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UMASS/AMHERST 



312066 0333 3014 6 



xn 









LIBRARY 




MASSACHUSETTS 

AGRICULTURAL 

COLLEGE 



IS 7 5" 



[SUPPLBMEWT, JAN. 1, 10/ ' 




CH-A-iiLiss r>A.E,vs^iisr. 



£t!PPI.BMENT, JAK. 1, 1S76.J 




ILLUSTRATED WEEKLY JOURNAL 



GARDENING IN ALL ITS BKANCHES. 



FOUNDED BY WILLIAM ROBINSON, Authok of "Alpine Flowers," &c. 



THIS IS AN ART 
WHICH DOES MEND NATURE : CHANGE IT RATHER : B'JT 
THE ART ITSELF IS NATURE.— Shakespeare. 



VOL. VI I I. 



LONDON: 
OFFICE: 87, SOUTHAMPTON STREET, COVENT GARDEN, W. C. 

CHRISTJVtAS, X875. 






'.% 



EUPPLBKENT, JAN. 1, 1S7G.] 



THE GARDEN INDEX. 



IIN^DEX TO VOLU]VIE VIII. 



Abies, Alcockiana, 371, 385. 430 ; cana 

densiQ pendnla, 310 ; Douglasu, 512 
Abutilon Boule de Neige, 472 
Abutilons in ereenliouses, 510 
Acacia armata, 103 ; dealbata at Glas- 

Bevin, 362 
Acsenas, various. 331 
Acanthuses in bloom, 147 ; in Devon- 
shire, 188 
Acer circinatnm, 216; dasycarpum, 
216- glabrum, 216; grandidentatum, 
216; macrophyUum. 216; Negundo 
vari'egatQin and Clematis, 305 ; ditto, 
seed-pods on, 87 ; pennsylvanicum, 
216; rabrum, 216; saccharinum, 216; 
spicatnm, 216: tripartitum, 216 
y Achillea umbellata, 434 
» Acidanihera bicolor, 234 
Aconitams, various. 184 
Acorn poisoning, 359, 3S2, 512 
Acorns Calamu-. 84 ; uses of, 52 
Actinidia volubilis. 156 
Adiantum concinnnm Flemingii, 77; 
Farleyense, 355; ditto from spores, 
51, 91; gracillimum, 434; ditto for 
bouquets, 34 ; Luddemannianum, 166 ; 
princeps, 121 
Agapanthus umbellatus near water, 

408 
Agave Victoria Regince, 317, 409; Con- 

sideranti, 335. 4^9 
Agaves, various, 350 
Alameda of Mexico, 27 
Alder, variegated, 59 
Alexandra Park Fruit Show, 58 ; exhi- 
bition, 188. 2C9 
Allium narciasiflomm, 230 
Allotment gardening. 490 
Alocasia intermedia, 155; plumbea, 330 
Alocasias, hybrid, 436 
Aloes, flowering of, at Oxford, 8D; at 
Weymouth, 100; at Wisbeach, 529; 
Greenei, 77 
Alonsoas, two new, 368 ; inci- ifoha, 340 
Aloyeia citriodora, 220 
Alpine forest, 534 ; at garden Battersea. 
192 ; plants, gathering, 160, 188, 272 ; 
shrubs, 211 
Alpines, planting. 274 
Alsophila anstralis Williamsii, 121 ; 

philippinensis, 121 
Alstromerias, culture of, 456 j new, 248 
Altbfea Frotnviana, 323 
Amarantus Princess of Wales. 227 
Amaryllids on chalk, 530 ; striped. 257 
Amaryllis ignescens. 32 ; virginalis, 524 
American Apples, 493 
Ampelopeis Veitchii. 346, 382, 426 
Amphicome Emodi. 2i. 146 
Amygdalns Boiesierii, 347 
Anacharis alsinastrum. 147 
Anagallis grandiflora. 360 
Ananassa bracteata, 51 
Andre's (M.) collecting expedition. 385 
Androsaces, the. 233 ; lanuginosa, 346 
Anemone fulgens, 39 ; in succession, 

487 
Annuals, autumn sown. 83, 128, 226 ; in 

the London Parks, 168 
Anomatheca crnenta, 492 
Anthemis Kitaibelii, 57 
Anthericums. Swiss, 643 
Aponr geton distachyon, 436 ; n:)t neces- 
sarily an aquatic, 550 
Apples, American, 493 ; and starlings, 
462 ; Astracban, 37; Belle Angevine, 
638; bush. 26*^; Cornish Gillyflower, 
429, 627 ; Cox's Orange Pippin, 291 ; 
crab. 320; gathering. 93, 284, 442; 
Golden Pii'pin, 237; wearing out of 
ditto, 232; harvesting, 151; Holland- 
bury Pippin, 516; imported, 513; in 
barrels, 493, 494: Irish Peach, 134; 
keeping, 308, 474; Lady, 265, 291; 
Lord Snifield, 212; list of Kentish, 
4fi6 ; market. 255; new French, 3il ; 
Newtt wn Pippin, 385 ; price of ditto, 
429; cf Bodom, 404; ornamental, 507 ; 



pruning, different classes of, 29T 
Ribston Pippin, in Kent, 298; spuri 

ous Ribston, 429 ; Russian. 49i. 418 : 

select, 261, 425 ; St. Edmund's Pipoin! 

317; sure cropping, 353; Tom Put, 

523, 533 ; White CalviUe, in Sussex, 

3:j9; Worcester Pearmain, 317 ; f . 

ting of, 494; pruning, 511; Somerset 

black, 533 
Apple culture in Northumberland, 235 
Apple-seed washer, 437 
Apple trees, budding, 6 ; from cut- 
tings, 62 
Apricots, tran'^planting when ia bloom, 

146; new French, 311 
Aquarium, salt water, 12; Westminster, 

80. 278 
Aquilegia, Alpine. 312 
Arabis lucida for carpet beds, 245 
Aralias in Dublin, 310 ; wintering, 

407, 434 
Araucaria Bidwillii, cone off 38); 

braziliensis, cone of. 383 ; Rulei, 

404 ; male and female, 327 
Arbutus andrachne, 400 
Arctotis aureola, 316 
Ardisias, 517 
Armeria splendens, 296 
Artichokes. Globe, culture of, 279 : 

cutting down stems of, 104, 426 ; second 

crop of. 137 
Arum italicum, 368 
Arundo Donax, 361 
Asclepias gigaiitea, 4)4 
Asparagus, autumn, treatment of. 393 ; 

culture in Viaey^rds, 464; forced, 516 ; 

super-phosphate for, 434 ; time for 

planting, 5 'fi 
Asphalte pavements, cleansing, 157 
'Asphodel, blue, 98 
Asplenium ferulaceum, 121 
Astelma eximium, 146 
Asters, 41; China, 211 ; fine hardy. 32S ; 

quilled. 256 ; species of, 343 ; winter. 

blooming-, 493: longifolius formosus, 

298 
Asteriscus maritimus, 146; retusus, 530 
Aston Park Exhibition. 31 
Astrologer, botanical, 47 
Aucubas, 517: fruit on, 512; large, in 

Regent's Park. 109 
Aucuba seeds, 276 
Auricula, culture and varieties of the, 

312 ; double yellow, 18 
Autumnal tint, 4t0 
Ajzaleas, douole-flowered, 180 
Azalea amoenafor forcing, 510 



Balsams, Camellia-flowered, 157 

Bamboos, square-stemmed, 4; at Fota, 
458 

Bambusa striata, 3^0 

Banana-cluster, weight of. 2 

Bananas in Southern United States, 
429 ; remarks on, 88 

Barometers and thermometers, 276 

Baskets, hanging, 359 

Batatas paniculatus. 191 

Battersea Parkin i875, 190 

Battle Abbey, gardens at, 546 

Beans, Canadian Wonder, 247, 503; 
late, 43'"'; second crop of, 166; Seville 
Long Pod, 8J; Victoria Dwarf French, 
30« ; new V. old Kidney for seed, 
555 

Bean-pods, edible Broad, 182 

Bean-spronts, 166 

Beancarneas, 436 

Bedding at Aston Park, carpet, 323; in 
Victoria Park, 233 ; plants for, 225 ; at 
Battersea, 124; at Kew and Syden- 
ham, 259 ; in Hyde Park, 213 ; carpet, 
149; propagation of, 151, 152 

Bedford Square, 80 

Bees and fruit, :i21. 3< 9, 321 

Beet, Dell's Crimson, 201; Egyptian, 
489; Seakale. 464; lifting, 300 



Begonia Coltoni, 33 ; FroebeUi. 121, 513 ; 
Lemoinei, 323 ; Martiana, 389, 4)3 : 
metallica, 208 ; octopetala, 443 ; Rod- 
wellii. 33 ; Sedeni, hardy. 111 ; anom- 
alous, 273; double-flowered, 529; for 
rock-work, 188 ; hardy, 474, 508 ; 
hybrid, 436; tuberous-rooted, 4J5 ; 
variegated, 194 ; manicata, 551 
Belgrove, an hour at. 187 
Belladonna Lilies, 346, 3-i8 
Bell-flowers, monograph of, 172 
Berberis, 517 

Berberis asiatica, 331 ; fascicularis, 374 
Berberis, uses of, 87, 122 
Bomardia rosea, 3S5 
Berry-bearing plants, 517 
Bignonia capreolata, 409 ; venmsta, 486 
Bindweed, pink, 231 
Birds and fruit. 54, 370 
Blackberry farm. 412 
Bletia hyacinthina, 37 
Bluebells, forcing. 9S 
Boreaw (il.), death of, 414 
Boiler, Ormson's new, 430 
Boiler-water, effects of, on plants, 453, 

486. 510, 523 
Books. American gardening, great 

of, 450 
Boots, waterproof. 425 
Border flowers, 100; striking cuttings 

of. 105 
Boreco'e, 410 

Botanical and Zoological Gardens 60 
Botanic Gardens, Martinique. 3:^9 
Bougainvillea glabra out of doors, 40^ 
Bouquets, button-hole, 386 ; Grasses 
for, 21; old-fashioned, 411; winter. 
531 
Bouvardia jasminiflora, 471 
Bouvardias for winter, 51 
Brahea filamentosa, 317 
Bramble, Rocky Mountain, 158 
Bridges, garden, 47 
Broccolies, protection of , 34S ; four best 

508 
Brodigea volubilis, 383 
Broom, common, 318 
Brugmansia sangninea, 400 
Brussels, International Exhibition, 8") 
Brussels Sprouts, 410; Matchless, 584; 

autumn sown, 281 
Budding Apple trees. 6; Roses, 35; 

trees and shrubs. 6s. 144 
Buds, adveatitious, 87 
Bulb-borders, annuals for 328 
Bulb culture in boxes, 435 
Bulbs. Dutch, 225; forcing ditto, 195; 

storing, 13 
Bupthalmum salicifoliam. 341 
Bupthalmums, the best. 331 
Burdock, the great, 58 
Butterwort, common, in Bedfordshire, 

Button-hole bouquet, 58 ; for July, 59 



Cabbages all t 
planting, 300 ; 



le year round. 410 
sowing, 44; winter. 



Ca' ti. hardy, 268 

Caladiam^, cuttings of, in water, 342; 
giganteura out of doors, 305 ; Mr. 
Blue's new, 104 

Calanthe Veitchii, from cuttings. 523 

Calceolarias, 454; amplexicaulis, 291; 
bicolor, 305; disease of, 219, 287, 291, 
303; Forbes' Invincible, 294; Pavonii 
386, 389 ; Prince of Orange, 163 ; best 
bedding, 296, 330,368 ; culture of. 321, 
346; Gaineft' dwarf, 313; useful, 245 

Talla Eethiopica, 435, 477 

Callas in water, 614 

Cailicarpa purpurea, 517 

Calyptnon Aubletii, 380 

Calystegias, 84 

Camelhap, 454; prices of. 429 

Campanula garganica, 328 ; pcrsicifolia 
coronata ccerulea, 150; pyramidalis. 



58; Scheuchzeri, 330 ; turbinata, 127; 
Van Houttei, 477 ; Vidalii, 146 ; Wal- 
lensteini, 37; Warneri, 245; Zoysii, 
173 
Campanulas, monograph of, 172; vaai- 

ous, 24 
Campelia mexicana, 127 
Canada, fruit growing in, 62 
Canartna campanula, 91 
Canary creeper, uBe3 of, 291 
Cannabis gigantea, 215 
Cannason lawns, 121; new, 339; win- 
tering, 434 
Caoutchouc, new source of, 404 
Capsicums, 517; yellow-fruited, 494, 50« 
Cardoon, the, 378 
Carex baccans, 517 

Carnation, Countess of Manvers. 338; 
Mr. Fowler, 423 ; Prince of Wales, 
31; Scarlet Defiance, 17 ; Sir Garnet 
Wolseley, 423 ; propating, 8 ; win- 
dow treatment of, 31; for winter, 
50, 184, 435 
Carnivorous plants. 150 
Carpet bedding. 111, 364, 503 ; at Aston 
Park, 328 ; at Battersea, 191 ; at Syden- 
ham, 259; plants used for, 149, 180; 
value of, 293 
Carrots, autumn sown, 313 ; yonng 

winter, 93 
Carroc insects, 34 
Carrot crop, 554 
Carter's (Messrs.) seed farm, 42 
Cascaes, gardens at, 170 
Cashmere, vale of, 234 
Cassia corymbosa, 429 
Catalpa, the, 2'.9 
Catalpas, large, 296 
Cattleyaminas, 423; hybrid, 436; tmc 

epiphytes, 453 
Cauliflower, Snowball, 333, 43, 20; 

Veitch's, 464 
Cauliflowers, autumn, 319; hand-glass« 

301 
Cauliflower seed, when to saw, 104 
Ceanothuses, list of, 29 
Cedars, old, 74 ; of Lebanon, 433 
Celery, boiled, 413 ; culture of, 151 ; 
earthing up, 262 ; fly, 354 ; winter 
treatment of, 412 ; turnip-rooted, 453 
Centaurea Cyanus at Sheen. 58 
Cereus Landbeckii var Phillipii, 127 
Cereuses, various, 35 J 
CbEerophyllumbalbosam, 246 
Chateau de Mouchy, 414 
Chair rustic, 164 
Chalk soils, planting on, 415 
Chelsea Botanic Gardens, 447 
Chelsea Hospital Garden, 293 
Cherry Bigarreau Monstruense de 

Mezel, 58 
Cherry cookery, 55 ; Morello, best stock 

for, 23 
Cherries, Kentish, 465; select, 268; 
Surinam. 362 ; pruning. 544 
I Chervil, tuberous-rooted, 216 
! Chestuute gigantic, golden. 512 ; old, 75 
Chestnut, Horse, unseasonable bloom- 
ing of, 293 
Chilwell Nnrseriea, 2S1 
Chimonanthus fragrans, 520 ; gnadi- 

florus, 653 
Christmas decorations, 531 
Christmas Roses, 476 ; large-flowered. 

535 
Chrysanthemums, 41,231,406,511; beet 
Pompon. 436, 500, 53 I ; Covent Gm-- 
den. 385; late cuttings of, 382; Meg 
Merrilees. 556; pot culture of, 299; 
select, 421 
Chrysobactron Hookeri, -40 
Church decoration, 302. 329, 3€2, 550 

ditto at Christmas, 495 
Churchyard gardens, 513 
Cibotium Menziesii, 121 
Cicer arietinum, 422 
Cinerarias, 453 
"City Roses," 52 

Clarkia. Purple King, 33 ; Salmon 
Queen, 33 



THE GARDEN INDEX. 



[supplement, JAN. 1, ] 



C!ema'.is and A cerNegundo varieffatum, 
305 ; Faij-T Queen, 33 ; Flammula 
robusta, -tti , iudivisa, 385 ; Jack- 
mam, 80. 212 

Clematises in wet seasons, 172 ; pruning, 
167 ; transplanting, 15 ) ; winter treat- 
ment of, 150 

Clerodendron Balfourii, fruiting of, 100 

Cleveland House, carpet bedding at, 322 

Climate and rainfall, 234 

Climbers, 3S6. 338 ; greenhouse, winter- 
flowering, 391, 431 ; hardy, 13, 233 

Clumber, old trees at, 87 

Cloches, value of, 401 

Clubbing, 379 ; remedy for, 403 

Cob-nuts, culture of, 153 

Coccosypselum discolor, 518 

Cocoa-nut milk, 360 

Coffee, Californiau, 474 

Colchicums, autumn, 245, 292 

Coleus splendens for bedding, 391 

Colewort, Rosette, 433 

Coleworts, London, 554 

Collecting Alpine plants, 273 

Collections 0. selections, 101 

Cologne exhibition, 209, 213 

Colorado Potato beetle, 71 

Colours, plant, 92 

Colt's-foot, variegated, 168 

Columellia oblonga, 404 

Columbines, Alpine, 343 

Comfreys for the wild garden, 19 

Cones, exhibition of, 212, 318 

Conifers at Bearwood, 374; garden, 85 ; 
grouping, 515 ; manuring, 150 ; seed- 
lings, the best, 4 ; variability of ditto, 
310 

Conservatory at Hampton, 88 ; chapel, 
280 ; housetop, 356 ; plants for a, 484 ; 
Regent's Park, addition to, 190 

Convolvulus mauritanicus, 248; pink, 
334, 294 

Convolvuluses and Sweet Peas, mixed, 
166 

Cookery, vege'able, 161 

Coptis trifoliata, 291 

Cordyline Banksii at G-lasnevin, 363 ; 
in Kerry, 385 ; indivisa, flowering of, 
in Ireland, 2 

Corn, best sweet, 403 

Cornus capitata, 341 ; florida, 400 

Coronilla glauca, 553 

*' Correspondence Botanique," 429 

Corylus Colurna, 380 

Cotoneaster frigida, 278, 316 ; Sim- 
monsi, 426 

Ootoneasters, 513, 553 

Cottage gardens, 83, 493; Gladstone on, 
202 

Cottager's fruits, 2:3; Kale, 104; show 
at Latimer's, 234 

Cotyledons outdoor, S3 

Crab Apples, 320 

Crambe cordilolia, S3, 93 

Crassulas, outdoor, 83 

Crassula coccinea, 91 ; lactea, 530 ; 
rubicunda, 531 

Crataegus, Pyracantha, 518 

Crickets, moles destroying, 14 

Crinum Moorei, 341 ; soabrum, 330 

Crocuses, autumn, 345, 292 ; byzantinus, 

382, 614; Pleischerii, 230; minimus, 
127 

Cropping, mixed, 15 ; rotation in, 520 

Cryptogamic Society of Scotland, 100, 
256 

Cryptomeria, dwarf, 360 

Crystal Palace, bedding out at, 259 ; 
shows at, 16, 231 

Cucumbers, late, 104 ; pickled, 231 ; 
preserving cut, 190 ; winter, 339,318, 
503 

Cucumber Conriueror, 401 ; Duke of 
Edinburgh, 354; Melons, 235; Sia- 
mese Twins, 107 ; Tender and True, 18 

Cultivation, deep, 498 

Cupressus Lawsoniana fragrans, 423 

Curculigo recnrvata. 434 

Currant, Lee's Prolific Black, 141 

Currants, on walls, 135 ; pruning, 530 

Cuttings, herbaceous, 430 ; in Sawdust 
294; Rose, 419 

Cyclamens, 454; and cordons, 261; 
modern culture of, 509; hederfcfolium, 

383, 4i)i; 

Cypella Herberti, 330 

Cypresses, old, 73 

Cypripedium Argus, 127; spoctabile, 
450; ditto, forced, 472; hardiness of 
ditto, 8 ; Parish! at Knowsloy, 98 

Cypripediums at Kew, 551 ; hybrid, 438 

Cytisus Alschingerii at Glasn'evin, 362 ; 
Everestianus, 260; Laburnum aureum. 



121 



D. 



Daffodils on Grass, 37 

Dahlia Barmaid, 231 ; Charles Leicester, 

208; Henry Glasscock, 188; Mrs. 

Quennel, 189; J. 0. Quennol, 208; 

John Bennett, 183, 231; John Downie, 



208 ; Lord of the Isles. 208 ; Maggie 

Fairburn. 208; Mrs. Standish, 231; 

new species of, 476; Pompon, 317, 

318 ; Samuel Plimsoll, 231 ; Sarah 

Gamp, 231 i Triumph, 208 
Dahlias, select, 183, 208 ; single, 363 ; 

Ufting and storing, 389, 413 
Daisies, Alpine, 278 
Damson crop, 296 
Damsons, Prune, 353 
Daphne iudica odorata, 91 ; indica rubra, 

435 
Darlingtonia at DuNin, 404; at Glas- 

nevin, 104, 362 
Darwin on climbing plants, 533 ; on 

insectivorous plants, 63 
Deeringia celosioides variegata, 374 
Delphiniums, how to prolong, 84; 

moving seed- pods from, 58 ; select, 

218 ; various, 331 
Dendrobium aqueum, 323 ; thyrsifiorum, 

426 
Dendrochilum filiforme, 3 
Desmodium pendulum. 233 
Deutzia crenata fl. pi., 69, 638 
Dew, deposition of, 310 
Dianthus Highclere. 13 ; sylvcstris, 376 
Dichorizandra thyrsiflora, 341 
Dicksonia antaretica at Fota, 341 ; chi-y- 

sotricha, 426 
Dictionary, French Pomological, 341 
Dietes Huttoni, 127 
Digitalis, hybrid, 34 
Dinner-table decorations, 611 
Dioniea muscipula at Tooting, 313 
Dioscorea batatas, 132 
Dipladenias. 8 

Disa grandiflora. a fine. 2; at Chats- 
worth, 100 ; at Cork, 355 
Disandra prostratra. 409 
Diuris elongata at Kew, 146 
Dowd's (Mr.) appointment, 341 
Dracaenas hybrid, 406 ; elegantissima, 

131 ; raising in the United States, 

133 ; Rex, 131 ; Taylori, 131 ; 

triumphans, 77 
Dracocephalums, various, 513 
Draining gardens, 65, 373, 485 
Drainage of dwelling houses, 143 
Drimys, species of, 370 
Drosera intermedia, 330 ; rotundifolia, 

230, 334 
Drumlanrig, 190 
Ducks and Vallisneria, 411 
Duckweed, fruiting, 168 
Dundee Horticultural Society, 190 
Dunevan, gardens at, 394 
Dyckia argentea, 395 
Dynamite, uses of. 70 



Echeverias, best silvery, 666 ; outdoor, 
82; paohyohytoides, 423; rotundi- 
folia, 310, 433 . 

Echiuopsis scopa, 391 

Edibles, neglected, 161 

Edinburgh International Fruit Show, 
190, 251 

Edgings, Festuca viridis as, 318 ; for 
garden walks, 608; kitchen garden, 
506 ; Lycopodium, 300 ; a pretty, 144 ; 
Grass, 434 ; Mahonia repens as, 663 

Eleagnus rotundifolia, 87 

Elder, scarlet-fruited, 87 

Elms, old. 74 ; purse galls on leaves, 53 

Enoephalartus Altensteinii, 409 

Endive, blanching, 16 ; winter, 393, 394 

Endogens and exogens, 311 

Epacrises, select, 103 

Epiphyllums as indoor wall plants, 338, 
best stocks for, 323, 365, 375, 392, 4 9 

Epping Forest, 341 

Eranthemum hypocrateriforme, 137 

Eremurus robustus, 43 

Erica yagans on Serpentine, 513 ■ 

Eriobotrya, hardy, in Devon, 494; in 
Dorset, 473, 530 

Eriocaulon septangulare, 841 

Eritrichium nanum, 319 

Erpetion i-eniforme, 301 

Brvum lens, 333 ■ 

Eryngiums at Kew, 341; Pine-apple 
leaved section of, 100; celestinum, 
396 ; Leavenworthii, 378 ; pandani- 



folii 



, 311 



Eucalyptus in California. 371 ; in India, 

637 ; cornuta, 318 ; globulus, 146 
Eugenia apiculata, 433 ; Ugni, 385 
Eulophia guineensis, 406 
Euonymus latitolius, fruit of, 331; mi- 

crophyllus, 473 
Euphorbia jacquiniajfiora, 633 
Euryangium sumbul, 81 
Eurybia ramulosa. 491 
Evergreens in Covent Garden, 406; 

propagation of, 337; transplanting, 

215,310 
E.xhibition, International, in 1377, 190 
Exhibitors, amateur, 121 
Exogens and Endogens, 311 



Fairy rings, 330 

Fern, Killarney, 105 

Pern mattresses, 431 

Ferns, evergreen. 387 deciduous, 367 
hardy. 361; Maiden-hair, 80, 102, 389 
new Chinese, 27; packing exotic, 610 
room, 478, 514 

Ferulas, merits of, 341 

Ferula tingitaua. 111, 150 

Festuoa viridis for edgings, 318 

Ficus Cooperi, 350 ; repens, 374, 408 

Pieldia australis, 404 

FigsatChilwell,233;Bourjassotte'Grise, 
606; tailing to ripen. 607, 633,638; in- 
door and outdoor, 264; in Dumfries- 
shire, 166, 185 ; in Fifeshire, 258 ; in 
Kent, 234; in Scotland, 300; Negro 
Largo, 334 ; new way with, 507 ; on 
open walls, stopping, 64 ; treatment 
of, 136; restricting roots of, 417; 
wintering, 541 

Filberts, culture of, 153 

Firs at Longleat, tall Silver, 271 

Fir tree Fungus, 318 

Fittonia argyroneura for bare surfaces, 
299 

Flies and window plants, 256 

Flooring for glasshouses, 451, 443, 
381,486 

Flora, Arctic, 474 

Floral decorations, Guildhall, 102 ; Miss 
Hassard on, 555 

Floral trellis, 181 

" Flore des Serres," Van Hontte's, 389 

Flowers, Alpine, gathering, ISO ; and 
leaves, 31 ; bouquet, 478 ; border, 100 ; 
striking cuttings of ditto, 106 ; forced. 
503 ; hill brow. 111 ; hardy, 24, 203, 
241, 331, 481, 510, 184, 362; winter, 
412, 497, 411, 483. 499; London, 15; in 
hospitals, 109 ; old border, 316 ; select- 
ing hardy, 167; spring, 136; succes- 
sional ditto, 163 ; sweet-scented, 433 ; 
table, 21 ; winter, 412, 481 

Flower bed, a pretty, 83 

Flower beds, digging, 477, 600 ; laying 
out, 403 ; mulchmg for, 476 ; winter 
and spring, 372 

Flower gardening, present aspect of, 
109 

Flower mission, Paddington, 165, 492 

Flower shows, Gladstone on, 186 ; 
judges at, 63 

Flower tazzas, flat, 4U 

Flower traps, 46 

Flower vase, mantlepiece, 96 

Fly plagues, 291 

Fly, white, in greenhouses, 443 

FoUage, autumn, 311, 431, 433; in Corn- 
wall, 447 

Forest alpine, 534 ; new, 98; and floods, 
69 ; and rain, 429 ; Bast London, 232 ; 
formation of, 383 ; subterranean Lon- 
don, 168 ; keeping drives in, 106 

Forest trees, felling, 546 ; planting, 481 

Forest work, contract prices of, 276 

Forget-me-nots, Alpine, 319 

Fota, vegetation at, 458 

Fourcroya variegata, 208 

Frame, improved garden, 208 

France, weather in, 146 

Fruit, cheap, 320; colour, no test of 
maturity in, 235, 333, 318, 337, 3B9 ; 
eating, 512 ; gathering, 137 ; hardy, 
373 ; in Covent Garden, 450, 313, 146 ; 
judging, 442 ; orchard house at Chil- 
well, 282; want of flavour in, 237; 
pre-historic, 233; prices of, 190; 
select hardy, 236, 242 ; sweet or acid, 
23; wild edible, 426; attacked by 
bees and wasps, 331 ; cottagers', 233 ; 
for different districts, the best, 112 ; 
Kentish bush, 469 ; new, 291, 332 ; 
nomenclature of, 353 ; of Nebraska, 
wild, 390; storing, 332, utilising wild, 
463 ; effect of li^ht on colour of, 330 ; 
weight |of Californian, 278 ; inferior 
market, 537 

Fruit borders, renewing, 438 

Fruit buds and leaf buds, 63 ; grafting 
with, 479 . . 5 s 

Fruit catalogue, M. Louis', 637 

Fruit crops, English, 140 ; Irish, 139 ; 
Scotch, 138; Welsh, 139; reports of. 
112 

Fruit culture in Kent, 189, 450, 485, 469 ; 
in Switzerland, 163; trenching, 91 

Fruit-eaters, hints to, 106 

Fruit growing at Thoresby, 352; for 
market, 255 

Fruit-houses, water supply to, 231 

Fruit prizes, Yeitch's, 78 

Fruit-rooms, 386, 349 ; at Arundel, 430 

Fruit Show, Edinburgh, 253 

Fruit stores, newspaper protection, 514 

Fruit-tree hedges, 479 

Fruit trees, planting, 261, 282, 5C6 ; 
French mode of training, 189 ; as 
ornaments in gardens, 223, 237 ; cor- 
dons, 189; ditto and Cyclamens, 201; 



for various aspects, 63, 454; Mr, 
Dancer's, 308 ; old, worth saving, 461 ; 
on Red lands. 427 ; preparation for. 
412, 414 ; renovation of, 614 ; road 
side, 94, 425; root-pruning, 183,333, 
368, 335 ; summer pruning, 6 ; trans 
planting, 3i3 ; vertical training, 439 : 
water evaporated by, 6 ; watering, 
186 ; dressing for, 544 ; for north 
walls, 538 ; mulching, 545 

Fuchsia Dominiana, 434 

Fuchsias, 454; a plea for, 522; in 
Grass, 127 ; pillar and roof, 409 ; 
winter, 383 

Fuchsia seeds, saving, 610, 623 

Fungus poisoning, 103 ; show, 318 



Gale, Sweet, 620 

Garbanzos, 422 

Gardens at Hampton Court, 180 ; drain 
age of, 372; enjoyable, 163; forma 
tion of, 372 ; improvement of, 372 
town, in autumn, 319 ; influence of, 
183 ; French fruit, in Kent, 139 ; Lon 
don churchyard, 146, 643 ; Portuguese 
169 ; railway, 146 ; wild, formation of, 
99, 133, 361 ; scented flowers for ditto^ 
433 

Garden, makeshift, 108; prison, 261 
Italian, 153 ; herb, 376 ; in Madeira^ 
a, 154 ; in the midlands, 154 ; spring 
plants for, 301 ; the Medici, 443 ; Mr. 
Hewittson's, 146 ; designs, use of 
ropes in, 467 

Garden hybrids, 318 

Garden parties, 143, 165 

Garden rubbish, 391 

Garden vegetation in July, 127 ; in 
August, 217; in September, 431; in 
October, 433 ; in Movember, 538 

Gardeners, French market, 256 

Gardening, allotment. 490; spring, 512; 
wall, 387, 621 ; Italian, 600 

Gardenias, planting out, 19 

Garlics, 76 

Gastronema sanguineum, 145 

Gaura Lindheimeri, 331, 368 

Gazauias, 363 

Gentians, culture of, 147 ; select, 432 ; 
gelida, 514, 630; Pneumonanthe, 
293 

Geraniums, double Ivy leaved, 81, 123 ; 
anemonef oUum, 43 ; armenam, 97 ; 
platypetalum, 7, 31, 43 

Gesnera maculata, 383 

Gilbert, Mr., presentation to, 58 

Gladioli, 44 ; hybrid, 385, 467 ; new race 
of, 324; seedUng, 293; select, 208; 
culture, 457 

Gladiolus Agrius, 188; Brennus, 188; 
cruentus, 474 ; Mrs. MacKenzie, 183 ; 
Pactole, 188 ; Titus, 188 

Gladwin, 517 

Glass, toughened, 2 

Glasshouses, construction of, 90 ; floor- 
ing for, 383, 443, 451 ; scorching 
in, 196 

Globe flowers, 418 

Gloriosas hybrid, 346 

Gnaphalium Leontopodium, 333 

Godetlas, 234 

Goniophlebium subauriculatum, 561 

Gooseberries, grafted standard, 61 ; on 
walls, 186; pruning, 520; early Or- 
leans, 33 ; caterpillar, 45, 94 

Gordius aquations, 166 

Gourd potiron jaune, 261 

Grafting, affinity in, 62; anomalous, 
266 ; curiosities of, 460 ; Tomatoes on 
Potatoes, 439 ; with fruit buds, 479 ^ 

Gram, 433 *" 

Grapes, Alicante, heavy bunches of, 
411; atClovenford's, 256, 297; Black 
Lisbon, 385 ; bottling, 445, 455 ; CaU, 
fornian, 450; Chasselas de Fontaine 
bleau, 264 ; colouring, 388, 607 ; ditto, 
large bunches of, 390 ; cracking, 136, 
146; damping off, 353; Duke of BuC' 
cleugh, 144 ; ditto and Golden Cham- 
pion, 186; Early Ascot Frontignan. 
122 ; early, on late stocks, 507 ; for 
exhibition, 125 ; Golden Hamburgh, 
224 ; grafting branches of. 363 ; Gol- 
den Queen, 186, 233; hardy. 442. 
heavy bunches of, 234, 424; judgingj 
224 ; late, 443 ; Madresfleld Court; 
370 ; Muscat, temperature for, 309 
packing, 69; shanking of, 185, 200 
the 26 lbs. bunch of, 389 ; Barbarossa, 
the best late, 473 ; badly-colouredi 
638 ; White Lady Downe8,'638 

Grape cure, 607 

Grape stand, exhibition, 125 

Grasses for bouquets, 21 ; ornamental 
123, 639 ; new, 128 I 

Greenhouse floorings, 383, 443, 451 

Greenland, flora of, 327 

Griflinia, new, 556 

Guano V. nitrate of soda, 137 

Gum tree y. Vine pest, 34 



SFPPlIUEyT, JiS. 1, 1S76.] 



THE GARDEN INDEX. 



Gunnera scabra, 97 

Gjmnothrix lalifolia, 318," 360, 404 ; in 

Cork. 323 ; in the flower grarden, 286 
Gynerium argenteum, 317 ; roseum 

Kendatleri, 165. 

H. 

Habroaamnus Hugelii, 362 ; elegans, 

HEemanthua coccineas, 510 
Hairbells, monograph of, 172 
Hampstead, New Park at, 78 
Hampton Court Gardens, ISO 
Heaths, autumn-flowering, 238 ; hardv 

217, 293 ; winter-blooming, 473 
Heating, lime-kiln, 275, 317 ; small- con- 
necting pipes for, 318, 388, 406 
Hector in the Garden (Poem), 157 
Hedges, clipping, 12 ; evergreen, 29- 
fruit trees, 478, impervious, 87 ; Yew' 
512; Berberis asiaticafor, 381 ' 

Hedychium Gardnerianum, 355, 383 : 

hardy, 294 
Helianthus cncumerifolius, 242 ; lenti- 
cularis. 340 ; multiflorus fl. pi 124 • 
orgyalis, 298 
Heliolrope, a well-grown, 91: standard 
500 ; the best, 349 ' 

Hellebores, 476, 497 
Helleborus niger maiimas, 482, 635 
Hellebore powder, price of, 126; v 

Gooseberry caterpillar, 158 
Hemp, Giant, 215 
Heraclium gigantcum, 42 
Herbs, descriptive list of, 376 ; dryin", 60 
Herb garden, 376 
Hickey, the late Rev. W,, 478 
Hippeastrum vittatam, 257 
Hoeing, advantages of, 507 
^Hollies, 618 ; Christmas, 531 
^Hollyhock-, Le Grand, 121 ; select, 122 
188; wintering. 512 
Hollyhock roots, dividing, 477 
Honeysuckles, variegated Chinese, 328 ■ 
m Nottinghamshire, 293 ' 

Horseradish, culture, 606; imported 

516 ; new way of growing 555 
Horticultural Club, 124 
Horticultural exhibitions, effects of 338 
Horticultural Society, 141 ; a new 447 
Houses, cheap, 336 ' 

Hoya carnosa, wall-roeted, 634 
H.yacinths. border, 457; culture of, 452- 
Dntch, 193 ; in glasses, 472 ; in pots 
2oO ; Roman, 105, 453, 523 
Hyacinthus camiicans, 248 
Hyde Park, bedding plants in, 213- 
dell" in, 37; flower beds in, 80- 
gardening in. 38 
Hydrangeas at South Kensington, 124 • 
blue, 305. 328, 346, 364, 408, 475 643 • 
forcing. 3:J0 ; races of, 145 
Hydrangea panicniata grandiflora, 3'5 



Labels, new plant, 472 
Laburnums, worthless, 73 
Laburnum poisoning, 311, 319 
Lacciuer-work, 93 
Lacquer, Japanese, 122 
Landscapes, home, 450 
Lapageria at Milner Field, 291 • finely- 
flowered, 382 ; in Cornwall, 663 ■ 
striking of, in water, 138 
Larix Ksempferi, 325 
Larkspurs, select, 218 
Lasiandra macrantha. 391 
Law (Williams ». Leslie), 423, 443 
Lawns, draining, 430 
Lawn mowers and trees, 276 
Lavmturf, Parisian, 119 
Lawson Seed Company 195 
Layering, 413 

Leaf faU in various latitudes, 347 
Leaf mould, 463 
Leaf pictures, autumn. 653 
Leaves and flowers, 21 ; fallen, value 
of, 428, 457, 475 ; in shrubberies, 412 ■ 
storing, 430 
Leeks, planting. 12 
Leigh Hunt's prison garden, 281 
Lentil, common, 333 
Leptosiphon roseus, 343, 387 
Leptospermum bullatum. 111; lani- 

gerum, hardy, 87 
Leroy, death of M. Andri!, 100 ; the 

late M., 668 
Lewisia redidiva, 244 
Lettuces in pots, 534; late sown, 161 • 
new, 43 ; all the ye,ar round, 332 ; St' 
Alban's All Heart, 98 ; winter, 393 
Lettuce banks, 430 
Leucocarpa alata, 518 
Leucophyta Brownei, 389 ; out of doors, 

Liatris maorostachya, 234 ; spicata 

189 ; squarrosa, 189 ' 

Lilac, bulbils, new, 448 ; white, forced 



H.ypericums, ; 



I. 



Iberis jucnnda, 208 

Ice-houses, cheap, 421 

Ice, storing, 513 

.Iliicium, species of, 270; religiosum in 
Kent, 245 

Impatiens repens, 514 

ludiarnbber plants, 3-:6 

Insect, curious power of an, 171 

Insects, Waier Lily, 26 

Insecticide", 23, 5iJS 

Ipomffia Bona Nox, 510 

Iris foetidissima, 517; gigante.a, 303- 
Monnieri, 79 ' 

Irises, new race of, 33 ; rare, in Oxford- 
shire, 60 

Irrigation in Picardy, 263 

Italian gardening, 5'jO 

Ivy in dwelling-houses, 472, 513, 531 • 
m the garden, 433 ; on Arundel Castle' 
474; trees killed by 310 
Ixora coccinea, fine specimen of, 258 



Jalap plant, 3 11 

.luniperus virginiana elegans. 



K. 

Kales, variegatei, 407 

Kalmias for small gardens, 37 

Kadsura japonica, 271 

Kentia Moorei, 77 

Kew Gardens, 2)7; bedding in, 260 

flower gardening at. 38 
King of Portugal v. Carruthers, 443 
Kitchen gardan edging, 506 
Kitchen gardens, damage done by trees 

Kitchen gardening, high-class, 63, j 
Klemias, outdoor, 82 
Knotweed, Giant, 283 



Lilies, barren white, 163; Belladonna, 

346, 368, 383 
Lilies, black Martagon, 84 ; Califor- 
nian, 320; culture of, 277, 339- 
diseased, 339 ; Dr. Kellogg on 39 ■ 
Groom's hybrids, 426 ; Guernsey,' 291 • 
Japan, 1 ; more notes on, 4S3 • new' 
248 ; on chalk. 630 ; raising, 476 • 
various, 277 ; Victoria, at Kew, 146 ' 
Lilmm auratum, 168; finely-flowered 
220; in Gloucestershire, 276- in 
Hyde Park, 278 ; at Weybridge,'394 ■ 
Bloomerianum, 39 ; colchicum 8 • 
eximium, 80; giganteum, 8, 20 504' 
japonicum Colchesteri, 292; Leicht- 
hni, 100 ; longiflorum, 58, 189 ; late 
blooms of, 320; longiflorum eximium 
146 ; lucidum, 39 ; maritimum 39 • 
monadelphum, 38 ; neilgherrense, 404- 
polyphylUim, 20; superbum at home' 
55 ; tigrinum splendens. 146, 168 •' 
Wallichianum, 320, 457; Washino-tou- 
lanum, 39 
Lily, a crimson water, 338 
Lily growing, 361, 412 ; extraordinary 99 
Lily of the Vall•^y, 481: aind Tulips 

mixed, 537 ; forcing of, 196 
Lime-kiln heating, 275, 293, 369 
Lime, soils benefited by, 166 
Linarias, various, 24 
Lindens, old, 75 
Linnaea borealis, white, 614 
Linum corymbiferum, 263; mouofy- 

num, 293 " 

Liriodendron Tulipifera, 271 
Lithospermum Gastoni, 268 ; prostratum 

at Heckfield, 418 
Lobelias, bedding, 312; new, 219- seed- 
ling, 389; wintering, 234 ' 
Lobelia, Blue Beauty, 13; cardinalis 
Crystal Palace, 111 ; double-flowered' 
144 ; Duchess of Edinburgh, 328 ' 
Locusts an article of food, 3 1 
Lodges, entrance, 307 
Lomaria dolobryensis, 77 
Loquat, the, 472 ; hardy in Devon 494 ■ 

ditto in Dorset, 520 
Luculia gratissima, 431; propagation 

Lumiar, gardens at, 169 

Luton-Hoo Park, 248 

Luxembourg Gardens, 286 ; fountain in 

Lycaate macrophylla, 404 
Lychnises, various, 331 
Lychnis Senno striata, 220 
Lycopods, uses of, 323 
Lycopodinm edgings, 300 



Mahonia repens an edging plant, 653 
Maize, Oobbetfs improved, 190 
Mallow tribe, 530 
Malvamoschata alba. 111 
Mammillarias. various, 360 
Manchester, Botanical Society of, 190 • 
new public gardens for, 2 ' 

Mandevilla suaveolens, 213 ; in Devon- 

Manettia micans, 483 
Mangoes from seed, 61 
Mauihot oarthaginensis 328 
'^J^n"'"' ^°'"'- ^^- "cuiid farmyard. 
489; oyster shells as, 431; road dust 
j.-"^', V, ''°?'^ scrapings .as, 514, 634 
Maples, North American, 216 
Marchantia in rock garden 477 
Marigolds, 44 ' 

Market-gardens, trenching in 608 
'Martin Doyle," death of, 404 
Martinezia nobilis, 77 
Martinique Botanic Garden. 329 
Masdevallia Daviesii, 166 
Mas (M.A.;, death of, 473 
^ll^achusetta Horticultural Society, 

Mazus Pumilio, 614 

Melons, Bloxham Hall, 316 • A p 
Barron, 353 ; culture of, 93 ; fertil 
lisationof,234; late, 101, 370 ; Read's 
Scarlet-fleshed, 63; Spanish, 616 ■ 
.^2° s Hero of Bath, 291 ; treatment 
of, 28 ; Victory of Bath, 186, 200 

Melon-grounds, Spanish, 359; Cucum- 
bers, 235 

Merodon clavipes, 363 

Mertensia alpina, 330 

Mesembryanthemum conspicuum, 340 • 
cordifohum variegatum, 34, 646- 
lupinum, 355 ° . . "■'•' , 

Mesembryanthemums, outdoor 82 

Michaelmas Daisies, 343 ' 

^404^"'' Champaca, 271; lanuginosa, 



Lady, 4 ; Winf arthing, 69 
Odontoglossum Roezlii, 450 
CEaotheras, various, 41 
OUve trees, old, 76 ; giant, 156 
Omphalodes Luciliaj, 319 ; verna, 319 
Oncidium excavatnm, 429 
Onions, h,arvesting, 151 ; heavy crop 
of, 403; synonyms of, 491; trans- 
planted, 318 ; culture of, 306 ; enemies 

Onion maggots, remedy for, 132 

Onosma taurica. 81 

Oranges, early, from Valencia, 58- 

Neapolitan, 168 
Orangeries, 637 
Orange tree sports, 474 
Orchards, culture of, 186 ; management 
of old Kentish, 469; registerin" 63- 
pruning, 462 " * 

Orchard-house fruits, 221; want of 

flavour in, 237 
Orchids at Clovenfords, 267; at Darn- 
cleugh, 191; at Oakle.y, 33; at Singa- 
pore, 362 ; autumn-blooming, 320 • 
cool, 70, 436 ; near Loudon, 5 J ; palace' 
for, 453; prices of, 330; winter- 
flowering, 516, 524 
Orchis Comperiana, 311 ; the Lizard, 35 
Oreodaphne californica, 327 
Orlaya grandiflora, 500 
Orphanage, gardeners', 131 
Osborn (Mr. W.T), death of, 404 
Owen's (Professor) garden at Sheen, 2 
Oxahs Bowiei, 311 ; Deppei, 43 • 
Smithii, 146 rr . , 

Oxalises, autumn-flowering, 387 
Oxford Botanic Garden, 450, 470, 499 
513, 514 ' 

Oxydendron arboreum, 400 



M^ignonette, pyramidal, 146; winter, 

433, 453, 631 
Mildew, cure for, 23, 333 
Mistletoe, on the Rose, 100 ; propa"a- 

tion of, 353 • ' r , a 

Mole crickets, 481; and Potatoes. 34- 

traps, 52 ' 

Monstera deliciosa, fruit of, 343 
Morina longiflora, 180 
" Moss" (poetry), 420 
Moss, dried, 31 
Moss destroyers, 644 
Mosses, Spanish, 426 ; hardy, 267 
Mowing machines, damage done by. 

Mud-edgings, 58 
Mulching for fruit trees, 545 
Musa, weight of fruit of 2 
Muscari, bright yellow, 147 
Mushrooms, cave-grown, 516 ; cowduno- 
for, 206; forty years ago, 205; iS 

dwellmg-houses, 206 ; in hot-houses, 
206 ; in open air beds, 206 ; in stables 
206 ; re-production of, 439 ; salts of 
nitre for, 205 ; culture of, 202, 280 • in 
cellars, 2 J5; failures of, 514 ; in saw- 
dust, 654 " 
Mushroom-house, 549 
Mushroom spawn, making, 205 
''My garden in summer " (poem) , 70 
Myosotis alpestris. 319; dissitiflora 

319; sylvatica, 319 
Myrsiphyllum asparagoides, 363, 448 
457 ; double-flowered, 500 ' 



M. 

— eira, vegetation of, 143 

Magnolias and their allies, 269 ; species 
of, 270 

Magnolia, golden-leaved, 69; grandi- 
flora, 122; flowering of small, 231; 
Halloana, 69, 491; Lenn^, 330 



N. 

Narcissus, paper-white, 383 

Narcissus fly, 3(33 

Nebraska, wild fruits of, 390 

Nectaones, hardiness of, 18 ; late, 309 • 
Prince of wales, 370; Rivers's Pine- 
apple, 190; select indoor, 370 ; Stan- 
wick, 53S 

Nelumbium luteum, 368, 475 ; speciosum 
19J; at Paris, 537 

Nemost.ylis geminiflora, 213 ' 

Nepenthes at Singapore, 362 ; hybrid, 
436; large pitchers of , 68 ; well-grown' 
77 ; distUlatoria at Drumlanrig 98 

Nertera deoressa, 51, 58, 163, 220 518 

Nierembergiarivularia, 100, 477: hardv 
203 • ■ J, 

■Nitrate of soda v. guano, 187 
Nosegays, old-fashioned, 411 
Nut trees, culture of, 168 ; in Kent 80 ■ 
summer pruning, 91 ' ' 

Nut weevils, 323 
Nymphsea odorata, 80 



Oaks, ancient, 74; cork, 4, [killed by 
Ivy, 472 ; Truttle, 317 ' 

Oak, large Shropshi-e, 494 : Denver's 
large yellow, 4; Fulham, 234; Laugh- 



Pachyphytnm braoteosum, 82, 50O 
Packing Alpines, 271 
Pampas Grass, dyed, 634; large, 38- 
rose-coloured, 320; transplanting) 

Pauicum variegatum, 300 

Pansies and Primroses, mixed, 408 ; 

Chiswick trial of, 26 ; outdoor, 101 

101 ; propagation of, 3 
Paradise stock, 189 
Paradisia LiUastrum, 313 
Parks, London, 168; rustic buildings in. 

Parsley, dr.ying, 381; winter, 393 
Parterre, Album, 533 
Pavia maorostachya, 121 
Peaches, 366; Amsden, 322; colouring 
144; Desse Tardive, 418; Early 
Beatrice, 185 ; Early Louise, 185 ; for 
the Midland Counties, 126 ; gather- 
ing, 357; half Nectarine, 333; hardi- 
ness of, 18; history and culture of, 
334; importation of American, 168 
Int' 333 ;,iaaoor, 108 ; culture of ditto, 
396; Walburton, 278; late, 309 332 
418, 462 ; new French, 311 ; new seed- 
ling, 436 ; preserved, 4 J6 ; ditto in ice, 
278; importations of in ice, 291- 
protection of from insects,' 313- 
purple-leaved, 443; red Nectarine' 
417; Rivers', 148; Salwey, 333; 
select, 370 ; some early, 628 ; split 
stones in, 68 ; standard, 321, 417 • suo- 
cessional ; 353 ; the '• miller " in, 370 • 
thinning of, 23 ; Thorber, 6 ; under 
glass, training, 291 
Peach cases, 61 
Peach crop, American, 58, 473 
Peach-houses, forms of, 9}; borders 
23, 353, 370, 417 • • " ""i". 

Peach orchards, Maryland, 418 
Peach trees, diseases of, 309, 357 • 
mulching of, 357; root-pruning, 357 ' 
Peach-wood, dead, 93 
Pears and Apples, gathering, 281- 
autumn, 369; avenue of, 331 ; Beurr^ 
Bqsc, 376 ; Beurie Durandeau, 232 • 
BeurriS Pere, 256; blackened and 
cracked, 436; Bonne D'EaiSe, 341- 
Brockworth Park, 311 ; winter, 369* 
518; best October, 296, 410; Ohaimei 
Island, 4-16 ; choice Scotch, 462, 528 • 
Clapp's Favourite, 366; cordon, 20- 
diseased, 237 ; DoyenniS du Gornioe! 
■2i9. 406; Dr. Jules' Guyot, 463- 
Duchesse d'Angouleme, 309; Easter 
Beurre, 516 ; influence of shelter on 
ditto, 61, 135 ; ditto in Worcestershire, 
166; Flemish Beauty, 463; French, 
369; grafted on Apples, 63; on 
Cotoneasters, 6 ; Huyshe's Princess 
of Wales, 523; in Huntingdonshire, 
479; judging, 416; kitchen, 369; 
Knight's Mjuarch, 396, 3u9, 323, 418 
436; large, 479; ditto iu south Wales! 
462; Triomphe de Jodoigne, 442- 
Lebrun, 370, 4i6; list of Kentish, 466; 
MariSchal de la Cour, 298 ; Mar^ohal 
Dillon, 370; Marie Loviise, 370; ditto 



THE GARDEN INDEX. 



[supplement, JAN. 1, 18 



from pyramids, 224 ; Marie Louise 
d'UcclcB, 418 ; November, 526 ; on 
different aspects, 126; on the Quince 
pyramidal, 452; ripening when ga 
thered, 479; Seckle, 417 ; select, 262, 
239; Souvenir du Congr6s,338; sum. 
mer, 369 ; treatment of ditto, 59 
Uvedale's St. Germain, 516 ; c. Peaches, 
443; Williams's Duchess, 320, 536. 
corea, rotting of, 494 ; misnamed, 
538 ; pruning, 544 

Pear garden at La Lotte, 199 

Pear leaf Fungus, 5, 296 

Pear orchard, 461 

Pear trees, ringing, 418 

Pear tree slug. 5, 23, 159, 402 

Peas, Bouquet, 242 ; Carter's Extra 
Early Premier, 144 ; Chick. 433 ; 
Egyptian, 422; Fillbasket, 43 ; George 
Wilson, 65 ; Giant Emerald Marrow, 
65 ; late. 27, 144, 402 ; November- 
sown, 138; Laston's, 15; Unique, 
second crop from, 189 ; Ne Plus 
Ultra, 65 ; new varieties of, 107, 137 ; 
poisoned, 354 ; succeseional, 97 ; Sup- 
planter, 43 ; autumn sowing of Sweet, 
97; varieties of, 33 ; White Everlasting, 
514; winter, 444; culture of, 487 

Peat as a mulching, 476 

Pedicularis sceptrum carolinum, 514 

Pelargoniums, 453 ; at Chiswick, 2C8, 
389 ; at Chilwell. 282 ; autumn treat- 
ment of , 240; best early, 1C3 ; double 
Tom Thumb, 128 ; fancy, 258 ; George 
Sand, 148 ; Happy Thought, 428; in 
cellars, wintering, 477 ; Jewel, 
double, 201; Mr. Upton, 328; new 
double, 386 ; raising new, 148 ; 
Sisley on raising, 452 ; storing, 530 ; 
winter flowering, 49, 515, 536; Won- 
derful, 77 

Pelargonium seed, vitality of, 343 

Pelargonium Society, 97 

Peltariaalliacea, 84 

Peonies, fruit of, 5H ; tree, 383, 426 

Peperomia resedgeflora, 58 

Pernefetyas. 518 

Persicaria in London Parke, 168 

Petrsea volubilis, 7) 

Phaleenopsis and flies. 323 ; Lowii, 534 

Philadelphia centennial buildings, 142, 
316 

Philadelphus. Souvenir de Billiard, 156; 
species of, 3 ; thyrsiflorus, 123 

Philegeria Veitchii. 436 

Phloxes, 44; best, 150; Countess of 
Sefton. 150; late- flowering, 244; 
various, 41 ; select, 168 ; Drummondii 
splendens grandifl.ora,26, 355 

Phormium tenax Colensoi, 18; varic- 
gatum at Exeter, 58 

Phygelius capensis, 337 

Phylloxera, cure for, 358, 429 ; in Cali- 
fornia, 429 ; in Spain, 516 

Physianthus aibens, 268. 296, 302,516 

Physostegiaimbricata. 513 

Phytolacca decandra, 389 

Picea Alcockiana 371. 385, 430 ; nobilis, 
cones on, in Yorkshire, 78 

Pine-apples, 5' 8 ; black-heartedness in, 
51, 62 ; St Michael, black-hearted, 93 ; 
new race of, 3i2 ; varieties of, 507; 
variegated. 510; winter, 537 

Pine-growmgat Progmore, 494 

Pine trees, old, 73 

Pinguicula, offsets of. 435 

Pinks, Alpine, 256; Clove, 168; Harry 
Hooper. 17 ; Lord Lyons, 17: Shirley 
Hibberd. 17 

Pinus Laricio. 447 

Pipes, small connecting, 318, 386. 406 

Pitcaimea staminea, 426 

Pits, sunk earth, 250 

Pittosporums in Ireland, 520; Tobira, 
234 

Planes. Loudon. 80 ; old. 75 

Plant (Dr ), death of, 404 

Plantations, autumn lints of, 262 ; 
trenching new, 423 

Plant-cases, heating, 473, 531 

Plant colours. 9i 

Plant-houses, construction of, 69 

Plant names, English. 275 

Plant sates, Lady Ashburton's, 8J; Mr. 
Basset's, 124; Mr. Bewley's, 80 

Plant stages, proper height of, 472 

Plant theftH, 333 

Planting out v. pot culture, 19 

Planting s-i ison. the, 21-3 

Planting. 333 ; on chalk, 445; street, 4; 
shallow V. deep, 652 

Plants and boiler water.486.523: and elec- 
tricity. 66 ; arranging, for effect, IDS ; 
ntGlasnevin, 111 ; autumn blooming, 
368 ; basket. 12 ; bedding, 225 ; ditto 
at BattTsea, 121 ; ditto, propagation 
of, 151. 162 ; berry-bearing, 617; car- 
nivorous. 63. 150,320; carpet bedding 
181 ; climbing, Darwin on, 532; col- 
lecting Alijine, 272, coloured leaved, 
150; cultivating wood, 18; curious 
inslinct of, 275; different modes of 



propagation of, 418 _ 
evils of drying off, 429 ; evergreen 
wall, 386, 383; hardy and tropical, 
477; at Bitton, 513; herbaceous, 24, 
41 ; hybrid, Veitch's. 436 ; in bloom in 
June, 40; ditto in July, 128; indoor 
winter, 484 ; in Royal Botanic Gar- 
dens, Edinburgh, remarkable, 142 ; 
in shrubberies, sweet scented, 374; 
Japanese garden, 96; London, 58; 
November flowering, 528 ; pot, cure for 
sickly, 513; ribbon border, 305; rock, 
41 ; shading after frost. 477 ; shelter 
necessary to sub- tropical, 124; situa- 
tions for half-hardy, 124 ; spring. 407 ; 
spring-flowering, summer treatment 
of, 346 ; ditto, autumn treatment of, 
301 ; sub-tropical, 259, 266, 407 ; suit- 
able for dwelling-houses, 9, 12 ; sur- 
facing, 258 ; table, 411 ; tall border, 
268 ; wall, 387 ; water, and rate, 150 ; 
wild garden, 88; window, v. flies, 
256 ; winter treatment of border, 444 ; 
deciduous shed-forcing, 551 ; Moss 
protected. 543 ; rare Chinese, 553 

Platycerium Wallichii, 77 ; Willinckii, 
121 

Pleione prjecox, 404 

Pleiones, 268 

Plumbago rosea, 4S6 

Plums, brandy, 198; Coe's Late Bed, 
443 ; Denyer's Victoria, 318 ; Diamond, 
159 ; double-flowered Chinese, 404 ; 
espalier, 237; French, 197; Kentish, 
466; late, 309. 360; market, 255; 
Mitchelson's. 237; new French, 341 ; 
Perdrigon Violet Hatif. 189 ; Rivers's 
Early Orleans, 6 ; Early Prolific, 94; 
seediing. 352 ; select, 262 ; Trans- 
parent Gage. 237 ; pruning, 544 

Poinsettia, new double, 512 ; culture of, 
451, 514 

Poisonous plants, 494 

Poke. Virginian. 3S9 

Polemonium cceruleum variegatum,144, 
201, 220 

Polygonatum multiflorum, 261 

Polygonum capitatum, 146; cuspida- 
tum. 261, 283 

Polystichum angulare grandidens 
pumilum, 77 

Pomme d'Api, 265. 291 

Pomological Congress, Belgian, 273 

Poplar wood, incombustible, 512 

Portuguese Gardens, 169 

Potato-beetle, Colorado, 71 

Potato blossoms, removing, 43 

Potato competition. Hooper's, 100 

Potato crop, condition of, 12i, 137. 144 

Potato culture and disease, 190, 227 

Potato digger, Aspinwall's, 281 

Potato disease and resting spores. 20; 
in Notts., 217 ; new, 6 ; spread of the, 
93 

Potato prospects in Devon, 59; in 
Suffolk. 55 

Potato sets, sizes of. 133 

Potato shows. 212, 295 

Potatoes. Alpha, 379, 404; productive- 
ness of. 438 ; American Breadfruit, 
187, 207; diseased American, 20; 
American produce from 1 lb. of, 402, 
425, 533; and slugs, 20; and wire 
worms, 402, 422 ; Biscuit, 6 ; Bounti- 
ful. I'Sl ; Compton's Surprise, 404; 
culture of, at Woodstock, 245 ; curl 
in, 15, 65; diseased, early lifting of, 
157; diseased, treatment of, 135; 
early in January, 464; Early Rose, 
232. 280, 379 ; as* a late variety, 27 ;0 
exhibiting seedlings, 354,494; Extra 
Early Vermont, 43, 247; field, 333; 
French Vitelotte, 516 ; from seed, 15 ; 
frozen. 281 ; garden, 333 ; Intei-- 
national. 318; in Yorkshire, 20; lift- 
ing and storing, 225; Mr. Fenn's, 
245; new disease in, 15; preventing 
rottenness in, 107; quality of, 333; 
remarkable crop of, 373 ; scarcity of 
good. 45 J; seedling, 332; select. 93; 
seedling v. disease, 247 ; Snowflake, 
43, 157, 166, 182, 190, 247 ; experiments 
with ditto, 137 ; productiveness of 
ditto, 313; storing. 330; sweet, 436, 
516; Tomatoes grafted on, 489 ; deep 
planting. 556; seed, for early crops, 
55t; for main crops, 551; new 
French, 555 

Potentillas, double- flowered, 201; nor- 
vegica, 3i'5 

Pots, surfacing. 253 

Pratia litoralis. 317 

Primrosei^ and Pansies, mixed, 408; 
dividing. 457 ; select, 234 

Priraulacea3, essay on, 537 
Primulas. Chinese, 435. 537 ; from cut- 
tings, 623; cortupoides amcena, 392, 
4^8; daonensis, 1^0; japonica, 393; 
ditto, self-sown, 57; mixed border, 
2^0 ; Parrvi.420 ; sinensis, old Chinese, 
4r9. 4.53, 436 
Protection, winter, S30, 447 



Protectors, newspapers as, 538 
Pruning, objects of, 538 
Psychotria cyanococca, 518 
Ptarmica vulgaris fl. pi., 144, 183 
Pteris cretica for rooms. 166 
Pterostyrax hispidam, 213 
Pumpkins. King of the, 261 
Puschkinia sicula, 330 
Pyracantha japonica. 4C6 
Pyrethrum Golden Gem, 61; serotinum, 

360 
Pyrola minor, 34 
Pyrostegia ignea, 103 
Pyrus hybrida, 271 



Quassia amara. 2 
Quassia tree. 55 
Quercus suber, 4 



Radishes, French, 516 ; Japan, 107 

Railway gardens. 146 

Rain, an inch of, 332; substitute for, 
122 

Rainfall and climate, 234, 429 

Ranunculus platanifolius, 78 

Ranunculuses, garden, 83 

Raspberries, late, 317; November, 448 ; 
Surprise d'Automne, 341 ; training, 
521 

Rats and water plants, 153 

Reana lusurians, 12S 

Red lands, fruit trees on, 427 

Red spider through overcropping, 370 

Refrigerator, cheap, 422 

Regel's (Dr.) appointment, 385 

Renantbera coccinea, 97 

Retinosporas, 271 ; golden, 423 

Rhapis flabelliformi-, 355 

Rheum Emodi, 131 

Rhinopetalum Carelinii. 383 

Rhodochiton volubile. 335 

Rhododendons, hybrid, 436 

Rhododendron Nobleanum. for forcing, 
318; Prince Leopold, 121; Princess 
Royal. 91 

Rhodoleia Championi, 258 

Rhubarb, forcing, 502 

Rhus typhina, 553 

Rhvnchospermum jasminoides, 91, 296, 
4S5 

Ricinus Gibsoni, 453 

Rigidella immaculata, 333 

Rivina humilis, 518 

Roads, best material for, 473 

Road-dust as manure, 281, 514, 531 

Robinia dissecta. 399 

Rock-garden. Fettes Mount, 41 ; at 
Battersea, 191 

Rock-work and root-work, 531, 543 

Root-pruning forest trees, 183, 368, 385 

Root-work V. rock-work, 531, 513 

Rose cuttings in August. 101 

Rose-garden, Paul's, 533; wild, 24 

Rose hedges, 3S6 

Rose jelly, 610 

Rose-leaf couches in ancient Rome, 5oo 

Rose perfumes, 99 

Rose plants by post, 346 

Rose trees, protecting, 514 

Roses, a feast of. 25 ; Aimce Vibert, 
97 ; and Rose budding, 35 ; attar '.f , 
478; autumnal, 183. 26S ; Beauty of 
Glazenwood. 266, 380; Belle Lyon- 
naise, 385 ; best winter, 450 ; climbing 
hybrid perpetual, 109 ; Cloth of Gold, 
514, 556 ; Comtesse d'Oxford,331 ; Duke 
of Connaueht, IG ; fly on. 242 ; forcing, 
445, 522 ; for Covent Garden, 122 ; 
Horten^o Mignard, 477: in Crystal 
Palace Gardens, 2 ; in 1875, 79 ; in the 
snow. 514; John Bright, 16; labelling, 
55; Lady Isabel Cecil. 16; Magna 
Charta. 17 ; MariSchal Niel, stDck for, 
150 ; mildewed, cure for, 95 ; monthly, 
630; Mrs. Laxton, 16; new and old, 
57, 83 ; new English and Continental, 
200 ; new plantations of, 285 ; Noisette, 
82 ; on Hollies, 42; on the Briar, 502 ; 
on their own roots, 94; Orange Fun- 
gus on, IS ; Oxonian. 16 ; planting, 
394; prunmg. 472; Tea, 431; Rev. 
J. B. M. Camm, 208; root grafting. 
286 ; scented and scentless, 293, 31.5, 
323, 389; select. 16. 33; standard, 
256, 477; Star of Waltham, 17; St. 
George, 17 ; striking outdoor, 81 ; 
treatment of budded, 36 ; winter pot, 
3iil ; York and Lancaster. 34; culture 
of, in America, 516 ; Duchesse de 
Vallambrosa. 5Vi 

Royal Botanic Society, 17, 5G 

Royal Horticultural Society. 33. 77, 93, 

121, 166, 2IJ8, 212, 317, 341, 423, 492 
Rubuses, 361 
Rubus deliciosus. 153; rosa;folius, 299, 

392 
Rucker (Mr,), death of, 383 



Ruscus aculeatus, 517 
Rustic buildings in parks. 371 
Ruta albiflora, 385 



Salad, the "World" on, 354; winter, 
354 

Salt, uses of, 183 

Salvia dulcis. 3U ; splendens a bedding 
plant. 404, 433 

Sands, shifting, how to fix, 519 

Sarmienta repens, 18 

Sarraceniasiu London gardens, 500 

Sarracenia injects, 320 

Saussureas, the, 504 

Savoys, 410 

Sawdust, cuttings in. 291 

Saxifraga Fortunei, 368, 380 

Scarlet Runners, 378 

Schizandra, species of, 271 

Schizanthuses, pyramidal, 194 

Schizostylis coccinea, 516; indoors. 451 

Schonbrunn, Imperial gardens of, 236 

Sciadopitys verticillata. 310 

Scillas, cultivation of, 393 

Scorching in glasshouses, 196 

Scutellarias, stove. 551 

Sea-coast vegetation, 511. 553 

Seakale, forcing, 430, 5C5; from seed, 
379 

Seats, stone, 80 

Sedum NuUi, 119; populifolinm, 201; 
sempervivum. 276 ; Sieboldii, 293 ; 
spectabile v. Fabariura, 4''8 

Sedums and Yuccas, 339 

Sednms, outdoor, 81 

Seed germination, influence of certain 
compounds on, 3 

Segrais, trees and shrubs at, 43 

Selaginellaa, hardy, 43; edgings of, 
300 

Sempervivums, outdoor, 81 

Sempervivum tabuljcforme, propaga- 
gation of, 128 ; triste, 81. Ill 

Seiecio macroglossus, 323; pulcher, 
3i]5,406 

Sericobonias, 524 

Sewers, too large, 473 

Shading materials. 124 

Shells, land, and fresh water, 156 

Shrubs, Alpine, 211 ; berry-bearin'*, 
410,406; budding. 63. 144; layering, 
45; new mode of ditto. 243; orna- 
mental, 45; planting, 48); propa- 
gating, 88 ; sea-side, 553 ; suitable 
for chalk soils, 446 

Shrubberies, sweet-scented plants for, 
374 

Silene, various, 97 

Sisyrinchiuras hardy, 250 

Skimmias, 518 

Slugs, black, 280, 354, 410 ; carnivorous, 
156 ; destruction of. 159, 3'?6 ; in 
Alpine borders, 187 ; remedy for. 



winter treatment 



333 

Snowberries, 518 

Soil, stacking, 37 
of, 330 

Solanum hybridura compactnm, 551 

Solanums, 518 ; standard, 342 

Soot as manure, 91 

Sophora japonica, flowering of, 190 

Sparaxis pulcherrima, 133, 294 

Spathodea Ice vis, 311 

Speedwells, rock, 2)6 

Spigelia marilandica, 93 

Spinach, best. 122 ; failure of, 534, 555; 
New Zealand. 351, 401; winter. 241 

Spiraeas, herbaceous, C6 ; new hybrid, 
134 

SpirEca Lindlejana, 525; venusta, 232 

Spring flovrers, 136 

Spring, preparation for, 407 

Spruce, weeping Hemlock, 323 

Squash, Butman, 464 

Stachys speciosa. 363 

Standish (Mr.), death of, 93 ; memorial 
165 

Starlings in Germany, 37 

Staticet. various. 41 

Statice Bondwelli, 141; profu^a, 91; 
spicata. 144 

Stauntonia latifolia, 516, 518 

Sternbergia lutea. 346 

Steudnera colocasiiefolia, 330 

Stevias, culture of, 304 

St. Gratien, 483 

Stock, influence of, on scion, 507 

Stock Mauve Beauty, 18 

Stock-seed, saving,' 37, 83, 128 

Strawberries. Alpine. 23; amateur, 370 - 
A' cot Pine-apple, 159; nutumn, treat- 
ment of, 241; British Queen, 2; Dr. 
Roden's mode of treating, 1:^4; early, 
266; Enchantress. Ir9 ; forcing, 22, 
370,416; for different purposes 165* 
Hovey's Seedling, 91; La Gross© 
Sucn^e. 6; MacMahon, 224; market, 
at Tmiperly. 169 ; Quntre Salmons. 19> ; 
ram resisting. 5S, 93. US, 144; Haut- 
boy, 6; culture of ditto, 108; select. 



SUPPLEMENT, JAK 1, 1876J 



THE GARDEN INDEX. 



1 59 ; ebifting to cool temperatures, 6 ; 
Underhill's Sir Harry, 55, 94, 125, 159, 
16i, 261; Waltham Seedling, 33 

Strawberry culture, 53; under diffi- 
culties, 6 

Strawberry runners, 45 ; for forcing, 
293 

Street planting, 4, 40O 

Street trees, coloured-leaTed, 553 

Streptocarpua biflorus, 323 ; Greenii, 
131 

Strathiopteris japonica, 150 

Sub-tropical plants, 266 

Succuleuta at Alexandra Park, 212; 
bedding, 81 ; Mr. Peacock's, 350 

Such's Catalogue, 256 

Sumbul, 8i 

Sunflowers and malaria, 358 

Surinam Cherries, 363 

Sweeping and rolling machine, Clay- 
ton's, 286 

Sweet Peas and Convolvulus mixed, 
166 ; select, 166 

Syme'ti English Botany, new volume 

I of. 100 

Syringas, select, 3 

T. 

Table decorations, 16, 18, 210 : at Tun- 
bridge, 34 ; at Regent's Park, 56 ; at 
South Kensington, 78; Christmas 
531 ; Vines for, 126 

Table plants, -ill 

Tanks, water, 509 

Tarragon, culture of, 506 

Taxodium sempervirens, new grove of, 
360 
>■ Taylor, Mr., death of, 166 
• Temperature, November, 523 

Terebinth tree, oid, 76 

Thermometers, 276 ; deranged, 537 

Tigridia pavonia Wheeleri, 163 ; Van 
Houttei, 248 

Timber, creoaoting of, 87 ; phospho- 
rescent, 310 ; prices of, 69 

Tomato disease, 234, 306, 379 ; not in 
America, 556 

Tomato leaves and aphides, 464 

Tomatoes, 463 ; as a farm crop, 107 ; 
canned, 534; early, 321; fricassed, 
231 ; from cuttings, 379 ; grafted on 
Potato, 4S9; Greengage, 80, 323, 534, 
555; Hepper's Goliath, 506; increased 
demand for, 58; ripening, 285; 
atufTed, 231 ; two-year-old, 379 ; v. 
Wasps, 137, 237, 266, 278, 309, 333, 354; 
well preserved, 489 

Tradescantia zebrina as undergrowth, 
368 

Trafalgar Square, fountains in, 1^6 

Training wires. Voice's, 65 

Transplanting evergreens, 215; fruit 
trees, 223 ; summer, 80 ; midsummer, 
156 

Tree cloth, 360 

Tree damage by mowing machines. 307 

Tree drapery, 233, 329 

Tree growth, 186, 374 



Tree house, a, 40O 

Tree leaves, colours of, 262 

Tree planting on farms, 86 

Tree roots, damage done by, 280 

Tree surgery, 269 

Tree trunks, danger of earthing up, 
325, 399 

Trees, age of, 512 ; ancient tropical, 74 ; 
and inundation, 519 ; and lawn- 
mowers, 360 ; and lightning, 38 ; and 
shrubs, Segrais, 49 ; at Clumber, old, 
87 ; at Rufford Abbey, large, 316 ; 
autumn tints of, 40O, 319 ; budding, 
68 ; water evaporated by, 6 ; how to 
plant, 519; killed by Ivy, 310; near 
mansions, effect of, 454 ; Northumber- 
land House, 146 ; old, 73 ; on red 
lands, 427 ; planting, 333, 480, 481 ; 
pruning, 204, 620 ; suitable for chalk 
soils, 446 ; transplanting, 146, 243, 392 ; 
in full leaf, 80, 512; sea-side, 652; 
weeping, 553 

Trelhs, flower, 184 

Trenching in market gardens, 508 

Tresco Abbey Gardens, 324 

Tricyrtis hirta for button-holes, 324 

Triteleia laxa, 57 

Tritomas in the snow, 614 

Tritoma Uvaria, 220, 268 

Tritonia aurea out of doors, 600 

TrolUuses, various, 449 

Tropseolum canariense, uses of, 294 ; 
compactum coccineum, 165 ; Lohbia- 
num, 291 ; polyphyllum, 268 ; tri- 
colorum, 91 

Tropaeolums, 303 ; cUmbing, 189 

Truffles, 347 ; English, 32 J 

TuUp, Due Van Thol, 537 

Tulipa erythronioides, 324; Greigi, 230 

Tulips and Ferns intermixed, 450 ; new 
Chinese, 324 

Turnip fly, 43 

Turnip&, garden, 472 ; sowing, 27 

Tweedia coerulea, 457 

Tydeas from cuttings, 184 

Typhonium Brownei, 404 



Urceolina aurea, 494 



V, 

Vallisneriaand Ducks, 411 

Vanda ccerulea, 4u6; limbata, 51; sua- 

vis, cool treatment for, 31 
Van Houtte's Flore dea Serres, 380 
Vanilla fruit, 343 
Vanilla lutescens, 380 
Vegetables, forced, 413, 503 ; list of, 33 j 

washed, 634; weights of Calif omian, 

278 ; winter, 520 
Vegetable cookery, improvement of, 

164 
Vegetable Marrows, 167 
Vegetable Marrow preserve, 231 
Vegetable protection, 430, 620 



Vegetarianism, 164 

Vegetation at Fota, 458 ; in June, 40 ; in 
July, 127; in August, 217; in Septem- 
ber, 431 ; in October. 432 ; in Novem- 
ber, 528 ; sea-side, 552 

Verbena, Lady Anne Spiers, 208 ; lemon- 
scented, 220; sweet-scented, 320; the 
King, 166 ; venosa in wet seasons, 
128 

Veronicas, various, 41, 266 

Veronica rupestris, 367 

Viburnum dahuricum, 86 

Victoria Park, bedding in, 238 

Vine-borders, heating, 430 ; hotbeds on, 
471 

Vine culture, extension system of, 321 

Vine disease, new, 190 ; Italian, 123 

Vine-growing at Merriott, 308 

Vine Phylloxera, 358 

Vineries, exclusion of wasps from, 135 ; 
forms of, 90 ; span-roofed v. lean-to, 
338, 370, 386 

Vines at Chilwell, 281; at Clovenfords, 
297; at Woodstock, 167; barking, 
461,525; Chasselas de Fontainebleau, 
264; cool house, 5u7 ; cropping, 198; 
for table decoration, 126; Hampton 
Court, 158; huge Californian, 474; 
large, 507; not fruiting, 126; trans- 
planting, 527 ; strangled, 237 

Vineyard, large indoor, 90 

Vineyard, Lord Bute's, 126, 232, 370, 386, 
416 

Viola palmsensis, 346 

Violas at Drumlanrig, 84 

Violets, mountain, 293 ; Neapolitan, 
323, 392; outdoor, lul, 104; Rouen, 
66; winter-blooming, 3 

Virgilia as a lawn tree, 63 ; at Sion, 87 

Vittadinia triloba, 305 



W. 

Walks, asphalte, 15 ; clearing Moss 

from, 388 ; cure for weeds on, 472 ; 

draiuing, 430 ; edgings for, 603 ; 

making, 480 
Wallace, death of Mr. Peter, 66 
Walls, cropping north, 159; heated w. 

glass cases, 61 ; waste, utilization of, 

283. 309 
Wall gardening, 387 ; indoors, 624 
Wall plants, evergreen, 386, 388 
Wall trees tor various aspects, 63 
Walnuts, improved, 360 ; preserving, in 

sand, 528, 556 ; storing, 231 ; large- 
fruited, 331 ; old, 75 
Wasps, destruction of, 186 ; a new 

destroyer of, 227 ; and fruit, 224, 331 ; 

and Tomatoes, 137, 337, 266, 278, 

309, 333, 354 ; and rain, 78 
Waste products, 341 
Water Convolvulus, 119 
Water-cresses sold in Paris, 80; un- 

wholesomenese of , 612 
Water Lilies, crim*on, 388 
Water-purifiers, weeds as, 144 
Water-raising, 4S7 



Water tanks, 609 

Waterweed, American, 147 

Water supply, 66 

Weather, American, 378 ; effects of, on 
vegetation, 20 

Weeding lesson, a, 150 

Weeds, charring, 13 ; on walks, cure 
for, 472; remedy for, 281 

Weigelas, large, 310 

Wellingtonias, 76, 400; Grizzly Giant, 
dimensions of, 318 

Wellington Nursery, 7 

Wild garden in vrinter, 510 ; plants, 83 

Williams v. Leslie, 429 

Window plants and flies, 256 

Wireworm, Potatoes injured by, 15, 55, 
403 

Woodland gardens, 63 

Woodlice in frames, 508 , remedy for, 28 

Woodman, Mr. Gladstone as a. 376 

Woods, labour contracts in, 276; Swed- 
ish, 310 

Woodsia polystichoides Veitchii, 146 

Woodwardia radicans cristata, 132 

Workmen, 549 

Worms, thread, 122 

Wreaths, construction of, 650 



Xanthoceras sorbifolia, 534 



Yams. 436; Chinese, 182, 437; ditto as 
climbers, 457 ; Decaisneana, 438 

Teast as manure, 379 

Yew, 86 ; remarkable Dorset, 172 ; old, 
73 ; original Golden, 374; seedling, 
the best, 472 

Yew hedges, 472 

Yew, the Crowhurst, 87 

Yucca acuminata, 133 ; aloifolia, 131 ; 
large ditto, 294; angustifolia, 152; 
baccata, 132 ; canalicula, 131 ; gigan- 
tea, 134; Ellacombei, 134; ensifolia, 
134 ; filamentosa, 134 ; flaccida, 124, 
131; flexilis, 134; glauca, 132; glau- 
cescens, 132; gloriosa, 133 ; flowering 
of ditto, 183; ditto at Aloa, 128; 
orchioides, 132 ; parviflora, 132 ; 
pruinosa, 133 ; puberula, 131 ; recur- 
vifelia, 133 ; rupicola, 131 ; stricta, 
132; Treculeana, 131; Whipplei, 131 

Yucca seeds, germination of, 300 

Yuccas and Sedums, 339 ; classification 
of, 129; in Regent's Park, 58; new 
and rare, 147; notes on, 212, 304; 
winter protection of, 305, 338, 343 



Zamia Skinneri, 380 
Zephyranthes, culture of, 38 



THE GARDEN INDEX. 



[SUPPLEUSHT, 



ILLXJSTIl^T10:NrS 



Acanthus epinosus 

Aconite, wiuter 

Agave. Victoria ReginEe ... 

Agrostia pulchella 

Alameda of Mexico 

Alocasia intermedia 

Aloe, American 

Alpine collecting implements 

Amaryllis ignescens 

Amphicorne Emodi 

Amygdalus Boissierii 

Ananassatoracteata 

Anemone fulgens 

Aponogeton distachyon 

Apple gatherer 

Apple seed washer 

Apple, the Lady 

„ White Calville 

Aralia canescens 

Artichoke, the Laon 

Arundo Donax ... 

Aspleniam nidus avis 

Aster alpinus 

„ Amelloides 

,, amplexicaalis 

„ grandiflorus 

„ Novae Anglire roseus ... 

„ formosisBimus 

„ Tradescanti .,, 



Bambusa aui'ea 

Basket, hanging 

Battle Abbey Gardens 

Beds ribbon 

Botanic Grarden, Martinique... 

Box of spring bulbs 

Briza maxima ... 

Bulbocodiam vernnm 

Button-hole bouquet for July 



Cactus, crested 

Campanula alliarisefolia 
cgespitosa ... 
carpatica ... 
eeltidi folia 
coUina ... 
fragilie ... 
garganica... 
glomerata 
gran di flora 
grand is 
hederacea... 
Lansdorffiana 
latifolia 
linifolia 
macrantha 
Medium ... 
mural is 
nobilis 
pentagonia 
persicifolia 
pnlla 

punctata ... 
pyramidal is 
Raineri 
rapunculus 
rhomboidea 
roiundifolia 



Page 

Campanula sarmatica 177 

,, sold an elliE flora 175 

„ Speculum 177 

,, thrysoidea 176 

,, Trachelium 177 

,, turbinata 175 

,, urticsefolia 177 

„ Waldsteiniana 173 

,, Zoysii 173 

Cannabis sativa 203 

Cannas and Ailantus 195 

Cardoon, blanched 373 

Carpet beds 149, 151, 153 

,, at Hampton Court ... 1S3 

Castor-oil plant 239 

Catalpa syringecfolia 269 

Celery, Turnip-rooted 463 

Centaurea babylonica 263 

Chair, rustic 164 

Chasselas de Fontainebleau 264 

Chateau de Mouchy 415 

Chervil, tuberous-rooted 247 

Christmas Roses 497 

Clematis, winter 501 

Coixlachryma 642 

Colchicum variegatum ..; ... 245 

Conservatory at Hampton 89 

Cratcegus lobata serotina 621 

Cucumber, Siamese Twins 107 

Cyclamen persicum 501 



Daisy, double 601 

Dipsacus laciniatns 215 

Drosera rotund if olia 

Dracsena indivisa 

Dunevan, view in gardens at 
Dyckia argentea 



Frm^. hedges, 479 
Fruit trees, cottage 
Fruit tree training 



Garden bridge 

Gentiana acaulis 
Geranium platypetalum 

Gladwin 

Gourd, Paris market ... 
Grapes preserved in water 
Grape-stand exhibition 
Gynerium argentcum... 



Heartsease, winter 

Hedges, fruit 

Hellebore 

Hellebore distributor ... 
Heliotrope, winter 
Hippeastrum vittatam 
Hordeum juhatum 



Ice-houses , 

Implements, plant coUector'e 

Iris foetidisaima 

,, gigantea 



Kales, variegated 



EchinocactuflPottsii 361 

Endogenous and exogenous stems... 311 
Entrance Lodge at Bound's Park ... 307 

Elymus arenarine 639 

Erianthns Ravennie 542 

Ervum lens 333 

Exogenous and endogenous stems 311 



Fern, Adiantum pedatum 

„ Lastrea Filix-mas 

,, Osmunda regalis 

,, Polypodium vulgare 

,, Polypodium vulgare cambri- 

cum 

,, Polypodium vulgare hibemi- 

,, Polystichum angulare 

,, Scolopendrium vulgare 

,, Scolopendrium vulgare cris- 
pum 

,. Scolorendrium erectum 

,. Struthiopteris germanica 

Ferula tingitana 

Pestuca coerulea 

Ficus Cooperi 

Flower-bed at Hampton Court 

Flower-vase 

Fota, view in gardens at 

Fountain in Luxembourg Garden... 3 1 



479 I Paris Acclimatisation Society's gar- 
den 

Park scenery ; 

Pelaigoaium, double Ivy-leaved ... 

Pennisetum longistylum , 

Pits, earth ; 

Plants, insectivorous 

Polymnia grandis 

Potato beetle, Colorado ... 71, 

Primrose, double 

,, early , 

Pterostyrax hispidum 

Pyrostegia agnea 



Rhapis flabellifonnis . 
Robinia dissecta 
Rose cuttings ... 
Rubas rossefc-lius 



539 



Lagurus ovatus 
63 j Lamarckia aurea 
213 Lapageria rosea 
395 Larix Kcempferi 

375 Layering 418, 419 

Lentil, common 

Leptosyphon roseus ... 
Lonicera fragrantissima 

Luculia gratissima 40i 

Luxembourg Gardens, Oleanders 

and Oranges in ... 291 
,, view in 287 



Medici gardens 

Melianthus major 

Melon Cucumber at Kew 

Merodon clavipes 

Mole cricket 

Mole trap 

Monstera deliciosa 

Mulching, diagram illustrative of... 
Mushroom-house at Battle Abbey ... 



Narcissus fly 

Nelumbinm luteum ... 
Nut-tree at Preston Hall 
Nut weevil 



Schonbrunn, gardens at 
Senecio macroglossus... 
Skimmia japonica 
Stauntonia latifolia ... 
St. Gratien 



Tazzas, flat flower 
Theophrasta imperialis 
Trees, mulching 
Tussilago fragrans 
Typha latifolia 



Viburnum dahnricum.. 
Vine, strangled Grape.. 
Viola odorata 



Wall gardening 

Walnut, large-fruited 

Water raisei' 

Wigandia caracasana 

Wild Grasses and border flowers 

Wire trellis. Voice's 



Xanthoceras soibifolia, fruit of 



Yams 

Yucca aloifolia in Italy 

,, angustifolia 

,, ensifolia... 

„ flexilis 

„ gloriosa 

„ recur V if olia.. . 

„ stricta 

„ Trecnleana 

,, seed germinating 



COLOURED PLATES. 



Dipladenia Brearleyana 
540 Lilium gigantenm 
540 Xanthoceras sorbifolia 



StIPPLBilEKT, 



M876.] THE GARDEN. 



CHARLES DARWTIN. 



Mb. Darwin is one of the profoundest thinkers of the present day, and to be so, in this intellectual 
age, is to be a king among men. Although he has achieved his greatest triumphs in fields with which 
we have little connection, yet the interest he has taken in plants and plant life clearly identifies him with 
horticulture. Mr. Darwin's first work, and still to our mind his best work, is his " Journal of His Voyao-e 
as Naturalist of the 'Beagle.'" This may not inaptly be called the "Waverley" novel of naturalists. We 
may not have read it quite so often as the " Antiquary " or " Rob Roy ; " but, as with them, whenever 
we do re-read it we do so with renewed pleasure. There is a freshness and clearness about it, combined 
with a power of description that never palls — and there is the same delightful under-current of thought 
upon every subject that gives such a charm to his other works ; he not only sees what is before 
him and tells one what he sees in vivid language, but turns it over in his mind, and takes one along 
with him, confidentially as it were, as he does so. To our mind it is one of the most delightful books in 
the English language. His subsequent, and what we suppose we must call his greater, works have 
probably, from their very nature, less of clearness, freshness, and simplicity than the "Journal." From 
the " Journal " we could cite many passages having interest for the horticulturist. Take the following 
description of tropical scenery in South America ; — " When quietly walking along the shady pathways, and 
^ admiring each successive view, one wishes to find language to express one's ideas. Epithet after epithet is 
found too weak to convey to those who have not visited . the inter-tropical regions the sensation of delight 
which the mind experiences. I have said the plants in a hothouse fail to communicate a just idea of the 
vegetation, yet I must recur to it. The land is one great wild, untidy, luxuriant hothouse, which Nature 
made for her menagerie, but man has taken possession of it, and has studded it with gay houses and formal 
gardens. How great would be the desire in every admirer of Nature to behold, if such were possible, the products 
of another planet ; yet, to every one in Europe, it may be truly said, that at the distance of a few degrees from 
his native soil the glories of another world are open to him. In my last walk, I stopped again and again 
to gaze on these beauties, and endeavoured to fix for ever in my mind an impression, which, at the time, I 
knew, sooner or later must fail. The form of the Orange tree, the Cocoa-nut, the Palm, the Mango, the 
tree Pern, the Banana will remain clear and separate ; but the thousand beauties which vmite these into 
one perfect scene must fade away ; yet they will leave, like a tale heard in childhood, a picture full of 
indistinct but most beautiful figures." Turn again to his observations on the character of the southern 
part of America in relation to the production of fruit. " The climate of the southern part of South America 
presents many phenomena of the highest interest. It has long been observed that there exists some essential 
diiference between it and that of the countries in the northern hemisphere. I have already remarked on the 
surprising contrast between the rank vegetation of the broken west coast, consequent on the humid climate, as 
compared with the dry and sterile plains of Patagonia. The clouded and boisterous state of the atmosphere is 
necessarily accompanied by a decrease in extreme temperature ; hence we find that fruits which ripen well, and are 
very abundant — such as the Grape and Fig — in latitude 41°, on the east coast, succeed very poorly in a lower 
latitude on the ojiposite side of the Continent. The result is more strongly marked if we take Europe as 
the standard of comparison. In Chiloe, latitude 42^, corresponding to the northern parts of Spain, Peaches 
require the greatest care, and seldom produce fruit, but Strawberries and Apples succeed to admiration. 
At Valdivia, latitude 40^, or that of Madrid, standard Peaches bear abundantly, Grapes and Figs ripen, but 
are far from common, Olives seldom even partially ripen, and Oranges not at all, yet in Europe this is 
the parallel most productive of these fruits. Even at Conception, latitude 36°, Oranges are not abundant, 
though the other named fruits succeed perfectly. At the Falklands, in the same latitude as the south 
of England, Wheat very seldom comes to maturity ; but we ought to feel little surprise at this when 
we hear that in Chiloe, latitude 42^, the inhabitants are frequently compelled to cut their Corn before it 
is ready and bring it into their houses to dry." 

Such notices as the following, too, of plants or vegetable productions met with in his travels are 
frequent. At Chiloe he " one day noticed some very fine plants of the Panke (Gunnera scabra), which 
somewhat resembles the Rhubarb on a gigantic scale, growing on the sandstone clifis. The inhabitants 
eat the stalks, which are sub-acid, and tan leather with the roots, and prepare a black die from- them. 
The leaf is nearly circular, but deeply indented on its margin ; I measured one which had a diameter of 
nearly 8 feet, and, therefore, a circumference of no less than 24 feet ! The stalk is rather more than a 
yard high, and each plant sends out four or five of these enormous leaves, presenting altogether a very 
noble appearance." 

It will thus be seen that from the very first, and even in a work so unlikely to elicit them, as 
the journal of a sea voyage, plants and horticulture occupied a fair share of his attention. 

His next great work in which plant life occupies much attention was the origin of species, and here 
we are sure we need not remind the reader that many of his arguments and illustrations are drawn 



THE GrARDBN. [sbpplembnt. 



from the phenomena •observed by himself in horticulture or recorded by horticulturists. We are not 
going to re-open any of the questions discussed in that work, but we may be allowed to cite Mr. Darwin 
himself in illustration of some of the positions taken by him in it. Starting from the admitted trans- 
mission of qualities from parents to their children, he argued for their gradual alteration by jjrocess of 
natural selection into general progression, improvement, or better adaptation for their condition of life. 
Now, we have in him an example of both — we have a striking instance of the transmission of qualities 
by men to their descendants, and we have also an example of the fact that while the identity of the 
qualities cannot be disputed, neither can the fact of an alteration in them for the better be denied. No 
one can have read the works of Dr. Erasmus Daewin — "Zoonomia," "The Botanic Garden, or the Loves 
of the Plants," without recognising in them much of the same qualities of intellect that are character-istic 
of his descendant. 

His succeeding works still more directly interest the horticulturist. These consist of hie papers on 
the " Dimorphism of the Primrose, of Linum, and of Lythrum Salicaria," and also those on the 
" Character and Hybrid-like Nature of the Offspring from the Illegitimate Unions of Dimorphic and 
Trimorphic Plants," his larger work on the " Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication," 
his work on the " Various Contrivances by which British and Foreign Orchids are Fertilised by Insects, 
and on the good effects of Crossing," his paper on the "Movements and Habits of Climbing Plants," and 
lastly, his work on " Insectivorous Plants," which latter we have only lately reviewed in this journal, 
and need not therefore again recur to. All these bear directly in some form or other on the cultivatiom 
and propagation of plants imder cultivation. Those relating to the dimorphism or trimorphiem of certain 
plants and the crossing of them, have thrown a flood of light on the j^^enomena of hybridisation — all 
tending to show that there is no more reason to think that species have been specially endowed with 
various degrees of sterility to prevent them crossing and blending in Nature, than to think that trees 
have been specially endowed with various and somewhat analogous degrees of difficulty in being grafted 
together in order to prevent them becoming inarched in our forests. The jii'oof of this commenced ^ with 
Mr. Darwin asking Nature the meaning and purpose of the difference between pin-eyed and thrum-eyed 
Primroses. From one step to another, sometimes with the concurrent assistance of other observers, such 
as Mr. Scott, then in the Eoyal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh, but chiefly by his own independent 
observations, Mr. Darwin extended his experiments on their comparative fertility over a large number of 
species of Primula, Linum, and Lythrum, and established, beyond a doubt, that whether the Primrose 
was pin-eyed or thrum-eyed, that is, whether' or not the style or the stamens were to be seen at the mouth of 
the tube of the corolla — in other words, wherever the one was longer than the other, they were unable 
adequately to fertilise the ovary ; whereas, if neither was visible at the mouth of the corolla, which was 
found to be equivalent to their both being at the same level half way down, then they fertilised com- 
pletely. The first natural inference, of course, would be that the unfertility of the pin-eyed or thrum- 
eyed flower was due to the style and stamens being stationed at a distance from each other, but Mr. 
Darwin at once removed this element of error by going through the process of trying to fertilise 
them artificially. The pollen, too, was found to be of different dimensions in the two cases, and the 
style also different. When the experiment was made with difierent flowers, the stamens of the thrum- 
eyed flower were found to fertilise the piin-eyed style, both being at the same level at the mouth of 
the tube of the corolla, while the stamens of the pin-eyed flower fertilised the style of the thrum-eyed 
flower, they being each respectively situated low down in the tube of their corolla. This was only an 
experiment with other flowers of the same species, but it was also shown that in experimenting with 
distinct species the pollen of ohe of the two forms of the same species, and not of the other, will 
fertihse a distinct species. It has long been known that A will fertilise B, and B will not fertilise A ; 
but the extension of such an exception to the two forms of the same individual flower was a new and 
important step. Further, although the attempt to fertilise the pin-eyed and thrum-eyed flowers with 
the pollen of their own stamens, may, in a general way, be called ineflTectual (that is, that they pro- 
duced a good deal less seed than the other unions), they were not absolutely and completely sterile, but 
Mr. Darwin found a remarkable resemblance in many points between the seed so obtained and their 
offspring, and those of hybrid unions between different species. We must refer the reader to Mr. 
Darwin's papers for these points of resemblance, besides much other interesting information, contenting 
ourselves with saying that the opinion expressed by Mr. Darwin 'on the subject in 1864, seems to us 
still well founded. "Although good is gained," said he, "by the inevitable crossing of the dimorphic 
flowers, yet numerous other analogous facts lead me to conclude that some other quite unknown law of 
Nature is here dimly indicated to us." 

We cannot follow this subject further, nor have we left ourselves space to exjiatiate as we should 
like to do on his interesting paper on " Climbing Plants," and on the contrivances whereby Mr. Darwin 
shows that certain Orchids and other jDlants are alone fertilised by insect agency. Both are full of 
details worked out with the greatest care, and both are replete with instances of remarkable adaptation 
of structure to purpose — what the natural theologian calls evidences of design. So marked are these 
that one of Mr. Darwin's followers and admirers, writing recently in the pages of one of our contemporaries, 
enthusiastically exclaims, "Thanks to the laborious experiments of Darwin — thanks to the example he 
has set, the purpose of this, as of many other points of structure passed over before as merely curious, 
has been made apparent. No more persuasive apostle of natural theology, no more powerful advocate 
of the argument furnished by design and adaptation, ever lived than Charles Darwin." 



July 3, 1875.] 






r V 1 ^^— Si 




THE O-^I^IDEIsr. 



VOL. VIII. 



THE JAPAN LILIES. 

By C. M. EOVEY. 

Since I sent, you my last article on Lilies I have thought 
from the increasing interest taken in these flowers, that you 
might like to have the following details respecting the produc- 
iriT , ^'^"' varieties. It is stated in The Gakden (p. 296, Vol. 
VII.) that " twelve years ago few gardens contained any Lilies 
at all beyond, perhaps, a few of the Japanese kinds in pots, all 
tiie other hardy kinds having been discarded." If this be so 
we Americans can claim to have been in advance of our English 
friends m Lily culture; for, in 1845, we had at least ten 
kinds under culture, and, in 1855, had six beds, 80 feet long and 
o feet wide, containing as follows :— Three beds of Japan Lilies— 
speciosum, s. album, s. punctatum, s. roseum, and hundreds of 
seedlings ; one bed of candidum, tigrinum, aurantiaoum, and 
iongifiorum ; one bed of Bro wni, eximium, Takesema, excelsum 
broom s hybrids, venustum, and monodelphum ; and one bed 
ot canadense and superbum. About that time we read an 
article in a monthly English journal, which was copied in our 
Magazine of_ Horticulture" (1852, Vol. XVIIL), stating 
tnat, except m a few favoured localities, Japan Lilies would 
never be popular border flowers in England, inasmuch as they 
show flower towards the middle or end of September, a season 
m which the blooms were no sooner expanded than they were 
disfagured by the effects of the damp atmosphere at that 
period. With us Japanese Lilies begin to open their first 
flowers on the 20th of August, almost to a day, when our 
weather is warm and dry, and they continue in great beauty 
iintil destroyed or defaced by frost, about the 2nd or 3rd of 
Uctober We have noticed the bad effects of damp weather 
on the blooms, and, to prolong them in perfection, have put an 
awning of cotton cloth over the beds to protect them from 
heavy dews and the hot sun, which immediately affect tlie 
delicate texture and brilliant spotting of the petals. The 
object of my remarks is, however, to give an account of my 
experience in the production of seedlings, so as to afford some 
guide to those w;ho may desire to extend and increase the 
variety of these beautiful plants. With the introduction of 
our Cab ornian kinds there is more and varied material now to 
work with than formerly. L. auratum does not appear to be 
very successfully treated, and it is believed that notwith- 
standing the tens of thousands of its bulbs that are annually 
imported overland and sold in our markets in very fine 
order, not one m ten can be found alive the second year, 
there is no doubt it is much less hardy than speciosum, 
requires a lighter and warmer soil, and a drier situation 
ZLT\ ^°u ^f '^i y f "b«>!t to the rough and ready cutting 
under which the latter will thrive, speciosum bein|, in fact, 
just as tough as tigrmum. L. auratum is difficult to raise 
Z°J^v * "'"","^ vegetates the first season, but the 

seedlmgs appear weak, and gradually disappear; at least, such 



has been my experience in regard to it. Three years ago, I 
had four very large plump seed pods on one plant, some of 
the flowers of which were fertilised with speciosum ; and, 
though only a small portion of the seed was fertile, what did 
vegetate gradually faded away under the same treatment as 
speciosum. On the other hand, as I stated previously, 
speciosum, fertilised with auratum, seemed to furnish 
seedlings, which received renewed vigour from fertilisation. 
My first experiments of any extent were commenced in 1846, 
when I had some two dozen fine plants in pots, grown for that 
purpose, many of them being 7 feet high. I then fertilised 
speciosum with superbum, candidum, s. album, and chalce- 
donicum ; punctatum with speciosum, aurantiaoum, superbum, 
and chalcedonicum ; album with speciosum, and some others. 
Three years is the usual time for the seedlings to bloom ; and, 
as they rarely make their appearance until the second year, it 
was in 1850 that they produced flowers. By this time (three 
years) many of the labels, without corresponding with the 
above crosses, had rotted off, and were unfortunately lost. 
However, suffice it to say, that to us, who watched them with 
a florist's eye, every one appeared to differ. In some, 
the petals were much refiexed; in others, they were 
narrow; some were rosy, others very deeply covered; 
some of the spots or papilte were small, others 
large; some of the spots crimson, others almost black. 
The worst among them were better than the old speciosum ; 
but I found my list too long, and the distinctions too fine, 
except to those who could — like the true Tulip fancier— readily 
distinguish minute differences ; and, after cultivating them 
for three or four years, I selected the best nine, and named 
them as follows : — Melpomene, Terpsichore, Erato, Urania, 
Polyhymnia, Clio, Thalia, Calliope, and Euterpe — names 
under which they were subsequently distributed throughout 
the United States. I soon ascertained that there was a vast 
difference in the character of the bulbs ; some of the latter 
were increased with great difficulty, and when in later years 
I had hundreds of bulbs of Melpomene, I only had a dozen or 
so of Euterpe. They would not make offsets, either above or 
around the old root ; but, from want of time, I did not find the 
opportunity of ascertaining and recording which crosses were 
affected in this way. I continued my experiments in suc- 
ceeding years, in the way of cross-breeding, but kept no record 
of them. I only know that some crossed with Iongifiorum 
and others, completely ruined the shape of many of the flowers. 
Among all my seedlings there is not a pure white, although 
album was fertilised with speciosum, and, as is generally 
supposed, the female parent has a prevailing influence on the 
progeny. There was not even a pink spotted one like punc- 
tatum, as one would have supposed there would have been. 
Some years subsequently, I raised several whites, and one 
long, large, flower, quite distinct, but it accidentally got thrown 



THE GAKDEN. 



[July 3, 1875. 



out of the pot wlien in a dormant state. I also raised a very 
distinct variety, ivith flowers about half-way in size between 
those of chalcedonicum'and'speciosum, with stems more densely 
clothed with leaves, and the petals blush-white, with pale 
lilac-rose spots. This I named " Eva." It increases slowly, 
and is still rare in collections, but it is a beautiful variety. 
To show how enthusiastic I was about this Lily, I may men- 
tion that in 1871 I had over a pint of seed, and after disposing 
of a good deal of it I still have nearly half the quantity. It 
vegetates when three or four years old. Long ago the late 
Ml'. Groom gave us some account of his seedlings, between 
bulbiferum (elegans, Baker) and atrosanguineum, and when at 
his nurseries, in 1844, 1 bought the set, eighteen in number, 
some of the names of which were Voltaire, Talisman, Eubcns, 
Vulcan, &o. ; at first I grew them in pots, fearing they might 
not be hardy ; but in this way I lost some of them, and as I 
gave so much attention to the Japan sorts, they were neglected, 
and I turned them out into a bed where they flourished well. 
They grew about a foot high, and produced an umbel, consist- 
ing of from three to six flowers, the colours being deep dull 
blood-red, specked and mottled with purplish-crimson. They 
were, however, too much alike, only lasted in flower a short 
time, and did not increase rapidly. Are they still in cultivation 
in England P As regards improvement, I do not expect much 
from the yellow and red kinds crossed with each other. If, 
however, a handsome lemon, or buff or buff-spotted, could be 
produced, it would be an acquisition. The red and yellow are 
strong ; but it is Duly the clear and delicate white grounds 
that are desirable. All may be crossed with speciosum and 
auratum, by which the size may be increased. 



A New Public Garden for Mancliester. — We hear ttat 
a scheme for forming a wiuter garden on a grand scale, and a 
good public garden generally, is now being developed at Man. 
Chester. The movement is directed by gentlemen who aim at 
creating an establishment at once instructive and elevating in 
its influences. It has the support of the Bishop of Manchester, 
the mayor, the town clerk, and the most influential gentlemen 
connected with the city. Its history is briefly this : Mr. Ellis 
Lever originally bought Mr. S. Mendel's establishment at Man- 
chester, and then ofl^ered it to the town council for the same sum 
he had paid for it, offering, at tho same time, £20,000 towards 
making a public garden of this famous place, which should be in 
all respects worthy of the city of Manchester. The town 
council declined the offer, and since then Mr. Ellis Lever has himself 
taken the matter in hand, and, in connection with a gentleman of 
much experience in like matters, is now engaged in carrying out tho 
scheme we allude to, and of which we hope in due time to give 
further particulars. We never knew of a better opportunity of 
making a noble city garden, inasmuch as Manley Hall now contains 
many features only to be found in gardens of the higher class, and even 
rarely in them. As Manchester is famous for carrying out public 
aims of this kind in the most successful manner, we hope for a 
garden worthy of it, and which may in its way prove as great a 
credit to it as the Assize Courts, the new Town Hall, and the cele- 
brated Art Treasures collection. 



Influence of certain Compounds on the Germination 
of Seeds. — Nearly eighty years ago it was asserted (says the 
"Academy") by Smith and Barton that camphor had power to 
hasten germination ; a similar property was snbseqaently attributed 
by Goeppert to chlorine, bromine, and iodine. These statements 
have been put to the test of experiment by Heckel ("Comptes 
Rendus," 3 May, 1875), and found to be correct. The seeds of 
Eaphanus eativus, exposed to the action of pure water, began to 
germinate after an average interval of eight days ; similar seeds, 
kept moist with iodine water, germinated in five days ; with bromine 
water in three, with chlorine water in two days. The monobromide 
of camphor was found to exhibit even greater energy than either of 
its constituents taken separately, or than a simple mixture of 
bromine and camphor, germination occurring after a mean interval 
of thirty.six hours. No explanation of this singular property is 
suggested. The alkaline borates and silicates were found to retard 
germination, even in relatively small proportions; stronger solutions 
checking the process for an indefinite period. Arsenious acid and 
the soluble arseniates prevented germination altogether by destroying 
the embryo. 



NOTES OF THE WEEK. 



Among all the Strawberries that come to Covent Garden 

Myatt's British Queen still retains the first position, both as to 
flavour, price, and the quantity sold. This fact is, of course, well 
known to most London Strawberry growers ; but, in many country 
gardens, this fine variety is so often discarded for newer and less 
meritorious ones that the above facts may be worth bearing in mind. 

TuE rather uncommon Quassia amara has flowered for the 

first time in the Botanic Gardens, Regent's Park. The flowers are 
handsome and very showy, though produced on a poor plant. If 
well grown and flowered it would prove one of the most splendid of 
hothouse shrubs. The Sacred Beau (Nolnmbium speciosum) is also 
in bloom in these gardens, and in an unusually fine condition. 

At the Regent's Park fruit show, on Wednesday last, Mr. 

Sage, gardener to Earl Brownlow, at Ashridge, exhibited a cluster of 
the dwarf Banana, the weight of which was 80 lbs. In size, ripe, 
ness, and freshness, this is the most perfect cluster of Bananas we 
have yet seen. 

A PLANT of the green. tailed Dendrochilum filiforme, in the 

Royal Exotic Nursery at Chelsea, is now furnished with at least 
sixty slender spikes of flowers. It is one of tho most interesting of 
Orchids ; its rows of tiny pale green flowers, arranged on slender 
wire-like stems, remind one of golden filagree work of the most 
exquisite description. 

DisA GRANDiFLORA, a plant at one time considered to be 

almost uncultivable, is now producing at Chatsworth from seven to 
nine flowers on a spike. Mr. Leach, of Clapham, who was the first 
to show us how to flower this handsome Cape Orchid, never achieved 
such success as this, half the amount of blooms here named being 
the number usually found on his spikes of it. 

Mr. Rendle has brought to our office specimens of the new 

tempered (toughened) glass, which he is about to employ in the 
construction of glass houses. It is perfectly clear, and bears the test 
of being thrown many feet without breakage. He proposes to use it 
for the roof of the Royal Aquarium and Winter Garden at West, 
minster. 

Among hardy flowers now in bloom in the grounds of the 

Crystal Palace at Sydenham are some large masses of Blue Lark, 
spurs, and a fine strain of Dianthns laciniatus Heddewigii is now 
very effective, the colours varying between white and the deepest 
velvety crimson. Individual blooms of this Pink measure, in 
some cases, over 2 inches in diameter, and are the produce of seed 
sown last autumn. 

The beds of dwarf Roses in the neighbourhood of the Rose 

Temple, at the Crystal Palace, are now most attractive, many of the 
newer kinds of Roses being in full blossom there. Some of these beds 
are margined with dwarf plants of the common China, or old Monthly 
Rose, and others are edged with little bushes of the old crimson 
China, the effect in both cases being excellent. Climbing Roses on 
the terrace walls are also now blooming freely. 

The competition for the Carter Challenge Cup takes place 

next Wednesday at the Royal Horticultural Society's Gardens at 
South Kensington, and, as some doubts have been expressed relative 
to gardeners in the more northern parts of the kingdom being able 
to produce Carter's Champion Runner Bean at this early season, 
Messrs. Carter, in order to make the competition as great and as 
general as possible, have consented to make its production on the part 
of the exhibitor optional, as well as that of the Pern-leaved Parsley. 
The revised schedule therefore is, Scarlet Runner Beans (optional), 
any good variety of Parsley. Eighteen pods of Beans in all cases 
must be exhibited. 

There is now, in Professor Owen's garden at Sheen, a large 

bed of dwarf-stemmed Roses in splendid bloom ; towards the middle 
of the mass strong stems of Lilium auratum are springing up, and 
at the centre is a noble tuft of Yucca gloriosa, while, towards the 
margins. Mignonette and Pansies furnish the ground. The combina. 
tiou is effective and artistic in a high degree ; it replaces tender 
bedding plants, which, to the Professor, were always a source of 
trouble and rarely satisfactory in effect ; it is inexpensive, entailing 
no cost beyond that of the original planting ; and is a source of 
pleasure to all who see it. It is one of many like arrangements 
which is an advance on bedding out on the one hand and the mixed 
border on the other. 

The stately Cordyline indivisa is now blooming vigorously 

in various gardens in Ireland, where it grows freely without protec 
tion. 

The index and title page for the volume ending Midsummer, 

1875, together with a portrait of Mr. Ninian Niven, will be published 
with next week's number of The Garden. 



July 3, 1875.] 



THE GARDEN. 



THE FOUNTAIN OF THE LUXEMBOURG. 

Pee u APS the most charming effect in the very interesting 
Luxembourg Garden is that near the fountain Debrosse — 
indeed, for a fountain, it has the best effect we have noticed 
in any garden, but this results from the disposition of 
vegetation near at liand. Before the fountain is a long 
water - basin, and on each side of this there is a line of 
fine Plane trees, which meet overhead and form a leafy 
arch. Between the trees, Irish Ivy is planted, and trained 
into rich green wreaths, touching the trees at about 8 
feet from the gi-ound. Above the Ivy, there is trained 
another long wreath of Virginian Creeper, with a very slight 
fall between each pair of trees. The stately stems of the Planes, 
their fresh foliage and that of the well-formed wreaths which 
furnish the lower parts of their stems, are beautiful. The 



TREES AND SHRUBS. 

THE MOCK ORANGES. 
The Syringas, or Mock Oranges, rank among the most 
effective and beautiful of all perfectly hardy and deciduous- 
leaved flowering shrubs. All of them have white or 
cream-coloured highly-fragrant flowers, and they are all very 
similar in foliage ; hence, a selection of three or four species 
or varieties is sufficient for all purposes, except where the 
object is to form a collection. Probably the total number oE 
species does not exceed ten ; indeed, we believe that Maxi- 
mowicz refers all the Old World forms to one species, and 
the North American forms are very difficult to distinguish. 
The principal thing to observe in selecting varieties for 
general planting in mixed shrubberies is their season of flower- 




Fountain in the Luxembourg Garden. 



abundance and grace of the vegetation set off, so to speak, the 
sculptor's work to the best advantage, and the result is pro- 
bably as satisfactory as is possible, where geometrical or archi- 
tectural features ai-e introduced in a garden. 

