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History of the 102^ 

CMixdfMi ^ 
Infxnfry 1 
Bxfelion. - 




LIEUT.-COL. J. W. WARDEN, C.B.E., D.S.O. 



FROM B. C. TO BAISIEUX 



BEING THE NARRATIVE HISTORY 
OF THE 



102nd Canadian Infantry 
Battalion 



BY 



L. McLeod Gould, M.S.M. Croix de Guerre 

(B.A. Cantab) 

Late Sergeant, Headquarters Staff, 102nd Canadian Infantry Battalion 



To the memory of those braoe members of the 102nd, Canadian Infantry 

Battalion who laid down their lives for ihe Cause of Liberty and 

Justice this book, is reverently dedicated 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



1919 

THOS. R. CUSACK PRESSES 

VICTORIA. B. C. 



^< 



/ 




NOV 13 I960 



HE RUNNERS 

By L. McLEOD GOULD. 

Inspired by the Runners of the 102nd Canadian Infantry Battalion. 
(Reprinted from "Canada in Khaki," 1917.) 

When soldiers are ready to drop with fatigue, 
And only an Adjutant's brain can intrigue 
A vital despatch to his C.O.'s colleague, 
Who are the boys who can still stay a league? 

The Runners. 

When wires are broken and pigeons won't fly, 
When shrapnel and bullets are raining on high, 
When hell's on the earth and earth's in the sky, 
Who are the boys who will get through or die? 

The Runners. 

Then here's to all soldiers of every degree, 
Be they horsemen, or gunners, or stout infantry, 
But specially to those who appeal most to me, 
Who tackle their work with a semblance of glee, 

The Runners. 




AUTHORS PREFACE 

N THE following pages no attempt has been made to 
deal with the strategy or tactics involved in the many 
actions in which the 102nd Battalion took part. I have 
endeavoured throughout to keep within the limits of my 
title and to write a Narrative History only, tracing the 
course of the Battalion from its earliest stages in British 
Columbia to its last action at Baisieux, and affording, as it were, sign- 
posts on the route, marking by-paths of reminiscence down which each 
man, according to his length of service, can wander at his will. 

I have written this book from the point of view of my own rank; 
in Canada and for seven months in Flanders I was a Private; after 
that period I attained the dignity of a Sergeant. The opinions freely 
expressed in the subsequent pages are, in consequence, those of an Other 
Rank, and, though entirely personal, reflect, I confidently believe, the 
opinions of the large majority of Other Ranks. I have tried to avoid 
casting personal reflections, but T have not hesitated to indulge in 
criticism of the system where such criticism seems Well founded. 
Above all, I have studiously refrained from that fulsome adulation of 
men in authority which so often detracts from the value of an other- 
wise admirable publication. 

As Regimental Diarist during the whole of the period from 
August 12th, 1916. to the day of Demobilization, T am in a position to 
guarantee the accuracy of all dates and places mentioned, and trust 
that the correctness of the record will compensate my readers for all 
that they will find lacking in interest and literary style. 

I fear that the Nominal Roll at the end of this volume will be 
found to contain many errors and some omissions, but it represents an 
honest endeavour to supply a complete Roll containing all the essential 
information at my disposal. T shall at all times be pleased to furnish 
any information in my power to those making enquiries of a detailed 
and personal nature. As T am in possession of duplicates of most of 
the Battalion Records T am probably better equipped than any other 
person to answer questions of such a character. T shall also be very 
Rlad to receive any corrections with respect to casualties or addresses 
which may lead to subsequent editions being more perfect. 

In conclusion, T wish to acknowledge the courtesy of the Editors 
of The Vancouver Daily Province and The Vancouver Daily World in 
according me permission to reproduce in part articles which appeared 
in their columns during the progress of the war, and to all those 
members of the Battalion who. by their sympathy and advice, have 
contributed largely towards the production of this volume, I extend 
my sincere thanks. 

L. McLEOD GOULD. 
P.O. Box 721, Victoria, B.C., October 1st, 1919. 



- Tlhe *S©ng| off tlte *Spi£ 

(Sung to the tune of "John Brozvn's Body") 

% 

We're Warden's weary warriors, a'drilling on the sand. 
And paying out a buck a day to help the bloomin' band. 
But what they do with all the cash, we don't quite understand, 

As we go marching on. 

♦ 

The Colonel forms us up in line and hands us lots of bull: 
"You are the finest bunch of men that trigger e'er did pull." 
On beef and beans and bread and jam we keep our bellies full, 
As we go marching on. 

The sand gets in our blankets, and the wind blows chill and drear. 
If life was dull at Comox, it's a damned sight duller here, 
You have to. go a mile or so to get a glass of beer, 
As we go marching on. 

Chorus : 
We are Warden's weary warriors, 
We are Warden's weary warriors, 
We are Warden's weary warriors, 
The gallant One-O-Two. 





CHAPTER I. 

Early Experiences in Canada — The Spit, Comox, B.C. — 
The First of Many Moves. 

HE official date for the mobilization of the 102nd 
Canadian Infantry Battalion, whose adventures in 
Canada, England, France and Belgium during the 
days of The Great War it is the object of this book 
to chronicle, is given as November 3rd, 1915, on 
which date authority was issued to Lieut. -Colonel 
John Weightman Warden, formerly of St. John's, N.B., but then of 
Vancouver, B.C., to raise a battalion for service overseas, this 
battalion to be raised in Northern British Columbia and to be 
styled the 102nd (Comox-Atlin) Overseas Battalion. A newspaper 
story, which may or may not have some foundation in fact, states 
that the inauguration of the unit was the outcome of a wager laid 
between Mr. H. Clements, M.P. for Comox-Atlin, and one of his 
colleagues in the Federal House, the latter having jestingly chal- 
lenged him to produce a unit from his barren constituency. If 
there be any truth in the yarn it certainly affords an exccMent 
example of the adage that from small beginnings great things 
do grow. 

The officer to whom this commission was entrusted was a 
veteran of experience. A native of New 'Brunswick, he had 
enlisted in the Canadian Contingent at the time of the Great 
Boer War, exchanging later into the South African Constabulary 
and serving continuously in South Africa thereafter until March, 
1906, when he returned to Canada. On his arrival he felt the 
call of the West and migrated to Vancouver where he engaged 
in the business of general broker and real estate dealer, satisfying 
his military propensities by first enlisting in the 6th (D.C.O.R) 
Regiment and later, in May, 1911, taking out a commission in 
the same unit. l.t.-Col. Warden claims to be the first man in 
British Columbia, if not the first in the Dominion, to volunteer 
for service in the war just concluded, as he submitted his name 
to the Volunteer List on the very day on which Austria declared 
war on Serbia. However that may be, he crossed over with 
the First Contingent and as a captain in the 7th Battalion was 



usly wounded at Ypres on April 24th, 1915. He was invalided 
to England and on his discharge from hospital, during con- 
valescence, came back to Canada on furlough. It was whilst he 
was in Canada on this furlough that he was granted the com- 
mission of Lieutenant-Colonel and given the authority to raise 
the new battalion. 

Having due regard to the type of men from amongst whom 
the new recruits were to be sought, no better choice of a 
Commanding Officer could have been made. There was plenty 
of material available, but it lay underneath the hard exterior of 
the average British Columbia fisherman, miner and logger. A 
polished officer of the old school would have made no headway 
in his recruiting campaigns, but "Honest John" Warden appealed 
immensely to these men; he had done plenty of roughing it" 
himself in his life; he had served as a private; he had been to the 
front and been wounded, and, above all, there was absolutely no 
"swank" about him. To the very end of his career with the 102nd 
Battalion the original members of the battalion always referred 
to him in terms of genuine affection. 

Immediately on receipt of his commission Colonel Warden 
set out on. the first of many recruiting journeys throughout the 
length and breadth of the Province and opened up recruiting 
stations at central points. The most important of these was in 
Vancouver where Lieut. R. G. H. Brydon was placed in charge; 
Lieut. J. F. Brandt undertook similar duties at Prince Rupert, 
Lieut. J. C. Halsey at Prince George, Lieut. F. Lister at Cran- 
brook. Lieut. J. H. Grant at Nelson, and Sergt. A. A. F. Calland 
at Vernon. 

As soon as this preliminary work had been accomplished 
whereby recruiting could be commenced without loss of time, it 
became necessary to decide on a suitable location for Battalion 
Headquarters and for a mobilization camp. In view of the fact 
that the Battalion to be raised was to be known as the Comox- 
Atlin Battalion it was felt that mobilization and training should be 
carried out within the precincts of that constituency, and after 
much deliberation it was decided to form the camp on Goose 
Spit, Comox. As this was the first home of the 102nd it is but 
fitting here to give a somewhat detailed description of this camp. 

Comox is a small sea-port lying some 150 miles North from 
Victoria on the East coast of Vancouver Island. It is a port of 
considerable importance, lying as it does close to the coal fields 
of Cumberland and possessing an excellent harbour. It is a 
regular port of call for steamers plying from Vancouver and 
Nanaimo; moreover, it is but three miles distant from Courtenay. 
the northern railhead of the E. & N. Railway. On the east the 
harbour is protected by a mushroom-shaped tongue of land con- 
nected with the coast by a narrow neck of sand; this is Goose 
Spit. In the days when the Imperial Navy used Esquimalt as a 



10 

Pacific base this Spit had been used as a range and traces of 
such use were still in evidence at the time when the 102nd settled 
down for training. But much had to be done before this took 
place, and, as will be seen later, great hardships had to be endured 
by the first-comers before the camp was in readiness to receive 
the bulk of the battalion. 

Battalion Headquarters were established in Victoria where 
close connection could be maintained with Headquarters, M. D. 
Xo. XL, which were situated at Work Point, and offices were 
opened on the ground floor of the Union Bank Building, View 
Street. The officer who had the responsibility of conducting the 
early work of the* battalion at Headquarters was Major L. M. 
Hagar, an officer of great experience in military routine work, and 
within two or three days he had enrolled a complete clerical staff 
headed by Sgt. J. L. Lloyd as Orderly Room Sergeant, under 
whom were Ptes. J. C. Howden, H. Hudson, L. McL. Gould. J. L. 
Campbell and F. E. W. Smith. During these early days Major 
Hagar acted as Colonel Warden's personal representative in 
Victoria. He was soon joined by Capt. H. B. Scharschmidt whom 
Colonel Warden had selected as his Adjutant. Capt. Scharschmidt 
had already seen service in Flanders, having proceeded overseas 
with the 7th Battalion and taken part in the bloody fray of the 
2nd Battle of Ypres, where he was badly gassed. His restor- 
ation to health found him keenly eager to go back to France and 
he welcomed the opportunity afforded him by his old comrade in 
arms. Prior to the outbreak of the war he had had five years' 
experience as a commissioned officer of the 6th (D.C.O.R. - ) Regi- 
ment in Vancouver. A third officer to report for duty at Battalion 
Headquarters was Lieut. R. D. Forrester, whose previous training 
had been carried out in the C. A. S. C. at Vancouver. Lieut. For- 
rester undertook the duties of Assistant Adjutant. A few weeks 
after the opening of these Headquarters Major C. B. Worsnop 
reported to take over the duties of Second-in-Command, though 
he was not officially gazetted as such until the unit left for England. 
Headquarters establishment was further augmented by the appoint- 
ment of Lieut. T. P. O'Kelly, an experienced ex-transportation 
official of the Hudson's Bay Co., as Transport Officer, and W. H. 
Long of the Vancouver Police Force, an ex-Hussar with a long 
Indian Service record, as Regimental Sergeant-Major. 

In the meantime both the Battalion Pay Department and the 
Quartermaster's Department had been organized and established 
in Victoria. Capt. J. A. Kirkpatrick, of Prince Rupert, had 
received the appointment of Paymaster and chosen as his Sergeant 
W. F. Beak, who hailed from the same city. With Ptes. J. Wilson 
and W. Paterson the Pay Office was complete and carried on work 
in the same office as the Battalion Orderly Room. Capt. F. 
Stead, late of the C. A. S. C. in Vancouver, was Quartermaster 
and he brought as his Quartermaster-Sergeant G. S. Hutchings 



!1 

wlm nad already seen active service in South Africa and had 
transferred to the 102nd Bn. from the C. A. S. C. Ptes. O. L. 
McDougal, G. S. Clarke and W. W. Bechtel completed the 
Quartermaster's establishment and the stores were opened on 
Bastion Street. 

So much for the organization of Headquarters in Victoria, 
where routine work was carried on until the second week in 
March. In addition to the registering of all recruits whose papers 
were forwarded from the recruiting stations mentioned above, an 
active recruiting campaign was maintained in Victoria itself and 
Sgt. G. B. Thompson, who also acted as Provost-Sergeant, did 
yeoman service in meeting all boats and conducting likely candi- 
dates first to Headquarters and then to the office of Capt. A. E. 
McMicking, who acted as Battalion Medical Officer in the city. 

Meanwhile recruiting was going on merrily throughout the 
Province. In the majority of cases where men were enlisted in the 
vicinity of any of the interior recruiting stations they took 
advantage of the clause in the Act and remained billeted in their 
own homes on a subsistence allowance, reporting daily to their 
local headquarters for drill and preliminary training. Others were 
billeted in local quarters; but where this practice did not prevail 
the men were forwarded direct to the mobilization camp. For 
those who shared this fate the winter of 1915-16 will always have 
many bitter memories. Frankly, conditions at Comox and 
Courtenay were deplorable. The men were told in all good faith 
to take nothing with them; that clothing, blankets and almost 
all the luxuries of home would be waiting for them on arrival; the 
half-hearted suggestion of a moving-picture proprietor that he 
might open up a show in camp in the future was exaggerated 
until the recruit believed that he would find the white lights of 
Broadway twinkling on the Spit. And when the men arrived by 
ones and twos, or in parties, they found — nothing, not even clothes. 
There was a "hold-up" somewhere and it was a long and tedious 
job to pry loose the fingers that were holding so fast to the 
supplies, and all the time, throughout the bitterest winter that had 
been known for years on Vancouver Island, the newly recruited 
men. who had deliberately left behind them warm clothing, were 
starved with cold. The fact was, so many battalions were recruit- 
ing at one and the same time that as fast as supplies reached the 
centres of population they were seized for the men on the spot, 
and the poor fellows in isolated Comox had to share the fate of 
all those who are out of sight. At least, that is the most charitable 
explanation. No blame attaches to the Quartermaster's Depart- 
ment of the unit; Capt. Stead made frantic efforts to supply 
deficiencies, but he could not create what was not there and 

■ lies continued to go forward in exasperatingly small quantities. 

However, clothing or no clothing, the nucleus of a battalion 
carried on at Comox and Courtenay. Major G. Rothnie, of 



•12 

Kamloops, who had served in the Canadian Contingent during the 
Boer War and had also seen service with the First Contingent 
in Flanders, whence he had returned wounded in the foot, was in 
command, and with him was associated Capt. A. T. Johnston, 
another South African veteran. Sgt. Harold Brown acted as local 
orderly room sergeant and assisting him were Ptes. F. Field and 
F. du Jardin. These five comprised what might be called Advanced 
Headquarters. At first lack of accommodation in Comox made 
it necessary to divide the men into two companies, one being 
stationed in CourtAiay and the other in Comox, but this arrange- 
ment was found to be unsatisfactory and as soon as possible the 
Spit itself was made habitable and the larger portion of the men 
were housed under canvas, the balance being quartered in the 
Hotel Port Augusta, Comox, which was requisitioned as a sort 
of receiving station. 

It is not easy to describe the hardships which these pioneers 
of the Spit camp had to undergo. A reference has already been 
made to the severity of the weather; the snowfall was phenomenal 
and on more than one occasion the men were called out of their 
beds to clear the roof- before the weight of snow brought it down 
on their heads. Moreover, before the Spit could be used, it was 
necessary to lay a water pipe from a spring on the mainland across 
the shallow bay formed by the curve of the peninsula. To do 
this the men had to work up to their thighs in water, and that in 
December and January. Buildings had to be erected for mess- 
halls and recreation rooms; a bath-house had to be constructed, 
kitchens made and all the other appurtenances of a military camp. 
The first building erected for a mess-hall collapsed, partly owing to 
snow but more largely because the small body of Engineers on 
the spot who were responsible for its design were more competent 
in theory than in practice. Colonel Warden pleaded that his 
recruits, who were all practical, out-door men, be allowed to go 
ahead and make a camp for themselves, but Red Tape ruled that 
if the Government supplied the material, it should also supply the 
brains; unfortunately the Government was only in a position to 
supply heads. In addition to this kind of work the troops at Comox 
rendered enormous benefits to the people of the district in helping 
them to clear away the snow which in every locality was proving 
a very real menace to safety. 

And so the winter passed. That it passed without any fatality 
from disease occurring was no credit to responsible authority: 
it was merely a striking evidence of the physical fitness and calibre 
of the men. That it passed without any outward sign of discon- 
tent was a tribute to the patriotism of the rank and file and the 
tact and sympathy of the officers on the spot. That Colonel 
Warden could frequently visit these men and receive a hearty 
welcome was in itself sufficient proof that they never blamed him 
for their straits, but realized that he was doing all he could to 



13 

overcome the apathy which was reacting with such severity upon 
the early members of the unit. 

With the coming of spring conditions improved. Early in 
March Headquarters moved up from Victoria and after a brief 
sojourn in Port Augusta were established in a large marquee on 
the Spit itself. The men from Vancouver, Nelson and Vernon had 
already arrived. Soon after, the men from Prince Ruperr and 
Prince George marched in under the leadership of Lieut. J. F. 
Brandt; so numerous was this party that it was formed into a 
company by itself and No. 2 Co. later known as "B" Co., was the 
rallying point for all the hardy men from that district. A notable 
incident took place on the occasion of the arrival of the Prince 
Rupert men. Capt. J. S. Matthews happened to be the senior 
officer on the Spit when they marched in and he welcomed them 
by calling for cheers in the following words: "North British 
Columbians, three cheers for the men from Prince Rupert." That 
was the first occasion on which the battalion had been styled 
"North British Columbians" and from that date onwards the title 
has held, being adopted in place of the words "Comox-Atlin." 
Thereafter the battalion was known as the 102nd (North British 
Columbians) Overseas Battalion, and the title obtained on the 
battalion crest. Still a little later and Lieut. F. Lister appeared 
at the head of his Cranbrook men. A volume could be written on 
the difficulties with which this officer, destined to be our second 
Colonel and to lead the battalion home again, had had to contend; 
suffice it to say that only by an admirable exhibition of tact and 
firmness had he been enabled to keep for the 102nd Battalion those 
men whom he had personally enlisted and whom local jealousies 
had tried to wean from the battalion of their first choice. 

Training now began in earnest. With the severity of winter 
passed, it would have been hard to find a healthier spot for the 
location of a training camp. Practically surrounded by the sea, 
swept by the four winds of heaven, with a dry sandy soil, the Spit 
proved up on all that its advocates had had to say for it. During 
the whole of our three months' sojourn there as a battalion there 
was but one fatal casualty, and that was due to a stroke of apoplexy 
for which the climate could not be blamed. There was an 
epidemic of measles, but it carried with it no harmful after-effects. 
With that exception, the Battalion Medical Officer, Capt, N. M. 
McNeil of Prince Rupert, had nothing more serious to contend 
with than occasional colds and inevitable cuts and bruises. As 
the spring wore on to summer first-class bathing was obtainable 
off the end of the Spit, and there was ample room for all kinds 
of outdoor games. But life was dull on the Spit: there's no 
denying it. We had no rifles, except for a dozen or so Ross rifles 
which were periodically exhibited on wet days by some enthusiastic 
sergeant with confidence in his vocal chords and his ability in the 
art of demonstration. The only training we could undergo 



14 

drill in one of its four forms, section, platoon, company and 
battalion — and the greatest of these is platoon — and route march- 
ing. There was no recreation except what we could make for 
ourselves. The people of Comox and Courtenay, though they 
must have benefited enormously from the presence of a battalion 
in their midst, failed to take advantage of the opportunities 
afforded to men of enterprise and offered nothing in the way of 
evening entertainment. Time hung heavily after the day's work 
was done, and even the proverbial mischief which Satan is popu- 
larly credited with having on tap for idle hands seldom materialized. 
A walk to Comox after supper, a drink at "The Lome," another at 
"The Elk,'" perhaps more, not likely less, and then home by our 
own little launch "The Joan," and the evening's amusements were 
exhausted, save for cards and prayer-meetings, which usually 
went on simultaneously in the big mess-hall. 

Throughout the three months which the battalion as a 
mobilized whole put in on the Spit Colonel Warden was seldom 
with us for more than two or three nights at a time. He was 
indefatigable in his journeyings up and down the Province, 
addressing meetings, stimulating recruiting and interviewing 
officials on behalf of the unit, but his frequent visits to Comox 
were a never-ending source of joy to the men assembled there. 
No matter where he had been he always returned with a telegram 
which he had received just before reaching camp. He would have 
the battalion formed up on parade and after calling it to "Attention" 
he would invariably start by saying, "I have just received a tele- 
gram" and then would follow an optimistic message which tended 
to prove infallibly that within an incredibly short time we should 
be in France. These telegrams became the subject of ribald 
jests, and after parade the regular slogan was "Come on, boys, 
whip round for another ten cents apiece; it's time we got some 
more hay for the Colonel's bull." But we loved those cheering 
messages all the same, no matter whence they materialized, and 
when all is said and done the Colonel did actually get the battalion 
over to France within five months from mobilization, which was 
"some record." 

With the end of May it became obvious that a move of some 
kind in the near future was imperative. The water supply was 
beginning to fail and the oldest inhabitants warned us that with 
the advent of an average summer we could no longer depend 
on our mainland spring. Seeing that on this spring we relied 
entirely for both drinking and washing water and that -there was 
no other source of supply available in the near neighbourhood 
preparations were made for a move. The past weeks had been 
filled with many rumors: it had been freely stated at one time 
that the 102nd Bn. would go to India; Bermuda had been 
quoted as a likely harbourage for us; again an almost, but not 
quite, official notice was received that we should be brigaded at 



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16 

Vernon. With the failure of our water, however, it was decided 
that the 102nd, together with the 103rd, and possibly the 
"Bantams," should be quartered for the summer at Sidney and 
matters had so far progressed in this direction that an advance 
party consisting of the Medical Officer and the Second-in-Command 
had gone ahead to map out a route, mark water supplies and 
arrange for camps so that the battalion might march to Sidney, 
when the bolt fell Aom a blue sky. The D.O.C., Coloney Ogilvy, 
was coming to inspect us, and on his decision would depend our 
immediate future. He came, he saw, and we conquered. The 
fiat went forth that the 102nd Bn. would proceed overseas 
immediately and in a bustle and rush everything was made ready, 
last records were compiled and inspectors satisfied and on 
Saturday, June. 10th, 1916, the battalion proceeded in full marching 
order, which included kit-bags and two blankets per man, across 
the narrow neck of sand for the last time, and embarked on the 
S.S. "Princess Charlotte" for Vancouver. The Terminal City was 
reached at 10 p.m. and a large crowd of relatives had assembled 
at the station to see the last of their men and to say what was, 
alas, in many cases the last good-bye. At midnight the train 
pulled out and the 102nd (North British Columbians) was in good 
truth an overseas unit. 

The following officers proceeded with the unit from Comox: 
Lieut.-Colonel J. W. Warden; Major C. B. Worsnop; Major L. M. 
Hagar; Capt. H. B. Scharschmidt, Adjutant; Lieut. J. B. Bailey, 
Asst. Adjutant; Lieut. J. M. Whitehead, i|c, Machine Gun Section; 
Lieut. G. B. Proctor, i|c, Signalling Section; Capt. F. Stead, 
Quartermaster; Capt. J. A. Kirkpatrick, Paymaster; Lieut. T. P. 
O'Kelly, Transport Officer; Capt. T. C. Colwell, Chaplain; Capt. 
J. Fall, O.C., No. 1 Co.; Capt. A. T. Johnston, O.C. No. 2 Co.; 
Capt. J. S. Matthews, O.C. No. 3 Co.; Major G. Rothnie, O.C. 
No. 4 Co. Capt. J. H. Ross; Capt. J. F. Brandt; Capt. H. E. Homer 
Dixon; Lieuts. R. G. H. Brydon, R. McCuaig, H. E. Whyte, T. 
R. Griffith, K. G. Mackenzie, T. P. Copp, R. P. Matheson, A. G. 
MacDonald, R. D. Forrester, J. H. Wilson, McL. Gordon, W. J. 
Sturgeon, J. H. Grant, R. Burde, F. Lister, J. C. Halsey and R. 
A. Stalker; Capt. N. M. McNeill was attached from the C.A.M.C. 
to the Battalion as Medical Officer. 



17 




CHAPTER II. 

Across the Continent — Steamer Hardships — 
Six Weeks in England. 




[liESjJ SSCrl ^ ^ journey across the Continent was unmarked by any 
untoward incident. Accommodation was good on 
board the train and the messing arrangements were 
excellent. Two trains sufficed to transport the unit, 
the first being under the command of Major Worsnop 
and the second under that of the Colonel. Two stops 
a day were made of sufficient duration to enable the men to get 
exercise by parading through the main streets of some town and 
it was not until we reached Ottawa that any event occurred to 
break the usual monotony of a long train journey. At the Capital 
the battalion was reviewed by H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught, then 
Governor-General of Canada, accompanying whom was General 
Sir Sam Hughes, then Minister of Militia. On the same day the 
journey was resumed and on Sunday afternoon, June 18th, we 
reached Halifax and embarked on the C.P.R. S.S. "Empress of 
Britain," which pulled out into the fairway on the same evening 
but did not leave Halifax until the morning of June 20th, when, 
with H.M.S. "Drake" as escort, she started off upon her submarine- 
infested course. 

Of that voyage the less said the better, but common decency 
demands that some criticism be offered on the accommodation 
afforded the troops. In addition to the 102nd Bn. the steamer 
carried the 65th and 84th Bns., together with some Medical Details 
and a draft for the Pioneers. It was freely stated that in the 
Mediterranean the "Empress of Britain" had carried 6.000 troops; 
if that were so, she must indeed have been a living hell. With 
only two-thirds that number on board the conditions that prevailed 
were well-nigh intolerable, and this is written after two and a 
half years in France and Belgium where the writer had some 
experience of hardship. The 102nd Bn. was the junior battalion 
and also the last aboard, but that should not account for the fact 
that there was literally not sufficient accommodation for all below 
and that, if the weather had been bad, so that men could not have 
slept on deck, there would have been no place for them to sleep 
at all. The food was atrocious. Apart from the fact that we had 
to eat in the bowels of the ship where the atmosphere was stifling, 



18 

every article of food cooked was permeated with some disgusting 
preservative which caused all dishes to taste alike, all being equally 
objectionable. Fortunately the weather was gloriously fine and 
the sea as calm as a duck-pond throughout the voyage. Imagin- 
ation fails at the conditions which would have prevailed had sea- 
sickness been prevalent instead of non-existent. Just exactly how 
many submarines were observed when nearing the Irish Coast no 
historian could compute; probably each man saw three, but as 
the official records relate that none were in evidence it is unlikely 
that we were ever in very great danger, in spite of the numerous 
hair's breadth escapes which were narrated after disembarkation. 

On the evening of June 28th Liverpool was reached but the 
steamer anchored over-night in the Mersey and it was not until 
the following morning that the troops disembarked and lined up 
on the wharf. A tedious period of waiting then followed and it 
was afternoon before we boarded trains which conveyed us over 
nearly every railway system in England to our destination, Bordon, 
where we arrived at one o'clock on the morning of the 30cn. It 
was pouring with rain when we fell in on the station platform, 
but we were lucky in our quarters, which were in the married men's 
huts in Bordon and were both clean and comfortable. 

The first days of our stay in England were anxious ones indeed; 
right and left of us we saw battalions being broken up; both the 
65th and 84th Bns. with whom we had come overseas suffered 
this fate on the very next day after arrival, and we were the junior 
battalion in England at the time. What mercy could we expect? 
Well, we did not get mercy, but we got justice, and when the 
authorities found that we were the tallest, the heaviest, and the 
most maturely aged of any unit that had reached England, and 
when they saw for themselves the physique of the men who com- 
posed the 102nd Bn. they just naturally had no choice in the matter 
and within two or three days we received the glad news that we 
were no longer under the special care of Broxted House, that wet 
nurse of newly arrived units, but that we had been brigaded and 
henceforth were the junior battalion in the 11th Brigade, 4th 
Canadian Division, commanded respectively by Brig.-General V. W. 
Odium, D.S.O., and Major-General D. Watson, C.M.G. Our future 
was assu red.^ 

But there was a tremendous amount of work ahead of us in 
England, and but little time to do it in. The Fourth Division 
was expected to proceed to France very shortly and we had to do 
in six weeks what our sister battalions had taken months to accom- 
plish. Musketry, of course, was our first and most pressing need 
and as soon as we had been issued with rifles many days were 
spent at Whitehill in passing the various tests. Then there were 
long hours to be spent on bayonet fighting and on musketry drill. 
but before the end of the month our musketry was over and we 
left for Bramshott to take up our place by the side of the three 



19 

battalions with whom we were to be associated for so many 
arduous months abroad, the 54th (Kootenay) Bn.; the 75th 
(Toronto) Bn., and the 87th (Montreal) Bn. The remaining days 
at Bramshott were spent mostly in continuous drill, the only leave 
obtainable being two short week-ends, one of which was cut shorter 
by the desire of Sir Sam Hughes to inspect the 4th Division 
before his departure to Canada. We surely did love our Minister 
of Militia when this news came through. 

In connection with this review justice demands that a tragedy 
be related and if at this late date exposure could cause the lopping 
oflf of a few official heads there are many 102nd men now living 
who would indeed feel that "God's in His heaven; all's right with 
the world." We were on the eve of departure and orders were issued 
that all private or Governmental property carried by the men 
which would not be taken overseas was to be packed in the men's 
individual kit-bags; these kit-bags were to be clearly marked with 
name and number and piled at a specified place. It was clearly 
stated that these kit-bags would be stored under Government 
care and that when on leave in after months men would be able 
to reclaim their kit-bags and possessions. In pursuance of these 
orders kit-bags were packed and piled as directed, and the battalion 
marched away to parade with the Division at the grand review. 
During its absence a party of men acting under orders went 
through the kit-bags and burnt or distributed to pedlars all the 
contents. Absolutely unworn Stanfield's underwear, boots, spare 
socks and other wearing apparel were either wantonly burnt or 
given away; that was a shameful waste of public money and an 
economic outrage. In addition, the private property of the men 
was burnt, bibles, keepsakes from relatives and all the variety of 
personal effects which most men carry round with them, were 
consigned to the flames; that was a damnable vandalism and an 
outrage on the feelings of God and man alike. Someone must 
have blundered; the act was worse than criminal; it was foolish; 
but the Army is a past-master in the art of "passing the buck" and 
to this day the responsibility for this wholesale destruction has 
never been disclosed officially. Nothing could be done then, nor 
can anything be done now to compensate the men for the senti- 
mental losses they sustained; but it is never too late for the 
Government to recover the monetary value of good under-clothing 
wantonly destroyed. 

Reference was made above to leave. The 102nd Bn. was 
unfortunate in its King's leave. Whilst at Comox frequent week- 
end leave had been granted to Vancouver, Victoria and places 
near-by, but whenfour sudden departure was announced there was 
no opportunity for men to get leave who lived far away. "Never 
mind." said the Colonel: "my men are all British-born, and their 
relations are in England. They'll get leave over there." One 
cannot blame the Colonel; we were all keen to get away, and a 



20 

demand for leave wouid have robbed us of the chance. But mark 
well what happened. We reached England in time to join the 
4th Division, if we could make the grade; but this would be 
impossible if each man was to have his King's leave. "Never 
mind," said the Colonel; "my men don't want leave in England. 
They are Canadian^ and have already said good-bye to their kith 
and kin." Again, one can't blame the Colonel; we all wanted 
to get across to France, but he was scarcely logical, to say the 
least of it. 

• During the six weeks spent in England considerable change 
was made in the personnel of the battalion. A rigorous medical 
inspection resulted in- the transfer of every man who was not 
in the pink of condition to a reserve unit; thus we lost many who 
were not considered fit for the strenuous work of the front line, 
though eminently capable of fulfilling essential duties which did 
not call for physical perfection. The officers left behind when the 
battalion proceeded to France were Major L. M. Hagar, Capt. J. 
H. Ross, Capt. J. Fall, Lieut. G. B. Proctor and Capt. T. C. Colwell. 
At Bramshott also we lost the majority of our Bugle Band, which 
was for the most part composed of boys under age who were 
later returned to Canada, only to come out again when Time had 
made them eligible. Many boys, however, who nobly "got away" 
with their age, accompanied the unit across the Channel and 
proved invaluable as Runners. To fill up the deficiencies in our 
numbers we received the following reinforcements while at Bram- 
shott: Capt. J. G. Spencer and 27 O.R. from the 71st Bn.; Capt. 
W. J. Loudon, Capt. R. W. Nicholls, Capt. A. C. Trousdale and 
112 O.R. from the 74th Bn.; Capt. E. J. Gook; Lieuts. C. C. Tun- 
nard, R. Fitzmaurice, L. J. Bettison, C. T. Rush and T. E. Dent 
from the 11th C.M.R., and Lieuts. W. S. Barton and W. Bell from 
the 103rd Bn. Capts. A. T. Johnston, J. S. Matthews and H. E. 
Homer Dixon received promotion in England and the first named 
took over No. 1 Co. in place of Capt. Fall, Major Homer Dixon 
assuming command of No. 2 Co. Lieut. J. H. Grant was 
appointed Assistant Adjutant in place of Lieut. R. A. Stalker 
who had succeeded Lieut. J. B. Bailey. Capt. I. J. E. Daniel 
proceeded with the batalion as Chaplain (R.C.) in place of Capt. 
Colwell. 

The last few days passed quickly, and finally, on a sweltering 
hot day, August 11th, 1916, the 102nd Bn. marched from Bram- 
shott to Liphook, where it entrained for Southampton. Arrived 
there we boarded the small cross-channel transport "Connaught" 
and awoke on the morning of the 12th to find ourselves in the 
harbour of Le Havre. Just five months from mobilization in 
Comox and we were standing on the threshold of our ambitions. 
How those ambitions were fulfilled the succeeding chapters will 
relate. 



21 






o^'s^st 



SJ^SPB^jr^ 



^r 



CHAPTER III. 




By Side-door Pullman to Belgium — Our Baptism of Blood — 

Flirtations With Gas — Trench Routine — 

The Army Idea of Rest. 

ISEMBARKATION at Le Havre took place at 7.00 a.m. 
on August 12th, and we were immediately marched up 
a precipitous road to Rest Camp No. 1, where we were 
to remain during the day. The day was excessively 
hot and everyone was glad of the opportunity afforded 
in the afternoon of bathing off the beach. Orders were 
received for the unit to entrain at midnight and at that hour we 
were all assembled at the station, where we waited for a consider- 
able time before our train was ready. Then we had our first shock 
and learned what travel in Flanders means for the enlisted man. 
It was pitch dark when we boarded the train and nobody was sup- 
plied with candles; it is easy, therefore, to imagine the confusion 
which reigned in a cattle-car packed with 40 men, each carrying full 
equipment. In later days these cars rarely carried more than 32 
men, so we had the advantage of seeing travel at its worst on our 
first journey; moreover, at that stage in the war no effort was made 
to clean the cars after they had been used for cattle before they 
were turned over for the accommodation of troops. The next day 
and the following night were spent on the train and at 10 a.m. on 
August 14 we arrived at our destination, a station in Belgium with 
the imposing name of Godewaersvelde. Here we detrained and 
marched about five miles to our halting place, a tented camp about 
half-a-mile N.E. of Abiele. This camp boasts in its vicinity one of 
the many barn doors which are shown to new-comers as being in 
each case the identical one on which the Canadian sergeant was found 
crucified. At this point we were informally visited by the Corps Com- 
mander. Lieut. -General Sir Julian Byng, K.C.B., K.C.M.G, M.V.O. 

We were now in the neighbourhood of St. Eloi trenches, Ypres 
Salient, a portion of the line which was used at that time for the 
training under fire of newly arrived battalions. The routine of trench 
life had to be learned under actual service conditions and to obtain 



22 

the necessary experience units were required to send forward their 
companies, one at a time, to undertake a tour in the trenches under 
the guidance and tuition of some battalion qualified to "put them 
wise" to trench warfare. And how ignorant the new battalion can 
be was well exemplified when No. 1 Co., under Major A. T. Johnston 
went forward for instruction on the night of August 15th. We had 
not been issued with steel helmets; it is to be doubted whether 
anyone at Brigade Headquarters had ever given a thought to steel 
helmets; such things were not in the early days of the war when 
our veteran leaders had seen their previous service. Accordingly 
No. 1 Co. went gaily forward in their service caps. Again, in previous 
days men had always gone forward in full kit; the style of trench 
existing in 1916, which barely permits the passage of a man so 
equipped, had not been contemplated by officers of the 11th Bde. 
Consequently No. 1 Co. burst upon the astonished vision of the 29th 
Bn., whose members were to act as tutors and instructors, jauntily 
adorned with service caps, which were anathema in the front line, 
and staggering under full kit instead of the then regulation battle 
order. To them we must have been as refreshing as a stage hayseed 
in a down-town cafe. To the eternal credit of the 29th be it said 
that, though they smiled, they did their job and "put us wise," so 
that when the second company went up on the following night and 
presented themselves to the 24th Bn., which had relieved the 29th, 
the men were safely and sanely equipped. On the 17th and 18th 
respectively Nos. 3 and 4 Coys, went forward for instruction, 
relieving their predecessors, and it was on the 19th that No. 3 Co., 
which was in the front line, underwent the baptism of blood and 
learned what real warfare means. Throughout that day the Hun 
kept up a terrific bombardment of the front line system, throwing 
over every conceivable form of shell, wrecking the trenches and 
taking first toll from the 102nd Bn. in the shape of six men killed 
and 12 men wounded. The first man of the 102nd Bn. to give his 
life for the Cause was Pte. R. Simmers of Victoria. Throughout 
the bombardment the steadiness of the men was so noticeable that 
the O. C. 24th Bn. ordered the company to remain an extra 24 hours, 
as he feared that an attack in force would follow the artillery 
preparation. 

It was during our brief stay in the tented camp above reierred 
to that we had our initiation into the mysteries of gas. A demon- 
stration and an open-air lecture were given and we were sent through 
a cloud of poison gas with our P. H. Helmets on and another cloud 
of tear gas without them. Thereafter for two or three weeks our 
lives were made miserable by frequent gas alarms, all of which 
proved to be false. There is no doubt but that we were all "on 
edge" with regard to this gas proposition during early days, and 
when our subsequent attitude towards this invention of the devil 
is compared with that of the first few months "it makes to laugh," 
as our Gallic friends would say. We were a long way from the line 



23 

both in the tented camp and in Devonshire Lines to which we 
marched on August 17th, but distance was not allowed to baulk the 
activity of our gas sentries, who forced us to sleep with our P. H.'s 
on our chests at the alert and woke us up time and again to wait 
patiently, ready masked, for the gas that never came. Later, when 
gas shells were introduced by the Hun and we were never safe from 
that class of attack we became callous and would idly ponder as to 
whether there was enough gas to make it worth while putting on a 
respirator, and whether it would be a kindness or not to wake up 
so-and-so to allow him to adjust his. 

