. 

, King Alfred's Orosius. London (E. E. T. S.), 1883. 

Miller, Old English Version of Bede\s Ecclesiastical History of 
the English People. London (E. E. T. S.), 1890-98. 

Sedgefield, King Alfred's Old English Version of Boethius de 
Consolatione Philosophic^. Oxford, 1899. 

Hargrove, King Alfred's Old English Version of St. Augustine^s 
Soliloquies. (Yale Studies in English XIII.) New York, 1902. 

Grein, Bibliothek der Angelsdchsischen Prosa, Vol. I. Kassel, 
1872. (Mostly translations from the Old Testament.) 

Thorpe, Homilies of JElfric. London (^Ifric Society), 1844-46, 

2 vols. 

Morris, Blickling Homilies. London (E. E. T. S.), 1874-80, 

3 vols, in 1. 

Skeat, ^Ifric's Metrical Lives of Saints. London (E. E. T. S,), 
1881-99, 2 vols. 

, The Gospels in Anglo-Saxon and Northumbrian Versions. 

Cambridge, 1871-87. 

AssMANN, Angelsdchslsche Homilien und Heiligenleben. {Biblio- 
thek der Angelsdchsischen Prosa III.) Kassel, 1889. 

Earle, Handbook to the Land-Charters and other Saxonic Docu- 
ments. Oxford and New York, 1888. 

Earle and Plummer, Two of the Saxon Chronicles Parallel. 
Oxford and New York, 1892-99, 2 vols. 

ScHMiD, Die Gesetze der Angelsachsen. 2d ed. Leipzig, 1858. 
(This has a much completer apparatus than the following.) 

Thorpe, Ancient Laws and Institutes of England. London, 1840, 
2 vols. 

Liebermann, Die Gesetze der Angelsachsen, Vol. I. (Text and 
Translation.) Halle, 1903. 

Hecht, Bischofs Wcerferth von Worcester Uebersetzung der Dialoge 
Gregors des Grossen. {Bibliothek der Angelsdchsischen Prosa 
V.) Leipzig, 1900. 

Herzfeld, Old English Martyrology. London (E. E. T. S.), 1900. 


Prose Texts. (Continued.) 

ScHROER, Die Angelsdchsischen Prosabearheitungen der Benediktin 
erregel. {Bibliothek der Angelsdchsischen Prosa II.) Kassel, 
1885, 1888. 

Napier, Wulfstan. Berlin, 1883. 

Cockayne, Leechdoms, Wortcunning, and Starcraft, of Early Eng- 
land. London, 1864-66, 3 vols. 

Facsimiles of Manuscripts. 

Skeat, Twelve Facsimiles of Old English [i.e. Old and Middle 
English] Manuscripts, with Transcriptions and Introduction. 
Oxford and New York, 1892. (From Alfred's translation of 
the Pastoral Care, the poetical Exodus, and the Chronicle.) 

ZupiTZA, Beowulf: Autotypes of the Unique Cotton MS., witha 
Transliteration and Notes. London (E. E. T. S.), 1882. 

WuLKER, Codex Vercellensis : Die Angelsdchsische Handschrift 
zu Vercelli in Getreuer Nachhildung. Leipzig, 1894. 

Westwood, Facsimiles of the Miniatures and Ornaments of Anglo- 
Saxon and Irish Manuscripts. London, 1868. 

, PalcBographia Sacra Pictoria. London, 1843-45. 

(See also Cook's edition of Judith, under Poetical Texts, p. 237.) 

History of the English Language. 

Kluge, Behrens, and Einenkel, Geschichte der Englischen 
Sprache. (In Paul's Grundriss der Germanischen Philologie, 
2d ed., L 926-1151.) Strassburg, 1899-. 


Matzner, Englische Grammatik. 3d ed. Berlin, 1885-89, 3 vols. 
(English Translation by C. J. Grece, London, 1874.) 

Koch, Historische Grammatik der Englischen Sprache. Kassel, 
1863-78, 3 vols. 

CosiJN, Altwestsdchsische Grammatik. The Hague, 1883-88. 

, Kurzgefasste Altwestsdchsische Grammatik. 2d ed. Lei- 
den, 1893. 

Sweet, New English Grammar, Parts I. and II. Oxford and 

New York, 1892-1898. 

BuLBRiNG, Altenglisches Elementarbuch, I. Teil: Lautlehre. 
Heidelberg, 1902. 



Sweet, History of English Sounds. Oxford and New York, 1888. 

Mayhew, Synopsis of Old English Phonology. Oxford and New 
York, 1891. 

Cook, Phonological Investigation of Old English. Boston, 1888. 


Chase, Bibliographical Guide to Old English Syntax. Leipzig, 1896. 

WiJLFiNG, Die Syntax in den Werken Alfreds des Grossen, 
I.-II. Teil. Bonn, 1894-1901. (Contains a useful bibli- 

Shearin, The Expression of Purpose in Old English Prose. {Yale 
Studies in English XVIII.) New York, 1903. 

Callaway, The Absolute Participle in Anglo-Saxon. Baltimore, 


, The Appositive Participle in Anglo-Saxon. {Pub. Mod. 

Lang. Assoc. XVI.) Baltimore, 1901. 


SiEVERS, Altgermanische Metrik, pp. 120-149. Halle, 1893. 

, Angelsdchsische Metrik. (In Paul's Grundriss der Germani- 

schen Philologie, 1st ed., II. 1.888-893; a very brief, but 
clear, sketch.) Strassburg, 1891. 


BoswoRTH-ToLLER, Anglo-Saxon Dictionary . New York, 1882-98. 

Grein, Sprachschatz der Angelsdchsischen Dichter. Gottingen, 

Cook, Glossary of the Old Northumbrian Gospels. Halle, 1894. 

LiNDELOF, Glossar zur Altnorthumbrischen Evangelieniibersetzung 
in der Bushworth Handschrift. Helsingfors, 1897. 

, Worterbuch zur Interlinearglosse des Rituale Ecclesice Du 

nelmensis. {Bonner Beitrdge zur Anglistik IX.) Bonn, 1901. 

Harris, Glossary of the West Saxon Gospels. {Yale Studies in 
English VI.) New York, 1899. 

Kluge, Etymologisches Worterbuch der Deutschen Sprache (with 
Janssen's Index). 6th ed., Strassburg, 1899; 4th ed. trans- 
lated, New York, 1891. (For comparison of Old English 
with German words.) 



Anglia. Halle, 1878-. 

Englische Studien. Heilbronn, 1878-. 

Archiv fiir das Studium der Neueren Sprachen. Berlin, 1846-. 
(Especially the recent volumes.) 

Beitrdge zur Geschichte der Beutschen Sprache und Litteratur (ed. 
by Paul and Braune). Halle, 1874-. 

Publications of the Modern Language Association of America. 
Baltimore, 1886-. 

Modern Language Notes. Baltimore, 1886-. 

The Journal of (English and) Germanic Philology. Boston, 
London, and Leipzig, 1897-. 



Only a selection of the more regular correspondences 
is here given. The student must not be surprised at 
the occurrence of correspondences which he cannot 
reconcile with these ; profounder study will usually 
show the reason for the discrepancy. The great 
majority of instances, however, will be found to fall 
under the following heads. The graphic representa- 
tions of the vowels, not their sounds, is all that is 
here considered, but this will be found of much 
assistance in tracing and fixing cognates. 

Old English Short Vowels and Diphthongs. 

OE. a : Ger. a ha'Sian : haden. 

OE. ae : Ger. a craeft : Kraft. 

Sometimes OE. ae : Ger. e. . . haerfest : Herbst. 

OE. e : Ger. e brecan : brechen. 

OE. ^ : Ger. e (ee) b^dd : Bett; h^re : Heer. 

OE. i : Ger. i fisc : Fisch. 

OE. o : Ger. o lof : Lob. 

OE. u : Ger. u burg : Burg. 

OE. y : Ger. u fyllan : fullen. 

Sometimes OE. y : Ger. u. . . hyldu : Huld. 

OE. ea (20, 21) : Ger. a hearpe : Harfe. 

OE. eo (20, 21) : Ger. e eora'e : Erde. 



Old English Long Vowels and Diphthongs. 

OE, a : Gee. ei brad : hreit. 

Sometimes OE, a : Ger. e (ee) . . . ar : Ehre ; sa-wol : Seele. 
OE. £e : Ger. ei heel : Heil. 

Sometimes OE. se : Ger. a or Ger. e . \ ^^^^^ = ^«««^^ / 

t aerest : erst. 

OE. e : Ger. m grene : gr'un. 

OE. i : Ger. ei idel : eitel. 

OE. o : Ger. u fot : Fuss. 

OE. u : Ger. au hus : Haus. 

OE. ea : Ger, au heafod : Haupt. 

Before h, and dental consonants 

(6), OE. ea : Ger. o dealSf : Tod. 

OE. eo : Ger, ie deor : Tier. 

In tracing back the history of these vowels, many 
correspondences become clearer. Thus, take OE. o : 
Ger. u. The Old High German correlative of o is 
wo, that is, the one long vowel is diphthongized into 
two short ones. Of these it is the u which has sur- 
vived. If now we consider that the i-umlaut of o is 
e, and of Ger. u is w, we shall better understand 
such a pair as grene : griin. 

It should be observed that Ger. ei corresponds to 
OE. a, 86, and i, and Ger. au to OE. u and ea ; 
similarly Ger. o to OE. o and ea, Ger. u to OE. u 
and o, etc. Note, too, that the sound of the vowel 
in Ger. eitel^ Haus., corresponds precisely to the Mod. 
Eng. sound into which the OE. vowels of idel, hus, 
have respectively developed. 

See Kluge, under Dictionaries, p. 241. 



[This extract from the Greek is found on pp. 136-138 of Tischendorf's 
Acta Apostolorum Apocrypha, and corresponds to lines 235-349 of the Old 
English Andreas.] 

Avacrras Oe AvOpcas T(3 Trpcot iiropcvcTO iirl rrjv ddXacrcrav 
a/xa rot? /xa^T/rat? avrov, Kal KareXOlov €7ri tov alytaXov iScv 
■nXoLaptov fXLKpov koI irrl to irXoiapLov Tpel<i avSpas KaOe^o- 
/xevovi ■ 6 yap Kvpco'i rfj eavrov 8wa/x€t KaT€aK€va(T€.v irXotov, 
Kat atiTo? rjv ojcnrcp avOpojTro'i Trpcopevs iv tw TrXoto) ' koI elarj- 
veyKEV Svo ayyiXov; ov<i l-rroL-qdev iis dvOpcoTrov; (fiavrjvaL, /cat 
^aav iv rw ttAoio) KaBet,6jx(.voi. 6 ovv AvSpea? Oeacrdixevo'i to 
ttXoIov Kal TOi»? Tpet5 ovras €v aiircu ^X'^PV X^f-pdv fxeydXrjV 
(TcfioSpa, Kal TTopevOel'i Trpos avTov<i etTrev Tlov TropevecrOe, 

d8cA<^Ot, fXETa TOV TtXolOV tov fJLLKpOV TOVTOV ', Kol (XTTOKpt^etS 

6 KvpLO<; ctTrev avT(S TLopevofxcOa iv ttJ X'^P^^ '^^^ dvOp(jJ7ro<f)d- 

Then Andrew arose early, and went to the sea with his dis- 
ciples, and, when he had gone down to the sea-shore, he saw a 
little boat, and in the boat three men sitting. For the Lord 
had prepared a ship by his own power, and he himself was as 
it were a steersman in the ship ; and he brought two angels 
whom he made to seem as men, and they were seated in the 
ship. Andrew, therefore, when he saw the ship and the three 
men in it, rejoiced with very great joy, and, coming to them, 
said, Whither go ye, brethren, with this little ship ? And the 
Lord answered and said unto him, W^e are journeying into the 
country of the man-eaters. Now Andrew, when he saw Jesus, 


248 APPENDIX in. 

ytov. 6 Se 'AvSpeas ^eacra/xevos tov Irjaovv ovk CTreyvw avrov 
rjv yap 6 'Ir;crovs Kpvipas r-qv kavTOV OeorrjTa, kol tjv <jiaivofJievos 
r(p 'AvSpea o>s av^pcoTros Trpwpevs * 6 8e It^covs aKovcras tov 
'AvSpeou AeyovTos ort Kayo) eis tyjv XiJipav T(ji>v dv6p(07ro<l>dy(Dv 
TTOpevofxaL, Xeyet avrw Has avOpo)7ro<s <f>€vycL rrjv ttoXlv iKCLvrjv, 
KOL TTcus v/xets TTopevecrOe CKCt ; Kat aTroKpt^eis 'AvS/acas cittcv 
Ilpay/xa 76 /xiKpbv €)(Ofxev e/cet BLaTrpd^acrOai, Kat Set 17/xas 
cKTcXccrat avTo * oAA' ei Swacrat, 7roLr](TOv fxeO rip,^v ttjv tjuXav 
OpoiTTiav TavTYjV TOV oLTrd^aL rjixas iv rrj X^P^ "^^^ a.vdpi>iTro<\>a.yoiv, 
iv rj KOL v/xet9 fiiWere TropeveaOai. aTroKpLOels Se 6 'Iiycovs eiTrev 
avTol<5 AviXOare. 

Kat etTrev 'Av8/oeas ©eAo) crot Tt <f}av€p6v TroirjcraL, vcavitTKC, 
Trpo TOV T^/Aas dveX^etv ev tw TrXoto) o^ov. 6 8e Ir](rov<: eiirev 
Aeye o ^ovX.r]. 6 Se 'AvSpeas etTrev avTw NavAov ovk t^OfXiv cot 
7rapa(r)(eLV, dXX ovre aprov exofxev cts SiaTpocfirjv' Kat d-noKptOu^ 
6 'Irjcrov's etTrev avTw Ilajs ovv aTrip)(€(TO€ pur] Tra/oe^ovTes Tyyottv 
TOV vavAov /txT^Te aprov €;)(ovTes eis StaTpo^iyv ; etTrcv Se 'AvSpeas 
Tc5 'Ir;o-ov ^Akovo^ov, dSeAc^e * /a^ vop,i(TYj<s otl Kara TVpavvtav ov 

knew him not, for Jesus was hiding his godhead, and appearing 
to Andrew as a steersman. Jesns hearing Andrew say, I also 
am going to the country of the man-eaters, saith unto him, 
Every one fleeth from that city, and why go ye thither? Andrew 
answered and said, We have a certain little business to perform 
there, and must needs finish it ; if thou canst, do us this kindness 
to carry us to the country of the man-eaters, to which ye also are 
bound. Jesus answered and said unto them. Come. 

And Andrew said, I will make known to thee somewhat, young 
man, before we enter into thy ship. Jesus said, Say what thou 
wilt. Then Andrew said unto him, We have no passage-money to 
give thee, neither have we bread for food. Jesus answered and said 
unto him, Why then do ye depart, seeing that ye neither give us 
passage-money nor have bread for food? Andrew said unto Jesus, 


SiBofiiv croL Tov vavXov '^fXiov, aX\ lyftets /xaOrjTaL i(Tfi€v rov 
KvpLOV i^/Atov Irjcrov ILpicrTOv tov dyaOov 6cov. e^eAc^aro yap 
17/xas TOv<s SwScKa, Koi TrapeSwKcv 17/xtv ivroXrjv TOtavrrjv Xiyoiv 
OTt TTOpevoficvoL Kr]pv(TcrcLv /xrj /SaaTa^eTC apyvpiov ev Trj oSoJ 
p.rjT€. aprov p-rirc Tnijpav p-rjTe vnoBrjfxaTa lirjTC pdjSSov p.rjTC hvo 
^LTWvas- ci ovv TTOtets Tr}v <f>L\avOpoi7rLav fieO ly/xtuv, dSeA^e, 
ciTTC "^fuv (rvvTOix(o<: ' el ov rrotets, (jiavepaxTov 17/xtv, kol tto/jcv- 
^evr€s ^rjTrjcropLiv kavTo1<s erepov TrXotov. a.TroKpLOel<s Sk 6 'Irjcrov's 
etTrev ro) Avopea tii avr-q ecrriv rj evroAi] rjv cAapere Kat T-qpture 
avTTjv, dviXOare /xerd Trdcrrj^ X'^P^'* ^^ "^^ ttXow fxov. dXrjOto? 
yap (SovXofxaL vfxd<s tov<s pLaO-qras tov Xeyofxevov ^Irjaov dveX- 
Oelv iv TO) TrA-Otiw fiov rj tov? 7rape;j(ovTas /Jlol ;;(/jvcrtov Kat dpyv- 
pCov ' TravTW? yap a^tos et/xt tva 6 aTrdo-ToAos toC Kvpiov dveXOrj 
iv T(p TrA-oto) /Aov. aTTOKpt^ets 8e 6 AvSpeas etTrev Svy^^wpr^o'dv 
/xot, d8eA<;^6, 6 /cvptos 7rapd(r)(r} ctol tyjv So^av Kal ttjv Tt/xr^v. 
Kat di/^X^ev AvSpeas /Aero, tiov avTOv fxaSrjTutv cis to TrXotov. 

Hearken, brother; think not that because of arrogance we give 
thee not our passage-money, since we are disciples of the good 
God, our Lord Jesus Christ. For he chose us, the twelve, and 
gave us this commandment, saying. As ye go to preach, carry 
neither money on the way, neither bread, nor scrip, nor shoes, 
nor staff, nor two coats. If, therefore, thou wilt do us this kind- 
ness, brother, tell us plainly; if thou wilt not, declare it unto 
us, and we will go and seek for ourselves another ship. Jesus 
answered and said unto Andrew, If this is the commandment 
which ye have received and do keep, enter with all joy into my 
ship; for verily I had rather that ye, the disciples of him who 
is called Jesus, should enter into my ship, than those who give 
me gold and silver ; for I am certainly worthy that the apostle 
of the Lord should enter into my ship. Then Andrew answered 
and said, Agree with me, brother, and the Lord give thee glory 
and honor. And Andrew entered into the ship with his disciples. 



The three best sources of information on the OE. 
dialects are Sievers' OE. Grammar, Biilbring's Alteng- 
lisches Elementarhuch, and Professor E. M. Brown's 
work on Mercian. The last is in two parts — (Part I.) 
Die Sprache der Rushworth G-lossen (Gottingen, 1891), 
comprising the vowels, and (Part II.) The Language of the 
Rushworth Gloss (Gottingen, 1892), comprising a con- 
tinuation of the vowels, the consonants, and inflection. 

In some respects the non-West Saxon dialects 
agree. These common features, so far as they relate 
to the vowels, have been signalized by Sievers, and 
are here extracted from § 150 of my edition of his 
Grammar : — 

1. In place of the West Saxon se = Germ, e, West 
Germ, a, stands the vowel e. 

2. The WS. ie, ie is wanting, and hence the same 
is true of the unstable y, y (i, i) (19). 

3. The sounds ea, eo (io), as well as their cor- 
responding long diphthongs, are not so accurately 
discriminated as in WS. In Northumbrian especially 
there is great confusion between ea and eo. Kentish 
has a preference for ia and io, the former standing 
as well for WS. ea as for eo. 

4. The sound oe is of more extensive occurrence. 



I. Northumbrian. 
1. Caedmon's Hsmin. 

According to Sweet (Oldest English Texts^ p. 148), 
"The hymn of Csedmon is written at the top of the 
page [i.e. in the famous Moore MS. of Bede] in a 
smaller hand than that of the List of Kings which 
follows it. It is not impossible that the hymn may 
have been written later than the List [which, accord- 
ing to Sweet, was written 'most probably in 737'], 
to fill the blank space. But the hand is evidently 

The ae is not always joined into a digraph, and 
the signs of length and of i-umlaut (^) are wanting. 
These have been supplied, together with the punctua- 
tion and the division into lines ; in other respects the 
manuscript has been followed. 

The translation of the Hymn, as given by Bede 
(Hist. Uccl. IV. 24), is as follows, though it should 
be observed that Bede adds, "Hie est sensus, non 
autem ordo ipse verborum quae dormiens ille cane- 

"Nunc laudare debemus auctorem regni cselestis, 
potentiam creatoris et consilium illius, facta patris 
glorise, quomodo ille, cum sit seternus deus, omnium 
miraculorum auctor extitit; qui primo filiis hominum 
caelum pro culmine tecti, dehinc terram custos humani 
generis omnipotens creavit." 

With reference to the words, "heben til hrofe," it 
is interesting that Alcuin (Anglia VII. 7) has, "ut 
primum Creator mundum quasi domum prsepararet, et 
post introduceret habitatorem, id est, dominum domus"; 


cf. "lacunar, hushefen, otftfe heofenhrof" (Wiilker- 
Wright, Vocabularies^ 432. 8). 

Variations from the EWS. norm are : — 

1. Final -aes instead of -es : -ricaes, metudses, -cynnaes. 

2. Final -i for -e : maecti, eci. 

3. Final -ae for -e : ast^lidae, tiadae. 

4. Final -aen, -en for -on : hefaen-, heben. 

5. Final -un for -on : scylun. 

6. Final -un for -an : middun-. 

7. Final -ur for -er : fadur. 

8. Final -ur for -or : wuldur-. 

9. Final -ud for -od : metud-. 

10. Final -in for -en : dryctin. 

11. Final -ist for -est : aerist. 

12. Final -u for -an : foldu. ' 

13. Final -eg for -ig : haleg. 

14. Final -en for -end : serpen. 

15. aforea(ae): all-, uard, barn um. 

16. e for eo : uerc, heben, hefaen-, metud-. 

17. yforu: scylun. 

18. ^ for a, Q : ^nd. 

19. ^li for eal : ast^lidae. 

20. ae for ie : aelda. 

21. ae, e, ^ for i, ie : maecti, -mectig, serpen. 

22. iaforeo: tiadae. 

23. a for ae : -fadur. 

24. e for a : sue. 

25. oforeo(o): scop. 

26. gi- for ge- : gihuaes. 

27. d for 15 (»: -gidanc. 

28. thforaP(»: tha. 

29. ct for ht : dryctin, maecti, -mectig. 

30. b forf: heben. 

31. til for to. 

Most of the foregoing variations are due either to 
the age of the document, or are common to at least 
two of the non-West Saxon dialects. The only ones 


that seem peculiarly Northumbrian are 17, 31, and 
possibly 12. Of the rest, 16 and 25 do not agree 
with later Northumbrian (Lind.), and 22 looks not 
unlike Kentish. But 17 has that palatalization of u 
by preceding sc which we find in scyur, -scyade, 
scyldor, scyniga, scuia (ui as in druige for dryge), 
and even shya (WS. scua), of the Lind. Gospels. 
Til, which in Old Norse replaces OE. to, is found 
here and in Lind. Matt. 26. 31, besides being read 
in the Runic inscription on the Ruthwell Cross. 
Foldu resembles the eorafu, -o of Lind. Matt. 15. 35, 
27. 45, etc., which is the regular form in these 

The Hymn is as follows: — 

Nti scylun h^rgan hefaenricaes uard, 
metudses msecti ^nd his modgidanc, 
uerc uuldurfadur; sue he uundra gihuaes, 
eci dryctin, or ast^lidse. 
5 He serist scop eelda barnum 
heben til hrofe, haleg serpen. 
Tha middungeard moncynnses uard, 
eci dryctin, sefter tiadse, 
firum foldu, frea allmectig. 

2. Bede's Death Song. 

Of this Sweet says : " Preserved in the St. Gall 
MS. 254, of the ninth century, in the usual conti- 
nental minuscule hand, evidently an accurate copy of 
an Old Northumbrian original." 

As translated by Cuthbert, his pupil, it runs : — 


"Ante necessarium exitum prudentior quam opus 
fuerit nemo existit, ad cogitandum videlicet, ante- 
quam hinc profiscatur anima, quid boni vel mali 
egerit, qualiter post exitum judicanda fuerit." 

Its variations from EWS. are : — 

1. It has some of the peculiarities of I. 1, such as (1) godses, yflses, 

(2) ni, (3) -fserae, -hycggannae, -iQngae, gastse, uueorthae, 
(8) -snottur-, (15) tharf, (28) there, uuiurthit, thQnc-, 
than, tharf, aeththa, deoth-, uueorthae. 

2. Einal -a for -e : 8eJ?>a. 

3. Final -it for -eff (cf. 35) : uuiurthit. 

4. Final -id for -ed : doemid. 

5. ei for ie : neid-. 

6. e for ae : there. 

7. iu for eo (ie) : uuiurthit. 

8. eo for ea : deoth-. 

9. ae for o : aeththa. 

10. « for e : doemid. 

11. hin- (otherwise almost always poetical). 

12. egg for eg : -hycggannae. 

13. i for g (ge) : -iQngae. 

Of the foregoing only 8 and 13 are unmistakably 
Northumbrian. With deoth- may be compared eoro, 
Lind. Lk., p. 8, 1. 15 (cf. Jn. 18. 26); eostro, Lk. 22. 
1, etc. (15); eoare, Matt. 27. 64, Lk. 14. 8 (cf. Matt. 
10. 15) ; eoung, Matt., p. 22, 1. 15. The iQug (for 
gQng < g-ang-) is simply an attempt to express the 
palatal g (ge) ; geong occurs frequently in the Lindis- 
farne Gospels, eight times uncompounded. Rushworth 
has iarw-, but not i^ng (p. 253, note 10). At least 
Anglian (North. Merc.) is (9) 8e]7j?a; as etStfa (e]7]?a) 
it occurs in Rush. Matt. 5. 18, and in the Riddles 
ascribed to Cynewulf (44. 17), 


The text is : — 

Fore there neidfserae nsenig ni uuiurthit 
thoncsnotturra than him tharf sTe, 
to ymbhycggannae eer his hiiiiongse 
hiiset his gastse godses seththa yflaes 
5 sefter deothdaege ddemid uueorthae. 

3. The Day of Judgment. 

The text is taken from Skeat's edition of Matthew. 
As far as practicable the readings have been con- 
formed to the norms of the Lindisfarne Gospels 
(ca. 950). But as there is often great variation in the 
spelling and endings of the same word, normalizing 
has not been attempted in all cases. Where changes 
have been made, the MS. reading is given in a note. 
The equivalent for Lat. et is nearly always repre- 
sented by a contraction, as is frequently that for vd^ 
aut ; these have been rendered by the usual words, 
and, otStSe. The second of two alternative glosses 
has been enclosed in square brackets, and so has 
occasionally a superfluous word. 

Variations from EWS. are (only the more important 
are registered) : — 

1. Of I. 1 : (5, but not regularly, see foot-notes), (15) alle, -saldes, 

-saldon, (21) maeht, (23) fadores (cf. 24, suse); of I. 2 : 
(10) gebloedsad. 

2. Loss of final -n : eatta, drinca, befora, 9'^nde. 

3. Uncontracted ind. pres. 3 sing. (cf. I. 2. 3): sittes, sceades, 

s^tteiS", etc. 

4. Plurals in -as (s), as well as -ai^ : byas, agnigas, gaas. 

5. Change of gender: -maehtes. 

6. Plural of long neuters in -o : cynno. 



7. Plural of adjectives and past participles in -o : soVfaesto, 


8. Weak plurals in -o : ilco. 

9. Shortened plurals of verbs in -o, instead of -e: solito. 

10. ea (representing eo) for e : eatta. 

11. oe for e after w (denoted by u) : cuoe^as. 

12. e for ea before palatals : ec. 

13. eg for aw : segon. 

14. e for y: dedon. 

15. i for y before palatals : drihten. 

16. Irregular umlaut : cyrnmeS'. 

17. Irregular gemination : eatta, cymmeff, untrymmig. 

18. eg for cc : ticgen-. 

19. eg for g : hyncg-. 

20. d for t (d original) : gebloedsad. 

21. fS for t: seffel. 

22. 9 for d : mifS. 

23. -ig for -ing: cynlg. 

