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till 4? '%xtmm ^ % 




















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co/nmtnceol &y 6/ie late 




* from the first Authorities and most select specimens 

MV GRIFFITHS. 

M£AHNS 
COLLECTION 



Toil 




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Printed for G.WlUrie, JWaLker, J.Stoekdale, J.&AArch,Iongman,Hnrst. 

Eees,Qrme.&Brown,E.Jeffery, Sherwood, 5Teeley,&- Jones, Xawr&Whittaker , 

Baldwin,Cradock,i- Joy RScholey, J.Black.WLowe, J.Booth, Gale & Termer , 

S.Bagster, J.Robinson JRodwell, Walker Sc Edwards, and Harper & C ? 



GENERAL ZOOLOGY 



VOLUME IX. PART II. 



JAMES FRANCIS STEPHENS, F.L.S. 



BIRDS. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR G. WILKIE ; J. WALKER; J. STOCKDALE ; J. AND 
A. ARCH; LONGMAN, HURST, REES, ORME, AND BROWN; 
E. JEFFERY; SHERWOOD, NEELEY, AND JONES; LAW AND 
WHITTAKER; BALDWIN, CRADOCK, AND JOY; R. SCHOLEY ; 
J. BLACK; W. LOWE; J. BOOTH; GALE AND FENNER > 
S. BAGSTER; J. ROBINSON; J. RODWELL ; WALKER AND 
EDWARDS; AND HARPER AND CO. 

1816. 



he 

- 
.1* 



INDEX 



VOL. IX.-PART IL 



Aberdevine . P . 46; 

Bengalus. Briss. / 541 

■ -■ punctulatus.f' 54 2 

f 



Brambling, greater, 
Albin. 

Rullfinch, China , 
" ■ ' greatest. 

Edtvards . 

• ■ '■""» ■ ■ ■ little brovon 



Bunting: 



Amazonian 
Angola . 



Baden 



489 

401 

238 
306 

340 
383 
425 



— Aoonalaschka . 396 



378 



Bunting, barred-tail 

—■ i black. Lath. 

• ■ black-crowned 

• blach-Jaced 

— — — ■ black-headed 

— black-throated 

— blue 

blue-faced 

— ■" — Bourbon 

■ Brasilian 

— brumal « 

— Cape 

- ■ Chinese . 



— cinereous 

— Cirl 

— coloured . 

— common . 

— crimson , 



p. 3/1 
. 367 
364 
. 256 
. 365~ 
379 
* 408 
. 406 
. 416 
, 386 
: 387 
372 
368 
401 
356 
385 
360 
412 



V. IX. P. II, 



b 



VI 



INDEX. 



Bunting, crimson-belli- 



ed 



— Dauurian 

— Dominican 

— dwarf 

— familiar 

— foolish 

— green 

— g r ey 

— Guar 

— Indigo 

— Lesbian . 

— long-tailed 

— Lorraine 

— Louisiane 

— Maelby . 

— Mexican 

— military . 



ed 



mountain 
mustachoe 
olive 
orange-shoulder 

■ Ortolan . 

■ painted . 

■ Panayan 

■ passerine 

■ Pine 

■ Plata . . . 

■ Psittaceous 

• reed 

■ red-eyed 

• red-rumped 

■ rice 

- ruddy 

- rustic 

■ rusty 



413 

382 

423 

304 

384 

355 

409 

417 

383 

407 

370 

419 

369 

366 

399 

395 

393 

346 

376- 

377 

422 
349 
403 
421 
359 
398 
411 
424 
362 
415 
405 
388 
381 
390 
381 



Bunting, Sandwich p. 397 

; — shaft-tailed . 426 

snow . .341 

Surinam . 400 

— tawny . . 344 

Towhe . . 414 

varied . . . 410 

— variegated . 420 

Unalashka . 396 

Weaver . . 373 

Wbidah . .418 

white-crowned 392 

white . . 367 

wreathed . 393 

yellow . .351 

yellow-bellied 374 

. . ■ — yellcw-breasted 402 

yellow-browed 391 

yellow-faced . 354 

yellow-winged 353 

Cardinal, Dominican 279 



Cardinalis a?igolensis 
Cajritis Bonce 



Spei 



dominicalis . 
Madamscarien 



Carduelis americana. 
Briss. 

Suecica 

viridis 

Chloris bahamensis 
• — ■ indica 



203 

240 

276 

244 



464 
457 
463 

481 



INDEX. 

Chloris indica minor p. 409 
• ' ' jayensis . . 406 
- — ludoviciana, Papa 401 



Vll 



Cirlus stultus 



355 



Coccothraustes americana 
ccerulea . . .253 

• ■ angolensis 

cyanea . . . 250 

— — — borbonica 329 

■ canadensis 238 

1 ■ ■ ■ Capitis Bo- 

nce Spei . . .313 

■ cayanensis 269 

~ Gambensis 2C)0 

— javensis 332 

—javensis nee- '.' 

via . . . 330 

— ■ ■ Indica . ■ 247 

— — ludoviciana 

. / . 278 
— — luted Capi- 
tis Bonce Spei . 271 
■ — wtoluccen- 



«* • jf . .331 

sinensis 332 
sinensis ci- 
nerea . , .316 

• ■ — ~ Virginia- 
na ... 248 

Crossbill ... . 229 
■ common . .231 
- white-winged . 233 



Crucirosjra 



329 



Crucirostra leucop- 

tera . . p. 233 

1 ■ vulgaris 23 1 



Cynchramus, Brisson . 360 



Emberiza 



lee 



alba, Ray 
amazona 
americana 
angolensis 



340 
360 
383 
379 
425 



Aoonalaschken- 



■ arctica 

■ asiatica 
atricapilla 
aureola 
badensis 
borbonica 
brasiliensis 
brumalis 
Calfat . 
canadensis 
canadensis cceru- 

. 408 
capensis . 372 
capensis. Lath. 374 
chrysophrys 391 
chrysoptera 
Cia 



396 
397 
383 
364 
402 
378 
416 
386 
387 
415 
401 



— cinerea 

— Ciris . 

— Cirlus . 

— citrinella 

— coccinea 

— caerulea 
■— cyanea 



353 
355 
401 
403 
356 
351 
413 
408 
407 



Vlll 



INDEX. 



Emberiza cyanopsis p. 406 

■ dominicensis. 

Briss. . . . 377 
— — — erythropthalma4l4 



familiaris 
fasciata 



ferruginea 

Jlava 

flaveola 

flaviventris 

fucata . 

glacialis 

- grisea . 

Hortulana 

hyemalis 

leucophrys 

! lesbia . 

■ longicauda 

lotharingica 

luctuosa 

ludovicia 

maelbiensis 



384 
371 
381 
351 
354 
374 
385 
344 

417 

349 
367 
392 
370 
422 
369 
393 
366 
399 



— melanocephala 365 

— mexicana . 395 

— miliaria . 360 

— militaris . 393 

— mixta . . 410 

— m on tana . 346 

— mustelina . 344 

— nivalis . 341 

— olivacea . 377 

— Orix. Linne. 240 

— oryzivora . 388 

— paradisea . 4iS 

— passerina . 359 

— panayensis . 421 

— pithyornus . 398 



Emberiza platensis 

■ jjratensis 

— principalis 

provincial is 

■ psittacea 

pusilla 

quadricolor 

■ Quelea 

■ regia . 

rubra . 

rustica 

ruticanilla. 



Gmel. 



Gmel. 



Briss. 



rutila . 
sandvichensis. 

Schoeniclus . 
sepiaria 
serena 
sinensis 
spodocephala 
surinamensis 
■ surinamensis. 

Textrix 
vidua . 
viridis 
unalashcensis. 



Gmel. 



Finch 



Amaduvade 

American, gold 

Angola 

arctic 

autumnal 

Bahama 



411 
355 
420 
376 
424 
394 
405 
256 
426 
412 
390 

446 
381 

397 
362 
356 
423 
368 
382 
400 

417 
373 
419 
409 

39<5 

428 
542 
464 
539 
523 
481 
48l 



Fmch, bearded . p 
- — — beautiful 

black and orange 

■? black-eollared 

black-faced 

- — - black-faced. Penn, 

black-headed 

■ black mexican 

blue-bellied 

■ blue-crowned 

blue-faced 

— — blue-headed 

— — Banana 

— — bramble . . 

■ Brazilian 

— — brown 

brown-throated . 

■ ■ Canary 
— — Cape 
— — Capsa 

Carolina 

« Cartbagena 

Ceylon 

Chaff 

Chinese 

Chinese Siskin , 

cinereous . 

Citril 

■ collared 

— — Cowpen . . 

■ crescent 

crimson-crowned 

crimson-headed . 

Cuba 

■ Dalmatic . 

; dusky ' . f 

• Eustachian 



484 

465 

526 

486 

440 

439 

531 

471 

£41 

509 

510 

508 

506 

444 

546 

532 

534 

474 

545 

495 

439 

491 

479 
442 
524 
470 
529 
472 
502 
501 
530 
451 
449 
511 
437 
540 
476 j 



INDEX. 

Finch, fasciated 
- — — ferruginous 

■ fire 

— —flaming. Penn. 



- — — foolish 

» forrest 

■ frizzled 

Georgian 

glossy 

gold . . 

■ grass . 

■ greater redpole 

green-gold 

green-rumped 

- grey . 

grey-headed 

■ house 

— ~ imperial 

Lapland 

lepid . 

— — lesser redpole 

long-billed 

: ■ long-tailed . 

lovely 

Lulean 

lunar 

Mexican Siskin 

mountain . 

— — nitid . 

norton 

• " : orange 

painted 

parrot 

■ pied-mountain 

Pine . 

purple 

red-breasted 



IX 

p. 505 
. 455 
. 514 
451 
. 436 

• 528 
. 480 
. 537 

• 45% 
. 460 

• 504 
. 516 

. 463. 
. 483 
. 259 
. 494 
■ 429 
. 482 
489 
513 
519 
459 
547 
466 
457 
512 
471 
441 
536 
485 

497 
401 
447 
341 
503 

507 

456 



INDEX. 



Finch, red-breasted, long- 
tailed . . p. 

< red-crowned 

red-faced . 

— < — red-headed 

ring , 

rosy, Latham. 

— rufous-chinned 

— — rusty-collared 
.■' ■ Savanna 

scarlet 

< Senegal 

— — Serin 

■■ sharp-tailed 

— — short-tailed 

■ Siskin 

■ snow . 
— — Sj)arroiv 

• speckled 

— — Strasburg 

striped-headed 

— — sultry 

■ • " Surinam 



swamp 

temporal 

testaceous . 

Thistle 

tree . 

tripoline 

Twite 

variegated . 

ultramarine 

white-breasted 

white-cheeked 

white-headed 

white-tailed 

tvhite-tailed icax-bill 



418 
446 
448 
458 
434 
449 
452 
503 
500 
454 
543 
473 
515 
435 

467 
492 
429 
438 
538 
498 
544 
487 
488 
533 
484 
460 
432 
535 
521 
527 
506 
525 
496 
493 
436 
262 



Finch, white- throated p. 

Winter 

yellow 

yellow-throated . 



Fringilla 



Gmel. 



Gmel. 



Lini 



tensis 



Briss. 



Abyssinica 

JEthiops. 

Afra 

Alario 
albicollis. 

Amandava 

Angolensis 
Angolensis. 

arcuata 
argentora- 

australis . 
autumnalis 
bahamensis. 



— barbata 

— benghalus 

— bicolor 

— bononiensis 

— brachyura 

— butyracea 

— Cacatototl 

— calida 

— cana 

— canadensis 

— canaria 

— cannabina 
— - Capsa 



499 
490 

477 
478 

428 
486 

453 
448 

545 

499 
542 
539 

541 
530 

538 
503 
481 

497 
484 
541 
481 
438 
435 

477 
471 
544 
494 
441 
474 
516 
495 



INDEX. 



Fsux-gilla Capitis Bona; 



Spei 



By 



ensis 



dica 



Briss. 



phala 



phala 



ma 



p. 288 

■ Carduelis 460 

■ carolinensis 439 
carolinensis. 

. 414 
carthagini- 



— caudacuta 

— cinerea 

— cinerea In- 



— citrinella 

— coccinea 

— Ccelebs 

— crispa 

— cristata 

— cristata. 



401 
515 
529 

259 
472 
454 
442 
480 
440 

451 



— cyanoce- 

. 509 

— cyanomelas 508 

— Dalmatica 437 

— domestica 429 

— elegans . 465 

— erythroce- 



• erythropthal- 

• Eustachii 
fasciata 

■ ferruginea 

• flammea . 

■ flavicollis 
flavirostris 
formosa . 
fusca 



458 

414 
476 
505 
455 
451 
478 
523 
466 
532 



Fringilla fusca. 
Briss. 



— • fuscicollis 
— Geomiana 



— grammea 

— granatina 

— hyemalis 

— Hudsonias. 



Gmel. 



Eustachii 



• Jamaica . 
ignita 
iliaca 
imperials 
Indica 
Insula S. 

lapponica 

lepida 

leucocepha- 



XI 

523 
534 
537 
504 
546 
490 

367 
506 
514 



la 



— leucura 
linaria 



482 
502 

476 
489 
513 

493 

436 1 
519 



Gmel. 



sts. 



phala 



— Linota. 

. 516 

longirostris 459 

• lulensis . 457 

= macroura 547 

■ maia . 511 

martinicen- 

Gmel. . . 452 

melanictera 526 

■ melanoce- 

. 531 

melanoleuca 525 

melba . 463 

mexicana 471 

montana . 432 



Xll 

Fringilla montana. 
Briss. 



INDEX. 



Gmel. 



gilla 



Gmel. 



Briss. 



monticola. 
montifrin- 

montium 

monlium. 



p. 489 

441 

444 
521 



cephalns. 



multicolor 
naevia 

nigra ictero- 
Briss. 
nitens 
nitida 
nivalis 
noctis 

nortoniensis 
obscura . 
oryzivora 
pecoris 
pensjlvanica 
petronia . 
pinetorum 
psittacea 
punicea . 
purpurea 
rosea 

rubra, minor 
ruticapilla 
Savannarum 
Senegala 
senegalensis. 

serinus 
sinensis 
Sinica 



521 
483 
406 

460 
453 
536 
492 
452 
485 
540 
388 
501 
499 

434 
503 
447 
456 
507 
449 
306 
446 
500 
543 

459 

4/3 
470 
524 



Fringilla Spinus 
striata 



Indica. 



467 
498 
436 
487 
528 
535 
533 
484 
512 

502 
510 
464 
527 

. 527 

virginiana 501 

ultramarina 506 

Zena . 497 

Zeylonica 479 



Greenfinch, Indian. Eclxw. 477 
Grosbeak 



Hispania: 



- stulta 

- surinama . 

- sylvatica . 

- syriaca 

- temporalis 

- testacea . 

- torquata . 

- torquata, 
Briss. 

- tricolor 

- tristis 

- variegata . 

- varie novce 



Abyssinian . 
African 
Angola 
ash-coloured 



235 
294 
272 
280 
298 
286 
261 
258 
321 



— ash-headed 

— asiatic 

— Bengal 

— black . 

— black. Edwards 280 

— black-bellied 289 

— black-breasted 325 

— black-crested 242 

— black-headed 243 



INDEX. 



Xlll 



Grosbeak, Hack-lined p. 

blue 

■ blue, from An- 



gola 



-blue-shouldered 
. blue-winged 

- Brasilian 

- brimstone 
■ brown . 

- broivn. Brown 

- brown-cheeked 

- brown-headed 

- Bullfinch 

- Caffrarian 

- Canada 

- Cape . 

- Cardinal 

- Caucasian 

- Chinese 

- cinereous 

- Cowry . 

- crested 
•• crested Domi- 

- Dominican 

- dusky 

- dwarf . 

- fantailed 

- fasciated 

- fascinating . 

- ferruginous , 

- frontal 

- Gambia 

- gold-backed 



green . 
grenadier 
grey- . 



282 
250 

250 
251 
299 
31/ 
313 
323 
2p5 
270 
308 
318 
286 

269 
288 
248 
245 
311 
259 
330 
260 

264 
276 
296 
333 
305 
328 
298 
327 
265 
290 
285 
310 
240 
252 



Grosbeak, grey-necked p. 312 
.■■ Hamburgh. 



Lalh, 



Hawfinch 
Hudsonian „ 
Java 
Indian 
lineated 

■ long-tailed . 

■ Madagascar . 
Malabar 
Malacca 

• Malacca 
marygold 

■ Mexican 

• minute 

■ Molucca 

- mustachoe . 

- nitid 

- northern 

- nun 

• orange . . 



432 
236 

297 
316 
247 
326 
284 
244 
262 
332 
301 
287 
241 
334 
331 
309 
282 
322 
292 
320 



orange-bellied 306 



— Paradise . 

— parrot- billed 

— pearled 

— pensile 

— Philippine . 

— Pine 

■— Pope „" 

— prasine 

— purple . . 

— radiated 

— red, Albin 

— red-billed 

— red-breasted 

— red-rumped . 



267 
268 

279 
275 
314 

238 
276 
267 
249 
281 
248 
256 
27S 
254 



XIV 

Grosbeak, St. Domingo p. 

■ Siberian . 

— sociable 

! . ■ ■ spotted 

■ striated 

■ ' ■ Sumatran 

— Sunda . 

thick-billed . 

— — three-toed 

Totty . 

warbling 

wax-bill 

— — — white-billed . 

— white-headed 

xchite-rumped. 



INDEX. 

Ligurinus, Briss. . p. 467 

mexicanus . 471 

mexicanus, niger 471 



Lath. 

white-tailed 

1 white-throated 

white-winged 

yellow 

yellow-bellied 

— — — — yellow-fronted 

— — yellow-headed 

■ yellow-rumped 

Hortulanus. Briss. 

■ Capitis Bona; 



Spei 



Hyreus 



• Carolinensis 
nivalis 
nivalis niger 



Abyssinicus 



Hyreus 



Abyssinian 



273 
246 
303 
307 
329 
291 
300 
324 
338 
302 
295 
254 
321 
301 

254 
262 
253 
283 
290 
271 
274 
266 
293 

344 

3/2 
388 
341 

367 

337 
338 

337 
338 



Linaria, Briss. 1 

angolensis 

argentoratensis 

brasiliuna longi- 



cauda 



516 

539 
538 

424 
521 
521 
516 
519 



Linnet, Angola, JEdtv. . 53Q 

-common . 516 

■ greater red-headed 5 1 6 

— — — lesser red- headed 5\Q 



minima 
■ montana . 
rubra major 
rubra minor 



LOXIA 



mountain 


. 521 


. . 


. 235 


Briss. 


• 231 


Pater son . 


. 303 


Abyssinica 


. 394 


Africana 


. 272 


Americana 


. 328 


angolensis 


. 280 


asiatica . 


. 261 


astrilda . 


. 254 


aurantia . 


. 320 


aurea 


. 285 


bengalensis 


. 258 


bicolor 


. 30 r i 


boetonensis 


. 247 


bonariensis 


. 287 


brasiliana 


. 317 


butyracea 


. 274 



Loxia caffra 
— — — cana 
■ canadensis 

■ canora 

cantans 



capensis 

• Cardinalis 
Chloris . 
cinerea . 
Coccothraustes 
caerulea . 

• collaria . 
coronata 

■ crassirostris 

• cristata . 
cucullata 

• cyanea 

• cyanoptera 

- dominicana 

- dominicensis . 

■ eneucleator 

- erytlirina. Gmel. 

- erythrocephala 

■ erythromelas 

• falcirostra 

- fasciata . 

- fascinans 

- ferruginea 

- ferruginosa 

- flabellifera 

- flavicans 

- flaviventris 

- frontalis . , 

- fusca 

- grisea 



INDEX. 

Loxia hordeacea 

i • hudsonica 

i hypoxantha 

■ Javensis 



grossa 
Hamburgia, Gmel 



286 
259 
269 
270 
295 
288 
248 
310 
298 
236 
250 
292 
242 
324 
200 
264 
250 

299 
276 
273 
238 
449 
263 
243 
233 
328 
298 
308 
327 
305 
290 
271 
265 
323 
252 
253 
.432 



indica 

indica, Gmel. . 

leucura . 

lineata 

lineola 

longicauda 

ludoviciana . 

• macroura, Gmel. 

• maculata 
madagascariensis 244 



XV 

293 
29; 
291 

300 
286 
247 
262 
281 
32(5 
284 
278 
247 
307 



maia 

malabarica 
malacca . 
melanocephala 

• melanogastra . 

• melanura 

• mexieana 

■ minima . 
minuta 

• Molucca 

• mystacea 

■ nigra 

• nitida 

- obscura . 

• Oryx . ; 

• oryzivora 

- panicivora 

■ pectoralis 

- pensilis 

• perlata . 

• philippensis 

- prasina . 

- psittacea 



301 

262 
332 

2go 

289 
312 
241 
333 
334 
331 
309 
321 
282 
296 
240 
316 
283 
325 
275 

279 
314 
267 
268 



XVI INDEX. 

Loxia punctularia p. 330 

— Pyrrhula . 318 

-— — — rubricilla . 245 

«— — — sanguinirostris 256 

« septentrionalis 322 

■ ' sibirica . . 246 
* — sinensis . .311 

socia . . 303 

striata . . 329 

-— sulphurata . 313 

. . . ■ torrida . . 321 

Totta . . 302 

tridactylia . 388 

■ violacea . 2ig 

virens . .251 

xanthocephala 266 



Oriole, yelloiv-shouldered 422 

Passer, canadensis . 44 1 

— — — Capitis Bona: Spei 530 
429 



domesticus 
eryihrorynchos 



Capitis Bona: Spei 
— — Jamaicensis 

• • montanus 
— • — niger 

— — niger eryihroryn- 
chos 

pensylvanicus 

- Sclavonicus 

• senegalensis ery- 
throrynchos 

- ■ stultus 
■ ■ " syhestris 



256 
500 
432 
452 

453 
499 

437 

256 
436 

434 



torquatus, seu arun- 

dinaceus . . 362 



Passer cuius bononiensis p. 435 

■ Capitis Bones 

. 545 



Spei 
Phytotoma 



Abyssinica 
Rara 
tridactylia 



Plant-cutter 

■ Abyssinian 

Chili 

Pyrrhula AJricana nigra 
AJricana nigra 



335 
338 
336 
338 

335 
338 
336 

283 

326 



lata 



lacea 



ilea 



lacea 



Americana cris- 

. 242 
bahamensis vio- 

. 249 
carolinensis cce- 

. 250 
carolinensis vio- 

. 507 
hamburgensis 432 
mexicana nigra 321 



Senegalis ruber . 
striatus 

Serinus, Briss. 

- canarius . 



Sparrow 



-jamaicensis 
- Italicus . 



543 
254 

473 
474 
494 
4/2 

429 



INDEX. 



XV11 



Sparrow, black and yellow 

frizzled . . p. 480 
— — — brasilian. Edtv. 256 

Cape of Good 

Hope. Alb. . . 545 

Chinese . . 332 

little. Edtv. . 455 

■ — long-tailed . 420 

of Paradise . 263 

■ — white-breasted In- 
dian . . . 332 

• ■ . white-throated. 
Edtv. . . . 4QQ 
yellow-headed In- 
dian . .258 



Tanager, rufous-throated. 
Lath. . . p. 452 

Tanagra carolinensis cceru- 

lea . . . . 407 
■ •- — cyanea . . 407 
— — — ruficoUis. Gmel. 452 

Tree creeper, Hamburgh. 
Albin. . . . 432 

Vidua, Briss. . .418 

angolensis . 420 

major . .419 

minor . . 423 

— riparia qfricana 426 



Directions for placing the Plates in Vol, IX. 
Part II. 



The Vignette represents the Shaft-tailed Bunting consi- 
derably smaller than nature: it is described in page 426. 



Plate 41 to face page 231 

42 

44 

45 - _ 

46 

47 

48 



50 
51 
52 

53 
54 
55 



Plate 56 to face page 351 

— 356 

362 

_ 362 

364 

405 

418 

— - 420 

432 

444 

— ; — 447 

. 451 

460 

— '. . 467 

—__ — . 519 



236 


57 


238 


58 


240 


59 


243 


60 


248 


6i 


250 


62 


264 


63 


282 


64 


3]0 


65 


316 


66 


318 


67 


338 


68 


341 


69 


351 


70 



ERRATA. 



'age 


Line 


10, 


10, 


11, 


9, 


55, 


16, 


63, 


7, 


65, 


13, 



PART I. 



Geo. read Ger. 

dentati'/s, read dentatim. 

Egyptian, read Egyptian. 

Perra, read Persa. 

Koitniquas, read Hollniquas. 
82, 7 and 8, it feeds, read they feed. 
101, 2, Madagascarensis, read Madagascariensis. 

— , 9, Ditto Ditto. 

118, 10, Ditto Ditto. 

149, 27, having been taken in, read inhabiting. 



PART II. 



mexicana, read XANTHOCEPHALA.. 

Dichotornes, read Dichotoraa. 
tatla, read totta. 
Montague, read Montagu. 
Bewick i., read Bewick i. 136. 
on, read over, 
sinereas, read sinensis, 
alba, read albo. 
fratensis, read pratensis. 
luteris, read luteis. 
Knightsbridge, read Kingsbridge. . 
with, read with a- 



Page 


Line 


266, 


2, 


305, 


7, 


} 


U, 


310, 


13, 


—— , 


15, 


313, 


14, 


316, 


8, 


338, 


4, 


355, 


8, 


356, 


15, 


357, 


31, 


364, 


19, 



BIRDS. 



ORDER 



PASSERES, 



CRUCIROSTRA. CROSSBILL. 



Generic Character. 



Rostrum crassum, forficatum; 
mandibular inverse aduncae. 

Nai'es parvse, rotundatae, ad 
basin rostri. 

Lingua Integra. 



Beak thick, and forked ; man- 
dibles, when at rest, in- 
versely curved. 

Nostrils small, rounded, si- 
tuated at the base of the 
beak. 

Tongue intire. 



A HE singular structure of the beak of the birds 
belonging to this genus was considered as a mere 
lusus naturae by Buffon, calculated to render 
them much less essential service than any other 
known kind of beak : but notwithstanding the ap- 
parently awkward and useless shape, it has been 
v. ix. p. ii. 16 



230 CROSSBILL. 

found to be most admirably adapted to their 
particular habits. The two mandibles do not lie 
straight, but cross each other in a similar manner 
to a pair of scissars : they are by this means 
enabled to obtain their food with the greatest fa- 
cility. They live mostly on the seeds of the cones 
of the fir ; in procuring which, they exhibit a won- 
derful specimen of instinct, as they fix themselves 
across the cone, then bring the points of their 
beak immediately over each other, and insinuate 
them between the scales, when, forcing them la- 
terally, the scales open ; and then again bringing 
the points in contact, pick out the seed as easily 
as any other bird would take up hemp seed. The 
degree of lateral force which they are capable of 
exerting is very surprising, and they are very fond 
of exercising it for mere amusement, which, in a 
tame state, renders them rather mischievous, as 
we are informed by Dr. Townson, who kept se- 
veral of these birds in his study, that they used 
to amuse themselves by coming to his table and 
taking offpencils, boxes, and the like, tearing them 
to pieces instantly, by pecking a small hole, and 
inserting their beaks in the same way they would 
when procuring food. These birds are able to 
pick up the smallest seeds, notwithstanding the 
shape of the beak. 



DSI 




C DM M D>: GKDS BEAK: . 



231 



COMMON CROSSBILL. 
(Crucirostra vulgaris.) 

C. corf ore versicolore, remigibus rectricibasque Juscis, oris exte- 

rioribus viridi olivaceis, caudajurcata. 
Crossbill with a variable red body; quills and tail-feathers 

brown ; beak externally olive-green ; tail forked. 
Loxia curvirostra. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 299. 1. — Lin. Faun. Suec. 

224. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 843.— Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 370. 1. 
Loxia. Raii. Syn. 86. A. — Briss. 3. 32Q. t. \*J.f. 3. 
Le Bee croise. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 3. 449. 27. f. 2. — Buff. PI. 

Enl. 218. 
Crossbill. Pen. Brit. Zool. 1. 115. 49. — Pen. Arct. Zool. 2. 208. 

Edtvards. 303. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 106. 1. — Bexmck. Brit. 

Birds. 1. 130. — Mont. Brit. Birds. 1. — Don. Brit. Birds. 2. 

39. 

The male of this bird varies from a beautiful red 
to orange colour on the head, neck, breast, back, 
and rump : the wing-coverts rufous brown : quills 
and tail dusky: vent nearly white: under tail- 
coverts dusky spotted : tail forked : legs short : 
claws strong : female in general of a dull olive- 
green on those parts that are red in the male : 
back varied with dusky ; wings and tail similar 
to the male, but not so dark : the mandibles are 
not always crossed on one side. 

This species is a regular inhabitant of Sweden, 
Germany, and many other parts of Europe, where 
it breeds ; and migrates occasionally in vast flocks 
into the other parts : it is never known to breed in 
this country, but sometimes appears in immense 
numbers, fixing on those spots that abound with 



232 COMMON CROSSBILL. 

firs, for the sake of the seeds, which are its natural 
food : it is said to do a deal of mischief to orchards 
by splitting the apples to get at the seeds ; and it 
is so intent when feeding on the cones of the firs 
(which it holds in its claws like a parrot), that a 
noose may be put over its head, without its at- 
tempting to fly away : it is discovered by the twit- 
tering noise it makes while feeding. 

In North America and Greenland this bird is 
very common, and is said to build its nest in the 
highest parts of the firs, making use of the resin- 
ous matter that exudes from them for fixing it to 
the trees ; it breeds in January or February, and 
the young are ready to fly by March. 

Mr. Pennant mentions receiving a large variety 
out of Shropshire, which had the beak remarkably 
thick and short, more curvated and blunt than 
usual. It is called the German Parrot by many, 
from its singular mode of scrambling about its 
cage, and the beauty of its colours: they are fed 
by the German bird-catchers with poppy and other 
small seeds, which they eat with the greatest 
avidity. 



c 233 



WHITE-WINGED CROSSBILL. 
(Crucirostra leucoptera.) 

C. corpore croceo-coccineo, alis nigrisjasciis duabus albis, remigi- 

bus secundariis apice albis, cauda nigra. 
Crossbill with a dull crimson body; wings black, with two white 

fasciae ; secondary quills white at the tips ; tail black. 
Loxia leucoptera. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1 . 844. 
Loxia falcirostra. Lath. Ind. Om. 1. 371- 2. 
White-winged Crossbill. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 108. 2.— Lath. 

Syn. Sup. 148. Pen. Arct. Zool. 2. 208. 

The White-winged Crossbill is rather less than 
a Goldfinch; measuring only five inches and three 
quarters in length: beak of a dusky horn-colour: 
nostrils covered with reflected bristles of a pale 
buff-colour : at the base of the beak, from eye to 
eye, is a brown streak: head, neck, back, and under 
parts whitish, the feathers deeply margined with 
crimson ; which gives the birds the appearance of 
being speckled : wings black with two white bars, 
one of which passes obliquely backwards, and the 
other reaches only half way across the wing : se- 
condary quills tipped with white : rump pale crim- 
son : vent dirty white : legs brown : tail black. 

Common at Hudson's Bay and New York ; and 
is called by the name of Asitchou Achashish, at the 
former place : has been said to have been shot in 
England, but most likely was only an accidental 
variety of the common Crossbill, or one escaped 
from a cage, as North American birds rarely or 
even never occur in Europe: it is said to appear 



234 WHITE-WINGED CROSSBILL. 

at Hudson's Bay in March, and to build its nest 
of mud and feathers in May, about half way up a 
pine tree, laying five white eggs, speckled with 
yellow : the young fly about the middle of June, 
and remain till the end of November, when both 
old and young disappear, and are supposed to 
retire inward. 



235 



LOXIA. GROSBEAK. 



Generic Character. 



Rostrum validum, crassum, 
ad basin rotundatum : man- 
dibula superiore crenata 
aut integra ; inferiore recta, 
apice obtusa. 

Nares parvae, rotundatas, in 
basi rostri. 

Lingua integra. 



Beak strong, thick, and 
rounded at the base ; with 
the upper mandible cre- 
nated or intire; and the 
lower one straight and ob- 
tuse. 

Nostrils small, rounded, and 
situated at the base of the 
beak. 

Tongue intire. 



A HE birds of this genus have a strong and 
thick beak, by means of which they are enabled 
to break the hardest stones of fruit with the 
greatest facility : they are generally a shy and 
solitary race, chiefly residing at a distance from 
the abodes of man : very few of them have much 
beauty in their songs. Their feet have three toes 
before and one behind ; and their food generally 
consists of fruits and seeds : we have but five spe- 
cies of the genus indigenous. 



c 236 



HAWFINCH GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia Coccothraustes.) 

L. cinereo-castanea, linea alarum alba, remigibus mediis apice 

rhombeis, rectricibus latere baseos nigris. 
Grosbeak of a cinereous chesnut-eolour, with a white line on 

the wings ; middle quill-feathers rhomboid at the tip ; lateral 

tail-feathers at the base black. 
Loxia Coccothraustes. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 299. — Lin* Faun. 

Suec. 222. — Amcen: Acad. 4. 594. 122. — Gmel. Syst, Nat. 1. 

844. — Briss. 3. 219. - 1. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 372. 4. 
Le Gros-bec. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 3. 444. 17. f. 1. — Buff. PI. 

Enl. 99. male. — 100. female. 
Grosbeak. Pen. Brit. Zool. 113. — Pen. Arct. Zool. 2. 354. C. 

Edwards. 168. — L&win. Brit. Birds. 2. 6j. — Lath. Gen. Sun. 

3. 103. 4. — Lath. Syn. Sup. 148. — Bewick. Brit. Birds. 1. 

133. — Mont. Brit. Birds. \. — Don. Brit. Birds. 2.43. 

Weight about two ounces : beak nearly an inch 
long, and one half thick at the base, very strong, 
and pinkish when alive, but fades after death to a 
pale horn-colour : irides grey : crown and cheeks 
bay-coloured : between the beak and eye, and 
round the nostrils, black : chin and throat the 
same : hind part of the neck ash-coloured : back 
and scapulars chesnut-brown : rump and upper 
tail-coverts light brown, inclining to ash-colour : 
breast light brown, tinged with blossom-colour : 
quills dusky black ; the points from the fourth to 
the fifteenth or sixteenth truncated, and some of 
them bent down, which gives the bird a curious 
appearance : primary quills have each of them a 
spot of white about the middle of the inner web : 



42 




JHtanFIITCH &EOSBEAK, 



HAWFINCH GROSBEAK. 237 

some of the secondaries brownish : tail black; the 
inner webs of all but the two middle feathers half 
white from the points : coverts very long, reach- 
ing nearly the whole length of the tail : legs pale 
brown : female is said to want the black spot on 
the chin ; but that is not to be depended on, as 
both sexes have been found with that mark ; 
however, the female is generally dullest in colour. 
According to Dr. Latham, this species varies very 
much : he says, that the top of the head in some 
is whitish, surrounded with rufous, in others wholly 
black : that the band on the wings in some is al- 
most white, in others grey, and sometimes wholly 
wanting, and that specimens have been seen en- 
tirely black. 

This bird is common in Italy, Germany, Swe- 
den, and the southern parts of Russia : it is like- 
wise found in France and England, but does not 
breed in the latter place : it is said to build its 
nest about twelve feet from the ground : it is 
composed of small dry fibres, intermixed with 
liverwort, and lined with finer materials : the eggs 
are of a blueish green, spotted with olive-brown, 
with a few irregular black markings. 

From the great strength of the beak of this 
bird, it is enabled to crack the stones of haws, 
and other fruits, with the same facility that smaller 
birds do hemp seed : it usually appears in this 
country in the autumn, and continues with us till 
April, but is very scarce, as rarely more than four 
or five are seen together : it is said to sing very 
pleasantly in low plaintive notes, even in the win- 



238 PINE GROSBEAK. 

ter, when the weather has been warm. It is some- 
times called Cherry-finch, from its feeding on that 
fruit. 



PINE GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia Enucleator.) 



L. sordide roseojiisco griseoque varia, linea alarum duplici alba, 

rectricibus totis nigricantibus. 
Dull rosy Grosbeak, varied with brown and grey, with a double 

white line on the wings ; tail-feathers entirely black. 
Loxia Enucleator. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 299. 3. Lin. Faun. Suec. 

223. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 845.— Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 372. 5. 
Coccothraustes canadensis. — Bris. 3. 250. 15. t. 12. f. 3. 
Le Dur-bec, ou Gros-bec de Canada. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 3. 

457.— Buff. PI. Enl. 135. 1. 
Greatest Bulfinch. Edwards. 123. male. 124. female. 
Pine Grosbeak. Pen. Brit. Zool. 114. 49. 2. — Pen. Arct. Zool. 

2. 209. — Lexvin. Brit. Birds. 2. 68. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 7. 111. 

5. — Lath. Syn. Sup. 148. — Mont. Brit. Birds. 1. — Don. Brit. 

Birds. 1. 1/. — Bewick. Brit. Birds. 1. 135. 

The Pine Grosbeak is rather longer than the 
Hawfinch ; being almost nine inches in length : 
beak very stout at the base, hooked at the tip, 
and dusky : head, neck, breast, and rump, rose- 
coloured crimson ; back, and lesser wing-coverts, 
black ; each feather edged with reddish brown ; 
greater wing-coverts tipped with white, forming 
two bars of that colour on the wing : quills black, 
with pale edges ; secondaries the same, but edged 
with white : belly and vent straw-coloured : tail 
similar in markings to the quills, and somewhat 




y-'flM 



Fine geosbeak. 



PINE GROSBEAK. 239 

forked : legs brown : female brown, tinged with 
green ; in some yellowish : young bird plain dull 
blue. 

This bird is only found in the northern parts of 
this kingdom, inhabiting the pine forests of Scot- 
land, feeding on the seeds of those trees like the 
common Crossbill. It is supposed to breed there, 
as Mr. Pennant observed them flying about in the 
beginning of August, near Invercauld, in Aber- 
deenshire. Is also found in the pine forests of 
Siberia, Lapland, and the northern parts of Russia; 
in the autumn is very common about St. Peters- 
burgh, where it is taken for the use of the table. 
In Hudson's Bay this bird is observed to feed on 
the buds of the willow, and to frequent the groves 
of firs and junipers, making its nest about May 
with sticks, lined with feathers, at a little distance 
from the ground, laying four white eggs ; the 
young are hatched the beginning of June : it is 
called Wuscunithoiv at the latter place. 



240 



GRENADIER GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia Orix.) 

L. sanguitiea, facie pectoreque atris, alis rectricibusque nigrican- 

tibus. 
Blood-coloured Grosbeak, with the face and breast black; wings 

and tail-feathers blackish. 
Loxia Orix. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 853. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 

376. 17. — Lin. Mant. 527. 
Emberiza Orix. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 309.7. 
Cardinalis Capitis Bonae Spei. Bris. 3. 1 14. 21 . t. Q.f. 3. 
Cardinal du Cap de Bonne Esperance. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 

3. 496.— Buff. PL Enl. Q.f. 2. male- 134./. 1. female. 
Le rouge noire. Buff. Hist. Nat* Ois. 3. 46. 
Gros-bec de Cayenne. Buff. PI. Enl. SQQ-f. 2. 
Grenadier Grosbeak. Edwards. 178. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 120. 

16. — Lath. Syn. Sup. 

Size of the Madagascar Grosbeak : forehead, 
sides of the head, chin, breast and belly black : 
wings brown, with pale edges : rest of the body of 
a most beautiful red : lower part of the thighs 
brown : legs pale. This bird varies very much, 
and is sometimes found with the tail of the same 
colour as the w T ings, and the knees without the 
brown mark : the black mark on the chin is often 
wanting, and the tail-coverts are occasionally so 
long, that the tail itself is quite hid. 

This species is gregarious, and builds its nest in 
large societies, among the reeds, near the rivers 
and ponds in the vicinity of the Cape of Good 
Hope and St. Helena : the appearance of these 
birds anion 2; the reeds is said to have a most beau- 



44 




■J?^ 



G-jRieiolIdier grosbeak. 



MEXICAN GROSBEAK. 241 

tiful effect, from the brilliancy of their colours : 
they are said to devour the blossoms of the wheat, 
and afterwards the corn. 



MEXICAN GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia mexicana.) 



L. rubra, alls caudaquc nigris, tinctura nifescente. 

Red Grosbeak with the wings and tail black, with a red tinge. 

Loxia mexicana. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1 . 300. 7. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 

1. 848. — Briss. 3. 256. 18. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 377- 18. 
Mexican Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 121. 17. 

Rather larger than the Hawfinch : length about 
seven inches : prevailing colour of the plumage 
blood-red : quills and tail blackish ; the coverts 
of the latter with a red tinge : wings reaching to 
the middle of the tail. Found at Mexico. 



v. ix. p. 11. 3 7 



242 



BLACK-CRESTED GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia coronata.) 

L. cristata, supra coccinea subtus cyanea, macula colli inferioris 

cristaque nigris. 
Crested Grosbeak, above crimson, beneath blue, with a spot on 

the lower part of the neck, and crest black. 
Loxia coronata. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 859. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 

1.391.71. 
Pyrrhula Americana cristata. Briss. 3.327. 10. 
La Huppe noire. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 3g7. 
Black-crested Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 150. 67. 

This bird is larger than the Bullfinch : length 
almost six inches : beak half an inch long, and 
white : head with a black crest : upper parts of 
the body, including the wings and tail, rich scar- 
let : under parts blue : neck with a black spot on 
the middle of the fore-part. Inhabits America. 




B E ■ JD> E B GlO § BEAK 



243 



BLACK-HEADED GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia erythromelas.) 

L. rubra, remigibus rectricibusque obscurioribus, capite atro. 
Red Grosbeak, with the quills and tail-feathers more obscure, 

and head black. 
Loxia erythromelas. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 859. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 

1. 391. 70. 
Black-headed Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 150. 66. t. 43. 

Nine inches in length : beak black at the tip, 
and white at the base ; with a notch on the edge 
of the under mandible, corresponding to a process 
on the upper one : head and throat black : pre- 
vailing colour of the plumage dull crimson, in- 
clining to pink on the under parts : quills dusky- 
red : tail the same, and rounded, with the feathers 
pointed at the tips : legs brown. The female with 
the head and throat black: upper parts of the 
body greenish orange, with a few patches of red : 
sides of the neck deep orange-red : lower parts 
orange-yellow : quills olive-green ; some of them 
rufous on the outer edges. 

Inhabits Cayenne. 



244 



MADAGASCAR GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia madagascariensis.) 

L. rubra, dorso nigricante-maculato, rostro albo. 

Red Grosbeak with the back spotted with blackish, and beak 

white. 
Loxia madagascariensis. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 300. 6. — Gmel. Syst. 

Nat. 1. 847. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 376. 16. 
Cardinalis madagascariensis. Briss. 3. 112. 20. t. 6.f. 2. 
Le Foudis. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 3. 4Q5. 
Moineau de Madagascar. Buff. PI. Enl. 134. f. 1. 
Madagascar Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 119. 15. — Lath. 

Syn. Sup. 150. 

This beautiful species is the size of a House 
Sparrow : length above five inches : beak white : 
head, neck, back, breast, and belly, bright crim- 
son : quills and tail brown, margined with olive- 
green : legs grey-brown : young bird olive. Is 
known at Madagascar by the name of Foudi lahe 
?nena>, and in India, by that of the Common Totty. 



245 



CAUCASIAN GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia rubicilla.) 

X<. coccinea albo metadata, abdomine crissoque roseis, tectricibus 

alarum majoribusfuscis, cauda nigra. 
Crimson Grosbeak, spotted with white; abdomen and vent rosy; 

greater wing-coverts brown ; tail black. 
Loxia rubicilla. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 846. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 

372. 6. 
Caucasian Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 2. 112.6. 

The upper mandible of the beak of this bird is 
brown, the under whitish : eyes brown : upper part 
of the head and body, the fore-part of the neck and 
breast, deep crimson, varied with triangular white 
spots : greater wing-coverts and quills brown, edged 
with rose-colour : belly and vent of the latter co- 
lour, undulated with whitish: thighs hoary 1 un- 
der tail-coverts rosy brown : tail glossy black, three 
inches and a half in length, the outer feathers with 
whitish margins, the rest rose-coloured : legs and 
claws black : female not quite so bright. 

Found about the gravelly hollows, in the coldest 
parts of the Caucasian mountains, flying in large 
flocks, and living on the berries of the sea buck- 
thorn : it has a note similar to the Bullfinch. 



246 



SIBERIAN GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia sibirica.) 

L. coccineajusco maculata, subtus pallide coccinea, capistro pur- 
purea, alls albo nigroque jasciatis, rectricibus nigris, extima 
alba. 

Scai-let Grosbeak with brown spots, beneath paler ; capistrum 
purple ; wings banded with black and white ; tail-feathers 
black ; the outer ones white. 

Loxia sibirica. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 849. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 
378. 23.— Pall. It. 2. 711.24. 

Siberian Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 124. 21. - 

Feathers round the base of the beak deep pur- 
ple : head and back in some vermillion, in others 
rose-colour, marked with brown ; the feathers of 
the former have the tips of a fine polished white, 
in certain positions of light appearing most vivid: 
base of the wings and coverts white, the latter with 
black tips, forming a double oblique bar on the 
wings : quills margined with white : under parts 
pale rose-colour : tail longer than the body ; the 
outer feathers white ; the others black, with pale 
margins : female and young birds of the colour of 
the linnet, with a red tinge on the belly and rump. 

Inhabits the bushy shrubs about the rivers and 
torrents of the southern mountains of Siberia : is 
fond of the seeds of the mug-wort, and in win- 
ter unites in small flocks, and keeps among the 
shrubs in the warmest situation, and is very rest- 
less : it is a most elegant bird. 



24/ 



INDIAN GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia boetonensis.) 

