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LIBRARY 

OF THE 




SO 



MASSACHUSETTS 
AGRICULTURAL 
^-vvCOL^EGE 

V.79 



The Garden. 



[December 25, 1915. 




AN 



Illustrated Weekly Journal 



OF 



Horticulture in all its Branches, 



Founded by W. Robinson in 1871. 



Edited by HERBERT COWLEY. 



VOL. LXXIX. CHRISTMAS, 191^. 



LOU^DOU^. 

Office: 20, TAVISTOCK STREET, COVENT GARDEN, W.C. 



Published by "COUNTRY LIFE," Ltd., 20, Tavistock Street, Covent Garden, W.C, and by 
GEORGE NEWNES, Ltd., 8-11, Southampton Street, Strand. 



The Garden-I Q_ IDecember 25, 191 =;. 

THIS VOLUME OF "THE GARDEN" 



is dedicated by pepmission to 

FIELD-MARSHAL LORD GRENFELL, 

G.C.B., G.G.M.G., LL.D. 

{President of the Royal Horticultural Society.) 



WHEN Field-Marshal Lord Grenfell accepted the Presidency of the Roj^al Horticultural 
Society in the spring of 1913, the cloud of the great European war was not apparent. 
It therefore appears the more fortunate that he should have consented to 
preside over this great National Society- at a time when his knowledge, 
experience and connections are in\-aluable to the Societ}- over which he exercises a wise and 
guiding hand. Ever since the revival of the Society in the eighties, there almost seems to have 
been some higher care watching over it. When difficulties have threatened, they have been 
removed in remarkable ways, lea\'ing the Society stronger than ever and in a better position to 
pursue the good work it is doing in increasing beauty, happiness and health throughout this 
fair land. 

Lord Grenfell has been devoted to the art of gardening for the greater portion of his life. 
In the many parts of the globe where he has been stationed, he has succeeded in creating a garden 
for himself. He was probably the first to grow English Roses in Malta. He imported a large 
number there aiid grew them successfully. When in Egypt he founded a horticultiural society, 
which became influential in improving the cultivation of flowers, despite the difficulties involved 
by the annual rise of the Nile. In late years Lord Grenfell has taken the keenest interest in his 
beautiful garden at Overstone, near Northampton. 

Lord Grenfell entered the Army in 1859 and served in the Kaffir and Zulu Wars of 1878-79. 
He was Quartermaster-General in the Transvaal in 1881-82. Between 1882 and 1892 he was occupied 
in the Egyptian and Nile Expeditions, and was Sirdar of the Egyptian Army from 1885 to 1892. Subse- 
quently, Lord Grenfell was Inspector-General of the Auxiliary Forces, Governor and Commander- 
in-Chief of Malta, for some time Commander of the 4th Army Corps and for five years Commander- 
in-Chief in Ireland. In recognition of his great services, Lord Grenfell was raised to the peerage 
in 1902. 

It falls to the lot of very, few men to gain such distinguished honours, but one tribute very 
dear to him is that of his late and gallant nephew. Captain Francis O. Grenfell, who was the first 
officer to win the Victoria Cross in the present war. Referring to his imcle, Captain Francis Grenfell in 
his will, which has been recently proved, says : " I should like to express my deep gratitude for his 
kindness to me during my lifetime, ever since the day when he decided I should go into the Army 
at his expense. I have endeavoured to base my career on his example. He has, since the death 
of my father, done everj^hing that a father could do for me." 



Vol, LXXIX. 



"The Garden," December 25, 1915. 



INDEX. 



AbutQon Triumph, 496 

Acacia, False, as a hedge plant, 133 ; 

platyptera, 25, 551 
Achillea Obristii, 315 
Aconites, Winter, and Snowdrops, 97 
Actinidia chine nsis, 589, 610 
Actinidias, two climbing, 565 
iEsculus parvifiora, 436 ; plantidrensis, 

311 
Agave americana, 554 
AgTostis nebulosa, 95 
Ailantus glandulosa, a noble group of, 

242 
Akebia quinata, 529 
Allium kansuensp, 543 
Alpines as . border plants in Scotland, 
337 ; increasing, 340 ; in Yunnan, Mr. 
George Forrest on, 347 ; late-flowering, 
506, 541, 573 ; under glass, 121 
Alyssum spinosum, 302 
Amaryllis, the, after flowering, 263 
Anemone blanda, 217 ; fulgens, how to 
grow, 207 ; japonica Kentish White, 
431 ; nemorosa bosniaca, 211 ; Pulsa- 
tilla, 181 ; rupicola, 273 ; sylvestris 
277 
Annual, a good hardy, for edgings, 140 ; 

flowers suitable for cutting, 103 
Annuals at Reading and Slough, 131 ; 
between shrubs, 372 ; for beds, 23 ; 
hardy, among shrubs, 127 ; in border, 
179; sowing late, 265; the best 
climbing, 201 
Antirrhinum Asarina, 372 
Antirrhinums and disease, 171 ; and Mr. 
Cuthbertson, 135 ; as bedding plants, 
480, 505, 541; cultivation of , 31; eaten 
by animals, 539, 553, 588 ; in the 
Bournemouth Public Gardens, 457 
Apple, a good culinary, 549; Blenheim 
Orange, 492 ; blossom, about, 313 ; 
blossoms, about, and other things, 
278 ; Ck)x's Orange Pippin grafted on 
Irish Peach, 243, 312, 336 ; crop, 
prospect of the, 182 ; crop, storing 
the, 458 ; double flowers, 323 ; Edwin 
Beckett, 496 ; frost damage to, 1 ; 
Gascoyne's Scarlet, 578 ; growing in 
Nova Scotia, 368 ; Lane's Prince 
Albert, 566, 589 ; Langley Pippin, 
419 ; Madresfleld Court, 566 ; Miller's 
Seedling, 529 ; Wellington, 503 
Apples and Pears for Midland Counties, 
19 ; at Swanmore Park, Hants, 261 ; 
flavour and pedigree of, 29, 70 ; fruit- 
ing on young trees, 458 ; storing 
late, 467, 493 ; the four best dessert, 
560 ; two fine, 629 
Aquilegia, the Long-spurred, in Scotland, 

350 
Aquilegias in pots, 467 
Arbutus XJnedo, 564 

Armeria csespitosa, 157 ; fasciculata, 479 
Artichokes, wintering Globe, 597 
Arum Lily, a hardy, 614 
Asclepias fruticosus, 629 
Ash, the Eowan or Mountain, 197 
Asparagus, hints on growing, 140 ; giant, 

604 
Aster alpinus Nancy Perry, 306 ; Amcllus 
King George, 541 ; Amellus Mrs. 
Perry, 518 
Aubrietias, the value of, 217 
Auricula Edenside, 201 
Auriculas for the outdoor garden, 221 ; 
notes on, 93, 141, 173, 207, 281, 410, 
498, 591 
Australian Bluebell Creeper, the, 438 
Azaleas, propagating, 191 ; from cuttings, 
266 

Balsams, hardy, notes on, 471 

Bamboos, hardy, and their cultivation, 

222 
Banksias, 611 

Barbadoes Pride and its Latin name, 601 
Barberries, two showy new, 206 
Bartsia Odontites, 468 
Bartsias, little-known British, 504 
Beans, Haricot and Butter, cultivation of, 

192 
Bed, a charming autumn, 126 
Begonia Fireflame, 566; Lord Methuen, 
354 ; Mrs. Cuthbertson, 354 ; President 
Carnot, 433 
Begonias, trial of winter-flowering, 277 ; 
tuberous, from seed, 37 
-* Benthamia fragifera fruiting in Surrey, 
:: 50 ; fruits of, 23 

fc Berberis. acuminata, 575 ; Aquifohum, a 
^ tall specimen of, 218 ; candidula, 109 ; 

"" hybrids, some beautiful, 142 ; pinnata, 

^ 206 ; pinnata in Hertfordshire, 324 ; 

'^ SargentisD, 447 ; sargentiana, 592 

Birds and ripe fruits, 433, 457, 480 
Blackberry, the cultivation of, 499 
I Black or Berry-Bearing Alder for gun- 
^T powder, 465 



BOOKS — 

" Adventures among Wild Flowers," 35 
" Fungoid Diseases of Field and Garden 

Crops," 453 
" Gardeners' and Florists' Annual for 

1915," 107 
" Gardening for Beginners," 132 
" My Shrubs," 240 
" My Villa Garden," 356 
" Plant Life," 368 
" Popular Hardy Perennials," 356 
" School Gardening," 416 
" Sweet Peas and Antirrhinums," 96 ; 
" The Book of Hardy Flowers," 393 
" The Door in the Wall," 595 
" The Garden Under Glass," 35 i 

" The Hobby Gardener," 393 I 

"The Mutation Factor in Evolution,' 
with Particular Reference to CEno- 
thera," 416 ! 

" The Principles of Agriculture through ; 
the School and Home Garden," 441 I 
" The Spirit of the Soil," 607 i 

' ' Transpiration and the Ascent of Sap 

in Plants," 36 
"Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the 
British Isles," 95 

Border, a bright summer, 528 ; scarlet 
and white in the, 347 

Borders, flower, at a cripples' home, 360 ; 
at Goodnestone Park, Canterbury, 494 

Botany, railway, 361 

Bouvardias, treatment of, 205, 218 

Bracken roots, 565 ; use of, as litter, 467, 
513 

Brambles and their peculiarities, 215 

Brasso-Cattleya Admiral Jellicoe Broad- 
lands Variety, 566 ; Cliftonia albens, 
56 ; Chftonii Fowler*s variety, 225 ; 
Cliftonii Sir John French, 152 ; Schro- 
derse Shrubbery variety, 129 ; ^i^ 
moriniana Shrubbery variety, 225 

Briar wood for pipes, 217 

Brunsfelsias, the, 112 

Buddleia Colvillei, 457, 493 ; from Middle- 
sex, 416 ; madagascariensis, 599 ; 
ofBcinalis as a pot plant, 13 

Buddleias, late -flowering, 470 

Bulb notes, 408 ; order in 1915, 451 ; 
planting and trial gardens, 474 

Bulbs, blue-flowered, for autumn planting, 
484 ; British ver&us Dutch, 408 ; 
early planting of, 441 ; for convalescent 
camps, 575 ; for grass and woodland, 
473 ; for spring planting 195 ; forced, 
the colouring in, 159 ; in grass, 503 ; 
some, for spring planting, 165 ; that 
ought to be potted in August, 385 

Business, starting a, 333 

Butcher's Broom and other plants, 27 

Cabbage, a hint on cooking, 122 ; a 
remedy for club in, 529, 576 ; club in, 
516 ; Little Gem, 50 ; Sutton's Har- 
binger, 218 

Cabbages and perennial Poppies, trials 
of, at Wisley, 359 

CsBsalpinia japonica and C. pulcherrima, 
577, 601 

Cffisalpinias, two hardy, 546 

Calceolaria cuttings, 457 

Calceolarias, herbaceous, 305 ; three 

S>od shrubby, 245 
una vulgaris cuprea, 73 

Camellia reticulata, 73 

Campanula Abundance, 402 ; arvatica 
(acutangula), 378 ; garganica hirsuta, 
603 ; Meteor, 378 ; portenschlagiana, 
90 ; portenschlagiana and Pinks, 223 ; 
Profusion, 592 ; pusilla Miss Willmott, 
188, 330 

Candytuft, Ibeiis gibraltarica, 61 

Cannas and Dahlias, storing, 498 

Canterbury Bells and Alkanet, 352 

Carduncellus pinnatus, 195 

Carnation Alice, 518 ; Aviator, 543 ; 
Bishton Wonder, 47 ; Bookham Clove, 
273 ; Caprice, 47 ; Colleen, 47 ; Daisy 
Walker, 196, 273 ; Delice, 47 ; General 
Joffre, 47 ; Good Cheer, 152 ; Grena- 
dier, 47 ; Malcolm, 617 ; Mme. Charles 
Page, 47 ; Mrs. G. Lloyd Wigg, 176 ; 
Nora West, 47, 192; notes, 631; 
Wivelsfleld White, 47 

Carnations, border, 542, 579, 611 ; autumn 
planting versus spring planting, 421 ; 
new Perpetual - flowering, 404 ; notes 
on, 101, 135, 177, 234, 314, 362, 375, 
472 ; Perpetual-flowering, 266 ; Tree, 
sporting, 528 

Carpenteria californica, when to prune, 
24 

Cassia corymbosa at Eastbourne, 372; 
flowering outdoors, 564 

Cassinia fulvida, 145 

Catalogue, the ideal, 22; Daffodil, 
99 

Catasetum Bungerothii, 447 



Catkins, notes on, 151 
Cattleya Ajax Primrose Dame, 518 ; 
amabihs Fowler's variety, 477 ; drap- 
siana vinosa, 426 ; hardyana alba, 447 ; 
hardyana variety His Majesty, 426 ; 
Harold Fowler's variety, 402 ; Luegese 
Fowler's variety, 543 ; Mendelii Mrs. 
Smee, 354 ; Moira rubra, 543 ; Olympus, 
129; Paula, 354; Sybil Scintillant, 
402 ; Sybil variety rotundobeUum, 
426 ; Sybil variety W. R. Lee, 447 ; 
Tityus Rex, 273 ; Trianse Queen 
Elizabeth, 80 ; Venus Princess Mary, 
477 ; Warscewiczii Mrs. E. Ashworth, 
354 
Ceanothus Fantaisie, 477 ; George Simon, 

496 ; rigidus (vera), 260 ; vais. 609 
Celeriac and its cultivation, 227 
Celery, crisp, how to grow small, 48 
Centaurea ^theopappus pulcherrima, 111 
Ceratostigma plumbaginoides, 400 ; will- 

mottianum, 491 
Cercis Sihquastrum, 287 
Chamomile, the double, 63, 110 
Charity begins at home, 534 
Cherry, the Bird, 312 ; Waterloo, 378 
Cherries, Morello, for north walls, 29 ; 

the flowering, 229 
Chicory or Witloof, the cultivation of, 

225 
Chionanthus \irginica, 100 
Chionodoxa Lucilise, 73 ; sardensis, 157 
Chorizema ilicifoUum, 251 
Christmas Roses, 613 ; transplanting, 15, 38 
Chrysanthemum Aphrodite, 578, arcti- 
cum, 545, 576 ; Aristocrat, 590 ; 
Bertha Fairs, 543 ; Charlotte E. 
Soyer, 543 ; Edith Cavell, 666 ; General 
Smith-Dorrien, 543 ; Golden Cham- 
pion, 566 ; Louisa Pockctt, 590 ; 
Market Bronze, 543 ; maximum Cale- 
donia, 420 ; Merstham Beauty, 551 ; 
Monica Mitchen, 690 ; Phyllis Cooper, 
566 ; the, and its associations, 537 
Chrysanthemums at Finsbury Park, 
563 ; border, notes on, 544 ; border, 
winter treatment of, 20 ; early flowering 
or border, 224; notes on, 17, 32, 70, 
140, 177, 259, 283, 332, 392, 618 ; out- 
door or border, 566 ; propagation of, 
12 ; protecting early flowering, 575 ; 
that last well in Scotland, 41 ; to 
bloom at Christmas, 47 ; work among 
the, 411, 486, 578 
Chrysogonum virginianum, 14 
Cistus cyprius, 347 ; purpureus, 99 
Citrus trifoliata, fruits of, 597 
Clarkias for the conservatory, 363 
Clematis aphylla, 260 ; Flammula in the 
flower border, 498 ; Hendersonii, 371 ; 
montana, 43, 63 
Clematises and their cultivation, 448 ; 

where to grow, 316 
Clerodendrons, hardy, 578 
Clethra ahiifolia, 431 
Climbers, late-flowering, 576 ; some good 

greenhouse, 223 
Clivia, the, as a window plant, 206 
Cobs, not Filberts, 528 
Ccelogyne cristata, treatment of, 36 
Colchicum speciosum, 472 
Colchicums and autumn-flowering Cro- 
cuses in grass, 447 
Collomia coccinea, 384 
Colour charts, 116, 147, 159, 183, 429, 

501 
Combination, a pink and blue, 205 
Copper preserving pans, 157 
Coreopsis grandiflora and Madonna Lilies, 

371 
Cornflowers, about, 335 
Com, Sweet, cultivation of, in England, 34 
Cornus Nuttailii, 374 
Coronilla glauca, 539 ; as a hardy plant, 

300 
Corylopsis spicata, 169 
Corylus Colurna, 97 
Cosmos, early flowering, 80 ; naturalised 

in Rhodesia, 235 
Cotoneaster frigida, 575 ; Simonsii, 480 ; 

as a wall plant, 456, 492 
Cotyledon simpUcifoha, 306 
Cowley, H., appointment of, 479 
Crab Apple, I^rus niedzwetzkyana, 229 
Crat£egus cordata, 347 
Crinum PoweUii, 50 ; how to plant, 2 ; 
in a reader's garden, 528 ; planting, 38 
Crinums at Michaelmas, 19 ; the, 432, 

481, 455 
Crocus biflorus Alexander!, 104; Lemon 
Queen, 104 ; byzantinus, 554 ; Imperati 
albiflos, 104 ; pulchellus albus, 518, 
527, 529 ; species, 481, 552 ; speciosus 
Bowles' White, 529 ; in the grass, 467 ; 
susianus, 109 ; tommasinianus, 85 
Crocuses at Kew, 158 ; of autumn, 387 ; 
outdoor, for bowls, 97 ; the Autumn, 
566 



Crops, produce of, 1915, 587 
Crown Imperials, 205 
Cupressus, gaU on root of, 527 
Cuttings with heeh, 2, 27, 50, 75 
Cyclamen Coum, 101 ; Persian, how to 

succeed with, 404 ; persicum, hardiness 

of, 3 ; pseud-ibericum, 133 ; sowing, 

443 
Cydonia Mallardi, 447 
Cymbidium coningsbyanum Brockhurst 

variety, 32 ; Schlegelii Fowler's variety, 

104 
Cypress, the Deciduous, 342, 360 
Cypripedium arthurianum Langley 

variety, 32; Calceolus, 399, 420, 429; 

in Switzerland, 361 ; Curtisii Sanderw, 

306 ; Grand Duke Nicholas, 32 ; lona 

Priory variety, 590 ; Priory Beauty, 

590 ; Pyranus Chardwar Ideal, 32 ; 

spectabile, 299 
Csrtisus DaUimorei, seedling forms of, 

299 ; fragrans, 109, 218 ; praecox, 229 ; 

purpureus, 265 ; scoparius sulphureus, 

67 

Daffodil, a word to, seedling raisers, 170 ; 
bulbs, living pests in, 4 ; bulbs, soaking, 
in water, 39 ; Leedsii, new division of 
the classes and a suggestion, 300 ; names, 
a classified list of, 551 ; notes, 53, 64, 
88, 113, 125, 138, 148, 164, 174, 187, 
199, 209, 220, 233, 243 ; notes from 
New Zealand. 22, 352; Olympia, 443, 
469 ; or Narcissus, 147 ; what is a ? 
147; "Year Book, 1915," 531, 565, 
613 

Daffodils, a new cup for, 165 ; and Tulips, 
lifting and storing, 301 ; classes for 
miniature, 242 ; division of Leedsii, 
class of, 110 ; for the garden, 39, 58, 
75, 87 ; garden, 242 ; Leedsii, the new- 
division of, 324 ; technical terms used 
in describing, 158 ; what is wanted in, 
183 

Dahlia Aggie Hutt, 431 ; Anna Louise, 
518 ; A. R. Perry, 477 ; Bacchante, 
496 ; Blaze, 477 ; Caprice, 447 ; 
Carron, 496 ; Constance, 477 ; Coyness, 
477 ; Cresset, 477 ; Curlew, 477 ; 
Diamond, 496 ; Don Juan, 477 ; Erin, 
496 ; Esm6e, 477 ; Garland, 496 ; 
Greraldine Edwards, 426 ; Gossamer, 
477 ; Herald, 447 ; Landmark, 496 ; 
Leviathan, 518 ; Madonna, 496 ; Bliss 
Judd, 447 ; Patrol, 426 ; Printfose 
Queen, 447 ; Rainbow, 518 ; Sappho, 
477 ; Saucy, 496 ; Scarlet Queen, 
447 ; Sceptre, 496 ; Searchlight, 496 ; 
Sharman Crescent, 477 ; The Boy, 
496 ; The Girl, 496 ; ' Tipperary, 477 ; 
trial at Duffryn, 22 ; Ursa Major, 496 ; 
Vanesse, 477 ; Warneford, 447 ; Wash- 
ington, 447 ; William Pound, 477 ; 
Yellow Star, 447 

Dahlias, 547 ; on a trellis, 242 the 
Collarette, 200, 407 ; the Mignon, 396 

Damson, the Merryweather, 583 

Daphne Arbuscula, 260 ; Mezereum, 145 

Davidia involucrata Vilinorinii, 145 

Decoration, table, hints on, 453 

Delphinium Queen of the Belgians, 330 ; 
venustum, 306 

Delphiniums, 102 ; the, or perennial 
Larkspurs, 610 

Dendrobium hookerianum Fowler's variety, 
477 ; Triumph, 56 

Deutzia Vilmorince in Ireland, 564 

Dianthus gracilis, 597 ; neglectus Aurora, 
306 ; Spencer H. Bickham, 324, 373 ; 
woodfordiensis, 306 

Dianthuses or Pinks, the, 184 

Dictamnus albus, 507 

Dimorphanthus mandschuricus variegatus, 
598 

Dimorphotheca pluvialis, 553 

Disa Blackii, 272 

Dombeya Mastersii, 601 

Earthworms, useful and injurious, 61 

Elderflower wine or Frontignac, 349 

Elders, some scarlet-fruited, 342 

Elm trees, the danger of, 455 

Endive, some notes on, 432 

Epitaph on a garden friend, 552 

Erica arborea, 288 ; australis, 26 ; cinerea 

atrorubens, 354 ; cinerea atrosan- 

guinea, 323 ; cinerea coccinea, 420 ; 

mediterranea hybrida, 109 
Erigeron Asa Gray, 335 ; hybridus 

Ma. Gray, 330 ; philadelphicus, 564 ; 

Quakeress, 575 ; speciosum superbum, 

455 
Eryngium giganteum, 395 
Escallonia langleyensis, 315, 336 ; 

macrantha, 551 ; montevidense", 496 
Eschscholtzia The Geisha, 447 
Eucalypts for EngUsh gardens, 496. 

540, 552, 588 



INDEX. 



[" The Garden," December 25, 1015 



Eucalyptus globulus and E. Gunnii, 
493 ; in flower in Norfolk, 421, 468 

Eucryphia pinnatifolia, 363 

Euonymus latifolius, 527 

Euphorbia Sibthorpii, 408 

Evelyn, John, some historical notes, 105 

Evergreens on walls in winter, 114 ; 
transplanting, 169 

Evesbam Valley, the, in early spring, 
156 

Farmers' Red Cross Sale, 597 

Fern, Maidenhair, fronds from Queens- 
land, 121 

Ferns, desirable greenhouse, 356 ; hardy, 
for shady greenhouses, 267 ; hardy, for 
shady places, 120 ; in air-tight bottles, 
145 ; treatment of, in pots, 73 

Fertilisation, physiology of, 85 

FertiUsers, our supplies of, 586 

Ferula communis, 420 

Flax, New Zealand, at home, 50, 110, 
135 

Florence Fennel, 595 

Floriculture in America, 227 

Flower-bed, a pleasing spring, 205 ; an 
effective, 299 

Flower-beds, some beautiful, 408 

Flower fragrance, some sources of, 624 

Flowers, annual, for autumn sowing, 
423, 457 ; for the greenhouse, 424 ; 
in mixed borders, 163 ; manure for, 
122 ; autumn, 546 ; deep blue and 
yellow, 217 ; for hot, sandy soil, 231 ; 
greenhouse, colour arrangement of, 
97 ; sweet-scented, 80 ; hardy, in 
early autumn, 495 ; limelight, 288 ; 
long-stemmed, 38; magenta, 577. 
603; outdoor, in midwinter, 37, 62, 
75 ; preserving cut, 97 ; some annual, 
for spring sowing, 124 ; spring, at 
Stratton Park, 270 ; in association, 
336; tender, at Hampton Court, 455; 
the charm of common, 156 ; the 
cutting of, 301, 360, 397 

Fly, the Celery, 183 

Figs, green, preserving, 433 ; recipe for 
bottling, 452 

Filbert Nuts, 499 

Forget-me-not, the Chatham Island, in 
Scotland, 171 

Forsythia intermedia spcctabilis, 176, 182 ; 
suspensa, 157 

Fothergilla major, 77, 277 

Foxgloves and other flowers in the wild 
garden, 603 ; and their cultivation, 304, 
324 

Fraxious Ornus, 362 

Freesias, a magnificent group of, 139 ; 
coloured, 151 ; cultivation of, 459 ; 
cultural hints on, 89 ; for Christmas. 
282; from Guernsey, 135 ; hybrid. 110 

Friar Park revisited, 304 

Fritillaries, wild. 230 

Fritillary. the, as a wild plant, 219 

Fruit blossom, protecting, 130 ; crops 
in Calvados, Normandy, 322 ; hardy, 
summer pruning of, 392 ; prospects 
at St. Malo, 323 ; rooms, 475 ; trees, 
hardy, winter spraying of, 81 ; planting, 
537, 631 ; summer spraying of, 317 ; 
thick verms thin training of, 605 : 
ventures in fruit walls, 628 

Fruits and vegetables, bottling, 374 

Fuchsias, raising from seeds, 350 ; the 
cultivation of, 409 

Fungus, a large. 408 

Funkia subcordata alba odorata, 2, 75 ; 
subcordata grandiflora, 27 

Galan^hus nivalis Scharlokii, 455 

Garden, a beautiful, in Scotland, 230 ; 
a, in the war desert, 313 ; a little, 
at Kensington, 571 ; a newly made at 
Sandboume, Worcestershire, 244 ; a 
snaall, turned to good account, 553 ; 
an artistic httle, 398: an Ayrshire. 
457 ; an East Coast, 338 ; an inter- 
esting Cornish, 163 : an interesting 
Surrey, 411, 432; Heath, at W'isley, 
462 ; literature, 504 ; my cottage, in 
Hampshire, 534 ; some " W. G.'s " of 
the, 584; sparrows in the, 288: Thf 
Garden in the fighting line, 419 ; 
the Heath, in autumn, 581 : the Heath, 
in late summer. 365 ; the sunk, at 
Regal Lodge, 559; wild, an effective 
combination for the, 241 

Gardeners' Royal Benevolent Institution, 
the. 322 

Gardening, informal and wild, 291, 303, 
313, 326 ; in South Australia, 372 ; 
racecourse, in New Zealand, 414 ; of the 
week, 618, 630 

Gardens, cats in, 432; dry wall, 590; 
for little Londoners, 597 

Gardens op To-pay — 

Bodnant Halt, Denbighshire, 583 
Markyate Cell. Herts. 568 
Woodsidf, Chinirs. Burkj^. 281 

Gaultheria tricophylla in a Welsh garden, 
237 

Genista cetnensis. 359 ; etnerea. 326 

Oentiana acaulis, 336, 373. 420 ; how to 
grow, 397 ; treatment of, 281 : ascle- 
piadea. 492 ; omata, 518 ; treatment 
for, 457 



Gerberas, cultivation of, 144 

Geum Mrs. Bradshaw, 503 

Ginkgo biloba or Maidenhair Tree, 2, 

27, 50 
Gladioli for spring planting, 184 
Gladiolus brenchleyensis and East Lothian 

Stocks, 157 : masonionim, 551 
Glasnevin, notes from, 232 
Globularia incanescens, 423 
Gloxinias from seed, 37 
Godetia Double Rose, 37 ; Lavender, 330 
Goldfish changing colour, 409 ; in cement 

tank, 216 ; information about, 385 
Gooseberry caterpillars, 342, 361 ; flowers 

and sparrows, 193, 219, 243 ; mildew in 

Cambridgeshire, 193 ; Roseberry, 378 ; 

Whinham*s Industry, 378 
Grammanthes gentianoides, 395 
Grape Vines in early autumn, 470 
G apes, an audit of, at the fruit show, 526 
Grevillea juniperina sulphurea. 311 ; the 

genus, 182 
GrevUleas in Australia, 170 
Ground, newly broken, 128 
Gypsophila repens as a wall plant. 49 

Habranthus pratensis, 277 

Hake^ pinifolia, 599 

Hamamelis japonica zuceariniana, 97 ; 

mollis, 25 
Hardenbergia comptouiana. 242 
Harvey, F. W.. a few appreciations, 444 ; 

death of. 431 
Heath garden, the. in spring. 197 ; St. 

Dabeoc's, 56 
Heather, the double-flowered, 438 
Heaths, some winter- flowering. 40. 63 ; 

the Tree, 284 
Hedge of sorts, a, 14, 38, 50. 75 ; plants 

for, 24 ; upkeep of garden, :i5 
Hedychium gardnerianum, 216. 610 
Helenium puiailum magnificum, 38:i 
Helianthus Nattallu, 419 
Helleborus niger altifolius, 1^ 38 
Helxine SoUerolU as a carpeting plant, 99 
Hemerocallis as pot plants, 49 ; Golden 

Bell, 354 
Herbs, drying, 360 
Heucheras, dividing, 265 
Hibiscus, the SjTian, 412 
Himalayan Blackberry, 447 
Hollies, grafting, 216 
Holly, the, 239 
Homes, good, wanted, 464 
Honeysuckle, a Chinese, 563 
Honeysuckles, winter-flowering. 61 
Horse Chestnuts, collecting, 575 
Horticultural relief for Serbia, 404 
Horticulture examinations, National Di- 
ploma of, 380 ; in Belgium^ France, 

Russia and Serbia, 229 ; in the good 

old days, 309 
Horticulturist, a Wigtownshire amateur, 32 
Houseleek, a Cobweb, 348 
Humea elegans and skin irritation, 12 
Hunnemannia fumariffifolia, 432 
Hyacinth Lady Derby, 144 
Hyacinths, about, 194 
Eyacinthus azureus, 169 
Hydrangea Radiant, 225 
Hypericum Ascyron, 538; patuliim Henvri. 

371 

Iris fliifolia, 330. 390 ; Lohengrin. 306 ; 

Lord of June, 306 ; Maori King, 299 ; 

pallida dalmatica. 287 ; Rotherside 

Masterpiece, 306 ; sibirica, 533 ; sind- 

pers, 133 ; stylosa, 75 ; Tauri, 87 ; 

The Tiger, 458 ; tingitana. 14 ; walk, 

an, of Eastern splendour, 588 
Irises, Japanese, some attractive little, 

241 ; trial of Bearded, at Wisley, 311 
\\y for covering damp walls, 07. 135 
Ixias and Sparaxis, 486 
Ixoras, 504 

Jasmine, the hardy yellow,' 597 

Kale. Russian, 121 

Kew Gardens, an entrance fee to, 587, 

609 ; springtime at. 193 
Kitchen garden crops, notes on, 513; 

flowers in, 6 
Kniphoflas or Torch Lilies, 451 
Kcelrcuteria paniculata. 494 

Labels in flower borders, 433 
Laboratory, the new, at Wish-y, 491 
Laburnums, the, 245 
Lachenalias, 433 ; notes on, 185 
Lteho-Cattleya Alex, 590; Anaconda, 
260; canhamiana Fowler's variety. 
330 ; eximea delicatissima, 447 ; Fasci- 
nator Mossioe var. Imogene, 260 ; 
Fascinator Mossia- var. Moonlight , 
354; Gold Star, 273; Golden Queen, 
426 ; Hehus, 273 ; Isabel Sander, 
225 ; J. F. Birkbeck. 176 ; King 
Manoel, 590 ; Nana, 201 ; Sybil 
Ix)w's Variety, 272 ; Thyone Fowler's 
variety, 402; Transylvania Leonora 
Enid, 272 
La Mortola, the fardens of, 616 
I<apagcria rosea, 567; alba, 588 610 
Lapagerias flowering outside on noith 

walls, 576 
Lardi2abala biternata, 432 
l^tham, W. B., an appreciation, 26 



Lathra?a clandestina, 278 
Latin names and good re^^olutions. 7 
Laurelia aromatica. 218 
Laurentia tenella, 575 
Lavender harvest, a, 420 ; Lavandula 
Spica alba, 196 ; Sweet, 5, 371, 449, 609 
Leaves, burning, 481 
Leptosiphon densiflorus hybridus, 25 
Leucojum vernum, 169 
Lewisia columbiana, 273 ; Howellii, a 
good plant of, 217 ; in Scotland, 267 

Ligustrum lucidum, 13 

Lilac Souvenir de Louis Spath, 265, 288 

Lilacs, cultivation of, ^% ; from cuttings, 
144 

Lihum Amos Perry, 354 ; auratum, 38, 
492 ; in Scotland and Japan, 91 ; 
candidum, 385 ; a note from the 
fighting line, 348 ; giganteum, early 
flowering of, 288 ; in Gloucestershire, 
396; regale, 354, 605; testaceum, 
early history of, 100 ; tigrinum splen- 
dens, 527 

Lilies, 489 ; hybrid, 399 ; late-flowered, 
549 : Oriental, in Scotland, 448 ; 
some hardy, 3, 15, 27, 39, 51, 63, 
76 : the Plantain, 407 ; two charming, 
498 

Lihums and Gladiolus tristis, 541 

Lily, a beautiful Guernsey, 539 ; disease, 
the, and how to combat it, 325 ; Hum- 
boldt's, 443 ; of the Valley, how to 
force, 44 ; the Herb, 395 ; the Nankeen, 
554, 598 

Lime wood attacked by fungus, 407 

Linaria alpina, 443, 468 ; aparinoides 
splendens and flowers in general, 
420 ; macedonica, 330 

Lisianthus russeUianus, 515 

Lithospermum prostratum, 539 

Lobelia ramosa, 407 

Loganberries, 527 ; and Raspberries, 
autumn treatment of, 402, 421 

Loganberry, the, 487 ; the origin of the, 
552, 589, 610 

London squares, winter grime in, 90 

Lonicera grata, 371; hispida, 287; 
Maackii, 306 ; trichosantha, 563 

Lowther Castle, the gardens of, 626 

Lupinus polyphyllus, 312 ; the cultivation 
of, 206, 243, 278 

Lycaste Janet Ross, 152 

Lyciura pallidum, 299 

Lysimachia Numraularia, 1 

Lythrum virgatum, 396 

Magnolia Delavayi. 599 ; stcllata. 150, 

183, 206 
Magnolias, notable, in Westmorland, 300 
Mahonia Aquifolium, 194 
Mallows for summer and autumn, pink, 

2 ; pink and white, 407 
Malopes, the, 23 
Manure, vegetable, 153, 171, 194 
Marmalade, Orange, a good recipe, 110, 

134, 158 
Marrows, Vegetable, 492 ; how to store, 

469 
Jfeconopsis heterophylla, 480 ; infor- 
mation about, 335 ; Wallichii, 175 
Melons, how to grow, in frame, 240 ; 

watering, 396 
Mesembryanthemum crassulinum, 422 
Metrosideros (Callistemon speciosus) 

flowering in Surrey. 372 
Michaelmas Daisies, 460, 483 
Microraeles Folqueri, 306 
Mignonette, fragrance in, 443 
Miltonia hyeana F. M. Ogilvie. 273 
Mimosas, AustraUan, 78 
Mint within three weeks, 597 
Montbretia Queen Elizabeth, 447 
Moraine, a miniature, 349 : the, as a 

feature of the small rock garden, 210 
Morris, Sir Daniel, 241 
Mouse-trap, a simple, for use in the 

garden, 577 
Myosotidium nobile, 396 ; in Somerset, 

348 
Myosotis or Forget-me-not, 235 

Narcissus Alice Knights, 152 ; Caedmon, 
225 ; Chrysee, 201 ; Distich. 225 ; 
Marseillaise, 225 ; Mary Copeland, 
225 ; minimus, 419 ; nomenclature, 
186 ; pallidus praecox. 121, 147 ; 
Poeticus Double White, 452 ; Santa 
Maria in New Zealand, 361 ; Treasure 
Trove, 63 ; triandrus, 205 ; \iridi- 
florus, 600 ; \X\dXc King. 241. 225 

Nemesias, 419 

Nepeta Mussinii, 456 ; as a pathway 
edging, 424 

Nerine Rosebud, 496 ; Vivid. 496 

Nerines, 553, 577 ; or Guernsey Lilies, 
545 

Nitrogen, potash and phosi)horus, their 
effect on plants. 172 

Notospartium CarmichaeHa', 371 

Nursery notes; Messrs. J. Cheal and 
Sons, 532 ; Mr. G. Prince, Longworth, 
585 

Nynipha?a ^igantea a trap for bees, 168 

Nvmphasas flowering outsiiU- in Novem- 
ber, 563 

Oak, the, some historical notes, 289 ; 
trees, the. of the world, 351 



Obituary : Ball, C. F., 514 ; Bide, S., 
608 ; Burpee, W. Atlee, 608 ; Chap- 
man, James, 72 ; Forder, James, 
310 ; Hughes, Thomas, 188 ; Matthew 
Campbell, BlantjTe. 430 ; Moncur, 
George Greig, 192 ; Nettieslup, Geor c, 
192 ; Powlev, Joseph. 454 ; Stevenson, 
Mrs., 24 ; Taylor. William, 72 

Odontioda Colmanife, 272 ; lambeauiana 
Nellie, 273 ; Patricia. 104 : Red 
Cross, 330 ; Zenobia leeana. 201 

Odontoglossum Aglaon Orchidhurst 
variety. 272 ; crispum Perfect Gem, 
306 ; crispum Queen of the Belgians, 
273 ; crispum \^ginianum var. Ma- 
donna, 354 ; eximeum Xanthotes 
Gatton Park variety, 32 ; Georgius 
Rex, 354 ; Leviathan, 201 ; Mars. 
176 ; Pemburyi, 566 ; President Poin- 
care. 426 ; Princess Mary, 272. 306 ; 
sandhurstiana, 104; St. Vincent, 306; 
Victory, 518 

Odontoglossums, the Colombian, 413 

Odontoma Charlesworthii Fowler's variety, 
426 

a^^nothera fruticosa Youngii, 323 

Ointment-s, perfumes and cordials, ancient 
home-made, 325 ; soap and perfume, 
home-made, 343 

Olearia Haastii, 420 ; insignis. .306 ; 
stellulata, 1 

Onions in Scotland, 62 

Ononis cenisia, 553 

Onosma taurica. propagating. 264 

Oranges, some good Mock, 139 

OrLhid notes, 461 

Orchids, advice on, 71 : for a cool house, 
602 : some interesting, at Kew, 364 

Orchis, a beautiful native, 438 ; the 
Kilmarnock, 385 

Ourisia coccinoa, some problems of 
cultivation, 340 

Oxiip, the Bardfield, 182 

Oxytropis hybrida grandiflora alba. 306 

Paeonia officinaUs lobata, 351, 373, 396 

Pieonies, Tree, 291 

Palms, the most useful decorative, 175 

Pampas Grass, the silvery, 493 

Papaver fommutatum, 287; nuiicau'e, 
42 ; Perry's Pigmy, 306 

Passiflora, 611 ; eduUs, 576 ; fruits of, 551 

Pathological laboratory at Kew, 383 

Pathway, stone edgings to, 312, 348 

Pea Defiance Marrowfat, 9 

Peach " dug-out," a, 318 ; Peregrine, 
551 ; trees and Vines, 594 

Peaches and Nectarines, cordon, 619; 
stones splitting in, 428 

Pear Louise Bonne of Jersey, 515 

Pears, hardy Prickly, 103 ; some reliable, 
594 

Peas, a recipe for botthnp, 348 ; and 
Phloxes, trials of, at Wisley, 440 ; 
cultivation of, 8 ; protecting from 
mice, 83 ; sowing, 10 

Pelargonium Kathleen Bunyard, 378 

Pelargoniums, show and fancy, 320 ; 
treatment of, 96 

Pentstemons, some hints on, 426 

Perennials, effects on, late transplanting, 
390 

Perfumes, how to make, 337, 360, 384; 
and soaps, recipes for home-made, 373 

Pericome caudata, the golden-flowered, 563 

Pests, some insect tree, 212 

Phaceha campanularia, 383 

Philadelplius cahfornicus, 371 ; corona- 
rius Virginal, 383 

Phlomis fruticosa, 43 

Phloxes for spring planting, 134 ; herba- 
ceous, for spring planting, 115 ; twelve 
good, 531 

Phyllocacti, the cultivation of, 215 

Pieris japonica, 157 

Pink King, 335 ; the Sea, or Thrift, 210 

Pinus Armandii, 470 ; Ayacahuite, 587 ; 
with juvenile and mature foliage, 539 

Pit-props, suppUes of wood for, 133 

Plagianthus Lyallii, 4S6 ; flowering at 
Kew, 372 

Plans, two cottage garden, 136 

Planting a carriage drive, 508 

Plants, a rest cure for, 552 ; bedding, the 
pictorial use of, 422 ; changing botanical 
names of, 412, 480, 516, 540, 564 ; dry- 
wall, four good, 37 ; dwarf, for flower- 
beds, 191 ; English and Latin names of, 
585, 598 ; foliage, some good light- 
coloured, 119; for mixed border, 107; 
for old masonry ^valls, 100 ; for the 
water edge, 614 ; herbaceous, thin- 
ning, 205 ; insectivorous, some curious, 
269 ; insects on roots, 61 ; moraine, 
at Floraire, Geneva, 338 ; new and 
rare, 617; -at Vincent Square, 323; 
pot-bound, danger of planting, 87; 
propagating, by cuttings, 116 ; pro- 
pagation of, 42 ; rare native, the exter- 
mination of, 884 ; rock, October- 
flowering, 540 : some simple, for 
edgings, 376 ; the best hard-wooded, 
195 ; undesirable, for rock garden, 77 

Plum Allgrove's Superb, 454 ; Coc's 
Golden Drop, 527, 598 ; Coe's Golden 
Drop and Pear Pit maston Duchess, 
552, 576 ; Coe's Violet White Gage, 539 

Plumbago rosea, treatment of, 47 



The Garden." December 25, 1915.] 



INDEX. 



^^l. 



POEMS — 

"August, 9 p.m ," 420 

" Autumn," 492 

" Nature-Lore," 505 
Poinsettia pulcherrima plenissima, 14 ; 

treatment of, 47 
Pollination of hotliouse plants by bees, 231 
Polyanthuses and Primroses, 365 
Polygala Chamsebuxus, 56 
Polygonum baldschuanicum, 41 
Polypodium Dryopteris plumosum, 477 
Pomegranate, the, 462, 468 ; the dwarf, 

480 
Pond weeds and copper sulphate, 237 
Poplar trees as a commercial asset, 14 
Poplars for avenue, 47 
Poppies, Oriental, 264 ; Shirley, 139, 452 ; 

as cut flowers, 395, 421 ; with blue 
" floweis, 85 ; the Plume, 351 
Poppy, Oriental, Lady Frederick Moore, 91 
Potato, a good close-eating, 584 ; disease', 

467, 550 ; good new maincrop, a, 128 

tubers, growing, from seed, 153 

Warwick Castle, 195 
Potatoes, new, 360 ; in winter, a letter 

from the Front, 421 ; new ticrsas old, 347; 

planting, during July, 335 ; preparing 

for planting, 44 ; some hints on, 128 ; 

two good new, 183 ; wart disease of, 93 
Poterium obtusatum, 426 
Pot-pourri, an old-time recipe, 349 
Pratia repens angulata, 697 
Primrose and Polyanthus, some practical 

hints on cultivation, 308 
Primroses, Evening, 395 ; the growth of, 

230 
Primula Adonis, 225 ; brevifolia, 260 ; 

capitata, 124, 491 ; dell at Clandon, 

395 ; denticulata cashmeriana, 97 ; 

florida, 260 ; gracilenta, 260 ; hardy, new 

and old species, 161 ; Involucrata, 197 ; 

Lady Bird, 306 ; malacoides Rose 

Queen, 104 ; Eeinii, 201 ; sinensis, 25 ; 

tosaensis, 266 ; vincseflora, 241 
Primulas for the woodland, 212 ; some 

beautiful hardy, 195 ; top-dressing, 71 
Prunus Cerasus, 236 ; Chealii pendula, 

201 : davidiana, 43 ; Padus, 241 ; 

persica magniflca, 109 : spinosa flore 

pleno, 181 ; triloba flore pleno, 17 
Pycnostachys Dawei, 61 
Pyiacantha creuulata, 32 
Pyracanthas, the, 570 
Pyrethrums and Delphiniums, 263 ; tlie 

second flowering of, 348 
Pyrns crataegifolia, 311 ; Malu'^ Sargentii, 

273 

Quarry, the old, at Springbum Park, 

Glasgow, 467 
Quercus Ilex, 242 ; Mirbeckii, 73 ; 

pontica, 515 
Quince crop, the, 503 ; the .Japanese, 

utilising uiilts of, 493 

liadium, effect of, on plant lite, 109 

Bald, a culinary, 687 

Ramondia pyrenaica, 357 

Ranimculus cortussefolius, 169; Ficaria, 181 

Raspberry-Blackberry hybrids, 532 

Reader, Frank, a presentation to, 169 ; 
and the horticultural Press, 287 

Recipes, three useful, 373 

Renanthera Storiei, 445 

Reseda alba, self-sown, 336 

Rhododendron intrlcatum, 205 ; maxi- 
mum, 530 ; nobleanum flowering well, 
73 ; olicifolium, 217 ; Vaseyi, 302 

Rhododendrons, planting hardy, 557 ; 
propagating, 228 ; some good garden, 
172 ; yellow-flowered evergreen, 290 

Rhubarb, how to force, 20 ; and Rasp- 
berry cup, a refreshing drink for hot 
summer days, 324 

Ribes laurifolium, 171 

Richardias, golden-flowered, 278 

Rivers, Mr. T. A. H., death of, 395 

Riviera Not«s, 612 

Robinia Pseudacacia, 133 

Hock garden, a Narcissus for the, 482 ; 
annuals for the, 155 ; autumn-flower- 
ing bull2S for the, 609 ; flower, a beauti- 
ful, 65 ; Ixias for the, 505 ; undesirable 
plants in the. 111, 122, 134, 146, 167, 
170, 209, 219, 230, 300 

Rock gardening, 243 ; as represented by 
its votaries, 182, 207 

Rock Roses for sandy soil, 299 

Rockery, an autumn, 396 

Rockets, the single Sweet, 433 

Rockwork, economy of, and garden 
literature, 480 ; the economy of, 386, 
409, 421 

Rome Convention and the horticultural 
Industry, 440 

Romneya Coulteri, 37 

Romulea rosea, 232 

Root-pruning, 33 

Rosa laevigata, 182 ; moschata, 113 ; 
rugosa, 507 ; sertata, 109, 193, 503 ; 
soulieana, 359 ; Vorbegii, 323 

Rose, a fragrant white, 149 ; a good 
combination, 311 ; a great show, 
323 ; Albcric Barbier, 426, 457 



Rose American Pillar, 525 ; American Pillar 
in wet weather, 335 ; Arthur R. Good- 
win, 347 ; A. R. Goodwin as a standard, 
323 ; Betty, 407 ; Blush Rambler 
and Carpenteria, 432 ; Cherry Page, 
338 ; Cissie Easlea, 627 ; Climbing 
White Pet in a cottage garden, 359 ; 
Colcestria, 354 ; Corallina, 529 ; Cupid, 
330, 338 ; Dewdrop, 273 ; diseases, 
492; Earl of Warwick, 564; Electra, 
92 ; Ethel, 520 ; Excelsa, 383 ; Flame 
of Fire, 338 ; Florence Spaul, 338 ; 
Fortune's Yellow, 543 ; Gloire des 
Rosomanes, 432 ; Golden Emblem, 
477 ; good yellow-tinted, 398 ; Hadley, 
421, 496, 515 ; hedges, 523 ; hips, 
wild and cultivated, 517 ; hips, wild, 
recipe for cooking, 456 ; lona Herd- 
man, 539 ; Johanna Bridge, 338 ; 
Lady Bowater, 338 ; Lemon Pillar, 
338 ; maggot, the, 229 ; mildew, a 
few hints about, 445 ; mildew in New 
Zealand, 159 ; Minnehaha, 396 ; Miss 
Rosahe Wrinch, 373 ; Mme. Alfred 
CarriSre, 617 ; Mme. E. Herriot, 455 ; 
Modesty, 477 ; Mrs. F. Dennison, 
601 ; Mrs. John Foster, 518 ; Neige 
d'Avril, 361 ; Paul's Scarlet CUmber, 
273, 338 ; pillars in flower garden, 208 ; 
Prince Charming, 338 ; Princess Mary, 
520 ; prospects of the season, 280 ; 
Queen, 383 ; Queen Alexandra, 338, 
354 ; Queen of Fragrance, 338, 354 ; 
Rambler, Debutante, 452 ; Rambling 
Rector, 408 ; RambUng Sander's 
White, 420 ; RSve d'Or on a stable 
wall, 383 ; Sallie, 338 ; Sander's 
White, 431 ; season in Scotland, 
378 ; some hints for exhibitors, 315 ; 
Souvenir d'EUse Vardon, 320 ; The 
Annual, 201 ; the, garden of Europe, 
522,644; the, prospects of autumn, 484; 
Tipperary, 477 ; Titania, 338 ; trees, 
a handsome gift of, 587 ; Ulster 
Volunteer, 477 ; Wichuxaiana Debutante 
for arches, 433 ; Wichuraiana The 
Farquhar, 467 ; Yellow Bird, 306 
Rosemary, little-known forms of, 56 
Roses, a garden of, 150 ; a garden of 
ever-blooming, 55 ; a new classifica- 
tion of, 465 ; and Pinks, 277 ; autumn, 
in Southern Scotland, 494 ; Banksian, 
14 ; how to flower, 38 ; black spot on, 
535, 661, 576 ; British, of recent 
introduction, 149 ; China, 196 ; covered 
chains for, 480, 504, 516, 528 ; early, 
300 ; Enghsh and Irish in Southern 
Scotland, 51 ; for pillars, 580 ; fragrant, 
523, 540, 565 ; green fly and mildew on, 
62 ; hints on pruning, 107, 141 ; in 
a West Lothian garden, 219 ; in town 
gardens, 41, 112, 131, 177, 237, 284, 
329; in Yorkshire, 459, 475, 520 ; large- 
flowered and Rambler, 328 ; large- 
flowered for arches and pillars, 269 ; 
mildew and green fly on, 169 ; mildew- 
proof, 2, 27, 51, 108 ; Minnehaha and 
Hiawatha, 371 ; mistakes to avoid 
when planting, 67 ; Mme. Alfred 
CarriSre and Carmine Pillar, 336 ; 
Multiflora and Wichuraiana, 393 ; 
newer garden, of uncommon type, 
95 ; notes on, from New Zealand, 
168 ; October, at Kew, 515 ; on 
walls, 521 ; pergolas of, and other 
climbers, 435 ; Pernetiana, 97 ; Per- 
netiana, during 1915, 519 ; pink, and 
Nepeta Mussinii, 335 ; planting in 
early spring, 61 ; Polyantha, Dwarf, 
19 ; preparation of beds for, 518 ; 
pruning the Japanese, 366; Rambler, 
by waterside, 316 ; rust on, 535 ; 
some early, 291 ; some good new, 
525 ; the best in Australia, 311 ; 
the earliest to flower, 316 ; the, of 
autumn, 506 ; the Scotch in beds, 
208 ; under glass, 134 
Royal Horticultural Society, a letter 
from, 441 ; Society's War Relief Fund, 
347 
Rubus arcticus, 242 ; ulmifoUus, 491 ; 

Veitchii, 518 
Rudbeckias Newmani, 624 
Rust, the Plum and Anemone, 300 
Rustic support, an easUy made, 121 

Sage, a beautiful greenhouse, 613 

Saintpauha ionantha, 13 

Salad, a useful winter, 597 

Salvia rutilans, the hardiness of, 452 

Sandwiches, some green, 135 

Sarcococca humilis and S. ruscifoba, 110 

Saxifraga Irvingii, 152 ; lantoscaua 
superba, 400 ; lilacina, 146 ; lingulata, 
188 ; marginata, 294 ; oppositifolia 
R. W. Prichard, 152 ; paradoxa, 
452 ; VandeUii, 201 

Saxifragas, early flowering, 30 ; Mossy, 
turning brown, 36, 62 

Scabiosa caucasica, 656, 588 ; cretica, 597 

Schedules, two 1916 Daffodil, 547 

Schizanthus retusus, 419 

Scolopendrium vulgare crispum specio- 
sum, 543 ; vulgare plumosum, 518 



Scolopendriums, 570 

Screens, trees for, 146 

Sea Buckthorn, birds eating fruits of 
287 ; Pinks as edging to Rose-bedsl 
676 

Seats, concerning garden, 212 

Seaweed as manure, 599 

Sedum spectabUe, 491, 516 ; as a bee 
flower, 551 

Sedums, nomenclature of, 13 

Seed sowing under glass, 66 

Seeds, flower, for the Front, 431 ; for 
soldiers, 322 ; supply of, 11 ; sowing, 
33 

Senecio Clivorum, 515 ; multibracteatus 
Clare Lodge variety, 273 

Shortia uniflora grandiflora rosea, 129 

Show, an American flower, 192 ; Holland 
House, thoughts after, 361 ; spring, at 
Chelsea, 247 ; the Midland DaffodU, 
216 

Shows, schedules and judges, 26, 50, 62, 
87, 99, 110, 123 

Shrub, the Golden Bell, 157 

Shrubbery, replanting a, 394 

Shrubs, choice fruiting, 503 ; for stony 
soil, 179 ; hardy, for roof, 357 ; hints 
on pruning, 108 ; propagating, 491, 
516 ; some beautiful winter-flowering, 
79 ; some flowering, of Australia, 
263 ; some good hardy, 428 ; the 
fruiting of choice, 565 ; treatment of, 
after forcing, 284 ; treatment of 
newly planted, 241 ; two dwarf un- 
common, 85 ; two good yellow-flowered, 
428 ; with fragrant leaves, 68 

Sidalcea Candida, 506 

Silene Hookeri, 389 

Skimmias in perfection, 112 

Snapdragon, the modern, 236 
I Snapdragons, cultivation of, 31 ; for 
[ present sowing, 374, 396 

Snowball Tree, the Japanese, 612 

Snowdrop, Galanthus nivaUs, in grass, 
1 121 

Snowdrops and Winter Aconites, 97 ; 
fungoid disease of, 92 
I Societies, Cottage Garden and Vegetable, 
I Shows, 541 

Solanum cilJatum, 56, 75, 493, 566 ; 
I crispum, 54, 468 ; jasminoides, 455, 480 

Soldanella alpina in London, 2 

Solidago Golden Wings, 527 

Solomon's Seal, how to force, 44 

Sophora japonica, 416 ; viciifolia, 508 

Sophro-Cattlcya Pearl, 566; Syhia, 
447 

Spinach, a hint on cooking, 122 ; New 
Zealand, 181, 265, 278 

Spiraea Aitchisonii, 433 

Spray nozzles, trial of, at Wisley, 121 
I Spring effect, a charming, 205 ; the 
{ fragrance of, 296 

Spruce, the Norway, as a hedge plant, 
I 384 

Squill, the Spanish, 265 

Stachys Corsica and Asperula subcrosa, 
467 

Stachyurus chinensis, 182 

Starworta, the Italian, 558 

Statice latifolia, propagating, by root 
I cuttings, 61 

Stephanotis floribunda, culture of, 394 

Sternbergia lutea, 481, 517; in Scotland, 
I 504 

Stock, Virginian, for the autumn, 335 

Stocks, annual, cultivation of, 126 

Strawberries, planting, 395 ; seasonable 
I work among, 169 ; the cultivation of, 
I 353 

Strawberry season, how to prolong the, 
1 430 ; St. Fiacre, 477 ; Tree, fruits 
I of, 564 

Streptocarpi and their cultivation, 363 ; 
I culture of, 297 

Streptocarpus cyaneus, 193 ; hybrid, 
I 46 

Styrax hemsleyana, 205 

Sun Roses, the, 231, 288 ; white, growing 
I wild, 348 
■ Sunflowers, the perennial, 416 

Sweet Pea Jean Ireland, 354 ; National, 
Society's outing, 359 

Sweet Peas at Castlemilk, 360 ; best 
white, 92 : cream pink, 167 ; for 
garden decoration, 77 ; from cuttings, 
170 ; from cuttings and as standards, 
127 ; new, 366 ; notes on some of the 
newer, 397 

Syringa Juliana, 194 ; Sweginzow, 306 

Tamarix anglica, 342 

Taxus baccata fructu-luteo, 575 

Tbalictrum dipterocarpum, 493 

Thrift, a charming dwarf, 157 

Toad, the, in the garden, 372, 397, 408, 
420 

Tomato plants diseased, 432 

Totley Hall, Derbyshire, 364 

Traveller's Joy, the, as a wayside plant, 
592 

Tree leaves, 445 

Trees and shrubs as screens, 119 ; beau- 
tiful spring-flowering, 160 ; berried, 530 



Trees and shrubs, deciduous, 380; ever- 
green, 380 ; snow on, 49 ; the best 
berried, 482 ; the use of variegated, 380 

Trees, early flowering, two beautiful, 
145 ; our native, and their congeners, 
593, 600, 615, 626 ; Japanese at 
Coombe Wood, 386 ; seedling, 575 

Trollius chinensis, 37 

Tropaeolum speciosum, cultivation of, 68, 
87, 111, 134; tuberosum, 610 

TuUp Bloodstone, 273 ; Bouton d'Or, 
277,312; Bread, 587 ; Comedy, 273 ; 
Empire, 260 ; exhibition and con- 
ference, 267 ; Inglescombe White, 
273 ; Raufmanniana, 157 ; Marconi 
260 ; Mirvana, 260 ; notes, 164, 
279, 289, 468, 485; Satin Gown, 
273 ; show and conference, 215, 
the, in bygone days, 288; Winner, 
260 

Tulipa montana, 176 

Tulips, Darwin and Cottage, in the flower 
garden, 189 ; Darwin, the breaking 
of, 528 ; for forcing, 85 ; late-flowering, 
555 ; May-flowering and Wallflowers, 
327 ; species, in pots, 227 ; that 
flower in May, 508 ; trials of, at Wisley, 
181 ■'■ 

Tweedia cserulea, 567 

Valerian, the Red, 54 

Valeriana Phu aurea, 193 

Vanda luzonica, 566 

Vegetable and fruit crops in Holland, 

416 ; crops, spring manuring for, 117 ; 

crops, the desirability of late, 308 ; 

cultivating for present necessity, 155 ; 

cultivation, a pamphlet on, 193 ; 
Vegetabes exhibiting, 446, 468, 598; 

for sowing during August, 389; 

home grown, and our food supply, 63, 

74, 86, 98, 110, 122, 133, 134, 146, 

159 ; • how to increase supplies, 81 ; 

insect enemies of, 239 ; large, 120, 

266, 312, 337 ; large versus small, 288 ; 

notes on, 11, 46, 104, 165, 213, 261, 

294, 332, 377, 384, 414, 446, 487, 535, 

584; notes on, from seed, 128 ; quality 

in, 183 ; quality in, rersus size, 206 ; 

storing for winter use, 469 ; the DaUy 

Mail Show of, 480, 505; wanted, more 

exhibitors of, 443 
Verbena chamaedrifolia, 510, 628 ; chamse- 

dryoides, 354 
Veronica Traversii, 383 
Veronicas, the, or Speedwells, 434 
Viburnum plicatum in Hampshire, 384 
Viburnums, the, or Guelder Roses, 336 
Vinca difformis, 515 
Vine, a neglected, 511 
Vines, how to prune, 29 ; treatment 

of, in winter, 23 ; ornamental-leaved , 

66 
Viola, a pleasing combination of, 287 ; 

bosniaca, 419 ; bosniaca, the hardiness 

of, 456 ; Papilio, 265 ; septentrioimlis, 

273 ; Rydbergii, 455 
Violas, cultural notes on, 438 ; from 

layers and cuttings, 456 ; the yellow 

rock garden, 273 
Violets, Sweet, 569 
Virginian Speedwell, the giant, 259 
Vitex Agnus-castus, 479 

Wahlenbergia vincaeflora, 340 
Wall Bellflower, the, and Pinks, 223 
Wallflower and Tulip, a beautiful com- 
bination, 241 ; sowing seed, 189 
Wallflowers and their cultivation, 6 ; 

improved, 336 ; in pots, 135 
Wall garden, an inexpensive, 218 
Wall gardens, dry, 602 
Wall gardening, 17 
Walls, rock plants on, 349 
Wasps and fruit, 230, 266 ; destruction 

of, 456 ; war on, 206 
Water Elder, the, 469 ; gardening, 

436 ; Lilies, planting the hardy, 198 
Watering, some hints on, 339 
Waterside, native plants for the, 401 
Wattle hurdles for shelter, 146, 170, 195 
Windflowers, Japanese, 471, 497, 516, 

540 
Wistarias, the, and their cultivation, 

293 
Wood, self-sown, 34 
Wulfenia corintbiaca, how to flower, 266 ; 

the flowering of, 468 

Yucca gloriosa, replanting, 12 



COLOURBD PLATES. 



Rose Princess Mary, 520 
Wallflowers, four good, 5 



VUl. 



INDEX. 



[" The Garden," December 25, 1915. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Acacia dcalbata, 78 

Acer palmatum at Coombe Wood, 387 

AchiUea KeUercri, 540 ; Obristii, 314 

.^sculus parviflora, 436 

Agave americana at Torquay, 555 

Alyssmu spinosum, 303 

Androface sarmentosa, 65 

Anemone blanda at Wisley, 217 ; Japanese, 
Queen Charlotte, 471 ; japonica cristata, 
516 ; nemorosa bosniaca, 211 ; Pul- 
satJUa, a colony of, 181 ; rupicola, 270 

Annuals shown by Messrs. Carter at 
Chelsea, 255 

Antirrhinums at Aldenham, 505 

Apple Alhngton Pippin, 560 ; Bismarck, 
458 ; Bramley's Seedling, 549, 589 ; 
Charles Ross, 459 ; Cox's Orange 
Pippin, 661 ; Crawley Beauty, 532 ; 
Edwin Beckett, 496 ; Gascoyne's Scarlet 
at Aldenham House^ 578 : King cf the 
Pippins, 560 ; Lane's Prince Albert, 
565 ; Newton Wonder, 629 ; E«v. 
W. Wilks, 532; St. Edmund's Pippin, 
561 ; Wellington, 503 

Arbutus Menziesii, 623 ; Unedo, 564 

Arenaria peploides, 365 

Armeria cEespitosa, 167 ; fasciculata, 479 

Asparagus, home-grown, bundle of, 604 ; 
how to plant, 141 

Aster Robert Parker natnraUsed, 483 

Asters, Victoria, a bed of, 103 

Auricula Golden Queen and Myosotis 
Royal Blue at Woodside, Cbenies, 281 

Auriculas and border Carnations shown 
by Mr. James Douglas at Chelsea, 256 

Ball, C. F., portrait of, 514 

BankBia coUina, 611 ; integrifolia, 611 

Bed, a beautiful autumn, 125 

Beeches, an avenue of, 626 

Berberis brevipaniculata, 482 

Birches, Silver, on the outskirts of a formal 
garden, 615 

Bodnant Hall, 583 

Border, an Iris, in a reader's garden, 
588 ; mixed, 140 ; of mixed flowers, 
208 ; of Phloxes and Watsonias, 
115 ; of Phloxes and Pinks, 116 

Borders, flower, 388 ; flower, at St. 
Vincent's Cripples' Home, 360 ; her- 
baceous, at Goodnestone Park, 494 ; 
mixed, 353 ; of mixed flowers, 163 

Boscawen, Hon. John, 632 

Brasso-Cattleya Schroderae Shrubbery 
variety, 129 

Bnmsfelsia undulata, 112 

Bulb farm, a view in Messrs. Bath's, 451 

Csesalpinia Gilliesii, 646 ; japonica, 647 ; 

piUoberrima, 577 
Calceolarias and ScUzauthus, 255 
Camellia reticulata, 73 
Campanula Abundance, 402 ; arvatica 
(acutangula), 378 ; portcnschlagiana, 
90, 223 ; portcnschlagiana and other 
plants at Stratton Park, 271 ; pusilla 
Miss WiUmott, 187 
Candytuft, Gibraltar, a colony of the, 61 
Carnation Daisy Walker, 196, 579 
Carpenteria californica, 432 
Catkins of Aspen, 151 
Cattleya Trianaj Queen Elizabeth, 80 
Centaurea pulcherrima. 111 
Cherry, Morello, a flowering tree of, 
on wall, 28 ; tree, ornamental, 230 : 
wild, 236 
Chicory, plan of forcing bed, 225 
Chionanthus yirginica as a pot plant, 100 
Chionodoxa Luciliae sardensis, 484 
Chrj'santhemum arcticum, 545 ; Aphro- 
dite, 579 ; Phyllis Cooper, 566 
Chrysanthemums, border, 544 
Cistus crispus, 299 ; purpureus, 99 
Clematis montana rubens, 43 ; over 

garden arch, 448 
Clematises at Shiplake Court, 316 
Colchicum speciosum, 472 ; naturalised 

in grass, 447 
Cornus macrophylla at Coombe Wood, 
386 ; Nuttallii, flowers of, 374 ; Nut- 
tallii, tree of, 376 
Coronilla glauca, 300 
Corylus Colurna, shoot of, 151 
Cosmos naturalised bv roadside, 235 
Crinum Powellii in a Wiltshire garden, 

528 
Crinums at Munstead Wood, 19 



Deutzia Vilmorinse, 564 

Dianthus plumarius, 184 ; Spencer H. 

Bickham, 324 
Dictamnus albus naturaUsed in the wild 

garden, 507 
Dimorphanthus mandschuricus variegatus 

in a reader's garden at Claygate, 598 
Dimorphotheca in the grass, 553 I 

Erica australis, flowering spray of, 26 ; 
carnea, 40 ; mediterranea, a colony of, I 
109 

Erigeron glabellus, 335 : mucronatus 
541 ; Quakeress, 575 

Erynginm giganteum, 395 

Escallonia langleyensis, a spray of, 315 

Eucalyptus globulus at La Mortola, 616 ; 
in Kew Zealand, 552 ; Gunnii, a flower- 
ing spray of, 468 

Eucryphia pinnatifoUa, 363 

Euphorbia Sibthorpii at Glasncwn, 408 

Flower garden, lowther Castle from 
the, 627 

Flowers, autumn, at Goodnestone Park, 
495 

Forsythia intermedia spectabilis, 176 

Fotbergilla major, 77 

Foxgloves in the woodland, 603 ; Irises 
and hardy Ferns by a woodland path- 
side, 603 ; white, a colony of, 305 

Fraxinus Ornus, 362 

Freesias, a beautiful group of, 138 

Fruit house at Langley Nursery, 475 ; 
room, interior of Messrs. Bunyard's 
474 ; walls, semi-circular, 628 

Galanthus nivalis, 122 ; Scharlokii, 456 

Garden and cottage, a transformed, 
534 ; Heath, at Wisley, 462 ; spring, 
at Totley Hall, 364; sunk, at Regal 
Lodge, 659 ; the little kitchen, 411 ; 
view in, at Dairy, 457 ; view in small, 
in Berkshire, 399 

Gardens, view of racecourse, in New 
Zealand, 414 

Gentiana ornata, 518 

Globularia incanescens, 423 

Godetia Lavender, 325 

Godetias, Double Rose, 127 

Grevillea juniperina sidphurea, 311 

Gypsophila repens, 49 

Hakea pinifolia, 599 
Hamamelis mollis, 79 
Harriss, E., portrait of, 10 
Harvey, F. W., portrait of, 431 
Heath, the Cornish, at Kew, 581 
Hedychium gardnerianum, 610 
Helleborus niger altifolius, 1 
HemerocalUs Golden Bell, 350 
Horticultural HaU, New Zealand, 23 
Houseleek, Cobweb, in a reader's garden, 

348 
Humogen and Coleus, 607 
Hurdle, a home-made, 146 
Hyacinthus azureus, a colony of, 169 

Iris fllifoUa, 390 ; pallida dalmatica, a 
colony of. 287 ; Siberian, by the lake- 
side at Kew, 533 ; stylosa, 75 

Irises, Japanese, and Gunneras, 341 ; 
Japanese, at Mountains, Witham, 
Essex, 362 

Japanese Windflowers by the lakeside, 

497 
Jasmine, yellow, growing over a cottage 

doorway, 597 
Jeffrey, J., portrait of, 10 



Loganberry, the, 487 
London Pride as edging, 377 
Loosestrife, the Purple, 401 
Lupines and Irises, 246 

MagnoUa stellata, 150 

Mallow, Pink, 2 

Malopes, a border of, 123 

Mawley, Mr. and Mrs. E., portrait of, 521 

Meconopsis Wallichii. 175 

Mesembryanthemum crassulinum, 422 

Michaelmas Daisies, a border of, 461 

Morris, Sir Daniel, portrait of, 241 

Myosotidium nobile in Somerset, 348 

Narcissus Alchemist, 200 ; Bonamy, 
209 ; Caedmon, 234 ; Centaur, 221 ; 
cyclamineus hybrid, 148 ; minimus, 
colony of, 420 ; Mozart, 220 ; Sundew, 
221 ; Whelp, 199 ; White King, 233 

Nepeta Mussinii as an edging. 424 

Nerine Rotherside, 539 

Nymphsea Marhacea rosea, 198 

Odontoglossum Georgius Rex, 354 

Olearia insignis, 301 

Onions, a good bed of, 62 

Orchids shown by Messrs. J. Cs'pher and 

Sons at Chelsea, 253 
Orchis latifoha, 438 
Ornithogalum arabicum, 464 
Osmanthus Delavayii, 232 



growing, 



Kew, a spring scene at, 194 ; a view in 

the hardy Bamboo garden, 222 
Kitchen garden, a pathway in, 7 

Laburnum, common, 246 

Lachenalias, a vase of, 186 

Lapageria rosea, 667 

Lastrca dilatata in the Rev. W. Wilks' 

woodland garden, 327 
Lathrsea clandcstina, 278 
Laurelia aromatica, flowering shoot of. 

218 
Lavender as an edging, 6 ; bushes, 372 ; 

harvest in a reader's garden, 420 ; 

hedge in a Surrey garden, 449 
Leptosiphon densiflorus hybridus, 25 



Crocus in grass at Kew, 158; pulchellus Lilacs and hardy shrubs, eltcctivc'grouD- 



albus, 527 

Cup, Barr, new silver, for Dattodils, 164 
Cyclamen Coum, a beautiful colony of, 

101 ; pseud-ibericum, 133 
Cytisus ncoparius sulphureus, 67 

Daffodil Olympia, 443 

Dalfodils naturalised under trees, 473 

Dahlia Sappho, 477 

Daphne Arbuscula, 260 

Davidia involucrata, flowering shoot of, 

145 
Delphiniums and Foxgloves, 

Pinks, 398 ; in a border 

plants, 102 ; in pots, 275 



511 : and 
of mixed 



ing of, 88 ; at Bletchley Park, Bucks, 
89 

Lilies, Arum, flowering by the waterside, 
614; Plantain, 407 

Lihum auratum, 4 ; in a reader's garden, 
492; Brownii, 15; candidum, 16; 
colchicum, 51 ; dav\iricum luteum, 39 ; 
giganteum, 76; at Castleford, Cliep- 
stow, 396 ; Henryi, 498 ; Martagon 
album, 52 ; Parryi, 499 ; regale, 27, 
606 ; sulphureum grown by a reader in 
British Columbia, 541 ; testaceum, 
64, 654, 595 

Lily, Bdadonna, in a border of fragrance. 
625 



Pteonia officinalis lobata, 351 
Pampas Grass \vith Cedar of 

in background, 493 
Passiflora edulis, 551 
Pathway, stone edgings to, 312 
Pea Defiance Marrowfat, 9 
Peaches, interesting method of 

at Glynde, Sussex, 318 
Pear Marguerite MariUat as a cordon, 594 
Penjerrick, a -s-iew in the gardens at, 162 
Pergola, Italian, at Stratton Park, 272 
Pernettya mucronata, 609 
Phlomis fruticosa, 114 
Phlox, a well-flowered, 134 
Phloxes, a border of, 531 
Pink, a seedling, with fringed petals, 

185 ; with plain edges, 185 
Pinks as an edging, 277 ; as edging to 

pathway, 376 
Pinus Armandii, 470 ; Ayacahuite, 587 
Pittosporum Colensoi pot-bound, 87 
Plagianthus Lyallii, a spray of, 486 
Plan showing planting of "carriage drive 

borders, 608 
Plans, two cottage garden, 136 
Plant, a winter-flowering, for the green- 
house, 599 
Plants, foliage, in an AustraUan garden, 
372 ; raised from seed, shown bv Messrs. 
Sutton at Chelsea, 254 
Polyanthuses at Woodside, Cbenies, 280 
Polygonum baldschuanicum, 41 
Poppies and summer-house at West- 
brook, 413 ; Iceland, a colony of, 
42 ; Shirley, 85 ; white, as cut flowers, 
139 
Poppy, Oriental, Lady Frederick Moore, 

91 ; Perry's Pigmy, 306 
Potato Prosperity, a good crop of, 128 ; 

sets ready for planting, 44 
Potatoes attacked by wart disease. 93; 

scedUng, a pan of, 153 
Primrose plant, stages of dewlopmcnt, 

230 
Primula Adonis, 224 ; capitata, a colony 
of, 124 ; denticulata, 161 ; d. cashmeri- 
ana, 97 ; involucrata, 197 ; mala- 
coides Rose Queen, 104 ; rosea, 161 ; 
sikkimensis, 181 ; Sino-Listeri, 613 ; 
tosaensis, 266 ; vincjeflora, 242 
Prunus Amygdalus, a young tree of, 

160 ; triloba flore pleno, 17 
Puff-balls, giant, 452 
Pyracanthas, three, 570 

Quercus acuta, 386 



Rose Alberic Barbier on posts and chains, 
I 425 ; American Pillar as a standard, 
I 525 ; Arthur R. Goodwin as a weeping 
standard, 347; Blush Rambler cloth- 
, ing a wall, 432 ; and Lavender at 
Warley Place, 580 ; Caroline Testout, 
a rambling form of, 329; CUmbing 
White Pet in a Berkshire tillage 
359 ; Colcestria, 352 ; Conrad F. 
Meyer, 328; Cupid, 330; Blectra, 
92 ; Ethel, 520 ; Flame of Fire, 523 ; 
garden at Markyate Cell, 568, 569 ; 
Hartley, 516 ; Hoosier Beauty, 204 • 
Lady Bowater, 342; leaf and leaflet 
attacked by rust disease, 535; leaf 
attacked by black spot, 535; Lemon 
Pillar, 339; Mme. Alfred CarriSre, 
149 ; m a Surrey garden, 617 ; Mme. 
Ravary, 55; Mrs. Franklin Dennison, 
601 ; Modesty, 467 ; Pharisaer, a bed of, 
517 ; Queen of Fragrance, 340 ; Queen of 
the Belgians, 207 ; RSve d'Or, 383 ; 
Scarlet Climber, 338; Tea Rambler 
growing over iron chains, 504 
Roses, Bulgarian girls gathering, near 
Shipka, 542 ; gathering, near Kazanlik, 
Bulgaria, 522; shown by Messrs. 
William Paul at Chelsea, 253 ; wichurai- 
ana, by the waterside, 317 ; cUmbing, 

Rudbeckia Newmani in late summer, 624 
Russian monastery at Shipka, 543 

Saintpaulia ionantha, 13 
Lebanon §*''•"' babylonica by the waterside, 600 

Saxifraga Grisebachii, 31 ; Irvingii, the 
new hybrid, 152 ; lantoscana superba, 
400 ; lingulata, 188 ; longifolia mag- 
niflca, 30 ; marginata, 295 ; pede- 
' montana cervicornis, 29 
Saxifrages and other rock garden plants 
shown by Sir Everard Hambro at 
i Chelsea, 251 
1 Scabiosa caucasica, 556 
, Scilla hispanica, 266 
Scolopendrium vulgare crispum speciosum, 

671 
Sea Pinks, a border of, 676 
I Seats, garden, 212, 213 
Sedum anglicum, 366 ; spectabile, 491 
Shrubs, informal groups of, at Shirley, 

Sidalcea Candida Rosy Gem, 606 

Silene Hooked, 389 

Solanum cihatum. fruiting shoots of, 

56 ; crispum, 53 
Solomon's Seal and Lily of the Vallev 

how to force, 44 
Sophora viciifolia, 508 
Stachyurus chinensis, flowering shoots 
of, 182 
I Sternbergia lutea, 481 
Stocks, Admiration, 126 
I Strawberries shown by Messrs. Laxton at 
I Chelsea, 258 
Styrax hemsleyana, a flowering spray of, 
205 
j Sweet Peas arranged for effect, 38 ; 
shown by Messrs. Dobbie at Chelsea, 
I 252 
" Sylva," title page of first edition. 105 
Syringa Juliana, 194 



Renanthera Storiei, 445 

Rhododendron compactum niultifiorum, 
172 ; Fortunei, hybrid of, 173 ; maxi- 
mum, 530 ; Nuttallii, 290 ; ochro- 
Icucum, 291 ; Vaseyi, 303 

Rhododendrons at Bignor Park. 557 ; 
hardy, grouped for effect, 174 

Rhubarb, forcing, 20 

Ribes laurifohum, female flowers, 171 ; 
flowering spray of male plant, 170 

Rock and water garden at Woodside, 
ClH-nies. 282 ; garden at Friar Park, 
210 ; bank at Woodside, Chenies, 
283 ; hybrid Pinks in the, at Friar 
Park, 304 ; Messrs. Kent and Brydon's, 
at Chelsea, 248 ; Messrs. Pulham's, at 
Chelsea, 248 ; Messrs. Wallace's, at 
Chelsea, 247 ; Messrs. Waterer, Sons 
and Crisp's, at Clielsea, 250 ; Messrs 
Wllitelegg and Page's, at Chelsea, 249 

Romulea ro.sea, 232 

Rosa moschata, 113, 519 ; Moyesii, 
fruiting spray of, 517 ; Vorbcgii, 323 



Terrace, step and brick, in a Surrey 
garden, 410 

Traps for mice, 577 

Traveller's Joy on the Pilgrim's Way, 
Surrey, 592 

Tree Heath at Wayford Manor, 288 

Tropseolum speciosum, 68 

Tulip Bowment, 268 ; Lena Light and 
Burgundy, 269 

Tulips, border of, in a reader's garden, 
609 ; Cottage, in an Old EngUsh garden, 
485 ; Darwin, borders of, 529 ; shown 
by Messrs. A. Dickson and Sons at 
Chelsea, 256; shown by Messrs. 
Dobbie, exhibition, 267 



Valerian, the Red, 54 

Vanda luzonica, 563 

Vegetables, collection of, 426 ; shown by 

the Hon. Vicary Gibbs at Chelsea, 257 
Verbena chamiedrifolia, 510 
Veronica spicata, 434 ; s. alba, 436 ; vir- 

ginica, 269 
Viburnum macrocephaluni at Aldenham 

House, 336 ; pUcatum, 384, 612 
Vines, ornamental-leaved, at Aldenham 

House, 66 

Wall, a retaining, 18 ; a rough stone, 
planted with Rock Roses, 591 ; dry, 
portion of, 38; dry, and border, 
244 ; garden, a, in the making, 
690 ; low, a, 602 ; opening through, 
412 

Wallflowers in border at Lockinge, 5 

Water Elder, 469 

Water Lilies in a streamside garden, 437 

Wistaria multijuga, 293 

Yew hedges and herbaceous borders, 593 



^^t_ 




GARDEN. 



-^s*- 




No. 2250.— Vol. LXXIX. 



January 2, 1915. 



NOTES OF THE WEEK. 



To Our Readers. — -With this, the first issue 
of 1915, a new volume commences, and we take 
the opportunity of thanking our readers for their 
valuable co-operation and assistance so freely 
given in the year that has just closed. Interesting 
notes and photographs that have reached us week 
by week, often accompanied by letters of thanks 
and encouragement, especially since the outbreak 
of war, have been very highly appreciated, and 
those published have, we know, 
proved interesting and useful to an 
ever-increasing number of readers. A 
great many readers have also written 
for advice when confronted with garden 
difficulties, and it has been a pleasure 
to assist them in every possible way. 
Our thanks are also due to those who 
have supported our advertisers during 
the war. Nurserymen and seedsmen at 
all times have enough to do to make 
ends meet, and there is no doubt that 
they have suffered severely during the 
crisis. 

A Beautiful Christmas Rose. — The 
flowers illustrated on this page are 
those of Helleborus niger altifolius, 
sometimes erroneousl ynamed H. n. maxi- 
mus. It is, we think, the most beautiful 
of all the Christmas Roses, the large 
flowers being produced on stems a foot 
or sometimes more in height, and usually 
from two to six flowers on a stem. 
These are large, glistening white, with 
a beautiful rose pink blush on the more 
exposed parts, and often open during 
November and continue until well into 
January. The green flower and leaf 
stems are beautifully mottled dull crim- 
son, and altogether it is as handsome 
and useful a hardy plant as one could 
wish for. Its value for cutting diuring 
the winter months is great, as the 
flowers last in good condition for quite 
three weeks when placed in water. We 
are indebted to Messrs. Barr and Sons 
of King Street, Covent Garden, for the 
flowers from which the illustration was 
prepared. 

Olearia stellulata. — Some exceptionally large, 
well-flowered bushes of this fine shrub — the 
whole constituting one great colony — were noticed 
in flower last autumn in the gardens of the Horti- 
cultural College, Swanley, where in the loamy 
soil over chalk it appears to be perfectly happy. 
The plants were 5 feet or so high, the white, 
starry flower-heads arranged in terminal racemes 
so abundantly as to almost cover from view 



the elegant habit of the subject. Occasionally 1 cultural Society, Mr. Chittenden showed an Apple 
we read of its tenderness, though in the gardens j with ten longitudinal grooves of about a quarter 
mentioned it has stood for years without a stain i of an inch deep on the outside, the grooves being 
upon its character. \ lined with russet. He called attention to the 

Dates of Horticultural Shows. — Owing to \ small fruits damaged internally by frost, which 



the war, so many committees of horticultural 
societies have not found it possible to fix the 
dates of their shows for igrs.- Under these 
circumstances we do not consider it advisable 




HELLEBORUS NIGER ALTIFOLIUS, ONE OF THE MOST BEAUTI 
FUL OF ALL THE CHRISTMAS ROSES. 



to publish our usual almanac in which we have 
hitherto given the dates of the principal exhi- 
bitions. These will, however, as far as possible 
be published each week under the heading of 
" Forthcoming Events." We shall be glad if 
secretaries will kindly send us dates, when decided 
upon, for that purpose. 

Frost Damage to Apple. — At the last meeting 
of the scientific committee of the Royal Horti- 



he exhibited earlier in the year, and pointed out 
that the grooves corresponded with the position 
of the primary vascular bundles which had been 
injured by frost. These bundles in the specimen 
exhibited still showed signs of the 
damage, and the failure to grow normally 
was no doubt due to the interference in 
the sap flow brought about by this injury. 
An Attractive Plant for the Bog 

Garden. — The majority of people are 
familiar with the well-known Creeping 
Jenny (Lysimachia Nummularia) and its 
decorative value for many situations, 
but few know Henry's Loosestrife (Lysi- 
machia Henryi), a charming evergreen 
species from North-West China and of 
recent introduction. During the summer 
it is one of the most beautiful plants in 
the bog garden, where it delights to 
ramble about over the damp, cool soil in 
full sun, branching as it grows, bearing 
its golden yellow, cup-shaped flowers in 
large clusters almost hiding the plant, and 
remaining in bloom for a long time. As 
a carpet to Lobelia fulgens it is very 
effective. It appears to be perfectly 
hardy, and is very easily increased by cut- 
tings put in now, by seed, or by divisions. 
Fraudulent Booksellers. — The 
British Gardeners' Association is bestir- 
ring itself over the fraudulent book- 
sellers who seem to have been particularly 
active of late. The usual procediure is 
for a traveller to call on young gardeners 
and induce them to pay a sum ranging 
from 5s. to a guinea as a first instalment 
for some important gardening work ; or 
else, on the understanding that the 
vendor will send the whole work, which 
he has been able to obtain cheaply, for 
about a quarter of its value. Needless 
to say, the books never reach the young 
gardener, nor does he see the plausible 
traveller again. A variation of the procedure is an 
offer to purchase such works as Nicholson's " Dic- 
tionary of Gardening," which are taken away under 
the promise to remit the amount by return of post. 
The secretary of the British Gardeners' Association, 
with a view to putting a stop to the practice, will 
be glad to hear from anyone who has been 
victimised in this way. His address is Ulysses, 
Fortune Green, London, N.W. 



THE GARDEN. 



[January 2, 1915. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

{The Editor is not responsible for the opinions 
expressed by correspondents.) 



Banksian Roses. — If in what I wTote you 
about Banksian Roses, page 604, issue December 19, 
1 said Fortune's Yellow, it was a slip, I meant 
Fortune's Banksian. — F. G. Duttcv. 

Soldanella in Bloom in London Metropolitan 
Area. — You may be interested to know that a plant 



grow in almost any good garden soil, and the 
position, so long as it is open, does not matter 
much. They must, however, have ample space 
in which to develop. The plant illustrated was 
nearly two feet in diameter. One of the most 
charming garden pictures I have ever seen was 
composed of these pink Mallows growing between 
white Japanese Anemones, and I pass on the hint 
for others. — A. B. Essex. 

Cuttings with Heels. — This is a very interesting 
subject. I fully agree with your correspondent 
" H. P.," page 594, issue December 12, in his 



of Soldanella alpina, which I collected in the Alp 

when on a holiday In June, 1913, is now proudly j remarks resp;cting cuttings severed just below a 
showing two nodding mauve bells in my garden joint in the case of soft-wooded plants. Such 

cuttings root freely, and make rapid growth 
afterwards. Few cuttings of this kind inserted 
in August and Septemb^r in cool soils, and in 



here. You will note that the vagaries of 
our climate have been too much for the 
Soldanella clock, for it evidently has mistaken the 
dry autumn for an alpine winter, and the present j spring or even late in the winter in a gentle bottom- 
torrential showers for February " fill dykes." I | heat, fail ; but I prefer in the autumn to put in 




A SINGLE PLANT OF PINK MALLOW. A VERY BEAUTIFUL HARDY ANNUAL. 



am endeavouring to keep up the illusion as long as 
possible by protecting the treasure by means of a 
"Sunbeam" Trap. — James Latham, Hurslwood, 
Wood ford Green. 

Pinli Mallows for Summer and Autumn 

Effect. — Although the pink Mallows are among 
the most useful and beautiful of all hardy 
annuals, one does not find them in many 
gardens. Why this should be so I have never 
been able to understand ; and now that seeds will 
soon be ordered, the accompanying illustration 
will, I hope, induce many other readers to include 
in their list an order for a packet of seed. The 
plant illustrated was one of a himdred or so that 
were raised from seeds sown in the open the first 
week in April last year, and from the middle of 
June until well into September they gave us a 
wonderful display of their pink or rose coloured 
blossoms. For cutting we found these ideal. 
So far as my experience goes, these Mallows will 



cuttings of Roses and many kinds of evergreen 
and deciduous shrubs which possess a slight heel. 
If properly inserted and attended to, they result 
in very fine, sturdy specimens. — Shamrock. 

Mildew-Proof Roses. — Having found that 
certain Roses are attacked by mildew in one 
locality and immune in another, that in some 
soils the pest is more prevalent than in others, 
and that newly planted Roses are less liable to an 
attack than established plants, there is nothing 
more to say except that the grower whose 
enthusiasm does not carry him sufficiently far 
to spray once a week with Abol or some other 
preventive — if there is one — had better leave 
the ranks of the faithful and take to Chrysanthe- 
mums or Carnations, or might I suggest Sweet 
Peas. Spraying once a week is one of the pleasures 
of Rose culture. What credit is due to a rosarian 
who has no pests to overcome, no difficulties to 



of the cult. If you require a mildew-proof Rose, 
plant Gloire de Dijon. Perhaps someone has 
seen this old friend badly mildewed ; if so, let 
us have particulars. — John W. Hicks, 4, Wellington 
Terrace, Sutton Coldfield. 

Funkia subcordata alba odorata.— Some three 

years ago, in September, a London firm exhibited 
in Edinburgh a plant of this Funkia in flower. 
The plant attracted me, being the only pure 
white Fimkia I had seen. Its fragrance and 
its late flowering also weighed with me, so I 
piu-chased a plant. Judge of my disappointment, 
however, when I say that, though I planted it 
under conditions where Fimkias and hardy plants 
generally thrive well, it has not yet produced a 
single bloom, and, instead of developing, the plant 
has hardly held its own. I should be glad to know 
if any other readers of The Garden have 
tried this Plantain Lily, and, if so, with what 
result. — Charles Comfort, Midlothian. 

Ginkgo biloba or Maidenhair Tree.— It was 
good to see an illustration of this unique tree in 
the pages of The Garden, in which you did well 
to call attention to its ornamental qualities and 
its distinct nature. With regard to this latter 
feature it stands out quite alone, for there is not 
a single tree in cultivation that can for one moment 
be compared with it. The popular name of the 
Maidenhair Tree is a very appropriate one, as the 
leaves greatly resemble in shape the pinnules of 
that popular Fern. The scientific name of Ginkgo 
cannot, however, be viewed in the same light, 
for it is at best such an awkward soimding word 
as to lead one to think that Salisburia adiantifolia 
would have been much the better. Great interest 
is attached to this Ginkgo, from the fact that 
though it now stands quite alone, yet fossil remains 
have been discovered in systems that were in 
process of formation at a remote epoch of the 
earth's history, and which serves to prove that 
the genus is of astonishing antiquity and that the 
first appearance of its ancestral form antedates 
that of any other existing tree by coimtless ages. 
It has long been ciiltivated by the Chinese and the 
Japanese in the neighbourhood of their temples, 
but it does not appear to have been discovered 
anywhere in a wild state. A notable autiuun 
feature in this country is the clear yellow tint 
assumed by the decaying leaves. — H. P. 

The illustration of this tree in The 

Garden for December 19, page 607, does not 
present the characteristic form and is taken from 
a small inferior specimen. There are, at Cobham 
Hall, Gravesend, two specimens, either of which 
is nearly three times the size of the Kew example 
illustrated. The branches are semi-drooping 
through their whole length ; many lie on the groimd 
and turn up at the points. The trees are about a 
century old. They are in a private part of the 
plcasiu-e grounds, and could only be seen by 
permission. It would be interesting to see an 
illustration of them. The Ginkgo has never been 
foimd wUd. It is a survival, and almost a sole 
survival, from early carboniferous ages ; but its 
distribution is a geological question of much diffi- 
culty. There is no doubt it owes its curious 
leaf to existence in an age when evolution had 
not attained to the roimded or curved leaf. The 
specimens at Cobham are believed to be sur- 
passed by very few in the world. — Kursteot. 

How to Plant Crinum Powellii. — In answer 
to " Enquirer," the above plant grows vigorously 
and flowers every year with us ; wliile last summer 
an old bulb eclipsed all previous efforts by yield- 



surmoimt ? These very difficulties are the zest ing three consecutive large spikes. We grow this 



January 2, 1915.] 



THE GARDEN. 



Crinum on a west border, and the planting was from 
4 inches to 6 inches deep. The first three or four 
years after planting, a small mound of ashes was 
placed around the dying neck of the plant when 
a frosty spell seemed upon us ; but during the 
last two very moderate winters no protection 
has been given. Of course, we should not take 
needless risks if severe weather threatened, though 
it is my opinion that this plant is hardier than 
has been supposed, and I would venture to assert 
it would come safely through any winter uncovered, 
with shallow planting, if the situation is warm, 
non-clayey and well drained. Ours is a made-up 
border, and cannot boast of more than r8 inches 
to 20 inches of good soil ; below that depth it is 
clay, and no doubt our plants have reached it. 
The very deep planting advised by some authori- 
ties may be due to the fact that there has been 
some doubt about the hardihood of this Crinum, and 
assuredly deep planting would minimise winter 
risks. Mr. Van Tubergen's directions, though 
seemingly at variance with others, may probably 
be followed with equal success, for they are at one 
with the advice that used to be given by an 
acquaintance of mine in the catalogues of a firm 
now no more. His directions were : Plant in a 
hot place, leaving one-third of their length out of 
the ground, but give plenty of water in summer 
and protection with Bracken, &c., in winter. To sum 
up, it is plain that shallow planting means more 
water in summer, more covering in winter ; deep 
planting, less water and less or no covering. — 
C. T., Ken View Garden, Highgate. 

From experience I can assure " Enquirer " 

he need have no misgivings if he has followed the 
directions of that gardeners' vade mecum, Robin- 
son's " English Flower Garden." For the last 
twenty-five years I have seen Crinum Puwellii grown 
to perfection deeply planted in the garden of a 
relative, and even in my own wretched Surrey 
sand I have grown plants thus with some success. 
It is important to remember when planting deeply 
to give a good depth of rich soil under the bulbs. 
In winter I cover the clumps with a foot of ashes ; 
this is removed in the spring and the plants mulched. 
They have withstood 30° of frost. They should 
be well watered continually in the summer and 
occasionally given liquid manure. If " Enquirer " 
would obtain the results he has seen at Burford, 
I would advise him to have patience and wait, 
and if he has planted his bulbs properly, on no 
account to interfere with them, but leave them 
to establish themselves, which may take a few 
years. — C. B. 

Hardiness of Cyclamen persicum. — I think 
it is usually considered that the Persian Cyclamen 
is a tender subject, and certainly I have hitherto 
had that impression. Now I am not quite so 
confident. Having between two and three dozen 
surplus plants this autumn, I placed them in a 
small cold frame and thought no more about them 
until December 7, when I wished to have the 
pots emptied and housed. On looking into the 
frame, every plant was perfectly fresh and healthy, 
although on several occasions we registered to" of 
frost, and no protection other than the sash was 
afforded. I have retained three of the plants 
to note how they wUl now thrive in a greenhouse. — 
C. Blair, Preston House Gardens. Linlithgow. 



FORTHCOMING EVENT. 

January 5. — . Royal Horticultural Society's 
fortnightly Meeting and Exhibition, Vincent 
Square, Westminster, i p.m. to 6 p.m. 



SOME HARDY LILIES.— I. 

OF all the plants cultivated in British 
k gardens, there is no genus in which 
I so much disappointment is in- 
' curred — none upon which so much 
money is wasted — as the Lilies. 
If there were no remedy for this^ 
if these plants were really intractable — then 
the only sound advice to be oflered to the amateur 
would be to leave them alone. But whereas the 
nature of the mischief which wrecks so many hopes 
requires only to be understood in order to overcome 
it, the following notes are offered by one who, 
having undergone repeated failures during long 
years of endeavour, has been led by the counsel 
of an experienced friend into the path of success 
with some species. 

The difficulties in cultivating Lilies arise mainly 
from two sources. First, although the genus is 
a smaU one compared with many others, contain- 
ing, so far as is laiown at present, only between 
seventy and eighty true species, these species 
exist in a natural state under widely differing 
conditions of soil, temperature, moisture, exposure, 
&c. ; wherefore any attempt to cultivate them 
must end in disappointment, imless provision be 
made to meet their requirements in those respects. 
Secondly, with the exception of a few species 
long established in this country, such as the 
Madonna, the Orange, the Tiger and the common 
Martagon Lilies, the vast majority of bulbs offered 
for sale have been imported from distant lands, 
and arrive in such a condition of impaired vitality 
as renders them most vulnerable by disease or 
decay. The rootlets, delicate in some species, 
fleshy in others, either have been deliberately 
shorn off by the packers (as is usually done to 
bulbs exported from Japan), or have dried up 
and become functionless dtu'ing transit. Each 
year tens of thousands of Lily bulbs, purchased 
in this enfeebled state, either are planted in the 
autumn in the open border, where they are expected 
to survive the drenching of a British winter, or 
are bought at the spring sales and set out at once 
to provide a summer display. Such treatment 
of dormant bulbs ensures disaster. Of those 
planted out in the autumn, many are never seen 
again ; they simply rot in the ground. Those 
that survive may tlirow up flowering stems from 
material garnered under a foreign sun ; but in 
nearly every instance it is a swan song. In the 
second season their place will know them no more. 
The only chance of prolonging the lives of 
imported bulbs is to treat them as invahds, keeping 
them in hospital during six months or a year 
after their arrival. On no accoimt should they 
be planted out in the open at once. Each bulb 
should be placed in a 6-inch or 8-inch pot and 
kept in a cold frame till the pot is full of new roots. 
Imported bulbs, especially those from Japan, 
are too often infested with mites, or with the 
deadly fungus Rhizopus necans, to destroy which 
they should be dipped in a i per cent, solution of 
salicylic acid and dusted with sulphur before 
potting. Some charcoal or wood-ashes should 
be laid over the drainage before filling the pot 
three-quarters of its depth with soil suitable to the 
species, mixing in ground lime for those that 
like it, and scrupulously withholding it from those 
that dislike it. 

Bulbs treated in this manner after arriving in 
the autumn will probably be found in the following 
May to have sent up more or less vigorous 
shoots. This behaviour on the part of base- 



rooting Lilies — that is. Lilies which send out root; 
only from the base of the bulb, like the common 
Orange Lily, L. croceum — is a sign that they have 
benefited by the rest. If, therefore, the pots are 
found to contain fresh, healthy roots, the bulbs 
may be planted out carefully in the place where 
they are intended for permanence ; and, be it 
remembered, permanence is of cardinal import- 
ance in Lily culture, all species more or less resenting 
disturbance, some of them intensely. Do not 
be disappointed if the display in the first season 
of flowering comes far short of expectation. The 
bulbs have passed through the crisis of removal, 
which imposes a severe strain on their vitality ; 
indeed, prudent gardeners will not allow the 
more sensitive species to flower in their iirst season, 
but will remove the buds so that the whole stream 
of nutriment shall be diverted to the bulb. This 
sacrifice of a year's blossom will ensure' ample 
compensation in following seasons. 

Stem-rooting Lilies — that is. Lilies which, like 
L. auratum, send out roots around the base of 
the stem as well as from the base of the bulb — 
require more cautious treatment. The appear- 
ance in spring of a strong shoot sent up from a 
bulb potted in the previous autumn must not 
be interpreted as proof that the Lily is ready to 
take its place permanently in the open. If the 
contents of the pot be carefully turned out, it will 
probably be found that such roots' as it contains 
are those sent out from the base of the new stem 
only, and that there are no basal roots whatever, 
showing that the bulb is expending the material 
gathered in the previous summer, without replacing 
it with fresh nourishment. The stem will grow, 
fed primarily from the bulb, and secondarily b\' 
the roots it has itself sent out. There will be a 
fair, perhaps a fine, display of blossom ; but when 
that is over and the stem dies, the bulb will have 
disappeared. The only safe treatment, therefore, 
of stem-rooting Lilies in their first season is to 
fill up the pots with soil, plunge them in the 
open air in a place where the bulbs will be pro- 
tected from scorching sun, and remove the flower- 
buds so soon as they become visible. Drastic 
discipline this, and to the amateur accustomed 
to deal with such facile subjects as Narcissus. 
Crocus and the like, all these preliminaries may 
seem fussy and superfluous ; but in the treatment 
of Lilies success with this matchless genus brings 
a reward rich enough to indemnify one for extra- 
ordinary trouble. 

Having experienced the usual result of 
unintelligent attempts to coax certain Lihes 
into permanent vigour, having met with mucli 
discouragement and failure, and, after many 
seasons, been led to see the error, or some of 
the error of my ways, I can perhaps help other 
amateurs by explaining what are the chief faults 
to avoid in managing those species with which 
I have succeeded. I shaU only presume to write 
about those Lilies of whose behaviour I have had 
personal experience, either in my own garden 
or the gardens of my friends. There are many 
species which I have not yet ventured to handle. 
About these I must keep silence, referring readers 
to the invaluable cultural treatise on the genus by 
Mr. A. Grove — " Lilies," by A. Grove (Present- 
day Gardening, London : T. C. and E. C. Jack, 
price IS. 6d.) — who, had his lot been cast among 
an Oriental people, would assuredly have been 
known to them as the Father of Lilies. In his 
garden near Henley I have seen the delicate novelty 
L. Kelloggii and polyphyllum growing with the 
grace and flowering with the freedom of a common 



THE GARDEN. 



[January 2, 1915- 



Martagon, the stalely L. Parryi swinging its golden 
bells on wands 5 feet and 6 feet high, besides other 
fastidious foreigners which are doomed to perish 
inevitably under less sympathetic and experienced 
hands. What follows, then, is far from being a com- 
prehensive review of the genus ; only a notice of 
some of the more desirable species, with suggestions 
as to their management. Herbert Maxwell. 
{To be continued.) 



LIVING PESTS IN DAFFODIL 
BULBS. 



1WAS very glad to see last autumn, in one of 
the ordinary Daffodil lists, a few words of 
warning from the pen of Mr. Charles E. Shea, 
who, although best known to our readers 
as a great rosarian, is, nevertheless, a grower 
of Daffodils of no mean order. His scientific 
leanings have led him to watch the varied pests to 



I refer to Humerus lunulatus, which at present 
not only troubles the stomachs of the plants, but, 
according to some vigorous letters which appeared 
not a hundred years ago in the pages of a famous 
and learned gardening paper, the heads of the 
unfortunate growers as well. Then there is the 
caterpillar of the swift moth (Hepialus lupulinus), 
which seems to have a partiality for the young 
roots, which it devours, at the same time often 
taking a bit out of the bulb as well. This beast, 
although it is the largest enemy, is the one that 
gives us the least concern, for it is not a very 
widely spread or frequent visitor. I am rather 
disposed to say that the living pests are to be 
feared in the inverse ratio of their size. Thus, first, 
the aforesaid caterpillar. Secondly, the merodon, 
which is not very dissimilar on the wing to a drone 
fly or a honey bee, did not the curious whistling 
noise and the lightning dashes of its flight unmis- 
takably mark it — rather should I have said the 
merodon grub, for it is this dirty white, fat, black- 




LILIUM AURATUM IN A BED OF LOW-GROWING EVERGREEN SHRUBS. 



which, alas ! this flower is now, as it were, the 
heir with a thoroughness and interest which are 
not given to everyone. Hence his cry of " Wolf ! " 
is one to which I respectfully urge my fellow- 
growers to pay the greatest attention. As he 
reminds us, it was once upon a time perfectly true 
to say that the Narcissus had but " one insect and 
one disease " to contend with. To-day, however, 
it would only be a " Turkish wireless " that could 
make such a statement. It is, I very much regret 
to say, quite as bad as that ; for there are five 
living beasts who have found the Daffodil bulb 
in one state or another a toothsome morsel, and 
who seem to be able to impart to succeeding 
generations of their families their acquired taste. 
These are Merodon equestris, as I suppose we 
must begin to call the large Daffodil fly, since 
within the last few years another winged beast 
of lesser proportions and of quite different ways 
has begun to make serious attacks upon our bulbs. 



ended beast that does all the damage, because he 
will at the same time make a house and a meal 
of any Daffodil bulb that he comes across, and his 
mother takes care that there is always one at 
hand when he is bom. Thirdly, there is the small 
Narcissus fly, or, as it is generally spoken of, 
the Humerus. This is like a small, square-headed 
and square-tailed — if I may use such an expres- 
sion — house-fly, almost black in colour, a low-flyer 
and fond of taking fairly long rests on the leaves or 
the ground hard by, when, I presume, the eggs 
are laid, which in time become small-looking 
merodon grubs, only known to us, I fear, when 
they (for there are a good many as a rule) have 
taken possession of a bulb. Fourthly, there is 
the mite — a small, almost transparent, white 
animal, built up of circles like the man in the 
advertisement of Durdop tyres — ivory white in 
colour, with two black spots on the back. I am 
afraid this beast is becoming increasingly aggres- 



sive, and Mr. Shea is a lucky man if his beds are 
immune. Possibly he did not mention it because 
he considered it to be a scavenger that only appears 
when something else has done all the damage — 
when, it may be said, its presence is rather a 
blessing than a curse ; but about this I have my 
doubts. Fifthly, and lastly (as I am not going to 
talk about an animal that worried Mr. Selkirk's 
bulbs at Sydney last year ; for enough is as good 
as a feast, and without bringing this into my 
pot-pourri of living pests I will have enough to 
say), there is Tylenchus devastatrix, which, 
notwithstanding this mouthful of a name, is a 
diminutive eelworm only a twenty-fifth of an 
inch long, and of slender proportions and build, 
but which, I am disposed to think, is the most to 
be feared of all the living crew that I have enume- 
rated. Although it is said by some observers to 
be only a scavenger, I am almost certain that 
this is not so, for the tiny worm seems to attack firm, 
healthy bulbs, entering, as a rule, from the top and 
working its way down the leaf 
courses until it eventually gets to 
the basal plate, which is, to the 
family's taste, the tit-bit of the 
bulb. I have submitted samples 
more than once to two independent 
experts, thinking that their report 
would be " Fusarium bulbigenum." 
But no ; every time, " No trace of 
Fusarium, but plenty of eelworms." 
Both the Board of Agriculture and 
Fisheries and the Department 
of Agriculture and Technical Instruc- 
tion for Ireland have issued leaflets 
on this eelworm ; but whereas the 
former only incidentally refers to its 
presence in " Hyacinths and other 
flower bulbs " as well as in Onions, 
the latter is headed " Eelworms 
in Narcissus Bulbs." It contains 
the result of elaborate trials be- 
tween October, 1912, and November, 
1913, the objects of which were to 
(i) determine whether infection takes 
place in the soil or when the bulbs 
are stored ; (2) its method or 
means of entrance ; (3) how they 
may be killed without injuring 
the bulbs ; and (4) how attacks 
may be prevented. The pamphlet 
is a long one ; but without tra- 
versing all the ground which it 
covers, the results may be summed 
up as follow : By treating lifted 
bulbs with solutions of formalin, copper 
sulphate, cresyUc acid and parafSn it has been 
found that it is possible to kill the worms if 
one of sufficient strength is applied, but that, if it 
is too strong, the cure is as bad as, or worse than, 
the disease, for both worms and bulbs perish. 
Perhaps the best solution would be a 5 per cent, 
one of copper sulphate, in which the bulbs should 
be immersed for from twenty to twenty-four 
hours. This would act as a preventive, and 
possibly as a cure. Migration and infection can 
take place in the soil, but only in the summer and 
warm spring months. When the soil is cold and 
wet, numbers perish and no wandering move- 
ments take place. Treated bulbs are more immune 
from attack than non-treated ones. Formalin is 
of no value as a preventive ; paraffin kills the 
bulbs ; cresylic acid does not penetrate, and in 
consequence is useless. Eelworms, as a rule, enter 
the tissues from the top. 



Supplement to THE GARDEN, January 2nd, 191 5 




FOUR GOOD WALLFLOWERS: 

Yellow: Yellow Phoenix. 
Purple: Ellen Willmott. 
Red ; Fire King. 
Crimson : Blood Red. 



Hudson ^ Kearns, Ltd., PHniers, Londott, S.B. 



January 2, 1915.] 



THE GARDEN. 



It only remains now for me to suggest means of been able to gather quite good blooms on Christmas 
how best to combat the other four pests. The Day. Although the flower-spikes are rather small, 
mite may be dealt with in the same way as the the blossoms possess the true Wallflower fragrance 
eelworm. The caterpillar must be searched for by ' and they are obtainable in yellow and warm brown 
digging up bulbs which have failed to appear colours. Midway between these and the ordinary 
above ground or where the foliage remains stunted Wallflowers comes Yellow Phoenix, so well por- 
and unhealthy-looking. Both the flies may be trayed in the coloured plate presented with this 
trapped by nets during periods of sunshine in the i issue. It does not commence to flower so early 
warm days of May, June and July. (A sharp lad I as the Paris types, but in a mild winter can be had 
soon learns to detect and catch them ; but the i m bloom at Christmas if the seeds are sown in 
work must be done' daily.) As a further means i April. It is a great improvement on the Paris 
of catching them, every bulb before planting : varieties, inasmuch as the flowers and spikes 
should be carefully felt all over, and if any part are much larger and the plants bloom freely in 
seems suspiciously soft, that bulb should be cut spring, long after the others have finished, 
open and examined. In expensive varieties this When we come to the ordinary May-flowering 
must be done very cautiously, as it is often possible varieties, such as Blood Red, we find some diversity 
to save a bulb, or, at leasf, part of it. I am | of opinion as to the best time to sow the seed. 
doubtful if immersion in water before planting , Some good gardeners favour April, and others, 
does any good. I have never tried it myself, for, equally as good, the second week in June. If the 
I am thankful to say, we have but very few, and happy medium between these two is selected and 
the net and examination by feeling the bulbs ; the seeds are so^\-n about the second week in May, 
have always proved efficacious. There is a good good results may be anticipated in nearly all 
accoimt of Merodon equestris in the Royal Hor- i districts. Outdoor sowing, in drills i foot apart, 
ticultural Society's " Daffodil Year Book " for | is best ; and as soon as the yotmg plants are 
1915, which everyone interested in the subject | about two inches high they ought to be trans- 
should read. Joseph Jacob. i planted, i foot apart each way, in soil that is 
__^___^^^_^.^_^.^_^^^^ moderately good but not over-rich and which has 

been trodden fairly firm. With the advent of early 

October, whenspring bedding has to be arranged, the 

plants can be lifted with good balls of soil and roots 

j and planted wherever they are required to flower. 

1 There are now a good many varieties to select 

from. In brown shades Harbinger and Vulcan 

Blood Red for crimson ; Ellen Willmott, 

Yellow Phoenix and Belvoir Castle, 



COLOURED PLATE. 

PI.ATB 1903. 



SWEET LAVENDER IN THE 
GARDEN. 



1 



T is impossible to conceive an English garden 
without Lavender. One never makes a 
new garden without using it in some position, 
and the situations in which it can be grown 
with advantage are ntunerous. An old 
garden without it would lack an essential 
charm. It is one of the few plants that can 
survive the ignominy of being common in these 
daj'S of perpetual craving for novelty ; indeed, 
it is among the few that are sought after because 
they are common. In its way it is as essential 
as grass and paths, and to every garden-lover 
it conjures up a pictmre, perhaps of an old-world 
garden we used to know with its Pinks, Sweet 
Williams, Madonna Lilies, Cloves and Moss Roses ; 
or of some delightful old thatched cottage where 
Jasmine, Honeysuckle and Eglantine entwined 
over the doorway ; or, indeed, of quiet hours in 
cotmtry houses where from January to December 
its fragrance permeated the snowy whiteness of 
household linen. Its popularity is not to be 
wondered at when one considers its many 
attractions — delicious fragrance, easy culture, 
hardy enough to withstand the severest winter, 
a colour that attracts most people and repels 
none, and cool, grey foliage that can be used 
indiscriminately everywhere and in association 
with anything, and at no time of the year 
ugly. 

Quite apart from its value for perfumery, its 
garden uses are numerous. No plant is more 



WALLFLOWERS AND THEIR 
CULTIVATION. 

DURING the next week or two gar- are good 
deners will be busy compiling the purple ; 
I list of seeds to be 
' sown during the com- 
ing spring and sum- 
mer, and it is to be 
hoped that none will be minus a few 
packets of Wallflower. It has been 
a favoiu-ite in our gardens for many 
years, the fragrant blossoms appeal- 
ing to us more strong'.y than many 
of more garish colours that do not 
emit fragrance worthy of the name. 
Fortunately, the Wallflower is easily 
cultivated, and a packet of seed will, 
if properly treated, provide several 
hundreds of sturdy plants. Although 
strictly a perennial, the Wallflower is 
usually treated as a biennial, i.e., the 
seeds are sown one year to provide 
flowering plants for the next, and 
after the blossoming has ceased these 
are discarded. Where, however, they 
are more or less naturalised on rock- 
work or old walls, the plants are 
allowed to remain for many years,and 
treated in this way they are quite in 
keeping with their surroimdings. 

It does not seem to be generally 
kno%vn that there are two distinct 
sections of the Wallflower, one 
characterised by the Early Paris tj'pe, 
and the other by the ordinary Blood 
Red, such as may be found in many 
cottage gardens throughout the 
cotmtry. The Early Paris Wallflowers 

should be sown outdoors early in April, and the yellow ; and Fire King, red. The last named is valuable in the herbaceous border, where it can 
seedlings pricked off lo inches or rather more apart comparatively new, and is one of the most beautiful j be made the grotmdwork of many delightful 
as soon as large enough. These are subsequently Wallflowers that we know. All the flowers from colour schemes. A group of LUium candidum, 
best left alone, and if the fates are kind they will which our coloured plate was prepared were kindly Lavender and pink Antirrhinirais is particularly 
commence to flower in August and continue all supplied by Messrs. Sutton and Sons from their effective ; or Erigeron Quakeress, Pentstemon 
through the winter. For several years we have trial gromids at Reading, Myddelton Gem and a dwarf Lavender, with 




A BORDER FILLED WITH WALLFLOWERS IN THE GARDENS AT LOCKIXGE, BERKS. 



THE GARDEN. 



[January 2, 1915. 



Campanula carpatica Riverslea and C. persici- 
folia alba, forms another pretty combination. 

For clothing banks that are on the dry side it 
is equally useful, and can, if desired, be kept 
trimmed down to a smooth, even surface, provid- 
ing it is cut at the right time ; early September is 
the best, as it gives it time to make sufficient 
growth to look neat all the winter, and with most 
varieties the flowering period is nearly over by 
that time. For low hedges it is also useful, particu- 
larly where a sense of division rather than seclusion 
is necessary. Used as an edging to long, broad 
borders it makes an excellent foil for taller subjects 
behind, and, trimmed once a year, remains quite neat 
without getting too rigid in appearance, the dwarf 
forms being best for this purpose. 
The Best Kinds.— The nomen- 
clature of the varieties at present 
in cultivation appears to be a 
little imdecidcd and to lack autho- 
rity ; indeed, we find the same 
thing cropping up under half a 
dozen different local names and, 
worse still, several distinct forms 
bearing the same name. They 
have all probably originated as 
seedlings from the two species 
described in an old gardening 
dictionary published in 1736, as 
follows : " Lavandula Spica, the 
common lavender, closely branch- 
ing from bottom 2 or 3 feet high, 
small spear shaped entire leaves. 
and from the ends of the branches 
nimierous long erect naked spikes 
of flowers, various shades of colour 
white to blue." The broad-leaved 
form is described as the species. 
There are two varieties given as 
with narrow leaves, blue and 
white, the narrow-leaved varieties 
being described as " in greate 
esteem for putting among cloaths, 
and distilling and other oecono- 
mical uses." There is also a 
dwarf form of the broad-leaved 
species described, which is prob 
ably that shown in the accom- 
panying illustration, and now 
known as Lavandula Spica nana 
compacta. The only other species 
described in the old book as for 
out of doors is the French Lavender 
(Lavandula Stcechas), very branch- 
ing, 2 feet or 3 feet high, very 
narrow, spear - shaped leaves, 
pointed and hoary, opposite, and all 
the branches terminating in short, 
bushy spikes of purple flowers. 
There is also a white variety. 

With reference to those now in cultivation, there 
appear to be three species — Spica and Stcechas, 
originating in the Mediterranean regions ; and vera, 
common to Southern Etu'ope, vera and Spica resem- 
bling each other except in the breadth of the foliage, 
that of the latter being broadest. For some 
reason the broad-leaved is usually offered as 
English, the narrower-leaved as Dutch, the dwarf 
form of Spica as nana compacta ; while a low- 
growing, compact, narrow-leaved variety is com- 
monly called dwarf blue. 

The broad-leaved is much the best for 
hedges or permanent edgings, as it retains its 
foliage well throughout the winter. The narrow- 
leaved form is inclined to get shabby and 



thin through the winter, but recovers well 
with the growing season and flowers longer. The 
foliage is very grey. ' 

Two recipfs for Lavender water are : One pint 
of rectified spirit, 40Z. of distilled water, 3 drachms 
of oil of lavender, 3 drachms of orange-flower 
water, 5 minims of oil of cloves, the same quantity 
of oil of cinnamon, and 4 minims of otto of roses 
mixed and allowed to stand for twenty days ; 
then filtered through magnesium carbonate and 
kept two or three months in bottle before using. 
The other is : Essence of musk, 4 drachms ; 
essence of ambergris, 4 drachms ; English lavender, 
6 drachms ; oil of geranium, 2 drachms ; oil of 
cinnamon, 10 drops ; and spirits of wine, 20 oz. 



FLOWERS IN THE KITCHEN 
GARDEN. 




