Skip to main content

Full text of "Foreign agriculture circular"

See other formats


Historic, arcliived document 



Do not assume content reflects current 
scientific knowledge, policies, or practices. 




FOREIGN AGRICULTURE CmCULAR 



UAKTED STAtes t^P^Akt Mtf^T 

FOREIGN AGRl-ClJLTt^RAU 
y/A$-HlNGTON, 0 ( 



t ^ . A R 1 



March 26, 19??*" 



TRADE IN HIDES AND SKINS IN 1956 



The United States has been a net exporter of cattle hides since 1952 
and of calf and kip skins since 1953 because of record levels of cattle 
slaughter. This has reduced U.S. iiT5)ort requirements and made our cattle 
hides and calf and kip skins coiq^etitive on the world market. 

Exports of cattle hides and calf and kip skins declined in 1956, 
reversing the trend of recent years. Shipments of cattle hides and calf 
and kip skins in 1956 were 17 and 13 percent, respectively, below the 
high level of 1955 • In?)orts of cattle hides and calf and kip skins also 
declined in 1956. 

Domestic production of other types, however, continues below U.S. 
consuiription requirements and the United States is a large net iD5)orter 
of sheep and goat skins and to a lesser extent of other hides and skins. 
Iir5)orts of goat and kid skins declined but sheep and lamb skins increased 
in 1956. Exports of sheep and lamb skins were lower but these are small 
in relation to inports. 

TABLE 1« — Hides and skins: United States foreign trade, average 1935-39 

and 19i|6-50, annual 1953-1956 



Average . ^ 

i?j5T3? ' ' ■ 



1951 



1955 




Cattle hides: 
In^jorts. . ^ 
Exports. . . 
Net inqports. 
Net e3q)orts. 

Calf and kip: 
Iii5)orts, . , 
E:^orts. . , 
Net iit5>orts. 
Net exports. 

Goat and kid: 
Iirports 1/ . 

Sheep and lambs 
Inqports. , . 
Exports. . . 
Net iag)orts. 



1,000 
pieces 

2,580 

533 
2,0W 



3,181 

555 
2,626 



21,057 
2/1,230 



1,000 
pieces 

1,872 
868 
l,00ii 



1,265 
593 
672 



143,260 : 36,639 



696 



: 1,000 
pieces 

2,381 
1,926 

1,90U 
1,580 
321 



31,901 



2ii,5J5 : 25,Oii9 



I4I9 



— { 23,61i9 : 2U.63Q 



1,000 
pieces 

m 

5,178 



1,189 
2,567 

1,378 
25,231 

20,586 
586 
20,000 



1,000 
pieces 



3Ui 
5,852 



ii,735 : 5,508 



1,1^39 
3,579 

2,110 

28,50it 

22,575 
81i7 
21s 728 



pieces 



3a 

li, 9U0 

mmtm 

14,599 

1,196 
3,107 

1,911 

25,763 

29,197 
807 
28^690 



1/ United States e3Q)ort8 are negligible. 2/ 
reported in pounds only. 



1939 only - 1935 to 1938 



- 2 - 



U«S« E3^orts 

Exports of hides and skins from the United States declined in 1956 
for the first time in several years. Shipments of cattle hides declined 
from 5»9 million pieces in 1955 to h*9 million in 1956^ calf and kip skins 
from 3«6 million to 3»1 million and sheep and lamb skins from 8i47,000 to 
807,000. Exports of sheep and lamb skins are relatively \miii5)ortant when 
coir5)ared with ir^orts. 