L. cristata rubra, rostri bast tectricibusque alarum obscurioribus , 
rostro pedibusque Jiavis. 

Crested red Grosbeak, with the base of the beak and wing- 
coverts more obscure ; beak and feet yellow. 

Loxia boetonensis. Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 376- 15. 

Loxia Indica. Gmel. Si/st. Nat. 1. 847 • 

Coccothraustes Indica. Briss. 3. 252. 10. 

Indian Grosbeak, Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. lip. 14. 

Inhabits India : length eight inches : beak yel- 
low, one inch in length : head crested : the whole 
bird fine red, except the beak and wing-coverts, 
which are dull red : legs yellow : toes long : claws 
sharp and bent. 



248 



CARDINAL GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia Cardinalis.) 

L. cristata rubra, capistro nigro, rostro pedibusque sanguineis.. 
Red-crested Grosbeak with the capistrum black, beak and feet 

red. 
Loxia Cardinalis. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 300. 5. — Amcen. Acad. 

4. 242. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 847.— Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 375. 14. 
Coccothraustes virginiana. Briss. 3. 255. 17. 
Gros-bec de Virginie. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 3. 458. 28.— Buff. 

PI. Enl. 37. 
Red Grosbeak. Albin. 1. 57. male. 3. 6l. female. 
Cardinal Grosbeak. Pen. Arct. Zool. 210. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 

3. 118. 13. — Lath. Syn. Sup. 150. 

Length eight inches : beak pale red, and stout : 
irides hazel : head crested : round the beak and 
on the throat black : rest of the plumage fine red ; 
but not so bright on the quills and tail : legs pale 
red : female almost entirely of a reddish brown. 

This species is very tame, and has a very fine 
song, much resembling that of the nightingale ; 
during the spring and summer it sits on the tops 
of the highest trees, singing very loud : it is often 
kept in cages, and generally sings throughout the 
year. It is fond of maize and buckwheat, and is 
said to collect great quantities together, which it 
covers with leaves and twigs, leaving only a small 
hole for an entrance ; it is also stated to be fond 
of bees. It is met with in several parts of North 
America, appearing in New York, and the Jerseys, 
about the beginning of April, frequenting the 



46 










Cardinal Grosbeak. 



PURPLE GROSBEAK. 249 

Magniola swamps during summer, and departing 
in the autumn towards Carolina. 



PURPLE GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia violacea.) 



L. violacea, superciliis gula crissoque rubris. 

Violet Grosbeak, with a streak above the eyes ; the throat and 

vent red. 
Loxia violacea. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 306. 43. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 

1. 864. — Lath. Ind. Om. 1. 375. 13. 
Pyrrhula bahamensis violacea. Briss. 3. 326. Q. 
Le Bouvreuil a gorge et sourcils rouges. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 

4. 396. . , 

Purple Grosbeak. Pen. Arct. Zool. 2. 218. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 

117. 12. 

The Purple Grosbeak inhabits the Bahama 
Islands, Jamaica, and the warmer parts of Ame- 
rica, and is about the size of a Sparrow : length 
five inches and three quarters : beak black : irides 
red : chin, vent, and a streak over the eye, red : 
rest of the plumage violet-black : legs dusky-grey : 
the red of the female is not quite so bright, and 
she is brown in those parts where the male is 
black. 



250 



BLUE GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia caerulea.) 

L. ccerulea, alis Jiiscis-> fascia baseos purpurea. 

Blue Grosbeak with brown wings, having a purple fascia at the 

base. 
Loxia cserulea. Liu. Sysi. Nat. 1. 306. 41. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 

1. 863. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 374. 11. 
Pyrrhula carolinensis caerulea. Briss. 3. 323. 7. 
Le Bee rond, ou Bouvreuil bleu d' Amerique. Buff. Hist. Nat. 

Ois. 4. 392. 
Blue Grosbeak. Pen. Arct. Zool. 2. 217. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 

116. 11. 
/3. remigibus rectricibusque nigris. 
With the quills and tail-feathers black. 
Loxia cyanea. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 303. 32. — Amcen. Acad. 4. 

244. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 853. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 374. 12. 
Coccothraustes angolensis cyanea. Briss. App. 88. 
Blue Grosbeak from Angola. Edivards. 125. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 

3. 117. 11. B. 

This variable bird is in length six inches : beak 
stout, brown, and half an inch in length ; sur- 
rounded at the base with black feathers, which 
reach on each side as far as the eye : quills and 
tail brown, with a mixture of green: wing-coverts 
with a red band : all the rest of the plumage blue : 
legs dusky : is sometimes found entirely blue, ex- 
cept a black spot between the beak and eye. 

Edwards mentions a variety which has a lead- 
coloured beak : irides dark hazel : prevailing co- 
lour of a fine deep blue, except the quills and 
tail, which are black : legs black : said to have 




>I«1TJE GlOSlEATK 



BLUE-SHOULDERED GROSBEAK. 251 

been brought from Angola, but was most pro- 
bably procured from some of the Portuguese set- 
tlements in Brazil : by the Portuguese it is called 

Azulam. 



BLUE-SHOULDERED GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia virens.) 

L. virens, humeris cceruleis. 

Green Grosbeak, with the shoulders blue. 

Loxia virens. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 303. 23. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 

853. — Lath. Lid. Orn. 1. 392. 74. 
Blue-shouldered Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 151. 70. 

Wing- coverts and shoulders blue : quills and 
tail black ; with greenish margins : rest of the 
bird green. Inhabits Surinam. 



252 



GREY GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia grisea.) 

L. ccerideo-grisea, facie colloque inferiore albis. 

Blueish-grey Grosbeak, with the face and lower part of the 

neck white. 
Loxia grisea. Gmel. Si/st. Nat. 1. 857. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 

382. 38. 
Le Grisalbin. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 3. 467- 
Gros-bec de Virginie. Buff. PI. Enl. 3Q3.f. 1. 
Grey Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 134. 35.— Pen. Arct. 

Zool, 2. 219. 

This bird inhabits Virginia, and is about the 
size of the Blue Titmouse, with the beak dark 
brown : neck, and front of the head, white : the 
rest of the body blue-grey : legs reddish, and 
claws brown. It is in length four inches. 



2.53 



WHITE-THROATED GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia grossa.) 

L. cano-ceerulescens,jugulo rectricibusque atris, gula alba, rostro 

rubro. 
Hoary-blue Grosbeak, with the jugulum and tail-feathers dark 

coloured; throat white ; beak red. 
Loxia grossa. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 307- 44. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 

864. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 374. 10. 
Coccothraustes americanus coerulea. Briss. App. SQ. t. 5.f. 1. 

—Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 3. 456. 
Gros-bec bleu d'Amerique. Buff. PI. Enl. 154. female. 
White-throated Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Sup. 3. 115. 10. 

Length seven inches and a half: beak very- 
stout, and red ; with a process on each side of the 
upper mandible, about the middle of the edge : 
prevailing colour of the plumage deep blue : from 
the beak to the lower part of the neck, a broad 
black stripe ; in the middle of which, on the chin 
and throat, is a large patch of white : legs dusky- 
blue : female with less white on the chin, and not 
surrounded with black, as in the male. Supposed 
to inhabit Surinam. 



254 



WAX-BILL GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia astrilda.) 

L. griseaffusco undulata, rostro, orbitisque coccineis. 

Grey Grosbeak with brown undulations, the beak and orbits 

crimson. 
Loxia astrilda. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 303. 21 . — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 

852. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 392. 75. 
Senegalus striatus. Briss. 3. 210. 64. t. 10.^/. 5. 
Le Senegali raye. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 101. I.f. 2.— Buff. 

PI. Enl. 157./. 2. 
Wax-bill Grosbeak. Edwards. 179. 354. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 

152. 71. A. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. 198. 18. 
j3. subtus albida, uropygio crissoque coccineis. 
Beneath whitish, with the rump and vent crimson. 
Le Serevan. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 103. 
Moineau du Senegal. Buff. PI. Enl. 230. f. 3. 
Red-rumped Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 153. — Brown. III. 

t.29. 
y. subtus uropygioque incarnata. 
Beneath and with the rump rose-coloured. 
Le petit moineau du Senegal. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 104. — 

Biff. PI. Enl. 230. /. 2. 
White-rumped Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 153. 71. B. 

This is one of the most variable birds of the 
genus : it is four inches in length : beak gibbous at 
the base, and the colour of red sealing-wax : in co- 
lour this bird varies exceedingly ; it is often found 
with a streak of red passing through the eye ; and 
with the middle of the breast and belly the same 
colour : the upper parts of the body brown, the 
under reddish grey, crossed with transverse black- 
ish lines on every part: legs, quills, and tail, brown; 



WAX-BILL GROSBEAK. 255 

the latter wedge-shaped, and crossed with lines of 
darker brown : some birds have the vent and under 
tail-coverts black ; and the tail plain brown. 

The second variety has the head and back part 
of the neck cinereous : back, and wing-coverts, 
brown : greater quills and tail dusky : upper tail- 
coverts, and band on the vent, crimson : breast 
and belly dirty white : this is also subject to va- 
riety, as it is sometimes found with the sides of 
the rump and wing-coverts spotted with white, 
and with a yellow tinge all over the body : others 
again have the under parts pale yellow, and the 
beak and rump without any red. 

The last distinct variety has a crimson streak 
through the eyes, in the manner of the first : with 
the throat, and sides of the neck, blueish-white : 
the rest of the under parts of the body and rump 
rose-coloured white : the top of the head, neck, 
and back, pale blue, lightest on the head : wings 
brown : tail blackish : legs red. 

We are informed by Mr. Barrow that this bird 
is so abundant where it is found, that sixty-three 
have been shot with a small fowling-piece : it in- 
habits Africa from Senegal to the Cape of Good 
Hope j it is also found in India, and, according to 
Linnseus, in Surinam. 



256 



RED-BILLED GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia sanguinirostris.) 

L. grisea subtus albida, rostra pedibusque sanguineis, gula nigra. 
Grey Grosbeak, beneath whitish, with the beak and feet blood 

red, and throat black. 
Loxia sanguinirostris. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 303. 20. — Amcsn. 

Acad. 4. 243.— Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 851. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 

3y2. 73. 

Emberiza Quelea. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 310. 8. — Gmel Syst. Nat. 

1. 877. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 409. 31. 
Passer senegalensis erythrorynchos. Briss. 3. 110. 19. 2. Q.f. 1. 
Passer erythrorynchos Capitis Bonae Spei. Briss. 3. 108. 18. t. 

5.f. 4. female. 
Le moineau a bee rouge. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 3. 485. — Buff. 

PL Enl. 183../ 2. 
Brazilian Sparrow. Edwards. 27\.f. 2. 
Black-faced Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 1QQ. 28. 
Red-billed Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 151. 69. 
/3. rufo-rubra, supra fusco nigricanteque variegata, facie gulaque 

nigra. 
Rufous- red, above variegated with fuscous and dusky, face and 

throat black. 
Moineau du Senegal. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 3. -184.— Buff. PL 

Enl. 223./ 1. 
Black-faced Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 1Q3. 28. A. 

This is the size of Fringilla Spinus : beak thick, 
and of a deep blood red : forehead above the eye, 
and round to the chin, black : rest of the head, 
neck, back, and wings, grey brown : breast, belly, 
and bend of the wing, yellowish white : quills and 
tail brown : legs pale red : middle of the feathers 
sometimes blackish. 



RED-BILLED GROSBEAK. 257 

This species varies very much, so much so as 
to have been put into different genera, being 
sometimes found with the forehead, throat, and 
cheeks, black : the rest of the head and. upper 
parts rufous grey : the middle of the feathers on 
the back and upper parts dusky : the under parts 
pale rufous, inclining to white on the breast and 
belly : quills and tail blackish, with ash-coloured 
margins : legs as above : female said to want the 
black about the head. 

The Moineau du Senegal of Buffon appears to 
be another variety of this species : it has the head, 
neck, and under parts red, inclining to rufous : 
upper parts brown and dusky mixed : the fore- 
head between the beak and eye, and round the 
throat, black : legs brown : beak fine red. 

This species is found over great part of Asia 
and Africa, 



v. IX. p. ir. 



258 



BENGAL GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia bengalensis.) 

L. grisea, pileojlavo, temporibus albidis, abdomine albido Jiisco 

maculato. 
Grey Grosbeak, with the top of the head yellow, temples white ; 

abdomen whitish, with brownish spots. 
Loxia bengalensis. Lin. Syst. Nat. I. 305. 32. — Gmel. Syst. 

Nat. 1. 85/. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 382. 36. Briss. 3. Q5. 11. 
L'Orchef. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 3. 466. 
Gros-bec des Indes. Buff. PI. Enl. 393. f. 2. 
Yellow-headed Indian Sparrow. Edwards. 189. 
Bengal Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 133. 33. 

Larger than the House Sparrow: length five 
inches and a half: beak flesh-coloured: irides 
whitish : top of the head bright yellow : sides of 
the head, and under parts, rufous white : upper 
parts of the body brown, with pale edges : across 
the breast a brown band, uniting to the same co- 
lour on the upper parts of the body : legs pale 
yellow : claws grey : female similar in colour, but 
not so bright. 

This bird is very common in Hindostan : it is 
very docile, and faithful, never voluntarily de- 
serting the place where its young are hatched, 
but not averse, like most birds, to the society of 
mankind; it is easily taught to perch on the hand 
of its master. It generally builds its nest on the 
highest tree it can find, and prefers that which 
happens to overhang a well or rivulet : it is made 
of grass, and wove like cloth into the shape of a 



CINEREOUS GROSBEAK. 259 

large bottle, and suspended firmly on the branches, 
in such a manner as to rock with the wind ; the en- 
trance is below, to secure it from birds of prey. 
The nest usually consists of two or three cham- 
bers ; and it is popularly believed that the bird 
lights them with fire-flies, which it is said to catch 
alive at night, and confine with moist clay, or 
cow-dung : that such flies are often found in its 
nest, where pieces of cow-dung are also stuck, is 
indubitable ; but as their light could be of little 
service to the bird, it seems probable that it only 
feeds on them. 



CINEREOUS GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia cana.) 



L. cana, remigibus rectricibusque fuscis, pedibus rubris. 

Hoary Grosbeak, with the quills and tail-feathers brown ; feet 

red. 
Loxia cana. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 305. 35. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 

859. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 393. 77. 
Fringilla cinerea indica. Briss. Sup. 83. 
La Linotte gris de fer. Buff'. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 82. 
Grey Finch. Edvoards. \7$.f. 1. 
Cinereous Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 154. 73. 

About the size of a Linnet : beak pale cine- 
reous ; the base of the under mandible white : eyes 
blackish: temples pale: upper parts of the plumage 
dark ash-colour, which, as it approaches the rump, 
gets paler : greater quills white at the base, and 



260 CRESTED GROSBEAK. 

blackish at the ends : under parts pale blueish- 
ash : tail blackish, edged with pale ash : legs dull 
flesh-colour : inhabits Asia. 



CRESTED GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia cristata.) 



L. albicans ,fronte cristata, uropygio pedibusque rubris, rectrki- 

bus duabus intermediis longissimis. 
Whitish Grosbeak with the forehead crested, rump and feet 

red, and two middle tail-feathers very long. 
Loxia cristata. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 301. Q. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 

849. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 378. 24. 
Crested Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 125. 23. 

Said to inhabit Ethiopia ; and to be very large: 
prevailing colour whitish : the forehead crested, 
and, with the breast and rump, red: tail cinereous; 
two middle feathers twice as long as the rest : legs 
red : in the female the crest and breast are white. 



26l 



ASIATIC GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia asiatica.) 

L. cinereo-rubescens subtus cinerea, abdomine pallide rubro, ca- 

pite tectricibus alarum majoribus remigibus caudaque apice 

nigris. 
Reddish ash-coloured Grosbeak, beneath plain ash; abdomen 

pale red ; head, greater wing-coverts, quills, and tip of the 

tail, black. 
Loxia asiatica. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 858. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 

394. 83. 
Asiatic Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 155. QQ.—Lath. Syn. 

Sup. 153. 76. A. 

In length about seven inches : beak stout, 
slightly bent, and yellowish, with the point dusky: 
irides red : head black : upper part of the neck, 
body, and lesser wing-coverts, blueish ash-colour ; 
beneath the same, but paler ; with an orange tinge 
beneath the wings : greater wing-coverts, quills, 
and tail, black: quills, and two middle tail-fea- 
thers, with white tips : legs red. Is said to vary- 
in having the upper parts of the body reddish 
ash : belly pale red ; and the quills, greater co- 
verts, and tail, with black tips : called Lap-tzoy 
in China, of which place it is a native. 



262 



WHITE-TAILED GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia leucoura.) 

L. cinerea, dorso luteo, pectore abdominequejlavescentibus, Cauda 

alba, rectricibus duabus extimis nigris. 
Cinereous Grosbeak with the back yellow, breast and abdomen 

yellowish ; tail white, and the two outward tail-feathers black. 
Loxia leucoura. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 852. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 

393. 76. 
White-tailed Wax-bill Finch. Brown. III. t. 29. 
White-tailed Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 154. 72. 

In length three inches : beak of a beautiful 
red, similar in colour to sealing-wax : head ci- 
nereous : back fine yellow : breast and belly pale 
yellow : wing-coverts ash-coloured : tail white, the 
two outer feathers black : legs flesh-colour. In- 
habits Brasil. 



MALABAR GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia malabarica.) 



L. cinerea, remigibus rcctricibusque nigris, gula crissoque albis. 
Cinereous Grosbeak, with the quills and tail-feathers black ; 

throat and vent white. 
Loxia malabarica. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 305. 53.— -Gmel. Syst. 

Nat. 1. 857.— Lath. Ind. Orn. 1.394. 81. 
Malabar Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 154. ?4. 

This bird is of the size and shape of a Titmouse : 
the beak is black : throat white : body cinereous: 
vent whitish : quills and tail black : found in the 
East Indies and Malabar. 



26*3 



PARADISE GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia erythrocephala.) 

L. cinerascens , capite purpurascente, pectore albo maculato. 
Ash-coloured Grosbeak with the head purplish, and breast 

spotted with white. 
Loxia erythrocephala. Lin. Syst. Nat. ]. 301. 10. — Gmel, Syst. 

Nat. 1. 849. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 377. 20. 
Cardinalis angolensis. Briss. App. 70. 69- 
Sparrow of Paradise. Edwards. 180. 
Paradise Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 122. 19. — Lath. Syn. 

Sup. 156. 

About six inches in length : beak flesh-colour : 
head and chin red : hind part of the neck, back, 
rump, and wing-coverts, blueish-ash : under parts 
white, marked with black waved spots on the 
sides : wing-coverts tipped with white, forming 
two bars of that colour on the wing : quills and 
tail deep ash, with grey tips ; the upper coverts 
of the latter margined with grey : legs flesh-colour. 
Found at Angola j has been bred in an aviary, but 
the young ones died, as they were forsaken by the 
mother, in consequence of being too much dis- 
turbed : the male has a very low note, and fre- 
quently sings. 



264 



CRESTED DOMINICAN GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia cucullata.) 

L. cinerea, capite cristato gulaque coccineis y pectore abdomineque 

albis, cauda longiore, rectricibus lateralibus nigricantibus. 
Greyish Grosbeak with the head crested, and with the throat 

crimson ; breast and abdomen white ; tail long, the lateral 

feathers blackish. 
Loxia cucullata. Lath. Lid. Orn. 1. 378. 22. 
Le Cardinal dominiquain huppe de la Louisiane. Buff. Hist, 

Nat. Ois. 3. 501.— Buff. Pl.Enl. 103. 
Crested Dominical Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 123. 20. A. 

Inhabits Brasil: head with a long pointed 
crest, and with the fore-part of the neck red: 
back and wings cinereous : under parts white : 
tail rather long, with the two middle feathers 
cinereous, the rest dusky. 



48 




Crested Dominican Grosbeak, 



265 



FRONTAL GROSBEAK, 
(Loxia frontalis. ) 

L. cinereo-grisea subtus alba, vertice el cervice rufescentibus. 
Grey ash-coloured Grosbeak, beneath white ; crown of the head 

and upper part of the neck i-eddish. 
Loxia frontalis. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. XL VI. 4. — Daud. Orn. 2. 

445. 
Frontal Grosbeak. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. 196. 12. 

Described by Monsieur Daudin : beak pale 
grey : on the forehead and at the base of the beak 
are a few black feathers with white tips : crown of 
the head and upper part of the neck pale rufous : 
throat and under parts of the body white : upper 
parts cinereous grey : legs and claws pale grey : 
inhabits Senegal. 



266 



YELLOW-HEADED GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia mexicana.) 

L. grisea,Jronte gula uropygio superciliisque luteis. 

Grey Grosbeak, with the forehead, throat, rump, and line over 

the eyes yellow. 
Loxia mexicana. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1.304. 2G.—Gmel. Syst. Nat. 

1. 854. — Briss. 3. Q7. 12. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 385. 50. 
La Linotte a tete jaune. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 83. 
Yellow-headed Grosbeak. Edwards. Birds. 44.— Lath. Gen. 

Syn. 3. 140. 46. 

Inhabits Mexico : length near six inches : beak 
pale flesh-colour : irides hazel : front of the head, 
cheeks, and throat yellow; with a brown band 
passing behind the eyes towards the back : upper 
parts of the body dull brown, with black spots ; 
lower parts pale brown, with dull brown spots : 
quills and tail blackish : legs dull brown. 



267 



PRASINE GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia piasina.) 

L. subtus cano-Jlavicans, uropygio rubro, pedibus flams. 

Mas. supra viridi-olivacea. 

Foem. supra Jusco-olivacea, uropygio obsolete rubro. 

Grosbeak beneath whitish yellow, with the rump red, and feet 

yellow. 
Male above olive-green. 

Female above brown-olive, with the rump obsoletely red. 
Loxia prasina. Lath. hid. Orn. 1. 396- 91« 
Prasine Grosbeak. Lath. Syn. Sup. LL 1Q5. 8. 

Inhabits the corn fields in the island of Java : 
male olive-green above, and yellowish grey be- 
neath, with a few red spots on the belly, rump 
wholly red : tail rounded, black ; the two middle 
feathers red above, the others red on the outer 
margin alone : legs yellow : female olive-brown 
above, and yellow grey beneath : rump dull red 1 
quills cinereous, eight of the secondaries whitish 
on the anterior margins and tips : tail-feathers 
black with white tips : beak in both sexes black. 



268 



PARROT-BILLED GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia psittacea.) 

L. olivaceofasca, capite collogue Jlavis, mandibula superiore 

adunca, brferiore subtruncata. 
Olive-brown Grosbeak, with the head and neck yellow ; the 

upper mandible bent downwards, and the under one slightly 

truncate. 
Loxia psittacea. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 844. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 

371. 3. 
Parrot-billed Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 108. 3. t. 42. 

The beak of this bird is very like that of a Par- 
rot, the under mandible being much shorter than 
the upper, pale, but dusky at the tip ; head and 
part of the neck in the male yellow : the rest of 
the plumage greenish olive-brown, paler beneath : 
edges of the quills and tail yellowish : legs pale 
brown : female similar to the male, except the 
head, which only differs in colour from the other 
parts of the body in having the sides spotted with 
yellowish grey : tail in both sexes even at the end. 
Inhabits the Sandwich Islands. 



269 



CANADA GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia canadensis.) 

L. viridi-olivacea, subtusjlavo-olivacea, capistro nigro. 
Green-olive Grosbeak, beneath yellow olive, with the capistrum 

black. 
Loxia canadensis. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 304. 29. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 

1. 856. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 379. 29- 
Coccothraustes cayanensis. Briss. 3. 229. 4. t. W.f. 3. 
Le Flavert, Gros-bec de Cayenne. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 3. 462. 

—Buff. PL Enl. 152. f. 2. 
Canada Grosbeak. Pen. Arct. Zool. 2. 220. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 

3. 127. 27. 

Size of Fringilla domestica : length near seven 
inches : edges of the beak slightly margined in the 
middle, and ash-coloured : upper parts of the body 
olive-green : under parts the same, but paler and 
inclining to yellow : capistrum and chin black : 
legs grey : is sometimes found of a blue-grey co- 
lour above, instead of olive-green, and pale grey 
beneath : female cinereous brown : found at Cay- 
enne, and supposed by Linnaeus to be a native of 
Canada. 



270 



BROWN-CHEEKED GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia canora.) 

L. virescens subtus cinerea, genisjiiscis flavo circumdatis . 
Greenish Grosbeak, beneath ash-coloured, with the cheeks 

brown, surrounded with yellow. 
Loxia canora. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 858. — Lath. Lnd. Orn. 1. 

394. 84. 
Brown-cheeked Grosbeak. Broivn. III. 56. t. 24. — Lath. Gen. 

Syn. 3. 155. 77. — Lath. Syn. Sup. 154. 

This bird has a very pleasant and agreeable soft 
note : it is called Tomtelio in Mexico ; and is the 
size of a Titmouse, with the beak stout, thick, and 
dusky : cheeks brown, margined with a broad yel- 
low band extending from beyond the ears to the 
throat: breast and abdomen cinereous : legs whitish : 
the rest of the plumage pale dirty green. 



271 



YELLOW-BELLIED GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia flaviventris.) 

L. viridi-olivacea, dorso Jicsco maculato, subtus superciliisque 
luteis. 

Green-olive Grosbeak, with the back spotted with fuscous, be- 
neath and line over the eyes yellow. 

Loxia flaviventris. Gmel. Syst.Nat. 1. 856. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 
1.384. 46. 

Coccothraustes lutea Capitis Bona? Spei. Briss. 3. 227- 3. 1. 11. 

Yellow-bellied Grosbeak. Lath. Gen, Syn.3. 138. 42. 

Five inches in length : beak pale coloured : on 
each side of the head passing over the eye is a 
stripe of yellow : head, hind part of the neck, and 
back olive-green, sprinkled with brown : quills and 
tail brown, with olive-green edges : under parts 
of 'the body plain yellow : rump olive-green : tail 
slightly forked : legs grey : female not quite so 
brilliant in colour. This bird varies in having the 
crown of the head, upper parts of the body, and 
breast bright olive-green : hind part of the neck 
ash-colour, which colour passes forward and ends 
in a point on the chin : belly and vent yellow : 
quills black, edged with yellow : rump pale olive- 
green : tail forked, dusky green, shafts of the fea- 
thers black, edges yellow : inhabits the Cape of 
Good Hope. 



272 



AFRICAN GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia africana.) 

L. viridi-fusco griseoque variegata, subtus alba, tectricibus alarum 

nifis, rectrice extima macula alba. 
Green-brown Grosbeak, variegated with grey, beneath white, 

with the wing-coverts rufous, and the outer tail-feathers with 

a white spot. 
Loxia africana. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 856. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 

384. 43. 
Le Verdier sans Vert. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 1 86. 
African Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 137. 40. 

Near six inches and a half in length : upper 
parts of the body olive-brown and grey, mixed ; 
upper wing-coverts rufous : greater quills edged 
with rufous white ; secondaries with pale rufous : 
under parts of the body white, varied on the breast 
with brown : tail olive-brown ; the outer feathers 
edged with rufous white, and the most exterior 
one with a white spot near the tip. This bird has 
a very great affinity to the common Greenfinch, 
but is very different in colour : it comes from the 
Cape of Good Hope. 



273 



ST. DOMINGO GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia dominicensis.) 

L. viridi-fusca, subtus rirfa fusco maculata, regione oculorum 

crissoque cilbis. 
Green-brown Grosbeak, beneath rufous spotted with brown ; 

space round the eyes and vent white. 
Loxia dominicensis. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 855. — Lath.Ind. Orn. 

1. 383. 42. 
Le Verderin de St. Domingue. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 185. — 

Buff. PI. Enl. 341. f. 2. 
St. Domingo Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 137. 3Q. 

This bird is a native of St. Domingo, and is 
near six inches in length : beak reddish : region of 
the eyes white : plumage above green-brown ; the 
feathers with pale edges : beneath dull rufous 
spotted with brown : hinder parts of the abdomen 
and vent white : quills black : tail and legs dusky 
brown. 



V. TX. P. II. 19 



274 



YELLOW-FRONTED GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia butyracea.) 

L. virescens, front e superciliis pectore abdomineque favis, cauda 

apice alba. 
Greenish Grosbeak, with the forehead, a line over the eyes, and 

abdomen yellow ; tail white at the tip. 
Loxia butyracea. Lin. Si/st. Nat. 1. 304. 28. — Gmel. Si/st. Nat. 

1. 855.— Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 383. 41. 
Le Verd brunet. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 182. 
Verdier du Cap de Bonne Esperance. Buff PI. En/. 341. f. 1. 
Yellow-fronted Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Si/n.3. 136. 38. 

The length of the Yellow-fronted Grosbeak is 
about five inches : beak palish : forehead and tem- 
ples yellow ; which colour joins a streak above the 
eyes : prevailing colour above green spotted with 
brown : beneath entirely yellow : tail blackish, 
slightly forked, and tipped with white : legs black : 
female with a whitish vent; all the quills but the 
outer one dusky, with yellow margins, and pale at 
the tip : lesser wing-coverts black, with green mar- 
gins, and the greater ones the same colour, edged 
with pale brown : native of the Cape of Good 
Hope. 



ns 



PENSILE GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia pensilis.) 

L. viridis suhins grisea, crisso riifo, capite colloque inferior 'e Jlavis, 

remigibus rectricibasque nigris. 
Green Grosbeak, beneath grey, vent rufous, with the head and 

lower part of the neck yellow ; quills and tail-feathers black. 
Loxia pensilis. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 860. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 

381.34. 
Le Nelicourvi de Madagascar. Son. Voy. Ind. 2. 200. 22. 
Pensile Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn, 3. 131. 32. 

This bird is described by Sonnerat as a native 
of Madagascar : it is above five inches in length : 
beak black : irides, head, throat, and fore-part of 
the neck yellow : from the nostrils to the back part 
of the head, passing through the eyes, is a dull 
green stripe, which gets broader after reaching the 
eyes : hinder part of the head and neck, back, 
wing-coverts, and rump yellow : quills black with 
green edges : vent red : belly grey : legs and tail 
black. 

The nest of this bird is composed of straw and 
reeds, and is of the shape of a bag with the opening 
beneath : it is not made fresh every year, but the 
new one is fastened to the end of the old one, till 
at last five or six are found attached together ; 
there are often as many as four or five hundred of 
these nests found on a single tree, these birds being 
very fond of society ; the true nest is on one side 
within : the bird is said to produce only three young 
at a time. 



276 



DOMINICAN GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia dominicana.) 

L. nigra, capite gulaque coccineis, pectore abdomine remigibusque 
margine albis. 

Black Grosbeak, with the head and throat crimson ; breast, ab- 
domen, and quills margined with white. 

Loxia dominicana. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 301. 8. — Amcen. Acad. 
4. 242. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 848. — Lath. Lid. Orn. 1. 377- 
21. 

Dominican Cardinal. Edivards. 12/. 

Dominican Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 123. 20. — Lath. Syn. 
Sup. 151. 

/3. capite anterior e guttureque rubris, rectricibics nigris cinereo 
marginatis ; extima margine exterior e alba. 

With the anterior part of the head and the throat red, tail-fea- 
thers black, margined with cinereous, the outer one with the 
exterior margin white. 

Cardinalis dominicanus. Briss. 3. 11(3. 22. t. Q.J'. 4. 

Cardinal dominiquain. Buff. Hid. Nat. Ois. 3. 500.— Buff. PI. 
Eid. 55. 2. 

Pope Grosbeak. Pen. Arct. Zoo/. 2. 211. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 
124. 20. /3, 

This bird appears to vary very much : it is the 
size of a Lark : beak stoat : the upper mandible 
brown, the under pale flesh-colour : eyes blueish : 
head, throat, and fore-part of the neck bright red : 
hind part of the neck blackish, with a mixture of 
white ; sides of the latter whitish : back, rump, 
wing, upper tail-coverts, and scapulars grey, spot- 
ted with black : breast, belly, thighs, and vent 
whitish: quills black, edged with white : tail black : 
legs cinereous. 



DOMINICAN GROSBEAK. 277 

The Pope Grosbeak of the Arctic Zoology is 
apparently a variety of this bird ; it is of the same 
size, but differs in markings from the above : the 
head as far as the crown, the cheeks, and throat 
are of a fine red, ending in a point on the fore-part 
of the neck : hind head, back of the neck, and all 
the under parts white, with a black stripe running 
down the back of the neck : back, scapulars, and 
rump greyish ; some of the feathers of the former 
margined with black : quills black, with white 
edges ; secondaries partly tipped with the latter 
colour : wing-coverts black, with a white fascia on 
the larger ones : tail similar to the wings : legs 
and claws grey-brown : female with the forehead 
orange-yellow, dotted with red, in other respects 
similar to the male. 

Inhabits Brasil and many parts of North Ame- 
rica. 



278 



RED-BREASTED GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia ludoviciana.) 

L. nigra, pectore rubro, ventre alarum Jascia basique remigum 

albis. 
Black Grosbeak, with the breast red ; belly, quills, and fascia at 

the base of the wings white. 
Loxia ludoviciana. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 306. 38. — Gmel. Syst. 

Nat. 1. 66l. — Lath. Lid. Om. l. 379. 25. 
Coccothraustes ludoviciana. Briss. 3. 247. 14. t. \1.f. 2. 
Le Rose-gorge. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 3. 460. 
Gros-bec de la Louisiane. Buff, PI. Enl. 153. 2. 
Red-breasted Grosbeak. Pen. Arct. Zool. 212. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 

3. 126. 24. 

The Red-breasted Grosbeak is in length six 
inches and three quarters : beak brown : head, 
upper parts of the body and half of the tail black : 
breast and under wing-coverts light purple : belly, 
thighs, vent, and rump white, the first varied with 
a few purple spots : on the wings are three white 
stripes ; one across the coverts, a second parallel 
to the edge of the wing, and the other on the tip 
of the scapulars : half of the three outer tail-fea- 
thers white, and the tip of the fourth on the inner 
web the same : legs brown : varies in having the 
sides of the breast and thighs of a ferruginous 
brown : vent pale yellow. Found at Louisiana. 



9,79 



PEARLED GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia perlata.) 

L, nigra subtusjlisca, postice albo nigroque varia. 

Black Grosbeak, beneath brown ; hinder parts varied with black 

and white. 
Loxia perlata. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. S58. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 

395. 86. 
Pearled Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 156. 79« 

This bird very much resembles L. lineata, and 
may eventually prove nothing but a variety : it is 
an inhabitant of Whidah in Africa, and is the size 
of a Wren, with the head and upper parts of the 
body black : lower parts brown, mixed in a beau- 
tiful manner with black towards the thighs and 
tail : said to have an agreeable note, and to feed 
on grain. 



280. 



ANGOLA GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia angolensis.) 

L. nigro ccerulea, ventre J'errugineo, macula alarum alba. 
Black caerulean Grosbeak, with the belly ferruginous, and a 

white spot on the wing. 
Loxia angolensis. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1 . 303. 24. — Gmel. Syst. Nat, 

1. 854. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 3S9- €0. 
Black Grosbeak. Edivards. 352./. 2. 
Angola Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 145. 53. 

Length five inches : size of the Bullfinch : beak 
dusky : eyes dark-coloured : lower part of the 
breast, abdomen, and vent dull red : spot on the 
middle of the wing and another on the edge white : 
the remainder of the plumage blueish black : legs 
flesh-colour : from Angola. 



281 



RADIATED GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia lineata.) 

L. nigra subtus alba, lateribus corporis basique remigum primorum 

albo nigroque transversim striatis. 
Black Grosbeak, beneath white, with the sides of the body and 

the base of the primary quills transversely striated with black 

and white. 
Loxia lineata. Gmel. Syst. Nat* 1. 858. — Lath. hid. Orn. 1. 

395. 85. 
Radiated Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 176. 78. 

This beautiful little bird is about the size of the 
Linnet, with a stout, thick, and white beak : head, 
neck, breast, and lesser wing-coverts black : se- 
condaries, sides of the body, and base of the 
primaries striated with black and white ; the tips 
of the latter black : abdomen and vent white : tail 
black, three quarters of an inch in length : legs 
dusky. 



282 



NITID GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia nitida.) 

L. lineolis transversis interruptis nigris notata, corpore supra 

Jusco subtus albido, rostro uropygioque coccineis. 
Grosbeak marked with transverse interrupted black lines ; the 

body above fuscous, beneath whitish ; beak and rump crimson. 
Loxia nitida. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. XL VII. g. 
Nitid Grosbeak. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. ]gs. 1/. t. 131. 
fi.grisea nigro transversim lineata, loris nigris, rostro uropygioque 

coccineis. 
Grey, transversely striped with black ; lores black ; beak and 

rump crimson. 
Loxia bella. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. XLVI. 8. 
Black-lined Grosbeak. Lath. Syn. Suj). II. }Q8. 16. 

The Nitid and Black-lined Grosbeaks of Dr. 
Latham do not appear sufficiently distinct from 
each other to warrant their being considered as 
two species. They are both found at New South 
Wales, and are called Weebong: the former is thus 
described by Dr. Latham : " size of the Black-lined 
Grosbeak, but stouter in the body : the general 
colour of the plumage pale olive-brown above, and 
dusky white beneath, crossed every where with 
short abrupt curved lines of black : quills and tail 
brown, marked with several bands of a darker co- 
lour : the beak, irides, lower part of the back and 
rump are crimson : legs yellowish. " The Black- 
lined Grosbeak appears to differ principally in 
having the space between the beak and the eyes 
black; and the feet brown, instead of yellowish. 







Mtitd geosbeak. 



283 



WHITE-WINGED GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia panicivora.) 

L. nigra, alula alba, rostro griseo. 

Black Grosbeak, with the wing white, and beak grey. 

Loxia panicivora. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 302. 15. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 

1. 851.— Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 388.57- 
Pyrrhula Africana nigra. Briss. 3. 317- 4. 
Bouvreuil noir d'Afrique. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 385. 
White-winged Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 144. 52. 

This bird, with the exception of a white spot 
on the wing-coverts, is entirely black : it is a na- 
tive of Africa, and about the size of the Hawfinch : 
the beak is half an inch in length and grey : the 
legs are ash-coloured : length above seven inches, 



284 



LONG-TAILED GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia longicauda.) 

L. nigra, tectricibus alarum dorsoque medio fascia transversa 

rufo-lutea, cauda longiore cuneiformi. 
Black Grosbeak with a transverse rufous yellow fascia on the 

back and wing-coverts ; tail very long and wedge-shaped. 
Loxia longicauda. Lath. Tnd. Orn. 1. 373. 9. 
Loxia macroura. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 845. 
Le Pere-noire a longue queue. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 3. 487- 
Moineau du royaume de Juda. Buff. PI. Enl. 183. 1. 
Long-tailed Grosbeak. Lath. Syn. Sup. 3. 114. 8. 

This bird is a native of "Whidah and Senegal 
in Africa, and is about the size of the House Spar- 
row : length seven inches : prevailing colour of 
the plumage black, with a rufous yellow bar across 
the back and wing-coverts : tail wedge-shaped, 
and nearly half the length of the bird : beak and 
legs dusky. 



285 



GOLD-BACKED GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia aurea.) 

L. nigra, dorso uropygioque luteis, tectricibus alarum Juscescenti- 

bus nigro maculatis. 
Black Grosbeak with the back and rump yellow; wing-coverts 

brownish, spotted with black. 
Loxia aurea. Gmel. Syst. Nat, 1. 846. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 

373. 8. 
Gold-backed Grosbeak. Brown. III. 15. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 

115. 9. — Lath. Syn. Sup. 149. 

A very beautiful species, with the beak, head, 
and neck deep black : back, rump, and upper tail- 
coverts, of a rich golden yellow: the ends of the 
two latter fringed with dusky : wing-coverts light 
brown, spotted with black : breast and belly black : 
all but the two middle tail-feathers with pale edges: 
legs blueish : female of a dark brown, to which 
colour the male is said to change in the winter. 
Found at Benguela in Africa. 



286 



ASH-HEADED GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia indica.) 

L. nigricans, subtus albida, capite colloque ciaereis, cauda apice 
alba. 

Dusky Grosbeak, beneath whitish, with the head and neck ash- 
coloured ; tail white at the tip. 

Loxia indica. Lath. Ind. Orn. I. 394. 80. 

Ash-headed Grosbeak. Lath. Syn. Sup. 155. 

This bird is described on the authority of Dr. 
Latham, who says it is found in India, and is very- 
small - f with the beak blue : head and neck slaty 
ash-colour: back, wings, and tail, dusky; the 
latter tipped with white : breast and belly dirty 
white : legs blue. 



CAFFRARIAN GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia caffra.) 

L. aha, rcmigibusjkiscisf humeris coccineis. 

Dark-coloured Grosbeak, with the quills brown, and shoulders 

crimson. 
Loxia caffra. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. S5S. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 393. 

78. 
Caffrarian Grosbeak. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. ](j4. 6. 

The Caffrarian Grosbeak is the size of the Bull- 
finch : beak cinereous brown : prevailing colour of 
the plumage black : shoulders crimson : wing-co- 



MARYGOLD GROSBEAK. 287 

verts white : quills brown, margined with white : 
tail sometimes more than twice the length of the 
body : legs grey : female entirely grey. 

This bird inhabits the Cape of Good Hope : it 
makes rather a curious nest, which is composed of 
grass, fastened between two reeds, and globular, 
with the entrance through a long cylinder, and 
near the water. Its flight is very slow, so that it 
may be easily shot, and in bad weather it is rea- 
dily taken with the hand : the male is said to 
change to a grey colour in the winter. 



MARYGOLD GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia bonariensis.) 



L. nigricans, subtus Jiavescens, capite colloque superiore cceruleis, 

jugulo pectoreque fulvis. 
Blackish Grosbeak, beneath yellowish, with the head and upper 

part of the neck blue ; jugulam and breast brownish. 
Loxia bonariensis. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 850. — Lath. Lnd. Orn. 

1. 385.47. 
Le noir-souci. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois.4. 150. 
Marygold Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Si/n. 3. 139. 43. 

Frequents gardens and cultivated places at 
Buenos Ayres in September, feeding on grass and 
seeds : it is seven inches in length : beak black- 
ish, short, strong, and convex, the under man- 
dible palest ; nostrils round, placed near the base 
of the beak, and perforated : head, and upper part 
of the neck, blue : throat, fore-part of the neck, 



288 CAPE GROSBEAK. 

and breast, beautiful orange-yellow : upper parts 
of the body blackish : belly and vent pale yellow: 
quills and tail blackish, with blue edges : legs red- 
dish : claws channelled, and sharp. The male and 
female appear to be very much attached to each 
other, and are only seen in pairs. 



CAPE GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia capensis.) 



L. alra, uropygio tectricibusque alarum luteis. 
Dark-coloured Grosbeak, with the rump and wing-coverts yel- 
low. 
Loxia capensis. Lin. Syst. Nat. l. 306. 3Q. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 

1. 862. — Sparrow. Voy. 1. 1/4. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 373. 7. 
Fringilla Capitis Borne Spei. Briss. 3. 17 1. 45. t. 16.J. 1. 
Le Pinson noire et jaune. Biiff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 142. 
Le Gros-bec de Coromandel. Buff". Hist. Nat. Ois. 3. 456. — 

Buff. PL Enl. 101. 1. 
Cape Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 113. 7- — Lath. Syn. Sup. 

149. 
B. Jiisca, pennis medio nigris, teclricibus alarum uropygioque 

lute is. 
Brown, with the feathers black in tbe middle ; wing-coverts and 

rump yellow. 
Gros-bec tachete du Cap de Bonne Esperance. Buff. Hist. 

Nat. Ois.— 3. 473.— Buff. PI. Enl. 659. 1. 

Larger than a Chaffinch, being above six inches 
in length : beak stout, and dusky : head, neck, 
upper part of the back, under parts of the body 
and tail deep black : feathers on the head short 
and shining : shoulders and lower part of the back 



BLACK-BELLIED GROSBEAK. 289 

and rump bright yellow : greater quills, second- 
aries, and coverts, reddish brown ; the former 
edged with yellow, the two latter with grey : lower 
part of the thighs pale brown: legs dusky. 

Buffo n describes and figures a variety, or pro- 
bably the female, or young bird, which is brownish 
above, with each feather spotted in the middle with 
black : sides of the head, wing-coverts, and under 
parts of the body dirty white, marked with black: 
shoulders and rump pale yellow : quills and tail 
black, the former with yellow edges, the latter with 
grey : beak and legs pale. Inhabits the Cape of 
Good Hope and coast of Coromandel. 



BLACK-BELLIED GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia melanogastra.) 

L. luteajusco contaminata, gula pectore abdomineque nigris, alls 

caudaquejiiscis. 
Yellow Grosbeak sprinkled with brown, with the throat, breast, 

and abdomen black ; wings and tail brown. 
Loxia afra. Gm'el. Syst. Nat. 1. 857. 
Loxia melanogastra. Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 3Q4. 82. 
Black-bellied Grosbeak. Broivn. III. 58. t. 24. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 

3. 155. — Lath. Syn. Sup. 153. 

The beak of this bird is black : head, sides, and 
tail-coverts, fine yellow, sprinkled in many parts 
with light brown : chin, breast, and belly, black : 
wings and tail brown : in the winter it changes 
entirely to a light brown. Inhabits Africa. 

v. ix. p. 11. 20 



290 



GAMBIA GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia Gambensis.) 

L. latea, capite atro. 

Yellow Grosbeak, with a black head. 

Loxia melanocephala. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 305. 34. — Gmel. Syst. 

Nat. 1. 859. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 391. 69. 
Coccothraustes Gambensis. Briss. 3. 230. 5. 
Gambia Grosbeak. Albin. 3. t. 62. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 149. 

65. 

The whole bird yellowish green, with the ex- 
ception of the irides, head, throat, and fore-part 
of the neck, which are black : beak cinereous : 
legs blueish ash-colour : inhabits Gambia, and is 
six inches and a quarter in length. 