We remained at Devonshire Lines, a camp close to Reninghelst, 
till the 24th of the month. We found it in a filthy condition when 
we entered it and this was an experience which was destined to 
be repeated with painful regularity throughout two and a half years' 
campaigning. Some battalions were naturally decent and had healthy 
views with regard to sanitation and camp cleanliness; other battalions 
were most distinctly opposite in this respect, and it may be said in 
passing, that of these the Imperials were the worst. But througnout 
our period of the war it seemed to be the fate of the 102nd to clean 
up every time it entered a new camp. It was in Devonshire Lines 
also that we lost one of our cherished illusions; we had been told, as 
doubtless every other unit which ever went over to France had been 
told, that "over there" we should never require any polishing outfit. 
In the theatre of war glistening brass work would be "tabu," and in 
our innocence we believed, as many other luckless thousands believed. 
Well, in Devonshire Lines, we discovered that there was more polish- 
ing to be done in France than had ever been dreamed of in our 
Canadian philosophy. 

By August 24th all sections of the Battalion had had some instruc- 
tion in trench routine and on that day the unit was assigned to regular 
tours of duty as follows: — One company to Dickiebusch for general 
fatigues; one company to Voormezeele for garrison duty; one com- 
pany to Scottish Woods for garrison duty and one company with 
Headquarters to Micmac Camp to act as reserve. As we remained in 
this area a month and when out of the trenches were generally 
disposed in some such formation, it will be well to try and give some 
description of the neighborhood. 

The big town of the district was Reninghelst, lying between Ypres 
and Poperinghe; this was but a small town, but larger than the ruined 
hamlets in the neighbourhood; here were situated Divisional Head- 
quarters. Dickiebusch, which was our own more immediate centre, 
was a small, badly shell-shocked village which boasted one large 
farm, known as Burgomaster's farm, where 11th Bde. Headquarters 
were established. Here Brigadier-General V. W. Odium, D. S. O. 
Commanding the 11th Brigade, took up his quarters; at that time 
Capt. Henniker was acting as Brigade-Major and Major Perry as Staff 
Captain. A feature of the Brigade establishment was the excellently 
camouflaged Signal Station, which figured prominently as a haystack. 



24 

At the back of Dickiebusch was a large lake and bordering this was 
Scottish Woods, through which a day-trail led past Voormezeele by- 
way of Convent Lane to the trenches of St. Bloi. Under cover of 
darkness the trenches%could be reached by road running up from the 
Cafe Beige, and this route was the one followed nightly by the trans- 
port when conveying rations. But this was a dangerous piece of road; 
it was under observation and was constantly swept by machine gun 
fire. One of the most remarkable features of the 102nd Bn. period of 
service was the immunity which the Transport and ration parties had 
from casualties during the whole of the tour of duty in the St. Eloi 
sector. Micmac Camp was a hutted camp lying between Dickiebusch 
and Ouderdom and boasted no special features except the presence of 
a small cafe where eggs and coffee were procurable. Of the inhabi- 
tants of this neighbourhood there is little that is pleasant to say; they 
were peasants of the least intelligent type, Flemish with pronounced 
German sympathies; espionage was rampant and more than one 
suffered the extreme penalty when caught red-handed as a spy or a 
sniper. There was nothing in the personality of these people to 
appeal to the sympathetic imagination of troops who had come over 
fired with the tale of Belgian wrongs. 

Amid these surroundings the 102nd Bn. spent the next month, 
engaged in regular tours of duty either in the front line trenches, or 
as outlined above. Both in the Front Line trenches and in the 
Support and Reserve positions the work required was for the most part 
that of increasing and improving the existing protection. The Hun 
was unceasingly battering down parapets and parados which had as 
often to be repaired; there was an insufficiency of shelters, and the 
unit was responsible for a big improvement in this direction, making 
a large number of shelters against the winter; above all, the trenches 
were in a shocking state as soon as wet weather set in; the mud was 
liquid and the bath-mats were floating on the top. Working-parties 
were constantly employed draining the trenches and stabilizing the 
bath-mats. Though no active offensive was undertaken casualties 
occurred with painful frequency. On the morning of Sept. 1st Sergt. 
C. C. Higgs, Scout Sergeant, and Pte. W. F. Brewer, one of his 
section, were killed in No Man's Land, whilst patrolling the front. 
On the evening of the following day an irreparable loss was sustained 
in the death of Major A. T. Johnston, O. C. No. 1 Co. He was 
waiting with his company in Reserve trenches immediately in rear 
of the Support Line, ready to go forward in relief of No. 2 Co. As 
the hour approached he came out of his dug-out to make a preliminary 
observation of the situation over the edge of his parapet just at a 
point on which the enemy had a machine gun trained, with the result 
that he was instantaneously killed by a bullet through the brain. His 
death was an immense blow to the battalion; one of our earliest and 
most efficient officers he was beloved and respected by all ranks. He 
was succeeded in command of No. 1 Co. by Capt. Gook. On Sept. 8th 
No. 2 Co. suffered heavily through the bursting of an enemy high 



25 

explosive shell in the mouth of a dug-out in Scottish Woods. This 
one shell was responsible for the killing outright of eight men and 
for the wounding of nine more, two of whom succumbed on the fol- 
lowing day. On Sept. 12th C. S. M. Paton, one of our finest N.C.O.'s, 
was shot dead. With casualties occurring in this manner from day to 
day we were glad to receive a draft of men from the 66th and 82nd 
Bns., numbering nearly a hundred, and hailing for the most part from 
Calgary, who reported at Micmac Camp on Sept. 8th. 

On all the occasions when the battalion was in the line Advanced 
Headquarters were established in Shelley Lane, a semi-natural trench 
built up on the banks of a somewhat foul little stream; the whole 
appearance of the trench was more that of a woodland path, shaded 
with trees and pitted with caves, and during the summer months it 
was quite a pretty spot; but it was none the less an easy target for 
the Hun artillerymen and on several occasions it was necessary for its 
temporary inhabitants to take shelter in a large tunnel opening out of 
the extreme end. 

We were now rapidly approaching the end of our stay in this 
sector but before we left we were to have some experience, though 
not an active share, in a raid. The 54th Bn. on our right was detailed 
to raid the opposing trenches for the purpose of obtaining indentifi- 
cations and the hour was set for midnight of Sept. 16th. Our share 
was merely to "stand to" and be prepared for any eventualities and 
to learn what we could for our own future use. The raid was entirely 
successful and resulted in the capture of six prisoners from amongst 
the Wurtemburgers. 

And so we came to the 17th when we were relieved on this front 
by the 15th Bn., 4th Bde., 4th Div., Australians, and made ourselves 
ready to go out and understand the real meaning of a Divisional Rest. 
Now in case this book should ever fall into the hands of a layman, 
one who has not been to France and therefore imagines that English 
words as used by the Army have the same meaning as when used by 
civilians, it may be well to explain that the word "rest" merely means 
"safety." A battalion at rest is a battalion which is not actually under 
shell fire and in direct ratio to the importance of the unit adjective 
prefixed to the word the measure of safety is computed. The higher 
you go, the fewer — shells; thus Divisional Rest is safer than Brigade 
Rest. In the same way "bath" must not be confounded with the 
civilian idea of a bath; sometimes it happens that if bath-house 
attendants are in a good temper enough water will be supplied from 
the showers to wash the soap off the lathered body, but it frequently 
happens that the water supply is stopped before the soap disappears, 
and then a few handfuls of dirty water have to suffice. Again the use 
of the word "clean" when applied to underwear which has heen 
treated by the Divisional baths, has little connection with the same 
word when applied to clothing which has passed through a civilian 
laundry. The Army word "clean" means that the clothing has been 
treated according to Army regulations; it has been steamed, which 



26 

process theoretically kills vermin, and it has had a certain amount of 
ordinary washing, but it is only clean in comparison with what it was 
before, and though the ^ermin may be killed theoretically, they remain 
very much alive practically, or at any rate, their eggs remain pregnant 
with life which bursts into joyous being after a few minutes associa- 
tion with the beloved human body. Possibly in the next war a little 
more serious attention will be paid to the louse question; during the 
last war, though much was written and more said nothing was done 
which was really efficient, and none of the advertised powders were of 
the slightest use in combatting the plague. Creolin, which was not too 
easily obtainable, was the only effective antidote, and that was not 
discovered, or at any rate was not made easily available until the 
closing stages of the struggle. 

It was on the occasion of this our first relief that we became 
cognizant of these details, and the truths then learned were proved 
time and again during the subsequent years. Reninghelst gave us our 
first experience of the Army bathing and washing system, and though 
the bathing gradually improved throughout the war, the washing 
maintained the same average of gross inefficiency. 

Having partially cleaned ourselves (the Regimental Diary says 
"Made an attempt to get men bathed; succeeded in getting 2 com- 
panies through only, as no socks or underclothes were available for 
balance of battalion") we set out for St. Omer at 6.00 a.m. on Sept. 
20th and that evening reached Haazebruck, where we were billeted for 
the night. This is a fair-sized town and undamaged by shell-fire. 
The battalion after a preliminary experience of 27 days constant trench 
work was in poor condition for marching, but the men managed to 
carry on and on the following night reached Arques, in spite of the 
fact that on our arrival at Haazebruck we had all our sick men returned 
to us from hospital; it is difficult to understand why these could not 
have been sent forward to our final destination. As it was ten of them 
had to be sent immediately to ambulance for transportation. From 
Arques we had one more day's march, which brought us to Tourne- 
hem, which was to be the scene of the great rest of which we had 
heard much and of which we had dreamed dreams. Here we were 
to remain until Oct. 3rd. Tournehem was a delightful little French 
village, rather larger than most, prettily situated in the midst of a 
rolling landscape and peopled by a most hospitable community. We 
were immediately taken in and "made a fuss of" and throughout our 
stay the inhabitants did all they possibly could to make us comfortable. 
For many a long month thereafter the memory of Tournehem would 
rise up and bring back longings which were closely akin to home- 
sickness. 

But the rest! Well the rest consisted of the hardest kind of 
open-air training the battalion had yet put in. The Brigade training 
ground was about four miles distant and here every day the four 
battalions, all of whom were nearly equi-distant, assembled for a 



27 

gruelling day of drill or practice warfare: the weather was hot and 
the roads dusty, but though the work was hard it brought all the 
battalions into excellent shape and fitted them well for the real 
hardships which were about to meet them in the ill-famed Somme 
area. For that was our next objective and for the successful carrying 
out of their work in that region the troops certainly needed "some" 
training. 




MT. ST. ELOY 

A February Afternoon Impression 
as seen from Vimy Ridge. 



28 





CHAPTER IV. 

En Route for the Somme — Albert, Tara Hill and Chalk Pits — "Over 

the Top" at Regina — New German Trench — Connecting Desire 

and Regina — Out of the Mouth of Hell 

EAVING its pleasant summer quarters at Tournehem on 
the 3rd day of October, the Battalion set out for the 
Somme. Opinions differ as to the comparative conditions 
of the Somme and of Passchendaele which we were 
destined to visit just a year later, but it is generally 
agreed that, though the enemy artillery work in the latter 
area was more intense and the protection afforded practically non- 
existent, and though the Passchendaele landscape was dreary in the 
extreme and the mud intolerable, yet the Somme left a more indelible 
impression of sordid misery on the minds of those who saw service 
on both fronts. For a month and a half the battalion struggled in a 
sea of mud against an implacable enemy and the majority of those who 
survived to the end regard the Somme tour as the most exhausting 
and nerve-racking which the battalion undertook throughout its 
period of service. 

Prior to departure every man exchanged his Ross rifle for a Lee- 
Enfield and was issued with one of the new small box respirators 
which had come to take the place of the old P-H helmets, though 
the latter were carried for use in emergencies for another eighteen 
months or so. The new respirators were a great improvement, but 
it may be said in passing that the battalion as a whole was never 
called on to undertake any operation on a large scale under conditions 
which made the wearing of respirators necessary; we never had to 
face cloud gas and though in later days we were constantly harassed 
by gas shells, these were purely local in their effects and rarely 
necessitated the wearing of the respirator for any length of time. 

An afternoon's march on October 3rd brought the battalion to 
Arduicq at 5.30 p.m., where train was taken for Doullens, which was 
reached twelve hours later; Doullens is a fair-sized town with tempt- 
ing out-door cafes, but we were not destined to gain any enjoyment 
therefrom, marching direct from the station through the town to 
Gezaincourt, where were were billeted for the night. Gezaincourt 
proved to be larger than the majority of villages, boasting an extensive 



29 

hospital building. Hence we proceeded on Oct. 5th to Val de Maison 
where the night was spent under canvas. The following day s march 
brought us to Vadincourt, an apology for a hamlet lying on the hill 
above Contay where Canadian Corps Headquarters had been estab- 
lished. Vadincourt remains a damp and dismal memory of rain- 
icaked shelters erected in a dripping wood on soggy soil. Here we 
stayed for three days during the course of which an attack scheme for 
later use was assiduously practised. On Oct. 10th we left Vadin- 
court and marched into Albert towards the end of the afternoon. 

For the next six weeks Albert was to be our Base Headquarters; 
here the Transport Lines, which comprised, in addition to the Trans- 
port, the Quartermaster's Stores, the Paymaster's Office and the Base 
Orderly Room, were situated. It was the first time we had seen ruin 
on a large scale and from the weird statue of the Virgin and Child 
suspended at right angles from the topmost pinnacle of the Cathedral 
to the shattered cellar of a beggar's hovel, everything impressed the 
beholder with the same dull feeling of stark misery. Albert was not 
wholly destroyed; many civilians still remained and some continued 
to run their little businesses, but for the most part the place was 
deserted. The Hun maintained a desultory bombardment of the town 
and occasional enemy aeroplanes circled above, but few bombs were 
dropped; it was not till later that the Transport Lines by night 
became as dangerous as the front line by day. For some reason or 
other, which possibly the psychologists can explain, the bombardment 
of a town reacts more violently on the nerves than a bombardment. 
in the openjand during our stay in this sector the men from the front 
line could always count on amusing stories of temporary shell-shock 
being retailed for their benefit when they returned for a brief spell 
of rest. It would be invidious to recall such stories in a publication 
of this nature, but some of those who read these lines will be able to 
supplement them with many an instance of a grimly jesting nature. 
On arrival at Albert the troops were billeted for the night, but a 
small party of officers was detailed to go forward and visit the front 
line, which at this time was situated between Death Valley and Regina 
Trench. On the following day the four companies went out some 
two miles and took up their quarters on Tara Hill, an eminence west 
of Albert on the Bapaume Road, and camped under bivouacs. From 
Tara Hill half the Headquarters Details, including the Band, were 
sent forward another five miles to Bailey Woods, a treeless area in 
Sausage Valley, where the 11th Brigade Headquarters had been estab- 
lished. This party was to be used as a night-carrying party and did 
yeoman service throughout the early part of the tour, after which they 
were relieved. For six days the companies remained at Tara Hill, 
organizing for the offensive which was to develop on the 21st and 
practising the attack. During this period Lieuts. J. Mont and G. 
Ledingham reported for duty. 

It was a busy scene on which the men looked down from their 
camp on the top of Tara Hill. The Albert-Bapaume Road was 



30 




31 

literally alive by day and night with a never-ending stream of vehicles 
of all kinds travelling east or west; lorries ladened with ammunition 
going east, or crowded with weary soldiers coming west, ambulances, 
ration waggons, motor-cycles, all the traffic of an army actively 
engaged poured ceaselessly back and forth along this main highway 
which miraculously escaped complete destruction by the enemy's 
artillery. About four miles east of Albert the road forks into a "Y"; 
here at the apex once stood the village of La Boisselle, of which one 
stone did not remain upon another; close by were two enormous 
craters worthy of notice. The left fork carried on past Pozieres, a 
mere geographical expression of which no trace remained, to the 
Sunken Road and thence to the German positions astride Bapaume; 
at the Sunken Road Tenth Street afforded a safe passage-way to the 
ill-omened but well-named Death Valley, on the eastern side of which 
lay the then front line. The right fork at La Boisselle ran up to 
Contelmaison, of which but a few cellar stones remained, and here 
a track diverged to Sausage Valley past the Chalk Pits which we were 
to know so well before we left the Somme. From Sausage Valley 
a trail, followed later by a light railway, ran across the ghastly Plain 
of Courcelette, reeking with the debris, human and otherwise, of battle. 
Dore could have found no finer inspiration for his illustrations of the 
"Inferno" than the scene presented on a wet November evening by 
the Plain of Courcelette. 

At Tara Hill we remained until the 18th, which was to mark the 
first step in the series of operations which culminated in the capture 
of Regina Trench, the first great achievement of the 102nd Bn., and 
it was during this period of waiting that the practice of referring 
to the companies by numerals was abandoned in favor of alphabetical 
letters, No. 1 Co. becoming "A" Co. and so on. Regina Trench had 
already been the object of two determined attacks by the Canadian 
Corps, the first commencing on Oct. 1st, and the second on Oct. 8th. 
In both attacks the trench had been reached, but violent counter- 
attacks had forced a retirement from the position when won, and 
it was left for the 4th Canadian Division both to capture and to hold 
this important position. As the three senior Divisions had been 
withdrawn from the area immediately after the arrival on the scene 
of the 4th Division, the latter was attached to the 2nd Corps for all its 
operations on the Somme. The following narrative of the capture is 
taken from the official report of the operation forwarded by Colonel 
Warden to 11th Brigade Headquarters, and only concerns that portion 
of Regina Trench which was allotted to the 102nd Bn. as its objective. 

On the evening of Oct. 18th the 102nd Bn. took over from the 
87th Bn. the front line trenches on the left sector of the Brigade, 
situated on a line running from R. 18, c. 4, 0. to M. 13, d, 2, 2., this 
being a front of 500 yards extending from Courcelette Trench on the 
left flank to Ross Communication Trench on the right. The night 
was very dark and it was raining hard, so that the ground was a 
sea of mud with quagmires on every side, making the trenches almost 



32 

impassable. As the men were lining up in the Support Trench the 
enemy delivered a bombing attack on the left flank of the 87th Bn. 
Word was passed down that the Hun was attacking and that the 102nd 
was to come up on the double. This was done in absolute silence 
and as the men passed Headquarters, jumping over trenches and 
shell-holes, they looked like phantoms in the dark, illumined by the 
light of German flares and leaping to the crash of bursting shells. 
Here and there a man was seen to fall, the* shelling being very heavy, 
but the bombers were driven off and the rest of the night spent in 
preparation for the morrow's work. Rain continued and throughout 
the night there was constant shelling. 

Day broke with rain pouring down in torrents, making the ground 
absolutely impassable and the Higher Command decided to postpone 
operations until the 21st inst. " B," "C," and "D" Coys, therefore 
returned to camp at Tara Hill, leaving "A" Co. to hold the line. 
Never did the men of the 102nd better deserve their reputation for 
physique and tenacity of purpose than in their fight against the mud 
after their exhausting night in the trenches. The mud was hip-high 
between the trenches and the Bapaume Road and the men had to be 
literally dug out by their comrades as they sank exhausted in the 
liquid, glue-like substance. The weather cleared, the ground becoming 
somewhat more dry and on the evening of the 20th the three com- 
panies were again brought into the front line, relieving "A" Co. 
which went into Support. During the night of Oct. 20-21 the three 
companies worked hard at digging assembly trenches in which to mass 
and at forming battalion dumps; the men worked magnificently and 
at dawn all was ready. 

Zero hour was fixed for 12-06 p.m. and at that hour the barrage 
opened and the men of the 102nd went "over the top"; following the 
barrage like a wall, lying down until it again lifted and advancing as it 
moved, all in perfect uniformity. The first two waves consisted of "C" 
Co. under Maj. J. S. Matthews, on the left and "B" Co. under Maj. H. 
E. H. Dixon on the right. The remaining two waves were furnished 
by "D" Co. under Major G. Rothnie. The moment that the barrage 
lifted over Regina Trench the men were over the parapet; the assault 
was carried out with such dash, vigour and impetuosity that the 
Germans were completely demoralized and immediately threw up their 
hands in surrender. The first wave passed 150 yards beyond the 
trench, forming a screen; the second rounded up the prisoners and 
consolidated the positions secured, in which they were assisted by 
men of the third wave, whilst the fourth wave was occupied in carry- 
ing up supplies from the old dumps to the new. For his magnificent 
services in this work of consolidation under heavy fire Lieut. R. P. 
Matheson received the Military Cross. The casualties sustained in 
the assault itself were very light, amounting to about five killed and 
ten wounded, as the enemy barrage did not come down until about 
six minutes after ours had started; the Germans, however, had 
suffered heavily and their trench was piled with dead and wounded. 



33 

Our casualties were to occur later, when, within an hour and a half, 
three separate counter-attacks were launched; these were all success- 
fully opposed, but during the remainder of the day and throughout 
the ensuing night and day, when "A" Co. under Capt. J. F. Brandt 
arrived to relieve "D" Co., a constant barrage of shell fire was poured 
into our positions, with the result that the total casualty list showed 
six officers and 46 Other Ranks killed with eight and seventy wounded. 
On the night of the 23rd the battalion was relieved by the 54th and 
the nun marched to the Chalk Pits, half a mile south of Pozieres, 
where they went into dug-outs for rest and reorganization. 

There were many individual deeds of heroism, but the following 
incidents may serve to illustrate the spirit of the battalion. Although 
seven machine guns were in action only four of the .original six which 
started were among that number; two were hopelessly bogged and 
these were actually replaced during the operation by guns brought up 
with the utmost difficulty from reserve, whilst the seventh was 
"resurrected" from the old line of trenches and put into working order 
under heavy fire. The Machine Gun Section, which was under the 
Command of Lieuts. J. M. Whitehead and J. H. Grant, the latter being 
mortally wounded, sustained 30 casualties out of 70 men engaged; of 
these Sgt. M. M. Brown, though severely wounded, refused to leave 
his guns until a proper state of defence had been organized. For his 
supreme courage and devotion this gallant N.C.O. was awarded the 
D.C.M. The Report goes on to make special mention of the work 
done by the Battalion Scouts under Capt. A. C. Trousdale in keeping 
open communications between Headquarters and the front line, and 
by the Runners and Signallers; the former were in constant use under 
very heavy fire, but only sustained one casualty, young Stanley Wol- 
verson, who, after being twice wounded in the leg, accepted the advice 
of his officer, Lieut. R. D. Forrester, that he go to the Dressing 
Station for treatment only on condition that he might take a prisoner 
with him; the latter had a particularly hazardous task, the wires being 
frequently broken and needing constant repair under heavy fire. The 
Stretcher-bearers also did magnificent work, many, though wounded, 
persisting in their task of tending the casualties. It was on such an 
errand that Lieut. A. Carss, though not a member of the Medical 
Detail, met with his death; he went to succour a wounded Hun who 
treacherously hurled a bomb at him causing fatal injuries. In this 
connection it may be mentioned that all prisoners taken had bombs 
in their pockets, in their haversacks and slung round their necks. 
Just two more instances of the unquenchable spirit exhibited by the 
men on this historic occasion: — Pte. A. E. Bailey of "C" Co. had his 
foot blown off; he rendered himself first aid and in the early hours 
of the morning of the 22nd was seen hobbling along on his stump 
towards the new trench; when drawn up over the parapet he lay 
down apparently oblivious of his own agony to discuss the events of 
the previous day. L.-Cpl. W. Miller of the Scouts, when lying 
mortally wounded, remembered orders and handed his prismatic com- 



34 

pass to a comrade saying, "Give this to the captain; I have no further 
use for it." 

Such is the story of the 102nd Bn's share in the capture of Regina 
Trench. It was a great achievement, and in recognition of his 
valuable services in this operation Lieut. -'Colonel Warden was later in 
the year awarded the D.S.O. But the success was a costly one and 
the casualty figures given above witness the price paid and include 
the following officers: — Killed — Capt. R. W. Nicholls, Lieuts. A. Carss, 
T. P. Copp, McL. Gordon, J. H. Grant (died of wounds), and C. T. 
Rush. Missing, believed killed — Major G. Rothnie. Wounded — 
Majors H. E. H. Dixon, J. S. Matthews; Capts. W. J. Loudon, J. E. 
Spencer; Lieuts. L. J. Bettison, A. G. MacDonald, J. H. Wilson. 

For twelve days the battalion remained in the Chalk Pits, a muddy 
depression honeycombed with inadequate shelters, lying between 
Headquarters at Bailey Woods and Pozieres. The weather was wet 
and the chalky soil was quickly reduced to a deep stickiness which 
made every movement a labour; a battery of "Heavies" had taken up 
its position in the same area and the resultant din added greatly to 
the general discomfort. During this period working-parties were 
requisitioned regularly for the units in the line, or to construct the 
great sand-bag wall which was to protect the south-western end of 
Death Valley. This was a tremendous undertaking of great import- 
ance. - Death Valley had well earned its name. Lying as it did 
between our base and the front and being under direct observation by 
the enemy who raked it constantly with shell and machine gun fire, 
i't had proved a veritable death-trap. For the protection of the troops 
a huge barricade of sand-bags was erected across the valley and it 
long remained as a monument to the devotion' of the 102nd Bn.. which 
was largely responsible for its completion. The work entailed on 
the carrying parties was exhausting in the extreme; it must be 
remembered that everything that went forward of the Sunken Road, 
about two miles east of Pozieres, had to be taken in by hand; the light 
railways which were to prove such a boon in other sectors were 
practically useless in the Somme, as they were destroyed by shell-fire 
as soon as laid. Every shell for the Field Guns had to be packed 
in by mule teams; drinking-water had to be carried through miles of 
trench system in converted gasoline tins, and every man had to carry 
in addition to his burden his full fighting equipment. Add to this the 
handicap which the mud and darkness entailed and the reader will have 
some faint idea of the exhausting strain placed upon the troops when 
in Reserve after a front line tour. And then a paragraph like the 
following is to be found in the Regimental Diary: "Oct. 29th. — 
Church Parade was ordered for 9.45 a.m., but owing to inclement 
weather this had to be cancelled." Thank God sometimes for the rain; 
these Church Parades on active service, especially wnen called in the 
Forward Area, were the grimmest and ghastliest of Service jokes, 
and were provocative of more blasphemy and discontent than any 
active operation. 



35 

It may be well here to make mention of two special features in 
the modern army for the initiation of which the 102nd Bn. is entitled 
to a full share of credit. The one was the Tump-line Section for 
packing supplies up the line. All Western Canadians kno # w what the 
Tump-line is, but for the benefit of others it may be explained as an 
old time Indian device for packing an extraordinary amount of material 
by the scientific distribution of weight; the tump-line passes over the 
forehead down the back. We had many men, strong huskies from the 
Interior and Northern Coast regions of British Columbia, who were 
experts in tumping and long before the system was in general oper- 
ation throughout the Corps the 102nd contingent of the 11th Brigade 
Tump-line Section under Cpl. Raymond had become famous as 
phenomenal packers, who could carry anything, anywhere, in record 
time. The second feature was the Hot Food Container, which later 
became standardized as a sort of gigantic Thermos flask adapted for 
the back, but it had its origin in a much more simple device, credit 
for which was due to our Quartermaster, Capt. F. Stead. The question 
of the feasibility of conveying hot food up to the men in the front 
had been mooted by Brigade and suggestions called for, and it was 
Capt. Stead- who was responsible for the scheme employed. This 
took the form of gasoline tins packed tightly round with paper and 
carried in remade biscuit tins; it was found that the paper proved 
an excellent non-conductor and the contents of the interior tin reached 
the men fairly hot after six hours. 

On Nov. 4th we marched back to Albert where we remained for 
four days, returning to Chalk Pits for one night, preparatory to our 
second tour in the line which commenced on Nov. 9th. At 1.00 p.m. 
on the latter date the battalion fell in under the command of Major 
C. B. Worsnop and marched to Brigade Headquarters, where the men 
were issued with gum boots for use in the slime of the front line. 
It was a glorious day; a bright sun blazing in a cloudless sky showed 
up in sharp relief the horrors of the devastated plain round Cource- 
lette, pocked-marked with shell-holes, dotted with fragments of dis- 
carded equipment, with here and there a mouldering corpse of man 
or horse, but it was dusk when the battalion finally marched off from 
Brigade Headquarters and .darkness had fallen before the men had 
relieved the 75th Bn., and taken up their appointed stations, "A" and 
"C" Cos. in Regina Trench; "B" Co. in the old front line trench, "D" 
Co. in Sugar Trench. The weather continued to improve and the 
Higher Command decided that the time was ripe for seizing the 
hitherto unoccupied portion of Regina Trench which was still in 
German hands and was separated from our men by an extensive 
block. The 102nd Bn. was on the spot and, with the 47th co-operating 
on the right, was ordered to assault the position and also to storm a 
new trench running north from Regina, recently constructed by the 
Hun and known as New German Trench. 

The ranks of the 102nd Bn. were woefully thin; death, wounds 
and sickness had claimed many; a large number were in Brigade 



36 

employ, serving in the Tump-line or Pack-train; including Head- 
quarters Staff, Medical Details, Runners and Signallers, who, though 
essential, cannot be included in the effective fighting strength of a 
battalion, only 375 men had marched out and the task set was no light 
one. To '*C" Co., under Lieut. R. P. Matheson, numbering 50 men, 
to whom were added 20 men from "A" Co., was assigned the offensive 
on Regina; "D" Co., under Lieut. Mackenzie, numbering 76, was to 
attack the new trench. The balance of "A" Co. was appointed as a 
carrying-party and "B" Co. was held in reserve. Midnight of Nov. 10-11 
was the hour when the barrage would start, lasting eight minutes and 
then lifting 150 yards, when the two assaults were to be delivered. 
During the course of the evening Capt. A. C. Trousdale, commanding 
our Scouts, who was later severely wounded, reported that the enemy 
was effecting a strong relief and that New German Trench was being 
held in strength. 

It was a brilliant night; a full moon was shining in a cloudless 
sky, and everything was as easily visible as in the day-time. This 
was in favor of the attacking force, who possessed all the psycholo- 
gical advantages offered by a night attack undiminished by the 
handicaps imposed by darkness. At midnight the barrage started and 
at 12.30 a.m. a Runner reached Headquarters with the news that "C" 
Co. had gained their objective, but had had to extend considerably to 
the right in order to keep in touch with the 47th. In the end it was 
found that this company was occupying and holding 350 yards more 
than its allotted portion. At 12.35 the news came in that "D" Co. 
had been similarly successful and an hour later the first batch of 
prisoners arrived, to be closely interrogated by the Brigadier who 
spent the night in Battalion Headquarters. The objectives had been 
gained, but the enemy was not disposed to part with them without a 
final struggle. Fierce counter-attacks were launched and Lieuts. 
Matheson and Sturgeon were badly wounded. At 2.30 a.m. Lieut. 
Lister was ordered to take up reinforcements from "A" Co. and assume 
command of operations in Regina Trench, which he did with success. 
Such alarmist reports, however, continued to come in through the 
medium of casualties that at 4.15 General Odium took charge of the 
operation himself and eased the situation by directing a well-sustained 
artillery fire against the massing Huns. It was during these counter- 
attacks that the majority of our casualties were incurred, the Hun 
maintaining a hail of shells on all our positions. The Regimental Aid 
Post, or Dressing Station, in the Red Chateau at the north end of 
Death Valley became the centre of a particularly fierce bombardment 
and a report reached Headquarters that all the occupants had been 
buried. A rescue party under Lieut. J. B. Bailey was hastily organized 
and went out armed with shovels, only to find that the report was 
luckily false. By morning positions had been consolidated and once 
more the 102nd Bn. had a fine achievement to its credit, as is shown 
by the following letter which was read out on parade in Albert on 
the 13th. 



37 

12-11-16. 



"Dear Colonel Warden: — 



"I want to congratulate you and through you all the officers and 
men of your battalion who took part in it, on last night's splendid 
operation. It was one of the best I have seen. The Divisional, Corps 
and Army Commanders also send their congratulations. Special 
commendation is due to Major Worsnop, Capt. Trousdale, Lieut. 
Lister, Lieut. Mackenzie and Lieut. Matheson. The 102nd Bn. has 
now carried out two successful operations and I am exceedingly proud 
of it. The battalion has already established a record to live up to. 
"Sincerely, 

"V. W. ODLUM, 
"Commdg. 11th C.I.B." 

For conspicuous services in the field, Lieut. Lister was awarded 
the Military Cross and Sergt. E. W. Holbrook the D.C.M., the latter 
storming single-handed a machine gun post, accounting for its 
defenders and capturing the weapon intact. To illustrate the dash 
and enthusiasm of the men and to emphasize the difficulties under 
which operations were carried out during that season of the year the 
following is recorded. As mentioned above, gum boots had been 
issued for use during the time that the men were in the trenches, but 
the mud was so deep and so sticky that the men literally had to pull 
their feet out of their boots and then their boots out of the mud. In 
the assault at least three men sprang to the charge leaving their boots 
sticking behind them and covered the ground to the opposing parapet 
and went over the latter in stockinged feet. 

Such was the second successful operation of the 102nd Bn., who 
returned to Albert on the following evening, once more to reorganize 
and to await the next call to duty; nor did they have long to wait. 
On the 17th the battalion once more found itself encamped at Brigade 
Headquarters supplying working parties, and two days later orders 
were suddenly received to relieve the 75th Bn. in the front line. Two 
hours after receipt of the order the battalion with Lieut. -Colonel 
Warden in command ploughed its way in the gathering dusk through 
the familiar mud of Courcelette. The night was more than usually 
dark and the mud worse than ever; in consequence it was not until 
the early hours of the 20th that final relief was effected. This meant 
that the men had been struggling through natural difficulties for many 
hours before their real ordeal commenced. Throughout the coming 
tour of duty our men found the Germans even more active and 
aggressive than on previous occasions. Though there was no "going 
over the top" the tour was a heavy one. The battalion was beginning 
to feel exhausted before going in, and the long stretch of hard work 
under particularly galling conditions tried the men severely. More- 
over a paralyzing blow had been sustained during the brief spell spent 
out of the front line; orders had been received from Brigade that 
for the future the rum issue for all units of the 11th Brigade would 



38 

be discontinued. What gratuitous hardship this deprivation under 
conditions obtaining on the Somme entailed on the men no pen can 
describe; in wet and cold and mud rum is no longer "The Demon 
Rum; it is "The Life Saver," the one thing which restores the frozen 
circulation and combats the deadening chill. But the decree went 
forth and for four months spent in the raw and bitter Somme area 
and later on the wild and freezing slopes of Vimy Ridge the 11th 
Brigade struggled to its duties unsustained by the one drop of comfort 
which is laid down in K., R. & O. as a permissible issue. To add 
insult to injury hot soup was substituted which always came up the 
line over salt, increasing the thirst which even before was a recognized 
torture of a front line where water had to be hauled up on men's 
backs, and earning for the 11th Brigade the unenviable cognomen of 
"The Pea-Soup Brigade." May the Moral Reformer and the Teetotal 
Crank gain comfort to their souls by the reflection that for four months 
some 4,000 men had their hardships increased by the cruel enforcement 
of their bigoted doctrines. And these men were all volunteers. 

For 96 hours the battalion remained in the trenches, working by 
night at the construction of a long communication trench running 
north-west from Regina to a trench known as Desire which had been 
captured on the 18th by units of the 4th Division, and withstanding 
by day very heavy shelling and persistent sniping. It was originally 
intended that this digging was to be but the prelude to another offen- 
sive which the 102nd would undertake, but it was found that the total 
length of the trench would have to be much greater than at first con- 
templated and that it would be impossible to get the work finished 
within the scheduled time. So the offensive was abandoned, but the 
battalion found that the work of digging was to tax its strength 
severely. For two nights work was maintained under heavy fire by 
the companies assisted by parties from the 67th Bn. and the Engineers, 
the men digging towards each other from either end and covered from 
surprise attacks by a screen of Scouts who on the first night with the 
co-operation of a carrying-party of the 67th succeeded in enclosing 
an enemy patrol which had wandered through their outposts and was 
successfully accounted for. Before dawn on the 22nd the trench was 
completed and on the evening of the 23rd the last tour on the Somme 
came to an end, the 102nd being relieved by the 47th Bn. and return- 
ing to billets in Albert with another fine piece of work to its credit. 
Our casualties numbered Major K. G. Mackenzie, O.C. "D" Co., and 
four O. R. killed; Major A. B. Carey, who had recently joined us from 
the 67th, and 40 O. R. wounded. 

The tour on the Somme was now completed; at length the 
Division was to move and take up its position with the other three 
Divisions of the Canadian Corps on the slopes of Vimy and on Nov. 
26th the battalion paraded for the last time in Albert and set out on a 
long six days' march to the new area, completely outfitted with Web 
equipment which had been issued in Albert to replace the old Oliver 
equipment which we had brought with us from Canada. The morning 



39 




40 

of the 26th broke wet and it was through a dismal rain that we started 
off over the muddy roads which were crowded with traffic to our first 
halting place, Leonvillers, which we reached in the late afternoon. It 
was bitterly cold, and the billets were very poor; to add to our 
discomfort the Transport was held up by traffic, took a wrong turning 
and did not arrive with the kitchens until midnight. The following 
night one officer and nine men left on the first allotment of leave, 
which had come to us rather earlier than anticipated; but this allot- 
ment did not last long and it was late summer before leave opened 
at all generously. On Nov. 30th we left Leonvillers and marched nine 
miles to Authieule, leaving early on the next morning on a twelve- 
mile march to Noeux; here the greatest difficulty was encountered in 
obtaining sufficient fuel to cook the men's supper; Filleevres was our 
next objective, quite the pleasantest village we had visited since 
Tournehem and one capable of catering to the thirsty needs of men 
fresh from the line; another twelve miles saw us at Monchy on 
Dec. 3rd; a straggling village where the companies were widely 
dispersed; here we received a hundred reinforcements and so 
strengthened we faced the last spell of marching on a glorious frosty 
morning on Dec. 4th and covered twelve miles to La Comte, where 
good billets were provided against a prolonged stay. Here we may 
be said to have closed the chapter on the Somme preparatory to 
continuing our history on Vimy Ridge. 



41 






CHAPTER V. 

