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CIRCULAR 56-A 
4M—SEPT. 1945—(E1682) 


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Ontario Department of Education 


GENERAL REGULATIONS 


Public and Separate 
Schools 

1943 


ISSUED BY AUTHORITY OF 
THE MINISTER OF EDUCATION 





ONTARIO 


PRINTED BY T. E. BOWMAN, 

PRINTER TO THE KING’S MOST EXCELLENT SUBJECTS 

1945 
























TABLE OF CONTENTS 


Accommodation.. 

Equipment.:. 

Number of Teachers and Classrooms. 

Powers and Duties of Boards. 

Superintendent of Schools. 

Powers and Duties of Teachers and Supervisors. 

Duties of Pupils. 

Arbor Day. 

School Flags, National Anthem and Empire Day. 

School Sessions: 

Day Schools. 

Night Schools. 

Form V. 

Religious Exercises and Religious and Moral Instruction in the Public Schools 


Number 

Regulation 

Page 

1 , 2 

3 

3 

13 

4 

14 

5 

14 

5 (a) 

14 

6 

14 

7 

16 

8 

17 

9 

17 

10 

17 

11 

18 

12 

18 

13 

18 





2 
















GENERAL REGULATIONS 

OF THE 

PUBLIC AND SEPARATE SCHOOLS 


ACCOMMODATIONS 


1. (1) While the following details provide the basis for the grading of the 
accommodations, the Inspector shall use his judgment in securing the necessary 
or desirable changes or additions, having due regard to the interests of education, 
the capabilities of the present premises, and the financial ability of the Boards. 

(2) No absolute line of demarcation can be drawn between the standards 
of the requirements for rural and urban schools respectively. However, where 
the requirements are deemed to be within the financial ability of the Board and 
of sufficient importance to the protection and progress of the pupils, the Board, 
whether rural or urban, is expected to bring its accommodations up to a higher 
standard within a reasonable time. 


(3) Five grades of the accommodations are recognized in the Inspector’s 
report, the differentiation of the grading according to the following regulations 
being left to his judgment. This grading, and the details of the requirements 
set forth below, should guide Boards, both in improving existing accommodations 
and in selecting sites and erecting new buildings. 

(4) All new school sites and all additions to old ones and all plans of new 
schools or of additions to old ones, and all other proposed school accommodations 
shall be first approved by the Inspector, or by the local Chief or Senior Inspector 
as the case may be, who shall be guided by the instructions contained herein. 
In case of doubt as to the suitability of proposed plans, the Inspector may submit 
the matter for the consideration of the Department. 


2. Following are the details of the requirements of the accommodations and 
the bases for the grading in the official reports: 


(1) 


careful r 


School Site and Grounds. —(a) 

egard to the safety, health, comfort, 


The school site shall be located with 
and convenience of the pupils. 


( b ) The grounds shall not be less than one acre in extent. 


( c) The grounds shall be properly graded, drained and fitted for play 


purposes. 


NOTES.—(a) Separate play areas should be provided for the sexes. 

( b ) When the enrolled attendance exceeds eighty pupils an additional half acre should be 
provided for each additional eighty pupils or fraction thereof enrolled. 

(c) Suitable walks to the highways and to the outside closets should be provided. 

(d) The ground should be beautified with trees and shrubs and should be kept free from 
long grass, weeds, and rubbish. 

(e) All fences and gates should be kept in good repair. 


(2) Building. — (a) The school building shall be placed at least thirty feet 
from the lot line at the highway. 


( b ) In schools of more than one storey, the floors of all upper classrooms 
shall be soundproofed. 


3 



4 


(c) The building shall be kept in thorough repair, and the woodwork kept 
properly varnished or painted. 

Notes. — (a) In preparing plans for new buildings, school boards, should keep in mind 
the probable needs of the future. Buildings, in urban centres particularly, should be so planned 
that they can be readily extended. 

( b ) School buildings should not exceed two storeys in height except under very unusual 
circumstances. 

(c) All buildings should be so placed that each classroom will receive direct sunlight some 
portion of the day. 

( d ) The ground floor level should be sufficiently high above grade to permit satisfactory 
lighting for the basements. 

(e) The foundation walls and roof should be waterproofed, and the eavetroughs provided 
with suitable drainage. 


(3) Entrances, Hallways, and Exits.— (a) In schools of four or more 

classrooms, there shall be separate entrances for the sexes. 

(b) The entrance doors of all school buildings shall open outward. 

(c) Hallways shall be adequate in size and well lighted. 

(d) Stairways shall be of ample width and with treads safe and suitable 
for pupils of all ages using them. 

(e) Suitable fire-escapes shall be placed on all buildings or more than one 
storey that are not fireproof. 

NOTES.—(a) The buildings should be provided with a covered porch or vestibule. 