YELLOW GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia flavicans.) 



L.jiavo, dorsoflavicante, capite Jidvo. 

Yellow Grosbeak, with the back yellowish, and head fulvous. 

Loxia flavicans. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 302. 13. — Amcen. Acad. 4. 

244.— Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 850. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 385. 48. 
Yellow Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 139. 44. 

Beak short and thick, the base reaching on the 
forehead further than usual : head, neck, breast, 
belly, and vent, yellow j the top of the first paler : 
back, wings, and tail, greenish-yellow : quills and 



SUMATRAN GROSBEAK. 2£ 1 

tail margined with yellowish ; the bend of the 
former bright yellow : legs pale. Inhabits many 
parts of Asia. 



SUMATRAN GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia hypoxantha.) 

\j.jlavicans,frante siiperciliisque luteis, remigibus rectricibusque 

nigris marginejlavescentibus. 
Yellowish Grosbeak, with the forehead and a line over the eyes 

yellow ; quills and tail-feathers black, with yellowish margins. 
Loxia hypoxantha. Daiidin. Orn. 2. 42Q. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 

384. 44. 
Sumatran Grosbeak. Lath. Syn. Sup. LL. IQ4. 5. 

Native of the rice fields of Sumatra, and is the 
size of Embriza Civis : beak pale coloured : irides 
rufous : forehead yellow : prevailing colour of the 
plumage on the upper parts yellowish green : wings 
dusky black, with yellow margins : under parts 
yellow : tail black, even at the end, with the fea- 
thers bordered with yellowish : legs pale coloured. 



292 



NUN GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia collaria.) 

Is.Jlavescens, pectore collariquejtavis, temporibus nigris. 

Yellowish Grosbeak, with the breast and neck yellow, and tem- 
ples black. 

Loxia collaria. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 305. 31. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 
857. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 382. 37. 

Le Gros-bec Nonette. Buff". Hist. Nat. Ois. 3. 446. — Buff. 
PL Enl. 393. 3. 

Le Grivelin a Cravate. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 3. 473. 

Gros-bec d' Angola. Buff. PI. Enl. 659. 2. 

Nun Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 133. 34. 

This bird is an inhabitant of the East Indies 
and Angola ; it is the size of the Blue Titmouse, 
and four inches and a half in length : beak black : 
forehead naked : temples black : top of the head 
and upper parts of the body greenish blue : under 
parts, collar on the neck, and rump, rufous white: 
across the breast a mottled black band : wings 
rufous yellow and black, mixed : tail black : legs 
pale brown : the supposed opposite sex is figured 
by BufFon, and differs in having the upper parts of 
a darker colour ; the white collar round the neck, 
and the mottled band on the breast, much broader 
than in the above: the under parts are more rufous; 
and there is a white spot near the edge of the wing, 
at the base of the quills. 



293 



YELLOW-RUMPED GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia hordeacea.) 

"L.Julva, temporibus albis, cauda pectoreque atris. 

Fulvous Grosbeak, with the temples white; tail and breast 

black. 
Loxia hordeacea. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 303. ig. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 

1. 852. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 385. 4g. 
Yellow-rumped Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 140. 45. 

Of this bird, which is a native of India, the 
temples are white : the head, neck, and rump, are 
fulvous : the breast, space between the temples 
and beak, wings, and tail, black : the shoulders, 
thighs, vent, and margins of the tail-feathers, 
grey- 



2P4 



ABYSSINIAN GROSBEAK, 
(Loxia abyssinica.) 

L. Jlavo, vertice genis gula pectoreque nigris ; alis caudaque fus- 

cis. 
Yellow Grosbeak, with the crown, cheeks, throat, and breast 

black ; wings and tail brown. 
Loxia abyssinica. GmcL Syst. Nat. 1. 860. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 

1. 381.33. 
Gros-bec d'Abyssinie. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 3. 474. 
Abyssinian Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 131. 31. 

The Abyssinian Grosbeak is about the size of 
the Hawfinch : beak very stout, and black : top 
and sides of the head, with the throat, cheeks, and 
breast, black: irides red: upper parts of the body, 
belly, and thighs, pale yellow, with a brown tinge 
on those parts where the colours join each other : 
scapulars blackish : quills brown : wing-coverts 
and tail the same ; the former with grey, and the 
latter with yellow edges : legs reddish grey. 

The nest of this bird is very singular : it is of a 
pyramidal shape, and suspended from the ends of 
the branches of trees : the opening is on the side 
facing the east ; and the cavity is divided by a 
partition down the middle ; about the centre of 
this partition is the opening to the true nest, which 
is situated some distance downward from the en- 
trance, by which contrivance the bird is protected 
from the assaults of various wild animals that seek 
to destroy it, as well as from the rain : it is a 
native of Abyssinia. 



295 



WARBLING GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia cantans.) 

lu.fusca nigricante transversim lineata, subtus alba. 

Brown Grosbeak, transversely striped with dusky; beneath 

white. 
Loxia cantans. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 859. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 

395. 88. 
Brown Grosbeak. Broixin. III. 66. t. 27. 
Warbling Grosbeak. Lath. Gen, Syn. 3. 157. 81. 

This bird is frequently brought over to Eng- 
land from its native country (Africa), on account 
of its song ; but it does not live long : the most 
common appearance is as follows : length four 
inches : beak dusky : upper parts of the plumage 
brown, with narrow obscure dusky lines : belly 
white : tail deep brown, and wedge-shaped : legs 
blueish : many of these birds are mottled on the 
chin and sides of the body with dusky and white, 
and of a pale yellow beneath. 



296 



DUSKY GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia obscura.) 

L. Jusco-nigricans, gula media corporeque subtus albis, lateribus 

Jusco maculatis, tectricibus alarum albo bifasciatis. 
Brownish-black Grosbeak, with the throat in the middle and 

body beneath white, the sides spotted with fuscous, and the 

wing-coverts with two white fascia. 
Loxia obscura. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 862. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 

379- 27. 
Dusky Grosbeak. Pen. Arct. Zool. 2. 216. — Lath. Gen. Sun. 

3. 127. 26. 



This bird has the head, neck, and back dusky, 
edged with pale brown : wing-coverts dusky, with 
two white bars : middle of the throat white : sides 
of the breast and belly white, with brown spots : 
quills green. Found at New York in the summer 
season. 



297 



HUDSONIAN GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia Hudsonica.) 

Is.Jusca, abdomine albo, lateribusjusco maculato, tectricibus ala- 
rum rufo bifasciatis. 

Brown Grosbeak, with the abdomen white, the sides spotted 
with brown ; wing-coverts with two red bands. 

Loxia Hudsonica. Lath. Ind. Om. 1. 379- 28. 

Hudsonian Grosbeak. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. 1Q2. 2. 

Known at Hudson's Bay by the name of Atk- 
Jcoom-a-shish, where it is not uncommon : length 
live inches : beak short, thick, and brown : plumage 
above brown, the feathers bordered with rufous : 
breast and belly white, with long brown dashes : 
middle of the belly and vent white : greater and 
middle wing-coverts tipped with rufous, forming 
a band of that colour on the wing : tail slightly 
forked : legs brown. 



298, 



FASCINATING GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia fascinans.) 

Ij.Jusco-nigra suhtus alba, rectricibus exterioribus albis. 
Brown-black Grosbeak, beneath, and with the outer tail-feathers 

white. 
Loxia fascinans. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. XL VI. J. 
Fascinating Grosbeak. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. 197. 14. 

The manners of this bird are said to be very 
pleasing, from whence it is called the fascinating 
bird at Port Jackson in New South Wales, of 
which place it is a native : it is rather larger than 
the Bullfinch : the upper parts of the body dusky 
black, inclining to brown : under parts white : two 
outer tail-feathers white : legs and beak dusky. 



ASH-COLOURED GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia cinerea.) 

L. jiisco-nigricans, capite cristato, abdomine albido, pedibus ru- 
bric. 

Brown-dusky Grosbeak, with the head crested, abdomen whitish, 
and feet red. 

Loxia cinerea. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. XLV. 2. — Mus. Carls, fas. 
4. t. 88. 

Ash-coloured Grosbeak. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. 196. 10. 



One of the largest of the genus : the beak is 
stout and pale : hind head crested : plumage above 



BLUE-WINGED GROSBEAK. 299 

cinereous brown : beneath nearly white : tail-fea- 
thers very long and black, with white margins on 
the outward edge : legs red. Found at Malacca, 
Sumatra, and Java. 



BLUE-WINGED GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia cyanoptera.) 

L. cinereo-Jusca, capistro saturatiore, alis et cauda cceruleis, re- 

migibus exterioribus basi albis. 
Grey-brown Grosbeak, with the capistrum darker, wing and tail 

blue, and the outer quills white at the base. 
Loxia cyanoptera. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. XLVI. 6. 
Blue-winged Grosbeak. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. 197. 14. 

In length seven inches : beak blue : prevailing 
colour cinereous brown, but darker round the 
base of the beak to the eyes : wings fine blue, with 
a white spot on the outer edge of the middle of 
the wing, formed by the base of the outer quills 
being of that colour : tail likewise blue, but not so 
dark as the wings ; all the feathers with white tips : 
legs blue. Found at Port Jackson in New South 
Wales. 



300 



SUNDA GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia Javensis.) 

Tu.jfusco-cinerea, capillitio remigibus ad rectricibus nigris, tempo- 
ribus abdomineque cinereo-albicantibus . 

Greyish-brown Grosbeak, with the barbs of the quills and tail- 
feathers black ; temples and abdomen cinereous white. 

Loxia Javensis. Mus. Carls. Jas. 4. t. 88. — Lath. Syn. Sup. II. 
XLV. l. 

Sunda Grosbeak. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. 195. Q. 

This species inhabits the islands of Sumatra and 
Java : it is the size of a Bullfinch : top of the head 
black : prevailing colour greyish brown : from the 
chin the under parts are paler than the upper : 
belly and thighs white : quills and tail black : se- 
condaries brown, margined with ferruginous : legs 
pale yellow. 



301 



WHITE-HEADED GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia Maja. ) 

Jj.Jusca, capite alio. 

Brown Grosbeak, with the head white. 

Loxia Maia. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 301. 11. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 

849.— Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 3gi. 72. 
Le Maia de la Chine. Briss. 3. 212. 65. t. g.f. 2. — Buff. PL 

Enl. \og.f. 1. 
Maian. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 107. t. 3. lower figure. 
Malacca Grosbeak. Edwards. 306. f. 1. 
White-headed Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 151. 68. 

This bird comes from Malacca and China. It 
is four inches in length : beak grey brown, palest 
beneath : head and neck dirty white : breast pale 
brown : upper parts of the body, wings, and tail 
chesnut brown : second and fourth quill -feathers 
white : belly and vent blackish : legs grey. Buffon 
describes the breast and belly both black. 



302 



TOTTY GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia Totta. ) 

L. testaceo-fusca, subtus albida, remigibus rectricibusque omnibus 

nigris, summo apice albis. 
Testaceous-brown Grosbeak, beneath white, with the quills and 

tail-feathers black, all of them tipped with white. 
Loxia Totta. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 858. — Lath. Ind. Orn. \ . 393- 

79- 
Totty Grosbeak. Lath. Syn. Sup. 15(5. 

Tins bird is found in Caffraria, in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Cape of Good Hope, and India; 
in the latter place it is called Totty : it is in length 
four inches : beak nearly white : forehead greenish 
brown : crown of the head, hind part of the neck, 
space between the shoulders, and upper wing- 
coverts testaceous brown : body beneath brownish 
white : quills and tail black, all the feathers with 
white tips : feet black. 



303 



SOCIABLE GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia socia.) 

L„ riifo^fusca, subtus jftavescens, capistro nigro, cauda brevi. 
Reddish-brown Grosbeak, beneath yellowish ; capistrura black ; 

tail short. 
Loxia socia. Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 381. 35. 
Loxia. Paterson. Cape. t. p. 126, bird and nest. 
Tisserin republicain. Dand. Orn. 2. 397« 
Sociable Grosbeak. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. \Q2. 3. 

The Sociable Grosbeak is about the size of a 
Bullfinch, being five inches and a half in length : 
beak and lore black : prevailing colour of the 
plumage rufous brown ; beneath yellow : yellowest 
round the ear : tail short : legs brown. 

Inhabits the interior country at the Cape of 
Good Hope, where it was first discovered by Mr. 
Paterson, who gives the following history of it. 
" Few species of birds live together in such large 
societies, or have such an extraordinary mode of 
nidification as these : they build their nests on the 
Mimosa trees, which grow to a very large size, 
and appear to be well calculated for the purpose, 
as the smoothness of their trunks prevents the 
birds from being attacked by Monkeys, and other 
noxious animals. The method in which their nests 
are made is very curious. On one tree there could 
not be less than from eight hundred to a thousand 
under one general roof: I call it a roof, because it 
resembles that of a thatched house, and projects 



304 SOCIABLE GROSBEAK. 

over the entrance of the nest below in a very sin- 
gular manner. The industry of these birds seems 
almost equal to that of the Bee. Throughout the 
day they appear to be busily employed in carrying 
a fine species of grass, which is the principal ma- 
terial they employ for the purpose of erecting this 
extraordinary work, as well as for additions and 
repairs. Though my short stay in the country 
was not sufficient to satisfy me by ocular proof 
that they added to their nest as they annually in- 
creased in numbers ; still, from the many trees 
which I have seen borne down by the weight, and 
others which I have observed with their boughs 
completely covered over, it would appear that this 
is really the case. When the tree which is the 
support of this aerial city is obliged to give way 
to the increase of weight, it is obvious that they 
are no longer protected, and are under the neces- 
sity of rebuilding in other trees. One of these de- 
serted nests I had the curiosity to break down to 
inform myself of the internal structure of it; and 
found it equally ingenious with that of the external. 
There are many entrances, each of which forms a 
regular street, with nests on both sides, at about two 
inches distance from each other. The grass with 
which they build is called the Boshmans-grass : 
and I believe the seed of it to be their principal 
food ; though, on examining their nests, I found 
the wings and legs of different insects. From 
every appearance the nest which I dissected had 
been inhabited for many years ; and some parts of 
it were much more complete than others. This, 



FAN-TAILED GROSBEAK. 305 

therefore, I conceive to amount nearly to a proof 
that the animals added to it at different times, as 
they found necessary from the increase of the 
family, or rather of the nation or community. " 

This species also constructs its nests on the 
Acacia trees and the Aloe Dichotornes, which 
grows to a very large size. Mr. Barrow notices 
one that had steps cut in its sides to enable a 
person to climb up for the nests. 

Supposed to be a variety of L. tatta, by Monsieur 
Daudin. 



FAN-TAILED GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia flabellifera. ) 

L. rubro-fusca subtus rubescens, remigibus caudaquejiiscis. 
Reddish-brown Grosbeak, beneath reddish ; quills and tail 

brownish. 
Loxia flabellifera. Gmel. Si/st. Nat. 1. 850.r—Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 

380. 30. 
La Queue en Eventail de Virginia. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois.3. 463. 

— Buff. PI. Enl. 380. 
Fan-tailed Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 128. 28. 

About five inches in length : beak strong and 
dusky : prevailing colour of the plumage above 
reddish-brown, with the rump paler: below rather 
inclined to red : quills, tail, and legs dusky : fe- 
male with the breast and belly grey. Called Fa?i- 
tails in Virginia, from the circumstance of their 
carrying the tail expanded. 

v. ix. p. ii. 21 



306 



ORANGE-BELLIED GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia bicolor.) 

lu.Jiisca.) suhlus rubra, aid alba, pedibusjii^cis. 

Brown Grosbeak, beneath red, or white, with the legs brown. 

Loxia bicolor. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 307. 48. — Gmel.Syst.Nat. 1. 

865.— Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 3Q5. 89. 
Fringilla rubra minor. Briss. 3. 1(54. -10. 
Le Brunor. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 137- 
Bouvreuil a ventre roux de Cayenne. Buff. PL Enl. SlQ.f. 1. 
Little Brown Bullfinch. Edwards. 83. f. 1. 
Orange-bellied Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 157. 82. 

Length three inches and a quarter : beak short, 
thick, and whitish : upper parts of the body pale 
brown : under parts dull reddish orange : legs 
brown : the female has a black beak : the under 
parts of the body white, inclined to ferruginous 
on the chin, and legs blueish : inhabits India and 
China. 



307 



SPOTTED GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia maculata.) 

L. obscure fusca alio maculata, subhis albida maculis sidtfuscis, 

super ciliis pailidis, rectribus duabus extimis apice albo maculatis. 
Dull fuscous Grosbeak spotted with white ; beneath white with 

subfuscous spots; supercilia pale; the two outer tail-feathers 

white at the tip and spotted. 
Loxia maculata. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 861. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 

379- 26. 
Spotted Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 126. 25. — Pen. Arct. 

Zool. 2. 213. 

Supposed to inhabit North America: beak pale, 
rather stout, with a dusky tip ; plumage on the 
upper parts dusky ; each feather spotted with 
white at the end, except those of the quills and 
greater coverts : over the eye a pale streak : un- 
der parts dirty white, marked with dusky streaks : 
the outer web of the most exterior tail-feather 
white nearly to the tip, with a white spot close to 
the tip of the inner web ; the next feather nearly 
similar : quills and tail fringed with dusky white 
on the outer web : legs pale brown. 



308 



BROWN-HEADED GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia ferruginea. ) 

L. nigra, marginibus primarum flavis, subtus Jlavescens, pectore 
Jerruginco, capite gulaquefuscis. 

Black Grosbeak, with the margins of the feathers yellow ; be- 
neath yellowish, with the breast ferruginous; head and throat 
brown. 

Loxia ferruginea. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 853. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 
3S9. 62. 

Brown-headed Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 145. 54. 

This bird is very scarce : it is in length six 
inches : beak stout, and horn-coloured : head and 
chin dusky brown : back and wing-coverts black ; 
the feathers with deep yellow margins : breast 
dark ferruginous : abdomen and vent dull yellow ; 
palest on the vent : quills and tail dusky, with 
yellow margins : legs pale : tail even at the end. 



309 



MUSTACHOE GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia mystacea.) 

L.Jusco-olivacea subtus albida, capite et cervice nifo-fuscis, su- 

perciliis et macula oris coccineis. 
Brown-olive Grosbeak, beneath whitish, with the head and upper 

part of the neck reddish brown ; line over the eyes and spot 

near the mouth crimson. 
Loxia mystacea. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. XLVI. 5. — Daud. Orn. 

2. 446. 
Mustachoe Grosbeak. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. 197. 13. 

This bird, which comes from Cochin China, is 
the size of a Wren : beak tipped with black, and 
reddish brown at the base : head and upper parts 
of the neck reddish brown ; with a brilliant red 
streak above the eyes, and another at the corners 
of the mouth .: upper parts of the body, wings, and 
tail brown, with an olive tinge : lower parts whitish 
grey : throat and fore-part of the neck pale grey : 
legs flesh-colour : claws grey. 



310 



GREEN GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia Chloris.) 

l^.jtavicante-virens, remigibas primoribus antice luteis, rectricibus 

lateralibus quatuor basi luteis. 
Yellowish-green Grosbeak, with the primary quills in front, and 

the four lateral tail-feathers yellow. . 
Loxia Chloris. Lin. Syst. Nat. I. 304. T], — Lin. Faun. Sues. 

226. — Gmel. Si/st. Nat. 1. 854. — Briss. 3. J 90. 54. — Lath. 

hid. Orn. 1. 382. 3Q. 
Le Verdier. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 1/2. 1 5. —Buff. PI. Enl. 

267- 2. 
Greenfinch. Pen. Brit. Zool. 117. — Pen. Arct. Zool. 2. 353. b. 

— Albin. 1. 5S. — Leivin. Brit. Birds. 2. 6g. — Montague. Brit. 

Birds. 1. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 134. 36. — Lath. Syn. Sup. 152. 

—Beivick. 1. 

The Greenfinch is rather larger than a Sparrow: 
the beak is thick and whitish : irides dark hazel : 
head and back yellowish green ; the edges of the 
feathers greyish inclining to ash-colour about the 
sides of the head and neck : rump and breast more 
yellow : greater quills yellow on the outer webs ; 
those next the body greyish : tail slightly forked ; 
the middle feathers dusky, and the four outer fea- 
thers on each side yellow on their exterior webs : 
legs flesh-colour : female not so bright, and with 
a brown cast : sometimes found quite white. 

This bird is common all over the continent of 
Europe, but occurs very rarely in Russia : it con- 
structs its nest in a low and thick bush or hedge, 
composed of dry grass, and lined with hair, wool, 







GlEEK GROSBEAK. 



CHINESE GROSBEAK. 311 

and feathers, laying four or five eggs that are 
similar to the Linnet's, of a greenish cast, with a 
rusty red mark at the larger end ; and the female 
is so careful of them during the time of incubation 
that she may be easily taken out of her nest : the 
male is said to assist her in guarding the eggs. Its 
food is principally seed and grain ; and it is easily 
tamed, as it will become familiar almost as soon 
as taken : its native song is very trifling, but in 
confinement it will soon learn the notes of other 
birds : is very liable to become blind if exposed 
to the sun. In the winter this bird flocks with 
the Chaffinches and Yellow-hammers ; and mi- 
grates into other districts if the weather be severe: 
often called the Green Linnet. 



CHINESE GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia sinensis.) 



"L.fusca suhtus riifescens, capite collogue griseo virescenlibus, re- 

migibus rectricibusque nigris apice albidis. 
Brown Grosbeak, beneath reddish, with the head and neck 

greenish grey ; quills and tail-feathers black, with white tips. 
Loxia sinensis. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 855. — Lath. hid. Orn. J. 

383. 40. 
Le Verdier de la Chine. Sonner. Voy. Ind. 2. 202. 
Chinese Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 135. 37. 

Very similar to the common Greenfinch : the 
beak is greenish yellow : head and neck greenish 
grey : back and wing-coverts light brown 5 those 



312 GREY-NECKED GROSBEAK. 

near the edge of the wing black : secondaries grey 
on the outer and black on the inner edge ; greater 
quills black at the part farthest from the body, with 
grey tips, the other part nearest the body yellow : 
vent the same : abdomen dirty red : tail black, 
tipped with white : legs greenish yellow : common 
in China. 



GREY-NECKED GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia melanura.) 



L, cerviceJusca,jugido uropygioque griseis, abdomine riifescente, 
alls caudaque nigris, macula alarum remigibus apice crissoque 
albis. 

Grosbeak with the hind part of the neck brown ; jugulum and 
rump grey ; abdomen reddish ; wings and tail black ; a spot 
on the wings, tip of the quills, and vent white. 

Loxia melanura. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 853. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 
389- 63. 

Le Gros-bec de la Chine. Sonner. Voy. Ind. 1. IQQ. 

Grey-necked Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 145. 55. 

This bird inhabits China, and is the size of the 
Hawfinch : beak and irides yellow : head black : 
hind part of the neck dirty brown, fore-part grey : 
wing-coverts blueish-black, with a white spot near 
the middle : secondaries black, edged on the inner 
web with white : primaries black with white tips : 
belly pale rufous : vent white : rump grey : legs 
yellow : female with the head grey, and quills 
black, bordered with white. 



13 



BRIMSTONE GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia sulphurata. ) 

Tu.Jusco olivacea, gutture ventreque luteis, superciliisjiavis. 
Brown-olive Grosbeak, with the throat and belly yellowish ; 

supercilia yellow. 
Loxia sulphurata. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 305. 30. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 

1. 856. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1.385. 45. 
Coccothraustes Capitis Bonse Spei. Briss. 3. 225. 2. t. l\.f. 1. 
Brimstone Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 15J. 41. 

From the Cape of Good Hope : size of Fringilla 
Montifringilla : length near six inches : beak stout, 
above half an inch in length, and horn-coloured : 
head, neck, breast, and upper parts of the body 
olive-green : on the eye a yellow line : throat, 
belly, and vent yellow : quills and tail brown, all 
but the two middle feathers of the latter, which 
are entirely olive-green, margined with brown : 
legs brownish grey. 



314 



PHILIPPINE GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia philippina. ) 

L. fu&ca subtus albido Jlavicans, vertice pectoreque luteis, gula 

Jusca. 
Brown Grosbeak, beneath whitish yellow ; crown of the head 

and breast yellow ; throat brown. 
Loxia philippina. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 305. 36. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 

1. 860,—Briss. 3. 232. 6. t. 12. f. 1. mas. t. IS./. 1. 2. nidus. 

— Lath. Lid. Orn. 1. 380. 32. 
Toucnam-courvi des Philippines. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 3. 4o5. 

— 3. 469. var. |8. — Buffi PL Enl. 135. 2. mas. 
Philippine Grosbeak. ZctfA. Gen. Syn. 3. 129. 30. — Lath. Syn. 

Sup. II. 193. 4. 

This bird is said to be one of the most docile of 
all known birds : it is in length five inches and a 
quarter: beak, capistrum, sides of the head be- 
neath the eyes, and chin brown : irides, crown of 
the head, hind part of the neck, back, and scapu- 
lars yellow, with a brown spot in the middle of 
each feather : rump brown, margined with white : 
fore-part of the neck and breast yellow : abdomen 
and vent yellowish white : wing-coverts and quills 
brown, the former edged with white, the latter 
with pale rufous : tail the same : legs yellowish : 
female with the upper parts brown, edged with 
rufous : under parts pale rufous : this bird is oc- 
casionally found with the sides of the head above 
the eyes black ; the black and brown mixture 
on the back less distinct ; and the greater wing- 



PHILIPPINE GROSBEAK. 315 

coverts, quills, and tail greenish brown, edged with 
yellow. 

This bird may be rendered so very tame as to 
come and perch on its master's hand, or to fetch 
and carry like a dog at command: it is called 
Bay a in India, where it is extremely common ; it 
is also found in Abyssinia and the Philippine 
Islands; is said to feed on fire flies: it builds a 
very curious nest in the shape of a long cylinder 
swelling out into a globose form in the middle : it 
is composed of the fine fibres of leaves and grass, 
and fastened by the end to the branch of a high 
tree, generally on the Palmyra, or Indian Figtree : 
the nest is said to have two or three divisions in 
it, of which the true nest is in the globose part ; 
the entrance is at the bottom of the long cylinder; 
it is generally suspended over water : the eggs, 
which resemble pearls, have the white part trans- 
parent when boiled, and are very delicious eating. 



316 



JAVA GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia oryzivora.) 

L.jusca, temporibus albis, rostro rubro, capite caudaque nigris. 
Brown Grosbeak, with the temples white, beak red, head and 

tail black. 
Loxia oryzivora. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 302. 14. — Amcen. Acad. 4. 

243. — Gntel. Syst. Nat. 1. 850. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 380. 31. 
Coccothraustes sinerius cinerea. Briss. 3. 244. 12. t. 11- J". 2. 
Le Padda, ou l'Oiseau de Riz. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 3. 463. 

— Edwards. 41. 42. 
Gros-bec de la Chine. Buff. PI. Enl. \51.f. 1. 
Java Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 129. 29. — Lath. Syn. Sup. 

151. 

This bird does great mischief to the rice-grounds 
in Java, and at the Cape of Good Hope, where it 
is very common ; it is likewise supposed to be 
abundant in China, as it is often seen among Chi- 
nese paintings, and is called Hung-tzoy. It is in 
length five inches : beak stout, and red : head and 
throat black : sides of the head beneath the eyes 
white : eyelids red : upper parts of the body, neck, 
and breast, pale ash-colour : belly and thighs rose- 
colour : vent and under tail-coverts dirty white : 
tail black: legs flesh-colour : female with the edge 
of the wing, and under tail-coverts, white. Is 
well known by the name of Java Sparrow. 




3JWJL Gmosbmk. 



317 



BRASILIANT GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia brasiliana.) 

\j.Jusca, subtus rufescens maculis albis nigro annularis, lunula 

nuchce caudaque apice albis. 
Brown Grosbeak, beneath reddish with white spots annulated 

with black, with a collar round the neck, and the apex of the 

tail white. 
Loxia brasiliana. Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 377- 19- 
Le Grivelin. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 3. 46l. 30. 
Gros-bec du Bresil. Buff. PI. Enl. 319./. h 
Brasilian Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 122. 18. 

This bird is an inhabitant of Brasil ; and is in 
length six inches : beak flesh-colour, thick, and 
short : head and chin red ; neck with a white ring, 
not meeting in front : breast, belly, and sides, 
reddish white, with a few white spots, more or less 
bordered with black : middle of the belly red : 
back and wing-coverts brown : quills and tail 
black ; the coverts and secondaries tipped with 
pale reddish : end of the tail white : rump dusky. 



318 



BULLFINCH GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia Pyrrhula.) 

L. cinerea, capite nigro, tectricibus caudce' remigiumque posticarum 

crtbis. 
Cinereous Grosbeak, with the head black ; wing-coverts, and 

hinder part of the quills, white. 
Loxia Pyrrhula. Lin. Sj/st. Nat. 1. 300. 4. — Lin. Faun. Suec. 

I15.—Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 84.6.— Raii. Syn. 86. A.—Briss. 3. 

308. 1. — Lath. Ind. 6m. 1. 387.56. 
Bouvreuil. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4.3J2. X'J.—Buff. PI. Enl. 145. 
Bullfinch. Pen. Brit. Zoot 1. ] 16. — Pen. Arct. Zool. 2. 353. A. 

Alhin. 1. 5g. 60. — Levoin. Brit. Birds. 2. 70. — Bewick. Brit. 

Birds. 1. 138. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 145. 51.— Lath. Syn. Sup. 

152. — Montagu. Brit. Birds. 1. 

This well known bird has a black, short, and 
thick beak : irides dusky : the crown of the head 
black: upper part of the neck and back fine cine- 
reous grey: cheeks, breast, and belly, crimson: 
vent white : wing-coverts with a white line run- 
ning across just above the quills, which are dusky: 
rump white : tail black : female of a dirty brown ; 
except the crown of the head and rump, the former 
black, the latter white: young bird when just 
hatched very much resembles the female, except 
that they have no black on the head ; wdiicb, with 
the crimson on the breast of the male, appears 
about two months after leaving the nest. In con- 
finement this bird, if fed on hemp-seed, will often 
become entirely black: it is found quite white, 
with a tinge of blossom-colour on the top and sides 
of the head. 




:bit]ul:fiwch G-mo s beak . 



BULLFINCH GROSBEAK. 319 

This bird is a native of England, and constructs 
its nest in the thickest parts of a white or black- 
thorn hedge ; it is composed of small dry twigs, 
lined with moss : the female lays five or six dirty 
blueish white eggs, marked with dark spots at the 
larger end : it breeds about the latter end of May. 

It is not gregarious, as seldom more than a 
brood is seen together : it is found in this country 
all the year, in the summer frequenting woods and 
retired places, and in the winter attacking the 
buds of trees in gardens and orchards. The wild 
notes of this bird are few, but extremely soft, and 
generally uttered so low as to escape a common 
observer : both male and female may be taught to 
whistle a variety of tunes, and also to articulate 
words ; this is generally practised in Germany, 
from whence they are brought to London. It ap- 
pears to be found over most parts of the continent 
of Europe, throughout Russia and Siberia. They 
are called in some places Nopes, in others Thick- 
bills, Red-hoops, Tony-hoops, and Alps. It has 
been tried to breed this bird, but without success, 
as the male generally falls a victim to the fury of 
the female. 



320 



ORANGE GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia aurantia.) 

L. fulva, pileo alis caiulaque nigris. 

Fulvous Grosbeak, with the upper part of the head, wings, and 

tail, black. 
Loxia aurantia. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 853. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 

390. 66. 
Le Bouvert. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 387- 
Bouvreuil de Bourbon et du Cap de Bonne Esperance. Buff. 

PI. Enl. 204. f. 1. 2. 
Orange Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 146. 56. 

The Orange Grosbeak inhabits the Cape of 
Good Hope and the Isle of Bourbon : it is in 
length four inches and a half : beak dusky: crown 
of the head black : general colour of the plumage 
fine orange, with the wings and tail dusky black, 
bordered with orange, but with some of the inner 
quills white : legs pale red : female with the whole 
of the head and fore-part of the neck black : the 
under parts of the body white : the rest of the 
plumage dull orange, except the quills, which are 



321 



WHITE-BILLED GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia torrida.) 

L. nigra, pectore abdomineque castanets. 

Black Grosbeak, with the breast and abdomen chesnut. 

Loxia torrida. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 854. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 

38g. 61. 
Le Bouvreuil a bee blanc. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 388. 
White-billed Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 146. 57. 

This bird has nearly the whole body black ; the 
breast and belly only being chesnut : the two 
middle tail-feathers longest : the beak is some- 
times white : native of South America. 



BLACK GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia nigra.) 



L. nigra, macula alba humeri basique remigium duarum exte- 
rior um. 

Black Grosbeak, with a spot on the shoulder, and the base of the 
two outward quills white. 

Loxia nigra. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 306. 40. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 
862. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 38S. 50. 

Pyrrhula mexicana nigra. Briss. 3. 316. 3. 

Le Bouvreuil noir du Mexique. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois, 4. 394. 

Black Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 147« 60. 

Size of L. fusca : length five inches and a quar- 
ter : beak stout, deeply notched in the middle of 
v. ix. p. ii. 22 



522 NORTHERN GROSBEAK. 

the margin of the upper mandible, and black ; as 
is the plumage in general, with the exception of a 
little white on the fore-part of the wing and base 
of the two first quills : legs black. From Mexico. 



NORTHERN GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia septentrionalis.) 



L. atra, macula alarum alba* 

Dark-coloured Grosbeak, with a white spot on the wing. 

Loxia septentrionalis. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 865.-— Lath. Ind. 

Orn, 1. 388. 58. 
Northern Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 147. 59- 

The whole bird black, with the exception of a 
white spot on the wing : said to inhabit the north 
of Europe. 



323 



BROWN GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia fusca.) 

\j.fusca, subtus albida, remigibus a lertia ad nonam basi omnino 

albis. 
Brown Grosbeak, beneath whitish, with the quills from the third 

to the ninth black at the base. 
Loxia fusca. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 307- 46. — Amcen. Acad. 4. 245. 

19. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 805. — Lath. Ind. 1. 389- 64. 
Brown Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 14/. 53. 

Inhabits Africa and Bengal. Size of the Ca- 
nary bird : beak short, thick, and lead-coloured : 
head and upper parts of the body brown : under 
parts pale ash-colour : quills dusky black ; the 
eight middle ones white at the base : vent pure 
white : tail dusky black, tipped with palish : legs 
pale, 



324 



THICK-BILLED GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia crassirostris.) 

L. nigra, remigibus primoribus rectricibusque duabas intermediis 
basi albis, rostro gibboso. 

Black Grosbeak, with the primary quills and two middle tail- 
feathers white at the base ; beak gibbous. 

Loxia crassirostris. Gmel. Syst. Nat. I. 862. — Lath. Lid. Orn. 
1. 390. 65. 

Thick-billed Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 148. 6. — Lath. Syn. 
Sup. 152. 

Locality unknown : described by Dr. Latham, 
from Mr. Tunstal's Museum, as follows : "Size of 
a Bullfinch : length five inches and three quarters : 
the beak is of a large size, and deeper than it is 
long, being three quarters of an inch from the 
base on the forehead to that of the under jaw : the 
base of the upper mandible passes backward some 
way on the forehead ; about one third from the 
tip is a deep notch ; the colour of the beak a pale 
yellow : the plumage is wholly black, except the 
bottoms of the quills, which are white, forming a 
spot on the wing: tail two inches long; base of 
the middle feathers white : legs whitish." 



325 



BLACK-BREASTED GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia pectoralis.) 

L. corpore supra Jasciaque pectoralis nigris, subtus Jasciaque ala- 
rum gemina alba. 

Grosbeak with the body above, and band on the breast, black ; 
beneath, and double band on the wings, white. 

Loxia pectoralis. Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 3QO. 67. 

Loxia americana. Gmel. Si/st. Nat. 1, 803. 

Black-breasted Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 148. 62, 

This bird is said to inhabit America : it is the 
size of the least Titmouse : length not quite four 
inches : beak black : prevailing colour of the 
plumage on the upper parts black : under parts 
white, with the exception of a black band on the 
breast : wings with two white bands : above the 
black band on the breast is a narrow white cres- 
cent, extending nearly round the neck: tail black, 
and rounded : legs brown. 



326 



LINEATED GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia Lineola.) 

L. cceruleo-nigra, linea front all temporibus macula alarum cor- 

poreque subtus albls. 
Blue-black Grosbeak, with a line on the forehead ; temples, spots 

on the wings, and body beneath white. 
Loxia Lineola. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1 . 3C4. 25. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 

1. 854. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 390. 68. 
Pyrrhula africana nigra minor. Briss. 3. 3S8. 5. t. l/-f 1« 
Le Bouveron. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 3S8. 
Bouvreuil a plumes frisees. Buff. PI. Enl. 3ip. 1. /3. 
Lineated Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn.Z. 14Q. 63. 

Of this bird the beak is gibbous and black, with 
a white spot on the base of the upper mandible, 
and a line of the same colour from the forehead to 
the crown : upper parts of the body glossy blue- 
black : under parts white : base of the primary 
quills white, forming a spot of that colour on the 
wing, the rest of which is black : tail slightly 
forked and black : inhabits Asia. 

Buftbn figures a very singular variety of this 
bird in the Planches Enluminces, with all the 
feathers on the under parts long and frizzled, 
which may probably be a distinct species. 



127 



FERRUGINOUS GROSBEAK, 
(Loxia ferruginosa.) 

L. Jerruginva, rostri basi jugulo macula abdominis pedibusque 

nigris. 
Ferruginous Grosbeak, with the base of the beak, jugulum, spot 

on the abdomen, and feet, black. 
Loxia ferruginea. Lath. Syn. Sup, II. XLV. 3. 
Ferruginous Grosbeak. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. 196. 11. 

Is of the same size, and very much resembles 
L. Maja: base of the beak, chin, and throat, 
black : crown, nape, and sides of the head, white : 
upper parts of the body ferruginous ; under parts 
paler ; with a black spot on the abdomen, near 
the thighs : legs black : female above brown ; 
below paler : quills black, with ferruginous edges : 
beak and legs black ; the former very stout in both 
sexes. Inhabits the East Indies. 



328 



FASCIATED GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia fasciata.) 

L. testaceo-fusca nigro ?mdulata, sub gulajhscia sanguined. 
Testaceous-brown Grosbeak, waved with black ; beneath the 

throat a blood-coloured fascia. 
Loxia fasciata. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 859- — Lath. hid. Orn. 1. 

395. 87. 
Fasciated Grosbeak. Brown. III. 64. t. 27. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 

3. 156. 80. — Lath. Syn. Sup. 154. 

This rare bird is in length above four inches 
and a half: beak blueish grey : crown of the head, 
hind part of the neck, back, and lesser wing-co- 
verts, pale brown, waved with black : cheeks 
brown, with a rich crimson band beneath, and a 
black line below that: breast and belly brown, 
with black undulations : quills black, secondaries 
tipped with pale cinnamon colour: tail black, 
with the whole of the inner web of the most ex- 
terior feather white ; and the rest of the feathers, 
except the two middle ones, with a white spot on 
the tip of the inner webs : legs flesh-colour : sup- 
posed to inhabit Africa : female much paler, and 
without the crimson band on the throat; the under 
parts pale cinnamon colour, and the white at the 
tip of the tail-feathers not so conspicuous as in the 
male. 



329 



STRTATED GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia striata.) 

"L.fhsca ferrugineo striata, subtus alba,jugulo nigro. 

Brown Grosbeak striated with ferruginous ; beneath white ; ju- 

gulum black. 
Loxia striata. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1.305. 37. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 

861. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 386. 53. 
Coccothraustes borbonica. Briss. 3. 243. 11. t. 13. f. 4. 
Gros-bec de l'lsle de Bourbon. Buff. PL Enl. 153. 1. 
Striated Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 142. 4g. 

This bird is scarcely larger than a Wren ; not 
being four inches in length : head and upper parts 
of the body brown, with the shafts of the feathers 
rufous brown : throat, and fore-part of the neck, 
blackish : lower part of the neck, breast, abdomen, 
and vent, white : quills and tail blackish brown : 
beak dusky : legs blackish. Inhabits the Isle of 
Bourbon. 



330 



COWRY GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia punctularia.) 

L. ferruginea, abdomine nigro albo maculato. 

Ferruginous Grosbeak, with the abdomen white, spotted with 

black. 
Loxia punctularia. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 302. 8. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 

1. 851. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 386. 54. 
Coccothraustes javensis naevia. Briss. 3. 239. 9- *■ 13. J^ 2. 
Gros-bec tachete de Java. -Bw/T. Hist. Nat. Ois. 3. 408. — Buff. 

PL Enl. 139. 1. 
Cowry Grosbeak. Edwards. 40. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 142. 50. 

Four inches and a quarter in length : beak and 
legs dusky : front and sides of the head, throat, 
and fore-part of the neck, chesnut : back of the 
head, and neck, back, upper tail-coverts, and rump, 
rufous brown; the feathers of the latter edged with 
grey : breast and sides marked with tear-shaped 
white spots, and dusky : belly in the middle, and 
vent, white ; the former with a few black spots : 
native of Java. 



331 



MOLUCCA GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia molucca.) 

L. fuscescens, capite, jugulo, rectricibusque nigris, subtus uropy- 

gioque albo nigroque undulata. 
Brownish Grosbeak, with the head, jugulum, and tail-feathers 

black beneath, and with the rump waved with black and 

white. 
Loxia molucca. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 302. 17. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 

1. S51. — Lath. hid. Orn, 1. 386. 52. 
Coccothraustes moluccensis. Briss. 3. 241. 10. t. VS.Jl 3. 
Gros-bec des Moluques. Buff. PL Enl. 139. 2. 
Molucca Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 141. 48. 

From the Molucca Isles : in length four inches : 
beak dusky : hind part of the head, and upper 
parts of the body, brown : fore-part of the former, 
with the sides and front of the neck, black : under 
parts of the body, from the breast to the vent, un- 
dulated with black and white in a transverse di- 
rection : rump the same : quills dark brown : upper 
tail-coverts and tail black : quills deep brown: legs 
brown. 



332 



MALACCA GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia malacca.) 

L. Jerruginea, capite abdomineque riigris, rostro cesruleo. 
Ferruginous Grosbeak, with the head and abdomen black ; beak 

blueish. 
Loxia malacca. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 302. J 6. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 

1. 851. — Lath. Ind. Om. 1. 385. 5J. 
Coccothraustes javensis. Briss. 3. 237- 8. t. \3.f. 1. 
Le Jacobin. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 3. 46S.—Biif. PL Enl. 

139. 8. 3. 
White-breasted Indian Sparrow. Edivards. 3. 55. 
Malacca Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 140. 47. 
/3. capite collogue inferiore nigris. 
With the head and lower part of the neck black. 
Loxia malacca /3. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 302. 16. 
Coccothraustes sinensis. Briss. 3. 257- 7- 
Chinese Sparrow. Edivards. 43. 
Malacca Grosbeak, var. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 141. a. — Lath. 

Sup. 152. 

The Malacca Grosbeak is in length six inches 
and a quarter : beak blueish ash : irides, head, 
neck, middle of the belly, thighs, and under tail- 
coverts, black: breast, and sides of the abdomen, 
white : back, wings, and tail, chesnut : legs brown : 
female not so bright, and with the thighs chesnut. 

The Chinese Sparrows of Edwards appear to be- 
long to this species, but if so, they are very di- 
stinct varieties : the male is of the same size ; with 
the head, throat, and fore-part of the neck, black ; 
the rest of the plumage chesnut : beak and legs 
cinereous : the female has the top of the head, and 



DWARF GROSBEAK. 333 

upper parts of the body, cinereous brown : the 
sides of the head, and under parts, reddish white : 
quills and tail blackish : legs flesh- colour : inhabits 
Java, China, and India ; in the latter place it is 
called Mungul. 



DWARF GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia minima.) 



L. fusca, sublus testacea, remigibus primoribits basi, secundariis 

posterius albis. 
Brown Grosbeak, beneath testaceous, with the primary quills at 

the base, and the secondaries behind, white. 
Loxia minima. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 307- 45. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 

1. 865. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 396. 92. 
Dwarf Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 158. 84. — Lath. Syn. Sup. 

154. 

This bird is common in India, China, Surinam, 
and Cayenne : it varies very much, and is the size 
of a Wren : the beak is short and thick : plumage 
above brown ; beneath and with the rump testa- 
ceous : primaries white at the base ; secondaries 
the same on the inside, towards the base : tail-fea- 
thers sharp and pale-coloured at the tip : some- 
times found with the legs and beak brown, the 
under parts rufous, and without any white on the 
wings j and again with the under parts cinereous 
white ; with a yellowish mark between the beak 
and eye, the edge of the wing the same, with the 
beak and legs black. 



334 



MINUTE GROSBEAK. 
(Loxia minuta.) 

L. grisea, uropygio suit usque ferruginea, remi gibus 4, 5, 6, bast 

utrinque albis. 
Grey Grosbeak, beneath and with the rump ferruginous, with 

the fourth, fifth, and sixth quill-feathers on both sides white 

at the base. 
Loxia minuta. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 307- 4/. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. I. 

865. — Lath. Lid. Om. 1. 396. QO. 
Le Bec-rond a ventre roux. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 3QO. 
Minute Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 158. 83. 

This bird is one of the smallest of the genus ; 
and is hardly the size of a Wren : the beak is 
stout, thick, short, and brown : plumage above 
grey-brown ; beneath and rump ferruginous ; the 
fourth, fifth, and sixth quills white at the base j 
and the legs brown. 

This is an active little bird : it lives on fruits 
and seeds, and makes a round nest, composed of 
a reddish plant, and placed on the trees it fre- 
quents : the female lays three or four eggs, and 
is said to be inseparable from its mate : has a sharp 
cry like the Sparrow, and frequents uncultivated 
places. 