Trench Tours on Vimy Ridge — Capture of Vimy Ridge — Road 

Building After the Victory — Arrival of the 67th Bn. — Two 

Tours in "The Triangle" — Concerning 

Moving Pictures. 




|ROM the beginning of 1917 throughout the series of 
operations which culminated in the capture of Vimy 
Ridge on April 9th the history of the 102nd Bn. is a story 
of preparation, progress and achievement. When the 
battalion entered the Vimy Sector the latter had a 
reputation for quietness and peace unequalled in any 
other sector; casualties were few; the awful slaughters of 1915 when 
French blood had flowed like water to gain the Ridge were a memory 
of the past. The later struggle when the British, to whom the Ridge 
had been handed over, failed through insufficient artillery to hold it 
against overwhelming odds backed by guns of every calibre, was 
almost forgotten. The Germans were now firmly and as they believed 
impregnably established on the crest of Vimy Ridge, whence they 
had complete observation of all the country lying to the south, whilst 
the British were entrenched on the southern slope leading down to 
Zouave Valley, every approach to which was in full view of the Hun. 
Supply trains had nightly to run the gauntlet of the enemy's fire 
and the situation had gradually settled down to the trench life of 
regular monotony which had featured the years of warfare since the 
Battle of the Aisne. 

The operations of the 102nd Bn. which now entered the area are 
clearly divided into three distinct sections: — the first, a series of five 
tours in the trenches with six days' interval between each, lasting 
from Dec. 21st, 1916, to the end of March, 1917; the second, the ten- 
day tour which included the Battle of Vimy Ridge; the third, a series 
of three tours in the area lying between the crest of the Ridge and 
the suburbs of Lens, comprising the actions known in the battalion 
as the First and Second Triangle operations. When it is realised 
that the casualties for the first section only totalled 14 Other Ranks 
killed, and 1 Officer and 24 O. R. wounded, whilst the second was 
responsible for 6 Officers and 121 O. R. killed, 9 Officers and 185 O.R. 
wounded and 27 O. R. then reported missing, and the third for 5 



42 

Officers and 46 O. R. killed, 9 Officers and 239 O. R. wounded with 
6 O. R. then reported missing, the increasing severity of the oper- 
ations in this sector will be at once obvious. 

It was not until Dec. 20th that the battalion entered into any 
active operations, and for fifteen days we lay at La Comte, thoroughly 
appreciating the rest and change after the arduous tour on the Somme 
and the heavy marching which had supervened. At best, however, 
La Comte was no village to write home about and during our stay 
the weather was for the most part so atrocious that it was only by 
comparison that our surroundings could be considered enjoyable. 
There was no form of recreation available, and the nearest town, 
Bruay, was too far distant to be of much practical use, besides being 
out of bounds. On the 9th the battalion went over there to Use the 
miners' baths and the excellence of the accommodation was a 
revelation to most of us who had no idea that Industrial France was 
so up to date in this form of sanitation. Generally speaking 
sanitation is so much at a discount both in French and Belgian 
country districts that the public- bathing facilities in the industrial 
areas always came as a pleasant surprise. On the occasion of this 
bathing parade we had experience of one of those curious anomalies 
which have always been such a feature of the British way of doing 
things. It was a pouring wet day and the men had to march five 
miles through the rain and mud to Bruay and back the same distance; 
on the return journey they met a large detachment of German 
prisoners being driven in motor trucks to take their periodical bath: 
the Soldiers of the King had to "hoof it"; the ex-soldiers of the 
Kaiser drove to their ablutions in state! Further comment is unne- 
cessary. On the same night an anniversary dinner in honour of the 
inauguration of the battalion was held in the Officers' Mess and was 
attended by the Divisional and Brigade Commanders with their 
respective Staffs. During the following week we had three important 
visitations: — measles appeared in our midst, but fortunately there was 
no serious outbreak and prompt quarantine measures sufficed to hold 
the epidemic in check; the second event was the arrival of the ballot 
and those men who had not previously voted in England on "Prohi- 
bition" and "Woman's Suffrage" were privileged to register the 
votes which were never afterwards taken into account. It is a 
wonderful system which goes to the trouble and expense of registering 
votes which are later to be thrown out of court, but every country 
has its own peculiarities as we had ample opportunity of judging. 
Continental Europe has a penchant for advertising its manure heaps 
outside. its private houses; Canada rather enjoys washing its dirty 
linen in public; it's merely a distinction without much difference. 
Thirdly, and this was the most important event, the Corps Com- 
mander, Lieut.-General Sir Julian H. C. Byng, K.C.B., K.C.M.G, 
M.V.O., visited the area and held a Decoration Parade at which some 
of the medals won on the Somme were presented to members of the 
102nd after which the battalion "marched past." 



43 

On the 16th December Colonel Warden left the unit for a ten-day 
course at Boulogne, leaving Major Worsnop in command, and the 
following day saw the battalion in heavy marching order, enduring 
first a C. O.'s inspection and then a long Church Service. It is seri- 
ously open to doubt whether the cause of religion is furthered by the 
infliction of unnecessary physical discomforts, and to keep men 
standing long hours in bad weather heavily burdened with their full 
equipment savours more of the worship of the Devil than of the Prince 
of Peace. It certainly drives more men to the former than it leads 
to the latter. 

On Dec. 20th our days of rest were numbered; no one was very 
sorry to leave La Comte and certainly nobody regretted saying fare- 
well to the ancient chatelaine of the Chateau where Headquarters had 
been established, a virulent grand-dame with the disposition of a 
crab-apple and the tongue of a dyspeptic corncake. It was 7.00 a.m. 
when we fell in and marched off to Cambligneul, a rather large village 
ten miles away, where the Companies and Headquarters were billeted 
for the night, the Transport Lines proceeding three miles further to 
Gouy Servins, a hamlet which was to serve as our base for some 
^veeks to come and in the neighbourhood of which we were to be 
quartered at intervals for another eighteen months. The following 
morning saw us on the way to the Forward Area where we were to 
relieve the 15th Bn. in Support in Cabaret Rouge, Headquarters being 
established on the Arras^Souchez road in view of Lens. Here we 
were temporarily attached to the First Division and for two days 
supplied working-parties. On Christmas Eve we were relieved by 
the 75th Bn. and marched back to Reserve in an oasis of mud known 
as Berthonval which we were to know well during the next six 
months. Our first view of Berthonval was our worst; it was dark 
when we arrived, rain was falling and the mud was treacnerou* and 
slippery; accommodation was very bad. In course of time Berthonval 
was made into a good camp; for three months the same Brigade used 
the area and the battalions had a chance to make things rather more 
comfortable, but in the beginning it was bad. The whole of this area, 
Front Line, Support and Reserve, betrayed the grossest neglect by the 
units using it in the summer and autumn, no effort apparently having 
been made to put it in good shape for the winter. In this wilderness 
we spent our first Christmas "over there" and not even the small por- 
tion of plum-pudding which was served out at dinner could create 
any kind of a festive atmosphere. On the 27th _ we moved up to the 
Front Line and relieved the 54th Bn. on the northern side of Zouave 
Valley. The first view of this valley as approached through Wortley 
Trench was rather wonderful. The Ridge rises up behind it and the 
whole of the hillside facing the oncomer is honeycombed with dug- 
outs, the general effect calling to mind the pictures of the Cave- 
dwellers of Central America. The Ridge itself was a marvel of 
engineering: it was pierced here and there with tunnels, each having 
extensive ramifications; a light railway ran down the valley on its 



44 

southern slope; water was piped to it across miles of open country. 
It sometimes seemed as though the Hun was so confident that it could 
never be captured that he was willing to allow any reasonable oper- 
ations to be carried on without too much interference on his part, just 
so as to keep his enemies busy and incapable of doing him mischief 
elsewhere. 

To a battalion with previous experience on two other fronts the 
first tour in a new area was naturally of peculiar interest; but when 
all is said and done, there was not much to choose in Front Line 
work. If the mud in the Salient was stickier, the mud on the Somme 
was deeper, and that at Vimy was remarkably like both varieties, 
though it had a tendency to dry up quicker. The scenery was cer- 
tainly better than that on the Somme and the local inhabitants were 
certainly pleasanter than those we had first met in Flanders, but the 
Front Line trenches and the work involved by their occupation 
remained the same; so many days in Support, furnishing working 
parties, so many in Reserve, furnishing working-parties, and so many 
more in the Front Line itself, mounting guard, manning posts, sending 
out patrols, ever in readiness to resist attack, subjected to Fritz' Hymn 
of Hate, whenever he felt like hating, and, so as not to lose the habit, 
furnishing working-parties. Then, after the 18-day tour, a tramp back 
from mud up to the thighs, through mud up to the knees, to mud well 
over the ankles. The six-day rest was always a gamble; the battalion 
might be sent to a town where eggs and chips could be bought and 
where estaminets, as the local "pubs" are called, provided a little 
refreshment in the shape of beer or stout; or it might be sent to one 
of the rest camps provided, isolated huts in a sea of mud, with one 
Y.M.C.A. tent providing the sole form of recreation for two or 
more battalions. 

Our first rest, on Jan. 2nd, took us to Camblain L'Abbe. one of 
the many villages in the rear of the Allied positions and all very much 
alike. Divisional Headquarters were established in Camblain L'Abbe 
and perhaps it was one of the best villages in the area from the point 
of view of the "egg and chip" fiend, but the Divisional baths there 
were particularly vile; the Diary for its entry of Jan. 3rd states: 
"Bathing parade; by far the worst managed and most insanitary baths 
yet encountered; very little water, very thinly sprinkled: both time 
and water insufficient for the men to cleanse themselves. Undercloth- 
ing insufficient and not properly sterilised." Such extracts may appear 
in the light of a comedy nearly three years after the eyent, but they 
more nearly approached the narration of a tragedy when they were 
originally penned. During this first week the battalion was reinforced 
by a draft of 195 men who were formed into an "E" Co. and under- 
went special training under Brigade. 

The second tour in Vimy differed little from the first save in the 
location of the Support area which was changed to a series of trenches 
known generally by the name of "Music-Hall," the subsidiary trenches 
being named after well-known London music-halls, most' certainly an 



45 

instance of "lucus a non lucendo," for the only music heard was the 
humming of aeroplanes and the whistling of shells; this Support 
position was located on the ridge bounding the south of Zouave Valley. 
During all tours in this area one company of the battalion in support 
was sent forward to be attacked as a working-party to the ba-ttalion in 
the front line. The weather grew steadily colder, but this was a 
welcome change; the days were bright and clear and the frost kept the 
trenches clear of mud. Our second tour came to an end on Jan. 26 
when the battalion marched out before noon to Villers-au-Bois, a 
ruined village whose only feature of interest was the big cemetery, 
where wagons were waiting to take the men's kits; our destination 
was Coupigny, eleven miles from the Front Line, and a hot meal was 
served at Villers before the men continued on the long tramp to 
billets. Coupigny deserves a new paragraph to itself, but it is neces- 
sary first to make some digression and relate various important 
changes which were made in the personnel of the Battalion Staff 
during the early part of 1917. 

On Dec. 31st Major C. B. Worsnop, D.S.O., was notified that he 
had been appointed to the temporary command of the 50th Bn. and 
on that day he left the 102nd. This officer was later transferred to 
the command of the 75th Bn. which he commanded on April 9th. 
subsequently being transferred to England where he eventually took 
over the command of the 16th Reserve Battalion at Seaford. His 
place as Second-in-Command was taken by Major A. B. Carey, who 
had joined us from the 67th during the Somme operations where he 
had been woundeu, and on Feb. 14th the latter succeeded to the Acting 
Command of the battalion owing to the absence of Colonel Warden, 
who was struck down by paratyphoid and sent to the South of France 
for treatment. This position Major Carey held until Colonel Warden's 
return at the close of the great battle on Easter Monday, hi- own 
duties as Second being taken over by Major F. Lister. M.C. The 
Adjutant throughout practically the whole of the Vimy Ridge tours 
was Capt. J. B. Bailey, with Lieut. J. L. Lloyd, who had been granted 
a commission at the end of December as Assistant Adjutant. The 
four Company Commanders of "A," "B," "C" and "D" Coys, respec- 
tively were Major F. Lister, succeeded by Lieut. J. H. Wilson. Major 
J. F. Brandt, succeeded by Lieut. E. L. Peers, Major R. G. H. Brydon 
and Major H. B. Scharschmidt. succeeded by Lieut. H. G. Dimsdale. 
Capt. X M. McNeill who had come over with the unit as Medical 
Officer had been invalided sick in the Somme. and his place taken by 
Capt. L. B. Graham, who, on going sick, made way for Capt. Woodley, 
who was in his turn relieved by Major W. Bapty, of Victoria. B.C., 
on March 12th. Major Bapty had already seen active service with 
the 2nd C.M.R., having joined that unit as a combatant officer and 
later transferring to the C.A.M.C. Major Bapty remained as M. O. 
with the 102nd Bn. for eight months, and was twice wounded in that 
time, being finally invalided to England in consequence of a wound 
received at Passchendaele. It may be permitted here to remark that 



46 

in addition to being a first-class M.O. he was a most inveterate 
souvenir hunter and if only a reasonable percentage of his packages 
reached their destination he must now have a most wonderful collec- 
tion of battlefield junk. The duties of Quartermaster were largely 
undertaken by Lieut. R. Fitzmaurice acting for Capt. Stead who was 
under medical care during the greater part of this period. 

Coupigny, whither we repaired on Jan. 26th, was by far the best 
place in which we had yet been billeted; it could be dignified by the 
name of a town; it was really a double-barrelled affair and was more 
correctly known as Hersin-Coupigny, Hersin being the town at the 
south-western end, stretching away to the coal mines at Noeux-les- 
Mines, and Coupigny lying nearer to our own front; the two being 
connected by a long street. At Coupigny good hut accommodation 
was provided, though on the occasion of our first visit the cold was so 
intense and fuel so scarce that it was difficult to keep warm enough 
to sleep. But for the first time since we had landed in France we had 
a real town to look at and spend money in and the change was 
exceedingly welcome. Later on the Transport Lines were to move 
down from Gouy Servins and take up quarters in Hersin, an incon- 
venient arrangement from the point of view of transport as there was 
a very bad hill leading out of Coupigny which entailed a very severe 
strain on the horses. But Hersin was a far better permanent base 
than Gouy, concerning which some description will be given later. 

The third tour in the line, which started on Feb. 1st, was marked 
by increasing aerial activity, in which the enemy generally seemed 
to hold the advantage; one little red machine of his was particularly 
noticeable and scored victory after victory. The artillery work on 
both sides increased in volume throughout this tour and four raids, 
two by the 72nd Bn., one by the 38th, and another by the 10th Brigade 
were staged. An incident occurred on the night of Feb. 17th, which 
might have had very serious results for the battalion. A supply of 
gas was being brought up to Zouave Valley for use in a big gas attack 
planned for the end of the month; the gas came up as usual in big 
cylinders transported by the mule team over the light railway; just 
as the train came into the 102nd area the Hun opened up a fierce 
bombardment of the valley with whizz-bangs which fell all round the 
train, causing several casualties and killing two of the mules, but not 
one of the dangerous cylinders was touched. On the conclusion of 
the third tour, on Feb. 19th, the unit returned to Coupigny Huts. 

The fourth tour did not open until the 1st March though we had 
all expected to move up as usual after six days. The reason for this 
delay was the postponement of the gas attack referred to above which 
was rendered inevitable by the wind conditions. The 54th and 75th 
Bns. had been scheduled to take part in the raid which was to follow 
the projection of the gas and these two units had to remain in the 
line until the wind was favourable; meantime the 102nd was ordered to 
"stand to" in rest billets ready to move up at a moment's notice. 
On the last night of the month the attack and raid were delivered 



47 

and, though successful from a military standpoint, entailed disastrous 
results to the two battalions of the 11th Bdc. concerned. The gas hung 
low on the area over which it had been projected and when the time 
came for the raid it had not been sufficiently dispersed; moreover the 
enemy in anticipation of this "follow-up" swept the gassed area with 
his fire, with the result that the 54th and 75th suffered heavily in 
casualties which included Lieut. -Col. Kemball and Lieut. -Col. Beckett, 
commanding the two units respectively. On the following day the 
102nd moved into reserve at Berthonval, the delay slightly altering 
the usual routine, and remained there till the 7th, when It moved into 
the Front Line, relieving the 87th and taking over the positions usually 
embraced by both the 11th and 12th Brigades. The Front Line 
trenches were in bad shape; the retaliatory bombardment by the 
enemy had merged Sombart and Snargate trenches into one and a 
great deal of hard work was needed to put the area into a safe 
condition. This was our "job" till the 11th, when we moved back to 
rest in what was perhaps the worst camp outside of Vadincourt that 
we ever visited, Bouvigny Huts. It was a nine-mile march to this 
camp, which was situated in a wood on a hill above Gouy Servins; the 
weather was bad, the mud intense, the accommodation crowded: the 
87th shared the camp with us and for eight days we lingered there 
with no recreation other than that afforded by one Y.M.C.A. hut which 
was always packed to the doors. It is a positive fact that man after 
man when out at rest under these conditions would emphatically 
declare that he was looking forward to going up the line again because 
life in the trenches was less irksome and monotonous and no more 
beastly than in places like Bouvigny Huts. This is merely a state- 
ment of fact and not a criticism of the organization: in view of the 
number of troops to be looked after and the limited possibilities of 
accommodation in the whole of the shell-shocked area round Yimv 
we were lucky not to be sleeping on the ground: but the statement 
is made to show that life behind the lines was not lived out upon a 
bed of roses. On the 19th, we moved forward again for our fifth 
tr.ur. the principal object of which was the digging of a new front 
line trench: all the trenches were in bad condition, but few men could 
lie spared for maintenance work, and throughout the tour every effort 
v.i- concentrated on the successful completion of ♦he task assigned. 
Two days after our entry into the Forward Area our spirits were 
cheered and our bodies refreshed by the re-appearance of the rum 
issue. Reference has already been made to the stopping of this issue 
in the 11th Brigade, and now at long last the restriction was removed, 
largely owintr. it is believed, to the representations of medical authori- 
ties, although it was also realized that discipline was threatened when 
men of one brigade were thus penalized, though working in juxta- 
position with men of other brigades who were permitted to enjoy the 
issue. On the 25th the new trench was completed, and on the 
following day the Battalion was relieved by the 54th, "A" and "B" 
Companies, with Headquarters, moving to St. Lawrence Camp at 



48 

Chateau de la Haie, "C" and "D" Companies remaining at Berthonval, 
under Major Lister, to provide working-parties; these Companies 
exchanged positions on the 30th. 

This was our first experience of the newly-constructed camps in 
the grounds of the Chateau de la Haie. The latter was a fine stone 
building standing in beautiful park grounds which had been taken over 
by the Allies for military purposes. For very many months it was 
used for Brigade Headquarters by the Divisions operating in the Vimy 
sector, and in the surrounding grounds there sprang up four camps, 
known as St. Lawrence, Niagara, Canada, and Vancouver. A good 
bath-house was constructed at the bottom of the slope leading down 
from the Chateau, and later in the year a fine theatre was built. 
During the summer the camps around the Chateau were pleasant 
enough, but in the early days of their being, ,when the weather was 
inclement and the accommodation limited they suffered badly from 
the mud, which was always well over the boot-tops and frequently 
engulfed a man to the knees. It was to St. Lawrence Camp that the 
102nd Bn. came on the completion of the fifth tour, which also saw the 
end of the first section of operations on Vimy Ridge. It must not be 
imagined that because this first section has been dismissed with scant 
reference to the sterner side of war that the Battalion had been having 
an easy time during the first three months of 1917. It is true that 
casualties had been few, but the work throughout the five tours had 
been hard and unceasing, and the discomforts of trench life had been 
encountered in their most exaggerated form. The trenches, when not 
frozen, had been frequently flooded and were always full of mud; 
vermin were at their worst, and these conditions had produced an 
epidemic of myalgia, violent and unremitting pains, principally in the 
legs: except in very severe cases, however, where a high temperature 
obtained, this malady did not excuse a man from duty. Trench feet, 
fortunately, were unknown on Vimy Ridge, owing to unremitting 
attention which ensured nightly rubbing of the feet with whale oil, 
and a plentiful supply of socks, for which all thanks are due to the 
women of Canada. It had been a hard, hard winter, but the 102nd 
had won through and found itself ready at the end of March to carry 
out the second section of operations which culminated in the glorious 
victory of Easter Monday. 

§ii- 
The second section opened with half the Battalion at rest in St. 
Lawrence Camp and the other half located at Berthonval, whence 
parties were furnished nightly to the iront line to dig an Assembly 
Trench for the impending major operation. A training course was 
taped out in the grounds of the Chateau showing the exact positions 
of the objectives to be taken in the grand assault, and the men 
rehearsed "going over" wearing the battalion equipment which they 
would be carrying on the day itself. Nothing was left to chance. By 
the time that the Battalion was ordered into the trenches, not only 



49 

the commissioned and non-commissioned officers, but every individual 
man, knew what he had to do and when he had to do it. This training 
was carried on under very trying weather conditions, which grew 
worse each day, ending with a heavy snowstorm on April 2nd, which 
gradually assumed the proportions of a .blizzard on the following day. 
Through this the Battalion went forward on April 3rd, leaving the 
camp at 9.30 a.m., "A" and "B" Companies going straight through to 
Cavalier Tunnel, "D" Company with Headquarters moving as far as 
Music Hall and "C" Company being posted in Berthonval Wood. 
The next six days saw an ever-increasing artillery fire from our own 
batteries, with such feeble response from the Hun that grave fears 
were entertained lest he were already retiring from the Ridge in his 
•wn time. On April 6th our artillery started wire-cutting, but weather 
conditions were such that the hour for attack, which had been set for 
5.30 a.m. on April 8th, was postponed for twenty-four hours. It was 
not, therefore, until noon on the 8th that the whole Battalion 
assembled in the long caves and tunnels running from Zouave Valley 
to the front line on which the men had worked so laboriously for the 
past three months. Here they rested until 8.30 p.m., when the four 
Company commanders, Lieut. J. H. Wilson, Lieut. E. J. Peers, Major 
R. G. H. Brydon and Lieut. H. G. Dimsdale, reported to the Acting 
CO. for final instructions; these were given and then the companies 
left for their appointed positions. In the forthcoming operation the 
102nd Bn. was supported by the 54th, which was to pass through the 
former when the first objectives had been taken, thus pushing the 
attack further home. On the left flank was the 87th Bn., similarly 
supported by the 75th. On the righ t lay the 42nd '•in., a connecting 
link between the 102nd and the "Princess Pats." 

All was now in readiness. It was past midnight, and the dawn of 
Easter Monday would see "Warden's Warriors" in the thick of the 
biggest fight in which they had yet been engaged. Outside the weather 
had grown steadily colder, and when at the stroke of 5.30 a.m. the 
barrage opened, a driving snow was falling. It was just light enough 
to see, and within five minutes observers came down to report that 
the men of the 102nd had gone over as one man in perfect formation. 
The first report from the front line was brought by a "D v Coy. 
runner, who brought the news that Lieut. H. G. Dimsdale had been 
wounded in hand and leg, and in a few minutes that officer appeared 
en route for the Dressing Station. He stated that the wire had been 
crossed and that the enemy front line trench had been won. At 6.00. 
a.m. Lieut. H. M. Bennett, walking wounded and bringing in a 
prisoner, reported that the second line of trenches had been gained, 
and forty minutes later Lieut. J. Robbins. also wounded, brought in 
the news that the Hun had lost his third line of trenches. The 102nd 
had already captured its three objectives, but it remained for the 
positions to be consolidated and held against the fierce counter- 
attacks which were certain to develop. The Scout Officer. Lieut. 



50 

E. J. B. Fallis, was accordingly sent up to report on this consolidation, 
as there were rumours that on the right things were not going well; 
at this time the left flank appeared to be well protected. Before he 
could reach the line, however, two Runners from "D" Co. came in 
with the news that we had by this time established two strong points 
of our own well forward, and had in addition, by a clever circling 
movement, captured an enemy strong-point on the left of Broadmarsh 
Crater. No officers, however, were to be seen anywhere; all had. 
be come ca sualties, and the active command of the Battalion in front 
haddevolved on C. S. M. Russell, of "C" Coy., whilst Sgt. D. S. 
Georgeson, M.M., was holding the Broadmarsh Crater strong-point 
with a platoon. It now appeared that the 54th, who in accordance 
with orders had passed through our ranks, had been compelled to 
fall back and were holding the new front line in conjunction with our 
men against the massing Hun. Moreover, the affiair was not pro- 
gressing well on our left; the 87th Bn. had not yet gained its 
- objectives, with the result that our flank was in the air and being 
exposed to terrible sniping. At 9.00 a.m. the Scout Officer reported 
that consolidation had been completed, but almost immediately after 
wards news was received that he had been killed and that C.S.M. 
Russell had been seriously wounded. In view of *he serious aspect 
of the case, Major Carey obtained permission from Brigade Head- 
quarters to go up in person and reconnoitre the position for himself. 
Accompanied by Scout-Sergt. F. B. Vogel, who was killed "en route," 
and Pte. J. A. Hall, of the Battalion Runners, he left Headquarters 
at 9.30 a.m., returning after three hours, satisfied that the Battalion 
was securely dug in. But the sniping was terrific, being mainly 
directed from Hill 145 on the left, and supplies of bombs and S.A.A. 
were urgently needed at the front. A carrying-party under Lieut. S. F. 
Knight, the Battalion Lewis Gun Officer, was accordingly organized, 
and after four attempts this band contrived to win their way through 
with the required ammunition. During the balance of the day the 
situation remained unchanged, the men lying well under cover, and 
at 6.30 p.m. the 85th Bn. captured Hill 145, whence so much of our 
danger had come, and thereafter, to a large extent , sniping ceased. 
At 7:30 p.m. Major Lister arrived at Headquarters from the Transport 
Lines with the news that Col. Warden had returned and would be up 
in the morning. Major Lister then went up to the front and remained 
there all night. 

The battle, so far as the 102nd was concerned, was over; the 
victory won. The Hun had left the Ridge he had held so long and 
retreated across the flat ground on the other side towards the out- 
skirts of Lens, where he had another line of defence. It but remained 
to count the spoils and calculate the cost — alas, a heavy one. Our 
casualties for the day were as follows: — Killed: Major R. G. H. 
Brydon, Lieuts. R. A. Stalker. E. J. B. Fallis, D. A. Boyes and 113 
Other Ranks, with 27 Other Ranks reported missing. Died of 



51 

wounds: Lieuts. J. H. Wilson, A. Lineham, and 6 Other Ranks. 
Wounded: Lieuts. J. Robbins, H. G. Dimsdale, H. M. Bennett, R. S. 
Wright, W. L. Frame. E. L. Peers, A. C. Buchan, N. T M. Love, 
E. G. Lester and 180 Other Ranks. The spoils o ( war consisted of 
119 prisoners; 1 Minnenwerfer; 4 Bomb Throwers; 2 Machine Guns. 

Dawn broke with snow on t/he ground; on our own front the day 
was absolutely uneventful. There was some hope of being relieved 
that night, but it was finally decided that relief would take place on 
the morrow. At 10:30 a.m. on April 11th orders we're received to 
dove back to St. Lawrence Camp, our place being-taken for 24 hours 
by the 54th Bn. against the arrival of Imperials. The march back to 
camp was undertaken in the teeth of a heavy snowstorm, which 
added another hardship to be borne by the already exhausted men. 
and on arrival we found that accommodation was extremely limited, 
the whole area being packed with troops. It was the intention that 
the men should have a thorough rest on the following day, but this 
was frustrated by sudden orders received to march up to Souchez, in 
the 10th Brigade area, and support that Brigade. In the then depleted 
state of the Battalion it was found possible to assemble only 360 
effectives, and at 2.00 p.m. that number moved out under the comtnand 
of Col. Warden. The conditions that prevailed at the Souchez end 
of the valley were at that time unknown to us, and in consequence the 
102nd performed an hitherto unattempted feat in crossing over the 
duck-walk at Souchez in broad daylight. That no casualties occurred 
was not the fault of the German gunners, but due to the mud: that 
treacherous element on this occasion served the Battalion . well, as 
the high-explosive shells buried themselves so deeply in the ooze that 
the effect of their explosion was neutralized. 

Headquarters were established in Souohez Tunnel, a subterranean 
sewer, but always ankle-deep and more often knee-deep with water 
instead of sewage. The Battalion Orderly Room was a fair-sized 
chamber raised above water level, but as it had also to" serve the four 
Battalions of the 10th Brigade our own Headquarters Staff was 
neither welcome nor needed, seeing that the 102nd was divided up 
into two Companies, and attached to the 44th and 46th Bns. respec- 
ti\ely. These Companies, were, however, largely self-dependent; 
the 10th Brigade Runners were incapable of leading them in to their 
positions, and it was only due to the wonderful sagacity of our own 
Battalion Runners that the men ever found their rightful locations: 
moreover, the 102nd had to depend on itself to secure rations and 
munitions: these were at Rugby Dump, a far journey through the 
mud of a winding trench. It is to the lasting credit of the 102nd 
Battalion Runners, under Cpl. J. McHugh, M.M., and the limited 
number of Pioneers present under Cpl. C. B. Kirby. that the men 
in the trenches had supplies brought to them. The companies were 
too weak, both physically and numerically, to form ration parties, 
and it was left to the Runners, mere boys for the most part, reinforced 



52 

by the three or four Pioneers present, to go backwards and forwards, 
heavily laden with food and ammunition; and this in addition to the 
ordinary Runners' duties, always a hard and perilous task in the 
front line, and rendered doubly so in the present case, as the territory 
was strange and unsurveyed by them and the enemy artillery and 
machine-gun fire was particularly vicious. Most welcome orders to 
move back were received at noon on the following day, the 13th April, 
and the attenuated Battalion came out of the line by platoons, but the 
men were so exhausted that they had to be permitted to make their 
own way back to camp, and from 6.00 p.m. till after midnight they 
straggled into St. Lawrence Camp, there to find sleeping accommoda- 
tion wherever there was room in a ihut to squeeze in. The Artillery 
was moving up as fast as possible, and every available inch of covered 
space in camp was at a premium. It was, however, for only one night 
that these conditions prevailed, as on the next day we moved out in 
small parties to excellent billets in Cambligneul, the village where we 
had stayed one night on our first entry into the Vimy sector. 

§iii. 
We come now to the third section of operations, viz.: three tours 
of duty north of the Ridge, and on the outskirts of Lens prior to the 
street fighting in the latter town, which will form the subject of 
another chapter. The first essential after the capture of the Ridge 
was the construction of roads for the passage of heavy artillery, and 
on April 21st the Battalion moved forward to a newly-formed camp at 
La Targette to do its share in this important task. It seemed 
wonderful to be out in the open on ground which had so recently 
been the home of the Hun, whence he had directed his devastating 
fire on all the ground south of the Ridge. Where formerly we had 
crawled in trenches we now gaily marched overland, and we could 
also see for ourselves what wonderful observation he had enjoyed of 
all that had taken place in our area during the past months. From 
April 21st to May 6th the Battalion was engaged in road-making. 
The 18-pounders had already gone forward, but every available ounce 
of man-power was needed to pave a way for the "Heavies." Signallers, 
clerks, batmen and others usually exempt from such "Fatigues" were 
pressed into the service; the Transport Lines were combed again and 
again. By such means, and by the addition of the Brigade Machine 
Gun Co. and the Brigade Tump-line Section, the 102nd was enabled 
to supply 600 men daily to the Engineers. The work , though arduous, 
was fairly safe, and only two casualties, wounded, were reported 
during this period. On April 24th we moved camp back to a new 
location just forward of our old Berthonval quarters. The new camp, 
later christened Comox Camp, lay on a down-like expanse of ground 
which had not been too badly cut up by shell-fire nor churned into 
mud during wet weather: water for all purposes had to be hauled a 
considerable distance and very rigid economy had to be exercised in 
it> distribution, but that was a disadvantage to which we had all 



53 

been long accustomed. The weather was fine, and during the evenings 
we were able to enjoy the Battalion Band, whilst in the distance could 
be seen that famous land-mark, the ruined tower of Mt. St. Eloy 
About this time the Transport Lines were moved from Hersin to 
Carency. 

On May 2nd the 102nd Bn. was enriched by a large contingent of 
30 officers and 260 Other Ranks from the 67th (Pioneer) Battalion, 
which had been broken up for reason political to make room for the 
124th (Pioneer) Battalion, an Eastern aggregation. It was a sad blow 
to befall a very fine Battalion with nine months' service in France to 
its credit, but it was pure gain to the 102nd, which received a most 
welcome number of the finest kind of reinforcements. With this draft 
came the Pipe Band under Pipe-Major W. J. Wishart. It had long 
been Col. Warden's dream to have a Pipe Band; whilst at Bordon we 
had enjoyed (or otherwise, according to our musical disposition) the 
services of the Pipe Band of the 74th Bn., but we had been unable to 
retain this; now we had Pipers of our own, though eventually they 
had to be disbanded owing to establishment restrictions. Numbered 
amongst these newcomers was Piper James Wallace, of "Victoria, a 
veteran of the Zulu War of 1879, who on a later occasion had the 
honour of receiving a personal salute from H.R.H. the Duke of 
Connaught, who singled him out when the massed bands of the 
Corps played before him at Camblain L'Abbe. 

On May 6th we moved back still further to Canada Camp, there 
remaining until the evening of the 10th, when the Battalion fell in 
and marched off to relieve the 47th Bn. in support on the Vimy-Angres 
line, with Headquarters in a commodious concrete dug-out in the 
railway embankment. One platoon per company was detailed to 
report to the 50th Bn. in the front-line trenches, which had been 
hastily constructed and were both shallow and exposed, with the result 
that casualties were heavy. On the following night we relieved the 
50th. a difficult operation, as owing to some misunderstanding we had 
to find our own positions; in reconnoitring "A" Coy.'s position Lieut. 
C. G. Huggins ran into a German patrol of six men whom he success- 
fully put to flight; a very brilliant young officer who, alas, fell a 
casualty during the tour. This tour, which is generally referred to as 
* The First Triangle," afforded nothing spectacular in the way of 
operations, but much good work was done in improving the front 
line, with the result that on handing over to the 78th on the 20th 
the latter unit found a line of trenches well dug, straightened and 
secure. The morning of the 18th was marked by a minor operation 
to be carried out by "D" Coy. in co-operation with the 87th on our 
right. The 139th Brigade on our left was putting on a raid, and under 
cover of a feint barrage on our front "D" Coy. was to establish a 
post 100 yards in advance of our line: the 87th on the right were to do 
the same and connect with our men. Unfortunately the latter Battalion 
failed to succeed, and instead of finding them connecting on the right, 



54 

"D" Coy. found the Hun attacking from the rear and flank; our men 
drove back the enemy, but were compelled to abandon the post. On 
the 20th we were relieved in the front line by the 78th, and in support 
by the 85th, the Battalion marohing back to Vancouver Camp, Chateau 
de la Haie. The shelling throughout the tour had been heavy, with 
the result that casualties were numerous, Lieuts. C. G. Huggins, C. 
de West, J. S. Rodgerson and 21 Other Ranks being killed, and Lieut. 
J. E. Manning with 92 Other Ranks being wounded. 

On the day on which we came out of the line R.S.M. Long, who 
had filled the position of Regimental Sergeant-Major since the incep- 
tion of the unit, left the Battalion to take up a position with Division: 
he was later appointed an Instructor in the Corps School, thereafter 
being transferred to England to fill an important position at Bexhill. 
His last act before leaving was to organize a Sergeants' Mess, which 
up to that time had always been found to be an impracticable institu- 
tion, owing to the impossibility of obtaining accommodation, and on 
May 23rd, for the first time since leaving England, a Sergeants' Mess 
v/as inaugurated. The retiring R.S.M. was succeeded in his duties 
by C.S.M. Mirams, who had joined the unit on the 2nd inst .from the 
67th and was later confirmed in his new rank. On the 24th Col. 
Warden took over the duties of Brigadier, owing to the absence of 
Brig.-General V. W. Odium on leave, and Major F. Lister and Major 
H. B. Scharschmidt were appointed temporary CO. and Second-in- 
Command respectively, Major A. B. Carey having left the 102nd on 
the 22nd inst. to take over the command of the 54th. On the 28th 
the Battalion moved up to Comox Camp. 

The fortnight which elapsed between the operations known as 
those of "The First and Second Triangle" was spent in very severe 
training for the strenuous fightlng""which the second operation was to 
entail. The forthcoming tour was to see the 102nd for the first 
time at grips with the Hun, swaying back and forth before winning 
the gage of victory. In previous offensives victory had been "rushed'* 
and some period of time afforded for consolidation before the counter- 
attack developed; the Second Triangle was to see fierce hand-to-hand 
righting before the victory could be counted sure. Careful rehearsals 
of the proposed operations over a taped-out course were carried out; 
a miniature out-door map of the enemy's positions \vas constructed by 
the Engineers and elaborately explained to all ranks, and it was a 
well-instructed unit that moved up the line on June 3rd under the 
command of Col. Warden, who had been relieved of his duties as 
Acting-Brigadier by the return of General Odium. 