24. Inorganic initial h : hriordadon. 

25. Loss of final -e : rie. 

26. The form billon. 

27. The form Wa. 

Under the Northumbrian is printed the corresponding 
passage from the Vulgate, with collations of the Latin 
versions on which the Lindisfarne and Rushworth glosses 
are respectively based. The text is : — 

Mit56y uut'^ cymes Sunu Monnes in maeht his, and alle 

^nglas^ mitS him, tSa he sittes ofer set5el godcundmsehtes^ 

his. And gesomnad bit5on befora hine alle cynno,* and 

tosceades hia betuih, sua^ hiorde tosceades^ scip^ from 

5 ticgenum. And he s^tteS t5a scip ec soS [uuf] to sul5- 

1 Abbreviation of uutedlice 
(-tet-), WS. witodlice. 

2 MS. engles. * cynne. 

8 MS. -msBht. 5 MS. sua. 

6 MS. -as. 

■^ MS. scipo ; this neuter is ex- 
ceptional in its preponderance of 
plur. nom. ace. without ending. 


rum his, 'Sa ticgeno soSlice of winstrum. Donne [he] 
cueSes t5e^ cynig ■6^ni 6a-6e to sul^rum his biSon [hia], 
"Cymme'6 gie, gebloedsad fadores mines, byas^ [agnigas^] 
gegearwad^ luh ric from frymCo middangeardes. Ic ge- 
hyncgerde [ic wses hyncgrig^] for-$on, and t5ii gesaldes 5 
me eatta; ic waes ^yrstig, and gesaldon me drinca^; g^st 
ic waes, and gle SQmnadon mec^; nacod, and gie claeSdon 
[gle wrigon] mec^; untrymig,® and gie sohton mec''; in 
carcern,^ and gie cuomon^*^ to me. Da ondueardas [ond- 
suerigat5] him soSfaesto, cuoeSas, Drihten, huoenne 'Sec we 10 
segon hungrig [hyngrende], and we hriordadon ^^ 'Sec ? 
Syrstende [^yrstig], and we saldon^^ Se drinca^? huoen- 
ne ^^ uutetli' 'Sec we segon g^stig, and we somnadon Sec, 
oSSe nacod, and we awrigon Sec? huoenne t5ec we gesegon 
untrymig and in carcern, and we cuomon^^ to Se?" And 15 
ge^ndweardeS 'Se cynig, cuoeSes Saem, " SoSlice ic cuoeSo 
luh, 'S^nde gle dydon^* anum of Sisum broSrum minum 
lytlum, me gie dydon." Da cuoeSes^^ and ^sem 'Sa-Se to 
winstrum biSon, " Of stigaS ^^ gle from me, awoergedo, in 
fyr ece,^^ se-Se foregegearuuad is diwle and ^nglum 20 
[t5egnum] his. Mec gehyncgerde, and ne saldo^^ gie me 
eatta; mec Syrste, and ne saldo gie me drinca; g^st ic 
waes, and ne gesomnade gie mec ; nacod, and ne awrigon 
gle mec; untrymig^ and in carcern, and ne sohto gie 
mec." Da ondueardas and t5a ilco [hia], cuoeSendo, 25 
" Drihten, huoenne tSec we segon hyncgrende,^^ oSSe 
tSyrstende,^ oSSe g^st, oSSe nacod, oS^e untrymig, o^Se in 

1 Se is about one-half ^ ^g^ hincgrig. ^^ MS. huonne. 
more numerous than fSe. ^ MS. dringe. 1* MS. dyde. 

2 MS. byes. ^ mS. meh. is MS. coeSfes. 
^ MS. agneges ; for ^ MS. untrymmig. i^ MS. -es. 

-Igas, etc., -as and -aff ^ MS. carchern. " MS. ecce. 

are frequently found in i*^ MS. -un. i^ MS. sealdo. 

these verbs. n MS. sealdon. i^ MS. hyncgerende. 

* MS. gegearwaff. 12 mS. ffringe. 20 mS. -a. 


carcern, and ne ^mbehtadon ^ we tSe ? " Da he ondueardeS 
t58em, cwetSende, "SoSlice ic cueSo luh, Sa hwile ne dyde 
gie anum of lytlum t5issum [sua long gie ne dedon^ anum 
t5isra^ metdmaasta], ne me gie dydon.**" And gaas^ 'Sas 
5 in tintergo ece, sotSfsesto^ nut' in lif ece. 

Cum autem venerit Filius hominis in majestate sua, et 
omnes angeli cum eo, tunc sedebit super sedem majestatis 
suae. Et congregabuntur ante eum omnes gentes, et sepa- 
rabit eos ab invicem, sicut pastor segregat oves ab hsedis. 
Et statuet oves quidem a dextris suis, hsedos autem a 
sinistris. Tunc dicet rex his, qui a dextris ejus erunt : 
"Venite, benedicti Patris mei, possidete paratum^ vobis 
regnum a constitutione mundi. Esurivi enim, et dedistis 
mihi manducare ; sitivi, et dedistis ^ mihi bibere ; hospes 
eram, et collegistis ^ me ; nudus,^^ et cooperuistis ^^ me ; 
infirmus, et visitastis me ; in carcere eram,^ et venistis 
ad me." Tunc respondebunt ei justi, dicentes : "Domine, 
quando te vidimus esurientem, et pavimus te? sitientem,^^ 
et dedimus tibi potum ? quando autem te vidimus hos- 
pitem, et collegimus ^"^ te, aut nudum et cooperuimus te^^? 
aut quando te vidimus infirmum, ^ut^^ in carcere, et veni- 
mus ad te?" Et respondens rex, dicet illis : "Amen dice 
vobis, quamdiu fecistis uni^^ ex^^ his fratribus meis mini- 
mis, mihi fecistis." Tunc dicet et^^ his, qui a^ sinistris ^^ 

1 MS. embigto. ^^ L. operuistis. 

2 Less common form for ^^ l_ om. ; R. fui. 
dydon. ^^ R. ctut sitientem. 

3 MS. ffassa. ^ MS. gaes. ^^ L. colleximus. 

* MS. dyde. ^ MS. -fseste. ^^ L. om. is l. et. 

' R. regnum quod vobis para- ^"^ R. uni ex minimis his fra- 

turn est ab origine mundi. tribus meis. 

8 L. dedisti. ^^ L. de. i^ R. rex. 

9 L. collexistis. ^o l. ad. 

10 R. nudus eram. ^i R. sinistris ejus. 


erunt : "Discedite' a me, maledicti, in ignem seternum, 
qui paratus^ est diabolo et angelis ejus. Esurivi enim, 
et non dedistis mihi manducare ; sitivi, et non dedistis 
mihi potum^; hospes erani, et non collegistis^ me; nudus, 
et non cooperuistis ^ me ; infirmus et in carcere, et non 
visitastis me." Tunc respondebunt ei^ et ipsi, dicentes : 
" Domine, quando te vidimus esurientem, aut sitientem, 
aut hospitem, aut^ nudum/ aut iniirmum, aut* in carcere, 
et non ministravimus tibi ? -' Tunc respondebit illis, 
dicens : " Amen dico vobis, quamdiu non fecistis uni de 
minoribus his, nee mihi fecistis." Et ibunt hi in sup- 
plicium seternum, justi autem in vitam seternam. 

1 L. discendite. ^ E. hibere. 

6 L. om. 

2 L. prceparatus ' R. quern ^ 'L. collexistis. 

7 R. om. 

prceparavit pater mens diabolo. ^ L. operuistis. 

8 L. vel. 

II. Mercian. 

Mercian has been thus characterized by Brown (^iit 
supra, Part I., p. 81, with which should be compared 
his Part II., p. 91) : — 

" There is naturally much general agreement with 
Northumbrian, since both are Anglian. Variations 
from North, are in some cases approximations to WS., 
but not in all. In certain respects Mercian stands 
quite by itself; in particular — 

"1. OE. stable e [z.e. not ^] is usually retained 
in Mercian, yet is more or less frequently changed 
to ae. 

" 2. The o-umlaut of a scarcely occurs in WS., and 
not at all in either Kentish or Northumbrian, but is 
well developed in Mercian. 



" 3. The U-, o-umlaut of e to eo, and of i to io, eo, 

occurs at least more regularly in Mercian than in WS. 
and the other dialects. 

" It is true that these peculiarities give no sharp out- 
lines to Mercian, yet they sufficiently characterize it as 
a dialect, and not merely as Northumbrian modified by 
West Saxon scribes, or the reverse." 

1. The Day of Judgment. 

The text is from Skeat's edition of Matthew, normal- 
ized like the last. There is a difference of opinion about 
file date of the Gloss. Skeat says (ed. of Mark, p. xii) 
that it may be referred to the latter half of the tenth 
century, Brown (Part I., p. 83) would date it just before 
the decay of Latin studies to which Alfred testifies ; the 
latter also infers that its origin was not near the Kentish 
border. The phonological and inflectional points of dif- 
ference from both West Saxon and Northumbrian should 
be noted. 

The passage is as follows : — 

And^ mi^-])j^ cymej^ j^onne Smiu^ Monnes in ^rymme 
his, and alle^ ^i^glas mi6 liiiie, ]?onne^ gesite]?^ on sedle'' 
his ]7rymmes. And gesomnade^ beot5 beforan him alle^ 

1 Represented in MS. only by 
the abbreviation ; and occurs but 
once in the Gospel, and is accord- 
ingly restored here ; a, too, is more 
likely to occur in proclitics. 

2 Both miiar and mid are found ; 
here the following J> may have 

^ MS. sune 

^ MS. ealle; a is more common 
before 1 + cons., though eall and 
healf are somewhat exceptional. 

^ ]7onne is much commoner, 
and so o before nasals in general. 

6 MS. gesit8e>. 

7 This word has > and t (tt), 
as well as d. 

8 MS. sesomnede. 



jjeode, and gesceadej?^ hise in twa,- swa liiorde^ asceade]>^ 
seep from ticnum. And s^te|> ])a seep^ on ))a^ swi^ran 
lialfe/ his tieeen ].onne on ])a winstran halfe/ ponne 
cwsej)^ se Cyning |>aem pe on j^a swl|>ran halfe his beon, 
" Cuma)),^ gebletsade mines Fseder, gesittaS rice ^te eow 
geiarwad^° wses from s^tnisse middangeardes. For-jjon-^e 
mec^^ yngrade/^ and ge saldun me etan; mec ]?yrste, and 
ge saldun ^^ me drincan; cuma ic wees, and ge feormadun 
mec^; nacud ic wses, and ge wrigan^^ mec; nntmm/^ and 
ge neosadun mm; in carcerne^'^ ic wses, and ge cwomun^^ 
to me." ponne andswarigap ^^ him^^ [psem] sopfseste,^ 
cwsepende/^ " Dryhten, hwonne ^^ gesegun ^^ we ^e hyng- 
rende, and we foeddun^'* ]>e ? oppe pyrstigne, and we pe 
drincan saldun? hwanne^ ponne gesegun^" we pe^ cuman, 
and gefeormadun $e ^^ ? oppe nacudne, and we pec ^^ 
wrigun^'^? op6e hwonne ^^ we pe^^ segun untrymne^^ op^e 
in cwarterne,^ and we cwomun ^'' to pe ? " And and- 
swarade se Cyning, cwsep to heom/^ " Sop ic ssecge eow, 
swa longe swa ge dydun anum pe^^ Isesesta^^ para bropre^ 


1 MS. gesceadij>. 

2 MS. tu, but less common. 

3 heorde also occurs, 
* MS. ascade>. 

° MS. scsep. 

6 Lat. omits suis. 

"^ MS. healfe. 

8 Usual form for pres., as well 
as pret. ; pres. also cwej>. 

9 MS. cyme>. 

1*^ Less common than gegear- 

11 mec, ffec rather commoner 
in ace. 

12 Loss of initial h exceptional. 

13 MS. salden. 

1^ MS. forms are wriogan, 

wreogan, but this verb is ex- 

15 With i-umlaut, and without. 

16 MS. carksern. 

17 MS. coinan. 

18 MS. andsw8eriga)>. 

19 Sing, him, plur. heom. 

2'J -faeste rather more common. 

21 cw8e>ende nearly as com- 
mon as cwejfende. 

22 hwanne and h-wonne about 

23 MS. gesagun. 

24 MS. foeddan. 

25 MS. quartern. 

26 Here nom. ; }>e occasional 
for se. 



mine/ ge me dydun.^" ponne cwse}^ se Cyning ec to ))sem 
])Si-]>e on ]?£em winstran halfe beoj^an, " Gewita)) from me, 
awsergde,^ in ece* fyr, ^te wses geiarwad^ Feeder^ min^ 
deofle and his ^nglum/ ror-))on-j)e mec^ hyngrede, and 
5 ge ne saldnn me etan; mec^ Syrste, and ge ne saldun me 
drincan; cuma^ ic wa3S, and ge ne feormadun mec^; nacnd, 
and ge ne wrigun^° mec^; nntrum^^ and in carcerne/^ and 
ge ne neosadun mm." ponne andswarigaS liise sweelce/^ 
cwsefende,^^ " Dryhten, hwanne^^ gesegun^^ we Se^ hyng- 

10 rende, o])]>e }?yrstigne, oj^pe cuman, o))6e untmm/^ oppe 
in carcerne/'' and we ne ]?egnadun^^ pe ? " ponne and- 
swara]?^^ heom,^ cwej^ende/'^ "So]) ic ssecge eow, swa longe 
swa ge ne dydun annm meodumra^^ ]^issa, ne me ge ne 
dydun." And geej?^^ liise in ^ce^ tintergu,^ ]>sl so])feste-* 

15 ponne in sece* lif. 

1 See p. 253, note 26. 

2 MS. dydon. 

3 MS. awsergede. 

* aece rather more common. 
^ MS. geiarward. 

6 Cf . the Latin of this text. 

7 MS. englas. 

8 See p. 253, note 11. 
» MS. cuman. 

10 See p. 253, note 14. 

11 See p. 253, note 15. 

12 MS. carkern. 

13 MS. s'wilce ; the only other 
instance in the Gospel is swtelce. 

14 See p. 253, note 21. 

15 See p. 253, note 22. 

16 See p. 253, note 23. 
1'^ MS. carcraennse. 

18 MS. >egnedun. 

19 MS. andsware)?. 

20 See p. 253, note 18. 

21 MS. meoduma. 

22 More common than gaiac ; 
influence of the sing.? 

23 Only instance of u in pliir. 
of disyllabic neuters ; cf . ticcen, 

24 See p. 253, note 20. 

2. Psalm XX. (XXI.) 

The Psalm is takeri from the Vespasian Psalter as 
printed in Sweet's Oldest English Texts. This was 
formerly regarded as Kentish, and even yet Brown 


(Part I., p. 82) is inclined to think that its Mercian 
is that of the region adjoining Kent. Sweet (p. 184) 
refers the gloss to the first half of the ninth century. 
The forms are less varied than in the last. The Latin 
is the Vulgate version, collated with that on which the 
ofloss is based. 
The text is : — 

Dryhten, in megne t^muin biS geblissad cyning; ond 
of er hselu $ine gefv6 ^ swlf5lice ! Lust sawle his t5u saldes 
him, ond willan weolera his ^u ne bisc^redes hine. For- 
t5on M forecwome hine in bledsunge^ swaetnisse^; ^u 
s^ttes heafde his beg of stane deorwyr^um.'' Lif bed, 5 
ond tu saldes him l^ngu dsega^ in weoruld weorulde. 
Micel is wuldur his in hgelu t^Inre; wuldur ond micelne 
wlite M ons^tes ofer hine. For-^on M shiest hine in 
bledsunge in weoruld weorulde ; ^u geblissas hine in 
geflan mid ondwleotan^ ^Tnum. For-'6on cyning gehyhteS 10 
in Dryhtne, and in mildheortnisse ^es hestan ne bi$ 
onstyred. Sie [bi^] gimoeted bond Sin allum feondum 
tSTnum; sie swiSre t5m gemoeteS alle «a-«e tec^ figat5. 
Du s^tes hie swe-swe of en fyres in tid ondwleotan^ 
6Tnes; Dryhten in eorre his gedroefe^ hie, ond forswilget5 15 
hie fyr. Westem heara of eorSan Sti forspildes, and sed 
heara from bearnum monna. For-(Son hie onhseldun^ in 
6e yfel; t5ohtun geSaeht «yet hie ne msehtun gestea^ul- 
festian. For-^on «u s^tes hie bee, in lafum t5mum «u 
gearwas ondwleotan heara. H^fe up, Dryhten, in megne 20 
^inum; we singaS and singaS megen 'Sin. 

1 MS. gefihS". ^ In this word io is commoner ; 

2 We should expect bloedsunge. but the rule is eo. 

3 MS. swetnisse. '^ MS. ffe. 

* MS. deorwyr3'em. ^ MS. Qndwliotan ; see note 5. 

6 MS. d^ga. » MS. onhaeldon. 


Domine, in virtute tua Isetabitur rex; et super salutare 
tuum exultabit vehementer. Desidermm cordis^ ejus 
tribuisti ei, et voluntate labiorum ejus non fraudasti 
eum. Quoniam prsevenisti eum in benedictionibus dul- 
cedinis ; posuisti in capite ejus coronam de lapide pre- 
tioso. Vitam petiit^ a^ te/ et tribuisti ei longitudinem 
dierum in sseculum, et in sseculum saeculi. Magna est 
gloria ejus in salutari tuo; gloriam et magnum decorem 
impones super eum. Quoniam dabis eum in benedictionem 
in sseculum sseculi; Isetificabis eum in gaudio cum vultu 
tuo. Quoniam rex sperat^ in Domino, et in misericordia 
Altissimi non commovebitur. Inveniatur manus tua omni- 
bus inimicis tuis ; dextera tua inveniat ^ omnes qui te 
oderunt. Pones eos ut clibanum ignis in tempore vultus 
tui; Dominus in ira sua conturbabit eps, et devorabit eos 
ignis. Fructum eorum de terra perdes ; et semen eorum 
a filiis bominum. Quoniam declinaverunt in te mala ; 
cogitaverunt consilia/ quee^ non potuerunt stabilire. Quo- 
niam pones eos dorsum''; in reliquis tuis prseparabis 
Yultum eorum. Exaltare, Domine, in virtute tua; can- 
tabimus et psallemus virtutes tuas. 

1 MS. animce. ^ MS. sperahit. ^ MS. quod. 

2 MS. petit. * MS. inveniit. "^ MS. deorsum. 

5 MS. consilium. 

III. Kentish. 

The preference for the e-sound (both long and short) 
is, according to Zupitza QRaupt's Zeitschrift, XXI. 4), 
characteristic of the Kentish dialect. Sievers remarks 
(§ 154) that a distinctive characteristic of Kentish is 
the substitution of e, e, for y, y, and to some extent the 


In our reproduction of the following pieces, ^ is 
employed only where it is found in the MSS., in order 
to avoid confusion between the theoretical and the 
MS. ^. 

1. Lufa's Confirmation of her Bequest. 

The will of which this is the concluding portion 
dates from 832. It is printed by Sweet in his Oldest 
English Texts, pp. 446-447, and by Earle, Land Charters, 
pp. 165-166. Earle adds : " This piece is given in 
Thorpe's Analecta as a specimen of East Anglian ; 
but Kemble remarked that Mundlingham is in Kent." 

Note the e (e) for se (se), ia (ia) for eo (eo) ; 
b for f is of course not peculiar to Kentish (I. 1. 30). 

The text is as follows : — 

*h Ic Luba, ea'Smod Godes ^iwen, ^as forecwedenan god, 
and ^as elmessan, gesette and gefestnie, ob minem erfe- 
lande et Mundlingham, Sem hiium to Cristes cirican; and 
ic bidde, and an Godes libgendes naman beblade, Seem 
men $e Sis land and Sis erbe hebbe et Mundlingham, Set 5 
he Sas god forSleste oS wiaralde ende. Se man, se Sis 
healdan wille, and lestan Set ic beboden hebbe an Sisem 
gewrite, se him seald and gehealden sia hiabenlice 
bledsung ; se his ferwerne, oSSe hit agele, se him seald 
and gehealden helle wite, btite he to fulre bote gecerran 10 
wille, Gode and mannum. Uene ualete. 
*i* Lufe j^incggewrit. 

2. The Kentish Hymn. 

The Hymn is No. 8 of Grein's Bihliothek (II. 290- 
291). The text is conformed to that of Kluge in his 
Lesebuch, pp. 111-112. 


To be noted are the io, ia for eo (hiofen, hiafen), 
io for eo, e for se (fegere, Feder, heleSfa, -fest), se for 
e, i.e. oe (blsetsiaST, hrsemig) and for ie (geflsemdest), 

and especially the e for y (senna, gefelled), and e for 
y (ales, g-erena). Standard West Saxon vowels are 
also found, and perhaps indicate a West Saxon scribe. 

With respect to consonants, the omission of the mid- 
dle one of three is noted by Zupitza as characteristic 
(aenlum). The loss of final d (walden) is found 
elsewhere in Kentish (Zupitza, p. 11) ; but see also 
I. 1. 14. l^G (ngc, ncg) for ng (cyninc, cyningc ; cf. 
]7incg-, p. 257, 1. 12) is another mark (Zupitza, p. 13). 

The Hymn is as follows : — 

Wuton wuldrian weorada Dryhten, 

halgan hlioSorcwidum hiofenrlces Weard, 

lufian liofwendum lif^s Agend, 

and him simle sio sigef^st wuldor 
5 uppe mid senium and on eorSan sibb > [5] 

gumena gehwilcum goodes willan! 

We 6e heriatS halgum stefnum, 

and fe blsetsia'S bilewitne F^der, 

and 'Se ])ancia^, pioda Walden, 
10 'Sines weorSlican wuldordreames [10] 

and 'Sare miclan msegena gerena, 

t5e ^u God Dryhten gastes msehtum 

hafest on gewealdum hiofen and eorSan, 

an ece F^der, selmehtig God! 
15 Dn eart cyninga Cyningc cwicera gehwilces; [15] 

t5u eart sigefest Sunu and soS H|lend 

ofer ealle gesc^ft angla and manna! 

Dil Dryhten God on dreamum wunast 

on ■Ssere uppllcan 8et5elan ceastre, 
20 Frea folca gehwaes, swa t5u set fruman wsere [20] 


efeneadig Beam agenum Fseder ! 

Du eart heofenlic lloht and t^aet halige lamb, 

Se t)U^ manscilde middangeardes 

for plnre arf^stnesse ealle towurpe, 
5 flond geflsemdest, folic generedes, [25] 

blode gebohtest beam Israela 

Sa 6u ahofe ^iirh Sset halige triow 

t5mre Srowunga ■g.rlostre senna, 

Jjset 'Su on hseahsetle heafena rices 
10 sitest sigehrsemig on t5a swiSran hand [30] 

Sinum God-Fseder gasta gemyndig. 

Mildsa nu meahtig manna cynne, 

and of leahtrum ales t5ine 6a liofan gesc^ft, 

and us hale gedo, helet^a Sceppend, 
15 ni^a Nergend, for Sines naman are ! [35] 

Du eart soSlIce simle halig, 

and t5u eart ana eece Dryhten, 

and Su ana bist eallra Dema 

cwucra ge deadra, Crist Nergend, 
20 for-San Su on Srymme ricsast and on Srmesse [40] 

and on annesse, ealles Waldend, 

hiofena heahcyninc, Halige s Gastes 

fegere gefelled in Fseder wuldre ! 

1 MS. ffy. 



The earliest Germanic language represented by exist 
ing specimens is the Gothic. Much the most consider- 
able part of these specimens consists of fragments of a 
translation of the Bible, or rather of the Bible with 
the exception of the Books of Kings, made by Wulfila 
(less correctly, Ulphilas), a Goth of the 'fourth century. 
While it would be a serious error to regard Gothic as the 
parent of the other Germanic tongues, it is undoubtedly 
true that in many respects it most nearly represents 
what we may conceive to have been the character of the 
Primitive Germanic language. In particular, the origi- 
nal vowels of stem-endings and inflectional terminations 
are often extant in Gothic, while by the time of Old 
English they are either lost, or exist in a modified form. 

From what has been said, it is manifest that a compari- 
son of Gothic forms with those of Old English is often 
very instructive. The phenomenon known as i-umlaut, 
for example, becomes much more intelligible through such 
a comparison, as a few illustrations will render evident. 

In the revised version of 2 Cor. 10. 12, the marginal 
reading is, "For we are not bold to judge ourselves 
among . . . certain of them that commend themselves." 
The Gothic has, " Unte ni gadaursum domjan unsis 
silbans," etc. Here the English word judge is repre- 



sented by the Gothic domjan (pronounced domyan)^ to 
which corresponds the OE. deman. Again, for OE. 
sec(e)an (114), n^riaii (116), the Gothic has sokjan^ 
nasjan (s changing to r), as in Lk. 19. 10 : " Qam auk 
sun us mans sokjan jah nasjan fans fralusanans." 

According to 103, the ind. pres. 3 sing, of forbeodan 
is forbiet or forbiett. The corresponding Gothic form 
occurs in Lk. 8. 25 : " Hwas siai sa, ei jah windam 
faurhiudip jah watnam ? " (Who then is this, that 
he commandeth even the winds and the water(s)?) 
The stem of the Gothic verb faurhludip is hiud-^ which 
in OE. is represented by beod-. Umlaut is caused by 
the -i- of the ending -i/>^ which is sometimes retained in 
OE. as -(e)3', but frequently disappears, according to 23 
and 34. Similarly Gothic fraliusip is represented in 
OE. by forliest, as in Lk. 15. 8, where, for the "if she 
lose one piece " of the English, the Gothic has, " jabai 
fraliusi/f drakmin ainamma." Again, take the OE. 
hatau, of which the ind. pres. 3 sing, is hget(t). Here 
the Gothic infinitive is haitan^ and the ind. pres. 3 sing. 
haitip. Thus, in Lk. 15. 9, '•'• gahaitip frijondjos" (call- 
eth together her friends). 

In Mk. 1. 16, where our version has net^ the OE. has 
n^tt, and the Gothic nati: " wairpandans nati in marein." 
The doubling of t is to be accounted for according to 36, 
as the Gothic stem-ending was -ja. For OE. cynn the 
Gothic has kuni^ as in Mk. 8. 12 : " Hwa fata huni taikn 
sokei})?" (What would be the OE. representatives ot 
taikn and sokeip?^ In Mk. 7. 35, where the OE. has 
"tungan b^nd," the Gothic has ''•bandi tuggons." 

Many more illustrations might be given, but these will 
no doubt suffice to render the principle clear. 



The chief Germanic dialects cognate with the Old 
English are Gothic, Old High German, Old Saxon, Old 
Norse, and Old Frisian (cf. Sievers' Grram. of OU. 1, 
and my Phonological Investigation of OE.). Of these, 
Gothic is the oldest, and Old Norse and Old Frisian, 
in their present forms, the latest ; the others are fairly 
contemporary with Old English. By a comparison of 
these tongues, the basic, unitary Germanic language 
is reconstructed. Thus, to take a few of the words 
introduced below, we gain the Germanic stems ain-, 
one ; gast-, guest or stranger; siuk-, sick; kwej^an, 
say ; others will readily be discovered by a little atten- 
tion. In general, the Gothic forms stand nearest to 
the Primitive Germanic, but some Gothic words have 
died out, or are replaced by others in the remaining 
tongues. The Germanic forms of many English words 
are given in the New English Dictionary^ with those of 
the cognate dialects, and in some cases the remoter 
Indo-European form. 

As far as possible, the texts below repose upon the 
same original. Matt. 25. 38-46. This affords an oppor- 
tunity for comparison with Selection III, pp. 134-136, 
and with the dialectic texts on pp. 256-262. There 
being no corresponding prose text of Old Saxon, the 



poetic paraphrase, from the Heliand^ is thrown to the 
end. The Old Frisian stands by itself, its documents 
being chiefly legal. 

As the Gothic text of this chapter covers only verses 
38 to 46, the corresponding selections have been limited 
to these verses. 


[From the version by Wulfila (ca. 311-383) ; see the article on Wul- 
fila by Sievers, in Paul's Grundriss der Germanischen Philologie, Vol. 2. 
w has been substituted for the v used by the Germans in their editions, 
and the quantity of the vowels has been marked more regularly than 
usual; ai is generally long, but is short in aijjjjau (cf. ON. ed'a), fairra, 
garaihtans ; ei is always long (like Eng. ee).] 

"Hwanuh ]?an ])uk sehwum gast, jah gala)?odedum ? ^ 
ai})]?au naqadana, jah wasidedum? hwanuh j>an ]?uk 
sehwum smkana ai|)]?au in karkarai/ jah atiddj edum ^ du 
}^us?" Jah andhafjands sa ))mdans* W^l^ ^^ ^^> 
"Amen qij^a izvis, jah fanei tawidedu]) ainamma ])ize 5 
minnistane brofre meinaize, mis tawidedu]?." panuh 
qi|?i]? jah |)aim af hleidumein ferai, " Gaggi]> fairra mis, 
jus fraqi|?anans,^ in fon ]?ata aiweino,^ ))ata manwido 
unhuljjin'^ jah aggilum is. Unte gredags^ was, jan ni 
gebu]? mis matjan^; af]?aursi]3S was, jan ni dragkidedu]) ^° lo 
mik ; gasts, jan ni gala])odedu)> mik ; naqa))S, jan ni was id e- 
du|? mik ; siuks jah in karkarai, jan ni gaweisodedu]) meina." 
panuh andhafjand jah j^ai qij^andans, "Erauja,^^ hwan ))uk 
sehwum gredagana, ai)?];au af]?aursidana, ai]}])au gast, aip- 
Jjau naqadana, aij)J?au siukana, ai]?J)au in karkarai, jan ni 15 

1 See Glossary, gela^ian. 6 rrom same Indo-European 

2 From Latin. root as Gr. aldov, Lat. (Bvum. 

3 As if OE. *aeteodon (from ^cf. OE. unliold(a). 
*0etgangan). 8 cf. Eng, greedy. 

* See Gl. Seoden. 9 Verb ; cf. Gl. m^te. 