335 



PHYTOTOMA. PLANT-CUTTER. 



Generic Character. 



Rostrum conicum, rectum, 

serratum. 
Naves ovatae. 
Lingua brevis, obtusa. 
Pedes tetradactyli, digitis tri- 

bus anticis, uno postico. 






Beak conic, straight, and ser- 
rated. 

Nostrils ovate. 

Tongue short and obtuse. 

Feet with four toes, placed 
three before and one be- 
hind. 



JL HERE is but one species of this genus known : 
it is very destructive to plants, as it cuts them off 
close to the ground to get at the roots, upon which 
it feeds ; and from this circumstance it has re- 
ceived the name of Plant-cutter. 



336 



CHILI PLANT-CUTTER. 
(Phytotoma Ra-ra.) 

Ph. griseo-obscira, remigibus rectricibusque albo maculatis. 
Obscure-grey Plant-cutter, with the quills and tail-feathers 

spotted with white. 
Phytotoma Rara. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 928. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 

1. 466. I.— Lath. Syn. Sup. II. XLIX. I. 
Phytotome du Chili, ou Rara. Daudin. Orn. 2. 366. 
Chili Plant-cutter. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. 212. 1. 

The Chili Plant-cutter is the size of a Quail : 
beak serrated on the edges, very strong, and 
pointed at the tip, in length half an inch : tongue 
very short, and obtuse : irides brown : upper parts 
of the body obscure dusky grey ; under parts 
paler : quills and tail-feathers spotted with black : 
tail of moderate length, and rounded: feet with 
four toes, placed three before and one behind; the 
latter one much shorter than the rest. 

This bird is very common in Chili : it builds its 
nest in high trees, in sequestered places : its eggs 
are white, with red spots : it feeds on vegetables, 
preferring those parts that are near the root, and 
it digs about and cuts off the plants close to the 
ground with its beak, as if it had been done with 
a saw ; for which it is much detested by the inha- 
bitants, as it does great mischief to their gardens : 
it has a rough voice, and is almost continually ut- 
tering the w T ord Ra-ra very distinctly, from whence 
the specific name has arisen. 



337 



HYREUS. HYREUS. 



Generic Character. 



Rostrum conicum, rectum, II Beak conic, straight, and ser- 



serratum. 

Nares ovatae. 
Lingua brevis, obtusa. 
Pedes tridactyli, digitis duo- 
bus anticis, uno postico. 



rated. 
Nostrils ovate. 
Tongue short and obtuse. 
Feet with three toes, placed 

two before and one behind. 



W; 



E have separated this bird from the genus 
Phvtotoma, from its having but three toes, placed 
two before and one behind, in the manner of the 
genus Tridactylia : it also differs from Phytotoma 
in living on the kernels of fruits, whereas the birds 
belonging to that genus feed on the roots of plants. 



v. ix. p. II. 



23 



33$ 



ABYSSINIAN HYREUS. 
(Hyreus Abyssinicus.) 

Hy. niger, capite gala jugidoque rubris ; tcctricibus alarum Jitscis, 

alba marginatis.. 
Black Plant-cutter, with the head, throat, and jugulum red; 

wing-coverts brown, with white margins. 
Phytotoma Abyssinica. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. XLIX. 2. 
Phytotoma tridactyla. Daud. Orn. 2. 366. 2. 
Loxia tridactyla. Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 39/. 93. 
Lc Guifso Balito. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 3. 47 1. 
Three-toed Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 159- 
Abyssinian Plant-cutter. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. 213. 2. /. J33. 

This bird appears to vary in some respects, as 
the descriptions given by Buffon and Daudin do 
not exactly coincide. Mons. Buffon describes it 
to have the head, throat, and fore-part of the neck, 
of a beautiful red ; which colour reaches in a band 
down to the vent : the upper part of the neck, 
body, and tail, black : wing-coverts brown, with 
white edges : quills the same, with greenish edges: 
legs dull red : the wings reach half way on the 
tail : the toes only three in number, placed two 
before, and one behind. Mons. Daudin says it is 
the size of the common Grqsbeak : beak brown : 
the head and front of the neck red : the rest of 
the plumage black : shoulders brownish, with a 
green tinge : greater wing-coverts appearing like 
black scales, with the margins white, and tinged 
with olive : tail forked : legs brown : it is found 
in Abyssinia, and, according to Mr. Bruce, it is a 




A3BXS SIETIAK HY1REUS 



ABYSSINIAN HYREUS. 339 

solitary species, and lives on the kernels of al- 
monds and other seeds, which it breaks with ease 
with its strong serrated beak : it frequents woods, 
and is called Guifso batito dhnmo-wonjerck. 



340 



EMBERIZA. BUNTING. 



Generic Character. 



Rostrum coracum ; mandibu- 
Ide basi deorsum a se iuvi- 
cem discidentes; inferiore 
lateribus inflexo-coarctata ; 
superiore angustiore, inter- 
medio gibbo. 



Beak conic ; the mandibles 
at the base stand a little 
distant from each other; 
the under one at the sides 
bent in and 'straightened ; 
the upper one narrowest, 
with a hard knob in the 
middle. 



A HE Buntings form a very interesting series of 
birds, living generally on seeds, for which their 
beak appears to be well calculated, as it is strong, 
and has a hard knob in the roof of the upper 
mandible: some of them have a very fine song: 
there are seven species found in this country. 




Show BrrrTiH<& 



341 



SNOW BUNTING* 
(Emberiza nivalis.) 

E. remigibus albis,primoribus extrorsum nigris, rectricibas nigris, 

lateribus tribus albis. 
Bunting with the quills white, the primaries outwardly black ; 

tail-feathers black, the three outer ones white. 
Emberiza nivalis. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 308. 1. — Lin. Faun. Suec. 

227- l.—Gmel. Syst. Nat. I; 866.— Phil. Trans. 6 1. 403. 11. 

— Lath. Ind, Orn. 1. 397. 1. 
Hortulanus nivalis. Briss. 3. 285, Q. 
L'Ortolan de neige. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 329.— Biif. PL 

Enl. 497. 1. 
Pied Mountain Finch. Al'bin. Birds. 3. J\. 
Snow Bunting. Pen. Brit. Zool. 2- 122. 50. — Pen. Arct. Z00L 

2. 222. — Edivards. 120. — Lewin. Brit. Birds. 2. fl. — Lath. 

Gen. Syn. 3. 16 1. — Lath. Syn. Sup. 157- — Bewick. Brit. Birds. 

1. 1-18. — Mont. Brit. Birds. I.— Mont. Sup. 

As this and the two following birds have been 
frequently confounded together, we shall give the 
descriptions of them from the Supplement to the 
Ornithological Dictionary by Mr. Montagu. 

The Snow Bunting is thus described : (i Beak 
yellowish, with the tip black : the whole head, 
neck, upper part of the back, and all the under 
parts white, except a tinge of rust-colour on the 
forehead and back of the head ^ the rest of the 
back, scapulars, and tertials black, margined with 
rufous white : the upper tail-coverts white : the 
bastard wing black ; the prime quills black half 
way from their points, except on the inner webs 
of some, their base and the whole of the seconda- 



342 SNOW BUNTING. 

ries pure white ; greater and smaller coverts, quite 
up to the ridge of the wing, white : the three 
outer feathers of the tail white, except a small 
spot of black on the exterior web of the first, and 
the points of the shafts of the two others ; the rest 
are more or less black, margined, and tipped with 
white : legs, toes, and claws, black ; the hinder 
claw slightly hooked." 

Dr. Latham mentions several varieties of this 
bird : one has the whole of the white parts tinged 
with yellow, and the throat and fore-part of the 
neck sprinkled with small brown spots : another 
has the whole of the under parts black : and the 
last has a reddish beak : irides, head, throat, and 
neck, white ; the latter with three circles, the 
upper one lead-coloured, the next white, and the 
lowest blue: rest of the body reddish brown, mixed 
with greenish vellow : on the breast a blueish den- 
ticulated mark, inclining towards the belly : wing- 
coverts and quills white, varied with greenish 
yellow and black : the outermost tail-feather but 
one black ; the rest of the tail white : legs and 
claws flesh-colour. 

This hardy bird is an inhabitant of the moun- 
tains of Spitzbergen, Greenland, Lapland, Hud- 
son's Bay, and other cold northern countries : in 
the Highlands of Scotland it is said to be extremely 
abundant, and is called Snozcflake, as it appears in 
immense flocks in the snowy season, and is sup- 
posed to be the harbinger of severe weather, which 
drives it from its usual haunts. In America it ad- 
vances no farther to the south than Nova Scotia, 



SNOW BUNTING. 343 

never having been found at New York : it is like- 
wise excessively rare in the south of England, but 
in Yorkshire and Northumberland it is frequently 
met with. Phipps, in his Voyage to the North, men- 
tions having seen immense numbers on the ice 
near the shores of Spitzbergen. 

The nest of this bird is said to be placed in the 
fissures of the mountain rocks, and to be composed 
of grass, with a layer of feathers inside, and another 
of the down of the Arctic Fox within that : the 
female lays five reddish-white eggs, spotted with 
brown : on its first arrival in this country it is very 
lean, but quickly grows very fat, when it becomes 
excellent eating : it sings very sweetly, sitting on 
the ground ; and does not perch, but runs about 
like the Lark, which it very much resembles at 
first sight. The farther north it is found the whiter 
the plumage is supposed to be, as some specimens 
from Hudson's Bay, where it is called Wapathecu- 
sish, have a great deal more white about them 
than the generality of those taken in Scotland. 



S44 



TAWNY BUNTING. 

(Eraberiza glacialis.) 

E. nigra, pennis jlavo-fusco marginatis, gida urojiygioque Jlaves- 
centzbus, subtus albajlavo obscura macidata. 

Black Bunting, with the feathers yellow, margined with brown- 
ish ; throat and rump yellowish ; beneath white, with obscure 
yellow spots. 

Emberiza glacialis. Lath. Tnd. Orn. 1. 3QS. 2. 

Emberiza nivalis /3. Lin. Faun. Suec. 227- 

Emberiza mustelina. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 867- 

Tawny Bunting. Pen. Brit. Zool. 1. 121. — Lewiu. Brit. Birds. 
2. /2. — Lath. Gen. SyU. 3. 164. 2. — Mont. Brit. Birds. 1. — 
Mont. Sup. — Beivick. Brit. Birds. 1. 150. — Don. Brit. Birds. 
2. 27- 

The Tawny Bunting, according to Mr. Mon- 
tagu, has the " beak yellow, with a black point: 
the top of the head tawny, with a few dark ches- 
nut spots : neck pale dull yellow, the lower part 
before becoming of a bright tawny : chin and 
throat white : back and scapulars black, the fea- 
thers deeply margined with tawny, giving them 
a spotted appearance : rump tawny : two or three 
of the upper tail-coverts white : breast, and all 
beneath, white : the eight first quills are white 
at their base; the black part (which is more or less 
slightly tipped and margined with white), occupies 
nearly the whole of the two or three first, and 
running oblique across the others, forms only a 
black tip to the eighth feather ; from which to the 
fourteenth are pure white, except a small dusky 



TAWNY BUNTING. 345 

spot on the tips of the ninth and tenth ; those close 
to the body and their coverts black, deeply mar- 
gined with tawny : the greater and smaller coverts 
of those quills which are white are of that colour, 
extending quite to the edge of the wing: the 
greater coverts of the primaries are like them, 
white, tipped with black : bastard wing black : the 
first and second quill-feathers are the longest, and 
the latter rather exceed the other : the three outer 
feathers of the tail on each side are white, except 
the tips of the outer webs of the two first, and the 
whole tip of the third, which are black, edged with 
yellowish white ; the fourth has only a little white 
at the base ; the others are black, margined at the 
tip with pale tawny : legs and claws black ; the hind 
claw not much hooked, nor much longer than 
the middle one : length seven inches : weight six 
drachms and a quarter." The female appears to 
differ in having all the greater w r ing-coverts black, 
tipped w T ith white ; the lesser coverts black and 
grey mixed ; and the quills with less white : spe- 
cimens taken in the depth of winter 'agreed with 
the above in every respect. 

This bird has generally been considered as a 
variety of the preceding, but the observations of 
Mr. Montagu appear to decide in favour of its being 
perfectly distinct : it is not very uncommon in De- 
vonshire, and some other counties of England : a 
female Mr. Montagu obtained alive was kept for 
some time in a cage ; she preferred the seeds of 
Canary to any other, which made her grow so ex- 
cessively fat as to cause her death : she was shy to 



346 MOUNTAIN BUNTING. 

the last, never removing by day from her perch 
but to feed, but by candle-light was continually 
running about the bottom of the cage, in the man- 
ner of a Lark : when alarmed, she uttered a mono- 
tonous chirp. 

In the last edition of Pennant's British Zoology, 
this and the preceding species are brought toge- 
ther, the former as the winter, and the latter as 
the summer plumage : but the circumstance of the 
Tawny Bunting being always taken in Devonshire 
during the winter seems to contradict the asser- 
tion, however well founded in fact it may appear. 



3IOUNTAIN BUNTING. 
(Emberiza montana.) 



E. cinerca, subtus Jlavescente-undulaia, capite castancojronte sa- 
turatiore, gula alba, rectricibus tribus extimis albis. 

Cinereous Bunting, beneath waved with yellowish ; head ches- 
nut, darkest in front; throat white; the three outer tail-fea- 
thers white. 

Emberiza montana. Gtnel. Si/st. Nat. 1. 667. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 
1. 393. 3. 

Mountain Bunting. Pen. Brit. Zool. 1. 123. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 
3. 165. 3. — Mont. Brit. Birds. 1. — Mont. Sup. 

The male of this bird Mr. Montagu describes 
as follows : " Beak yellow, with the point dusky : 
the forehead, and part of the crown, chesnut, gra- 
dually decreasing backwards, becoming only a 
tinge of that colour on the hind head : on the 



MOUNTAIN BUNTING. 347 

cheeks a paler patch of the same : the back part 
of the neck, scapulars, back, and rump, cinereous 
grey, mixed with dusky, particularly on the back, 
where the middle of the feathers possess more of 
the last colour : the upper tail-coverts are whitish, 
the largest immediately impending the tail dusky, 
broadly margined with grey : the whole under 
parts white, except a ferruginous bar on the upper 
part of the breast, very obscure in the middle : 
the six first quill-feathers dusky, slightly edged 
with grey on the outer webs, and on the points of 
the three last ; the seventh has part of the inner 
web white half way from the base, and a slight 
streak of the same down the outer web close to 
the shaft ; the eighth like the last, but the outer 
web is white, with dusky spots ; from the ninth to 
the twelfth all white on the inner web, and down 
the outer web close to the shaft, with a dusky 
margin; the two succeeding all white; those next 
the body dusky black, bordered with ferruginous : 
the smaller coverts are mottled dusky black and 
cinereous, the feathers being deeply margined with 
the latter ; the last row of these next to the greater 
coverts is tipped with white, forming a narrow 
band across the wing : the coverts immediately 
impending the quills much the same, tinged with 
ferruginous : the tail somewhat forked ; the six 
middle feathers dusky black, margined with pale 
ferruginous brown ; the fourth on each side the 
same, with a white stripe down the inner web near 
the shaft; the two outer all white, except half the 
outer web towards the tip, which is dusky : legs 



348 MOUNTAIN BUNTING. 

and claws black; the hind claw slightly hooked, 
and nearly double the length of any other." 

The supposed female of this bird, which was 
shot at the same time with the above, is said by 
Mr. Montagu to have " the forehead and crown 
deep chesnut-brown : cheeks the same, but paler : 
the rest of the head above, back of the neck, sca- 
pulars, back, rump, and tail-coverts, ferruginous 
brown, more or less mottled with dusky, as the 
middle feathers are more or less of that colour, 
and of which the upper part of the back is most 
predominant, and least on the upper tail-coverts : 
chin and throat dirty white : upper part of the 
breast crossed by a band of dull chesnut, above 
which the feathers are pale, tipped with dusky, 
giving a speckled appearance to that part ; the 
rest of the under parts sullied white: the wings 
are nearly similar in marking to those of the male, 
especially the smaller coverts; but the white in the 
quill-feathers is less, not one of which is without 
some dusky towards their tip, and the brown parts 
incline to ferruginous ; the spurious wing like that 
of the male, but not so full a black : the tail is 
dusky, with a ferruginous tinge on the lighter 
borders : the two outer feathers like those of the 
other sex, but the fourth from the centre wants the 
white on the inner web close to the shaft." 

This bird is much rarer than either of the fore- 
going : it has occasionally been taken in severe 
snowy weather, on the Mendip Hills, Somerset- 
shire, and likewise in Yorkshire and Northamp- 
tonshire. There can be no doubt that this and E. 



ORTOLAN BUNTING. 349 

glacialis are distinct from the Snow Bunting, as 
they have been taken at various places at the same 
seasons of the year, very nearly corresponding with 
the above description, and never running into each 
other sufficiently to mistake them. 



ORTOLAN BUNTING. 
(Emberiza Hortulana.) 



E. remigibus nigris, pennis tribus margine albidis, rectricibus 

nigris, later alibus duabus extrorsum albis. 
Bunting with the quills black, the three outer feathers with 

whitish margins ; tail-feathers black, the two lateral ones ex- 
ternally white. 
Emberiza Hortulana. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 30[). 4. — Lin. Faun. 

Suec. 22Q. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 869. — Lath. Ind. Orn. I. 

399. 5. 
Hortulanus. Briss. 3. 269. 4. 
L'Ortolan. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4.305. t. 14.— Buff. PI. Enl 

247,/ 1. 
Ortolan Bunting. Pen. Arct. Zool. 2. 367. d. — Albin. 3. 50. — 

Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 166. 5. — Lath. Syn. Sup. 157. 

This bird, which is rather less than the Yellow- 
hammer, is very variable : it is in length six inches 
and a quarter : beak yellowish : head and neck ci- 
nereous olive, yellowish round the eyes : throat 
yellowish, with a cinereous border on each side 
beneath the jaw : under parts pale rufous, palest 
towards the vent: back and scapulars brownish 
chesnut, with the middle of the feathers blackish ; 
towards the rump the chesnut predominates : wing- 



350 ORTOLAN BUNTING. 

feathers brown, darkest in the middle ; some of 
them with grey, and others with rufous edges: 
outer tail-feathers edged and tipped with white ; 
the next tipped with white on the inner edge ; the 
rest of the tail deep brown with rufous margins : 
legs yellowish : female has the head and neck of 
an ash-colour, with each feather marked with 
small blackish lines down the shaft. This bird 
often occurs entirely white, but sometimes with 
only the tail white : it is also found all tinged with 
straw-colour, except the edges of the wings and 
quill-feathers, which are white ; and again with 
the head and neck greenish, and the rest of the 
body blackish. 

This bird builds its nest in a low hedge, or on 
the ground; it is composed of dry bents, mixed 
with leaves, and is very carelessly constructed: 
the female lays four or five greyish eggs, and ge- 
nerally has two broods a year : it sings very pret- 
tily, and is often confined for that purpose. These 
birds are found over great part of Europe, but have 
not been taken in this country : in their passage 
from one part to the other, they are taken in great 
quantities for the use of the table, after being fat- 
tened for the purpose ; which is very easily done, 
by putting them in a dark room with plenty of 
oats and millet, which will make them so very fat, 
as to kill them if the feeders did not : they are said 
to be one of the most exquisite morsels known : 
they then weigh about three ounces j and will 
often get fat by frequenting oat fields, but they 
are not so fine as when fattened artificially. . 




YE 3LTLO W B D :>' T WG- . 




Ye l l o 



YELLOW BUNTING. 
(Emberiza Citrinella.) 

E. rectricibus nigricantibus, extimis duabus latere interiore macula 

alba acuta. 
Bunting with the tail-feathers blackish, and with the two outer 

ones on the inner webs with an acute white spot. 
Emberiza Citrinella. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 3CK). 5. — Lin. Faun. 

Suec. 230. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 8/0. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 

400. 7. 
Emberiza flava. Briss. 3. 258. 1. 
Le Bruant. Buff. Hist. Nat. 'Ois. 4. 342. Q.—Buf. PI. Enl. 30. 

Yellow Bunting. Pen. Brit. Zool. 119. 50. — Pen. Arct. Zool. 
2. 367. c. — Albin. Birds. 1. 66. — Letvin. Brit. Birds. 2. 73. — 
Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 170. — Lath. Sup. \5J. — Mont. Brit. Birds. 
1. — Don. Brit. Birds. 5. 119. — Betviclc. Brit. Birds. 1. 143. 

The Yellow-hammer, or Yellow Yowley, is ra- 
ther more than six inches in length : beak dusky : 
irides hazel : prevailing colour yellow, mixed with 
various shades of brown : the crown of the head 
bright yellow, more or less variegated with brown : 
cheeks, throat, and lower part of the belly, pure 
yellow : breast reddish, and the sides dashed with 
streaks of the same colour : hind part of the neck, 
and back, greenish olive : lesser quills and scapu- 
lars dark brown, with grey edges ; greater quills 
dusky, with pale yellow edges : tail dusky, slightly 
forked, the feathers edged with light brown ; the 
outermost with white : legs yellowish brown : fe- 
male with less yellow about the head, and the co- 
lours in general less vivid : young bird without 



359, YELLOW BUNTING. 

any yellow about it when it first leaves the nest. 
This is subject to very great variety, as seldom 
two are found perfectly similar ; but the descrip- 
tion above given will enable any one to ascertain 
the species. 

This bird is one of the most common indigenous 
species, and is to be seen in every lane and on every 
bush, uttering its simple song, which consists of 
five or six notes, of which the last is more length- 
ened and shrill than the others. It makes an art- 
less nest of hay, dried roots, and moss, lined with 
hair and wool. Its eggs vary very much in colour 
and size, some being nearly white, others purplish 
blue, but all marked with hair-like streaks termi- 
nating in a roundish speck; they are generally four 
in number. In winter it assembles with other gra- 
nivorous birds, and picks up the grain dispersed by 
the flail: it is a tame, silly species; but is never 
caged on account of its song, which is far from 
pleasing. It appears to be abundant over most 
parts of Europe, and in Italy is esteemed as ex- 
cellent food. 

The Green-headed Bunting of Dr. Latham ap- 
pears to be merely a variety of the female of this 
species, as that sex has often been taken with the 
whole head and neck greenish yellow ; and from 
the circumstance of its being found in this country, 
and only one specimen having occurred, there can 
be little or no doubt of its identity. 



353 



YELLOW-WINGED BUNTING. 
(Emberiza chrysoptera.) 

E. nifo-fusca, subtas alba, pectore tectricibusque alarum minoru 

bus Jiavis, jugulo fascia fusca . 
Reddish-brown Bunting, beneath white, with the breast and 

lesser wing-eoverts yellow ; jugulum with a brown band. 
Emberiza chrysoptera. Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 401. 9. 
Yellow-winged Bunting. Portlock. Voy. 35. — Lath. Syn. Sup. 

II. 199- I- 

Inhabits the Falkland Isles : about six inches 
and a half in length : beak brown : sides of the 
head, chin, and fore-part of the neck, white ; at 
the lower part of the latter there is a reddish 
brown collar-like bar: upper parts of the body 
reddish brown : breast yellowish : belly and vent 
dusky white : lesser wing-coverts yellowish ; the 
rest of the wing reddish brown, the feathers with 
yellowish margins : tail the same, but the two ex- 
terior feathers on each side yellow : legs yellow : 
female with the lesser wing- coverts pale ash : sides 
of the head, chin, and throat, dusky white. 



v. ix. p. ii. 24 



354 



YELLOW-FACED BUNTING. 
(Emberiza flaveola.) 

E. grisea,Jronte gulaquejlavis. 

Grey Bunting, with the forehead and throat yellow. 

Emberiza flaveola. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 311. 14. — Gmel. Si/sL 

Nat. 1. 879. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 410. 36. 
La Flaveole. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 363. 
Yellow-faced Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 195. 32. 

This is the size of a Siskin ; and is wholly grey, 
with the exception of the forehead and throat, 
which are yellow: said by Linnaeus to inhabit 
warm countries, but the precise place is unknown. 



355 



FOOLISH BUNTING. 
(Emberiza Cia.) 

E. rtifescens, capite lineis nigricaniibus sparsis, superciliis albis. 
Reddish Bunting, with the head sprinkled with blackish lines, 

supercilia white. 
Emberiza Cia. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 310. 11. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 

878.— Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 402. 11. 
Emberiza fratensis. Briss. 3. 266. 3. 
Cirlus stultus. Rail. Syn. 94. 5. 
Le Bruant fou, ou de pres. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois, 4. 351. — 

Buff. PL Enl. 30. /. 2. 
Foolish Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 191. 27. 

This has the beak dusky: head ash-coloured, 
sprinkled with black, with its sides grey : over 
the eyes a white streak : from the beak passing 
through the eyes a black one ; from the base of 
the under jaw is another passing in the direction 
of the jaw, and bending upwards: upper parts of 
the body rufous grey, with a blackish spot down 
the middle of each feather : under parts more or 
less of a rufous colour : throat almost white : breast 
inclining to cinereous : quills dusky with whitish 
edges : tail black j the two outer feathers beyond 
the middle white, with black shafts : middle ones 
brown, with rufous margins. Female with a ci- 
nereous line on the crown, varied on the edges 
with black and ferruginous : a white line on the 
temples, and a black one from the eyes to the 
base of the jaws : neck in front ash-coloured : 



356 CIRL BUNTING. 

breast and belly ferruginous : back reddish, varie- 
gated with black : wings cinereous at the base : 
tail blackish ; the two middle feathers brown ; 
the two outer ones half white. 

This species frequents the mountainous parts 
of the south of Europe ; but is not found in Russia 
or the west of Siberia : is very solitary, and has 
obtained the appellation of Foolish Sparrow, as it 
will go into any snare laid to entrap it : it is very 
common, and has a trifling note not unlike the 
words zip-zip. 



CIRL BUNTING. 
(Emberiza Cirlus.) 



E. supra varia, subtus lutea, pectore macidato, superciliis luteris, 

rectricibus duabus extimis macula alba cuneata. 
Bunting varied above, yellow beneath, with a spot on the breast, 

and line above the eyes yellow, and the two outer tail-feathers 

with a white wedge-shaped spot. 
Emberiza Cirlus. — Lin.Syst. Nat. 1. 311. 12. — Gmel. Syst.Nat. 

1. 879. — Lath. hid. Orn. 1.401. 10. 
Emberiza sepiaria. Briss. 3. 263. 2. 
Le Bruant de haye. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 34;.— Buff. PI. 

Enl. 653./. 1.2. 
Cirl Bunting. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 1Q0. 26. — Mont. Brit. Birds. 

\.—Mont. Sup. — Lin. Trans. 7« 276. 



The Cirl Bunting is six inches and a half in 
length : beak of a blueish lead-colour above, pale 
beneath : irides hazel : crown of the head, nape of 



ft 




0> 



CIRL BUNTING. 357 

the neck, and npper part of the breast, fine olive 
green, the first streaked with dusky : from the 
upper mandible through the eye a dusky line ; 
above and beneath which is a bright yellow one : 
throat black, tinged with brown, running into a 
bar under the yellow on the cheek ; beneath this 
is a beautiful bright yellow gorget : back and 
scapular fine chesnut brown, the former marked 
with dusky streaks, and the feathers margined with 
olive : lesser wing-coverts olive green : greater co- 
verts dusky, with their outer webs chesnut brown : 
primaries dusky, edged with green on the outer 
webs : secondaries chesnut, dusky down the mid- 
dle : rump olive brown : upper tail-coverts inclining 
to chesnut : across the breast a band composed of 
chesnut and yellow : belly and under tail-coverts 
yellow, the latter with dusky shafts : sides inclin- 
ing to brown : under wing-coverts bright yellow : 
two middle tail-feathers chesnut-brown, the rest 
black ; except the two outer ones, which have 
an oblique white bar half way from the tip, and 
the outermost one being white throughout the 
whole of its exterior web : legs brown : claws 
dusky. Female similar to the male on the upper 
parts, but the colours less vivid : the under yellow, 
streaked with dusky, and inclining to white at the 
chin and vent. 

This species was first discovered to be an inha- 
bitant of this country by Mr. Montagu ; who has 
often taken them in the neighbourhood of Knights- 
bridge, and who likewise says they are to be found 
over most parts of Devon and Cornwall : their nests 



358 CIRL BUNTING. 

are generally built in some low bush or furze, and 
composed of dry stalks, roots, and a little moss, 
and lined with long hair and fibrous roots : their 
eggs are four or five in number, of a cinereous white, 
with irregular curved dusky lines, terminating in a 
spot at one end : these birds pair in April, and 
begin to lay in May : the food of the young birds 
appears to be insects, but they show the greatest 
partiality to grasshoppers : they will likewise eat 
various seeds, of which canary is the favourite : the 
male has a shrill and piercing monotonous song, 
which it is continually repeating ; the female has 
only a gentle plaintive chirup. 

They are said to be abundant in France, Italy, 
and other warm parts of Europe, frequenting newly 
plowed lands, feeding on grain, worms and insects, 
which they pick out of the ground : they are easily 
tamed, and will live above six years : the female 
of this bird is extremely like that of the Yellow- 
hammer, which may have been the cause of its 
not having been observed till lately, as it is very 
abundant in the west of England : its note is also 
similar. 



359 



PASSERINE BUNTING. 
(Emberiza passerina.) 

E. griseo-fasca, subtus cinerascens, vertice medio jugulo tectrici- 
busque nigris rectricibus, duabus extimis albo nigroque dimidiatis. 

Grey-brown Bunting, beneath ash-coloured ; crown of the head, 
middle of the jugulum, and tail-coverts black ; two outer tail- 
feathers half black and white. 

Emberiza passerina. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 871. — Lath. Ind.Orn. 
1.403.14. 

Passerine Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 10,6. 35. 

This bird inhabits Russia, frequenting the Jaick 
in autumn, and in the winter migrating in pairs to 
the south : it is very tame -, and is the size of the 
Reed Sparrow : head dull ferruginous ash-colour ; 
with some of the feathers on the crown black : on 
each side of the chin a white line, and behind the 
eye a pale streak : middle of each feather on the 
back black, with the edges grey brown : wings 
ferruginous with yellowish margins : fore-part of 
the neck black, the feathers edged with paler co- 
lour ; the rest of the under parts cinereous white, 
blotched on the sides with pale ferruginous : tail 
slightly forked, black j the two middle feathers 
edged with ferruginous; the two outer ones mark- 
ed obliquely with black and white, the most outer 
nearly to the base, and the other about half way : 
shafts black in both : legs pale brown. 



360 



COMMON BUNTING. 
(Emberiza miliaria.) 

E. grisca, subtus nigro-maculata, orbitis rufis. 

Grey Bunting, beneath spotted with black, orbits red. 

Emberiza miliaria. Lin. Syst.Nat. 1.308. 3. — Lin. Faun. Suec. 

228. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 868. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 402. 12. 
Emberiza alba. Raii. Syn. 93. A. 1. 
Cynchramus. Briss. 3. 292. 10. 
Le Proyer. Buff. Hist. Nat. Orn. 4. 355. t. 16.— Buff. PI. Enl. 

233. 
Bunting. Pen. Brit. Zool. 118. — Pen. Arct. Zool. 3. 366. b. — 

Albin. Birds. 2. 50. — Leuhi. Brit. Birds. 2. 74. — Lath. Gen. 

Syn. b. 171. — Mont. Brit. Birds. 1. — Mont. Sup. — Don. Brit. 

Birds. 3. 50. — Bewick. Brit. Birds. I. 141. 

In length about seven inches and a half: beak 
brown : irides hazel : prevailing colour similar to a 
Lark : head and upper parts light brown, inclining 
to olive : under parts yellowish white, with a dusky 
line down each feather, the belly excepted, which 
is quite plain : quiUs dusky with lighter edges : 
upper coverts tipped with white : tail slightly 
forked and dusky : legs pale brown : female rather 
paler in colour. 

These birds are common in England, delighting 
in those parts that abound with corn, and are rarely- 
found in uncultivated places : in the winter they 
assemble in vast flocks ; and are often taken in 
nests, and brought to market, where they are sold 
for Larks, but may easily be distinguished by the 
knob in the roof of the mouth : they are very fine 




COMMON BUMWO, 



COMMON BUNTING. 36 1 

eating. The female builds her nest on a tuft of 
dead plants, about four or five inches from the 
ground ; it is composed externally of straw, and in- 
ternally of dry grass, and a few long hairs : she 
lays five or six dirty white eggs, spotted with red- 
dish brown and ash-colour; and during her incu- 
bation the male brings her food, and entertains her 
with his frequently repeated scream, sitting on the 
highest branch of a bush, or even on the top of a 
dock. 

These birds remain the whole year in England, 
but on the continent they migrate, as they depart 
from France with the swallow : are found in abun- 
dance near Rome, and over great part of Europe : 
their food consists principally of grain, but they 
eat a great variety of insects. 



360, 



REED BUNTING. 
(Emberiza Schoenichis.) 

E. capite nigro, cor pore griseo nigroque, rectricibus extimis ma- 
cula alba cuneiformi. 

Bunting with a black head, black and grey body, the outer tail- 
feathers with a wedge-shaped white spot. 

Emberiza Schoeniclus. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1.311. 17. — Lin. Faun. 
Suec. 231. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 881. — Lath Ind: Om. 1.403. 
13. 

Passer torquatus, seu arundinaceus. Briss. 3. 274. 5. 

Ortolan de roseaux. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 315. — Buff. PI. 
Enl. 247- 2. male. 4JJ. 2. female. 

Reed Bunting. Pen. Brit. Zool. 120. — Pen. Arct. Zool. 1. 368. 
E. — Albin. Birds. 2. 51. — Levoin. Brit. Birds. 2. /5. — Lath. 
Gen. Syn. 3. 173. 9. — Lath. Syn. Sup. 157. — Mont. Brit. 
Birds. 1. — Bewick. Brit. Birds. 1. 145. 

The Black-headed, or Reed, Bunting is about 
the size of the Yellow-hammer : its hides are hazel : 
the head, throat, fore-part of the neck, and breast 
black ; divided by a white line from each corner 
of the beak, passing downwards and meeting on 
the back part of the neck, which it nearly encircles : 
upper parts of the body and wings reddish brown* 
each feather with a black streak down the middle : 
under parts white, with brownish streaks on the 
sides : quills dusk}', margined with brown : rump 
and upper tail-coverts blueish ash-colour, mixed 
with brown : two middle tail-feathers black, with 
pale brown edges ; two outer ones almost white, 
the ends tipped with brown, and the bases black; 



5,9 







2&E1E1D BimTIKG- 



REED BUNTING. 363 

the rest wholly black : legs and feet dusky brown. 
Female rather less : head rufous brown, streaked 
with dusky : from each side of the under mandible 
a dusky line passes under the neck, where it joins, 
and forms a bed of that colour : behind the eye a 
light-coloured mark : breast streaked with reddish 
brown : rump olive brown : head without the white 
ring of the male : young birds do not receive the 
black on the head till the ensuing spring. 

This bird does not, as was formerly supposed, 
suspend its nest between four reeds within a few 
feet of the water ; but generally places it on the 
ground at a little distance from water, and occa- 
sionally in a bush, in high grass, or in a furze, at 
a great distance from any water : it is composed 
of stalks of grass, moss, and fibres, lined with fine 
grass. The eggs are four or five in number, of a 
dirty blueish white, or purplish brown, with many 
dark-coloured spots and veins. Dr. Latham, as 
well as other ornithologists, have mistaken the 
song of the Sedge AYarbler for that of this bird, 
which is only a sort of chirp, and will not bear the 
name of a song : with this chirp the male will en- 
tertain the female for several hours during the time 
of incubation, whilst sitting upon some tall tree. 

They remain in England the whole year, but on 
the continent they appear to migrate between 
Sweden and Italy ; passing in the spring and au- 
tumn over the province of Lorrain. 



364 



BLACK-CROWNED BUNTING. 
(Emberiza atricapilla. ) 

E. riifo-fusca, subtus cinerea, gida alba, vertice luteo, sincipite 

strigaque per oculos ad nucham nigris. 
Bufous-brown Bunting, beneath ash-coloured, with the throat 

white; crown yellow; sinciput, and sti-ipe through the eyes 

towards the nape, black. 
Emberiza atricapilla. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 875. — Lath. Ind. Orti. 

1. 415. 57. 
Black-crowned Bunting. Pen. Arct. Zool. 2. 230. — Lath. Gen. 

Syn. 3. 202. 49. t. 45. 

Length about seven inches : beak short, dusky : 
crown of the head yellow : forehead black ; with a 
stripe of that colour passing from thence through 
the eye to the hind head, which is cinereous : body 
above reddish brown, the shafts of each feather 
darkest ; wing-coverts and quills with paler edges : 
chin dirty white : throat and breast cinereous ; the 
upper part of the latter black : belly the same, with 
yellowish buff stripe down the middle : tail plain 
brown, even at the end : legs brown : claws dusky. 
Female without the yellow spot on the crown. In- 
habits the Sandwich Islands and Nootka Sound. 




>]L ACK- CROWDED BlIOTESCG- , 



36, 



BLACK-HEADED BUNTING. 
(Emberiza melanocephala.) 

TL.Jlava, dorso rufo, capite collogue superiore nigris, remigibus 

rectricibusquejuscis. 
Yellow Bunting, with the buck rufous; head, and upper parts 

of the neck, black ; quills and tail-feathers brown. 
Emberiza melanocephala. Gmel. Si/st. Nat. 1. 873. — Lath. Ind. 

Orn. 1. 412. 46. 
Black-headed Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 198. 41. 

The Black-headed Bunting is the size of the 
Yellow Bunting, with the head and upper part of 
the neck black : throat, breast, belly, thighs, and 
rump, yellow : sides of the breast and back rufous: 
quills brown, edged with whitish : tail the same 3 
but paler. 



366 



LOUISIANA BUNTING. 
(Emberiza Judovicia.) 

E. grisea, subtus pallida, pectore rufo, capite supra arcic nigro. 
Grey Bunting, beneath paler, with the breast red ; head above 

with a black arch. 
Emberiza ludovicia. Lin. Si/st. Nat. 1. 310. 10. — Gmel. Syst. 

Nat. 1. 878.— Briss. 3. 278. 6. t. W.f. 3.— Lath. hid. Orn. 1. 

404. 18. 
L'Ortolan de la Louisiane. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 325. — Buff. 

PI. Enl. 158./. l. 
Louisiane Bunting. Pen. Arct. Zool. 2. 227. — Lath. Gen. Si/n. 

3. 177. 13. 

Size of E. citrinella : length above five inches : 
beak rufous, spotted with black : head, throat, and 
fore-part of the neck, pale rufous : the top of the 
head with an irregular semicircular black streak : 
beneath the eye a streak, and several lesser mark- 
ings of black : body above rufous sprinkled with 
black : greater wing-coverts and quills black, with 
rufous edges : lower part of the back, rump, and 
upper tail-coverts, black : tail cuneiform, and 
black : belly, thighs, and tail beneath, reddish 
white : breast and sides rufous : legs ash-colour. 
Native of Louisiana. 



367 



WINTER BUNTING. 
(Emberiza byemalis.) 

E. nigra, ventre albo. 

Black Bunting, with the belly white. 

Emberiza hyemalis. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 308. 2. — Gmel Syst. 

Nat. 1. 868. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 399. 4. 
Hortulanus nivalis niger. Briss. 3. 289* c. 
Fringilla Hudsonias. Phil. Trans. 62. 406. 42. — Gmel. Syst. 

Nat. 1. 926. 
L'Ortolan jacobin. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 335. 
Black Bunting. Pen. Arct. Zool. 2. 223. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 

166. 

This bird makes its appearance in Virginia and 
Carolina in the winter, during severe snowy wea- 
ther: it is in length about six inches and a half: 
beak white : the head, throat, neck, back, scapu- 
lars, rump, and upper tail-coverts, black, with a 
tinge of lead-colour : quills and tail black : under 
parts white : legs grey : is sometimes found with 
the beak tipped with black ; the fore-part of the 
neck lead-coloured, and the two outer tail-fea- 
thers margined with ferruginous. 



368 



CHINESE BUNTING. 
(Emberiza sinensis.) 

E. riifuSy subtus lutea, tectricibus alarum minor ibus jlavescentibus, 
remigibus rectricibus strigaque abdominis longitudinalijuscis. 

llufous Bunting, beneath yellow; the lesser wing-coverts yel- 
lowish ; quills, tail-feathers, and a longitudinal streak on the 
belly, brown. 

Emberiza sinensis. Gmel. Si/st. Nat. 1. 869. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 
1. 400. 6. 

Ortolan de la Chine. Sonner. Voy. Ind. 2. 201. 

Chinese Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn.3. 169. 6. 

This has the beak pale rufous : top of the head, 
and all the upper parts of the body, of a reddish 
rufous colour, with yellowish edges : irides, throat, 
breast, belly, and vent, yellow : middle of the belly 
with a longitudinal brown streak : lesser wing-co- 
verts light yellow : secondaries deep brown, mar- 
gined with rufous grey : primaries umber, edged 
with rufous grey : tail brown, edged with grey : 
legs pale rufous. Inhabits China in the winter 
months. 



369 



LORRAIN BUNTING. 
(Emberlza Lotharingica.) 

E. nigro metadata, supra rufa, subtus cinerascens, strigaper oculos 

maxillceque hiferioris nigra, rectricibus lateralibus albo nigro- 

que variis. 
Black spotted Bunting, above rufous, beneath cinerascent, with 

a black stripe through the eyes, and another at the base of 

the lower mandible ; outer tail-feathers varied with black and 

white. 
Emberiza Lotharingica. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 882. — Lath. Ind. 

Orn. 1. 404. 17- 
Ortolan de Lorraine. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 323. — Buff. PI. 

Enl. 5\l.f. 1. male. 
Ortolan de passage. Buff. PI. Enl. bjl.f. 2. female. 
Lorrain Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 176. 12. 

In length near seven inches : beak brownish : 
upper parts of the head, neck, and body, rufous, 
striped with black : sides of the head pale : through 
the eye a streak of black ; with another of the same 
from the base of the lower mandible round the 
chin, and rising to the ears : throat and breast pale 
ash-colour, sprinkled with black : breast, belly, and 
vent, deep rufous : lesser wing- coverts plain ash- 
colour 5 the others black and rufous mixed : two 
middle tail-feathers rufous ; the rest black and 
white, but most white in the outer ones : legs pale 
reddish brown : female much less : with the tip of 
the beak black : without the black streaks on the 
side of the head j but in lieu thereof, has a whitish 
mark above the eye, and a patch of rufous beneath 

v. ix, p. 11, 25 



3/0 LESBIAN BUNTING. 

it : under parts white, with a half collar of that 
colour embracing the neck : tail white beneath, 
the tips of the outer feathers excepted, which have 
a dusky streak. Inhabits Lorrain. 



LESBIAN BUNTING. 
(Emberiza Lesbia.) 



E. griseo nigroque varia, subtus orbitisque alba, sub oculis albo 

nigroque ter striata, rectricibus later alibus partim albis. 
Bunting varied with black and grey ; beneath, and with the 

orbits, white ; beneath the eyes the same, with three black 

stria? ; lateral tail-feathers partly white. 
Emberiza lesbia. Gmel. Si/st. Nat. 1. 882. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 

404. 16. 
Li? Mitilene de Provence. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 322.-— Buff. 

PL Enl. 656. 2. 
Lesbian Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn.3. 17 6. 11. 

Similar to the Mustachoe Bunting, but wants 
the black spot beneath the eye ; having in lieu 
thereof three narrow black bands, the spaces be- 
tween which are white ; as is also the space round 
the eye : breast, rump, and sides, pale brown, 
without any dusky spots : two middle tail-fea- 
thers dusky, edged with rufous ; rest white : legs 
brownish. 

Inhabits Provence, and is very wild, setting up 
a violent scream on the approach of birds of prey, 
which circumstance the Greeks are said by BurTon 
to take advantage of by placing one of these birds 



BARRED TAIL BUNTING. 371 

in a very strong cage among their poultry, by 
which means the fowls are sooner advised of the 
approach of a Hawk, or other bird of prey: from 
which it is called Chic de Mitilene. 



BARRED TAIL BUNTING. 

(Emberiza fasciata.) 

^L.Jiisco neIndosa f subtus alba, naribus gula genhque JtiscicuUs 

plumosis, remigibus caudaque fuscis saturatiorejasciatis. 
Brown clouded Bunting, beneath white, with the nostrils, throat, 

and cheeks, tufted with feathers ; quills and tail fuscous, with 

darker bands. 
Emberiza fusca. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 878. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 

408. 29. 
Barred tail Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 187« 24. 

This bird is the size of a common Bunting : 
beak flesh-coloured : nostrils tufted ; cheeks, and 
beneath the beak, the same : head pale brown : 
back, wings, and breast, the same, but spotted 
with darker brown : quills and tail brown, with 
dark brown bars : belly white : legs rose-coloured : 
hind claw long, barely curved. Inhabits China. 



372 



CAPE BUNTING. 
(Emberiza capensis.) 

E. nigra-riifesoenteque varia, subtus grisea, gala albida, Jascia 

oculari maxillarumque nigricante. 
Bunting variegated with black and reddish; beneath grey; 

throat white, with a dusky band near the eye and jaw. 
Emberiza capensis. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 310. 9. — Gmel. Syst. 

Nat. 1. 878. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 407- 28. 
Hortulanus Capitis Bonae Spei. Briss. 3. 280. 7. t. 1'i.f. 4. 
Ortolan du Cap de Bonne Esperance. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4, 

328.— Buff. PI. Enl. 158. f. 2. 
Cape Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 185. 23. 