Three important tasks were set the Battalion on this tour; one 
was to capture and mop up the series of trenches known as ''The 
Triangle"; the second to capture a strong-point consisting of a con- 
crete machine-gun emplacement set in the railway embankment and 
formidably protected; the third to capture, consolidate and hold a line 
east of the Generating Station, establishing thereby a new front lint- 



55 

All these tasks were eventually accomplished, but not without bitter 
:ui<l fierce fighting. On June 5th, "D" Coy., under Major H. B. 
Scharschmidt, under cove"? of" a rifle grenade and machine-gun 
barrage, managed to occupy the Generating Station and advance in 
the direction of the Brewery and the suburb of Leaurette, but this 
success was offset by the failure of two attempts to capture the strong 
point referred to; the Battalion also sustained a serious loss in the 
gassing of Major Scharschmidt, who was so severely affected as to be 
permanently invalided out of France. A third attempt to capture the 
strong-point on the 7th failed of its purpose. On the following day 
two important operations were carried out. No. 6 Platoon of "B" 
Coy., under Lieut. G. Lowrie, was detailed to attack "The Triangle" 
and to hand same over to the 5th Leicesters on our left. The attack 
took place at 8.30 p.m., and at the first assault Lieut. Lowrie wa3 
killed, his place being taken by Lieut. J. G. Knight; under a hail of 
machine-gun bullets and high-explosive shells the men cut through 
the wire and bombed their way to the enemy positions; the resistance 
encountered was very stubborn, but "The Triangle" was eventually 
captured, together with 15 unwounded prisoners, and hande-d over to 
the Leicesters, and No. 6 Platoon returned to its starting-point. 
Throughout this operation visibility had been Hampered by smoke, 
both from the barrage and from a burning coal dump in Fosse 3, bu' 
the affair had been brilliantly conceived and as brilliantly carried out, 
earning the following commendation from the Brigadier addressed to 
the CO.: "Please convey to Lieut. Knight my sincere appreciation of 
the work he did on the night of the 8th inst. The operation in "The 
Triangle" was as brilliant as anything I have seen in France." The 
second operation did not commence until 11:45 p.m. This was an 
attack on the whole Battalion frontage, with the intention of capturing 
and consolidating enemy positions, establishing a new .front line and 
mopping up all enemy dug-outs between the Generating Station and 
Souchez River. "A" Coy. and one platoon of "C" Coy., under Maj. R. 
J. Burde, M.C., were detailed for this task. "C" Coy.'s platoon managed 
to get round the wire, but "A" Coy. found the wire impassable and, 
in -pite of a second heroic attempt under Sgt. Z. Kirby, who rallied 
the men in a desperate endeavour to penetrate to the enemy's position. 
the troops had to be recalled to their jumping-off place and to consoli- 
date there. Two hours later the disheartening news was received 
that the Leicesters had been forced out of "The Triangle," which was 
once more in German bands. The main objects of the two operations 
had not been successful, but the enemy dug-outs had been thoroughly 
bombed and enormous causalties had been inflicted. The balance of 
the day, June 9t h. was quiet: hardly a shot was fired, but plans were 
being formulated for another attack on th e 10th. Again the attack- 
took a dual form. A platoon of "A" Coy., under Lieut. C. S. Griffin, 
was ordered to capture, mop up and hold a trench known as "Calico- 
( andle" to its junction with Canada trench, and to carry out the 



56 

same operation with Canada trench; the first part of this plan was 
successfully carried out, but Canada trench was found to be non- 
existent, having been completely demolished by shell fire and affording 
no sort of cover against a tempest of shot; further advance was 
impossible. The second attack was directed against the concrete gun- 
emplacement which had already resisted three attempts at capture, 
and took the iform of a stealth raid by a bombing section of "B" 
Coy., under Sgt. A. Law. Unfortunately whilst proceeding down the 
embankment on the way to the attack he touched a trap wire which 
exploded a small mine, arousing the enemy to a sense of his danger; 
the surprise element had failed and our men had to retire under cover 
of rifle and rifle-grenade fire and a Stokes gun barrage which caused 
heavy casualties to the enemy. June 11th was a comparatively quiet 
day, an inter-company relief taking place, but "D" Coy. contrived to 
advance its line 75 yards along Candle trench until contact with the 
enemy was made, when a bombing fight ensued and a new strong-point 
was established there. In the meantime preparations were made for a 
final offensive on the 12th, the main object of which was to capture 
the concrete strong-point, and to effect a union with the Lincolns, who 
had replaced the Leicesters on the left and were to retake "The 
Triangle." At 7.00 a.m. an intense barrage was laid down and a 
platoon of "A" Coy., under Lieut Griffin, assaulted the emplacement 
and captured it, together with two machine-guns and 16 prisoners, 
inflicting at the same time very heavy casualties on the defenders. 
Strong counter-attacks were delivered by the Hun, and Lieut. Griffin's 
party was reinforced from "B" Coy., with the result that all the 
enemy's efforts were in vain, the strong-point remained in our posses- 
sion and connection was established with the Lincolns, who had 
stormed through "The Triangle" and effected a junction at the point 
designated. Towards midnight relief was effected by the 85th Bn., 
and the 102nd moved out to Vancouver Camp. 

Such, in brief, is the story of "The Second Tr ; any;le" tour, one of 
the most brilliant, as it was one of the" mO sT- Sl retfubus, in the history 
of the 102nd Bn. In nine days the Battalion, or some substantial parr 
of it, had "gone over the top" six times; in the face of desperate-'resist- 
ance it had eventually carried out all the tasks assigned to it, and 
in addition to immeasurably strengthening the Canadian positions in 
the area it ihad inflicted incredible casualties on the enemy. But our 
own losses were found to be very heavy. Lieuts. E. J. Norwood and 
G. Lowrie and 25 Other Ranks were killed; Major H. B. Scharschmidt, 
Major W. Bapty, Lieuts. L. A. Gritten, M. A. M. Marsden, C. S 
Griffin, S. J. L. Chalifour, F. Richardson and 145 Other Ranks were 
wounded, whilst six Other Ranks were reported missing, making .-. 
total of 185 casualties out of the 563 effectives who went into the line 

For the benefit ot many who believe that the moving-pictures 
taken under the auspices of the Canadian Records Office are "faked" 
il may here be related that during this tour the official photographer 



57 




ON VI MY RIDGE 



58 

appeared at Battalion Headquarters one evening an hour before a 
double offensive was due. He had been sent up in view of the 
importance of these operations, and requested to be forwarded up the 
line. The CO. promptly detailed Major E. J. Ryan to take him up 
to "D" Coy.'s Headquarters, and he was subsequently posted in "No 
Man's Land" beside the Power Station, where he established himself 
with his camera. When the action started the shelling was so terrific 
on both sides that it was impossible to see ten yards in any direction, 
dry mud was being blown from two to thre hundred feet in the air, 
and this, with the smoke, made everything as dark as night. He was 
therefore unable to take any pictures and returned to Headquarters, 
merely remarking that there was rather warm work going on up 
there, about the hottest he had yet been in, and that if the 102nd got 
through they were heroes every one of them. Fifteen months later 
we met this same photographer during the offensive of September 2nd, 
1918, when the Hindenburg Switch line was in process of being 
smashed. 

This concludes the story of the series of operations conducted by 
the*102nd Bn. in the Vimy Sector; though we were constantly in the 
same area, subsequent oerations are referred to under other designa- 
tions. For over five months and a half we had fought along the Ridge, 
and now on its crest stand two monuments closely inscribed with 
names; one is erected to the memory of those brave men who laid 
down their lives during the long months of preparation or during the 
three tours which succeeded the great victory of April 9th, 1917: the 
other to those who fell on the day of the great victory itself. On 
one or other are inscribed the names of all who made the Supreme 
Sacrifice from the date of our entry into the Vimy Sector to the 
conclusion of the battle of the Second Triangle. 



59 




CHAPTER VI. 

Divisional Rest at Gouy Servins — Street Fighting in Lens — Growth 
of Carency — South of Avion 




CEASELESS round of active duties had been engaging 
the 102nd Bn. for six months: the unit was now to enjoy 
six weeks of comparative rest, prior to carrying out a 
series of operations on the outskirts and in the suburbs 
of Lens. This rest opened on June 13th in Vancouver 
Camp, where we remained for six days, moving up to 
Comox Camp on the 19th, and fiinally back to the Chateau in Gouy 
Servins on July 1st. For the most part the weather was good, 
and the whole countryside was looking its best at that time 
of the year; the woods and grounds surrounding Chateau de la 
Haie were a veritable Paradise after the conditions under which we 
had been living for so long, and the long rest in June and July, 
followed by a second and shorter one during the middle of September, 
stand out in welcome relief to the general sordid nature of our sur- 
roundings. Of Gouy Servins but little has yet been said, but it had 
gradually been assuming a position of importance, both as being the 
nearest village to the camps at the Chateau de la Haie and as being 
B supply assembly point on the narrow-guage railway which served 
the Lens front. In the middle of the village is the usual village pond, 
artificially constructed and filled with the semi-stagnant water which 
seems to characterize all the village ponds in France. An enormous 
Chateau is the principal feature of the place, a building large enough 
to accommodate two battalions with sleeping quarters and boasting 
grounds which gave every accommodation for parades, messes, 
theatres, and all the outside buildings which spring up in the vicinity 
of every camp. During the summer Gouy Servins proved an ideal 
resting-place. The inhabitants by this time had come to know the 
members of the 11th Brigade well and regarded us with affection. 
There were village belles, of whom perhaps the fair Josephine will 
linger longest in the memory: there were village estaminets and 
various private establishments where wines and beer could be pur- 
chased by those who came armed with a fitting introduction (What 
sweet memories in these days of Canadian drought cling around the 
portals of No. 7!) and there were village shops where the odd biscuit 
or tin of fruit could be bought. There was no great craving when out 



60 

of the line for Che bright lights of theatre or "movie" palace; it was 
good enough to wander quietly through the country lanes, or quaff 
the country wines and just appreciate the joys of peace and quietness 
when leisure permitted. 

There was, however, a good deal of work done during those days. 
The mornings were devoted to training, especially to the perfecting 
of the "Tactical Platoon," well known to those who served, and a 
description of which will not interest those who did not. To start 
with, training commenced at 5.30 a.m. and went on till noon, the rest 
of the day being at the men's own disposal; later the hours were 
altered to 9.00 a.m. to 1.00 p.m. There were Athletic Sports of all 
kinds arranged for the afternoons, with big Field Days when Brigade 
vied with Brigade to win the Divisional honours. There were sundry 
entertainments in one or other of the two buildings provided for such 
purposes, as when on July 6th we saw for the first time the moving 
pictures taken of the Battalion in Comox, or when on July 20th the 
Sergeants entertained the Brigadier and Battalion Officers at a 
smoking-concert in the fine mess building they had erected. On July 
11th H.M. King George passed through from Villers to Camblain 
L'Abbe and the Brigade units lined the road informally and gave him 
a welcome wihich, it is to be hoped, had the unrehearsed effect which 
had been so assiduously practised. In addition to the regular work, 
and to add zest to the amusements offered, there were occasional 
inspections of a peculiarly searching kind, going into details of feet 
and the interior of packs. It was after one such inspection that the 
shadow of tragedy hung over the Battalion, when one of our draft 
men, an alien by birth, "ran amok" and shot the first officer he could 
see, who happened to be Capt. Carew Martin, of the 11th Brigade 
Staff, a most popular officer and the very last whom anyone in his 
senses would have thought of shooting; fortunately the wound, though 
serious, was not fatal; the miscreant having been lucky enough to 
escape lynching, was further lucky enough to get off with a life 
sentence. 

On fhe 13th July we lost the services of our Adjutant, Major 
J. B. Bailey, who followed Lieut. ^Col. A. B. Carey to undertake the 
duties of Second-in-Command of the 54th. Major Bailey, at one time 
Acting R.S.M. on the Spit, had come over as a subaltern and had 
gained well-earned promotion by his unremitting activity in performing 
the harassing duties of Adjutant during the Vimy operations. After 
his departure Lieut. J. L. Lloyd became Acting Adjutant until the 
following October. We had already temporarily lost the services of 
Major F. Lister, M.C. This officer had greatly distinguished himself 
during the tours on "The Triangle," for which he was later awarded 
the D.S.O., and for the first fortnight on coming out of the line had 
assumed the command of the unit whilst Col. Warden was away on 
leave. The latter returned on July 3rd, and on the next day Major 



61 

Lister left for England to undergo a three months' Commanding 
Officers' Course at Aldershot. 

On July 26th we moved out in the evening to a camp which had 
been constructed at the Souchez end of Zouave Valley, known as 
Cobourg Street. Here we found that the 46th had been billeted in 
the area which should have been reserved for us, and we had to make 
the best shift we could to the left; this contretemps saved us five 
casualties on the following day. Plenty of water abounded at this 
end of the valley and an improvised swimming tank gave great relief, 
as the weather became abnormally hot. Aug. 1st saw us moving up 
the line into our new battle area, taking over the front line from the 
87th with Headquarters established in a ruined chateau in Lievin. 
The latter was one of the suburbs of Lens and was exposed to 
constant bombardments; the road running from Souchez through 
Lievin up to the Red Mill where the Transport waggons nightly 
reported was perilous in the extreme, but our Transport had amazing 
luck and never lost a man. Lievin was a mass of ruins, but the cellar 
accommodation was good and there was plenty of water available. 
From the point of view of billets we were probably better off on this 
front than in any other sector throughout the war. The front line 
itself consisted of a series of posts established in houses. From the 
date of our entry into the Lens Sector we began to get accustomed 
to the continuous use by the Hun of gas shells; they had been encoun- 
tered by us before, notably in the Second Triangle tour, but from this 
time on they became a regular nuisance against which every man, 
whether in the front line or back with Headquarters, had to be on 
his guard. Our several tours on this front were chiefly marked by a 
series of raids carried out either by our own companies alone or in 
conjunction with units on the flanks. The first of these took place 
on Aug. 5th, when "D" Coy., under the direct supervision of Col. 
Warden, carried out a daylight raid on a crater at the junction of 
Bell Street and the Lievin-Lens Road. This operation was completely 
successful, and the dug-outs found in the crater and the tunnels 
connecting it with the enemy lines were thoroughly bombed out. A 
similarly successful enterprise was undertaken on the 9th by "B" 
Coy., when one party under Sgt. O. Massey stormed an enemy strong- 
point, drove out its occupants and established a block further up the 
trench, whilst a second party under Cpl. C. V. Brewer raided the 
crater a second time and undid all the repair work the Hun had 
effected. On this occasion the defenders fled overland and came under 
the fire of a Lewis Gun Section which bad been strategically planted 
for that very purpose. 

On the 10th we moved back into Support, and Headquarters 
retired from the Chateau a couple of hundred yards down the street 
to the building which in pre-war days had been the Gendarmerie, a 
large block of buildings surrounding a big courtyard. Here we 
remained only four clear days, as on the 15th we were hurriedly 



62 

ordered into the line to relieve the 87th, which had been badly cut up 
in an offensive which failed and been driven back 200 yards behind 
their original front line; this relief we carried out in broad daylight 
because of the urgency of the call. On Aug. 17th an operation on a 
more extended scale was carried out, with the 4th Brigade co-operat- 
ing on the left. The object of this offensive was to reorganize the 
line, which had been handed over in a badly dented condition, gaps 
existing between the companies and between our left flank and the 
adjoining battalion, the 18th. These gaps had been occupied by the 
enemy, and it was decided by a combined offensive to straighten out 
the line and establish a safe connection between all the units holding. 
The barrage opened at 4.32 a.m. "C" Coy., under Maj. R. J. Burde, M.C., 
was to co-operate with the 18th Bn. on the left and clean up the 
system of enemy trenches known as Cotton and Amulet and at the 
ame time to co-operate with "B" Coy. under Maj. F. J. Gary, M.C., on 
the right. The latter Company in addition was to attack and hold 
the Schoolhouse which the enemy was using as a strong-point. The 
first part of the operation failed through the failure of the 4th 
Brigade to co-operate as planned; owing to some misunderstanding 
they never reached Amulet Trench at all, and finally Major Burde 
had to recall his men to their original positions. "B" Coy., after 
overcoming strenuous opposition, managed to secure a footing in the 
Schoolhouse, but failing to find the left flank secured owing to the 
non-fulfilment of the first part of the operation, also had to fall back 
to original positions. The same night we were relieved by the 46th 
Battalion and returned to Niagara Camp. The total casualties 
incurred during this first tour in Lens were as follows: Killed: Lieut. 
E. L. Gleason and 10 Other Ranks. Died of wounds: Three Other 
Ranks. Missing: Two Other Ranks. Wounded: Lieuts. V. Z. 
Manning, J. A. Cresswell, C. H. Packman, G. G. Allum, W. W. Dunlop 
(at duty), and 86 Other Ranks. 

It was not until the early hours of the morning that the troops 
began to arrive at Niagara Camp; there is a wonderful satisfaction in 
wandering into camp at such an hour and finding the Base Detail- 
waiting up with hot food and hand-shakes and then turning in. know- 
ing that for at least six days there will be comparative comfort and 
rest. The following day was a Sunday, and the conflicting claims of 
godliness and cleanliness caused a terrible fiasco, owing to the well- 
meant endeavours of the officiating chaplain to harmonize the two. 
"If your men have to go to the baths," said he, "well and good; I 
know that the baths are the first consideration; but let them come into 
the Church Service on their way back." The chaplain was right, 
from the point of view of common sense and Christianity, but, sad to 
relate, it fell out that a party of Brass Hats thought well to attend 
Divine Service that morning, and anyone who has had experience of 
Brass Hats and their way of looking at things will readily understand 
the consternation caused in their breasts when sundry members ai 



63 

tiu' 102nd turned up with no puttees oh their legs, but with towels 
hanging around their necks. It is entirely contrary to K. R. & O. 
for an enlisted man to worship his Creator unless he is properly 
dressed, and the Brass Hats did not fail to register their opinions in 
the quarters where such registration might be expected to do the most 
good. But what a blessing it is that some of us have been endowed 
with a sense of humour and with backs akin to those of ducks! It 
was on the occasion of this interval between tours that elimination 
contests were held to select marksmen for the Corps Rifle Shoot, 
which raises a curious question. Why on earth should the best 
marksmen in an army be kept out of the line to shoot for prizes 
instead of being sent up the line to kill Huns? The Army goes to 
all kinds of expense in order to train men to kill the enemy, and then 
it keeps the best it has to shoot for sport instead of for business. 
And yet we won the war! 

August 20th figures as an important date in the history of the 
102nd Bn., as on that day the news was received that we had ceased to 
be a British Columbia unit, and had been posted to the 2nd Central 
Ontario Regiment. The news came as somewhat of a shock at first, 
though general relief was felt that the rumours which had been 
prevalent of an impending break-up of the Battalion had been proved 
false. The reasons which led to the 54th and 102nd Bns. being thus 
transferred to Eastern postings are well known; British Columbia 
was too weak numerically as a Province to continue to supply rein- 
forcements to all the units she had in the field. Two alternatives 
were open: to merge some of her Battalions and reorganize the 
Brigades affected, or to re-post some units. Henceforth all our 
reinforcements were drawn from the East, but a great hardship was 
inflicted on those original British Columbia men who, when evacuated 
sick or wounded to England, were there posted to the British Columbia 
depot and sent back to France to fight in strange battalions where 
they had to re-establish their footing. It is hard on a man who has 
served for over a year in a Battalion and made friends and perhaps 
put himself in the way of promotion, to find that an unlucky wound' 
lias caused him to be transferred to a Battalion where he knows 
nobody and where he has to start in from the beginning to prove his 
worth. But the war was full of injustices of this nature. If Canada 
had in the beginning allowed only that number of Battalions to be 
raised which could be reinforced, there would have been none of the 
hreaking-up of units which resulted in such anomalies as the Battalion 
Quutermaster-Sergeant of a unit in England being sent out to serve 
as a Private with a strange unit in France, or the man whose work 
in the line had entitled him to promotion having to stand aside to see 
men of confirmed rank being absorbed from other Battalions ami 
barring his way. If. however, the 102nd was unlucky in losing so 
many of its original British Columbia men, it was lucky in having 
them replaced by the fine class of reinforcement which systematically 



64 

came to it from the 2nd Central Ontario Depot, whose Commanding 
Officer for many months, Major Fleming, made every effort to inspire 
the drafts he sent with a proper "esprit de corps" with respect to the 
unit they were reinforcing. 

On Aug. 22nd we moved out to Zouave Valley, occupying there 
the same camp as on the previous occasion, and two days later moved 
up to Lievin, relieving the 54th in Support. The 10th Brigade was 
holding the line and sustained very heavy casualties, with the result 
that it was relieved by the 11th on the 25th, and the 54th Bn. was 
brought up into Support, the 102nd moving Headquarters across to a 
location further to the left, which had previously been used as a 
Company Headquarters. During this tour Major R. J. Burde, M.C., 
left for England on a three months' exchange, and Lieut. *H. E. A. 
Pentreath, who had come over as a Private, but had obtained a com- 
mission in England, reported for duty. Sept. 1st found us in the front 
line in relief of the 87th, and Headquarters were established as before 
in the Chateau. On the 3rd, "D" Company, under Capt. S. H. Okell, 
under cover of a raid by the 8th Bn. on our left, managed to steal a 
little territory from the Hun, successfully advancing the front line 
posts, but the principal honours of this tour went to "A" Coy., under 
Lieut. I. C. R. Atkin, which carried out a highly successful operation 
in the early morning of September 6th. in conjunction with the 54th 
on the right. Under cover of an unusually feeble barrage patrols stole 
forward and bombed their way to the positions selected for the new 
advanced posts. It was on this occasion that Lance-Cpl. F. Quinn 
won his D.C.M. He was in charge of one of these patrols, which 
successfully gained its objective, but was unable to drive the enemy 
clear out of the house on the other side; dawn broke,- and for twelve 
hours he maintained his position in his side of the house against vastly 
superior numbers, sending out a messenger under cover of night to 
secure the needed relief. At 7.20 p.m. the enemy v/as observed to be 
massing for a counter-attack to regain the valuable positions lost; 
Lieut. Atkin promptly withdrew his outposts to better defensive 
positions, and called for artillery support which was furnished by the 
5th Canadian Divisional Artillery, which made its debut on this occa- 
sion in the line, with the result that the oncoming Hun was caught in 
a deluge of fire and left the new positions in our hands for good. The 
following night we were relieved by the 7th Battalion, and once 
more returned to Niagara Camp. 

From September 8th to the 18th the Battalion remained in Niagara 
Camp and enjoyed the best rest the men had yet had. The weather 
was fine throughout; the mornings were devoted to training and the 
afternoons to sports. On the 9th Col. Warden assumed temporarily 
the duties of the Brigadier, General Odium having proceeded to 
England on duty, and took up his quarters at King's Cross, Souchez. 
Major E. J. Ryan assumed command of the Battalion, Major Lister 
being still in England and Major G. L. Dempster being sick. The 



65 

latter officer had joined us during the Vimy operations and had more 
recently been in command of "A" Coy. It was a great loss to the 
Battalion when his health broke down and he was finally invalided 
out of France. Mention should here be made of the 4th Divisional 
Concert Party, later known as "The Maple Leaves"; in which Pte. 
F. E. Petch, who resigned his post as Mail Orderly in order to cater to 
the amusement of the troops, played a prominent part. From 
small beginnings, this organization grew to be an important 
factor in the Division, and for long had its headquarters in the 
Irving Theatre in the Chateau de la Haie grounds: so called after 
Col. Irving, of the 4th Divisional Engineers, who was responsible for 
nstruction, but, alas, was killed before it was officially opened. 
It was really a very perfect little theatre, electrically lighted, with 
seating capacity for 1,000, and possessing magnificent acoustic pro- 
perties. Life was becoming quite civilized in the area. The summer 
had seen a remarkable change in the road between Carency, which 
was still the home of the Quartermaster's Department, and Zouave 
Valley. The Transport Lines of all the units were moved nearer the 
Valley and horse lines constructed between Hospital Corner and the 
Arras-Souchez road. New and good Divisional baths were constructed 
in the same. area. New camps were in process of construction, of 
which Alberta Camp, close to King's Cross, was already in occupation. 
At King's Cross itself a regular settlement was springing up, where 
Pioneers from all four Battalions, under charge of Cpl. C. B. Kirby, 
were building huts. A Chinese Labour Battalion was working on road 
improvement, sewer-work, etc., and the Transports of each Battalion 
were busy bringing out stacks of salvage from Lievin for use in 
making comfortable winter quarters. In short, it was evident that 
strenuous efforts were being made to ensure the comfort of the troops 
during the coming winter. The irony of it all was that when the 
winter came we were, for the most part, in another area, and what 
we had sown another reaped, even to the vegetables in the agricul- 
tural allotments which had been laid out in accordance with a settled 
policy of "Grow your own vegetables." 

In the afternoon of September 19th we moved forward again to 
Support lines south of Avion by way of Clucas Trench, a long com- 
munication trench running down the northern slopes of Vimy Ridge, 
and relieved the 38th Bn. Headquarters were established in Anxious 
Trench. This tour was marked by the introduction of Battalion 
Tump-liners as a recognized Headquarters Detail, and they made 
their debut under the command of Sgt. J. King. Their inestimable 
value was proved later in Passchendaele, and it is hard in the light of 
later events to see why they had not figured as a Battalion unit in the 
days of the Somme. In this connection a story may well be told which 
has the hall-mark of truth upon it. A demonstration of the use of the 
tump-line was being held at Corps Headquarters and Capt. Archibald, 
Who w;'> responsible for the scheme being brought before the Higher 



66 




67 

Command, had sent for a squad of 102nd men to act as demonstra- 
tors; amongst these was Pte. Frank Campbell, one of our "Originals" 
from the logging camps, and he came back terribly aggrieved at the 
ignorance which he claimed existed in the British Royal Family. It 
appeared that ll.R.II. the Prince of Wales was present at the demon- 
stration, and Frank was asked if he could move a piano. "Sure!" 
said Frank; "I'll move any blamed thing if I can get it on my back." 
So a piano was produced and Frank slung two tump-lines round it. 
gave a bit of a hoist and marched away, showing that such a feat was 
possible. "And how far could you carry that?" queried the Prince. 
"About a block," replied Frank. "And what's a block?" came back 
the answer. "Such ignorance!" Frank used to say when retailing the 
story, "and him a Prince with all the advantages of a Prince's educa- 
tion!" Alas, poor Frank will never move any more pianos; he "wenj 
West" the following December. As for the Prince, by the time he 
has completed the Canadian tour which is in progress whilst these lines 
are being written, he will probably have a very distinct idea of what 
a "block" is. 

On the 23rd we moved into the front line, relieving the 54th, and 
Headquarters were moved away over to the right to a set of dug-outs 
on the Lens-Arras Road. The enemy evidently realized that this 
relief was in progress, as he put over a considerable barrage and 
attempted a raid on "B" Coy.'s position; his attacking party, however, 
did not manage to advance nearer than our Listening Posts. This 
uneventful tour came to an end on the evening of the 27th, and on 
relief being effected by the 44th and 47th Bns. we returned to billots 
in the Chateau, Gouy Servins. As soon as the men had been thor- 
oughly rested intensive training was carried out on a scheme which 
had been prepared for the immediate capture of Lens. On the 
extensive grounds of the Chateau de la Haie a taped-out course was 
laid down, over which the Battalion practised the attack assiduously. 
At Souchez also a course had been prepared and there the Model 
on, an aggregation composed of men who did not go up the 
Mnc but were constantly drilled as a model, through which all 
reinforcements passed, gave carefully rehearsed exhibitions of the 
pending operation. Everyone was on the tip-toe of expectation, and 
Chen, like a bolt from a blue sky, came word that the offensive vras 
" >ff" and that we were destined for a tour in Passchendaele. 
Whether our Intelligence Department had received word that the Hun 
had obtained information as to the plan for the capture of Lens, Of 
whether the whole thing had been a gigantic "bluff" to deceive his 
watching aeroplanes the chronicler is in no position to state, but it is 
at lea>t significant that all this training should have been carried out 
in broad daylight in full view of the enemy aeroplanes which were 
constantly hovering overhead. Whatever the answer to that problem. 
Oct. 4th saw us on our way to Ypres and the blood-stained ridge of 
hendaele. 



68 




CHAPTER VII. 

First Visit to Divion — Two Tours in Passchendaele- 
Pre-Christmas Celebrations 



-Divion Again — 




X Oct. 4th the whole Battalion, including the Transport 
and all Base personnel, pulled out of the Gouy area and 
marched five miles to Gauchin Egal, a hamlet nestling in 
the valley between two precipitous hills; here a halt 
was made for one night and early next morning we set 
out for Divion, marching past the First Army Com- 
mander, Sir H. S. Home, K.C.B., "en route." Divion is a coal-mining 
village about a mile and a half from Bruay, well peopled with prosper- 
ous miners who did not regard the billeted soldiery as their sole 
means of support and therefore lawful prey, but on the other hand 
took them to their hearts and homes and treated them all with the 
utmost hospitality. Tournehem, Divion and, later, Boitsfort will 
always be remembered by the men of the 102nd with feelings of 
genuine affection and gratitude. Billets at Divion were good: the 
place is lighted by electricity, a fact well worthy of note in French 
and Belgian country districts; it is divided into two distinct sections, 
the upper portion being known amongst the troops as "Transvaal," 
where for a long time the Canadian Light Horse were billeted, and 
the lower town being reserved for transient troops, for whom there 
was ample accommodation. There was a sufficient number of fair- 
sized houses to make it an easy matter to arrange both officers' and 
sergeants' messes for each Company and Headquarters; an open 
space in the middle of the village afforded plenty of room for a 
Battalion parade, whilst on the outskirts was a field suitable for 
Battalion drill. On the occasion of our first visit Headquarters were 
established in a large brewery. Shortly after our arrival we were 
rejoined by Major Lister, who returned from his Course in England 
to take up the duties of Second-in-Command. On the 8th, Major 
A. Graham, formerly of the 29th Battalion and more recently O.C. 
2nd Divisional School, reported for duty and took over the duties of 
Adjutant. Throughout the week rain was prevalent and an inspection 
by the Army Commander at Houdain had to be cancelled, to the 
great joy of the troops. If anybody ever believes that the traops 
who look so nice and smiling on parade during the course of a big 



69 

review or inspection are really as happy as they look, he is greatly 
mistaken; they may not be dressed in sheep's clothing, but their 
inner feelings closely approximate to those of ravening wolves. 

A move was made on the 11th, when we entrained at Houdain 
for Thiennes, which was reached at 3.00 p.m. From the station we 
marched by a most circuitous route to Boeseghem, a distance of five 
miles, only to find that we had proceeded three parts round a circle 
and that the station we had left was about a mile and a half from us. 
Great difficulty was experienced in billeting the men here: Imperials 
had not moved out, as expected, and the members of the billeting 
party had a long tramp up and down the roadways of a widely scat- 
tered village before they could find accommodation for all. Some of 
us will long remember a tiny house which looked as though it had 
walked out of a child's picture-book, which not only housed a dozen 
burly sergeants in a hay-loft, but managed to feed them on fried 
potatoes and beer and whose occupants were afterwards polite enough 
to pretend that they enjoyed the singing. A march of ten miles next 
day brought us to Ste. Marie Cappel, a village nestling under the 
shadow of the hill on which Cassel, the home of the 2nd Army Head- 
quarters, was perched. Here we found a tented camp, which afforded 
good accommodation in spite of heavy rain. A move was expected 
daily, but did not take place until the 22nd, and during the interim 
the usual drills and parades took place, special attention being paid to 
the training of all Specialist branches. The villagers round this neigh- 
bourhood have a very fair knowledge of English, which was not to be 
wondered at, seeing that British troops had been quartered in their 
neighbourhood since the beginning of the war. The Sisters Susie 
("Susie"' seeming to be the generic name for the bar-ladies of this 
district) were really wonderfully proficient, seeing that all their educa- 
tion had come from business relations over the counter with the 
soldiers. Still, to use a colloquialism, that's "some" relationship. 

Our real work in Passchendaele started on Oct. 22nd. when at 
6.45 a.m. we entered 'buses and drove to the outskirts of Ypres. 
marching thence through the historic city to a dismal swamp a mile 
and a half to the north known as Potijze. The 4th Division was 
relieving the Australians in this area and the 102nd was now in 
Support. Headquarters were established in Hussar Farm, and the 
Companies were dispersed in tents or bivouacs which maintained a 
precarious anchorage in a sea of mud. In Potijze we remained, 
furnishing working-parties in large numbers by day and night: these 
were used for cable burying or supply carrying, and in view of the 
natural conditions prevailing the labour entailed was exhausting in 
the extreme, to say nothing of the fact that all work had to be carried 
on under a desultory artillery fire which caused occasional casualties. 
On the 27th we moved back into Reserve, rejoinmg our Transport 
Lines at Toronto Camp, Brandhoek, seven miles behind the Support 
position. The main Ypres road recalled memories of the Albert- 



70 

Bapaume road of the previous year, being crowded with transport of 
every kind. Close to Brandhoek was an enormous lorry park, which 
gave the visitor some faint idea of the vast numbers of lorries which 
were in use on even a single front. Toronto Camp was a good camp, 
and a large Y.M.C.A. catered well to the needs of the 'men, but the 
baths at Brandhoek were too small for the work, and for some reason 
there was a "hold-up" in clothing. Though it was now the end of 
October and the weather was both wet and cold, no sufficient supply 
of winter clothing could be obtained until November had well set in. 
It was whilst we were in this area that we first became accustomed to 
night bombing. Previously we had had experience of the odd bomb 
or so; from now onwards they became part of our normal life. 

A sudden call to support the 12th Brigade took the Battalion up 
the line again on the 30th. Orders were received at 11.50 a.m., and 
within 40 minutes the Companies had entrained at Brandhoek Siding 
and were ready to proceed, a promptness of action which met with 
its due reward when the Battalion was kept waiting in the cold at 
Potijze for exact instructions as to its ultimate destination. Event- 
ually orders came in that we were to dig-in on Abraham Heights, a 
position reached by duck-walks laid over the mud; the latter was 
deep enough to engulf a man up to his arm-pits. This advance was 
made under heavy fire which caused 13 casualties, and on arrival the 
only shelter the men could get was what they could dig for them- 
selves. At 6.00 p.m. on the last night of the month the Battalion 
moved up to the front line, relieving the 85th Bn. This move was 
conducted throughout under heavy fire, including many gas shells, 
from the effects of which barrage we lost the services of Major W. 
Bapty, our Medical Officer, whose place was taken by Capt. H. 
Dunlop, C.A.M.C. The Companies only remained in the front line 
one night and one day, being relieved on the night of November 1st 
by the 9th Australian Bn., but a heavy barrage prevailed all the time 
and the front line trenches afforded little if any shelter; consequently 
casualties were frequent, showing a total of 28 Other Ranks killed 
for the whole of the first tour in Passchendaele, with Major W. 
Bapty, Lieuts. D. E. Webster, J. J. Rowland and 74 Other Ranks 
wounded or gassed. This last tour over the front line was responsible 
for the only casualties which ever occurred during the war amongst 
the Other Ranks personnel of the Battalion Orderly Room, Sgt. H. N. 
Monk being wounded (at duty) by a shell splinter in the arm, and 
Pte. F. C. Morgan being badly gassed. On relief the men spent the 
night at Potijze, returning by train to Brandhoek in the morning. 

On the afternoon of Nov. 3rd we entrained again at Brandhoek 
Siding for Caestre, whence we marched a couple of miles to Koorten- 
Loop. Here we found that the Transport had already arrived, to- 
gether with a lorry-load of Base personnel and stores, and that 
billets had already been secured. Headquarters was established m a 
commodious and spotlessly clean estaminet, not the least charming 



71 

feature of which was another "Susie" in the person of the daughter 
of the house, who would have graced the stage of any music-hall in 
the world. Lying between Caestre and Haazebruck, two important 
railway centres, Koorten-Loop is surrounded by the farming country 
typical of that portion of Flanders; the landscape is rolling rather 
than hilly and traversed in every direction with the cobbled roads 
known as "paves," which, though well calculated to withstand the 
march of time, are uncomfortably adapted for the march of troops. 
The time was chiefly spent in general reorganization. On the 5th the 
Corps Commander held a review of the 11th Brigade at Hondeghem, 
in our immediate neighbourhood, and on the 8th Col. Warden pro- 
ceeded to England on duty, followed by leave, handing over the 
command to Major Lister, with Major E. -]. Ryan acting as Second. 
On the next day we once more set our faces towards Passschendaele, 
and proceeding by train from Caestre detrained at Ypres, leaving the 
Base details at Brandhoek, where they arrived twenty-four hours 
before they were expected and had the utmost difficulty in obtaining 
accommodation. In fact, the whole unit seemed to have taken time 
by the forelock, as on arrival at Potijze in driving rain and gathering 
darkness we found a muddy field and a pile of tents which had been 
begged, borrowed or stolen by our B.Q.M.S. Frank Hallas, when he 
discovered that no arrangements had been made for our disposal. 
Owing to some element of misunderstanding conditions were unneces- 
sarily as full of discomfort as possible. A corrugated iron hut, isolated 
in the darkness of a remote corner of the area, was found for a Head- 
quarters, and even from this meagre shelter we were ejected on the 
following day, as it was claimed to be the property of another unit. 
Headquarters was accordingly moved to the scullery of a ruined 
house, which served well enough until a heavy fall of rain left an 
inch of water on the floor, which could have been tolerated, but effec- 
tually made work impossible by dripping on all the papers, necessitat- 
ing twenty-four hours building and repair work by the Pioneers. 
Four working-parties were sent out on the 10th. of which only two 
were able to complete the tasks set, one of the others having been 
wrongly directed and the second finding the area assigned congested 
with men and being heavily shelled. The explanation was that the 
Engineers had contracted the habit of asking for more men than they 
needed, as it was so often impossible to fulfil their demands; conse- 
quently when a full complement was sent, as in this case, so many 
men appeared on the scene as both to hamper themselves and to draw 
the enemy's fire. 

Nov. 12th saw us on our way to Support area on Abraham 
Heights. The intention was that the Battalion would only stay in the 
Forward area a couple of nights, pending relief by the Imperial?, and 
orders were issued that no shaving kits of any description were to be 
taken up; this order was gleefully obeyed by nearly everybody. Al it 
turned out, we remained in the line seven full days, and the results 



72 

were rather comical. On arrival at Boathoek, where Headquarters 
was to be established, we found that the 87th Bn., whom we were 
relieving, were not yet ready to proceed up to the front line, as 
their rations had not come up. We were accordingly kept waiting for 
two hours standing round in pitch darkness; in the meantime the 
Hun shelled the ration dump, inflicting serious casualties on the 
87th, with the result that after all we had later on to supply carrying 
parties to take up their rations. In addition, during the next three 
nights we were kept busy sending up stretcher-bearing parties to bring 
out their casualties, as they seemed to be utterly unabJe to cope with 
these themselves. Finally at about 10.00 p.m. the 87th, to our great 
relief, moved up and allowed us to settle down. During this tour 
Lieut. -Col. J. T. O'Donohue, D.S.O., commanding the 87th, was acting 
as Brigadier in the absence of Brigadier-General Odium, who was 
acting as Divisional Commander. For three days we furnished work- 
ing-parties of all sorts, Support area being subjected all the time to 
heavy artillery fire, which caused many casualties. Headquarters had 
its full share of this bombardment, but the pill-box which served as 
an office was built by the Hun for just such contingencies, and though 
several direct hits were registered the only damage done was to the 
officers' breakfast on the morning of the 15th. On the afternoon of the 
loth the Battalion moved up by platoons to relieve the 87th in the 
front line. It is impossible to give any adequate idea of the scenery 
on the way to the summit of Passchendaele Ridge. There is just a 
brown landscape, an interminable acreage of mud and shell-holes 
billowing up in a gradual ascent, with depressions rather than valleys 
between each billow, until a flat and desolate top is reached, on 
which no semblance of any human habitation remains; like a map, it 
represents merely a number of topographical expressions. The 
ascent is made by means of an elaborate system of bath-mats which 
spread like threads in every direction, whilst here and there on the 
hillside is seen a battery, ostrich-like, unable to see the enemy but 
hoping that a scant shelter of brushwood is shielding it from the eyes 
of the prying aeroplanes. Enemy planes were very active over Pas- 
schendaele and seemed to be having it all their own way. 

The move to the front line was carried out without casualties, 
the Hun being kept busy attending to a minor offensive which was 
taking place on his right flank, but immediately after relief a fierce 
barrage came down, and for the next 48 hours a very heavy artillery 
fire was maintained on the whole of our area, "D" Coy., whose turn 
it was to have the usually preferable position of local Support, by the 
irony of fate suffering particularly heavy casualties. On the night of 
the 17th, a reconnoitring party from the Suffolks reached Headquar- 
ters and requested to be sent up the line; hardly had they gone 200 
yards from the pill-box when they were caught by the splinters of a 
shell which burst well away to their left, but claimed seven casualties, 
two being fatal. The following night our relief by the Suffolks began 



73 

a 1 5.00 p.m., and the Battalion proceeded by small parties to Potijze, 
where a hot meal was in readiness and a halt was made for the night. 