Violets for Winter Blooming. — We have at present a row oE 
Czar Violet, in patches about 100 feet long, at the bottom of a south 
wall. These flower freely and long in spring and early summer. 
The runners are chopped off with a spade several times during the 
season to keep the shoots vigorous, which get a good size in a single 
season, and about November and onwards we take up a number of 
patches at a time, pot them in 8-inch pots, and put them into the 
Vineries or Peach. houses, or anywhere convenient, where there is a 
gentle heat. Thus treated flowers quickly make their appearance, 
large and sweetly scented ; and, though the plants do not continue 
to bloom for a very long time, we have plenty of them to fall back 
upon, and, therefore, introduce another batch. — J. S. W. 



ing. For instance, at the present date (June 2.5), the earlier- 
flowering ones are over, and the latter ones just coming into 
bloom. The earliest is Philadelphus coronarius, which, as 
a rule, begins to flower about the middle of May. This 
species has been cultivated in Britain now nearly three 
centuries, and was, till within the last few years, the only one 
commonly seen. It is now abundant in the south of Europe, 
whence we obtained it in a wild state ; but some writers, 
among others Professor Koch, the author of the " Dendrologie," 
think that it came originally from the East. Be that as it 
may, for gardening purposes it is one of the species that we 
should recommend, because it is the first in bloom. This was 
the Syringa alba of Bauhin and other herbalists ; hence the 
popular name of Syringa, or Seringat of the French, which 
might well give way to the more appropriate one of Mock 
Orange, because the generic name of Syringa has been reserved 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 3, 1875. 



for the Lilacs, the common one of which was the S. cosrulea of 
Bauhin and his contemporaries. The fiowers, though much 
larger than those of the Orange, have a general resemblance to 
them, and they are also very odoriferous, without possessing 
the delicate perfume of the Orange blossom ; indeed, their 
odour is too powerful for them to be employed extensively in 
bouquets, though agreeable to most people in the open air. 
There is a double-flowered variety which, in our opinion, is not 
superior, if oven equal, to the common single kind. A variety 
with variegated foliage may suit some tastes, but it is not one of 
the small number of really indispensable members of its class. 
To alternate with P. coronarius, a pretty and very distinct 
species or variety, P. Satsnmi, sometimes called P. chinensis, 
may be selected. It is of comparatively recent introduction, 
not having been known in this country previous to 1851. We 
do not purpose giving technical descriptions here, but we may 
observe that this is readily known by ics very slender branches 
and dwarfer habit, as compared with other species, and its long 
narrow leaves. It flowers almost as early and quite as pro- 
fusely as P. coronarius, and it is likewise sweet-scented. 
Another fine Old World form is the Himalayan P. tomeutosus. 
The plate in Koyle's " Illustrations of Indian Botany " gives 
a very inadequate idea of its beauty. It comes into bloom 
earlv in June, and bushes of it were literally covered with 
clusters of large flowers about a fortnight ago in the neigh- 
bourhood of London. This differs from the ordinary form of 
P. coronarius in having a coating of short soft hairs on the 
under-sides of the leaves, and is readily distinguished in a 
living state in gardens, though Dr. Brandis does not accord it 
even the status of a variety. Turning to the New World we 
have a number of very beautiful species and varieties, most of 
which have considerably larger flowers, and do not begin to 
bloom till the end of June or beginning of July. The first 
introduced from this region was P. inodorus, a species with 
scentless flowers and long-pointed smooth leaves, which 
appears to have been in cultivation in 1738. The follow- 
ing year is given as the date of introduction of P. 
Lewisii, which has smaller flowers than the other North Ameri- 
can species mentioned below. P. hirsutus, a dwarf form, with 
vei'y hairy leaves, appeared in 1820, and was re-introduced by 
Messrs. Veitoh a few years ago, and figured in the " Botanical 
Magazine." But it is to P. grandiflorus, first introduced in 
1811, we would call attention. It bears the names, or rather, 
in some cases at least, slight varieties bear the names speciosus, 
latifolius, floribundus, &o. This is a tall-growing shrub, from 
8 to 12 feet high, with irregularly-toothed leaves and fragrant 
flowers, nearly double the size of those of P. coronarius, and, 
as already mentioned, it does not begin flowering until the 
latter is nearly or quite over. P. Gordonianus is another North 
American species, equally deserving of cultivation ; it has ovate- 
lanceolate and more regularly toothed leaves than P. grandi- 
florus. These shrubs succeed in almost any soil and situation, 
but they appear to bloom most abundantly on a poor light soil. 
They are also exceedingly ornamental, particularly the early- 
flowering ones for a wall, sunny aspect, trellis, or arbour. 
Where only a small number is required, P. coronarius, P. 
Satsumi and P. grandiflorus may be selected. All the vai'ieties 
bearing the names included under P. grandiflorus are good. 
The jNlock Oranges are not very rapid coarse-growing shrubs, 
and may easily be kept within reasonable compass by the 
judicious use of the pruning knife. But care should be exer- 
cised in the use of it, whether for the purpose of giving them 
a comely shape or reducing their size. The main branches of 
a bush maybe cut away to the base or shortened; and it 
should be remembered, when pruning wall or trellis plants, 
that it is the short lateral branchlets which bear the flowers. 

W. B. H. 

A SQUARE-STEMMED BAMBOO. 
This new and remarkable variety, to which special attention wag 
called at a meeting of the French Acclimatigation Society by M. Ed. 
Renard, is destined to play an important part in other ways than 
those of ornamentation, if wo judge from the description which is 
given of it in the " Revue Horticole." M. Renard states that he 
met with it in his hunting excursions upon the splendid plains sur. 
rounding the large town of Osaoa, in Japan. During his numerous 
joameya from Canton to Shanghai, and thenoe to Han-Eeon, and even 



to Pekin, he had been unable to obtain a single specimen, although 
he was informed by the Chinese merchants that it existed in the 
distant provinces of Houan and Sn-Tchuen. The variety is a verit- 
able "square" Bamboo, and not, as was at one time stated, the 
result of the skilful pressure and manipulation of Oriental fingers. 
As a proof of this, If. Renard placed at the disposal of the society a 
bundle of the canes which he had brought with him from Japan. 
The plant grows in close clumps to the height of from 30 to 35 feet ; 
the bark diiiers from that of other species and is of a deep green 
colour, which becomes brighter in hue as it dries, but never becomes 
pure white. The joints are somewhat close to one another, and are 
furnished with small protuberances, as in the case of the Bamboo 
with pearly knots, so much valued in commerce. Its stetr.g, without 
exception, are square or a square with the corners rounded off. It is 
very straight, tapering, and admirably adapted for the manufacture 
of fishing-rods ; whilst its dense foUage, large and thick, affords a 
perfect shade from the sun. During winter the Japanese clear their 
plantations by cutting down the strongest stems ; but this Bamboo 
is unusually difficult to keep within limits, and the only way to 
effect it is by means of deep trenches, which have the effect of keep, 
ing the roots within bounds. In Japan, the Square Bamboo has but 
few uses, and is cultivated only for ornamentation, or as a protection 
against the wind. M. Renard, during his stay in Japan, made an 
attempt to bring home the stem and roots of the variety, which he packed 
in a cask sawn in halves. These he covered with vegetable soil and 
Moss, and sent them to Nagasaki, where they were shipped to 
Bordeaux. Subsequently, on arriving at Brest, M. Renard, who 
travelled through America, found that the French War was at its 
height, and he was unfortunate enough to be amongst the beseiged in 
Paris. When he was able to do so, he went to Bordeaux, but found 
that his Bamboos had in the meantime been thrown into the Garonne, 
and all his trouble was rendered of no avail. Besides the vai'iety in 
question, he had consigned other specimens to France, which met the 
same fate — notably, one of the enormous Bamboos, the shoots of 
which, when 1 foot high, are as thick as a man's thigh. 



Improvements in Street Planting. — Mr. EUwanger makes 
some excellent suggestions in the " Rochester Express," on the 
importance of well. planted streets in cities, which he thinks as 
essential to the beauty of a town as the architecture. We regard tree 
planting as much more important than fine building, at the same time 
that it is less understood. Mr. EUwanger mentions Columbia as 
affording one of the best examples of judicious planting, either in 
Europe or America. The streets are about a hundred feet wide, with 
triple rows of Oaks, of fine growth. Where streets are narrow, trees 
of pyi'amidal, or upright growth, should be chosen, of which some of 
the cut. leaved weeping Birches are good examples. Wider streets 
may have Maples and Horse Chestnuts ; while the widest of all may 
be planted with spreading Elms. He further suggests that some 
particular tree be planted exclusively in one street, and another sort 
in another street ; which would give a characteristic expression to 
each street; and he justly objects to the common practice of trimming 
and mutilating trees year after year. If left nearly untouched, their 
fall form will become developed, and for this reason the trees should 
not be crowded, but have abundance of room. 



NOTES AND QUESTIO NS ON TREES AND SHRUBS. 

Danver's Yellow Oak, — This is one of the handsomest of lawn trees ; its 
elegant drooping habit, beautiful golden tinge of foliage, and its unquestion- 
able hardiness render it worthy of being planted everywhere for ornamental 
purposes. It is not so much known in this country as it ought to be; but as 
soon as planters get acquainted with it, it is sure to become a favourite. — A. 

Seedling Conifers Best.— In reference to a statement in your article (see 
p. 508) on Uupressus Lawsoniana, I would ask if it is certain that seedlings make 
finer trees than cuttings. — Cotswold. [Cupressus Lawsoniana grows so 
readily from cuttings that it is very possible there may not be a great deal of 
difference between a seedling plant of it and one grown from a cutting, but 
all analogy points to the superiority of seedlings over cuttings. Look what a 
struggle it is to get a plant which has been raised from a lateral cutting of 
P. nobilis or amabUis to form a leader ! — A. M.1 

The Cork Tree (Quercns Suber).— Considering how ornamental this tree 
is, it is surprising that it is not of tener planted than it is as a single specimen on 
lawns, where its rugged bark is seen to better advantage than elsewhere. We have 
one here 9 feet in circumference at the base, an object of admiration to all who 
see it. Doubtless the eea-brecaes, which we get in a mitigated form, are bene- 
ficial to its growth, as, like all the varieties of Evergreen Oak, it appears to 
flourish best by the sea. Like them, too, in cases of removal, great care must 
be paid to the roots. — J. Geoom, Jlenham. 

The Laueli-Lady Oak (Quercns pedmiculata).— This grand old tree 
grows on the nill-side of the Laugh-Lady Dingle in Erampton Brian Park. At 
some far distant period its top has been broken off, and its bole driven asunder, 
very possibly by the violent tempest in September, 1615, at the time of Crom- 
well's death, which is known to have been very destructive, in this park. It 
now presents a hollow stem divided into three sections, and each one has so far 
recovered itself as to send up numerous branches of a considerable size, and be 
everywhere luxuriant. At a height of 6 feet it is 30 feet in circumference.— J. A. 



July 3, 1875.] 



THE GARDEN. 



THE FRU IT GARDEN. 

THE PEAR TREE SLUG. 

Teak after year this plague continues to spread, notwithstanding the 
many efforts that have been made to check its increase. In May, 
the mother fly emerges from the earth in which she had voluntarily 
buried herself. Her winged life, is at the utmost, of three weeks' 
duration. Her head, antennae, body, and legs, are black ; her winG;s, 
otherwise colourless, wear a blackish band or veil across their middle, 
and she is about the size of a grain of Wheat. By shaking the leafy 
twigs of a tree over a sheet of white paper or a white cloth, you will 
be sure to see some of these black, grain. like, and seemingly lifeless 
creatures fall on the cloth. I need scarcely say that this insect is a 
member of the great family of sawflies ; nor need I describe the saw 
with which all of them seem to abrade the cuticle of the leaf, leaf- 
stalk, or twig on which they deposit their eggs. Suffice it to say 
that the abrasion made by the insect whose history I am relating is 
of curved or orescentic form, and ihe egg is laid in this abraded por. 
tion ; the denuded parenchyma of the leaf thus comes into imme- 
diate contact with the under-side of the egg, which is of an ob- 
long shape, and is covered with a leathery shell, capable of 
considerable expansion as the enclosed larva increases in size. 
Thus the egg is seen very obviously to grow, and this 
growth continues during thirteen days, at first slowly, towards 
the end of that period more rapidly. On the fourteenth day, 
according to Prof. Peck, the young grub emerges from the egg. I 
have no doubt this statement is correct as regards the United States, 
but I cannot say that I have verified it in England. On first 
^.-emerging they are white or colourless, but in a very short time 
they become covered with a black, brown, or olive-coloured jelly, 
alike in scent and appearance. I cannot say that I thoroughly 
understand the mode in which this jelly or mucilage is produced ; it 
accumulates on the surface of the skin until the creature becomes a 
dark mass without apparent life or even organisation. The grub 
glides with extreme slowness over the surface of the leaf, and appa- 
rently by means of claspers, a pair of which are attached to the 
under.side of every segment except the first, fourth, and thirteenth. 
These claspers seem to possess little of that tenacity which is so 
striking a character in the claspers of the caterpillars, of moths, and 
bntterflies. Legs there appear to be none ; but, like the onisoiform 
larvEB of certain lepidoptera, the creature moves by the alternate 
dilatation and contraction of the ventral surface. The head is 
entirely withdrawn into the second segment, and concealed from 
view. The body is somewhat small at the anterior extremity, 
gradually but slightly attenuated at the posterior extremity. It 
seems destitute of any rambling disposition, its food, which is the 
upper cuticle and parenchyma of the leaf, being always within reach. 
It consumes these in a very methodical manner, leaving the lower 
cuticle entire ; this very soon dies, withers, and turns brown, making 
the whole tree look as though covered with dead leaves. The hinder 
segments are generally raised slightly from the surface of the leaf, a 
very common character in this tribe of insect. This slug sometimes 
destroys the foliage of the Pear so entirely, that the tree appears to 
be dead ; but there is still vitality within, and new leaves and new 
blossoms — those intended for another year — are put forth out of 
time and out of season. Thus the entire nature of the tree is 
changed, its functions disarranged, and its fertility, for two 
years at least, is destroyed. Notwithstanding its jelly-like 
covering, the slug changes its skins five times before arriving 
at its full size. At the last change it loses its jelly-like 
surface, and appears in a neat yellow skin without any viscidity. 
This great change occurs nearly a month after its first escape from 
the egg-shell ; the head and segmental divisions are now quite as 
perceptible as in any other species of sawfly. Henceforward it cats 
no morp, but crawls down the trunk of the tree and buries itself in 
the earth ; at the depth of 3 or 4 inches each forms a neat little oval 
cell in which to undergo its final changes to a chrysalis and perfect 
fly. This cell is formed of earth, but is lined and intermixed with 
liquid gum-glue, which is obviously nothing more than silk in a 
liquid state — a preparation with which nearly every moth, butterfly, 
hymenopter, or coleoptor is pi'ovided more or less abundantly, and 
one which is always applied to the fabrication of a cocoon, cell, or 
covering of some kind in which to undergo its transformation. 
When this gum has once hardened and assumed its final state of silk 
or leather it is insoluble in water, and forms a perfect protection from 
wet. In this cocoon the grub remains for about a fortnight and then 
emerges as a fly to found another, an autumnal germination of slugs ; 
these go through the same cycle of transformation as their progeni- 
tors ; and, at the approach of winter, retire into the earth to pass 
that leafless season underground. I believe every leaf-eating insect 
has its parasite, its appointed enemy, whose office in creation is to 
keep the leaf.eater in check, and thus maintain the balance of 



Nature. Were it not thus, so vast would be the destruction cf 
vegetation that man must himself perish in the fruitless struggle to 
maintain life. These faithful allies of man are of the same class as 
the flies produced from the slug. A word remains to be said about 
supposed remedies, and here I must confess that I am at fault. 
Sand, ashes, lime, and powdered hellebore have been tried with great 
energy, but the last only has been found trustworthy. The results 
of these experiments were recorded in the September number of the 
"Canadian Entomologist" for 1870. As soon as the slugs were 
observed at work in spring they were treated to a plentiful supply 
of dry sand thrown up into the higher branches with a shovel and 
over the lower ones through a sieve. The sand stuck thickly to 
the slimy skins of the grubs, completely covering them. Sup. 
posing the enemy conquered no notice was taken of him for some 
days, when he was foand to have recovered from the assault 
and to be as vigorous as ever. It was then determined to 
test the sand experiment on a smaller scale. Several small branches 
of Pear trees were selected and marked, on each of which 
were six slugs, and these were well powdered over and completely 
covered with sand. On examining them, it was found that they had 
shed their sand. covered skin, and had crawled out as slimy as before. 
The sand was applied a second and a third time, with similar results. 
Seeing then that sand was useless, the slugs were treated to a strong 
dose of hellebore and water, which soon finished them. Ashes were 
next tried in the same manner as the sand had been, and were found 
equally ineffectual. Another experiment was tried with a solution 
of hellebore, and is thus reported: — "On the 13th of August, at 
8 a.m., a branch of a Cherry tree was plucked on which there were 
sixty-four slugs. This branch had only nine leaves, so it may be 
supposed they were thickly inhabited. A dose of hellebore and water 
about the usual strength, an ounce to the pailful, was showered 
on them, when they soon manifested symptoms of uneasiness, 
twisting and jerking about in a curious manner ; many died during 
the day, and only six poor sickly-looking specimens remained alive 
the following morning, and these soon after died. During the 
past season these slugs have been unusually abundant on our 
Pear trees, in many cases destroying the foliage so thoroughly that 
they looked as if they had been scorched by a fire, every leaf in some 
instances dropping from the trees, so that for a time they were as 
bare as in mid-winter. Nearly a thousand trees in the young Pear 
orchard of the writer suffered severely. Daring the latter part of 
June and the early days of July we had no opportunity of inspecting 
these trees, and when we visited them on the 7th July they were so 
much injured that we thought they could not be much worse ; and, 
as the slugs were then full-grown and fast disappearing, and as the 
application of a remedy to so many trees was a matter of so much 
labour, nothing was attempted to remedy the evil then." Then 
follows a list of the Pear trees injured, and from this it appears that 
some varieties suffered more severely than others. In the course of 
a fortnight after these observations were made, new leaves began to 
push out vigorously on the defoliated trees, and within a month or 
six weeks all was green again. " In the meantime," says Mr. Bethune, 
"the mischief-makers were preparing for a second descent, and 
we in our turn wei-e preparing to receive them. On the 20th of 
July, when going through the orchard in the afternoon, the 
new brood of flies were found in the greatest abundance, resting on 
the young leaves and on those portions of green which still remained 
on the leaves partially eaten by the last brood. They were congre- 
gated, however, most thickly on those trees where green leaves were 
most abundant. On disturbing them they would fall to the ground 
with the antennae bent under the body, and the head bent downwards. 
We caught about sixty specimens, and might have taken hundreds. 
They were so thickly spread, that in many instances there were two 
or three on a single leaf. By the last week in August the second 
brood of slugs were hatched. Now those trees which had previously 
escaped were all more or less infested. An elevated platform 
was rigged up in a one-horse cart, in which was placed a barrel of 
water in which a pound of powdered hellebore had been mixed, and 
from this elevated stand this mixture was showered lightly on the 
trees from the rose of a watering-pot. It was astonishing how quickly 
the trees were cleared by this method ; scarcely a slug could be 
found on a tree that morning after the application had been made, 
and 101b. of hellebore, with five or six days' work of a man and horse, 
served to go over the whole ground." Powdered hellebore has been 
successfully tried in England on a small scale. — " Pield." [Mr. Kiley 
tells us that the slug worm of our gardens is the same which troubles 
the American fruit growers.] 



Orange- coloured Blight on Pear Leaves. — I enclose 
half a dozen Pear leaves for your insijection, which, as you will 
observe are speckled all overwithan orange-colouredFnngus-looking 
" blight." I should be much obliged to you if you could give me 



THE GAEDEN. 



[July 3, 1875, 



some account of this pest, and meution a remedy for it. I fear that 
I shall be obliged to grub the trees out and burn them, as I should 
be sorry to see it spread further. At present the trees infested are 
somewhat isolated, being in a detached garden. I first observed the 
spots two years ago. The number then visible was so small that I 
had all the affected leaves cut off and burnt, but this season every 
leaf is covered with them. — George Beeby. [This is Roostelia 
cancellata. Tbe best treatment is that which has been already 
adopted, viz., picking off the leaves and burning them. — A. M.] 

Shifting Strawberries to Cool Temperatures.— British 
Queen and Sir Charles Napier are now, with us, hanging from sus- 
pended shelves like ropes of Onions — a most beautiful sight. 
I approve of transferring Strawberries in pots when well set from a 
cool to a higher temperature ; but, if the fruit is large and fine, it is 
rather a difficult matter to transfer them from a warm to a cool tem. 
perature, without bruising the ripe fruit, although I have done it on 
certain occasions by putting them into frames under a north wall. I 
am doubtful, however, whether such shifts improve their flavour 
or not. Small sorts, grown in high temperatures, in February and 
March, and fed with rich manure-water, would, under ordinary cir. 
cumstances, require a resting place somewhere between the hothouse 
and the dessert.table, in order to bring the fruit into a palatable 
state ; but, during such weather as we have had of late, I consider 
transferring the fruit to north houses, in order to give flavour, is not 
required, as, during the day-time, most of our houses are quite a 
third part open for ventilation, and, with a free current of air passing 
through them, the flavour cannot be bad. In the case of Strawberry 
plants turned out of doors, after the fruits are pulled, their leaves will 
be found to be as clean and fresh as those flowering in the open air, 
without a trace of red spider to be seen. This is the result of free 
ventilation with plenty of water at their roots, and not over much 
syringing.. — J. Millek, Clumber. 

The Thurber Peach. — This is highly spoken of in America, 
where it was raised. It is a freestone seedling of the Chinese Cling, 
that prince of Clingstones ; and, instead of having the straggling 
habit of growth of its parent, the original tree is of a most perfect 
pyramidal shape. The fruit is large, even very large, round or slightly 
oblong; skin, creamy-white, beautifully mottled or marbled with 
carmine or faint pink cheek ; flesh, white, extremely juicy, dissolving, 
sweet, and highly perfumed ; quality, exquisite. So it is described 
by Mr. Berckmans, and we hope our own growers wiU soon test its 
merits. It is named after Dr. George Thurber. 



NOTES AND QUESTIO NS ON THE FRUIT GARDEN. 

Strawberry La Grosse Sucree.— This is a new and at present little known 
variety. It is good as regards both quality and size, an abundant cropper, 
ripens ten days earlier tlian Keen's Seedling, and promises to be a valuable 
kind for early market purposes, or for forcing. — W. Cox, Madresfield. 

Rivera's Early Orleans Plum.— if Mr. Rivers had raised nothing else 
except this Plum, it is enough and to spare to hand down his name to pos- 
terity as a benefactor to horticulturists ; for, when all others happen to be 
fruitless, this delicious variety is sure to produce a crop. No garden, however 
small, should, therefore, be without a tree or two of it. — R. Gilbert, Bnrghhy, 

Royal Hautbois Strawberry.— I have sent you a plant or two of this 
Strawberry, a seedling from the Hautbois, raised some years ago hj my father. 
It is remarkable, not only for size and fertility, but also for flavom*. — T. Francis 
RivEHs, Sawhridge worth. [Its size and fertility are all that can be desired ; but 
its flavour, which is peculiar, is not first rate. Most kinds of Strawberries are, 
however, deficient in flavour this season.] 

Growing Strawberries under Difficulties,— Mr. Taylor, gardener to Mr. 
Cavendish Bentinck, M.P., Branksea Island, has this season been very 
successful in growing Strawbenies. Having little else but peat on the island, 
he made up a composition consisting of two parts peat, one rotten dung, and 
one of burnt clay, or what he describes as clay dust, the refuse from a pottery. 
Both for forcing and growing them naturally, this mixture seems to suit them 
well. — R. Gilbert, Burghhy. 

Grafting Pears on Cotoneaster.— We ("Illustration Horticole") have 
recently again seen a notice of the experiments of Dr. Bretonneau, the cele- 
brated physician of Tours and a lover of gardening, on the grafting of distinct 
genera. He has successfully tried grafting Pears on Cotoneaster affinis and 
on Amelanchier. The results were very curious and interesting, and were 
crowned with success ; but similar experiments on the evergreen species, C. 
buxifolia and 0. microphylla failed. 

Water Evaporated by Fruit Trees.— Advice is given by a German Pro- 
fessor to keep in orchards a certain space around the trees free of Grass and 
weeds, as these draw too much water away from the trees ; indeed, it has been 
proved that trees, which were sickly and bore little fruit, have been restored 
to vigorous growth by returning to them the necessary water in this way. 
To prove how much water fruit trees need, it may be stated here that an acre 
planted with them will evaporate in about twelve days 5,000,000 pounds of water. 

Budding Apple Trees: G. S. W.— This should be done towards the end 
of .Inly, and in ihe same manner as in the case of Rose trees, only the buds 
of the Ajiple are generally put on the main stem of the stock. Apples budded 
tUuH aie raised in vast quantities in all Continental hardy fruit nui-series. 

Summer Pruning Fruit Trees : H. A.— The superabundant shoots on 
wall fruit trees and others should be removed by the end of June, and all the 
shoots that have gone beyond the spur stage shortened. It is a mistake to 
shorten too much. We should always leave half a dozen large healthy leaves 
at the base of the current years' shoot. 



THE KITCHEN GARDEN. 



THE NEW POTATO DISEASE. 
Several of your correspondents appear to think that this peculiar 
diseaso is chiefly confined to the Rose family of the American Pota- 
toes, whilst some state that it is affecting the American varieties 
generally — in fact, Mr. Dean states positively that " it is important 
to remember that this so-called new disease is chiefly confined to the 
Rose family," whilst " J. T." shows six other kinds, thus making the 
disease general. Now, in forwarding you the two samples of haulm 
last week, I did so without giving the name of the Potatoes from 
which they were taken, and I fear that gardeners generally will be 
sorry to learn that others than the American kinds are affected with 
the disease, as one of the samples (No. 1) was taken from Sutton's 
Hundredfold Fluke ; and, although I have since dug up some half, 
dozen roots, I did not find a single Potato more than three-quarters of 
an inch in diameter, and the disease seems to be spreading more and 
more in this kind every day. The other sample (No. 2) I took from 
the Early Rose. One point I have noticed in connection with the 
planting of the sets, viz., that the rotting affects both the whole ones 
and those cut, hence there can be no difference on that score. 

Bath Road, Exeter. John H. Howard. 

I have two plots of Early Rose Potatoes growing here side by side. 
No. 1 was planted with seed grown here, whilst No. 2 was planted on 
the same day with seed grown in the Fens for one season only, having 
been grown here the previous year. About half the Potatoes in No. 1 
plot are now affected %vith the new disease ; many of the tops appear 
as if scorched, but there is an entire absence of any bad smell, such 
as is perceptible when the disease that has hitherto prevailed attacks 
the Potato. The plot No. 2, planted with Feu-grown seed, with 
the exception of two or three roots, is in vigorous growth, affording 
astonishing contrast to the adjoining crop, and suggesting pretty 
conclusively the advantage of frequently changing the seed. What- 
ever may be the cause of this visitation, I think the premature 
ripening of the crops by the drought of last year seriously impaired 
the vital energies of the plants, and rendered them more susceptible 
of the attacks of ailments, that plants in vigorous health would have 
escaped. I should look upon a change of seed, with more care in its 
selection and winter management, as one of the best means to guard 
against the reappearance of disease. E. Hobday. 



On the 22nd of March last I planted some Potatoes procured 
from Messrs. Sutton, which they call their new Hundred-fold 
Fluke. Of these the haulm from the first appeared shrivelled 
or curled up, and it has continued ever since in the same condition, 
not getting much worse or much better. Potatoes, planted in the 
same bed, and on either side of them, came up strong and healthy 
looking. Some of the same sets were planted by a friend in a field 
about half a mile from those in the garden, and these are much worse 
than mine ; in fact, they have very little haulm left, Jand seem as if 
eaten up by an insect. Should the Rev. M. J. Berkeley, or any 
other authority, think I can give them further information calcu- 
lated to assist them in their investigations regarding this disease, 
I will be happy to do so, or forward some of the haulm and tubers 
for inspection, should they express a desire to see them. 

Asliive Cottage, Kenmare, County Kerry. M. W. 



The Biscuit Potato. — Report speaks highly of this variety, 
which was obtained by M. Louis-Pierre Tetart, a cultivator at 
Groslay, in France, from seed of the Marjolin, a well-known French 
Potato. For some years it was grown by M. Tetart for his own use, 
and it was only in 1806 or 1867 that it was placed in the market. At 
present it is very generally cultivated in the Seine.et-Oise, and last 
year met with a favourable reception in Paris, especially in hotels 
and restaurants, from its excellent qualities and its size, which are 
not common amongst early varieties. These qualities, which were 
thoroughly recognised by M. Tetart, induced him to name it the 
Biscuit. It is extremely farinaceous, of a peculiarly fine flavour, 
and is only ten days behind the Marjolin, to which, during the 
earlier stages of growth, it bears much resemblance ; later on, how- 
ever, the plant becomes larger, and the leaves more angular and of 
a lighter green. The tubers, which are very large, are of consider, 
able length, somewhat flattened in shape, and are gently rounded off 
at the extremities ; the flesh is yellow. It is said to be a heavy 
cropper ; but care must be taken to earth up the plants, or the 
tubers are liable, from their size and numbers, to approach 
too near the surface, when they throw out shoots that injure their 
qualities. 



July 3, 1876.] 



THE GARDEN. 



THE FLO WER GARDEN. 

GERANIUM PLATYPETALUM. 
Many Geraniums, at present confined almost exclusively to 
Botanic Gardens, might be advantageously grown as orna- 
mental plants in ordinary garden establishments, and amongst 
these, one of the most effective is that of which the accom- 
panying is an illustration. It is a beautiful Caucasian varietj^ 
named G. platypetalum by Fischer and Meyer. It grows 
wild iu the Talish Mountains, and is closely related to G. 
sylvaticum, from which, however, it only requires a super- 
ficial examination to distinguish it. It is of a stronger 
growth than that kind, and its flowers, which in colour 
resemble those of G. pratense, attain, as will be seen by the 
engraving, which repre- 
sents them in their natural 
size, much larger dimen- 
sions. This charming 
Geranium is more espe- 
cially valuable, both in 
large and small gardens, 
inasmuch as it is easily 
increased, both by divi- 
sion of the stem and 
by means of seed. In 
-'addition to this it is ex- 
tremely hardy, and thrives 
in almost every kind of 
soil. It is, as will be seen, 
covered with soft, spread- 
ing hairs. The stem is 
erect and angular; the 
stipules broad ; the leaves 
heart-shaped, denticulated, 
and having from five to 
seven oboval-obtuse lobes ; 
the peduncles, which carry 
from two to three flowers, 
are covered with glandu- 
lous hairs, as also is the 
calyx, which has awn-like 
sepals. The petals, which 
attain double the length of 
the sepals, are two or three- 
lobed ; the stamens and 
carpels slightly hairy, and 
the seeds glossy. The 
flowers, which are pendent 
previous to opening, re- 
main erect during the time 
they are in bloom, a period 
lasting from May until 
July. _ Among all kinds of 
Geraniums, G. platypeta- 
lum is one of the best for 
growing in clumps, in 
which it produces, when in 
full bloom, a striking 
effect, its flowers being 
large and produced in 
great abundance. It is a 

remarkably fine variety, which should always be cultivated 
where it is possible. 




Gcraniam platypetalum 



HAEDY PLANTS AT THE WELLINGTON NURSERY. 
At present, notwithstanding the late heavy showers, the appear- 
ance of this nursery is particularly brilliant, the fine collections 
of Lilies, Gladioluses, Irises, Alliums, Violas, and other well- 
known genera being now in flower. Among the early summer- 
blooming Irids there are some very effective groups of the 
Spanish (or bulbous) and English sections, the great flowers of 
the latter being especially rich in colour. Great patches of 
Iris Ka3mpferi have made a most vigorous growth, and their 
numerous buds give promise of a charming display of colour in 
another week or two. The fact of these plants growing so well 



planted outside, in the open and unprotected beds at St. John's 
Wood, is a very interesting one, as they have hitherto been 
considered rather delicate in constitution, and somewhat diffi- 
cult to manage. I feel sure Mr. Elwes will be glad _ to 
hear so good an account of these beautiful varieties, which 
are probably seedling or natural sports from the rich 
purple Japanese Iris tevigata. One great purple-flowered 
form, having the base of each velvety segment marked with 
gold (E. G. Henderson), was exhibited last year at South 
Kensington, and was unanimously awarded a first-class certifi- 
cate. This fine variety has flat Clematis-like flowers, composed 
of six large oblong segments ; but there are other varieties 
equally fine, which we hope shortly to see in bloom. Several 
long rows of Delphiniums arc very effective, and among these 
the following varieties are 
excellent in every way : 
— D. Coronet, a dense- 
habited plant, little over 
2 feet in height, the spikes 
of dark blue semi-double 
flowers being very closely 
arranged. D. Bella Donna 
is well known as one of the 
finest of all the light or 
porcelain- blue varieties, 
and D. Henderscni is a 
robust variety, bearing a 
very stout elongated pyra- 
midal spike of deep blue 
flowers, and is admirably 
adapted either for a border 
or for the supply of cut 
flowers for large vases. 
There are scarcely any 
other hardy herbaceous 
plants that can equal these 
iu depth and richness of 
colouring, each plant being, 
in many cases, a dense 
mass of the purest and 
richest blue, and the cut 
spikes, when grouped with 
Orange Lilies, white- 
flowered Anthericum, 
Clove Pinks, and rich 
yellow-purple- stainedlrids, 
recall at once, to one's 
mind, the pictures of Van. 
Os the older. Van Huysum, 
and the other Dutch flower 
painters, in whose richly- 
tinted paintings the Del- 
phinium is constantly to 
be met with. Some beds 
of rosy and white Pyre- 
thrums, or summer Chry- 
santhemums, as they are 
not inaptly called, are at 
their best, and contrast 
well with the deep and 
perfect blues of the Peren- 
nial Larkspurs. A largo bed of ^thionema grandiflorum 
is a dense mass of soft rose and white flowers, each speci- 
men being fully 2 feet in diameter, and laden with slender 
flower-spikes. This useful plant is of a semi-shrubby 
character, with glaucous, linear, Linum-like foliage, the tip of 
each little branchlet bearing an oblong head of flowers, 2 to o 
inches in length ; the buds and flowers are of a bright rosy 
hue when they first expand, and gradually fade to nearly white 
or faint lilac as they become old. Saxifraga nepalensis 
(S. pyramidalis and S. Cotyledon), a flue plant, belonging to 
the Megaceous group of Don, is blooming freely, the panicles 
of white rosy-dotted flowers varying from afoot to fully 3 feet 
in height ; as a plant for rock-work this is much to be recom- 
mended. Another beautiful old rock-work plant, Tropffiolum 
polyphyllum, is, at the present time, a dense mat-like mass of 
glaucous leaves, the ends of the thick succulent growths being 



THE" GAKDEN. 



[July 3, 1875. 



thickly studded with bright orange-yellow flowers. A patch of 
Allium ciliatum is studded with dense globular heads of white 
flowers, as is also the older and better known golden-flowered 
A. Moly. One of the most curious species in this genus is, 
however, Allium glaucum, a dwarf-growing plant, having 
flattened, bluish-tinted leaves, curiously twisted like a cork- 
screw. This plant is so neat and distinct that it should find a 
place amongst hardy flowering bulbs, although it is far from 
showy from a decorative point of view. Some tufts of a rather 
rare Spirrea, named S. Humboldtii, are now blooming freely. 
The plant is of robust habit, and bears some resemblance to S. 
Aruncus, but the leaves are more finely cut, and the flowers of 
a more decided yellow colour. As a decorative plant, it well 
deserves a place in the herbaceous border, or as an isolated 
specimen on the lawn. S. Aruncus is one of the noblest of all 
plants for a position near the fringes of the shrubbery or by the 
spongy margins of ornamental water. Great clumps and 
masses of the noblest of all well-known Lilies and some of the 
rarer American species and varieties are looking well, and 
promise a fine display of bloom. Even at the present time 
some beds of the different forms of L. Thunbergianum are 
glowing with brilliant orange, orange-yellow, and crimson- 
streaked flowers. Some varieties bear a great solitary saucer- 
like flower an inch or so above the soil, while others carry great 
clusters on stout stems fully a yard in height. Some forms of 
the lilac-purple L. Washingtonianum purpureum are now in 
flower, and the tall-growing L. Humboldtii has, in many of the 
clumps and beds, made splendid growth, some of the buds 
being now on the point of bursting. This promises to be a 
free-growing, free-blooming, and very attractive plant in every 
way. The small-flowered, slender-growing Lilium canadonse 
(var. parvum) is also blooming freely, its bright, bell-shaped, 
golden-yellow flowers being little over an inch in diameter, and 
the base of the cup being dotted with reddish-browil inside. 
It is a pretty little Lily well worth attention. B. 



NOTES AND QUESTIONS ON THE FLOWER GAECEN. 

lilium giganteum.— This is now In flower in the open ground in Mr. 
Latimer Ulark a garden at Hitherwood, Sydenham Hill, where it appears to be 
perfectlj- hardy. Anyone desirous of seeing this particular species in bloom 
can do so on presentin;^ a card — E. 

Hardiness of Cypripedium spectabile.— A large potful o£ this Orchid 
stood out-of-doors during the last winter without injury; the roots were 
divided in spring and kept growing without protection. Most of the plants 
raised from such divisions are in bloom. What makes the hardiness of this 
fine Cypripedium more certain is the fact that the pot containing it was 
smashed.— R. P. B. [It is a hardy bog plant in many of the northern parts 
of America.] 

Pansv Propagation.— I would recommend cuttings to bo put in immedi- 
ately. They strike freely under a bell-glass in a cool shaded situation, and, if 
planted out as soon as rooted they wdl make fino plants bj the autumn. 
Those known as the Cliveden varieties of yellow, blue, and white, are, accordint' 
to my experience, the best for early flowering ; in fact, during mild winters 
they will go on blooming continuously. Seedlings cannot be depended on 
where self colours are desired, but they form excellent mixed beds. — J. Gkooh 
Ucnham Halt. ' ' 

In order to secure a good stock of any kind of Pansy, it is better to trust 

to plants raised from cuttings than from seed, as seedlings, although true to 
colour, have such diversity of shades, markings, and habits of growth, that 
they cannot be trusted to produce a constant and even mass of colour. Cuttings 
made of the .young growth that comes up from the base of the plants in summer 
are best, inasmuch as they are Arm, and generally strike freely. Old blooming 
wood is usually hollow, and consequently strikes badly. Cuttings may 
be put in a cool shady place, in sharp sandy soil, anytime during the next 
three months. For spring beds, none are belter than Blue King, Bedfont, 
Yellow, and Snowflake ; and of early blooming Violas, none are better than 
Bluebell, Yellow Boy, and White Swan.— A. D. 

Speedy Mode of Propagating tree Carnations.— In Messrs. Low's nur- 
scry, at Clapton, where thousands of these plants are annually struck from 
pipings, it Is an established rule never to prep.ire the cuttings or pipings, as 
they are termed, with a knife. Tho plan adopted, according to Mr. Casey, is 
to take hold of the top of the " grass " and draw it gently until it breaks 
which it will do at one of the joints ; cuttings thus treated are found to root 
much better than those made with a knife, which, unless very sharp and skil- 
fully used, bruises the tissues and predisposes the cuttings to damp off. This 
mode of preparing cuttings is worth a trial, not only in the case of Carnations, 
but also in that of other plants which have distinctly articulated or jointed 
habit of growth.— B. 

Lilinm colchicnm.— Too much cannot be said in praise of this charmingly 
graceful and sweet-scented Lily. It is perfectly hardy, a free grower, and 

E refuse bloomer, coming into bloom in the north of England early in June 
ast year my only bulb of It produced three blooms, and this summer it has 
developed eight, on a strong stem i feet in height ; the petals— six in number, 
and of great substance- curve backwards. The flowers arc of a rich lemoii 
or straw-yellow, three alternate petals being perfectly clear, and the remaining 
three marked with minute brown or dark spots. It seems to thrive well in 
ordinary garden soil. Will any of your readers who have flowered this Lily 
kindly state what is the greatest number of blossoms which they have grown 
or seen on one stem of it?— G. F., Northtmherlaml. 



DIPLADENIAS. 

By T. BAINES. 
TuERE are few plants requiring artificial heat more deserving 
of general cultivation by all who possess a warm stove than 
Dipladenias. They are of moderate growth, remarkably free 
and continuous in their blooming, and, when well managed, 
flower profusely from the end of April up to December, if 
required. Although it is not desirable to allow them to keep 
on so long, having in view the preparation of the plants for 
the ensuing year, yet, if the flowers are wanted so late in the 
autumn, all that is necessary is to defer cutting the plants 
back, and to keep up a suflicient heat to induce the formation 
and expansion of the blooms. For bouquets, either half or 
fully expanded, tho lovely rose-coloured D. crassinoda, or 
the beautiful blush-tinted D. Williamsii, with its deep rosy 
throat, have few equals ; for vases or March stands these, and 
also the darker varieties, are amongst the best flowers that can 
be used, furnishing, as they do for a long period, a daily 
supply of blooms of the most refined and distinct character. 
But, in gathei'ing them to be thus used for decorative pur- 
poses, care should be taken to cut only the individual blooms 
with their foot-stalk, as, if the whole bunch is removed it is 
extravagant-., for each will, if allowed to remain on the plant, 
keep on flowering for two months. The best, most distinct, 
and desirable kinds have been raised from D. crassinoda 
crossed with D. splendens. D. Brearleyaua, figured to-day 
in our coloured plate, and sent out by Mr, W. Bull, is the 
finest garden hybrid stove plant that has ever been raised. 
These are all much darker in colour than either of the parents. 
In the cultivation of Dipladenias one point should not be lost 
sight of, which is the necessity of a strong heat to 
grow them well. D. crassinoda comes from the hot 
low-lying districts of Rio de Janeiro ; D. splendens, from 
the foot of the Organ Mountains ; consequently neither 
the species nor the varieties raised from them can 
be expected to succeed without plenty of heat. They 
should be kept through the winter as near 70° during the 
night as possible. A good deal has been said and written 
about resting plants during the winter to prevent their 
becoming exhausted or worn out. Plants that are indigenous 
to hot countries, with few exceptions, get only short rests, 
and most of them are never completely dormant. I have 
kept Dipladenias for ten or twelve years, and they were as 
strong and vigorous at that age as they ever had been. They 
never, during tho whole of thaD period, had any rest, except 
what they obtained in making slower growth in the winter 
season. They used to begin opening their flowers by the 
middle of April, their shoots measuring 20 feet in length. By 
the middle of May they were generally in full bloom. In 
speaking thus of non-resting stove plants, I am aware it will 
be looked upon as unpardonable heresy by the old school of 
gardeners, but I am merely stating facts that have been 
proved by actual experience. In this matter, there is a 
very considerable difference between stove and greenhouse 
plants. Autumn-struck cuttings that have been kept on 
growing through the winter, or such as have been rooted this 
spring, and wliich may be supposed to be now in 5 or 6-inoh 
pots, should be at once moved into others 3 inches larger, 
using, in all stages of their growth, nothing but good fibrous 
peat and sand. This is more suitable for them than any 
mixture of peat, loam, leaf mould, or other combination. The 
peat cannot be too fibrous, and after the plants are moved 
from 6 inch pots it should be used in a lumpy state, the pieces 
not being broken smaller than bantam's eggs. Good peat of 
this description should have mixed with it one-sixth part of 
sand. Drain the pots well, pot moderately firm, and do not 
give water until the soil has become drier than would 
be advisable for most stove plants. Take half a dozen sticks, 
3 feet in length, and insert them in the soil just inside the pot, 
round these wind the shoots, leaving the points well up, or they 
will throw out too many side breaks ; and keep them through 
the remainder of the summer in a warm stove, for they will bear 
as much heat as any plants living. Syringe them overhead 
every afternoon, getting the water well to the under-side of the 
foliage, as they are subject to red spider, as well as to scale and 
mealy bug. By the middle of October move them into 12 or 
13-inch flowering pots. In potting this time, do not disturb 



July 3, 1876.] 



fail GARDEN. 



the roots any more than is necessary to remove the drain- 
at'e soil, which should be similar to that used for the 
previous shift. Untwist the plants fi'om the sticks to which 
they have been attached, and at once put them on the trellises 
ou which they ai'e to be grown ; these should be made of strong 
galvanised wire, 2 feet 3 inches broad, by 2 feet 6 inches in 
height above the pot. These trellises may appear small, but 
they look very bad when not well covered with foliage, and the 
bunches of flowers, which should never be tied in stiffly, will 
project on all sides to a distance of 6 or 8 inches from the 
'trellis, making the plants large enough for any purpose. 
The ends of the wire should be 9 inches longer, so as to have 
sufficient hold of the soil, and should be inserted just inside 
the rim of the pot, and fastened securely by three stout 
sticks, 1 and Ij inches in diameter; those should come 
half-way up the inside of the trellis, and be secured 
to it, so as to keep the whole firm in its place. With- 
out these sticks the trellises are liable to swing about 
and injure the plants when moved. Train the shoots 
evenly round the trellis, taking care to furnish the bottom 
first ; growth from this time until the days lengthen will be 
much slower. Through November, December, and January, 
keep the night temperature about 70°, with a rise of 6° in 
the day. A good bed of tan is of great advantage to the 
plants, which should stand above it, but Dipladenias should 
never be plunged. They are very impatient of any excess of 
mtiisture at the roots, and, when plunged, it is not nearly so 
easy to tell when they require water ; it also makes them much 
more tender by the way in which it acts upon them, &c. ; 
when plunged in most houses they are too far from the light. 
Eun the shoots up thin strings fastened from the trellis to the 
roof, keeping them in this position until they have begun to 
open their flowers. At the beginning of February the tem- 
perature should be raised 3^ or 4° ; and, by the end of March, 
it should average 78^ in the night, letting it run up to 85" or 
90° in the day with sun-heat ; admit a little air but allow no 
cold currents to come in contact with the plants. Close early, 
syringing at the same time. As the sun gets powerful the 
flowers will be benefited by a little shade in the middle of the 
day, but the plants do not require it. When the bunches 
begin to open, train the shoots neatly round the trellis so as 
to have it covered uniformly with foliage and flowers. Assist 
them with manure-water all through the season from this time, 
and they will keep throwing out fresh shoots that will show 
bloom when from 12 to 18 inches in length. Do not allow 
these to get twisted. They will, if all goes on well, continue 
to bloom freely through the summer. At the end of September 
they should be taken ofi the trellises, and the shoots cut back to 
within 6 feet of the collar. If there are any scale or mealy 
bug upon them immerse the shoots for an hour in " Abyssinian 
mixture " — 5 ounces to the gallon — and then tie them loosely 
to a few sticks insei'ted in the soil. The temperature now 
should be about 70^ in the night ; in three weeks they will have 
broken sufficiently for moving ; then turn them out of the pots 
and reduce the ball quite one half, removing as much of the 
old soil as is possible without injuring the roots. Place them 
in 15-inch pots, which size is large enough for any Dipladenia, 
as, owing to the annual renewal of so much of the soil, they 
do not require more room than this. In potting always keep 
the collar of the plants well up, only just, or barely, covering 
the tuberous portion of the roots, by which means they are 
not nearly so liable to suffer in this their most tender part. 
At once place them on the trellis again, and treat them in 
every way as recommended for the preceding year. 

The following varieties are the best, and deserve a place in 
every stove : 

D. Brearleyana. — The finest of all. Has immense flowers, 
with from three to four open on each bunch at a time. The 
colour is not easy to describe. It is, when properly brought 
out, extremely rich, differing from any other flower I ever saw 
— an intense deep reddish-crimson, with a lustre upon it like 
the Damask Eoae. It has fine dark green leaves, is a remark- 
ably robust grower, and equally free flowerer. 

ib. insignis. ^ — A fine variety, with deep rosy-purple 
flowers of great substance. The leaves are large, and set off 
the plant to advantage. 

D. amabilis. — An excellent free-flowering sort, the blooms 



distinct in colour from both the above, being deep rose, with 
ample foliage. One of the best plants in cultivation. 

D. crassinoda. — -A more slender-habited plant than the 
preceding, with thinner wood and smaller glossy leaves. Its 
beautiful rose-coloured flowers, which the plant produces 
freely, are well set off by the yellow throat. I have had a 
plant of this variety with 150 bunches of flowers upon it at 
once. 

D. Williamsii. — This is an improvement upon D. splen- 
dens, the ground colour, like that variety, being pale blush, 
with the addition of a deep pink throat, that much enhances 
its beauty. It blooms freely, and is one of the mosn chaste 
flowers that we have. 

D. Boliviensis bears delicate-coloured flowers, much smaller 
than any of the preceding, and is very distinct from them. 
There are several other varieties, none of which, however, are 
equal to those named. All make beautiful climbers for draping 
the roof of a stove, the splendid colour of their flowers being 
seen to the greatest advantage thus hanging; but, even when 
grown in this way, they should not be planted out, as they 
succeed best in pots where the soil can, in a great measure, be 
removed every year. In growing Dipladenias it is necessary 
to keep the soil drier than is required for most stove plants, 
and also to keep them clean from scale, thrips, bugs, and red 
spider. Any of these pests will live upon them ; and, if 
allowed to increase to any considerable extent, disfigure the 
foliage. 



THE GARDEN IN THE HOUSE. 

PLANTS IN DWELLING-HOUSES.* 

ByB. S. RAND, Juif. 
A TLiNT lives and breathes, and a want of provision for this 
breathing is, wc hold, one gi-eat cause of ill success iu indoor 
culture. A plant breathes through myriads of pores existing 
more or less numerously in the foliage, according to the species. 
If these pores become in any degree clogged by the fine dust 
of the room, just so much is the health of the plant affected 
by the stoppage of one of the vital functions. The dry air of 
living rooms, often contaminated by furnace gas or uncon- 
sumed illuminating gas, is another source of ill health. Plants 
must breathe a moist pure atmosphere, and an atmosphere 
charged with coal gases is sure to produce disease. The 
food of a plant is derived partly (sometimes wholly) from the 
air, in the form of moisture, and partly from the earth in the 
form of soluble salts ; this food it elaborates by its own 
peculiar organism and appropriates to its growth, and, just in 
the proportion that this food is furnished in suitable form 
and quantity for such adaptation, will be the healthj' growth 
of the plant. Plants, too, have their seasons for feeding, and 
the supply of nutriment must not only be sufficient in quality 
and quantity, but furnished at the proper time. Light, 
generally direct sunlight, is important to the health of plants ; 
comparatively few thrive in shade, and with most the more 
light the stronger and more vigorous the growth. Plants 
grow to the light, and, withdrawn from it, they strive to reach 
it, and become what the gardeners call " drawn," that is, 
produce long, weak growth, with leaves at long intervals, 
instead of the short, stocky growth, which is in most plants a 
sign of health. We thus have the essentials of health in the 
requisites of air, cleanliness, and light. These properly pro- 
vided, with judicious watering and suitable soil, success is 
certain. Let us, however, consider these essentials somewhat 
in detail. 

Air. — We have said a vitiated atmosphere is unsuitable 
for the healthy growth of plants, and such is the air of most 
parlours and living rooms. Its life is dried out of it by its 
passing over the red hot iron of our furnaces and stoves. We can 
all remember instances where plants do well in rooms heated 
by open wood fires, the most healthy mode of heating a room, 
both for plants and human beings. Steam heat is better than 
that of furnaces or stoves, as the air is less contaminated, and 
can be kept moister. But it is not alone the dryness of the 
air that is injurious. From all furnaces or stoves more or less 
gases escape and contaminate the air, and where gas is used 
* Read before the Massachusetts Horticultui-al Society. 



10 



THE GAEDEN. 



[July 3, 1875. 



for illummation a large percentage escapes unconsumed into 
the air of the room. Now, how can we remedy this? If 
possible, by growing our plants in rooms which are not lighted 
by gas or heated by furnaces or stoves. Where this is impos- 
sible, by securing, by ventilation, a complete change of the air 
of the room at least twice a day. Plants seldom require a very 
high temperature, and most of our living rooms are too hot 
for them;_a night temperature of 40", rising to 65° or 70° by 
day, is quite sufficient for the healthy growth of most plants, 
and this rise of temperature should be mostlv from sun heat. 
Sudden changes of temperature and cold draughts should be 
avoided; to some plants a chill is almost as injurious as frost. 
During the present winter we have grown Palms (Latania), 
Agaves, Cypripedium insigne, Tillandsias, four species of 
Ferns, Chinese Primroses, and Pelargoniums, in a large hall, 
where every cold night the mercury was as low as 4-2'', and 
more healthy plants one could not wish. A good plan is to 
separate a bow window from the room by a glass partition, 
making, in fact, a small conservatory, and thus pure air, 
moisture, and light, can be secured. Evaporation of water on 
stoves or furnaces is of great benefit, and should be universally 
adopted ; in fact, the moister we keep the air of the room, 
consistently with the health and comfort of the inmates, the 
better it will be for the plants ; but let us remember that in a 
low temperature the moisture may be less than where the 
room is kept very warm. 

Cleanliness is of the first importance. A dirty plant will 
not thrive. The fine dust always floating in the air of living 
rooms settles upon the plants. This is easily removed by 
sponging with lukewarm water, or by removing the plant to a 
sink and copioasly showering it from the fine rose of a water- 
pot. The stem also of hard-wooded plants should be occa- 
sionally sponged. The frequency of showering or washing 
must be regulated by the necessities of the case or the nature 
of the plant. Some plants are impatient of water upon the 
foliage. In many cases dust may be removed by gentle 
brushing with a soft feather duster. Under this head we may 
properly speak of the insects infesting house plants. These are 
few, and very little attention will keep plants clean. Green 
fly, or aphis, which is the most common peat, is best destroyed 
by smoking. Place the infested plant under a barrel, put a 
few live coals in a dish, moisten some common plug tobacco 
that it may not blaze, throw it upon the coals, and let the 
plant remain in the fumes from five to ten minutes ; then give 
the plant a good syringing or sprinkling, and the work is done. 
Thrips seldom attacks house plants ; should they be found, 
smoking will remove them. Eed spider is kept down by 
moisture — frequent washing and sprinkling will destroy it. 
Mealy bug is one of the worst pests of the greenhouse, but is 
rare on house plants. "Washing will remove it, but the best 
plan is to touch the places where it is seen with a camel's-hair 
pencil dipped in diluted alcohol. Scale of several kinds 
is often found on the stems and leaves of home-grown 
plants ; _ washing with strong soap-suds and persistent 
application will remove it. A paragraph has been going the 
round of the papers recommending kerosene oil for scale on 
Ivy ; that it will destroy scale there is no doubt, but it will 
also kill the foliage. It might, however be used cautiously if 
diluted with water, with which it will mix if a little soap is 
added. A healthy plant is much less likely to be infested with 
insects, and if plants are kept in stout, vigorous growth, there 
will be little trouble from any insect pest. A warm dry 
atmosphere is much more conducive to their development than 
a low moist temperature. Generally, however, house plants 
have no insects which a very little care, when they first appear, 
will not remove. 

liight is very important to plants, and for most plants direct 
sunlight is necessary. A southerly window is the best expo- 
sure, but a deep bow window fronting the south, where the 
morning sun can come in on the east, and the light of the 
setting sun on the west, is the best for the growth 
of plants. If the choice is between an easterly or a westerly 
■window, the easterly should be chosen, as the morning 
sun is better than that of the afternoon. The plants should 
be as close to the light as possible, as thereby there is less 
danger of their becoming drawn ; they should be frequently 
turned, that all sides may have equal exposui-c ; this is espe- 



cially necessary with quick - growing, soft -wooded plants. 
Some of the revolving flower-stauds are in this respect very 
useful, as they enable the plants to be turned to the light 
without the labour of lifting the pots. Light has also great 
influence upon the colours of the flowers, which, if grown away 
from the sun, are usually pale and weak. 

Water.— We have said that plants derive most of their food 
from the soluble salts of the soil which are taken up by the 
rcots in a liquid form and assimilated to the uses of the plant. 
Sufficient and careful watering is most essential to successful 
culture, and it is from neglect in this particular that so many ' 
failures arise. The quantity of water needed varies with the 
nature of the plant ; a very little suffices for some, others 
require a large supply. There are, however, very few plants 
that will flourish with water standing around the roots. 
Therefore, in potting, provision should be made, by ample 
drainage, for the escape of all superfluous water, and where 
saucers are used all water which drains off should be emptied. 
Watering may be more or less frequent according to the nature 
of the plant, but should always be thorough ; not little driblets, 
given now and then, moistening the surface-soil, and leaving 
the centre of the ball dust dry, but a good soaking, thoroughly 
wetting all the soil until the water runs ofi:; then do not water 
again until the plant is dry. The temperatiire of the water 
should never be below that of the air of the room ; it may be 
higher, and the water may even be lukewarm ; but the many 
paragraphs found in newspapers advising the use of hot water 
are no less pernicious than absurd. The best mode of enrich- 
ing the soil is by water ; guano, the salts of ammonia, and 
other manures may be applied in a soluble form ; caution is 
necessary, however, lest the manure be too strong, thereby 
injuring the plant ; and usually, if the soil is good, no manure 
will be required. It a plant exhausts the soil, the best remedy 
is re-pottiug. 

Soil. — The soil in which the plant is grown is an important 
element of culture. For most house plants a rich light soil is 
suitable, such as may be easily made by a slight mixture of 
fine fresh sand with good garden loam. In this, if good 
drainage is secured, most plants will do well. Where, how- 
ever, it can be obtained, a mixture of two parts of well-rotted 
turf and one part sharp sand is preferable. If there is a 
neighbouring greenhouse it is easy to obtain such soil, but any 
sweet earth which is not sodden, or is, by becoming so, allowed 
to get sour, will grow common plants well. It is a good plan 
to stir the surface of the soil in the pots whenever it becomes 
hard ; this is especially beneficial to Eoses. The addition of 
a few bits of charcoal to the soil often increases the brilliancy 
of the flowers, and to some plants powdered bone imparts a 
more vigorous growth. To conclude : while plants may live 
and often bloom with little care, and often in spite of neglect, 
they will repay well directed care by vigour of growth and 
profusion of bloom. While their wants are but few, attention 
to these is essential to their health ; and, in the house culture 
of plants, if they arc worth growing at all, they are well worth 
the care which is necessary for successful culture. 

Plants for House Culture. 

One great reason of failure in the culture of window plants is 
the choice of unsuitable species or varieties. There are many 
plants, indeed a large proportion, with which room culture is 
an impossibility. We are not able to supply the essential 
wants of the plant, and it sickens and dies. Yet there are 
many, very many plants, which may be most successfully 
grown, and some of these we propose to mention. We must, 
however, bear in mind that very few plants will succeed, if 
they are removed at once from the warm, moist atmosphere of 
the greenhouse to the parlour or living room ; the change is too 
great, and the plant receives a shock from which it seldom 
recovers. Plants from a greenhouse should be gradually 
hardened off, and then will not suffer. Of the tens of 
thousands of pot pknts sold from the street stands in spring, 
probably not one in ten survives. These plants are forced into 
bloom in small pots, have no constitution, and very few of them 
ever give another flower. Plants taken from the garden in 
autumn to winter in the house should be carefully potted early 
in September, hardened off in the shade out of doors, and 
removed to the house when the nights become frosty ; on warm 



July 3, 1875.] 



THE GARDEN. 



11 



sunny days they should have plenty of fresh air. Treated thus 
we may have autumn and early winter bloom, whereas, if we 
delay the autumn transplanting until the plants are checked 
by frost, they seldom give bloom till February. Our mention 
of species and varieties suited for house culture must neces- 
sarily be brief, and will be confined to winter plants There 
are many flowers which do very well in rooms in summer, and 
which are valuable for those having no garden. Many of the 
plants we mention are very constant bloomers, and the 
foliaged species are ornamental both in winter and in summer. 
Roses. — These charming and popular flowers are not well 
adapted for house culture. The dry air affects most varieties 
unfavourably, and they rarely give satisfaction. Those with 
very double flowers seldom expand theirbuds. There are, how- 
ever, a few old varieties which were formerly more common than 
at present, and which do well, and ai'e worth growing. The best 
is Sanguinea, a very bright, semi-double variety, flowering in 
clusters, and always in bloom. Agrippina is a good pot Eose. 
The Pink monthly, if grown to a large plant, is seldom out of 
bloom. Jennie is a very fragrant Tea, and though not a first- 
class Rose is well worth growing. Safrano .and Pauline 
Labonte, two of our best Teas, do well if the air of the room is 
kept moist and not too hot. Roses in the house need frequent 
stirring of the surface soil. If the earth in the pots is sour and 
sodden they soon become sickly. 

Abutilons. — All the species thrive in the house, except 
nerhaps the red flowered (A. insigne), and even this we have 
seen doing well. The best is the common A. striatum, which 
is always in bloom, is a very clean plant, and of sym- 
metrical growth. Many species are tall growers, and are 
too large for common cultivation ; where space and sufficient 
light can be given, they form fine bushes which give a pro- 
fusion of bloom. A. Pattersoni is, as a rule, a very free 
blooming large-flowered variety of compact growth. A. 
Verschaffeltii has bright sulphur- coloured flowers in great 
profusion. A. Thompsoni and A. vesillarium variegatum are 
valuable for their bright foliage ; the former, however, requires 
more heat than most kinds. A. vexillarium has charmingly- 
contrasted flowers of red and yellow. A. Boule de Neige is a 
new dwarf, free-flowering white variety, which promises to be 
very valuable. All Abutilons require a rich, light soil, with 
good drainage, and plenty of water and light. They thrive in 
the dry atmosphere of living rooms better than most plants, 
and with very little care give fine foliage and abundance of 
bloom. 

Cuph.eas. — For constant bloom there is no better variety 
than the so-called " Cigar plant " (C. platycentra). It has 
bright, cheerful little flowers, grows freely, and never seems to 
become sickly. 

Cyclamens. — The varieties of Cyclamen persicum are all 
well suited for house culture. A neater, more attractive plant, 
it would be difficult to find. The tuber should be started 
into growth in October, watered moderately until in active 
growth, then more freely. Tne more light and suu the better. 
Seedling varieties are easily obtained, and are very cheap ; in 
colour they vary from pure white to deep rosy-red. 

Cactuses. — These are mostly summer bloomers, and all do 
well with but little care. There is, however, one winter blooming 
species, Epiphyllum truncatum, which is a capital window 
plant. Give it a light, not very rich soil, with good drainage, 
be careful not to over-water, and it will not fail to give satis- 
faction. In the species the flowers are pink, but in the many 
varieties, all of which do equally well, we have many shades of 
red and violet, and some remarkably beautiful flowers. The 
best are Russellianum, violaceum, tricolor, salmoneum album, 
and omentum ; but all are good and worth growing. 

Oxalises. — Of thischarming familyall the species commonly 
found in greenhouses may be well grown in the house. They 
should be started into growth in the room and not taken from 
a greenhouse. The foliage of most is neat and Clover-like, and 
that of some beautifully cut. The flowers are pink, white, and 
yellow. 0. versicolor is a very pretty basket plant, beautiful in 
foliage, bud, and flower. The common yellow species (O.cernua) 
is very fragrant and free-blooming. 0. laxula and the variety 
alba have large pink or white flowers. 0. floribunda, both pink 
and white, is never out of bloom, vrinter or summer. Soil, 



rich and light, plenty of water when growing, gradually lessen- 
ing the supply as the plants dry off, and perfect rest in summer 
until the time comes for re-potting and growth. 

Triteleia.— This little hardy bulb (T. uniflora) gives plenty 
of flower in a sunny window. Treat the bulbs as prescribed 
for Oxalis. The flower varies from pearly-white to blue, and 
continues long in beauty. The odour of Garlic which pervades 
the plant is not perceived unless the blossoms are gathered. 
Bulbs cost only a few pence each. It is one of the best and 
most easily grown window plants. 

Chinese Primrose— This is a plant of easy culture, very 
free-blooming, never infested with iusects, and always beautiful. 
Young plants raised from spring-sown seed will make largo 
blooming plants by autumn. The soil should be rich and 
light, and the plants should have as much sun as possible. 
The same plant will bloom from November to May — indeed a 
fault of the plant, if fault it has, is that it often blooms itself 
to death. The double varieties are not as desirable as the 
single for house culture, and the Fern-leaved kinds, although 
elegant in foliage, possess no remarkable blooming qualities. 
This Primrose is one of the best of window plants. 

Pinks. — Many of the monthly Pinks do well in the house. 
The plants should be lifted from the ground in September, and 
grown in a light airy room. They will not bloom freely until 
after the turn of the year, but when they once begin will 
continue for a long time. The three best in colour are La 
Purete, red; Astoria, yellow ; and President de Graw, white. 

Myrsiphyllum asparagoides.— This pretty climber may be 
very easily grown as a common window plant, and will flower 
and fruit freely. Pot the I'oots in autumn in rich, well-drained 
soil, and give the plants plenty of light, with very little heat. 
The chief cause of failure with this pLint is the heat of the 
room. Train the delicate shoots to a flat trellis, or lot them 
run across the window on strings. Dust the foliage if it 
becomes dirty, and give air on every day when the temperature 
is above freezing. 

Cypripediums. — One of the Lady's-slippers (C. insigne), is a 
good parlour plant. The soil should be coarse peat and fine 
sand. Keep the plant moist, but never wet. It will stand any 
heat, but suffers from cold. The curious flowers are produced 
in December, and last in full beauty two months. 

Pelargoniums. — The zonal varieties are best for window 
culture. A rich, well-drained soil and plenty of sun and light 
are the requisites for success. If kept in the dark the plants 
soon become drawn, and if not frequently turned they grow one- 
sided. The aim should be to get short, stocky growth. Tho 
varieties with variegated foliage are all pretty, and generally 
do well in the parlour, but they are very inferior in flower. 
The species with scented foliage, familiarly known as the Rose, 
Lemon, Apple, Clove, Nutmeg, and Peppermint Geraniums, are 
all worth growing ; in flower they are ineffective ; but many 
of the varieties of the Rose Geranium have beautiful finely- 
cut foliage. The large-flowered Pelargoniums arc generally 
unsuitable for window culture, though we have sometimes seen 
them well grown and bloomed. 

Richardia. — This African Lily (R. sethiopica) is one of the 
best window plants. Give a rich soil and plenty of water — 
indeed, the plants may stand in water without injury. In 
spring, plant out the tubers, re-potting again early in Septem- 
ber. The dwarf variety is desirable. The species with spotted 
foliage must be wholly dried off in summer ; its only beauty is 
the foliage, the flower not being especially handsome. 

Azaleas. — The varieties of Aziilea indica and phoenicea 
bloom freely as window plants. The reason why Azaleas so 
seldom bloom well in houses is that care is not taken to ripen 
the young growth which succeeds the flowers, and in which the 
buds are formed for the next year's bloom. Unless the air of 
the room is kept moist. Azaleas are apt to drop their foliage. 
The species, white and purple, are better for house culture than 
any of the varieties, and of the varieties those with large 
foliage succeed better than the fine leaved kinds. 

Camellias. — If the room is kept cool and without furnace 
heat Camellias may be bloomed in the house as well as in the 
greenhouse. The chief difficulty is the dropping of tho 
flower-buds, caused by dry hot air. Do not attempt to force 



12 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 3, 1875. 



them, give plenty o£ fresli air on mild days, and there will be 
a fine spring bloom. 

Oranges.— Orange trees, where there is room for them, may 
be successfully grown ; they require the same general culture 
as Camellias, but will stand more heat. Cleanliness of the 
leaves and branches is of first importance. They bloom in 
spring, and seldom fail to set and ripen fruit. The Chinese 
dwarf Oranges are easily grown, and flower and fruit freely. 

Pittosporum. — This old-fashioned plant (P. Tobira), is now 
very seldom grown. It is, however, to be recommended ; the 
foliage is hard and coriaceous, well adapted to stand a hot and 
dry atmosphere ; the flowers are pretty, freely produced, and 
deliciously fragrant. It needs but little care, is seldom sickly, 
and thrives in any exposure. 

Jasmines. — Thelndian Jasmine (J.revolutum)isa charming, 
free-flowering species, with rich dark green foliage, and frag- 
rant yellow flowers. It thrives in the parlour, and well repays 
the trouble of growing. Soil a light peaty loam, good 
drainage, and plenty of water. We have seen one plant of 
this species entirely filling a large bay window, and bearing 
hundreds of flowers. 

Tropseolums. — The varieties of TropEeolum minus will often 
make a window very gay with a profusion of bright flowers in 
spring. The plants, during autumn and early winter, should 
have all possible light, and be kept rather dry. They will 
not grow much until after January; then, as the days become 
longer, they will make long shoots with flowers in the axil of 
every leaf. A pretty mode of growth is to train the shoots 
backwards and forwards across the window ; the flowers thus 
show well from the outside. 

A great cause of failure in blooming hard-wooded plants 
well in the house is neglecting them during the summer. 
Parlour plants are too often, as soon as the weather gets warm, 
seb out on a piazza, or under trees, or in a back yard, exposed to 
parching suns and drying winds, irregularly watered, and, in 
fact, generally neglected untilautumn comes again. The wonder 
is how so many survive and why they bloom at all. Let us bear 
in mind that it is in the summer that these plants prepare for 
the winter bloom, and that they need care and attention then 
quite as much as in winter. Thus have we given a list of 
some of the plants suited for window culture. We have pur- 
posely omitted mention of the difi^ereiit species of Dutch 
bulbs, such as Hyacinths, Narcissus, &c. ; of foliaged plants, 
such as Dracasnas and Begonias, some of which do well ; of 
Ferns, of Ivy, and of the large tribe of succulents, many of 
which are very ornamental; also summer-blooming plants, 
Hoyas, Fuchsias, Vallotas, and a host of others. The list is 
quite long enough for selection. We cannot each of us grow 
all, but each can choose his plants from those mentioned ; and, 
with care bestowed intelligently, there is little fear of failure. 



NOTES AND QUESTIONS ON THE GARDEN IN THE HOUSE. 

A Good Basket Plant.— I bare a large basket hanging in my porch, 
open to the south, which is always pretty, although it is several years since it 
was filled. The principal object is a large Golden Honeysuckle (Lonicera 
anrea reticulata), which hangs down in a most graceful manner. Associated 
with it are a few plants of Pteris serrulata, Oak. leaf and scarlet Geraniums, and 
a quantity of the wild blue Veronica or Speedwell ; these form a combination 
superior, both in effect and endurance, to the choicest stove climbers.— J. 
Gboom. 

Dianthns Highclere.— Besides being "a useful plant for mixed borders," 
as your correspondent " N. H. P." states (see p. 483, Vol. VII.). we find a few 
plants of this Pink (well established in pots, in the same way as Carnations, 
and placed in a cold frame, from which severe frost can be excluded) invaluable 
for cutting and making good button-holes. — A. H. Thoebsby. 

Lobelia Blue Beauty.— This is an excellent kind both for window boxes 
and for beds. It belongs to the Pumila section, is a robust grower, and has 
flowers of large size, and nch in colour. It is largely used at Chiswick and at 
South Kensington, as its compact habit and rich dark blue flowers render it 
moat effective in whatever way it is grown. In the working out of carpet 
designs in beds, or for edgings. Lobelias belonging to this section are niost 
valuable, as they never grow out of shape, and are much more trustworthy 
than kinds belonging to the old speciosa strain. I can recommend Blue Beauty 
to all who want a good free-flowering and effective variety.— Alex. Dean. 

Ferns for the House.— Mr. E. S. Rand finds Nephrolepis exaltata, Adiantum 
cuneatura, Pteris tremula, and P. cretica albo-lineata, thrive perfectly in the 
ordinary dry air of a dwelling-house. Pteris serrulata, which grows so freely 
in the hothouse, will not thrive in a room. 

Salt Water Aquariums.— Several writers in the "Belgique Horticole" 
have given the results of their experience in managing marine aciuariums. Mr. 
Bauwens says that he has possessed a marine atiuarium nearly ten years, 
and the sea-water has never been renewed. All that he does is to add fresh 
water as the salt water evaporates, the same degree of saltness being invariably 
maintained. 



THE AMATEUR'S GARDEN. 

By THOMAS BAINES. 
Kitchen Garden. — Where Spinach is required all through tho 
season, seed must be sown regularly every fortnight, as it will not 
stand much beyond that period without running to seed ; any vacant 
spot that can be cleared from other plants may be used for this pur. 
pose. As the crop of Cabbage is cut, strip the leaves from the 
stumps, as they only harbour slugs and caterpillars ; give the ground 
a good soaking with manure-water to assist the stools to throw out 
fresh side shoots, which will furnish through the remainder of the 
season a useful supply of tender sprouts. 

lieeks. — If these have been treated as advised earlier in the 
season, by being sown at the proper time, and thinned out in the 
seed-bed, so as to give them enough room to grow, they will now bo 
in good order for planting. The ground they are to occupy should 
be well dug to the depth of 15 inches, and broken fine, so as not to 
leave any large hard lumps. Plant in rows, 15 inches apart, with 8 
or 9 inches between the plants ; and, in planting, use a stout dibber, 
that will make holes 8 inches deep and 2 inches (or a little more) in 
diameter. In these place the plants, dropping in soil to the depth of 
1 or 2 inches, but no more, leaving the rest of the hole open, and 
giving a good watering, so as to settle the soil. By only partially 
filling tho hole, the requisite air gets down to the roots, and tho 
opening above affords space for the stems of the plants to thicken, 
and also blanches them in a way that imparts the peculiar delicate 
flavour which a well-grown Leek possesses. If the ground is good 
and well enriched, they will, under this treatment, grow almost as 
thick as a man's wrist, and are far superior to the small, tough, 
strong-flavoured specimens of this vegetable which are often to be 
met with. 

Killing and Charring Weeds, &c. — Hand-weeding is very 
slow work, and where all the culinary vegetables are grown in 
rows, as they ought to be, there is comparatively little of 
it required ; but the late showery weather has much retarded 
the use of the hoe, and, in many cases, ihe removal of 
weeds by hand will have to be resorted to ; it may be 
well to remind those who are novices in gardening that it will 
not sufiice to merely pull up weeds that have got to a con. 
siderable size, and leave them on the surface of the ground, as 
with many of the annual species, especially Groundsel and Chickweed, 
it would merely hasten their increase, for the seeds in a very short 
time become sufficiently developed to grow, if the plants are pulled 
up when they are apparently only just opening their flowers. There 
is no safe way with them but removal to the refuse heap, where, if 
mixed with Grass mowings, green Potato-tops, and other vegetable 
haulm, they quickly get so hot by fermentation as to destroy the 
vitality of the seeds. Treated in this way, and soaked with soapy 
water and house-slops they become valuable fertilisers, and as such 
will be found by amateurs more effective than animal manure used 
alone. The right principle upon which to act is to return to the soil, 
in a decomposed harmless condition, all that it has produced of a 
useless description, without recourse to burning, which, under the 
impression that there is no other way of killing some weeds that are 
unusually tenacious of life, is sometimes resorted to. With good 
management this is unnecessary, and, aa it is wasteful, should never 
take place. It may be necessary to point out that there is a great 
difference between charring and burning; in the former the bulk ia 
comparatively slightly reduced ; in the latter little is left. In a 
garden nothing should be burnt except it be too woody to rot, such 
as prunings and strong hedge-clippings. When hedges have received 
their summer dressing the clippings may be partially dried and 
afterwards used for charring weeds, such as Couch (3rass. They 
should be mixed with clay or other earthy matter, sufficient to prevent 
the whole from blazing, a smouldering heat, suflicient to destroy vege. 
table life, being all that is required. The material so treated will not 
be very much reduced in bulk, and ia very useful for digging into the 
kitchen garden, especially where the soil ia of a heavy nature. 

Hedges. — In summer.clipping it is necessary to discriminate 
between those that will bear it without injury and those that will not. 
Old hedges are not liable to be injured by clipping, but the vigour 
of young hedgea is somewhat impaired by summer-pruning, on 
account of the large amount of leaves removed in the process. 
Amateurs will do well to note throughout the season the varieties of 
different plants, especially those of culinary vegetables, that succeed 
best with them ; for, although .a variety may be excellent in quality, 
local influences frequently render it unsuitable for particular soils. 
For instance, that excellent Strawberry British Qneen will not 
thrive in some gardens, whilst in others, perhaps onlj' a few hundred 
yards off, it will succeed admirably. The same fact ia often noticed 
with Potatoes ; these are not only influenced, as regards yield, by the 
nature of the soil in different places, but the quality is so much 
affected that particular varieties, when grown in some situations, 



July 3, 1875.] 



THE GARDEN. 



13 



would scarcely be reoogaisable when cooked. Long Carrots will not 
do at all in certain places where the Short Horn kinds do well. 

Climbers covering walls, such as Roses, Clematis, Honeysuckle, 
and other plants of a similar character, will, as they make growth, 
require nailing, tying to wires, or securing in some way ; but do not 
allow tho shoots to grow too long before this is done or they are 
certain to get broken or chafed by the wind, and it is the more neces- 
sary to attend well to this in the case of any that have not yet 
covered their allotted space. It frequently happens that plants 
intended to cover walls, however desirable it is that the object should 
be accomplished with as little delay as possible, do not receive suffi- 
cient water in dry summer weather ; even when enough rain falls to 
moisten the soil sufficiently where it ia open, it does not always reach 
the roots of plants so situated, especially where the walls are high. 
In such oases good soakings of water should be given when it is dry. 
The blooming of Roses that cover largo spaces on walls is often 
of very short duration, on account of the deficiency of moisture at 
the roots, and not only is the flowering affected, but the foliage is 
scanty, and becomes a prey to aphides and red spider ; the use of 
the garden-engine or syringe is here indispensable, as the leaves, 
from their position, receive little benefit from being washed with tho 
rains. As the first flowers of the Hybrid Perpetual section are over 
they should at once be removed, or they will seriously interfere with 
the later blooming. Keep the foliage clean and healthy by 
repeated use of the syringe ; this will greatly assist thorn in pro. 
ducing flowers through the season. 

Flower Garden.— The beds should be gone over every ten days 
or so to regulate the plants and remove all dead leaves and weeds ; 
the cold chilly nights we have had since bedding-out time has pre- 
Vfented many plants making much progress. Tender subjects, such 
as Coleus, in some situations have suffered so much as to be past 
reeovei-y ; if the advice given some time back, of keeping reserve 
plants in hand to fill up blanks, has been followed, the utility of these 
will now be apparent, as tender plants that have been slightly pro. 
teoted from the cold will, in a very short time, be more effective than 
those that were first planted and that have been stunted. 



Flo-wer Garden" and Pleasure Grounds. 

Rhododendrons and other American plants will now be out of 
bloom, and their seed-pods may be removed with advantage, inas- 
much as allowing them to remain has the effect of impairing the 
production of bloom next year. Where Lilies or Gladioli are grown 
among American plants they may now require to be neatly staked, 
when their showy blossoms will soon enliven the mass of dark- 
foliaged plants with which they are associated. In advising the 
removal of decaying blooms and seed-pods from the Rhododendron, it 
is unnecessary to say that the same applies equally to the Rose and 
to various other flowering shrubs ; for, as a rule, blooms generally 
(unless seed is required) should be removed as soon as they begin to 
decay. When the weather is very dry it is always advisable 
about this time, or when American plants are making their 
growth and about to form flower-buds, to give the soil in 
which they are growing a good supply of water; but the fre- 
quent and heavy falls of rain experienced last mouth may, in 
many instances, have rendered this operation unnecessary. These 
rainfalls have also been beneficial to all newly turned.out bedding 
plants ; but, wherever failures may have occurred, they should at 
once be made good. All beds planted in the embroidered or carpet 
style will also require to be frequently attended to, in order to check 
the undue development of certain species, so that others, more 
delicate, and of slower growth, may be able to keep pace with them ; 
for it must be remembered that, in carrying out this style, species 
very distinct and dissimilar from each other must be nsed, as, for 
example, the richly.coloured Alternantheras, Coleuses, &o., from 
South America, and the hardy Ajugas, Antennarias, Sedums, &c., 
indigenous to Britain and the south of Europe ; all of which, from 
their habit of growth, colour of foliage, &o., are well adapted to the 
purpose, and only require attention in training, regulating, and 
pinching in. Attend carefully to regulating the growth of the 
various climbing plants used in the parterres, such as Roses, Honey, 
suckles, Clematises, Tropoeolums, &c. Many bulbs and tubers of 
various kinds, such as double and single Anemones, Ranunculuses, and 
others, will now be ripe, and should be taken up and stored ; while, on 
the margin of shrubbery borders and similar situations. Narcissi and 
other bulbous plants, such as Soillas, Tulips, and Crocuses, should be 
over.hanled every two or three years, and, as their foliage will now 
be decayed, and their bulbs ripe, they may be taken up and stored 
until the autumn, when they should be again planted in fresh soil. 
With regard, however, to all such scaly bulbs as those of the Lily 
family, the sooner they are planted the better ; and whenever they 
are taken up for the purpose of division or separation, beds or 
stations for them should be at once prepared, and they should be 



re-planted as soon as possible. All should be carefully labelled at 
the time of planting, so that their exact position may be known while 
they are at rest, and injury to them be avoided. Cuttings of Rosea 
and other hardy shrubs, which may have been forced into flower, will 
now strike very freely if placed under hand-glasses, in any shady 
situation ; as will also cuttings of many hardy herbaceous plants, but, 
in selecting such cuttings, avoid gross or strong shoots, as weak side, 
shoots will be found to strike root more freely, and will make better 
plants. Cuttings may also now be put under hand-glasses of Pansies, 
Pinks, Sweet Williams, and double Wallflowers, ; and seed of the 
Brampton and Queen Stocks may still ba sown, with the view to 
having them in bloom next May. — P. Gkieve, Oulford, Bury St. 
Udmunds. 

Orehids. 
Of these many will now be considerably advanced in growth 
and will require to be regularly and plentifully supplied with 
water. Calanthe vestita, C. Veitohii, and their varieties, should be 
watered with weak liquid manure twice a week. Plants of Odonto. 
glossum grande should not be syringed over their leaves until they 
have partly formed their bulbs ; for, if water should lodge in the 
growth before the bulbous part is formed, and allowed to remain 
there for any length of time, it will cause them to damp and rot. 
Odontoglossura Bluntii, Masdevallias, Oncidium macranthum, and 
their varieties, should have their leaves syringed in tho morniuo- on 
bright days ; they will then have time to get dry before the evening 
and be benefited by the dewy atmosphere of the house, a condition 
which is most essential to their well.doing. The East ludia.house 
will now require to ba plentifully charged with moisture ; this is 
important, as regards the health and vigour of the inmates, the 
greater part of which are air plants. Many Dendrobiums will now 
be making growth freely, and should have a temperature varying 
from 75° to 90° with sun.heat. Syringe the plants, benches, and 
floors, twice a day, and, on bright days, shade with a thin canvas. 
Most of the Cattleyas, especially the Trianse section, will now require 
a greater quantity of water than they have hitherto had. Oncidium 
ampliatum and 0. Lanceanum grow freely in a temperature of 63° by 
night and 80° by day, with sun.heat. 0. obryzatura, 0. flexuosum, 
0. sphacelatum, 0. ornithorhynohum, 0. leucochilum, O. altissimum, 
O. crispum, O. sessile, 0. divaricatum, and 0. bicallosum, all grow and 
flower freely placed at the dry end of the Cattleya-house. Miltonia 
Moreliana, M. spectabilis, and M. Candida, while growing, require a 
great quantity of water, and Sphagnum Moss should be allowed to 
grow on the surface of the pots. Pilumna fragrans is deserving of a 
place in every collection of Orchids ; if grown at the warm end of the 
Cattleya-house, it will produce its beautiful white flowers in abnn. 
dance during the dull months of winter. — E. Culley, Ferniehurst 
Shipley. 

Indoor Fruit Department. 
Vines. — The progress made by newly-planted Vines the first 
season has so much influence on their subsequent condition that their 
requirements should be a matter for careful consideration. The 
principal young shoots should be tied as each wire is reached ; the 
side growths should not be pinched unless they are obstructing the 
light. One-year-old canes, especially of Black Alicante, Barbarossa, 
and Syrian, are often months in starting into growth freelv • the 
shoots grow until they are 6 or 8 inches long and then stop' ' The 
lowermost shoot is frequently more vigorous than the top one ; and 
when such is the case, the strongest one may be taken up as the 
principal leader. Except in the case of Muscats no fire heat is now 
needed in Vineries, either during the night or at any other time 
as a temperature of 65° can be maintained by husbanding the heat 
of the sun in the afternoon. Muscats will ripen, in a certain 
fashion, in a night temperature a few degrees below 70S ; but 
where perfection is desired, nothing under that need be tried. ' 

Pines. — The first batch of suckers may now be taken off and 
potted. Queens, from which the earliest fruit was cut, should have 
them in a fine mature condition. Plants bearing fruit may have 
large suckers also, but the size should not be taken as a "uido to 
their fitness for being taken off, for no sucker should be cut from 
the parent plant unless the base of it is hard and nut.brown in colour 
let its size be ever so great. Those taken off and potted with 
blanched tender bases seldom succeed, and should be allowed to 
remain on the plant for a month, or even longer if necessary. In 
taking off the suckers, be careful not to bruise their leaves or injure 
their stem. Some of them may be twisted off with the hand ; others 
with a firmer hold require to be cut closely into the old stem with a 
knife. But this mode of operation needs a little care when the plants ' 
are in fruit, as the foliage is easily damaged. Pull all the small 
bottom leaves off with the hand ; but do not go above the point where 
the brown colour terminates, and do not touch any of the small roots 
which will be seen protruding round the bottom of the stem. Where 
accomodation is available, each sucker should be placed in a 6.inch pot, 



14 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 3, 1875. 



into which 2 inches of broken crooks should be put as drainage. The 
compost used should be the best fibrous loam, to each barrow load of 
which should be added an 8-inch pot full of fine bone-dust. When the 
soil is somewhat retentive, some horse-droppings may be intermixed 
with it. The soil should be firmly pressed about the sucker with the 
hand, and the pots plunged in any pit or frame where a bottom-heat 
of from 85° to 90° can be obtained for five or six weeks. The suckers 
should not be watered until their roots have reached the side of the 
pots. Syringe overhead every hot afternoon, and shade closely 
until enough roots are formed to prevent the leaves from shrivelling j 
or a check may be given from which it will take them a considerable 
time to recover. By putting the largest suckers in now the growth 
may be so far advanced that there will be every chance of their 
fruiting next autumn, instead of the following spring. — J. Muir. 

Hardy Fruit. 

Strawberries, Raspberries, Red, White, and Black Currants and 
Cherries, are all ripening together this season, and what between 
gathering and protecting such fruits from birds, the labour required 
just now is enormous, but as this work cannot be deferred without 
running great risk of injury to either fruit or trees every effort 
should be made to accomplish it in time, whatever the cost may be. 
Fruit, for preserving, should be gathered when perfectly dry, and if 
there has been no rain whatever on the ripe fruit it is likely to keep 
all the better. Cover up with mats or close-meshed netting any 
currants intended for exhibition or dessert, but, before doing so, see 
that the trees are free from aphis, or the fruit will soon spoil. Give 
a final thinning to all stone fruits, which will now have completed 
the stoning process. Plums, especially, are a heavy crop, and if any 
are expected next season they should be severely thinned out, two 
light crops are, or ought to be, preferable to one heavy one, and is not 
nearly so injurious to the trees. Thanks to the heavy rains with 
which we have been favoured, the prospects of the Apple crop 
is much improved, as the blight has all but disappeared, and 
some kinds will, contrary to expectation, require artificial 
thinning. Of course, on old orchard trees thinning is quite 
out of the question, and they must be left to take their 
chance, but bushes, pyramids, espaliers, and cordons, should be as 
well cared for in this respect as Apricots, Peaches, or Pears. The 
shoots of Morello Cherries, Peaches, and Nectarines, intended for 
next year's fruiting, should now be laid, tied, or nailed in, avoiding 
the too common error of retaining too many ; all should have space 
sufficient to allow of sunshine reaching every bud. Figs and Grape 
Vines in the open air are looking well this season ; and, if we get 
hot weather during August and September, the crops will be good. 
Pinch out the points of the new shoots of Vines one joint beyond the 
fruit, and of Figs so soon as the new shoots have made three or four 
joints. Water copiously, as both kinds are very impatient of 
drought. Follow up former directions as to the destruction and 
prevention of aphis, spider, and mildew, as no satisfactory growth 
can be made by the trees so long as these pests infest them.— W. 
WiLDS.\nTH, Heclifield. 



" In a Turnipy Manner." — The greater number of plants 
feed and grow at the same time ; but there are some of them which 
like to feed first and grow afterwards. For the first year, or, at all 
events, the first period of their life, they gather material for their 
future life out of the ground and out of the air, and lay it up in a 
storehouse as bees make combs. Of these stores — for the most part 
rounded masses tapering downwards into the ground — some are as 
good for human beings as honeycombs are ; only not so sweet. We 
steal them from the plants, as we do from the bees, and these 
conical upside-down hives or treasuries of Atreus, under the names of 
Carrots, Turnips, and Radishes, have had important influence on 
human fortunes. If we do not steal the store, next year the plant 
lives upon it, raises its stem, flowers and seeds out of tliat abundance, 
and having fulfilled its destiny, and provided for its successor, passes 
away, root and branch together. There is a pretty example of 
patience for us in this ; and it would be well for young people 
to set themselves to grow in a carroty or turnipy manner, and lay up 
secret store, not caring to exhibit it until the time comes for fruitful 
display. But they must not in after-life, imitate the spend-thrift 
vegetable, and blossom only in the strength of what they learned 
long ago ; else they soon come to contemptible end. Wise people 
live like Laurels and Cedars, and go on mining in the earth, while 
they adorn and embalm the air. — " Proserpina." 



MODES OF DESTEOYING MOLE CEIOKETS. 
M. Oswald db Keechove de Dentekghem, writing in the 
" Bulletin d' Arboriculture Beige," gives the following descrip. 
tion of several methods of destroying the mole cricket, which 
those who are troubled with them would do well to take notice 
of. Most Continental cultivators know to their cost the mole 
cricket that attacks the roots of plants, and are familiar with its 
singularly repulsive appearance, its deep brown colour, its enormous 
denticulated claws, and its immense cuirass: — "This insect is," 
said Olivier lo Serres many years ago, " the most dangerous enemy 
that is to be found in gardens." It is not that the mole cricket devours 
the plants, for these insects are not herbivorous, but in their pursuit 
after other insects they excavate subterranean passages, and in 
doing so cut through all the roots they meet with. The mole cricket 
has for its implacable foes the golden beetle, moles, hedgehogs, 
crows, and jackdaws. There are many methods of catching this 
pest ; one is to pour oil and water into their tunnels. This brings 
the mole cricket to the surface, but it only leaves its abode to die. 
The plan is an easy one when the insects have established their 
' drives ' in paths, but it is exceedingly difiioult to capture them 
when they have commenced their inroads on parterres full of young 
plants. M. Henri Reccing some years ago gave the following advice 
respecting their destruction, as likely to be most successful. Having 
procured some fresh horsedung, a heap of middling size should be 
formed with it at the extremity of each little alley left between the 
plants attacked. This mass of manure, well trampled on, is left 
without being disturbed for five or six days. At the end 
of this time the trap may be opened. The gardener, armed 
with a fork, opens the mound of manure at a stroke, scat, 
tering and killing the mole crickets as they attempt to escape. 
The heap must then be re-made, and, if dry, it must be 




Bird Scarers. — We have not had any advice for the p:entleman ^Tho wrote 
(see p. -190), Baying that the birds had built in the pocket of one of his scare- 
crows ; but a letter in the *' Northampton Mercury " says : — '* There is now to 
be seen in a fruit tree overhanging a walk in a garden near Vigo, on the 
Bedford Road, a robin's nest in the sleeve of an old coat, that has been used for 
a scarecrow 1 There are four eggs in the nest."— W. T. L. 



The Mole Cricket. 

watered, and new dung added to it. If the " runs " of the mole 
cricket are in the direction of the heap, care must be taken not to 
disturb them, for the first arrivals point out the way to many others. 
This remedy is inexpensive enough. M. Gonet, sub-inspector of 
French forests, accidentally discovered another which is remarkably 
simple and ingenious. A bed which was used by him for raising 
new forest trees was attacked by the mole cricket ; and the young 
plants could hardly be kept alive, owing to the constant movement of 
the soil. In order to protect them from the heat of the sun, M. 
Gonet shaded them %vell with straw mats, which were removed every 
evening. One morning, through forgetfulness, these coverings were 
not put on ; and, after the evening watering had taken place, one of 
them remained upon the damp ground, until the following noon. 
When taken up, the ground beneath was still damp, and about ten 
mole crickets were brought to light. This plan of destruction was 
often adopted afterwards ; it is an easy and cheap one, requiring 
only copious waterings and a few useless straw mats, choice being 
made of hot dry days to set the trap. At sunset, the ground is watered, 
and those portions of it nearest the borders to be protected are then 
covered. Attracted by the coolness of the ground, all the mole 
crickets in the neighbourhood will gather near the spot the following 
day when the sun is hottest, and nothing is easier than to 
seize and destroy them. This method will always be successful 
after May, and may safely be recommended. The pursuit of this 
insect should, where it exists, go on throughout the whole year. 
Above all, every effort should be made to destroy the eggs in the 
month of July. Those spots, which are slightly elevated in the form 
of a dome will be found to contain the nest, which is a little oval 
chamber below the level of the "runs." The eggs should be thrown 
into boiling water. In Belgium, the sandy character of the soil 
renders the inroads of the insects most destructive, and entails the 
necessity of the most persevering search for them, for they multiply 
at a prodigious rate. The eggs may be counted by the thousand in 
the nests, and if they are neglected for one year the consequences are 
felt to a disastrous extent long afterwards. They should be hunted 
down without mercy ; and it is well to remember a German saying — 
" If you are travelling in a carriage and you meet a mole-cricket, pull 
up, even if you are going down hill, and do not resume your journey 
until you have crushed it." 



July 3, 1875.] 



THE GARDEN. 



15 



LONDON FLOWERS. 
The last ten years have seen a vast improvement in the taste dig. 
played in many points of our domestic and social life, but perhaps 
in none is the advance more remarkable than in the attention now 
paid to the floral adornments of our rooms, balconies, and public 
places of resort. Formerly the most daring and ambitious spirit 
hardly aspired beyond a green box full of Stocks and Mignonette 
placed outside each window; now this dead level of uniformity is 
broken through, and our eyes are refreshed, and the dreary monotony 
of our far from picturesque streets relieved by the feathery white- 
ness of the SpirEoa, the rich blue of the luxuriant and graceful 
Lobelia, the drooping bells of Fuchsias, the delicate hues of Pelar- 
goniums, Cinerarias, Heaths, and many other greenhouse plants ; 
the gay yellow of Calceolarias, the richer tints being tempered by 
the grey-green leaves of the Nasturtium ; and last, though by no 
means least, by the graceful fronds of our common English Ferns. 
Ten years ago the idea of planting Ferns in a box as a decoration 
for a London window had hardly occurred to even the most enthu- 
siastic plant lover ; now, no house where plants are at all cherished 
is without some of them, and, as fresh green is, of all things, the 
greatest desideratum to the eye weary of dusty streets and sun- 
baked brick walls, their introduction has been a great boon to 
our citizens, especially those whose opportunities of enjoying 
the beauties of FerLS in their native haunts are few and far 
between. Ferns have also the great merit of being easy to 
obtain and cultivate. Those able to purchase more costly 
plants may affect to despise them, but it is surely pleasanter when 
seated at breakfast to gaze through a screen of Ferns than 
through those wire abominations known as dining-room blinds. 
^ is a common remark that flowers outside a house are ostentations, 
as, from their arrangement, sloping downwards to the outer edge, 
they cannot be enjoyed by the inmates ; those who thus object, 
however, forget that they enjoy the full beauty of their opposite 
neighbour's horticultural efforts, and are bound to make him some 
return. Besides, is it nothing to add to the pleasures — all too scanty 
— of the dusty and toil-worn way.farers of our streets ? And that 
the delicate flowers displayed in windows and balconies afford plea, 
sure may be easily road in the admiring and loving glances directed 
towards them. Such a civilising influence is by no means to be 
despised ; it carries on in the hot dusty streets the good work begun 
in our now well.cared-for parks, and perchance reaches many a son 
or daughter of toil, in whose hard-working lives parks and gardens 
are words, and nothing more. The increased use of flowers at balls, 
receptions, and other entertainments during the last few years has 
been most remarkable. Formerly a row of pots, generally of 
Hydrangea, placed under the staircase and backed by evergreens, was 
considered the iie plus tiUra of beauty and good taste. Now colours 
are blended with thought and care, graceful Palms and feathery 
Ferns break up monotonous lines, and drooping Fuchsias, blooming 
Roses, many-hued Coleuses, and exotics beyond nuniber, lend their aid 
to the general effect. On our dinner. tables, too, floral decoration 
reigns triumphant; and why not ? The very first suggestion of such 
a thing is met by an outcry as to expense; and certainly, it nothing 
but Stephanotis, prize Roses, and Maiden-hair Fern will content us, 
the clamour is not without cause. But Ivy and common Ferns, 
Primroses, Moss Roses, red and white, and other ordinary flowers, are 
by no means costly ; and these, arranged with taste by skilful hands, 
produce effects far superior to those attained by a less artistic dis- 
position of the most expensive blossoms. So long, however, as ladies 
will not take the trouble to arrange their flowers themselves, so long 
will the floral adornments of their tables and drawing-rooms be 
unsatisfactory. Flowers give the finishing touch of relinement to 
everything with which they are associated, but their arrangement 
requires taste and judgment. Strong.scented flowers should neither 
be used in a drawing-room nor a dining-room. — " World." 



Wireworm the Cause of Diseased Potato Haulm. — 

Mr. P. McKinlay, the well-known Potato grower, of Beckenham, who 
cultivates almost every kind of American Potato, has certainly 
among them some diseased haulm, but so very little as to be almost 
unworthy of notice, and that, he says, is caused by wireworm. Except- 
ing one prominent failure, in the case of an English variety, brought 
about by having cut up the sets too soon, there is no disease in his 
grounds that can be attributed to anything but wireworm, and he 
grows over 100 sorts, covering about 2 acres of ground. It is 
notorious that wireworms are unusually plentiful this year, owing 
chiefly to the hot dry summer last year, which was favourable to 
insect life; they drill through or gnaw the young shoots of the 
Potatoes in an early stage of growth, the result of which is brown, 
curled foliage and stunted haulm. In some cases, Mr. McKinlay had 
lifted the damaged plants, found and killed the enemy, and then 



re-planted them, with every prospect of renewed growth. But why 
are the American kinds chiefly attacked .' Mr. McKinlay suggests 
that the worms find the stems of these softer and more easily eaten 
than those of English kinds. Moreover, it is the practice to cut up 
the American varieties much more freely than those of English 
growth, and this, constantly followed up, must eventually weaken the 
progeny. Farther, cut sets, when planted in cold ground, are much 
more liable to decay than whole tubers, and, lastly, it is probable that 
to bear the effects of a cold spring than our own varieties. In any 
American kinds, on account of their succulent character, are less able 
case, the same thing has happened now and then in Potatoes daring 
the last thirty years, and would now have provoked but little dis- 
cussion had not the American kinds been during the present season 
those most severely injured. — Alex. Dean. 

The New Disease in American Potatoes. — I have noticed 
complaints in your columns as to a new disease having attacked the 
American varieties of Potatoes, but more especially the Snowflake. I am 
competing for Messrs. Hooper's prizes, and planted, on April 10th, 
1 pound of Snowflake Potatoes (three), from which I got thirty-two 
sets, and am glad to say all have come up. I never saw Potatoes 
look better than they do at present, and if they only keep free from 
disease, I hope to have a good crop. They are planted in rows 2 
feet apart and 1 foot asunder in the row. I generally trench in the 
manure in the autumn and let the ground get the full benefit of the 
frost, and I never touch it again till I dibble in the sets about the end 
of March. I have fifteen different kinds of Potatoes in my garden, 
and all the American kinds, including Early A'^ermont, one plant of 
which has curled up its leaves and assumed a yellowish colour, with 
some eight or nine Potatoes on the roots about the size of Peas. Late 
and Early Rose, Bresee's Climax and Prolific, and American Reds 
are looking remarkably healthy and are mostly in flower. I had a 
dish fiom the Early Vermouts the other day (one taber weighed 4j 
ounces) and they were very good. — Mtles E. Mather. 

Raising Potatoes from Seed. — Last year I crossed some of 
the new America'n varieties of Potatoes with some of our best old 
sorts, and have at present a number of seedlings in small pots for the 
purpose of planting ont. I found in the American varieties rather 
a short supply of pollen, and so made them the seed-bearing parents. 
Brownell's Beauty I crossed with Wood's Scarlet Prolific, a variety 
with red leathery skin but an excellent late keeper, which is very 
little affected with the disease in the worst seasons ; the late American 
Rose I crossed with Fenn's Bountiful, a remarkably well. flavoured 
red kidney ; the Early Vermont I crossed with Lee's Hammersmith 
Kidney, one of our best bearing early varieties, and of good flavour. 
My object in making these crosses was to see if the dwarf-growing 
habits and free.bearing qualities of these American varieties could 
not be obtained by raising seedlings from them. On some soils these 
new American Potatoes have a peculiar earthy flavour, and by 
crossing them with our best. flavoured kinds I hope to find that some 
of these seedlings may prove worthy of being grown as standard 
kinds ; and, from their early dwarf habit, be able to resist the disease 
in wet seasons. — Wu.liam Tillery, Welbecl;. 



Mixed Cropping.— This may he more advantageously employed in the case 
of early crops Iban late ones. Rows of early Peas, a good distance apart, 
afford great protection from cutting winds to tender crops grown between 
them. But for late crops, such as Broccoli, that are intendori to stand the winter, 
the more open and exposed they are the better, for if at all drawn into weakly 
growth, they will rot with a slight amount of frost.— J. GnooM. 

Asphalte Walks (H. I. ).— There is no objection to asphalte gardens walks 
if they are properly formed. The asphalte walks laid down by Mr. Meston in 
the public gardens of London and recently in Leicester Square are durable, 
in every way satisfactory, and not expensive. In positions in gardens much 
frequented, such as the immediate neighbourhood of the hothouses, forcing 
ground, and sheds, such walks are desirable. 

Mr. Laxton's Peas.— In addition to the piizes offered for these in the 
Hoyal Horticultural Society's schedule, fourteen others will be awarded on 
July 7th for the following varieties, twelve plants of each to be exhibited in 
the green state, with pods fit to gather, and root and haulm complete, so as to 
show the true character of each Tariety. viz. :— Unique. William the First, 
Fillbasket, Omega. Laxtnn's Ko. 1, Dr. Hogg, and Supplanter. The first prize 
for each variety will be £1, the second, 10s. 

"Curl" in the Kew American Potatoes.— "J. T." complains (see p. 
491) that the leaves of Snowtlake become "curled." Last spring I purchased 
one pound of Snowflake and Eureka; 1 cut them into single eyes and laid 
them out in an open shed for a day or two before planting them, and I have 
now eighty fine plants of Snowflake and Eureka, both of which are much 
more vigorous than any of their associates and show no "curl." With me. 
Eureka is much stronger than Snowflake. — C. Goode, Eaffcote, 

Simple Mode of Blanching Endive.— According to a writer in the 
"Monitcur Horticole Beige," Kndive is blanched successfully by bemg 
planted in very well-prepared soil at 6 inches apart instead of in the usual 
more open way. When established, each bed is enclosed with planks 8 inches 
wide, sot on edge, to prevent the outer plants spreading. When vigorous 
growth commences, the plants are pressed close together and blanch without 
further attention, as the leaves are not injured, as they sometimes are in tying, 
and they keep much better in the blanched condition. 



16 



THE GAEDEN. 



[July 3, 1875, 



SOCIETIES AND EXHIBITIONS. 

OEYSTAL PALACE EOSE SHOW. 

June 27tii. 
This waa not only the best Eoso show of tho year, but, according to 
many, it was the best display of the queen of flowers that has been seen 
for the last ten years. 

rirst-class Certificates.— These were awarded to tho following 
new Koses : 

Rose Mrs. Laxton (Laxton). — This variety promises to prove a 
welcome addition to high-coloured, free-growing Hybrid Perpetual Boses. 
Its colour is vivid scarlet, with a flush of crimson-purple on tho lower 
petals, while its form reminds one of that of tho well-known Mario Bau- 
mann. 

Lady Isabel Cecil (Loxton).— This is a creamy-yellow Tea, of 
good forni, vigorous, and free-flowering. The petals are stout and wax- 
like, and it possesses a delicate and grateful fragrance. 

Duke of Connaught (Paul & Son).— A rich velvety-crimson 
Hybrid Perpetual, of good form and substance, and well adapted for 
exhibition purposes. 

John Bright (Paul & Son).— Another distinct and effective Hybrid 
Perpetual, vivid crimson-scarlet in colour, and in form and substance all 
that can be desired. 

Oxonian (Turner).— This is, in every way, a first-class Hybrid Per- 
petual Rose, so far as one can judge from cut flowers, which seem to be 
remarkably full, the petals being closely imbricated, and of a rosy-crimson 
colour, the revolute margins tinged with lilac. Its distinct character and 
good form ought to make it popular as a show variety. 

Of other now Roses, Mr. Laxton exhibited fine stands ; Mr. Turner 
showed Mrs. Baker, a fine, full purplish-crimson-centred flower of more 
than average merit, and John Stuart Mill, a splendid flower of a rich 
velvety crimson-scarlet. 

Of new Roses of 1872 and 1873, Mr. George Paul had an attractive 
group,_ consisting of twenty-four varieties, among which we noted the 
following, viz., Bmile Dupuy, a fine full flower of a delicate rosy-lilac 
colour; John Bright, a brilliant velvety crimson-scarlet; Empress of 
India, a fine full velvety-crimson flower ; Madame Lacharme, white tinted 
with pale flesh ; Peach blossom, pale silvery-rose suS'used with lilac ; Duke 
of Connaught, a rich velvety-crimson ; Madame Nachury, bright rose ; 
Mrs. Veitch, fiery rose; Madlle. Mario Cointet, rosy-salmon; Thomas 
Mills, bright rosy-crimson, with very stout and smooth petals; Duchess of 
Edinburgh, a fine full rosy-lilac flower ; Reynolds Hole, a good dark rose, 
the colour a deep purpUsh-crimson ; Captain Christv, a full pale rosy 
flower, with a deep rosy-salmon centre ; Cheshunt Hybrid, one of tho 
deepest coloured and brightest of all Tea Roses, the colour purple-lilac, 
flushed with crimson in the centre; Marie Finger, a large petaled 
variety of a delicate satiny-rose colour; Princess Beatrice, a fine 
globular flower, of a deep rosy-lilac colour, having a salmon-tinted 
centre ; Emily Laxton, a bright deep rosy or rosy-salmon variety 
of good form, the foliage being very robust and healthy; Madame 
Marius Cote, a brilliant rosy-vermilion, and others. In the second 
prize group we noted Mons. Claude Levet, a deep crimson flower 
of good form, especially in the bud state; Bessie Johnson, a delicate 
full flower, of nearly the same colour as Peach Blossom ; and La 
F.T.vourite, a large-petaled variety, with bright rosy smooth petals flushed 
with vermilion in the centre. Mr. Bennett had a group of twelve in 
excellent condition, which obtained the first award in the class in which 
they were shown. In the nurserymen's class of seventy-two varieties 
Messrs. George Paul & Sons staged one of the best collections seen this 
year. They had, among light-coloured varieties, Niphetos, a fine 
croamy-whito kind ; Edward Morron, a full deep rosy variety ; Mons. 
Nomau, delicate peach ; Loslia, a large globular rosy-lilac flower ; 
Madame Bcrard (Tea), salmon-yellow ; Madame George Schwartz, a full 
satiny rose ; Madame Rivers, a fine globular lilac flower ; Mrs. B. Ker, a 
full white kind flushed with Rose ; La France, Captain Christy, Gloire 
de Dijon, Devoniensis, Princess Beatrice, a full globular rosy flower; 
Elic Morel and Marquise de Castellanc, bright rose; and Alba rosea, a 
fine rosy-flushed Tea. Among the dark kinds may be named Exposition 
de Brie, rosy-crimson; John Bright, velvety-scarlet; La Fontaine, 
a bright Ulac-purple ; Richard Wallace, a full rosy-crimson ; Oliver 
Delhomme, scarlet; Madame Crapelet, vivid rosy-scarlet; Cheshunt 
Hybi-id, purplish-crimson ; Lord Macaulay, velvety crimson, edged 
with livid scarlet ; Marie Baumann, a really fine rosy-crimson flower ; 
Charles Lefobvre, crimson-scarlet; Duke of Edinburgh, scarlet; 
Dr. Andry, lilac-purple ; Alfred Colomb, a fine rosy-scarlet variety, 
brighter than Mario Baumann ; Madame Caillat is a good rosy-Hlae 
incurved flower of excellent substance; and Louis Van Houtte, rich 
velvety crimson, similar to Xavier Olibo, hut not quite so brilliant in 
colour. In the nurserymen's class of forty-eight varieties, three trusses 
each, Mr. B. Cant, Colchester, had some splendid blooms, among which 
those of Niphetos were superb ; and Leopold Hausburg, a full deep rosy, 
crimson variety, was well represented ; as were also captain Christy, 
Charies Lefebvre (crimson), Ducbesse de Caylns (vivid scarlet), Marechal 
Kiel, and General Jacqueminot. In the same collection were good trusses 
of Duke of Edinburgh, La France, Ferdinand de Lesseps (scarlet), 
Madame Victor Verdier, and Annie Laxton (a delicate bright rosy flower) ; 
and there were likewise handsome flowers of Etienne Levet (brilliant 
rose), Souvenir d'Elise, Devoniensis, Dr. Andry, John Hopper, Alfred 



Colomb, and Comtesse Chabrillant— a fine fuU rosy-lilao variety, now 
rarely seen, although it is really a first-rate and distinct Rose well worth 
culture. 

^ Of single stands, tho following, among others, were especially good, 
viz., Cheshunt Hybrid, a fine full flower, of the brightest rosy-purple, the 
centre being of the richest blood colour or crimson ; Madame Lacharme, 
the best of all the lighter-coloured Hybrid Perpetuals, but not white, as 
is^ stated by some— on the contrary, it is a delicate blush ; Comtesse 
d'Oxford, a large, dark purplish-crimson variety, having foliage tho most 
vigorous of any w ith which we are acquainted, and in substance nearly as 
leathery as a Laurel leaf ; Fran(;ois Michelon, a bright full-cupped variety, 
of a pleasing ivarm rose colour, the centre flushed with vermilion. Mr. 
Bennett, of Stapleford, staged a fine boxful of Mdlle. Marie Cointet, 
one of tho best of the new Roses of 1873, and one which deserves more 
than a passing notice, not so much on account of its form and substance, 
both of which are most satisfactory, but inasmuch as its colour is unique. 
Some of the younger flowers indeed have stout cupped petals, just like those 
of Camellia Comtesse Lavinia Maggi, while the colour is of the warmest 
and brightest rosy-salmon imaginable, with just a flush of lilac on the 
older flowers ; John Hopper, now a well-known variety, was well repre- 
sented in its class, as was also Horace Vernet, a bright velvety-scarlet, 
the older petals blotched with blackish-crimson. Beauty of Waltham 
was staged in good condition, the blooms being round and full, and 
highly coloured. This is one of our finest rosy-purple varieties. In 
Madame Charles Wood, a bright rosy-scarlet, the younger flowers 
resemble crimson velvet in texture. This was shown by Mr. J. Keynes, 
who had also Francois Michelon, a full rosy-lilac kind. A fine 
stand of Baroness Rothschild came from Mr. Baker, of Heavitroc, Devon, 
tho flowers of which were fresh and exquisitely coloured. This is one of 
the most delicate of all the rosy varieties, and, when well grown, is 
second only to La France. Tho bright rosy Marquise de Castello.no was 
represented by a stand or two of good blooms. Mr. Charles Turner con- 
tributed Maria Baumann, a well-known favourite, and Marguerite de St. 
Amand, a full flower, rather deeper in colour than Baroness Rothschild. 
Superb examples of Mdlle. Marie Cointet, staged by Mr. Bennet, of Staple- 
ford, certainly deserve special remark, for, in size, substance, and colour 
they were unsurpassed. A stand of Firebrand, from Mr. W. Paul, was 
very brilliant, as was also his stand of the delicate-tinted Peach Blossom. 
Mr. Paul also had an eS'ective exhibition of seedlings, partly unnamed. 

Among Tea Roses we never saw such lovely blooms of Niphetos as 
were staged on this occasion — great wax-like flowers of an unusually 
soft primrose-tinted-white. Mr. Cant had a superb stand of Souvenir 
d'Elise, a delicate creamy variety suffused in the centre with salmon, 
and perfect both in form and bud ; to these an extra prize was 
awarded. Of Marechal Niel, Celine Forestier, and Triomphe de Rennes 
(Noisettes), there were excellent stands. La Bouie d'Or is a really fine 
flower, as is also the delicate creamy-tinted Madame Caroline Kuster. A 
stand of Madame Bei-ard w-as much admired, a kind which, in form, 
reminds one of Gloire de Dijon, but its salmon and golden tiutings are 
richer in this than they are in that now well-known variety. Messrs. 
Paul & Sons had a splendid stand of yellow Tea and Noisette Roses, 
among which the trusses of Celine Forestier were remarkably fresh and 
beautiful. Amateur growers were well represented, and some of their 
stands, in point of quality, fully equalled, and, in several instances, even 
excelled, those staged by nurserymen, the varieties being in both cases 
the same. 

Dinner Table Decorations. 

Great as have been the improvements in dinner table decorations 
and other floral ornaments during the past ten years, there yet remains 
much of the old complicated form of arrangements, which, for many 
reasons, ought to be swept away. Intricate designs take a long time to 
arrange, and then rarely afford half the pleasure aflbrded by a simple, 
quickly-formed, and tasteful group of fresh foliage and flowers, which 
anyone may put in order in a few minutes. There is no reason why fivo or 
six hours should be devoted to ornamenting a dinner table, when nearly 
the same number of minutes would sufiice, and our horticultural societies, 
when awarding prizes for this class of floral decoration, would do well to 
limit the time occupied iu completing them to an hour, or even 
less. If the ultimate effect of bouquets and dinner table vases 
was necessarily proportionate to tho length of time occupied 
in their arrangement, it would be different, but the reverse of 
this is generally the case. As a rule, those who arrange their 
stands with the greatest rapidity are those who show most taste. 
Simple and tasteful vases of wild Grasses and common border (or even 
wild) flowers arc within the reach of every one who cares to have them, 
and any Society that offers prizes for bouquets and vases, in which 
hardy flowers, Ferns, and Grasses alone may be used, will do much 
real good, by demonstrating that " Orchids " and " elegance " are 
not necessarily synonymous terms, as some seem to imagine, 
and that vases and groups of hardy flowers, the produce of the 
humblest cottage garden, may be quickly and tastefully put together. 
Already our best professional decorators are fully alive to tho beauty of 
some of our native Grasses and wild flowers for this kind of ornamenta- 
tion, and the pearly AVater Lily of our own ponds and streams is now 
often seen reposing at the baso of a March stand among Forget-nie-nots, 
wild Grasses, and feathery Lastreas, while the regal Phatonopsis from 
Java, and the golden-lipped Oncids from Brazil droop gracefully towards 
them from the vase .above. In fact, in point of purity and freshness, no 
tropical flower can surpass our native Water Lily, and we have remarked 
some charming arrangements, of which this flower and rich purple-lipped 
Irids formed the most prominent and effective features. At the Crystal 
Palace exhibition, on Saturday last, were some striking table decora- 



July 3, 1875.] 



THE GAEDBN. 