Size of the Angola Bunting : length five inches 
and a half: beak dusky, varied with black on the 
upper parts : top of the head and neck dirty grey 
variegated with black : sides of the head and chin 
dirty white, marked with two black streaks, one 
passing through the eyes, the other beneath them : 
under parts dirty yellowish white : lesser wing-co- 
verts rufous ; greater ones, quills, and tail, dusky, 
with the margins rufous : legs blackish. Inhabits 
the Cape of Good Hope. 



373 



WEAVER BUNTING. 
(Emberiza textrix.) 

E. rvfo-fusca saturatiore varia, subtusjlava, superciliis strigaque 

verticalijtavis, pectore medio striga lata nigra. 
Rufous-brown Bunting, varied with darker colours; beneath 

yellow ; supercilia and stripe on the crown yellow ; middle of 

the breast with a broad black stripe. 
Emberiza textrix. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 877. — Lath. Ind. Orn, 

1. 409. 32. 
Weaver Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 193. 2Q. 

This singular bird received its name from its 
disposition to interweave silk between the wires 
of its cage : it is the size of the House Sparrow : 
beak horn-coloured : over each eye, and down the 
middle of the crowm, a yellow stripe : sides of the 
head variegated with yellow and black : prevail- 
ing colour above reddish brown, the feathers 
darkest in the middle: under parts and rump 
yellow, with a broad black streak down the middle 
of the breast, divaricating on the sides : tail dusky : 
legs pale. In winter the yellow disappears, and 
the bird is wholly of a brownish colour, like the 
Sparrow. 



YELLOW-BELLIED BUNTING. 
(Emberiza naviventris.) 

E. supra varia, subtusjlava, lateribus capitis strigis tribus nigris 

in maculam ad nucham coeuntibus. 
Bunling above varied, beneath yellow, with the sides of the head 

with three black striae, continued, and forming a spot of that 

colour, towards the nape. 
Emberiza capensis. Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 407 . 28.-/3. mas. y. 

fcemina ? 
L'Ortolan a ventre jaune du Cap de Bonne Esperance. Buff. 

Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 326.— Buff. PL Enl. 664./. 2. mas. 
Ortolan du Cape de Bonne Esperance. Buff. PI. Enl. 664. 1. 

fcemina ? 
Cape Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 186. A. male. b. female. 
/S. supra varia, subtus albida, vertice griseo nigroque vario, striga 

pone oculos maxillarique nigra, pectore cinerascente. 
Above varied, beneath whitish, crown varied with grey and 

black, with a stripe of that colour near the eyes, and another 

near the jaws, breast ash-coloured. 
Emberiza Capensis. $. Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 408. 28. 
Le Bonjour Commandeur. Buff. Hist. Nat, Ois. 4. 36g. 
Bruant du Cap de Bonne Esperance. Biiff. PI. Enl. 386.JI 2. 
Cape Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. ISy. c. 

The Yellow-bellied Banting varies exceedingly: 
it is generally above six inches in length : beak 
dusky: top and sides of the head yellowish white : 
from the nostrils to the hind head, over the eye, 
an arched black stripe ; another behind the eye ; 
and an irregular one passing from the lower jaw to 
the back of the head, which it entirely surrounds, 
and unites to the other two : on the nape is a spot 



YELLOW-BELLIED BUNTING. 375 

of black : lower part of the neck and back brown, 
the feathers darkest in the middle : under parts of 
the body entirely yellow, inclining to red on the 
breast, and white on the chin and vent ; lesser 
wing-coverts ash-coloured ; middle white ; greater 
ones black, edged with rufous : quills black, some 
with white margins ; the rest with rufous : rump 
grey: tail forked, the outer and inner feathers of 
each side of the bifurcation shortest ; two middle 
feathers dusky brown ; the rest dusky with pale 
edges, some of the outer ones with white tips : 
legs flesh-colour. The supposed female is brown 
on the upper parts ; the feathers darkest in the 
middle: the middle of the wing longitudinally ru- 
fous from the bend : under parts of the body dirty 
white : rump ash-colour : head with only two black 
streaks, one beneath the eye towards the ear ; the 
other in the direction of the under mandible : tail 
brown, with rufous edges. 

The Bonjour-commandeur of BufFon seems to 
be a variety of this protean species : it has the top 
of the head variegated with black and grey, with 
two streaks of black in the same situation as the 
female of the above, but they are broader : there 
is also a greater inclination to rufous on the upper 
parts of the plumage : sides of the head grey: body 
beneath dirty white, striped on the fore-part of the 
neck with cinereous : sides of the body rufous : tail 
as in the male, above described, but ash-coloured 
beneath : legs pale yellow. 

BufFon informs us this bird is called Bonjour- 
commandeur, from its singing always at daybreak ; 



376 MUSTACHOE BUNTING. 

that it is very abundant about inhabited places ; 
and has much the note and habits of the Sparrow, 
often settling like that bird on the ground, and 
generally in pairs. Is found at the Cape of Good 
Hope, and Cayenne. 



MUSTACHOE BUNTING. 

(Emberiza provincialis.) 



E. grisco nigroque varia, subtus macidaque alarum alba, macula 

suboculari fascia que maxillari nigris. 
Bunting varied with grey and black ; beneath, and spot on the 

wing, white; with a spot beneath the eye, and a band near the 

jaw black. 
Emberiza provincialis. Gmcl. Syst. Nat. 1. 881. — Lath. Ind. 

Orn. 1. 403. 15. 
Le Gavoue de Provence. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 321. — Buff. 

PI. Enl. 656. l . 
Mustachoe Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 1/5. 10. 

Length near five inches : beak dusky : through 
the eye a streak of white, passing on each side of 
the neck ; beneath which is a large spot of black : 
chin white : on each side of the throat, from the 
under jaw, a black streak : upper parts of the body 
brownish red : breast, and sides, pale brown, 
spotted with black ; rest of the under parts white ; 
with a bar of that colour across the middle of the 
wings : quills dusky, edged with rufous ; tail the 
same : legs pale brown. Inhabits Provence, where 
it is not uncommon : it is called Chic-gavotte and 



OLIVE BUNTING. 377 

Chic-moustache : it feeds on grain, and is said to 
sing very agreeably in the spring. 



OLIVE BUNTING. 
(Emberiza olivacea. ) 



E. olivacea subtus albidior, gula aurantia, fascia pectorali nigri- 

cante. 
Olive Bunting, beneath whitish, with the throat orange ; band 

on the breast dusky. 
Emberiza olivacea. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 309- 6. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 

1. 870. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 410. 38. 
Emberiza dominicensis. Briss. 3. 300. 14. t.f. 5. male. 
L'Olive. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 363. 
Olive Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 195. 34. 

The Olive Bunting is very little larger than a 
Wren, being only three inches and three quarters 
in length : beak grey brown : head and upper parts 
of the body olive green : between the beak and eye 
a yellow spot, reaching over the latter : throat 
orange : fore-part of the neck, and upper part of 
the breast, black : the rest of the under parts olive 
grey : wings edged with yellow : quills brown, with 
olive-green borders : tail the same : legs grey brown. 
Female less brilliant in colour ; and without the 
orange and yellow on the head and throat, and 
the black on the neck and breast ; beneath grey, 
with an olive tinge. Found at St. Domingo. 



378 



BADEN BUNTING. 
(Emberiza badensis.) 

E. olivacea nigricante striata, subtus pallidior, gida aurantia, 

pectore nigricante-striato . 
Olive Bunting, striated with dusky ; beneath paler ; throat 

orange ; breast striated with dusky. 
Emberiza badensis. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 873. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 

1,411. 3y. 
Baden Bunting. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. 200. 4. 

About five inches in length : beak black, with 
a stout indentation in the middle of the upper man- 
dible ; under mandible yellowish : prevailing co- 
lour of the plumage above olive, striped with dusky; 
beneath paler : throat orange : breast with dusky 
stripes : legs yellowish : has a very great affinity 
to the preceding. 



379 



BLACK-THROATED BUNTING. 
(Emberiza americana.) 

E. cinereafusco striata, superciliis ■ striga sub oculis abdomineque 
Jlavis, gula alba,jugido macula nigra. 

Cinereous Bunting, striated with brownish ; supercilia, and stripe 
beneath the eyes and abdomen, yellow; throat white ; jugu- 
lum with a black spot. 

Emberiza americana. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 872.-*- Lath. Ind. 
Om. 1. 411. 42. 

Black-throated Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 197- 37. t. 44. 

/S. cinereo-fusca subtus albida, fronte superciliisque Jlavis, fascia 
sub oculis lunulaquefrontis nigris, gulajlava medio macula tri- 
quetra nigra. 

Cinereous brown ; beneath whitish, with the forehead and su- 
percilia yellow ; band beneath the eyes, and crescent on the 
forehead, black ; throat yellow, with a triangular black spot 
in the middle. 

Black-throated Bunting. Pen. Arct. Zool. 2. 228. lJ.—Lath, 
Syn. Sup. 158. 

This bird has the beak pale brown : the upper 
parts of the plumage ash-coloured, streaked on the 
back with brown : supercilia, and streak beneath 
the eyes, yellow : chin and throat white ; with a 
triangular black spot on the latter : breast and 
middle of the belly yellow: sides streaked with 
dusky : greater wing-coverts tawny : quills and 
tail dusky, with paler edges : legs brown : female 
without the streaks above and beneath the eyes, 
and the spot on the throat ; but with a dusky 
streak beneath the eye, and the space between the 
latter and the beak white. 



380 BLACK-THROATED BUNTING. 

Dr. Latham mentions a variety of this bird, 
which is in length seven inches and a half: " beak 
black ; forehead yellowish, passing over the eye 
in a streak : between the beak and eye black, 
passing beneath the eye, and ending in a patch 
below the ear : above the forehead a black cres- 
cent, the horns turning backwards : crown and 
upper parts of the plumage brown : quills tipped 
with white : tail-coverts reddish brown : the two 
middle tail-feathers brown ; the three next on each 
side black, edged with pale brown at the tip ; the 
next white on the inner web ; and the outer one 
white, both the outer web and tip : the throat is 
yellow, with a triangular mark of black in the 
middle : belly and vent blueish white : legs black." 

This bird often appears in small flocks, and 
builds its nest on the ground, laying four or five 
white eggs, spotted with black: it has no song, 
but merely a chirp ; and is a native of Hudson's 
Bay, where it is called Outatapaseu. 



381 



RUSTY BUNTING. 

(Emberiza ferruginea.) 

%. ferruginea, abdomine remigumque primprum maculis duabus 

albis. 
Ferruginous Bunting, with the abdomen, and two spots on the 

primary quills, white. 
Emberiza ferruginea. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 872. — Lath. Ind. 

Orn. 1. 411. 41. 
Rusty Bunting. Pen. Arct. Zool. 2. 231. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 

197- 36. 

Inhabits Russia : head, neck, breast, sides, 
and wings, ferruginous ; the latter with two white 
spots on the greater quills : belly white : tail fer- 
ruginous. 



RUDDY BUNTING. 
( Emberiza rutila. ) 



E. ex sanguineo-nifa, subtus sulphurea, alis ex griseojerrugineis. 
Bunting of a blood-coloured rufous; beneath sulphur-yellow; 

wings of a grey ferruginous. 
Emberiza rutila. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 872. — Pallas. It. 3. 698. 

13. — Lath. hid. Orn. 1. 411. 40. 
Ruddy Bunting. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. 201. 5. 

The Ruddy Bunting is found among willows on 
the borders of the Onon in Siberia, towards the 
borders of Mongolia : it is the size of the Yellow 



382 DAUURIAN BUNTING. 

Bunting : above rufous, with a crimson tinge : 
beneath sulphur-coloured : wings rusty grey : it is 
very scarce. 



DAUURIAN BUNTING. 
(Emberiza spodocephala.) 



E. passerina, subtus Jlavescens, capite et collo cano-cinereis, capis- 

tro nigro. 
Bunting above sparrow-coloured; beneath yellowish, with the 

head and neck hoary cinereous ; capistrum black. 
Emberiza spodocephala. Gmcl. Syst. Nat. 1. 871. — Lath. Ind. 

Orn. 1. 419. 74. 
Dauurian Bunting. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. 202. 11. 

The plumage of this bird on the upper part is 
similar to that of a Sparrow ; on the under parts 
yellowish : capistrum black : the head and neck 
hoary ash-colour : size of the Reed Bunting. In- 
habits the torrents of the Dauurian Alps; but very 
rare. 



383 



AMAZONIAN BUNTING. 
(Emberiza amazona.) 

K. fused, verticejulvoy crisso albido. 

Fuscous Bunting, with the crown fulvous and vent white. 

Emberiza amazona. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 311. 15. — Gmel. Syst. 

Nat. 1. 880. — Lath. bid. Orn. 1. 410. 37. 
L'Amazone. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 364. 
Amazon's Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 195. 33. 

This bird inhabits Surinam, and is the size of a 
Titmouse : prevailing colour brown : crown yel- 
low : base of the wings and vent whitish. 



GUAR BUNTING. 
(Emberiza asiatica.) 

E. cinerea, alis caudaquefuscis. 
Cinereous Bunting, with the wings and tail brown. 
Emberiza asiatica. Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 4\Q. J2. 
Guar Bunting. Lath. Syn. Sup. l6o. 

Given on the authority of Dr. Latham, who 
thus describes it : " Size small : length four inches 
and a half: beak pale rose-colour: head, neck, 
back, breast, and belly, cinereous, palest beneath : 
wings and tail brown, with paler edges : legs pale 
blue :" native of the East Indies, where it is called 
Guar. 



384 



FAMILIAR BUNTING. 
(Emberiza familiaris.) 

E. cinerea griseo-maculata, apicibus rectricum all/is, dorso postico 

flavo. 
Ash-coloured Bunting, spotted with grey, with the tips of the 

tail-feathers white ; lower part of the back yellow. 
Emberiza familiaris. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1.311. 13. — Gmcl. Syst, 

Nat. 1. 879- — Lath. Incl. Orn. 1. 410. 35. 
Le Bruant familier. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 367. 
Familiar Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 194. 31. 

This interesting bird was discovered by Mr. 
Osbeck : it is a native of Java, and is extremely 
docile, as it will jump upon any person's hand that 
opens its cage door ; will sing very sweetly when 
whistled to, and go and bathe itself in a dish of 
water that is presented to it : it is the size of Frin- 
gilla spinus : beak narrow and black : head, neck, 
breast, and upper parts of the body ash-coloured, 
the latter spotted with brown : lower parts of the 
back and rump yellow : tail- coverts white : tail 
tipped with the same : said to feed on rice. 



385 



COLOURED BUNTING. 

(Emberiza fucata.) 

E. passerina, cervice cano-ci?ie?~ea, corpore subtus lineaque siqjra 
et infra oculos alba. 

Sparrow-coloured Bunting, with the top of the neck hoary ci- 
nereous ; body beneath, and stripe above and beneath the 
eyes, white. 

Emberiza fucata. Gmel. Syst. Nat. I. 871. — Lath. Ltd. Orn. 1. 
410. 73. — Pall, reise. 3. 698. 22. 

Coloured Bunting. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. 202. 10. 



Described by Pallas : size of the Foolish Bunt- 
ing : prevailing colour above similar to a Sparrow ; 
with the crown of the head and upper part of the 
nape hoary ash-colour ; the shafts of the feathers 
brown : neck white, with a circle of brown spots 
on the throat, and a round rufous mark on the 
ears : common on the rivers Onon and Trigodia, 
in Russia. 



v. tx. p. u. 26* 



386 



BRASILIAN BUNTING. 
(Emberiza brasiliensis. ) 

E. virescensjiavojiiscoque varia, subtus verticeque lutea. 
Bunting varied with greenish yellow and fuscous ; beneath, and 

with the crown of the head, yellow. 
Emberiza brasiliensis. Briss. 3. 2gg. 13. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 

872. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 412. 43. 
Le Guirnegat. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 36l . 
Bruant du Bresil. Buff. PI. Enl. 321. f. 1. 
Brasilian Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. \gj. 38. 

The size of a House Sparrow : beak and eyes 
black : crown, throat, neck, and under parts, yel- 
low: upper parts and tail varied with greenish 
yellow and brown : legs brown : female very si- 
milar in appearance to the common Sparrow, being 
quite plain, and destitute of the rich colours of the 
male. Inhabits Brasil. The male is said to have 
an agreeable note ; the female only a chirp like 
the Sparrow. 



387 



BRUMAL BUNTING. 
(Emberiza brumalis. ) 

E.Jlavofasca sincipite corporeque subtus Jlavis, collo superiore 
cum lateribas ciuereo, remigibusjuscis. 

Yellowish-brown Bunting, with the sinciput and body beneath 
yellow ; upper part of the neck, and with the sides, ash-co- 
loured ; quills brown. 

Emberiza brumalis. Scop. An. 1. 213. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 
873. — Lath. hid. Om. 1. 412. 4/. 

Brumal Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 199. 42. 

This species is the size of Fringilla Spinus : 
forehead and orbits yellow : occiput, neck, and 
sides, ash-coloured : back yellow-brown : under 
parts of the body and vent yellow : quills brown, 
edged with yellow : thighs whitish. Common in 
the county of Tyrol, in Austria, and is often 
caught with birdlime in the autumn : it feeds on 
hemp seed. 



388 



RICE BUNTING. 
( Emberiza oryzivora. ) 

E.jiisca, cervice riifescente, abdomine nigro, rectricibus mucro- 

natis. 
Brown Bunting, with the nape of the neck rufeseent ; abdomen 

black ; tail-feather pointed. 
Emberiza oryzivora. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1.311. 16. — Gmel. Syst. 

Nat. 1. 880. — Lath. Lid. Orn. 1. 408. 30. 
Fringilla oryzivora. Amcen. Acad. 4. 5/6. 
Hortulanus Carolinensis. Briss. 3. 282. 8. t. 15. f. 3. 
L'Agripenne, ou l'Ortolan de rise. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 

357.— Buff. PL Enl.388.f. 1. 
Rice Bunting. Pen. Arct. Zool. 2. 325. — Edtv. 291. — Lath. 

Gen. Syn. 3. 188. 25. 
/3. JuscO'olivacea, subtus Jlavescens, uropygio Jiavo ffusco trans- 

versim lineato, tectricibus alarum majoribus remigibusque nigns 

albo marginatis. 
Olive-brown, beneath yellowish ; rump yellow, transversely 

striped with fuscous ; greater wing-coverts and quills black, 

with white margins. 
Loxia Orizivora. /3. Lath. Lnd. Orn. 1. 408. 30. 
Agripenne, ou Ortolan de la Louisiane. Biff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 

4. 339.— Buff. PL Enl. 388. f. 2.— Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. I89. 

25. A. 

This bird is the size of a Sparrow : beak dusky: 
front and sides of the head, back, and all the under 
parts black : the margins of the feathers on the head, 
back, and thighs, rufous: back of the head and neck 
buff-colour : lesser wing and upper tail-coverts 
and scapulars dirty white : rest of the wing black, 
with brown edges j the quills excepted, which are 
edged with yellowish grey : tail black, slightly 



RICE BUNTING. 389 

forked; the feathers tipped with brownish, and 
ending in a sharp point : legs brown : length near 
seven inches : female nearly all rufous, with a 
change of brown in some parts. 

BufFon mentions a bird which appears to be a 
variety of this species : it is the same size ; with 
the upper parts of the head, neck, body, and upper 
wing-coverts olive-brown : under parts pale yel- 
low, getting paler towards the vent: rump and 
upper tail-coverts yellow, barred with brown lines : 
greater wing-coverts and quills black, with white 
edges : tail-feathers black and pointed, with the 
two middle ones edged with yellow, and the rest 
with yellowish white. 

This species inhabits the greatest part of Ame- 
rica, and is known by the names of Bob-Lincobi, 
Conquedle, and White-backed Maize-thief, which 
latter one it obtains from destroying great quan- 
tities of maize, by pecking holes in the sides of 
the husks, which allows room for the rain to get 
in and spoil the seeds : it is a migratory species, 
the females appearing first: it is abundant in Cuba 
in September, and as the rice ripens they ad- 
vance farther north, as they only touch that grain 
while it continues green : it appears about New 
York and Rhode Island the beginning of May, 
and feeds upon insects till the maize is in a suffi- 
cient state of forwardness for them to eat : in the 
autumn they again retire to the south : it is said 
to have a very agreeable note, and is often kept 
in cages for the sake of its song. 



390 



RUSTIC BUNTING. 
(Emberiza rustica.) 

E. supra passerina, subtus alba, capite nigro Jasciis tribus longi- 

tudinalibus albis. 
Bunting above the colour of a Sparrow, beneath white, with the 

head black, with three longitudinal white stripes. 
Emberiza rustica. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 871. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 

1. 413. 51. 
Rustic Bunting. Lath. Syn. Sup. LL. 201. 6. 

The head of this bird is black, marked with three 
white bands, one down the crown, and the other 
two over each eye : nape and shoulders ferruginous : 
upper parts of the plumage similar to a Sparrow ; 
under white : throat spotted with testaceous : two 
outer tail-feathers obliquely tipped with white: size 
of Emberiza Schceniclus. Inhabits the willow beds 
of Dauuria. 



391 



YELLOW-BROWED BUNTING. 
(Emberiza chrysophrys.) 

E. passerina, vertice nigro, superciliis citrinis, fascia a medio 

verticis ad nucham alba. 
Sparrow-coloured Bunting, with the crown black; supercilia 

lemon-coloured ; with a white band from the middle of the 

crown to the nape. 
Emberiza chrysophrys. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 872. — Lath. Ind. 

Qrn. 1. 419- 75. 
Yellow-browed Bunting. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. 203. 12. 

Plumage above similar to a Sparrow in colour : 
crown black : line over the eyes yellow ; and from 
the middle of the crown to the nape a white band : 
found among the Dauurian torrents, along with E. 
spodocephala, and appears to be very much allied 
to the white-crowned Bunting. 



392 



WHITE-CROWNED BUNTING. 
(Emberiza leucophrys.) 

'Ei.Jcrrugineo-jusca, subtus alba, crisso Jlavo, vertice nigro, medio 

vitta superciliisque albis. 
Ferruginous-brown Bunting, beneath white, vent yellow, crown 

black, with its middle and the supercilia white. 
Emberiza leucophrys. Phil. Trans. 62. 403. 426. — Gmel. Syst. 

Nat. 1. 874. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 413. 4Q. 
White-crowned Bunting. Pen. Arct. Zool. 2. 22. — Lath. Gen. 

Si/n. 3. 200. 44. — Lath. Sup. 15Q. 

The White-crowned Bunting is in length above 
seven inches : beak flesh-coloured : crown of the 
head with a white stripe, reaching nearly to the 
beak ; on each side of which is a black stripe : 
supercilia white, the colour running behind, and 
joining the vertical stripe : neck ash-colour ; palest 
in front : back rusty brown : wings brown ; the 
primary quills very pale on their outer edges, on 
the inner ash-coloured : bastard wing and two 
bands on the wing white : rump cinereous brown ; 
the feathers with ash-coloured margins : breast 
ash-colour : under parts of the body white : thighs 
and vent yellow : tail even at the end, and brown : 
legs flesh-colour : female similar to the male. 

This bird constructs its nest in the bottoms of 
willows, and lays three chocolate-coloured eggs : 
it feeds on grass seeds and worms ; and is a native 
of Canada, but migrates in September to the south : 
when in flight is silent, but when perched has a 
very melodious song : it is called Cusabatashish in 
Hudson's Bay. 



393 



WREATHED BUNTING. 
(Emberiza luctuosa.) 

E. nigra, fronte pectore abdomine uropygio crissoque albis. 
Black Bunting, with the forehead, breast, abdomen, rump, and 

vent, white. 
Emberiza luctuosa. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 874. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 

1. 414. 52. 
Wreathed Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 200. 45. 

Locality of this bird unknown : size of the 
Greater Titmouse : beak black : forehead, breast, 
belly, rump, and vent, white ; with a line of that 
colour extending from the forehead to the nape : 
in the middle of each wing a white spot : rest of 
the plumage black. 



military bunting. 

(Emberiza militaris.) 



Yj.flavescente-fusca, sultus alba, pectore dorsoque infimojlams. 
Yellowish-brown Bunting, beneath white, with the breast and 

lower part of the back yellow. 
Emberiza militaris. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 873. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 

1. 412. 45. 
Militar)' Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 198. 40. 

The head, neck, and back of this bird are yel- 
lowish brown : breast and lower part of the back 



394 DWARF BUNTING. 

yellow : shoulders greenish : belly white : quills 
and tail brown ; the outer edges yellowish at the 
tips. Found at Malta. 



DWARF BUNTING. 
(Emberiza pusilla.) 



E. supra passeri?ia, subtus albida, capite supra et lateribus Jasciis 

quints testaceis, interjectisque nigris quatuor. 
Bunting above like tbe Sparrow, beneath whitish ; head above 

and five fasciae on the sides testaceous, the intermediate 

spaces black. 
Emberiza pusilla. Gmel. Syst. Nat. I. 871. — Lath. Ind. Om. 

1. 414. 54. 
Dwarf Bunting. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. 201. 7. 

Described by Pallas, who observed it in the 
larch grounds, among the torrents of the Dauurian 
Alps : it is the size of a Siskin : prevailing colour 
like a common Sparrow : on the head and sides 
five testaceous bands, the intermediate spaces be- 
tween which are black : throat spotted. 



395 



MEXICAN BUNTING. 
(Emberiza mexicana.) 

E.fuscesce?is, facie gulaque luteis, corpore subtus sordide albo 

Jiisco maculato. 
Brownish Bunting, with the face and throat yellow ; body beneath 

dull white, spotted with fuscous. 
Emberiza mexicana. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1.873. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 

1. 412.44-. 
La Therese jaune. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 36l. 
Bruant de Mexique. Buff. PI. Enl. 386./. 1. 
Mexican Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 198. 39« 

In length six inches and a half: beak pale : front 
and sides of the head, throat, and fore part of the 
neck, yellow : upper parts of the body brownish ; 
the brown on the sides of the neck tending upwards 
in a point to the eye : under parts dirty white, 
spotted with brown : quills and tail brownish, with 
pale brown edges : legs pale. Native of Mexico. 



396 



AOONALASCHKA BUNTING. 
(Emberiza aoonalaschkensis.) 

E. rufo-fusca, subtas albidafusco striata, abdomine medio alba. 
Reddish-brown Bunting, beneath whitish, striated with fuscous; 

abdomen in the middle white. 
Emberiza aoonalaschkensis. Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 415. 5"]. 
Emberiza unalaschcensis. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 875. 
Aoonalaschka Bunting. Pen. Arct. Zool. 2. 232. — Lath. Ind. 

Orn. 3. 202. 4S. 

This bird inhabits the same places as the pre- 
ceding, and is seven inches in length : head, neck, 
back, rump, and upper parts of the tail, plain 
brown, tinged with rufous : under parts dusky- 
white, sprinkled with blackish : middle of the belly 
plain dusky white : rest of the plumage brown, 
tinged with rufous. 



397 



SANDWICH BUNTING. 
(Emberiza arctica.) 

E.Jusca, subtus albidafusco striata, suboculis striga nigra, super - 

ciliisjiavis. 
Fuscous Bunting, beneath whitish striated with fuscous; beneath 

the eyes a black stripe; supercilia yellow. 
Emberiza arctica. Lath, Ind. Orn. 1. 414. 55. 
Emberiza sandwichensis. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 875. 
Unalashka Bunting. Pen. Arct. Zool. 2. 229. 
Sandwich Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3.202. 47- 

Inhabits Aoonalashka, and Sandwich sounds i 
in length six inches : beak dusky : body above 
brown ; the shaft of each feather darker : from the 
nostrils to the back of the head a yellow streak ; 
sides of the head between dusky : body beneath 
dusky white, sprinkled with brown : middle of the 
belly plain dusky white : quills dusky brown, the 
edges palest : tail brown : legs dusky. 



398 



PINE BUNTING. 
(Emberiza pithyornus.) 

E. riifa, abdomine cano, striga verticis cana, lateribus nigro mar- 

ginata, macula genarum temporum pectorisque alba. 
Rufous Bunting ; abdomen hoary ; stripe on the crown hoary, 

the sides margined with black ; with a white spot on the cheeks, 

temples, and breast. 
Emberiza pithyornus. Gmel. Si/st. Nat. 1. 875. Pall. It. 2. 710. 

22. — Lath. hid. Orn. 1. 413. 50. 
Pine Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 203. 50. 

The Pine Bunting is about the size of the Yellow- 
hammer : beak dirty white : head with a broad 
streak down the middle of a white colour, sur- 
rounded on each side with black ; nape below this 
hoary : through the eyes a rufous stripe : cheeks 
and temples each with a triangular white spot : 
sides of the neck and throat rust- coloured : back 
and rump rufous ; the shafts of the first dusky : 
wing-coverts and secondaries brown, with rufous 
edges : primaries blackish, with whitish margins : 
breast with a large triangular white spot : sides 
rufous : middle of the belly hoary : vent whitish : 
tail blackish, with whitish margins, slightly forked ; 
and the two outer feathers white from the middle 
to the tip on the inner web : legs dirty white : 
claws dusky. Female varied with grey and pale 
rufous: the shafts of the feathers dusky: lower 
part of the belly dirty white j the rest as in the 
male. 



MALEBY BUNTING. 399 

This bird is abundant throughout Siberia, but is 
not met with in Russia : it is taken among the reeds 
on the Don. 



MAELBY BUNTING. 
(Emberiza maelbiensis.) 

E. capite collogue plumbeo-cinereis, gula albida, abdomine Jerru- 

ginea. 
Bunting with the head and neck lead-coloured ash, throat 

whitish, and belly ferruginous. 
Emberiza maelbiensis. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 872. — Lath. Ind. 

Orn. 1. 401. 8. 
Maelby Bunting. Pen. Arct. Zool. Sup. 64. — Lath. Syn. Sup. 

160. 

This bird is found in Sweden ; and is the size 
of E. citrinella : beak pale rufous : forehead, crown, 
lower part of the neck before, and upper part of 
the breast, blueish ash-colour : spot between the 
beak and eye, eyelids, chin, upper parts of the 
throat, sides of the neck, and vent, dusky white : 
lower part of the breast, belly, and thighs, ferru- 
ginous ; back the same, marked with acute black 
spots : upper wing-coverts black, with ferruginous 
edges; under ones pale yellow : quills dusky, with 
ferruginous edges : tail-feathers black ; the four 
outer ones half way from the tip white, the outer 
margins black : legs pale rufous. 



400 



SURINAM BUNTING. 
(Emberiza surinamensis.) 

E. suprajusca nebulosa, subtus flwoescens, pectore nigro maculato. 
Bunting above clouded with fuscous ; beneath yellowish ; breast 

spotted with black. 
Emberiza surinamensis. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 887. — Lath. Ind, 

Orn. 1.418. "JX. 
Surinam Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 212. 63. 

Rather larger than a Lark, to which it is very 
similar in colour : beak large, with the sides of the 
under mandible higher and more angular than 
usual in this genus : breast spotted with oblong 
black spots, the ground colour of which, with the 
chin and belly, are whitish yellow. Native of Su- 
rinam. 



401 



CTNEREOUS BUNTING. 
(Emberiza cinerea.) 

E. grisescens fusco castaneoque varia subtus albida castaneo ma- 

culata, tectricibus caudce nifo-albis, remigibus rectricibusque 

Juscis. 
Bunting varied with greyish, fuscous and chesnut; beneath 

whitish, spotted with chesnut; tail-coverts rufous white ; quills 

and tail-feathers brown. 
Emberiza cinerea. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 876. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 

1. 415. 58. 
Emberiza canadensis, Briss.3. 2Q6. 14. t. 14. f. 1. 
Le Cul-rousset. Biiff". Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 368. 
Cinereous Bunting. Pen. Arct. Zool. 2. 233.— Lath, Gen. Syn. 

3. 204. 51. — Lath. Syn. Sup. 15Q. 

Length five inches and a half: beak pale brown : 
upper part of the head chesnut, with the shafts of 
each feather brown : the rest of the upper parts the 
same, but more inclined to grey : under parts of 
the body dirty white, marked with chesnut spots : 
rump entirely grey : quills and tail brown, edged 
with reddish grey ; the coverts of the latter rufous 
white : legs pale brown : the female more inclined 
to grey. 

Dr. Latham mentions a variety of this bird, 
which had " the beak yellow : head, back, and 
wings rust-coloured, each feather deeply and ele- 
gantly edged with pale grey : some of the greater 
coverts edged with paler rust j primaries and ter- 
tials with white : throat, breast, and sides, white, 

v. ix. p. 11. 27 



402 YELLOW-BREASTED BUNTING. 

fully spotted with rust : middle of the belly white : 
middle feathers of the tail brown ; exterior white, 
each feather truncated obliquely." 

This bird is said to keep very close to the 
ground, seldom rising more than a foot from it: 
it is an inhabitant of North America, and frequents 
the Red Cedars. 



YELLOW-BREASTED BUNTING. 
(Emberiza aureola. ) 

E. rufr a subtus Jiava, fascia pectorali transversa ferruginea, ver- 
tice gents gulaque nigris. 

Itufous Bunting, beneath yellow, with a transverse ferruginous 
band on the breast ; crown, cheeks, and throat black. 

Emberiza aureola. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 875. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 
1.414.53. 

Yellow-breasted Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 201. 4(5.— Pen- 
Brit. Zool. 2. 366. a. 

The Yellow-breasted Bunting has a pale trans- 
parent beak, the edge of which is blackish : fore- 
head and crown blackish, the latter palest : back 
of the head, nape, and between the wings, rufous ; 
the feathers edged with grey at their tips : back 
and rump the same, but more hoary, and some 
of the shafts spotted with black : cheeks and 
throat black : breast and belly yellow ; with a 
ferruginous crescent across the latter : scapulars 
white : secondary wing-coverts rufous on the outer 



PAINTED BUNTING. 403 

webs ; the edges whitish ; forming a stripe of 
that colour on the wings : quills brown j the pri- 
maries edged with white ; the secondaries plain : 
under tail-coverts white : tail brown ; slightly 
forked ; two outer feathers with a longitudinal 
white stripe on the inner web : legs dirty white : 
female with the crown darker, and the margins of 
the feathers more hoary than the male, which she 
resembles in all other respects. 

Found over great part of Siberia and Kamt- 
chatka, inhabiting the pine forests, and the poplars 
and willows in the islands of the Irtish, and other 
rivers : its note is similar to the Reed Bunting. 



PAINTED BUNTING. 
(Emberiza Ciris.) 

E. capite cceruleo, abdomine fulvo, dorso viridi, pennis viridijuscis. 
Bunting with a blue head, fulvous abdomen, green back, and 

the quills greenish brown. 
Emberiza Ciris. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 313. 34. — Gmel. Syst. Nat, 

1. 885. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 4l6. 6l. 
Chloris ludoviciana, Papa. Briss. 3. 266. 58. t. S.f. 3. 
Le Pape. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 176. g.—Buff. PI. Enl. \5g. 

China Bullfinch. ATbin. 3. 68. 
Painted Finch. Edwards. 130. and 273. upper fig. 
Painted Bunting. Pen. Arct. Zool. 2. 226. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 
3. 206.54.— Lath. Syn. Sup. 15Q. — Lath. Syn. Sup. II. 201. 8. 

This most beautiful bird is the size of a Hedge 
Sparrow : beak grey brown : irides hazel : head 



404 PAINTED BUNTING. 

and neck violet : orbits red : upper part of the 
back and scapulars yellow-green : lower part, 
rump, and all the under side, red : lesser wing- 
coverts violet-brown, with a red tinge : greater 
coverts dull green : quills brown, some of them 
with greenish edges, others red : tail brown ; the 
two middle feathers reddish, and the rest edged 
with that colour : legs brown. Female above dull 
green: beneath yellow-green : quills brown, edged 
with green : tail brown, variegated with green. 

As these birds do not obtain their full plumage 
till the third year, there are scarcely two to be 
found quite alike : in the first year both sexes are 
brown ; in the second the male has a blue head, 
and the rest of the plumage blue-green, and the 
wings and tail brown, edged with blue-green : at 
that time the female inclines to blue. There is a 
variety of this bird, which has all the under parts 
yellowish, with the exception of a small red spot 
on the breast ; the whole of which disappears, and 
turns to whitish after the following moult. 

This bird inhabits various parts of America, 
from North Carolina to Guiana, and is one of the 
most beautiful of the genus : it builds its nest in 
the orange trees, and will feed on millet, succory, 
and other seeds ; it has a very delicate and sooth- 
ing song, which it delivers in a soft and warbling 
tone : it is often bred in Holland, and occasionally 
in England, in the manner of Canaries ; and will 
live in confinement eight or ten years. The Spa- 
niards call it Mariposa, and the English Non- 
pareil. 








//"% 



i.Eed -bxtmfeb BuxrTrarG 

2 . PAi >: T E D BX T B T 3 N & . 



RED-RUMPED BUNTING. 40.5 

Bancroft speaks of a bird called Ktshee Kishee, 
which is found at Guiana, and appears to belong 
to this species : he says it is one of the most beau- 
tiful of the feathered tribe ; and that it is brought 
by the Accawan Indians, at the rate of two pis- 
toles a pair, from the inland parts of the country, 
and that many attempts had been made to convey 
them alive to Holland, but without success. 



RED-RUMPED BUNTING. 
(Emberiza quadricolor.) 

E, viridis, capite collogue cceruleis, cauda cum tectricibus abdomi* 

negue superiore rubris, pectore abdominegue infimo fuscescen* 

tibus. 
Green Bunting, with the head and neck blue ; tail, its coverts, 

and the upper part of the abdomen, red ; breast and lower 

parts of the abdomen brownish. 
Emberiza quadricolor. Gmef. Sgst. Nat. 1. 886. — Lath. Ind.- 

Orn. 1. 417. 63. 
Le Quadricolor. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 3. 467. 
Gros-bec de Java. Buff. PL Enl. 101. f. 2. 
Red-rumped Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 208. 55. 

Less than E. Ciris : length five inches : beak 
dusky : head and neck blue : breast and lower 
part of the belly pale brown : back, wings, and 
tip of the tail, green : upper part, and coverts of 
the latter, and the middle of the belly, red : legs 
pale flesh-colour. Inhabits Java. 



406 



BLUE-FACED BUNTING. 
(Emberiza cyanopsis.) 

E. viridis, subtus dorso infimo uropygioque riifa, jronte genis gu~ 
laque cceruleis, tectricibus caudce abdomineque medio rubris. 

Green Bunting, beneath and with the lower part of the back 
and rump rufous ; forehead, cheeks, and throat, blue ; tail- 
coverts and middle of the abdomen red. 

Emberiza cyanopsis. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 886. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 
1. 417. 64. 

Chloris javensis. Briss. 3. IQ8. 57. t. 7.f.4. 

Le Toupet bleu. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 179. 

Blue-faced Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 209. 56. 

This species has a very great affinity to E. qua- 
dricolor, and inhabits the same place ; but is much 
less, being only four inches in length : beak lead- 
coloured : forehead, cheeks, and throat, fine blue, 
gradually changing into rufous towards the breast, 
which is of the latter colour: plumage on the upper 
parts green ; with the lower part of the back and 
rump rufous : belly, sides, and thighs, the same : 
upper tail-coverts, and middle of the belly, red : 
quills brown, with green margins : the two middle 
tail-feathers green, the rest brown, all of them 
edged with red : legs grey. 



407 



INDIGO BUNTING. 
(Emberiza cyanea.) 

E. eyanea, vert ice saturatiore, remigibus rectricibusquefuscis cce- 
ruleo marginatis. 

Blue Bunting, with the top of the head darkest ; quills and tail- 
feathers fuscous, margined with blue. 

Emberiza cyanea. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1.876. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 
1.416. 60. 

Tanagra cyanea. Lin. Syst. Nat. l. 315. 

Tangara carolinensis caerulea. Briss. 3. 13. 6. 

Le Ministre. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 86. 

Blue Linnet. Edwards. 273. lower figure. 

Indigo Bunting. Pen. Arct. Zool. 2. 235. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 
205. 53. 

Length five inches : beak deep lead-colour : the 
whole of the plumage bright blue ; darkest on the 
top of the head : greater quills brown, with blue 
edges : tail brown, with a slight tinge of blue : 
legs brown. Female similar to a Linnet in colour : 
and during the moulting time the male resembles 
her, and is only to be distinguished by the edge of 
the wing being deep brownish blue ; whereas that 
part in the female is greenish brown. 

This bird is said to sing very sweetly, like the 
Linnet : it is generally found in the inner parts of 
Carolina, frequenting the mountains : it appears 
in New York in the beginning of April, and affects 
orchards during the time of flowering : it feeds on 
millet : it is called in Carolina the Parso?i, and the 
Bishop; and in Mexico, Azul lexos, or far-fetched 
Blue bird. 



408 



BLUE BUNTING. 
(Emberiza caerulea.) 

E. ccerulea rufo varia, subtus dilutior, vertice rufo, tectricibus 

alarum majoribus remigibus caudaquejuscis. 
Blue Bunting varied with rufous ; beneath paler ; crown of the 

head rufous ; greater wing-coverts, quills, and tail, brown. 
Emberiza caerulea. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 876. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 

1.415.59. 
Emberiza canadensis caerulea. Briss. 3. 298. 12. t. 14./. 2. 
L'Azuroux. Biiff". Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 369. 
Blue Bunting. Pen. Arct. Zool. 2. lZ\.-—Lath. Gen. Syn, 3. 

205. 52. 

This bird has the beak pale : the crown dull 
rufous : the upper parts of the neck and body 
rufous and blue mixed ; under parts the same, 
but the rufous colour very pale : greater coverts, 
quills, and tail, brown, with the outer edges ru- 
fous : legs pale brown. Native of Canada, 



409 



GREEN BUNTING. 
(Emberiza viridis.) 

E. viridis , subtus alba, remigibus caudaque cceruleis. 

Green Bunting, beneath white, with the quills and tail caerulean, 

Emberiza viridis. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 880. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 

l. 417. 65. 
Chloris indica minor. Briss. 3. 197- 56. 
Le Pavement bleu. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 18!. 
Green Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 209. 57- 

This is the size of the Greenfinch : beak green- 
ish brown : upper parts of the plumage green ; 
under parts white : quills and tail blue, with the 
shafts white : legs black. Inhabits the East Indies; 
and very likely China, as it has occurred among 
Chinese drawings, with very little variation from 
the above. 



410 



VARIED BUNTING. 
(Emberiza mixta.) 

E. grisea, pectore gulaque cceruleis, abdomine albo. 

Grey Bunting, with the breast and throat blue, and abdomen 

white. 
Emberiza mixta. Amcen. Acad. 4. 245. 20. — Lath. Ind. Orn c 

1.416. 62. 
Varied Bunting. Lath. Syyi. Sup. II. 202. 9. 

Size of Fringilla Spinus : beak pale and stout : 
prevailing colour of the plumage grey ; but mixed 
so much with blue, that in some lights that colour 
appears to predominate : the sides of the head, 
throat, breast, and shoulders, blue-green : belly 
white, the feathers brown at the base : thighs grey, 
mixed with blueish : legs pale: inhabits China. 



411 



PLATA BUNTING. 
(Emberiza platensis.) 

l&.J'usco-virescens, subtus cinereo-alba, dorso nigro maculato, oris 
alarum extus remigibus rectricibusque Jlavo marginatis. 

Brownish-green Bunting, beneath ash-coloured white ; back 
spotted with black ; outer part of* the wing, quills, and tail- 
feathers edged with yellow. 

Emberiza platensis. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 886. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 
1.417-66. 

L'Emberise a cinq couleurs. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 364. 

Plata Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 210. 58. 

The Plata Bunting is one of the largest of the 
genus, being eight inches in length : the beak ash- 
coloured, convex, and pointed : irides chesnut : 
upper parts of the body greenish brown, approach- 
ing to yellow, but dullest on the head and rump ; 
back with a few black marks : under parts of the 
body greyish white : edge of the wing bright yel- 
low : quills and outer tail-feathers margined with 
the same : legs lead-coloured. Found at Buenos 
Ay res, on the river Plata. 



412 



CRIMSON BUNTING. 
(Emberiza rubra.) 

E. coccinea, cervice dorsoque olivaceo nigroque variegatis, strigis 
coccineis sparsis ; abdomine cinereo, remzgibus rectricibusque 
nigris. 

Crimson Bunting, with the upper part of the neok and back va- 
riegated with olive and black, sprinkled with crimson ; abdo- 
men ash-coloured; quills and tail-feathers black. 

Emberiza rubra. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 877 • — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 
409- 33. 

Moineau de l'isle de France. Buff. PL Enl. 665. f. 1. 2. 

Crimson Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 194. 30. 

Size of the House Sparrow : beak dusky : hind 
part of the neck and breast variegated with black 
and olive, with a few dashes of crimson ; of which 
latter colour the head, breast, upper tail-coverts, 
thighs, and rump are : lower part of the breast, 
belly, and vent, cinereous : wings dusky, the mar- 
gins of the feathers pale : quills and tail black, 
with greyish green edges : legs pale flesh-colour, 
Inhabits the Isle of France. 



413 



CRIMSON-BELLIED BUNTING. 
(Emberiza coccinea.) 

E. corpore supra argenteo subtus coccineo, crisso albo, rostro 
capite remigibusque nigris, postremis occipite et cauda ex atro 
ccsruleis. 

Bunting with the body above silvery, beneath crimson; vent 
white ; beak, head, and quills, black ; hinder part of the oc- 
ciput and tail of a dark blue. 

Emberiza coccinea. Gmel. Sy&t. Nat. l. 873. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 
I. 410.34. 

Crimson-bellied Bunting. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. 200. 3. 

Found in the woods at Baden in Germany : 
about the size of the Yellow Bunting: beak, head, 
eyes, and a streak beneath the beak, black : occi- 
put black, with a blue gloss : body above silvery 
grey ; beneath bright crimson : wings with a white 
spot : vent white : tail similar to the occiput. 



414 



TOWHE BUNTING. 
(Emberiza erythropthalma.) 