It is worthy of mention that the 102nd Bn. was the last Canadian 
unit to leave the Heights of Passchendaele, but we had gained no 
particular honour or glory there. Our tours in the line had been 
short and had involved no offensives; they had entailed much hard 
work in burying cable, digging trenches and putting the line in better 
shape, and they had called for the staying quality which enables men 
t lie down for long hours in ill-protected positions under incessant 
bombardments. We had just done the little that we had been set to 
do, but had suffered casualties out of all proportion to our task, and 
that it is which makes the memory of Passchendaele a nightmare in 
the minds of all those who had a share in a particularly odious experi- 
ence. The second tour cost in casualties: Killed, 20 Other Ranks. 
Wounded, Lieuts. A. R. Turner, W. W. Dunlop (at duty), G. T. Lyalt 
fat duty), and 47 Other Ranks. 

In the early afternoon of the 19th the Battalion fell in, marched 
to Ypres and entrained for Poperinghe, whence we marched to a 
camping-ground about two miles outside the town. A sorry-looking 
crew we were as we marched proudly through the streets of Poper- 
inghe, thronged with civilians and spruce-looking soldiers. Our razors 
had all gone with the Transport when we first left Potijze seven days 
before, and we were hairy men. The CO. was a dream, but the 
Adjutant and R.S.M.. with one or. two Company officers, had basely 
betrayed us and smuggled razors up the line, and thought they made 
a hit as they marched through the streets with baby-smooth chins. 
The camp where we spent the next two nights was close to the first 
camp we had struck on arrival in Belgium, and here we met with one 
of those churls who so often disgraced his country in the eyes of the 
troops who were fighting as her Allies. After seven da^s without a 
wash or a shave it may be imagined that water was the-first require- 
ment, but the owner of the neighbouring farm was not going to have 
his water supply tampered with for a lot of dirty soldiers, not he; 
so he removed the pump handle. And it was not as though this 
happened in the middle of a hot summer and his well was likely to 
run dry; God knows, there was enough rain in the country at that 
time of year! Would that we had been Huns, to throw him down 
his well after wc had used it, there to perish miserably and to poison 
the water for the balance of his family. And to add to our grievance, 
the baths provided in Poperinghe proved to be the worst we had yet 
encountered. On the 21st we went by 'bus to a point just outside 
Merville. quite a fine town, where steaks and eggs in large quantities 
could be purchased in real restaurants, thence on foot to a point 
between Busnes and Lillers. and so through Lillers and Rambert. until 
on the 23rd we found ourselves again in Divion. And did Divion look 
good? Tt did. 



74 

For over three weeks we were to stay in Divion, and throughout 
our sojourn the weather was good, cold and frosty, but without rain. 
On the 27th Col. Warden returned from leave and resumed command, 
and during this period Major R. J. Burde also reported back from 
England. There is not much to relate about this three weeks; on 
the 3rd the vote for the Dominion election was taken, Lieut. C. A. 
Schell acting as Returning Officer; there were sundry parades and 
inspections, but the most important events were the series of Christ- 
mas Dinners which were held in the Hotel Moderne, Bruay, as it was 
known that for a second time we should be in the trenches on the 
day itself. It was decided to use a portion of the Canteen funds for 
this purpose and surely never were funds devoted to a more popular 
object. On the 12th the CO. and Officers of the Battalion gave a 
dinner to the Sergeants, and as we are now nearing the time when 
Col. Warden was to leave us it may be in order to* relate an incident 
which took place at the dinner, illustrative of his all-time optimism and 
boundless confidence in the Battalion, and in its power of belief. "1 
was walking down Piccadilly when on leave," he stated, in his after- 
dinner speech, "when I was overtaken by a naval officer, an admiral 
in the British Navy. He had noticed my 102nd badges and rank as I 
had passed him and had hurried after me to ask whether I was really 
Col. Warden of the 102nd. I told him that I was, and he said that he 
wanted to shake me by the hand; that he had never met me, but that 
he, like everybody else in England, had heard of 'Warden's Warriors,' 
and that he wanted to congratulate me on commanding the finest 
Battalion on the Allied front." And then above the roar of applause 
was heard the reedy voice of the privileged member of the Battalion, 
piping: "Just ten cents more, boys; divvy up ten cents apiece, please; 
it's time to buy some more hay for that old bull of the Colonel's." 
And so with # turkey and chicken and beer and other things during the 
week-end of the second week in December our stay in Divion came to 
an end, and with it we close the chapter on Passchendaele. 



75 




CHAPTER VIII. 

From Divion to Mericourt — Col. Warden's Departure — Lievin Once 

More — Back to Divion — Lens Again — Ecurie and the Oppy Front 

— Acheville — Mericourt — Out of the Line to Frevillers 




MTDST the tearful "au revoirs" of Blanche, Gaby, "Min 
Laute," and others whose names will be readily recalled 
by those who know their Divion, we left our billets on 
October 18th and marched off to Camblain L'Abbe, 
where we stayed one night. On the following morning 
we proceeded along the Mt. St. Eloy road, expecting to 
be reviewed by the Corps Commander, but he did not appear, and 
about a mile outside the village we boarded flat cars on the Light 
Railway and rode up the line to Neuville St. Vaast. It was bitterly 
cold, even marching, and on the cars it was almost intolerable. A 
well-laid-out camp was ready for us on arrival, but there was practi- 
cally no fuel, except for cooking purposes, and the weather grew 
steadily colder. At noon next day, under the command of Major 
Lister, Col. Warden having been detailed to attend an aerial course,' 
we went up the line to relieve the 22nd (French-Canadian) Bn. in the 
front line on the Mericourt Sector. It was a terrible march; the 
ground was covered with ice, and our way took us along narrow 
trails bordering deep trenches. If it had not been bright daylight 
under a blue sky and a brilliant sun the progress of Christian through 
the Valley of the Shadow of Death would have been remarkably well 
paralleled. We now encountered a unique feature in front line work, 
a set of Headquarters lighted by electricity and watered by electrical 
pumps. This marvel of modern warfare was found in the Quarries, 
an enormous quarry entered by a long tunnel and honeycombed with 
dug-outs, which afforded us the best and most comfortable head- 
quarters we ever had in the front line. The tour itself was singularly 
without incident, and by arrangement with the 54th we agreed upon 
one ten-day tour each in the front line instead of undertaking two 
five-day tours apiece. Here we spent our second Christmas, and, 
thanks to Capt. Fisher, of the Y.M.C.A., we had a Christmas present 
of cigarettes and chocolate sufficient to provide something for every 
man. The' ten days were principally spent in wiring in front of our 
positions and in improving the trenches, and on the 30th we exchanged 



76 




LIEUT.-COLONEL F. LISTER, C.M.G., D.S.O., M.C 



77 

positions with the 54th and fell back into Support, with Headquarters 
in a railway embankment, which was under close observation by the 
enemy from one side. New Year's Day was ushered in by two raids, 
one by the Hun and one by the 75th, who managed to secure valuable 
information, but the balance of the tour passed as uneventfully as had 
the first ten days, and on the 9th we were relieved by the 72nd and 
made our way through a blinding snowstorm to Hill's Camp, Neuville 
St. Vaast. Here it was that we lost the services of Lieut. -Colonel 
J. W. Warden, D.S.O., who had raised the Battalion and brought it 
overseas. On the 11th he left to take up special service in Mesopo- 
tamia. Though he had anticipated his early departure his move orders 
came in so suddenly that he had no time to take a farewell of his men 
on parade, but left the following message to be issued as a Special 
Order of the Day: 

'To the Officers, N.C.O.'s and Men of the 102nd Cdn. Inf. Bn.: 

"On relinquishing command of the Battalion in order to take up a 
Special Service appointment for which I volunteered, I wish to express 
my deep appreciation of the spirit of loyalty and service which has 
pervaded all ranks from the time of mobilization back in Comox to the 
present day. 

"I should have preferred to address you personally before my 
departure, but the hour for the latter was unexpectedly advanced, and 
I had to leave at an early hour this morning. I must, therefore, 
convey to you through the medium of Battalion Orders those feelings 
of pride and gratitude which overwhelm me when I recall the endur- 
ance, perseverance and courage which you have exhibited throughout 
your period of service in Belgium and France. 

"It is with the deepest regret that I sever my connection with the 
102nd Battalion, -but the conviction that I can perform better service 
for the Empire in a different sphere of duty has compelled me to take 
this step. 

"To all of you I say, not 'Good-bye' but 'Au revoir,' and may 
the best of luck attend you all. I leave you in the full confidence 
that you will extend to my successor the same loyal service that you 
have always given me, and that you will 'carry on' as you have done, 
to the honour and glory of the 102nd and the successful consummation 
of the objects of the Cause for which we are all striving. 

"J. W. WARDEN". 

"11-1-18." "Lieut.-Colonel." 

The departure of the Colonel came as a great surprise to most of 
the Battalion and was very genuinely regretted, especially by those of 
the old-timers who were left. But we were fortunate in having as his 
successor an officer whom we all knew well, also an "original" from 
the Spit, who had worked up from the position of a subaltern in 
n'mand of a platoon to that of Second-in-Command, and whose dis- 
tinguished services had already been recognized by the award of the 



78 

Military Cross and the Distinguished Service Order. At the time that 
Col. Warden left us Major Lister was in England on leave, but he 
rejoined us on January 19th as Lieut. -Colonel in command of the 
Battalion. In the meantime Major A. Graham assumed command. 
The Adjutant's duties had been undertaken at the beginning of the 
last tour by Capt. S. H. Okell, who carried on in that capacity until 
wounded nine months later. Lieut. R. Fitzmaurice was Transport 
Officer, Lieut. T. R. Griffith, M.C., who had succeeded Capt. O'Kelly 
In the previous autumn, having been promoted captain and given 
command of "C" Coy. "A," "B" and"D" Coys, were under the 
command respectively of Lieut. I. C. R. Atkin, M.C., Major J. F. 
Gary, M.C., and Lieut. V. C. Brimacombe. 

Hill's Camp was a good camp, but we had great difficulty with the 
water, which was continually frozen; a good Y.M.C.A. entertainment 
of moving-pictures, etc., was nightly staged in a large hut; the baths 
also were good, and we were sorry when on the 15th we had to move 
back to Vancouver Camp, for here we found many dilapidations. 
For three months the camps in the Chateau de la Haie grounds had 
been in the occupation of Imperials, and they showed it. Whatever 
the Imperial Army may have been in the good old days before the 
war, there is no getting away from the, fact that the battalions of the 
Citizen Army called forth during the war had no consideration for the 
units which might follow them in their several camps. We found 
that the linings of the Nissen huts had been wantonly torn out to 
provide fuel, that the water system had gone out of order, and that 
no effort had been made to keep the camp generally in a good state of 
repair. Whatever faults may from time to time have been urged 
against the Canadian Corps, it was at least a matter of pride with its 
units that they improved every camp they went to and made it more 
habitable than they found it. Besides, it's a foolish bird as well as 
an ill one that fouls its own nest, and we knew by experience that it 
did not pay from the point of view of personal comfort to break up a 
camp for fuel or to allow the bath-mats to deterioriate. The result 
was as might have been expected; we were perpetually being used to 
make good other peo'ple's defections, and in this case the 4th Division 
undertook the good work. On the 17th we attended "en masse" the 
4th Divisional Concert Party's wonderful pantomime, called "A Lad 
in France," a really clever piece of work, well staged in the Irving 
Theatre, and well acted, abounding in topical allusions and evoking 
whole-hearted enthusiasm from all who saw it. 

Jan. 19th saw us in the line again, this time once more on the 
Lens front. Spending a night in Lievin "en route," in some very old 
disused billets, we relieved the P.P.C.L.I. on the evening of the 20th 
in the right sub-section. The billets in this area were good, and for 
Headquarters, at any rate, there was plenty of water in the shape of 
a lake which lay between us and our old positions in "The Triangle." 
The front was quiet, but enemy machine-gunners and snipers were 



79 

very much on the alert, and absolutely no movement overland was 
permissible; there was also a good deal of artillery action on both 
sides, the Hun steadily bombarding Lievin in the rear, and paying 
particular attention to Brigade Headquarters there. On the occasion 
of this tour we found him using a new form of gas shell of low 
velocity, exploding with the sound of a High Explosive and emitting a 
gas which we had not before encountered; it took a little time to get 
sufficiently accustomed to this new device to be able to recognize it 
immediately on approach. But, as has been said before, we were, 
on the whole, very lucky with regard to gas, and though we were 
never careless we became sufficiently expert in the use of our respira- 
tors to be able to continue a quiet game of poker in our masks what 
time the Hun was under the impression that he was causing us untold 
anguish, as was instanced by a little party held in our old Headquarters 
in the Gendarmerie, to which we returned on the 25th when relieved 
in the front line by the 54th, and where we remained until the 30th, 
whe~h, on relief by the 85th, we marched back to Vancouver Camp. 

We had now had two very uninteresting tours in the line, and were 
expecting the same routine to prevail for a few months; it was some- 
what of a surprise, therefore, to find that what we had supposed would 
prove to be the regular six-day rest was in reality the preliminary for 
a long period out of the line. For over a fortnight we remained at 
Vancouver Camp, and the gods were propitious; we had the time, 
we had the place, and, "mirabile dictu," some of us had the where- 
withal, thanks to the proximity of the Canadian Expeditionary Force 
Canteen, and there were sundry decorations to be "christened" and 
more than one birthday to be celebrated. During the early part of 
February Vancouver Camp was well out of the "dry belt." On the 
15th a move was made to Alberta Camp, an aggregation of good 
Nissen huts situated between Hospital Corner and King's Cross and 
scientifically laid out in scattered formation as an anti-aircraft precau- 
tion, and on the 18th we once more marched back to Gouy "en route" 
for Divion, which we reached on the 20th. We were now in First 
Army Reserve, but had orders to be ready to move at twelve hours' 
notice. We entered Divion under the command of Major Ryan, 
Col. Lister having proceeded with other Battalion commanders on a 
tour of inspection of Base Depot organizations. Amongst other 
points of interest visited by this party was the huge Salvage Depot at 
Le Havre, and the Colonel returned on the 24th, very enthusiastic 
over the wonderful system of salvage and repair work which he had 
seen in operation. On the occasion of this visit to Divion the Battalion 
Headquarters were moved to the further end of the village, much to 
the chagrin of the local brewer, whose dignity was pathetically upset 
by having his magnificent accommodation demeaned by the presence 
of a' mere Company Headquarters. In Divion we remained eleven 
the only outstanding event of which was a grand review of the 
11th Brigade by Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig, K.T., G.C.B.. 



80 




81 

G.C.V.O., K.C.I.E., Commander-in-Chief of the British Force-, in 
Prance, at Houdain, about two miles distant from our billets. 

For the last time we said "good-bye" in Divion on March 3rd, 
marching to Bois des Froissart, a new camp just north of our old 
stamping-ground of Hersin, where the Battalion was employed in 
wiring the front line in the St. Emile Sector. The Hun was very, 
active on this front, and on the 4th of the month raided the Allied 
positions very successfully, penetrating to within 150 yards of the 
front line Battalion Headquarters. Whilst in this camp a spirited 
inter-platoon competition was organized to select the platoon which 
would compete against Brigade units before the Brigadier in a general 
efficiency contest. The palm of victory wenf to No. 15 Platoon, "D" 
Coy., whose immediate reward was a dinner at the Canteen expense 
in Hersin and the privilege of being left out of the line for the Brigade 
contest when the rest of us moved up to Lievin in relief of the 29th Bn. 
on the evening of the 11th March. 

Lievin was by now beginning to look like a home from home to 
us; we were always reasonably sure of good accommodation in this 
ruined suburb, we knew where all the water supplies were, and we 
knew that although the Hun would ceaselessly shell Napoo Corner 
he would never hit anything. On the 12th we moved up and took 
over the left sub-section of St. Emile Sector, Lens Section (about this 
time we all became very particular as to the correctly exact naming of 
our front line positions) from the 27th Bn., "A" and "B" Coys, taking 
over a three-company frontage. This was just as well, as the Hun 
was shelling the line systematically, and the fewer the number of men 
up in front the safer they were. It was often a difficulty during this 
period of the war to conform with the rigid orders of the Higher 
Command that every man not absolutely essential to the proper 
conduct of the Transport lines be sent up to the front and at the same 
time to avoid overcrowding. Our Headquarters in this area were 
situated in an old brick-kiln, in the foundations of which a spring of 
water had broken out, necessitating constant pumping by day and 
night; this pleasant duty fell to the lot of the Headquarters batmen, 
who were organized into two-hour reliefs; it was hard work, especially 
for batmen, who were unanimous in their expressed opinion that it 
was a perfectly horrid war. On the 17th we were relieved by the 54th, 
and returned to Lievin, where we were greeted the same evening by a 
hot gas-shell bombardment which fell all round Headquarters and 
claimed four casualties. While we were in Support we had our first 
meeting with the Allied "Frightfulness" gang, officially known as 
'"Special O Squad" of the Engineers; these men made a specialty of 
beating the Hun at his own game, and one of their favourite devices 
was gas projection from a new type of cylinder. The gas is projected 
in a form of bomb which explodes behind the enemy's lines: the noise 
it makes when fired is truly awe-inspiring, and the spectacular effect 
is wonderful. On the 21st we witnessed such a projection, but we 



82 

never heard any details as to the results obtained, as we went up to 
relieve the 54th again in the front line on the next night. This tour 
was marked by increased vigilance, if such a thing were possible. 
The Hun was in the first stages of his successful March offensive, and 
everyone was "on edge" as to where he would make his next push. 
All English leave was cancelled and unfortunates who had just left 
were being returned daily. But though everyone was on the "qui vive," 
and battle quarters were assigned to the veriest non-combatant of the 
Headquarters Staff, no offensive materialized on our front, and on the 
28th we were relieved in this sector by the 16th Suffolks. But, 
though we had been fortunate, others had experienced a different fate. 
Well to our right the Hun had broken through and forced back the 
line on the right of the 3rd Division, causing a composite unit to be 
hurriedly formed under command of Brigadier-General V. W. Odium, 
this body being known as "Odium's Composite Brigade," and sent off 
tc support the 168th Bdge. The crisis, however, passed before this 
body could be brought into action, and it was disbanded into its 
original units within a couple of days. Meantime, on the 28th, various 
conflicting orders were received at 102nd Bn. Headquarters as to our 
destination on relief. This was changed several times, with the result 
that when relief was completed at 9.15 p.m. a part of the Battalion had 
already set out for Ecoivres, a village near Mt. St. Eloy, about twelve 
miles from the line, whilst subsequent orders detailed Ecurie, on the 
Oppy front, as our camping place. Consequently the Battalion was 
divided into two, it being then impossible to recall those who had 
already set out. These men had a hard time of it; after a long night 
march they had to fall in again at 7.15 a.m. on the 29th and tramp 
through bitter squalls of sleet and hail another seven miles to rejoin 
the main body at Ecurie. This place lies south of Neuville St. Vaast, 
S.S.W. of Lens, between the Lens-Arras and Bethune-Arras roads; a 
good enough camp, but, like most, dependent on water-carts for all 
water. Here we remained until April 4th, under orders to be ready 
to move off at 15 minutes' notice with filled water-bottles. Everything 
pointed to an immediate action on a large scale, but our time was not 
yet. 

At Ecurie we were in closer contact with the Imperials than at 
any previous time; there were several Imperial units billeted in the 
neighbourhood, including a battery of "Heavies" and a section of the 
R.A.F. A Balloon Section was also in the area, and for miles on 
every side the big observation balloons hung in the air all day long, 
except when, as on April 1st, a sporting Hun airman came darting 
down the line and took toll of four in succession, sending them all 
down in flames. A couple of miles nearer the line was Roclincourt, 
where good baths were located, but the Roclincourt road was a target 
for the enemy artillery, who registered many direct hits on it. Life at 
Ecurie was not unpleasant, but it was marred by that 15-minute readi- 
ness clause in Orders, and it was really a relief when, on April 4th, 



83 

we moved up and took over the front in the right sub-section, Oppy 
Sector, with Headquarters in an enormous rambling dug-out with 
tunnel communications of an extensive nature. This front was well 
supplied with water, which was piped in all directions and even 
supplied a small bath-house hollowed out of the protecting bank. 
There was also a well in the neighbourhood, as one of "A" Coy.'s men 
found to his cost. He did not break his leg, but he found it uncomfort- 
able as a night's billet. 

On April 10th a highly successful raid was carried out by four 
Officers and 132 Other Ranks from "B" Coy., under the personal 
charge of Major F. J. Gary, M.C. The raid was timed for 5.00 a.m., 
and was undertaken for the purpose of obtaining identifications, 
inflicting casualties and demoralizing the enemy. The Raiding Party 
assembled in accordance with orders and followed up a two-minute 
barrage, but on account of the great depth of No Man's Land on this 
front some difficulty was experienced in locating the openings in the 
enemy's wire; eventually the right party had to cut its way through 
under cover of a fierce bomb and rifle barrage which effectually kept 
down the Hun heads. Finally this party reached the trench, but had 
to withdraw without prisoners, as their difficulties in the wire had 
already brought them within their time limit. The left party was 
more successful, and came back with ten prisoners from the 102nd 
Saxon Regiment. Our own casualties numbered Lieut. E. McCrea 
and 11 Other Ranks wounded, whereas the estimated casualties in- 
flicted on the enemy were over 50, of whom 28 are known to have 
been killed. An individual feature of this road was the "berserk" 
fighting of Sgt. C. V. Brewer, who strove like a Viking of old until 
"time" was called, when he managed to bring himself out of the line 
sorely wounded, but not until he had seen that his officer and other 
wounded men were safe; his valour on this occasion added the D.C.M. 
to the M.M. he had won at Lens. The following telegram was 
received the same morning, to be treasured as another proof of how 
the 102nd Bn. "made good": 

"Divisional and Brigade Commanders congratulate O.C. 102nd and 
all Officers and Other Ranks of the Battalion who participated either 
in the preparations for this morning's raid or in the raid itself, upon 
the success obtained. The Brigade Commander is proud of the fight- 
ing spirit shown by the raiding parties and of the heavy casualties 
inflicted on the enemy. 

"V. W. ODLUM, Commanding 11th C.I.B." 

That same evening we were relieved by the 78th Bn. and proceeded 
to Victory and Portsmouth Camps, near Ecurie. Early next morning 
orders were received that we were to relieve the 1st C.M.R. that night 
in the Acheville Sector, making our Headquarters in the same area 
that we had used when we went into Support on the Mericourt front 
at the New Year. On arrival, however, we found that there had been 



84 

"dirty work at the cross-roads," and that the Hun had totally demol- 
ished our previous billets in the embankment, forcing Us to occupy 
straitened quarters in Grand Trunk Trench; this trench was under 
constant fire from the enemy gunners, and, in addition, the accommo- 
dation was so limited that it was decided to find better quarters if 
possible; consequently, on the 13th, we moved over to some old 
Artillery positions close to Victoria Dump, where we contrived to 
make ourselves very comfortable, abundant water being procurable 
about 400 yards away at the other end of a secluded valley. It was 
not long, however, before the Hun realized that the deserted positions 
were again in occupation, and he marked his appreciation of the fact 
in the usual manner. During this tour a Brigade Composite unit was 
formed under Major Moffat, being composed of all men who had 
hitherto remained at the Transport Lines, but who could not be 
retained there under the new ruling that the personnel of Transport 
Lines must be cut down to 68, all ranks. This unit was retained for 
some time as a special Brigade Reserve for use in case of emergency; 
fortunately, its services were never required. On the 17th we moved 
up to our old Headquarters in the Quarries which we had occupied 
at Christmas. The situation was still critical, and Headquarters De- 
tails were now all mustered into separate units under Specialist offi- 
cers. Battalion wits, seeing the pampered (?) individuals of Head- 
quarters Staff thus mobilized into real fighting units, amused them- 
selves by inventing suitable names of an opprobrious nature for the 
different sections; thus we had "Okie's 'Opeless Oafs" lining up with 
"Perry's Priceless Pierrots", and "Packman's Palsied Pippins" vieing 
with "Manning's Measly Microbes"; but these alliteratively-named 
squads were never called on to prove their prowess. To facilitate the 
assembly of Headquarters in their battle stations a new exit from the 
quarry was completed during this tour, and in honour of our Second- 
in-Command was christened "Paddy's Passage." Only one incident 
of interest occurred during the tour, when, on the night of April 21st, 
a midnight patrol from "D" Coy., under Lieut: J. R. Wilson, ran into 
an enemy patrol proceeding in force towards a gap in our wire; our 
men promptly engaged the enemy with rifle fire, but on being threat- 
ened by a second party from the rear, had to bomb through the latter 
and take cover in a shell-hole, where they were actively attacked by 
the Huns, reinforced by a third party. Our patrol successfully 
repulsed all attacks, and the enemy finally withdrew, after sustaining 
heavy casualties; this action on the part of Lieut. Wilson's patrol 
undoubtedly checked a raid on our positions. 

On the night of the 23rd we were relieved by the 75th Bn., and 
made our way to Cellar Camp, Neuville St. Vaast. Mention has 
already been made of the good work which the Canadian Corps always 
did in the matter of improving and preserving billets, and the following 
letter, addressed by the CO. 75th Bn. to the Brigadier, will show that 
the 102nd was not backward in this respect: 



85 

''Dear General Odium, — I have never taken over front line 
trenches from any Battalion which were as clean and in as good 
shape as those the 102nd Bn. handed over today. We shall maintain 
and improve where possible. C.C. Harbottle. 23-4-18." This was 
forwarded with a covering letter from the Brigadier reading: — "My 
dear Lister, — Herewith a note from Harbottle, which has pleased me 
very much. I want to thank you and all concerned for the effort you 
must have made. The 102nd is pleasing me very much. V. W. Odium." 

Amenities such as the above do a lot of good, and when they 
occurred were very generally appreciated. Our new camp was a good 
one, with a big Y.M.C.A. hut in the neighbourhood, where the 4th 
Divisional Concert Party put on a good original entertainment entitled 
"Camouflage." After six days' rest we moved up for our last tour in 
the line before the long summer training which was to keep us in the 
back area for over two months, and on April 29th we relieved the 54th 
in the left sub-section, Mericourt Sector, with Headquarters in one 
of the old Company Headquarters dug-outs, and remained in the line 
until the 7th May, when we were relieved by the Argyle and Suther- 
land Bn., which had just arrived from Palestine, where it had been 
quartered for three years without home leave; the men had all been 
under the impression that they would be going to England when 
they were landed at Marseilles, and it was a sadly disappointed unit 
which took our place. These men had never had any experience at all 
of trench warfare, and the Hun gave them a very warm welcome, 
developing the only activity he had shown in a week just after they 
had come into the line. As for us, we marched down to a point on 
the Neuville St. Vaast road where 'buses and motor lorries picked us 
up and carried us many miles to the rear, depositing us at 6.30 a.m. 
on April 8th in the village of Frevillers. 

The last three months and a half had been singularly without 
incident, but they had entailed a great deal of nervous strain. It is 
a great deal more trying to keep on waiting for an enemy's offensive 
which does not develop than to take part in one planned and developed 
by one's own side. During the past month, especially, the Battalion 
had been kept on the tip-toe of expectation; it had been switched from 
front to front in constant suspense, and though, with the exception of 
the one raid already mentioned, it had seen no real fighting, it was 
quite ready to enjoy a rest from front line work, even though that rest 
was to be filled with the hardest kind of intensive training in prepara- 
tion for the strenuous days of open warfare which were to come 
towards the close of the summer. 

Let the chapter close with an anecdote illustrating the literary 
endowments of our Water Detail. On one of the recent tours Lieut. 
D. Macbeth came down in the early morning to interview the Medical 
Officer; as was customary, he was wearing a private's tunic, and one 
of the Water Detail on duty, not recognizing him, gruffly demanded 



86 

his business. "I want to see the M,0.," said the officer. "Well, you 
can't see him yet," replied the man on duty; "he ain't up yet; wait 
till the proper time." "Do you know whom you are talking to?" 
answered the other, "my name's Macbeth." "And I don't care if it's 
bloody Hamlet," came back the answer; "the M.O.'s been up all night, 
and unless you're wounded he's going to get some sleep before he 
prescribes your No. 9's." 



Reprinted from the Battalion Christmas Card, 1918. 

(These lines were written during the interval between the 2nd Battle 
of Arras and the 2nd Battle of Cambrai.) 



Dawn! And the sky grows brighter, 

The darkness and mist disappear; 
Passed are the shadows of evening, 

The things that we fought for grow clear; 
And the doubts that have troubled the nations 

Are stilled, as out triumph draws near. 

Dawn! And the night shrinks cowering, 

The Powers of Darkness decrease. 
Soon o'er the ruins of Europe 

Will hover the Angel of Peace; 
And the lives that the struggle has parted 

Will meet, when all warfare shall cease. 

Dawn!. And this Christmas morning 

Brings hope to a suffering world. 
E'en now fiom their tottering strongholds 

The Forces of Evil are hurled; 
And the nations are banded together 

'Neath the br.nner of Freedom unfurled. 

— L. McLEOD GOULD. 



87 





CHAPTER IX. 

Frevillers — Training for Open Warfare — Huclier. Conteville and 

Bethonval — Intensive Training Intensified — Life in Rural France 

— On the Oppy Front Again — The Eve of Open Warfare 

ATIENCE was needed for that drive to Frevillers, since we 
had been kept waiting on the road so that the whole 
Battalion could proceed together; consequently it was 
a cramped and tired crowd that "debussed" at Frevillers. 
Of all the weird and horrible words that ever crept into 
the War Vocabulary the two worst were "embuss" and 
"debuss"; to take the last syllable of a Latin trisyllable, graft on a 
prefix and, as compensation, to double the final consonant in order to 
force the accent on the last syllable, constituted an outrage on all the 
"ologies," but it afforded a cheap and effective method of describing 
the desired act, and was found in all Orders emanating from Higher 
Up. We "debussed," then, in the early hours of a beautiful spring 
morning, to find the country looking its best, and breakfast looking 
and tasting just three hours old — which it was, as our arrival had been 
expected earlier; and so, to bed. 

It was soon made abundantly clear that our period out of the line 
was to be spent in hard intensive training to fit the Battalion for the 
open warfare which it was expected that we should be called upon to 
carry out later in the year, and an exceedingly comprehensive scheme 
of training was immediately drawn up by Brigade, the principal fea- 
tures of which were the time to be spent on Musketry and the arrange- 
ments made for regular field operations to be carried out under the 
conditions which we should meet in the real thing. In addition, it 
was desired to harden the Battalion physically as much as possible; 
exercise and open air were to be enjoyed to the full, and the time 
not actually spent in military training was to be devoted to open-air 
sports of every kind. It was absolutely necessary that by the time 
the call came the Battalion as a whole should be able to stand the 
fatigue of long and continuous marches. That this system of training 
was successfully carried out was proved up to the hilt during the 
following August, when a series of gruelling night marches was 
immediately capped by a brilliant offensive and the quick following 
up of'a retreating enemy. 



It is unnecessary to deal in detail with the events of the next two 
weeks; on days when there were no manoeuvres the mornings were 
devoted to drill or musketry practice and the afternoons to athletics. 
In this connection the following paragraph from the Regimental 
Diary may prove of interest: "A great deal more zest and keenness in 
the matter of athletics was observable amongst the men than had 
been the case in 1917. This may have been due to the greater interest 
shown by the officers throughout the Battalion; moreover, we now had 
a sportsman as Chaplain, in the person of Capt. C. A. Fallon, who 
entered keenly into the men's pleasures." It is certainly true that if 
we had had more chaplains in the Corps of the type of Capt. C. A. 
Fallon the Cause of Religion would have benefited; he was not merely 
a chaplain and a good fellow out of the line; he figured that a chaplain 
had his uses when fighting was going on, and during the succeeding 
campaign he did invaluable work in the way of locating the wounded 
in open country and ministering to them under fire, and no award of 
the Military Cross was more popular throughout the unit than the 
one which bestowqd that decoration on Capt. Fallon for his services 
rendered in the 2nd Battle of Cambrai. 

Another entry in the Diary dated May 21st may be quoted: 
written as it was on the spot, it illustrates well the general feeling 
obtaining throughout the unit amid our then surroundings, and reads 
as follows: "Seldom have we felt so cut off from the war when in 
Corps Reserve as we have done in this village. On the eve of the 
Third Great Hun offensive, within earshot of our guns, which most 
nights can be heard muttering their barrages, close enough to St. Pol 
to hear the German bombs crashing therein at night, we seem to live 
in a world apart from the war itself. Never has our training been 
more severe; every day makes it clearer that when we move it will be 
to enter the bloodiest fight in which we have yet taken part, but our 
hours of rest seem to belie all this. This is probably due to the season 
and also to the phenomenal weather. We were in the Forward Area 
during the first beginnings of spring, and came out to find ourselves 
plunged suddenly into summer in an unravished part of the country 
where summer is at its best. A large number of men desert their 
billets at night and sleep under the trees in the open. This rest has 
put new life into the Battalion." 

The weather was perfect; so hot that all training was carried 
out without tunics. Fortunately we were, for once, able to indulge in 
good bathing. Frevillers was situated close to La Comte, the village 
where we billeted before entering the Vimy Sector, and just beyond 
La Comte was an enormous quarry which had been flooded by springs 
with water. This formed a magnificent bathing pool; it was more than 
a pool; it was more like a lake, 450 yards by 150, and nightly it was 
crowded with enthusiastic swimmers. 

On the 25th of the month we left Frevillers with its flowering 
cactus and charming denizens, some of whom we had known in Hersin, 



89 

whence they had fled to a more secure refuge when the March offen- 
sive began, and moved off to the Dieval area; here we were quartered 
in three villages, all about a mile apart, Headquarters, with "A" and 
"B" Coys., being billeted in Conteville, "C" Coy. and the Transport 
Lines in Bethonval, and "D" Coy. in Huclier. Brigade Headquarters 
were situated at Dieval, about nine miles away; the 54th Bn. was at 
La Comte and Ourton, the 75th at Camblain Chatelain, and the 87th 
at Valhoun. The last-named was nearest to Brigade, and even the 
87th was a good five miles away; never had the Brigade been so scat- 
tered. The training-ground selected for the use of the 11th Brigade 
was near Magnicourt, about nine miles from Conteville, and about 
six miles from the nearest Battalion, the 87th. Here the four units 
used to assemble twice a week between eight and nine o'clock in the 
morning; this meant rising at 2:30 a.m. in order to have time to get 
breakfast over and cover the distance in comfortable time to rest 
before the strenuous part of the day's work began; when the latter was 
over there was the long march home to billets. It may be imagined 
that after a few of these manoeuvres, carried out in hot weather over 
a dust-laden country, the units began to feel physically fit. On days 
when there were no manoeuvres there was perpetual drill or inspection 
in the mornings and good hard physical exercise at games or athletic 
sports in the afternoons and evenings. On Sundays a Church Parade 
would be frequently held over at Brigade Headquarters in Dieval, 
necessitating a long day's march. In short, nothing was neglected 
which might serve to harden the troops and fit them for long march- 
ing under the severest conditions. Incidentally, about two miles from 
Conteville was a creek which served admirably as a swimming-bath. 
On June 15th, Divisional Sports were held at Pernes, where Capt. 
T. R. Griffith, M.C., and Sergt. R. L. Algie, both of the 102nd, won the 
100 yards' and 200 yards' events respectively. We had a first-class 
Lacrosse team at this time, which won its way through to the Finals, 
but failed to beat the 47th Bn. Our Baseball team, which had pre- 
viously held a good record, fell to pieces during the early part of the 
season and rallied too late to redeem the ground lost. At a later date 
Battalion Headquarters Massed Football team covered themselves 
with glory by winning the Brigade Championship. On Dominion Day, 
when a Corps Sports Meet was held at Tinques, Sgt Algie, our only 
representative, ran second in the 100 yards' final. 

No amount of physical perfection, however, sufficed to save the 
Battalion from an epidemic of "Spani sh Influe nza," which, during 
June, made rapid strides throughoutThe Allied Armies in France. We 
tvere fortunate in ' having within our area a disused aerodrome on 
which the hangars had been left, and we obtained permission to fit 
two of these up as temporary hospitals. Consequently we were able 
to attend to almost all cases, who numbered something like 75 per cent 
of flie unit, on the ground, without having to send them out to Field 
Ambulance. Very few cases were serious enough to need further 



90 







gar. 

C =c a 






91 

attention than the Battalion Medical Detail was qualified to bestow, 
and long before we were moved into the line the epidemic had 
subsided. 

Seeing that we remained in Conteville for nearly six weeks it may 
not be out of place to try and give some description of the surrounding 
cduntry and of life in general in French farming villages as seen by 
visiting troops. Conteville is a typical village, consisting of one main 
street and a couple of side issues, and was inhabited solely by a farm- 
ing community. As is usual in France and Belgium, the farmers live 
in the village as a community and go out to their fields by day; it is 
rare indeed to find an outlying farmhouse. This system tends to 
wasting a certain amount of time in the coming and going; but it 
gives the farmer the advantage of living amongst his own kind instead 
of being isolated in the midst of his acres. The principal industry in 
the agricultural districts would seem to be the manufacture of manure, 
which is the pride and delight of every prosperous farmer; the more 
successful the agriculturist and the higher his standing in the com- 
munity, the bigger and richer his manure heap. Every farmhouse is 
built round a large court-yard which is constructed after the fashion 
of a big swimming-bath, being graded from the level of the ground at 
the street end to a depth of about four feet at the other. In this 
excavation, which measures approximately 100 feet by 30, is heaped 
the valued treasure; here it festers in the rains of winter and the hot 
sunshine of summer, and it advertises the wealth and social standing 
of its owner by the richness of its effluvia. How it is that the natives 
do not die of typhoid is one of the mysteries which confronts the 
visiting Canadian. As may be imagined, in farms where the manure 
pile reaches up to within three feet of the front door and the dining- 
room windows no special sanitary precautions are. taken to ensure 
the cleanliness of the cows and to prevent the infection of their milk. 
And yet the children thrive! Verily it raises a doubt as to whether 
our elaborate precautions on this continent are really justified. 
Whether or not the microbe is indigenous to the American Continent, 
it is very certain that his presence does not in the least annoy the 
inhabitants of rural France. Every village is dependent for its water 
supply on wells which are sunk to an incredible depth; sometimes the 
rope on which the bucket hangs is broken and the villagers are content 
to use another well until a beneficent Providence sends along an 
Engineer unit to billet in the place, or some other military formation 
which will take steps to supply a new rope. Another thing which 
amazes the Canadian is that though the interior of the houses and all 
their fittings are kept scrupulously clean, and though the people them- 
selves on Sundays and holidays appear in snowy linen and with well- 
washed faces, no house is ever found to be equipped with anything in 
the shape of a bath; a tin tub big enough to wash clothes in, but by 
no means big enough to sit in, apparently suffices for any ablutions 
which might seem to demand more accommodation than a hand basin 



92 

can supply. These observations apply to every village in the agricul- 
tural district we visited during our period of service in France and 
Belgium. 