LAVENDER AS AN EDGING TO A PATHWAY IN MESSRS. R. WALLACE 
AND CO.'S NURSERY. 



An old recipe for Lavender bags is : " Take of 
ye lavender flowers a full half a pound, but no 
stalks therewith. Of dried thyme and minte a 
half an ounce of each, and of common salt one 
ounce, together with one ounce each of ground 
cloves and carraway seeds. Mix quite dry and 
put in silk bags, and it will perfume the drawers 
and linen very nicely." Doubtless there are 
a number of other old recipes in existence, 
and it would be interesting if those readers 
who have them would send them to the Editor 
for publication. We cannot have too much 
information about this fragrant shrub, 
which, I think I may safely say, is a universal 
favourite. G. D. 



THE practice of growing hardy flowers 
in the kitchen garden has been very 
largely extended diuring recent years, 
and in most good establishments we 
now find the main pathways of the 
vegetable quarters bordered on either 
side with bold masses of herbaceous and other 
hardy plants. Indeed, in some kitchen gardens 
that I have seen during the last year or two, 
the flower borders were scarcely inferior to the 
herbaceous borders proper, and lent an air of 
calmness, beauty and interest 
to a portion of the grounds 
that was wont to be con- 
sidered dull and not worthy of 
visitors' attention. Undoubtedly 
the primary reason for culti- 
vating flowers in the kitchen 
garden was to provide plenty 
of material for cutting, so that 
the dwelUng-house might be well 
and freely decorated ; • but by 
devoting the borders alongside 
the pathways to the plants, a 
twofold object is achieved. 
Flowers in abvmdance are always 
available for cutting, and, as 
already stated, the kitchen gar- 
den is rendered beautiful and 
more interesting than it would 
otherwise be. 

Frequently these flower bor- 
ders are arranged in front of 
espalier fruit trees that enclose 
the vegetable plots, and where 
this is so, some care needs to 
be exercised in planting the 
flowers, otherwise the fruit trees 
will suffer. Thus, very tall and 
coarse-growing plants would not 
be permissible, nor would it 
be advisable to plant within 
18 inches or 2 feet of the 
fruit trees, unless no value is 
placed upon the fruit. In some 
few gardens the trees are old 
and are retained solely as a 
screen, their flowers in spring 
adding a touch of colour to the 
borders. In such instances they 
need not be taken seriously into 
account when planting the her- 
baceous flowers, though it must 
even then be remembered that 
the roots of plants and trees 
wiU contest strongly for the 
that the soil contains. The 
most important point to bear in mind when 
forming flower borders in the kitchen garden is 
their width. This will, of course, vary consider- 
ably with the length of the path; but, even 
with the shortest pathway, a border less than 
5 feet wide will not be of much service. When 
it must be of less width it resolves itself into an 
edging, and should be treated as such, a broad 
belt of some hardy annual or low-growing perennial 
being all that is permissible. Generally, however, 
a border 8 feet wide is a useful size, though where 
the pathway is a very long one, and the ground 
can be spared, it may extend another 2 feet. In 
borders of these widths nearly all kinds of 



nourishment 



January 2, 1915.] 



THE GARDEN. 



herbaceous, bulbous and annual flowers may 
be successfully grown, the actual kinds being 
usually determined by the material available. 
The good gardener will see to it that those 
most usefid for cutting will predominate, any 
that are- not suitable for this purpose being 
merely used for fUling temporary gaps or as 
low-growing vegetation for the edges of the 
borders. 

At Aldenham House, where grass verges used 
to edge the flower borders in the kitchen garden, 
they have been replaced by a rough stonework 
edging, medium-sized pieces of sandstone being 
sunk into the ground so as to form excellent 



a good deal of heavy work has to be undertaken 
in the kitchen garden. For this reason, ex- 
cept in gardens of large size, such arches are 
best kept to the pleasure grounds. Rose pillars 
are, however, suitable for the kitchen garden 
flower borders, though even these must not be 
overdone. 

In a few gardens annual flowers only are used, 
so that the borders are practically free of vegeta- 
tion during the winter mouths when heavy work, 
such as the wheeling in of manure or new soil, 
is in progress. There are now so many good annuals 
available that it is not difficult to create a pleasing 
effect with them alone, though where preference 



LATIN NAMES AND GOOD 
RESOLUTIONS. 



As another Xew Year has just dawned, the 
time arrives for making new resolu- 
tions. To the gardener the period 
i of short daylight hours and sodden 
^ or frozen flower-beds is peculiarly 
well adapted for thinking over past — 
well, we will not say failures, but — performances 
that have not come up to our expectations, and for 
thinking out new and fascinating schemes. This 
year it is an occupation full of novel — let us hope 




FLOWERS BORDERING A PATHWAY IN A KITCHEN GARDEN. 



little pockets for many kinds of alpines. Not only 
is the effect pleasing, but the pathways are rendered 
exceedingly interesting over many months of the 
year. The stone is almost hidden by the vegeta- 
tion, which is allowed to scramble over on to the 
pathway and so avoid any impression of formality. 
This informality of edges is well shown in the 
accompanying illustration, though in this instance 
stonework is not used. 

In many gardens rustic arches, clothed with 
Rambler Roses or Clematis, are placed over the 
pathway, and, if properly situated, add considerably 
to the beauty of the garden as a whole. But 
such arches must be of a lofty and broad character, 
ever bearing in mind tliat during the winter months 



is given to the old-fashioned kinds, such as Mig- 
nonette, Honesty, Larkspurs, Stocks, Marigolds, 
Sweet .Alyssums and Clarkias, the borders are 
endowed with greater interest, the fragrance of 
many of the flowers being not the least item in 
their favour. 

The extent to which these flower borders may 
be varied will rest more or less with the taste of 
the owner, always bearing in mind that they are 
an adjunct to, rather than a part of, the kitchen 
garden itself. If this is fully remembered, there 
is no reason why the kitchen garden should not 
be made far more interesting and beautiful than 
is usually the case. This is especially so where 
there is ample space available. H. 



we may say unique — difficulties. Those who cannot 
leave gardens and homes for active service must 
feel it is their duty to keep business running as 
usual during alterations to the map of Europe, in 
horticultiural as well as other affairs. 

Even though dividends dwindle or remove 
themselves to still distant years, as though looked 
at through the wrong end of the telescope, one of 
the best resolutions is to guard against making 
the struggle harder for others. We may do this 
by trying to prevent both the cancelling of orders 
to nurserymen and the discharging of gardeners 
in our employ. We can make a virtue of necessity, 
and take some credit for foregoing our usual spring 
order for rare rock plants from Bavaria or new 



8 



THE GARDEN. 



[January 2, 1915. 



seeds from Erfurt. Perhaps we feel we must 
give up our plans of a summer collecting trip 
in Tyrol or elsewhere, and thereby be able 
to reckon that the amounts thus saved can be 
expended for the benefit .of the nurserymen and 
gardeners of our own country. But even if we 
cannot lay out a penny on plants this year, we can 
still find scope for a good resolution or two in 
work among the plants we have. Do not let us 
be put off by the cynics who tell us hell is paved 
with good intentions ; rather let us reason that 
it could only be broken ones that would be suit- 
able for the purpose, and rely on other authorities 
on the nature of that place who assure us it is a 
bottomless pit, and therefore cannot require 
much pavement ; and, better still, feel assured 
that no good gardener will ever find himself there. 

Therefore I suggest that we should all employ 
our gardening wits and time this year in 
learning more about the names of plants, and 
trying to have all those in our gardens as correctly 
named as possible. The result of this should be 
twofold, a twin fruit like that of an Asclepiad — 
first, on the labels in the borders, and, secondly, 
in our garden catalogues. It is not an easy task 
to carry through, but a wonderfully interesting 
and improving one. Not only is there no royal 
road to the desirable goal at the end of it, but 
I know of no concise, popular book devoted to 
the subject of the nomenclature of plants.* This 
is a pity, as so many people who are fond of flowers 
and gardens find great difficulty in learning and 
remembering the right names of their favourites. { 
" Latin names are so difficult, so ugly or so meaning- ' 
less," they say. " Can't you give it an English j 
name ? " A good friend of mine had a delightfully 
simple plan for curing such a desire in friends to 
whom he was showing his plants. When they 
objected to his naming them in Latin, he wotild I 
give them a nice simple name for each according | 
to its colour. " That is the blue flower," he would 
say, and his visitor would beam, and answer, 
" Now, I call that a sensible name." But when ! 
she (it was most frequently one of the fairer sex) 
had beamed and purred contentedly over a pink 
and a white flower, a second blue flower of quite a 
different family might appear and be objected to, i 
and provide a text for a tiny lesson on the need for i 
Latin scientific names, as the simple English ones 
would not go round even in one well-stocked garden. 

Some English names are charming, and should 
never be dropped when they are reserved for one 
well-known plant, such as Old Man, Pasque- 
flower, Rosemary, Honesty, Marigold and 
Christmas Rose. But others, such as Jacob's 
Ladder and Bachelor's Button, may be applied 
to quite different plants in neighbouring counties ; 
and when one gets beyond the old familiar garden 
favourites of our forefathers and begins to make 
English names for later introductions, and we find : 
ourselves speaking of the variegated-leaved | 
Fortune's Plantain Lily, or Howell's Brodie's { 
Lily, it seems better to become sufficiently familiar 
with the scientific names and call them Funkia 1 
Fortunei and Brodia-a Howellii, and so be intel- I 
ligible to equally well-educated gardeners of all 
other nations. We may decide that it must be 
left as a matter of taste whether or no Latin 
names are uglier than English ones, for it is 
true that 

" Different people have different opinions. 
Some like tpplcs and some like inions." 

* Alcock'e " Botanical Names for Englifb Readers "is 
excellent as far as it Roes, but only deals with Brilifh 
plants. 



That they are meaningless is true in very few cases 
to those who will spend a little brain and time in 
learning to appreciate the knowledge and history 
stored up in their syllables. The study of words 
is such a fascinating occupation that, once begun 
for the purpose of a better understanding of our 
plants, it will almost certainly add an interest to 
our lives. 

There are few more interesting books to one 
who likes to know something of the words he uses 
I than a good etymological dictionary, and I find 
the looking out of one word generally leads one on 
1 to scanning a page or two for others. In fact, I 
agree with a certain old lady who was such a 
J persistent borrower of books that one friend hoped 
to check her zeal by lending her the first volume 
of the Oxford New English Dictionary. However, 
she came back after a week, asking for the next 
volume, and declaring it was a delightful book, 
although it changed the subject so often. I feel 
sure an etymological dictionary of plant names, 
if fairly complete, would also be a delightful book. 
At present we have to hunt about a good deal, and 
the most complete I know of is Nicholson's 
" Dictionary of Gardening." Unfortunately, the 
best edition, with the tw-o supplements, is out of 
print, and becoming scarce. Those fortunate 
enough to possess a complete copy will find their 
New Year resolutions easy and delightful to carry 
out, especially if they study well the list of Greek 
words used as roots in the composition of plant 
names, which forms the latter portion of the 
Pronouncing Dictionary in the first supplement. 
But the less studious may look up their plants in 
the main body of the work only. For instance, 
there is the so-called " Stone-plant." Most of us 
have had its leaves given us by friends returning 
from travels in warm climates. They bid us place a 
stone on the leaf and watch the development of 
young plants from its notched edges. It must 
surely add to our interest in it to know that this 
habit has provided its name of Bryophyllum, from 
bryo (to shoot) and phyllon (a leaf). Or who would 
have guessed, imaided by Nicholson, that the Musk 
Orchis got its name of Herminium from hertmii, the 
foot of a bed in Greek, on account of the knob-like 
shape of the root ? 

But even this delightful authority is sometimes 
less informative than could be wished ; for though 
he tells us Bauhinia is named in honour of the two 
brothers, John and Caspar Bauhin, he omits the 
reason given by Linnaeus, that the twolobed 
leaves of this genus suggested the propriety of its 
bea-ing their name ; or, again, that the name 
Dorstenia for a genus with inconspicuous flowers, 
devoid of all beauty, seemed to the great Swede a 
suitable allusion to the uncouth and antiquated 
book of Theodore Dorstenius, a sixteenth century 
botanist. For such interesting information we 
must go to the " Critica Botanica," a Latin work 
by Linnaeus, little studied nowadays, but well 
worth reading to find such a gem as this : 
" Hernandia, an American plant, the most 
beautiful of all trees in foliage, but furnished with 
trifling blossoms, bears the name of a botanist 
highly favoured by fortune, and allowed an ample 
salary for the purpose of investigating the natural 
history of the Western World, but whose labours 
have not answered the expense." Diascia is 
another disappointment in Nicholson, for it is so 
dull to believe his statement that it is derived 
from " diaskeo. to adorn, on account of its pretty 
flowers," when I know I have read somewhere it 
is from di (two) and askos (a wine skin), a far more 
exciting and illuminating idea, for it is one of the 



very few plants (Sat\Tium, a genus of Orchids 
from the Cape being another) whose flowers have 
two spurs or honey sacs. Still, as I cannot give 
you the reference to this more picturesque deriva- 
tion, you must not regard it as " official." 
Nicholson also gives a translation of even the most 
obvious specific names, such as fragrans, fragrant ; 
grandiflora, large-flowered ; and Greigii, Greig's ; 
as well as more difficult ones like b;ccifera, berry- 
bearing ; linoides. Flax-like ; rhombeum, diamond- 
leaved ; rhodopterygium, rose-winged ; and senile, 
white-haired. So that a careful study of his 
pages would go far to make Latin names familiar 
and interesting to us. The new American 
" Cyclopedia of Gardening," of which two volumes 
are now ready, also makes a special point of 
giving the derivation of generic names, and 
there is a useful list in the first volume of the 
specific names most in use and their English 
equivalents. E. A. Bowles. 



THE CULTIVATION OF 
EDIBLE PEAS. 



THERE is little doubt that Peas pre- 
sented at their best form one of the • 
most popular vegetables cultivated in. . 
this countr}', and, except for those 
who are strictly forbidden by doctor's- 
orders, it is rare indeed to come across 
anyone who has a real dislike (as is too often the case 
with other vegetables) to well-grown, well-cooked ' 
Peas of the best varieties. There are few vege- 
tables which have been improved during the last 
half century as this, so much so that it is n.3 ; 
uncommon thing to hear of Peas being produced- 
in the jopeu in many parts of the country during " 
six months out of the twelve. Where it is 
possible to accommodate the earliest sowings 
under glass, this may easily be prolonged, and at ' 
whatever time fresh green Peas are sent to the 
table, they are boimd to be appreciated. This 
is one of the few vegetables that does not answer , 
readily to the bottling process, and personally 
I always draw a line at these if I know they have , 
been preserved. - 

Not from one point of view only, but in every 
detail- has improvement been carefully studied 
by the raisers of new varieties. Early, midscason 
and late varieties, dwarf, medium and tall, with 
constitution, flavour and appearance, have all 
been carefully brought out, and in every case 
improved upon. If I were asked from which 
point of view I considered the least improvement 
had taken place, I should not hesitate to say 
in relation to the quality of late varieties. I 
have always regarded Ne Plus Ultra, which I 
can remember from my youth, as the best flavoured 
late Pea, but it is in every other way superseded. 
I made a fairly large sowing of it during the 
past year side by side with other well-known 
varieties; but, except feir its one good point of 
flavour, it was easily beaten in every other 
respect. 

Preparation of the Ground. — It is all-important, 
to obtain the best results, that the ground in which 
it is intended to grow the crops dicing the coming 
season be thoroughly and well prepared during 
the winter months, and as far as practicable choose 
a site which has not been occupied by Peas of 
any kind during the previous year. The ground 
should be deeply trenched and well enriched 
with good half-decayed farmyard manure, and 



January 2, 1915.] 



THE GARDEN. 



9 



at the same time add, if possible, a good dressing 
of wood-ashes or burnt garden refuse. For the 
earliest supplies a sheltered sunny position should 
be selected, but for midseason and late varieties 
the more open the position and free from trees the 
better. 

For late sowings an old practice, and a capital 
one, too, is to prepare trenches much in the same 
way as one does for Celery ; and should the soil 
be of an unkindly nature for the growth of Peas, 
it will amply repay to add a quantity of 
fresh compost consisting of charred loam, leaf- 
soil, and a moderate amount of bone-meal, the 
latter being the finest stimulant 
I am acquainted with for the 
growth of this crop. At all 
times allow ample room between 
the rows, as, the more isolated 
these are, the better will be the 
returns ; indeed, I favour and 
practise, as far as possible, 
allowing sufficient distance so 
that other crops may be culti- 
vated between them, which is 
often a distinct advantage to 
both. 

Raising the Seedlings.— During 
the whole of my career as a 
cultivator I have made it a prac- 
tice to raise the earliest and at 
least two successional sowings in 
boxes under glass, planting them 
out in their permanent posi- 
tions immediately the young plants 
are ready. For many reasons 
this plan has a distinct advan- 
tage over that of sowing them in 
the open in the cold, uncongenial 
soil, which it is bound to be at 
that season. The germination is 
much quicker and one has them 
much better under control as- 
regards the seeds and young 
growth being infested with the 
many enemies from which the 
Pea is likely to be attacked, 
such as birds, rats, mice and slugs, 
as well as the outside climatic 
conditions. If carefully planted, 
the plants will not suffer in conse- 
quence ; but, on the other hand, 
will generally do much better and 
crop earlier than if sown in the 
open. One of the commonest 
mistakes made is that of sowing 
and planting too thickly. It is 
imreasonable and against com- 
mon sense to expect the best 
returns when such is the case, 
addition to being a sheer 



black thread shotild 
rows 3 inches from 



be stretched along the 
the surface to ward 
off attacks of birds, which have a particular 
liking for the young succulent growths of the 
p'ants. This will be found to be a most effectual 
method. 

Staking. — Though many inventions have been 
made for supporting the growths, there is 
nothing which has come under my notice to 
equal the old-fashioned plan of using brushy 
Hazel stakes for the purpose, and, when this 
is properly performed, certainly nothing is more 
pleasing in appearance. 




practice, and it is astonishing the difierence it 
will make. All side growths should be removed, 
the points of the leading growths pinched out 
after a reasonable number of pods have formed, 
and all small and deformed pods should be removed. 
In the case of the earliest sowings, it will make 
many days' difference to the first picking if the 
points of the growths are stopped when a fair 
crop is assiured. 

Varieties. — The greatest care should be exer- 
cised in making a selection, and in my opinion 
far too many varieties are grown by most of us. 
Endeavour to make sure of those which do best 
in the locality, and from four 
to six varieties should be ample 
for anyone. Personally, I con- 
sider there is no room for the 
old, round-seeded varieties, and 
I do not attempt to grow them 
now, as these are infinitely 
inferior to the wrinkled Marrow- 
fat varieties, many of which 
are now practically as early. 
Gradus or an improved strain 
of this, such as Early Morn, 
Early Giant and Edwin Beckett, 
can hardly be beaten. The 
latter, as well as being very 
prolific, producing pods of rare 
quality, is also the hardiest in' 
this locality. Duke of Albany 
and Defiance are both especially 
good varieties for succession; 
Following these. Quite Content 16 
the largest-podded variety grown, 
and continues in bearing longer 
than most sorts. It requires 
liberal culture, and must be 
allowed ample room to be a 
success.- As regards the iintst 
exhibition Pea, for late sowings 
I know of none to surpass or 
even equal that fine old variety 
.\utocrat, or Masterpiece, which 
is no doubt a selection from it. 
It seldom fails in any locality, 
and it possesses a most robust 
constitution. 

Elslree. Edwin Beckett. 



A GOOD NEW SECOND- 
EARLY PEA. 



m 



waste of seed. When sowing in 
the open, the seed should be 
placed at regular intervals in a double line 
just as thick again as it is intended for 
the plants to mature, to allow for mishaps 
and failures, and thin out to the desired 
distance when the plants are about three 
inches in height. . Naturally, the taller and 
stronger growing varieties will require more room 
than the shorter ones, and it is pr actically useless 
to attempt to grow the very large-podded varieties 
anything like to perfection when overcrowding 
is indulged in. At the time of sowing, traps 
should always be set and examined every 
morning for the destruction of mice, and 



PEA DEFIANCE MARROWFAT, A NEW SECOND-EARLY VARIETY 
GREAT PROMISE. (Much reduced.) 



Mulching. — This will be found most beneficial 
for early, midseason and Itte varieties alike, 
and I prefer long stable litter to anything else. 
This should be applied just before the plants 
commence to flower. 

Watering. — During spells of drought copious 
supplies of water should be given at the roots, 
both clear and liquid manure, properly diluted, 
and during wet weather occasional applications 
of some approved vegetable manure will have 
very beneficial results. 

Stopping and Thinning.— When extra large 
pods are required, it is essential to put this into 



The accompanying illustration re- 
presents a spray of a new second- 
early Pea that I grew last year 
for the first time, and with con- 
siderable success. This is named 
Defiance Marrowfat, and was 
sent out by Messrs. E. Webb and 
Sons. It attains a height of about 
four feet and is very robust, 
the large, dark green pods being produced mostly 
in pairs. The pods are well filled and the Peas 
when cooked are of a rich, deep green colour, 
while the flavour leaves nothing to be desired. 
The row from which the shoot illustrated was 
taken was sown on April 13, and the pods 
were ready for gathering on July 3. Owing to 
its comparative dwarfness, I consider this an 
ideal Pea for small gardens, and have no doubt 
that it would prove a valuable asset on the 
exhibition table, its large, beautifully shaped 
and well-filled pods presenting a very attractive 
appearance. . "■ 



10 



THE GARDEN. 



[January 2, iqi3 



GARDENING OF THE WEEK. 



FOR SOUTHERN GARDENS. 
Fruit Under Glass. 

Melons.^If ripe fruits are required early in 
May, no time must be lost in sowing the seed. 
Sow singly in small pots, and plunge the pots in 
a hot-bed in a warm, moist house. When 
germinated, keep the young plants quite close to 
the roof-glass to encourage sturdy growth. 

Late Vines. — -There is no advantage in keeping 
late Grapes hanging on the Vines after this date. 
The Vines must now be pruned and given a period 
of rest. If the crops have been unsatisfactory, 




MR. E. H.-\KK1SS. 



it is a sure sign that something is wrong with the 
roots. The present is the most suitable time to 
renovate the borders if they are in need of it. 

Plants Under Glass. 

Carnations. — Plenty of stimulants must be 
given to plants in flower. Clay's Fertilizer, or 
some approved Carnation manure, may be given 
at every alternate watering. Cuttings inserted 
last month should now be ready for potting into 
2j-inch pots. When potted, place them on a 
shelf near the glass, and keep them rather 
close for a few days, after which they must be 
gradually inured to cooler conditions by the 
judicious use of the ventilators. 

Winter - Flowering Pelargoniums.— The cut- 
tings of these may now be inserted. Choose those 
shoots which have been exposed to the light, as 
being most suitable to make strong, healthy plants. 
Fill a number of 3-inch pots with a light, sandy 
compost, and insert three or four cuttings round 
the side of each pot. Water them in and place 
the pots on a shelf in a greenhouse. 

The Flower Garden. 
Calceolaria amplexieaulis. — Tuis makes a very 

effective plant when grown as a standard. For 
this purpose the plants should now be potted into 
3-inch pots, and placed in a moderately warm 
house. Keep the side growths removed till the 
plants have reached the desired height. Later 
on they will require a shift into 6-inch pots. 

The Rock Garden. — During mild spells much 
attention must be devoted to the choicest plants, 
as slugs are capable of doing much damage even 
during the dead of winter. Plants which have 
been protec ed from severe frost must also be 
examined. In some cases it may be desirable to 
partially remove the protecting material during 



a long spell of mild weather. Mice, too, must be 
watched for, as these are known to cause great 
disappointment among lovers of rock plants by 
their destructive habits. After a spell of hard 
frost it may be necessary to press the soil about 
the roots of small, choice plants. 

The Hardy Fruit Garden. 
Planting. — On heavy, retentive ground the 
work of planting may have been considerably 
delayed through the continued wet weather 
during November and December. Lose no time 
in pushing on with this important work whenever 
the soil is in suitable condition. To facilitate this 
work it is a good plan to have a quantity of dry 
soil ready to hand, as this is more readily worked 
among the roots than soil which is wet. Standard 
trees must be securely staked when planted, 
and the rooting area of all newly planted trees 
should be covered with short litter. When the 
gromid is frozen hard, the opportunity should be 
taken to wheel manure to the various places 
where this will be required for the purpose of 
mulching. 

The Kitchen Garden. 

Sowing Peas. — The first sowing of Peas may 
be made as early in the year as possible. The 
ground should have been prepared for this purpose 
in the autumn. It is now generally known that 
Peas require a deeply cultivated soil and plenty 
of rich, well-rotted nianure to have them in the 
best possible condition. The early sowing should 
be made on a warm, sheltered border. Here we 
sow our earliest batch of Peas in boxes, planting 
them out at the foot of a wall facing south. Pilot 
is one of the best early kinds. 

Broad Beans. — Make a sowing of an early 
Longpod kind as soon as the ground is in suitable 
condition. 

Tomatoes. — ^If not already done, a sowing ought 
to be made at once. A small, free-setting kind 
should be chosen for early work. Sow thinly in 
pans, and keep the resultant seedlings growing 
quite near to the glass in a minimum temperature 
of 60°. E. Harriss. 

(Head-gardener to Lady Wantage.) 

Lochinge Gardens , Berks. 

FOR NORTHERN GARDENS. 

Fruit Under Glass. 

Vines in the earliest house will now be swell- 
ing their buds, and may have a slight increase 
of temperature ; but 58° to 60° at night will be 
ample. Evaporating pans must be kept con- 
stantly filled with water, and a fairly humid atmo- 
sphere maintained by giving the vinery a slight 
spraying when the weather is fine. About n a.m. 
is a good time for this to be done, but on dull days 
a damping of the border and pathway will be 
sufficient. 

Peach Tress in the early Peach-house will be on 
the point of flowering, and, before the blossoms 
e.xpand, should be fumigated. This will keep fly 
in check tmtil the fruit is set. Do not try to hurry 
progress with this fruit by the use of too much 
fire-heat at this stage. 

The Kitchen Garden. 

The Seed Order. — This should soon be put in 
the hands of the seedsman, so that the various 
items required this month will be to hand. Delay 
in sowing may cause disappointment later on. 

Rhubarb. — The warm end of a Mushroom- 
house is an ideal place for forcing this, and 
it will be found to grow much more freely from 
now onwards than was the case during December. 
The roots benefit by being lifted and exposed to 
the frost before being brought indoors. 

Onions. — A sowing of this wholesome vegetable 
should be made without delay if large specimens 
are required, .\ilsa Craig is one of the best varie- 
ties for this sowing. The seed must be sown in 
boxes filled with a compost chiefly consisting of 
good strong loam, to which should be added some 
wood-ashes, leaf-mould and sand. Place glass 
over the boxes and put in a house with a tempera- 
ture of 55° to 60°. The ground where these are 
to be eventually planted should be trenched 
deeply, mixing in a liberal dressing of farmyard 



maniure as the work proceeds. If maggot is 
troublesome, a sprinkling of some soil fumigant 
must be applied during the preparation of the 
ground. 

The Flower Garden. 

Antirrhinums. — If these are to form part of 
the bedding scheme, the seed may now be sown m 
boxes and placed in a warm greenhouse. Antir- 
rhinums are divided ,into three groups — tall, 
intermediate, and dwarf. The intermediate section 
is the most serviceable for bedding purposes, but 
both the tall and the dwarf are useful, and should 
be included. 




MR. J. JEFFREY. 

The Rock Garden. ^Several early flowering 
plants, including bulbs, will be showing signs of 
growth, and care must be taken against leaves 
collecting and so encom-aging premature growth. 
Protect with glass those subjects which it has 
been found succumb to our winter rains, uncover- 
ing when the weather is fine so as not to excite 
growth. 

Plants Under Glass. 

House Palms. — Palms that are used for house 
decoration must be changed periodically. A long 
spell in the dry atmosphere of a dwellmg-house is 
injurious to them. Where changing is impossible, 
sponge regularly to keep them healthy and clean. 

Schizanthuses .^Plants sown in August and 
September will now be ready for moving into 
their final pots. Green fly must be kept in check by 
occasional fumigation. 

Cyclamens. — These will now be at their best, 
and their flowering may be prolonged for some time 
to come if helped with some weak liquid manure 
or clear soot-water. 

The Hardy Fruit Garden. 

Pruning and Tying.— .Advantage must be taken 
during fine weather to get the work well forward m 
this department. The wall trees, especially 
Plums, Cherries and Pears, shoidd be pruned and 
trained first, so that they may have their winter 
dressing applied before the buds commence 
to swell. 

Planting. — Where fruit trees are to be planted, 
the ground should receive a good trenching in 
advance, digging in a large quantity of manure of 
a lasting natiure. John Jeffrey. 

(Head-gardener to Sir R. W. Buchanan Jardine, 
Bart.) 

Caslle Milk Gardens, Lockerbie, N.B. 



January 2, 1915.' 



THE GARDEN. 



11 



THE SUPPLY 
DURING 



OF SEEDS 
1915. 



OWING to the war there has been 
k some considerable apprehension as 
I to supplies of seeds during 1915, a 
f good many gardeners anticipating a 
decided shortage. We have there- 
fore been to some trouble to 
ascertain whether there is any ground for such 
fears, and herewith we give the commimi cat ions 
received from the leading seed firms in various 
parts of the country. It will be seen that, although 
a few kinds may be rather scarce, anything like a 
general shortage is not anticipated. One effect 
of the war will, we colifidently hope, be to induce 
seedsmen to grow more seeds in this country than in 
the past, and so render themselves independent of 
German and Austrian supplies. The firms* letters 
that follow are arranged in alphabetical order : 

This year wc are well supplied with all kinds of seeds, but 
probably the position in the trade generally will be that 
there will be a sufficient supply of nearly all kinds of 
vegetable seeds, but a considerable shortage of many kinds 
of flower seeds which arc grown on the Continent. This 
will apply especially to Stocks and Asters and similar seeds, 
which cannot well be grown in Great Britain. — Agri- 
cultural AND Horticultural Association, Limited, 
Long Acre, London, W.C. 

So far as we can tell, the war is going to make very little 
difference, if any, to the supply of seeds in the spring. 
Fortunately, the' season in England was exceedingly good 
for seed-saving, the weather remaining fine well into the 
autumn. We, like several other people, fearing a scarcity 
of many things hitherto drawn from Germany, took the 
precaution to save seeds from our own annuals and 
perennials wherever we could, and the result has been that 
we had exceedingly good crops of Asters and many other 
annuals. In fact, the crop considerably exceeded our 
anticipations, and the seed has proved to be of very fine 
germinating power. With the exception of one or two 
minor varieties, there will be ample supplies of seed to 
carry us through the season.— R. H. BATn, Limited, 

As far as we are personally concerned, we have ample 
supplies of Broad Beans, most varieties of Dwarf French 
Beans and Runner Beans, although Runners are scarce, 
and, indeed, some of the varieties of Dwarf French too. 
Other varieties of garden seeds we are well off for, excepting 
one or two varieties of the late maincrop Peas. In flower 
seeds we were extremely fortunate, in that we had planted 
considerable breadths of Asters, on which we have been 
working and selecting for some years, and have sufficient 
E ngl is li- grown seed of the varieties we offer to fill all 
deraands. We also had, and fortunately so, large breadths 
of Antirrhinum nanum varieties, which, by careful single- 
plant selection, we have managed to get now to breed true 
to colour and type, and have no doubt these will take the 
places largely in many gardens of Asters and Stocks, in 
that they do not suffer from any disease and a; c so free 
flowering that quantities of bloom may be cut from them 
without defacing the bed. A few varieties of Sweet Peas 
are scarce, especially scarlets and salmon orange varieties 
such as Barbara and Inspector. — Alex. Dickson and 
Sons, Listited, " Haidmnrl" Leljast. 



XT is difficult to ?ay definitely at the present time what 
seeds will be available for spring, but with regard to 
vegetable seeds, supplies are now coming to hand from 
growers, and are of a satisfactory character. We think 
the stocks available will be quite sufficient to meet all 
requirements so far as we are at present able to say. 
With regard to flower seeds, some of the choice varieties 
of Asters, Stocks, Balsams, Petunias, Ac, for the supply 
of which we have hitherto been largely dependent upon 
Germany, must this year show a considerable shortage, 
but the harvest of most of the hardy and half-hardy 
annuals has been abundant, and will be quite equal to 
meet the demand. — Dickson«, Chester. 



a fail' average, and we have in several instances been able 
to reduce prices. — Henry Eckford, Wem. 

Natives of these islands need have no fear of any 
shortage of garden seeds in the spring, that is, any 
general difficulty in obtaining supplies. No doubt some 
sorts will be scarce from ordinary natural causes 
unconnected with the war. Kor instance, Onion and 
Carrot seeds were known to be a very poor crop 
before war was declared. One or two kinds of Peas, 
such as Pilot, failed nearly everywhere. The com- 
moner kinds of Runner Beans, which come from 
Austria, will not be available unless unpatriotic people 
import them indirectly ; but, excepting such wholesale 
houses as usually depend largely upon Germany, the 
trade mil get their supplies. B'oreign deliveries from 
other parts of the Continent will be late, and prices will 
necessarily be somewhat advanced because of extra 
expenses in overcoming difficulties of transport, and also 
on account of the fl.naneial situation. But England is 
not, as so many imagine, dependent on Germany for 
seeds. The Germans have cleverly put this view forward 
for acceptance, but as a matter of fact British wholesale 
houses sell large quantities of seeds to Germany and 
Austria. As wholesale seed-growers my firm would not 
worry if Germany ceased supplying seeds to-morrow. 
As seed merchants we should, of course, be extremely 
pleased. Before closing this note, may I express the 
hope that your readers will sow even more seeds than 
U5ual. It will in these times, when people are practising 
all kinds of strange so-called " economies," be a boon to 
hundreds of seedsmen scattered throughout the Idngdom 
who have only the profits of the spring season to look to 
for their means of livelihood. — James Kei.way, Lanyport. 



So far as wo are concerned, we hope to be able to offer 
our customers vegetable and flower seeds much as usual. 
We have made a point of buying home-grown seeds 
wherever possible, and have almost 61led up oiu: reqiure- 
ments. — Dickson, Brown and Tait, Manchester. 

We are having no trouble whatever in getting our supplies 
of flower and vegetable seeds. Of course, it must be kept 
in m in d that we grow a great many things at our seed 
farm at Mark's Tey, Essex, with the result that we do not 
require to buy largely. Furthermore, our supplies are 
coming to hand in good time, and we hope by the time 
this appears to be in a position to fill all orders. — 
DOBBIE and Co., EHn'iurgh. 



On the outbreak of the war no doubt many seedsmen 
were wondering how it would affect the seed supply, 
and much anxiety was felt as to whethpr many of the 
so-called German flower seeds would be obtainable at all. 
I am glad to say that the seed trade has not suffered 
nearly so much as might have been expected. In the 
case of vegetable seeds there seems no great shortage, 
with a few oxceptiom^, such a? Runner Beans and Carrot, 
which are both very scarce and dear. Both of these 
seeds are very largely grown in Germany. I remember, 
when going round Messrs, Dippe Brothers' place in Qued- 
linburg many years ago, seeing a huge field of Carrot seed 
and remarking, " Where on "eartli does it all go to ? " 
'■ Well," said my guide, " we send some seven to ten tons 
every year to one wholesale firm in London." When 
parcel? of that size are not coming into the country, 
it must make some difference. In the case of flower 
seeds, the home growers have been able to supply 
nearly everything usually looked upon as German 
produce. My own firm catalogues some 400 varieties 
of flower seeds, and out of this long list I do not 
think there were six which could not be obtained 
from home growers. This is very satisfactory, both 
for the retail seedsman and the consumer. It is also 
satisfactory from a national point of view, for if our 
English growers can supply seeds equal to those imported, 
a great many thousands of pounds may be kept in the 
country which lias in the past gone abroad. There is 
generally some good comes out of evil, and good will 
certainly come to the seed-growers of this country if 
they will make the necessary effort to meet the extra 
demand for seeds, orders for which have in the past gone 
abroad. I think seedsmen may look forward to the 
coming season hopefully, for seeds, especially vegetable 
seeds, are a necessity, not a luxury ; and in the present 
time of stress it behoves every garden-holder to cultivate 
his plot to the utmost, so as to increase the food supply 
of the uation. Even in the case of flower seeds, they are 
so very cheap that no doubt many will be sown to take 
the place of the more expensive bedding plants, — J. 
Duncan Pearson, Lowdham, Notts. 



We liave not the slightest difficulty in procuring supplies 
of all we require, and we have already made arrange- 
ments for everything. Our seed catalogue is now in the 
printer's hands, and contains everj'thing that we have 
hith3rto offered, together with some additional novelties. 
Except in one or two trifling instances, our prices have 
not been raised in any degree, and the general range 
will be found to be extremely reasonable. We have not 
been dependent upon Germany for several years, and many 
more seeds are now being produced at home than was 
the case a few years ago. The beautiful summer and 
perfect harvest weather of the past year have ripened 
English seeds in such a manner that they can compare 
favourably with any Continental productions. — Pennell 
AND Sons, Lincoln. 



means of replacing them. There seems to be no scarcity 
of Broad Beans, but Kidney Beans, particularly the dwarf 
varieties, seem to be rather short, and prices are consider- 
ably higher than they were last year. Of culinary Peas 
there seems to be a fairly good supply of most varieties, 
although here and there prices are rather higher than 
last year ; yet, on the other hand, a few varieties are 
a little less in price, but take them all round there will 
be plenty of Peas for the coming season. There is plenty 
of such things as Beet and most varieties of Brassicas ; 
but Carrots are very scarce, and consequently prices 
have had to be a little advanced. Onions are also scarce, 
and prices much higher than last yea,r ; but such things 
as Lettuce, Radish, Spinach, Turnips, &c., are much 
about the same as last year. There seem to have been 
fairly good crops of Potatoes, and these prices will be 
about the same as last year. Of course, there is not 
much difference in the supply of flower seeds, apart from 
Asters and Stocks, many of which are usually imported 
from Germany ; but we believe there are strains grown 
in th^ country equally as good, so that we shall get on 
very well without the supply from Germanv. — Robert 
Sydenham, Ldiited, Birmin<jham. 



I do not think the general public need fear a shortage 
of seed for 1915, at least. Crops generally here proved 



It is quite possible that the total amount of seed in this 
country at the present time is below the average, partly 
due to the short yield of many English-grown crops, 
which were affected by the drought, and partly due to 
the fact that many Continental supplies are cut off. We 
are very pleased, however, to say that owing to our system 
of seed production in various parts of the world and oiu: 
methods of calculating and providing for our require- 
ments, we hold abundance of seed of almost everything 
for the coming season, and we have every reason to 
believe that we can meet the ever-increasing demands 
made upon us. — Sutton and Sons, Ueading. 

Although there is a shortage in many crops, we have 
been able to secure what we think will be sufficient for 
our seed trade during the coming season ; but, never- 
theless, there are many varieties that will be short, and 
we fear when the original stock is sold there will be no 



There need be but little doubt that we shall have enough 
of practically every kind of flower and vegetable seed 
that is required. Sweet Pea seed is fairly plentiful, 
and rhere will be over and above what is required. Of 
vegetable seeds we shall have plenty, with the exception 
of one or two lines. Of culinary Peas there is an abundant 
crop in England, and of most other vegetable seeds 
we shall have sufficient. No doubt there will be a shortage 
of some flowers ; but, ou the other hand, of all the leading 
sorts we shall have enough, as there has been an unusually 
heavy crop of flower seeds throughout the country, and 
DO doubt, owing to the war, most growers harvested as 
much as possible. I think I am right in saying English 
growers have placed too much reliance on some seeds 
grown by foreigners, and there is no doubt that we can 
grow a quantity of seed in this country quite equal to the 
Germans, As far as the English grower is concerned, 
in a good many items I believe this war will be a blessing 
in disguise, as our growers will now put their shoiflder 
to the wheel and grow as much as possible at home, which 
must be better for our country, and certainly no worse 
for the English amateur. No" doubt there are several 
flower seeds that cannot be grown successfully in the 
British Isles, but these our Colonies can supply. Colonists 
are taking advantage of this war, and are catering very 
strongly for our trade, which is desirable. — -W. J. XJnwin, 
Histon, Cambs. 



Owing to our unique facilities we do not anticipate 
any difficulty in being able to supply customers with 
their usual requirements of vegetable and flower seeds. 
Potatoes, (fee, during the coming season, with the 
exception of French and Runner Beans, which have 
proved a light crop owing to frost and unsuitable weather 
for harvesting and a shortage of Continental supplies, 
thereby causing a slight advance in the prices of" these 
articles. There are good general supplies of home-gro^m 
seeds of first-rate quality available at about normal 
prices, and our stocks are sufficient to meet the usual 
demands. — E. Webb and Sons, Limited, Wordsley, 
Stourbridge. 



We do not anticipate any serious shortage of seeds owing 
to the war. With the exception of one variety of Bean, 
we have so far met with no inconvenience with any of 
our contracts. Some flower seeds will possibly be scarce ; 
but, generally speaking, horticulturists can rely ujton 
receiving seeds of equal quality to those of an average 
year. The war will, no doubt, foster the business of seed 
cultivation in this country, some of which has hitherto 
been done in Germany and Austria, and in this respect 
we venture to say an improvement in the strains may 
be confidently looked for. — J. C. Wheeler and Son, 
Qloitcester. 



NOTES ON VEGETABLES. 



1FIND from conversations with readers that 
there is a desire for information for a selec- 
tion of varieties. With so many excellent 
sorts noted in catalogues, it is difficult for the 
inexperienced to pick out }he most deserv- 
ing, and, what is important to such culti- 
vators, they need some data when to sow or plant, 
the distance apart, position in the garden, and when 
such crops may reasonably be expected to be 
ready for use. My first notes in The Garden 
for 1 915 shall be devoted to this subject, com- 
mencing with Potatoes, which are the leading 
vegetable for all types of cultivators. 

Potatoes. — First early : May Queen, sprout 
in boxes, plant on a warm south border in rows 
2 feet wide, tubers 15 inches apart, the middle 
of March. If protected from frost, should be 
ready to dig the first week in June. Second 
early : Carisbrooke Castle is a most desirable 



12 



THE GARDEN. 



[January 2, 1915. 



Potato. Its cooking qualities are of the highest 
standard of merit, which not only prevail at 
digging-time, but are equally so throughout 
the winter following. As an exhibition variety 
this Potato should have a bright future. Planted 
in the open in rows a yard apart early in April, 
the tubers should be ready at the end of July. Up- 
to-Date is still the best maincrop Potato, succeeding 
in any class of soil. 

Peas. — The Pilot is an excellent early cropping 
variety. Sown early in March on a warm, shel- 
tered border, pods should be ready to gather 
early in June. Duke of Albany is still the best 
maincrop variety. Sown thinly in rows in an open 
site early in April, the Peas should be ready for use 
at the end of July. Quite Content is also desirable. 
Sowti about the middle of April, they w-ill be ready 
for use the first week in August. As a late Pea 
The Gladstone is an excellent variety. Sown the 
end of May or early in June, good pods should 
be gathered in September. Later sowings will 
give desirable crops in October. 

Broad Beans. — Still the best early sort is 
Broad Windsor. Sown in February on a warm 
border, they should be ready for use in June. 
Leviathan, as its name implies, grows larger in 
the pod than the former ; will be available in 

July- 
Runner Beans are best represented by Prize- 
winner or Ai. Sow in pots or boxes early in 
May. Plant out when 6 inches high in single 
rows. They should be ready for use the second 
week in .August. 

French Beans are still best represented by 
Canadian Wonder. Sow on a warm border the 
middle of May. Gather in July. 

Onions in variety are numerous. Globe Tripoli 
sown early in August gives useful bulbs in June 
and July. James' Long Keeping, if sown in 
the open in drills r4 inches apart, will provide a 
good winter supply of serviceable bulbs. Foi 
exhibition, Ailsa Craig is the best Onion in com- 
merce. Seed sown in boxes under glass in 
January, carefully grown on and planted in well- 
prepared soil, will produce handsome bulbs in 
-August. 

Parsnips. — One variety only is required. Tender 
and True is perhaps the most useful, growing easily 
into roots of good shape and quality. Seed sown 
in the open in February will give handsome roots 
in September. 

Beet is a useful and easily grown vegetable 
or salad. For an early supply Globe is good. 
Sow in April on a warm border ; ready end of July. 
Blood Red as a maincrop variety, sown the first 
week in May, will produce desirable roots in 
August. 

Celery is an important vegetable, having a 
long season ; in use from .August until ."Vpril. Sow 
the first pinch of seed under glass in gentle heat in 
February, and successionally to the end of March. 
Solid White and Aldenham Pink are desirable 
varieties. 

Carrots are in use practically all the year round. 
Sow Early Forcing and Early Gem in frames in 
January. For an outside crop sow Early Nantes 
on a warm border in March, New Intermediate 
for the main crop in the open early in April, in 
drills 15 inches apart in deeply dug soil. 

Broccoli is an important crop, as so much de- 
pends upon the manner in which the plants survive 
a hard winter. For a supply of heads during 
November and the following six months commence 



with Michaelmas White, following with Autumn 
Protecting, Christmas White, Leamington and 
Model for a late supply. From the first week 
to the middle of April is a good time to sow the 
seed, at first in a cold frame, afterwards in the 
open. Any open site with plenty of space between 
the plants will grow good Broccoli. 

Brussels Sprouts are one of the most useful 
vegetables in the garden. Coming into use in October 
and lasting imtil April, it is surprismg what a 
quantity one well-grown plant will produce. Too 
often the plants are not given time to grow and 
develop. The first pinch of seed should be sown 
in the middle of March in a cold frame, the second 
batch in the open in the first week in April. 
Exhibition and Dwarf Gem are the two best 
varieties. 

Cabbage. — EUam's Early is still one of the best 
early varieties, followed by April, Favourite and 
Imperial. Sow seed at the end of July and 
in the middle of August ; plant out in batches 
in rows 2 feet apart, plants i foot, with a view 
to cutting out alternate plants, thus economising 
space. 

Savoys are useful in the autumn, giving a huge 
crop from a small space. Perfection and Early 
Ulm are good sorts. Sow in the open in April 
and treat as Cabbages. 

Leeks are now much more in demand than 
formerly. Prizetaker will supply all that is neces- 
sary. Sow seed in January in gentle heat, and pot 
on as required. Gradually harden off and plant 
out the same as Celery in trenches in single rows ; 
plants 15 inches apart. In use from September 
onwards. Sow seed in the open in March ; 
plant in rows 2 feet apart, making hoJes rj inches 
deep. 

Turnips are an indispensable crop. Early 
White and Red Milan are the earliest. Sow seed 
in a slight hotbed in February, to be followed 
in the open in March. Snowball succeeds by 
sowing repeatedly in small patches from April 
onwards to the end of August. Prizetaker and 
Orange Jelly are desirable for a winter supply, 
sowing the seed in August. 

Vegetable Marrows bear abundantly with a 
minimum of trouble. Moore's Cream so-\vn under 
glass in March will give an early crop if carefully 
protected when put out, to be followed by Long 
White and Long Green, Sown in the open, or, 
better still, in a cold frame in April, these will 
give a supply until frost. 

Cauliflowers are in use from May until succeeded 
by the Broccoli in October. First Crop sown in 
January and February in gentle heat, grown on 
in pots, will give early heads ; followed by Magnum 
Bonum sown in March in a cold frame and again 
in the open in April ; then by Autumn Giant 
sown in September, kept in pots and put 
out early, again sowing in the open in March 
for a late supply. Abundant space should be 
given to Cauliflowers to admit of the leaves 
having free and full development. Varieties like 
Autumn Giant should have the rows at least a 
yard apart. 

In the case of Peas and Runner Beans, the rows 
should rim, if possible, from north to south. In 
this position the plants obtain a more equal share 
of sun than if the rows run from east to west. It is 
a mistake to overcrowd the rows or the plants in 
the rows. It is far better to arrange the rows 8 feet 
or 10 feet apart and grow other crops, as Potatoes, 
in between. 

Swanmore. E. Molyneux. 



EDITORIAL NOTICES. 

Every depaitment of horticulture is represented in The 
Garden, and the Editor invites readers to send in q^uestions 
relating to matters upan ivhich they wish expert advice. 

The Editor welcomes photographs, articles and notes, 
but he icill not be responsible for their safe return. All 
reasonable care, hoivr.ver, ivill be taken, and where stamps 
are enclosed, he will endeavour to return nmi-accepted 
contributions. 

As regards photographs, if payment be desired, the Editor 
a.<iks that the price required for reproduction be plainly stated. 
It must be distinctly understood that only the actual photo- 
grapher or oivner of the copyright ivill be treated with. 

The Editor will not be responsible for the return of artistic 
or literary contributions which he may not be able to use, and 
the receipt of a proof must not be taken as evidence that an 
article is accepted. Publication in THE Garden ivill iUone 
be recognised as acceptance. 

Offices: 20, Tavistock Street, Covent Garden, W.C. 



TO 



ANSWERS 
CORRESPONDENTS. 



RULES FOR CORRESPONDENTS. 

QUESTIONS AND AfiSV/ERS,— The Editor endeavours to 
make The Garden helpful to all readers who desire assist- 
ance, no matter what the branch of gardening may be, and 
ivith that object makes a special feature of the "Answers 
to Correspondents " columns. All communications should be 
clearly and concisely written on one side of the paper only, 
and addressed to the Editor of The Garden, 20, Tavistock 
Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C. The name and address 
of the sender are required in addition to any designation he 
may desire to be used in the paper. When more than one 
query is sent, each should be on a separate piece of paper. 
Plants for naming should be clearly numbered and securely 
packed in damp grass or moss, not co'.ton-icool, and ftowering 
shoots, ivhere possible, should be sent. It is useless to send 
small scraps that are not characteristic of the plant. Letters 
on business should be sent to the PruiJSHER. 



FLOWER GARDEN. 

REPLANTING YUCCA GLORIOSA (!'«««).— The best 
time for replanting would be either September-October 
or March-April, and as the former is past, you had better 
now wait till March, choosing a moist or damp time. Yon 
might well risk the planting of a 3-feet-high specimen, 
the measurement being taken from the ground-level to the 
tips of the heart leaves. Examples of that size usually 
transplant quite well. Points of cultural importance 
include a deeply dug soil, the addition of a little thoroughly 
decomposed manure, and good drainage. WTiere thr 
staple soil is heavy, it should be lightened, warmed and 
drained by adding grit, old celling plaster or finely broken 
sandstone liberally, and with these firm planting should 
be indulged in. We sympathise with you in the loss of 
the old plant, though, if only " blown down " and not 
decayed, it should be possible to raipe it again, fixing it 
in position for the time being by means of cro^^s-stakes 
fasteni^d to the trunk. Even if decayed, the branches 
torn otf from the main stem, with a " hcci " attached, 
and planted against a wall in sandy soil would in course 
of time form roots afresh and afford a link with a time- 
honoured specimen. 

THE GREENHOUSE. 

PROPAGATION OF NEW CHRYSANTHEMUMS 

(M. E. Q.). — The old plants of varieties that art- shy in 
the production of cuttings should be top-dressed with 
a thin layer of loam, sand and leaf-soil in equal propor- 
tions. The plants must be placed in a temperature of about 
60° and the surface soil kept in a moist state, but not 
saturated. If stem cuttings are required, as in the case 
of the fixing of sports, the stems to their whole h',ngth 
should be laid in a sandy compost on a, stage, and, to enable 
this to be done, the pot must be placed firmly and in a 
slanting position. Lightly cover the Joints with the 
soil and lay pieces of brick or stone on the stems between 
them. Keep the compost moist. 

HUMEA ELEGANS AND SKIN IRRITATION (a. /.).— 
It is now a well-recognited fact that Humea elegans 
is dangerous to some people, as, if handled, it causes a 
form of skin irritation which takes some time to allay. 
In our own case we several timcssutfcred from inflammation 
of the eyes, which used to take several days of medical 
treatment to cure. After various suggestions as to the 
cause, the fact was at last noticed that it always came 
on after handling the Humea. This ^vas taken as a 
warning, and never since then have we been troubled. 
Two years ago, however, when in the gardens at Hampton 
Court, wc stopped to admire a fine bed of this Humea, 
standing on the leeward side while a brisk wind was 
blowing. In a few moments the one-time familiar smart- 
ing of the eyes set in, so that we at once moved and the 
worry passed off. It is therefore endent that this Humea 
is, like Primula obconica, a plant which can be dangerous 
to some people. Personally, we have not suffered in 
the hands or arms from touching either of them, but 
the eyes were a ditTerent matter. 



January 2, 1915.] 



THE GARDEN. 



Telegrams : " Frank Cant, Colchester." 
Telephone No. 182. 



CANT'S 

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ROSES 

The Finest Stock 
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COLCHESTER. 



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Webbs' Boxes of Vegetable Seeds 

at 2/6, 5/-, 7/6, 10/., 12/6, 15/-, 21/-. 42/- to 105/- tach. 
Contents on application. 



Webbs' Boxes of Flower Seeds 

at 2/6, 5/-, 7/6. 10/-, 12/6, 15/-, 21/- to 63/- each. 
Contents on application. 



Webbs' Boxes of Vegetable and 
Flower Seeds, 

at 10/6 and 21 '- each. Contents on applicaiion. 



WEBB'S GARDEN CATALOGUE for 1915 

Beautifully illustrated. Post free. 



EDWARD WEBB &SONS(Stourbridge) 

The King's Seedsmen, STOURBRIDGE. ■-'''' 





J^ERRYWEAmRINJU/JB 

v^ ^ IS THE TIME FOR ROSES 

i*lERiRYWEATHEtfS 

of SOUTHWElL. NOTTS. 

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THE VARIETIES ARE :— 

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Countess of Shaftesbury, H.T. Madame T. Delacourt, H.T. 



Duchess of Sutherland, H.T. 
Earl of Gosford, H.T. 
Edward Mawley, H.T. 
George Dickson, H.T. 
Herzogin M. Antoinette, H.T. 
King George V., H.T. 
Louise C. Bres'au, P. 



Madame Herriot, P. 
Mrs. Sam Ross, H.T- 
Mrs. W. H. Rowe. H.T. 
Old Gold, H.T. 
Rayon d'Or, P. 
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Willowmeie, H.T. 



Send for Catalogue No. 12, full of iaie esting information and cheap 
prices, post free on application to 

H. MERRYWEATHER & SONS, Ltd., 

Qarden Soecialists (Dept. 2), SOUTHWELL, NOTTS. 




" Everybody said " 

when the war commenced, 
" Seeds will be dear." 

Now 

Bees Ltd. say 

"Seeds are Cheaper," 

and in evidence offer you, gratis and 
post free, one of the most interesting 
Catalogues they have ever produced, 
and many folk will agree that that is 
saymg a good deal. 

Touching the matter of price, we may 
usefully quote here an extract from the 
" Manager Bees' " Message, which 
occupies page I in Bees 1915 Seed 
List : — 

" Just a word about the Seed offered in 
this Catalogue. It has been procured 
entirely from British, Colonial, French, 
and American growers and merchants. 
Thanks partly to contracts placed 
long before the war broke out, we 
have been able not only to avoid an 
increase in price, but in some instances 
it is possible actually to offer Seeds 
at Reduced Prices. (Garden Peas 
in particular have been greatly reduced ) 

" So far from desiring to secure a 
higher price under the existing conditions, 
we have considered it our duty, as well 
as our pleasure, to give our customers 
every advantage in price which 
the circumstances permit. And while 
we take no credit to ourselves for this 
course of action, we think it only right 
to mention the fact, especially as there 
is evidence, in many quarters, of a regret- 
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appreciate such a spirit, especially 
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of a sound practical nature. 

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unique in that they provide you with 

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really equal to anything offered in the 
land, and 

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In Bees' 1 d.euid 3d. packets of Flower 
and Vegetable Seeds, Sweet Peas, &c. 
you get such seeds as the rich man s 
gardener buys in shilling and half- 
crown packets. 



Write to-day — NOW — for your copy of 
Bees' New Seed List. There are about 2 
dozen colour photos reproduced and hundreds 
of black and white illustrations. 

Send a post-card NOW. 

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175c, Mill Street, 
LIVERPOOL 



VI. 



THE GARDEN. 



[J.\NUARY 2, 1915. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

RAISING SEEDLINGS IN COLD FRAME (Moms).— 
It would be quite impossiliK- to raise Eeedlincs of the 
plants mentioned without a hotbed or flrc-heat in the 
month of February. We do not know of any inexpensive 
book on the subject mentioned by you. 

NAMES OF FRUIT.— S. J. If.— 1, Ilambour Franc ; 
2, Egreraont Eusset ; 3, Lcathercoat Russet ; 4, King 
of the Pippins : 5, Co.v's Orange Pippin. 



SOCIETIES. 



READING GARDENERS' ASSOCIATION. 

The final meeting of the session took place on the 14th uU. 
at University College, by kind permission of the authorities. 
Owing to the inclement weather the attendance was 
somewhat smaller than usual. Mr. A. E. Barnes, vice- 
chairman, presided. " Impressions of the Summer 
Excursions " was the theme for discussion, ten minutes 
b.-in" allowed each speaker. Jlessrs. D. Dore, F. Townsend, 
Loader Blackwcll, Castle and several others gave 
their impressions of Nimeham and Whiteknights, which 
in turn provoked much useful discussion. The nominations 
of officers for 1915, to bo elected at the annual meeting, 
held in January, werc^ taken on this occasion. In the 
Points Competition the following awards were made : 
Class 1. — Mr. F. Townsend, 10! for vegetables ; Mr. E. 
Blackwell, 10 for Primula obcbnica ; Mr. H. Goodger, 
8 for Chrysanthemums. Class 2.— Mr. F. Haines, 8* for 
Apples. 

BIRMINGHAM AND MIDLAND COUNTIES 
GARDENERS' ASSOCIATION. 

The meeting at the .\tliletic Institute on .Monday e\ening, 
llecemter 14. marked the conclusion of t|ie autumn session. 
.Mr C H Herbert presided over a well-attended audience. 
The first item of importance on the agenda was the nomi- 
nation of members to stand for election for the executive 
committee for 1915. This being done, two auditors were 
then appointed for the purpose of auditing the 1914 
accounts. In view of the excellence of their past services 
in this capacity and as a further instance of the society's 
esteem of the splendid manner in which their previous 
audits had been carried out, Messrs. Christie and Palmer 
were a"ain invited to this office. Next {as has been 
the rule of this society for many years past) this flnal 
assembly before the close of the year was designated 
■■ Question Night," and accordingly set apart for 
conversing and deliberating upon questions con- 
cerning horticulture which the members themselves 
mi"ht 'raise. A good number were therefore forthcoming, 
the" principal of" which were of the following nature : 
What is the best date for sowing Mignonette ? Give 
the names of the six best single Chrysanthemums ? Can 
anyone get a Parsnip a yard long and perfect in shape 
from a stitf, clayey soil ? In what temperature are Sweet 
Peas, now 3 inches high, best grown ? Which is the 
correct way to grow Streptocarpus V All queries were 
fully dealt with, the controversial points cleared up, 
and satisfactory answers duly given to the various ques- 
tions. .Afterwards, in moving the closure of the meeting, 
Mr beedman (secretary) announced that the date for 
the annual meeting, presentation of the annual report and 
Iialance-sheet was fixed for January 11, 1915. The 
current amount now in hand for the Prince of Wales 
land is £3 14s. 7d. 

DUMFRIES AND GALLOWAY GARDENERS- 
ASSOCIATION. 

Mr S Arnott, president, occupied the chair at a meeting 
of the Dumfries and Galloway Gardeners' Association, 
which was held in the Wesley Hall, Dumfries, on Decem- 
Ix-r 19. There was a satisfactory attendance. The 
paper for the evening was contributed by Mr. John 
Jeffrey gardener to .Sir llobert W. Buchanan Jardine, 
Bart ' Castlcmilk, Lockerbie. The subject was the 
■ important one of "The Cultivation of the Vine," 4s 
becomes the snbiect . Mr. Jeffrev discussed it in n tbon 



practical manner, giving full details of the attention 
required, the processes to be followed in the treatment 
of the Vine from its propagation onwards until the ripening 
of the fruit, -and the after-treatment of the Vine during 
its resting season. Jlr. Jeffrey explained the methods 
he had found most satisfactory, and his views appeared 
generallv to meet with approval in the spirited discussion 
and questioning which followed. He gave an able and 
appreciated reply to the points raised in these, and was 
accorded a hearty vote of thanks. Among those who 
participated in the discussion were Messrs. Esson, Drum- 
lanrig; Sturrack. Larchfleld Nurseries ; Hunter, of Messrs. 
Barr and Hunter ; Hutchinson, Terrcglcs Gardens ; 
Cameron, Balgrav Gardens ; Frame, Springkell Gardens ; 
Hender-ion, Elmbank Gardens; and Taylor, Brocklehirst 
Gardens. 

A notable exhibit came from Mr. James Henderson, 
Elmbank Gardens, this being several grand specimens 
of Chrysanthemum Niveus in various stages of bloom 
to show the advantages derived from late pinching back 
to induce late bloom. As Mr. Henderson pointed out, 
the examples showed that good blooms could be obtained 
in February. 



OBITUARY. 



W. B. LATHAM. 

It was with the deepest regret that we learned, just 
as our last issue had gone to press, of the death 
of Mr. W. B. Latham, late Curator of the Botanic 
Gardens, Edgbaston, Birmingham, from which 
position he retired in October, 1903. The death 
occurred on Thursday, the r7th tilt., at Leighton 
Buzzard, after a short illness. Mr. Latham was 
bom at Bicknacre in Essex on February 13, 1835. 
His gardening career commenced at Wandsworth 
when he was thirteen years old, and seven years 
later he entered Kew. After a stay of about 
two and a-half years he left in May, 1857, to go 
to Chatsworth, and his next move was to the 
Jardin des Plants, Paris. Returning to England 
after about two years' stay, he gamed further 
experience in nurseries and private gardens, and 



thus became eminently well fitted for the post 
at Birmingham, with which his name and work 
was so long identified. It was in December, 
1867, that Mr. Latham was selected for the position 
from about two hundred candidates. During 
his Curatorship a large range of glass houses 
was built at a cost of £4,000, and the collection 
of indoor plants was greatly increased, also a 
large rock garden was made. Mr. Latham had 
a wide knowledge of plants generally, which he 
was always ready to impart to those interested 
in horticulture, though he made a speciality 
of Orchids and Ferns. In both of these groups 
he raised notable hybrids. He interested himself 
largely in all local horticultiu'al societies, holdmg 
the office of chairman of the Birmingham Chry- 
santhemum, Fruit and Floricultural Society for 
a great number of years. He was also one of the 
pioneers of the Birmingham Gardeners' Mutual 
Improvement Association, and a member of the 
Royal Horticultural Society's Orchid committee 
for some years. He was awarded the Veitch'an 
medal. 



TRADB NOTl 



Bulbs for Late Pl.^ntinp. 
.\tTH0UGU in the ordinary way bulbs should have been 
planted long ago. a number of people have found it im- 
possible to get them in earlier. Providing they have been 
kept well, a good many bulbs will, even if planted now. 
give quite good results, though naturally the flowers will 
be somewhat later and the stems shorter. 3Ir. H. N. 
Ellison, 5 and 7, Bull Street, West Bromwich, sends us 
his special clearance list, in which he offers good bulbs 
at very low prices. All who wish to plant now should 
write to him for a copy of this list, which he will be 
pleased to send post free. 



*#* 7^he Yearly Subscription to Tee Gauties is : Inland, 
O5. Hrf. : Ffirfiijn. H.s\ Orf 



As 
ornuehlv 



BEGONIAS 

for Exhibition, Greenhouse, Bedding, 
Hanging Baskets, etc. Awarded 40 
Gold Medals. 

DELPHINIUMS 



from our unsurpassed Gold Medal Col- 
lection, choicest named varieties in 
strong ground roots. 

OTHER SPECIALITIES: 

Carnations, Cyclamen, Polyanthus, Blue 

Primrose, Violets, etc. 

BLACKMORE & LANGDON, BATH 



HARRIS'S ROSE TREES. 

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or any Tree for 6d. 
Lady Pirrie (Coppery Salmon), Lady Hillingdon (Golden 
Yellow), Mrs. David McKee (Cream), Lady Battersea 

(Cherry Red). Juliet (Rose Pink and Gold), Harry Kirk 
(Yellow), Lyon (Shrimp Pink). Liberty (Crimson), Lady 
Ashtown (Kose Pink). F. K. Druschki (White). Hugh 

Dickson (Scarlet), Geo. C. Waud (Scarlet). 

For other popular varieties, New Roses. Standards. Climbers, 

or Pot Roses, tenJ for my new iltustrjted and descriptive 

Catalogue, post free from — 

E. HARRIS, 

Cyprus Road Nursery, LEICESTER 



THE MOST PERFECT 

FERTILIZER 

FOR 



GREENHOUSES. 
GARDENS. 
' - LAWNS. &= 



N T E D ) 



THE ONLY RELIABLE AND 
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the form of a leaf-miu'd. ready for use at any time, in the same way. and for all purposes that stable manure is put. Goes further (1 cwt. equalling 15 cwls.). gives 

better results, is clean to handle, sweet smellinR. and free from weeds, worms, elc. 
I REPORT OF ROYAL HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.— " Your Patented Hop Manure has been used in the Society's Gardens at W.sley. and I am pleased to 
report that it h.is proved excellent for the flower borders, fruit and vegetables grown both under R'ass and out in the ooen air. (blgnedi w. wilks, secreiari^ 

1 A Beautiful Free Booklet giving full particulars and testimonials, also valuable cultural instructions for Sweet Peas, Roses and Vegetables, sent on receipt 

of post card. BV BEWARE OF IMITATIONS; GENUINE ONLY IN OUR MARKED BAGS. ■«■ 

I Sold in Bacs. 28 lbs.. 2/3; 56 lbs.. 3/8; 1 cwt.. 6/- ; 5 cwts.. 28/9 ; 10 cwts.. SS/- ; we payina carriace to any station in Enaland and Wales. i°jl;''''"S Jsle of Wifllit or by carri^^^^^ 

district (also. In not less than I cwt. lots, by London Boat to Scotland and Ireland). Throuch Nurserj-raen, Seedsmen, and Stores, or direct from the Manufacturers ana rateniees, 



Also -VWAKEt-E-V'S 



OEtOlTNXI OJS.^DEIN' X^XIME:, ai- bushel bag. carriage paid 25 miles. 



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^t^— ss- 



E GARDEN. 



-^g'- 



isl^^ 



s%^ 




No. 2251.— Vol. LXXIX. 



January 9, 1915. 



NOTES OF THE WEEK. 



Apples Wanted for Wounded Soldiers. — 

The Hon. G. Eden, 6, Cromwell Place, London, 
S.W., writes as follows : " If any of your readers 
have got more Apples than they can use, either 
•eating or cooking, they would be very much 
appreciated by the wounded soldiers in the Victoria 
Hospital. Any gifts addressed to the Matron, 
Victoria Hospital, Tite Street, Chelsea, or to me 
here will be gratefully acknowledged." We hope 
those of our readers who can spare fruit will send 
it to either of the addresses given ; our soldiers 
deserye all the gcod things we can possibly 
provide them with. 

Votes for the Gardeners' Royal Benevolent 
Institution. — ^We shall be glad if any of our 
readers who have votes to spare 
for the election of candidates to be 
held on Thursday, January 2r, will 
kindly send their signed voting 
papers to us. We are interested 
in a thoroughly deserving case, 
and all votes received will be 
devoted to the candidate. 

"The Sweet Pea Annual 

for 1915." — This, the official 
organ of the National Sweet Pea 
Society, is one of the most in- 
teresting numbers ever published 
by the society, and should be 
read by all who are interested 
in Sweet Peas. Among those 
who contribute articles are such 
well-known experts as the Rev. 
J. Jacob, Messrs. Thomas Steven- 
son, William Cuthbertson, J. P., 
\'.M.H., W. Lumley Perrier, T. 
A. Weston, S. M. Crow, G. F. 
Drayson, Frank Cuthbertson, T. 
H. Dipnall, E. R. Janes, J. 
Harrison Dick, and Hamilton 
Charnock Mott of New South 
Wales. In addition there is a 
full report on the work of the 

floral committee, an audit of the London show, list ; names of cultivated Sedums, one name being 
of too-much-alike varieties, an up-to-date selection I attached to quite different plants, while identical 



These are growing in 5-inch pots, and each is A Beautiful Flowering Privet. — Ligustrum 
carrying several racemes of flowers. These are ; lucidum is one of the most valuable species of the 
pale lavender in colour, with a conspicuous orange genus. With us it is a large evergreen shrub or small 
eye, and emit a strong fragrance simdar to that tree, but Mr. E. H. Wilson, diuring his travels in 
of honey-comb. The plants under notice have China, met with it forming fairly large trees as 
been grown from cuttings rooted early in the much as 40 feet to 50 feet or even more in height, 
spring, each having its point taken out when As a large, shapely, evergreen bush with rich 
growth was active, so as to induce a bushy habit, glossy green leaves, it is the most handsome shrub 
.Although not particularly sho%vy, they provide of the genus for a lawn specimen. Coupled with 
a welcome and interesting change from the Pelar- ' this, during September it flowers freely, most of 
goniums. Begonias and Carnations that too often the shoots terminating in erect panicles of white 
monopolise conservatories in private gardens at flowers 6 inches or more in length. A good- 
this season. natured shrub, thriving in most soils and situations. 

The Nomenclature of Sedums. — Considerable it is surprising we do not meet with bushes more 
confusion appears to exist in gardens over the frequently in gardens. The year 1794 is given 

as the date of its first intro- 
duction to British gardens from 
China. 




SAINTPAULIA lONANTHA, 
WITH 



A CHARMING DWARF GREENHOUSE PLANT 
DEEP VIOLET FLOWERS. 



of varieties arranged by the floral committee, 
and a report on the so-called "streak" cures 
sent in by vendors for the society to test. The 
Annual is well bound and illustrated, and should 
be on the shelf of every Sweet Pea lover. Copies 
have been sent to members of the society, but 
non-members can obtain them from the secretary, 
Mr. H. D. Tigwell, Greenford, Middlesex, post 
free 2s. each. 

Buddleia officinalis as a Small Pot Plant.— 
In House No. 4 at Kew just now may be seen 
some interesting plants of this Chinese shrub. 



plants are often grown under different names. In 
order to be able, with the help of experts in the 
genus, to straighten out this muddle, the Royal 
Horticultural Society is endeavouring to get 
together at Wisley a complete collection of Sedums, 
and will be very grateful for plants or cuttings to 
grow on for comparison from as many sources 
as possible. Specimens should bear the name 
under which they are known, and should be sent 
by the end of February addressed to The Director, 
Royal Horticultural Society's Gardens, Wisley, 
Ripley, Surrey. 



fA Charming Greenhouse Plant. 

Saintpaulia ionantha, illustrated 
on this page, is one of the most 
useful and easily grown green- 
house plants that we know. It 
may be readily raised from seed 
sown in February or March in 
pans of well-drained sandy soil, 
the seedlings being subsequently 
pricked off and potted up singly 
when large enough. Good loam, 
\\ath some decayed leaf-soil and 
sharp sand, forms a suitable mix- 
ture for the plants to grow in. 
Seedlings raised in early spring 
often commence to flower in 
August, and, if given a warm 
greenhouse temperature, will 
continue well into the winter. The 
blossoms are deep violet in coloiu", 
though they vary in their intensity 
on different plants. There is a 
variety withso- called white flowers, 
but the deep blue is much the 
best. Leaves placed on well- 
drained pots 0/ sandy soil and kept in a close, 
moist atmospher e will easUy root and produce 
an abundance 0* young plants ; hence there 
is no difficulty in obtaiumg a good stock 
once a single plant is available. It was 
first introduced to this country from Eastern 
Tropical Africa in 1893, and deserves to be much 
more widely kno%vn. As will be seen in the 
illustration, its habit is quite dwarf, and for 
that reason it makes an excellent subject for 
placing as an edging to the front of the stage, 
or for a shelf at the bick near the glass, where 
its violet flowers are seen to the best 
advantage. 



14 



THE GARDEN. 



[January 9, 1915. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

{The Editor is not responsible for the opinions 
expressed by correspondents.) 



Chrysogonum virginianum Flowering on 
Christmas Day. — I see I have made a note to 
the effect that this plant was carrying several 
flowers on December 25. True, they were somewhat 
marred by the heavy rains ; but bow brave and 
persistent was the plant to keep flowering so late ! 
Another of its commendable features is its willing- 
ness to thrive in shade or sun, the chief difference 
between the two places being that in the sun 
growth is more restricted and the flowers more 
freely produced. We grow it in the rockery, 
but it will do very well for front positions in 
flower borders. — C. Turner, Highgate. 

Poplar Trees as a Commercial Asset. — 
Hitherto probably one of the least valuable of 
timbers, there appears to be at present a demand 
for Poplar in quantity, this being directly due 
to the effect of the war. It is used largely in the 
manufacture of matchboxes by a veneering 
process, one firm alone in this country using 
nearly a million and a quarter cube feet annuallj'. 
Practically the whole of this comes from Conti- 
nental sources, which are closed at present. 
It is used immediately after being cut, so thai 
if anyone is contemplating the removal of Poplar 
with a view to replanting with better trees, now 
is the time, as with the cessation of the war the 
Russian and other supphes wiU be coming in again. 
The Aspen Poplar is the best for the purpose. — G. D. 
Iris tingitana in Flower at Christmas. — Those 
who were at one of the Royal Horticultural 
Society's meetings at Vincent Square just before 
Christmas of 1913 may remember some fine 
flowering plants of the above Iris shown by Messrs. 
Barr and Sons. I had some bulbs from them in 
September last, which were at once potted and 
placed in a cold frame till about six weeks ago, 
when they were brought inside, into a temperature 
of 50°, which was gradually increased to 60°. 
They are now (at Christmas) making a brave 
show, flowering just at the time they were 
required, and I see great possibilities in them as 
a winter cut flower, as they have plenty of sub- 
stance and are far more lasting than I. stylosa 
(unguicularis), now flowering, and, in addition, 
they have the fine length of stem required for 
cutting and market uses. I understand from 
Mr. Rudolph Barr that the bulbs, aftet being 
collected, are grown in the South of France, where 
they thrive and ripen well, and show no signs of 
disease. Given a regular and well-maintained 
supply, it is reasonable to prophesy a future for 
them.— F. H. C. 

A New Poinsettia. — The bestowal of an award 
of merit on a new Poinsettia, which was done on 
December 15 last, is the first to which that honour 
has been given. True, two first-class certificates 
have been gained, but that was in the days when 
these honours were more freely given than they 
are now. The last time was in March, 1877, 
when a first-class certificate was bestowed upon 
Poinsettia pulcherrima plenissima, a form on which 
greet hopes were centred, but were never realised. 
In this the flower bracts are far more numerous 
than in the ordinary kind. The new-comer 
which has just received an award of merit is P. 
pulcherrima rosea, the blossoms of which are of 
a rose pink colour. As this Poinsettia is 
apparently of good habit, while the bracts are of 
large size and freely borne, it will, no doubt, soon 
become popular. — H. P. 



The Journal of the Royal Horticultural 

Society.^The Fellows of the Royal Horticultural 
Society are proud to know that its reputation 
extends beyond the British islands, and are 
desirous of both giving and receiving information 
on foreign horticulture. No doubt some copies 
of the Society's Journal find their way to the 
United States, but it would be interesting to 
know whether they are sufficient in number to 
justify the large amount of purely American 
matter which for a long time has been regularly 
incorporated in the issue and is quite valueless 
to the ordinary home reader. The last half 
volimie — of November, r9i4 — contains, apart 
from the record of the society's proceedings, 
163 pages of contributed matter. Sixty of these 
are " Notes and Abstracts," comprising 256 
paragraphs, no fewer than 151 of which are 
absolutely, and for the most part abstrusely, 
American. Personally, I am greedy of general 
knowledge, but find neither instruction nor amuse- 
ment in " The Rough Bark Disease of Yellow 
Newtown," "Blueberry Culture," "The Fern 
Caterpillar of Florida Greenhouses," " Lady 
Beetles of Connecticut," " Manganese on Pine- 
apple Plants," or " Red Spider on Hops in the 
Sacramento Valley," and I am weary of the 
perennial Colorado Potato beetle. If the Journal 
circulates largely on the American continent 
and such items are eagerly absorbed — though it 
wotild seem rather superfluous to reprint and 
export what has already been published over 
there — -let us not raise any selfish objection. 
But if not, is it uncharitable to call this very dull 
padding ? — G. H. Engleheart, Dinton, Salisbury. 
The Banksian Rose. — Some of your readers 
have experienced a difficulty in getting this Rose 
to flower. One hopes, however, that their remarks 
will not discourage people from growing it, because 
it is really a good Rose. It is one of the most 
free flowering of all the pillar Roses ; the bunches 
and sprays of buff yellow blooms covering the 
wall of a house right up to the eaves is a glorious 
sight. That it is in itself very free flowering, 
everyone will tell you who has seen it in the South 
of France. It is also the most rampant of the 
summer-flowering Roses, and retains its mildew- 
proof foliage right through the winter and until 
the new spring growth appears; and for this 
reason it is the best of all Roses for coverir.g hare 
walls, especially the southern front of a house, no 
matter how high. It will run up 12 feet or 15 feet 
in one year, and eventually right up to the eaves, 
round the windows and even over the roof, The 
Virginian Creeper is not in it, compared with the 
double yellow Banksia. It never seems to 
grow old ; twenty, thirty years hence will find 
It as vigorous as when it was first planted. If 
some cannot make it flower, the cause will probably 
be foimd in climate and treatment. As to climate. 
It is quite hardy, and is never injured by winter 
frost. But it comes into flower in May, sometimes 
in April. One month before it flowers, the clusters 
of buds are formed. This is an anxious time for 
fruit-growers, and the weather that destroys the 
Peach blossom will destroy the swellmg buds of 
the Banksia unless they are protected. The 
overhanging eaves of the house will generally 
afford the buds sufficient protection. With refer- 
ence to the next point, treatment. All soils suit 
it, but a warm, gravelly soil, no matter how hungry 
and. dry, is the best. No ; it is not in the soil 
wherein lies the diffieulty, but in the priming. 
Unlike the multiflora, the strong rods made the 
first year will not bloom from the laterals the 



second year. The blooms are borne on the laterals 
of the laterals, and in the third year. In other 
words, the strong rods take three years before 
they bear flowers. Therefore, if we treat the 
Banksia as we do Crimson Rambler or Blush 
Rambler, for example, we shall be cutting out 
all the next year's flowering wood. If you have 
space, prime it but seldom, but if it grows beyond 
bounds, remove most of the strong, long-jointed 
rods (leaving a few for future blooming) and keep 
as much of the short twiggy growth as you can, 
for that alone the next summer will bear flowers. 
The writer has grown all four varieties of the 
Banksia, and values them especially because they 
flower so early. He has exhibited bunches of 
the single yellow at the May show of the Royal 
Horticultural Society in the Temple Gardens. — 
Joseph H. Pemberton. 

A Hedge of Sorts. — I am planting a hedge. 
" Nothing to make a fuss about," you will say. 
Ah ! but this is not to be an ordinary Quick-set 
hedge, neatly clipped, but a hedge long dreamed 
of ; a hedge made (like little girls) of " all that's 
nice." I have had gardens and hedges many and 
various in my life, but all inherited ones. But 
now I am going to make a garden that is " all my 
werry own " — three acres (no ! no cow, thank 
you ; she has materialised as a goat) taken out of 
a meadow on a south-west slope. In the legal 
document conveying the same (among many other 
liabilities). Anne Amateur, spinster, doth covenant 
to " plant a hedge of sorts." Oh ! musty-fusty 
Lawyer, I thank thee for that phrase ! Little 
did the land-shark who penned it dream what a 
vision of delight those last little words conjure up. 
My landlord — prosaic mortal ! — has put up a line 
of Larch posts, and oh ! horror ! barbed wire 
to keep his cattle from trespassing on my garden 
that is to be. So, by way of a start, as this is in 
the county where " Ghostesses sit on postesses, 
drinking of toastesses," I have begun by planting 
a Penzance Sweet Briar by each post — so that 
we may have " roseses to make posieses for our 
noseses." Between the Sweet Briars are Japanese 
Rose bushes (also "of sorts"). Later on I 
thought of adding Sloes and divers Thorns, 
Japanese Plums (a very few) and Palm to cheer us 
when spring's delights are reviving ; Almond 
trees, too, with Bullace and Damsons, followed by 
Wild Cherries and Crab Apples. Will someone 
who may read this kindly tell me which kind of 
Crab has the most beautiful blossom and which 
the most brilliant fruit ? By way of autumn 
colour I purpose planthig some American Maples, 
and should be grateful for information concerning 
these also. The first I ever saw were in Ruskin's 
garden beside Lake Conistou, many a long year 
ago. Then, too, for winter colour there will be 
brown Beech leaves and some green and golden 
Gorse and " heavy-greens," as one of my maids 
was wont to term them ; Holly and Laurel — 
which last, though belittled by Mr. R*b*n*s*n, 
was praised by Tennyson, " The twinkling laurel 
scattered silver lights." Twining among the 
hedge here and there will be Honeysuckle and 
Clematis (also " of sorts"), and the wild black and 
white Bryonies, with their beautiful foliage and 
berries. The wild Wayfaring Tree, with creamy 
discs of blossom and ruby clear berries, and 
Kentish Cobs and the purple-leaved kuid will 
have a place, too. And now, as " in the multitude 
of counsellors there is wisdom," will anyone send 
me further suggestions for my " hedge of sorts " ? 
They will be gratefully received by — Anne 
Amateur. 



January 9, 1915.] 



THE GARDEN. 



15 



The Daffodil Season. — It seems to me that 
we are at last back again to a normal season. 
In 1913 I had flower - spathes ready to burst 
at Christmas, but last year, although there were a 
good number of noses showing, the majority were 
well underground. — C. Lemesle Adams. 

Transplanting Christmas Roses. — I notice on 
page 618, issue December 26, an editorial query 
against Mr. Bunyard's advice to plant or trans- 
plant these in spring, but I have good reason to 
agree with the writer. I never succeeded well 
with Christmas Roses until I happened, some 
years ago, to see such wealth of them in Sir Ralph 
Anstruther's garden at Balcaskie in Fife as I 
had never beheld anywhere else. Mr. Maule, 
the head-gardener, told me the secret of his success, 
which was to trench the ground thoroughly, 
laying some well-decayed manure at the bottom 
of the trench, cover it with sound loam, and 
set the plants out in March. I followed 
his instructions, and have never met with 
the slightest difficulty or disappointment 
since. Sir Ralph was so kind as to give me 
a dozen clumps of Helleborus niger maximus 
at that time, and these, now in their sixth 
year, have been one mass of blossom since 
the early days of November. — Herbert 
Maxwell, Monreilh. 

On page 618 the Editor very wisely 

and rightly queries a sentence in the note 
by Mr. G. N. Bunyard concerning these 
plants, which runs : " When it is necessary 
to transplant them, the best time for doing 
the work is in spring." In support of 
the editorial query, let me say at once 
that it would be difficult to select a worse 
time than that recommended, and I have 
not the least hesitation in saying that 
transplanting done at that time has been 
among the chief factors in depleting our 
gardens of one of the most precious of winter 
flowers. In " The Hardy Flower Book," 
page 96, I have distinctly laid it down 
that " essential cultural details are deep 
sandy loam — 3 feet of it where possible — 
perfect drainage, light shade and, greatest 
essential of all, September or October trans- 
planting." This sentence was %vritten and 
italicised advisedly by reason of its im- 
portance, in the hope that a life-long study 
and experience of hardy plants — during 
which Christmas Roses received particular 
attention — may have some weight with 
gardeners and others interested in plants 
which are generally supposed to be im- 
patient of disturbance. That those in 
question are not so may be gathered from the fact 
that one of the best amateur cultivators of the 
flower I have known consistently for years divided 
and replanted much of his stock biennially, the 
handsome flowers — the product of this culti- 
vation — -the best answer to those who consider 
the Christmas Rose " impatient of disturbance." 
They are all this latter, however, and resent it 
in proportionate degree if disturbed at a wrong 
time, and there are few worse seasons than the 
much too elastic one of " spring." For twenty years 
or more I have preached the value of early autumn 
planting for these things, the need for which was 
revealed to me after much observation, from 
some pot-grown examples in the main. The 
reason is not far to seek. Christmas Roses are 
periodical in their rooting, producing their root 
fibres in two sets like a Daffodil, the main or 
basal set issuing from the rhizome in the early 



autumn, the second or lateral set of root fibres 
appearing on the first-named set in spring con- 
temporaneously with the new leafage. This is 
the natural order of things for plants under normal 
conditions. By planting in early autumn, the 
main set of root fibres issued annually are secured 
intact, and all else follows in good order. Dis- 
turbed at other seasons, these main roots — virtually 
the backbone of the plant — are ruined, since, 
once mutilated, they never elongate — -frequently 
they perish outright — -with the result that the 
plant is thrown upon its own resources for months. 
The debilitated condition • which follows is what 
the gardener calls " impatient of removal." 
A better word would be " resentment." The 
truth of the above has been vividly brought home 
to me during the past few months. At the end 
of March last, owing to a change of address, I 



SOME HARDY LILIES— II. 




LILIUM BROWNII, ONE OF THE MOST BEAUTIFUL 
ALL HARDY LILIES. 



was compelled to lift my plants at a moment I 
realised to be highly detrimental to their welfare. 
To-day they are flowerless and as miserable- 
looking as I am miserable concerning them. More- 
over, they will be greatly weakened, because they 
were unable to make their proper growth last spring 
and summer, and will take time to recover. What 
can be done for them will be done till next August 
is out, when I hope to be able to give them 
" another chance " by dividing and replanting 
them at the right moment. — E. H. Jenkins. 



FORTHCOMING EVENTS, 
January 19. — Royal Horticultural Society's 
Fortnightly Exhibition and Meeting, Vincent 
Square, Westminster, r p.m. to 4.30 p.m. 

January 21st. — Annual Election of Candidates for 
the Gardener's Royal Benevolent Institution, Simp- 
son's Restaurant, Strand, London, W.C, 2.45 p.m. 



(Continued from page 4.) 

THE genus LiUum has been classified 
in five groups or sub-genera as follows : 
I. Eulirion, with trumpet-shaped 
flowers, home horizontally, of which 
the Madonna Lily (L. candidum) may 
be taken as the type. 

2. Archelirion, with flowers set horizontally 
and opening widely, as in L, auratum. 

3. Isolirion, with upright vase-shaped flowers, 
as in the common Orange Lily (L crocemn). 

4. Martagon, in which the perianth is recurved, 
forming the type of blossom popularly known as 
Turk's- cap. 

5. Cardiocrinum, a small group consisting of 
three species only, distinguished from all other 

Lilies by their great stature and broad, 
stalked root leaves. 

In a sixth group, Notholirion, have been 
classed certain Lilyworts intermediate in 
character between LiUum and Fritillaria ; 
but mth these I do not propose to meddle 
at present. 

SUB-GENUS EULIRION. 

Lilium Brownii. — ^There has been much 
confusion among the Lilies classed as varie- 
ties under this homely title. For more than 
a century Brown's Lily has been grown 
in Europe ; but you shall look for it in 
vain, except as a pot plant, in ninety-nine 
gardens out of a hundred. Yet, given con- 
siderate treatment, it is one of the crown- 
ing glories of the border in July. Plant it 
deep in gritty loam, without peat and with 
lime and wood-ashes, if possible on a sharp 
slope, and it will withstand the worst our 
wet winters can do to it, increasing steadily 
by bulb offsets and unfolding its great 
blossoms with unfailing freedom, borne on 
stout stems 3 feet high. The flowers are 
funnelled and gracefully reflexed, the outer 
segments rich maroon on the outside, the 
inner ones with a narrow stripe of the same 
colour down the centre, both being purest 
ivory white inside, with brown anthers. 
Where a situation on a steepish bank can- 
not be found for this Lily, the bulbs may 
be set on inverted pots to secure rapid 
drainage, or, as the late Dr. Wallace recom- 
mended, the bulbs may be planted on their 
OF sides, as Japanese gardeners do, to prevent 
rain-water lodging between the cupped 
scales. 

L. Brownii odorum (syn. colchesterense).— 

It is not easy to understand the system under 
which this Lily is classed in the Kew list as a 
variety of L. japonicum (Krameri), so different 
is it in appearance and constitution from that 
elusive species. Dr. Wallace, however, was 
strongly of that view, albeit L. Brownii odorum 
loves lime and L. japonicum detests it. L. 
Brownii odorum is reputed to be of easier culti- 
vation than L. Brownii, less susceptible of frost 
and more indifferent to winter wet. It is a desir- 
able plant, with a general resemblance to L. 
Brownii, but not so graceful in growth. The 
blooms appear a fortnight or three weeks later 
than L. Brownii. The flower tubes are shorter 
and less deeply stained with purple outside. 

L. candidum, the Madonna Lily, has been 
the source of widespread despair among horti- 
culturists for more than forty years, owing to the 



16 



THE GARDEN. 



[January 9, 1915- 



ruin wrought upon it by that deadly fungus 
Botrytis cinerea. If L. auratum be the most 
gorgeous of the genus, the Madonna Lily must 
be admitted as the lovehest, and no amount 
of pains should be grudged to purge it of the 
parasite. In some gardens, often very humble 
ones, it fioiurishes and increases as vigorously 
as a German Iris ; in others, the most assiduous 
treatment has failed, season after season, to 
preserve it from the pest. UnUke other Lilies, 
it sends up luxuriant verdure in the autumn, 
which remains unhurt by frost tiU the spring, 
when vigorous flowering stems make their appear- 
ance fuU of promise for midsummer ; until suddenly 
the enemy makes its presence felt, the stem- 
leaves, beginning from the bottom, 
wilt and shrivel, growth is arrested 
and instead of five or six feet of 
sturdy stem, clothed with shining, 
light green leaves and carrying 
twenty to thirty trumpets o. 
fragrant alabaster, nothing is left 
but a blighted stalk, disfigured by 
shrivelled foliage and bearing three 
or four blemished blossoms. Where- 
as Botrytis is the most insidious and 
inveterate plague with which the 
cultivator of Lilies has to contend, 
and whereas nearly every species of 
Lily is more or less subject to its 
attack, this may be a fitting place 
to describe the most hopeful precau- 
tions to be taken against it. The 
fungus first appears on the leaf as 
a yellowish brown, oblong blotch, as 
if some mordant liquid had been 
dropped on it, within which blotch 
a lens reveals a number of black 
dots of fructification. Mr. Grove 
having waged successful war against 
the enemy, I may quote his pre- 
scription : " At the first sign of the 
malady the plants attacked should 
be sprayed with a solution of loz. of 
sulphide of potassium to 2j gallons 
of water, the dose being repeated 
daily, and all uninfected Lilies near 
by should be sprayed with Bordeaux 
Mixture or Evans' Aseptic Solution. 
If the disease gains ground notwith- 
standing the spraying, the proper 
course to pursue. — if an heroic one 
— is to cut down the affected Lihes 
and burn every scrap." In short, 
" let us spray" — and if that fails," let 
us pray " — that in time the Madonna 
Lily will recover such strength of 
constitution as wiU enable it to resist 
Botrytis ; just as the Hollyhock, 
which a few years ago seemed to 
be on the verge of extinction imder 
the ravages of Puccinia, once more adorns our 
borders with its many-coloured spires. 

Every living thing, animal or vegetable, is 
the host of parasitic organisms. So long as 
the host remains in perfect vigour, it can 
usually entertain such guests without appre- 
ciable injm-y ; but so soon as its vitality 
flags under some adverse condition, such as 
excessive wet, untimely frost or improper culti- 
vation, the parasite gets the upper hand, multiphes 
inordinately and vanquishes the host. Therefore, 
while resorting to spray and other paUiatives to 
keep Botrytis at bay, our chief concern should 
be to provide the Lilies with the conditions of 



soil and situation most suitable to their wants. 
The wants of the Madonna Lily are few and 
simple. A native of the Mediterranean region, 
growing wild on the rugged tract of limestone 
that divides the Adriatic from the jEgean Sea, 
it is far more likely to suffer in our gardens from 
overfeeding than from famine. In fact, the 
finest display is often to be seen in some farm- 
house or cottage plot, where the bulbs have grown 
crowded and uncared for, it may be for genera- 
tions of men, while dismal failure dogs all manner 
of coddling and coaxing in a fully manned and 
richly manured garden. The best advice that 
can be followed is, first, to secure perfect drainage ; 
next, to plant the bulbs shallow, not more than 




THE MADOiNNA LILY (LILIUM CAXDIDUM), WITH A BACKGROUND 
OF DEEP GREEN SHRUBS. 



4 inches or 5 inches from the surface, but with 
care to break up the soil to a greater depth below 
them. The soil should be the reverse of unctuous, 
with a liberal admixture of ground limestone, 
chalk or old mortar rubbish. Overhead shade 
is objectionable, but the proximity of trees is of 
advantage, for this Lily thrives well among tree 
roots, relishing the dryness which these ensure. 
In one respect the Madonna Lily differs from nearly 
all other LiUes, in that the bulb never rests, but 
starts into fresh growth immediately after flowering. 
Perhaps that is the effect of our wet autumns ; 
but, anyhow, it imposes on us the necessity to get 
all planting or transplanting accomplished early 



in September. Lastly, let him who is lucky 
enough to have thriving clumps of this peerhss 
Lily leave them aloite. There is a variety of the 
Madonna Lily called robustum, which, as its name 
imphes, is sturdier than the type, and may 
prove less liable to disease. I planted fifty bulbs 
of this variety in September, 1913, and these 
have flowered splendidly, without a trace of 
disease. Another variety named speciosum, 
mth black stems, is well reported of, but I cannot 
speak from experience thereof. A tfiird variety 
with narrower sepals than the type is much inferior, 
and therefore to be avoided. .As for the double- 
flowered Madoima Lily offered in nurser\Tnen's hsts, 
it is an ugly abomination. 

L. japoniciun. — This is usually 
known in gardens as L. Krameri. 
It is a lovely thing, but ray own ex- 
perience of purchased bulbs is most 
discouraging. A few large blossoms 
of delicate blush pink have been 
produced in the first season, after 
which the bulbs have disappeared. 
I admit, however, that I gave up 
attempting to grow it several years 
ago, before I had learnt from experts 
the right way of treating imported 
bulbs. It is possible that if the bulbs 
were placed in large pots on arrival, 
deprived of flower-buds in the first 
season, and in the second season 
planted not less than 8 inches deep 
on sandy soil without lime, on a 
bank steep enough to ensure rapid 
drainage, this Lily might prove 
more permanent than it has done 
hitherto. The only other chance of 
keeping it is to raise it from seed, 
which it is said to ripen freely. Bulbs 
of this and other species obtained 
in this manner are not exposed to 
the debilitating effects of rough 
handling, packing and other adverse 
incidents of the import trade, and 
Kramer's Lily is so beautiful as to 
be worth waiting for during its 
growth from seed. 

L. longifloriun. — This is imported 
in millions for pot culture, and is 
usually sold as the Bermuda Lily. 
Every florist's shop teems with this 
beautiful flower. It is usually 
reckoned not to be hardy in this 
coimtry, and that is true enough of 
the variety cultivated in Bermuda, 
whence British dealers have hither- 
to drawn their chief supply. But 
the wild type is probably a native 
of China, and some of its varieties 
have proved patient of the vicissi- 
tudes of our insular climate, at 
least in the South and West. The more robust of 
these varieties comes from the Liu-Khiu Islands, and 
is distinguished as L. longiflorum iormosanum. 
Planted deep in very gravelly soil, enriched with 
leaf-mould, sand and wood-ashes, on a steeply 
sloping bank, this LUy comes bravely through 
the winter with me, and flowers freely on stems 
between 2 feet and 3 feet high. A thick 
covering of leaf-mould is advisable to protect 
the bulbs from frost, of which they have no 
experience in Liu-Khiu. If it grew but a foot or 
two higher it would be a formidable rival to the 
Madonna Lily. Herbert Maxwell. 

{To be coiilintied.) 



January 9, 1915.] 



THE GARDEN. 



17 



SEASONABLE NOTES ON 
CHRYSANTHEMUMS. 



the box and place the glass so that it has an angle 
of 45° or sharper still, and loss from internal mois- 
ture will be less. Remove the glass every forenoon 
for about one hour, and wipe it dry both morning 
and evening. Having once watered in the cuttings, 
be careful not to keep the soil too moist after- 
wards. 

In an early issue, with the Editor's permission, 
a select list of varieties for various purposes 
will appear. The follo%ving are new and very fine 
ones that should be obtained at once by cultivators 
who wish to score successes during the present 
year : Yellow Jlrs. Gilbert Drabble, a grand 
variety of fine form, propagate now ; Queen Mary 
(white), Mrs. GUbert Drabble (white) — these are 
late flowering and require a long season of growth ; 
Lord Kitchener (ruby crimson), General Jofire 
(another grand crimson), General French (clear 



ON WALL GARDENING. 



Propagation. — Early in the New Year, culti- 
vators of these plants will be anxious to put in 
large batches of cuttings. Neither in greenhouses 
nor in frames is there much vacant space during 
the winter months, and so it is advisable to 
economise in this respect as much as possible, 
and only insert the naturally late and November 
flowering varieties. Cuttings of the early sorts 
should be dealt with immediately the first batches 
are rooted sufficiently to take out of the propagat- 
ing-frames. The wise cultivator will have procured 
and stored in a cool place a nice quantity of cutting 
compost, some clean, dry pots and crocks, also 
new labels. 

The Best Cuttings to Select. — A weakly cutting I terra-cotta), .Master Mortimer (delicate rose), 
may be strengthened, but much valuable time is Daily Mail (yellow, narrow florets), William Vert 
lost and it requires more at- 
tention than a strong one. 
Rather than be content with 
weakly cuttings, cultivators 
should purchase good ones 
from firms who advertise 
them for sa'e, as they treat 
the old roots specially for 
the production of sturdy 
suckers. Of course, more 
cuttings must be inserted 
than are actually required to 
make up for losses. The 
best cutting is one growing 
as a sucker through the soil 
— one that is 3 inches or a 
little more in length when 
severed at the soil level ; it 
must be of medium thick- 
ness, not soft and very sappv. 
The sappy-stemmed cuttings 
damp off sooner than those 
that are firmer and harder. 
If cut much below the soil 
level, the cutting will not 
form roots quickly, and the 
resultant grOAvth will not be 
free. The best policy in such 
cases is to wait until the 
suckers have grown long 
enough to sever above the 
soil, as time will not be lost, 
but gained, owing to roots 
forming quickly and pro- 
gress afterwards being more PRUNUS TRILOBA FLORE PLENO, A BEAUTIFUL HARDY sH 
satisfactory. 

Making and Inserting Cuttings.— Sever the 
stem one-eighth of an inch below a joint and 
remove the leaf from that joint. When once 
roots are formed, it is very important that they 
are not unnecessarily disturbed afterwards, 
especially if the plants are to be grown for the pro- 
duction of large blooms or as big specimens. With 
such work in view, make use of small but deep 
pots, and strike one cutting in each. Very fibrous 
loam, flaky leaf-soil and coarse sand in about 
equal proportions form a nice compost. Place 
one crock in each pot, then some leaf-soil on it, 
before filling up with the general compost. Let 
the latter be of medium moisture when used, 
and make the cuttings firm in it. A small frame 
placed on a greenhouse stage forms an idea! 
propagator ; boxes covered with squares of 
glass -will answer the purpose well, but damping 
of cuttings is always more general when the glass 
is fixed on a flat top. Form a miniature roof to 



SO many conflicting elements of charm 
and — let it be admitted — of disillusion- 
ment no less are to be fotmd in wall 
gardening that it is no great wonder 
if a fierce battle of opinion should be 
waged with regard to its merits or 
demerits. Yet we are fain to believe that it 
was a happy inspiration which suggested how some 
old walls might be improved by wisely encouraging 
vegetation upon them, and how others might 
even be built with a view to planting. We pause 
in admiration, perhaps, before some dilapidated 
wall fringed with the dainty greenery of Maiden- 
hair Spleenwort, or catch sight of a stray garden 
plant which has foimd a home for itself in a crevice 
of mouldering brickwork, whence it looks down, 
exultant in its fulness of blossom, upon its kindred 




(chestnut crimson), Mrs. James Gibson (mauve 
pink), Mrs. C. Farrar (bronzj^ buff) Mme. T. Morel 
(apricot), and Maud Lousada (rosy mauve) Avon. 



A BEAUTIFUL HARDY FLOWERING 
SHRUB. 

The accompanying illustration represents a fine 
plant of Prunus triloba flore pleno, one of the 
most beautiful of all hardy flowering shrubs. 
Fortunately, it will thrive in almost' any good 
garden soil, and does equally as well grown as a bush 
in the open as when i rained to a wall. It maj' be 
planted at any time during the winter, and once 
it has filled its allotted space, should be pruned hard 
each spring immediately the flowers have faded. 
These are borne on the young wood, hence by 
removing this promptly at the time stated vigorous 
new shoots are produced for flowering the following 
year. H. 



RUB WITH PI.NK AND WHITE FLOWERS. 

of the border, whose very luxuries of easy living, 
maybe, have made them rank of leaf and sparing 
of flower. So it is that we find Natiure herself 
pointing the way, and we shall not go very far 
wrong if we patiently follow her footsteps. Gene- 
rally speaking, the temptation to an enthusiast 
is to overdo the planting. A wall, even one that 
is prepared, ought not to be regarded as a sort of 
perpendicular flower-bed, as some people seem 
inclined to think, for it loses much of its character- 
istic beauty as soon as it becomes too thickly 
overgro^vn. Age-worn and weathered stone and 
brickwork have a charm and colouring all their 
own which it would be folly to hide, but which, 
nevertheless, may be greatly enhanced by the 
skilful addition here and there of leafage and 
flower. Yet it is not always easy to strike the 
happy mean. It fell to my lot once to see a design 
prepared in all good faith for the purpose of showing 
an easy way out of many difficulties besetting 



18 



THE GARDEN. 



[January 9, 1915. 



wall gardening. The sketch was intended to be 
a model pattern for a terrace garden, and repre- 
sented a somewhat pretentious erection backed 
by a lo-foot wall, pigeon-holed in rows by the 
omission of a brick at regular intervals, the pockets 
being arranged quincunx fashion. The plan 
certainly had the merit of making the most of 
the wall surface. But the charm of a planted 
wall is not to be wooed or won by any such simple 
rule of thimib. The growth upon it must be 
spontaneous, or, at any rate, so cunningly regulated 
as to appear to be so. 

Boimdarj' walls for the most part are less adapt- 
able for planting than retaining walls, which 



In the same garden a branch of Winter Jasmine 
has rooted of its own accord into the coping of 
another boundary- wall, where its welcome stars 
ser\'e to lighten the dreariness of flo%verless January. 
The grey-green of a plant of homely Sage — a 
stray seedling lodged by chance — has been known 
to produce a delightful bit of colour contrast 
against the mellowed red of an old brick wall. 
How shrubs of naturally strong growth find 
sufficient nutriment in the seemingly inhospitab'.e 
quarters so offered, it is difficult to say, but so it 
is ; and not only do they sprout, but grow and 
live for years, forming pictures of their own sweet 
will which are hard to copy and harder still to beat. 



^ «> i. 



'/ '. 







.,.■«*. H V 



y^:. ^T-. 

^n^ 






A RETAINING WALL VEILED Willi ILOWERIXG PLANTS. 



naturally foster plant growth. One of the prettiest 
of small plants for a boundari,- wall is Vittadenia 
trilobata, whose cheerful little Daisy flowers, 
changing from white to deep pink, smile at us 
faithfully from spring to late autumn. It has a 
natural affinity even for a mortared wall, where 
it will find a foothold somehow, and quickly 
makes little colonies of itself without any fuss. 
In some gardens Erinus alpinus takes freely 
to the upright position and needs scarcely any 
rooting space ; but here it shows a decided 
preference for flat surfaces, and sows itself delight- 
fully into the joints of rough stone steps. It is 
never a surprise to see Snapdragon or Wallflower 
or Ivy-leaved Toadflax flourishing on a boimdary 
wall ; but there are other plants, apparently 
quite unsuited by habit for such situations, which 
make themselves equally happy there when 
accident gives them the chance, and sometimes 
we get an unexpectedly good effect. Take shrubs, 
for instance. No one would dream of planting 
Ribes on the top of a kitchen garden wall ; yet 
five minutes' walk would bring me to a spot where 
little bushes of the red-flowered Currant — of 
low stature indeed, but rosy with flowers every 
spring — brighten the summit of such a wall. 



Where dry walling holds back a considerable 
body of soil the case is different, and shrubs of 
a certain type become valuable auxiliaries. Some 
of the smaller-growing Cistuses — ^notably C. 
florentinus and C. lusitanicus, a miniature Gum 
Cistus little grown, which has crimson-spotted, 
cupped petals — are especially suitable. Rooted 
cuttings of these were inserted in the joints at 
the top edge of a retaining wall in my own garden, 
and have thriven amazingly. Their fault, if 
anything, has been a superabundant vigour, 
which has made it necessary bodily to cut down 
one here and there, both stubs and roots being 
too firmly embedded to allow of entire removal. 
The stumps, notwithstanding, have broken afresh, 
so that these cut-down bushes will eventually 
flourish again instead of others which, later on, 
must receive the same drastic attention. Some 
of the New Zealand Veronicas of naturally dwarf 
habit, favoured by our mild Sussex coast climate, 
have also done well in a like position. Being 
evergreen, both Cistus and Veronica are peculiarly 
suitable for wall planting in the Southern Counties. 
One other native of South Europe — Coronilla 
Emerus, well known to our forefathers as Scorpion 
Senna — occurs to me as an ideal wall shrub. In 



that capacity it may be seen, in fullest beauty, 
clinging to the sim-dyed brick of crumbUng Roman 
ruins ; but it is not an uncommon garden shrub 
in the West of England. Once estabUshed on a 
suimy wall, it will always be treasured, so slender 
is it in its growth, so little aggressive, yet so laden 
in early summer with clusters of soft yellow Pea 
flowers, just touched and pencilled with russet 
red. It may be of some practical use, by way of 
reminder, to name a few of the plants, other 
than shrubs, which have done well in tliis locahty. 
A colony of Catmint (Nepeta Mussinii), with 
hoary leaves and a wealth of grey-blue flowers in 
its season, is rightly placed just leaning over the 
comer of a retaining wall, and is- 
very charming ; but it quickly dies 
out and has to be renewed. Litho- 
spermmn prostratum comes earlier 
in the year — one of the earliest, 
in fact, to start flowering — and is 
a veritable gem with its boss of 
gentian blue against our grejish 
yellow sandstone. The confined 
root space keeps it from strag- 
gling. A form of Phlox Stellaria 
known, I believe, as P. lilacina is 
one of the most delightful of otir 
spring plants, and is apparently 
not very familiar even to good 
gardeners, who always notice its 
profusion of flower as it hangs its 
trailing stems over the stones. 
Genista sagittahs, which has curiously 
flattened and winged stalks, with 
scarcely any leaves, is at all times 
distinct, and very decorative about 
midsiunmer when full of its golden 
tufts of flowers. Some of the 
Plumy Saxifrages, again, e.g., Saxi- 
fraga p\Tamidalis ' and S. macnabi- 
ana, have done well here, while 
for less good positions a handsome 
hybrid of the London Pride type, 
known as S. Colvillei, is invalu- 
able, and takes care of itself. 
^^-^——.- For rougher positions still — especi- 
ally low and damp ha-ha walls 
— Ferns of the commoner sorts 
are picturesque ; but beware lest 
they take possession of any wall where choicer 
things are invited to grow. This is not a Fern 
locaUty, yet Male Fern, Buckler Fern and even 
Brake have bscome a ntiisance, so difficult are 
they to remove when they are in the wrong place. 
One comes to the conclusion in the long run 
that in wall gardening we must be content, in a 
measure, to let things have their own way. In 
most parts of a garden this is bad practice — 
the haphazard system seldom works out well. 
It is always batter, no doubt, to have a scheme 
in view even for a wall, and to control the growth 
upon it as far as possible ; but it is wise to be 
prepared for unruly subjects which wiU not by 
any means be governed. We may try again and 
again to produce an effect which seems delectable 
to our mind's eye, but some accident of aspect — 
of shade or exposure, of dr\-ness or damp — frustrates 
the most nicely calculated intention ; while an 
alien intruder, a Mullein or wandering Foxglove, 
perhaps, finds its way in and ends by conquering 
our affections by dint of sheer audacity. It may 
even be that it is this very quality of wayward- 
ness which adds such intense interest and enjoy- 
ment to any attempt that may be made at wall 
gardening. K. L. Davidson, in Country Life. 



January 9, 1915. 



THE GARDEN. 



19 



SOME GOOD 
POLYANTH A 



DWARF 
ROSES. 



compact 
evergreen, 



DURING the last few years a good deal 
i of attention has been given to the 
I Dwarf Polyantha Roses, a race 
' that is particularly useful for 
filling large beds, owing to the fact 
that the plants make neat, 
bushes, many of which are almost 
and their freedom of flowering. Late 
in the autumn, when visiting some large Rose 
nurseries in the Midlands, I was reminded of the 
value of these Roses for autumn effect, row after 
row of goodly length being almost hidden with the 
large clusters of small, rosette-like flowers. Four 
varieties were particularly noticeable, these being 
Jessie, Phyllis, Orleans and Katherine Zeimet. 
The first named is the most beautiful of all, the 
blossoms being deep glowing crimson-scarlet in 
colour, yet not sufficiently glaring to be objection- 
able. Phyllis has dainty rose pink flowers, a 
colour that Orleans also shares, but in the latter 
variety the blossoms are rather larger and the 
bushes a little taller. Although Orleans is very 
beautiful in autumn, the blossoms bleach rather 
badly during the hot days of summer ; hence some 
care would need to be exercised in 
using it in very sunny districts, unless 
an autumn display only is required. 
Katherine Zeimet has pure white 
flowers, which are deliciously sweet- 
scented, a character that the others 
named unfortunately do not possess 
in any great degree. Having once 
seen tlie beautiful colour effects that 
these little Roses will produce, it is 
difficult to understand why they are 
not more freely used in large lawn 
beds in place of the heterogeneous 
mixtures of bedding plants that one 
too often finds in many of our large 
gardens. A circular bed, some ten 
yards or twelve yards in diameter, 
might be thickly planted with Jessie, 
leaving a yard or so in width at the 
edge for Katherine Zeimet. If ordi- 
narily weU grown, the bushes would 
commence to flower early in July 
and continue right through the late 
summer and autumn until frosts 
put a check on their career. Last 
year in an Essex garden I gathered 
good sprays from Jessie at the end 
of November, long after the ordinary 
bedding plants had been destroyed 
by frost. Phyllis or Orleans could 
be planted in association with 
Lavender, either as a margin to 
stone pathways, at the top of 
retaining walls, or in large beds, in the propor- 
tion of two Roses to one of Lavender, the latter 
to be the common steel blue flowered variety. 
These colours create a delightful harmony, which is 
scarcely broken even when the Lavender flowers 
are past, the glaucous grey tint of the foliage 
having an almost similar effect. Although the 



CRINUMS AT MICHAELMAS. 

.\s the year approaches its close, the fewer flowering 
things that remain, or that may still be looked 
for, are all the more precious. It is weU to 

remember how late in the year Crinums are in 
beauty. The photograph was taken on IVtichaelmas 
Day, and the plants had yet another fortnight 
of beauty, so carrying on their duration of 
bountiful bloom to near the middle of October. 
Where there exists, or can easily be made, a sunny 
bank of very deep, light soil, these lovely things 
may be had in perfection. If there is a wall or 
some such protection at the back, it is all the better. 
Much the same conditions suit the great Tree 
Poppy, Romneya Coulteri, and a good length of 
bank with the two kinds of plant intergrouped 
would have a fine eilect. G. Jekyll. 



THE BEST APPLES AND 
PEARS FOR MIDLAND 
COUNTIES. 



I HAVE read with interest various letters that 
have appeared in The Garden relative to the best 
kinds of ."Vpples and Pears. Perhaps a few notes as 
to one's experience in an East Midland county i Pear so much that it is now abundantly grown 



and Son, and as an October .Apple I know of noth- 
ing to touch it. All my friends who have once tasted 
this Apple desire to renew their acquaintance ; 
but, strangely, I have never seen the tree else- 
where than in my own garden. The Apple must 
not be confused with the various Golden Pippins, 
and if any of your readers wish to plant this 
kind they should make sure they get it. The 
fruit is best when taken fresh from the tree, and 
will keep good a full month or longer. 

Another little-known Apple and a new one is 
St. Everard. I have had the tree for two or three 
years, but it gave me a few Apples last year for 
the first time. They were ripe at the end of August, 
handsome and excellent. 

I have not been fortimate in finding many other 
dessert Apples that I care for, but Cox's Orange 
Pippin makes one very fastidious. I thought 
Allington Pippins were going to be a real find, but 
the fruit was cold and sour and not worth growing. 

As to Pears, different soils affect trees so much 
that many kinds valuable in other districts are 
useless here. My selection, after a long experience, 
is : Jargonelle, Williams' Bon Chretien, Beurr6 
Hardy, Emile d'Heyst, Beurre Superfin, Winter 
Nelis, Dana's Hovey and, above all. Doyenne 
du Comice. I have recommended this latter 




CRINUMS FLOWERING ON MICHAELMAS DAY IN MISS JEKYLL' S GARDEN AT MUNSTEAD WOOD. 



would be of interest to readers. I have for the last 
thirty years tried a great many kinds of Apples and 
Pears, and have found, very often to my sorrow, 
that many much-vaunted kinds are of no value 
in this district. As regards Apples, I have come 
across few new varieties that I thinli worth keeping, 



and I find myself thro^^'n more and more upon 
initial cost of planting beds with these Roses, or j the famous Cox's Orange Pippin. To get this 



Roses and Lavender, will be rather more than that 
of Geraniums and other soft-wooded plants, this 
will be more than compensated by the number of 
years that the Roses last. Apart from aphides, the 
Dwarf Polyantha Rose is not usually seriously 
affected by other ills that the Rose is heir to. H. 



fruit to perfection, the tree needs growing in the 
full eye of the sun and the fruit carefully thinned. 
The finest fruits I have gro-ivn have been on 
espaliers, and last year two Apples weighed r4jo2. 
An Apple that I think one of the very best is 
Pine Golden Pippin. This came from Messrs. Rivers 



all over the district, and the best quality fruits I 
have ever eaten were some given me by a friend, 
grown on a wall in stiff clay. Many years ago 
I planted a tree of Duchesse d'Angouleme and a 
"Williams." The Pears had no flavour at all, 
and I was about to cut the trees down when I 
read somewhere that the fruit of Pear trees im- 
proved as the trees grew older . This I found to 
be true. Winter Nelis is a splendid Pear, but 
I get a very scanty crop. I have two trees on a 
south wall, and an espalier, which produce an 
abundance of bloom, but scarcely any sets. I 
should be grateful if. anyone can give me a hint 
as to the remedy. Hunts. 



20 



THE GARDEN. 



[January 9. 1915. 



GARDENING FOR BEGINNERS. 

HOW TO FORCE RHUBARB. 



FORCED Rhubarb is much appreciated 
during the early weeks of the New 
Year. At that time the fruit of our 
orchards is becoming scarce, and those 
who are responsible for maintaining the 
supplies of the kitchen naturally look 
round to see how the strain upon Apples, 
Pears and such-like fruits may be relieved. 
Fortunately, the forcing of Rhubarb is not 
l)y any means difficult to carry into effect. 
Methods of forcing are varied and interesting, and 
many different modes are practised with equal 
success. Some growers make a point of preparing 
a small border in a southern aspect, if possible 
under the protection of a wall, hedge or close 
fence. More often, however, roots with promising 
crowns arc lifted and planted under glass, in 
frames, or in a Mushroom-house, where it is an 
extremely simple thing to ensure supplies of good 
quality. 

Begitmers may be in some doubt as to when 
the roots should be lifted for forcing purposes. 
They may be lifted at any time after the leaves 
die away in the autumn. Those who are adept in 
raising Rhubarb under cover as we have suggested 
prefer to leave the roots exposed in the open 
to a slight frost or two before placing them 
in their forcing quarters, as they invariably 
break into growth better when once they are 
placed in heat. Prospects of a satisfactory forcing 
of this crop are improved when the lifted roots 
are very strong and not more than two or three 
years old. That readers may understand what 
a vigorous root is, a typical specimen is portrayed 
in Fig. I. In ordinary circumstances we should 
disturb the soil round about the roots as little 
as possible ; but, for the purpose of photo- 
graphing, the soil has been removed. 