E. nigra rubro relucens, abdomine rufescente, macula alarum alba. 
Black Bunting, shining with red, abdomen rufescent, and spot 

on the wings white. 
Emberiza erythropthalma. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 874. — Lath. hid. 

Orn. 1. 
Fringilla erythropthalma. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 318.6. 
Fringilla carolinensis. Briss. 3. 169. 44^ 

Le Pinion noir aux yeux rouges. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 141. 
Towhe Bunting. Pen. Arct. Zool. 2. 224. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 

199. 43. 

This species frequents the most shady woods of 
Carolina : it is known by the name of the American 
Bullfinch, and is in length eight inches : beak brown : 
irides red : head, throat, neck, back, wing-coverts, 
quills, rump, and tail, black ; the quills with whitish 
edges : breast white in the middle ; the other parts 
of it, with the belly, sides, thighs, and under tail- 
coverts, dull red: tail slightly forked: legs brown : 
female entirely brown, except a slight red tinge on 
the breast. 

This is a very restless bird, and has only a twit- 
tering note : it generally appears in pairs. 



415 



RED-EYED BUNTING. 
(Emberiza Calfat.) 

E, cinerascens, capite gulaque nigris, pectore abdomineque vina- 
ceis, regione oculorum nuda rosea, lateribus capitis Jascia aiba. 

Cinerascent Bunting, with the head and throat black ; breast and 
abdomen vinaceous; region of the eyes naked and rose-co- 
loured ; sides of the head with a white band. 

Emberiza Calfat. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 887. — Lath. Ind. Orn, 
1. 418. 68. 

Le Calfat. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 371. 

Red-eyed Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 210. 60. 

This bird inhabits the Mauritius, and is there 
called Calfat : it is rather larger than a Linnet : 
beak and irides rose-coloured : head and throat, 
black : upper parts of the body, wings, and tail, 
blueish-ash ; the tail with black margins : breast 
and belly vinaceous : from the gape of the mouth 
to the back of the head a white stripe : space round 
the eyes bare of feathers, and rose-coloured, as are 
the legs : under tail-coverts white. 



416 



BOURBON BUNTING. 
(Emberiza borbonica.) 

E. rufo-rubra, alis caudaquejiisco-rubris. 

Rufous-red Bunting, with the wings and tail fuscous-red, 

Emberiza borbonica. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1 . 886. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 

1.418.67. 
Le Mordore. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 366. 
Bruant de l'isle de Bourbon. Buff. PI. Enl. 321. f. 2. 
Bourbon Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 210. 5Q. 

About the size of the Yellow Bunting : in length 
five inches and a half: beak brown : the whole bird, 
except the wings and tail, bright rufous-red : wings 
and tail dusky red ; legs the same, with a yellow 
tinge. Native of Bourbon. 



417 



GREY BUNTING. 
(Emberiza grisea.) 

E. grisea, tectricibus alarum pectoreque rubro variegatis. 

Grey Bunting, with the wing-coverts and breast variegated with 

red. 
Emberiza grisea. Gmel. Si/st. Nat. 1. S&7. — Lath. Ltd. Orn. 1. 

418. 70. 
Emberiza surinamensis. Briss. 3. 302. 15. 
Le Gonambouch. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 366. 
Grey Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 211. 62. 

Very common at Surinam : size of a Lark : 
length five inches : head grey : the whole of the 
body the same, but paler ; except the wing-coverts 
and breast, which are inclined to reddish : quills 
white within ; externally grey, variegated with 
red : tail similar to the quills, 

This bird is very fond of maize, and sings nearly 
as fine as a nightingale; called by the natives of 
Surinam Gonambucho. 



v. ix. p. ii. 'J8 



418 



WHIDAH BUNTING. 
(Emberiza paradisea.) 

E.Jiisca, pectore rubro, rectricibus intermediis quaticor elongatis 
acuminatis, duabus longissimis, rostro nigra. 

Brown Bunting, with the breast red ; the four middle tail-fea- 
thers elongated and acuminated, the two outer of which are 
very long ; beak black. 

Emberiza paradisea. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1.312. 19. — Gmel. Syst. 
Nat. 1. 8S2. — Lath. Ind. Oni. 1. 405. 20. 

Vidua. Briss. 3. 120. 25. t. S. f. 1. 

La Veuve a collier d'or. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 155. 6. 

Grande Veuve d' Angola. Buff. PL Enl. 194. 

Red-breasted long -tailed Finch. Edtcards. 8(5. 

Whidah Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 178. 15. 

This singular bird is less than the Hedge Spar- 
row : beak lead-coloured : irides hazel : head, chin, 
and fore-part of the neck, back, wings, and tail, 
black : hind-part of the neck pale orange : breast 
and upper part of the belly the same, but brighter: 
lower belly and thighs white : vent black : two 
middle tail-feathers four inches long, placed ver- 
tically, undulated across, and more glossy than the 
others, broad, and ending in a long thread; the next 
two above thirteen inches in length, very broad in 
the middle, but narrow and rather pointed at the 
tips, with a long thread arising about the middle 
of the shaft ; the rest only two inches and a quarter 
in length : legs flesh-colour : female wholly of a 
deep brown ; but does not obtain the full plumage 




WHJJDLAJH BUITIE&. 



LONG-TAILED BUNTING. 419 

for three years : in the winter the male resembles 
the young female. 

This is common at Angola, Whidah, and other 
parts of Africa : it is often brought over to Europe, 
where it will live many years, and is a lively active 
little bird: it moults twice a year ; and the male 
is without the long tail-feathers at least six months 
out of the twelve, as it first loses them about No- 
vember, and in the spring they begin to re-appear, 
but are not perfectly formed till June. 



LONG-TAILED BUNTING, 
(Emberiza Vidua.) 



E. nigricans, subtus albida, rectricibus intermediis quatuor elonga- 

tis acuminatis, duabus longissimis, rostro rubro. 
Dusky Bunting, beneath whitish ; the four middle tail-feathers 

elongated and acuminated, of which the two interior are 

longest ; beak red. 
Emberiza vidua. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 312. 21. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 

1. 883. — Lath. Lid. Om. 1. 405. 22. 
Vidua major. Briss. 3. 127. 27.— Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 162. 
Long-tailed Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 181. 17. 

Found in India and Angola. Beak red : head 
and all the upper parts of the body greenish black : 
sides of the head and under parts dirty white ; the 
black colour reaching on each side the neck like a 
half collar: wing-coverts with a white band : quills 
edged with brown : two middle tail-feathers ten 
inches and a half in length ; the next two nine 



420 VARIEGATED BUNTING. 

inches ; all four of them black : the remaining 
feathers short and of the same length ; black on 
the outer webs, and white within ; the outermost 
feather the most white : legs black, claws pale. 
May not this be a variety of the following ? 



VARIEGATED BUNTING. 
(Embcriza principalis.) 



E. variegata, pectore ritfb, rectricibus mediis quatuor longissimis, 
rostro pedibusque rubris. 

Variegated Bunting, with the breast red, the four middle tail- 
feathers very long ; beak and feet red. 

Emberiza principalis. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 313. 22. — Gmel. Syst. 
Nat. 1. 884. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 406. 23. 

Vidua angolensis. Briss. App. 80. 

La Veuve mouchettee. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 165. 

Long-tailed Sparrow. Edwards. 270. 

Variegated Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 181. If. 

This neat little bird is about the size of the 
Whidah Bird : beak as in the last : the upper parts 
of the head and body rufous, the middle of each 
feather black : sides of the head and under parts 
(except the breast, which is pale rufous) are white : 
lesser wing-coverts the same : greater ones black, 
edged with rufous: quills as the last: tail with 
twelve feathers, of which the two middle ones ex- 
ceed the others by five inches and a half; the next 
on each side one inch shorter, all four black ; the 
remaining feathers are short and of equal length, 




VAMEG-ATED BUM1H& 



PANAYAN BUNTING. 421 

of a dull brown colour, margined with paler brown, 
and each marked with a white spot on the inner 
web : legs flesh-colour. 

There is very great probability that this and the 
preceding bird will eventually be found to be the 
same, as they inhabit the same places, and are very 
like in their general appearance, and it is well 
known that these long-tailed Buntings all vary very 
much, according to the season of the year or the 
age of the bird. It is found in India and Angola. 



PANAYAN BUNTING. 
(Emberiza panayensis.) 



E. nigra, macula pectoris coccinea, rectricibus quatuor interme- 

diis longissimis cequalibus acuminatis. 
Black Bunting, with a crimson spot on the breast; the four 

middle tail-feathers even, very long, and acuminated. 
Emberiza payanensis. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 885. — Lath. Ind. 

Orn. 1. 407- 26. 
La Veuve en feu. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 167. 
La Veuve a poitrine rouge. Buff. PI. Enl. 647 . 
La Veuve de l'isle de Panay. Sonner. Voy. Ind. 11 7. t. j6. 
Panayan Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 184. 21. 

The whole bird black, with the exception of a 
large bright red spot on the breast : four middle 
tail-feathers very long, pointed, all of one length, 
and hanging down like the Whidah Bird : legs 
black. Native of the Isle of Panay. 



422 



ORANGE-SHOULDERED BUNTING. 
(Emberiza longicauda.) 

E. nigra, humeris fuhis albo marginatis, rectricibus elongatis 6 

intermedin longissimis. 
Black Bunting, with the shoulders fulvous margined with white; 

the six middle tail-feathers very long. 
Emberiza longicauda. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 884. — Lath. Lid. 

Orn. 1. 406. 25. 
La Veuve a epaulettes. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 1(54. — Buff. 

PI. Enl. 635. 
Yellow-shouldered Oriole. Brown. III. 11. 
Orange-shouldered Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 184. 20. 

The Orange-shouldered Bunting is the size of 
a Song Thrush : beak strong and dusky ; the nos- 
trils almost hid in the feathers : plumage above 
and below glossy black : lesser wing-coverts crim- 
son, below which is a white spot : some of its 
quills white at the base, but that is hid when the 
wings are closed : secondaries nearly as long as 
the primaries : tail, consisting of twelve feathers, 
hanging sideways ; the two middle ones fifteen 
inches in length, the next an inch shorter ; the 
next two inches and a half less ; and the rest of 
the tail very short : legs large and brown : claws 
long and hooked. Inhabits the Cape of Good 
Hope. 



423 



DOMINICAN BUNTING. 
(Emberiza serena.) 

E. pileo nigro, vertice rubro, Cauda cuneiformi, reciricibus duabus 

intermediis longissimis, pedibus griseis. 
Bunting with the top of the head black, the crown red, tail 

wedge-shaped, with the two middle feathers very long ; feet 

grey. 
Emberiza serena. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 312. 20. — Gmel. Syst. 

Nat. 1. 883. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1, 405. 21. 
Vidua minor. Briss. 3. 124. 26. t. Q.f. 2. 
La Veuve dominicaine. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 160. — Buff. 

PI. Enl. 8./. 2. 
Dominican Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 180. l6. 

Rather less than the Whidah Bunting : beak 
red : crown of the head rufous white ; upper part 
black : back of the neck, beneath the head rufous 
white, which colour joins the white on the under 
parts of the body ; hind-part of the neck and back 
black, edged with dirty white : wing-coverts white; 
the rest of the wing black ; the quills with white 
edges : tail black, the two middle feathers pointed 
at the end, and above two inches longer than the 
others, which get shorter to the most outward, 
which is shortest of all ; the three next the long 
feathers tipped with white ; and the two outer 
ones white on the inside, and pale rufous without: 
legs grey : female of a plain brown ; and the tail- 
feathers of equal length. Moults twice a year, 
and the male loses his long feathers. 



424 



PSITTACEOUS BUNTING. 
(Emberiza psittacea.) 

E. cinereo-fusW) alisjidvis, rectricibus duabus intermedin longis- 

simis. 
Cinereous-brown Bunting, with the wings rufous, and the two 

middle tail-feathers very long. 
Emberiza psittacea. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1.312. 18. — Gmel. Syst. 

Nat. 1. 882. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 404. \Q. 
Linaria brasiliensis longicauda. Briss. 3. 147. 35. 
La Veuve eteinte. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 168- 
Psittaceous Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 178. 14. 

The Psittaceous Bunting is the size of the 
House Sparrow : length about six inches : base 
of the beak surrounded with pale red : prevailing 
colour of the plumage dull greyish ash : wings pale 
red and yellow mixed : tail similar in colour to 
the body : two middle feathers nearly three times 
the length of the body, and tipped with chesnut. 
Native of Brasil. 



425 



ANGOLA BUNTING. 
(Emberiza angolensis.) 

E. nigra, capite supcriore colloquejlavis, cauda elongata. 

Black Bunting, with the upper part of the head and neck yel- 
low; tail elongated. 

Emberiza angolensis. Gmel. Si/st. Nat. 1. 885. — Lath. Ind. 
Orn. 1.407.27. 

Angola Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 185. 22. 

This bird appears to have a great affinity to E. 
panayensis, from which it only differs in having 
the top of the head and neck yellow, and being a 
native of Angola : its beak is short ; tail long ; the 
breast fine red, and the rest of the plumage bright 
black. 



426 



SHAFT-TAILED BUNTING. 
(Emberiza regia.) 

E. rectricibus intermediis quatuor longissimis cequalibus apice tan- 
turn pennalis, rostro rubro. 

Bunting with the four middle tail-feathers very long, even, and 
only webbed at the tip ; beak red. 

Emberiza regia. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 313. 23. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 
1. 834. — Lath. Ind. Om. 1. 406.24. 

Vidua riparia africana. Briss. 3. 129- 28. t. Q.f. 1. 

La Veuve a quatre brins. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 158. 5. 

La Veuve de la cote d'Afrique. Buff. PI. Enl. 8.JI 1. 

Shaft-tailed Bunting. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 183. 19- 

This bird is the size of a Linnet : beak red : 
sides of the head, the under parts of the body, 
and round the neck, rufous : hind-part of the neck 
spotted with black : plumage above, lower part of 
the thighs, and vent, black : the four middle tail- 
feathers near ten inches in length, and webbed 
only for about two inches at the ends ; the rest of 
them simple shafts, without the least appearance 
of a web ; the other feathers even, short, and black: 
legs red : female brown, and without the long tail- 
feathers. 

Like the rest of the long-tailed Buntings, these 
birds moult twice in the year ; and in the winter 
the male becomes very similar to a Linnet in 
colour. 

Dr. Latham mentions having a specimen of this 
bird in his collection with only two kinds of brown, 
and no black on the plumage ; the margins of the 



SHAFT-TAILED BUNTING. 427 

feathers being light brown, and the middle dark, 
not very unlike the back of the female House 
Sparrow : the tail dusky, with pale rufous margins. 
Inhabits Africa, but is much scarcer than the 
Whidah Bird. 



v. ix. p. it. 29 



428 



FRINGILLA. FINCH. 



Generic Character. 



Rostrum conicum, rectum, 

acuminatum. 
Pedes simplices, digitis tribus 

anticis, uno postico. 



Beak conic, straight, and 

acuminated. 
Feet simple, with three toes 

before and one behind. 



JL HE Finches, or Sparrows, may be readily dis- 
tinguished from the Grosbeaks and Buntings, to 
which they have a great affinity, by the form of 
their beak, which is perfectly conic, slender to- 
wards the end, and very sharp-pointed ; whereas 
the Grosbeaks have theirs rounded from the base 
to the point of each mandible ; and the Buntings 
are armed with a hard knob in the middle of their 
upper mandible, which the Finches do not possess. 
The birds of this genus are very numerous, and 
oftentimes assemble in immense flocks, feeding on 
seeds and grain, and also on insects and their larvae: 
many of them are much esteemed for the liveli- 
ness of their songs, and the beauty and variety of 
their plumage. 



1 N 




429 



HOUSE FINCH. 

( Fringilla domestica. ) 

Pr. remigibus rectricibusque fuscis y corpore griseo nigroque ; fascia 

alarum alba solitaria. 
Finch with the quill and tail-feathers fuscous, the body black 

and grey, and a single white band on the wings. 
Fringilla domestica. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1.323.30. — Lin. Faun. 

Suec. 242. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. Q25. —Lath. Lid. Orn. 1. 

432. 1. 
Passer domesticus. Briss. 3. /2. 1. 
Le Moineau. Buff'. Hist. Nat. Ok. 3. 474. 1. 1. 2g.f. 1. — Buff, 

PL Enl. 6.f. 1.— 55./. 1. young bird. 
House Sparrow. Pain. Brit. Zool. 1. 127- 51. — Penn. Arct. 

Zool. 2. 382. G. — Albin. Birds. 1. 62. — Leivin. Brit. Birds. 2. 

77' — Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 248. 1. — Lath. Syn. Sup. 163.— 

Mont. Brit. Birds. 2. — Bewick. Brit. Birds. 1. 154- 

This well known bird is about six inches in 
length : the beak is dusky : crown of the head 
ash-coloured : irides hazel : space round the eye 
and from that to the beak black : behind the eyes 
and back of the head bay : cheeks white : chin 
and under part of the neck black and grey, 
mixed : belly dirty white : wing-coverts chesnut 
and black mixed, with a bar of a whitish colour 
across them : quills dusky, with rufous edges : 
back rufous and black, mixed : tail dusky, edged 
with grey : legs brown. The female has the beak 
lighter than that of the malej behind the eye a 
white line ; the head and whole of the upper parts 
brown ; under parts dirty white, sprinkled with 



430 HOUSE FINCH. 

ash-colour ; and is without any black on the chin 
or neck. 

Dr. Latham mentions many varieties of this 
bird, of which the following are the most remark- 
able : the first is entirely of a dirty white, with 
yellow beak and irides : the next yellowish, with 
a chesnut tinge on the upper parts ; and the last 
is of a dull black, with a yellow beak : the white 
variety is the most common, and is likewise sub- 
ject to still farther variety, as some are brown 
above, and white beneath ; others spotted with 
black on the throat ; and many have a spot on the 
crown of the head ; the nape of the neck, and 
the back, being brown. 

This bird occurs in most parts of Europe, but 
is most numerous among towns and inhabited 
places, where it builds in any spot that will afford 
it admittance, as a hole in the wall, or under the 
roofs of houses : it makes a very slovenly nest, 
composed of hay, and lined with a few feathers : 
it lays rive or six reddish-white eggs, slightly 
speckled with brown : it will sometimes drive 
the Martins from their nests, and will occa- 
sionally build in trees; but when that is the 
case, it takes more pains with its nest, making it 
much larger than usual*, of hay and straw, cover- 
ing it at the top, and lining it warmly with feathers, 
bits of cloth, thread, worsted, or any thing of that 
kind foun \ about houses: its food consists princi- 
pally of grarOj but it will partake of all kinds of 

* Dr. Leach informed me that he observed several of these 
nests in the avenues round the Jardin des Plantes. 



HOUSE FINCH. 431 

nutriment that are thrown out for poultry, pigeons, 
&c. in spite of every precaution : it is a very 
crafty bird, and usually avoids traps and snares 
that are set to take it ; but is easily caught in the 
autumn and winter, by a bat-fowling net, when 
they collect in numbers on trees : it has no song, 
but only a disagreeable chirp : its flesh is ac- 
counted very good eating by many : the appearance 
of this bird, in large and smoky towns, is not very 
agreeable, as it is generally very dirty and plain in 
its colours ; but among farm-yards the male ex- 
hibits a great variety in his plumage, and is far 
from being the least beautiful of the British birds. 
Buffon, with his usual warmth of imagination, has 
summed up the character of this species in the 
following words : " It is extremely destructive, its 
plumage is entirely useless, its flesh indifferent 
food, its notes grating to the ear, and its fami- 
liarity and petulance disgusting." But although 
it may partially deserve the above character, w r e 
must not condemn the species, when its great use 
in the ceconomy of nature is considered ; for it has 
been observed that a single pair of Sparrows, dur- 
ing the time of rearing their young, will destroy 
about four thousand caterpillars weekly: they like- 
wise feed them with butterflies and other winged 
insects, each of which, if not destroyed in this 
manner, would be productive of several hundreds 
of caterpillars. 



TREE FINCH. 
( Fringilla montana.) 

Fr. remigibus rectricibusque fuscis, corpore griseo nigroqite, 

.. alarum fascia alba gemina. 

Finch with the quill and tail-feathers fuscous, the body black 

and grey, with a double white band on the wings. 
Fringilla montana. Lin. Syst. Nat. l . 234. 37. — Lin. Faun. Suet. 

243. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 925. — Lath. bid. Orn. 1. 433. 2. 
Loxia hamburgia. Gmel. Syst. Nat. I. 854. 
Pyrrhula hamburgensis. Bris. 3. 314. 2. 
Le Ilambourroux. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4-. 398. 
Passer montanus. Bris. 3. ?Q. 2. 
Friquet. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 3.489.29.2. — Buff. PL Fhl. 

267. f. I. 
Hamburgh Tree Creeper. Albin. Birds. 3. 24. 
Hamburgh Grosbeak. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 149. 64. 
Tree Finch. Penn. Brit. Zool. 12S. — Pen. Arct. Zool. 2. 246. — 

Albin. 3. 66. — Letvin. Brit. Birds. 2. 78. — Edxvards. 269. — 

Montagu. Brit. Birds. 2. — Mont. Sup. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 

252. 2. — Lath. Syn. Sup. l63. — Bewick. Brit. Birds. 1. 158. 

Rather less than the House Finch : beak black: 
irides hazel : crown of the head and hinder 
part of the neck chesnut colour : sides of the 
head white : throat black : behind the eyes a large 
black spot : upper part of the body rusty brown, 
spotted with black : breast and under parts dirty 
white : quills black, with reddish margins ; greater 
coverts the same ; lesser coverts bay, edged with 
black, and barred with two white stripes : tail 
reddish brown : legs pale yellow : female similar 





1 Sfatrkow Fiwch 

2 THEE flSCfl. 



TREE FINCH. 433 

to the male : young bird without the black marks 
on the throat, or behind the eyes. 

The sexes of this bird have generally been con- 
sidered by authors to differ from each other as 
much as the House Finch -, but Colonel Montagu 
has most satisfactorily proved, that they are quite 
similar in external appearance, and that the de- 
scriptions formerly given were not correct. It is 
very abundant in some parts of this country, 
in Lincolnshire, Lancashire, and Yorkshire : it is 
found in Italy, France, Germany, Russia, and 
part of Siberia, also in many parts of North 
America. It makes its nest in trees, and not in 
buildings, principally composed of hay and fea- 
thers : it lays live eggs of a pale brown colour, with 
spots of a darker shade, weighing from 34 to 41 
grains. Buffon observes, that this species feeds 
on fruits, seeds, and insects : it is a very lively 
animal, and often moves its tail in the manner of 
the Wagtail: it is one of the most local of the 
British birds. 



434 



RING FINCH. 
(Fringilla Petronia.) 

Fr. grisea, superciliis albis, gida lutea, rectricibus lateralibus apice 

intus macula alba. 
Grey Finch, with white supercilia, luteous throat, and a white 

spot towards the tip of the exterior tail-feathers. 
Fringilla Petronia. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1.322.30. — Gmel. Syst. 

Nat. 1.919. — Lath. Ind. Om. 1. 435.6. 
Passer sj'lvestris. Bris. 3. 88. 6. t. 5- f. 1. 
La Soulice. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 3. 49S. 30./. 1. — Biff. PL 

Enl. 225. 
Ring Sparrow. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 254. 4. — Lath. Syn. Sup. 

164. 

Length near six inches : the upper mandible 
of the beak brown ; the under grey, with a brown 
tip : head and upper parts of the neck and back 
dirty grey, spotted with brown : under parts dirty 
grey and white mixed : round the head, above the 
eyes, a dirty white ring : fore-part of the neck 
yellow : wings similar to the back : coverts and 
secondary quills tipped with white : quills, and 
tail, dusky with grey edges, with all the feathers 
of the latter, except the two middle ones, with a 
white spot near the tip of the inner web : rump 
dirty grey. 

This species is very abundant in Germany, and 
is likewise found over the greatest part of Europe, 
but is nowhere so common as in the former place, 
and is not found in this country : it is migratory 
in the northern parts, but stationary in the 



SHORT-TAILED FINCH. 435 

southern : it affects woods, and builds in the holes 
of trees, laying four or five eggs, and feeds on 
seeds and insects : it has not any note. These 
birds are very delicate, as numbers are often found 
dead in trees, in the winter, during which time 
they assemble in flocks. 



SHORT-TAILED FINCH. 
(Fringilla brachyura.) 



Fr. Jlavescens, yectore abdomineque magis albicantibus^ remigibus 

rectricibusquejlavescentibus. 
Yellowish Finch, with the breast and abdomen whitish, quills 

and tail-feathers flavescent. 
Fringilla brachyura. Gmel, Syst. Nat. 1. 920. — Lath. InchOm. 

1. 436. 10. 
Passerculus bononiensis. Bris. 3. 93. 
Short-tailed Sparrow. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 255.8. 

This species has the tail remarkably short : it 
is about the size of the House Finch, and has 
the whole of the body yellowish ; but the breast, 
and abdomen, are palest ; and the beak very dark 
yellow. Native of Bologna. 



436 



WHITE-TAILED FINCH. 
(Fringilla leucura.) 

Fr. Jlavicans castaneo maculata, lineolis candidis variegata, subtus 

capiteque albo-lutescens, rectricibus cinereo candicantibus. 
Yellowish Finch spotted with chesnut, and variegated with 

white stripes ; beneath and head whitish yellow ; tail-feathers 

whitish ash. 
Fringilla leucura. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 9 19. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 

1.436. 9. 
White-tailed Sparrow. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 256. 7. 

Size of F. domestica : head and under parts 
whitish yellow: upper parts yellowish, spotted 
with chesnut and streaked with white : tail ash- 
coloured white. Found at Bologna. 



FOOLISH FINCH. 

(Fringilla stulta.) 



Fr. griseo-rufescens,ferrugineo maculata, subtus Jlavesccns, fascia 
alarum duplici alba. 

Grey-rufescent Finch spotted with ferruginous, beneath yel- 
lowish, with a double white band on the wings. 

Fringilla stulta. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 919. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 
436. 7. 

Passer stultus. Bris. 3. 87. 5. 

Foolish Sparrow. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 255. 5. 

About the size of the House Finch : above 
rufous grey, spotted with ferruginous: over the 



DALMATIC FINCH. 437 

eye a streak of white, and on the throat a yellow 
spot : beneath yellowish : wings with two white 
bands : tail blackish, margined with rufous. In- 
habits Bologna. 



DALMATIC FINCH. 

(Fringilla dalmatica.) 



Fr. rufescens subtus albida, remigibus rectricibusque rufescentibus . 

Rufescent Finch, beneath whitish, with the quills and tail- 
feathers rufescent. 

Fringilla dalmatica. Gmel. Syst. Nat. I.92O. — Lath. Lid. Orn. 
I. 437. 11. 

Passer Sclavonicus. 5ns. 3. 94. 10. 

Dalmatic Sparrow. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 15 6. 9- 

Near seven inches in length : beak whitish : 
upper parts of the body reddish, under parts 
whitish : legs pale yellow : tail slightly forked. 
Inhabits Dalmatia. 



438 



SPECKLED FINCH. 
(Fringilla bononiensis.) 

Fr. albo nigro subflavoque macidata, sabtus albo-jlavescens, caplte 

albo maculis subluteis vario, rectricibus subjiavis. 
Finch spotted with white, black and yellowish; beneath yellowish 

white ; head white, varied with yellowish spots ; tail-feathers 

yellowish. 
Fringilla bononiensis. Gmel. Si/st. Nat. 1. Q\g.—Lath. Ind. 

Orn. 1. 436. 8. 
Speckled Sparrow. Lath. Gen. Sj/ri. 3. 255.6. 

Size of Fringilla stulta : beak, head, and neck 
white, dashed with yellowish : irides white : back 
and rump variegated with black, white, and yel- 
lowish : under parts yellowish white : quills dusky : 
legs and tail yellowish. Found in the neighbour- 
hood of Bologna. 



439 



CAROLINA FINCH. 

(Fringilla carolinensis. ) 

Fr. rubro-fusca, abdomine albo, facie fatsciaque pectoris nigra, 

jugulo uropygioque coccineis. 
Reddish-brown Finch, with the abdomen white, face and band 

on the breast black, jugulum and rump scarlet. 
Fringilla carolinensis. Lath. Inch Orn. 1. 435,5. 
Fringilla cristate. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 926. 2. 
Le Moineau de la Caroline. Biiff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 3. 496. — 

Buff. PI. Enl. 181./ 2. 
Black-faced Finch. Perm. Arct. Zool. 1. 255. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 

3. 253. 3. female. — >Lath. Syn. Sup. 164. 

About six and a half inches in length : top of 
the head and chin black : neck crimson ; upper 
parts of the body, wings, and tail, pale reddish 
brown: breast with a black band: rest of the 
under parts white, mixed with black at the thighs: 
quills black : legs brown. Found in Carolina, 



440 



BLACK-FACED FINCH. 
(Fringilla cristata.) 

Fr. cristata rubro-Jiisca, corpore subtus urupygio cristaque coc- 

cineis. 
Reddish-brown crested Finch, with the body beneath, rump, 

and crest scarlet. 
Fringilla cristata. Gmel. Syst. Nat. I. 926. 2. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 

1. 434.4. 
Le Friquet huppe. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 3. 496. 
Moineau de Cayenne. Buff. PI. Enl. 181./. 1. 
Black-faced Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 253. 3. — Lath. Syn. 

Sup. 1 64. 

Size of a House Finch : length six and a half 
inches : beak red : upper parts of the plumage, 
wings, and tail, reddish-brown : under parts, and 
rump, crimson : top of the head crested and crim- 
son : sides of the head black : legs brown. Inha- 
bits Cayenne, and other parts of South America. 



441 



MOUNTAIN FTNCH. 
(Fringilla canadensis.) 

Fr. castaneo et griseo-fusco varia, subtus cinerascens y macula ad. 

basin rostri rufescente^Jascia alarum duplici alba. 
Finch varied with grey-fuscous and chesnut, beneath cineras- 

cent, with a rufescent spot at the base of the beak, and a 

double white stripe on the wings. 
Fringilla canadensis. Lath. Tnd. Orn. 1. 434. 3. 
Fringilla monticola. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1 . 912. 
Passer canadensis. Bris. 3. 102. 15. 
Le Soulicet. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 3. 500. 
Moineau de Canada. Buff. PI. Enl. 223./ 2. 
Mountain Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 265. 16. 

Size of F. domestica : length above six inches : 
beak reddish : crown of the head chesnut, varie- 
gated with grey, brown in the middle : sides of 
the head, and neck, white : upper parts brown, 
mixed with darker brown : quills and tail much 
darker, margined with paler : wings with two 
white bars : under parts of the body w T hite : legs 
brown. Found in Canada. 



CHAF-FINCH. 
(Fringilla Coelebs.) 

Fr. remigibus utrinque albis, tribus primis immaculatis, rectrici- 

bus duabus oblique albis. 
Finch with quills on each side white, the three first of which 

are immaculate, the two outer tail-feathers obliquely white. 
Fringilla Ccelebs. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 318. 3. mas. /3. fern. — 

Lin. Faun. Suec. 232. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 001. — Bris. 3. 148. 

36. — Lath. Ltd. Orn. 1. 436. 12. 
Le Pingon. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 109. 4.— Buff. PI. Enl. 

54. f. 1. 
Chaf-finch. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1 . 125. — Penn. Arct. Zool. 2. 381. 

f. — Albin. 1. 63.—Lewin. Brit. Birds. 2. 7Q. — Mont. Brit. 

Birds. 1. — Bewick. Brit. Birds. 16O. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 257. 

10. — Lath. Syn. Sup. 1 65. 

The Chaf-finch has the beak blueish, with black 
tips ; irides hazel : forehead black : crown of the 
head, back, and sides of the neck, blueish ash- 
colour : cheeks, under side of the neck, and breast 
vinaceous : back chesnut brown : belly white, 
tinged with vinaceous: bastard wing and coverts 
of the primaries black ; secondaries tipped with 
white : lesser coverts black and greyish, with a 
white spot in the middle : quills dusky, slightly 
margined with greenish yellow on the outer webs, 
and marked with white on both webs at the base : 
rump greenish : tail dusky, the exterior feathers 
obliquely marked with white, the next tipped with 
the same : legs dusky. Female dull green above, 



CHAF-FINCH. 443 

breast and belly brown; wings similar in markings 
to the male, but not so bright. 

Dr. Latham mentions a variety with the head 
and neck ash-colour : cheeks brownish : back 
and scapulars the same, inclining to ash : rump 
greenish : the under parts brown flesh-colour : the 
lesser and greater wing-coverts white ; the middle 
ones, quills, and tail, black ; the two outer ones 
half way white on their outer margins. It is also 
subject to other variations, as it is sometimes found 
entirely white, and also with the crown of the head 
and collar round the neck of the same colour. 

This beautiful bird is one of the commonest in 
England, and the male is sometimes taken for its 
song, which is rather pleasing to some, but ceases 
in the winter. Its nest is generally composed of 
plants and moss, lined inside with hair, feathers, 
wool, or such like substances : it is mostly fixed 
in some thick, low bush ; particularly in ivy or 
apple-trees overgrown with moss and lichen, ge- 
nerally assimilating it to the colour of the sur- 
rounding substances. The eggs of this bird are 
four or five in number, of a dirty white colour, 
tinged with purple, and marked with streaks and 
spots of a darker colour. In the summer it 
lives chiefly on insects, with which it feeds its 
young ; but in the winter becomes gregarious, 
and feeds on seeds and grain. In this country 
both sexes remain the whole year; but in Sweden 
the males only stay, the females migrating to the 
south, from whence they return in the spring. 
Mr. White mentions, in his Natural History of 
v. ix. p. ii. 30 



444 BRAMBLE FINCH. 

Selbourn, that flocks of females are occasionally 
seen near Christchurch in Hampshire, which most 
probably came from some northern country. This 
species is found throughout Europe, and many 
parts of Africa. It is called by various names 
in this country, such as White-linnet, Flax-finch, 
Beech-finch, Horse-finch, Pink, Twink, Spink, &c. 



BRAMBLE FINCH. 

(Fringilla montifringilla.) 



Fr. nigra pennis rufo marginatis, siibtcs uropygioque alba, jugulo 
pectoreque ritfescentibus, rectricibus lateralibus nigricantibus, 
extus albo marginatis. 

Black Finch, with the feathers margined with rufous; beneath 
and vent white ; jugulum and breast rufescent; the lateral tail- 
feathers blackish, externally margined with white. 

Fringilla montifringilla. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1.318. 4. — 'Lin. Faun. 
Suec. 233.— Gmtl. Syst. Nat. 1. 902. — Bris. 3. 155 — Lath. 
Ind. Orn. I. 439. 17. 

Le Pincon d 1 Ardennes. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 124.— Buff. PL 
Enl. 54./. 2. 

Brambling, Mountain Finch. Penn. Brit. Z'ool. 126. — Penn. Arct. 
Zool. 2. 381. f.. — Albin. 3. 64. — Lewin. Brit. Birds. 2. 80.— 
Mont. Brit. Birds. 1. — Bevcick. Brit. Birds. 163. — Lath. Gen. 
Syn. 3. 2^1. 13. 

Length rather more than six inches : beak yel- 
low, tipped with black : irides hazel: the feathers 
of the head, neck, and back, black, edged with 
rusty brown : sides of the neck, above the wings, 
blueish ash : throat, fore-part of the neck, and 
breast, pale orange : belly and rump white : 



(j.O 




3'y^ 



2 IMAMIIE TFlWCH 



BRAMBLE FINCH. 445 

lesser wing-coverts pale reddish brown, edged 
with white ; greater coverts black, tipped with 
pale yellow : quills dusky, edged with pale yel- 
lowish : tail forked ; the outermost feathers edged 
with white, the rest black, with whitish edges : 
legs pale brown : female less brilliant in colour 
than the male : in her the sides of the head and 
back of the neck are grey ; on the latter are two 
dusky lines passing from the head downwards : 
the top of the head and back are dusky, each 
feather deeply margined with grey, giving those 
parts a beautiful mottled appearance : the rufous 
colour on the breast and wings is very faint, but 
the markings are similar to those of the male. 

This species is subject to the following varia- 
tion, having been found with a black streak over 
each eye, reaching towards the hind head, and join- 
ing each other : with two bars on the wing-coverts, 
the upper one reddish white, and the lower ferru- 
ginous : throat and breast tawny : belly and rump 
white. 

It is common in many parts of Europe, but 
most probably breeds only in the northern parts : 
it is said to build a nest in lofty fir trees, composed 
of long moss, and lined with hair, wool, and fea- 
thers : the female lays four or five white eggs, 
speckled with yellow : it is frequently found 
among Chaf-finches, in immense flocks : BufFon 
says it has been found in France in such numbers 
that the ground has been quite covered with 
their dung, and that upwards of six hundred dozen 



446 



RED- CROWNED FINCH. 



have been killed each night, during the greatest 
part of the winter. They generally fly so close 
together, that a great many may be killed with 
one shot : Dr. Latham mentions having received 
eighteen that were killed in that way. The flesh 
of these birds is said to be very bitter, but in- 
finitely superior to that of the Chaf-finch ; but their 
song is much inferior, being only a disagreeable 
chirp : they are said to be particularly fond of 
beech mast, but will feed on most kinds of food 
that are usually given to caged birds. 



RED-CROWNED FINCH. 
(Fringilla ruticapilla.) 



Fr. corpore supra fusco snbtus cinereo, gulajerruginea, capisiro 

albo, capillitio insuper riifescente, cauda nigra. 
Finch with the body above fuscous, beneath cinereous, throat 

ferruginous, capistrum white, the hairs inclining to red, tail 

black. 
Fringilla ruticapilla. Lath. Ind. Orn. J. 438. 14. 
Ember iza ruticapilla. Mus. Carls. 2. 44. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1 . 

88/. 
Red-crowned Finch. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. 20(5. 1. 

Beak brown : crown and back of the head 
reddish, bordered with black on the sides and in 
front: face and cheeks white, spotted with black: 
ehin rust-colour : upper parts of the plumage 
brown : breast reddish ash : belly and vent ash- 
colour : tail black. 







Pariot Tifch. 



447 



PARROT FINCH. 

(Fringilla psittacea.) 

Fr. viridis,Jacie uropygio rectricibusque coccineis, lateribus intus 

Jiiscis. 
Green Finch, with the face, rump, and tail scarlet, the inner 

side brown. 
Fringilla psittacea. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 903. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 

1. 417- 61. 
Parrot Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 287- 54. t. 48. 

This beautiful species is a native of New Cale- 
donia : in length about four inches : beak black : 
face, throat, rump, and tail, bright scarlet : rest of 
the body of a beautiful green, lightest beneath: 
outer edge of the quills green; the inner grey- 
brown : wings reach to the base of the tail, which 
is wedge-shaped, and has the two middle feathers 
bright scarlet, with brown shafts ; the other five 
on each side have only the outer web scarlet, the 
inner being brown. 



448 



RED-FACED FINCH. 
(Fringilla afra.) 

Fr. fusco viridisy genis pallide coccineis, cauda coccinea, rtmigibus 

nigricantibus extus aurantiis. 
Brown-green Finch; cheeks pale scarlet, tail deep scarlet, quills 

blackish, externally orange. 
Fringilla afra. Gmel. Si/st. Nat. 1. go5. — Lath. Ind. Orn. ]. 

451. 60. 
Red-faced Finch. Brown's Must. 25. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 286. 

53. 

Described in Brown's Illustrations of Zoology: 
in length near six inches : prevailing colour of the 
plumage deep dull green : cheeks crimson : pri- 
mary quills dusky, margined with dull orange : 
tail dull crimson : legs yellowish. Native of 
Angola. 



449 



CRIMSON-HEADED FINCH. 
(Fringilla rosea.) 

Fr. cinereo-rubesccns, sublus alba, capitis uropygii gutturisque 
petinis apice ruberrimis, remigibus rectricibusque fastis margine 
lutescentibiis. . 

Ash-coloured red Finch; beneath white, with the feathers of the 
head, rump, and throat, tipped with red ; the quills and tail- 
feathers fuscous, with yellowish margins. 

Fringilla rosea. /3. Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 414. 33. 

Loxia erythrina. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 864. 

Crimson-headed Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 271. 2Q. — Penn. 
Arct. Zool. 2. 257. ? : 

/S. rosea, capistro argenteo, dorso lituris ex griseo fuscescentibus 
•carlo, alis caudaque nigricantibus, recticum margine exteriore 
roseo. 

Rose-coloured, with the capistrum silvery, back varied with grey- 
brown marks, wings and tail blackish, the exterior tail-fea- 
thers bordered with rose-colour. 

Fringilla rosea. Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 444. 33. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 
1. 923. 

Rosy Finch. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. 207. 3. 

This bird is the size of Loxia Chloris : length 
about five inches: beak brownish horn- colour; 
between which and the eyes the colour is ash- 
coloured-grey : head, neck, and throat, red : lower 
part of the neck whitish: nape and back cinereous, 
tinged with red: wing- coverts brown, margined 
with reddish : quills brown, with luteous borders: 
under parts white, tinged with red on the breast 
and sides : tail slightly forked ; shafts of the 
feathers brown, margins yellowish : legs horn- 



450 CRIMSON-HEADED FINCH. 

coloured. Female entirely of a yellowish ash- 
colour on the upper parts : crown spotted with 
yellow : sides of the head dirty white : chin white : 
neck with a few obscure brown marks : tail dusky 
brown, bordered with grey. 

This species varies in having the face white : 
the back varied with grey and brown, with a 
general tinge of rose-colour : wings and tail dusky, 
externally bordered with rose-colour. 

The Crimson-headed Finch, of the Arctic Zoo- 
logy, appears to be referable to this species. It 
has the head and breast crimson, the former 
spotted with a few obscure dusky marks ; and the 
space round the eye entirely dusky : back, wing- 
coverts, primaries, and tail, black, with crimson 
edges : belly white, tinged with rose-colour. 

Found in the thick woods about the rivers 
Wolga and Samara, where it is known by the 
name of Red Sparrow ; likewise in the vicinity of 
the Tomsk in Siberia, residing in the willows, but 
is not very abundant : it is a very tame and foolish 
bird, and feeds on the seeds of plants : the female 
makes her nest of hay between the branches of 
trees, laying about five eggs : in the winter it 
unites with the snow-flakes. The second variety 
is a native of North America, about New York, 
w T here it arrives in the spring : it is very abundant 
among the red cedars, and is a very active bird, 
shifting with inconceivable velocity round the 
trunks. 





CmiMSorr-^iRowMs© IFihch 



451 



CRIMSON-CROWNED FINCH. 

(Fringilla flam me a. ) 

Fr. Jusca, crista jlammea, corpore subtus roseo. 

Brown Finch, with a crimson crest, and the body beneath rose- 

colouretl. 
Fringilla flamraea, Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 322. 26. — Lin. Faun. 

Suec.23S. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. I. Q15. — Lath. Did. Orn. 1.438. 

13. 
Fringilla cristata. Briss. 3. 155. E. 
Flaming Finch. Penn. Arct. Zool. 2. 380. f. 
Crimson-crowned Finch. Lath. Gen. Syu. 3. 259. 11. t. 47. 

The Crimson-crowned Finch is the size of F. 
cannabina, being above four inches in length : beak 
pale brown : top of the head of a bright crimson ; 
the feathers rather inclining to a crest : upper parts 
of the body brown ; under parts pale rose-colour : 
legs pale brown. Said by Linnaeus to inhabit 
Nordland. 



452 



RUFOUS-CHINNED FINCH. 
(Fringilla noctis.) 

Fr. nigra, gula hrisque riifis, rostro vigro. 

Black Finch, with the throat and lores rufous, and beak black. 

Fringilla noctis. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 320. 1Q. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 

1. 909. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 441. 24. 
Passer niger. Briss. 3. 118. 23. f. 7. t. 1. 
Pere noir. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 3. 485.— Buff. PI. Enl. 201. 

Rufous-chinned Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 267 '. 20. 

jS. Plumb eo-cxrulea, gula macula riifa, remigibus rectricibusque 

nigricantibus. 
Of a lead-coloured blue; the throat with a rufous spot, quills 

and tail-feathers dusky. 
Fringilla martinicensis. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 909. 
Tanagra ruficollis. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 894. 
Rufous-throated Tanager. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 241. — Lath. Syn. 

Sup. 161. 

Size of the Sparrow : length about five inches : 
beak black: irides red: the whole plumage black, 
except the chin, and a spot between the beak and 
eye, which are rufous orange-colour : legs blackish. 

The rufous-throated Tanager, of Dr. Latham, is 
only a slight variety of this species, differing in 
being of a very dark indigo blue, and wanting the 
orange- coloured spot between the beak and eye : 
in other respects it is similar to the above. 

Both varieties are said to be very common at 
Martinico, Jamaica, and other of the West India 
Islands: they feed on seeds, grass, fruits, and 
insects. 



453 



GLOSSY FINCH. 

(Fringilla nitens.) 

Fr. chalybeo-nigra, rostro pedibusque carneis. 
Glossy-black Finch, with the beak and feet flesh-coloured. 
Fringilla nitens. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 909. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 

442. 25. 
Passer niger erythrorynchos. Briss. 3. 120. 24. 
Moineau de Bresil. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 3. 480.— Buff. Pi. 

Enl. 2Ql.f. 1. 2. 
Glossy Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. IQJ. 21. — Lath. Syn. Sup. 

165. 
'$. tota nigra, rostro pedibusque concoloribus. 
Entirely black, beak and feet the same. 
Fringilla iEthiops. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. ()08. 
Moineau de Cayenne. Buff. PI. Enl. 224. f. 3. 

Length four inches and a half: beak flesh- 
colour : irides white : plumage entirely of a blue- 
black, shining like steel : legs the same as the 
beak : female with the feathers on the upper parts 
blackish, margined with yellowish brown : under 
parts dusky yellowish brown : behind and above 
the eye a blackish streak : rump grey. The male 
is sometimes found entirely of a black colour, and 
with the irides rufous. 