The price of United States* hides has been relatively stable but de- 
clined slightly in the closing months of 1956. Another record cattle 
slaughter in 1956 should keep U.S. hide prices competitive in the world 
market in 1957. Prices of calf and kip skins were higher in 1956 and were 
at the highest level since 1953 • 



TABLE 2.— Hides and skins: Prices at Chicago, annual averages 19W-56, 
monthly averages January 1956 - February 1957 





: Northern : 


: Light native: 


Heavy native 




: calf skins: 


Kip skins i 


;cow hides t 


steer hides 




: Gents per : 


Cents per 1 


» 


Cents per : 


Cents per 


Annual: 


: pound : 


pound 


> 


pound ; 


pound 


: 






19ii7 


: 78.0 : 


1;6.7 




28.7 : 


27.3 


19li8 


: 60.8 : 


39.3 i 




28.1^ : 


27.7 


191^9 


: 60.2 : 


hh.2 




25.3 : 


22.6 


1950 


: 69.7 : 


52.9 




29.1 : 


26.8 


1951 


: 63.6 : 


50.8 




3ii.2 s 


31.0 


1952 


: ^•7 : 


33.5 . 




18.1 5 


15.0 


1953 


s 50o5 : 


3li.7 




17.8 : 


lii.9 


1951i 


: 38.3 : 


25.7 




lh.3 t 


11.7 


1955 


: hh.h : 


29.3 




13.5 : 


12.h 


1956 


: 50.6 : 


33.2 




16.5 : 


12.U 


Monthly - 1956: 












January . • • 


i 51.1 : 


33.0 ; 




18.6 i 


11.3 


February . . • 


: 50.0 : 


31.9 




17.9 : 


10.9 


March . • • • 


t 52.0 : 


36.3 


I 


16.6 : 


11.0 


April . . • • 


: Sh.9 : 


39.0 




17.9 : 


12.2 


May • • • • • 


: 51.0 : 


3U.8 


> 


16.5 : 


12.1 


June* • • • • 


s 51.0 : 


33.0 : 


16.0 : 


12.8 


July. • 0 • 0 


: 51.0 1 


33.5 




16.0 t 


13.3 


August. • • e 


: 50.2 t 


30.0 


\ 


16.0 i 


13.6 


September . • 


: 50.3 : 


33.3 


I 


17.7 : 


lii.6 


October • • • 


: ii9.8 : 


31.U 


I 


15.5 : 


13.2 


November* • • 


: 1;8.5 t 


31.8 


■ 
> 


15.5 : 


12.5 


December. • • 


t hl.9 t 


29.9 


5 


lh.2 t 


10.8 


1957: 


1 


\ 






January . . • 


: ii3.8 I 


27.0 : 


ih.s ! 


10.0 


February. • • 


: 2i5.7 : 


28.9 J 


I 


15.0 t 


9.0 



- 3 - 



Japan, Canada, and Western Europe are the recipients of a large pro- 
portion of U.S. exports of cattle hides and calf and kip skins. Ejcports 
to Japan continued to rise in 1956 but shipments to Western Europe fell 
sharply. Japan purchased over one-fourth of U.S. cattle hide exports and 
one-third of calf and kip e^qports in 1956. The decline in shipments to 
Western Europe, despite increased cattle slaughter and relatively favor- 
able hide prices, reflects a slackening of demand and an increased supply 
in Argentina. 

TABLE 3 •—United States: Exports of hides and skins by country of 
destination, average 1935-39, annual 1953-56 



Country of 
destination 



Cattle hides: 

Japan. . . 

Canada « • 

Mexico • . 

West Germany 

Netherlands 

United Kingdom 

Yugoslavia 

Belgium. . 

Others • . 
Total. . 
Calf and kip: 

Jap£Ln« • . 

Canada . . 

West Germany 

Netherlands 

United Kingdom 

Belgium. . . 

Italy. . , . 

Others • • • 
Total. , . 
Sheep and lamb 

Canada ... 