5 Like OE. forcweden. 10 gk for nk. n See Gl. frea. 


andbahtidedeima^ ]?us ? " panuh andhafji)) im qi))ands, 
<'Amen qipa izwis, jah J^anei ni tawidedu]? ainamma ])ize 
leitilane, mis ni tawidedu|)." Jah galei}?and^ ]mi in bal- 
wein ^ aiweinon, if fai garaihtans * in libain aiweinon. 

1 Cf. OE. ambiht, German 3 cf. OE. bealu. 

Amt. 2 See Gl. liSan. * Cf . German gerecht. 

Old High German. 

[The longer extract is from Sievers' edition of Tatian. The Latin ver- 
sion of the Gospel harmony by the Assyrian Tatian (second century) was 
translated by a monk of Fulda, a.d. 830-835. The dialect is East Frank- 
ish. The translation is, in general, much more literal than that of the 
Rhine Frankish version, a specimen of which, from the beginning of the 
ninth century, is given in a note (from Hench's edition of the Monsee 
Fragments) . 

uu is of course used for w.J 

" Uuanne gisahun uuir thih gast uuesentan, inti gihalo- 
tunmes ^ thih ? oda nacotan, inti bithactumes ^ ? oda 
uuanne gisahumes thih unmahtigan oda in carkere, inti 
quamunmes zi thir ? " Inti antlingenti ther cunig ^ quidit 
in, " Uuar quidih iu, so lango so ir tatut einemo fon thesen 
minen bruoderon minniston, thanne tatut ir iz mir." Thanne 
quidit her then thie zi sineru uuinistrun sint, "Eruuizzet 
fon mir, ir foruuergiton, in euuin fiur, thaz dar garo 
ist themo diufale inti sinen ^ngilon. Mih hungrita, inti 
ir ni gabut mir ezzan ; mih thursta, inti ir ni gabut mir 
trincan ; ih uuas gast, inti ir ni gihalotut mih ; nacot, inti ir 
ni bithactut mih ; unmahtic inti in carkere, inti ir ni uuisotut 
mm." Thanne antlingent sle inti quedent, " Trohtin,* 

1 Cf . German holen. 2 German bedecken. ^ German Konig. 

* The Monsee Matthew has here : 

"Truhtin, huuanne kasahun uuir dih hungragan, odo durstagan, 
odo gast, odo nahhatan, odo siuhhan, so in carcere, enti ni ambahti- 
tum dir ? " Danne antuurtit im quidit, " Uuar iu sagem, so lange so 
ir iz ni tatut einhuuelihhemo dero minnistono, noh mir iz nl tatut." 

APPENDIX vr. 273 

uuanne gisahun uuir thih hungrentan, oda thurstentan, oda 
gast, oda nacotan, oda uiinialitigan, oda in carkere, inti ni 
aiiibahtitumes thir ? " Thanne antlingit her in quedenti, 
" Uuar quidih Tu, so lango so ir ni tatut eineino fon then 
minniron, noh mir ni tatut." Inti farent thie in euulnaz 
uuizzi, thie rehton in euuin lib. 

Old (?) Norse. 

[The Norse extract is from the version of Odd the Wise, which appeared 
in 1540, and is liore reproduced from the text in Vigfusson and Powell's Ice- 
landic Prose Reader, \v ))eing substituted for v. The editors say of Odd's 
work (p. 4;i8) : " It is well worthy to stand by the side of that of Tyudal or 
Luther, and higher praise could hardly be given to it. Like our own Ver- 
sion, it was made just at the right time, when the spoken language was 
in the main still jmre and classical, but yet rich and flexil)le enough to be 
easily adapted to the idioms and vocabulary of the Greek and Hebrew."] 

" Hwenar sau wiJer l^ig hungra(San, og soddum pig ? e^r 
j)yrstan, swo wiJer g[Jefuni \k\y drekka? e(Sr hwenar sauni 
wiJer ))ig g^.stkominn, og hystuiii^ l^ig ^ <^Sa nakinn, og 
klaeddum ])ig ? et5a hwenar sau w^r ]ng sjiikan, eSa i myrk- 
wastof u,^ og komum til |nn ? " Og konungrinn * mun ^ 5 
swara, og s^gja til peirra, " Sannliga s^gi eg y?)r, hwat j^er 
gjor^ut* einum af |)essum minum minztum briJeSrum, fat 
gjorSu ]jer mer." pa mun hann og s^gja til ])eirra sem til 
winstri handar eru, "Earit hurt fra nier, J)er bolwa(5ir,^ I 
eilifan eld, )?ann sem fyri biiinn er f jandanum og hans arum. lo 
pwiat hungra^r war eg, og ])or gafut mer eigi at ^ eta ; 
l^yrstr war eg, og ])er gafut mer eigi at drekka ; g^str war 

^The verb hysa, from hus, \^n(\. for shall ov will; ci. the Eng. 

house. Dial. Diet. 

2 ' Mirkcloset ' (stofa = Ger- * Gar is still used in Burns ; 

man Stuhe, Eng. stove). cf. New Eng. Diet. 

3-inn is tlie postpositive article. ^ See Gothic, p. 272, note 3. 

4 Still used dialectally in Eng- ^ So in Eng. ado, from at do. 


eg, og ))er hystutS mig eigi ; nakinn war eg, og fer kleeddut 
mig eigi ; sjfikr og i myrkwastofu war eg, og ])ev witju^ut 
min eigi." pa munu ]?eir swara og s^gja, ''Herra, hwenar 
sau wser ])ig hungra^an e^a J^yrstan, g^st et5a nakinn, 
sjukan eSa i myrkwastofu, og hofum ))er eigi fjonat?" 
pa mun hann swara ))eim og s^gja, " Sannliga s^gi eg y^r, 
hwat ]?er gjorSut eigi einum af pessum enum minztum, J)at 
gjorSut ))er mer eigi." Og munu peir pa ganga i eilifar 
pislir, en rettlatir i eilifit lif. 

Old Frisian. 

[Though the texts of Old Frisian are of a comparatively late period, 
its grammatical condition fairly entitles it to rank with Old High German 
and Old Saxon. The extract which follows is from a paraphrase of the 
Ten Commandments which serves as a preface to a certain code of laws 
(Richthofen, Friesische Rechtsquellen, pp. 131-132). Frisian is next of kin 
to Old English among the Germanic dialects (Sievers, Gram. 1; Siebs, 
Zur Geschichte der Englisch-Friesischen Sprache, Halle, 1889.] 

Thin Grod thet is thi ena, ther skippere is himulrikes 
and irthrikes, tham skaltu thiania. Thu ne skalt thines 
Godis uQma nawet ^ idle untfa, thermithi send ti urbeden ^ 
alle menetha.^ Thu skalt firia'' thene helega Sunnandi, 
5 hwante God hini r^ste tha hi eskipin^ hede himulrike 
and irthrike; therumbe® skaltu ierne"^ firia thene helega 
Sunnandi. Thu skalt eria ^ thiiine f eder and thinne moder, 
thet tu theste® langor libbe. Thu ne skalt nenne mqn- 
slaga dtia. 

1 OE. nawiht ; see Gl. naht. ® German darum. 

2 Eng. forbid. ' OE. georne. 

8 German Meineid. ^ German ehren. 

* German feiern. ® German desto, OE. <Jaes-3e. 
& With the prefix e- compare 
Eng. y- in yclept. 


Old Saxon. 

[Next to Old Frisian, Old Saxon is most nearly related to Old English. 
It is interesting, too, because a considerable part of an OE. poem, the 
Genesis, has been adapted from an Old Saxon original (see Cook and 
Tinker, Select Translations from Old English Poetry, pp. 104—105, 184-185). 
The most important text is the Heliand, written between 822 and 840, a 
versified harmony of the Gospels. Our extract consists of vv. 4405^4451 
of the Munich MS.] 

Huan gisah thi man enig 

bethuungen an sullcun tharabun? Huat, thu babes allaro 

tbiodo giuuald, 
iac so samo tbero medmo thero tbe lo manno barn 
geuunnun an tbesaro uueroldi." Than sprikid im eft 

Uualdand God : 
" So huat so gi dadun/' quidit be, " an luuues Drobtines s 

godes fargat)un an Godes era 
tbem mannum tbe ber minniston sindun tbero nu undar 

tbesaru m^negi stand[a]d, 
^ndi ))urh odinodi arme uuarun 
uueros, buand sie minan uuilleon fr^midun, — so buat so 

gi im luuuaro uuelono fargabun, 
gidadun tburb diurida mina, tbat antfeng iuuua Drohtin lo 

tbm belpe quam te Hebencuninge. Betblu uuili lu the 

helago Drohtin 
lonon muu[an] gilobon ; gibid luu iTf euuig." 
Uu^ndid ina than Uualdand an thea uuinistron hand, 
the Drohtin te them farduanun mannun, sagad im that sie 

sculin thea dad antgelden, 
thea man iro mengiuuerk: "Nu gi fan mi sculun," 15 

quidit he, 
" f arun so f arflocane an that f lur euuig 
that thar gigareuuid uuard Godes andsacun, 
fiundo folke be firinuuerkun, 
huand gi mi ni hulpun than mi hunger ^ndi purst 


uuegde te uundrun, eftha ik geuuadies los 
geng iamermod — uuas mi grotun tharf ; 
than ni habde ik thar enige helpe than ik geheftid uuas, 
an lithokospun bilokan, eftha mi legar bifeng, 
5 suara suhti ; than ni uueldun gi mm siokes thar 
uuison mid uuihti. Ni uuas iu uuerd eouuiht 
that gi min gehugdin ; bethiu gi an hellie sculun 
tholon an thiustre." Than sprikid imu ^ft thiu thiod 

angegin : 
"Uuola, Uualdand God/' quedad sie, "hui uuilt thu so 
uuit thit uuerod sprekan, 
10 mahlien uuid these m^negi ? Huan uuas thi lo manno 
gumono godes ? Huat, sie it al be thinun gebun e[g]un, 
uuelon an the[sa]ro uueroldi." Than sprikid ^ft Uualdand 

" Than gi thea aimostun," quidid he, " ^Idibarno, 
manno thea minnistdn an luuuomu modsebon^ 
15 helidos farhugdun, letun sea lu an luuuomu hugi lethe, 
bedeldun sie iuuuaro diurda, than dadun gi iuuomu Droht- 

ine so sama, 
giuu^rnidun imu iuuuaro uuelono ; bethiu ni uuili lu 

Uualdand God 
antfahen Fader luuua, ac gi an that f lur sculun 
an thene diopun dod diublun thionon, 
20 uuredun uuidersakun, huand gi so uuarhtun biuoran." 
Than aftar them uuordun skedit that uuerod an tue, 
thea godun ^ndi thea ubilon. Farad thea fargriponon man 
an thea hetun h^l hriuuigmode, 
thea faruuarhton uueros, uuiti antfahat, 
25 ubil ^ndilos. Ledid tip thanen 

her Hebencuning thea hluttaron theoda 
an that langsame lloht ; thar is lif euuig, 
gigareuuid Godes riki godaro thiado. 



[The vowel ae follows ad, and S" follows t. The main or typical forms 
of words are those of Early West Saxon, the dialectic or late forms of the 
poetry and of Appendix IV being referred to that as the standard. Actual 
forms, when different from the type, are enclosed in parenthesis. Figures 
in parenthesis refer to the sections (and subdivisions) of the- Grammar. 
Semicolons are employed to separate different groups of meanings; defi- 
nitions separated by commas are more nearly synonymous. The sign < 
indicates derivation from. Modern English words cited in brackets, and 
not preceded by c/., are direct derivatives ; cognates thus cited are directly 
derived from the common ancestral form ; where the relationship is more 
remote, or only a part of the word corresponds, cf. precedes. Old English 
words preceded by cf. or see are parallel or related forms. Direct deriva- 
tives included among the definitions are not repeated in brackets. The 
asterisk before a word indicates a theoretical form; for the manner in 
which such are framed see my Phonological Investigation of Old English 
(Ginn & Co.). The ending -lic(e) is assigned to adjectives and adverbs 
employed in the poetry ; -lic(e) to those in prose.] 

a, always ; repeated for emphasis, 
a a a, for ever and ever. [Cf. 
Mod. Eng. ay, from an allied 
root ; in ME. our word appears 
as 0, 00, — so in Chaucer, TV. 
and Cress. 2. 1034 : ' for ay 
and 00.^^ 

a- (142). 

a-belgan (III. 104), anger, in- 

a-beodan (II. 103), announce, 

a-beran (IV. 105), carry, convey; 

a-blawan (R. 109), blow. 

a-bregdan (III. 104, 28), liberate, 
disengage. [Cf . Spenser's abrade, 
abrayd, abraid, e.g. F. Q. 3. 11. 8.] 

a-butan, about, around. 

ac (ah) (4), but. 

a-c^nnan (113), produce, beget, 
bring forth. 

acol-mod (58, 146), frightened^ 

adesa (53), adze, hatchet. 

adl (51. 6), disease. 

a-drsedan (R. 110), /ear. 

a-dreogan (II. 103), endure. 

a-drifan (I. 102) , expel. 

a-dnn(e) , down. [< of done ; see 

sece, see ece. 




seccr (43), fieU. [Cf. Mod. Eng. 
broad acres, Gocfs Acre, the 
latter as in Longfellow's poem; 
Ger. Acker. Cognate with Lat. 
ager, Gr. dypos.^ 

sedre (edre), straightway, imme- 
diately, at once. 

£Bfen (47. 7), evening (but evening 
itself is from the derivative gefa- 
iing). [Ger. Abend.'] 

sefen-glomung (51. 3), evening 
twilight. [Cf . Mod. Eng. gloam- 

aefestfull (146), envious, [sefest 
is compounded of sef-, a parallel 
form of of, and est, q.v.] 

aBfestian (118), envy, be envious 

aefestig (146), envious. 

sef re, ever, always; sejEre ne, 
never. [afterward. 

3sfter, after ; according to; about; 

8efter-9'on-9'e, after. 

fg- (142). 

aeg-flota (53), sea-floater, ship. 

£eg-hwa (88), every one; neut. 
every thing. 

seg-liAvanan (75), from all sides, 
on all sides. 

geg-hwilc (-hwylc) (89), every 
(one), any (one). 

segSfer ge . . . ge (202), both . . . 

seht (51. 5), council. 

aeht (51. 1), possession; plur. 
goods. [Cf. agan.] 

sel (51. b), awl. [Ger. Ahle.] 

selc (89. a), each, every, all. 
[Mod. Eng. each.] 

gelde, see ielde. 

aelmesse (el-) (53. 1), alms. 
[See Nev) Eng. Diet. s.v. alms.] 

ael-mihtig C-mihti) (57. 3), al- 
mighty. [Ger. allmachtig.] 

.^l-myrcan (53), plur. Ethiopians. 

aemetta (53), leisure. [Cf. 

semtig (57. 3; 146), empty, void. 
[Cf. semetta.] 

sene, once. 

eenig (89. a; 154. a; 146), any 
(one). [<an; Ger. einig.] 

seppel-bsere (59, 14iB) , fruit-bear- 

ger (47), copper. [See ar, copper ; 
cf. the Ger. adj. ehern.] 

ger, adv., before, formerly, afore- 
time, ago ; frequently to be 
regarded as a mere sign of the 
pluperfect tense. 

ger, prep., before. [Mod. Eng. ere.] 

ger-daeg (43. 2), dawn, break of 

gerend-wreca (53), ambassador .> 
envoy. [Cf . Mod. Eng. errand ; 
OE. -wrecan has a sense r= re- 

gerest, first, at first, in the first 
place. (Mod. Eng. erst; Ger. 

ger-ge-don (62), previously done, 
former, [ger-}- don.] 

aern (47), edifice. 

gerra (67, 60) , former. 

ger-iS'ain-S'e, before. 

ger-wacol (57, 146), wakeful, 

sesc-plega (53, 147), ash-play, 

aesc-rof (58, 147), spear-valiant, 
valiant with the spear. 

get (47), /ood. [Cf. etan.] 

get (4), at; from; to (New Eng. 
Diet. s.v. at, I. 11, 12). 

set- (142). 

aet-berstan (III. 104), escape. 

get-bregdan (III. 104, 162, 28), 
withdraw, take away. 



aet-eowian (118), appear. [Cf. 
aetiewan. ] 

aet-foran, before. 

aet-gaedere, together; strengthen- 
ing samod, — samod aetgaed- 
ere = Lat. simul. 

aet-iewan (113), reveal, display. 
[Cf. aeteowian.] 

aet niehstan, see niehstan. 

aetywan, see aetiewan. 

aeafel-boren (62 ; 57. 3 ; WT), high- 
born, patrician. 

seiffel-borennes (51.5; 147), noble 
birth, rank, station. 

SBSPele (59), noble, gentle, illustri- 
ous. [Cf. Ethel, Athel-, and 
Ger. edel.^ 

aeffeling (43, 143), noble one, 
hero, man. 

s^iSffa, see ofS^e. 

aex (51. b), ax. [Cf. Gr. d^ivri, 
Lat. ascia {?), Ger. Axt (the t a 
late addition).] 

a-fgeran (113) , frighten, terrify. 

a-feallan (R. lOd), fall. 

a-fedan (113), nourish, support. 

a-fierran (113), remove, banish, 
put away. [<feorr, by 16.] 

a-fiersian (118), drive away, ban- 

a-flieman (113), put to flight, ex- 

a-gaelan (-gelan) (113), neglect. 

agan (127), own, possess, have. 
[Cf. Mod. Eng. ought, and see 
Schmidt's Shakespeare Lexicon, 
s.v. owe, 2.] 

a-gan (141), depart. 

a-gean, back. [< ongean. Dis- 
tinguish the meaning of tliis 
word from that of baecling.] 

agen (57. 3), own. [Past part, of 
agan ; Ger. eigen.'] 

agend (43. 6), ovmer, possessor. 

a-geotan (IT. 103), pour out, dis- 
sipate, destroy. 

a-giefan (V. 106), give, j)ay. 

a-ginnan (lU. 104), begin. [Cf. 
Ger. -ginnen.'] 

agnian (118), appropriate. [Cf. 
agan; Ger. eignen.'\ 

a-growan (R. 109), grow up, grow 

ah, see ac. 

a-h^bban (VI. 107), raise (i.e. 
utter) ; exalt ; endure, suffer^ 
undergo. [Ger. erheben.'] 

a-hierdan (113), harden (em- 
bolden ?). [Ger. erharten.~\ 

a-hliehhan (VL107), rejoice. [Cf. 
Mod. P^ng. laugh, Ger. lachen.'] 

ahof, see ah^bban. 

a-hreosan (IL lQZ),fall. 

aht (oht) (47; 89. b), something. 

a-hw^ttan (113), excite, whet; 
supply, fulfil. [Cf. Mod. Eng. 
whet, Ger. v}etzen.'\ 

a-lsetan (R. 110), give up. [Ger. 

aldor, see ealdor. 

a-l^cgean (115, note), deposit. 

a-liefan (113), permit, allow. 
[< leaf, leave; Ger. erlauben.'\ 

a-liehtan (113), illuminate, give 
light to. [< leoht ; Ger. er- 

a-liesan (-lesan) (113), deliver. 
[Ger. erlosen.'] 

a-liesend (43. 6), redeemer. 

an (79), one, a, a single, alone; 
admirable ; wk. ana, alone; on 
an, anon, at once; anra ge- 
hwilc, every one. [Ger. em.] 

and (Qnd), and. 

and- (142). 

and-giet (-git) (47), sense, mean- 
ing, binder standing. [Cf. gie- 



and-gietfullice (76), clearly, in- 

and-lang (Qndlang) (58), live- 
long, whole, all . . . long. [Cf. 
Ger. entlang and the Chaucerian 
endelong (Knighfs Tale 1820).] 

an (d) -licnes (51. 5), image. [Cf. 
Mod. Eng. likeness, Ger. Gleich- 
niss, for {ge)leichniss.~\ 

and-lifan (51. h), sustenance. 

and-swarian (gndswarian, ^d- 
sweorian) (118), answer. 

and-s-waru (gndswaru) (51. a), 

and-Aveard (58, \^&), present. 

and-weardan (Qnd-) (113), an- 

and-wlita (5Z) , countenance, face ; 
also in the sense of ' angry coun- 
tenance,' 'anger,' Lat. vultus. 
[Cf. Ger. Ajitlitz.^ 

and-wyrdan (113), answer. [Cf. 
Ger. antworten.^ 

an-feald (58), plain, simple. [Cf. 
Ger. Einfalt, einfdltig.'] 

angel (43. 4), hook. [Mod. Eng. 
ojigle, Ger. Angel.'] 

an-ginn (ongin) (47), beginning ; 
vehemence, impetuosity, violence. 

an-grisllc (58), fierce, raging. 
[Cf. Mod. Eng. grisly.'] 

an-lic (on-) (58), like, similar. 

anlicnes, see andlicnes. 

an-nes (51. 5), oneness, unity. 

an-rsednes (51. 5), boldness, con- 
fidence, assurance. 

an-sien (51. 6), countenance. 

an-timber (47), material, sub- 

an-weald (43) , power, rule, juris- 
diction. [Ger. Anwalt.] 

ar (43), messenger. 

ar (51. b), honor ; dignity, station. 
[Ger. Ehre.'\ 

ar (47), copper. [See eer, copper; 
Mod. Eng. ore.] 

a-raecean (114), reach. [Ger. 
erreichen. ] 

a-raefnian (118), endure, stand. 

a-rseran (113), lift. [Cf. Mod. 
Eng. rear.] 

a-readian (118), redden, blush. 
[Cf. Ger. err'otheii.] 

a-r^ccean (114; 164. b), relate, 
narrate, say. 

a-redian (IIS), fiiid, choose. 

a-retan (113), gladden. 

ar-faest (58, 146), gracious, lov- 
ing; glorious; often translates 
Lat. pius. [See ar, honor.] 

ar-faestnes (51. d), kindness ; com- 

ar-ge-bland (-blQnd) (47), com- 
motion of the sea, mingling of 
the waves. The word = ear(h)- 
geblQnd, El. 239; Met. 8 30 ; 
Brun. 26 ; see eargrund, depth 
of ocean ; ear, ocean. 

a-risan (I. 102), arise. 

arodlice, immediately, forthwith. 

ar-wela (53), oar-riches, i.e. sea. 

ar-wierlJe (59, 146), venerable. 
[Cf. Ger. ehrwurdig.] 

ar-wierffnes (51. 5), reverence. 

ar-yi3' (51. b), oar-billow, wave. 

a-sceadan (R. 110), divide. 

ascian (axian) (118 ; 159. b ; 32), 
ask. [Ger. heischen, properly 

a-s^cgean (123), say, relate. 

a-s^ndan (113), send. 

a-s^ttan {\\Z), place, deposit. 

assa (53), ass. 

a-stgenan (113), adorn, set. 
[<stan, by 16.] 

a-st^llan (114), establish. 

a-stigan (1. 102), ascend, go aboard] 
descend. [Ger. ersteigen.'\ 



a-str^ccean (114) ,■ prostrate. [Cf. 

Mod. Eng. stretch.^ 
a-styrian (118), «OMC^. [Cf. Mod. 

Eng. stir.'] 
a-sw^bban (115. a)^put to sleep., 

i.e. slay. 
a-syndrian (118), separate., sever, 

divide. [Cf. Mod. Eng. sun- 
a-teon (II. 103), draw; inhale. 
a-teorian (118), /az7, give out. 
a-ff^nnan (115. a), apply, direct. 

[Cf. Ger. dehnen.] 
a-sarindan (III. 104, 62, 60), swell. 
atSTum (43), son-in-law. [Ger. 

Eidam. ] 
atS'undnan, see ad'indan. 
a-w^ccean (114), awaken, arouse. 

[Ger. erwecken.] 
a-w^cgean (115. a), move. 
a-w^ndan (113), change, shift, 

a-w^ndednes (51. 5), translation, 

a-wiergan (113), curse; past 

part., accursed. 
a-wiht (89. h), aught, a hit ; almost 

as an adv., at all. [Mod. Eng. 

a-wreon (I. 102), clothe. 
a-writan (I. 102), write. [Cf. 

Ger. reissen, ritzen.] 
a-wyrcean (114), perform, do. 

[Ger. erwirken.] 
axian (32), see ascian. [Mod. 

Eng. dial, axe.] 


baec, hack. 

baecling, hack; on bsecllng, 

ba^ff (47. 4), hath. [Ger. Bad.] 
baeiy-st^de (44, 147), gymnasium. 

baeff-Tveg (43, 215), bath-way, 

baldor, see bealdor. 
ban (47, 24), bone. [Ger. Bein, 

bana (53), slayer, murderer. 

[Mod. Eng. bane.] 
basnian (118), wait, bide one''s 

bat (43), boat. 
baffian (118), bathe. [Ger. 

be, near; concerning; according 

to; on. [See New Eng. Diet. 

s.v. by.] 
be- (142). 

beacen (47, 24), portent? stand- 
ard ? [Mod. Eng. beacon.] 
beadu (51. a), battle, loar. 
beadu-rof (58), valiant in war. 
beadu-wang (43), battle-plain, 

field of battle. 
beag (43), torque,armilla, bracelet, 

collar, crown. [Cf . bugan, 103.] 
beald (24), hold. [Ger. bald.] 
bealdor (baldor) (43), ruler, king. 

[See beald.] 
beam (47, 38) , son, child. [Scotch 

bairn; cf. beran.] 
beatan (R. 109), heat, smite, 

be-beodan (II. 103), command, 

bid; commend. 
be-bugan (II. 103), encircle, en- 
compass, surround; extend. 
be-bjTgan (113), bury, inter. 
be-clysan (113), enclose, shut up. 

[<Lat. clusus, by 16.] 
bec-raedlng (51. 3), reading. 
be-cuman (IV. 105), come, befall, 

arrive, attain, fall. [Ger. he- 

be-cweS'an (V. 106), say, declare. 

[Mod. Eng. bequeathe.] 



be-dselan (113, 177), deprive. 

b^dd (47), bed, couch. [Ger. 

beeodon, see began. 

be-fsestan (113), commit, give 

be-fon (R. 110), embrace, grasp, 

be-foran, before. 

be-gan (141), practise, pursue, 

be-gang (43), circuit, compass. 

be-gangan (R. 109), practise; ply. 

begen (79), both. 

be-gietan (-gitan) (V. 106), a&- 
quire, obtain, reach. 

be-gyrdan (113), begird. [Ger. 
-gurten. ] 

be-hatan (R. 110 ; 164. a), prom- 

be-healdan (R. 109), behold. 

be-hefe (59, 165), useful. 

behaf (51. &), sign, proof. 

be-hygdig (57), shrewd, saga- 

b^lg (43), bellows. 

be-limpan (III. 104), belong, per- 

be-lScan (II. 103), belock [Shak.], 

be-miffan (I. 102), conceal, dis- 
guise. [Ger. -meiden.^ 

ben (51. 6), prayer, petition, en- 
treaty, supplication. [See bena, 
and cf. Mod. Eng. boon.^ 

bena (53), petitioner, suppliant. 
[See ben.] 

be-nseman (113, 177), deprive, strip. 

be-neoiaCan, beneath. 

beod (43), table. 

beodan (II. 103), offer ; command. 
[Ger. bieten.~\ 

beon, see wesan. 

beorg (21, 24), hill, mountain. 

[Ger. berg, and Mod. Eng. (icey 

beorht (58, 64, 21), bright, fair, 

brilliant, radiant, glorious. 

[Mod. Eng. bright is due to 

metathesis (31).] 
beorhte, brightly. 
beorhtnes (51. 5), brightness. 
beorn (43, 21), warrior, hero, 

beor-scipe (44. 1; 143), banquet, 

bera (53), bear. 
beran (IV. 105; 184. a),bear, carry; 

berende, productive (155. b). 
be-realian (118), despoil. [Mod. 

Eng. bereave, Ger. berauben.^ 
be-scierian (bi-scerian) (116), 

be-seon (V. 106, 101), look (often 

alm.ost turn) . [Ger. besehen.^ 
be-sittan (V. 106), sit in, hold. 