This species is a native of North America : it 
feeds on fruits and seeds, is easily tamed, and in 
that state feeds on bread : it has a very slight note, 
which requires great exertion to produce it. 



454 



SCARLET FINCH. 
( Fringilla coccinea.) 

Fr. Julvo coccinea, alls caudaque jiigj-icantibus, remigibus fulvo 

marginatis, rectricibus apice nigris. 
Fulvous-scarlet Finch, with the wings and tail blackish, the 

quills margined with fulvous, and the tips of the tail-feathers 

black. 
Fringilla coccinea. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. Q21. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 

1. 444. 32. 
Scarlet Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 270. 28. 

The general colour of the plumage of this bird 
is of a beautiful deep orange, inclining to scarlet : 
the wings and tail are dusky ; the latter even at 
the end : quills edged with orange ; primaries 
with black tips : legs black : beak brown. Native 
of the Sandwich Islands, and is about four inches 
and a half in length. 



455 



FERRUGINOUS FINCH. 

(Fringilla ferruginea.) 

Fr. fusca ferruginea marginata, subtus pallida, pectore maculis 

obscurisy regione oculorum alba. 
Fuscous Finch margined with ferruginous, beneath pale, breast 

with obscure spots, region of the eyes white. 
Fringilla ferruginea. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 021. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 

1.4-45. 35, 
Little Sparrow. Edivards. 354. J". 2. 
Ferruginous Finch. Penn. Arct.Zool. 2. 251. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 

3. 272.31. 

This bird is the size of Motacilla modularis : 
the length is about five and a half inches : the 
beak is dusky: space round the eyes white : upper 
parts of the body, quills, and tail, dark brown, 
bordered with reddish : under parts light-colour- 
ed ; the breast sprinkled with long dark spots : legs 
flesh-colour. Inhabits various parts of North 
America. 



456 



RED-BREASTED FINCH. 
(Fringilla punicea.) 

Fr. nigra, gen'is corporeque tolo subtus coccimis, tectricibus alarum 

fasciolis duabus albis. 
Black Finch, with the cheeks and whole body beneath scarlet; 

the wing-coverts with two white fascia. 
Fringilla punicea. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 921. — Lath. hid. Orn. 

1. 44-J. 34. 
Red-breasted Finch. Penn. Arct. Zool. 2. 275. — Lath. Gen. Si/n. 

3. 272. 30. 

Found in North America in the spring : the 
beak is white : the cheeks, throat, fore-part of the 
neck and breast, are of a rich crimson : the crown, 
upper part of the neck, back, wings, and tail, are 
black : legs black : wing-coverts barred with two 
white lines. 



4.57 



LULEAN FINCIT. 
(Fringilla lulensis.) 

Tr.Jusca, pectore humerisque rufis, alls nigris macula rtifa, collo 

corporeque subtus albis. 
Brown Finch, with the breast and shoulders rufous, wings 

black with a rufous spot, neck and body beneath white. 
Fringilla lulensis. Lin. Sijst. Nat. 1. 318. 5. — Lin. Faun. Snec. 

134. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. C)02. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 452,63. 
Carduelis Suecica. Bris. 3. 63. 2. 

Le Chardonneret a quatre raies. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 210. 
Lulean Finch. Penn. Arct. Zool. 2. 380. b. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 

278. 56. 

This bird is a native of Sweden, and is the size 
of the Goldfinch : the beak is brown : head and 
upper parts blackish ash-colour : lesser wing- 
coverts rufous ; next the same, forming a band, 
below which is one of black, and another of rufous, 
which is farther bordered with black, and lastly 
with white : quills dusky : throat and fore-part of 
the neck white : breast rufous ; from thence to 
the vent whitish : tail dusky. 



4.-5S 



RED-HEADED FINCH. 
(Fringilla erythrocephala.) 

Fr. olivacea, capite colloque coccineis, orbitis nigris, fascia tectri- 

cum duplici alba. 
Olivaceous Finch, with the head and neck scarlet, orbits black, 

wing-coverts with a double white band. 
Fringilla erythrocephala. Gmel. Syst. Nat. A. Q05. — Lath. Lie/. 

Orn. 1. 452. 62. 
Red-headed Finch. Brown's Must. 28. — Lath. Gen. Si/n. 3. 

287. 55. 

The Red-headed Finch is near five inches in 
length : the beak is black : head and neck beau- 
tiful scarlet : lores black : wing-coverts with two 
white bars; the wings black: back, breast, and 
belly olive: tail black: legs reddish grey. In- 
habits the Isle of France. 



459 



LONG-BILLED FINCH. 
(Fringilla longirostris.) 

Fr .jusco flavoque varia, subtus subfulva, capite nigro, collo torque 

castaneo, rectricibus olivaceis intusjlavo marginals. 
Finch varied with fuscous and yellow; beneath subfulvous ; head 

black; neck with a chesnut ruff; tail-feathers olive, margined 

internally with yellow. 
Fringilla longirostris. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 900. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 

1.447.48. 
Fringilla senegalensis. Bris. 3. l?3. 40. t. 15. f. 2. 
Le Pingon a long bee. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 3. 143. 
Long-billed Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 277. 42. 

Larger than the Chaffinch : above six inches 
in length : beak long, and grey brown : head and 
throat black: neck with a chesnut collar: back, 
wing-coverts, scapulars and rump, variegated with 
brown and yellow : quills brown, margined with 
olive without, and yellow within; on the edges 
of the secondaries the same: under parts of the 
body orange yellow : tail olive, all but the two 
middle feathers, fringed with yellow on the inner 
edges : legs grey brown. Inhabits Senegal 



v. ix. p. 11. 31 



460 



GOLD-FINCH. 

(Fringilla Carduelis.) 

Fr. remigibus anirorsum luteis, extima immaculata y rectricibus 

duabus extimis medio reliquisque apice albis. 
Finch with the quills in front yellow, the outer one immaculate : 

the two outer tail-feathers white in the middle, the rest so at 

the tip. 
Fringilla Carduelis. Lin.Syst. Nat. 1. 318. 7. — Lin. Faun. 

Suec.236. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 903. — Bris. 3. 53. 1. — Lath. 

Ind. Orn. 1.44£. 58. 
Le Chardonneret. Biif. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 187. f- 10.— Buffi PI. 

Enl.A.f. 1, 
Gold, or Thistle-Finch^ Penn. Brit. Zool. 2. 124. — Penn. Arct. 

Zool. 2. 283. h. — Hayes. Brit. Birds. 34. — Albin. Birds. 1. 

64. — Leuin. Brit. Birds. 3. 81. — Montagu. Brit. Birds. I.— ■* 

Bewick. Brit. Birds. 1. 165. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 281. 51. 
/3. nigricans, remigibus Jiavescentibus, corpore subtus einerascente, 

pectore virescente, capistro croceo. 
Blackish, with the quills yellowish ; body beneath ash-coloured ; 

breast greenish ; capistrum saffron-coloured. 
Fringilla nigra icterocephalos. Bris. 3. 6l.G. 
Le Chardonneret noir a tete jaune. Buff". Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 

207. 8. 
Gold-finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 285. G. 

This elegant little bird is rather less than the 
Chaffinch : its beak is white, and tipped with 
black : the forehead and chin are of a rich scar- 
let ; which is divided by a line of black, passing 
from each corner of the beak to the eyes, which 
are likewise black : cheeks white : top of the 
head black, which colour extends downwards on 
each side, and divides the white on the cheeks 



60 




G©]LI1>-FOTCJHE< 



GOLD-FINCH. 461 

from the white spot on the hind head : back, rump, 
and breast, pale brown : wing-coverts black, in the 
male; quills the same, marked in the middle 
of each feather with yellow, forming a large 
patch of that colour, on the wing, when closed ; 
tips white : tail-feathers black, with most of them 
spotted with white at their tips, and the two 
outer ones in the middle : legs white : female has 
the feathers at the base of the beak, and the wing- 
coverts, brown, and the black and yellow on the 
wings less brilliant. 

This species is subject to very great variety, of 
which we shall notice the following, as being the 
most remarkable. It has the beak surrounded with 
a saffron-coloured ring : the rest of the head and 
upper parts blackish : breast greenish black: 
belly and under parts brownish ash-colour : edge 
of the wing greenish black : quills black, with 
more white than common in them, the usual 
yellow parts being only yellowish : tail black. 

Dr. Latham has given a great many variations of 
this bird in his work, which we will endeavour to 
describe as concise as is agreeable to the limits of 
this work. The first differs from the common one 
in having the fore-part of the head red, and the 
region of the eyes white : the next has the head 
striped alternately with red and white : another 
has the head, throat, and neck, black, with a red 
spot near the beak : one has the forehead, cheeks, 
and throat, red ; the other parts of the body, 
except the wings and tail, which are brownish-ash, 
whitish ; and that part of the wings which is 



462 GOLD-FINCH. 

generally yellow dingy: another variety is wholly 
white, except the outer edges of the quills, which 
are yellow, and none of them tipped with black : 
it is also found entirely white, and not unfre- 
quently quite black ; and variations between these 
two states are also often taken. 

There is a variety with white spots under the 
throat often taken by the bird-catchers, who call 
it a Cheverel. 

The young birds have the head grey, and are 
called Grey-pates. 

This species is very much esteemed for the 
beauty of its song, and is frequently kept in cages : 
it begins to sing early in the spring, and continues 
the greatest part of the year ; some birds will even 
continue to sing throughout the whole year : in 
confinement it is generally fed on hempseed ; but 
in a state of nature it feeds on seeds of various 
kinds, particularly thistle and teasel : it feeds its 
young on caterpillars and insects; its nest is very 
elegantly formed externally of bents, moss, and 
liverwort, wove together with wool, and lined with 
wool, or hair covered with thistle down, or willow 
cotton, and generally built in evergreen trees, or 
hedges ; its eggs are four or five in number, of 
a blueish white, with a few small spots, chiefly 
at the larger end : it has often two broods in the 
year. 

It is a very docile bird, and may often be 
taught a great variety of tricks, such as to draw 
up its food and water, by means of a bucket : it 
breeds with the Canary, and tlie produce is known 



GREEN GOLD-FINCH. 463 

by the name of Mule, or Canary Goldfinch : is 
said to live upwards of twenty years : and is very 
abundant throughout Europe, but not so common 
in Africa, or Asia. 



GREEN GOLD-FINCH. 

(Fringilia Melba.) 



Fr, viridis, facie cauddque rubris, abdomine albo nigroque undu- 

lato. 
Green Finch, with the face and tail red, abdomen undulated 

with black and white. 
Fringilia Melba. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 3 19. S.— Gmel. Syst. AV. 

1. 904. — Lath. Lid. Orn. 1. 451. 59. 
Carduelis viridis. Bris. App. JO. 
Maracaxao. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 211. 
Green Gold-finch. Edwards. 2J2. male. — 128. female. — Lath. 

Gen. Syn. 3. 286. 52. 

Size of the common Goldfinch : beak flesh- 
coloured : forehead and throat bright red : line 
between the beak and eye blueish ash-colour : 
upper parts of the body yellowish green : wing- 
coverts and secondaries greenish, with red mar- 
gins : quills dusky: breast olive green : belly and 
under the tail white ; all the under parts varie- 
gated with dusky transverse lines : rump and tail 
bright red : legs pale brown : female has the beak 
pale yellow : top of the head and neck ash-colour : 
base of the wings and rump yellowish green, in- 
stead of red : and a brown tail, edged with dull 
red. Said by Edwards to inhabit Brazil, and by 
Linnaeus, China. 



464 



AMERICAN GOLD-FINCH. 

(Fringilla tristis.) 

Fr. Jlava, fronte nigra, alisjuscis. 

Yellow Finch, with a black forehead, and brown wings. 

Fringilla tristis. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1.320. \2.—Gmel. Syst. Nat. 

I.907. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1.452.64. 
Carduelis Americana. Bris. 3. 64. 3. 
Le Chardonneret jaune. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 212. — Buff. 

PL Enl. 202. f. 2. 
American Gold-finch. Venn, Arct. Zool. 2. 212. — Edwards. 

274. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 288. 57. — Lath. Syn. Sup. 166. 

Length about four and a half inches: beak 
white: irides hazel: forehead black : wing-coverts 
and quills the same ; the former with a white 
band, and the latter with the edges and tips of the 
lesser ones white : rest of the body yellow : thighs 
and tail-coverts yellowish white : tail black: legs 
white: female without the black on the head: the 
upper parts of the body are olive green : throat, 
breast, and rump, pale yellow : belly and vent 
white : in other respects similar to the male, but 
paler : found about New York, in the summer : 
feeds on thistles : are called York Yellows : like- 
wise found at Surinam and Jamaica. 



4& 



BEAUTIFUL FINCH. 
(Fringilla elegans.) 

Fr. supra viridis, collo cinereo, pectore Jlavo, capistro gula uro- 

pygio caudaque rubris, abdomine maculis lunatis albis. 
Finch above green, with a grey neck; yellow breast; red throat, 

rump, and tail ; and the abdomen with crescent-shaped white 

spots. 
Fringilla elegans. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 912.- — Lath. Jnd. Orn. 

1.441. 22. 
Le beau Marquet. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 3. 497. 30.,/ 2. — 

Buff. PI. Enl. 203. 1. 
Beautiful Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 266. 19. 

Above five inches in length : beak, forehead, 
capistrum, and throat, red : hind part of the head 
and neck dirty ash-colour: back green: wings 
the same ; the quills tipped with dusky : breast 
yellow ; with the belly, and sides, undulated with 
irregular white lines : lower part of the belly, 
thighs, and vent, white : rump and tail red, in- 
clining to chesnut : legs flesh-colour. Inhabits 
Africa* 



466 



LOVELY FINCH. 

(Fringilla Formosa.) 

Fr. viridis, gula juguloque jlavescentibus, abdomine albo nigroque 

fasciato, rostro pedibusque rubris. 
Green Finch, with the throat and jugulum yellowish; abdomen 

banded with black and white ; beak and feet red. 
Fringilla Formosa. Lath. hid. Orn. 1. 441. 23. 
Lovely Finch. Lath. Syn. Sup. 1. ](58. 

Described by Dr. Latham, who appears to 
consider it as a variety of F. elegans, as it does 
not differ very much from that bird ; but from its 
inhabiting India, it is most probably distinct, as 
the Beautiful Finch is a native of Africa : in fact, 
this species is much smaller, and has not the rump 
and tail similar to that of the preceding. Dr. 
Latham's description is as follows : " Size of a 
Siskin : beak red : general colour of the plumage 
green : chin and fore-part of the neck inclining 
to yellow : belly and vent elegantly barred with 
j^lack and white: tail dusky black : legs pale red." 




SISK1K IFmCEL 



467 



SISKIN FINCH. 
(Fringilla Spinus.) 

Fr. remigibus medio luteis, primis quatuor immaculatis, rectricibus 

basijtavis apice nigris. 
Finch with the quills yellow in the middle, the first four without 

spots ; tail-feathers yellow at the base and black at the tip. 
Fringilla Spinus. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 322. 25. — Lin. Faun. Suec 

237. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 9I4. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 452. 65. 
Ligurinus. Bris. 3. 65. 4. 
Le Tarin. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 221.— Buff. PI. Enl. 485, 

f.3. 
Siskin, or Aberdevine. Penn. Brit. Zool. 129. 53. — Penn. 

Arct. Zool. 2. 243. — Albin. Birds. 3. JC). — Mont. Sup. — Lewin. 

Brit. Birds. 2. 82. — Lath, Gen. Syn. 3. 289. 58. — Lath. Syn. 

Sup. 166.— Bewick. Brit. Birds. 1. 167. 

The Aberdevine, or Siskin, is about four inches 
and a half in length : beak whitish, tipped with 
black ; irides dusky : top of the head black : hind 
head and all the upper parts of the body yellowish 
green, mostly yellow on the rump, the feathers 
streaked with dusky down the middle : sides of 
the head, chin, throat, and breast, greenish yel- 
low, not spotted : middle of the belly whitish ; 
sides tinged with yellow, and marked with large 
dusky streaks: under tail-coverts the same: lesser 
wing-coverts similar to the back : the series im- 
mediately impending the greater coverts chiefly 
yellow: the greater coverts black tipped with 
yellow ; forming two yellow bands across the 
wing, divided by one of black : quills dusky, the 



468 SISKIN FINCH. 

primaries slightly edged with greenish yellow on 
the outer web, and, at the base of the inner; the 
rest of the quills edged with the same on their 
outer webs only, near the ends ; the base of each 
feather, for nearly one half, pale yellow : tail very 
much forked; the two middle feathers dusky, the 
rest yellow halfway from the base; the ends dusky, 
slightly edged with yellow on the outer webs : 
legs pale : female differs in having the crown of 
the head dusky and grey mixed, and the general 
aspect much duller : young males have the black 
feathers of the head margined with brown; in other 
respects they resemble the old bird, but are not 
quite so bright in colour. There are two or three 
varieties of this bird mentioned by BurTon and 
others ; but as they are found in other parts of the 
globe, it will be most prudent (to avoid confusion) 
not to attach them to this, as some of them ap- 
pear to be very distinct species. 

The Siskin is common in most parts of Europe, 
but is scarce in this country, which it only appears 
to migrate to occasionally, not having been known 
to breed here, unless the assertion of Mr. Bolton, 
in his Harmonia Ruralis, be correct, where it is 
said to breed in Westmoreland : the nest is deli- 
neated by Sepp, placed in a fork of a tree, built 
with dry bents, and leaves, and thickly lined with 
feathers: the eggs are three in number, and of a 
dull white : its food consists principally of seeds : 
it drinks often, and seems to be partial to throwing 
the water over its feathers. It is often paired with 
the Canary, with which it breeds freely ; and when 



SISKIN FINCH. 469 

a male Siskin is matched to a female Canary, he 
is very assiduous in his attention to her, carrying 
materials for the nest, and assisting in its con- 
fitruction, and, during the time of incubation, re- 
gularly supplying her with food : the produce of 
the above is reckoned by many to sing very 
prettily. ' 

This species is known in Sussex by the name of 
Barley Bird, from making its appearance about the 
time of sowing that grain : it is said to do great 
injury in Germany to the hop grounds, by picking 
out the seeds : it will frequently collect in small, 
flocks with Redpoles, and extract the seeds of the 
alder. BufFon mentions the appearance of this 
bird in immense flights, once in the course of three 
or four years, on the continent. It is a docile and 
familiar bird, and may be taught to draw up its 
bucket of seeds and water like the Goldfinch. 



470 



CHINESE SISKIN FINCH. 
(Fringilla Sinensis.) 

Fr. olivacea subtus Jiava, capite nigro, tectricibus alarum minori- 

bus Jasciis duabus nigris, remigibus rectricibusque nigris basi 
Jlavis. 
Olive Finch, beneath yellow ; head black ; lesser wing-coverts 

with two black fasciae ; quills and tail-feathers black, yellow 

at the base. 
Fringilla Sinensis. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 915. — Lath. Lid. Orn. 

1.447- 50. 
Le Tarrain de la Chine. Sonnet: Voy. Lnd. 2. 202. 
Chinese Siskin. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 293. 61. 

Beak and head of this species black : hind part 
of the neck, and back, olive-green : wing-coverts 
yellow ; the lesser ones with two black fascia?, 
and the larger with a black spot at the tip : quills 
black; the greater ones, at the base, yellow: fore- 
part of the neck, belly, and vent, yellow : tail 
yellow at the base, and black at the tip : legs 
black. Native of China. 



471 



MEXICAN SISKIN FINCH. 
( Fringilla Mexicana. ) 

Fv.fusco-virescens, subtus albida. 

Brown-green Finch, beneath whitish. 

Fringilla Mexicana. Gmel. Syst. Nat. I.914. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 

1.453. 66. 
Ligurinus Mexicanus. Bris. 3. JO. 5. 
Mexican Siskin. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 292. 5Q. 

This species has the same habits and food as 
the common Siskin, of which it is the size; and 
has the upper part of a brownish green; the 
under parts yellowish white ; quills and tail simi- 
lar to the back. Is found at Mexico. 



BLACK MEXICAN SISKIN FINCH. 
(Fringilla Cacatototl.) 

Fr. nigricantejidvoque varia, subtus Candida. 

Finch varied with blackish and fulvous, beneath whitish. 

Fringilla Catotol. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 914. — Lath. Lid. Orn. 

1. 453. 67. 
Ligurinus Mexicanus nigro. Bris. 3. J\. 6. 
Cacatototl. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 234. 
Black Mexican Siskin. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 292. 60. 

This likewise is found at Mexico, with the pre- 
ceding, and has a very fine song : it is the size of 
the common Siskin, and has the upper parts of 



472 CITRIL FINCH. 

the body variegated with fulvous and dusky ; the 
under parts being white ; and legs cinereous : 
feeds on the seeds of the hoauhtli. 



CITRIL FINCH. 

(Fringilla citrinella.) 



Fr. subvirescens, dorsojicsco-muculato, pedibas incarnatis, corpore 
subtus Jlavescente. 

Greenish Finch, with the beak spotted with fuscous; feet flesh- 
coloured ; body beneath yellowish. 

Fringilla citrinella. Lin. Syst. Nat. ]. 320. \6. — Gmel. Syst. 
Nat. 1. 908. — Lath. Lid. Orn. l. 434. 70. 

Serinus Italicus. Briss. 3. 182. 51. 

Le Venturon de Provence. Buff. PI. Enl. 658. f. 2. 

Citril Finch. WiUoug. Birds. 265. 46.— Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 
297. 64. 

The Citril Finch is rather less than the Serin : its 
beak is brown : the upper parts of the plumage 
yellowish green, sprinkled with brown : the lesser 
wing-coverts, and quills, greenish; the greater 
dusky, edged with green : the under parts of the 
body, and rump, greenish yellow: the breast of 
the male brightest: tail-feathers similar to the 
wing-coverts, and slightly forked: legs flesh- 
colour. 

This species has a very fine song, and is very 
common in Greece, Italy, France, Turkey, and 
other neighbouring places. 



472 



SERIN FINCH. 
(Fringilla Serinus.) 

Fr. subvirescens, mandibula inferiore albida, dorso lateribus jiisco 

maculatis, fascia alarum flava. 
Greenish Finch, with the lower mandible whitish ; the sides of 

the back spotted with fuscous; and a yellow band on the 

wings. 
Fringilla Serinus. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 320. 17- — Gmel. Syst. 

Nat. 1. 908. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 454. 69. 
Serinus. Briss. 3. 179. 50. 
Serin. Buff. PI. Enl. 658./. 1. 
Serin Finch. Lath. Gen. Syst. 3. 296- 63. 

Length above four inches and a half: the 
upper mandible of the beak grey brown, the un- 
der whitish : the prevailing colour of the plumage 
on the upper parts of the body brown, variegated 
with yellowish green : under parts of a greenish 
yellow, striped with longitudinal brown spots : 
wings with a greenish band: quills brown, with 
greenish grey borders : tail the same, and slightly 
forked : legs brown. 

Is said by Scopoli to become gregarious in the 
spring, frequenting orchards, frequently taking 
sudden flights upwards, and, after fluttering and 
warbling in the air for some time, alights with 
expanded wings nearly on the same spot from 
whence it arose : is fond of cabbage and hemp- 
seed. Is a native of Italy, Austria, Turkey, and 
the southern provinces of France. 



474 



CANARY FINCH. 
(Fringilla canaria.) 

Fr. rostro corporeque alboffavicante, remigibus rectricibusque w* 
rescentibus. 

Finch with the beak and body whitish yellow ; quills and tail- 
feathers greenish. 

Fringilla canaria. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 321. 23. — Gmel. Syst. 
Nat. 1. 913. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 454. 68. 

Serinus canarius. Briss. 3. 184. 52. 

Le Serin des Canaries. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. I.— Buff. PI. 
Enl. 202. f. 1. 

Serins de Mozambique. Buffi PI. Enl. 364. Jl l. 2. ? 

Canary Finch. Albin. Birds. 1. 65. — Lath. Gen. Syn.3. 2Q3. 
62. 

The beak and legs of this well known bird 
are pale flesh- colour : the prevailing colour of the 
plumage yellow, more or less mixed with grey; 
and in some with brown on the upper parts : tail 
slightly forked : in a state of nature these birds 
are chiefly grey ; but in confinement they vary ex- 
ceedingly, scarce any being found exactly similar. 

Buffon describes a bird, which came from the 
Mosambique Coast, and appears to be referable 
to this species : it is rather less, and has a pale 
beak : the upper parts of the body are brown ; 
the under parts and rump yellow: the feathers 
of the wings, and tail, with pale edges ; and the 
head with two or three yellow streaks : the female 
is nearly the same. 



CANARY FINCH. 475 

In a wild state, these birds are found principally 
in the Canary Islands, frequenting damp places : 
they are likewise found at Palma, Fayal, Cape 
Verd, and Madeira : it is exceedingly subject to 
variety, BufFon enumerating twenty-nine, and no 
doubt many more might be added, if sufficient 
care was taken in making observations on them : 
they will breed freely with the Siskin and Gold- 
finch, particularly the former ; and the pairs suc- 
ceed best when the female is a Canary and the 
male of the opposite species ; but with the follow- 
ing birds the reverse is best — the Linnet, Yellow- 
hammer, Chaffinch, and Sparrow. In the latter 
instance it is difficult to succeed, although a fe- 
male Canary, that has escaped from a cage, has 
been known to bring up a brood of young, in 
a bird pot, placed against a house, after pairing 
with a Sparrow. Buffon observes, that the Siskin 
is the only bird of which both sexes propagate 
equally with the Canaries : he has also given an 
account of the various methods of rearing these 
birds ; which is very instructive and pleasing : 
which we must refer our readers to, as it is too 
long for insertion in this work, occupying above 
fifty pages. 

They will also breed well with F. serinus, 
and F. citrinella, which are very remarkable for 
their song : they are said to live upwards of 
fifteen years : it is almost needless to mention that 
their song is very fine, and is very much admired 
by most persons. 

vol. ix. p. ii. 32 



476 



EUSTACHIAN FINCH. 
(Fringilla Eustachii.) 

Fr. Jiava subtus aurantia, macula hvfra oculos ccerulea, alis cau^ 

daque rubris. 
Yellow Finch, beneath orange, with a cerulean spot beneath the 

eyes ; wings and tail red. 
Fringilla Eustachii. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 911. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 

1.448. 54. 
Fringilla insulae S. Eustachii. Bris. 3. 177. 48. 
Le Pine, on jaune et rouge. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 145. 
Eustachian Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn.3. 2JQ.A7. 

Length five inches and a half: beak red : side 
of the head, beneath the eye, with a blue spot : 
head, neck, and upper parts, brilliant yellow : 
wings, tail, and legs, red : breast and under parts 
orange. Inhabits the Isle of St. Eustatia. 



477 



YELLOW FINCH. 

(Fringilla butyi-acea.) 

Fr. virenSf superciliis pectore abdominequejlavis,remigibus prime.' 

ribus margine exteriore albis. 
Green Finch, with the supercilia, breast, and abdomen yellow, 

and the exterior margin of the primaries white. 
Fringilla butyracea. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 321. 22, — Gmel. Syst. 

Nat. 1, 913. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 455. 74. 
Chloris Indica. Bris. 3. \Q5. 55. 
Indian Greenfinch. Edwards. 84. 
Yellow Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 299. 68. 

Size of F. canaria : beak blackish brown above, 
paler brown below : irides hazel : over the eyes a 
yellow streak, and one or two of the same be- 
neath, with a green one passing through : plumage 
of the upper parts olive green : quills the same, 
with whitish edges : under parts of the body, and 
rump, yellow : tail yellowish green, and forked : 
legs brown. This species is said to sing most re- 
markably well, and is a native of the East Indies 
and the Cape of Good Hope, at which latter place 
it is extremely abundant. 



478 



YELLOW-THROATED FINCH. 
(Fringilla flavicollis.) 

Fr. cinerea subtus albicans, gala alba macula Jlavescente, remigi- 

bus obscuris. 
Cinereous Finch, beneath whitish; throat white, with a yellowish 

spot; quills obscure. 
Fringilla flavicollis. Gmel. Syst. Nat. \. Q26. — Lath. hid. Orn. 

1. 465. 107- 
Yellow-throated Finch. Penn. Arct. Zool. 2. 249. — Lath. Syn. 

Sup. i 68. Q7. 

This species has the beak blueish grey : the 
head and upper parts of the body ash-coloured : 
chin white : throat with a doll yellow spot : un- 
der parts of the body dirty white : primary quills 
dusky, margined with pale brown : legs blueish 
grey. Native of New York. 



479 



CEYLON FINCH. 
(Fringilla zeylonica.) 

Fr. Jlava, dorso virescente, capite nigro, corpore subtus albo 
nigricante vario, remigibus rectricibusque nigricantibus. 

Yellow Finch,with the back greenish ; head black ; body beneath 
white varied with dusky; quills and tail-feathers dusky. 

Fringilla zeylonica. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. go6.-—Lath. Ind. 
Orn. 1. 463. 98. 

Ceylon Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 317 • 88. 

This small species has the beak and head 
black : the whole body yellow, with a green tinge 
on the back : quills and tail dusky, their outer 
edges yellow: under parts of the body dirty white: 
the supposed female has the beak the same as 
above j the head tawny ; back green ; breast 
and belly yellowish white j and the wings and tail 
dusky. Inhabits China. 



480 



FRIZZLED FINCH. 

(Fringilla crispa.) 

Fr. olivacca subtus lutea, capite nigro, pennis p/urimis recurvatis. 
Olive Finch, beneath luteous, head black, with many of the 

feathers recurved. 
Fringilla crispa. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 324. 3g.—Gmel. Syst. Nat. 

1. 927.— Br is.. App. 86. — Lath. hid. Orn. 1. 449. 56. 
Le Pincon frize. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 148. t. 7 . f. 2. 
Black and yellow Frizzled Sparrow. Edwards. T]\. f. 1. 
Frizzled Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn, 3. 280. 49. 

This most singular "bird is the size of F. 
Coelebs ; and has all the feathers of the body 
frizzled, like some of the varieties of poultry : 
the beak is white : head and neck black ; with 
sometimes a white streak reaching from the fore- 
head to the crown, and a white patch beneath the 
eye : upper parts of the body, wings, and tail, 
bright olive ; under parts yellow : legs brown. 
Supposed to inhabit Africa. 



481 



AUTUMNAL FINCH. 
(Fringilla Autumnalis.) 

Fr. virens, pileo Jerrugineo, crisso testaceo. 

Green Finch, with the top of the head ferruginous, and vent 

testaceous. 
Fringilla Autumnalis. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 320. 15. — Gmel. Syst. 

Nat. 1. 90S. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 4>55. 72. 
Autumnal Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 296. 66. 

The Autumnal Finch is an inhabitant of Suri- 
nam, and is entirely of a greenish colour, with 
the top of the head ferruginous, the vent testa- 
ceous; and the tail is not forked. 



BAHAMA FINCH. 
(Fringilla bicolor.) 



Fr. capite pectoreque nigris, dorso alis caudaque obscure vires- 

centibus. 
Finch with the head and breast black ; back, wings, and tail, 

obscure greenish. 
Fringilla bicolor. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 324. 38. — Gmel. Syst, 

Nat. 1. g27.—Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 450. 75. 
Chloris Bahamensis. Bris. 3. 202. 59. 
Le Verdinere. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 184. 
Bahama Finch. Penn. Arct. Zool. 2. 247. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 

300. 69. 

This species is the size of a Canary, and is in 
length four inches : the beak, head, throat, breast, 



482 IMPERIAL FINCH. 

and legs, are black ; the rest of the bird dirty 
green : it varies in having a cinereous abdomen, 
and a red tinged vent ; likewise without the back 
of the neck and the head being black, and the 
back tinged with ash-colour. It is a native of the 
Bahama Islands and Jamaica. It has a very pleas- 
ing note, which it sings when perched on the tops 
of trees. 



IMPERIAL FINCH. 

(Fringilla imperialis.) 



Fr. Jerrugineo-rosea, vertice subtusque Jlava, remigibus caudaque 

breviore obscuris. 
Rusty rose-coloured Finch, with the crown and under parts 

yellow, quills and tail short and obscure. 
Fringilla imperialis. Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 466. 111. 
Imperial Finch. Lath. Syn. Sup. l6Q. 100. 

Described by Dr. Lai ham, from a drawing in 
the possession of Sir Joseph Banks : " Size of the 
Amaduvade Finch : length three inches and a 
half: beak dusky red : crown, and all the under 
parts of the body, yellow : the upper parts pale 
ferruginous rose-colour : quills and tail dusky ; 
the last short: legs pale dusky red. Inhabits 
China." 



483 



GREEN-RUMPED FINCH. 
(Fringilla multicolor.) 

Fr. nigra subtus JIavescens, dor so infimo Jemoribusque viridibus, 

tectricibus alarum macula remigiumque secundarium fascia 

alba. 
Black Finch, beneath yellowish, with the lower part of the back 

and the thighs green, wing-coverts with a spot, and secondary 

quills with a fascia, white. 
Fringilla Multicolor. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 924. — Lath. hid. Orn. 

1. 465. 106. 
Green-rumped Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 320. Q6. 

Said by Mr. Pennant to inhabit Ceylon : it has 
the beak blueish : head, hind part of the neck, 
upper part of the back, and tail, black : cheeks, 
chin, and rest of the under parts, light yellow : 
wings black; coverts with a white spot: seconda- 
ries tipped with white : lower part of the back 
and thighs green : vent yellow : legs grey. 



484 



TESTACEOUS FINCH. 
(Fringilla testacea.) 

Fr. testaceo-ferrugineo nigro nebulosa, remigibus rectricibusque 
Juscis, rostro pedisque carneis. 

Finch of a testaceous rust-colour, clouded with black, with 
the quills and tail-feathers fuscous, beak and feet flesh- 
coloured. 

Fringilla testacea. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 928.— Lath. bid. Orn. 
1. 465. 110. . 

Testaceous Finch. Lath.Syn. Sup. 169. 102. 

In length five and a half inches: beak pale red: 
irides black : head, neck, back, breast, and belly, 
rust-colour, variegated with black ; the two latter 
palest : wings and tail brown : legs flesh-colour. 
Supposed to inhabit Portugal. 



BEARDED FINCH. 
(Fringilla barbata.) 



Fr. lutea, alis viridibus nigro rubroque maculaiis, gula barbata. 
Luteous Finch, with the wings green spotted with black and 

red, throat bearded. 
Fringilla barbata. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 915. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 

1. 456. 76. 
Bearded Finch. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. 208. 7. 

The beak of this is white at the base, and black 
at the tip : the head black and shining : from the 



NORTON FINCH. 485 

chin hangs a tuft of black feathers, similar in 
appearance to a beard ; and which, in old birds, 
extends to the middle of the breast : the body is 
yellow, with a green tinge : the wings are green, 
yellow, red, and black, mixed: tail brown: female 
entirely grey ; the chin without the beard-like 
appendage, and the wings with yellow spots. 

Found in the mountainous districts of Chili, 
building in trees a nest composed of straw and 
feathers, and laying two eggs : the male has a 
very fine song, and is often kept in cages, but 
the female is silent : it is called by the Spaniards 
Jilguero, and its flesh is in high estimation, being 
reckoned very delicious. 



NORTON FINCH. 

(Fringilla nortoniensis. ) 



Fr. nigra, subtus alba, jugulo Jerrugineo maculato, remigibus cau- 
daque nigricantibits, rectrice extima linea longitudinali alba. 

Black Finch, beneath white; jugulum spotted with ferruginous; 
quills and tail blackish; the outer tail-feather with a longitu- 
dinal white line. 

Fringilla nortoniensis. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1, 922. — Lath. Lid. 
Orn. ]. 446. 42. 

Norton Finch. Penn. Arct. Zool. 1. 256. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 
274. 36. 

This bird has the head and upper part of the 
neck black, edged with bright bay colour : the 
belly and sides white : primary quills dusky ; 
secondaries black, edged with bright brown : the 



486 BLACK-COLLARED FINCH. 

shafts of the sides and front of the neck ferru- 
ginous : tail dusky, with dirty white edges ; the 
outer feather with a clear white line running its 
whole length. Native of Norton Sound. 



BLACK-COLLARED FINCH. 
(Fringilla Abyssinica.) 

Fr. Jlava, subtus collarique cervicis nigra, alls caudaque nigris 

marginibus flavescentibus . 
Yellow Finch, beneath and collar round the neck black; wings 

and tail black, with yellowish margins. 
Fringilla Abyssinica. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 927. — Lath. Ind. 

Orn. 1. 457. 7g. 
Le Worabee. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 54. 
Black-collared Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 300. 76. 

Known at Abyssinia, of which place it is an in- 
habitant, by the name of Worabee : it is the size 
of a Canary : the beak is black : the cheeks, 
throat, fore-part of the neck, breast, and upper 
part of the belly, black : at the back of the neck 
arises a collar of black, which unites on the fore- 
part : wing-coverts and quills black, with pale 
margins : crown of the head, rest of the body, and 
lower part of the belly, yellow : tail black, with 
greenish yellow edges : legs pale brown : is met 
with in flocks, and feeds on the seed of a plant 
called nuk. 



487 



SURINAM FINCH. 
(Fringilla Surinaraa.) 

Fr. grisea, remigibus utrinque albis, rectricibus lateralibus infus 

albis. 
Grey Finch, with the quills on both sides white, the lateral 

tail-feathers white within. 
Fringilla Surinama. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 317. 2. — Gmel. Syst. 

Nat. 1. gOO. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 447- 47. 
Surinam Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 276. 41. 

Beak yellow : general colour of the plumage 
grey; belly lightest : quills black; the primaries 
white near the base, the secondaries white at the 
base and tips : tail blackish, the first and second 
feathers with a white spot on the inside, and the 
third, fourth, and sixth, tipped with that colour : 
inhabits Surinam : has but a trifling note. 



488 



SWAMP FINCH. 
( Fringilla iliaca.) 

Fr. cinereo-olivacea, pennis apice Ju^cis, subtus alba, pectore 

maculis griseo-^fuscis, remlgibus fuscis margine riifis^ uropygio 

caudaque ntfis. 
Grey-olive Finch, with the tips of the feathers fuscous; beneath 

white; breast spotted with grey brown; quills fuscous with 

rufous margins ; rump and tail rufous. 
Fringilla iliaca. Gmel. Syst. Nat. l. 923. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 

438. 16. 
Swamp Finch. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. 206. 2. 

This bird, which is known at Hudson's Bay by 
the name of Swamp or Wilderness Sparrow, is a 
large species, measuring above seven inches in 
length: the beak is yellow : cheeks white: body 
greyish olive above ; all the feathers with black 
tips : beneath white : breast spotted with grey 
brown : rump and tail rufous : legs yellow. In- 
habits Georgia and Hudson's Bay. 



489 



LAPLAND FINCH. 
(Fringilla lapponica.) 

Fr. capite-nigi'o, corpore] griseo nigroque, superciliis albis, rectri- 

cibus extimis macula alba cuneiformi. 
Finch with a black head, body black and grey, supercilia white, 

and outer tail-feathers with a white wedge-shaped spot. 
Fringilla lapponica. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 317- 1« — Lin. Faun. 

Suec. 235. — G?nel. Syst. Nat. 1. 900. — Lath. hid. Orn. 1. 

440. 18. 
Fringilla montana. Bris. 3. 160. 38. 
Le grand Montain. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 5. 134. 
Greater Brambling. Alhin. 3. 63. 
Lapland Finch. Penn. Arct. Zool. 2. 259. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 

3. 263. 14. 

The Lapland Finch is larger than the Chaf- 
finch, being six inches and a half in length : beak 
horn- colour, tipped with black : head blackish, 
spotted with reddish white : upper part of the 
neck, back, and body, rufous, with brown spots : 
behind each eye a white lunulated spot : lesser 
wing-coverts pale rufous ; middle ones black, with 
yellow margins, and white tips, forming a bar of 
that colour on the wing : quills black, edged with 
pale yellowish green : throat, fore-part of the 
neck, and breast, pale rufous : belly, thighs, and 
vent, white : tail black, edged with pale greenish 
yellow, and slightly forked : legs black : female 
paler than the male. 

This species is a native of Lapland, and part of 
Siberia, and occasionally the fields of the inner 



490 WINTER FINCH. 

bays of Greenland : it generally breeds in the 
northern parts, uniting into flocks : it has very 
much the habit of a Lark, running on the ground, 
and vibrating in the air like that bird : its nest is 
composed of moss and grass, lined with feathers : 
the female lays five or six eggs of a brownish slate, 
variegated with a duller colour. In the autumn it 
is supposed to migrate to America, being found 
at Hudson's Bay, where it is called Tecumashish, 
about November, among juniper trees. 



WINTER FINCH. 
(Fringilla hyemalis.) 



Fr. Jusca nigro nebulosa, subtus alba, collo inferiore pectore 

lateribusque fusco maculat/s. 
Fuscous Finch, clouded with black; beneath white; the lower 

part of the neck, breast, and sides, spotted with fuscous. 
Fringilla hyemalis. Gmel. Si/st. Nat. 1. 922. — Lath. I/id. Orn. 

1.446. 43. 
Winter Finch. Penn. Arct. Zool. 2. 254. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 

274. 37. 

This has the head, neck, and breast, light brown, 
variegated with black : front of the neck, breast, 
and sides, white, sprinkled with a few small 
brown spots : wing-coverts and primaries brown, 
margined with white : belly plain white. Inha- 
bits New York in the winter. 



491 



CARTHAGENA FINCH. 
(Fringilla carthaginiensis.) 

Fr. toia cinereajusco jftavoque maculata, rostro pedibusque pallide 

fuscis. 
Finch entirely cinereous, spotted with brown and yellow ; beak 

and feet pale fuscous. 
Fringilla carthaginiensis. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 907 .—Lath. bid. 

Orn. l. 405. 108. 
Carthagena Finch. Lath. Syn. Sup. 169. QQ. 

Larger than the Canary Finch : its beak pale 
brown : prevailing colour of the plumage ash- 
colour, with brown and yellow spots : legs brown- 
ish. Found in the woods of Carthagena : said 
to live on seeds, and to sing similar to the Chaf- 
finch. 



v. ix, p. 11. 



492 



SNOW FINCH. 
(Fringilla nivalis. ) 

Fr. nigra subtus nivea, remigibus secundarius rectricibusque albis. 

Black Finch, beneath snowy white, secondary quills and tail- 
feathers white. 

Fringilla nivalis. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 321. 21. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 
1. 911. — Bris. 3. 162. 39. t. 15./. 1. — Lath.Ind. Orn. 1. 440. 
19- 

Pinion de neige, ou Niverolle. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois.4. 136. 

Snow Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 264. 15. 

In length seven inches : beak black : head and 
hind part of the neck ash-colour : back, scapulars, 
and rump, grey brown, with pale margins : under 
parts of the body snowy white ; wing-coverts the 
same ; bastard wing, and greater quills, black ; 
the two secondary quills nearest the body brown, 
the rest of them white : thighs pale ash-colour : 
upper tail-coverts black ; the two middle tail- 
feathers the same, the rest white with black tips. 

This bird is very abundant in some parts of 
France, and is pretty generally diffused over 
Europe, but is not an inhabitant of this country : 
is likewise found among the Caucassian and Per- 
sian mountains, retiring to the plains in the au- 
tumn, to avoid the inclemency of the approach- 
ing season. 



493 



WHITE-HEADED FINCH. 
(Fringilla leucocephala.) 

Fr. Jusco-rufa, capite albo, uropygio rubro, fascia pectoris lunu- 

laque ante oculos nigris. 
Brown-red Finch, with a white head, red rump, band on the 

breast, and lunule before the eyes, black. 
Fringilla leucocephala. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. xlviii. 1. 
White-headed Finch. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. 210. 12. t. 132. 

The White-headed Finch has the beak crimson : 
the head, neck, and under parts from the breast, 
white : the breast and sides being black, the latter 
spotted with white : between the beak and eye is 
a small lunulated black spot : upper parts of the 
back, wings, and tail, reddish brown : lower part 
of the back, and rump, crimson : legs pale brown : 
the female has the head ash-coloured, and the red- 
dish brown colour on the upper parts of the body 
paler than the male. Inhabits New Holland. 



494 



GREY-HEADED FINCH. 
(Fringilla cana.) 

Fr. hiteofasca subtus lutea, capite gulaque griseis, rectricibusfuscis 

lineolis albis. 
Luteous-brown Finch, beneath luteous, with the head and 

throat grey, the tail-feathers fuscous, with white stripes. 
Fringilla cana. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 920. — Lath. Tnd, Orn. I. 

443. 30. 
Serinus jamaicensis. Bris. 3. I89. 53. 
Grey-headed Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 270. 26. 

Native of Jamaica : length eight inches : upper 
mandible of the beak blueisli brown ; under man- 
dible paler : head grey : upper parts of the neck 
and body yellowish brown : under parts yellow, 
except the throat, which is grey: wings and tail 
dull brown, striped with lines of white : vent white : 
legs blueish : claws brown. 



495 



CAPSA FINCH. 
(Fringilla capsa.) 

Fr. rufo-grisea, facie gulaque alba, alls caudaque nigris, canda 

jbrficaia. 
Reddish-grey Finch, with the face and throat white, wings and 

tail black, the latter forked. 
Fringilla capsa. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 912. — Lath, Ind. Orn. -1. 

440. 20. 
Le dattier. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 3.487. 
Capsa Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 265. 17. 

Size of the House Sparrow : beak short and 
thick ; the upper mandible black, the under yel- 
lowish : fore-part of the head and throat white : 
rest of the head and upper parts of the body grey, 
inclining to red, especially on the breast : wings 
black, reaching two-thirds the length of the tail, 
which is also black, and forked: legs yellowish. 
Inhabits Abyssinia and Barbary : is common about 
granaries, assembling in flocks: it is said to have a 
very fine and agreeable note, much superior to that 
of the Canary, or Nightingale, but dies on being 
transported from its native place : it is also com- 
mon about the Date villages. 