17 



tions, but all were, without exception, more or less exaggerated in 
style, and even in some eases painfully overdone. Mr. W. L. Buster, of 
St. Mary's Cray, had a well-decoratei table, along the centre of which, in 
a line, were five tall, slender, trumpet-shaped vases ; the central one of 
which was filled with wild Grasses, lit up by a spray or two of a rosj'- 
flowered Lychnis ; around its base was a conical mound of Moss and 
Fern, cnhvenedwith white Water Lilies, and the wreath-like racemes of 
Passiilora princeps. The two end vases contained wild Grasses and 
sprays of a pale purpHsh-bluo Campanula, their Fern-garnished bases 
being enriched with deep purple Iris flowers, associated with a bloom or 
two of the white Water Lily ; the other two vases contained Grasses 
and scarlet Pelargoniums, their stems being wreathed with scandent 
Corydalis— altogether, a not inelegant arrangement, and one which 
in no way interrupted the view across the table, but there was neverthe- 
less a meagre and monotonous look about the five slender vases that was 
not in every way quite satisfactory. A less pretentious and better stylo 
of grouping was that exhibited by Mr. Scale, of London Eo.nd, Seven- 
oaks. Here we had three March stands, and two trumpet-shaped vases. 
In the central stand, the vase-shaped top was filled with Feather Grass, 
enlivened with a spray of the golden-lipped Oncidium flexuosum ; the tier 
below was fringed with Adiantura and Begonia fuchsioides, the deep 
green glossy fohage and heart-shaped coral-like buds of which contrasted 
with the white flowers of Stephanotis ; and the effect was still f nrther 
heightened by a sprinkling of the spray-like inflorescence of some 
fairy - like Saxifrage and small trusses of a scarlet, black - blotched 
Pelargonium- The mossy base was fringed with fronds of Adiantum 
macrophyllum, Adiantum Farleyense, Polypodium subauriculatam, 
and other rare Ferns, on which nestled white Water Lilies, 
and the brilliant scarlet spathes of the Flamingo plant. If this 
combination had any fault, it was the use of too many spathes of the 
last-named plant, which made the contrast of scarlet and white a little too 
violent. Mr. .1. Hudson contributed a pretty group of three trumpct- 
^shaped vases, the stem of the centre one of which was di-aped with sprays 
' of blue Passion-flower, and the vase itself filled with elegant Grasses, 
Spiraea japonica, blue Corn-flower, and rosy-flowered Rhodanthe, the 
rim being elegantly fringed with the graceful flower-spikes of Dendro- 
chUum glumaceum (one of the daintiest of all green-flowered Orchids) 
and sprays of Aaron's Beard (Saxifraga sarmentosa). The base of this 
arrangement was fringed with Adiantum scutum and Lastrea fronds, 
intermixed with sprays of white Spiraja, purple Bell-flowers, and the 
soft, silvery tufts of the Hare's-tail Grass. The bases of the two end vases 
consisted of fresh green Fern fronds, associated with which white Lilies 
and the scarlet-spathed Anthurium looked very attractive, the contrast 
between scarlet and white being, in this case, reUeved by sprays of snowy 
Spiraea and graceful spikes of a tall blue-flowered Campanula. The button- 
holes on Mr. Hudson's table were by far the prettiest in the whole 
exhibition ; one consisting of a single half-expanded bud of a yellow Tea 
Rose, backed by its own leaves and jewelled with a sprig or two of 
blue Forget-me-nots, struck us as being, in its way, perfect ; and 
another, consisting of a deep crimson Rose bud, a spray of Spirasa japonica, 
and Rose leaves, was very effective. Others were made up with flowers 
of Hoya bella. Moss Roses, and Forget-me-nots, backed by purple 
leaflets of the cut-leaved Japanese Acers. The first prize exhibition in 
the amateur's class was very effective, three graceful pinnate-leaved 
Palms being substituted for stands of cut flowers ; at the base of these, 
on a conical bed of Maiden-hair and other Ferns, were laid white and 
purple Campanulas, scarlet Cactus blooms, and here and there a white 
Eucharis flower, while the little mounds around the bases of the two end 
Palms had trusses of orange-scarlet Ixoras in place of Cactus blooms. 
Among_ other exhibitions one of the prettiest and simplest was that 
staged in the ladies' class by Mrs. Scale, London Koad, Sevenoaks. This 
consisted of three March stands arranged along the centre of the table, 
and six or eight little glass baskets, the latter being filled with living 
Sphagnum and water, and tastefully decorated with small Ivy leaves and 
blue Forget-me-nots. The degree of finish thus imparted to these little 
baskets was remarkable, and they were most deservedly admired by all who 
saw them. It does not appear to bo generally known that sprays of the 
common marsh Forget-me-not will root freely in fresh Sphagnum and 
water, and will continue to flower for a fortnight at least if plucked just 
before the first flowers open. Around the bases of the diS'erent stands 
were Grasses, Forget-me-nots, Spirtea japonica, and spikes of pale blue 
Larkspurs, while graceful sprays of Maurandia were employed to fringe 
the edges. Three little cornucopise on the central vase were filled with 
blush, yellow, and deep crimson Roses, one flower of each, while the mossy 
mounds at the bases of the three stands were tastefully fringed with 
choice DavaUias, Maiden-hair, and other Ferns, among which Grasses, 
Rose buds, and other flowers were sprinkled with excellent effect. The 
first prize button-hole consisted of a salmon-coloured Tea Rose, a sprig 
or two of scarlet Bouvardia, two white Tuberoses, the whole being 
backed with Maiden-hair Fern. Bouquets were by no means good, with 
the exception of one to which a first prize was awarded. This was a 
wedding bouquet, deUcately and tastefully made up by Mr. Wood, of 
High Street, Sydenham. It consisted of white Tea Ros'es, Stephanotis, 
flowers of Odontoglossum Alexandras, and of the purple-dotted 0. 
Pescatorei, and two or three of the curions Snapdragon-like blossoms of 
the Alpine Utricularia, intermixed with Maiden-hair Fern. 



Poetry of Nature. — In the middle of winter, vegetation sometimes assumes 
a more poetical aspect than it ever presents in spring. During a severe white 
frost the twigs o£ all the trees sometimes appear enthely covered with rime. 



ROYAL BOTANIC SOCIETY'S EXHIBTIOIT. 
June SOth. 

This exhibition consisted chiefly of out Roses and fruit, the latter 
especially being excellent in quaUty. Mr. Sage sent a splendid cluster of 
Bananas from Aahridge, and the display of Grapes, Cherries, and Straw- 
berries, was all that could be desired. The large exhibition tent was 
wholly filled with Palms, Ferns, Dracasnas, and flowering plants, furnished 
by the Pine-apple Nursery Company, and arranged with much taste and 
good eff'ect. 

Certificates. — Those were aw.xrded as follows : 

Rose Star of Waltham (W. Paul).— A full, globular-shaped, 
rosy-lilac. Hybrid Perpetual kind, suffused with crimson, the petals 
wax-like in substance and smooth. 

Rose Magaa Charta (W. Paul). — Another effective Hybrid 
Perpetual variety, globular in shape, and of a deep satin-roso colour 
sufi'nsed with crimson in the centre. 

Rose St. George (W. Paul). — A third Hybrid Perpetual Rose, 
deep pui-pUsh-crimson in colour, the central petals being of a velvet-like 
texture. 

Tree Carnation Scarlet Defiance (Turner).— A free-growing 
variety, with rather slender Grass. It is a profuse bloomer, the flowers 
being vivid scarlet in colour. 

Pink Lord Lyons (Turner). — Flower, medium-sized ; the colour a 
rich purple-Hlac. This is a distinct and very effective variety, which 
ought to be a favourite wherever cut flowers are required. 

Pink Harry Hooper (Turner). — A white-flowered variety, laced 
with deep lilac-purplo. 

Pink Shii'ley Hibberd (Turner). — A large and remarkably full 
flower, white in colour, laced with bright purplish-ldae. 

Roses. — Among new kinds may be 'named Madlle. Marie Cointet, 
a fuU wax-like, delicate, rosy-salmon flower ; Queen of Waltham, a bright 
rosy-lilac flower, crimson in the bud state and in the centre; Peach 
Blossom, a delicate rosy flower, globular in form before it is fully 
expanded, and flushed in the centre with rosy;crimson._ Among other 
Roses were some fine blooms of the creamy-white climbing Devoniensis 
and the primrose-tinted Niphetos. Two boxfuls of Madame Laoharme, 
the new white or blush Hybrid Perpetual, were also staged in admirable 
condition, the flowers being full and of wax-like substance; a stand 
of the bright crimson, Marie Baumann, was staged in good con- 
dition, and close beside it a boxful of H. P. Comtesse d'Oxford, a fine 
large rosy-carmine flower with a crimson centre. Some good examples 
of Tea-scented varieties and Noisettes, including Marechal Niel, Madame 
Levet,Boulo deNeige, Gloire de Dijon, Celine Forestier, and others, were 
also exhibited. In the classes devoted to Hybrid Perpetual kinds were 
remarked excellent blooms of Marechal Niel, of that rich golden amber- 
tint which betokens good soil and plenty of Ught and air ; Louis Van 
Houtte, crimson ; Abel Grand, a full incurved rose of a delicate peach 
colour ; Princess Beatrice, a full globular rosy flower ; Madame Marie 
Schwartz, a smooth petalod globular rosy-Ulac variety; John Stuart 
Mill, a closely imbricated rosy-crimson flower, tinged with purple ; 
Comtesse de Chabrillant, a globular fuU lilac-tinted flower; Cap- 
tain Christy, a fine pale rosy-hlao flower, with deep rosy centre; 
Madame ViUermoz, creamy yellow, with delicate rosy centre ; Souvenir 
d'uu Ami, a deUoate deep rose-centred Tea, the petals having a shell-liko 
lustre; Etienue Levet, a full purphsh-crimson flower; and General 
Jacqueminot, vivid crimson-scarlet. These were all in excellent condition, 
as were also the ever-welcome, deliciously perfumed. La France ; the 
full rosy-lilao Baroness Rothschild ; and Madlle. Eugenie Verdier, a, deU- 
cate-tiuted pale rose variety, with a deep rosy-salmon centre, which is very 
distinct. 

Miscellaneous Subjects. — Two or three very effective stands of 
cut flowers were staged, among which were the following — viz., Lathyrus 
grandiflorus. Lychnis coocinca, orange LiUes, white and blue Bell-flowers, 
Pinks, Sweet Williams, Lychnis flos Jovis, Spirasa japonica,and Larkspurs 
of nearly every shade of blue. A potful of the yellow-eyed Idao-rayed 
Aster elegans was also particularly beautiful. Among trusses of stove and 
greenhouse plants were Allamanda Hendersoni, Cattleya MossiDe, the 
scarlet-spathed Flamingo plant, white Rhynchospernum, scarlet Ixoras, 
rosy and white Heaths, blue Statice, rosy Azaleas, and scarlet Begonias. 
Four very effective circular shallow baskets of Tea and other Roses, 
neatly arranged in Sphagnum Moss, were much admired ; and also some 
baskets of Lobelia pumila magnifica, which is certainly one of the finest 
in cultivation, being of dwarf cushion-like habit, densely set with large 
deep blue flowers. A fine new white purple-laced Pink named Boiard 
was shown by Mr. Turner j it was also exhibited at the Crystal Palace 
exhibition last week, and there awarded a first-class certificate. 

Fruit. — Grapes were, on the whole, well represented, and in the 
diss for baskets of 12 lbs. each there were no fewer than eight entries. 
Mr. Bones's Black Hamburghs were small in berry, but, as regards colour 
and bloom, they were perfection. Mr. Douglas had also a splendid basket 
of highly-coloured and superbly-finiMied Hamburghs. Mr. Bridgemau 
contributed large Hamburghs, but, unfortunately, they were rather 
deficient both in colour and bloom. A very good basket of Madresfield 
Court was exhibited by Mr. Grimmett, the bunches being well furnished 
and the berries large and well coloured. In the class for baskets (12 lbs.) 
of Muscats, Mr. Douglas again contributed well-finished bunches tinted 
with that rich golden-amber, a colour so much desired in Muscats. A 



18 



THE GARDEN. 



[JuBT 3, 1875. 



basket of excellent fruit of the same variety came from Mr. Fiest, and, 
compared with these, the other two baskets staged afForded a marked 
contrast, the fruit being perfectly green. In the class for three bunches 
of Muscats Mr. Fiest had small but well-finished amber-coloured clusters 
in first-rate condition. Mr. Bannerman and Mr. Bond also had large 
bunches, but not well-coloured. In the class for three bunches of Black 
Hamburghs Mr. J ohnson contributed well-coloured clusters, both bunches 
and berries being large and well-coloured ; fruit of the same variety came 
from Mr. J. Akhurst, Mr. Sage, and Mr. J. Douglas. Mr. Grimmctt 
had three good clusters of the large oblong-berried Madresfield Court, 
and Mr. J. Douglas sent Royal Ascot nearly perfect in colour and bloom. 
This Grape is a very free fruiting black variety, and some of the berries 
show the sutural markings so characteristic of Esperione. Messrs. 
Lane & Sons were the only exhibitors of Vines in pots, of which they 
had splendid example.?, Foster's Seedling and Buckland Sweetwater 
being furnished with from twelve to twenty clusters each. 

Strawberries. — This useful summer fi-uit was shown in admirable 
condition. Four boxes of very fine fruit came from Mr. J. Douglas, the 
varieties being a fine, rich, crimson-fruited seedling ; Due de Magenta ; 
Admiral Dundas, a well-known, ii-regular, very large variety, bright 
ci-imson-soarlet in colour ; and Amateur, a large conical-fruited kind, of 
the darkest crimson colour. Mr. Clark showed four fine dishes, including 
examples of Myatt's British Queen, a conical-shaped, high-coloured fruit, 
of excellent flavour ; Dr. Hogg, similar in colour, but more inclined to 
the irregular cockscomb shape ; President, a rather coarse, crimson- 
fruited variety of cockscomb shape ; and Sir Joseph Paxton. Mr. 
Charles Turner had very fine dishes of James Veitcb, a showy, 
light-coloured fruit ; Sir C. Napier, President, rather small; and Leon de 
St. Lamier, a large cockscomb-shaped fruit, similar in colour to the 
British Queen. Mr. Smith had four good dishes of Sir J. Paxton, 
Dr. Hogg, and British Queen, and a variety named Lucas, closely 
resembling Sir J. Paxton in shape and colour. 

Cherries. — Good dishes of May Duke came from Mr. Musk, the 
fruit being of average size and bright red in colour, mottled with deep 
crimson. Mr. Chard had Red Bigarreau and Bigarreau Napoleon ; and 
richly-coloured fruit of the last-named variety, and Elton came from 
Mr. Douglas ; and Mr. Chard bad two of the finest dishes of Black Tar- 
tarian we ever saw, some of the fruits measuring individually fully an 
inch in diameter. 

Pines. — Two well-ripened Queens came from Mr. Bond, and Mr. 
Sandford had also a good pair, bat scarcely so well finished.. In the 
class for single Queens Mr. Sandford bad a good well-finished fruit of 
31bs. or 41bs. weight ; and Mr. Bond had also an excellent specimen, 
rather larger and better in colour. Mr. Ward showed a large Provi- 
dence, weighing OJlbs. Mr. J. Douglas had a small Charlotte Rothschild 

Peaches and Neotax-ines.— Excellent dishes of Peaches came 
from Mr. E. Lake, who had Grosse Mignonne and Royal George in good 
condition. Mr. Johnson had also Violet Hative and Teton de Venus of 
good quality, and Mr. Bones staged excellent fruit of Bellegarde and 
Noblesse. Nectarines generally were highly coloured and excellent in 
quality. Mr. E. Lake had very fine fruit of Elruge, and good specimens 
of the rosy-mottled doliciously-perfumed Violet Hative. Mr. Johnson 
had highly-coloured examples of Elruge and the purple-eoloured Violette 
Grosse. Mr. Bannerman had well-ripened and richly-coloured dishes of 
Violet Hative and Downton ; and Mr. Grant had the same varieties 
equal in size, but inferior in point of colour. 

Pigs.— Good dishes of Brown Turkey, and a very small variety 
covered with bluish bloom, named Early Violet, came from Mr. Sage ; 
and Mr. Pottle had large specimens of white Marseilles and Brown 
Turkey. 

Melons. — Of these the best came from Mr. Coleman, who had Reed's 
Scarlet-flesh and Eastnor Castle, green-flesh, a medium-sized Pear- 
shaped fruit of excellent flavour ; about a dozen Melons were exhibited, 
and the judges declared the last-named variety to be the finest flavoured 
specimen shown. 



FLORAL DECORATIONS AT EXETER. 

TnE Devon and Exeter Horticultural Society's show took place on the 
18th ult., at Exeter, and attracted large numbers of visitors. In the 
classes for Roses, the principal prizes amongst nurserymen were carried 
off by Messrs. Paul & Son, of Cheshunt, Mr. Charles Turner, Mr. R. T. 
Veitch, and Messrs. Lucombe, Pince, & Co. In the amateur competition^ 
Mr. R. G. Baker and Miss Lloyd of Graslawn took first prizes, Mr. Baker 
taking four first prizes out of six classes, the other two being awarded to 
Miss Lloyd. The remaining exhibitors in these classes were Messrs. T. 
H. Gould, J. W. Chard, T. Jowitt, R. Shate, and R. Robson. In the 
open competition, Messrs. Paul & Son and Mr. Charles Turner carried ofi' 
most of the principal prizes. The floral decorations were excellent. In the 
class for table decorations (ladies only), the exhibitors were restricted to 
a group of three pieces. The first prize in this class, a gold bracelet, 
presented by Mrs. H. Wilcocks, was awarded to Miss Emma Wish, 
Broadclist, for three March stands, with trumpets rising out of the 
top tazzas, which were very gracefully fitted up— the arrangement of the 
flowers in the trumpets being particularly good ; but the general effect of 
this group was considerably marred by the size and heavy appearance of 
the Fern fronds employed for resting on the tablecloth round the edges 
of the lower tazzas. These straggled over the cloth, and left room for 
little else besides ; but the arrangement of the flowers in the tazzas 
and trumpets was excellent. The second prize in this class— an inkstand, 



presented by Mr. J. Geary — was awarded to Miss Chard, of SaUsbury, 
who employed, in place of vases, three well grown and very efl'ective 
plants of Cocos Weddelliana, with flowers arranged round the base of 
each. There was a sharp competition between Miss Wish and Miss 
Chard for the first prize, and, had the latter exhibitor been more careful in 
concealing the pots from view, and had the arrrangement of her flowers been 
a little lighter, there is no doubt she would have been awarded the first 
prize, but it was in lightness of touch that Miss Wish excelled. The third 
prize, a pair of candlesticks, also presented by Mr. J. Geare, was awarded 
to Mrs. W. J. A''eitch, of Torquay, who showed much taste in the arrange- 
ment of the flowers employed. In the decoration of one table a quantity 
of Pyrethrum or Feverfew was employed — a plant quite unfit for cut 
purposes, on account of its odour — but as troughs were made use of, 
filled with flowers, in addition to the three centre vases, a prize could not 
have been awarded for it, no matter how well the flowers might have been 
arranged, as they could not be defined as " three pieces for the decoration 
of the dinner table " mentioned in the schedule, which all intending 
exhibitors should read over carefully. In the class for a single vase of 
flowers, the first prize, an electro-plate and glass flower-stand, presented 
by Mr. A. E. Gates, went to Miss Ada M. Drew, Silverton, for a pretty 
drawing-room vase, in which wild Grasses and blue Lobelia were most 
effectively employed in the trumpets ; the second prize, a flower-stand, 
presented by Mr. Ellis, went to Miss Chard ; and the third, a volume of 
poems, presented by Miss Fitze, to Miss Alice G. Drew. In the class for 
a vase of wild flowers, the first prize, a flower-stand, given by Mr. J. E. 
Lake, was awarded to Miss Ada M. Drew, for, without exception, the 
best arranged vase in the entire exhibition. It was a very small vase of 
the March type, in which, amongst other flowers, Forget-me-nots, 
Dog Roses, and the tinted seed pods of the Sycamore were employed 
with excellent eff'ect ; the second prize, presented by Mrs. Henry Palk, 
w^as won by Miss S. Haywood, Exeter ; and the third by Miss Chadwick, 
Ide, for tasteful arrangement. The best collection of wild flowers, as 
regards the number of varieties, &c., was exhibited by Miss Gray, of 
Exeter, and, bad a few Grasses been employed to give lightness, there is 
no doubt her name would have stood high on the prizetaker's list. The 
class for band bouquets was the richest in the exhibition. The first and 
second prizes were awarded respectively tc Mr. W. J. Veitch, Torquay, 
and Miss Veitch, of Exeter. A. Hassaed. 



Tender and True Cucumber.— This is a noble Cucumber, large in size, 
deliciously flavoured, handsome, and prolific; but from such a raiser as Mr. 
Douglas these are qualities which we might expect. — R. Gilbebt, Surghley. 

Horticultural Club.— We arc informed that a dinner will take place at the 
Club llouse, 3, Adelphi Terrace, on Wednesday, July 7, at six o'clock, at which 
the committee will be glad to see any members who may like to join them. 
We hear that there is a considerable increase of new members. 

Hardiness of Peaches and Nectarines.— Some Peaches and Nectarines, 
which stood out of doors during the last winter, well into spring, are at present 
swelling off good crops. Some cultivators do not believe that these fruits are 
thoroughly hardy. This is the second case, in my own experience, of their 
having been severely frozen without injury. — R. P. B. 

Double Yellow Auricula. — I have obtained this fine, but scarce, hardy 
plant from Ireland. The blooms sent along with it were so double as to excito 
surprise. I have also a fine double purple kind. Both of these Auriculas vrill 
be eagerly sought for when better known. — A. D. 

Sarmienta repens.— This is now prettily in flower on the rock-work at 
Kew. It has very small leaves and flowers, not unlike those of Mitraria 
coccinea. It is the sole representative of a Chilian genus of Gesnerworta, and 
is well worth attention as a rock plant. — Jacksow Gillbanxs, Wkitfjield Houses 
Mcahgate, Carlisle. 

Mauve Beauty Stock. — This beautiful summer pyramidal Stock, which is 
certainly one of the best in cultivation, is now finely in flower in Mr. Dean's 
seed grounds at Hounslow. It is a kind which comes true from seed, and 
produces at least 70 per cent, of double flowers, a proportion amply sufficient 
to satisfy the most fastidious. — Q. 

Orange Fungus on Koses (T. S.).— It is too late^for any remedy, but wo 
should brush each shoot with a solution of soft-soap, and dust with powdered 
sulphur, leaving it on for two or three days ; then syringe it off, and renew the 
application as long as any remains on. This will probably destroy the Fungus, 
and the plants may have vigour enough to recover afterwards. 

Cultivating Wood Plants. — Wood plants are kept so warm in autumn and 
winter by the fallen leaves that they are ready to grow on the first really hot 
day. After that the.y enjoy the direct rays of the sun for a few weeks, and thus 
make considerable growth before the leaves of the trees are large enough to 
shade them. One should imitate these provisions of Nature by placing wood 
plants in the shade of trees, rather than in the shade of buildings, which will 
keep off the sun in the spring when it is needed to start the plants and bring out 
the flowers quickly. — "Cultivator." 

Flowerin? of the Phormium tenax Colensoi in Ireland.— You noticed, 
some little time since, the blooming in Lord Northampton's conservatory, at 
Castle Ashby, of the Phormium tenas variegatum ; allow me to inform you 
that Phormium tenax Colensoi, purchased two years ago, is blooming here in 
the open air, in a sheltered glen, close to the sea. As I have not heard of this 
variety having bloomed before, I shall be glad to hear from any of your cor- 
rcspoiidents interested in these plants, whether my plant is the first to have 
bloomed, or not. — W. E. Gumsleton, Belgrove, Qiiecnytoicn, Cork. 

Hardy Water-side Ferns.— The larger American hardy Ferns flourish 
best by the sides of brooks. They grow naturally in Mr. Hovev's grounds, 
and, though thoroughly taken out twenty-five years ago, they spring up again 
whenever the ground is left uncultivated for three or four years, showing that 
millions of spores retain their vitality and grow whenever circumstances are 
favourable for their development. A gardener of his acquaintance threw 
fruiting fronds into the water tank, and the Ferns grew up in the pots watered 
from it, so thai in fact they were weeds. Those fine hardy Ferns, Struthiop- 
teris, Onoclea, Osmunda, &o., deserve to be more frequently seen, not only m 
the Fernery, properly bo called, but near the water-side in shady places. 



THE GAEDBN. 



19 



SATURDAY, JT7LY 10, 1875. 



" This is an art 
Wluoh does mend nature : change it rather : bnt 
The Akt itseli is Natuke." — Shakespeare. 



PLANTING OUT v. POT-CULTUKB. 
The two great advantages to be obtained from planting out are 
a diminution of labour and greater luxuriance of growth; and, 
in the case of certain plants, grown upon an extensive scale, 
where a structure can be specially devoted to them, there can 
be no doubt that planting out is the right thing to do. In 
houses, on the contrary, where a miscellaneous and varied 
collection of plants is grown, judgment and discrimination 
must be exercised in respect to the permanent position of 
individual specimens. I once knew a gentleman who, having 
built a conservatory and bought a collection of plants with 
which to stock it, was determined to realise grand results and 
economise labour by planting them all out. As the collection 
happened to include such plants as Geraniums, Cape Heaths, 
Heliotropes, and Orange trees, the result may be more easily 
imagined than described. A thorough knowledge of the con- 
stitution and requirements of the plants to be used is necessary 
before planting a conservatory or winter garden. I was much 
pleased with the winter Garden of the Jardin d'Acclimatation 
at Paris the first time I visited it — a few cool-house Palms and 
Ferns, two or three Acacias, a few Camellias and Dracajuas, 
a fine turf consisting of Selaginella, and, if I remember rightly 
— for it was in 1867 — a waterfall, associated with such things 
as Tradescantia and Papyrus tastefully planted, made up a 
scene which was charming from its very simplicity. There 
was no undue crowding; on the contrary, every plant had 
abundance of room, and all seemed to enjoy the most robust 
health. In Germany, I once saw a good specimen of planting-out 
and pot-culture combined. There apertures are cut in the Selagi- 
nella turf, in which flowering plants in pots are inserted, and they 
are renewed as often as required. The more striking features 
consisted of Palms, tree-±'erns, Araucarias, &o., planted out, 
the more tender and evanescent plants being kept in pots, and, 
in this way, the place always had a fresh look, unobtainable in 
any other way. It is only, however, in houses of considerable 
dimensions in which this continuatiou can be carried on. A 
Lataniii, Dicksonia, or Araucaria planted out is nothing, if not 
of good size, and, where the space is insufficient to permit full de- 
Telopment,pots must, to a great extent, be relied upon. " It goes 
to my heart," said a French gentleman to me once in Normandy, 
" but I must cut the head oH that Gum tree." He had planted 
a Eucalyptus globulus in his conservatory, for which it had 
grown too large, and stern necessity compelled him to decapi- 
tate it ; a result which will inevitably happen if the individual 
character of each plant put out is not accurately considered. 
To a man of experience this is, of course, easy enough to 
determine, but to amateurs it is often a stumbling block. 
Many plants required for winter decoration in small pots may 
be grown much more luxuriantly by being planted out during 
the summer months, either in the open air or in a cold frame. 
The Indiarubber plant (Ficus elastioa), struck in November, 
potted into 60-sized pots, and planted out in April, yields most 
satisfactory results. When on the Continent I grew some 
hundreds in that way; they were planted out upon a spent 
manure-bed, and shaded until they were able to withstand the 
fierce rays of a July sun without protection. Water was 
given them by the bucketful, and they grew like Willows ; 
they were taken up in the autumn, placed in 32-sized pots, 
and were sold from 3s. to 6s. apiece. Dracasnas, treated in 
this way, soon grow into large plants. Last summer Iplanted 
out, on the 1st of July, in a frame, some seedling Cyclamens, 
which, when taken up in October, had four or five dozen 
blooms on them, and their foliage was handsomer than that of 
plants grown in pots, but it must be admitted that they would 
not stand forcing; while plants with less luxuriant foliage, 
that had been grown in pots all the summer, I got into full 
bloom by Christmas. Various kinds of Begonias, especially 
Dregii, if put out in cold frames, make handsome plants. 
Abutilons, also, do well shaken out, headed back, and 
re-potted again in September. I once had a quantity of 



Eupatorium ligustrifolium, huge old plants, which were 
annually treated in this way ; some of the roots were pared off 
in planting out ; when potted they were set in a cool- 
house, where they flowered profusely, and came in usefully for 
cutting ; had they been kept in pots all the summer they 
would have starved. I remember once, too, taking up a collec- 
tion of Tropffiolnms in the autumn, and placing them in a 
temperate house. They were tied up to the rafters and 
furnished a good mauy flowers during the early winter months. 
Still, although an advocate for planting out in the way men- 
tioned, it is a system that cannot be carried beyond certain 
limits ; if flowers are required in mid-winter and early spring, 
the plants which are to produce them must be subjected at 
times to a strong artificial heat ; and, in order that they may 
thrive under such conditions, the pots must be full of healthy 
active roots ; in other words, they must be what all practical 
men understand by the term established. In order to force 
Strawberries, for instance, successfully, they should have tha 
soil in which they ara growing matted with roots ; and the 
same rule holds good with nearly all plants that are to be 
subjected to a stroug heat. Cyclamens, Azaleas, Camellias, 
Pelargoniums, and most kinds of bulbs, will not force well 
unless the soil which sustains them be thoroughly filled with 
fibres ; planting out, therefore, requires judgment as regards 
the use to which a plant is to be put ; for its blooming 
season, and similar matters, must be considered. Plants 
for the decoration of rooms cannot be too well rooted, for, if 
not well established, they soon become sickly, the leaves turn 
yellow, and the whole plant languishes and ultimately dies. 
Eapidity of growth is generally obtained at the expense of 
solidity. When grown rapidly during summer, and taken up 
and potted in autumn, they must be shaded for a time, and do 
not, therefore, acquire that hardiness of constitution which the 
autumn sun alone can bestow, and which enables them to 
withstand the perils of winter much better than plants more 
tenderly nurtured. John Coknhill. 

Byfleet. 



Planting-out Gardenias for Cut Flowers. — Growing Gar. 
denias in pots ia a tedious plan. In order to grow them well the 
roots must have a run, and a run, too, among good feeding material. 
But it is not the mere gain in the way of growth to which growers 
in general have to look, it is the crop of flowers. Well, then, if any. 
one wishes to have them by the bushel make a young plantation, as 
is often done with Camellias, and let the plants have their own way 
for a while, and there will be abundance of flowers at more than one 
season. The most successful practice which I have seen in this way 
is that of Mr. Denning, at Lord Londcsborough's, Surbiton. There 
a narrow pit with a bed on each side is devoted to Gardenias, and 
there the flowers are magnificent and in abundance ; the foliage is of 
the most tempting kind, and insects seem to have no power to gain 
anything like a foothold. Since I saw what was done there I have 
tried the plan myself, and with the very best success. The way I 
did was to take a portion of a warm temperate house in which 
there jwas some staging ; I had a compost of loam, peat, and leaf 
mould mixed together, to which was added some sand. This was 
placed on the stone bench, levelled, and then planted, and half the 
attention needed for pot Gardenias served the purpose in this case. 
Several dozens planted in this way yield quantities of bloom to sue- 
ceed Camellias and to take their place up to November. The sorts 
which I have used are G. Fortunei aud radicans ; the former is a 
vigorous grower and needs pruning ; the latter may be allowed to go 
on as it likes. Syringing aud occasional brushing are all that is 
necessary to keep the plants clean. X have advised numbers to try 
this method of cultivation j and, so far as I have been able to learn, 
all have done so with satisfaction and uniform success. — James 
Anderson, Meadoxohank Nurseries, TJddinriston, N.B. 



Comfreys for the Wild Garden. — The Symphytuma or Com. 
freys are most valuable for the shrubbery and wild garden. They 
grow freely — in fact, rampantly, under trees or elsewhere, and are 
good and showy plants. S. asperrimum is the tallest, growing to 
6 feet, and has red flowers changing to blue. S. caucasicum (2 feet), 
white flowers, and S. tauricum ( 3 feet) , also with white flowers, are all 
fitted for naturalisation. S. bohemicum, with brilliant red flowers, 
only growing to 2 feet, is worthy of a place in the border, as is the 
variegated form of S. officinale (a handsome plant), and, perhaps, S. 
tuberosum, with yellow flowers, though I am not certain that the 
latter may not prove too rampant. — Oxon. 



20 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 10, 1875. 



NOTES OP THE WEEK. 



Mr". Noel Humphreys haa just finiBhed a series of fifty 

eketchea of the rarer Alpine flowera from life. They include repre. 
BentatioDB of nearly every large family of true Alpine flowers, and 
are, for truth to Nature and pictorial effect, the most admirable 
sketches of plant-life we have ever seen. They are to be reproduced 
in colour for a second volume of " Alpine Flowers for English 
Gardens." 

Mb. R. Gilbert, of Burghley, a frequent contributor of notea 

to The Garden, won the Carter £50 Cup prize, on Wednesday last, 
at South Kensington, with a remarkably fine collection of vegetables. 
Mr. Gilbert originated the recent successful vegetable shows, and has 
frequently proved that his skill in this most important branch of 
gardening is unsurpassed. 

A MEETING of horticulturists is to be held on Wednesday, the 

21st of July next, at six o'clock p.m., at the Criterion Hotel, Picca. 
dilly, to consider the best means of carrying out the pledge to hold 
an International Horticultural Exhibition during the year 1877. 

Me. Geo. Maw has succeeded in Sowering, in his Lily-house 

at Benthalt Hall, the extremely rare Lilium polyphyllum, from 
North-west India. The flowers are of a pale cream colour freckled 
internally with linear dark purple markings. 

The entire valuable collection of plants brought together by 

the late Mr. Thomas Bewloy, of Rockville, Dublin, will be disposed 
of by auction on Wednesday, the 14th inst., and following days. 
The collection is one of the most remarkable in the United Kingdom. 

Mr. F. Rivers sends us a fine specimen of Pear Citron des 

Carraes, trained as an upright cordon, and laden with fruit. The 
upright or columnar form of trees with simple stems is, for certain 
positions and circumstances, a desirable one. 

— ; — We are now having figured for The Garden the most 
distinct and important varieties of Lettuce in the very remarkable 
collection shown at Kensington, on Wednesday last, by Messrs. 
Carter & Co., of Holborn. We propose to describe all the really 
important varieties of Lettuce cultivated in Europe, and to illustrate 
the article with faithfully drawn wood-cuts of each variety. 

We have received a copy of Mr. Darwin's new work, " Insec- 
tivorous plants," which contains within its 450 pages an enormous 
number of facta bearing upon this interesting question. The book 
is of such importance that wo must defer noticing it at length till a 
future occasion, and shall now content ourselves with remarking that 
it affords one more opportunity of admiring the lucid style of the 
author, his skill in arranging the various facts set before his readers, 
and his remarkable powers of argument. 

At the general meeting of the Royal Horticultural Society, 

held at South Kensington, Mr. Berkeley announced, in reference to 
the Potato disease, that Mr. Worthington Smith had discovered the 
true resting spores of the Fungus (Perocospora infestans), which 
produces it. Dr. Masters, in alluding to the subject, drew attention 
to the fact that the Royal Horticultural Society, through its scientific 
members, Mr. Berkeley and Mr. W. Smith, had really done valuable 
work in unravelling the mystery connected with the Potato disease, 
and stated that Mr. Smith's discovery was of the utmost importance. 
The so-called new Potato disease, it was added, appears to be merely 
a form of the ordinary disease, and one confined to American 
varieties, that have been produced from home-grown sets. 

LinUM GIGANTEUM is now in perfection in London gardens. 

We have received the following from Mr. D. Uphill, Moreton, Dor- 
chester, recording the fine proportions it attains in Dorsetshire :— 
"In your number for March 6th, p. 191, Professor Owen has given 
an interesting account of his Lilium giganteum, grown in the 
open air. I have now in flower a specimen much larger. The 
flower stem is 9 feet 1 inch in height, and is 6 inches in 
circumference at 2 feet from the ground ; it bears eleven flowers, 
nine of which are fully developed at the time I am writing, and the 
others juat unfolding. Each flower is about 8 inches in length. The 
effect of this plant is extremely fine, and, situate, as it is, in a bed of 
Rhododendrons, the flat heads of these rather add than otherwise to 
its stately and majestic appearance. After flowering, the bulb 
dies ; but perpetuates itself by throwing np one or more offsets. The 
one in flower here is an offset from one which flowered in a green, 
house in 1872, and, in the autumn of that year, was planted out of 
doors in the situation it now occupies. In 1873, it increased 
considerably in size, and made two more offsets ; in 1874, 
three more were made, and the others much increased in size, 
80 that, when growth commenced this season, there were six 
bulbs of different ag 's, the oldest of which (three years) U now 
in flower as above deso ibed. There will be, I hope, two bulbs sufli- 
ciently strong to flower next yiar, and, of course, others fo'lowing for 
succeeding years. Do th : bulbs ever flower in less than three years ? " 



THE KITC HEN GARDEN. 

SLUGS AND POTATOES. 
When looking over our Potato crop here, a few days ago, my attention 
was arrested by the shrivelled appearance of the haulm of many of 
the plants, which, only a day or two previously, was in the most 
robust health. As these shrivelled plants occurred only in those rows 
which, for the sake of experiment, I had purposely left unearthed, I 
was the more curious to ascertain the cause, and, on close examina- 
tion, this was easily detected ; for, at the base of each stem, in a 
small hole, made by the haulm having been swayed to and fro by the 
wind, were found about a dozen minute slugs, which had cleverly 
eaten their way clean round each stem, leaving the hard or central 
part only intact. On further examination, I observed that nearly 
every plant was either partially or wholly eaten round in those 
rows which had not been earthed while in the adjoining and 
intermediate rows, which had been earthed, they had not been 
attacked. The varieties most injured were the Red-skinned Flour- 
ball and Victoria, and I doubt not, if they had been left only a day 
or two longer, that every plant would have been destroyed ; but a 
good top dressing of soot and lime prevented any further mischief. 
I have never before seen slugs attack the Potato in this way to such 
an extent, nor can I understand why they preferred the lower part 
of the stem to the younger, or upper part, or even the foliage. In 
many of the neighbouring cottage gardens I have since discovered 
the same evil, which had been previously been attributed to other 
causes, such as wire-worm, blight, and disease. Tho.mas Challis. 
Wilton Home, Salisbury. 



The Weather and its eflfects on Vegetation. — Thunder, 
storms occurred here on the 2nd, 9th, and 11th of .Tune. At noon, on 
the latter day, there was a terrific hail. storm, which completely 
covered the ground an inch in depth. Some of the hailstones were 
of imnxrase size, measuring five-eighth of an inch in diameter. The 
tender foliage of trees, shrubs, and vegetables, was much injured; 
and vegetation generally suffered a severe check. The highest 
temperature in the shade (81°) occurred on the 3rd, and the lowest 
(36") on the 22nd and 27th. The early part of the month was 
exceedingly fine ; and the middle part very stormy and boisterous, 
the temperature changeable, and, at times, unusually low. These 
climatic conditions being very conducive to the growth of Potato 
disease, it has, I am sorry to say, made its appearance unusually 
early, and has, within the last few days, spread very rapidly among 
the early varieties. — Thomas Challis, The. Gardens, Wilton House, 
Salishury. 

Disease among American Potatoes. — I have some American 
Late Rose Potatoes which have been completely destroyed by pre- 
cisely the same disease as that which has occurred at Chiswick and 
other places ; but, strange to say, about one. third of the plants of the 
same kind scattered throughout the plot have shown no sign of 
disease, but, on the contrary, have grown most luxuriantly and have 
produced a good crop of tubers. I find that many others in this 
neighbourhood, who were supplied with seed from the same source 
as myself, have suffered in a similar manner. During the late and 
present wot aud cool weather the ordinary Potato disease (Peronos- 
pora infestans) has made its appearance here. — John D. Mitchell, 
Falmouth. 

Potatoes in Yorkshire. — All kinds of Potatoes are looking 
well in the North Riding of Yorkshire. New kidneys, which are 
well supplied, are selling in the market at from Is. to 23. per stone. 
I have not yet heard of any disease ; a few gaps in the rows may be 
found here and there where sets have not germinated ; and, when 
examined, these sets ha<'e been found to be quite full of wire worms. 
Some of the tops are also found to be slightly curled ; but, since 
rain fell on the 22nd of June, the appearance of the curled tops has 
much improved. I have neither seen nor heard of the so-called new 
disease amongst Potatoes here ; but I find the most gaps amongst 
Brownell's Beauty, one of the new American varieties. My Snow- 
flakes are looking very well ; of 1 lb. of seed cut up into thirtj-- 
four sets, thirty. one are growing well. I examined those sets 
that failed, and found them to be eaten up with wirenorm. I took 
up some of Headley's Nonpareil on the 26Dh of June ; this is gene- 
rally thought to be a late winter Potato, but I find it to be an early 
variety. — Henry Tayi.ob, Fencote, near Bedale, Yorl<s. 



Sutton's Snowball Cauliflower.— I sowed this on the 4th of March last, 
planted it out to stand on tlie iOtli ot April, and cut the first head on the 16th of 
Jnno, ten days after the hand-light Cauliflowers came into use. The heads 
measure from 3 to 6 inches across, are white as curds, and perfectly firm, three 
filling an ordinary vegetable dish. It can be planted 15 inche? apart. It is the 
perfection ot what a Cauliflower should bo for the table.— R. Gilbebt, Biir^hlf;/ , 



July 10, 1875.] 



THE GARDEN. 



21 



THE GARDEN IN THE HOUSE. 



WILD GKASSES FOE BOUQUETS. 

Just at present ia meadows and hedge-rows the different 
varieties of wild Grasses can be obtained in perfection, and 
they should be much more extensively employed in floral 
decorations than they are, for not even the most delicate green- 
house Fern will give the same airy look to a vase of flowers 
that a few spikes of wild Grasses will impart. Some five or 
six years ago they were first brought into requisition, and, ever 
since, their use has been steadily increasing. It is a good plan 
to lay in a store of the different varieties of Grasses at the 
present time for use during the winter months when they 
cannot be obtained in the fields. In cutting them for this 
purpose each variety should be tied in separate bunches, and 
care should be taken 
that they are not 
bruised together, for, 
if this is the case, 
when the bunch is 
opened each spike 
will be found to have 
dried in its crushed 
position, and its form 
will thus be quite 
spoilt, and its value 
for decorative pur- 
poses destroyed. All 
Grasses should be 
dried in an upright 
position, particularly 
those of a drooping 
character. Oats while 
still green, are also 
very pretty in large 
arrangements, espe- 
cially ears of Black 
Oats, which I have 
but very seldom seen 
used. This variety 
forms a charming 
contrast to ordinary 
Grasses and Sedges, 
and I have constantly 
used it myself, when 
I have been able to 
obtain it. The great 
value of Grasses is, 
that in addition to 
giving a light appear- 
ance to a vase, a large 
plume of handsome 
Grasses and Sedges 
enables you to dis- 
pense with many 
flowers. To some 
this may be no object, 
but to many it must 
be a matter for con- 
sideration. My atten- 
tion has been directed to the usefulness of the bloom of the 
Eibbon Grass for mingling with flowers, and I can bear 
testimony to its utility for this purpose. The bloom has 
a silver-like lustre in some stages of its growth, whilst in 
others it assumes a rosy-pink tint, which is equally pretty. 
In the trumpet of a March vase, which has been dressed 
with pink and white flowers, a few spikes of the Eibbon 
Grass bloom help to carry up the colour with charming 
effect into the green of the other Grasses, flowers, and 
foliage employed in its decoration. For a trumpet vase the 
graceful drooping Oat Grass is best adapted. The common 
Horse-Tail is also not to be passed over, as it, like the Grasses, 
forms a valuable addition to floral decorations, and may be 
found growing in moist places in country lanes, or on sand- 
banks by the sea. In Devonshire it is to be found in most 
lanes, while about Hythe, in Kent, it is very plentiful along 



the coast. In tazzas, the flowers are arranged first, and the 
Grasses afterwards ; in trumpets, the opposite rule obtains — 
the Grasses are first arranged, and then the flowers. 

A. Hassakd. 




Wild Grasses and Border Flowers. 



Flowers and Leaves and their Seasons. — The always 
interesting " Daily Rural Life" correspondent of " Moore's Rural " 
records changes that occurred in his garden analagous to some that 
took place in onr own. " Whatever," he says, " may have been the 
cause, the fact is apparent that some of our earliest spring flowers 
are blooming with the early summer, and the old lines of demarca. 
tion are either rubbed out or have become very tortuous. For 
instance, the Chinese Wistarias have heretofore been considered as 
among the earliest blooming of the climbing shrubs, flowering 
before the appearance of the leaves, but my oldest and largest 
plant, which reaches the very top of a Sassafras tree, and spreading 

out over its branches, 
has just come into 
bloom ; hundreds of its 
long lilac- coloured 
racemes swing among 
the green leaves and 
young shoots of the 
plant producing them. 
There were no flowers 
in advance of the leaves 
this spring, conse. 
qnently we will have 
to qualify the descrip. 
tion generally given to 
this plant, inserting 
'usually' blooming 
before the leaves ap- 
pear, instead of the 
positive assertion that 
it does so always. 
Then here are Daphnes, 
Hawthorns, Lilacs, 
Spira;as, and Silver- 
bell trees all in bloom 
at the same time, with, 
out the least regard to 
the well, established 
rules of propriety, to 
eay nothing of what 
has been said of them 
by botanical authori. 
ties. Even our native 
Umbrella Magnolia has 
taken to ' sporting,' 
this spring — the flowers 
appearing before the 
leaves, instead of after 
as they generally do. 
Dr. Gray, in describing 
this species, says : — ' A 
low tree, with leaves 
on the end of the flower, 
ing branches crowded 
in an umbrella-like 
circle, smooth and 
green on both sides, 
obovate- lanceolate, 
pointed at both ends, 1 
to 2 feet long, surrounding a large white flower in spring.' The 
above is true generally, but this spring was an exception, for there 
were no ' long leaves surrounding ' the flowers on the specimen tree 
in my grounds, although it bloomed as freely as ever. I might cite 
scores of instances of the wide departure from the general rule of 
budding and blooming of different kinds of plants during the present 
season, but those already noticed are sufficient to show that even ttaid 
' Dame Nature ' has * sportive ' habits." 

Flowers on the Table.— Leigh Hunt says : — "Set flowers on 
your table — a whole nosegay if you can get it, or but two or three, 
or a single flower, a Rose, a Pink, a Daisy. Bring a few Daisies cr 
Buttercups from your last field walk, and keep them alive in a little 
water ; preserve but a bunch of Clover, or a handful of flowering 
Grass — one of the most elegant of Nature's productions — and you 
have something on your table that reminds you of the country, and 
gives you a link with the poets that have done it most honour. Put 
a Rose, or a Lily, or a Violet on your table, and you and Lord Bacon . 



22 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 10. 1875. 



have a oastom ia common, for this great and wise man was in the 
habit of having flowers in season set upon his table, we believe, 
morning, noon, and night — that is to say, at all meals, seeing that 
they were growing all day. Now here is a fashion that will last yon 
for ever, if yon please — never change with silks, and velvets, and 
silver forks, nor be dependent on caprice, or some fine gentleman or 
lidy who have nothing but caprice and changes to give them import- 
aice and a sensation. Flovvers on morning tables are especially 
saited to them. They look like the happy wakening of the creation ; 
they bring the breath of Nature into your room ; they seem the 
r3preseutative and embodiment of the very smiles of your home, 
the graces of good morrow." 



THE FR UIT G ARDEN. 

FORCING STRAWBBREIBS. 
Im forcing Strawborries care must be taken that the runners 
are healthy, and from plants that are full of bloom, particu- 
larly in the case of Keen's Seedling, which is still a good early 
sort, but I prefer Black Prince for the first crop, if it is 
required to be ripe by the 20th of March. For this purpose, 
a few good runners should be planted out in August or as 
early as possible, in a sheltered, sunny spot, having good soil, 
every attention, as regards watering and cleanliness, being 
devoted to them. In the following spring, as soon as the 
bloom buds have risen clear of the crown, they must all be 
pinched off ; and, if any plants should prove barren, which is 
often the case with Keen's Seedling, they should be pulled out. 
Pinching out the blooms causes the runners to bo both earlier 
and stronger, and this assures a good crop of fine early fruit. 
In layering the runners, some clean 3-inch pots should be 
filled with good strong fibrous loam, in a rough state, without 
any drainage. Then take a dibber, made from an old spade 
handle, sharpen the point, and make as many holes as are 
wanted round the Strawberry plants. Enlarge the holes 
sufficiently to take in the 3-inch pots up to the rim, when the 
hole will be deep enough below the pot for the water to drain 
into it. This also keeps the roots from growing into the 
soil after passing through the drainage holes. When a pot 
has been placed in each hole, insert in the centre of the pot a 
good healthy runner, secured with a small hooked peg, made 
from au old Birch besom. Keeping the soil moist causes them 
to root more quickly. Nothing weakens young plants more 
than allowing them to become too dry in those small pots, 
which is often the case. Examine the pots frequently by 
lifting them out of the hole, to see if the young roots are 
coming freely through the bottom of the pot, if so, they must 
be shifted as soon as possible, for if they get matted round the 
pot, it gives a check and causes delay. In re-potting, the 
fruiting pots should bo thoroughly clean and well-drained. 
Five-inch pots are large enough for the earliest crop, and 
G-inch for the later ; if a larger size be used they take longer 
to fill with roots, and the crown not getting ripe when it 
should, weak flower-stems, which are few in number, are 
caused. The soil for potting should be a strong fibrous loam 
from the top of an old pasture, and ought to be stacked up 
about three months before it is used. To every four barrow- 
loads put a barrowful of thoroughly rotten manure, mixed well 
together, and, in potting, make the soil quite solid, as the 
plants root better, hold less water, and keep sweet longer by 
this method, which is essential where fine fruit with good 
flavour is aimed at. Three-quarters of an inch in depth should 
be left unfilled for watering, so that the ball gets thoroughly 
soaked through every time it is watered. When potting is 
finished, place the plants on a bed of rough ashes or clinkers, 
6 inches deep, in an open sunny situation, far enough apart to 
allow the foliage plenty of room. Fill in between the pots 
■with fine ashes up to the rim ; this keeps the roots at a 
uniform temperature, and they require less water. Give a 
good syringing over head every fine day as the sun declines, 
and pay every attention to watering at the roots. When the 
pots are tolerably well filled with roots, a little manure-water, 
fresh made from cow or sheep-dung, should be given once or 
twice a week, and when the plants are in fruit mix a little 
guano with it, or soot. As soon as the hoar-frosts 
make their appearance, the syringing over head must bo 
dispensed with, and the plants must bo kept drier at the roots, 



to ripen them up well. As the frosts get harder, and the 
growth finished, cover the pots over with fine dry ashes, keep- 
the crowns clear, and allowing them to remain till wanted for 
forcing, unless cool frames are available, which is not often the 
case in the autumn. If they remain outside, it is well to have 
some Fern, or loose litter to throw over them during severe 
frosts, uncovering them at every opportunity, if it be only 
for an hour or two. When commencing to force, the third 
week in December is a good time to put the first batch in, and 
these should be ripe about the third week in JMiarch, as it takes 
from eleven to thirteen weeks from the start to the finish, 
according as the weather is favourable or not. Prepare a pit, 
with a bed of leaves or tan, into which to plunge the plants ; 
the heat should be about 70° or 75°, not more. Plenty of air 
should be given to keep the atmosphere dry and sweet, as 
nothing is more injurious than a close, stagnant atmosphere. 
The night temperature should be about .50", with an increase 
of •5'^ in the day, according to the weather. As soon as the 
flower-buds make their appearance, give a rise of 5°, and no 
more — too high a temperature weakens the buds. When the 
trusses begin to rise freely from the crowns, the plants should 
be placed tolerably near the glass, where they can have plenty 
of air, and should be subjected to a night temperature of about 
60°, with a rise of 8° or 10° in the day. Fire-heat should be 
cautiously used till the fruit has set, and it is better to allow 
the heat to fall a few degrees on a cool night than to force the 
plants too rapidly. Light and fresh air are indispensable in 
early forcing, and as the blooms begin to expand a drier atmo- 
sphere must be maintained, only sufficient water at the roots 
being given to keep the plants in active growth. Any stag- 
nant water about the roots is injurious to the plants, and, 
when in bloom, it is well to rub the hand across the flowers 
twice a day, as, when, fully expanded, this distributes the 
pollen, and causes the fruit to swell more equally. A little air 
should be left on all night, but avoid draughts ; and, when the 
fruits are fairly set, they will stand without injury a tempera- 
ture of 60° to 66° at night, with a rise of 15° or 20° with sun- 
heat. Water must also be more liberally supplied, a weak 
liquid manure being used alternately with it. When the fruit 
fairly commences to swell, all of it, but about ten or a dozen of 
the best, must be thinned off each plant ; for there is no gain 
in leaving too many to ripen, at a sacrifice of both size and 
quality. As soon as the fruit begins to colour, withhold 
manure, and use nothing but clear water, with the chill taken 
off it. Any leaves that shade the fruit should be pegged on 
one side, to give colour and flavour to the fruit ; and, as the 
season advances, and we get to the end of April, a more airy 
and cooler atmosphere will give higher colour and better 
flavour. Suitable kinds for forcing are Black Prince for March ; 
if not required earlier than April, Vicomtesse Hericart de 
Thury is both hardy and prolific, and forces well ; Keen's 
Seedling is a good early sort, but requires care in taking the 
runners from fruitful plants ; Eclipse, President, Sir Harry, 
and Sir Charles Napier, are all good forcers and prolific, the 
latter is beautiful in colour, but rather acid. For the latest 
crop, there is nothing superior to the British Queen. 

Waterdale, St. Helens. James Smith. 



THE BEST TIME TO THIN PEACHES. 
I riAVE almost invariably noticed that those Peach trees which set 
the thinnest crop of fruit generally stoned the greatest quantity 
proportionately — that is, they seldom dropped any portion of their 
crop at the critical period ; and, as might be expected, the fruit was 
generally larger and finer; and this happens, so far as I have 
observed, with trees carrying quite as heavy a crop as another 
equally vigorous, but upon which the fruit has been thinned down 
from a thick-set to the same standard. Now, if these results are 
constant — and I think they are — it follows that early and complete 
thinning would be the wisest practice to ensure a fine crop. I appre- 
hend the general practice still is to thin partially when the fruit is 
about the size of Peas ; again before stoning commences ; and, finally, 
when the stoning process is completed. A healthy Peach tree will 
set an enormous quantity of fruit under favourable circumstances ; 
and we cannot doubt that if all that sets, or a great part of it, is left 
for two or three weeks, it must be at a considerable sacrifice of 
vitrour, which is lost for the season, so far as the crop is concerned. 
It is generally acknowledged that the mere setting process is not 



July 10, 1875.] 



THE GARDEN. 



23 



accomplished without an expenditure of energy ; and, if so, the sua- 
tentation of an over-abnndant set afterwards must be still more 
debilitating — even more so, perhaps, than we can readily estimate or 
gauge. Considering the liability of Peach trees to drop their buds 
nnder glass, it is not advisable, generally, to thin the buds previous 
to flowering — unless, as happens with some varieties and in some 
soils, the flower-buds occupy the place of the leaf-buds also. When 
this is the case, then all the side-buds of each group should be 
removed without scruple, as the centre-bud — the flower-bud proper 
— is always the best and the firmest seated. The Noblesse Peach is 
exceedingly apt to make more flower-buds than leaf. buds ; and, but 
for the few of the latter which generally break at the base of the 
shoot, and the one at the point, it would often be diflicult to lay in 
a stock of young wood — consequently it is seldom safe to shorten 
the shoots of this variety at pruning-time. We have not ventured, as 
yet, to thin completely at the beginning, but we thin very freely as 
soon as the fruits are fairly set. There are always some fruit set 
but imperfectly, which the experienced eye can tell at once will 
never come to anything. These are the smallest which lag behind in 
swelling from the beginning, and should be removed first and at once, 
and afterwards the promising fruit should be thinned out to 4 or 
5 inches asunder on the shoot. This will leave ample to reckon 
upon for a crop ; they may even be reduced again before stoning, 
when the leading fruit can be distinguished. A writer on the Peach 
in these pages (the " Gardener") once stated that he left some of all 
sizes at thinning, and by this means secured a longer succession of 
fruit from the same tree — a statement which, if trae, is contrary to 
my experience. The only results I ever noticed of leaving the 
sm^lest fruit at the beginning, was that the fruit was proper, 
ticihately small at the ending without prolonging the succession in 
the least. The idea is erroneous, for the small fruit sets at the same 
time as the large — the inferiority in size being due to a lack of vigour, 
instead of later setting. J. S. 



FRUITS : SWEET OE ACID— WHICH SHALL WE 
GROW? 
This is a question which I put seriously to housekeepers and horti. 
culturists. The matter, as far as puddings, pies, and even preserves 
go, is very much in their own hands. We may either grow or buy 
our sugar at will. On the former plan we have our sugar free, on 
the latter at wholesale or retail prices. Habit has established the 
custom of growing sour fruits — I use the term relatively — for 
culinary purposes ; these fruits have to be sweetened before they are 
eatable ; the more acid the fruit the more sugar is used, and vice 
vers<). . It follows that it might be possible to use fruit for culinary 
purposes so sweet as to enable us wholly to dispense with sugar. 
Prejudice stands ready to protest that by so doing we sacrifice 
flavouj'. How so ? unless, indeed, we are prepared to contend that 
Beet and Cane sugar, which are those mostly employed to sweeten 
our other fruits, are better, sweeter, higher-flavoured, than the sugar 
secreted in Apples, Pears, Plums, or other fruits. But such an argu- 
ment proves too much, and really asserts that our artiflcial componnd- 
ings are better thon Nature's more perfect mixture. We certainly do 
not act so in regard to our dessert fruit. In them we prefer sugar of 
Nature's manufacture and storing, else as far as mere texture goes, 
many kitchen Apples would, with plentiful additions of sugar, be equal 
to sweeter dessert fruit. But custom and common senseare in accord in 
reference to our dessert fruits, and seemingly divorced in regard toour 
cooked fruits. Assuredly it is not a very reasonable proceeding to grow 
sour fruit, in order to pile sugar over it both before and after cooking, 
when fruits sweet enough for almost every palate might be grown with 
equal ease, on the same area, and to the same or greater weight. The 
argument of superior flavour has no foundation in reason, and will not 
stand the test of trial. No Apples will make a finer pudding or pie 
than the Alfriston, Bibston Pippin, or Cox's Orange Pippin. On the 
contrary, the two latter have an aroma that the best kitchen 
Apples cannot reach. True, they -may be too sweet for some palates. 
To those who prefer acid Apples without sugar we have nothing to 
say ; they will, of course, continue to eat them. But those who 
sweeten their tarts of Lord Suffield, Norfolk Beefing, Gloria Mundi, 
and Wellington up to the Ribston Pippin standard of sweetness, had 
far better reduce their grocer's bill by using the sugar at first-hand 
and free of cost, in their dessert Apples. Already this advice is being 
acted upon in regard to Pears for stewing, and for puddings and pies. 
Some, however, almost need to be told that Pears make better pud. 
dings and pies than Apples, as well as that the best dessert Pears, just 
before they are fit for table, are best for both, as well as for stewing. 
Let anyone try Marie Louise, GIou Morceau, Beurre Diel, Duchesse 
d'Angouleme, Vicar of Winkfield, Louise Bonne of Jersey, or 
Brown or Golden Beurre, and he would not care to eat any 
more of Black Worcester, or Catillac, or even of TJvedale's St. 



Germain, unless it might be the latter in March or April, 
after even the Easter Beurre — one of the finest dessert Pears 
in existence, as well as our very best for stewing, and puddings and 
pies — had gone out of season. The same principle is applicable to 
Plums. Why cook Bnllaces, Damsons, or even Victorias, when Gages 
in abundance, Jeft'erson's and Golden Drops are filled with sugar and 
the most delicious juices ready to hand? Much sugar might bo 
saved in preserving fruit by growing only, or mostly, the sweetest. 
As things have been managed in the past, the sweetest varieties 
have been ticketed insipid, And why ? Because all fruits of the 
same species have generally been sugared alike — pound for pound, 
or three-quarters of a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit, according 
to the receipt of the books on house-keeping, and this whether it 
contained 10 or 20 per cent, of saccharine matter, with as much 
immutability as the old Medio-Persian law, or that of three minutes 
to the boiling of an egg — big or little. Hence, of course, the best, 
that is, the sweetest, fruits were sugared to excess and made insipid, 
and many inferior fruits were and are under-sugared, and run into 
rottenness and acetous fermentation. Why, even among Apricots, 
there are wide differences in the proportions of saccharine matter, 
and I do not hesitate to affirm that the Kaisha ought not 
to have so much sugar as the Moorpark, and that this a"ain 
is sweeter than the Breda. Of course there is a much wider 
range among Plums, and indeed a considerable difference is 
allowed between Gages and other varieties, although the matter 
has not been considered with that thoroughness and minuteness 
in regard to the different varieties that its importance demands. 
Coming down to bush fruits, what differences in the per-centage of 
sugar we find in the different varieties of Gooseberries, Currants, and 
Raspberries ! Yet they are all cooked and preserved on the principle 
of pound per pound, or so much per pound, all round. Strawberries 
are often totally ruined by an excess or a deficiency of sugar, arising 
from an utter disregard of the per-centage already e.xisting in 
different varieties. This not only varies with the sorts, but likewise 
with the seasons, and some general means should be devised for 
testing, with sufficient approximation to exactness, the per-centage 
of sugar before the fruit is preserved. But my object now is to 
advocate the cultivation of the sweetest varieties of fruits chiefly or 
only, and thus to secure the sugar in our fruit.puddings and pies, and 
as much as practicable of it in onr preserves, free of cost. — D, T. 
Fish, in the " Florist." 



The best Stock for the Illorello Cherry.— This useful 
Cherry succeeds best with me when worked on the Cerasus mahaleb ; 
in fact, there is no comparison, both as regards health and produc- 
tiveness, between those worked on this stock and those on the 
ordinary Cherry stock. Here we have several trees of it on both 
kinds of stock, and although all are treated exactly alike, the most 
casual observer could pick out those on the Cerasus stock by their 
luxuriant appearance and the magnificent crops which they bear ; 
they also appear to escape the attacks of black fly, which is so great 
an enemy to the Cherry tree. I am aware that in soils naturally 
suited to the Cherry, such as those where good brick earth abounds, 
few trees are more healthy or productive than this Cherry. I have 
seen trees of it in Middlesex which, although they had received no 
attention whatever for years, for health and productiveness were 
unsurpassed; but favourable conditions of soil, such as existed in this 
instance, cannot always be commanded. In order to overcome the 
difficulty, therefore, of bad soil, I have found nothing so successful 
as getting this Cherry worked on the stock just named. For pre. 
serving in brandy the Morello is without a rival, and for the length of 
time during which it may be kept in good condition for culinary 
purposes it has no equal. It will succeed in almost any aspect, and 
by having a tree or two of it on a southern exposure, and others in 
the coldest situation at command, its bearing season may be greatly 
prolonged. — James Gkoom, Eenham Hall, Wangford. 



NOTES AND QUESTIO NS ON THE FRUIT GARDEN. 

Destroying the Pear Tree Slug.— Some years ago I had some trouVjlewith 
this insect, on a west wall furnished with largre trees of Marie Louise, Passe 
Colmar, Brown Beurrcf, and other Pears. I ultimately g;ot rid of it, and at the 
same time lauch improved the health of the trees, by (leluging them with strong 
soot and lime water, applied forcibly by means of the garden-engine, at pretty 
freciuent intervals. — E. Hobdat, Ravt^ei/ Abbei/. 

Alpine Strawberries from Runners best.— Some stale that these should 
always be raised from seed. I have raised many iuthat way, and have found 
nayself disappointed, in having a portion of them produce inferior fruit to 
those from which the seeds were obtained. Thus I obtained a mixture of good 
and inferior varieties, a result in no way desirable. — J. M. 

Covering Peach Borders.— Mr. Temple, of Blenheim, writing in the 
" Florist," doubts if the ordinary covering of fermenting material is the right 
one for Vine and Peach-house borders. He considers a covering of dry litter or 
Fern the best, 



24 



THE GARDEN. 



[JoLY 10, 1875. 



THE FLO WER GARDEN. 

NOTES ON HARDY FLOWERS. 
Some of your readers, as fond of hardy flowers as myself, might be 
glad to see a few remarks on those which have done well 
with me in Oxfordshire. Alstrojmeria anrea is now very showy 
and a vigorous plant. The others have not yet flowered this 
season. The yellow Aconitum lycoctonum is a strong and distinct 
species, and not at all particular as to soil or situation. Achillea 
aurea is, I think, the best, the flowers being of a deep yellow. 
Adonis vernalis was very fine when in bloom, the individual flowers 
being 4 inches across. It likes a somewhat moist soil. Agrostemma 
flos Jovis is worth growing, not being rampant, and only growing 
about 12 or 18 inches in height, and the flowers a good crimson. 
I do not know whether Agath^a coolestis is hardy on rock- work ; it 
certainly is not so in a border. Aquilegia chrysantha and Armeria 
cephalotes alba are good border plants — the former a clear yellow 
with good spurs, and the latter a pure white. Aubrietia Hender. 
sonii I think the best ; the flowers are of good size and colour. 
Aphyllanthes monspeliensis is a rather pi-etty little plant, about 
a foot high, with rush.like leaves and blue flowers. Bocconia cordata 
is a very fine and stately plant when isolated on the turf, and is now 
in full flower, although tbe chief beauty is in its leaves and habit. 
With me it is now about 10 feet high, and almost too rampant for 
borders. Brodiaja coccinea is well worth growing, and is a rather 
uncommon bulbous plant, with nodding tubular flowers of a good 
crimson ; the segments recurved, of a pea-green colour. B. grandi- 
flora grows about 9 inches high, the flowers a blue-purple, in umbels, 
and also deserves a place in all collections of hardy bulbs. Camasaia 
escnlenta, another handsome bulbous plant with violet. coloured 
flowers, should never be omitted. Catananche coerulea is of almost 
too straggling a habit, although the individual flowers are pretty. 
Of Campanulas we have a great variety here. Perhaps the best of 
the taller.growiug varieties are C. grandiflora, C. persicifolia and its 
white variety, Van Honttei, and C. pyramidalis ; and of the smaller 
varieties, C. carpatica (both blue and white), C. nobilis (both the 
reddish.pnrple and the white), C. puUa, C. Eaineri, 0. garganica, 
C. pumila, C. p. alba, C. Hendersonii, and the old C. turbinata. 
Chelidonium majus fl. pi. is a showy and vigorous plant, but 
is far surpassed by C. japonicum, with its large yellow flowers, 
and which grows about 18 inches high. Chekne obliqua is 
seldom seen in gardens, bat is quite one of the best of 
hardy plants, with large purple flowers, in dense terminal 
spikes. It requires a moist soil, with a good dash of vegetable 
mould. The Dodecatheons are all good plants, and increase 
rapidly, if accommodated with some vegetable mould and a half- 
shady position. Perhaps D. Jeffreyanum is the best, but D. 
integrifolium runs it hard and is dwarfer. I have not flowered D. 
splendidum yet, but it comes with a good character. The Doroni. 
cums are too rampant for the border, but are fine showy plants for 
the wild garden. I have one quite dwarf species about 6 inches high, 
which does for the garden proper, but I do not know its name. It is 
dwarfer than D. caucasicum. Of the Dracocephalums, D. austriacum 
and D. argunense are good ; the flowers are a fine blue ; per. 
haps C. grandiflornm is the best — but I cannot grow it. It never 
appears a second year ; but, perhaps the difficulty is in getting good 
plants to start with. The old Drjas octopetala, with white flowers 
and yellow stamens, is a pretty plant in light and moist soils, and D. 
Drammondii, with yellow flowers, is a good companion. The Eryn- 
giums are all good, and quite distinct from other hardy plants. I 
have a plant with smooth entire leaves, sent to me under the name 
of E. falcatum, but I cannot identify it. E. alpinnm and amethys- 
tinum are perhaps the best. E. bromeliicfolium is not hardy. 
It grows with me to 7 or 8 feet, but is never seen a second year. 
Som.e of the hardy Geraniums are very handsome plants. G. iberi. 
cum and G. platypetalum have made a splendid show this year with 
their large violet flowers. The old G. striatum is a pretty old 
border plant, and G. pha3ura with small, nearly black, flowers, is 
interesting, though not showy. Here I may mention a near relation. 
Pelargonium Bndlichorianum, perfectly hardy, and with large rose- 
coloured flowers, which should not be omitted in a collection. The 
double forms of G. pratense are also worth growing. We have a 
very fine Gaillardia now in bloom (G. Telemachi) raised, I 
believe, by Messrs. Henderson, and a hardy plant. It is at 
present the most showy flower in the borders. Of the Helianthe- 
mums, the old H. venustum, with fine red flowers, is good, particu- 
larly when associated with the pure white Helianthemum, christened 
by Messrs. Henderson The Bride, but all are surpassed by H. 
ocymoides, botttr known by the name of Cistus algarvonsis, 
which grows to the height of over 2 feet, and is smothered 
with fine bright yellow flowers of good size, and with a 
dark purple eye. The Pankias are nearly all good, and are just 



coming richly into bloom. The larger kinds look best where 
springing from the turf in the recesses of shrubberies. To secure a 
full development of leaf and flower, do not grudge them a good loam 
with plenty of vegetable matter, and they will repay the attention. 
The Heracleums, of which I have six species in the wild garden, are 
only fitted for rough places, where they look well even in decay, 
their leafless skeletons shivering in the breeze. The variegated 
H. Sphondylium, not being so rampant, might perhaps be used at the 
back of a wide mixed border. The Heleniums and Heliantbnses look 
well in autumn, and grow vigorously in a wild garden, which perhaps 
is the place best suited for them. Helianthus orgyalis is a very tall 
and particularly graceful perennial. It will be all the better for 
thinning out the superfluous shoots when young, choosing the weakest 
for that purpose. Do not omit the double Rockets (Hesperis) from 
the mixed border ; both the purple and the white forms (they are 
delioionsly scented), or the single kind from the shrubberies. 

Of the Christmas Hoses, the finest, in my opinion, is H. niger 
maximus, which attains the height of 2 or 2^: feet, and flowers 
earlier than the other kinds. Jaborosa integrifolia is an uncommon 
perennial, and deserves a place. Coming from Buenos Ayres, it 
requires a warm situation, and light well-drained loam. It has 
large white tubular flowers, and is very sweet-scented. It grows 
about 1 foot in height, and has been in bloom here for a mouth past. 
The different varieties of Liatris will soon be in bloom, and are all 
showy perennials. L. pycnostachya is the tallest and most vigorous, 
and L. fluxuosa is a dwarf and handsome kind. Lythrum roseum 
superbum is one of the handsomest plants now in bloom, with reddish, 
purple flowers in fine spikes, and grows nearly 6 feet high. It likes 
moist soil. Of the Linarias there are two flne and large kinds, which 
form good sized bushes about 4 feet in height. They are L. genisti. 
folia and L. dalmatica. Both have light yellow flowers and glaucous 
leaves, and will soon be making a good display. L. alpina is a pretty 
little dwarf plant for rather moist and sandy soil. Of the Linums 
there are many good. L. flavum and L. arboreum, with golden, 
yellow flowers are very showy. I find them rather impatient of 
removal. L. narbonnense is a very graceful kind with blue flowers, and 
the white variety makes a good companion for it. L. perenne (a native) 
is pretty. I have L. p. roseum, but it is not worth growing, being 
simply of a dirty blue colour, and the "rose " entirely absent. Our 
old friend, Lithospermnm prostratum, is seen to great advantage, 
either prostrate or trained as a pyramid or standard. To do well it 
requires very sandy soil. I do not think the British L. purpureo- 
cceruleum worth growing, and I have not L. Gastoni. A very fine 
plant, and rarely seen in gardens, is the Lobelia Tupa (Tupa 
Feuillei), about 5 feet high, with red flowers in a terminal spike. 
We find it quite hardy here (in Oxfordshire) much more so than 
L. cardinalis, which requires storing in the winter. It should be 
grown in all collections of hardy plants, and in light and rich soil. 
The Lupins look very well when in flower, particularly in a wild 
garden. The blue and white varieties should be grown together, and 
also a fine reddish-purple kind, which I had from seed. Another 
little-known but meritorious plant should not be omitted — I mean 
the Blue Dandelion (Laotuca sonchifolia). It has been covered with 
sky-blue flowers for a month past, and is now at its best. It is a 
very free grower, about 18 inches high, with smooth finely-cut leaves. 
The Lychnis tribe are nearly all good from the old and tall L. chalce- 
donica to the dwarf and brilliant L.Lagasca>. I do not find the latter 
survive on the level ground ; like the beautiful Convolvulus maari. 
tanicus its place is on the rock-work. L. Haageana is a splendid 
scarlet. The flesh-coloured varieties, I find, deteriorate very much 
after once blooming. What a good thing is Modiola geranioides, now 
in full bloom, with fine rosy-magenta flowers, 1 inch across, like 
miniature Mallows ! It is a tuberous-rooted plant, and quite hardy 
in the open border. Michauxia campannloides is, I think, only a 
biennial, or a very doubtful perennial, at all events. It is, however, 
very easily raised from seed. OXON. 



A Wild Rose Garden. — My notion of a Eos 
though perchance not original, is certainly not a stereotyped 
one. The ordinary Rose garden is, as a rule, exceedingly formal 
— beds or borders, standards, half-standards, and dwarfs, with 
here and there a few climbing Roses, all kept severely pruned, 
and everything about them trim and in perfect order. To 
grow Roses otherwise would ba a violation of all rules laid down in 
Hose books, as to the ways in which Roses should bo grown. In a 
cottage garden, just opposite my residence is a tall Hawthorn, and 
close to it was planted some years ago a Noisette multiflora Rose. 
Tbis and the tree have giown together, and now the Rose has mounted 
up some 12 feet, intermixing with its branches in such a way that all 
through the latter part of June and during July nothing is visible 
but a mass of white flowers. This is an illustration of the sort of 



July 10, 187S.] 



THE GARDEN. 



25 



Rose growth which I wonld have ; but this cannot, of course, be 
tolerated in an ordinary garden. In some wood, associated with 
Fern and useless undergro\vth, would I have a garden in which Roses 
might be grown in this way. First of all I would grub out all timber 
and underwood, then trench the soil deeply, enclose it with a wire 
fence, and plant it with a large variety of strong. growing Roses, all 
on their own bottoms, in long beds, three rows only in each bed, with 
wide walks between them. Except to keep within bounds any over 
luxuriant shoot, I would banish the pruning-knife, and permit the 
plants to grow as wild as Nature would allow them. Perhaps I 
should not get flowers fit for exhibition, but I should at least have a 
natural Rose garden. — A. D. 



AMPHICOME EMODI. 
The genua Amphicome, established by Royle, belongs to the family of 
Bignoniaceous plants, large numbers of which are grown in gardens, 
as, for example, Eccremocarpus scaber, Teooma radicans, and several 




Amplucome Emodi. 

species of the genus Bignonia, which are so useful for covering walls 
and arbours. The genus Amphicome comprises but two species, 
both of which have beautiful foliage and flowers. They are 
characterised by a campanulated calyx, which, to the number 
of five, is sharply denticulated and by a long corolla in the form 
of a funnel, of which the limb forming two lips is divided 
into five lobes of nearly equal size. Of the five stamens there 
are only four which are furnished with anthers, of which 
two are longer than the others. A. Emodi ia a more remark- 
able species than arguta, which was first introduced in 1837, and is 
indigenous to the Himalayas. A. Emodi was introduced much later ; 
but the size of its flowers, which are of a beautiful rose colour, has 
enabled it to assume and hold a more prominent position in our 
gardens than its congener. It is tolerably hardy, and will doubtless 
live in the open air in most of the southern counties. It is, how- 
ever, all the better for a little protection in winter. B. 



A FEAST OF EOSES. 
The instability of earthly affairs marks the crazes as visibly as tho 
serious interests and occupations of mankind. It does not console us 
much to reflect on this truth, when the craze is at its height, and 
bores us frightfully, because it does not happen to be our own craze, 
or because our minds are too well disciplined to have one ; for it ia 
equally true that it is only a case of replacement. Fashion turns her 
wheel, and brings up one toy after another, and everybody snatches 
at the topmost trifle. One day Prince's will be as obsolete as Rauelagh, 
and Polo as the nobler games of which it is a feeble imitation. 
A whisper is abroad that people are tiring of collecting china ; that 
" priceless" things are beginning to be priced, and at a surprisingly 
low figure ; that halls and staircases are denuded in many instancea 
of the adornments which, where the fashion ia carried out on a small 
scale, turned them into groves of plates and dishes, and, where it is 
carried out on the large, into the " Ceramic Art " department of one 
of those exhibitions which have also ceased to trouble. A happy 
time may be coming in which Satsuma jars, and even " Bristol " 
will have been gently deposed from an eminence which has 
been rather too oppressive, and our friends' houses shall cease to 
remind us painfully of the difficulties and dangers of a china shop, 
without the consolatory application of the practical Italian proverb, 
" Who breaks pays ! " Somebody buys the things which, if we aro 
to judge by the lists of " art " sales, everybody is selling, but they 
will at least be dispersed, and a few decades may be expected to pass 
before they will come up again, to divide general conversation into 
enthusiastic silliness on the pai't of the genuine " fanciers," and 
organised hypocrisy on the part of the vast majority who neither 
know nor care anything about "bits," or "fabrics," or " marks," but 
are mortally afraid of being fouud out in their ignorance. 

The Rose craze has been growing with great velocity, and ia com. 
mendable. The growers may possibly be tiresome people, but they 
keep away, from the necessity of the case, and we, who only love and 
enjoy the beautiful products of their skill and care, are the gainers 
without any drawback. We associate poetical ideas with them, 
simple, pastoral notions, disturbed by nothing more prosaic than 
cotton. wool, tobacco-smoke, and objurgation of the insect tribes 
which are likewise partial to Roses ; but no poetry can be got out 
of "Christie's" on a muggy day in June, be the "craze" under 
the hammer ever so historical. The Crystal Palace itself is the 
natural home of the Rose, the only place in which one is not sorry to 
see them cut and set primly in boxes. The space, the glass, the 
greenery, and the constant song of birds are all in keeping ; and 
in the early hours, before the crowd comes, they might have been 
holding a court, to which a few respectful human beings were 
admitted to do them distant but heart-felt reverence. 

The best way in which to enjoy the Rose show at the Crystal 
Palace is to look attentively at the catalogue, get well into one'a 
mind which are the prize flowers, and who are the successful growers, 
to pick up as much information as possible about the latest novelties, 
to make a mental act of grateful admiration of the skill, industry, 
care, and taste of the individuals who devote themselves to one of 
the most charming of pursuits, and then promptly to dismiss the 
whole matter from one's mind, and devote one's self to thoroughly 
sensuous enjoyment of the Rosea. Of course it is only right to 
learn their names. When one sees — as the oldest liabitii6s saw 
— the finest display the Crystal Palace has ever made, it ia 
the correct thing to inform one's-aelf that auch and such an one 
among the dainty darlings is new— a hardly yet sunned gem in the 
crown of the beautiful earth ; but, after a while, it is an interrup- 
tion to look at their names. There are nearly seventy more 
competitors than there were last year. The gorgeous deep pink 
of La France, which seema to spread into the air around the 
flowers ; the golden-yellow and rich bulk of the Mareohal Niel ; the 
intense carnation of the Alfred Colomb ; the dusky darkness of the 
Charles Lef ebvre, with its close-set leaves, like the downy wings of a 
butterfly or humming-bird — one'a learned and painstaking guide is 
constantly saying, " that ia new," or " they have got that colour 
since last year." 

The best Roses, according to scientific rules and the growers' 
estimation, are not always those which an unlearned visitor, a mero 
lover of Roses, looks at with most delight ; there are mysteries of 
form and fullness which he knows nothing of, but some of the 
grandest flowers strike everyone with wonder. Such a Rose is Marie 
Van Houtte, which is of a reversed bell-ahape (like a bell as the 
ringer jerka it upwards for a good peal of joy), of the Tea order, ita 
leaves of a pale yellow tint, edged with pink ; a supremely lovely 
flower, with the faintest suggestion of a Tulip in it, and a breath of 
quite peculiar sweetness. The French Roses bear away the palm of 
beauty, and the learned in them tell ua they are more beautiful here 
than in their own country. The Gloire de Dijon, an "old " Rose — 
it has glorified many a land beside its own — ia, to our taste, still 



26 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 10, 1875. 



unsurpassed ; but tlie lustrous dark pink of the Marie Cointet runs 
its tender yellow close, and the Eugene Appert is very near the throne. 
Never has the Marquise de Castellane — most aptly named of Roses, for 
it does not disgrace the name It bears — flaunted such beauties 
in the sun of June as at Sydenham. Visitors clustered round 
the boxes where these Roses stood amid the Moss, and an eager hum 
of admiration was always audible near them. Their splendour, and 
that of La France and Marie Baumann, were freely granted ; but it 
there was one Rose rather than another which excited a strong 
and openly . expressed desire to steal it (the publio sentiments 
were very impartial in this direction, however, and disdained dis- 
guise), it was the well-named Madame Lacharme. One specimen of 
this kind, of perfect form, of the most delicious colour — a spotless 
white, deepening towards the heart of it into a faint but distinct 
pink tint — was set in a box which contained several Roses of various 
colours. It ougbt to have stood alone, and to have received a 
separate homage. Great must have been the proprietorial pride of 
the exhibitor who showed those beautiful Oxonians in the English 
seedling class ; but it is to bo hoped the grower of the lovely 
Mademoiselle Eugenie Verdier was not within earshot when a critical 
individual replied to the enthusiastic comments on that triumph of 
science and skill (by kind permission of Nature) made by a lady 
beside him : " Well, yes, very pretty ; but I like the meaty Roses 
best, myself." Table decorations, wedding, opera, and button-hole 
bouquets were displayed in profusion. The exhibition was most 
creditable, all the combinations were tasteful and elegant, and if the 
reaction which has set in should banish ceramic monstrosities from 
dinner-tables and substitute such floral triumphs as these, there will 
be additional reason for wishing a long life to the Rose craze. — 
" Spectator." 



THE BEDDING PANSIES AT CHISWICK. 
In the spring months few hai-dy flowers are more eiiective as bedding 
plants than the race of Pansies known as Bedding Pansies. Their 
colours are generally rich and decided, while the blooming season of 
the true bedding sorts is continuous for a considerable period. About 
ninety varieties have been grown this year at Chiswick,' whole beds 
being devoted to many of them. The following, according to the 
" Florist," have been selected as the cream of the collection : 

Dark Purples. 

Mulberry (Dean). — A. dwarf compact-growing variety, of 
spreading and free-flowering habit ; the flowers are dark reddish- 
plum-purple, with very small yellow eye, and they are well displayed. 
A first-class certificate, awarded by the Floral Committee last year, 
was confirmed on the occasion of a recent (Jane 9) critical examina- 
tion of the collection. 

Lotliair (Dean). — A novel and attractive variety, having a dwarf 
compact habit of growth ; the flowers are large, deep purple, with 
small yellow eye, and a broadish bronzy spot just below it on the 
lower petal ; a distinct and rich-looking flower. Awarded a first-class 
certificate. 

Cliveden Purple. — This variety was not in the collection, but 
it is noticed here as being considered by growers the finest of its 
colour — a rich plum-pnrple. 

Tyrian Prince (Dean). — A handsome variety, awarded a first- 
class certificate last year, but this year voted a second-class only ; it 
is of fine compact, but stout-growing, habit ; flowers, large, dark 
velvety mulberry-purple, with small yellow eye. 

Blue or Mauve-Purples. 

Blue Bell (Dean). — A very showy variety, of compact, spread, 
ing, free-blooming habit ; flowers, numerous, medium-sized, mauve- 
purple, with a small yellow eye, pencilled over with dark lines. The 
individual flowers are inferior, but the ei?ect of the mass of blossoms 
is good, and it is, moreover, a continuous bloomer. Awarded a first, 
class certificate last year, which was now confirmed. 

Blue Perfection (Westland). — Of compact, free - blooming 
habit ; flowers, medium-sized, of a reddish-mauve ; a fine, effective, 
self-coloured variety, with a general similarity to the foregoing, but 
more decidedly self-coloured. A first-class certificate was awarded. 

Alpha (Dicksons & Co.). — A very compact-growing, vigorous- 
habited, free-flowering variety ; flowers, large, blue-purple, with a 
reddish flush, the eye yellow, with a bilobed dark spot in front ; good. 

The Tory (Dicksons & Co.) — A variety of free and vigorous 
grcvth, and an abundant and continuous bloomer; flowers, large, 
deep blue-purple, with white eye, and a bilobed mulberry spot in 
front of it ; good. The first-class certificate already awarded was 
confirmed. 

Dr. Stuart (Stuart). — Of dwarf, compact habit ; flowers, manve. 
purple, with small yellow eye, surrounded by a narrow dark ring ; 
a neat and pretty flower. Awarded a second.class certificate. 



Yellows. 

Sovereign (Dicksons & Co.). — Of close-growing habit, dwarf, 
free, and prolific of blossoms ; flowers, moderate in size, bright golden- 
yellow, with a slightly pencilled eye ; very effective. Awarded a 
first-class certificate. 

Bedfont Yellow (Dean). — A free-growing, compact.habited> 
sort ; flowers, large, bright yellow, with a slightly pencilled eye S 
good. Awarded a first-class certificate. 

Dicksons' Golden Gem (Dicksons & Co.). — A variety of dwarf, 
spreading habit, and a free bloomer ; flowers, large, deep yellow, 
with deeper eye, over which occur dark pencillings ; good. Awarded 
a first-class certificate. 

Whites. 

White Swan (Dean). — A fine variety, of close-growing, tufted 
habit J flowers, moderate size, pure white, with slight pencilled eye j 
of good substance, and very chaste-looking. Awarded a first-class 
certificate. 

Dicksons' Q,ueen (Dicksons & Co.). — A variety of free, compact 
habit, an abundant bloomer, but rather later than others ; flowers, 
lai'ge, white, with yellow eye, and pencilled lines. The first-class 
certificate awarded last year was confirmed. 

liily- white Tom Thumb (Dean). — A clumsy name for a very 
useful variety, of free, compact, spreading habit ; flowers, white, with 
yellow eye and dark pencillings ; a very fair white, but the flowers ' 
occasionally come blotched with blue in hot weather. The first-class 
certificate awarded last year was confirmed. 

Dicksons' Snowflake (Dicksons & Co.) — A moderately I 
vigorous Eort, of free-flowering habit ; flowers, white, with a yellow 
eye, marked by a few faint lines. This was awarded a second-class 
certificate. 

Various Colours. 

Icilacina (Dean). — A charming variety, of dwarf compact 1 
spreading habit, free growing, and very distinct ; the flowers are of 
moderate size ; the upper petals are of a reddish-lilac, and the lower 
ones bluish-lilac, with a yellow eye ; an exceedingly pretty and 
taking flower. Awarded a first-class certificate. 

Q,ueen of Lilacs (Dicksons & Co.) — A variety of free bold 
habit, forming close vigorous tufts ; the flowers ai e reddish-lilac, 
paler at the edge, very freely produced ; a soft neutral colour, novel 
and effective for grouping. Awarded a first-class certificate. 

Novelty (Cocker & Son). — A showy variety, of free-growing 
habit, but getting rather tall ; the flowers are reddish or pucy- 
purple, with yellow eye, showy ; a pleasing variety amongst the self- 
coloured flowers. Awarded a first-class certificate. 

Magpie. — An old but still useful variety, of vigorous habit, and 
of a hardy constitution ; it is striking in appearance, from the 
strongly-contrasted colouring of its flowers, and an abundant 
bloomer, but rather tall-growing ; the flowers are blackish-mulberry, 
with a large wedge-shaped spot of white at the tip of each petal ; 
the spotting sometimes runs out, when it becomes self-coloured. 
Awarded a lirst-class certificate. 

To secure a good bloom of these showy flowers young plants 
should always be used, these being planted out in autumn or very 
early spring, according as the situation and soil may be favourable or 
otherwise. Where they are apt to die off in winter early spring 
planting should be adopted, the plants being wintered in a frame, 
and the sashes removed on all possible occasions. A top. dressing of 
light rich soil, administered after the first flush of bloom is over, is 
very beneficial. 



NOTES AND QUESTIONS ON THE FLOWER GARDEN. 



Water Lily Insects.— Will you kindly examine the leaves ofWater Lilies 
scut, and inform me wbat has injured theraP— G. Hutchiksow, Draycoft Loige, 
Fiilham. [They have been attacked by the larvie of a small gnat fly belonging 
to the genus Chironomus, which seems unusually abundant this year, as we 
have received similar enauiries from other auarters. — A. M.!l 

Phlox Drummondi splendens ffrandiflora.— This is a vigorous growing 
continental variety, the flowers of which are extra large, of great substance, 
and perfect in form, the colour being rich rosy-crimson with a distinct white 
eye. For pot culture it will prove most useful. One of the most effective of all 
bedding kinds is the variety of Phlos^Drummondi called Cardinal, the flowers of 
which are large, round, and deep crimson, a colour not yet found in any 
hcdding Felargonium. — A. D. 

The Lizard Orchis (0. hircina).— This singular and rare British plant is 
now flowering in the York nurseries. It is planted on a detached portion of the 
rock-work, which has been constructed specially for the gi'owth of the species 
of hardy Orchises which thrive in a compost consisting of very stiff loam and 
broken pieces of limestone. The flowers of O. hircina are green and white, with 
piu'plc spots at the base of the lip. The peculiar feature in this flower is the 
long strap-shaped and twisted hp, which is frequently 2 inches long. Another 
pretty little Orchis, Nigritella suaveolens, was flowering not far from the above, 
with small dense spikes of rose-coloured flowers, which are most deliciously 
fragrant,— R. P. 



July 10, 1875.] 



THE GARDEN. 



27 



THE ALAMEDA OF MEXICO. 
The large cities of Central and Southern America-even those 
that became at the commencement of this century the capitals 
of independent republics and empires-did not avail ttemse ves 
as fullv as they might have done of the vegetable wealth that 
lay at their doors.' In Spanish America, only two or three 
capitals are provided with public gardens that are worthy of 
them, and, at the same time, worthy of the wealth of vegetation 
that Nature has lavished upon the surrounding country, i he 
city of Mexico has three public promenades-the Paseo de 
Bucaroli, La Viga, and the Alameda. Of these, the last- 
named may be considered the most ancient. It is not exactly 
a o-arden, but an enclosed park, containing several gardens, 
some of which would not discraco European cities. Lsta- 



THE AMATEUR'S GARDEN. 

By THOMAS BAINES. 
Late Peas.— As a means of retarding, in some measure, the last 
sowings of late Peas so as to have tbem far on m the autumn, the 
points of the shoots may be nipped out at the spot where they show 
the first flowers; this will induce them to throw out growths at the 
ioints lower down, and it also makes them more bushy, as they wil , 
thus treated, push two or three shoots in the place o one, and will 
delay their cropping from a fortnight to three weeks. As to the 
quantity produced by Peas so treated it does not appear to have any 
influence, either one way or the other. The greatest enemy 
late Peas have is mildew; for, if this once makes its appearance, 
their cropping powers are soon over. If, as advised at the time of 
sowin.., the most open airy situations were selected for these late 
crops and the rows were placed far apart, the chief measures for 




View in the Alameda of Mexico. 



Wished in 1592, this enclosure was planted with choice 
trees At the present day, this beautiful park is entirely 
surrounded bya wall. The avenucsare well kept, andthegardens 
separated from each other by wooden lattice-work. At the 
four angles of the park are entrance gates, as well as in the 
middle of the parallelogram by which it is enclosed. Ihe 
Taxodiums are a remarkable feature; still, however, the 
gardens are by no means what they may be made m such 
a glorious climate whenever the cessation of wars ana 
revolutions permit of the growth of horticulture in this 
natural garden-land. 



Wow riiinese rsrns.— In the last issue of the " Journal of Botany " Mr. J. G. 
Baker deacriblf lome inportant new Ferns gathered in Central China. They 
Sde Pteris inequalis, Nephrodium Sheared, K. regulare, N. puberulum, 
Polypodium assimile, P. Shearen, and P, Lewieu. 



avoiding this troublesome parasite have been taken ; but, if they are 
ever allowed to want water, mildew is certain to follow. If, there- 
fore, the weather is dry, give a copious watering once a week, so as 
thoroughly to soak their roots, and mulch the ground with half 
rotten manure for a couple of feet on either side of the rows. 

Turnips.— A good breadth of Turnips should now be sown, as, 
after this time, the beetle is not usually so destructive as earlier in 
the season. Ground that has been cleared of early Potatoes, Peas, 
or other crops, will now be available for these. It wiU not be necessary 
to dig it previous to putting in the seed, unless it is of a very strong 
adhesive nature, nothing being gained by doing so ; in fact, when 
the land is light, it does absolute harm, by inducing the growth ot 
leaves rather than that ot the bulb. Previous to sowing, hoe the 
ground a couple of inches deep, rake off and remove any weeds that 
may exist, and sow the seeds in rows a foot apart, puttmg m enough 
to allow for loss from the depredations ot birds or the fly. Before 
sowing dress the seed with red lead ; if this is properly done, accord. 



28 



THil GAEDteN. 



[July 10, 187S. 



ing to the directions already given, it will secure them from 
molestation from all birds except the greenfinch, which seems to 
defy any dressin.Ef that can be given to seeds of the collective family 
of Brassicas. It is a well-known fact that seed-bearing severely 
taxes the energies of any plant, although all are not alike afiected by 
it, but it is simply a waste of strength to allow anything to seed 
when the seed is useless or not required. Tor this reason Asparagus 
in private gardens should have the seeds stripped oS as soon as they 
are large enough to take hold of. At first this may appear a tedious 
process, but a little practice will enable anyone to clear a good 
breadth in a few hours ; do not allow them to get large or full, 
grown before they are taken off ; for, in that case, the injury they do 
is almost complete. Go over the beds frequently to remove all 
weeds, which, it allowed to grow so much, impoverish the soil, and 
this crop, more than most others, cannot bear this. 

Planting Cottager's Kale. — A good space should now be 
planted with the useful Cottager's Kale, as this is a most excellent 
vegetable, and so hardy that it will stand even our severest winters. 
It is much better to have a good breadth of it than to grow several 
varieties of similar Winter Greens, that are not equal to it in any way. 
Give the plants 20 inches space iu the rows, and allow as much 
between each row. 

Vegetable Marrows and Endive. — Thin cut Vegetable 
Marrows sufficiently, not allowing them to get too much crowded, and, 
if the situation is at all exposed, secure the shoots so that they 
will not get blown about by the wind. See that they are well supplied 
with water. Wanting this, the plants will not bear to the end of 
the season. Make a sowing of the Batavian Endive, and also of 
the Green-curled ; these will come in as an [autumn supply, as the 
plants from this sowing will not be so liable to run to seed as those 
sown earlier. Do not put the seed in too thickly, as nearly all of 
them vegetate, and are not so liable, as many, to suffer from the 
ravages of birds or insects. 

Pits and Frames. — Cucumbers that have been bearing from 
the commencement of the season, and are now falling off a little, 
should have some of their shoots thinned out, and a little fresh soil 
added to the surface of the bed. In this the shoots will strike root 
from the joints, where required, by pegging them down. If the 
plants are clear from insects thus treated, they will again push out 
growth and fruit freely. 

Melons. — The late-planted crops will now be growing fast, and 
must receive every attention in thinning out superfluous shoots, 
stopping those retained as soon as they reach the sides of the frame ; 
this will cause them to throw out bearing wood. Keep np the neces- 
Bary warmth iu the beds by slight linings ; these will not require 
now to be so heavy as earlier in the season when the weather was 
cooler ; but with late Melons in frames the beds must not be allowed 
to get cold, or the plants make little progress and the summer is 
too far advanced before the crop comes to maturity. As the pre- 
ceding crops gradually ripen, withhold water so as to impart the 
requisite flavour to the fruit, but do not let the soil become so dry as 
is sometimes done, and thus stop the full development of the fruit. 
Endeavour by the use of the syringe on such as are swelling off the 
crop, to keep the foliage free from insects, for where the leaves are 
scanty and injured by red spider or other pests the fruit, as a natural 
consequence, will bo small and deficient in flavour. Woodlice are a 
great nuisance where they exist in large numbers in Melon pits or 
frames and before the fruit begins to ripen measures should be taken 
for their destruction. They are not at all particular as to their food, 
slices of raw or boiled Potatoes, or pieces of Apple placed in the 
bottom of a few small pots and covered with hay or Moss will 
attract them in numbers, while by looking over them every morning 
and destroying they can be kept down so as to little inconvenience. 
It is only where such precautions are neglected during the advancing 
stages of the crop that woodlice exist in such number as to do serious 
mischief. 

Houses — Stove. — More air will now be required by plants in 
the stoves than earlier in the season, when the growth was young and 
tender, and liable to injury if much external air came in contact with 
the partially developed foliage ; but, in its admission, always be 
guided more by the state of the weather than the time of the year. 
In our changeable climate, we often, even in the height of summer, 
experience cold days, when, if a considerable volume of air is ad- 
mitted, it reduces the temperature, and checks growth ; even when 
the weather is hot, and air can be given in abundance, it should be 
taken off sufficiently early in the afternoon, whilst the sun has yet 
power on the glass ; by this means the temperature of the house will 
rise very considerably, and the growth of the plants be kept up until 
the wood is well matured. The numerous insects to which stove 
plants are subject, such as mealy-bug, scale, and thrips, at this 
season increase apace. Amateurs who are so unfortunate as to have 
mealy-bug to contend with, have an unceasing task before them so 



long as a trace of the pest exists upon their plants. Later in the 
autumn, when growth is completed in most things, is the best time 
to make a determined onslaught on the insect. Its destruction will 
bo rendered much easier if it is kept well down during the summer ; 
for, if once it is allowed to get to such a head as is sometimes seen, 
where it not only half smothers the plants, but gets into crevices in 
the wood and brick-work, it is difiicnlt to deal with. There are so many 
prescriptions for the destruction of this and similar insects, all in their 
turn by some pronounced infallible, that it is a wonder any are left 
alive. Many of the insecticides are recommended to be laid on with a 
camel's-hair brush or a sponge ; this might answer if only an odd plant 
or two was affected, or if there was an unlimited amount of time at 
disposal for this kind of work ; but this is seldom the case, and some 
readier means must therefore be resorted to, the best of which will be 
found to wash the plants with Fowler's insecticide, for scale ; at 
this time in the season hard-wooded plants will bear it at a strength 
of 5 oz. to the gallon, syringing it on, at a temperature of 90', so as 
to reach every part. For bug, which is harder to kill than brown 
scale, Abyssinian mixture is the best, using it at from 5 to 6 oz. to 
the gallon, according to the nature of the leaves of the subjects 
upon which it is used. Where this insect is kept under during 
the summer months, an attempt in the autumn to completely 
destroy it is much more likely to be successful. Such kinds of 
Gloxinias as are considered desirable to increase, should now be 
propagated. The leaves being fully matured, are now in a much 
better condition to form roots than earlier in the season when they 
were soft ; in varieties, of which there are a sufficient number 
of leaves, the stalks of those used should be shortened to 
about an inch below the leaf ; three or four of these should 
be placed round the sides of a 6-inch pot, sufficiently di-ained 
and filled with a mixture of two parts of loam to one of sand, 
the cuttings being put in so deep as to cover the stalk and about half, 
an -inch of the base of the leaf. Where leaves for propagation of 
any particular sort are scarce, several roots may be had from a 
single leaf, by laying them down on the surface of the soil in a seed, 
pan filled with the compost, as above ; the mid-rib of the leaf must be 
cut throughinfiveor six places, and laid with the under-side downwards, 
a small stone, j ust large enough to keep the severed part of the mid.' 
rib at the point where cut, touching the soil, being put over each 
place where it is thus cut. In this way bulbs will be formed, but these 
will not, individually, be near so large as when the stalks are 
inserted, and each leaf employed to make a single root. 



Flower Garden and Pleasure Grounds. 

Dahlias, Hollyhocks, and all other tall growing herbaceous plants, 
should be carefully staked and tied up before they become broken 
and disfigured by high winds. Pinks, Picotees, Cloves, and Carnations 
should also have similar attention, while trailing plants of all kinds, 
such as Verbenas and Petunias, should be pegged down. The numerous 
varieties of Ivy.leaved Pelargoniums are found to make excellent 
bedding plants, and to succeed admirably on light soils during dry 
seasons, when Verbenas and Calceolarias frequently prove failures. 
Remove all dead and decaying blooms from Roses ; also gross shoots 
and suckers from the stocks, should any such be produced, and in 
order to secure an abundant autumnal bloom, cut a portion of 
the strong young shoots tolerably close back, and give the heads a 
thorough washing with the garden engine or a powerful syringe, in 
order to clear them from all impurities. When this has been done, 
give the plants a good top-dressing of half rotten dung, and a soak, 
ing with rather strong manure. water about once a week during 
the present and succeeding months, should the weather be at all dry ; 
treated in this manner, the plants will probably flower as abundantly 
during the early part of September as they did in June. It is, how. 
ever, necessary to guard against the attacks of insects of various 
kinds, and also mildew, which so frequently impair the beauty of 
the second display of bloom. The best and, perhaps, the only 
remedy for mildew is sulphur, which, in some of its forms, should 
be used the moment the Fungus makes its appearance ; let the 
foliage be well dusted with it, or syringe the plants with Swing's 
infallible composition, a wineglassful of which renders a gallon of 
water sufficiently strong for the purpose. This should be done 
during a calm evening, and one or two applications will seldom fail 
to arrest the further progress of this pest. Now is the best time to 
bud Roses on the Briar stock, an operation which should, if possible, 
be completed during this month, or early in the next, the end of 
which, however, will be sufficiently early for budding upon the 
Manetti. Now is also the proper time to increase Carnations and 
Pinks. The latter will strike freely under hand-glasses in a compost 
formed of sifted leaf-soil and sand. But Carnations, Picotees, 
and Cloves are generally propagated by means of layers. In layer, 
ing, remove a portion of the surface-soil surrounding the stems of 
the plants about to be operated upon, and surround the same by a 



July 10, 1875.] 



THE GARDEN. 



29 



portion of prepared soil, which may consist of aboiit two-thirds of good 
friable loam and one-third sifted leaf mould, with the addition of a 
little sharp sand. Remove all weakly- shoots from the stools, and, 
after selecting those intended to be layered, strip the leaves from a 
portion of the stems next the ground ; then, with a thin-bladed, 
sharp knife split up a portion of the stem from which the leaves have 
been cleared, inserting the knife a little below one of the joints, and 
turn the top of the layers upwards, so as to throw the heel or tongue 
towards the soil, in which it should be securely fixed by means of a 
peg. When the layers of each stool have been thus secured, place as 
much fresh soil round the stool and about the layers as will keep 
them firmly in their places ; and give all a good watering through a 
fine-rosed watering-pot to settle the soil — this must be frequently 
repeated should the weather become dry. In order to prevent birds 
from scraping away the soil from tlie layers (which thoy are very 
likely to do, in their search for worms, ants' eggs, &c.), cover the 
surface with small flints or stones, which will hIso have the effect of 
preventing undue evaporation. Where ornamental screens or hedges, 
consisting of various materials, such as Sweet Briar, so valuable on 
account of its delicious perfume ; common or evergreen Privet, a 
plant of quick growth, and exceedingly useful for this purpose ; tree 
Box, common Yew, &c., are used for separating certain portions of the 
dressed ground from others, they should now be trimmed or clipped. 
The common Tew (Taxus baccata) is amongst the best of plants for 
forming ornamental evergreen hedges ; it is, however, of somewhat 
slow growth, but at the same time it has the advantage of remaining 
long in a healthy condition, and of bearing clipping and cutting 
better perhaps than any other plant. There are also many Coniferous 
trees of rapid growth, which will bear clipping well, and which can 
%oon be formed into very ornameutal screens, such as the Cupressus 
Lawsoniana, Thujopsis borealis, Thuja Lobbii, various Retinosporas, 
&c. ; and wherever hedges or divisional lines of these plants exist 
the present is the most suitable time to cut or trim them. Single 
specimens of such plants as have been mentioned are also frequently 
used with good effect in geometrically-designed flower gardens, and 
these may also now receive whatever trimming they may require. 
The Irish Yew (Taxus fastigiata) is well suited for forming 
lines or avenues in connection with formally designed gardens ; it 
naturally assumes a pyramidal habit of growth, which, with slight 
assistance, it maintains ; and, if on specimens of it, 10 or 12 feet in 
height, the golden-striped variety of the common Yew are grafted, 
a striking effect is produced. Acer Negundo variegatnm contrasts 
well with the sombre-foliaged Coniferous trees and dark.foliaged 
shrubs of different kinds. Wherever plants with large leaves 
are used as specimens in the flower garden, or in forming screens, 
&o., such as the Sweet Bay, Laurustinus, Portugal Laurel, 
Hollies, &c., any cutting or trimming found necessary in their case 
should not be performed with the garden shears but with the knife, 
in order to avoid mutilating their foliage. — P. Gkieve, Cidford, Bury 
St. Edmunds. 

Indoor Fruit Department. 
Vines. — Look over lately inarched Vines and see that the ties 
are not interfering with the expansion of the wood; do not remove 
the matting entirely, although the union may seem complete, as the 
slightest pressure will cause a separation. It is a safe plan to put a 
single round of matting above and below the joining, and let it 
remain all the season. Where Lady Downes are stoning, and show 
the slightest indication to scald, keep the interior of the Vinery 
in which they are as cool at all times as a greenhouse until the 
stoning process is over, and not 3 per cent, of the berries will be 
injured. This scalding, as it is termed, consists in the most promi- 
nent berries becoming soft and brown on one side, as if they had 
been burnt with a hot iron ; sometimes a single berry here and there 
throughout the bunch is affected, and, in more severe cases, the whole 
side of the bunch is destroyed. Many a bunch which promised well 
to begin with has through this been reduced to almost nothing in a 
short time. A burning sunshine is the chief cause of the disease ; 
for, in dull sunless weather, nothing of the kind takes place. When 
sufiicient air cannot be admitted a temporary shading is often placed 
over the glass outside to keep down the temperature inside. Mid- 
summer Grapes are colouring fast now, and an inch or two more 
opening may be left on the ventilators all night with advantage ; on 
mild, wet, dull days, the front ventilators should not be kept entirely 
shut. Be careful to keep the Vines, from which all the fruit has 
been cut, perfectly clean from every form of insect. The best eyes 
from which to raise next year's Vines are those selected from the 
earliest-ripened wood, and this fact in itself should be sufficient 
inducement to ensure attention. 

Pines. — Give little or no air to newly-potted suckers until roots 
are formed ; shade to keep the midday temperature from 80° to 85", 
or 90' at the highest ; see that the bottom-heat does not rise above 
90'.. Stocks of Smooth's, Rothschild's, Prince Albert's, and others 



from which one or two suckers have been taken should have their 
lower leaves removed without disturbing the root, the top leaves 
being cut to 4 inches long, and the whole taken out of the pot and 
laid in close together with the leaves above and the root under the 
plunging material. Thus treated a bottom-heat of 90' will induce 
many suckers, which would otherwise remain dormant, to push up ; 
some of the finest suckers are reared in this manner. The roots 
should be kept moderately moist, and, when watering, pour the 
water in the centre of the leaves so as to soften the bads. — J. Mum. 



TREES AND SHRUBS. 

EEVISION OP THE GENUS CEANOTHUS* 
SojiE of the species of this exclusively American genus are well 
marked and readily distinguished, but the larger number are defined 
with difficulty, and the value of the specific distinctions must still be 
considered in some cases as uncertain. It would ba easy to increase 
the number of nominal species, and, on the other hand, with apparent 
reason, to considerably reduce them. But while endeavouring to 
give a nearly uniform value to the several characters, taking at the 
same time into consideration our imperfect knowledge of some of the 
forms, it has seemed best to retain, as probably distinct, some which 
seemingly lun together, and at the same time to avoid as far as 
possible proposing new species. The following arrangement is as 
satisfactory as it could be made with present material and informa. 
tion. 

Section 1. — Euceanothus. 

Leaves all alternate, three-nerved or pinnately veined, glandular, 
toothed or entire ; fruit not crested. 

* Leaves three-nerved from the base. 
+- Erect shrubs, the branches not rigidly divaricate nor spiny; inflo. 

reseenoe thyi-soid ; leaves usually large, serrate except in (5). 

a. Low (1 to 3 feet high) ; flowers white, or sometimes light blue 
in (5). 

1. C. americanus, Linn. — More or less villous-pubescent ; leaves 
thin, obvate or oblong. ovate, IV to 2.^ inches long, on short petioles 2 
to 6 lines long ; peduncles elongated. — From the Atlantic to 
Winnipeg Valley, Iowa, and Texas. 

2. C. ovatus, Desf. — Nearly glabrous or somewhat pubescent ; 
leaves narrowly oval or elliptic-lanceolate, 1 to 2 inches Ion" ; 
peduncles usually short ; otherwise like the last, into which it seema 
to pass. — Range the same. 

3. C. sanguineus, Pursh. (C. Oreganus, Nutt.) — Becoming 
glabrous or nearly so; leaves thin, ovate, 1 to 4 inches long, on 
slender petioles, 6 to 15 lines long; peduncles very short; older 
branches reddish. — From North-western Montana to Washino-tou 
Terrisory. The specimens of Nuttall referred here in " Torrey and 
Gray's Flora " belong to the preceding species. 

4. C. velutinus, Dougl. — Stout, usually glabrous ; leaves cori. 
aceous, broadly ovate or elliptical, 1^ to 3 inches long, resinous and 
shining above, sometimes velvety beneath, glandular - serrulate ; 
petioles stout, 6 lines long ; peduncles usually short. — Abundant 
from Colorado to the Columbia and Northern Caliornia. 

5. C. integerrimus, Hook, and Arn.— Glabrous, or soon be. 
coming so, rarely pubescent ; branches, terete, usually warty ; leaves, 
thin, bright green, ovate to ovate-oblong, 1 to 3 inches long, entire, 
or very rarely slightly glandular-serrulate, on slender petioles 2 to 
6 lines long; thyrse often large and open, terminating the slender 
branches, or axillary and rather shortly pedunoled, mostly white, 
flowered. — Frequent in the mountains from Central California to the 
Columbia River. This will include C. californicus and nevadensis of 
Kellogg. 

Var. ? parviflorus.— Of very slender habit, wholly glabrous ; 
leaves much smaller, about half an inch long, short-petioled ; flowers 
light blue, in rather short simple racemes.— In the Sierra Nevada 
from the Yosemite Valley northward. Possibly distinct, but inter, 
mediate forms occur. It is 51 Bridges. 1,628 Brewer, 3,880 and 
4,870 Bolauder, 68 and 68 a Torrey, and was also collected by Bigelow 
and by Dr. Gray. 

b. Tall shrubs or small trees, ;6 to 15 feet high ; flowers, bright 
blue ; leaves, oblong to oblong-ovate, rather thick. 

6. C. thyrsiflorus, Eseh.— Sub-glabrous ; branches, strongly, 
angled; leaves, usually smooth and shining above, canescent beneath 
glandular-serrulate, 1 to IJ inches long; flowers, in dense sub-com' 
pound racemes, terminating the usually elongated aud somewhat 
leafy peduncles.— In the Coast Range, California, from Monterey to 
Humboldt County, and popularly known as the " California Lilac." 

Var. ? macrothyrus, Torrey in Bot. Wilkes' Explor. Exped., 
263. — This is described as having terete branches ; leaves. 1 to 

• Read by Mr. Sereno Watson, March 9th, 137S, before the American Academy 
of Arts and Siences. ' 



30 



THE GAEDEN. 



[July 10, 1875. 



2i inches long, grayisli tomentose underneath, and somewhat silky, 
villous on the prominent veins, entire, on petioles 3 to 5 lines long ; 
flowers, in elongated, uninterrupted, somewhat leafy panicles. It 
was found on the banks of the Umpqua, Oregon, and is probably 
distinct. 

7. C. azureus, Desf.— Pubescent ; leaves, densely rnsty.tomen- 
tose beneath, smoothish above, 1 to 2^ inches long ; thyrse, more 
open. — Mountains of Mexico from Tepio to Guatemala. 

-i-+- Low, the branches not rigidly divaricate nor spiny ; flowers, in 
short simple racemes or pedunculate clusters ; leaves, small.. 
a. Eastern species : flowers, white. 

8. C. microphyllus, Michx.— Erect, nearly glabrous; branches, 
numerous, slender, leafy, yellowish ; leaves, thick, very small, 1 to 
2 lines long, fascicled, oblong-elliptic to obovate, entire or sparingly 
toothed, on very short petioles ; flowers, in small terminal clusters.— 
Pine forests of Georgia and Florida. 

9. C. serpyllifolius, Nutt. — Decumbent, glabrate; branches, 
slender, brownish ; leaves, less rigid and not fascicled, 3 to 6 lines 
long, oblong, serrulate, somewhat hairy beneath ; flowers, in small 
clusters or slender axillary peduncles. — Southern Georgia. 

b. Western species ; flowers, blue. 

10. C. dentatus, Nutt. — Erect, hirsutely pubescent, rarely 
nearly glabrous; leaves, i to 1 inch long, usually small and fascicled, 
obovate to oblong-elliptic or lanceolate, acute at both ends or obtuse 
at the apex, glandular.serrate, the margin becoming strongly imdu. 
late or revolute ; flowers, in small rouudish clusters, on naked ter- 
minal peduncles about an inch long ; fruit, resinously coated and 
somewhat triangular, the valves being obscurely costate. — On dry 
hills in the Coast Eange, from Monterey to Mendocino; Douglas, 
Bigelow, and Brewer (n. 613, 981, and 2,374). The larger.leaved 
form (2,392 Bolander) is C. Lobbianns, Hook., and will also be the C. 
diversifolius of Kellogg, if any opinion can be formed from his 
description. The smaller leaves are apparently feather-veined, and 
often more or less resinous. 

11. C. decumbens. — Slender, trailing, hirsutely pubescent with 
spreading hairs ; leaves, rather thin, flat, J to 1^ inches long, elliptic, 
oblong, somewhat cuneate at base, obtuse or acutish, glandular ser. 
rate, the greenish glands usually stipitate; flowers, in short, dense, 
shortly pedunculate racemes, about half an inch long or less. — Fre- 
queut in the mountains of Central California, from the Mariposa 
Grove northward ; collected by Fremont (n. 357), Bigelow (S. sore- 
diatus of "Whipple's Report"), Stillman, Brewer (n. 1,624), 
Bolander (n. 6,331), and Torrey (n. 69). 