[Ger. besitzen.'] 
be-sorgian (118, 142), grieve for, 

be concerned about; translates 

Lat. dolere. [Ger. besorgen.] 
be-stieman (-steman) (IIZ) ^^wetj 

be-swican (I. 102), deceive. 
be-swician (118), escape. 
b^t, adj., better. 
b^t, adv. (77), better. 
be-tsecean (114), assign. 
b^.tst (66), best. 
be-tweoh, among. 
be-tweon, toward. 
be-tweonan, among ; betweonan 

him, towards one another. 
be-tweox, among, between. 
be-tyrnan (113), revolve. 
be-lgr^ccean (114), cover, protect. 

[Ger. bedecken.'] 
be-wsefan (113), clothe. [See 




be-w^ndan (113; 184. 6), turn. 

[Ger. hewenden.'] 

be-windan (III. 104), encompass. 
[Ger. hewinden.'] 

be-wrecan (V. 106), surround 
(lit. heat around). 

bibliotheca (Lat.), library. 

bidan (I. 102; 156. Z), await, 

biddan (V. 106; 156. &; 159. 6), 
ask., request, implore, beseech; 
hid; seek. [Ger. hitten.'] 

biegan (113), how, hend. [Caus- 
ative of bagan (103), from 
beag, pret. sing., by 16; cf. 
Ger. beugen.'] 

biema (53), trumpet, clarion. 
[Cf. Chaucer, jSfun''s Priesfs 
Tale 578.] 

big-leofa (53, 20), food, suste- 
nance. [Cf. libban.] 

bile- wit (57), merciful. [See New 
Eng. Diet. s.v. hilewhit.~] 

bill (47), broadsword, falchion. 
[Ger. hille.'] 

bindan (III. 104), hind. [Ger. 

binnan, within. [Ger. hinnen.'] 

bios', see wesan. 

bi-rihte (-ryhte), beside. 

bisceop (43), bishop. [< Lat. 
episcopus, Gr. iTria-KOTros, from 
cttI, upon, and a-K^TTTOfxai, look; 
cf. Ger. Bischof. A Continental 
borrowing, ca. a.d. 400.] 

biscerian, see bescierian. 

bisgian (118), occupy, engross. 
[See bisig.] 

bisgu (51. a), concern, trouble. 
[See bisig.] 

bisig (57), busy. 

bitan (1. 102), bite. [Ger. heissf.yi.'] 

biter (57), hitter, baneful, griev- 
ous. [Ger. hitter ; cf. bitan ] 

biS", see wesan. 

blase (57. 2), black. 

blaecan (113), ?>Zeac/i, /acZe. [Mod. 
Eng. bleach.'] 

bleed (43), breath; abundance, 
blessedness. [Cf. blawan.] 

bluest (43), flame. [Cf. blawan.] 

blawan (R. 109), blow. [Cf. 
Ger. hldhen, Lat. y?are.] 

bletsian (118, 33), bless. [< 

bletsung (51. 3; 144; 33), bless- 
ing, benediction. 

blewiS", see blow^an. 

bllcan (I. 102), shine. [Ger. 

blinnan (III. 104), cease. [See 
Spenser, F. Q. 3. 5. 22.] 

bliss (51. h; 34) , joy. [< bliffe.] 

blisse-sang (43, 147), song oj 

blissian (118, 34), rejoice. 
[< bliss.] 

bll9'e (59, 24), blithe, merry, jo- 
vial, joyous, gladsome. 

blisafe {10), joyously. 

blod (47, 24), blood. [Ger. 

blodig (57. 3 ; 146), bloody. [Ger. 

blostma (53), blossom. [Cf. 
blowan, and Lat. flos.] 

blowan (R. 109, 24), blossom, 
bloom. [Mod. Eng. blow; cf. 
Ger. hlilhen, Lat. ^orere.] 

boc (52, 24), hook. [Ger. Buch.] 

boc-crseft (43, 147), literature. 

Boc-lseden (47), ia^Mi. [< OE. 
boc + Lat. Latinus.] 

boc-land (47, 147), freehold es- 

bodian (118), proclaim, preach. 
[Mod. Eng. bode.'] 

bolca (53), gangway. 



bold-wela (53, 215), Eden^ Para- 
dise (lit. house-wealth). 
bord (47), shield. 
bord-staeff (47. 4), shore, strand. 

[Cf. Ger. Gestade.'] 
bosm (43, 24), bosom, surface 

(cf. Shakespeare, Tr. and Ci'ess. 

1. 3. 112). [Ger. Busen.^ 
bot (51. 6), repentance, amend- 
brad (58, 24), broad, spacious. 

[Ger. breit."] [face. 

bradnes (51. 5), breadth, face, sur- 
brsedan (113; 184. b), spread, 

dilate, expand. [< brad, by 

16 ; Ger. breiten.'] 
brand-stefn (brgnd-stsefn) (43), 

lofty-prowed (reading brant- 

stefn; cf. heahstefn naca, 

Andr. 265, brante ceole, Andr. 

brant (58), high, lofty. 
breahtm (brehtm) (43 ; 21 . a), 

beat, pulsation, stroke (of wings) . 
brecan (IV. 105), break; break 

away, burst away, hurry, speed. 

[Ger. brechen.'] 
bregdan (III. 104), draw. [Mod. 

Eng. braidJ] 
breogo (brego) (45, 20), leader, 

brehtm, see breahtm. 
breomo, see brim, 
breost (47, 24), breast. 
Breoton (54, 20), J5ritom ; Briton. 
brim (47, 20), billow, ocean, 

brim-h^ngest (43), wave-steed, 

sea-horse, i.e. ship. [Cf. Ger. 

Hengst, and the OE. proper 

name H^ngist, associated with 

brim-stseiy (47. 4; 147), shore of 

the sea. [Cf. Ger. Gestade.^ 

brim-stream. (43, 147), ocean- 
stream, current. 

bringan (114), bring, carry, take. 
[Ger. bri7igen.'] 

brgndstaefn, see brandstefn. 

broffor (46. 1 ; 24), brother. [Ger. 

brucan (II. 103; 156. e; 17), 
hold, possess, enjoy, make use 
of [Mod. Eng. brook, Ger. 

bran (58, 24), burnished, glisten- 
ing ; dusky. [Ger. braun ; see 
New Eng. Diet. s.v. brown.'] 

l>rycg (51. b; 24), bridge. [Ger. 

brytta (53), dispenser. 

Bryttas (43), pliir., Britons. 

bufan, above. [< be + ufan.] 

bur (43, 24), dining-room ; pri- 
vate apartment, boudoir, bower. 
[Mod. Eng. bower.] 

burg (52. 1; 24), city. [Mod. 
Eng. borough, Ger. Burg.] 

burg-geat (47, 147), city-gate. 

burg-leode (44. 4; 147), city- 
people, citizens. 

bm*h-sittende (61, 28), city- 
dwellers, citizens. 

burh-weall (43, 28), city-wall. 

bntan, prep. (24), without, outside 
of, except, besides. [< be + 
ntan; cf. the Scotch 'but and 

butan, conj., except. 

bycgean (114), buy. 

byrd (51. b), birth, extraction. 

byrig, see burg. 

byrne (53), hauberk, corslet, mail- 

byrn-hama (-hgnia) (53), hau- 
berk, corslet. 

bysen (51. b), example, illustra- 
tion; suggestion. 




cald, see ceald. 

camp (43), fight, battle. [Ger. 

campian (118), strive, struggle, 

fight. [< camp.] 
camp-wig (CQiiip-) (47), com- 
carcern (47), prison. [<Lat. 

career, under influence of 

casere (44. 1), emperor, Ccesar. 

[Lat. Ccesar.^ 
ceald (cald) (58; 21. a), cold. 

[Ger. kalt.'] 
ceaster (51. 4), city. [Lat. castra ; 

Mod. Eng. Chester, -caster, -ces- 

ceaster- (ge)-waran (53), plur., 

ceder-beam (43), cedar-tree, ce- 
dar. [< Lat. cedrus + beam.] 
c^mpa (53), soldier. [<camp.] 
cene (59), valiant. [Ger. kiihn. 

Mod. Eng. keen.'] 
ceol (43), ship. 
ceorl (43, 24), layman. [Mod. 

Eng. churl, Ger. Kerl ; cf. 

Chaucer, Knight's Tale 1601.] 
ceosan (IL 103; 184. a; 37), 

choose, seek. [Archaic Ger. 

kiesen; cf. Chaucer, Knighfs 

Tale 737.] 
ciegan (113), call. 
clele (44, 18), cold. [Mod. Eng. 

chill; cf. Ger, Kuhle.'] 
ciepan (113), sell. [Cf. Ger. 

cierran (cirran) (113 ; 184. a ; 

18), turn; turn back. 
cUd (50, 38, 24), child. 
cild-had (43, 143), childhood. 
cining, see cyning. 

cirice (53. 1), church. [Ger. 
Kirche; see Phil. Soc. Diet. s.v. 

cirran, see cierran. 

cist (51. 6), chest. [< Lat. cista, 
OE. orig. cest, then ciest (18), 

clsene (57, 24),i?wre. [Mod. Eng. 
clean, Ger. klein. The Ger. 
word has come to its present 
meaning through the series 
'pure,' 'clean,' 'neat,' 'deli- 
cate,' 'fine,' 'tiny,' 'small.'] 

clsennes (51. 5), chastity. 

cleofu (20), see clif. 

cleopian (clypian) (118, 20), call. 
[Cf. our poetical clepe, yclept, 
Siud Haml. 1. 4. 19.] 

clif (47, 20), cliff. [Cf. Ger. 

clifer-:Kte (59), claw-footed. 

clypian, see cleopian. 

cnapa (53), boy, lad. [Cf. Ger. 

cneo (47. 3 ; 27), knee. [Ger. 
Knie ; cf. Lat. genu.] 

cneoris (like 51. 5), tribe, nation. 

cnlht (43), young man, youth. 
[Ger. Knecht, Mod. Eng. knight.] 

cnyssan (115. a), smite. 

coUen-ferhff (-fyrh«) (58), in- 
spirited, elated. 

com, see cuman. 

cQmpwig, see campwig. 

costnung (51. 3; 144), tempta- 

craeft (43), power; skill, clever- 
ness; art, trade, occupation. 
[Mod. Eng. craft, Ger. Kraft.] 

creopan (II. 103), creep, craid. 

Crist (43) , Christ. [< Lat. Christ- 

cucu (27 ; in this form irregular, 
according to the declensions of 



this book; see also cwic), liv- 
ing, live, alive. 

culter (43?), coulter. [< Lat. 

cuina (53), stranger, visitant, 

cuman (IV. 105), co?7ie. [Cf . Ger. 

cumbol (47), hanfier, standard. 

cunnan (130), know, know how, 
can. [Ger. kbnnen.'] 

cunnian (118; 156. d), make 
trial of. 

cuts (68), known, manifest; the 
combination of caS" and on- 
cnawen, Andr. 627, presents a 
difficulty — perhaps for cuafe, 
adv. [Cf . 130.] 

cuS'lice (70), certainly ; kindly. 

c-wseS" (pret.), see cwelJan. 

cwealm (43), death. [Mod. Eng. 
qualm ; cf . cw^Uan.] 

cweart-ern (47), prison. [Per- 
haps modified from Lat. career, 
under the influence of sern.] 

ew^llan (114), kill. 

cwen (51. 1; 24), queen, princess. 

cweS'an (V. 106, 37), say, spjeak. 
[Cf. Mod. Eng. quoth.'\ 

cwic (57, 27), alive, living. [See 
cueu. Cf. Mod. Eng. ' quick 
and dead,' ' cut to the qu^ck?^^ 

cvvic-susl (51. 6), hell-torment (lit. 
living torment). 

cwide (44), remark. 

cwuc, see cwic. 

cymlice (70), finely, beautifully. 

cyne-helm (43), crown. 

cynelic (57, 146), royal. 

cyne-rice (48, 145), kingdom. 

cyne-rof (58), royally brave. 

cyne-setl (47), throne. 

cyning (cining) (43, 143, 24), 
king. [Ger. Konig.'] 

cynn (47), ki7id ; tribe, nation^ 

cyn-reu (47), generation. 
Cyrenisc (57), of Cyrene. 
Cyrenense, Cyrene. 
cyssan (113), kiss. [Ger. kiissen.'] 
cyaPaii (113, 30), announce, make 

known, show. [< ca9', by 16 ; 

Ger. -kunden.'] 
cfiSiSu. (51. a; 144), native land. 


deed (51. 1), deed, act ; mid dsede, 

indeed, in fact. 

daeg (43. 2 ; 24), day. [Ger. Tag-I 

daeg-candel (51. b ; 215), candle 
of day. 

daeges (74), hy day. 

dseg-hwsemlice (70), daily, day 
by day. 

daeg-red (47), dawn. 

dsel(43; 78.4; 2^), part; amount, 
quantity, number. [Ger. Teil.^ 

dselan (113; 164. a), distribute, 
dispense, bestow. [Ger. teilen. 
Mod. Eng. deal.'] 

dsel-leas (58; 155. a; 146), des- 
titute, devoid. 

dagnng (51. 3), dawn. 

dead (58, 24), dead. [Ger. tot.] 

dealer (43), death. [Ger. Tod.] 

dealSf-dseg (deoth-) (43. 2), death- 

dema (53) , judge. 

deman (113, 90, 17), doom, con- 
demn. [Cf. Chaucer, KnighVs 
Tale 1023.] 

deofol (43, 24), devil, demon. 
[< Lat. diabolos ; so Ger. Teu- 

deop (58, 24), deep. [Ger. tief] 

deo\)f^. (10), deeply. [Cf. Chaucer, 
K. T. 1782. 



deoplic (bl)., profound. 

deor (47), beast., a)iimal. [Ger. 

deor-cynn (47), kind (race) of 

deor-wierlS'e (59, 146), precious. 

deor-wuriac (58, l^Q)., precious. 

dorian (116), harm, injure, [Cf. 
Chaucer, K. T. 904.] 

die (43), dike. 

dician (118, 90), ditch., dike. 

diegelnes (51. 5), retreat. 

diere (dyre) (59), precious., valu- 
able. [Ger. teuer.'] 

diht (47), plan., design. [<Lat. 

dohtor (52. 2), daughter. [Ger. 

dom (43, 17), judgment; reputa- 
tion., glory ; choice., decision. 

domlice (70), gloriously. 

dom-weorafung (51. 3), honor. 

don (140), do; make; put. [Ger. 

dream (43), joy, bliss. [Ger. 
Traum, Mod. Eng. dream., but 
in different sense.] 

dr^ne (43), drink. 

dreorig (57), headlong? melan- 
choly 9 

drihten, see dryhten. 

drihtgunria, see dryhtguma. 

drinc (drync) (43), drink. 

drinean (III. 104), drink. [Ger. 

drohtai* (43), {mode, way of) 

drygnes (51. 5), dryness, dry land. 

dryhten (43. 4. c; 154. d), lord. 

dryhtenlic (57), lordly, of the 

dryht-guma (driht-) (53), re- 
tainer, vassal. 

drync, see drinc. 

dugan (128), avail. IGer. taugen.] 
dugiiar (dugo'5) (51. b), host, 

band ; sustenance ; benefit. [Ger. 

dun (51. b), mountain, hill. 
dust (47), dust. [Ger. Dunst.'] 
dynnan (115. a), clash. 
dyre, see diere. 
dyrstig (57), rash, headstrong. 

[Cf. durran, 132.] 
dyrstignes (51. 5), presumption^ 



ea (52), river. 

eac, also, likewise ; eac swilce, 
also; swilce eac, also, more- 
over, as also, likewise ; swa eac, 
also. [Ger. auch. Mod. Eng. eke.'] 

ead-giefa (-gifa) (53), bliss-giver, 
happiness- giver. 

eadig (57. 3 ; 146), happy, blessed. 

eadiglice (70), blissfully, in bliss. 

eadignes (51. 5), bliss. 

cage (53. 2), eye. [Ger, Auge^] 

eagor-stream (43), ocean-stream. 

eag-igfyrel (47), windoiv. {JSyv- 
<l5uih, by 16 and 29.] 

eahta (78 ; 154. c ; 21), eight. [Ger. 

eala, 0. 

ea-lad (51. b), ocean-ioay. 

eald (65, 58, 21, 19, 17), old. 

eald-feond (46. 3), ancient foe. 

eald-genil51a (53), ancient, invet- 
erate enemy. 

eald-h^ttend (43. 6), ancient en- 

ealdor (aldor) (43. i), chief ; king. 

ealdor (47), life. 

ealdor-dom (43), primacy, sti- 
premacy, chief place. 

ealdor-duguS" (61. &), nobility, 



ealdor-mann (46), leader, head, 
prince, noble. 

ealdor-scipe (44. 1; 143), pri- 
macy, supremacy, chief place. 

ea-liffende (61 ; or 43. 6 '?), ocean- 

call (58, 35, 24), all, every ; eall 
swa, just as, also ; ealne weg, 
always; mid ealle (175), com- 
pletely ; Surh ealle, entirely. 

ealles (71), in all. 

eal-swa, also, as. [Ger. also.'] 

eard (43), country. 

eardian (118), dwell. 

earfoiafliee (70), distressfully, 
hard. [Cf. Ger. Arbeit.] 

earfod'nes (51. 5), hardship. 

earfosac-rime (59), difficult to num- 

earg (58), cowardly. [Ger. arg.] 

earm (58, 21), poor, wretched. 
[Ger. arm.] 

earmlic (57), humble, lowly. 
[Cf. Ger. drmlich.] 

earmlice (70), miserably. 

earn (43), eagle. 

earnung (51. 3), merit, desert. 

eastan (75) , from the east. 

East-^ngle (44. 4), plur., East 
Angles, i.e. East Anglia. 

east-norlSerne (59), northeast- 

Eastron (53, irregular), Easter. 
[Ger. Ostern.] 

east-see (43 ; 51. b), sea on the 

east-suST-dael (43), southeast 

ealJe (77), easily, unhesitatingly ; 
comp. ieiSF, irreg. eaiy. 

ea)5-medu (51. a), reverence; 
humility, kindness. 

eaiS-mod (58, 146), humble, lowly. 

ealff-inodlice (70), humbly. 

ealj-inodnes (51. 5), humility, 

Ebreas (54), plur., Hebrews. 
[<Lat. Hebrceus.] 

Ebreisc (57, 146), Hebrew. 

ece (59), everlasting, eternal. 

^cg (51. 6), edge. 

ed- (142). 

ed-niwian (118), renew. 

edre, see gedre. 

ed-wit (47), abuse, insolence. 
[Cf. wite, and Mod. Eng. twit.] 

efen-eadig (57), co- blessed, 
equally blessed. [Among mod- 
erns. Bishop Ken seems most to 
have employed such compounds 
as these.] 

ef ne (emne) , behold ; just. 

^ft, again, once more ; afterward ; 

^ft-hweorfan (III. 104), return. 

^gesa (53), dread, fear, terror; 
peril. [Related to ON. agi, 
from which Mod. Eng. awe.] 

^geslic (57), dreadful, terrible. 
[See ^gesa.] 

^glan (IIZ) , plague, harass, afflict. 
[Mod. Eng. ail.] 

^gle (59), grievous, hateful. [See 

Egypta (54), plur., Egyptians. 

ehtan (IIZ), pursue. 

^Icung (51. 3), delay, postpone- 

^le (44), oil. [<Lat. oleum.] 

^Uen (47), courage. 

^Uen-rof (58), strenuous in cour- 
age, of undaunted courage. 

^lles (71), eZse. [^- = other.] 

^Uor-fus (58, 30), bound else- 
whither. [^1- = other.] 

elmesse, see aelmesse. 

elp (43), elephant. [<Lat. ele- 
phas. ] 



^l-ffeodig (57. 3), foreign. [From 

^1- = other, and ffeod, q.v.] 
enine, see efne. 

emniht (52, but no visible um- 
laut), equinox. [< efen-niht ; 
cf. emne for efne.] 

^nde (44), end. [Ger. Eyide.'] 

^ndian (118, 90), end. 

^ngel (43. 4; 23; 10), angel. 
[< Lat. angelus, Gr, d77€Xos.] 

Jungle (44. 4), the Angles, Eng- 
lish. [Of the invaders of Brit- 
ain Bede says {Hist. Eccl. 1. 15) : 
"Advenerant autem de tribus 
Germanise populis fortioribus, 
id est, Saxonibus, Anglis, Jutis. 
. , . Porro de Anglis, hoc est, 
de ilia patria quae Angulus dici- 
tur, et ab eo tempore usque 
hodie manere desertus inter pro- 
viucias Jutarum et Saxonum 
perhibetur, Orientales Angli, 
Mediterranei Angli, Merci, tota 
Nordanhymbrorum progenies, id 
est, illarum gentium quae ad 
Boream Humbri fluminis inhabi- 
tant cEeterique Anglorum populi 
sunt orti." Cf. also the pun of 
Pope Gregory the Great {Hist. 
Eccl. II. 1) : " Rursus ergo in- 
terrogavit, quod esset vocabulum 
gentis illius. Responsum est, 
quod Angli vocarentur. At ille, 
'Bene,' inquit ; ' nam et angeli- 
cam habent faciem, et tales an- 
gelorum in caelis decet esse 
coheredes.' "] 

J^nglisc (57), English. [Note 
that any term corresponding to 
'Anglo-Saxon,' as the designa- 
tion of a language, does not 
exist in Old English. See the 
Phil. Sac. Diet. s.vv. Anglo- 
Saxon and English; Bailey's 

Dictionary (1783) is the first 
authority given for the English 
term ' Anglo-Saxon ' in its appli- 
cation to the tongue.] 

code, see gan. 

eorl (43), hero, man. [Not to be 
translated ' earl ' in these texts.] 

eornoste (70), sharply, vehe- 
mently. [Cf. Mod. Eng. ear- 
liest, Ger. Ernst.'] 

eornostlice (70), then, accord- 
ingly, thus. 

eorre, see ierre. 

eoriaCe (53. 1), earth; ground; 
land. [Ger. Erde.] 

eorfflic (57, 146), earthly. 

eor9'-til(3' (51. b ; 147), agriculture. 
[Cf. Mod. Eng. tilth.~\ 

eorS'-waran (53), plur., dwellers 
on earth. 

eoriaf-weall (43) , ramjja^t of earth, 
earthwork, [weall = Lat. val- 
lum ; one of the oldest Germanic 
words borrowed from Latin. ] 

eower (81, 83), your., of you. 

erbe(-), erfe(-), see ierfe(-). 

est (51. 1 ; 165 ; 43 ; ZQi) , provision ; 
consent, will. [Cf. unnan, aef- 
estfull, and Ger. Gunst.] 

este (59, 165), bountiful. [Cf. 

estlice (70), willingly. [Cf. est.] 

etan (V. 106), eat. [Ger. essen.] 

eifiCel (43. 4. a), country, native 
land, home. 

eafel-rice {^^^ , fatherland. 

eiJel-weard (43), guardian of his 


faec (47), time, period, interval, 

space. [Ger. Each.] 
faeder (43. 8; 24), father. [Ger. 




fsege (59), fated^ death-doomed. 
[Scotch /e</, Ger. feige.~\ 

faBger {bT),fair, beautiful, agree- 
able, lovely. 

faegernes (51. 5), beauty. 

faegn (58), glad, joyous. 

faegre (70 ; vowel long in poetry) , 

f tegs' (51. 6), certain death{?) 

fsemne (53), virgin, maiden, 

f seringa (70), suddenly, on a 

faerllce (70), suddenly. [Cf. 
afsered, and Mod. Eng. /ear.] 

faest (58), fixed, stable. [Ger. 
fest, properly /«sf. ] 

faesten (47), fortification. [Cf. 
Mod. Eng. /asiwess.] 

faesten-geat (^1), fortress-gate. 

faest-hafol (57; 155. d), tena- 
cious, [hafol from the root of 

faestnes (51. b), firmament. 

faestnung (51. 3), hold, stay, sup- 

faet (47. 4), utensil, implement. 

f acted (57), beaten? ; fsetedgold, 
gold leaf? 

faeted-sinc (47), treasure of plated 
articles ? 

faeSm (43), embracing arms; 
body ; expanse, surface. [Mod. 
Eng. fathom.'\ 

fag (58), gleaming, glittering. 

fah (58 ; but used as noun), foe, 
enemy. [Mod. Eng. foe.'] 

famig-heals (58), foamy-necked, 
foamy -throated. [Cf. Ger. Hals.'] 

faran (VI. 107 ; 184. a), go. 

faroS (farulS) (43), shore; more 
generally, as in the next three 
words, it appears to mean surge 
(and so, possibly, p. 212, 1. 12). 

faroaC-lacende (61, 215), surge- 
swimming. [See lacan.] 

faroiaf-ridende (61, 215), surge- 

faroS-straet (51. b ; 215), surge- 
street, street over the billows. 
[street < Lat. strata. ] 

faru (51. «), adventure. 

feallan (K. 109), fall. [Ger. 

fealu (57. 5), dusky (as often 
translated ; but perhaps rather 
its literal signification), yellow 
(as Tennyson applies it, Geraint 
and Enid 829, ' And white sails 
flying on the yellow sea ' ; but 
Tennyson, in The Battle of 
Brunanburh, translates fealone 
flod by 'fallow flood'). [Cf. 
Ger. fahl, falb, and our 'fallow 

fea-sceaft (58), destitute. 

feawe (58), plur.,/ew7. 

f^ccean (119, irreg.),/efc^. 

fedan (113), feed, nourish, sup- 
port. [<fod-, by 16.] 

fela (indecl. adj.; 154. a), much; 
numerous, many (things). 

feoh-ge-streon (47), riches. [See 
gestreon, and Mod. Eng. fee.] 

feohtan (III. 104, 21), fight. 
[Ger. fechten.] 

feon (113), hate. 

feond (143; 46. 3; 24), foe, en- 
emy. [Mod. Eng. fiend, Ger. 
Feind; see feon.] 

feore, see feorh. 

feorh (43, 47, 29), life, soul. 

feorh-n^ru (51. a), sustenance. 
[Cf. n^rian.] 

feormian (118), take in, entertain. 

feor(r) (67; 35. a), far, distant. 
[Mod. Eng. far.] 

feorr, far, from (to) a distance. 



feorran (75), from afar, from of 

old. [Cf. Ger. /erw.] 

f eorafa (78) , fourth. [Ger. vierte.'] 

feower (78),/owr. [Ger. vier.'\ 

feower-tiene (78), fourteen. 
[Ger. vierzehn.'\ 

fer-, see for-. 

feran (113), go, journey. [Cf. 
Ger. fuhren.'] 

ferhff (fyrli«) (43, 47), mind. 

figrian (-ig(e)an) (116), ferry, 

feffa (53), troop. 

felSer (51. &; 24), wing, pin- 
ion. [Ger. Feder, Mod. Eng. 

fieUan (fyllan) (113), /eZZ, slay. 
[Ger. fallen, Mod. Eng./e^Z.] 

fierd (51. 1), expedition, cam- 
paign. [Ger. Fahrt ; cf . faran.] 

fierding (51. 6), warfare. 

fierd-wic (fyrd-) (47), plur., 

flerst (fyrst) (43), period, space, 
interval. [Ger. Frist.~\ 

fifta (78, 30), fifth. [Ger. funfte, 


figaff, see feon. 

flndan (III. 104), find, devise; 
encounter. [G&v. finden.'] 

firas (43, 29), plur., men. 

firgen- stream (firigend-) (43), 
mountain-stream, i.e. ocean- 

firmamentum (JjSit.), firmament. 

fisc (43, 24), fish. [Ger. Fisch, 
Lat. piscis.^ 

fisc-cynn (47), S07't offish. 

fiscere (44, 143), fisher (man). 
[Ger. Fischer.^ 

fiscnoS" (^Z), fishing. 

fiSfer-fete (59), four-footed. 

d'Sru (47), plur., wings. [Cf. 
felgfer, and Ger. Gefieder.~j 

flsesc (47, 24), flesh. [Ger. 