United Kingdom 

Mexico • , 

France . , 

Belgium. , 

Others • « 
Total. , 



2/ 



Average 



1953 



:3/ 1,009 
80 
11 
38 
11 
81 

Tim: 




1951 



1,000 
pieces 

880 
386 
206 
760 
l,2l43 
ii31 
319 
133 
820 



2,381 1 5A7F 



1955 



1,000 
pieces 

1,251 

696 
778 
717 
783 
388 
125 
137 
977 



757 
313 
53 
123 
89 
62 

123 

60 

13B0 



3h3 
12 

27 
10 
27 



656 
3I49 
3h2 
SIS 
2hO 
106 
136 
223 



362 
60 
19 
79 
0 
66 



857 
651 
73i! 
ii80 
363 
76 

377 



311 
15U 
215 
90 
7 

67 



y less than 500. 2/ Includes goat and kid* }J For 1939© 



- h - 



U,S« IiEports 

United States* iirports of cattle hides in 1956 primarily from Canada 
and Argentina totaled 3i4l,000 pieces, slightly below 1955* Trade with 
Canada in cattle hides moves both ways across the border, however, ex- 
ports to Canada in 1956 were more than three times the volume of ii!5)orts» 

lD5)orts of cattle hides have been very low in the past five years in 
relation to 1935-39 and 19i;6-50 averages. The record levels of cattle 
slaughter in the United States have greatly reduced our requirements for 
foreign hides. Increased conpetition from leather substitutes along with 
larger domestic siqpplies has resulted in a sharp drop in hide prices since 
195l« United States* iii5)orts of calf and kip skins in 1956 largely from 
Canada smd New Zealand, were 17 percent lowei than in 1955. Inports of 
calf and kip skins have been fairly stable since the war but are consider- 
ably below prewar levels. 

Inports of goat and kid skins declined from 28.5 million pieces in 1955 
to 25»8 million in 1956. Principal s\:5)pliers of goat and kid skins are 
India, Pakistan, Brazil, Nigeria, British East Africa and Ethiopia. 

Sheep and lamb skins' iirports rose sharply from 22.6 million pieces 
in 1955 to 29.5 million in 1956, the highest since 1916. Domestic slaughter 
of sheep and lambs was lower in 1^56 resulting in greater inports. 



TABLE h» — United States t Iitports of hides and skins for consmnption, 
by country of origin, average 1935-39, I9I46-50, annual 1953-56 



Country of origin 


t Average t 


1953 


, 1951* 


. 1955 


lypC) 






1 


IjOOO 


. i,000 


I 1,000 


t ^'^^^ 




fPieces 


pieces , 


pieces 


( pieces 


, pieces 


1 PlQCQB 


Cattle hides t 














Canada ••«••• 


I 550 , 


I4I9 ! 


303 


i 381 


J 297 


210 




t 29 , 


77 , 


0 


. 1 


: 0 


t ^ 




1 Ik , 


29 t 


11* 


: V 


t 0 


1 0 




t 23 , 


7 t 


11* 


{ 3 


t 5 


: y 


Germany, West* • • 


1 X 






: 7 


t 11 


s H 




t 17 , 


16 I 


11 


t 3 


s k 


I 5 


Netherlands* • • • 


t 5 , 


2 , 


7 


s 1 


I 2 


t k 


Switzerland. • • • 


1 7 t 


1 , 


13 


: 7 


X 5 


t 3 




t 22 : 


11 t 


71 


t 27 


1 y 






1 1,309 , 


712 , 


3 


, 1 


: 3 


t 99 




1 hOO , 


216 . 


5 


: 1 


I 0 






: 55 , 


65 : 


0 


t 0 


I 0 


t 1 




t 31 : 


16 i 


0 


t 0 


t 0 


t 0 


New Zealand* • • • 


: hP , 


Ih J 


0 


i 0 


I 13 


, 3 




t 78 , 


287 I 


11* 


: 11 


t 1* 


, 5 






1,872 , 




: 1*1*3 


: 310* 


t 314I 


Calf and kipskinss 
















t 39h t 


3ij2 ! 