-i — 1--1- Erect shrubs, the branches usually rigid, divaricate, or spi- 
nose; flowers, in simple racemes or clusters ; leaves, rather small. 
a. Rarely or never spinose ; leaves glandularly serrulate ; flowers, 
mostly blue ; racemose. 

12. C. hirsutus, Nutt. (C. oliganthus, Nutt.)— Silky.pubescent 
with soft 3ub-appressed or spreading hairs, or sometimes hirsute, the 
branches rather rigid and said to be sometimes spinose ; leaves, 
ovate to oblong.ovate, usually sub-cordate or rounded at base and 
acute at apex, ^ to IJ inches long, not smooth adove ; flowers, blue, 
in simple axillary and terminal racemes, 1 to 3 inches long, or rarely 
thyrsoid ; fruit unknown. — Dry hills about Santa Barbara and in the 
Santa Susanna Mountains ; Nuttall, Wallace, Brewer (n. 214, 289, 
297 298). 

Var. ? glaber (0. sorediatns var. glaber, Watson in King's Rep. 

5,51.) Glabrous throughout or nearly so ; leaves, sometimes 

entire : flowers, white. — East Humboldt Mountains, Nevada ; 
Watson (n. 212). 

13. C. sorediatus. Hook.— Nearly glabrous, the inflorescence 
pubescent ; leaves, smooth above, more or less tomentose beneath or 
rarely nearly glabrous, silky on the veins, oblong-ovate, i to li inches 
long, sub-cordate or rounded, or often acutish at base, acute or obtuse 
at the apex ; flowers, blue, in shortly peduncled simple racemes, i to 2 
inches long ; fruit unknown. — From San Diego to the Sacramento ; 
Douglas, Bigelow (S. incanus of Whipple's Report), Bridges (n. 52), 
Brewer (n. 286, 1,105), and Bolander (n. 4,558)— the latter a form 
with small leaves densely white-tomentose beneath. 

I). Branches, mostly spinose, greyish ; leaves, subcoriaceous, 
usually entire ; flowers, mostly white, racemose. 

14. C. "divaricatus, Nutt. — Nearly glabrous; leaves, oblong- 
ovate to ovate, i to li inches long, rounded at base, acute or obtuse 
above, not tomentose beneath ; flowers, light blue or white, in sub- 
simple often elongated racemes 1 to 4 inches long. — California, from 
San Diego northward; Douglas, Nuttall, Coulter (n. 122), Wallace, 
Bigelow'(var. eglandulosus and C. integerrimus in part, of Whipple's 
Report), Parry, Cleveland. Also from the " Snake Country," 
collected by Tolmie. 

15. C. incanus. Hook. — Leaves, hoary beneath, with a very 
minute tomentum, broadly ovate to elliptic, f to 2 inches long, 
cuneate to cordate at base, acutish or obtuse at apex ; flowers, in 



short racemes ; fruit, over 2 lines in diameter, resinously warty. — 
Santa Cruz to Lake County, California; "a large straggling shrub 
on the banks of creeks." Collected by Douglas, Brewer (n. 2,663), 
Bolander (m), Kellogg and Harford (n. 126), and Dr. Gray. 

16. C. cordulatus, Kellogg, Proc. Calif. Acad. 2. 124, f. 39.— 
Hirsutely pubescent, with short erect or spreading hairs ; leaves, 
oval.elliptic, 1 to li inches long, cuneate to sub-cordate at base, 
usually rounded and sometimes serrate at the apex, the serraturea 
scarcely glandular ; flowers, in short simple racemes, 1 inch long or 
less; fruit, smaller, not resinously dotted. — In the Sierra Nevada, 
from the Yosemite Valley northward ; " low, flat-topped and much 
spreading, known as ' Snow bush.' " Collected by Brewer (n. 1,630, 
1,926), Bolander (n. 4,892), Bridges (n. 46), Gray and Lemmon. 

17. C. Fendleri, Gray. — Silky, pubescent ; leaves, narrowly 
oblong to elliptic, 4 to 12 lines long, usually small, somewhat nar. 
rowed and cuneate at base, obtuse or acute above ; flowers, in short 
terminal racemes. — In the Rooky Mountains from Colorado to New 
Mexico. 

c. Spinose ; leaves, serrate ; flowers in small sessile clusters. 
Mexican. 

18. C. buxifolius, Willd. — Nearly glabrous ; branches, slender; 
leaves, rather thin, elliptic, i inch long or less, hairy on the veins 
beneath, sharply serrate ; flowers, in axillary clusters, the colour 
uncertain. — Mountains of Central and North-western Mexico. 

19. C. depressus, Benth, — Stout and very rigid, tomentose; 
leaves, thick, densely tomentose beneath, elliptical, j to J inch long, 
mostly rounded at each end, glandular-serrulate ; flowers in mostly 
terminal clusters, colour uncertain. — Central Mexico. 

* * Leaves, pinnately veined. (Forms of C. dentatus might be 
referred to this group.) 

20. C. spinosus, Nutt. —Becoming a small tree, 20 to 30 feet 
high, branchlets, rigid and somewhat spiny, glabrous or nearly so ; 
leaves, sub-coriaceous, entire, oblong, 9 to 15 lines long, obtuse or 
retuse, sub-cuneate at base, on slender petioles, 2 to 4 lines long ; 
flowers, deep blue, in a thyrse or in simple racemes, very fragrant ; 
fruit, 2a- to 3 lines in diameter, resinously coated. — From Santa 
Barbara to Los Angeles, commonly known as " Redwood ; " Nuttall, 
Parry, Brewer (n. 56, 74, 255, 287). 

21. C. papillosus, Torr. & Gray. — More or less subhispidly 
villous or tomentose, 4 to 6 feet high ; leaves, glandularly serrulate, 
the upper surface glandular-papillose, narrowly oblong, obtuse at 
each end, 1 to 2 inches long, on slender petioles ; flowers, blue, in 
close clusters or short racemes, terminating slender naked peduncles ; 
fruit, IJ lines broad, not resinous. — Coast Range, from Monterey to 
San Francisco ; Douglas, Bolander («), Dr. Gray. 

22. C. floribundus. Hook., Bot. Mag. t. 4,806. — Pilose.scabrouse 
leaves, small, 3 to 4 lines long, oblong, acute, glandularly denticulat ; 
and undulate, shortly petioled ; flowers, blue, in dense globose clns. 
ters sessile at- the ends of the short branchlets. — Known only from 
the figure and description in the " Botanical Magazine ; " raised from 
Californian seeds, and closely related to C. dentatus. 

23. C. Veitchianus, Hook., Bot. Mag., t. 5,127.— Glabrous 
nearly throughout ; leaves, thick, obvate-cuneate, rounded at the 
apex ; glandular-serrate, smooth and shining above, minutely tomen. 
tose beneath between the veinlets, 6 to 9 lines long, on short 
stout petioles ; flowers, bright blue, in dense crowded clusters at the 
ends of the leafy branches. — Likewise known only from figures and 
descriptions of specimens cultivated in foreign gardens. 

Section 2. — Cerastes. 

Leaves, mostly opposite, 1-ribbed, with numerous straight parallel 
veins, very thick and coriaceous, spinosely toothed or entire; flowers 
in sessile or shortly pedunculate axillary clusters ; fruit, larger, with 
three hornlike or warty prominences below the summit. Rigidly 
branched or rarely spiny shrubs, with small leaves ; stipules mostly 
swollen and warty. 

24. C. crassifolius, Torr. — Erect, 4 to 12 feet high, the young 
branchlets white with a villous tomentum ; leaves, ovate-oblong, 
i to 1 inch long, obtuse or retuse, more or less tomentose beneath, 
rarely entire and revolutely margined, the petioles very thick ; 
flowers, light blue or white, in dense very shortly peduncled clusters. 
— From Mendocino County to San Diego ; Bigelow, Parry, Wallace, 
Brewer (n. 295), Bolander (n. 4,713), and Kellogg. 

25. C. cuneatus, Nutt. — Erect, 3 to 12 feet high, less tomentose 
or nearly smooth ; leaves, cuneate-obovate or oblong, rounded or 
retuse above, on rather slender petioles, entire or very rarely few- 
toothed ; flowers, white or occasionally light blue, in rather loose 
clusters. — From the Columbia River to Santa Barbara. 

26. C. Gregrgii, Gray. — Closely resembling the last, but more 
tomentose, and the leaves not cuneate at base ; 5 feet high. — From 
Northern Arizona to New Mexico and Northern Mexico ; Gregg, 
Wright, Bigelow (C. cuneatus of Ives's Report), and Bishop. 



July 10, 1875.] 



THE GAKDEN. 



31 



27. C. rigidus, Natt. — Erect, 5 feet high, the branohleta tomen. 
to3e ; leaves, 2 to 5 lines long, caneate-oblong or usually very broadly 
obovate, often emarginate, few-toothed above, very shortly petioled ; 
flowers, bright blue, in sessile clusters. — -Abouc Monterey and Oak. 
land (?), California; Nuttall, Douglas, Coulter (n. 125), and Hartiveg 
(n. 1,680). 

28. C. prostratus, Benth. — Prostrate, nearly glabrous; leaves, 
3 to 12 lines long, obovate or usually oblong-ouneate, spinose usually 
only at the apex, on short slender petioles ; (lowers, bright blue, tbe 
clusters on stout peduncles. — Frequent in the mountains from Hum. 
boldfc County and the Upper Sacramento to Mariposa County ; found 
on both slopes of the Sierra Nevada. 



THE IND OOR GARDEN. 

VANDA SUAVIS UNDER COOL TREATxMENT. 
I irwE seat yoa a photograph oE this plant, chiefly for the 
purpose of illustrating that Vaadas, as well as other Orchids, 
may be grown freely and kept in good health though subjected 
to a very low temperature in winter, compared with what is 
thought to be the orthodox one oE something between 5-'S°and 
65°. The variety of suavis under notice appears to me to be 
quite difEerent in two respects from any I have seen. It lasts 
in bloom for a month after all the Vandas which I have are 
out o£ flower, and I have another variety oE suavis, two 
■^rieties of tricolor, and one oE insignis, all of which came 
into Sower when it did, and have been out of bloom for four- 
teen days, while the fellow spike to the one which I sent to 
the meeting at South Kensington is still fresh. Its other 
distinctive chai-acteristio is the strength of its flower-stems ; 
this is more remarkable than the number of flowers on tho 
spike, though they are more numerous than ordinary, and the 
size of the blooms is large and their colours very fine and well 
marked. I got the plant in tho form of a small slip some five 
years ago, from a gardener near Manchester, who, I think, 
said he obtained it from Mr. Williams, and stated that it was 
an imported plant. So much for the individual plant ; now for 
what is more important, the fact that Bast Indian Orchids 
will thrive and bloom well when kept in a very low winter 
temperature. My Orchid-house is only 30 feet long and 10 
feet wide, a lean-to against a wall with an east aspect ; there 
is a path down the back, and the plants are grown on a 
sparred stage, under which two flow and two return pipes 
pass on their way to and from a Pine stove. In the latter are 
six rows of pipes for surface heat, and in it I keep my stock of 
sucker Pines. In consequence of the extent of pipe in this 
house, and the low temperature at which I keep such plants as 
Pine suckers not long potted, the pipes are never made very 
hot, and this keeps the Orchid-house at a very low tempera- 
ture when the weather is severe. During the winter of 1873-t 
it was as low as 45° at night for weeks together, and during 
the dreadful weather we had last December it seldom was 
above 40° at daylight, and, through January, 45° was the 
average night temperature. The plants are kept compara- 
tively dry, are never shaded in winter, and all the shade they 
have in summer is a little Prussian blue and whitening mixed 
with milk and laid thinly on the glass with a brush in March 
or April. The effect of this treatment on the Vandas is that 
they retain their short, firm, stocky leaves, to the bottom, not 
one out of a dozen having lost a leaf they ever had ; and, instead 
of hanging down like whips, as their leaves are too commonly 
seen to do, some of the plants of V. tricolor carry their leaves 
at right angles with their stems, and support themselves 
without stakes. The other Orchids are in equally good health, 
though, in most instances, small specimens, and consist, 
amongst others, of different sorts of Aiirides, Calanthes, 
Coelogyne, Lady's-slippers, Dendrobiums, Miltouias, Lycastes, 
Oncidiums, Pleiones, Saccolabiums, Stanhopeas, and Vandas ; 
among which there are suavis, coerulea, tricolor, Roxburghii, 
gigantea, insignis, and others. From my own experience I 
am quite certain that a high winter temperature is not 
necessary for even what have been termed " high temperature 
Orchids," but that, on the contrary, it is injurious, especially 
when combined with great moisture and thick shading at 
others seasons of the year with but little ventilation. Orchids 
are the gems of the vegetable world, and if the impediment to 



their more general culture — the supposed necessity of strong 
fire heat — can be removed, a benefit will be conEerred on 
thousands, for they have an interest that can be thoroughly 
appreciated by all who can admire what is not only beautiful, 
but singularly instructive. A gentleman, who has had to 
endure many tx-ials in life, onoe said to me, " What should I have 
done but for my Orchids ? When heavily pressed with care and 
grief I always betook myselE to the Orchid-house and there 
found something to take my mind off my trials and do me 
good," and this is a case by no means singular. 

Tweed Vineyard. W. Thomsos. 

[The photograph showed a plant unusually vigorous in 
growth, and bearing two very large spikes oE flowers.] 



CARNATIONS IN WINTER. 
Caruatiox cuttings are put in from the middle oE November to 
the middle of February, choice being made oE those that are 
situated along the stems of the flowering shoots. They should 
be short-jointed, say 3 inches long, and should be inserted in 
sand in the propagating bench to the number of about 160 to 
the square foot. As soon as they are rooted they are pricked 
off into shallow boxes of convenient size and form, and from 
3 to 4 inches deep, the plants being placed 2 inches apart each 
way. They are then deposited in a cool house, as near the 
glass as possible ; and as they advance in growth they should be 
pinched to induce a bushy habit. By the end of April a piece 
of ground should be prepared by ploughing manure in deeply, 
and harrowing and rolling it to make the surface even. All 
large stones and lumps are then raked off, and it is marked with 
a marker drawing six lines at once. The plants are thoroughly 
watered previous to their removal from the boxes, and are 
planted a foot apart, a man standing on each side of the bed ; 
trampling upon it is thus avoided. An alley 2 feet wide is left 
between the beds, for cleaning and weeding, and at the end of 
June the tops are cut off with scissors. Every ten days they 
should be gone over, and the tops of the shoots that are 
thought to be about to flower cut off ; the plants are thus 
induced to break from the sides and crown. Some growers 
fall into the error of shearing them as they would sheep, and 
this causes the plant to become stunted, after which they do 
not attain half their proper size in the autumn, and on the 
size of the plants depends the number of the buds in the 
winter. About the beginning of October fresh loam or clay, 
with a fourth part of old manure, to the depth of 5 inches, is 
placed upon the benches in the greenhouse ; the plants are 
carefully taken up and placed at from 7 to 10 inches apart, 
according to their size, watered thoroughly with a hose, and 
shaded from the mid-day sun for eight or ten days. Abundance 
of air should be given day and night until frost sets in, but 
upon no account should the plants be allowed to become dry 
in the bed from the time they are first lifted until they are 
subjected to fire heat. Should a dry autumn follow, it is 
possible that no balls will be attached to the plants. This is 
not of much importance, as the Carnation soon recovers if 
properly cared for. In fact I have lifted them wholesale 
without a particle of ball attached, and found no difference in 
the number of buds produced by the middle of November. 
The plants commence to be remunerative at Christmas, the 
flowers then being worth from 6s. to 8s. the hundred. Each 
plant, up to Fob. 20, should produce from seventy-five to a 
hundred flowers, and this gives a good profit upon the value 
of labour, &c., expended. At this time all the benches are 
cleared of the soil, which will do for potting off ; they are 
then covered over with 1 inch of sand, and are ready for 
bedding out plants for spring sales. Should flues be used in 
Carnation culture, it is necessary to syringe the plants freely 
to prevent red spider, as a drier heat is caused than in the case 
of hot-water pipes. The temperature of the house at night 
should be kept at 60°. Cuttings for stock should be taken off 
regularly, one from each plant being sufiicient. The plants 
should be tied loosely and never planted in old garden soil, or 
utter failure will be the consequence. The same compost used 
previously out of doors should not be again used when the 
plants are under glass ; and, when in the open air, wet situa- 
tions must be avoided. By attending to these rules Carnation 
culture for the supply of cut flowers can be made as lucrative 



32 



THE GAEDBN. 



[July 10, 1875. 



as any branch of this pai'ticular business. It should be added, 
that the plants should be kept as near the glass as can be 
couTeniently managed. John Howait. 



ORCHIDS AT OAKLEA, PALLOWFIELD. 
At few places are Orchids better grown than they are here nnder the 
care of Mr. Swan. In the East India-honse, I noticed remarkable 
specimens of Dendrobium Bensonia!, many plants of which were 
furnished with twelve flowering bulbs, and each bearing from ten to 
fifteen flowers ; D. thyrsiflorum had seven spikes, while on two 
plants of D. crys. 
tallinutn I counted 
one hundred and 
thirty blooms. As- 
sociated with 
these were D. 
Parishii, with 
fourteen bulbs 
com pletely 
covered with 
flowers of a 
brighter and 
better colour than 
ordinary; and D. 
Jamesiannm, the 
blooms on which 
had been open 
nearly ten weeks. 
The little D. se- 
nile, on a block 
suspended against 
a wall, literally 
reeking with mois- 
ture, was growing 
luxuriantly, hav- 
ing made several 
young growths 
from four to six 
inches in length, 
a fact of some im. 
portance to such 
Orchid growers as 
have hitherto been 
unsuccessful with 
this interestinsr 
little species ; of 
the distinct and 
beautiful D. Mc. 
Carthife, there was 
a well-grown plant 
with over twenty 
flowers on it ; and 
some very fine 
Vandaa and 
Aiirides, among 
which may be 
mentioned Vanda 
suavis, beautifully 
flowered ; Aorides 
crispum, over 3 
feet high , with two 
flower-spikes, one 
of which was finely 
b ranch e d ; A. 
virens var. Day. 
anum,bearingfour 
splendid spikes of 
bloom ; the fine old A. odoratnm, with seven good spikes in 
a single break ; a splendid plant of the Foxbrush Aerides (A. 
Fieldingii), bearing a branching spike upwards of 2 feet long; 
and a plant of Saccolabium curvifolium, furnished with over 
thirty leaves, and bearing four spikes of lovely orange-scarlet 
flowers — one of the finest single plants I have ever seen. A good 
specimen of the showy Thnnia BenaoniDo was decorated with good 
heads of flowers ; the dwarf Sobralia macrantha, known as " Wooley's 
variety," than which few Indian Orchids are more beautiful, was 
showing many heads of bloom on growths not more than 18 inches high. 
In this house were also many fine plants of Phatenopsis amabilis, 
grandiflora, Schilleriana, and Luddemaniana, on the last of which 
were thirty-four expanded flowers. Among Cypripediums, I noticed 




Amaryllis ignesceni 



fine examples of Stonei, Lowii, villosum, niveum, concolor, barbatum, 
grandiflorum, and many others remarkably well grown, and, for the 
most part, blooming profusely. In the house principally devoted to 
Cattleyas were the lovely C. Mendellii, flowering profusely ; also C. 
lobata, well-flowered ; a fine variety of C. Mossiaj, known as auran. 
tiaca, and many others, breaking freely. The Odontoglossum-house 
contained several fine specimens of O. Alexandres, in bloom ; 0. 
Pescatorei, bearing thirty splendid flowers ; and 0. Phalsenopsis, one 
plant of which exhibited upwards of twenty fine blooms. Among 
Oncidiumg, the most prominent were 0. macranthum, one plant of 
which had a spike upwards of 7 feet long ; a well-grown plant of 0. 
ampliatum majus bore three fine panicles of flowers, which produced 

a grand effect ; 
and there were, 
moreover, several 
well-bloomed 
plants of the 
pretty and almost 
ever. flowering O. 
cncullatnm; a 
pretty variety of 
Oncidium lenco. 
chilum, called pul. 
chellura, was also 
unusually attrac- 
tive, bearing, as it 
did, a splendid 
spike of fully, 
expanded blooms. 
Here, too, was one 
of the finest forms 
of the rare Epi. 
dendrum prisma, 
tocarpura I ever 
saw, the ground 
II colour of the 
sepals and petals 
being very clear, 
and the spottings 
particularly dark 
and distinct. This 
plant deserves a 
place in every col- 
lection, not so 
much from its dis. 
tinct character as 
from the extreme 
length of time 
during which its 
blooms last in per. 
fection, in some 
cases extending 
over a period of 
seven or eight 
weeks. It grows 
about 12 inches 
high, producing 
short bulbs and 
evergreen foliage. 
The spikes are 
produced from the 
top of the pseudo- 
bulbs, and bear 
each about four, 
teen flowers ; it 
blooms in June 
and July. These 
are bat a few of 
the more promi. 
nent among the many Orchids at Pallowfield, a collection in which 
Mr. Leach, the proprietor, takes much interest. W. Skelton. 

Tootinrj Nurseries. 



AMARYLLIS IGNESCENS. 

Few stove or warm greenhouse bulbs are more attractive when in 
flower than Amaryllises, and, among them, the plant of which the 
accompanying is an illustration, is well worth a place. Whether it is 
in reality a species or a natural hybrid we are unable to state ; but 
whether one or the other, it is a free-blooming and highly decorative 
plant. It differs from most other kinds of Amaryllis in having a very 
slender tube. The orange . red perianth segments are white or 



July 10, 1875.] 



THE GARDEN. 



33 



greeniah-white at the base, and being closely imbricated, form a 
regular and conspicnous white eye. This Amaryllis has been bloomed 
beautifully by Mr. Wm. Bull, and its showy flowers have the merit of 
lasting long in perfection. The great secret in growing this, as well 
as other deciduous Amaryllids in perfection, is to carefully attend to 
them after they have flowered, so as to induce them ti. make a 
vigorous start when again placed under growing circumstances. 



SOCIETIES A ND E XHIBITIONS. 

EOYAL HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

July 7tu. 
CUT ROSE SHOW. 
Roses were well represented on this occasion ; but the main feature of 
the exhibition i\as the collection of vegetables staged in competition for 
Messrs. Carter's £50 Challenge Cup. This prize was awarded to Mr. 
Gilbert, gardener to the Marquis of E.iteter, at Burghley. 

Firbt Class Certificates. — These were awarded to the following ' 

Tuberous-rooted Begonia Coltoni (J. & G. Lee).— This is a 
free-growing variety of erect habit, having deep greon waxy foliage and 
axiUarv three-flowerd trusses of brilliant scarlet blossoms. As a 
decorative plant it is well worthy of attention. 

Tuberous-rooted Begonia Eodwellii (J. & C. Lee). — Similar 
in habit and mode of flowering to the foregoing ; flowers bright orange- 
scarlet. 

Clematis Fairy Queen (Cripps).— A strong- growing plant, 
having fresh green wax-like foliage. The flowers, which are six sepalled, 
are 8 or even 9 inches in diameter, and the segments broad and paper- 
white in colour, have a suffused rosy stain down their centres. 

Clarkia elegans fl. pi. Salmon Queen (Hardy).— An effective 
double rosy-salmon-coloured variety of a well-known annual, which, if 
it can be reproduced true from seed will bo invaluable as a decorative 
border plant. 

Clarkia elegans fl. pi. Purple King (Hardy).— Similar to the 
last, but rich purple in colour. 

Straiwberry Waltham Seedling (W. Paul).— A large-fruited 
variety, which has been proved in the gardens at Chiswick, and found to 
be prolific and very hardy. The fruit is slightly cockscomb-shaped, 
bright scarlet, and of good flavour. 

Gooseberry Early Orleans (R. H. S., Chiswick).— This is one 
of the earliest of dessert Gooseberries, and also one of the best in flavour. 
Fruit, medium size, white in colour, and slightly hairy. 

Roses. — Of these there was a fair display, several of the principal 
growers being well represented. Amongst the best blooms staged were 
tlie following ; — Baroness Rothschild, rosy. blush ; General Jacque- 
minot, glowing crimson-scarlet ; Senateur Yaisse, another well-known 
deep crimson-rose ; Duke of Edinburgh, velvety crimson ; Etienne Levet, 
a fine deep rosy flower ; Prince Camille de Rohan, dark velvety crimson ; 
Captain Christy, a variety the outer petals of which are white and the 
centre bright rosy-salmon ; Madlle. Eugenie Verdier, like the last, but 
deeper in colour ; La France, rosy-lilac ; Louis Van Houtte, a rich dark 
velvety scai-let. Associated with these were the new blush-white 
Madame Lacharme and John Hopper, in excellent condition ; Paul 
Neron, a full fine flower; La Fontaine, a delicate rosy-lilac; Marie 
Baumann, one of the finest of all the deep 6ery-coloured kinds. Among 
Tea Ro^es were good flowers of Catherine Mermet, a cream-coloured 
variety suffused with rose ; Belle Lyonaise, creamy-white, with a deep 
sulphur centre ; Madame Van Houtte, clear sulphur, the outer petals 
suffused with rose, and one of the best of its class; Chamois, a small 
flower, with a rich buff centre ; Souvenir de Paul Neron, a full Gloire de 
Dijon-shaped bloom of creamy-whiteness, with a salmon centre ; 
Souvenir d'un Ami, a well-known di^lioate pink Rose ; Marechal Niel, the 
best among yellows ; and Cheshunt Hybrid, a large full deep rosy-lilac 
flower, with a crimson centre. A large bask' t of mixed Roses, arranged 
tastefully with their own leaves on a fresh bed of Moss, was much 
admired. 

Miscellaneous Subjects.— Messrs. Veitch & Sons sent a large 
and effective pan of the pretty little coral-berried Duckweed (Nertera 
depressa) profusely covered with orange-scarlet fruit, the size of small 
Peas. Mr. W. BuU staged a miscellaneous group of plants, including 
half a dozen varieties of newer rai-e Lilies, a pan of the bright green 
Hydrocotyle nitidula, which is very pretty in the form of baskets or 
edgings in the stove or conservatory. In the same group were also strong 
plants of Drosera binata and Phal^nopsis erubescens, a highly-coloured 
.and beautiful form of P. amabilis. Mr. Dean had Mauve Beauty Stock, 
in fine condition, and cut blooms of a good strain of large-flowered Cam- 
panulas. Mr. Croucher furnished the crimson variety of Masdevallia 
Harryana bearing fifteen flower spikes ; and a beautiful three-blossomed 
spike of Cattleya gigas came from Mr. J. Douglas, of Loxford Hall. This, 
the finest variety we have yet seen, measured 8 inches from tip to tip of 
the petals, the latter being nearly 2S inches across their widest part. The 
great white-throated lip was nearly 2S inches across, and of a rich trans- 
parent crimson-purple colour. A cutspike of the orange-yellow, brown- 
spotted Lilium Bloomerianum occellatam came from Mrs. Bateman ; 



it resembles L. Humboldti. Messrs. Carter and Co. sent a collec- 
tion of Coleus, including several well-grown plants of the handsome 
variety named Duchess of Edinburgh. 

Vegetables.— Of these nine collections, all of them above average 
merit, were staged in competition for Messrs. Carter's Challenge Cup. 
Mr. Gilbert's collection, to which it was awarded, was neatly set up in 
shallow trays, and consisted of Peas, Carter's Early Premium Gem, 
Laxton's Fillbasket, G. F. Wilson, Commander-in-Chief, James's Pro- 
lific, and Carter's Blue Peter; American Strap-leaved Turnip, Carter's 
Fern. leaved Parsley, Hardy's Pedigree Bruad Bean, French Beans, 
Intermediate Carrot, Mona's Pride Potato, crimson Flageolet French 
Beans, Baily's Selected Cauliflower. White Tripoli Onion, Arti- 
chokes. Telegraph Cucumbers, Little Heath Melon, Carter's Mammoth 
Long-pod Bean, Hedsor Bean, Mushrooms, Asparagus, and Myatt's 
Covent Garden White Cos Lettuce, all of excellent quality. Mr. Pragnell 
furnished a group, in which were Peas G. F. Wilson, Carter's Early 
Premium Gem, James's Prolific Marrow, Carter's Commander-in-Chief, 
Carter's Blue Peter, French Bean White Advancer, Hardy's Pedigree 
Windsor Bean, Shallots, Pine-apple Beet, Early Snowball Turnips, 
Prickly Spinach, Early London Cauli9ower,Potatoes Model and Lady Paget, 
Munro's Little Heath Melon, Wheeler's Imperial Cabbage, Asparagus, 
Rollisson's Telegraph Cucumber, new Giant White TripoU Onions, Globe 
Artichoke, Miller's Selected Carrot, Curled Parsley, Green-striped 
Marrow, and Carter's Mammoth Long-pod Bean, all well grown. 
Mr. Arkell also staged a collection, in which we noted excellent Mush- 
rooms and Giant Asparagus. A very complete and well-grown collection 
of Cos and Cabbage Lettuces was exhibited by Messrs. Carter & Co. 
Among these. All the Year Round, a compact fresh green variety ; 
Crystal, a green Cabbage kind ; White Egg, Paris White Cos, and a 
frilled, brown-tipped variety, of luxuriant growth, named American 
Gathering, were conspicuous. 

Peas.— Of these, collections were staged in competition for the prizes 
offered by Messrs. Sutton & Sons and Messrs. Carter & Co. Among 
thera were the following varieties— viz.. Giant Emerald Marrow, a variety 
with pods from 3 to 4 inches in length, and well filled; Best of All, with 
rather short well-filled pods ; Duke of Edinburgh, pale green pods, well 
filled, from 4 to 5 inches in length ; Duchess of Edinburgh, with blue or 
glaucous-coloured pods, from 3 to 4 inches long, plump and well filled ; 
Sutton's Bijou and Dr. Maclean, both excellent; Commander-in-Chief, a 
long-podded variety, of a glaucous colour, each pod containing from seven 
to eii'ht Peas ; Supreme and G. F. Wilson, both well-known and excellent 
varieties ; Dr. Hogg, a small-podded but well-filled variety, very proUtio 
and good for early work. The following varieties were staged in com- 
petition for Messrs. Carter's silver cup, for which there were six corn- 
petitors, each staging six dishes each- viz., Superlative, a kind with pods 
6 inches in length ; Dr. Hogg ; Carter's Hundredfold, or Cooks' Favourite, 
Carter's G. F. Wilson, Commander-in-Chief, and James's Prolific. 
Laxton's Fillbasket, Duchess of Edinburgh, Bijou, Omega, and WiUiam 
the First were staged in excellent condition. Messrs. Hurst & Sons, of 
Leadenhall Street^ also offered prizes for six varieties of plucked Peas, 
and also for twelve plants of different varieties. In the class for six 
dishes of gathered Peas, we noted Supplanter (1874) of fine quality. 
Superlative (1872), Fillbasket (1873), Laxton's No. 1 (1873), Dr. Hogg 
(1874), and William the First (1872). In the class for twelve plants 
(haulm) of different varieties, Supplanter and Dr. Hogg were well repre- 
sented, the haulm of the former being from 3 to 4 feet high, while that of 
Dr. Hogg is from 5 to 6 feet in height, and very prolific ; Laxton's No. 1 
is a fine Pea, about 5 feet in height, and very prolific, the pods being 
plump and well filled; Omega, a proUfic variety, about 4 feet high, bears 
well-filled pods ; Fillbasket, a dwarf variety, from 2 to 3 feet high, was 
well furnished with well-filled pods; .as was also the dwarf and 
prolific Unique, which varies from 2 to 4 feet in height. ^ Several 
exhibitions in this class were disqualified, owing to their containing too 
many plants. 

Miscellaneous. — Mr. Dean sent good specimens of a new early 
Cauliflower, named Early Snowball, and a collection consisting of twelve 
varieties of Currants came from the Society's garden at Chiswick. 
Red varieties among these consisted of Red Cherry, a large kind 
synonymous with La Versaillaise ; Largo Sweet Red (Large Red), large, 
but very acid ; Knight's Large Red, prolific and very sweet ; Red Dutch, 
large, prolific, and moderately sweet. The best whites consisted of 
Wilmot's Large White, very large and sweet; White Dutch, large and 
late, very prolific. Fine dishes of early Gooseberries also came from the 
Society's gardens, the varieties being Green-gage, smooth green and -very 
sweet ; Sulphur, hairy, yellow, and very sweet ; Early Orleans, hairy white ; 
Mr. Mills, large oblong, nearly smooth red ; Raspberry, a very small, 
smooth, dark red variety, with a sweet and decided Raspberry flavour. 
A dish of the bright orange Raspberry-like fruit of the White-washed 
Bramble (Rubus hiflorus) came from the Society's gardens. Two prolific 
yarieties of large Red Currants came from Mr. Mills. Mr. Miles, of 
"Wycombe Abbey, sent rip'3 speoimms of Peach Early Beatrice, from 
the open wall. Mr. Groom, Henham Hall, Suffolk, contributed a new 
seedhng Melon of moderate flavour. Mr. G. Newman, the Ekns, Harling- 
ton, sent a large new seedling Raspberry, rather acid in flavour. Abranch 
bearing fruit of the Monarch Gooseberry came from Mr. Mills— owing to 
this Gooseberry having a thick skin it bears packing well, and birds do 
not destroy it. Mr. Berkeley mentioned that he had received a Cucumber 
named White Turkey, from Messrs. Vilmorin, and stated that it was 
formerly used for preserving as a substitute for ginger. Some small 
white Onions, from Chiswick, were referred to as being good for pickling, 
although useless otherwise, being bad keepers. 



34 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 10, 1875. 



FLOEAL DEOOEATIONS AT TUNBEIDGE WELLS. 

The floi-al decorations at the exhibition of the Tunbridge Wells Horti- 
cultural Society, held on the 2nd inst., exhibited a marked improvement 
upon those of last season, both as regards number of entries and taste 
in arrangement. In the class for a group of three pieces for table 
decoration (flowers or fruit), strange to say not one group staged 
contained fruit. The first prize in this class was awarded to Mrs. 
Seale, London Road, Sevenoaks, for a charmingly-arranged group of 
three March vases, decorated with white Water Lilies, scarlet Geraniums, 
the scarlet spathesof the Flamingo plant, Orchids, scarlet Begonias, pale 
blue Larkspurs, mixed varieties of Ferns and wild Grasses, while from 
the trumpets trailed^ long sprays of Lygodium scandens. The arrange- 
ment of the flowers in these stands was much more effective than that 
which Mrs. Seale exhibited at the Crystal Palace on the 26th of last 
month; indeed, I quite agree with one of our oldest judges, who, when 
he saw Mrs. Scale's group of March vases at Tunbridgc, said it was the 
prettiest arrangement he had ever seen. The second prize in this class 
was awarded to Mrs. G. Smith, Hurstley, for a group of three vases, 
consisting of trumpets rising out of flat tazzas, the centre piece being 
the tallest, but had it been about C inches taller still it would have been 
a great improvement. The principal dressing of these stands consisted 
of blooms of Tapsonia Van Volxemii, sprays of Spiraea and Copper Beech, 
!ind light grey tinted foliage furnished by Centaurea and other grey-leaved 
plants. The third prize in this class was awarded to Mr. John Beech, 
for an effective group consisting of a March stand for the centre piece, 
and at each side trumpets rising out of tazzas, all three being dressed 
■with much taste. In the class for a single piece for table decoration the 
first prize was awarded to Mr. James Bolton for an elegantly-arranged 
vase, in which Orchids, blue Corn-flowers, Stephanotis, and other 
flowers and Ferns were charmingly intermixed. The second prize 
fell to Mrs. Seale for a March vase, very similar to the others exhibited 
by that lady ; and the third prize was awarded to Mr. Fennel for a 
pretty design ; and an extra fourth was awarded to Mr. G. Hubbard. 
The hand bouquets were good, nearly all exhibited, with few exceptions, 
being lightly put together, and free from that packed appearance too 
often to be observed in those exhibited for competition at flower shows ; 
the prizes were awarded (in the order in which the names stand) to Mr. 
John Staples, Mrs. Staples, Mr. G. Hubbard, and Mrs. Fennel. For 
button-hole bouquets, which were plentiful, the first prize was awarded 
to Miss Jane Hollamby, and the second to Mr. R. A. Boesseer. Again, 
as last season, in the class for arranged groups of wild flowers, there was 
a keen competition. The first prize was awarded to Miss Cox, the flowers 
in whose stands consisted of Poppies, Dog Daises, Forget-me-nots, 
yellow Bird's-foot Trefoil, and Grasses ; the second to Mr. Charles 
Noble, for a large-sized March vase, in which, in addition to wild flowers, 
Grasses were extensively employed. In the class for a single piece for 
table decoration (for gardeners only), the prizes went to Mr. lliehard 
Downing and Mr. James Bolton, both of whoso arrangements were much 
admired. A. Hassabd. 



EXHIBITION AT ASTON PAEK, BIEMINGHAM. 

JULT 1st. 
At this exhibition there was an exceptionally flne display of stove an'i 
greenhouse plants, including palms. Orchids, Pitcher plants and succu- 
lents. The Ferns, too, were the admiration of everybody ; and of Fuchsias, 
Pelargoniums, and similar plants, great quantities were shown ; cut 
flowers, especially Eoses, also formed a prominent feature of the exhibi- 
tion, and there were some interesting examples of table decoration. 
Fruits and vegetables also were abundant and good. The names of the 
prize-takers in the difi"erent classes will be found in our advertising 
columns (see p. viii.). Mr. Quilter, at a dinner which was given in con- 
nection with this great exhibition, said that he had set his heart on 
obtaining at least £2,000 for the Midland Institute ; but, whether they 
got £2,000 or £200, he trusted they would not be daunted, but persevere, 
and endeavour to attain success in the future — a success, be it remarked, 
which Mr. Quilter well deserves. 



The Gum Tree and the Vine Pest.— A writer in the 
" Temps " mentions a singular eff'cct — namely, that parasites (Phylloxera, 
&c.), disappear from Vines growing near the Eucalyptus. The experi- 
raent, made during several years, and in several Vineyards, had been 
uniform in its results. It is interesting, in connection with these facts, 
to observe that the leaves of this plant contain an ethereal oil, of which 
even half-dried leaves contain G per cent., and that this oil, according to 
Gimbert, is a very powerful antiseptic. 

Eating the Enemy.^The pest now devastating so much of 
Western America forms, it appears from the " American Agriculturist," 
good food. A few bushels of hoppers were procured, and placed in charge 
of one of the best caterers in St. Louis to be sei-ved. A number of 
scientific gentlemen were invited by Professor Riley, and a dinner was 
set forth at which the lively locust formed the sole animal food. Martyrs 
to science, some may think ; but, so far from this being the case, it was a 
feast that the veriest epicure might envy. Those men of science began 
with Caloptenus soup — so fine that, against all rules of etiquette, they 
asked for "more;" then came hopper fritters, vastly better than any 
oyster fritters, and so on with roast, boiled, fried, and stewed of the 
same, each better than the last, until the climax of the feast was reached 
in locusts served with honey. These locusts feed on the fat of the land, 
and why should we not in turn eat them ? It is against our prejudices ; 



but, when we coolly consider the matter, the locust is really no more 
repulsive than a shrimp, or even an oyster, and that they are really 
acceptable to the palate these gentlemen enthusiastically declare. In 
portions of Kansas, Nebraska, Missouri, and elsewhere, people were 
actually suffering with hunger, with all the while untold quantities of food 
around them, not only food which will sustain Ufe, but of a palatable 
kind; and, whatever jocular remarks may be made about this hopper 
dinner, we think that the gentlemen who partook of it did an eminently 
good work, and one which in future years may prevent much suffering. 

Mr. Wilson's Moss Herbarium. — This has, according to tho 
report of Mr. Carruthers, been acquired by the British Museum. Mr. 
Wilson (late of Warrington) had devoted his life to the study of Mosses. 
His herbarium contains the type specimens of the various works of which 
he was the author, and it abounds in original drawings prepared with 
singular accuracy, and with manuscript notes of great critical value. It 
consists of a collection of British Mosses and Juugermanniacea3, aa well 
as a collection of foreign specimens of these two orders. The British 
herbarium is accompanied with an extensive correspondence with musco- 
logists, and includes numerous authentic specimens from Dawson Turner, 
Taylor, Sir W. Hooker, and others. Mr. Wilson's herbarium of foreign 
Mosses contains type specimens from the herbaria of Montague, Bruch, 
Schimper, Angstrom, Mougeot, Zetterstedt, Hooker, Arnott, the Paris 
Museum, &c. 

The Smaller Wintergreen in Sussex.— Mr. F. C. S. Roper, 
writing in the '* Journal of Botany," says — " On a recent visit to a wood 
between Ashburnham and Battle Abbey, in a road only occasionally used, 
and covered with turf and Moss, I found on the 1st June, almost con- 
cealed by the foliage of other small plants, a few specimens of Pyrola 
minor, which is an interesting addition to our Sussex flora. Pyrola media 
is the only species of the genus hitherto reported from the county, and 
this was found by Mr. Borrer at one station in St. Leonard's Forest, near 
Horsham, in West Sussex, where Mr. Hemsley states that it is still to bo 
found. 



NOTES AND QUESTIONS-VARIOUS. 



Tree Carnation, Princess of Wales.— Of this I saw a fine example the 
other (lay. in Mr. Perkins's Nursery, at Leamington. It is a canary-coloured 
Belt, laced with rose, and is a seedling from Perkins's Prince of Orange. It 
is a very fine variety. — W. Howabd. 

Adiantnm gracillimum for Bouquets-— I noticed this beautiful form of 
Maiden-hair Fern used for tho first time for decorative purposes the other day 
at Chislehurst, where Mr. J. Hudson, of Champion Hill, introduced it effec- 
tively in a well-made hand bouquet. — "W. T. P. 

Phlox setacea var. atropnrptirea.— This, in my opinion, is the most 
beautiful of all the Alpine Phloxes, and it has bloomed with me this season 
most profusely. It is perfectly hardy, a free grower, and continues a long 
time in bloom. When better known it will doubtless be in great request — J, 
Whittakee. 

Geranium platypetalnm.— It is stated (see p. V) that this is easily 
increased by means of seed. None of the plants of it, with which I am 
acquainted, produce seed; a circumstance much to be regretted, as this 
valuable hardy plant may, one day or other, get lost. Has anyone, besides 
the writer of the paragraph in question, induced this plant to bear seeds? — 
Jean Sislet, Lnons. 

Mesembryanthemam cordifolium variegatum. — Will some of your 
readers favour me with their experience in raising this plant from seed? 
With me, it vegetates pretty freely, but the seedlings are so destitute of chloro- 
phyl that, as might be expected, they all die off at an early period. Is that a 
common result ? As seed is generally ofTered, one can hardly suppose it. — 
W. T., Ipsmich. 

Hybrid Foxgloye.— I have enclosed a leaf and flower of a hybrid Foxglove, 
a distinct cross between Digitalis grandiflora and D. purpurea, tho former being 
the seed-bearing parent. The robust growth and erect foliage of the produce 
struck me, from the first, as indicating that D. purpurea had exercised consider- 
able influence on it. The result is a remarkably handsome plant, which is seeding 
freely. — W. Elliott, llithericood, Si/denham Hill. 

The true York and Lancaster Rose.- My attention has just been called to 
the article on "Roses," published in The Gaeden, p. 20>>, Vol. VI. The 
writer speaks of R. gallica variegata as York and Lancaster ; that is a mistake, 
as that is Rosa Mundi. I enclose the true York and Lancaster, which is R. 
damascena. I have grown it many years.— H. T. Ellacombe, Clyst S , George. 
[The blooms sent were those of a sweet-scented, semi-double, white Rose, 
flaked and mottled with purplish-crimson.] 

Mole Crickets and Potatoes.— The enclosed gnaw the stems oft the 
Potatoes here. Some call them American Potato beetles. What are they ?— 
E. Petees, Eing'i lioad Houne, Ouernsei/. [They are mole crickets, of which 
a full account will be found in our last week's number (seep. 1-i).] 

Onion Enemies.— I enclose you a caterpillar which I have found eating the 
tops off my onions. It begins at the top and eats the leaves half-way down.— 
Geo. TiCKr.s,Bi:liierfjii,Heiir Newark: [The name of tho insect sent is Hadena 
oleracea. It is a miscellaneous feeder, being found on the Nettle, Elm, Cabbage, 
and also, it would appear, on the Onion. This is, however, the first time that 
we have heard of it on the latter. — A. M.] 

Carrot Insects.— Our Carrots are suffering from tho attacks of an insect, 
which promises to destroy all in the garden. S jme years ago we saved them by 
applying spirits of tar to the ground before sowing ; now it does not seem to do 
any pood. As I believe many suffer in a similar way, probably some one may 
bo able to advise a treatment more eflicacioua than we have boon using. — 
W. H. M. [The insect that is doing the mischief in this case is tho larva of a 
small fly called Psila rosa:. The means of prevention that have been adopted 
by our correspondent are those most recommended, and generally found toler- 
ai)ly successful. A strong dressing of quicklime, before sowing, has been found 
useful, and trenching is perhaps still better. — A. M.J 



THE GARDEN. 



35 



SATXTRDAX, JULY 17, 1875. 



" This is an art 
Which does mend nature : change it rather ; bnt 
The a rt itselj is Nature." — Shakespeare. 



THE KOSE GARDEN IN SUMMER. 
The enthusiastic rosarian at this season strolls among his Roses, 
looking out for an opening blossom of some new Rose budded 
last year, and which he had perhaps token note of when visiting 
the Rose shows. He casts an eye to the quarter where his 
Briars are planted, and finds them in a vigorous state, waiting 
to receive buds of such varieties as he may prefer ; but, before 
he commences to bud, he resolves upon seeing tlie various Rose 
exhibitions and selecting the best of the new varieties, in order 
to make his collection as good as possible. Often, by following 
this plan, the amateur rosarian is misled, not by the beauty of 
the Rose so much as by its habit of growth, which may be very 
weakly, and only fit to be grown as a pot Rose. No Roses are 
more beautiful than Madame Vidot, Madame Rivers, Marquise 
de Mortemarte, Louise Magnan, Virginal, Madlle. Bonnaire, 
and Madame Noman, all of which are excellent when well 
grown ; but they are all more or less tender, and possess 
weak constitutions. Many more varieties could be mentioned 
that are by no means robust, none of which can stand 
cutting, pruning, and other rough treatment. In ortler to 
^.stand the cutting and pruning necessary to produce good 
' blooms, a Rose ref(uires to be vigorous, and of a strong and 
liai-dy constitution. Light-coloured varieties possessing this 
necessary qualification are scarce; Madame Rothschild, Captain 
Christie, and Madame Lacharrae arc the only light-coloured 
Roses with which I am acquainted that possess really robust 
and good coustitutions. These are very beautiful, and the best 
in cultivation. Madame Lacharme is nearly white, very little 
roseate ; Captain Christie is a shade darker of a soft flesh 
colour; and Madame Rothschild is a delicate waxy pink colour. 
July is generally allowed to be the best month for budding ; 
but this is only on account of buds being easily procured at 
that time, as the operation of budding may be performed at any 
time from the middle of May to the end of August. I budded 
between the 8th of May and the 8th of June this year upwards 
of two hundred Briars, and very few have failed ; they are now 
looking red and plump. It is a mistaken notion to think that 
buds inserted so early in the season will start into growth. 
The insipient bnds obtained from the greenhouse in May are 
quite soft ; and the Briar shoot being also soft — in fact, 
nothing but a mass of sap — every bud inserted is almost 
sure " to take." The buds must be in a dormant state to com- 
mence with, and they will remain in that state until the follow- 
ing spring ; but, in order to keep them dormant, the wild 
growth of the Briar must be suffered to grow. If cut back, 
there is danger of the buds starting. If you wish to produce 
Roses the same summer, use pushing buds — i.e., those which 
have grown about a quarter of an inch; these, when inserted 
into a vigorous Briar, generally grow away at once, parti- 
culai'ly some varieties, such as La Prance and Duke of 
Edinburgh. Much has been said and written on the choice of 
buds, but the truth is, in this country the choice is limited, 
and much more depends on the free parting of the bark than 
on the nature of the bud, which may be cut from a growing 
shoot or a flowering shoot, or one that has just flowered, but 
has not begun to push. The French use pushing buds with 
great success in the month of May ; they never take the wood 
out, but merely cut a very small shield with the bud in the 
centre. I never take the wood out myself, unless it happens 
that I may have to insert a bud of some particular variety late 
in August, when the wood is very ripe ; in Duch cases I take 
the wood out. Briars, planted in the open ground, are not 
proper stocks for pushing buds, and they should never be used 
if the scale of tho bud has opened so as to show the first 
incipient loaves. Choose a plump shoot, on which the leaves 
are large and ])erfoct, and on which the side-buds have not yet 
begun to grow. Some like to see the buds well developed, and. 
in order to accomplish this, about a week's time is required. 
Supposing that you can get buds from your own trees, 
and you wish to propagate a few particular varieties, 



but cannot find buds suffciently developed, it is only 
necessary to nip ofi the tops of the shoots wanted; the 
sap is then directed to the side-buds, and in about seven or 
eight days your buds will be found plump, and in beautiful 
order; the top buds will be ready first, and you may have to 
wait a few days for the remainder. Such is my plan of obtain- 
ing buds, and I find it a good one. If buds are obtained from, 
some friend, or a nurseryman, you must insert the best of 
them. As it is now a common practice for one rosarian to 
send to another a few buds in exchange for some favourite 
variety, the post affords a ready medium for such exchanges, 
as you get them brought to your door fresh and sound. The 
sender should cut the buds a little before post-time ; as soon 
as he has cut the number of shoots of the variety intended to 
be sent, he should cut off the leaf-stalks, leaving about half- 
an-inch ; then write on a small piece of paper with a pencil 
(ink runs) the name of the Rose, roll up the piece of paper, 
and tie it firmly to the shoot, and place the latter in water. 
He may have a dozen varieties to send. When all the cuttings 
are prepared and properly labelled, take them out of the water 
and tie the whole together with bast, then roll them up in 
two or three folds of old blotting paper ; wet this, and then 
roll all up in a fold of brown paper. A label, containing the 
address of the person for whom tho cuttings are intended to 
be despatched should be fastened to the parcel ; then comes the 
weighing and stamping, the stamps being put on the label. 
No parcel must exceed 12 ounces, the postage of which 
will be 4d. As soon as the receiver opens the parcel, 
the cuttings should be thrown into water for about 
half-an-hour, and in the meantime, half-fill a 6-inch pot 
with crocks, and fill up to the rim with pure sand. 
Common river sand is as good as silver sand ; ^ prick the 
cuttings round the side of the pot, about an inch deep ; 
but, previous to doing this, cut a small slice off the end of 
each shoot, so as to enable it to draw up moisture and nourish- 
ment from the sand, which must be kept iu a moist state, 
giving a little water every other day. It is a better plan, and 
also the practice which I adopt, to take off the paper labels 
froin each shoot, and substitute a wooden tally, placing the 
shoot behind the tally ; the names of the varieties stuck round 
the pot can then be seen at a glance. Buds kept in this manner 
improve, and can bo safely used after having been kept in sand 
for ten days — I cannot tell how much longer, never having had 
occasion to keep them in sand for a greater length of time. 
Suppose a person should have occasion to go from home for a 
few days in the budding season, ho need not be under any 
apprehension about his buds perishing, if kept in the manner 
just described. Care must be taken to place the flower-pot in 
a cool room, where the sun cannot shine upon the cuttings. 
Some place their Rose cuttings in water, like bouquets ; but 
that is a practice which cannot be recommended, inasmuch as 
the buds absorb too much water, and iu twenty-four hours 
turn black and rotten. So much has been written about the 
manner of inserting the buds — some using a cross cut in the 
form of the letter T, others a slanting cut at the top of the 
incision — that practice alone can determine which plan is best. 
For my part, I never make the cross cut, having in windy 
weather found that it weakens the shoot, and often there is a 
breakage at that part. If the amateur cannot insert his bud 
without the aid of the cross cut, let it bo made diagonally. It 
is not a good plan to release the tie from the buds too soon. 
Wait imtil you see the tie biting into the shoot before you 
release it. When a bud is untied too soon the bark opens, and 
the bud gets detached. I always leave four" shoots upon a 
Briar, and bud two. In this case, if a bud should fail in 
" taking," I can insert another into the shoot nearest to the 
one that has taken. One reason why amateurs fail in getting 
their buds to take, is the mistake made iu prunmg in the wild 
growth of the budded shoots, under an impression that it 
throws vigour into the buds. On no account must the ends of 
the Briar shoots be cut after the bud is inserted— the ends of 
these shoots draw sap up by the bud, and cause it to unite ; 
but cut them off, and the sap is directed to other shoots, and 
the bud dies for want of nourishment. In using the knife, 
therefore, for the purpose of getting in amongst the stocks 
conveniently, let it bo borne in mind that the more the shoots 
are cut back, the more is the flovr of sap interfered with, 



36 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 17, 1875. 



unless they remain for a time untouched, and are allowed to 
throw out side shoots, by which time the sap will be in full flow 
again, and the buds will take as quickly as iJE they had been put 
in in the first instance, without pruning back the shoots. Let 
it be impressed strongly on the mind of the amateur that suc- 
cessful budding is only practicable where there is a constant 
and vigorous flow of sap going on in the shoot to be operated 
upon. I have seen many young rosarians flrst insert the buds, 
and then cut off all the shoots beyond them, in order, as they 
said, to make the stocks look neat. Of course, the buds did 
not take ; neither was it possible for them to effect a union, 
when the flow of sap was stopped. 

Gun-barrel Budding. 

This kind of budding is now much practised by rosarians. 
In all Rose gardens where the amateur buds his own 
Roses, there will be found many strong suckers rising from 
the roots of dead Briars. On account of the severe frosts 
last winter, many fine, strong suckers may be found at the 
present time. Take a strong sucker, about 3 feet high, dress all 
the spines and side shoots off for about 2 feet from the ground, 
the young wood will be found in about the same state of green- 
ness and ripeness as the side shoot of the Briars which you 
are budding on the top part of the stock. Instead of waiting 
till next season, bud at once, just above one of the leaf rings, 
gun-barrel fashion — put the point of the knife in just above 
a bud, draw it upwards gently for about an inch in length. 
Here you have the incision which must receive the bud, at the 
top of which make your cross cut. Use good, strong, plump 
buds, which can always be obtained in abundance during 
August, which is the best time for gun-barrel budding. 
About two eyes above or below you may insert another bud. 
There is such an immense flow of sap in these shoots from the 
root that, when tying up the bud, the sap flows out and runs 
down the stem. The Briar and the bud are thus both of one 
age, and may be said to begin the world together. The junc- 
tion is rapid and complete. All below the inserted buds must 
be cut away, but all growth above must be suffered to remain 
until about the middle of November. The reader will naturally 
ask — •" How do you get this sucker up when the head is 
formed ? How do you separate it from the parent stock ? " 
I let it grow for two seasons, after which a good head is formed, 
and the sucker has become as thick as the thumb. In Novem- 
ber, grub up the whole of the old root, and separate the stem 
from it ; it is generally full of fibres, and may be removed to 
its proper quarters with safety. On this plan, instead of 
suckers being a nuisance, they may be turned to good account, 
and your Roses multiplied into dwarfs and standards at 
pleasure. I generally bud these suckers last, and they have 
often been of the greatest service to me, when a friend has 
sent me some buds of very choice new sorts late in the season ; 
all my Briars having been worked, I should have had no stocks 
to bud them into, had I not preserved these suckers. Gentle- 
men occupying land can bud into the suckers arising 
from old roots growing in the hedgerows ; but, before 
inserting the buds, the sucker must be carefully examined 
at its base, in order to see whether it can be taken up when 
the head is formed, and removed to the Rose garden. 

Treatment of Budded Eoses. 

As regards the after treatment of budded Briars, under 
favourable circumstances, a bud generally gets firmly united in 
about five or six weeks, and if the growth beyond the bud is 
not cut in, the bud generally remains in a dormant condition. 
Some few buds it is impossible to keep in a dormant state — 
they will start into growth whether you wish it or not — in this 
case, when the bud has grown a few inches, it is better to 
reduce any wild growth from the Briar at once and try to 
make as much wood as you can from the pushing bud. Some 
buds grow and only make a few inches of weakly unripe wood ; 
these are in great danger of being killed in winter. The best 
way is to nip out the top in the autumn, as soon as it has 
grown about 6 inches. This will cause the sap to concentrato 
about the rings of the bark, and in the ensuing spring it will 
throw out side-shoots for the formation of a head. It is 
always best to keep the buds in a dormant state, and this can 



only be managed by suffering as much wild growth as possible 
to remain on the Briar until the sap goes down about the end 
of October or November. About the 20th of November, not 
earlier, all the wild growth of the Briar may be cut away, 
leaving only about 6 inches of wood beyond the bud ; all side 
branches may be cut in close. This winter-pruning of budded 
Briars is necessary, otherwise any weight of snow lodging on 
the wild growth would break down the shoot and destroy the 
bud. Budded Briars are very liable to accident from wind, and 
often break at the place where the cross-cut was made when 
the bud was inserted. In consequence of having had so 
many accidents from this cause I have long since discontinued 
making the cross-cut. I now only make the long incision, and 
insert the bud with a piece of fiat ivory filed down to a 
bluntish point, like a very flat lead pencil. Such an instru- 
ment can be easily made from the broken handle of an old razor. 
Since I adopted this plan I have never had an accident from 
the Briar shoot breaking near the bud. About the end of 
March all the budded Briars must undergo the operation of 
pruning ; the portion of wood left in November, when all the 
wild spray was cut away, must now be entirely removed, 
except one bud just above the inserted bud ; this one wild bud 
must be left on the shoot which was worked, and this is called 
the sap bud — its office being to draw the sap upward, and 
help the pushing of the inserted bud. When the sap 
begins to flow freely, it is directed to the one wild bud, 
which hastens the completion of the union where the incision 
was made, and the inserted bud, which has remained so long in 
a dormant state, breaks strongly, and soon commences to grow 
in earnest. If no sap-bud was left, the inserted bud might not 
start so readily, and the stock, in order to get rid of its sap, 
would commence throwing out side-shoots and suckers from 
the root. When the bud does not start into growth after 
receiving the pruning and treatment above stated, it is a sure 
sign that some growth is going on under ground — probably a 
strong sucker or two are starting from the Briar root. If 
anything of this sort is suspected, get the garden fork and 
loosen the soil a little, when you will probably find the enemy, 
which must be promptly removed ; all side-shoots proceeding 
from the stock must also be removed. When the Rose has 
grown 3 or -i inches, a stick about 2 feet long must be tied to the 
Briar in two places, and it must stand well up above the grow- 
ing bud ; to this support the Rose must be tied, as the growth 
proceeds, with worsted, which is better than bast, as it does 
not rot in winter, and allow the snow to weigh down and break 
the yet tender growth of the Rose. Occasionally we find a bud 
very obstinate, not starting into growth in the spring ; some- 
times it will start at midsummer, and I have seen a few cases 
every year where the bud actually refuses to commence grow- 
ing until the following year ; but these cases are exceptional. 
It is, therefore, unwise to cut away the sap-bud until after 
midsummer; but the points of the shoots may be nipped out 
occasionally, by way of coaxing the inserted bud into growth. 
AVatch the stocks closely until midsummer, and rub away any 
wild growth that the Briar may make as fast as it appears, in 
order that the full flow of sap may be directed to the growing 
Rose. When the bud has grown 6 inches nip out the top, aud 
side-branches will be thrown, out, and a head soon formed 
which will bloom in autumn. Henry Tayloe. 

Bose Cottage, Fencoie, near Bedale. 



Zephyranthes Culture. — Z. Candida ia a pretty bulbons 
autumn-flowering plant, with white flowers, resembling large white 
Crocuses, 6 inches high. I have not succeeded in procuring the true 
Zephyranthes Atamasco, but I am looking forward to flowering Z. 
carinata veda, which produces rose-coloured flowers, 3 or 4 inches 
across, according to its description. The bulbs would probably 
require to be kept dry in winter. I intend, however, preparing a bed 
specially for half-hardy and many so-called hardy bulbs. I am con. 
vinced that I could grow most of them in a border, with plenty of 
leaf mould and sand, very well drained, with some kind of protection 
to keep the wet from the bed. I do not fear the frost with bulbs 
deeply planted. Here I may mention that I have, in the wild 
garden, seven large clumps of Dahlias pushing strongly up, which 
have been for two years in the same position, with no protection, 
excepting 3 or 4 inches of dead leaves. The sab-soil being gravel, 
they have not suffered from stagnant water about the tubers.— Oxo.v. 



July 17, 1875.] 



THE GAEDEN. 



37 



NOTES OP THE WEEK 



One of the most charming garden scenes we know of is that 

now visible under the trees at the lower end of the Serpentine, which 
has lately been transformed into a beautiful dell, graced by numerous 
tropical plants very well grouped. In this respect, indeed, there is 
great improvement noticeable this year. Some masses of ordinary- 
looking bedding plants somewhat mar the scene, and so do the bits 
of rock placed at regular intervals by the water — blemishes that 
existed before Mr. Gibson had the management of the park. Where 
Palm trees, Ferns, and similar plants, are grouped so charmingly 
and naturally, it would be best to introduce a little colour on the 
same principle. This example of what is called sub-tropical garden- 
ing will do more for it than a thousand times the number of 
plants here seen would, if dotted about in the ordinary monotonous 
manner. 

The recent heavy rains have much injured both fruit and 

flowers, the latter so much that the supplies from out of doors for 
Covent Garden have been much deteriorated, and many have had a 
difliculty in disposing of their bush fruits, except at unremunerative 
prices. Large quantities of damaged fruits are now being sold at 
low rates for preserving. Potato crops, too, are suffering in some 
localities from the excessive wet, which, as is well known, induces 



The ripening fruit on red Astrachan Apple trees, in the Saw- 

bridgeworth Nurseries, is now conspicuously brilliant, and abundant. 
The very high colour in this case is owing to its being grafted 
on the Nonsuch Paradise. It is, of course, one of the best early 
Apples. 

f Two beautiful Alpine Harebells are now in flower at Messrs. 

backhouse's, at York. They are very small species — from 1 to 
2 inches high when in full bloom, both having erect flowers; 
those of C. Zoysii, being singular in form, tubular, and closed at the 
mouth. 

Mk. Petbb Baeb recotrimends amateurs making collections of 

Daffodils, to grow them in the Grass, where this can be done con. 
veniently. They die down early in summer, and are charming when 
seen in the Grass nooks in the pleasure ground, lawn, or wild 



In speaking of the acclimatisation of useful birds, Senor 

Fernandez mentions the introduction of starlings into Germany by 
Lenz. This bird will consume about 120 worms and snails daily. In 
Gotha there are now said to be 180,000 of these cultivators' friends, 
where, before the efforts of Lenz, they were entirely unknown. 

— — The exhibition of the Pelargonium Society will take place in 
the gardens of the Royal Horticultural Society, South Kensington, on 
Wednesday next, July 21st. Notice of entries should be sent in to 
Mr. Barron, at South Kensington, in the usual way. The annual 
meeting of the Pelargonium Society will take place at Chiswick, by 
permission of the Council, on the afternoon of the 22nd inst,, the day 
following the show. 

Mk. Eiley is now in the south of France, in the country 

devastated by the Phylloxera. He has been giving the growers 
valuable advice as to the kinds of American Vines not liable to be 
attacked by this pest, and which, in consequence, are likely to be of 
great value as stocks to the French growers. To mark their appreoia. 
tion of his services to Vine culture in France, the Agricultural Society 
of Herault gave a grand banquet in his honour, at Palava, on the 
12th inst. 

To show their confidence in the Royal Horticultural Society, 

many of the exhibitors hope to make gratuitously the exhibition that 
is to be held at South Kensington on the 21st one of the finest the 
society has ever held. Those who have already signified their inten. 
tion to do so are Messrs. Veitch & Sons, Mr. B. S. Williams, Messrs. 
J. & C. Lee, Mr. Bull, Mr. Charles Turner, Mr. Standish, Messrs! 
Osborn & Son, Mr. Wills, Mr. Cutbush, Mr. Laing, Messrs. Paul & 
Son, Mr. Parker, Mr. W. Paul, Mr. Ley, Mr. Morse, Mr. Wimaett, and 
Ml-. Barr. It is also probable that many other well-known horticul. 
turists will lend their aid. 

Mk. Max Leichtlin, writing to us from Baden Baden concern- 
ing Bletia hyacinthina, states that this pretty terrestrial Orchid must 
be hardy in England, although it is, for the most part, kept in a cool 
house. Last autumn he bought one plant of it and put it into a 
walled frame, in order to give it a little protection. The frost pene- 
trated the frame at various times, and so much so that the soil was 
frozen from 1 to 2 inches in depth ; but the root.stock of the Bletia, 
being below this, remained uninjured, and pushed up young shoots in 
April, which bloomed well about the latter part of June. The flowers 
are of a bright magenta colour, and last for about a fortnight. The 
plant seems to be well worth growing. 



SAVING STOCK SEED. 
The probability of securing a good proportion of double flowers 
from stocks depends partly upon the character of the " strain " 
grown and partly upon the mode of saving seed. There are some 
strains sold that no mode of treatment or manipulation can induce 
to furnish double flowers, as I have often experienced to my sorrow. 
Some years ago I endeavoured to secure a stock of the white 
Brompton, and grew seed of it that was highly recommended ; how- 
ever, when the plants flowered all were single. Acting upon the 
advice of an old cottager, who had grown good scarlet Brompton 
Stocks for many years, I selected plants which produced flowers 
having five or six petals (the normal number of petals is four), and 
these were marked and the seed specially saved and sown. I also 
pinched out the points of the spikes, so as to allow of but a few pods 
being produced on each, and of course these were finer in conse- 
quence ; still 1 got no double flowers. And, after a third trial, mado 
in the same way, I abandoned the stock. Again, after a few years, 
I obtained from one of our large nurserymen seeds of scarlet, white, 
and purple Brompton Stocks, and of these not a double flower 
was produced in the case of either of the two latter, and but 
sparingly in that of the former. Still worse, was the experience 
of a neighbouring market gardener, who purchased 1 lb. of seed of 
the Scarlet Queen Stock from a seed house ; and, out of the thousands 
of plants from this that bloomed last spring there was not one that had 
double flowers. These cases show how careless some are in ascer- 
taining the quality of the seed stocks which they purchase. It may 
be accepted as an undoubted fact that if Stock seed be offered 
abundantly and cheaply it is next to useless as far as good double 
flowers aro concerned. Since my previous experience with the 
White Brompton I have secured a strain of that variety which pro- 
duces at least 50 per cent, double flowers. Whether needful or not, 
I make it a rule with my present strain to pinch out all the points 
of all the spikes of bloom, and to remove the weakest side branches. 
The German Stocks so commonly grown in gardens during the 
summer are chiefly grown in pots, and it is said that the growers 
have the power, by manipulation, to alter the proportion of double 
flowers produced. Any good strain of German Stocks gives from 
70 to 80 per cent, double flowers. I have now grown that beautiful 
pyramidal summer Stock called Mauve Beauty for about six years, and 
find that, grown in the open air under ordinary culture, and with the 
points of the branches stopped, it invariably produces at least 70 per 
cent, of double flowers. Another variety, of German origin, named 
Violacea, grown five years also, constantly produces the same propor- 
tion. My experience of Mauve Beauty is this — that the strongest 
plants in the seed-bed are generally double-flowered ; and I infer 
from this that it is best to select the strongest of the single ones for 
seed-bearers, and to weed out all that are of weak growth. I am 
also by this led to believe that the finest seeds produce the most 
robust plants, and, in consequence, the greatest proportion of double 
flowers. This, if correct, is a great argument in favour of the plan of 
pinching out the points of the spikes of flower — in fact, thinning the 
pods, so that the strength of the plant may be thrown into the pro- 
duction of fine pods. In my locality there are grown in the cottage 
and market gardens some fine strains of the scarlet and purple Queen 
Stock, dwarf, robust, and hardy, producing a large proportion of 
double flowers ; but these receive no manipulation. There is also a 
fine scarlet Brompton Stock that seems to be carelessly grown, but 
which, nevertheless, produces many grand double flowers. No doubt, 
if some amateur could give time and attention to some of these 
strains of Stocks, he might be able to improve them by manipulation 
or selection ; in any case, it would be exceedingly interesting to 
ascertain whether high culture, selection, and thinning the green pods, 
did or did not produce any greater number of double flowers than 
now results from ordinary, orrather, careless cultivation. A. D. 



KALMIAS FOE SMALL GARDENS. 
Few flowering shrubs can compare with these for beauty, and yet one 
seldom sees them except in large establishments. Grounds of small 
size might be made much more interesting and enjoyable by intro- 
ducing a few choice flowering shrubs, such as the above, instead of a 
repetition of Laurel, Box, and plants of that description. The Kalmia 
is a native of North America, and is there found growing on rocks 
slightly covered with vegetable soil. It is also found overhanging 
the margins of streams, and on the sides of hills in sterile looking 
soils containing a large quantity of grit. Notwithstanding this, the 
plant, like other American shrubs — the Rhododendron for example, — 
is fond of moisture, a good supply of which is necessary to its suc- 
cessful cultivation. The Kalmia forms a small compact, dense, grow- 
ing little shrub, admirably suited for the embellishment of the front 
of shrubbery borders, or for forming beds or clumps on lawns or 
pleasure grounds. The foliage being of a lively deep green shining 



38 



THE GAKDEN. 



[July 17, 1875. 



hue sets off the lovely pink flowers to great advantage. There are 
several varieties now in cultivation, but the old latifolia is still one o£ 
the best. Any soil in which the Rhododendron thrives will be 
thoroughly adapted for the growth of Kalmias. It is not necessary 
for either that the soil should be peat, although this is best suited to 
the cultivation of both, and where it is only a question of a single 
clump, or a few plants, it is better to make sure of success, and begin 
with that material to grow them in. Where this is not readily ob. 
tainable, the parings from the sides of roads or paths, having plenty 
of grit in them, are a good substitute. With this, mix about a tliird of 
thoroughly rotten leaves, and, in planting, tread the soil firmly about 
the roots. It must be borne in mind that these plants, like Rhodo- 
dendrons, have a strong aversion to chalk, and any soil containing 
this in any form is sure to prove fatal to them. The Kalmia is a 
plant wliich is somewhat fond of shade ; therefore, in planting,'make 
choice of a position where this can be afforded naturally for a few 
hours during the day. When growing, give a good soaking of water, 
as the succeeding year's bloom depends on the kind of growth that 
is made by the plant previous to the flower.buds being formed on the 
terminal ends of the young shoots. These swell gradually on during 
the autumn and spring, and at the beginning of June they burst 
forth, forming a compact bunch of rich pale pink crimped-looking 
flowers, as singular in ihat respect as they are beautiful. The Kalmia 
is a first-rate subject for forcing, and may be bought for that purpose 
well set with bloom buds at a moderately cheap rate. J. Sheppard. 



TEEES STRUCK BY LIGHTNING.* 
For many years past, it has been customary to notice, at the 
Botanical Society's meetings, trees injured by lightning. A thunder, 
storm of rather a local character took place on the 9th of October, 
1874, on the road leading from Loanhead to Lasswade. The electric 
fluid struck a large healthy Ash tree, which is now quite dead. It 
was one of a row of trees overhanging a line of telegraph posts and 
wires on the south-east side of the road. Five consecutive telegraph 
posts, standing 150 feet apart, were thrown down, and more or less 
split up. I recently inspected all the trees in the line where the 
posts were injured, and found that, without exception, they were 
either Elm or Ash. One Ash, I have said, has been totally killed. 
It stood near the centre of the line where the telegraph posts were 
destroyed. The wires, however, do not seem to have been in contact 
with it, or, indeed, any of the trees. Another Ash is also disfigured 
on one side, and on portions of its top, the bark being stripped off 
about 2 inches in breadth, beginning about 6 feet below the level of 
the wires, a line being distinctly traceable to the bottom of the tree. 
Several of the Elms have had narrow portions of bark, from 2 to 3 
feet in length, and about 1 inch broad, displaced from their stems ; 
and this has always occurred on the side nest the wires. One Elm, 
where the wire was within 12 inches of the stem, has a strip of bark, 
2 feet long and about 1 inch broad, taken off immediately below the 
level of the wire. This denuded space is straight for several feet, and, 
although connected, it is observed to turn round, and to have entered 
the ground on the east side of the tree. Notwithstanding that the wires 
appeared to be at a greater distance from the Ash than the Elm 
trees, the Ash trees suffered most. Probably the Ash tree killed was 
first struck, and the fluid afterwards communicated with the 
telegraph wires. 



Flower Gardening in Hyde Park. — In Ilyde Park, the 
parallelogram form of bed is popular, and the overladen aspect of the 
strip of Grass next to Park Lane is too evident — in some xjarts more 
than others. A sheet of fresh green turf now and then is what 
would relieve the eye here, and not a continuous belt of heavy-pro. 
portioned beds, furnished with Geraniums chiefly. Flower-beds, 
however, look better here than those in the Green Park, but they are 
too many, and have too little variety amongst them. From this fashion- 
able proQienade it is pleasant to escape to the long herbaceous flower- 
walk in Kensington Gardens. The seclusion hero, and the more 
natural aspect of both trees and flowers, are a relief to the eye. It 
was gay with Delphiniums and Canterbury Bells, and many other 
hardy jilants that looked well relieved by the trees behind. — J. S. 

Flower-gardening at Kew. — A country correspondeat of the 
" Field" says, "Among other things, one looks for something good 
in the flowor-gardening way hero, and this is effective generally, 
barring the large circle at the end of the long walk, which, at a 
distance, looks a mere dusky object, and is quite ineffective. It is 
filled with pattern-work, composed of Geraniums, Ceutaureas, Alter, 
nantheras, Echeverias, Sedums, &c., the succulent class predomi. 
Dating. This bed, which seems to have been placed in its present 

• Headby Mr, M'Nal), before the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, 8th July,1876, 



position as a terminating object to the long walk, along both sides 
of which there is bedding enough of the ordinary kind, is anything 
but the conspicuous object it ought to be, furnished as it is now, and 
as it has been for years past. Such a bed, we conceive, should fill 
the eye, and afford a contrast to the rest of the bedding ; but, instead 
of this, it is indistinct and unnoticeable, its presence hardly attract, 
ing attention but for the burnt brick edging with which it is sur- 
rounded. Whoever suggested this incongruous bordering to such a 
bed, in such a place, deserves a monument of the same material. It 
is a conspicuous outrage on good taste, that all may coutemplato 
with advantage who visit Kew. I maintain that nothing would 
be more becoming to the bed than a Grass margin of proportionate 
breadth ; at all events, brick is a barbarism. I could not help 
thinking what a grand mass of Pampas Grass could be grown here 
with good culture ; and the Grass need not occupy all th^ bed : it is 
a position for nobler plants than those of the ordinary ' bedding ' class 
which meet the eye all around. I would suggest, for another 
year, a central mass of Pampas Grass, occupying two-thirds of the 
bed, and, interspersed among the clumps of these during summer, a 
few tall sub-tropical plants of the Palm and Draciona type, and round 
the enter margin good plants of Draca3na grandis and others, Cannas, 
and effective subjects of the same kind — one noble group, gorgeous 
in habit and colour, but divested of all formality in arrangement." 

Specimens of Large Pampas Grass. — The finest example 
of this I have seen was in Staffordshire. It was growing on a well- 
drained lawn; but holes 8 feet deep, and filled with loam and cow 
manure, had been prepared for each plant. One plant, three years 
planted, was of immense circumference, the leaves unusually broad, 
long, and erect, and bore about two dozen flower-spikes, which stood 
nearly 13 feet high. This was simply due to high culture in a 
climate not unfavourable to it, and no doubt the same could be 
accomplished in the neighbourhood of London. The plant requires 
a deep rich soil and abundance of moisture in summer, but a 
thorouo'hly dry bottom in winter. Under such conditions I have 
seen it stand without any protection in winter in Scotland, and 
flower annually. — J. S. 

Lilium monadelph.um and other Lilies. — I notice in a recent 
number (see p. 8) that a correspondent enquires what is the greatest 
number of flowers produced by one stem of this Lily. I believe Mr. 
Maw had twenty-five last year, but the finest spike I ever saw was 
in my own garden a month ago. It had fourteen flowers, of such 
size that the whole could not be drawn on a large folio sheet without 
crowdin". Mr. Hovey's account of the hybridisation of Lilies in 
America is very interesting, but I think that the climate must have 
something to do with his remarkable success, as no one of late years 
in Europe seems to have done anything particular in this line. Can 
any of your correspondents inform me where I can find the catalogue 
of hybrid Lilies raised by Mr. Groom about thirty years ago, which 
are referred to in Mr. Hovey's letter ? I believe they were mentioned 
in Glenny's " Garden Almanac ; " and, as I am trying to trace the 
parentage of the different varieties of Orange Lilies now in cultiva- 
tion under many different names, I shall be glad of some information 
about this, as I believe Mr. Groom was the raiser of many hybrids 
between elegans and bulbiferum. Having recently examined, iu 
company with Mr. Baker, the type specimen of L. elegans in Thun- 
berg's own herbarium, I feel sure that the plant is undoubtedly oue 
of the forms of what is generally called Thnnbergianum ; and, as the 
laws of nomenclature compel the change already made by Mr. Baker, 
I hope that the name of elegans will be adopted instead of Thuu. 
bergianum in all gardens and catalogues. — J. Elwes, Miserdcii 
House, C ireiicester. 

The New Race of Irises. — In your account (see p. 7) of the 
hardy plants in Messrs. Henderson's nursery, the Japanese Irises, 
known by the name of I. Kiempferi, are mentioned as being very 
fine. I feel sure that this set of Irises will, when more plentiful, be 
as much esteemed in the garden as those usually known as I. ger- 
manica. Iris KKjmpferi (E. G. Henderson), is a very fine plant, as 
every one must admit ; but it is, I was going to say, a mere weed — 
though that is rather too strong an expression— in comparison with a 
variety I saw at Mr. Leichtlin's last week. So beautiful was this 
flower, that I think it would vie with the finest Orchid in cultivation, 
both in size and colour. Bach petal exceeded 3 inches in length and 
breadth ; the whole flower^ which was nearly flat, being at least 
7 inches in diameter; the colour, a bright rose, variegated with 
white. I believe that others as fine, or nearly so, are in the same 
collection ; and as they ripen seed freely, we may hope in time to see 
a race of Irises of extraordinary size and beauty. M. Van Houtte, of 
Ghent, is the fortunate possessor of a wonderful form of Japanese 
Iris, which, if the drawing is correct, has the flower completely 
pendnlons, on a recurved peduncle. — J. Elwes, Miserden House, 
Cirencester. 



Jtjly 17, 1875.] 



THE GAEDBN. 



39 



THE FLOWER GARDEN. 

THE SCAELET WINDFLOWEE. 

(aseiiose fulgens.) 
This is a plant almost unknown in gardens, that which is met 
with under the name in collections being no other than one of 
the bright red varieties of the Star Anemone (A. stellata Lam. 
A. hortensis), which, in some respects, resembles A. fulgens, 
to which, however, it is inferior, as regards the size and hardi- 
ness of the plant, the vigour of the flower-stems, and the 
breadth and colour of the flowers. Anemone fulgens, repre- 
sented in our engraving, which is one-third the natural size of 
the plant, is, properly speaking, the single type of A. pavonina, 
of which the double variety only is now usually cultivated. 
This is often confounded with the different varieties of A. 
stellata, and it is this confusion of names which has induced us 
to point out in a special manner the merits' of A. fulgens, 
whose beauty and hardiness place it in the first rank of out- 
door ornamental flowers. Whilst the Star Anemones (A stel- 
lata, A. hortensis) with single flowers, are of delicate constitu- 




'^'^^^f^KS" 






"-v^^^f^v^ 



The Scarlet Windflower. 

tion — requiring to be cultivated in peat or leaf soil, and shel- 
tered from the cold of winter — A. fulgens, on the contrary, 
succeeds in any rich garden soil which has been well manured, 
and also in the soil of meadow land ; besides this, it is 
sufficiently hardy to be left without shelter in tVie open 
air during winter, and it even gains in size and beauty 
when left iindisturbed where it grows for several j'ears, 
as is often the cise with other perennial plants. Tufts of it 
thus grow larger every year, and produce flowers that 
become annually more ample and abundant, especially if care 
be taken to mulch thoroughly during the winter. These 
flowers, which begin to show themselves in February, and 
succeed each other until April, are borne on flower-stems some 
8 to 12 inches in height. The corolla, which is well stored 
with petals disposed in a wide-spreading cup some 2 or 3 
inches in diameter, is scarlet-vermilion-red in colour, and of a 
brilliancy that it would be difiioult to rival, for it is abso- 
lutely dazzling when illuminated by the rays of the sun. 
The blossoms open well when cut and placed in water, and 
are peculiarly adapted for forming bouquets and for winter 
and early spring decoration. The rhizomes of Anemone 
fulgens may be planted either in autumn or in spring, and 



even when the plant is in full growth ; but if it be decided 
to obtain plants of it in full flower in spring it is better to 
plant them early in autumn and not later than September. 
In this case a good mulching given before the winter will go 
far in ensuring an early and abundant flowering. — MM. 
ViLMORiN & Co., in "Eevue Horticole." [The merits of this 
brilliant plant have now been thoroughly tested in England 
and frequently pointed out in The Garden. It is, however, 
as yet, too little grown. It adds quite a new feature to the 
garden of hardy flowers when it is well established.] 



DE. KELLOGG ON LILIES. 

As I had the pleasure of showing you my paintings and col- 
lections of native Lilies while in California, before The Garden 
was first published, I now send you an account of the early 
history of some of them. Happily our lot has fallen upon 
an age appreciative of one, at least, of the divine commands — 
which all will allow is a good beginning — to " consider the 
Lilies." It seems incumbeut upon all those who are associated 
in any degree with Lily literature to state facts known to them 
in aid of those seeking a just record of these lovely plants. 

liilium ■Washingtonianum (Kellogg). — A painting, still in 
my possession, of a single flower, branch, and leaf of this 
Lily, made from a dried specimen, was presented before 
the Cal. Acad., Nov. 11th, ISSi, calling public attention to 
it, besides some fresh bulbs distributed— though not then 
described — the materials being deemed unsatisfactory. We 
diligently strove to cultivate this bulb for four or five years ; 
in 1859 it bloomed, was described, and accompanied by another 
more characteristic painting, and specimens freshly in flower, 
August Ist, 1859, Proo. Cal. Acad. Sciences, Vol. II., 
p. 13; it was also lithographed, coloured, and distributed 
widely, both with proceedings, and also in a colonial monthly 
magazine, named " The Hesperian," published in San Fran- 
cisco, for October, 1859. In allusion to the coast form, 
both before the Academy and in the monthly magazine in 
question, it was stated, " We have probably another species 
of white Lily, which has not yet attained sufiicient strength 
to bloom." I called Mr. Miller's attention to many peculiar 
features of this species as we were inclined to view it, requir- 
ing further investigation ; whereupon he collected and sent it 
abroad. I have, at this moment, a specimen, 6 feet high, 
with sixty blossoms on it. 

L. Bloomerianum (Kellogg).— About fifteen years ago I 
began the culture of this Lily, made a large drawing of it, 
which you saw, presented it with specimens to the Cal. Acad., 
discussed, and deemed it a good species ; but no written 
description offered, as none appears upon the record at that 
time. The painting was sent to the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, at Washington ; thence to New York, to Dr. Torrey, 
and to Professor Gray, of Cambridge, U.S. Finally, February 
20th, 1871, Vol. IV., p. 160, it was described. Subsequently Mr. 
Max Leichtliu sent me his painting of L. Humboldti, which 
certainly was not my L. Bloomerianum, but L. pardalinum. I 
can only account for the mistake (it mistake it was), by his 
describing one and accidentally figuring the other. The 
late Mr. Bloomer and myself, with others, always considered 
this as a distinct species, and he ever spoke of it as such, and 
continued its culture to the day of his death. 

L. lucidum (Kellogg).— A bright orange Oregon Lily; the 
plant accompanied by a large painting, which you also saw, was 
presented before the Cal. Acad, of Sciences as new twelve 
years ago, and this name given to it then, on account of 
its peculiar bright, lucid, and sunny radiance. A careful 
description was written out, but held in abeyance in order 
to review it with reference to the character of the bulb 
(at that time having seen but one) ; this was also sent to Wash- 
ington, New York, and Cambridge,to be submitted to those high 
in authority upon botanical questions. Specimens of the plant 
and bulb passed into the hands of Mr. Bloomer, but since the 
Academy's purchase of these relics, coming again to view, I 
published it and gave reasons for considering it distinct from L. 
canadense. 

Ii. maritimum (Kellogg). — This is a very dwarf maritime 
Lily, recently described, although for five or six years past 



40 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 17, 1875. 



considered doubtfully distinct by Mr. Bloomer and myself; 
his opinion I find recorded on the label. A year ago I visited 
its native habitat, devoted particular attention to its special 
characteristics, and collected many bulbs for cultivation and 
distribution to Mr. Bloomer and other friends for study, culture, 
and comparison. It is now in bloom at Mr. Brooke's, and I 
think it well worthy of a distinctive name. It has not the 
creeping CEBspitose or zig-zag mats of bulbs as the L. par- 
vum (Kellogg) or L. pardalinum (Kellogg), and may be worth 
a distinct notice hereafter. A. Kellogg. 



GARDEN VEGETATION IN JUNE. 
The month of June, upon the whole, has been somewhat dry 
and cool. The lowest thermometer markings were on the 
mornings of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 13th, 14th, and 21st, when 40^, 
39°, 37^, 40°, 37^, and 39°, were registered. While the highest 
morning tempei'atures were on the 12th, '24th, 25th, 28th, 29th, 
and 30th, when 53^, 49°, 54°, 48°, 49°, and 48°, were re- 
spectively indicated. Easterly and north-easterly winds pre- 
vailed during the early part of the month. There 
were a few occasional showers, but no rain of any con- 
sequence fell till the 30th. "Vegetation may now be said 
to be at its best, with a few exceptions, such as the 
Locust tree, Liquidamber, Tulip tree, deciduous Cypress, 
and Catalpa tree. The foliage is this year everywhere 
well developed ; most of the late summer flowering trees 
were generally at their best about the 5th of June, such 
as the scarlet-flowering Horse Chestnuts, as well as the double 
flowering Thorns, while the Crata3gLis tanacetifolia, or Tansy- 
leaved Thorn, was in full flower on the 25th of June. This is 
a most desirable tree, owing to its late flowering propensity, 
but one rarely seen in cultivation. The common White Elder 
has been particularly fine this season. The first open flowers 
on it were observed on the -5th of June, and all wera in per- 
fection on the 28th. The comnion Elder, beautiful as it is 
both in flower and fruit, is now becoming a perfect nuisance 
all over the country. It is extending itself very generally 
over wooded lands and gardens, killing, or rather smothering 
many good evergreen shrubs such as Rhododendrons, Portugal 
Laurels, &c., as well as numerous deciduous shrubs of all 
classes. The Dwarfer deciduous shrubby plants have been 
flowering very freely during June, such as the Colutea, Syringa 
or Mock Orange, Snowberry, Barberry, Weigela, Deutzia, 
Wild Roses, Yellow and White Broom. The common Rho- 
dodendron ponticum has also shown an abundance of flower. 
The Portugal Laurel is iiow (July 1) thickly covered with 
flower buds. 

In my address to the Botanical Society, November, 1873, I 
noticed that the Ivalmia iatifolia does not flower as it used to 
do thirty years ago. The plants of it cultivated in tlie garden 
are of all sizes ; they stand in all situations, and vary from 
3 to 30 feet in circumference, and are in the most perfect 
health. One of the largest plants produced this year a single 
cluster of flowers on the top of it, while no others had a vestige 
of bloom, except on some plants which were received from 
London with flower buds formed on them, forced during 
the winter and spring of 1873-74, and planted out after the 
young growths were matured ; several of these plants arc this 
year fiowering profusely. For some years back it was only on 
the forced plants that flowers were obtained in the open air, 
and even in these cases, no flowers were got after the first year. 
The flowering of the Yucca gloriosa is by no means an 
unfrequent occurrence, but it is somewhat remai'kable this 
year to see so many coming into flowei\ On the rock-garden 
alone fourteen specimens are now blooming — of these ten are 
the Yucca gloriosa, one Y. Ellacombii, one Y. glaucescens, one 
Y. filamentosa, and one Y. angustifolia. Six specimens of the 
Y. gloriosa are also flowering in other parts of the garden. I 
attribute the free-flowering of the Yuccas this year to the 
extreme mildness of the winters of 1872-73, and 1873-74, 
succeeded, as they were by average summers and autumns. 
The Yuccas in the rock-garden are all growing in raised rough 
octagonal stone boxes, filled with good earth and covered with 
soil outside, so as to keep the stones together, the sloping 
banks being arranged into rock-work compartments for the 
growth of Alpine plants. The roots of the Yuccas are con- 



fined all round, the fibres only issuing through the joints into 
the surrounding soil. 

Owing to the dry weather, the herbaceous and Alpine plants, 
particularly the inhabitants of the rock-garden, have come 
very rapidly forward, but generally the flowering, with certain 
exceptions, was of short duration. On the 1st of July, 273 
species and varieties, exclusive of duplicates, were counted in 
bloom. Amongst the plants yielding the greatest display at 
that date, were Veronica rupestris and V. pinguifolia. Cam- 
panula turbinata and its numerous varieties, Acantholimon 
glumaceum, Scabiosa alpina, Saponaria ocymoides major, 
Onosma echioides, many Crustaceous Saxifrages, Dianthus 
alpinus, D. glacialis, D. corsicus, Androsace lanuginosa. 
Genista sagittalis and G. tinctoria, Thymus Serpyllum album, 
Sedum ibericum,Papaver alpinumand itsvarieties, Silene alpes- 
tris, Lithospermum prostratum, Are.naria grandiflora, Del- 
phinum Belladonna, Potentilla Dr. Andre, Helianthemums 
(double and single), also the double Lotus corniculatus. One 
of the most striking plants on the rockery was a double Dian- 
thus, known as the Fettes Mount Pink ; this is a very free- 
flowering pale rose-coloured variety. Subjoined is a list of 
the better class of plants as they came into bloom daring 
the last mouth, chiefly in the rock-garden. 

Plants in Bloom in June, 1875. 



1. Arenaria ^rranrliflora 
DianLhiis Hcnryanus 
Fragaria lucida 
Liuum campanu- 

latuin 

Primula sikkimensis 

Silene alpestris 

Thalictrum tube- 
rosum 

Veronica verbenacea 

2. Anemone alba 
Crespedium Richii 
Erodium absinthi- 

folium 
Linaria alpina atro- 

purparea 
Pernefctia angustifolia 

speciosa 
Primula farinosa 
Veronica Pellouia 
Vicia argentea 

3. Actinella scaposa 
Aster alpinus albus 
Campanula fragilis 

hirsuta 
Dodecatheon Foxii 
Scutellaria alpina 

4. Arenaria CEespicosa 
Hydrocotyle sibtlior- 

pioides 

Menziesia polifolia 
vera 

Pentstemon acumi- 
natum 

5. Aster alpinus 
Dianthus casius 
Epilobium latifolium 
Hippocrepis belvetica 
Onosma echioides 

6. Astragalus vaginalis 
Cerastium grandi- 

fiorum 
Hippocrepis comosa 
Oxytropis lapponicus 
Potentilla alpestris 
Sedum stenophyllum 

6. Silene maritima flore 

pleno 

7. Bupleurum ranuncu- 

loides 
Campanula turbinata 
Saponaria ciespitosa 
Veronica pinguifolia 

8. Crucianella stylosa 

rubra 
Gypsophila repens 
Helianthemum pilo- 

selloidea 
Oxytropis deflexa 
Scutellaria altaica 
Sedum deficiens 

9. ChrysobactronHook- 

erii 

Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinhicrgh, 



9. CinicLf aga americana 
Robertia taraxi- 

coides 
Silene ciliata 

10. Aquilegia chrysantha 
Epilobium Novae 

Zealandife 
Menziesia polifolia 

versicolor 
Potentilla sikkimensis 
Stellaria scapigera 
Thalictrum formo- 

sum 

11. Arum palestinum. 
Dianthus dentosus 
Kalmia angustifolia 
Androsace lanuginosa 

12. Artemisia sericea 
Campanula picta 
Carex frigida 
Centaurea uniflora 
Lindelofia specta- 

bilis 
Scabiosa alpina 
Stellaria pungens 

13. Prunella pyrenaica 
Sagina procumbens 

pleno 
Sedum aizoon 
Silene petrrea 
Veronica taurica 

14. Arenaria Ledebour- 
ianum 

Epilobium obcor- 

datum 
Globu 1 aria nud i caul i s 
Lotus corniculatus 

flore plena 
Pyrola media 

15. Acantholimon glum- 
aceum 

Bupleurum Sikki- 

meuse 
Erica ciliaris 
Hemophragma hete- 

rophylla 
Trientalia europiea 

16. Sedum Kamtchati- 
cum 

Veronica Girdwood- 
iana 

17. Paronychia serpylli- 
folia 

Potentilla lanuginosa 
Sedum asiaticum 

18. Helianthemum tubo- 
raria 

(Euothera marginata 
Potentilla Dr. Andr^ 
Scabiosa grarainifolia 

19. Gaultheria Shallon 
acutifolia 



19. Gentiana Wallichii 
Stenactis speciosa 
Campanula cenisia 
SantolLna tncana 

20. ^thionema cordifolia 

Coronilla Iberica 
glauca 

Nigritella angusti- 
folia 
Paronychiatomentosa 

Potentilla Louis Van 
Houtte 

21. Campanula linarifolia 
Campanula turbinata 

elegans 
Scutellaria hastata 
Sempervivum Lag- 

gerii 

22. Erica Mackaiana 
Lewisia rediviva 
Sedum alsinifoUum 
Saxifraga rivularis 
Wulfenia Amhei'Stii 

23. Asperula cynancbica 
Linum viscosum 
Saxifraga aizoidea 
Thymus corsicus 
Thymus Serpyllum 

hirsutum 
Zygadenus elegans 

24. Calochortus luteus 
Modiola geranioides 
Thymus Serpyllum 

album 

25. Campanula Van 

Houttei 
Orchis f oliosa 
Oxytropis campestris 

26. Dianthus deltoides 
Potentilla dahurica 
Potentilla sericea 
Sedum californicum 

27. Prunella pyrenaica 
Thymus alpinus 

28. Dianthus versicolor 
Potentilla dahurica 
Sedum ibericum 

29. Iris ficifolia 
Teucrium Botrys 
Thalictrum anemon- 

oides fl. pleno 
Vaccinia ni macro- 
carpum 

30. Draba glacialis 
Gentiana gelida 
Liparis Loeselii 
Potentilla alchemil- 

loides 
Pterocephalus Par- 

nassii 
Sagina sotigora 



Jas. M'Nab. 



Chrysobactron Hookeri, — This is a very fine plant. It grows 
here in a moist peat bed, under a north wall, associated with Linnsea 
borealis, which thrives equally well, and forms a carpet for C. Hookeri 
and Cypripedium spectabile. C. Ilookeri will do fairly well in any 
garden soil; but what a difforeuce between its starved appearance 
there and its lusariance iu a moist vegetable or peaty soil. — Oxon. 



July 17, 1875.] 



THE GARDEN. 



41 



NOTES ON HA.EDY FLOWEES IN OXFORDSHIRE. 

There are several good Qjiiotberas. QE. fruotiosa major is a 
handsome and showy plant, with yellow flowers. CE. macro- 
carpa is a good prostrate plant, and looks well droophig over 
banks or rook-work ; the flowers are of a clear light yellow, 
and very large. Perhaps ffi. marginata, with large and hand- 
some white flowers, and very fragrant, and which grows about 
9 inches high, is the best of all. Ourisia coccinoa is a very 
uncommon plant, now past flowering. It grows freely with 
me in a moist north border, with plenty of vegetable mould. 
It is quite dwarf (about 6 inches high), with pendent flowers 
of a bright scarlet, and is a desirable plant. Onosma taurica 
is another good plant, though it is rather apt not to tui'u up a 
second season. Though one of the Borage -tribe it has no 
coarseness, and is a very distinct plant, grows about 8 inches 
in height, with beautiful yellow waxy flowers in clusters, and 
is a handsome plant for the mixed border or rock-work. 
Opuntia Raflnesquiana is a dwarf Cactus, perfectly hardy in 
any garden border. It has been growing in Oxfordshire 
for thx'ee years without protection. Othonua cheirifolia, a 
glaucous, evergreen perennial, from North Africa, is worth 
growing. Here it flowers freely in rather light loam ; the 
blooms are of a rich yellow. It dislikes a cold stiff soil. Of 
the Papavers, P. orientale, and P. bracteatum are very fine, 
and, perhaps, the showiest of all hardy perennials. A patch 
or two here and there on the turf have a fine effect, and they 
are by no means particular as to soil, but I do not find they 
J^ike any shade, as the flowers die ofi: before unfolding. Many 
%f the dwarf Poppies are very pretty, but I do not know any 
■which are perennials. Pascalia glauca, a tall and vigorous 
Composite, with yellow flowers, having a dark centre, spreads 
too quickly for border culture, but may be transferred with 
advantage to the wild garden, and with it Thermopsis fabacea 
and Physalis Alkekengi, both of which run about in the garden 
proper to the detriment of choicer and dwarfer subjects. 
Sevei'al of the dwarf Phloxes are valuable ornaments to the 
border, notably P. ovata, P. Listoniana, P. verna, P. subulata, 
and others. Phygelius capensis, a tall, shrubby perennial, 
about 3 feet high, thrives with me perfectly, in an ordinary border 
facing nearly due east, though it is supposed to be rather 
tender. The flowers are handsome — though there is a good 
deal of leaf in proportion — and pendent, the tube scarlet, with 
deep yellow throat. The Phyteumas are pretty for the front 
line of the border, genei'ally with blue, spherical flowers. P. 
Halleri, I think, is the best. They will thrive anywhere. 
Polymonium grandiflorum does not seem to me to be better 
than the old P. coeruleum. P. reptans is distinct, and 
^generally very floriferous. Polygala ChamEebuxus is a very 
neat little shrub, with cream-coloured flowers, and Box-like, 
evergreen leaves. It requires moist vegetable soil, in which it 
grows about 9 inches high. It may be associated with the 
pretty little Cornus canadensis. Some of the hybrid Poteutillas 
are very good (one called Vase d'Or, with very large double- 
yellow flowers, being very effective), and are of much more 
importance than the species. 

Of the Rudbeckias, though all are showy, vigorous plants, 
R. califoruica is the finest, growing to 5 feet or more in height, 
with yellow flowers nearly 6 inches across, with a dark brown 
centre rising like a cone, nearly or quite 2 inches high. It 
should be seen in every garden, and in the front of shrubberies. 

Of the Salvias (S. patens not being really hardy), I can 
select two for the garden — viz., S. pratensis rosea, which, as 
the name implies, is a pretty rose-coloured form ; and R. pra- 
tensis lupinoides, a handsome blue and white variety of the 
English Sage. Saponaria ocyraoides we employ as a carpet 
Ijcneath other flowers ; and flowering, as it does, a long time 
in succession, is very effective. A rough sandy mound about 
12 feet square, in the wild garden, is covered with it, and every 
one who sees it is delighted. S. cajspitosa is now in flower ; 
it is of a bright rose colour, about C inches in height, and is 
a handsome plant. The old flesh-coloured double form of 
S. officinalis will grow anywhere, and is very useful for a wild 
garden, which is the best place for it. There are so many good 
and useful Saxifrages, that they would require a great many 
pages to themselves. I will merely mention that all kinds 
seem to do in a sandy border as well as on rock-work, and I 
would mention particularly S. oppositifolia, S. op. alba, and 



S. op. pyrenaica as thriving on the level ground. The soil is 
well drained, and ordinary pebbles from the walks are mixed 
with it to the depth of about 18 inches. None of the perennial 
kinds of Scabiosa are worth growing, excepting, perhaps, a 
vigorous yellow one, attaining a height of 6 feet; this looks 
well in my wild garden with other vigorous plants. I cannot 
give it a name ; would it be S. lutea ? 

Of the Statice tribe S. latifolia, over 2 feet high, with pani- 
cles of blue flowers on weak stems, but which mutually 
support one another, is the finest, and is a distinct and valu- 
able species. _ S. tatarica and S. incana rubra, each about 
1 foot high, with small crimson flowers, are also worthy of a 
place. Do not forget Schizostylis coccinea, an autumn- 
flowering bulbous plant, rather like a Gladiolus, and with 
crimson flowers. It spreads i-apidly in any light loam, and 
is a very valuable ornament to the border. Of the Thalic- 
trums T. concinnum and T. aquilegifoliam are graceful plants, 
growing about 3 feet in height ; T. anemonoides is a very 
pretty little plant, with the leaves of T. minus and white 
flowers (in umbels), resembling white Anemones ; I grow it in 
a rather shady peaty border. T. minus and T. adiantitolium 
must be planted in the hardy Fernery as good substitutes for 
the ]Maiden-hair Fern. The Tradescantias in various colours, 
blue, violet, rosy, and white, are most valuable for placing in 
any cold, wet, clayey soil, when they will thrive apace. 
They will stand transplanting, too, when in flower, with 
or without a ball of earth, without complaining. Trillium 
grandiflorum grows vigorously in moist peat. I have 
not tried the other species. Wo all know the pretty little 
spring-flowering bulb, Triteleia uniflora; but I fancy few 
people as yet have T. Murrayana or T. laxa, which are now in 
bloom. The flowers are produced in umbels ; those of T. 
laxa are on shorter stems, and of a deeper purple, than those 
of T. Murrayana, but whether this is only accidental I am 
not competent to say. At all events, they are both most 
effective, and the blooms freely produced. Give the Tritomas 
a light rich soil. If in heavy ground, they are liable to rot 
away in winter. Of the Trollius tribe, all are more or less 
good ; but T. napellifolius, with deep orange globular flowers, 
is the most showy, and should be in all gardens. The best 
amongst the Yeronicas I should call the following :—V. 
satureja^folia, about 1 foot high, with flne bright blue flowers 
in good spikes ; the variegated form of V. gentianoides, which 
is a pretty and attractive plant ; V. taurica, a low-spreading 
evergreen kind ; and perhaps V. saxatilis. Verbena venosa is 
a good bedding plant, and increases rapidly without attention. 
The flowers are of a fine bluish-purple, and the plant is quite 
hardy on ordinary free soil. I find I have made no mention of 
Anemone japonica, or vitifolia, or the fine white variety, 
Honorine Jobert. They are grand plants for wild and rough 
places in autumn. Good and showy as they are, I almost 
regret having introduced them to the mixed border, as they 
requhe constant thinning, or they would spread so rapidly 
as to exterminate many of the more delicate plants. Oxon. 

ROCK GARDEN AT FETTES MOUNT, LASSWADE. 
There is no accounting for the difference in the tastes 
displayed in selecting sites for dwelling-houses. Some 
prefer a piece of level ground which can be readily laid 
out in straight lines, while others, on the contrary, prefer 
hilly, uneven ground, which enables them to display their 
ingenuity in arranging it, taking advantage of every inequality 
which the surface presents. A style of gardening suitable to 
ground of the last-mentioned character has been can-ied 
out at Fettes Mount, Lasswade, the property of Mr. G. H. 
Potts. The ground in question is 3 acres in extent, and 
is situated on the lower north-eastern slope of a piece of risino- 
ground commanding a very extensive view, but only in an 
easterly direction. One-half of this ground is devoted to the 
dwelling and out-houses, conservatories, and rockeries ; also to 
the flower and kitchen garden, as well as orchard ; the remaining 
half is used as a park aud bowling green. The approach enters 
from the steep public road leading from Loanbead to Lass- 
wade on the south-east side, and is carried up a slight serpen- 
tine ascent. The south side of this approach is successfully 
arranged as a rock-work retaining wall, the stones composing 



42 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 17, 1875, 



it being placed transversely — the larger ones at the bottom, 
and the shorter ones uppermost, and having a slight incline 
backwards to keep up the natural bank of earth behind. The 
stones are all embedded with soil, and are thus made suitable 
for the roots of plants. The surface-ground is turfed and 
dotted over with shrubs and trees. This retaining rock-work 
wall is densely covered with a miscellaneous collection of dwarf 
and creeping rooted Alpine plants, such as Sedums, the 
S. acre, S. anglioum, and S. turgidum being prominent, 
besides Sempervivums, Aubrietias, Campanulas, various species 
of Thymus, Vinoa minor, and Veronicas, V. alpestris being 
the most conspicuous. This is a most charming rock-plant, 
and Mr. Potts may be said to be its original cultivator in 
Scotland. Saxifrages are also abundant, chiefly the S . mus- 
coides and hypnoidos section, with various tufts of the 
S. Aizoon minor. The colours of all are well blended, and 
harmonise perfectly, producing a pleasing effect at all seasons. 
The dense mass of damp soil behind this rock-work wall 
proves very beneficial to their growth and condition, which, 
notwithstanding their exposure to the sun, is excellent. For 
some years past the general rock-work at Fettes Mount 
has been gradually extending, and now covers a consider- 
able portion of ground. The upright part of most of 
the rockeries is arranged, as described, for the chief 
approach, while the sloping upper surface is divided into 
compartments or pockets of various breadths, so as to have 
the plants more or less on a level with the eye. Although the 
different sections of plants cultivated are numerous, the great 
feature of this rock-work is the collections of Sempervivums 
and Saxifrages. Of the former, sixty-five species and 
varieties are cultivated; and all in the most perfect health, 
besides a good collection of named Sedums. Of Saxi- 
frages, the collection consists of 150 species and vai'ieties, 
including the Mossy, None so Pretty, and the Crustaceous 
group, all of which are thriving. At this time (24th of 
June) the Crustaceous section makes the most display — 
although all, or most of them, have light-coloured flowers 
varying from pure white to a light ochre tint, more or less 
dotted with pink spots. The occasional intermingling of the 
S. mutata with a spike of orange-yellow flowers varies the 
charm. All the Saxifrages are grown in loam placed in com- 
partments formed of rough sand-stone, which crumbles freely 
down, and, in this state, mixed with the loam, seems to be 
admirably adapted for their roots. From the Saxifraga 
rivularis, from the summit of Loch-na-gar, to the gigantic 
S. nepalensis, from Upper India, with all the grades between, 
all appear equally to enjoy this peculiar sand-stone grit, as 
well as all the Sempervivums, Sedums, &o. The Fettes Mount 
collection contains good examples of many Alpine plants ; and, 
although sections of these rockeries are devoted to different 
tribes, such as Veronicas, Gentians, Aubrietias, Dianthuses, 
&c., the Saxifraga section certainly commands the most 
attention. One great advantage which the Fettes Mount rock- 
garden enjoys in some of its departments is its water supply, 
which is chiefly obtained from the rising ground behind. In 
the centre of the gardens has been formed a small pond, the 
overflow of which is brought down in a series of rivulets and 
basins of various sizes, which are taken advantage of for 
aquatic, and other plants requiring a moist soil. In one of 
these basins, thickly surrounded with plants, the water is kept 
clear with frogs and perch, and has been so for several years ; 
while the ever-changing chain of rivulets and basins being void 
of animal life, the water has not the same pure appear- 
ance. Water Lilies, Reeds, and Rushes are grown in all. Many 
plants, which naturally grow in moist situations, are thriving 
admirably ; and many that are often found in dry situations 
are wonderfully benefited by the root moisture they receive. 
Fettes Mount affords several useful lessons to lovers of 
plants. A long raised bank or mound of somewhat serpentine 
appearance, composed of layers of stones and earth, .5 feet 
broad at the base, and about 6 feet in height, was erected for 
separating one portion of the grounds from the other. This 
rock mound is covered with various Alpine plants and shrubs, 
a large portion of it on one side being devoted to the culture 
of the V^iola odorata (single and double), which here yields 
flowers of a larger size and more profusely than they do in 
the ordinary borders. Other contrivances for plant-growing 



seem peculiar to this place, and, one I must not neglect to 
mention. At the bottom of the garden, next to the outside 
wall, a deep gully has been formed, chiefly for the cultivation 
of Ferns. The interior is arranged with rough pieces of 
sandstone, cemented one upon another in somewhat fantastic 
forms, but chiefly on the face of the wall. On the top of this 
wall, a board, 18 inches broad, slightly projecting upwards, is 
fixed with iron straps ; when rain falls, it runs down between 
the board and the wall, where it is received here and there into 
small irregularly-shaped rock-work basins, the outer sides of all 
being made rough for the cultivation of Ferns, and at different 
levels along the wall. The water is constantly tricklmg from 
one basin to another, aided by the use of a few worsted threads, 
and the overflow of all is led into a pond at the bottom of the 
gully, with the water from the chain of basins and rivulets 
before alluded to ; the gully is thus keept moist and cool, and 
the overflow is then conducted out of the grounds. Such an 
arrangement as that described as covering the avenue wall at 
Fettes Mount would look well if carried out at many of our High- 
land railway stations. In such places, attempts are often made 
to render the foreground as picturesque as possible. Where 
the walls behind are formed in cuttings, backed up with soil 
(which is not uncommonly the case), they would look well if 
covered with certain forms of Alpine vegetation. Most plants 
necessary for such a purpose are easily increased. The leaves of 
the Sedums alone, when detached, root readily, and in a short 
time can be made to cover a large extent of surface. Of the 
foliaceous group of Sedums, small pieces stuck into the ground 
will readily grow. Off-sets from Sempervivums can be suc- 
cessfully divided, so as to make any number of plants. Of 
course, walls intended for such purposes must be made with 
stone and soil, having a slight incline backwards. 
Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinhurr/h. James M'Nab. 



A Giant Asphodel (Eremurus robustus). — This has been 
blooming beautifully in Mr. Leichtlin's garden, at Baden-Baden, and, 
thongh long past flowering when I saw it, still held up its stately 
flower-stem above everything in the garden. Imagine a gigantic 
Asphodel, with a flower-spike 7 to 10 feet high, the upper part of 
which is covered with large pink flowers from 2 to 3 feet of its 
length. Well was it named robustus, for it is so hardy that it can 
force its shoot through the frozen ground, and will endure heat, 
cold, and wind with equal indifference. It was introduced from 
Turkestan by Col. Korolkow, of the Russian army. — J. EtWES, 
Miserden House, Cirencester. 



NOTES AND QUESTIONS ON THE PLOWEE GARDEN. 



Geranium platypetalam Bearing: Seeds.— Your correspondent Mr. Jean 
Sisley, Lyons (p. 31), asks it: anyone has induced Geranium platypetalam to 
bear seed. Here it bears seeds freely, which I shall be happy to send him if 
he wants them. — H. N. Ellacom:be, Bitfon Vicaraje, near Bristol, 

The Giant Parsnip (Heracleum giganteum).— In a mixed border of shruba 
and flowers at Lyme Hall, Cheshire, are some fine specimens of this Parsnip, 
which, on account of their size, are striking objects, etanding out, as they do, in 
bold relief amongst the shrubs. Such plants should, however, be used sparingly, 
or the efiect which they would otherwise produce is lost.— R. M. 

A Beautiful Combination. — A striking feature in the gardens here, and one 
which is greatly admired by visitors, is a Gloire de Dijon Rose planted at the 
foot of a large Holly tree. The Rose, which has taken possession of the tree, 
has nearly reached its top, a height of 25 feet, and has formed a beautiful object 
for some weeks past ; nntil the rains spoiled the open blooms, the flowers 
and buds could be counted by hundreds.— W. Culveewbll, Thorpe Perrow^ 
Bedale. 

Geranium anemonefolium and G. platy pet alum.— T have obtained seeds 
from G. anemonefolium which I have just, sown, and which I am inclined to 
think is the same as that figured in The Gakden (see p. 7) under the name of G-. 
platypetalum, of which I have also an unflowered plant. For both plants I am 
indeOted to your correspondent Mr. Jean Sisley. It is possible the labels may 
have got misplaced, but I enclose a leaf of each. Will you kindly say if I have 
named them correctly. — P. Geibve. [The labels seem to have been changed.] 

A Prairie of Flowers.— Under no other title can we so well describe the 
brilliant display of bloom which is now presented by Messrs. Carter's seed 
farms in Essex. On both sides of the road from Manningtree to Dodham may 
be seen broad fields of such beautiful flowers as Nasturtiums, Larkspurs, 
Nemophilas, Godetias, and Saponarias, with hundreds of other equally charming 
varieties, not growing in small patches, but in acres. This striking display of 
bloom is well worth inspecting. — C. H. S. 

A Good Hardy Selaginella.— M. Andr^ writing of S. Brannii in the *' Illus- 
tration Horticole," says it thrives vigorously in his garden in Touraine in sandy 
peat, raising its large elegantly cut fronds on a north rockery. It is a mountain 
plant from North India, and being so unlike the dwarf hardy species (S. den- 
ticulata) deserves cultivation in the open air ; it was formerly grown a good deal 
in hothouses under the name of S. Wildenowii. 



July 17, 1875.] 



I^HB GAKDEiSr. 



4^ 



THE KITC HEN GARDEN. 

OXALIS DEPPEI. 
Tnis 13 a Mexican species which has long been known in English 
gardens. The tubers, which in shape somewhat resemble Shorthorn 
Carrots, are not rhizome, like those of 0. crenata, another edible 
species, but are well developed, fleshy, and transparent, and when 
cooked have an agreeable flavour. They are raised in April or May 
from clove-shaped offsets, which are produced in large quantities at 
the collar of tho roots. These should be planted in good mellow soil, at 
distances of 18 or 20 inches apart, and should be earthed up like Pota- 
toes, in order to assist the development of tho tubers. In cold districts 
the latter ripen but slowly, and should not be lifted until late in the 
autumn. If frost is apprehended the beds should be covered with a 
mulching of dry leaves. After tho tubers have been lifted and dried 
by exposure to the air they should be placed in a dry store, free from 
frost, where they will keep sound all the winter. Mr. Tillyard, when 
gardener to the Duke of Buckingham, at Stowo, showed at one of the 
Royal Horticultural Society's meetings specimens of this Oxalis ; and, 
concerning its productiveness, it was mentioned that 18 square yards 
produced 980 roots weighing 217 lbs. This result was obtained from 




Edible roots of Oralis Deppei. 

a piece of ground which had at one time been a walk, tho gravel and 
Baud, with the addition of some leaf mould, being trenched up to- 
gether. The sots in this case were planted ou tho 2ud of May. 