Fleisch. ] 
flan (43), arrow. 
flax -fete (59), web-footed. 
fleogan (II. 103), fly. [Ger, 

fleon (II. 103), flee. [Ger. 

floec (43), company. 

aod (^Z), flood. [Ger. Flut.^ 

flod-wielm (-wylm) (43), seeth- 
ing of the flood. 

flota (53), vessel (lit. float). 

flowan (R. 109), flow. 

flyht (iZ), flight. 

fneest (43), breath. ■ 

foda (53), food. 

fodor (47), fodder. [Ger. Futter.'] 

folc (47), folk, people, nation. 
[Ger. Volk.'] 

folc-st^de (44), folkstead, battle- 

folc-toga (53), leader of the peo- 
ple, commander, [toga < same 
root as teon ; cf. Ger. Herzog, 
OE. h^retoga, and the meaning 
of Lat. dux.'] 

folde (53), earth. 

folgian (118; 164. /), attend, 
serve. [Ger. folgen ; cf. fylgan.] 

folm (51. b), hand. [Cognate 
with Lat. palma.] 

fon (R. 110), catch; reach forth. 

for (51. b), journey. 

for, see faran. 

for (166, 175, 4), for; before; of; 
on; in (Fr. selon). 

for- (142). 

for-baernan (113), scorch, parch. 

for-dilgian (118), (^esiro?/. [Ger. 

for-don (142), destroy. [Shak.] 

for-drifan (I. 102), drive, impel 
[Ger. vertreiben.'] 



fore, before. 

fore- (142). 

fore-cuman (IV. 105), anticipate, 
forestall, prevent. 

fore-cweden (62), aforesaid. 

fore-ge-gearwian (118), prepare. 

fore-ge-scrifan (I. 102), pre- 
scribe. [Ger. vorschreiben ; Lat. 
scribo underlies both.] 

fore-seed (62), aforesaid. [Past 
part, of fores^cgean.] 

fore-sceawung (51. 3), provi- 
dence. [Cf. Ger. Vorsehung .'] 

fore-s^ttan (113), close in. [Ger. 

fore-sprecen (62), aforesaid. 
[Past part, of fores precan.] 

fore-tynan (113), cut off. [Cf. 
tan, and 16.] 

for-giefan (V. 106, 18), give, 
grant. [See giefan ; Ger. 

for-gieldan (-gildan) (III. 104; 
24; 18; 164. h), requite, recom- 
pense; pay, give. [Ger. ver- 

for-gietan (V. 106, 18), forget. 
[Ger. vergessen.'\ 

for-grindan (III. 104), wear out 
(like Lat. conterere) . 

forht (58), afraid, terrified. 

forhtian (118), tremble. 

for hwon, why. 

for hwy, i>]hy. 

for-ierman (113), ruin, reduce to 
poverty. [< earm, by 16 ; cf. 
Ger. verarmen.'] 

for-lsetan (R. 110), let, allow; 
let go; lay doion; leave, leave 
off; abandon, forsake; lose. 
[Ger, verlassen.'] 

for-leosan (II. 103), lose. [Cf. 
Mod. Eng. forlorn, and Ger. ver- 

for-liden (62), shipwrecked. [Past 
part, of forlisyan.] 

for-lidennes (51. 5), shipwreck. 

forma (60, 68, IS), first. 

for-niman (IV. 105), waste, deso- 
late, consume ; fornumen beon, 
perish, decay. 

for-spildan (113), destroy. 

for-swelgan (III. 104), devour. 

for-swigian (118), keep secret, 
conceal. [Ger. verschweigen.'] 

for-tredan (V. 106), tread down, 
tread under foot. [Ger. ver- 
treten. ] 

forlS, forth. 

for-iaCam, because, for this reason, 

for-S'am-aCe, because. 

for-ffan, wherefore. 

forlgr-a-teon (II. 103), bring 

fora'-bringan (114), bring forth. 

forff-faran (VI. 107) , pass away, 
depart; forlSffaren, deceased, 
dead. [Ger. fortfahren.} 

forlS-for (51. b), departure. 

forlSf-ge-leoran (113), pass away, 

forff-lEestan (-lestan) (113), con- 
tinue, supply. 

for-iJoii (-S'e), /or, because ; there- 
fore; wherefore. 

forff-teon (II. 103), perform, rep- 
resent, exhibit; bring forth. 

forSST-weard, advanced. 

for-wandian (118), reverence; 
hesitate ; forwandiende, defer- 
ential, diffident. 

for-weorSfan (III. \Q^), perish. 

for-wiernan (113 ; 156. j), refuse^ 

for-witan (126), know in advance. 

for-wyrcean(114),/or/ei^ [Ger. 
verwirken. ] 



fot (46), /oo«. [Ger. Fuss. 1 

fracoiaf (57, 165), odious, abomi- 
nable. [<*fra-cu(5', cf, May- 
hew, OE. Phon. § 160.] 

fnagn, see frignan. 

fraetwa (-we) (51. a), plur., or- 

fraetwian (118), adorn, bedeck. 

frsetwung (51. 3), array. 

fram, from ; by ; of ; from 

fram-gan (141), make headway. 

framlice (frgm-) (70), promptly, 

frea (53), lord. 

frecne (59), perilous, fearful, 
direful, terrible. 

frecne (70), fearlessly, daunt- 
lessly, valiantly. 

frecnes (51. 5 ; 144), danger, peril. 

frefran (115. 6), comfort, cheer. 

fr^mde (b^) , foreign, alien. [Ger. 
fremd. ] 

fr^mman (115. a; 117; 164. e), 
benefit, profit. [Cf. the fram- 
(16) in framgan. ] 

freo (irreg. plur. frige), /ree. 

freod (51. 6), good-will, kind- 

freolice (70), freely. [Ger. frei- 
lich. ] 

freond (46. 3), friend. [Ger. 
Freund, Goth, frijonds, pres. 
part, of frijon, to love ; cf. 

freond-scipe (44. 1 ; l^Z), friend- 
ship. [Cf. Ger. Freundschaft, 
with a different ending.] 

freorig (57 ; 174. d) , cold, be- 

f reels' u (freo'So) (51. a), defense. 
[Ger. Friede.] 

frige, see freo. 

frignan (III. 104), ask, inquire. 

trifS (47), countenance, support, 
aid, protection. [Cf. freoffu, 
and Mod. Eng. F7'ede(rick).^ 

frod (58), old. 

frofor (51. b), comfort, consola- 
tion ; sustenance. 

frQmlice, see framlice. 

fruma (53), beginning, first. 

frum-gar (43), primipile, captain, 
chief [Cf. fruma.] 

frum-sceaft (51. 6), creation. 
[Cf. frama] 

frymaf(u) (51, 144), creation. [Cf. 
fruma, and 16.] 

fugol (43. 4), bird. [Ger. Vogel, 
Mod. Eng. /oioL] 

fugol-cynn (47), kind of birds. 

fax (58), vile, foul. [Ger. faul; 
more remotely related are Lat. 
pus, puteo.'\ 

fun {b%), full. [Ger. voZ?.] 

ful(l), adv.,/i<ZZ. 

full-fr^mman (115. a; 117), fin- 

fultum (43), help, aid, assistance, 

fultumian (118, 90), assist. 

furSfra (67), first (lit. former). 

furiffum, even; lohatever. 

fas (58, 30), ready. 

fylgan (113), follow. [Cf. folg- 
ian, and Ger. folgen.'] 

fyllan (113), fill. [< fuU, by 16; 
Ger. fullen.^ 

fyllan, see fiellan. 

fyllu (51. a), fill, feast. 

fyr (47), fire. [Ger. Feuer.^ 

fyrdTvic, see fierdwic. 

fyrhiaf, see ferh9". 

fyrmest (78. 1; Q9), first. 

fyr-spearca (53), spark. 

fyrst, see fierst. 

fysan (113 ; 184. b), hasten. 




gad (51. 6), goad. 

gaers (47, 31), herh^ grass. [Ger. 

Gras. ] 
gaful-rseden (51. 5; 144),/a?'e. 
gagates (Lat. ) , jet. 
galnes (51. 5), lust., lewdness. 

[Cf. Ger. GeiliJieit).'] 
gan (141), go. [Ger. geiien.'] 
gang (gQng) (43), course; circuity 

gangan (R. 109), go. 
gar (43), spear., javelin. [Cf. Mod. 

Eng. garlic.~\ 
gar-ge-winn (47), battle of spears. 

[See gewinn.] 
garsecg (43), ocean. [Seep. 211, 

note 3.] 
gast (43), spirit., ghost. [Ger. 

gast-ge-hygd (47), thought of the 

gast-ge-ryne (48, 215), secret of 

the soul, thought of the hea7^t(?). 

[See geryne.] 
gat (52), goat. [Ger. Geiss.^ 
ge (18). 
ge . . . and, ge . . . ge (202), both 

. . . and. 

ge-aemetgian (118), release., dis- 
engage. [Cf. semetta, gem- 
ge-agnian (118), inherit, occupy, 

take possession of. [See ag- 

ge-and-weard (58), present. [See 

ge-and-weardan (-Qnd-) (113), 

ansicer. [See andweard an.] 
gear (47, 18), year. [Ger. Jahr.] 
gieara, formerly, of yore. 
geare (70), well. [See yare(ly) 

in Shakespeare, Temp. 1. 1, and 

elsewhere. ] 
gearlic (57), yearly, annual. 

[Ger. jdhrlich.'] 
gearu-SPancol (gearo^Qncol) (57), 

ready-witted. [See geare, ge- 

afancol, (gfancolmod. ] 
gearwian (118), prepare. [See 

geare. ] 
geat (47; 18), gate. 
ge-axian (118), learn, discover. 

[See ascian.] 
ge-bed (47, 142), prayer. [Ger. 

Gebet ; cf. "biddan.] 
ge-beorg (47), defense, protec- 
tion; outlook (on). 
ge-beorscipe (44. 1), banquet, 

feast. [See beorscipe.] 
ge-beran (IV. 105), bear. [See 

ge-bidan (I. 102), await, wait. 

[See bidan.] 
ge-biddan (V. 106), pray. [See 

ge-biegan (113), bend, curve. 

[See biegan.] 
ge-bierhtan (113), grow bright, 

shine. [<beorlit, by 16.] 
ge-bilod (57), billed. 
ge-bisgian (-bysgian) (118), fa- 
tigue, weary, exhaust. [See 

ge-bland (-blQnd) (47), mingling, 

mixture, confusion. 
ge-blandan (-blgndan) (R. 110), 

ge-bledsian, see gebletsian. 
ge-bleod (58), hued, colored. 
ge-bletsian (-bledsian) (118), 

bless. [See New Eng. Diet. s.v. 

ge-blissian (118), rejoice, make 

joyful ; geblissod w^esan, joy. 

[See blissian.l 



gcblQnd(au), see gebland(an). 

ge-blowan (R. 109), blow. [See 

ge-brec (47), uproar, din. [Cf. 

brecan. ] 

ge-bringan (114), waft, carry, 
convey. [See bringan.] 

ge-bycgean (114), buy; redeem. 
[See bycgean.] 

ge-byrd (51. b), birth, extraction, 
lineage. [Ger. Geburt; see 

gebysgian, see gebisgian. 

ge-ceosan (II. 103), choose, select. 

ge-ciegan (113), call. [See ciegan.] 

ge-cierran (113, 18), turn ; return. 
[See cierran,] 

ge-cneordnes (51. 5), accomplish- 

ge-cost (58; 174. d), tried, trusty. 

ge-cweman {\1Z), please. 

ge-cweme (59), pleasing, accept- 

ge-cwemlice (70), acceptably, 

ge-cweiaCan (V. \QQ), say, speak. 
[See cwelfiran.] 

ge-cySfan (113 ; 164. 6) , announce ; 
prove, evince, show, exhibit, dis- 
play ; designate. [See cyffan.] 

ge-dgelan (113), divide, separate. 
[See dselan.] 

ge-dafenian (118 ; 164. k), befit. 

ge-dafenlic (hi), fitting, suitable. 

ge-deorf (47), labor, toil. 

ge-dician (118), consirwci. [<dic; 
see dician.] 

ge-diersian (-dyrsian) (118, 90), 
exalt, magnify, celebrate. [< 

ge-don (140), do, perform; make. 
[See don.] 

ge-drefan (113), disturb^ agitate, 
trouble. [Cf. Ger. truben.'\ 

gedyrsian, see gediersian. 

ge-eacnian (118), increase, aug- 
ment. [<eac.] 

ge-earnian (118), merit. [See 

ge-ed-niwian (118), reneto. [See 
edniAvian. ] 

ge-^nde-byrdan (113), order, ar- 

ge-^ndian (118), end, come to an 
end. [<^nde; see ^ndian.] 

ge-^ndung (51. 3), end, close. 

ge-faestnian (118), fasten, con- 
firm, establish. 

ge-faran (VI. 107), experience, 
suffer. [See faran, and 142, 

ge-fea (53), pleasure, joy, delight, 

ge-feallan (R. 109), fall, chance. 
[See feallan.] 

ge-feoht (47), battle. 

ge-feohtan (III. 104), fight. [See 
feohtan. ] 

ge-feon (V. 106; 156. c; 29), re- 

ge-feormian (118), take in, enter- 
tain. [See feormian.] 

ge-fera (53, 142), companion, fel- 

geferan (113), undertake, experi- 
ence. [See feran.] 

ge-f^rian (116), /err?/, carry, bear. 
[See f^rian.] 

ge-fer-rseden (51. 5; 144), com- 
pany, fellowship, society. 

ge-fer-scipe (44. 1; 143), attend- 
ance, companionship ; retinue. 

geflieman (-flgeman) (113), put to 

ge-flit (47), strife, dispute. [Cf. 
Ger. Fleiss.~\ 

ge-fraetwian (118), adorn. [See 
frsetwian. ] 



ge-frefran (115. 6), console, cheer. 
[See frefran.] 

ge-fr^mman (115. a), effect, per- 
form, work, perpetrate. [See 
fr^mman. ] 

ge-fultumian (118), assist, help. 
[See fultumian.] 

ge-fyUan (113, 156), Jill; end, fin- 
ish, accomplish. [See fyllan.] 

ge-fyrn, adv., a long time ago. 

ge-gada (53), associate, compan- 

ge-gaderian (118), gather. 

ge-gaderung (51. 3), gathering 
together, assembly, congrega- 

ge-gan (141), go; win, obtain. 
[See gan.] 

ge-gearcian (118), prepare. [Cf. 

ge-gearwian (IIS) , prepare. [See 
gearwian, and cf . gegierwan.] 

ge-gierela (53), garment; rai- 
ment, apparel. 

ge-gier-wan (-gyrwan) (113), 
prepare. [Cf. gegearwian.] 

ge-gl^ngan (113), adorn. [< 


ge-godian (118) , enrich. [< god.] 

ge-gr^mman (115. a), irritate, en- 
rage. [See gr^mian.] 

ge-gretan (113), greet, salute. 

ge-gyrwan, see gegierwan. 

ge-hal (58), whole, intact. [See 

ge-halgian (118) , hallow. [< ha- 


ge-hatan (R. 110), promise, 
pledge ; call. [See hatan.] 

ge-bealdan (R. 109), observe, 
keep; reserve; maintain, sus- 
tain. [See healdan.] 

ge-heawan (R. 109), cut doion, 
slay. [See heawan.] 

ge-h^rian (116), glorify. [See 

ge-hieran (113), hear. [See hier- 

ge-hiersum (57, 146), obedient. 
ge-hiersumian (118; 164. /), 

ge-hiersumnes (51. 5), obedience. 
ge-hladan (VI. 107), lade, load, 

ge-hogian (118), consider, have 

in mind. 
ge-hrinan (I. 102), ixttack. 
ge-hu, in every direction. [See 

ge-hwa (89. c; 154. b), each 

(one). [See hwa.] 
ge-hwilc (-hwylc) (89. a; 154. b), 

each (one), every (one); anra 

gehwilc, every (one). [See 

ge-hyhtan (113), hope, trust. 

ge-hyran, see gehieran. 
ge-innian (118), give, bestow 

ge-in-seglian (118), sea^ [<Lat. 

ge-laeccean (114), catch, seize. 

[Cf. Shak., Macb. 4. 3. 195.] 
ge-lsedan (113), bring, carry. 

[See Isedan.] 
ge-lsered (62), taught, educated, 

trained, skilled, skilful. [Past 

part, of Iseran.] 
ge-lsestan (113), stand by, assist. 

[See leestan.] 
ge-laSfian (118), invite. [See 

ge-leafa (bZ), faith. [Ger. G(e)- 

ge-leornian (118), learn. [See 

ge-l^ttan (113), hinder. [Ger. 



•letzen ; cf. Shak., Haml. 1. 4. 85, 

and (Auth. Vers.) Rom. 1. 13.] 
ge-lic (58, 163), like. [<lic, 

body ; cf . Ger. gleich.'] 
ge-lica (53), like., equal. 
ge-lice (70), similarly, likewise. 
ge-licgan (V. 106), border. [See 

ge-licnes (51. 5), likeness. [Ger. 

ge-lTefan (113; 156. ^), believe. 

[Ger. g{e)lauben.'\ 
ge-lifjfaestan (113), make alive., 

endow with life. [See lif.] 
ge-limp (47), adventure, misfor- 
ge-Iimpan (III. 104), happen, 

ge-limplic (57), adapted. 
ge-logian (11%), place, set. 
ge-lomlice {tQ) , frequently . 
ge-lufian (118), love. [See luf- 

ge-lystan (113, 190), desire. [See 

lystan, and Ger. gelusten.'] 
ge-maca (53) , mate, companion. 
ge-maeccea (53), mate, consort, 

ge-maene (59), common, universal. 
gemsenellce (70), in common. 
ge-maere (48), boundary, end. 
ge-mang (-m^ng) (47), troop, 

ge-manig-fieldan (113), multiply. 
ge-m^Dgan (113 ; 184. &), mingle, 

ge-meotu, see gemet. 
ge-met (47, 20), boundary; sort; 

effect; law. 
ge-metan (113), find, encounter. 

[See metan.] 
ge-miltsian (118; 164. g; 33), 

pity, have compassion on. 

[< mUts.] 



162) , strip, 
reply. [See 


ge-miltsiend (43. 6), pitier. 
genriQDg, see gemang. 

ge-munan (134), remember, 

ge-myndig (57), mindful. 
ge-myngian (118), recount, 

gena, see giena. 
ge-nacodian (118, 

[< nacod.] 
gen-cwide (44, 28), 

ge-neahhe (70), often, frequently. 
ge-nea-laecan (113), approach, 

draw nigh. [See nealaecaii.] 
ge-n^mnau (115. b), name. [See 

ge-neosian (118), visit. 

ge-n^rian (116), save. 
ge-niman (IV. 105), take, seize. 

[See niman.] 
ge-nyhtsum (57, 146), abundant. 

[Cf. nugan (136), Ger.geniigen, 

and Mod. Eng. enough.^ 
ge-nyhtsumian (118; 164. e), 

avail, suffice, be sufficient for , be 

of use. 
geofon (47), ocean. 
geoguS" (51. h; 18), youth. [Ger. 

Jugend. ] 
geomor-mod (58, 18), sorrowful- 
minded. [Cf. Ger. Jammer.'] 
geond (18), along, through, 

throughout, over. [Cf. Mod. 

Eng. beyond.~\ 
geong (58, 65, 18), young. [Ger. 

ge-openian (118), open. 

cf. Ger. offnen.'] 
georn (58 ; 155. e ; 21 

[See giernan.] 
georne (70), surely, 

[Ger. gem.] 

[< open ; 

6), eager, 



georn-full (58), busied, occupied. 

georu-fulnes (51. 5), piety, zeal. 

geornlice (70), assiduously, zeal- 

georran (III. 104), rattle. 

geotan (II. 103), stream. [Ger. 

ge-rsedan (113), read; geraed is, 
reads. [Cf. Ger. rathen; see 

ge-r^ccean (114), interpret, ex- 
pound. [See r^ccean.] 

ge-reiiian (118, 28), adorn. 

ge-reord (47), repast. 

ge-reordian (118, 90), feed, re- 

ge-r^stan (113; 184. &), rest, re- 
pose. [< r^st.] 

ge-retan (113), refresh, invigor- 
ate, cheer. [< rot, glad."] 

ge-riht (47), direct way. [See 

ge-rim-crseft (43) , arithmetic, 

ge-ryne (48), mystery. [< run, 

ge-saegan (113), lay low. 

ge-sgelan (113, 190), happen, he- 
fall, chance. 

ge-sselig (57. 3), delightful. [Cf. 
Ger. selig.'} 

ge-samnian (-SQmnian) (118), 

ge-sceadan (K. 110), separate. 

ge-sceaft (51. 6), creature, crea- 

ge-sceawian (118), behold. [See 

ge-scieldan (-scyldan) (113), de- 
fend, protect. [Cf. scield.] 

ge-scieldnes (51. 5), defense, pro- 

ge-scieppan (VI. 107), create. 
[See scieppan.] 

ge-scierpan (113), clothe, apparel. 

ge-scierpla (-scirpla) (53), rai- 
ment, apparel. 

ge-screpe (59), suitable, adapted. 

ge-scrifen (62), prescribed, fixed, 
regular, customary. [Past part, 
of gescrifan < Lat. scribo.'] 

ge-scrydan (113, IQ), clothe. [See 
scry dan.] 

ge-scyldan, see gescleldan. 

ge-secean (114), visit, gain, touch, 
attain. [See secean.] 

ge-s^cgean (123), say; give 
(thanks). [See s^cgean.] 

ge-s^llan (114), give. [See s^ll- 

ge-s^ndan (113), send, throw. 
[See s^ndan.] 

ge-seon (V. 106), see; gesegen 
is, seems, Lat. videtur. 

ge-setennes (51. 5), institute, or- 

ge-s^tnes (51. 5), narrative. 

ge-s^ttan (113), set, place; oc- 
cupy; appoint, settle; compose. 
[See saltan.] 

ge-SBAvenlic (57), visible. 

ge-siene (-syne) (59), visible. 

ge-sihSf (51. 1), countenance. 

ge-sittan (V. 106), sit; possess, 
inherit. [See sittan.] 

ge-sisar (43), companion. [Cf. 
siS", and Ger, Gesinde.'] 

ge-slean (VI. 107), smite, strike. 
[See slean.] 

ge-smierwan (113), anoint. 

ge-smyltan (113, 17), calm: 
[< smolt, serene; cf. smylte.] 

gesQmnian, see gesamnian. 

ge-spann (47), clasp, network. 

ge-spowan (R. 109, 190), suc- 

ge-sprec (47) , conversation. [Ger. 
Oesprdch; cf. sprecan.] 



ge-standan (VI. 107), assail. 

[See standan.] 
ge-staffelian (-sta'Solian) (118), 

establish, render steadfast; re- 
ge-staiaPolfaBstian (- stea'Sulf es- 

tian) (118), establish, perfoi'm. 
ge-stigan (I. 102), ascend to. 

[See stigan.] 
ge-stillan (113), still, pacify, 

quiet; subside. [See stUlan.] 
ge-strangian (118), strengthen. 

[< Strang.] 
ge-stregdan (III. 104), sprinkle. 
ge-streon (47) , profit, gain. [Cf . 

ge-streowlan (118), strew. 
ge-sund (58), well. [Ger. ge- 

ge-sw^ncan (113), torment, vex, 

wear out. [See sw^ncan.] 
ge-sw^ngan (113), swinge, toss. 
ge-sweotolian (118), manifest; 

bewray, expose, discover. [< 

ge-sw^rian (VI. 107), swear. 

[See sw^rian.] 
ge-swican (1. 102 ; 156. A;), cease ; 

fail. [See swican.] 
ge-swinc (47), toil, effort. [Cf. 

ge-swing (47), rolling, undula- 
tion. [Cf. swingan.] 
ge-syndig (57. 3), fair, favoring, 

propitious. [<ge8Uiid, by 16.] 
gesyne, see gesiene. 
ge-syngian (118), sin. [Cf. syn- 

getacnian (118), signify, indicate. 

[See tacnian.3 
ge-tacnung (51. 3), sign. [< 

ge-tsecean (114) , point out, direct ; 

appoint ; teach. [See tsecean.] 

ge-tael (47), reckoning. 

ge-teon (II. 103), bring up; play. 
[See teon.] 

ge-timbran (115. b), furnish, sup- 
ply (lit. construct). 

ge-trymman (115. a), fortify. 
[See trymman.] 

ge-ffanc (47), thought, mind. 

ge-afancol (-'Sancul) (57), consid- 
erate. [See (STancolmod, gearo- 

ge-ffeaht (47), counsel, advice. 

ge-9'eahteud (43. 6), counsellor. 

ge-iS^ncean {\1^) , remember. [See 

ge-iflfraec (47), commingling, tur- 
bulence, tumult. 

ge-iaCrsestan (113), afflict. 

ge-Sfrean (113), dismay. [See 

ge-SPreatian (118), rebuke. [See 

ge-Sfring (47), throng, rush. 

ge-9'ungeii (62), excellent. [< 
ffeon, thrive.'] 

ge-iS'wserian (118), agree. 

ge-safwternes (51. 5), concord, 

ge-Sfyn (113), restrain. 

ge-iSyncean (114), seem, appear; 
geiaCfiht is, seems. [See Uync- 

ge-un-trumian (118) , enfeeble, de- 
bilitate, prostrate; geuntrumod, 
sick, Lat. inflrmus. [< untrum.] 

ge-wsegan (113), plague, molest. 

ge-wsetan (113), wet, moisten. 

ge-wealc (47), welter. 

ge-weald (47), control, rule, do- 
minion. [Ger. Gewalt; see 

ge-w^ndan (113), turn; return, 
depart, go; translate. [See 



ge-"weorc (47), work. [See 

ge-weorp (47), smiting. 
ge-weorffan (III. 104), become^ 

be; make; happen; convert. 

[See weorafan.] 
ge-weorljian (118), distinguish. 

[See weortyian.] 
ge-wieldan (113), rule., have do- 
minion over. [<geweald, by 

16; see Mod. Eng. wield.'\ 
ge-wiht (47), weight. [Ger. Ge- 

ge-wilnian (118; 156. a), desire. 

[See wilnian.] 
ge-winn (47), labor., toil; hard- 
ship, distress. [See winnan.] 
ge-winna (53), enemy. [See 

ge-winnfuUic (57), laborious., 

toilsome., fatiguing. 
ge-wislioe (70, 76), openly., 

ge-wissian (118), guide.) direct. 
ge-vritan (126), find out., learn. 

[See witan.] 
ge-witan (I. 102 ; 184. a), depart., 

ge-Tvitt (47), understanding. 
ge-writ (47) , writing., writ ; 

letter ; document., instrument., 

ge-writan (I. 102), write.. 
ge-wuna (53), custom, wont. 
ge-wunian (118), be wont, use; 

dwell. [See wunian.] 
ge-wyrcean (114), make., build. 

[See wyrcean.] 
giefan (gifan) (V. 106, 18), give. 

[Ger. geben.'] 
giefeiafe (gife'Se) (48), chance. 
giefu (gifu) (51. a), gift; boon. 
gieman (113 ; 156./), rule over. 
giena (gena), yet. 

giernan (113), desire; solicit {the 
hand of)., woo. [<georn, by 

giest-hus (47), inn. [Cf. Mod. 
Eng. guest-chamber.'] 

giestran-dseg (gystran-) (43), 

giet (git, gyt), yet; still; as yet, 

gif, if. [Not related to giefan.] 

gifeSfe, see giefeffe. 

gifu, see giefu. 

gim-cynn (47), gems of every 

gimm (43), gem, precious stone. 
[Borrowed from Lat. gemma be- 
fore ca. 650.] 

girin (58), spacious, ample. 

gingra (65, 53), disciple. 

gio, formerly, long ago, once upon 
a time. [See iu.] 

git, see giet. 

glaes (47), glass. 

gleaw (58), prudent, wise. 

gleawlice (70), shrewdly, judi- 
ciously, wisely. [lishment. 

gl^ng (51. 6), adornment, embel- 

glidan (I. 102), glide. [Ger. 

god (58, 5, 4), good. [Ger. gut.j 

god (4:7), prosperity ; plur., goods, 
good things, property; benefac- 

God (43, 5, 4), God. [Ger. Gott ; 
according to Kluge, the 'Being 

god-cuud (5S), divine. {_godhead. 

god-cundnes (51. 5), divinity, 

godcundmiht (-mseht) (51. 1), 
majesty. [Divine Father. 

God-Faeder (43. 8), God-Father 

god-spell (47), gospel. 

god-w^hh (47), purple. 

gold (47), gold. 



gold-fraefrwa (51. a), plur., golden 

gold-hord (47), treasure. 
gold-leaf (47), gold leaf. 
gQng, see gang. 
grSg (58), gray. [Ger. grau.'] 
gram (57), fierce., raging. 
gr^mman (115. a), enrage. [< 

gram, by 16.] 
grene (59), green. [Ger. grun.'\ 
greot (47), dust; shingle. [Ger. 

gretan (113), greets salute; take 

leave of. [Ger. grussen.'] 
grewiy, see growan, 
grindan (III. 104), whirl. [Mod. 