Conteville itself has quite a standing in the neighbourhood, owing 
to the presence in its midst of a patron saint in effigy, St. Benoit by 
name. This was a very devout person who lived in mediaeval time's 
and made a pilgrimage to Rome, and his fame seems to have rested 
principally on some wonderful letters which he wrote home to his 
parish priest. A wax model of the good gentleman now lies in a 
shrine adjoining the church, very badly dressed in a shabby gown and 
a really disgraceful pair of socks, though the latter may possibly have 
been substituted for a good pair when the villagers heard that the 
Canadians were coming to live amongst them. The scenery round 
Conteville is beautiful in the extreme; the country is wide and rolling, 
well treed and apparently very fertile, though during our stay we saw 
no farming being done except by the wonderful French women, who 
from early womanhood to crabbed old age seem imbued with an abso- 
lutely tireless energy, and by a few old men and children. About three 
miles away over the fields lies St. Pol, quite a good-sized town, which 
showed many evidences of the proximity of the Hun artillery; more- 
over, his airmen made frequent visits in their big bombing machines, 
but the material damage they did was very slight. At Martin l'Eglise, 
which lay close to our village of Bethonval, a Tank Corps was estab- 
lished, and it was here that we first became at all well acquainted 
with these strange monsters. Bethonval during our sojourn enjoyed 
quite a local reputation, though for a very different reason from that 
which gave Conteville its place in the sun; at Bethonval dwelt Juliette, 
and Juliette was a very fair damsel and exceedingly good to l.ook 
upon, and what was far more important, Juliette managed to get, by 
means unknown, a regular supply of excellent liqueurs, which made 
life very pleasant for "C" Coy. and the personnel of the Transport 
Lines, who usually contrived to finish up each 'stock on arrival 
before the outlying companies had a chance to participate. 

At length, on July 10, our time at Conteville came to a close, and 
we received orders to move forward. Lieut.-Col. Lister had left for 
England on leave eight days before, and when our move orders came 
Major Ryan was in command of the Battalion. There were some 
other changes to be chronicled; Lieut. J. L. Lloyd, who had just com- 
pleted a six-weeks course, was promoted from the position of Assist- 
ant-Adjutant, which he had held, when he was not acting as Adjutant, 
almost continuously from the beginning of 1917, to the position of 
Second-in-Command of "D" Coy., and Lieut. W. W. Dunlop, M.C., 
was transferred to Headquarters to fill the vacant position. Lieut. 
C. W. McDermid was created Scout Officer in place of Lieut. R. 
Adams, transferred to the R.A.F. Lieut. W. H. C. Stanley undertook 
the duties of Bombing Officer during the absence of Lieut. R. Perry, 



93 

sick, and Capt. W. McL. Walwyn was appointed Second-in-Command 
of "C" Coy. 

It was 8.00 p.m. when we pulled out of Conteville on July 10th. 
Strange to say, we had few regrets at leaving; though we had been 
there much longer than in any other settlement we had never suc- 
ceeded in establishing really friendly relations with the villagers; on 
our arrival they had stood aloof, and they maintained the same atti- 
tude throughout our stay. They were the only people with whom we 
came into close contact throughout our 33 months in France or 
Belgium who did not shed a few tears on our departure or with whom 
some correspondence was not later maintained. An hour before 
midnight we arrived at Dieval, where we entrained for Mt. S. Eloy, 
which we reached at 5.00 a.m. on the following morning, marching off 
immediately to Brant and Cliff Camps at Ecoivres, close at hand; here 
we found breakfast, after which we turned in for a few hours' sleep, 
proceeding at 3.45 p.m. through pouring rain to a camp at Maison 
Blanche, the Transport going ahead to Ecurie Corner for the night, 
but returning next day, owing to excessive shelling, to a position next 
Headquarters. On the same day "B" and "D" Coys, went forward to 
Blanche Post, in the Reserve Line, where they were joined on the 
13th by Headquarters, "A" and "C" Coys, being billeted in Roclin- 
court. The general lay-out of the ground round Blanche Post was 
slightly reminiscent of Zouave Valley in the days before the capture 
of the Ridge, but there was one added feature which was immensely 
popular, viz., four cold water showers with heaps of water laid on. 
On the 17th we moved up to the Front Line in relief of the 87th. We 
were now back on the Oppy front, just to the right of the positions 
we had occupied in April, so close, in fact, that our Medical Detail used 
the same quarters for their Regimental Aid Post. 

The feature of this tour was a successful raid carried out on the 
night oi J une 23-24 by "D" Coy. Two days were spent in preparation, 
during which some very valuable work was done by the Battalion 
Scouts, under Lieut. R. L. Gale, Intelligence Officer, in the course of a 
daylight reconnaissance of the trenches leading N.E. from our Front 
Line in the vicinity of the intended raid. When close io the block in 
the trench which marked the dividing line between the Hun and our- 
selves the Scouts noticed first a trap bomb and later a trap alarm; 
these they carefully avoided, and Pte. E. W. Fenton, carefully and 
quietly climbing the parapet, was enabled to observe the enemy's 
dispositions on the other side of the block in great detail. Had it not 
been that a raid was in course of preparation it would have been 
easy to kill or capture the Hun outpost, but this would have entailed 
increased vigilance on his part and would have imperilled the success 
of the larger operation. The raid itself followed the barrage at mid- 
night, and was carried out by three parties, one under Lieut. J. H. 
French, a second under Lieut. T. W. Peers, with a third party in 
support, under Lieut. A. M. Morrison. The first party found more 



94 

wire than had been anticipated, as the high grass had hidden it from 
view, and some difficulty was encountered in negotiating it; finally 
they cut their way through and entered the enemy trench, where they 
captured six prisoners and inflicted many casualties. The second party 
unfortunately lost time owing to the intense darkness, entering the 
trench on our own side of the block; by the time this mistake had been 
rectified the Hun had had time to escape, and only three prisoners 
were captured, though heavy casualties were inflicted. On our side we 
lost one Other Rank killed and 12 wounded, but the result of the raid 
was net gain, including, as it did, nine prisoners, the certainty of from 
15 to 20 Huns killed, and the knowledge that many more had been 
wounded. Half the object of these raids was to weaken the enemy's 
morale, and now more than at any other time it was necessary to carry 
on this good work; on that account alone the raid would have been 
deemed successful; in addition, we brought back prisoners who 
afforded identifications and useful information. Illustrative of the 
spirit of our men after their nine weeks out of the line the Diary 
has the following: — "Pte. Wren lost his rifle in the wire, but he leaped 
into the trench and tackled the enemy with his bare hands; he seized 
two Huns by the throat, and dashed their heads together till they 
surrendered. Pte. Twell saw a comrade fall mortally wounded; he 
dragged him to a shell-hole and with his rifle fought off all efforts of 
the enemy to surround him; eventually he obtained assistance and 
brought the man in." 

The Higher Command was more than well pleased with the 
work of the 102nd Bn. in this raid, as is .shown by the following 
messages received: "My dear Lister, — Hearty congratulations to all 
concerned on your good work. The nine prisoners and the dead 
Germans leave a fine record. I am very much pleased. Your raid was 
as neat a one as has been pulled off. Special credit is due Ryan and 
Gale. Please congratulate all concerned for me. Congratulations have 
also come in for you from the Divisional Commander and from the 
G.O.C. 10th and 12th Brigades. Very sincerely, V. W. Odium." Later 
the Brigadier forwarded this second message: "11th C.I.B. 28|7|18. 
My dear Colonel Lister, — I have just received a letter from Sir David 
Watson from which I quote: T have much pleasure in enclosing you 
herewith copy of a letter which I have received from Lieut.-General 
Sir A. W. Currie, Commanding Canadian Corps, in connection with 
the recent raid of the 102nd Bn. In speaking with me on this matter 
General Currie expressed himself as greatly delighted with the splen- 
did work carried out by this Battalion, as well as with the effort of 
the 54th on the same night. Would you be good enough to transmit 
these messages to the respective Battalions.' The letter from Sir 
Arthur Currrie to which the Divisional Commander refers is as fol- 
lows: 'Dear Watson, — Please convey my congratulations to the G.O.C. 
11th Brigade and to the 102nd Bn. for the splendid raid carried out by 
them a few nights ago. I consider the operation a splendid success, 



95 

showing in all concerned fighting qualities of a high order. Yours 
ever, A. W. Currie.' It gives me a great deal of pleasure to be able 
to add this message to the other congratulations I have already for- 
warded you. Victor W. Odium, Commanding 11th Canadian Inf. 
Brigade." 

On the evening of the 23rd we moved out to Support, taking the 
place of the 87th. Our quarters here were distinctly poor and needed 
much improvement, some of which they received; incidentally the Hun 
made them more uncomfortable by throwing over a lot of gas shells 
every night. Whilst we were in this area we began to see signs of 
the times in the movement of tanks and cavalry. "The Day" for us 
was now approaching fast, but it was not to find us in the area where 
we expected to be, and when we were relieved by the 7th Bn. Royal 
Scots on July 31st and moved out to Ecoivres, we did not realize that 
we were taking the first step in a series of operations which were still 
further to enhance the fame of the Canadian Corps. 



96 




CHAPTER X. 

From Ecoivres to Berneville — Night Marching to the South — The 

Dawn of "The Day" — Battle of Amiens — Rosieres — A Record 

Train Journey — Ready for the Hindenburg Switch 




OT until the small hours of the morning did the tail end 
of the Battalion reach Village Camp, Ecoivres, as the 
relieving Battalion, being ignorant of conditions in the 
Oppy sector, required considerable instruction before 
taking over the new positions; moreover, the Hun airmen 
were unwontedly active and successful with the bombing 
machines, harassing the outgoing troops considerably and inflicting 
seven casualties in "A" Coy. But by 10.00 a.m. on Aug. 1st everyone 
had returned and rested and was in a position to appreciate the baths 
and clean uoderwear which had been arranged for the Battalion, with 
the prophetic warning attached that it might be some time before 
another such opportunity occurred. In the afternoon we fell in and 
marched ten miles to Berneville; it was strange to see how the brief 
respite of barely three weeks which had elapsed since the severe 
training at Conteville, coupled with the days of enforced inactivity 
which trench warfare entails, reacted on the men; three weeks before 
they could tackle an eighteen-mile march with field manoeuvres 
thrown in; now a little ten-mile march in heavy order was an effort, 
and swollen feet and blisters accounted for a large number of strag- 
glers. But this was merely a temporary reaction, and a couple of days 
of open life served to put everybody literally "on their feet" again 
Berneville was quite a serviceable little place and the camp was good, 
though recent rain had made it very muddy; an open-air swimming 
tank was in evidence, but at the time of our arrival the weather was 
unpropitious for bathing, and we left after a two-night stay. 

The departure was marked by a degree of secrecy hitherto 
unknown in the Corps. This was the occasion when representatives of 
Canadian units were deliberately sent north with the express intention 
of hoodwinking the Hun; every effort was being made to instil a belief 
amongst the country people that the Canadian Corps was going to 
Belgium again, and it is well known that this information was trans- 
mitted through various sources to the enemy, who was in consequence 



97 

the more astounded when we appeared in his midst five days later 
near Amiens. 

The orders laid down for march discipline to be observed during 
the forthcoming series of marches were exceedingly strict; absolutely 
no straggling was to be countenanced, and each unit was to have a 
rear-guard marching at the pace of its weakest member to bring up 
all who fell out from the main body.. Every effort was to be made by 
day to keep the troops under cover, and every precaution was to be 
taken which might ensure the movement of the Corps being kept as 
secret as possible. On the evening of the 3rd we marched a mile or 
so down the road where 'buses were drawn up to convey us to our 
unknown destination, for we were proceeding under sealed orders; for 
nine hours we drove through an unknown country, the general direc- 
tion being south, though it was evident that the route had been chosen 
with the deliberate intention of confusing any spies, as it kept on 
diverging to different points of the compass. On the way we passed 
several units from the American Expeditionary Force, who gave Us a 
rousing welcome and showered cigarettes on us as we drove through 
their lines. At 5.30 a.m. on the 4th our 'buses stopped and we 
descended to find ourselves in the middle of Nowhere, just a cross- 
roads with not a house in sight. Though August, it was bitterly cold 
at that hour of the morning, and we had been sitting cramped and 
chilled throughout a long night's drive; we stood about and cursed 
the war whilst the sealed orders were opened and maps consulted, 
with the result that we took the cross-road to the right and marched 
five miles to the hamlet of Fresnes-Tilloluy, where we had breakfast 
and turned in out of sight, remaining under cover all day. In this 
village we left all packs and officers' bed-rolls, little dreaming that it 
would be three weeks before we saw them again, and then at 9:30 
p.m. we fell in for the first of the series of night marches which were 
destined to bring us to the Amiens front. 

It was extraordinarily dark for the time of year; there was no 
moon, and a great part of our way lay along roads heavily shrouded 
with trees which allowed not a glimmer of starlight to penetrate. 
Our route led us back over the ground covered the same morning, 
and over a small part of the ground which we had traversed in the 
'buses, a fact which aroused much resentment amongst the "foot- 
sloggers." Soldiers, as a class, detest marching, and anything which 
can possibly be construed as unnecessary distance always excites their 
bitterest criticism, but in the present case some Battalion had to be 
selected for the extra miles, as all the Brigade units could not be 
billeted together, and the 102nd, as was usually the case, being the 
junior Battalion, was chosen as the "goat." At 2.00 a.m. we reached 
Metigny, where it rained most of the day; a good thing, as it kept the 
men'hidden and laid the dust: besides, we were quite willing to sleep, 
anyway. At 9.00 p.m. we fell in again ready to move off, but for some 
reason unknown were kept standing around for an hour before we 



98 

actually set out on what was officially stated to be a 21-mile march; 
25 miles was more probably the distance covered, and covered as it 
was in battle order with empty haversacks and yawning stomachs it 
seemed like 30. It is not easy to understand why some provision was 
not made for a bite to eat on these long night marches. When bat- 
talions marched by day a stop was always made for lunch, and 
sandwiches or their equivalent were invariably carried in the haver- 
sack; why the darkness should have, been presumed to counteract 
hunger is a mystery. As the dawn broke we found that we were 
traversing a very beautiful part of the country, more open and billowy 
than that around Conteville, which was softer in its aspect, and very 
different in character from that to which we had for so long been 
accustomed in Flanders and the northern portion of France. The 
villages were more widely scattered, but larger and more prosperous 
in their appearance. The term "La Belle France" had long been a 
joke amongst those of the Canadians who had never seen anything of 
it save for the shell-shocked areas of the Somme and Vimy; now the 
expression took on a new meaning, and the men were loud in their 
admiration of the country through which they were marching. Our 
destination on this occasion was Creuse, which proved to be a fair- 
sized settlement almost worthy of being called a town, and which we 
reached at 9.00 a.m. on the 6th. The Battalion had shown up well 
on this extra long march; there were some sore feet, but nothing 
which a few hours' rest would not mend. A more serious trouble, 
however, stared us in the face; we were confronted with a shortage 
in tobacco and matches, a shortage which lasted without much allevia- 
tion throughout the whole month. 

At Creuse we rested until 8.45 p.m., when once more we set out, 
this time for Boves Wood, an extensive wood on a hill which served 
as a concentration point for 50,000 men and 25,000 horses immediately 
before the great push of August 8th. Owing to the incompetency 
of our guides we took a wrong turn in the dark, and the subsequent 
retracing of our steps took us through deep mud and darkened 
woods, which not only added mileage but considerable discomfort to 
our labours. The main roads we found to be crowded with French 
troops, mostly Transport and Artillery. To our way of thinking the 
Transport waggons of the French Army are grossly overloaded and 
disgracefully shabby in appearance; they remind the spectator irres- 
istibly of the average third-rate travelling circus; the horses also look 
in wretched condition and excite ridicule at first sight. But they do 
most certainly "deliver the goods," and the way in which they cover 
the ground and get through with the job they have on hand ends by 
exciting a very genuine admiration. It was not until 4:30 a.m. on the 
7th that we eventually reached the Chateau in Boves Wood which 
was our halting-place; there were no billets, but the ground was soft, 
if wet, and there was abundance of undergrowth with which to make 
comfortable bedding; our orders were to lie well hidden, and we were 



99 

well content to do so. The undergrowth was so dense and the over- 
head cover so luxuriant that it was easy to understand that the wood 
sheltered the numbers above mentioned. What would not the Hun 
have given to know that well within his artillery range so formidable 
a force was already massed to give him the first of those deadly 
blows which were to result in three months in the signing of the 
Armistice! During the course of the day a meeting of all Officers 
and N.C.O.'s in charge of Sections was held and every detail of the 
next day's offensive was elaborately explained and every position in 
our own area of operations carefully pointed out on the map. By 
10.00 p.m., when the Battalion fell in for the last time before the 
battle began, every man had a clear and distinct idea of what his own 
particular job would be and of what part we were playing in the 
general scheme of operations. And so, under the command of Lieut. - 
Col. Lister, we marched off in the gathering dusk through Boves 
town and across the Luce River to take up our position in the First 
Assembly Point behind Gentelles Wood.) 

This wood, standing on the top of an eminence, acted as an excel- 
lent screen, and here all the Brigade units assembled by midnight and 
settled down to take what rest was possible before the barrage started 
at 4.20 a.m. on the 8th. It was a cold night and the ground was wet 
with dew, consequently the issue of rum which was served out at 
dawn was doubly welcome. It may here be stated that during the 
whole of our stay with the Fourth Army under General Rawlinson, 
to which the Corps was attached for this offensive, our creature com- 
forts were better looked after than in any other Army, and during 
our service in France we had experience of all save the Fifth. At 
4.20 a.m. to the dot a terrific barrage opened, eclipsing anything we 
had yet heard; this same expression will be found in accounts of the 
succeeding battles up to the time of the Armistice, as the Allies 
increased the ferocity of their opening barrages with each successive 
push. Ahead of us was the 7th Brigade of the 3rd Canadian Division, 
through whom we were to pass at a later stage, and with the opening 
of the barrage they moved forward to the attack. There was a white 
mist hanging low which was greatly in favour of the attacking forces, 
but as the sun came up this quickly disappeared. An hour later it 
was our turn to move forward in closer support. Our way led 
through fields of ripening corn, past innumerable batteries of every 
calibre, across the swamps of the Luce, through orchards and then 
along the side of the Amiens-Roye Road, where we saw the first- 
fruits of the battle in the shape of large bodies of Hun prisoners 
being marched to the rear, and a number of our own walking 
wounded. The latter seemed to be intoxicated with success; the Hun 
had been caught entirely by surprise; if he had thought of the Cana- 
dians at all he had thought of them as preparing an offensive up north. 
He certainly had the surprise of his life on August 8th. Our second 
Assembly Point was reached at 9.30 a.m., and here we received orders 



100 

to halt until 12.10 p.m., when we moved forward again in Artillery 
formation in lines of platoons to our Jumping-off place, where our own 
share in the attack was to commence. Up to this point we sustained 
no casualties. 

Connecting on the right with the 54th and on the left with the 
78th, we now passed through the 7th Brigade and plunged forward. 
Our first objective was a sunken road, which was taken by "B" and 
"D" Coys, without serious difficulty by 3.00, p.m. The second was a 
more serious matter, being the forward edge of Beaucourt Wood in 
our front. "A" and "C" Coys, now passed through the other two and 
pressed on, but encountered very severe opposition, consisting of 
heavy machine gun fire from the wood on our immediate front, machine 
gun fire from a wood on our left flank, which was exposed owing to 
the 78th having fallen behind our advance, and long-distance machine 
gun and trench mortar fire from the right flank of Beaucourt Wood; 
this flank was to have been protected by two tanks attached for that 
purpose, but they had been unable to keep up with our rapid advance, 
and it was not until two tanks attached to the 54th had come round 
to our assistance that "A" Coy., on the right, was able to make further 
progress, which it did by section rushes and then, when within fifty 
yards of the woods, charging and capturing the place by storm. In 
this operation we were greatly helped by the 54th on the right, who 
outflanked the wood and diverted much of the enemy's fire. After 
gaining the edge of the wood there was still hard work ahead of "A" 
Coy., as the ends of the wood were very strongly held; "D" Coy. was 
consequently brought up as reinforcement and the wood was 
eventually cleared, but on reaching the forward edge our men again 
came under very heavy machine gun fire, this time from a trench lying 
in the open on the brow of the opposite hill and from another sunken 
road. At this juncture two whippet tanks gave us great assistance, 
enabling us to engage the enemy hand-to-hand, when we inflicted 
further heavy casualties and captured from 50 to 60 prisoners, though 
being subjected all the time to machine gun and trench mortar fire 
from still another wood. In the meantime "C" Coy. on the left had 
been encountering very strong opposition from a system of trenches 
held by the enemy in force; the 78th was still behind the line of 
advance, its nearest unit to us being one platoon which had lost its 
Battalion and was following us up about 400 yards distant; conse- 
quently "C" Coy. had to overcome this opposition without assistance, 
which was not as originally laid down in the programme. The feat 
was done, however, with several resultant prisoners, and thereafter 
the opposition manifestly weakened, the enemy retiring in some dis- 
order to other trenches in the open, from which he was successively 
ejected, the only serious opposition coming from three or four deter- 
mined machine gun crews, all of whom were eventually either killed 
or captured. "C" Coy. reached its final objective at. 4.35 p.m . The 
Battalion was now ensconced in the position it had set out to capture. 



101 

and protective posts were immediately put out, but these could not 
go very far forward owing to the heavy fire which the enemy was 
maintaining on our positions from the high ground in front, and our 
left flank was still exposed; consequently the latter was withdrawn a 
little as a protective flank until the arrival of the 78th shortly after- 
wards. 

During the course of this operation we captured 159 prisoners, 
4 light trench mortars, 2 granatenwerfers, 5 heavy machine guns, 5 
light machine guns. The trophies were all carefully tagged and left 
in accordance with instructions for shipment to Ordnance, but, as 
usually happened in the case of spoils of war, half of them were stolen 
by succeeding battalions. Captured trophies gave more trouble and 
were worth less than anything else; they were provocative of much 
dishonesty, every battalion naturally desiring to furnish ocular proof 
of its prowess, and they were the cause of much disappointment to 
home towns, where the authorities would be warned of the pending 
arrival of trophies which never reached their destination. Our own 
casualties on August 8th were as follows: Lieuts. J. L. Lloyd, J. K. 
Dawson, 'C. T. Peers, and 20 Other Ranks killed or died of wounds; 
Lieuts. E. R. Niblett, E. S. Chagnon and 88 Other Ranks wounded. 
The Company Commanders on this day were Capt. I. C. R. Atkin, 
M.C., Capt. J. A. Mann, Major W. McL. Walwyn, and Lieut. V. C. 
Brimacombe, commanding "A,""B," "C" and "D" Coys, respectively. 

After the capture of the final objective Headquarters was estab- 
lished in this wood, where a well-appointed German camp was found; 
all sorts of supplies were in evidence, beer, food, including good cake, 
and a German Field Ambulance full of their wounded and well stocked 
with hospital supplies. Some enemy bombardment was sustained 
throughout the night, but no damage was done. Meantime the 75th 
had passed through us, and the 87th had their Headquarters with ours; 
on the morning of the 9th they continued the attack and captured 
their objectives, leaving us in Brigade Reserve. That night we, moved 
Headquarters further up towards the front to another wood, proceed- 
ing still farther forward on the 10th to the last of a series of woods 
bordering on a wide open expanse traversed by good roads all leading 
eastwards towards the enemy positions. These roads were continu- 
ously crowded with transport of all kinds, interspersed with which 
were numerous batteries and large bodies of cavalry, all going forward 
in pursuit of the Hun. On the 13th we took over the Front Line 
from the 85th and 38th Bns., remaining one night, when we returned 
to the last mentioned wood on relief by the 22nd Bn. Plans for 
another offensive were on foot, but these were subsequently can- 
celled, and we were glad of the opportunity to reorganize and absorb 
drafts of reinforcements which arrived during this period. On the 
17th. Brigade Reserve was established at Rosieres, whither we moved. 
Here we had a good chance to see something of the German method 
behind his own lines. Ten days before Rosieres had been well within 



102 

his Reserve area and had been used as an internment camp and a base 
of supplies. Here also was an enormous salvage dump, piled high in a 
well organized system, with captured munitions and looted plunder. 
A standard gauge railway ran through the camp, and when we arrived 
German engines were already busy hauling out for our own use 
salvaged cars. On the 20th we moved up to the Front Line again, 
relieving the 87th, and it was during this tour that Lieut. H. J. 
Goodyear met with his death whilst in charge of a night patrol sent 
out to connect with the Australians on our left. This was our last 
tour of duty on the Amiens front, as we were relieved on the night of 
the 24th by the 1st Bn. 88th R.I. (French). This was the first occasion 
on which the Battalion had handed over direct to a French unit, and 
the differences between their organization and ours were very obvious. 
The relieving Battalion was formed of a magnificent body of men, 
who once again dispelled the utterly erroneous but always precon- 
ceived notion that the French infantryman is a man of small stature. 
We returned to our Base camp in the early morning of the 25th, 
rested all day, and at 6.00 p.m. marched off to Bois de Blangny, 
making a small detour to get .baths on the way. This bath was a 
nightmare; it was situated in a wood, and the men had to undress 
in the open, line up naked with their dirty clothes in their arms, 
exchange their clothing, line up again, and then find cold water only. 
Incidentally there were not enough clothes to go round, and a thunder- 
storm broke out in the middle of the operation. It was a pitch-dark 
night and a broken road to follow, full of shell-holes, as the Adjutant's 
horse found, and very muddy, but we eventually reached Bois de 
Blangny at 3.30 a.m. on the 26th and remained there one night, lying 
out under the trees. Here we found our packs, which had been left 
three weeks before at Fresnes-Tilloluy. On the following day we 
marched off to Longeau, about three miles distant, where we entrained 
for an unknown destination. 

The journey on which we were now embarked is well worthy 
of mention. It was made on scheduled time. Punctually to the 
minute the train pulled out at 2.18 a.m. on the morning of the 28th. 
Twelve hours later we detrained at Acq, in the old Vimy area; here 
we were told that 'buses would be found ready and waiting for us up 
the road; and the 'buses were actually there and ready to take us, as 
soon as we had boarded them, to our old camp at Berneville, which 
we had occupied before starting out on the historic round trip to 
Amiens and back. In the words of the Diary: "The move from 
Longeau to Berneville was planned, detailed and executed admirably; 
there was no waiting and no confusion; a marked contrast to most." 



103 




CHAPTER XI. 

Neuville Vitasse — Second Battle of Arras — A Fortnight in Reserve — 
Second Battle of Cambrai. 




|E ONLY remained one night in Berneville, and on August 
29th the Battalion, including the Transport Lines, which 
had been brigaded, moved up to a trench system on the 
outskirts of the ruined village of Neuville Vitasse. The 
day was very warm, and the unaccustomed packs 
- weighed heavy on the nine-mile march, which took us 
over the same old shell-shocked style of country with which we had 
been so well acquainted, but which we had failed to see down south. 
Our new camp was situated in the middle of a trench system which 
had been at one time part of the Hun Front Line, but it had been 
disused for a long time and was in an appalling state of neglect and 
dirt. After settling down we were informed that we should take part 
in big operations which were planned for the immediate future, the 
object of which would be the breaking of the famous Hindenburg 
Switch Line, also known as the Drocourt-Queant Line and the Wotan 
Line, an immensely strong series of defensive positions lying west of 
the Canal du Nord and straddling the main Arras-Cambrai road. At 
this point Lieut.-Colonel Lister left us to go into hospital, sick, and 
the command of the Battalion fell to Major E. J. Ryan, who conducted 
the Battalion's operations in what is generally known as the Second 
Battle of Arras. Major F. J. Gary, M.C., who had just returned from a 
Senior Officers' Course in England, acted as Second-in-Command, 
Capt. S. H. Okell, M.C., was still our Adjutant, and the four Company 
Commanders were Capt. J. A. Mann, Capt. J. G. Knight, M.C., Capt. 
T. R. Griffith, M.C., and Lieut. J. R. Wilson, commanding "A," "B," 
"C" and "D" Coys, respectively. 

At 8.30 p.m. on the evening of Sept. 1st the Battalion fell in and 
marched off to the First Assembly Point in Vis-en-Artois. It was a 
bright starlight night, and the roads were packed with traffic of all 
kinds. Enemy planes were very active, and on the way we were held 
up by a blazing ammunition lorry which had been fired by a bomb 
and was shooting off the contents of its dangerous load in every 



104 

direction. The approach to our Assembly Point was difficult in the 
extreme, lying on the other side of a rolling expanse which was 
thickly fenced with our own barbed wire; in the starlight it was 
difficult to keep to the winding trails which led through the barriers, 
and the whole surface of the ground was deeply furrowed with disused 
trenches. By 1.00 o'clock the following morning, however, we reached 
cur destination, an extensive sand-pit which afforded excellent cover 
from the shells which began to drop around us immediately on our 
arrival. Here we slept until gas shells falling in our midst at 4.45 
a.m. compelled our unwilling arousal and the furtive fingering of the 
ever-objectionable gas mask. It was a chilly dawn, and we were 
heartily thankful for the tot of rum which was served out just as the 
barrage broke out at 5.00 a.m., the signal for the First Canadian Divi- 
sion to "go over." Directly in front of the 11th Brigade was the 12th, 
to whom had been allotted the task of actually breaking through the 
main line of defence; behind the 12th Brigade, on our own immediate 
front, was the 87th Bn., who were to pass through the former east of 
the Drocourt-Queant Line, and through whom we were to leap-frog 
after they had captured Ecourt St. Quentin, our own objective being 
first laid down as Oisy-le- Verger, on the east bank of the Canal du 
Nord, though this programme was subsequently modified. 

The barrage was extraordinarily intense, and one hour after its 
commencement we moved forward, maintaining a distance of 1,000 
yards from the 87th Bn. Within half-an-hour we passed into a zone 
of continuous barrage fire put over by the Hun to catch the supporting 
units. The terrain in this district is undulating, and the descending 
slopes were pitilessly swept by a hail of shell and. machine gun fire, 
causing comparatively heavy casualties. It was at this poinj: that 
Major J. F. Gary, M.C., fell mortally wounded by a shell; another 
claimed six of the Headquarters batmen and cooks, killing one outright, 
fatally wounding a second and seriously wounding the remaining four. 
It was a long tramp under such conditions to Drocourt Trench, 
which had been the jumping-off place for the 87th, and where we were 
due to remain until such time as we were to go forward to take our 
share in the active work ahead, the Companies taking shelter in Dury 
Road. Shortly after noon "C" Coy. moved forward, keeping in touch 
with the 87th, but on reaching the crest of the opposite hill Lieut. 
C. W. McDermid, the Scout Officer, and the four Battalion Scouts 
who were maintaining connection with the 87th, were wounded and 
were unable to report progress; at the same time Capt. T. R. Griffith, 
the Company Commander, became a casualty, and before Major 
Walwyn, upon whom the command then devolved, was aware either 
that his leader was wounded or that the connecting link with the for- 
ward Battalion had been broken, "C" Coy. found itself up in the 
Front Line, fighting side by side with the 87th, who had been held up 
by a very vigorous opposition, resistance being concentrated chiefly 
in the vicinity of the Dury Windmill, which stands out as a landmark 



105 

in the neighbourhood. When the Higher Command learned that the 
forward battalions were engaged in heavy fighting, orders were sent to 
Major Walwyn to withdraw "C" Coy. into Support, where it rightly 
belonged, and the other three companies, which were cautiously mov- 
ing forward, were ordered to take up defensive positions in the Dro- 
court-Queant Line, after which "C" Coy. was brought back into 
Brigade Reserve. At 3.30 a.m. on Sept. 3rd we were sent forward 
to relieve the 72nd Bn. astride the Arras-Cambrai Road, a very difficult 
operation, as the night was intensely dark and the guides which were 
to have been detailed to meet our Companies were not forthcoming; 
but the relief was successfully effected, and at 7:30 a.m. we were 
ordered forward to locate the enemy, who was reported to be with- 
drawing. Our route now lay due east, parallel with the Arras-Cambrai 
Road, along which were dotted the frequent bodies of men, mules 
and horses, whilst in the middle of the road lay the wreckage of more 
than one armoured car, testifying to the destructive fire which the 
enemy had maintained on this main artery of communication. The 
Companies moved forward in the order ,"A," "B" and "D," the three 
leap-frogging each other, the last named to pass through up to the 
banks of the Canal. Very little opposition was encountered during the 
early stages of -this advance, but after "D" had leap-frogged, the men 
were subjected to very heavy fire. "B" Coy. took up defensive posi- 
tions and dug-in against the storm of machine-gun bullets, but "D" 
pushed on to the bank of the Canal. During this advance we were 
continually in touch with the 54th Bn. on our left and the 8th, 10th 
and 31st Bns. on our right. By nightfall the position was as follows: 
"D" Coy. was holding the Front Line on the right; "B" Coy. had 
moved up on the left and was holding the line on that flank in direct 
communication with the 54th, "C" Coy. was in Support and "A" in 
Reserve. Headquarters was established in a system of dug-outs 
adjoining the Arras-Cambrai Road. 

At dUsk battle patrols were sent forward to ascertain the state 
of the bridges across the Canal and to report on the feasibility of 
forcing a passage. This was a very hazardous and difficult task, as 
the ground west of the Canal was continuously swept with machine- 
gun fire; but the patrols managed to scout along the whole of the 
bank and sent back a report that all the bridges were down; later the 
enemy was definitely located as holding Lock Wood, a copse west of 
the Canal and just north of the Arras-Cambrai Road; this was in 
"D" Coy's area, and to this* company was allotted the duty of clearing 
the wood. The attack was carried out in the face of very heavy 
machine-gun fire and the difficulties of the assault were increased by 
the nature of the ground, which was marshy and little better than a 
swamp; the men had to cross over this unfavourable surface in the open 
and sustained a hot fire, not only from the wood which was their 
immediate objective, but from the high ground east of the Canal. 
The assault was, however, successfully delivered, and the enemy was 



106 

driven from the wood, but "D" Coy. suffered heavily in casualties. 
After the loss of the wood the enemy retaliated by a fierce barrage 
along the whole Battalion frontage, and in addition mercilessly 
pounded our Support area. It was now obvious that a passage of the 
Canal was impracticable without the active co-operation of heavy 
artillery, which was still too far in the rear, owing to the rapid nature 
of our advance, to be available. "D" Coy., numbering but a remnant 
of its fighting strength, was relieved by the 27th Bn. on the night of 
the 4th, and "B" Coy., which had not suffered so severely, side-slipped 
further to the left and pushed closer to the Canal, sending out battle 
patrols and scouts once more to confirm the report that all bridges 
were down and that passage was impossible, as the enemy was holding 
the eastern bank in strength. On the morning of the 5th patrols were 
sgain sent out, this time to ascertain whether there was any truth in 
the report that the enemy was retiring from his side of the bank; 
considerable sniping and machine-gun firing proved conclusively that 
the answer was in the negative. During the remainder of the day 
the Battalion lay dug-in, and though considerable shelling and sniping 
was indulged in by the enemy no serious casualties were incurred. The 
same night we were relieved by the 49th Bn. and returned by road to 
Neuville Vitasse; this necessitated a long 8-mile march along a route 
which was continually peppered with bombs and shells, and imposed 
an enormous strain on troops who had been carrying on the hardest 
kind of fighting for four days. Our casualties for the 2nd Battle 
of Arras were as follows: Killed or Died of Wounds — 'Major F. J. 
Gary, M.C., and 42 Other Ranks; Wounded— Capt. S. H. Okell (at 
duty), Capt. T. R. Griffith, M.C., Lieuts. C. W. McDermid, H. D. 
McClenahan, T. W. Peers, J. S. Lamrock, J. Palmer (at duty), A. M. 
Morrison, A. D. Duncan and 145 Other Ranks. Three Other Ranks 
who were at the time attached from the Battalion to the 11th Brigade 
were also killed in action, including Pte. R. S. Ketcheson, a Battalion 
Runner and one of the finest boys in the most popular section of the 
unit, a modern incarnation of Juvenal's immortal "ingenui vultus puer 
ingenuique pudoris." 

On our arrival at Neuville Vitasse we stayed quiet all day, making 
little attempt to improve the general lay-out of the camp or to put 
the dug-outs in good shape, as we fully expect-ed move orders that 
night or early the following day, but none came, and it was gradually 
borne in on us that we had to make our dwelling-place once more in 
the wilderness. Work was accordingly started on camp improvement, 
and a terrific thunderstorm which struck us on the 7th and flooded 
all the dug-outs made this work the more imperative. Forthwith the 
area became tunnelled with serviceable dug-outs and dotted with iron- 
sheet huts; a small quantity of bivouacs were also available for use. 
The Transport Lines at this time were all brigaded about half a mile 
to our rear. The adaptability of the modern Army, and particularly of 
the Canadian Corps, was never better illustrated than in the area which 



107 

we now occupied. To our left lay Corps Headquarters, which pre- 
sented all the features of a model village with an electric lighting plant 
installed. Naturally there were no regular baths in the vicinity, but 
a few kilometres away, at Heninel, lay a couple of small ponds, they 
might almost have been styled puddles, but the Engineers were called 
upon to exercise their ingenuity, and by the use of several large 
tarpaulins they converted these wayside puddles into very serviceable 
baths, with three sprinklers doing good work and accommodating as 
many as 150 men in an hour. This improvised bath-house was an 
infinitely better one than the majority of those erected under more 
favourable conditions. On the 14th of the month a big Decoration 
Parade for the 11th Brigade was held in the 54th area, and medals 
were awarded to their recipients by the Corps Commander, who, in a 
speech after the parade, told us that we should have at least one more 
big battle that year. Thereafter, during our stay in Neuville Vitasse, 
preparations were made for the impending offensive, which was to 
launch the third smashing blow delivered by the Corps to the Hun, and 
which is styled the Second Battle of Cambrai. 