FIG. 




FIG. 2. AN OLD APPLE BARREL SUR- 
ROUNDED BY LONG M*iNURE IS USEFUL 
FOR FORCING RHUBARB OUTDOORS. 



I have already said there 
are numerous places in which 
the roots or crowns can be 
planted for forcing, and there 
is no more useful place than 
under the stage of a warm 
greenhouse where the tem- 
perature can be maintained 
at from 55° to 60°. It is 
almost necessary, however, 
that the quarters should be 
made dark, as growth is then 
more rapid. A warm cellar 
can be utilised for the same 
purpose with advantage, es- 
pecially for supplies that are 
wanted in January and later. 
Those who possess a Mush- 
room-house have an immense 
advantage over other growers. 
There is no more suitable 
place than this. The condi- 
tions that usually prevail 
there are all that could be 

desired, and the crop seldom fails when 
properly looked after. The floor of the Mush- 
room-house should be covered with about 
three inches of good soil, and the roots then 
adjusted in position, working some light soil 
between and arotmd them to complete the plant- 
ing. It is important to remember that when 
forcing Rhubarb, the roots must be maintained in a 
moistened condition. Especially is this neces- 
sary when the conditions are rather warmer 
than usual ; frequent sprinklings with tepid 
water will assist very materially to promote the 
well-being of the crop. 

To follow the earliest supplies under glass and 
from other quarters, beds outdoors should be 
utilised to their fullest extent. Beds and borders 
made up under a wall or a close fence facing south, 
as already mentioned, are excellent situations for 
subsequent supplies, and from such quarters a 
second crop should be obtained. This is perhaps 
the simplest way of all of forcing Rhubarb, as 
splendid crops may be obtained with the minimum 
of trouble. When Rhubarb is forced in the open, 
the grower may utilise the services of coverings 
used for forcing Seakale, such as boxes, barrels 
of various descriptions — in fac , anything that 
will cover the roots and that has sufficient head 
room. 

For raising crops of some of the more vigorous 
and taller-growing Rhubarbs, such as Hobday's 
Giant, I prefer to use empty Apple barrels. 
These should have the ends knocked out, and the 
better end preserved intact for covering purposes. 
In Fig. 2 an Apple barrel, as used for forcing 
these taller-growing Rhubarbs outdoors, is shown. 
Here it will be observed the barrel is placed in 
position over the Rhubarb root, with the lid 
slightly tilted to show it is not fixed, and can be 
adjusted after inspecting the crop. The barrel 
is partially embedded in warm stable litter, 
which will encourage the roots to start, and 
subsequently, if needs be, the whole barrel can 
be covered with the same littery material. 
Leaves and stable litter used in conjunction are 
better, as the heat does not then get too fierce. 




A STRONG RHUBARB ROOT THAT 
FORCING. 



IS SUITABLE FOR 



The coverings should be tested occasionally, so that 
the latter condition may be avoided. D. B. C. 



THE WINTER TREATMENT OF 
BORDER CHRYSANTHEMUMS. 

Although in most districts these plants are 
hardy enough to withstand ordinary winters 
without any protection whatever, there is always 
a possibility that slugs and we*, wi'h severe 
frost, may cause so much damage as to render 
the plants practically useless. For tha' reason 
I always find it advisable to lift the old stools 
and place them in a cold frame, or, failing 
that, a warm and dry corner of the garden. If not 
already done, no time should be lost in attending to 
this work, as already the sucker-like growths are 
pushing above the soil. To prevent ihe depredations 
o ' slugs, and at the same time ensure perfect elraiiiage, 
I make up a bed, 3 inches thick, of stale coal ashes 
and on these place the lifted stools closely 
together. Then a mixture of ashes, soot and fine 
sandy soil is shaken between them so as to make 
the whole modera ely firm. If in a cold frame it 
is neither necessary nor desirable to have the light 
on, except in ext^a severe or wet weather, and even 
then ample ventilation must be afforded, as it is 
essential that the new growths be as sturdy as 
possible. 

Old stools treated in this way will give a bountiful 
supply of cuttings for rooting in pots or boxes 
during February where that method is favoured. 
A system that I have adopted with border 
Chrysanthemums for some years, and one that 
answers as well as it is simple, is to lift the old 
stools from their winter quarters about the second 
or third week in March, and pull off the young 
growths with a sharp downward jerk. Nearly 
every one will come away with several young roots 
attached, and each is planted where the subse- 
quent plant is intended to flower. In a few days 
they recover from the check, make new roots and 
quickly establish themselves. Then, about the 
end of .'\pril, when growth is fully active, the top 
is pinched out of each, the result being a nice bushy 
plant by the autumn. A. B. Essex. 



January 9, 1915.] 



THE GARDEN. 



21 



GARDENING OF THE WEEK. 



FOR SOUTHERN GARDENS. 

Fruit Under Glass. 

Strawberries. — A batch of plants may now be 
placed indoors. Choose those with large single 
crowns, carefully remove a little of the surface 
soil with a pointed stick, and top-dress with a 
mixture of loam, manure from an old Mushroom- 
bed and wood-ashes. See that the drainage 
is clear before bringing them indoors. A shelf 
in a vinery or Peach-house which has just been 
closed will suit the plants for the first few weeks. 
Keep the foliage clean by vigorous syringing 
whenever the weather is fine, and never allow the 
plants to become dry at the roots. 

Young Vines. — If these are to be planted 
and are to be procured from the nurseryman, 
no time must be lost in doing so, as the rods will 
require to be cut back to five or six buds. This 
should be done before the end of the present month, 
or the Vines are likely to bleed badly. Young 
Vines may be propagated now from eyes inserted 
in small pots or turves. Place them on a hot- 
bed in a warm, moist house and water carefully 
till growth is active. 

Plants Under Glass. 

Begonia Gloire de Lorraine. — As the plants 
pass out of flower reduce them to about half, place 
them in a moderately warm house for two or 
three weeks, and give water sparingly to induce 
the plants to rest. They may then be cut right 
down and placed in a warmer house and fre- 
quently syringed, where they will quickly throw 
up strong cuttings for propagating. 

Roses in Pots. — To keep up a good supply of 
blooms, a batch of plants should be placed near 
to the glass in a light structure at fortnightly 
intervals. A temperature of 50° will be quite 
high enough till the buds begin to show. Even 
then too much artificial heat must not be given. 

Lily of the Valley. — To keep up a supply of 
these flowers, retarded crowns must be used till 
the end of the present month. A batch must 
be placed into heat every fortnight or three weeks, 
according to the demand. Ordinary crowns may 
be used after this month, but these are much more 
difficult to manage, and the least cultural error 
may cause disappointment. Clumps dug up 
from the garden are easily forced on a hot-bed 
in a heated frame. Keep the glass well covered 
till the flower-spikes are well above the groimd. 

The Flower Garden. 

Sweet Peas. — No time must now be lost in 
sowing a batch of seeds if not already done. Sow 
two or three seeds in small pots and place them in 
a cool pit. When the plants are through the soil, 
remove them to a cold frame and encourage 
sturdy growth by giving plenty of air whenever 
outside conditions will permit. 

Early Flowering Chrysanthemums.— There is 
now a wide range of beautiful varieties suitable 
for growing in the flower garden. The best means 
of propagation is by cuttings, which may be 
inserted now if they are available. Insert them 
in a sandy compost in boxes and place them in 
a heated pit tUl they have rooted. They may 
then be placed in a cold frame. 

The Rock Garden. — Any alterations or 
additions to this part of the garden should be 
accomplished as soon as possible, so that the 
planting of dwarf shrubs or other hardy subjects 
may be done. The making of a rock garden is 
a very fascinating phase of flower gardening, 
and to my mind the point which needs most 
consideration is the choosing of the site. 

The Hardy Fruit Garden. 

Orchard Trees. — These must have their annual 
pruning or thinning. When trees have assumed 
very large proportions, all that can be done is 
to thin out the branches where they have become 
too dense, especially those which are crossing 
each other. This annual thinning of large orchard 
trees is just as necessary as the pruning of trained 
trees in other parts of the garden. Liquid manure 
from the farmyard, which is usually very plentiful 
at this time of the year, should be throvm over 
the rooting area of old-established trees. 

Pruning. — The pruning of all fruit trees which 
are near the vegetable quarters must be done as 



soon as possible, so that diggmg operations may 
be carried out without delay. Gooseberries need 
thinning severely, cutting out an old branch here 
and there to make room for young growth. Black 
Currants may have all the old fruiting wood 
removed if there are sufficient young growths to 
furnish the bushes. The side shoots on Red and 
White Currants must be cut well back, the leading 
growths being left a few inches for extension. 

The Kitchen Garden. 

Onions. — Many growers now cultivate a portion 
of this valuable crop by sowing seeds in boxes under 
glass, planting the seedlings out in the spring. 
For this purpose seeds should he sown diuring 
the present month. Sow thinly in a fine compost 
of loam and leaf-soil, and place the boxes on a 
shelf in a vinery or Peach-house which has just 
been started. 

Cauliflowers. — The autumn-sown plants must 
be regularly attended to in the matter of watering, 
giving them an occasional application of liquid 
manure. Admit plenty of air to the plants during 
favourable weather. A sowing of an approved 
early variety may be made now in boxes and 
placed in a moderately warm house. 

Forcing Vegetables. — Place successional batches 
of Asparagus, Seakale and Rhubarb into the 
forcing quarters at regular intervals. 

French Beans. — Where plenty of convenience 
is available, batches of these may be potted up 
at intervals of ten or twelve days. Plant five or 
six seeds in a 7-inch pot in a rich compost. They 
require plenty of heat and moisture, and a position 
near to the glass. A dwarf variety, such as 
Osborne's Forcing, is most suitable for the earliest 
crops. The Belfast is also an excellent variety 
for forcing. E. Harriss. 

(Head-gardener to Lady Wantage.) 

Lockinge Gardens, Berks. 



FOR NORTHERN GARDENS. 

The Kitchen Garden. 

Seakale. — -Strong crowns should be lifted 
and are easily forced in the Mushroom-house, 
or may be planted five in a ro-inch pot and covered 
by an inverted pot of the same size and placed in 
a warm house, taking care that the top pots 
have their holes perfectly closed. 

Endive and Chicory make good substitutes 
for Lettuces during the winter, and should be 
put in to blanch quite a fortnight before the date 
they are required. These likewise could be 
brought along in the Mushroom-house. 

Tomatoes. — A main sowing will be made at 
this time of a reliable and proved variety. Sow 
thinly and evenly, so that the small plants may 
readily be separated when it is time for them to 
be potted off singly. A shelf near the glass in a 
warm house will suit them imtil they are 6 inches 
or so in height. After this stage they will grow more 
sturdily if kept in an intermediate temperature. 

The Hardy Fruit Garden. 

Autumn-Fruiting Raspberries.— These are a 

valuable addition to those who have to maintain 
a supply of dessert in great variety over a long 
period. Unlike summer-fruiting sorts, they pro- 
duce their fruit on the current year's growth. 
This makes it necessary for all the canes to be 
cut down now. A new plantation of these could 
be made at the present time. Choose a sheltered 
position and plant in rich soil, if possible 
adding new loam with plenty of lime rubble. 

Plants Under Glass. 

Chrysanthemums. — All cuttings of Chrysanthe- 
mums that are to be grown in pots should be 
put in during this month. Any plants that up 
to now have failtd to produce young growths 
should be put in a warm house until sufficient 
cuttings have been obtained. 

Tree Carnations. — Houses devoted to these 
plants should be kept a little drier than during 
the summer. A night temperature of 48° to 50° 
should not be exceeded, or weak stems and split 
calyces will result. Opinions differ as to the 
best time to propagate. Here we find the best 
plants are produced from cuttings inserted in 
January. A reliable method is to dibble the 



cuttings thickly in 4-inch pots filled with pure 
sand in a moist state, and put them in a. case in 
some cool house. If bottom-heat is used, it must 
be very gentle. 

Bulbs. — A niunber of these can be placed in 
heat each week to keep up the supply of cut flowers. 

Flowering Shrubs. — To keep the flower house 
gay. Lilacs, Azaleas, Pyruses, Prunuses and 
Wistarias must be brought along in heat. All 
the foregoing force very readily. 

Begonia Gloire de Lorraine. — If the early 
flowered plants were partly cut over during 
December and slightly rested, they ought by now 
to have produced enough cuttings for the earliest 
batch. These should be dibbled in pans of very 
light flaky leaf-mould and coarse silver sand, 
and plunged in a propagating-case with a brisk 
bottom-heat. 

Pot Roses. — Slightly prune a batch of these 
now and place in a house with a temperature 
of 55°. Careful ventilation, avoiding a draught, 
will to some extent prevent mildew. 

Fruit Under Glass. 

Vines. — All Grapes should by this date be cut. If 
not required for immediate use, they can be bottled, 
which will keep the berries in a plump condition 
for some time to come. This operation simply 
consists in filling bottles with water, to which add 
a few nodules of charcoal. Then place the 
bottles in a slanting position on the edge of a 
shelf in the fruit-room, so that the bunches may 
hang clear when their stalks are put in the water. 
Look over the bunches frequently for bad berries 
and keep the bottles full of water. 

Resting Vines. — If we except the early vinery, 
all Vines should be at rest during this month. 
Plenty of air must be kept on constantly, only 
closing the ventilators during frost. Pruning 
should be completed and the vineries given a 
thorough scrubbing. 

Renovating Vine Borders. — Greatly improved 
vigour and finer fruit can be had by renewing 
Vine borders when they begin to show signs of 
exhaustion. The present is a suitable time for 
this operation. 

Strawberries. — Another batch of these may 
be brought indoors to succeed those started 
diu-ing December. They benefit from a rich top- 
dressing. If room is not to be had on vinery 
or Peach-house shelves, they can he brought 
along very nicely if plunged in a mUd hot-bed of 
stable litter and leaves. 

Pot Figs. — Where very early Figs are required, 
trees in pots will be found to matiu'e fruit quicker 
than planted-out specimens. A number of these 
may now be put in heat, and will be greatly assisted 
if plunged in a gentle hot-bed. 

The Flower Garden. 

Naturalised Bulbs. — If any leaves remain 
where these are growing, a final brush up should 
be given now, so that there will be no danger 
of injuring the young growths once they appear 
above the ground. 

Stakes and Canes.- — -Fine opportunities for 
overhauling these are offered during stormy 
weather, which prevents the ordinary outdoor work 
being proceeded with. 

Pentstemons. — A great variety of colour may 
be had during the autumn if seed of a good strain 
is sown now. For summer bedding the plants are 
generally propagated by cuttings put in cold 
frames during the autumn. These must not in 
any way be coddled, but should be protected 
during frost. George Home is still perhaps the 
best all-roimd variety. 

Violas. — ^These plants which were struck during 
the autumn will be found to survive the winter 
much better if the lights are removed when there 
is no danger of frost or rain. As the Viola is a 
perfectly hardy plant, it should not be protected 
except during very severe weather. 

East Lothian Stocks. — Unlike Ten-week Storks, 
these fragrant flowering plants require a long 
season of growth, and should be sown now in seed- 
boxes. Place them in a warm greenhouse or 
vinery just started, and remove to cooler condi- 
tions when their seed leaves have developed. 

John Jeffrey. 
(Head-gardener to Sir R. W. Buchanan Jardine, 
Bart.) 

Castlemilk Gardens, Lockerbie, N.B. 



90 



THE GARDEN. 



[January 9, 1913. 



THE IDEAL CATALOGUE. 

A S the Daffodil is my favourite flower, 
/% naturally one of my pleasant antici- 

/ % pations every week is opening my 
/ % Garden to see if there is any article 
•* *• about my beloved flower. Alas ! 

of late I have had many disappoint- 
ments. Please ask the Rev. 'J. Jacob not to reserve 
all his efiorts for the "Daffodil Year Book," but 
to write occasionally in The Garden about the 
Daffodil. Lately he seems to have confined 
himself mainly to Tulips. [See his article last 
week. — Ed.] In December 19 issue, page 6ir, 
however, " Somerset " has contributed an inter- 
esting criticism of a Daffodil catalogue. 

May I state my little grievance with catalogue 
compilers ? Not being overburdened with riches, 
I can only afford to grow a few of the better sorts, 
and I want only those that are good doers. Of 
coiurse, if they are up to exhibition form as well 
as possessing good constitutions, so much the better. 
My grievance with " X. and Sons' " catalogue, 
and most other Daffodil catalogues that I know, 
is that they describe and mark the flower almost 
entirely from an exhibition point of view. They 
do not, I think, cater sufficiently for the nvunerous 
Daffodil-lovers who do not exhibit, but who like 
to grow n few sorts of rather higher class than 
princeps and ornatus. 

For example, all catalogues would give more 
" stars " to King Alfred, Ariadne or Homespun 
than to Victoria, Frank Miles or Torch ; but 
I venture to say that the last three would 
prove more satisfactory to the ordinary grower 
than the former trio. Maybe King Alfred, Ariadne 
and Homespun are not so well suited for the 
North of England as the South. At any rate, 
they are not happy in my exposed garden in 
Westmorland. Perhaps, Mr. Editor, you will get 
someone to \vrite on Daffodils suitable for the North 
as you have done lately with regard to Roses. 
[We will prod Mr. Jacob ; he lives in North 
Shropshire. — Ed.] Exhibitors may not like the 
perianths of Frank Miles and Torch, but these 
varieties are grand thrivers in the garden, and 
are fine as cut flowers. What matter if Victoria 
grown in the open is rather short in the stem ! 
It has few other faults. By the way, are not some 
people carrying their love of length of stem and 
excessive height in flowers rather to extremes ? 
They are apparently not satisfied unless their 
Sweet Peas have stems 2 feet long and they 
have to wire their Perpetual-flowering Carnations 
when cut for vases. The newer Violets have 
legs so long that they can hardly now be described 
as modest. I think, however, I see signs of a 
reaction setting in. Even Lord Kitchener (the 
soldier, not the Daffodil) now approves of bantam 
battalions ! 

I am rather rambling, so will return to my love, 
the Daffodil. That pretty little Daffodil Water- 
witch would, I think, be improved if it had a shorter 
and sturdier stem. In my windswept garden 
more than half the flowers every year are spoilt 
by the stems being bent and twisted by the wind. 

When I can attend Daffodil shows, I, of course, 
make notes of the various flowers that I would like 
to add to my small collection in the distant future 
when they reach a price I can afford ; but I have 
no means of knowing whether such as Lovelmess, 
Mrs. Robert Sydenham, Dosoris or Great Warley 
and others that I admire have good constitutions 
or not, and I cannot afford to buy a great many 
sorts and find out for myself. 



An Irish dealer has made a beginning of adding 
to the description of some of the Daffodils that 
he deals in a note as to their constitution, " good " 
or " poor," as the case may be. Will the compilers 
of the ideal catalogues kindly do the same ? 
We would not expect perfect agreement, as, of 
course, soil, climate, &c., will always play their 
part ; but it would be a great help to an ignorant 
and bewildered Daffodil-lover like myself, and I 
fancy I am not " the only pebble on the 
beach." J. R. 

ROYAL HORTICULTURAL 
SOCIETY'S DAHLIA TRIAL 
AT DUFFRYN, NEAR CAR- 
DIFF, 1914. 

THE society's trial of Dahlias from a 
garden decorative point of view was 
again carried out in r9r4, by kind 
permission of Reginald Cory, Esq., 
at Duffryn, near Cardiff, and again 
proved a great success. As the trial 
on this occasion was confined to seedlings not 
yet in commerce, and any varieties offered for the 
first time in I9r4, the trial was not so extensive 
as in 1913, though some two hundred and forty 
varieties were sent in, and the number of novelties 
was largely increased both from at home and 
abroad, showing evidence of a greatly increased 
interest in these trials. The Paeony-fiowered 
section was the most numerous, no fewer than 
no varieties being represented. The Collarette 
section totalled forty-four, the Cactus thirty- 
three, the singles thirty-two, the decorative 
varieties seventeen, the Pompons three, and one 
Pompon Cactus. Unfortunately, the first week 
in September was very wet, with high winds 
prevailing day after day, so that many of the 
flowers were damaged and were not seen at their 
best. At the time of inspection, however, they 
were rapidly recovering. 

The Paeony-flowered varieties are advancing, 
having much better stems than the older forms ; 
but little, if any, improvement was apparent in 
the Collarette section. The Cactus varieties sent 
in were a decided improvement on those of last 
year. Unfortunately, many of them were making 
a second growth, thus hiding to a certain extent 
the first flowers. The decorative section had 
withstood the wind and rain best of all, and a 
considerable improvement was noted here in the 
colours, stem and freedom of flowering. The other 
sections did not contain anything that could be 
called better than the varieties already in commerce. 
The £5 5s. cup, kindly presented to the society 
by Mr. Cory, was recommended to be awarded to 
Mrs. J. C. Vaughan, a Pseony-flowered form. 
Though its first flowers are all double, later in the 
season it develops a distinct eye. 

The trial was admirably carried out, and gave 
evidence of the great care and attention that had 
been bestowed upon the plants by Mr. Cory, to 
whom is tendered the grateful thanks of the society 
and of all admirers of the Dahlia as a decorative 
garden plant. Awards were given to the following : 
CACTUS VARIETIES. 
Name. gentler. De-fcriptifm. ''pe'et' 

,\strcc Cayeux & Rich, deep pink 4 

I/!clcrc 

Beauty Str^dwick Pink, florets slightly 5 

twisted 

Honesty West.... \Vhite,shadingtopink 4 

Louvaiii I>ick.son & Pale yellow, centre 4i 

Robinson shading to pink 

Sophocles Cayeux & Deep terra-cotta ... 3 

Lecleic 



COLLARETTE 

Name. Sender. 

.\von Dobbie . . 

Doon Dobbie . . 

El Kantara Cory 

Louie Blackman . Stredwick 

Ruby Stredwick 

Warspite Stredwick 



VARIETIES. 

Description. Sdj7«. 
Vermilion scarlet self, 3i 



collar shaded lemon 
Bright scarlet self, 

lemon collar 
Clierry red, collar 

white 
Buff, suffused ver- 
milion 
Vermilion scarlet and 
yellow, lemon collar 
Crimson scarlet . collar 
shaded wliite 



24 



H 



SINGLE VARIETIES. 



Crawley Star . . . Cheal 

Oran CorV . 

Stora Cory . 



Rosy pink 4 

Crimson scarlet 3J 

Rosy crimson, yellow 3J 
disc, lat'ze 



PiGONY-FLOWERED VARIETIES. 



Amhor Queen , 
An. Schieber . , 

Beacon 

Bcrhoz 



Beethoven 
Dinant . . . . 



Great Britain 
Hort. Fiet . . . 

Juliet 

-Melilla 

AtaUnes 



ilozart 

-Mrs. J, C. Vaughan 

Tcrmonde 



Weber 

White Seedling 

White Lady. . . 



West 

Pfitzer . . 

West 

Riding . . 

Riding . . 
Dickson & 

Robinson 
Waruaar . 
Warnaar . 
Burrell . . 

Cory 

Dickson A, 

Robinson 
Riding . . 
Warnaar 

Dickaon & 
Robinson 
Riding . . 
Pfitzer . . 
Krelage 



Amber, shaded orange 5 

Rich yellow 5 

Intense scarlet SJ 

Old gold, su [fused 5 1 
salmon 

Amber 3 J 

Lemon yellow 3A 

Mauve 3 

Salmon buff 3 

Baff, suffused salmon 6 

Clear yellow 3 

Yellow, suffused ver- 4i 

milion 

Bright, deep crimson 4 

Lemon yellow (cup 4J 

variety) 

Mauve pink 4 

Rose pink 34 

\^'bite 5 

^^^lito, narrow petals 5 



DECORATIVE VARIETIES. 



Futurity 

Godfrey's Crimson 

Mabel 

Mrs. Lang 

Minnie BuTirle . . 
MireUc 

Maid of all Work 



Offenbach . . . 
Reginald Cory. 
Sulphurea . . . 



West .... Salmon 4 

Godfrey.. Bright crimson 5 

West Light mauve 4 

West .... Bright crimson 4 

Dobbie . Scarlet 4 

Cayeux <t Pale lemou 5 

Leclerc 

Keynes, Pure white, medium 4 

WiUiams )iloom 

Riding . . Pure yellow 5 

Cheal ... Crimson, tipped white ijj 

West .... Sulphur yellow 4 



DAFFODIL NOTES FROM 
NEW ZEALAND. 



Judging at the Midland Daffodil Society's 
Show. — -The sixteenth annual report of the 
Midland Daffodil Society has recently come to 
hand, and though the usual dinner and discussion 
on Daffodil matters did not take place in 1914, 
it provides interesting reading. The lists of 
the varieties shown in the various winning 
stands are always well conned, and enable us 
to make some comparison with our shows and 
form an idea as to how up to date we are out here. 

The Midland Daffodil Society's exhibition 
deservedly occupies a leading position among 
spring shows, and its lead is largely followed 
by kindred societies in New Zealand and 
elsewhere. On this ground I feel constrained 
to refer to one matter disclosed by the 
report, which has caused me some surprise, 
and that is the number of stands which secure 
awards though not complying with the schedule. 
This feature first caught my attention when, 
in perusing the 1913 report, I noticed that Mme. 
de Graaff was shown in the first and second prize 
stands in Class 4 as a white trumpet (Division I.b), 
and also in the second and fourth prize stands 
in Class 5 as a bicolor trumpet (Division I.c). 

In going through the 1914 report I note that 
S.T.H.W. (a new seedling, presumably) is shown 
in Class 22 as a triandrus hybrid (Division V.), 
and also in Class 25 as a Tazetta hybrid 
(Division VIII.), while in at least nine other 



January 9, 1915.] 



THE GARDEN. 



23 



stands appear one or two varieties belonging to 
divisions other than those prescribed (as per list 
enclosed). These irregularities seem to occur 
more often in the open than in the amateur classes, 
and are apparently not dealt with by the judges, 
who I assume merely adjudicate on the comparative 
merits of the blooms as staged, and are tacitly 
acquiesced in by the exhibitors, as no protests 
are mentioned. 

My object in writing is to enquire and ascertain 
for the benefit of Colonial shows whether the 
matter has been brought up and considered, 
and what, if any, remedies are suggested. I 
know from experience some of the difficulties the 
judges mret, also the disinclination of exhibitors 
(especially in a small community like ours, where 
they are all more or less acquainted) to win on a 
protest ; but it seems hardly fair that exhibitors 
who are careful to comply strictly with the schedule 
should be prejudiced in this way. 
It seems to me that the personal 
element will usually deter exhibi- 
tors from bringing forward these 
i' regularities by way of protest, and 
that therefore it should be the duty 
of some oflicial to have them dealt 
with. 

Horticultural Hall, Auckland, 
New Zealand. — The accompanying 
view is of the new Horticultural 
Hall belonging to the Aucldand 
Horticultural Society, and used for 
the first time on the occasion of 
tlie Society's spring show on 
September 4 and 5 last. The 
building was erected and occupied 
as the Art Gallery in connection 
with the recent Auckland Exhi- 
bition, at the conclusion of which 
the Auckland Horticultural Society 
took advantage of the opportunity 
offered and purchased the hall, 
after having arranged with the City 
Council as to the ground rent. The 
situation in the Domain Reserve 
is one of the most beautiful round 
Auckland, commanding fine views 
of the harbour and north shore, and 
as the Council is maintaining and 
adding to the lawns, flower-beds, 
&c., which were laid out for the 
exhibition, the surroundings of the 
hall will be a great help to our 
shows. The building is roomy, 
convenient, and well lighted by day 
and night. Exhibitors at the spring show were well 
pleased with it, and as a great saving in rent, 
labour and other expenses is effected, as compared 
with the Town Hall, where the horticultural 
shows were previously held, the society is to be 
congratulated on its enterprise, being, as I 
believe, the first in the colony to acquire show 
premises of its own. 

Auckland, New Zealand. A. E. Grindrod. 



send you some fruit of Benthamia fragifera grown 
here in a garden facing Dartmoor at a height of 
900 feet above the sea. There has been much 
correspondence about the hardiness of Choisya 
ternata which makes me smile. There are large 
bushes here 7 feet or 8 feet high that get no pro- 
tection beyond that afforded by surrounding 
shrubs, and I have not known them cut in the 
severest frosts." 



ANSWERS 
TO CORRESPONDENTS. 



FLOWER GARDEN. 

INFORMATION ABOUT LILY POOL (5.).— Unless 
the plants can be accommodated in the pool itself, the 
true Water Lilies (Nymphseas) would be quite useless to 
you. For these an assured depth and supply of water 
is essential. By arranging mounds of soil at inten-als 



elegant habit and very free. Either of these would be 
equally as good as that first named. An alternative plan 
would bo to have a Godetia garden, arranging each bed 
with a different colour, using the double pink-flowered 
Schaminii for the star-shaped bed. In the event of your 
doing this, we would suggest that the four crescent-shaped 
beds be all edged with white Alyssum. 



THE GREENHOUSE. 

CYCLAMENS UNSATISFACTORY (J. If.).— Judging 
by the appearance of the specimen sent, your plants of 
Cyclamen have been kept in a too close and moisture- 
laden atmosphere. These plants need a free circulation 
of air around the corms, for which reason they are often 
stood on inverted pots in order to keep them clear of 
stagnant moisture. The watering, too, needs to be care- 
fully done, especially when the flower-buds form. So 
if the crown is wetted, decay is very likely to set iu. An 
excess of stimulants, too, may have the same effect, 
[f the corm were very wet, it is quite possible that the 
sudden drop in the temperature would help towards the 
mischief. 



FRtJlT GARDEN. 

TREATMENT OF VINES !N WINTER (Garden Lover).— 
No time should be lost in pruning the Vines. Delay 
may cause the wounds to bleed. Ciit all the side shoots 




THE NEW HORTICULTURAL HALL, AUCKLAND, NEW ZEALAND. 



THE EDITOR'S TABLE. 



Fruits of Benthamia fragifera.— Mr. T. H. O. 

Pease, Skaigh, Okehampton, Devon, sends slioots 
of this beautiful shrub, which are bearing ripe 
fruits. These are about three-quarters of an 
inch in diameter, dull purplish red in colour, 
with a rough, wart-like exterior. It would be 
interesting to learn if this shrub fruits in other 
parts of the country. Mr. Pease writes : " I 



in the bottom of the pool this would be simple enough. The 
soil should be strong loam with manure, and each mound 
should contain about six bushels. On to these the plants 
should be sunk. In no other way will you get the water 
surface covered with leaves and flowers so well. For 
the side cavity many things could be named, Gunnera, 
Swamp Lily, JFerns, hardy Orchids, Eceds, Grasses and 
the like, though not all of these would spread to the water, 
and some would be too large for the width of the pool 
described. Assuming that the outer wall of the pool is 
quite water-tight, the mound planting suggested might 
be displaced by hrealcing into the inner wall of the pool 
low down to permit of inserting the rhizomes of the Lilies 
therein, so that they will be beneath the water and in touch 
with the soil provision at the sides at one and the same 
time. If this is possible, please ^vrite us again, mth fuller 
particulars, to enable us to reply in detail. 

ANNUALS FOR BEDS {We.^l Lynnp).~FQT the eight- 
pointed star bed employ a single plant of the Summer 
Cypress (Kochia tricliophylla) in the centre, with either 
Godetia Crimson Xing or Tagetes Legion of Honour 
around — tlie last named has golden yellow flowers witl) 
a velvety maroon blotch on each petal — using the white 
Alyssum maritimum for the points of the star. For the 
foxu" crescent-shaped beds we think you cannot do better 
than employ the large-flowered Nemesias in pink, yellow, 
orange, and scarlet, one colour to each bed. There arc 
other varieties of Godetia, as Lady Satin Hose (rose pink), 
Scarlet Queen, Ladybird (white, crimson spotted) and 
the double pink-flowered Schaminii, the last named of 



of this year's gro%vth to within one bud of their base 
(leaving a few leaves on the shoots docs not matter). 
Take off the loose bark from the surface of the Vines 
by rubbing witli the hand. Some people scrape with 
a knife (do not do this), the object being to expose any 
embryo insects there may bi' hiding under the bark. 
Afterwards wash the Vines with an emulsion of soft soap 
and warm water, a quarter of a pound of soft soap to a 
gallon of water. An old carriage brush or one of a similar 
description is useful for the "purpose. Be careful not 
to brush the buds at the base of the cut shoots. It is these 
buds which will produce the Grapes. After this is done, 
sling the Vines loosely to the trellis. Have the glass 
and woodwork of the vinery washed inside and out. 
Keep the vinery cool by admitting plenty of air day 
and night ; 8° or 10" of frost will not hurt the Vines. 
If the border is inside and, as you say, cracking, give 
it a good soaking of manure-water from the co%v or 
stable yard two or three times. If the border is outside, 
it will be wet enough, and you had better cover it with 
fresh leaves to the depth of 7 inches and cover the leaves 
with a thin layer of straw, cording it do^Ti to keep the 
leaves from blowing about. If the bases of the Vines 
are exposed where they enter through the wall, protect 
from frost with haybands or straw. Write us later ; we 
shall be pleased to help you further. 

HOW TO PRUNE A NEWLY PLANTED YOUNG 
PEACH TREE {R. J. F.). — The answer is, prune back 
to within a foot of the base of new shoots. By 
doing this you will find in the spring that buds will 



24 



THE GARDEN. 



[January 9, 1915. 



form shoots from base to summit of what there 
i-; left of these shoots, whereas, it these shoots were not 
thii* severely pruned, new shoots next year would only 
l>e formed at the apices of the shoots, leartng their base 
bare of shoots and fruit for all time aftervvards. 

TREES AND SHRUBS. 

WHEN TO PRUNE CARPENTEHIA CALIFORNICA 

<PCTirariie).— You cannot do 1> tter than prune your 
Carnenteria about the firft wick in March. Prune just 
sufficienllv to shape the bush, but do not cut it back unduly 
hard Your plant of Clematis can be pruned any 
time' after the end of January and before the new 
shoots appear. It can be pruned back to wnthln two or 
three buds of the base of last season's wood, and some 
branches can be removed outriuht if you wish. 



NAME OF PLANT. — M. A. C— White Beam Tree 
(Pyrus Aria), Ix'st propagated by means of seeds. 

NAMES OF FRUIT.— £. L. B.—\. Bcurrg d'Anjou ; 2. 
Josephine de Malines. 



OBITUARY. 



PLANTS FOR HEDGE (Enjuiw).— A oood Thorn 
hcdae will answer your purpose in the described position on Christmas Day- 
better than the j'lyrobalan or Cherry Plum To give 
entirely satisfactory results the Cherry Plum should have 
a fairly open position, and even then it scarcely forms 
.such a stron<,' hedee as the Hawthorn. It, however, 
-rows more rapidly 'in the early stages, as t^he Chorn is 
rather slow-erowing fur a few years, lie careful to work the 
ground well b-fore planting. We do not know where a 
"ood Mvrobalan hedge is tn Ije seen. • 
" FIR WITH SILVERY FOLIAGE {Mrs. J. S. T.).— 
There are several Firs which bear glaucous or silvery 
foliage. Perhaps the best is Abies nobilis glauca ; 
then there are .\. concolor var. argentea Wallczii. A lasio- 
caroa cajrulescens and A. niagniflca, all of which bear 
-ilverv leaves. Apart from the true Firs, perhaps the 
best bf all conifers as regards silvery leaves arc Picea 
punoens glauca and Cedrus atlantica glauca. These 
two arc even better than Abies nobilis glauca Ihe 
\bies mav be obtained up to 4 feet or S feet m height 
the Picea up to H feet or 4 feet and the Cedrus up to 8 feet . 
but as a rule smaU plants become established more (|iiickly 
than large ones. 



KITCHEN GARDEN. 

INSECTS ON BRUSSELS SPROUTS ROOTS U- H.).— 

The club root disease of Turnips and Cabbages is not 
caused by the small white insects to which you refer, but 
by a minute and altogether microscopic fungus which is 
called Plasmodiophora brassica;. The presence of the 
smaU white insects, however, suggests that you have not 
limed vour soil lately, and nothing but a dressing of 
quicklime applied in autumn, will be likely to cure the 
trouble from which your plants are suffering. 

BRUSSELS SPROUTS A FAILURE (.ReMiffe).— It is 
seldom one hears of a failure in the growth of this valuable 
vegetable, and the failure in this instance, we think is 
dne to an attack of what is termed ' clubbing at^the 
roots This disease is caused by a minute fungus (Plas- 
modiiphora brassicse), which confines its attack to plants 
of Brassica and other cruciferous plants, such as Turnips, 
Swedes and Radishes. The fungus may lemam dormant 
in the ground for years, and only become active when 
plants of the Cabbage tribe ar? planted. This fungus 
causes a swelling or deformity at the base o! the stem, 
which cripples the root power of the plants and causes 
failure The best remedy for the destruction of the fungus 
has been found to be quickUme, applied at the rate of 



MRS. THOMAS STEVENSON. 

The many friends of Mr. Thomas Stevenson, 
the well-known Sweet Pea enthusiast of Wobum 
Place Gardens, Addlestone, Surrey, will learn 
with the deepest sorrow of the death of Mrs. 
Stevenson, which occurred, after a short illness, 
The deceased was a quiet, 
unassuming woman, and took the keenest interest 
in her husband's work, mors especially that section 
of it devoted to Sweet Peas and Chrysanthemums. 
All who know Mr. Stevenson will, we are sure, join 
us in tendering to him our deepest sympathy 
in the sad and irreparable loss that he has sustained. 



TRADB NOXBS. 




as manure. The land affected should be deeply trenched 
and liberally manured in winter, applying the lime as 
above in spring, and crop with Potatoes. The precaution 
must also be taken of not planting any plants of the 
Cabbage tribe in the affected soil for at least two years. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

MANURE FOR SOIL (A Beginner).— Vi\\ think ten loads 
of manure would not be too much for a first treatment ol 
vour land, and that it would be well to give .a dressing of 
i)Owdered chalk, to bo dusted on while digging as well, 
otherwise your treatment should give good results. 

OPENING FOR YOUNG GARDENER (£. M.).— Believ- 
iu" that there ate as good fish in the sra as have ever 
been cau-ht wc also believe that the chances for a young 
• ■ardencr'are as good as ever they were, while the oppor- 
tunities for acquiring knowledge are to-day a huntlrcd- 
f.dd greater than forty years ago. Before we can advise 
vou however, it would be necessary to know what experi- 
I'uce you have had, and particularly what your inclinations 
are Gardening in its broadest seme is made up of many 
branches, the Jeed and bulb trade, bulb farmmg, land- 
scape gardening, fruit cultur-. alpine and hardy plant 
gardening, market gardening, vegetable and flower and 
*• . ..--""--j^-:..- >;»: nf «>,..m Then, of course. 



."cientiflc gardening being some of them , 

■I private gardener requires a totally different training 
to the commercial gardener, though the principles of 
gardening should be well grounded in each. Let us hear 
from you again and tell us your tent, when we will advise 
vou to the best of our ability. , . , , 

■ PLANT FOR SCREEN (R. /!.).— The simpler wa> to 
hide the pump, if by reason of environment it is also 
practicable, would be to plant an enclosing fence of an 
erect-growing conifer, e.g., Cuprcssus lawsoniana erecta 
viridis, or even Oval-leaved Privet, outside of which Apples 
or Plums could be arranged at will. None of the fruit 
trees or climbers named in your letter would obscure the 
pump very much from view in winter-time, though the 
arrangcmint suggested would do it elfectually. and provide 
fruit of a useful kind in addition. An alternative to the first 
would be to embower the pump with an iron arch and plant 
the most evergreen Roses — %vichuraianas — thereon, with tm 
fruit trees around. This would take up the least room, 
with "honours easy" in respect to the useful and the 
beautiful. Wc are afraid we cannot recommend a fruit 
immune from the "attacks of birds," as these vary con- 
siderably with localities. The contents of the tank should 
bo of much value in the vegetable garden. 



Boots for Country Weak. 
Those who live in the country know how essential it is 
to secure and wear good boots, especially during wet and 
cold weather, and they also know how difficult it is to 
procure locally just thequality and style that are required. 
We are reminded of this bv the receipt of a splendidly 
illustrated catalogue of " Fife " footwear from Mr. A. T. 
Hogg, Strathmiglo, Fife, N.B. Mr. Hogg has for many 
yeaTs made a speciality of boots for coimtry wear, both 
for ladies and gentlemen, and we strongly advise our 
readers to write to him for a free copy of this catalogue. 
.\ll the boots and shoes mentioned and illustrated in its 
pages are thoroughly reliable, and made in sizes and styles 
to "fit every foot^ w'hile the prices are as low as possible 
considering the quality. 

A BEACTiFtrx Seed Catalogue. 
The superb catalogue of vegetable and (lower seeds for 
1915 that we have just received from Messrs. E. Webb 
and Sons of VVordsh-y, Stourbridge, is of a particularly 
interesting character. As usual, it is thoroughly well 
illustrated, and the particulars of the many kinds of 
seeds the firm offers are set forth in an instructive and 
interesting manner. Messrs. Webb have for many years 
been in the front rank of seedsmen who make a speciality 
of high-class vegetables ; and as there is likely to be a larger 
demand than usual for vegetables this year, wc advise 
all our readers to write to them for a copy of this cata- 
logue, which will be sent gratis and post free if THE 
(3ARDES is mentioned. Several fine novelties of vege- 
tables and flowers are oHered in its pages, and it is a book 
well worth keeping for future reference. 

" BEES' GTTARANTESTED SEEDS." 

This is the title of the neat and well-compiled seed cata- 
logue for 1915 just published by Jlessrs. Bees, Limited, 
Mill Street, Liverpool. Within its pages wlU be found 
particulars of all good vegetables and flowers, many of 
which are well illustrated in colours. In addition there 
are many half-tone illustrations, which convey to the 
reader a" good idea of results that have been obtained 
from the firm's seeds. Messrs. Bees state that the whole 
of the seeds offered in this catalogue have been obtained 
from British, Colonial, French and American growers 
and merchants. They will be pleased to send a copy 
post free to any reader who cares to write for it. 

Catalogues Received. 
Messrs. Thompson and Morgan, Ipswich; Herbaceous 

and Alpine Plants. 
Jlessrs. Sutton and Sons. Reading : Seeds. 
Messrs. W. Atlee Burpee and Co., Burpee Buildings, 

Philadelphia. U.S.A. : Seeds. 
.Messrs. Bees, Limited, -Mill Street. Liverpool : Seeds. 
.Messrs. E. Webb and Sons, Wordsley, Stourbridge : 

Seeds. 
Messrs. Cooper, Taber and Co., flO and 9-2, Southwark 

Street, London, S.E. : Seeds (wholesale only). 
Messrs. J. Peed and Sons, West Norwood : Seeds. 
Messrs. J. Stormonth and Sons, Kirkbride, Carlisle : 

Seeds. 
Messrs. Dobbie and Co., Edinburgh : Seeds. 
.Messrs. Lcmoinc and Sons, Rue du Montet, Nancy: 

Gladioli. 
Messrs. Stuart Low and Co., Bush Hill Park, Middlesex : 

Carnations. 
Sir. W. J. Unwin, Histon, Cambs : Sweet Peas and Other 

Flower and Yegctablc Seeds. 



•.• Tfif. Yearly Subscription to THE GARDEN is ; Inland, 
6s. 6d ; Forei'jn, Ss. 9rf. 



To Secretaries, Horticultural Societies. 
Schedule covers, printed three colours on thick 
art paper, tan be had gratis, with necessary 
printing done tree. For particulars apply 

I75C, Mill St., 
LIVERPOOL. 




Your Seeds 

need not cost you more. 

If yon are wise and buy 

Bees' Guarantested Seeds 

they will actually 

cost less than in 1914. 

Is it passible ? 

Yes. It is more tluin possible, it is absolute fact. 
The price of Bees seed, especially of garden peas, has 
actually been reduced in spite of the war. 

And you liave the additional satisfaction, if you 
buy from Bees, of knowing that the seed is 

Britisb. Colonial, 
Frencb or American. 

You are given this assurance in a special message 
from the " Manager Bee." 

As to the quality you simply cannot get better 
seed. Bees Ltd. make no claim tluvt their seed is 
" the best " in the sense that all other seed is Inferior. 
Bat they do affirm that it is equal to the best in the 
land, more than tliat no one can hope for. And tliis 
assmrance Ls gi»-en under a cash warranty or guarantee. 
You are invited to test Bees' Seeds, and if they should 
not prove satisfactory Bees Ltd. guarantee to return 
your cash in full. 

Test one of these Sweet Pea Collections on these 
terms. 

7214. Bees' ' Mersey ' Collection of 
Sweet Pea«, 1/6. 



12Up-to-Date Varieties. 



10 seeds of each. 

Id. 3d. 



4 


20 


5 


25 


5 


25 


3 


IS 


5 


25 


3 


IS 


5 


25 


5 


25 


5 


25 


4 


20 


5 


25 


3 


15 



7226 Afterglow, violet blue ... 

7251 Dobbies' Cream, primrose 

7261 Sunproof Crimson, 

7266 Prince George, lilac rose 

7272 Mrs. Heslington, lavender 

7284 King Manoel, maroon ... 

7302 Thos. Stevenson, orange 
7:ill Elfrida Pearson, pale pink 

7312 Hercules, deep pink 
7318 Barbara, salmon... 
7337 America Spencer, red wliite ... 

7313 King White, L'rand 

For Smaller Gardens. 

7215. Bees" Liverpool 'Collection, 6d. 

10 Seeds each in separate packets. 

Id. 3d. 

7263 Maud Holmes, crimson 5 25 

7295 Queen of Norway, mauve ... ... 5 25 

7303 Edna Unwin, orange ... ... ... 5 25 

7313 Countess Spencer, pink ... ... 10 50 

7321 Earl Spencer, salmon .'.. 5 25 

7341 Etta Dyke, piue white 10 50 

For Larger Gardens. 

7216. Bees' 'Lancashire' Collection. 

Tills contains the 18 varieties enumerated above in 
the Mersey and Liverpool Collections, 10 seeds of 
each, and is first-rate v.alue at 



2/- 



TWO SHILLINGS. 



2/- 



Any variety can be had separately in Id. or 3d. 
packets containing the ciuantity of seeds noted along- 
side the description. 

Mixed Sweet Peas. 

7375. Bees' Fairy or Spencer Mixture. 

9d. oz.. 100 seeils, 3d., 20 seeds. Id. 

7377 Orandiflora Xd., 3d. oz., 60 seeds. Id. 

7379 Cupid S. Peas Xd., 3d. J-oz., 50 seeds. Id. 

Send yoiu order Now. Add Id. for postage on 
orders uiider 2/6 value, and ask for Catalogue. It 
contains Xatural Colour Illustrations of Sweet Peas 
and other flowers. Altogether there are 12 pages of 
colour. Order or write to-day. NOW. 
" Lest you Forget " 




175c, Mill Street, 
LIVERPOOL. 



^fevl. 




GARDEN. 



-7^- 



* 




5> 



No. 2252.— Vol. LXXIX. 



January 16, 1915- 



NOTES OF THE WEEK. 



Kew and the War. — According to the current 
issue of tlie Kew BulW.in, tiie numbir of men from 
the Royal Botanic Gardens now serving with His 
Majrsty's Army is sixty-six. 

The Chinese Witch Hazel.— For six weeks — 
from the middle of December to the end of January 
— should the weather prove moderately mild, the 
bright golden blossoms of the Chinese Witch 
Hazel (Hamamelis mollis) make it one of the most 
attractive plants ' imaginable, for not 
only is every twig laden with showy 
flowers, but they arc also fragrant with 
a pleasant Primrose-like perfume. 
Strange to say, although this shrub was 
introduced as long ago as 1879, it is 
only during the last fifteen years that 
it has come to be known, and even 
now, although it is the best of the 
Witch Hazels, it is by no means com- 
mon. When planted in rather light, 
-oamy soil containing a little leaf- 
mould or peat, it grows well and soon 
forms a shapely bush 3 feet or 4 feet 
high ; eventually it will probably grow 
three times that height. 

A Good Greenhouse Acacia. — Among 
the Acacias of dwarf habit suitable for 
growing in pots, few can surpass A. 
platypttra. This forms a neat, erect 
bush from 18 inches to 3 feet in height, 
which from November until well into 
February produces its golden blossoms 
in abundance. These are globular, and 
are borne in clusters of usually five to 
eight. In mature plants true leaves are 
seldom present, their fimctions being 
tarried out by the flattened leaf-like 
stems. To keep the plants dwarf and 
shapely, the growths are cut back fairly 
hard after the flowers have faded. In 
common with other members of the 
family, this Acacia appreciates soil that 
contains a quantity of peat and sand, 
with good loam forming the bulk. 

The True Chinese Primula. — In 

House No. 4 at Kew just now there are 
some flowering plants of Primula sinensis which 
are the direct descendants of plants raised 
from seeds collected in China by Mr. E. H. WUson. 
These have pale mauve blossoms of stellate shape, 
the whorls of flowers being borne in tiers as in 
the stellate garden forms of Primula sinensis. 
It has been generally assumed that our garden 
varieties of this Primula have all originated from 
the wild plant, but we believe some authorities are 
now disposed to doubt the correctness of this. It 



rather seems as though the so-called wild Chinese 
Primulas that hcve reached this country previous"}- 
have been cultivated varieties in China. 

Our Sub-Editor on Active Service. — We 
think the following letter from our Sub-Editor, 
Mr. H. Cowley, who is now serving with the British 
Expeditionary Force in France, will be of interest 
to readers : " Since our arrival in France we have 
been camped under canvas in a dreadful quagmire. 




LEPTOSIPHON DENSIFLORUS HYBRIDUS, A BEAUTIFUL 
DWARF HARDY ANNUAL. 



but, despite most depressing surroundings, we 
have kept merry and bright. Now we are bill ted 
in a small \-illage, very comfortable, well fed and 
well worked. There is one side of the life that 
most fellows miss, but never escapes my observation 
— I mean the trees and other vegetation. The 
Venetian Sumach looks fine, and the Norfolk 
Island Pine — looked upon as tender at home — 
stands the severe weather here with impunity. 
I hr.ve seen Irises growing freely on the roofs of 



thatched cottages, but the wilding that has given 
me the greatest pleasiure is Traveller's Joy, here, 
as in our Surrey lanes, seen rambling over farm 
buildings and invariably marking the approach 
to a village, often a most welcome sight after a 
march over open country." 

A Beautiful Hardy Annual.— The illustra- 
tion on this page represents one of the most 
charming of all hardy annuals, and one that 
ought to be found in every garden. 
It is usually listed in seed catalogues 
as Leptosiphon densiflorus hybridus 
or Leptosiphon French hybrids. Seed 
sown in the open early in April quickly 
germinates, and the seedlings soo-i 
make neat tufts of plumose greenery, 
whence the dainty little flowers spring 
in abundance. These are of various 
art shades, and never fail to elicit 
praise from all who see them. As its 
average height is 4 inches, it is ideal for 
carpeting beds of taller plants, for 
edgings to pathways, and for nooks in 
the rock garden. It will thrive in any 
good garden soil, but should be given 
a sunny position, as the flowers do no . 
open well in shade. We refer to it 
now so that it may be included in the 
seed order, as we do not know of any 
other dwarf hardy annual capable of 
giving so much pleasure as this. 

A Useful Old-Fashioned Greenhouse 
Plant. — Those who remember the time 
when hard-wooded greenhouse plants 
were well cultivated and highly appre- 
ciated will know how valuable Chorizemo 
ilicifolium is for the conservatory during 
the early days of the year. It may 
still be found in a number of good 
gardens, but deserves to be much more 
widely known. It makes a neat bush, 
and from January onwards until well 
into the spring is freely bespangled with 
its small, Pea-shaped blossoms, which 
have a vivid orange standard and 
purple wings. These contrast charm- 
ingly with the deep green, Holly-like foliage. 
This and other members of the family need good 
loam, peat and sharp sand as a rooting medium, 
and at repotting, which is best done just as new 
growth is being made, this must be rammed 
quite firm. To keep the plants bushy they may 
be cut hard back after flowering, and at the end 
of July the pots should be plunged in ashes 
outside, so as to thoroughly ripen the new wood 
before the wmter. 



26 



THE GARDEN. 



[January i6. 1915 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

(The Editor is not responsible for the opinions 
expressed by correspondents.) 



HThe Journal of the Royal Horticultural 

Society. — Though agreeing in the main with 
Mr. Engleheart's criticisms of this publication 
in last week's issue, page 14, and sharing in his 
objection to the amount of American material 
that the Editor has recently seen fit to incorporate 
in it, my complaint is more directed against the 
amount of purely scientific writing and its dis- 
proportionate relation to the treatment of everyday 
practical subjects. To one of the savants 
who desires to add to his store of knowledge 
by acquiring a better acquaintance with 
" The Plant in Relation to its Biological 
Environment," there must be at least a 
hundred Fellows who will eagerly devour, 
and gain profitable instruction from, 
the most practical and readable little 
article by Mr. H. G. Mount on the treat- 
ment of early Roses in pots. In my 
opinion Mr. Mount's four pages are worth 
more to the ordinary Fellow than the 
whole of the rest of the contents of 
this number of the Journal put together. 
The more of this sort of thing that Mr. 
Chittenden can give his readers the better, 
and the less likely will they be to throw 
the Journal aside almost as soon as it is 
opened, as is now very frequently the 
case. — F. Herbert Chapman. 

Shows, Schedules and Judges. — .\fter 
each show season one looks back with an 
increasing conviction that some reform is 
needed in the matter of shows, schedules and 
judging. We have a very large number of 
shows crowded into two or three months of 
the summer, the dates of some of which are 
fixed without regard to clashing, which in 
many cases might well be avoided. Of 
recent years it is becoming very apparent 
that show committees look upon trade ex- 
hibitors as their legitimate prey, and appear 
to have got the idea that the trade cannot 
exist without their show. They do not 
consider that without the trade their show 
would be very tame indeed ; neither is the 
amount of stuff, the time, the work and the 
expense taken into account. True, there 
are a few which offer fair inducements 
in the way of prize money ; there are 
more which offer a small amoimt for 
a big display, which does not even cover 
the cost of transit ; while many, again, 
offer medals {which sometimes consist 
of the cards only). They give litt'.e 



unable to interpret them. In Sweet Pea classes 
a great laxity as to number is often allowed, 
whUe in hardy flowers not one schedule in fifty 
stipulates that they shall be outdoor grown, and 
frequently an exhibit — poor in other respects — 
with one or two bunches of indoor-grown flowers 
(and here Liliums, such as longiflorum, seldom 
grown outside, generally play a part), takes the 
honours, while an exhibit staged according to 
the spirit of the schedule is passed over ; and we 
have seen some glaring examples of this. As to 
judges, how cften it is apparent that these arc 
selected from the position they hold without 
regard to their capability to fairly judge the 




A FLOWERING SPRAY OF THE SOUTHERN HEATH 
(erica AUSTRALIS). 



or no assistance to enable the ex- 
hibitor from a distance to get " fixed up," classes assigned to them. It does not follow that 



give no help in finding suitab'e accommoda- 
tion for a stranger, or to get away comfortably 
after the close. How often does the trade 
exhibitor lose his connection for home by 
having to wait for a conveyance ! In fact, 
by many societies the trade exhibitor is treated 
unfairly and imjustly, and if at some time he 
constilts his own pocket and becomes an absentee, 
then perhaps a lesson will be taught. It must be 
borne in mind that in these days of keen competi- 
tion and an increasing number of shows, the show 
tent is by no means a happy hunting ground for 
orders. As to schedules, these are sometimes so 
vague that even committees themselves are 



an expert fruit-grower is an expert florist, or 
vice versa. Nor does it follow that a man holds 
his position always because of his expert know- 
ledge and experience of either ; and it is essential, 
nay, it is but justice, that a judge should 
be selected who knows, and has practical 
experience of, the classes he has to judge. 
Much dissatisfaction would then be saved. 
Schedules are now being prepared for another 
" round." Is it too much to ask that 
these points may receive consideration ? — 
Exhibitor. [As th s subject is of special interest 
just now, we shall be gad to have the opinions 
of others. — Ed.] 



The Southern Heath (Erica australis). — 

The accompanying photograph, which was 
taken on April i of last year, depicts a spray 
of the beautiful Southern Heath. With us 
in a rather sheltered Surrey garden the 
plants are in full beauty during April and 
early May. I remember e arly last year that 
Mr. T. Wilson, writing from Glamis, described 
E. australis as " generally in flower in the month 
of June." This is probably accounted for by a 
cooler soil and late locality. The Southern 
Heath has purplish red flowers, richer and rather 
brighter in colour than those of the Mediterranean 
Heath. From this species the subject of the 
illustration is also readily distinguished 
by its open, looser habit of growth. 
Growing from 3 feet to. 5 feet or more 
in height, E. australis is a native of 
Portugal. It may be described as 
just on the borderand of hareliness, 
for while the plants have come through 
the last two or three winters mi- 
liarmed, we always insert a pot of 
cuttings of this species in company with 
E. lusitanica (codonodes) and E. Veitchii, 
which with us are the tenderest Tree 
Heaths. Another species which differs 
here from Glamis in. the season of 
flowering is the South European E. 
multiflora. My notes say August 12 to 
October 24 ; at Glamis it flowers in the 
New Year. — A Surrey Garden. 

The Late W. B. Latham : An Appre- 
ciation. — It was with feelings of deep 
regret that the writer, reading The Garden 
of January 2, became acquainted of the 
death of Mr. W. B. Latham. I fee] also 
that many gardeners and amateurs, 
throughout the Midland Counties espe- 
cially, would receive the news with an 
equally genuine sorrow. To the many 
horticulturists who at one time or another 
had the privilege of knowing Mr. Latham 
must come the feeling of a real personal 
loss. During the period of his curatorship 
of Edgbaston Botanic Gardens, hundreds 
<if gardeners must have had the benefit 
of his wise counsel. He was in his 
happiest vein when among his beloved 
plants or at any meeting where plant- 
life was the premier subject. At such 
meetings he was always chairman, and 
all present would feel that a master of 
craft was taking the lead. His wide 
knowledge of plants and their culture 
he was ever ready and willing to impart 
to anyone. He always appealed to the 
young men to seize every opportunity 
i>f acquiring knowledge, and several, 
mainly through his help, have become 
famous. He was indeed a lover of Nature, 
of things beautiful, which, I think, played a 
prominent part in his successful life, and yet he 
was the most simple - hearted ef men. If I 
remember rightly, on the occasion of his sixtieth 
birthday and as chairman of a gardeners' meeting 
he remarked that he had lived for sixty years, 
on y to feel how little he knew, for gardening 
was never learnt. His passing away leaves one 
with the thought that gardening is the poorer 
for his loss ; but his charm and geniality of manner, 
his kindly advice and greatness of heart, will, 
I am sure, be cherished by many of your readers 
to the memory of Mr. W. B. Latham. — W. Holtom, 
Bearwood, Staffs. 



January i6, 1915.] 



THE GARDEN. 



27 



Funkia subcordata grandiflora. — If Mr. Com- 
fort, whose note on this plant appears on page 2, 
issue January 2, will grow the above variety, 
he will have a pure white Funkia and a fragrant 
one too ; in fact, the blossoms of this variety 
are almost as good as those of Pancratium fragrans. 
With me this Plantain Lily succeeds admirably in 
(.'ur stiff soil. Is there such a variety as F. sub- 
cordata alba odorata ? — -E. M. 

Mildew-Proof Roses. — I have read with much 
interest the various notes which have of late 
weekly appeared in The Garden regarding mildew- 
proof Roses. I quite agree with what Mr. John W. 
Hicks says as to certain Roses being attacked 
by mildew in certain localities and immune in 
others. Last year I had practically no trouble 
«-ith either mildew or green fly, and the reason 
fcir this is simply that early in the season I 
sprayed every plant weekly (though I have not a 
large collection, but have over a hundred varieties) 
with Calvert's Carbolic Soft Soap. This preven- 
tive I can, therefore, highly recommend to all 
rosarians who wish to have nice clean plants. 
Perhaps it may interest readers to know that 
on New Year's Day, when there was r2° of frost 
and both curling and skating were indulged in here, 
I cut some beautiful blooms, grown 
in the open, from the following 
dwarfs, viz., Caroline Testout, Earl 
of Warwick, Friedrichsruh, Victor 
Hugo and Comtesse Icy Hardegg. — 
J. D. Lawrie, Craigielea, Duns, N.B. 
Butcher's Broom and Other 
Plants. — -You often refer to the 
dioecious character of the Butcher's 
Broom and the necessity of having 
both male and female plants if a 
display of berries is desired. Nobody 
who has ever seen a good plant in 
fruit can forget it, but what is 
wanted to be known is where to 
get a female plant or berries to raise 
plants from. For over twenty years 
have I received the invariable reply 
from nurserymen who have been 
asked for female plants, " None 
in stock." I was, fortimately, able 
last month to obtain three fruiting 
plants, but that apparently ex- 
hausted the supply. Then, as regards 
the flowering of the Banksian Rose, so frequently 
asked about and a blossoming plant of which 
cannot be purchased. Why is it not possible 
to buy a plant which will flower, when a 
piece broken off an old flowering climber, started 
before modern nursery grafting came into fashion, 
will grow and bloom ? Is it the fault of the 
grafting ? One more reference — as to Iris 
susiana not flowering. Perhaps if growers never 
allowed any side shoots to start and forced the 
growth into one centre stem, they might be 
successful. — A. L. Ford. 

Cuttings with " Heels." — While wishful to im- 
part information on matters horticultural to those 
with but little experience, would it not be much 
more to the point if writers would be a little 
more explanatory in a concise manner ? Take, for 
example, the two notes on the above subject 
on page 594, issue December 12, r9i4, and page 2, 
January 2. Practical persons know quite well 
that cuttings with heels are in some cases a great 
advantage ; in others the reverse. Both writers 
are not clear enough to the iminitiated as to what 
subjects should be handled on the heel principle 
or the reverse. In the case of soft-wooded plants, 



cuttings succeed best when cut close below a joint, 
not midway. Geraniums will root when cut 
midway between two leaves, but generally the 
portion has to first decay up to the joint, when 
rooting then quickly takes place. In cases like 
Altemantheras, the necessity to cut to a joint 
is not so great. The propagation of conifers, 
Roses under glass, shrubs generally. Lavender, 
&c., all succeed better under the heel system 
than without, especially with Roses under glass 
and in the open. No plant that I know displays 
the advantage of adding a heel so much as a 
Laurel cuttmg. In a like manner Aucubas 
respond quickly under glass to root production 
from heels as opposed to midway severance. — -S. 
[Mr. Jenkins' will deal fu'ly with this subj?ct in 
our next issue. — ^Ed.] 

Ginkgo biloba or Maidenhair Tree.— The 
Japanese name of this curious tree is Ginkiyo or 
Jeho, and the fruit is called Ginnan. To one 
who has known and loved the Ginkgo in many 
parts of Japan, it seems far easier and better 
to call it by that name than to trot out the whole 
twelve syllables of Salisburia adiantifolia, and 
I hope your correspondent " H. P.," whose note 
appears on page 2, issue January 2, will 



SOME HARDY LILIES— III. 




LILIUM REGALE, OFTEN KNOWN AS L. MYRIOPHYLLUM. IT IS 
A COMPARATIVELY NEW SPECIES TO OUR GARDENS. 



allow me to disagree with him when he calls 
Ginkgo " an awkward sounding word." The 
penultimate "g" should be spoken softly — 
more like " y." The fruit we call Persimmon 
comes from Japan, and there is called Kaki. 
In France the Persimmon is better known than in 
Britain, and I am told the French now call it Kaki. 
Why should we be afraid to call the Ginkgo by 
its original name ? I would be glad to know 
what name the French give to it. The fruits, 
or rather cones, of the Ginkgo are more like Olives 
than Larch or Fir cones, and the Japanese often 
use them in a pickled form, just as we use Olives. 
They are, however, very inferior to Olives. The 
Ginkgo seems to be quite hardy in Perthshire, 
but the comparative severity of the winters 
hinders vigorous growth. In Japan, especially 
in Kiyushiu, I have often seen Ginkgo trees well 
over a hundred feet in height. At a little distance 
they rather resemble Poplars. — J. H. D. 



FORTHCOMING EVENT. 
January 19. — ^Royal Horticultural Society's 
Fortnightly Meeting and Exhibition, Vincent 
Square, Westminster, i to 5 p.m. 



SUB-GENUS EULIRION. 

{Continued from page 16.) 
Lilium regale, introduced from Western China 
about the end of last century, is the most valuable 
addition to the list of cultivated Lilies that has 
been made since Messrs. James Veitch and Sons 
brought over L. auratum some thirty years earlier. 
It was named at first L. myriophyllum, but is 
quite distinct from^Franchet's Lily of that name. 
It well merits its'^new title — the Royal Lily — 
for it is a truly splendid thing, and possesses, 
in addition to singular beauty, a fine constitution, 
qualifying it to take rank among the easy Lilies. 
It demands much the same treatment as L. 
auratum, except that it relishes lime, which the 
other detests. Let the bulbs be kept in pots 
till they form basal roots freely ; then for per- 
manence plant them out deeply in generous, 
loamy soil with an admixture of ground lime- 
stone. The elrainage must be perfect, although 
this species is not nearly so liable to injury from 
winter wet as some of its congeners. The Royal 
Lily has affinities with the tender L. longiflorum 
and the more or less hardy L. 
Brownii ; but is easily distinguished 
from both when growing by the 
densely crowded linear leaves that 
clothe its 3-foot stem. The snowy 
perianth is more or less splashed 
with maroon outside and richly 
suffused with gold within the throat. 
The flowering season is in July. 

L. rubellum is as coy and capri- 
cious as L. japonicum (Krameri), 
whereof it is a miniatmre in form 
and colour of flower. Being quite 
frost-hardy, if it could be sent 
from Japan by some friendly hand 
soon after the flowering season is 
over — that is, in early summer — it 
might prove a less difficult subject ; 
but it has to wait tiU the usual 
autumn and winter exports are 
despatched, by which time the small 
bulbs are in the worst possible con- 
dition to encounter the wet and cold 
of our climate. The best chance of 
success is with bulbs raised from seed, and these 
should be treated as miniature L. auratiun, deeply 
planted in well-drained loam, and, in the Southern 
Counties at least, half screened from scorching 
sun. Here it may be noted as applying to all 
Lilies, as well as to every other plant cultivated in 
gardens, that no uniform prescription can be 
offered for the amount of exposure to sunlight, 
so greatly is the power of plants to profit by it 
or endure it modified by conditions of soil and 
atmosphere. On cool loam with a cooler subsoil, 
vegetation will revel in an amount of sunshine 
that would parch it to tinder on heavy clay or 
hot chalk. Latitude and longitude also enter 
into consideration. In the humid West the sun- 
light is seldom of so searching a character as in 
the Midlands or on the Eastern and Southern 
Coasts of England ; so that aU general directions 
for the cultivation of shrubs, herbs and bulbs 
should be read in relation to the meteorology 
of the district where they are to be grown. L. 
japonicum and L. rubeUum being the only pink 
Lilies known, it is hard that we cannot have them 
at beck and call. Howbeit, there is no reason 
to despair of solving some day the enigma of their 



28 



THE GARDEN. 



[January i6, 1915. 



nature, and it is of hopeful augury that seeds are stem rises, it may meet free air and sunsliine, 

so freely produced. while the root is screened from parching by lowly 

L. Sargentise.^A noble Chinese Lily, until undergrowth. So treated, this grand Lily comes 



lately reputed a variety of L. Brownii under 
the epithet leucanthtun, but now admitted to the 
dignity of a distinct species. It requires much the 
treatment as L. Brownii, and has thriven and 
flowered well with me in strong loam with 
sand and lime. The shape of the flowers is much 
the same as in Brown's Lily ; but they are gilded 
outside instead of stained with purple, their 



up year after year, and flowers as lavishly as on the 
volcanic slopes of its native Fusi-Vama and 
rising to a far greater height than it does there. 
Some good authorities have expressed distrust 
of peat, preferring leaf-mould. Of course, there 
is peat and peat, especially in the North, where 
it is often indigestible and reeking with htunic 
acid ; but in my opinion peat of good quality. 



appearance being strongly suggestive of carved finely pulverised and mixed with one-third its 
ivory. This Lily seems to have come to stay, bulk of sand (sea-sand answers perfectly in default 
and it imites with its other virtues that of produc- i of silver sand) cannot be beaten. I have a notion 
ing innumerable bulbils in the 
leaf-axils, after the manner of the 
Tiger Lily. It is, however, some- 
what impatient of winter wet, 
and should be planted 6 inches 
below the surface on inverted pots, 
where rapid drainage cannot other- 
wise be had. It loves lime, and 
flowers ten days or so later than 
L. regale. 

SUB-GBNUS ARCHE- 
LIRION. 

L. auratum, the Japanese Hill 
Lily, is quite the most gorgeous of 
all flowers hardy in the climate of 
the British Isles. Among the mani- 
fold benefits conferred upon horti- 
culturists by the famous firm of 
James Veitch and Sons, none 
shines more conspicuous than their 
introduction of this splendid plant 
to our country a little more than 
half a century ago. That space of 
time has hardly sufficed to make 
gardeners in general familiar with 
its requirements. Of the millions 
of bulbs imported every year, a 
very small proportion survive 
through a second season, else our 
land would be full of them by 
this time. Yet the conditions it 
demands are simple ; indeed, mv 
experience of it in the humid 
atmosphere and cool soil of the 
West Coast has taught me to re- 
gard it as one of the easy Lilies. 
These conditions are — careful 
scrutiny on arrival for the de- 
tection of fungoid or animal para- 
sites, washing in a i per cent, 
solution of salicylic acid, potting, 
and keeping in a cold frame till 
growth starts in spring. If by 
that time plenty of strong basal 
roots have been formed, the bulb 
may be planted 8 inches or 
9 inches deep in sound loam with a liberal ad- 
mixture of sharp sand, pulverised peat or 
leaf-mould, wood-ashes and no lime. But if, as 
is probable, the pots contain only stem roots, 
one must find patience to wait another year 
before the plants are allowed to flower. The 
pots should be plunged in the open border, 
sheltered from scorching sim, and disbudded 
so soon as they prepare to flower ; otherivise 
flower they will, at the cost of permanent vigour, 
and perhaps of their further existence. In the 
following season these bulbs will have filled the 
pots with basal roots, and should tlien be planted 
out in such surrounding that, when the flowering 




A FLOWERING TREE OF MORELLO CHERRY TRAINED ON A WALL WITH 
A NORTH ASPECT. TREES MAY BE PLANTED NOW. {See page 29.) 



that the antiseptic properties of peat are some 
safeguard against fungoid misciiief, and I cannot 
but suspect leaf-mould as a harbour and vehicle 
of that dire bogey of the Lily-grower, Botrytis 
cinerea. E^ght or ten years ago I set some L. 
auratum bulbs in a Rhododendron border of peat 
and sand on a subsoil of boulder clay. They 
have never failed to bloom splendidly, rising to 
a height of 6 feet, the only attention they have 
received being to cut back the Rhododendrons 
to give them headroom. They ought, by rights, 
to have had an annual mulch of a stimulating 
kind, for L. auratum, after it is well: established, 
relishes a generous diet ; but these particular 



bulbs have never received any nourishment 
save what is contributed by the natural leaf- 
fall of the Rhododendrons. It is sonutimes 
recommended that farmyard manure be laid 
below the bulbs when planting them. A risky 
proceeding ! Scrupulous care should be taken 
not to allow it to be in contact with the bulbs. . 
The safer plan is to withhold all manure, except 
wood-ashes, till the second year, after which top- 
dressing will stimulate growth and flower produc- 
tion, as it does in the case of all stem-rooting 
Lilies. There are several varieties of L. auratum, 
far the most vigorous and easily grown being 
the golden-rayed kind sold as platyphylltmi 
(broad-leaved), termed by botanists 
macranthum (large-flowered). 
Some of the stems in our irrigated 
border are now (July, 1914) more 
than seven feet high. 

In rubro-vittatum (red-banded) 
the golden streak down the centre 
of each segment of the perianth is 
exchanged for glowing crimson. 
It is less robust than macranthum, 
with smaller bulbs, narrower leaives 
and humbler stature. Mr. Grove 
inclines to regard it as a hybrid 
between L. auratum and L. 
speciosum. 

In Southern England L. auratum 
often ripens seed, but in Northern 
districts, where it does not flower 
till August and September, I have 
never known it to do so. Propa- 
gation, however, is easily effected 
by breaking up a bulb and plant- 
ing the scales in a cold frame, 
where each scale will develop into 
a perfect bulb. Once the bulbs are 
established in the open ground, 
they ought to be left tmdisturbed ; 
but if it becomes necessary to 
move them, they should be care- 
fully examined before replanting, 
tor it often happens that small 
bulbs are formed among the stem 
roots. Each of these should be 
carefully preserved and nursed to 
maturity. Anybody who has had 
to remove established clumps of 
L. auratum must have been struck 
by the great depth to which the 
bulbs have retreated. The pre- 
sence of tree roots in the s"il is 
no detriment to them ; on the 
contrary, it affords them friendly 
protection. Of course, these roots 
impoverish the soil, but that can be 
met by top-dressing, for it is 
through the stem roots that 
nourishment is drawn to the in- 
florescence- Gardeners accustomed to grow 
this Lily for a single season's display in the open, 
or in pots for decoration of the house or conserva- 
tory, may consider the process above described 
both laborious and superfluous ; but the Hill Lily of 
Japan is far too precious to be treated like Hyacinths 
and other bedding bulbs — brought into flower once 
and then thrown out on the rubbish-heap. 
Properly treated, it is one of the most permanent 
of perennials, and would soon become as common 
in this country as the Orange and Tiger Lilies if 
its requirements were more generally understood 
and provided for. Herbert Maxwell. 

(To be continued.) 



January i6, 1915-] 



THE GARDEN. 



29 



APPLES AND PEARS: 
FLAVOUR AND PEDIGREE. 

IN a recent article under this heading — see 
page 595, issue Decrrmber 12. 1914 — 
Mr. Chapman deplores the lack of more 
detailed records in the history of our popular 
fruits, and emphasises the fact that 
breeders must keep flavour before them as 
their most important aim, I find myself quite in 
agreement with him, but I think that usually 
records such as we generally have put before us 
are of little value. The parents are often dis- 
covered after the event, and in many cases can 
only be termed " putative." Even where there 
exists no doubt at all, the value of a single isolated 
cross between A and B gives but little guidance 
to the serious cross-breeder. For this information 
a large number of crosses between two varieties 
would be of very great interest. Happily, such a 
series docs exist, and to further Mr. Chapman's 
aims I venture to give some par- 
ticulars of this extremely valuable 
experiment. 

This work was carried out at the 
Geneva Experiment Station, New 
York, by Professors Beach and 
Hedrick, the crosses having been 
started in 1901. The special feature 
of these trials, as is indicated above, 
was that a considerable number of 
crosses were made between two varie- 
ties, and as many as twenty-nine trees 
were obtained of Esopus x Ben Davis, 
and twenty of Ben Davis x Mother. 
Contrary to accepted ideas, all these 
trees bore fairly good fruits. The 
appearance of Crabs, as so often 
alleged, in beds of seedling Apples is 
exceedingly doubtful, and a demon- 
stration of their existence would be 
of great interest. 

Let us take the Ben Davis x Mother 
cross and examine the seedlings. If 
these were arranged in a series for 
shape and appearance, placing those 
resembling either parent at the ex- 
tremes of the line, graduated forms 
would be found leading from one to 
the other. For instance, one Apple re- 
sembled Mother almost exactly, while 
others were intermediate in shape 
but had the fiesh of either one parent or the other. 
Thus, a Ben Davis fruit externally would have the 
Mother flesh and vice versa. All the fruits could 
quite easily be referred to one parent or the other. 
No Crabs or unexpected types appeared. The 
great importance of this will be at once apparent. 
The various qualities were mixed up as two packs 
of cards might be mixed, and sometimes the 
individual qualities were blended as in one fruit 
where the flesh was intermediate. The way 
before the Apple-brcedtr is therefore clear. A 
large number of one cross must be made, and 
there will be a good chance of the desired mixtiu'e 
of qualities turning up. There is a large amount 
of evidence that many, if not most, of our garden 
fruits will breed nearly true where they are self- 
fertile, and the results detailed above confirm 
this expectation. It will be interesting briefly 
to summarise the inheritance of certain characters 
as they behaved in these experiments. These 
cannot yet be regarded as more than helpful 
suggestions ; their elevation to the rank of facts 
will require further confirmation. 



Vigour. — Nearly all hybrids were more vigorous 
than the parents. 

Shape. — This is evidently a complex afiair, but 
the parental forms appear with many grades between. 

Colour of Fruit. — Fruits which are yellow and 
red flushed are heterozygous ; fruits where red 
predominates may be homozygous or heterozygous. 
Yellow is probably always recessive. 

Flesh. — This may resemble either parent or 
be intermediate. 

Acidity. — All the experiments dealt with sub- 
acid fruits, but the seedlings were mostly on the 
sweet side. 

Season. — This is probably inherited. From crosses 
of late Apples, only late fruits have been produced. 
This character, therefore, is probably recessive. 

One more hint may be given, and that is that 
breeders should not give up hope because a tree 
gives small or indifferent fruit at first Fruit 
trees often take some years to attain maturity 
and a settled line of conduct. A yotmg tree may 



;n a raw state, they are superb when cooked, 
either in pies or stewed, and those who have 
once tasted them served in t .is way would never 
tolerate the insipid and anaemic Sweet Cherries 
that are so frequently used in the kitchen. The 
Morello or Pie Cherry does not present any serious 
cultural d.fficulties. It will thrive in almost 
any good garden soil, and for that reason is an 
ideal fruit for the amateur to grow. Trees may 
be planted at any time from November to March, 
the soil having been previously well dug and some 
old mortar or other form of lime added. As this 
Cherry fruits entirely on the young wood made 
the previous year, pruning must consist of cutting 
away that which has borne fruit, retaining as many 
young shoots as possible. This oLd.wood_»s best 
cut away as soon as the fruit has been gathered, 
th s giving the young growths a better oppor- 
tunity to become well ripened. Grown against 
a north wall, th^ fruit will remain good - until 
early September, providing it is protected from 




ONE OF THE MOSSY SAXIKRAGAS : S. PEDEMONTANA CERVICORNIS. (SfC /)ag.' 31. ) 



have very hazy ideas of its correct season of ripen- 
ing for a few years, but with adolescence comes 
stability. Many must have been the sced'ings 
which have been discarded because they did not at 
emce fulfil the bright hopes of their raisers. Youi g 
swans are not so very unlike young geese, and timf 
will allow them to settle the question for us. 

The problem of what varieties to breed from 
is a hard one which cannot be treated here, but 
it would be as well to remind intending breeders 
that Cox's Orange is not the only good-flavoured 
fruit. Many of the older fruits have a flavour all 
their own, and are worth exploiting. 

Edw.^rd .\. Buxv.iRD, F.L.S. 



birds. Although an ideal fruit for the peisition 
named, it may be grown as a bush in the open, 
or against walls or fences with east or west aspects. 
Its chef enemy is black fly, which often attacks 
the young shoots severely, but this can be kept 
down by prompt syringing with any approved 
insecticide. G. B. 



MORELLO CHERRIES FOR NORTH 
WALLS. 

For planting against a wall or close-boardcd 
fence with a north aspect, there are few more useful 
subjects than the Morello or Pie Cherry, a fruit 
that is not grown nearly so much as it ought to 
be. Although the rich red fruits are very acid 



HOW TO PRUNE GRAPE 
VINES. 



A FEW weeks ago an amateur cultivator was in- 
specting some yoimg Vines I had planted last 
winter. Some of the yoimg rods had grown 20 feet 
long dtiring the summer months. These were 
leading rods. There were also two or three 
side rods, as the intention of the writer is, in 
due course, to train up three rods from each 
Vine. The amateur referred to possesses a large 
vinery, in which, also. Peaches are growni. He 
put some questions to me respecting the pruning 
of Vines, and was amazed to learn that the Vines 
would this winte: be cut back, leaving only about 



30 



THE GARDEN. 



[January i6, 1915. 



eighteen inches or two feet of the current year's 
growth. His own Vines had never been hard 
pruned, consequently they had become over- 
crowded, and each year the crop of fruit was more 
and more, but of poor quality. Now, hundreds 
of amateur cultivators will be busy cleaning and 
pruning their Vines at this, the beginning of the 
new year, and there is no time to lose. Very 
late pruning is midcsirable, as there is always 
a danger of losing much valuable sap when it 
rises in spring ; when the pruning is done early 
in January, the severed vessels have time to 
close before the sap begins to flow. In the case of 
young Vines, especially, it is advnsable to paint 



EARLY FLOWERING 
SAXI FR AG ES. 



s 



AXIFRAGES or Rockfoils comprise a 
wide range of beautiful and interesting 
plants, most of which are of the easiest 
cultivation. One has only to make a 
few comparisons to realise the great 
diversity of form that exists among 
Saxifrages. For instance, the genus includes dwarf 
moimtain species like Saxifraga aizoides, native 
of the mountain rills of Scotland, and S. cordifolia, 
the Giant Rockfoil of Siberia. Other contrasts 




A FINE PI ANT OF THE -PYRENEAN ROCKFOIL (SAXIFRAGA LONGIFOLIA MAGNIFICA) 



the cut ends forthwith with painter's knotting ; 
this sets hard immediately and closes the pores or 
sap channels in the canes. Vines newly planted 
should be cut back level with the wall plate — the 
point where the glass begins. Vines that have 
been planted one year should be cut back to about 
twenty inches of the base of the current year's 
growth ; the leading rods of all Vines must also 
be treated in this way. Laterals growing from 
spurs at the sides of the rods are best pruned back 
to two buds. When the latter break jn spring, 
the cultivator will soon be able to determine which 
one wi.l bear the best bunch of Grapes ; then the 
other shoot can be rubbed off. Even if there are no 
bunches on either shoot, the best can be re- 
tained, as the necessary disbudding must be done 
before the yoimg shoots are 2 inches long. 

Fonning Spurs on Young Vines.— Of course, 
the side spurs could be measured out exactly ; 
but they can be formed almost as desired. The best 
average distance apart is 18 inches. Twenty inches 
will do, or even a little more. The spurs should be 
formed alternately on both sides of the rod ; then 
as the young shoots grow from them they will 
dovetail in and so cover the roof space evenly 
with good foliage. Use a very sharp knife and do 
not cut too close to the bud left. G. G. B. 



may readily be found among S. sancta, a dense 
tufted species from Mount Athos ; the pyramidal 
S. Cotyledon of the Alps ; S. peltata, the Umbrella 
Plant of California, one of the largest species of 
the genus ; S. sarmentosa, known by a variety of 
names, including Mother of Thousands, Aaron's 
Beard, Creeping Sailor and Wandering Jew, often 
seen in sitting-rooms or as basket plants in cottage 
porches ; and last, but not least, the ever-popular 
London Pride (S. umbrosa), which in some parts 
of the country still retains the name of None So 
Pretty. So great is the variety that one might 
have a garden of Saxifrages alone, and even then 
have flowers for the greater part of the year. The 
earliest flowering Saxifrages are for the most part 
true alpines, and it is to these that special attention 
is now drawn, for they are indispensable to the 
rock garden in spring. 

Saxifraga apiculata. — This is well known to be 
one of the earliest to flower, and even when not 
in flower its dense foliage, carpeting bare ground 
and clothing rocks and banks in summer and 
winter, makes it in every way, a desirable plant 
for the rock garden. The flowers are pale 5'ellow 
and borne in the greatest profusion from the early 
days of March till the end of April. It occurs 
wild in the Pi,Tenees, but is thought to be a hybrid 



between S. rocheliana and S. sancta. Like the 
last named, which is also a desirable early Saxifrage. 
it is classed among the Spiny Saxifrages. It is 
not likely to become scarce in cultivation, for it 
grows with great freedom and appears to be quite 
capable of taking care of itself. It shows prefer- 
ence for a limestone soil and is well suited for the 
sunny side of the rock garden. The white variety, 
alba, is worthy of special note. 

S. Boydii. — This rather scarce plant is said to 
be a hybrid from S. burseriana and S. aretioidcs. 
The round yellow flowers rise an inch or so above 
the cushion-like gro-n-ths. The variety alba has 
pure white flowers and is greatly cherished by all 
lovers of alpine plants. Faldonside 
is a comparatively new variety, 
with clear yellow flowers of good 
form. Flowering season, April. 

S. burseriana. — No Saxifrage has 
created so much interest in recent 
years as this. It is one of the 
loveliest of the early flowering 
alpines, and bears a profusion of 
snow white flowers arising from 
ver>' spiny tufts. There are many 
varieties, of which Gloria is the best. 
There is, however, great variation 
in the species, some varieties having 
much larger and better formed 
flowers than others. It must be 
given a dry position free from any 
trace of stagnant moisture. It may 
be grown in full sun or partial shade, 
the best position being a much- 
discussed point. 

S. Grisebachii. — A very distmct 
introduction from the Balkans. It 
sends up bright crimson flower-spikes 
from small rosettes of foliage. So 
far it has proved difficult to culti- 
vate, at least in many localities. 
It must be given a dry position, 
and is best when grown upon a 
small cone of stones. It is one of 
the earliest to flower, and as a 
rule commences to push up its 
bright flowering growth in February 
and lasts until April. 
S. Haagei. — A hybrid of garden origin having 
deep yellow flowers. It forms a companion plant 
to the paler-coloured S. apiculata, both flower- 
ing together and requiring similar soil and 
position. 

S. ligulata (Nepaul Rockfoil). — If this species 
were a little hardier it would prove one of the most 
valuable of the large Rockfoil or Megasea section. 
It produces branching panicles of rosy flowers in 
April. In a mild spring it is a plant of rare beauty. 
It should be given a sheltered position on a warm 
sandy soil facing south. 

S. longifolia (Pyrenean Rockfoil). — Rightly 
termed the " Queen of the Saxifrages," this species 
is one of rare and refined beauty. It should be 
grown in crevices between vertical rocks, so that 
water cannot collect in the hollow rosettes. When 
in bloom it is most attractive, forming a long 
pyramidal truss of white flowers usually in June 
and sometimes later. Plants collected from the 
mountains are often slow to produce their trusses 
of bloom, as they frequently remain stationary for 
a year or two and then give a moderate account 
of themselves. Seeellings, however, vary in their 
early growth, some running away to a precocious 
flowering, and others flowering after six, seven or 
even eight years' growth ; but the stronger the 



January i6, 1915.] 



THE GARDEN. 



31 



rosette of leaves the better will be the inflorescence. 
The variety magnifica forms an imposing rosette, 
often more than a foot in diameter. The plant 
illustrated is believed to be about fifteen years old. 
As usual, the plant died after flowering and pro- 
ducing seeds. 

S. marginata. — A very beautiful Italian species 
flowering from March till May. It is a close- 
growing, tufted species with pure white flowers. 
It is the parent of a number of early flowering 
hybrids, all of which, like the species, should be 
grown in a gritty soil on a rocky sheltered ledge, 
where they receive the full benefit of the morning 
sun. Propagation is effected by division in spring 
after flowering, or by cuttings taken in the summer. 
S. oppositifolia. — A very beautiful and distinct 
species, and certainly not difficult to grow. It is 
found growing wild on the mountains of North 
Wales and in Scotland. It will grow in either 
shady or sunny positions, but it flowers far better 
when grown in full sun. The flowering season 
is March and April. The type has purplish rose 
flowers, but the varieties coccinea and splendens 
are both richer in colour ; alba is a fine white 
variety. The species is of creep-- 
ing habit and requires a similar 
soil to that recommended for S. 
apiculata. 

S. pedemontana cervicornis. — 
Few of the Mossy Saxifrages are so 
compact in growth and none so pretty 
when in flower. It is truly alpine, and 
is found in the mountains of Sardinia 
and Corsica, where it ascends to 
elevations ranging from 4,800 feet to 
7,500 feet. It is perfectly hardy and 
is not affected by cold, but 
rather by the mildness of our 
winters, which sometimes excites it 
into untimely growth. In winter 
the leaves of the dense rosettes 
overlap one another like the slates 
of a roof. The flowers are loosely 
arranged and borne in May. In 
lowland gardens they rise 4 inches 
or 5 inches from the groimd, 
and this is about twice the 
height attained in their mountain 
homes. 

S. Wallace!.— One of the most 
robust and profusely flowered 
species or hybrids of the Mossy 
section. It is so easily grown 
that it is used extensively as an 
edging in the London parks. It 
prefers a light soil and fairly 
sunny position, and produces masses 
of white flowers in April and May. 

Although the majority of Rock- 
foils bloom in spring, there are 
others quite indispensable for later flowering. 
The summer-flowering S. Cotyledon, with 
robust, erect sprays from r foot to 4 feet 
long, is worthy of special mention. Of the 
very late flowering species, S. Fortimei and S. 
cortusoides will prolong the supply of bloom from 
August till October if given partially shaded 
positions and a gritty, but at the same time fairly 
rich and well-drained soil. The family is rich 
in interesling and beautiful species, the cultiva- 
tion of most being comparatively easy, though 
a few of the rarer kinds present some difficulties. 
Just now the vivid green tufts of those 
belonging to the Mossy section are very attrac- 
tive in the rock garden. C. Q. 



THE SNAPDRAGONS AND 
THEIR CULTURE. 



A LT 

A 



LTHOUGH the Snapdragons, as we are 
pleased to call the flowers that the 
botanists class as Antirrhinums, have 
been known in our gardens since tha 
days when Gerard wrote his famous 
herbal, it is only during recent years 
that any great improvements in colour, habit and 
form have been effected. In the early days 
already referred to there were, according to 
available data, four varieties, viz., album, pur- 
pureum, variegatum and luteum, the colours of 
which are well described by their names. These 
were undoubtedly the forerunners of the modern 
race that is now so highly appreciated in our 
gardens, and all of which have descended from 
the species Antirrhinum majus. 

Fortunately, the cultivation of the ordinary 
Snapdragons does not call for any special skill 
or treatment on the part of the gardener. I 
use the word " fortunately " advisedly, because 



plant, and in a wild or semi-wild state is usually 
allowed to grow as such, the gardener generally 
finds it more convenient to treat it as an annual, 
or at the most a biennial, for the purpose of 
filling beds or planting in borders. It is such a 
good-natured plant that it readily lends itself 
to this treatment, and the modern varieties 
have been so carefully selected that most of them 
can be relied upon to come true from seed. 

There are two methods of raising seedlings ; 
one is adopted where the plants are to be 
treated as annuals, and the other if their existence 
is to extend well into the second year, though 
either would be applicable were it desired to allow 
the plants to remain as perennials. To treat 
them as annuals — i.e., to raise the plants from 
seed, allow them to flower, and discard them all 
in one year — it is necessary to sow the seed early 
in the year, and the latter part of January or the 
early days of February is usually selected as the 
most appropriate time. By sowing the seed 
so early a long period of growth is secured, a feature 
that is necessary with these plants. The actual 
sowing of the seed and raising of the seedlings 




SAXIFRAGA GRISEBACHII, A RARE ROCKFOIL FROM THE BALKANS. 



these flowers are so useful for so many purposes 
in our schemes of summer and autumn effects 
that they should find a home in every garden, 
no matter whether it be the strip of the suburban 
viUa or the demesne of the mansion. For filling 
beds or borders, for naturalising in the wild garden, 
the crevices of dry walls or inaccessible rocks, 
the Snapdragons are admirably adapted, and in 
the latter positions they will usually sow and 
reproduce themselves freely when given a good 
start. In the gardens at Hopetoun House, 
Linlithgow, whole borders are devoted to these 
flowers, large masses of one colour being planted, 
and a wonderful coloiur effect thus obtained. 
Although the Snapdragon is really a perennial 



present no serious difficulty. A quite cool green- 
house or frame is essential, and the boxes or pans 
in which the seed is to be sown must be well drained, 
as Snapdragons are greatly averse to excessive 
moisture. The soil for filling the boxes ought 
to consist of good loam two parts, coarse grit 
one part, with a little leaf-soil and some old morta'" 
added. A similar mixture, except that a little 
old, well-decayed manure should be substituted 
for the leaf-soil, may be utilised in which to trans- 
plant the seedlings when they are large enough hi 
be conveniently handled. Thin sowing of tb- 
seed, early transplantation of the seedlings, and, 
above all, cool, airy treatment throughout the 
whole of their career, are the passports to success 



32 



THE GARDEN. 



[January i6, 1915. 



in the raising of Snapdragons from seed early 
in the year. If kept near the glass and freely 
ventilated, as advised, the young plants should 
be sturdy and branching by the end of May, 
at which time they may be planted in their 
flowering quarters. 

If we desire to treat Snapdragons as biennials, 
!.c., raise them one year to flower the next, tlie 
seed may be sown in June in the open garden, 
and the seedlings subsequently transplanted to 
where they are to flower. Thin sowing and 
prompt transplantation are essential. So far as 
soil is concerned, these delightful flowers are not 
at all fastidious, but it must not be heavy clay 
that is water-logged. Thorough drainage, and a 
fair depth of loam to whxh has been added a 
goodly proportion of well-decayed manure, will 
give large spikes of glorious flowers. But, on the 
other hand, dry, starved soil will produce bushy 
plants that never seem to tire of flowering, and for 
this reason the Snapdragon is an excellent plant 
for growing in the warm, dry borders that are 
usually found surrounding the dwelling-house, 
for dry walls, or for rockwork where there is very 
little soil. In such situations it is best to sow the 
seed in June where the plants are to grow and 
flower, and allow them to remain as perennials. 

Of modern varieties there are a great many, 
and nearly every seedsman has his own speciality. 
The beautiful art shades of pink, gold, terra-cotta 
and bronze have created a great deal of interest 
in recent years, and are all well worth growing in 
•masses in beds or Ijorders. W. H. 



pink ; Baldock's Crimson ; and David Inga- 
mells, yellow. The varieties Mme. R. Ober- 
thur. Source d'Or, David Ingamells, Mrs. Roots, 
Caprice du Printemps and Mrs. George Rundle 
may be planted out in the summer, lifted either 
before or after the buds are well set. and repotted. 
Twelve Single-Flowered Varieties. — Mensa, 

pure white ; Ceddie Mason, chestnut crimson ; 
Mary Richardson, reddish salmon ; Altrincham 
Yellow ; Mrs. Tresham Gilbey, yellow ; Sylvia 
Slade, rosy garnet, broad white ring round the 
disc ; Metta, deep magenta ; Kitty Bourne, 
deep yellow ; Florrie King, pink ; Roupell Beauty, 
dark plum coloiu' ; Joan Edwards, pink ; and 
Charles Kingsley, rich yellow. The varieties 
Mary Richardson, Ceddie Mason, Joan Edwards 
and Altrincham Yellow are very attractive grown 
as sprays, but all may be disbudded. These will 
afford a suppiy of blooms from mid-October till 
December. I will give a list of varieties for the 
garden borders in a later issue. Avon. 



SEASONABLE NOTES ON 
CHRYSANTHEMUMS. 



T 



1 HE amateur cultivator wishes to grow 
varieties that are of high merit, 
both as regards quality of flower as 
well as form of plant, and fairly easy 
to manage in all stages of development 
from the cutting to the flowering 
stage. The following varieties are sure to give 
every satisfaction. 

Twenty-Four Japanese for Large Blooms and 
Groups. — Miss A. E. Roope, golden yellow ; 
Queen Mary, pure white ; Mrs. G. Drabble, 
white ; His Majesty, rich velvety crimson ; 
Wil iara Turner, white ; H. E. Converse, reddish 
bronze, with a gold reverse ; Kara Dow, chestnut 
bronze, with, a gold reverse ; Rosamund, primrose, 
'shaded old rose; F. S. Va'lis, lemon yellow; 
Bob Pulling, rich yellow ; Frances Jolliffe, straw- 
colour, streaked rose pink ; Marie Loomes, terra- 
cotta red ; Mrs. James Gibson, mauve pink on 
white ground ; Mrs. E. A. Tickle, mauve pink ; 
Mrs. T. Stevenson, rich yellow, sometimes tinted 
buff ; Master James, chestnut ; Mrs. A. T. Miller, 
pure white ; Mrs. J. Lloyd Wigg, yellow, shaded 
buff ; Maud Lousada, rosy mauve on white ground ; 
.Amy Poulton, rich pink ; Miss Elsie Davis, rosy 
mauve ; Mrs. K. Luxford, pure white ; Alice 
Lemon, mauve pink ; and Fred Green, rich purple. 
The height of these varies from 3 feet to 5 feet. 

Twelve Varieties for Decoration.— The follow- 
ing varieties are sp'endid for decorative purposes 
in pots or as cut flowers, and are available from 
October to Christmas : Mrs. George Rundle, 
white ; Source d'Or, orange and gold ; Crimson 
Source d'Or ; Caprice du Printemps, rosy pink ; 
Mrs. Roots, pure white ; Embieme Poitevine, 
yellow ; Mme. R. Oberthur, white ; Mrs. J. 
Thompson, white ; Nagoya, yellow ; Dr. Enguehard 



A WIGTOWNSHIRE AMA- 
TEUR HORTICULTURIST. 



horticulturists as Mrs. McDouall of Logan and 
the Earl and Countess of Stair. Among the 
Indian, Levantine and Japanese Lilies that hav.' 
been successfully cultivated by Mr. Hill are the 
Himalayan Lilium giganteum, L. auratura, L. 
tigrinum, L. speciosum and L. chalcedonicum. 
I have great pleasure in thus testifying in the 
columns of The Garden to his unquestionable 
merits as a floral cultivator ; for Mr. Hill is one 
of those whose hearts and lives seem echoes of 
those glorious lines of Wordsworth : 
" Thanks to that human heart by which we live. 

Thanks to its tenderness, its joys, its fears, 
To me the meanest flower that blows can give 

Thoughts that do often lie too deep for tears." 
David R. W illi.\mson. 



NEW AND RARE PLANTS. 



A MONG ardent cultivators of their pictur- 
/% esque gardens in South-Western Scot- 

/ % land, none is more entirely worthy 
/ % of admiration than my nearest neigh- 
^ *■ bour, Mr. John Hill, mechanic, 

tender lyrist and earnest horticulturist, 
residing within the environment of the Manse 
in the parish of Kirlimaiden. During the summer 
and autumn months his garden, which, though 
not extensive, is intensely attractive by reason 
of its prevailing brightness and fragrance, is 
greatly admired by all visitors (and they are many) 
to this peninsular region. Mr. Hill, who is, as 
I have indicated, an assiduous gardener, though 
he has not so much leisure as most of us for this 
peaceful, eminently healthful and refining occupa- 
tion, may be described as a h'ghly successful 
cultivator of Irises, Rhododendrons, Azaleas, 
Hollyhocks, Sweet Peas, Roses and Oriental 
Lilies. The soil in which he grows them is a fertih 
loam. 

In many instances the lierbaceous flowers appear 
to succeed in his garden most admirably when 
they are left by their proud possessor severely 
alone. Such beautiful and accommodating Liliums, 
for example, as szovitzianum, candidum and 
chalcedonicum (the brilliant Scarlet Martagon) 
are not_ seldom most enduring and luxuriant in 
their ■ blossoming when they are utterly undis- 
tuirbed. They are, in my experience, in many 
instances as' sensitive as human beings, possessing 
delicate nervous and mental organisations, 
especially at the roots, where some of them will 
hardly tolerate division at all. Many of the 
most precious herbaceous plants in this unique 
garden have flowered profusely in the same soil 
for the last ten years. This hor icultural Art 
" itself is Nature," as Shakespeare sings. 

The climbing Roses, especially those of wichurai- 
ana origin, are commandingly profuse and prodigal 
in their affluence of bloom. Such Hybrid Per- 
petuals and Hybrid Teas as Victor Hugo, Duke 
of Edinburgh, Frau Karl Druschki, Viscountess 
Folkestone, Margaret Dickson and the highly 
distinctive Lyon Rose are usually among the 
most effective and fascinating varieties of the 
Queen of Flowers in Mr. Hill's garden, which 
(perhaps the Editor will permit me to add) has 
been greatly admired by such enthusiastic amateur 



FIRS T-C LASS CERTIFICATE. 

Cypripedium Grand Duke Nicholas (C. Acta:us 
var. Miss F. H. Camm x C. Iceanum Carona). — 
In the handsome, well-developed dorsal sepa!, 
which is broadly margined white, there is a con- 
siderable leaning to the best of the leeanum class, 
than which few present bolder proportions generally. 
The sepals, petals and pouch are of greenish 
yellow tone. From G. F. iMoore, Esq., Bourton- 
on-the-Water. 

AWARDS OF MERIT. 

Cypripedium Pyramus Cbardwar Ideal 

(C. Miss Mostyn x C. Hera Euryades). — In this 
the pronounced white dorsal sepal is heavily 
blotched chocolate, sepals and petals rich chestnut, 
and pouch dark brown. Exhibited by G. F. 
Moore, Esq., Chardwar, B';)iirton-on-the-Water. 

Cypripedium arthurianum Langley Variety 

(C. fairieanum x C. Harefield Hall). — This fine 
hybrid embraces some of the characteristics 
of both parents, the dorsal sepal partaking of the 
last, and the sepals and petals of the first named, 
It is a well-marked flower. From Messrs. Flory 
and Black. Langley, Slough. 
Odontoglossum eximeum Xanthotes Gatton 

Park Variety. — .\ splendidly flowered raceme of 
this novelty was shown. It is a flower of singular 
whiteness and purity, the sepals and petals touched 
with a faint yellow shade and with a yellow crest. 
From Sir Jeremiah Colman, Reigate. 

Cymbidium coningsbyanum Brockhurst 

Variety (C grandiflorum x C. insigne superbum). 
— A well-developed, freely flowered specimen of 
this hybrid was on view. The spike is erect, 
arching above, and bearing many handsome 
flowers. The latter are of almost shell pink hue, 
the, lip copiously spotted crmisMi. Exhibited by 
F. J. Hanbury, Esq., Brockhurst, East Grinstead. 

Pyracantha crenulata. — The specific name is 
not particularly appropriate, some leaves being 
devoid of the crenulated margin, while others 
are well marked. Of this Veitchian introduction 
from Western China, a 12-feet-high, pyramidally 
inclined specimen having a basal diameter of 
6 feet was shown. Bushy at the base and tapering 
upwards, it was abundantly fruited throughout 
the somewhat pendent branches of 2 feet or so 
in length, loaded with smallish fruits coloured 
a reddish scarlet. The 2-inch to 3-inch long 
leaves are half an inch broad, linear obtuse, shining 
green above and greyish beneath. Shown by the 
Hon. Vieary Gibbs, A'denham, Elstree. 

The whole of the above were shown before the 
Royal Horticultural Society on the 5th inst., 
when the awards were made. 



January i6, 1915.] 



THE GARDEN. 



33 



GARDENING OF THE WEEK. 



FOR SOUTHERN GARDENS. 

Fruit Under Glass. 

Early Pot Vines. — The shoots on Vines which 
were started early in November should now be 
finally thinned. Pinch the laterals at the second 
leaf beyond the bunch, and keep them from 
touching the glass by tying them carefully to the 
trellis. The roots may be given a little stimulant 
now in the form of liquid manure and soot-water. 
Keep a moist atmosphere by damping down the 
walls and paths in the house, more or less if the 
weather is dull or fine. A minimum temperature 
of 65° will now be suitable. Admit a little air 
whenever the weather is fine, but close the 
ventilators before 2 p.m. 

Early Permanent Vines. — The weather has 
been very favourable for forcing, as little fire- 
heat has been necessary to keep up the tempera- 
tures. Rub off all useless growth, but defer the 
final thinning of the shoots till it can be seen 
which are the most promising. Before the Vines 
come into flower, examine the borders to see if 
they require water. 

Plants Under Glass. 

Schizanthuses. — The plants which were raised 
from seed sown in the autumn must be liept 
growing in a cool house with plenty of light. 
Water carefully, and admit plenty of air to the 
plants whenever the weather is suitab'e. Use 
fire-heat sparingly at all times. 

Mignonette. — Another sowing of this delightful 
greenhouse plant may be made now in aj-inch 
pots. The autumn-sown plants must be kept 
growing on a shelf near to the glass in a cool 
house. When the flowers begin to develop, 
afford the roots some stimulant in the form of 
liquid manure and soot-water. 

Cinerarias. — Do not let Cinerarias become too 
dry at the roots, and when they have become 
well rooted in their final pots give them plenty 
of stimulants. An occasional light fumigating 
will ward oft attacks of aphis. A house or pit 
which is frost-proof will suit this plant well. 

Chrysanthemums. — Remove the cuttings to a 
shelf in a cool house when rooted, but do not 
expose them to cold draughts. Keep old stools 
which are required for stock in a light, cool house 
to encourage sturdy growth. 

The Flower Garden. 

Bedding Plants. — .attention must now be 
given to the various plants which were rooted from 
cuttings in the autumn. Those which were 
rooted in boxes or pans, such as Pelargoniums, 
Fuchsias, Lantanas, Sah'ias, Iresines andAgeratums, 
may be potted into 3-inch pots and placed on a 
stage in a fruit-house which has just been started. 
Cuttings of various bedding plants which are 
available will readily strike now if placed on a 
hot-bed in the propagating-case. Salvia Glory 
of Zurich may be raised from seeds so\vn now, 
t find the plants raised in this way are quite equal 
to those raised from cuttings in the autumn. 
Marguerite Mrs, F. Sander is a most useful bedding 
plant, and good plants may be grown from cut- 
tings inserted now. They will require to be 
stopped two or three times to encourage a dwarf, 
bushy habit. 

Sowing Seeds. — ^Towards the end of the month 
seeds may be sown of the following : Wigandia, 
Canna, Begonia (both tuberous and fibrous rooted). 
Delphinium, Hollyhock, Verbena, Antirrhinum and 
Centaurea. Sow the seed in fine sandy soil in 
well-drained pans or' boxes, and place them in a 
brisk heat till the seedlings are through the soil. 

The Rock Garden. — After spells of severe 
frost it is necessary to carefully examine the 
smaller plants, pressing the soil about the roots 
where it has been lifted by the frost. In some 
cases it may be necessary to place a little fresh 
soil around the plants for protection. A great 
many plants will be needed to furnish the rock 
garden dmring the coming season, some of which 
may be raised from seed sown during the next 
few weeks. 

The Hardy Fruit Garden. 

Morello Cherries. — The pruning and training 
of these must be no longer delayed. The Morello 



Cherry lends itself admirably to training, and makes 
a very handsome tree when the work is well done. 
Remove branches which are becoming bare at the 
base, so that the trees may be well furnished with 
young fruiting wood, and guard against over- 
crowding. 

Renovating Old Trees. — Much may be done 
to help old trees to retain their vigour during 
the winter months. It is not always prudent 
to disturb the roots of very old trees to any great 
extent, and, when this is so, an effort should be 
made to encourage fresh roots on the surface. 
A portion of the old surface soil should be removed, 
exposing the roots as much as possible, and replace 
with fresh loam, old brick rubble and wood-ashes. 

The Kitchen Garden. 

Potatoes. — The tubers which are intended for 
planting in pits or frames should be placed on 
end in boxes to sprout. In the meantime the 
pit should be prepared. A hot-bed of leaves 
and stable litter must be made on which to place 
the soil. This will be all the better if placed in 
the pit a week or ten days before planting the 
tubers. 

Lettuce. — Plants in frames must be given 
plenty of air during mild weather, and decayed 
leaves must be removed regularly. Make a sowing 
of a suitable variety for frame culture in boxes, 
and place them in a moderately warm house. 

Carrots. — Make a sowing of these on a hot-bed 
in a frame. A depth of 6 inches or 7 inches of 
rich soil must be placed on the hot-bed and made 
fairly firm. Level the surface with a rake, 
sow the seed broadcast, and cover with fine soil. 

Radishes. — To keep up a regular supply, make 
small sowings every week or ten days. Radishes 
require a fairly rich soil and plenty of water when 
growing. They may also be sown with the 
Carrots. F.. Harriss. 

(Head-gardener to Lady Wantage.) 

Lockinge Gardens, Berks. 



FOR NORTHERN GARDENS. 
Plants Under Glass. 

Mignonette. — The plants which were raised from 
seed sown during .\ugust or September and which 
have been growing in a cool house or pit will be 
ready for moving into their flowering pots. For 
potting use a rich compost containing a fair 
quantity of some reliable fertiliser. 

Sweet Peas intended for flowering indoors 
during .^pril and May should now be ready to 
plant in their floweruig quarters. Plenty of 
root-roemi is necessary, but too much artificial 
heat must not be used. Flowers of better quality 
on long stems result from a judicious disbudding 
and regulation of the plants as they grow. 

Gloxinias. — .A batch of these may be started 
in the stove for early flowering, placing the tubers 
in light soil in pans or boxes. When ready for 
potting, use the loam in a rather rough state, and 
include a large quantity of leaf-mould, peat and 
coarse silver sand. Young plants that will flower in 
July and August are to he had by sowing seed 
this month. 

Violets. — It is important that Violets be 
ventilated freely during mild weather. Even 
during periods of frost the frames should be 
opened when the temperature exceeds 32° in the 
sun, although this may only be for one or two 
hours in the midelle of the day. It will be readily 
seen how essential it is for a Violet frame to have 
a south aspect, besides having a good pitch. 

The Hardy Fruit Garden. 

Red and White Currants.— -As Red and White 
Currants produce their fruit on the old wood, 
cut back all last year's growths to about three 
eyes, leaving young wood only where it is needed 
for the formation of the bush. 

Black Currants. — ^These do not require so 
much pruning except the removal of old and 
weakened branches. All the young wood possible 
should be encouraged. If big-bud is present, 
the bushes should be constantly looked over and 
all abnormally swollen buds picked off and burnt. 



Propagation. — Cuttings of the foregoing are easily 
rooted, and may be put in rows in some sheltered 
border. The lower buds should be removed to 
prevent suckers appearing, except in the case of 
Black Currants, 

Root-Pruning. — Very marked improvement in 
the crops of various fruit trees is brought about 
by root-pruning. The trees marked for this 
attention should be dealt with before any signs 
of growth are evident. Try to encourage surface 
roots by adding fresh soil. 

The Fruit-Room. — Examine the fruits frequently 
and remove any showing signs of decay. If this 
is neglected, many sotmd fruits coming in contact 
with the decayed ones would quickly become 
infected. The fruits must be kept safe from frost 
and a little fresh air admitted when the weather 
is fine. 

The Kitchen Garden. 

French Beans. — Make fortnightly sow-ings in 
8-inch and 10-inch pots where a supply of this 
vegetable has to be kept up. A temperature of 
55° to 60° is necessary. Red spider must be 
prevented, if possible, from getting a footing by 
frequent syringing. Canadian Wonder and 
Osborne's Forcing arc both reliable varieties for 
indoor use. 

Vegetable Marrows. — Seed sown now in heat 
will ensure a supply during March and onwards- 
if a heated frame or pit is available. Hand 
fertilisation of the flowers is necessary if this early 
crop is to be a success. 

Cauliflower. — To make a succession to the 
autumn-sown plants, sow now some early sort, such 
as Early Erfurt, The seeeilings are very liable to 
damp off, and must be watered with great care. 
When large enough to handle, prick out into a 
cold frame. 

Lettuces. — Both Cos and Cabbage varieties 
are welcomed early in spring. The young leaves 
are even useful some time before the plants com- 
mence to turn in. Make a sowing now in boxes- 
and protect from slugs. 

Mushrooms. — Beds showing signs of exhaustion, 
if not too far gone, may sometimes be revived by 
an application of tepid water to -which some salt 
has been added. When damping the Mushroom- 
house, a spra^'ing of the walls and pathway will 
be sufficient. A temperature of 55° to 60° must 
not be exceeded. 

The Flower Garden. 

Border Carnations. — ^The best results are 
imdoubtedlv obtained by wintering these in 
frames ; but where plants have been put in their 
permanent positions they sometimes get loosened 
by frost, and should be replaced firmly when 
milder weather returns. 

Bedding Geraniums. — As damp is the worst 
enemy of these during the winter, they had better 
be freed from decayed leaves and freely ventilated 
on all favourable occasions. 

Standard Roses. — When tied to supports, it 
should be seen that all fastenings and stakes 
are in order, as gales might otherwise snap the 
stems. When fastenings have become tight owing 
to expansion of the stock, they should be retied 
to avoid strangulation. It is advisable to slightly 
shorten any straggling gro-wths ; these would in 
any case have to be removed later at pruning- 
time. By removing them there is less risk of 
breakage! 

Fruit Under Glass. 

Pot Trees.— To obtain well-coloured and ripe 
fruit in July and August, a number of trees should 
be selected and started gently in some vinery or 
Peach-house if an orchard-house is not available. 
Apples, Pears and Plums succeed admirably as 
pot trees. The trees potted during October and 
November have had full exposure outdoors, except 
the pots which have been plunged in leaves to 
prevent them being cracked by frost. The trees 
should be looked over for insect pests, and if any 
W00II5' aphis or blight is present, apply methylated 
spirit to the affected parts. The ' drainage of 
each pot must be examined. The trees may be 
syringed occasionally on bright days, and, when 
the flowers open, a thinning with scissors should 
take place ; this greatly assists the remaining 
flowers to set, John Jeffrey. 

(Head-gardener to Sir R. W. Buchanan Jardine, 
Bart.) 

Castlemilk Gardens, Lockerbie, N.B. 



34 



THE GARDEN. 



[January j6, 1915. 



THE CULTIVATION OF 
SWEET CORN IN ENGLAND. 



IN the modern demand for a wider range 
of vegetables a number that were at one 
time practically obsolete have been re- 
suscitated, and have had attention from 
those whose duty it is to grow vegetables 
for home consumption. In addition, a 
few new kinds have also been tried, and foremost 
among these are the edible forms of the common 
Indian Corn or Maize. Unfortunately, these 
have not up to the present been very favourably 
received in this country, a fact that is perhaps 
due to a chain of circumstances such as few vege- 
tables have encountered at the outset of their 
career. 

Growers have, of course, for many years 
cultivated the ornamental varieties of Maize for 
decorative purposes, and it sufficed if seeds were 
sown under glass in March and grown on for plant- 
ing out at the end of May or early in June. But 
for edible purposes the seeds must be sown earlier 
so that strong plants of large size are ready for 
planting outdoors at the period named, otherwise 
our summers are too short for the plants to produce 
a good crop of cobs. This late sowing, together 
with gathering the cobs at the wrong stage and 
improper cooking, have done much towards dis- 
couraging the pioneers in the cultivation of this 
vegetable. 

It has already been stated that seeds must 
be sown early for the purpose of securing large 
plants by early June, and the first week in February 
is a good time to sow them. A hot-bed frame is 
an ideal place, but, failing this, recourse must be 
had to the warm greenhouse. A system that I 
adopted some years ago, when Sweet Corn was 
first grown as a vegetable in this country, was to 
fill some 3-inch pots with good rich potting soil 
and sow one seed in each pot, these subsequently 
being stood either in the hot-bed frame or on a 
shelf near the glass in a warm greenhouse. The 
young plants were not long in appearing, and 
growth was rapid, but care was always taken to 
ventilate the frame or house whenever the weather 
outside was at all genial ; this, together with 
keeping the young plants near the glass, induced 
firm, sturdy growth, and so laid the foundation 
on which future success was based. In the course 
of three or four weeks from the time the seedlings 
appeared they had filled the pots with roots, 
and were then moved into pots 5 inches or 6 inches 
in diameter, the latter for preference. As Maize 
plants at all stages of their career are gross feeding, 
it is necessary that the soil used at this repotting 
be good ; turfy loam three parts and well-decayed 
farmyard or stable manure one part I found 
answered very well, and this was made moderately 
firm. 

After this repotting the plants were taken back to 
the warm frame or greenhouse, but when they had 
established themselves in the new pots ventilation 
was given more freely, the more favourable outside 
conditions allowing of this being done, until, 
by the second week in May, the plants were being 
given open-air treatment by day and only slight 
protection at night. Tliis early sowing of the 
seeds, and the subsequent growing on and proper 
liardening of the plants without a check, is the 
most important item in the cultivation of Sweet 
Corn. Without sturdy plants i foot to 18 inches 
high, according to the variety, for planting outdoors 



the first week in June, it is useless to attempt 
to get cobs of good quality. 