777 


: 585 


t 556 


1 398 




: h t 


6 : 


38 


: 50 


t 36 


t 7 




t 178 , 


1*2 : 


0 


t 0 


t 0 


t 0 




: 5U8 , 


80 , 


235 


t 123 


t 11*6 


t 131 




t 19 : 


33 : 


1j5 


: 5 


t 93 


t 1*8 


Netherlands* * • • 


t 76 , 


16 t 


39 


: 18 


t 88 


1 k9 


Noirway *•*••• 


: 103 : 


9 t 


Q 
0 


t 0 


t 1 


t 0 




I 92 , 


57 t 


309 


I 119 


I 11*0 


t 53 


Switzerland* * * • 


: 25 , 


10 : 


39 


t 11* 


I 20 


s 18 




: 67 t 


168 t 


129 


t 61* 


I kl 


: k3 




I 156 : 


35 : 


0 


t y 


i 0 


t 0 


New Zealand* • * • 


t ii71 I 


11j9 I 


201 


I 200 


I 238 


t 301 


Other* •**•*• 


t 1,0148 : 


316 , 


112 


J n 


: 72 


: 




: 3,181 : 


1,^65 : 




t 1>109 


t i,W 


t 1,1V6 


Goat and kidskins: 


t 3 












Haiti, Rep* of • • 


; 385 : 


67k i 


59k 


: 1*1*7 


i 537 


1 605 




t 0 1 


775 1 


810 


: 61 


t 60 


t 76 




,13,160 : 


10,916 t 


8,97ii 


t 7,1*01 


I 7,655 


t 5,607 




: 0 s 


2,009 s 


1,912 


t 2,097 


t 3,009 


: 2,393 


Argentina* * * * * 


: 2,523 t 


1,232 : 


955 


I 536 


t 601 


1 630 


Brazil ****** 


t ii,172 . 


3,028 , 


i*,055 


t 2,557 


: 2,693 


t 3,121 




: 837 1 


757 t 


579 


1 770 


: 852 


t 816 




t 812 : 


573 i 


663 


1 379 


t 282 


, 102 


Br. East Africa* • 


r 726 : 


2,13k I 


2,702 


: 961 


t 2,307 


t 2,069 


Br. Somaliland • • 


0 X 


95k i 


693 


t li22 


i IjlO 


t k20 




t 682 s 


3,081* , 


2,81,2 


I 2,707 


: 3,131* 


t 2,731 


Italian Africa • • 


t 133 : 


679 : 


953 


: 0 


: 0 


s 0 






1*,037 I 


2,880 


t 2,095 


I 3,329 


J 3,1*29 


Un. of So. Africa* 


t 902 t 


980 1 


71*8 


: 568 


: 1*1*6 


t 370 


Other 




1*,807 : 


2,514* 


X 1*,230 


1 3,189 


t 3,391* 






36,639 : 


31,901* 


: ^5, '^31 


t ^0,501* 


1 55^?6^^ 


Sheep and lambs: 


: : 












United Kingdom * * 


: l,ia9 : 


1,216 : 


1,277 


1 707 


J 965 


! 1,213 




t h t 


3I16 t 


2,001* 


: 1,029 


: 1,232 


t 3,1*99 




I h,030 t 


1*,175 : 


2,1*95 


I 567 


t 521* 


1 81*0 


Brazil 


i 1,113 : 


77 : 


30 


, 91*1* 


: 1,100 


t 1,235 


Un, of So. Africa* 


: 1,098 s 


316 I 


15 


t 0 


t 6k 


t 172 






3,509 1 


2,729 


t 1,320 


: 1,002 


, 1,268 


New Zeal and. ... 


: 8,699 : 


11,087 i 


Il*,lj0i4 


: 13,306 


» ll*,320 


t 16,350 




: 3,1*91 1 


3,819 : 


2,095 


: 2,713 


I 3,368 


t k,920 




057 : 


2kUk^ : 


25!oi,9 


: ^o!586 


» ^2 575 


t 29 Ml 



y Less than 500 pieces. 