(b) In buildings of two storeys there should be, for each sex, separate stairways easy of 
access and well guarded. 

(c) Stairways should not be less than four feet nor more than fiv^ feet in width, measuring 
between hand-rails. Hand-rails should be provided on both sides. The material of the stairway 
should be fireproof. 


(4) Classrooms.—General Requirements— (a) Classrooms shall be oblong 
in shape. 

(b) A standard classroom for 40 pupils shall be 32 feet long, 23 feet wide and 
12 feet, 3 inches high; with a floor space of 18.4 square feet for each pupil and 
an air space of 225 cubic feet for each pupil. 

(c) The floors of the classroom shall be of hardwood or asphalt mastic. 

(d) The ceilings, frieze and walls shall be tinted or painted and woodwork 
shall be varnished, stained or painted. 

(e) Windows should be adjusted with weights and pulleys. 

(/) Every graded school should have a room in which all the classes may 
assemble and all new schools of 8 classrooms or more should be provided with 
assembly halls, located preferably on the ground floor. 

(5) Lighting.—(a) Natural Lighting— 

(i) Windows shall be placed only on the long wall of the classroom to the 
left of the pupils. 

(ii) The net glass area of the windows shall not be less than one-sixth of 
the floor area. 


(iii) All windows shall be glazed with clear glass. They shall be provided 
with translucent roller blinds with cords attached. Both windows and blinds 
shall be kept in good working order. 

(iv) Window heads should be square and should not be more than twelve 
inches below the finished ceiling. The height from the floor to the glass should 
not be more than three feet four inches. 

(v) At least four feet of wall space should be left between the window 
opening and the front wall of the classroom. The window opening should extend 
to the back wall. 

(vi) The best color and lighting effects are to be secured by having the 
ceilings and frieze white or cream, walls buff or French gray, and woodwork 
brown or light warm gray. 

( b ) Artificial Lighting— 

(i) Artificial lighting in school classrooms is required for one specific 
purpose, namely, to enable the pupils to acquire their education without injury 
and ailments that result from straining the eyes to see under adverse conditions. 
It is therefore necessary to have the lighting properly planned so as to provide 
the proper quality and intensity of illumination. 

The Lighting Service Section of the Hydro-Electric Power Commission, 620 
University Avenue, Toronto, will furnish lighting recommendations planned for 
each room. This service is free of all charge and obligation and is available for 
the use of school boards that wish to take advantage of it. 

(ii) General Requirements: 

It has been estimated that about eighty-five per cent, of the knowledge of 
human beings is acquired through visual impressions. The process of instruction 
of children in school classrooms requires the continuous use of the eyes. The 
efficient use of the teachers’ time and the progress of the pupils are inseparably 
related to the ability of the pupils to see clearly the work that is placed before 
them. It is therefore essential that facilities be provided to enable every pupil to 
see the work that he or she may be engaged upon without excessive expenditure 
of nervous energy. 

(iii) Daylight Illumination on Desks: 

The average daylight illumination in Ontario on desks near windows has 
been found by measurement to be about nineteen times the illumination on desks 
farthest from windows on clear days and about sixteen times on dull days. On 
bright days more than half of the desks on the dark sides of rooms receive day¬ 
light illumination of less than 15 footcandles. On dull days the situation is 
worse. It is obvious from these figures that natural lighting must be supple¬ 
mented by artificial lighting “to ensure that the eyesight of all pupils may be 


properly safeguarded.” 

(iv) Intensities of Illuminations Required: * Minimum 

Footcandles 

Classrooms, on desks and blackboards; study halls, lecture 

rooms, libraries—on desks and tables. 15 

Offices—on desks... 15 

Sewing-rooms, drafting-rooms, art rooms, and other rooms 

where fine detail work is to be done—on the work. 25 

Shops, laboratories—on the work. 15 







6 


Gymnasium, playrooms, swimming pools, etc. 15 

Auditoriums, assembly rooms, cafeteries and rooms not used for 

study. 6 

Locker-rooms, corridors, stairs, passageways, toilets and other 

areas traversed by students. 4 

Sightsaving classrooms—on desks and blackboards. 30 

4 


*These are minimum intensities of illumination which should prevail after 
allowance has been made for depreciation of lamps and dust accumulation between 
cleaning periods. 

The footcandle is the unit of intensity of illumination. One footcandle is the 
equivalent of the intensity of illumination on a surface each point of which is one 
foot from one candle. 

Footcandle meters are used for measuring the illumination intensity which 
cannot be judged by the eyes. 

(v) Types of Lighting: 

Two types of lighting are available, the distinctive features of which are as 
follows:— 

Semi-Direct Lighting: This type of lighting is produced by glass units that 
direct most of the light downward. The glass units usually enclose the lamps and 
are made of white glass, with or without crystal glass bottoms, and prismatic 
glass. They will produce a higher intensity of illumination with lamps of any 
given size than other types of lighting will produce. 