During the time the plants are being raised under 
glass the bed outdoors must be prepared, and 
the earlier this is done the better. Almost any 
good garden soil will grow good plants, but it 
must be well and deeply dug, and should have 
at least a 3-inch-thick dressing of partially decayed 
manure mixed with it at the time the digging is 
done ; if the soil can be dug from 18 inches to 
2 feet deep, so much the better. If this is done 
early in the spring it will have become nicely 
settled and in good condition for planting by the 
time it is required. A position sheltered from 
strong winds should be selected if possible. The 
plants should be put out in rows 3 feet 6 inches 
to 4 feet apart, the former for dwarf-growing 
varieties and the latter for those of more majestic 
stature, and a distance of 2 feet must be allowed 
between the plants in the rows. When planting, 
care should be taken to keep the ball of soil and 
roots intact, as the one thing to avoid above all 
others is a check to the growth of the plants. 
If well watered at the time of planting, the plants 
will need but little subsequent attention, except 
that a mulching of short manure spread over 
the roots during the hot days of July and August 
will be of considerable benefit. Some of the 
leading seedsmen in this country now list several 
varieties that are specially suitable for our 
climate. 

As already stated, the gathering of the cobs 
at the wrong time, together with improper cooking, 
have done much towards bringing the Sweet 
Com into disfavour ; indeed, unless close attention 
is given to these apparently trivial items, a whole 
season's labour will be lost. The com or seeds 
ought not to be allowed to turn mealy inside 
before they are gathered ; a good test is to press 
one or two with the thumb-nail, and if milky 
inside they are in a proper condition for gathering. 
Cooking is of equal importance. The cobs should 
be boiled in their husks for about twenty minutes 
to half an hour ; if boiled longer, the com becomes 
hard and unpalatable. H. 



A SELF-SOWN WOOD. 



IT is often cited as a matter for wonder, or at 
least some degree of surprise, that when a 
wood of one kind of tree is cut down, quite 
other kinds of trees soon appear as seedlings. 
But country folk, who are famihar with 
the ways of woodland, know that such 
changes are only in the ordinary course of events. 
The ground under trees is full of various Nuts and 
seeds, brought by birds and squirrels as Well as 
wind-blown. While it is covered with woody 
growth and there is but little light and sun-warmth 
reaching the earth, the state of things is not favour- 
able to development, so that the seed, after lying 
dormant for some time, either decays or germinates 
feebly and throws up a weak, leggy growth that 
is of no account. Many seeds, after lying for some 
time, perish in this way, but some retain the 
possibility of vitality for a number of years, and 
meanwhile the supply is continually renewed. As 
soon as the wood is cut down, the conditions at 
the earth surface are changed. The sun warms 
the ground and the combined action of heat, light 
and moisture stimulates the seeds. The same 
occurs with the lower plants in copses of under- 
wood. These copses are usually allowed to grow 



for seven years. For the last three years before 
cutting, when the leafy branches meet and mingle 
overhead, there is hardly any wild growth below. 
One pushes through with some difiiculty, finding 
only the carpet of dead leaves under foot. But as 
soon as the copse is cut, the seed stored in the ground 
comes to life. By the second year there are 
masses of Primroses and Campions, and, in some 
places, a perfect turf of seedling Foxgloves, while 
the bulbs of the Bluebells and the creeping roots 
of the Wood Anemones take heart again and 
flower and flourish. 

A small wood of ten acres adjoins my garden. 
Formerly it was a wood of Scotch Pine of some 
seventy years' growth. Under the close-growing 
trees the ground was bare but for a scant sprinkling 
of Whortleberry, Heath and Bracken at the lighter 
edges. Thirty-five years ago the Pines were cut 
and the ground left bare. Soon it became covered 
with Heath, Ling and short Bracken, and, on one 
side especially, a stronger growth of Whortle- 
berry. Then, year by year, tree seedlings of many 
kinds came up in considerable quantity, so that 
there was not a yard of ground without one or 
more. This went on for some nine or ten years 
before the land came into my hands, and by then 
the seedhngs were, in many places, so thick that 
it was impossible to get between them. From that 
time onwards the problem was how best to thin 
them, also to cut out a few paths on the easiest 
lines to serve the future laying out of the ground 
where house and garden were to be. 

What is most remarkable about these few acres 
of seedhng growth is the large number of trees and 
shrubs of native species that are present. The 
larger trees are represented by Beech, Oak, Ash , 
Spanish Chestnut, Lime, Birch and Scotch Fir. 
I believe I may say that every British conifer and 
evergreen is among them, except Box ; for, besides 
the seedUngs that one would expect from the 
original Pines, there is a spontaneous growth of 
Spruce, Larch, Yew and Juniper, also Holly in 
abundance. Ivy and Honeysuckle, both of 
woody growth, though hardly classed as trees, 
are in plenty ; the latter in large quantity — in 
many places covering the floor of the wood with 
a treacherous knee-high tangle that makes walking 
difficult. Of the Apple tribe there are no fewer 
than six, namely. Mountain Ash, White Beam, 
wild Cherry, Crab, Whitethorn and Blackthorn. 
There are a few saplings of Ash and Sycamore, 
and though it is at the top of a dry hill, several 
plants of Willow, evidently from wind-blowing 
of the feathered seeds. There are also Hazel and 
Elder, Broom and Gorse. Of less common shrubs, 
though fairly frequent in the neighbourhood, 
there is one example of Alder Buckthorn (Rhamnus 
Frangula), a bush that always arrests me with a 
sense of interest. I cannot say why, as it is not 
conspicuous or specially beautiful ; perhaps it 
is because one only comes upon it now and then, 
and because it is one of the woodland things that 
no one seems to know the name of. There is one 
example in a wood not far off that has assumed the 
shape of a tree, vrith a single tall trunk about 
five inches thick. 

Those mentioned account for twenty-five of our 
native trees and hard-wooded shrubs, not counting 
Ivy and Honeysuckle. I can only think of fourteen 
others that are not represented. These are Elm, 
Wych Elm, Poplar, Field Maple, Alder, Horse 
Chestnut, Walnut and Hornbeam among trees ; 
and of shrubs, Dogwood, Viburnum Opulus and 
V. Lantana, common Buckthorn, Spindle-tree 
and Privet. Gertrude Jekyll. 



January i6, 1915.] 



THE GARDEN. 



35 



THE UPKEEP OF GARDEN 
HEDGES. 



To the owner of an established garden 
there is no subject that is more perplex- 
ing than the proper upkeep of the 
boundary hedges. These hedges are 
usually required for protection from 
strong, cold winds, and in some 
instances from the inroads of cattle, and nothing 
adds more to the attractiveness of a garden than 
hedges that are properly cared for. Hedges of 
this kind naturally fall into two sections, viz., 
those that are newly planted and those which have 
been long established. 

The question of cutting back young hedges at 
planting-time is one that is little understood, and 
considerable harm has not infrequently been done 
through ignorance. Whitethorn should be cut 
back severely, but Holly, Yew, Box, Beech and 
Arbor-vitae are best left alone for at least one year, 
and, unless- growth is very active, two years may 
well elapse before any pruning is done. After 
the first year the treatment of a young White- 
thorn hedge will depend to some extent on the 
height and width that it is desired it should attain. 
If a hedge only a few feet high is required, the 
young plants may be cut back rather severely 
each year, leaving from i foot to i8 inches of 
fresh growth, according to the vigour and density 
of the plants, until the full height is attained. 
Where a higher hedge is desired, from i8 inches 
to z feet may be left, always, however, bearing 
fully in mind the natural density or thinness of 
the Thorn plants. The object is to get a good 
base at the outset ; if a hedge is allowed to run up 
tro quickly, it is almost certain to become thin at 
the bottom, and it will be a difficult matter to 
subsequently induce it to thicken. Holly, Yew 
and Box, in their initial stages, will not need 
the top growths cut, unless, as is very unlikely, 
they are growing rapidly. The side shoots must 
be shortened ; the general contour of the finished 
hedge must be home in mind and worked tor as 
far as possible. If any leading or top shoots are 
growing away beyond the bulk, they should be 
cut back, and after a few years, when the hedge 
is nearly high enough, it will be necessary to curtail 
the whole. The treatment of the top must, how- 
ever, rest mainly with the condition of the hedge 
from year to year. If it appears to be growing 
too fast and not dense enough, it will be wise to 
cut down the top or leading growths. Arbor- 
vitse and Beech need both top and sides curtailed 
somewhat in the young stages, as they are not 
naturally so dense-growing as the Holly, Yew and 
Box. This shortening is best done with secateurs, 
so that each shoot is taken out separately. Laurel, 
which is not a desirable plant for a garden hedge, 
but which is sometimes used for the purpose, 
particularly where a dense screen is required in a 
few years, must have both top and lateral growths 
cut back, to the same extent as advised for White- 
thorns, but the work must be done with secateurs 
or small shears, so that each growth can be cut 
out separately without cutting through the leaves. 
If all perennial weeds are taken from the soil 
before planting, little trouble will be experienced 
in keeping down the seedhng weeds, provided they 
are at no time neglected. The young hedges 
ought to be cleared of weeds at least three times, 
during spring, summer and autumn, and should 
hot, dry weather be experienced, a 6-inch-thick 
mulching of short mantire on either side of the 



hedge, and extendiug outwards for at least a foot, 
will prove highly beneficial. 

The pruning or cUpping of estabUshed hedges 
needs some care, and should be done at the proper 
season to give the best results. While some kinds, 
notably Beech, Whitethorn, Holly, Yew and Box, 
wiU stand cutting with shears with impunity, 
others, such as Arbor-vit« and Laurel, ought to 
be pruned with knife or secateurs. Even HoUy 
is best done in this way if time permits, but it 
would be a very tedious and expensive task where 
large hedges had to be dealt with. Beech hedges 
are best trimmed during August or September, 
before growth gets very hard. Whitethorn ought 
to be cut twice, once about the end of June and 
again during October. HoUy and Yew are best 
cUpped in April, though they may be successfully 
trimmed during Sqptember or October if desired. 
If, however, it is necessary to cut them back rather 
severely, leave the work imtil April. Box and 
Arbor-vitjB are also best cut in April. Laurel 
should be dealt with during August, September 
or October. The shape of the hedge will naturally 
vary with the position it is to fill. As a general 
rule, the base should be slightly wider than the top, 
and except for high hedges of great density, such 
as Yew, Holly and Box, a flat top is preferable, 
though this is more or less a matter of taste. 
Where the kinds named attain a considerable 
height, it is wise to have the top slightly ridge- 
shaped, to prevent snow accumulating there in 
any harmful quantity. During the autumn dead 
'.eaves have a habit of collecting at the bases of 
hedges, and if allowed to accumulate there year 
after year tend to kill off the basal growths. 

Considerable harm is sometimes done to good 
hedges by the stopping of thin places with dead 
material. This only tends to kill more of the live 
growths and so enlarge the gap. Where a thin 
place is found, some yoimg shoots should be 
stretched across it in an outward direction, so that 
light and air can reach them, and unless the hole 
is a particularly bad one, the growths will not take 
long to fill it. But sometimes, owing to the demise 
of a large branch, it is necessary to do something 
more, and the wisest cours'e to adopt will be to 
dig out a good hole, fill in with some specially 
prepared soil, and plant a young bush of the same 
kind as the hedge. In a year or two this can be 
trained in keeping with the general contour of 
the hedge. 

Recently several enquiries have been made 
about the cutting of Box edgings, a subject that 
is akin to the cutting of hedges. Happily there is 
no necessity for hard-and-fast rules, and most 
gardeners now have the Box edgings clipped with 
shears as they require it, the work being generally 
done at midsummer and again in autumn. If, 
however, the Box has become somewhat over- 
grown and it is necessary to cut it back rather 
severely, it should be left imtil early in April ; 
new growth is quickly made at that season, and 
any bareness that may result from the hard cutting 
is quickly hidden. T. T. S. 



BOOKS. 



The Garden Under Glass.* — As set forth in 
the introduction, the object of the author is to 
provide a work for the amateur, in which is couched 
in simple language how work should be done, lists 



* ' ' The Garden Under Glass," by William F. Rowles. 
Published by Grant Richards, Limited, London; price 6s. 
net. 



of plants suitable for different purposes, and useful 
diagrams illustrating the structure of the green- 
house and the carrying out of many garden opera- 
tions. That it covers all ground likely to be of 
service to the amateur is shown by the list of 
contents, which are divided into six parts, namely. 
" The Construction of Glass-houses and Frames," 
" Popular Greenhouse Plants," " Fruit Under 
Glass," Vegetables Under Glass," " Greenhouse 
Work " and " Miscellanea." Some thirty pages 
are devoted to the building, staging and heating 
of the greenhouse, the fruit house, and other more 
rough-and-ready means of protection. The list 
of flowering plants is a good one, and explicit 
directions are given for their culture. At the 
same time, it would have been better if a more 
prominent feature was made of the fact that two 
or three separate houses would be required for 
the successful culture of the many plants referred 
to. In the case of Amaryllis (Hippeastrum), the 
fact gradually gaining ground among gardeners 
that the bulbs do not need repotting every year is 
dwelt upon. The list of greenhouse flowers in 
winter (page 144) is such as could by no means 
all be grown in a greenhouse, for it includes Begonia 
Gloure de Lorraine, Poinsettia pulcherrimaj 
Euphorbia jacquinaeflora, Calanthe Veitchii, Clivia 
miniata, with Cyclamens, Cinerarias, Primulas 
Zonal Pelargoniums, Stocks, forced Hyacinths and 
Tulips. The directions for growing fruit and 
vegetables under glass are very explicit, as also 
are the many cultural details, which, under the 
heading of " Greenhouse Work," occupies a great 
deal of the latter part of the book. A weak point 
— very evident throughout the entire work — is the 
slipshod way in which capital letters are used in 
connection with the names of plants. A marked 
example of this may be found on page 141, where, 
in a list of some twenty-five climbing plants suitable 
for growing under glass, the generic names are all 
spelt with small letters except Asparagus and 
Ficus. Why only these two should be so honoured 
cannot be imagined. Much the same may be noted 
on page 143, where a list of plants suitable for 
hanging baskets is given. Not many cultivators 
will be found to agree with the writer that 
tuberous Begonias do not relish root disturbance, 
and may be left for two or three years without 
breaking up, whatever this may mean. Again, 
referring to Primula kewensis, the writer says 
that the flowers are of a colour hitherto unknown 
among indoor Primulas. That such is not the case 
is evident from the fact that its parents — Primula 
floribunda and P. verticdlata- — are both green- 
house kinds and both have yellow flowers. Not- 
withstanding these numerous imperfections, most 
of which would have been avoided by more careful 
reading of the proofs, it is a work of considerable 
value to the amateur, as it goes into details so 
fully, and is without the fault, common to many 
books, of assimiing that the reader knows more 
than he really does. One may, however, take 
exception to " The Cheerful Greenhouse " depicted 
in the coloured frontispiece, and more particu- 
larly to the assertion that " Rightly managed 
a greenhouse need never be duller than this " ! 
For such a display, say, in December, it would be 
necessary to draw on several houses with varying 
temperatures. 

Adventures Among Wild Flowers.*— The 
author refers in the first place to an early love of 
flowers, stimulated in his boyhood days by earning 
a promised three sovereigns for finding sixty 



* '* Adventures Among Wild Flowers," by John Trevena. 
Published by Edward Arnold, London ; price 7s. 6d, not. 



36 



THE GARDEN. 



[January i6, 1915. 



blooms of the Pasque-flower (Anemone Pulsatilla) 
on a certain spot in the chalky downs of Berkshire. 
The main portion of the book is devoted to a 
journey to the Swiss and Italian Alps, and to a 
description of the many charming plants to be 
found there. The conditions under which they 
thrive are fully dwelt upon, and the entire work 
is interspersed w-ith light anecdotes of the many 
adventures which befel the author while travelling 
in out-of-the-way places. The misapplied use of 
' ' alpine "to many of the dwarf plants suitable for the 
rock garden is dwelt upon, for, as pointed out, 
they may come from the Himalayas, Rockies, 
the Cotswold Hills or Siberia, and, providing they 
are of small growth and suitable for growing 
among rocks, the term " alpine " is invariably applied 
to them. The halo that, in popular opinion, 
surromids the Edelweiss forms the subject of a note, 
it being pointed out that in ordinary garden soil 
it will flourish as readily as a Double Daisy. In 
the search for flowers in the elevated regions of 
Switzerland and Italy, the reader is carried step 
by step through the different districts, and the 
ever-varying phases of plantrlife fully explained. 
In many cases comparisons are drawn between 
the behaviour of the plant in a state of Nature and 
in the writer's home in the Dartmoor district. 
The black-and-white illustrations taken from 
photographs are charming, and, for the most part, 
they depict a plant or colony of plants amid 
congenial surroundings. One thing that ought 
not to occur in such an otherwise carefully written 
book is that mistakes in the use of capital letters 
continually crop up. Though there are many, 
two or three illustrations will suffice. On page 107 
Rhododendrons and Primulas are mentioned two 
or three times over, each time commencing with a 
small 'etter. Then, on page 152, Erigeron auran- 
tiacus has the specific name begiiming with a 
capital 'etter. On page 258 some of the species of 
Sedum are honoured with capitas, while on 
page 263 the genus itself is spelt with a small 
letter. For all this, it is a book which can be 
thoroughly recommended to the plant - lover 
who is anxious to leant something of the conditions 
under which the occupants of his little rock garden 
grow wild. It is very probable that the author 
would at the present time be of a different opinion 
concerning a part of one paragraph which occurs 
in the book, and which we cannot refrain from 
quoting : " The Alps are to Italy what the 
Channel is to England, a natural protection against 
the army of invasion. Yet Italy has allowed her 
line of defence to be pierced in three places, and 
despite certain insular croakings she is never 
likely to suffer for it ; indeed, if that army did 
threaten, we can easily imagine the Italian com- 
mander-in-chief exercising all his powers of strategy 
to lure the enemy into the St. Gothard or Mont 
Cenis, while England, with an example now thirty 
years old before her, still declines to complete 
the Channel tunnel, which, with her coastline 
strongly fortified and the friendship of France 
assured, would render her secure against invasion 
and diminish by one-half her Naval Estimates. 
As a patriot I hope that tunnel will be built in 
time." 

Transpiration and the Ascent of Sap in 
Plants.* — This is a work of a highly scientific 
nature, illustrating numerous experiments on 
the transpiration and the ascent of sap in plants 
carried out by the author and Dr. J. Joly in 

* ■" 'l"rans[)iration ami th"^ .\scoiit of Sap in Plants," 
by Henry H. Dixon, Sc.li., F K.S- Macmillan and I'o., 
Limited, St. Martin Strrrt. London, iirice os. net 



collaboration, assisted by others. As to the subject- 
matter of the work, we cannot do better than 
quote an extract from the author's preface : 
" In the present monograph an account is given 
of a physical explanation of the rise of water in 
trees. This theory rests on a knowledge of a 
property of liquids, which, though discovered 
in the middle of the last century, was little recog- 
nised and seldom referred to in physical literature. 
It now appears that a full appreciation of this 
property is essential for the realisation of the 
manner in which water is raised in plants, and 
of the meaning of the structure of trees as a 
mechanism for lifting water." The series of experi- 
ments conducted by the author to support his 
theory is very exhaustive, and of great interest 
to the more advanced plant scientists. It is in every 
respect a well-produced work, and should prove 
of considerable value to those who have mastered 
the more rudimentary portions of the science of 
botany. 



EDITORIAL NOTICES. 



Every department of horticulture is represented in The 
Garden, and the Editor inHtes readers to send in questions 
relating to matters upon which they wish expert advice. 

The Editor ivelcomes photographs, articles and notes, 
but he will not be responsible for their safe return. All 
reasonable care, however, will be taken, and where stamps 
are enclosed, he iiill endeavour to return non-accepted 
contributions. 

As regards photographs, if payment be desired, the Editor 
a-^k-f that the price required for reproduction be plainly stated. 
It mtist be distinctly understood that only the actual photo- 
grapher or owner of the copyright will he treated tvith. 

The Editor will not be responsible for the return of artistic 
or literary contributions which he may not be able to use, and 
tfie receipt of a proof must not be taken as eridence that an 
article is accepted. Publication in The Gabden uill alone 
be recognised as acceptance. 

Offiref^ : -ZO, Tavistock Stree*. Covent Garden, W.C. 



TO 



ANSWERS 
CORRESPONDENTS. 



QUESTIONS AND ASS^NERS.^The Editor endeavours to 
make THE Garden helpful to all readers who desire assist- 
ance, no matter what the branch of gardening may be, and 
with that object makes o» special feature of the ^'Answers 
to Correspondents " columns. All communications should be 
clearly and concisely written on one side of the paper only, \ 
and addressed to the Editor of The Garden, 20, Tavistock 
Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C. The name and address 
of the sender are required in addition to any designation he 
may desire to be used in the paper. When more than one 
query is sert, each should be on a separate piece of paper. 
Plants for naming should he clearly numbered and securely 
packed in damp gra.is or moss, tiot cotton-ivool , and flowering 
shoots, where possible, should be sent. It is useless to send 
small scraps that are not characteristic of the plant. Letters 
on business should be sent to the Publisher. 



FLOWER GARDEN. 

COLOUR ASSOCIATION iIi>tere-<teft).—0\iT curu^pon- 
dent enquires, " What colour^ could be used in a lonjr border 
of various shades of piukAntirrhiuuins as dot plants?" ;and 
the ininiediatc answer is. it is very much a q\iestion 
of taste. Candidly, we do not care for ** dot " plantinir. 
The ettVct hi a border is usually poor and weak, and 
contrast grouping or grouping for harmony is more 
pleasing or etfective. With pink of all shades, yellow, 
cream, white and rose pink invariably agree : strong 
or intense blue, as seen in Salvia patens, usually the 
reverse. If blue is used, it should be of the softest shade?, 
palest lavender or something akin usually found in Sweet 
Peas, which would probably be too tall for your purpose. 
For most of the first named you miu'ht encroach even 
more deeply upon the Snapdragon family itselt with good 
effect, in plants of eVen weight and floriferousness. For 
example, supposing you were employing dwarf Antir- 
rhinums in the main, a bold outcrop group of yellow or 
white formed by one of taller growth. £ay, of the 
medium or tall section, would be rather striking. Eftertive 
and easily grown plants to remember are Statice Bonducllii 
(pale yellow), Hclichrysums Silver Queen. Golden Globe 
and pink Beauty, witli perhaps a Fuchsia like Ballet Girl, 
whose big white corolla is more conspicuous than the 
scarlet sepals. In fohage plauts, white and silvery leaved 
ones, as Cineraria maritima and Ccntaurea candidissima ; 
in green, Summer Cypress or Kochia ; in variegated, 
Dactyhs glomerata elecantissima and Holcus lanatus 
variegata shouhl be kept in mind. Tf possible, crescent- 



shaped bays, each separated from the other by at U'si^t 
4 feet of an intervening mass of the Snapdragon, might 
be arranged in front of the border, and planted with white, 
cream and pale yellow Tufted Tansies or like shades iii 
tiiberou< Begonias would be very effective. If this were 
done, we should be inclined to abolish the " dot " groups 
entirely, and instead arrange a double row of white or 
pale yellow Snapdragon at the back for effect. The^e 
are, of course, suggestions, and without knowledge of 
the surroundings some may be impracticable. At the 
same time they might constitute a sort of finger post. 
We do not know of a cheap book likely to be of the least 
ser\'ice to you. but " Colour in the Flower Garden," 
by Mi-'is Jekyll. published at this office, post free 12s. lid.. 
would be very uh-iuI. 



THE GREENHOUSE. 

TREATMENT OF C(ELOGYNE CRISTATA (Joe).— 
This is the name of the Orchid of which you .-^ent a ?peci- 
men. It, as a rule, blooms in February and March, and 
the spikes of flowers with their conspicuous oranrc lip 
are always much admired. The general directions fcr 
its succ'ssful culture ar- as follow: In the flrtt place, 
it needs the temperature of a warm greenhouse or inter- 
mediate house, where, as a rule, it blooms during February 
and March. About a month after the flowers arc over 
is a good time to repot it if necessary. From what yon 
say, it is most probable that yours needs repotting, which 
should be carried out at the "time stated alwve. It must 
be borne in mind that the Ccelogyne is a shallow-rooting 
subject ; hence for its successful culture pans are much 
preferable to pots. These pans should be quite clean 
and half filled with broken crocks, over which must be 
placed a layer of Sphagnum Moss, .\ suitable compost 
may be made up of three parts fibrous peat and the 
remaining part of Sphagnum Moss cut up into short 
lengths, a dash of loam, and some fine broken crocks 
withalittli' silviT sand. Such a mixture will keep fresh and 
sweet for a long timr, as when in good condition the plants 
will not nerd npolting every year. After being potted 
they must be shaded from the sun till thoroughly e-i-tab- 
lishert, after which the shading may he lessened, and 
towards the end of the summer the plants will be benefited 
by exposure to full sunshine in order that the bulls are 
thoroughly ripened. "N^Tien growing freely they need a 
good supply of water at the roots and a daily syringing 
overhead. Soon after growth is completed — that is to 
say. when summer is well advanced — the flower-spikes 
commence to show, but they make slow progress. As 
soon as they are seen, the plants must not be syringed 
or watered overhead, as if moisture collects around them 
they are apt to damp off. At this period the plants 
will require less water, but at no tiiu:^ must they be kept 
dry enough to cause the pseudo-bulbs to shrivel. As 
the flowers develop, more water ^vill, of course, he needed, 
but not to the .^ann' I'xtent as when the plants are grow- 
ing freely. It is quite possible, when you turn your 
plant out of the pan in which it is growing, that it will 
naturally divide into several pieces. If such is the ease, 
they may be returned to the pan and distributed over 
it, not bunched up in the centre. In this way they all 
have room to grow. Care must be taken to place th<" 
growing shoot pointing towards the centre of the pan, 
and thus ensure a shapely specimen. If you desire to 
increase your stock, any smaller pieces may be put singly 
into small pans, or even pots, and treated as above 
recommended. 



ROCK GARDEN. 

MOSSY SAXIFRAGES BROWN IN CENTRE {Grey 
Court). — The only thing to do in the cireumstanees is 
to lift and replant the portions of the chimp which remain 
green, the " bare portion in the centre '' being doubtless 
dead and beyond aid. This dying off in the centre is 
not an infrequent result of an early =xcess of growth, 
which virtually lifts the central portion of the clump 
out of touch with the soil. It is more frequent, too. 
in the ease of the stronger-growing sorts than with the 
dense earpeters of the race, and in particular where ti.e 
plants arc not either well waicn-d in times of drought 
or heavily mulched with soil. All these Saxifrages root 
afresh, when opportunity is afforded them, from the 
immediate base of the rosettes of leaves ; hence either 
replanting or hea\y mulching is needed to sustain \igour 
in the old plants. In your case replanting the livelier 
parts of the plants will be the best, and in so doing arrange 
three or four rosettes, i.e., single gro^\i:hs, on a level, 
and so insert them that their bases arc firmly set in the 
soil. By arranging a dozen or more examples of the 
siz3 named over an area of 2 feet, a new clump with all 
the vigour and freslmess of youth will presently result. 
Endeavour, of course, should be made to get root fibres 
to each, the old stems to he well buried in the soil. In 
dealing with the smallest kinds, allow double the number 
of rof-ettcs to each tuft. The work may be done now 
or in February or March next. 



ROSE GARDEN. 

SWEET BRIARS PLANTED IN NOVEMBER {Rii.^hv).- 
Thcrc is uo ni'i'd to prmu' the Swtot Briiirs the first season 
after plantinc, e.\ceptiiii_' just to removi'the extreme ends 
in March. The seeimd year and subseiiuent years, in order 
to l<eep the hedge well furnisl.i d at the base, prnnc hard 
back one or two of the oldest (jrow-ths. Whvn the Briars 
attain the desired heiRht, they may then be pruned back 
as you wish. These remarks apply to the common Sweet 
Briar, also the Penzance hybrids. 



I 




E GARDEN. 



-^= 




No. 2253.— Vol. LXXIX. 



January 23, 1915. 



NOTES OF THE WEEK. 



The City of London Rose Society.— This 

society, which is as yet in its youth, continues to 
make good headway, and the committee have 
decided to hold their summer show on Thursday, 
June 24, at Cr-nnon Street Hotel. The Lord 
Mayor, the Right Hon. Sir Charles Johnston, lias 
kindly consented to act as president for this year, 
and has promised to open the show on the date 
named. An excellent schedule is being prepared, 
and full particulars of membership can be obtained 
from the hon. secretary, Mr. A. E. 
Protheroe, 67 & 68, Cheapside, London, E.C. 

Rosemary and Cut Flowers. — Those 
who have a good-sized Rosemary-bush in 
their gardens have also excellent material 
for using with nearly all kinds of cut 
flowers that are obtainable just now. A 
few long sprays cut and placed carelessly 
in a vase with Carnations is as pleasing and 
fragrant a combination as one could wish 
for. Shoots of Rosemary and Winter 
Jasmine are also very effective, both by 
day and imder artificial light. . A large 
Rosemary bush usually needs a little 
cutting back, and it may now be safely 
denuded of too venturesome growths for 
the purpose named. 

Trollius chinensis. — This is one of the 
new varieties of Trollius (Globe Flower) 
from China, and is distinguished by its 
rather tall habit, and more especially by 
the length of its petals, or petaloid stamens 
as they are frequently called. These 
stand up in a circle round the stamens, 
are a great deal longer than those of any 
other variety, and give the flowers a very 
characteristic look. It can be raised from 
seed, but a word of warning is necessary 
for those who have never sown Trollius 
seed. If it is kept for any length of time 
after it is gathered, germination will not 
take place for a year or even longer. 

Romneya Coulteri. — There is a very 
fine example of this magnificent perennial 
in the gardens of Acton Burnell Hall, 
near Shrewsbur)'. No plant could be 
more vigorous and healthy. The head-gar- 
dener attributes this to his placing large, flat 
stones over the roots when it was planted. He 
lias advised this course in several cases, and in 
each one the report has come back, he said, that 
his " tip " had been adopted with the best results. 
We have often heard of the value of stones being 
placed over or among roots, and now it seems that 
R. Coulteri must be added to the list of plants 
which benefit by this treatment. The stones at 
Acton Burnell are entirely hidden below the soil. 



Godetia Double Rose. — Those who appreciate 
good annual flowers for cutting should certainly 
order seeds of the Godetia named Double Rose. 
It is of quite a different type to the older dwarf 
varieties, as it makes shoots 2 feet or more in 
length, these being studded from near the base 
to the'r tips with dainty rose pink flowers that 
never fail to elicit praise from visitors. It is a 
charming plant in the garden, but is even more 
beautiful when sprays are cut and placed in 




PORTION OF 



A DRY WALL WITH 
PLANTS IN FLOWER. 



FOUR USEFUL 



water. We sow it outdoors early in April, and 
take care to thin the seedlings when they are 
quite small so that they stand a foot apart. 
We believe this beautiful annual was first sent 
out by Messrs. E. Webb and Sons. 

Gloxinias and Tuberous Begonias from Seed.— 
We would remind those who are desirous of raising 
these plants from seeds that during the next 
week or two is the best time of the year for sowing. 
As the seeds are very small, the well-drained 
pans or boxes must be filled with finely sifted soil, 



pieferably composed of good loam two parts, 
leaf-soil or peat one part, and silver sand one 
part. The surface ought to be made quite level 
and the seeds scattered evenly and thinly over 
it. A little silver sand is sufficient covering, 
but each pan or box ought to be covered with a 
piece of glass until germination has taken place. 
A temperature of 55° to 60° is desirable to raise 
these plants successfully from seeds, though we 
have seen good results with 10° less. 

Four Good Dry-Wall Plants.— In dry- 
wall gardening many delightful surprises 
await the enthusiast. This particularly 
applies in the way individual plants adapt 
themselves to the wall face and the form 
they eventually assume. The illustration 
affords an instance in showing the way 
Arenaria balearica ramifies in all directions, 
forming a complete carpet of green stems, 
bejewelled with white, starry flowers. The 
lavender blue of Aubrietia graeca presses 
close up to it from the lower courses, while 
higher up it forms a continuous link with 
the cobalt blue of Phlox subulata Seraph. 
On either side appear small tufts of the 
Mossy Saxifraga cjespitosa. All four are 
typical, free-growing rock plants that suc- 
ceed in any well-drained garden soil and 
give generously of their flowers during May. 
The Saxifraga forms immense cushions of 
the liveliest green, and its winter aspect is 
delightful, while in May it becomes a sheet 
of creamy white. 

Outdoor Flowers in Midwinter.— When 
looking round the garden on Sunday last, 
the 17th inst., we were reminded that 
Nature is already awakening from her 
winter slumber. The following list of 
plants in bloom, jotted down at random, 
may be of interest : Galanthus Elwesii, a 
beautiful large Snowdrop ; the Winter 
Aconite, with its bright yellow, Buttercup- 
like flower studding a ruff of deep green ; 
Iris stylosa, as delicately fragrant as its azure 
flowers are beautiful ; Winter Jasmine, 
with vivid yellow blooms, the wonderful 
sheen of which is only revealed when they are 
kissed by the winter sun ; Christmas Roses ; 
the Japanese Witch Hazel, Hamamelis mollis, 
with its long, crinkled yellow petals ; the Winter 
Sweet, Chimonanthus fragrans, so delightful for 
cutting ; and Wallflower Yellow Ph oenix. It 
would add considerably to the interest of gardens 
during the winter months were more attention 
given to such plants as those n»med. Not one is 
really difficult to grow, and most of them provide 
charming cut flowers for the house. 



;}8 



THE GARDEN. 



[January 23, 1915. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

{The Editor is not respotisible for the opinions 
expressed by correspondents.) 



Planting Crinum Powellii.^i have found 

the best way is to plant very deeply, of course 
arranging for plant food to be beneath the bulb ; 
but what is also important is to plant the bulb 
up to its neck in a concave pit ; then, as the plant 
forms a neck above the ground, gradually during 
the summer to keep filling the pit until it gets 
to the level of the surrounding soil.- — \V. D. P. 

Soaking DaBodii Buibs in Water. — Mr. Jacob, 
1)11 page 4, issue January 2, throws doubt on 
the efficacy of immersion in water of bulbs attacked 
by merodon grubs. He says he has not tried it. 
I have. I cannot too strongly recommend it 
being done. Fancy cutting open a bulb that 
has cost many sovereigns when immersion will 
bring out the " beast " if he is there ! — C. Lemesle 
Adams. 

Helleborus niger^altifolius. — Many times I 

have uTJtten in praise of this Christmas Rose, 
and am pleased you recommend it so strongly 
on page i, issue January 2. The finest-grown 
plants of this variety I have seen are in the gardens 
at Corhampton House, Bishop's Waltham. Hants, 
tl^ residence of W. Campbell Wyndham Long, 
Esq. Mr. Cawte, the gardener, manages to have 
huge quantities of flower early in December 



be best for purposes of judging, but it quickly 
becomes tedious and tiresome for table decoration. 
In an effort to escape from it, late one autumu, 
I decided to do a dish of Sweet Peas for my table, 
and it was hailed with delight. My friends 
dived their noses into it and exclaimed, " How 
delicious!" (Folks do not desire to bury their 
faces in a bunch of bristles.) I do not say, 
however, that this is a better way to arrange 
flowers, but only suggest that " variety is 
charming." — Anne Am.iteur. 

How to Flower Banksian Roses. — .Much that 
is good has been written on this subject in The 
Garden of late, and there appears to be little 
more to say on the subject. I do not remember 
one writer who has distinguished between the 
two varieties. Whereas the yellow form will 
give numerous blooms imder proper condition?, it is 
seldom that a plant of the white form is met with 
that has more than a sprinkling of blooms, Natu- 
rally, it is not so free as the yellow ; indeed, it is 
seldom met with at all. Perhaps a southern aspect 
is the best for the yellow variety, but on an east 
or even a west wail it flourishes when the growth 
is not too thick, A wall not less than 20 feet high 
suits it admirably, where the growth has plenty 
of space to develop and eventually becomes 
thoroughly matured. So many persons consider 
that when a Rose tree is once planted it requires no 
more attention. This is a mistake, as the Banksian 
variety revels in being well supported with moisture 




A DISH OF 



SWEET PEAS ARRANGED FOR EFFECT, ,\ND 
FROM TALL DESIGNS. 



10 PROVIDE A CHANGE 



annually by the aid of a cold frame only. In 
fact, he grows the roots in the frames all the year 
round, encouraging a free growth directly the 
blossoms have faded in Februarj'. By this means 
he builds up plants with stout crowns thoroughly 
matured early in the year, and which never fail 
to give the best results, — U. M. 

Long-Stemmed Flowers. — I see one of your 
correspondents has on page 22, issue January 9, 
at last ventured on a gentle protest against the 
overlong stems of flowers, which seem to be the 
delight of professional florists. The aim of the 
average exhibitor appears to be to approach as 
closely as he can to the arrangement of bunches 
of bristles in a brush. This may (?), perhaps. 



at the roots during dry weather, especially if that 
be in June or July, after the flowering season is 
past. It is at that period when aid in establishing 
a satisfactory growth is of value, giving to the 
foliage that glossy tinge which denotes perfect 
health and a corresponding flower crop later, — 
E. M. 

Transplanting Christmas Roses. — There seems 
to be considerable divergence of opinion on 
this subject isee page 15. issue January 9). 
About six years ago I made the following extract 
from " Scottish Gardens," by Sir Herbert Maxwell, 
whose interesting articles on " Hardy Lilies " 
you are now publishing : " Helleborus niger 
maximus. — Stiff soil very deeply dug, plenty 



of leaf-mould, no peat. Take up roots end of 
March, cut off all long ends (which if left imtrimmed 
cause crowns to rot) : nd dibble the slices in lines." 
This is not a verbatim copy from the book (which 
I do not possess, to my sorrow), but the note I 
made at the time. From Sir Herbert's letter in 
January 9 issue it appears that the same 
practice is successfully followed by another Scottish 
gardener. May it not be that the different results 
obtained by such acknowledged experts as Sir 
Herbert Maxwell and Mr. Jenkins are due to 
differences in soil and climate ? Both agree as 
to deep cultivation, but while Sir Herbert says 
(in "Scottish Gardens") stiff soil, plenty of 
leaf-mould and no peat, Mr. Jenkins advocates 
sandy loam with perfect drainage. Here, with a 
choice of both soils and a cold, damp climate, 
I intend trying both methods, and only wish 
some kind friend would supply me with a " dozen 
clumps of Helleborus niger maximus " for the 
purpose ! — -Walter de H. Birch, Walion-le-Dale. 
Lancashire. 

A Hedge of Sorts. — Here is a list for "Anne 
.\mateiu-," %vho appeals for suggestions on 
page 14, issue January 9. Wiil she listen 
to the words of wisdom of one who has gardened 
for so many years that she is hardly any longer 
an amateur ? If Laiu'el must be used, thief as 
it is, robbing the ground for delicate shrubs, 
let it be the long-leaved, pointed sort, which is 
not tmgraceful if put where it may grow tall 
and loose-branched and flowering. One of these 
Lau'-els in full flower is a thing of beauty ; but 
pruned and kept in bounds— no ! (i) Amelanchier 
canadensis, pale pink leaves in spring, flame in 
the autumn, and delicate sprays of white flowers 
early. (2) Prunus Pissardii, purple-leaved and 
sweet white blooms in very early spring, maj be 
cut and brought indoors in bud, and the more 
you cut, the more flowers next year. (3) Forsythia 
suspensa, in February ; also its yellow flowers 
will open indoors. Prime after flowering to get 
long sprays for next year. (4) Choisya ternata, 
quite hardy in Dorset, flowering twice, (5) The 
most brilliant-fruited Crab is John Downie, and 
you may boil its fruits in sugar for dessert. (6) The 
most beautiful-flowered Crab is Pyrus Malus 
floribunda (bring in its sprays in bud). (7) 
Cotoneaster frigida, and (8) P>tus Aria for brilliant 
red fruits in autumn ; these are little light trees. 
(9) and (lo) Hamamelis arborea and H, mollis flower 
early in February', (11) and (12) Berberis steno- 
phylla and B. Drummondii, lovely orange and yellow 
flowers. If not tio late, do not put only Hybrid 
Sweet Briars on the posts — -they flower, and are 
gone. Jersey Beauty flowers later and long ; 
sweet, single, ivory. American Pillar is glorious. 
Ren^ .\ndre is delicious and flowers twice ; salmon 
pink, .\lberic Barbier also flowers twice, and is 
lemon white. — Ladye of the Flowers. 

A Free-Flowering Liliiim auratum. — The 

enclosed photographs may be of interest to you. 
One shows three spikes of bloom from one bulb 
of Lilium auratum flowering in my garden here 
last September. There were in all forty-one 
blooms on the three spikes. It had no special 
care, and the bulb was purchased from a local 
nurseryman for ninepence. The other photo- 
graph shows the result of a bulb planted about 
a yard away, which had one spike of bloom only, 
but larger individual flowers. — Arthur H. Lyne, 
Silver Hoor. Cli/tonville. Dorking. [Unfortu- 
nately, the photographs sent by our correspondent 
were not suitable for reproduction, but one 
showed three very fine flower-spikes. — Ed.] 



January 23, 1915. 



THE GARDEN. 



39. 



Daffodils for the Garden.— With reference SOME HARDY LILIES^- 

to the remarks made by " J. R." under the heading ' ^_____ 

" The Ideal Catalogue " in your issue of January 9, i 

page 22. I agree with him that there is need for '• 

more information from enlightened quarters 

as regards varieties of medium price which are 

eminently suitable for 



IV. 



SUB-GENUS ARCHELIRION. 

{Continued from page 38.) 
Lilium Henryi, introduced from Central China 
garden decoration on : towards the close of last century by the intrepid col- 
account of their strong constitution as well as I lector whose name it bears, Dr. Augustine Henry, 
for the e.xhibition table. Several varieties which ! 'his fine LUy has already responded to cultivation 
are recommended in trade catalogues and are | by attaining a stature far exceeding that of the 
seen at nearly every show in the British Isles are : wild plants and by producing its gay orange 
more or less worthless as garden varieties. The '. flowers in greater profusion. The blossoms resemble 
first variety which I wish to mention is King ' those of L. speciosum in shape and size, but are 
Alfred, this being in the first rank as a show flower, of a rich golden hue, and open in late summer, 
but, alas! in most parts of England at least. It is a splendid acquisition, and its requirements are 



it is an exceedingly bad doer, and until its price 
comes do^vn to 2s. 6d. a dozen or so it is not worth 
buying except for those who must have it for the 
exhibition table. Where it does well it is practi- 
■cally the giant of its tribe, but in most localities 
it is so badly affected with leaf stripe that it is 
a poor weakling. When it has reached a moderately 
low price it will be worth buying a dozen bulbs 
every year by those who wish to compete, say, 
in a mixed class of twelve or twenty-four varieties, 
as it is most telling as a big back-row flower. 
Another variety mentioned by " J. R." at the 
beginning of his letter, which is equally prominent 
■on the show board and which in my garden in 
Middlesex is also a poor doer, is Homespun, although 
I must say it is nothing like so bad as King Alfred, 



few and simple. I have seen it growing luxuriantly 
in gardens where little intelligence had been applied 
to the management of 
Lilies in general. Its chief 
peculiarity is that the long 
stems, sometimes reaching 
to 7 feet or 8 feet, Qannot 
support themselves, where- 
fore the bulbs should be 
planted a foot deep among 
shrubs whereon the sprawl- 
ing stems may recline. It 
is a lime-lover, but does not 
insist upon that ingredient 
if it has' well-drained loam, 
a liberal supply of water 
in summer and, when 



roots will taie as much nourishment from rich 
mulching as can be afforded them, with marked 
effect upon the quaUty of blossom. 

L. tigrinum.— If the Tiger Lily were a rare 
species, or if it required elaborate preparation 
of soil and other conditions of cultivation, it would 
be prized as one of the most dehghtful flowers 
in British gardens. Luckily, it is to be reckoned 
among the easiest of Lilies to obtain and to grow, 
although it does not always receive the attention 
it deserves and requires, if it is to be enjoyed 
at its best. The type is a fine thing, but the 
varieties splendens, with stems of shirung black, 
and Fortunei, with lofty wands clad with wool, 
are finer still. The bulbs should be planted at 
least 6 inches deep (those of Fortunei lo inches 
or 12 inches) in good loam with an admixture 



and does not suffer from leaf stripe, but.Jt Jg aitrt 

■sufficiently robust in gro-wth to take jts place I thoroughly established, a 

among the good garden varieties. Its "place on good mulch of well-decayed 



the show board is also more easily filled than that 
of King Alfred. There are several newer varieties 
■of yellow incomparabilis which easily eclipse it, 
and which, when they become more reasonable 
in price, will be in the gardens of most exhibitors. 
At the end of my letter I give a short list of varie- 
ties which can be bought at present for los. or 
less, and which I have tried here for the last two 
years at least and found satisfactory for any 
purpose. Those mentioned by " J. R." above 
the price stated, which come up to my standard 
from all points of view, are Loveliness, Great 
"Warley and Lord Kitchener, and I might add 
another of my own stock, namely, Lowdham 
Beauty. All four are good growers, the three 
last mentioned specially so. My list of good 
strong growers within the price stated suitable 
lor exhibition or the garden is as follows : 
Yellow trumpets — Lord Roberts, Mrs. H. J. 



farmyard manure. 

L. speciosum, formerly 
known as L. lancifolium, 
is perhaps better known to 
British gardeners as a pot 
plant than as a permanent 
open-air dweller ; but there 
is only one drawback to its 
use in the borders, namely, 
that, although the earliest 
of all hardy Lilies to show 
above ground in spring, 




LILIUM DAVURICUM LUTEUM, A CLEAR YELLOW VARIETY WITH 
PROMINENT DARK SPOTS. {See page 40.) 



it is one of the j of pulverised peat and sand, without a suspicion 
latest to flower. Hence in cold or sunless I of lime or chalk, and in full sunshine. There is 
districts it is apt to be caught by autumn ! a double form of this Lily, but if I had my heel 
frosts. The beauty, however, of the many ; on the last bulb of it I would crush it (unless I 
varieties entitles it to a position where it | had it cooked for the table, as the Chinese use it), 
may receive all the sunshine that is to be had I for in the double flower is destroyed that union 
in regions where clouds prevail. There are two j of splendid colour and perfect form which dis- 
sources of supply for the bulbs of this Lily— its I tinguishes the Lily genus among all herbs of the 
Veil CI, Van Waveren's Giant, Monarch and i native Japan and the Dutch nurseries. The field. The propagation of all varieties of the 
Glory of Leiden. White trumpets — Mme. de | Japanese bulbs produce the finer flowers ; but, | Tiger LUy is extremely simple, by means of the 
Graaff, Mrs. Robert Sydenham and Mrs. Betteridge. ■ as their roots are trimmed off for export and as ! bulbils which form in the axils of the stem leaves. 
Bicolor trumpets — Mme. Plemp, Weardale Perfec- | a large proportion of the bulbs are diseased, If these are set out in lines in a nursery bed, 



flowering bulbs will be the result in three or four 
years. Cultivated in Japan as an article of food, 
the bulbs of this Lily (and most other Asiatic 



tion. Glory of Noordwijk and Duke of Bedford, j special precaution is necessary before they can 
Yellow incomparabilises — Noble, Solfatare and be established in the open. " Those," says Mr. 
Marigold. Bicolor incomparabilises — Lady Mar- j Grove, " who wish to grow the Japanese sorts 

garet Boscawen, Whitewell, Lucifer and Orange- i should pot the bulbs for the first season, cutting ; species) have a peculiar attraction for rats and 
man. Yellow Barrii — Castile, Coeur de Lion and | off all the flower-buds that may form, and planting i mice ; wherefore deep planting is expedient 
Glitter. Bicolor Barrii — Royal Star, Sunrise, out any that are in good condition after the first j and a stony soil is no slight advantage. 
Incognita and Southern Star. Leedsii — White i season's growth. This may be a trial of patience SUB-GENUS ISOLIRION. 

Queen, Diana, Evangeline and Maggie May. j for some, but it is the best way in the end." 1 Lilium bulbiferum.— One is accustomed to 
Poeticus — Horace, Cassandra and Virgil. Double Dutch-grown bulbs of L. speciosum generally hear this Lily slightingly spoken of as a coarse 

arrive in this country in pretty good condition ; and uninteresting species. If I cannot share 
but it is worth the extra trouble to attain success j this view it is because, many years ago, I brought 
with the finer Japanese varieties, of which the home a Lily from an altitude of between 6,000 
pure white Kraetzeri, the glowing rubrum j feet and 7,000 feet in the Valtelline, which bore 
magnificum and the rose-coloured Melpomene , flowers of a splendid flame colour. I believe this 
are the pick. The cultural requirements of , to have been a fine variety of this species. It 
L. speciosum are the same as those of L. auratum, ! is a plant there is no excuse for losing, seeing 
save that, owing to its habit of late flowering, 1 that it bears axillary bulbils as liberally as 
it should be given a sunnier position. The stem ! the Tiger Lily ; but lost it I have, during a 



— Inglescombe Phoenix, Primrose Phoenix, Argent, 
Plenipo and Dubloon. I have mentioned the 
six divisions which I grow, and although there 
are five more in the Royal Horticultural Society's 
Classification, the above are the ones principally 
grown. I do not pretend to be one of the " en- 
lightened," and write this letter entirely in the 
hope that someone much better able may come 
to the rescue and help — A Small Amateur. 



40 



THE GARDEN. 



[January 23, 1915. 



long series of summers squandered in the House 
of Commons. There is no mystery in the cultiva- 
tion of this species ; what satisfies the Orange 
Lily will leave the bulbiferous one nothing to 
complain of. 

L. concolor, a desirable little Lily of Chinese 
origin, bearing, on stems 12 inches to 18 inches 
high, three or four crimson flowers. It is said to 
be easily grown if planted 5 inches deep in sandy 
soil, not allowed to sufier from drought in the 
growing season or from want of rapid drainage 
when at rest, but I have no experience of it, 
save as seen in the borders of a friend. 

L. croceum. — The true Orange Lily is not 
always to be had when ordered from a nursery- 
man, though some very handsome hybrid or 
variety may very likely be supplied, with flowers 
more or less stained with sanguine hue. The 
type, however, brought to this country centuries 
ago from the Mediterranean, is commonly to 
be found in the garden plots of cottages and farm- 



spirally, ending curiously in a flat top, on which the 
brown flower-buds appear in May. The fine varie- 
ties of L. davuricum require general treatment like 
that prescribed for the Orange Lily, but they are 
less able to withstand winter wet ; wherefore, 
unless a place can be given them where water 
runs quickly away, the pits to receive them should 
be dug deep enough to admit an inverted flower- 
pot being set beneath each bulb, with a covering 
of 4 inches or 5 inches of soil over the bulbs. In 
June of the present year there was a splendid 
display of L. davuricum erectura on a small 
island of the river Itchen, on which Mrs. Trimmer 
had set about a hundred bulbs. They have 
grown strong and multiplied, and the blaze of 
colour could be seen half a mile away. 

L. elegans (syn. thunbergianum), a dwarf 
Lily from Japan, differing from the European 
L. bulbiferum and L. davuricum in that it is a 
stem-rooting species, whereas the others root 
only from the base of the bulb. It is the pro- 



colour of the flowers varies in different plants, 
but is most commonly bright orange with purple 
spots. Each segment of the flower is set on a 
narrow stalk, giving the erect blossom a very 
delicate grace. It requires to be planted 5 inches 
or 6 inches deep in well-drained loam without 
lime. Herbert Maxwell. 

(To be- conlinued.) 



SOME WINTER-FLOWERING 
HEATHS. 




ERICA CARNEA MASSED ON A ROCKY BANK. THIS IS A CHARMING HEATH IN WINTE 

EARLY SPRING. 



houses, especially in the North of Ireland, where 
its presence indicates the religious and political 
faith of the householder. It is a splendid Lily, 
though use has blunted our appreciation of the 
fine gold which it displays early in July. Plant 
the bulbs in a sunny place about four inches 
deep in loam inclining to stiffness, and leave them 
alone, except for an occasional dressing of well- 
rotted manure. It flowers in July. 

L. davuricum, a Siberian species, has become 
so mixed up with the garden varieties known as 
L. umbellatum that the original wild form is 
seldom seen. Several of these varieties are well 
worth growing, probably none more so than 
the kind ticketed " incomparabile," with 
flowers of intense blood colour, and the gay L. 
davuricum luteum. clear yellow, beautifully 
set with dark spots. Nor are the flowers the 
only attraction offered by the umbellate Lily. 
It makes its early appearance abov? ground in 
most delightful fashion, sending up a stout column 
densely clothed with bronze-coloured leaves set 



genitor of a great number of varieties, much more 
attractive than the type. I must confess that, 
although I have grown several of these, I have 
quite lost count of the nomenclature, and am fain 
to resort to Mr. Grove's list of those which he 
considers best, namely, Horsmanii, dark crimson ; 
Alice Wilson, yellow ; venustum, apricot ; and 
Wilsonii, late-flowering. These Lilies require all 
the sunshine they can have in this country, 
provided their roots are screened by some lowly 
growth. The bulbs should be planted 9 inches 
deep in very sandy soil. In the Kew List, L. 
Batemani and L. Wallacei are described as 
varieties of L. elegans ; but Mr. Grove takes 
exception to this arrangement, pointing out that 
the bulb of each is quite different from that ot 
L. elegans. (" Lilies," pages 52 and 53). 

L. philadelphicum is a gaily-coloured little 
American Lily, not nearly so well known in British 
gardens as it deserves to be. It bears umbels 
of three or four flowers on stems 18 inches to 
2 feet high, and likes a sunny situation. The 



k LTHOUGH the Heath garden is mterest- 

/% ing at every season of the year, it 

/ % is during the dull days of winter 

^^"^k that we most appreciate the dainty 

* * little flowers of this moorland family. 

Of no other race of hardy shrubby 

plants can it be said that we have representatives in 

flower during every month in the year ; hence it is 

not surprisingto find that hardy Heaths 

are rapidly gaining in favour. Articles 

on their cultivation have appeared in 

these columns from time to time, and 

it is not necessary now to go into 

details of what, after all, is a very 

simple gardening operation. Given 

thoroughly drained and, therefore, 

moderately warm soil that is free from 

lime and contains a good proportion 

of humus, most of the hardy Heaths 

will grow and flower well with very 

little attention. 

The best of all the Winter Heaths, 
or at least the one that is most appre- 
ciated, owing to its early flowering, is 
Erica mediterranea hybrida. This 
rarely exceeds i foot in height, and 
often only reaches a modest 6 inches, 
making a neat tuft of green branching 
stems and fohage that from early 
December until well into February 
are smothered with bright rose pink 
flowers. It is quite hardy and ap- 
pears to do well nearly anywhere. 
It is really diflicult to understand 
why this Heath is not more exten- 
sively grown, as for some years past 
large beds of it at Kew have provided 
valuable object-lessons in winter 
R AND colour effects for all who wish to 

learn. The next Winter Heath to be 
mentioned is E. camea. This does 
not usually reach the zenith of its beauty until 
February is well advanced, but for some time 
previously the plants are full of greenish purple 
flower-buds that have apparently been waiting 
for the late winter sunshine, with its increasing 
power, to develop fully the carmine red colour 
of its myriads of flowers. It rarely exceeds 6 inches 
in height, and the sight of a large colony clothing 
a rugged, sun-kissed bank in February is not 
easily obliterated from one's memory. There 
is a white-flowered form of it named E. carnea alba, 
but the blossoms are only of a dirty white tint, 
and it is not a plant to be compared with the type 
or the white Heather of autumn. 

The other hardy Heath that calls for mention now 
is the Portuguese Heath, E. lusitanica or codo- 
nodes. This makes a tall, erect bush 3 feet to 4 feel 
high, and during the latter part of January and 
onwards through February is usually covered with 
its whitish, pink-tinged flowers. E. Veitchii, a hybrid 
raised by crossing the Portuguese Heath with E 
irbirea. flowers in late winter and early spring. 



January 23, 1915.] 



THE GARDEN. 



41 



ROSE-GROWING IN TOWN 
GARDENS. 



Protection from Frost.— It is now many 
years since a severe winter has been experienced 
in this country, and consequently those who 
have neglected to protect their Roses during the 
coldest months have seldom had to pay the full 
penalty of their omission. It is quite usual, 
however, for a certain propoirtion of the trees to 
fail even after a mUd winter, and as the damage 
done by frost is often imdetected until the spring 
is well advanced, late planting, with risk of another 
failure, is the only means of filling the gaps in 
one's beds. To avoid this it is certainly worth while 
to take a little extra trouble before 
severe weather sets in. With bush 
Roses the only precaution that need 
be taken is to earth them up, 
that is, to draw up the surround- 
ing soil so as to cover 2 inches 
or 3 inches of the basal shoots 
of each plant and form a small 
mound of earth about the crown. 
Even if all growth above ground 
is then frosted, there will still 
be sufficient of the plant left 
alive in the spring to give a 
good result. With standard trees 
there is more difficulty. The 
protection usually recommended 
is to place dried Bracken fronds 
in the heads of the trees, taking 
care to cover the points at 
which they were budded. In 
towns Bracken is not often ob- 
tainable, but straw is quite as 
good for the purpose, the covers 
used for packing wine bottles 
(when unfastened at the top) 
being just what is required, and 
with a little manipulation one 
such cover may easily be made 
to protect all the essential parts 
of a tree. Brown paper might 
answer almost equally as well 
in the dry weather, but the 
objection to it is that it becomes 
sodden, unless first greased, and 
one does .not want to keep 
renewing the covering when once 
it has been placed in position. 
Cold winds, and especially draughts 
(as may be caused by a hole in a 
fence, ftor instance), are much more 
likely to damage the plants than are still frosts. The 
coldest winds reaching this country are from the 
north and east ; consequently it is of great advan- 
tage to have the Rose-beds in such a position that 
they are sheltered from these quarters. The 
labels usually attached to Rose trees soon become 
illegible, and no time should be lost in recording 
the names in a mere permanent manner. As 1 
have suggested in a previous article, this is easily 
done by noting in a book the kinds planted in each 
bed in their correct order, or by making a rough 
plan of the beds showing the Roses in their 
positions. During the wet and windy weather 
if the last few weeks, those bushes with 
lirge heads have been so blown about as 
to cause a "collar" round the stem, and 
this is frequently filled with water. The 
soil must first be loosened and then made firm 
again. P. L. Goddard. 



CHRYSANTHEMUMS THAT 
LAST WELL IN SCOTLAND. 



A T this season, when the bulk of Chry- 
/\ santhemums are propagated, it may 

/ % be of some service to those who grow 
/ % the Autumn Queen for conservatory 
' * or room adornment and for cut- 

flower purposes to have a few hints 
as to the varieties that remain in good condition for 
a fairly long period. I have kept notes of these 
in previous years and very carefully this season. 

Big-Bloom Varieties. — ^William Turner, purest 
white, and when well grown one of the very finest 
\'arieties in cultivation. As a rule, second natural 



Mrs. W. T. Smith is not unlike Mrs. A. T. Miller, 
but stands about double the time and has much 
better foliage. A beauty. Good flowers from 
either buds. Rose Queen stands well, notwith- 
standing its rather flimsy florets. Either first 
or second crown buds and good cultivation. 
One or two "old stagers" that are still well 
worth a place keep fresh for a long time. These 
include Mme. G. Henri (white), Lady Esther 
Smith (incurved white), Exmouth Rival (brilliant 
crimson). Buttercup (incurved), Embleme Poitevine 
(incurved yellow) and Edith Jameson (lovely pink). 
Decorative Varieties. — Black Prince, David 
IngameUs (probably the longest laster of the lot), 
Freda Bedford, Market Red, Niveus, W. Duckham 
and Mrs. J. Ritson. 




A BEAUTIFUL HARDY CLIMBER, POLYGONUM BALDSCHUANICUM. 



crowns give the best results. Mary Poulton, a 
lovely pale pink of refined form and a fairly easy 
variety to manage. Second crown buds are best. 
Mrs. L. Thorn is still one of our finest yellow 
Chrysanthemums, and a dwarf, healthy grower. 
Second crown buds are best. Mrs. R. Luxford, 
a bright reddish crimson, but shows the yellow 
reverse, especially when first opening. Of excellent 
habit. Second cro%vn buds are best. Mrs. E. A. 
Tickle, a really good pink, something like the 
old Mrs. G. Mileham, but larger. Good on either 
bud, but seconds' are more refined and purer in 
colour. Fred Green is of a lasting wine red colour 
and of beautiful shape. It has fine foliage and 
fairly dwarf habit. First crown buds are desirable. 
His Majesty is a beautiful deep crimson variety 
that has stood well this year, but, as I have never 
g^o^vn it before, I am unable to give its behaviour 
in different seasons. First crown buds are best. 



Single Varieties. — Ceddie Mason, Mensa, Lady- 
smith, F. W. Smith, Kitty Bourne, Crimson Queen, 
Joan Edwards, Brightness an i Miss Mary Anders, in . 

Preston Gardens, Linlithgow. C. Blair. 



A BEAUTIFUL FLOWERING CLIMBER. 

The plant illustrated on this pcge is an extremely 
beautiful climber, having the misfortune to be 
named Polygonum baldschuanicum. It makes 
many feet of growth annually and bears rosy- 
tinted panicles of flowers in great profusion both 
in early summer and again in autumn. Although 
suitable for clothing pillars, verandahs and build- 
ings generally, it is unquestionably seen to the 
best advantage when allowed to cover old trees 
in the pleasure groimds. It appreciates a sunny 
position and fairly good roi'. C. Q. 



42 



THE GARDEN. 



[January 23, 1915. 



THE ICELAND POPPY. 



THERE are few more beautiful hardy 
flowers than those of the Iceland 
Poppy, Papaver nudicaule, and it 
would be difficult to find any that 
are more highly appreciated for 
indoor decorations when cut. Un- 
fortunately, they are not grown nearly so ex- 
tensively as their charm and usefulness would 
justify, a fact that is no doubt due to the trouble- 
some habit the plants have of dying off during 
the winter. As the plant is a native of the Arctic 
Circle, this mortality cannot be due to cold, but 
is undoubtedly brought about by 
the excessive moisture that charac- 
terises oiu- winters. 

To get over this difficulty many 
gardeners, and especially those 
who have wet, poorly drained soil 
to deal with, treat these Poppies as 
annuals, and for that purpose sow 
seed in boxes or pans of sandy 
soil in gentle heat early in Feb- 
ruary, subsequently pricking out 
and hardening off the seedlings so 
that they are ready for planting 
out early in May. Plants raised 
in this way commerce to flower 
in July and continue to do so 
until well into the autumn. 
Another method, and one that 
answers well in many gardens, is 
to sow the seed outside, where 
the plants are to flower, about the 
second week in April, taking care 
to thin the seedlings early so that 
they stand about nine inches 
apart each way. Naturally, these 
are later coming into flower than 
those raised imder glass in Feb- 
ruary, but if the follovring winter 
is at all favourable they will stand 
a much better chance of sur- 
viving than the earlier - so%vn 
ones. 

Where the soil is of a sandy 
nature and, consequently, well 
•drained, there is no doubt that'^the 
'best results are obtained by sow- 
ing the seed outside, preferably 
where the plants can be allowed to 
flower, early in July. The resultant 
seedlings will not flower the same 
year, but during the May following, 
and thence onwards well into the 
summer, they will give such a pro- 
fusion of blossom as to repay the 
cultivator for the trouble entailed. 
Even in gardens where the soil is 
none too favourable a few should be a COLONY 
tried in this way, the making up o( 
a bed of sandy soil going far lowards 
enabling the p an s to withstand tlie wniter. 

Those who have natural rocks abounding in 
the garden, or even old retaining walls where a 
fair amount of soil is available, can scarcely find 
more suitable flowers for growing there than 
the Iceland Poppies ; in such positions June 
or July sowing is best. If, as will most likely 
be the case,. the weather is very dry at the time, 
the soil must be watered frequently until the seed- 
lings are well up and established. These Poppies 
can now be obtaiiud in a number of beautiful 
shades, ranging from pure white, through yellow to 
deep cinnamon red. Papaver. 



THE PROPAGATION OF 
PLANTS. 



"HEEL" CUTTINGS AND OTHE.KS. 

I LITTLE thought when I penned the words 
appearing in The Garden, November 7 
last, page 54r, as to the superiority of the 
joint-made cutting over that of the " heel," 
that the subject would have aroused so 
much interest or received such unqualified 
support. The endorsement of " H. P.," one of 
the best trained of the older school of London 
nursery propagators, is particularly esteemed, 



^ ^>%, t 












OF ICELAND POPPIES. THESE ARE VERY 
HARDY FLOWERS FOR CUTTING. 

since so few men have had so wide an experience 
as he. Of the value of the node or joint-made 
Carnation cutting over that of the " heel," one 
has but to compare the two to secure an immediate 
demonstration of the increased basal area of the 
former to that of the latter, and seeing that root 
fibres are presently emitted in proportion to 
those areas, there is only one logical conclusion 
to be drawn. Moreover, in the Carnation cutting I 
of the "heel" pattern, there is ever present a 
sliort — or long — somewhat contracting neck, which 
may, or may not, prove a source of considerable 
danger or impediment to the future progress of 



the plant. The danger lies in this contracting 
neck becoming hide-bound or even partially so, 
and, if this ensues, it plays the part of a throttle- 
valve, and no admixture of soils or cultural skill 
wil. ever make of such a cutting a really robust, 
free, continuously developing plant. In the 
joint-made cutting the same danger is non- 
existent ; hence in this, of a surety, prevention 
is better than cure. 

On the other hand, there are instances, notably 
among herbaceous pereimials, where the " heel " 
is an essential to successful plant propagation. 
It is absolutely so, indeed, in the case of hollow- 
stemmed plants, of which the well-known Larkspur 
(Delphinium) may be cited as an 
example. Minus the "heel" it is 
impossible to root a cutting, or, 
if one perchance did form root 
fibres, equally impossible to make 
a plant. The reason is that in 
these hollow-stemmed plants the 
reproductive bases in the form of 
latent, eyes or buds are only foimd 
concentrated about that portion 
of the stem which, forming a 
junction with the main rootstock, 
is, when severed, known to 
gardeners as the " heel." Such 
portions with yovmg shoots 
attached root freely enough, 
though it is remarkable how large 
an interested number quite over- 
looked this important fact. In 
hollow-stemmed plants these re- 
productive eyes or buds do not 
appear to exist, though they 
certainly do, if in embryo, in the 
axils of other plants, e.g., Phloxes 
and Pelargoniums. 

I suppose it is somewhere 
about twenty-five years ago — it 
may be more — since the late Rev. 
C. Wolley-Dod thanked me, 
through the medium of a con- 
temporary, on behalf of hardy 
plant growers generally for dis- 
closing the secret of rooting 
Lychnis vespertina flore pleno 
from cuttings. Some years prior 
— in 1880, to be exact — I had 
successfully mastered the pro- 
pagation of Onosma taurica from 
cuttings, and staggered the late 
Mr. T. S. Ware of Tottenham with 
a batch of stove po s representing 
about 150 plants, in which there 
was not a single failure. Both 
were exceedingly rare at the 
time, regarded impossibles from 
cuttings, and the " secret " of 
CHARMING both — thougli I made no secret 
of it — was the " heel " cutting. 
Another plant which answered 
to the same method was Omphalodes Lucilise. 
This was in the spring of 1875. I had then 
a solitary plant, and, curiously enough, the 
number of cuttings obtained in ray first attempt 
was thirteen, every one of which had rooted within 
a month. . Indeed, one of the surprises with the 
above was their ready response, though it has 
to be admitted that the condition of the cutting 
and season of tlie year are important factors in 
rapid or successful rooting. In a manure frame 
I have rooted young basal cuttings of the white 
Everlasting Pea, when a comparative rarity, in 
eleven days, and though this popular subject 



January 23, 1915.] 



THE GARDEN. 



43 



THE MOUNTAIN CLEMATIS. 



T 



climbing plants than the Clematises, or 

Virgin's Bower as some delight to 

call them. For manj' years they 

have rightly claimed an important 

position in our gardens, where their 

rambling flower-laden shoots, tumbling lazily 

about over pergola or tree, or hiding the face of 

some more or less ugly buUding, have endeared 



is easily increased from seeds, it is well to know 
that cuttings of the right sort will root so promptly 
in the event of a particularly good form turning up. 

An interesting experience in respect to Chry- 
santhemums from " heel " cuttings merits record- 
ing. Having a small stock of an early flowering 
novelty I desired to increase, the stools were kept 
in the greenhouse longer than usual. Every inch- 
long cutting as it was ready had been secured 
and inserted joint-made. Requiring the space and 
not wishing to forego the smallest atom of a cut- 
ting, I stripped all the remaining shoots off with a 
"heel" attached and inserted them without more 
ado. Last rooted, they were also last planted, 
joining the others in the open quarters. In the 
result not one of these " heel " cuttings produced 
stem growth ; but instead, first developed a 
proud leafy shoot, which at a few inches high 
ultimately reached the dimensions of a dinner 
plate and became stationary, when, the latent 
buds below coming into being, a mat of shoots 
a foot or more across was formed 
by every plant. There were 150 or 
200 of them, not one of which 
produced either stem or flower. 
Beside them in the same quarter 
were between 2,000 and 3,000 others 
of the same variety propagated 
from nodal or joint-made cuttings, 
all of which flowered and gave 
every satisfaction. As stock plants 
the smaller lot was valuable 
enough, though that was no con- 
solation to one who was growing 
the plants expressly for cut 
flowers ; albeit it was an object- 
lesson of what not to do in the 
future in like case. The remark- 
able lateral development referred to 
I had seen often enough from stock 
increased from the strong, sucker-like 
growth of autumn, and when, in 
addition to gross growth, the stand- 
still during the winter might have 
been made responsible for much. 
1 had never before, however, seen 
this lateral development in the 
Chrysanthemum as the outcome of 
the freshly made cuttings of early 
spring and with a full season's 
growth apparently — I say it ad- 
visedly — ahead. 

Plant propagation has always 
had a certain fascination for me, 

' and I have been tempted to give these ; good quantity of lime, so much the better. If 
experiences in the hope that the rising genera- the natural soil is stifi clay, some sand, and, if 
tion of gardeners, not content with " As it obtainable, a little peat should be added, so as 
was in the beginning, is now and ever shall to make the whole more porous and thus assist 
be," should cast aside, in parts at least, the the roots in their rambling search for food. Plant- 
orthodox yoke, and, believing that there are in ing may be successfully carried out a' the present 
the sea as good fish as have ever been caught, time. Although the Mountam Clematis is well 



admiration of every passer-by. There must be 

hundreds of trees about the country that could 

HERE are few more fascinating hardy ! be made beautifiil in this way at a very small 

cost, providing those who plant remember to 
keep the roots of the Clematis well out from the 
trunk of the tree and to place it on the sunny 
side. Rustic poles, formed of tree branches 
with side shoots left on, if rammed firmly into 
the groimd, make ideal supports for this Clematis. 
Some ten years ago the introduction of a 
rose-coloured variety of C. montana caused a 



them to the hearts of all. Popular as the whole great stir in gardening circles. Hailing from 
family undoubtedly is, there are a few kinds , Northern China, where it was discovered by Mr. 
which stand out as universal favourites, and the , E. H. Wilson, it has proved perfectly hardy in 
doyen among these is undoubtedly* the small, ' this country, and although by some considered 
white-flowered Mountain Clematis, C. montana. rather less vigorous than the white species, it is 
This should be planted in a sunny position so ' sufficiently strong-growing to quickly clothe a 
that its growth can get well ripened in autumn. ' large area. Its botanical name is C. montana 
In common with other members of the family, rubens. Owing to the colour of its flowers, it 
the Mountain Clematis must be planted in soil ought never to be planted against a red-brick 
that is thoroughly drained, and if it contains a wall, but against a pergola, rustic poles or bridge, as 




THE ROSE-COLOURED MOUNTAIN CLEMATIS (C. MONTANA RUBENS) OVER A RUSTIC BRIDGE. 



shown in the accompanying illus;ration, or, better 
still, living trees. A word of warning about 
pruning may be necessary. All that is required 
is an occasional thinning of the growths immediately 
after flowering. H. 



e.xperiment in the problems of propagation for 
themselves, the whole of which, I feel persuaded, 
are as yet unsolved. E. H. Jenkins. 



adapted for planting against wal's, and particularly 
where its growths can run along and hang sus- 
pended from a balcony, I never think it looks 
more charming and natural than when flinging 
its slender, flower-bedecked shoots over the limbs 
DAVID'S PEACH. of some old tree, for preference one with dark 

This, Prunus davidiana, is the earliest of the orna- green foliage. Grown thus we get an excellent 
mental Peaches to flower, the white blossoms and pleasing contrast, and one that shows off 
frequently opening early in February. It makes the pure white blossoms to the best advantage, 
a dwarf tree from 15 feet to 20 feet high, and if ' I have vivid recollections of a Mountain Clematis 
planted imder the lea of a belt of evergreens j scrambling over an upright conifer by the lodge- 
receives some protection from cold winds, and shows gates of a gardening friend, where the twain 
nft" its wreaths of blossoms to the best advantage, made a pillar of foliage and flower some thirty 
It will thrive in almost any reasonably good soil. feet or more in height that must have been the 



A GOOD SHRUB FOR WINTER. 

.4t the present time, when outdoor flowers are 
scarce, we appreciate more fully those plants that 
possess either coloured stems, fruits or foliage. 
An interesting foliage shrub just now is the 
Jerusalem Sage (Phlomis fruticosa). This is of 
dwarf character, seldom growing more than 4 feet 
high, with wrinkled leaves that are, on the under 
side, covered with greyish white tomentum. The 
younger branches are also clothed with this woolly 
substance. It is a shrub that will thrive in almost 
any garden soil where the drainage is perfect, but in 
the London district should be given the protection 
of a wall with a south or south-west aspect. B. G. 



44 



THE GARDEN. 



[January 23, 1915. 



GARDENING FOR BEGINNERS. 



M 



HOW TO FORCE SOLOMON'S SEAL AND LILY OF THE VALLEY. 



ANY novices are deterred from taking , 
up the culture of some of the most | 
beautiful and easily cultivated sub- 
jects because they underrate their 
own ability and also because they 
imagine difficulties that seldom or 
never arise. In the present instance it is proposed 




CROWNS OF SOLOMON S SEAL ON THE LEFT AND LILY OF 
THE VALLEY ON THE RIGHT, SHOWING METHOD OF POTTING. 



to deal with the following popular plants, viz., 
Solomon's Seal and Lily of the Valley. Each of 
these may be grown in pots under glass quite 
successfully by any reader who possesses a warm 
greenhouse. 

The first of these interesting subjects is Solomon's 
Seal, known to botanists by the name of Polygo- 
natum multiflorum. It is one of the handsomest 
of our native plants, and its merits as a pot plant 
have long been appreciated. The crowns may be 
potted up either in the autumn or early spring. 
Early potting ensures early flowering, and that is 
the only advantage of autumn potting. The crowns 
may be purchased cheaply, but where this subject 
is growing in the hardy border they may be dug up 
during the winter at the convenience of the grcwer. 
Solomon's Seal is an excellent plant for the con- 
servatory, but it is well to point out that it does 
much better in a low temperature than in a high 
one. The Lily of the Valley-like crowns may be 
grown in any pots 5 inches or more in diameter. 
It is a mistake to crowd the crowns in the pots, 
and for this reason I have depicted on the left of 
the illustration a few crowns potted up in 
a 5-inch pot and an ideal specimen crown 
in the front thereof. Any ordinary light soil 
will answer the requirements of this subject. 
See that the soil is worked well round the 
crowns, and subsequently place the pots in 
a cold frame or under the bench of a cool 
greenhouse. They will begin to grow in a very 
short time, after which they will come on rapidly. 
Those who have the necessary crowns, and also the 
accommodation, should pot up a number of the 
strongest in lo-inch pots. 

On the right of the illustration there is portrayed 
about a dozen crowns of Lily of the Valley potted 
up in a 5-inch pot. Crock the pots carefully to 
ensure good drainage, and place twelve to fifteen 



good plump crowns in a 5-inch pot. The crowns 
should be visible above the sm-face soil, as shown 
in the illustration. When the crowns have a 
somewhat shrivelled appearance, it is a good plan 
to soak them for an hour or two in tepid water 
before they are potted up ; it is most undesirable 
to keep crowns out of the soil for any length 
of time. After potting give 
a [good watering in, sub- 
sequently standing the pots 
in a cold frame on a bed of 
ashes for a few weeks. Cover 
the crowns with a good layer of 
moss, after having spread the 
latter out on the ground and 
thoroughly moistened it with 
boiling water to destroy slugs 
and insects. Introduce the 
plants to a gentle heat in 
the first instance, affording a 
brisk bottom-heat of about 80° 
later on. Bottom-heat is 
absolutely necessary to suc- 
cess. So soon as the buds 
begin to show the white of 
t h e blossoms, the pots 
should be removed from the 
bottom-heat and the plants 
gradually inured to a lower tem- 
perature. Tepid water should 
be used for watering, and on no account must 
the soil be allowed to get dry. D. B. Crane. 

PREPARING POTATOES FOR 
PLANTING. 

The importance of having seed tubers well sprouted 
at planting-time should not be overlooked by 
cultivators. The " sets " must not be so exposed 
as to be frozen, else they will be quite spoiled ; but 
if kept in a very cool shed and air and light are 
freely admitted to them on all favourable occa- 
sions, they will be ideal for planting in due course. 

From the time when I first 
had the pleasure and advantage 
of the friendship of the late Mr. 
James Clark, the raiser of Mag- 
num Bonum, Clark's Maincrop 
Kidney and other varieties of 
sterling merit, I have taken a 
great interest in the cultivation 
of Potatoes, and, in a small way, 
experimented in their culture, 
mainly in regard to size, shape, 
the lifting, preparation and 
stormg of the seed tubers. I 
have foimd the best results from 
kidney sets that measured about 
two and a-half inches in length, 
and round or pebble-shaped sorts 
about two inches in diameter, 
crosswise. In setting up on end 
the seed tubers it was never a 
very difficult matter to secure 
an even lot. Not more than 
two sprouts to a set were 
allowed to grow, and if one 
good sprout was available it 
was retained, and all others 
rubbed off quite early. This 



sprout attained a length of about an inch in the 
case of kidney sorts, and half an inch in the case 
of second-early and maincrops, by the end of 
February. 

Tubers for Warm Borders. — At this season it 
is a good plan to make a selection of tubers for 
planting on a warm, sheltered border. The best 
are chosen, placed 2 inches apart in a shallow box, 
and the space between filled with sifted soil and 
leaf-soil in equal quantities. This compost should 
just cover the crowns of the tubers, leaving the 
sprouts bare. The new roots quickly grow from 
the base of the sprout and firmly adhere to the 
compost, which has received one watering through 
a rosed watering-can. If the boxes can be placed 
in a house or frame from which frost can be readily 
excluded, the mass of compost will be filled with 
roots, and the sprouts will have attained a length 
of 3 inches in about six weeks' time. Then the 
tubers must be carefully lifted and planted. 

Early Potatoes in Cold Soils. — I find this plan 
a good one also in the case of cold, clayey soil? 
where early tubers are required for table. Whereas 
it would be unwise to plant the sets in the cold 
soil very early, it is an advantage to commence 
their sprouting in soil in boxes. The actual border 
planting may be put off until the soil has become 
warmer. In the meantime the tubers are grow- 
ing, and the crop is secured earlier than if the 
tubers were planted without this special treatment 
direct in the cold, open border. Some temporary 
protection, with dry litter or other material, may 
be afforded against late frosts. With regard to the 
main planting, highly satisfactory results are 
forthcoming when the seed tubers are given special 
treatment, so as to secure strong sprouts on firm, 
green-skinned ones. 

I have seen uncared-for sets, after being heaped 
throughout the winter and overhauled just prior to 
planting, that have yielded bushels of long, thin, 
white sprouts which have been thrown away, some of 
the sprouts being i foot long. George Garner. 




POTATO SETS THAT HAVE BEEN SPROUTED IN LIGHT READY FOR 
PLANTING. NOW IS THE TIME TO START EARLY VARIETIES. 



January 23, 1915.] 



THE GARDEN. 



45 



GARDENING OF THE WEEK. 



FOR SOUTHERN GARDENS. 

Fruit Under Glass. 

Early Peaches. — Continue to disbud the trees 
at intervals till all the surplus growth has been 
removed. Where the fruits have set thickly, 
many of them may be rubbed off at once, leaving 
those which are facing the light ; but where 
the fruits are sparse, thinning must not be done 
hastily. Syringe the trees twice daily in bright 
weather, and keep a moist atmosphere by damping 
the walls and floors two or three times a day. 
See that the trees do not suffer for the want of 
water at the roots. Old trees carrying heavy 
crops must be given a stimulant. 

Fig Trees in Pots. — The trees which were 
started in November may now be given a slightly 
higher temperature, but do not use artificial heat 
to excess. The forcing should be done by 
taking full advantage of sunshine A minimum 
temperature of 55° will be suitable for another 
month. 

Permanent Trees. — ^Trees in active growth 
must be well supplied with water at the roots. 
Pinch the shoots at the fourth or fifth leaf and 
remove all superfluous growths. Syringe the 
foliage vigorously twice daily and keep the atmo- 
sphere moist by damping the paths, walls and floor. 
Prune late trees and thoroughly cleanse them with 
strong soapy water. If trees are too vigorous, they 
should be lifted and replanted, giving them plenty 
of drainage and a restricted rooting area. 

Plants Under Glass. 

Freesias. — -These must now be liberally treated 
in regard to watering and feeding, or the flowers 
will be weak. A batch may now be safely moved 
into a warmer house to hasten their flowering. 

Lachenalias. — Keep these growing near the 
glass in a cool house. When the flower-spikes 
appear, the plants may be given a warmer house 
should it be necessary to hasten their flowering. 
Now that the pots are full of roots, stimulants may 
be afforded. 

Cyclamen. — ^The old plants may be encouraged 
to flower for some time yet by careful watering 
and feeding. Remove old flowers and decayed 
leaves regularly. Admit air to the house accord- 
ing as outdoor conditions will allow. The seedlings 
raised last autimin will now be ready for a shift 
into zj-inch pots. Plunge the pots in fibre quite 
close to the glass, or, failing this, stand them on 
a moist bottom of sand or fine ashes. Syringe 
the plants twice daily and keep the temperature 
of the house at 60° or 65°. 

Propagation from Cuttings. — The propagation 
of various plants, such as Crotons, Dracaenas 
and other stove subjects, must now be attended 
to. Old plants of Fuchsias and Heliotropes may 
be placed in moderate warmth, where they 
will make suitable growth for cuttings. 

The Flower Garden. 

Carnations. — When the ground is dry enough, 
gve the surface a light dusting of soot ; then 
lightly stir the soil with the hoe. In exposed 
situations a few evergreen boughs placed among 
the plants will protect them from cold cutting 
winds and severe frost. Rabbits and game are 
kiown to be very destructive to Carnations, 
and means must be taken to protect them. 
Keep the lights removed from plants in frames, 
except during severe weather. They will need 
little water at the roots, but must not be allowed 
to become too dry. 

Roses. — Some of the more tender varieties, 
(specially those which have been recently planted, 
will need protection should severe frost set in. 
Branches of evergreens placed among plants 
form a suitable protection. Standards or climbing 
varieties may easily be protected by adjusting 
the same materials about them by means of string. 
The pruning of climbing Roses must be brought 
to a close, or much damage to the young growth 
will occur. 

Violets in Frames. — Admit plenty of air to 
the plants when the weather is suitable, removing 
the lights altogether on favourable occasions. 



Remove decaying leaves and flowers regularly, 
and always keep a look-out for slugs. A surface- 
dressing of fresh soil and mantire will be of great 
benefit to the plants. 

The Hardy Fruit Garden. 

Apricots. — The training of Apricots to wires 
needs great care, for the least damage to the wood 
may be the cause of canker, a disease to which they 
are very subject. While spurs must be encour- 
aged along the branches, it is also wise to encourage 
a young growth here and there, as these may be 
useful for filling up gaps caused through branches 
succumbing to canker. Trees which are inclined 
to be too strong should be root-pruned, and when 
adding fresh soil use plenty of broken bricks 
and old mortar rubble. Young trees should be 
lifted. Manures should not be used in making 
borders for the .\pricot. 

The Kitchen Garden. 

Broccoli. — During mild weather the heads 
will continue to turn in; therefore the plants 
must be frequently gone over, removing those 
which are ready to a cool shed. 

Jerusalem Artichokes.— These may be taken 
up now, so that the ground can be prepared for 
their cultivation during the coming season. Pro- 
viding the ground is well manured, this crop may 
be gro\vn on the same ground year after year. 
The small tubers may be selected for seed, using 
the larger ones for culinary purposes. 

Globe Artichokes. — During mild weather any 

protecting material which has been placed over 

the plants must be removed. Only in the case 

of very severe frost should the plants be covered. 

E. Harriss. 

(Head-gardener to Lady Wantage.) 

Lochinge Gardens, Berks. 



FOR NORTHERN GARDENS. 

Plants Under Glass. 

Tree Carnations. — Cuttings which were inserted 
during December will now be sufl5ciently rooted 
for potting up. Pot singly in 2-inch pots and 
keep in a close frame for about ten days. After 
this the ordinary conditions of the Carnation- 
house will suit them if placed on a shelf near the 
glass. 

Caladiums. — An early batch of these may 
be started into growth now. Shake out of the 
old soil and place several together in 5-inch and 
6-inch pots ; then plunge in bottom-heat in the 
stove. If large specimens are required, the plants 
must be potted on into larger size pots while 
the leaves are developing. Let the compost be 
rich in peat, leaf-mould and coarse silver sand. 

Scbizanthuses. — -Plants raised from a sowing 
made now will be useful for furnishing the flower- 
house in midsummer. They will not, however, 
grow so tall as the autumn-sown plants. 

Cypripediums. — These Orchids are of very 
simple culture, and are valuable winter-flowering 
plants. Their lasting qualities are well known. 
The flowering of most varieties will be past, so 
now is a good time to pot. The compost should 
consist of good fibrous loam, coarse silver sand, 
sphagnum moss, and either good peat or Osmunda 
fibre. For large specimens the mixture should 
be left in a rather rough state. 

Potting Materials. — Plenty of turf and leaf- 
mould should be got under cover, so that it may 
be in good order for the large amount of potting 
that will be done during the next few weeks. 

The Hardy Fruit Garden. 

Gooseberries. — If the bushes have previously 
been sprayed with some bud protector, pruning 
should now be completed. Where bullfinches 
are rife and the bushes improtected, pruning had 
better be delayed for quite another month. 

Raspberries. — The splendid season of 1914 
produced good canes, which give promise of a 
heavy crop should the conditions be favourable 
at the time of flowering. Being strictly a surface- 
rooting plant, it is unwise to disturb the soil 



to any extent where they are growing. Never 
at any time should forking be done at a greater 
depth than 2 inches or 3 inches. Well-decayed 
farmyard manure is most suitable for Raspberries. 

Planting. — Before making a new plantation of 
Raspberries, the grotmd must have a liberal dress- 
ing of manure, which is best dug in some weeks 
previous to planting. If planted in rows, 3 feet 
is a good distance to allow between the plants, 
and 6 feet at least must be left between the rows. 

The Kitchen Garden. 

Early Peas. — The present will be quite early 
enough to make a first sowing, which should be 
done in pots or boxes. If the seeds are to be raised 
in boxes, sow them on long pieces of turf, which 
can be readily planted in rows without disturbing 
the roots. Guard against rats and mice, which 
are very fond of Peas. 

Hot-Beds. — Preparations should now be made 
for making an early sowing of Carrots, Radishes 
and Leeks. A hot-bed should be formed of fresh 
stable litter, to which has been added plenty of 
clean leaves, turning these over so that they 
become well mixed. When the bed has been 
firmly trodden and the frame got into position, 
some light soil ought to be put in. This should not 
be more than 4 inches or 5 inches in depth. 
Sow the seed broadcast, and if room is to spare, 
a few Lettuces may be pricked out at the same 
time. 

Fruit Under Glass. 

Peaches. — Trees in the Peach-house which was 
St arted during mid-December will nowbe mostly set 
and passing out of flower. Disbudding should 
be done gradually and with judgment. The 
trees should receive a good syringing daily, except 
during sunless weather. Ventilate very carefully, 
especially while frosty winds are blowing. 

Vines. — ^The second vinery may now be closed, 
but will not require much artificial heat. A night 
temperature of 55° to 60° will be ample. Endeavour 
to keep a fairly humid atmosphere by regular 
syringing of the Vines and keeping the evaporating 
pans full of water. 

Pot Strawberries are very subject to attacks 
from green fly and red spider. The green fly 
can be got rid of either by fumigation or the 
application of an insecticide, but neither must 
be used when the plants are in flower. Red 
spider can be largely prevented by keeping the 
under sides of the leaves well moistened. If 
red spider is already in existence, care should be 
taken not to let the plants come in contact with 
other plants or fruit trees. As soon as the Straw- 
berries are set, the fruit-stalks should have some 
support. Thin twigs will be sufiicient to hold 
up the fruit, and each plant should be restricted 
to five fruits. Frequent applications of liquid 
manure must be given when watering. 

The Flower Garden. 

Standard Heliotropes. — Continue to remove 
side shoots until the desired height of the plants 
has been reached. As yotmg plants are prefer- 
able to old ones, it is a simple matter to 
grow them each year. Growth is very rapid if 
the plants are kept in a stove temperature, to 
which they do not object. Afterwards, when the 
heads are being formed, they may be given slightly 
cooler conditions before being finally planted 
out of doors in June. 

The Wall Garden. — When forming a wall 
garden, the builder should have an eye for the 
artistic. Formality must be absent. Stones that 
are porous and of a rustic appearance are 
best. Try to make the face appear uneven, 
yet for strength a certain amount of regularity 
must be observed, leaving occasional stones 
protruding and others receding. The stones 
must also be placed in such a manner that they 
will receive all rains, which will drain in to the 
roots of the plants. The larger plants are best 
built into the wall as the work proceeds. This 
prevents breaking the roots, which would inevit- 
ably happen if planted after the building work 
has been completed. It must be seen that the 
plants do not suffer from want of moistiure until 
established. John Jeffrey. 

(Head-gardener to Sir R. W. Buchanan Jardine, 
Bart.) 

Casllemilh Gardens, Lockerbie, N.B. 



46 



THE GARDEN. 



[January 23, 1913. 



HYBRID STREPTOCARPUS. 



FOR the vast improvtramt which hss 
taken place during recent years in 
this charming flower, we are probably 
more indebted to that veteran florist, 
Mr. John Heal, V.M.H., to Messrs. 
J. Veitch and Sons of Chelsea, and to 
Mr. William Watson, Curator of the Royal Gardens, 
Kew, than to anyone else, each having done 
yeoman service in hybridising and popularising 
this now, I might almost say, universal plant. 
Not only is there an improvement in the size of 
the flowers, but almost everj- shade of coloiu: is 
present, except yellow. In addition, the length 
of footstalk is much greater, which renders them 
suitable for all kinds of floral decorations, and the 
flowers, fortunately, last for a considerab'.e time 
in a cut state. Suitably arranged with Orchids, 
when a proper selection of colours is blended, 
they make a charming table decoration. I have, 
during the past fifteen years or so, done what I 
could to help in the direction of improving what 
I bel ie ve will be for some years to come one of the 
most appreciated flowers, when its cultivation 
becomes better knowi than it is at the present 
day. One distinct advantage is that with proper 
care and attention the same plants may be had 
in flower at least from early April until the middle 
or end of November. A mistake too often made 
is that the Streptocarpus is treated far too much 
as a stove plant rather than as a greenhouse subject. 
Seed-Sowing. — ^The seed should be sown early 
in the new year, either in well-drained seed-pans 
or pots. The surface on which the seed is to 
germinate should be fine and made moderately j 
firm, and the seed (which is very minute) scattered | 
evenly over the surface. Press this well in and ! 
do not cover it with soil. The whole should be 
thoroughly moistened by standing the pot or pan 
in a pail of \^-ater to the rim. A piece of glass 
shotild be placed over the top, after which transfer 
it to the shady part of a warm house until 
germination (which is rather slow) takes place, 
and subsequently place it near the glass, but 
shade from bright sunshine. Immediately the 
seedlings are large enough, prick them into shallow 
boxes or pans, and grow on in the same •tempera- 
ture, taking care to protect them from bright 
sunshine. 

Treatment of Seedlings.— Directly the young 

plants show signs of making their second leaf, 
they should be potted singly in 3-inch pots, 
which should be well drained, using a soil 
composed of two parts light loam, the same 
of well-decayed leaf-soil, and one part of 
coarse silver sand. These may be grown on 
in an intermediate house until thty become 
established, always bearing in mind that the 
Streptocarpus is a shade-loving plant, and the 
foliage miust never be allowed to become burnt. 
They may then be removed to a slightly heated 
pit, placing them on a bed of ashes as near the 
glrss as possible, shading the latter with white- 
wash or some other suitable material. The plants 
must never be allowed to suffer for the want of 
water. The young plants should begin to flower 
about the middle of August, and, if a good strain 
has been selected, it will be found extremc'v 
interesting to watch their development. Each 
one of note should be labelled and these particular 
plants p'accd together for growing on the follow- 
ing Ser:on. 

Treatment of Plants.— .^11 worthless varieties 
sh^'iild berejertcd. During November and December 



the plants ought to be kept in a greenhouse tem- 
perature, allowing them to become moderately dr>' 
to give them the needed rest, and during January, 
after giving them a thorough soaking of water, pot 
on the plants into 5-inch or 6-inch pots. These 
must be well drained and a few quarter-inch bones 
placed on the top of the drainage, after which 
some good fibre, taken from the loam heap, 
should be placed thereon to prevent the so 1 
clogging the same. The soil for this potting should 
consist of good fibrous loam three parts, one of 
good leaf-soil or peat, one also of good silver sand, 
and a 6-inch potful of finely broken potsherds 
may be mixed to every half-bushel of soil. Pot 
very firmly, and start the plants into growth in 
an intermediate house, but rather err on the side 
of giving too little than too much fire-heat. Never 
exceed a maximum of 60°. Raise the plants as 
near to the glass as possible, be sparing of water 
imtil they become well established, and do not 
damp the foliage overhead, but give plenty of 
moisture by syringing between the pots, the walls 
and paths. As soon as the plants have plenty 
of roots in the new soil, manure-water of medium 
strength should be given every third watering, 
and when in full flower this may be increased 
to ever\' other time. I have found nothing to 
suit them better than that made from horse and 
cow manure in equal proportions, to which should 
be added a small bag of soot. Clay's Fertilizer, 
by way of a change, is a safe and valuable manure 
when applied according to directions. To ensure 
the plants continuing to flower for a long season, 
the old flower-stalk and seed-pods should be 
removed, except, of coturse, any which may be 
wanted for seed purposes. 

Insect Pests. — ^The two most troublesome of 
these we have to deal with in relation to Strepto- 
carpus are green aphis and mealy bug. The 
latter should never be allowed to come into contact 
with the plants if possible, and green fly may be 
kept in check by fumigating the plants about 
once in ten days or a fortnight with XL Ml. The 
most suitable house for flowering the plants 
during the Summer and autumn months is a low 
span-roofed one, and during hot weather a 
moderate amotmt of air must be given both day 
and night. The same plants may be grown on 
for several years, but I have found it preferable 
to raise young plants annually and throw the old 
ones away after the second year's growth. 

Propagation by Leaves.^The propagation of 

any special variety may be easily done by means 
of leaves. This is best performed early in the 
spring. The midribs of the leaves should be 
placed round the outside of a pot in some place 
in a warm house, and these will throw up young 
plants from the base. E. B. 



SEASONABLE NOTES ON 
VEGETABLES. 



Peas are an important crop. They are more 
appreciated than any vegetable, except it be the 
Potato, which is such a imiversal requirement 
that it will always rank as of the greatest import- 
ance. Those who have the convenience — a cool 
house — should sow five seeds in 9-inch pots of 
such sorts as Edwin Beckett, Duke of Albany 
and The Pilot. Fill the pots to within 2 inches 
of the top with a rich compost, leaving this space 
for future top-dressing. Sow in a temporary pit, 
or a heated one if possible, seeds of an early dwarf 
variety in rows 15 inches or 18 inches apart, 



according to the variety. If a warm border is 
available, sow seeds of dwarf early sorts in well- 
prepared trenches 6 inches deep, with light compost 
in the trench and over the seeds, which will drain 
off surplus water from heavy rains if the subsoil 
is heavy in character. This compost will enstire 
quicker germination of the seeds. 

Broad Beans should be sown in drills 3 feet 
apart on a warm border. The soil should be 
in as dry a state as possible, or add a compost 
of lighter material in which to place the seeds, 
and thus ensure quicker germination. Early 
Windsor and Longpod are still the best varieties 
for the first sowings. At the end of this month 
make a sowing in boxes in a cold frame of the 
same varieties for planting out to ensure a full 
crop, as this method sometimes comes in usefui 
in the event of seeds sown in the open in the 
autumn or in January not coming up successfully. 

French Beans. — ^Those who require pods in 
February or March should sow seeds of any small- 
growing variety at once, four seeds in each 3-inch 
pot, placing them in a temperatmre of 65°. When 
the plants show their first pair of leaves, transfer 
them to 6-inch pots in a light compost. Keep the 
pots close to the glass in the same temperature 
by night, with a rise of 10° by day ; syringe as 
the weather permits, and supply the roots liberally 
with water to prevent an attack of red spider, 
which is not only injurious to the Beans, but is 
apt to infest other plants near. Strawberries, 
for example. 

Onions for Exhibition of the Ailsa Craig type 
should now be sown in boxes of sandy soil made 
quite firm. Sow the seeds evenly about an inch 
or so apart. Overcrowding is a mistake, as the 
plants should grow sturdily from the start. 
If they once become weakly through being drawn 
up for want of space, they never regain that robust 
condition so essential to success. Now that 
Onions over 31b. each are yearly produced, it 
behoves exhibitors to ensure the best results. 
If the soil is moist at sowing-time, water will not 
be required for a few days ; but on no account 
must it become dry, or the germinating powers 
of the seed will be impaired. Place the boxes 
in a heat of about 60°, such as a newly started 
vinery or Peach-house affords-. Directly the 
plants show through the soil, stand the boxes on 
a shelf close to the glass to ensure sturdy growth, 
and keep the roots well supplied with water. 

Carrots of the Short Horn type should be at 
once sown on a gentle hot-bed in rows g inches 
apart, using sandy soil 6 inches in depth on the 
leaves or manure employed for the bottom-heat. 
Keep the frame close until the plants show through 
the soil ; then ventilate carefully to induce stiu^dy 
growth. As soon as the plants are large enough 
to handle, thin them to 2 inches ap.irt. This 
distance will enable an early pulling of quite young 
roots, and then leave a full crop to grow to a larger 
size. 

Potatoes. — For the earliest crops place one 
full-sized tuber in a lo-inch pot three parts filled 
with light compost in which decayed leaf-mould 
plays a prominent part. The space at the top 
is reserved for earthing as the plants progress, 
and thus keeps the haulm firm and feeds also the 
surface roots. Stand the pots in a newly started 
vinery or other structure with a similrr 
temperature. Ringleader, May Queen or Sharpe's 
Express are good sorts for this crop. For planting 
in frames later, the tubers should be spread out on 
end to sprout, thinning the sprouts to two 
on each as they progress. Too many sprouts are 



January 23, 1915.] 



THE GARDEN. 



47 



a hindrance to the best results in all forms of 
Potato culture. 

Radishes. — Wood's Frame and French Break- 
fast types should be sown in the frames containing 
the Carrots, Peas and the earliest Potatoes, as 
the conditions here are most suitable. 

Parsley should now be sown in boxes in a gentle 
heat. Should the supply appear to be running 
short, prick out the plants in other boxes directly 
they are large enough to handle, and from here 
really good plants will be available for putting 
outside on a warm, sunny border, where a full 
crop will quickly be available. One variety is 
sufficient. That should be of a close, thickly 
curled nature, of which there are abundant types, so 
many, indeed, that it seems quite unnecessary to 
grow the badly curled, straggling variety too 
often grown in gardens. 

Leeks. — To have the finest specimens at the 
end of August or early in September, the seed 
should be sown in January, as a long season of 
steady growth is required to obtain the full length 
of stem which is so much admired, and which is 
one of the chief features in a perfect specimen. 
Sow three seeds in a 3-inch pot of light, rich soil, 
thinning the plants to one in each pot directly 
the best can be discerned. This ensures a thorough 
start, the ultimate end being regulated by attention 
to all necessary details. Stand the pots in a 
moist heat of about 55° or 60°. Directly the 
plants show above the soil, the pots should be 
stood on a shelf close to the glass in the same 
structure. Water carefully, but little is required 
for a time beyond occasional syringings overhead 
during fine weather. E. Molyneu.x. 

Swanmore Park, Bishop'i Waltham, Hants. 



NEW PERPETUAL-FLOWERING 
CARNATIONS. 

The following varieties of Carnations have recently 
been registered by the Perpetual - Flowering 
Carnation Society. The particulars have been sent 
to us by Mr. T. A. Weston, St. John's Road, 
Orpington, Kent, who is the hon. secretary of the 
society. He will be pleased to send full particulars 
of membership to anyone interested in Carnations. 

Delice. — Clear pink. Enchantress sport. Award 
of merit, December 2, 1914. Raiser, Mr. H. J. 
Dudney, South Road, Erith. 

Caprice. — Pale pink, flaked red, seedling. 
Raiser, Mrs. C. H. Seeley, Wingerworth Hall, 
Chesterfield. 

Grenadier. — Coral red, seedling. Raiser, Mr. 
W. J. Reed, gardener to the Countess of Derby, 
Coworth Park, Sunningdale. 

Bishton Wonder. — Rosy lilac, seedling. Regis- 
tered by Messrs. Allwood Brothers, Hayward's 
Heath. 

Wivelsfleld White. — Pure white, seedling. 
Raisers, Messrs, Allwood Brothers. 

Colleen. — Salmon pink, seedling. Raiser, Mr, 
C. Engelmann, Saffron Walden. 

Nora West. — Salmon pink, seedling. Award 
of merit, December 2, 1914. Raiser, Mr. George 
West, Gables Nursery, Datchet. 

Mme. Chas. Page.— Apple blossom pink, 
seedling ; Perpetual Malmaison type. Raisers, 
Messrs. R. Veitch and Son, Exeter. 

General Joflre. — Scarlet sport from Lady 
Northcliffe. Registered by Mr. George Clarke, 
t.eighton Buzzard. 



EDITORI AL N OTICES. 

Ever;/ department of horticulture is represented in The 
Garden, and the Editor invites readers to send in questions 
relating to matters upon which they wish expert advice. 

The Editor welcomes photographs, articles and notes, 
but he will not be responsible for their safe return. All 
reasonable care, hoiverer, will be taken, and ivhere stamps 
are enclosed, he will endeavour to return non-accepted 
contributions. 

As regards photographs, if payment be desired, the Editor 
osks that the price required for reproduction be plainly stated. 
It mast be distinctly understood that only the actual photo- 
grapher or owner of the copyrifjht will be treated with. 

The Editor tvill not be resiponsible for the return of artistic 
or literary contributions which he may not be able to use, and 
the receipt of a proof 7nust not be taken as evidence that an 
article is accepted. Publication in THE GARDEN tvill alone 
hz recognised as acceptance. 

Offices: 20, Tavistock Street, Covent Garden, W.C. 



TO 



ANSWERS 
CORRESPONDENTS. 



RULES FOR CORRESPONDENTS. 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS.— r/ie Editor endeavours to 
jnake The Garden helpful to all readers who desire assist- 
ance, no matter what the branch of gardening may be, a}ul 
with that object makes a special feature of the "Answers 
to Correspondents " columns. All communications should be 
clearly and concisely written on one side of the paper only, 
and addressed to the Editor of The Gardes, 20, Tavistock 
Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C. The name and address 
of the sender are required in addition to any designation he 
may desire to be used in the paper. When more than one 
query is sent, each should be on a separate piece of paper. 
Plants for naming should be clearly numbered, and securely 
packed in damp grass or moss, rwt cotton-wool, and fUnoering 
shoots, where possible, sJiould be sent. It is useless to send 
small scraps that are not characteristic of the plant. Letters 
on biisiness should be sent to the Publisher. 

FLOWER GARDEN. 

DOUBLE-FLOWERED CAMOMILE (Grace Gardner).— 
\Vc regret we are unable to inform you at present where 
you are likely to get the double-flowered Camomile 
though doubtless it is still to be found in old-fashioned 
gardens in many parts cf the eountry. It is true thai 
Belgium has, in the past, been one of the chief sources 
of supply of this medicinal herb, though it is also grown 
largely in some parts of Surrey. In the latter, however, 
if memory serves us rightly, we lielleve the single variety — 
usually considered of the best medicinal quality — is that 
most frequently grown, though it is highly probable 
that the double-flowered form, owing to a mnch greater 
yield of flowers, is that chiefly grown on the Continent. 
With so many Belgian refugees now in England, that 
point could doubtless be easily cleared up. As to the 
plant we have seen in Surrey, we will endeavour to ascer- 
tain which it is, and, if successful, will \\Tite you further. 



TREES AND SHRUBS. 

HOLLY BRANCH FOR INSPECTION (S. M. Uartineau). 
— The section of Holly branch sent for examination has 
been bored out by the larva of a moth. It may have been 
done by one of two species, Cossus liguiperda (Goat Moth) 
or Zeuzera ccsculi (Wood Leopard iloth) — which, liowever, 
it is not possible to say without seeing the caterpillar. 

FRENCH LILAC (f . A. /{.).- The name of French Lilac 
is applied to the common Lilac (Syriuga vulgaris) and also 
to the bulbous plant Muscari comosum var. monstrosum. 
It may also be applied to other plants. If you send us 
a specimen of the plant in question when it is in good 
groivth, wc shall be pleased to determine the botanical 
name and advise you as to culture. 

MAGNOLIA TO NAME (.Garden Lover). — Your plant 
of Magnolia grandiflora may be pruned back fairly hard 
in April. By severe piuning you will probably lose most 
of the flowers for one year, but the only way to get the 
plant back to the wall is to remove the longest branches 
and tie the others back. By lightly pruning every year, 
plants may be kept fairly close to walls. 

AHPELOFSIS ARBOREA (C. fl.).— The plant referred 
to as Ampelopsis arborea is also known as Vitis arborea, 
and is a native of the Southern United States. It is 
usually most satisfactory when grown against a wall 
in this country, but it is not easy to obtain. English 
nurserymen do not appear to stock the plant, and it is 
Ukely that it would be most easily procured direct from 
.\merica. Try Messrs. P. J. Berckmans and Co., 
Nurserymen, Angasta, Georgia, U.S.A.. 

DOUBLE-FLOWERED MOCK ORANGES (G. S.).— 
There is now a very wide choice in double-flowered Phila- 
delphuses. The most vigorous is P. coronarius flore 
pleno. This grows to a height of 6 feet or more, and has 
a similar habit to the common Mock Orange. Boule 
d' Argent, Manteau d'Hermine and Virginal are dwarfer, 
with rather smaller flowers. They grow 4 feet or 5 feet 
high eventually, but are rather slow, and give the best 



results when pruned each year and kept Iretween 3 feet 
and 4 feet high. 

POPLARS FOR AVENUE (South Stafford).— Ihi-. 
question as to which of the two trees, Populus ni'jia 
pyramidalis (Lombardy Poplar) or P. alba boUeanu 
(Boll's Poplar), is the better one for an avenue depends 
more upon the taste of the planter than upon anything 
else. Both are perfectly hardy and thrive under exactly 
similar conditions. There is, however, a difference in 
habit, for, whereas the Lombardy Poplar is usually of 
columnar outUne when mature, BoU's Poplar is, as a rule 
pyramidal in habit. The Lombardy Poplar often branches 
from near the ground, while the other kind has usually 
a section of clear trunk. Of the two the liead of Boll's 
Poplar is rather looser than that of the other. Boll's 
Poplar has a sUght advantage over the Lombardy variety 
in the tact of its ha^^ng greyish bark and greyish leaves, 
which give it a lighter appearance. The main differences 
are as stated, and there is little to choose between the two. 
BoU's kind perhaps has the advantage in the fact that 
it is more uncommon than the other kind. Select straight, 
sturdy trees with clear and distinct leading shoots, and" 
be sure to notice that the roots are well furnished with 
fibres, as those trees with plenty of fibrous roots transplant 
more satisfactorily than others which may have a few 
thick roots only. The cause of Lombardy Poplars becom- 
ing bushy and not growing well in height is that the leaders 
have not been kept clear of rivals. 

THE GREENHOUSiE. 

CHRYSANTHEMUMS TO BLOOM AT CHRISTMAS 

(Constant Reader). — In addition to the varieties jou name 
the following should be grown : Mrs. W. Buckbee, Niveus 
and Mrs. David Syme, white; Nagoya and December Gold, 
yellow ; A. J. Balfour, pink ; Heston Pink ; and Tuxedo, 
bronze and orange. The last-named may be had in bloom 
till as late as the middle of January, and also Godfrey's 
Perfection, a pure white Anemone-flowered variety that 
is very free and fragrant. Of singles, Wellcsbourne 
Beauty, yellow, and Mme. Melba, cream, flushed pink, 
are good late sorts. Of feathery varieties, Mrs. W. Butters 
is the best late white. 'Wliite Mrs. Filkins and Cheveu.x 
d'Or, yeUow, are good. Cuttings should be propagated 
from early in January to the end of February. The 
best results do not accrue from high cultivation in the 
case of late varieties. Use good loam, pot firmly and 
feed moderately, so as to produce firm wood during the 
dull days of autumn. 

TREATMENT OF POINSETTIA PULCHERRIMA AND ' 
PLUMBAGO ROSEA (Enquirer).— Vfhan the bracts c £ 
Poinsettia pulcherrima are faded, they should be cut 1 ff 
and the plants placed in a structure where a temperatur. 
of 50' to 60° is maintained. They nuist then be kept dry. 
but not absolutely parched up, in order to give them a 
season of rest. Then during the latter part of April 
they should have the soft portions of the shoots cut back, 
and the plants placed in a warmer structure, giving them 
water at the roots and an occasional syringing. This 
will lead to numerous young shoots being pushed forth, 
and when these are nearly three inches long they will be 
ready to Ix; taken as cuttings. The cutting should be 
formed of the entire shoot, with its swollen base just where 
it starts from the old wood, as from tjiis spot roots are 
freely produced. Each cutting must be inserted in a 
small pot, which must be clean and well drained. A 
suitable compost for the cuttings may be made of loam, 
peat or leaf-mould and sand, the whole being well rubbed 
through a sieve with a quarter of an inch mesh. The 
cuttings must then be plunged in a gentle bottom-heat 
in a propagating-case, where, if care is taken not to over- 
water, they will soon root. When rooted they must be 
exposed to the ordinary atmosphere of the structure 
in which they are to be grown. A minimum temperature 
of 60° IS very suitable for them then. Thov will soon be 
ready for shifting into pots 5 inches in "diameter. A 
suitable soil for Poinsettias is good loam, lightened by 
an admixture of leaf-mould, dried cow-manure and sand 
When the weather gets warm, the plants may be placed 
in a frame and inured to air and light in order to induce 
a sturdy gro^vth. By some the plants are again shifted 
into 6-inch pots, but, in any case, as the pots get fuU of 
roots, weak liquid manure must be occasionally given. 
Though Poinsettias may be kept in a frame during the 
summer, they must not be left there too late in the season, 
otherwise the bottom leaves will turn yeUow and drop. 
Early in September they should be placed in a structure 
where an average temperature of 60° is maintained. 
As soon as the bracts are seen, they will be increased in 
size if a little additional heat is given, W^^en developed 
they keep better in a cooler and drier atmosphere. Though 
Poinsettias are usually grown annually from cutting.-, 
the old plants may readily be grown and flowered a second 
or third year. Those intended for growing on should be 
cut back harder than those needed to supply cuttings, 
A good plant will produce several shoots, and, as each 
carries a head of bracts, a bold, showy specimen wiU le 
the result. These old plants may be grown in pols 
6 inches, 7 inches or 8 inches in diameter, according to 
their vigour. Specimens such as these are especially 
valuable for grouping in the conservatory or for similar 
purposes. Plumbago rosea should, after the flowers 
are over, be cut back into shape, but not too hard. In 
an intermediate temperature young shoots will soon 
be pushed forth. When these are about half an inch 
long, the plants may be repotted, a clean, well-drained pet 
a size larger than before and a mixture of loam, leaf- 
mould and sand being very suitable for them. Their 
after-treatment may be much the same as that advised 
for Poinsettias. Should it be desired to increase the stock 
of this Plumbago, cuttings from 2 inches to 3 inches in 
length may be put in as soon as they are obtainable 



48 



THE GARDEN. 



[January 23. 1915. 



and, grown on like Poinsettias, they will make neat 
flowering plants by the winter. 

IVr-LEAVED PELARGONIUMS AND PLUMBAGO 
CAPENSIS (H. D. 3f.).— The I\-y-leaved relarqoniums 
should ha wintered in a light structure where a mioimum 
night t<?mperature of 45° or thereabouts is maintained. 
Of course, the thermometer will run up higher durinc the 
daytime, but a free circulation of air should be given when- 
ever possible. With regard to watering, enough water 
should be given to keep the soil sligtitly moist, but an 
excess must be strictly guarded against. This does not 
mean that you are to give water in little drops, but to 
wait till the soil is nearly dry, and then give enough to 
moisten the whole of it. In an ordinary greenhouse 
about every three weeks would be quite sufficient, but 
with regard to time no hard-and-fast rule can be laid down, 
as so much depends upon the house itself, the weather 
experienced, and other matters. Watering when required 
should be carried out in the mornintr, as then there is 
sufficient time to dry up any superabundaut moisture. 
For this reason a fine day should be chosen on which to 
water the plants. By no mean* should the plants be 
watered during sharp frosts, as it is much better to leave 
them dry when the weather is severe. In this way the 
plants wiJl safely pass through the winter in a quiet con- 
dition, and will start freely into growth when the spring 
comes round. The Plumbago wiU, in a greenhouse, pass 
through the winter in a quiet st-ate, and many of the leaves 
will frequently die off. You state that your plant was 
pruned in the beginning of December, but is not doing 
very well. You cannot expect it to start into growth 
in the depth of winter; indeed, the quieter it is kept 
at that season, the more vigorous will be the growth when 
the proper time comes round. 



ROSE GARDEN. 

SPRAYING ROSES WITH COPPER SULPHATE (Tf . T.). 
— One spraying should bfj sufficient for Roses against 
mildew, using a pound of copper sulphate to twenty-five 
gallons of wat«r, and it should be done before the buds 
burst, otherwise it is likely to do them harm. Pruning 
away the parts affected in previous years should be a 
great aid in keeping them clean. 

GLOIRE DE DIJON PLANTED IN NOVEMBER, 1913 
{Rustic). — It would have been best had you cut back 
the plants to about two feet in the spring of 1914, but 
as one has good growths inside, it would ha advisable to 
liave it alone this season, merely tipping the gro'nths. 
The other plant cut back to about six inches in March ; it 
should then send out good canes next summer. 

STANDARD ROSES FOR NORTH GARDEN {D. C.).— 
Your conditions are too exacting, and we fear you will 
not obtain all you want. Many Roses that would do 
are not fragrant: others that are fragrant have not a long 
season of flowering. Then, again, there are few really 
orange and copper Roses that are fragrant. We give 
the following eood varieties as near your requirements 
a? possible : Mme. Abel Chatenay, Conrad F. Meyer, 
Laurent Carle, Gloire de Bijon, Bouquet d'Or, Juliet, 
Mrs. D. Jardiuc, General Macarthur, Liberty, Mme. 
Jean Dupuy, Soleil d'Or and Duchess of Weliinston. 
The plant you have as Ifugh Dickson is no doubt wrongly 
named. 

ROSES FOR FRONT ROW (L.)— We advise you to 
plant The Lyon Rose in the front row, and in place 
of this variety substitute Cissic Easlea, a good 
mildew-proof Rose, admirably adapted to plant in the 
position mentioned. Then In the front row, following 
The Lyon Rose, we can recommend Mme. Leon Pain, 
Lieutenant Cbaure, Souvenir de G. Prat, Countess of 
Shaftesbury, Molly Sharman Crawford, Mrs. Edward 
Powell and Duchess of Wellington We have avoided the 
sorts you say you have already, namely, Mme. Kavary, 
Mme. A. Chatenay, Prince de Bulgarie, Caroline Testout, 
Fran Karl Druschki and Hugh Dickson. Should you 
desire any other varieties, we can strongly recommend 
Louise Catherine Breslau, Ophelia, Marquise de Sinety 
and Melody. 



KITCHEN GARDEN. 