On the 17th Lieut.-Colonel Lister reported back for duty and 
resumed command of the Battalion, going forward two days later to 
reconnoitre the ground over which we should soon be operating, and 
on the evening of the 25th we fell in and marched to our staging area 
near Bullecourt. It may here be remarked that nothing changes so 
quickly as an army vocabulary. A new word appears from no one 
knows where and is adopted for a season on every possible occasion. 
During the recent push the word "element" had appeared, and for the 
whole of that tour it was to be in the fashion to speak of "elements 
of the Bosche"; now we came across "staging area"; previously we 
had been content to speak of "assembly points"; a .philologist might 
well be able to date the progress of the war by careful reference to 
the use of words and expressions. Some words had a long life, such 
as "odd," introduced by Capt. Okell when he first became Adjutant; 
food became the "odd bite"; a written message, "the odd chit"; sleep 
was "the odd wink," and so on; but "elements" died a quick death, 
though Major Ryan made desperate efforts to rehabilitate it when he 
returned from leave after the Cambrai affair. Whether or not the 
change of name had anything to do with it may be open to doubt, but 
the fact remains that we had the greatest difficulty in locating our 
proper place near Bullecourt; we were supposed to be taking over 
lines occupied by the 42nd Bn., but on our arrival we found that the 
78th had got in ahead of us, and we had eventually to make what shift 
we could in the open; it was then midnight and very dark, but the 
weather, though cold, was fine. Throughout the whole of the next 
day, the 26th, we lay quiet, and at 10.30 we fell in and moved off 
towards our next halting-place, Inchy-en-Artois, but we were held back 
by the presence of troops ahead, and made a detour up into the old 
Hindenburg Support trenches for a couple of hours' rest; it was not 



108 

a happy move; the trenches were almost impassable owing to the 
slippery mud and darkness, and what rest we obtained was more than 
counterbalanced by the fatigue sustained in reaching the dug-outs. 
Here we stayed till 2.30 a.m. on Sept. 27th, moving forward then to 
the trenches in Inchy-en-Artois, where we awaited the barrage, which 
was timed for 5.20. Once more we were robbed of the privilege of 
being the first troops to follow the barrage. In a surprise attack of 
this kind the leading troops have a double advantage; they have the 
honour and glory of actually storming the line and taking most 
prisoners, and at the same time they are usually ensconced in the 
enemy's trenches by the time the answering barrage begins to fall; 
moreover, this barrage is always largely directed over their heads, 
being designed to catch the supporting battalions coming up behind; 
this is what we suffered from so severely on Sept. 2nd. Again, by the 
time the supporting troops have passed through the original storming 
parties and are ready to deliver their attack on their own objective 
the element of surprise has been lost, and the positions against which 
their assaults are directed are by this time strongly defended. On this 
occasion the 10th Brigade was in the lead, and it was our duty to pass 
through them in due course and carry the attack forward to Bourlon 
Wood, which was our final objective for that portion of the operation. 
On our left was the 87th Battalion, through whom the 54th were to 
pass when the main attack on Bourlon Wood was to be delivered. 
The 4|7th King's Liverpool Regiment was on our right. 

At 5.20 a.m. an intense barrage broke out, and at 6.00 a.m. we 
moved off from Inchy-en-Artois, maintaining close touch with the 
10th Brigade in front. As soon as the latter had taken their objectives, 
"A" and "B" Coys., under Capt. I. C. R. Atkin, M.C., and Lieut. R. V. 
Leese respectively, went forward on the right and left, and succeeded 
in capturing their objectives, the enemy positions which lay in front 
of the main object of attack, Bourlon Wood; this was left for "C" 
and "D" Coys., under Lieuts. V. Z. Manning and J. R. Wilson, M.C., 
but when the latter commenced to advance they found that the 
Imperials on the right were not up, and that their right flank was 
consequently exposed to a full tempest of heavy artillery and machine- 
gun fire. In spite of this they pushed their way forward until within 
about 100 yards of their objective, where they halted for cover in the 
shelter of a sunken road and of a line of trenches from which they 
had successfully ousted the Hun. It was at this time that an unparal- 
leled misfortune overtook the Battalion; Headquarters had advanced 
behind the companies and had been established in a German pill-box 
on the top of a small eminence, whence a good view of the operations 
on the opposite slope leading up to Bourlon Wood could be obtained; 
hardly had the Colonel taken up his quarters there when, at about 
9.30 a.m., a shell landed right in the opening of the doorway and 
severely wounded both Colonel Lister and Capt. Okell, the Adjutant, 
at the same time killing outright Lieut. S. G. Moore, D.C.M., the 



109 

Signalling Officer, who was standing outside, and three Runners from 
other Battalions who were awaiting replies to their messages. This 
was a double catastrophe indeed, as there was nobody by this time left 
in the Battalion to take the Colonel's place; the companies had all 
suffered heavily in casualties, and not a senior officer was available. In 
this emergency Lieut. C. H. Packman, the Battalion Lewis Gun 
Officer, sent off a message to Brigade detailing the disaster which 
had occurred, and the Brigadier responded by appointing Lieut. -Col. 
Thompson, D.S.O., of the 124th Bn., who was acting in command of 
the 75th in our Support, to take over the temporary command of 
the 102nd. This officer immediately moved up two companies of the 
75th into positions round the 102nd Bn. headquarters. As soon as the 
news of what had happened reached the Transport Lines Lieut. W. W. 
Dunlbp, M.C., who, as Assistant Adjutant, had been left behind, came 
right up to the Front Line and took over the duties of Adjutant, 
which he continued to carry out with conspicuous success until the day 
of demobilization. 

In the meantime the Hun was pounding our positions with every 
kind of missile. To the rear of Headquarters was a large Forward 
Dressing Station; though its non-combatant profession was conspicu- 
ously advertised by a big Red Cross flag the enemy systematically 
bombarded it, and it was here that we lost poor "Bobby" Duncan, our 
Medical Sergeant, who was struck by a machine-gun bullet whilst 
he was ministering to the wounded, and succumbed later to his injuries. 
The work of the Red Cross men in this exposed position was beyond 
all praise, and our own Medical Officer, Capt. H. Dunlop, M.C., and 
Capt. C. A. Fallon, Chaplain, greatly distinguished themselves by their 
devoted service amongst the wounded. 

Every effort was now made to get the Imperials up on the right, 
and an extensive "shoot" was put over at about 4 .00 p .m.. but this was 
unsuccessful in its object; the Imperials were unable to force their way 
through, and the two leading companies of the 102nd, who had by this 
time had a certain amount of rest, though under heavy fire all the 
time, were ordered to push the attack home on Bouj^lo_n_Wood and 
then to form a defensive flank facing south to protect the right flank 
of the rest of the Brigade. After a great effort this was done; the 
western and southern portion of the wood was captured and measures 
taken to prevent any counter-attack from the Hun by way of the 
southern extremity. Later in the evening the 54th were detailed to 
capture Fontaine-Notre-Dame, a village lying in the wood itself, and 
"D" Coy. were ordered to co-operate in this operation. On the way 
this company was met by a fierce counter-attack which the men suc- 
ceeded in driving back, but they themselves were unable to advance 
any further. Bourlon Wood was to all intents and purposes, captured, 
but it had not yet been "mopped up"; that is to say, the Hun had not 
been entirely driven out; consequently orders came in later that night 
stating that on the morning of the 28th the Third Division would 



110 

continue the attack, leap-frogging the 11th Brigade, and that when this 
operation started at daybreak Bourlon Wood was to be wholly cleared 
of the enemy; to assist in this work the CO. sent forward a Com- 
pany of the 75th, and the wood was "mopped up." 

At noon on the 28th, orders were received that the Brigade would 
concentrate about the Quarry near Bourlon Village and that Major 
J. B. Bailey, Second-in-Command of the 54th, who had been an 
"original" officer of the 102nd Bn., would take temporary command 
of the latter unit, leaving Colonel Thompson free to return to the 75th. 
The Battalion accordingly moved to the new area under Major Bailey's 
command, the kitchens were brought up and the men made comfort- 
able for the night. The first part of the 2nd Battle of Cambrai was 
over; fighting was still raging ahead of us, and we were destined to 
continue our share in the bloody fray before we finally came out of 
the line, but for the moment we were at liberty to rest and take stock 
of the casualties. These, alas, were very heavy, as the following list 
will show: Killed or Died of Wounds — Lieuts. A. M. Brighton, S. G. 
^Moore, W. Henry, T. McClatchey, J. R. Brown, F. R. Harker-Thomas 
and 55 Other Ranks; Wounded — Lieut.-Col. F. Lister, Capt. S. H. 
Okell, Capt. I. C. R. Atkin, Lieuts. R. V. Leese, O. Massey, E. H. 
Murphy, G. W. Archibald, and 151 Other Ranks. Missing, 3 Other 
Ranks. Our captures included 257 prisoners, 15 pieces of artillery and 
18 machine guns. We had successfully taken our objectives and we 
had inflicted exceedingly heavy casualties on the enemy. 

During the night a bombing attack was delivered by enemy planes 
on the Transport Lines of the whole Brigade, which wjere greatly 
crowded in a limited area; this attack resulted in several casualties, 
though the 102nd Battalion was fortunate in losing only animals and 
no men. Before dawn orders were received detailing the second 
phase of the Cambrai operation, and at 7.30 a.m. on the 29th we fell 
in and moved forward in support of the 12th Brigade, taking up our 
position round the Farme des Lilies, where we were to await the 
developments of the attack on our front. On this occasion the whole 
Corps movement was delayed by the failure of the Imperials on the 
extreme left of the First Division, who in their turn were on the left 
of the Fourth, to keep up with our advance. Consequently we were 
not called upon to advance further that day, but at 4:30 on the morning 
of the 30th we fell in once more and moved forward to take part in an 
attack which was to be delivered by the 11th Brigade against the 
Hun positions south of Sancourt, Blecourt and Bantigny, after which 
we were to swing to the right towards the bridge-head at Eswars. It 
was very dark when we moved off, and we suffered casualties "en 
route" from shell fire before we took up our position as .Reserve 
Battalion west of the Cambrai-Douai Road, moving forward half-an- 
hour later in support of the 87th, crossing the road in good order but 
under a heavy barrage. Headquarters were also moved up well to the 
fare, east of the road, but at this juncture there was a halt, as the 



Ill 

attack in front had been held up. After a conference in which the 
Brigadier, Major Bailey and the O.C. 87th Bn. took part it was 
decided to pull back the 102nd to the west of the road, where it was 
to take up a defensive position as Reserve Battalion; this was done 
and the men dug themselves in, as it was by now evident that the Hun 
was attacking in strength and that the day's work would not lie in 
reaching the objectives originally planned, but in staying this attack. 
All day the enemy spent his forces in vain. After a personal recon- 
naissance the Brigadier gave orders that the attack would be delivered 
on the morning of the 1st October, and that this time the 102nd would 
lead the attack, with the 87th leap-frogging them when the objectives 
had been taken. Accordingly, at 5.00. on the morning of the 1st, "A" 
Coy. on the right and "C" Coy. on the left went forward to take the 
first objective; this was strongly held, but by skilful manoeuvring and 
heroic fighting the two companies captured their position and sent 
back a number of prisoners, whereupon "B" Coy. leap-frogged and 
fought its way through the second objective; this company suffered 
heavily, but by 10.00 the men had stormed the Hun position and had 
settled down to withstand the fierce counter-attacks which were al- 
ready being massed against them and were pouring over from the 
direction of Bantigny over the ridge to the north; moreover, Blecourt 
had not yet been cleared of enemy machine gunners who were consid- 
erably hampering our movements. At this point our artillery was 
called upon to concentrate on the enemy reinforcements and upon the 
machine gun emplacements in Blecourt, and we were also instrumental 
in giving valuable information to batteries belonging to the First and 
Second Divisions. But the fortunes of the day were in hazard, and 
"D" Company was brought up to form a flank facing Blecourt, when 
the company Lewis gunners did wonderful execution on the enemy 
massing round that village. Still the position was dangerous; the 
right flank of ^he Brigade was in the air, as the units on the right had 
fallen back; but, if we were nearly exhausted, so was the Hun — while 
he could yet put up a good defensive fight he had had almost enough, 
and it was decided to build up a strong defence along the positions 
which had been won, so that a weil-consolidated line could be handed 
over to the 5th Brigade. This was done, and on the evening of the 
1st we were relieved by the 28th Bn. and made our way back to the 
Transport Lines on the outskirts of Bourlon Village. In this second 
phase of the battle we captured 443 prisoners, one gun and 32 machine 
guns. Our casualties were: Killed or Died of Wounds — Lieuts. H. 
Banks, P. R. Pae and 31 Other Ranks; Wounded— Lieuts. J. S. Lam- 
rock, V. Z. Manning, W. E. Crothers, G. Vancorbac, M.C., J. S. Rankin, 
D. Davidson (at duty), and 135 Other Ranks; Missing — 3 Other Ranks. 
It was during the fighting from September 27th to October 1st 
that Lieut. Graham Thomson Lyall won the only Victoria Cross 
j- warded to the 102nd Battalion for a series of brilliant achievements 



112 

carried out on September 27th and October 1st, during the course of 
which he was personally instrumental in the capture of 3 Officers, 
182 Other Ranks, 26 Machine Guns and 1 Field Gun. 




w 



X 



113 




CHAPTER XII. 

Queant and Maroeuil — In Pursuit of the Hun — Booby-Traps — Herin 

and Denain — We Enter Valenciennes — The Last Offensive 

— From B.C. to Baisieux. 




FTER one night spent in the camp at Bourlon, orders 
were received to move further back to a system of 
trenches lying in the open near the wholly ruined village 
of Queant. On our arrival we were joined by Capt. J. A. 
Mann, M.C., who had been attached to Brigade as 
Liaison Officer during the last operation, and who, as 
Senior Officer present, took command of the Battalion until the return 
of Major E. J. "Ryan, D.S.O., from leave a day or so later; thereafter 
and until the return of Captain Lister half-way through November, 
Major Ryan acted as Commanding Officer. Our new camp was a 
comfortable one; the men either slept in good dug-outs or camped out 
under bivouacs; in Queant itself a cinema show had been established, 
and baths of a kind — very much of a kind — were available, and six 
days were spent in comparative ease, fulfilling the usual routine conse- 
quent on a strenuous and costly tour in the Front Line. On the 
night of the 7th we were relieved by the 42nd (Black Watch) Bn., and 
proceeded in 'buses to what were known as the "Y" Huts, in the 
training area close to the village town of Maroeuil. The whole Brigade 
was encamped in this area, which lies midway between Maroeuil and 
Agny-les-Duisans, and for five days the ordinary training routine was 
carried on, special attention being paid to musketry. About this time 
the air was full of Peace or Armistice rumours, and we were fully 
convinced that we had seen the end of all fighting, at any rate for the 
year. Dame Rumour's reputation, however, suffered a blow on Oct. 
14th, when we fell in at 10.30 a.m. and marched to Agny-les-Duisans, 
where we took train for Marcoing, whence we were to proceed in pur- 
suit of the fast retreating Hun and to take our share in the last 
offensive of the war. 

Owing to the derailment of a train ahead of us we were delayed 
seven hours on this journey and did not reach Marcoing until an hour 
before midnight, after which we had to march about three miles to 
billets in Saudemont. Orders received on arrival necessitated an early 
start next morning, and at 5:30 a.m. we left for Palluel, where we were 
to relieve the 7th Middlesex Bn. in Brigade Support. At Saudemont 



114 

we left sundry baggage; in fact all through the ensuing advance we 
kept dropping off various stores and other impedimenta with a small 
guard, and later on, when Armistice had been signed, we had the 
greatest difficulty in securing transport for picking up all our posses- 
sions and regaining our men. Ever since open warfare had started 
the lot of the Transport Lines personnel had been an unhappy one. 
It is one thing to belong to the Transport Lines when the unit is 
more or less settled in a permanent area, and quite another when the 
whole unit moves, bag and baggage too, day after day and night after 
night, and when stores and boxes have to be loaded on the waggons 
again almost as soon as they have been unloaded. The greatest credit 
is due to all ranks of the Quartermaster's Department and the Trans- 
port Section for the way in which they managed to keep up with the 
Unit in spite of hurried moves, and how Sgt. H. N. Monk, who was 
in charge of the Battalion Orderly Room, with all its records, corres- 
pondence files and official documents, managed to keep up with the 
Battalion and keep up with his work at the same time will for ever be 
a mystery. It is a matter of common knowledge that the other Units 
fell behind with their Orderly Room routine, but "Harry" Monk was 
always there on time, and not only kept up to date with "Returns," but 
was even able to keep the Brigade fully informed as to the exact 
number of socks each man in the Battalion had in his possession, to 
say nothing of those at the wash, at any given moment. Brigade was 
perpetually asking for these absurd details during times of stress. 

Palluel was rather a delightful little village on the banks of the 
Canal du Nord and introduced us to a new experience in the way of 
billets. From now on the towns and villages we visited, whether 
deserted or not, had houses which were well furnished and possessed 
good gardens well stocked with vegetables. The interiors of the 
houses were usually ransacked and the furniture spoiled, but enough 
was left to provide comfortable accommodation for the troops, and 
the vegetables were an indescribable boon. At Palluel, for the first 
and last time, the Forward Battalion Orderly Room was located in an 
upstairs room, and remarkably unsafe it felt at times as the Hun was 
subjecting these villages in his rear to an intermittent bombardment. 
At Palluel were Headquarters, with "A" and "D" Coys, under Lieut. 
C. E. Henderson and Lieut. H. J. French, M.C. "B" and "C" Coys., 
under Capt. J. G. Knight, M.C, and Lieut. G. T. Lyall, V.C., were 
quartered in Hamel, a mile or so away. During the three days that 
we spent in this area gas shelling was very frequent, and the troops 
were required to wear their gas masks practically every night. 

In the Front Line at this time were the 54th and 87th Bns., who 
were being held up by the Canal de la Sensee, which offered a formid- 
able barrier to their advance, being strongly defended by the enemy. 
On the 17th information was received that the latter was retiring from 
his positions, and the two Front Line units were accordingly ordered 
to cross the Canal and push forward the advance, the 102nd Bn. fol- 



115 

lowing up behind the 87th, and being prepared to leap-frog on the 
easterly outskirts of the village of Villers-au-Tertre. Accordingly, 
on the evening of the 17th we moved up to Arleux, on the banks of 
the Canal de la Sensee, which the 87th vacated on their advance, and 
on the morning of the 18th the whole Battalion crossed the Canal by 
means of an improvised swinging bridge and proceeded through 
Bugnicourt to Villers-au-Tertre, where "A" and "D" Coys, passed 
through the 87th, and "B" and "C" remained in support. At this 
point the Battalion was joined by a troop of cavalry and a platoon of 
cyclists, who reported to the O.C., together with a battery of field 
guns. Considerable opposition was offered our two forward companies 
in the neighborhood of Fosse St. Roche and Fosse St. Erchin, and the 
enemy was greatly aided by the presence of a fog which hampered 
troops endeavouring to surround and cut off machine-gun nests. By 
noon, however, these two points were in our possession, and "A" and 
"D" had pushed forward in face of heavy shelling and machine-gun 
fire coming from the direction of Auberchicourt to the outskirts of 
that town. That afternoon "B" and "C" Coys, were sent forward to 
Fosse St. Roche with orders to pass through the line companies in 
the morning if the situation warranted. 

At 3.30 on the morning of the 19th the situation was much quieter, 
and a dog was discovered in a house which the enemy was known to 
have occupied the night before. The animal had evidently been left to 
give notice of our advance. The two rear companies were accordingly 
sent forward through the other two, and Headquarters were moved up 
to Fosse St. Roche, where they remained a few hours, advancing in 
the afternoon to Auberchicourt, which had been taken by our two 
leading companies with very little opposition. The retiring Hun had 
made every effort to destroy the road behind him, but with conspicu- 
ously ill success; at the intersection of roads he'had blown up mines. 
but though the corners were impassable a broad trail always led 
through the middle and afforded safe passage to vehicles. He had not 
the time necessary to destroy the town, but he had shown his petty 
spite by wilfully doing all the damage he could to the contents of the 
houses, and he had left some of the damnable "booby-traps" which 
were daily adding further disgrace to his foul and dirty reputation. 
An artilleryman in Auberchicourt was blown to pieces by a bomb 
hidden in a piano which exploded when the first chord was struck. 
In this connection there hangs a tale. 

Our own Headquarters were located in a large china and glass 
warehouse, large enough to accommodate the whole of the staff. Dur- 
ing the process of settling down an orderly, whom we will designate 
"X," came up to the Advanced Orderly Room Sergeant and pointed 
out what looked like a stick-bomb lying behind a passage-door. The 
sergeant, being discreet and disinclined to meddle with other people's 
business, promptly brought the Intelligence Officer to the spot and 
"passed the buck." The Intelligence Officer summoned his batman, 



116 

and between them they ascertained that the machine was not infernal. 
But the incident set everyone "on edge," and when taken in connection 
with the tragedy mentioned above it created an atmosphere of sus- 
picion. Consequently, when "X" again approached his sergeant and 
told him that he had this time found a real infernal .machine the latter 
hastened to make investigations. Sure enough, in the dim recesses of 
the back office could be heard the deadly "tick-tick" of clock-work, 
and the sergeant suddenly espied a clock lying on a chair. Once more 
his stern sense of duty impelled him to inform the Intelligence Offi- 
cer, and this time not only that important person, but the O.C. himself 
and the Adjutant and the Scout Officer all came round to investigate 
the trouble. One look was enough for the O.C. "That's a job for the 
Engineers," said he; "somebody go for the man who is attached to 
the unit for this kind of work. No; wait a minute; I'll go myself." 
And the O.C. hurried off. But a morbid curiosity impelled the other 
three officers to remain; andthe sergeant, very much against his will, 
had to remain, as he was backed into a corner and couldn't get out 
without making his departure rather conspicuous; besides, he had no 
excuse; the O.C. had already gone for the Engineers. "X" also 
waited. Those three wretched officers "monkeyed" round with the 
clock for five minutes, first examining it from every angle; then 
pointing their fingers at it, next touching it gingerly and then more 
confidently and finally lifting it up, only to find that it was merely a 
clock-face with no subtle attachments. They went away puzzled, and 
the sergeant remarked to "X," "Well, its funny; but 'somebody must 
have put it there with a purpose." "Yes," said "X," "I did!" And 
the two of them reached the Orderly Room in time to hear the O.C. 
loudly declaiming that there was not a shadow of doubt but .that the 
Kun had intended to leave a time-bomb there, and that our too rapid 
advance had thwarted'his dastardly purpose! The old bull was still 
eating hay with the Battalion all right. 

Meantime "B" and "C" Coys, had over-run their objective, Abscon, 
and had taken that allotted to the 54th at the railway embankment 
beyond that town. They were accordingly pulled back and billeted 
for the night in Abscon. In this place were 3,300 civilians, the first 
to be liberated from the Hun by any unit in the Division, and the 
welcome they gave our troops was marked by every evidence of 
enthusiastic delight. On the morning of the 20th we fell in at 7:30 
and marched on through Escaudain; east of this town we expected 
to leap-frog the 87th, who had passed through us at Abscon, but the 
forward battalions were held up by an unexpected resistance, and we 
consequently billeted in Escaudain for two nights. On this occasion 
our Transport Lines moved up ahead of the main body of the Bat- 
talion and, billeted about 200 yards in advance. When the time came 
for us to move, on the 22nd, resistance had died away, and we pro- 
ceeded without opposition to the village of Herin, where we remained 
for six days. The billets here were excellent; Herin had been the 



117 

Headquarters for a German general, and his billets in the Brewery 
were just exactly what a German general would be expected to occupy. 
The gardens were all well stocked with vegetables, which we devoured 
in large quantities. During our stay we were subjected to a good deal 
of shell fire, one shell penetrating the corner of the Headquarters' 
Sergeants' billet, causing the unfortunate "Sam" Sorensen to throw 
down "four kings," which he was holding against a big "full"; all bets 
were cancelled in the mad rush for the cellar, and it took hours to 
divide up to everybody's satisfaction the money found afterwards, on 
the floor. The Signallers also had a narrow escape during this tour, 
having a shell pass right through their billet and explode on the far 
side. Brigade Headquarters fared worst of all; they were located at 
Aubry, where they were badly gassed and shelled and lost all their 
documents when Headquarters were practically blown sky-high. On 
the 27th a great religious ceremony was held in Denain, a neighbour- 
ing town, to celebrate the liberation of the town from the Hun by the 
Canadian Corps; this was attended by H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, 
the Corps, Divisional and Brigade Commanders with their staffs, and 
by the senior officers of all the Battalions in the vicinity. 

It was to this town of Denain that we moved on the night of 
October 28th, the Brigade being relieved in the Front Line by the 9th 
Canadian Brigade. Our entry was in the nature of a triumphal pro- 
cession; it was very dark, -but on every doorstep stood men, women 
and children holding up lighted candles and cheering themselves 
hoarse. We were billeted in a laige block of buildings which had 
evidently been used as some sort of collegiate institution prior to the 
war, but which the Hun had used as a prison camp. Denain was the 
largest town, outside the Coast towns, which we had yet visited, but 
there is little of interest or beauty in it. The civilians were still trying 
to realize their freedom and showed their gratitude by entertaining 
any soldiers who gave them the opportunity. All had the same tale 
to tell, but it appeared that the individual German soldier, when 
billeted in a house and left alone by his superior officers, was a 
harmless guest; there was abundant proof that the hardships endured 
by the civilians were those provoked by organized authority and, 
save in a few isolated instances, were not caused by the license or 
violence of the individual soldier. 

On the afternoon of Oct. 31st we left Denain and moved to Thiant, 
where we were to support the attack which the 10th Brigade was to 
launch on the morning of the 1st in the effort to penetrate to Valen- 
ciennes. This attack was preceded by the most intense barrage which 
we had yet heard in France, and by 9:30 a.m. prisoners began stream- 
ing -in a jncluding in their number the Regimental Commander of 
Valenciennes. An hour later we in our turn moved forward to Maing, 
where we waited until 4.00 p.m., when we set out to relieve Imperial 
units northeast of Aulnoy, on the east side of the Rhonnell River. 
Owing to the congestion of traffic on the roads our progress was 



118 

slow and difficult, and when we reached Aulnoy we found three bat- 
talions of the 164th Brigade more or less mixed up. Just as details for 
the relief were completed orders came in cancelling same, and the 
Battalion was billeted in Aulnoy until the following morning, when 
we were to continue the attack in conjunction with the 54th. Shells 
fell intermittently throughout the night, the bombardment increasing 
in violence after dawn, and it was during the course of this shelling 
that we lost Capt. H. Dunlop, M.C. (C.A.M.C), our Medical Officer, 
who had just completed a year's service with the unit. He was 
aroused from sleep to attend to a sick civilian, and just as he was 
going out of the doorway of Headquarters he was struck by the 
fragments of a bursting shell, from the effects of which he died before 
reaching Field Ambulance and without recovering consciousness. He 
was immensely popular, as well with the rank and file as with the 
members of the Officers' Mess, and his death was a sad blow to the 
Battalion. Aulnoy had been found crowded with civilians who for 
48 hours had been living in cellars and dug-outs; there was a tremen- 
dous amount of gas about from gas-shells, and it was with a distinct 
feeling of 'relief that we left at lX.OO^Lm. to take part in the fight 
for Valenciennes. The general plan was for "B" and "D" Coys., with 
the other Companies in Support, to push through the 54th at Marly and 
attack in an easterly direction, with the left flank resting on the Val- 
enciennes-Mons Road and the right flank in touch with the 54th. 
Headquarters were established opposite those of the 54th in Marly. 
By 1.30 p.m. the forward companies were well in position and were 
pushing forward covering the left half of the Brigade, as detailed; 
considerable enemy machine-gun fire was encountered, but by dusk 
a line had been established about 400 yards west of a sunken road 
which ran north and south across the Brigade frontage and was 
strongly held by the enemy. The night of the 2nd-3rd was spent in 
readiness to resist an expected counter-attack which did not, however, 
materialize, and it was found possible to establish an Advanced Head- 
quarters in Valenciennes itself by midnight. The following morning 
we were relieved by the 12th Brigade on the left and by the 54th Bn. 
on the right, and went into billets at Valenciennes, which had already 
been cleared of Huns by the 10th Brigade. 

Valenciennes was in a very good state of preservation. The con-, 
tents of the houses, of course, had been badly treated, but there was 
little material damage done to the buildings. There were few civilians 
to be seen on our first appearance, but it did not take long for them 
to flock back in large numbers. In good weather and at the proper 
season Valenciennes is doubtless a very beautiful city, but we saw it 
under poor weather conditions; November is not a good sight-seeing 
month, and there was too much of the aftermath of the war visible on 
every hand to allow of a favourable impression being made. There is 
a very fine block of municipal buildings occupying one side of the 
principal square, and these buildings still bore the "Kommandatur" 



119 

sign and other evidences of German occupation. There is a fine 
theatre in Valenciennes, where later we were to see a Canadian Com- 
pany giving nightly performances to the elite of the Lace City. 

We were only in the city two nights, but before we had time to 
move out the Mayor, whose house we were using as a Headquarters, 
returned, and we were served with a notice that we should have to 
vacate the premises, as His Worship wished to resume residence. 
Seeing that he had been left homeless for a very long time by the Hun 
it would have been more graceful on his part to have refrained from 
serving an eviction notice so quickly on his country's Allies, but it 
didn't do him much good or us much harm; we stayed the odd night 
anyway and received orders to advance on the morning of the 5th. 
At 12:30 p.m. on that day we reached Rombies, which had been the 
Headquarters of the 87th, who with the 75t"h, were supposed to be 
cleaning up the high ground between the Aunnelle and Honnelle 
Rivers; it was our task to pass through the 87th after they had 
attained their objectives, and to clean up the country west of the 
Grande Honnelle River and, if possible, to capture the village of 
Baisieux east of that stream. Though we did not know it for certain, 
we were on the eve of our last offensive, and to the 102nd Bn. was to 
belong the honour of capturing the last position taken by the 4th 
Division. By midnight the 87th had failed to take their final objective, 
a road from which we were to jump-off in our turn; in consequence 
we had to start 700 yards this side of the road and had that much 
more ground to cover to begin the day's work with. To "C" Coy., 
on the right, under Lieut. M. K. Devine, was allotted the task of 
crossing the Grande Honnelle River if possible and establishing 
themselves in Baisieux; "A" Coy., under Lieut. W. H. C. Stanley, was 
to capture and mop up Marchipont and a wood lying to the left of that 
place, and then, if the Company on their left was held up, to push 
northwards through Petite Baisieux and assist the 12th Brigade by 
outflanking a village called Quievrechain. "D" Coy., on the left, was 
to capture and "mop up" Maison Rouge and to push on, "mopping 
up" all the ground west of the Aunnelle River, keeping in touch with 
the 12th Brigade on the left and assisting, if necessary, in "mopping 
up" Quievrechain. "B" Coy., which had suffered most heavily in the 
preceding offensive, was to remain in Support. 

Zero Hour was 5^30 _g, .m. on the 6jji-£krrrrrrber, and after a good 
barrage our troops moved forward, capturing the sunken road with- 
out difficulty. From this time onward they encountered stiff opposi- 
tion. "A" Coy. captured Marchipont before 7.00 a.m., but found that 
the enemy was holding a wood on the right in strength; this had to be 
surrounded, and eventually the position was taken, yielding 30 prison- 
ers, at least that many more having been killed. "D" Coy., on the left, 
was held up with the 12th Brigade by the enemy holding out fiercely 
in the outskirts of Quievrechain, so the centre company, "A," pushed 
on as ordered and surrounded the town from the north, with the result 
that the place was surrendered, with 20 prisoners, four machine guns 
and four trench mortars. Meantime "C" Coy., on the right, was suf- 
fering from the failure of Imperials on their right to keep up; the 
flank was exposed to a withering machine gun fire, but by using one 
platoon as a defensive flank the company pushed on over the crest of 
the hill and gained the eastern bank of the Grande Honnelle. When 
this news was received Lieut. R. L. Gale, M.C., the Battalion Intelli- 
gence Officer, went forward to reconnoitre for possible means of cross- 
ing the river. He found that all the bridges were down and that 



120 

wading was the only means by which the passage could be made. He 
therefore organized a party, consisting of himself, C.S.M. Dunn, 
D.C.M., of "C" Coy., two Scours and a Lewis Gunner, waded across 
the river and established a post on the other side. The river was 
about fifteen feet wide and well over the knees. Pushing their way 
forward in face of heavy machine-gun fire, they obtained a footing 
in the near side of the first house. A message was then sent back to 
the balance of "C" Coy., who effected a crossing under cover of the 
fire of the solitary Lewis gun which was already on the eastern side. 
"B" Coy. was then ordered up from Supports to protect the right 
flank, the Imperials still being 3,000 yards behind, and this manoeuvre 
resulted in the complete capture of Baisieux and the total confusion 
of the enemy, who seemed to be wholly unprepared for such a rapid 
denouement. They could be observed running from the eastern out- 
skirts of the town, and afforded easy targets for our Lewis gunners 
and riflemen, who were not slow to take advantage of same, causing 
heavy casualties. As an example of the complete surprise obtained 
it may be stated that a team and waggon suddenly appeared outside 
the sugar factory and commenced loading, apparently quite unaware 
of our presence in the vicinity; the waggon and sugar remained in our 
possession; the driver was shot and the horses bolted. After throw- 
ing out a screen of outposts "C" Coy. was ordered to stand firm and 
consolidate, our two flanks being already too much exposed to make 
a further advance advisable. Moreover, we had reached the "ultima 
Thule" of our objective. "B" Coy. was accordingly ordered to connect 
up with the Imperials on the right, who were still 2,500 yards in the 
rear, thereby affording the necessary protection for our right flank. 
We were relieved the same night by the 25th Bn., which arrived after 
nightfall; the darkness was so profound that relief was to some extent 
hampered, and it was not until early next morning that the last of the 
companies reached their billets back in Valenciennes. We had com- 
pleted our last tour in the line, and to the Battalion in the Fourth 
Division, which had originally been raised in the most western dis- 
tricts of Canada, had fallen the honour of capturing the stronghold 
of the enemy lying furthest to the east of all that had been occupied 
by the Division. We had come from further west and gone further 
east than any other unit in the "Fighting Fourth." 

During the past three weeks we had taken 80 prisoners, two field 
guns, four trench mortars and 26 machine guns. Our casualties had 
been comparatively light and were largely caused by gas shells, 
numbering in all: Killed or Died of Wounds — Capt. H. Dunlop, M.C., 
and six Other Ranks; Wounded — Lieuts. C. E. Henderson, R. L. Gale, 
M.C., G. V. Atkin, M.C., J. R. Wilson, M.C., J. Palmer, S. P. Martin. 
W. H. C. Stanley, and 50 Other Ranks. 



121 




CHAPTER XIII. 

The Signing of the Armistice — We Move to Belgium — Mons and St. 

Symphorien — Christmas Day on the Edge of the World — Boitsfort 

— The Battle of Brussels — On Our Way — The Overseas 

Parade — Good-bye to "Over There" — Demobbed 




ESTED, but dirty and bedraggled, we woke up on the 
7th in Valenciennes, and promptly had our feelings 
badly hurt by being curtly ordered to remain indoors 
well out of sight, as the Prince of Wales was coming 
to town to inspect the 12th Brigade, and we did not 
look respectable enough to be seen. This was a piece 
of ultra-snobbishness on the part of the Higher Com- 
mand; thank God our Royal Family are not similarly constituted; the 
Prince would not have minded seeing a few soldiers dirty from the 
Line, he's not that kind of a fellow, but no officer can ever bear to let 
a senior see one of his men except "in the pink," and if the 12th were 
clean for inspection and the 11th were dirty from action, well, the 11th 
had to keep out of sight; that was all there was to it. By 4.45 p.m., 
however, we were considered respectable-looking enough to march 
through Valenciennes to billets which had been provided for us at 
Anzin, a suburb of the city and connected with it by a long, unbroken 
street. We found first-rate accommodation and almost every man had 
a bed, but to emphasize the innate beastliness of the Hun mind and 
temperament the following incident is related; it is absolutely true and 
came under the personal observation of the writer. In one of the billets 
were found two vases full of flowers on the mantel-piece, and as 
flowers were scarce these were preserved. It was soon noticed, how- 
ever, that a most unpleasant odour was pervading the atmosphere, and 
a close investigation showed that the vases had been carefully filled 
with urine by the late occupants, who had not been evicted so quickly 
that they were not able first to leave behind visible proofs of their 
degraded mentality. We were in Anzin when the news of the Armis- 
tice came through. At 9.09 a.m. on the 11th day of the 11th month of 
1919 we were informecTby Brigade that the Armistice terms had been 
accepted by Germany and that hostilities would cease at 11 a.m. This 
was immediately confirmed by an official wire. 

It was a happy day for Major Ryan; first came the news of the 
Armistice, and shortly afterwards he was notified that he had been 
awarded the Distinguished Service Order for his services in connection 
with the 2nd Battle of Arras, and that he had been granted the Acting 
Rank of Lieut. -Colonel with authority to wear the insignia of the rank. 
That day massed bands played in the public square in Valenciennes in 
honour of Armistice, but there were no facilities for rejoicing on a 
good old-fashioned scale. 



122 

The following day we were notified that we should form part of 
the Army of Occupation in accordance with the terms of the Armistice, 
and when we left on the 15th, proceeding north towards Belgium, we 
understood that in the fullness of time we should go to the Rhine to 
relieve one or other of the Canadian Divisions. The anticipation did 
not exactly arouse enthusiasm amongst the troops, as it seemed prob- 
able that the whole distance would have to be covered on foot and in 
full marching order. It was a fine morning when we left Anzin, bright 
and cold, just the kind of weather for a march; but we soon found that 
though the weather was all right the roads were not. They were 
crowded to capacity with swarms of returning refugees, some in lor- 
ries loaned for the purpose by the Allies; some on foot, wheeling their 
belongings in every conceivable form of vehicle. As we were march- 
ing in Brigade formation we were held up interminably by this con- 
gestion and it was the middle of the afternoon before we reached our 
destination, Quievrechain, a shell-shocked village which had figured 
prominently in the last offensive. Our blankets were still under guard 
at one of the many depots we had formed during the last months, and 
the night was bitterly cold, and not even the gay and festive life of 
one house at least in Quievrechain could quite compensate for the lack 
of warmth. The next day we .made an early start, but even so we 
could not avoid the traffic. Lorries' by the hundred passed us on their 
way up to bring back refugees; others were detailed to go further still 
to assist in bringing back our returning prisoners from Hunland, and 
naturally the men wanted to know why the empty lorries going for- 
ward could not be utilized to take us on our way, or, at any rate, to 
relieve us of our packs. On this day we crossed the frontier into Bel- 
gium and at 3 :30 p.m . reached the town of P aturage s; here again we 
found excellent billets; the town was fully peopled and the inhabitants 
vied with each other in their hospitality. We were beginning to find 
that there are Belgians and Belgians, and the Belgians whom we 
met round Mons and Brussels were as different from those we had 
encountered round Ypres as cheese is from chalk. On the 19th of the 
month, the day before we left Paturages, Colonel Lister returned from 
England, fully recovered from the severe wounds he had sustained 
at Cambrai, and it is no exaggeration to say that he was welcomed 
back enthusiastically. St. Symphorien was our next halting-place, and 
here we remained for over three weeks in very fair billets; six months 
before we should have voted them "top-hole," but a few weeks spent 
in the territory which had been so hastily vacated by the enemy had 
enlarged our expectations. We often thought that for the Hun out of 
the line it must have been a very good war; he never had to "rest" in 
shell-shocked areas; he could always look forward with certainty to a 
good time in real towns, and could refresh both his physical and men- 
tal outlook a few miles behind the firing line with cities and country- 
sides which had not been ravaged by warfare. Moreover, he could 
always be sure of comfortable beds and all facilities for good cooking 
and messing. Our experience did not tend to show that the German 
soldier was badly fed, except when his supplies were cut off at the 
front; when in Reserve he must have had ample opportunities for 
"doing himself proud." 