Extra Early Vermont Potato. — I planted a piece of ground 
with this kind on the 10th of February last without any protection ; 
and, on the 3rd of April, as the tops were giving indications of 
ripening off, I lifted a portion of the tubers for table use. Many of 
them weighed 5 ounces each, and, when dressed, they proved to be 
excellent in quality. They were white and mealy iu texture, and 
cooked uniformly throughout. It is worthy of remark that in the 
same garden the old Ashleaf Potato was not ready until three weeks 
after the above, although planted on the same day, and side by 
Bide with it. I do not know what Alpha — which is professedly the 
earliest of these Americans — may prove to be in that respect, as I had 
none of it planted so soon ; but I have never yet seen a Potato so 
early in coming into use as the Extra Early Vermont, or of so fine a 
quality when first dug. It has much the appearance of the older 
Early Rose ; but, iu point of time, is long in advance of it. My soil 
is a good mellow loam. — C. J. B., Littlehampton, Sussex. 

New Lettuces. — Commodore Nutt is a Cabbage Lettuce of the 
All the Year Round type, but it proved to be still dwarfer than 
that variety. It is nearly all heart, does not run to seed so soon as 
some of the larger kinds, and is a great acquisition, owing to its 
taking up so little room in beds or rows. Sutton's Gem is another 
Cabbage Lettuce of a large size, and one which forms good hearts, 
which are crisp and well-flavoured. Sutton's Superb is a white 



Cos, and hai proved with me to be the largest and finest variety of 
that strain that I have overgrown. When fully grown it is crisp i 
and requires no tying to form its heart, and I have no doubt it will 
turn out, when better known, to be a favourite market variety. — 
William Tilleky, Welhecl;. 

Snowflake Potato. — As Mr. Howard suggests (see p. 532, 
Vol. VII.), it would be very satisfactory to have a tabulated state- 
ment drawn up by growers of this Potato in different counties, each 
giving his mode of treatment, with observations upon the appearance 
of the crop during the growing season ; the weight of Potatoes 
grown from a pound should be given, and the number of plants 
grown by each individual, as the number of sets taken from 1 lb. of 
Potatoes by different growers varies considerably. Comparisons 
made in this way are of tho greatest importance to Potato growers, 
for it is well known that different sorts of Potatoes, like different 
sorts of Strawberries, yield extraordinary results in some districts ; 
while, in others, they are comparatively valueless. The statements 
to be made to Messrs. Hooper, and the rules submitted by them to 
competitors for the prizes offered by them for the Snowflake and 
Eureka Potatoes at the Royal Horticultural Society's snow next 
November, are very good, namely ; — Date of planting, mode of cul. 
ture, characteristics of the soil, nature of sub-soil, whether drained 
or not, kind and quality of fertilisers used, how and when applied, 
nature of the crop which occupied the ground immediately before. — 
J. T., Alnwick. 

I bought a pound of the Snowflake Potato in March 

last, and placed them in a stove on boards, keeping them turned and 
syringed until every eye started — in all twenty-four ; I then cut 
them into twenty-four sets, and again laid them in the same border 
with the eye downwards, and in the course of a week, each had 
rooted well. I then planted them in my garden, in two rows, 3 
feet apart in the row, and 4 feet from row to row — rather an unusual 
distance to plant Potatoes. My object was to give them the best 
chance I possibly could, and to layer them when ready. I have not 
done so, however; and, as they are touching each other on all 
sides, I have no chance of doing so to advantage. They are by far the 
healthiest-looking Potatoes which I have; and from the number of 
shoots from each set, anyone would imagine twenty-four Potatoes 
had been planted instead of one. At digging. time, I should like to 
compare results with those of others ; but, in the meantime, I may 
safely say that I never saw any Potato look so promising. I have 
here, in new ground, a large number of Potatoes of various sorts, and 
among them, Early Rose and Sutton's Red-skin Flour-ball, both 
badly affected with what I believe to be what is called the new 
disease. The haulm has turned curly and black, and the roots are 
quite rotten, although all were small Potatoes, and had become 
well established. — J. M., Old Sneed Park, Bristol. 

Remedy for the Turnip Fly. — Mr. E. Umbers, of Wappen. 
bury, Leamington, communicates to the " Mark Lane Express," 
the following remedy or preventive, declaring that it has been 
regularly used by himself and friends for the last thirty years, and 
that he has never known an instance of failure during that period, 
when the seed was properly prepared. Receipt : — To 1 gallon of 
chamber-lye add 2 ounces of tincture of assafootida. Soak the seed 
in this mixture twenty-four hours, and dry it in the shade. It is 
very necessary to attend strictly to the drying — the object being for 
the seed to absorb tho liquor, which takes a considerable time if 
done properly in tho shade ; the sun's rays or drying winds prove 
fatal to the receipt. Care must also be taken to have the chamber, 
lye free from slops. The gallon mentioned in this receipt will 
prepare 16 pounds of seed. 



NOTES AND QUESTIONS ON THE KITCHEN GARDEN 



Fillbasket Peas.— After three years experience I find no Peas to eqnal Fill- 
basket. The size of the pods (fiUetl tightly as drums), the great Weight of tho 
crop, and, lastly, the excellent flavour, all render this Pea the best that could be 
grown for market purposes.— R. Gilbeht, Bttrgkleyj. 

Early Snowball Cauliflower.— This is one of the best of Cauliflowers. 
Its characteristics are earliness, dwarfness, and cloaeness of head, which is 
solid and white. March-raised plants of it begin to head by the middle of 
June. I have cut beautiful heads from plants in twelve weeks from seed sown 
early in July. When cooked it is soft and tender. — A. D, 

Picking off Potato Blossoms.— This should only be done in the case of 
such kinds as bear fruit so abundantly as to weigh the haulm to the ground, 
and exhaust the plant. As a rule, however, not one-third of the kinds grown 
are free-seeders. In order to test the effects of picking off the blossoms upon 
the future crop, a kind should be selected that is a large seed-producer.— A. D, 

Supplanter Pea.— This is one of the best new Peas I have tried for some 
years. It is dwarf in habit, vigorous in growth, and a heavy cropper, many of 
the pods containing nine Peas. I have just had a small dish cooked ; they are 
of a beautiful dark green colour when boiled, and good in flavour. This Pea, 
from its dwarf, sturdy habit, will be found especially valuable for small 
gardens.— B. Hobday, Samsej/ Abbcij. 



u 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 17. 18?6. 



THE AMATEUR'S GARDEN. 

By THOMAS BAINES. 

Sowing' Cabbage. — Those who havo not haJ an opportunity of 
observinf; tho marked inflaeuce which the difiiereuco ol' a few days in 
sowing tho seeds of some vegetables exercises over the future crop 
are apt to smile at the fixed dates which the last generation of gar. 
doners used to have for sowing in spring and antumn. A little reflec- 
tion will convince anyone that the dilierence of a single day or two 
in committing the seed to the ground cannot be of vital importance ; 
yet, it is well not to treat old customs too lightly. The object 
which those who have preceded us had in view in fixing arbitrary 
dates was simply to prevent either too early or too late sowing, and 
thus ensure punctuality. For instance, in sowing Cabbage seed 
during the present month for the early spring supply, a difference of 
ten days has an important influence upon the time when the crop will 
be ready, and also affects the varieties grown. In the northern 
parts of the kingdom, where hardy sorts, such as the Enfield Market, 
stand the winter best, the seeds of these should be sown as soon as 
the 20th of the pi?esent month is passed ; delay beyond this will 
cause the crop to be fit for use later in the spring. If sown sooner, 
many of the plants will run to seed, instead of hearting at the 
proper time. Where early varieties, such as the York, are grown, 
they must not be sown until eight or ten days later, or the plants will 
bolt. In the southern parts of the kingdom, Cabbages should be sown 
a week later than the above dates, the later kinds being put in first, 
and the earliest last. Where these directions are followed, the dis- 
appointment of seeding instead of hearting will not be experienced. 
Select an open situation, where the plants, from the time they are up, 
will get plenty of light and air, for the drawn and weakly plants sown 
near trees or high walls are not calculated to stand a severe winter. 

Celery and Scarlet Runners.— Where the seeds of Celery were 
sown early and the plants prepared as directed, with a view to obtaining 
an early supply, they will now be growing fast. The showery weather 
we have had has been favourable to the growth of this moisture-loving 
vegetable, and, where the ground was well enriched, there will not have 
been any necessity for watering ; but, where there has been a deficiency 
of manure, weekly applications of manure-water will be required. 
Should Celery become at all affected with greenfly, to which it is very 
subject if grown near anything else that is troubled with the insect, 
its presence will be indicated by the leaves curling up and an 
unhealthy stunted appearance of the plants. So soon as any aphides 
are found give a good washing with soapy water from the wash, 
house, applying it with the syringe. To be effectual, like all other 
applications of a similar nature, it must reach every part of tho 
plants above ground, for, even upon such portions of the leaves as 
harbour no living insects, it is more than likely that there are eggs 
which will quickly come to life. Should tho fiy not be killed by one 
dressing, give a second within a few days. Scarlet Runners grown 
without sticks should have their shoots repeatedly nipped out as they 
push up ; this will induce them to break afresh and continue 
flowering. 

Gladioluses and Marigolds.— A slight mulching of an inch 
or so of rotten manure over the surface of Gladiolus beds will benefit 
them, and will help to keep the soil moist and the roots cool, which 
has a considerable influence in preventing the disease. Tie the 
plants up before they get so large as to be acted upon by the 
wind, using for this purpose a neat stick, such as a stout dry 
Willow or Hazel, the thickness of one's finger; and be careful, 
when inserting it, not to thrust it down so near the roots as to 
injure them. There are few more handsome and continuous border 
flowers than the French Marigold, blooming, as it does, from the 
present time until it is cut down by frost. Those who happen 
to have a good strain of striped or edged kinds, should now, as the 
plants come into flower, remove all that are single or semi. double. 
This not only greatly improves the appearance of what are left, but 
is also necessary in saving seed which is deteriorated by tho 
presence of poor flowers. No seed should be saved, except from 
the best double blooms. If the strain is too dark, or does not 
possess a sufficient number of the rich yellow-striped forms, or is 
deficient in size, a few plants of the African Yellow should be grown 
near, or amongst, them. These will cross with and improve the 
French varieties, both in colour and size ; but this must not be 
repeated every year, or they will become too yellow. 

^ Asters. — Do not allow these to grow too thickly, or the flowers 
will be small, and the plants soon become exhausted. If they show 
signs of weakness, through tho ground not being rich enough, assist 
them with manure-water. There is no plant less able than Asters 
to bear the effect of aphides, whose pi-esence is easily detected by the 
leaves curling up. A good washing with tobacco-water is the best 
remedy, and this should bo applied as soon as tho insects arc 
detected, or tho plants will b§ irreparably spoilt. The tall-growiug 



kinds, if at all in an exposed situation, will require a small stick and 
tie to each plant. 

Phloxes. — These beantiful summer-flowering occupants of the 
herbaceous border, if grown in a situation where the roots of decidu- 
ous trees or evergreens can interfere with them, require the assist- 
ance of plenty of water at and about the time of their opening their 
flowers. They are strong-rooted plants, and need a good deal of 
sustenance ; if allowed to become dry they are sure to suffer from the 
attacks of black thrips, which get into and spoil the flowers as soon 
as they opeu. Any plant, either flowering or fruit-bearing, grown 
in the open air, that is attacked with thrips, black or yellow, can 
only be relieved from them by continuous use of the syringe or 
garden-engine, for they will not remain where there is much 
moisture. Plants that are allowed to flag through want of water at 
the root appear most liable to their attacks. 

Chrysanthemums, &c. — Grownup to walls or in beds, these, as 
largo masses of roots are developed, will, even if the weather be 
showery, require water, unless in exceptionally damp situations, 
otherwise the lower leaves will suffer. Apply liquid manure 
alternately with fresh water, and continue the use of the syringe 
overhead on the evenings of bright days. Givo the necessary 
supports by sticks and ties to such as are in the open ground — those 
trained against walls may be secured by a string run horizontally 
along every third course of bricks and fastened to nails driven in at 
intervals. Spread the shoots out fan-fashion — in this way they 
will flower without injury from frost, the wall affording them 
sufficient protection ; and, even should the weather at the time 
of blooming be very severe, in such positions they are easily pro- 
tected. An essential where Chrysanthemums are grown np to a 
wall, where they are, in a great measure, dependant for moisture 
upon what they receive by hand, is to water them regularly without 
stint. Plants that were potted at tho time directed will now be fast 
filling the soil with their roots, and should have manure-water twice 
a-week, but do not, as yet, apply it so strong as when the flowers aro 
set. On no account allow the plants to flag for waut of water, or 
the leaves will suffer at the base of the shoots. The useful winter- 
flowering Salvia splendens should now receive attention. If they 
are not, as yet, in their flowering pots, move them into these at 
once ; a 10 or 12-inch pot will be large enough. Tie the shoots well 
out, stopping the leaders so as to direct the strength to the weaker 
branches. Tho Gesnera-flowered Sage (Salvia gcsnerioBora) is an 
equally good winter-blooming plant, coming in, if required, later 
than the last-named sort ; it is a stronger grower, and should, in 
proportion to the size of the plants, have larger pots. These 
Salvias, like Chrysanthemums, require the constant use of the 
syringe every afternoon to keep the leaves healthy. They must 
have their shoots well secured, without which they are sure to be 
broken by the wind. Campanula pyramidalis grown for greenhouse 
or window decoration will now be shortly in flower, and should have 
a good supply of manure-water, or the leaves, if the pots are very 
full of roots, will turn yellow, which destroys much of their 
beauty. 

Houses — Vineries, — Vines that are swelling off their fruit, an d 
that have all or a portion of their roots in inside borders, require 
copious waterings ; very frequently, when so situated, they do not 
receive nearly so much as they need. If the drainage^is suSicient, bo 
that all which runs through the border can get away, it is not easy 
to give them too much until the time approaches when the fruit will 
begin to colour. That most troublesome complaint, shanking, is pro- 
duced in numerous ways, but oftener through an insufficiency of 
water at the root than from any other cause. Amateurs must not be 
led away by the mere appearance of the surface soil being wet, but 
should make sure that the whole body down to the drainage contains 
sufficient moisture. Any quick-growing plant, like the Vine, that in 
so short a time forms much wood and makes such an amount of 
leaf, not only requires a great quantity of water in the development 
of its every part, the fruit included, but also to supply the drain from 
evaporation constantly going on. As the second swelling nears com. 
pletion, and a little before colouring commences, water should be 
withheld. Late Vines will require attention in keeping the lateral 
growths stopped ; where they are very strong, these may be removed 
from the point where they were first stopped ; but Vines that are at 
all weakly should be allowed more leaf surface, by letting the laterals 
run a couple of joints beyond this point. Keep up plenty of moisture 
in the atmosphere by damping the floors and walls in the afternoons, 
and syringing, as advised with the early crojjs. Be particularly 
attentive in closing houses in which there are late Grapes sufficiently 
early in the afternoon to shut in a good heat. This is not only neces- 
sary to swell off and mature the crop, but also to ripen tho wood for 
another year. The stronger the Vines are, tho more it is necessary 
to attend to this. Quo of tho greatest difficulties that amateur Grape 
growers exporieuco is in getting the wood of late Vines sufficiently 



July 17, 1875.] 



THE GAKDEN. 



45 



ripened, and, if means are not taken to accomplish this by snn-heat> 
it will necessitate the use of fire later on, which is both more expen- 
Bive and less effectual. 

Flower Garden and Pleasure Grounds. 
At this season of the year, and during such showery weather as we 
have recently experienced, trees and shrubs grow so rapidly that the 
more common and robust kinds are likely to encroach upon their 
weaker, although sometimes more valuoble, neighbours ; and this 
very often causes serious injury before it is observed. Strong shoots 
are also sometimes produced by the stocks upon which choice 
varieties have been budded or grafted, and these should be removed 
at once. It allowed to remain any length of time, they will over, 
power, and seriously interfere with the development of the more 
delicate varieties which have been worked upon them. It also 
happens sometimes that trees and shrubs produce abnormal growths, 
or sports of various kinds, such as variegated shoots, flowers of a 
distinct or different colour, &o. ; and these, if they are considered 
sufficiently valuable, may be perpetuated by being budded upon 
other representatives of the family. Whereas, if not secured in this 
way, as soon as possible, it is not unlikely that they may revert to the 
normal condition, and be lost to horticulture. In cases where altera- 
tions are contemplated in grounds and gardens, the present is the 
most suitable time for making notes and observations having 
reference to these changes, as all trees, &c., have now attained to a 
mature condition, as regards the hue or colour of their foliage, their 
habit of growth, &c. ; and such notes, made now, will probably be 
found to be very useful at a later period of the season, when such 
alterations are being carried out. In selecting trees and shrubs, it is 
•>necessary to take into consideration their habit of growth and the form 
they are likely to assume when they are fully developed, and whether 
they will be of an upright or drooping habit, or of a round- 
headed or pyramidal form, &c. ; and, with a view to secure 
the desired effect in grouping, or arrangement, the hue and form 
of leaf should also have attention given them. There is also 
another very important point which should not be lost sight of, viz., 
that of selecting plants that are likely to thrive in the soil and 
situation where it is intended they should be planted. In the case of 
newly.introdnced species this can only be ascertained by experiment, 
and this will generally be upon a somewhat limited scale. But it 
would, doubtless, be unwise to form extensive plantations of Rhodo- 
dendrons and other American plants upon a soil resting upon a chalk 
formation, or to plant freely such Coniferous trees as the Abies cana. 
densis, Menziesii, and Douglasii, upon a light dry soil. Attend to the 
usual routine operations of mowing, sweeping, rolling, weeding, &c., 
the frequent falls of rain having been exceedingly favourable to the 
growth of weeds of all kinds. Attend also to staking and tying 
up tall.growing plants, as well as to training and regulating dwarf 
or trailing species. Proceed with the budding of Roses, the layering 
of Carnations, Cloves, and Picotees, &c. ; put in, also, pipings of 
Pinks, cuttings of Pansies, &c., under hand-glasses ; and, as the 
flower garden is rapidly reaching the zenith of its beauty, avoid any. 
thing like untidiness or confusion, which, if permitted, will seriously 
mar the pleasing effect which is now expected. — P. Gkieve, Cidford, 
Bwry St. E(kiiunds. 

Hardy Fruit. 
A more critical period for fruit-gathering than the present season 
has been it would be difficult to conceive, and it is to be feared that 
the heavy and oft-repeated showers have rendered much fruit useless 
for preserving ; at any rate, none should be gathered for this purpose, 
unless perfectly dry, or the fruit will not keep. Protect with mats 
or netting any Currants or Gooseberries intended for the autumn 
supply. From trees of the former, trained to a north wall, sheltered 
from rain and protected with mats, we have occasionally gathered 
good fruit on Christmas Day, and always have had an abundant 
supply during October and November. Caterpillars having at length 
put in an appearance on Gooseberry and Currant bushes, the whole 
of our trees have been hand-picked, as this is considered the best 
remedy, but a dusting of white hellebore powder, if not washed off 
too soon, is equally effective. It will now be safe to stop finally, or 
cut back, the shoots of Apples, Pears, Plums, and Apricots. Some, 
times, when done too early, a second wood growth is made, instead of 
the formation of fruit-buds. Where such second growth has been 
made, spur them in at once, to within two or three joints of the base 
of the shoot. Continue to wash the trees, in order to keep them free 
from insects of every description. Frequently, after the fruit is 
gathered, the trees are left to themselves ; but, when the fact is 
generally understood, that next year's supply of fruit must depend 
upon the trees being kept free from insects during the present 
year, and the useless spray and shoots constantly cut or 
stopped, so as to expose the fruit spurs to the action of 
the sun aud air, no labour will be spared to accomplish this. 



Other kinds of fruit — Peaches, for instance — that fruit best on the 
young wood should have a sufficient number trained, nailed, or tied 
in, for next year's fruiting; above all, the branches must not be 
overcrowded. Should dry weather set in, it will be advisable to water 
freely such choice fruits as Peaches, Nectarines, and valued kinds of 
Pears, but previously mulch with rotten dung, and the enriching 
property of the manure will then be washed down to the roots of the 
trees and its action be perceptible in an incredibly short space of 
time. The layering of Strawberry runners should be no longer 
delayed, more especially if they are intended for forcing ; the early 
maturation of the plants or crowns is the main-spring of successful 
Strawberry forcing. Also, layer runners for planting out for next 
year's fruiting ; or, if there are any old forced plants at command, 
these make the most profitable plantation for next year's supply. 
Trench deeply and manure freely, and let the rows be a yard apart 
and at least 2 feet from plant to plant. The kinds that have done 
best this season on our light sandy soil are the following, named in 
the order of merit : — James Veitoh, La Grosse Sucree, Vicomtesso 
Hericart de Thury, President, Aromatic, Lucas, and John Powell. 
Dr. Hogg and British Queen — though, as a rule, better in 
flavour than any of the above (excepting James Veitch) — do not 
succeed with us, and we are seriously thinking of giving up their 
culture ; whilst, in a neighbouring garden, where the soil is more 
retentive, they are so good that the determination has been made to 
grow them still more largely.— W. Wildsmith, Hechfield. 

Trees and Shrubs. 

The present season has been exceedingly favourable for all recently 
transplanted trees and shrubs, and little labour will now be required 
to get them thoroughly established. Plenty of protection over the 
roots should be given them in the way of mulching ; for, should dry 
weather now set in, of which there is every prospect, evaporation 
will go on at a rapid rate, and the roots of freshly-planted specimens 
soon suffer, unless precautions are taken against it. Many beautiful 
variegated plants which are quite hardy and may be grown in most 
places with good effect are, unfortunately, rarely to be met with as yet. 
Most of these are almost as free-growing and vigorous as the other 
forms, and this is especially the case if they are worked on strong, 
healthy stocks. The foliage of these is now fresh and in full beauty, 
and the present is an excellent time for making selections, so as to 
have them ready at planting.time. For those who have not an 
opportunity of seeing them growing, I append a list of some of 
the best kinds. The Euonymuses, although not strictly hardy, will 
stand the cold of ordinary winters, and are amongst the most beauti- 
ful of variegated shrubs, many of the newer varieties almost equal- 
ling for richness of leaf colouring (especially if grown under glass 
for winter decoration, for which purpose they are most useful) 
the Crotons, for which they are substituted. Any of the follow- 
in <>• are sure to please : — E. aureus marginatus, E. a. variegatus, B. 
ovatus aureus variegatus, B. elogans variegatus. Next, as regards 
usefulness, are the different forms of Hedera, and those who have 
collections of these cannot fail to be struck with their beauty. To 
have the variegated Ivies in perfection, it is necessary that they 
should have shade during the greater part of the day. They are 
very beautiful on red walls having a north or north-east aspect, as 
there they show off their rich colours to great advantage, and are not 
liable to become infested with red spider, as is the case if grown on 
aspects too much exposed to the rays of the sun. The best of these 
are Helix chrysophylla, H. foliis argentea rubra, H. maculata aurea 
and elegantissima. For compact specimens on lawns, the Gold and 
Silver Yews are unapproachable, and, in the early spring or summer 
months, might easily, in the distance, be taken for plants in bloom, 
so rich is the colour of their young leaves. For similar positions, 
Retinospora aurea and Thuja aurea are most valuable. For covering 
sloping banks, the different Vincas are the most suitable ; and to these 
may be added the pretty variegated Bramble. Eurya latifolia varie. 
gata is a very handsome plant, and is said to be quite hardy. 
Next to the Hollies, and much resembling them, are the Os. 
manthus argenteus and variegatus aureus, both of medium, 
growth, and very handsome, but not sufficiently hardy to be de- 
pended upon. Aralia Sieboldi variegata is a strikingly beauti. 
ful plant, with leaves as large as those of a Fig tree, which 
they somwhat resemble. To grow it in perfection, it requires a 
sheltered situation. Among deciduous plants, the Acer occupies, as 
regards ornamental value, a very prominent position ; whilst A. 
fraxinitolium albo-variegatum is one of the handsomest variegated 
plants in existence, the delicacy of whose markings is much increased 
by growing it under glass, where it forms one of the most useful of 
decorative plants in early spring and summer. Ligustrnm aureo 
variegatum has beautifully marked leaves, and shows to great 
advantage backed up by dark evergreens. Comus masonla varie. 
gata is a very ornamental, compact growing plant, that should be 



46 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 17, 1875. 



m every collection. Uliima variegata and U. aurea Rosselsi are 
very beautiful during the early summer mouths, before the leaves 
become discoloured ; these should be planted in moist situations, as 
the Elm does not succeed in dry soils. For rambling over blocks or 
trellises, the variegated Vine and Lonicera aurea reticulata are per. 
fectly adapted, and the latter, if allowed free scope and plenty of 
sunshine, flowers freely, and proves to be one of the sweetest scented 
of Honeysuckles. All the above, and many other variegated trees 
and shrubs may now be increased either by budding, cuttings, or 
layers, and the present is the proper time for putting into practice 
any one of these methods of propagation. If by budding, choice 
should be made of healthy free-growing stocks for the different 
kmds, and, before taking ofi' the buds, it should first be ascertained 
that the bark runs freely, so that they may be easily inserted, and 
kept well supplied with sap till union takes place. The wood from 
which the buds are taken should be tolerably firm and mature ; if 
taken from soft sappy wood they are sure to fail. After inserting 
the buds, tie carefully in with soft cotton, or material of a similar 
character, but not bind too tightly. In layering, shoots such as 
may be readily brought to the ground should be selected, and an incision 
madewith a sharp knife at one of the joints to be buried, com- 
mencing just below, and continuing the same through the joint in an 
upward direction, so as to split the shoot near the middle, and form 
a sort of tongue. The operator is thus enabled to bend up the shoot, 
and the sap being interrupted in its progress, will exude at the 
wound, and form granulating matter, or callus, from which the roots 
will be emitted. To keep the slit partly open, the shoot, after being 
layered and pegged to the ground, should be brought to an upright 
position, and the cut part buried to the depth of 3 or 4 inches. 
Twisting the branch, and ringing, by taking off a portion of the 
bark before layering is sometimes resorted to, but the practice I 
have described will, I think, be found the best.— J. Sheppard, WoL 
verstone. 

FLOWEE TRAPS. 
As far as we can gather, the years which have followed Mr. Darwin's 
announcement and verification of the great principle of "natural 
selection " as an eflicient cause of changes of type in the various 
species of plants and animals, have tended, in the minds of the 
greatest living naturalists, to prove that, though a very powerful 
cause, it is not by any means the only one which has been at work 
in effecting those changes, and that it will not be possible ultimately 
to explain many of the curiosities of organic life by the service which 
those organic modifications have even at any time rendered to the 
species to which they belonged. An illustration of the tendency to 
diverge from Mr. Darwin, not, of course, in relation to the great 
influence which the principle he has discovered has had in altering 
organic types, but as to the extent of the principle, is afforded by a 
very interesting lecture, recently delivered by Mr. Lawson Tait, at 
Birmingham, on " Insectivorous Plants," that is, on those curious 
flower-traps to which so much attention has lately been drawn — 
flowers in which insects are not only caught and killed, but in some 
cases at least digested. Mr. Lawson Tait, however, holds that there 
are species of plants which catch insects without digesting them, and 
that even when they digest the insects caught, this digestion is not 
followed by any such direct advantage to the plant as we derive from 
nutrition, i.e., from the assimilation of our food. " It must not be 
supposed, he writes, " that every fly-trap is a fly-digester, still less 
must it be taken for granted, as it has been too readily in the case of 
the Sarracenia, that fly digestion must necessarily mean absorption 
of the products. In fact, direct absorption of the products by the 
leaves is so hypothetical, that I am inclined to disbelieve it altogether. 
I know Mr. Darwin is inclined to accept it, but I do not know on 
what grounds." And he added at the end of the lecture, " What 
becomes of the products of digestion is a problem still unsolved, and 
on this point Mr. Darwin and I differ. Mr. Darwin is of opinion that 
the leaves absorb the products of digestion. I thought so at first, but 
I have failed to find any evidence of absorption by the surface of the 
leaves. On the other hand, my experiments tend to show that 
the products of digestion run down the leaf.stalk to the roots, and 
are there absorbed as manure is." Of course, if that be so, the 
roots may assimilate a portion of the fluid in which the insect has 
been digested, though much of it may be wasted in the soil, but 
even if the manuring of the roots by these digested insects is useful 
to the growth of the plant, it can hardly be of the same importance 
to it as it would be if the whole products of digestion were, as Mr. 
Darwin supposed, absorbed by the leaves. And in the cases men- 
tioned by Mr. Lawson Tait, in which the flower-traps catch the 
insects without digesting them at all, it is still less likely that the 
trap is essential to the health and growth of the plant, and, therefore, 
that it has been gradually elaborated by the process of natural 
selection through the benefit it has thus conferred. Indeed, 'the 



cases are not few in which it is admitted to be, in the present state 
of our knowledge, impossible to ascribe particular organic modifica- 
tions to the principle of natural selection. In his first treatise on the 
subject, Mr. Darwin himself, if we remember rightly, admitted very 
candidly that there were many cases in which natural selection 
could hardly be supposed to account for the elaboration of a particular 
organic structure, for the very simple reason that, as in the quadruped's 
tail, which is of service in flapping away insects, it would not be useful 
at all till it had already attained a certain completeness and magnitude, 
BO that the initial stages of growth could not be ascribed to the 
advantages it bestowed. And the same may be said in relation to 
these flower-traps, even if they do contribute to the food of the plant. 
Till the trap was perfect enough to catch an insect, it could be of 
no use in catching insects, and a perfect trap could not be elaborated 
all at once. Indeed, if Mr. Lawson Tait is right, it would seem that 
the insect-catching plants are not always insectivorous plants, and 
that even the insectivorous plants often appropriate only a certain 
proportion, if any, of the products of the insects thus digested. We 
do not know, indeed, why there should be any disposition at all to 
believe that in the natural world the only ultimate cause of faculty 
is the utility of that faculty. That usefulness is one cause, and a 
most important cause, of the growth of useful characteristics, Mr. 
Darwin has admirably shown. Bnt is there the least d priori pre. 
sumption that this may be the only cause ? If we were to discover 
for certain that there are flower-traps which get no sort of advantage 
out of their insect-prey, would it be at all more surprising than the 
fact that there are so many human traps in the shape of longings 
and desires — for instance, according to most physiologists, the 
appetite for fermented liquors — which bring no advantage, but 
almost pure mischief, to the creatures whose natures contain these 
traps, and who take such pains to bait them skilfully. There are 
flower-traps which are fatal enough to men, as well as the flower, 
traps which are so fatal to insects, and traps of which it would not 
be difficult to show that the victims are never either digested or 
absorbed by the living trap which catches them. Avarice — the love 
of money for its own sake, and not for the sake of the advantages 
which it brings — is certainly such a trap, though not of the most 
flowery kind, and one which closes on its prey without bringing any. 
thing but harm to the subject of the passion. Almost all the 
occupations which most absorb men and devour their hearts, the 
love of gambling, the delight in mere intellectual dexterity — such as 
is shown, for instance, in the passion for billiards or chess — nay, the 
love of mnsic itself, is more or less of this nature. — " Spectator." 
[It is well to notice some slight opposition to the mass of not quite 
scientific matter that has been written about " carnivorous " plants, 
to use a word that has been, as we think, made an injudicious use 
of. We have been as much interested as most people by fly-catching 
plants, both in a wild and cultivated state, and we should gladly 
welcome any sound explanation of any of the curiosities they 
present, but we do not think that as yet there is any proof that 
plants "eat insects" in the way recently so often described. More, 
over, if it were demonstrated that some plants do "digest" insects as 
asserted we cannot see how it can elucidate any problems of 
" natural selection." That plants eat abundantly, and thoroughly 
digest, animal matter when within reach of their roots, is of course 
known to everybody. To discover that the surface of the plant, 
besides the root, has the power of absorbing similar matter, would 
not can'y us a step further, as regards any important problem of 
philosophy.] 



A Botanical Astrologer. — At an inquest held recently at 
Marshfield, on the body of a man named George Edward Woodham, 
one of the witnesses examined — William Bigwood — stated that he was 
a " licensed botanist," and in that capacity had been called in to see 
the deceased, whom he was constrained to tell that it would be like 
"rising him from the dead" to make him well; but, as he par- 
ticularly requested him to do so, "he would try." His efforts com. 
menced on May 11th, and were terminated on June 5th by the death 
of the patient — a catastrophe which the "botanist" attributed to the 
fact " that the deceased was not born when the sun was in opposition 
sign to his stomach, but when it was in aftiicting sign to that organ." 
As he worked " on the botanist scale through astrology," he was 
enabled to deduce from these facts that " the liver of deceased 
would not act properly." Fortunately for the " botanist," the evi. 
deuce of a properly qualified medical practitioner showed that he 
also had attended deceased some time before his decease, and that 
the disease he was then suffering from was a tubercle on the right 
lung. Under these circumstances the verdictof the jury was " death 
from natural causes ; " but they expressed a wish that the coroner 
would severely censure the " botanist," William Bigwood, and tell 
liim that ho had had a very narrow escape of being committed to 
Gloucester on a charge of manslaughter. 



July 17, 1875.] 



THE GAEDBN. 



47 



GARDEN BRIDGES. 
A BRIDGE in connection with ornamental water seldom fails 
to give interest to the landscape, and should be placed 
to front the best point of view, or nearly so. In forming 
a piece of water, a narrow neck may be contrived eii,her 
between an island and the outline of the lake, or the whole 
piece must be so contracted that the bridge shall not be too 
long or extensive. But as a park bridge may tend also to give 
an idea contrary to the repose and privacy which a lake gene- 
rally suggests, its position should be carefully chosen. At all 
events, it should be placed so as to give as much of the lake as 
possible on the side between it and the principal point of view 
from the residence ; because a bridge suggests the idea of a 
public road, and a public road would naturally fix, as it were, 
the boundary of the park or domain, and lead to the conclusion 
that the water beyond it may not belong to the domain. Per- 



bability of its use by public conveyances ; therefore, the appear- 
ance of strength would be appropriate. In this case, as in all 
others, a bridge will have its importance and usefulness 
increased when viewed from any principal point, by a connect- 
ing walk or road being more or less seen not far from 
it; at least so near as to seem to lead to it, and leave 
no doubt on the mind as to its utility. The kind 
of bridge most suitable for a walk interrupted by a 
rivulet or brook, in a wood or other rural or uncultivated 
scenery, is one simply formed of rude woodwork. When a 
walk can be carried across a rivulet in front of a cascade or 
fall, about 10 or 20 yards distant from it, a bridge will add 
interest to the scenery, and afford convenience to the spectator 
in viewing the fall. A bridge crossing a rill in a flower garden 
or other dressed parts of the pleasure grounds may be of 
iron ; but one constructed of Larch rods and poles stripped of 




haps the best position would be at some narrow part of the 
lake, as remote as convenient, so as to show the principal body 
of water between the bridge and the place from whence it is 
viewed, and that, whilst crossing the bridge, the boundary of 
the water should be completely lost to the eye in various parts, 
as well by its position as by judicious planting. Thus the 
extent of a moderate sheet of water might be concealed, even 
from the stroller crossing the bridge. I have frequently 
seen a bridge placed across the neck of a lake, so near 
to its extremity as to suggest to the spectator whether it could 
have been formed for any utility at all, thus destroying the 
interest which might have been created had its utility been 
more apparent. Of whatever a bridge may be composed, 
whether of wood, iron or stone, or whatever extent it may be, 
it should be generally horizontal or level across. The effect is 
inharmonious when it falls each way from the centre. A bridge 
of masonry is best adapted for a river, on account of the pro- 



their bark, and stained — not painted — though less character- 
istic, would be generally pleasing. This kind of bridge would 
also be proper for a lake, with a number of arches according 
to extent, unless the drive should cross an extensive lake ; 
then a more substantial bridge of masonry, with stone battle- 
ments, would be more appropriate. Where stone is scarce, 
stone piers may be finished with strong rustic wood battle- 
ments, or battlements of a more finished charactermay be 
substituted for stone. A drive interrupted by a brook in the 
park or elsewhere should have a bridge of masonry, as it har- 
monises with any kind of landscape, whether rural or 
picturesque, or of gentle or abrupt undulations. In abrupt 
rocky scenery a simple stone bridge would be better than any 
other kind. However, in lieu of stone, a solid bridge of 
strong Larch of the above kind may be formed. I should 
recommend that the wood bridges be made of peeled poles 
and rods, stained Oak colour, or something similar. Iron 



48 



THE GAEDBN. 



[July 17, 1875, 



bridges should be painted (perhaps bronzed) green or iron 
colour ; never light green. The ends of all bridges must be 
finished off Tvith trees or bushes. Those upon a large scale 
should have noble round-headed trees for their decorations, 
such as the Wych and English Elm, Weeping Willow, Lime, 
Oak, and Alder ; but the best of all is the Wych Elm. All 
should be more or less associated with loose-growing bushes. 
For smaller bridges in kept grounds the Hemlock Spruce, 
deciduous Cypress, Tamarisk, Kobinia microphilla. Sea Buck- 
thorn, Rosemary-leaved Willow, English Juniper, &c. For 
small bridges in wild scenery : — Alders, Willows, Thorns, 
Hollies, Honeysuckles, rambling Eoses, Brooms, and Whins, 
are suitable. M. 



TREES AND SHRUBS. 

A EEMARKABLE COLLECTION OF TREES AND 
SHRUBS. 
The "Journal of the Central Horticultural Society" of France contains 
the report of a commission appointed by that association to examine 
the magnificent collection of trees and shrubs at Segrais, the pro- 
p3rty of its secretary, M. Lavallee. The report is drawn up by M. 
B. Verlot, who writes as follows : — " France, which some are apt to 
place after England and Belgium as regards arboriculture, has fur. 
nished a number of instances where that science has found votaries 
who rank as high as those of any country ; and when it is a ques- 
tion of gathering together, for the purpose of study, the greatest 
possible number of species and varieties, without taking into con. 
sideration their beauty or usefulness, in order to compare the living 
specimens one with the other, and determine their generic or specific 
characters the names which France can boast of have few 
rivals. Amongst the foremost of these must be placed that 
of the illustrious Duhamel, who, at the end of the last century, 
brought together in the parks of Vigny, Demainvilliers, anaMon(;eau 
(Loiret) collections of American trees, which, at the present time, 
have unfortunately nearly all disappeared. In our own days, names 
may be mentioned that are familiar to all who are lovers of plants. 
M. G. Thuret, correspondent of the " Academy of Sciences," whose 
une.xpected death took place not long since, amassed at his property 
at Antibes a very extensive collection of trees and shrubs from tha 
Southern Hemisphere. M. Ivoy, in Gironde, and M. G. de Lauzane, 
at Porzantres, have devoted themselves to collecting resinous trees ; 
M. Herpin de Fremont, at Bri.T, Conifers and Bamboos ; and M. Dau- 
din, at Pouilly, near Meru (Oise), ornamental trees and shrubs. From 
a latilitarian point of view, the collections of theVicomte de Courval, 
at Pinon ; of Vilmorin, at Barres, which has become a state arbori- 
cultural school ; of Delamarre, at Harcourt, which has been 
bequeathed to the Central Horticultural Society of Prance; and of 
the Marquis de Vibraye, at Cheverny ; have given to their owners a 
well-deserved reputation. To these names must be added that of M. 
Lavallee, who, at his Chateau of Segrais, has made the collection of 
trees and shrubs, upon which the Commission just alluded to 
have had to report. The domain of Segrais, acquired in 1856 
by the father of the present M. Lavallee, the founder and 
director of the Central School of Arts and Manufactures, is 
situated in the department of Seine-et-Oise, close to the Breuillet 
station on the Venddme line, and comprises not less than 75 
acres. Admirably situated upon a slope, and at the base of a 
hill formed of the Fontainbleau sandstone, and crowned by an old 
clump of Scotch Fir (Pinus sylvestris), it forms what may be termed 
a landscape garden, which, from the diversity of its soil, the 
abundance of water, and the vigour of the native vegetation, is 
admirably adapted for the reception of the trees and shrubs of 
temperate climates. A dwelling-house placed in the centre, faces on 
one side the valley, and, at the back, is separated from the hill by a 
lawn and sheet of water. On the margin of Ihe latter are two old 
deciduous Cypresses, furnished plentifully with what are called 
Cypress knees, and some superb Tulip trees. The property has, 
moreover, long contained many interesting trees, not only belonging 
to the Coniferous tribe, but also others, such as Carya squamosa, a 
species of Hickory ; a singular form of Walnut, with elongated fruit 
(Juglans Segraisiensis), and various kinds of Ash, such as Fraximus 
pubescens ; and others. A kitchen and flower garden, with hot- 
houses and Orangeries, situated between the chTiteau and the village 
of St. Sulpiceare remarkable for the excellent way in which they are 
kept. The formation of the arboretum was commenced in 1857, but 
it was not until 1858 that any great progress was made with it. In 
the autumn of that year a nursery was devoted to shrubs and ti'ees, 
which were planted out permanently in the spring of 1859. The 
number of species and varielica at that time was about 3,0U0, but 



many disappeared after the winter of 1859-60, when the cold was 
unusually severe. After 1860 the trees were planted no longer in 
clumps but in nursery lines, in order to test their hardiness, with 
the exception of Willows, Gleditschias, and Elms, and a few others. 
The Sycamores and Maples, which were planted in an unfavourable 
position were re-planted in 1864, as were also many other ornamental 
trees. The single genus Crataegus, which, at that time, was repre- 
sented by twenty. one specimens, now numbers eighty-three. Trans- 
plantation was also performed the following year in the case of the 
collections of Poplars and Chestnuts ; and, in 1872, it was also 
found necessary to regulate those of the Ashes and Birches which 
were evidently suffering from too much humidity in the soil. The 
collection of Conifers, to which a larger area is devoted, had also to be 
re-arranged, as had also the collections of shrubs and other things, the 
space allotted to which, in the first instance, was much too small. 
Single specimens were also given sufficient room in which to develop 
their natural characters, uninterfered with by their neighbours. 
In short, the crowding together that at first existed would have led 
to interminable confusion, if in 1868 the genera Sambucus, Rhus, 
Prunus, and Cerasus, had not been, for the most part transfeiTcd, 
from what may be called the nursery, to the park. But this was 
only a half measure, and, as the shrub department was always on 
the increase, it was soon determined to make a new nursery for them, 
six times as large as the original one, and which should cover 5 acres. 
This was rapidly formed, and was planted in March, 1871. It forma 
at the extremity of the park, nearest St. Sulpice, a large triangle, of 
which the base is 155 yards. This superficies is divided into twelve 
large squares, separated from each other by alleys, from 6 to 9 feet 
wide. The entire nursery is divided into 660 borders, 5 feet wide, 
planted with a single row, the length of which is a little more than 
5,500 yards, and which are separated by paths a yard wide. The 
whole nursery is encircled by a wide border, reserved on the north 
and east for Magnolias, Heaths, Vacciniums, Hydrangeas, Skimmias, 
and other species requiring a light dry soil. These special collec. 
tions occupy a length of 'about 225 yards. In the south and west, 
this border is devoted to the garden varieties of Hibiscus syriacus, 
Syringa, Weigela, &c., and to collections of Birches and Mulberries. 
The two last-named are the only kinds of large trees that are 
collected in the new nursery, which, it will be remembered, contains 
for the most part shrubs. Other kind of trees have been 
placed in different parts of the park, in avenues, and in other ways 
in which they can be readily inspected. Among them are Oaks, both 
of America and the Old World, consisting of not less than 110 
species or varieties ; Sycamores and Maples, seventy species 
and varieties, Japanese kinds excepted. Hawthorns, eighty-three 
distinct kinds ; Beam trees, twenty-six ; Apple trees, twenty-three ; 
Pears, nineteen ; and eighteen Service trees. The number of Ulma- 
ceous trees (Planera and Ulmus) amounts to about fifty-nine. Ashes 
and Poplars line the banks on both sides of a river to a distance of 
about 220 yards. Among the Poplars are thirty-five distinct varieties, 
whilst the Ashes number some eighty-eight kinds. Lime trees, of 
which there are some twenty.three varieties, are planted in alternate 
rows along an avenue 130 yards in length. Plums and Cerasus are 
planted in three or four rows under the same conditions down an 
avenue 120 yards in length, and number altogether 133 ; Pinns, 
Abies, Picea, and Thuja, are planted round a field, the circumference 
of which is about 160 yards. Of the genus Pinus there are eighty, 
seven varieties, six of which belong to the Cembra class, eleven to 
that of Strobus, three to Strobiformis, nineteen to Toeda, four to 
Pinea, and forty-four to Pinaster. The varieties of Abies number 
thirty-two, those of Picea fifty-seven. Thujas nine, in all ninety-eight 
distinct kinds. Other hardy Conifers are thus represented : — Yewa, 
twenty-seven ; Cedars, eight ; Junipers, sixty-one ; and Cypresses, 
twenty-three ; of Papilionaceous trees, such as the Robinia and 
Laburnum, there are many excellent representations as well as of 
Plane trees and Hornbeam. Amongst shrubs, Berberises number 
fewer than fifty-seven varieties ; Mahonias, twenty-two ; Hollies, 
109; Spirajas, 102; Rosea, 136, of which about twenty unnamed 
come from the Caucasus and Japan ; Chamajcerasus, forty-eight ; 
Honeysuckles, fifty-eight ; Guelder Roses, fifty-one ; flowering 
Currants, fifty-seven ; Rhamnus, thirty-two ; and, lastly, Philadelphus, 
fifty-iive. Shrubs in the nursery amount in all to 2,472 species and 
varieties, and trees to 2,107. The numbers of both cultivated at 
Segrais when a return was made in 1874 were 4,579. This number 
does not include certain garden varieties, such as Roses and others, 
that have altered greatly in form from the original type. The same 
may bo said of cultivated fruit trees, which are numerous and varied, 
but which are not comprised in the returns just given. The collec- 
tion of American Vines is not the least interesting feature of the 
place. It comprises sixty-nino kinds, thirty -four of which belong to 
Vitis labruBca, one of doubtful origin ; two to V. vinifera ; three 
to V. ajstivalis ; five to V. cordifolia ; one a hybrid between 



July 17, 1875.] 



THE GARDEN. 



49 



v. labrusoa and vinifera ; twelve Roger's seedling; one Allen's 
Hybrid, a cnrious form of the common Chasselas ; and, lastly, 
eleven varieties, little or not all known. In short, the examination 
of the Arboricultural collections at Segrais showed that some genera 
were as fully represented there as in some of the best Botanic 
Gardens in the country, and that even numbers of trees and shrubs 
obtained direct from their native homes are to be found in it which are 
rarely met with elsewhere. This, for example, is the case with a large 
number of Japanese, Mexican, Rocky Mountain, and Caucasian speci. 
mens. Generaaa those of Berberis.Euonymous, and Crattogus, have been 
subjects of special attention, a circumstance which has served the 
double purpose of avoiding many duplicate names and of rectifying 
incorrect nomenclature. Of Segrais, a correct plan has been pre- 
pared upon a large scale, and on this every individual species or 
variety is represented by a number which corresponds with that of a 
catalogue in which their history is given. Thus on the plan we 
find 100a, and opposite that number in the catalogue is written, 
"Acer Negundo cissifolium, Sieb. et Zucc," which is stated to have 
been planted in 1866, to have come from the establishment founded 
at Leyden, by Von Siebold, and to have been grafted ; to these entries 
is also added an account of its botanical characteristics. To each 
specimen in the arboretum, too, is attached a largo square label 
showing its specific name, the country whence it came, and the date 
of its introduction. A catalogue of the trees and shrubs at Segrais 
will be published before long, and will be followed by " The 
Segrais Arboretum," a large work in which will be described and 
figured new and rare species. About thirty of the plates are already 
engraved and ready. Amongst the most remarkable species at this 
place the following may be mentioned : 



■Clematis 


Crataegus 


Rharanus 


Stewartia 


biternata 


leucophlEeos 


sexatilis 


grandiflora 


stans 


tomentosa 


Pallasii 


monadelpha 


Bambasa 


cuneata 


Hovenia 


Eaonymua 


Maximo wiczii 


pinnatifida 


dulcis 


Maakii 


Lmdera 


DouglasU 


Nandina 


alatus 


hypoglauca 


(Pyracantha) 


domestica 


obovatus 


Elajgnus 


crenulata 


var, m,inor 


radicaua 


longipes 


Rosa 


major 


fimbriatus 


Deermgia 


rugosa 


fr. albis 


Rhus 


celosioides 


Iwara 


fr. flavia 


semialata 


Fontanesia 


diversifolia var. 


tenui folia 


vernicifera 


Fortune! 


japonica 


sempervirens 


juglandifolia 


Ligastrum 


polyantha 


? Kadsur.i, 


ternata 


japonicum 


Fortune! 


japonica 


Morus 


var. macro- 


coruscans 


propinqua 


Towkna 


phyllum 


acicularis 


Anona 


Kaki 


Syringa 


Nattallia 


Maximowiczii 


Broussnetia 


oblata 


cerasiformis 


Actinida 


Ksempferi 


Pterostyrax 


Lindleya 


Kolomikta 


Negundo 


Lispiduin 


mespiloides 


Ungnadia 


cissifolium 


Lonicera (Cham- 


ChamEebatia 


speciosa 


Acer 


ax erasus) 


fobosa 


Vitis (Cissus) 


callosum 


cbrysantha 


Prunus 


heterophylla 


micranthum 


Ruprechtii 


Cap all 


var. elegans 


pulchellum 


Symphoricarpos 


(Padua) comuta 


tricuspidata 


septemlobum 


mexicanus 


(Microcerasus) 


Veitchii 


palmatum 


Viburnum 


ilicifolia 


Thunbergii 


palmatipartitum 


Oxycoccos 


(Cerasus) pumila 


var. Sieboldi 


platanoides var. 


nudum 


(Cerasus) serru- 


flexuosa 


palmatiparti- 


(UlatatuTD 


lata 


(Ampelopsis) 


tum 


eroaum 


japonica 


cordata 


iEsculus 


liimalayense 


tomentosa 


serjaniEefolia 


sinensis 


Cornus 


aspera 


ficifolia 


Benzoin 


florida 


candicana. 


humuli folia 


prjecox 


Corylopsis 


divaricata 


Zanthoxylon 


sericeum 


spicata 


acuminata 


planispinum 


Betula 


Tarrotia 


Chica&a 


schinifolium 


tristis 


persica 


Arm en! ac a 


Staphylea 


costata 


Hamamelis 


Nume 


Bumalda 


corylifoUa 


arborea 


var. prcecosis- 


Akebia 


Camellia 


japonica 


sima 


quinata 


oleifera 


Jamesia 


virgata 


Lardizabala 


Celastrus 


americana 


pendula 


biternata 


Orixa 


Ribes 


Persica 


Maximowiczia 


Clerodendron 


oregonense 


Davidiana 


sinensis 


trichotomum 


fasciculatum 


Maakia 


Holboellia 


Gleditschia 


Menziesii 


amurensis 


1 at! folia 


sinensis 


Marlea 


Anagyris 


Stauntonia 


Koelreuteria 


bryoniEBfoUa 


(Piptanthus) 


bexaphylla 


japonica 


Aria 


nepalensia 


sinensis 


Rhododendron 


Segrais iensis 


Indigofera 


latifolia 


bracbycarpum 


Chamajmespilus 


Roylei 


Menispermum 


rhombajum 


Hostii 


Iwafusii 


lauri folium 


Rubua 


Malus 


Lespedeza 


Berberidopsis 


parviflorus 


Ringo 


bicolor 


corallina 


Smilax 


Toringo 


argyracea 


Azara 


rotundifolia 


Pyrus 


cyrtobotrya 


ovata 


Sophora 


Binensis 


Desmodium 


integrifolia 


angustifolia 


var. Daringo 


Dillenii 


salicifolia 


Xanthoceras 


Mikado 


penduliflorum 


Plagianthus 


Eorbifolia 


Sieboldi 


Genista 


divaricatua 


Prinus 


cydonisBformia 


purgana 


Stachyurua 


Isevigatua 


Pashia 


Rhamnua 


prfEcox 


TiUa 


Mespilus 


caUfomicua 


var. gracilis 


truncata 


Smithii (Cratae- 


libanoticus 


Stewartia 




gus) lobata 


castane^efolius 


Malachodendroii 





There is nothing in the way of an arboretum in France that can bo 
compared with that at Segrais. Here will be found the great 



majority of the trees and shrubs belonging to the cold and temperate 
regions of Central and Eastern Buropo, of Asia Minor, of the Cau- 
casus, and of the high regions of the Himalayas, Bhootan, Thibet, 
and Nepaul. The vegetation of the Amour, of Japan, of China, and 
of other parts of Eastern Asia, have also been searched with 
earnestness for such novelties as would live out-of-doors at Segrais ; 
and, finally, it is scarcely necessary to add that the vegetation of 
North America, as well as that of the coldest regions of Mexico, is 
also represented there. In short, M. Lavallee may say with truth, 
that his arboretum is a living herbarium, in which each variety 
seems to have been subjected to conditions most favourable to 
its growth. Of the truth of this no better proof is needed than the 
vigour and general good health of the different specimens which it 
contains. 



THE IND OOR GARDEN. 

PELARGONIUMS FOR WINTER DECORATION. 
Those of the Tom Thumb type are the best for forcing ; for, 
though their trusses ai'e not large, they answer better for 
bouquets than large ones. Christine, too, is useful, and of a 
favourite and showy colour. These, with a few white varieties, 
aud one or two intermediate shades, will be found useful for 
furnishing blooms in winter. As a rule, those kinds which 
flower freely out of doors will be found to be best for forcing, 
and I always select a number of plants for the purpose when 
we have done bedding. Some of the new ones of Pearson and 
Denny have fine trusses, but all do not flower freely in winter, 
though excellent for autumn decoration. However, it is safe 
to have as good a stock of plants of different kinds as may be 
found convenient ; but none will flower well in mid-winter if 
they have not been prepared for it. The plants may bo 
selected and potted about this season. Six-inch pots are a 
proper size for them, aud they should be well drained. Use a 
good loam, with a little leaf mould, or peat and sand, and pot 
the plants moderately firm, particularly under the roots, and 
afterwards plunge them out of doors in ashes in a sunny 
situation. Daring the summer let them be liberally watered 
now and then with liquid manure, not too sti-ong. Those shoots 
that are leading too much only need be stopped ; but if the 
pUnts grow pretty regularly in shape, it will only be necessary 
to keep the flower buds picked off constantly till about the 
middle of October. By this time the pots will be filled with 
roots like a Strawberry pot, the wood well matured, and every 
shoot disposed to flower. No plants should now be transferred 
to the house ; a dry, airy greenhouse or vinery is a good place, 
and they may be allowed to come into flower by the time ilower 
buds are over, or to succeed the autumn-flowering stock. As 
winteradvances, however, an ordinary greenhouse temperature 
of from 45° to 50'-' will be too low for them. The Pelargonium 
must have heat and light to bring the flowei-s out successfully. 
A back shelf of an early Vinery will suit them, and while they 
are kept freely watered at the root, syringing overhead must 
be avoided when damping the Vines. Forcing during the 
dead of winter is sluggish at the best, however, and the secret 
is to have plenty of plants in moderate-sized pots, and force as 
many as can be accommodated, according to the demand for 
flowers. For use in February, March, and April I have some- 
times depended entirely on old plants lifted from the beds in 
November, or before they got frosted. Big plants of Christine 
and other compact growing sorts produce an excellent display 
in spring, and afford plenty of cutting. When taken up in 
autumn, however, the branches must not be cut back. The 
plants, if very large, may be reduced in circumference, but no 
shortening of the shoots which are left should be allowed, or 
they will not flower so soon nor so well. I lift them, and 
squeeze them into as small pots as possible — generally 5 or 
6 -inch — and put the plants into a smart heat to get rooted. 
This accomplished, they are stored in the cool, dry houses, 
where they get hardened a little, and we draw off the stock as 
required. Christine is particularly useful in this way ; it is a 
variety that comes in rapidly when it does flower, and I can 
assure your readers there are few plants which light up a 
conservatory more effectively in spring, when a number of 
large plants are placed among the other specimens all over the 
house: and no kind of decoration is more easily kept up. 

J. S. 



50 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 17, 1875. 



OECHIDS IN FLOWER NEAR LONDON. 
Me. Day's collection of these interesting plants, at Tottenham, 
is now peculiarly attractive. Few would imagine that so much 
flower beauty and so much fragrance could be collected 
under a crystal roof, at the foot of a little green lawn, at the 
back of an ordinary dwelling-house, so near London. Totten- 
ham is scarcely the place in which one would expect to find the 
Alpine flowers of the Andes, the cool-growing Odontoglossums 
and Masdevallias, or the wreath-like inflorescence of snowy 
Phatenopsids, from the warm islands of the Malayan Archi- 
pelago, yet, here they are, in all their native freshness and 
beauty, along with great-lipped Cattleyas, as variable as they 
are beautiful — so variable indeed, in form, habit, and colour, 
that they defy the most liberal - minded species - maker to 
settle the position in which they should be placed — so subtle 
are the different changes of form and structure, by which alone 
he can distinguish them. Speaking of Cattleyas reminds us 
that they are amongst the noblest of all summer-blooming 
Orchids, and here at Mr. Day's are great masses of C. Mendeli, 
perhaps twenty or thirty specimens all in bloom, with broad 
petals of snowy purity, and a finely-formed lip, in which ivory- 
like whiteness and the richest carmine imaginable are asso- 
ciated. Some few of these Mendel varieties, however, have 
the pearly petals suffused with soft flesh colour, and then the 
carmine-tinted lip deepens into a velvet-like purple stain, and 
even each individual flower goes through at least a dozen 
infinitesimal mutations, both in form and colouring. Mr. Day 
has now numberless varieties of Cattleya Mossice in perfec- 
tion, and, when well grown, few plants are more attractive than 
this ; the same may also be said of the well-tried and ever- 
beautiful Ltelia purpurata, L. elegans, and its still more 
attractive and highly - coloured forms, Turneri and Wol- 
stenholmiffi are likewise now very attractive, and their 
stately habit contrasts well with the short stubby growth 
of the Mossia3 section. The dwarf-growing Cattleya Schil- 
leriana is now blooming freely, its great greeu-sepaled, purple- 
blotched flowers being embellished by the richest of purple 
markings on a white fan-shaped lip. This is now blooming 
freely at Tottenham, and we also saw it a day or two ago in 
Mr. Beckett's collection at Stamford Hill. If, perchance, there 
is one Orchid more singular in appearance, or more attractive 
than another, you are sure to find it well represented in Mr. 
Day's unique collection. Take, for example, Phalasnopsis 
amabilis and P. grandiflora, of which there are, perhaps, a 
hundred plants for the most part in bloom, or Odontoglossum 
Alexandras, and its near ally 0. Pescatorei, to which a whole 
house is almost exclusively devoted, and in which are multi- 
tudes of wreaths of snow-white flovrers, the petals of which are 
set with rubies ; contrast with these the fresh green foliage 
and white flowers of the Odontoglots here growing freely and 
flowering profusely, and some idea of the richness of the 
display may be conceived ; and associated with these are also 
twenty or thirty plants of the flne orange-coloured Epiden- 
drum vitellinum majus ; but, if there is one Orchid more deli- 
cately beautiful than another, it is the little green-flowered 
Dendrochilum filiforme, which is also blooming freely in 
several other London gardens, besides that of Mr. Day. Few 
cool-growing Orchids are now more attractive than the Alpine, 
or rather Andean Masdevallias ; and in Mr. Beckett's collec- 
tion we saw the following species in bloom a few days ago, 
viz., M. trochilus. This is a new species, lately figured in 
" L'lllustration Horticole " (see plate 160). It was sent to Mr. 
Linden from New Granada, in 1872, bj' Roezi, who forwarded 
living plants of it collected in the elevated regions of the 
Cordillera of the Andes. According to this traveller the 
gigantic flowers of this peculiar species are shot with a 
blui.sh metallic lustre, like the plumage of the humming-bird 
tribe, hence the specific name. This colouring has procured it 
the appellation of Colibri from the inhabitants of the southern 
part of the State of Antioquia, a word having the same siguifica- 
tion. Two varieties of M. Harryana are also flowering freely, one 
having bright rosy-lilac-tinted blossoms, the other large blood- 
coloured or crimson flowers. M. Veitchii is also blooming 
freely; this has large blossoms of a rich orange-yellow colour, 
the lower half of each sepal being densely set with bright 
purple hairs, a circumstance which gives a remarkably rich 
appearance to the whole flower. M. ignea, a small but 



remarkably orange-scarlet-flowered species, is now very 
attractive, although scarcely so showy as M. Veitchii and M. 
Harryana. Lady's-slippers of various kinds are likewise now 
in perfection, and we have seen some fine specimens of Cypri- 
pedium barbatum, C. Veitchii, C. Dayi, C. Stonei, including 
one in Mr. Beckett's collection bearing eighteen flowers, and 
C. laevigatum, C. niveum, C. Harrissianum, C. Schlimii, and 
the new hybrid C. selligei'um are also all at present in bloom. 
At Kew, the following, among other Orchids, are in bloom, 
viz., Cypripedium Parishi, a Lady's-slippcr, not remarkable 
for striking beauty, the long-tailed flowers being of a pallid 
or apple-green tint, shaded with dull purplish-brown. This 
plant has also bloomed recently in Messrs. Veitch's collection 
at Chelsea, and, a month or two ago, a fine plant of it flowered 
in Mr. Eussel's collection at Mayfield, Falkirk, the flower- 
spike in the latter case bearing seven blooms. One of the most 
continuous flowering, however, is C. Roezlii, a kind with 
apple-green flowers, suffused with pale rose. This plant 
bears its flowers on a long erect spike, only one flower being 
fully developed at one time, so that the plant is frequently in 
bloom all the year round. One of the prettiest of all Orchids, 
now in flower at Kew, is the pale Primrose-lipped Den- 
drobium Pierardii, several strong plants of which are now 
flowering profusely. It is one of the easiest of all Orchids to 
cultivate ; and, as it can now be bought as cheaply as the 
most ordinary stove plants, it is well worth culture, even if only 
for cut-flowers. The rich-tinted Cattleya Aclandise is now 
blooming on a block. Its sepals and petals are of a rich olive 
green colour, blotched with dark purple, the lip being bright 
purple edged with white. The old purple-blossomed Bletia 
Shepherd! has been in flower during the past two months, and 
is still very attractive, bearing rich purple or purplish-magenta- 
coloured flowers, on large branching spikes. This plant is 
much used by Messrs. Standish&Co.,of Bagshot, for cut bloom, 
its flowers being found valuable for button-holes and other 
choice bouquets. Cattleya gigas is flowering freely in several 
collections near London, and we recently saw a fine variety 
of it opening its crimson-lipped flowers in Messrs. Veitch's 
collection. This is one of the best of all Cattleyas, bearing 
rosy -lilac flowers, fully 8 inches in breadth, the lip being of a rich 
velvety-crimson; it is a robust-growing plant, and succeeds 
well on a block in a moist atmosphere. The new Zygopetalum 
Sedeni is bearing a three-flowered spike in the Royal Exotic 
Nursery, Chelsea. It is a hybrid, obtained a year or two ago 
by crossing Z. maxillare and Z. Mackayi. Its rich bluish- 
purple lip is like that of the first-named parent, but larger, 
while the sepals and petals are of a very dark purplish-brown 
colour. Mr. Bull has a pretty variety of the well-known Phalas- 
nopsis amabilis, named erubescens, now in flower, the middle 
lobe of the cirrhose lip of which is washed with yellow on its 
broadest part, and splashed with rose colour. We have also 
noted the bright little P. amethvstina in bloom in several 
collections. B. 



PLANTING OUT CARNATIONS FOR WINTER 
BLOOMING. 
Few plants flower with so much certainty as the Carnation, 
but, for early forcing, the flower buds should be formed, or 
nearly so, before the end of October. I have lifted plants from 
the border about that date with a profusion of buds upon them, 
which continued to open during a greater part of the winter. 
Of winter, or tree Carnations as they are called, there is now 
a great variety, but the white, such as Avalanche, the pink 
Souvenir de la Malmaison, and the scarlet and rose-coloured 
varieties are most useful. I would advise no one to have more 
than three or four distinct kinds, and these only such as are 
known to be profuse bloomers. Whether old plants that have 
flowered during the last winter and spring or young plants 
have to be dealt with, no time should now be lost in trans- 
ferring them from their winter pots to the open border, where 
they must remain till they have completed their growth. Pro- 
vide a bed in a sunny, open, but sheltered situation, and put 
the plants out about 2 feet apart. Reduce the old balls con- 
siderably, taking away the crocks and spent soil, without 
shaking the roots out altogether, and plant them well up to the 
collar. If the bed consists of ordinary garden soil, then fill 



July 17, 1876.] 



THE GARDEN. 



51 



round each ball with light rich soil, consisting of leaf mould, 
loam, and sand, in equal parts, for a space of 6 inches all round. 
This will be sufficient for the roots during the summer, and 
will give a good ball of soil with them at lifting-time. Plants 
that have not been cut down yet will be pushing about 
the base of the flowering shoots ; therefore, do not remove the 
young shoots now, but cut back to them, and when the planting 
is finished stake each plant and tie them, but not too tightly. 
Let all the shoots grow; the larger the bash the more flowers, 
only give them room as the plants grow. If all has gone on 
well each plant will be profusely furnished with plump buds 
by the end of October, when preparations mast be made for 
lifting them. For bushy plants, such as I am contemplating, 
and such as fine young plants will make if planted oat in 
time, 9-inch pots, at least, will be required ; and, rather than 
reduce the balls too much, I would give them a larger size. 
Get the plants up, at all events, with good balls, by first 
cutting round them with a spade, and then getting it under 
them, and lifting them clean out of the ground. Transfer 
them at once to the pots by lifting the ball carefully with both 
hands and dropping it gently in, and fill round with light soil, 
giving the pot a slight shake to settle it; but do not make it 
too firm, for that would only injure the roots; watering 
thoroughly will settle all effectually. This is a better plan 
than growing the plants in pots all summer, for they grow 
better and want less attention, and experience no check at all 
by lifting, if it be done with ordinary care. The plants may be 
^transferred at once to the conservatory or house in which they 
are to flower, for, like tbe Camellia, they want esceedingly 
little forcing. A warm light greenhouse or an intermediate 
house is the best place for them, and they must have all the 
light possible, ventilation, and little or no moisture overhead ; 
a damp low temperature causes the buds to rot without 
opening. J. S. 



BOUVARDIAS FOR WINTER FLOWERING. 
TuE propagation and winter-forcing of Bouvardias for com- 
mercial purposes, in the United States, is conducted as follows 
by the best growers. By the middle of July, the plants in 
the houses are done flowering ; at least the amount of 
flowers produced after this would not pay for the room 
they occupy, the space being required for spring-tloworing 
plants for market purposes, the object being to make each 
department remunerative in its season. The plants in question 
are then taken up and propagated by division of the roots. They 
are shaken out, and all the strong roots are taken off, leaving 6 
inches upon the parent plant. These roots, having been cut into 
lengths of from 1 to 1 j inches, are inserted in sand-beds in the 
propagating-honses, as thickly as they can be set, and are 
then covered with sand to a depth of half-an-inch and watered. 
So soon as they are 1 inch above the surface they are taken 
up, potted off into 2-inch pots, and as soon as they are esta- 
blished in them are shifted into 4-inch pots, and kept in the 
house for two months. They are then taken into the nursery, 
where a trench is taken out, at the bottom of which the plants 
are placed. It is then filled in, the rim of the pots being 
covered with soil to the depth of 2 inches — the usual distance 
between them being 9 inches in the row, and 1 foot in the 
line. As they advance in growth they are kept pinched up 
to the middle of September, and are then all taken up, and 
those intended for winter-flowering shifted into 5 or 6-inch 
pots, planted in the house, and kept shaded for some days. 
The old plants from which the cuttings were taken, after having 
been shaken out and disrooted as above, are re-potted into 
4-inch pots, and as soon as these are filled with roots are shifted 
into others, two sizes larger, and planted out in the open 
ground about the 20th of May. As they show flowers, they 
must be pinched off, and by the middle of September the 
plants are carefully taken up with balls, planted on the 
benches, or re-potted, and placed under glass. Planting on 
the benches is best, as it entails less labour in their after 
management, and, I think, extends the period during which 
cut flowers may be obtained. Cuttings from roots cannot be 
planted out of the pots ; if this were done, they could not be 
lifted with balls in the autumn, and, as a consequence, would 
lose all their leaves and two-thirds of the wood made during the 



summer. In order to lift Bouvardias with good balls in the 
autumn, they require to have good balls when planted in the 
spring, otherwise the whole had better be retained in pots, and 
plunged in nursery rows, as here described. The old plants 
should also be well cut in previous to potting. A stock of 
them is kept for summer prop.agation, cuttings of the young 
wood being put in when from 2 to 3 inches long, potted off 
into 2-iach pots, and sold to the trade at £1 4s. per hundred 
plants. One of the best white Bouvardias for summer and 
autumn use is B. jasminoides, which flowers freely, and has 
a good truss ; bat it does not pay to grow it in winter for cut 
flowers. If kept pinched during the summer time, say until 
the 1st of September, it will flower freely until the first of 
December. The leading varieties for winter use are B. 
Davidsoni, B. Hogarthi, B. Leanthi, and The Bride. Flowers 
of Bouvardia are not as profitable for winter use as cut 
flowers of other plants ; but it is necessary to have them, so 
as to be able to supply the trade. J. Howatt. 



ANANASSA BRACTEATA. 
This ornamental species of Pine-apple, though introduced into 
England many years ago, is seldom met with ; but in Portugal and 
other parts of the Continent it is largely grown for decorative 
purposes. Like its congeners, it is dwarf in habit, with scarcely any 
visible stem, and it has long, drooping, handsome deep-green leaves. 




Ananassa Bractea'a. 

Like other Pines, it may be increased by means of anckera and 
crowna, both of which rapidly develops into handsome plants. In 
fact, from an ornamental point of view, the Ananasaa Bracteata ia 
quite equal in beauty to Ananassa sativa variegata. Its frnit, which 
it produces freely, is of little value compared with that of ordinary 
P"ies. Q. 

NOTES AND QUESTIONS ON THE INDOOR GARDEN, 



Vanda limhata.— This new Japanese species was Introdaoea to our sardens 
last year by Mr. B. S. Williams. It has bright grooa strap-shaped leaves 
which are recarced, aad the flowers are eqaal in size to those of V. Roxburo-hii 
but their colour is bright chocolate, edged with gold, and the lip is rosy-hlac' 
This Vanda is figured in the " Botanical Magazine " for this month.— B. 

Adiautam Farleyense from Spores.— I have always understood that this 
Adiautum would not produce "seed," bat a number of seedlings have come up 
with me in a pot in which a plant ot this Maidea-hair Pern is growing I am 
much interested in the matter, and will feel greatly obliged by some of your 
correspondents informing me whether or not this is a rare occurrence — P T. 
BiENEs, Tlie Croft, Wallon-on-Thames. • •■ . xt. 

Mangoes from Seed.— I have received five seeds of the Indian Mano-o and I 
am anxious to know how to treat them.— W. Rriw, Kaickloft^, Cltinmel. ' rSow 
them at once in sepvrate pots, and plunge them in a temperature of from m' to 
85S keeping them moist. They are rather apt to prove failures, as they travel 
badly. The outer coatin? should be left on as imported, or they will be almost 
sure to die. When up they will require a shift early, as, from the first thev 
make large roots. — J. Cboucheb.] *^ 

How to Fruit the Coral-herried Duckweed (Nertera depressa).— Pew 
plants are more attractive than this, when in fruit, and it is, fortunately hardy 
enough to ripen its berries well in a sunny window, or even in sheltered portions 
of the rook garden, after they are set ; but, above all, it is as a pot plant that it 
is of most value. In order to induce it to fruit freely, it should be placed in a 
stove or warm plant-house, on a sunny shelf near the glass, as it does not set 
Its fruit freely if too much shaded, or when planted out; as soon as the plant is 
set, however, it may be placed in a cooler temperature, in which the bright 
orange-scarlet berries will swell and acquire their characteristic coral-like 
colour, and continue ornamental for a considerable time.- B. 



52 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 17, 1875. 



DESTEOYING MOLES. 
Persons who think that molea ought to be caught and destroyed 
have frequently been exasperated because of the conspionons failure 
of traps warranted to catch these little creatures. Now, however, a 
gardener has hit upon the simplest contrivance in the world 
which he presents to the public for their free use. This is 
merely a large flower.pot — an old tin pail will answer the purpose 
excellently — sunk beneath the ground, upon a level with the floor of 
the run. A flat piece of board is laid over the run, and the earth 
heaped upon it so as to exclude the light completely. In the perfect 
simplicity of the thing its success chiefly lies. The moles, seeing or 
feeling nothing with the highly sensitive " feelers " upon their snouts, 
run very readily into the trap, from which there is no escape. 
Every fresh arrival adds to the company, for there is no resetting 
required, and there is no disturbance of the ground to excite suspi. 
cion. Doubtless the movements of the moles themselves attract 
other unfortunates to their ruin, for I am assured by one who has 




Section of an o£E6ctive Mole-trap. 

tried the trap with eminent success that he caught seven moles the 
first day, and three the second after setting it. — " New York 
Tribune." During wet weather I am. much troubled with moles, 
which come into my ground from the neighbouring market gardens, 
where, amongst Potatoes, Cabbages, and other crops grown on a 
large scale, they do comparatively little injury, and are, conse- 
quently, not much looked after. Whilst the weather is hot and the 
soil on the surface dry they work deeply, casting up a hill here and 
there, but not doing any material damage ; but, when rain comes, 
and the worms rise to the surface, they become a great nuisance, 
ploughing up the ground in all directions ; under such conditions it 
it difficult to trap them. My most effective mode of catching them 
is going quietly to their whereabouts early in the morning with a 
long steel fork, and watching for indications of their presence— one 
of which is worms escaping as from an enemy— then, by watching 
patiently, the soil will soon be seen to move, when in goes the fork, 
and, in nine cases out of ten, out comes the mole. If I miss it, it is 
because just then it was burrowing too deeply. — A. D. 



Purse Galls on the Elm.— Elm trees, especially when young, 
are often attacked by various kinds of plant-lice. One of these, 
which makes a very conspicuous gall, which ia now common near 
London. The insect is more or less of a dark green colour, some, 
what spheroidal, and covered with a cottony villosity, with brownish 
shortened feet and very short antenuM, unprovided with tail or 
tubes. It makes a small opening in the Elin leaves with its beak, 
where it deposits its eggs. The extravasation of the sap causes the 
formation of large bullae purses or vesicles joined to the leaf by a 
stalk. If one opens them before they have been pierced they will 
be found full of small plant-lice enveloped in a whitish cottony 
blanket. In summer these galls burst, and the swarm of plant-lice 
issues forth. Boisduval considers this species to be the Aphis ulmi 
of Linna3us, but Hartig, and following him Kaltenbach, refer Lin- 
najus's name to another species, which they call Tetraneura ulmi. 
It is not of much consequence, but the above species they name 
Schizoneura lanuginosa. The other species (Tetraneura ulmi) was 
named Aphis ulmi by De Geer. It is smooth shining, of a greenish- 
black colour, and without any cottony villosity. It lives under the 
leaf which it folds or rolls round. Like the others it has neither 
tail nor cornicules. There is another Elm-gall, also produced by an 
aphis, which we have not seen in England, but which is common in 
the north of Italy. It simulates the appearance of a Raspberry both 
in size, colour, and lobes. — A. Murray. 

Medicinal ITses of the Sweet Flag ( Acorus calamus) . 
— Ainslie says that " it is a very favourite medicine of the Indian 
practitioners, and is reckoned so valuable in the indigestions, stomach, 
aches, and bowel affections of children, that there is a penalty 
incurred by any druggist who will not open his door in the middle of 
the night and sell it if demanded." A bath made of the infusion of 



the root " is regarded as an effectual remedy for epilepsy in 
children." Schroder informs us that " it possesses virtues in 
obstructions of the spleen and liver." The Egyptians regard it as 
a valuable aromatic and stomachic. The Turks prepare a confection 
of the root, and employ it " as a preventive against contagion." 
" European practitioners have considered the root as tonic and aro. 
matic, and occasionally prescribe it in cases of intermittent fever 
and dyspepsia." Dr. A. T. Thomson recommends it as an anti. 
periodic ; and Dr. JE. Ross reports that it is an excellent stimulant 
and diaphoretic ; he looks upon it " as most serviceable in atonic and 
choleraic diarrhoea." As an insecticide, particularly with reference 
to fleas, I have always found it very efficacious ; but for this purpose, 
the root must be obtained fresh. Last year, the chief cause of 
mortality among the house patients of the Seoni Main Dispensary 
was dysentery ; the gaol population also suffered very much from 
the same disease. The disease is moat prevalent about the middle 
of the rainy season, that is, during the months of July and August. 
The disturbance probably of the water-supply, especially when this 
is derived from tanks and streams, and the dampness of the season 
are, in some measures, I think, accountable for the appearance of 
the disease. In many of these cases, a malaria! taint could be 
detected. Ipecacuanha does not, I regret to say, always succeed in 
these cases. There were no less than sixty -nine cases of dysentery 
treated in the Main Dispensary during the months of July and 
August. I found a decoction of the rhizome of the Acorus calamus 
very effectual in arresting the flux of blood, especially in the 
dysentery of children. The decoction is prepared thus : — Of the 
bruised rhizome, 2 ounces ; Coriander seed, 1 drachm ; black pepper, 
half a drachm ; water, 1 pint ; boil down to 12 ounces and set aside 
to cool. The dose for an adult is an ounce three times daily ; for a 
child, 1 to 3 drachms, sweetened with sugar, two or three times a 
day. Astringent extracts or quinine might be added if necessary. 
— " Pharmaceutical Journal." 



CITY KOSES. 

From Cashmere's Tale to sultry Chepe, 

For Fancy is a flying leap ; 

But as sweet June, in showers that weep 

Her parting, closes. 
Grim London shows as gaily drest 
As Shiraz at its summer best. 
With Flora holding. East and West, 

Her Feast of Roses ! 

Roses, ripe Roses, everywhere 
Scent the dull City's dusty air; 
Fern-folded buds for Swells are there, 

At fancy prices ; 
And leaf-wrapt " Mosses," cheap yet sweet, 
The humble luxuries of the street. 
Which with piled Cherries ripe compete. 

And penny ices. 

Sir Sybarite shudders ; his are dreams 
Of Chushunt clusters, Gunter's creams j 
But Bendemeer's bright bowers and streams. 

Or groves of Arden, 
Are not for all ; and there are those 
Whose pleasures are a penny Rose, 
And gorgeous, albeit gratis. Shows 

Of Covent Garden ! 

Welcome, sweet child of June, whose gi'ace 
Bids even mammon yield thee place; 
Whose beauty brightens every face 

Which bends above it ! 
Were Punch not Punch, he'd fain be Paul, 
Or Cant of Colchester. To call 
Roseland his own, were surely all 

A bard could covet ! 

Lyons " Rose-Congi-esses " are things 
Which those devised by scheming Kings, 
Or Bismarck, with his seraph wings, 

Are put to shame by. 
How poor are plots to prop a throne. 
Besides the pride of having grown 
Some bright new blossom, to be known 

Some sweet new name by ! 

Say " Punch's Own "—a friendly hint 
For Paul and Son ! Both shape and tint 
Should be perfection, the last print 

Of Flora's finger, 
Impressed on perfect petals ! Then 
Shall the Great Teacher's City den 
Be home for Haflz, and his pen 

O'er love-lays linger. — 



July 17, 1875.] 



THE GARDEN. 



63 



THE FRUIT GARDEN. 



STEAWBERRY CULTURE. 
In the cultivation of Strawberries the soil is of mucli im- 
portance. The best Strawberry soil is a good sound loam, and 
if rather unctuous so much the better. A poor, light soil is 
quite unfit for Strawberries ; but much may be done by deep 
digging and liberal supplies of manure. A light soil should be 
trenched fully 2 feet deep, and plenty of manure should be 
placed at the bottom of the trench. For a moderately stLQ! 
soil, two good spits, or about 20 inches, will be found ample. 
In either case, the soil should be made rich with manure ; and, 
at the time of planting, ample space should be given for future 
development. The selection of runners is also an important 
consideration. Those only should be employed that are 
stout and healthy, with a good, round, plump bud in 
the centre ; and they mast be from frait-bearing plants. 
When runners are taken at random from unfruitful plants, 
the progeny generally proves unfruitful also. It is of the 
utmost advantage, in order to obtain the runners'quick, and to 
get them soon into their fruiting quarters, that they be layered 
in small pots about -1 or 5 inches in diameter, filled with rich 
loamy soil, and mixed with a little rotten dung. While they 
remain in the pots, they must not be allowed to sufiler from 
want of water. They will make rapid progress in this rich 
^, compost ; as soon as they are fairly rooted, they can be cut 
' away from the parent plants, and, as soon as convenient after- 
wards, they should be finally planted out before the pots 
become matted with roots. Such plants in dry weather suc- 
ceed much better than pieces of runners without roots, those in 
pots commencing to grow at once, while the others dry up. 
Last August I formed a plantation with plants that had been 
layered in pots, with the exception of one row that came from 
a neighbour that had not been layered. Those that had been 
prepared by laying in pots are sis times as largo as those just 
alluded to, and are bearing six times as much fruit. 

In planting, I perhaps give more space than many people 
think proper, but it has always been a first principle with me 
to give our crops ample room for development, and I rarely 
ever find any plant ungrateful for such liberality. The plant- 
ing requires great care, for on this much of the ultimate 
success depends. I would here advise, if the soil be very 
light, that it be made firm before planting. When convenient, 
a portion of clay should be added to it, which will much 
improve the condition of the plants. If the ground be 
tolerably stiff this will be unnecessary. In planting, take care 
to make the ground firm about the roots. There is scarcely 
any soil so poor but what may be made to grow good Straw- 
berries, if properly managed. With regard to distance, we 
allow them, on an average, 27 or 30 inches from row to row, 
and about 2 feet apart in the rows. I have known some, who 
have wished to make the most of their land, plant 1 foot apart 
in the rows, and, after the first crop, destroy everyalternate plant. 
Others I have known to have planted a row of Cole worts between 
each row, and to have pulled them up by the roots early in spring, 
leaving the whole space to the Strawberries. I never allow a 
bed to remain longer than three years before it is destroyed. 
Good fruit is obtained the first year after planting; the crop 
may be a little heavier the second year, but the fruit will 
be finer the first yeai\ The third year the crop will be good, 
but the fruit will not be so fine as it was either the first or 
second; and, after it is gathered, the bearing powers of the 
plants will be exhausted, and they should either be burnt on the 
ground, and the ashes carefully spread over the laud, or they 
should at once be dug in, thus restoring to the soil much of 
the matter which has been absorbed by the plants in then- 
growth, and the absence of which has lessened fertility in a 
corresponding degree. Where Alpine Strawberries are grown 
they may be treated as annuals, the old plants being destroyed 
every spring ; they will then yield a good crop of fruit when 
others have done bearing. Eclipse with us is a great favourite, 
being a heavy cropper, of average flavour, and an excellent 
variety for pot culture. Sir J. Paxton is a handsome early 
variety, the flesh of which is very solid. Its flavour is 
very good, it forces well, is a very free grower, and quite 
hardy. Its appearance, which, perhaps, surpasses that of all 



others, renders it valuable for dessert — it is of a rich 
bright glossy colour, and should be in every collection. 
Dr. Hogg is very much like the British Queen, from which it 
was raised. It is however much finer, a better grower, has a 
better constitution, and has established itself as a general 
favourite. I am now gathering fruit from this variety which will 
average nearly 2 ounces each. It is one of the sweetest 
Strawberries grown. Cockscomb is a very fine and handsome 
variety when it succeeds, and is, where it is known, a great 
favourite. Viscomtesse Hericart de Thury is synonymous 
with Lion de St. Lasemer. The skin is deep scarlet in colour ; 
the flesh firm, solid, and highly flavoured. The plant is 
vigorous and nearly as productive as Eclipse, though the 
berries are not quite so large. It continues a long time in 
bearing. The foliage resembles that of the old Keen's 
Seedling. It is a valuable variety for general cultivation. 
Amateur is a fine conical-shaped berry, with a rather acid 
flavour, but a heavy cropper. Those kinds are what I have 
grown this season, and at the time of wriDing (July 6th) are in 
full bearing. Early Prolific, Duke of Edinburgh, and James 
Veitch, were bought in the spring, but I cannot report on 
their qualities at present. Eor the purpose of keeping 
the fruit clean I use litter, which, if it does not meet 
the views of some fastidious people, has the advantage 
of thoroughly answering this purpose. On dry, gravelly soils, 
little good can be accomplished in a dry hot season with- 
out plenty of water. This may be considered the life and soul 
of the Strawberry. With a hot sun and plenty of moisture, the 
fruit may be brought to great perfection ; without them, it 
languishes. It is, therefore, obvious that a good supply of 
water is a necessary adjunct to every Strawberry garden. As 
soon as the blossoms begin to expand, the water should be 
given freely ; and if, before the plants go out of bloom, they 
can be given a good soaking of manure-water, it will almost 
double the weight of the crop. I consider the application of 
manure-water to Strawberries, while they are in bloom, the 
secret of success. Gardeners of the old school used to allot 
certain quarters to the growth of certain crops, and, more 
especially, those of Strawberries ; but I would particularly 
advise that such a practice should be abandoned, and a fresh 
situation for every succeeding plantation provided. When the 
ground has been occupied for several years with the same crop, 
it becomes exhausted ; and, my own experience has convinced 
me that Strawberries form no exception to this rule. R. 



WALL TREES FOR VARIOUS ASPECTS. 
After what has already been said on the subject of aspect, it will 
ba admitted that to lay down a hard and fast rule for planting 
wall trees, if that were possible, would be of no practical value ; 
a few general observations on the subject are all that can be hazarded. 
In order to define what fruit trees would be suitable for certain 
aspects in a given locality, the matter would have to be determined 
by actual experiment : this is a slow but sure way of gaining the 
necessary knowledge, and, after all, is worth the time and trouble 
in every case. If a really good variety of fruit is unsuccessful on a 
certain aspect, let another bo tried, or even the same aspect in 
another part of the garden ; slight as the change is it may be 
attended with success. The general rule is to plant south walls with 
Peaches, Apricots, Figs, and the most tender of late Pears. Unless 
iu very warm sheltered localities, Peaches and Figs are precarious 
crops even on south walls and with extravagant expenditure of 
labour in protection, training, and other attention ; the former, we 
venture to remark, will be more successful on comparatively dwarf 
walls of from 8 to 10 feet than on high walls of 12 to 14 feet. Figs 
require a high wall. South walls are unquestionably the place for 
Apricots — indeed, this aspect is altogether the most important 
generally throughout the country, north or south, and therefore the 
choicest fruits must monopolise it, or such fruits as are most in 
request. Among Apricots, there are no varieties better than Moor- 
park, Shipley, and Mashmaeh — the former perhaps the finest of 
all Apricots ; the second a very prolific and early variety, excellent 
also for indoors ; the latter the best for preserving. Of Peaches 
for the open wall, we know none better than early Louise, Bar. 
rington. Noblesse, and Desse Tardive. Besides the above, it is often 
necessary to have a few trees of early Cherries on a south wall 
for early fruit : three kinds suitable are Bigarreau, Black Tartarian, 
and May Dnke, and well worthy of a place on a south aspect. 
Of Plums, Coo's Golden Drop, Kirke'a Plum, and Greeu Gage are 



54 



THE GAEDBN. 



[July 17, 1875. 



worthy of a south wall, the former requiring abundance of the sun's 
light and heat to bring it to perfection ; than Kirke's we know no 
better purple Plum, and it richly deserves a south aspect. If room 
can be spared, there are many varieties of Apples which deserve a 
south wall, such as Cornish Gilliflower, Nelson Codlin,Ribston Pippin, 
Melon Apple, Northern Spy, Golden Winter Pearmain, and many 
more. Among Pears deserving a south wall, or that cannot be 
grown to perfection without it, it would be very difficult to make a 
selection ; even such hardy Pears as Flemish Beauty and Urbanisto 
are sometimes magnificent in size and quality from a south wall 
when the soil is favourable. As a rule, the better class of late Pears 
should be selected when room is found on a south aspect, such as 
Josephine de Malines, Bergamotte d'Esperen, Beurre Ranee, Easter 
Beurre, and Ne Plus Menris. On north aspect walls the Morello 
Cherry suoceds to perfection, and hangs for months after it is ripe 
without shrivelling. A space of north wall should also be devoted to 
Eed Currants, trained as upright cordons, in order to prolong the 
season for this useful kitchen fruit. Currants may be gathered from 
a north wall for tarts nearly up to Christmas. Among Plums we find 
that Orleans, Late Orleans, and Green Gage, do well on a north wall. 
The Red Warrington Gooseberry may also be planted against a north 
wall and trained like Currants, in order to retard its fruit for late 
use. For walls with an east aspect there is abundance of choice. 
First of all, the Apricot will do well provided the situation be dry 
and open, and the atmosphere not sluggish from the proximity 
of trees. On this aspect the Apricot is not exposed to the wet south, 
west winds of autumn, which are so prejudicial to the ripening of the 
wood. The dry easterly winds of spring do not seem to have any very 
injurious effect on the Apricot — no more than is easily preventible by 
the use of a few folds of old herring-nets to break the force of the wind. 
Cherries all succeed on an east aspect, also various Plums, such as 
Early Orleans, Rivers' Prolific, and Early Favourite, White and Red 
Magnum Bonum, Blue Imperatrice, and Perdrigon. On east walls 
Apples will also do perfectly, of which Devonshire Quarrenden, 
Ribston Pippin, Starmoor Pippin, and Kerry Pippin may be mentioned. 
For a west aspect. Pears succeed perfectly, and will assume quite a 
different appearance from the same varieties grown on a south 
wall ; Pears swell to a large size on west walls generally. Many 
Plums also succeed well or best on west walls ; as Coe's Golden 
Drop, Kirke's Washington, Greengage, Reine Claude de Bavay, and 
Victoria. Among Apples for a west wall are Oslin Pippin and 
Irish Peach, two fine early summer Apples. These must only be 
accepted as general remarks on planting trees on walls. So much 
depends on the climate of a locality, whether low-lying or elevated, 
inland or near the sea, that a rule applicable to all gardens would be 
impracticable. The amount of rainfall in a district is another vital 
element afEecting the success of wall-fruit culture, especially 
Peaches, Apricots, and late Pears, the range being from 20 inches in 
some districts to 120 inches in another. It does not, however, 
follow that, because a district has a heavy rainfall it is unfavourable 
to fruit.culture generally ; but sometimes the reverse ; the atmo- 
sphere may be much more humid in the district of least rainfall, say 
in autumn, when the wood of fruit-trees should be ripening — a most 
important period —than in the locality of the greatest rainfall, because 
the temperature of the air may be higher in the former, and conse- 
quently will excite continued growth too late to ripen ; whereas in 
the latter, growth will have ceased from decrease of temperature, and 
the wood be sufficiently consolidated for the formation of blossom. 
buds. In this we suggest a comparison between the south, 
west coast and the inland and elevated parts of the west. — " The 
Gardener." 



Blackheartedness in St. Michael Pine-apples. — Mr. 
W. Thomson makes a statement concerning the St. Michael Pine, 
apples in the last number of the " Florist and Pomologist," 
that does not accord with our experience of these fine fruits. 
He says — "That the reason why so many of those otherwise fine 
Pines, brought from St. Michael's, so soon decay when placed in 
the fruiterer's shop, and are so often, when cut, found to be black at 
the heart is, that they are brought over with their stems in ' earthen- 
ware fountains of water, to keep them plump on the voyage.' I 
saw a whole row of them in this state in the window of one of the 
principal fruit-shops in Princes Street, Edinburgh, this spring. 
Another fruiterer in the same street told me that she would never 
have another St. Michael Pine in her shop, as she had had several 
returned that were found to be black inside when cut. When black, 
there is of course little danger of their doing injury, as no one will eat 
them in that state ; the danger is before the action of decomposition 
becomes evident to the eye. It would bo far safer for those who 
consume these Pines if they were brought over sea in dry cases, 
without water ; they might not arrive so fresh-looking, nor prove so 



heavy, but they would be wholesome, which they cannot be as at 
present imported." From some experience of St. Michael Pines in 
Covent Garden, we have no doubt that the above opinions are not 
based on the examination of such St. Michael Pines as are known 
in the London market. It is extremely rare to find a St. Michael 
Pine that is black in the centre. As now imported to the London 
market the Saint Michael Pines are the best example we have seen 
of the successful importation of perishable fmits from distant 
countries. 

Birds V. Fruit. — A fruit garden surrounded with Strawberries 
and woodland is pretty sure to suffer periodically from the attacks of 
birds; and, as we have a great amount of labour in protecting choice 
fruits from them, I have been led to observe under what conditions 
their attacks become the most persistent, and I am decidedly of 
opinion that it is only when pressed by hunger, through the scarcity 
of their natural food " through long-continued drought," that they 
attack our fruit gardens to any serious extent. In moist showery 
weather, I have observed them feeding under the fruit bushes, with- 
out molesting the fruit. Blackbirds or thrushes are our most 
numerous depredators ; and while they can find a ready supply of 
worms, grubs, and insects, they confine themselves to the shrub- 
berries or woods, to the ground amongst crops in kitchen gardens, 
and, more especially, to fruit-tree borders when mulched. When, how. 
ever, there are long periods of drought, and food gets scarce, birds 
get bolder every day until even the nets that we employ for covering 
small fruits fail to keep them out, as they will, when very hungry, find 
their way under them. Powder and shot, or good nets, are the only 
means that I find at all effectual in preserving a full crop of fruit. 
Raspberries are as much injured by birds as any crop we have; for, 
in addition to the quantity they eat, they settle on the side branches, 
and break them off in quantities, thus destroying the succeeding 
crop. The best remedy is to build a temporary framework over the 
beds, and cover the whole with nets. When birds are protected, the 
most economical way is to net up, effectually and well, all fruits 
before they begin to colour. — J. Groom, Henham Hall, Waiuiford. 

Influence of Shelter upon the Easter Beurre Pear. — 
A somewhat remarkable fact, in connection with this variety of Pear, 
which resulted from an experiment tried byM. KoUer, at Enghien, in 
France, is reported in the " Moniteur Horticole Beige." M. Koller 
had some trees of this Pear, which succeeded admirably on walls, 
but, when tried on espaliers they failed, after having been planted 
for ten years, to produce any but split and speckled fruits that never 
came to maturity. Under the impression that the cause of this was 
a want of vigour in the trees, M. KoUer tried a variety of means to 
remedy the evil, and, with this view, watered one year with pure 
water, the next with liquid manure, but all to no purpose. This 
year he determined to cut back the refractory trees, and to graft 
upon them more hardy varieties, keeping one, ho%vever, in the form 
of an espalier, to try the effect of sheltering it. To this end a post 
was driven in at each extremity, and on these posts he placed 
a screen forming a kind of hood with sloping sides. This 
was raised a little more than a foot above the tree, which itself is 
about 6 feet high. Under this treatment M. Koller obtained thirty 
Pears, which were the finest in his garden, whilst the fruit gathered 
from the same tree, which grew outside the screen, were split and 
cracked as they were before. 

Stopping Figs on Open Walls. — In looking over the 
" Calendar," I observe that it is recommended to stop Figs by pinching 
out the terminal buds as soon as they have made three or four joints 
or leaves. I must decidedly beg to differ in opinion as to the merits 
of this operation. If it referred to Figs under glass I should fully 
coincide with the directions, as the object in stopping in that case is 
to throw all the energy of the tree into the formation of the fruit 
that usually appears at the base of every leaf. The second crop 
under glass, or that which is formed on the current year's wood, is 
often much more abundant than the first, or that which was 
formed the preceding year. But with trees on open walls the re- 
suits are quite different. For as far as my experience goes, even in 
the south of England, it is only the first crop that ever comes to 
maturity. If the shoots are allowed fully to develop themselves, they 
will usually form several fruits at the base that are nearly half grown 
by the fall of the leaf, with from four to six of the top buds not 
started sufficiently to show the fruit, and on which depends the next 
year's crop. However carefully the green Figs may be preserved 
from frost, I never saw them swell into fine fruits. If the shoots are 
stopped now, in all probability every fruit will be too far advanced by 
winter to be of any service. Next year, all who happen to be 
sceptical as to the results of the two systems, should try half the 
stock of trees each way and compare the crops, then if they do not 
give up pinching for open wall trees their experience will be different 
from mine. I may add that as we are not far from the sea here Figa 
flourish most luxuriantly, and never suffer from frost even when en. 



July 17, 1875.] 



THE GAEDEN. 



tirely unprotected. By cutting out some of the longest shoots every 
season, so that they may break and furnish the base of the tree with 
young wood, wo never fail in getting a crop. — James Groom, Henliam 
Hall, Wang ford. 

THE H OUSE HOLD. 

Cherry Fritters. — -Take half a pound of ripe Mayduke Cherries, 
stone and halve them ; make a pint of new milk pretty hot, sweeten 
it and pour it upon your Cherries ; then well beat four eggs, put them 
with the Cherries, stir all well together, add a little flower to bind it, 
put it into a frying-pan a spoonful at a time, and, when the fritters 
are done, serve with sugar sifted over them. 

Cherry Tart. — Have a very shallow round tin tart mould, 
not more than an inch and a-half deep ; cover it with a paste not 
thicker than a penny-piece, then take some fine Cherries, cub off 
their stems with a pair of scissors, so as not to tear the fruit — the 
principal beauty of a Cherry tart consisting in the fruit being whole 
when sent to table. Pack in a single layer of the Cherries, strew a 
good deal of sugar over them, and bake the tart in a gentle oven. 
Serve hot or cold. 

Cherry Jam. — Stone the Cherries, then take equal weights of 
white sugar and fruit, make a syrup of the sugar ; simmer the 
Cherries slowly in the syrup for twenty minutes, take them out with 
a perforated skimmer, and spread them on dishes to cool, boil down 
the syrup till it is quite thick, put the Cherries back and let them 
boil up once ; then seal in glass cans. 

Cherry Pudding. — Sciild a quart of milk and stir into it a pint 
of Corn meal ; when cool, add half a pint of good flour or a little 
1 less of fine flour with which a teaspoonf ul of yeast powder has been 
thoroughly mixed, four well-beaten eggs, and a pint of ripe, unstoned 
Cherries which have been washed and rolled in flour while damp. 
Wring the pudding-bag from cold water, flour the inside well, put 
into boiling water, and boil steadily two hours. Place an inverted 
plate on the bottom of the kettle under the pudding, and as the water 
wastes add boiling water. Serve with a sauce of sugar and cream. 

Pickled Cherries. — White Ox-hearts are preferred for pickles. 
The stems should be left on and the stones in ; for 8 pounds of fruit 
take i pounds of sugar, 2 quarts of the best vinegar, a little cloves, 
cinnamon, mace, and ginger. root. Boil the vinegar, sugar, and spices 
together, skimming thoroughly ; strain it over the fruit, and boil very 
slowly till the Cherries look like cracking open ; take up carefully into 
jars, and keep in a cool place. 

Dried Cherries. — Take large Cherries not too ripe, remove the 
pits, take equal weights of Cherries and sugar. Make a thick syrup 
of the sugar, put in the Cherries and boil them a minute, and spread 
them on an earthen platter till next day, strain the syrup, boil it 
down thick, put the Cherries in and boil five miuutea, spread ou a 
platter as before ; repeat the boiling two more days, then drain, lay 
them on wire sieves, and dry in a nearly cold oven. 

Cherry Pie. — Stone the Cherries, make a paste in the ordinary 
way, put in the fruit, add sugar and a little water. Stir a table- 
spoonful of flour smoothly into two of water and spread it evenly on 
the edge of the paste ; put on the cover and bake till done. All fruit 
pies cau, by using this mixture of flour and water be kept from 
running over in the oven. N. 



Potato Prospects in East Suffolk.— The recent heavy rains 
in this district have been of great benefit to the Potato crop, 
but warm weather is now much needed to assist the tubers 
to swell off and mature. The haulm of most varieties is just now 
looking very healthy and vigorous, except where injured by the hail 
storms that; passed over portions of the country on the 18th of June. 
Although the injury resulting from the above does not appear to 
have spread over a wide area, the storm was very severe in several 
parts of this county, and appears to have been felt the most at 
Hardwicke, near Bury St. Edmunds, where it did considerable 
damage. The foliage of Potatoes, being rather tender just at that 
time, were much lacerated, and the stems were pitted and bruised in 
a manner tliat might have led one to suppose they had been fired at 
with small shot. I have heard of disease having made its appear- 
ance in difllerent parts of this district; but, as yet, I have not seen 
any symptoms of it in our immediate neighbourhood. The so-called 
new A.merican disease is showing itself on some of the American 
varieties, but, in every case where the tops of these are failing, I find 
that either a maggot is at work at the stems just above the set, or 
that they are suffering from the effects of a previous attack ; but 
why the American varieties should suffer from the attacks of this 
nsect more than any other I am quite at a loss to determine. Such 
early sorts as Myatt's Prolific and Fortyfold are unusually fine this 



year ; and, should the disease only keep off, the late crop will be 
equally abundant. The Red Regent is the most robust-looking late 
variety grown in this district, and is highly prized by the cottagers 
on account of its great productiveness and good keeping qnalitiea. 
It appears to like plenty of moisture, so that the present season will 
suit it, and the poorer classes who have grown it will have an 
abundant supply of Potatoes that will go far to help to tide them 
over the next winter. — J. SnEPi'AED, Woolverstone. 

Potatoes and Wireworms. — On examining the Potato crop 
here, in Queen's County, Ireland, the other day, I found wireworms 
in the haulm, and the plants iu many cases diseased. In others I 
observed numbers of blackish-coloured slugs ; most of the plants I 
could lift off the ground withoat disturbing the soil, and, ou diggiug 
up the tubers, I found that several had rotted away. They have a 
bad smell, but that is only apparent on examiuation. The varieties 
most affected here are the Ashleaf Kidney and Flounders. Those 
not attacked by disease are looking well, and yield on an average 
ten tubers, fit for table, to each plant, but I have counted as many 
as seventeen or eighteen fair-sized tubers to a plant. The weather 
here, for the past six weeks, has been cold and rainy, the tempera, 
ture ranging from 38" to 50.° This morning (13th July) the ther. 
mometer went down to 35°, and only rose to 42' at noon, the wind 
blowing from the north-east, and very cold. — J. P. 

The duassia Tree.— Dr. BaiUon has just presented the Horti- 
cultural Society of Paris with a specimen of Quassia e.xcelsa, a very 
rare tree, and at present, perhaps, the only one in Europe. The 
history of this solitary individual is curious ; it was reared from seed 
in 1868 by the late Dr. Barillet-Deschamps, who gave it to the garden 
of the Faculty of Medicine ; and it is highly probable that the seeds 
came from Martinique under the name of Bittera febrifuga. Heuce 
it was not easy to determine the real nature of the young plant, its 
only characteristic being the extreme bitterness of all its parts, the 
leaves especially. As it was snpposed to require great warmth, it 
was kept in a hot.house, where it got on very poorly, until a Prussian 
shell fell into the place (January 20th, 1871). The foUowiUg night 
being excessively cold (it may be remembered that the winter of that 
year was one of the severest on record) , all the plants cultivated 
there perished except this. Its terminal bud having been lopped off 
by one of the splinters of the projectile, it was picked up and 
examined, when it was fonud to contain a flower presenting all the 
characteristics of the family of Rutacea). The plant was now trans- 
ferred to an Orangery, where it recovered and throve well ; it put 
forth a quantity of leaves in the following spring, and since then it 
has been growing and producing female flowers every year, so that, 
to propagate it, a male specimen has to be found. It is a common 
tree in Jamaica, where it attains a height of 60 feet, and goes there 
by the name of " Bitter Ash." It is exported in logs known in trade 
as " yellow quassia ; " they are made into goblets on the turning- 
lathe, and these are sold under the well-known name of " bitter 
cup." The shavings are also much in demand for infusions exceed- 
ingly beneficial to weak stomachs. They are used in the manufacture 
of beer; and, as for the wood itself, it is also made into boxes for 
preserving furs from moths, which shun auoh receptacles on account 
of their bitterness. 



Underhill's Sir Harry Strawberry.— At' the Richmond Horticultural 
sociefcy'B show which took place the other day Messrs. Steel exhibited a large 
tea-tray covered with fine fruit of this Strawberry, araouuting in all to over 200 
berries. They state that this is a stood and moat productive variety, and the 
fruit shown seemed to amply contirm their statement. — A. D. 

A Suggestion in Reference to Labelling Koses.— It is always difficult to 
maintaia the labels ou Rose trees in a state of lesibiUty, and it occurs to me that 
if the nurserymen who sell them would attach to each tree one of the new 
imperishable 'labels, the purchaser would gladly pay a penny extra for each 
Rose so laljelled. It is not worth while for small gardeuers to buy say a 
himdred labels of Baroness Rothschild or La France, but for the nur.sery 
gardeners it would bo, and, whilst making a profit upon the labels if supplied, 
as I have suggested, with the Roses sold, they would confer a benefit upon the 
public. — An Amateur RosAsrvrf. 

Sutton's Giant Emerald Marrew Pea.— This is a giant form (though only 
so far as the colour of the haulm and pods are concerned) of Sutton's Emerald 
Gem, being much superior to that excellent variety both in produce and flavour. 
Here it has grown to au height of 7 feet, and la well furnished with pods (con- 
tauiing from eight to nine Peas) from top to bottom. Iu flavour it is all that 
could possibly be desired, and retains when cooked that beautiful light green 
colour peculiar to Emerald Gem and Danecroft Rival. I consider it a valuable 
acquisition to our list of vegetables. — \V. W., Hccktleld. 

Lllium superbum at Home.— Probably such of our readers as cherish this 
fine hardy plant among their choicest garden treasures will envy the *'niow6r" 
mentioned in the following paragraph from the "Albany Cultivator " : — " The 
most gorgeous of all our meadow flowers is the Turk's-cap Lily (Lilium 
superbum). It generally grows in wet places, often in or near a ditch, and 
attains a great height. I have seen it In a neighbour's garden on dry ground 
scarcely less luxuriant— 5 feet high, with a great numberof gorgeous retlexed 
flowers on every plant. The blossoms continue a long time in the garden, 
but in the meadows usually meet an untimely end at the hands of the 
mower, who seldom cares enough for botany or beauty to preserve or trans- 
plant them. 



56 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 17, 1875. 



SOCIETIES AND EXHIBITIONS. 

BOYAL BOTANIC SOCIETY. 

Evening Fete. 

This Society has now been established thirty-six years, but this was 
only the fourth occasion on which a night fete of this kind had been 
arranged by the Council. In 1872, when the evening gathering was inaugu- 
rated, it proved a failure, owing to a severe and sudden storm ; but in the 
two following years the fete was held with the greatest success, the 
weather on each occasion being all that could be desired. On Wednesday, 
however, the drenching rain which fell continuously from noon till 
midnight either entirely spoilt or greatly impeded all the arrange- 
ments which the Council had made for the entertainment of their 
guests. But for the wretched state of the weather 7,000 persons 
and upwards, judging from the number of tickets issued, would in 
all probabiUty have attended the fete. At midnight barely 3,000 
had passed the gates. The grounds were illuminated with gas, and 
in the conservatory, tents, marquees, and other parts of the gardens 
various prettily-arranged devices in lighting were exhibited. The Ameri- 
can tent was lit with new and picturesque patterns of Chinese lanterns, 
and the covered walks, bridges, and other special features of the garden, 
as well as a design upon the larger mound, were lined and marked by 
chains of lamps. Electric lights were placed on the conservatory, the 
anemometer tower, and the flagstaff, and their reflection was visible for 
miles round. 

Table Decorations, &c. — In spite of the heavy rain, a large 
number of dinner-table and other floral decorations were staged. The 
five semi-circular spaces around the fountain in the exhibition tent were 
entirely filled with crimson, white, and yellow Boses, from Mr. W. Paul, 
the whole being margined and separated into groups by means of lines of 
the Mustard plant, which, being of a fresh green colour, formed a by no 
means inefficient substitute for Selaginella. Several very tastefully- 
arranged hanging baskets were suspended in the exhibition tent, one of 
which struck us as bemg very eff'ective. This was filled with Caladiums, 
yellow Calceolarias, pink double-flowered Pelargoniums, the margin 
being fringed with Panicum variegatum and Maiden-hair Peru. The 
chains on which it hung were wreathed with Cissus discolor. This came 
from Messrs. Dick Eadclyfl:e & Co. ; and Mr. J. Hudson and Mr. E. 
Wheeler also showed effective baskets, filled with white-sepaUed Fuchsias. 
Some weU-arranged jardinettes were placed in the conservatory, one 
from Mr. Ilepper being fiUed artistically with Caladiums and Alocasia 
macrorhiza,^ a highly-coloured plant of Dracajna terminalis being in the 
centre ; while the margin was fringed with Isolepis and Panicum varie- 
gatum. The jardinette itself was nearly entirely concealed, and the base was 
covered with dark green Moss, on which a plant of Gasteria verrucosa was 
placed with excellent efl'ect. Groups of plants suitable for recesses in rooms 
or conservatories came from Mr. Wheeler, Messrs. Dick Eadclyffe, and 
others. The last-named exhibitor had a fire-place decorated with white 
Lilies, Sedum Sieboldii, Moss, and white Water Lilies, the base being 
fringed with Selaginella, and the mantle-piece covered with Roses and other 
fragrant flowers resting on a base of fresh green Ferns ; this was a novel 
and excellent arrangement. Dinner-table decorations were well repre- 
sented, but they were so much alike that we purposely allude only to the 
most original and distinct. Miss Hecker had a table, in the centre of which 
was a tall pinnate-leaved or plumose Palm, supported on either side by a 
well-grown specimen of Grevillea robusta, one of the most graceful and 
effective of all cut-leaved plants. The bases of these plants were con- 
cealed by conical banks of fresh green Ferns and foliage mixed with 
Eoses and Water Lilies. Water Lilies, it may be mentioned, were used 
in nearly every arrangement shown, as were also wild Grasses and rosy 
and white Ehodanthes. Miss Edith Blair's table decorations were simple 
and effective. They consisted of a central trumpet-shaped vase filled with 
wild Grasses, white Ehodanthe, Dipladenia Boliviensis, the margin of the 
trumpet being fringed with pendent branchesof a scarlet-flowered Begonia. 
This was supported by two plants of the bright green feathery-leaved 
Acacia lophantha. The leaves of the central vase, and of the plants used 
in this case, were concealed with fresh Ferns, Grasses, Roses, Eucharis, 
and blue Larkspurs. Mrs. Scale's table struck us as being a very tasteful 
one. It was furnished with three March stands, in which the slender 
sprays of a white-flowered Bell-flower was conspicuous among white 
Water Lilies, Stephanotis, Corn-flower, and blooms of blue Agapanthus. 
Between the March stands were two smaller vases filled with Orchids, 
scarlet Begonias, and Ferns, while four shallow glass baskets of living 
Sphagnum and Ivy leaves were enlivened by little sprays of a small white- 
flowered Campanula. Mrs. Hudson's table, a very pretty one, consisted 
of a graceful Cocos Weddelliana in the centre, wreathed with Lygodium, 
the base being concealed with Ferns, Grasses, Ixoras, and Bell-flowers. 
The end trumpet-shaped vases were filled with wild Grasses and the 
slender spikes of Chelone barbata, the scarlet flowers of which shone out 
under gas-light with excellent effect. The margins of the glasses were 
draped with scarlet Begonias and two or three of the drooping spray-like 
flower-spikes of Dendrochilum filiforme, the stems of the vases them- 
selves being wreathed with the common blue Passion-flower, and their 
bases decorated with conical mounds of Water Lilies, scarlet spathes of 
the Flamingo plant, wild Grasses, and blue Corn-flowers. In the open 
class for lady or gentlemen competitors, Mr. Chard had an effective 
arrangement, composed of plumose-leaved Cocos in the centre, supported 
on either side by slender trumpet-shaped vases, tastefully filled with wild 
Grasses, orange-spotted American Lilies, with Roses and spikes of a blue 
Veronica at the base. The base of the central Palm was hidden by a bank 



of Ferns, Grasses, Water Lilies, Pelargoniums, and blue Corn-flowers. 
Mr. W. Buster's table, which was effectively decorated, contained five 
trumpet-shaped vases, arranged in a line down its centre. The central 
base consisted of wild Grasses, enUvened by the scarlet-flowered Chelone 
barbata and a bank of Ferns, on which the white spathes of Eichardia 
contrasted with the scarlet clusters of Kalosanthes coccinea, which is one 
of the most effective of all succulents. The two central vases were filled 
with Grasses and white Bell-flowers ; the stems were wreathed with the 
scandent Adlumia cirrhosa, the trumpets being fringed with rosy Begonias. 
The end vases were filled with wild Grasses and cut sprays of the scarlet 
and white-flowered Clerodendron BaLfouri, with Plumbago capensis and 
Balfour's Clerodendron at the base. Some rather pretty floral arches 
were staged, that from Messrs. Dick Eadclyffe & Co., to whom the first 
prize was awarded, being very effective. A pretty one consisted of 
slender sprays of the common Asparagus enlivened with Stephanotis and 
the mauye-coloured Bougainvillea, and one composed of white Lihes, 
Pelargoniums, and foliage plants, was also very pretty. Many of the 
tables were, unfortunately, spoiled by wind and rain. 