TOMATOES IN BOXES [Grace Gardner). ~ThG boxes 
you refer to would certainly not be too large, probably 
the reverse, seeing that the Tomato is a very gross 
feeding subject. The size of the receptacle is, however, 
but one item of the programme, and a good soil 
mixture, with ample top-dressings and artificial manures 
when the fruits are set and swelling, are of equal, 
if not even greater import. We have never yet 
bad any occasion to thin the fruits, the usual experience 
being that they do this themselves, the swelling 
fruits leaving the others behind. When it is observed 
that the fruits are well set and swelling, then you may 
bepin feeding and top-dressing, gradually at fir^t 
and sul>sequently more liberally. By earthing up above 
the box with good turfy loam, the top-dressings will 
greatly assist the productiveness of the plant, particularly 
if liquid manures are us'id in conjunction therewith. 

HOW TO GROW SMALL. CRISP CELERY (Mrs. F. R. 
Clarke). — Growers of vegetables generally favour the 
growth of large specimens of most kinds, although it is 
well known araong most of them that by doing so quality 
to a serious extent is sacrificed and much waste in C«!cry, 
as in other things, occasioned, as a largo number of 
the leaf-st-alks of these huge specimens are thrown away. 
In the first place, varieties liave some bearing on this 
question. Some are large, and others of medium growth 
to small. These latter are the best to grow for home 
consumption. The beat among these are Sandringham 



White and Major Clarke's. Other causes are applying 
too much manure to the soil and plantin*: too far apart. 
Too much feeding with highly stimulating liquid manures 
will help to produce the results complained of. Caution 
has to be exercised in not running to the other extreme 
of not applying enough manure to the soil, as a crop of 
good quality Celery cannot be grown without a generous 
application of manure. The best and most economical 
way of growing Celery, especially if moderately small 
plants arc the desideratum, is to plant in beds rather 
than in single rows. Such beds should be 5 feet wide 
and 10 inches deep (the soil taken out of the bed to be 
banked by its side to come in for earthing up later). 
The rows should be planted across the bed'; and be 
15 inches apart, and the plants in the row 6 inches apart. 
Celery is a moisture-lovina plant, and during dry weather 
nmst be copiously watered. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

LAWN THIN IN PLACES (M. M. K. C.).— You cannot 
do better than rake as much as possible of the moss out 
of your grass at the present time ; then, during the early 
part of March, prick over all the bare places with a fork 
and sow new seed, afterwards giving the whole lawn a 
good dressing of fine rich soil. It is too early to sow 
fresh seed now. 

VARIOUS QUESTIONS (Ha n(s).— Makers of small 
propagators. — W. Pearce and Co., 648, HoUoway Road, 
London, N. Spanish Iris. — When the plants are well 
up, a dose of weak liquid manure about once a fortnight 
will be helpful. Care must, however, be taken not to 
give an excess of stimulants. Tuberous Begonias. — 
There is no advantage in st-arting the tubers of Begonias 
in Cocoanut refuse ; indeed, it is very much better to 
start them in some good soil, such as two parts of loam 
to one of leaf-mould and a liberal sprinkling of sand. 
The tubers should be potted at the end of February oi 
early part of March. Pots 4 inches in diameter are very 
suitable for them, and, in potting, the tubers should be 
put at such a depth that they are just covered with the 
soil. They must not have much water till they start 
into growth, and only need the temperature of an ordinary 
greenhouse, that is to say, from 45° to 50°, increasing, 
of course, as the days lengthen and the weather gets 
warmer. It is very essential that the plants are well 
hardened off before they are bedded out at the end of 
May. After April a cold frame is the best place for them, 
just throwing a mat over the light in the event of frosty 
nights and giving plenty of air during the day. 

NAME OF PLANT.— D TF., Swrrey.— Chimonanthus 
fragrans. 



SOCIETIES. 



SOUTHAMPTON ROYAL HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ANNUAl Meehno. 

The annual meeting of this society was held on Monday, 
the 11th inst., in the Council Chamber, the BlayoV. 
Alderman W. Bagshaw, presiding over a satisfactory 
attendance. The Mayor spoke of the influence of the 
war upon the society, compUmenting the members upon 
the fact that their operations had not been affected 
financially. The annual report stated : " Owing to 
circumstances arising from the war your Council, in common 
with many other societies, deemed it prudent to abandon 
the autumn show. Had the exhibition been proceeded 
with, it would probably have resulted in a considerable 
loss. Arrangements have been made to hold three shows 
in 1915. The Council will use every effort to carry through 
this programme. The Rose show held at South Stoneham 
la-st July was again a financial success. The balance 
sheet showed a highly satisfactory balance of £50 4s. 3d., 
in addition to which, as the secretary mentioned at a 
later stage, a debt of £25 had been liquidated from last 
year." The chairman of the Council, Mr. Molyneux, 
presented the report, and spoke gratefully of the support 
given to the society by Ellen Lady Swaythling in allowing 
the Rose show to be held at South Stoneham House, 
and by Lord and Lady Swaythling. The society was 
also indebt«d to Lord and Lady Northbrook, the latter 
of whom opened the summer show, and to the donors 
of special prizes. Jlr. A. W Oke seconded, expressing 
his gratification at the condition of the society as shown 
in the report. The finances were, he noted, in a highly 
satisfactory state. The report and accounts were adopted. 
It was decided, at the suggestion of Mr. Molyneux, to 
give donations of five guineas each to the Royal Gardeners' 
Orphan Fund and the Gardeners' Royal Benevolent 
Institution out of the funds of the society. 

The re-election of Lord Swaythling as president was 
proposed by the Mayor, Mr. E. Kemp Toogood seconding 
and speaking of Lord Swaythling's close personal interest 
in the society's affairs. The members agreed. The 
vice-presidents, a lengthy list, were re-elected, with the 
addition of Sir J. Beethom Whitehead of Elford Park, 
Lymington, and Mr. Maldwyn Drummond of Cadlands. 
Other elections were as follow : Hon. solicitors, Messrs. 
Green, Moberly and Green ; chairman of Council, Mr. 
H. E. Molyneux ■ vice-chairman of Council, Mr. N. D. 
Desborough ; hon. treasurer, Mr. A. G. Thompson; 
secretary, Mr. C. S. Fuidge (who was first appointed to 
the postin 1873) ; members' auditor, Mr. A. J. H. Marshall ; 
Council (a third of its strength), Messrs. F. Chandler 
T. Hall, F. areer.,jV. J. Marsh, A. Toflcid and F. J. Hendy.' 



BIRMINGHAM AND DISTRICT GARDENERS' MUTUAL 
IMPROVEMENT ASSOCIATION. 

Anndal Meetinu. 
There was a large gathering of members at tl.e 
Athletjc Institute on Monday, the 11th inst., it being 
the annual meeting. The proceedings opened mth the 
readmg of the minutes of the previous meeting, followed 
by the secretary's presentation of the 1914 baliance sheet 
and report. On examination these disclose the receipts 
during the past year to be £34 lis. 3d. (including the 
bllance of £4 9s. 4d. brought forward from 1913) and the 
expenditure as £3n 6s. 4d., thus leaving at present in hand 
a balance of £4 4s. lid. The assets of the society were also 
proved at £349 6s. 4d. Afterwards the election of a com- 
mittee for the current year took place, ballot papers 
being handed to each individual member. Out of the 
twenty-two nominations, sixteen were eligible for election, 
and the voting resulted in the return of Jlessrs. R Usher 
P. Catt, J. Markham, J. Palmer. R. T Parker, A. D. 
Christie, J. Higley, T. Humphreys, S. Smith, H. Ford, 
C. H. Herbert, A. Cryer, A. R. Brown, J. Webb, W. Spinks 
and W. L. Deedman as the executive for 1915. Having 
obtained a committee for the year, the appointment 
of officers was the next consideration. Eventually, in 
spite of the withdrawal in turn of these six who had so 
ably served for 1914, Mr. C. H. Herbert was prevailed 
upon to again act as chairman, Mr. A. Cryer as vice- 
chairman, Mr. A, R. Brown as librarian, Mr. J. Webb as 
assistant-librarian, Mr. W. Spinks as treasurer, and Mr. 
W. L. Deedman as secretary, so that the society has once 
more assured itself of the ^ood services of these gentlemen. 
A recent revision of the library had entailed much extra 
trouble to the librarian and his assistant, and as a recom- 
pense a much deserved vote of thanks was tendered to 
them. Also the kindness of the Press was by no means 
overlooked, for during the past year it had upon several 
occasions rendered valuable assistance, for which the 
society is deeply indebted. A formal vote of thanks was 
proposed by Mr. Herbert and seconded by Mr. Spinks. 
Before the meeting terminated, a sympathetic refer- 
ence was made by the chairman touching the death of 
Jlr. W. B. Latham. Not only had the deceased been a 
trustee of the society, bnt he was also the sQfiety's first 
chairman, and it is with deep regret that the intimation of 
his death is received. 



SCOTTISH HORTICULTURAL ASSOCIATION. 

With the notice of the annual general meeting of this 
association on January 19, the usual abstract of accounts 
for the year ending December 31, 1914, has been circulated 
among the members. The Chrysanthemum show accounts 
exhibit an income of £1,079 5s. 4d., including £360 4s. 3d., 
the net takings from the sale of plants, Ac, at the stalls 
arranged for the Red Cross and Belgian Belief Funds. 
Donations came to £90 2s. Takings at the gate 
and tickets sold amounted to £526 9s. 4d. On the other 
side of the account, awards, including medals and engraving 
of cups, accounted for £250, and music came to £225. 
Other items of expenditure brought the expenses up to 
£788 139. 6d., leaving the highly satisfactory balance of 
£290 lis. lid., of wnich amount £145 6s. went to the 
Red Cross Society and £145 5s. lid. to the Belgian Relief 
Fund. The association is to be congratulated on this 
most successful result. The ordinary revenue accounts 
are le-ss satisfactory, as there was a deficit on the year's 
working of £26 2s. Id., but the expenditure included an 
item of extraordinary expenditure of £10, this 
having been voted to the E.'itension Fund of the Edin- 
burgh and East of Scotland College of Agriculture, while 
the funds suffered from the entire net proceeds of the 
Chrysanthemtim show being devoted to the relief funds 
above mentioned. The ordinary income, which includes 
£160 14s. from members' annual subscriptions, amounted 
to £215 19s. 8d. In the capital account depreciation is 
allowed on stocks held by the association. The Horti- 
cultural Institution Fund account shows that this fund, 
after allowing for depreciation of stocks, now stands at 
£1,615 3s. 3d. against £1,493 18s. 7d. the previous year. 
The Benevolent Fund accounts show a credit balance 
of £12 19s. lOd. The whole position reflects great credit 
on the management. 



DUMFRIES AND GALLOWAY GARDENERS' 
ASSOCIATION. 

AT the usual meeting of this association, held in the 
Wesley Hall, Dumfries, on January 9, a series of questions 
and a discussion thereon occupied the meeting. Mr 
S. Arnott occupied the chair. Mr. W. Hutchinson 
reported that the amount collected for the Royal Gar- 
deners' Orphan Fund had been sent, and produced the 
treasurer's receipt for the same. The questions asked 
by the members were then drawn by lot and a discussion 
took place upon each, practically the whole of the 
memb.;rs present taking part, and a most interesting 
and useful evening was spent. 

GLASGOW FRUIT TRADE BENEVOLENT SOCIETY. 

The Glasgow Fruit Trade Benevolent Society's annual 
meeting was held in Glasgow on January 11. The presi- 
dent, Mr. J. H. Thomson, occupied the chair, and 
remarked upon the favourable position of the society, 
there being an increase in membership and in funds, 
while there had been no claims by members during the year. 
Equally satisfactory reports were given by Mr. J. Russell, 
treasurer, and Mr. H. Stuart Girvan, clerk, that of the 
treasurer showing that the funds stood at £1,220 13s. 5d., 
this being a gain of nearly £120 upon the previous year. 
Office-bearers were appointed, these including Mr. John H. 
Thomson, president, Mr. James Gardiner, vice-president; 
Mr. James Russell, treasurer: and Mr. H. Stuart Oirvan, 
clerk and collector. 



fefey- 




#^^=^^?=3 



GARDEN. 



No. 2254.— Vol. LXXIX. 



Janu.\ry 30, 1915. 



NOTES OF THE WEEK, 



Our Sub-Editor at the Front. — The following 
letter, dated January 15, from our Sub-Editor, 
Mr. H. Cowley, who is serving with His Majesty's 
Army in France, will, we think, be of interest, 
especially the reference to the glow-worms and 
Violets : " In spite of the shortage of labour, 
the farmers seem to have their land in remarkably 
good condition. The soil around here is fertile 
and of great depth, although waterlogged in places 
owing to the heavy rains. These are points 
brought home to us very forcibly in our 
trenching operations. By the w-ay, one 
point that strikes me as curious when 
trenching at night is the number of glow- 
worms giving off that vivid phosphores- 
cent light which I had always associated 
with summer-time in England. There are 
signs of an early spring, if one can be 
guided by the forward condition of the 
buds of certain trees. This morning, while 
in a sheltered copse, I came across a party 
of French boys with their caps full of 
fragrant Violets ! This is a puzzling time 
for a naturalist who would fain write of 
peace in time of war. Before leaving 
England I was much impressed by a 
sentence in a book I was then reading ; 
' The people who cannot, or will not, be as 
men in the duty of battle can hardly be as 
men in the security of peace.' Although 
our life is a hard one, there is not a man 
among us who would return to his occupa- 
tion, however delightful that may be, 
until his duty at the Front has brought 
about peace with honour." 

Apples for Wounded Soldiers. — We are 
pleased to learn from the Hon, G. Eden, 
whose appeal for Apples for wounded 
soldiers in the Victoria Hospital we 
published in our issue of January 9, that 
sufficient for the needs of the soldiers 
there have been supplied by our readers. 

Snow on Evergreen Trees and Shrubs. 
The heavy fall of snow experienced in 
many parts of the country on Friday 
last calls for a word of advice to those 
who have evergreen trees or shrubs in 
their gardens. Owing to the density of the 
foliage of many of these, the weight of snow that 
lodges on the branches is a source of considerable 
danger. Some years ago we saw several very 
fine oM Cedars with large branches broken off 
by the weight of snow. Wherever practicable, steps 
should be taken to remove the snow as quickly 
as possible. With large trees this is natiu'ally 
difficult, but with young ones, and also choice 
shrubs, the task is an easy one. 



The Day Lilies in Pots. — Although the various 
kinds of Hemcrocallis are seldom seen as pot 
plants, they are excellent for this purpose, and 
will be found very valuable where a large supply 
of flowers is required to keep the greenhouse or 
conservatory gay at all seasons. They give 
little trouble and afford a pleasing variety. 
.Although the individual blooms may only last 
a day. a succession is kept up for a considerable 
period. Where there are clumps established in 




GVPSOPHIL.\ REPENS GROWING IN A DRV WALL 
HAS WHITE FLOWERS AND GREY FOLIAGE. 



the open ground, they should be lifted now. potted 
into suitable sized pots, and placed in a cold frame. 
.\U that is necessary is to water the plants when 
required, and as the roots get active a little liquid 
manure will be bencflcia!. 

Help for Aged and Infirm Gardeners. — At 
a period such as this, when so many calls are being 
m^dc upon the purses of the charitable, we hope 
th:.t our readers will do their utmost to support 



the Gardeners' Royal Benevolent Institution. 
From the report of the annual general meeting, 
held on Thursday of last week, which appears on 
another page, it will be seen that only fifteen 
out of the sixty-two thoroughly deserving candi- 
dates could be elected for pensions. This Insti- 
tution, which is non-political and non-sectarian, 
was founded seventy-five years ago, and since 
then has distributed many thousands of pounds 
in the form of pensions to aged or infirm gar- 
deners, or their widows. We have no 
hesitation in saying that the Institution 
is run on extremely economical lines, 
and anyone who can possibly subscribe 
to its funds should do so. We noticeiT 
in the report that several owners of 
gardens during last summer opened these 
to the public, making a small charge 
for admission, the money thus obtained 
being sent to the secretary, Mr. G. J. 
Ingram. His address is 92, Victoria 
Street, Westminster, and he will be 
pleased to furnish anyone interested with 
full particulars of the work of the Institu- 
tion. 
A Charming Wall Plant. — Gypsophila 

repens is an indispensable dwarf subject 
of prostrate growth, succeeding on any well- 
drained, sunny slope of the rock garden 
or showing to singular advantage when 
draping the face of some sun-exposed dry 
wall. It forms close mats of prostrate 
stems, abundantly clothed witli narrow, 
sharp - pointed leaves of a grey green 
hue. It is also typical of the Gauze 
Flowers in the hazy effect produced by the 
innumerable small, starry blossoms that 
are borne on the terminal shoots and 
branch out so as to almost completely 
hide the leaves. In the type plant the 
flowers are invariably white, but when 
raised from seed these show many 
small variations in form, which, although 
minute in detail, are sufficiently 
pronounced to give distinction to the 
IT best forms, and is most readily ap- 
preciated where they afford ready means 
of comparison, as in dry-wall garden- 
ing. Gypsophilas are frequently spoken of as 
chalk plants, owing to their remarkable vigo t 
in soils containing this substance, the spec'es 
under notice being no exception. It is readily 
propagated by cuttings taken during August 
and inserted in sandy soil in an unhealed frame, 
or seed sown in the autumn or spring germinates 
freely and yields plants that flower the following 
vear. 



50 



THE GARDEN. 



[January 30, 1915- 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

{The Editor (s iwt responsible for the opinions 
expressed In' correspondents.) 



Benthamia fragifera Fruiting in Surrey.— 

In reference to your note on this shrub, page 23, 
issue January 9, it may interest you to know 
that a plant in the garden of the late Miss Ewart, 
Coneyhiu^t, Surrey, bore fruit last year. It has 
been planted eight years, and did not flower 
until 1913. It is quite hardy there, planted on a 
lawn sloping to the south-west. There is also a 
plant at Viscount Alverstone's place which also 
flowers and fruits. — H. S. 

Cabbage Little Gem. — I commend this 
choice little Cabbage to other amateurs who, 
like myself, have small space for vegetables. 
I use it as an autumn Cabbage, and have been 
cutting it from November till now. It takes 
very little room in the garden, having few waste 
leaves ; but its great merit is its quality. It is 
a Cabbage for the gourmet, not for the gourmand. 
It has only one fault — it makes one discontented 
with every other Cabbage until the harbingers 
of spring appear again upon the table. — ^Anne 
Amateur. 

Cuttings with "Heels." — Having seen in 
The Garden notes on the subject of taking cut- 
tings with "' heels " or without, I wTite to tell 
you my experience with wichuraiana and multi- 
flora Rose cuttings. I have always been interested 
to strike some in old medicine bottles in the house. 
I cut them about eight inches or nine inches long 
with a heel, and about four inches to five inches 
of each cutting is in water. In almost every case 
the cutting roots at every bud where I had stripped 
off the leaves, and never at the heel. Very often 
it does not root within 2 inches of the hetl When 
well rooted and potted up in sand and leaf-soil, 
the cuttings soon make excellent plants. I cut ofi 
the bit of wood below where the first roots start. 
I gather from this experience that with Roses 
a heel is useless. — G. T. Portman Dalto.n, 
FilUngham Casiie. Lincoln. 

The New Zealand Flax at Home.— In your 
iteue of April 18, 1914, you have a paragraph 
from a orrcspondent re New Zealand Flax which 
is somewhat miskiding, to the effect that its 
natural habitat is on " land subject to winter 
inundation, and on sandy and shingly river banks." 
I have lived on the south end of New Zealand 
for the last fifty-six years, and when I was a boy 
many places in Dunedin were covered with Flax, 
and from the variety of places it grew I would say it 
will grow (here at leas') on almost any land. The 
largest and most prolific plans I have seen, how- 
ever, grew on stiff clay land above any inundation. 
They were so high and thick that chi]dren could get 
lost among the plants or bushes. I have grown 
it in my garden, where it throve almost too quickly, 
as it soon took up too much space. I have in 
my present place new. young bushes, plain green, 
variegated and brown, on the side of a steep 
incline, where it is necessary to use water-hose 
for growing vegetables. — J. Beadle, Dunedin, 
New Zealand. 

Shows, Schedules and Judges.—" Exhibitor's " 

letter, page 36, issue January 16, will do much 
good if it is the means of inducing committees 
who are engaged in drawing up schedules to be as 
explicit as possible in the wording of the various 
classes, so as to make the conditions as plain as 
possible for the benefit of exhibitors and judges. 
Too many words are used in defining some classes. 



at the expense of clearness. Judgmg from 
considerable experience of the framing of schedules 
and shows generally, I find that the members of 
committees, who are well versed in. their work, 
always try to improve and profit one year from 
the previous year's experience, and so on. With 
one or two exceptions, committees I have worked 
with have alwaj-s tried to obtain the services of 
judges who are experts in the work they are called 
upon to do. There may be, and undoubtedly are, 
exceptions in many other instances, and they 
should be reduced to vanishing point. " Exhibi- 
tor " seems to be rather hard on committees in 
reference to trade exhibitors, but he may have 
evidence of importance to bear him out. My 
experience is that trade exhibitors have had 
full consideration because the value of their 
exhibits was realised. More help would be given, 
undoubtedly, if it could be afforded. I would 
like to add that all concerned should now do 
their utmost to work together in the near future 
in view of the conditions obtaining through the 
Woj, and so keep all matters connected with gardens 
and the interest in them more firmly impressed 
on the public mind. Well-managed shows have 
a great influence for good. — George Garner. 



MY GARDEN OF HOPE. 

l" It is the time of :.eed catalo.a'es. TU-y are heaped 
jesirtc my elbow as I write. .\re the !<eed-.;ro\v .-rs a little 
* Dr*-vious ' this year, or i.-s it that we, somei.ow. are not 
quite ready tor them ': ") 

You have brought me a touch of the Spring 
When dull hearts for its freshness are aching : 

There's a fragrance wrapped up in your leaves 
And a sigh from the season that's waking : 

In a stamped, sealed and signed envelope. 

You have brought me my Garden of Hope. 

Here's a border of Pausies and Pinks, 

There's a bunch of Sweet Peas for the picking : 

A lavish reward for slight cares 

Of sowing, transplanting and sticking ! 

There are Larkspurs and Lupines galore. 

And Gilliflowers . . close at my door. 

You have brought me a touch of delight. 
Just when hearts for its promise are pining : 

With catalogues heaped at my side 

Plots, borders and beds I'm designing : 

It's fine for the Springtime to wait. 

With your hand on the latch of her gate ' 

Elizabeth Kirk, in Country f.i/e. 



Ginkgo blloba. — Your correspondent "J. H. D." 
asks in your issue of January 16 what the French 
call this tree. According to Loudon it is known 
as Arbre aux quaranle ecus, and he states that 
the origin of this curious name was that a M. 
Petigny in 1780 bought five of these trees from 
an English gardener for about forty crowns 
{quaran'e ecus) each, and introduced them into 
France (see Loudon's " .Arb. and Frut.," IV., 
2096). Carriere also gives the name as a s>Tionym, 
but places the introduction earlier. May I add 
that there is a very beautiful specimen of the 
pendulous form in the Champs Elysees in Paris. 
In the early summer, when the leaves are fresh, 
the tree presents much more the appearance 
of Maidenhair Fern than the rather stiff habit 
of the t>-pe. The tree stands in a somewhat 
secluded spot behind the Grand Palais. I have 
unsuccessfully attempted to photograph it more 
than once, but any of your readers who care 
to find it out will, I think, admit that it presents 
a most graceful appearance. — C. \V. E. L. 



A Hedge of Sorts.— In reply to •■ .Anne 
Amateur's " enquiry in The Garde.v of January- 9, 
page 14, the following four Crabs are very beauti- 
ful : Pyrus coronaria flore pleuo bears the largest 
flowers. P. floribunda atrosanguinea bears a 
mass of bloom and small fruits. P. Malus neidz- 
wetzkyana I think the best ; crimson blossoms 
followed by crimson fruits. P. Scheideckeri is 
of rather stiff and rigid growth, but bears exquisite 
flowers, followed by small fruits. Crab John 
Downie is very good, both for its bloom and its 
brilliant fruits, which make excellent jelly. May 
I suggest for autumn and winter colour Quercus 
coccinea (Waterer's variety), the Scarlet Oak, 
.\melanchier canadensis (Snowy Mespilus), Japanese 
Cherry James H. Veitch (double rose), Cytisus 
scoparius praecox (the buff-coloured Broom), 
Forsyfhia suspensa (yellow flowers in March), 
Halesia tetraptera (Snowdrop Tree) ; varieties 
of Philadelphus (Mock Orange) Fantaisie, 
purpureo-maculatus, Satsumi and Voie Lactee ; 
Rhus Cotinus purpurea for autumn colour, Ribes 
atrosanguinea, Rubus deliciosus ; Spiraeas Aitc'.ii- 
sonii, arguta and Thunbergii ; Syringa (Lilac) 
varieties alba grandiflora. Dr. Lindley, Souvenir 
de L. Spath, Mme. Lemoine and President Grevy ; 
Viburnum plicatum (Japanese Snowball Tree) 
and Weigela Eva Rathke. These are deciduous. 
The following are evergreen : Cistus of sorts, 
cyprius and ladaniferus (Gum Cistus), Cotoneaster 
pannosa, Elaeagnus glabra folio-variegata, Olearia 
stellulata, Rosmarinus (the common Rosemary), 
Viburnum rhytidophyllum. Bamboos .-^rundinaria 
nitida and Phyllostachys aurea, and Buddleia 
variabilis magnifica (should be -.ut down ever>- 
spring). These are selections from a " hedge of 
sorts " now four years old. — C. Echlin Gerahtv. 

Crinum Powellii. — It may interest your corre- 
spondent, whose notes have appeared recently, 
to know how Crinum Powellii may be made 
to thrive and flower abundantly in North 
Yorkshire on a very cold clay soil. It is 
first to be remarked that frost penetrates 
the groimd to a much greater depth in light, 
sandy soils than in stiff clays, and in the summer 
the sandy soil warms up much more readily than 
the clayey soil, so that those who live on warm, 
sandy soils must plant their Crinums deeply. 
I have myself seen newly planted bulbs rot after 
severe frost, even when planted more than a foot 
below the top of the bulb, in Surrey. On the 
contrary, a bulb planted deeply in cold clay soil 
may exist, but will start so late that flowering 
will come late, and most probably not at all. 
With these data in view, I planted a good bulb 
of Crinum Powellii seven years ago at the foot 
of a south wall absolutely above the ground- 
level, merely digging and manuring and sanding 
the soil, mounding up the soil roimd the bulb 
to a height of 18 inches above the level, and then 
putting some stones to keep the fresh soil in place. 
With the protection of a little litter and manure 
in the winter, no plant could succeed better or 
flower more freely than this has done. Another 
bulb I planted deeply in a south border. It existed 
and. indeed, grew fairly well after the month of 
June had warmed the soil, but it only once suc- 
ceeded in flowering in September, and I have now 
taken it up and potted, it to replant above the 
surface in the spring. This will explain why 
some may recommend deep planting and others 
surface planting. As a matter of fact, the surface- 
planted bulbs do, after some years, pull themselves 
down by their strong roots deeply into the 
ground. — Edward H. Woodall. 



January 30, 1915.] 



THE GARDEN. 



51 



English and Irish Roses in Southern Scot- 
land. — The Rev. David R. Williamson writes : 
" After the middle of May the garden of Kirk- 
m.iiden Manse, with whose cultmre, adequate or 
■otherwise, I have been so long identified, will 
pass into other hands. I will not be far away 
from its precincts, however, and will probably 
lie able to record from time to time in the columns 
of The Garden its floral achievements. I will 
also do my utmost to imbue my ecclesiastical 
•successor with my own love for horticulture. 
For some time past I have been planting many 
of the latest Rose introductions in the garden 
at Kirk House, Kirkmaiden, where I will be 
residing by the beginning of June. Notable 
among these are such superbly endowed varieties 
as Majestic, from the famous nurseries at Waltham 
Cross ; the exquisitely beautiful Lady Clan- 
william and its fair companions Brilbant, Mrs. 
Archie Gray, William Cooper and Mrs. 
James Lynas, raised by Mr. Hugh Dickson 
of Belfast ; Mayflower (a greatly improved 
Devoniensis) and other precious varieties 
from Mr. Prince of Oxford ; Mme. Edouard 
Herriot, Irish Fireflame, and those glorious 
•creations of Mr. Samuel McGredy of 
Portadown in Ireland, ■«£., Colleen, Edgar 
M. Burnett (described as ' the sweetest- 
scented Rose in existence ' and a distinct 
advance on La France), Florence Forrester, 
lona Herdman (a grandly decorative Rose), 
and the deep orange yellow Mrs. Ambrose 
Ricardo. There also I hope to cultivate 
•some of the finest of the wichuraiana 
Roses, especially Whitp Dorothy, Hiawatha 
and Christian Curie, of very charming 
salmon pink complexion, raised and intro- 
duced some years ago by Messrs. Cocker 
of Aberdeen. At the garden of Kirk House 
(which has a sunny aspect and fertile soil) 
I have bord;rs already prepared for 
^\ntirrhiuums, Sweet Peas, Oriental Lilies 
and other flowers, which are sure to luxuriate 
there." 

Mildew-Proof Roses. — In yourissue of Octo- 
ber 31 last there appeared, by your courtesy, 
a note of mine on " Mildew-proof Roses," 
■asking for a statement from Rose-growers 
as to their experience of the relative powers 
of resistance in the best Roses. Including 
my own note and your appended list, eleven 
growers have given their experience with 
•one Rose or another, and I desire to thank 
you and your various correspondents for a i 

series of notes from which I have derived 
much pleasure and an amount of valuable 
information which will very considerabl5' modify the 
Rose orders which I am now making out. .'\t some 
future time I may ask you to indulge me with 
a little space in which further to discuss this 
interesting question in the light of the remarks 
made by your correspondents, but in the mean- 
time it may interest you and your readers to know 
the tabulated results of your little symposium on 
mildew in Roses. I do not guarantee its absolute 
accuracy, but it may be taken as at least roughly 
correct. From first to last 102 Roses have been 
mentioned as possessing greater or less resistant 
p-jwer. Of these, one has received five votes, 
viz., General Macarthur, and one, four. La Tosca. 
Eight have received three, viz.. Lady A. Stanley, 
Ulrich Brunner, Chateau de Clos Vougeot, Mrs. 
D. McKee, Griiss an Teplitz, Mme. Ravary, 
A. R. Goodwin and Lieutenant Chaure, Thirteen 
have been twice mentioned, viz., F61icite 



Perpetue, Jersey Beauty, Jessie, Dorothy Page- 
Roberts, Miss Cynthia Forde, M. Paul Lede, 
Beaute de Lyon, Gustav Griinerwald, Duchess 
of Wellington, Mme. Melanie Soupert, J. F. Barry, ' 
Boule de Neige and Zeph>-rine Drouhin. This 
leaves about eighty Roses which were recommended 
by only one writer. You will notice that your ^ 
own list is well sustained by the plebiscite 



SOME HARDY LILIES.- 

By Sir Herbert M.'IXWell. Bart. 



-V. 



(Continued from page 40.) 
SUB-GENUS MARTAGON. 
Lilium Canadense, a graceful thing bearing in J uly 
Those ' <irooping flowers of warm yellow tinted with fawn, 
who desire a few Roses fairly immune against : delicately spotted. The rhizomatous bulbs should be 
mildew cannot surely go far wTong in planting ' set 5 inches deep in free soil full of leaf-mould or 
the first ten at least. As regards those Roses i peat, shaded from intense sunlight and kept moist. 



twice recommended, there are one or t%vo which 
I do not grow, and about which, therefore, I 
cannot speak. I can well believe, however, that 
the resistant power of this batch is above the 
average. At the same time, one or two, for 
instance, Mme. Melanie Soupert and Jersey Beauty, 
are undoubtedly offenders with me. Let me 



It is not a showy Lily, but a very charming one. 

L. Chalcedonicum, the Scarlet Turk's-cap. — 
If this LUy is lacking in some of the grace which 
is the peculiar attribute of the family, it atones 
for it by the dazzling scarlet of its crown of flowers, 
which is so well set off by the grey-green leaves 
that cluster closely along the sturdy stems. These 



further say that among the planting schemes ! stems rise to a height of no more than 2 feet to 3 feet; 

the bulbs, therefore, should be planted where 
they will not be overshadowed or crowded 
by ranker growths. A native of Asia Minor and 
the Eastern Mediterranean region, the Scarlet 
Turk's-cap is a lover of sunshine, but the best 
plants I have are growing among low shrubs. 
It is not a stem-rooter, therefore the bulbs may 
be planted only 4 inches deep, its requirements 
in soil and position being similar to those of 
the Madonna Lily, with plenty of lime. It 
used to be as easy to manage as the Orange 
Lily, but for some years past it has suffered 
frightfully from attacks of Botrytis, and 
should be regularly sprayed from the beginning 
of May. It is a late flowcrer ; in the South 
the blossoms open in July, but in Scotland 
it is generally August before they appear. 

L. colchicum (syn. monadelphum). — If I 
were limited to the cultivation of three species 
of Lily, the choice would~cause me long and 
painful deliberation, so many cherished 
favourites would have to be shut out ; but 
I cannot doubt that, in the end, this Caucasian 
beauty, for which no English name has yet 
been devised, would be one of the trio. LUy 
experts [may smile superciliously, for it is a 
plant of easiest culture ; but I am devoid of 
ambition ; loveliness, not the bubble reputa 
tion, is what I covet, and this delightful Lily is 
la\'ish of her charms. Robust enough to rise 
to a height of 5 feet or 6 feet, and to stand 
erect without crutches or staking under the 
weight of its cluster of lemon-coloured bells 
with scarlet anthers, it scents the summer air 
with delicious fragrance and exacts homage to 
its chaste splendour from every visitor. For 
the very life of me I cannot understand why 
it is to be seen in so few of the many richly 
furnished gardens which abound in the British Isles. 
Possibly it is more liable than other Lilies to get 
destroyed in spring-cleaning ; for although it is 
almost, if not quite, the earliest Lily to flower, 
it is among the latest to show above ground. 
Equally perverse is the beha-viour of L. auratum 
and L. speciosum, which outstrip all others in 
early growth, yet postpone flowering till the rest 
are done. Another reason for the infrequency of 
L. colchicum is that it requires two or three seasons 
to get established. Imported bulbs should 
always be potted, kept in a cool frame, and not 
planted out till they manifest strong growth. 
Then let them be set 5 inches deep in strong loan\, 
with or without lime, and left alone for years. 
Hitherto, this species, with its varieties mona- 
delphum and szo-vitzianum, have proved immune 
from disease ; at all events, during thirty years 




[LIUM COLCHICUM, A ST.\TELY SPECIES WITH 
LEMON-COLOURED FRAGR,\NT FLOWERS. 

1 have in prospect is a Rose hedge 33 feet long, to 
grow to a medium height, say, 3 feet or 4 feet. 
Of course, I wish to plant varieties little susceptible 
to mildew ; for what could look more forlorn 
than a mildewed hedge ? I tliink of planting the 
Roses 18 inches apart, and the varieties I have in 
view are Boule de Neige, Griiss an Teplitz, General 
Macarthur, Florence H. Veitch, Homere, Old 
China, Lady Waterlow, Zephyrine Drouhin and 
Sarah Bernhardt. These would make a fragrant 
hedge I tliink, though I doubt whether General 
Macarthur would reach the height. .A yellow 
Rose is wanted. Would Duchess of Wellington 
be sufficiently robust ? I should like Harry 
Kirk, but mildew forbids. Mrs. David McKee is 
a prime favourite of mine. It is, however, not 
exactly a yellow, and, notwithstanding its three 
marks, it mildews with me. But what an exquisite 
Rose it is, and such a " laster " ! — Somerset. 



52 



THE GARDEN. 



[January 30, 1915. 



or so that I have grown it, I have not known it to 
suffer from the most malignant of all plagues, 
Botrj'tis, although many of its neighbours have 
endured that scourge. It may be that the Evil One 
is but biding his time ; it will be a sorrowful 
hour when the blight first shows upon the shining 
foliage of this beauty. Imported bulbs of L. 
colchicum should on no account be suffered to 
flower in the first year after planting ; indeed, 
the plant often refuses to make any appearance 
whatever above ground until the second year, 
when, if the bulb was clean and sound when 
planted, it will grow away and flower as if 
nothing had happened. An admixture of 
wood-ashes in the soil is a good antiseptic for 
bulbs in a dormant state. There are many 
varieties of this Lily, the finest being the 
golden-flowered kind named szovitzianum. 

L. Humboldti. — There are two varieties 
of this fine Lily. One, the type, native of the 
northern part of the Sierra Nevada, has baffled 
all but the most skilful cultivators in attempt- 
ing to establish it in European gardens ; the 
other, entitled L. Humboldti magnificum, 
from the mountains of South California, is 
more accommodating, though not to be 
reckoned as everybody's plant. The treatment 
recommended is to set the bulbs nearly a 
foot deep in a sunny place in gritty loam, with 
or without lime. I have had it for some 
years and it produces its beautiful flowers 
twenty to thirty in a raceme, large turn-caps 
of ruddy gold, splashed and spotted with 
purple ; but only once has it reached the 
height of five or six feet which it ought to 
attain, and, sad to say, it is more prone to 
dwindle than to increase, whether in numbers 
or in size. Wherefore it appears that I have 
not yet hit upon the right treatment. No 
pains are too sedulous to secure success, for 
this is a prhice among the turn-cap tribe. 
It flowers in July. i^j 

L. Kelloggi was discovered not many years 
ago in California by Mr. Purdey. It is a ver\' 
choice thing, and although I have not tried my 
hand with it yet, I have seen it blooming free 
and fair in Mr. Grove's garden, so there is no 
reason to despair of its future in this country-. 
At present it is one of the rarest Lilies in 
cultivation. In form and manner of growth 
it is a refined model of the common Martagon. 
The Turk's-caps open white, then flush into 
rose and pass into purple. Deep planting. 
9 inches or lo inches, is recommended by those 
who have succeeded with this Lily, in alight, 
gritty soil with plenty of leaf-mould and 
faultless drainage. As it is easily raised from 
seed, it is likely soon to come within even,-- 
body's reach. 

L. Marban is one of the few hybrid Lilies 
whereof the parentage is known for certain. It 
is the offspring of L. Martagon and L. Hansoni, 
and it is a pity that the result is not more 
pleasing, for it is splendidly vigorous and 
healthy, putting forth flowers lavishly at a height of 
6 feet. It is most refreshing to see the great blunt 
shoots pushing through the ground in early spring, 
as bold and massive as those of the Crown Imperial 
(Fritillarj') ; but the blooms, though finely shaped 
and gallantly borne, are of an unattractive bro\vnish 
orange with dark spots. Stiff, sound loam, with 
peat or leaf-mould and with or without lime, 
satisfies its requirements. 

L. Martagon is the only one of the genus which 
has become naturalised in Great Britain. It 



occurs in some of the Southern Counties in situa- 
tions such as have led some botanists to reckon 
it indigenous ; but the freedom with which it 
scatters its seeds and the ease with which they 
germinate are enough to account for its dispersal. 
The typical plant, with flowers of a dull pinkish 
purple, is a graceful thing, but not worth a second 
thought compared with the white variety, which is 
one of the loveliest Lilies in existence and as free 
as it is fair. The robust variety, L. Martagon 
dalmaticum, is considered by Elwes to be a distinct 



with great luxuriance in peat and granite sand 
at an altitude of 1,200 feet in the west of Inverness- 
shire ; although as it is a native of Dalmatia, where 
the prevailing rock is limestone and the sun very 
powerful, one would have expected a transi- 
tion to the sloppy chmate and acid soil of a 
Highland hillside would overtax its constitution. 
Notwithstanding its easy nature, many persons 
after paying a heavy price for the bulbs of Martagon 
album and dalmaticum (2s. 6d. and 33. 6d. apiece) 
have been disappointed in the result. There is 
but one reason for that, namely, that whereas 
the Martagon Lily rests for a very short time, 
it must be moved early in autumn. To 
delay planting tUl it suits the nurserj'man's 
convenience to send the bulbs, probably in 
November, is to put a strain upon the consti- 
tution which it will not bear, and this applies 
to many choice bulbs besides the Martagon. 
The seed which these Lilies produce so freely is 
worth collecting and sowing in the open ; for 
although the seedlings do not all come true 
to the parental variety, some of them will. 

L. pardalinum. the Panther Lily, is a Cali- 
fornian species of the highest degree of merit, 
and almost, if not quite, as simple in its 
requirements as the common Martagon. It 
will thrive and make a brave display in 
conditions very different from those it seeks 
in a wild state ; but to see it at its best, 
plant it in moist loam or peaty soil, give it 
space for the rhizomatous roots to spread, 
and in time it will reward you with a con- 
flagration of red and yellow in July and August 
such as it is worth a long journey to see. I 
have in mind Lady Dartmouth's wild garden 
at Patshull, which contains a well-sheltered 
boggy hollow whereof the Panther Lily has 
taken complete possession, tossing masses of 
flaming blossom to a height of 6 feet or 7 feet. 
This Lily has wandered into an immense num- 
ber of varieties in flower, foliage and stature, 
that everyone may indulge his taste for colour 
by choosing those in which crimson, orange 
or clear yellow predominates. In the variety 
Johnsoni the prevailing hue is cherry red. Mr. 
Grove has raised a beautiful hybrid between 
L. pardalinum and L. Humboldti, clear yellow 
sharply spotted with purple. I have seen this 
Lily in his garden bearing an immense mass 
of flowers on stems 8 feet high. 

L. Parryi. — We have got among the difli- 
cult Lilies now, that is, those which exact 
thoughtful treatment and deft handling. That 
it responds generously to these, I have wit- 
nessed ample proof in Mr. Grove's border ; 
but not having possessed the plant long enough 
to emulate his success, I can only advise the 
reader to consult pages 98 and 99 of his 
■' Lihes," whence it may be learnt that 
means should be devised to mitigate the 
extreme of summer drought by subterranean 
irrigation, and of winter wet by a complete 
system of drainage. Deep and moist alluvium 
species, and not without reason, for it grows without lime is the sod affected by this Lily in its 




LILIUM MARTAGON ALBUM, A BEAUTIFUL 
VARIETY WITH WHITE FLOWERS. 



7 feet or 8 feet high, flowers a fortnight later than 
either the common or the white Martagon, and 
clothes its buds with a dense white down. Its 
perianth is of very dark but shining purple, 
nearly as dark, sometimes, as what is called the 
Black Tulip. The Martagon Lily, in all its forms, 
is as hardy a plant as the gardener has to deal with, 
and indifferent as to soil. Mr. Grove mentions a 
stiff loam as producing the best results, but I 
have seen L. M. dalmaticum 6 feet high flowering 



native Southern California, and as no frost to speak 
of visits that region, the bulbs must be planted 
fully 8 inches deep to stand our winter cold. 
Above all, the drainage must be rapid. The 
reflexed petals of Parry's Lily are canary yellow, 
charmingly in contrast with the deep orange 
anthers. I have placed it among the Martagons, 
to which it bears a strong resemblance ; but I 
am told it should be in the Eulirion group. 
{To be continued.) 



January 30, 1915.^ 



THE GARDEN. 



53 



DAFFODIL NOTES. 



" Somerset 's " Perfect Catalogue . — If 

'■ Somerset " (December i6, 1914) is the 
" Somerset " who kindly made himself known to 
me at one of the Royal Horticultural Society's 
shows in the spring of 1913 — I think it was at the 
Daffodil Show— he is an old hand at Daffodil- 
growing, and, as a perusal of his very interesting 
remarks seems to indicate, he at any rate has not 
been caught by the snare of the fowler. Still, 
he obviously has, if he is serious — which somehow 
I doubt — a grudge " of sorts" against the " much- 
respected " and " well-known " firm of " X. and 
Sons " of Pimlico (or somewhere) because they will 
pepper the names of the Daffodils in their list with 
small crosses, which, according to himself, have 
fallen, or have not fallen, where he would like to 
sec them. What a dreadful thing for him to 
stand before his Glory of Leidens or his Minnie 
Humes next spring with the thought 
rankling in his mind that " X. and 
Sons " had only given each of them 
but two crosses ! I am really sorry 
for his having such a thin skin, and I 
assure him that, judgingcataloguecom- 
pilers by myself, we who have nolens 
volens, as it were, to appraise the rela- 
tive values of the different varieties 
have no wish whatever to appear to 
be " gratuitous and a trifle officious," 

The explanation is simple. All 
depends upon the point of view 
from which the variety is judged. 
It is open to " Somerset " or any- 
one else to say that a catalogue 
drawn up almost wholly from a show 
standpoint is all wrong; but I think 
he will see that he is going a little too 
far when he seems to suggest that the 
one or two crossed ones are only 
" poor trash after all." I am some- 
times told that a variety I am very 
fond of is " rotten " and " no good." 
I have, got, thank God, a duck's back, 
so I listen, civilly I hope, and then 
go on my way rejoicing. Let " Somer- 
set " or anyone else have the courage 
of their opinions and let the catalogue 
compilers have theirs ; this is the only 
way to solve the personal difficulty. If 
I like a variety and grow it in my 
garden, I would not mind in the very 
least how many crosses it had — -no, 
not even if it appeared among the discarded kinds 
of the Royal Horticultural Society's Classified List. 

John Bull has not been in a trade catalogue 
for twenty years or more, but no Daffodil yet 
born is more satisfactory in grass and open wood- 
land. It is different altogether when " Somerset " 
suggests that the apportionment of crosses and 
the basting of the different varieties with alluring 
words and phrases may be misleading. It probably 
is so sometimes. A purchaser who wants a few 
" rather better" varieties for his garden may not 
realise that all the marks and adjectival phrases 
in the list refer to the judgment of a show judge, 
and only in a very minor degree to a plant's garden 
value. The only suggestion I can make is that 
traders should state this fact very prominently, 
or, if it is not so, that they should make a point 
of letting all would-be purchasers know what 
standard their marks or remarks refer to. I 
hope in time that the Royal Horticultural Society's 
" Daffodil Year Book," coupled with the introduc- 



tion of the new awards, may do much for those 
whose only object in buying Daffodils is to decorate 
their gardens. We must take a leaf out of 
the National Rose Society in the way it issues 
lists of the best sorts for various purposes. 
Our attempt in 1914 I look upon as a start. 

If this can be sufficiently developed, I do not 
see why it should not be copied eii bloc into every 
trade list. Perchance, however, " Somerset " would 
resent even this as an interference with the liberty 
of the Daffodiler to think what he likes because 
something else besides that long bald inventory of 
points (The Garde.v, page 612, Vol. LXXVIII. 
colmnn 3) has been included in it. It seems 
obvious that " Somerset " would like to see the 
elimination of all personal likes or dislikes as far 
as possible removed from any description. I see 
what he means, I think. He would like a sort of 
Botanical Magazine, one in contradistinction to 
that of an enthusiastic gardener. " Is it possible ? " 



What, too, of poor " J. R," who pleaded in 
The G.\rden of January 2 for light on what 
varieties are calculated to withstand best the 
rigours of the cold North ! He would not 
get much help. In fact, it occurs to me thai 
if all catalogues were on the lines of " Somerset's " 
" perfect " one, it would really be grand for writers 
for the Press. There would be such a lot of 
things everyone would want to know, and "J. R.'s " 
would spring up on all sides. But I must cease 
my funning, or else I shall get rapped over the 
knuckles. What can I recommend in the way of 
Daffodils Suitable for the North? To begin with, 
I will not include any one of the three that " J. R." 
mentions — King .Alfred, Ariadne or Homespun. 
Not one of these is a good garden plant in the way 
that Emperor and Barrji conspicuus are. It 
may be that it is not the cold above ground that 
they so much resent. Probably it is the dry air 
or the cold, damp soil, I know, for example^^ 




SOLANUM CRISPUM, A BEAUTIFUL CLIMBER WITH PALE BLUE FLOWERS. (See page 54). 



I ask. Not yet, for neither classification nor the 
names of shapes are finally settled — even colour 
designations are very vague, while, as for texture, 
nomenclature is still more at sea. When we settle 
these (and other points) once and for all, and when 
all of us agree to stand by the result, then, if 
nothing else but this bare list of facts be put after 
a flower, we will have "Somerset's" "perfect 
catalogue." Oh, but how cold it will be ! and will 
everyone think it perfect even then ? I fear not 
What a Herculean task the would-be purchaser 
will have if he has to select " all on his very own " 
with no hand to help or star to guide ! Imagine 
him constructing each one with compass and 
pencil and paint-box, or even forming mental 
images of their looks. I fancy very soon the 
" perfect catalogue " will be on the road to Jericho 
and the would-be selector will find himself dis- 
consolately humming 

" It's a long, long way to Tipperary, 
It's a long way to go." 



when Mr. E. M. Crosfield utterly failed to grow 
King .Alfred at Wrexham, he sent his stock to 
the West Coast of Scotland, and there it soon put 
on a regular Cornish look. Hence, in making up 
this little selection, I aiu guided by the knowledge 
of what I think will " do " anywhere and that 
can look after themselves, like Emperor. Here 
it is, for what it is worth. I do not expect everyone 
to agree with it altogether, for Daffodils are such 
surprising creatures that one never can be quite 
sure what they will do next. 

The List. — Bernardino, The Fawn, Great Warley, 
Lady Margaret Boscawen, H. C. Bowles, Red 
Chief, Occident, Solfatare, Noble, Steadfast, 
Pedestal, Blackwell, Coimtess of Southesk, Fairy 
Queen, The President (Wheadon), Evangeline, 
Argent, Duke of Bedford, VirgU, Whitewell (if 
lifted every year). Lord Muncaster, Kingsley, 
Acme, Golden King, Orient, Empire, Hon. Mrs. 
Francklin and Cygnet. These might be added 
to, but the above are a fairly representative lot 



54 



THE GARDEN. 



[January 30, 1915. 



of varieties, likely to do well anywhere. Is this 
what " J. R." wants ? 

Showing Leedsiis. — I have had a long and 
very interesting letter from Mr. Morton, who 
wants to know how judges judge Lcedsii classes 
now there are so many types, e.g., the Eoster, 
the White Queen, the Duchess of Westminster, 
the St, Olaf, &c. He seems to think that the 
smaller kinds are often valued too highly when 
" ordinary " and " giant " are in competition, 
and suggests that an official division should be 
made by the Narcissus committee. I am very 



told him he must keep it on the wall, that the 
growth on the top of the pergola would help to 
shelter it, and that this prudent placing would 
ensure its precious survival. When I visited him 
two years later, at the end of May, I found it had 
scorned the wall, had set itself on the top of the 
pergola, and there rose as a great dome of lilac- 
coloured blooms, braving the east winds that 
threw themselves down upon it from the chalk 
downs. I have now set it in quantity in the 
coldest shrubbery I possess. The example illus- 
trated on page 53 is one I originally planted agamst 



spikes of blossom Jmore or less freely from June 
until late September. The Red Valerian is per- 
fectly naturalised in the South of England, and 
imperfectly so in the Northern Cotmlies and a 
few places in Scotland. It is usually associated 
with the sunny side of chalk pits, limestone banks 
and railway cuttings. It is an admirable subject 
for a wall garden, and never looks happier than 
when growing on rocky banks or ruined walls. 
This plant, botanically known as Centranthus 
ruber, is an old inhabitant of. our gardens, and, 
apart from its va'ue as a wall plant, looks very 




THE RED VALERIAN, CENTRANTHUS RUBER, VEILING AN OLD WALL. 



much disposed to agree, but it would be well to 
hear other opinions. Readers interested, please 
.write. Joseph Jacob. 



SOLANUM CRISPUM. 

SoLANUM CRISPUM is a plant which loves to peer 
over the wall top. I remember some years ago, 
when I stiU thought it of a half-hardy nature, 
planting it on the south wall of a pergola on high 
ground in Wiltshire I recommended it to the 
owner of the garden with some misgiving. I 



a wall, but, like the Wiltshire plant alluded to, it 
rises many feet above the wall and shoots out its 
great boughs as freely on the north as on the south 
side. It is, indeed, the north side that is here 
depicted. H. Avrav Tipping in Country Life. 



THE RED VALERIAN. 

Every wild flower has its season, and the 
Red Valei-ian is at its height of perfection 
about midsummer. Not that it is a flower of 
fleeting beauty, for it continues to send up its 



handsome when grown in a flower border. The 
flowers show considerable variation even in the 
wild state — white, purple, red and crimson all 
being represented. The crimson form is the most 
attractive, but it cannot be relied upon to come 
true from seed, owing to the ease with which the 
flowers cross with one another. In the case o( 
rocky banks and o'd walls the seed should be sown 
in spring in the places where the plants are 
to flower. When once established, self-sown 
seedlings are quite certain to appear in each 
succeeding year. C. Q. 



January 30, 1915.] 



THE GARDEN. 



55 



A GARDEN OF EVER. 
BLOOMING nOSES. 



o 



UR American friends are very fond 
of the term " ever-blooming Roses," 
and if it is not quite correct, it 
serves its pm-pose to indicate to tlie 
reader what are really perpetual- 
flowering varieties. Naturally, if 



Papa Goutier, Mrs. Sophia Neate or Little 
i Dorri't. 

Bed No. 3. — Monthly or China Roses : Group i 
— Common Pink. Group 2 — Arraosa, Irene Watts 
or Laure de Broglie. 

Bed No. 4. — Monthly or China Roses : Group i — 
Laurette Messimy. Group 2 — Comtesse du Cayla, 
Mme. E. Resal, Arethusa or Queen Mab. Group 3 
— Little Pet or White Pet. 

Bed No. 5. — Monthly or China Roses : 



one possesses but a tiny garden, one desires Group i — Fabvier and Rodhatte. Group 2 — 
to obtain as much enjoyment as possible from it ; Crimson China, Cramoisie Superieure and 
and I would ask, From what 
plant can we obtain so much 
delight or such a constant supply 
of bloom as from the Rose ? If 
we plant Violas, it is true we 
obtain their sweet flowers over a 
very long period ; but one cannot 
gather Violas, and one does Roses. 
Again, if we plant Zonal Pelar- 
goniums, they not only look 
very wretched after a few showers, 
but they must of necessity be 
renewed every summer. So that 
one must come to the Rose if 
they would desire the greatest 
charm for at least seven months 
— from May to November — ■ and 
I might even say to Christmas, 
for it was my pleasure last 
Christmas to gather quite a nice 
bouquet of Roses to adorn our 
table. 

Supposing, then, one is able to 
lay one's garden out to contain 
a dozen beds for Roses, what 
kinds shall we plant ? I would 
suggest they should be filled as 
follows ; if possible, allot the 
largest bed to Hybrid Teas. The 
varieties named are all so good 
that it is difficult to say which 
are the best. Supposing all those 
named cannot be planted, X would 
suggest taking them in the order 
as given. I have calledH'them 
Groups I, 2 and 3. Group i 
would be planted in the centre 
of the bed or at the back of the 
border, as they are the strongest 
growers ; Group 2 next, and 
Group 3 on the outer edge. This 
applies to all the lists given. 

Bed No. 1. — Group I — Mme. 
A. Chatenay, Lady Pirrie, 
Pharisaer, La Tosca, Dorothy 
Page- Roberts and Mrs. A. E. 
Coxhead. Group 2 — Caroline 
Testout, General Macarthur, 
Gustav Griinerwald, Prince de 
Bulgarie, Mme. Ravary, Laurent 
Carle, Betty, Lady Ashtown, Mme. Leon Charlotte 




A PHOTOGRAPHIC STUDY OF ROSE MME. RAVARY, A VARIETY 
THAT FLOWERS OVER A LONG PERIOD. 



Group 3 — Leuchtfeuer and 



Pain, Ecarlate, Ophelia, Theresa, Augustine 
Guinoisseau and Countess of Derby. Group 3 — 
Mme. Jules Grolez, Richmond, Mrs. A. Tate, 
MevTow Dora von Sets, Mrs. E. Powell, Countess 
of Shaftesbury and Old Gold. 

Bed No. 2. — ^Tea Roses : Group r — Corallina, 
G. Nabonnand, Peace, Marie van Houtte, Lady 
Hillingdon, Betty Berkeley, Rosomane N. 
Thomas, General Schablikine and Comtesse 
F. Hamilton. Group 2 — Sulphurea, Molly 
Sharman Crawford and Mrs. H. Stevens. 
Group 3 — Mme. Antoine Mari, General Gallieni, 



K'.cmm. 
Feuerzauber. 

Bed No. 6. — -Polyantha or Pet Roses : Group r — 
Kathcrine Zeimet. Group 2 — Jessie. Group 3 — 
Jeanne d'Or. The first and last are white, the 
middle one red. If preferred all of one colour, 
of course either can be planted alone. 

Bed No. 7. — Polyantha or Pet Roses : Group r — 
Orleans Rose. Group 2 — Annie Miiller, Mrs. 
Cutbush and Ellen Poulsen. Group 3 — Maman 
Turbat. 

Bed No. 8. — Polyantha or Pet Roses : Group i — 
Canarienvogel. Group 2 — George Elger, Perle 



d'Or and Frau C. Walter. Group 3 — Eugenie 
Lamesch. 

Bed No. 9. — Group i — Griiss an Teplitz, a 
strong grower that requires tying over, or to be 
transplanted every autumn and pruned to about 
r8 inches the following spring. Group 2 — Merveille 
des Rouges. This is a grand bit of colour and 
deserves a bed all to itself. 

Bed No. 10. — -Single or semi-double Roses : 
Group I — Danae, Adrian Reverchon and Moon- 
light. Groupjj — Queen of Musks, 

Bed No. 11. — Single Roses: Group i — Irish 
Glory. Group 2 — Irish Elegance, 
Irish Simplicity, Irish Beauty, 
Irishl Fireflame and Alexandra 
Zarifi. Group 3 — Muriel Jamie- 
son and Mrs. W. T. Masses. 

Bed No. 12. — Pemetiana Roses, 
a glorious group with beautiful 
leathery foliage : Group r — Cissie 
Easlea. Group 2 — Mme. Edouard 
Herriot and Willowmere. Group 3 
— Arthur R. Goodwin, J. F. 
Barry and Louise Catherine 
Breslau. 

If space permits, I would 
suggest isolated specimens of 
the following, either as 
moderate pillars, as a hedge 
mingled together, or individually 
as big bushes : Sylvia, Alister 
Stella Gray, Bardou Job, Climbing 
Mrs. Grant, Climbing Lady Ash 
town. Climbing Richmond, 
Florence H. Veitch, Gloire de 
Dijon, Gustave Regis, Papillon. 
Fellenberg, Longworth Rambler 
(a bad name, for it does not 
ramble, but for our purpose is 
just the sort), Aimee Vibert ^ 
fleurs jaunc. Lady Waterlow, Birdie 
Blye and Trier. There are 
plenty of other sorts, but if all 
the foregoing can be planted, 
or only part, I can promise my 
readers a glorious display, com- 
rnencing with the Old Pink Chma 
on .May Day in some parts and 
closing the year with the same 
Rose and even some of the 
others. To encomrage a con- 
tinuous blooming, the beds 
should be dug deeply and the 
plants obtained on seedling Briar 
or on their own roots, as 
Roses on the cutting Bria 
are not nearly so perpetual as 
those on the seedling Briar. Then, 
again, summer pruning should be 
resorted to ; that is to say, if the . 
blooms are not cuUed much for 
the house, the growths that 
bear them should be cut to good sound eyes, 
no; too far back. Old blooms when faded should 
be removed, also any seed-pods that do fomr 
ought to be gathered when quite small, as 
thjir development naturally puts a considerable 
tax on the vitality of the bushes. The beds 
should be mulched in June with very rotten 
manure or a little peat moss, and occasionally 
forked up prior to this. If the season is dry, 
good liberal waterings will be advisable, espe- 
cially on a gravelly subsoil. I also advocate 
a replanting of all the beds every third or 
fourth year. Danecroft. 



56 



THE GARDEN. 



[January 30, 1915. 



ST. DABEOC'S HEATH. 

Strictly speaking, this charming little low- 
growing evergreen shrub is not a Heath, but 
very closely allied to the family, thriving under 
similar conditions to the hardy Heaths. It is 
wild in Ireland, and is often known as the Irish 
Heath, its botanical name being Daboecia polifolia. 
It is strange that such a charming little flowering 
shrub as this is so seldom met with in gardens, 
as it is not difficult to grow, providing the soil is 
well drained and a good proportion of coarse 
peat is added before planting is done. For the 
front part of the shrub border, or even for filling 
a lawn bed where a low-growing, permanent 
plant is required, the Irish Heath, or one of its 
varieties, is excellent. In the case of the shrub 
border a good-sized colony should be planted, 
as this will prove far more effective than a 
solitary specimen. It forms a tuft-like shrub 
about a foot high, and its rather small, droop- 



there appear to have been few attempts to secure 
distinct and new varieties of it. It is possible 
that most of those who grow this sweet-scented 
evergreen shrub prefer it in its original and simple 
form, yet there are several deviations from the 
normal that have their own peculiar charm and 
usefulness. One of these is the so-called golden- 
leaved Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis aurea), 
a counterpart of the type, except that the 
leaves have a golden tint. The most useful 
variety of all is prostrata, a half-creeping plant, 
which has rather smaller leaves than the type 
and is excellent for the rock garden. Planted 
above a large mass of stone, the growths will soon 
overhang it and form a fragrant bank of green. 
A very erect variety which makes line specimen 
bushes for isolated positions is that known as 
Miss Jessop's Upright Rosemary. It makes a 
much better shaped plant than the original shrub, 
and yet has the fragrance and vigour of its parent. 



and foliage some 9 inches to 12 inches high, and 
during the dull days of November produces its 
curious Pea-shaped flowers in abundance. The 
wings of these are light purple and the keel greenish, 
yellow, a combination that is much more effective 
than one would imagine. The leaves are about 
two inches long, lance-shaped, and of a rather 
leathery te.xture. There is a variety known as 
grandiflora, which has rather larger flowers of 
creamy white colour. A well-drained position,, 
with some protection from biting east and north 
winds in spring, are aU that this dainty little shrub 
calls for in the way of special treatment. H. 



NEW AND RARE PLANTS. 




FRUITING SHOOTS OF SOLANUM CILIATUM, A LITTLE KNOWN PLANT FROM PORTO 



mg, globular flowers are usually present for 
several months during siunmer. The coloiu: 
of these is dull rose or red. Some nursery- 
men, however, offer a pure, glistening white- 
flowered variety known as D. polifolia alba, 
and this is a delightful little shrub. I), p. bicolor 
produces both red and white flowers, but the effect 
of these is not pleasing. March is a good time for 
planting the Irish Heath, and all who appreciate 
unusual shrubs should &nd room for a plant or 
two in their gardens. 



LITTLE-KNOWN FORMS OF THE 
ROSEMARY. 

Rosemary is one of those plants which were 
cultivated in the earliest English gardens, and 
when we consider this fact it is surprising that 
more varieties of it have not been brought into 
existence. It has always been a favourite, yet 



The end of February is a good time to plant 
these old-fashioned shrubs, but to ensure 
success a well-drained site should be chosen, 
and the soil, if not already so, must be made of 
a sandy character. Given these and a simny 
spot, the Rosemary will thrive for many years 
without attention. 



A USEFUL ROCK GARDEN SHRUB. 

During the late autumn months, when most of 
the plants in the rock garden are looking their 
worst, much interest may be derived from a few 
low-growing shrubs, providing these are selected 
with proper care and planted judiciously. One 
of the best tliat I know of for the purpose, and one 
that is not difficult to grow, is Polygala Chama;- 
buxus. This is by no means a common shrub, 
but were it more widely known I am sure that it 
would find a home in every well-appointed rock 
garden. It quickly makes a neat tuft of shoots 



FIRST-CLASS CERTIFICATES. 

Brasso-Cattleya Cliftonia albens (Cattleya 
Triana; alba x Brasso-Cattleya Queen Alexandra). 

— The flower is of exceptional 
size and exquisite purity ; an all- 
white flower, indeed, save for a 
suffusion of pale golden yellow 
in the back of the throat. Apart 
from purity, the exquisitely 
deeply crimped lip appeals, the 
side frilling being very beautiful 
and pronounced. Wedded to these 
is a flower of the largest size. A 
novelty of distinction and merit. 

Dendrobium Triumph (D. 

dalhousieanum x D. thyrsiflorum). 

— Without doubt the most re- 
markable Orchid novelty for many 
a day, and withal one of the 
most distinct, as might well be 
imagined from the intercrossing 
of two such dissimilar species. 
The greater leaning, both as 
regards the length and form of 
the pseudo-bulbs and the manner 
of flower production, is towards 
the first-named parent. The ex- 
hibited plant bore five pseudo- 
bulbs, and was probably six years 
or so old. The smallest bulb was 
of the length of a Cedar-wood 
pencil, the flowering one approxi- 
mating to -i- feet. The widely 
spreading flowers are of purest 
white, and characterised by a 

RICO. huge maroon crimson blotch on 

either side of the lip, as in the 
first-named parent. These remarkable novelties 
were exhibited by J. Gurney Fowler, Esq. 
Brackenhurst, Pembury, Kent (gardener, Mr. J. 
Davis). 

Solanum ciliatum. — Although the fruiting 
shoots of this plant did not receive an award 
from the floral committee, they are sufficiently 
rare in this country to call for special notice. 
The accompanying illustration gives a good idea 
of the spiny stems and shape of the fruits. 
The latter in size and appearance closely resemble 
those of small scarlet Tomatoes. The plant is a 
native of Porto Rico, and Miss Willmott informs 
us that it makes a glorious bush in her Italian 
garden. Grown outdoors in her garden at 
Warley, however, the fruits have failed to colour. 
The fruiting sprays, which created considerable 
interest, were imported from Italy and shown 
by Messrs. R. Felton and Sons, Hanover Square. 

The above were shown on the 19th inst., when 
the awards were made to the Orchids. 



January 30, 1915.] 



THE GARDEN. 



57 



GARDENING OF THE WEEK. 



FOR SOUTHERN GARDENS. 
Fruit Under Glass. 

Late Peaches. — The pruning of these must 
not be longer delayed, or there will be danger of 
the buds being damaged. To keep old trees 
well furnished with fruiting wood, it is sometimes 
necessary to remove some of the old branches. 
Guard against overcrowding, as there is nothing 
gained by leaving too much wood in the trees. 
When pruned carefully, wash the whole of the 
wood with a mixture of soft soap and sulphur 
before tying the trees to the trellis. If scale is 
present, a quantity of lime should be added to 
the mixture. 

Fruit Trees in Pots. — Where a house can be 
devoted to the growing of pot fruit trees, it is [ 
doubtful if any other method of growing fruits 
under glass gives greater satisfaction. For the 
pvurpose of supplying fruit for table, the greatest ! 
consideration. should be given to Peaches, Necta- ! 
rines and Plums. These may all be grown success- 
fully in the same house, and if the right varieties 
are chosen, a supply of high-class fruits may be 
had from the same house for at least two months. 
The trees which were repotted last autumn should 
now be ready to start, but before bringing them 
indoors do what little pruning is necessary and 
clean them with an insecticide. For the first 
week or two fire-heat must not be used. 

Plants Under Glass. 

Euphorbia pulcherrima. — .As the plants pass out 
of flower gradually withhold water, eventually 
placing them under a stage in a house having a 
temperatiure of about 50° to rest till they are 
reqtiired again to make cuttings for another season. 

Calanthe Veitchii. — When the flower-spikes 
have been cut, the bulbs must be placed closely 
together on a shelf near to the glass in a tempera- 
ture of 55° or 60°. If space is limited, shake out 
the soil from the bulbs and pack them closely 
together in boxes, covering the roots with sifted 
leaf-soil or fibre. 

Hydrangea hortensis. — A batch of plants may 
now be introduced into heat. First overhaul 
them, cutting away weak, useless wood ; and if 
they do not need repotting, give them a surface- 
dressing of some rich material. Cuttings rooted 
last autumn may be potted into 5-inch pots. 

Richardia africana. — Plants must be given 
more liberal treatment in regard to watering and 
feeding. If necessary, some of the strongest 
plants may be hastened into flower by placing 
them in a warmer house. 

Sweet Peas in Pots. — The plants which were 
raised last autumn should now be ready for potting 
into their flowering pots. Give them a rich compost 
and pot firmly. Keep them .growing quite close 
to the glass and give fire-heat sparingly. 

The Flower Garden. 

Lawns. — The appearance of la\\'ns will be 
greatly improved by rolling them, but this must 
only be done when they are in a suitable condition. 
Where moss is troublesome, an effort should be 
made to destroy it. A great deal may be got 
rid of by carefully raking the lawn with a small, 
sharp-toothed rake, afterwards applying a dressing 
of lawn sand. Where the grass is in poor con- 
dition, a dressing of some suitable manure should 
be applied as soon as it can be seen that growth 
is on the move. If new lawns are contemplated, 
the ground should be prepared at once, so that 
it may thoroughly settle down before sowing the 
seed or laying the new turf, .Any alterations, 
levelling or draining of lawns must also be finished 
as soon as the weather will allow. 

The Rock Garden. — Some of the larger-growing 
plants need carefully cutting back at intervals, 
or they will overgrow smaller subjects. In some 
cases it may be better to remove them altogether 
and replace them with young plants. Numerous 
bulbs may be planted in the rock garden for a 
spring display. Anemones, Snowdrops, Narcissi, 
Muscari, Chionodoxa, Scillas and some of the 
dwarf-growing Irises may all be effectively 
employed on the rockery. 



The Hardy Fruit Garden. 
Peaches and Nectarines. — The priming and 
training of these must be done before there is 
danger of damaging the buds. First go over 
the trees and cut out any old branches which can 
be spared. An old, tmsightly tree may often be 
much improved both in appearance and pro- 
ductiveness by a careful thinning of the old 
branches. Yotmg trees which have made over- 
strong growth should be lifted and root-pruned, 
and when replanting see that the roots are not 
buried too deeply. It is a good plan to have the 
rooting medium a little above the natural level. 

The Kitchen Garden. 

Peas in Pots. — If a cool house, such as a Peach- 
case, is available, the first supplies may be obtained 
from plants grown in pots. The seeds may be 
sown in 6-inch pots aud the seedlings potted on 
into lo-inch, or they may be sown in the larger size 
now. Give them a good rich compost and pot 
firmly. A dwarf variety, such as Little Marvel, 
must be used for this purpose. 

Potatoes. — If the soil is in suitable condition, 
the tubers which have been prepared for growing 
in pots may be planted now. Plant them in 
drills about two feet apart and 9 inches between 
the tubers. No water will be required rnitU the 
plants have made 2 inches or 3 inches of growth. 
Encourage them to grow sturdily by carefully 
admitting air whenever the weather will allow. 

Forcing Vegetables. — Place quantities of 
Asparagus, Seakale and Rhubarb into the forcing 
quarters at regular intervals. Seakale and Rhubarb 
may be covered with boxes and litter outdoors 
to follow the indoor supplies. A supply of Mustard 
and Cress can easily be kept up by sowing in 
cutting-boxes every few days. 

Horseradish. — .An out-of-the-way comer in 
the garden is suitable to grow this useful vegetable, 
but the ground must be deeply dug for its reception. 
The roots may be lifted now and replanted in rows 
a foot apart. E. Harriss. 

(Head-gardener to Lady Wantage.) 

Lockiiige Gardens, Berks. 



FOR NORTHERN GARDENS. 
Fruit Under Glass. 

Vines. — When young Vines are required, either 
for planting or growing in pots, this is a good date 
to start propagating by inserting eyes. Each eye 
should be inserted in a separate piece of turf 
and plunged in a close propagating-case. Well- 
ripened wood of medium size is the best from which 
to select the eyes. 

Planting Young Vines. — The formation of the 
borders in which these are to be planted should 
be completed. The yoimg Vines, which have 
been already cut back to two eyes, will be found 
to start much more readily and strongly if the 
roots are spread out in shallow boxes of soil and 
placed on the hot-water pipes. See that the 
Vines do not want for water until they are finally 
planted out in April in their permanent quarters. 

Peaches and Nectarines. — Examine the borders 

occasionally in houses where trees are resting. 
Excessively dry borders are very often the cause of 
much bud-dropping and uneven setting. 

Pot Figs. — The strongest growths must be 
pinched when they have made six or seven leaves. 
This operation should be extended over several 
days, so that the entire plant is not checked at 
once. Although Figs succeed best with a restricted 
root-run, they must have constant applications of 
liquid manure, also occasional top-dressings. 

The Kitchen Garden. 

Parsley. — If, owing to severe weather, the 
supply has become exhausted, some plants had 
better be lifted and planted indoors. Very little 
heat will be required to make them produce some 
fresh young leaves. Make a sowing in boxes to 
have plants ready for planting out early in May. 

Manuring. — ^Take advantage of all opportuni- 
ties, such as frosty mornings, to get manure 
carted or wheeled on to all vacant plots which 
are to be dug. 

Pea Stakes. — Attention to these can be given 
while the ground is unfit for working on. The 



life of Pea stakes is generally short, so that they 
need to be replaced, if not amiuallv, every alternate 
year. When suitable Pea stakes cannot be obtained^ 
large-meshed wire-netting, such as is used for sheep, 
will be found a good substitute if used double and 
supported by stout stakes. 

Plants Under Glass. 

Amaryllis. — To keep up a succession of flowers^ 
small batches of plants must be brought into heat. 
For the earliest lot. select plants that will not 
requure repotting this season. These plants are 
ver3' subject to attacks of mealy bug, and must be 
looked over carefully before starting. The scales- 
of the bulbs offer an excellent hiding-place while 
the plants are dormant. 

Ferns. — It is not a good practice to repot all 
Ferns each year, as most of them produce their best 
fronds after they become pot-bound. Still, some- 
will need renewal, and should be attended to before 
the young fronds commence to unfold. 

Clerodendron fallax. — .Although this brilliant 
stove-flowering plant may he propagated from 
cuttings, it is more simple and better to raise it 
from seed. A batch of it so\vn now wUl flower 
during July and onwards. Being very subject to 
attacks from red spider, the plants throughout 
their growth must be constantly syringed as a 
prevention. Besides, this plant revels in a humid 
atmosphere with plenty of heat. 

Streptocarpus. — Cuttings which were inserted 
five to seven weeks ago are ready to pot. Three 
and a-half inch pots will be large enough, and for 
this potting use a fairly light compost. Keep the 
cuttings c'ose for a few days, and spray lightly when- 
the weather is bright. If green fly is troublesome, a 
fumigation should be given when the plants have 
recovered from the check of potting. 

Cordylines are easily raised from seed, and it is 
a good plan to raise a number annually, so as to 
have them all sizes for decorative work. Being 
less tender than Palms, they are very useful during 
the winter season. 

Crotons. — Cuttings should now be taken and 
plunged in a close propagating-case in the stove. 
Well-fumished tops can be "rung" and moss 
tied around, into which they quickly root and are 
then ready for potting. 

The Hardy Fruit Garden. 

Winter Spraying. — The use of alkali must soon 
cease for this season, as it is dangerous to swelling 
buds. Unless fruit trees are very bad with lichen 
and insect pests, it will be found frequent enough 
if applied every alternate year. Too free a use of 
this wash is apt to injure the bark and buds even 
while dormant. 

Grafting Preparations. — Scions of Apples 
intended to be used for grafting later on should 
be carefully labelled and hce'ed in the soil behind 
a north wall. 

The Flower Garden. 

Cosmos. — Unless sown early, this annual does, 
not flower freely until far into the autumn ; often 
it is cut down by frost when at its best. It should 
not be planted in too rich a soil, or an abundance 
of gross growth will result, with very few flowers- 
The seed germinates rapidly in a warm green- 
house, and the young plants should be potted 
singly as soon as ready to handle. 

Begonias. — Both fibrous and tuberous rooted 
Begonias should be soum now in seed-pans. The 
seed, being very small, must be carefully sown on 
the surface of very fine soil, and ought not to be 
covered. Place sheets of glass over the seed- 
pans, and put them in a temperatiffe of 60°. 

Montbretias. — Frames containing Montbretias 
should be ventilated freely to try to retard the 
young growths. Protect them only during severe 
frost. These plants respond to very liberal treat- 
ment, and are well worth any extra time and 
trouble bestowed upon them. The beds or borders 
they are to occupy should now be prepared by 
digging in a good quantity of farmyard manure, 
adding a dusting of bone-meal at the same 
time. The following varieties are all free flowering 
and handsome : George Davison, Star of the East, 
Prometheus, Westwick, Messidor, Hereward, Ger- 
mania, aurantiaca, carmineus, Ernest Davison^ 
Oriflamme and Gold Mine. 

John Jeffrey. 
(Head-gardener to Sir R. W. Buchanan Jardine, 
Bart.) 

Castlemilk Gardens, Lockerbie, N.B. 



58 



THE GARDEN. 



[January 30, 1915. 



OAFFODI LS FOR 
GARDEN. 



TH E 



I FEEL that I must give expression to my 
sympathy (vith " J. R.," who tells us in 
the issue of January 9, page 22, how he 
opens his Garden every week in the hope 
of finding an article on his favourite the 
Daffodil, and how often he is disappointed ; 
for I scan its pages eagerly each week for some 
" Daffodil Notes " myself. I heartily endorse his 
appieciation of the Rev. J. Jacob's articles. They 
always contain useful information, and are so 
charmingly written that reading them is like 
enjoying a friendly and intensely interesting 
chat. 

■■ J. R.'s " further remarks raise one or two 
points in my mind which I should like to mention. 
If there is a variety for which you have a particular 
liking which does not thrive with you for the 
first two, three or even four years you have it, 
do not give up hope or throw it away, unless it 
is known to be a bad doer ever\^^•here. Keep it, 
and very likely you will find that it will presently 
acclimatise itself and " settle down " to grow quite 
well. Ariadne has been with me a striking example 
of " settling down." A few rather sickly bulbs 
of it were given me, I think, eight years ago. 
For three or four years it was a wretched thing, 
hardly knowing whether to live or die ; then it 
began to improve, and the last two seasons it has 
been splendid, growing with much vigour and 
rapid increase. When lifted last summer, the 
bulbs were full-sized, plump, hard and clean. 
Its foliage, however, is naturally, even in perfect 
health, of a slightly yellower and washier green 
than most. 

Homespun is a lovely show flower and a rapid 
increaser, but I should say it is not a first-rate 
garden plant an>-\vhere. It has never been sickly 
with me, but it is not a vigorous grower. I saw 
it in a garden close to the sea with a grand climate, 
where King Alfred simply romps no better than 
I have it myself. Coming to King .Alfred, we have 
a peerless flower over which it is well worth taking 
a lot of trouble. In my opinion there is no golden 
self Ajax within reach of ordinary purses which 
can for a moment compare with it, and I scarcely 
think I have seen anything among the finest and 
newest seedlings which really excels it in actual 
beauty. It is a noble plant, while the bloom has 
exceptional substance, making it extraordinarily 
lasting as a cut flower. Its form is perfectly 
graceful, its texture velvety and refined, and its 
glorious colour of wonderful purity. If you hold 
a bloom up directly facing the sun, you will, if 
you look carefully, see a beautiful sort of luminous 
halo on the reflexed brim of the trumpet, while 
the superbly serrated crown, together with the 
colour, gives the flowers when seen in a bunch or 
growing in a mass a regal opulence of splendour 
that is unrivalled. I was going to add that its ! 
stem is the envy of all other Daffodils, but probably 
" J. R." will not agree with that ! Doubtless 
its great height has disadvantages in wind, but the 
distinction it lends to the plant and the advantages 
of such a stem for cutting more than outweigh 
them, and make it well deserving of special con- 
sideration in the way of an extra well-sheltered 
position. 

Now for my experience with His Majesty. 
My first bulb of it was a nice, clean, strong one 
from the Riviera-like climate of Cork, in comparison 
with which the " Black North " must have felt 



very inhospitable. The first two years it did 
splendidly, then suddenly it went very sickly, ' 
though still increasing ; but the bulbs were small 
and sickly looking. Some seemed stronger than 
others and soon recovered ; but all, or practicallv 
all, became quite healthy again, and now increase 
rapidly with perfectly healthy foliage and abun- 
dance of blooms, seeding very freely. A few j 
are just appearing above the ground as I WTite, 
and look stronger and bigger than ever. A few i 
tiny and very sickly bulbs — almost dead, in fact — 
of King .-Mfred came to me some years ago. I 1 
planted them in a carefully chosen position. I I 
fancy the worst did die, but a number came up, 
and their growth suggested the very last stages 
of sickness. As thej' looked no better at the end 
of three years, I made up my mind to throw them 
away. When I dug them up, I foimd that although 
they had gained scarcely anything in size, they 
were distinctly cleaner and more healthy looking. 
I then replanted them in a new position, and in 
two years several had attained flowering size and 
did flower last spring, while all looked strong and 
healthy, and will this season, I expect, be quite I 
equal to the best of my stock. | 

I believe there are some places where King I 
-Alfred will not grow ; still, I should recommend 
" J. R." to give it another trial in as sheltered 
and warm a spot as he can afford, planting pretty 
deeply in deeply trenched groimd. If the soil 
is heavy and cold, no doubt it will help greatly 
if a generous quantity of leaf-mould, wood-ashes 
and sand be incorporated with it. Personally, 
I think King Alfred so beautiful that if I could 
not grow it in any other way I should prepare a 
bed very carefully and then build a cold frame 
over it ! 

If " J. R." wants a stiff-stemmed, small white 
Leedsii, and not extra tall, let him trv Fairv Oueen 
if he does not already know it. The growth is 
vigorous and rapid of increase ; but Waterwitch 
would not be Waterwitch without that fishing-rod 
stem and lovely drooping grace. I know it looks 
untidy in the garden when it is stormy, but cu' 
a bunch of flowers and arrange them lightly in a 
vase for a high shelf in your room, and you have 
nothing like it for graceful effect, which will be 
heightened if you put a jarful of Autocrat near by- 
way of contrast. 

County Ari'rim. G. L. WiLSOx. I 



precipitating^ the superfluous water to a lower level, aerate, 
warm and drain the soil, which is the chief thing needed. 
Freshly burnt Ume, when slaked, at the rate of three 
bushels per rod of ground would do much the same thing, 
and would al.*o neutralise any soil acidity, should such e.xist . 
The biu-nt clay (balHst). usually so" plentiful in your 
district, would, if applied at the same rate, also a-ssist iu 
the same way, and leaf-mould, grit or sand would do the 
same. Should you have the opportunity, try a small 
experimental bed or patch on the above lines, raising it a 
foot or more above the ordinary level to faciUtate drainage, 
<tc. With increased soil warmth and porosity the plants 
will do much better. Mid-.March is a good time' for replant- 
ing, and in doing this you only need retain the sectional 
portion of the rhizome made last year with its comple- 
ment of roots. The older rootless sections are valueless, 
and may hi discarded. Keep the rhizomes level with the 
surface soil when planting : do not bury them. 

TREES AND SHRUBS. 
CAMELLIA OUTDOORS (.4.1.— You wiU And Camellia 

japonica Chandler! elegans a very good pink-flowered 
kind to use on your wall out of doors. Drain the border 
well if not naturally well drained, and mix a little peat 
and leaf-mould with ordinary light loam. Do not overdo 
the peat, but a little about the roots will be appreciated. 
A plant can be procured from Messrs. Wm. Paul and Sons. 
N'urserymen, Waltham Cross, and the best time to plant is 
late.\pril. Protect the plant at night fora monthorso.and 
for a short time against bright sun at midday. Also be 
careful to keep it well watered until the roots are working 
well into the new .soil. The most important item is to 
prevent the old ball of soil from becoming dry. 

STANDABD BROOM (A. B.).— It is usual to graft 
certain kinds of Broom upon stocks of common Laburnum, 
either quite low down or upon stocks 2 feet to 4 feet high. 
In some cases Laburnum roots are used for -stocks. Such 
strong-growing Brooms as Cytisus praecox and C. scoparius 
andreanus are best grafted quite close to the ground or 
worked upon roots, and look out of place as standards. 
Such kinds as C. purpureus and 0. leucanthus make fine 
heads when grafted on stocks 2 feet or 3 feet high. To 
work the stocks in tlys way, the Laburnums should b*- 
established in pots and the grafting be done in a warm 
greenhouse in late February or March. Use firm shoots 
for scions, and use either an ordinary side graft or a wedge 
graft. Lay the plants on their sides in a close propagating- 
case until the union of stock and scion is complete ; then 
gradually inure to the open greenliouse, and eventually 
plant out of doors. 



ANSWERS 
TO CORRESPONDENTS. 



RULES FOR CORRESPONDENTS. 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS —The Editor endenv^urs io 
make The Garden hdpfvl to all readers who desire atsiVf- 
ance, no mat'er urhat the branch of gardening maij be. and ', 
with that object makes a special feature of the " Ansicers \ 
to Corre-^pondents " columns. All communicaiions should be ; 
dearly and concisely written on one side of the paper only, 
and addressed to the EDITOR of The Garden, 20. Tavistock : 
Street, CoverU Garden. London, W.C The name and addresn 
of the sender are required in addition to any designation he 
may desire to he used in the paper. When more than one 
query is !>en*. each should be on a separate piece of paper. 
Plants for naming should be clearly numbered and securely 
packed in damp grass or moss, not cotton- uoot. and fioicering 
shoots, ichere possible, should be sent. It is useless to s^nd 
small scraps that are not characteristic of the ptani. Letters 
on business should be sent to the PtJBUSHER. 

FLOWER GARDEN. 

IRIS FAILING (IT. H. R.).— Though it is the worst 
season of tlu' y*'ar fur the.sc plants, the portions submitted 
arc not in a very flourishinE; condition. In large dejrrto, 
if not absolutely, TiTc should lay the blami- on the hea\'>' clay 
■soil of your district, a condition matinesium limestone 
screenings would not remedy unless incorporated with the 
staple at somethinj; like fifty per cent. In this proportion 
it would ensure a much more rapid drainage, and by 



THE GREENHOUSE. 

VARIOUS GREENHOUSE QUESTIONS {G. B. ^.) — 

(1) In practice this has not been found satisfactory'. 

(2) No. (3) Doubtful if it would. (4) Clematises may 
be readily flowered in pots of ditferent sizes. For instance, 
at some of the meetings of the Royal Horticultural 
Society, well-flowered examples are often shown in 5-inch 
pots, while, for larse specimens, pots 1 foot in diameter 
may be used. (5) For permanent decoration they would 
be better planted in a border than growm in pots. At 
the same time, as Clematises do so well out of doors, we 
fail to understand why you are building a house for their 
reception. (6) They would grow up a trellis on the roof 
very well. (7) They are pruned the same under glass 
as out of doors. Different sections, however, need 
different modes of pruning. (8) VThen Clematises are 
conflaed in pots they need good soil, such as three parts 
loam to one part leaf-mould, and well-decayed cow-manure 
free from insects. As the pots get full of roots, an occa- 
sional stimulant will be boneflcial. The border should 
be effectually drained and contain a couple of feet of 
good soil. Wf do not know of any other book on, the 
subject. 

VARIOUS QUESTIONS (H r.).—Pancratium3.— These 
are essentially stove plants, and many successful cultiva- 
tors keep them in that temperature all the year round. 
On the other hand, they are by some given a slight rest 
after flowering. This has one drawback, inasmuch as 
if kept somewhat cooler and drier for about a month in 
order to rest them, the foliage is apt to acquire a yellowLsh 
tinge. The best temperature for Pancratiums is, during 
the mnter. a minimum of 60°. rising during the day. 
with, of course, an increased temperature as the days 
lengthen and the weather gets warmer. They should 
flower twice in a year. Where it is intended to rest 
them, they should for a month be placed in a temperature 
from 5° to 10° cooler, and given rather less water. Begonia 
Gloire de Lorraine. — The plants that are going out of 
bloom should be partially shortened back and placed 
in a temperature of 50° to 60°. Just enough water should 
be given to keep the soil slightly moist. In this way the 
plants will undergo a pi-riod of partial rest. Then, early 
iu March they may Ix- put into a structure 10° warmer 
or thereabouts and givrn more water, at the same time 
spraying them during bright days This will lead to 
young shoots being push''d out, those nearest the base 
of the plant bt-ing the best for growing into large specimens 
As soon as they are rooted and potted singly, the young 
plants should be placed near the glass in order to maintain 
a healthy, sturdy growth, and plenty of light, heat and 
moisture giv'en, but they must be shaded from hot sun. 
Air must Ix- given whenever it is safe to do so. The 
temperature may range from 60° at night to 20° or so 
higher in the day. A suitable compost may be made 
up of equal parts of loam and leaf-mould . with a little sand 
and dried cow-manure. Good plants may be g^o^vn in 
pots from 5 inches to 7 inches in diameter. During 
the growing season the plants may be subjected to a 
temperature of 65° to 80°. and as the pots get full of roots 



January 30, 1915.J 



THE GARDEN. 



59 



an orcasionf^ stimulant will be beneficial. With the 
approach of autumn and the flowering season the tempera- 
ture may be gradually reduced to 55° or 60°. Dendrobium 
uobile. — After the flowers are over, say, in the month 
of April or May, the plants will then produce new growth? 
from the base'of the pseudo-bulbs, and that is the time 
to re^ot them if they require it. Fibrous peat and 
spha>inum moss form a verj^ suitable compost . After 
repotting, water should be sparingly given till the fresh 
roots have taken possession of the new material. Maintain 
a temperature of 65° to 70^ by night and a reasonable 
rise by day. Keep the atmosphere moist, and occasionally 
spray' the plants durinu bright weather. They must 
also "be kept well watered. When the bulbs are fully 
developed, they mu>t, in order to ripen them, be gradually 
exposed to more air and sunshine and a cooler and drier 
atmosphere. This must not be done all of a hurry, but 
first allow them to become moderately dry at the root, 
then remove them to a minimum temperature of 60°, 
with a little more air. This and gradual exposure to 
full sunhght will lead to well-ripened pseudo-bulbs. 
During the late autumn and winter a temperature of 
55° to 60° by ni^ht, and a little warmer during the day, 
will suffice. At that time they must be given just enough 
wat«r to keep tbe bulbs plump. Then, as soon as the 
flower-buds are visible, tjie plants must be removed 
into a warmer structure to expand their blossoms. 
Poinsettia pulcherrima. — As soon as these have done j 
flowering, the old heads of bract-s should be cut off and ■ 
the plants placed in a structure of 50° to 60°. They should j 
then be kept dry, in order to give them a period of 
absolute rest. If the plants appear to suffer, a little 
water may be given them. Then, in April the soft tops ^ 
may be cut oif and the plants taken into a warmer structure, ; 
given some water, and be occasionally syringed. This j 
will leac&to a great number of new shoots being pushed 
forth, ana when these are about three inches long they 
make suitable cuttings. If put into small pots of sandy I 
soil and placed in a propagating-ca^^e of about 75° they j 
will soon root. As soon as this happens, they must be ; 
inured to the ordinary atmosphere of a structure kept ' 
at 65° to 70" and shifted into larger pots when necessary. ! 
During the summer they may be grown in a cold frame, j 
giving them plenty of air in order to encouraee a sturdy 
iirowth. With the return of autumn they must be placed ; 
in a warmer structure in order that the bracts may be 
developed without a check. When the plants are growing , 
they should occasionally be given liquid manure ! 
Euphorbia jacquinaeflora. — As soon as they have done 
flowering, the long, arching shoots may be shortened 
back, arid the plants given a good light position in the 
stove, taking care to guard against an excess of moisture. 
As soon as the shoots are about three inches long, they 
may bs taken as cuttings and inserted into well-drained 
pots of sandy soil. In a propagating-case, in a tempera- 
ture of 65^ to 75*, they will soon root. Care, however, 
must be taken that they do not damp off, which, owing 
to their succulent nature, they are liable to do if kept 
too close. As this Euphorbia is of spare habit, in order 
to obtain bushy specimens three plants are often put 
into the flowering pots. They must, during the summer, 
have plenty of light and air and a temperature of 65° to 80°. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

NAME OF PLANT.— J. Ballaniyne, Melrose — The 
specimen of Butener's Broom (Ruscus acuteatus) sent for 
examination appears to have been taken from a female 
plant. It is necessary to have plants of both sexes in 
order to obtain fruit.' 

NAMES OF FRUIT.— i^or(^.— Apple, Bess Pool: Pear, 

Bergamotte Bsperen. F. W. Ashdoivn. — 1. Walthara 

Abbey Seedling; 2, liamb Abbey Pearmain ; 3, Haw- 
thornden ; 4, New Bess Pool; 5, King of the Pippins; 
6, Scarlet Pearmain; 7, Wyken Pippin. 



SOCI ETI ES. 



ROYAL HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The second fortnightly meeting of the year was held on 
January 19. and was the occasion for an exhibition which, 
if lacking great extent, certainly was not lacking variety 
or interest. Much of the latter was due to the hardy 
plant specialists bringing in their earliest productions ; 
but, even so, there Ls room for a still greater number of 
these and other exhibitors to rally to the society's aid 
and make these gatherings more normal in these abnormal 
times. Apart from the aipincs, which attracted large 
numbers, retarded Lilies and other plants, epiphytal 
and hardy Ferns, Carnation? in plenty and of high quality, 
and a brilliant lot of winter-flowering Zonal Pelar- 
goniums were among the features of the meeting A 
few nice Orchid groups were staged, and two remarkable 
novelties — the only on?s at the meeting — rec-eived first- 
class certificat<;s. For a description of these see " New 
and Rare Plants," see page 56. 

Fruit and VEGET.iBLE Commtttee. 

Present : J. Cheal, Esq. (chau-mao), and Messrs, G 
Woodward, J. Willard, E. Beckett, E. A. Bunyard, H. J. 
Wright, G. Reynolds, J. Jaques, G, Wythes, Owen Thomas, 
P. Veitch. W. Poupart, J. Davis, W. Bates and A. R. 
Allan. 

There were no groups of fruit staged, and only one or 
two small collections of Apples, chiefly of dessert kinds, 
shown to test keeping and flavour qualities. For this 
purpose Mr. E. Beckett, gardener to the Hon. Vicary 
Gibb5, Elstree, staged about a score of sorts, chiefly of well- 
known and popular varieties. 



Messrs. J, Cheal and Sons, Crawley, had a smaller lot 
of dessert Apples, among which we noted .Allen's Ever- 
lastiug, a rough-looking though fine-flavoured late sort. 
Brownlee*s Russet was also noted. This firm also shov.rd 
in excellent form their two new culinary Apples Crawley 
Beauty and Encore, both of which have gained high 
encomiums in their own particular sphere. 

Mj. James, Manor House Garden£, Ditton Hill, showed 
fruits raised from a pip of Apple Cox's Orange Pippin, 
quite unlike that variety in general appearance. 

>'one of tbe varieties gained an award, though, judged 
by the entire absence of fruits later, the "testing" plus 
appreciation would appear to have been universally severe 
and complete. 

OnCHlD COilMITTEE. 

Present : J. Gurney Fowler, Esq, (cliairman), Sir 
Jeremiah Colman, Sir Harry J. Veitch, and Messrs. J. 
O'Brien, Gurney Wilson, W. H. White, T. Armbtrong, 
A. Dye, J. Charle^wo^th, S. T. Florv, F. Sander, ll. 
Thwaites, J. E. ShiU, C. H. Curtis, W. Cobb, F. 31. Odivi*-, 
R. A. Rolfe, F. J. Hanbury, W. Bolton and C. J. Luva^, 

Orchid groups were not numerous, though some choice 
specimens were shown. The most extensive group was 
that of Cattleya Triana; alba Maggie Raphael, from Messrs. 
Armsiirong and Brown, Tunbridge Wells, and of this 
alone some three dozen well-flowered examples were 
staged. Others of merit in the group were Miltonia 
bleuana, Lycaste Bella, C>-pripcdium lathamianum Rex. 
Brasso-Cattleya Veitchii and Masdevallia triang:ularis. 
Silver Flora medal. 

iltrssrs. Stuart Low and Co., Enfield, had a charmingly 
flowered example of ililtonia Pbal£enop=is, which is rarely 
set-n in s\ich profusion or beauty ; the lovely orange- 
blotched Dendrobium wardianum, Laelia anceps roeblingi- 
ana, in company with Cypripediums in variety and a 
batch of Odontoglossums, among which 0. Artemis was 
very attractive. Silver Banksian medal. 

Messrs. J. and A. McBean, Cooksbridge, had quite a 
series of Cymbidiums, whose tall, arching racemes of 
quaintly formed flowers are very striking at this time. 
C- gottianum, C. Alexander and C. SchlegclU, the latter 
of pinky hue, were the be^t of those staged. All are ' 
beautiful, ornamental, and of considerable utility in winter- ■ 
time. Cattleya alba Maggie Raphael, the dark Odonto- | 
glossum keighleyense, Lselia anceps alba, L. a. SchroJcri, | 
and Sophro- Cattleya November, rich dark varieties, were, I 
wi^h Cypripediums, others in tlie same croup. Silver I 
Bank-^ian medal. " j 

.Messrs. Sander and Sons, St. .\ibaus, also received a ; 
silver Banksian medal for a choice collection, including Den- 
drobium aureum, Laelio -Cattleya Trimyra (of yellowish 
orange tone), Lycast* macrophylla (red sepals and petals), 
Cymbidium Holfordi, the white, yellow-crested Coelogyne 
mooreaua, Cypripedium nitens Sander's variety, C. 
callosuni toanderffl, and Odontioda devossiana (whose 
abundantly flowered racemes were very telling). Odonto- 
glossum crispum harryanum was also very fine. 
Floral Commttee. 

Present : fl. B. May, Esq. (chairman), and Messrs. 
C. T. Druery, E. A. Bowles. W. J. Bean. B. Crisp, G. Reuthe , 
C. E. Pearson, A. Turner, C. Di.xon, J. Dickson, W. P. 
Thomson. Charles E, Shea, W. .A,. Biluey, J. W. Barr. 
F. W. Harvey, J. F. McLeod, J. Hudson, R. C. Reginald 
Neville, C. Blick, W. Howe, J. Jennings, T. Stevenson, 
H. J. Jones, E. H. Jenkins and G. Paul. 

Messrs. Barr and Sons, Covent (Jarden, W.C., showed 
boxes of alpines and early bulbous flowering subjects, 
among wliich were noted a delightful lot of Narcissus 
Bulbocodium monophyllus, Sternbcrgia flscherjana, Galan- 
thus Elwesii (more beautiful and robust than usual), 
Anemone blanda taurica, Adorns am'jrensis, early flowering 
Cyclamens, together with Christmas and Lenten Roses in 
plenty and rather nicely flowered. 

Messrs. Stuart Low and Co., Enfield, had quite a 
sumptuous lot of Carnations of good quality, imposingly 
arranged. A central stand of Gorgeous, i>erhaps the finest 
cerise of to-day, cjntained some ten dozen weU-developed 
flowers, quite a feature in itself. Others of note in the 
group were Mrs. Mackay Edgar (pink), Satin Robe, 
Enchantress Supreme, Princess Dagmar (crimson), Mrs. 
C. F. Raphael, Siiowstorm, together with vases of seedling 
Perpetual Malm.aisons and ot hers in mixt ure . Orna- 
mented by sprays of Asparagus Sprengeri and Ferns, the 
group was a highly attractive one. Acacia platyptera, 
together with a variety of Cyclamen in pot5, were also on 
view. Silver Banksian medal. 

The Misses Hopkins, Sbepperton-on-Thames, showed 
alpines in boxes, with coloured Primrosis and other 
plants. Tu«;silago fragrans was aL^o on \iew. 

Messrs. R. F. Felton and Son, Hanover Square, had a 
remarkable exhibit of fruiting branches of Solanum 
ciliatum, a shrubby species as shown, whose reddish 
scarlet fruits are highly ornamental, the largest after the 
form of a small Tangerine Orange. To the accompani- 
ment of Ruscus racemosus, Pittosporum Colensoi and 
P. undulatum the group was a great attraction. Solantmi 
ciliatum is a native of Porto Rico. It should be noted, 
however, that Nicholson describes it as a '* greenhouse 
annual," which the above hardly appeared to be. 

ilr. James Bos, Hayward's Heath, showed boxes of 
alpines, containing such as the early Cyclamen, Shorlia 
galacifolia, Saxifraga burseriana, a very charming lot 
in good flower and the first display of the year. Sferru- 
bium sericeum. Erica mediterranea hybrida, the new 
Prim\Ua malacoides robusta. Erica codonodes. Primula 
/ulise and Hamamelis arborea were others oftheearUest 
flowers of the year. 

Messrs. H. B. May and Sons, Edmonton, displayed a 
table of epiphytal Ferns, a large number being of the 
highest interest. These included such as Polypodium 
piloselloides, P. vaccinifolium album, of glaucous tone 
with broivnish rhizomes; P. lycopodioides, P. percussum. 



P. salicifoUum, P. repens, Davallia pycnocarpia, Drymo- 
glossum piloselloides, Asplenium obtusalobum and Davallia 
rufa, of which a 3-feet-bigh specimen was shown. These 
were interspersed by other Ferns in variety^ Nephrolcpises 
and Gymnogrammas, all being of equal interest. Silver- 
gUt Banksian medal. 

Messrs. W. WelLs, Limited, Merstham, showed a stand 
of Carnation Pink Seasation and the winter-flowering 
-Ajitirrhinum Nelrose, which is verv beautiful 

Messrs. T. S. Ware, Limited, Feltham. displayed a 
collection of alpines in pans, not a few alreadv giving 
indications of flowering. Of these, Sasifraga Frederica- 
Augusta, S. Grisebachii, S. burseriana Gloria, S. b. triden- 
tina longifolia, S. Faldonside, S apiculata alba, together 
with Lenten Roses, Irit alata, Lithospermum rosmarini- 
folium and Iris stylosa, were verv beautiful. Bronze 
Flora medal. 

3Ir. L. R. Russell, Richmond, exhibited a table of pot 
shrubs and decorative subjects generally, such things 
as Pyracantha (Cotoneaster) angustifoUa, Grarrva elliptica; 
Pernettyas, Prunus triloba, Skimmias. HamameUs arboi«a , 
Rubus leucodermis and Eurj-a latifoha variegata being 
noted. Silver Banksian medal. 

Messrs. William Cut bush and Sons, Highgate, N., ' 
db^played "many fine vases of Carnations, of which the new 
pink Lady Ingestre was in strong force. It is of a most 
t)eautiful shade. Carola, crimson ; White Swan, Mrs. 
L. D. Fullerton, fancy ; and Marmion were other sood 
sorts. In a hardy plant exhibit adjoining. Iris Histrio, 
Hepaticas in variety, Saxifraga burseriana, Galax aphvUa 
and Daphne Dauphinii were noted. Sprays of Zonal 
Pelargoniums were also staged. Silver Banksian medal. 

.Mr. G. Reuthe, Keston, Kent, showed, as usual, an 
interesting lot of things, both alpines and shrubs. Of the 
former, the Saxifrages were the chief, and of these there 
.vere many choice kinds, of which S. Grisebacliii and S, 
btirseriana were already prominent in flower. Hepaticas, 
Cyclamen .\tkinsii purpureum (a richly coloured sort). 
Iris Histno, hardy Heaths and Snowdrops were also good. 
Tne yellow-flowered Berlx-ris Beahi and Garrya elliptica 
were excellent. Bronze Bauksian medal. 

Mr. Amos Perry, Enfield, had a table of hardy Ferns, 
''hiefiy Polystichums and the finer Crested Hart's-tongues. 
The former included the handsome P. ansulare divisiloburo 
productum (\vith dense, flattish fronds and finely cut 
pinus), P. a. multilobum densum, P. a. percristatum and 
P. a. divisilobnm capitatum. The best Scolopendrinms 
were the ramo-cristatum forms, thoutii all are good now 
by reason of their dark green, shining fronds. Silver Flora 
medal. 

Mr. Clarence Elliott, Stevenage, had a neat rockery 
exhibit as-sociating colonies of choice alpines with miniature 
rock shrubs. Burser's Saxifrage in one or more forms 
was in great force, the compact tufts bristling with buds 
and expanding flowers. Snowdrops, early (>,-clamen, 
Iris alata, I. stylosa (unguicularis), very beautiful, and 
Thymus carnnsus were also noted. One of the most 
distinct of the rock shrubs was Juniperinus tanacetifolius, 
whose long, attenuated, horizontally inclined, plume-like 
growths command attention at once. 

Messrs. J. Cl^eal and Sons, Crawley, arranged an exhibit 
of rockwork in conjunction with alpines, conifcrae and 
berry-bearing shrubs, the work neatly and artistically 
done. Of the alpines, Saxifraga Boydii alba. Anemone 
blanda, A. b. alba, and some fine Iris histrioides major 
were noted; while Hamamelis, hardy Heaths, Pernet- 
tyas, and the distinct and beautiful Pyracantha (CTratsegus) 
angustifoha, full of orange-coloured fruits, were also seen. 
The latter was a feature in itself. It was very charming. 

Messrs. Cannell and Sons, Eynsford. Kent, again showed 
a remarkable collection of winter-fiowering Zonal Pelar- 
goniums, some three dozen vases of brilliant trusse* being 
staged. This and a collection of equal size and merit 
staged by this firm on the oth inst. constitute, we believej 
a record for quaUty and quantity in January, and we speak 
from the experience of a quarter of a century of these 
fortnightly gatherings. The arrangement was the same 
as before, the trusses graced by light Palms and inter- 
spersed by Primula malacoides. The most brilliant were 
Scarlet King, Maxime Kovalevsky, Prince of Orange^ 
Helen Countess of Radnor (rosy cerise), iLirs (crimson) 
and the fine salmon pink Barbara Hope. 

Messrs. Waterer, Son and Crisp, Bagshot and Twjford^ 
arranged a nice rockwork exliibit. in which Snowdrops^ 
early Crocuses, Winter Heaths, Iris Hi^trio, Cjclamen 
ibericum. Primula megaseefolia, Hamamelis and Pyra^ 
cantba (Crataegus) angustifoha combined with sood effect. 

Messrs. Wills and Segar, South Kensington, S.W.» 
filled a long table with well-flowered groups of retarded 
LUies, chiefly Liliums speciosum andlongiflorum in variety* 
Spiraeas, also from retarded examples, were very good. 
In addition, the giant white and salmon coloured varieties 
of Cyclamen latifohum, which were exceedingly well 
flowered, call for special remark. Ferns and Pafins were- 
associated with the above. Silver Banksian medal. 

Messrs. AUwood Brothers, Ha>-ward's Heath, displayed 
a charming lot of Carnations, the fresh flowers of particu- 
larly high quality for January. Mary AJlwood, as usual, 
was very fine, though we were more than struck by the 
pronounced Clove fiagrance of Bishton Wonder, a sort 
of nondescript fancy variety — we say it in no derogatory 
sense — that for this attribute alone should find favour 
with all. Champion (scarlet). Queen Alexandra (pink), 
Fairmount (heliotrope), Wivelsfield White and Salmon 
Enchantress were others of special merit Bronze Flora 
medal. 



GARDENERS' ROYAL BENEVOLENT INSTITUTION. 

Election of Annuitants. 

Tke seventy-fifth annual general meeting of the above 
Institution was held at Simpson's Restaurant, Strand ^ 
London, W.C.. on Thursday of last week, Sir Harrv J, 



60 



THE GARDEN. 



[January 30, 1915. 



Voitch, F.L.S., presiding, supported by Jlcssrs. Artliur 
Sutton, George Monro, P. C. M. Veitch. J. Hudson. Owen 
Thomas, W. Iccton, H. F. Barnes, D. MacDonald, D. 
Inuamclls, F. Dimmock, F. G. Frogbrook. R. J. Ciithbert, 
and others. After the notice convening the meeting had 
bc-fu read, the minutes of the last annual general meeting 
were read, approved and signed. The seventy-fifth report 
and balance-sheet were next read. 

The following are the most important point;; from the 
committee's report : 

•'Tbe charity was founded in 1838, and has. during its 
fxistcnce, distributed in permanent and temporary a'^sii^t- 
ancc upwards of £.160,000 ; and at no other period of its 
history has it done so Inuch to assist the necessitous 
and suffering among unfortunate members of the horli- 
(■ultural community— gardeners, market gardeners, and 
nurserymen and their widows— as in the year under review. 

At the beginning of 1914 there were no fewt-r than 
265 persons on the funds — 150 men and 115 widows, 
«'lcctcd to annuities of £20 and £16 respectively for life. 
Jiuring the year twenty-three of that number died, eleven 
men and twelve widows. Of the former, seven left widows, 
who, being eligible and deserving, were placed on the 
funds without election to receive the widow's allowance 
of £16 a year, in accordance with Rule VTI., D., and the 
committee now recommends an election this day of fifteen 
persons from an approved list of sixty-two candidates. 
Sensible as the committee is of the urgent needs of the 
many who are appealing for aid, it feels that it cannot, 
in view of the financial uncertainties in the immediate 
future, with prudence incur further liability by electing 
a larger number of the deserving applicants, much as it 
would like to do so. 

The Victoria Era Fund and the Good Samaritan 
Fund have continued to be the means of much benefit 
and comfort in the past year, a sum of £260 15s. being 
given from the first-named fund to thirty-seven of the 
unsuccessful applicants awaiting permanent aid, and 
who had formerly been subscribers, in amounts pro rata 
to the length of time they had subscribed : and from the 
Good Samaritan Fund £216 was granted in various sums 
as temporary relief to forty-one applicants — subscribers 
and non-subscribers — whose cases were of a particularly 
(listressing and pathetic character. It would be difficult 
to over-estimate the benefit conferred by these two funds, 
more particularly, perhaps, the latter, which enables 
the committee to give immediate assistance in cases of 
ur;,nney and need. Unfortunately, while the amounts 
dtrived from the incomes of both these funds are limited, 
the applications for help are ever increasing. Any special 
contributions, there^fore, for either will be most gratefully 
welcomed. 

The committee has again to acknowli'dge the kindness 
of the following noblemen, ladies and gentlemen in opening 
their gardens to the public for the benefit of the charity : 
The Right Hon. Earl Beauehamp. the Riaht Hon. Lord 
Xorthbourne, Mary Countess of Ilchester, the Lady Wan- 
tage, the Lady Battersea, Sir Frank Crisp, Bart., LL.B., 
J.P., C. W. Dyson Perrins, Esq., Roger J. Corbet, Esq., 
and Ernest J. "W'ythes, Esq. 

To the organisers of successful concerts at Liverpool, 
Altrincham, Leyton and other places, as well as to the 
George Monro, Limited, Concert Committee, cordial 
thanks are tendered. 

The committee refers with gratitude to the generosity 
of Mr. James Sweet, V.M.H., a warm supporter of the 
charity for many years, who, in addition to his usual 
liberal yearly gifts, gave a special donation of £500, and 
to his iiittuence and interest the committee is also indebted 
for a legacy of £500. 

The committee would also mention the kindness of 
Messrs. Arthur W. Sutton, V.M.H., and George Monro, 
V.M.H., for again providing a year's allowance to two 
unsuccessful candidates, who, it need scarcely be said, 
are deeply grateful. 

The several auxiliaries (Bristol and Bath, Worcester. 
Devon and Exeter, Wolverhampton, Berkshire, Reading 
and District, and Liverpool) continue to be a source 
of much support to the Institution, and the committee 
again offers its sincere thanks to the honorary officers 
for their greatly valued services and interest." 

The financial statement shows that the Institution 
is in a thoroughly sound condition, but, naturally, much 
more money is needed to assist all deserving candidates. 

In moving the adoptionof the report. Sir Harry J. Veitch 
said the committee were very grateful for the help they 
had received from subscribers during the year, but were 
very sorry that they could not ask subscribeis to elect 
more than fifteen candidates. It was, however, at a 
time such as this, necessary to look to the future. The 
committee must keep faith with those annuitants already 
on the funds. They were expending the full amount 
yearly available from the Good Samaritan and Victoria 
Era Funds, which enabled them to give temporary assis- 
tance to deserving cases. The death-roll among sub- 
scribers had been heavy during the year, but he hoped 
othc^rs would come forward to fill their places. The 
auxiliaries had done good work, for which the committee 
were very grateful. The proposal was seconded by Mr, 
W. Iceton, and carried unanimously. 

Mr. Arthur W. Sutton, in proposing the re-election 
of Sir Harry J. Veitch as hon treasurer of the Institution, 
paid a fine tribute to his work in the past. He had been 
privileged to propose this resolution for many years past 
and he hoped to be able to do so for many years to come. 
No one had served the Institution better than Sir Harry, 
and he had said " No " to a great many other calls for 
service so that he might devote his energy to the work 
they were all interested in, filr, George Monro, in second- 
ng, endorsed all that Mr. Sutton had said. 

Mr. Monro next proposed the re-election of Mr. G. J. 
Ingram as secretary. It needed but few words from 



him to do this, as they all knew that they had an excellent 
and hard-working secretary, who handled the work of 
the Institution in a wonderfully economical manner. 
Mr. W. Iceton seconded, and the motion was carried 
unanimously. 

After those of the committee who retired by rotation 
had been re-elected, with Mr. Bernard Crisp and Mr. 
A. J. Woods added to fill vacancies, and the auditors 
and arbitrators had been appointed, Mr. McKerchar 
and Mr. Harry J. ^Miite, the latter representing the 
Worcester Auxiliary, were elected scrutineers of the 
ballot. 

Candidates Elected. — The meeting then adjourned 
until later, when the result of the poll was declared. The 
folhnving candidates were elected in the order named : 
Walter Crossman, John Smith, Emile Fornachon. James 
Hussey, John H. Witty, John E. Ellis. Mary Lockyer, 
Frank Reed, William Farr. Mary A, Stirling, George 
Murray, Catherine Spiney. Annie Howard, James Lee and 
John Jollitfe, 

The chairman announced that Mr. Artliur W. Sutton 
had very kindly offered to provide £20 as a year's pension 
for one of the unsuccessful candidates, and this was granted 
to James Churchyard. Sir. George Monro also offered 
£10 for a year, this being allotted to Jane Langdon by 
request. As one annuitant had died since the voting 
papers were sent out, the committee, acting upon the 
power accorded them in the rules, elected Mary Ann 
Hopwood, who had been a candidate for seven years, 
to fill the place. 



HOME-GROWN PRODUCE. 

Chester Paxton society's Appeal. 
Under the chairmanship of Mr. A, W. Armstrong, the 
twenty-.s.eventh annual nueting of the Chester Paxton 
Society was held on Saturday at the Grosvenor Museum. 
In submitting the annual report and statement of accounts 
Mr. G. P. Miln. the hon. secretary, said: "It is now 
twenly-seven years since this society was established, 
and this is the first year in its history in which an exhibi- 
tion of fruits and Chrysanthemums has not been held. 
This, as you all know, is due to the present unfortunate 
war, and in the interests of the society the committee 
thought, and rightly so. I think, that it would he unwise 
in the present circumstances to have held the annual 
exhibition last autumn. In common with many other 
societi(\s and public bodies, this society is doing its full 
share in providing recruits for the new Armies, the sons 
of many of its members and also of its officials having 
resjionded generou.'^ly to the appeals for young men to 
serve their King and country during this present national 
crisis. In the many object-lessons which this present 
war has pro\ided us with, not ti.e least important is ll.e 
necessity for cultivating on a larger scale than hitherto 
products of the soil to ensure adequate food supplies 
for the inhabitants of the United Kinjrdom. Although 
it may not be jiossibh- to produce the whole of these in 
this cx)\intry, it is our bounden duty to endeavour to 
increase these supplies beyond what has been done in 
j the past. Towards this there are already indications 
I that lands which have for some years been down in per- 
I manent pasture are now being broken up for the cultiva- 
^ lion of cereals, which is certainly a step in the right 
direction. All movements of this kind go a Ions: way 
to justify the existence of societies such as this, who have 
in the past done so much to encourage the extended cultiva- 
tion of horticultural produce, particularly hardy fruit.=, 
in this district. Further, I believe I am right in saying 
that all members of this society will le prepared to do 
their utmost to encourage still further all movements 
I of this kind in the future. It is yet too early to say 
I definitely whether we will be in a position to hold the 
I annual exhibition of fruits. Chrysanthemums. Ac, next 
autumn, but I am sure I am voicing the feelings of every 
i member of this society when I say that we hope that 
i the present hostilities will have ceased long before then, 
! and that our social and commercial life will by that time 
] be on a fair way to resume their respective normal con- 
' ditions," 

Hearty vote? of thanks were accorded to the officers 
and conimittec for their ser\ices during the past year, 
and officers and committees were elected for the present 
year. It was resolved that the question of holding an 
exhibition this year be deferred for three months. 

VALE OF LEVEN AND DUMBARTON HORTICUL- 
TURAL ASSOCIATION. 