Sizes of enclosing glass units should be as follows: 

For 100-watt lamps.12-inch diameter 

For 150-watt lamps.14-inch diameter 

For 200-watt lamps.16-inch diameter 

For 300-watt lamps..18-inch diameter 

Indirect Lighting: Indirect lighting is soft, excellently diffused and most free 
from glare. It is produced by reflectors that direct the light to the ceiling, from 
which it is distributed throughout the space where illumination is required. The 
units are of two general types—(1) totally indirect with opaque reflectors such as 
silvered glass, polished metal and porcelain enamel, and (2) luminous indirect, 
made of dense white glass or plastic material. The quality of the illumination 
produced by both types is substantially the same. The choice between totally 
indirect and luminious indirect is mostly a matter of personal preference. 
Indirect lighting is not suitable when the ceilings are dark in tone or have poor 
reflecting surfaces, or where the fixtures are not cleaned frequently. 

On account of its freedom from glare, indirect lighting is recommended for 
classrooms, libraries, offices and art rooms. 

Semi-direct lighting is reasonably satisfactory if carefully planned with 
special attention to the minimization of glare. 

Indirect lighting only is recommended for drafting rooms. 

Indirect lighting units MUST be cleaned frequently. 










7 


(vi) Blackboards: 

It is positively necessary for all of the pupils to be able to read what is 
placed upon the front blackboards, yet in most schools it is impossible, or at least 
exceeding difficult, for some of them to do so from their seats because of glare 
caused by reflected light. To eliminate the glare, the light that causes it must be 
excluded by suitable window shades or paint on the upper portions of the 
windows. This reduces daylight illumination on the blackboards. Special 
lighting for the blackboards is strongly recommended to provide the neeessary 
visibility. It is most important that suitable lighting units, properly placed, be 
installed for this purpose. 

(vii) Eye Test Chart: 

In schools where the pupils’ eyes are tested, substantially uniform illumina¬ 
tion of approximately 25 footcandles should be provided on the chart. 

(viii) Wall Receptacles: 

Classrooms: Ordinary, 1 at front and 1 at rear. 

Laboratories: Conveniently located on laboratory tables for each working 
position. 

Manual Training: Wall receptacles should be installed within easy reach of 
benches or locations where portable electrical appliances may be used. 

Auditoriums and Lecture Rooms: At least 1 at each end of platform and 1 
for a picture projector. 

Nurse’s Room: At least 1. 

Furnace Room: 1. 

Library or Office: 1. 

(ix) Ceilings and Walls: 

Colours: Ceilings should be painted preferably with pure white. 

Ivory-white or cream-white are alternative tints. 

Ceiling colours should not be used on walls lower than 
11 feet from floors. 

Walls above the dado should be ivory, cream, light buff or 
pale green. 

Type of Paint: For ceilings and upper walls matte surface paint should be 

used; egg-shell finish is second best. 


(x) Maintenance: 

All lighting equipment should be cleaned regularly to maintain its effective¬ 
ness. This is of vital importance to indirect lighting. The frequency of cleaning 
depends upon local dust conditions and should be at least once a month. 

(xi) Wiring: 

The wire should be of sufficient size so that the drop in volts at the lamps 
farthest from the distribution panel shall not exceed two volts. In no case should 
wire smaller than No. 12 B. & S. Gauge be used except for connections from the 
circuit wires to the sockets. All installations of electric wiring must conform to 


8 


the rules and regulations of the Canadian Electrical Code, and must be inspected 
by The Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario. 

(xii) Circuits: 

The lighting fixtures adjacent to windows in each room should be on a 
separate circuit from those farther from the windows. Blackboard lighting 
fixtures should be on a separate circuit from other fixtures. 

(xiii) Power Required: 

To furnish illumination in accordance with these requirements will require 
approximately 5 watts per square foot of room area for indirect lighting, and 3 
watts per square foot for semi-direct lighting. These figures do not include 
blackboard lighting. 



Plan of typical classroom showing lighting outlets 
for the desk area and front blackboard, arrange¬ 
ment of circuits and suggested positions of wall 
receptacles in accordance with the foregoing re¬ 
quirements. 















































9 


(xiv) Decorating: 

(a) The ceilings of all classrooms should be decorated in white or pale cream 
so as to reflect without glare as much light as possible. In classrooms the walls 
above the dadoes should be decorated in semi-gloss or flat-finish paint in cool 
pale shades where there is an abundance of sunlight and in warmer pale shades 
where not so much sunlight is available. 

Dadoes should be of a slightly darker colour in gloss or semi-gloss to reduce 
maintenance cost. 

The walls and ceilings of other rooms, corridors, etc., should be attractively 
decorated in accordance with the advice of an architect. 