Sideboards or Buffets. — Of these some pretty arrangements 
were set up. Mrs. Burley had a group consisting of one March stand 
and two vases exquisitely arranged with Water Lilies, Maiden-hair Fei-n, 
blue Corn-flower, and rosy Rhodanthe, the upper vases being lightly fiUed 
with wild Grasses, slender white Canterbury Bells, and blue Corn-flower. 
The pure white Water Lilies at the base of the central vase were fresh and 
lovely. At each extremity was a black vase containing a plant of the white- 
spotted-leaved Richardia, the soil being hidden from view by means of 
fresh green Selaginella, on which were laid three flowers of Water Lilies, 
the whole being backed up with three fresh green Ferns in pots. Miss 
E. Harris had a charming group of Ferns and Palms. Here a plant of the 
yellow-stemmed Latauia aurea, flanked by two examples of Weddell's 
slender Cocos, had an excellent effect, and two plants of the slender Pteris 
tremula and four plants of a crimson-leaved Begonia shone out well under 
the gas-light. Few cut flowers were employed in this case. Miss 
Edith Blair's arrangement for the side-board consisted of a March 
stand of two tiers, and a vase-shaped trumpet, tastefully filled with fresh 
Ferns, white Stephanotis, wild Grasses, and trusses of the bright scarlet 
Kalosanthes coccinea. "This stand was flanked by two small plants of 
the elegant green-leaved Dracrena congesta, on a mound-shaped base of 
Maiden-hair Fern. Messrs. Williams and Bach showed some dinner 
table decorations not for competition. Some button-hole bouquets and 
floral wreaths were furnished by Mr. James Bromwich. Six or eight 
attractive wedding bouquets were staged, nearly all of which were com- 
posed of white Bouvardia, Eucharis, Eoses, and Maiden-hair Ferns. 



Horticultural Exhibition at Brent-wood. — Two very fine 
plants of Erica obbata were shown here the other day by Mr. Walker, 
who also staged good examples of Caladium Lowii, Latania borbonica, 
and Cibotium princeps. Mr. Lane, gardener to General Fytche, exhibited 
Dasylirion [acrotrichum and Lomatia hetrophylla in excellent condition 
Well-grown zonal Pelargoniums were shown by Messrs. Burly and Mead- 
more ; and some Tricolors, furnished by the same exhibitors, were finely 
coloured. Cut Roses, contributed by Mr. Cant, of Colchester, were all 
that could be desired. The amateurs twenty-four Roses, for the president's 
prize (a silver cup), were also good. Fruit and vegetables, both from 
gardeners and cottagers, were also good. 



OBITUARY. 



Wk have to record, with regret, the death of Mr. Peter Wallace, 
which occurred a few weeks ago in Ceylon, where he had for some time 
been engaged in Coffee culture. Mr. Wallace commenced his horticul- 
tural Ufe at Chatsworth, in Sir Joseph Paxton's time, and in 1846 he 
accepted an appointment at St. Michael, where he was one of the first 
to introduce the culture of Pine-apples into the Azores. After about 
six years' stay there he returned to England, and went out as Govern- 
ment gardener to the Island of Ascension in 1853, returning to this 
country in 1857. In 1859 he obtained an appointment as superintendent 
of the Viceroy's gardens in Egypt — a position which he held until 
1862, when he went out to Ceylon, and returned to England in 1869, 
settling in Texas in the same year. In 1873 he again went out as manager 
of a Coffee plantation in Ceylon. He was an able and intelhgent 
horticulturist. 



Plucking a Flower. — A correspondent at Spalding, in Lincoln- 
shire, sends to the "PaU Mall Gazette" the following extract from a 
local paper, reporting the proceedings at the petty sessions there, the 
other day : — " Sarah Chandler, of Spalding, was charged with damag- 
ing a Geranium plant by plucking a flower therefrom. Sentenced to 
fourteen days' imprisonment and fom- years in a reformatory." It is not 
stated in the report that Sarah Chandler had previously borne a bad cha- 
racter, and our correspondent states that the sentence has excited consider- 
able indignation. The circumstances (he adds) are as follows :— " A little 
girl,' aged thirteen years, bad gone to. see her aunt, who resides in an 
almshouse in the town, and on leaving the house had, as children often 
will, fallen in love with a Geranium, and had plucked a flower therefrom, 
thus causing the damage for which she was prosecuted." The magi- 
strates were the Rev. E. Moore, the Rev. J. T. Dove, and Messrs. A. Ball, 
T. Harrison, and C. S. Taylor. [Since the foregoing has been in type, 
this matter has been brought under the notice of the Home Secretary, 
who has remitted the sentence.] 



THE GAEDBN. 



SATTTEDAT, JXTLT 24, 1875. 



" This is an art 
Which does mend nature : change it rather ; bnt 
The Abt itself is Nature." — Shaliespeare. 



THE EOSES. 
In my " Thirty Tears War," the war of the Rose against frost 
and fnugus and fly, I do not remember such a successful 
campaign as this of 1875. A propitious spring, and a cloudy 
summer with refreshing rains, have given vigour to the plant, 
and size and colour to the bloom. Old favourites, which we 
thought were degenerate, but which were only sufiering from 
the untoward weather, prevalent in our latter springs, have 
appeared in all their primeval beauty, and even old trees, 
weakly, and, as we thought, moribund, have astonished us, 
like grandfathers dancing at a wedding, with their perform- 
ance, sharing in the general joy, and seeming to say to us, 
" See, there's life in the old dog (-Rose) yet !" Wliat grandeur, 
what splendour, we have now in our crimson Roses ! what a 
substance of petal, and what a glow of colour withal ! in the 
darker varieties, with their purple and scarlet tints, such as 
Charles Lefebvre, Royal Chai-lie, King of Roses, Duke of 
Edinburgh, aflame with vivid glory — the Rose, which as you 
survey the Rose-garden, when the sun rises or sets on it, is 
most likely to aflix your gaze — Exposition de Brie, Fisher 
Holmes, Lord Macaulay, Louis Van Houtte (Cranston showed 
a bloom at Nottingham, and I have a facsimile now in my 
budding-ground, which would melt a garotter into tears), 
Madame Victor Verdier, Mareohal Vaillant (one of the most 
faithful Roses in cultivation, both for abundance and excel- 
lence), Pierre Notting, lovely as large ; Prince Camille de 
Rohan, rich maroon, seldom having symmetry or size for ex- 
hibition, but beautiful in the bed or the bouquet ; and Xavier 
Olibo, with its large, dark, velvety petals, flushed with crimson 
fires. In Roses, a few shades lighter than these, what 
noble flowers we have admired and admire, in Alfred 
Colomb — groat as our own Alfred — and glowing like the fire 
with which he burnt the cakes ; Annie "Wood, or rather 
Anne, for she has appeared in this gracious season without the 
eye, which sometimes disfigures ; Claude Levet, with its clear 
crimson complexion and regular graceful outline ; Comtesse 
d'Oxford, having almost a superfluity of mixed colours, 
rose, red, and purple ; Dupuy Jamain, exquisite in all points; 
Dr. Andry, a picture of glowing health, as all doctors should 
be for the encouragement of their patients ; Dootcur du 
Chalus, who has set up next door to him, and, being young and 
handsome, is already a favourite ; Duohesse de Caylus, ruddier 
than a Cherry, and almost as round ; Ferdinand de Lesseps, 
no longer an entered apprentice, but a master mason ; Fran- 
cois Louvat, an admirable flower, bfit a little injudicious some- 
times at our shows, in opening his heart to strangers ; staunch 
old General Jaqueminot, still in the van, with a staff of his 
own sons around him ; Horace Vernet, bright as his Roman 
namesake, when he bad just finished an ode or a goblet ; John 
Hopper, smiling more brightly than ever on his honest, hand- 
some old father, Jules Margottin ; and then " a Dream of Pair 
Women," Mesdames Marie Baumann (she took precedence of 
all, the last time I assisted iu awarding the first prize to 
" twelve blooms of the same variety"), Boutin, Clemence 
Joigneaas (a Rose which I should give, with Gloire de Dijon 
and Marechal Vaillant, to a beginner, for bloom they would, 
whatever he did, or wherever he put them), George Schwartz, 
Marie Rady, the Woods, Charles and Louisa ; and, descending 
again to the coarser sex, Leopold Hausberg, a rare combina- 
tion of good looks and modesty, for he ever hangs down his 
beautiful head, Leopold the First, and Maurice Bernardin ; 
Olivier Delhomme and President Thiers (you must vacate the 
chair, and say place aux dames, Mr. President, when the 
Countess of Oxford approaches) ; and, keeping best for last, 
as they do at the fireworks, glorious old Senateur Vaisse (a 
senator, who is liberal with his multiplicity of blooms, and con- 
servative in retaining all his ancient glories) and Victor Verdier, 
that hale hero, whose victories and whose verdure never fail. 
Passing now to flowers of the Rose roseate, of the colour which 
we specially designate rose, what charming specimens we have 



seen and see of Annie Laxton (all honour to him who has 
sown so carefully and is now reaping so richly, as we shall 
hear by-and-bye— my worthy friend, Mr. Laxton) ; Edouard 
Morren, a fine weather sailor, collapsing in times of storm, 
but, in his integrity, a delightful Rose ; Emilie Hausburg, always 
looking as though she had just left her toilet-table, " dressed 
within an inch of her life " ; Duchesse de Morny (as shown by 
Mr. Baker at the Crystal Palace Show), the pink of fashion 
and the mould of form; Madame Boll, as imposing and 
stately as Madame Fillion is viignonne, pretty, and real ; 
Madame Therese Levet, uniting the charms of both; Mar- 
guerite Dombrain, the presentment of " a simple maiden in her 
prime ; " and Marquise de Castellane, the presentment of a large 
and lovely matron at the same period of life ; Monsieur Neman, 
a giant warrior, on parade, in uniform; and Monsieur Paul Neron, 
a giant also, but in the smoke-room, and with his dressing-gown 
thrown back from his ample form. Then, turning to our paler 
beauties —to Roses " pinky-white," or blush— how perfect, in 
her cpiet but queen-like beauty, is the Baroness ; how like a 
winsome lady-in-waiting is the Duchesse d'Orleans ; and how 
exquisite, ere it expands, and on the eve of rosehood, the 
younger Miss Blair, sometimes vulgarly termed Blair's Number 
Two; what fair Maids of Honour, Elie Morel and Eugenie 
Verdier, aglow and flushed as though the Rose of her heart 
had just whispered, " Sweet Eugenie, be my bride ; " how 
faultless La France, not satisfied with the homage of your eyes, 
but enthralling your nose also ; the dainty, delicate Marguerite 
de St. Amand ; the refined Marquise de Mortemart ; and the 
pretty pink Princesses Beatrice and Mary of Cambridge. And 
now, of Roses new and Roses newest, which have been the best ? 
Of the former, Etienne Levot (well does the raiser deserve his 
crown, or stei-ihanos, which the name suggests !), both in foli- 
age and flower one of our gi-andest Roses ; Francois Michelon, 
capable of a size and symmetry which I have not yet seen at 
our show ; Madame Hippolyte Jamin, a very welcome and 
precious addition to our scanty stock of light-coloured Roses; 
and Marie Cointet, silvery -pink, exquisite in colour and shape, 
and verifying, as exhibited by Mr. Bennett, of Salisbury, 
at the Crystal Palace, the praise bestowed upon it by 
Mr. George Paul, of Cheshunt, in his Catalogue of Roses, 
for 1874-5— "the prettiest Rose of last season." Of the 
latter, the Roses to me newest, I elect Captain Christy, 
as likely to be, when established in our gardens, a most attrac- 
tive and fine blooming Rose, like, but distinct from, Eugenie 
Verdier ; Duchess of Edinburgh, a Rose of excellent habit, 
qualified to brave all weathers, and to bloom abundantly; 
Etienne Dupuy, of good form, though perhaps a little dull in 
colour; Madame Nachary, very large and beautiful, in the 
style of Louise Peyronney ; Marie Finger, a well-shaped Rose, 
in the likeness of Eugenie Verdier, but, as I saw it, more 
cupped iu form ; Thomas Mills, a bright, handsome, carmine 
Rose, sure to be popular ; and my own namesake, Reynolds 
Hole, which, in congenial weather is not excelled as a dark 
Rose. Mr. Turner, of Slough, has some admirable novelties — 
Beauty of Slough, Miss Hassard, Oxonian, Rev. J. B. Camm, 
and others. Messrs. Paul, of Cheshunt, have a great acquisi- 
tion in Sultan of Zanzibar, and in Brightness of Cheshunt, as 
shown at Nottingham, the most vivid of all the scarlet Roses ; 
and Mr. Laxton introduces two excellent new Roses, Mrs. 
Laxton and Emily Laxton, the latter resembling M. Noman in 
form, but being of a much deeper rose colour. 

Caunton Manor. S. Reynolds Hole. 



Self-sown Japanese Primulas (P. japonica).— Of these we have thou- 
sands, which come up of their own accord. Planted in shrubbery borders, and 
mixed with common Primroses, Bluebells, and similar plants, they have a fine 
appearance. We have used the purple variety in this way, and I beUeve it will 
soon be quite as common and hardy as our native Primroses. — H. M., Cornwall. 

Triteleia laxa.— Those who are not growing this Triteleia will find it well 
worthy a place in their herbaceous borders. Unlike T. uniflora, in having 
only a solitary flower on a stem, T. laxa has a large umbelliferous head, some- 
what resembling an Alstromeria. In colour, it is a pretty shade of blue, and 
it will bo found very useful for cutting, as it lasts well in that state.— J. 
Sheppard, TFooIverttone. 

Anthemis Kitaibelii.— This composite is now a pretty object in the mixed 
border. It grows rather tall, and requires to be neatly staked. Its large, 
pale, lemon-coloured, Daisy-like flowers are very showy. In this class 
Inula glandulosa has just been finely in flower, and is now well succeeded by 
Telekia speciosa and Coreopsis lanceolata ; and, when these are gone, Inula 
Helenium and Coreopsis anriculata and philadelphica are ready to take their 
places. All have large, showy, golden-rayed flowers.— H. Habpue Ceette, 
Drayton-Beauchamp li«ciory, Tring, 



58 



THE GARDEN. 



[JuLT 2t, 1875. 



NOTES OF THE WEEK, 



The copious raiufall which we have had, has, as usual, 

favoured herbaceous plants, and, in London gardens, these now 
present the glossy vigorous appearance which they generally show in 
moist or elevated districts. This points to the good that would arise 
from mulching, in dry seasons, borders devoted to these plants. 

We are pleased to report that the absurd mud-edgings, to 

which we had so often to allude during the past few seasons, have 
wholly disappeared from the West-end parks. 

One of the prettiest and rarest of all bouquet and batton.hole 

flowers now in season is Peperomia reseda^flora. This plant bears 
tiny spire-like spikes of white flowers at the apex of pink stems, the 
lower portions of which are clothed with small velvety leaves. 

The beautiful Lilium longiflornm is this season almost as 

common in Covent Garden Market as the old white Lily — one of the 
many signs that the finer kinds of hardy flowers are beginning to find 
their due place in our gardens. 

SxBAWBERniEs have rotted very much during the recent rains, 

and the growers of them for the market have lost heavily. During the 
past week the variety which has seemed to come freshest through the 
deluge of mud and water is the Elton Pine. 

A Dublin Correspondent sends us details of the great sale of 

the late Mr. Bewley's famous collection of plants at Rockville. 
Owing to bad weather and other causes, the attendance was poor 
and buyers few. ^Vant of space prevents us giving the prices, which, 
moreover, are not remarkable. 

Messrs. Rivers have sent us, from Sawbridge worth, specimens 

of the Bigarreau Monstrueuse de Mezel Cherry, a very large and 
delicately-flavoured Bigarreau. It is known in gardens under the 
name of Monstrous Heart, but is not nearly so extensively cultivated 
as it ought to be. 

Oranoes, at one time very scarce at this season, may now be 

had of very good quality in our markets. Among the best just now 
are those from Valencia. The culture of the Orange is increasing so 
rapidly in many different districts both in America and Europe that 
we shall, doubtless, soon have an abundant supply of them all the year 
round. It is, among fruits, the most useful on the whole to man and 
the most delicious. 

Of some out specimens of Pitcher plants, shown at South 

Kensington on Wednesday last by Mr. Thomson, one branch of 
N. distillatoria bore seven fine pitchers, some of which were fully a foot 
long and about 3 inches in diameter at the mouth. We need not add 
that they were remarkable examples of good culture. 

Mr. Wills is to carry out the floral decorations on the 

occasion of the Prince of Wales's visit to Sheflield. He proposes to 
use several miles of wreaths and many tons of ics. The cold rains 
remind us that some substitute for our lost sun-heat, however feeble, 
would greatly aid floral decorations in 1875. 

An international fruit show is to be held at the Alexandra 

Palace, Muswell Hill, on Thursday, Friday, and Saturday, Septem- 
ber 2nd, 3rd, and 4th, of the present year. The schedule contains 
nearly a hundred classes, and the prize money amounts to some £500. 
All enquiries concerning it are to be addressed to Mr. McKenzie, 
Alexandra Palace, Muswell Hill, of whom schedules maybe obtained. 
Entries cannot be made after the 2Gth of August. 

Our common Corn-flower (Centaurea Cyanns) is now sold in 

abundance in Covent Garden, where, on flower-market mornings, its 
Gentian-like brilliancy, when tied in large bunches, is very con. 
spicuons. By the way, we may relate hero, that when the Emperor 
of Brazil paid a visit to Professor Owen, at Sheen, he expressed 
himself charmed with the beauty of some scattered tufts of this 
plant in his garden. We mention this, not from placing more value 
on His Majesty's opinion than on that of other people in such matters, 
but it is interesting when we consider the splendour and variety of the 
flora of the region over which he reigns. 

It is interesting to note the growth in public favour of the 

Tomatoes in the London markets. Only a few years ago they were 
what salesmen call a "fancy article;" now every year shows an 
increase in the demand for them, and they are a common product 
even early in the season. Large supplies now come from Paris and 
from Lisbon ; these last very large monstrous-looking fruit, packed 
in sawdust. The Tomato, however, soon suffers from travelling, and 
much of this foreign fruit is not so agreeable to the palate as freshly, 
gathered Tomatoes. Although our climate is too cold for their 
successful culture in the open air over large portions of the country, 
we, nevertheless, bolievo that if the numerous opportunities our glass 
houses, pits, and frames offer for cultivating them were taken advantage 
of, we should have an abundant supply. The number of glass houses, 



frames, &d., empty and half-empty daring the summer months, offer 
means of growing, without trouble, what some consider the most 
delicious and wholesome of vegetable products. 

One London market gardener, for weeks past, has paid £90 

a week to women for gathering Peas. 

A fine specimen of the variegated variety of New Zealand 

Flax is now in bloom in the Lucombe Nurseries, Exeter. The spike 
is erect, and some 9 feet in height. 

The Delaware Peach growers, at their recent convention 

estimated the present year's Peach crop, judging from present 
appearances, at 6,000,000 baskets. 

The Royal Horticultural Society has awarded Mr. Worth. 

ington G. Smith its gold Knightian medal for his discovery in connec. 
tion with the Potato Fungus. 

— ■ — The smallest plant at the Royal Horticultural Show on 
Wednesday, and at the same time one of the most effective, was the 
Coral-berried Duckweed (Nertera depressa) shown by Messrs. 
RoUisson & Sons, of Tooting. 

Yuccas are now rising into stately bloom in the avenue 

gardens in the Regent's Park, where they will, for many weeks to 
come, form a fine feature. Here they show well the capacity of 
certain plants to modify ihe effects of objectionable geometrical 
gardening. 

■ The blooming period of Delphiniums and not a few precious 

races of hardy plants ig prolonged, and their appearance otherwise 
improved, by the removal of the seed-pods at a very early stage. 
Frequent cutting of the flowers of many plants when at their best 
also tends to prolong the season of flowering. 

The men under our clever correspondent, Mr. Gilbert, of 

Burghley Gardens, have just presented him with an arm-chair ! This 
reminds us that ruling with an iron rod is not essential to the highest 
success in garden management. We trust an ink-bottle may bo 
within reach of the chair so that The Garden may continue to 
receive a fair supply of Mr. R. Gilbert's pithy notes. No man knows 
better than he does how to grow the best vegetables and tell all about 
them in very little space. " Gilbert on the Kitchen Garden," would 
form a handy volume for the waistcoat pocket. 

The splendid collections of plants and fruits shown at Ken. 

sington on Wednesday last well show the public spirit of our 
nurserymen, the skill of our gardeners, and the willingness of both 
to suppoit the Horticultural Society. The Council of the Royal 
Horticultural Society are likely to conclude terms with Her Majesty's 
Commissioners of the International Exhibition of 1851, and tho 
terms are said to be fair to both parties, the Royal Horticultural Society 
being placed in such a position as will enable it in the future to pursue 
its course without conditions which formerly impeded its freedom of 
action. We trust the Society may be now managed in a way worthy 
of the art of gardening, and of the handsome manner in which it 
has been supported on this occasion by horticulturists. 



Campanula pyramidalis. — This is one of the most useful and showy plants 
for conservatory decoration in Jane that it is possible to have. Seed of it sown 
now, or as soon as it is ripe, aud»grown on freely, will malco strong blooming 
]ilants for next season. For border use it is equally valuable, and is the 
most effective of all the Campanulas. — J. Sheppaed, IVooloerdone. 

A Sea-side Button-hole Boncuet.— I have rarely seen a coat.decoration 
f hat pleased me more than the following arrangement :— Take two expanded 
flowers of salmon-red or orange Alstromerias, with any buds that may chance 
tc belong to them ; put a short branch of Scotch Briar (foliage only) in front 
of them, and a longer branch behind, and work in amongst the group a few 
small nieces of Tamarisk.— W. T. P. 

Potato Prospects in Devon.— The disease has spread rapidly the last ten 
days or fortnight throughout this neighbourhood— earlier and worse than it has 
been for some years, owing to the wet, cold, weather. In the cottagers' garden 
allotments, which are exceedingly well managed, some sorts are quite leafless. 
The early sorts, which usually ripen off before the disease sets in, are now the 
most afTected, whilst the latest sorts are far from being free from Uiint.— Joaif 
Gaeland, KUlerton, Devon. 

The Great Burdock. — Few, I am afraid, would pat this in pleasure 
grounds, and yet I have seen there many less stately pl.ants. One growing 
here on the margin of a disused gravel pit is the finest I have ever seen. It 
stauds nearly 6 feet in height, and at the base is 8 feet in diameter- a perfect 
pyr.araid in ioliage, and as fine a match for the Giant Parsnip as could be found. 
The leaves at tho base are 2 feet in length and proportionately broad. Would 
it not be possible, in some of our large gardens, to set apart a space whereon 
to grow such specimens of hardy plants ? — A. D., Bedfjnt. 

Peaches with Split Stones-- Having a house of Peaches that are now 
ripening, many of tnem are spoilt in the stones, and in some cases rotting 
before they are thoroughly ripe. Some are split fairly in half, and one I 
found broken out on one side. Where the kernel is not rotted they appear to 
have commenced growing. Not having a full crop on the trees, I have given 
them waterings of manure-water to induce them to make fresh growth, which 
they are now doing. I observe that those planted in a well drained border, are 
not so much affected as those in pots, where they have been for some years, 
and have received an annual top-dressing, but some of the fruits are in the 
same condition. Will some readers of The Gaedbw tell me if my practice is 
right, and, it not, say how I mxy do better?— J. W., OikUMi, Leamington. 



July 24, 1875.] 



THE GARDEN. 



59 



THE GARDE N IN THE HOUSE. 

BUTTON-HOLE BOUQUET FOR JULY. 
It is much, to be regretted that many pretty combinations 
and charming little bouquets must remain undepicted while 
the pencil of the artist and the tools of the engraver are 
alone available for conveying to the eye of the reader the 
appearance of the subjects which it is wished to describe. 
Until colour can be added to outline and shading, we must 
rest contented with the best attempts that we can produce in 
verbal descriptions, however much they may fall short of 
conveying a complete picture to the mind's eye. The accom- 
panying woodcut gives a faithful representation of a dark 
Clove Puik, surrounded by two or three leaves of sweet- 
scented Pelargonium. Above it, on the left, is a single bloom 
of Tuberose, while on the right are four buds and two 
flowers of white Bouvardia. Two very small pieces of 
Maiden-hair Fern complete the bouquet, which, it must be 
remembered, is to appear on a background of black cloth. 
In order to keep everything in position until the bouquet is 




Button-liole Bouquet. 

placed in the coat, a wired Eose leaf is put at the back, and 
one of its leaflets peeps out behind the Pink. It would, 
perhaps, be difiicult to obtain a better effect with as little 
variety in form and colour with any other kinds of flowers and 
foliage. It is a " button-hole " that was selected out of a large 
collection at Mr. Dickson's, in Covent Garden. W. T. P. 



Variegated Alder. — I have sent you some leaves of the common 
Alder (Ahius glutinosa) which, as you will notice, are beautifully 
blotched with gold. This sport, if it keeps true, as I have every 
reason to think it will, will be a valuable addition to ornamental 
trees. I shall watch its further development with interest, as a 
prettier or healthier branch I have never seen on any tree than the 
one from which I have taken the leaves in question. I may mention 
that the tree is a seedling raised in our nurseries ; it is at present 4 
feet in height, and the bottom part of it has leaves, when fully 
developed, 4 inches wide and nearly 5 inches long, and of the true 
deep green colour of those of the true Scotch Alder of onr lakes and 
river margins. — J. F. McKenzie, Tain. [Along with thi.s came Alder 
leaves beautifully blotched and mottled with gold.] 



THE AMATEUR'S GARDEN. 

By THOMAS BAINES. 

Strawberries. — The late showery weather has been favourable 
to the growth of runners, and the earlier plantations of this fruit are 
made the better, as the stronger the plants get before winter, the 
more fruit may they be expected to bear next summer. Potatoes are 
a good preparatory crop to precede Strawberries ; but whatever has 
previously occupied the ground, it should be quite free from perennial 
weeds, such as Couch Grass, or anything of a similar deep-rooted 
character. Varieties must be selected in accordance with the nature 
of the soil. Strawberries like strong heavy land in preference to that 
which is light, generally doing well where it almost approaches the 
consistency of clay, provided it is sufBoiently drained to prevent the 
accumulation of stagnant water, for, when too wet, the plants die oi? 
in winter. The following, which are amongst the best for all purposes, 
will afford a succession, and most of them do well where this fruit 
can be grown at all. They are placed in the order of their ripening. 

Keen's Seedling. — This is still one of the best early sorts, and 
will succeed where many others will not thrive. 

Vicomtesse Hericart de Thury. — This is an excellent Straw, 
berry, a good grower, remarkably free bearer, moderately early, and 
will succeed where many others will not. It is one that all should 
try. 

Sir JosephjPaxton. — This is a prolific good.flavoured sort, hardy, 
and one that may be depended upon. It will also succeed where 
many will not. 

President. — This is a very fine, good-looking, and free-bearing 
sort. It is early, and will succeed where many would fail. 

Sir Harry. — Avery high coloured, free-bearing kind, that will do 
on soils that are not adapted for many varieties. The fruit is a 
little acid, but, if it is allowed to hang on the plant until it is fully 
ripe, that is until it assumes an almost blaok.red colour, this 
disappears. 

Sir C. Napier. — Fruit, large and handsome, firm and brisk in 
flavour, an immense cropper, well deserving a place in every garden. 
It is also a good grower. 

British Queen. — This, where it will succeed, is not superseded 
by any other kind, but it requires a good Strawberry soil, and there 
are many situations in which it will not do at all. 

Dr. Hogg is a good sort, not unlike the last named, but pro. 
duces larger fruit and is stronger in constitution, succeeding in 
many places where the (Jneen would fail. 

Frogniore Late Pine. — This is a large late sort of good 
quality, and is one of the best to follow the preceding kinds. 

The ground for Strawberries should be well and deeply dug ; for, 
although they are surface-rooting plants, it is best to have tl-.e 
land well stirred to a moderate depth ; 15 inches is not too ■ uch, 
as, so long as the plants are allowed to stand after plantintj, there is 
not an opportunity of digging among them to any depth ; in fact, 
the spade should not be used at all. If the laud is poor, dig in a 
good dressing of rotten manure ; on good strong soils they are best 
grown in rows 2^ feet apart with 2 feet spaces between the plants in 
the rows. In old vegetable gardens that have been long cropped the 
soil sometimes gets so light and full of humus that Strawberries 
will not succeed well in it; in such oases I should recommend a 
dressing of marl, or, if this cannot be had, 2 or 3 inches of clay laid 
on the surface for a month or so until it becomes pulverised by the 
weather, when it should be forked in about 6 inches deep ; this will 
afford something which the roots well enjoy. In soils that are 
very dry, as well as light, after giving a dressing as just indicated, it 
is sometimes advisable to grow the plants in beds 4 feet wide, 
putting 4 rows in a bed ; this will leave the rows 9 inches apart, 
allowing a foot between the plants in the row. By this means the 
ground becomes covered with leaves, which protect the roots from 
the action of the sun in dry weather, during which time they must 
be well supplied with water. Strawberries thus treated should not 
be allowed to stand more than two years. By this method they can 
often be made to succeed where they fail grown in rows in the 
ordinary manner. In all cases give the plants snflBcient water until 
they have got fairly rooted, li well established early in the autumn 
they may be expected to bear a good crop of large fruit the ensuing 
summer. 

Pears on "Walls or Trellises. — When the season's growth has 
been completed, such shoots as are not required for laying in to fill up 
vacancies, should be removed, cutting them off at the base ; for this 
nothing is better than a pair of strong hand nippers, such as are used 
for pruning Gooseberry bushes ; the advantage of this implement 
over a knife for removing the summer growth consists in its doing 
the work more expeditiously, and in the branches not getting torn 
out of the ties or shreds with which they are fastened, as often 
occurs when a knife is used. What may be described as half- 



60 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 24, 1875. 



breaking the sboot3 off over the blade of the knife, is usually 
done with the view of keeping the trees from making a second 
growth, which must always be discouraged, as it would completely 
defeat the object in view, and place the trees in a worse condition 
than if the shoots had not been taken off at all until the winter 
pruning ; the objecc in removing them at the present season is to 
induce the formation of plump aud good buds for next year's crop, 
but, if the work is done too soon, instead of the ensuing crop receiv. 
ing'any benefit it will suffer, as well as the trees, by the would-be 
fruit spurs pushing into growth. Most fruit trees are later this 
season than usual in finishing their growth. Where it is the inten. 
tiou to keep pyramidal Pears within certain limits as to size, they 
should have their shoots thus removed, as well as Apples, Cherries, 
and Plums, either when trained or when they are to be kept dwarf. 
Apples and Pears, that make too strong growth, will have their 
superabundant vigour in part reduced by their summer pruning, as 
all removal of leaves, whilst green and active, reduces root power. 

Tomatoes, Turnips, Endive, and Winter Onions.— The 
wet cold weather which we have had has been auythiug but suited 
to the growth of Tomatoes; oh walls, keep them well thinned out, 
and closely fastened up, so as to enable them to got all the sun aud 
light possible, which will promote a disposition to flower, otherwise 
the cold autumn nights will be upon them before they have time to 
ripen fruit in anything like satisfactory quantities. If they are 
erowinc over.strongly, do not give water until they flag a little, which 
will induce them to bear. Sow more Turnips now wherever room 
can be found, as it is important to get these in at once, or they will 
not have a chance to attain a useful size before winter. Also put 
in a little more Endive, both Batavian and Green Curled. Winter 
Onions should likewise be put in, in well.prepared ground, and in 
rows a foot apart. Globe and White Tripoli and Giant Eooca are 
the best. 

Drying Herbs. — These should be gathered as soon as they begin 
to open their flowers. In drying them, two methods are employed ; 
one is to tie them into bunches, as soon as out, and hang them up iu a 
room or shed ; the other is to first lay them out in the sun to dry ; 
by both these methods the quality is deteriorated. It fermentation 
takes place sufficient to discolour the leaves, such as occurs, more or 
less when herbs are tied up in bunches whilst green and sappy, their 
best pi-operties are destroyed. In confirmation of this, it is only 
necessary to point to the extreme care taken by the growers of 
Lavender, Mint, &c., for distilling; for such purposes they are not 
allowed to lie together, even for a few hours. If, on the other hand, 
herbs are exposed to the sun, much of their strength is dissipated ; 
they become quite brown, and that fresh green appearance which they 
possess when the drying is well managed is destroyed. Bat when 
herbs have been improperly treated, loss of strength is not the worst 
result • there is always imparted to them a disagreeable flavour. In 
drying herbs, an open shed or room, where plenty of air can be given, 
is necessary. Stretch out a piece of netting, such as is used for pro- 
tecting fruit from birds, wire netting, if at hand, will do ; on this lay 
the herbs (which should be cut, when quite dry) thinly ; thus treated, 
air acts upon them from all sides, and they dry quickly, which is the 
primary object, without losing their best properties. When perfectly 
dry, put them loosely in white paper bags, tie them up, and hang 
them where they will be free from damp, or they will become mouldy. 
Herbs treated in this way, will be found to be but little inferior to 
such as are fresh cut. Sage should now be propagated by slips, 
takin" off middling-sized branches, and inserting them moderately 
deep in the ground in rows, where they are to be grown ; if the 
weather becomes dry, give them plenty of water until they are 
rooted. The advantage of growing Sage from slips or cuttings is 
that plants so produced have not such a disposition to flower as those 
raised from seed. 

Indoor Fruit Department. 
Vines. — Late varieties will now require to have their young 
growths pinched two and three times a week, as it is better to go 
over them frequently than allow the wood to grow for a number of 
feet and then remove it. Gros Colman, after being stopped the first 
time, never afterwards makes many young growths. The leaves of 
this variety are v(!ry liable to become shrivelled in autumn, before 
the fruit is quite ripe ; therefore, in older to have the foliage fresh 
as Ion" as possible, the lateral growths should be left three or four 
leaves in length. Every opportunity must now be taken to encourage 
the development of late Grapes, as one mouth of bright summer 
weather, properly utilised, is of more benefit than two later in the 
season. Grapes being now frequently transferred from one place 
to another, packing ought to receive careful attention. Grapes are, 
however, not so easily injnred by travelling as some other fruits; 
but the bloom is apt to get rubbed, and without bloom the appearance 
of the fruit is deteriorated. Single bunches, or a few pounds, should 



be wrapped up in tissue paper and placed in a box made of half-inch 
deal, as near tho size of the quantity it is destined to contain as 
possible. A layer of paper shavings should be laid along the bottom, 
and, as each bunch is placed in the box, a small quantity of the 
shavings should be placed between it and the next bunch, enough of 
the same material being laid over the top of the whole, before putting 
on the lid, as will prevent any of the bunches from getting displaced. 
Screws should be used for fastening down the lid, as they can be put 
in and taken out without shaking the box or splitting the wood. 
Baskets with close-shntting lids may be, and often are, used ; but 
they are not so secure as the wooden boxes. When large quantities 
are being packed, no wrapping or stuffing between the bunches is 
necessary. If a lining of paper shavings be placed round the box or 
basket, and the bunches are laid closely against each other, they will 
travel a long distance, and stand much knocking about, without being 
iu any way injured. This is the safest, easiest, and cheapest way of 
packing large quantities of Grapes. 

Pines. — Large suckers, which were rooted a month or two ago, 
may now be shifted into their fruiting pots. They will make con. 
siderable growth before the end of the season, and, at the latest, 
will be in fruit by this time next year. Treat them as plants with 
no roots for a week or two after potting. As plants from which the 
fruit has been cut are thrown away space will be made to admit of 
thinning out, aud re-arranging the young stock of fruiting Queens. 
The best plants generally are those which aro grown far enough 
apart to prevent leaves from intertwining. Continue to pot suckers 
as they become fit for separation from the parent plants. — J. MuiR. 

The Plowrer Garden and Pleasure Ground. 

The present season, with its plentiful rainfall, has been favourable 
to the development of most kinds of bedding plants, and, although 
there may, in some instances, be a slight deficiency of bloom, should 
the weather improve, this will not long be the case. Each flower-bed 
should now be as perfect as possible. The time is close at hand when 
it will be necessary to propagate plants for next year. But before 
doing this it will be advisable to make a careful inspection of present 
arrangements, and note any faults that may be perceptible iu order 
that they may not be repeated. It is also necessary to decide soon 
as to the intended arrangements for next season, so that the necessary 
quantities of plants required may be ascertained, and preparations 
made for their propagation. It is always advisable to do this in 
preference to proceeding in a hap-hazard manner, the result of 
which is not nnfrequently more plants of some kinds than are really 
required, aud a corresponding deficiency of others, a circumstance 
which very often prevents contemplated arrangements from being 
properly carried out. It is always advisable, however, to prepare a 
sufficiency of plants for the different beds, and, if we err at all, it is 
best to do so on the safe side. The late showery weather having been 
exceedingly favourable to the growth of Grass and weeds it is 
necessary to keep the mowing machine or the scythe constantly at 
work. Flower-beds and gravel walks too should be kept free from 
weeds of all sorts. Beds planted in the carpet style will require 
unremitting attention to keep them in order, as souie of the free, 
growing plants used for this purpose, such as the Golden Feather 
Pyrethrum, encouraged by the wet weather, are growing with unusual 
luxuriance, and are inclined to encroach unduly upon their more 
tender neighbours, such as tho Alternantheras and Coleuses, which, 
on account of the comparatively cold and sunless weather recently 
experienced, have not made that rapid progress which they generally 
do. — P. Geiete, Cidford, Bunj St. lidinunds. 



Rare Irises in Oxfordshire. — I. susiana is out of flower now. 
It is quite hardy here, though no doubt it does better iu a pit. How 
is it that we see so little mention of I. iberica .' It is supposed to bo 
rather a difficult plant to manage, but we find it do well here in 
ordinai'y saudy loam. The flower is by a long way the best I have 
seen ; much superior to I. susiana, of which at first glance it reminds 
one. It blooms about the beginning of May ; theflower is of enormous 
size, and the plant only about 10 inches in height. I. Kosmpferi and its 
varieties aro very good, and will be in bloom in a day or two. Messrs. 
Henderson have a fine collection in their Wellington Road Nurseries. 
To attempt to mention many of the best Irises in my garden 
would be too long an undertaking ; but I cannot refrain from 
a tribute of praise to I. ochroleuca, which is now past its best. 
Tliere is a large patch of it here in a moist border (aud moisture is 
essential to its full development) which is 5 feet in height, crowded 
with cream-coloured flowers, with yellow markings. It is quite 
distinct, and is an indispensable plant. I. sibirica, and its white 
varieties, ai-e good, and will grow in any wet and bad soil. I. 
germanica, and its numerous varieties, we have growing in, I might 
almost say, thousands, about the wild garden. — OxoN. 



July 24, 1875.] 



THE GARDEN. 



61 



THE FRU IT G ARDEN. 

HEATED WALLS v. GLASS CASES. 
Flued or heated walls were at one time serviceable garden 
structures, but cheap glass and other circumstances have 
tended to bring them into disrepute. Owing, however, to the 
improvements which have been effected in hothouse building 
in recent times, and more especially in wall copings, which are 
now almost a substitute for glass screens, and comparatively 
inexpensive, heated walls assume a new aspect, and I think it 
can be shown that such structures, with the aid of copings, are 
quite as effective protectors as glass cases ; in some respects, 
perhaps, better for trees, and certainly not half so costly. I may 
observe that some of the finest crops of Peaches ever produced 
were grown on flued walls with 11-in. board copings, and these 
were not chance crops, but were produced as regularly as the 
year came round by the judicious use of heated walls. It is 
recorded that a Mr. Harrison, in one of the coldest localities of 
Yorkshire, where Peaches would hardly ripen on an ordinary 
wall in the most favourable seasons, produced such enormous 
crops of Peaches, of excellent quality, and with such regularity 
that the Koyal Horticultural Society deputed Dr. Nochden to 
visit Mr. Harrison, and report on his method of culture, which 
simply consisted of careful training, and protection by means 
of heated walls, and sometimes branches hung over the trees. 
This was forty years ago or more, and the Report will be 
found in the Horticultural Society's transactions of about that 

t date. Otherinstances, too, could be furnished. I am acquainted 
with a garden in one of the coldest districts in the north of 
Scotland, where Apricots would have been a most precarious 
crop but for the flued wall. With this assistance the crops were 
regular and most abundant ; the thinnings of the young fruit 
used to amount to basketfuls. It is not proposed here, however, 
to restore the old flued walls, but to heat walls in a more 
perfect and economical way by means of hot-water pipes ; but 
first let us look at die comparative cost and utility of heated 
walls versus Peach cases or Peach houses, which they practically 
are nowadaj-s. As to the protective power of regular Peach 
cases, glazed as they are now, from top to bottom, with venti- 

. lators back and front, so that they can be shut up at night, I 
can assert from experience that 7° of frost are as much as 
they will ward off under ordinary circumstances. And as the 
trees in such structures are unavoidably hurried into flower at 
a period in spring when 12° or 15° of frost are not uncommon, 
the crop is not unfrequently destroyed ; and this fact has 
induced many to heat their Peach cases with pipes, thus 
turning what was originally intended as a cheap IPeach case 
into an expensive house. It should be stated that during 
favourable weather in February and March, glass cases are hot 
structures in the daytime, and force the trees into flower and leaf 
sooner than is desirable ; and they have consequently to be then 
pushed on, for stagnation of growth after the flowering stage is 
fatal to Peaches. This drawback is, however, avoided by 
heated walls, for the heat need not be applied till the trees start 
into growth at the natural season, when there is less danger of 
frost. Another disadvantage of glass oases is that in hot 
summers the crops ripen sooner than they are wanted, unless 
the ventilation is on an imusuallyample scale. On the other 
hand, glass copings, 18 inches wide, are frost proof, I believe, up 
to 5° or 6" ; it has been put as high as 10" and 12°, by practical 
cultivators, but that is doubtful, for a coping cannot do more 
than a regular roof. However, putting the protective power 
of the coping at 5°, and that of a heated wall at the same 
figure, we have a structure frost proof up to 10° — nearly 
twice as much as that afforded by a glass case. In other 
respects, the merits of a coped and heated wall and glass case 
are about equal ; but, as regards the flavour and colour of the 
fruit, those on the open wall have no doubt the advantage, 
being always exposed to the air. And now ag to the com- 
parative cost of the system ; judging from the estimates I have 
seen, and from the plans and specifications of a professional 
builder now before me, the cost of heating a wall by a coil of 
3-inch pipes, and furnishing a glass coping 18 inches wide for 
the top, would be from 6s. to 7s. 6d. per foot run, more or less, 
according to circumstances ; but, as a hollow wall is less expen- 
sive than a solid one of the same thickness, such as would be 
required for a lean-to Peach case, the actual outlay would be 



something less in the end. The cost of a complete glass 
screen of the cheapest serviceable description for a wall 13 feet 
high would be about 30s. or 35s. per running foot at present 
prices, not including front brickwork, if any, or supports 
— a vast difference when we come to speak of a Peach wall 
100 feet long or so. The question has been stated fairly on 
both sides to enable cultivators to judge for themselves ; but, 
granting the heated wall to be equal to the screen for Peach 
culture, its smaller cost will be sufficient to give it the prefe- 
rence whenever the object is simply protection from early or 
late frosts. 

Whether for convenience or economy, hot-water pipes are 
best for heating a wall. The old flue syste'm is cumber- 
some, inconvenient, and by it it is impossible to warm 
the wall as equally over its whole surface as pipes enable one 
to do. A space enclosed by bricks on all sides is easily 
heated, but to have a lasting reservoir of hot air the space 
should be as considerable as can be secured consistently with 
the stability of the wall. Any intelligent bricklayer under- 
stands how to build a hollow wall, which, to be heated with 
pipes, would i-eq aire to be about 2 feet thick, the back of the 
wall being two bricks thick or 10 inches, and the front one 
brick. This would leave the inner cavity about 9 inches wide. 
To give stability, as well as to prevent the hot air from the 
pipes reaching the top too speedily, the wall would require to 
be secured by stone ties in the usual way — say three rows, 
excluding the coping stone — 4 feet asunder. These stones or 
flags should be laid about 2 inches apart, to permit the ascent 
of warm air from the pipes, which would, of course, be laid 
along the bottom of the wall, and the stokehole would be at 
one end. A small boiler would heat a long brick wall, as the 
heat would accumulate rapidly between such non-conducting 
materials as bricks ; and besides, the purpose is not to make 
the bricks hot, but only to communicate a warm glow to their 
outer surface during the time when the trees are in flower in 
spring, and in autumn when the wood is ripening. To facili- 
tate training operations, and also to save the wall, the trees 
should be trained on a wire trellis ; but, as Peaches ripen 
better close to the bricks than away from them, the wires 
should not be more than half an inch from the wall, which 
should not be whitewashed, but left its natural colour. 
As regards culture, it differs in no way from the usual method 
practised under glass. The object should always be to pro- 
mote a vigorous growth, and to cut back as little as possible — ■ 
a practice wholly unnecessary and undesirable except in the 
case of ill-matured wood, an evil only resulting from insufli- 
cient heat and too thick training. Fined walls after the 
old fashion have, perhaps, been most frequently employed in 
the north and in Scotland, where they not only benefited the 
trees, but used to be excellent protectors of early Lettuce, 
French Beans, and Potatoes, planted just within the influence 
of the radiation from the bottom of the wall, and I have seen 
in such places marvellous productions in the way of early 
seedlings of all kinds, such as the modern gardener does not 
think of raising anywhere but in his glass houses. In recom- 
mending heated walls, therefore, I am not proposing a return 
to an old or obsolete practice, but to one of proved utility that 
is capable of greater amplification with our present appliances 
than ever it has been at any former period. Peaches are still 
beyond the reach of all but the wealthiest classes in this 
country, for at the cheapest season they can seldom be 
bought worth eating under a shilling apiece, and this price 
hardly pays the grower taking one year with another. Any 
plan, therefore, which tends to cheapen this production, and 
at the same time to render crops more secure, if not almost 
certain, deserves attention. W. 



GRAFTED STANDARD GOOSEBERRIES. 

By growing Gooseberries in the form of standards their productive- 
ness is increased, and the fraits themselves grow larger th!\ii 1 have 
ever seen them on plants that stood on their own roots. Tlie stock on 
which the Gooseberry is "worked" in Germany, when it is giown as 
a standard, is Ribes aureum, a perfectly hardy shrub, often found in 
gardens on account of its little yellow sweet-scented flowers. To 
secure a large stock of this in the shortest possible time it is necessary 
to have or plant old bushes in good rich soil. As soon as the young 



62 



THE GAEDBN. 



[July 24, 1875. 



bottom shoots get from 3 to 3 feet high, they must be covered with 
loose soil to the height of about 6 inches, so as to induce them to push 
roots from their lower ends. A tew cuts in the bark, where such 
young roots should appear, will help their production materially. 
They should have plenty of water all through the dry season In 
August or the first part of September some trimming is necessary. 
Remove all the small and weakly wood in order to strengthen the 
remainder. Wherever two or three good top branches are found on 
one shoot leave them, and on such plants graft both Gooseberries 
and Currants, or different sorts of each kind. To make sure of getting 
stocks with branched heads, stop the required number of shoots at the 
proper time, when they are about 4 feet high. In autumn, when the 
plants have dropped their foliage, dig all around the old plants, and 
take off such young shoots as are strong and well rooted. They 
should then be potted in a soil that contains plenty of sand and leaf- 
mould ; place them in a cold frame and cover them when the weather 
gets cold. About Christmas or a little after remove them to a green, 
house that is kept at an average tempeiature of from 45° to 55', and 
in a short time they will make a start and can be grafted. As tying 
material use common paper spread over thinly with some grafting wax, 
and cut into narrow strips about 6 inches long. This is better than cotton 
or any other tying material. During the grafting, and after it is done, 
the house should be kept in a moderately warm and moist state, and 
must be shaded whenever the sun shines out brightly. In from two 
to three weeks the buds on the graft, as well as those on the stem, 
will commence to swell and the latter should be taken off as fast as 
they appear. A light sprinkling with tepid water must be given 
daily as soon as you see some leaves breaking on the scion. Thus 
they should be kept til-l all danger of frost is over ; then take your 
plants carefully out of the pots and plant them ont of doors in a 
nursery or in their permanent places. There they will require a few 
ties to suitable sticks to keep them straight and protect them against 
wind. Even the first year after grafting you may expect a crop of 
large showy frnit. — " Gardeners' Monthly." 



BLACK-HBAUTEDNESS IN ST. MICHAEL PINES. 
I OBSERVE (see p. 54) that exception is taken to what I have stated con. 
cerning the evils that result to these Pines from having their stems 
placed in water during their transit to London, on the ground that my 
"opinions are not based on the examination of such St. Michael Pines as 
are known in the London market." Now, I distinctly stated that my 
opinions were founded on, first, a well known law of Nature, viz., that 
water would be absorbed by the fruit so long as its stem was in ic in 
the warm hold of a ship, and that, less or more, decomposition would 
take place where this water mingled with the sugar in the fruit ; and, 
in the second place, I stated that, from an examination of fruit that 
had come direct from the " London market," I found my theory 
amply confirmed ; and I say, on excellent authority, that fruit in such 
a state is not only unwholesome, but dangerous to health. The writer 
of theparagraphinquestioumustbeawarethathundredsof these Pines 
come to hand in London.all but worthless, from the cause just assigned. 
As an example, take the results of one day's sale in Pudding Lane, 
where twenty-seven lots, of from one to ten Pines each, sold at an 
average price of something under 83. each ; many sold at 2s. and 
4s. each ; and, with the exception of one Pine, which made 36s., and 
which had a double anchor brand on it, no lot made more than 10s. 6d. 
each. This was on the 5th of April, 1875, a date on which I was 
getting 5s. and 7s. 6d. per pound for home-grown Pines. Will your 
correspondent say what he thinks caused this difference in market 
value ? If he is interested, as I have little doubt he is, in the impor. 
t ition of St. Michael Pines, let him take a hint from what I wrote on 
this subject ; it may be of advantage to him, it can be of none to me. 

Tweed Vineyard. W. Thomson. 



Registering Orchards. — Now orchards and fruit gardens are 
very frequently made, and some of these contain many varieties. The 
1 ibels are placed on the trees, and the owner has no difficulty in knowing 
exch. But in the course of a year or two, and before the trees 
b ;ar, these labels will be gone, and if he trusts to his memory, he will 
fill to remember the names. A few minutes of time spent in making 
a regular register of the names in some book to which he can always 
rjadily turn will save him much future trouble. This care is 
especially necessary where trees have been planted to fill vacancies, 
differing from those among which they stand. 

Apple Trees from Cuttings. — Enquiry is made of ns if the 
practice of inserting an Apple graft into a Potato and planting it, as 
we sometimes see recommended, will cause the graft to throw out 
roots and grow — the Potato furnishing moisture to the graft till it 
supplies itself with roots. We gave this method a trial in our early 



days, and in the coarse of a few weeks we found a profusion of roots 
at the lower end of the graft, but they were the roots of the Potato 
and not of the Apple. No other result was ever reached. The 
graft, however, may be made to throw out roots if inserted, not into 
a Potato, but into another Apple root, constituting what is known as 
root-grafting. 

Pears Grafted on Apple Trees. — Can I get good Pears by 
grafting them on Apple trees. — Subsceiber. [Very few kinds of 
Pears succeed when grafted on the Apple. The Pear branches 
usually break off, in a few years, at the point of junction. The only 
sort that we have ever succeeded in fruiting on the Apple, for many 
years successively, is the Summer Bon Chretien — a coarse, second-rate 
Pear. If this sort is grafted in the centre of an Apple tree, so that 
the wind cannot break it off, it will bear fair crops for many years.] 

Fruit and Leaf-buds. — A clear illustration of the infiuence of 
rank growth in preventing the formation of fruit buds, is shown by 
experiments made in Colorado, where the practice of irrigation is so 
common. Peach trees, which are irrigated the season through, con. 
tinue growing late, and form but few fruit buds ; when not irrigated, 
the growth is moderate and well ripened, and fruit buds are produced 
in abundance. 

Afi&nity in Grafting. — "A. E." asks "how near must the 
affinity be between grafts and stocks, in order that they may succeed ? " 
There does not appear to be a distinct rule, except that they must be 
nearly related. Usually the operation will succeed between species 
of the same genus, but this does not always hold true, for the culti- 
vated Cherry will not take on the common wild Cherry. The Pear 
succeeds much better on the Quince (although they are of different 
genera) than on the Apple, belonging to the same. The texture of 
the wood seems to have more influence than mere affinity in this case. 
It ia rare, however, for the operation to succeed between trees of 
different genera, although sometimes successful between those 
nearly allied of the same natural order. We often see extravagant 
statements by which the ignorant are imposed on. Some years ago 
a story went the round of the newspapers that if the Peach were 
grafted on the Willow, the fruit would have no stones. A similarity 
in the shape of the leaves led some to believe that grafting would 
succeed, though the two trees are far separated in affinity. The 
statement was true that there would be no stones, for there would be 
neither Peaches, stems, nor leaves. Some years ago we saw a 
" professional " grafter inserting scions of the Chestnut into trees of 
the Horse Chestnut. A similarity in the name, and a fancied resem. 
blance of the nuts had suggested the attempt. The owner called to 
us, " Mr. T. can we graft the common Chestnut upon the Horse Chest, 
nut ?" Certainly, we replied. " Will they be pretty sm-e to grow ? " 
" Not at all — they will never grow — belonging, as they do, to widely 
separated natural orders." The dead grafts remaining, showed the 
result. — "The Cultivator." 

Canada as a Fruit Garden. — We have to acknowledge the 
receipt of the " Report of the Fruit Growers' Association of the 
Province of Ontario for 1874," a large pamphlet of more than 150 
pages of unusually interesting matter. We observe that over 
£260 were expended in distributing trees and plants among 
the members for testing their value and adaptability to the different 
regions of the country, the reports from which will afford important 
information in future. The condensed information in this volume 
from different sources, of which there are twenty-four reports from 
Nova Scotia, constitute a valuable portion. About sixty pages are 
occupied with reports on destructive and beneficial insects, chiefly 
compiled from the best authorities. It appears that there are some 
portions of Canada admirably adaptei to fruit growing, especially 
those regions protected by Lake Huron. Owen Sound sends very 
favourable reports, although in nearly 45° north latitude — being about 
the same as the Grand Traverse region in Michigan, receiving similar 
shelter from the north and west, and, like that region, admirably 
adapted to the growth of long-keeping Apples. From the address o£ 
the president, Mr. Burnet, we learn that even Peaches do well there on 
elevated and low hills, while, as has been long known elsewhere, they 
are failures on low, rich bottom lands. Its speciality, however, is 
Plums, as well as Apples. There is no curculio, no leaf-roller, no 
borer. In short, there can be no doubt that much of that portion of 
Canada which lies between the great lakes is capable of producing 
the finest of orchard and small fruits, as we oui'selves, indeed, can 
testify, having visited the region. 



Eead's Scarlet-fleshed Melon.— This has fully maintained the high 
character which I recoivfd with it. It is robust in habit and produces follago 
ot: great Hul)atancQ. It is most prohfic, sets freely, and swells off evenly and 
well. Several plants of it in our early house here, ripened otf eight fruits of 
4 lbs. each ; while those on which there were four and six fruits were nearly 
6 lbs. each. It ia a handsome fruit, finely netted, and altogether the best 
scarlet-fruited Melon with which I am acquainted.— J. Geoom, Henham, 



JULY 24, 1875.] 



'PHB gardbj^. 



B'i 



THE L I B R A R Y. 

INSECTIVOEOUS PLANTS* 
Da. Hooker's address to the British Association last year 
made the public aware that Mr. Darwin has been for a length 
of time engaged in the investigation of certain plants which 
he conceived to be endowed with insectivorous properties, and 
that a work from his pen, fully detailing the views and the 
facts on which they are founded, might soon be looked for. 
That work is now before us. Its main purport is to prove the 
proposition announced for him by Dr. Hooker, three-fourths 
of it being taken up with the facts, experiments, and infer- 
ences, drawn from one or two of the most strikingly-endowed 
species ; but there is also a considerable amount of very 
interesting secondary matter relating to other allied species 
which he had examined in less detail. To give a fair idea of 
the book it would reqviire to be viewed from two different 




'enlarged about 

stand points, cue looking to the general question opened up 
by Mr. Darwin, whether the plants in question are carnivorous 
or not ; the other accepting that position, and, on it as a basis, 
examining the different means by which the end is attained, 
or supposed to be attained, in different species. We have not 
space for an examination of the work from both points of 
view ; and, therefore, as the abstract question has, perhaps, 
at this time most interest for our readers, we shall confine 
ourselves to a review, necessarily very brief and imperfect, of 




Fig. 3.— Drosera roLmulifolia. Leaf (enlarged), with the tentacles on one side 
inflected over a bit of meat placed on the disk. 

the proof brought forward by Mr. Darwin, and an enquiry 
into how far it seems to be conclusive. 

The broad proposition maintained by Mr. Darwin is, that 
certain plants, which he indicates, chiefly belonging to the 
Droseracea3 or Sundews, are insectivorous. This entails the 
minor positions, that they catch insects, that they kill them, that 
they swallow and digest them— that is, absorb their juices, and 
assimilate them. All this Mr. Darwin maintains that they do. 
They catch them, some (as Drosophyllum) by the secretion 
and exudation of a viscid fluid, to -which any insects that 
alight on it adhere in the same way that they do to the sticky 

* "Insectivorous Plants." By Charles Darwin, Murray. 1876. 



gum surrounding the bud of the Horse Chestnut orthe corolla of 
many Cape Heaths, for neither of which is any carnivorous power 
claimed by Mr. Darwin ; others (as the various species of 
Drosera, especially Drosera rotundifolia) by the use of sensi- 
tive appendages on the leaf as shown in fig. 1, which is a 
side view of the leaf of D. rotundifolia. These have been well 
named tentacles by Mr. Darwin. Each is tipped with a knob, 
from which oozes a sUmy secretion (from the glittering of 
which, in the sun, the plant has received the name of Sundew), 
and each has the power of bending, either independently or con- 
jointly with the rest, covering and detaining by their secretion 
any small insect that they may have captured. Fig. 2 shows 
one-half of them so bent over, and the other erect. In a 
third species, Venus' Fly-trap (Diona^amuscipula) the tentacles 
are replaced, or, at least, their office is performed by a series 
of spines along the margin of the leaf, like a chcoaux-da- 
frisc, which, when the two sides of the leaf close together, 
interlace, and act as prison bars, preventing anything between 
the sides escaping. In a fourth plant (Utricularia vulgaris, a 
water plant common in ditches in some parts of England), the 
leaves bear bladders, which have an opening closed by a sensi- 
tive valve, which opens mysteriously for the admission of 
insects, but closes firmly against their exit. All the latter 
contrivances, it will be seen, depend on a power of motion iu 
certain parts, apparently at the will of the plant, but in reality 
under the stimulus of some existing caiise, which induces the 
required action. This irritability or sensitiveness is no new 
thing in plants ; it is present in many, as, for example, the 
Sensitive Plant, where it is not thought to be necessarily of 
beneficial use to its possessor ; and, although its existence has 







OQ 



Fig. 3. — Drosera rotundifolia. Diagram of the same cell of a tentacle, showing 
the various forms successively assumed by the aggregated masses of 
protoplasm. 

been disputed or denied in some of those in which Mr. Darwin 
has proved it, we do not imagine that anyone would, even before 
seeing his proofs, have hesitated to concede it to most of his car- 
nivorous species; and he himself does not claim it for all. It is 
not, therefore, the irritability that is the extraordinary thing ; it 
is the excitation that sets it in motion, and the subsequent action. 
Almost any kind of interference with the tentacles of Drosera 
rotundifolia will set it in motion, such as brushing the tentacles, 
placing inorganic substances upon them, and, most efficient of 
all, placing organic matters upon them, especially such as con- 
tain nitrogen. The rapidity with which this action is induced 
varies according to the size and nature of the object, the 
vigour of the leaf, and the temperature of the day ; and the 
time the tentacles take to bend completely over the object is 
from one to four or five hours ; it remains thus folded from 
one to seven days, and the more soluble the matter is that is 
dealt with, the longer it remains upon it. 

The next step in the process (next, although almost simul- 
taneous) is what Mr. Darwin calls the digestion of substances 
on the leaf. The term digestion, however, has two meanings — 
one, the chemist's meaning, who, when he speaks of digestion, 
means little more than solution ; the other, the colloquial 
meaning, which comprehends solution, absorption, and assimi- 
lation. Mr. Darwin generally uses it in the technical or 
chemical sense, although we are not sure that he does not 
sometimes, perhaps unconsciously, use it in the more compre- 
hensive one. But, at any rate, it seems to us that in the full 
meaning of this term lies the gist of his proof. His experi- 
ments certainly prove solution, and probably absorption ; but, 
although he cites various probabilities in its favovir, we cannot 
lay our hand on any proof, or even attempt at proof, of 
assimilation. The successive steps in the digestion claimed by 
Mr. Darwin are : first, a more copious secretion from the 
glands surrounding the object ; next, a change in its quality, 
from being either exclusively neutral, or only very feebly acid, 
into an acid which is not hydrochloric acid, but, as near as can 
be made out, an acetic acid called propionic, and allied to 



64 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 24, 1875. 



butyric and valerianic ; then a fermentative agent, of the nature 
of pepsin, which Mr. Darwin has been unable to detect, but 
whose presence he is satisfied of from circumstantial evidence. 
The reader is aware that somethiug more is needed to digest 
food in the stomach of animals than the weak hydrochloric 
acid, which is the principal ingredient in gastric juice ; a sort 
of ferineutative agent, named pepsin, has to be added to it to 
enable it to do its work. The phenomena of the leaf of the 
Drosera suggest that something similar must be contained in its 
secretion. Mr. Darwin shows that there is a number of points 
of resemblance between the active secretion of Drosera and 
gastric juice, some of which appear of real weight, others open 
to objection. In the nature of things it must obviously be 
scarcely possible to detect it chemically, the quantities being 
so minute ; but that is no reason for accepting an unproved 
conclusion. 

We regret that we have not space to go into the various 
ingenious reasonings by which Mr. Darwin shows that the 
presence of something like pepsin is almost certain. We 
would only make one remark on the subject, applicable both to 
pepsin in gastric juice and pepsin anywhere else, viz., that 
it may be an organic product of the chemical action going on 
between the hydrochloric acid or other acid, and the matter it 
is dissolving, and not an agent contributed by the living 
stomach or its substitute at all. It has, we believe, never been 
obtained but in the half-digested food, nor has its origin been 
explained. The air and food may first make it, and then use 
it. We know that there are plenty of instances of the production 
of organic matters through chemical action. If this be so with 
pepsin, then its presence both in the animal stomach and on 
the leaf in Drosera is no more remarkable than that the same 
result should follow the same chemical action in different 
places. Practically, this view does not much alter the position 
of matters. It simplifies the process a little, but leaves the 
parallelism between gastric juice and the Drosera secretion un- 
touched. That animal matter is dissolved by a living acid, 
alike by both, is the great point, although a combination of 
more than one process to effect the result, would, of course, 
have strengthened the implication that that was the specific 
result aimed at. 

Subject then to any correction which Mr. Darwin's experi- 
ments may hereafter receive from subsequent observers, 
which, from personal verification of a fair portion of them, 
we can say will not be much, we may assume as proved 
that insects and other nitrogenous matters caught or 
placed on the leaves are dissolved. What is done with 
the solution is the next question. Is it absorbed? Mr. 
Darwin says that it is. " That the glands possess the power 
of absorption is shown by their almost instantaneously 
becoming dark coloured when given a minute quantity of 
carbonate of ammonia, the change of colour being chiefly or 
exclusively due to the rapid aggregation of their contents." 
Of Pinguicula, he says that " the secretion, when containing 
animal matter in solution, is quickly absorbed, and the glands, 
which were before limpid and of a greenish colour, become 
brownish, and contain masses of aggregated granular matter. 
This matter, from its spontaneous movements, no doubt 
consists of protoplasm." But there is something in his 
account of the same phenomenon in Drosera which gives us 
pause. He there gives two figures of a cell of a tentacle, 
showing the various forms successively assumed by the 
aggregated masses of protoplasm, of which fig. 3 is one, and 
says : — " If a tentacle is examined some hours after the gland 
has been excited by repeated touches or by inorganic or 
organic particles placed on it, or by the absorption of certain 
fluids, it presents a wholly changed appearance. The cells, 
instead of being filled with homogeneous purple fluid, now 
contain variously shaped masses of purple matter, suspended 
in a colourless or almost colourless fluid ; and, shortly after 
the tentacles have re-expanded, the little masses of protoplasm 
are all re-dissolved, and the purple fluid within the cells 
becomes as homogeneous and transparent as it was at 
first." If these phenomena were always and only subse- 
quent to solution, there would certainly be strong grounds 
for supposing that they belonged to absorption ; but the 
fact that they follow mere mechanical irritation, and are, 
as shown by Mr. Darwin, independent of secretion, seem 



to indicate something else, and are, possibly, rather connected 
with the phenomenon of irritability. But, even although the 
leaves do absorb, it does not follow that they absorb without dis- 
tinction; they may be capable of absorbing the water in the solu- 
tion, and yet not capable of absorbing the nitrogen, or they may 
be able to absorb both, but the one may be to their benefit and 
the other to their detriment. It is a remarkable thing that if 
they are so greedy of nitrogen as Mr. Darwin's theory 
assumes, and take all these pains to absorb it in the liquid 
form, they absolutely decline to absorb it in the gaseous form. 
Though nitrogen gas constitutes by far the greatest part of 
the mass of the atmosphere, seeds will not germinate in it, 
neither will plants vegetate. Contradictory experiments are 
on record, indeed, as to the power of different plants to resist 
its deleterious effects, but both in those where the plants died 
and in those where they lived it was found that no use had 
been made of the nitrogen. Its quantity in all was found to 
be the same after the experiment as before it, and we are dis- 
appointed that in all his experiments Mr. Darwin does not 
appear to have tried any with this gas, either diluted or mixed. 
It is true that nitrogen is to be found in almost every part of 
plants, but the experiments above alluded to show that it 
must have been derived through the usual medium of 
obtaining nourishment — the roots. 

Last of all, supposing that the liquid is absorbed, is it assimi- 
lated ? On this, the most vital of all the points of the argu- 
ment, we have no proof offered at all, for it cannot be called 
proof to suggest that such an assimilation is required to sup- 
plement the deficiency of nourishment, which is to be inferred 
from the roots being small, and that, therefore, that is how it 
is disposed of. In the first place, we do not admit that the root 
apparatus is deficient or disproportionately small. It is small, 
but so is the plant ; and it is semi-aquatic, so that it can more 
quickly take up its nourishment ; and, in the next place, if the 
provision of roots is deficient, the leaves do not seem the 
organs which we should expect to be used to supply the defi- 
ciency. All the observations of late years point to a reversal 
of the old theoi'ies of circulation of the sap from the root to the 
leaf, and back again from .the leaf to the root. There is, we 
believe, no such circulation There is simply ascent from the 
root. There is, no doubt, an anastomosing circulation in the 
leaves, as there must necessarily be, if the whole of the leaf is 
to be supplied at all ; but, having reached the leaf, the sap goes 
no farther ; it moves about in it, the equilibrium being con- 
stantly disturbed by evaporation and fresh flow from the root, 
until it is deposited or evanorated ; and, if this be so, to pro- 
pose to nourish a plant by absorption through the leaves is 
pretty nearly equivalent to set about nourishing a man through 
other channels than those by which he is usually fed. Further, 
we may observe that the idea of its being possible for a 
plant to take up nourishment in the way supposed, if true, 
will militate against the views of Dr. Voelcker and other 
chemical physiologists, who seem to have come to the conclu- 
sion that plants never take up crude food at all, but only such 
as has first passed through the process of being converted into 
a mineral salt and then re-dissolved for its food. 

Mr. Darwin seems to have a vague idea of some analogy or 
relation existing between the action of the protoplasm in the 
cells of the plant and the cells of the lower animals ; that as 
the hydra encircles and feeds on its victims with its arms, so 
the Drosera does with its tentacles, and he quotes Mr. Sorby's 
examination of the colouring matter of the leaf of the latter 
with the spectroscope, who found it to consist of the com- 
monest species of erythrophy 11, which is often met with in leaves 
with low vitality ; but we must not allow ourselves to be led 
astray by fanciful analogies. There ought not to be much 
difficulty is ascertaining, by practical experiment, whether the 
teleological reason suggested by Mr. Darwin is the true one or 
not. Let two plants of Drosera be grown under the same 
conditions, the one well supplied flies, and the others protected 
from them, and see which thrives best. According to Mr. 
Darwin, the non-insectivorous one should be starved, although 
from the small amount of nourishment that the other could 
derive from flies during the six months of their existence, at 
the rate of a meal of two or three midges once or twice a 
week, we could not, according to our view, credit its cmbon- 
Xioint to high nitrogenous living. Of course those who do not 



July 24, 1875.] 



THE GAKDEN. 



65 



accept Mr. Darwin's views must be prepai'ed to be called u]3on 
to supply some other e.^planation of the very curious pheno- 
mena under consideration, if they will not adopt his. This 
■was the constant reserve brought up -when driven to their 
entrenchments in the discussion on the origin of species — not, 
indeed, by Mr. Darwin but by his follovrers. But the answer 
is the same jiow as then. That is'not our business ; we do not 
pretend to give an explanation of everything, least of all 
ateleological one ; all that we do is to say whether, in our judg- 
ment, those who do have hit upon the true one or not. Prom 
what we have said, it will be seen that, in this instance, we 
think that Mr. Darwin has not, but we are none the less 
grateful to him for the instruction and information contained in 
his delightful volume. Mr. Alexander Dumas makes his gi'eat 
hero, the Count of Monte Christo, say that whatever he does 
he does well. With much better warrant may we say this of 
Mr. Darwin, and, notwithstanding our different views, of none 
of his works with more truth than that at present under 
review. A. M. 



THE KITCHEN GARDEN. 



"HIGH-CLASS" KITCHEN GAEDENING.* 
The author of this book has gained a considerable repu- 
^tation as a vegetable grower, and, therefore, should be 
'able to teach others how to do that which he does 
so well himself. A list of vegetables suitable for garden 
culture is given, as well as the quantities required for 
cropping given areas of land. In some instances, a thin 
seeder would, perhaps, consider the quantities named too 
liberal for high culture — for instance, it is said in reference to 
dwarf French Beans, that " one quart of seeds will sow a row 
of 24 yards run." A quart of Canterbury "Wonder French 
Beans will produce considerably over 1,000 plants if the seeds 
are good — rather a large number to crowd into a row 24 yards 
long. I have generally obtained a better result from one- 
third or even one-fourth the number, planted at regular 
distances apart. The dates given for sowing the different 
kinds of vegetable seeds are, I presume, intended more 
especially for the neighbourhood of London than for the 
Midland counties, and, therefore, some allowance should 
be made for " latitude," north and south of that point. 
North of London, the 10th of August — the date given 
for sowing Cabbages for early spring use, will, on an 
average of seasons, be found fully late if very early produce is 
desired. As regards hoeing, manuring, trenching, &c., the 
instructions given are, in the main, excellent. There may, 
however, be a difference of opinion as respects his mode of 
treating light and heavy land, as no man, however large his 
experience, can lay down rules to suit all places. I have found 
less difficulty in securing a firm seed-bed upon the light lands 
of Norfolk — spring worked — than on heavy clays worked at 
the same season, for the simple reason that pressure has more 
influence upon land composed of fine particles than when its 
granules are coarse and angular. In his advice upon draining 
Mr. Earley says : — " Place the pipes deeply or otherwise, 
according to the depth of the good upper soil and the consti- 
tution of the sub-soil ; and, following such considerations, it 
will be found that they may be placed from 2 feet to a depth 
of 5 feet." In my opinion, if high culture is aimed at, 2 feet 
drains are generally useless. Some years ago I drained a 
kitchen garden where the good upper soil was in no place 
more than from 15 to 18 inches deep ; it had been drained on 
the shallow principle many years before, but the drains had 
never acted, as was plainly perceptible whenever an old drain 
was crossed. As my object was to deepen and improve the 
soil by gradually bringing up portions of the clay in autumn 
and early winter, and so give it a long period of expo- 
sure ; and, by collecting the dry hard clumps in early spring 
and exposing them to the action of fire, open up another source 
of fertility. I had no hesitation in placing the drains 4 feet deep, 
and had only to examine the outfall in rainy seasons, and see 
the volume of water pouring out, to be convinced of the utihty 

* " High-class Kitclien Gardening." By William Eavley. London : Brad- 
bury, Agnew, & Co, 



of havuag the drains at this depth. If a kitchen garden requires 
draining at all, 4 feet should be the minimum depth, provided 
always an outfall can be secured. But, apart from all this, 
Mr. Barley's little volume will be found most useful, especially 
by the inexperienced ; and not the least valuable portions are 
those relating to " the points of merit in high-class vegetables," 
as from Mr. Earley's experience, both as exhibitor and judge, he 
is eminently qualified for the task of drawing up a " standard 
of merit." I may add, in conclusion, that I consider " high- 
class kitchen gardening" to be quite as much a question 
of capital as skill. In too many instances, the over-growth 
of the ornamental department has injured the kitchen 
garden. Many a painstaking gardener is now struggling on 
under such difficulties, hoping either that fashion may take a 
different direction, or that he may have a more liberal allowance 
wherewith to work. The title of the work cannot be considered 
a happy one. E. Hobday. 

VOICE'S TEAINING WIRES. 
Mk. Voice, of Horley, employs wires for supporting Peas, Scarlet 
Banner Beans, &c., instead of stakes. Two stamps of wood are 
driven into the ground at each end of the rows ; two wires are then 
fixed horizontally from one stamp to the other, and tightened by 
Voice's patent screws. The bottom wire should be 10 inches, and the 
top wire about 1 feet, from the ground. A coil of wire then passed 
over the two horizontal wires and spread along, allowing one round 
of the coil to every 12 inches, forms a very neat trelhs, to which the 
Beans cling until they reach the top, when they entwine round each 
other, and again cling along the top of the wires and form a cluster 
which protects them against early frosts. Under such circumstances, 
too, the Beans do not dry up and become old and seedy so soon as 




Wire -trellises a substitute for Pea-stakes. 

they do on sticks or poles. The cost of the wire and stumps is but 
trifling, and they last for years. J. F. 



The Potato Curl. — A plot here of Dalmahoys— a second early 
variety, an enormous cropper, and one on which I have depended 
for years — is, apparently, a complete failure this year through the , 
" curl." The haulm exhibits all the distinctive symptoms of the 
disease at Chiswick, which I have seen before, often enough, 
but never half so bad as it is this season. I planted in well-worked 
ground, in rows SJ- feet apart, separating the plants to cover the 
ground as usual ; but, as the crop seems going off altogether, I have 
just filled up between the rows with Cauliflower. The Asbleafs, 
Rector of Woodstock, Lapstone, Mona's Pride, and other Kidneys, 
are a fair crop. Yorkshire Regents are, however, curled in some 
places, and I see the disease in the cottage gardens here. — J. Simpson, 
Worthy, near Sheffield. 

Ne Plus Ultra and George Wilson Peas. — I have these 
two varieties of Peas in fine condition hero Just now, and I am of 
opinion that they are yet unrivalled by any of the newer kinds for 
productiveness, size of their well filled pods, and flavour. Ne Plus 
Ultra has one drawback, viz., its tall growth ; but where stakes can 
be found of the requisite length for it there is no Pea more worthy 
of culture. Fillbasket, one of Mr. Laston's newer kinds, is a 
wonderfully productive variety, and must, when better known, be a 
first-rate market Pea; it is excellent in flavour and size of pods. 
Dr. Hogg, Supplanter, and Connoisseur, new Peas by the same raiser, 
have been grown by me this season for the first time, and I find 
them to be all worthy of cultivation, even in the most select collec- 
tions of late Peas. Owing to the present wet summer. Peas are 
remarkable for better filled and larger pods than usual, and they 
are everything that can be desired for good flavour. — WmuM 
TiLLERY, Welbecl;. 



66 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 24, 1875. 



JUDGES' FEES AT FLOWER SHOWS. 
It is time that some protest was made against the small amounta 
which, in many instances, are paid to those who act as judges at our 
floral shows. I will state simply, by way of illustration, a case by 
n ") means exceptional. No long time ago, I was invited by a large 
anl wealthy company to act as censor at their Rose show, and I 
accepted the invitation, under the impression that my expenses, at 
all events, would be paid. I travelled nearer 300 than 200 miles in 
aU, and was compelled to be in London the evening before the 
S low, in order that I might be in time for my judicial duties next 
day; my outlay was SOs. I received as remuneration — "Reward, 
requital, recompense, repayment," according to Dr. Johnson — the sum 
of one guinea. Again, in the case of another Metropolitan company, 
whose Rose shows are attended by thousands, and are most profitable, 
the payment to censors is only half-a-guinea more, whatever distance 
they have come. " Ton forget," it may bs suggested, " the excellent 
and expensive repast which is provided for the judges." No; I fully 
appreciate the generous hospitality, and the kind, thoughtful courtesy 
with which it is administered. I have nothing but thanks and praise 
to offer to those who rule in practical, but not in financial, matters ; 
but, so far from regarding the dinner as compensation, it seems to me 
a mistake ; and I should be happier, and I know that others of my 
learned brethren, the judges, would be happier, over their cold lamb, 
lettuce, and tankards, than when tempted irresistibly, in mid-day, 
to make themselves feverish and full with hot meats and champagne. 
It may bo answered, we can get what we want at the price we pay ; 
men like the honour of judging, the opportunities of making observa- 
tions, and they will incur some sacrifice accordingly. But is it 
generous, is it right, that when prizes are liberal and receipts are 
great, this meanness should be exercised, and the screw applied to 
the j udges only ? Why should they who fill a most responsible and 
invidious office, be justly dissatisfied when the show is over; to find 
themselves out of pocket, instead of paid for their work ? If it is said, 
the remedy is in your own power — there is no constraint, you can 
decline to act if you please — I cordially accept the suggestion ; and 
I call upon those who are invited to officiate as judges, because they 
have obtained by long study and practical experience a thorough 
knowledge of that branch of horticultuie in which they are asked to 
make awards, to do the same. I advise them to refuse for the future 
all summonses to assist at exhibitions where the censors are not 
adequately paid for their services. At Oundle, little more than a 
village, in Northamptonshire, the judges fee is £5, at Manchester, 
£3 3s. ; and I do not think that, in any case, where the show is 
on a large scale and prosperous, a less sum than two guineas, in 
addition to travelling expenses, should be offered to a competent 
judge. S. Reynolds Hole. 



The Rouen Violet (Viola Rothomagensis) and others. 

— This is just now in full bloom with me, and is a very pretty and 
pleasing plant. It belongs to the Tricolor section, and has low- 
growing creeping stems, from which spring numerous small, long, 
narrow-petal led purple and white flowers. It much resembles 
another pretty species which I had some years since, under the name 
of V. palmasnsis, which is, I believe, a native of Sicily. I have also 
been pleased this spring with another species belonging to the same 
section, viis., V. gracilis, for which I am indebted to Mr. Green, of 
Reigate; The North American yellow-flowered V. pubeseens and its 
beautiful congener V. pedata, both flowered well with me this spring, 
the latter seems to make itself quite at home in a mixture of peat. 
Cocoa fibre, and leaf mould. V. biflora is growing well in the same 
bed, and so is V. sororia. I am also much pleased with a pretty 
variety of V. palmata, which has large deep blue flowers, slashed 
with white. V. canadeusis has been covered with cream-coloured 
flowers for weeks past, and the pretty little V. (Erpetion) i-eniformis 
is just opening out its little blue and white blooms. The latter 
needs a frame in winter. Can anyone send mo V. pedunculata, 
which I have lost. — II. Haiu'Uh Greive, Drayton Beauchamp Rectory, 
Trinij. 

Herbaceous Spiraeas.— Many of the herbaceous Spiroaas are 
fine ornaments to the garden ; notably, S. Aruncns, growing to the 
height of 5 feet, with white flowers in long panicled spikes, whence 
its common name of Goat's-beard. The double form of S. Filipendula 
is a pretty plant. S. veuusta, with deep rose-coloured flowera, grows 
to about 3 feet, and is very handsome. S. palmata, with crimson 
panicles of bloom, seems to require more attention. I cannot grow 
it satisfactorily. Astilbe rivularis, with yellowish flowers, from 
Nepal, and the more uncommon A. rubra, from Japan, with rose- 
coloured flowers, .should be grown with the Spiraeas, to which 
they are related. Both species grow tall, from 4 to 6 feet, and all 
require good loamy soil, and, if rather moist, so much the better. — 

OXON. 



THE ADVANTAGES OF COMBINING ZOOLOGICAL 

AND BOTANICAL GARDENS. 
Nowadays, other gardens than those avowedly botanical or 
horticultural, often claim attention from their gardening 
interest. In our own Zoological Gardens, there has, for some 
years past, been attractive floral displays both in spring and 
summer. The warm temperature and abundant Hght of the 
new monkey-house afforded opportunities for indoor gardening 
which were taken good advantage of. This desirable inno- 
vation might be carried out with advantage in many other 
cases. The temperature, moisture, air, &c., given to houses of 
exotic plantsof various classes would perfectly suit various forms 
of animal life difficult to preserve in good health in cold 
northern countries. The interest and beauty of both the 
animal and vegetable kingdom might be heightened by such a 
mixed arrangement as we speak of, if tastefully and judiciously 
carried out. The economy resulting from adapting the same 
structures and heating power to the wants of both the animal 
and vegetable treasures would permit of fuller justice being 
done to each. In cities rich enough to aSord first class sepai'ate 
establishments, this proposal in its entirety would not so readily 
commend itself. But, however objectionable it might seem to 
introduce zoological elements into the botanic garden, there 
would be no two opinions as to the good of adding all the 
charms of vegetation to the zoological and every other type of 
garden. In small cities, only able to afford one establishment, 
it would be easy so to arrange the two matters that a happy 
result might be produced. If these ideas be sound so far as 
buildings are concerned, they are equally so as regards the 
open air. The old narrow idea that a small portion of 
ground in a town suffices to worthily represent vegetation 
in a public garden — the idea that we see illustrated in so 
many continental cities, and in some dozen of our own — must 
be got rid of before we ever see ornamental horticulture 
properly carried out in any city. Every garden and open 
space may do as much towards this end as any similar 
space of the so-called Botanic Garden. That it should 
do so two things mainly are requisite — first, that the 
garden should be laid out on a sensible plan ; secondly, 
that it should not be devoted to imitating, feebly or strongly 
as the case may be, what is done everywhere else. Beautiful 
it might be made with every flower or tree that those who 
resorted to it loved ; but, in addition, let it show us one or 
more families of trees, shrubs, plants, or fruits, as com- 
pletely illustrated as may be possible. It should, in fact, like 
a useful type of man, know a little of everything and evevy- 
ihiag of some thing. We shall never know what public 
gardens may do for horticulture till some clear-headed man has 
power to so arrange the gardens and numerous open spaces of 
a city, as distinct and separate parts of one great garden, all 
beautiful, but no two of the same pattern. Among modern 
public gardens, that of the Acclimatisation Society in the Bois 
de Boulogne shows a fair attempt to make a garden, mainly 
zoological, satisfactory from a landscape point of view, and 
beautiful through judicious planting of a great variety of trees, 
shrubs, and flowers. V. 



Effect of Eleetricity on Plants.— The effects of electricity on 
plants have not been closely studied. It is known to produce contractions 
in Sensitive Plants, and to retard the motion of sap. M. Becquerel has 
studied its influence on germination and development. It decomposes the 
salts contained in the seed, the acid elements being carried to the positive 
pole, and the alkaline portions to the negative. Now, the former are 
hurtful to vegetation, while the latter favour it. M. Becquerel further 
examined the influence of electricity on the colour of plants. The dis- 
charge from a powerful machine produced remarkable changes of colour 
on the petals, due, he thinks, to the rupture of cells containing colouring 
matter. 

Conservation of our "Water Supply. — Mr. Bailey Denton 
writes : — " During the last month there has fallen on the surface of the 
country, with but few places excepted, within the short period of one 
hour, as much rain as would, if conserved, supply the entire population 
with water for domestic and other purposes for a whole year ; there has 
fallen within the present year (1875) sufficient rain 'per square yard of 
surface ' to furnish 50 per cent, more water than would satisfy each unit 
of the population for drinking purposes. Ought an enquiry into the 
capability of utiUsing such excesses, and so equalising extremes, to be 
delayed, when it is well-known that, even at this moment, while in the 
midst of the deluges of rain that have occurred, there are places where an 
insufficient provision of water exists ? " 



JtJLY 24, 1875.] 



THE (JAUDEN. 



6? 




68 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 24, 1875. 



TREES AND SHRUBS. 

THE WOODLAND GAKDEN. 
Beautiful as the woodlands are in spring, little has been done, 
in most places, to take advantage of thenumberless hardyflower- 
ing trees and shrubs that Nature has placed at our disposal, and 
that would, if planted, tend to enhance the beanty of many an 
estate. Acres of Primroses and Wood Violets, so densely 
flowered as to form continuous beds, are frequently met with ; 
while, in moist situations, the wild Hyacinth, the Marsh Mari- 
gold, and Silenes, form beautiful combinations, and are 
succeeded by other and equally-effective native displays, whilst 
golden Daffodils are naturalised in great abundance in more 
open situations and meadow-lands. But when we come to 
examine the vegetation of a more arborescent character, the 
result is by no means so satisfactory. Fettered by old-fashioned 
customs, the usual intermixture of soft-wood, hard-wood, and 
under-wood, is adhered to, and for no other reason apparently 
than that flowering and fine-foliaged trees have always been 
considered the rightful tenants of' highly dressed grounds. I 
have tried the following hardy plants, and found that they 
succeed quite as well as the ordinary kinds grown in the wood- 
lands of this country ; and almost every individual taste may 
be gratified, for the number of suitable subjects is almost endless. 
The Laburnum, when seen against sombre Pines, makes a 
splendid display. It is easily raised from seed, and is rapid 
in growth. _ The Syringas, including Lilacs, Guelder Eoses, 
Bird Cherries, Crabs, Almonds, and variously-coloured Thorns, 
are all equally valuable for lighting up our woodlands ; while, 
among foliage plants, variegated Maples, Syoaiiores, Oaks, 
and Copper Beeches, are always effective. Among drooping 
trees, too, are some useful kinds for woodland embellishment, 
such as the gracefully-drooping Silver Birch, the Weeping 
Ash, Elm, and Beech, all of which look well, especially when 
planted on the edge of sharp inclines or embankments. 
Plants of more humble growth suitable for mai'gins are 
almost endless, and are much more effective if planted in 
masses than in a mixed border. For instance, if irregular 
recesses are planted with Rhododendrons, Berberries, Heaths, 
Broom, St. John's Wort, Furze, Periwinkle, and Coto- 
neasters— all as hardy as the plants usually employed, and 
equally useful as cover for game— a rich harvest of bloom 
would be secured. I need scarcely allude to the many suit- 
able situations for such displays that exist on all sides, as all 
who travel either by road or rail can testify. Are we 
to wait for Nature to clothe the ground with Thistles and 
Docks, or take the more rational course of planting it with 
really hardy and effective trees, and of scattering over it 
seeds of hardy Bowers, such as Foxgloves, Myosotis, and 
Primroses ? If we do our part Nature is sure to do hers. 
We may already congratulate ourselves on the improve- 
ment observable in the appearance of the parks and gardens 
of London and other great towns, but let it not stop 
there; on the contrary, let it extend to the highways and 
hedge-rows of the most remote parishes, where such specimens 
of forestry may be scon that would disgrace even an uncivilised 
country. The specimens of timber trees left in some districts 
resemble convicts in felons' attire. Shorn of their native 
beauty, they are indeed pitiable objects to behold, forming, as 
it were, " monuments " of what maybe called the " dark ages " 
of forestry. Even on the score of profit, owners would often 
do well to plant ornamental trees, as the wood of many of 
them is equal, if not superior to that of those useless " cum- 
berers of the soil," of which we now see so many in all direc- 
tions. They are rarely worth the expense of felling, for the 
pruning_ which they receive in the" earlier stages of their 
growth is done in so unskilful a manner that the majority of 
them become decayed before they arrive at a stage to be con- 
sidered " timber " trees. J. Groom. 
Ihnham, Suffolk. 



THE VIRGILIA AS A LAWN TREE. 
A NoiiLE specimen of the Virgilia upon my lawn, planted some twelve 
years ago and now in bloom, reminds me that this beautiful denizen 
of our forests is still quite rare, even in grounds where ornamental 
trees are a speciality. It is true that our nurserymen have kept this 



tree for sale, and an occasional specimen may be found planted in 
private grounds, where they are, as a rule, crowded in among other 
trees and shrubs which prevent full development and an unfolding of 
their natural beauties in form, foliage, and flowers. When planted 
singly with an abundance of room for develoi^ment, the Virgilia is one 
of the most graceful of our native trees. It forms a broad head, 
somewhat of a wine-glass shape, with the ends of the young branches 
slightly drooping in summer, but becoming erect as the wood ripens 
in autumn. The wood is of a light yellowish colour, hence one of its 
common names — Yellow Wood. The bark is smooth, resembling in 
this respect the Beech, not cracking open or becoming corrugated, 
like the Elm or Chestnut, as the trees attain age. The leaves are 
composed of from seven to eleven broad, oval leaflets, from 3 to 4 
inches long, and of a bright, glossy, green colour. The flowers are 
small and creamy-white, delicately fragrant and borne in a long, 
pendent panicle. The habit of this tree is really all that one could 
desire for a lawn or other ornamental purpose. The foliage is 
abundant, appearing quite early in spring and holding on until frost, 
at which time every leaf drops, and I have known specimens to be 
defoliated in two hours' time, during a clear morning following a 
frosty night. As soon as the leaves are all ofi, they may be raked up 
and removed, and there will be no more litter from this source. But 
with many of the Oak, Chestnut, and similar trees planted on lawns, 
one must be continually at work for weeks during autumn raking np 
leaves if anything like neatness is to be secured. The Virgilia is 
readily grown from seeds, which somewhat resemble those of tho 
common Locust, but are slightly larger. The seedlings are of rather 
slow growth for the first few years, but soon become vigorous and 
shoot up rapidly ; 2 to 3 feet in a season is not an unusual growth. 
This tree, according to " Moore's Rural," is found most abundant in 
the forests of Eastern Kentucky and from thence further south. 



TREES AND SHRUBS THAT MAT BE BUDDED NOW. 

We are now in the midst of the budding season, and we (" Monitenr 
Horticole Beige ") embrace the opportunity of giving a list, almost 
complete, as we hope, of all the trees and shrubs, grown for fruit or 
ornament, which may be advantageously propagated in this manner. 

Fruit Trees. — The Apricot may be budded upon the Myrobolan, 
and other Plums j the Almond upon seedling Almonds, when the 
trees are intended to be planted in a deep and dry soil ; and upon the 
Myrobolan Plum and upon seedlings when they are to be planted in 
shallow or sandy soil ; the Cherry upon the wild kinds, if large trees 
are required ; and upon Sainte-Lucie (Mahaleb) when they are 
not required of any great size. Chestnuts of different kinds 
may be budded, but the results are not invariably to be 
depended upon ; generally what is termed flute-grafting is to 
bo preferred to budding and inarching upon the common Chestnut. 
The Portugal Quince — This is usually multiplied by means of cut- 
tings, but it may also be budded upon the Angers Quince ; the 
Large-fruited Medlar may be budded upon the common Medlar; 
the Peach upon seedling Plums and on the Almond. In Belgium 
the Plum is usually preferred as a stock for the Peach. The Pear 
may be budded upon seedling Pears and upon the Quince. The 
Apple upon seedling Apples and the Doucin and Paradise stock, 
according as large, medium-sized, or small trees are required. The 
Plum upon seedhng Plums or upon Myrobolan. 

Ornamental Trees and Shrubs. — Rhamnus alatemns may 
be budded upon seedling Buckthorns, Hibiscus syriacus upon the 
common Altha!a, Amorpha frnticosa upon stocks of the same variety, 
Colutea arborescens upon the common Bladder-nnt tree, Bi'ousso- 
netia papyrifera upon the common Broussonetia, the Pyracantha upon 
the Hawthorn, Chionanthus virginica upon the common Ash, Pyrus 
japonica upon the common Quince, Cornus mascula upon seedlings 
of itself, C. sibirica foliis variegatis upon the white-fruited Cor. 
nelian Cherry, the Laburnum upon stocks of itself, Cratjegus 
Oxyacantha upon any kinds of Hawthorn, Acer campestre upon 
common Maples, but in this case it is best to propagate by inarch- 
ing ; A. platanoides upon stocks of the Plane tree, A. pseudo-platanus 
upon the Sycamore, A. Negundo upon the Ash-leaved Maple, 
Fraxinus excelsior upon the common Ash, Euonymus europreus upon 
the common Spindle tree. Ilex aquifolium upon the common Holly 
stocks, Syriuga vulgaris upon the common or white-flowered Lilacs, 
the Hoi-se Chestnut upon stocks of itself, the white Mulberry upon 
seedlings of the same tree, Mespilus upon the Hawthorn, Ulmus 
pedunculata iipon the common Elm, Pavias upon the Horse Chestnut, 
double-flowering Plums upon seedlings or upon the Myrobolan Plum, 
Diospyros Lotus upon the Ebony tree, the Willow-leaved and 
variegated-leaved kinds of Pyrus upon seedling Pears, Pmnns spinosa 
upon seedling Plums or the Myrobolan, double-flowered and 
variegated . leaved Apples upon common seedling Apples, the 



July 24, 1875.] 



THE GAEDEN. 



69 



variegated-leaved variety of Ceraaus Mahaleb upon Saint Luoie, 
tlie weeping Sophora japonioa upon seedlings of the same tree, Sorbas 
ancuparia and S. americana upon the Hawthorn, Tilia argentea, T. 
tomentosa, and T. amerioaua upon Tilia platyphylla, and the latter 
upon stocks of itself. It may be observed here that in the case of 
Lime trees, budding with a pushing eye is more likely to be successful 
than when effected with a dormant one. The common Privet does 
well budded on stocks of itself, as does also the Chinese kind upon 
the stocks of that Privet, and the variegated-leaved variety of 
Ligustrum ovalifolium upon the Californiau Privet, this kind may 
also be increased by means of cuttings ; the different varieties of 
Guelder Rose do well upon Viburnum lantana, bat they are better 
increased by layering than by budding. 



Prices of Timber. — Some of your readers maybe interested in 
knowing the present value of timber. The following are, as near as I 
can state, the prices obtainable for the different species of timber on 
this estate. I may mention that we are from 4 to 5 miles from a 
railway station, and a considerable distance from any large manufac- 
turing town. There is a great demand for Beech and Scotch Fir, the 
former hag been nearly trebled, and the latter doubled in price within 
seven years. Ash and Oak are also in good demand, at advanced 
prices. The former is becoming scarce in the country, and as uo 
other sort of timber can be used as a substitute by coach-builders, 
implement makers, and wheelwrights. Ash is sure to command 
even higher prices than at present ; consequently, it oaght to be 
^planted extensively. Lime is also a valuable timber tree, and should 
not be lost sight of by those who are making plantations where 
the soil and situation is favourable to its growth. Oak, first quality, 
50 feet and upwards, 33. to 4s. per foot ; second, 20 to 50 
feet, 2s. to 3s. ; third, up to 20 feet, Is to 2g. Ash, first quality, 
20 feet and upwards, 23. to Ss. 6d. ; second, under 20 feet. Is. 6d. 
to 2s. Elm, first quality, 50 feet and upwards. Is. to Is. 6d.; 
second, under 50 feet, 9d. to Is. Beech, first quality, 20 feet and 
upwards. Is. to Is. 6d. ; aecond, under 20 feet, 9d. to Is'. Lime, first 
quality, 20 feet and upwards, 2s. 6d. to 3s. 6d. ; second, under 20 feet. 
Is. 6d. to 23. 6d. Larch, Is. to Is. 3d. Scotch and Spruce Firs, lOd. 
to Is. — Geokge Berry, Longleat, Wilts. 

Forests and Floods. — In order to form an idea of the causes 
of the inundation in France, it is only necessary to glance at the 
physical geography of the departments in which it has occurred. 
They lie on the northern slopes of the Pyrenees, and are intersected 
by numerous and rapid rivers, of which at least four unite to form 
the Garonne before it reaches Toulouse. There had been heavy and 
continuous rain over the whole of the mountain range, and a fall of 
snow at Luz, where it would directly swell the head-waters of the 
Garonne. It is said that at least a contributory cause is furnished 
by the great destruction of timber in the district during the last 
century. Trees not only absorb water largely from the soil, but they 
also prevent the surface from being baked and hardened by the sun, 
and they check the rapidity and abruptness with which rain would 
otherwise reach the ground. When it falls unimpeded upon dry and 
barren hillsides, it will run from them almost as freely as from the 
sloping roofs of houses, and a few hours will carry the water of the 
mountain storm to swell the volume of the nearest river. 



NOTES AND QUESTIO NS ON TREES AND SHRUBS. 

Golden-leaved Magnolia.— I have sent you a leaf of my varienated 
Magnolia acuminata, a masnificent tree, some of the leaves of which are nearly 
all yellow.— C. M. Hotet, Boston, Mass. [The leaf in question, though faded, 
was stdl handsome ; it was yellow, slightly streaked and mottled with green.] 

The Wiufarthing Oak.— Mr. Amyot contributes an account of this ancient 
Oak to the "Transactions of the Norfolk and Norwich Naturalist's Society " 
Its present girth is *) feet about the middle of the trunk ; in 1741 it was 38 feet 
7 inches, 

Magnolia Halleana.— This appears to be of the same class as M. con- 
spicua, but the flower is composed of about twenty narrow strap-shaped 
petals ; on the whole rather smaller than those of M. conspicua— white and 
very sweet. A little more, says the " G.ardeners' Monthly," and we shall 
have a double Magnolia. 

Double-flowered Deutzia crenata.— This is one of the best border and 
shrubbery plants grown when it gets large and in good health. It will last a 
long time m flower, and seen from a distance the pale rosy tint of its flowers 
renders them very effective. As it is not so early in bloom as many other 
spring shrubs, when planted judiciously in large shrubberies it lengthens the 
flower season. It is good forcut flowers.- A. H., TAoresSy. 

-— The beauty and usefulness of the flowers of this Deutzia, both 
at this season and when forced, ought to make it more common than it is 
1 propagated a quantity of it and planted them out some years ago in 
S^i/^f ff'^a """^ borders here, and have had every year a splendid 
»?w?^ 7^-^'^rT;, Even under the shadoof trees it grows and blooms 
whiff fl!Lr= V' "" sunshine. Anyone hjiving to supply quantities of 

j!A^.SiUaro°I P"P°°^^ °' decoration will find this Deutzia of great value.- 



THE IND OOR GARDEN. 

PLANT HOUSES. 
These are of two classes — wood and iron. A diversity of 
opinion exists about the merits of iron structures. There can 
be no doubt, however, that wooden houses are the best for 
plants ; but the greatest elegance of desigu and lightness can 
be secured by using iron. When the house is large, and con- 
tains a great bulk of air, the evils resulting from the use of 
iron rafters and framing are less felt, though such houses 
always require most fuel; but small houses of iron are 
decidedly objectionable, if only on account of the excessive 
radiation and condensation which goes on in them during cold 
weather, when fire-heat has to be used, always with the worst 
effects to plant life. We have an iron greenhouse which falls 
to withiu 2° of the out-door temperature if left without a fire 
at night ; consequently, it is never safe to have the fire out 
during winter, and the aridity arising from condensation, 
which is produced when there are a few degrees of frost, is 
destructive to such things as Heaths, Cinerarias, Calceolarias, 
&c. — so much so that in severe weather it has to be emptied 
of everything for the time. During summer weather, when 
no fire-heat is necessary, the bouse suits plants well 
enough. For all propa.gating and nursing houses for 
plants, or indeed any structure in which design can be 
carried out in wood, iron should be dispensed with as an evil. 
Plant houses for general purposes should, when practicable, be 
made on the span-roofed principle, whether angular, curvi- 
linear, or dome-shaped. No other kind of structure is so well 
adapted for plants throughout the season ; the span admits the 
most light, is the most economical as regards space, and can be 
efficiently ventilated. But such houses should always run 
north and south ; placed the contrary way they are worse than 
a lean-to in winter, for the north side never gets the sun. For 
forcing purposes, however, the lean-to is by far the best for 
winter work. All propagating-houses, or houses for pushing 
on growth at the dull season, are best made of this form facing 
south. AVe are speaking of cases when the situation can be 
chosen ; but sometimes people like to utilise a vacant west or 
east wall by covering it with glass, and, of course, must 
conform to circumstances. Most kinds of greenhouse or store 
plants will thrive in such exposures ; but the houses should be 
light — no more wood used than can be helped — and they should 
be efficiently heated ; for in winter and spring, when the plants 
are potted and have to be started into growth, they get little sun, 
and want artificial aid. For cheapness of construction and 
economy in fuel, plant houses, whether span or lean-to, are 
often sunk partially in the ground, the pathways being con- 
siderably below the ground level. Such houses are undoubtedly 
much more easily heated, and are well adapted for such plants 
as Cinerarias, Calceolarias, and many others that do not like 
fire heat in winter ; but, owing to their dampness. Heaths, 
Pelargoniums, Bpaorises, Primulas, &c., do not thrive so well 
in them. Heaths take mildew. Pelargoniums the spot, and 
Primulas damp at the collar. Sunk houses or pits are econo- 
mical structures for wintering bedding stuif, half-hardy 
plants, &c. ; but for plant growing, in a proper sense, it is 
preferable to have the floor of the house above the ground line, 
or on a level with it, to ensure a free circulation of air through- 
out. A very good way of compromising the matter, however, in 
building plant-growing span-roofed houses of moderate height, 
is to tie them together in a ridge-and-fuiTOw block, instead 
of having each house isolated, and consequently presenting a 
much greater cooling surface to the air. Nurserymen arc 
adopting this plan now with houses for pot Vines, and general 
nursery stock, and no better kinds of structure could be devised 
for private grrdens. When there is not much disparity in the 
temperature of the different houses, there is no necessity for 
internal divisions, only piers at certain distances to support the 
furrows, and each coil of pipes helps to heat the two houses ; 
but, when it is necessary to have a division, a brick on edge from 
the floor to the furrow bottom is enough. Of course, all the 
ventilation is at the lop in such structures, except at the 
outermost house; but it is ample for such houses. The 
economy effected in the construction and heating of such 
a block is obvious ; greater advantages are gained in this 
way than would be by having the houses partially sunk 



?6 



'Che GiARDBJ?. 



[JULY 24, 1876. 



in the ground, and we get rid of the dampness. A common 
fault of small plant-houses is blind sides and ventilators. No 
economy whatever is effected by carrying the bricks up to the 
eaves of the roof; glass is just as cheap, looks better, and is 
better. Thick walls should never be carried higher in any 
house than the plant shelves, in order that the inmates may 
have all the light possible. The internal fittings of plant- 
houses are a matter of some consequence — the shelving, 
for instance. Wooden shelves and stagings are most common, 
being generally constructed of spars nailed an inch or 
less apart, and resting on a tressel framework. Such 
shelves are good enough in winter, as they do not retain 
damp, but the advantage over stone or slate shelves in 
this way is hardly appreciable, and the latter are far the 
best in summer. A plant in a pot is not favourably placed 
at any time on a dry airy shelf, and in summer weather 
greenhouses and conservatories are gusty places, and are not 
kept in a proper state of humidity without much attention. It 
is, therefore, necessary that the pots should rest at such times 
on a cool moist bottom. Experience has proved this to be 
highly advantageous. Nurserymen, who generally discover 
what is best, cover their wooden shelves or framework made 
for the purpose with Welsh slates, and put over these about an 
inch of sand — a first-rate plan. The sand is generally moist, 
and it is found the plants require considerably less water, 
which is labour saved. Stone shelves are the nest best to sand, 
and afford space to spill water in dry days, which keeps down 
heat and drought by evaporation. Iron grating shelves are 
the worst of all, and if they are placed above the hot-water 
pipes, the conditions are about as unfavourable to plants in 
pots as could be devised. One of our houses is fitted up in 
this manner — from the designs of a horticultural builder, we 
suppose. Were we not to resort to the sand plan, or lay thick 
brown paper under the pots in cold weather, the plants would 
be ruined. It is a bad plan to have the pipes too near the 
shelves at any time, as currents of hot air are always injurious 
to plants in pots. J. S. W. 



Cool Orchids. — Now ia the time to keep these cool. Anything 
in the shape of oppressive heat, during the months of July and 
August particularly, will do more harm than indifferent treatment 
for the other ten months of the year. Our climate in summer is, if 
anything, too hot for such Alpine Orchids as Odontoglossum Ales- 
andrre, Pescatorei, and triumphans, and similar kinds ; consequently 
abundance of moisture, particularly in the atmosphere, must at this 
time prevail. To keep down the temperature, shading must be 
resorted to, and it will add much to the coolness of the house if 
the shading be raised 2 feet from the glass, in order that a current 
of air may intervene between the two. Attention to this will prove 
highly beneficial to the plants, which, thus treated, will distend their 
)}seudo-bulbs to a great size ; other conditions being favourable. 
The leaves will become broad and dark in colour, and will stand up 
instead of falling down by their own weight, as is too often the case. 
If the atmosphere be properly supplied with moisture there will not be 
much necessity for giving great doses of water at the roots. I find a 
layer of Sphagnum an excellent bed, in which to plunge the pots 
half-way down. It keeps them moist and looks well, as it grows into 
a cushion of emerald velvet, encouraged to growth by the constant 
supply of moisture. — James Andekson, Meadow Baiik, Udding stone, 
Glasgow. 

A fine Stove Climber (Petraea volubilis).— The Petra)a 
volubilis is a plant introduced more than a century ago, but of whose 
existence we venture to think few of our plant growers are aware, 
and of whose beauty fewer still have any idea. For profusion of 
bloom, grace, and exquisite delicacy of colour, it is, perhaps, without 
a rival. It is a twining stove shrub, with leaves not unlike those of 
some of the Bougainvilleas, but larger. The flowers are borne in 
marvellous profusion in elongated light airy racemes. The calyx is 
divided into five narrow, strap-shaped segments, of a very delicate 
pale bluish-mauve, about twice the length of the segments of the 
corolla, which is of a purplish.blue, forming a pretty contrast with 
the pale tint of the spreading segments of the calyx. In the flowers 
of Petra;a we have a colour unique among stove climbers, and one 
very desirable, as regards variety, to see on the exhibition stage, 
where this plant would tell with fine effect, if in the same style as we 
BeeClerodendronBalfouri,Stephanotis,Rhynchospermum,AllamandaB, 
and other exhibition favourites. It forms a beautiful object trained 
to the roof or back wall of the stove, the elegant pendent racemes 
hanging in profusion. It will grow freely in a compost of good, 



light, fibrous loam, to which a little sandy peat is added. Cuttings 
root freely in sand plunged in heat, and covered with a bell-glass. 
When growing it likes a moist heat and must be watered freely, but 
when at rest it should be kept rather dry than otherwise. Good 
drainage is also essential. There are one or two other species almost, 
if not quite, as pretty as that at present under notice ; all are 
natives of Vera Cruz. The generic name was given in honour of Robert 
James, Lord Petre, who died in 1712, and of whom the celebrated 
Collinson, writing to Linnaeus, speaks as being one of the " greatest 
losses botany or gardening ever felt in this island." At Glasnevin, 
Petraea volubilis is trained to the roof of the large greenhouse, which, 
when in flower, is more admired perhaps than anything else in the 
same department. — " Irish Farmers' Gazette." 



MY GAEDEN IN SUMMER. 
Bounded by the budding Clover, 

And sentineled with trees. 
Showered with wealthy sun all over. 

The home of birds and bees ; 
It has only clouds to love it, 

The winds to be its friends. 
Moon and sun to watch above it, 

And stars that evening lends ; 
Ivindly morns to wake its flowers, 

Still noons to give it gold, 
Patron twilight, sunset dowers. 

And dews when days are old. 
Purple Phlox and Sunflowers truaty 

Guard all its rich estates, 
Dahhas, broad and lusty, 

Like peasants, crowd its gates. 
Violets bloom in corners shady, 

And on the borders gay 
Sits the Stock, a crimson lady. 

And Pinks have holiday. 
Larkspurs leaning out in places 

Where bashful Myrtles creep, 
Laugh at Mouk-flowers' hooded faces. 

And Poppies gone to sleep. 
There are starched and stately Briars, 

And Thistle-knights and dames ; 
Bloomless weeds, like jovial friars. 

Grasses with ancient names. 
Vagrant Hops that court the Clovers, 

Prim Lilacs, in a row, 
Gaudy Beans grown willful rovers. 

Grand Hollyhocks for show. 
Quaint, brigh t Pansies, Foxgloves stately. 

Lilies with petals wide. 
Jasmine tinted delicately, 

And Daisies merry-eyed. 
I am queen and lady in it- 
Queen over leaf and flower — 
Crowned with sprays of purple Spinnet, 

I own no higher power, 
Teems the world with fears and sorrows. 

For me, I have no care ! 
My good realm excludes to-morrows. 

And all I want is there. 
Where such gold as sunset treasures. 

Or truer friends than flowers ? 
Such dear dreams, such happy leisures, 

And such enchanted hours ? 
When my life and I are tired 

Calling ourselves by name. 
When the things we have desired 

No longer seem the same ; 
When the years have weary faces, 

And heaven is near and fair, 
I shall seek its broader spaces. 

And find a garden there. 



A Valuable Aid.— In this year's report from the Commissioners 
of Public Works in Ireland special mention is made of various drainage 
and other works. On the estate of Mr. PhUip Doyne, in county Donegal, 
owing to the number and size of the boulders scattered over and in the 
soil, all efforts to operate on it were in vain until dynamite was used, and 
then the success was marvellous. The inspector, Mr. E. Murphy, says :— 
" It is perfectly wonderful what execution 2 oz. of dynamite put into a 
G-inch hole in a large sunk boulder can do. For surface boulders a 
couple of charges placed on the top of the stone and covered or weighted 
by another boulder will break both up, the only difficulty (as Mr. Doyne 
remarked) being ' that you cannot find the pieces.' Mr. Doyne has also 
used dynamite in the removal of old roots of trees, and it splits them up 
into firewood." 



, July 24, 1875.] 



THE GARDEN. 



71 



THE COLORADO POTATO-BEETLE. 

(doryphoka. 10-lineata.) 
Pkofessor Riley, tbe State entomologist of Missouri, having, 
when in London the other day, informed us that the climate of 
this country is not only suitable for this beetle, but that its 
introduction is quite possible, we expressed a desire that he 
should write a full and complete account of it for The Garden, 
a request with which he has kindly complied, as follows : 

Few insects have done more serious injury, or attracted 
greater attention, than this, even in America, where insect 
depredations attain a magnitude scarcely dreamed of in this 
country. Feeding originally on the wild Solanum rostratum in 
the Rocky Mountain regions of Colorado and other territories, 
it fell upon the cultivated 



the insect may be found in all stages throughout the summer 
months. In from thirty to forty days from the time the egg 
is deposited, the insect hatching from it goes through all its 
transformations and becomes a beetle, the pupa state being 
assumed under ground. The prolificacy of the species may 
be imagined when it is remembered that the progeny of a 
single female may exceed a hundred millions in the course 
of a single season. The beetle feeds as well as the larva, 
though not so voraciously. Its attacks are principally con- 
fined to plants of the family Solanaceas, and it is particularly 
fond of those belonging to the genus Solanum. Yet I have 
recorded many instances of its acquiring new habits in its 
march to the Atlantic, and of its feeding, when hard pushed, 
on plants of other families. There are various means of 



it has overrun 



of 



Maryland, and Virginia, 

50,000 square miles. The 

natural history of the species 

was first made known by 

me in 1863. The beetle 

hybernates either beneath 

the ground or beneath any 

other shelter that it can 

obtain. Early in spring it 

issues from its winter 

quarters, and may be seen 

flying about, on sunny days, 

long before there are any 

Potato tops for it to devour. 

In flight it presents a very 

pretty appearance, its gauzy 

rose-coloured under-wings Lydella doryphora 

contrasting agreeably with ~ ' 

the striped yellow and black 

elytra or wing-covers. The 

sexes pair, and, as soon as the Potato haulms push out of the 

ground these beetles break their long winter fast, sometimes 

even working their way down towards the sprout before it is 

fairly out of the earth. The eggs, which are orange-yellow, are 

laid in small clusters on the undersides of the leaves, and the 

same female continues to thus lay at short intervals for a period 

of over forty days, until the number laid by a single specimen 

may aggregate from 500 to over 1,000. There are, in the 

latitude of St. Louis, three broods each year ; but, from the 

fact that a single female continues to deposit as above 

described, and from the ii-regularity of larval development. 



destroying the insect, and in 
the earlier invaded territory 
of the States, though it con- 
tinues its I'avagos, thereby 
making the cultivation of 
Potatoes more laborious, and 
'~\ increasing their market price, 
yet it is no longer dreaded as 
it at first was, for the reason 
that it is controlled with com- 
parative ease. The natural 
enemies of the species are 
encouraged by the intelligent 
cultivator, and poultry may 
be taught to feed upon it. 
Of over two score predacious 
and parasitic species of its 
own class which I have 
enumerated, those herewith 
figured may be considered 
the most important. The 
Colorado Potato-beetle: a, a, eggs; i, i, 6, larvse of different sizes; e, papa; d, d. Only true parasite is a species 
beetle; c, left wing-cover magnified to show lines and punctures; f, leg. enlarged, of Taohina-fly (Lydella dorv- 
Colours of egg, orange ; of larva, Tenetian-red ; of b3etle, black and yellow. phorfe Itileii) somewhat re 

sembling a house-fly, which 
fastens its eggs to the Doryphora larva. From these e^gs 
hatch maggots which feed upon the fatty portions of the said 
larva, which, after entering the ground, succumbs to its enemy, 
and, instead of eventually giving forth a beetle, as it naturally 
should do, gives forth, instead, the Tachiua flies. A number of 
different lady-birds (Coccinellidas), of which the Convero-ent 
lady-bird is the most common, devour the eggs of the Dory- 
phora. Of true bugs the Spined Soldier-bug (Arma spinosa, 
Ballai) is the most effective, 



Potato as soon as civilised 
man began to grow this escu- 
lent within its reach. With 
large fields of palatable food, 
instead of scattered plants of 
the wild Solanum, to work 
upon, it multiplied at a 
marvellous rate, and began 
to spread from its native 
home towards the east. 
Reaching a point 100 miles 
west of Omaha, Nebraska, in 
■1859, its progress has been 
carefully recorded each year 
since, until last year it reached 
the Atlantic coast at a num- 
ber of different points in 
Connecticut, New Jersey, 
New York, Pennsylvania, 
Delaware, Maryland, and 
Virginia. The present year 
we hear of it being still 
more numerous on the At- 
lantic coast, and of its 

swarming around New York city, and covering the nets of 
fishermen. It has thus, in sixteen years, spread over 360 
geographical miles, in a direct line ; and, if we consider the 
territory actually invaded, which includes the States of 
Kansas, Nebraska, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, Wiscon- 
sin, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, Ontario 
(Canada), New York, Vermont, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, 






parasite of Doryphora 
Colours, siver-grey and black. 



though several other rapa- 
cious species assist it, all of 
them piercing and sucking 
out the juices of their prey. 
Of artificial remedies there 
are various mechanical con- 
trivances for knocking the 
insects off the haulm and 
catching them — some such 
even being worked by horse- 
power. The sun is, also, so 
hot in some of the Mississipi 
Valley States that the larvas 
are roasted to death if shaken 
from the haulm on to the hot 
soil at mid-day. The remedy 
of all others, however, and 
the one universally employed, 
is Paris green, which is used either in the form of a powder, or 
in that of a liquid, being combined in the former case with from 
twenty-five to thirty parts of some dilutent, as flour middlino's, 
plaster, &c., and in the latter with one tablespoonful of pure 
green stirred into an ordinary bucketful, or about 3 gallons, 
of water. Enormous quantities of the poison have thus been 
used in America, especially since it has proved a perfect 
remedy for the Cotton-worm in the Southern States, as 
well as for the Potato-beetle in question. Cautiously and 
judiciously used it proves cheap and effective, and a large 
experience goes to show that no ill effects follow such use of it. 