The Souuces of Plant Food. 
On Wednesday evening, January 13, the usual monthly 
meeting of the above society took place in the side room 
of the Public Hall, Alexandria. On this occasion Mr. R. 
Dickson, of Messrs. Austin and Me Asian, Glasgow, delivered 
a most interesting paperon " Some Sources of Nature's Plant 
Food." Councillor James Parlane presided over a good 
attendance. In dealing with his subject, Mr, Dickson 
alluded to the fact that plants obtained their chitf food 
from the air in the form of carbonic acid. There are, 
however, many other substances the presence of which 
is necessary for the plants' growth. Ordinary soils 
contain them in sufficient quantities, hut exhaustion takes 
place through time, and replacement is necessary. These 
chemical substances are known as manures, nitrogenous, 
potassium and phosphatic. These usually occur in the 
soil as cplcium phosphates, and to dissolve them one must 
see that an acid is present. Nature has in a way provided 
the root tips to supply the necessary acid to render the 
phosphate suitable as a food. The nitrates occur in soils 
when there is decay of organic matter ; they dissolve 
when formed. The application of nitrate must be care- 
fully undercaken, as over-application may result in harm 



to the crop. Potash is very often present in insoluble 
form, but to obtain it in a soluble form, rock weathering, 
combined with the action of carbonic acid, must be 
resorted to. Potash is most useful for supplyin-; a 
necessary ingredient of the i^oil fertility, and the phosphate 
assists in the production of flowers and fruit. Otter 
ingredients, such as lime, iron and probably a few more 
elements, f,ll combine in keeping the soil fit and healtl.y 
for the bacteria in it. Lime, for instance, as a manure 
is also nece-^sary in soil. The action of decayed organic 
matt<?r sets up gases which are detrimental to plant-lif<'. 
These are neutralised by the lime, which, combining with 
the gases, makes them harmless. Lime acts also as a 
destroying agent where plant-eating bacteria are jvresent. 
The value of soot, leaf-mould, water, wood-ashes, farm- 
yard manure and other manures easily obtainable was 
also stated, and a great amount of information was gained 
in the course of what was a remarkably long and intere-^ting 
paper. The chairman paid a high tribute to Mr. 
Dickson for l:is paper, and a vcte^ of thnnks to tl-.e 
essayist closed tie meeting. 



SCOTTISH HORTICULTURAL ASSOCIATION. 

The annual general meeiing nf the Scottish Horticultural 
Association was held in the Hall. 5. St. Andrew Square, 
Ivlinburgh. on the evening of January 19. Mr. David 
Kini'. the rearing president, occupied the chair, and there 
was a good attendance of members. The annual report, 
which was approved, was of a satisfactory nature. 
The financial statement has already appeared in our 
columns. The report of the membership was of a satis- 
factory character also, the membership standing at 1,124, 
composed of 927 ordinary, 188 life, and nine honorary 
life members. Thi; other items of the report wen' also 
of a gratifying nature. Office-bearers for the year were 
appointed as follow: Hon. president, the Marquis of 
Linlithirow : president, Mr. W. G. Pirie. gardener tf 
C. W. Cowan. Esq., Dalhonsie Castle : vice-presidents, 
Mr. D. Kidd-, Carbery Tower Gardens, and Mr. J. Highgate, 
Hopetoun Gardens; members of Council in lieu of those 
retiring. Mr. J. S. Chisholm. Mr. J. L. Forbes, Mr. J. 
Fraser, Mr. J. C. Grieve, .Air. D. T. Johnston, Mr. J. 
Phillips and ^Mr. G. Stuart. Mr, A. D. Richardson was 
reappointed secretary and treasurer. Captain Stirling 
of Keir and Mr, D. King were elected honorary life mem- 
b?rs in recognition of their past services in office. It 
WIS ajzrecd to take steps to form a roll of honour of the 
!. "'iiibers who had joined His Majesty's Army. Several 
yther items of business were also disposed of. 



Norfolk and Norwich Horticultural Society.— 

At the annual meeting of this society, held at 
Norwich, the hon. secretary, Mr. B, Knvvet V\ ilson, 
in h's report was able to announce that the balance 
in hand stood at £79 5s, 5d. The membership 
was 510, an increase in both cases on those of the 
previous year. After careful deliberation by the 
committee it has been decided — unless anything 
unforeseen happens — to hold the three shows 
of the society as usual during 1915. The spring 
show will be held at Norwich on April 22, the 
Rose and summer show at Earlham Park, Norwich, 
on July 1, and the Chrysanthemum and autumn 
show at Norwich on November 18, 19 and 20. 
J. A. Christie, Esq., Framingham, near Norwich, 
was elected president for the year. Mr. John 
Clayton announced that one consignment of 
vegetables and fruit had been despatched tc the 
Navy. 

Dunfermline Horticultural Society and the 

War. — This society having promised a weekly 
supply of fruit and vegetables for three months 
to the men serving in the British Fieet, the third 
consignment was sent dn January 20. This 
included Artichokes, Brussels Sprouts, Cabbages, 
Carrots, Greens, Leeks, Onions, Parsnips, Potatoes, 
Savoys, Turnips and a case of Oranges. Acknowledg- 
ing former consignments, Mr. E. Jerome Dyer, 
London, hon. secretary of the Vegetable Products 
Committee, says : " I am very much obliged for 
your letter supplying me with particulars of your 
consignments. I think your supplies are extra- 
ordinarily good, and far more than we expected 
when you started. If I may be permitted to say 
so, it is an evidence of an excellent spirit on the 
part of the people of Dunfermline, and proves 
that they are prepared even to deny themselves 
for the^ood health and welfare of the men to whom 
we look for so much." 




GARDEN. 



~^^- 







No. 2255.— Vol. LXXIX. 



February 6, 1915. 



NOTES OF THE WEEK. 



The Chelsea and Holland House Shows. — The 

Royal Horticultural Society's Chelsea Show will be 
held in the Royal Hospital Gardens, Chekea Em- 
bankment, on May i8, 19 and 20 ; and the Holland 
House Show, Kensington, on July 6, 7 and 8. Plans, 
schedules and entry forms can be had on 
application to the Secretary, Royal Horticultural 
Society, Vincent Square, Westminster, S.W. 

Planting Roses in Early Spring. — On page 67 
will be fotmd an article dealing with some mistakes 
that amateurs often make when planting Roses. 
We think it desirable to point out that, although 
November and the early part of December is 
undoubtedly the best time of the year for planting 
Roses and herbaceous plants, they 
can also be quite successfully 
planted during February and 
March, providing always that the 
weather is open and the soil in 
fit condition for the work. Nursery- 
men still have plenty of good 
bushes and plants to dispose of, 
and we trust our readers will do 
all they can to purchase these 
before the planting season is over. 

The Gibraltar Candytuft.— 
Iberis gibraltarica is a handsome 
member of the perennial Candytuft 
family. Evergreen in character, 
it flourishes in the milder parts 
of the country, where it may 
generally be employed in level 
planting. In colder, bleaker 
districts or in soils that are rich 
and retentive of moistinre it is 
more satisfactory to give it a 
special position where soil and 
drainage are both under control. 
It shows to best advantage and 
proves thoroughly reliable as a 
perennial when planted in a dry 
wall fully exposed to sun. Failing 
such a position, then any sharp bank will meet 
its requirements. The soil should be liberally 
mixed with old mortar rubble or crushed chalk. 
To the latter it shows striking partiality. It 
flowers in the open towards the end of .\pril and 
during May. The blossoms are a delicate shade 
of rose lilac, and are carried in large, rounded 
heads in such profusion as makes the leaves 
scarcely discernible. A native of Gibraltar, it has 
been grown in gardens since 1732. 

Propagating Statice latifolia by Root Cut- 
tings. — This is without doubt the most attractive 
and vigorous of the Sea Lavenders, either for the 
borders or the wild garden, particularly when 
seen in bold groups. Plants may be raised from 



seed, although this method is not always to be | as it is not desirable to risk infecting 
depended upon. A better way of raising a stock I with these insects. 



Wislev 



of good plants is by cuttings of the roots. An 
old plant should be lifted now. some of the roots 
cut into lengths of from 2 inches to 3 inches, and 
put in pots of sandy soil with the apex just 
protruding. If possible, they should be placed 
in a little warmth. Small shoots will soon appear, 
and, as they progress, gradually harden them off. 
By June, with careful treatment, the plants will 
be ready for planting out in their permanent 
positions. 



Winter-Flowering Honeysuckles.^For the 

sake of its deliciously fragrant white flowers 
at this season of the year Louicera Standishii, 
a Chinese Honeysuckle, is well worth a place on 
a wall, particularly near the window. It is quite 
hardy and will succeed in the shrubbery, but 
the flowers with their unmistakable odour of 
Orange blossoms are not produced so freely or 
developed at so early a season as when against 
a wall. Lonicera fragrantissima, another Chinese 



Insects on the Roots of Plants. — An investi- Honeysuckle similar to the subject of this note, 
gation has been cnnimcnccd at Wisley into the I is also well worth attention. We recently saw 

some good plants growing in pots 
and doing exceptionally well, and 
although the creamy white flowers 
were not particularly showy, the}- 
filled the atmosphere of the con- 
servatory with their fragrance. 

A Blue Flower for the Green- 
house. — One of the most attrac- 
tive plants of recent introduction 
for the %varm greenhouse is 
Pycnostachys Dawei, a member 
of the Labiateae family, with dense, 
terminal spikes of deep blue 
flowers about five inches long, the 
plants themselves usually attaining 
the height of from 4 feet to 6 feet. 
.A native of Uganda, it was first 
discovered by Mr. Whyte in 1898, 
but it was not until rgoj that 
seeds were sent to Kew by Mr. 
M. T. Dawe. It is closely allied 
to the Coleuses, but the genus 
Pycnostachys can be distinguished 
by its needle-like calyx teeth and 
denser spikes. It is now flower- 
ing in the Cambridge Botanic 
Garden, and makes a pleasing 
contrast with the yellow flowers 
of the beautiful but seldom-grown Lindenbergia 
grandiflora. 

Useful and Injurious Earthworms. — On 
another page, under the heading of " Societies," 
we publish a report of a lecture on earthworms 
given by the Rev. Hilderic Friend to the members 
of the Birmingham Gardeners' Association. This 
gentleman has already discovered that, while 
some kinds are .beneficial in the garden, others 
are of an injurious character. We miderstand 
that he is still investigating the matter, and would 
be glad to receive samples of worms from anyone 
who would be good enough to send them. His 
address is The University, Edmund Street, 
Birmingham. 




A COLONY OF THE GIBRALTAR CANDYTUFT, IBERIS GIBRALTARICA, 
IN THE ROCK GARDEN. 



mealy bug and woolly aphis, which infest the 
roots of. so many plants in greenhouses and 
rockeries. There are several insects concerned, 
and the first thing to determine is how far each 
of these pests attacks plants in general or to what 
extent each is limited in its food plants. The 
ultimate outcome hoped for is a simple, practical 
remedy. The investigator would be very grateful 
for infected plants or for specimens or infected 
roots of plants, with the names attached. 
The enquiry would be still more assisted if 
those having infected plants would permit the 
investigator to inspect them. Specimens and 
enquiries may be sent to Professor Lefroy, 
Imperial College of Science, South Kensington, 



62 



THE GARDEN. 



[February 6, 1915. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

(The Editor is not responsible for the opinions 
expressed by correspondents.) 



Mossy Saxifrages Turning Brown.— It may 

interest " Grey Court," who you replied to on 
page 36, issue January i6, to know that this may 
be caused by damage during frost. I have a 
broad border of Mossy Saxifrages, and last year, 
when they were frozen white, some small person, 
po doubt fascinated by the crunching noise, 
walked down the middle of the border. The result 
was a row of small brown footmarks, which lasted 
all the summer, but filled up in the autumn. — 
Walter de H. B:rch, Walton-le-Dale, Lancashire. 
Outdoor Flowers in Midwinter. — With refer- 
ence to the note «n the above subject in your 
issue'of January 23. I should be glad if you would 



mentioned in your note are Cyclamen Coum and 
Lonicera fragrantissima. There is really no need 
for a greenhouse in order to obtain winter flowers. 
After all, the Christmas Rose is more beautiful 
than anything you will find in the average con- 
servatory at the same season. — Ernest Bryson, 
Gloucestershire. 

Onions in the West of Scotland. — The accom- 
panying, illustration of a bed of Onions in a West 
Scotland garden may be of interest now that the 
time for sowing seeds for exhibition bulbs is here. 
The varieties are Cranston's Excelsior and Ailsa 
Craig, and the average weight of the Onions is 
three-quarters of a pound. The size of the bed is 
15 yards by 10 yards, and 2,000 Onions were taken 
from it. The soil is good loam, treated with cow- 
manure and Thompson's Vine Manure. — D. M. G. 

Green Fly and Mildew on Roses.— I have 
noticed in The Garden that so many Rose- 




A GOOD BED OF ONIONS IN A SCOTCH GARDEN. THE VARIETIES ARE CRANSTON S 
EXCELSIOR AND AILSA CRAIG. 



call attention to one of the most valuable winter- 
flowering shrubs ever introduced ; I mean Prunus 
miqueliana. I bought a small plant some years 
ago, and it is now a bush of considerable size, 
every shoot, from before Christmas onwards, 
being covered with its beautiful white flowers, 
which adorn the garden and, if cut, last a long 
time in water, forming the most charming and 
distinctive house decoration imaginable. This 
plant is an old introduction, but when shown at a 
Royal Horticultural Society's exhibition two 
years ago was given an award of merit. It ought 
to have had a dozen, but since getting its diploma 
my specimen has shown distinctly increased vigour, 
and is plainly trying to live up to its position ; 
and its price has jumped to 7s. 6d. in the only 
catalogue in which I see it listed. I paid 4d. 
Why docs not somebody undertake its propagation 
and get it widely known ? It requires no growing ; 
it grows. Two other gems of the winter not 



growers seem to suffer from green fly and mildew. 
I used to suffer, but do not now. I think 
I ought to give your readers the reasons why 1 
now escape these plagues. I will not take up 
your space by telling how I came to find the 
cures, but just stale them. It ought, perhaps, 
first to be sard that our soil here is sandy, 
with very little lime in it. As soon" as green 
fly begins, I have all the Roses well hoed roimd, 
and then a garden water-barrow is filled with 
water ; about half a gallon of guano is put in 
and well mixed, and the Rose roots watered with 
it. I have never known more than three waterings 
needed, and often one is enough to clear the bushes. 
For mildew, just before the Roses show signs of 
coming into leaf I have good Dorking lump lime 
slaked, and when it is in tlie form of flour 
it is thrown from a shovel thickly over the 
ground below the bushes until the ground looks 
as if there had been a fall of snow. Wheit the 



Roses are all fully in leaf, the top of the ground 
is turned over so as to cover the lime. Before 
we treated the Roses in this way they used to be 
white with mildew, and some Roses, which grow 
where we cannot treat them in this way, still 
suffer from it. — ^Thackeray TuR^:ER. 

Shows, Schedules, and Judges.— it was 

with considerable interest that I read in 
your issue of January 16 the letter from 
"Exhibitor" re flower shows, schedules, judges, 
and considerations shown to exhibitors by the 
various flower show committees, and I quite 
agree with him and believe it possible to effect 
an improvement all round. In makmg up a 
schedule, a committee could not do better than 
follow the suggestions given in the Royal Horti- 
cultural Society's " Code of Rules for Judging, 
Schedule-makers, Judges and Exhibitors." and 
if all societies informed their members and judges 
that these rules would be strictly enforced, many 
crooked paths would be smoothed over and un- 
necessary worry and ill-feeling avoided. As to 
what are hardy flowers and what are not, it depends 
more on the district than on anything else, as 
what will do well in Wigtownshire would be useless 
in Invemess-shire. If it was the rule that all 
collections of flowers were to be judged by points, 
it would do away with (to a certain extent) one 
or two probably greenhouse-grown bunches 
carrying the premier honours where the other 
lots were better all over. By point judging 
in flowers, allow a maximum of ro points to each 
bunch, divided thus : For quality, 3 ; freshness, 
2 ; rarity or difficvUty of cultivation, 3 ; elegance 
of arrangement, 2 ; total possible, 10. Then over 
the whole stand allow a maximum of 5 points for 
general arrangement, blending of colours, naming, 
&c. The size of bunch in all cases to be stipu- 
lated or table space allowed. The staging in all 
cases to be erected by the committee. A points 
card to be given to each judge, who would be 
responsible for the number of points against 
each bunch. The cards to be put in a con- 
spicuous place for the benefit of competitors and 
the public alike. This would to a great extent 
do away with the inefficient judge, as no one would 
have the audacity to come forward to act as such 
who had not a good knowledge of what he bad 
undertaken. Committees generally are to blame 
for inefficient judges by appointing men who 
hold high positions in the horticultural world 
but who have really done nothing as exhibitors, 
and I maintain that unless a man has been, and 
is, a competitor he is not qualified to judge. 
In regard to assistance lent to exhibitors by the 
committees, I recommend the principal flower show 
committees to take a copy from the Carnegie Dun- 
fermline Trust. What exhibitor who has once been 
to that society's Rose show but who brims over 
at the good treatment he received at the hands 
of the officials. By a note to the secretary a 
conveyance meets your train. On arrival at the 
park willing hands find you water, vases, watering 
pans, &c. The secretary will find you comfort- 
able hotel accommodation at very reasonable 
terms. The prize money is paid over practically 
as soon as the judging is finished, while at the 
close of the show all boxes, stands, &c., are carefully 
packed up and put on rail without any trouble to 
the competitor. Possibly this could not be done 
at large gatherings where the trade firms put up 
large exhibits ; but were the directors in charge 
as anxious to assist as those in the town of Carnegie, 
no doubt things could be made much more con- 
venient. — Scot E.xhibitor. 



February 6, 1915.] 



THE GARDEN. 



63 



The Double-Flowered Camomile. — 1 shall be 
very pleased to send your correspondent, to whom 
you replied on page 47, issue January 23, 
seedlings of the double-flowered Camomile in the 
spring if she will only remind me, as it is quite a 
weed here. — T. L. Harrison, Baas Hill, Brox- 
bourne. Hcrls. 

The Mountain Clematis. — All that " H." 
says regarding Clematis montana, page 43, issue 
January 23, is thoroughly deserved by -this 
most beautiful climber. There are, however, 
two points which might be usefully mentioned. 
One of these is the great superiority of C. montana 
graudiflora ; the other is the desirability of securing 
these plants on their own roots. C. m. graudiflora 
was first brought under my notice by the late 
Mr. F. W. Burbidge, who had a simple pergola 
clad with it in the Trinity College Gardens, Dublin. 
It is greatly superior to the typical C. montana, 
and is easily struck by cuttings or layers. This 
brings me to the other point — -that of having the 
plants on their own roots. This warning has been 
specially necessary with the red variety, C. m. 
rubens, which has apparently been grafted on 
other Clematises, and has, in consequence, died off 
in a number of gardens. This is a great disappoint- 
ment, as it is a charming variety of a plant of the 
highest beauty. — S. A. 

Narcissus Treasure Trove.^The unearthing of 

some pots of the above from a bed of fibre recently, 
where they had been plunged, brought back to 
memory the beautiful form in which this little 
white trumpet Daffodil was shown by my friend 
Mr. Christopher Bourne at the Birmingham Show 
last April. Among all the good things in his 
fifty it was, perhaps, nearly the best. Some years 
ago the late Rev. G. P. Haydon brought a 
bunch of flowers for my inspection at the Tun- 
bridge Wells Daffodil Show ; for some reason, 
peculiar to his eccentric method of naming his 
flowers, he had christened it Castaway. I 
promptly did a deal with him for the stock, potted 
a few of the bulbs and planted the rest outside. 
When it began to flower the following spring I 
was so charmed with it that I thought it worthy 
of a better name, and Treasure Trove, the sugges- 
tion of my wife, was one that seemed to fit it 
exactly. A little smaller than Mme. de Graaff 
and flowering a good deal earlier, it is of far more 
perfect form than that variety when well grown. — 
F. Herbert Chapman. 

Winter - Flowering Heaths. — The excellent 
article on these valuable plants on page 40 of 
The Garden prompts me to ask the general 
experience with regard to the flowering of Erica 
mediterranea hybrida or E. hybrida. With me 
it is exceedingly irregular in its dates of coming 
properly into flower. I have flowered it here 
for nin e winters, and for several years previously 
in my former garden, which was quite near the 
sea. In both gardens it proved very uncertain 
in its coming fully into flower. I have often had 
it as early as November, but sometimes it could 
not be said to be fully in flower until well-nigh 
the end of January, although a few sprays might 
be in perfect bloom. E. camea is more regular 
with me, and among that charming set of varieties 
sent out by Messrs. James Backhouse and Son 
one called E. camea prsecox rubra has been the 
first of the camea varieties to flower ever since 
I obtained it in the autumn of I9r3. These 
winter-flowering Heaths are of extreme, though 
quiet, beauty, and with the earliest bulbs give a 
charm to the garden in their time. — S. Arnott, 
Sunnymead, Dumfries. 



HOME GROWN VEGETABLES 
AND OUR FOOD SUPPLY. 

CO-OPERATION NEEDED. 

WITH the price of all kinds of 
foodstuffs creeping up, the 
present seems an opportune 
time to draw the attention of 
our readers to the desirability 
of cultivating as many vege- 
tables as possible during the coming spring, 
summer and autumn. We do this in no sense of 
alarm, but purely as a common-sense precaution, 
so that, should the necessity arise, ample supplies 
to meet all demands will be available. It is 
quite certain that the next few months will bring 
to our hospitals and Red Cross establishments 
large numbers of wounded and sick soldiers, and 
supplies of fresh, wholesome vegetables will 
undoubtedly be very welcome to those who have 
undertaken the kindly duties of caring for the 
men who have been broken in war. 

Horticultural Societies Should Help. — In our 
last issue we published particulars of what is already 
being done by the Dunfermline and the Chester 
Paxton Horticultural Societies respectively. The 
first named has already undertaken to supply the 
British Fleet with consignments of fresh vege- 
tables and fruit for three months, and the latter 
has wisely advised its members to grow as many 
as may be reasonably possible. Nearly every 
day we receive notices that local horticultural 
societies are abandoning their shows this year ; 
but the committees, usually composed of pro- 
fessional gardeners and keen amateurs, have not 
been dissolved, and the societies are still in 
existence. We therefore suggest that, as an 
outlet for their natural energies, these societies 
should seriously take the question of vegetable 
supplies in hand so long as the war lasts. 

How Assistance Can be Rendered.— A local 

committee might, first of all, point out to the 
inhabitants of their district the desirability of 
growing good vegetables, and state plainly that 
capable members would be willing to give practical 
advice to all who needed it. In many gardens 
there are plenty of spaces now occupied by 
dilapidated sheds, or lumber of various kinds, 
that could be cleared, dug and manured, and soon 
brought into suitable condition for at least Potatoes. 
This, willing members of the committee could 
point out. Also, to bring an element of contest into 
the efforts of the townsfolk, it might be possible 
to grant certificates, the cost of which would be 
very trifling, to the garden or plot that showed 
the greatest productiveness of the most useful 
vegetables. Hints on sowing and planting, with the 
best varieties to choose for the district, could be 
circulated, or, if time permitted, given personally. 
The Supply of Seeds. — Even better than givmg 
such hints on varieties would be the supplying 
of seeds of suitable sorts by the committee. The 
position of the average small grower in obtaining 
good seeds of really first-class vegetables is 
often a difficult one. He, naturally, hesitates 
to purchase expensive packets which contain 
far more than he requires. But a local committee 
could easily arrange with a seed firm of repute 
for a supply of suitable kinds in bulk, and these 
could be sold to inhabitants in small quantities as 
required. We know perfectly well that any 'good 
seed firm would much rather execute a substantial 
order of this kind than a multitude of small ones, 
and the trade generally, as well as amateurs. 



would be benefited by some action of this kind. 
Take the case of Potatoes, the most important of 
all our vegetables. It is now well known that an 
annual change of sets, and preferably those from 
a considerable distance, is far better than planting 
those that have been grown locally year after 
5'ear ; yet the cottager or small amateur, who only 
requires his modest peck or two, does not care to 
go to the trouble entailed in securing this change. 

The Collection of Surplus Vegetables.— It is, 
however, in the collecting and despatching of 
surplus vegetables to hospitals and other establish- 
ments that local horticultural committees could 
probably do the most useful work of all. In most 
gardens, at one time or another, there are whole- 
some vegetables to spare ; but the owner who has, 
say, half a dozen Cabbages, a bimch or two. of 
Onions or a peck of Potatoes over and above his 
immediate requirements would scarcely think it 
worth whUe to pack and send them to where they 
are most required. But let the local committees 
inform the inhabitants of their districts that vege- 
tables of this kind would be received once a week 
at some depot, and be suitably packed and 
despatched to some establishment where they are 
needed, and we feel sure that there would be plenty 
received to meet demands. 

The foregoing are points that seem to us worthy 
of consideration in every district where a local 
horticultural society is in existence. Probably all 
would not be practicable everywhere, but the ideas 
could, we feel siure, be moderated or revised to 
suit local conditions. The question of our food 
supply is a national one, and it is the duty of every 
able-bodied person to do all that is possible to 
render the soil fertile and productive at a time like 
the present. Next week we hope to publish an 
article giving some simple hints on how to make 
the most of vegetable plots. By a preconceived 
plan of intercropping we know that far more 
might be obtained from a given area than is usually 
the case. In the meantime we invite the opinions 
of our readers on the subject, but we hope letters 
will be as concise as possible. 



SOME HARDY LILIES. — VI. 

By Sir Herbert Maxwell, Bart. 



SUB-GENUS MARTAGON. 

(Continued from page 52.) 

Lilium pyrenaicum, the Yellow Turk's-cap, 
is a generous plant, patient of neglect and, in 
my opinion, worthy of more esteem than it is 
the fashion to bestow upon it. People take offence 
at the odour of its blossoms ; but as the plant 
does not diffuse it to any distance, they need not 
put their noses to it. If they do, they will receive 
a dab of brilliant orange scarlet pollen from the 
anthers that hang so prettily out of the bright 
yellow Turk's-caps. Some friendly hand planted 
a quantity of the great bulbs of this species nearly 
one hundred years ago in the grass at Monreith ; 
and there they remain, rising year after year to 
their modest splendour in June, a sure sign that 
summer is nearing its height. This is perhaps 
the best way to employ it, for I do not see any 
difference between those that are thus grown 
in the wild and some upon which, for auld lang 
syne, I have bestowed a choice place in a border 
of rather heavy loam. The scarlet-flowered 
variety of this Lily is a very gay affair, equally 
good-natured as the type. A group of the two 
colours mixed is very pleasing. 



64 



THE GARDEN. 



[February 6, 1915. 



L. testaceum (SJ^1. isabelliuum, excelsum), 
the Nankin Lily, is one of the loveliest of the race, 
carrying in July a coronet of large fiowers to a 
height of 5 feet or so on a slender but steadfast 
stem closely set with narrow leaves, each of which is 
spirally twisted, suggestive of a delicate design 
in metal-work. The corolla is of a delightful 
shade of apricot, slightly tinged with flesh colour, 
and the orange anthers within the bell give the 
whole inflorescence a very rich character. The 
origin of this Lily is not known ; as it has never 
been found in a wild state, it is believed to be a 
hybrid, probably between the Madonna Lily 
and L. chalcedonicum. The late Dr. Wallace 
reported that it was first noticed among some 
seedlings raised at Erfurt in 1846. If its parentage 
has been correctly divined, the Madonna strain 



L. pomponium is a scarlet Turk's-cap, with 
flowers like scarlet seahng-wax, as bright as those 
of L. chalcedonicum ; but it is a much more grace- 
ful plant. The stem is clothed with crowded 
linear leaves with white edges, each with a spiral 
twist following, says Dr. Wallace, the course 
of the sun. It grows, or ought to grow, 3 feet 
high ; but it does not always receive the right 
treatment in our gardens, for it dislikes an open 
peaty soil, and only comes to its best and 
proves permanent when planted 4 inches or 
5 inches deep in rather strong loam impregnated 
with lime. It flowers in June, fully a month 
earlier than L. chalcedonicum, and the most 
modest collection of LiUes ought to include this 
brilliant species. 

L. superbum, the Swamp Lily. — ^The specific 
titles prescribed by botanists do 
not always|T^predicate a sense 
of humour in those who devise 
them. For instance, it strikes 
one as incongruous to apply 
the epithet " gigantea " to a 
SquiU (Chionodoxa) 6 inches 
high, to indicate its superiority 
in size to others of the same 
genus. But he who christened 
the Swamp LUy " superbum " 
perpetrated no exaggeration, for 
it is a truly superb creature, 
rising erect to a height some- 
times of 8 feet or 9 feet, 
with from twenty to thirty 
blossoms on long arching pedicels, 
the recurved divisions of the 
perianth being"^- bright orange 
spotted with claret. The Swamp 
Lily is the representative in the 
North American Eastern States 
of the Panther Lily in the 
Western States, and only asks 
for similar treatment in cultiva- 
tion . — that is, to have its 
rhizomatous roots laid 5 inches 
deep in moist^peaty loam with 
a sprinkling of sand round the 
bulbs to encourage rootlets. 
Its flowering season is from the 
end of July through August. 

L. tenuifolium is a dwarf 
Turk's - cap hailing from far 
Siberia, with brUliant red flowers 
opening in June and carried 
on slender stems little more than 
15 inches high. It is a plant, 
therefore, and a choice one, 
for the front of the border, 
where the bulbs should be 
planted 4 inches or 5 inches deep 
in very sandy soil enriched with 
well-rotted farmyard manure 
and not suffered to lack water when growing, has proved dominant, for in stature and carriage 
Thorough drainage is essential to their persistence ' it resembles that species, and the vivid vermilion 
through the winter ; even so, they are short- of the Turk's-cap has been softened into the 
lived, for their diminutive size does not enable delicate tint shown in the flowers of the offspring, 
ihe plant to store up enough vitality to sur\ave In cultivation the Nankin Lily requires similar 
the effort of flowering more than twice or thrice, conditions to the Madonna, save that it is less 
It ripens seed, however, whence a fresh stock patient of drought. Unfortunately, of late years 
■nay be raised. This Lily has begotten upon it has fallen in many gardens under the scourge 
the white Martagon a hybrid of charming quality of the fell fungus Botrytis ; wherefore spray should 
aid satisfactory constitution. It is dwarf, but more be applied dihgently on the first symptom of 
vigorous than L. tenuifolium, and bears a profusion the mischief, for it is worth any amount 
iif little Turk's-cap flowers of a rich apricot hue. of pains to preserve this beautiful flower from 
It takes rank among the choicest of small Lilies, 1 disfigurement, 
and is known as Martagon Golden Gleam. I (To be conliiiucd.) I 



DAFFODIL NOTES. 




A BE.\UTIFUL GROUPING OF LILIUM TESTACEUM IN 
GARDEN, OXFORD. 



Leedsii Classes. — As I mentioned in ray last 
notes, Mr. Morton has raised a most interesting 
point about the grouping of Leedsii varieties 
for show purposes. He suggests that when large- 
cupped and small-cupped blooms are exhibited 
together, judges are inclined to favour the 
latter, all else being equal. In his letter to me 
he quotes as definite instances to prove his con- 
tention : First, the names of the three winning 
collections in Section III. (London), where the 
first prize went to Katherine Spurrell, White 
Slave and Evangeline ; the second to White 
Queen, Potent and Lord Kitchener ; and the 
third to White Queen, Lowdham Beauty and 
Lord Kitchener. Secondly, the 
prize-winners in Section II. (Lon- 
don), where Evangeline, Diana, 
Lowdham Beauty, Waterwitch, 
White Lady and Marguerite 
Durand were placed first ; Phyllis, 
Eoster, White Lady, Diana, Mrs. 
Langtry and Candidata second ; 
and much the same class of 
flower third. Thirdly, he instances 
Group B at Birmingham, where 
the winning lot was composed 
of White Slave, Duchess of West- 
minster, Katherine Spurrell, Evan- 
geline, Bianca and White Lady; 
and the second, third and fourth 
of precisely similar varieties. The 
obvious comment on Mr. Morton's 
examples is that he has ignored 
what happened in the open Leedsii 
classes at the above exhibitions ; 
that he may not be aware that in 
Group B at Birmingham the price 
of bulbs is limited ; and that 
Giant Leedsiis are rather expensive. 
If we take these facts into con- 
sideration along with those put 
forward by Mr. Morton, I do not 
think it can be said that small cups 
are generally favoiured more than 
the " giants." I well remember 
the long discussion that went on in 
sub-conuuittee before it was finally 
decided to suggest to the Royal 
Horticultural Society's Narcissus 
committee the present wording 
for Class IV. It was thought that 
it was not worth while dividing up 
the Leedsiis, as in a year or two 
the smaller type would auto- 
aiatically disappear. The unex- 
pected seems to have happened. 
The "bantams" have taken 
an unexpected lease of lite, 
and lovely flowers like Eoster and Wendy are the 
potential equals of Lowdham Beauty and Lord 
Kitchener. What is to be done ? 

Before I make my suggestion I would like to 
call my readers' attention to the advent of the 
exceedingly beautiful new type of bloom which 
ha^ made its appearance within the last two years, 
and of which Crystalline and Mogador are exquisite 
examples (see illustration and note in the Royal 
Horticultural Society's 1914 "Daffodil Year Book.") 
These pointed perianths have come to stay, I think. 
They are, too, charming, especially when they 
surround a " duck " of a little trumpet or trumpet- 
shaped cup. I 'venture, then, on this proposal : 



THE BOTANIC 



February 6, 1915.] 



THE GARDEN. 



65 



That in future all schedules should distinctly state 
that (whether the number of blooms required be 
three, six, nine or twelve), diversity of type is 
absolutely essential, and that the judges will be 
instructed to be very particular about this stipu- 
lation in awarding of the prizes. This could 
very easily be done in all schedules for 1916 if 
it finds general favour. Perhaps those interested 
wUI communicate with me, so that I can allude 
to it again in future notes. 

Judging at Birmingham. — I rather rubbed my 
eyes when I read in The Garden for January 9 
Mr. Grindrod's suggestion that we allow prizes to 
be awarded to collections which do not comply with 
the schedule. Now, if there is one thing that I am 
always do^vn on, it is this. As the Chairman 
of Committee, I have a good deal to say in all 
that goes on ; so let me assure Mr. Grindrod that 
we are not slackers, but that those in authority 
try to see that all is done according to Cocker. As 
far as we are able, we see that there are no slips ; 
but so great is the usual competition 
that it is impossible to go round all the 
classes and microscopically inspect 
each individual exhibit on the first 
day of the show. The onus of finding 
any wrong is, according to our 
Regulation 12, thrown on the com- 
petitors themselves, and if none of 
them complains, it is taken for 
granted that all is in order. Perhaps 
we should appoint an official inspector 
to go round and see that each flowir 
is in its right place, and not leave it 
to competitors to complain. Anyhow, 
I will see what can be done. Let 
me assure Mr. Grindrod that the 
" S. T. H. W." in Class 22 was not the 
"S.T. H.W." in Class 25. The 
letters are the private mark of the 
exhibitor, who might mark every 
seedling he has got " A. B. C." or 
'■ S. T. H. W." and exhibit them as 
such ; but this does not make a 
triandrus hybrid into a Tazetta 
hybrid. 

I have not had much difficulty in 
finding the other seven or eight 
instances alluded to, and I^ see I 
am one of those in fault, as I 
exhibited a Lady Jellicoe as a 2B, 
when it is listed as 3E. It is possible 
there are two Lady Jellicoes, as andrO' 
mine is very like Lena Parker, which 
is down as a 2b. The President that 
I staged is one of Wheadon's introductions, 
and quite different from The President of 
Haydon. In the case of Sophy Primrose, I 
must have omitted to look up my classified 
list. It is one of the rather doubtful ones, 
but that is all the more reason why I should 
have done so. As no protest was made, I was not 
aware of my slip imtU I looked matters up for 
these notes. " Hurry and bustle I hate," says 
a comic song. So do I on a show morning, but 
they are inevitable in my case, as they doubtless 
are in my friend Mr. Bonnie's, who was an even 
greater offender than myself at last year's show. 

Both Mr. Watts and Mr. Chapman also staged 
flowers in wrong classes. I had no idea of these slips 
until I read Mr. Grindrod's note and began to go 
over the lists in the report, and I cordially thank 
him for calling attention to the matter. These 
things should jjoi happen at the leading Daffodil 
show, and I will see that they are carefully 



considered at our next committee meeting. No one 
is keener than I am for rigid adherence to schedule 
regulations, and now that our delinquencies have 
been pointed out, some method must be devised 
to reduce the possibility of their recurrence to a 
minimum. As Colonial eyes scrutinise our pro- 
ceedings very carefully, it would be a thousand pities 
were an impression to gain ground in New Zealand 
and elsewhere that the Midland Daffodil Society 
allows great latitude in its members' interpretation 
of its schedule. It is clear that our trusting to 
the protests of exhibitors has been tried and found 
wanting. It seems to point to the institution 
of a show inspector. 

The War and Shows. — I am busy getting 
together a list of the Daffodil shows and their 
dates for 1915. Some are already abandoned, 
but the majority of societies at the present time 
propose to hold theirs as usual. As soon as I can 
issue a complete statement I will do so. I would 
be very much ob'.iged, if these words meet the eye 



full-grown larvae. The problem is a twofold one. 
How long must a merodon (inside a bulb) be 
immersed to make sure of killing it ? And how 
long will a bulb stand immersion without detri- 
ment ? Will Mr. Adams kindly relate his 
experience ? Joseph Jacob. 



A BEAUTIFUL ROCK 
GARDEN FLOW E R. 



WHEN covered with iiowers, the 
Androsaces are among the 
choicest of plants for the rock 
garden. Some of the more 
spreading kinds form broad 
tufts of foliage, some deep 
green in colour, like A. Laggeri, while others have 
silvery foliage,, like the subject of this note. 
Androsace sarmentosa is a native of the 




ACE SARMENTOSA, A BEAUTIFUL ROCK GARDEN PLANT WITH ROSETTES OF SILK-LIKE 

FOLIAGE. 



of the secretary or any other member of a Daffodil 
society which was not included in the Royal Horti- 
cultural Society's 1914 "Daffodil Year Book," if 
he would communicate with me. I want that book 
to be as complete as possible. 

Drowning Out the Merodon. — Mr, C. L. Adams, 
whose note appears on page 38, January 23 issue, 
apparently knows the trick of how to drown out 
the merodon. I wish he would tell us how it is 
done. Mr. George Stocks (" Daffodil Year Book," 
1914, pages 56-57) put five bulbs suspected of con- 
taining merodons in water for forty-eight hours. 
Two were not infested with the grub — a grub came 
out of one of the other three and was found alive 
at the bottom of the water. It died in two days. 
From the other two the grubs were extracted and 
were soon able to eat their way into fresh bulbs. 

Again, Mr. Charles E. Shea (article in Cartwright 
and Goodwin's 1914 L'st) states that total immersion 
for three days is not sufficient t" destroy 



Himalayas, from Sikkim to Kashmir, at 
elevations of 11,000 feet to 12,000 feet. It 
is a somewhat variable plant, a few of the forms 
approaching A. lanuginosa in character, but it 
is rather less silky. The leaves are also broader 
and borne in larger rosettes, which send out stolons 
that root as they spread, soon forming broad 
carpets studded with umbels of rose-coloured 
flowers in May. The flowers are deeper in colour 
towards the centre, which is pale yellow. Even 
when not in flower the silky rosettes are very 
attractive. Given a rocky ledge in full sunshine, 
planted in light sandy loam and peat, it soon 
makes itself at home. As these woolly-leaved 
plants from the higher elevations suffer a good 
deal from damp in winter, it is advisable to cover 
the whole plant with a piece of glass raised a few- 
inches above it and in a slanting direction to throw 
off the rain. According to the " Flora of British 
India," four varieties are found in the Himalayas, 



66 



THE GARDEN. 



[February 6, 1915. 



of which the largest form, A. foliosa, is now 
recognised as a distinct species. The last 
mentioned is a taller plant with larger, less si ky 
leaves, and umbels of pink flowers borne on stems 
about nine inches high. A. sarmentosa and its 
varieties are easily increased by seeds, and 
tlie numerous offsets. W. I. 



SEED-SOWING UNDER 
GLASS. 



w 



ITH the advent ol the mouth of 
February, seeds of many sub- 
jects intended to 
flower in the 
greenhouse later 
on are sown. 

Prominent among them are 

Begonias, Gloxinias, Strepto- 

carpuses and Gesneras, all of 

which require much the same 



treatment. As the seeds are very 
small, and in many instances 
fairly expensive, a considerable 
amount of care should be taken in 
sowing them and in bringing the 
tiny plantlets through their earlier 
and more critical stages. 

Too much care cannot be 
taken with the preparation of 
the compost on which the seeds 
are to be sown. A very suitable 
mixture may be made of two 
parts loam to three of leaf-mould 
or peat and a liberal sprinkling 
of silver sand. Leaf-mould, if 
good, is preferable to peat, but it 
must be of first-rate quality and 
prepared from Oak and Beech 
leaves. All the ingredients should 
be thoroughly sterilised in order 
to destroy any insects or vegetable 
matter. Unless this is done, a 
tiny moss is apt to crop up and 
choke many of the seedlings. This 
compost should be rubbed througli 
a sieve with a quarter -inch mesh. 
laying the rougher portions on om 
side. Whether pots or pans are 
used in which to sow the seed, the\ 
must be quite clean and effectually 
drained by means of broken crocks 
in the bottom. Then over these 
may be placed a layer of the 
rough portion of the compost, and 
the pot or pan then filled to within 
half an inch of the rim with that which has passed be potted singly, and shifted into larger pots 
through the quarter-inch mesh. A finishing layer, ' when they require more room, 
on which the seeds are to be sown, should con- Other subjects that may be growii in the same 
sist of the same compost sifted through a sieve temperature as the preceding, but whose seeds, 
with an eighth of an inch mesh. The whole must being larger, do not require such careful manipu- 
be pressed down moderately firm and made quite lation, are : .\cacia lophantha, a subtropical 
level. The soil should be thoroughly watered plant remarkable for its much-divided leaves — 
before the seedl are sown, a better plan than seeds should be soaked in warm water for twenty- 
using a fine rose being to stand the pot or pan four hours before sowing ; Artemisia judaica, 
nearly up to the rim in a vessel of tepid water. 1 with gracefully cut silvery foliage,' valuable for 
In this way the liquid will enter by the hole in summer bedding ; Cannas, well-known foliage 
the bottom, and gradually soak the soil without and flowering plants, whose seeds, like those of 
disturbing the surface. the Acacia, should be soaked in warm water for 

While the soil is still wet the seeds should be ' twenty-four hours prior to sowing ; Eucalyptus 



with a minimum temperature of 65°, rising during j foliage ; Impatiens Holstii, one of the best of the 
the day, the seeds will soon germinate. Directly Balsams for the embellishment of the outdoor 
this takes place the glass or paper should be flower garden, with bright vermilion-coloured 
removed, but especial care must be taken to shade blossoms ; Lantanas, pretty, free-floweruig plants, 
from the sun's rays, as while so delicate a few which can be readUy raised from seeds ; and Ricinus 
minutes' exposure to bright sunshine will per- 1 (Castor Oil Plant), which presents such a bold 
manently injure the yoimg plants. Whenever the feature in the flower garden during the simimer. 
seed pots want water, it should be given ?s 1 A somewhat lower temperature, say, that of 
before directed. an ordinar>' greenhouse, is during February and 

When the young plants are large enough 1 March available for the raising of a vast number 
they must be pricked off. This is an operation [ of seeds, including such well-known subjects 
that requires considerable care. The pots should as Antirrhinums, now so much used ; Asters of 
be prepared the same as detailed for the sowing ' different sorts ; Brachycome iberidifalia (Swan 
of the seeds, and a fine-pointed stick used as a River Daisy) ; Campanula pyramidalis, a well- 
dibbler. As the young plants develop they may ' known and popular biennial ; Giant Hemp, a 

grand plant for the subtropical 
garden ; Clarkias, to form a suc- 
cession to the autumn-sown 
plants ; Dahlias, if it is desired to 
raise these from seeds ; Helichr>'- 
sums, a very pretty race of 
Everlasting Flowers ; Lobelia 
speciosa, whose blue flowers are 
always much appreciated ; African 
and French Marigolds, showy and 
easily grown flowers ; Mignonette, 
whose flowers are much appreciated 
in the greenhouse before they ex- 
pand out of doors ; Nemesias, 
charming annuals for pot culture 
and also for flowering out of 
doors ; Petvmias, well-known and 
showy flowers ; Phlox Drum- 
mondi), which as pot plants in the 
greenhouse are very showy ; 
Rhodanthe Manglesii, a pretty 
Everlasting Flower ; Schizan- 
thuses, to succeed those sown in 
the autunm ; Stocks, whose 
delicious fragrance is admired by 
all; Zea Mays variegata (variegated 
Indian Com), very showy in the 
summer ; and Zinnias, a free- 
growing race of plants whose 
bright-coloured blossoms are 
remarkably showy. H. P. 




ORNAMENTAL- 
LEAVED VINES. 



1 



ORN.\MENTAL-LEAVED VINES GROWING ON 
THE GARDENS AT ALDENHAM HOUSE, 



POLES AND CHAINS 
ELSTREE, HERTS. 



sprinkled thinly thereon. Minute seeds will require 
no covering, except it be a pane of glass or a sheet 



globulus, the well-known Blue Giuu, so much used 
in the flower garden in the summer ; Grevillea 



of paper laid over the pot or pan. In a structure robusta. remarkable tnr its fiiielv rut Feni-lik 



N my opinion the value of 
these for effective purposes 
in our pleasure grounds is 
1^- much underestimated, and when 
their true value is better under- 
stood I predict for them a great 
future. Smce the introduction from China of so 
many beautiful and distinct varieties, these creaje 
a wealth of lovely tropical foliage absolutely 
different from anything else, and during the 
autumn the majority present such a beautiful 
effect that their beauty must be seen to enable 
one to fully realise their worth. 

There are many ways in which these can be 
used, either for clothing pergolas, walls or build- 
ings, trained up on tripods, or used as shown 
in the accompanying illustration. From my 
point of view they are never seen to better advan- 
tage than when grown in this way, and being 
such rapid growers, it takes but a short time 
to furnish the polfs and chains. Large poles are 
probably the best, as when these are charred and 
have received a good coat of tar they will b.st in 



February 6, 1915.] 



THE GARDEN. 



67 



^ood condition for many years. Either two or 
three lines of stout chain should be used, with 
holes bored through the uprights, through which 
the chain should be threaded and looped in a 
graceful manner. The posts must be placed at 
regular intervals to suit one's taste, but not too 
■closely together, or the effect will be marred. 

The ground should be drained and made fairly 
rich, as the stronger and better the growth the 
finer will be the foliage, naturally. This beinp 
•once accomplished, the labour incurred will be very 
trifling. Beyond training and tying the growths, 
during spells of dry weather copious supplies 
■of liquid manure should be given, and the surface 
dressed with a good coating of half-rotted cow- 
manure. Thoroughly syringe the foliage in the 
late afternoon after a hot day. A reasonable 
amount of priming should be carried out during 
the winter and the growths made 
thoroughly secure. 

Large, stout Larch poles should 
be used for tripods, preparing them 
in the same way as previously 
advised, the three being securely 
fastened together at the . top with 
stout wire. One plant should be 
placed to each pole, and when it 
becomes thoroughly established it 
will be very conspicuous standing 
out in the shrubberies. 

For pergolas there is nothing 
more valuable than these Vines for 
quickly clothing them and for 
effect, whether viewed from a 
distance or when walking beneath 
them. For clothing spaces on large 
walls or buildings these are also m- 
valuable, notwithstanding that more 
labour is necessary in relation to 
training them than in the other 
ways mentioned. 

Varieties. — ■Here we cultivate 
a large number which probably 
include the best of them, but I 
will mention only those which I 
consider to be among the most 
worthy and distinct : Vitis 
Coignetise, V. megalophylla, V. 
Thunbergii, V. vinifera purpurea 
and V. Brandt, all large-leaved 
varieties ; V. heterophylla dela- 
vayana, V. armata and V. Prasezkii, 
medium size ; the smaller-leaved 
V. flexuosa Wilsonii, V. Thompsonii 
and V. himalayana rubrifolia (the latter a very 
striking new variety). 

Elstree. E. Beckett. 



attention prior to planting. Long roots should 
be shortened, and all bruised and broken parts 
entirely removed. If allowed to remain, the 
damaged portions will decay and the rot will 
spread to the hitherto healthy roots. It is neces- 
sary to use a sharp knife when pruning the roots, 
so that a clean end may be left. 

It is also a mistake to allow the roots to come 
into contact with any crude manure, If manure 
is used at all, it should be well rotted and thoroughly 
mixed with the soil. Many novices, hearing on 
all sides that Roses are gross feeders, imagine that 
the new bushes will do all the better if a nice little 
dose of manure is placed about the roots. In 
truth, quite the reverse is generally the case, the 
strong manure causing the dormant roots to rot 
rather than encouraging the formation of new 
ones. The better practice is to use a small 



surprised to find how loose the soil has become 
round the plants in such a short space of time. 
Large plants that offer resistance to the wind will 
soon become loose again, however firmly they are 
planted, unless they are secured to a stake. The 
alternative is to shorten the longer growths con- 
siderably, which practice will not in the least 
diminish the chances of future success. 

Finally, the use of a mulch of long manure is 
often advised ; but, personally, I think this 
practice is a mistake. In my experience, the only 
effect of such a mulch applied during the winter 
is to keep the surface of the soil cold and damp, in 
many cases making it positively sour. Such 
conditions caim.ot possibly improve the health of 
the Rose trees. It is far better to keep a good 
loose surface, through which the life-giving proper- 
ties of sun and air may penetrate to the newly 




AN EFFECTIVE GROUPING OF THE MOONLIGHT BROOM, CYTISUS SCOPARIUS SULPHUREUS. 



MISTAKES TO AVOID WHEN 
PLANTING ROSES. 



IN the planting of Rose trees, as in most other 
things, there is a right and a wrong way, 
and although the operation is apparently 
simple, it is quite possible for the novice to 
make many mistakes. It is important that 
this work should be carefully done, for much 
of the future success or failure of the plants depends 
upon it. I have therefore endeavoured to describe 
some of the mistakes most frequently made, in 
order that readers may avoid repeating them. 

Many failures are accounted for by the fact that 
the roots of the bushes do not receive sufficient 



quantity of soft fibrous loam, which should be 
shaken well in among the roots. This will do 
much to encourage speedy root action. Artificial 
manures should also be avoided when dealing with 
new bushes. Bone-flour may be used with safety, 
a handful being sprinkled around each plant just 
beneath the surface. 

Another very frequent mistake committed is 
planting too deeply. I have often seen fine plants 
utterly ruined by being placed several inches too 
deeply in the soil. The bush should be so placed 
that the point of union between the stock and the 
scion comes as near the ground-level as possible. 
Then, again, the bushes are often planted much 
too loosely. Roses require to be planted firmly — 
the firmer the better, excepting when the soil is 
wet and sticky. In that case it is better to allow 
the soil to become more friable before finally 
treading up. In all cases it is advisable to go over 
all newly planted Roses a week or two after plant- 
ing, and tread them up again. Growers will be 



forming roots. Should a spell of very severe 
weather set in, protection may be provided for 
the more tender varieties by drawing the surround- 
ing soil up to their bases. Some advise using 
ashes for this purpose, but only ashes that have 
been exposed to the air for some considerable 
time should be used. W. A. E. 



THE MOONLIGHT BROOM. 

Among the hardy Brooms, as the Cytisuses are 
generally called, few are more beautiful than 
the variety of the common kind named Cytisus 
scoparius sulphureus. Except that it is dwarfer 
and rather more prostrate, in general appearance 
and habit this resembles the type, which may 
so often be seen clothing the sandy banks of railway 
cuttings, or forming hummocks of green and gold 
on the waste spots of commons or even the coimtrv 
roadsides. The colour of the flowers is, however, 
different, being, as its varietal name implies, 



68 



THE GARDEN. 



[February 6, 1915. 



of pale sulphur yellow. It is an excllcnt hard/ 
shrub for poor sandy soil, and is seen to the best 
advantage when planted in good-sized colonies, 
as seen in the illustration on page 67. It 
flowers about the end of May or early in June, 
but even at other seasons its slender green stems 
are attractive. In common with other Brooms it 
should be planted when quite small, as old plants 
resent disturbance. G. B. D. 



SHRUBS WITH FRAGRANT 
LEAVES. 



SHRUBS that have fragrant leaves and 
are hardy in most parts of the country 
are comparatively rare ; 
but if those kinds are 
included which are hardy 
in Cornwall and other 
places with a similar climate, a 
fair number may be enumerated. 
Fragrance is the only attribute 
of some of these shrubs, for the 
leaves possess little beauty and 
the flowers are not showy. In a 
few instances, however, the com- 
bination of fragrant and ever- 
green foliage exists, while in others 
the flowers are worth taking into 
consideration. Some of the more 
ornamental shrubs may be grown 
by themselves, others are better 
represented by groups, while some 
are seen at their best when 
planted as informal hedges. One 
of the first families to attract 
attention is Artemisia. Most of the 
shrubby kinds have fragrant leaves. 
and some, however, are weedy. 
Two of the best are A. tridentata, 
a native of the Western United 
States, which has silvery foliage, 
and A. Abrotantmi, the common 
Old Man or Lads Love. Both 
are shrubs to grow in our gardens, 
and the last mentioned is, of 
course, well known everywhere, 
but the former is rarely seen. 
They are useful for groups or 
informal hedges. The Cotton 
Lavender, Santolina Chamsecy- 
parissus, is a yellow-flowered, 
silver-leaved, dwarf-growing plant 
• if value for its coloured foliage, 
which is strongly scented when 
rubbed. A green-leaved Santolina 
may be had in S. rosmarinifolia. 
Both are natives of Southern 
Europe, and are excellent for 
massing in poor ground. Laurus 
nobilis (the common Bay) is 
an evergreen shrub which may ■ 
be grown in all except the 
coldest parts of the country. Though in 
many places it is met with in the form of a 
good-sized bush, it attains much larger propor- 
tions in the mild jlimate of the South-West 
Counties ; and in the vicinity of Port Talbot 
in South Wales specimens upwards of 40 feet 
high are to be found. Its fragrant leaves are 
often used for flavouring. The Lavender makes 
an excellent low hedge bordering a path. Its 
silvery leaves are less fragrant than its flowers, 
but they are sufficiently charged with oil to give 



off a decided scent. The Rosemary must not be 
forgotten ; it ought to be in every garden. Lippia 
citriodora, popularly called the Scented Verbena, is 
only suitable for the wanner parts of the country. 
In the island of Rothesay, however, it develops into 
a large bush in the open groimd. Its leaves are very 
fragrant, the scent reminding one of lemon. D. 



THE CULTIVATION OF 
TROPiEOLUM SPECIOSUM. 



A LITTLE more than three years ago I was informed 
by a Cornish lady visiting me of the great 
beauty of the Tropaeolimi creeper, and I was 
desirous of seeing it rstahlished in my own |-first 




THE FLAMK 



I'LOWKR (TROP.-EOLUM SPECIOSUM) SCRAMBLING OVER 
A ROUGH SUPPORT. 



garden. On makmg my wish known to my 
friend I received very little encouragement, 
for she maintained that it would only 
grow in Cornwall and in the Highlands. 
But I determined to try to grow it. I did not know 
which TropEcohim my friend referred to, nor did 
she know the name ; but I guessed it would be 
either T. speciosum or T. tuberostmi. 

I bought a root of each — about March was 
the time, I think- — and awaited developments. 
T. tuberosum rame up and made great growth, 



but never flowered, nor has it since flowered with 
me, though I have carefully wintered the tubers 
each year. T. speciosum never came up, 
and some months after planting I unearthed! 
it, and found it quite dead and almost rotted away. 
It was a strong root, and I attribute my failure 
to planting it in a vertical position instead of 
horizontally, and also not deep enough. The 
same year I bought another plant, well established 
in a pot, with a growth several feet long. 
This, notwithstanding great care, languished 
and died. 

My confidence in being able to grow the creeper 
was naturally shaken ; but the following 
winter I bought a dozen small roots (like the 
advertised in your excellent paper). 
Vou can imagine their size, for 
they were wrapped in moss and 
carried in an ordinary business 
envelope. With tliem were in- 
structions for planting, which 
were to plant them horizontally 
and 9 inches below the surface. 
These instructions, vital as they 
are, are not sufficient. My 
idea was to plant each one 
in a different part of the 
garden. I had, thus, twelve 
different sites, and I hoped that 
one at least of the twelve 
would be a success. Six of 
the plants came up, and two 
<ii three made good growth, 
but none flowered. This was 
not to be expected, for they 
were very small roots. This 
was in 1913. 

In 1914 two of the plants 
made very conspicuous growth, 
and one was a mass of 
bloom and quite the most 
striking feature in the garden. 
Now I come to the point of 
this letter. The roots of both 
of these plants are covered. 
One is in the backyard and 
planted against the wall under- 
neath cobble stones, which were 
replaced. The other one was 
planted in a shrubbery near 
a root of common London 
Pride. The former did the 
best last year, but the latter 
has sent a side root under- 
neath the Saxifrage, and 
whereas the original root was 
very feeble, there were some 
very vigorous shoots coming 
out through the Saxifrage, which 
makes me think that this plant 
will do well this year. I am 
even hoping that the creeper will 
get hold of the Rhododendrons, &e. 
in the shrubbery. It is most 
evident to me that this creeper requires protection 
for its roots, and if I planted any more they 
would be placed 12 inches deep underneath a big 
clump of Prince's Feather, or under the tiles of 
the backyard, in a sunny part. Both of my 
plants arc in sunny places. [The best plants of 
TropiEolum speciosum that we have seen were at 
Westwick, Norwich, where they have a north 
or north-west position. — Ed.] 

Rowland .A. Harp, B.Sc. 
Norton Collage, Halton, Cheshire 



February 6, 1915.] 



THE GARDEN. 



69 



GARDENING OF THE WEEK. 



FOR SOUTHERN GARDENS. 

Fruit Under Glass. 

Early Muscat Grapes. — ^To force Muscat 
Grapes successfully, the roots ought to be con- 
fined to the inside of the house. The Vines which 
were started in November will now be in active 
growth, and if the border is well drained and not 
too deep, the roots will be in need of regular supplies 
of water. Liquid manure and some approved 
fertiliser must also be given at intervals. A night 
temperature of 65° must now be maintained, 
and stm-heat husbanded as much as possible by 
closing the house early in the afternoon. When 
in flower, much care is needed in keeping the 
temperatures equable. The bunches must be 
pollinated with a camel-hair brush, and if there 
are Hamburgh Vines flowering in another house, 
the pollen will be of great help in setting the 
Muscats. 

Late Muscat Grapes. — The Vines must be got 
ready to start by the end of the month or the 
beginning of March. Both house and Vines 
must be thoroughly cleansed, and-the border top- 
dressed with fresh materials before starting the 
Vines into growth. 

Melons. — Lose no time in putting out the young 
plants on the hot-bed as soon as they are ready. 
Plant them on small mounds of soil, leaving 
room for top-dressings of loam as the roots develop. 
Sow more seeds for a successional crop. 

Plants Under Glass. 

Amaryllis. — A. batch of bulbs may be got 
ready for flowering in April. After thoroughly 
soaking the soil, a portion of it may be removed 
to make room for a top-dressing of fresh'materials. 
In some cases the bulbs will need "repotting. 
Water must be carefully afforded till growth is 
active. ^ 

Gloxinias. — Batches of these may, be started 
into growth as required. Place the tubers in 
shallow boxes filled with leaf-soil, and put them 
in a warm, moist house for a week or two prior 
to potting them into their flowering pots. 

Salvia azurea grandiflora. — Cuttings of this 
beautiful Salvia will root readily in cold frames. 
Insert five or six cuttings in a 5-inch pot in a light, 
sandy compost. Keep the frame close and shade 
the cuttings from bright sun till they have rooted. 
Some of the most promising of the old plants 
may be shaken out and repotted. 

Salvia splendens. — If cuttings are available, 
a batch may now be inserted in 4-inch pots and 
placed in the propagating-case. When rooted, 
pot them singly into 3-inch pots and keep them 
growing in a moderately warm house. They must 
be well syringed, or red spider will attack the foliage . 

Humea elegans. — The plants which were 
raised from seed last year should now be ready 
for moving into their flowering pots. Pot 
firmly in a compost of fibrous loam, leaf-soil, 
lime rubble and coarse sand. Do not attempt 
to hasten growth by forcing, or failure will result. 

The Flower Garden. 

Montbretias. — The corms which were dug 
up in the autumn must now be planted in their 
flowering quarters, as growth is on the move. 
If the ground is too wet, a little dry soil from the 
potting-shed will facilitate the work. Plant only 
the best bulbs in the flower borders ; the smaller 
ones may be put out in the reserve garden. 

Cannas. — The plants which have been wintering 
in a frost-proof shed may now be brought out 
and potted. The stools must be shaken out 
and divided, potting only the most promising 
portions. 

Dahlias. — If propagation by cuttings is desired, 
the roots must be placed in boxes and covered 
with soil. Stand the boxes in a warm, moist 
house to induce the plants to grow. Insert the 
cuttings singly in small pots filled with a light, 
sandy compost, .\fter w'atering them in, plunge 
the pots in a hot-bed in the propagating-case, 
keeping the cuttings shaded from bright sun. The 
single varieties may be increased by seed, which 
may be sown now. 

Climbers on Walls and Pergolas. — Growth on 
many climbing plants is now on the move, and 



any pruning and training not yet done must be 
no longer delayed. The young' growths of some 
of the Clematises must be kept tied, or they will 
be damaged by rough wind. 

The Hardy Fruit Garden. 

Raspberries. — Old plantations may now have 
their final thinning of the canes. ' Where the 
canes are secured to wires, they may be thinned 
to about six inches apart. Lightly fork the ground 
between the plants and apply a good dressing 
of well-rotted farmyard manure. .Autiunn-fruiting 
Raspberries must be cut down to the ground- 
level. If it is intended to make new plantations, 
the ground must be thoroughly prepared by 
trenching and manuring. Plant in rows 5 feet 
apart and 4 feet between the plants. Cover the 
rooting area with short litter. Before growth com- 
mences cut down the canes to within 8 inches 
of the ground. 

The Kitchen Garden. 

Spinach. — Where this vegetable is in great 
demand, small sowings may be made in cold 
frames. A mild hot-bed will considerably enhance 
the progress of the plants. Towards the end of 
the month a sowing may be made on a sheltered 
border outdoors. 

Turnips. — A sowing of an early kind must be 
made as soon as the ground is in suitable condition, 
and further sowings may be made at intervals. 

Brussels Sprouts. — A small sowing of this 
vegetable may now be made for early supplies. 
Sow in boxes and place them in moderate warmth 
till the seedlings are through the soU. When large 
enough, prick out the young plants on a bed in a 
cold frame. 

Autumn-Sown Onions.— The mild winter has 
been favourable to the growth of these. Have a 
piece of groimd ready on which to transplant them 
as soon as the weather will allow. 

E. Harriss. 
(Head-gardener to Lady Wantage.) 

Lockiitge Gardens, Berks. 



FOR NORTHERN GARDENS. 

Fruit Under Glass. 

Early Melons. — The earliest batch should now be 
ready for planting in their fruiting quarters. Do 
not be in a hurry to plant until the soil has become 
thoroughly warmed. It is the usual custom to 
grow Melons on small motmds or hillocks, hut 
excellent results are to be obtained if, when shifting 
them from the 4-inch p^ts, they are moved into 
6-inch pots which have had the bottoms knocked 
out and replaced by large pieces of turf. Then, when 
planting, simply plunge the pots to the rims in 
the bed as they are. This prevents the plants 
receiving any check in removal to their permanent 
quarters. 

Early Vines. — Disbudding should receive 
attention. In houses where the Vines have 
been bent over and tied down to regulate the flow 
of sap, let the canes be secured to the wires, 
exercising caution that the young shoots are not 
broken, as they are very brittle at this stage. 
Do not hurry to tie down the yoimg growths 
tmless they are actually touching the glass, as the 
growths withstand handling much better when 
they commence showing their bunches. Continue 
to maintain a fairly humid atmosphere until 
the flowering starts. Drier conditions should 
prevail when this stage is reached ; a slight damping 
of the pathways and border, how'ever, will do no 
harm if the weather is verv bright. 

The Kitchen Garden. 

Capsicums. — Where required, seed may be 
sovm in heat. The plants are easily grown, if 
kept free from insect pests. Grow in a meist 
atmosphere, and, after the pods have formed, 
drier and cooler conditions will suit them. 

Brussels Sprouts. — The earliest lot should 
now be so^vn thinly in boxes in a temperate house. 
As soon as the seed leaves have developed, give 
cooler conditions, so as to induce a sturdy growth. 
Later they may be pricked out into frames, and 
gradually hardened off ready for planting out 
by the last week of April. 



Peas. — The first opportimity should now be 
taken to make an early sowing. If the ground 
remains cold and wet, take out a small trench 
to a depth of 6 inches and fill in with some dr\- 
soil ; potting-shed refuse will generally do for 
this. As a prevention against the ravages of 
rats and mice, treat the seeds with a dressing of 
red lead or paraffin before sowing. 

Plants Under Glass. 

Dracaenas. — Plants which have become at all 
leggy should now be topped, before they start 
into active growth. A few notches shotdd be 
made on the part of the stem immediately below 
the leaves, and moss tied round. The remainder 
of the stems, after the tops have rooted and been 
potted, may be cut into a number of eyes, if 
the increase of any variety is desired. 

Tuberoses. — Place a batch of bulbs in heat 
where there is plenty of moisture in the atmosphere. 
Watering is not necessary until signs of growth 
are evident. The sjTinge, however, should be 
used freely, and as the plants are so subject to 
green fly, the occasional use of an insecticide will be 
necessary. 

Hydrangea hortensis. — Plants may be had in 
flower by the middle of May if started into growth- 
new. Ajiy in need of potting should be attended 
to, using some artificial manure in the compost. 
The colour of the flowers generally desired is 
blue, and in some localities they are blue naturally. 
There are preparations on the market for turning 
the flowers of Hydrangeas blue, but as they contain 
a large proportion of iron, it is wise to use them 
with extreme caution. 

Saintpaulia ionantha. — This bright little plant 
is a most useful subject for keeping the edges of 
plant stoves gay, as it is almost perpetually in 
flower. A packet of seed usually produces a 
variety of hues. The best of these may be pro- 
pagated from lea^'es, which soon take root and 
form plants. 

The Flower Garden. 

Lawns. — Take the opportunity during a dry 
spell to deal with Daisies. The largest patches 
should be removed carefully with the aid of a 
fork, and the remaining small ones have an applica- 
tion of Daisy-killer, which should not be used any 
more sparingly than directed by the makers, or 
the results will not be satisfactory. The lawn, 
after being treated, w-ill assume a rather brown 
and burnt appearance ; this will gradually dis- 
appear as the coming warmer weather encourages 
the thick growth of young grass resulting from the 
use of the lawn sand. 

Climbing Roses. — Any plants not yet tied up 
should be dealt with, before the budS; become too 
prominent. A judicious thinning of the growths 
not only results in finer flowers, but there is less 
danger of well-thinned growths producing pre- 
mature buds, which are liable to be injured by 
late spring frosts. 

Pansies. — When required for general summer 
bedding, Pansies are sown during Augusti-a'nd 
September, It is possible, however, to have a 
good display during autumn if seed is sown now 
in boxes indoors. .After germination has taken 
place, harden off the seedlings before pricking 
them out in a cold frame. 

The Rock Garden. — This most interesting 
branch of gardening has become very^j popular 
during recent years. Most gardens nowadays 
include a rock garden ; indeed, in some establish- 
ments it has become the main feature. Where a 
rockery is to be formed, the situation will have 
much to do in deciding the form it is to take. 
Sometimes a rock garden can be made more 
attractive by the inclusion of water gardening 
in the scheme, keeping in view that it must have 
full exposure to the sun. A charming effect is 
obtained by the reflection of flowering plants in the 
water. Then, too. Water Lilies will flower long 
after the bulk of the alpines have passed out of 
bloom, and so retain interest in thisygarden. 
Where the site of a rock garden is level, the 
addition of a few large subjects, such as Bamboos,. 
Japanese Maples, Pyrus and Broom, will do 
much to relieve the . monotony ; they should, 
however, be planted with discretion. 
John Jeffery. 

(Head-gardener -to Sir R. \V. Buchanan Jardine, 
Bart.) •■• 

Castlemilk Gardens, Lockerbie, N.B. 



70 



THE GARDEN. 



[February 6, 1915. 



APPLES AND PEARS: 
THEIR FLAVOUR AND 
PEDIGREE. 



NOTES FROM AMERICA. 

THE pertinent ideas of Mr. Chapman on 
the flavour and pedigree of Apples, 
as set forth in his comprehensive 
article on page 595 of The Garden 
for December 12, 1914, are of 
peculiar interest to growers of the 
present day, when so much is sacrificed to appear- 
ance and producti%'eness. Verily it is an age of 
commercialism in which we live, in the garden 
and orchard as well as in most other branches of 
industrial life. But I see no reason for losing 
our senses in this absurd chase for pecuniary 
gain. If certain Apples are not worth growing 
because of their inferior flavour or lack of flavour, 
let us drop them and substitute better ones. If 
these are less productive, as some of them often 
are under ordinarj' treatment, then let us give 
them e.\traordmary treatment and care, as, I am 
happy to say, is now being done in many parts of 
this country to-day, with ver^' excellent results. 

We cannot produce a superior article of any 
kind anywhere without some extra care and in- 
telligent labour. Why should we expect to subvert 
or avoid natural laws in the orchard any more 
successfully than we can in the shop or factory ? 
Does it cost more to raise good fruit ? Yes. 
And do the people want only cheap Apples, and 
are they content with anything that looks large, 
red and handsome ? Perhaps so, if they do not 
know any better. The masses are largely un- 
taught as to the quality of an Apple, and they buy 
on sight, or they order " some Apples " to be sent 
home. The dealer dumps them out of a barrel 
or basket, and ofif they go, tough, woody and 
insipid they often are, though large, smooth and 
red, perhaps like the Ben Davis, Baldwin and other 
marketable sorts of that ilk that grow easUy in 
abundance with scant care and culture. 

Are Growers to Blame ?— But are the growers 
free from blame for this condition of affairs ? 
If more fruit of the better quality were found in 
the general market, even at a slight increase in 
price, the people would enjoy it more, be led to 
enquire as to the variety, and return for a new 
and greater supply. These are facts which must 
be conceded by all intelligent growers, dealers and 
consumers. Hence it is that Mr. Chapman insists 
upon flavour as the motive to work for in the 
•orchard. He pleads for the brain and palate. 
And so have I for many years. And the Editor 
of The Garden seems to think our point is well 
taken. Mr. Chapman speaks of our American 
Mother Apple, which has long been regarded with 
much favour for its fine quality everywhere. And 
yet we do not find it in the market. He says 
its origin is uncertain, but Thomas described it 
sixty-seven years ago as originating in Bolton, 
Worcester County, Mass. Just how it was pro- 
duced or why so named is, however, unknown. 
It is a beautiful red Apple of medium size, with 
tender, rich, aromatic flesh that pleases the most 
■discriminating palate. It is therefore attractive 
as well as excellent. But growers find the tree 
a slow grower and not very productive, and they 
advise top-working upon more vigorous stock. 
Hence it is listed as desirable for the home orchard, 
but not recommended for general " commercial 
planting." Afraid to risk it, you see. 



" Chance Seedlings." — That many of our best 
fruits come to us haphazard, no one knows how, 
is perhaps true, though I would not embrace all 
in that assertion, as there are some with distinct 
pedigrees, scientifically produced. And yet Nature 
has often beaten our most skilful hybridisers. 
We call them " chance seedlings," but Nature 
takes no chances ; she works with a definite 
purpose and design, whether we understand it 
or not. For years I have been trying very hard 
to trace the precise origin and pedigree of our 
famous Esopus Spitzenburgh Apple, that sine qua 
non of Apple flavour, that pnnce of the realm, 
which is only rivalled by our Newtown Pippin 
that captured the palates of English Royalty long 
years ago. Our Government Pomologist begged 
me to clear up this pedigree if possible. That it 
first appeared here in this Esopus region, where 
I live, some two hundred years ago is now conceded. 
But just how it came into existence, and at what 
particular point, will never be known. That it 
was the product of Nature, miaided by man, 
seems very clear. Fruit culture at that period 
was wholly unknown here, and it is not strange, 
therefore, that no record of this important advent 
in the realm of Pomona is found. 

The Origin of Jonathan Apple.— Then, too, 
look at the history of the Jonathan Apple — another 
charming red package of princely flavour, often 
regarded as a " seedling " of the Spitzenburgh, 
though erroneously, as I believe, in spite of its 
similar characteristics. Of this Apple we have 
very definite and authentic record as to the place 
of its origin, but nothing of the method of its 
production. The original tree stood upon a farm 
in Ulster County, New York, among the foot- 
hills of the Catskill Mountains, some ten miles 
from my home. And this tree was still living in 
1845. having been in bearing some twenty-five 
or thirty years. But nobody ever knew how it 
came to produce such a superior Apple. It grew 
among some low shrubberj' along the fence on this 
farm of Philip Rick, and therefore must have been 
a" product of Nature in some mysterious way. 
The beautiful dark red colour of the fruit drew 
attention to it, of course, and saved the tree from 
destruction with the wild brush around it. This, 
together with its rich flavour, soon won a place for 
it in the nursery where it was afterwards pro- 
pagated extensively, for a time. It bore different 
names at first, including that of Philip Rick, 
who, it would seem, was entitled to the honour 
perpetually. But it was finally named Jonathan, 
after a prominent gentleman of local celebrity 
who is credited with bringing the variety into 
public notice. It has been known as an Esopus 
seedling, but I have been unable to find any 
evidence of this aside from some similarity in 
type, nor is there any record of that Apple growing 
in the vicinity at that time. Thus we are left in 
a sea of conjecture and speculation concerning 
this most valuable " foundling." 

The Seckle Pear is another product of unknown 
ancestry with no apparent father or mother, as 
Mr. Chapman aptly suggests. Must we then 
ascribe to Nature and natural processes, unaided 
by man, the credit of producing oiu: choicest 
fruits ? Our famous hybridising wizard of Cali- 
fornia would answer " No," most emphatically, 
pointing to his many wonderful creations in the 
garden and field, of which much might be said. 
And yet all he has ever done, or expects to do, is 
to assist Nature, which he frankly admits. In 
these times, when we work more intelligently 
upon definite lines, our records of methods will. 



of course, be more complete and satisfactory. 

And yet this whole matter of improved varieties, 

from the pollen and seed, through all the various 

stages of elimination and selection, is a very slow 

and precarious process, requiring great care and 

I patience. And the reward is often very disappoint- 

! ing. In addition to the necessary botanical skill, 

1 there must be a true love for the work. 

It is a well-known fact that Nature never creates 
any duplicates, and for this reason alone the 
plant breeder finds his opportunity. He has 
therefore the widest possible range of variation, 
j depending solely upon his skill and knowledge. 
In the regime of Nature the changes and variation 
of plant-life are very slow, though continuous 
and certain. Here it is that man may step in, 
hasten matters and get quicker results. He can 
also open up a great vista of change and variation 
by crossing the sexual elements of the blossoms, 
and thus prevent inbreeding. Nature does this 
by the help of insects, but this, of course, is 
apparently indiscriminate, and without special 
design or purpose. But the intelligent plant 
breeder seeks to combine certain qualities of ex- 
cellence and value. To this Nature assents, 
and says, " Go ahead ; I'll help you," and she 
does, as long as her laws are not transgressed. It 
has been said that fruits automatically adapt 
themselves to the tastes and desires of the people 
for whom they grow, and there is some evidence 
to prove this. The universal adaptations of 
j Nature to existing conditions are indisputable. 
j But while there are certain fixed principles in 
plant breeding, there is no such thing as an exact 
science, any more than there is in the reproduction 
of the human sj^cies. We can blend certain 
characteristics by crossing, but certain others may 
slip in during the process that we never dreamed 
of or did not want. So we can never rely upon 
any precise result. We can coa.x Dame Nature, 
but she will not be driven. 
Kingston, New York. H. Hendricks. 



SEASONABLE NOTES ON 
CHRYSANTHEMUMS. 



Varieties for the Outdoor Border.— The 

Chrysanthemum survives if left out during the 
whole year. The old stems die, certainly, but 
suckers grow from the roots every winter. Some- 
times severe frosts injure the young suckers, 
and in clayey soils in low-lying districts a few 
may be killed, but usually in such cases late 
suckers appear in the spring. Although bordei 
varieties may be grown without the aid of glass, 
it is an advantage to propagate cuttings in a frame 
during February and March. Old roots will do 
good service if left in the border year after year, 
but it is not the best way to grow Chrysanthemums, 
even for the furnishing of open borders. The 
roots should be lifted, divided and replanted, 
or cuttings propagated from them annually ; 
then the best results follow. In these days only 
a few of the old varieties should be retained, 
as those of recent introduction are so much finer. 
They are better in habit of growth, in the quality 
of the blooms and in colours. The majority of the 
plants are dwarf, and so we are able to have a 
fine display of blossom on plants that do not 
require much staking. Furthermore, the display 
may be had from .\ugust to November. The 
following varieties will afford satisfaction to every 
amateur cultivator. 



February 6, 1915-] 



THE GARDEN. 



71 



Varieties Flowering in August. — Lena, terra- 
cotta, 2 feet high ; Fee Parisienne, deep mauve, 
long flower petals, 2 J feet ; Caledonia, prure white, 
2 feet ; Mme. C. Perrier, creamy white, suiiused 
pink, 2i feet ; Tapis de Neige, pure white, very 
free, leave undisbudded, 2 feet ; Normandie, 
delicate pink, 2t feet ; and Mrs. A. Willis, yellow, 
shaded red. 

September-Flowering Varieties. — Touraine, 
porcelain, very beautiful, with incurving petals, 
2 feet ; Whitepoint, reddish lilac, points of petals 
tipped with white, 2! feet ; Vesuve, chestnut 
crimson, 2 feet ; Tonkin, reddish orange, 2 feet ; 
Tapis d'Or, golden yellow, fine for narrow borders, 
only I J feet ; Savoie, pure white, 2 J feet ; Rosie, 
terra-cotta, 2 feet ; Queen of the Earlies, a very 
large white, 3J feet, suitable for masses at the 
back of a broad border ; Pont de Jour, rosy white, 
large blooms on dwarf plants, li feet ; Polly, 
deep orange, 2 feet ; Patricia, mauve pink, a 
lovely variety, 2 feet ; Orange, orange and terra- 
cotta, 2 J feet ; Norbert Purvis, golden salmon, 
I J feet ; Nellie Hemsley, a good pink, 2 feet ; 
Mrs. A. Thomson, a rich golden yellow, 2 J feet ; 
Miss Birchfell, blush pink, gold centre, 2i feet ; 
Minnie Carpenter, terra-cotta, 2 J feet ; Mme. 
A. Nonin, a very iine pink, 3 feet ; Mabel Roberts, 
a deep pink, flowers freely on long, stiff stems 
forming beautiful sprays ; Le Pactole, bronzy 
yellow, 3 feet ; La Somme, deep mauve pink ; 
La Rhin, reddish terra-cotta, very effective and 
good for cutting, 2§ feet ; Jimmie, crimson purple, 

2 feet ; James Bateman, pure pink, large, 2 feet ; 
Hermine, pure white, 2i feet ; Goacher's Crimson, 
rich crimson, 2 J feet ; Gertie, salmon pink, shaded 
gold, flowers freely over many weeks, dwarf, 
li feet ; Eden, bright rose, a good variety for 
disbudding, 2 J feet ; Cactus, rich terra-cotta, 
2 1 feet ; and Champ d'Or, canary yellow, 2 feet. 

October-Flowering Varieties. — Champagne, 
ruby red, 2i feet ; CrSpuscule, purple red, 3i feet ; 
Diane, pure white, 3 feet ; Gustav Griinerwald, 
light pink, li feet ; Etoile d'Or, yellow, 2 feet ; 
Primevere, primrose, bushy habit, 2 feet ; Pride of 
Keston, reddish rose, 2} feet ; Mrs. E. V. Freeman, 
deep crimson, 2 feet ; Mme. Marie Masse, lilac 
mauve, 2 feet ; Lorraine, crimson and purple, 

3 feet ; Lentz, deep pink, 2 feet ; and White 
Quintus, 3 feet. 

The cuttings may be propagated in small pots 
or dibbled in in a sandy compost in boxes. At 
this season, if they are kept in a frame rather 
close and very lightly syringed, also lightly shaded 
from bright sunshine, roots will soon form 
without placing squares of glass on the cuttings 
themselves. When rooted, the yoimg plants 
must be transplanted once further apart into other 
boxes ; then they will be ready for planting in the 
borders early in May. Avon. 



TO 



ANSWERS 
CORRESPONDENTS. 



RULES FOR CORRESPONDENTS. 



EDITORIAL NOTICES. 



Every department of horlicuUnre is represented in THE 
Garden, and the Editor invites readers to send in questions 
relating to matters upon which they wish expert advice. 

TAe Editor welcomes photographs, articles and notes, 
but he will not be responsible for their safe return. All 
reasonc^le care, however, vnll be taken, arid where stamps 
are enclosed, he mil endeavour to return non-accepted 
contributions. 

As regards photographs, if payment be desired, the Editor 
asks that the price required for reproduction be plainly stated. 
It must be distinctly understood thai only the actual photo- 
grapher or oumer of the copyright will be treated with. 

The Editor mil not be responsible for the return of artistic 
or literary conlribiitions which he may not be able to use, and 
the receipt of a proof must not be taken as evidence that an 
article is accepted. Publication in The Gardek zcill aXore 
be recognised as acceptance- 
Offices : 20, Tavistock Street, Covent Garden, W.C 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS.— T^e Editor endeavou? . to 
make The Gauden helpful to all readers who desire assist- 
ance, no matter wJiat the branch of gardening may be, and 
with that object makes a special feature of the "Answers 
to CorresponderUs " columns. All communications should be 
clearly and concisely tvritten on one side of the paper only, 
and addressed to the Editor of The Garden, 20, Tavistock 
Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C. The name and address 
of the sender are required in addition to any designation he 
may desire to be used in the paper. When more than one 
query is sent, each shoidd be on a separate piece of paper. 
Plants for naming should be clearly numbered and securely 
packed in damp grass or moss, not cotton-ivool, and flowering 
shoots, where possible, should be sent. It is useless to send 
small scraps that are not characteristic of the plant. Letters 
on business should be sent to the Publisher 



FLOWER GARDEN. 

GERANIUM LEAVES FOR INSPECTION (E. R.).— 
The Gfiranium leaves have been attacked by some biting 
insect, probably a caterpillar of the surface grub typr, 
which hides in the soil (and is much the same colour as 
the soil) during the day, coming out at night to feed. 
Search would doubtless reveal the pest, though as its 
colour is so similar to its surroundings, it is by no means 
easy to see. Spraying with some poisonous spray, such 
as lead arsenate, will also check the pest, and probably 
spraying once in six or eight weeks would be sufficient. 

HERBACEOUS BORDER (IF. a.).— We should like 
to know a great deal more about the border. Obviously, 
you have one in mind ; hence we cannot generalise to 
your satisfaction. What we would like particularly 
to know is the time the border has been planted, the 
nature or character of the soil, and how the work was 
done. If you give us these particulars, we can promise 
you a helpful answer. We are compelled to put it in this 
way, because the differences of soil — light and heavj' — 
are so great that no rule of thumb principle could be laid 
down. The border may even want replanting, and as 
we know nothing of its age or subsequent treatment, 
any reply could only be in the nature of guesswork. As 
the " Answers to Correspondents " columns are intended 
to be of service to our readers, all we ask of the latter 
is to give us a clear statement of affairs in the briefest 
possible way, when no pains on our part vnll be spared 
to give a helpful reply. 

TOP-DRESSING PRIMULAS (IF. 4.).— None of the 
Primulas named in your letter requires mulching with 
stone chips through the winter. Two of them, P. rosea 
and P. japonica, are moisture -loving, semi-bog-loving 
species, and given this condition in leaf-soil and loam 
fairly rich in humus, they reach their highest development. 
It is not always necessary or even desirable that the plants 
be submerged, or even partially so, though it is essential 
that moisture be within reach. With this p^o^^ded, the 
root-fibres will do the rest. P. farinosa is a pasture 
plant, and is often found in Nature minghng with the 
dwarfest herbage, where cool conditions and often moisture 
are found. We give you these details to prevent your 
treating every rock garden plant alike, and a detail which 
is alien to the plant in Nature is not requisite in the garden. 
Nowadays because a plant happens to be of the alpiuc 
class it is surrounded by granite or other chips, and while 
such things may stay evaporation in the summer-time, 
in certain Instances they are not in the least desirable 
plus not ornamental or even natural to a plant like P. 
rosea, which in Nature inhabits semi-boggy ground at 
an altitude of 10,000 feet or even more. 

LILY POND AND BORDER (B. A.). — Unless you have 
definite experience as to the water-holding capabilities 
of the soil intended for the pond's area, you will be well 
advised to take greater precautions than you propose. 
With moisture and a fair amount of tampering, a 3-inch- 
thick layer at the bottom might be made secure enough, 
but the sides would require similar treatment and on 
systematic lines. We advise you to make sure of this 
at the start, as an aquatic pond that is not water-holding 
Is a continual nuisance subsequently. As to the border, 
your plan does not show any, and your letter gives 
no idea of size, and without some knowledge of this and 
the environment of the pond any list of plants we may 
give you might be wholly unsuitable. Please, therefore, 
say whether plants suited to a water-side border are 
required, or whether the border is removed some 
distance from the pond. Please ako say if the border 
is exposed or in a shaded position. The Water Lilies 
need not he planted before the middle of March, and for 
each plant a mound of earth, loam incorporated with 
manure and leaf-soil, should be prepared. 

THE GREENHOUSE. 

ADVICE ON ORCHIDS (E. A.).— As the whole of the 
members of the several genera named by you do not 
need the same treatment, our ad\'icc ca.n only be taken 
in a general rather than an individual sense. Cattleyas, 
as a rule, require a ^\^nter temperature of 55" to 60', 
while, as spring advances, the house will, of course, be 
kept warmer. In very hot weather in the summer the 



temperature during the daytime may rise to 90* without 
any harm, providing there is a liberal amount of atmo- 
spheric moisture. Potting should be done when the 
new roots are about half an inch long. This is mostly 
in the spring, but varies according to the species. A 
suitable compost for Cattleyas consists of two-thirds 
Osmunda fibre or good fibrous peat, the remaining third 
being made up of chopped sphagnum moss, small nodules 
of charcoal and silver sand. The pots must be thoroughly- 
well drained. When growing freely, Cattleyas need to 
be shaded from the sun, but when growth is completed 
they may only be shaded during the very hottest part 
of the day. When fairly ripened, less water will be 
needed, but at no time must they be parched up. LseUas 
require much tlie same treatment as the Cattleyas. 
Dendrobiums as a class need different treatment, but 
such as D. nobile, D. thyrsiflorum, D. wardianum and 
several others bloom in the spring. After fiowcring,. 
they will need about the same temperature as the Cattleyas, 
and as soon as the young shoots spring from the base 
they may be repotted. Directly the roots take possession 
of the new soil the plants ^\i]l delight in a warm and moist 
structure. AMien growth is completed, tlie plants must 
be inured to a cooler and drier atmosphere in order to 
ripen them, while they may be gradually exposed to fuU 
sunshine. In the winter a temperature of 55° to 60° 
by night, rising during the day, will be suitable. At 
that time they do not need much moisture at the roots, 
only enough, in fact, to keep them from shrivelling. 
Directly the flower-buds make their appearance, more 
water and heat should be given them. Much the satoe 
compost as recommended for Cattleyas and Lselias will 
suit the Dendrobiums. Odontoglossums belong to what 
are usually termed cool-house Orchids. During the 
winter a temperature of 45° to 60° will suit them, and 
in the height of the summer the difficulty is to keep them 
cool enough. They should at that time be well shaded, 
freely watered and plenty of atmospheric moisture main- 
tained. This is kept up by lightly spraying the plants 
overhead, and by damping the stages, walls, Ac. A 
suitable soil for Odontoglossums may be formed of two- 
thirds Osmunda fibre or fibrous peat and one-third of 
sphagnum moss (chopped), with a sprinkling of clean 
silver sand. Odontoglossums resent being disturbed at 
the roots in the summer, hence repotting should be done 
in the spring or early autumn They must be kept 
watered at all seasons, but, of course, less will be required 
in the winter than in the summer. Oncidiums need 
much the same compost, with the addition of a httle fine 
charcoal. Repotting should, as a rule, be done soon 
after the flowers are over. Many of them will tlirive 
under much the same conditions as the Odontoglossums, 
while some need more heat. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

STERILISING SOIL (F. P.).— Any method by which 
you can raise the temperature of the soil to about 180* 
or over will serve to sterilise it so far as to kill eelworms 
and most of the other pests of greenhouse plants. It 
may be baked in an oven or heated by placing red-hot 
iron platen or bricks on the soil heap, but the best means 
of doing it is to drive steam into it. An apparatus 
fashioned like a fish-kettle, with a perforated false bottom 
on which the soil to be treated rests over water that can 
be heated to boihng point, the steam being retained 
by a cover fitting close, would probably serve your purpose 
as well as anything if only a small quantity of soil is to 
be dealt with. 



SOCIETIES. 



BIRMINGHAM AND DISTRICT GARDENERS* 

ASSOCIATION. 

The scriptural reference to "the highest and loTvest 
seats in the room " was the Rev. Hilderic Friend's jocular 
opening remark at Birmingham on January 25, for, 
curiously enough, so close to him were the only two vacant 
seats that the comparison was most appropriate. " Garden 
Worms : Are They Friends or Foes ? " constituted this 
first paper to the association, and, apart from its excellent 
scientific treatment, it practically covered a hitherto 
unexpioited subject with many who were present. Until 
within quite recent years people, whenever they discovered, 
picked up or examined earthworms, invariably spoke of 
them all as Lumbricus terrestris, it being only of late 
that the discovery of the variation in species has been 
made. Darwin, perhaps one of the first to interest himself 
in worms, had assumed eight to ten kinds to be existing ; 
but the matter only stood at that when the speaker himself 
commenced his own investigations, and his addition 
to the fornier hst so far made the recognised species 
now to be forty-two in all. It is, however, certain that 
at least five times this number actually exist. The purple 
blue coloured worm in some gardens, the ruddy bright; 
and, say, steel blue in another, all denote variety of species. 
By inspection of the gurdle, an interesting part of the 
worm's egg case — not, as is fallaciously supposed, the part 
where it has at some time or other been cut — the pores 
on the segments will disclose, as in the case of Lumbricus 
rubellus, the genus to which it belongs. Generally 
speaking, worms may be defined in the three groups 
Lumbricidse, Enchytraidse and Tubificidee, and no fewer 
than forty varieties are included in the Lumbricidse, 
those which without exception are in truth useful in 
the garden in breaking down decadent vegetation, sweeten- 
ing the soil or attacking fermented manure. The Enchy- 
traidse, or smaller white worm, is guilty of ravages to 



72 



THE GARDEN. 



[February 6, 191^. 



which grave charges may be made Durinji the past 
few years many new name?, have been added to them, 
and one instance of dire havoc being wrought on an 
Aster-bed was mentioned. In fact, all in this class are 
very dangerous unless their depredations are effectuallv 
checked. The Tubificidae are inhabitants of the water. 
They possess a tube and arc bright red in colour. Although 
our acquaintance with worms is only yet in its infancy, 
science has already pronounced them as possessing a 
■brain, an elaborate, highly sensitive and complex organic 
■structiure, and hermaplirodite in nature. Hearty applause 
was accorded for tlie lecture at the conclusion, and a vote 
of thanks also was proposed by Mr. W. Jones and seconded 
by Mr. A. I{. Brown. 



WARGRAVE AND DISTRICT GARDENERS' 

ASSOCIATION. 
THE annual meeting of the above association was held 
in the Parish Room. Wargrave, on Wednesday evening. 
January 13, under the chairmanship of the president, 
n. i'\ Nicholl, Esq., J.I». The Kev. S. M. Winter (Vicar of 
Wargrave). a vice-president, was also present, in addition 
to a good number of members. The election of officers 
ior the ensuing twelve months resulted in Mr. 11 Doe, 
:gardener to Sir Charles Henry, Bart,, M. P., being chosen as 
chairman; Mr. P, Wiseman, of Messrs. Waterer, Sons 
-and Crisp, as vice-chairman; and the following as com- 
mittee: Messrs. Batehelor, Gray, Haskett, Irvin, 
Richardson, Seott and Stephens. Mr. H. Coleby 
■was re-elected hon. secretary and treasurer. The annual 
report and balance-sheet were considered extremely 
satisfactory, notwithstanding the critical period through 
which the country has bei^n passing. Twenty-one of 
the younger members have joined His Majesty's Forces, 
but others have taken their places in the ranks of the 
society, so that there has been only a net decrease of 
two during the year. Several other matters of interest 
■were dealt with before the meeting closed with votes of 
thanks. 



HIGHCLIFFE GARDENERS* ASSOCIATION. 

At the annual meeting of tlie members of this society, 
uU the officers were re-elected for the year 1915. Cordial 
votes of thanks were passed to the president, E. Huntly 
Hooper. Esq., J.P. ; the hon. secretary, Mr. A. Stephens ; 
the assistant-secretary, Mr. W. Weaver ; and the librarian, 
Mr. F. Cook, for the good work done by them during the 
past year. The soci-^.ty intends to hold two exhibitions 
this year, one at midsummer and one in the autumn. 
A substantial sum wus raised, through the holding of the 
autumn show, for the benefit of the Prince of Wales' 
National Relief Fund, and now the members propose to in- 
olude classes for cottagers in their 1915 prize schedules, so as 



to encourage a wider interest in gardening in the district. 
The programme for the half-year ending June G is a 
very interesting one, and deals ^vith important subjects 
The staff teacher, Air. Clecd of the Hampshire County 
Counci],is to give two lectures, and Mr Montagu C. Allwood, 
Wivelsfield Nurseries, Hayward's Heath, a lantern 
lecture on " The Culture of Carnations (Indoors and Out)." 
Mr. W. Weaver was the winner of the President's silver 
medal in the Points Class during the year 1914. 



DUMFRIES AND GALLOWAY GARDENERS' 
ASSOCIATION. 

This association held its ordinary meeting in the Wesley 
Hall, BuccJeuch Street, Dumfries, on January 23. There 
was a good attendance, with Mr. S. Arnott "in the chair. 
After the usual formal business the chairman introduced 
the lecturer for the evening, Mr. John B. Crietiton, The 
Gardens, Kinmount, Annan, who gave a capital paper on 
" Gardeners' Peculiarities." The scope of the paper 
included many comments on different classes of horti- 
culturists, such as apprentices, journeymen, foremen, 
head-gardeners, nurserymen and nurserymen's travellers. 
It was written in a delightfully humorous vein and full 
of quipsand anecdotes, with the "result that it held the close 
attention of the audience during its duration, and was 
followed by hearty applause. It was not devoid of sound 
advice, and much of this, conveyed in a witty way, was 
well worthy of reflection from those present. A* short 
but appreciative discussion, taken part in by several 
members, followed, and Mr, Crichtou received a hearty 
vote of thanks. 



CHELMSFORD AND DISTRICT GARDENERS' 
ASSOCIATION. 

The seventh meeting of the association was held in the 
East AngUan Institute of Agriculture on Friday, the 
22nd nit. Mr. R. H. Currie presided over about thirty 
members. Mr. R. M. Wilson, Principal of the institute, 
gave a most interesting and instructive lecture on "Soil 
Moisture." The lecturer dealt with his subject in a scientific 
manner, and showed how the soil was made up of numbers 
of minute grains, and how, under ordinary conditions, 
these grains were surrounded by a film of water. It was 
pointed out that the greater proportion of the rainfall fell 
during the winter months, and therefore crops, as a 
rule, never obtained the maximum amount of water that 
they required during the growing period. Cultural 
operations, such as ploughing, rolling, mulching and 
surface cultivating, were fully explained, and it was shown 
how these various operations tended to the conservation 
of soil moisture. Mr. Wilson illustrated his remarks by 
various experiments. At the conclusion of the discussion 



a hearty vote of thanks was acconied .Mr. Wilson for his 
most interesting lecture. Mr. Currie was al?o accorded a 
vote of thanks for kindly taking the chair. 



OBITUARY. 



WILLIAM TAYLOR. 

We I*arii with regret of the death of Mr. William 
Taylor, stationniaster at Dalmellington, and an 
ardent amateur horticulturist, which took place 
on January 26. Mr. Taylor, who was sixty years 
of age, was for twenty-live years in the service 
of the Glasgow and South Western Railway 
Company, and went from Ayr to Dalmellington 
about nine years ago. His love of horticulture 
soon found scope at that place, and he transformed 
the grouiids into a beautiful garden, which received 
the highest awards at the annual competition. 
Mr. Taylor was much esteemed in private life 
as well as in his official work. He is survived by 
Mrs. Taylor and a young family. 



JAMES CHAPMAN. 

Stirlingshire has lost one of its oldest and most 
resptctcd market gardeners by the recent death 
of Mr. James Chapman, Candie, near Grange- 
mouth. Mr. Chapman was in his ninety-fourth 
year, and had carried on business as a market 
gardener for the lengthened period of sixty-six 
years. He was a skilled horticulturist, and his 
produce was of the highest quality. Mr. Chapman 
was much esteemed in his private and public 
capacities, and his knowledge of his calling and 
the integrity of his character frequently led to 
his appointment as a judge at flower shows over 
a wide area. 



<^0»m0*0^0aiti0tm^ 



^0»0m 



■M«l«^«M 



*0»0I 






ECONOMY IN THE GARDEN 

"^^E offer all the choicest stocks of Vegetable and Flower Seeds at the Lowest Profitable Prices. 

We feel confident that many amateurs now paying from 25 to 50 per cent, more than we charge would, if they gave us a 

trial, find the results equally good, and they would have the surplus to spend in other directions. We quote below a few specialities. 

Fully Illustrated Catalogue Free on application. 



Gradus 8d., Thos. Laxton 9d., Reading Wonder 1 -, Triumph 
6d., Prince of Wales 6d., Autocrat 8d., Prizewinner 1/-, 
Capt. Cuttle 9d., Little Marvel 8d., The Gladstone 8d. 

ALL PER PINT. 

All the best BEETS from 6d. to 1/- per oz. 

CABBAGES 6d. to Bd. per oz., 2d. per pkt. 

LETTUCES from 6d. to 1/- per oz., 2d. 
and 3d. per pkt. 
Nearly all the best ONIONS 6d. to 2/- per oz. 
RADISHES 2d. to 3d. per oz. 



i-ariety, 6d. and 1/- 



Tlxe 

Best of All (Sutton), the best exhibition 

per packet. 
Sunrise (Carter's), the heaviest cropper in cultivation ; fruit 

perfect in shape and excellent in flavour, 3d. and 6d. per 

packet. 
Buck's TreSOO (New), saved from selected fruits, 6d. and 1/- 

per packet. 
Up-tO-Date, very short jointed in habit and extremely 

prolific. Fruit smooth, medium size, excellent quality, 

3d. and 6d. per packet. 
Kondine Red (Holmes), a wonderful cropper, 6d. and 1/- 

per packet. 
ALL THE ABOVE ARE SAVED FROM SELECTED FRUITS. 



We have a magnificent strain of these. The seed is saved in our own houses, with the utmost care. All seed is 1914 crop, and certaift to grow if it 

has a fair chance. Large flowered varieties— Brilliant King, 1/- per pkt.; Cannell's Pink, 1/- per pkt.; iVirs. Robt. Cannell, 

1/- per pkt.; Pink Perfection, 1/- per pkt. ; The Duchess, 1/- per pkt. ; White Perfection, 1/- per pkt. ; Also mixed from 

above varieties, 1/- per pkt. Steliata Mont Blanc, and finest mixed, 1/- per pkt. The packets contain about 120 seeds. 

A Fine Selection of Seed Potatoes— Scotch Grown. 

J. R. PEARSON & SONS, The Nurseries, 



» 



I^OIVIDHEAIVI, NOTTS. 



Established 1782. 



i 






m^-^- 




GARDEN. 




-^?= 






-^'=^^p%. 



No. 2256.— Vol. LXXIX. 



February 13, 1915. 



NOTES OF THE WEEK. 



Treatment of Ferns in Pots. — The usual 
condition of some species of Ferns in pots at this 
season of the year, owing to the removal of fronds, 
is not very fjourishiug, therefore water should 
be applied with judgment for a few weeks, only 
giving them sufficient to prevent the drooping 
of the existing fronds. Ferns rested in this way 
throw up more young fronds and grow with greater 
vigour than when the opposite course is adopted. 
As soon as plants of Adiantum cuneatum are cut 



whence it was introduced to this country nearly 
a century ago. If planted out in a border, it 
will make a large bush 8 feet or more in height, 
but it is also suitable for growing as a smaller 
plant in pots. 
Presentation to Ittr. George Bunyard. — 

Owing to failing health, Mr. George Bunyard, 
V.M.H., felt it necessary a few weeks ago to resign 
the chairmanship ' of the Royal Horticultural 
Society's fruit and vegetable committee, of which 



over, place them in a temperature of 50°, and 1 he has been a member for thirty-four years and 
keep them there till new growth commences ; chairman for fourteen years. His fellow-members 
they should then be potted on, or divided if they j of that committee have presented him with an 
are getting larger than is required. ' illuminated address, together with a diamond 

A Noble Oak.— 
Quercus Mirbeckii is 
one of the most dis- 
tinct and ornamental 
of the many kinds of 
Oak, and it is a 
species to remember 
when a choice is being 
made of large-growing 
trees for park or gar- 
den decoration. A 
native of North Africa 
and certain parts of 
South - West Europe, 
particularly Portugal, 
it sometimes exceeds 
100 feet in height, 
with a large trunk, 
and is conspicuous by 
reason of its large 
leaves, which are in 
some seasons almost 
evergreen and rarely 
fall before January. 
The leaves are often 
5 inches to 7 inches 
long and 2 inches to 
3i inches wide, with 
regular and rather 

deeply lobed margins. It gives good results when 
planted under the same conditions as the common 
Oak, requiring deep and really good soil to ensure 
the best development. 

A Beautiful Camellia. — The illustration on 
this page represents flowers of Camellia reticulata, 
one of the most beautiful members of the family, 
and one that deserves to be better known. As 
will be seen, the flowers are not of that stiff, formal 
outline that is usually associated with Camellias, 
and therein lies their principal charm. The blossoms 
are a pleasing shade of bright soft rose, and open 
in a cool greenhouse during the early months of 
the year. This species is a native of China, 




A FLOWERING SPRAY OF CAMELLIA RETICULATA, A NATIVE OF CHINA WITH ROSE 

COLOURED BLOSSOMS. 

and sapphire gold pin, as a token of the high esteem 
in which he was held by them all. The address 
and pin were displayed at the meeting of the 
committee held on Tuesday of last week, and were 
presented to Mr. Bimyard by a deputation on 
the following Thm-sday. Mr. C. G. A. Nix has 
been appointed the new chairman of the fruit 
and vegetable committee. 

Tlie Copper-leaved Ling or Heatlier.— In the 
Heath garden just now the Copper-leaved Ling 
is an attractive and interesting plant, by reason 
of its rich red-bronze foliage and tips of the shoots. 
It is a medium tall variety, though on poor soil it 
remains dwarf for years. Its full botanical name 



is Calluna vulgaris cuprea, though one usually finds 
it labelled in gardens as Erica vulgaris cuprea. 
.A good breadth of it planted on a gently sloping 
bank would create quite a bright, warm effect 
during the winter months, and it is also beautiful 
in late summer when its purple flowers open. 
Like other varieties of Ling, it appreciates well- 
drained and rather sandy soil that contains a good 
amount o* humus. 

Tlie Glory of the Snow.— This is the popular 
name given to a beautiful little blue flower that 
opens during the early days of spring, when 
vegetation generally is awakening from its winter 
slumber. Botanically the plant is known as 
Chionodoxa Luciliae. 
There is an even 
more pleasing 
variety known as 
sardensis. This is deep 
blue in coloiu-, with 
cinnamon red flower- 
stems. The blossoms 
open just a little later 
than those of Luciliae. 
It is a very charming 
flower for planting in 
small colonies in the 
rock garden or for the 
more prominent places 
among shrubs. Seeds 
are produced in abun- 
dance.and if allowed to 
ripen and fall, germi- 
nate very freely. 

Rhododendron 
nobleanum Flower- 
ing Well.— The mUd 
weather of the present 
winter hasbeenfavour- 
able to the develop- 
ment of the flowers of 
this bright - coloured 
Rhododendron, and 
several bushes have been noted in good condition 
between Christmas and the present date at Kew 
and in other gardens. It is a very old garden 
plant, for it is said to have been raised as long ago 
as 1832 in the Knap Hill Ntnsery by crossing 
R. arboreum and R. caucasicum, and it has held 
its own among other kinds throughout the time, 
being still popular in many places. In Cornish 
gardens it makes a distinct winter feature, while 
it is also grown extensively in some parts of the 
North of England, its rosy red flowers expanding 
any time between November and March. It is, 
without exception, the most valuable hybrid 
Rhododendron for early forcing. 



74 



THE GARDEN. 



[February 13, 1915. 



HOME-GROWN VEGETABLES AND OUR FOOD SUPPLY. 



The article that appeared under this heading in our last issue has created a considerable amount of interest, and we publish below a 

selection of letters thai we have received on the subject. In addition to the letters that have been sent for publication, we have received a 

number from some of the highest Government officials, Members of Parliament, and other public men. Invariably the writers of 

these letters cordially endorse our remarks,but, holding the position they do, they not unnaturally mark their communications " private." 



I AM much pleased to see your excellent 
and timely article in The Gardes- for 
February 6, pointing out the national 
importance of everyone doing their 
utmost to increase our supplies of home- 
grown vegetables. At this juncture to do 
so is not only a patriotic action, but one which, 
ha\'ing regard to the inevitable tendency of all 
foodstuffs to rise in price, should be pecuniarily 
profitable. I sincerely trust that the various 
horticultural societies will aid your propaganda ; 
they certainly should. Without waiting for your 
adN-ice, I have already arranged to utilise all avail- 
able land possible at Aldenham for this purpose. 
Aldeiiham House. Elslree. Vicar y Gibes 



In reference to the editorial article which appeared 
on page 63 of last week's issue, everyone doubtless 
will agree that we cannot very well have too 
many Potatoes and other vegetables at the present 
time. I would strongly advise all cottagers to 
grow all they can of lands that are likely to be 
most useful for food, since bacon, cheese, bread, 
butter and Potatoes, which together may be 
taken to be their main food in normal times, 
will be dearer. The question of growing more 
for hospital consumption or for sending to the 
Fleet or for kindred purposes is different, and it 
seems to me that if local societies are to take up 
this work, co-ordination and co-operation are very 
necessary in order that the distribution may be ar- 
ranged to the best advantage. Joseph Jacob. 



1 WAS delighted to read the article on " Home- 
grown Vegetables and Our Food Supply " in your 
issue of last week, and very much hope that you 
will enlist wide and prominent support for your 
excellent suggestions. With regard to the good 
work which could be done by the various horti- 
cultural societies throughout/ the country, I am 
entirely with you, and I have already approached 
the secretary of our local horticultural society. 
asking him to place the article before his com- 
mittee. I feel that it is impossible to treat the 
question of our vegetable supply for the coming 
year too seriously. Surely there can be no doubt 
that, owing to the constantly increasing prices 
of meat and bread, the demand for vegetables 
will be an ever-increasing one, and I unhesitatingly 
state that it is both patriotic and business-like 
for every one of us to do all we can to increase 
the growth of vegetables in every possible way. 
May I make what I hope you will think is a 
practical suggestion ? Could you not send out 
to the secretary of every horticultural society in 
the country a copy of your article and ask him 
to place this matter on the agenda paper for his 
next meeting ? [This, as far as possible, shall 
be done. — Ed.] J. .\llan Ramsay. 

The appeal you have made for co-operation 
among horticulturists to grow vegetables for the 
hospitals is a most timely one. We have, 
unfortunately, before us a great and pressing need. 



We cannot hide from ourselves that in such a 
gigantic struggle the number of wounded will 
be very great. An ample supply of vegetables fresh 
from the ground of English gardens may prove 
the saving of many li%'es and the alleviation of 
much suffering. Although each garden may only 
be able to contribute a little, many of these littles 
will mean much when all is told. Your idea of 
combination by local societies to collect and send 
in the produce as it is ready will certainly make 
the work easier and less costly all round. 
If local societies would accept your sugges- 
tion and collect orders from their members for 
the produce to be gro\vn upon your plan, I am 
sure that not only our own association, but all 
seedsmen of standing would gladly co-operate in 
quoting wholesale prices. The difference between 
wholesale prices and the much higher figures re- 
quired for small lots does not represent, as is some- 
times supposed, an increased profit to the supplier. 
The difference is lost in expenses of labour, 
packages and railway carriage. You suggest that 
technical hints might be distributed among the 
members of the horticultural societies, who would 
undertake to grow surplus vegetables. We have, 
as you are well aware, published many penny 
garden books containing information for the use 
of small holders, allotment holders and owners 
of small gardens. One of these by the veteran 
horticulturist, Mr. John Wright, V.M.H., on 
" Cropping Allotments," would, I think, be very 
useful to the growers, and we should be happy to 
make grants, through yourself, of copies to be 
distributed, to a reasonable amoimt. 

Edward Owen Greening. 
92, Long Acre, London, W.C. 



I AM quite in accord with the very practical 
article in The Garden of February 5. I 
reply to it, strongly supporting the same, and 
will use similar headings in doing so, as in the 
article in question. 

Co-operation Needed. — We had during the past 
autumn some practical experience of the beneficent 
effects of the use of surplus vegetables. For 
several weeks we sent such from these gardens 
to the London hospitals and homes of refuge. 
I can testify to the appreciation of the recipients 
of these. It is not so much a question of those 
in large establishments. These can, and will, 
help, I have no doubt, and to the best of their 
ability^ but those with smaller gardens can help 
too. It is in this that co-operation will be found 
to work well. With this I cordially agree in the 
suggestions made. 

HorticuUural Societies Should Help. — ,\t such a 
time as the present all horticultural societies 
should rise to the occasion and do all that lies 
in their power to assist in their immediate locality 
by inducing a spirit of emulation among its own 
members and others within their reach. True, 
the prize schedule in many societies is this year 
being abandoned. I do not think petsonally 
that this should arise. It shows a tone of 



despondency. Why not rise to the occasion 
and endeavour to encourage the extended culture 
of such vegetables (and flowers too) as will prove 
to be of use in the way indicated ? In the case 
of such societies as make a point of good vegetable 
exhibits, prizes might be offered for the best 
crops on the ground that are suitable for the calls 
of the moment. Others that make a feature 
of flowers can also help by sending them to the 
hospitals, care being taken to avod overlapping. 

How Assistance Can be Rendered. — Local com- 
mittees might do a great deal towards encouraging 
this new departure in cultivation. The advice 
of experts should be sought as to the best methods 
of procedure. What strikes me is this : A point 
should be made of getting the utmost off the 
ground at such a time. By this I mean make 
a feature of first-early vegetables to a great extent, 
e.g., early Peas, early Carrots, early Turnips and 
the like ; early Lettuce also, brought on under 
cloches if needs be ; early Mar^o^vs by the same 
means. By adopting these methods much of the 
ground can be double cropped. Do not adhere 
too much to the rule of thumb practice, but rather 
try to make every available yard of ground yield 
something that will in due course prove to be 
useful. Parsley is ever welcome ; so are such 
herbs as Thyme, Mint, Marjoram, Savory, &c. 
I Ivnow that salads are welcomed ; hence, in 
addition to the Lettuce I have named, there are 
Radishes, Cress of various kinds, and later on 
Tomatoes from early raised plants. The Turnip- 
rooted Beet is very useful indeed for early use for 
salads. I found Cucumb?rs, too, were most 
acceptable last autumn. 

The Supply of Seeds. — Tliis would apply more 
particularly to societies which ordered seeds and 
then distributed them among their members. 
The hint I have given as to early varieties could 
be taken into consideration in giving these orders. 
It is not in any sense essential to launch out in the 
purchase of expensive varieties, while new varieties 
should be given the go-by at such times. The 
seedsmen of repute — and their name is legion — 
would, I feel, be only too glad to give advice as 
to the best varieties to purchase, while I have 
no doubt a liberal discount might be anticipated 
on payment of the account being made. 

The Collection of Surplus Vegetables. — This is 
a matter where horticultural societies should 
help. By having a small committee, it is quite 
possible to do a deal in this way. Small quanti- 
ties could be collected and then packed in one 
hamper. (In doing this enclose a " returned 
empty " label. I find this pa)-s in all cases.) 

Surplus Plants for Cropping. — I know that 
numbers were distributed last autumn by the 
Royal Horticultural Society's influence. This can 
be done again this season by societies all over 
the country if taken up in time. There will be 
many surplus plants available during the season. 
Rather than let these spoil, by all means use 
them. James Hudson, V.M.H. 

Gunitersburv House Gardens. 



February 13, 1915] 



THE GARDEN. 



75 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

{The Editor is iwt responsible for the opinions 
expressed by correspondents.) 



Outdoor Flowers in Midwinter. — Regarding 
your note on outdoor flowers in midwiater, 
page 37, issue January 23, you might have 
added the Winter Heliotrope (Petasites fragrans). It 
has been flowering freely this winter. — W. Lillico. 

Cuttings with " Heels." — Is it not the case 
that the reason for taking cuttings with " heels " 
is that it prevents bleeding ? My father, who 
was a successful Geranium-grower, always laid 
his cuttings out in the sun until the cut ends had 
dried, and he showed me that cuttings put in the 
ground with a bleeding end were very apt to 
rot off. My experience is that it is generally 
best with all plants which are juicy and soft to 
let the cuttings mther a little before placing them 
in the ground. I wonder if Mr. Portman Dalton, 
who writes under this heading in your issue of 
January 30, has tried this. — ^Thackeray Turner. 

Solanum ciliatum. — -I was interested in seeing 
your illustration of Solanum ciliatum on page 56, 
issue January 30, having often wondered why I 
had never met the plant in England. Twenty- 
five years ago I saw bushes of it in Mr. Hanbury's 
beautiful gardens at La Mortola, beyond Mentone, 
and brought back one of the fruits, from which 
I raised a number of seedlings. We moved 
house, however, or something, and they never 
arrived at more than the seedling stage, and I 
laimot remember their ultimate fate. They are 
so easily started, however, that they would 
probably do well planted out against a south 
wall, like Tomatoes, especially in a summer like 
that of last year. — A. la T. 

Funkia subcordata alba odorata. — I am much 
obliged to " E. M." for his note on page 27, in 
the issue of January 16, in response to my enquiry 
under the above heading. I am also much obliged 
to Mr. James Adison, The Gardens, Castle Marj', 
Cloyne, County Cork, who \vrote me, giving the 
result of his experience with the white Fimkia, 
which experience goes to show that while it usually 
flowers well when grown in a deep, moist soil, it is 
not quite satisfactory in some seasons. Although 
1 obtained the plant, named as above, from a 
leading London firm, I am now convinced that it 
has been a misnomer, and that our plant is really 
Fimkia subcordata grandiflora, as suggested by 
" E. M." In Nicholson's " Dictionary of Garden- 
ing" it is given as a distinct species mider the 
name of F. grandiflora, but when referred to in 
the Supplement it is said to be " a form of sub- 
cordata." Other Funkias succeed well in our 
moist soil, so I must try my hitherto disappointing 
plant in a new environment, and may some day 
record the result in these pages. — Charles Comfort. 