(b) In addition the rooms and halls should be decorated with good pictures, 
casts, vases, and other suitable ornaments. 

NOTE.—Grade I shall not be given to classrooms unless suitable decorative pictures, casts, 
etc., are provided. 

(6) Furniture. —(a) Pupils’ desks shall be single, and shall be adjustable 
or graded to suit the sizes of the pupils. 

(b) For each classroom there shall be a teacher’s desk with locked drawers, 
at least two chairs, and a suitable bookcase. 

(c) Suitable tables shall be provided for class work in Form I and for 
elementary science in Form V. 

NOTES.— (a) Where fixed non-adjustable desks are supplied for a classroom, provision 
should be made for pupils either above or below average height by supplying at least one row 
of adjustable desks. 

( b ) In placing fixed desks care should be taken that the projection of the front edge of the 
desk over the edge of the seat is at least one and a half inches. 

(c) For the standard classroom the desks should be arranged in five rows, with aisles not 
less than 1 foot 10 inches wide between rows. The aisles at the wall opposite the windows should 
not be less than 3 feet 9 inches wide, and the aisle at the windows not less than 2 feet 9 inches 
wide. 

(d) The front row of desks should not be less than 8 feet, and the back row not more than 28 
feet from the front blackboard. 

(e) A suitable cupboard for supplies should be provided, and placed preferably at the end 
of the cloakroom. 

(7) Blackboards.— {a) Each classroom shall be provided with black¬ 
boards of good quality, preferably slate four feet in width, placed at the front 
of the room and on the side opposite the windows. 

(b) Each blackboard shall have a suitable trough at the lower edge open 
at each end. 

NOTES.—(a) A hinged wire tray may be placed above the blackboard trough to hold 
brushes and crayons. 

( b ) A suitable bulletin board should be provided. 

(c) Provision should be made above the blackboard at the front for the hanging of maps 
with spring rollers. 

( d ) In graded schools, the lower edge of the blackboard should be placed at the following 
heights above the floor: for Form I, 22 inches; Form II, 24 inches; Form III, 28 inches; Forms 
IV and V, 34 inches. In ungraded schools at least a part of one blackboard should be placed lov" 
enough to be used by the youngest pupils. 


10 


(8) Cloakrooms.—A cloakroom or wardrobes properly fitted, heated, and 
ventilated, shall be provided for each classroom. 

NOTES.—(a) The partition between the cloakroom and the classroom should be carried 
to the ceiling. 

( b ) Access to the cloakroom should be by two door-openings, without doors, from the class¬ 
room only. 

(c) Where other lavatory conveniences are not provided, the cloakroom should be provided 
with portable wash-basins, and with soap and towels. 

( d ) Cloakrooms or wardrobes should not be ventilated through the classrooms. 


(9) Teachers’ Private Rooms.—In each school there shall be at least one 
room suitably furnished for the private use of the teaching staff. This room may 
also be used for the examination of pupils by the school nurse or medical officer, 
and for library purposes. 


(10) Water Supplies.—( a ) The water supply shall be pure and adequate. 

(b) In rural schools, there shall be a well (artesian if practicable) properly 
protected from surface drainage or other contamination, and provided with a 
suitable pump. Where for sufficient reason no well is provided, other provision 
satisfactory to the Inspector shall be made for an adequate supply of pure 
drinking water. 

(c) Where water on pressure is available, a drinking fountain or a 
continuous bubbler shall be provided for every fifty pupils. 

NOTES.— (a) Where a water supply on the premises is not available, covered graniteware 
tanks, preferably with bubblers, should be provided. 

( b ) If the water supply is from a dug well, the well should be pumped out at the end of 
the long vacation. 

( c ) Individual drinking cups should be used by the pupils where bubblers are not provided. 


(11) Sanitation.—(a) In rural schools where outdoor closets are used 
arrangements shall be made as early as possible to replace all pit or vault closets 
with sanitary conveniences of a more satisfactory type. 

(b) Where these closets are under separate roofs, they shall be at least thirty 
feet apart, and so placed and regulated as to prevent pollution of the well or of 
the air of the classroom. 

(c) Where the closets are in one building, the entrances shall be on opposite 
sides, and the division wall between the boys’ and girls’ closets shall be of solid 
brick or cement to the height of the ceiling. 

(d) The floors of the closets shall be preferably of cement, but may be of 
hardwood. 


11 


(e) The entrances to the closets shall be properly screened. 

(/) Closets shall be cleaned and disinfected monthly if possible, and urinals 
shall receive daily attention. Provision shall be made for keeping the outside 
closets clear of snow. 

NOTES.—(a) No one-roomed school should have less than two compartments and one 
urinal in the boys’ closet, or less than two compartments in the girls’ closet. For all other schools 
the minimum provision should be as follows: one closet compartment and one urinal stall for 
every twenty-five boys; one closet compartment for every fifteen girls. 