Many-banded Robber : with beak 
enlarged at side (bj. Colours, 
pale yellow and black. Preys 
on Doryphora. 



72 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 24, 1875. 



There is a very closely allied species, the Doryphora juncfca 
of Germar, called the Bogus Colorado Potato beetle, which, 
very naturally, has often been confounded with, and mistaken 
for, the genuine depredator. It differs, however, in the eggs 
being paler ; in the larva being paler, and in having but one 
row of black dots on each side instead of two ; and in the beetle 
having the second and third black lines of the elytra (counting 
from the outside) joined, instead of the third and fourth ; in 
the punctures of said elytra being more regular and distinct, 
and in the legs having pale instead of dark tarsi, and a spot on 
the thighs. Singularly enough, this species, though it feeds 
and thrives on Solanum carolinense, will not touch the culti- 
vated Potato, and is, therefore, perfectly harmless to man. 

The English reader is more particularly interested in this 
insect, because of its possible introduction into Europe ; and 
on the subject of its introduction I cannot do better than 
quote some passages from my seventh report : — " Those 
who have watched the gradual spread of this Potato-beetle 
during the past seventeen or eighteen years, from its native 
Eocky Mountain home to the Atlantic, and who have 
seen how lakes, instead of hindering its march into Canada, 
really accelerated that march, can have no doubt that there 
is danger of its being carried to Europe. Yet I must 
repeat the opinion expressed a year ago — and which has been 
very generally coincided in by all who have any familiarity 
with the insect's economy — that if it ever gets to Europe it 
will most likely be carried there in the perfect beetle state on 
some vessel plying between the two continents. While the 
beetle, especially in the non-growing season, will live for 
months without food, the larva would perish in a few days 
without fresh Potato tops, and would, I believe, starve to death 
in the midst of a barrel of Potatoes, even if it could get there 
without being crushed ; for, while it so voraciously devours 
the leaves, it will not touch the tubers. The eggs, which are 
quite soft and easily crushed, could, of course, only be Carried 
over on the haulm or on the living plant ; and while there is a 
bare possibility of the insect's transmission in this way, there 
is little probability of it, since the plants are not objects of com- 
meixial exchange, and the haulm, on arccount of its liability to 
rot, is not, so far as I can learn, used to any extent in packing. 
Besides, Potatoes are mostly exported during that part of the 
year when there are neither eggs, larvas, nor Potato haulm 
in existence in the United States. There is only one other 
possible way of transmission, and that is in sufficiently large 
lumps of earth, either as larva, pupa, or beetle. Now, if ' 
American dealers be required to carefully avoid the use of the 
haulm, and to ship none but clean Potatoes, as free from earth 
as possible, the insect's transmission among the tubers will be 
rendered impossible ; and when such precautions are so easily 
taken, there can be no advantage iu the absolute prohibition of 
the traffic in American Potatoes. As well prohibit traffic in a 
dozen other commodities, in many of which the insect is as 
likely to be imported as in Potatoes. The course recently 
adopted by the German government, in accordance with the 
suggestion made in my last report, is more rational, and will 
prove a better safeguard : — It is to furnish vessels, plying 
between the two countries, with cards giving illustrated descrip- 
tions of the insect in all stages, with the request that passengers 
and crew destroy any stray specimens that may be found. Let 
England and Ireland, together with the other European govern- 
ments, co-operate with Germany in this plan, and have such a 
card posted in the warehouses of seaport towns, and the meeting 
rooms of agricultural societies ; and a possible evil will be much 
more likely avoided." Some English journals are discussing the 
question as to whether, with the more moist and cool climate 
of this country, the 10-lined Potato-beetle would thrive here 
even if imported. " There cannot be much doubt that it will 
rather enjoy the more temperate clime ; for while it thrives 
best during comparatively dry seasons, both excessive heat 
and drought, as well as excessive wet, are prejudicial to 
it. It is argued by others, that on the continent of 
Europe our Doryphora would not thrive if introduced ; 
and, in a recent letter received from M. Oswald de Ker- 
chove, of Gaud, Belgium, author of an interesting pamphlet 
on the insect, that gentleman says : — ' I do not think 
that the Doryphora, awakened by our early warm weather, 
could resist the effects of the late cold which we are apt to 



have in these European countries.' The idea that the climate 
of North America is less extreme than that of Europe is 
rather novel to us of the cis-Atlantic ; and, from a sufficiently 
long residence in England, France, and Germany, I am 
decidedly of opinion that they delude themselves who suppose 
that Doryphora could not thrive in the greater part of Europe ; 
and that to abandon all precautionary measures against its 
introduction on such grounds would be foolish. An insect 
which has spread from the high table-lands of the Eocky 
Mountains across the Mississippi Valley to the Atlantic, and 
that flourishes alike in the States of Minnesota, Wisconsin and 
Connecticut, and in Maryland, Virginia, and Texas — in fact, 
wherever the Potato succeeds — will not be likely to be discomfited 
in the Potato-growing districts of Europe. Some few, again, 
have ridiculed the idea of the insect's passage to Eui'ope in any 
state, arguing that it is an impossibility for any coleopterous 




Bogus Colorado Potato-beetle : a, a, eggs ; 6, h, larva; c, beetle; d, left wing, 
cover, enlarged, showing marlis and punctures ; e, leg, enlarged. Colours : 
of egg, pale yellow ; of larva, cream-yellow ; of beetle, black, yellow, and 
brown. 

insect to be thus transferred from one country to another. 
Considering that half the weeds of America, and a large pro- 
portion of her worst insect pests, including two beetles — viz ; 
the Asparagus beetle (Crioceris asparagi) and the Elm leaf- 
beetle (Galeruca calmariensis) — in the very same family as our 
Doryphora, have been imported from Europe, there would 
seem poor foundation for such an argument. Moreover, a 
number of other insects — among them some beetles — of less 
importance, may be included in the number of importations ; 
and the Eape butterfly (Pieris rapte), whose progress west- 
ward has been simultaneous with that of the Doryphora east- 
ward, and whose importation dates back but a few years, bear 
witness to the fact that insects more delicate, and with fewer 
chances of safe transport than Doryphora, may succeed in 
getting alive from one country to the other, and in gaining a 
foothold in the new home. The ravages of the insect, bad as 
they are, very naturally get exaggerated at such a distance 
from its native home, and the following, from an English 
gardening periodical, gives altogether a too gloomy picture : — ■ 
' When once a field of Potatoes has been attacked, all hopes of 





Spined Soldier Bug a, beali, en- 
larged ; b, perfect insect, with the 
wings expanded on one side. 
Colour, ochreous. 



Convergent Ladybird : Larva, pupa, 
and beetle. Colours — orange, white, 
and black. 



a harvest must be given up ; in a few days it is changed into 
an arid waste — a mere mass of dried stalks.' It should not be 
forgotten that the American cultivator, by means of intelli- 
gence and a little Paris green, is pi-etty much master of the 
Doryphora." It is to be hoped that this exposition of the facts 
and probabilities of the case will put people on their guard, 
and cause intelligent action to be taken to prevent the 
importation of so dangerous a pest as this Potato-beetle. 



Public Park for Sh.eflB.eld. — A committee of the Sheffield 
Town Council have recommended that the town should purchase 
Meersbrook as a public park. Its extent is upwards of 100 acres, 
and the committee recommend that the town should offer d6500 an 
acre for it. 



July 24, 1875.] 



THE GARDEN. 



7S 



OLD TEEES. 
Old trees are living epocha in the history of the world. Here have 
they stood for hundreds of years, some even for thousands, looking 
down upon the smiling earth ; now battling with tempests, then 
basking in sunshine ; steadily growing and strengthening and 
spreading, till at last, venerable in colossal grandeur, and clad with 
the livery of advancing age, they claim our reverence and inspire 
emotions of solemn awe. We think, as we look at them, of the lapse 
of time since the tender radicle first shot downward, and the light 
plumule aspired heavenward ; of the silent forces which have been at 
work in building them up. Tear after year have they formed their buds 
and expanded their leaves ; year after year have they shed the old 
and developed the new, and slowly but surely have the limbs length- 
ened and the trunk swollen, and the whole structure, solidly buttressed 
on every side, grown into symmetrical beauty and form. Every part 
of the habitable globe can furnish its quota of venerable trees. It 
has been estimated that even now a third of the earth's surface is 
covered with forests. In tropical climes, as on the banks of the 
Amazon, travellers are struck with the number and variety of ancient 
trees ; in temperate regions immense tracts are covered with Pines 
and Oaks, Cedars and Walnuts, Hemlocks and Chestnuts, Lindens and 
Ashes, many of which are from 20 to SO feet in circumference, and 
from 100 to 300 feet in height ; and farther to the north, to the outer 
verge of the Arctic Circle, the whole surface is covered with trees 
less gigantic in circumference, and height many of which are of great 
age. 

Pine Trees. 
The Pine is said to have a geographical range in America from the 
Saskatchawan to Georgia, and, beyond the Mississippi, from the 
sources of the Columbia to the Pacific slope. It grows in every part 
of New England and in every variety of soil, and it was foi'merly, as 
now, the principal tree of Massachusetts, although the older growths 
have mostly disappeared. Fifty years ago it was not uncommon to 
find Pines 6 feet in diameter, and 250 feet in height, and masts have 
been made, on the Penobscot and in Canada, 90 feet in length, and 3 
feet in diameter at the smallest part. We have frequently seen sticks 
of this size on the shores of the St. Lawrence and Ottawa rivers, or 
Quebec aud other ports. The "Worcester Palladium" for July 3, 
1841., gives an account of a tree cut in Hopkinton, New Hampshire, 
previous to the Revolution, from which a mast was hewn 110 feet long, 
aud 3 feet in diameter at the upper end. The dimensions of the 
stump are not given, but it is said a yoke of large oxen were driven 
upon it and turned with ease, and that fifty-five yoke of oxen were 
required to draw the stick to tide-water. Lambert's Pine, on the 
north-west coast, grows to the height of 230 feet, aud the Douglass 
Pine, which is still larger, grows to the height of 300 feet. Such 
trees, in the depths of the forest, are often objects of peculiar interest 
from the striking variety of vegetable life which they exhibit: Lichens 
— dotted Lecideas, Lecanoras, and Yerruoarias — closely invest the 
bark on the lower part of the trunk ; star-like Parmelias spread over 
them ; green and purple Mosses in the crannies, and tufts of Stricta, 
Eammalina, and Usnea higher up. Quite often, indeed, the Usnea 
barbata hangs pendent in large masses from the upper boughs in 
moist woods, trailing in the wind and giving to the trees in the dim 
twilight an exceedingly weird and ghost-like appearance. The 
estimated age of the most ancient of these trees is fourteen hundred 
yeai's, and trees of the age of eleven hundred years are not uncommon. 
Many of the trunks are from 27 to 3G feet in circumference, and rise 
to the height of 120 feet without a limb. The Siberian Pine, which 
grows quite extensively in Switzerland as well as in Russia, although 
not a large tree, attains often to a great age ; a trunk 19 inches in 
diameter presenting, when cut down, 353 annual circles. The timber 
of this Pine is of an agreeable perfume, aud is much employed for 
domestic purposes as well as for wainscoting rooms, as it exhales its 
fragrance for centuries with undiminished strength aud without any 
decrease of weight in the wood. The seeds are esteemed a great 
luxury, and are eaten in great quantities at the winter festivals. 
Like all the ConiferaB it is symmetrical in shape, but the branches, 
which are not long, incline upward and are somewhat contorted. 

Cypresses. 

Nearly allied to the Pine is the Cypress, a tall and graceful plume- 
shaped tree, which attains in Europe a great age and size, and 
which was celebrated in all antiquity for the incorruptibility of its 
wood and its funereal uses. The oldest tree on record is the Cypress 
of Somma, in Lombardy, figured by Loudon in his "Arboretum." 
This tree is supposed by some to have been planted the year of the 
birth of Christ, and on that account it is regarded with great rever- 
ence ; but an ancient chronicle at Milan is said to prove that it was a 
tree in the time of Julius Cassar, B.C. 42. It is 121 feet high, and 
23 feet in circumference at 1 foot from the ground. Napoleon, when 
laying down the plan for his great road over the Simplon, diverged 



from a straight line to avoid injuring this tree. The American 
Cypress, found in the Southern States, grows naturally in low grounds 
subject to annual inundations, and sometimes rises to the height of 
120 feet, with a circumference at the base of from 25 to 40 feet. The 
roots, which run horizontally at a short depth below the surface, 
throw up conical protruberances or knees,'! sometimes 4 or 5 feet 
high, but usually smaller, smooth without and hollow within, looking 
not unlike mile-posts, and serving, says Bartram, " very well for bee- 
hives." These trees, with their streamers of long Moss floating on 
the wind, are a curious feature in the scenery of the Southern States, 
and a Cypress swamp is a somewhat formidable object to encounter. 
Some Cypresses have been known to reach the age of 670 years. 
This tree, however, attains to its amplest development and age in the 
tierras templadas of Mexico ; and one of the celebrated group in the 
garden of Chapultepec, called the Cypress of Montezuma, which was 
already a remarkable tree in the palmy days of that unfortunate 
monarch, nearly 400 years ago, is 45 feet in circumference, aud of a 
height, iu proportion to its size, so great that the whole mass appears 
light and graceful. But this tree, vast as it is, is greatly surpassed 
by the famous Ahnchute — the Mexican name for the species — of the 
village of Atlisco, in the iutendancy of Puebla, which was first 
described by Lorenzana, and which, according to the worthy arch, 
bishop, " might contain twelve or thirteen men on horseback in the 
cavity of the trunk." Humboldt says the girth of the tree is 
23 metres, or 76 English feet, aud the diameter of the cavity is 16 feet. 
Still more gigantic, however, than this — the Nestor of the raoe, 
indeed, if not of the whole vegetable kingdom — is the Cypress, which 
stands in the churchyard of the village of Santa Maria del 'Tule in 
the intendaucy of Oaxaca, on the road to Guatemala by the way of 
Tetuantepec, which, according to Humboldt, is 36 metres or 118 
English feet in circumference. In its immediate vicinity are five or 
six other trees of the same species, each of which is nearly as large 
as the Cypress of Montezuma ; but this tree as much surpasses the 
rest as they surpass the ordinary denizens of the forest. It still 
shows no signs of decay, although it bears less foliage in proportion 
to its size than its younger fellows. Recent travellers speak of other 
trees near the ruins of Palenqne equal iu size to the splendid tree at 
Santa Maria del Tule, and the estimate of the age of these trees is 
from 4,000 to 6,000 years ; perhaps dating back to the beginning of 
the earth's historic period. Imagination is lost in picturing the 
possibility even of such longevity ; yet, if any reliance can be placed 
upon estimates sanctioned by the opinion of the most eminent 
naturalists, we have here trees which have witnessed the gradual 
rise, the steady progress, and final decline, and even the extinction 
of a race whose history has sunk into oblivion while the trees them, 
selves are still alive. 

Yews. 
The Yew is perhaps more durable than any other European tree ; 
thus supporting the opinion first advanced by De Candolle, aud now 
concurred in by most physiologists, that exogenous trees are by their 
nature of indefinite growth, and never die except by a violent death. 
Indeed, a Yew, 

Of vast circumference and gloom profound, 
is, as Wordsworth truly says, 

A living thing, 

Produced too slowly ever to decay ; 

Of form and aspect too magnificent 

To be destroyed. 

Of the many trees of this species to be found in England one is 
mentioned which formerly stood iu Braburne Churchyard, in the 
county of Kent, which was more than 60 feet in circumference, and 
its age was computed at 2,500 years. A second still stands in the 
woods of Cliefden called the Hedron Yew, healthy and vigorous, over 
80 feet in circumference, and 3,000 years old. The famous Yews of 
Fountain's Abbey, near Ripon, Yorkshire, were in full vigour when 
the abbey was founded iu 1132 by Thurston, Archbishop of York ; 
and of the seven trees of which history speaks one measured 26 feet 
and 6 inches in circumference at the height of 3 feet from the 
ground, and the whole seven stood so near each other as to form a 
cover almost equal to a thatched roof. The age of the largest is fixed 
at 1,200 years. The fine Yew at Dryburgh Abbey, which is supposed 
to have been planted when the abbey was founded, in 1136, and 
which is in full health and vigour, has a trunk only 12 feet in cir. 
cumference. The Arkernyke Yew, near Staines, which witnessed 
the conference between the English barons and King John, and in 
sight of which Magna Charta was signed, measures 27 feet and 
8 inches in circumference, and is supposed to be between 1,100 
and 1,200 years old. The Darley Yew, in Derbyshire, which is 
29 feet 2 inches in circumference, is estimated to be nearly 
1,400 years old ; and the Yew in Tisbury Churchyard, Dorset, 
shire, which is 37 feet in circumference, is estimated to bo 1,600 
years old. The Yew in Portingall Churchyard, Perthshire, Scotland, 



74 



THE GAEDEN. 



[July 24. 1875. 



situated in a wild district among the Grampians, is 56 feot in cir. 
cnmference, and is estimated to be more than 2,500 years old. 

Cedars. 

Next to the Yew stands the Cedar ; and, although no very 
ancient specimens exist in America, in portions of Asia, especially in 
the Levant, are trees invested with a sacred interest from the fact 
that they were living in Old Testament times, hundreds of years 
before the birth of Christ. The grove on Mount Lebanon, so 
often alluded to in Holy Writ, was first described in modern times by 
Belon, who visited it about the year 1550. The Cedars of this grove 
were then, as now, highly venerated by the Maronite Christians, who 
iirmly believed them to be coeval with Solomon, if not planted by his 
hand ; and they made an annual pilgrimage to the spot at the festival 
of the Transfiguration, the patriarch oelebi'ating high mass under the 
shade of one of the oldest trees, and anathematising all who shoald 
presume to injure these sacred relics. The larger trees of the grove 
were measured and described by Rauwolf, au early German traveller, 
in 1574 ; by Thevenofc, in 1655; more particularly by Maundrell in 
1696; by La Roque, in 1722; by Dr. Pococke, in 1744; by 
Labillardiere, in 1787 ; and by M. Laure, an officer of the French 
marine, who visited them with the Prince de Joinville, in 1836. 
Formerly, from twenty to thirty of the trees were standing; more 
recently there were seventeen ; still more recently, only twelve ; and 
now we believe there are but seven. We have in our possession a 
small section from a limb of one of these trees, which we prize highly. 

Tropical Trees. 

Of the soft-wooded trees of tropical climes, some attain to a great 
age and size. Thus the Palo de vaca or Cow tree of South America, 
found in the Cordilleras, in Venezuela, and Caraccas, grows to the 
height of 100 feet, and is often 7 feet in diameter. Humboldt 
describes it as a handsome tree resembling the broad-leaved Star 
Apple ; and says that when incisions are made in the trunk a glutinous 
milk abundantly issues, of a pleasing and balmy smell, rich and thick 
though not bitter, and mixed with Coffee it could scarcely be dis- 
tinguished from animal milk. The Banian, or Indian Fig, commonly 
called the Peepul tree, is constantly planted by the Hindoo temples : 
Branching so broad and long, that in the ground 
The bended twigs take root, and daughters grow 
About the mother tree, a pillared shade, 
High overarched, and echoing walks between. 

The roots or props thrown out from the main trunk occupy such a 
space that one growing on the banks of the Nerbudda covers an 
almost incredible area. The circumference which now remains is 
nearly two thousand feet, and the overhanging branches which have 
not yet thrown down their props overshadow a much larger space. 
Three hundred and twenty large trunks are counted, and the smaller 
ones exceed 3,000. Each is continually sending forth new branches 
and pendent roots, to form other trunks and become the parent of a 
future progeny. According to Forbes's " Oriental Memoirs," the 
whole has been known to shelter beneath its shade a company of at 
least 7,000 men. The Baobab, or Monkey Bread, another tropical 
tree, found in the Cape Verd Islands and at Senegal, has long afforded 
celebrated instances of longevity. This tree is remarkable for its 
small height in comparison with the diameter of its trunk or 
the length of its branches ; trunks of 70 or 80 feet in circumference 
being only 10 or 12 feet high. The branches, however, are very 
numerous, often 50 or 60 feet in length, spreading widely in every 
direction, and forming a hemisphere or hillock of verdure sometimes 
150 feet in diameter. The history of these trees, rendered famous by 
Adamson's account, reaches back to the first discovery of that part of 
the African coast, and of the Cape ds Verd Islands, by Cadamosto, in 
1455. The largest trunks were 27 feet in diameter, or 85 feet in 
circumference. More recently, M. Perrottet has met with many 
Baobabs in Senegambia, varying from 60 to 90 feet in circumference, 
green and flourishing, and showing no signs of approaching decrepti. 
tude. By some, these trees are regarded as among the oldest in 
existence on our globe, and their age is estimated by the younger De 
Candolle at 5,000 or 6,000 years ! The famous Dragon tree furnishes 
another instance of great longevity. One of these trees, found near 
the city of Orotava, Teneriffe, has been visited by many competent 
observers, — among others by Himiboldt, — and from their statements 
it appears that the trunk is about 50 feet in girth, and 60 or 70 feet 
in height. At the discovery of Teneriffe in 1402, nearly five centuries 
ago, this tree was about as large as it is to-day ; and even then it had 
been immemorially an object of veneration among the Guanches. 
Since that period it has been hollowed by decay, and shorn of part of 
its top ; still it continues to vegetate, and its remaining branches are 
annually covered, as they have been for thousands of years, with 
beautiful clusters of white Lily-like blossoms, emblems of the eternal 
youth of Nature. 



The Oak. 

Amongst the hard.wood trees, the Oak unquestionably stands, as 
it should do, at the head of those growing in the temperate zone, 
and it is justly regarded as the monarch of the forest. Virgil 
calls it 

Jove's own tree, 
Which holds the woods in awful sovereignty. 
The ancient Pelasgiana believed that a deity dwelt in their Oak 
groves, whom they feared and worshipped. The oracle of Dodona 
was situated in an Oak grove ; and to the inhabitants of Britain and 
Gaul, under the Druids, the Oak was still more sacred. Oak groves 
were their temples, and the Mistletoe which hung from its boughs 
was their favourite wand. For the fullest account of this magnifi. 
cent tree, which grows in nearly every part of the world, we must 
refer to the works of Evelyn and Gilpin, Strutt and Loudon, who 
have devoted pages instead of paragraphs to its consideration. It is 
not uncommon to find in Massachusetts Oak trees from 12 to 20 feet 
in circumference, and from 400 to 1,400 years old. The celebrated 
Charter Oak, of Hartford, Connecticut, which was prostrated in the 
storm of August, 1854, is said to have been 36 feet in circumference 
at the ground, and its age was estimated at 800 years. The Wads, 
worth Oak, of Genesee, New York, lived to a great age, and at the 
time of its destruction, in 1857, was estimated to be at least a 1,000 
years old. Its circumference was about 27 feet, and it was a fair 
counterpart of Spenser's tree : 

A huge Oak, dry and dead. 
Still clad with reliques of its trophies old ; 
Lifting to heaven its aged, hoary head ; 
Whose feet on earth had got hut feeble hold. 
And half-disboweled stands above the ground. 
With wreathed roots and naked arms. 
Of the Oaks of Europe some of the most noted are the King's Oak, 
in Windsor Forest, which is more than 1,000 years old, and quite 
hollow. Professor Burnet, who once lunched inside this tree, said it 
was capable of accommodating ten or twelve persons comfortably at 
a sitting. The Beggar's Oak, in Bagshot Park, is 23 feet in girth at 
5 feet from the ground, and the branches extend from the trunk 48 
feet in every direction. The Wallace Oak, at Ellerslie, near where 
Wallace was born, is 21 feet in circumference, and Wallace and 300 
of his men are said to have hid from the English army among its 
branches when the tree was in full leaf. The Parliament Oak, in 
Clipstone Park, which is supposed to be tho oldest in England, 
derives its name from the fact that a pailiament was held under its 
branches by Edward I., in 1290, at which time it was a large tree. 
The Oak in Yardley Chase, immortalised by Cowper, is also a con. 
spicuous and venerable relic. The Winfaithing Oak, now a bleached 
ruin, is said to have been an old tree at the time of the Norman Con. 
quest, in the eleventh century. The Greendale Oak, in the Duke of 
Portland's Park, at Welbeck, is described by Evelyn and figured by 
Hunter, with its trunk pierced by a lofty arch, through which car. 
riageshave been driven. The Cowthorpe Oak, in Yorkshire, measures 
78 feet in circumference, and its age is estimated at 1,800 years. 
The Great Oak of Salcey Forest, Northamptonshire, a picturesque 
wreck, is supposed to be of equal antiquity. On the Continent an 
Oak was felled at Bordza, in Russian Poland, some forty years ago, 
upon which 710 consecutive layers were distinctly counted, and the 
space in which the layers could not be counted was estimated to con. 
tain 300 more, making the whole age of the tree 1,000 years. Near 
Saintes, in France, an Oak is standing which is said to be upwards 
of 00 feet in circumference. A room has been cut out of the 
dead wood of the interior, about 12 feet in diameter, and a 
round table has been placed in it at which twelve guests can be 
seated at once. The full age of the tree is estimated at 2,000 years. 

The Elm. 

Next to the Oak in size and popularity must be ranked the Elm, 
which is found all over the United States and in Europe. Few trees, 
indeed, are more common in the temperate zone than this; and, 
although it rarely grows in large bodies, like the Pine and Spruce, it 
is frequently found in the Canadian woods interspersed with Ashea 
and Maples of venerable size, and growing to the height of from 80 
to 100 feet, with a smooth stem to the height of from 40 to 60 feet. 
Few sights are grander than those old forests, back from the Ottawa, 
stretching to the northward undisturbed for hundreds of miles, with 
giant Pines and enormous Hemlocks completely concealing and 
shading the earth. The Elm in Massachusetts is a favourite tree, 
and may be found planted by nearly all old mansions. Every town 
has its memorable trees of this kind ; and they grow in many places 
from 80 to 100 feet high, and with a circumference of from 12 to 30 
feet. The famous Elm on Boston Common is 24 feet in circum. 
f erence, and on a map of Boston, published in 1720, it is delineated 
as a large tree. It is Baid to have been planted by Captain Daniel 



July 24, 1875.] 



THE GAEDEN. 



75 



HeDohman, an ancestor of Governor Hancock, in 1670, and is now 
200 years old. The Washington Elm, in Cambridge, is another classic 
tree, and is nearly 16 feet in circumference at the base. The Pitts, 
field Elm, greatly revered by the inhabitants of that town, was 126 
feet high and 13 feet in circumference at the height of 4 feet from 
the ground. The Aspinwall Elm, in Brookline, now more than 200 
years old, is nearly 21 feet in circumference, and its branches are 100 
feet long. The Elm in Hinghham, near the Old Colony House, which 
was transplanted in 1729, is 13 feet in circumference at 4 feet from 
the ground. The Springfield Elm, according to Dr. Holmes, is over 
29 feet in circumference at the base ; a tree is mentioned in Hatfield 
which is 41 feet in circumference at the base ; and another in Med- 
field is over 37 feet in circumference. An Elm in Wakefield, in front 
of the residence of Mr. James Eustis, measures 21 feet at the 
ground; the Sheffield Elm is nearly 23 feet in circumference; and 
there are hundreds of trees of equal size and age scattered abroad 
throughout our villages. The European Elm is somewhat different 
from that of America; and Strutt, in his " Sylva Britannica," gives 
engravings of several of the most remarkable. Among these the 
finest is the Chipstead Elm, which is 20 feet in circumference at the 
ground, and 16 feet at the height of 4 feet. Its venerable trunk is 
richly mantled with clustering Ivy, and gives signs of considerable 
age. The Crawley Elm, on the high-roid from London to Brighton, 
measures 16 feet in circnmferenne at the ground, and is a well-known 
object of interest to travellers, with its tall straight stem and the 
fantastic ruggedness of its wide-spreading roots. For several cen- 
turies this species of Elm has been planted for ornament on avenues 
and public parks in France, Spain, and the Low Countries, and in 
England immemorially. It is less graceful than the American Elm, 
and more sturdy and spreading in its form ; but it has the advantage 
' of retaining its foliage for several weeks longer than the American 
tree. Fine specimens are found in America, in Boston and its vicinity. 

The Linden. 

The Linden is a native of America and Europe, and in both countries 
attains to a great size and age. The celebrated Sycamore Maple 
which stands near the entrance of the village of Trons, in the 
Grisons — the cradle of liberty among the Rhootiau Alps — was once 
called a Linden, and nnder its spreading branches the Gray League 
was solemnised in 142i. Its age is estimated at 600 years. The 
true Linden is a favourite with the Swiss, and is intimately associated 
with important events in the history of that i^eople. The Linden at 
Freiburg, planted in 1476 to commemorate the battle of Morat, is 
still standing, and, though beginning to decay, has already proved a 
more durable monument than the famous ossuary on that battle. 
field, 

Where Burgundy bequeathed his tombless host, 

A bony heap, through ages to remain. 

Themselves their monument. 

Another tree, standing at the village of Villarg-en.Moing, near 
Morat, was a noted tree four centuries ago, and at 4 feet from the 
ground it has a circumference of 38 feet. Its full age is computed 
at 900 years. The still more celebrated Linden of Neustadt, on the 
Kocher, in Wurtemberg, is equally old, and was a remarkable tree at 
the opening of the thirteenth century ; for the village of Uelmbundt, 
which was destroyed in 1226, was subsequently rebuilt in the vicinity 
of this tree, and thence took the name of Neustadt an der grossen 
Linden. Prom an old poem, written in 1404, it appears that even 
then the tree was of such size, and the spread of its branches was so 
enormous, that their weight was sustained by sixty.seven columns of 
stone. At 6 feet from the ground the circumference of the tree is 
36 English feet, and the age is computed at 900 years. 

The Chestnut. 

This is found in Europe and America, and lives to a good old ag9. 
In this country large specimens are occasionally found, and many are 
mentioned by Mr. Emerson in his " Trees and Shrubs of Massachu. 
setts," from 14 to 26 feet in circumference, the largest of which 
must be from 400 to 600 years old. But, great as these are, they are 
thrown into the shade, and seem like pigmies, besido the enormous 
tree on Mount Etna, called the Castagna di cento cavalli, from the 
tradition of its having once sheltered in its hollow trunk 100 mounted 
cavaliers under Jeanne of Aragon. Brydone, in his " Tour in 
Sicily," described this tree in 1770, and says it was then 204 feet in 
circumference, and had the appearance of five distinct trunks. 
Kircher, however, who saw the tree a century earlier, speaks of the 
five as united in one. An engraving of this tree, with its splendid 
top, is given in Plate Ixxxvii of Low's " American Encyclopedia," 
published in 1807. Besides this, there are other cislossal Chestnuts 
on Mount Etna with undoubted single trunks ; and three of these, 
when measured a quarter of a century ago, bad respectively a circum- 



ference of 57, 6 1, and 70 feet. Their ago is probably not far from 
1,500 years, and the great tree is supposed to be from 2,000 to 2,500 
years old. The great Chestnut of'San9erre, France, described by 
Bosc, has been called by that name for at least 600 years, and as its 
girth is 33 feet at 6 feet from the gronnd, its full age is probably 
at least 1,000 years. The same is true of the great Chestnut 
of Tortworth, in Gloucestershire, which is known to have been 
standing in 1150, and which is 52 feet in circumference at the 
ground. This tree fixes the boundary of the ancient manor, and its 
age is probably about 1,200 years. 

"Walnuts and Planes. 

The Black Walnut, in the states bordering on the Ohio, often grows 
to a great size. Michaux says ho has frequently seen Walnuts from 
6 to 7 feet in diameter, and we have measured stumps in Illinois 
which were from 5 to 8 feet in diameter. Planks have been sawed 
from snch trees 5 feet wide and 30 or 40 feet long. When the 
Walnut stands alone it spreads out iuto a spacious head and extends 
its branches horizontally to a great distance ; but, in the depths of 
the forest, it is of a more compact growth, is often shorn of its 
limbs, and has a smooth bole to the height of from 40 to 60 feet. 
The largest trees are probably from 400 to 600 years old. The 
Walnut of Europe is equally venerable, and " Galignani's Messenger " 
mentions one on the road from Martel to Grammont which is at least 
350 years old. Its height is 55 feet, and its diameter 14 feet. Its 
branches, seven in number, extend to a distance of 125 feet, and it 
bears on an average fifteen bags of nuts per annum. The Button, 
wood, or Sycamore, the American Plane, is often a venerable object 
to behold, and specimens may bo found from 6 to 7 feet in diameter, 
yet sound, notwithstanding the disease which attacked thom^ so 
generally a third of a century ago, and which threatened for a time 
to sweep them entirely away. One formerly stood in the town of 
Wakefield, on laud of John Tyler, which measured 30 feet in circum. 
ference at the ground. It was hollow within, and the opening was 
sufficient to permit four men to stand in it easily. Some mischievous 
boys built a fire in it one Sunday and the tree burned all day, but the 
flames wore extinguished, and snbsequently the tree was felled ; a 
portion of the trunk was removed to the common, and a platform 
erected upon it, from which the Hon. Henry Wilson, now Vice. 
President of the United States, and then just beginning his political 
career, delivered a speech in the Harrison campaign of IS 11. At 
a place called Vaucluse, near Newport, Rhode Island, a Button, 
wood is described which, in 1839, measured 21 feet in circumference 
at the ground; and three miles from Hagerstown, Maryland, near 
Salem Church, a tree is standing which is 39 feet in circumference 
at the ground, and the cavity within is 11 feet in diameter. A Mr. 
Gelwicks, with twenty scholars, from eight to seventeen years old, 
stood in a circle around this cavity. As the growth of the Button, 
wood after a certain period is quite slow, it is probable that this tree 
is 500 or 600 years old, and the others we have described 
were from 200 to 400 years old. The elder Michaux measured a 
tree on a small island in the Ohio, which was over 40 feet in circum. 
ference at 5 feet from the ground. General Washington had measured 
the same tree 20 years before, and found it to be nearly the same size. The 
younger Michaux found a tree in 1802 on the right bank of the Ohio, 
36 miles from Marietta, which measured 47 feet in circumference at 
4 feet from the ground. Either of those trees must have been at 
least 600 years old. The Oriental Plane is a tree of nearly the same 
kind, only its leaves are more palmated, and it has less disposition to 
overshadow the ground. It was a great favourite with the ancients, 
and Pliny, in his Natural History, tolls a story of its having been 
brought across the Ionian Sea to shade the tomb of Diomedes, in the 
island of that hero ; that it came thonce into fertile Sicily, and was 
among the first of the foreign trees presented to Italy. From thence 
it was carried to Spain and France, where, it is said, the inhabitants 
were made to pay for the privilege of sitting nnder its shade. The 
same writer describes some of the principal trees of this kind, and 
speaks of one in the walks of the Academy at Athens, whose trunk 
was 48 feet to the branches. He describes also a tree in Syria, near 
a cool fountain by the road-side, with a cavity of 81 feet in circum. 
ference, a forest-like head, and arm-like trees overshadowing broad 
fields. Within this apartment, made by Moss-covered stones to 
resemble a grotto, Licinius Mucianus thought it a fact worthy of 
history that he dined and slept with nineteen companions. But the 
greatest of all the Oriental Planes is that which stands in the valley 
of Buyukdere, near Constantinople, described by Olivier, Dr. Webb, 
and others, the trunk of which is 150 feet in girth, with a central 
hollow of 80 feet in circumference. The age of this tree it is 
difficult to determine ; but if it is a single trunk, as there is good 
reason to suppose, it must be the most ancient of its species in 
existence ; and it will hardly bo deemed an exaggeration to fi.x its age 
at 2,000 years. 



1& 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 24, 1875. 



The Terebinth Tree and the Olive. 

The Terebinth tree attains an almost fabulous age. Josephua relates 
that he saw a tree of this species near Hebron, which had existed since 
the Creation ; and the Old Testament Scriptures often refer to this 
tree. Thus, Jacob buried the idolatrous images which his family 
brought from Mesopotamia under a Terebinth tree ; an angel appeared 
to Gideon under a Terebinth tree ; it was in a valley of Terebinths 
that Saul encamped with all his army ; Absalom hung on a 
Terebinth tree ; and Isaiah threatens idolatora that they shall 
bo as a Terebinth tree whose leaves fall off. One of these trees, 
under which the prophetess Deborah is said to have dwelt, was in 
existence in the days of St. Jerome, and was probably then 1,000 
years old. And towards the middle of the seventeenth century there 
stood between Jerusalem and Bethlehem an old tree under which tra- 
dition relates that the Virgin Mary rested as she went to present her 
son in the Jewish Temple. This tree, however, which was equally 
venerated by Christians and Mussulmans, was accidentally destroyed 
by fire in 161G, after haying stood for nearly 2,000 years. The Olive 
is found in Europe and Asia, and, as a tree, is of slower growth than 
even the Oak. From this circumstance, and the durableness of its 
wood, it furnishes instances of remarkable longevity. Thus the 
Olive at Pescio, mentioned by De Candolle, which had a trunk 
2 1 feet in girth, is supposed to have been at least 700 years old ; and 
although now in a state of decrepitude, it continues to bear a crop of 
fruit of considerable abundance. It is not impossible, therefore, 
that the eight venerable trees still to be found on the Mount of 
Olives may have been in existence, as tradition asserts, at the timo of 
our Saviour's passion, and their age may extend beyond 2,000 years. 
Certain it is that they are venerable trees, and need little aid from 
imagination to invest them with a peculiar charm. 

The "Big Trees." 

We must now refer briefly to some of the largest, though not 
the oldest, trees on our globe. These are the giant trees of California, 
which are among the most perfect and wonderful specimens of 
vegetable life. Fifteen or twenty groves of these trees have been 
discovered in all, on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevadas, in 
Southern California ; but the two principal groves are in Calaveras 
County, and on the borders of Mariposa and Fresno Counties, but a 
few miles from the direct road to the valley of the Yo Semite. 
These "big trees," as they are commonly called, are scattered in 
groups among the Pines and Cedars throughout a space of several 
miles, and the collection numbers about 600. They attain to a 
diameter of from 30 to 50 feet, and rarely fall below 200 feet in 
height. Mr. Bowles, of the " Springfield Republican," who visited this 
grove in company with Mr. Colfax and others, in his delightful work, 
" Across the Continent," says : — " Among those we examined are six, 
each over 30 feet in diameter, and from 90 to 100 feet in circnm. 
fereuce ; 50 over IG feet in diameter, and 200 over 12 feet. The 
Grizzly Giant, which is among the largest and most noteworthy, 
runs up 90 feet with scarcely perceptible diminution of bulk, and 
then sends out a branch, itself G feet in diameter." " But," he adds, 
" they are even more impressive for their beauty than their bigness. 
The bark is an exquisitely light and delicate cinnamon colour, fluted 
up and down the long, straight, slowly-tapering trunk, like Corinthian 
columns in architecture ; the top, resting like a cap upon a high, 
bare mast, is a perfect cone ; and the evergreen leaves were a bright, 
light shade, by which the tree can be distinguished from afar in the 
forest. The wood is of a deep, rich red colour, and otherwise 
marks the similarity of the big trees to the species that grow so 
abundantly on the Coast Ilange of mountains through the Pacific 
States, and known generally as the Redwood. Their wood is, how- 
ever, of a finer grain than their smaller kindred, and both that and 
the bark, the latter sometimes as much as 20 inches thick, are so 
light and delicate that the winds and snows of the winter make 
fi'cquent wrecks of the tops and upper branches. Many of the 
largest of these trees are, tfiorofore, shorn of their upper works. One 
or two of the largest in the grove we visited are wholly blown down, 
and we rode on horseback through the truuk of an old one that had 
been burnt out. Many more of the noblest specimens are scarred by 
fires that have been wantonly built about their trunks, or swept 
through the forest by accident. The trunk of one huge tree is burnt into 
half a dozen little apartments, making capital provision for a game of 
hide and seek by children, or for dividing up a picnic of older growths 
into aentimental couples. " A friend of the writer, who visited 
California with the Boston Board of Trade in 1870, and one of the most 
noted booksellers of the city, informs us that he rode erect on horse- 
back through the trunk of the fallen tree referred to by Mr. Bowles, 
to the distance of 120 feet ; that he and seven others, standing 
ehoulder to shoulder, walked down the outside of the tree without the 
least dilBculty, such was the breadth of the foothold afforded them ; 
and that ton horsemen, closely arranged in single file, did not roach 



round the trunk of the largest standing tree, which, by his measure- 
ment, was 99 feet in circumference. The silence in this grove is 
almost unbroken. Not a bird chants its song ; not an insect chirps. 
And to lie at full length on the soft carpet of fallen leaves, and gaze 
upward to the spiry tree-tops, and breathe the pure and exhilarating 
air which circles through the forest, is the height of enjoyment and 
voluptuous repose. We have thus briefly noticed a few of the 
multitude of ancient trees to be found on our globe. And as we 
look over the list, we are struck with wonder at the extent and 
variety of these monuments of vegetable life. No country is destitute 
of such trees. Scattered everywhere in great profusion, they attest 
to the boundless magnificence of Nature. And when we survey the 
whole field, and pause to reflect, we are impressed with the fact that 
no form of organised life is so venerable as this. Few animals live 
to the age of 200 years. The duration of man's life, except in the 
earliest periods of history, has rarely exceeded 100 years. Yet hero 
are trees, which, if we may trust our somewhat imperfect methods 
of calculation, must be at least from 4,000 to 5,000 years old ; and it 
is not impossible that there may be still standing trees which were 
in existence when Adam aud Eve walked in Paradise. 

J. S. Baket, in " Atlantic Monthly." 



THE H OUSE HOLD. 

GAELIC. 
DuniNG Elizabeth's reign Garlic and many plants possessing a similar 
flavour were in great repute in England. That this taste should 
have died out, to be supplauted in our time by a dislike almost as 
marked, is an unaccountable fact. It cannot bo from its smell, for 
the much-admired Truflle leaves an odour even more powerful than 
that of Garlic ; nor for any bad effect it produces on the system, for 
Easpail has written a pamphlet in which he points out the great 
benefit to be derived from a liberal use of Garlic as an article of 
diet. According to this author, besides the carminative and stimu. 
lating effects which Garlic exerts on the healthy system, and which 
are admitted by all, this bulb is an excellent anthelmintic, standing 
far before jalap or calomel in its power of expelling small intestinal 
worms. It is also a corrective of the flatulence often induced in 
dyspeptics by the use of certain vegetables, such as boiled Peas, 
Beans, and Lentils. From its similitude to the Squill it might natu- 
rally bo expected to have a soothing effect on the lungs when 
they are attacked by a severe cold ; and this, in fact, is the 
case. A well-made grue), seasoned with plenty of Garlic, will 
often cure a recent cough in a single night. But Raspail claims 
another and even more important result as directly derivable from the 
liberal use of Garlic ; and this is total exemption from many contagious 
diseases. I am not in a position to sustain or to controvert this 
assertion ; but, judging from the fact that many powerfully smelling 
bodies, such as chlorine, creosote, carbolic acid, acetic acid, fresh, 
roasted coffee, &c., do certainly act as disinfectants, it does not seem 
improbable that Dr. Raspail may be very much in the right. In culti. 
vating Garlic the head should be divided by gentle pressure into its 
component cloves, as the separate offsets are called ; and the off-sets 
planted in rows about 9 inches apart, leaving about 6 inches between 
the bulbs in each row. The best time for planting is certainly 
between October and November, if the soil lies dry. It otherwise, 
or if circumstances occur to prevent autumn planting, the bulbs may 
be put in, with almost equal success, any time from February to 
April. The beds should be prepared by being well dressed with well- 
rotted manure, and afterwards marked out into divisions 3i feet wide 
by means of little alleys running up the side of each bed, the soil from 
the alleys to be thrown on the bed, and the surface kept slightly rounded. 
Just previous to plantingamixture of soot and charred ref useshould bo 
run along the line in which the bulbs are about to be placed. Plant 
with the hand, and press each bulb firmly in the soil, but not to auy 
depth. See, from time to time, that they are not thrown up from 
their places by worms or other insects. Garlic is ready for storing 
about the end of June or beginning of July — that is to say, as soon 
as the leaves begin to decay. When this occurs, take up the crop, 
spread it out to dry on boards, and store it in paper bags, hung up in 
a dry airy place. On the Continent no salad in which Garlic does not 
enter as a component part is considered perfect, but instead of 
slicing up the Garlic, and mixing it with the salad, it is customary to 
rub it against a piece of crust, which absorbs the fragrance, and 
slice up the bread into the salad. Salt beef, into which a few cloves 
of garlic are introduced previous to boiling, acquires a much finer 
flavour after cooking than it would otherwise have. In roasting 
mutton, &c., the flavour is greatly improved by making two or three 
stabs in the fleshy portion, and placing therein a peeled clove or two 
of Garlic. — " English Mechanic." [Some of the most admired dishes 
jvepared in southern France are flavoured with Garlic] 



July 24., 1875.] 



THE GARDEN. 



11 



SOCIETIES A ND E XHIBITIONS. 

EOTAL HOETICULTUEAL SOCIETY. 

July 21st and 22nd. 
This was, undoubtedly, the finest display of plants, fruits, and florists' 
flowers seen this season, and affords a striking illustration of the good 
feeling that exists between horticulturists generally and the new Council. 
Unfortunately, the weather was unfavourable, heavy rain falling nearly 
the whole of the first day. Messrs. Veitch, Bull, Williams, lioUisson, 
Wills, and others, all furnished fine collections of decorative plants ; and 
the show of fruit in competition for Messrs. Veitch's prizes was an excel- 
lent one. Grapes, Pines, and Peaches being well represented. Mr. Cole- 
man had the most perfectly " finished " Black Hamburghs which wo have 
seen this season. Tho Pelargonium Society, too, held its first exhibition 
on this occasion, in one of the tents, and a fine display of zonals was the 
result. T.ikcn altogether, this, tho last show of the season, must be 
regarded as a great success. 

First-class Certificates. — Theso were awarded to the following 
now and rare plants : 

Draesena triumphans (BuU). — ^A strong-growing slender-leaved 
variety, of a very dark bronzy colour, the margins of the leaves being 
undulated and incurved. 

Kentia Moorei (Bull). — A white pinnate-leaved Palm, of a rich 
green colour. The specimen of it shown was about '!■ feet in height, each 
leaf gracefully arched, a circumstance which gives to the plant a very 
striking appearance. 

Zonal Pelargonium Wonderful (Smith). — This is a sport 
from the now well-known Vesuvius, which it somewhat resembles ; but 
the flowers are semi-double and of good substance. 

Martinezia nobilis (Bull). — A striking fan-leaved Palm, with 
Bpinose petioles, free in growth, and deserviug of attention as a decorative 
stove Palm. 

Juniperua virginiana elegans (Lee). — A dwarf-growing 
variety of Red Cedar, the lower leaves on the young growth of which 
are of a creamy-yellow colour. 

Adiantum eoncinnum Flemingii (Fleming). — This is a free- 
growing pale green variety of a well-known Fern. Its young fronds are 
tipped with rosy-brown, a colour which gives it additional value as a 
decorative plant. 

Platycerium "Walliehii (Williams).— This is a strong-growing 
Fern similar to P. grande, but even more striking in habit, having much 
broader fertile fronds. It will make an attractive plant, either in the 
plant stove or in the Fernery. 

Polystiehum angulare grandidens pumilum (Ivery & 
Son). — A dark green depauperated form of a well-known British Fern, 
the pinnfo of which are singularly abrupt. It is distinct, and well 
deserving of culture. , 

Lomaria dolobryensis (Bull). — A robust-growing effective Fern 
from New South Wales, with pinnated crisped or serrated fronds 
of a bright green colour. As a stove Fern, it is both h.audsome and 
distinct. 

Aloe Greenii (Green). — A distinct-looking Aloe, marked with pale 
green blotches on a dark glossy ground. One of the most striking among 
variegated kinds. 

Stove and Greenhouse Plants. — The large exhibition tent wa' 
filled with one of the choicest and largest collections of new and rare 
plants, perhaps, ever brought together in one show. Of these Messrs. 
Veitch contributed a large and effective group, backed up by numerous 
specimens of the new Japanese cut-leaved Acers and large tree Ferns, 
Crotons, Gleichenias and other rare plants, the margin of this extensive 
collection being fringed with choice Orchids, Gloxinias, Pitcher plants, 
Dracfenas, and other varieties. Among other plants in this group we 
remarked AbutUon Darwinii, a now scarlet-flowered dwarf-habited 
species ; Trichomanes radicans eoncinnum, a fine mass (nearly a yard 
across) of fresh green semi-pellucid fronds ; Cypripedium Hariissianum, 
with one fine flower, Adiantum amabile, and the still rarer A. Luddeman- 
nianum with singularly fasciated fronds. Of A. speciosum and A. prin- 
ccps there were also good specimens. Among Pitcher ijlants are observed 
Sarracenia variolaris, and the pretty little S. psittacina, a fine panful of 
Darlingtonia californica, consisting of six well-grown plants. Of the 
true pitcher plants, or Nepenthes, there were fine specimens, grown in 
baskets, N. hybrida maculata, N. sanguiuea (a dwarf-growing plant, 
with blood-red pitchers), and the still more curious frill-leaved N. lanata, 
bearing eight or ten fine pitchers, the mouths of which were orna- 
mented with a margin fully an inch broad ; N. intermedia, N. KafHo- 
siana, and N. hybrida, were also well represented. Among new Orchids 
may be mentioned Cypripedium Sedenii, with bright rosy flowers ; 
Odontoglossum Eoczlii album, with snowy blossoms; Vanda tricolor; 
Masdevallia Veitohiana, with two fine flowers ; Odontoglossum Schliepe- 
rianum, with pallid flowers resembling those of 0. Insleayii ; a good plant 
of Saccolabium Blumei majus, with three good spikes ; MasdevaUia 
Harryana, with four large flowers ; and the new and distinct Zygo- 
petalum Sedenii, a hybrid which flowered last year for the first time ; a 
strong plant of Cattleya gigas, on a block, bearing two bright-coloured 
flowers ; a plant of the old, but still rare, Epidendrum nemoralo, with a 
spike of long-petaled rosy-lUao flowers ; and Cattleya superba, in excel- 
lent health and vigour, bearing two fine rosy-lUao crimson-lipped flowers. 



In this group we also noted a plant of the rare Japanese Lilium callosum 
bearing a spike of slenderpetaled bright scarlet flowers ; and Gloxinias, 
hybrid Begonias, Achimenes, and other flowering plants, were likewise 
well represented. Mr. W. Bull had one of the finest collections of foliage 
plants, perhaps, ever seen staged at one time. It consisted of Crotons, 
Dracajnas, Palms, Ferns, and Cycads, enlivened here and there with rare 
LUies aud Orchids in bloom. Among tho rarer plants were the deep 
green fan-leaved Pritohardia grandis, one of the finest and most distinct 
of aU decorative Palms. Croton majesticum was repi-esonted by 
several plants, all vividly coloured, C. Wisemanii being also well 
represented. The fine specimen which Mr. Bull possesses of 
Phyllotosnium Lindenii was staged as fresh as ever. It has great 
hastate green leaves, conspicuously marked with ivory-white veins, 
and is certainly one of the most distinct of all Arads for exhibition pur- 
poses. The new zebra-striped Dracsena Goldiana was well represented by 
two or three fine plants, one of them fully a yard in height, and clothed 
with leaves to the base. A bushy plant of Aucuba japonica lutco-picta, 
having a large creamy-yellow blotch in the centre of its glossy deep 
green leaves, attracted considerable attention, and is^ quite as beautiful as 
some of the new Crotons. Among Orchids, in this group, was a well- 
grown plant of the old, but none the less attractive, Onoidium Lanoea- 
num, bearing two large-branched spikes of richly-coloured flowers. In 
the same group was also a new and very large purple-flowered BoUea. 
Mr. B. S. Wnhams contributed some efi"ective banks of flowering and 
foliage plants, containing fine tree-Ferns, Crotons, and Cycads. Con- 
spicuous among tho Ferns was a specimen of Alsophila australis 
Williamsii, the peculiarity of which consists in its gracefully weeping habit, 
while well-grown specimens of Gleichenias, Palms, and other foliage plants 
were judiciously enlivenedby JapanLiUes,scarIet-spathed Anthuriums,rosy- 
floweredDipladenias,IIeaths,Stephanotis,and golden-flowered AUamandas. 
Messrs. EoUisson, of Tooting, furnished a well-grown collection of stove, 
greenhouse, aud hardy decorative plants, conspicuous among which was 
Todea intermedia, a noble specimen, fully 4 feet across, the semi-pellucid 
fronds of which drooped gracefully on all sides ; and two panfuls, each 
about a foot across, filled with the coral-berried Duckweed (Nertera 
depressa) were much admired, the pans being covered with dense mat-like 
masses of fresh green Duckweed-like leaves, and studded densely with 
brilliant orange-scarlet berries. Some rare pitcher plants, Venus's fly- 
trap (Dionasa muscipula), Orchids, Palms, aud Ferns, were also exhibited 
in good condition in this group. Mr. John WiUs set up an eflective group 
of large tree Ferns, Palms, and other decorative plants, as did also 
Messrs. Carter & Co., Mr. John Ley, and others. Mr. Charles Turner, of 
Slough, had an effective bank of pyramidal pot-trained Ivies, associated 
with Japanese LiUes and Palms, and margined by a double row of Moss- 
covered boxes, filled with cut Koses. Mr. Aldous, Gloucester Road, 
South Kensington, and Messrs. Lee, of Hammersmith, had also very 
effective groups of hardy and other decorative plants. Messrs. Ivery & 
Sons, Dorking, contributed a well-grown group of hardy and British 
Ferns. A fine bank of Heaths, in flower, came from Mr. E. Morse, of 
Epsom ; and Messrs. Cutbush, of Highgate, contributed Arauoarias, 
Palms, Ferns, and other well-grown decorative plants. A good collection 
of Pahns and other plants also came from Messrs. Osborn & Son, 
Fulham ; and Messrs. B. G. Henderson and Mr. W. Paul had 
attractive groups of Pelargoniums; of these the collection staged by 
Messrs. Henderson contained a large number of Cape species, which, if 
not showy, are invaluable for hybridising purposes. Mr. Parker, 
Tooting, sent a well-arranged collection of British Ferns in pots ; 
and Mr. R. Dean and Messrs. E. G. Henderson contributed 
effective groups of Sedums, Echeverias, Mesembryanthomums, Kleinias, 
and similar plants. Mr. Dean's pans of Sedum acre elegans (yellow), 
S. lydium (fresh green), S. glaucura (glaucous), and S. corsicum (blue) 
were very pretty. Messrs. E. G. Henderson had a fine group of the new 
Lilium Ilumboldtii, placed in the turf, and fringed with a double row of 
the pure white L. longiflorum. Mr. Stevens, gardener at Trentham. 
sent an effective group of Orchids, including Odontoglossum Alexandras, 
O. Pescatorei, Epidendrum vitellinum, and MasdcvaUiti Harryana. 
Mr. Denning staged a lovely bank of Orchids, in admirable condi- 
tion, from the Londesborough collection, and Mr. Croucher, gardener 
to J. T. Peacock, Esq., Hammersmith, exhibited an interesting col- 
lection of succulents, many of them grafted specimens. Messrs. 
Jackson & Sons, of Kingston, had an attractive and wcU-flowered group 
of Capo Heaths, among which we noticed the large white-flowered Erica 
obbata ; E . Irbyana, a long tubed rosy variety ; E.TurnbuUi, with long whito 
flowers ; several good varieties of E. tricolor, and a choice little specimen of 
E. aristata obbata, loaded with bright red flowers, and others. Messrs. 
J. t% C. Lee alsohad a good collection, as had likewise Mr. Morse, of Epsom. 
Messrs. Paul & Son staged an extensive and varied group of hardy varie- 
gated and other foliage plants, and a very attractive collection of out 
flowers came from Mr. Parker, the whole the produce of hardy plants. 
These were neatly arranged in pots of wet sand, and among them were 
Aponogeton distachyon, Digitalis macrantha, a large yellow-flowered 
Foxglove ; Coreopsis lanceolata, with fine yellow flowers ; several beauti- 
ful kinds of herbaceous Phloxes, Dielytra eximia, with pendent racemes 
of rosy flowers ; and the yellow-eyed, lilac-rayed Aster pyren03us. Del- 
phiniums were also well represented, as were likewise Fuchsias, by somo 
well-flowered, pyramidal-shaped plants, several of which were 5 feet in 
height, and fully a yard through at the base. Among the varieties shown 
we noticed Senator, a kind with rosy-scarlet sepals and purple corolla ; 
Favourite of Fortune, red, with blue corolla ; Wave of Life, red sepals 
and purple corolla ; Empress, scarlet sepals and white corolla ; Mrs. 
Marshall, white sepals and rosy coroUa ; Princess Beatrice, a white- 
SPpaled variety, with a rosy -salmon -tinted corolla; and Rose of 



78 



THE GAEDEN. 



[July 2-i, 1875. 



Castille, an old favourite, witli wliite sepals ani purple corolla ; 
Of Carnations, the best collection came from Mr. J. Douglas, of Loxford, 
who had Eose of Stapleford (Headley), scarlet and white ; Guardsman 
(Turner), scarlet, white, and black ; Samuel Morcton (Addis), rose and 
white ; Slarechal Ney (Headley) ; Mrs. Burnaby (Turner), pink and 
white ; Eosabelle (Schoefield), rose and white ; and other good flowers. 
The first prize for Picotces was also awarded to Mr. Douglas, who had 
Ethel (Fellows), white, laced with rose ; Admiration (Turner), white, 
laced with purple ; .Juliana (Turner), white, laced and flaked with ver- 
milion ; Picco (Jackson), white, with rich purple lacing; Miss Williams 
(Norman), white, laced with salmon-pink ; and others. In the nursery- 
man's class, the principal prizes were awarded to Mr. Turner, who also 
staged several stands of very .'ittractive varieties not for competition. 
Good collections of Roses (cut blooms) came from Mr. G. Prince, of Oxford ; 
Messrs. Cranston and Mayo, King's Acre, Hereford ; and Messrs, G. Paul 
& Sons, of Cheshunfc. A group of Sonerilas, Begonias, and new seedling 
Dracienas came from Messrs. E G. Henderson & Sons; together with 
a variegated Oleander, and other interesting plants. Messrs. Barr & 
Sugden staged a collection of new American, Japanese, and other 
Lilies. Mr. Bull exhibited a flowering plant of Disa Barellii, a kind 
resembling D. grandiflora in every way, excepting that the flowers 
are bright orange, instead of crimson-scarlet. Some very fine 
pitchers of Nepenthes came from Mr. David Thomson, Drumlanrig. 
Among these a branch of N. distillatoria bore seven pitchers, 
each a foot in length, and of proportionate diameter. The extra size of 
these was attributed to the use of ammoniacal manure. Two new 
Masdevallias came from the Rev. Mr. Norman, of Edgeware. M. Normanii 
had large flowers, the back of the swollen sepaline tube being a bright 
purple, while the insides of the sepals were greenish-white. Another, 
supposed to be M. elephanticeps, had large flowers, greenish-yellow 
behind, with honey-coloured lines. The flowers were much smaller than 
M. elephanticeps, as figured by Reichenbach in his *' Xenia Orchidaceae.'' 
Both received botanical certificates. Mr. B. S. Williams, Victoria Nur- 
series, HoUoway, furnished a plant of the new Stag's-horn Fern (Platy- 
cerium Wallichii), which resembles P. grande ; but the fertile fronds are 
much broader and more omaraental. Messrs. Ivery & Sons sent several 
new hardy Ferns ; and Mr. W. Paul furnished a collection of single and 
double-flowered Zonal Pelargoniums, one of which, a deep crimson double 
variety, named Talabot, received a second-class certificate. Lobelia 
coerulea albo-marmorata fl. pi. was shown in good condition by Mr. Bull, 
It is similar in habit to the well-known L. Erinus speciosa; but the 
double flowers, which are very freely produced, are of a light or porcelain- 
blue colour. 

Table Decorations and Bouquets. — Two very pretty dinner 
table decorations were set up in the fruit tent by Mr. and Mrs. Hudson, 
of Champion Hill. One table was tastefully decorated with three slender 
pinuate-loaved Palms, each having a cone-shaped base of Ferns, Water 
Lilies, Gloxinia flowers, and Grasses. Four small glass baskets were 
tastefully filled with cut Roses and Gardenia flowers, mixed with fresh 
green Fern, the handles being draped with Ficus repens. The specimen- 
glasses each contained a button-bole bouquet, composed of Roses, Heaths, 
Kalosanthes coccinea, and Cornflowers, backed up by Maiden-hair Ferns 
and cut-leaved foliage of the Japanese Maple. Mrs. Hudson's table con- 
sisted of three trumpet-shaped vases, the bases of which were covered 
with fresh Fern fronds, on which rested Water Lilies, scarlet Gladiolus, blue 
Cornflowers, scarlet Anthurium,and Grasses. The stems of the vases were 
draped with the slender spray -like branches of the blue Passion-flower and 
the vases themselves were filled with wild Grasses, rosy Rhodanthe, and 
Orchid flowers, their margins being draped with scarlet Begonias, and the 
trailing golden-green flower-spikes of Dendrochilum filiforme. Two large 
specimen-glasses in the centre were filled with fronds of Gleichenia, 
intermixed with flowers of Miltonia spectabilis and Cattleya Harrisonise, 
which, in such company, had a fine appearance. The smaller specimen- 
glasses \»'ere filled with neat little button-hole bouquets, composed of 
Carnations and Ferns, Roses, Orchid flowers, and Forget-me-nots. 
Tliree very attractive bouquets came from Mr. Aldous, Gloucester Road. 
Tliey were tastefully arranged, and were composed of Eucharis, 
Stephanotis, Bouvardias, Heaths, Orchids, Roses, and Ferns. 

Fruit Prizes Offered by Messrs. Veitch & Sons.— The 
best collection of fruit (10 dishes) came from ]\Ir. Coleman, Eastnor 
Castle, who had very fine Black Hamburgh Grapes, perfect, both in 
colour and bloom ; Muscats, of excellent quality ; Royal George Peaches, 
Elrugc Nectarines, Early Prolific and Golden Gage Plums, Brown 
Turkey Figs, Eastnor Castle Hybrid Melon, and a good Queen Pine. 
Mr. Miles was second, with Black Hamburgh and Buckland Sweetwater 
Grapes, Queen Pine, Hybrid Cashmere Melon, Elrugc Nectarines, Royal 
George l*cachc8, Black Circassian and Bigarrcau Napoleon Cherries, 
Jetfcrson Plums, and large and fine Brown Turkey Figs. Mr. Sage, Ash- 
riJge showed a good collection. Six dishes came from Mr. T. Bannerman, 
who had good Blaclc Hamburgh and Muscat Grapes, Royal George 
Peaches, Trentham Hybrid Melon, Elruge Nectariues, and a Smooth 
Cayenne Pine. Mr. Jones, gardener to the Marquis of London- 
derry, Wynyard Park, Durham, had on excellent exhibition, 
consisting of Black Hamburgh and Muscat Grapes, a Queen I'ine, 
I'caches, Nectarines, and a good golden green-fleshed Melon. Pines 
were furnished by seven or eight exhibitors, who staged three fruit 
cacli. Mr. Scammel had three splendid examples of Charlotte Roths- 
child, the heaviest of which weighed fij lbs., another 5i lbs., and the 
third G lbs. Mr. Miles has three Queens, which weighed respectively 
5 lbs. G oz., 5 lbs., and ■libs. 13 oz. Mr. Chamberlain had also three very 
good and well-ripened Queens. The best lilack Grapes came from 



Eastnor Castle ; they consisted of bimches, which were firm and com- 
pact, densely black in colour, and covered with a thick bloom. Mr. T. 
Coomber also had good examples, as had likewise Mr. Jones, Wynyard 
Park. Mr. Bannerman had the best Muscats, the bunches of which 
were large and remarkably well set and coloured. Mr. Loudin's 
clusters, to which the second award was made, were perfectly 
ripened but rather thinly set. The best Peaches came from 
Guunersbury, and consisted of Bellegarde, excellent in quality, large 
and highly coloured. Mr. Fennel had a fine dish of Noblesse. 
Over thirty dishes of Peaches were staged ; and Nectarines were repre- 
sented by about twenty dishes, Mr. Edmonds being first with Violctte 
Hiitive of excellent quality. Mr. Jack had also highly-coloured and fine 
fruit In the class of three bunches of Grapes of any kind except Muscat 
of Alexandria and Black Hamburgh, Mr. Loudin was first with Seaclifl'e 
Black, Golden Champion, without a trace of " spot," and a fine cluster of 
Madresfield Court. Mr. Cox had three good clusters of Buckland Sweet- 
water. A good collection of Gooseberries came from the gardens at 
Chiswick ; and Mr. Bennett, Rabley, Herts, furnished six very fine Little 
Heath Melons, the collective weight of which was 39 lbs. Mr. Jones, of 
the Royal Gardens, Frogmore, contributed a collection of Cherries, 
Peaches, Nectarines, and Plums, not for competition. A fine brace of 
Duke of Edinburgh Cucumbers (Munro) came from Mr. Bennett, who 
obtained a first Drize for them. 

Miscellaneous Subjects. — Mr. Perkins, Thomham Hall, Suffolk, 
showed a fine dish of Tomatoes ; and Messrs. Carter & Co. also had a 
dish of their new yellow Tomato, named Greengage. A new seedling 
Apricot, named Frogmore Early, came from Mr. Jones ; it is a good 
flavoured fruit, and ripened on the 12th of July on a south wall. Mr. 
Bennett sent a new Cucumber, named Rabley Hero, a good cropper, and 
one that is veiy suitable for market purposes. A new blue-wrinkled 
Marrow Pea, named Dr. Maclean, a good cropper, came from Mr. Cox, of 
Madresfield Court. Mr. Bennett sent a fasciated stem of Munro's Duke of 
Edinburgh Cucumber, fully 3 inches in width, bearing perfect flowers, 
leaves, and fruit. It is a singular fact that the brace of fruits for which 
Mr. Bennett was awarded the flrst prize, were cut from this fasciated 
branch. 



The Proposed Park at Hampstead. — With reference to this 
Miss Octavia Hill writes thus to the " Times " : — It would be most desirable 
if we could secure open spaces at the very doors of the poor; but to 
provide a park in Clerkenwell and St. Giles and like quarters long ago 
became a practical impossibility, and the question now is whether London 
can aftbrd to lose a bit of green hilly ground actually within a stone's 
throw of a station of the Metropolitan Railway, well within the four 
miles radius from Charing Cross, and easily reached in a short afternoon's 
walk by inhabitants of poor and populous neighbourhoods. Not only is 
this ground easily accessible, but it lies so high that the air must bo fresh 
and the view always wide and beautiful, even when the flat Kilburn 
fields have become, as they are fast becoming, one sea of houses, and the 
buildings have approached on the last side to the foot of them. 
It is true that the houses which surround these fields are not 
of the poorest, but neither are those in Park Lane or Connaught 
Place, yet that does not prevent Hyde Park from being a benefit 
to the poorest Londoner who is within walking distance of it. 
Any one who knows the poor, and knows how stifling their small 
rooms and narrow courts are on an August evening, will feel how 
desirable it is that the country should not be removed one mile further 
from them than it now is, which will be done if these fields are built 
over. AVindsor, Epping, and Wimbledon are available for those who can 
take a day's holiday and pay railway fares for themselves and their 
families, but such places do not meet the need of the struggling artisan, 
who on a hot Saturday evening wants to secure a breath of fresh air 
without expense and without travelling far. Wise men are feeling more 
and more that many of the gifts which they have been in the habit of 
making have been productive of evil rather than of good, because they 
have destroyed the industry and self-reliance of the poor. Hero is an 
opportunity for them to dedicate some of the wealth which they must 
feel to be a trust in a way which will be clearly and continuously helpful. 
I hope there are many who would care to feel that they had given an 
acre, or some portion of an acre, of beautiful ground to the poor for ever 
— ground which must be a perpetual blessing while London lasts. 



The Sycamore-leaved Buttercup (Ranunculus platanifolius).— Few 

plants were more bcantifal with me during the month of May than this pretty 
Buttercup. It is a tall-growing species with largo handsome dark green leaves 
and a stem from 1 to 2 feet high, bearing numerous large snow-whito flowers. 
My plants, which lasted in bloom nearly a month, camo from the Dolomite 
Mountains, the home of another lovely white-dowered species, which is also 
growing well with me, though it. has not yet bloomed, viz., R. Seguiori.— H. 
HiHPDB CeewE, Untt/ton-llciinchamli EcHory, Tring, 

Picea nobilis at Thorpe Perrow.— Wo have a fine tree of Picea nobilis over 
3a feot hi'^h bearing a great qu.antity of cones on the upper halt of the tree, 
the lower part being quite bare. Thov grow in clusters with as many as ten or 
twelve closely packed. The weight of the cones h.is pulled each whorl mto tho 
shape of an umbrella, and rather spoiled the symmetry of tho tree. I planted 
this tree in 1S52 ; it is a grafted plant on a weak stock, but after a good deal of 
coaxing it struck out roots above the graft, and grow away with an extra- 
ordinary vigour.— WiLLlAji CnLvliBWELi,, Thorpe Femw. 

Wasps and Kain.— Have any of tho readers of The GmniUf noticed that a 
contiuuS^nco of heavy rains, such as we are having now, almost entirely 
destroys wasjis' neets ?— W. IJ. 



THE GAEDBN. 



79 



SATUBDAT, JULY 31, 1875. 



" Thia is an art 
Which does mend nature : chanp^e it rather : 
The i ET ITSELP IS Nature." — Shakespeare. 



but 



"WORTHLESS LABURNUMS. 
The Laburnum is certainly one of the most beautiful of our 
flowering trees — it can scarcely be called a shrub, as it fre- 
quently attains a height of from 30 to 40 feet. Its long, 
drooping racemes of golden blossoms, appearing in the earliest 
days of opening spring, have long since caused this graceful 
tree to rank among the chief favourites of our gardens and 
shrubberies, in which it is always highly ornamental. A tree 
in the neighbourhood of York, above 30 feet high, the trunk of 
which is considerably more than a foot in diameter, was 
entirely covered throughout the month of May with a shower 
of golden bloom, sufficient to give it a perfect right to its 
picturesque French title, La Pluie d'Oi% each raceme of flowers 
being from 15 to 18 inches in length. It should be stated that 
this tree is not what is commonly called the Scotch variety, 
the racemes of which are very long, and generally few in num- 
ber, but of the typical kind, flowering early, with moderately- 
small foliage, and the upper petals strongly marked with the 
characteristic jet-black lines. Now it does seem extraordinary, 
with such a type as this beautiful tree at command, that 
seedlings of inferior value, which are positively not worth 
garden room, should be sent out from nurseries. The subject 
"attracted my attention particularly this spring in London, and, 
on making a round of inspection, I found fully one-third of the 
Laburnums I met with in the parks and squares utterly 
worthless as ornamental trees ; instead of long, pendent 
racemes forming a golden shower, such as I have described, 
these worthless varieties exhibited a sparse display of little 
stumpy bunches, scarcely as ornamental as the flowers of a 
yellow Ribes. This, I presume, must arise from the sale of 
chance seedlings, which spring up as abundantly as weeds in 
most places where a few old Laburnums exist, and in this way 
the beauty of one of our most lovely flowering trees is allowed 
to degenerate. Many years ago, as is well known, it was 
asserted that a purple kind had been produced. Large num- 
bers of this supposed novelty were disposed of, and purchasers 
fondly imagined that a striking and beautiful addition had 
been made to spring-flowering trees. They were, however, 
doomed to disappointment ; for, when the so-called purple 
Laburnums blossomed, the flowers, though certainly not 
yellow, were of a purple so dingy as to be quite unattractive ; 
the racemes, too, were few and undersized, and the so-called 
purple Laburnum was soon cast forth from the place of 
honour that had been assigned to it, and heard of no 
more. This little episode, as regards Laburnums, is, how- 
ever, sufiicient to show that they are amenable to improvement ; 
indeed the poor seedling strains of the plant now sold as true 
Laburnums are alone sufiicient proof that the tree is subject to 
variation ; and it is to be hoped that attention will be directed 
to this subject, and that, although no striking improvements 
may be made, at all events, only the best of the kinds now in 
existence will be brought into the market, to the exclusion of 
worthless seedlings. Sufficient attention is not generally paid 
in the plantation of ornamental .shrubberies to the distinct 
utilisation of the early-flowering typical Laburnums and the 
late-flowering Scotch variety. Regard should always be had, 
with respect to flowering shrubs and trees, to the times of 
their blossoming, and groups should be formed of those which 
come into bloom at the same time. For instance, in seasons 
favourable to the early flowering of the Laburnum, it is in its 
greatest beauty at the same time as the Lilac, consequently 
groups formed of Laburnums and both white and purple Lilacs 
are productive of effects of the most charming kind, while the 
late-flowering " Scotch" variety might, with ecjual advantage, 
be grouped with Guelder Roses (Viburnums) and the pink and 
crimson Hawthorns which bloom about the same time, as well 
as with one or two of the distinct new species of late- 
flowering Lilacs. It may here be observed that, as with 
the common form manyutterly worthless variations occur from 
seed, so with the Scotch variety examples occur, in which the 



flowering power is so small that scarcely half a dozen racemes 
appear in a large specimen, though the foliage, which is the 
great feature of this kind, is nearly always fine. In the 
Tyrolese Alps, where it is seen wild, it generally occurs in 
combination with young Spruce Firs, with which it associates 
very charmingly, and a poor seedling variety is seldom or 
nev9r seen. H- N. H. 

ROSES IN 1875. 
I HATE read with pleasure Mr. Hole's delightful paper, "TIm 
Roses" (see p. 57), but I cannot endorse his opinion of the 
Rose season of 1875. Here the Roses have not been up to the 
mark this year. We were favoured with strong winds nearly all 
spring, and, to the rosarian, a genuine " fair wind," blowing 
off the German Ocean, is anything but a treat. My Roses, all 
through May, looked as though they had been shot at with 
one of the new " choke bore " guns, the foliage was so torn 
and riddled. Add to this, continued drought till the middle of 
June, counteracted with difiiculty by almost daily deluging 
with water. About the 21st of June, however, ram came 
down heavily, and from that time to the present it has been 
hard work to cut a decent " pan " of Roses, and to keep down 
mildew, by shading the blooms and stu-ring the surface almost 
daily. Such allies as La France (of which grand Rose, 
from some fifty plants, I have not cut a good bloom this 
season), Baroness Rothschild, Marie Rady, Abel Grand, Pierre 
Netting, Marechal Niel, and Due de Rohan (grandest of Roses) 
have been, in my boxes, conspicuous by their absence ; to say 
nothing of those very "fair weather sailors" (to use Mr. 
Hole's terra), Edward Morren, Monsieur Noman, and Laslia. 
The Roses that have succeeded best with me are Charles 
Lcfebvre (always good), Marie Baumann, Senateur Vaisse, 
Camille Bernardin, and Duke of Wellington, amongst dark 
kinds; and Victor Verdier, Emilie Hausburg, Duchesse de 
Morny, Margaret Dombrain (which some people call a weak 
grower, but of which I have plants now with shoots 4 feet long 
on cut-back Briars), Queen Victoria, H. P. (the best light Rose 
I have grown this year, and of which I have been able to show 
blooms in nearly every one of seventeen stands), and Madame 
Vidot, that exquisite shell-like Rose, which has been better 
than usual, among the lighter varieties. The kinds which I have 
named have been the only ones that have been quite up to the 
mark out of all the sorts I grow. I attended nine shows ; but in 
only two instances— viz., Nottingham and Wisbeach— did I see 
grand collections. Of course, there were individual blooms of 
great merit, and the twelve blooms of Mademoiselle Mane 
Cointet, staged by Mr. Bennett at the Crystal Palace, were 
faultless; but one looked in vain for such stands as were 
shown a year or two ago by the Rev. Messrs. Hole and 
Pochin,and the seventy -two which Cranston showed for the £20 
prize at Wisbeach two years ago. Regarding Mr. Hole's letter 
to you on the remuneration of judges, this is a matter which 
much concerns the amateur rosarian. After toil and trouble 
which few would undergo, unless bitten by the "Rose 
mania," one cuts a stand of blooms, and takes them with 
delight to the local flower shows. To his disgust he has been 
passed over for blooms far inferior to his own ; and for this 
reason— the persons who judged them have never grown a 
Rose in its integrity, and do not know how they should be 
grown. They are very good men for the rest of the show, but 
pray let them keep out of the Rose tent. It is disheartening 
to be beaten, not by better Roses— no true rosarian mmds 
that— but by the want of knowledge in the judge. When such 
men as the Rev. Messrs. Hole, Dombrain, Pochin, and Peach, 
are judging, the amateur stages his Roses with a light heart, 
knowing that they will stand or fall on their merits ; and it is 
only fair, both to the judge and the exhibitors, that competent 
men should be appointed and adequately paid. 

niiatteris. John Lewin Curtis. 

Iris Monnieri.— As the last flowers of the German Irises were dying off, 
this Iris opened its bloom with me en the 3rd of this month, and it is a truly 
beautiful, fragrant, and distinct species— more pleasing, Ithmk, than any Ins 
I have ever seen. The leaves are dark green, and the flower-stem stands 
nearly 4 feet high. It flowers in the way of the Spanish and English Irises. 
The outer divisions are recurved and are of a rich golden-ye low, margmed 
with white. It is not by any means a common plant. The only catalogue m 
which I have seen it mentioned is one of Messrs. Henderson, from whom I got 
my plant two years ago.— G. F. 



THE GAUDBN. 



[July 31, 1875. 



NOTES OP THE WEEK. 



The effect of the few fine days which we have had on the 

supplies of cut bloom for the London Market is quite marked, the 
bloom being rich and bright and the growth strong. To the same 
cause, no doubt, is owing the enormous size of many of the Mushrooms 
seen in the market during the week. 

Messes. E. G. Hendeeson send us from St. John's Wood, a 

blossom of the sweet-scented Water Lily (Nymphsea odorata.) It is 
a very small flower compared with those we have observed on the plant 
in the lakelets of New England and in Canada. Is the true ordinary 
form of the white North American Water Lily in cultivation ? 

A HOUSE in Piccadilly is now adorned with the showy flowers 

of a plant of Clematis Jaokmanni, planted in the area, and trained 
up the wall, just in the rude way in which the Virginian Creeper is 
treated. In the suburbs of London, the new Clematises, being vigo- 
rous and hardy, thrive very well when fairly treated. 

Mk. Mvatt, of Deptford, has lately sent thousands of cut 

stems and blooms of the beautiful Lilium eximinm to Covent Garden 
every market day. It is much in demand for church decoration, and 
ia bought in huge baskets (" load. baskets " in market parlance), tied 
in bundles of more than a dozen flowers each. 

All interested in London gardens would do well to look at 

Bedford Square just now; we never before saw Grass so green in a 
London square, and the Planes look as well as they do on the banks 
of the Ohio river. The square was arranged during the winter by 
Mr. Meston, and in a very judicious manner. 

Veet rapid progress is being made with the aquarium and 

summer and winter garden at Westminster. This will be to a con. 
siderable estent a garden structure, and will be glazed by Mr. Kendle, 
whose system it will certainly test thoroughly. That it is simple 
and economical in a high degree there can be no doubt. 

PEKHArs the most successful examples of city culture is that 

of hardy Perns in the areas of London houses. It is quite common to 
grow them in this way, and the plants frequently look as fresh and 
vigorous as if in a moist wood in the country. Some of the London 
areas, indeed, look uncommonly like sections of dry ditches taken 
possession of by Perns. 

In the gardens of Apsley Ilouse we notice some stone seats 

of simple and massive design, which are improvements in every 
respect on the " rustic," iron, or other seats usually employed in 
public and private gardens. Stone seats of good design are common in 
Italy and sometimes seen in Prance, and their introduction to our 
public gardens is desirable. 

The value of Watercresses sold in Paris in the course of a 

year ia estimated by Mr. Vizetelly at £160,000, an average number of 
bundles estimated at £400 value being furnished each day to the 
hospitals and households of the French capital. The freah unbruised 
condition in which Watercress is supplied to the Paris market is 
deserving of imitation by our own growers. 

Me. Baeko.x, of Elvaston, moved an Oak tree at Impney in 

Worcestershire, 52 feet 6 inches in diameter of branches, and 8 feet 
1 inch in circumference of stem, when in full leaf, on the 22nd of 
May of the present year. On Tuesday last he brought to The 
Garden oflice shoots 4 inches long made by the tree since its 
removal. Those who think autumn transplanting the beat would do 
well to bear such instances in mind. 

Palms and Bay trees are so nsed as to produce a beautiful 

effect near the upper part of Park Lane. No really great improve- 
ments can be effected thereabouta, however, till the enormous masses 
of bedding plants are reduced to proportioua which will make them 
agreeable to the eye. Towards tho Marble Arch end the beds are 
only separated by a few feet of turf. There are as many flowers 
here aa would, if diaposed in a temperate and judicious manner, 
embellish half a county. 

A rise specimen of the variegated American Aloe is now 

flowering in the Oxford Botanic Garden. The height of the stem, 
which is not yet fully developed, is 20 feet, and tho diameter of the 
plant from tip to tip is now 11 feet G inches ; it waa formerly 12 feet 
6 inches, but the decay which is attendant upon the olfort to throw 
up tho flower stem has already caused tho leaves to droop. One of 
tho larger leaves measures 5 feetC inches in length, 8 inches in width, 
and 2 feet 3 inches in girth at the base, the body of the plant, from 
which the leaves start, being just G feet in circumference. The 
common idea that tho American Aloe does not flower until it has 
attained the patriarchal age of 100 years, is a mistake In hot coun- 
tries, where there ia a plentiful supply of nourishment, and the plant 
has unlimited root room, it attains maturity, blooms, aud dies, in aa 
short a period aa perhaps ten years ; but as the climate in which it is 
grown htcoines colder, aud tho root space conflned to a pot or tub, its 



development is proportionately longer. The Oxford specimen is pro. 
bably between seventy and eighty years old, it having been brought to 
the gardens at an unknown age aome seventy years ago. 

The Rev. Reynolds Hole, writing to us from Cauuton 

Manor, says: — -"The Rose harvest, which began with so much 
brilliancy and bounty, closes in a dismal and damp decay." 

Elton Pine ia this week also the best Strawberry of the 

London markets. Myatt'a Eleanor ia also sold to some extent, but it 
is very inferior in flavour. 

St. Swithin's day was carefully selected this year for the 

last grand fCte at the Royal Botanic Gardens ! The band played 
" Long to rain over ua !" with enthuaiasm. — ■" Punch." 

Peaes now come from the Continent in great nnmbera, but 

of rough quality as yet ; there are many green William Pears, 
and in a week or so we shall doubtless have these with some 
flavour. 

The law case, referring to Euston Square, which we publish 

elsewhere, points to the necessity of only giving important garden 
contracts, of the kind in question, to trustworthy men, who are able 
and willing to fulfil their engagements. 

Me. C. Green who once had charge of Mr. Borrer's remark- 
ably intereating garden at Henfield and atterwarda of Mr. Wilson 
Saunders' fine collections at Reigato, ia now eatabliahed as a nursery- 
man at the Botanical Nurseries, Reigate, Surrey. 

Me. Bewley's plants realised, we are informed, £575, a 

small amount for a collection brought together at so much expense. 
The tree Perns fetched £78, a mere nothing compared with their 
original cost. 

The season seems to be unusually wet in America aa with 

us. " Moore'a Rural " says — "From all parts of the country come 
reports of heavy and frequent rains, which bid fair to make the present 
summer known as an unusually wet one." 

Caetee's Green. gage Tomato is beginning to come into 

Covent Garden Market. It does not, however, seem to " take " for 
cooking purposes, but it has peculiar merits as a salad Tomato, or 
for eating raw, the flavour being distinct and good. 

Messes. Sander, of St. Albans, send us a remarkable example 

of the Seville Long Pod Bean, grown in the open field. This is, 
without doubt, a real improvement in its way, and that is more than 
can be said of most " new " vegetables. As the name indicates, this 
variety comes from Spain. 

Nuts of all kinds are showing a remarkably fine crop in Kent 

this year. As the larger fruits will probably now eacape all danger 
from the weather it may be said that the present year will be long 
remembered for the abundance of its fruit in England and throughout 
western Europe generally. 

O.N the 24th of July, 1875, miles of bedding plants in the 

London west-end parks looked as if they had endured the cold aud 
storms of October without having grown during the summer. In 
considering the merits of half-hardy bedding plants for garden 
decoration, it is well to bear in mind how they look in exceptionally 
cold seasons. 

The trees in the London squares are now in fine condition, 

particularly the Planes, so noble in stature and fresh in their perfec- 
tion of leafage. Mr. Bain, late of the College B:)tauic Gardens, 
Dublin, who is now living in London, tells us that our Loudon 
Square trees are frequently far finer than any to be found in districts 
supposed to bo among the most favourable for vegetation. 

The Royal Ilorticultural Society of Brussels announces that, 

with the concurrence of the Government, it ia organising a grand inter- 
national exhibition and horticultural congress, which will take place 
in the end of April, 1876, at Brussels. An appeal has been addressed 
to the principal horticultural societies of Europe, requesting them to 
co-operate. The society has also announced that it will bear tho 
expenses of transport upon Belgian railways of all products intended 
for exhibition, and concludes by remarking that as the intended 
floral fete ia the hundredth, everything will be done to render it 
exceptionally important. 

A I'EW of Lady Ashburton'a plants, sold by Stevens the other 

day, realised remarkable prices. Turner's variety of Lajlia elegans, 
an important plant that haa produced a spike bearing thirteen flowers 
of a rich dark colour, and delioiously fragrant, fetched £18 (13. Otl. ; 
Phalainopsis Schilleriana, which last year bore 378 flowers, and which 
waa awarded a Lindley medal, brought £33 12s. Od. ; an Anthurinm 
Scherzerianum, that bore forty. five spathes this season, realised 
£32 lis. Od. ; a fine jilant of Cypripedium caudatum fetched 
£16 16s. Od.; Saccolabium guttatum, £14 143. Od. ; and Oncidiuni 
concolor, £15. Other lots, of which there were in all 2G3, brought 
from £5 to £10 each. 



JuLT 31, 1875.] 



THE GARDEN. 






THE FLOWER GARDEN. 

DOCTBLE-FLOWERBD IVY-LEAVED GERANIUM. 
We have received from Mr. Cannell, of Woolwich, flowers 
and foliage of this plant, of which the accompanying is an 
illustration. It is perfectly double, and pink in colour, with 
deep carmine streaks or veins down the centre of the upper 
petals. It is named Konig Albert, and is, we believe, the 
first double-flowered form hitherto obtained in the section to 
which it belongs. As a decorative plant it will, undoubtedly, 
become popular owing to its elegant habit of growth and the 
profusion with which its flowers are produced by established 
plants. The Ivy-leaved section of the Geranium family, we 
need scarcely say, make excellent window plants, and of these 
some pretty specimens may now be seen on some of the bal- 
conies in Piccadilly. Either for this purpose or for window- 
boxes they are unrivalled, and should always be grown, for 
such purposes, as well as for hanging baskets, for vases, and 
for the decoration of hollow tree stumps, and for forming 
edges for beds in the flower flarden. All Ivy-leaved kinds are 
easily propagated by inserting cuttings in a balcony or 
window-bo;f during the summer months. In the spring they 
may be struck easily, and cuttings taken ofi so late as August 




Double Ivy-leaved Pelargonium Konig Albert. 

may be well rooted in the open border before frost sets in, and 
make pretty little plants for next year's decorations. B. 



SUCCULENTS FOR BEDS. 
Sedums. 

Succulents, in many cases, seem to be taking the place of 
Geraniums, Calceolarias, Verbenas, and other showy plants, a 
change which is partly due to fashion and partly to the charm- 
ing effects that have been produced by means of succulents of 
late years in our public parks, and also in some private 
gardens. Their most popular forms occur amongst Sedums, 
Sempervivums, Echeverias, Pachyphytums, and Mesembryan- 
themums ; and to these may be added one or two Cotyledons, 
Crassulas, and Kleinias. Sedums serve to heighten the effects 
produced by bedded out plants. There is no commoner rock 
plant than the old Sedum acre, but its free-flowering habit for 
a short time in the summer, and ragged appearance afterwards, 
render it objectionable for beds. There are, however, two 
variegated sports from this that are most useful — the one 
for the winter, and the other for the summer garden ; and, 
singularly enough, it would seem as if the colouring matter 
of the plant was exhausted in the variegation, as neither of 
them flower. Sedum acre aureum— the golden-tipped Stone- 
crop — is a beautiful winter decoi-ative plant , its golden tips 
peeping out in November, are brilliant through the winter, and 
only vanish with the heat of May ; still, except as a green 
carpet plant, it is not used for summer bedding. Sedum acre 
elegans is a silver-tipped variety, and this kind has its colour 
best when the weather is warm and dry. It grows freely, is 
close and dense, and forms a very pleasing groundwork. I 
observe that the variegation is most displayed on the side-shoots 
that break out from established plants. One of the most effec- 



tive of the Sedums is glaucum, which has a i*markably fi-ee, but 
dwarf and compact habit of growth, covering the ^oil with greatr >- 
rapidity. The foliage is of a silvery glaucous h-ue, Upon which'i 
after rain, the water lies in large crystal globules, that sparkle, 
in the sunshine. This variety flowers but sparingly, the. small 
pink- white blooms appearing, early in June, just above the 
foliage. Of course these are easily plucked if desired. Sedum 
lydium (sometimes called lividum) is the best green carpet- 
plant, excelling all others for that purpose. It is also very free- 
growing, and speedily forms a complete mass of foliage, which 
in moist places is of a deep green hue ; tinted with brown 
where much exposed to the sun; and when quite dry and 
scorched, turns to a deep red hue, and looks like a distinct variety. 
This blooms thinly, the head of white flowers being thrown up, 
at the end of May, about 2 inches above the surrounding 
growth. These, however, in beds are easily pinched out. A 
very pretty, but distinct, close-growing kind, is Sedum 
corsicum, a variety that looks like a miniature form of Sieboldii. 
The foliage is small, but thick and fleshy, and of a glaucous 
hue. This also flowers thinly, the blooms being borne rather in 
branches than in trusses ; but that does not affect the beauty 
of the variety, which makes a capital carpet-plant. The sixth 
and last Sedum is amplexicaule, a variety to which I have 
before made reference. It is of a woody nature, and has a 
creeping habit of growth, resembling a very dense-habited 
Portulaca; and, in good soils, grows most freely. A small 
piece, given me in Februa,ry, has spread until it now nearly 
covers a 12-inch pan ; and I believe it will make an excellent 
bedding plant. Strong leading shoots, thrown out occasionally, 
may sometimes flower ; but these can be easily pulled out, and, 
as the remaining growth is very close, and of a silvery hue, 
it also makes a very useful carpet-plant. I could add to these 
Sedum carneum foliis variegatis, an erect-growing kind, much 
resembling the Koniga variegata in appearance, and in 
the markings of the foliage ; but, although it looks pretty 
under glass, yet in the open air the variegation is uncertain and 
lacks colour. Excepting this latter variety, all the Sedums 
just named are perfectly hardy. 

Sempervivums. 

Among these maybe found considerablevariety, both in habit 
and growth. The commonest of all this family is Tectorum, 
the well-known Houseleek, but it is rather too coarse in growth 
to be generally acceptable as a bedding plant. The dwarf 
Sempervivums are valuable for edgings ; and, when once 
established, grow rapidly and throw out a numerous progeny ; 
thus a perfect compact edging is formed and the soil is held as 
in a vice. For this purpose the two best are S. montanum and 
californicum. The former has medium-sized dense heads of 
growth that are dark green in colour and resemble miniature 
rosettes. These throw out young plants from the sides on 
tendrils ; and, as the young ones touch the soil, they take root 
and grow and soon develop into good plants. This Semper- 
vivum will bloom when it attains a certain size, and in the 
spring it is easy to observe what plants will flovrer, as these 
do not produce young ones. Californicum has a more robust 
growth, and in colour is of a pale green, the spines being 
tipped with brown. This variety multiplies itself at the 
base, where it produces quite a large progeny during the 
summer ; these should be separated from the old plant in the 
autumn and pricked out on a dry bank, where they will make 
good plants the following year. One of the prettiest of this 
family is arachuoideum or the Cob-web Houseleek. In spite of 
its beauty, however, I do not find that it is much used for 
bedding purposes. It is propagated but slowly ; and, as its 
crowns seldom exceed an inch in diameter, it requires a large 
stock to make any display. It is most effective when used as 
" dot " plants — that is, clumps of crowns turned out from large 
pots here and there in a carpet of some dwarf plant. Of course, 
these would eventually have to be broken up ; but, with cai-e, 
a succession of good-sized plants can always be had. A 
very distinct and remarkable variety is S. tabuteforme, the 
singular flat table-like character of its growth rendering it 
peculiarly useful as a " dot " plant on a bed of Sedums or other 
carpet plants. This variety does not multiply freely, and 
therefore a large stock of it is seldom seen. S. Bollii partakes 
of the same habit of growth, but is not so effective. It is, 



82 



THE GAEDEN. 



[July 31, 1875. 



however, a most, useful variety. S. canariense is a very robust 
form. Plants of it are much cupped in the centre, and the 
leaves are large and thick. The surface of these is slightly 
woolly. Side shoots bi-eak out freely, and it is easily propa- 
gated. S. Donkelaarii is a very handsome round form, plants 
of it resembling a neat flat rosette. It grows tall, but is 
never prettier than when about 6 inches in height, when its 
form is very perfect. S. phyllioides is a tall, robust form of 
the preceding, but the crowns are much cupped in shape. It 
is a vigorous grower, and effective for large beds. S. urbicum 
is a neat, distinct kind, as the leaves are thick and massive, of 
a brownish-green hue of colour and slightly pointed; the edges 
are also somewhat serrated. It is a vigorous grower, and a 
very desirable variety. Still more desirable is S. arboreum, 
a tall-growing kind having somewhat narrow leaves, loosely 
set, and much tinted with brown. It branches freely, and is a 
robust grower. Equally robust, and probably the most effec- 
tive of all the tall-growing Sempervivums, is arboreum varie- 
gatum, a very showy variegated form of the previously-named 
kind. This makes a fine plant for the centre of succulent beds, 
or is very effective when planted in a carpet of A.lternautheras, 
and should be found in every collection. 

Echeverias. 
These are useful bedding succulents, and no plants are 
more largely used than are the semi-hardy forms of secunda ; 
other varieties, however, are tender, and need a greenhouse to 
keep them through the winter, and a gentle heat to propagate 
them in the spring. Echeveria secunda is well known by 
its pale green rosette, the tips of the leaves being mai-ked 
with red. Secunda major is but a glaucous form of the pre- 
ceding. Secunda glauca differs only in having leaves rather 
more pointed and still more glaucous. Secunda pumila is a 
smaller form, with narrow leaves, that are of the colour of 
secunda major. One of the handsomest of all this section is 
secunda globosa, the leaves of which are lai'ge and ovate, and 
of a very silvery hue. This is a scarce variety but will be 
exceedingly popular when well known. Echeveria glauca 
metallica is intermediate between the well-known metallica 
and secunda glauca. It has a dwarf massive habit of growth, 
the leaves very solid and fleshy, and is a very distinct and 
useful kind. Echeveria metallica is a noble variety, and stands 
alone in the massiveness of its leaves and their rich metallic 
hue of colour. 

Mesemliryaiitheniurfls. 

Only a few of these are used as succulent bedding plants- 
Some of the large flowering kinds have at times been used 
as such ; but as their beauty has rested chiefly with the 
flowers, they have not proved acceptable to those who prefer 
varieties useful for their foliage. No Mcsembryanthemum at 
present exceeds in popularity and usefulness the well-known 
cordifolium variegatum. As a carpet-foliage plant it is 
unique ; and, as it also increases in a littfe heat as freely as 
the Watercress, it is soon made into a large stock. Another 
very pretty and robust-growing form is sessiliflorum album ; 
this is a creeping kind, having thick, short, fleshy, yet spiny, 
leaves, and small, white, sessile flowers. It grows densely, and 
makes a good covering plant. Another very pretty kind, 
distinct and effective, is deltoideum ; this throws out long 
branches covered with small obtuse fleshy leaves, that are 
slightly serrated and of a glaucous Ime ; it has a more woody 
habit than the preceding kinds, and requires to be propagated 
from young growths. A curious, and somewhat tender, 
form is densum, which resembles a small form of Cactus, 
as each fleshy leaf is tipped with a bunch of small hair- 
like spines. It could not be planted largely, but would 
look very pretty if used, as advised, for Sempervivum arach- 
noideum. One other useful kind is lupinum, which bears a 
close resemblance to a miniature Agave ; the leaves, which are 
thick and fleshy, resemble in shape the bows of a finely-formed 
rowing-boat, and have on each side spiny filaments. It would 
look very effective grown in a mass. 

Kleinlas, Pachyphytums, Cotyledons, and Crassulas. 

Of Kleniias the commonest form is K. repens, so useful 
for the glaucous blue colour of its leaves ; it has an upright 
growth, and, if propagated early and planted up closely, makes 



a very effective mass of foliage. A very distinct and pleasing 
kind is K. tomentosa, which has a growth resembling repens ; 
but the leaves are more pointed, and clothed with a covering of 
a white cottony texture ; it greatly resembles a huge form of 
the Cerastium tomentosum. The Pachyphytums are also a 
limited family, the two best and most useful being bracteosum 
and roseum. These are slow but sure growers, and should be 
grown to a good size before being planted out ; they are most 
useful as pot-plants, and much admired ; they may be propa- 
gated freely from the base of the leaves, but grow slowly into 
plants. Cotyledons, also, are not a numerous family, and I 
find the best to be pulverulenta ; it has large ovate leaves, 
thick and fleshy, that are covered with a thick white bloom ; it 
is of robust growth and multiplies freely. The Crassulas are 
very varied in habit ; the best bedder is tetragona, as it 
has a dwarf compact growth, and requires to be planted 
thickly to make a good mass of foliage. These constitute a 
varied collection of bedding succulents, and include all the best 
known bedding kinds. I have purposely excluded the Agaves, 
a class of plants which are, as a rule, too large for bedding 
purposes. A. D. 



GROWING AND TRAINING NOISETTE ROSES. 
Masechal Niel is allowed by all to be the most perfect and 
beautiful yellow Rose with which they are acquainted ; but the 
difficulty is to obtain it on a suitable stock. If worked on the 
Manetti, it only lives and flourishes about three years, after 
which a knob forms at its junction with the stock, from which 
no roots are emitted, and, finally, it parts from the stock and 
dies. The best stock forMarechal Niel is the Boursault. Two 
plants of it may be seenat the Darlington Nurseries, growing in a 
wooden chest — one budded on a new stock raised from the 
seed of the Boursault, the other upon its own roots. Both 
plants receive the same treatment, and they are both growing 
under the same glass structure. After growing twelve months, 
both of them were measured, when it was found that the one 
budded on the Boursault had made eight shoots, containing in 
the aggregate some 800 feet of wood ; the other, on its own 
roots, had not made a quarter of that amount of growth. The 
Marechal also succeeds perfectly when budded on Gloire de 
Dijon, and it likewise makes a good plant when budded on a 
Briar about a foot high. Its proper home is a glass-roofed 
house, in which the shoots should be trained up the rafters. 
It may, however, be grown against a south wall in the south 
and west of England ; but it is folly to attempt growing it 
in the open ground in the northern counties. A new yellow 
Rose, sent out this spring, called Perle des Jardins, raised by 
Levet, is very beautiful, and is said to possess a more hardy 
constitution than the Marechal. Its foliage is darker than 
that of the latter, and the wood is something like that 
of Gloire de Dijon. The hardiest of the yellow Noisette Roses 
are Celine Forrestier and Triomphe de Rennes ; Solfaterre is 
not quite so hardy, but any of these may be safely grown 
against a south wall in any of the counties south of Birming- 
ham. The new Noisette, called Bouquet d'Or, raised by Ducher, 
is perfectly hardy. I have proved it to be so, and it is a pretty 
Rose, which grows and blooms freely in autumn ; its colour is 
a deep yellow, with a coppery centre, and the blooms are large 
and full. Madame Caroline Kuster, an orange - yellow, 
raised by Pernet, is a free-flowering and promising variety ; 
both these Roses, budded on 4 feet standards, survived the 
rigour of last winter, and may be grown in the northern 
counties against a north or north-west wall. To grow yellow 
climbing Roses well, it is necessary, in the first place, to plant 
them in a rich, deep, dry, warm soil. The next step towards 
snocess is to promote an early and vigorous growth, and to 
get the wood well ripened, for, without well-matured wood, 
good flowers cannot be expected. Most Noisette Roses 
do not bloom well for a year or two after being planted ; a 
free growth of wood should be encouraged in the first instance, 
and the knife should be sparingly used ; merely stop long 
shoots by nipping out their points in order to get laterals to 
fill up vacant places where wanted, and in the spring, say 
about March, pull down the shoots as far as you possibly can 
do without danger of breaking, and tie their tops to short 
stakes driven into the ground. In this way, short wiry 



July 31, 1875.] 



THE GARDEN. 



83 



blooming shoots will be thrown out at every joint, and when 
these young shoots are about 6 inches long, the top ends of 
the parent rods may be unfastened, and the rod nailed to the 
wall or trellis work, in a horizontal position. After the blooming 
is over, other long rods will commence growing, and these must 
be kept in an upright position at first to encourage growth, and 
the following spring their tops must be pulled down and fastened 
as first recommended, until they push out short side shoots, 
when they must be lifted up and fastened, as has just been 
stated, in a horizontal position to the trellis-work. Continue 
training the tree after this manner, and you will get plenty of 
blooms. Some say that Gloire de Dijon will not bloom if 
pruned; but this is a mistake. Madame Levet and Belle 
Lyounaise, two offshoots from Gloire de Dijon, possessing the 
same habit and hardiness, are both large and beautiful Roses ; 
but neither of them blooms so freely as the parent. When plenty 
of side shoots are obtained by the bending-down system and 
horizontal training, there will be no difficulty in procuring two 
crops of bloom every season from any of our yellow Noisette 
and Tea-scented Roses. Let the side shoots of the season's 
wood produce their flowers ; then cut back, and they will bloom 
again in the autumn ; or treat the spurs as Apple or Pear 
spurs which continue fruitful, and, instead of cutting out the 
wood which produced them, shorten in the spurs to one or 
two buds as soon as the first bloom is over, and so induce 
them to renew themselves, and flower again the same season. 
Gloire de Dijon is best procured on its own roots ; and many 
vp-rieties of the vigorous-growing yellow Noisettes may be 
grown and budded on it. Marechal Niel " takes " freely on it, 
and grows and blooms well in the southern counties. 

Fencofe, near Bedale. Henkv Taylok. 



SAVING STOCK-SEED TO PRODUCE DOUBLE 

FLOWERS. 
This is a simple operation, requiring little skill or experience; 
but, as mentioned by " A.D." (p. 37), it is necessary to procure 
a good strain at the outset, otherwise any attempt to save seed 
that will produce double flowers will be futile. It can easily 
be ascertained whether you have a strain equal to your 
requirements or not by the quantity of double-flowering plants 
your bed produces. Should there be from twelve to sixteen 
double flowers out of every twenty planted, then you may 
commence seed-saving with fair hopes of success. Although 
the Ten-week Stock will bloom well, and make a good 
display of bloom, sown at any time from Eebruary to the end 
of May, yet, if seed be required, they must not be sown later 
than the first week in March, on a gentle heat, and must be 
pricked out, as soon as the plants can conveniently be handled, 
into pans containing a mixture of light rich loamy soil, and 
should be planted in their permanent quarters whilst young, so 
as to get the plants well established before they begin to form 
their first buds, which are to produce the seed. Allow your single- 
flowering or seed-plants to remain where they are planted 
amongstthe double ones, not becausethe latter have the slightest 
influence upon the former, but because shifting them at such 
an advanced stage of growth would prove almost fatal to the 
production of good seed. Plants with clear bright colours 
should be selected, all that bring streaked or smeared flowers 
being discarded. All side shoots should be taken away as 
soon as they appear, only allowing the leading stem to remain 
upon the plant. After eight or ten flowers have fully 
developed themselves or commenced to form their seed-pods, 
all other flowers, as they open, must be taken away and not 
allowed to seed at all, but care must be taken not to break or 
injure the leader, which is required to perform the duty of 
drawing up the sap for feeding the seed-pods. As soon, how- 
ever, as the leader has finished fiowering, it may be pinched 
off close down to the seed-pods, which, by this time, will be 
well developed and filled with fine plump seed. This shows why 
seedsmen have to charge a high price for first-class seed, as, by 
this mode, many plants are required to produce only a small 
quantity of seed, whereas, if the plants were not pinched it would 
be less trouble to the grower, and the same plants would bring 
more than twenty times the weight of seed,and the grower would 
realise a greater profit whilst selling it at less than a quarter 
of the price. The plants must be allowed to remain in the 



ground until late in the season, or until the seed is quite ripe, 
when they should be pulled up and stored in a cool dry place', 
allowing the seed to remain in the pods until required for 
sowing,_as it keeps better there than when shelled and exposed 
to the air. The season has a great effect upon the saving of 
Stock seed, both as regards ripening and also producing seed, 
that will bring double flowers. Should the summer prove 
hot and dry there will be a much greater percentage of double 
flowering seed than if it be wet and dull. This is why we cannot 
compete with, or produce seed equal to that of Germany, their 
climate being much hotter and dryer than that of England. 
Loughborough. John Bibdle. 

AUTUMN- SOWN ANNUALS. 
More than once I have been allowed space in former numbers 
of The Gaeden, at this time of the year, to put in a word in 
favour of sowing annuals in autumn. It is too seldom done, 
but it is possible that by constantly drawing attention to it^ 
the practice may be established. Those who have only seen 
Nemophila, Leptosiphon, Bartonia, and others, as they are 
generally seen, can have no idea of the beauty of such plants if 
sown in the end of August or beginning of September, either in 
the places in which they are intended to occupy, or in beds, 
to be transplanted and established before November frosts and 
fogs set in. Most annuals like a cool soil, moderate sun, and, 
above all, plenty of room between each plant. These are con- 
ditions which are rarely accorded to them. A healthy autumn- 
sown plant of Nemophila is frequently from IJ to 2 feet in 
diameter, which is itself larger than the entire space generally 
given to half a packet of seed. Sweet Peas, if sown in August 
or September, will flower with astonishing vigour the following 
May, and, it the pods are regularly removed, will continue 
flowering till the end of October. Salmoniceps. 



Garden Buttercups. — Of the Eatmncnli we can choose several 
handsome dwarf varieties. R. amplexicaulis, with entire glaucous 
leaves, and white flowers with yellow centres, ia certainly my 
favourite. R. aconitifolius fl. pi. (the old "Pair Maids of France") 
ia another pretty kind with very double white flowers. The others 
worthy of a place in the front row of the border are R. gramiueus 
with grass-like leaves and yellow flowers, and growing about 10 
inches high. E. uniflorus, abont 6 inchea, and R. bullatua, which 
also grows about 6 inchea in height, with double yellow flowers, very 
like those of R. aoris fl. pi. None of these should be omitted' from 
a collection of hardy perennials. — OxoN". 

A Pretty riower Bed.— Select or make a small isolated bed in 
some spot fully e.'ipoaed to the sun, and containing fine sandy 
peat, or fine sandy soil of any other kind ; let it be well drained. 
Place a few rustic stones round the margin and through the bed 
half or more buried in the soil, so that the whole will be elevated a 
little above the Grass level. Over the bed, besides the stones, &c., 
plant a few, a select few, of the best dwarf and compact Alpine flowers' 
and, perhaps, a few of the choicest and smallest spring bnlba— just to 
vary the bed a little at all points, and give it charma in spring. Then 
for chief beauty, put in a number of healthy young plants of 
Calandrinia umbellata. Make the groundwork of the bed of theae, 
and place a few good specimens on the little elevations and tiny 
rocks in the little bed. Plant in spring, give a good soaking of water 
in dry weather, and wait the result. The Calandrinia is a continuously, 
blooming plant; and, when it begins to flower, if well grown, yon 
may expect a display of the magenta-coloured flowers for many 
weeks. — W. J. 

Old Roses. — la it not possible to produce a "mania" for col- 
lecting and cultivating the good old Roses, once supposed to be the 
result of the best efforts of our rosarians P We have been rushincr 
ahead in floriculture for the past half century or more, lookino- more 
for "new thinga " than for intrinsic worth, and it is time that 
aomebody atarted the fashion of gathering the old and good, placing 
upon them a new valuation. Every summer, when the old "June 
Roaea" come into bloom, I am reminded of the good things left 
behind in our race for novelties in other classes. The old Mosses of 
thirty and fifty yeara ago have not been surpaaaed by any later 
introduction. The old single French Crimson still furnishes as 
pretty buds as the newest perpetual Moss, and who wants a Moss 
Rose except when in bud ? The old Crested Provence has never as 
yet had a rival, but stands alone the very Queen of ita apeciea. And 
as I look over the old sorts, like George the Fourth, with deep 



84 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 31, 1875. 



crimson petals, or La Toarfcerelle, Madame Hardy, Persian Yellow, 
and similar kinds, I begin to find myself wishing for more of the 
same, although novelties are abundant, and one might think, from 
the descriptions given, as far superior to those old and still unsur. 
passed favourites. A sight of the old Cabbage Rose, Village Maid, 
and White Bath would be, says " Moore's Rural," like gathering 
old coins from the ruins of Heroulaneum or Pompeii. 



FLOWERING OP THE EURYANCIUM SUJIBUL 
AT KEW. 
This important plant is now flowering in the herbaceous ground of 
the Royal Gardens, Kew, for the first time in this country. It yields 
the drug " Radix Sambul," introduced to Rassia as a substitute for 
Musk about the year 1835, and then recommended as a remedy for 
cholera. It became known in Germany in 1810, and ten years later 
in England. It was admitted into the British Pharmacopoeia in 1867, 
and is now prescribed in the tincture form, as a stimulating tonic. 
It 13 said to be a nervine stimulant, like valerian, and to possess anti. 
spasmodic properties. Further than the above its history has not 
been found traceable by the authors of the " Pharmacographia." 
" The plant (says the 'Pharmaceutical Journal') was discovered in 
1869 by a Russian traveller, Pedschenko, in the mountains of Maghian, 
near Pianjakent, a small Russian town eastward of Samarkand. The 
root, as found in commerce, consists of transverse slices, 1 to 2 inches, 
rarely as much as 5 inches, in diameter, and 1 inch or more in thickness ; 
the bristly crown and tapering lower portions, often no thicker than a 
quill, are also met with. The Kew specimen is nearly 8} feet in 
height. The root. stock is somewhat fasiform in shape, about 
3i inches in diameter at the top, where it is thinly covered 
with the persistent fibres of the old leaves. Those of the present 
year commenced to wither soon after the flower-stem became visible, 
and were quite dead when its fall height was attained. They are 
supradecompouud, much as in some species of Ferula, especially 
F. campestris, to the leaf-segments of which those of the Sumbnl have 
a very close resemblance. The panicle is composed of about ten alter, 
nate spreading branches, the lowestabout 5 feet from the apex. The 
umbels are on short stalks, with ten to thirteen umbellales. The stem, 
on being wounded, exudes a milky sap, which at first has the exact 
flavour of angelica, afterwards leaving a bitter taste. The resin 
of the root does not fully develop its musky smell until after contact 
with water. It is hoped that seeds may be perfected, and a stock 
raised for distribution. 



The Black Martagon Lily. — -We send you a spike of Lilium 
dalmaticum Catanii. It differs entirely from the common Martagou. 
We send, for comparison, a spike of Martagou album, which is the 
exact counterpart, as regards size, of the common species. Is the 
Dalmaticum Catanii a true species ? Surely such a vigourous plant 
never came from such a parent as the old Martagou ? The white, we 
can understand, as being a variety of it, but further remarks on our 
part will be unnecessary, as you will clearly see the difference at 
iirst sight. — The New Plant and Bulb Company. [The Black Mar. 
tagon is a strikingly distinct plant, and a most precious addition to 
our own hardy bulbs. It is just as valuable an addition as it would 
be if as far removed, botanically, from L. Martagon as any Lily 
could be, 80 that, whether it is a species or not can be of no import- 
ance, from a horticultural point of view.] 