Eng. grind.'] 
growan (R. 109), grow. 
grand (43), earth; bottom; sea 

(perhaps orig. shallow, shoal). 

[Ger. Grund, Mod. Eng. ground.] 
gryre-hwil (51. 6), period of 

gurron, see georran. 
guma (53), man, hero. [Mod. 

Eng. (bride) groom.] 
gaff (51. b ; 30), if^ar. [Ger. -gund, 

YD. Hildegund, e.g.; cf. Gondibert.] 
guS-fana (53), gonfalon, stand- 
ard. [See Mod. Eng. gonfalon ; 

cf . Ger. Fahne, Mod. Eng. vane.] 
gnff-freca (53), warrior. 
guff-rinc (43), warrior. 
gfiS'-sceorp (47), vmr-trappings. 
gyden (51. b ; 17), goddess. 
gylden (146, 17), golden. 
gystran-daeg, see giestran-daeg. 
gyt, see giet. 


habban (121, 188), have; pos- 
sess ; accept, keep ; receive. 
[Ger. haben ; cf. Lat. habere.] 

had (43), sex. 

hador (57), bright, serene. [Ger. 


hsel (47), salvation; rescue, es- 
cape. [Ger. Heil.] 

Hselend (43. 6), Saviour, Jesus. 
[Ger. Heiland.] 

haeleff (43. 9), hero, man. [Ger. 

h£elu (51. a), salvation; rescue. 

haerfest (43), harvest. [Ger. 
Herb St ; cf. Lat. carpere, Gr. 

hsern (51. 6), ocean. 

h£es (51. &), order, direction, com- 
mand. [Cf. Mod. Eng. behest, 
Ger. Geheiss.] 

hseta (51. a), heat, [hat, by 16.] 

heeffen (57. 3), heathen. [Cf. Ger. 
Heide, and Mod. Eng. heath; so 
Lat. paganus < pagus.] 

hal (58), whole, hale ; halgedon, 
save. [Ger. heil.] 

halig(57. 3; U6),holy. [<hal; 
Ger. heilig.] 

halsian (118), conjure, implore, 
entreat. [< hal.] 

ham (74, 24), home. [Ger. heim.'\ 

hand(51.1.3),^«w(Z. [Gev.Hand^ 

har (58), hoar{y), gray. 

hat {h^), hot, fervent. [Ger. heiss.] 

hatan (R. 110), call; command; 
hatte, is, was called. [Ger 
heissen ; cf. archaic Eng. hight.'] 

he (81). 

hea, see heah. 

hea-clif (47), lofty cliff. 

hea-deor (47), high-deer. [Cf. 
Ger. Hochwild; without a prefix, 
OE. deor rarely, if ever, means 
' deer.'] 

heafod (47. 1, 6; 23), head. 
[Ger. Haupt, Lat. caput, for 



heafod-ge-rim (4Y), number by 

heads, poll. 
heah (hea) (65 ; 58. 1 ; 17), high; 

great. [Ger. hoch.'] 
heah-cyning (43), high king. 
heah-ge-streon (47), sumptuous, 

superb treasure. [See gestreon.] 
heah-setl (hseah-) (47), throne. 
heah-stefn (58), lofty-prowed. 
healdan (R. 109), hold; observe, 

maintain; keep, reserve. [Ger. 

healf (51. &), hand, i.e. side. 
healf (58), half. [Ger. halb.'] 
healic (57, 146), lofty. 
heall (51. &), hall. [Ger. Halle.'] 
hean (58), lowly, servile, of low 

degree; poor. 
heanes (51. 5), height, highest 

heanne, see heah. 
heap (43), crowd, swarm, throng, 

assemblage. [Ger. Haufe.'] 
heard (58; 21. a; 24), brave, in- 
trepid. [Ger. hart.'] 
hearde(70), painfully, grievously. 
hearm (43; 21. a), injury. [Ger. 

hearpe (53. 1 ; 21. a), harp, lyre. 

[Ger. Harfe.] 
hearpe-nsegl (43), plectrum. 
hearpe-str^ng (43), harpstring. 
hearpian (118, 90), harp, play 

the haip. [Ger. harfen.] 
heaiafu-liiyend (hea«o-) (43. 6), 

heaiafu-rinc (hea«o-) (43, 21), 

hea9'u--waed (51. 6), warlike gar- 
ment, martial iceed. 
heawan (R. 109), heio, cleave. 
h^bban (VI. 107), elevate, lift; 

h^bban up, be exalted. 
hefon, see heofon. 

h^fig (57), grievous, irksome. 

h^figian (118), become worse. 

h^fignes (51. 5), burden. 

hehffo, see hiehd'u. 

helan (IV. 105), conceal. [Cf. 
Chaucer, Nun^s PriesVs Tale 
235 ; Ger. hehlen.] 

h^U (51. 6), hell. [Ger. Holle.] 

helm (43), helmet; protector. 
[Ger. Helm.^ 

help (51. 5; 5), help. [Cf. Ger. 

heo (81). 

heof (43), mourning, weeping. 

heofon (43. 4. (?; 20), heaven. 

heofon-candel (51. 6; 215), can- 
dle of heaven. 

heofon-eyning (43), king of 

heofoiie (53. 3), heaven. 

heofon-fyr (47), celestial fire, fire 
from heaven. 

heofon-leoma (53), radiance of 

heofonlic (57), heavenly, celes- 
tial, of heaven. 

heofonlice (70) , from heaven. 

heofon-rice (48), kingdom of 
heaven, heavenly kingdom. 

heofon- afry mm (43), glory of 

heolfrig (57), goinj. 

heolstor (47), darkness. 

heonan (75), hence. 

heorte (53. 1 ; 24 ; 21. 6), heart. 
[Ger. Herz.] 

her (75, 24), here. [Ger. her.] 

her-aefter, hereafter. 

h^re (44. 2; 18), army, host. 
[Ger. Heer ; cf . Mod. Eng. har- 
bor, heriot.] 

h^re-folc (47), army. 

h^re-paeiy (h^rpa^) (43), highway. 
[Cf. Ger. Heerstrasse.] 



h^re-reaf (47), plunder, spoil. 

h^re-straet (51. b), highway, lit. 
military road. [Ger. Heer- 

h^re-w8e9'a (53), warrior. 

h^rgian (118), harry, ravage, lay 
waste. [Ger. (ver)heeren.^ 

h^rian (116), praise. 

h^riges, see h^re. 

h^rpaS", see h^repsesy. 

het, see hatan. 

hi (81). 

hider (75), hither. 

hiehsta, see heah. 

hiehd'u (heh^o) (51. a), height, 

hienan (113), insult, oppress. 
[<hean, by 16.] 

hiensac (51. &), injury, harm. 
[<heaii, by 16.] 

hieran (hyran) (113, 117), hear. 

hiera. Mere (81, 83). 

hiernes (51. 5), obedience. 

higerof, see hygerof. 

hiht, see hyht. 

hiium, see hiwan. 

hild (51. 5), conflict, battle. [Orig. 
Hild, goddess of war.] 

hilde-leoS" (47), battle-lay. 

hUde-nsedre (53. 1; 215), battle- 
adder, arrow. [See New Eng. 
Diet. s.v. adder.'] 

hilde-weepen (47. 1), battle- 

him, hine, his, hit (81, 83). 

hin-gang (-igng) (43), departure. 
[Ger, Hingang.'] 

hiw (47), kind; color. [Cf. 
Spenser, F. Q. 3. 6. 33, 35.] 

hiwan (53), plur. brethren, 
brotherhood, conventual house- 
hold, chapter. 

hllefdige (53. 1), lady. [Cf. p. 
222, note 2.] 

hlaest (47), plur., wares, merchan- 
dise, cargo. [Ger. Last; cf. 

hlaf (43), bread; food. [Archaic 
Ger. Laib ; Mod. Eng. loaf.] 

hlaford (43), lord. [< hlaf -f 

hiaford-leas (58), lordless, with- 
out a leader. 

hlaford-scipe (44. 1), lordship, 

hlanc (58), lank, gaunt. 

hleo (47. 3), shelter; protector. 
[Mod. Eng. lee.] 

hleotan (II. 103), obtain, gain. 
[Cf. Ger. Loos, Mod. Eng. lot.] 

hleoffor-cwide (44), narrative, 
story; hymn. 

hleoigfriaii (11%), speak; proclaim. 

hleoiJu, see hliS". 

hlifian (118), tower. 

hlimman (hlymman) (III. 104), 

hliff (47, 20), hill. 

hloiS'ian (11%), pillage, plunder. 

hlude (70), loudly. 

hlutor (hlutter) (57), pure, clear. 

hlymman, see hlimman. 

hlynnau (115. a), roar, boom. 

hoc (43), hook. 

hof (47), building, dwelling, abode. 

holm (43), ocean, sea. 

holm-aCracu (51. a), tossing of the 
sea, boisterous sea. 

holm-weard (43), warden of the 

holm-weg (43), path of the ocean. 

holt (47), grove, forest. [Ger. 
Holz ; cf. Chaucer, Prol. 6.] 

holunga (70), in vain. 

horlg (57), squalid- 

horn-boga (53), bow of horn. 

horn-fisc (43), sword-fish ? 

horu-scip (47) , beaked ship. 



hors (47, 31), /lorse. [Ger. i^oss.] 

hosp (43?), reproach^ abuse. 

hrsedlice (70), with speed ; imme- 

hraednes (51. 5), celerity. 

hrsefn (hrefn) (43), raven. [Ger. 

hrsew (47), corpse. 

hran (43), whale. 

hrau-rad (hrgn-) (51. h)^ path of 
the whale. 

hraiJe (70), quickly. 

hrefn, see hraefn. 

hremig (57; 174. d), exulting. 

hreoli (58), rough, fierce^ rude. 

hreohnes (51. 5), tempest. 

hreosan (II. 103), /aZZ. 

hreran (113), agitate, toss. [Ger. 

bring (43), ring. [Ger. Bing.'] 

hrof (43, 24), roof. 

hrQnrad, see hranrad. 

hrylSer (47), plur., cattle. 

ho, how. 

hund (78, 79), hundred. 

hund-seofontig (78), seventy. 

hund-teontig (78), a hundred- 

hunger (43), famine, starvation. 
[Ger. Hunger.'] 

hungrig (57), hungry, an hun- 
gered. [Ger. hungrig.] 

hup-seax (47), hip-dagger. 

has (47), house. [Ger. Hans.] 

hwa (88; 89. c), who; any one. 

hwsel (43. 2), whale. [Cf. Ger. 

hwasl-m^re (44), whale-mere, 

hwaenne, see hwonne. 

hwser (75), where. 

hwaet, what. 

hwset-hwega (-hwugu) (89. b ; 
154. 6), something. 

hvraetlice (70, 76), quickly. 

hwaeffer whether. 

hwaeffre (-ere), yet, still, never- 

hwanan (hwanon) (75), whence. 

hwaiJerian (118), rage. 

hwealf (58), vaulted, hollow. 

hwelan (IV. 105), roar, thunder. 

hweol (47), wheel. [Cognate 
with Gr. k(ik\os, Mod. Eng. cycle, 
(bi) cycle.] 

hweorfan (hwyrfan) (III. 104), 
return; turn; move. 

hw^ttan (113), incite. 

h-wider (75), whither. 

hwil (51. 6), while, time; ffa 
hwile ffe, the while that, 

hwilc (hwylc) (88; 89. a), which, 
vjhat; any. 

h-wilum (72), sometimes ; a while. 
[Mod. Eng. whilom ; cf . Chaucer, 
Knighfs Tale 1.] 

hwon, somewhat, a little. 

hwone, see hwa. 

hwonne (hwaenne, hwcenne), 
when; until. 

hwylc, see hwilc. 

hw^yrfan, see hweorfan. 

hyge-rof (hige-) (58), valiant- 

hyge-aCancol (57), thoughtful- 

hyhsta, see hiehsta. 

hyht (hiht) (43) hope; joy, glad- 
ness, bliss; bent. 

hyldu (hyldo) (51. a), kindness. 
[Cf. Ger. Huld.] 

hyngran (115. b ; 190), hunger. 

hyran, see hieran. 

hyre, see hiere. 

hyrned-n^bb (58, 17), horny' 

hyrst (51. b), ornament. 



Ic (81). 

idel (57), empty, void, Lat. inanis 
(Auth. Vers, 'without form'). 
[G&i.eitel; cf. Shak., 0th. 1.3. 
140, ' deserts idle.'] 

idelnes (51. 5), idleness, indo- 

ides (51. 6), maid, nymph, woman. 
[From the Norse mythology we 
learn that this Germanic word 
signified 'demi-goddess,' or per- 
haps 'female guardian-angel,' 
as well as ' maid ' ; it was ap- 
plied to giantesses and Norns, 
to heroic women, resembling the 
Valkyries, such as Brunhild and 
Gudrun, and to goddesses, such 
as Freyja. Cf. the remarks of 
Tacitus, Germania 8: "They 
even believe that the sex has a 
certain sanctity and prescience, 
and they do not despise their 
counsels, or make light of their 
answers. In Vespasian's days 
we saw Veleda, long regarded 
by many as a divinity."] 

ie, see ea. 

iecan (yean) (113, 33), augment, 
aggravate. [< eac] 

ielde (selde) (44. 4), plur. men. 

ieldra, see eahl. 

ieldu (51. a; 19 ; 17), age. [Mod. 
Eng.eld; see Chaucer, iT.r. 15B9.] 

ielfete (53. 1), swan. 

ierfe (48), inheritance. 

ierfe-land (47), heritable land, 

ierman (113), afflict. [< earm, 
by 16.] 

iermfSu(bl. a), poverty. [<earm; 
see 144.] 

iernan (III. 104, 31), run ; revolve. 

ierre (eorre) (48), wrath. 

ierre (59), wrathful. 

ierST (51. 6), field of corn, crop. 

ierd'ling (43, l^Z) , plowman., hu8^ 
handman, farmer. 

lets, see eaiaPe. 

ig-land (47), island. 

ilea (86), same. [Cf. Chaucer, 
Prol. 64.] 

in, prep., in; into; by ; through. 

in, adv., in. 

in-beran (IV. 105), carry in. 

in-gan (141), enter. 

in-gangan (K. 109), enter. 

in-ge-bringan (114), bring in, 

innan, within. 

inne (69), within, inside. 

in-segel (47), seal. [Borrowed 
from Lat. sigillum, ca. a.d. 
500 ; the form sigil is earlier, 
ca. 400.] 

in-sittan (V. 106), sit within. 

intinga (53), cause; account. 

in-to, into. 

in-weardlice (70), fervently, ar- 

Isern (47), iron. [Ger. Eisen.'] 

isern (57), iron. 

iu (see gio), of old, formerly. 


la, indeed, O. 

lac (47) , present, gift. 

lacan (R. 110), bound, leap, toss; 

lad (51. &), vmy, journey. 
Isece-craeft (43), remedy. [Mod. 

Eng. leechcraft; cf. Spenser, 

F. Q. 3. 3. 18.] 
l^edan (113), lead, bring, take; 

carry ; produce. [Ger, leiten.'] 
Laeden (47), Latin. 
Iseran (113, 17), teach, direct. 
leering-maeden {^1), pupil. 



Ises (51. 6, but irregular; the ter- 
mination -we as in beadu, 
51. a), pasture. [Archaic Mod. 
Eng. leasow.'] 

l«s, lses(es)t, see lytel, and fSy- 

llestan (113), carry out, perform, 
do. [Ger. leisten, Mod. Eng. 

liSstinga ea, Lastingham (near 

Isetan (R. 110), let, allow. [Ger. 

IseS'S'u (51. a), affliction. [<la9', 

laf (51. 6), remnant; to lafe, left. 

lago- , see lagu-. 

lagu (45), ocean, sea. 

lagu-faesten (47), ocean, deep. 

lagu-flod (lago-) (43), sea-flood. 

lagu-lad (lago-) (51. b), ocean- 

lagu-stream (43), ocean-stream. 

lam (43), dust (lit. loam). [Ger. 
Lehm ; more remotely cognate 
(ablaut relation) with Lat. U- 

lamb (50), lamb. 

land (47, 24), land, country ; her 
on lande, in this country. 
[Ger. Land, and cf. hier zu 

land-bfiend (iQud-) (43. 6), 
dweller in the land. 

land-ge-msere (48), border. 

land-scearu (51. a), land. 

lang (58, 65), long. [Ger. lang.] 

lange (70, 77), long (of time). 

lang-sweored (57), long-necked. 
[Cf. Koch, Gram. III. 71 ; Matz- 
ner, I. 470.] 

lar (51. &), study; instruction, 
teaching; counsel, guidance. 
[Ger. Lehre, Mod. Eng. lore.] 

lareow (43) , teacher^ master ; 

learned man. [< lar + SFeow.] 
last (43) , track, footprint. [Mod. 

Eng. last (for shoes), Ger. Leist- 

latteowdom (43, 14), guidance. 

[Cf. the etymology of lareoTr.] 
laac (58), hostile; hateful. 
lad'ian (118), summon. [Ger. 

lead (47), lead. [Ger. Lot.] 
leaf (51. &), leave, permission. 

[Ger. ( Ur)laub, (Er)laub(niss).] 
leaf (47), leaf [Ger. Laub.] 
leahtor (43), sin, iniquity. 
lean (43), reward, recompense. 

[Ger. Lohn.] 
l^cgean (115, note), place, put, 

set. [From the second stem 

(92) of licgan, by 16; Ger, 

legen. Mod. Eng. lay.] 
l^nctenlic (57), vernal. 
l^ncten-tid (51. 1), spring. [Cf. 

Ger, Lenz, Mod. Eng. Lent.] 
l^ng, see lange. 
l^ngra, see lang. 
l^ngu (51. a), length. 
leo (Lat.), lion. 
leoda (leode) (44.4), ^\uv.^ people. 

[Ger. Leute.] 
leod-mearc (51. b), region. [Cf. 

Mod. Eng, margrave, Marches, 

leof (58, 64, 165), dear, well- 
beloved; sb. sir, master ; comp. 

dearer, preferable. [Ger. lieb, 

Mod. Eng. lief, lieve ; cf . Spenser, 

F. Q. 3. 2. 33.] 
leofa, see libban, 
leofw^nde (59), friendly; leof- 

w^ndum, ardently, fervently. 
leoht (47), light. [Ger, Licht.] 
leoht (58) , bright, radiant. [Ger. 




leoht-fruma (53) , author of light ; 
for lifes leohtfriiina cf. Jn. 

8. 12, Acts 3. 15. [Cf. fruma.] 
leoma (53), lights radiance^ 

leomii, see lim. 
leornian (118), learn. [Ger. lern- 

leornung (51. 3), study. [Mod. 

Eng. learning.'] 
leoiac (47), poetry, verse. [Ger. 

let, see Iseian. 

libban (122), live. [Ger. lehen.] 
llcgan (V. 106), lie; rest. [Ger. 

lic-hama (53), body, [hama = 

shape., cover; cf. Ger. Leich- 

lie- ham-leas (58, 146), bodiless, 

lic-hamlic (57), bodily. 
lician (118 ; 164. A;), p/ease. [Mod. 

Eng. like; cf. Spenser, F. Q. 

2. 7. 27.] 
lid (47), vessel, craft, bark. [Cf. 

lld-weard (43), shipmaster. 
lid-werig (57), weary with voyag- 
liefan (113), allow, permit. [< 

leaf; Ger. {er)lauben.] 
lieg (43), thunderbolt, levin. 
lieget (47. 7), lightning. 
liehting (51. 3), lighting, illumi- 
nation. [< leoht, by 16.] 
lif (47), life. [Ger. Leib.] 
lifde, lifgende, see libban. 
liflic (57), of life. [Ger. leiblich ; 

cf. Spenser, F. Q. 2. 7. 20.] 
lim (47, 20), limb, bough, branch. 
lind (51. b), linden shield, shield. 
lind-wigend (-wiggend) (43. 6), 


llss (51. b), gentleness, tenderness ; 
(mid) lissum, gently, tenderly. 
li(5an (1. 102), set out ; sail, cruise. 
\\iSe (59, 30), good, obliging, 

friendly; gentle, mild. [Ger. 
(ge)lind ; cf. Spenser, VirgiVs 
Gnat 221.] 
ITffe (70), gently. 
loc (47), lock. 
locen, see lacan. 
loeian (118), look. 
lof (43), honor, praise; in lofe, 

praising. [Ger. Lob] 
loft (47), air, sky. 
iQnd-, see land-, 
lor (47), destruction; to lore 

weorlSran, perish. 
lacan (IT. 103), link? weave? f 
lufe (53. 1), love. [adore. 

lufian (118, 119), love; worship, 
lufiend (43. 6), lover. 
lufiendlic (57), loving. 
luflice (70), dear. 
lufu (51. a; 53. 3; 24), love. 
lungre, speedily. 
lust (43), joy, desire, longing. 

[Ger. Lust; cf. Spenser, F. Q. 

4. 4. 44.] 
lyfdon, see libban. 
lyft (47 ; 51. 6), air; under lyfte, 

cf. our 'under the sun.' [Cf. 

Ger. Luft.] 
lyre (44), loss. [Stem formed 

from that of the third stem of 

leosan, lose, by 16.] 
lystan (113),, like, cause en- 
joyment. [< lust, by 16 ; cf. 

Spenser, F. Q. 2. 7. 18, 19.] 
lyt (58), (but) feiv. 
lyt, adv., (but) little. 
lytel (57, 66), little; comp. less(er) 

smaller ; superl. least. 
lyt-hwon (58), (but) few. 




ma (77), more, further ; rather. 

nia-crseftig (57), vei'y expert^ 
exx>ert in seamanship ? [In 
favor of the latter may be quoted 
Grimm's note in his edition of 
Andreas und Elene, p. 103 : 
"257. macraftig, und nochmals 
A. 472 der comparativ macraft- 
igra. daher es selhst unpassend 
aus dem comparativ ma, magis 
gedeutet wiirde, der sonst nir- 
gends und in keinem andern 
dialect hei zusammensetzungen 
verstarkt. Auch scheint der 
sinn etwas bestimmteres zu f or- 
dern, ein des meeres, der schif- 
f ahrt kundig ; ich vermute ein 
altes subst. ma, synonym und 
wurzel von mere, macraftig = 

madm, see ma^'in. 

msecg, see m^cg. 

mgeden (47, 38, 28), girl, maiden, 

mseg, see mugan. 

maegen (47. 1), power, strength; 
virtue ; force, hand. [Eng. main. ] 

maegen-eacen (57), abundant in 
might, powerful. 

maegen-iaPryinm (43), glory, maj- 

maegen-ffrymnes (51. 5), glory, 

mseglS' (51. &), trihe, nation, prov- 

maegS' (52), maid, maiden. [Ger. 

maegd'-had (43, 143), virgin- 

mgeg--wlite (44), appearance, as- 
pect. [Cf. andwlita.] 

maelan (113), speak. 

msere (59), renowned; splendid; 

mgerSfu (51. a), achievement, 

famous exploit. [Cf. msere.] 
maesling (47), brass. 
maesse-preost (43), priest. 

[maesse < Lat. missa, mass ; 

preost< presbyter, from what 

Greek word ?] 
maest (43), mast. 
maest, see micel. 
rnaeS' (51. b), ability, capacity. 
maeS'el-hegende (me^el-) (61), 

speech-uttering, council-attend- 
niaew (43), gull, sea-mew. [Ger. 

magan, see mugan. 
magu-ffegn (43) , vassal, retainer. 
man (89. e), one. 
man-full (58. 2), wicked, evil. 
mangere (44, 143), merchant. 

[Mod. Eng. -monger.^ 
manian (118), admonish. 
manig (57), many. 
manig-feald (58, 146), manifold. 
riiann (mgnn) (46, 35, 17), man. 

[Ger. Mann ; cf . Tacitus, Ger- 

mania, Ch. II., and the proper 

name Manu.] 
manna (53; cf. 53. 3), man. 
mann-cynn (man-) (47), man- 
man-scyld (-scild) (51. 6), sin, 

mara, see micel. 
marman-stan (43), marble. 
ma3'm (43) , treasure, jewel. 
meahte, see mugan. 
meahtig, see mihtig. 
m^cg (msecg) (43), disciple (lit. 

man) . 
med (51. b), meed, reward. [Cf. 




med-mlcel (57), short. 

medome (meodume) (59), little.., 

medu-bnrg (medo-) (52), mead- 
city. [Cf. Ger. Met.'] 

medu-werig (medo-) {bl) ., mead- 
weary., drunken vnth mead. 

m^nigu (51. a), company., num- 
ber. [Ger. Menge ; cf . Spenser, 
F. q. 1. 12. 9.] 

m^nnisc (57, 146), human. 
[< mann, by 16 ; cf. Ger. 

meodume, see medome. 

meorS' (51. &), reward. [Cf. 

meotud (43), creator. [As it 
were, the ' Meter,' ' Ai)por- 
tioner,' ' Fixer of Bounds.'] 

m^re (44), were, sea. [Ger. Meer ; 
cf. Mod. P^ng. mermaid.'] 

m^re-bat (43), sea-boat, vessel. 

m^re-faroff (43), sea-waves (sea- 
voyage f) . 

meregreote (53), pearl. 

m^re-li3'end (43. 0) seafarer. 

m^re-stream (43), ocean-stream. 

m(jre-swiii (47), dolp)hin. ' 

m^re-i^issa (--Syssa) (63), ocean- 
scourer., rusher through the deep. 

m^rgen (43), morning. 

metan (113), meet; find; find 

m^te (44), food. [Mod. Eng. 

melSe (59), fatigued., weary. [Ger. 

meffel-, see maea'el-. 

micel (mycel) (57), much., great., 
large ; long ; loud. [Cf . Scotch 
mioJde, Eng. much, and Spenser, 
Shep. Cal., Feb. 109.] 

milclum (myclum) (72), greatly. 

mid (57; 166. 1), middle. 

mid (168; 172. 1; 177), with; 
mid ealle (175), completely. 

middan-geard (43), world. [Cf. 
Cleasby and Vigfusson's 7ce- 
landic-English Dictionary., s.v. 
miH-gartSr : "The earth (Mi5- 
garS), the abode of men, is 
seated in the middle of the uni- 
verse, bordered by mountains 
and surrounded by the great sea 
(uthaf) ; on the other side of 
this sea is the tJt-gar^ (out- 
yard), the abode of giants; tlie 
Mi'Sgar^ is defended by the 
' yard ' or ' burgh ' As-gar5 (the 
burgh of the gods), lying in the 
middle (the heaven being con- 
ceived as rising above the earth). 
Thus the earth and mankind are 
represented as a stronghold be- 
sieged by the powers of evil from 
without, defended by the gods 
from above and from within."] 

mid-iafam-ifiCe, when. 

mid-d'y, when, V)hile. 

mid-3'y 3'e, when, while. 

raiht (51.1), power, might. [Gen 

miht, see mugan. 

mihtig (57) , mighty. [Ger. mdcht- 

mild-heortnes (51. 5), mercy, 

compjassion, loving-kindness. 
milts (51. 5), plur. as sing., mercy, 

loving -kindness. [< mild, mild, 

by 33.] 
miltsian (mildsian) (118), have 

mercy upon. 
min (83, 81), my. 
mis- (142). 
mislic (57), various. 
mislice (70), variously, in differ- 
ent icays ; mislice gebleod, 




mis-lician (118), displease. 

missenlic (57), various (kinds 

mis-Sfyncean (114; 164. Z), mis- 
judge ; iSTe inis9'ync9', Lat. male 
suspicaris. [Cf . Milton, P. L. 
9. 289, Shak., 3 Hen. VI. 2. 5. 
108, A7it. and Cleop. 5. 2. 176.] 

mod (47, 146), heart, soul, mind; 
courage. [Ger. Mut.~\ 

mod-ge-ffanc (43), thought of 
the heart, counsel. [Cf. Ger. 

modig (57), noble-minded, mag- 
nanimous, courageous. [Ger. 

modiglic (57), high-souled. 

modignes (51. 5), pride, arro- 

modor (52. 2), mother. [Ger. 
Mutter, Lat. mater.'] 

mona (53), moon. [Cf. Ger. 
Mond, where d is a late ad- 

monaS (43, 4. a), month. [Ger. 
Monat. ] 

inQn(n), see inan(ii). 

morgen (43), morning. [Ger. 
Morgen, Mod. Eng. morn.] 

inorgen-gief u (51. a) , dowry, mar- 
riage portion. 

mora'or (47), deadly injury. 
[Mod. Eng. murder.] 

motan (137), may. [Cf. Spenser, 
F. Q. 1. 9. 27.] 

mugan (135), can, be able. 

mund (51. 5), hand. 

munt (43), mountain. [Lat. 

munuc (43), monk. [Ger. 

murcnung (51. b; 144), sorrow, 
unhappiness, lamentation. 

muscule (Lat.), mussel. 

mycel, see micel. 
myclum, see miclum. 
myngian (118), admonish, adr 

mynian (118), direct, inspire. 
mynster (47), monastery. 


na (no), not even, by no means, 

not at all ; no. 
nabban (121, 29), have not. 
naca (53), bark. [Ger. Nachen.] 
nacod (57), naked; clothed in a 

tunic only (p. 168). 
nsedl (51. 6), needle. [Ger. Nadel.] 
n^edre, naeddre (53. 1), serpent. 
n^fre, never. 
naenig (89. a), no one. 
nsere, ugeron, nses, see 138. 
naht (nolit) (47 ; 89. 6 ; 27), naught, 

nothing ; not. 
na-liweer, nowhere. 
na-hi?vider, nowhither. 
nalses (nalas), not at all. 
nama (53, 24), 7iame. [Ger. Wa- 

nan (89. a; 154. 6), no (one). 
nat, see 126. 
nates-hwon, not at all. 
ne (ni), not. 
ne, nor; ne . . . ne (202), neither 

. . . nor. 
neah (58, 67, 60), nigh, near ; aet 

niehstan, at length, finally. 
neah, adv., near, nigh at hand; 

superl. nearly. 
neah (neh), prep., near. 
nea-lsecan (113), approach. 
nearunes (nearo-) (51. 5), an- 
guish, agony. 
nearu (51. a), difficulty; nearu 

igfrowian, be in straits. [Cf. 