A Hedge of Sorts. — I see in yoiu: issue of 
January 9 an enquiry in your " Correspondence " 
by " Anne Amateur " re " A Hedge of Sorts." I 
suggest here a few " sorts " which I should be 
pleased if you would publish or convey for " Anne 
Amateur's" perusal. A good Crab is Pyrus 
Maulei, dwarf, and allied to P. japouica ; flowers 
brick red, fruit used for preserving. Others 
really better in flowers but not so in fruit are P. 
thianschanica, P. baccata and P. cerasifera (Cherry 
Crab). A good Maple is Acer rubrum, scarlet or 
crimson flowers and red keys, the extremities 
of the branches deeply tinged with red in early 
spring; very ornamental. Other sorts are A. 
campestre, A. palmatum (A. polymorphum), 
A. pinnatifidum, A. crispum, A. roseo-marginatum 



and A. purpureum. I also think Berberis ought 
not to be left out. Two good ones are B. Darwinii, 
yellow flowers in early spring and again in the 
autumn, and B. empetrifolia, yellow flowers, 
December to March. — H. S. P., Wroxham.- 

Daffodils for the Garden. — Mr. G. L. Wilson's 
letter under this heading in your issue of January 30 
tempts me to offer a few more remarks on the 
variety King Alfred, which he recommends every- 
body to try very hard to grow. I meant to have 
added a sentence in my former letter when speaking 
of this variety, advising those who must ha\'e it 
for exhibition purposes to make sure that they 
get their stock from those who had grown it 
in the South-Westem Counties of England, the 
Welsh seacoast, or from the bulb-growing districts 
in Ireland, which are practically the only places 
in the British Isles where it will thrive and bloom 
well year after year. Mr. Wilson I see lives in 
County Antrim, and even he has had some poor 
experience of it, and in a sense his cotmty address 
goes to prove my point. I must repeat, however, 



properties of the variety, but, until it can be 
bought at a price very much imder 21s. a dozen, I 
advise all those who are outside the sphere of its 
particular favours to confine themselves to well- 
known good doers. — A Small Amateur. 

Iris stylosa. — I have been waiting each week 
to see if any of your correspondents would ^vrite 
to you remarking on the phenomenal blooming 
of Iris stjdosa this winter, but, as none has done 
so, I think perhaps it may be of interest to give 
you the results of my experience. Since before 
Christmas I have been picking an average of 
forty to fifty blooms every two days off about a 
dozen plants. Some days I have gathered as many 
as a himdred blossoms. The clumps are scattered 
about in every variety of aspect and soil, and all 
have done equally well, including the beautiful 
white variety of the type. Some are planted in 
wet, sour gromid facing south (these were given 
mortar rubble when planted some years ago), one 
clump is in a shady but dry corner facing east, 
some are on the poor soil at the base of a rocky 




FLOWERS AND FOLIAGE OF IRIS STYLOSA, A CHARMING WINTER-FLOWERING SPECIES. 



that King Alfred has been tried both in Middlesex 
and Surrey for the last ten years and more, and 
has been foimd almost impossible to keep in good 
condition. When I first got a bulb of it from an 
old florist friend of mine who lived in Surrey, 
he informed me that it had done very badly 
with him. With me the precious bulb was, of 
course, a poor thing in growth the first year, 
and as it was at that time listed at £4 4s. or £5 5s., 
I must have been struggling to get it to do better 
for seven or eight years at least. I have tried 
to grow it in a considerable depth of maiden 
loam, and in such even imder Standard fruit trees, 
but all to no pnrpoee. During recent years I 
got twelve bulbs from Cornwall, and these did 
fairly well the first year of blooming, but the 
disease had got them by the second year. I have 
come to the conclusion, therefore, that the trouble 
is more a matter of climate than of soil ; hence 
I adhere to the remarks I made about it in my 
former letter in your issue of January 23. I 
agree with Mr. Wilson as to the fine exhibition 



cliff, where they are growing practically in powdered 
freestone, some are in garden beds. Those in the 
latter rmi more to leaf, though the flowers are also 
abundant. Those on poor soil have poor foliage, 
but masses of flowers. Mr. Rickatson Dykes, 
in his excellent little book on Irises, classes I. 
stylosa among those difficult to flower, and no 
doubt this is the case in some soils. My experience 
is that after a hot summer like the last the flowers 
are abtmdant, whatever the weather may prove 
during the blossoming period. I had much the 
same results after the hot summer of igir, when 
I also sent you a few notes on the subject. Diu'ing 
these cold, wet weeks the exquisite blooms of this 
lovely Iris have helped much to cheer one in the 
otherwise depressing state of the garden, and I 
feel sure many more people would grow I. stylosa 
if they realised its unique beauty as a hardy winter- 
flowering plant. I may also mention that I have 
already had a few blooms from the usually much 
i later-flowering variety speciosa. — S. Prendergast, 
i Windcliffe, Niton-Undercliff. Isle of Wight. 



76 



THE GARDEN. 



[February 13, 1915. 



SOME 



HARDY LILIES— VII. 

R Hkreert Maxwell. Bari. 



SUB-GENUS CARDIOCRINUM. 

Lilium giganteum, the Giant Lily, is well 
named, for it is the noblest in stature and amplest 
in foliage of all the genus, besides producing 
flowers of great beauty and fragrance. It is 
perfectly hardy in all parts of the British Isles ; 
I have known it come unharmed through a 
temperature below zero Fahrenheit without the 
slightest protection, which is the more remarkable 
because it grows with the apex of 
its huge bulb flush with the soil- 
level. Of the many hundreds I have 
raised from seed, I have never known 
one to sufier injirrj' from disease or 
parasite ; even rabbits avoid the 
glistening foliage. WTiy, then, have 
so many amateurs met with dis- 
appointment in trying to establish it ? 
The reason is not far to seek ; it is 
found in the deplorable condition in 
which the bulbs are offered for sale, 
with the long, fleshy roots withered 
'•r rubbed off. When they arrive in 
that state, the large flowering bulbs 
.T.c scarcely likely to recover, though 
the smaller ones may be nursed back 
into \-igour in a cnid frame. Once 
a bulb has produced its ample foliage, 
there is no difficulty about propa- 
gating it to any extent for in time it 
will send up its huge flowering shaft, 
to be followed by a profusion ot 
seeds, whence an ample stock mav 
be raised. I speak, however, only from 
experience of the seed of Himala>'an 
plants ; the Giant lily is also a 
native of China, and I am informed 
that the seed of plants from that 
country is not fertile. The seeds 
should be sown in boxes with loam, 
sand and leaf-mould or peat ; most of 
them will lie till the second season 
before germinating, when a dense 
crop will spring up. The seedlings 
should be pricked out as soon as they 
ran be handled, preferably in a cold 
frame, lest frost forces them out of 
the groimd ; but after a season under 
glass they may be set in the open, 
rare being taken all along not to let 
them suffer from excessive sunshine. 
Mr. Weatherby, in his excellent 
" Practical Guide," states that the 
bulbs win flower in from four to six 
years from seed. That is a sanguine 
estimate ; I have foimd that it takes 
seven or eight j'ears from sowing to 
produce a flowering bulb. Luckily, 
there is a far more speedy method oi propagation. 
After flowering, the huge bulb, sometimes weighing 
more than two pounds, dies, but not before throw- 
ing out a numerous progeny of smaller bulbs. 
Some of these will be found large enough to produce 
flowering stems in two years, which they will do if 
left beside their dead parent, the smaller ones 
waiting to start till their elder brothers have 
flowered and died in their turn. To increase the 
stock, it is only necessary to raise the clump in 
October, and to plant out the young bulbs separately. 

A plant of such robust habit as the Giant 
lily exacts, and deserves, generous treatment. 



Before planting the bulb, a hole at least i foot 
deep should be dug in loamy soil, in a position 
well drained, but the reverse of dry. Into the 
hole enough loam, mixed with peat or leaf-mould, 
should be put as will aJlow the bulb to rest with 
its pointed top just under the surface when the 
hole is filled in ; for it is a peculiarity of this Lily 
that, although it sends out strong roots around the 
base of the flowering stem, as well as those from 
the base of the bulb, it does not agree with deep 
planting, such as ordinary' stem-rooting species 
require. After growth begins and the plant is 
well established, one can hardly treat it too 




A BEAUTIFUL GROUPING OF LILIUM GIGANTEUM 
HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY'S GARDENS AT 



IN THE 
WISLEY 



generously. A heavy mulch of cow-manure is not 
a pretty object during the winter months, but it 
is soon screened out of sight when the splendid, 
cordate, radical leaves, of a glistening grass green, 
develop in spring. These are very ornamental 
in themselves. They are proof against all but 
extraordinary frost in spring, and I have never 
known rabbits, slugs or any other imhallowed 
creature to molest them. 

Next follows the excitement of detecting 
which of these royal masses of foliage is 
to send up a flowering stem. The centre 
of a clump thickens, rises and develops into 



a green column, which, as it lengthens through- 
out May and June, throws out fresh leaves in a 
regular spiral, lessening in size towards the top. 
Finally, ha\-ing attained a height of 8 feet to to feet 
the long green flower-buds appear, erect at first • 
then slanting to the horizontal, whitening, and 
at last opening one by one to any number between 
a dozen and a score on a single stem. The flowers 
are creamy white, broadly streaked with purplish 
maroon within, and diffuse a delicious fragrance. 
It is essential for the production of such a noble 
structure that it be sheltered from strong winds. 
The stem, often 9 inches in circumference at the 
base, is stalwart enough to disdain 
staking ; but the flowers, though of 
great substance, may be shattered in 
a summer storm. Moreover, wind 
exposure prevents the stems from' 
rising to their full height, and stature 
is the crowning glory of the Giant 
LUy. When the flowers fall, the seed- 
vessels begin to swell, and continue 
to do so till each reaches the dimen- 
sions of a hen's egg. Standing like 
green candelabra, the stems remain 
very decorative till the end of 
November. Then comes the propa- 
gator's opportunity. He may not 
only save a bountiful harvest of seed, 
but secure a great number of young 
bulbs. The old flowering bulb will 
have disappeared by this time, its 
substance having been expended in 
throwing up the flowering stem. 
Seize that stem and pull it up ; it 
will yield readily, and bring away 
among its roots half-a-dozen or so 
of small bulbs, lea\'ing in the soil a 
number of others, which should be 
allowed to remain there, after receiv- 
ing a liberal mulch, to flower in their 
turn in the following or some sub- 
sequent summer. Let the bulbs once 
be established in rich, deep soil, and 
the Giant Lily will prove as easy to 
manage as any Larkspur or Rud- 
beckia ; but if it is desired to have 
it at its best, it must be generously 
treated. There is little danger of 
gi\'ing it too much nourishment. My 
own garden is situated near a large 
lake which swarms with pike, upon 
which we make occasional raids with 
a net in the interest of wild ducklings 
— favourite tit-bits in pike circles. 
Fish manure is very stimulating. 
There is nolliing the Giant Lily appre- 
ciates more keenly than an eight or 
ten povmd jack laid tn rot under its 
big radical leaves. 

Three or four years ago I oftercd to 
supply (gratuitously, of course) a 
well-known firm in the North with a quantity of 
seed of the Giant Lily (L. giganteum), gathered from 
plants which I had myself raised from seed. The 
offer was declined ; albeit in a catalogue for rgrs 
now before me, bulbs of this Lily are priced from 
2S. 6d. to 15s. each, and generally arrive from 
abroad in a hopeless condition, owing to the long, 
fleshy roots having withered. Had my offer been 
accepted by this firm, they might by this time have 
had a valuable stock of himdreds of healthy bulbs 
to put on the market, instead of the debilitated 
imported stuff which is the cause of so much 
disappointment. 



February 13, 1915.J 



THE GARDEN. 



77 



UNDESIRABLE PLANTS 
FOR THE ROCK GARDEN. 



T 



right in the rock garden at all, get there in some SVI^EET PEAS FOR GARDEN 

inexplicable way, to the worry and discomfiture of 

the gardener : Achillea Millefolium, in any form ; 

Asperula odorata ; Calystegias, aU, particularly in 

chalk soils ; Campanula Rapunculus ; Cerastiuin 

tomeutosum and C. Biebersteinii, the last the 

worst of the two ; Convolvulus althaeoides. 
an article on plants which gardeners especially on chalk soils ; ConvaUaria %-aria ; 
should avoid ? " and the obvious CmcianeUa stylosa, occasionally, though easily 
affirmative reply is contained in the kept within bounds ; Euphorbia Cyparissias 



HIS text has been suggested by a corre- 
spondent, who writes : " Would it 
not be worth while for vou to write 



F 



DECORATION. 

OR its fragrance, its free - flow^ering 
nature, and Tiardy constitution that 
enables it to grow in the town garden 
almost as well as in that situated in 
the country, the Sweet Pea is without 
exception the most popular as well as 
accompanying remarks. Doubtless there are garden Galiums, all; Hieracimn aurantiacum ; Muscaris, the most useful annual of to-day. For garden 
" undesirables " as there are also those of the other often because of the numerous bulb progeny ; decoration it is quite indispensable, as, no matter 
class, and. the twain being of a parasitic nature, Osalis comiculata and perhaps other species ; where it may be planted, it can never be unsightly, 
merit drastic measures if they are to be driven from Sedum spurium, the most aggressive, perhaps, of while for cutting it is seldom that one has too many, 
our midst. Doubtless, too, with a desire from time the whole race, rooting into every crevice and, as the demand is unceasing for this glorious flower, 
to time to give readers the best a garden may particularly m cool places, overwhehning all : and the longer the season is prolonged, the more 
contain- — one eminent writer declared years ago | with Vancouveria hexandra and Vincas generally, are the flowers appreciated. In order, as far as 
that the " best of everything was quite good These are among the worst known to me. Doubt- possible, to obtain a long season of flowering, it is 
enough for him " — the " undesirables " have been less there are others. If so, those readers of usual to make three sowings — the first towards 
too long overlooked or ignored, notwithstanding The Garden who know of " the enemy in our the end of September, the second early in 
that their pest - like character or 
weediness should long ago have 
entitled them to a place in a never- 
to-be-completed index expurgaiorius. 
I say " never to be completed " 
advisedly, inasmuch as one's ex- 
perience in such matters continues 
to grow, quite independently of 
the way in which certain plants 
are influenced by local conditions. 
Bearing this latter in mind, actual 
experience will always be the best 
guide, and must ever take pre- 
cedence of orthodox. Testimony 
to this end may be found in the 
way certain garden weeds infest 
one locality while entirely absent 
in another, the same principle hav- 
ing its parallel among cultivated 
plants. Hence, as I have written 
elsewhere, " the weed of one soil 
is not necessarily so of all," though 
such things as Calystegia and 
Convolvulus althaeoides are usually 
particularly troublesome on all chalk 
soils, and should be guarded against 
accordingly. 

In the rock garden an " undesir- 
able " becomes all the more so by 
reason of the shelter the rocks 
afiord, and roots or stems pene- 
trating everj' crack or cranny, are 
in an impregnable fortress of their 
own, from which it is almost 
impossible to drive them or even 
starve them out. Against all such, of course, 
the gardener should be warned. The more 
pernicious weed pests of the garden. Coltsfoot 
(Tussilago), Couch Grass, Bindweed and the 
terrible Goutweed (jEgopodium), everj- gar- 
dener will guard against, though there is danger 
at times, consequent upon the use of roadside 
sweepings — though less frequently employed to-day 
than formerly — of some of them getting into the 
garden through the medium of seeds or roots. 
Should such ensue, drastic measiures must be 
resorted to at once, since the first loss will 
undoubtedly be the least. Delay in such a case 
is dangerous. It is vexatious, too, whUe feeble 
efforts to oust the pest are continuous and, in the 
end, costly ; hence none should hesitate about 
moving rock or plant, or both, in order to beard 
the lion in its den. It is in these circumstances, 
therefore, that 1 warn readers against the 
fullo^ving plants, some of which, while having no 




FOTHERGILLA MAJOR, A BEAUTIFUL AND INTERESTING HARDY SPRING-FLOWERING SHRUB. 



midst " should not fail to communicate with the 
Editor without delay. E. H J. 



LITTLE - KNOWN HARDY SHRUB 
(FOTHERGILLA MAJOR). 



February, and the last about the middle of 
.March. 

Spring Sowing. — .A.s the former is now out of 
the question, the beginner must contrive to get 
the best results from the last two dates. The 
earliest sowing is made in pots, the question of 
size being an open one. For the purpose in hand 
a convenient size is 5 inches. The pots should be 

A suitable 



When" better known, this free-flowering shrub 

is destined to hold a prominent place in the perfectly clean and well drained, 
gardens of this countrj-. Singularly enough, it | compost consists of four parts good loam to one 
was known in this country over a centurj- ago, | part each of leaf-movdd and dried stable manin-e. 
and wasfigtured, iniSti,in theBo/aiiic<ji.Vagas«M«. j The ingredients should be passed through a fine 
At that time, however, comparatively little interest | sieve, and a dash of sharp sand or old lime 
was displayed in rare shrubs, and FothergiUa : rubble added to keep the whole porous. Avoid 
major was soon lost to cultivation. For its sowing too thickly : seven seeds in each pot 
reintroduction we are indebted to Professor are ample. 

Sargeant, who sent it to Kew about twelve years Treatment of Seedlings. — If a warm green- 
ago. So far as soil is concerned, this plant does house is available, germination wUl take place 



well in a sandy loam to which peat and leaf-mould 
have been freely added. C. Q. 



rapidly ; but as soon as the seedlings are notice- 
able, remove to a cold frame and endeavour to 



78 



THE GARDEN. 



[February 13. 1915. 



prumote a healthy growth by keeping them as cool j Varieties. — For the beginner anxious to grow 
as possible, so that they will experience no check ' the latest and best varieties, the following are 
when planted out in April. This method should j worthy of note. .-Unong them will be noted many 
give flowers early in June. Plants from the ; exhibitors' favourites ; but seeing there is no proof 
sowing made in the open in March will commence that such are imsuitable for garden pmrposes, 
to flower about a month later and continue to do | there is no reason why one should not avail himself 
so as long as the weather remains open. of the newer varieties and be up to date : Hercules, 

Soil Preparation. — \\Tierever the Sweet Peas are Thomas Stevenson. King White, Robert Sydenham, 
intended to flower, the soil should be thoroughly .\gricnla. King Manoel, Barbara, Melba. Mrs. 
prepared for them in advance.'^ In the 
majority of cases this, no doubt, has 
already been done ; but where so far 
this has not been possible, it is essential 
to the welfare of the plants that it be 
no longer delayed. To get the best 
return from a row it is necessary to 
trench the whole length of it for a width 
of not less than two yards, and during 
the process work in a liberal quantity 
of well-rotted manure, leaf-mould, wood- 
ashes and bone-meal. Should there be 
any turf available, the best place for it. 
along with the manure, is at the 
bottom of the trench, the other ingre- 
dients being put among the top soil. 
Excellent results may also be obtained 
by digging out a good wide trench the 
length of the row and filling it with 
rich soil ; but it will be understood 
that unless it be made wide, the roots 
cannot experience the same freedom as 
in the above method. This applies with 
no less force to clumps that are to be 
planted in the shrubberies and borders, 
as everything depends on giving the roots 
a wide area to run in. If this is taking 
place ~ throughout the season, there is 
never a shortage of superior flowers. 

For the Outdoor Sowing it is perhaps 

advisable to choose the first opportunity 
when the soil is workable after March 
is in. The surface should be lightly 
forked up and left for a couple of hovirs 
to dr>-. Raking and drawing out a 
drill some two inches deep is then 
much easier. Avoid sowring too thickly, 
and choose the finest of the soil to cover 
the seeds. 

Planting Out. — Early in April in 
average seasons is a suitable time to 
plant out those growing in pots. In this 
case, during the forking up of the soil, 
the opportunity should be taken to 
work in a sprinkling of superphosphate. 
In planting, avoid injtuy to the roots 
as much as possible, and if the soil is 
very dry, give a good watering with 
dear water. If the weather is at all 
genial, the plants will soon begin to 
make headway, and no time shoiild 
be lost in giving them the necessary 
support. 

Supports. — Where the time-honoured 
Pea-sticks are not to be had, the problem 
of what is best to use is no light one, as 
for garden decoration the exhibitor's 
method is no way out of the difiiculty. 

Wire-netting of large mesh is used by many, with Cuthbcrtson, Mrs. C. W. Breadmore and May 
the desired results, for both rows and clumps. Campbell are all leading sorts ; and Maud Holmes, 
For the latter it is arranged in a rough circle by Nubian. R. F. Felton, Elsie Herbert, Rosabello, 
fastening it to five stout stakes. When it is used Etta Dyke, Clara Curtis, Nettie Jenkins, Countess 
for rows, it is secured to tall stakes fixed some Spencer and Edrom Beauty are all recognised as 
twelve feet apart. Among the advertised supports, being among the best all-round varieties, 
the Simplicitas Netting is good, being easily fixed F. J. Towsend. 

and yer>- durable. The G.irdens, Bretitwood. Moorgate, Rotherham. 




FLOWERING SHOOTS OF ACACIA DE.^LBATA. 
BEING SOLD IN THE MARKET .\S MIMOS.\. 



AUSTRALIAN MIMOSAS 
(ACACIAS). 

THE various Australian species of Acacia 
constitute an important group of 
greenhouse plants in most parts of the 
country-, while in a few favoured counties they 
are hardy. In Devonshire, Cornwall and other 
places with similar climatic conditions they 
develop to a great height, trees 40 feet 
high with trunks a foot in diameter being 
found in many gardens. Australia is 
particularly rich in species, and upwards 
of one hundred have been introduced at 
one period or another. Some of these 
possess little beauty imtil they have 
assumed the proportions of trees, while 
others are charming in a small state and 
bloom profusely when only a few inches 
high. They were possibly more popular 
as greenhouse plants a qucirter of a 
century ago than they are to-day ; but 
a considerable quantity are still cultivated, 
while in France one or two species Jire 
grown largely for cutting, branches being 
cut and forced into flower for the Paris 
and London markets, where they are sold 
imder the name of Mimosa. The common 
name of Wattle is also applied to the 
.\ustraliau Acacias, the different species 
lieing distinguished by one or another 
prefix. 

Where they will thrive out of doors 
they may be planted in groves or as 
isi)lated specimens. The taller-growing 
kinds, such as K. dealbata and -A., decus- 
sata, quickly assume tree-like proportions, 
and are very beautiful in early spring 
when covered with their fluffy, yellow 
flowers. Several flowers compose a small 
round head, and a large number of these 
go to make up a good-sized panicle. Some 
of the smaller kinds grow into large bushes 
and are effective as evergreens in addition 
to their beauty as flowering shrubs. 
No more delightful sight can be wished 
for than a large tree of A. armata covered 
with dark green foliage and balls of golden 
blooms, while little difliculty is experienced 
in their cultivation once a plant becomes 
established. Ip these warmer counties it 
is possible to grow the majority of the 
introduced kinds outdoors, and in some 
gardens there are good collections. 

Although it is the general practice to 
cultivate Acacias indoors as small pot 
plants, it is not in this way that the 
most satisfactory results are obtained. 
.\nyone who possesses a large, cool 
conser\ator\-, corridor or cold greenhouse 
may, bv planting Acacias in open borders 
or in large tubs, attain a degree of success 
that can never be hoped for imder more 
restricted cultural conditions. A high 
temperature is not essential to success ; 
in fact, more satisfactory results are 
achieved by growing the plants quite cool ; ajid 
in frosty weather, except during the flowering 
season, the temperature in the structure where 
they are housed may well be allowed to drop to 
freezing point before fire-heat is applied. When 
in a cool house with a good circulation of air, 
the plants are vigorous and the foliage is rich in 
colour, while there is less chance of thrips and 



NOW 



February 13, 1915.] 



THE GARDEN. 



79 



mealy bug attacking them. When growu in heat, 
these two pests are sometimes frequent, and 
seriously affect the health of the plants, for cleanli- 
ness is an essential. Specimens that are planted 
in large tubs or open borders should be placed in 
moderately sandy soil which is thoroughly well 
drained, for, though Acacias like a fair quantity 
of water during the growing season, they are 
impatient of stagnant moisture, and anything 
approaching sour soil is often fatal. With plenty 
of root room and a cool temperature, water is onlj- 
occasionally required during the winter months, and 
the man entrusted with their cvilture should be care- 
ful to give water only when the soil is becoming dry. 
The culture of large specimens, once the potting, 
watering and ventilation are mastered, gives little 
embarrassment, for pruning consists of a good 
cutting back as soon as the flowers are over, 
and cultivation for the next few 
weeks means keeping the structure 
rather closer than usual and the 
plants frequently syringed until new 
growths are formed. About mid- 
simimer those in pots and tubs may 
be placed out of doors and left there 
until the end of September. 

Rehousing demands a little atten- 
tion, for, if abundant ventilation is 
not given night and day for a while 
and a light syringing over morning 
and evening for a few weeks, the 
plants are likely to suffer. The most 
satisfactory compost for these plants 
consists of two parts of good fibrous 
peat, broken up rough, one part of 
pood fibrous loam and about half a 
part of coarse sand, while potting 
should be firm. Cuttings of many of 
the kinds may be rooted dining spring 
and summer. The young plants for 
the first year may with advantage be 
grown in a moist intermediate tem- 
perature. They should be kept well 
stopped, to ensure a bushy habit, by 
laying a good foundation. Flowering 
must not be encouraged the first year, 
the great object being to obtain strong 
examples for succeeding years. Of 
some sorts very good plants with five 
or six strong shoots 12 inches to 
iS inches long, covered with flowers 
throughout the greater part of their 
length, may be obtained in two years 
from cuttings, the plants being in pots 
from 5 inches to 6 inches in diameter. 
A similar soil to that recommended 
for large plants is desirable, but it 
must be broken up somewhat finer. 
Over-potting is a great mistake in 
growing the Acacias, and it is far 
better to feed the plants than to use large pots. 
Weak liquid manure may be given with advantage 
from the middle of summer imtil the end of the 
growing season, after which time an occasional 
application only is required through the winter. 
Good Kinds for Pot Culture are A. acinacea, a 
species with small leaves and fine wiry shoots ; 
A. armata and its variety angustifolia ; A. cultri- 
formis, conspicuous by reason of its rich glaucous 
phyllodes and deep yellow flowers ; A. Drum- 
mondii, with its flowers in short spikes ; A. hastu- 
lata, A. juniperina, A. linifolia, A. longifolia var. 
floribunda, A. mjTtifolia, A. obliqua, A. platyptera 
and A. vemiciflua. If pillars have to be covered, 
no better kinds can be found "than A. leprosa 



and A. riceana. The main branches should bo 
supported and the remainder allowed to hang 
loose. If a large structure is available, stronger- 
growing sorts, such as A. dealbata, A. baileyana 
and A. verticiUata, may be tried with success, 
but they can only be grown with advantage 
where abimdance of room can be given. The 
flowering period is spring, but %vith a little manage- 
ment a succession of bloom may be had from 
Christmas until the end of Mav. W. D. 



SOME BEAUTIFUL WINTER- 
FLOWERING SHRUBS. 



THE WYCH HAZELS. 

Although there are a nimiber of plants which 
flower natinally in the outdoor garden at mid- 



This is known as H. mollis, and the accompanying 
illustration indicates its bushy, spreading habit, 
and at the same time shows the wealth of brilliant 
golden-hued blossoms with which the shoots are 
wreathed. These flowers are composed of long, 
narrow and very curiously crimped and twisted 
petals. WTien first grown it was considered 
necessary to pro\-ide this beautiful shrub with a 
mixture of light loam and peat, but I believe 
that the Hon. Vicaiy- Gibbs has cultivated it with 
considerable success in the stifi clay soil that 
naturally prevails at Aldenham House, where, 
several years ago, there was a fine bush some 
live feet high. So far as our necessarily limited 
experience goes, it does not seem to matter much 
what aspect is chosen, but alwaj-s in planting 
one should select, if possible, a background of 
dark-leaved evergreens, such as Hollies or ^ws. 




A L.\RGE 



BUSH OF THE CHINESE WYCH HAZEL. HAM.\MELIS MOLLIS. 

JANUARY .\XD FEBRU.\RY. 



THIS FLOWERS DURING 



winter, it is. e.xceptional to find them in any 
but the most extensive private collections. It 
is true that if these plants were to blossom 
in the siunmer, their flowers would scarcely 
be noticed among the wealth of blossoms that 
siuToimd us at that time ; but coming as they do 
at this season, when even greenhouse flowers 
are scarce, it is difficult to imderstand why they 
are not more widely known and cultivated. In 
the Wych Hazel or Hamamelis family we have 
several hardy shrubs of rare winter beauty, the 
older members of which have been known in a 
few gardens for quite a long time, but these have 
been almost eclipsed by the introduction, some 
twelve years ago, of a new species from China. 



and a position that the rays of the sun can reach 
nearly all day long. This is not advised on account 
of shelter or warmth, which do not seem necessarj', 
but merely to get the best effect when the shrubs 
are in flower. To see bushes such as that illus- 
trated kissed by the winter sun and mirrored, 
as it were, in a sombre background of evergreens 

I is a sight worth going far to see, and one that wd! 
not be readily effaced from memor>'. 

! Superior as this comparatively new species 

[ is to the older ones, the latter are well worth 
cultivating, as they flower at different periods of 
the whiter. The best known is probably the 

' North American Wych Hazel (Hamamelis vir- 
ginica), which produces its yellow flowers in 



80 



THE GARDEN. 



[February 13, 1915. 



autumn, usually about October. .\s, however, 
it is in leaf at that time, the blossoms often pass 
almost unnoticed. The Mansak of Japan (H. 
arborea) is a much more valuable shrub, or small 
tree, flowering as it does in Januan,', immediately 
after, and occasionally at the same time, as H. 
mollis. It has deep yellow flowers, which are 
generally so freely borne as to create quite a 
shimmering cloud of gold in the winter landscape. 
Closely following H. arborea comes H. japonica, 
which has rather paler-coloured flowers and is 
of a more lowly stature, while its variety zuccarini- 
ana has pale lemon-coloured flowers that appeal 
more to some tastes than those of deeper hue. 
Although all the Wych Hazels are rather slow- 
growing, it cannot be said that 
they are difficult to cultivate, 
ordinary well-drained garden soil 
apparently suiting them to per- 
fection. Once established, they 
look well after themselves, and 
need little attention beyond a 
slight thimiing of the branches at 
rare intervals. H. 



GREENHOUSE SWEET- 
SCENTED FLOWERS. 



IT is at least questionable if fragrance in 
flowers is regarded as of so great an import- 
ance as it used to be. This is home out 
by the fact that among the newer Car- 
nations and Roses, provided they are of 
large size and good shape, their scent is 
in many cases looked upon as of minor considera- 
tion, though the old-fashioned varieties of both 
these genera were remarkable for their delicious 
perfiraie. Even in the case of the Heliotrope, or 
Cherrj- Pie, some of the varieties with verj- large 



NEW PLANT. 



Cattleya Trianae Queen Eliza- 
beth. — .\ ver>- beautiful all-white 
flower, save for the slight shading 
of canary yellow in the throat. 
.\n exceedingly chaste variety, of 
handsome proportions. Exhibited 
by J. Gumey Fowler, Esq., 
Brackenhurst, Pembur\% Kent. 
Award of merit. 

This was the only new plant to 
receive an award from the Royal 
Horticultural Society on the 2nd 
inst. 



THE EARLY FLOWERING 
COSMOS. 

Those who have only grown 
the old Cosmos bipinnatus know 
to their cost that, although it 
will make a noble foliage plant, it 
seldom produces flowers until 
quite late in the autumn, when 
they are quickly ruined by frost. 
Thanks to the efforts of our 
leading seedsmen, we now have 
an early flowering race, listed 
in most catalogues as early 
flowering hybrids. These are par- c,\TTLEY.\ 

ticularly valuable aimuals for cut- 
ting, commencing to flower as they 
do early in July, and continuing until well into 
October. Their flowers resemble in appearance 
those of ver}' graceful single Dahlias, and each 
has a long, graceful, but win,- stem. Each plant 
makes a graceful bush about thrte feet high, and 
the colours embrace rose, crimson and white. 
Seeds ought to be sown during February, pre- 
ferably one or two in a 3-inch pot, and the seedlings 
raised on a gentle hot-bed or in a slightly heated 
greenhouse. If these are subsequently potted 
into 5-inch pots, and hardened off In the usual 
way, they will make excellent plants for putting 
outdoors the first or second week in June. Sc 
far as our experience goes, this early flowering 
race of Cosmos will do well in any reasonably 
good soil. 



brown outside and yellowish within. The per- 
fume of the flowers of this Boronia is very 
suggestive of Violets, and a few blooms will 
make their presence manifest in a good-sized 
structure. 

Luculia gratissima, which was so finely shown 
at a December meeting of the Royal Horticultural 
Society and illustrated on page 623, issue Decem- 
ber z6, 1914, has large Hydrangea-like heads of 
blossoms, verv' sweetly scented, .\part from bulbous 
plants (to be referred to presently) which bloom 
in a greenhouse during the winter are Carnations, 
some sorts at least, and Cheiranthus kewensis, 
rather a dull purplish-flowered member of the 
Wallflower family, but most deliciously scented. 
It will flower throughout the 
winter. The large double Wall- 
flowers will, if sown in June or 
July, flower quite early in the 
spring. They are very sweetly 
scented. Stocks, too, are very 
useful for greenhouse decoration 
nearly all the year rotmd. The 
tall-growing Beauty- of Nice is 
excellent for flowering in the 
winter, while, by varying the 
time of sowing, members of the 
different sections may be had in 
bloom at various times. 

Bulbous plants are in many 
cases sweetly scented, the fra- 
grance of the Roman Hyacinth 
being far more agreeable than 
that of the larger-flowered forms. 
The Freesias and some of the 
Narcissi are also remarkable for 
their scent. Of Lilies the 
sweetest is Liliiuu longiflorum, 
whose long, silverj- trumpets may 
be had practically all the year 
round. L. auratum is almost 
loo overpowering where at all 
confined, as in a greenhouse. 
Tuberoses must, of course, be 
included in any selection of 
bulbous plants with sweet-scented 
flowers. Good dormant bulbs 
may be obtained now, and should 
be potted with little delay. 
Many other greenhouse plants 
with sweet-scented blossoms are 
at their best at different periods 
of the year. Among them are some 
of the Primulas, the Arum Lily, 
Rhododendrons such as R. Edge- 
worthii and R. fragrantissimum, 
Cytisus racemosus, Datiuras or 
Brugmansias, with long, white 
trumpet-like flowers ; the simimer- 
heads of blossoms are less fragrant than those I blooming Bouvardia Humboldtii corj-mbiflora, 




TRI.\N.-E yUEEN ELIZABETH. A NEW VARIETY WITH 
WHITE FLOWERS. 



which are more nearly related to the old Helio- 
tropium peruvianimi itself. This last is much 
less used for clothing the walls or pillars of a green- 
house than it used to be, though under such con- 
ditions, given a temperatm-e of 50° to 60°, it will 
bloom throughout the w-inter. 

It is at this season that some of the most fragrant 
flowers are at their best, notably Daphne indica, 
or odora as it is sometimes called, and its white 
variety alba. For general purposes the typical 
purple-flowered form is preferable, as it grows 
more freely than the white kind. Another green- 
house shrub remarkable for its delicious fragrance 
is Boronia megastigma, of slender. Heath-like 
growth, with small, drooping, bell-shaped flowers,. 



the fragrance of whose flowers is suggestive of 
the Jasmine ; Gardenias, at one time very popular 
as button-hole flowers, but now not much grown ; 
the tawny-coloured Magnolia fuscata, the fragrance 
of w-hose blossoms suggests Pineapple drops ; and 
others. 

Of climbing plants, among the most remarkable 
for their scent are Jasminum grandiflorura and 
Rhynchospermum jasminoides, both with white 
blossoms. 

That well-known annual the Mignonette is 
such a universal favoiu-ite that its fragrant blossoms 
are much appreciated in the greenhouse, especially 
when they are not obtainable out of doors. Seed 
sow-n from midsummer onwards will give flowers 



February 13, 1915] 



THE GARDEN. 



81 



throughout the dull period of the year, provided 
the plants are given as much air as possible. 
Nicotiana affinis and some of its hybrid forms 
remarkable for their fragrance are also valuable 
for greenhouse decoration. An old-fashioned 
stove plant that I have not met with for a long 
time used to be grown for the fragrance of its 
dark maroon pvffple blossoms. This is Tiimea 
^thiopica, a member of the Labiate family. 
It is of a half-shrubby character, and is easily grown 
in a warm structure. 

As companions to the many greenhouse plants 
with sweet-scented flowers, a few of those i\-ith 
fragrant leaves claim recognition. Chief among 
them are the Pelargoniums, with their widely 
dissimilar scents ; the Lemon-scented Verbena, 
which is hardy in some parts of the country ; 
Humea elegans, that also possesses the merit of 
ornamental flowers ; the Pineapple Sage (Salvia 
rutilans), Boronias, and different kinds of Eucalyp- 
tus, of which the Citron-scented E. citriodora is 
one of the most pleasing. H. P. 



HOW TO INCREASE 
SUPPLIES OF VEGETABLES. 



BY a carefully planned system of inter- 
cropping it is possible to grow more 
crops than usual, and the following 
I notes are intended to assist readers ; 
in this direction. The principal crop 
is the Potato, as this supplies food 
all the year round, and an area of 6 rods to lo rods 
will be required for this crop by an average family. 
About three-fourths of this area should be devoted 
to midseason and late crops, and the remainder ' 
to early kinds. Most early Potatoes are short- 1 
stemmed, and if given a space of at least 2 feet 
between the rows, green crops, such as Savoy 
Cabbages and Kale, could be planted between 
them after the final earthing. If, when the 
early Potatoes are planted, the rows are marked, 
a row of quick - growing Radishes, such as 
French Breakfast, could be sown between the 
Potatoes. They would be ready for use by the 
time the Potatoes were showing through the 
soil. This plan, however, is not recommended 
for the stronger-growing late kinds, as it leads to 
overcrowding. 

A succession of Peas can be obtained by sowing 
early, second early, midseason and late varieties. 
The distance between the rows of Peas should 
be determined by the height to which each variety 
is expected to grow. Thus, a 4-foot Pea should 
be given a distance of 5 feet between the drills. 
Now the space between the rows can be made 
use of by first sowing some quick-growing crops, 
such as Lettuce, Spinach or Radishes. These 
crops, if sown or planted when the Peas are appear- 
ing above the ground, would be ready for use 
before the Peas are high enough to provide dense 
shade. Fiurthermore, this space can be used 
for planting out other crops that will continue 
to grow after the Peas are removed in July. 
Marrows raised under glass could be planted out 
between the Peas, say, after Spinach, and when 
the Peas are gathered they would quickly cover 
the whole of the space. Celery and Leeks, too, 
can be planted out in trenches either immediately 
the Peas are removed or even before, provided 
plenty of space is allowed between the rows of 
Peas. 



Autumn-sown Onions can be foUowed by green 
crops for winter use. Spring Cabbage can be 
followed by Turnips, Lettuce and Spinach. 

Coleworts are very useful vegetables to grow, 
and if these are sown in May they can be trans- 
planted in any plot that becomes vacant by the 
removal of earlier crops. They often prove 
useful for succeeding the midseason varieties of > 
Potatoes. 

Cauliflowers such as Early London or Early 
Forcing will pro'vide a supply of nice heads in 1 
July and August if raised under glass in February ' 
and planted out in April on a warm, rich piece of 
ground. 

The root crops, such as Beet and Parsnip, 
require the space allotted to them practically 
the whole season and do not allow for inter- 
cropping ; but the round Beet, if sown on a 
warm border in March, will be ready for use 
in August or possibly earlier. Carrots, however, 
differ from the other root crop, inasmuch 
as it is possible to make a succession of 
sowings from March to September, and so 
maintain a long supply of roots. The Early 
Horn type of Carrot is the best for the first 
sowing in early spring and for sowing from July 
onwards. The same kinds are useful for sowing 
in frames in February or March to provide a 
supply of tender young roots when vegetables 
are scarce. 

These notes are intended merely as a guide to 
those who are planning their gardens, and no 
pretence is made of showing a complete scheme 
of intercropping. Other methods in addition to 
the above may suggest themselves to readers, 
but my object will be accomplished if I have 
persuaded some cultivators to give more attention 
than usual to the careful planning of their 
gardens. -^ E. B. 



WINTER SPRAYING OF 
HARDY FRUIT TREES. 



THIS operation might bo more suitably 
termed '" February spraying of hardy 
fruit trees," since it is during that 
month that the bulk of the work is 
carried out. The initial stages in 
the unfolding of the buds coincide 
with the earlier hatchings of the eggs of such 
general insect pests as Apple sucker, aphides 
and red spider, and since this pre-incubatorj' 
phase is the most vulnerable period of the egg. 
there is good reason for deferring winter spraying 
to as near the eve of bud imfoldment as is con- 
sistent with safety. Frequently at this period, 
moreover, settled fair weather prevails — a most 
important factor in achieving results of economic 
worth. 

Winter spraying is accepted as a prime essential 
in successful fruit culture. It is not practised 
so generally as it should be, amateur growers 
being particularly lax in this matter. Though in 
no way a specific for all the ills fruit trees are 
heir to, it contributes greatly to success in fruit- 
growing. 

Equipment. — A syringe and a bucket or two 
are all that is needed where a few trees or bushes 
only are to be done. Where, however, there are 
tall trees or a plantation of a rood to an acre in 
extent, a knapsack spraying machine is indis- 
pensable. Where this area is exceeded, a wheel 
spray pump will be an economic necessity. The 



preparation of large quantities of the spraying 
liquid will also necessitate the use of a barrel 
of 20 gallons to 40 gallons capacity. 

Spraying Solutions. — ^The use of limewash 
for destroying algae, moss, lichen and perchance 
to some extent hibernating insect pests has long 
been known. Even now many small fruit-growers 
rely upon it, though improving on their grand- 
fathers' system of washing the tree trunks, in that 
the}' now spray the whole tree. The proportions 
used are r gallon of lime to ro gallons of water. 
Careful slaking and subsequent rendering into a 
rmlk-like solution are necessary'. A pound of soft 
soap or size is sometimes added to give the wash 
tenacity. 

Lime Sulphur.^In the combination of these 
two substances we have one of the most effecti\'e 
sprays extant. The general formula is : Quicklime, 
lolb. ; flowers of sulphur, 2olb. ; water, 10 gallons. 
Prepare by carefully slaking the lime, and 
while in the dust-like condition intermix with 
the sulphur. The mixture is then rendered 
j into a paste by a steady addition of water. 
When the full quantity of water has been added, 
the solution is boiled for an hoiur. After settling 
and straining, an orange red coloured solution 
; should result. This will need testing with a 
I hj'drometer to ascertain whether its strength 
I approximates to that suitable for winter spraying, 
viz., roT. Excepting large fruit-growing estab- 
lishments, it will be most advisable to purchase 
this .wash ready made and placed on the market 
at standardised strength. 

Caustic Soda Washes. — These share with lime 
sulphur the reputation of being the most efficient 
of winter washes. Their merit is further enhanced 
in that they are clean, easy to prepare, and impart 
no objectionable appearances to the trees treated. 
The simplest formula is : Caustic soda (98 per 
cent.), 2lb. ; carbonate of potash, lib. ; and 
water, 10 gallons. Prepare by dissolving the 
salts separately and stirring aftenvards into the 
bulk of the water. The Wobum formula is : 
Iron sulphate, Jib. ; quicklime. Jib. ; caustic 
soda, 2lb. ; paraffin (best), 5 pints ; and water, 
10 gallons. Prepare by dissohing the iron sulphate 
in 9 gallons of water. Render the lime into a 
milk and strain into the iron sulphate solution. 
Add paraffin, stirring \-igorously, finally adding 
the caustic soda in powder form. The wTiter has 
found this wash very effective against Apple 
scab and woolly aphis. 

Hints on Application. — .A. pressure of 8olb. 
to the square inch is most desirable. Wet the 
whole of the tree, but avoid wasting. In using 
lime sulphur or other lime washes, it is imperative 
that all fittings and machine be thoroughly rinsed 
inmiediately after the cessation of work. The face 
and hands must be protected when applying these 
washes, particularly when using the caustic soda 
washes. 

Cost of Spraying.— This is largely governed 
by the apparatus used, local rate of wages, and the 
character of the fruit trees or plantation. Using a 
knapsack sprayer and paying the operator 6d. an 
hour, a bush Apple tree 9 feet to 10 feet high 
and 8 feet to 9 feet in expanse will cost about i Jd., 
this sum including cost of wash (half a gallon on 
an average) and labour. An acre of this type 
of tree planted t2 feet apart each way would 
require about 150 gallons of wash at a cost of 
about ros. 6d., the cost of application also averaging 
los. 6d. 

Morpeth. C. W. iUviiEW. 



82 



THE GARDEN. 



[February 13, 1915. 



GARDENING OF THE WEEK. 



FOR SOUTHERN GARDENS. 

Fruit Under Glass. 

Strawberries. — When the flower-spikes are 
developing, the plants will need a warmer tempera- 
ttire. Give them plenty of stimtilants till the 
flowers begin to open.' During the flowering 
stage keep the atmosphere on the dn,- side and 
encourage a free c.irculaiion of air during fine, 
congenial weather, but avoid cold draughts. 
When the fruits have set, reduce them to five or 
six of the most promising, and secure the trusses 
to stakes. The temperature of the house may 
now be raised to 60" or 65°, springing the plants 
two or three times a day with lukewarm rain- 
water. Introduce fresh batches of plants into 
heat as required. 

Cherries in Pots. — Much care is needed in 
the management of these till the fruits have set. 
At no time must they be unduly hastened by the 
use of artificial heat. Water sparingly till the 
fruits have set, using water which is of about 
the same temperature as the house. If the trees 
were repotted in the autumn, no stimulants 
will be needed till the fruits are swelling. Fumigate 
the house with a nicotine compound just before 
the trees commence to flower. 

Early Pot Vines. — .\s soon as the berries are 
large enough, the bunches must be thinned. Black 
Hamburgh must not be thinned too much, or 
the bunches will be loose. Foster's Seedling 
may be more severely dealt with. The Vines 
will now require very liberal treatment in regard 
to watering and feeding. It is a wise plan to 
fill the pots twice when water is needed. The 
temperature of the house may now be raised to 
70° at night, and full advantage must be taken 
of sun-heat by closing the house early in the 
afternoon. Encourage a moist atmosphere at all 
times. 

Plants Under Glass. 

Carnations. — The young plants which were 
potted up last month may now be stopped. 
Continue to pot up cuttings which are sufficiently 
rooted, and keep them close for a few days till 
the roots are again active. Malmaisons may now 
be more liberally treated in regard to watering. 
Keep the growths secured to neat stakes. If 
the roof glass needs washing, this must be done, 
as the plants need all the light possible. Fumigate 
occasionally to destroy aphis. 

Pot Roses. — As the plants approach the flower- 
ing stage they will require more water. Stimulants 
may also be given more liberally. The Rose 
maggot must be watched for, or it will spoil 
a great many of the flower-buds as well as dis- 
figure the foliage. The house must be ventilated 
with due consideration to the outside conditions, 
or mildew will spread rapidly. This pest should 
be anticipated by the discrimiiiate use of flowers 
of sulphur. Roses planted out may be given 
copious supplies of liquid manure when in active 
growth. A top-dressing of rich farmyard manure 
will also be of benefit. 

Climbing Plants. — Plants growing over the 
roof in the conservatory may now have their 
annual pruning or thinning. Now is the time to 
give them a thorough cleaning if they are infested 
with mealy bug. Well wash the glass and wood- 
work, and remove an inch or 2 inches of the 
surface soil from the border and replace with fresh 
materia'. 

The Flower Garden. 

Herbaceous Borders. — The work of making 

new borders or replanting old ones must be 
persevered in whenever the ground is in suitable 
condition. Most perennial subjects require a 
deeply ctiltivated, well-maniu'ed soil in which 
to thrive. Well-seasoned farmyard manure is 
perhaps the best for this purpose, but, failing 
this, well-rotted leaves will do. Soot, too, may 
be used with good effect. 

Michaelmas Daisies . — There are now some very 
beautiful varieties of these late autumn-flowering 
subjects, and few plants stand the strain of our 
typical autumn weather better than these. 
IJnforttmately, their real characteristics are often 
spoilt by growing the clumps too large. They 
need reducing every year, leaving no more than 
six or eight shoots on each plant. 



The Rock Garden. — Now that growth is 
becoming active, a constant watch must be kept 
for slugs, as there is nothing more disappointing 
than to have one's choice plants destroyed by 
these marauders. Vegetables which they are 
known to eat should be laid about as traps. A 
ring of fine coal-ashes placed around some of 
the choicer plants will keep them at bay. The 
planting of many subjects may be proceeded 
with now. 

The Hardy Fruit Garden. 
Preparations lor Grafting. — Any varieties which 
are considered useless may be replaced by grafting, 
providing the trees are in good health. They 
may be headed back now in readiness for the 
operation when the sap is rising in the spring. 
In the meantime, collect suitable shoots of the 
varieties required, tie them in bundles with a 
label attached, and heel them in at the foot of a 
north wall. 

The Kitchen Garden. 

Celery. — A sowing may be made now for the 
earliest supplies. Sow the seeds thinly in shallow 
boxes, and place them in a house with moderate 
warmth. 

Leeks. — A small sowing of Leeks for early- 
use should he made now. They may be treated 
as advised for Onions in a previous calendar. 

Parsnips. — No time must be lost in sowing 
this important vegetable as soon as the ground 
is in suitable condition. Any roots still in the 
ground may now be dug up and stored in a cool 
place. 

Shallots and Garlic. — These may be planted 
as soon as the ground is in workable order. Plant 
them in rows t foot apart. The ground should 
be richly manured and deeply dug. 

Seakale. — The whole of the crowns may now 
be lifted and placed closely together under a 
north wall. The best roots may now be prepared 
{pi planting as soon as the ground is ready. In 
the meantime, tie up the thongs in bundles of 
fifty, and cover them with soil to the depth of 
4 iiiches or 5 inches. E. Hakriss. 

(Head-gardener to Lady Wantage.) 

Lockiiige Gardens, Berks. 



FOR NORTHERN GARDENS. 

Fruit Under Glass. 

Peaches and Nectarines. — The early house 
will benefit from a fumigation, as fly is always 
troublesome in the early stages of growth. If 
there is only a slight attack in one or two places, 
the use of an insecticide will be sufficient, applied 
to the parts affected. The syringe must be used 
freely on bright days, both morning and afternoon, 
closing the house early to retain as much sun- 
heat as possible. 

Second-Early House. — Trees in this will already 
be swelling their fiower-buds, and should receive a 
fumigation, which will keep the house fiee from 
insect pests until flowering is over. Not much 
artificial heat will be required during the daytime, 
unless the weather is very cold. Aslight circiilation 
of heat in the pipes at night will he necessary. 

Plants Under Glass. 

House Scrubbing. — The cleaning of any plant- 
houses that is not already done should now receive 
attention. When possible, the interior of glass- 
houses should be painted about every third year ; 
this not only greatly improves the appearance 
generally, but is a splendid help in keeping insect 
life in check. The plants, having been removed 
during the house scrubbing, should be well sponged 
to get rid of any filth before returning them to 
their newly cleaned quarters. Such plants as 
Panicum, Episcia fulgida, Ruellias and Selaginellas 
should be propagated, to furnish nice young clean 
plants to replace the exhausted ones which were 
used to furnish the edges of the plant-house stages. 

The Hardy Fruit Garden. 
Wall Trees. — Anj* Plums, .\pricots. Cherries and 
Pears not yet tied or nailed should be dealt with 
before the buds get too far advanced. Peaches and 
Nectarines are better left loose for a whUe longer, 
as this helps to retard the flowers, which are so 
often injured by late spring frosts. When the train- 



ing of the trees has been completed, the borders in 
which they are growing should receive attention. 
Too often the majority of the roots exist imder 
some hard, trodden alley, which rarely, if ever, 
gets any manure or attention. If possible, top- 
I dress with good fresh loam and well-decayed fann- 
yard manure ; then point over lightly with a fork. 

Loganberries. — These and the many other 
hybrid fruits of this type are well worth inclusion 
in the fruit garden. They add variety to the 
dessert fruits and make a welcome change among 
fruits used for preserving. They are all of free 
growth and easy culture, not being at all particular 
as to soil. The same treatment as given to Rasp- 
berries wL'l suit them, provided they are allowed 
plenty of room rtn which to traui their long growths. 

The Kitchen Garden. 

Broad Beans. — Where required early, a sowing 
may be made in some warm, sheltered border. 
If the weather and condition of the soil do not 
permit of this, sow thinly in boxes indoors, this 
vegetable transplanting quite readUy. 

Spinach. — As soon as the condition of the ground 
will allow, make a sowing of this vegetable. If a 
very early supply is needed, make a sowing indoors. 
With a temperature of 53° to bo" Spuiach should 
be ready to pick in a month to five weeks* time, 
and the quality is very superior to Spinach grown 
outdoors. 

Cucumbers. — Seed for the chief summer crop 
may be sown in a stove or warm pit. Except 
that the flowers do not require fertUismg, the 
culture is much the same as that of Melons. Being 
very subject to attacks of red spider, the syringe 
must be used very freely, especially on the imder 
sides of the foliage. Cucumber plants are of 
\igorous and rapid growth ; therefore it should 
be seen that they do not starve or waste more 
time than is necessary in the small seed pots. 

Shallots may now be planted when a piece of 
ground has been prepared for them. Do not 
plant deeply, and make the lines 15 inches apart. 
This crop will thrive on much poorer land than 
is generally prepared for Onions. 

Rhubarb. — In many gardens this subject is 
much neglected, sometimes receiving no atten- 
tion for several years together. New plantations 
ought to be made occasionally, and the present 
is a suitable time to do this. Before planting, 
trench the ground and treat it with a very liberal 
dressing of cow-maniu-e. It is not advisable to 
pull Rhubarb from new plantations during the 
first season. 

The Flower Garden. 

Clematises. — Plants of the Jackmannii type ought 
now to receive attention in the matter of pruning. 
Having prominent buds, the li\-ing growths will 
now be easy to distinguish. After all dead wood 
has been removed, the previous year's growths 
should be reduced to about half their length, 
pruning some hard back so as to encourage yotmg 
growths, which will keep the lower part of the 
plants furnished. 

Sweet Peas. — it is now generally acknowledged 
that to get the best results Sweet Peas ought to 
be sown in pots during October or early in Novem- 
: ber. Any seeds which were not sown at that time 
' should be got in at once if the plants are to be in 
flower by the end of June. Where time and room will 
allow, sow only one seed in a 3j-inch pot. Instead 
of the usual potsherds, place either large pieces 
of turf or fairly new leaf-mould in the bottoms 
of the pots ; this will prevent the plants from 
starving when planting-out time draws near. 

Lobelia cardinalis and its varieties should now 
be divided into moderate-sized pieces and either be 
potted or bo.xed up. They should not be subjected 
to a strong heat. A newly started vinery or Peach- 
house will suit them until they are fairly started 
into growth, when they may be removed to cold 
frames. 

Salvia patens. — If it is desired to increase the 

stock of this very fine blue flower, let the plants 

be placed in heat so as to produce young growths 

suitable for making cuttings. When large enough 

for taking, dibble them into sandy soil in either pots 

I or boxes and plunge in a case with bottom-heat. 

I This Salvia is also easy to raise from seed, which 

' should be sown now in heat. 

John Jeffkev. 
(Head-gardener to Sir R. W. Buchauau Jardinc, 
Bart.) 
Casllemitk Gardens, Lockerbie, N.B. 



February 13, 1915.] 



THE GARDEN. 



83 



EDITORI AL N OTICES. 

Enni department of horticulture is represeiUed in THE 
Garden, and the Editor invites readers to setid in questions 
rdatinij to matters upon tohich they wish expert adeice. 

The Editor welcomes photographs, articles and notes, 
but he will not be responsible for their safe return. All 
reasonable care, however, will be taken, and where stamps 
are enclosed; he ivill endeavour to return non-accepted 
contributions. 

As regards photographs, if payment be desired, the Jiditor 
asks that the prUe required for reproduction be plainly stated. 
It must be distinctly understood that only the actual photo- 
grapher or owner of the copyright will be treated tvith. 

The Editor will not be responsible for the return of artistic 
orliterarij contributions lohich lie may not be able to use, and 
the receipt of a proof must not be taken as emdence thai an 
article is accepted.. Publication in The Garden will alone 
be recognised as acceptance, 

Ofices : 20, Tavistock Street, Covent Garden, W.C. 



TO 



ANSWERS 
CORRESPONDENTS. 



RULES FOR CORRESPONDENTS. 

QUESTIONS AND AUSVIERS.— The Editor endeavours to 
■make THE GARDEN helpful to all readers who desire assist- 
ance, no matter what the branch of gardening mat/ be, and 
with that object makes a special feature of the "Answers 
(0 Correspondences " columns. All communications should be 
clearly and concisely written on one side of the paper only, 
and addressed to the Editor of The Garden, 20, Tavistock 
Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C. The name and address 
of tfie sender are required in addition to any designation he 
may desire to be used in the paper. When more than one 
query is sent, each should be on a separate piece of paper. 
Plants for naming should be clearly numbered and securely 
packed in damp grass or moss, not cotton-wool, and flowering 
sfioots, wfiere possible, should be sent. It is useless to send 
small scraps that are not characteristic of the plant. Letters 
on business should be sent to the Publisher. 



FRUIT GARDEN. 

VINE STEMS SPLITTING (A. K. M.)— It is rarely one 

comes across a case of Vine stems splitting. We have 
never known this to be caused by hard forcing as suggested. 
The invariable cause, in our experience, has been the 
subjecting of the Vines to too much frost in winter, and to 
too sudden a thaw afterwards. (The splitting may not 
be evident at the time ; not till growth begins.) Such 
injury must undoubtedly weaken the Vine for the first 
season, and so affect its power to swell and ripen so good 
a crop as usual. But afterwards, when the wounds have 
healed, the Vine need not be permanently injured. The 
best black late Grape to go with Gros Colman and White 
Muscat will be Appley Towers or Black Alicante. The 
former is the better flavourod. 



TREES AND SHRUBS. 

NAME OF CYPRESS (l>zy Tree). — The Cypress described 
in your letter is doubtless Cupressus sempervirens var. 
fastigiata. Wc do not think that it can be procured in this 
country, but it is possible that Messrs. Rovelli and Fratelli, 
nurserymen, Pallanza, Lago Maggioie, Italy, could supply 
l)lants. They should be procured in pots, as they are 
diflQcult to transplant successfully from the open ground. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

PROTECTING PEAS FROM MICE {A. T. 5.).— If 
bulbs and Peas are sprinkled with paraffin before planting 
or sowing, as the case may bo, they are often safe from 
attacks by mice, although it does not always prevent 
the mice from sampling them. Some people find that 
sprinkling a little paraffin over the ground acts as a 
deterrent. Care must be taken, however, that the 
paraffin is applied with care. The best way to hollow 
out a solid log is to bore a number of holes into it with 
an auger having a 1-inch to lA-inch bore ; then with a 
mallet and chisel chip away the remaining wood. As it 
is a rather arduous task, it would be advisable to get 
an experienced wood worker to do the work. The best 
preparation to make the bark of Apple trees, etc., dis- 
tasteful to rabbits or hares is Renardine, manufactured 
by Messrs. Gilbertson and Page, Hertford. 

VARIOUS QUESTIONS iE. P.).—!. Neither the Thuja 
nor Cypress would look like Yew. The first does not 
transplant well unless in small examples, and both to 
some extent resent the continuous shearing essential to 
keep them within limited bounds of a small hedge. We 
should prefer Yew, the golden one if the green is objected 
to. Both endure pruning well. If a plant of quicker 
growth than this is required, try Chinese Juniper. 2. 
We do not see the need of planting anything to shut 
out the Apple trees, and for a few years at least they 
would be in sight above the hedge referred to in No. 1. 
If the Apple trees are not an ornament where they stand, 
they might, if not too large, change places with the Nuts. 
The Apple trees opposite the Barberry appear out of place, 
and both, we think, would be better away. 3. If you 
put a hedge here, how do you propose entering the rock 
garden ? The latter already appears to us in a wrong 
position at the kitchen garden end of the ground, and 



if you arrange a hedge in front of it, the rock garden will 
fall between this and the brick wall. If the above plants 
were removed, a raised shrub border might be formed 
for screening purposes, planting it with Berbers Danvinii, 
Spireeas and Wsigelas. 4. We cannot answer this satis- 
factorily. Few shrubs do well under trees, and success 
would depend much on their nature and the amount of 
shade they cast. 5. We think the Ivy the better orna- 
ment in the circumstances. If shrubs are employed at 
either end, they should be of Winter and Portuguese 
Heaths, Skimmias, and Berberis Wilsonse (in full sun), 
with Forsythias at the back. 6. The rough grass might 
be trenched in and the place planted with hardy Heaths. 
With these could be associated a few Japanese Lilies 
of the speciosum class. 7. For destroying ordinary earth- 
worms in pot plants, mix a strong dose of mustard and water 
in a pail and stand the plants in it for a few seconds. 
This or lime-water is usually effectual for the others 
named. The keeping of Nuts in the way you describe 
is well known to, and frequently adopted by, country 
folk, whose primitive methods often surpass those of 
the modern type. Green fly frequently infests bulbs 
long kept in cellar or warehouse quite away from other 
forms of vegetable life, and if only a solitary female insect 
existed on a bulb in August, it might easily account 
for the conditions you describe. The best advice we can 
give you in respect to the rock garden and its surround- 
ings is that you confer with an expert on the spot. It 
is not possible accurately to advise from the sketch 
submitted, and the arrangement appears at present 
somewhat complicated. 

NAME OF FRUIT.— TF F. M. C— The variety is 
Fearn's Pippin, rather out of character. This may be 
caused by the situation or position of the tree, or by the 
stock on which it is worked. 



SOCI ETI ES. 



ROYAL HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

We are pleased to be able to record an appreciable increase 
both in vohime and variety at the meeting held on the 2nd 
inst. as compared with that of the last meeting. Several 
exhibitors put in an appearance for the fh-st time this 
year, while fruit and flowers were thoroughly representa- 
tive in all departments. To demonstrate late-keeping 
varieties of fruit, Messrs. Cannell staged some seventy 
dishes of dessert and cuhnary Apples of superb quality, 
Mrs. Denison sent about half that number of Potatoes, 
also a^very good sample. The flne bank of forced shrubs 
from Southgate, opposite the entrance, attracted every- 
one, while Messrs. Sutton's Primulas and Cyclamen 
were one of the features of a good meeting. Carnations, 
alpines and Orchids were freely shown, and contributed 
much to an interesting display. The show was visited 
by a goodly throng during the afternoon. Only one 
novelty received recognition. 

FRFIT and VEOETABLH COMSaTTEE. 

Present : J. Cheal, Esq. (chairman), and Messrs. W. 
Bates, E. Beckett, A. Grubb, A. R. Allan, G. Keif, Horace J. 
Wright, J. Da\as, J. E. Weston, A. Bullock, G. Reynolds, 
P D. Tuckett, E. A. Bunyard, W. H. Rivers, Owen Thomas 
and W. Poupart. 

Messrs. H. Cannell and Sons, Eynsford, Kent, staged 
a magniflcent collection of some seventy dishes of Apples 
and Pears, the former in both dessert and culinary 
sorts, with the express object of demonstrating their 
late-keeping qualities. Not only was the object attained; 
the whole of the varieties were in as high excellence as 
might liavo been expected in October, and as an exhibit 
of high-class fruits it would be difficult to equal, much 
less excel. Wedded to excellent quality was the educa- 
tional value of the display. Of dessert sorts we noted 
Edward VII., Belle de Boskoop, Belle de Pontoise, 
Baumann's lied Reinctte, Barnack Beauty, AUington 
Pippin, Winter Peach, Calville Malingre and Newtown 
Pippin. Of cuhnary kinds we considered Annie Elizabeth, 
Smart's Prince Arthur (a splendid sample, and not a 
bad eating sort), Wellington, Lane's Prince Albert, 
Bramley's Seedhng, Newton Wonder, Reinctte du Canada, 
Norfolk and Striped Beaufln to be among the finer dishes, 
though all were of admirable quality and finish. Sonu' 
good dishes of Pears were on view, that of Uvedale's St. 
Germain of exceptional colour also. A silver-gilt 
Knightian medal was deservedly awarded. 

Grape Fruits were shown by Sir Albert RoUit, St. 
Anne's HiU, Chertsey, a growing plant nearly eight feet 
high bearing several handsome fruits. 

Mr. Will Tayler, Hampton, Middlesex, displayed an 
excellent collection of well-kept Apples and Pears, some 
forty dishes, chiefiy of Apples, being staged. Quite a 
large number of varieties exhibited high coloration, 
a not infrequent occurrence with varieties gro^^m upon 
the light, well-drained loam of the district named. Some 
of the more prominent dishes were Annie Elizabeth, 
Newton Wonder, Gascoigne's Scarlet, Cox's Orange 
Pippin, Blenheim Orange Pippin, Ribston Pippin, 
Bismarck (particularly good and well coloured), Beauty 
of Kent (of quite remarkable colour), Norfolk Beaufln, 
Clay gate Pearmain, Wellington and Pince's Golden 
Pippin, the latter an ideal dish. Pear Bergamotte 
Esperen was also very fine. Silver Knightian medal. 

Mrs. E. H. Denison, Little Gaddesden, Herts (gardener, 
Mr. A. G. Gentle), exhibited some three dozen dishes of 
Potatoes, for which a silver Knightian medal was awarded. 
The whole of them were in excellent condition, though we 
considered that Great Scot, Abundance, Epicure, School- 
master, Mr. Brcsse, Carter's Emperor, The Factor, King 



Edward (a very flne sample) and Ringleader were of out- 
standing merit. The exhibit attracted considerable 
attention. 

Orchid GoMraTTEE. 

Present : J. Gurney Fowler, Esq. (chairman), Sir Harry 
J. Veitch, and Messrs. J. O'Brien, de B. Crawshay, W. 
Bolton, S. W. Flory, W. H. White, A. Dye, W. P. Bound, 
J. E. Shill, W. H. Hatcher, J. Cypher, W. Cobb, T. 
Armstrong, F. J. Hanbury, Pantia RaUi, Stuart H. Low, 
Gurney Wilson, J. Charlesworth, C. H. Curtis and R. A. 
Rolfe. 

Orchid groups were displayed on a more extensive 
scale, and many beautiful kinds were on ^^ew. In Odonto- 
glossum amandens variety Queen of Spain (0. wilckeanum 
X O. Rolfeae), Pantia Ralh. Esq., Ashtead Park, Surrey, 
had a very handsome novelty, the greater leaning perhaps 
being to the first-named parent. The ground colour of 
the sepals and petals is soft yellow, so heavily barred and 
blotched with chocolate and crimson as to be in the nature 
of veins. A very striking flower. 

Messrs. J. and A. McBean, Cooksbridge, received a 
silver Banfcsian medal for a choice lot, which included the 
blood-crimson Odontiodas Doris and Cooksonice, L^Iia 
anceps schrOderiana. L. a. Sanderi (both white-flowered), 
an interesting variety of Cypripediums, together with 
Cymbidium Alexander! (rosy coloured) and C. Schlegelii 
(whose lilac-coloured sepals and petals are freckled and 
spotted with crimson). 

Messrs. Stuart Low and Co., Jarvisbrook, Crowborough, 
had the rich orange-coloured Laelio-Cattleya Doris, Lfelia 
anceps Bull's White (very pure and good). Odontoglossum 
Vuyl^tekeffi ^^vicans (a strange commingling of bronze and 
yellow), O. Harryo-crispum (very dark form), with Brasso- 
Cattleyas and others. Silver Banksian medal. 

Messrs. Cypher and Sons, Cheltenham, staged a hand- 
some lot of Cypripediums, of which C. Euryades splendens, 
C. Helena Westonbirt variety and C. aureum virginale 
(the latter with a magnificent white dorsal petal) were 
the chief. Lpelia anceps Hillii (very fine white), Cym- 
bidiums in variety and the curious and rare Masdevallia 
schroderiana were also noted in a group characterised by 
much freshness. Silver Banksian medal. 

Messrs. Armstrong and Brown, Tunbridge Wells, were 
the recipients of a silver Flora medal for a handsome group, 
in which the outstanding feature was some fifty well- 
flowered plants of Cattleya alba Maggie Raphael, the 
white-petalled, crimson-lipped flowers very handsome. 
Miitonia St. Andrfl (white, with crimson base), Cypri- 
pedium Helen II. variety Fascinator (rosy colour), C. Venus 
Orchidhurst variety, Brasso-Cattleya Cliftonii albens 
variety, Masdevallia courtauldiana (a rather rare species 
with rosy-coloured fiowers), M. schiSderiana, a variety 
of Odontoglossum crispum illustrissimum crosses, and tha 
violet and crimson coloured O. thomsonianum (whose 
forked, extended racemes promise a considerable profusion 
of fiowers) were others shown. 

Messrs. Charlesworth and Co., Hayward's Heath, also 
displayed a most interesting group — Brasso-Cattlcya Joan 
(of rosy pink hue), Odontioda Wilsonii (rosy purple, flecked 
with white), a magnificent raceme of the white-flowered 
Odontoglossum armain\'ilherensis, O. Doris (dark choco- 
late), a specimen of Cymbidium insigne bearing eight 
racemes of flowers, the very striking Sophro-Catlleya Saxa 
(of camellia red shade), with Laelia anceps Stella and Laelio- 
Cattleya Felicia. Silver Flora medal. 

Messrs. Sander and Sons, St. Albans, also had an interest- 
ing variety, among which we noted the beautiful Cattleya 
Empress of India, Brasso-Cattleya sulphurea amabilis, 
Odontoglossum amandum variety Grandesse (creamy 
yellow with crimson bars), Cymbidium gottianum and the 
quaint Epidendrum polybulbon alba (of which one or two 
pans were shown). The whole plant is not more than two 
inches high, the narrow sepals and petals coloured yellow, 
and pure white lip. A very handsome Cypripedium was 
labelled " Moonbeam x villosum aureum." Silver 
Banksian medal. 

Floral Committee. 

Present : H. B. May, Esq. (chairman), and Messrs. 
W. A. Bilney, F. W. Harvey, B. Crisp, R. Hooper Pearson, 
E. A. Bowles, W. J. Bean, J. Green, G. R^uthe, G. Harrow, 
J. F. McLeod, J. W. Moorman, C. R. Fielder, W. Howe, 
T. Stevenson, J. Hudson, J. Jennings, W. Bain, C. Dixon, 
J. Dickson, A. Turner, C. E. Shea, C. E. Pearson, W. P. 
Thomson, E. H Jenkins and G. Paul. 

Messrs. Barr and Sons, Covent Garden, W.C, arranged 
a very beautiful lot of early flowering plants, of which 
Snowdrops, Gaultheria procumbens. the early hardy 
Cyclamen, hardy Heaths, Eranthis cihcicus, Narcissus 
minimus. N. Bulbocodium monophyllus (very chaste and 
beautiful), Crocuses in many kinds, Lenten Roses, Adonis 
amurensis and Iris stylosa were among the more 
choice. Freesias, in pots, were also charmingly displayed, 
and fragrant withal. Bronze Flora medal. 

Messrs. Stuart Low and Co., Enfield, Jliddlesex, dis- 
played Cyclamen, Carnations, Camellias, Acacias and 
other greenhouse flowers. The Cyclamen were very 
beautiful and in great variety. Of the Carnations, of 
which a large group was shown, Champion (scarlet), 
Princess Dagmar (crimson). Lady Fuller (salmon), Mrs. 
C. F. Raphael (rose scarlet) and Gorgeous (cerise) were 
among the more important. Bronze Flora medal. 

Messrs. R. F. Felton and Sons, Hanover Square, again 
showed the red-fruited Solanum cihatum, a plant of great 
beauty and ornament, to which we have previously referred . 
Lilacs, Guelder Rose and Eucalyptus globulus were also 
well displayed, with Ruseus raccmosus, Pittosporums of 
sorts and Oiearia Forsteri as garniture. 

Messrs. W. Wells, Limited, Merstham, showed Carnations 
Pink Sensation, Aviator (scarlet), Red Benora, Mrs. G. 
Lloyd Wigg (white), Laura Webber (pink) and Good 
Cheer (pink), a set of novelties for distribution this year. 



84 



THE GARDEN. 



[February 13, 1915. 



Mr. Clarence Elliott, Stevenage, displayed an exhibit 
of alpincs, in which an extensive colony of Saxifiaga 
bursoriana was a chief feature. Crocus species. Gentiana 
acaulis and the early Cyclamen were shown with rock 
shrubs. 

Messrs. H. B. Slay and Sons, Edmonton, displayed 
groups of Cyclamen latifolium, Primula ohconica, Calla 



Mr. L. K. Russell. Richmond, was awarded a silver 
Banksian medal for ,a collection of fruitinp and other 
shrubs, such as Skimmia. Aucuba, Garrja, Hamamelis, 
forced Wistaria and Prunus triloba. 

Messes. Allwood Brothers, Hayward's Heath, again 
showed Carnations finely, including Salmon Enchantress, 
Rosette (cerise), T;rrific (pink, of the Malmaison class). 



alocasiafoUa; an evergreen species of "dwarf habit', with Gorgeous" (ccrisV) and Philadelphia (a pleasing cerise pink 
T\"^.,*^.^i,., i3.„.i<, n^A ^thar »,ioti*c tpith (i^nH litrhtintT-iiTi niiaiitiesV Mary Allwood was very 



Cinerarias, .\zalea Deutsche Perle and other plants 
The Cyclamen, in salmon, white and crimson, were very 
good. " Silver Flora medal. 

Messrs. Herbert Chapman, Limited, Eye, had well- 
flowered pans of Cyclamen ibericum, together with vases 
of hybrid Frcesias and hybrid Narcissi in variety. The 
rather conspicuous red-cupped fungus, Peziza coccinca, 
was also shown in capital form. 

>Ir. James Box, Haj'ivard's Heath, had a deUghtful 
lot of Saxifraga bursoriana. Cyclamen Coum, Erica mcdi- 
terranea hybrida, Hopaticas in variety, Parochetus 
communis, early Irises in variety and Primula malacoides. 
Marrubium sericeum and well-flowered examples of 
Hamamelis were a'so on view. Bronze Banksian medal. 

Messrs. J. Piper and Sons, Bayswater and Barnes, 
showed atpines and shrubs. Cj'claraen were very charm- 
ing, also the white-flowered Saxifraga burseriana. The 
variety of Saxifrages was very charming ; the shrubs 
were most interesting. But wher-; -n-as the need for the 
discordant purple background ? Bronze Banksian medal. 

Miss C. M. Dixon, Elmcroft Nurseries, Edenbridge, 
Kent, displayed Primula malacoides, Hyacinth Lord 
Balfour (red mauve). Tulips and Primula obconica in 
distinct forms, the colour shades blending in a very 
charming manner ; an object-lesson in tasteful arrange- 
ment. 

The Misses Hopkins, Shepperton, showed single and 



with good lighting-up qualities), 
good. Bronze Flora medal. 

The Guildford Hardy Plant Nursery sent a variety 
of alpines and shrubs, the groups of Saxifraga burseriana 
major. Veronica pim?loid;s, Muscari azureum, Seuecio 
Grayii and Daphne fioniana being among the more pleasing 
items. 

NATIONAL CHRYSANTHEMUM SOCIETY. 

Annual Meeting. 
The annual meeting of this society was held on the 1st 
inst. at Carr's Restaurant, Strand. In the absence of 
Sir Albert Rollit, who was prevented from presiding by 
indisposition, Mr. Thomas Bevan took the chair. The 
adoption of the report and accounts for the past year was 
formallv moved bv the chahman. and supported by 
Mr. E.'F. Hawes. who specially alluded to the arrange- 
ments made by the National Chrvsanthemum Society to 
hold its 1915 show at the Koyal Horticultural Hall. West- 
minster. He hoped every member would do his utmost 
to make the show in a new place a success. The election 
of officers then took place, with the following results : 
Sh Albert Rollit, president ; Mr. John Green, treasurer ; 
Mr. Thomas Bevan, chairman of committee ; Mr. E. F. 
Hawes, vice-chairman ; Mr. Harman PajTie, foreign 

and 



sisting of Sir Harry J. Veitch, the Rev. W. Wilks and Mr. 
S. T. Wright, from the Royal Horticultural Society. 
The following awards were made, namely ; Three silver 
cups, three silver-gilt Banksian medals, three silver-gilt 
Flora medals, two silver Knightian medals and three 
silver Banksian medals. All the officers were re-elected, 
and will make every effort to carry on the good work 
of the society successfully as in the past. 



HIGHCLIFFE GARDENERS' ASSOCIATION. 

Mr. C. J. Gleed, staff teacher, Hampshire County Council, 
gave a very instructive lecture on "Fungoid Pests" on 
Monday, February 1. Mr. Murray. Sopley Park Gardens, 
occupied the chair, and there was a good attendance of 
members. The lecturer drew attention to the harm 
resulting from overfeeding crops with nitrogenous manures, 
which caused a too sappy growth and a predisposition of 
such to attack by fungoid pests. He referred to silver- 
leaf in Peaches, Nectarines, Plums and other kinds of 
plants, and said the disease coidd be spread from tree to 
tree by various means, pruning, Ac. ; also, that where 
the wood was dead the fruit spores developed. Canker, 
said the lecturer, was caused by a wound parasite. 
Varieties with thin rinds were the most subject to canker, 
but even these were not so liable when grown on a strong 
Paradise stock. He described American mildew, how 
it could be detected at the base of the spines near the ends 
of the shoots on Gooseberry bushes, and strongly recom- 
mended cultivators who found it on their plants to care- 
fully cut otf such shoots, put them in a box, and forthwith 
burn both box and affected shoots. In regard to the use 
of sulphur, Rlr. Gleed said the ordinary flowers of sulphur, 
I owing to the smoothness of the particles, was not as 
I efficacious as the black, coarser-grained sulphur. Potatoes 
should be sprayed with Bordeaux mixture at least 
i twice — first at the end of June if close, moist weather 
came, then again three weeks after — and, if necessary, the 
1 third time about the middle of August. Much more 
valuable information was given, and both the lecturer and 
chairman received cordial votr-s of thanks. 



CHELMSFORD 



GARDENERS' 



„,^ ^^__ _ _ secretary; Mr. R. A. Witty, general secretary 

double Primroses.' Hepaticas"early 'cyclamen and other i Messrs. Stevens and W. Walker as auditors. As one- 
hardy flowers. . third of the executive committee rethe annually, the J 

Messrs. R. and G. Cuthbcrt, Southgate, had a lovely vacant places have to be filled. The follonnng gentlemen ^ 
group of forced shrubs springing from' a groundwork of were therefore elected : Messrs. Caselton, Emberson. 
Ferns. MagnoUas, Lilacs, Prunus, Pyrus atrosanguinea, , Ingamells, McKerchar, Noyce, Riding. Runciman. Searle 
Azalea mollis in variety, Forsythia and other plants i Springthorpe, Toms, W. Wells, Horace Wright and 
were delightfuUv arranged. We b'ilieve this to be one | Faulkber. . j 

of the finest trroups ever staged at this early season. ( A letter was read from Mr. J. W. Moorman resignmg his 
Silver-gilt Flora medal. i place on the various committees. The resignation was ac- 

Messrs. Waterer, Sons and Crisp, Bagshot and Twyford, ! cepted with regret, and many members spoke of the excel- xhe eighth meeting of the winter session was held in the 
displaved Iris alata, hardy Heaths, early Cyclamen, lent work done by Mr. Moorman during his connection with | jast Anglian Institute of .Agriculture on Friday, the 
Snowdrops, Crocuses and a 'considerable variety of Saxi- ; the society and of his personal merit. Advancing years 29th ult. The president, Mr. E. H. Christy, occupied (he 
frages on rockH'ork. The dainty Sisyrinchium grandi- are the only reason for this gentleman's rethement. chair, and a good number of members were present, 

florum was also on \iew. Silver Banksian medal. 1 An expression of sympathy was directed to be forwarded . jir, j*. a. Waumsley gave a most interesting Jecture on 

.Messrs. G. and A. Clark, Limited, Dover, had a good to those French Chrysanthemum societies whose members •• School Gardening." The lecturer, in the course of his 
strain of Polyanthuses with flowers of large size. Many had fallen in the war. been wounded or taken prisoners, remarks, pointed out the following details : Gardening 
well-flowered "examples of Daphne Mezereum alba were some of whom were personally known to the members had been taken up by a number of schools, where practical 



AND DISTRICT 
ASSOCIATION. 



also shown 

Messrs. Sutton and Sons, Reading, had very fine basket , 
groups of Cyclamen and Primulas, a considerable table 
space being occupied. Of Primulas, Reading Blue, Double , 
White and Prince of Wales (red) were the chief. The 
Cyqlamen, represented by increased numbers, also afforded 
the greater display by reason of the mass of flowers 
8 inches or so above the handsome leaws. In this way 
we saw Giant Crimson, Superb Fringed, Rose Pink. 
Salmon Scarlet, Giant White, Salmon Pink and Sutton's 
Fringed Pink Pearl, the last of the " Butterfly " class, 
of handsome proportions, also of delightful colour. A 
capital exhibit in every wav. Silver Flora medal. 

.Messrs. Wills and Segar,' South Kensington, arranged 
a table of Orange trees in fruit, together with Azaleas, 
Cinerarias and "Cyclamen in fine flower. The plants 
were in ample groups, one of Giant White Cyclamen 
being particularly pure and well grown. Silver Flora 
medal. 

.Mr. G. Reuthe, Kcston, Kent, had delightful pots of 
Snowdrops, such lo\Tly winter Crocuses as Imperati 



of the National Chrvsanthemum Society. instruction was given. It was not a compulsory subject 
Mr. Witty referred to the proposal to extend the educa- and the number of children who had taken it up was con- 
tional work of the societv, and said that in addition to sidered satisfactory. The subject had been taken up by 
conferences it was intended to inaugurate a series of lectures 2,984 schools, by 51,724 boys and 2,877 girls. Stafford- 
dealing with various aspects of the Chrysanthemum, shire stood flrst among the EngUsh counties, Essex taking 
cultural and otherwise. It was announced that Mr. the fourth place. The effect of such instruction was that 
Harman Pavnc would be one of the first to give a paper, it gave the boys a liking for manual work ; they took a 
the subject "being "The Chrvsanthemum from a Poetic, pride in their own plot, it brought out latent qualities, 
Ms-thical and Romantic Point of View." The series will forethought, taught them to persevere through failure, and 
be"gin in the spring, and members are cordially invited. , was a true education The school garden contained a 
The election of new members brought the meeting to demonstration plot, fruit plot and flower plot. In one 
close, and after a vote of thanks to the chairman the school the lecturer had seen a weed plot ; this was a good 



members dispersed after a pleasant evening's work. 

WARGBAVE AND DISTRICT GARDENERS' [ 
ASSOCIATION. 

The first meeting of the present session took place on 
January 27, and a good number of members were present 
to hear a lecture on " Some Recent Researches on Plant 
Nutrition," by Mr. .\lfred Maehen. The lecturer. 



idea, as it was as well to know your enemy by sight. 
Several other points were touched on by the lecturer, all 
of which opened the field for a good discussion which 
followed the lecture. At the conclusion of the meeting a 
hearty vote of thanks was accorded Mr. Waumsley for his 
lecture. 



Sieberi (mauve) and the golden yellow flowered Korol- , a colleague of Professor Eottomley of Kings College 
kowii ; double blue Hepatica. Cyclamen Atkinsii pur- London, was hstened to with rapt attention while he 
pureum (a very charming plant). Erica codonodes, Eranthis 1 detailed the experiments made on the action of bacteria 
cilicicus, and a great variety of Saxifrages in an exhibit : on peat, and how it can be converted into most valuable 
of alpines and shrubs. Among the latter, Berberis Bealii, • nitrogenous and phosphatic manure. The result of this 
vellow flowered and charmingly fragrant, was noted. , action gives a black powder, which will shortly be intro- 
Bronze Flora medal. I dueed to the horticultural and agricultural world under 

Messrs. J. Cheal and Son, Crawley, displayed alpines the name of " Heemogen." A large number of lantern 
and shrubs in conjunction with rockwork, employing ] slides (shown by Mr. Coleby) were exhibited illustrating 
groups of Iris reticulata. Primula denticulata, .\nchusa ; the lecturer's remarks and pro\ing most conclusively 
myosotidiflora. Saxifrages, Veronica Bidwellii and other | that the manure is a real plant food, for the plants to which 
plants. Rhododendron Jacksonii (rosV pink) was in full ! it had been applied in very small doses were models of 
bloom, the unforced plants having been lifted from the j what they should be. The Curalor of Kew Gardens 



open in the developing bud stage a week earlier. Pyra 
cantha angustifolia, a well-armed species, was full of its 
orange-coloured fruits. It is highly ornamental. 

Messrs. W. Cutbush and Sons, Highgate, N., displayed 
many interesting and Ix-autiful things, particularly Car- 
nations and alpines. Of the former, Mrs. L. D. Fullerton 
(fancy). Lady Ingcstre (pink). Lady Coveniry (a scarlet 
of Malmaisoii proportions), Carola, Sunstar (yellow) and 
White Swan were the best. A nicely flowered plant of 
C>amellia reticulata was on view. In the alpine section a 
group of two or three dozen Iris sind-pers was in the 
nature of an "eve-opener," and was greatly admired. 
I. reticulata Krelagei, Hepaticas, Daphne Dauphinii, 
Christmas Roses and Saxifraga burseriana major were 
also finely represented. Silver Banksian medal. 

The St. George's Nursery, Harlington, showed three fine 
haskit groups of Cyclamen Mrs. L. M. Graves (scarht). 
Queen Mary (pink) and St. George (salmon, with hand- 
some marbicd foliage, which alone was a great feature. 
It is a most striking variety). 

Jlr. Amos Perry, Enfield, again showed a table of 
hanly evergreen Ferns, comprising leading varieties of 
the tasscUed Hart's-tongue (Scolopindrium), Polypodium 
cambricum and the more densely plumose forms of 
Polyslichum. Each was well represented 
medal. 



and manv head-gardeners had made extensive trials of 
the material during the past twelve months, and were con- 
vinced of its great utility. A good discussion followed 
and many questions were asked, which the lecturer 
answered. A hearty vote of thanks was accorded Jlr. 
JIaehcn, and he briefly replied. Mr. B. Doe, head- 
gardener to Sir Charles Henry, Bart. M.P., at Parkwood, 
exhibited a splendid collection of Apples and Pears, 
with plants of Begonia Gloire de Lorraine. Primula 
malacoides and Cj-clamen interspersed between the dishes ; 
and Messrs. Waterer, Sons and Crisp, Limited, staged an 
interesting group of hardy plants suitable for rockeries. 
Both exhibitors were thanked for their displays. 



BOURNEMOUTH HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

.\SNr.lI. MEETISii. 

There was a good attendance of subscribers at the annua' 
meeting held on January 29. The annual report showed 
a nice balance in hand after a substantial sum had been 
given as a donation to the Mayor's War Fund. jUI the 
three shows — spring, summer and autumn — proved a 
success from every point of Vtc-w. Especially fine were 

.. .u.iii, ... the Oirvsanthemums and fruit at the autumn show. 

Silver Flora I The members of this society and the tomispeople generally 
very much appreciated the visit of the deputation, con- 



SCOTTISH HORTICULTURAL ASSOCIATION. 

THE monthly meeting of the Scottish Horticultural 
Association was held in their hall, 5, St. Andrew Square. 
Edinburgh, on the evening of February 2. There was 
an excellent attendance to hear the inaugural address 
of the new president, Mr. William G. Pirie, gardener to 
C. W. Cowan, Esq., Dalhousie Ca.stle. Mr. David King. 
Osborne Nurseries, the retiring president, who-..- term of 
office has been a most successful one, presided, and intro- 
duced JMr. Pirie. who was received with hearty applause. 
The subject of his address was " Present-day Problems." 
Mr. Pirie took a wider field than ordinary horticulture, 
although the subjects dealt with were cognateto gardening. 
The address was marked by practical knowledge and 
keen observation, and was heartily received, .\mong the 
questions referred to in detail was that of the cultivation 
of Sugar Beet, which Mr. Pirie considered could be as 
successfullv cultivated in many parts of England and 
Ireland as" on the Continent. The lecturer advocated 
active assistance on the part of the railway companies, 
and expressed the opinion that if Beet cultivation were 
fostered by the railways by their gi\ing special facilities, 
the industry would become established in this country. 
Another question of importance at the present time — 
that of small holdings— also received due considi-ratioD 
in its effect on market gardening. A pertinent point 
was made of the attitude of the Scottish Board ot Agri- 
culturc in apparentlv proposing to parcel out land for 
the cultivation of vegetables at rents approaching those 
fixed for agricultural purposes. This, as Mr, Pine showed, 
would be unfair to those holding market gardens at high 
rents unless these could lie made subject to a Land Court. 
\nother " present -dav problem " ably dealt with by the 
lecturer was that of afforestation, especially as it affected 
the supply of pit props, which had been largely checked 
by the war. Other items in keeping with the title of the 
paper were ably discussed, and Mr. Pirie was warmly 
thanked for an exceUent lecture, which augurs well for 
his success in the chair during the session. 




GARDEN. 



-^ 






v^ 



No. 2257.— Vol. LXXIX. 



February 20, 1915. 



NOTES OF THE WEEK. 



The Cornwall Da&odil Show. — After the Rev. , A Beautiful Early Spring Crocus. — In Crocus 
. Jacob's "Daffodil Notes" (page 88) liad been ■ tommasinianus we have one of the best of the 



sent to press he informed us that the Cornwall 
Daffodil Show has been abandoned for this year. 
Captain Louis de Vilmorin in the Fighting 
Line. — ^The following extract from the French 
Official Journal of the ist inst. will, we think, 
be of interest to horticulturists in this country : 
" The 8th Section of machine gun cars 
under command of reserve Captain 
Louis de Vilmorin volimtecred to operate 
on the first fighting line a battery of 
8omm. moimtain guns, and contributed 
very effectively to check the defence of 
a village by the Germans in supporting 
by night and day the forward movement 
of the infantry." 

Tulips for Forcing. — Mr. R. P. 
Brotherston, the well-known Scottish 
gardener, sends us the following note : 
" The best forcing Tulip I have ever grown 
is Proserpine, which with no trouble com- 
mences to flower in the middle of 
December, and at Christmas there is 
always a good supply of plants and bloom. 
This year Fred Moore has been very satis- 
factory as an extra early variety. It is in 
the way of Prince of Austria and Thomas 
Moore, and a lovely flower. Of DaffodUs 
I have had a large quantity of Seagull of 
my own growing, yielding lots of flower. 
The Flowering White Currant, cut and 
brought out in a stove, has been in use for 
decorating since early in the year. It is 
well worth growing for this purpose alone. 
The other forms do not force so readUy." 

Shirley Poppies with Blue Flowers. — 
Last spring we were rather startled to 
receive from Messrs. J. Carter and Co. a 
packet of seeds labelled " Blue Shades of 
Shirley Poppy." These, the firm were care- 
ful to explain, had been raised by Mr. 
Luther Burbank, and were in sealed 
packets sent direct from the United States 
of America, so that Messrs. Carter could 
accept no responsibility for the colour de- 
scription. When the plants that were raised 
commenced to flower, we were not greatly 
impressed with the colour of the blossoms ; but later, 
some gave very charming flowers, varying from 
smoke grey to slaty blue. These were exceedingly 
pretty for house decoration during daylight, but 
were not seen to advantage when artificial illumina- 
tion was resorted to. As will be seen by the accem- 
panying illustration, the flowers are the same in 
form and poise as those of ordinary colours. 



early spring Crocuses. The outer petals are of 
a silvery dove tone, while the inner segments 
are of a delicate mauve b!ue, making it very 
attractive. It is, although small, stout in its 
habit, and stands the weather of an early period 
of the year with little distress. Even when not 



by Mr. F. C. Miles on albinism in Maize being of 
special interest to horticulturists. The journal 
is edited by Professor W. Bateson, M.A., Director 
of the John Innes Horticultural Institution, and 
published by the Cambridge University Press, 
Fetter Lane, London, E.C. 

Two Dwarf Uncommon Shrubs. — The genus 
Sarcococca is not very well known and seldom seen 
in gardens, yet it contains several interest- 
ing little shrubs that are suitable for the 
rock garden. The two we have in mind are 
of recent introduction from China, and 
although in neither case are the flowers 
very conspicuous, they are interesting and 
very fragrant. As they open at this time 
of the year, they are worthy of a place. 
O.ae is Sarcococca humilis, a neat little 
shrub from i foot to ij feet high, with 
rich green, glossy leaves, bearing racemes 
of whitish flowers, with clusters of con- 
spicuous red stamens. The other is S. 
niscifolia, a stronger grower, but very 
pleasing with its neat habit and dark 
polished leaves and clusters of white 
flowers. The flowers of Sarcococca are 
unisexual, but the two sexes are produced 
on the same axillarj- raceme, the females 
being at the base. The Sarcococcas 
belong to the Spurge family and are 
closely allied to the Box. 

Journal of the Kew Guild. — This journal 
lor 1915 is a particularly interesting one, 
containing as it does several articles and 
notes bearing directly upon the war. 
Thus the frontispiece is a portrait of M. 
Louis Gentil, an Old Kewite who is Curator 
of the Brussels Botanic Gardens and editor 
of the Tribune Horticole. The article by 
M. Vil Bouckenooghe, entitled " The Bom- 
bardment of Ypres," places vividly before 
us the awful trials that horticulturists and 
other civilians have been subjected to in 
the bombardment of thit and other Belgian 
towns. M. Bouckenooghe, who is also an 
Old Kewite, has been in business as a nur- 
seryman at Ypres for some years, and is 
now a guest of friends in this country. 
Other articles deal with the %vork of Kew 
open to the sun it is pretty with its peculiar, attrac- men in all parts of the world, and form a striking 
five feathering showing on the flower. | testimony to the activity of horticulture in remote 

Physiology of Fertilisation. — ^Those who are ; comers of the globe that ewes its success to Kew. 
interested in the physiology of fertilisation in The editor of the journal and secretary of the Guild 
plants and animals will find the current issue of ' is oxu- sub-editor, Mr. H. Cowley, who, as our readers 
the Journal of Genetics particularly useful. The , are probably aware, is serving with the British 
whole of the number is devoted to numerous | Army in France. The Avork of echting the present 
experiments that have been conducted, those ' issue has been undertaken by Mr. A. Osbom. 




SOME OF THE BLUE-FLOWERED SHIRLEY POPPIES 
THESE ARE VERY USEFUL FOR CUTTING 



86 



THE GARDEN. 



[February 20, 1915. 



HOME-GROWN VEGETABLES AND OUR FOOD SUPPLY. 



We continue to receive a number of letters on this important subject. Dr. Lillias Hamilton very properly indicates the necessity of growini; 

those kinds of vegetables that are the most valuable from a food standpoint, and her suggestion of co-operative piggeries in connection with 

allotments deserves earnest consideration from local horticultural societies. The letter signed " F.R.H.S." is from one of the best-known 

men in the horticultural world, and we commend his suggestion regarding Wisley to the Council of the Royal Horticultural Society. 



I THINK the advice given in your article 
of February 6 is excellent, being both 
timely and useful. The Royal Horticul- 
tural Society of Ireland have appointed a com- 
mittee to form an Irish branch of the Vegetable 
Products Committee, established to supply garden 
produce to the North Sea Fleet. Bessborough. 



I THINK I have as much sympathy for the 
wounded and suffering as any of your readers, 
but I do not see my way to throw up my 
hat in approval of the scheme you advocate 
for the supply of vegetables to our hospitals 
and Fleet. You must never forget that market 
gardening is a great industry, and if supplies 
of vegetables are required for our Fleet, let 
them be ordered through the proper channels, 
just as bread or beef or cheese is ordered. Why 
is it always the horticultiu-ist who is expected to 
give things free ? Why do we never see proposals 
for grocers to set aside six cheeses every week, 
or for farmers to give a sheep every week, or 
for bakers to give a batch of loaves every week, 
free, to feed our sailors ? When we come to the 
hospitals it is rather different ; but why free 
vegetables any more than free drugs or free milk 
and eggs ? Again, I say the interests of the market 
gardeners are to be considered. By far the best 
thing to do is to encourage the increased growth of 
Potatoes and vegetables among the people them- 
selves for their own and their children's food, and 
if there are surpluses, let them by all means be 
given away. Let all big people with large gardens 
and vineries run them as usual and give their 
produce to the hospitals, as is being done at present 
by some. W. Cuthbertson. 

[We think Mr. Cuthbertson has rather mis- 
imderstood the purport of our article. The 
idea is not so much the supplying of vegetables 
to our Navy or Army as to induce amateurs and 
cottagers to grow all the food they can during the 
coming season. Any surplus could be put to 
go'.d use by a local society undertaking to collect 
and despatch it to hospitals, nursing homes or other 
institutions where wounded soldiers or sailors are 
being cared for. Mr. Cuthbertson must surely 
have heard of " pound days " at hospitals, where 
a pound of some kind of grocery is given for the 
inmates. — Ed.] 



The article on " Home-grown Vegetables and 
Our Food Supply," in your issue of February 6, 
raises an important question, and suggests, I 
think, a valuable policy. One or two special 
considerations occur to me. 

In the first place, as regards the choice of vege- 
tables to be put in the ground, it is to be hoped 
that the responsible committees will select, accord- 
ing to locality, such as are most nourishing and 
such as are easily stored. Both these considera- 
tions point to root crops, especially Potatoes, 
which are imported in such enormous quantities 
from Germany every year. There does not 
appear to l>e any shortage of green vegetables 



at present, and the pressure on our supplies is 
likely to increase towards the autumn and during 
the winter months. If every garden holder in 
the kingdom put down even the smallest quantity 
of Potatoes, Carrots, Beets and other root crops, 
and also Onions, the result in six or eight months' 
time should be a considerable and valuable increase 
of foodstuffs for the nation. 

Secondly, it seems to me that not only can 
the horticultural societies be utilised, as you 
suggest, as local advisory bodies and distributing 
agents — as local co-operative centres, in fact — 
but that these societies already form the nucleus 
of a national system of co-operation. Instead 
of each locality acting independently, the system 
of intercommunication among the different districts 
should tend to the regulation of supply and demand 
over the whole country, and ensure growing on 
the most useful lines and distribution to the best 
advantage. 

Thirdly, you suggest the possibility of 'personal 
instruction. I feel this to be essential. Now, 
if ever, is the opportunity to increase the fertility 
and productiveness of the land. The weight of 
a crop varies so enormously according to the 
method of cultivation ; hence the great import- 
ance of teaching the allotment holder the principles 
of intensive culture. We are all familiar with 
the sight of a small boy sweeping up road scrapings 
for the small garden ; these and any leaf-mould 
that can be collected and dug into the soil 
at a considerable depth in the winter would produce 
very different crops from those we are accustomed 
to see. Another thing we have to learn is that 
large vegetables are not necessarily coarse. One 
has only to compare the mere look of a field crop 
of Parsnips or Carrots with those exhibited at 
the London and provincial shows. In the one 
case the root from crown to point is only 8 inches 
to lo inches long ; in the other, it may come to 
nearly 3 feet in length. A form of cultivation 
between these two extremes would not be im- 
possible, and instruction as to how to achieve 
this result is a very great desideratum. 

Finally, I should like to make a suggestion 
that has long been in my mind, and that is the 
possibility of starting co-operative piggeries. 
There seems no reason against, and every reason 
in favour of, having co-operative piggeries in 
connection with allotment gardens, as has been 
the custom in Belgium. Considering the enormous 
amount of green stiiff — Cabbage stalks and the 
like, which are the inevitable refuse of allotments, 
combined with the remnants from the cottages 
of the holders, I think we should make a very 
real effort to produce the home-grown article, 
in view of the niillions of pounds' (sterling) worth 
of bacon annually imported. 

In these, as in other directions, the present 
anxious time, while it emphasises the need, would 
seem also to suggest the opportunity of meeting 
that need. Lillias Hamilton (Warden). 

Studley Horticullural and Agricultural College for 
Women. 



Y'ou are rendering yeoman service to the nation 
by your article in your issue of the 6th inst. There 
is not much danger of there being a serious shortage 
of food in this country, but in view of the great 
armies at home and abroad, as well as the Navy 
(not to mention our wounded), huge demands for 
food must necessarily be made on us. The threat 
by the Germans to blockade our ports will cause 
us no alarm, but at the same time our food suppiy 
will not be increased as a result of submarine 
operations. It therefore behoves all not only 
to economise, but to see to it that every inch 
of land shall be made as fully producti^■e as possible 
during the coming summer and autumn. Unfortu- 
nately, everybody does not read The Garden, 
and the problem is how to get at those who fail 
to see your article. I suggest, therefore, that a 
copy of your article should be sent to all the leading 
London and provincial daily newspapers, and 
also to local papers, with a request for insertion. 
The expense of this would be lessened if one or 
other of the great news distributing agencies 
could be prevailed upon to render assistance in 
this direction, as I have no doubt it will do if a 
representation is made to it on patriotic grounds. 
Copies of the article might also with advantage 
be sent to local governing bodies which have (•• 
grow large crops for the inmates of workhouses, 
&c. In fact, every effort must be made to bruig 
home to our people the necessity of growing all 
possible crops. The magnificent example set by 
the Dunfermline Horticultural Society is one 
which might well be followed by other societies. 
The Royal Horticultural Society is first and fore- 
most in everything connected with the horticul- 
tural world. Could not the Council be induced 
to have all land available at Wisley planted with 
vegetables, and to have the same distributed to 
places where they are wanted ? Large numbers 
of wounded soldiers are expected before long. 
These are to be centralised. I would therefore 
suggest that the Royal Hort'cultural Society 
should undertake to supply at least one hospital 
of wounded soldiers with vegetables. F.R.H.S. 



I have just seen the article in your admirable 
paper suggesting that local societies should take 
up the question of increasing our vegetable supplies. 
I may add that the Hayward's Heath and District 
Gardeners' Mutual Improvement .Association is 
now trying to arrange for a lecture or debate 
on this subject at its meeting on March 3. I am 
wondering if any reiider could assist me in obtain- 
ing a lecturer on this important work. I may 
point out that the Hayward's Heath Horticultural 
Society has resolved itself into a local branch for 
the purpose of collecting and packing fruit and 
vegetables jor the Fleet, and sending to the head 
committee— the Vegetable Products Committee. 
I am sure that if something could be done so that 
the matter you are taking up could be forcibly 
put before the many head and single-handed 
gardeners, also cottagers, it would be successful. 
G. Prevett (Hon. S?cretary). 
The Rosery, HaywnrcTs Hea'h. 



February 20, 1915.] 



THE GARDEN. 



87 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

(The Edilor is not responsible for the opinions 
expressed by correspondents.) 



Danger of Planting Pot-Bound Plants.— 

I enclose two photographs portraying in a somewhat 
strikijig manner an instance of a disastrous rcsnlt 
of planting a pot-bomid plant. Photograph No. i 




1, — ROOTS OF A POT-BOUND PITTOSPORUM 
COLENSOI FIVE YEARS AFTER PLANTING. 

shows how the roots have followed the concen- 
tricity given to them by the shape of the pot, 
until by persistent constriction they have so 
strangulated the main stem (as shown in No. 2) 
that it has only required an extra puff of wind 
lo cause complete severance. The plant is Pitto- 
sporum Cf-)lensoi, and was planted five years ago. 
It was a fine specimen for its age, having attained 
tlie height of 12 feet. — Alex. M. Wilson. 

Iris Tauri. — This handsome Juno Iris is well 
know'u to most hardy plantsmen, and is now in 
abundant flower here. Although it increases 
fairly well from offsets if given good treatment, 
scedlhigs raised in this country seem to make 
the strongest bulbs. ~It is, however, only once 
in a while that I. Tauri will seed in our climate, 
as its period of flowering is so early that there are 
few insects then about. A springtime characterised 
by a warm and sunny February will, as a rule, 
prove the forerminer of a plentiful quantity of 
seed on this and other allied varieties of the Iris 
group, and it is well worth while to take the pains 
lo watch, gather and sow it, even though one 
must not expect flowers from the seedlings for at 
least four years. Such, at any rate, is my 
experience. — F. H. Chapman, Rye. 

Cultivation of Tropseolum speciosum. — I was 
interested in Mr. R. A. Earp's article on Tropaiolum 
speciosum which appeared in the issue of The 
Garden dated February 6, page 68, in which 
he says his friend informed him that it would 
only grow in Cornwall and the Highlands. Well, 
I think she was a great way out in so sweeping a 
statement, for I have seen it grown, perhaps not 
to perfection, but as near that condition as to 
matter but little. This was in Wigtownshire, 
Scotland, and but a few feet above sea-level. 
There it covered not only the railings which were 
intended for its support, but also Rhododendrons 
and various other evergreens, some of which were 
quite a distance from where I should imagine 
it had originally been planted. I do not know 



whether Mr. Day, when he was a contributor to 
your columns, mentioned it or not, but I can 
assure you the masses of flame colour during the 
summer were quite a feature of the place. This 
was at Galloway House, Garlieston, Wigtownshire. 
— Charles Trott. 

Tropseolum speciosum, known here as 

Flame Flower or Scottish Creeper, is very largely 
grown in the Lake District, where we consider 
that it requires the kind of deep, rich soil which 
grows good Pansies. It likes a north or north- 
west position, as a rule, and prefers a living support 
to wire or string, though well-established plants 
will cling to anything provided. A more beautiful 
picture cannot be imagined than a sheet of the 
vivid scarlet flowers and light green leaves growing 
over an old Yew hedge. Flame Flower is rather 
capricious, and sometimes takes several seasons 
to become established. It has a curious habit, 
if its tastes are not provided for, of growing hori- 
zontally undergroimd until a more congenial 
home is found. I have known plants which were 
set at one side of a hut to grow underneath the 
hut and appear above the ground at the opposite 
side, where they flourished exceedingly. When 
once settled, it will sometimes spread almost as 
rapidly as Convolvulus, and I have even heard it 
described as a weed. — Sfink, Cartmel, North Lanes. 

Daffodils for the Garden.— I must thank 
" A Small Amateur," the Rev. J. Jacob and Mr. 
G. L. Wilson for their kind replies to my letter. 
I am specially grateful for the lists of Daffodils 
recommended by the first two as suitable for 
the ordinary garden, because, as I said in my 
first letter, catalogues are not much help to a 
novice searching for sorts likely to thri^'e in the 
garden. Even " X. and Sous' " famous catalogue, 
which has different marks for those sorts recom- 
mended for exhibition and those for the border, 
goes on to say about those marked as suitable for 
exhibition, " they are, however, in most cases also 
splendid border varieties," so that one does not gel 
much " forarder." I see from the '• Daffodil Year 
Book" of I9r4 that the Narcissus committee 
of the Royal Horticultural Society recommend 
the following for the garden : Mme. de Graaff, 
Barrii conspicuus. Emperor, Sir Watkin, Empress, 
Lady Margaret Boscawen, Lucifer, White Lady, 
Weardale Perfection, Horace, Argent, Cassandra, 
Blackwell, Duke of Bedford, Seagull, Gloria 
Mundi, Golden .Spur, Homespmi, Kmg Alfred 
and Poeticus recurvus. A novice looking at 
such a list would, I think, be justified in con- 
sidering that as regards vigour of constitution 
and suitability for the garden all these twenty 
were much of a muchness. I am afraid, however, 
his faith in the judgment of those who sit in the 
seats of the mighty in the Daffodil world would 
be rather shaken when he sees in The Garden 
of January 30 tlie superdaffodilist, the Rev. J. 
Jacob, state in reply to " poor ' J. R.' from the 
cold North " that Homespun and King Alfred are 
not " good garden plants in the way that Emperor 
and Barrii conspicuus are." Of course, this list 
is a first attempt. No doubt, as years roll on, it 
will be revised and expanded, and should prove 
of the utmost value. — J. R. 

Shows, Schedules and Judges. — Mr. George 
Garner, in your issue of January 30, bears me out 
that the wording of schedules is too often am- 
biguous, and also admits that judges are not always 
what an exhibitor has a right to expect — competent. 
He thinks I am " rather hard on committees 
in reference to trade exhibitors." but that I " may 
have evidence of importance " to bear me out. 



Yes, Sir, heaps of it. I am glad that Mr. Gamer 
realises the value of trade exhibits, for undoubtedly 
in very many instances they form by far the 
biggest attraction in the tents at practically 
very little cost to the committee ; but how often 
do we find that, instead of assisting the trade 
exhibitor, he is left till last, because " We must get 
Lord So-and-so's gardener to the station." That 
may be good policy ; but it frequently happens 
that the trade exhibitor is due at another show- 
next day, and a lengthy delay may upset his ar- 
rangements and not only prove a loss to him, but 
also to the committee who are expecting him to fill 
the space allotted. With regard to evidence 
to bear out my strictures, I will mention one or 
two instances out of many. For one show definite 
arrangements had been made as to time of arrival, 
Sic. After a wait of two hours a conveyance 
arrived, and on reaching the show ground all the 
officials had left, the tents were in complete dark- 
ness, and the man in charge had no instructions 
and did not know which tent. In another case, 
after a wait of an hour and a half at the station, 
a small conveyance arrived (the only one employed) 
which could only take a portion of the exliibit, 
thus necessitating a second journey of nearly 
five miles. In many cases the trader — from 
necessity — arrives late in the evening. No infor- 
mation can be given him by the show officials 
as to lodgings, and frequently he — or they — 
have to spend the night in the tents. Another 
item prejudicial to trade exhibitors is that while 
they go, naturally, for " trade " at many shows, 
patrons and subscribers get a private view and 
are gone before the exhibitor is admitted. These 
are the people who would be most likely to do 
business ; but the trader is precluded from getting 
it because he has not been admitted, and his 
cards carmot be exhibited until judging is com- 
pleted and he is admitted. Where the exhibit 
is not in competition for money prizes, the exhibitor 
should be allowed to be at his post. I, with others, 
have frequentl}' had to stay in a town an extra 
night because of delay in getting conveyances 
to reach the station in time, the private exhibitor 
being the first to get attention. Again, it is often 
fomid that on arrival at a show, the staguig is not 
fi.xed. and much valuable time is lost. I do not 




2. SHOWING HOW THE MAIN STEM WAS 

STRANGLED. 

plead for extra special consideration for the trade 
e.xhibitor, but many things might be improved 
to the comfort of the exhibitor and the advantage 
of the show. I would also commend " Scot 
Exhibitor's " remarks to show committees. It 
would be quite easy for a list of suitable lodgings 
to be kept by the secretary, and it would be much 
appreciated by exhibitors. — E.xhibitor. 



88 



THE GARDEN. 



[February 20, 1915. 



LILACS AND THEIR 
CULTIVATION. 



THERE are few flowering shrubs that 
appeal more strongly to those who 
appreciate fragrant blossoms and grace- 
ful contour than the Lilacs, yet it 
is safe to assert that in the majority 
of gardens they are the most neglected 
shrubs that one finds. Too often they are wedged 
between more or less solid blocks of coarse-growing 



is essential, and if the soil is naturally wet 
this must be provided. 

Lilacs on Their Own Roots. — Unfortunately, 
a great many of the best garden varieties are 
grafted or budded on the common Lilac, which 
always has a tendency to throw up suckers. 
Often these pass unnoticed until they have attained 
large dimensions and have ruined the choice 
variety that they s ould in the ordinary way 
have fostered. Some nurserymen supply these 
good varieties on their own roots, and it is well 
to secure these wherever possible ; then the 






9^-^'^ 



^.^■ 



^ f--* 



ft *^> 



AN EFl-HCTIVE GROUPING OF LILACS AND OTHER HARDV SHRUBS. 



evergreens, where it is inipussible for them to 
properly ripen their wood each autumn and so 
ensure a bomitiful display of blossom the following 
May. A valuable object-lesson in the proper 
planting of Lilacs may be seen any day of the 
year at Kew. In one instance a very large bed 
near the main gate is devoted to these charming 
shrubs, the varieties being so grouped as to give 
an excellent harmony of colours. Under the 
Lilacs, Winter Aconites and other very early 
flowering bulbs are planted, to provide a carpet 
of green and gold at a time when the Lilac bushes are 
devoid of foliage. At B!etchley Park, Bucks, Lilacs 
are freely dispersed among other shrubs by the 
side of the walks and carriage drives. The effect 
in May is most pleasing, especially where 
ihe Persian Lilac and Golden Chain or Laburnum 
are flowering togethtr. There is surely no justifica- 
tion for the half-starved and o\ercrowded bushes 
that do duty in many gardens. 

After all. Lilacs do not call for a great deal 
of special attention. True, they need deeply 
cultivated soil and a fairly liberal diet, and for 
this reason the ground should be well trenched 
and manured thoroughly with decayed manure 
before planting is done. The plantmg season 
extends from Uetohrj- till March. Good dr.iinage 



suckers, or a proportion of them, may be desirable 
rather than otherwise. But even here there is 
some danger, especially as the bushes attain a 
fairly large size. If too many of the suckers or 
basal shoots are allowed to remain, the plants arc 
likely to get overcrowded, a state of aft'airs that 
must be strictly guarded against. lu growing 
Lilacs we must fully bear iu mind the fact that 
if we desire good flowers, the wood must be well 
ripened by exposure to light and air the previous 
autumn. Apart, howe\er, from a thinning out 
of weak, useless shoots, and the' removal of the 
flower-heads when the blossoms have faded, 
Lilacs do not need much pruning. 

Their Value for Forcing. — During recent years 
quite a big industry has been brought into being, 
ill l'"rance as well as at home, in forciug Lilacs 
into bloom from January until April. The plants 
used for this purpose arc generally gaunt-looking 
speeimeus with a few very strong shoots, this 
condition having been brought about by severe 
disbudding for two or three years previously. 
As the plants are in pots they are easily managed, 
and are by no means difficult to force into bloom. 
They are gradually inured to a temperature of 
65° I'ahr,, and lightly syringed overhead daily 
to assist the buds to burst. When in flower tliev 



are usually taken to the conservatory, where the 
atmospheric conditions are drier and tlie tempera- 
ture lower ; here they will remain iu good con- 
dition for several weeks. 

The Best Varieties.— There are a good nrany 
excellent garden varieties to select from, a number 
of them differing very slightly. The following 
are good aud reliable for ordinary purposes : 
Single, white flowered— alba grandiflora, Marie 
Legraye, Mile. Femande Viger and Frau Bertha 
Dammanu. Single-flowered coloured varieties — 
Negro, deep purple ; Othello, deep claret red ; Dr. 
Mirabel, very erect panicles, deep 
f.laret red in bud, opening to rich 
purple ; Gloire de la Rochelle, deep 
lilac blue ; Pasteur, wine red ; 
Philemon, dark red ; Mmc. V. Morel, 
large panicles of deep purple colour ; 
Souvenir de Louis Spath and Charles 
X., deep red. Double flowers — 
Marie Lemoine, Miss Ellen Williuolt 
and Mme. Abel Chatenay, white ; 
Condercet, large panicles of lilac 
blue shade ; President Grevy, blue 
flowers, edged rose ; Maurice de 
Vilmorin, deep claret red ; Dr. Troya- 
nosky, veiy large panicles of azure 
blue flowers, which are rosy pink in 
the bud stage ; Comte de Kerchove, 
rich rosy red, very free flowering ; 
and La Tour d'Aiivergiie, violet 
purple. H. 



DAFFODIL NOTES. 

Shows and Their Dates. — 

The florist division e>f the Daffodil 
world is, naturally, thinking 
about the coming shows and 
wondering if they will all take place 
as usual. Through the courtesy 
and kind help of the several 
secretaries I am enabled to make 
a statement. The following 
exhibitions are definitely aban- 
doned : Devon, Glamorganshire, 
Brecon, Hmitingdonshire, Ipswich 
and East of England, and Kingsbridge. At the 
time of writing (early February), the following 
is a list of the dates, names and venues of those 
that it is proposed to hold : April 13 and 14, 
Royal Horticultural Society, at Vincent Square ; 
April n, Herefordshire, at Hereford ; April i.j 
and 15, Royal Horticultural Society of Ireland, 
at Balls Bridge, Dublin ; April 15, County Clare, 
at Ennis ; April 15, Tewkesbury, at Tewkesbury ; 
April 20, Lincolnshire, at Spilsby ; April 21 and 22, 
Midland, at Birmingham ; and .\pril 24, Presteign, 
at Presteign. I have no news about the Kent, 
Surrey and Sussex show, and it is not settled yet 
about Cornwall. These gaps are unavoidable. 
Our country comes before our Daffodils. While it 
is a sign of patriotism to do all we can to carry 
on as usual, it is not always possible, and changes 
have to be made. I sincerely hope no untoward 
event will necessitate an abandoninenl of any of 
the above fixtures. 

Fanny Currey. — Miss Currey was for so long 
a popular figure at London and Birmingham 
that I am sure some news of her in her enforced 
retirement will be welcome to many. The Warren 
Gardens at Lismore ai-e entirely given up, and 
Miss O'Hara, her friend and companion, 
writes : " I am sorry not to be able to report 



February 20, 1915.' 



THE GARDEN. 



89 



luucli impnivciucnt in ln'r, lliniifili liir licalth 
ciiiitiiuies fairly guud." 