( b ) Every closet compartment should be about two feet six inches wide, and about four 
feet six inches deep, framed of wood supported at least twelve inches off the floor and provided 
with a door having a slip bolt on the inside. 

(c) Each closet should not be less than seven feet six inches from front to rear and should 
be divided into the necessary number of individual compartments. It should be properly lighted 
and ventilated, and should as far as possible be made flvproof. 

( d ) The height of the closet seat should not be greater than sixteen and a half inches for 
older pupils, and not greater than thirteen and a half inches for younger pupils. 

(e) In urban schools and in the larger rural sections a water-flush system or a chemical 
system should be installed. Where there is a water system but no sewage system septic tanks 
should be used. 

(/) Where cement floors are used a coat of hardener should be given to reduce porosity. 
Asphalt finish may be used for closet floors. 

( g ) Urinals should be so placed that they will receive direct sunlight. They should be 
thoroughly washed every day. 

( h ) A system of stalls with a gutter below is better than one of bowls or troughs. The sides 
of urinals should be of non-absorbent material. 

(i) Drains should be properly flushed and kept free from any obstruction. 

( 7 ) The Principal should see that the doors of outside closets are securely fastened after 
school hours and opened before school hours. 

(12) Heating.—( a ) A steam heating system, hot air furnaces, or jacketed 
stoves acting with equal efficiency shall be provided as means of heating. 

(b) Provision shall be made for securing a proper supply of moisture in the 
air. In the air space of each hot air furnace or within the jacket of each stove 
there shall be a pan filled daily with water, in the absence of more effective 
means of providing sufficient moisture. 

(c) A fahrenheit thermometer shall be suitably placed in each classroom. 

NOTES.— (a) A temperature not less than sixtv-five degrees and not higher than sixtv- 
eight degrees during cold weather should be maintained in classrooms, halls, cloakrooms, and 
teachers’ private rooms. 

(b) Where the school building stands in an exposed situation, storm sashes should be supplied 
for the windows in the winter season. 


(13) Ventilation. —( a ) All school buildings shall have a ventilating system. 

(b) Where a mechanical system is provided, it shall be so devised as to 
supply at least thirty cubic feet of fresh air for each pupil per minute. For a 
standard classroom for forty pupils this will require a complete change of air 
eight times per hour. 

(c) In schools heated by hot-air furnaces, there shall be a direct fresh air 
supply duct to the furnace from the outside as far above the grade as practicable, 
fitted with a regulating damper. Ducts for recirculating the air from the class¬ 
rooms shall be provided as well as four air exits. 


12 


(d) In classrooms heated by jacket stoves there shall be a direct fresh air 
duct leading from the outside at a point as high above the grade as practicable 
to an opening to the stove, and provided with a regulating damper. There shall 
also be a foul air extract pipe so placed as to be heated by the smoke pipe, having 
the lower end six inches from the floor and passing into a ventilating flue or 
through the roof. 

NOTES.—(a) At intermissions and during periods of physical exercises, the windows should 
for a time be raised from below and lowered from above. 

( b ) The windows should be supplied with close-fitting portable window boards. 

(c) When storm sashes are used, they should be so adjustable as to allow the ingress of 
pure air. 


(14) Kindergarten Forms. —The following are the special porvisions for 
the accommodation of the Kindergarten Forms: 

A classroom, square or slightly oblong, with a floor area of about 1,200 
square feet, well lighted and well ventilated, well heated in winter, and adjacent 
to the playground. In the centre there should be a circle, inlaid or painted, large 
enough to accommodate all the pupils. A separate room for the games should be 
provided, when practicable. 

A supply adequate for the attendance, of rubber-tipped Kindergarten 
tables, 20" x 36"; rubber-tipped Kindergarten chairs, some 11" and some 12" 
high; and floor cushions. 

A cloakroom opening into the classroom or into the hall. 

Cupboard accommodation for the Kindergarten materials, some shelves 
being so low that the children may be trained to take out and replace the 
materials. 

On one wall a blackboard two feet from the floor and three feet wide; on 
another wall a painted burlap dado, not less than 6 feet long, preferably on all 
the available wall space, surmounted by a plate rail for showing the children’s 
work. 

A low sink to encourage cleanliness, and, where practicable, a fireplace to 
give the room a touch of home comfort. 


(15) Kindergarten .Primary Forms. The following are special pro¬ 
visions for the accommodation of the Kindergarten-Primary Forms: 

A floor area of about 900 square feet, the classroom being square or slightly 
oblong. 

A supply, adequate for the attendance, of rubber-tipped Kindergarten- 
Primary tables, 20" x 36", some 21" and some 23" high; rubber-tipped Kinder¬ 
garten-Primary chairs, some 12" and some 14" high, and floor cushions. 

In other respects, the accommodations should be the same as for the 
Kindergarten. 