Mod. Eng. narrow.] 



neat (47), cattle. [Cf. Mod. Eng. 
'neatherd,' 'neat's-foot oil,' 
*neat cattle.' Shakespeare has 
( Wint. r. 1. 2. 124) : ' The steer, 
the heifer, and the calf Are all 
called neat; Cymh. 1. 1. 148: 
' Would I were A neatherd'' s 

nefne, except. 

neh, see neah, prep. 

nellan (139), loill not. [See 
Chaucer, Prol. 550, Spenser, 
F. Q. 1. 6. 17; 1. 9. 15, Shak., 
Haml. 5. 1. 19.] 

n^innan (115. 6), mean (lit. 

neosian (neosan) (118; 156. »)i), 
seek, look for. 

neowolnes (51. 5), abyss, deep. 
[Orig. from nihol-, *nihoId-, 
*mliald-, slopi7ig.'] 

n^riend (n^regend) (43. 6), Sa- 

Died (51. 6), need, necessity ; use. 

nied-faru (neid-) (51. a), needful 

nied-ffearflic (57), needful, neces- 

niehst, see neah, adv. 

niehsta, see neah, adj. 

nieten (47. 1), creature, beast, 
cattle. [< neat, by 16.] 

nieten-cynn (47), kind of cattle. 

niht (52), night. 

nihtes (74), by night. 

niht-lang (58), night-long, of a 
night, one night. 

nihtlic (57), night. 

niman (IV. 105), take; seize; 
capture, catch ; pluck up. [Ger. 
nehmen ; cf . a character in Shak., 

nls, see 138. 

nlff (43), man. 

niSdCerlic (57), low-lying. [Cf. 
Ger. nieder.} 

niS'-h^te (44), malignant foe. 

niff-hycgende (61), evil-scheming. 

niiac-plega (53), hostile play, mar- 
tial game. 

no, see na. 

noht, see naht. 

noldon, see nellan. 

noraf (69), northward. 

noriafan, from the north. 

norff-dsel (43), northern party 

notian (118; 164. o), use, 

na, now; yet. 

nyste, see nytan. 

nytan (126), know not. [See 
Chaucer, Prol. 284.] 


of- (142). 

of, of; from ; out of; by. 

ofen (43), oven. 

ofer, over; across; upon; in. 

ofer- (142). [Ger. uber-.] 

ofer-brsedan (113), suffuse. 

ofer-cuman (IV. 105), overcome, 

ofer-gan (141), overcome, come 

ofer-hygd (51. 5), pride, arro- 
gance; mid oferhygdum, ar- 
rogantly, haughtily, supercili- 

ofer-rsedan (113), read through. 

ofer-swiiyan (113), overcome., 

ofer-iaf^ccean (114), cover over. 

ofer-winnan (III. 104), conquer., 
subdue, overthrow. 

ofer-wreon (I. 102), cover over. • 

ofestlice (ofost-, ofst-) (70)-; 
quickly, forthwith. 



ofet (47), fruit. (Ger. Ohst, prop- 
erly 06s.] 

ofostlice, see ofestlice. 

of-slean (VI. 107), slay^ kill. 

of-stigan (I. 102), descend. 

ofstlice, see ofestlice. 

oft, often^ frequently. 

of-tredan (V. 106), tread down, 
trample upon. [Ger. abtreten.^ 

of-aCyncean (114), offend, grieve, 

oht, see aht. 

olfend (43), camel. [<Lat. ele- 
phantem ?] 

on, on, upon,' in; into ; with; on 
an, see an. 

on- (142). 

on-selan (113), inflame. 

on-cierran (-cyrran) (113), turn. 

on-cnawan (R. 109), know ; per- 
ceive; recognize; acknowledge. 

on-cweffan (V.106), address, call 

Qnd(-), see and(-). 

on-drsedan (R. 110 ; 159. a), fear. 

onettan (113), hasten, hurry. 

on-fangennes (51. 5), reception. 

on-fon (R. 110; 164. j), receive, 

on-gean, adv., again, hack. 

on-gean, prep., against; toward; 
opposite. [Cf. Ger. entgegen, 
for engegen.'] 

on-ge-slean (VI. 107), slay. 

on-gierwan (113), divest, strip. 
[Cf . geare.] 

on-gietan (-gitan) (V. 106, 18), 
perceive, learn, understand. [Cf. 

ongin, see anginn. 

on-ginnan (III. 104), begin. 

ongitan, see ongietau. 

on-hieldan (-hseldan) (113), in- 

on-hreosan (II. IQZ), fall upon. 
on-hreran (113), stir up, agitate. 
on-innan, into, among. 
onlic, se6 anlic. 

oii-lielitan (113), light, illumi- 
nate. [<leolit, by 16.] 
on-liesan (113), release. 
on-lBcan (II. 103), unlock. 
on-s^ndan (113), send. 
on-s^ttan (113), lay. 
on-spannan (R. 109), open. 
on-styrian (116), move. 
on-tynan (113), open. [<tnn, 

by 16.] 

on-wacan (VI. 107), awake. 

on-weg, away. 

on-windan (III. 104), retreat. 
[Cf. Ger. entwinden.'] 

on-winnan (III. 104), assail. 

on-wrigfan (I. 102), uncover, dis- 

on-wunian (118), inhabit. 

open (57), open. [Ger. offen."] 

or (47), beginning. 

or- (142). 

ora (53), vein ? ore f 

oreta, see oretta. 

oret-m^cg (-msecg) (43), warrior. 

oretta (53), combatant, 

or f {^t), cattle. 

or-feorme (59), deprived, aban- 
doned, forsaken. 

organa (Lat.), plur., organs. 

or-giete (-gete) (59), manifest. 

or-msete (59), boundless; enor- 

or-modnes (51. 5), despair, des- 

OToff (47. 6), breath. 

ort-geard (43), garden (or- 
chard ?) . 

orffian (118), breathe. [< oroSff.] 

off, until. 

off- (142). 



offer (80; 89. a ; 24), other; sec- 
ond; rest of. 

off-ffaet, until. 

offiaCe (se'S'Sa), or. 

oO'-sS'ringan (III. 104), wrest 


paell (43), purple garment. 

pard (^Lat.), panther. 

pining (43), penny (but this does 
not represent the Latin, which 
has sestertia, not sestertios ; the 
latter would represent four cents 
each, the former about forty- 
three dollars each). [Cf. Ger. 

Piht (43), Pict. 

plega (53), game, play. 

plegian (IIS), play ; act. 

pliht (43), peril, risk. [Ger. 
Pflicht, Mod. Eng. plight.^ 

pund (47), pound, Lat. talentum, 
pondus. \_<.lu?it. pondus.'] 

purpre (53. 1), purple garment. 
[< Lat. purpura.'] 


racian (118 ; 164. i), rule, govern, 

rsed (43), counsel, advice; or- 
der {s) ; benefit. [Ger. Bat; 
archaic Mod. Eng. rede; cf. 
Shak., Rami. 1. 3. 51.] 

rsedan (113), read. [Cf. Ger. 

rsed-snottor (67), discreet in 

raes-bora (53), counselor. 

raeswa (53), chief, leader. 

rah-deor (47), roebuck. 

rand (rgnd) (43), shield. 

rand-wigend (-wiggend) (43. 6), 

read (58), red. [Ger. rot.] 
reaf (47) , raiment, apparel. [Ger. 

Baub, Mod. Eng. robe, through 

Fr. robe ; cf . Ital. roba.] 
reaf-lac (47), rapine, phtnder, 
r^ccean (114), relate, narrate; 

rece-leasian (118, 156), despise. 
recene, straightway. 
regn (ren) (43), rain; shower. 

[Ger. Begen.] 
regollic (57), regular. [<Lat. 

regula; cf. Ger. regel{recht').'] 
ren, see regn. 
reocan (II. 103), reek. [Ger. 

reord-berend (43. 6), man gifted 

with speech (lit. speech-bearer). 
reordian (-igan) (118), speak. 
r^st (51. b), couch, bed. [Cf. Ger. 

r^stan (113), rest. 
reSfe (59), fierce^ violent. 
reffnes (51. 5), violence. 
ribb (47), rib. 
rice (48. 1), kingdom. [Ger. Belch, 

Mod. Eng. (Frede)rick, {Hen)ry, 

(bishop)ric ; cf. Lat. rex.] 
rice (59), powerful, noble. [Ger. 

reich, Mod. Eng. rich.] 
ricsian (118), bear rule, have do- 
minion. [<rlce.] 
ribt (47), right. [Ger. Becht.] 
riht (58), right; direct. [Ger. 

rihtlice (70), accurately, correctly. 
riht-wis (58, 146), righteous. 
riht-'wisnes (51. 5), righteouS' 

rinan (113, 161), rain. 
rinc (43), icarrior, man. 
ripe (59), lipe. [Ger. reif] 



rod (51. 6), cross. [Ger. Bute, 
Mod. Eng. rod, rood; cf. rood- 
loft, Holyrood, Haml. 3. 4. 14.] 

rodor (43), firmament, heaven. 

rof (59), stout. 

Romanise (57, 146), Boman. 

Romane (Lat.), plur., Bomans. 

rQnd, see rand. 

rose (53. 1), rose. [Lat. rosa.'\ 

rowan (R. 109), row. 

rowend (43. 6), rower. 

rownes (51. 5), rowing. 

riidu (51. a), redness. 

rum (43), room, opportunity. 
[Ger. Baum.'] 

rfiwe (53. 1), tapestry? 


sacerd (51. h), priestess. [<Lat. 

sse (43; 51. 6), sea. [Ger. 
JSee; cf. note, p. 324.] 

see-bat (43), sea-boat, vessel. 

see-beorg (43), sea-cliff. 

seed (47), seed. [Ger. Saat.^ 

ssed-tima (53), seedtime. 

s«-flota (53), sea-floater. 

sse-h^ngest (43), sea-steed. [Cf. 
Ger. Hengst, Eng. Hengist.'] 

sse-holm (43), sea {swelling sea?). 

sse-lad (51. &), sea-voyage. 

sseleoda, see seelida. 

seelic (57), marine, of the sea. 

sse-lida (-leoda) (53), seaman, 
sailor, mariner. [Cf . liffan.] 

sse-mearh (43), sea-steed. [Cf. 
Jebb, Classical Chreek Poetry, 
pp. 91-92: "Homer speaks of 
* swift ships, which are the horses 
of the sea for men ' ; Hesiod 
would not have scrupled to use 
the phrase 'horses of the sea' 
as a substitute for the word 

'ships,' leaving his meaning to 
be guessed."] 

see-werig (57), sea-weary. 

sse-wiht (51. h), sea-animal. 

salowig-pad (58), dark-coated. 

samninga (70), all at once, sud- 
denly. [Cf. samninga.] 

samod (sQmod), together. 

sand (47), sand. [Ger. Sand.'] 

sand-hli^r (47, 20), sand-hill. 

sang (43) , song. [Ger. ( Ge^sang.] 

sar (47), sorrow. 

sar (58) , grievous, sore. [Cf . Ger. 
sehr, {ver^sehren.] 

sar-cwide (44), taunt, gibe, rail- 
lery, sarcasm. 

sarlic (57), doleful. 

sarlice (70), lamentably, mourn- 

sarnes (51. 6), grief, unhappiness. 

saw(o)l (51. 4), soul; life. [Ger. 

sawol-leas (58, 146), soulless. 

seeadu (51. a; 18), shadow. [Cf. 
Ger. Schatten.] 

sceal, see sculan. 

scealc (43, 18), man. 

sceam-faest (58, 18), modest. 
[Mod. Eng. shamefast ; see 
Spenser, F. Q. 5. 5. 25.] 

sceaniu (51. a; 18), shame. [Ger. 

sceap (47, 18), sheep. [Ger. 

sceap-hierde (44), shepherd. 
[Ger. Schafhirt.'] 

scearpe (70, 18), sharp. [Ger. 

sceat (43), corner, region, quar- 
ter. [Ger. Schooss ; in the 
sense of Lat. angulus, plaga, 
as Isa. 11. 12, Rev. 7. 1.] 

sceatt (43, 18), coin. [Ger. 



sceaiar (51. b; 18), sheath. [Ger. 

scead'a (53, 18), enemy. [Cf. Ger. 
Schade, Schddiger, Mod. Eng. 

sceawian (118), vmtch ; behold., 
see. [Ger. sckauen, Mod. Eng. 
shovj (with changed meaning).] 

sc^ncan (113), pour out, give to 
drink. [Ger. (ein)schenken, ar- 
chaic Mod. Eng. skink; cf. 
Shak., 1 Hen. IV. 2. 4. 26.] 

sceolde, see sculan. 

sceor (18), see scur. 

sceort (58, 65, 18), short. 

sceotend (43. 6), shooter, marks- 

sceo-wyrhta (53, 1%), shoemaker. 

sciccels (43), cloak, mantle. 

scield (scild) (43, 18), shield. 

scield-burh (scild-) (52, 28), tes- 
tudo, roof of shields, shield- 
roofed phalanx. 

sciene (scyne) (59, IB), beautiful. 
[Ger. sch'on ; cf . Chaucer, K. T. 
210, Spenser, F. Q. 2. 1. 10.] 

scieppan (VI. 107, 18), create. 
[Ger. schopfen.'] 

scieppend (scippend, scyppend) 
(43. 6; 18), creator. 

scieran (IV. 105, 18), cut, cleave. 
[Ger. scheren. Mod. Eng. shear.'] 

sciertra, see sceort. 

sciete (53. 1), sheet, linen cloth. 
[< sceat.] 

scild, see scield. 

scinan (I. 102), shine. [Ger. 

scip (47), ship. [Ger. Schiff.] 

scip-ferend (43. 6 ; 147), sailor. 

scip-h^re (44. 2; 147), naval 
force, fleet. 

scippend, see scieppend. 

scip-weard (43), shipmaster. 

scir (58), bright, gleaming. [Cf. 

Spenser, F. Q. 3. 2. 44, Shak., 

Bich. II. 5. 3. 61.] 
scire (70), dazzlingly, radiantly. 
scir-mseled (57), splendidly 

marked, splendidly decorated. 
scop (43), minstrel. 
Scottas (43), plur., Scots. 
scrid (57), fleet? (Grimm, rigged). 
scrud (47), clothing, raiment, 

attire. [Mod. Eng. shroud.] 
scrydan (113), clothe, array. 
scucca (53) , the devil, Satan. 
scafan (II. 103), thrust. 
sculan (133, 188), ought, must; 

shall. [Cf. Ger. sollen.] 
scur (sceor) (43, 18), storm; 

shower. [Ger. Schauer.] 
scyne, see sciene. 
scyppend, see scieppend. 
se (84; 87; 154. b). 
sealm (43), psalm. [< Lat. 

sealt-sea9' (43), salt-spring. 
seamere (44. 1 ; 143), tailor. [Cf. 

Ger. Saum, Mod. Eng. seam.] 
searu (49), device, contrivance. 
searu-9'ancol (searo-'Sgncol) (57), 

discerning, sagacious. 
secean (secan) (114), seek; seek 

out ; visit. [Ger. suchen.] 
s^cg (43), man, hero. 
s^cgean (slogan) (123, 36), say ; 

speak; tell. 
sedl, see setl. 

segl (47?), sazY. [Gar. Segel.] 
seld-cui5' (58), strange, novel, out 

of the way. [Cf. F. Q. 4. 8. 14.] 
s^len (51. b), bounty, bestowal. 
self (seolf, sylf) (86), (my, him) 

self; own; same; very. [Ger. 

s^llan (syllan) (114, 36), give; 

give to be ; sell. 



selest (selost) (66), best. 

sellic (syllic) (57), strange, queer, 

remarkable. [< seldic] 
selost (76), best. 
selra (53, 66), better. 
s^mninga (70), suddenly. [See 

s^ndan (113), se7id ; hurl. 
seo, see se. 
seofon (78, 20), seven. [Ger. 

seofon-feald (58, 146), seven-fold. 
seofoffa (78, 80), seventh. 
seol, see seolh. 
seolh (43. 3; 21), seal. 
seolf, see self, 
seolfor (47, 20), silver. [Ger. 

Silber, Goth, silubr.^ 
seolfren (57), silver. [Ger. silb- 

■ em.'] 
seo3'9'aii, see siS'iS'an. 
sessian (118), subside. 
setl (sedl) (47), seat; throne. 

[Ger. Sessel; Mod. Eng. settle.] 
s^tnes (51. b), foundation. 
s^ttan (113) , set, set down ; place ; 

make ; make to turn. [Formed, 

by 16, from the second stem of 

sittan (cf . l^cgan) ; Ger. setzen.] 
sibb (51. 6), peace; love. [Cf. 

Mod. Eng. gossip.] 
sid (58), roomy, ample. 
side (53. 1), silk. [< Lat. seta ; cf. 

Ger. Seide.] 
sie(n), see wesan. 
siexta (78, 80), sixth. 
siextiene (syxtyne) (78), sixteen. 

[Ger. sechszehn.] 
sige (44), victory. [Ger. Sieg.] 
sige-fsest (58, 146), victorious, 

triumphant, [ulting in victory. 
sige-hremig (-hreemig) (57), ex- 
sige-hreiffig (57), exultant with 


sige-rof (58), of victorioiis en- 

slge-iafuf (43), triumphal banner. 
[ffuf < Lat. tufa.] 

sige-wang (-wqng) (43), field 
of victory. 

sigor (43), victory, triumph. 

simle, always. 

sin (83), his. 

sine (47), treasure, riches. 

sinc-weorafung (51. 3), gift of 
treasure, costly gift. 

sind, see wesan. 

sin-gal (58), constant, never- 

singan (III. 104, 22), sing ; praise. 
[Ger. singen.] 

sittan (V. 106), sit. [Ger. sitzen.] 

silS" (43, 30) , journey ; adventure ; 
plan, errand; time. [Cf. Ger. 
Gesinde, Chaucer, Prol. 485, 
Spenser, F. Q. 3. 10. 33.] 

siiaf-faet (43. 2), journey ; passage. 

siaf-fram (-fr^m) (bl), ready for 
{their) journey. 

siaf-nese (53. 1), prosperous voy- 

siiSfS'an (seo^S^an, sy^^an) (84.3), 
when ; after ; as soon as ; after- 
ward. [Ger. seitdem ; cf . Chau- 
cer, Knighfs Tale 1244, Shak,, 
Cor. 3. 1. 47.] 

slacian (118), defer, delay. [Mod. 
Eng. slack{en).] 

slsep (43), sleep. [Ger. Schlaf] 

slsepan (R. 110), sleep. [Ger. 
schlaf en.] 

slean (VL 107, 37), smite, strike; 
strike down, slay. [Ger. schlag- 
en ; cf. Chaucer, Prol. QQ\.] 

sl^cg (51. &), hammer, sledge. 
[Cf. slean.] 

smean (113), consider, inquire 



smeaung (51. 3), meditation ; in- 

smercian (118), smile. [Mod. 
Eng. smirk.'] 

smiff (43), blacksmith. [Ger. 

sinitS'9'e (53. 1), smithy. 

smylte (59), calm., smooth^ un- 

smyltnes (51. 5), serenity^ calm. 

8nel(I) (58; 35. a), active., swift., 
Jleet. [Ger. schnell, Scotch snell.'] 

snellic (57), svnft. 

snelnes (51. 5), agility, celerity. 

sneowan (II. 103), hasten, speed. 

snottor (57), wise. 

snad (43?), speed. 

snade (70), quickly. 

SQmod, see samod. 

sona, soon ; immediately ; at once ; 
as soon ; vjhen. 

sorg (51. 6), distress; anxiety, 
trouble. [Mod. Eng. sorrov}.!, 

sorgian (118), 6e cojxiows. [Mod. 
Eng. sorrovj, Ger. sorgen.] 

sofS (47), truth. [Mod. Eng. 
sooth; cf. forsooth, soothsayer.] 

859" (58), true. 

soff, adv., verily. [Cf. Spenser, 
F. Q. 3. 3. 13.] 

sSff-faest (58), just and true; 
righteous. [Mod. Eng. sooth- 

soff-faesti^es (51. 5), triith. [Cf. 
Chaucer, Nun''s PriesVs Tale 

solfflice (70), indeed, truly. [Cf. 
soothly, Spenser, F. Q. 5. 10. 8.] 

sparian (118), spare. [Ger. 

spell (47), account. 

spildan (113), fling aioay. [Cf. 
Shak., Haml. 4. 5. 20.] 

spraec (51. b), speech; language; 

tale. [Ger. Sprache.] [sprechen. 
sprecan (V. 106), speak. [Ger. 
springan (III. 104), spread. [Ger. 

springen, Mod. Eng. spring.] 
spryttan (113), bring forth. [Cf. 

Ger. spriessen, Eng. sprout.] 
staefna, see stefna. 
stsenen (57), stone. [< stan, by 

16 ; Ger. steinen.] 
staeppan (VI. 107), step, march. 
Stan (43), stone. [Ger. Stein.] 
standan (VI. 107), stand; stand 

still ; fall upon. 
starlan (118), gra^e. [Mod. Eng. 

steap (58), lofty. [Mod. Eng. 

steep. ] 
st^de (44) , place, position. [Mod. 

Eng. stead; cf. Ger. Statt, 

st^de-heard (58), firm, strong. 
st^de-wang (43), plain. 
stefn (51. b), voice. [Ger. Stimme ; 

cf. Chaucer, Knight's Tale 1704, 

Spenser, Shep. Cal., Sept. 224.] 
stefn (43), prow. [Cf. ' from stem 

to stem.'] 
stefna (staefna) (53), prow. 
steoran, see stieran. 
steorra (53) , star. [Cf . Ger. Sterr^ 

Lat. Stella, Gr. a.ffT'qp.] 
st^rced-ferhSf (58) , resolute- 

souled, stout-hearted. 
stieran (steoran) (113), steer. 

[Cf. Ger. steuern ; and cf. Gr. 

(XTavpbs ?] 
stiern-mod (styrn-) (58), stern 

of mood. 
stig (51. 6), road, course, line. 

[Cf. Mod. Eng. stile, stirrup, 

stigan (I. 102, 28), ascend, enter, 

go aboard ; go down (cf. Ps. 107. 



23). [Ger. steigen, Gr. a-Teixet-v ; 
cf. Spenser, F. Q. 4. 9. 33.] 

stillan (113; 164. i), calm, ap- 
pease, hush. [Ger. stillen.'] 

stille (59), still; quiet, silent. 
[Ger. stille.'] 

stilnes (51. 5), calm, quietness. 

storm (43), storm. [Cf. Ger. 

stow (51. 5), place. [Cf. Mod. 
Eng. stow.] 

streel (43), arrow. [Ger. Strahl.] 

straet (51. 6), street ; public place. 
[< Lat. strata ; Ger. Strasse.] 

strand (43), strand, sea-shore. 
[Ger. Strand.] 

Strang (58, 65), strong; power- 
ful; violent; hard, severe, 
arduous. [Cf. Ger. streng.] 

strangung (51. 3), invigoration, 

stream (43), stream, current. 
[Ger. Strom.] 

stream-wielm (-welm) (43), 
whirlpool, maelstrom. 

string (43), rope; plur. cordage, 
rigging, tackle. [Cf. Mod. Eng. 

str^ngre, see Strang. 

str^ngS'u (51. a; 144), strength. 

streonan, see strienan. 

strienan (streonan) (113), win 
over, gain over, convert. [See 

stund (51. h), while; stunde 
(176), now. [Ger. Stunde, ar- 
chaic Mod. Eng. stound, as in 
Chaucer, KnighVs Tale 354, 
Spenser, F.Q.l. 8. 25, 38.] 

stycce-mselum (72), gradually, 
little by little. [Cf. Ger. stuck- 

styrian (118), move; flow, roll. 
[Mod. Eng. stir.'] 

styriendlic (57), moving, that 

styrman (113) , storm. [< storm, 

17 ; Ger. stu7'men.] 
stjrrnmod, see stiernmod. 
sulli-scear (43 ?) , plowshare. [Cf . 

Lat. sulcus.] 
sum (89. a; 151), some{one); {a) 

certain; one. [Cf. Chaucer, 

KnighVs Tale 397, 399.] 
sumer (43. 5), summer. [Ger. 

sund (47), swimming ; course; sea. 
sundor-ierfe (-yrfe) (J^), private 

sunne (53. 1), sun. [Ger. Sonne.] 
sunu (45), son. [Ger. Sohn.] 
suQ'-dgel (43), southern part; 

suS'-'westerne (59), southwestern, 

[Cf. Ger. sildwest] 
swa, so ; as ; yet ; since ; such ; 

which ; eall swa, see eall ; swa 

(swa) . . . swa (202), so . . . 

as, as . . . as ; the . . . the ; 

inasmuch as ; whether . . . or. 
swsesendu (47), plur., viands, 

food. [For the plural, cf. Lat. 

sw^seiSTorian, see sw^e(o)S'erian. 
swa-hwaeSfer (89. a), ivhichever. 
swa-liwaet-swa (89. d), what{so)- 

swan (43), swan. [Ger. Schwan.] 
swa-swa, like ; as ; just as ; as if. 
swatig (47), bloody. [Ger. 

sw^a-Sfeah, nevertheless. 
s-waiju (51. a), track, footprint. 
swefan (V. 106), sleep. 
swefel (43), sulphur. [Ger 

sweg (43), music. 
sweg-craeft (43), music. 



swegel (47), sk7j, heaven. 
sweging (51. 3), noise. 
sw^ncan (113), weary, fatigue, 

wear out. [Formed from the 

second stem of swincan, by 16.] 
sweora (53), 7ieck. 
sweorcan (III. 104), grow dark, 

become overcast. 
sweord (swyrd) (47), sword. 
sweot (47), troop, army. 
sweotol (swutol) (57), clear. 
s^veotole (70) , clearly, plainly. 
sweotoUice (70), plainly, clearly. 
sw^rian (VI. 107), swear. [Ger. 

swete (59), sweet. [Ger. silss ; of. 

Lat. suavis, Gr. ijS^s.^ 
swetnes (51.5; 144) j siveetness ; 

sweCo)i5'eriaii (118), depart, melt 

away, vanish; subside. 
swican (I. 102; 164. n), desert. 
swift (58), swift, fleet. 
swiftnes (51. 5; 144), swiftness, 

swige (53. 1), silence. 
swigian (118), be silent, keep 

STvilc (89. a), such, this sort. 