St. Symphorien is a little two-streeted village lying about three miles 
from the centre of Mons, and we had a very pleasant time there. 
Prices, of course, were terribly high in Mons, but it was good to be 
near a real town which had not lost its civil population and which 
showed no trace at all of enemy occupation. The two special features 
of interest are the Cathedral and Alva's Tower, the latter standing on 
an eminence above the town. This was used in the days of Spanish 



123 

tyranny as a watch-tower, and an incredible number of stairs lead up 
through the massive walls to the summit, whence a wonderful view of 
the surrounding country can be obtained by the breathless climber. 
On the other side of St. Symphorien is a cemetery, of which one is 
bound to say that here the Germans paid suitable honour to their dead 
foemen as well as to their own men; the cemetery is beautifully ar- 
ranged, the ground having been granted for the purpose by a local 
land-owner, and the Germans having erected grave-stones, etc. Here 
lie a large number of men from the Middlesex Regiment, who fell 
during the first days of the war. Whilst we were in St. Symphorien 
the air was full of stoiies of mutiny in various units of the Corps; one 
battalion was reported to have thrown down its arms and positively 
refused to march another step towards the Rhine; another was said 
to have shot its colonel; another still had been put under arrest by 
other units in its brigade. All these stories were utterly without 
foundation, and were almost certainly disseminated by enemy agents, 
who thus early after Armistice were sowing the seeds of strife and 
disunion in the ranks of their victorious foes. Towards the end of the 
month an opportunity was granted to a limited number of men to 
visit Brussels, as it was not then known that within a few weeks we 
should be quartered within walking distance of the capital. About this 
time it was generally recognized that the advance to the Rhine by 
the Fourth Division was likely to be greatly delayed, and an elaborate 
sj r stem -of systematic training on military, educational and recreational 
lines was inaugurated. This was more fully developed later, when the 
Rhine project had been definitely abandoned, and will be dealt with 
in due course. 

The month or six weeks which lapsed after the signing of the 
Armistice saw a great falling-off in the general service rendered by the 
Transport Branches. Up to this time one of the most amazing fea- 
tures of the whole Army organization had been the wonderful regu- 
larity with which supplies of all kinds had reached the Forward areas. 
Not only necessities but luxuries had been available through the 
Y.M.C.A. at most times, and it had been a rare thing for the postal 
service to be delayed. After Armistice, however, a reaction seemed to 
set in. It is true that a large number of lorries had been requisitioned 
for the use of refugees and returning prisoners, and that the railway 
line between Valenciennes and Mons had been badly damaged by the 
Hun on his final retreat, but in view of the fact that large quantities of 
munitions were no longer required in constant succession it is hard to 
understand why the Transport Services should have suddenly de- 
veloped "dry rot." In the Fourth Division we only suffered inconven- 
ience; tobacco was at a premium, and mail, both outgoing and incom- 
ing, was not only delayed but lost, "ditched" would perhaps be the 
better word; the First Division, however, which was pressing forward 
to the Rhine, suffered real hardships through this cause, and it was 
not until towards the end of December that normal conditions began 
to obtain. 

One day passed very much like another at St. Symphorien. The 
mornings were devoted to physical training and two hours' military 
training of some description; the afternoons to football or some other 
form of athletics. There was not much to do in the evenings, but 
Mons was within an easy walk, and there was a certain satisfaction in 
the mere walking round the streets of a real town where the lights 
no longer had to be shielded from the heavens. Close by were first- 
class baths; these were to be found at Havre and were miners' bafhs 
of the same description as at Bruay. 



124 

On the 12th we fell in once more and departed from St. Symphor- 
ien on our way to the area which had been allotted us for Christmas; 
fortunately for our peace of mind on the march we none of us had 
any idea of what had been found good enough for the junior battalion. 
Our first halt was at La Louvriere, a good-sized town which made 
such a favourable impression on the unit that later on one man 
requested that his leave warrant be made out for this place, as he 
preferred it to "Blighty" or any place in France. We were now in 
the heart of the great industrial area of Belgium, and the people all 
looked prosperous. The following day we marched to Gourcelles, a 
clean little town lying on the eastern fringe of the industrial area, 
and when we left it on the 14th we found ourselves gradually drawing 
away into the agricultural districts, where the cultivation of the beet- 
root seemed the be-all and end-all of existence. Fleurus was the 
last decent-sized town we saw, and it had in part been badly wrecked 
when the Hun, absolutely regardless of civilian life and property, had 
blown up an ammunition train prior to his departure. All along the 
route were evidences of the German military "debacle"; guns, either 
wrecked or abandoned, or parked or numbered amongst the evi- 
dences of good faith demanded by the Armistice terms, ruined tractors 
and anti-aircraft guns on their movable platforms. We spent that 
night in Sommebreffe, a village too small to contain our Battalion, in 
additions to the 87th, so "C" Coy. was quartered in Ligny, of 1815 
fame, and most of Headquarters were billeted in a group of cottages 
midway between the two. The following day was a Sunday and a 
church parade in the local theatre attracted crowds of the inhabitants, 
who were evidently under the impression that our Protestant form of 
Service was some new kind of secular entertainment. Another day's 
march brought us to Perwez, and on the 17th we 1 were introduced to 
our Christmas quarters. Two Christmas and New Year's Days had 
we spent in the line; the third was to be spent in an area which, if it 
ever figured in the general scheme of creation at all, must have been 
given form and substance in a fit of absentmindedness. It seemed 
to lie on the top of a curve of the earth's surface, and as we breasted 
the edge there was nothing to see on any side but a dull expanse of 
muddy fields stretching away into the horizon and gently perfuming 
the air with the subtle scent of rotting beetroot. Accommodation was 
so limited that the Battalion had to be split up amongst three different 
villages, Headquarters and "D" Coy. being billeted in Autre Eglise, 
'A" and "B" in Foix des Caves and "C" in Hedenge. The area was 
already crowded with French refugees, and to make matters worse, 
the civilian population was suffering from an epidemic of influenza. 
There were no facilities for recreation, no hall for lectures or enter- 
tainments. There was "No nothing." The other units in the Brigade 
were in much the same plight, as a result of which a spirited protest 
was forwarded to the proper quarters, and in course of time, as will 
be seen later, we had our compensation; but it was evidently the 
original intention of the Higher Command to leave the 11th Brigade 
all dumped on the end of the world, there to rot, physically and men- 
tally, until such time as our corroded bodies could be shipped back to 
Canada. 

Our new hosts were nice enough people as far as they went; but, 
to tell the truth, there was but little to choose between them and their 
beetroots; they had vegetated so long that they had partaken of the 
nature of the soil; to use a colloquialism, "there was nothing to them." 
They lacked the meagrest necessities of life, and when Christmas Day 
came it was difficult to raise enough plates to feed the men their 
Christmas dinner by Companies and Headquarters, even when all 



125 

resources were pooled. It was a village tragedy when two members 
of Headquarters Staff slowly and not ungracefully subsided into two 
stacks of plates and broke the lot, because these plates simply could 
not be replaced within fifty miles. Their whole conception of life 
was based on the beetroot, from which they even distilled a peculiarly 
harmless but very distasteful form of beer. It was amid such sur- 
roundings as these that we spent the festive season, and though it is 
possible now to see the comic side of this experience, at the time we 
were much aggrieved 'that, with all France and Belgium to choose 
from, we should have been exiled to this wilderness at that particular 
time of year. If the war had been in active progress we should have 
regarded the thing differently. 

On December 20th an historic "rout," to use a Regency term, was 
given by the Burgomaster, Sheriffs and Common Council of Brussels 
to the representatives of all the Allied Armies who were within reason- 
able reach. It was Brussels' official celebration of victory, and was a 
very splendid affair indeed. Col. Lister represented the 102nd Bn., 
and" returned very much impressed with the scale on which the 
reception, which was followed by dancing, had been conducted. All 
the rooms opening off the Council Chamber in the wonderful "Hotel 
de Ville," or Town Hall of Brussels, were thrown open; the marvel- 
lous tapestries, the gorgeous paintings, the brilliant uniforms of the 
Diplomatic Corps mingling with the soberer khaki of the military, 
the exquisite toilettes of the women, all combined to make a spectacle 
as brilliant as it was impressive. Many a guest present, as he listened 
to the stirring strains of the Band of the Ier Regiment de Grenadiers 
must have thought of that other historic ball given in the same city 
just over 103 years before, when the Iron Duke was present on the 
eve of Waterloo, amidst the other revellers at the Duchess of Rich- 
mond's mansion. On this occasion the heroic M. Max was a central 
figure in the ceremonies. 

Christmas Day and New Year's Day passed at Autre Eglise and 
the other two villages; it was found possible by dint of much careful 
planning and borrowing to arrange Christmas dinners, but though 
everything possible was done the festival lacked the proper spirit; 
Dickens himself could not have assumed the Christmas spirit in that 
dull neighbourhood ,and it was with a sigh of relief that we learned of 
a move which would take place early in the year. There were rumours 
that, like the Israelites of old, we were to be led into a land flowing 
with milk and honey; this time Rumour proved true; though we had 
not been forty years in the wilderness of Sinai we had been nearly 
three weeks in the "Beetroot" country, and it was the most cheerful 
Battalion in the world that marched gladly away on the morning of 
January 4th; we didn't know exactly where we were going, but we 
were on our way, and that was the main thing. This march was 
marked by the re-appearance of our Bugle Band; this had been dis- 
banded when the unit first reached England, and many of the boys 
had done splendid service since that time as Battalion Runners; now 
the Bugles were reorgainzed and, under the efficient leadership of 
Sergeant-Drummer W. Miller they helped us on the march, playing 
alternately with the Brass Band. The country through which we 
passed improved with every step, and our spirits rose corresponding- 
ly. The first stop was at Melin, where Headquarters were established, 
but as this village was not large enough to accommodate the whole 
Battalion, "B" and "C" Coys, were billeted at Athuy. The following 
afternoon we reached Ottenburg, a purely Flemish village where few 
of the inhabitants even understood French, and then on January 6th 
we marched 13 miles on splendid roads over hilly country and found 



126 

ourselves at Boitsfort, which for nearly three months was to be our 
home; and a grand home it was. 

The official name of Boitsfort is the Commune de Watermael- 
Boitsfort, and it proved to be everything that we had hoped for. It is 
a fashionable suburb, or country resort, lying about five miles outside 
Brussels, with which it is connected both by train and car service. 
A good system of electric cars was in operation at frequent intervals, 
and throughout the whole of our stay we were always granted the 
privilege of riding in these cars free. The neighbourhood is most de- 
lightfully laid out in walks, driveways,, boulevards and woodland 
trails, the late King Leopold having spent much money on beautifying 
the landscape. A race-course at Boitsfort is one of the attractions, 
there being still another one a couple of miles away at Groenendael, 
and during the season all fashionable Brussels flocks to Boitsfort, 
where most of the wealthy Bruxellois have their country homes. Here 
was the regular home of English jockeys riding for Belgian owners, 
and many of the civilians spoke excellent English. It may well be 
imagined that the Battalion just gave one big grunt of satisfaction, 
called everything square on the last deal, and proceeded to extract all 
the pleasure out of life which the time and opportunity afforded. So 
began the famous Battle of Brussels. 

The next day was devoted to cleaning up and exploring our new 
location. In the middle of Boitsfort is a picturesque lake which 
swarms with carp of a gigantic size; these the licensee catches cold- 
bloodedly by the hundreds in nets. The place swarms with children, 
who are taught both French and Flemish in the schools. The amazing 
number of children throughout Belgium is worthy of remark; the 
kingdom may well claim to be one of the most densely populated 
countries in the world; they are very nice children, too, and we made 
great friends with them everywhere. The civilians generally abounded 
in hospitality; every man had a bed, and in many houses the men 
would hand over their rations to their hosts, who would then treat 
their visitors as boarding guests. Boitsfort has many first-rate hotels, 
and these were used both for billets and messes, the officers being 
quartered in "La Maison Haute," a really massive pile, standing in 
ample grounds of its own, Headquarters Sergeants using the "Hotel 
Beau Sejour," commanding a view of the lake, and the Companies all 
being equally well provided for. 

A. book might be written on the doings of the next three months, 
but it is not the purpose of this volume either to rival Baedeker or to 
emulate Boccaccio, but it may be remarked that it is now much easier 
to understand why it was that the Carthaginian army under Hannibal 
fell to pieces after their experiences in winter quarters in Capua. The 
big feature of our life during this time was the Educational Scheme, 
which was designed both to provide occupation for the moment and 
to help towards the fitting' of men for civilian life; as to its merits 
on the latter count there is room for argument, but it certainly helped 
to fill in the mornings and was preferable to drill. A little Physical 
Exercise, followed by some form of Educational training, brought us to 
dinner-time; then games or a trip to Brussels passed away the after- 
noon; for the evenings there were billiard tables, dances, cards and — 
Brussels. The only difficulty was to keep in funds. Prices were uni- 
formly high, and though a wise and benificent Command made it 
possible to draw an extra hundred francs once in two months for the 
purpose of taking a 48-hour leave in Brussels, a hundred francs is only 
$20, and lasts just about half as long. Dances were very popular, and 
few evenings passed without some Company or detail arranging a 
dance in an excellent dance-hall known as "La Salle d'Harmonle." 



127 

Frequent lectures were given, and occasionally a theatrical perform- 
ance would be staged by "The Maple Leaves" or some visiting Eng- 
lish company. 

March ,25th . figures as an important date, as on that day the 11th 
Brigacfe paraded at Groenendael for inspection by H.M. the King of 
the Belgians. On this occasion each Battalion paraded with its regi- 
mental colours for the first time. We had had to have our own 
Colours made for us in Brussels, and the firm responsible did very 
creditable work; but there was always the feeling that Regimental 
Colours should not have had to be bought by the Canteen Fund, and 
that some city or community in Canada had missed the chance of its 
life in not having come forward and donated the Colours with its 
blessing. 

During the whole of this period the Battalion Orderly Room 
staff was kept busy in preparing documents- for demobilization. More 
time, money and paper was wasted owing to Red Tape in this connec- 
tion than the taxpayer would like to see presented in figures. After 
.weeks of patient toil necessitating the use of reams of paper we com- 
pleted all the documents as required; then, on our arrival later in 
England we were told that all these Nominal Rolls, etc., would have 
to be done again, as in England they worked under a different system 
from that adopted in France. One might be pardoned for supposing 
that the different systems were in use so as to have an excuse for 
keeping as many khakied "Cuthberts" working as possible. It is a fact 
that in Belgium we made out lists according to orders showing in 
which of about a dozen dispersal areas our men wished to be de- 
mobilized; on our arrival in England we were told positively that we 
should all be discharged in Toronto without any choice, and later we 
were divided into three dispersal areas. Talk about too many cooks 
spoiling the broth; the whole Demobilization Staff was "in the soup" 
all the time. And they had been working out the details for about 
two years! 

It was on April 24th that we finally said "good-bye" to our kind 
hosts and friends at ""Boitsfort and left by train from Wavre for Le 
Havre, which we reached on the 26th. The train journey was slow, 
but there was plenty of room in the b~ox-cars, and the food was both 
abundant and good. The Canadian Embarkation Camp at Le Havre 
was greatly overcrowded and very uncomfortable, but we were, of 
course, disposed to regard everything with a favourable eye at that 
time. But the bathing system was intolerable and deserves a word 
of censure. It had been laid' down that every man should be "de- 
loused," another verbal product of the war, meaning "freed from 
lice," before embarkation. A first-class system was accordingly inaug- 
urated which would doubtless have proved most efficacious if it had 
not been negatived by subsequent proceedings. The men proceeded 
to the bath-house, stripped and hung all their outer clothing, including 
puttees and great-coats, on a travelling rack which passed through a 
disinfecting room full of chemicals and reached the men in another 
compartment where they went after the bath. Splendid idea! Why, 
then, should all the good effect have been taken away by issuing the 
men with washed underwear which in many cases was still vermin- 
ous? The Army seemed unable to get it into its head that the laun- 
dries never did manage to get rid of vermin. As has been pointed out 
before, the laundries exterminated vermin theoretically: they rarely, 
if ever, did it practically, and there is not a man in the Canadian 
Corps who had experience with washed underclothing who will not 
bear out this statement. 



128 

On April 29t h Capt. W. W. Dunlop, M.C., Adjutant, with 25 
Other Ranks, left for England, the whole party under the command 
of Lieut.-Col. F Lister,. D.S.O., M.C., to take part in the great parade 
of Overseas Forces through London. Eight other officers also left 
for the same purpose, but on arrival it was found that each Battalion 
was to be represented by the Commanding Officer and the Adjutant 
only in addition to the Other Ranks. This party reached "'A" Wing, 
Bramshott, on the evening of the 30th. May 3rd was a wonderful day 
for the Overseas Forces. We fell in at 3:45 a.m. and marched to Lip- 
hook where we entrained for Waterloo, which was reached by 6:30. 
Thence we marched to Hyde Park, where tea and sandwiches were 
served, after which we were at liberty to wander round the park until 
11.00, when dinner was served. The troops fell in again at 12:45, and 
moved off at 1:40 along the following route: Stanhope Gate, Constitu- 
tion Hill, Buckingham Palace, where the King took the salute, Buck- 
ingham Palace Road, Victoria Street, Parliament Street, Whitehall, 
Charing Cross, Strand, Australia House, which we circled, Aldwych, 
Kingsway, High Holborn, New Oxford Street, Oxford Street, Marble 
Arch and back to our starting place. Enormous crowds assembled 
and gave an enthusiastic reception. It was an inspiring event, though 
the early part of the march was spoiled for at least one member of 
the unit, who kept on wondering how he was ever going to manage 
to unfix his bayonet from the "slope," seeing that this was an operation 
which always worried him even when done from the "order." Our 
train left Waterloo at 8.00 p.m. and we were back in camp again an 
hour before midnight. The whole affair had "been an unqualified 
success; it had given the troops an opportunity to realize for them- 
selves the unbounded admiration and affection which the people of 
England entertained for them and their prowess; incidentally it had 
given them a new idea of a real London crowd. 

The remaining days in England were not long in spending. The 
main body of the Battalion came over on May-Ath, and thereafter the 
time was. spent in passing Medical Boards and completing Demobiliza- 
tion returns, after which the last leave was enjoyed and on May 31st 
we left Liphook Station at 4.30 a.m. for Liverpool, reaching the Mer- 
sey port about 3.30 in the afternoon, when we immediately embarked 
on board the "Mauretania." On the following day, the anniversary of 
the great naval 'battle of "The Glorious First of June," the giant liner 
left her moorings and at 1.45 p.m. we crossed the bar on our way to 
Canada. Quarters on board were excellent, and even if they had not 
been it is not likely that much discontent would have been aroused; 
moreover, the sea was phenomenally calm, and after a voyage which 
was very nearly a record-breaker, we landed at Halifax at 10.30 a.m. 
on Friday, June 6th. An hour later the trains pulled out for Toronto, 
whicrTwas-reached on the evening of Sunday.^ Here the big majority 
of the unit was demobilized, only some 125 Westerners bound for 
Revelstoke or Vancouver remaining for the final stage of the journey. 
And here a tribute of thanks and acknowledgment is due from the 
Westerners to the people of Toronto generally and to the Sportsmen's 
Patriotic Association in particular for the unbounded hospitality 
shown during the twenty-four hours spent in their midst. A free ex- 
cursion was arranged for these men to visit Niagara Falls, and this 
included a luncheon at the Clifton Hotel and dinner on the boat during 
the return journey. It was a very graceful compliment to the Men 
of the West, and the latter were correspondingly grateful. 

And so we came to the Golden West, leaving at Revelstoke on the 
13th a few of our party, and spending that night at North Bend so 
that we might arrive in Vancouver at a reasonable hour on the morn- 
ing of the 14th. A tremendous crowd had assembled in the Terminal 



129 

City to greet all that were left of the 102nd Battalion, which had been 
so largely recruited in the vicinity, and a vociferous welcome was 
accorded us as we passed up Granville Street on our way to be de- 
mobilized. On the following day those of us who still had another 
leg of the journey to complete embarked for Victoria, and then at 
long last the active history of the 102nd (North British Columbians) 
Battalion came to a close. 

Just two more incidents must be recorded and then this history 
will also conclude. On Monday evening, June 15th, a banquet was 
held in the Vancouver Hotel, Vancouver given "in honour of Lieut. - 
Colonel Fred Lister, C.M.G., D.S.O., M.C and Officers, Non-Commis- 
sioned Officers and Men of the 102nd Battalion upon the occasion of 
the return of the Battalion to British Columbia after their arduous 
and victorious campaign in defence of the Empire," and this banquet 
was tendered by the Province of British Columbia, the City of Van- 
couver, Old Comrades and Friends. 

The last scene of all took place on Sunday, September 22nd f 1919, > 
when the Battalion Colours were deposited in Christ Church, Van- 
couver, with all the pomp and ceremony which such an occasion 
demanded. The following account is taken from t^ie columns of the 
"Vancouver Sun" of September 23rd, 1919, and with this introduction 
the historian takes leave of his readers. 



UNIQUE CEREMONY AT CHRIST CHURCH 

Regimental Colors of 102nd Are Deposited After Custom of 
Early Days in England 

In accordance with a military custom that has its origin in the 
early days of England's history, a divine service was held on Sunday 
rfternoon, September 22nd, in Christ Church, Vancouver, to mark 
the depositing of the regimental colours of the 102nd Battalion, "North 
3ritish Columbians." The church was crowded to the doors with 
members of the Battalion and their relatives, friends and other spec- 
tators, who witnessed this impressive and simple service. The 29th 
Vancouver Battalion placed their colours in the s.ame church some 
time ago. 

Thv. members of the Battalion assembled in the school room and 
formed up in file, with Lieut.-Col. Fred Lister, C.M.G., D.S.O., M.C, 
former officer commanding, and Major H. B. Scharschmidt, acting 
adjutant, leading, the colour party followed and with the members, 
proceeded to the west door. Halting at the foot of the stone steps 
tike adjutant proceeded forward and knocked thrice on the door with 
the hilt of his sword and demanded admission. In the meantime the 
officiating clergyman, Rev. Dr. W. W. Craig, D.D., M.A., rector of 
Christ Church, with the members of the choir, had moved down the 
centre aisle of the church towards the door. The clergyman, accom- 
panied by two wardens, awaited the demand for entrance. 
Who Comes Here? 

"Who comes here?" asked Rev. Dr. Craig, upon the door being 
cpened. 

The adjutant replied: "I have been commanded by Lieut.-Col. 
Fred Lister, C.M.G., D.S.O., M.C, the last commanding officer of the 
i02nd Battalion, 'North British Columbians,' to inform the authorities 
oi this Church that he has repaired here today upon his return from 
the Great War with the colours of the Battalion, and desires admission 
to prefer a request that they be deposited here." . , 



130 

The clergyman answered, "Inform Col. Lister, commanding the 
'North British Columbians,' that every facility will be afforded him in 
executing his most laudable purpose." 

After the entry into the church the National Anthem was sung, 
and then the procession proceeded up the aisle. The clergyman and 
the wardens halted two paces beyond the top of the chancel steps and 
faced the congregation, while the officei commanding and colour party 
halted at the foot of the steps. Addressing Rev. Dr. Craig, Col. Lister 
said: , 

"Sir, on behalf of the officers and men of the 102nd Battalion, 
'North British Columbians,' I have the honour to inform you these are 
colours of their Battalion, and to request that they be deposited here 
for safe-keeping, as a token of their gratitude to Almighty God, by 
Whom alone victory is secured, for His providential care and gracious 
benedictions granted them in the discharge of duty. In so acting 
they also desire to provide a memorial to the men of all ranks who 
served under these colours, and to afford an inspiration for patriotic 
service and sacrifice to all who may worship here for all time to 
come." 

Rector's Words 

Taking the colours from the officers of the colour party, Col. Lister 
passed them to the clergyman and he in turn gave them to the war- 
dens. In accepting them the Rector said: "In the- faith of Jesus Christ 
we accept these colours for the glory of God and in memory of those 
who were faithful, many of them even unto death, in the sacred 
cause of King and Country, and in confidence of the inspiration they 
will afford to all who may behold them In the Name of the Father, 
and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen." 

The clergyman, followed by the wardens carrying the colors, 
proceeded to the altar and personally placed first the King's Colour 
and then the Regimental Colour in the permanent fixtures. 

Taking as his text the second and third verse of the eighth chap- 
ter of Deuteronomy, Rev. Dr. Craig said that the thought that he had 
desired to bring before the minds of the people was summed* up by 
the question, "What have you learned during the last five years?" 
People were put on earth to learn and life was the teacher. It 
disciplined the people and made them disciples. One thing that the 
War taught was the divine omnipotence of God. The war taught 
people to desire realities. The men who went through it are deter- 
mined to have the reality of life. They cannot bear conventions and 
must have appreciation of the moral standards and issues. They 
would do away with sham and convention and demanded reality in 
personal religion. 

Two Hundred of 102nd Present 

The officer bearing the King's Coloui was Capt. T. R. Griffiths, M.C., 
while the officer bearing the Regimental Colour was Lieut. R. D. 
Forrester. The other three members of the colour party were Regt.- 
Sergt.-Major W. H. Long. Reg. Sergt.-Major John Russell, D.C.M., 
?nd Sergt. R. W. Rayner, M.M. Right Rev. A. U. de Pencier, Bishop 
cf New Westminster, assisted in the service, together with Major the 
Rev. C. C. Owen, former rector of Christ Church. There were nearly 
two hundred members of the 102nd present, and these came from all 
parts of the Province, from the Interior, Vancouver Island, and 
up the Coast. , 



131 
APPENDIX A 



FINAL ORDER 

By Lieut.-Colonel Fred Lister, C.M.G., D.S.O., M.C., Commanding 
102nd Infantry Battalion (North British Columbians). 



"I7OR close on three years the 102nd Canadian Infantry Battalion has 
* endured the perils and hardships of war on the western front. Two years 
and eleven months ago we were on the high seas, but our faces were turned 
cast; we were on the threshold of the Great Adventure. Today we are 
looking west, and our hearts are beating high in anticipation of a speedy 
reunion with our homes and loved ones. 

"Many who sailed with us then are lying now on the several battle- 
fields, or in the many cemeteries of France arid Belgium, and their places 
were taken by others who did not shrink from making the supreme sacrifice. 
Many of our comrades, disabled by wounds or sickness, have already 
returned to Canada, and we are looking forward to meeting them once 
more, to tell them that we have not failed to maintain the traditions which 
they handed down to us. r , 

"It is fitting, therefore, that before we disperse we take stock of our 
achievements on the battlefield, for the record of the 102nd Canadian 
Infantry Battalion is one of which any unit might surely well be proud. 
After only six months' organization in Canada the unit sailed for England, 
where it accomplished in six weeks the work which most Battalions took 
at least three months to perform. And so it came to France. During 
twenty-seven months of constant warfare we more than held our own. 
We can look. back now and say that we never lost an inch of ground, that 
we never failed to take our objective, and to hold same when taken, and 
that no German ever set foot in our trenches save as a prisoner. 

"We started out a British Columbia unit; we return an Ontario 
Battalion; but I defy anyone to note the point of cleavage. Welded 
together by many months of common danger, East and West have fused 
as one, and if the Battalion which set out in June, 1916, was a marvel 
cf fitness, the reinforcements which have arrived from Ontario since 
August, 1917, have been all that the heart of man could desire. 

"Within a few short days we shall be dispersed to our several homes, 
but I sincerely trust that the ties of friendship will never be broken. A 
Battalion Association has been formed for the set purpose of holding fast 
those ties, and I hope that each and all will keep in touch with this 
Association. 

"Just a word of thanks and congratulation before we part. From my 
heart I congratulate the Battalion as a whole and each one of you individ- 
ually for the gallant part taken by the 102nd Canadian Infantry Battalion 
in the Great War, and most sincerely do I thank every member of the 
unit for the sublime devotion to duty, and the loyal support of authority 
which has characterized the Battalion. Under Lieut.-Colonel J. W. 

Warden, D.S.O., you endured the horrors of the Somme and Passchen- 
daele. and fought with fierce determination round Lens. When sickness 
forced his absence you gave the same unswerving loyalty to his second-in- 
command. Major (now Lieut.-Colonel) A. B. Carey, D.S.O., and gained the 
heights of Vimy Ridge. When special duty in Mesopotamia finally 
deprived us of the services of Lieut.-Colonel Warden, and I was honoured 
with your command, you extended to mo the same whole-hearted support, 
adapting yourselves with courage and enthusiasm to the new conditions 
imposed by open warfare. When wounds compelled my temporary retire- 
ment you exhibited the same fine qualities of patience, obedience and 
endurance under the command in turn of my second. Major (now Lieut.- 
Colonel) E. J. Ryan, D.S.O. So many changes in command might well have 
taxed the discipline of older troops than you, but to the everlasting credit 
.of the 102nd Battalion you gave to each and all a full measure of confidence 
and devotion. 

"That happiness and prosperity may attend each one of you through- 
out your lives is my earnest wish. Good luck be with you all." 

"FRED LISTER, 

"Lieut-Colonel. 
"Commanding 102nd Canadian Infantry Battalion. 
"May 25th, 1919." 



132 
APPENDIX B 



STATISTICAL TABLE 

102nd Canadian Infantry Battalion 

(NOTE — The following figures take no note of any ranks who joined the 
Battalion in Comox but were transferred or discharged prior to the 
departure of the unit overseas.) 

TOTAL STRENGTH OF THE BATTALION 

Total number of Officers i 207 

Total number of Other Ranks 3,656 



3,863 
CASUALTIES 

(NOTE — The following figures refer only to ranks still on the strength of 
the unit at the time of their casualty.) 

Officers killed in action 31 

Other Ranks killed in action 482 

Officers died of wounds 6 

Other Ranks died of wounds 117 

Officers missing after action 1 

Other Ranks missing after action 22 

Officers died of sickness 

Other Ranks died of sickness 17 

Officers wounded 95 

Other Ranks wounded 1,620 

2,391 
DECORATIONS 

Victoria Cross 1 

Companion of St. Michael and St. George 1 

Distinguished Service Order 5 

Military Cross 38 

Bar to Military Cross 6 

Distinguished Service Medal 19 

Military Medal 162 

Bar to Military Medal 8 

Meritorious Service Medal , 9 

Croix de Guerre (French) 1 

Croix de Guerre (Belgian) ' 6 

Medaille Militaire 1 

Medaille d'Honneur avec Gliaves en Bronze 1 

Cross of St. George, 4th Class (Russian) 3 

Mentioned in Despatches 26 



287 



APPENDIX 



Constitution and By-Laws of the 102nd Battalion Association 



1. The name of this Association is the 102nd Battalion Association. 

2. The Association is an independent Association, and will not be sub- 
servient to any political or other organization in Canada or elsewhere. 

3. Active membership in the Association is limited to those mem- 
bers of the 102nd Canadian Infantry Battalion who actually served at any 
time with the unit in France or Belgium. Power is vested in' the Branch 
Committees to elect honorary members. 

. 4. The Association is divided into two branches, the Eastern Branch, 
with headquarters in Toronto, and the "Western Branch, with headquarters 
in Vancouver: each Branch being controlled by a Committee of six, consist- 
ing of a Chairman, a Secretary, and four members, any three to form a 
quorum, and the Chairman to hold the deciding vote. The dividing line 
between the Branches will be the boundary line between Manitoba and 
Saskatchewan. 

5. The organization of the Association consists of a President, a Vice- 
President, a General Secretary, and a Committee of twelve members, the 



133 

latter to consist of the governing bodies of the Eastern and Western 
Branches; any seven to form a quorum, and the Chairman to hold the 
deciding vote. 

6. Officers of the Association and of the two Branches will be elected 
once a year at the annual meeting of the Branch members. The nomina- 
tions for President, Vice-President, and General Secretary will be sub- 
mitted to Branch Secretaries two months before the annual meeting, and a 
count of votes taken at the meeting will be forwarded to the last General 
Secretary, who will notify the incoming officers of their election, and 
will also notify the Branch Secretaries. The officers elected for the first 
year, however, will hold office until the second annual meeting. 

7. The objects of the Association are as follows: — 

(a) To keep in contact old comrades, and to lend a helping hand 
where needed. 

(b) To keep alive the traditions of the 102nd Canadian Infantry Bat- 
talion, and to promote a spirit of loyalty and devotion to country 
in succeeding generations. 

(c) To work together in a true spirit of good citizenship for a better 
Canada. 

(d) To act as trustee for all Battalion trophies, Regimental Colours, 
documents, etc. / 

(e) To work in concert for the establishment of the 102nd Canadian 
Infantry Battalion as a unit in the Canadian Permanent Forces, 
and to hand over to such unit, if formed, all existing Battalion 
property. 

(f) To raise money where needed for the relief of deserving cases of 
hardship endured by members or their dependents. 

(g) To keep in touch with the trustees of the Regimental Fund, for the 
purpose of recommending, through the Committee, cases deserving 
of relief. 

(h) To further the interests of all returned soldiers. 

8. Both Branches of the Association will meet at least once a year on 
the same date, the place and date of the next meeting to be decided at this 
general meeting of each Branch. To prevent different dates being selected, 
the two Committees will come to an agreement beforehand by correspon- 
dence. In the event of disagreement the date will be selected by the 
President. 

9. Each Committee will meet at least once a month, and will furnish 
the General Secretary with a copy of the Minutes. The General Secretary 
will file these with the Association records, and will forward to each 
Branch a copy of the Minutes forwarded by the other Branch. 

10. A small Association button will be worn by members. 

11. Each Branch will be responsible for the establishing and financ- 
ing of its own headquarters. 



OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION 
First Honorary President: H. S. Clements. Esq., M.P. 

Second Honorary President: Lieut.-Colonel J. W. Warden, O.B.E., D.S.O. 
President: Lieut.-Colonel F. Lister, C.M.G.. D.S.O.. M.C. 
First Honorary Vice-President: Major R. J. Burde, M.C. 
Second Honorary Vice-President: Capt. J. E. Thompson. 
Third Honorary Vice-President: Major H. E. Homer Dixon. 
Vice-President: Lieut.-Colonel E. J. Ryan, D.S.O. 
General Secretary: Sergt. L. .McLeod Gould, P.O. Box 721. Victoria, B.C. 

Eastern Branch: 
Chairman: Lieut. H. J. French, M.C. 
Secretary: Sergt. E. H. Telfer, Woods and Forest Branch, Parliament 

Buildings, Toronto. 
Member*: Lieut. W. H. C. Stanley. M.C; Sergt. F. G. Reeks. M.M.; Pte. 

W. Johnstone; Pte. H. L. Ross. 

Western Branch 
Chairman: Major 8. H. Okell, M.C. 

Secretary: Major F. J. Brandt. 418 Rogers Bldg.. Vancouver, B.C. 
Members: C.S.M. H. A. Farris. MM: C.Q.H.S. W. S. Brown; Sergt. F. W. 

Hambleton; Sergt. R. G. Orr. 



134 

APPENDIX "D" 

Nominal Roll of Officers and Other Ranks, 102nd Battalion 

EXPLANATORY NOTE 
The following Nominal Roll contains the names of: 

(a) All Officers and Other Ranks who landed with the 102nd Bat- 
talion in England, June 29th, 1916: 

(b) All Officers and Other Ranks who reinforced the 102nd in Eng- 

land and proceeded to France, August 11th, 1916. 
(c) All Officers and Other Ranks who actually reported for dut> 

as reinforcements in the field. 
It does not include some hundreds of reinforcements who were 
sent over to Prance as drafts for the 102nd Battalion, but who were 
transferred in Prance to other units before they reported to the 102nd 
Battalion. 

The names of places in brackets after a casualty show the battle 
front on which the casualty was incurred. Authorities for the award 
of decorations are also shown. 

It must be remembered that after August, 1917, all who did not hall 
from Ontario were posted to other units on evacuation to England. 
It has been found impossible to give any details of the subsequent career 
of these men, except in rare instances. The words "to Eng." after a 
man's casualty denote that he was then struck off the strength of the 
battalion and that his subsequent history is unknown to the compiler 
of the Nominal Roll. 

In every case Acting Rank has been credited to the individual. It 
has been felt that if a man was worthy of bearing acting rank in the 
field he is entitled to such rank in a Nominal Roll of this nature. 
Where reliable information has been received of the promotion of an 
Officer or Other Rank after he was struck off the strength of the Bat- 
talion he is credited with such promotion in the Nominal Roll. 

The addresses given are for the most part those of the Next-of-Kin, 
as given to the Paymaster when reinforcements reported for duty. 
In too many cases these addresses are in Europe, whereas the man con- 
cerned is in Canada, but letters sent there will doubtless be forwarded. 
The following abbreviations have been used: 

Bde Brigade. 

C.I.B Canadian Infantry Brigade. 

C.C.A.C Canadian Casualty Assembly Centre. 

C.C.C Canadian Corps Camp. 

C.P.C Canadian Forestry Corps. 

C.I.B.D Canadian Infantry Base Depot. 

C.C.R.C Canadian Corps Reinforcement Camp. 

C.G.B.D Canadian Garrison Base Depot. 

C.L.T.M.B Canadian Light Trench Mortar Battery. 

C.M.G Companion of the Order of St. Michael 

and St. George. 

C.R.O Corps Routine Order. 

C.R.T Canadian Railway Troops. 

d Dated. 

D.C.M Distinguished Conduct Medal. 

Dec Decorated. 

D.O.S Died of Sickness. 

D.o.w Died of Wounds. 

D.R.O Divisional Routine Order. 

D.S.O Distinguished Service Order. 

Ech Echelon. 

Emp Employment. 

Eng England. 

Engr Engineer. 

Pvac Evacuated. 

G.R.O General Routine Order. 

K.i.a. Killed in Action". 

L.G London Gazette. 

M.C Military Cross. 

Men. in des Mentioned In Despatches. 

M.G.C Machine Gun Corps or Company. 

M.M Military Medal. 

M.S.M Meritorious Service Medal. 

Ret Returned. 

Tr Transferred. 

W Wounded (includes Gassed). 



NOMINAL ROLL 

OF 

OFFICERS AND OTHER RANKS 

OF THE 

102nd Canadian Infantry 
Battalion 



COMPLETE WITH CASUALTIES 
AND ADDRESSES 



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