13 


EQUIPMENT 

3. (1) Each Board shall provide at least the following equipment, which 
shall be subject to the approval of the Inspector: 

(a) General equipment: 

A school flag with a pole, cord, and pulley, kept in good working order. 

A clock for each classroom, kept in good condition. 

A globe, not less than twelve inches in diameter and properly mounted. 

A map of the hemispheres, a map showing the British Empire, a map of each 
Continent, of Canada, of Ontario, of the county or municipality (if a suitable 
map is published), of the British Isles, and of the United States. 

A numeral frame, and an adequate supply of material for teaching numbers. 

A set of mensuration surface forms and geometrical solids. 

A blackboard set for each classroom, consisting of a protractor, a triangle, 
a pair of compasses, two pointers, and a graduated straight-edge. 

A pair of scales, with weights, to weigh from half an ounce to at least four 
pounds; a set for measure of capacity: a pint, quart, gallon; a set for linear 
measure: inch, foot, yard, tape line; a set for square and cubic measures. 

(b) A library equipment: 

A copy of each of the revised editions of the Ontario School Manuals, an 
atlas, a gazetteer, and an English reference dictionary of British standard and 
authorization for each classroom. 

When required under the Regulations regarding Authorized Text Books, the 
supply of the History, Geography, and Health Readers; the books in English 
Literature to be read by the candidates for a Departmental examination (see 
Circular 58). 

Such other books as the Minister may prescribe from time to time. 

In graded schools as much of the equipment prescribed above shall be 
provided for each classroom as, in the judgment of the Inspector, is necessary. 

(2) The equipment shall also include: 

(a) Such other charts, maps, and globes and such art and science supplies 
and apparatus as may be needed for the school courses and as may be recom¬ 
mended by the Principal and approved by the Board and the Inspector. 

(b ) Such other works of reference and such other supplementary reading as 
may be required under the provisions of the Regulations regarding Authorized 
Text Books. 

( c ) A supply of suitable pictures, especially of Canadian subjects, as aids 
in the teaching of history, geography, composition, and literature. 

(4) Where a Kindergarten or a Kindergarten-Primary Form has been 
established, the equipment shall be subject to the approval of the Inspector. 


14 


NUMBER OF TEACHERS AND CLASSROOMS 

4. —(1) There should not be more than an average attendance of twenty- 
five pupils for each teacher in a Kindergarten Form, or of thirty for each teacher 
in a Kindergarten-Primary Form. 

(2) (a) There should not be more than an average attendance of forty in 
each of the classrooms of Grades I-X. 

(b) On the recommendation of the Inspector, an additional teacher and 
classroom shall be provided by the Board when the average attendance in any 
classroom exceeds forty-five for two consecutive years. 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF BOARD 

5. —(1) Without the consent of the Board no advertisements shall be 
posted in any schoolroom, nor shall announcements be made to the pupils the 
necessity for which does not arise in connection with the Regulations. 

(2) The Board shall employ a caretaker, whose duty it shall be to sweep 
the floors daily (the windows being then open), to dust daily all the furniture, 
window ledges, etc., with damp dusters (preferably in the morning at least an 
hour before school); to make fires at least one hour before the opening of school, 
and at such other times as the teacher may direct; to shovel the snow from the 
paths in winter, and, generally, to keep the accommodations in good condition. 

(3) The Board shall provide for washing the floors at least quarterly and 
at such other times as may be necessary and for renovating during the summer 
holidays as often as may be needed, the walls and ceilings if papered or plastered, 
or for washing them if finished in wood or metal sheeting and painted. 

SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 

5. (a)—The Board of Education of a city may appoint a Superintendent 
of Schools who shall be acceptable to the Advisory Vocational Committee and 
whose academic and professional qualifications and experience in the schools of 
the Ontario provincial system are satisfactory to the Minister of Education. 
The Superintendent so appointed may exercise any duties assigned by the 
Board and the Advisory Vocational Committee, and approved by the Minister, 
which are not inconsistent with the Statutes and Regulations of the Publi(| 
Schools, High Schools and Collegiate Institutes and Vocational Schools. * 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF TEACHERS AND SUPERVISORS 

6. —(1) (a) In schools with more than one teacher, the head teacher shall 
be called the Principal and the others Assistants. 

(b) A teacher in charge of more schools than one shall be called the Super¬ 
vising Principal, and shall exercise over these schools such powers of a Principal 
as the Board may direct on the report of the Inspector or the local Chief or 
Senior Inspector, as the case may be. 

(c) (i) In an urban municipality, teachers holding Supervisors’ certificates 
in Art, Music, Physical Culture, Household Science, and Manual Training may, 
respectively, be placed by the Board in general charge of said subjects in the 
schools under its charge. 