[< *swalic < swa + lie; cf. 

swich, Chaucer, Prol. 3.] 
swilce, adv., likewise. 
swilce (swylce), conj., as if; eac 

SAvilce, swilce eac, see eac. 
sw^imman (III. 10^) , swim. [Ger. 

sw^incan (III. 104), ivork with 

effort. [Cf. swincan, and ar- 
chaic Mod. Eng. swink, as in 

Chaucer, Prol. 186, Milton, Com. 

sw^ingan (III. 104), whip? throw? 
swiff (58, 64, 30), strong; comp. 

right. [Cf. Ger. geschwind.^ 

swiffe (swy^e) (70), much, 
greatly, very; comp. rather, 

swifflice (70), exceedingly, greatly 

swiff-mod (58), vehement- souled. 

sw^utol, see sweotol. 

swylce, see sw^ilce. 

swyrd, see sw^eord. 

sw^yffe, see swiffe. 

sybb, see sibb. 

sylf, see self. 

syllan, see saltan. 

syllic, see sellic. 

syn(n) (51. &), sin. [Cf. Ger. 

synderlic (57, 146), separate, in- 
dividual. [Cf. Ger. sonderlich.'] 

syndon, see w^esan. 

syn-fuU (58), sinful. 

syffffan, see siffffan. 

syxtyne, see siextiene. 

tacen (47), sign, signal. [Ger, 
Zeichen, Mod. Eng. token.^ 

tacen-bora (53), groomsman (lit. 
standard-bearer) . 

tacnian (118), signify, betoken, 

tsecean (114), teach. 

teelan (113), blame, censure. 

tal (51. b), censure; to tale, cen- 
surable, blameworthy. 

tear (43), tear. [Cf. Ger. Zdhre 
and Gr. ba.Kpv.'] 

t^lg (43), dye. 

tempel (47), temple. [< Lat. 

teon (II. 10Z),pull, bring. [Ger^ 

teon (tian) (113), arrange, or 

ticcen (47), goat. £Ger. Zicke.} 



tid (51. 1), thne, season; while; 
day; hour. [Ger. Zeit, Mod. 
Eng. tide in Christmastide, 

tigel-fag (58), vanegated with 
tiles, [tigel < Lat. tegula.'] 

tigris (Lat.), tiger. 

til, to. [Mod. Eng. till; cf. Ger. 

tilian (118), gain., obtain., pro- 
vide. [Ger. zielen, Mod. Eng. 

tilung (51. 3), acquisition, pro- 

tima (53), time. 

tiinbran (115. 6), build, construct. 
[Ger. zimmern.] 

tin (47), tin. [Ger. Zinn.] 

tinterg (4!7) , punishment. 

tir (43), glory, fame. [Ger. Zier.] 

tits (51. 6; 28), boon. 

tiiariaii (118; 159. a ; 28), grant, 
bestow. [Cf. tiff.] 

to, prep., to; for; according to; 
the sign of the gerund, and gov- 
erning the following infinitive 
as a noun in the dative. [Ger. 

to, adv., too. [Ger. zu.] 

to- (142). [Cf. Spenser, F. Q. 4. 
7. 8 ; 5. 9. 10.] 

to-berstan (III. 104), break up, 
go to pieces. [Cf. Chaucer, 
Knight's Tale 1753, 18-33, 1899.] 

to-brecan (IV. 105), brea.k in 
pieces, shatter. [Ger. zer- 

to-daeg, to-day. [Cf. Ger. heut 
zu Tage.] 

to-dselan (113), divide, part asun- 
der, separate, disperse. [Ger. 

to-don (140), separate. 

to-drgefan (113), drive away. 

[draefan < second stem of 

drifan (102), by 16.] 
to-foran, before. 
to-gaedere, together. 
to-geanes, towards, to meet. 
to-ge-iecan (113), add. 
to-ge-lsedan (113), bring. 
to-glidan (I. 102), glide away, 

slip away. 
to-hopa (53), hope. [Cf. Ger. 

to-hreosan (II. lQiZ),fall away. 
tohte (53. 1), conflict. 
to hwon, why. 
to-middes, amidst, in the midst 


top (43), top? ball? [Ger. Zopf] 

torht (58), resplendent. 

torr (43), tower; watch-tower; 
crag. [< Lat. turris.] 

to-sceacan (VI. 107), depart, pass 

to-sceadan (R. 110), separate, 

to-slitan (I. 102), rend, tear, de- 
stroy, [rupt. 

to-twseman (113), divide; inter- 

to-weorpan (III. 104), blot out, 
forgive (lit. break in pieces) ; 
quell, compose, Lat. dissolvere. 

traef (47. 4), building. 

treo (47. 3), tree. 

treow-cynn (47), sort of tree. 

treownes (51. 5; 144), trust. 

treow-wyrhta (53, 147), carpen- 
ter. [Cf. wyrhta.] 

trum (57), secure, strong. 

try mm an (115. a), confirm, es- 
tablish, strengthen. [< trum, 
by 16.] 

tungol (47. 6), star, heavenly 

tSsc (43), tusk. 

twa, see twegen. 



twegen (78, 79), fioo. [Mod. Eng, 

twain, Chaucerian tweye {Prol. 

704), archaic Ger. zween.'] 
tw^lf (78, 24), twelve. [Ger. 

twentig (78), twenty. [Ger. 

tweonian (118 ; 169. &), doubt. 
Tyrisc (57), Tyrian. 
tsrrnan (113), revolve. [Mod, 

Eng. turn.'] 


ffa, pron. ; see 84, 87. [Cf . Chau- 
cer, Prol. 498.] 
ffa (84. 1), then., when; there., 

lohere. [Ger. da; archaic Mod. 

Eng. tho., as in Chaucer, Knighfs 

Tale 135, Spenser, F. Q. 1. 1. 

fifaece (53. 1), roof. [Ger. Dach, 

Mod. Eng. thatch.] 
ff^em, see 84. 
ffSr (75), tJiere, lohere. [Cf. 

Chaucer, Prol. 34, 172, 547.] 
aPsera, Usere, see 84. 
ffser-on, therein. 
ffser-to-eacan, besides, in addition 

to that. 
ffses, see 84. 
ffaes-aPe, see 157. 1. 
ffset, see 84 ; 189. 3. 
ffaet, conj., f/iaf. 
SSTaette (34), that; to ffon iffaette, 

so that. [< SJaet-ffe.] 
saTafian (-igan) (118), permit, 

Ua-hwaeafre, ye?. 
a^a-hwile-iffe, while, so long as. 

[Cf. Ger. dieweil.] 
d'am, see 84. 
ffanan (fSe) (75), thence, from 

there; whence; from which; of 

which ; by ichich. [Ger. dannen ; 

cf. Mod. Eng. thence.] 
ffanc (43), thank(s). [Ger. Dank.] 
ffanciau (118; 159. a), thank. 

[Ger. daiiken.] 
S'ancol-mod (58), discreet, heed- 
ful, attentive. 
ffanc-snottor (^Quc-snottur) (57), 

wise of thought. 
fifara, see 84. 
Iflfas, see 85. 
3'a-d'a, when; fSA-iSQ. . . . ffa (202), 

when . . . (then). 
ffa-aPe, ffe, see 87. 
ffe . . . ffe (202), whether . . . 

fiPeah ('5eh), though, although; 

yet; ffeah . . . ffeah (202), 

though . . . yet. [Ger. doch.] 
iS'eah-hwaeS're, nevertheless. 
ffeah-ffe, though, although; iJeah- 

aPe . . . hwaetSTre, (5'eah-9'e . . . 

swa-iSeah (202), though . . . 

afearf (51. b ; 21. a), need ; profit, 

benefit' [Cf. ffurfan.] 
laCearfa (53; 21. a), needy {one'), 

poor. [Cf. arurfan.] 
aCearfendlic {hi), poor. 
laCearle (70), greatly, very, very 

much, exceedingly. 
ffearlice (70), violently. 
ffeaw (43), conduct; iplur. morals, 

virtues. [Cf. Spenser, i^. ^. 1. 1. 

ffegn (43, 28, 24), vassal, retainer, 

thane. [Archaic Ger. Degen ; 

cf. Gr. T^KVOV.] 

syeh, see SCeah. 

ff^ncean (114), think, consider, 

reflect ; devise. [Ger. denken.] 
ar^nden (^^nde), inasmuch as. 
Fenian (118; 164. e; 28), serve, 

minister to. 



ffenung (51. 3 ; 28), ministration, 

service ; first course. 
fSeoA (51. &), people, nation; re- 
gion, country, province. [Cf. 

Ger. Deutsch.'] 
"S eoden (^3), lord. [<9'eod;cf. 

dryhten < dryht, cyning < 

afeoden-hold {bi) , faithful to his 

ffeod-giima (53), man of the 

l^eod-scipe (44. 1 ; 144), disci- 
fSeos, see 85. 

ffeow (58), bond, unfree, serving. 
ffeow-dom (43), service. 
ffes, see 85. 
ffider ('Syder) (75), thither; 

iJiestru (^riostru) (47), plur., 

darkness. [Cf . Ger. duster, and, 

for the plural, Lat. tenehrod.'] 
fSlVi (83, 81), thy, thine. [Ger. 

(STTnen (51. 5), handmaid. [Cf. 

(fifing (47), thing; sake; senige 

SS'inga, in any way, by any 

gfing-gewrit (47), document. 
9" is, ififisne, iffissa, Suisse, Swisses, 

iS'issuiu, see 85. 
safiwen (51. 5), handmaid. 
SColian (118), endure, experience. 

[Scotch thole ; cf . Ger. dulden.'] 
iJon, see 84, 175 ff . ; sometimes 

for 9" gem, ffam, through the 

shortened ffam, Sfan. 
lafone, see 84. 
jafonne, then; when; since; than 

(with comparatives) ; ffonne . . . 

iJonne (202), a:hen . . . {then). 
ffoffor (43), hall. 

Sfrean (113), rebuke. 

safreat (43), band, crowd, multi- 

lafreatian (118), reprove, chide. 
[Cf. Mod. Eng. threaten.'] 

larridda (78), third. [Ger. dritte.] 

lafrie («ry) (78, 79), three. [Ger. 

iaTrines (51. 5 ; 144), trinity. 

ffringan (III. 104) , press forward. 
[Ger. dringen; cf. Mod. Eng. 

laCriostrii, see 3'iestru. [dreist.'] 

ffriste (59), bold, confident. [Ger. 

ffritig (78), thirty. 

ffriiarcyning, see laTryiafcyning. 

ffroht-lieard (58), patient, much- 

laCrowian (118), suffer, endure. 

ffrowung (51. 3), passion. 

saTry, see iSCrie. 

9'rym(m) (43), force; troop; 

'Sryai-fabst (58, 146), glorious. 

ffrym-full (58, 146), glorious. 

afrymlic (57), glorious. 

lafrym-sittende (61), sitting in 
glory. - 

tSrftS (51. b), might; the transla- 
tion of J>reata J^ryffum, p. 219, 
1. 5, is doubtful. 

(ffryiar-bearn (47, 38), mighty son, 
i.e. mighty youth. 

lafryiaP-cyning (^ri-S-) (43), king 
of might. 

safu, see 81. 

ffaliton, see ffyncean. 

ffurfan (131), 7ieed. [Ger. (be)- 

safurh, through; throughout; in; 
by; by means of; ffurh eall, 
see eall. [Mod. Eng. th{o)r- 
ough • Chaucer has thurgh, 
Knight's Tale 362.] 



fSuTstig (57), thirsty. [Ger. 

ffus, thus (always with a verb of 
utterance in these texts) . 

ffnsend (78, 79), thousand. 

iafasend-inaelum (72), by thou- 

fSweal (47), bath. 

ffwieres (^weores) (71), trans- 

ffy, see 84, 175 ff. 

ffys, see 85. 

ffyder, see ffider. 

saCy-lses-S'e, lest. [Cf. Lat. quo- 

ffyllic (89. a), such like, this 

iSfyn (113), coerce^ restrain. 

ifiTyncean (114 ; 164. Z), seem. 
[Ger. dunkenj Mod. Eng. (nie)- 

ffyrel (47), hole. [< *9'urMl 
(16). Cf. Chaucer, Knight's 
Tale 1852; Spenser, F. Q. 1. 11. 
20, 22.] 

ffyrstan (113, 190), thirst. [Ger. 
dursten, Mod. Eng. thirst.] 

iSfyBSum, see 85. 


ufan-weard (58 ; 166. 1), upper, 

Shte (53. 1), davm, daybreak. 

un-aeUele (dd), plebeiaii, simple. 

un-a-s^cgende (61) , unspeakable, 

un-a-sw^undenlice (70), forth- 
with, imthout delay. 

un-cuiaf (58, 30) , unknown. [Mod. 
Eng. uncouth; see Chaucer, 
Knight's Tale 1639, Spenser, 
if. ^. 1. 11. 20, Shak., Tit. And. 
2. 3. 211.] 

un-cystig (57, 146), wicked. 

under, under; among. [Ger. 

under-fon (R. 110), assume; re- 
ceive, take in, entertain. 

under-standan (VI. 107), under- 

under-iJeodiies (51. 5; 144), sub- 
mission. [See underlJiedan.] 

under-iffiedaii (113), subjoin, add. 
[O-eod, by 16.] 

un-eaiaPe, with difficulty, hardly. 
[Cf. unieffe, and F. Q. 2. 1. 27.] 

un-for-cfiiaf (58), excellent. [Cf. 

un-for-wandiendlice(70), boldly , 
saucily, forwardly. 

un-ge-cnawen (62, 109), un- 

un-ge-laered (62), untaught, un- 
learned, uneducated. [See laer- 

un-ge-limp (47), mishap, ill-luck. 

un-ge-rydelice (70), suddenly, on 
a sudden. 

un-ge-sewenlic (57), invisible. 

un-ge-ffanc-full (58, 146), un- 
thankful, ungrateful. 

im-ge-i^wgerries (51. 5 ; 144) , 
wickedness, depravity. 

un-ge-wened (63) , unexpected. 
[See wenan.] 

un-ge-werged (62), unwearied. 
[See werlg.] 

un-ge-wunelic (57, 146), unusual. 
[See wunian]. 

un-ieSfe (59), difficult. [See 
uneaiaCe. ] 

un-lifiende (-lyfigende) (61), un- 
living, dead. [Cf. libban.] 

unnan (129; 159. a), grant, allow. 
[See est.] 

un-nyt (57, 155), devoid, desti- 



un-riht-Tos (58, 146), unright- 

un-riht-wisnes (51. 5; 144), un- 

un-rim (47 ; 154. a ; 142) , multi- 

un-rot (58), sorrowful, dejected. 

un-sc^9'9'ig (57, 146), innocent. 

un-scrydan (113, 162), divest. 
[See scrydan.] 

un .ofte (70), harshly, cruelly. 
[Cf. Ger. unsanft.'] 

un-stille (59), unquiet, restless. 

un-stiloes (51. 5; 144), disorder, 

un-trum (57), sicTc. 

un-trymiies (51. 5; 144), illness, 
disease, infirmity. [< untrum.] 

up, up. 

up-a-hsefednes (51. 5; 144), j)nde, 
arrogance. [Cf. apah^bban.] 

np-a-h^bban (VI. 107), lift up. 
[Cf. Chaucer, KnighVs Tale 

np-a-standan (upp-) (VI. 107), 
rise up. [Cf. Ger. auferstehen.'] 

up-a-stigan (I. 102), rise, as- 

up-gan (141), go up. [Ger. auf- 

fip-gang (43), rising. 

nplic (57, 146), upper, above. 

uppan, upon, on top of. 

uppe, up. 

ore (user) (83), our, ours. [Ger. 

urig-feigfere (59), dewy-feathered. 

urnon, see iernau. 

user, see are. 

ut, out. 

ut-a-blawan (R. 109), blow out, 
breathe out, exhale. 

titan, about, externally, on the out- 
side. [Ger. aussen.] 

ute (69), outside. 
ut-gan (141), go out. 
ut-gangan (R. 109), go out. 
uton (wuton) , let us. 


w^eccen (51. b), vigil. 

waed (47), water, billow, flood. 

w£ed (51. b), garment; rope. [Cf. 
Chaucer, KnighVs Tale 148, 
Spenser, F. Q. 2. 3. 21, Shak., 
Sonn. 76. (5, and our 'widow's 

wsedla (53), poor man, destitute 

■wgefels (43), cloak, mantle. 

wseg (43), billow, flood. [Cf. 
Chaucer, K. T. 1100, Spenser, 
F. Q. 2. 12. 4.] 

w£eg-flota {dZ), water-floater, ship. 

wael (47), slaughter. [Cf. Wal- 
halla, Walkyrie.'] 

wael-gifre (59) , greedy for slaugh- 

wael-grim (57), fierce, cruel, san- 

\rsel-hreow (58), cruel. 

wael-hreownes (51. 5; 144), cru- 

waelin, see wielm. 

wael-scel (471:*), carnage. 

wsepen (47. 1), weapon; plur. 

Avser (47), ocean. 

■wser (51. b), covenant; protection, 
care, safe-keeping. 

-vrser-faest (58, 146), covenant- 
keeping, faithful. 

wsestm (43), growth, size ; fruit. 
[Cf. weaxan, and Ger. Wachs- 
tum ; Mod. Eng. waist.'] 

waiter (47. 1, 6), water. [Ger. 
Wasser. ] 



waeter-broga (53), water terror., 
terrible loaters. 

waeter-^gesa (-^gsa) (53), dread 
of the waters^ dreadful waters. 

waeter-flod (43), water-flood. 

waeter-scipe (44. 1), body of 

wafian (118), waver. 

wald, see weald. 

waldend, see wealdend. 

wana (158), wanting^ lacking. 

wang (43), field, mead. 

wann (wQnn) (58), dark, black. 
[Mod. Eng. ivan.'] 

waroS", \varu9', see wearoff. 

>vat, see witan. 

wea (53), woe. [Cf. Ger. Weh.'] 

weald (wald) (43), weald, for- 

wealdend ( waldend) (43. G), ruler, 

w^ealh-stod (AZ), interpreter, trans- 

weall (43) , wall, rampart. [< Lat. 

w^eallan (K. 109), seethe, foam. 
[See wielm.] 

weard (43), guardian, imrden. 
[Ger. -wart.'] 

wearoSP (waro'5, waruS) (43), 
strand, shore, beach. 

wearoiaf-gewinn (wain's-) (47), 
strife of the shore, i.e. surf, 

w^earS", see w^eorSPan. 

weax (47), wax. [Ger. Wachs.~\ 

weaxan (K. 109,24), grow, be fruit- 
ful, increase. [Ger. wachsen ; 
cf. Shak., M. N. D. 2. 1. 56, 
Haml. 1. 3. 12.] 

w^^ccean (114), wake. 

w^cg (43), metal. [Mod. Eng. 
wedge; cf. Shak., Bich. III. 1. 
4. 26.] 

weder (47), weather. [Ger. Wet- 

w^eder-candel (51. 5), weather- 
candle, i.e. the sun. 

weg (43, 24), way. [Ger. Weg.;] 

w^egan (V. 106), carry. 

wel, well. 

wela (53), wealth, riches, weal. 
[Cf. Chaucer, Knight's Tale 37.] 

welig (57, 146), rich, wealthy, 
abounding. [Cf . our ' well off,' 
'well to do.'] 

w^el-willende (61), benevolent^ 
kind-hearted, generous. 

w^el-Avillendlice (70), lovingly. 

w^el-w^illendnes (51. 5; 144), gen- 
erosity, liberality. 

wen (51. 1), expectation, prospect, 
chance; wen is iff set, perhaps, 
perchance. [Ger. Wahn.] 

wenan (113; 156. g'), expect, look 
for; think, supjjose, imagine. 
[Ger. wixhnen, Mod. Eng. ween; 
cf. Shak., 1 Hen. VI. 2. 6. 88.] 

w^ndan (113), turn; return; 
translate. [Ger. wenden; cf. 
Mod. Eng. wend, went.] 

w^^nding (51. 3), rotation. 

w^nian (116), accustom, train. 

weoloc (43, 20), cockle, whelk. 

weoloc-read (58), scarlet. 

weoloc-sclell (51. b), cockle-shell. 

weolor (-ur) (51. b; 20), lip. 

weorc (47; 21. &), loork; exer- 
cise; deed; energy. [Ger. Werk.] 

weorort (weorud, werod) (47, 20), 
host. [< wer.] 

weorSPan (wyrSan) (104 ; 187 ; 
21. b), become; be; weorsaCan 
to sometimes nearly ^w^eorffan. 
[Ger. icerden ; cf. our ' woe 
worth the day.'] 

w^eorffian (118 ; 21. b), honor, ex- 
alt. [Cf. Shak., Lear 2. 2. 128.] 



weorff-full (58, 146), honorable. 

w-eoriariic (-He) (57, 146), honor- 
able; exalted. 

weorUlice (70), worthily^ honor- 

weorff-mynt (43 — orig. 51. b — 
144; 34), dignity. [<*weor9- 

weoriaf-scipe (44. 1; 143), honor, 
dignity. [Mod. Eng. worship; 
cf! Shak., W. T. 1. 2. 314, Lear 
1. 4. 288.] 

weoruld, see woruld. 

wepan (R. 109), weep. [< wop, 
by 16.] 

wer (43), man., husband. [Cf. 
Lat. vir.'] 

wer-had (43), male sex. [Cf. 

werig (57, 146), weary. 

•werod, see weorod. 

wer-ljeod (51. 6), nation. ' 

wesan (138, 187), be. 

westan, from the west. 

west-sse (43; 51. &), sea on the 

■wic (47), dwelling. [Cf. Mod. 
Eng. bailiwick; cognate with 
Lat. vicus, Gr. oIkos.'] 

wician (118), visit, lodge, sojourn. 
[< wic] 

wid (58), wide. [Ger. weit.'] 

wide (70), widely, far. 

wid-ferende (61), traveling (trav- 
eler) from a distance. 

wid-faelgrine (59), capacious, ex- 
tensive. [See faeS'm.] 

w^id-gill (h^) y extensive ; spacious. 

wid-gilnes (51. 5; 144), extent, 

wielm (wylm, wselm) (43), boil- 
ing, swelling, surging. [See 
weallan, and Mod. Eng. whelm."] 

w^ierdan (113), mar, injure. 

wif (47, 38) , wife ; woman. [Ger. 
Weib ; cf. Chaucer, Frol. 445, 
Shak., T. N. 5. 139.] 

wif-had (43) , female sex. 

wig (47), war. 

wigend (wiggend) (43. 6), war- 

wig-hus (47), war-house, tower. 

wiht (47; cf. 89. b), whit. 

wild (58), wild. [Ger. wild.'] 

wildeor (47, Z%),wild animal, loild 

willa (53), will; request; desire; 
delight. [Ger. Wille.] 

willan (wyllan) (139, 188), will, 
wish, desire. [Cf. Ger. wollen, 
Lat. velle.] 

wilnian (118), desire. [See Chau- 
cer, Knighfs Tale 751.] 

win (47), wine. [<Lat. vmwm; 
Ger. Wein.] 

wind (43), wind. [Ger. Wind.] 

windan (III. 104),^?/ a6oM^. [Ger. 
loinden. Mod. Eng. loind.] 

windig (57, 146), windy. [Ger. 

w^ine (44. 2, 4), friend. 

w^ine-ffearfende (61), needing a 
friend. [Cf. fSearf.] 

win-geard (43), vineyard. 

w^innan (IIL 104), struggle, toil. 

winstre (60), left. 

winter (43. 5) , winter (year) ; 
storm. [Ger. Winter.] 

w^interlic (57, 146), winter, win- 
try. [Ger. winterlich.] 

ysriT (43), wire. 

wis (58; 155. e), wise. [Ger. 

wisian (118), point out. [Ger. 

wislic (57, 146), wise, true. 

wist (51. b), provisions, food, 
[Cf. wesan.] 



witan (126), know. [Mod. Eng. 
to wit, Ger. wissen ; cf. Chaucer, 
A'. T. 402, Spenser, F.Q.l. 3. 6.] 

witan (I. 102), blame, censure. 
[Cf. Spenser, F. Q. 2. 12. 16.] 

wite (48), punishment, penalty, 
torture. [Cf. witan.] 

witga (53), prophet {psalmist ?). 

witodlice (uutedlice) (70), in- 
deed, truly. 

wiiS", with (hostility) ; against; 
toward; in return for. [Not 
to be confounded with mid ; cf . 

wiffer- (142). 

wiS'er-trod (47), retreat. 

w^iffer-w^inna (53), adversary. 

wiff-innan, within. 

wiff-sacan (VI. 107; 164. m), re- 

w^iff-standan (VI. 107), with- 

wiff-afingian (118), talk with, 
speak to. [Cf. Mod. Eng. hust- 
ings. ] 

w^lanc (58), proud, lordly. 

wl^ncu (51. a), pomp, splendor. 
[< w^lanc, by 16.] 

wlite (44), beauty. [Cf. and- 

wlite-beorht (58), beautiful. 

wlitig (57, 146), beautiful, comely. 

wolcen (47), cloud. [Cf. Ger. 
Wolke, Mod. Eng. welkiyi.] 

w^olde, see w^illan. 

WQnn, see wann. 

wop (43), weeping (tears). 

word (47), loord. [Ger. Wort.] 

word-hord (47, 147), treasury of 
words. [Cf. Ger. Hort.] 

word-loca (53, 147), coffer of 

worhte, see w^yrcean. 

worn (43), multitude. 

woruld (51. 1, 3; 26; 20), world; 

in ^voruld w^orulde, for ever 

and ever. 
w^oruld-bisgu (51. a), worldly 

woruld-crseft (43), secular art, 

secular occupation. 
w^oruld-ge-i3'yng3' (51. b), worldly 

honor, worldly dignity. 
woruld-lTf (47), worldly life. 
w^oruld-sped (51. b), worldly suc- 
w^r^ccean (114), awake, arouse. 
wreon (I. 102), clothe. 
wr^afian (118), support, uphold. 
wrigon, see wreon. 
wudii (45), forest, wood. 
wudu-bearu (-bearo) (43. 7), for- 
est, grove. 
wuldor (47), glory, splendor. 
w^uldor-cyning (43), kijig of 

glory, king of majesty. [Cf. 

Ps. 24. 7.] 
wuldor-dream (43), heavenly joy 

heavenly rapture (lit. glory-joy). 
wuldor- feeder (43. 8), father of 

w^uldor-spedig (57, \^Q) , glorious. 
wuldor-9'rym(m) (43), glorious 

wuldrian (118), glorify, magnify, 

wulf (43, 24), wolf [Ger. Wolf] 
wund (58), loounded, sore. [Ger. 

wundenlocc (58), curly-haired. 
w^undor (47. 1), loonder. [Ger. 

wundorlic (57, 146), wonderful. 

[Ger. wunderlich.] 
wundorlice (70) , xoondrously. 

[Cf. Chaucer, Prol. 84.] 
wundrian (118), wonder. [Ger. 




wunian (118), dwell, remain, live. 

[Ger. wohnen ; cf. Chaucer, Prol. 

888, Spenser, F. Q.2.\. 51.] 
wunung (51. 3), dioeZhwg'. [Ger. 

Wohnung ; cf. Chaucer, Prol. 

606, Spenser, F. Q. 6. 6. 13.] 
wurdon, see weorlffan. 
wuton, see uton. 
wyllan, see willan. 
vrylm, see wielm. 
wyn-sum (57, 146), winsome, 

pleasant. [Ger, ivonnesam.] 
wyn-sumlice (70), winsomely. 
wyrcean (114; 161; 184. a), 

work; do; construct, make, 

build; yield. [Cf. Ger. wirkeii, 

and Chaucer, Knighfs Tale 

wyrhta (53), craftsman, work- 
man, maker. [Cf. wyrcean; 

Mod. Eng. -icright (see Chaucer, 

Prol. 614).] 
■wyrm (43), worm. [Ger. Wtirm.l 
wyrm-cynn (47) , kind of worms. 
wyrt (51. 1), herb. [Mod. Eng. 

wort; cf. Ger. Wurz, Wurzel, 

Gewurz, and Chaucer, Nun''s 

Priest's Tale 401.] 
wyrt-ge-mang (47), spice. 

Note. — The EWS. forms of sse (p. 310) are: sing. nom. s£e, gen< 
sses, dat. sse, ace. see. Other forms are : sing. gen. dat. ssewe ; plur. 
nom. ace. sass, sse, dat. seeum, ssewum. 

wyrt-ge-m^ngnes (51. 6; 147), 

wyscan (113), wish. [Ger. wiXn- 



yean, see iecan. [li&eZ.] 

yfel f57), evil, wicked, bad. [Ger. 

yfel (47), evil. 

yfele (70), evil, wrongly. 

ymb(e), about. 

ymb- (142). 

ymb-elyppan (113), embrace. 

ymb-hon (R. 110), surround. 

ymb-hwyrft (43), compass, cir- 
cuit; orbit. 

ymb-hycgean (124), consider. 

ymb-s^llan (114), envelop; beset. 

ymb-sittan (V. 106, 142), sit 

ymb-trymman (115. a), sur- 

ymb-utan, about, around. 

yrre, see ierre. 

yiS (51. b ; 30), wave, billow, flood. 
[Cf. Lat. unda, and 30.] 

ySSr-bord (47), ship? 

yij-lad (51. b; 215), billow-road. 

yS'-lid (47, 215), ship. 



., I 

C v^,^^|; 



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