- 6 - 



Argentine Exports 

Argentina regained its position as the leading exporter of cattle 
hides and calfskins in 1956. Total e:q)orts of 9.7 million pieces were 
28 percent above the 7»6 million shipped in 1955. This increase was 
stimulated by a 20 percent increase in slaughterings and a revision of ex- 
change rates. United States' exports of cattle hides, calf and kip skins 
were 8.0 million pieces in 1956 coirpared with 9»ii million pieces in 1955* 

Argentina was especially effective in regaining some of the Western 
European market previously lost to the United States. Exports to the 
Netherlands, West Germany, United Kingdom and Belgium increased from 3.1 
million pieces in 1955 to ^proximately li.2 million in 1956. Ejqports 
from the United States to these countries during the same period declined 
from 3 #7 million to 2.1 million pieces. 

The domestic price of Argentine hides has been considerably higher 
than the price of United States hides, but a reduction of "aforo" values 
(the amount of foreign exchange earnings >riiich must be converted at the 
official exchange rate) in July and again in November 1956 has made it 
profitable for exporters to buy high and sell cheap. Any foreign exchange 
earnings above the "aforo" value are converted in the free market at a 
much higher rate. The rise in value of the free market dollar was chiefly 
responsible for the rise in domestic hide prices in the closing months of 
1956. "Aforo" values range from 50 percent of the world price to 80 percent 
for the high grade Argentine hides. 

TABLE 5.— Argentina: Exports of cattle hides and calfskins l/> 
annual 1936 and 1953-56 



Country of 
destination 



1938 



1953 



195U 



1955 



1956 



Number 

10ii,258 
188,278 
165,096 
2681888 



Wumber 



Austria. ... 
Belgium. . . • 

Chile 

Czechoslovakia 
Denmark* * • • 
United Kingdom 
Finland. • • • 
France • o • • 
Germany, Western 
Greece . • • < 
Netherlands, i 
Hungaryo • • . 

Italy 

Japan. . . « • 
Norway • • • • 

Peru 

Poland ♦ • • • 
Roumania • . • 
Spain. . . . • 
Sweden . e . • 
Switzerland. • 
U.S.S.H. . • • 
Yugoslavia • • 
United States. 
Other countries 
Total. . • • 



I 61U,670 
I li8L321 

; 4m 

110,631 
l,75Ll8l 

2l4Tl,,319 
2/ 




Number 

8,668 
i^Jo59 
1^2,106 

m% 

1,738,255 

111,332 
515 160 
216,232 

20,725 
56^786 

lfOO,371 



Number i Number 




7,l93,055 : 6,628,291 



108,3142 

1,382,720 

2hS,9hh 
1,102,605 
27,601 

50,132 
23,180 

iiii6,75l 
235J012 

16; 252 

333^253 
91,392 
0 

207^3 ^). i 



0 

119,1^98 
iiUO,197 
132, 70L 

1481,905 
203;i79 
2^,263 
l,03l4,91g 

I,ii61;,5l0 

123,125 
736^536 
I6i4;069 
ii2,336 



Am 

1,116^205 
2l6,5l4l 
8,500 

7#^^ 



7,029,2< 



mi 

l,51|t855 

2,09^,788 

222, 85U 
1,079,336 
117,912 



f 

1,501^618 
181,957 
90,923 
521^ 



I 9,727,133 



1/ Includes kipskins. , 2/ If any, included in "Other countries". 3/ In- 
751uded with Sweden, y "Scandinavian countries, y Includes Canada. 
SaSS^istMfi'^Sos®^^^^ Exportaciones de Frutas del Paisj 1938 data from 




F0REI(3N AGRICULTURE CIRCULAR 

WASHINGTO-N, D C 



^ 2-57 March 26, I957 

TE^ADE IN HUES AUD SKINS IN I956 



CORRECTION 

The above titled circular carries the wrong code symbol 
(FW 2-57) in the upper left comer. Please correct your 
copy to read FIM 2-57, 



4