15 


(ii) In a town or a village, teachers holding both permanent Second Class 
certificates and Elementary certificates in Art or Music, may, respectively, be 
placed by the Board in general charge of said subjects in the schools under its 
charge. 

(iii) In an urban municipality where there are more Kindergartens than 
one, a teacher with a Director’s certificate may be placed by the Board in charge 
of all the Kindergartens and such teacher shall be known as a Supervisor. 



(iv) In the discharge of these duties, the teachers provided for in (i), (ii) 
and (iii) above shall be subject to the Instructions of the Inspector or local Chief 
or Senior Inspector, as the case may be, and to the authority of the Principal. 

(2) Subject to the provisions of the Schools Acts and the Regulations, the 
authority of the Principal shall be supreme in all matters of organization, 
management, and discipline. 



(3) (a) Subject to revision by the Inspector, or the local Chief or Senior 
Inspector, the Principal shall determine the number of grades, the number of 
pupils to be assigned to each grade and class, and the order in which the subjects 
shall be taken up by the pupils. 


(b) Subject to revision by the Inspector, the Principal shall make such 
promotions from one grade to another as he may deem expedient. 

NOTE.—The written test, used exclusively, is in any grade an unsuitable basis of promotion. 
In the elementary grades, the class records are the most reliable basis, and even in the more 
advanced grades the final written test and the class records should be considered together. 

(4) ( a ) The time-table for the different Grades of the school shall be 
prepared by the Principal or, subject to his direction, by his assistants, and shall 
be submitted to the Inspector, who shall make such modifications therein as he 
may deem expedient. 


(b) A copy of the time-table for each classroom shall be kept posted in a 
conspicuous place therein. 


(c) In the time-table for each Grade, periods shall be allowed each pupil 
every day for seat work, including independent study, provided and supervised 
by the teacher, and the time provided for this purpose shall not be less than one 
and a half hours per day for each pupil. 




NOTE.—Suggestions for the construction of a time-table will be found in The Ontario 
Packers' Manual: School Management. 


(d) The amount of home work assigned in any Grade shall be subject to the 
approval of the Inspector. 


(5) The Principal of a rural school shall send to the Inspector at the end of 
each month, on a form provided by the Department, a copy of the report of 
irregular attendance made to the local school attendance officers during that 
month. The cost of the postage and envelopes for this service shall be defrayed 
by the School Board. 



(6) (a) If a parent or guardian fails, after due notice by the Principal, to 
provide his child or ward with the text-books or other supplies required in his 
course of study or to pay the fees imposed for such purpose by the Board, the 
Principal shall notify promptly the Board of such neglect, and the Board may 
suspend the pupil or it may provide him with such text-books or other supplies 
and exempt him from the payment of such fees. 


16 


( b) If a pupil injures or destroys school property the Principal shall notify 
the parent or guardian, and if he fails to make good the damage within a reason¬ 
able period, the Principal shall submit the matter promptly to the Board for 
settlement. 

(7) (a) For the purpose of preventing accidents and improper conduct 

when the pupils are not in the classrooms, the accommodations should be under 
suitable supervision. This supervision, where convenient, may be exercised by 
the Principal, or may be entrusted by him to one or more members of the staff or 
the caretaker, or the senior pupils. t 

(b) At least once a month in school buildings of more than one storey the 
Principal shall hold a fire drill in which all the pupils shall take part. 

(8) Every teacher should be in his place in the school at least fifteen 
minutes before the opening of the forenoon session and at least five minutes 
before the opening of the afternoon session. 

(9) When the Public or Separate and the High or Continuation Schools use 
jointly the same building or the same grounds, the authority of the Principal 
of the High or Continuation School shall be supreme in all matters of discipline 
in those parts of the accommodations which the schools occupy in common. 

(10) It shall be the duty of the Principal to inspect the premises daily and 
report without delay to the Secretary of the Board or a special officer appointed 
by it, want of attention on the part of the caretaker or any needed repair, and to 
endeavour by all means in his power to secure proper care of the premises by the 
pupils. 

(11) When a teacher vacates his position, he shall leave in the school 
register his last time-table for the use of his successor, with a statement of the 
stage of advancement of each grade under his charge. 

DUTIES OF PUPILS 

7.—(1) A Pupil registered in a Day or a Night School shall attend punctu¬ 
ally and regularly. 

(2) He shall be neat and clean in his person and habits, diligent in hi^ 
studies, kind and courteous to his fellow pupils, obedient and respectful to thJ 
teachers; and he shall submit to such discipline as would be exercised by a 
kind, firm, and judicious parent. 

(3) A pupil on returning to school after absence shall give the Principal 
from the parent or guardian, orally or in writing as may be required by the 
Principal, the reason for his absence. If this reason is not satisfactory, the 
Principal shall communicate with the parent or guardian, and, in the event of no 
satisfactory explanation, he may refuse the pupil admission thereafter, but he 
shall then submit the question to the Board for settlement. 