Striking Roses in the Open Air. — What is the easiest, 
simplest, and most effectual plan of taking cuttings of Rosea, so as to 
increase them for Rose bushes in cottage gardens or elsewhere, wild 
Rose hedges, for climbers up trees, or for Rose beds and borders, to peg 
down with Ivy ? I am anxious to increase my hedges of wild Roses 
for use, as well as for beauty. I have now one about 8 feet high, 
through which no large animal could penetrate. It is entirely com. 
posed of wild Roses, intermixed with the wild Clematis or Traveller's 
Joy, and, from personal experiments which I have made, I can con. 
fidently assert that one-half of the expense and trouble and time now 
devoted to the planting and culture of Quick hedges would be spared, 
if persons were better acquainted with the value of our wild prickly 
plants combined with our native creepers, and that hedges of the 
wild Rose and Bramble, with the Bryony and wild Clematis, will 
make an impenetrable fence, even without the addition of anythino- 
else ; but, where Beech, or an occasional Hawthorn is introduced, 
our hedges might bo a succession of garlands of flowers, as delightful 
to the eye as the most cultivated ornamental garden. It is lament- 
able to see the constant destruction of growing hedges by the bar- 
barous practice of allowing the banks (which nourish the roots of 
live hedges) to be cut away by roadmenders, while the tops of the 
heJges are cijt by some short-sighted people as flat as the turnpike 



road itself. Such hedges retain the snow, which freezes upon them, 
and destroys the young growth annually. — Constant Reader, South 
Wales. [All Rose cuttings to be struck out of doors are best made 
the last week in October, and planted firmly in some light sandy soil 
immediately they are made. The cuttings should be from 4 to 6 inches 
long ; if possible, the base of each should be of the harder and more 
ripened wood. In planting, let the cuttings be inserted up to the 
top edge ; water, and s hade from early spring sunshine. In this way 
a fair number may be struck without trouble, but only a small per. 
centage of the cuttings inserted must be expected to grow, therefore 
they ought to be put in thickly. — George Paul, Cheshunt.^ 

Different Species of Morning Glory. — Few hardy herbaceous 
plants are more beautiful in the month of July than the Calystegia. 
The worst of them is that they are rather wild and rampant in their 
growth ; and it is necessary every autumn to dig up a large quantity 
of their creeping twitch-like roots, so as to keep them within bounds. 
They are regular " morning glories," and are shorn of their beauty by 
mid-day ; but they are lovely for the decoration of a breakfast table 
or morning room. One of the prettiest and most rarely grown species 
is C. oculata, a kind which produces white flowers shaded with purple 
in the centre. I obtained it last year from Mr. Thompson, of 
Ipswich ; and it is just coming into full bloom. C. incarnata, which 
has pale blush flowers, forms a striking object when trained up 
two or three tall Scarlet Runner stakes; and the same plan may be 
pursued with advantage with C. dahurica, which has large rosy-pink 
blooms, streaked with white, much resembling the beautiful British 
sea-shore weed, C. Soldanella, which deserves a corner to itself in 
every good herbaceous collection. — H. Haepuu Cbewe, Drayton. 
Beauchamp Rectory, Tring. 

The Sweet Flag (Acorus calamus). — This ia used in other 
ways besides those enumerated iu The Garden of last week (see 
p. 52). Americans are partial to it as an ingredient in what they 
call " wine bitters," because, being a powerful stomachic, it is 
aervicable iu cases of headache and iu pains proceeding from dys. 
pepsia. The Swedes also take it in a spirit, which they distil from 
Corn ; and the candied root of the plant is deemed, both in Turkey 
and in India, when well masticated, a sure preventive against epidemic 
diseases. The foliage has an agreeable perfume, and hence 
arose the custom in former days of strewing our cathedrals 
with it on festival occasions instead of with rashes ; and 
the French employ the root in various articles of perfumery. Their 
snuff called La Violet is scented with it. The Sweet Flag is a 
native of Asia, and is said to have been introduced into Europe from 
Bithynia. Its generic name is derived from the Greek, and indicates 
its virtues in all diseases of the eye, but Calamus was the appe!. 
lation given by the Romans to all things resembling a reed or rush. 
There are two varieties met with iu commerce, one of which comes 
from Tartary and Poland, the other from the Levant. The Sweet 
Flag grows on the banks of rivers in the middle and south-eastern 
counties, and its singular-looking flowers appear about the month of 
June. — Helen E. Watney, Sandcliffe, near Petersfield. 



NOTES AND QCTESTIONS ON T HE FLOWER GARDEN. 

Violas at Drumlaurig".— Thoso visiting Drumlanrig Gardens cannot fail to 
be struck with the beaaty and ((uaiitity of bedding Violas, oE which there aro 
acres there. When seen by mo a few days ago they were just in perfection. — 
W. Laubie. 

How to ProlonET tlie Flowerings Season of Larkspurs.— Cut down some of 
the plants when 9 inches or 1 foot high. These will push from the root again 
and begin to flower whou the first plants are about over. When planted in rows 
every alternate plant should be cut dowa. — J. S. 

Garlic-scented Rock Cress (Peltaria alliacea).— This was a striking 
object on my rock-work for some weeks this spring, its dense masses of white 
flowers quite hid the leaves, and lasted long in undiminished beauty. I am 
indebted to Mr. Latimer Clark for a very pretty variety of it with golden 
foliage. — H. HiBPua Cbhwb, Dray ton- Beauchamp Rectory, Tring^ 

Golden Gem Pyrethram —I have this season grown a variety of the 
Pyrethrum named Golden Gem, expecting to find it of more value for beds 
than the ordinary Golden Feather. It is, however, quite useless, being of a 
tall straggling habit, and running to flower directly accor being planted out. 
I believe it to be only a golden form of the old Pyrethrum Parthenium.— \V. M. 

SnCKLAND. 

Onosma taurica. — Of all outdoor plants I know of none for delicious 
fragrance equal to this, and yet how seldom do we see it iu gardens. The 
almond-scent of its flowers can be perceived several yards off. Its flowers, 
too, arc very pretty, and distinct from any others in cultivation, being a fine 
yellow, arranged in clustering cymes. It grows in a compact evergreen tuft, 
and thrives iu light sandy soil. It is a plant that gives no trouble, and one that 
is easily propagated by means of cuttings.— G. F. 

Sempervivam triste.— I should be glad to be furnished with the history 
of tliirt plant. Can it be had from, seed, or can it be propagated from leaves 
like others of the same genus ? It does not seem prolific in the way of offsets. 
Of what country is it a native; ia it hardy or not? Its distinct colour will 
make it valuable.— W. D. C. [It is a native of the European Alps, and ia 
perfectly hardy on rock-work. With me it stood out of doors last winter 
better tliau it did in frames. It cannot be obtained from seed, and it produces 
but few offsets.— J. Cbouchbe.J 



Ji-LY 31, 1875.] 



THS GARDEN. 



85 



TREES AND SHRUBS. 



CONIFEES FOE GARDENS. 

Mk. Paksons, the eminent nurseryman of Flushing, Long 
Island, has been addressing the Rural Club of New York on 
this subject, and as he mentions certain forms as yet unknown 
or very uncommon in our gardens, his remarks will interest 
lovers of these trees. 

Assuming that you havea lawn of several acres, the first effort 
will be to plant its outside lines so thickly as to hide it from 
the outer world, and give it that quiet which is the charm of a 
country home. For immediate effect, the trees used for this 
purpose should be about 10 feet apart, provided the planter 
has nerve enough to transplant or cut them down when they 
interfere with each other. For this purpose, among the best 
will be found the Norway Spruce. The Norway Spruce 
cannot be dispensed with in any form of planting. While 
transplanting' easily, under favourable circumstances,, its roots 
are very impatient of cold winds, and ten minutes' exposure of 
them to such, 
even if it be not 

freezing, are , ' 

sufficient to kill ^<' ^ f "" 

it. F o r t h i s 
ground w ork 
the Austrian 
fine and the 
Scotch Fir 
come next in 
order by their 
compactness, 
rapid growth, 
and patience of 
pruning when 
interference 
occurs. The 
bright green of 
the former and 
the bluish tint 
of the latter 
form a marked 
contrast. For 
single s p e c i- 
mens, also, the 
Austrian Pine 
will be entitled 
to a prominent 
place. Next 
will come the 
graceful and re- 
fined Hemlock 
Spruce, suc- 
ceeding much 
better when 
planted among 

other trees. However fine in its native habitat, it here 
loses its beauty as it becomes larger. This can be retained, 
however, by judicious trimming. No tree, not even the 
Yew or Arbor-vitas, bears the shears better. The White 
Pine will come next for this groundwork, although the 
wide spread of its branches better adapts it for positions 
where more room can be given. This is the noblest of all the 
Pines ; rich, feathery, and majestic, it towers above them all, 
and the music of its leaves gives a charm possessed by no other 
tree. Those I have named being used for the groundwork, the 
taste of the planter must be relied upon for selecting, for 
grouping, or planting singly. First will come the Nordmann 
Fir, a grand tree from the eastern slopes of the Caucasus. Its 
habit is close and compact, its colour is a rich dark glossy 
green, its ultimate stature is among the highest, and it has a 
royal aspect approached by few other trees. The noble Fir of 
California would approach it nearly, but for its very slow 
growth. The blue tint of the latter is very marked, and, when 
reaching a height of fifty feet, is very imposing. Another 
very beautiful tree is the mountain form of the Picea grandis, 
a tree distinct from the flat-leaved coast form. Happening to 




Viburnum Dahuricuin. (See p. 86.) 



be the first to send it to England, it was there given my name, 
Picea Parsonsii. My best specimen of it, killed two years ago, 
was indeed a thing of beauty. Its leaves curled up in graceful 
curves around its stem, and lovers of trees would sit upon my 
piazza and gaze upon it for a quarter of an hour together. 
Unfortunately, it is very difficult to propagate, rarely to be 
obtained, and transplants very badly. 

The Cepbalonian Fir is a noble tree of tall stature. Some 
years ago I made an ascent of the Black Mountain in Cepha- 
lonia for the purpose of seeing this tree in its native habitat, 
and I was not disappointed. Clothing the upper mountain 
sides, with sufiicient room for its branches, it rose well fur- 
nished to a height of 80 feet, and well repaid the labour of the 
ascent. The Grecian Fir somewhat resembles it, and in colour 
is between it and the Nordmann Fir. The Picea firma of Japan 
is a flat-leaved and very distinct species, of rapid growth. The 
Siberian Fir is a charming species, of slow growth, with a 
colour unequalled in freshness. For our climate, the family of 
Piceas is by far the best of all the Conifers. The Oriental Fir 
belongs to the Abies family, and is an exceedingly refined, 

compact, and 
, , 5 beautiful tree. 

It is one of those 
to which the eye 
will frequently 
turn and b o 
satisfied. The 
White Spruce 
of our northern 
forests is 
scarcely s u r- 
passed for the 
symmetry of its 
shape. Its 
growth is also 
compact, and it 
has a b 1 u e- 
steely tint,vahl- 
a b 1 e for the 
production o f 
contrasts. The 
M enz ies and 
Engel mann 
Spruces have 
also this steely 
tint to perfec- 
tion, and are 
species of rare 
merit. The 
colour of the 
Engelmann i s 
quite remark- 
able for its light 
bluish-grey, and 
young shoots of 
it are very beau- 
tiful. It is yet, however, difficult of attainment. The 
Bhotan Pine is a very graceful tree from the Himalayas, 
growing as rapidly and as tall as the White Pine, some- 
what resembling it in general appearance, but with more 
drooping, pendulous leaves. Ic is not, however, so well 
adapted as the White Pine to all localities. The Finns Ayaca- 
huite is a perfectly hardy species, from the mountains of 
Mexico, of a still more drooping and graceful habit, and 
remarkable for the light green of its foliage. The Pinus 
Mugho is a second-class tree of rather bush-like habit, and 
rarely growing over 15 feet. Its spreading and marked cha- 
racter make it essential to a lawn. The Atlas Cedar is very 
distinct and beautiful, the nearest approach to the Cedar of 
Lebanon which is permissible in this climate, and thought by 
some botanists to be only another form of it. The Abies elata, 
a variety of the Norway Spruce, is a remarkable tree, and 
always excites admiration. It throws out its branches like the 
naked hairy arms of a giant, and grows with the greatest 
luxuriance. 

Now we come to trees of smaller growth, scarcely beyond the 
stature of shrubs, and adapted to foregrounds, the points 



86 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 31, 1875, 



connected with curving walks, and town gardens. For this 
the Conical Spruce is a neat and compact miniature tree, 
never getting too large for its surroundings, and always 
giving satisfaction. The Weeping Norway Spruce has its 
branches always drooping and hugging its parent stem. If its 
leader is kept trained upright, a tree will be produced with a 
height five times the diameter of its branches. The Gregorian 
Spruce is a sport of the Norsvay Spruce, rarely reaching over 
2 and spreading 3 or 4 feet. It is very luxuriant and striking. 
The Hudson Bay Fir is a dwarf plant of the same character, 
with bluish silvery foliage and a more glossy green than the 
Gregorian Spruce. The Weeping Silver Fir has a more com- 
pact and richer foliage than the Weeping Norway Spruce, and 
with its leader trained in the same way will surpass it in 
beauty. No lawn or small garden should be without it. The 
Variegated Hemlock is a white-tipped variety of marked distinct- 
ness, and worthy of a place where contrasts are wanted. The 
small-leaved Hemlock is very distinct, growing close and com- 
pact, like a Yew, and is one of the sorts that always attract 
observation. But the gem of all gems is the Weeping Hem- 
lock. If left to itself, it will remain trailing upon the ground ; 
but if the leader is tied to a firm stake, it can be carried to any 
reasonable height, and each tier of branches will then droop in 
graceful curves towards the ground, more like an ever- 
green fountain than any tree known. If the Nordmann Fir is 
the king among Conifers, the Weeping Hemlock may worthily 
be termed queen. The Dwarf White Pine has a feathery and 
soft aspect, which makes it very attractive ; and the Dwarf 
Scotch Fir, although more rapid and compact, has its marked 
distinction of colour. 

The Yews. 
The whole Yew family is remarkable for its substantial and 
enduring qualities. The lives of single specimens number 
hundreds of years, and they were largely used when the 
topiary style of gardening was in vogue. On Long Island all 
of them are hardy, while the Irish or pyramidal is the better 
when shielded by other shrubs from the keenness of a north- 
eastern wind. Indeed, all of them would be the better for 
this slight protection. The common English Yew is too well 
known to need description. Its dark foliage and capability of 
bemg clipped into fantastic forms give it a place which can 
only be attained by other members of its own family. The 
Erect_ Yew is the most prominent of these. It is more 
upright in its form, more hardy against cold, smaller and 
finer in its foliage, and in many ways superior to the common 
English Yew. The Irish Yew has nothing like it in form. 
Its diameter is scarcely, I may say, one-fifth of its height, 
and its colour is rich and dark. The Japan Yew has larger 
leaves, stronger and more luxuriant growth, and larger 
diameter of foliage, in proportion to its height, than the Irish 
Yew, which it somewhat resembles in form. The Golden Yew 
is the most striking of all. When the new growth is upon it, 
in June, its surface is like burnished gold, to be seen from all 
pouits. I know of nothing so valuable for rich colour effects, 
and cannot easily forget the view which burst upon me when 
I came from behind the shrubbery upon the Italian garden of 
Elvaston Castle, where crowns and pagodas and birds and 
arm-chairs, made of the Golden Yew, interspersed with 
clipped forms of the English Yew, made a charming scene, 
which I cannot describe to you in adequate terms. The 
Elegant Yew is a lighter tipped variety, somewhat resembling 
the Golden. The (Jephalotaxus is a Yew-like Chinese tree, 
introduced by Fortune. It has, as most of us know, a very 
light foliage, bears clipping well, and is so marked in its 
character that it should be in every collection. The American 
Arbor-yit;B is well known, and is extensively used for hedges. 
The Siberian Arbor-vita; is, however, much superior to it, 
beoau.se it is more hardy, more compact, and does not require 
tnmmiug. It gi-ows less rapidly, but compensates for its slow- 
ness by its .superiority when fully grown. While its usefulness 
for hedges is recognised, it is not so well known that it makes 
a fine single specimen upon a lawn. The Compact Arbor-vitie 
is a round-headed dwarf variety, which is much admired. The 
Hovey Arbor-vitas is a golden-tinted variety, perfectly hardy, 
and superior in many respects to the Golden Arbor-vita3, 
which has long been admired for the beauty of its colour and 
its adaptation to decorative purposes. The Chinese Ai-bor- 



vitas is very attractive, but too tender for this latitude. Of all 
this family, however, the gem is the Biota elegantissima. 
Growing in upright flakes, delicate in its leaves, and sun-tinted 
in its shading, there is an air of refinement about it which 
eminently adapts it for the vase or the window and table. 
The Weeping Arbor-vitas is striking in its habit, and its leaves 
are thread-like and drooping. 

Becent Valuable Acquisitiona. 

Closely allied to this family are the new Ketinosporas, 
recently introdnced from Japan. They number some twenty 
varieties, and I am indebted to Mr. Thomas Hogg for some 
very fine ones, not yet known in Europe. It would be impos- 
sible to describe in words what can only be known by the eye 
— the distinctive beauties of them all. Among the best, how- 
ever, is R. obtusa, with its finely-cut and Fern-like leaves, so 
hardy that the cold of two years ago had no effect upon it, 
while the American Arbor-vitas at its side was killed. The 
filiformis is very beautiful with its dark green foliage and grace- 
ful, drooping branches. The Golden, however, is destined to 
be the most popular. It keeps its bright golden tint through- 
out the year, gives a lawn a very bright appearance, is 
admirably adapted to small house fronts and cemetery lots, 
and is equally valuable for potting purposes and window 
decoration. For edging, it is superior to Box ; and for low 
hedges, not desired to be impervious, it would be very beauti- 
ful. This whole family is among the most valuable acquisi- 
tions from Japan. The Junipers are too well known to need 
description. The Swedish is remarkable for the fresh green- 
ness of its colour, and the Irish for its steely-blue and its 
column-like uprightness. The Weeping Juniper is soft and 
graceful, and the glauoa has a most refreshing light lavender 
tint. This last is a variety of the Red Cedar, and will, doubt- 
less, make a large tree, while it can be clipped into any size 
and shape. The Prostrate Juniper generally clings to the 
ground ; but by training up a leader, it makes a very pictu- 
resque appearance. My specimen thus managed is 8 feet high. 



VIBURNUxM DAHURIOUM. 
This is a charming hardy shrub, which, in May and June, is covered 
with numerous umbels of beautiful white flowers. It is a plant, too, 
which is easily multiplied by means of cuttings made ot tolerably 
firm wood, and inserted in peat soil under a cloche or hand-glass, 
or the young soft shoots may be taken off early in the season, and 
struck indoors. As soon as they are rooted, they should be re-potted ; 
and, when they have become established, they may be placed outside 
in some shady spot, taking care to plunge the pots ; young 
plants thus raised will be suffloiently hard and woody to be wintered 
outside without shelter. This Viburnum is not particular as to soil, 
but those that are light and damp, and rich in organic matter, suit it 
best. It forms a somewhat spreading bush, from 6 to 8 feet high, 
and has grey downy branches. The berries are oval-oblong, five- 
seeded, at first red, but when fully ripe in September black and 
somewhat sweet scented. It is a native of the Dahurian Mountains, 
and was introduced as long ago as 1785. For an illustration o£ this 
plant see preceding page. 



PLANTING TREES ON FARMS. 
From the place which I now write to the nearest village is more than 
an English mile, and the public road runs the entire length of that 
distance, between and underneath two rows of very fine old trees of 
Ash, Beech, Elm, and Oak ; their branches form a grand canopy, 
through which the sun can scarcely penetrate. So grateful is the 
shade of these old monarchs (said to bo 200 years planted) to the 
pedestrian, that I often, when enjoying a walk underneath, take off 
my hat reverently, and say — " Peace to the ashes of those planters 
of old." In this district the fields have been planted with rows and 
doable rows of trees, very largo doable ditches having been formed 
and transplanted between, and fields can be seen completely sur. 
rounded with huge old trees, which are a pleasing object to the eyo 
but are injurious to the crops and soil within the influence of 
their tops and roots. All honour is due to the worthy generation of 
planters who planted, that future generations might enjoy and benefit 
by their improvements, and wo must candidly admit they were far 
in advance of us of the nineteenth century. Yet it was an error 
to surround their fields with trees. In the first place, the 
roots impoverish the soil as far as they travel into the 



July 31, 1875.] 



THE GARDEN. 



87 



fields, and prevent the plough from being able to do its work, 
and again the shade of the tops generally draws the crop sown 
underneath or near them, and leaves it quite useless, and lines of 
trees are something similar to ribbon lines in the flower garden — they 
destroy the beauty of the surrounding landscape. Allow me to give 
the following simple instructions for planting groups, which, 
as well as improving the entire appearance of the country, could be 
carried out on a scale of usefulness even on the smallest farm. First 
plant the angles only of our fields, say from 5 to 10 perches off the 
corners, according to size and taste; it will be seen that shelter will 
be secured from three sides without any trouble on our part ; then we 
have to secure and fence the base on one side of the angle nest to the 
field. There are many positions in which four fields are connected at 
the corners, and it will be seen that in planting, as I recommend, 
great shelter will thus be afforded, as the four corners of the fields, 
thus planted, will form a pretty circular clump or grove of four 
different shades of foliage, if so desired. Although the form of the 
grove is diamond in shape, all such clumps appear circular when seen 
from a distance; and, when the trees are twenty years planted, the 
inner fences could be levelled, in order to allow cattle to enter for 
shelter from the burning rays of the summer sun. The foregoing 
simple plan of planting could be easily carried out, and with very 
great advantage. — " Gardeners' Record." 



The Crowhurst Yew Tree. — I enclose a photograph of this, 
the oldest Yew tree in England. It is situated in Crowhurst Church- 
yard, about two miles from here, and was mentioned by Aubrey in 
the reign of Charles I. as measuring in that reign 10 yards in circum- 
^rence at a height of 5 feet from the ground. Its present girth is 
about 33 feet. Humboldt, in his " Aspects of Nature," mentions this 
tree, and it is stated, on the authority of DecandoUe, to be 1,450 years 
old. The old tree was hollowed out about the year 1820, when a 
cannon ball was found in the centre, which is preserved in a neigh, 
bonring farm-house, and, in ISIS, the upright branches were blown 
off by a great storm. The covering (around it was fired in 1850. 
The photograph shows the door to the inside of the tree, where there 
are seats, which will accommodate twelve persons comfortably. To 
all appearances, it looks likely to survive several more years. The 
church was built in 1304. — J. C. Eichakdson, Perryfield, Godstone, 
Surrey. 

Adventitious Buds. — I noticed recently, among some plants 
which I had been grafting, a singular instance of how a stock will 
sometimes push out adventitious buds. The circumstance may not 
be uncommon, but it never occurred in my experience before, nor 
yet in that of anyone with whom I am acquainted. The way in 
which the adventitious buds came in this case is as follows : — When 
the stocks were headed down, a bud pushed and grew strongly right 
in the centre of the stock, just where the pith is ; it may have come 
out of the hard wood immediately surrounding the pith, but appears 
to be in the very centre. I should be glad if any of your readers 
would be kind enough to say if this is a common occurrence. — Jaiies 
Simpson, Fort Nurseries, Broughton Ferry. 

Eleagnus rotundifolia. — This is so rare that only in one 
instance can I see it oifered in any of the continental catalogues. 
We have a plant of it hei'e from 4 to 5 feet in height, which, before 
the recent rains, was covered with pretty scarlet and amber-coloured 
berries. It is perfectly hardy, having stood out in a western aspect 
without any protection since the autumn of 1872. The undersides 
of the leaves are silvery, which is more distinct on young foliage 
than on that which is older. The berries, which hang on long 
stalks like Cherries, are produced on the last year's wood ; it has 
never produced berries here before, probably from the fact of its 
not being sufficiently established. It seems to be easily propagated 
by means of layering, and is a shrub which should certainly be in 
every garden. — T. Thornton, Heaiherside, Barjshot. 

An Impervious Hedge. — The Crataogus pyraoantha alba, or 
Evergreen Thorn, is well adapted for single planting, because it can 
be trimmed into any shape, and can thus be made very ornamental. 
Its great value, however, is as an impervious hedge, and for this 
purpose, both in farm and garden,! consider it sodeoided an acquisition 
that I am inclined to tell you all I have learned about it during fifteen 
years of experiment. Its leaf is narrow and oval, about one-quarter 
the size of that of the Japan Quince. It can readily be distinguished 
from the old Pyracantha, which has large and round leaves, and is 
not hardy. It has endured, unharmed, a cold of 14^ degrees below 
zero, and has been equally patient under the most severe drought we 
Lave known. The glossy, bright green of its summer foliage changes 
to a bronzed-green during the winter, but no Pine or Spruce more 
persistently holds its leaves during cold weather. It is clothed with 



strong thorns so close and stout that cattle would never attack it a 
second time. Even a chicken trying to get through it would find 
food for repentance. It grows rapidly, and a strong plant will make 
shoots of li to 2 feet each season. If it is neglected several years, 
and allowed to go untrimmed, it can in two years be brought again 
into perfect shape. With attention, when young, it can be kept down 
to a foot for borders ; and for farm purposes it can bo formed into a 
hedge 5 feet high. Its flowers are small, like those of the Elder, and 
grow in clusters about the size of a half-crown piece. These June 
flowers are succeeded in autumn by showy orange berries the size of 
Peas. It is easily excited by the first warm days of spring, and 
should be always planted in autumn. When successfully planted, I 
think that it meets all requirements for a perfectly impervious hedge. 
— J. B. Parsons. 

Age of Old Trees at Clumber. — At the present time, vistaa 
are being cut out in the pleasure grounds at Clumber, to show 
the old Cedars, as well as to open out the landscape. I have counted 
the annual rings of some of the largest trees which were going to 
decay— Beeches, Larches, Silver Firs, and Elms — and I have found 
that they numbered from 95 to 105 ; thus, it would appear that they 
were planted about a century ago. The solid contents of these trees 
were from 120 to 230 feet each. To show the necessity of examining 
old trees standing near mansions, or other buildings, I may add that 
one of the trees referred to— a fine old Elm, with 200 feet in it, and 
apparently in perfect health — was found, notwithstanding a diameter 
of 5 feet at the ground, to have but a shell of sound wood, some 2 or 
3 inches thick, on the outside ; whilst the interior was as rotten as 
touchwood. Had it not boon for the sheltered position in which it 
stood, this tree would probably have fallen, without the use of the 
axe, during some gale of wind more heavy than usual, and might 
possibly have demolished stately buildings, and perhaps caused loss of 
life. — J. Miller, Clumher. 

Creosoting Timber.— I venture to say that if the value of 
creosote for preserving timber was better understood than it is it 
would be more appreciated ; I have now before me convincing proof 
of the good that results from creosoting fencing. About five years 
a"o we enclosed a small plantation with a four.rail split Oak fence ; 
as this was our first experiment with creosote, we put in a few lengths 
of sawn Larch and split Oak uncreosoted as a test. The result now 
is that the creosoted fencing is quite sound and as clean as on the 
day it was fixed, whereas the uncreosoted portion is covered with 
Lichen and Moss, and the posts near the ground are producing a good 
crop of Fungus, a sure indication that decay is at work. I find that 
wherever creosote is present no vegetable growth can exist. Whether 
in the case of heart-wood or sappy Oak creosote is equally valuable 
for preventing the growth of Lichen, Moss, and Fungus, and it will 
also enable the wood to resist the absorption of wot. The tank which 
we use for charging the timber with the creosote is made of the best 
boiler plate, 17 feet long, 5 feet wide, and 4 feet deep ; this size will 
hold two lengths of rails at once ; the creosote is kept simmering two 
nights and one day before the fencing is suificiently pickled. — Gkokce 
Bekky, Longleat. 



NOTES AND QUESTIONS ON TREES AND SHRUBS. 

The Scarlet-fruited Elder.— This is now covered with its handsome fruit, 
and when seen in that condition is one of the most ornamental of hardy shrubs. 
Its value cannot be sufficiently known or it would be much oftener met with 
than it is. — George Jackman, Woking. 

The Virgilia at Sion.— 'Mr. Woodbridge informs us that the measurements 
ot the best specimen of this tree in the gardens at Sion are as follows :— Height, 
62 feet; width of branches, 43 feet; circumference ot stem, 4 feet from the 
ground, 6 feet. Will any American correspondent telUis the size it attains in 
its native woods ? 

Seed Pods on Acer Negnndo variegatnm.— We have a quantity of seed 
pods on this tree. Has it seeded before in this country, and, if so, have the 
seeds ripened, and plants been raised therefrom, and with what results ? I 
find that all the plants purchased from the nurseries are worked on the 
Neguudo stock, and, as variegated forms of this Acer are not common, I fear 
that the seeds do not produce variegated plants.— J. S. 

Evergreen Berberry Berries.— I vrish to learn, through Tsu GiEDBir, some- 
thino- about the family of Berberis. I have fine plants and shrubs of several 
species besides the coinmon red-berried one. The fruit ot these, as you may 
know, make excellent preserve, jam, or jelly. Can you find out whether the 
blue-coloured berries are edible when preserved ? Are they wholesome, or are 
they to bo avoided ? The fruit on all is so abundant this season that I cannot 
but wish it could be utilised. Those masses, like small Grapes, on the B. 
ariuifulium surely must be fit for jelly. — C, Sitsficx. 

Leptospermnm lanigernm Hardy.— This New Holland shrub has proved 
perfectly hardy at Heatherside, where it has been growing quite unprotected 
in a western aspect since 1869. It produces an abundance of white Hawthorn- 
like flowers every July, followed by a copious crop of hard round berries. 
The leaves are fragrant and glaucous ; it would make a capital plant for a low 
wall, and it will succeed in any Kght open soil tree from stagnant moisture.— 
T. Thobntok, Seatherside, Ba^jghot, 



THE GAEDBN. 



[JULY 31. 1875. 



COTTAGE GARDENS. 
If one strolls from village to village in the remoter districts of the 
country, nothing is more striking than the contrast afforded by 
the cottage gardens. In one place Flora seems to have made her 
home. Every patch of ground is tended ; bright with flowers, or 
affording a goodly promise of hedge-rows of Peas and Beans. No 
window is withont its climbers. Ivy clothes the walls, and keeps the 
rooms within both dry and warm ; and here and there will be seen 
not only a beautiful flower — all flowers are beautiful — but a new one. 
IIow much care, and even cost, has gone to the production of the 
gardens which are the pride of some of these cottagers ? The yellow 
Austrian Briar is a matter rather of ancient heritage than of pur. 
chase ; but what shall we say to the deep rich petals of the last new 
Roses ? It is surprising how soon a fashionable flower will be carried 
by the birds to the remotest hamlet, so only there be a cottager with 
a passionate love of the beauties of the garden. Go into the next 
village. Pick your way, and put your kerchief to your nose as you pace 
the heap that denotes its boundary ; the heap of brickbats, stones, 
broken slates, utterly useless potsherds, and worse refuse, backed by a 
dense growth of Nettles, showing what Nature would do if gently 
solicited . If foul puddles are absent, if drainage has been introduced by 
the strong hand, still thepower of listless idleness, and the utter absence 
of the least glimpse of order or of beauty, mark the entire group of 
tenements. Poverty is made more repulsive by being exhibited in its 
most cynical phase. The only vegetable products thought of in that 
village, beyond the ordinary crops whiph it is a daily and grudging 
toil in some way to tend, are the Potato and the Tobacco plant. 
Where does the cause of the difference lie ? We can answer the 
question with regard to some instances. We strongly suspect that 
the same answer would apply to the great majority. Where the 
squire :s no longer to be found, it is the doing of the clergyman, or 
of the clergyman's wife. A bright, trim, well-tended garden, in the 
manse or the hall ; a tasteful, graceful, truly feminine love and care 
of the flowers, as well as of the fruit ; the gift, at odd times, of spare 
plants, of slips, or of seed ; example, and good example ; tend to 
beautify a village by a happy contagion. So, on the contrary, the 
man who looks at his book alone for his lessons, and has no eyes to 
see the clearer and holier, as well as the more ancient, lessons that 
are inscribed on evei'y form of organic life — the man who, with 
another world on his lips, takes no heed of what is most beautiful in 
this — the man who remembers nothing of the first garden but the 
serpent and the apple — is not one who understands his mission to his 
countrymen, or whose parish will return him an odour of flowers 
which is no other than an odour of the sanctity of Nature. [In 
the above, from the " Builder," we are unable wholly to agree 
with the writer as to the " cause of the difference," for, while we 
see some parts of the country lovely with cottage gardens, in others 
it is rare to find a pretty or tidy one, while the gardens of the hall 
or the parsonage will be about the same in each case.] 



Tlie Giant Sea-kale for the Wild Garden. — Crambe cordi- 
folia is a very fine perennial, but its place is on the turf in rich soil. It 
has enormous leaves, and small whitish flowers in panicles. Here it 
is one of the finest ornaments in a wild garden of about 5 acres, 
associated with Bheums, Ferulas, Gunneras, Centaurea babylonica, 
Arundo donax. Acanthus, and others. — OxoN. 

Flowering Shrubs from Cuttings. — Among the little odd 
jobs which are likely to be neglected is that of making cuttings of 
various plants generally propagated in this manner. Of course, it can 
be done later in the season, but every day's delay lessens the chances 
of success with many kinds of fruits and flowering plants, even with 
those considered perfectly hardy. The greater part of our hardy 
ornamental shrubs may be rapidly propagated by means of ripe wood 
cuttings taken off in the autumn. Almost any old plant of Weigela, 
Spireoa, Deutzia, or Philadelphus, will furnish a hundred or more 
cuttings, and these may become, in a very short time, with little 
care, as many useful bushes. Cuttings made of this year's growth, 
and 6 or 8 inches long, will usually take root readily. There are a 
few kinds, however, which do not grow from ripe wood cuttings, at 
least not very readily ; but most of these can, according to a correspon- 
dent of " Moore's Hural,"be rapidly multiplied by cuttings of the roots. 
The common double-flowering Almonds are plants of this kind, and the 
best way to manage them is to take up a quantity of the roots in autumn, 
and cut them into pieces 2 to 3 inches long j then mix them with pure 
sand, storing them away in a cellar or burying them in some dry 
place in the open ground until spring. The Pyrus japonica, which is 
Bomowhat difficult to propagate from cuttings of the branches, grows 
readily from cuttings of the roots when treated in this manner. In 
spring the root cuttings may be put in in drills. The double Deutzia 
crenata grows as freely from cuttings as a Currant, and it is one of 
the best of ornamental plants. 



THE CONSERVATORY AT HAMPTON COURT HOUSE. 
Of conservatories recently erected in the neighbourhood o£ 
London this is one of the most remarkable, as regards its 
superior design and finish and the elegant character of the 
vegetation which adorns it. This is mainly composed of a 
number of tree Perns, many of which are distinguished by the 
slenderness of their stems — these, indeed, looking more like 
tall antelope's legs than the tree Fern stems with which we 
are familiar. Among the different plants generally employed 
for conservatory decoration none, except Palms, can compare 
with tree Perns, and even Palms themselves lack that 
freshness of aspect and exquisite feathery beauty which are 
characteristic features of many arborescent Perns when well 
grown. Many tree Perns, now in cultivation, are Australasian 
species, belonging to the genera Dicksonia, Cyathea, and 
Alsophila; but even these are surpassed in lightness and 
graceful contour by some of the less-known but certainly 
more delicately beautiful South American kinds, of which some 
striking examples may be seen here. These slender-stemmed 
and exquisitely beautiful American species are so distinct from 
the ordinary kinds as to be well worthy the attention of all 
interested in new and rare forms of tropical vegetation. 
Their distinctive features, too, are all the more apparent, inas- 
much as they are growing side by side with well-developed 
specimens of other kinds, among which we remarked Dick- 
sonia squarrosa, Cyathea dealbata, and other equally well 
known forms. Beneath the rich South American vegetation 
justreferred to are dwarfer Perns, such as Adiantum,Pteris, and 
Asplenium, together with an abundant undergrowth of other 
well-arranged foliage plants, such as Dracsenas, variegated 
Yuccas, Caladiums, fine specimens of the velvety-purple 
silver-marbled Cissus discolor, noble Crotons and Allamandas, 
the girders of the dome above being nearly hidden in wreaths 
of variegated Cobsea, the yellow-margined leaves of which, 
enlivened here and there with great purple flowers, had a fine 
effect. On one side is a tastefully- arranged piece of rock- 
work, half hid among creepers, and draped with feathery Perns, 
Selaginellas, Tradescantia variegata. Grasses, and brilliant 
orange-yellow, dark-eyed Thunbergias, the latter flowering 
freely, and, when backed up by cool green banks of Selaginella, 
having a very pretty effect. At the base of this rockery 
is a small strip of water, replenished by a dripping cascade 
from the rocks above, and ornamented with aquatics. The 
larger Ferns, and other permanent vegetation, are planted 
out ; but flowering plants, such as Achimenes, Begonias, Pelar- 
goniums, &c., are grown in pots, so as to be replaced, when out 
of flower, by others as occasion may require. As will be seen 
by the engraving, however, the pots are judiciously concealed 
from view by means of a deep curb — an important point, and 
one that might be carried out in all conservatories in which 
the object is to show the grace and beauty of tropical vegeta- 
tion to the best advantage. This fine conservatory was built 
by Messrs. Weeks & Co., of the King's Road, Chelsea, who 
also designed the picture gallery, garden tea-room, and various 
other adjuncts of the house and conservatory. Externally, the 
latter has a striking appearance ; its dimensions are 70 feet in 
length, 30 feet in width, and 34 feet in height, measuring from 
the highest point. 



About Bananas. — Few people who see Bananas hanging in fruit 
stores think of them as more than a tropical luxury. In fact, they are a 
staple article of food in some parts of the world, and, according to Hum- 
boldt, an acre in Bananas will produce as much food for man as 25 acres 
of Wheat. It is the ease with which Bananas are grown which is the 
great obstacle to civilisation in some tropical countries. It is so easy to 
get a living without work that no effort will ever be made, and the men 
become lazy and intolerably shiftless. All that is needed is to stick a cut- 
ting in the ground. It will ripen its fruit in twelve to thirteen months, 
without further care,_ each plant having 75 to 125 Bananas, and when that 
dies down after fruiting, new shoots spring up to take its place. In 
regions where no frost ever reaches. Bananas are found in all stages of 
growth, ripening their fruit every month and every day in the year. 
Col. Whitner, near Silver Lake, Florida, has probably the largest Banana 
plantation in the United States, containing fully 10,000 plants in bearing. 
Some of these are large trees, which do not die after bearing their fruit, 
but the majority are of the dwarf species, which are renewed every year. 
Slips are planted about 8 feet apart and rapidly push up leaves disclosing 
six or eight small Bananas behind this protection. Some plants will have 
sixteen or twenty leaves and bunches of fruit, bending over as it ripens, 
forming a most beautiful sight. 



July 31, 1876.] 



THE GARDEN. 



89 




90 



THE GAEDBN. 



[July 31, 1875, 



THE INDOOR GARDEN. 



GLASS HOUSES, AND THEIR ADAPTATION TO THE 

CULTtTRE OF DIFFEREXT SUBJECTS. 
NoTWiTHSTAyDiSG all that has been Tvritten on the subject, we 
are often applied to for information on horticultural matters by 
people about to begin Grape growing, or some other branch of 
gardening; and some of the most frequent enquiries are " What 
kind of house must I build ? " or " What kind of pit should it 
be ? " &o. It is hardly conceivable what unfortunate mistakes 
are committed by many people — gentlemen amateurs and 
others — who set about building hothouses according to their 
own way of thinking, or act on the advice of their own 
workmen or a country carpenter. We were asked for advice 
respecting a Peach-house lately, in which the Peach tree leaves 
were always scorched in sunny weather, and on examination 
found that it was about -50 feet long, a clumsily -built structure, 
without any ventilation but the doors at each end, and two 
squares holes in the roof that opened like a skylight. This 
had been judged ample, though there was a hot flue 
along the front, which did the mischief every time the 
sun shone out in the forenoon. In another case it was a span 
roof, with no ventilation but the doors, and there was no 
choice on warm days but to have a roasting temperature, or a 
hurricane of cold wind throughout, which wrought disastrous 
results among the inmates. This was a modem structure, 
also of local design. A few panes drawn out at the apex of the 
roof was a necessity till further alterations could be made. 
Home-made structures of this kind are always the most expen- 
sive, and generally ill adapted to the end in view. The local 
tradesmen or home carpenters cannot now compete with the 
professional horticultural builder, who has every appliance for 
executing such work expeditiously and well, and we speak with 
some experience of both. It is, however, only necessary here 
to point out the kmd of structures most suitable for various 
purposes and subjects. 

Fruit Houses. 
Vineries. — Little need be said about these, except that a 
lean-to facing south is undoubtedly the best, and the only form 
of structure which should be adopted for Vines which have to 
ripen their fruit by midsummer, or earlier. There is a form of 
lean-to Vinery, however, which cannot be too severely con- 
demned, and that is the deep brick-fronted structure. Exten- 
sive ranges have been built in this way by eminent builders, 
that have turned out most unsuitable for Vines in the early 
stages of growth. The young plants almost always suffer 
under the shadow of the brick wall, and it is only by the second 
year, when they rise up to the glass, that they make head- way 
and recover. All Vineries should be glazed down near to the 
ground. For late Vineries the span roof is in every way the 
best. Lofty houses are considered by most good Grape 
growers to be better than low ones, as they permit a great 
development of leaf and branch. This is no doubt true ; but 
had we to build Vineries in which we wished to produce a 
great quantity of fruit as soon as possible, we should rather 
take it off the height and add it to the length— the longer the 
house the more extra Vines can be planted for fruiting 
immediately. A span-roofed house, 50 feet long, and 21 feet 
high, of proportionate width, would accommodate, say, twenty- 
five extra Vines besides the permanent ones, which would 
yield, perhaps, the year after planting, between 200 and 
300 lbs. of Grapes ; whereas a house 100 feet long, 13 feet high, 
and of proportionately reduced width, would cost little, if any- 
thing, more, would accommodate double the number of extra 
Vines, and yield twice the weight of Grapes. Ultimately the 
difference would be nothing ; but to those to whom early 
returns are of importance the extra Vines are of no little conse- 
quence, for it must be remembered that their number cannot 
be compensated for by length of cane. The best exposure 
for Grape houses is undoubtedly the south. Muscats, and 
other lato ripening varieties, should not be grown in any 
other aspect. Early varieties, like the Hamburgh, will ripen 
well either on an ea.st or west aspect, but they will want more 
artificial heat. North walls have been spoken of, even lately 
in a contemporary, as being available for Vineries, but we 
doubt the result, except under very peculiar circumstances ; 



besides, it is seldom necessary to use a north wall for such a 
purpose. 

Peach-houses. — For early Peach-houses, nothing sur- 
passes the lean-to ; indeed, it is the best structure for Peaches 
at any season, as, in our climate, the trees can never have 
enough of sunshine. Some prefer to cover the back wall with 
trees, and the front trellis as far up as it can be done without 
shading those at the back. This is simply " robbing Peter to 
pay Paul." Peach trees grow to a great size, and will cover, 
if allowed, an immense area of trellis work ; the short back 
and front trellis does not permit this beyond the most limited 
extent, and the trees have to be kept within bounds after a 
very few years, by hacking off the branches and constant 
root-pruning. But, give a good long roof, wire it to the top 
within 18 inches of the glass, plant the trees in front, and, 
under ordinary circumstances, each tree will cover an area of 
three or four hundred square feet in six or seveu years, and 
bear proportionately. We have proved this long ago. As 
regards Melon and Cacumber-houses, and similar structures, 
nothing is superior to leau-to pits with a sharp angle for 
early forcing, whilst for late work low span-roofed houses of 
the same kind are the best. For all kinds of fruit houses, the 
ventilation should be of the most ample description, to avoid 
that roasting to which trees are subjected in sunny weather 
under deficient ventilation, and which always results, sooner or 
later, in injury. J. S. 



A LAPvGE INDOOR VINEYARD. 
The " Sanatorium " at Saltash, near Plymouth, which was erected 
about Eeven years since, is an extensive greenhoase, built at 
great erpense and laboar, for the production of Grapes and 
other fruit. It is situated on the Bouthem side of a hill 
in a sheltered valley at the western end of the Port Yiew Estate, 
and its immense area of glass might be seen from various 
points in the neighbourhood. The Yinerr is 450 feet long by 80 feet 
broad, and it will help the reader to perceive the extent of it when 
we state that the glass covering it weighs upwards of 20 tons. It 
contains more than 500 Vines, the majority being in bearing con. 
dition, though not yet fully grown. These include fifty varieties of 
Grapes, the whole of them having been personally selected from the 
south of France while in fruit. In situation and arrangement, the 
place is well laid out, and, what is of great importance, it is aban- 
dantly supplied with water, which is carried over the entire buildinst 
and distributed in an efficient manner. The Vineyard — which 
we prefer to call it — is pleasingly arranged in tiers, and divided 
into several compartments, with walks passing through thee. 
In every respect the capacity of the place to produce Grapes equal 
to any grown on the Continent has been proved. The sight of the 
Vineyard at this moment is remarkable. Above, around, in every 
part of it, immense bunches of Grapes are ripening in countless 
profusion. The vista of every pathway in each of the compartments, 
and of every line of eight, turn in what direction one may, shows 
overhanging canopies of Grapes, prodigal in their luxuriance. Many 
of the bunches are large, being more than 6 inches by 15 inches. 
Even yet, however, the full resources of the place have not been 
reached, either in amount or earliness of fruit. It is certainly 
not more than three-fourths covered with the Vines ; and, conse. 
quently, every year the produce is rapidly increasing. Last 
year 3,000 lbs. of Grapes were obtained ; nearly double that 
amount will be gathered this year. The full bearing capa- 
bility, which it is expected will be reached in about three 
years' time, has been estimated at 10,000 lbs., and that csti. 
mate is considered within the mark. It is a very important fact, 
also in the value and success of the undertaking, that the luxuriance 
of growth and the abundance of fruit are scarcely less striking than 
the freedom of the Vines and Grapes from disease. We may add 
(says the " Devonport Independent") that Peaches are also grown in 
the Sanatorium. A crop of Potatoes of a highly remunerative earli- 
ness was likewise obtained this season from the ground between the 
rows of Vines. In testimony of the safety and security of 
the structure itself, and in falsification of any forebodings that might 
have been made of the precariousness of the erection, it should be 
stated that daring the whole seven years of its existence scarcely any 
damage has been inflicted either by wind or water. The place has not 
yet been heated, but a considerable outlay is about to be made in this 
direction to secure early ripening, by which it is hoped to gather the 
crops in July instead of, as at present, in September. There are some 
acres of surrounding land of an analogous character to which the 
Vinery may be extended, the site commanding a southern view. 



July 31, 1875.] 



THE GARDEN. 



91 



CEASSULA COCCINEA. 
This ia an old greenhonae favourite, muoh thought of in former days, 
when gardeners used to grow specimens of it several feet through, 
each shoot being furnished at its summit with a broad truss of waxj- 
Bcarlet flowers, showy and sweet scented. The plant also grows out 
of doors freely in summer, and when in tlowor makes one of the most 
brilliant and effective of beds. This plant is known uow-a-days as 
Kalosanthea. To flower it well it requires to be grown in hot, dry 
quarters. Cuttings, which strike very easily, should be made from 
the young shoots which have not flowered in August or early in 
September. Make the cuttings about 3 inches long ; do not stop 
them, bat divest them of a few of their bottom leaves, and pot each 
singly and firmly in a 3-inch pot, using a light compost of sand, leaf 
mould, loam, and pounded bricks or crocks. They will soon root if 
placed near the glass in a warm pit, or an intermediate house shelf, 
if they are not damped too much at top or bottom. When rooted 
remove them to a cool dry greenhouse for the winter, and give 
scarcely any water till spring ; the object at this time is simply to 
keep them at rest. About the beginning of March the plants may be 
potted in 8-inch or 9-inch pots, which ia a suitable size for plants 
intended to have six or seven shoots. A little heavier com- 
post should be used for this, the final potting, and with it 
plenty of broken crocks or bricks, taking care also to drain the pots 
thoroughly. After potting, the plants should have a growiug tem- 
perature near the light. A warm greenhouse or pit will do, but do 
not give too muoh water at any time. At this stage some ot the 
plants will break up into a number of shoots at the top, and the 
others will keep to a single shoot only. The former should be 
thinned out to six or eight shoots, and the latter pinched at the top 
to"make them break j also the young shoots secured in this way will 
bear the flowers. By May the plants will be growing fast, and at 
this time they may, in warm localities, be plunged out of doors in a 
warm corner. In front of a hothouse is a good place for them, and 
it is a common practice to plunge them in sand, which gets hot with 
the sun ; otherwise they need not be plunged at all, but simply set 
on a hard surface. In cold localities it ia better to grow the plants 
under glass all summer, with plenty of air and snn. Whichever plan 
ia adopted, let the plants from this time grow uninterruptedly, and 
before cold weather aeta in take them into any house where the tem- 
perature is genial aud dry. Here they will show flower, if the trusses 
are not already in an advanced state, and the aeason of flowering 
may be prolonged by keeping the plants in cool houses. If the 
plants are intended for planting out, they must simply be wintered 
in It cool house, and not permitted to flower, and planted out the 
following season, where they will be certain to flower aud make a 
bright display. J. 



Canarina Campanula. — This does not seem to be so generally 
known and cultivated as it deserves. Its pendent, waxy, compressed, 
bell-shaped flowers, with rounded reflexed segments, have somewhat 
the appearance of a colossal tazza inverted. Its colouring and 
markings remind one of Abntilon Dao do Malakotf. It continues to 
bloom for a considerable time, aud the individual flowera remain 
freah for a fortnight ; but the plant is deciduous, and the fleshy 
roots require to be put in heat in early spring, as they are very slow 
to start, but afterwards grow rapidly. I have found that, if allowed 
to suffer from want ot water — of wliich it requires a liberal 
Bupply during growth — the flower bnds perish ; and it does not 
recover the check during the season. — J. M., Hawkchwcli., near 
Axminster, Devon. 

TropsBolum tricoloruiu. — This is ono of the prettiest of 
tho Tropojolums; but it ia not adapted for decorating large 
spaces ; for balloons, trellises, or a potful of Birch twigs, however, 
it makes an excellent covering. The foliage is small aud neat, 
of a verdant green colour, and the flowers, which are of a rich orange, 
scarlet, are borne in such profusion as to make the plant appear a 
complete mass of colour. When well grown aud flowered — an easy 
matter — few greenhouse plants match it for brilliancy. The tubers, 
which are not unliko a I'otato in appearance, should be potted in 
November in light, rich soil, and in well-drained pots. Eight or 
O-inoh pots are a suitable size for them, aud if they are small, like 
marbles, perhaps several may occupy a pot. They may be wintered 
in a quiet corner in a greenhouse, where they only require to bo kept 
from getting dust-dry. About April, or sooner, if the temperature 
has beeu kept much above 45', the slender young shoots will appear, 
and whatever kind of trellis or support they are to have should be 
fixed in the pot then ; there ia nothing better than branching Birch 
twigs, about 2 feet high, stuck round the edges of tho pot iu a sym. 
metrical form ; to these tho young shoots should bo led till they take 
hold themselves, which they will do quickly. After this the plants 
want little attention, except directing the leaders occasionally, so aa 



to cover the branches and prevent the shoota from running into knots 
and buudlea, which it is hopeleaa to unravel. They grow rapidly, 
and soon drape their supports from top to bottom with their beautiful 
foliage and flowera. Water freely while growth coutiuues, and keep 
the plants in a good light, but shade from bright sunshine will pro. 
long their beauty. About midsummer the leaves will begin to fade, 
and water must be given more sparingly, until the plants go to rest, 
in which condition they remain till potting-time again comes round m 
November. — J. S. 

Rhynchospermum jasminoides. — The profuse flowering 
habit of this plant, its handsome foliage and pretty white flowera, 
render it still one of tho best of greenhouse climbers, though it can 
be growu in the bush form with the assistance of a stake or two to 
support it. It is one of those plants from which one may cut 
largely, and the flowers have a chaste effect in a bouquet. They 
are borne in trusses, and are agreeably perfumed — something like 
the Lilac. It may be propagated by cuttings under a bell-glass in a 
slight boat, and, when rooted, grows freely, flowering immediately. 
It is best planted out when employed as a climber, and soon covers 
a large space, but it does very well in a pot. Peat, loam, and sand, 
in equal quantities, make a good compost for it, and whether planted 
out or kept in pots it must have good drainage. — Q. 

Soot as a Manure.— To strong-growiug greenhouse plants, 
such as Pelargouiums, Fuchsias, Azaleas, Cytisus, Roses, Chryaan. 
themums, Solanums, aud Hydrangeaa, aoot is a valuable aud easily- 
obtained atimulaut. A handful of it, stirred iu a 3-gallon can of water, 
has a marvellous effect on all the plants just named, and many others 
besides. It induces vigorous growth, and adds freshness aud 
substance both to leaf and flow"er. It is best to use it iu small 
quantities, and often, rather than charge the compost with more 
carbon than the plants can readily assimilate. In the case of Chry- 
santhemums aud Hydrangeaa, I have employed a mixture of soot 
and fresh manure from tho oow-shed with the best possible results, 
but wherever the last-named ingredient ia employed, it should bo 
well mixed iu a tub or tank aud allowed to settle, otherwise the 
Grassy particles remain on tho tops of the pots, aud, while giving 
them an unsightly appearance, also exclude that free aiiration which 
all healthy roots require. — B. 

Statice profusa.— The flowers of this Statico are of a lovely 
blue colour, and lasting, as they do, loug after being cut, are excel, 
lent for house decoration. S. profusa Ilattrayaua is said to bo a 
more than usually free-flowering variety of profusa, but its excel- 
lence iu this respect ia perhaps only due to culture. It is, however, 
perhaps best to procure this variety, which is a greenhouse plant 
very suitable for furnishing purposes. Peat, loam, and sand in equal 
quantities make the best compost for it, and it requires a drytem. 
perature at all times of the year ; damp causes mildew, which is its 
worst enemy. It is diflicult to strike by means of cuttinga, 
which must not bo subjected to a strong heat, but mnst be given 
time under a bell-glass. I have seen an unusually pretty effect pro. 
duced by the free use of this plant amongst a houseful of variously 
coloured Geraniums of the zonal type. — W. 



NOTES AND QUESTIONS ON THE INDOOR GARDEN. 

Danhueiudica odorata.— This swootly fragrant plant succeeds best in an 
intormoiliiito houso. Pot it iu peat, loam, anit sand iu moilorato-sizoil pots, or 
plant it out in tbo bod noir tho light, aud allow the plants to Rrow as they wUl. 
Oat the flowers whou JiiUy expanded, without taking too muoh wood troai tho 
plants, aud put them iu a glass by thomsolvos when wanted lor room decora- 
tion. — S. J. 

A 'Well-ffrown Heliotrope.— I have bore growing in the consorvatory a 
remarkably line specimen of this plant, which is 13 feet high aud 6 inches 
round tho stem, aud covered with flowers, its branches at the top spreading 1 j 
feet on a trellis. I do not kuow its name, but it was planted twenty-eight years 
ago and is ouo of tUo same sort as that in tho conservatory ot tho Botauio 
Gardens, Regent's Park.— F. B. 

Adiantum Farleyense.— Under tavouraWo circumstances, tho spores ot 
this germinate freely; but, being originally a sport from A. scutum, the 
seedling plants, though bearing a strong resemblance to A. Farleyenso m a 
young state, invariably revert to tho original form,— W. Cox, MadreffieM Court. 

In reply to your correspondent (p. 61) respecting Adiantura lai'ley- 

euso, it is no uncommon thing to get up a stock of seedlings, but probably 
uono will bo of tho same character as tho parent. I have a largo quantity 
from seed under the stago on which A. Farleyenso is growing, but nono 
so woU fringed as tho true sort. Adiantnm scutum was raised by Mr. a. 
Voitch from A. Farleyenso, but he had none come true from seed. — J. Uablahd, 
Killerloii, li.r,lii: 

Princess KoyalRhododendrou.— This flue variety ot greenhouse Rhodo- 
dendron has tho unusual habit of flowering nearly all tho year round, wo 
have seen the same plant in flower in spring, summer, autuuin. and mntor— 
one truss boing fully expanded when another was in bud, a third just forinmg, 
and 80 on, Iu colom- the flowers are a rich rose, and altogether a good plant or 
it is a gay object in a conservatory, in which it deserves a permanent corner. 
Peat and silver sand form tho best compost for it, and it should not be shitted 
too frequently.— W. 



92 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 3l, 1875. 



PLANT-COLOUES. 
A i!AT of light is found, on ordinary analysis, to be capable of 
producing all the colours of the rainbow. A more careful 
analysis, however, serves to show that it consists of three 
colours only. For this reason colours have been divided into 
two kinds — primary and secondary. The primary colours are 
red, yellow, and blue. They are, however, seldom or never 
found neutral, red being usually tinted with blue or yellow, 
yellow with red or blue, and blue with red or yellow. The 
secondary colours are formed by the blended rays of the 
primaries, the blue and yellow rays forming green, the red and 
yellow forming orange, and the blue and red forming violet. 
When coarse blue and yellow powders are intimately mixed, 
they assume the appearance of green ; but, with a powerful 
magnifier, the blue and yellow granules may be detected, each 
reflecting separately and independently its own ray. The 
colours of plants are granules enclosed in cells, which are 
about l-600th of an inch in diameter. The beauty of the 
colours is greatly added to by air and water. The beautiful 
satm appearance of flower petals is produced by a layer of cells 
containing air, occupying a position immediately below the 
surface, as in Pelargonium. The crystal appearance of others 
is produced by the superficial diffusion of cells containing 
water, as in Azalea splendens. The following table of colour 
will be readily understood : 

Primary EED Neutral. 

( Ohange-eed . . -) 

Secondary . . . j Okange ....!■ Shades of Orange. 

(- Orange-yellow . ) 

rrimary YELLOW .... Neutral. 

r Yellow-gkeen . -^ 

Secondary . . . j Green ....[■ Shades of Green. 

t Bluish-green. . J 

Primary BLUE Neutral. 

C ViOLET-DLUE . . -) 

Secondary . . . j Violet ....[■ Shades of Violet, 
t ViOLET-KED. . . -' 

White, in the abstract, is the negation of colour, but in 
plants it is a pale tint ; black is the density of violet. Brown is 
an effect produced by the partial opacity of the cells in which 
the colours are contained. This table, however, contains only 
a select few of the almost numberless colours that are to be 
found, and which are produced by the ever- varied groupings of 
the colour cells ; and all these are capable of still further multi- 
plicity, since every colour so formed may be diluted from its 
deepest hue to the palest tint the eye can recognise. It is 
scarcely possible to study this beautiful branch of botany 
without being reminded of the allusion made in scripture to 
the Lilies of the field. The Lilium chalcedonicum is the plant 
supposed to be alluded to as having outshone Solomon in all 
his glory. But it matters not whether the Lilium chalce- 
donicum or some inferior plant be selected for examination, the 
same exquisite finish is found in the same perfection in each 
microscopic cell ; and the microscope has fully shown that the 
richest silks of the present day, and fabrics of the finest 
texture, are excelled in beauty by the tissues of the humblest 
flower. The colours of leaves and barks arise from the same 
cause as those which are produced in the petals of flowers ; 
and, with the assistance of the table of colours, every hue may 
be accounted for, including all the variations of the autumnal 
foliage, from the almost colourless tissues of the embryo to the 
russet-brown of the dying leaf. There exists in every plant a 
yellow colouring matter called xanthophyl (leaf-yellow). It is 
found in the plant during the whole of its life, as may be seen 
in silver-margined leaves, the striated leaves of Indian Corn, 
and variegated leaves ; it is found in the plant after it is dead, 
as may be seen in straw, &c., and is not destroyed by fumes of 
sulphur, as the blue and red colours are. The blue colouring 
matter is called cyanophyl (leaf-blue), and the red colouring 
matter rhodopbyl (leaf - red). These three colours arc 
always present in varying proportions, as may be seen by 
exposing the red stems of Fuchsia to the fumes of sulphur, 
when the red will bo destroyed, and the blue and yellow 
will appear blended in green ; or a purple Primrose, when 
the blue and red will be destroyed, and yellow will appear. 

There are also tertiary colours, in which the three colours 
are distinguishable, namely, orange-violet, violet-green, and 
orange-green ; and it is computed that there are 990 dis- 



tinguishable shades of colour in the vegetable kingdom. These 

are contributed as follows : 

Bed 1 

Yellow 1 

Blue 1 

Shades of orange 82 

Shades of green 82 

Shades of violet 82 

Shades of orange-violet . . . .82 
Shades of violet-green . . . .82 
Shades of orange-green . . . .82 
Shades of brown 495 

Total . . . .090 
Yellow is the natural colour of the plant, the blue and the red 
colours are acquired. The blue colouring matter is developed 
by a deposit of carbon. The red colouring matter is developed 
by the oxidation of the blue. When the plant is first developed 
it is of a pale yellow-green, the blue colour of which is produced 
by the deposit of carbon from the sugar of the sap. As 
soon, however, as its system is sufficiently developed to 
absorb carbonic acid from the atmosphere, the plant becomes a 
bluer green. Shortly before the autumn the leaf ceases to 
exhale oxygen, without ceasing to absorb it (Macaire). Now, 
when a leaf ceases to exhale oxygen, it also ceases to absorb 
carbonic acid, for the oxygen given off is always in proportion 
to the carbonic acid absorbed (De Candolle). Hence this may 
be regarded as the commencement of decay ; the blue colouring 
matter becomes gradually oxidised. The slow oxidation destroys 
the blue without being sufficiently rapid to redden it, and as the 
blue decreases in quantity, the yellow colour increases in 
power, and the leaf becomes yellow (yellow-green), the blue 
colouring matter left, and the partial decay of the cells, giving 
that sickly hue so prevalent in the yellow leaf. In some 
plants at this stage, the leaf falls to the ground, yellow. 
In others, the oxidation is continued to the red stage. The 
yellow colouring matter is not destroyed. If the red leaf 
is exposed to the fumes of sulphur, the red colour will 
disappear, and the yellow colour will be again seen. If a 
rich brown leaf be placed between the eye and a candle, and a 
powerful magnifier be placed between the candle and the leaf, 
so as to throw the concentrated rays of light on one spot 
of the leaf, the spot upon which the light falls will become 
a brilliant violet-red. A yellow-brown leaf, treated in a similar 
way, will give the yellow-green rays, but less brilliant. This 
sufficiently proves that brown is an effect produced by the 
partial opacity of the cells. Adoxa. 



CHBREIES. 

Under the tree the farmer said, 

Smiling and shaking his wise old head, 

" Cherries are ripe ; but then, you know, 

There's the Grass to cut and the Corn to hoe ; 

We can gather the Chen-ies any day, 

But when the sun shines we must make our hay; 

To-night, when the chores have all been done. 

We'll muster the boys for fruit and fun." 

Up in the tree a robin said. 

Perking and cocking his saucy head, 

" Cherries are ripe ! and so, to-day, 

We'll gather them while you make the hay : 

For we are the boys with no Corn to hoe, 

No cows to milk and no Grass to mow." 

At night the farmer said, " Hero's a trick ! 

These roguish robins have had their pick." 

— St. Nicholas. 



Lacquer Work. — According to native Japanese chroniclers, the art of 
lacciuering was discovered in the year 724 A. i). "By the end of the thirteenth 
century it had attained such perfection that a distinguished member 
of the craft is recorded to have then started a particular school of painting 
in lacquer. The material used in the work consists of the sap of the 
Uurushi tree, a plant cultivated partly for its sap and partly 
for the fruit, from which a vegetable wax is obtained. These trees 
attain their prime of life in the short space of five or six years, when the 
sap is drawn from them by an elaborate process requiring great judgment 
and experience, and in which tho inhabitants of a particular district 
are celebrated for possessing a special skill. After tho sap has been fully 
extracted during the four or five autumnal months, the tree is condemned 
and cut down. But its usefulness does not even then cease, for its wood 
is so light, and at the same time durable, as to be used very generally for 
making floats for fishing nets, and for many other purposes. Can any 
reader say what is the name of the tree in question ? 



July 31, 1875.] 



THE GAEDBN. 



93 



THE FR UIT GARDEN. 

GATHERING APPLES. 
An American fruit-grower has invented an ingenious method of gather, 
ing Applea, by shaking the tree, and thus avoiding the long and tiresome 
process of hand-picking. His invention consists of a piece of cloth or 
canvas as large as the top of the tree for which it ia to be used, having 
in the middle a hole large enough to enclose the trunk ; a slit is then 
made from the hole to the edge of the cloth, and the sides hemmed, 
and a row of eyelet-holes made. When the trunk of the tree is 
enclosed in the hole, the slit is laced up. At each corner of the cloth 
smaller holes are made, and through three of these stakes are 
inserted, which are firmly driven into the ground. The fourth corner 




An App'e Gatherer. 

is attached to a barrel or basket ; this barrel being lower than the 
stakes, the Apples drop into it by their own weight. As a fixture, 
when the fruit approaches maturity, windfalls will also escape injury. 



DYING OFF OF THE YOUNG WOOD OF PEACHES 

AND NECTARINES. 
Every spring, just as their fruit should be setting, my Peaches and 
Nectarines lose all their last summer's shoots, which die off. I have 
studied De Breuil in vain as regards this failure. This year I shaded 
with tiffany, but to no purpose. The leaves bladder np, and then 
the shoots die. I thought it must be the climate ; but the other day 
I was in a garden at Bath which has a similar south-east aspect, lying, 
too, in a dip like my own, and at much the same elevation above the 
sea. The Plums, Peaches, and Nectarines on the walls looked most 
thoroughly healthy, with not a bladdered or wrinkled leaf to be seen. 
I asked the gardener whether he had shaded his trees last spring ? 
He said, " No." I enquired whether he had washed or syringed them 
with anything ? He again answered, " No." I said, what do you do 
to keep them so fresh and hearty? He said, "Nothing." When I 
planted my trees about eleven years ago, I removed the existing soil, 
and planted according to the directions of Mr. Rivers, of Sawbridge- 
worth, from whom I cot them. The cause of their doing badly is not 
root.diaturbance, for they grow in a border which is not disturbed. 
The footpath is just outside it. If you can suggest the cause and 
its cure, you will great oblige. J. L. H. Southcomb. 

Rose Ash Rectory, SoiUhmolton, Devon. 

[Without seeing the trees it is diflBcult to say what is the cause of 
the shoots dying back. Most likely the soil is at fault ; perhaps it is 
wet or undrained ; but it must be very wet to produce such effects. 
More likely it is unsuitable, and, perhaps, over-manured, and the 
wood does not ripen. A south-east aspect is not good for Peaches, 



because, after a spring frost, the sun shines on the foliage, and the 
sudden change from frost to hot sunshine is most de3tractive. I am 
convinced that shading is often used so as to do much more mischief 
than good. If tender trees were covered in winter injury would be 
often prevented and the trees would bloom later and perhaps escape 
spring frosts, and no one can doubt that coverings may be useful on 
frosty nights ; but, where trees are thus protected, they are often 
covered for many hours during daylight, and the foliage and 
blooms are rendered so tender that they are injured by every change 
of temperature. The trees in question, if treated in this manner, 
and then exposed to a cold east wind, would be sure to suffer ; whilst, 
on a south-west aspect, they might escape. Tarf from a good sandy 
loam without any manure, except a few half-inch bones, is the best 
soil for Peaches. The collar of the tree should be rather above the 
soil than buried below the surface. After planting, avoid digging the 
border, as solid soil produces more fruit-bearing wood, and over-luxu- 
riant growth is, in a measure, prevented. — J. Pearsom.] 



BLACKHEARTBDNESS IN ST. MICHAEL PINES. 
Mr. Thomson (see p. 62) adheres to his statement respecting St 
Michael Pines cutting up black. I shall feel obliged to Mr. W. 
Thomson it he will state where, and on what authority, he gets his 
information as regards their being put in water. I have had soma 
hundreds, and not a single one has ever been in water from the time 
they were packed for shipment to London. I have also cat open 
many, and sold an immense number, and, with one exception, they 
have all cut perfect in colour and flavour ; in fact, so much so is this the 
case, that the general public prefer them to Pines of English growth. 
As regards the prices, Mr. Thomson must be well aware that, when a 
market is over-stocked, the only way to force a trade is by selling 
the goods at whatever price they will fetch ; and, as he is a grower 
and salesman, he must be also aware that people do not eat Pines as 
they would an Apple or Pear, and that when the market is full and a 
fresh cargo arrives, as they do every day, consisting of from 600 to 
1,000 Pines, they must be sold at once ; they do not, like port wine, 
improve by keeping. I can assure Mr. Thomson that I have cut St. 
Michael Pines that have been completely covered with green mould, 
and yet they have been perfect in colour inside. Amongst a cargo of 
fruit there are sure to be a few that go specked and unsound, and 
those are the fruit which he has seen quoted at 23. each. 

Centre Kow, Covent Garden. Alfred Garcia. 



Is it really a fact that St. Michael Pines are imported with their 
stems in water ? It so, their flavour would doubtless get dete- 
riorated, but, in the case of the finest fruit, the usual practice, I 
believe, is to place the cut stem in a pot of moist soil or Moss. In 
this way blackheartedness never occurs in samples of the best fruit 
imported for the London markets ; indeed, fruiterers have repeatedly 
told me that they preferred imported fruits lo that of home-growth 
during winter, because it always proved sound. Mr. Taylor, one of 
the most experienced fruiterers in Covent Garden, speaks con. 
fidently as to the soundness and excellent quality of St. 
Michael Pines, and asserts, that out of thousands of them 
sold by him he only knows of a solitary instance in which 
blackheartedness occured. All the finest fruits — and of these 
only am I now speaking — are packed singly in separate cases to 
protect them from bruises and other external injuries. These 
consist, for the most part, of Smooth Cayennes, a variety largely 
grown here at home, and one which does not get black at the core 
so readily as the Montserrat or Black Jamaica. There are tons of 
common, and, in many cases, black-hearted, West Indian Pines now 
in the London market, selling at prices vai-ying from a shilling to 
three shillings each, for preserving purposes ; but these cannot 
be compared with the best Smooth Cayennes from St. Michael, which 
are sold at so many shillings per pound, just like the same fruit of 
home growth, to which they are indeed often preferred. 

F. W. Burbidge. 



HOW TO PROLONG THE SEASON OF CUTTING 

MELONS FROM THE SAME PLANTS. 
When the Melon is grown in houses, and trained to wires like 
Vines, planting thickly, and treating them as follows, will be found 
to have several advantages. Fewer fruit are produced on a plant, 
but the fruit will be better in all respects. We grow them in a 
span-roofed house 25 feet long by 13 feet wide, with a passage down 
the centre, and a bed on either side, 3 feet 6 inches wide, about 14 
inches deep, with a 3-inch flow and return pipe for bottom-heat, and 
six 4-inch pipes for top-heat. Although this amount of piping gives 
plenty of heat, we use tor the earliest planting a quantity of sweet 
hot-bed material, previously prepared, put in the bottom of the bed, 



94 



THE GAEDBN. 



[July 31, 1875. 



whioli raises the plants nearer to the glass, and also afiords noarish- 
ment to them. This is put in about ten days before planting, in the 
form of a small ridge along the front to plant in, and sufficient to 
cover lightly the remainder of the bed. When the plants are ready, 
plant them not wider than 14 inches apart. Put a stake to each 
plant as the work proceeds, to support them to the first wire. 
When every other plant has got half-way up the house, or 
half the distance it is intended to train them, let this set 
be stopped, which will be the means of inducing them to throw 
out fruit-producing laterals. The fruit on these should be fer. 
tilised as they appear. Setting is a very easy matter when Melons 
are grown in light airy houses ; we find that they set at all times of 
the day, and we continue to syringe them when in bloom, if the sun 
is bright. Where we stop these plants is about 4 feet from the bottom 
wire, and we generally take three fruit from each plant. The laterals 
are all taken oft this set of plants up as far as the others extend, 
but not stopping them until they get to the second wire from 
the top, being careful not to injure any of the leaves on the main 
stem. We find that we can cut fruit sooner this way, can get a more 
regular crop all over the house, and, we sometimes think, better 
fruit. We have at present (April 10th) fruit as large as hen's eggs, 
on those that are stopped half way up the root ; while on those left 
to go to the top unstopped, none of the fruit is set, and will not be 
for several days. Melons are always associated with heavy loam. 
Here we cannot have such without going twelve miles tor it, so that it 
is very little we can get. The natural soil is light and sandy ; but 
by adding large quantities of deer and cow manure, we find it grows 
Melons well. In choosing a male bloom, let it be as large as 
possible and well expanded, when, if all other things are right, it will 
have a large amount of pollen, and be better in every way than a 
small one. In cutting out the laterals, let it be done with a sharp 
knife, sn as not to injure the main stem in any way, as they are apt 
to canker sometimes when bruised. — " The Gardener." 



Summer Pruning Nut Trees. — I have some Kentish Cobnut 
trees which are of some years standing, and which have been trained 
Tulip fashion. Having been neglected, they have grown very lanky ; 
and, in the winter, I cut them down to within 3 feet of the ground. 
They have since shot out freely in all directions, and I now want to 
know how totreat them.— jN0.L.D.,!7,cbrid(7e. [Carefully cutout, quite 
closely, ail shoots thicker than a quill pen, particularly avoiding 
injury to the lower leaves on the shoots which are left on, and pinch 
in the latter to about a foot;long. Moreover, remove all suckers and 
shoots that spring from near the base or centre of the tree. — W. B.] 

Destroying Gooseberry Caterpillars. — I have adopted the 
following method of getting rid of this pest for twenty years, and 
never knew it to fail. To half-a-pound of white hellebore powder 
add about 12 quarts of water, and mix them well. Take the syringe, 
with the jet end on, draw it full of the water and powder mixed, and 
force it out into the bottom of the can, making the water and powder 
boil up, as it were ; again draw the syringe full, whilst tho liquid is 
in motion, and with your finger on the end of the jet, thoroughly 
damp over every part of the tree affected. If the pest has made 
headway, a second application is sometimes necessary. It is best to 
apply the mixture on a quiet, still night. About a week after, damp 
all the trees with clean water, should the weather be dry. Let them 
remain tor half an hour or so, to loosen the powder on the leaves and 
fruit and then give them a brisk syringing, which will leavo them 
quite free from both caterpillars and powder.— James SMixn, Water. 
dale, St. Helens. — -— -^-— ^— — == 

NOTES AND QUESTIO NS ON THE FRUIT GARDEN. 

fjirlv Orleans Plum.— Mr. fiilbert stutes (see p. 6) that this Pluni is a 
Poedlfng^afsed by my father. Does he mean the Early Prolific ? The Early 
Orleans is not a seedling raised here.— J. Feamcis Rivebs, Sawbndgewarth. . 

Fruit Trees by Koadsides.-The French and Belgian people protest against 
the action ot-the^ local authorities, who are plantiDg timber trees upon the 
roadsides, desiring that fruit trees be planted inetead, as is done with bo much 
profit in Germany and Switzerland. 

Hovev's Seedling Strawherrv.-At a great American show of Strawberries 
held on the 2nd of this month, Hovey's Seedling, a variety some forty years 
before the public, carried off the first prize, although 116 diFlies were shown, 
including most of the new kinds introduced since that date.— H. O. M. 

Tpachins Fruit Culture.— In Italy, schools of instruction for the cultivation 
of fruit treel, but espeoiallv of Apples, have been established by the Government. 
It hail been ordered that the soldiers shall attend courses of lectures on these 
and like subjects for at least two years before their discharge. 
■ Underbill's Sir Harry Strawberry .-Mr. Charles Turner, of Slough, whose 
knowledge of Strawberries is extensive, informs me that the stock m the 
nossesBion of MesBrs. Steel, of Richmond, to which I recently drew atten- 
tion is not Sir Harry, hut a remarkably fine " strain" of Sir Joseph Paxton. 
Mr Turner adds that the old Sir Harry Strawberry has entirely died out. Su- 
Joseph Paxton he considers a grand variety, which in tho bands of Messrs. 
Steel attains perfection.— A, Deah, Bedfcmt. 



THE AMATEUR'S GARDEN. 

By THOMAS BAINES. 
Roses. — The method of growing Roses budded on Briars and 
Manetti stocks is so general that few amateurs ever think of 
attempting to cultivate them on their own roots ; yet there is no 
question that, for general decorative purposes, they are much better 
and more effective that when budded either as standards or dwarfs. 
We often hear it said that it budded low, so that in planting the 
point of union with the stock can be placed a little below the surface 
of the soil, the Rose will throw out roots, and ultimately become 
thoroughly established on its own bottom ; yet considerable annoyance 
is thus caused by the stock continually throwing up suckers, which, 
even if removed as soon as they appear above ground, are a constant 
source of weakness, inasmuch as they steal the strength which should go 
to support the head of the plant. On the other hand, if it was from 
the first on its own roots, every shoot thrown up from the base 
would be a decided gain. It is possible that for the production of 
flowers for exhibition the budding system may be best ; but, for one 
who grows Roses for exhibition a hundred grow them tor the 
pleasure they derive in cultivating and possessing them. On light 
soils, not well adapted to Rose growing, many varieties will do well 
on their own roots, where it is next to impossible to get any to grow 
at all on the stocks ordinarily used. Roses are anything but difii. 
cult to strike, provided the operation is carried out at the right 
season. There is no better time than the present, after the principal 
blooming is over and the wood has had sufiicient time to get to a 
half-ripened state, which it is necessary it should, to ensure 
success by the method under consideration. After flowering the 
shoots throw out a second growth from the eyes immediately below 
where the blooms were produced, but these are at present too soft 
tor the purpose required ; it is from the lower portion of the shoots, 
where the wood is firmer and further matured, but not too 
hard, that the cuttings should be made ; unless, in the case 
of varieties that are very short-jointed, two joints are enough 
tor each cutting. In preparing them cut clean just below a joint, 
leaving the eye at the joint above with its leaf attached to form 
the plant. Use 6.inch pots, sufliciently drained, and filled to 
within an inch-and-a-half of the rim with sifted loam, to 
which has been added a little well-rotted leaf-soil, and enough sand 
to keep the whole from becoming too close, otherwise the roots will 
get broken when the cuttings are separated for potting singly aftei 
they are struck. Lay an inch ot clean sand on the surface of the 
pots, and put six or eight cuttings in each ; then give a good 
watering, and place them as close as they will stand in a cold frame 
facing northward in an open situation. Put 2 or 3 inches of ashes 
under the pots to exclude worms, and keep the lights closed day and 
night, ii the frame is placed with its back to the sun, as advised, 
little shade will be required, unless the weather is very bright, the 
object being to get a genial warmth by the useof sunheat. Sprinkle 
them overhead every afternoon, so as to keep the soil quite moist. 
In the course ot three weeks the cuttings will be callused at the 
base, and ready tor throwing out roots, when they should be 
plunged in a gentle hot-bed prepared to receive them. They 
will require a little air during the day, and still keep the soil 
moist. If all goes on well, they will root quickly, scarcely one 
in a dozen missing. Tho essential point is to have them well 
callused in the cold frame before submitting them to heat. 
They will push into growth as soon as they form roots ; then place 
them singly in 4-inch pots, and keep them in the frame with a gentle 
warmth, until they get established, gradually giving more air, so as to 
harden them off before winter, during which let them, if possible, be 
in a house or pit, where a night temperature ot about 40° is main- 
tained. Here they will keep slightly moving until spring, when they 
may be planted out a foot apart on a bed ot well-prepared rich soil. 
Attend to them with water through the following summer, and in the 
autumn they will make good plants for planting out where they are to 
remain. Amateurs will do well not to attempt propagating any but 
good, strong-growing varieties, that possess a vigorous constitution. 
However beautiful the individual flowers ot weak, delicate-growing 
Roses may be, for general purposes they are worthless, and, as there 
are such numbers of really good kinds, representing almost all 
colours, there is no necessity to include what are termed " miffy " 
growers. 

Sowing Cabbage, Lettuce, &c. — It is advisable to put in 
a little more Cabbage seed now ; for, should the first sown fail, this 
will take its place, although the produce will be later than the 
difference in the time of sowing would lead one to suppose. A sowing 
of hardy green Lettuce should at once be made. These will come in 
after the summer varieties are over. A little of the Tom Thumb 
variety may also be put in, as this sort is a quick grower, and will 
be fit for use through the autumn. Old Strawberry beds that are 
intended to be done away with should at once be dug over, burying the 



JuLT 31, 1875.] 



THE GARDEN. 



95 



top3 as the work progresses, and digging in some manure. Ground 
of this kind is suitable for a crop of Turnips, which will be cleared 
off, so as to admit of its being cropped with something else in the 
spring — land that has been planted with Strawberries being in the 
beat condition for the growth of any kind of vegetables. Bun 
the hoe over all vacant ground, such as may exist among bush 
fruits. It often happens that care is taken early in the season to 
keep down weeds during the time that they increase most rapidly, 
and towards autumn, when but few make their appearance, they 
are not so well looked after. This is an omission that causes much 
after labour, as a very few weeds left to seed entail a continual repe- 
tition of the work. 

Raspberries. — The old canes will now have done bearing, there- 
fore they may be cut out at once, and their removal will be of much 
benefit to the young ones for next year's fruiting. At the same 
time, any superfluous suckers that will yet, from time to time, make 
their appearance should be cut away. Do not leave more canes than 
will ultimately be required for bearing. If the young shoots are 
very large, they sometimes get broken off at the bottom by the wind 
when in an exposed situation ; where this is the case secure them 
loosely to the supports, whether wires or stakes, but do not tie 
them up so closely as to injure the leaves, or not allow sufficient 
air and light to get amongst them. 

Peaches and Nectarines. — Continue to remove such shoots 
as will not be required for next year's bearing. Lay in those 
that are to remain, but do not over-crowd — the wood and the leaves 
should have full exposure to the light. Do not cease removing the 
leaves, wholly or in part, that prevent the fruit receiving the fall 
benefit of the sun, for, by this means only can it assume the colour 
that adds so much to its appearance. If the crop has not been 
"• sufficiently thinned it will now be apparent, and even yet, although 
late, it is better to remove a portion, as what remains will naturally 
by this means, attain a larger size, and the trees be left after the crop 
is ripe in a more satisfactory state for another year. Continue the 
use of the syringe regularly. Trees, with clean healthy foliage and 
free from insects, will finish off fruit that is superior in every 
respect to those the leaves of which are in a bad condition. 

Flower Garden. — Beds of Pelargoniums should be gone over 
every week to remove the dead flowers, not allowing any to seed ; for, 
if these are allowed to remain, they interfere with the growth and 
successional flowering. The same holds good with Lobelias. Plants 
that were large and strong when put out, are very liable to become 
exhausted, and look shabby before the end of the season, if the seeds 
are not removed, in which case it spoils the effect of the subjects 
they are associated with. An application of manure-water once a 
week will assist to prolong their flowering. Daring a season, such as 
the present, when bedding plants have been so late in making a good 
display, everything possible should be done to enable them to hold 
out to the last ; for, with a favourable autumn, they may yet make 
up for their deficiency in this respect in the beginning of the summer. 
Dahlias are now growing apace, and must be well supported with 
sticks and ties — mulching the bed over with a couple of inches of 
rotten manure. As herbaceous plants die off, remove the tops of the 
early-flowering plants. Give all autumn-blooming subjects sufficient 
supports to keep them from being blown about. 

Pinks, Carnations, and Pelargoniums. — Pinks should now 
be propagated by pipings made from the youug shoots, with about 
three joints ; insert them a couple of inches apart under hand-lights, 
in well prepared sandy soil. Wireworms are most destructive to 
these plants, and the soil, previous to putting in the pipings, should 
be passed through the hand, so that if any exist they may be 
destroyed. Carnations should be increased by layering, as they 
do not succeed like Pinks from pipings, unless they are put in early in 
the season, whilst the shoots or grass, as in florist phraseology it is 
generally called, is young, and not too hard. The earliest flowered 
Pelargoniums will, by this time, have sufficiently ripened their wood to 
be fit for cutting down. This may be known by the shoots, for a con- 
siderable distance upwards from the point where they spring, bein" 
hard and brown. The necessity for having them in this condition is, 
that if the wood, where they are cut back to, is in a green state 
they do not break well, only pushing a few of the strongest eyes. 
It the plants are as large as desired, shorten the shoots to within two 
or three eyes of where they were headed down to last year ; keep 
them in a pit or frame, and do not give more water than a sprinklinc 
overhead with the syringe until they have commenced growing. 
Such as have flowered late should be placed in the open air for a 
short time to mature their growth before being cut back. 



Koses. 

Budding may now be accomplished as rapidly as possible, for the 
stocks will be found to be in good condition for the operation at the 
presenii time. Care should be taken in the selection of the buds so 



as to obtain those that are plump and firm ; if they are not promi. 
nent it will not be advisable to bud them. In such a wet season 
mildew will be found to show itself in many places after the heavy 
rains we have experienced, and this, as well as red fungus, must 
be stopped. As soon as there is a change of weather syringe all 
Roses that are mildewed with soot and sulphur water. The red 
fungus shows itself on the back of the leaf, and many varieties are 
much more subject to it than others. I have generally stopped it 
with soot and soap suds. If this is not looked to very soon the 
autumn Roses will be utterly ruined, for the buds get destroyed 
and never afterwards open. The late storms have cleared away 
all aphis, but have greatly damaged the summer flowers of Rosea, and 
by looking well after the perpetual flowering varieties, by keepino- 
them clean and encouraging the autumn growth, we may have a fine 
display this autumn to repay na for the loss of our summer flowers. 
Roses have not been so fine out of doors in many localities where the 
ground is cold and constantly wet, but on gravelly and well-drained 
land they will be found to be much finer than usual, as a wet season 
suits them best. — H. G. 

The Flower Garden and Pleasure Ground. 

As soon as the flowering of deciduous shrubs, such as Spirseas, 
Deutzias, Lilacs, and Guelder Roses, is over, they should be cut in, 
and this should be done at once, in order to give sufficient time for 
the ripening of the young shoots, which will be developed as soon as 
this operation has been performed. If plants of this description are 
allowed to extend themselves without restriction, they will soon 
assume a very straggling habit and appearauce, and will also over, 
hang, and throw an injurious shade upon evergreens and other choice 
and delicate species which may be growing near them. Where 
shruberries are composed of various species of evergreen and decid. 
nous plants — and this is generally the case — the beauty of such 
plantations depends, in a great measure, upon the variety of leaface 
presented, and upon the duration of their flowering season. Great 
care is necessary in arranging or associating evergreen and deciduous 
species so as to avoid the appearance of blanks during winter, when 
deciduous plants will, of course, be bare of leaves. Each plant, too, 
whether evergreen or deciduous, should be a specimen of its 
species, and should not by any means have its outline broken, or 
be in any way interfered with by surrounding plants. Where, 
however, shrubs of one kind are planted in clumps, the case 
is different ; and very slight interference will, in their case, 
be necessary. In commencing to propagate bedding plants for 
next season, the varieties which are known to be the most difficult to 
increase, or of which the cuttings require the longest time to root, 
should be taken in hand first. Amongst these are the different 
kinds of variegated Pelargoniums, and these, on account of the wet 
weather we have recently experienced, will generally be found in a 
sufficiently advanced state to furnish an abundance of cuttino-s. 
More particularly will this be the case if a few plants of each sort 
were planted out in the reserve garden, for the express purpose of 
furnishing cuttings, and of obviating the necessity of having 
recourse to the flower beds for this purpose. When the cuttings of 
these plants have been properly prepared, they should be placed in 
4-inch pots filled with light turfy soil, to which silver sand and 
finely-sifted leaf-soil should be added. Four cuttings should be 
placed in each pot close to its sides, in holes made with the fino-er 
or a small stick. Into each hole a small quantity of silver 
sand should be poured, and on this the cutting should be placed, 
the soil being pressed firmly to it. When this has been done, 
place the pots on cinder ashes in the open air and fully exposed 
to the sun, and water freely with a fine-rosed watering-pot when 
required. Another plan, by which cuttings will strike root with 
equal facility, is to prick them into a border of light soil, using a 
little sand, on which to set the end of the cuttings, the same as is done 
when pots are used. If this can be attended to now the cuttings 
will be well rooted by the middle or end of September, and quite 
ready to be potted into 4-inch pots, in which they should be kept 
during the ensuing winter. All the stronger-growing green-leaved 
kinds may, of course, be increased in a similar manner ; larger pots, 
however, should be used for the purpose, and less care will, in their 
case, be necessary. Cuttings of the various other kinds of bedding 
plants, such as Verbenas, Petunias, Fuchsias, Lobelias, Ageratums, 
Ireaines, Coleuses, Alternantheras, &c., may all be inserted, as soon 
aa possible, in 6 or 8-inch pots, well drained, and filled to within 
2 or 3 inches of the rim with light soil, the remaining portion of 
the pots being filled up with a mixture of silver sand and finely-sifted 
leaf soil, in which the cuttings are to be inserted. It very frequently 
happens that Verbenas and Iresines are much infested by aphis ; and, 
when this is found to be the case, the cuttings must be freed from 
them before they are inserted, as this will be difficult to accomplish 
after. Wherever there are signs of insects upon the cuttings, let them 



96 



THE GAEDEN. 



[July 31, 1875. 



be dipped in tolerably strong tobacco-water, and allowed to lie in a wet 
Btate for half an hour or more before they are inserted in the store 
pots. After the cuttings are in their pota, they should be well 
watered with a fine-rosed watering-pot, to settle the soil about them ; 
and the pots should then be placed upon ashes in a frame, which 
should be kept quite close, and shaded slightly during intense san- 
shine. The cuttings should be well sprinkled every evening, and in 
about a fortnight they will have taken root, when they should be 
placed in the open air, there to remain until there are indications of 
frost, when they must, of course, be placed in their winter quarters. 
This exposure to the open air for several weeks has a most beneficial 
effect upon the health of the cuttings, giving them an amount of 
■vigour and hardiness which enables them to stand the cold of the 
approaching winter. As regards the cuttings of the more tender 
species of bedding plants, such as the Alternantheras and Coleuses, 
they must not be allowed to remain too long in the open air, as a 
very slight degree of frost will prove fatal to them ; and it will also 
be necessary to winter such plants in a temperature much higher 
than that required for Pelargoniams or Verbenas. — P. Grieve, Cul- 
ford, Bury St. Edmunds. 

Indoor Truit Department. 

Vines. — Young Vines may still be planted at the present time, 
and may be expected to make more progress in their permanent 
quarters than if kept in pots until next spring. If the leading shoot 
has been stopped, as most of them have by this time, all the side 
shoots that appear likely to grow should be allowed to do so. The 
chief advantage in planting so late in the season is, that the roots 
establish themselves in the fresh soil, and they grow away much 
more freely when started the following season than when newly 
planted at that time. Shoots, which were permitted to grow on 
Vines after the fruit was cut should now be cut back to the point 
whence they started, so that the air may circulate freely, and 
ripen the main wood. Where it is seen that late Grapes are likely 
to be over-crowded, the smallest of the berries should be thinned out 
of each bunch, taking them out of the centre, where the berries are 
most liable to damp. The largest shoulders on Alicante bunches may 
be tied up with a piece of matting, but should not be taken up any 
further than is sufficient to leave the berries clear of each other. 
Syrian and White Nice often produce large shoulders, which should 
be tied up in a similar manner. Where the symmetry of a bunch is 
spoiled by a shoulder, as many are, take it off altogether. Early pot 
Vines do not need much water now ; and any that are still under 
shade of any kind must be removed at once to the most exposed 
place available. Growing under shade may answer to a certain 
extent, but Grapes must never be ripened under shade. Late Vines 
in pots are still growing freely, and should be given an abundance 
of well-diluted manure-water three times a week. 

Pines. — Plants intended to yield a supply in November and 
later, should be showing fruit now, and the bottom-heat applied to 
these should be kept at 85°. If the plants have been kept somewhat 
dry previously, give the roots a thorough watering as soon as the 
fruit is seen. Black Jamaica is one of the best late varieties. Its 
fruit is finely flavoured in winter, and at all other times. It swells, 
colours, and ripens perfectly, without sunshine ; but the compara- 
tively small size of its fruit is not in its favour, and is, perhaps, the 
reason why it is not more extensively cultivated. Keep the earliest- 
potted Queens, successional Smooth Cayennes, and other varieties, well 
supplied with water, and use a little guano on alternate days. The 
surface of the plunging material of all kinds of Pines should be kept 
moist on hot days. Succession plants should also be allowed abund- 
ance of atmospheric moisture whenever the weather is warm and 
bright, and if sun heat is skilfully economised there will be little use 
for fire heat, except during dull weather. — J. Muin. 

Hardy Fruit. 
Fruit trees of all kinds have this seji,son made free growth, and 
the great difficulty will now be to get such growth fully ripened, 
more especially if the weather continues much longer cold, wet, and 
sunless. As previously directed, let all superfluous wood be removed, 
that every branch and bud may be exposed to the action of light and 
air, and this will, in some measure, make up for the loss of sunshine. 
Apricots being apt to ripen on one side only, unless fully exposed, 
should have the foliage drawn aside or removed altogether; this 
latter practice is not, however, to be recommended, and should only 
be resorted to when the fruit cannot be otherwise exposed. Wasps are 
appearing in some localities in large numbers, and due vigilance must 
be exercised to keep them off the fruit, the Apricot being invariably 
that first attacked. The best and, I believe, the only remedy, is to seek 
out their nests and destroy them. Squirrels and blackbirds are also 
partial to Apricots, and are sure to take the best fruit ; shooting — ■ 
our remedy — ia far too good for such dastardly conduct. The 



excessive rains which we have had are causing the fruit to crack. 
Plums and Pears here are also cracked, an evil for which there is 
virtually no remedy, except a change to hot and dry weather. 
Occasionally examine the protecting material on Currants and 
Gooseberries, which sometimes get destroyed by mice. Should fine 
weather set in temporarily remove such coverings, and allow the 
fruit to get thoroughly dry, as the immense rainfall (5i inches here 
this month) must have injured fruit greatly. These remarks, of 
course, only apply to fruit that is intended to be kept for some time ; 
all other bush fruits should be gathered as weather permits. — W. 
WlLDSMlTH, Heckjield. 



FLOWER VASE FOR A MANTEL-PIECE. 
Herewith I send you a sectional sketch of a vase which I found 
in a village shop in Kent, and of which, being near the sea, I bought 
a couple to use as aquaria for minute 
marine objects. They answered this 
purpose exceedingly well ; and, upon 
suDsequently trying their capabilities 
as receptacles for flowers, I found them 
equally useful in that way, so much so 
that I secured a second pair ; and X 
can assure you that four of them on a 
mantel-piece, with amirror behind them, 
form a very pretty decoration. At the 
present moment they contain wild 
flowers only, such as Saintfoin, Chicory, 
Yarrow, small Poppies, yellow Trefoil, 
Mallow, yellow and white Galiums, 
Oats, Canary, and other Grasses, while, 
for foliage, a small-leaved Umbellifer 
answers most effectively. The vases 
are 8 inches high, 3 inches in diameter 
at the foot, and scarcely 2 inches across 
the top. They would also prove very 
useful round the centre decoration of 
a dinner-table, or placed near the four 
corners. Flowers, I need scarcely say, 
are beautiful and interesting under all 
circumstances ; but in our rooms they 
may be said to acquire additional value, 
and any simple and inexpensive vase in 
which they can be shown oft' to advan- 
tage, such as that I have just described, 
cannot fail, I think, to be appreciated. W. T. P. 




JAPANESE GARDEN PLANTS. 
There is no country so rich iu desirable plants whicli are 
suited to our climate as Japan — witness, the vast nutuber o£ 
shrubs and flowers which are distinguished as japonica — and 
there is none where artificial gardening is carried universally 
to such lengths. The beautiful Lilium auratum is grown as a 
vegetable in Japan, the bulbs being eaten as we eat the Jeru- 
salem Artichoke ; the varieties of Lilies which flourish in the 
country are endless. The Chrysanthemum is the national 
flower ; it grows to a gigantic size, and is pickled in country 
houses. A conventional representation of it is the crest of 
the Mikado, and the flower and stalk both appear on their new 
coinage, where it divides the honour with the Paulownia 
iraperialis, or Kiri, which, on acoount of the distinctness of 
its annual rings, was formerly used for measuring periods, 
being planted at the birth of a prince and cut down at his 
death, when the number of rings gave the years of his age. 
Its wood is distinguished by its extreme dryness, a valuable 
property in a climate that is damp for a great part of the 
year, and it is therefore used for sword-scabbards and boxes 
for the preservation of articles liable to rust. The Sakura or 
double-tloworing Cherry (Prunus pseudo-cerasus) is cultivated 
everywhere for the beauty of its flowers. The fruit-bearing 
Cherry is almost unknown, and one cannot give a Japanese 
a greater treat than a dish of fine Cherries. No one who has 
examined Japanese porcelain, lacquer, stuffs, or coloured 
prints, can have failed to observe what an important part the 
(iouble-flowering Cherry (all flowers and no leaves) and the 
dying Maple foliage play in their landscapes and decorations. 
The early spring, when the country is ablaze with the blos- 
soms of the double-flowering Cherry, is a time for universal 



July 81, 1875.] 



THE GARDEN. 



97 



excursions aud pio-nics. With their portable firo-boxes, 
tobacco receptacles, spirit-cases, and pic-nic baskets, the whole 
family goes afield and makes a day of it. The Japanese are as 
earne'st after botanical novelties as ourselves. It seems strange 
to them that we think so much of a table vegetable like the 
Lilium auratum, but an accomplished Japanese in the interior 
of the country, who was taking an Englishman over his 
house and showing him priceless old china and lacquer, 
sword-blades and ivory carvings, finally exhibited as a great 
rarity an ordinary soda-water bottle (glass is uncommon in 
Japan) ; and bringing him into his garden, which was a little 
paradise of fantastically-trained trees, flowers, rockeries, and 
cascades, expected supreme admiration for a plant of curly 
Kale and a common Daisy— an ever-blooming Chrysanthemum, 
as he called it — which were languishing side by side in flower- 
pots. _^_ J. O'N. 

Gunnera soabra for the Wild Garden.— How is it that Gun- 
lera scabra is not more grown ? I am certain that anyone who sees the 
magnificent specimen at the top of the herbaceous department at 
Kew will not rest satisfied without a plant or two of it. My plants are 
only two years old, but they are growing very rapidly (aa are also 
G. nianicata, with nearly circular leaves) in round beds, composed of 
leaf mould, and shaded by tall trees, at the entrance to the wild 
garden. — Oion. 

Early blooming of Renanthera coccinea. — Those intending 
to bloom this beautiful Orchid during the early part of the year, 
must now remove it to a Vinery where the fruit is just beginning to 
ripen, and for this a Muscat-house is to be preferred, where it will 
get plenty of air and a dry heat. The crown of the plant should be 
placed close to the glass amongst the Vine leaves, and if it can be 
placed tolerably near a rib to afford a little shade from the mid. day 
sun all the better. No more water than what will prevent it from 
shrivelliDg should be given, and after October comes in give none at 
all. The plant should not be syringed overhead at any time ; a 
Vinery is the best place for it throughout the season ; place a good 
Hazel or Crab. tree stake in the pot ; tie the plant to it, and, aa the 
roots grow rapidly, regnlarly tie them to the stake, and cover 
them with Sphagnum or Cocoa-nut fibre. Under this treatment it 
has shown bloom with me in November, and, growing in a cool 
temperature, opened its blossoms at the end of April. Having pre- 
viously placed some Sphagnum round, just below the flower-spike, 
for it to root into, I cut it off below tho Sphagnum and put it into a 
pot ; the old plant sent out afresh leader, and after making 13 inches 
of growth, showed bloom again in the winter months. Its distinct 
colour, and the length of ita blooming season render it worthy of 
every consideration. — James Smith, Waterdale, St. Helens. 

The Pelargonium Society. — At the annual meeting of this 
Society, which took place on the 22nd inst., the treasurer, Mr. Denny, 
was able to report a satisfactory state of the finances, a balance of 
£20 83. 4d. remaining after paying the prizes awarded at the exhibi. 
tion on the previous day, and all the working expenses. The sum 
paid out in prizes was £40. A hope was expressed that the Society, 
now that it had become better known, might draw around it more 
abundant support, so that encouragement might be extended to other 
classes of Pelargoniums, besides the zonals, which was the class 
specially in view when the Society was originally founded. It wag 
also thought that the inducements offered by the Society might set 
hybridisers to work, and so be the means of obtaining new types of 
this useful decorative family. The chairman, treasurer, honorary 
secretary, and committee were re-elected, the latter body being 
strengthened by the addition of the names of Mr. Andrew Henderson, 
Mr. G. T. EoUisson, Mr. B. S. Williams, and Mr. J. F. West. At 
a dinner, which took place after the business of the meeting was 
over, a most interesting discussion took place as to the influence of 
the pollen in cross-breeding, and on other matters connected with the 
history and improvement of the Pelargonium. Mr. Pearson suggested 
that the Society should endeavour to find and to fix satisfactory and 
intelligible names for the different groups of Pelargoniums, instead 
of the inapplicable ones — show, fancy, tricolor, zonal, &c. — now in 
common use. In reference to the origin of the Fancy Pelargonium, 
Mr. Cooling stated his belief that the first variety of this type, which 
must have been raised forty years ago, was one called Willoughby. 
anum, and that it had been bred from the ordinary varieties of that 
period crossed with such sorts as Moore's Victory, Fair Helen, &o., 
Willoughbyanum being one of the seedlings thus produced. Mr. 
Williams urged that the objects of the Society were too restricted, and 
that other flowers should be included ; but this objection was met by 
the argument that to extend the scope of operation would require 
more funds, and would create a divided interest, whereas it was 



better for the Society to concentrate its present efforts on the flower 
which had been selected, and that other elements would be found in the 
show with which thatof this Society would always be associated— that 
of the Royal Horticultural Society for example, as was the case this year. 

The Moss Campions (Silene). — These, though coming from the 
pure air of mountains, will, as a rale, thrive perfectly in the open 
border. They will require a well-drained soil and a position fully 
exposed to the sun, with plenty of water in summer. I generally 
bury a few large flints about them when newly planted. S. alpestris 
and S. Schafta (the former with glistening white, and the latter 
with neat rose-coloured flowers) will thrive without any attention. 
We have also (doing well in open borders) S. aeaulis, a firm mossy 
plant with crimson flowers, S. Elizabetha3, a rare species from the Tyrol, 
with large rose and white flowers, S. Pumilio, very like S. aeaulis in 
general appearance, but with much larger flowers. — OxON. 

Hose Aimee Vibert. — This Koso is not so well known as it 
deserves to be, and is certainly one of the most vigorous, hardy, and 
floriferous Roses we have. Anyone possessing a wall that he is 
desirous of covering, or a place to raise a pole, should grow this 
charming Rose. One side of my house (a tolerably large one) is 
covered with its numerous pure white trusses, with from ten to 
twenty blooms in each truss. It will grow nearly everywhere. I 
took np the paving stones in front of my house for about a foot 
square, and planted it with very little preparation; notwithstanding 
this it is now one of the most lovely objects possible. The last 
winter was rather hard on it, and it had to be cut in in the spring, to 
which, in a measure, its present extraordinary blooming qualities are, 
perhaps, due. It will throw up shoots from 12 to 20 feet in a season. 
It will thus reach the tops of pillars in a season, and throw out 
scores of blooming branches the following spring.— Tuos. Williams, 
Bath Lodge, Ormskirk. 

Peas for Succession Sown at the Same Time.— On the 
13th of March I sowed three rows of Fortyfold, three rows of 
Veitch's Perfection, aud two rows of Ne Plus Ultra Peas. On the 1st 
of July I began to gather from the Fortyfold ; on the 12th from Ne 
Plus Ultra; and on the 21st from Veitch's Perfection. The two first 
aro now nearly finished, but Veitch's will last ten days or a fortnight 
longer. All of them are first. rate sorts, both as regards crop and 
quality. Fortyfold grows 6 feet, Ne Plus Ultra 7 feet, and Veitch's 
Perfection 4 feet 6 inches in height, all being higher than usual 
owing to so much rain. For staking tall Peas, I prefer the tops of 
fast grown young Oaka, as other stakes aro apt to break down under 
wind and rain. — J. GAttLAND, Killertnn, Exetir. 

Mr. Earley's High-class Kitchen, Gardening. —I think 
Mr. Hobday has been too kind to Mr. Earley's book in the last 
number of The Garden. It may be " high.class " gardening, but 
there are a good many errors, both of omission and commission in it. 
Some of these are not easily excused in a self-styled "high class" book. 
Mr. Earley says the Potato Onion is the same as the Welsh Onion 
(see p. 152) ; they are very different things, as most people know. 
One is also astonished to find that the artificial fertilising of the 
Cucumber, for which minute instructions are given, is " high class " 
practice. I have grown Cucumbers, summer and winter, for more 
than twenty years, and never had occasion to fertilise one yet, except 
for seed — the fewer seeds in Cucumbers used for salad the better. 
Different continental names of vegetables are given at^ hmgth, while 
such matters as the formation and arrangement of the kitchen garden, 
rotation of crops, &c., are omitted, or hardly noticed. The same may 
be said of insect plagues. We are cautioned about the wire-worm 
only, as being the worst enemy of the Carrot, while it is well known 
that it is the Carrot-fly grub which does the mischief generally. 
Peaa are recommended for cultivation that are not in commerce. 
"Felicitoua" and " nou.telicitous " are terms applied to soils; 
according to Walker, these mean "happy" aud "unhappy," but 
according to Mr. Earley they mean clay or loam, or light or heavy 
soil. One would not notice these matters so much were it not for the 
pretentious title of the book. The author is a good kitchen gardener, 
and ought to have done better,— A Modern Kitchen Gardener. 



Shading for a Camellia-house.— I have a Camcllia-hoase awkward m 
shape anddifflcult to shade. I should, therefore, be much obhged it some of 
your readers could give me any information respecting a kind of glass that 
would do away with the necessity of shading.— Solo. 

Geranium armenum.— This showy and handsome species has agam been 
most strikingly beautiful with mo during the last few weeks. It is to my mind 
one of the best plants which Messrs. Backhouse have yet sent out. Its bushy 
compact growth and long-continued inflorescence, consisting of great magenta- 
coloured blooms make it one of tho most vjiluablo plants that can be grown.— 
H. HiEPUE Crewe, Vravton-Beanchimp Rcclory, Tring. 

Sweet Peas Best Sown in Autumn.— The advantage of sowing Sweet Peas 
in autumn, so as to get an early bloom the following year is not known wel 
enough. I have every year vigorous hedge-like lines of Sweet Peas— splendid 
in their profusion of bloom— and this I owe to sowing late in summer, or early in 
autumn, instead of in spring. Sweet Peas are quite hardy and stand with me 
any winter, no matter how long or severe.— W. R, S . 



98 



THE GAEDEN. 



[July 31, 1875. 



OBITUARY. 



JOHN STANDISH. 
We announce witli regret the death of this able and well-known nnrsery- 
man, which took place at his residence at Ascot on Saturday last. Mr. 
Standish was born in Yorkshire on the 2oth of March, 1814, and at the 
age of twelve remored with his parents to Calne, in "Wiltshire, where his 
father held an appointment at Bowood under the Marquis of Lansdowne. 
It was there that he gained his first instruction in gardening. After his 
apprenticeship was finished, he went to Bagshot Park, where Mr. Toward 
was then gardener to the Duchess of Gloucester, and under him acted as 
foreman till he commenced business for himself as a nurseryman at 
Bagshot. Mr. Standish was an assiduous hybridiser, and one of his first 
achievements in that way was Tuchsia Standishii, a fine dark variety, the 
result of crossing F. fulgens with F. globosa. This is stated to have been 
in 1839 ; and soon after that he raised Calceolaria Standishii, one of the 
first of the prettily spotted herbaceous kinds. Many other genera of 
plants formed the subjects of Mr. Standish's experiments, and notaljly 
the Rhododendron, of which he raised many beautiful varieties. It was 
to Mr. Standish, then in partnership with Mr. Noble, that Mr. Fortune 
entrusted the raising, propagation, and distribution of his Japanese and 
Chinese plants on his second expedition to the East, and it was through 
him that some of the most familiar trees and plants of our gardens 
were first distributed. In 1862 Mr. Standish removed from Bagshot to 
Ascot, where he formed an entirely new nursery on a more extensive scale. 

John Standish was one of those men, not multitudinous, whom we 
seem to know and esteem when first we meet them. Like a Bank of 
England note, he was payable at sight. Tall and broad, in his prime, 
there was a manliness in his presence, a pleasant kindliness in big face, 
and a heartiness and geniality in his manner, which made one wish 
at once to count him as a friend. And there was always that enthu- 
siasm and liopef ulness in his words which proved him to be a true florist — ■ 
one whom no disappointments could ever dismay, and _ no amount of 
success could quite satisfy. If you criticised one of his seedlings, he 
acknowledged its faults cheerfully, because he was confident in his power 
to expel them ; and, if you praised, " Well, yes it was pretty, but it was 
nothing to that which was to follow." Successful as he was with flower 
and fruit, his Fuchsias, his Roses, his Rhododendrons, and his Grapes, the 
past and the present were with him as nothing compared with those 
visions of beauty, which his brave ambition saw. It gave one new 
courage and a bright hope to hear John Standish talk of what we 
gardeners might do, and what we gardeners ought to do,_ with all our 
modern improvements in combination with the experience of the 
past. He was liberal, open, both as to hand and heart, a "generous 
Briton" — not in public-house phraseology,_ though he was given to 
hospitality, and happily social, within the limits of becoming mirth, but 
in the true sense of the term. He did not grudge information to those 
who asked from a love of the beautiful, and not for a love of gain. He 
made no evasion or reservation to those who were gardeners at heart, as 
he'was. With his advice, with his plants, in any way he could, he would 
help beginners. When I happened to mention my intention of erecting 
a Vinery — " If you will buy your wood and glass," said he, " you shall 
have my mason and carpenter to work them, and then I'll send you some 
Vines." I most thankfully accepted the first proposal, and, thanks to him 
and his two clever artisans, who came at once from Bagshot to Caunton, 
no near distance, I have had for many years, during ten months out of 
the twelve, an abundant supply of Grapes. And still there bloomsin my 
garden, and will bloom so long as that garden is mine, the Rose which he 
imported from France, and to which, believing it to be of superior excel- 
lence, and with a fraternal kindness, which he knew would please me, he 
gave the name of Reynolds Hole. " Old Standish " (as we who liked him 
best used to call him) did not live to be old in years, but the memory of a 
true florist and a true friend will long survive him in many a pleasant 
garden, and in many a faithful heart. Samuel Reynolds Hole. 

Caunton Manor, 



from the Council of the Royal Horticultural Society to the following 
eS'ect — "1. That the society should raise its annual income from sub- 
scriptions to £10,000, an amount that would provide adequately for the 
promotion of the science and the encouragement of the practice ot horti- 
culture, and for the eflicient maintenence of the gardens. 2. Ihat the 
Commissioners should waive the imminent forfeiture of the lease tor non- 
payment of rent for a suflicient period to give the society an opportunity 
of re-establishing itself." The Commissioners accepted this proposal as 
the basis of an arrangement. 

The New Forest.— The Report of the Select Committee of the 
House of Commons appointed to enquire into _ and report on the present 
condition of aS'airs in the New Forest and into the operation of the 
Deer Removal Act, 1851, and particularly into the exercise and eflect of 
the powers of enclosure given by that Act, has been published as alar- 
liamentary paper, No. 341. The resolutions to which the Committee 
have come, and which they have agreed to report to the House of 
Commons, are as follows :-" That the New Forest shall remain open 
and unenclosed, except to the extent to which it is expedient to maintain 
the existing right of the Crown to plant trees. That the ancient orna- 
mental woSds and trees shall be carefully preserved, and the character of 
the scenery shall be maintained. The powers of enclosure conferred by 
statute shall be exercised only on that area which has hitherto been 
taken in at various times, and been either kept or thrown out under the 
Acts 9 and 10 Wilham III., c. 36, 4S George III., c. /2, and the Deer 
Removal Act, 1851. That the Crown should retain the power of keepmg 
16,000 acres of growing timber and trees planted under the Acts of 
William III. and 1851 at aU times under enclosure, and the Crown be 
entitled to enclose and throw out at will any portion of the_ area over 
which the powers of planting are to be exercised, with =^ Ji^w t° ™ 
unrestricted use in such manner as may be deemed expedient for the 
most profitable growth of timber and trees, but that the ro ling power 
over the open portion of the forest not now planted or enclosed under 
the Acts William III. or 1851 should cease." 



A Garden Contractor sent to Gaol.— Vice-Chancellor Hall 
hn.d before him the other day the case of "Allen v. Martin." The 
plaintiff is a trustee of the will of Lord Southampton, and in the latter 
end of last year he entered into a contract with the defendant Martin, 
under which the latter undertook to raise the south onclosuro of Euston 
Square, and to lay out that piece of ground as a garden. The only thing 
Martin did, however, was to raise the level of the enclosure by means of 
rubbish which he put there, the smell from which made the surrounding 
dwellings almost uninhabitable. The defendant had been warned by an 
injunction previously granted against him to do what he had undertaken 
to do by his contract ; but he did not do it, and now a motion was made to 
commit him for contempt of court, the contempt being his neglect to 
obey the injunction. Tho vice-chancellor granted an order to commit the 
defendant to gaol. 

The Future of the Eoyal Horticultural Society.— The 
Prince of Wales presided the other day, at Marlborough House, over a 
■meeting of her Ma.jesty's Commissioners for tho Exhibition of 1851. 
There were present — The Duke of Buccleuch, the Marquis of Lansdowne, 
Lord Spencer, Lord Carnavon, Lord Granville, Lord Aberdare, Sir 
Stafford Northcote, Sir Bartle Frere, Sir William Knoylles, Mr. Playfair, 
Sir William Anderson, Sir Francis Sandford, Mr. Edgar Bowring, Mr. 
John Evans, Mr. Field Gibson, General Ponsonby, General Probyn, and 
Major-General Scott, secretary. Sir Henry Thring attended the meeting 
at the request of the president. The Commissioners considered a proposal 



SmVelia marilandica.-This is abeautiful and brilliant perennial in amolst 
neS'^^OTderwfth handsome flowers, red outside, and yellow withm It is Tory 
Som