Honour for the Daffodil. — A Welsh Chancellur 
iif the Exchequer has evidently solved to his own 
satisfaction the knotty problem of what is the 
national floral emblem of Wales. It used to be 
taken for granted that it was the Leek, but latterly 
that seemingly obvious fact has been challenged 
and a claim set up for the yellow Daffodil. The 
Chancellor seems to have decided the question, 
and who knows but that his decision will be, 
as it were, the making of the flower, so that in 
future we will have to say the Rose for England, 
the Thistle for Scotland, the Shamrock for Ireland, 
and the Daffodil for Wales. Readers may be 
asking themselves, " How do I know ? " and 
"Why do I write of the Chancellor's decision?" 
A little episode tliat happened this week will 
make ray meaning plain. My gardener having 
to go into Whitchurch on business, I asked him to 
call at the bank and get one of the new one pound 
notes with a Daffodil on. In due course he went 
to the bank, presented my cheque and asked for 
one of the new notes with a Daffodil on it. " Very 
sorry," said the cashier, " we have none. We'll 
have to get some made ! " and forthwith, with 
profuse apologies, he gave him one of the 
new issue. The note was brought 
home, and I was told that it 
was the only kind they had at' 
the bauk, l)ut that there was 
no Daffodil upon it ! Visions of 
the bank innocents having been 
taken in by a wholesale forgery 
instantly rose up in my mind, but 
when I looked at the note the 
Daffodil was there all right. Pro- 
blem : Find the Daffodil on a 
new one pound note. You, good 
reader, may not know it is there, and 
that our pet flower figures proudly 
on the official currency of Great 
Rritain. It is the first time that 
Wales has been represented on it. 

The Royal Horticultural 
Society's Classified List of Daffodil 
Names, 1914. — I have before me 
the first list that was issued by 
the Royal Horticultural Society in 
1907. In round figures it con- 
tained 1,500 names. I have counted 
the number in that of 1914. Roughly 
speaking, there are 3,000, to which 
must be added the additions which 
the secretary of the- Narcissus com- 
mittee must have in his desk. But 
over and above ail these there are 
all the Australian and New Zealand 
varieties, few of which seem to be 
registered, and then there is that vast 
multitude which " no man can number," all poten- 
tially crying out (to alter one word in a gre:il song) : 

" We are coming, we are coming, 
As our Fathers did of yore ! 
We are coming. Father Curtis, 
Six hundred thousand more ! "* 

Yes ; this is poetic licence, but the idea is all 
right. There are on their way to fame or the 
other thing far more new and unnamed varieties 
than anyone realises. I have an enormous number 
myself ; Dr. Lower is only just starting ; Mr. 
G. L. Wilson (Ireland) is in much the same position ; 



Mr. James Coey, I presume, is not letting the 
grass grow under his feet ; Mr. England of E.xeter 
must have something " good " in the making ; 
Mr. Mallender and his co-worker, Mr. G. Stocks, 
are also on the warpath ; Mr. Came Ross and 
Captain Kitchen are probably not idle. 

This is bewildering enough, but what of 
those " coming on " in the great dominions 
of New Zealand and Australia ! Not the 
children of Lowe, Rhodes, Bradley, West, 
Selkirk, Buckland, Thomas and other well- 
known raisers, but those of the, compara- 
tively speaking, unknown — of, let us say, 
Mr. H. E. Sharp of Gratia, New Zealand who 
grows 1,125 named varieties and who has been 



SOME CULTURAL HINTS 
ON FREESIAS. 



A S 

A 



one whose business it is to handle a 
considerable number of bulbs, I have 
often been surprised at the com- 
paratively small number of Freesias 
sold during the season. Why is 
this ? The flowers open without 
much trouble, and no great heat is required ; 
they come at a time when flowers are very scarce 
and much appreciated ; no flower is more suitable 
for cutting ; while the scent is most delightful, 
and remains fresh until the flower is almost dead. 



busy hybridising since 1906, yearly importing Having asked a question, I will endeavour to 
some of the best blood from the Old Country and answer it. My belief is that the greater number 
Holland to keep himself up to date. By the way, of people who try to grow this beautiful flower 
he writes of Manger's I'Avenir (ic) as one of the grow it so badly that they give up in disgust, 
very best of market flowers, and that Victoria There seems to be no other logical reason why 
has stems 18 inches long ! He did well last j it is not more extensively grown. 
September at the Auckland Show. Then, to go j The Reasons for Failure. — Let us now look 
to Australia, there is Mr. C. W. Higgins, a nephew for the probable cause of failure. First and fore- 
of the great Higgins whose list for 1913-14. fairly | most, I would say that late potting is more to 



staggered me by its expensive inclusiveness. 
He and his father and brother are enthusiasts, 
and busy as bees at the game of seedling raising, 



blame for failures than anything else. The bulbs 
of this plant ripen very early, and if kept out of 
the soil long they lose much of their vitality. 







. * 


.J 




r ^--y 










MKjn^BjS^^^ 
















^ 






Kk, 







LILACS FLOWERING BESIDE A CARKIAGE DRIVE IN THE GARDENS AT BLETCHLEY PARK, BUCKS. 



* The chorus of the famous 
Northern States of America. 



recruiting song of the 



inspired as they well may be by such men as 
Buckland, Bradley and Selkirk. I have had a 
long and interesting letter from " C. W.," in which 
he narrates his experiences of seed and pollen 
parents. It illustrates in a very striking 
way the old adage put into Daffodil language, 
" What's one variety's climate is another's poison." 
Number of Seeds in a Pod. — I wonder what is 
the record number of seeds in a pod. Mr. Higgins' 
father once had a King Alfred x calathinus with 
sixty in, and last year (r9r3-i4) an Albatross x 
Treasure Trove with fifty-two. My own biggest 
appears to be a Sidney x Daybreak (Tazetta) 
with fifty - three. These little rcords are 
interesting. Joseph Jacob. 



and will never do themselves justice. Not once 
nor twice, but many times have I had experiments 
made in potting Freesias as soon as they arrivs 
from France, which is generally about the last 
week in July, and others in a month or ten weeks' 
time. In nearly every case the early potted 
ones have done excellently, while those potted 
later have been so poor that they really have 
not paid for the trouble of planting, and one can 
easily imagine an amateur, on looking at such 
poor results, saying, " What a poor show I will 
never trouble with those things again ! " Let 
early potting, then, be the watchword. Now as to 
Soli and Treatment. To flower Freesias well 
a good, sound soil is a necessity, for, unlike 



90 



THE GARDEN. 



[Febriary 20, 1915. 



Hyacinths, Daffodils. Sec, the bloom is not pro- 
diucd Mil the bulb yon buy, but on a new bulb 
which is produced from the old one. It will 
be seen, then, that this flower requires more real 
griju'ing than does a Daffodil b!oom, which is 
already fonned within the bulb and only needs 
enticing out. Our Freesias are always potted 
in Kettering loam, to which is added a little 
Cocoanut fibre and sand to keep it open. After 
potting — about twelve bulbs are put in a 6-inch pot 
— they receive a gentle watering and are plimged 
in a cold frame and covered with about half an 
inch of fibre. Many growers are against any 
covering, but I have foimd that a light one keeps 
the soil moist and does no harm. A deep covering 
is harmful, as it draws up the young leaves and 
makes them weak. 

Unless hea\y rain occurs, the lights are left 
off the frame until cold nights come on, when a 
covering is necessary, but air must be given freely 
whenever the weather is fit. 

The Growing Plants. — -As soon as all the 
bulbs have made a start, it is well to remove the 



been made, very little water should be given, but 
when in full growth they require a fair quantity. 
Treated on these lines our Freesias are always 
a success, though the ripening seasons of the 
bulbs will give better results in one year 
than another. Last year must have been very 
favourable for them, for we are now enjoying a 
record crop of bloom. Hardly a bulb has failed, 
and the pots have been full of strong, stirrdy 
growths bearing double and even treble trusses of 
full-sized blooms. Before any were cut the plants 
were bristling with buds, and I said to our grower, 
" Xow if amateiurs once had a crop of Freesias like 
that, they would never be mthout them again." 
Freesias are really verv' cheap to buy if — and it is 
a large " if " — they are grown as they should be ; 
but if potted late and badly grown they are not 
worth pot or greenhouse room. To my mind 
the Freesia is far and away cheaper in proportion 
to the bloom it produces than the Roman 
Hyacinth, which, by the way, has of late steadily 
increased in price and decreased in quality, partly 
owing to the huge demand for the bulbs, which 



stems or leaves, siu-mounted in the summer by 
myriads of blue flf>wers. These often open in Jlay, 
and the display is continued sometimes imtil well 
into August. As its old specific name implies, it 
is a useful plant for old walls, but i! is also excel- 
lent for planting in the interstices of stone path- 
ways, whUe it is equally at home in a sunny spot 
in the rock garden or as a pot plant ji the con- 
servatory. Good loam that is fairly retentive of 
moisture suits this charming little plant. T. G. 



WINTER GRIME IN LONDON 
SQUARES. 




THF WALL BELLFLOWIZK, CAMPANULA PORIENSCHLAGIA.XA, GROWING BETWEEN FLAG-STONES. 



fibre from the surface of the put, and sticks must 
be put to the plants in good time to prevent 
them from tumbling about. Three or four very 
thin sticks — Banilino tips are the best — should be 
put roinid the edgs of each pot, and some very fine 
raffia laced round from one to another to form a 
kind of enclosure for the plants. Thick sticks and 
thick tying material look clumsy and unsightly. 
As soon as the nights get really cold and the plants 
slop growing, they should at once be removed 
into a cool greenhouse. (Ours are taken inside 
about November r.) Otherwise the tips of the 
leaves will go brown and the general results will 
not be the best. 

In the Greenhouse they should have a position 
as close to the glass as possible. The temperature 
should be only just enough to keep them going, 
say, a maximimi of 55° by day and a minimum 
of 45° at night. As much air should be given 
as is possible without causing a chilly draught. 
I had forgotten to say that until some growth has 



puts too great a drain upon the stocks griiwn, and 
partly owing to a number of verj' inclement seasons 
in the South of France, where they are grown. 

I trust that my remarks may induce some 
amateurs, who have tried and failed, to give the 
Freesia another chance, and if the results are 
as good as I have enjoyed this year, I feel sure 
they will have a word of thanks, even if not verbally 
expressed. J. Duncan Pearson. 

The \urseries, LowdHam, \olls. 



THE WALL BELLFLOWER. 

The Campanula or Bellflower in the accompanying 
illustration is one of the hardiest and most easily 
grown of all the dwarf section, yet it is at the 
same time a very charming and useful plant. 
Its modern name is C. portenschlagiana, though 
it is probably better, known in gardens under 
its old cognomen of C. muralis. As will be seen, 
the plant makes a l.trge, spreading tuft of green 



TO eyes imaccustomed to London grime 
and smoke, the blackness of the 
square gardens and also of the parks 
is ver\- surprising, and when one 
hears of the wonderful gardening and 
the sums of money said to be lavished 
on them, I really think somebody must be rather 
to blame. Surely there are other good green 
shrubs for winter besides the ubiqui- 
tous Aucuba and Euonymus ! Privet 
decidedly declines to come under the 
category of anything that is green in 
the winter. Hollies may be meri- 
torious, but they are positively black 
at this season, so the aspect of both 
squares and parks is dismal and 
depressing to a degree. All who are 
unaccustomed to such siu-roundings 
feel that some effort should be made to 
combat this unsightly squalor, and I 
sincerely hope the London gardening 
axliles will give some little attention 
to the cheering and brightening up of 
the winter parks and squares. 

There is no need to go very far afield 
for wondrous novelties which might or 
might not answer in such dismal elays 
as those endured last Januarj-, \Vc 
have such cheerful and hardy things 
as the bright green Griselinia lit- 
toralis, so useful and hardy in smoky 
places in Yorkshire, where frost is 
not as severe as in the coimtrj'. 
Olearia Traversii grows, perhaps, 
rather tall and tree-like, but O. 
Fosteri, bright green, would surely 
surprise the eye of the passer- 
by. The well-known O. Haastii 
seems all but unknown here, 
though it is of unimpeachable hardiness and 
\igOtu' under smoky conditions. No doubt it 
flowers too late for the London seasoners, and 
its faded brown flower-heads are rather imsightly 
in the autumn ; but even this is far superior to the 
average " square " shrub, and stands both pruning, 
drought and digging with sturdy cheerfulness. 

But for winter massing there is one old plant 
of surpassing beauty which may be seen at the 
foot of the Serpentine, towards the top of the 
Dell, that surely should give a hint of what might 
be done. Acanthus mollis is the plant I mean, 
whose splendid foliage and rich green tone redeems 
that comer from the dreary uniform of blacks 
and dark, sooty tones that reign generally. No 
doubt the plant dies dowii in August and is then 
imsightly (it must not be confused with the 
smaller and more prickly Acanthus, which is then 
in beauty, but dies dowii in the winter), but with 
the first autumn rains it pushes up strong and 
green, rich and beautiftd, as if it were spring 



February 20, 1915] 



THE Gx\RDEN. 



91 



and ill Lmidon at least is a plant iif the greatest 
viihii'. Having spent many hours in vainly trying 
to eradicate this lovely but too overpowering plant 
in Southern gardens, I am all the more anxious 
to atone for my persecution by praising it in 
Northern counties, where its seedlings do not come 
up ubiquitously and where its beauty of form 
and colouring is so precious in the winter. Just 
fancy the efject if Portman Square or St. James' 
Square had bold clumps of this foliage near the 
railings in place of a Lilac or Privet bush, and 
how greatly the dreary, stiff beds of bulbs in the 
Park would be improved if they had a few 
bold groups of such foliage on the grass, 

A few plants of the good old 
Siberian Saxifrages (Megaseas) 
would always be green and effec- 
tive ; yet where do you see 
them J All the money seems 
spent on things that need replac- 
ing, rather than on making green 
settings for a few cheerful spring 
flowers when spring does venture 
to come North, and it is high time 
a protest should be made. 

Edward H. Woodali 



the house, a level strip of peaty land some 50 yards 
or 60 yards long by, perhaps, 15 yards or 20 yards 
wide, was surrounded by a deer and rabbit proof 
fence, was trenched, and was planted with a few 
Rhododendrons. 

In all parts of this peaty plot, sometimes 
in rows, sometimes in clumps, the bulbs of 
L. auratum found a congenial home. They 
flourished exceedingly. Every year there was 
a profusion of magnificent flowers. I have 
seen many tall flowering stalks ranging up to 
10 feet in height. The taller ones were always 
carefully measured and the measurements recorded. 
They were covered with the splendid gold-striped 



LILIUM AURATUM 
IN SCOTLAND 
AND JAPAN. 

A M O N G the uniformly 

/\ charming and illumi- 

/ % nating articles in your 

/ % columns on " Some 

* » Hardy Lilies," by Sir 

Herbert Maxwell, the 

account of L. auratum stands 

out with peculiar fascination for 

myself, because it recalls some 

cherished memories of what he 

justly terms " the most gorgeous 

of all flowers hardy in the climate 

of the British Isles." To begin 

with, let me say that what I have 

seen entirely confirms Sir Herbert's 

views on such points as the 

suitability of peat and of the 

humid atmosphere and cool soil 

of the West Coast, and that the 

presence of tree roots in the soil 

is no detriment. 

The grandest display of L. 
auratum I ever saw in this country 
— and it continued for a number 
ni years — was at Torridon House, 
on the Inner Loch Torridon on the 
West Coast of Ross-shire. My 
friend the late Mr. Duncan 
Darroch of Torridon and Gourock, 
though by no means posing as a horticulturist, 
made L. auratum a hobby. When in London 
in the winter, he woiUd personally attend 
the early morning sales of newly arrived bulbs 
and secure the largest of them at compara- 
tively small prices. I think it was in the 
early eighties that he commenced a long series 
of annual purchases of these bulbs. Torridon 
House stands at the top of a plateau sloping gently 
to the seashore, and bounded on the west by a 
rushing, rocky stream spanned by a footbridge 
that leads to the enclosed gardens. Above the 
footbridge, at the top of the river bank opposite 




early flowering strain of auratum would make 
a handsome fortune. The last time I saw llie 
Torridon Lily garden was in 1897. Some years 
later Mr. Darroch told me that his auratums 
had ceased to flourish ; he knew not why. Doubt- 
less he might have said, " An enemy hath done 
this ! " That enemy Sir Herbert Maxwell would 
have boldly tackled and expelled. 

It was in July, 1899, that I first saw L. auratum 
at home. I was staying at Gochi, a seaside resort 
near the Treaty Port of Naoetsu, on the north side 
of the main island of Japan, facing the Sea of Japan, 
and with a view of the Island of Sado, where there 
is gold. Dri-i-en hurriedly home from a ramble 
on the shore by a thunderstorm 
with tropical rain, I was passing 
along a new military road when 
I saw at the top of the bank 
of a cutting what looked like a 
draggled flower-stalk of auratum. 
A spur of the central range of vol- 
canic mountains here runs out 
towards the sea, the lower shoulders 
.and slopes clothed with forest, 
where charcoal-burning is e.xten- 
sively pursued. Next day I wended 
my way to the beginning of that 
cutting. The cottage of a charcoal- 
burner by the roadside had, I re- 
member, a row of fine Balsams in 
its little garden. Close by, apatli 
entered the forest. I followed it a 
few yards, and lo ! there was L. 
auratum in all its glory. Ever)'- 
where, amid the thickest trees and 
densest undergrowth, as well as in 
places where lovely glades opened 
out in the forest, even among rocks 
and by the sides of rivulets, our 
golden Lily in countless multitude 
reared its gorgeous flowers. 

There were other flowers in that 
beautiful forest, such as brilliant 
Tiger Lilies and tall blue Cam- 
panulas, but they seemed of small 
account. In subsequent years 1 
have often seen L. auratum 
growing even more luxuriantly 
■md abundantly in other parts of 
Japan, mostly on hillsides ; but 
I never again enjoyed it quite so 
much as on that first introduction. 
The individual blooms were of 
large size, but there were few on 
a stalk. J. H. D. 



PAPAVER ORIENTALE LADY FREDERICK MOORE, A CHARMING NEW 
ORIENTAL POPPY OF SALMON-PINK COLOUR. 



flowers. I have counted 200 flowers on a single 
stalk. Mr. Darroch told me that he had no special 
system of cultivation, but I believe the Lilies got 
a top-dressing in the winter. He said the bulbs 
always did best in the third year, and after that 
went back. The Rhododendrons seemed to have 
no bad effect. Early frosts are not usual on the 
West Coast, but many of the auratums never 
opened their flowers unless they were cut and 
taken indoors. 

Another Ross-shire Lily-lover, the late Sir 
Kenneth Mackenzie of Gairloch, used to say 
that any gardener who could produce an 



A NEW ORIENTAL POPPY. 

The flowers illustrated on this page 
represent a beautiful new variety 
of Papaver orientale named Lady 
Frederick Moore. When shown 
before the floral committee of the Royal Horti- 
cultural Society in June last year, this charming 
hardy flower received an award of merit. The 
blossoms are very large, measurmg as much as 
seven inches in diameter, and the colour is a 
delightful soft shade of clear salmon pink. As 
will be seen in the illustration, each petal has 
at its base a large conspicuous blotch of maroon. 
The stems are erect and stiff, hence it should prove 
an excellent variety for cutting. It was raised by 
Mr. Amos Perry, Hardy Plant Farm, Enfield, lo 
whom we are indebted for the introduction of 
many good new hardy plants. 



92 



THE GARDEN. 



[February 20, 1915. 



THE BEST WHITE 
P EAS. 



SWEET 



THERE is no section of Sweet Peas 
causing so much discussion as 
those with white flowers. The trade 
growers, as well as amateurs, are 
iindecided as to the variety that 
is to lead this year. From a garden 
point of view and for the cut-flower trade Nora 
Unwin (Special Stock) stands first. This selection 
is distinct from the original stock, both in wings 
and keel ; the standard is perfect. The flowers 
of this variety make a first-rate market hunch, 
and travel and stand well. 

Slime of the leading amateur growers in the 
North are growing King White and Edna May ; 
the champions of the South are strong on Constance 
Hinton and King White. In my notes made last 
year at several trade trials that I had the pleasure 



Florence Wright, Moneymaker, Norvic aud Stanley 
Crisp, all with white seeds ; aud Constance Hintnn, 
iMrs. Saukey Spencer and Havant White, with 
black seeds. These are all to be planted out in 
April for comparison. I hope to have the pleasure 
of inspecting them when in bloom. Here is 
what we want in an ideal white : Substance of 
Dorothy Eckford, form and size of King White, 
on Monevraaker stems. T. B. L. 



THE FUNGOID DISEASE 
OF SNOWDROPS. 



R 



E.\DERS who are fond of the Snowdrop 
will do well to look through their plants 
of this exquisite flower to observe if any 
of them are affected by the -fungoid 
disease peculiar to the Fair Maids of 
February, viz., Botrytis galanthina. It 
is speciallv objectionable in collections comprising 




Unaft'ected bulbs, whicli may even hav<^ b(?en 
quite close to those attacked and are lifted at tlu^ 
same time, may be dipped iji a weak solution of 
Condy's Fluid and replanted. I have also dusted 
them with flowers of sulphur before replanting, 
but the fluid is probably the safer, as more likely 
to prevent the disease from acquiring a foothold. 
I also dust the soil about the plants with sulphur. 
The origin of this disease in gardens is obscure, 
but I have observed that it is more likely to appear 
in changeable weather than in that which is dry 
and settled. Frequent alternations of frost, snow, 
sleet and rain, with mild, simny intervals, appear 
to be specially dangerous. It appears to make 
no difference whether the Snowdrops are on bare 
ground or in grass, and I can recollect finding this 
Botrytis very prevalent among plants which were 
in thousands in grass under trees, and which had 
been established and natiu"alised for many years. 
These were common single Snowdrops. The 
disease must he sporadic or of modern date, 
otherwise the Snowdrops would have 
been much fewer than they were there. 
Dr. M. C. Cooke stated that this 
disease was first observed in 1S73, and 
that it " threatened to be very de- 
structive in the North," but " has 
never given much trouble in the 
South." The late Mr. James Allen 
of Shepton Mallet, who raised so 
many choice Snowdrops, informed me, 
however, from time tt) time that he 
had lost many Snowdrops from this 
pest. 

In my former garden in tliis county 
(Kirkcudbright) Botrytis galanthina 
appeared at intervals, and gave me a 
good deal of trouble, seeming to 
be specially virulent with such 
Snowdrops a.5 Galanthus Ikaria) and 
G. byzantinus. In my present garden, 
which is more exposed, I ha\'e never 
seen it during the ten years or so I 
have had this house, although I re- 
moved as many of my Snowdrops as 
I could, and would have expected 
that the Botrytis might have been 
transferred with the bulbs. I ant 
always living in fear of its appear- 
ance. S. Arxott. 
MaxwcUlowii, Dumfries. 



ROSE ELECTRA PLANTED IN A LARGE BED AND RAMBLING OVER ROUGH SUPPORTS, 



of inspecting, I have Nora Unwin as the best 
garden variety and King White for exliibition. The 
latter has quite a distinct form of standard, broad 
and erect, pure white, and produces nearly all fours 
on a stem. Between Florence Wright and Edna 
May there was little difference. They are certainly 
better than most stocks of Etta Dyke, which has 
had a good run, yet there are some stocks that 
have been carefully grown aud handled which are 
almost, if not quite, as good as the newer sorts. 
Moneymaker is without a doubt the longest- 
stemmed variety we have; it comes mixed in 
type only. Constance Hinton is a black-seeded 
variety. There is little, if any, difference between 
this and Mrs. Sankey Spencer, introduced in 
1909. I have no hope of a black-seeded white 
topping the list as a pure white. 

The other day I had the pleasure of inspecting 
an interesting set of trials. The whites included 
Etta Dyke, Nora Unwin, King White, Edna May, 



rare species or varieties, seeing that they are 
usually in small numbers and can least be spared. 
Tlie presence of the disease is noticeable from the 
time the plants appear above ground, when the 
development of the leaves and flowers is checked 
and the whole appearance disfigured. A white 
or greyish mould begins to appear about the neck 
of the plant, and, if left alone, spreads over the 
leaves and flowers. If the plants are lifted about 
this latter stage, the bulbs will be seen to be marked 
with black marks, or sclerotia, and they will be 
quite soft when pressed. Even when the presence 
of the disease is found at an early stage, the bulbs 
are soft and in a decaying state. The trouble 
should be attacked as soon as it is detected, and 
there is no really satisfactory treatment of the 
affected bulbs except the drastic one of burning 
them to prevent the spread of the disease. If 
the bulbs are removed as soon as the Botrytis 
appears, there is little danger of its spreading. 



RAMBLER ROSE ELECTRA. 

Where large, informal beds are to 
be filled with flowering shrubs, it 
would be difficult to conceive anything more 
beautiful than the Rambler Rose Electra, grown 
in the wav shown in the accompanying 
illustration. It is of a vigorous character, and 
if given a few rough supports, such as forked 
trunks of small trees or branches of larger ones, 
will quickly fling its luxuriant growths over them, 
and in the summer create a picture of rare beauty. 
It is classed by the National Rose Society as a 
multiflora-scandens Rose, and was first put into 
commerce in 1900. The flowers are pale yellow 
in colour, and the plant does well on its ovn\ roots, 
being easily rooted from cuttings, preferably made 
of half-ripened wood, at the end of July or early 
in August, and rooted in pots of sandy soil phmged 
in Cocoanut fibre in a greenhouse or frame. 
Cuttings, a foot or rather more in length, can 
also be made in October or November from wood 
that has been produced the same year, and 
planted in sandy soil outdoors. F. H. H. 



February 20, 1915- 



THE GARDEN. 



93 



SEASONABLE NOTES ON 
AURICULAS. 



THE 



WART DISEASE OF 
POTATOES. 



THERE are three classes or groups of 
Auricula — the show, which embraces j 
green-edged, grey-edged, white-edged I 
and selfs ; alpines, which are devoid 1 
of all meal or farina, either on the j 
foliage or flowers ; and the border | 
varieties. The latter are well adapted for 
the rock garden and flower border, where small 
groups of one kind are often planted with splendid 
results. The show and alpines are usually grown 
in pots and given the shelter of a cold frame, but 
it must be distinctly understood that only hardy 
treatment should be meted out to the Auricula. 
Seasonable Hints. — Fanciers term February an 
active month, and this is certainly true if the 
weather is open and mild. More water may be 
given, and we should now aim at keeping each 
plant just moist. Light at this season is a most 
important factor in promoting sturdy growth, and 
if the glass is at all dirty, it ought to be washed 
inrmediately. Plenty of ventilation is essential, 
but cold, cutting, frosty winds must be avoided. 
Although the Auricula is hardy, it is advisable 
to protect the plants from sharp frosts from 
now until the flowers are removed, or the spike 
may be injured just as it begins to push up. 

onsets. — Some time in this month I always 
examine the collection, and all offsets large enough 
for removal are taken off. Many of them will 
possess roots, but others will not, and may in 
consequence be treated as ordinary cuttings. 
Several are placed around the side of a small put 
which has been filled with sandy soil, and, if kept 
close for a few weeks in a hand-light or frame, 
roots will soon appear, when a separate pot can 
be given each rooted cutting. The larger offsets 
with a fair quantity of roots attached should be 
potted in 3-inch pots, the rooting medium con- 
sisting of the best fibrous loam three parts, leaf- 
mould one part, and a sprinkling of sharp sand 
to render the whole porous. The receptacles 
usually chosen for Auriculas are known as " long 
thunilis," and they are one-third filled with 
eithi r crushed potsherds or broken brick rubble. 

Repotting Offsets. — Those taken at the present 
time will rce|uire a larger pot in a few months, 
and if given proper attention, especially in regard 
to watering, they will be nice, healthy plants next 
season, when some stout spikes of bloom may 
reasonably be expected. A few offsets are taken 
in August, and where such work was carried out 
last year a larger receptacle will now be needed 
by all those that have filled their pots with roots. 
Employ the same kind of compost as mentioned 
above, and make it fairly firm. If woolly aphis is 
present, sprinkle the plants over with tobacco 
powder or apply a little methylated spirit with a 
camel-hair brush. 

Seedlings. — In some collections seedlings are 
raised, and they may also now receive attention. 
Tiny plants with two or three small leaves may be 
pricked off into boxes of rather fine soil, about an 
inch apart. When sufficient progress has been made 
so that the leaves cover the surface, the seedlings 
ought to be given a separate existence. The seed- 
pans must not be discarded, as germination is 
often a slow and irregular process, the seeds some- 
times remaining for twelve months in the soil 
before germinating. These laggards often prove 
to be the finest of all, and are then well worth wait- 
ing for. Seedlings must not be kept quite so dry at 
the base as flowering plants. T. W. B. 



THE Board of Agriculture and Fisheries 
desire to remind all occupiers of 
premises declared infected for the 
purpose of the Wart Disease of 
Potatoes Order, or of premises situated 
within an infected area, that it is 
illegal to plant any Potatoes -on such premises 
unless a licence has previously been obtained from 
an inspector of the Board or of the local authority. 
The penalty for any contravention of the Order 
is a fine not exceeding £io. Such licences can, 
however as a rule be obtained, on application to 
the Board, by any occupier who undertakes to 
obtain from a dealer approved by the Board one 
or more of the varieties of Potato here referred 
to, all of which have been tested, some of them 
for several years, and have been foimd to resist 
wart disease under ordinary circumstances. Seed 
Potatoes of resistant types saved from the grower's j 
own crop will 
be permitted. The 
Board will, on appli- 
cation, send a list of 
dealers w h o have 
undertaken to stock 
these Potatoes. 

Milecross Early 

(Dxkson).— White, 
round, not liable to 
ordinary Potato dis- 
ease (Phytophthora) ; 
matures rapidly, 
hauhn strong and 
quality good ; a first 
early. 
Conquest(Findlay). 

— White, round, 
heavy cropping, 
second-early Potato of 
good quality ; must 
be earthed up high, as 
tubers are produced 
near surface. 

King George V. 
(Butler). — S e c u n d - 
early. An elongated, 
oval tuber, skin 
netted, eyes shallow, 
haulm strong. An 
excellent cropper, 
white. 

Favourite (Dobbie). — A second-early, 
shape, white flower ; an excellent Potato. 

Supreme (Sutton). — A second-early of pebble 
shape, white flower, suited to garden cultivation. 
Great Scot (McAlister). — A very good second- 
early ; white and round ; eyes rather deep ; 
haulm robust ; a very heavy cropper under good 
cultivation. Quality excellent ; flower white. 

Schoolmaster. — A second-early, white-skinned 
and round ; crops well, but is liable to ordinary 
disease. Not a good keeper. 

Jeanie Deans (Findlay). — A fine oval Potato 
with strong haulm and white flower. Crops 
heavily on light, rich soils. 

Abundance (Sutton). — A well-known heavy- 
cropping, late variety, oval in shape, of good 
quality, rather liable to ordinary disease. 

Crofter (Dobbie). — A late oval Potato of good 

quality; liable to ordinary disease. Flower white. 

Culdees Castle. — A pebble-shaped variety, not 

quite so strong in the haulm as Crofter, and liable 



to produce more seed size tubers on light soil. 
Does well under garden cultivation. Flower white. 

Burnhouse Beauty (Dobbie). — A new early 
maincrop, bearing a large crop of flatfish, rounel, 
white Potatoes. Flower lavender and white. 

Provost (Dobbie). — A late, white, round Potato 
possessing,, strong haulm and white flowers ; 
well suited to garden cultivation. 

The Admiral (Dobbie). — A late variety, white- 
skinned and round. Haulm medium, a heavy 
cropper and good disease resister. Quality ex- 
cellent ; flower white. 

Irish Queen. — Tubers round, eyes rather deep, 
haulm strong. Excellent cropper. Keeps late 
intp season. Flower purple. 

St. Malo Kidney. — Tubers coarse, kidney- 
shaped. Haulm robust. Not a good keeper. 

Laird (Davie). — Roundish tuber, flesh white. 
A robust variety that crops heavily on well- 
prepared medium loams. Quality excellent. 

Flourball (Sutton). — Well-known late variety, 
round and pink-skinned. Eyes rather deep. 




POTATOES ATTACKED BY THE WART DISEASE. 



Quality moderate ; flower 



.lund in 



haulm straggUng, with bronzing on stems wlien 
exposed. Quality very good ; flower white. 

The Lochar (Farish). — A new maincrop variety 
of a sturdy growth. Crops heavily on some soils. 

Golden Wonder (Brov\'n). — A late white-fleshed 
kidney with yellowish bromi tinge on skin. The 
" seed " should be a good size, and if unsprouted 
should be planted before the end of March, as the 
variety requires a long growing season. Liberal 
manuring is essential, and in gardens bastard 
trenching is recommended. It is possessed of 
excellent quality, and is one of the best late- 
keeping Potatoes. Flower mauve-tipped white. 

Peacemaker (Scarlett). — Is similar to Golden 
Wonder. 

Langworthy (Nivcn). — A late kidney-shaped 
Potato possessing white slcin and flesh. Tubers 
may be recognised by the characteristic tapering 
"heel." Quality excellent. 5ame treatment as for 
Golden Wonder. Flower mauve-tipped white. 

What's Wanted (Niven). — Shape not so constant 
as in Langworthy. It bears more tubers, but of 
a smaller size. In other respects very similar. 



94 



THE GARDEN. 



[February 20, 1915. 



GARDENING OF THE WEEK. 



FOR SOUTHERN GARDENS. 

Fruit Under Glass. 
Early Permanent Vines. — When the bimches 

liave set, lose no time in removing the surplus 
bunches. At the same time cut out all growth 
which is not required to furnish the trellis. Laterals 
must be stopped regularly, and the shoots 
may now be carefully secured t" their permanent 
place on the trellis. The roots will be in 
need of a good watering. If so. diluted farmyard 
drainings should be afforded. A night temperature 
of 65° or 70° will not be too much at this stage. 

Cucumbers. — Pay timely attention to the 
slopping and regulating of lateral growths, and 
when the leading growth has covered about three 
parts of the trellis, this also should be stopped. 
Add small quantities of fibrous loam and flaky 
leaf-mou'.d to the roots as they appear, and 
occasionally sprinkle a little artificial manure 
over the rooting area. Swinge the foliage regularly 
and keep a moist atmosphere at all times. Make 
further sowings as the supply demands. 

Tomatoes. — Plants raised in the autumn should 
now be setting their fruits. A minimum tempera- 
ture of 60° must be maiutained. The atmo- 
sphere must be kept buoyant by the careful use 
of the ventilators and a brisk heat in the hot- 
water pipes. The flowers must be carefully 
fertilised at midday. Keep later plants growing 
near to the glass, and see that the glass is quite 
clean. 

Plants Under Glass. 

Cannas. — The whole of these plants may now 
be shaken out and repotted. It is easy to increase 
good varieties by carefully dividing the roots. 
All the roots must be more or less divided, retaining 
only the most promishig portions, unless it is 
desired to increase the stock. The Canna is a 
ijross-fetdiug plant and needs a rich compost 
111 which to thrive. 

Begonias. — The tubers which have been resting 
may now be started into growth. Place them 
in clean, sifted leaf-mould in shallow boxes till 
growth commences, when they may be potted 
into their flowering pots and kept growing in a 
warm, moist house. Extra large tubers may 
be divided if increase of stock is desired. Seeds 
may now be sown in pots or pans. The utmost 
care will be needed in handling the seeds, which 
are very minute. Sprinkle a small quantity of 
sand o\er them. When sown, cover the pan with 
a piece of glass and place in a brisk heat. 

Coleus thyrsoideus. — These may now be cut 
back with a view to making cuttings for propa- 
gation. Some of the most promising of last 
year's struck plants may be selected for potting 
on. These will make fine specimens for another 
season. This plant may also be propagated 
from seeds. 

The Flower Garden. 

Seed-Sowing. — Seeds of various plants such as 
Lobelia, Nicotiana sylvestris, N. affinis, Ricinus. 
r.revilleas, .Artemisia, Arctotis, Dimorphotheca, 
Carnation, Petunias and Golden Leather, may be 
sown now. Prick out seedlings which were sown 
at the end of last month before they become too 
crowded in the seed-pans. 

Calceolarias. — if extra large plants are re- 
quired, some that were rooted in frames in 
the autumn may be potted into 3-inch pots. 
C. amplexicaulis 'makes a fine individual subject 
by placing three or four plants in a 6-inch pot, 
keeping the plants neatly secured to stakes. 
These will be found useful for massing in the 
mixed border or for dot plants with other suitable 
s>d)jects. 

Salvia patens. — This delightful plant may be 
increased by cuttings. The tubers which were 
stored in the autunm may now be potted up 
and placed in a warm, moist house, where they 
will soon make growths suitable fijr cuttings. 

Salvia Blue Beard. — I find this lovely purple 
Sage flowers more profusely by sowing early and 
allowing the plants to become somewhat starved 
ill their pots or boxes before planting out. 

The Hardy Fruit Garden. 

Strawberries. — .\s soon as tlie ground is in 
suitable condition, give the beds a good dusting 



with well-seasoned soot ; then run the hoe between 
the plants and clear away weeds and dead foliage. 
It is possible that some of the plants put out in 
the auttunn may have become loose in the ground 
through frost. These must be carefully made 
firm by treadmg. Old plantations should" receive 
a good mulching with manure. 

Protecting Materials.— When the weather is 
unfit for outdoor work, the opportimity should 
be taken to overhaul nets and other coverings 
which are used for protection against late frosts. 
Some of the nets which are not torn too badly 
niay be mended with tarred twine. 

The Kitchen Garden. 

Cabbage. — The mild winter has caused the 
first batch of Cabbage to turn in prematurely, 
and to prevent a break in the supply any plants 
still remaining in the seed-bed should be put out, 
also fiU up any gaps in the latest batch. When 
the ground is dry enough, the hoe must be used 
between the plants and soot liberally used. A 
sowing of an appnved early variety may be 
made now in boxes and placed in a house of 
moderate warmth. 

Onions. — Take the first opportiutity when 
the ground is in suitable condition to sow the 
main crop of Onions. Make the ground firm by 
treading ; then rake the siurface fine, after which 
the seecls may be sown in drills 16 inches apart 
and about an inch deep. 

Carrots in Frames. — As soon as the plants are 
well above the ground, thin them to about three 
inches apart. Afterwards water with a fine- 
rosed can to settle the soil about the roots. Admit 
air to the frames whenever the weather will allow. 
Make another sowing in a cold frame. 

Frisnch Beans. — To keep up a good supply, 
sowings must be made every ten days. Sow about 
six seeds in an 8-inch pot and use a rich compost. 
When the plants are fruiting, plenty of stimu'ants 
must be given. The foliage must also be well 
syringed two or three times a day, or red spider 
will put in an appearance. 

E. Harriss. 
(Head-gardener to Lady Wantage.) 

Lockingf Gardens, Berks. 



FOR NORTHERN GARDENS. 

The Kitchen Garden. 

The Herb Border. — No kitchen garden is 
complete without its herb border. This requires 
renewing from time to time, as some of its occupants 
become overgrown and others exhausted. Most 
herbs are easily raised from seed, and when making 
a new herb border room should be left for sowing 
later on such annual varieties as Chervil or Borage. 
Mint, Thyme, Tarragon and Sage are perhaps the 
ones most frequently demanded in the kitchen. 
Plants of Mint and Tarragon force in heat very 
readily, so that it is a simple matter to keep up 
the supply of these during the winter and early 
spring. 

Horseradish. — This is a plant that can hardly 
be gro«ai too large for kitchen use. The small 
pieces of roots or crowns should be preserved 
for makhig a new plantation. Being a very deep- 
rooting plant, care should be taken when digging 
up the roots that all of them are removed, other- 
wise any pieces left in the gromid may give futvu'e 
trouble when they commence to grow, perhaps 
in the midst of a bed of small seedlings. 

Seakale. — Small pieces of roots cut off from the 
crowns which were lifted for forcing should be 
cut into pieces about four inches or five inches 
in length and laid closely together in boxes of 
saudy soil. A cold frame will be all that is needed 
to start the root cuttings into growth. These 
will all form crowns ready for planting out later 
on. The piece of ground which is to become the 
new Seakale plot should be dug and manured 
well in advance. 

Fruit Under Glass. 

Early Vinery. — ^Thc temperature of this house 
should be advanced a little now that growth 
is making quick progress. .\s the bunches appear. 



and when it is possible to distinguish between 
well-shaped bunches and the imshapely and 
small ones, the midesirable ones should be removed, 
so as to lessen the tax upon the Vines. With 
shy-setting varieties, such as Muscat of Alexanelria, 
it is best to leave a surplus number of bunches 
in the event of any not setting evenly. A drier 
atmosphere should prevail during the time the 
Vines are in flower. 

Strawberries. — More of these should be brought 
indoors from time to time, keeping in view that 
the later hatches do not require so much time 
to reach the ripening stage. Plants placed in 
heat now will, under good conelitions, produce 
ripe fruit diuing early May. 

The Flower Garden. 

The Rock Garden. — Any alterations or aelditioiis 
to this garden shoulel be made bi'lore the season 
is any fiuther advanced, so that the stones and 
soil may get firmly settled in time to allow the 
planting of the various subjects. After this date 
snails will become more numerous and active, 
therefore a sharp look-out should be kept. The 
yomig growths of Gypsophilas seem to have an 
especial attraction for snails. .A good preventive 
is to spread fine ashes or gritty sand around the 
plants likely to be attacked. 

Lobelias. — Seed of dwarf bedding Lobelias should 
be sown now in heat, so that nice plants may 
develop by bedding-out-time. Good varieties 
may be propagated from cuttings, which root very 
readily in the stove. These, in turn, can be topped 
again, making it possible to raise-a large quantity 
in a very short time. 

Ageratums, like Lobelias, are very easily rooted 
in heat, and a start should be made to propagate 
them now. After the first batch of cuttings 
has been rooted, the old stock plants can be 
dispensed with, as yomig plants are much more 
free. Ageratums can also be raised from seed, 
which is best sown this month. 

Box Edging. — Whenever the weather is favour- 
able, commence relaying any portions of this 
edging plant -which require repairing or renewal. 
The ordinary dwarf Boxwood does not require 
rclayhig frequently, but the tree variety, to be 
kept in a smart, trim condition, requires relaying 
every third or fourth year, as it is a very vigorous 
grower. 

Shrub Planting. — .\ll arrears of this work 
must now be hurried on, as many deciduous 
subjects are showing signs of growth. The planting 
of evergreens is better done after this date, but 
should not be deferred too long. 

The Wild Garden. — Many plants in this garden 
need periodical replanting to keep them ui good 
condition. Particularly is this so when the garden 
itself is of very poor soil. Manure and humus 
or spent potting soil should be workeel in before 
the plants are retiumed to their various quarters. 
Several shrubs will need attention in the matter 
of pruning before growth commences. 

Plants Under Glass. 
Euphorbia jacquiniaeflora. — This subjcit will 

now be passing 'Uit of flower, and should be resteel 
for two months. It shoidd, however, receive an 
occasional watering, just sufhcient to keep the 
plants alive. While at rest the plants may be 
removed to a cooler house, but should not be 
subjected to a lower temperature than 50°. 

Poinsettia pulcherrima may be given the same 
treatment as the above. 

Gardenias. — To keep up a constant supply of 
these fragrant flowers, it is necessary to preipagate 
yomig plants from cuttings at different seasons 
of the year. Cuttings root freely in a close propa- 
gating-frame where there is plenty of bottom-heat 
at command. Gardenias being so subject to 
attacks from mealy bug and other insects, sponging 
and sprayuig with insecticides must be done almost 
miceasuigly. 

Violets. — Young runners in frames which were 
propagated in August and September should be 
looked over occasionally, and all side growths 
and suckers removed. The lights on these frames 
can now be dispensed with altogether, as the 
plants must be hardened off ready for planting 
out next month. John Jeffrey. 

(Head-gardener to Sir R. W. Buchanan Jardinc 
Bart.) 

Caslhmilk Gtirdciis, Lockerbie, N.B, 



February 20, 1915-] 



THE GARDEN. 



95 



SOME NEWER GARDEN 
ROSES OF UNCOMMON 
TYPE. 



THERE are always plenty of novelties 
annually announced in the Hybrid Tea 
class — far too many, I think ; but 
among other classes of the wonderful 
Rose family there seems to be a com- 
paratively slow advance. Perhaps I 
might make exception to this statement as 
regards the Polyantha Roses, for they are 
multiplying very rapidly. In this group we have 
one or two that seem quite departures from the 
usual type, one especially, 

Rodhatte (Red Riding Hood) being extremely 
decorative, and doubtless very closely related to 
the Hybrid Teas or Monthlies. The flowers are 
semi-double, of vivid red colour, and they are of 
quite large size for the class. For massing, it will 
be most useful and a worthy companion to Fabvier. 
Then there is 

Tip Top, a delightful Rose with coppery orange 
flowers heavily shaded with purple. The buds are 
of exquisite shape, each one a perfect show Rose in 
miniature, 

GruSS an Aachen is quite large, almost large 
enough for a front-row flower of an exhibition box. 
The blooms are produced in clusters, and are of a 
lovely creamy pink shade, with buds of orange red 
and yellow. It is a delightful Rose and should be 
in every garden. 

Yvonne Rabier appears to be a hybrid of Rosa 
wichuraiana with dwarf spreading growth, ever- 
blooming habit, and clusters of snow white blossoms 
as large as, and not unlike, the old Rose Mme. 
Plantier, wh'ch was once such a favourite of Sir 
Joseph Paxton. For massing, or any place where 
a white flower is needed, this Rose will be valu- 
able. In violent contrast to it is 

Merveille des Rouges, one of the most brilliant 
of the Polyanthas, and probably a cross between 
Fabvier and a Polyantha. I saw it in May at the 
raiser's nurseries in Lyons, and it was a wonderful 
■sight and well named. I believe it will be more 
useful than Ema Teschendorff, for this grand- 
coloured Polyantha WcS terribly spoilt by mildew 
nearly the whole of last simimer, the mildew 
affecting even the flowers. Among Rugosa or 
Japanese Roses we have two grand singles in 
Carmen and Georges Cain, both of brilliant colour- 
ing, far superior to the type. In the wonderful new 
group, the Pemetianas, there is a great acquisi- 
tion in 

liouise Catherine Breslau, a Rose that only 
needs to be known to be wanted by everyone, its 
colour, a coppery orange, shaded chrome yellow, 
with coral red buds, being most distinct and novel. 

Mme. Ruan and Willowmere are also both 

charming in colour and resemble largely the Lyons 
Rose. 

Louis Barbier is another variety that has not yet 
received the attention it deserves. Its semi-double 
flowers are of a most exquisite mixture of coppery 
red and yellow, %vith tints of purple and orange. As 
a pillar or free bush it will be delightful, and its 
mahogany-coloured wood is also attractive. 

Two lovely singles are Alexandra Zarifi and Mrs. 
A. Kingsmill, both excellent additions, the former a 
fine erect grower with charming long buds, and the 
latter like a dwarf-growing Rosa sinica Anemone, 
-with the colours reversed. 

Rosa Moyesi is a most uncommon single Rose 
.of great beauty. Its colour is a sort of brown 



crimson, quite imique among Roses, and it may be 
the forerunner of some good things. I have 
successfully used it as the pollen parent upon the 
Hybrid Teas, and look forward to some interesting 
breaks. 

Among Monthly Roses, in Mrs. Edward Clayton, 
Laiure de Broglie and Mile, de la Vallette we have 
a trio of good things, distinct and beautiful, and 

GruSS an Dresden is even more brilliant than 
the very brilliant Leuchtfeuer, from which great 
things, as a decorative Rose, are expected. The 
Hybrid Multifloras, that apparently spring from 
Trier, directly or indirectly, will fill a gap in 
perpetual-flowering Roses of a free, shrub-like 
habit. Of these, Danae, Moonlight, Daphne, Adrian 
R^verchon and Schiller are most worthy of 
cultivation, and should be in every collection 
where these imcommon Roses are valued. 

Queen of the Musks is very pretty, and perhaps 
should be grouped with the last named. It is 
practically always in bloom. 

Miss Flora Mitten is one of the most charming 
single Roses we have received for some time, at 
least among the climbing section. It is a seedling 
of Rosa brunoniana, and makes shoots 12 feet 
to 15 feet in length in a season. The flowers are 
very large, some 4 inches to 5 inches across, and are 
produced in immense trusses of twenty to thirty 
blooms. They are of a rich, clear pink colour, with 
lighter centre, and set off by a fine mass of golden 
stamens. This fine novelty is almost perpetual, 
and will undoubtedly be one of our best climbing 
Roses. Another beautiful single rambler is 

Silver Moon. Its flowers have a resemblance to 
what one might imagine a single Frau Karl 
Druschki would be like ; they are produced in nice 
clusters, and the plant has a wealth of beautiful 
glistening foliage. Danecroft. 



BOOKS. 



THE CLOUD GRASS. 

In those gardens where Sweet Peas are grown 
largely for house decoration, when cut there is 
usually a difficulty in securing enough foliage to 
arrange with the blossoms, as the removal of their 
own leaves and tendrils on a large scale means the 
ciurtailment of the floral display. One of the most 
suitable and beautiful plants for use in conjunction 
with Sweet Peas when cut is the dainty little 
Grass known as Agrostis nebulosa, the Cloud 
Grass, a name that is most suitable on account 
of the gauze-like appearance of the plant when in 
flower, the tiny, bro\vnish red blossoms on the very- 
thin and much-branched stems creating a picture 
that for gracefulness and quiet beauty can hardly 
be surpassed in the plant world. This Grass 
possesses the merit of being easy to grow ; hence 
its inclusion in any garden ought not to be attended 
with difiiculty. Most seedsmen supply seeds, 
and from a packet of these a large number of plants 
can quickly be raised. Like the Sweet Pea, this 
Grass is a true annual ; hence seeds must be sown 
every spring, the end of March or early in April 
being a good time. It will thrive in any soil that 
has been thoroughly dug and well drained, and the 
seeds should be sown where the plants are intended 
to grow. As soon as the seedlings are an inch or so 
high it will be necessary to thin them so that they 
stand at least six inches apart, as the flower-stems, 
which usually grow about eighteen inches high, 
branch very freely and need considerable room for 
their proper development. In addition to its 
usefulness in conjunction with Sweet Peas, this 
Grass may be utilised for other flowers which are 
of a graceful character. H. 



Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles.* 

This work makes a very important addition to 
horticultural literature, for it presents in easily 
understood language excellent descriptions of 
3,000 or more hardy trees and shrubs, including 
many of the new Chinese introductions, together 
with general instructions on cultivation and hints 
on the treatment of those plants which require 
special care. The need for such a work has long 
been felt ; for although several books on trees and 
shrubs have appeared within the last twenty years, 
there has been no really standard work to compare 
with Loudon's " Encyclopaedia of Trees and 
Shrubs," which was published between seventy 
and eighty years ago. The book under notice, 
however, fills that want, and it will doubtless have 
as long a reign as Loudon's work. No comparison 
can be made between the two works, for they are 
treated in an entirely different manner, the only 
point of resemblance being the thoroughness with 
which each author conducted his work. 

The new book is the work of Mr. W. J. Bean, the 
Assistant-Curator of the Royal Botanic Gardens. 
Kew, who for many years has had personal charge of 
the fine tree and shrub collections in that establish- 
ment, and whose critical knowledge of everything 
connected with trees and shrubs is well known 
throughout the country. There are two volumes, 
the first containing 688 pages and the second 
736 pages, and the book is divided into two parts. 
Part I. ends at page no of the first volume, and 
consists of short chapters on culture, trees and 
shrubs for various special objects, such as autumn 
colour, street planting, fine foliage, coloiured bark, 
seaside planting, &c., and concludes with a glossary 
of botanical terms, which will be found useful to 
those who find a difficulty with such technicalities. 
The practical man will be pleased to find chapters 
upon such pertinent subjects as propagation, 
hybridising and selection, transplanting, soils, 
pruning, care of old trees, &c., while the first 
chapter, entitled " Historical Notes," is particu- 
larly interesting. 

The second part of the book, however, 
which begins on page rir and is continued 
to the end of the second volume, is the most 
important, and the more one reads of this 
part, the more one is impressed by the 
critical knowledge of the author and the care he 
has bestowed upon his work. The genera are 
arranged alphabetically, and in each case a general 
description of the genus is given ; then the 
principal species are described separately, with 
any important varieties. The same plan pertains 
throughout the work, and, in the descriptions of 
the species, the scientific name with the authority 
for the name, followed by the common name, when 
there is one, heads the descriptive matter. Then 
come well-known sj-nonyms, particularly where 
confusion is known to exist, and, when possible, a 
reference to a picture of the plant. The descrip- 
tive matter is then divided into two paragraphs, 
the first giving a botanical description of the species 
in simple and easily understood terms, and the 
latter giving its native country, date of introduc- 
tion, beha^'iom: under cultivation, special require- 
ments and other interesting items. 

The following description from Vol. I., 
page 499, gives a good idea of the working 



• ■• Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles," by 
W. J. Beau, Assistant-Curator, Boval Botanic Gardens, 
Kew. Two vols.— Vol. I., pp. 1—683 ; Vol. II., pp. 1— 
736, including index, with numerous full-page and text 
illustrations. London; John Murray: price42s.net. 



96 



THE GARDEN. 



[February 20, 1915. 



plan : " Disanthus cercidifolia, Maxinwwicz. 
Hamamelidaces. (Sargent's Forest Flora of Japan, 
t. 15.) A deciduous shrub up to 8 or loft. high, 
with slender, spreading branches ; young shoots 
perfectly smooth and round, and marked 
with small whitish lenticels. Leaves alternate, 
firm, very broadly ovate to roundish, heart-shaped 
or trimcate at the base, b'.unt and rounded 
at the apex ; 2 to 4iins. long, and almost or quite 
as broad ; perfectly smooth, glaucous green and 
entire ; stalk i to 2ins. long. Flowers dark 
purple, two of them set back to back at the end 
of a stalk Jin. long, produced from the leaf axili. 
Each flower is Jin. across, with five narrow tapering 
petals, arranged starwise ; calyx with five short 
recurved lobis ; stamens five. Seed-vessel a 
woody, nut-like capsule. Native of Japan ; 
introduced about 1893, not yet well known in 
gardens. It has not yet flow red in Britain to 
my knowledge, and the appearance of the blooms 
is chiefly known from Sargent's figure above 
cited. We know it, however, to possess one 
excellent quality : its foliage, handsome and 
Judas-tree like in form, turns in autmun to one 
of the loveliest of claret-reds suffused with orange. 
No new shrub, indeed, is more leautiful in this 
respect. It is rather tender when young, but 
appears quite hardy after a few years. A plant 
at Kew, 3ft. high, growing in peaty soil in a bed 
of heaths, is in excellent condition, and was not 
injured in the least in the winter of 1908-9. 
Disanthus (the name refers to the paired flowers) 
is only known by this species. It belongs to that 
group of the witch-hazel family with many seeds 
in each fruit. In Japan it flowers in October 
when the previous year's seeds are ripening, 
resembling in this respect its ally the Virginian 
witch-hazel." 

From this description it will be seen that 
a person knowing nothing about the shrub 
is able to form a pretty accurate idea of its 
general character and peculiarities, and through- 
out the book the descriptions are given in the same 
lucid manner. The book throughout appears 
to be wonderfully free from errors, the one or two 
we have noted being of a trifling character and 
due evidently to the vagaries of the printer rather 
than to the author, such as the transposing of 
two letters in the word Zanthoxylum which heads 
page 690 in Vol. II. A considerable number of 
well-executed full-page photographs of specimen 
plants by Mr. E. J. Wallis are dispersed through 
the book, while upwards of 200 line drawings 
by Miss E. Goldring occur in the text, adding to 
the interest -and value of the work. The book 
has been published by Mr. J. Murray, and the 
mechanical part, both as regards printing and 
finish, is good. We congratulate the author 
heartily upon the production of such a valuable 
work, which will be of the greatest use to all who 
have to do with trees and shrubs. The difficulties 
which have existed for so long regarding the 
correct names of certain trees and shrubs ought 
now to be set at rest, and we should like to see 
nurserymen and others accept Mr. Bean's dec sions 
in the preparation of their catalogues and the 
naming of their collections. It is a book which 
should not alone find a place upon the shelves 
of every library of horticultural, sylvicultural 
and botanical works, but should be in constant use. 
Sweet Peas and Antirrhinums.* — The author 

of this little book is undoubtedly one of the best 



known men in the Sweet Pea world, and we have 
often thought that if he could be induced to write 
on the subject, something of more than usual 
interest would result. We are glad to find that 
our anticipations have been realised. Judging 
by the preface, Mr. Cuthbertson had some doubt 
as to there being room for another book on Sweet 
Peas ; but this doubt having been appeased, 
he set to work in right good style. As anyone 
who knows him would expect, the book is, before 
all else, practical, and in this direction affords 
a welcome change from the twaddle that 
journalists inexperienced in matters pertaining to 
gardening have seen fit to put into print during 
recent years. Knowing the wonderful store of 
historical knowledge that Mr. Cuthbertson possesses, 
we would have liked to have seen a little more of 
this, especially in relation to the Antirrhinum. 
We congratulate him on placing the chapter on 
Sweet Pea culture for the average man before 
that dealing with the exhibitor. In these days 
of craze for size, too many authors and, we fear, 
floral enthusiasts almost overlook the man or 
woman who grows flowers for the love of them 
and who- cares little or nothing for exhibition 
blooms. Doubtless his lists of the best varieties 
for different purposes will cause some heart- 
burning, but on the whole we consider them good 
and fairly compiled. The chapters on seed- 
growing and raising new varieties are, we think, 
the best in the book ; but here again, like Oliver 
Twist, we would have preferred more, as few 
persons have given these subjects more attention 
than the author. Mr. Cuthbertson's faith in the 



is that we should fcrtainly ad^^se you to give less liquid 
manure during the growing season, say, once every fourth 
watering. By attending to these two points you may 
reasonably anticipate a good display of flowers next 
autumn. 

CLEMATISES IN GREENHOUSE (O. B. Sykee).— It is 
quite possible to produce fertile seeds of Clematis in an 
unheated greenhouse, and no beneficial results would 
follow artificial heating with an oil stove. Keep the 
house well ventilated, but do not expose the plants to 
cold draught.?, especially while the groirth is very tender. 
To cross-fertilise the flowers, remove the stamens from 
cert.ain flowers before the pollen is ripe, and enclose each 
emasculated flower in a light canvas bag. When the 
.stigmataare ripe, transfer pollento them, fromthe variety 
you wish to use for the male parent, by means of a small 
camel-hair brush. A sunny morning is the best time 
for the work. ^Ve do not know of any book upon the 
cross-fertilisation of the Clematis, but the work is quite 
easy. 

TREATMENT OF PELARGONIUMS {Pelargomum}.— 
Your suggestions for the treatment of your Zonal Pelar- 
goniums arc in the main correct, though exception may 
be taken to one or two items therein. In the first place, 
we think that cutting your old plants back to 2 inches 
or 3 inches is rather too drastic a measure, and would 
prefer to leave them from 3 inches to 4 inches in height. 
Wlien cut back and placed in a rather warmer structure, 
the soil must be kept fairly dry till the young shoots' 
make their appearance, as, if too moist, the plants will 
break out in an irregular manner. When the young 
shoots are about half an inch long is a good time to repot 
the plants. .\s much of the old soil should be taken away 
as can be done without unduly distressing the plants. 
The most suit.ablc compost consists mainly of good loam, 
lightened by a little thoroughly decayed "leaf -mould and 
sand. It is not to the advantage of these Pelargoniums 
to put them into pots too large ; therefore we advise you 
that those you speak of as being in 48's would be better 
put into 32's than in 24's. Some varieties grow more 
vigorously than others, and it is quite possible that by, 
say, the end of April you would feel justified in shifting 
some of the largest into 24-sizfd pots. The plants must, 
of course, be kept in a good light position, and any shoots 
that show a tendency to run away should be stopped. 
This ought not to be done for a couple of months before 
the plants are reqviired to be in flower. You will be 
quite right in removing the flower-buds up to six weeks 
before the plants are required to be at their best. In 
the case of the cut-down plants, it is' quite probable that 



that have been made, especially in the coloiu's 
of the flowers, during recent years cannot help 
thinking that this useful plant deserves far more 
attention from the gardening public than it at 
present receives. The plants are easily raised 
from seeds, and a good strain now will give seed- 
lings practically true to colour. Another point 
in favour of the Antirrhinum is that up to the 
present it has not been subject to any serious 
disease, though in America we believe a species 
of rust fungus causes considerable trouble. The 
book is well printed and the illustrations are. on 
the whole, excellent. 



• " Sweet Peas and Antirrhinums," by William Cuth- 
bertson ; price Is. net. London : Messrs. James Clarke 
and Co., 13 and 14, Fleet Street, B.C. 



future of the Antirrhinum is not misplaced. Anyone ' 1°" ^'" ^"i P°t' "'J^" ^'^^ \'l!'^ "",1°?^ \? ""P. ^ T^*" 

^ ^ large enough. In this case they will be benefited by a 

who has observed the wonderful improvements shift into larger ones, say, atxiut the end of April. In 

potting, the soil should l>e pressed down firmly, as loose 
soil leads to rank growth and, consequently, more irregular- 
shaped plants with fewer flowers. Stimulants should 
not be given tiU the pots are well furnished with roots, 
and even then an excess must be avoided. A couple of 
months before the plants are required to be at their best 
is a very suitable time to feed them. This may be given 
in the shape of liquid manure and soot-water combined, 
or one of the many plant foods now obtainable. Some 
of these last being very powerful, they must not be given 
stronger than the furnished instructions. In any case, 
once a week is a very suitable time to give these stimulant£. 
Plenty of hght and air is very necessary for the successful 
culture of the different forms of Pelargonium. Regal 
Pelargoniums. — The end of July is certainly rather lat/* 
to have Regal Pelargoniums at their best. A good deal 
may, however, be done by following a systematic course 
of treatment, though even then you can scarcely expect 
them to be as good as they would be. say, six weeks earlier. 
It will be a good plan to put the plants that need a shift 
into larger pots. The growing points, too, may be 
pinched out in order to induce the formation of secondary 
shoots, but this should not be done later than two months 
before they are required to flower. The buds may be 
picked off up to six weeks beforehand, but on this point 
a little discrimination must be used, as a spell of dull, 
cold weather may cause the blossoms to stand still, or 
nearly so. In that case it is better to have the flowers 
in bloom a little too early than too late. Your appli- 
cation for the rust may have been a little too strong. 
The same instructions as to potting, compost, air, &c., 
will apply as those directed for the Zonal Pelargoniums. 
If your plants are intended for a show, you will flnd it 
a great advantage to gum the flowers before moving 
them about, as the petals so readily drop. Florists' 
gum can be readily obtained from the horticultural 
sundriesmen, and a tiny drop in the centre of the flower 
will go far to prevent the premature dropping of the. 
petals. 



TO 



ANSWERS 
CORRESPON DENTS. 



RULES FOR CORRESPONDENTS. 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS.— TAe Editor endeavours to 
make The Garden helpful to all readers who desire asRist- 
ance, no matter what the branch of garden irnj may be, and 
ivith that object make^ a special feature of the "'Ansivers 
to Correspondents " columns. All communications should be 
clearly and concisely loritten on one side of the paper only, 
and addressed to the EDITOR of The Garden, 20, Tavistock 
Street, Covent Garden, London, TT.C. The name and address 
of the sender are required in addition to any designation he 
may desire to be used in the paper. When more than one 
query is sent, each should be on a separate piece of paper. 
Plants for naming should be clearly numbered and securely 
packed in damp grass or moss, not cotton-wool, and flowering 
shoots, where possible, should be sent. It is useless to send 
small scraps that are not characteristic of the plant. Letters 
on business should be sent to the Publisher. 



THE 



GREENHOUSE. 

NERINE FOTHERGILLII NOT FLOWERING (3Irs. 
E. A. F). — Thf cultural directions followi.-d by you have 
bcPD in the main correct. This is, indeed, shown by the 
large size and flourishing condition of the bulbs. The 
one point in which you have erred is in gi\"in2 the bulbs 
water before the tips of the flower-spikes showed themselves 
As soon as they can be pcen, then water may be safely 
civen.but if the plants are watered too soon, teaves. not 
flower-spikes, arc the principal result. One other matter 



ROSE GARDEN. 

TONK'S ROSE MANURE {E. S. Af.).— This compound 
is not offered for sale, so far as we know, but any good 
firm, such as Messrs. V. Voss and Co., Carlton Works, 
Mill wall, would make it u.p for you. The recipe is as 
follows: Superphosphate of lime, twelve parts; nitrate 
of potash, ten parts : sulphate of magnesia, two parts ; 
sulphate of iron, one part ; and sulphate of lime, eight 
parts. Apply it this month, a quarter of a pound to the 
square yard of surface. The climbing lto?cs in the green- 
house should be pruned after flowering, say, about May. 
They would then have the summer to make new growths, 
which are retained almost full length to flower the follow- 
ing spring. If the long growths have side shoots or 
laterals, you can prune these now to about three eyes 
from their base, but retain the long rods made last ye-ar 
nf-arly their full length. 



Jit^-n®- 




GARDEN. 



-y^=^^^-- 




b 



No. 22^8.— Vol. LXXIX. 



February 27, 1915. 



NOTES OF THE WEEK. 



A Handsome Hazel. — Few' prettier sights are 
to be seen in early spring than good specimens 
of the Hazel when well laden with male catkins. 
This year in many places they are making a fine 
display. A shrub worthy of more attention for 
iis ornamental qualities is the Constantinople 
Hazel (Corylus Columa), which forms a tree and 
bears longer catkins than the common kind. 
When in fruit the peculiarly cut calyx, which 
almost covers the nut, is also very hiteresting. 

Ivy for CoveringTDamp Walls. — There are 
many uses to which the Ivy may be put, and in 
a number of cases it has no equal, one of these 
being for covering a damp wall. An instance 
we have in mind is a wall of a dwelling-house 
which at one time suffered very much 
from damp. On our advice Ivies 
were planted to grow up the wall, 
and we understand now that it is 
well covered and that very little 
evidence of damp is seen. This is 
undoubtedly known to many, but it 
may be a useful hint to some of our 
readers, as Ivy can be successfully 
planted at this season. 

Winter Aconites and Snow- 
drops. — ^These are very pretty at 
Kew at the present time, in some 
places grown separately and in others 
as a mixture. They are used in some 
instances to carpet ground beneath 
shrubs, and are particularly attrac- 
tive when planted in broad masses. 
In some places they are used 
b?neath beds of red-barked shrubs, 
such as Comus alba, and the 
contrast is very effective. Both 
Winter Aconites and Snowdrops may 
be expected to give better results 
when planted in cultivated or 
semi-cultivated land than when 
planted in close grass, for they 
cannot adapt themselves to close turf with 
the same facility as the Crocus ; therefore, when 
a groundwork is wanted for beds or borders of 
deciduous shrubs, they should be remembered. 



late January and early February. It cannot be 
depended upon to come true from seeds, and is 
usually grafted upon stocks of H. virginiana. 
When planted in light, loamy soil containing a 
little peat, it grows rapidly and forms a shapely 
bush with little or no pruning. 

Pernetiana Roses. — At a Comicii meeting of the 
National Rose Society, held last week, it was 
definitely decided to adapt the prefix " Pernetiana " 
to the group of Roses characterised by Rayon d'Or 
and Arthur R. Goodwin. Although this name is 
not botanically correct, it has been so imiversally 
adopted that it was considered by the majority 
of the members of the Council inadvisable to alter 
it. We suggest that the botanical difficultv could 




A WELL-FLOWERED PLANT OF THE KASHMIR PI 
(p. DENTICULATA CASHMERIANA). 

have been eliminated by calling this class Pemet 
Roses, in the same way as we refer to the 
Noisette group. 
A Charming Colour Arrangement of Green- 
The Japanese Witch Hazel.— The difference j house Flowers.— When inspecting the private 
between Hamamelis japonica zuccariniana and ' conservatory of a partner of one of our leading 
other Witch Hazels is most apparent in the colour ^ seed firms last week, we were particularly pleased 
of the flowers, for instead of the familiar golden with a simple grouping of flowers. At the far 
hue, the blossoms are in this case a clear pale ' end of the conservatory Maidenhair and other 
lemon. A native of Japan, it forms a large bush Ferns had been arranged to form a steep bank, 



iir small tree in its native country. Here we are 
familiar with it as a wide-spreading bush, at least 
six feet or eight feet high, with rather slender 
branches, from which a profusion of flowers with 



two fairly large spaces towards the centre being 
left for flowering plants. These were filled 
with blue Primula obconica and the yellow P. 
kewensis, the twain being lightly intermingled. 



narrow, curiously twisted petals appear during The effect was so quiet and good that we 



pass on the hint for the benefit of any readers 
who may have these plants at their disposal. 
Even without the Ferns the two colours would 
be charming. 

The Perpetual-Flowering Carnation Society. 
— We understand that the above Society his 
just completed arrangements with the North 
of England Horticultural Society for holding 
an exhibition at the Corn Exchange, Leeds, 
on April 29 and 30. The schedule will be 
publ shed shortly. 

Preserving Cut Flowers.— The results of 
numerous experiments conducted at the Cornell 
University, U.S.A., show that there is no better 
method of preserving cut flowers yet kno\vn than 
cutting a short piece off the stem 
each day. A number of chemicals, 
dissolved in the water, were 
tested, but the results were not 
such as to justify their recom- 
mendation. 

The Kashmir Primula. — Before 
many weeks are over, the beautiful 
Primula illustrated on this page will 
be opening its globe-like heads of 
violet flowers. Although classed by the 
Kew authorities as a variety of 
Primula denticulata, it is regarded 
by many as a distinct species. It 
is a charming plant for a moist spot 
in the rock garden, but shade is not a 
necessity. The under surface of the 
foliage is coated with farina. Soil 
that consists of good loam and a 
liUIe rough peat seems to suit this 
Primula, which certainly deserves 
to be better known than it is at 
present. 

Outdoor Crocuses for Bowls.— 
IMULA Owing to the wet, cold and windv 

weather, the early Crocuses, such as 
Sieberi and biflorus, have presented 
a very dejected appearance outdoors this year. 
To enjoy their full beauty we have lifted some good 
clusters, put them into glazed bowls filled with 
sand, and taken them indoors. There the flowers 
quickly expand, and reveal the beautiful orange 
stigmata and internal colours of the perianth seg- 
ments. The plants should be lifted with roots 
and soil intact, placed in the bowls, and the spaces 
between filled with dry sand, ordinary builder's 
sand or silver sand answering equally well. This 
is then thoroughly soaked with water and the surface 
covered with a little green moss to give the whole 
a neat appearance. Treated in this way Crocuses 
will last in good condition for nearly, or quite, 
a fortnight. 



98 



THE GARDEN. 



[February 27, 1915 



HOME-GROWN VEGETABLES AND OUR FOOD SUPPLY. 



Our article and the subsequent letters on the above subject have created considerable interest among horticultural societies, and we 
give a selection of letters from those luho have already adopted our suggestion, or intend to do so. We take this opportunity of once 
more pointing out that the object of our article was mainly to increase our home supplies of food, the disposal of any surplus 
produce being a secondary matter. We shall be pleased to send reprints of the article to any secretary of a horticultural society for 

distribution among his members. 



I MYSELF am fully in sympathy with the 
work, and you can take it my society will 
be. Last August I wrote, through the 
medium of the local Press, urging the culti- 
vation of every available plot of land, 
large and small. In November we also 
held a special patriotic show, and raised a clear 
profit of £142 for the National Relief Fund. We 
have already decided to go forward with our 
exhibition as usual, on July i6 and 17 ; in fact, 
our schedule of sixty-eight pages will be out next 
week. I wish the movement every success, and 
assure you of my whole-hearted interest and 
co-operation. William G. Carradine. 

Birmingham Horticultural Society. 



The doings of our horticultural society have 
perforce to be indefinitely postponed during the 
war ; but I for one — and others on the committee — 
have strong ideas of the desirability of wakening 
everybody to the desirability of increasing our 
\egetable supplies. By precept and example I 
hope to continue the crusade, trusting that others 
may also rise to the importance of the same. I 
hope your article may increase enthusiasm on 
the subject. 

Lilian Jones Bateman, Hoi. Secretary. 
Abergele Horticultural Society. 



1 SHALL be pleased to place the article on 
vegetables before my committee. They are think- 
ing of withholding all prize money in gardeners' 
classes, and, after deducting bare working expenses, 
to present all surplus money to the Belgium 
Restoration I'"und. I will certainly do all in my 
power to get members to send any vegetables 
they may have to spare to some institution. 

C. E. Brooker, Secretary. 
Highgale Horticultural Society. 



In reference to the important question of our 
national food supply, I may say we have had this 
question under consideration, and have already 
adopted a system for sending a monthly supply of 
fruit and vegetables to the Fleet at some naval 
base. Our president and myself have been appointed 
as a local committee (Norwich branch), and we 
have appealed to all our members, as well as to 
those of the affiliated Norfolk and Norwich Horti- 
cultural Society, and also to the Norfolk public, 
through the Press for their co-operation and support. 
AU contributions are received at my office address 
monthly, whence I have already sent away two 
good representative consignments, which have 
been gratefully acknowledged. It is our inten- 
tion to maintain a monthly supply throughout 
the summer if possible, and trust that our efforts 
will nifct with success. 

W. L. Wallis, Secretary. 
hasi .liigtian Horticultural Club. 



I read your article re increasing our vegetable 
supplies before the members at our last meeting. 
Time would not allow a good discussion upon the 



subject, but as it was sent to the committee for them 
to consider it, we shall have a special meeting 
next week for this purpose. If in the meantime 
any further suggestions are offered by your readers, 
will you let me know, and I will forward to you 
any information I can gather upon the matter. 
The enclosed circular re Croydon Vacant Lands 
Cultivation Society may interest you. This is 
a separate body to our society, but part of the 
committee is composed of members from our 
society. A considerable amount of vacant land 
is now under cultivation. 

Harry Boshier, Hon. Secretary. 
Croydon and District Horticultural Mutual 
Improvement Society. 
[Judging by the circular sent by Mr. Boshier, 
the Croydon Vacant Lands Cultivation Society is 
doing good work in securing vacant plots and getting 
them under cultivation by working men. — Ed.] 



Our society is in sympathy with your good move, 
and we wish you success in your work for a good 
cause. Our committee do not see their way clear 
to offer any products just now, but if any be needed 
during the summer months, perhaps we shall l)e 
better able to do it then. I may state that we 
are situated in a colliery district, and it is hard 
work here to cultivate our own produce. Re 
growing and assisting others to cultivate their 
gardens, we have already done good work in this 
way, and are still doing good work in encouraging 
cottagers to cultivate their plots of ground. We 
intend to hold a show on August 19, and all the 
proceeds will be devoted to the proposed new 
cottage hospital in this locality. We are affiliated 
to tiie Royal Horticultural Society and hold 
weekly lectures on horticulture free of charge, 
when there is a very good attendance. Our last 
lecture was on the Brassica family, the lecturer 
being iVIr. W. Payne. He urged us to grow 
Cabbage, Cauliflower, Brussels Sprouts, &c., 
because one or the other is available all the year 
round. T. M. Lloyd, Secretary. 

.iberaman Horlicullural Society. 



In reference to growing more vegetables, I would 
tell you some of our work as a horticultural 
society in this district. After many years of 
struggle, we have secured nearly thirteen acres 
of land, which we let to our members as allotments, 
ranging from five to twenty rods of ground each, 
so as to spread it among as many as possible. We 
have 177 working these plots. All are keen, and 
every plot is let. We discourage the growing of 
flowers on these by refusing to allow flowers grown 
on allotments to be exhibited at our shows. I may 
say we have a full programme, as usual, this year, 
our motto being " Carry On." Regarding your 
note on the supply of seeds, one of our committee 
drafted a collection suitable to our members' needs 
and submitted this to a reputable firm of seedsmen, 
and asked them to supply these collections at a 
fair and low price. The firm did so, and our mem- 
bers have the seeds. We have lectures and 



discussions at the beginning and waning of the 
seasons, so that our members may gain knowledge 
and also begin necessary operations at the right 
time. We try to embrace every branch of 
horticulture in our schedule. In the economic 
section we have o\:er forty classes this year at 
our summer and autumn shows, also classes for 
home preserves. The matter of surplus vegetables 
we have fully discussed, and you will readily 
understand that, with the small plots our members 
have, there will not be much left after their own 
family needs are catered for ; if there are any, we 
shall, no doubt, find some way of collecting 
them and sending what we can where they are 
needed. But you will, no doubt, agree with us 
when I say we consider we are doing good work 
by encouraging our members to keep their own 
families supplied first. Of course, we feel things 
tight this year, but I have had so much encourage- 
ment already that I face the work very hopefully 
now. I trust you will excuse my lengthy epistle, 
but I wished to show you we are alive and have 
anticipated the ideas expressed in your article, and 
have dealt with every phase of it to the best of our 
ability. When I tell you our work is all done in 
the evenings, you will realise the result is not 
unsatisfactory. 

H. A. BEECROFr, Hon. Secretary. 
Seven Kings and Goodmayes Horticultural Society. 



In reference to your article on " Hume-grown 
Vegetables and Our Food Supply," I think the 
ideas advanced are excellent, and I will endeavour 
to get the societies connected with our association 
to do what they can in regard to the matter. 
We hope to hold our show on August 25 and 26. 

H. DUNKIN. 

Wartfickshire Horticultural Association. 



You may bj interested to hear that the Birming- 
ham Horticultural Society have applied, through 
Mr. William G. Carradine, their secretary, for a 
grant of our small booklets on " Cropping Allot- 
ments " for the use of their members. I have 
sent them five dozen. You will be interested 
to know that your article on " Home-grown 
Vegetables and Our Food Supply " has evidently 
attracted attention in quarters where you wouhl 
desire it. Edward Owen Greening. 

The .4grictiltural and Horticultural .Association, 
Limited. 



I WAS very pleased indeed tn see the excelleiil 
letter from Dr. Lillias Hamilton in your last issue. 
The most important point raised by her is, I think, 
that more root crops should be grown this year 
than usual. Undoubtedly Potatoes, Onions or 
Carrots will produce more valuable food from a 
given area than Cabbages or Cauliflowers, whole- 
some and useful though these are. Co-operative 
piggeries for allotments ought certainly to be widely 
adopted. Apart from eating up refuse, pigs 
provide a particularly valuable garden manure. 
Another F.R.H.S. 



February 27, 1915.] 



THE GARDEN. 



99 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

{The Editor is not responsible for the opinions 
expressed by correspondents.) 



Helxine Solierolii as a Carpeting Plant.— 

I do not think this very useful carpeter is as well 
known as it should be. It grows, to quote Mr, 
Farrer, " as quick as a dream or a fungus." It 
has the reputation of being not quite hardy ; 
but here in Birmingham, where the climate is 
anything but genial, I find it will stand any amount 
of frost, provided it is kept dry from November 
to March with a pane of glass placed an inch or 
so above it. It is in the moraine and is also 
spreading itself all over the path, and is a beautiful 
bright green all the year romid. I find it more 
satisfactory than Arenaria balearica, which here 
is apt to die off. Another advantage is that every 
scrap broken off will grow. — H. E. I. 

Shows, Schedules and Judges.— Having had 
a rather lengthy experience both in the framing 
of prize schedules and in judging, I feel interested 
in the discussion in The Garden on the above 
subjects, and would like to draw attention to a 
common mistake made by judges, either through 
lack of thought or through lack of moral courage. 
I refer to the failure to withhold a prize or to 
make a modified award in the case of an inferior 
exhibit, when only one exhibit, and that of inferior 
quality, is staged in a given class. A first prize 
is often awarded as a matter of course, thus giving 
the public an erroneous impression as to what is 
the ideal standard of excellence with regard to 
the subject for which prizes are offered. On the 
same principle, two exhibits are staged in a class, 
the one of great merit, the other greatly inferior ; 
but they are awarded first and second prize rf- 
spectively. In my opinion, " these things ought 
not so to be." — Caledonia. 

The Purple-Flowered Cistus. — There is no 
doubt that Cistus purpureus is the finest of its 
colour, although one often meets with many 
inferior plants under that . name. By some il 
is regarded as a native of the Levant, while other 
authorities recognise it as a hybrid between 
Cistus ladaniferus x C. villosus, and there seems 
reason to believe that the latter is undoubtedly 
its true origin, for no specimen has ever beer 
known to be collected wild, while it gets its colour 
from C. villosus and its size and spots from C. 
ladaniferus. It is of a spreadmg habit, about 
four feet high, and often more through, with dark 
green, oblong, slightly rugose foliage. The flowers, 
which are quite 3 inches broad, are terminal, 
generally in threes, and are lilac purple in colour, 
while near the base of the petals the beauty of 
the flower is enhanced by a large ruby red spot, 
which makes it so distinct and ornamental, and 
in striking contrast to the bright yellow stamens. 
The Cistuses are among the showiest of ornamental 
flowering shrubs, blooming for a considerable 
part of the summer, and should be included 
among any that are being planted. They are 
excellent for sunny positions in light soil, often 
thriving in poor ground where many other 
shrubs would fail. — F. G. Preston. 

The Ideal Daffodil Catalogue.— Jlay I crave a 

little of your space for comment on the Rev. J. 
Jacob's " Daffodil Notes " in yoiu: issue of 
January 30, as far as they deal with my previous 
remarks on Daffodil catalogues ? Mr. Jacob's notes 
are always interesting, but he must pardon me if 1 
confess to fijiding them in this instance less 
relevant than usual. The point of my remarks 



lay in the contention that in the best Daffodil 
catalogue known to me, certain marks of excellence 
have been awarded to the several varieties (four 
crosses to the best quality, three to the second- 
rate, and so on), and that the excellence thus indi- 
cated is, roughly speaking, in proportion to the 
price ; in other words, that, when a variety sinks 
to a moderate price, it becomes, ipso facto, second- 
rate. In support of this contention I gave certain 
figures and averages from the Pimlico catalogue. 
Mr. Jacob says nothing to controvert this, though 
no doubt he can guess shrewdly enough what 
catalogue was in my mind. (I might say, how- 
ever, that my figures were taken from the 1913 
catalogue and not from that for I9r4, which was 
not then to hand.) As to high-art adjectives, if 
bulb merchants choose to use these to excess, 
there is no statute to prevent them, and dictionaries 
are cheap. The only fear is that they may exhaust 
the language and get gravelled for lack of high- 
falutin epithets. By the way. a certahi Irish firm 



Good in grass, pots, beds, and vases — 2S. per doz. 
Mrs. R. Sydenham (Ajax). — ^This is one of the best 
recently introduced white self-coloured Daffodils, 
of perfect fqrm and great substance ; perianth 
broad, firm, and pure white ; pure white narrow 
trimipet beautifully recurved at mouth ; still, 
in our opinion, unsurpassed as a white trumpet. 
A.M., R.H.S. Good in beds, pots and vases — 
I2S. 6d. per bulb. Alannah (Triandrus Hybrid). — 
A lovely self lemon colour, short trumpet, beauti- 
fully crested at mouth, with very level perianth ; 
a very beautiful flower — £30 per bulb." The 
trail of the serpent is perhaps traceable even in 
Doe and Roe, but, at any rate, their catalogue 
does not pay to mere costliness the homage paid 
by some firms. If I might make a suggestion 
(which I do with diffidence), it is that a certain 
economy should be practised in the expenditure 
of epithets, in respect at least of a flower which 
" needs no bush." That comprehensive word 
■' precious," which conveys all that there is of 




THE PURPLE-FI.OWERED ROCK ROSE (ciSTUS PURPUREUS) 



(the well-known Messrs. Doe, Roe and Co. of 
Dublin) distributes a Daffodil catalogue which bids 
fair presently to come withm measurable distance 
of the ideal catalogue. In point of scientific 
arrangement and " get-up " it is not equal to that 
of the Pimlico firm ; but its intention is excellent, 
and the infonnation it gives, if less ecstatic, is 
fuller and more serviceable, though, so far, not so 
full and serviceable as it might be. I extract from 
this Dublin catalogue two or three paragraphs, 
in the ambitious hope of convincing Mr. Jacob 
that the perfect catalogue, when it arrives, need 
not be cold, and, what is perhaps equally desirable, 
that it may achieve its purpose without bringing 
the English language to bankruptcy. It must 
not be forgotten that in listing Daffodils a correct 
classification is in itself descriptive — half the 
battle, indeed. This is how Doe and Roe pro- 
ceed : "Albatross (Burbidgei). — A beautiful 
flower, with large spreading white perianth, and 
pale citron-yellow cup, edged bright orange scarlet ; 
very floriferous ; one of the best. F.C.C., R.H.S. 



" too-tooishness," might be reserved for flowers 
costing, say, from £5 to £50 per bulb ; so that, if 
a variety were described as " precious," we should 
know that it was a flower of surpassing loveliness 
and cost a minimum of £5. The baldest and most 
pedestrian prose available would be used for such 
flowers as cost a beggarly 30s. or less. The middle 
zone (between 30s. and £5) might be reserved as 
a Daffodil limbo or purgatory, where flowers on 
the down-grade might linger till such time as they 
became cheap enough to be finally d — mn — d. — 
Somerset. 



FORTHCOMING EVENTS. 

March 2. — Royal Horticultmral Society's Exhibi- 
tion of Flowers, Plants, &c., i p.m. to 5 p.m. 
Lecture at 3 p.m. by Dr. Claud F. Fothergill on 
" Pressing Flowers to Retain Their Colomrs" ; and 
by Colonel Rawson, C.B., on " Colour Changes in 
Flowers by the Removal of Sunlight." Royal 
Horticultural Hall, Vincent Square, Westminster. 



100 



THE GARDEN. 



[February 27, 1915. 



THE EARLY HISTORY OF 
LILIUM TESTACEUM. 



T 



kHIS beautiful and distinct Lily, which is 
referred to by Sir Herbert Maxwell.Bart., 
on page 64, as one of tlie loveliest of the 
race, is, as stated by the writer, of 
unknown origin. Concerning its early 
history, the most complete account 
that has come under my notice occurs in a book 

of 122 pages, entitled " Monographic, Historique 

ft Litteraire des Lis, par Fr. de Cannart 

d'Hamale, President de la federation des Societes 

d' Horticulture de Belgique, &c.," printed at 
Malines, 1870. Somewhat curtailed and rather 

freely translated, it reads as follows : 
" There is also another Lily, with 

recurved petals, concerning tlie origin 

of which we have but a vague idea, 

but whicli, nevertheless, appears to be 

Japanese, viz., Lilium testaceum of 

Lindley (the Nankeen Lily). It was 

first discovered by M. Fr. ,-\d. Haage, 

jun., of Erfurt, accidentally, in a large 

consignment of Martagons which he 

had received from Holland in 1836, 

and with which it had been mixed. 

The plant was introduced into Belgium 

by L. van Houtte of Ghent, who had 

received a case full of it from M. von 

Weissenborn of Erfurt in exchange 

for some Fuchsias. This exchange 

was made in 1840 or 1841, at which 

time there is no question that of this 

unknown Lily three persons of Lille in 

France each possessed an offset. One 

only of tliese offsets chanced to 

flower, at Esquermes-lez-Lille, and 

showed an umbel of pendant blossoms. 

with petals reflexed like the Marta- 
gons, but larger and of a beautiful 

nankeen colour, slightly tinged witli 

rose, and dotted with a deeper tint at 

the base. The bright orange-coloured 

stamens served to add to the beauty 

of tile flower. 

" M. van Houtte, who happened to 

be at Lille, was fortunate enough to 

see tills splendid novelty. He eventu- 
ally received from M. von Weissenborn 

an order for Fuchsias, with a post- 
script in the following terms : ' If by 

any chance you want the nankeen- 
coloured Lily, I have a quantity at 

your service.' M. van Houtte did not 

think twice about it, and seized with 

avidity the good fortune offered to 

him. He accepted the exchange, and 

soon became the possessor of a case more than a 

yard square full of Nankeen Lilies of all sizes, 

the largest bulbs measuring more than a foot in 

circumference. 

"This news soon spread to Lille, and there caused 

much talk and great disappointment when the 

possessors of the three offsets were convinced 

that the I.ily of which M. van Houtte liad become 
the owner was the same as those whicli they guarded 

so jealously. The Nankeen Lily passed from 
Belgium to England, where it flowered for the 

first time with Messrs. Rollisson. It was figured 
and described in the Botanical Register by Dr. 
Lindley in 1843, under the name of Lilium 

testaceum. Dr. Kimtze of Halle had described 

it as L. isabellinura. and it also bore the name 



of L. excelsum among gardeners. M. Rinz, sen., 
a nurseryman at Frankfort, and another gardener 
at Leipzig claimed to recognise in it an old friend 
which they Iiad cultivated in their younger days. 
This was evidently a mistake, for no mention of 
this Lily has been made in any work on botany 
or horticulture. We are more inclined to believe 
that it is of recent introduction, and that the 
Dutch received it from Japan, with which country 
they were in constant communication. But is it 
really a true species ? Or is it not rather the 
product of the white Lily fertilised by one of the 
Pomponium section ? The general appearance 
of the plant would lead one to suppose so." 

As the foregoing was written within a reasonable 
distance of the time that L. testaceum made its 
first appearance, information on many points 



PLANTS FOR OLD MASONRY 
WALLS. 



T 




THE AMERICAN FRINGE TREE (CHIONANTHUS VIRGINICA) AS 
A POT PLANT. 



would be more readily obtained than at the present 
day — forty-five years later. H. P. 



THE FRINGE TREE AS A POT 
PLANT. 

The illustration on this page suggests what a 
charming subject for ornamental pots we have 
in the little-known Fringe Tree (Chionanthus 
virginica). This shrub or small tree is a native 
of the Eastern United States, and in the open 
forms a bush up to 10 feet in height, its flowers 
being produced at the end of May or early in 
June. The blossoms are white, feathery, and very 
fragrant. It will grow well in good loamy 
soil, and deserves to he much more widely known. 



HE clothing of old walls with vegeta- 
tion of a varied and more or less 
pleasing character is a phase of garden- 
ing which is being more widely adopted 
each year. When successful, a wall 
thus treated should prove a source 
of great enjoyment to its owner and possess the 
additional merit of costing very little to maintain. 
Where dry walls have been specially built with a 
view to providing a congenial home for plants 
that naturally appreciate a more or less dry 
and elevated position, the process of evolving 
a pleasing array of flowers and foliage is much 
simplified, and as such walls have 
previously been dealt with, it is not 
proposed to give more than a passing 
word to them now. 

It is in relation to the clothing of 
those old masonry walls which exist 
in so many gardens that information 
is often sought after, and it is here 
that the ingenuity of the gardener 
)ieeds to be exercised to the utmost 
limit. Such old walls may be roughly 
divided into two sections, i.e., retain- 
ing walls and those which have both 
sides more or less fully exposed to the 
elements. It is in the first-named set 
that we find the best home for our 
flowers ; but those of the latter sec- 
tion, particularly on the sunny side, 
may be made attractive by the appli- 
cation of a reasonable amount of 
intelligent and tmremitting care. 

As in most other phases of garden- 
ing, the success or otherwise of our 
efforts to establish plants on walls of 
this description depends not a little 
on what may be termed the spade- 
work, consisting actually of the free 
use of a cold chisel and a hammer 01 
substantial proportions. There is no 
doubt that the best way to establish 
plants in a masonry wall is to follow 
the dictates of Nature, and instead of 
attempting to introduce large plants 
of flabby character, to rely on verj' 
small seedlings, or, better stm, the 
seeds themselves. While some suc- 
cessful wall gardeners declare the 
autumn to be the best season for 
sowing seeds or introducing seedlings, 
others are equally emphatic in advo- 
cating March or April as the best 
time in which to do the work ; and, all 
things considered, there is rather more to be said 
in favour of the latter period than the former. 

To retirni to the preparation of the wall. This 
must be seen to without delay if seeds are to be 
sown this spring, as the earlier they are in now, 
the better. In the case of a retaming wall, the 
top usually forms a suitable ledge for several 
inches of soil, in which a number of plants may 
be grown that would scarcely thrive in the crevices 
between the bricks or stones. It is in the making 
and filling of these crevices that some care needs 
to be exercised. A long cold chisel, driven home 
with a heavy hammer, will, in most instances, 
quickly clear out sufficient of the mortar to allow 
a moderate packing with soil, and in some cases 
it may be possible to dislodge a small portion of 



February 27, 1015. 



THE GARDEN. 



101 



brick or stone without endangering the safety 
of the wall. All the crevices should slope down- 
wards to some extent, so that any moisture which 
collects on the side of the wall may have an oppor- 
tunity of reaching the roots of the plants. The 
best soil for filling such crevices is good turfy 
loam and chopped sphagnimi moss, the latter 
being added for the sake of its moisture-retaining 
properties. This mixture must be rammed well 
into the crevices, a few small pieces of brick and 
stone being wedged in afterwards to prevent it 
being washed out. If these can be allowed to 
project slightly, and made to slope inwards and 
do\\'Uwards, they will assist considerably in collect- 
ing moisture for the seedlings in the earliest and 
most critical stages of their career. 

The actual sowing of the seeds may be done 
in various ways, but the most practical is to roll 
a few seeds into a small ball of similar soil to that 
used for filling the crevices, and 
thrust this well into the packed 
chinks. There is little danger of seeds 
sown in this way being blown out by 
wind. If seedlings are used, they 
must be planted in the crevices at a 
very early stage of their career. If 
possible, a heavy syringing of the wall 
late in the afternoons of bright days 
will assist the seedlings to become well 
established before the autumn. The 
clothing of masonry walls with plants 
is of necessity a slow procedure, and 
one that calls for a certain amount 
of patience on the part of the owner. 

The following are plants that may 
be sown at the present time on walls 
of the description mentioned, and 
although some failures are almost cer- 
tain to occur, sufficient success should 
be secured to induce the cultivator 
to sow more another year : For tops 
of retaining walls — Pentstemons, 
Wallflowers, Antirrhinums, Thrift, 
such Pinks as Dianthus iirabriatus, 
♦alpiuus, *arenarius, *ca>sius, ♦Caryo- 
phyllus, *cruentus, deltoidcs, *suavis 
and sylvestris ; Alpine Poppies, 
Aubrietias, Arabis alpina, Corydalis 
lutea, Alyssum, Lychnis Lagasc;e, 
Campanula rotundifolia, Foxgloves, 
Honesty, Linaria alpina, *L. Cym- 
balaria, Drabas of various kinds, 
*Erinus in variety, Saponaria ocy- 
moides, Gypsophila cerastioides, 
Sedums anglica, acre, dasyphyllum, 
rupestris and grandiflora. In addition to tliose 
above which are marked with an asterisk, the 
following are suitable for the sunny, or partly sunny, 
side of a wall : Any of the Encrusted Saxifragas, 
of which seed can be obtained ; Campanula muralis, 
C. pulla, C. garganica, C. caespitosa, C. pumila 
and Arenaria caespitosa. For the shaded, or 
partly shaded, side : Linaria Cymbalaria, such 
Mossy Saxifragas as sancta, Elizabethae, juniperi- 
folia and the Campanulas named above as suit- 
able for the sunny side. The Sedimis mentioned 
for the top of retaining walls are best installed 
by sowing the fleshy leaves. These should be 
pulled or shaken ofi the stems, mixed with fine 
potting soil and placed in the positions it is intended 
the plants should occupy. There are, no doubt, 
many other plants that could be induced to thrive 
on old masonry walls, and not a little of the interest 
and pleasure derived from this form of gardening is 
obtained by experimenting with likely subjects. 



In the crevices of dry walls practically all the 
plants named as suitable for the tops of retaining 
masonry walls cotild be gro^vn, as there wouJd, 
of course, be sufficient soil and moisture present 
to enable them to thrive. As previously stated, 
a dry wall possesses far greater possibilities than 
a l.-nnded one. H. 



A CHARMING WINTER FLOWER. 

Cyclamen Coum. 
Despite their attractive flowers and the fact 
that many of the species bloom at a very welcome 
time of the year, the hardy Cyclamen do not 
appear to be grown (especially in the small garden) 
to nearly the extent that their beauty justifies. 
The accompanying illustration of a group of 
Cyclamen grown by Messrs. Piper shows how 
decorative a colony of C. Coum can be vnth its 



SEASONABLE NOTES 
CARNATIONS. 



ON 



Winter Flowers. — ^Though there has been 
abundance of bloom on Carnations, even in the 
depth of winter, the flowers have been smaller 
than usual, "not improbably on account of the 
almost entire absence of sunshine for weeks on 
end ; but there also may be a contributing cause 
in the abnormal freedom from frost, permitting 
the almost total dispensing with artificial heat 
and giving the plants less air. About the middle 
of January all the plants were surface-dressed 
with artificial manures, and with the lengthening 
days there is to be seen a decided improvement 
in the flowers. 

About Novelties.^For a time I was dubious 
whether the much - praised novelties of last 




A BEAUTIFUL COLONY OF CYCLAMEN COUM, A CHARMING WINTER AND EARLY SPRING FLOWER. 



rich-coloured flouers (and also its white or pale 
pink form) when they come to gladden us in 
February, rising but 2 inches or 3 inches in height 
above the deep bronzy green foliage devoid 
of marbling (which characterises many of the other 
species). The under sides of the leaves, too, are 
of a rich bronzy crimson tone. The best cultural 
conditions appear to be half or three-quarter 
shade, extremely gritty humus, with copious 
drainage, and an absence of disturbance. At 
the base of some large tree where the soil is light, 
poor and more or less dry, the Cyclamen seem to 
thrive amazingly, whUe, if beds are prepared 
for them in the rock garden — perhaps at the 
base of some large sheltering stone — where 
thesoil consists of half stone rubble, with sand, 
leaf-mould, fibrous loam and old mortar in 
about equal proportions, they will do quite 
well, and make a delightful picture in the 
early spring. Reginald A. Malby. 



spring were likely to be of value Now it is 
clear that Champion is a glorious colour, but I 
am afraid the plant may prove less healthy than 
some of the more vigorous sorts — Triumph, for 
instance. I care less for Gorgeous, though this, 
too, is a great acquisition, and it would be none 
the less so were it less tall in habit. Champion 
is likely to run] Mary^ Allwood very close for 
supremacy, and it is likely to be a case of the old 
song, " Were t'other dear charmer away." A few 
plants oif Mary Allwood have produced very 
■' washy " flowers, so different from the true form 
that it is curious how they should be so much unlike. 
The imreliability of Carnations is, of course, well 
known, but I have never seen any go quite so 
far astray as this. Last year we had one or two 
plants of Mikado which produced much-improved 
flowers, and of Rose Dor^, always good in colour, 
there was one plant which gave us blooms of the 
most entrancing loveliness. St. Nicholas is 



102 



THE GARDEN. 



[February 27, 1915. 



generally reckoned a little less good than it might 
be. At the same time, it has always proved 
itself here to be a reliable winter bloomer, and 
in the open in summer there is none better. It 
has a nasty habit of breaking badly in spring, 
and more than once I have found it necessary to 
pinch out the one or two breaks in order to force 
the back buds to come away. 

The Rooting of Cuttings. — Last autumn some 
cuttings rooted in a shorter space of time than I 
previously had noted. It is usually not difficult 
for the experienced eye to distinguish a cutting 
which is making roots. Eight days after inserting 
a batch I noticed in a few that roots were being 
formed, and on raising them fotmd it to be the 
case. Frequently I have known 
roots to be produced in ten or 
eleven days ; but this is the shortest 
period in my experience. I wonder 
if any of 5'our correspondents have 
noticed such rapid production ol 
roots. 

One Year Old Plants. — The 

exigencies of labour arising from 
the war have made it impossible to 
grow as many plants as usual, and 
a portion of one year old plants 
will shortly be set aside to supple- 
ment those recently propagated. It 
is customary to grow on a few thus 
every year, especially of the better 
novelties, and it is well known that 
Carola gives the best results in the 
second year ; but these are merely 
given a larger-sized pot, to provide 
the needed nourishment. Many of 
our plants are already in pots large 
enough to carry them on through 
another year, and it is a moot 
point whether it would be better 
to give nourishment by periodical 
applications of manure or to reduce 
the ball and repot in receptacles of 
the same dimensions. My own feel- 
ing is that w-ith the majority ol 
plants the first-mentioned method 
is quite equal to the demands of 
. the plants, the danger of reducing 
the ball being a loss of foliage 
owing to drying before new roots 
could be formed. In most plants 
this would not occur, but with the 
Carnation it has to be reckoned 
with. Only those plants which can 
be reduced considerably in height 
are of use for a second year's 
production, and with this in view 
I have been removing all side 
shoots well up the stems as they 
appear, and encouraging the lower 
ones to strengthen themselves. 

There is nothing to be gained in stopping the 
last named before they become fairly strong, 
even though it seems a waste of time and of 
\egetable \'igour. When stopping does take 
place, once the stems have become fairly firm 
they must be pinched well back, say, to the lower 
eight leaves. Stopping of young plants should be 
effected on the same principle. If it is essential 
that a plant should be allowed to make twenty 
leaves before being stopped, not more than six 
or eight should be left after stoppuig. The shoots 
forced to break will invariably be stronger. 

R. P. Brotherston. 
Tyninghame, Prestonkirk, N.B. 



THE DELPHINIUMS OR 
PERENNIAL LARKSPURS. 



FOR creating bold effects ui the outdoor 
garden, the stately Delphiniums or 
perennial Larkspurs are unsurpassed. 
Ranging as they do in height from 
3 feet to more than twice that stature, 
according to the soil and variety, 
they can easily be accommodated in beds or 
borders, or any other positions that it may be 
necessary to fill. Good blue flowers are not too 
common — indeed, one might almost say that 
they are rather scarce — hence we should make 




A BEAUTIFUL GROUP OF DELPHINILTMS IN A BORDER OF MIXED 

PLANTS. 



full use of these stately peremiials, which embrace 
so many shades of blue. Fortunately, their culti- 
vation does not call for any special skill. Good, 
generous diet and attention to a few details 
that I will mention are all that is necessary. 
Like every other plant that we imdertake to grow, 
the Delphiniums well repay good cultivation, and 
for that reason the soil should be well and deeply 
dug, or, better still, trenched to a depth of 2 feet, 
anel a liberal quantity of partially decayed manure 
thoroughly incorporated with it. Planting is best 
done in autumn, i.e., from the third week in 
September until the end of November, or during 
February and March, or the first week in April. 



For preference one would select autumn, as the 
plants then have an opportunity of becoming 
well established before flowering-time, which i> 
usually June and July. As they are plants ol 
goodly dimensions, overcrowding must not be 
tolerated, and from 2 feet to 3 feet apart is not 
too much space to allow. 

The greatest enemy to Delphiniums, especially 
those that have been recently planted, is the 
ubiquitous slug. This insidious pest will, during 
the winter, scoop out the dormant shoots, and so 
ruin all prospects of flowers the following summer. 
It is important to remember this, because to it 
more failures can be attributed than to any other 
source. The remedy — a very simple one — is to 
cover each plant .with a 2-inch 
thick layer of coal ashes early in 
the autumn, and see that it is well 
worked down between the stumps 
of the old flower-stems. 

Summer treatment consists in 
supplying copious quantities of 
water during dry weather, supple- 
menting it once or twice a week 
with weak liquid manure, par- 
ticularly a few weeks before the 
flowers open. This makes a 
wonderful eiifference in the size, 
and often the colour, of the blos- 
soms. A 2-inch thick mulching ol 
short stable or farmyard manure 
over the roots of the plants will 
also go a long way towards suc- 
cess, and is essential where the 
soil is at all sandy. It is not 
generally known that most Del- 
phiniums will give a second display 
of flowers if properly treated. 
The modus operandi is to cut the 
flower-spikes do\vn close to the 
r* j;round as soon as the blossom'^ 
have faded, then thoroughly water 
the plants, and as soon as new 
jirowth is active, feed well with 
weak liquid manure and renew 
the mulching. If watering is per- 
sisted in during dry weather, 
secondary flower-spikes will soon 
be formed, and, although not sm 
large and stately as those that 
opened earlier, will, nevertheless, 
be very welcome in the autimin 
months. 

The simple operation of stak- 
ing is, of course, necessary, and 
is only referred to here because 
it is so often ^badly done, 
the flower-stems being trussed 
to a stake so that they form 
a passable caricature of a 
Birch broom. Miss Jekyll has 
adopted the most sensible plan that I know, 
and one that preserves the natural contour of the 
plants. Her method is to use natural sticks, 
such as are usually employed for supporting Peas, 
three or more of these being thrust into each 
plant so that the shoots can push their way up 
between the branches. Very little tying is neces- 
sarj- and the effect excellent. 

Delphiniums from Seeds. — -\ithough there are 

a great many named varieties listed in catalogues, 
a packet of seed, purchased from a first-class firm, 
will give a quantity of plants that are not very in- 
ferior, and which, for ordinary purposes, answer 
quite well. The seedlings are not difiicult to raise. 



February 27, 1915. 



THE GARDEN. 



103 



Thi' best plan is to sow the seed in sliallow, well- 
drained boxes or pans of sandy soil during April, 
May or early Jniie, and place them in a cool green- 
house or frame. When I inch or 2 inches high, the 
seedlings must be transplanted to a bed of finely 
pulverised and well-enriched soil, where, by the 
autumn, they vnll have made stmrdy young plants 
that will give some good flowers the following May 
or June though not so large as may be expected 
another year hence. 

As Pot Plants. — -At the last Chelsea Show some 
excellent Delphiniiuns were shown growing and 
floweruig in large pots. For a large and not too 
much heated conservatory they would be ideal, 
and ought not to be difficult to manage. It 
would be necessary to pot up some strong crowns 
early in autimin, plunge the pots to their rims in 
ashes in the operT or in a cold frame for the winter, 
and bring them into very slight artificial heat as 
growth commences naturally. Any attempts at 
hard forcing would, no doubt, end hi failure. 
The following are some good named varieties that 
are not too expensive for general plantuig ; 

Belladonna. — An old variety with sky blue 
flowers, wliich are produced very abimdantly. 
Height, 3 feet. 

Christine Kelway. — -A tall variety with sky 
blue flowers and white eye. Considered by many 
to be an improvement on Belladonna. 

Langport Blue. — This is a white variety, 
5 feet or more in height. Flowers rich bright blue 
and spikes bold and large. 

Persimmon. — One of the prettiest of all. The 
flowers are clear sky blue, and are produced in 
abundance. The plant resembles Belladoima, but 
has a more robust constitution. Height, 3 feet. 

Rev. W. Wilks. — Deep purple, flushed plum 
colour, with prominent dark eye to each flower. 
A superb variety. Height, 4^ feet. 

Sir George Newnes. — A semi-double variety 
with beautiful cobalt blue flowers, the inner 
petals flushed plum colom-. Very effective when 
massed. Height, 4J feet. 

Sir Walter Scott. — Deep rich blue, flushed 
\iolet, with prominent black eye or centre. Height, 
4i feet. 

Althos. — -Rich violet, flushed purple, with 
white centre. A most charming variety. Height, 
5 feet to 6 feet. 

King of Delphiniums. — Semi-double flowers 
"f rich gentian blue, flushed plum colour. Each 
has a white eye that renders the whole very 
attractive. A strong-growing variety. Height, 
4j feet. 

True Blue. — Perhaps the richest coloured of 
all the Delphiniums, the flowers being pure intense 
blue. It has a good constitution and grows from 
5 feet to 6 feet high. 

General Baden-Powell. — Soft lavender, tinted 
rose, with a brownish black eye. A very restful 
colour in the garden. Height, 4J feet. 

James Kelway. — Very rich violet blue flowers, 
each with a pronounced white centre. Very 
effective when massed. Height, 5 feet to 6 feet. 

Princess Maud. — Unique in coloiur, which is 
sky blue, veined rose pink, each flower having a 
white eye. It is semi-double, and of fairly 
robust constitution. Height, 5J feet. 

Sir Trevor Lawrence. — Sky blue, with the 

inner petals flushed rose pink, white eye. Good 
constitution. Height, 6 feet. 

Two varieties of more recent introduction, 
and consequently more expensive, are the 
Rev. E. Lascelles and Statuaire Rude. The 
first named has ricli violet blue flowers, with 



a pronounced white eye. It is tall and very 
erect. The second is a very stately plant, 
the large spikes standing well above the 
foliage. The flowers are a charming shade of 
soft lavender blue, with a slight flush of 
rose. They are semi-double and very large. H. 



ANNUAL FLOWERS SUIT- 
ABLE FOR CUTTING. 



How to obtain a good supply of flowers 
suitable for cutting and at the 
same time study economy is a 
question of some importance in 
many gardens. As far as can 
be seen at the present time, there 
will be an even greater demand than usual 
this season, for added to the general home re- 
quirements will be those eagerly - welcomed in 
hospitals and similar institutions. By making a 
free and judicious use of annuals, the difficulty is 
.it once surmounted. The following list furnishes 



into 3-inch pots and be planted out in May in 
a sunny position. There is hardly a finer decora- 
tive plant among annuals. The Eschscholtzia, 
too, is splendid, and is, I venture to remark, 
one of the coming annuals. 

The need for careful preparation of the soil for 
such plants has so often been given in The Garden 
that it is superfluous to add thereto. Staking of 
the annuals should be carried out sufficiently to 
prevent damage by wind and rain, but not one 
unnecessary band or stick should be used, as it 
is most inconvenient to have to wade through a 
mass of ties when gathering a supply of flowers. 

Serlby Gardens, Baietry. H. Turner. 



THE HARDY PRICKLY PEARS. 

Those who appreciate unusual features in the 
outdoor garden should grow those member.'; of 
the Prickly Pear or Indian Fig famUy (Opmi- 
tia) which are practically hardy in this coun- 
try. Being of a very succulent nature, 
they delight in a sunny position, and if a very 
hot site, where nothing else ran he induced tn 




A B1:D of VICTORIA .\STERS. THESE ARE GOOD ANNUALS FOR CUTTIN'G. 



ample material for selection : *Autirrliinuius 
(medium and tall ; best grown as annuals), 
Asters (annual, of sorts), *annual .Carnations, 
Clarkias, Coreopsis,' Cornflowers, *Cosmos, *Esch- 
scholtzias, »Gaillardias (annual), Godetias, *Lark- 
spiurs, Lavatera, Lupines (annual). Mignonette, 
NigeUa, Salpiglossis, Shirley Poppies, *Stocks, 
Sunflowers, Sweet Sultan and the indispensable 
Sweet Pea. Those marked with an asterisk 
should be sown under glass, while the remainder, if 
desired, may be sown where they are to grow 
and flower, or in a seed-bed in the reserve garden, 
to be afterwards pricked out in their permanent 
quarters. Exceptions to this mode of treatment 
are the Lavatera, Mignonette and Poppies, which 
are generally impatient of shifting, so should be 
sown in their flowering places. The great useful- 
ness of the Autirrhiniuns, Asters, Clarkias, Godetias 
and Larkspurs for cutting is fuUy recognised, 
but it is doubtful whether Cosmos and the 
Eschscholtzia receive the attention they deserve. 
An early flowering strain of the former should 
be chosen, and the seedlings potted singly 



grow, is available, tlic Opuntias will be likely 
to do well there. At Kew they are grown in a 
recess of the Palm House which faces south, and 
is, of course, sheltered from the north and east 
winds. In addition to this there is always 
a little warmth from the wall of the house, and 
imder these conditions the plants seem quite 
happy. In all except the warmest localities, 
however, it will be advisable to so construct 
the bed that a glass light can be placed over it 
during the worst weather in winter, a lot of rain, 
followed quickly by hard frosts, greatly injuring 
the plants. Generally speaking, a low, roughly 
constructed rockery is best, as by this means 
thorough drainage, which is most essential, is 
secured. A suitable soil is composed of good 
turfy loam two parts, crushed bricks and id 
one part each, the whole to be used in a moderately 
rough condition. Planting is best done in spring, 
as the plants then have an opportunity of becoming 
established by the following winter ; but the 
preparation of the bed may be attended to now. 
The following are a few that should do well under 



104 



THE GARDEN. 



[Febri'arv 27, 1915. 



the conditions described : Opuntia camanchica 
lUbispina, O. Engelmaiinii, the Indian Fig, 
(J. Ficus-indica, O. missouriensis and varieties, 
O. Rafinesquii and its variety 0. R. arkansaua, 
and O. parhyrlada rf)sra. H. 



NEW AND ^ARE PLANTS. 

AWARDS OF MERIT. 

Crocus biflorus Alexander!. — A rtiarming 

variety in which the outer segments of tlie flower 
are wholly of a shining chocolate colour, save for 
a narrow margin of white. The remaining 

segments are bicoloured, the larger upper ha'f 

being pure white. Internally 

the petals are white. It is very 

free and profuse flowering. 

Crocus Imperati albinos.— 

Next to marathouisius we 
consider this the finest white- 
flowered variety found among 
autunni or winter flowering 
•Crocuses. The fully expanded 
flower is pure white, with 
iirange-coloured stigmata. Ex- 
ternally the outer segments are 
yellowy buff and faintly lined, 
the lines appearing to penetrate 
to the inner surface of the 
flower. One of the largest, most 
exquisite and free flowering cif 
its race. 
Crocus biflorus Lemon Queen. 

The great charm of this variety 
lies in the distinctive cream- 
yellow of its flowers, a shade 
of colour of exceptional rarity, 
wedded to roundly obovate 
petals. Externally, at the base 
the flowers are marked by a 
faint suspicion of purple colour. 
The whole of these were ex- 
hibited by Messrs. Barr and 
Sons, King Street, Co vent 
Garden, W.C, the well-flowered 
examples constituting a great 
attraction. 

Primula malacoides Rose 

Queen. — Quite the most charm- 
ing and distinct variation nf 
this Chinese species, which has 
gained popularity as much by 
reason of its simple cultural 
requirements as by its freedom 
of flowering and elegant habit. 
The new-comer is of a rosy 
carmine shade, very pronoimced 
and beautiful. In the examples 
shown, a greater vigour than that 
of the type was apparent. From 
Mrs. Deuison, Little Gaddesdeu, 
Berkhamsted (gardener, Mr. ,\. (;. 
Gentle). 

Odontioda Patricia (O. Phoebe x O. Charles- 
worthii). — The flower is wholly coloured a dark, 
glossy maroon, the lip pronouncedly tipped pale 
yellow, with yellow feathering at the centre. A 
handsome and distinct form. From Messrs. 
C. orlesworth and Co,, Hayward's Heath. 

Cymbidium Schlegelii Fowler's Variety (C. 

wiganianum x C. insigne).— The sepals and petals 
are of a pleasing rose pink, lined with white ; lip 
white, irregularly and copiously marked with 
crimson spots and stripes. From J. Gimiey 
Foivler. Ksq., Pembury, Kent (gardener, Mr, J. 
Davies). 



Odontoglossum sandhurstiana. — Exhibited by 

C. J. Phillips, Esq., The Glebe, Sevenoaks, We 
were unable to locate this novelty. 

The foregoing were exhibited before the Royal 
Horticultural Society on Febrnani- 16, when the 
awards were made. 



SEASONABLE NOTES 
VEGETABLES. 



ON 



Rhubarb should be replanted where the roots 
are becoming exhausted, especially where they 
have been partly forced by the aid of manure. 




PRIMULA MALACOIDES ROSE QUEEN, A BEAUTIFUL NEW VARIETY 
WITH RICH ROSY CARMINE FLOWERS. 



Where new varieties are to be added, a thorougb 
overhauling of the roots should occasionally be 
made. The site selected for a new plantation, 
or the old if this is to be continued, must be deeply 
trenched and heavily manured. For the large- 
growing varieties like Victoria the rows should 
be 5 feet wide and the plants 4 feet apart. Smaller- 
growing varieties like Early Scarlet will succeed 
with less space. Divide the old crowns into pieces 
about six inches square, selecting the outer parts. 
When planting, place about the roots some fine 
compost, such as decayed leaves, vegetable refuse, 
or old potting soil. Mulch the surface afterwards 



around the roots with long strawy manure. The 
Sutton is an excellent variety for the main crop, 
Dawe's Champion, Champagne and Mitchell's 
Royal Albert are good varieties to add. 

Spinach should be sown in a cold frame for 
an early supply, as it is too early yet for an outdoor 
sowing to be made. The cold rains to follow, 
combined with frost, are all against the progress 
of the tiny seedlings ; but in a cold frame the 
plants are immtme from these drawbacks and 
grow away freely, giving an early supply of 
succulent leaves. 

Turnips may be sown in a frame on a 

slight hot-bed about the third week in the 

mouth. White Milan, Red Milan 

and Early Gem are desirable 

sorts. 

Tomatoes. — Pot on the 
autumn-sown plants, giving them 
a liberal shift, and keep close 
to the glass to induce sturdy 
growth. Do not give too much 
water; just enough to keep the 
roots in a progressive condition. 
Make anot