(4) A pupil may retire from school at any hour, with the consent of the 
Principal, or at the request, either oral or written, of his parent or guardian. If, 
however, the Principal has reason to believe that an unjustifiable use is being 
made of this privilege, and is unable to secure due amendment, he shall submit 
the question to the Board for settlement. 


17 


(5) A pupil shall be responsible to the Principal for his conduct on the 
school premises and on the way to and from school, except when accompanied 
by his parent or guardian or by some person appointed by such parent or guar¬ 
dian on his behalf. 


ARBOR DAY 

8.—(1) (a) In rural school sections and in villages Arbor Day, the first 
Friday in May or a school day as near thereto as climatic conditions will permit, 
shall be devoted to planting shade trees, making flower beds, and otherwise 
beautifying and improving the school grounds. 

» 

( b ) When any date other than the first Friday in May is selected as Arbor 
Day by the Principal he shall notify the Inspector promptly. 

(c) On Arbor Day songs, readings, and recitations, designed to cultivate 
greater interest in trees and flowers and in the study of nature, shall form part 
of the exercises in all schools. 


THE NATIONAL ANTHEM, SCHOOL FLAGS, AND EMPIRE DAY 

9. —(1) In every Public and Separate School, the singing of the National 
Anthem as authorized by the Department shall form part of the daily opening or 
closing exercises. 

(2) The School Flag shall be flown on Public Holidays and on such other 
occasions as the Board may determine. When not so flown, it shall be displayed 
on the wall of the schoolroom; and, as opportunity may offer, its history and 
significance shall be suitably explained to the pupils by the teacher. When there 
are more rooms than one the Board may determine in which of them the flag is 
to be displayed or it may provide a flag for each room. 

(3) Empire Day, the last school day before the 24th of May, shall be duly 
celebrated in every school; the forenoon being devoted to a study of the great¬ 
ness of the British Empire, and the afternoon to public addresses, recitations, 
music, etc., of a patriotic character. 

► 

SCHOOL SESSION 
Day Schools 

i 

10. —(1) Unless the Board, with the approval of the Minister, directs 
otherwise, the pupils attending a Day School shall assemble for study at nine 
o’clock in the forenoon, and shall be dismissed not later than four o’clock in the 
afternoon. 

(2) At least one hour shall be allowed for recreation at mid-day, and at 
least ten minutes during each of the forenoon and afternoon sessions. 

(3) In no case shall there be less than five hours of study a day including 
the recesses in the forenoon and afternoon; but the Board may reduce to a 
minimum of half a day the hours of study for the pupils in the Kindergarten, the 
Kindergarten-Primary, and Grades One to Four, inclusive. 


18 


(4) The periods for physical culture should be separate from the periods 
for the recess, and the periods both for recess and for physical culture shall be 
so arranged as to afford due relaxation from mental strain. 


Night Schools 

11 . —(1) (a) A Board may establish Night Schools with courses of study 
selected from the General Course of study for the Day Schools by the Inspector 
or the local Chief or Senior Inspector, as the case may be, with the concurrence 
of the Board. 

( b ) Subject to the approval of the Principal, the pupil shall select his 
courses of study. 

(2) Except for Manual Training or Household Science in the case of those 
who attend a Day School where these subjects are not taken up and where 
admission to the Night School has been approved by the Principal of the Day 
School, no pupil who attends a Day School may attend a Night School. 

(3) The Night School year shall consist of two terms beginning and ending 
on such dates and with such vacations as the Board may determine, subject to 
the approval of the Minister. 

(4) The weekly number of sessions and the length of each session shall be 
settled by the Board, subject to the condition that the length of each session shall 
not exceed two hours and a half. 

(5) Night Schools shall be subject to the same regulations as the Day 
Schools with respect to management, the discipline of the pupils, the duties and 
qualifications of the teachers, and the use of text books. 



GRADES IX AND X 

12 . Pupils who have obtained High School Entrance certificates, and such 
other pupils as are considered qualified by the Principal and Inspector, shall be 
entitled in both rural and urban schools to receive instruction in the subjects of 
Grades IX and X; but— 

(a) In a rural section or an urban municipality, having a High or Continua¬ 
tion School, it shall not be obligatory for the Board to maintain these Grades; 
and— 

( b ) In lieu of establishing Grades IX and X, the Board of any rural section 
may arrange with the Board of a High or Continuation School which in the^^ 
opinion of the Board and the Inspector, is readily accessible, for the instructior^^ 
thereat of such pupils of its school as are entitled to admission to a High or 
Continuation School. 

RELIGIOUS EXERCISES AND RELIGIOUS AND MORAL 
INSTRUCTION IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

See pages 24, 25, 26. Program for Religious Education in the Public Schools, 
1944, or any subsequent revisions of these 1944 regulations. 


m