496 



WHITE-CHEEKED FINCH. 
(Fringilla nsevia.) 

Fr. cinerea maculis obscuris, subtus cinerea, genis albis, loris 

rufis, striga maxillari nigra. 
Cinereous Finch, with obscure spots, beneath cinereous, cheeks 

white, lores rufous, with a black stripe near the jaw. 
Fringilla naevia. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 911. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 

448. 51. 
White-cheeked Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 278. 44. 

The White- cheeked Finch is a native of the 
Cape of Good Hope, and is the size of the Com- 
mon Sparrow ; measuring near six inches in 
length : beak, head, and neck, pale cinereous ; 
the upper parts of the latter marked with dusky 
streaks : sides of the head white, with a reddish 
streak passing through the eye, which is bounded 
on the under part with black, and joins another 
black streak, arising at the base of the under man- 
dible : back and wing pale rufous, with dusky 
streaks : under parts of the body plain cinereous : 
tail dusky : legs black. 



497 



ORANGE FINCH. 

(Fringilla zena.) 

Fr. nigra subtus alba, linea supra infraque oculos Candida, pectore 
fulvo, gula macula Jiava. 

Black Finch, beneath white, with a white line above and be- 
neath the eyes, breast fulvous, throat with a yellow spot. 

Fringilla zena. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 320. 13. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 
1. Q07.—Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 446. 46. 

Fringilla bahamensis. Briss. 3. 168, 43. 

Le Pingon a tete noire et blanche. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 140. 

Orange Finch. Penn. Arct. Zool. 2. 144. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 
276. 40. 

The Orange Finch is above six inches in length: 
the beak is lead-coloured : the head, front of the 
neck, back, and scapulars, are black ; the former 
with two streaks of white, one of which is above, 
the other beneath the eye : irides pale : throat 
with a large yellow spot : hind part of the neck 
dull red : breast orange-coloured : wings brown ; 
their coverts with a white band : rump and upper 
tail-coverts dull red : tail brown : legs the same 
as the beak : female with the colours less brilliant : 
and with the head and neck cinereous, which co- 
lour is very predominant over the whole plumage : 
the under parts of the body are palest. Found 
in various parts of the West Indies, and South 
America. 



498 



STRIPED-HEADED PINCH. 
(Fringilla striata.) 

Fr. Jusca nebulow, subtus genis gulaque alba, capite vittis tribus 

nigrisyjronte lorisquejlavis. 
Brown clouded Finch, beneath with the cheeks and throat 

white, head with three black vitta, forehead and lores yellow. 
Fringilla striata. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. Q23. — Lath. hid. Orn. 

1.446. 44. 
Striped-headed Finch. Penn. Arct. Zoo?. 2. 250.-~Lath. Gen. 

Syn. 3. 275. 38. 

Beak lead-coloured : lores and forehead yel- 
low : head with three black stripes, and one be- 
hind the eye : sides of the head and chin white, 
the latter the clearest : breast blue grey : upper 
parts clouded with brown, the shafts of the fea- 
thers darkest : wing-coverts plain brown : quills 
dusky : belly pale-coloured : tail brown, and slight- 
ly wedge-shaped: legs pale brown: length five 
inches and half. Found at New York. 



499 



WHITE-THROATED FINCH. 

(Fringilla pensylvanica.) 

Fr. n igricans riifo varia, subtus genisque cinereo-alba, fascia ocu- 
lari nigricante, super ciliis Jidvis, gula alba. 

Blackish Finch, varied with rufous ; beneath and cheeks greyish- 
white, with a blackish stripe near the eyes ; supercilia fulvous ; 
throat white. 

Fringilla pensylvanica. Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 445. 36. 

Passer pensylvaticus. Bris. App. JJ. 

Fringilla albicollis. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 921. 

White-throated Sparrow. Edwards. 304. 

White-throated Finch. Penn. Arct. Zool. 2. 248. — Lath. Gen. 
Syn. 3. 272. 32. — Lath. Syn. Sup. 166. 

In length six inches and a half: beak dusky: 
supercilia yellow ; stripe from the jaw to the eyes 
dusky : prevailing colour of the plumage above 
reddish brown : edge of the wing pale yellow : 
throat white : cheeks and under parts of the body 
dirty white: irides hazel: legs flesh- colour: the 
supposed female wants the white spot on the chin ? 
and has the yellow stripe on the sides of the head 
very obscure. Native of Pensylvania, New York, 
and Newfoundland. 



500 



SAVANNA FINCH. 
(Fringilla Savannarum.) 

Fr. nebulosa, abdomine albo, jugulo pectoreque Juscescentibus, re- 

migibus apice superciliisque luteis. 
Clouded Finch, with the abdomen white, jugulum and breast 

fuscescent, tip of the quills and supercilia luteous. 
Fringilla Savannarum. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. Q21. — Lath. Ind. Om. 

1. 443. 31. 
Passer jamaicensis. Bris. 3. 99. 13. 
Savanna Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. t. 3. 1/0. T], 

The Savanna Finch has the beak brown: super- 
cilia yellow : crown of the head and upper parts 
of the body dull brown, mixed with white : belly 
white : the rest of the under parts pale yellowish 
brown : quills the same, with white tips : tail 
brown : legs whitish. Inhabits Jamaica. 



iOl 



COWPEN FINCH. 

(Fringilla Pecoris.) 

Vv.Jiisca subtus dilutior, cauda subforcipata. 

Fuscous Finch, palest beneath, with the tail slightly forked. 

Fringilla Pecoris. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 9 10. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 

1.443. 28. 
Fringilla virginiana. Bris. 3. 165. 41. 
Le Brunet. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 138. 
Cowpen Finch. Penn. Arct. Zool. 2. 241. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 

269. 29. — Lath. Syn. Sup. 165. 

Larger than F. montifringilla, being near seven 
inches in length : beak dusky : prevailing colour 
of the plumage brown; with the back, wings, and 
tail darkest, and glossed with green and blue : 
under parts lightest: legs brown: female deep 
brown: breast and belly ash-coloured: chin whitish: 
wings and tail dusky, bordered with brown. 

This species is a native of Virginia, Carolina, 
and New York : it delights to feed in the pens 
with cattle, and lays five eggs about June. 



502 



COLLARED FINCH. 
(Fringilla Indica.) 

Fr. cinereofasca, subtus nifo-alba, capistro jugulo torqueque colli 

albis, fascia pectorali alls caudaque nigris. 
Cinereous-brown Finch ; beneath rufous white ; capistrum, jugu- 

lum, and ruff of the neck white, with a band on the breast ; the 

wings and tail black. 
Fringilla Indica. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 028. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 

449. 57- 
Fringilla torquata indica. Bris. App. 85. 
Le Pineon a double collier. Btiff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 149. 
Collared Finch. Edwards. 272.— Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 280. 50. 

This inhabits India : the beak and head are 
black : the throat, capistrum, and line round the 
eyes white ; forming a collar on the neck ; on the 
lower part of which, in front, is a black band: 
upper parts of the body grey brown, the rump 
palest : wing-coverts and secondaries black, edged 
with shining rufous : greater quills black : under 
parts of the body rufous white : tail and legs grey- 
brown. 



503 



PINE FINCH. 
(Fringilla Pinetorum.) 

Fr, supra ex rufescente testacea, suit us Jlava, fascia pectorali 

transfer •sajerruginea . 
Finch above of a reddish testaceous, beneath yellow, with a 

transverse ferruginous band on the breast. 
Fringilla Pinetorum. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 926. — Lath. Ind. 

Orn. 1. 445. 40. 
Pine Finch. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. 207 . 5. 

The Pine Finch is entirely testaceous, with a 
rufescent tinge above, and yellow beneath, with a 
transverse band of ferruginous on the breast* It is 
a native of the pine forests of Siberia. 



RUST i r - COLLARED FINCH. 
(Fringilla australis.) 



Fr.fusca collari Jerrugineo. 
Brown Finch, with a rust-coloured collar. 
Fringilla australis. Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 406. 112. 
Rusty-collared Finch. Lath. Syn. Sup. 170. 103. 

This species inhabits the island of Terra del 
Fuego, and has a rust-coloured collar round the 
neck, and the rest of the plumage brown. 



504 



GRASS FINCH. 

(Fringilla graminea.) 

Fr. cinereojerrugineo nigroque varia, subtus alba, pectore lateribus- 

que maculatis, gems remigibus rectricibusque Juscis. 
Grey Finch varied with ferruginous and black ; beneath white ; 

breast and sides spotted ; cheeks, quills, and tail-feathers 

fuscous. 
Fringilla graminea. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 922. — Lath. Ind. Orn, 

1. 445. 38. 
Grass Finch. Penn. Arct. Zool. 2. 253. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 

273. 34. 

The Grass Finch has the head, upper part of 
the neck, and back, grey ferruginous and black 
mixed : lesser wing-coverts bay-coloured ; the 
others black, margined with white : lower part 
of the neck, and sides, white, streaked: cheeks 
brown : belly pure white : primary quills dusky, 
edged with white : tail dusky. Inhabits New 
York. 



505 



FASCIATED FINCH. 

(Fringilla fasciata.) 

Fr. maculata, supra Jerruginea, subtus alba, Cauda Jusca Jasciis 

numerosis nigricantibus. 
Spotted Finch, above ferruginous, beneath white, tail brown, 

with many blackish fasciae. 
Fringilla fasciata. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 922. — Lath. hid. Orn. 

I. 445. 37. 
Fasciated Finch. Penn. Arct. Zool. 2. 252. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 

3. 273. 33. 

According to Mr. Pennant, this species is a 
native of New York, and has the crown, and hind 
part of the head, rust-colonred, and spotted with 
black : wings ferruginous : primary quills dusky, 
margined with dirty white: back similar to the 
hind part of the head, but with larger spots : 
under parts of the body white, streaked with 
black : tail brown, undulated with dusky lines. 



506 



BONANA FINCH. 
( Fringilla Jamaica.) 

Fr. grisea, pectore viridi-ccerulescente, remigibus rectricibusque 
nigris. 

Grey Finch with the breast green ccerulean, the quills and tail- 
feathers black. 

Fringilla Jamaica. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 323. 33. — Gmel. Syst. 
Nat. 1. 920. — Bris. 366. l. 42. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 443. 29. 

Le Bonana. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 139. 

Bonana Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 269. 25. 

Length five inches: beak black: plumage above 
dull blue : beneath pale blue, the belly tinged 
with yellow: wing-coverts, quills, and tail greenish 
blue : legs black : female similar to the male. 
Inhabits Jamaica. 



ULTRAMARINE FINCH. 
(Fringilla ultramarina.) 



Fr. iota intense ccemlea, rostro albo, pedibus rubris. 

Finch entirely of a beautiful blue, rostrum white, feet red. 

Fringilla ultramarina. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 927. — Lath. Ind. 

Orn. 1.457. 73. 
L'Outre-mer. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 56. 
Ultramarine Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 301. 71. 

This brilliant little species is a native of Abys- 
sinia, and is the size of the Canary : its beak is 
white, and legs red : the whole of the plumage is 



PURPLE FINCH. 507 

of a beautiful ultramarine blue : young bird, and 
female, grey : the male obtains his blue colour in 
the spring of the second year; he has a very fine 
sonar. 



PURPLE FINCH. 
(Fringilla purpurea.) 



Fr. subviolacea, ventre candido, remigibus intus caudaque d medio 

ad apicem Juscis. 
Subviolet Finch; belly white; the inner part of the quills, and 

the tail, from the middle to the tip, fuscous. 
Fringilla purpurea. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 923. — Lath, hid. Orn. 

1. 446. 45. 
Pyrrhula Carolinensis violacea. Briss. 3. 324. 8. 
Bouvreuil violet de la Caroline. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 395. 
Purple Finch. Perm. Arct. Zool. 3. 258. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 

275. 39. 

Near six inches in length : prevailing colour of 
the plumage violet : belly white : inside of the 
quills brown : tail slightly forked : female brown, 
except the breast, which is slightly spotted with 
dark brown. 

This bird feeds on the berries of the juniper, 
and the buds of fruit trees. It is a native of Caro- 
lina, but disappears on the approach of winter. 



v. ix. p. 11. 34 



508 



BLUE-HEADED FINCH. 
(Fringilla cyanomelas. ) 

Fr. ccerulea, linea Jrontali gula lunulaque dorsali nigris y remi- 

gibusjuscis, cauda nigricante. 
Blue Finch, with a line on the forehead, throat and lunule oil 

the back black ; quills brown ; tail dusky. 
Fringilla cyanomelas. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 924. — Lath. Lid, 

Orn. 1. 464. 102. 
Demi-fin noir et bleu. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 5. 327. 
Blue-headed Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 31Q. 92. 

Beak brown : head and neck blue : between 
the eyes a narrow black line : chin and throat 
black, with a lunulated spot of that colour on 
the upper part of the back : wing-coverts, lower 
part of the back and rump, breast, belly, and vent, 
blue : quills blackish brown, with blueish-green 
edges : tail dusky black : legs brown. 



509 



BLUE-CROWNED FINCH. 
( Fringilla cyanocephala.) 

Pr. rubro-Jiisca, vertice uropygioque cyaneis, subtus Jlava, nucha 

rubra, orbitis albis. 
Red-brown Finch, with the crown and rump blue, under parts 

yellow, nucha red, orbits white. 
Fringilla cyanocephala. Gmtl. Syst. Nat. 1. 921. — Lath. Inch 

Orn. 1.464. 104. 
Blue-crowned Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 319. 94. 

This bird inhabits Senegal : ii is seven inches in 
length : the beak is dusky : the crown of the head 
blue, bounded with red behind : cheeks white : 
hind part of the head and back reddish brown : 
quills black ; middle and greater coverts margined 
with white ; lower part of the back and rump pale 
blue : under parts of the body yellow : thighs and 
vent white : tail black : legs pale brown. 



.510 



BLUE-FACED FINCH, 
(Fringilla tricolor.) 

Fr. nigra, capite uropygioque cyaneis, kumeris viridibm, abdomine 

Jlavescenie. 
Black Finch, with the head and rump blue, shoulders green, and 

abdomen flavescent. 
Fringilla tricolor. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 323. 34. — Gmcl. Syst, 

Nat. 1.923. — Lath. Ind. Orn. \. 464. 101. 
Blue-faced Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 3 IS. 91. 

The Bl iie-faced Finch has the forehead, tem- 
ples, and throat, blue : base of the beak, and back 
black : shoulders green : quills black, the pri- 
maries green on the outer edge : under parts of 
the body yellowish white : tail black. Inhabits 
Surinam. 






511 



CUBA FINCH. 

(Fringilla Maia.) 

Vv. purpurascens, fascia pectoralis saturatiore. 

Purplish Finch, with a darker fascia on the breast. 

Fringilla Maia. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 323. 35.— Gmel. Syst. Nat. 

1. £24. — Briss. 3. 214. 66. t. J. f. 3. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 

462. 96. 
Le Maia de la Cuba. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 105. 3.— Buff. PL 

Enl. 109. /. 2. 
Cuba Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 315. 86. 

This destructive bird is a native of Cuba : it is 
in length near four inches : its beak is grey : the 
head, neck, and under parts of the body, are 
dusky : the breast with a band of purplish chesnut ; 
of which colour are also the back, upper parts of 
the body, and tail: quills grey-brown, with ches- 
nut margins: legs lead-coloured : female with the 
head, neck, upper parts of the body, quills, and 
tail, fulvous : throat purplish chesnut, with a spot 
of that colour on each side of the breast ; the rest 
of the under parts dirty yellowish white : legs and 
beak greyish. 

This species is very destructive to the rice-fields: 
it is gregarious, and its flesh is considered to be 
very good eating. 



512 



LUNAR FINCH. 

(Fringilla torquata.) 

Fr„ subrubra, uropygio caruleo lunula gulari nigra, remigibus 

nigris, cccruleo terminatis, ad apicem macula alba. 
Reddish Finch, with the rump caerulean; a lunule on the throat 

black ; quills black terminated with caerulean, with a white 

spot towards the tip. 
Fringilla torquata. Grnel. Syst. Nat. 1. 924. — Lath. Lid. Orn- 

1. 465. 105. 
Lunar Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 320. Q5. 

The Lunar Finch has a dusky black beak : the 
head, neck, and back, are reddish ; the latter 
with a brown tinge: throat with a narrow black 
crescent, bounded below with yellow : quills black, 
with blue ends, and each of them tipped with 
white: rump pale blue: tail and legs black. Native 
of the East Indies. 



513 



LEPID FINCH. 

(Fringilla lepida.) 

Fr. fusco-virens , fascia supra-oculari infra-oculari gulaque Jvhis 

pectore nigro. 
Brown-green Finch, with a band above, and another beneath 

the eyes, and the throat fulvous, breast black. 
Fringilla lepida. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 320. 14. — Gmel. Syst. Nat, 

1. 907.— Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. ±55. 73. 
Lepid Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 2QQ. 67. — Lath. Syn. Sup. IGJ. 

This bird is about four inches in length : the 
beak and eyes are black, with a fulvous stripe 
above, and another smaller one beneath the eye : 
chin fulvous : breast black : general colour of the 
plumage greenish brown : legs grey. This bird 
has a very weak voice, and is frequently singing : 
it is easily tamed, and inhabits the woods about 
Havannah, in the island of Cuba. 



5H 



FIRE FINCH. 
(Fringilla ignita.) 

Fr. Jusco-rnbra nitens, rostro remigibus cavdaque obscuris. 
Brown-red shining Finch, with the beak, quills, and tail dull. 
Fringilla ignita. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. Q06. — Lath. Ind. Orn 1. 

464. 100. 
Fire Finch. Brown's Illust. 2. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 318. 90. 

The Fire Finch is the size of the Lesser Red- 
pole : beak dusky yellowish at the base : the prevail- 
ing colour of the plumage glossy brownish red ; 
the vent darkest : quills and tail dusky : legs flesh- 
colour : female pale reddish brown : forehead, and 
between the eyes, crimson : tail reddish, dusky at 
the tip. Inhabits Gambia. 



515 



SHARP-TAILED FINCH. 
(Fringilla caudacuta.) 

Fr.jusco rufoque varia, superciliis gula cerviceque rufis, cauda in* 

tegra, rectricibus omnibus apice acutis. 
Finch varied with fuscous and red, with the supercilia," throat, 

and neck rufous; tail intire, with all the feathers acute at the 

tip. 
Fringilla caudacuta. Lath. Ind. Om. 1. 459. 85. 
Sharp-tailed Finch. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. 208. 9. 

Above four and a half inches in length : beak 
pale : irides dark brown : prevailing colour of the 
plumage mottled brown and pale rufous ; the 
margins of the feathers being the latter : throat, 
and streak over the eyes, pale rufous : lower part of 
the neck dark rufous: feathers of the tail with 
acute tips. Found in the inner parts of Georgia, 
in North America. 



516 



GREATER REDPOLE FINCH. 
(Fringilla cannabina.) 

Fr.fusco-castanea, subtus albo-rufescens, fascia alarum longitudi- 

nali alba, macula verticis pectoreque rubris. 
Fuscous-chesnut Finch, beneath white red, with a longitudinal 

white fascia on the wings, and a red spot on the crown and 

breast. 
Fringilla cannabina. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 322. 28.~Lin. Faun. 

Suec. 240. — Gmel, Syst. Nat. 1. 916. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 

458. 82. 
Linaria rubro major. Briss. 3. 135. 30. 
La grande Linotte des vignes. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 58. — 

Buff. PI. Enl.485.f.l. 
Greater red-headed Linnet, or Redpole. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1 . 

131. t. 54. — Penn. Arct. Zool. 2. 201. — Albin. Birds. 3. t. 72. 

73. — Leioin. Brit. Birds. 2. f. 84. — Mont. Brit. Birds. 2. 

— Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 304. — Lath. Syn. Sup. 167. — Bewick. 

Brit. Birds. 1. 173. 
Fringilla Linota. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 916. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 

1. 457. 81. 

Linaria. Briss. 3. 131. 29- 

La Linotte. Biff Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 58. t. l.—Buf. PL Enl. 

151./ 1. 
Common Linnet. Penn. Brit. Zool. 130. — Letvin. Brit. Birds. 

2. 83.— 'Montagu. Brit. Birds. I. — Bewick. Brit. Birds. 1. 171. 
—Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 302. 73. 

There appears to be no doubt that the Linnet 
and Greater Redpole of Anthors are the same 
species, and that the former is the young bird : as 
such we shall consider them. The Redpole is sub- 
ject to considerable variety with respect to the 
red markings which are found on the head and 



GREATER REDPOLE FINCH. .517 

breast, at certain seasons, and have been the occa- 
sion of its being described as two species : in full 
plumage, the male has the beak blueish : irides 
hazel: head light brown, the feathers on the 
crown darkest in the middle : sides of the neck 
inclining to cinereous : the forehead rosy red : 
back, scapulars, and wing-coverts deep rufous 
brown, lightest on the rump, and palest on the 
margin of each feather : breast brown, more or 
less spotted like the crown of the head : belly 
light rufous brown : vent nearly white : quills 
dusky black, with more or less white on their 
webs, forming a conspicuous bar of that colour on 
the wings : tail forked ; the feathers similar to the 
quills, black, margined with white, which latter 
colour predominates on the inner webs : tail-co- 
verts black, with grey edges: legs brown : female 
more dusky brown : wing-coverts rufous brown; 
sides of the throat dirty white, the middle part 
streaked ■ breast and sides pale brown, with 
dusky streaks : quills and tail like the male, but 
not so deeply fringed with white. The Linnet of 
Anthors differs principally in having the breast of 
a deep crimson ; which colour disappears after 
some time, and never returns ; and in wanting the 
red spot on the forehead : but in respect to the 
latter distinction, Dr. Latham gives it as his opi- 
nion, that the red feathers do not appear till the 
end of the second year ; having observed a male 
in which the forehead appeared similar in colour 
to the rest of the body, but on lifting up the fea- 
thers with a pin, a tinge of red was very perceptible j 



518 GREATER REDPOLE FINCH. 

and in some specimens that he procured they 
were bright crimson beneath. Colonel Montagu 
likewise mentions having caught many of both 
sexes on their nests, the males of which he found 
with a little tinge of red on the breast only, and 
from that every intermediate stage to the full red 
on the breast and head. 

The nest of this species is composed of moss 
and bents, mixed with wool, and lined with hair 
and wool : its eggs are four or five in number, of 
a blueish white colour, sprinkled with purplish 
specks and lines : the first brood is hatched in 
May, but if the nest is destroyed, is said to make 
a fresh one as late as August. These birds fre- 
quently fly in flocks during the winter, and feed 
on many kinds of seeds, particularly flax: they 
seem to be most partial to furzy commons, where 
they generally build their nests : their song is very 
beautiful, and finely varied ; they easily adopt that 
of other birds, when confined with them, and will 
often learn to pronounce words with great clear- 
ness: their manners are very gentle. Are common 
throughout Europe, and are sometimes found in 
North America : they chiefly breed in the north* 
ern parts of England, upon the mountains. 




JLesseh JLedpoxje Fikch 



519 



LESSER RED POLE FINCH. 
(Fringilla Linaria.) 

Fr. Jusco griseoque varia, subtus albo rujescens, fascia alarum 

duplici albida, vertice pectoreque rubris. 
Finch varied with fuscous and grey; beneath reddish white, 

with a double white band on the wings ; crown and breast 

red. 
Fringilla Linaria. Lin. Syst. 1. 322. 2g. — Lin. Faun. Suec. 241. 

— Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. gi7.—Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 458. 83. 
Linaria rubra minor. Briss. 3. 138. 31. 
Le Sizerin, petite linotte des vignes. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 

2l6.—Buff. PL Ent. 151./. 2. 
Lesser red-headed Linnet, or Redpole. Penn. Brit. Zool. 132. 

54. — Penn. Arct. Zool. 2. 262. — Albin. Birds. 3. 75. — Leivin* 

Brit. Birds. 2. 85. — Mont. Brit. Birds. 2. — Lath. Gen. Syn,3. 

305. 75. — Lath. Syn. Sup. \QJ. — Bewick. Brit. Birds. 1. 174. 

'—Don. Brit. Birds. 5. 114. 

In length five inches : beak inclining to dull 
yellow : irides hazel : forehead purplish red ; the 
feathers of all the other parts above are dusky, 
edged with rufous brown : chin black : throat 
and breast pink : sides streaked with dusky : belly 
white : quills and tail dusky, margined with pale 
brown : in some the rump is tinged with blossom- 
colour : legs dusky : female lighter in colour j 
with the head yellowish, and the throat and breast 
without the pink hue : the young bird very much 
resembles the female : the males are subject to 
very great variety. 

This species is very common in the winter, in 
the southern parts of England, when it becomes 



6 20 LESSER REDPOLE FINCH. 

gregarious, and numbers are taken near London, 
where it is often called the Stone Redpole. It is 
said to breed in the northern parts of this country, 
and to construct its nest of bents and moss, put 
together, and lined with willow down : it lays four 
or five eggs, which are of a blueish green colour, 
sprinkled with reddish spots, but most so at the 
larger end : according to Mr. Pennant, the female 
is so tenacious of her nest, as to suffer him to take 
her off with his hand, and even after she was 
released she would not forsake it. It is said by 
Linnaeus and others to be very partial to the seeds 
of the alder, and that it associates with the Siskin, 
and frequents alder w T oods, for the sake of picking 
the catkins ; during which time it hangs like the 
Titmouse with its back downwards, and is so in- 
tent on its work, that dozens may be taken, by 
means of a twig fastened at the end of a long pole, 
and smeared with birdlime. 

It appears to be very abundant over the whole 
of the northern parts of the globe, being found in 
Europe, Asia, and North America. 



.521 



TWITE FINCH. 
(Fringilla montium.) 

Fr. supra varia, subtus riifescens, abdomine albido, supercilik 

Jasciaque alarum riifescentibus, vertice uropygioque rubris. 
Finch above varied ; beneath ruf'escent, with the abdomen 

white ; supercilia and band on the wings ruf'escent ; top of 

the head and rump red. 
Fringilla Linaria. Lath. Ind. Orn. 1, ^59. S3. &. 
Linaria minima. Briss. 3. 142. 32. 
Le Cabaret. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. J G.— Buff. PI. Enl. 485, 

f.2. 

Twite. Albin. 3. 74. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 307. b. 

Mountain Linnet. Penn. Brit. Zool. 1 33. 53. — Venn. Arct. Z00L 

1. 380. e. —Lewin. Brit. Birds. 2. 86. 
]8. nigra mifescenteque varia, subtus albida, pennis in collo infe* 

riore medio nigris, fascia alarum alba, uropygio rubra. 
Varied with black and reddish ; beneath whitish ; the feathers of 

the lower part of the neck black in the middle ; wings with a 

white fascia ; rump red. 
Fringilla montium. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 917. — Lath. Ind. Orn- 

1. 459. 84. 
Linaria montana. Briss. 3. 145.33. 
La Linotte de Montagne. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 74. 
Mountain Linnet. Will. Angl. 26l. — Lath. Gen, Syn. 3. 307, 

76. A. 

The Twite is rather larger than the Greater 
Redpole, being about six inches in length : the 
beak is yellowish, with a brown tip : i rides hazel : 
top of the head and rump red : between the beak 
and eye, and on the chin, a brown spot : streak 
above the eyes rufous : upper parts of the body 
dusky black, with rufous edges ; under parts ru- 



5% c l TWITE FINCH. 

fous white, with the throat marked with blackish 
spots : belly white : legs brown or black. Like the 
Redpole, this bird is subject to great variety in 
respect to the red markings ; the breast being 
found of that colour as well as the head and rump. 
The Mountain Linnet is a variety of this species, 
differing in being rather larger, and in having the 
beak pale : the head dusky, edged with cinereous, 
and no traces of crimson on it : the throat and 
breast blackish, with pale edges : wings and tail 
dusky : tips of the greater coverts and secondaries 
whitish : legs pale brown : females of both varie- 
ties without the red on the rump. 

Twites are observed in the flight season near 
London, with other Linnets, and are taken together 
by the bird-catchers : they breed in the northern 
parts of England, and their nest is composed of 
moss and roots of plants mixed with heath, and 
lined with finer heath and fibrous roots : their eggs 
are the size of the Linnet's, of a blueish white, 
faintly spotted with purplish red at the larger end. 

It is very probable that this species received its 
name from its twittering unmusical note, which 
the bird-catchers are so well acquainted with that 
they can tell whether there be any Twites among 
a flock of Linnets, merely from this circumstance. 
It is a native of many parts of Europe. 



523 



ARCTIC FINCH. 
(Fringilla flavirostris.) 

Fr. Jitsca : rostro-ftavicante, pennis pectoris apice roseis, cauda 

snbforcipata. 
Fuscous Finch, with a yellowish beak ; feathers of the breast 

tipped with rose-colour ; tail slightly forked. 
Fringilla flavirostris. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 322. 27. — Lin. Faun. 

Suec. 239. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 915. — Lath. Ind. Orn. I. 

438. 16. 
Fringilla fusca. Bris. 3. 154. b. 
Le Ping on brun. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 121. 
Arctic Finch. Penn. Arct. Zool. 2. 379- A « — Lath. Gen. Syn. 

3. 260. 12. 

Of this species the male is entirely of an ob- 
scure sooty colour ; paler beneath : the feathers 
on the breast frequently having the tips varied 
with a garnet colour : quills and tail dusky, edged 
with grey ; the latter forked : legs black : female 
brown, in other respects similar to the male : beak 
in both sexes yellow, with a brown tip. This bird 
inhabits Norway and the north-east of Siberia, 
and is generally seen about barns. 



v. ix. p. 11. 35 



524 



CHINESE FINCH. 
(Fringilla sinica.) 

Fr. riifo olivacea, subtus testacea, remigibus rectricibusque nigris 

bast luteis. 
Rufous-olive Finch, beneath testaceous ; quills and tail-feathers 

black ; luteous at the base. 
Fringilla sinica. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 321. 20. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 

1. 910. — Lath. Lid. Orn. 1. 447. ^9' 
L'Olivette. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 144. 
Pincon de la Chine. Buff. PL Enl. 157. f. 3. 
Chinese Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 277. 43. 

Length five inches : beak yellowish ; the base 
of it, throat, and fore-part of the neck olive-green: 
upper parts of the body olive-brown, with the 
lesser wing-coverts, back, and rump, tinged with 
rufous : the greater wing-coverts black : quills 
half yellow, half black, with whitish tips : under 
parts of the body rufous, with a yellow tinge on 
the belly : tail black, yellowish at the base, the 
most outward feather with the greatest proportion 
of yellow : legs yellowish : female not so brilliant 
in colour. Inhabits China. 



*m 



WHITE-BREASTED FINCH. 
(Fringilla melanoleuca. ) 

Fr. nigra, fascia pectoris alba. 

Black Finch, with a white band on the breast. 

Fringilla melanoleuca. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. QIO. — Laih. Ind. 

Orn. 1. 442. 27- 
Moineau de Java. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 3. 486.— Buff. PI. Enl. 

224.^2. 
White-breasted Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 208. 23. 

The whole of the white-breasted Finch is of a 
black colour, except the breast, which has an irre- 
gular white bar running across it : beak and legs 
pale brown : length about four and a half inches. 
Native of Java. 



526 



BLACK AND ORANGE FINCH. 
(Fringilla melanictera.) 

Fr. nigra, abdomine alho macidato, alls candaque Jerrugineb 

marginatis. 
Black Finch, with the abdomen spotted with white ; wings and 

tail margined with ferruginous. 
Fringilla melanictera. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 91O. — Lath. Ind. 

Orn. 1. 442. 26. 
Moineau de Macao. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 3. 486.— Buff. PL 

Enl. 224. f. l. 
Black and Orange Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 268. 22. 

The black and orange-coloured Finch is four 
inches and a half in length : the beak is pale 
brown : prevailing colour of the plumage deep 
black, with the margins of the wings and tail 
orange-coloured : belly spotted with white : legs 
pale brown. Native of Macao. 



527 



VARIEGATED FINCH. 

(Fringilla variegata.) 

Fr. rubro Jlavo cceruleo alboque variegata, pectore lutescente 

nebuloso, rectricibus apice margine albo. 
Finch variegated with red, yellow, cserulean, and white ; breast 

clouded with lutescent; quill-feathers margined with white. 
Fringilla variegata. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 911. ; — Lath, hid. Orn. 

1. 448. 55. 
Fringilla varis novae Hispaniae. Bris. 3. 178. 49. 
Le Touite. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 146. 
Variegated Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 279. 48. 

Size of the Chaffinch : length near six inches : 
beak yellowish : head pale red and purple mixed : 
body most beautifully variegated with red, yehow, 
blue, and white : quills and tail the same, the 
latter margined with white at the tip : the breast 
pale yellow, shaded with darker : legs red. Na- 
tive of New Spain. 



528 



FOREST FINGH. 
(Fringilla sylvatica.) 

Fr. capite Jasciato, corpore supra griseo nigroque vario, pectore 

atque sino abdomine canis. 
Finch with a striped head; body above varied with grey and 

black; breast and lower part of the abdomen hoary. 
Fringilla sylvatica. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 926. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 

1. 446. 41. 
Forest Finch. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. 207. 6. 

This bird is found at the same places as the 
Pine Finch, and is about the same size as it: its 
head is fasciated, and the breast and lower part 
of the abdomen are hoary : the body is variegated 
with grey and black. 



529 



CINEREOUS FINCH. 

(Fringilla cinerea.) 

Fr. Jusca Jerrugineo marginata, capite lateribus lineis duabuA 

gulaque griseis, jugulo grisescente, abdomine medio albo. 
Brown Finch margined with ferruginous ; throat and two lines 

on the sides of the head grey; jugulum greyish; middle of 

the abdomen white. 
Fringilla cinerea. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 922.— Lath. Ind. Orn. 

1. 445. 39- 
Cinereous Finch. Penn. Arct. Zool. 2. 200. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 

3. 274. 35. 

Native of Aoonalashka : beak dusky ; upper 
mandible with a light grey line, and another on 
the cheeks beneath, which latter is bordered with 
dusky : rest of the head dark cinereous brown, 
margined with dull ferruginous : throat light 
grey : under side of the neck pale cinereous : 
upper parts of the body grey brown, edged with 
lighter brown : legs dusky. 



530 



CRESCENT FINCH. 
(Fringilla arcuata.) 

Fr. castanea, subtus alba, capite colloque inferiore nigris, torque 

taniaque pone oculos albis. 
Chesnut Finch, beneath white; head and lower part of the neck 

black ; with a white mark behind the eyes. 
Fringilla arcuata. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 912. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 

1. 4-11. 21. 
Passer Capitis Bona? Spei. Bris. 3. 104. 16. t. 5.f. 3. 
Le Croissant. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 3. 501. 
Moineau du Cap de Bonne Esperance. Buff. PI. Enl. 230. f. 8- 
Crescent Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 266. 18. 

The Crescent Finch is about six inches in 
length : beak black : head black, with a crescent- 
shaped streak of white beginning at the eye, and 
passing down on each side of the neck, increasing 
in breadth till it meets in front, where it is broadest: 
upper part of the neck black ; hinder part pale 
brown : back, scapulars, and lesser wing-coverts, 
chesnut : middle coverts black, with white tips : 
greater ones and quills brown, bordered with 
grey : tail dark brown ; legs the same. Native of 
the Cape of Good Hope. 



.531 



BLACK-HEADED FINCH. 
(Fringilla melanocepliala.) 

Fr. Jerrugineo-fusca, capite jugulo remigibusque nigrit, cerrice nb- 

domineque albis, rostro rubro. 
Ferruginous-brown Finch, with the head, jugulum, and quills 

black; neck and abdomen white; beak red. 
Fringilla melanocephala. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 911. — Lath. Ind. 

Orn..l. 448. 52. 
Black-headed Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 278. 45. 

Described on the authority of Dr. Latham, 
who informs us it is a native of China, and that 
it is in length four inches : the beak red : back, 
wings, and tail, ferruginous brown : head and 
fore-parts of the neck black : sides of the neck, 
and sides under the wings, a little streaked with 
black : hind part of the neck and belly white : 
quills black : legs lead-coloured. 



532 



BROWN FINCH. 
(Fringilla fusca.) 

Fr.Jicsca marginibus pennarum nigricantibus, subtusjusco-alba. 
Brown Finch, with the borders of the feathers blackish, beneath 

brownish white. 
Fringilla fusca. Gmel. Si/st. Nat. 1. 91 1. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 

448. 53. 
Brown Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 278. 46. 

Said by Dr. Latham to inhabit China, with the 
preceding : it is rather larger than a Wren : beak 
dusky : upper parts of the plumage brown 5 the 
feathers with dark brown edges : under parts 
brownish white : legs dusky. 



533 



TEMPORAL FINCH. 

(Fringilla temporalis. ) 

Fr. fusca subtus alba, vertice cxrulescente , genis uropygioque coc- 

cineis. 
Fuscous Finch, beneath white, with the crown blueish, cheeks 

and rump scarlet. 
Fringilla temporalis. Lath. St/n. Sup. II. xlviii. 4. 
Temporal Finch. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. 211. 15. 

The Temporal Finch is a native of New Hol- 
land ; and has the beak reddish brown : crown of 
the head blue grey : from the beak arises a dull 
streak of a crimson colour, which getting broader 
at the back, forms a patch on the cheeks : upper 
parts of the body, wings, and tail, pale brown : 
under parts white : rump crimson : legs reddish 
brown. 



534 



BROWN-THROATED FINCH. 
(Fringilla fuscicollis.) 

Fr. ferruginea, vertice uropygio crissoque viridibus, gula Jusca 

macula subrubra, macula remigium rectricibusque dimidiato- 
Jlavis. 
Ferruginous Finch, with the crown, rump, and vent green ; throat 

brown, with a subrufous spot ; and with a spot on the quills, 

and half the tail yellow. 
Fringilla fuscicollis. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. Q06. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 

I. 463. 99. 
Brown-throated Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 318. 89. 

Described as having the beak red : crown of 
the head green ; from the eyes to the hind head 
a white line : throat pale brown, with a cinereous 
patch on the lower part, beneath which is an- 
other of pale red: back rust-coloured: wings 
dusky, with a yellow spot on the lower part of the 
quills : rump and vent green : tail half yellow, 
half black : legs yellow. Inhabits China. 



535 



TRIPOLINE FINCH. 
(Fringilla syriaca.) 

Ttr.Jusco nigricante Jiavoque varia, subtus albida maculis obscuris, 

vertice rubro. 
Finch varied with fuscous, blackish, and yellow ; beneath whitish 

with obscure spots ; crown red. 
Fringilla syriaca. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1.Q2?. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 

457. 80. 
L'Habesch de Syrie. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 57. 
Tripoline Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 301. 72. 

Larger than the Linnet : beak lead-coloured : 
crown of the head bright red : cheeks, throat, and 
fore-part of the neck blackish, variegated with 
brown : remaining part of the neck, breast, upper 
parts of the body, and smaller wing-coverts brown, 
dusky, and yellow mixed : greater wing-coverts 
deep cinereous, bordered with paler : belly and 
vent dirty white, variegated with obscure dusky 
and yellowish spots : quills and tail cinereous, 
with orange margins : legs the same as the beak. 
Native of Tripoli : sings very prettily. 



536 



NITID FINCH. 
(Fringilla nitida.) 

Fr. cinerascens subtus albida, remigibusjerrugineo-jlavescentibus, 

super ciliis nigris. 
Cinerascent Finch, beneath white; quills ferruginous yellow; 

supercilia black. 
Fringilla nitida. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. xlviii. 3. 
Nitid Finch. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. 21 1. 14. 

Size of the Common Sparrow : beak dull red : 
on the eyes a band of black passing down on the 
ears as a broad patch : upper part of the plumage 
pale cinereous : quills dull ferrugineous yellow : 
sides of the body inclining to yellow : under parts 
white : legs yellow. Native of New Holland. 



537 



GEORGIAN FINCH. 

(Fringilla Georgiana.) 

Fr. Jttsca subtus albida, tcctricibus alarum minoribus toto, remigi- 
bus rectricibusquc extus rvfis, gula juguloque murinis, striga sub- 
maxillari divaricata- nigra. 

Fuscous Finch, beneath whitish; with the whole of the lesser 
wing-coverts, quills, and tail-feathers externally rufous ; throat 
and jugulum mouse-coloured, and with a divaricating black 
stria beneath the jaw. 

Fringilla Georgiana. Lath. hid. Orn. 1 . 460. 86. 

Georgian Finch. Lath. Syn.Sup. II. 209- 10. 

Inhabits Georgia : beak dusky : irides and 
head brown : chin and throat grey : beneath the 
jaw a blueish divaricating streak : middle of the 
back dusky brown : lesser wing-coverts rufous ; 
quills and tail-feathers rufous on the outer edges : 
under parts of the body white : legs brown : length 
about six inches. 



538 



STRASBURGH FINCH. 
(Fringilla argentoratensis.) 

Fr. fusca, subtus rufafusco maculata, abdomine infimo albido. 
Fuscous Finch, beneath rufous, spotted with fuscous ; abdomen 

beneath whitish. 
Fringilla argentoratensis. Gmel. Syst.Nat. I.9I8. — Lath.Ind. 

Orn. 1.460.87. 
Linaria argentoratensis. Briss. 3. 146.34. 
Le Gyntel de Strasbourg. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 73. 
Strasburgh Finch. Lath, Gen. Syn. 3. 308. yj. 

The Strasburgh Finch is the size of the common 
Redpole : the head and upper parts of the body 
are brown: the chin, neck, breast, and sides 
rufous, spotted with brown : the belly and vent 
are whitish : quills and tail brown : legs reddish. 
Found in the neighbourhood of Strasburgh, where 
it goes by the name of the Gyntel. 



539 



ANGOLA FINCH. 

(Fringilla angolensis.) 

¥r.Jusco-cinerea,fusco maculata, subtus spadicea, capistro gulaque 

nigris, genis guttureque albo maculatis, uropygio luteo. 
Brown-ash Finch, spotted with fuscous ; beneath chesnut; capis- 

trum and throat black, the latter and cheeks spotted with 

white; rump yellow. 
Fringilla angolensis. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 918.— Lath. Ind. Orn. 

1.460. 88. 
Linaria angolensis. Briss. Sup. 8 1 . 
Vengoline. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 80. 
Linnet from Angola. Edwards. 129. 
Angola Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 309. 78. 

Size of a Linnet : beak brown ; the feathers at 
the base black : the upper parts of the head, neck, 
and breast, dusky-ash, with the shafts of the fea- 
thers darker : cheeks, and sides of the throat, 
white : greater wing-coverts and quills brown, 
with yellow margins : under parts of the body 
dull orange : rump and upper tail-coverts bright 
yellow : tail brown, with grey edges : legs flesh- 
colour. Edwards describes the female as having 
the upper parts of the body rufous brown ; the 
shafts of the feathers darkest : sides of the head 
pale rufous : near the base of the beak a brown 
streak, which passes towards the hinder part of the 
head : from the breast to the belly pale rufous, 
with brown spots : the rest of the plumage similar 
to the male: it is probably only a variety of 
the male, as he says it sings remarkably well, 

v. ix. p. ir. 3d 



540 DUSKY FINCH. 

which is not often the case with female birds: 
the male, according to Mr. Edwards, is called Ne- 
gral, or Tobaque, and the female, Benguelinba, in 
Angola, where they are natives. 



DUSKY FINCH. 
(Fringilla obscura.) 



Fr.Jiisco-nigricans, pectore uropygioque cinerascentibus, pennis apice 

dilutioribus. 
Fuscous-black Finch, with the breast and rump cinerascent, the 

tips of the feathers palest. 
Fringilla atra. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 918. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 

460. 89. 
La Linotte brune. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 84. 
Dusky Finch. Edwards. 270. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 310. 79. 

Said by Edwards to inhabit Angola : it is in 
length four inches : the beak is cinereous : the 
prevailing colour of the plumage dusky brown ; 
inclining to cinereous on the breast and rump : 
tips of all the feathers lightest : legs dusky. 



;4i 



BLUE-BELLIED FINCH. 
(Fringilla benghalus.) 

Fr. dilute carulea, capite dorsoque griseis, lateribus capitis purpureis. 
Pale caerulean Finch ; head and back grey; the sides of the 

head purple. 
Fringilla benghalus. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 323. 32. male. — Gmel. 

Syst. Nat. 1. 920. — Lath. hid. Orn. 1.46l. Ql. 
Fringilla angolensis. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 323. 31. female. 
Bengalus. Briss. 3. 203. 60. t. 10. f. 1. 
Le Bengali. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. 92.— Buff. PL Enl. 115. 

Blue-bellied Finch. Edwards. 131. female. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 
310. 81. 

Length near five inches : beak whitish : irides 
hazel : head, and upper parts of the body, grey ; 
on each side of the former, behind the eyes, a 
lunulated purplish red spot : quills brown, with 
grey edges : lower part of the back and rump, 
and all the under parts of the body, blue ; tail the 
same, but paler: legs whitish: female without the 
reddish spot on the sides of the head. This species 
is liable to a few slight variations, which are scarcely 
worth description, as the above will apply to all. 
Native of Africa. 



<542 



AMADUVADE FINCH, 
( Fringilla amandava. ) 

Fr.Jiisca rufescenteque albo-punclata, rcctricibus nigris apicepundo 
albo. 

Brown Finch spotted with rufescent and white, with the tail- 
feathers black, spotted with white at the tip. 

Fringilla amandava. Lin. Syst. Nat. I. 319. 10. — GmeL Syst. 
Nat. 1. 905. — Lath. Ltd. Orn. 1. 401. 92. 

Bengalus punctulatus. Briss.3. 206. 62. t. 10. f. 4. 

Le Bengali piquete. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4. QQ. t. 2. f. 1. — 
Buff. Pl.Enl. 115. f. 3. 

Amaduvade Finch. Albin. Birds. 3. 77- — Edwards. 355. /. 1. 
—Lath. Gen. Sy«. 3-311. 82. — Lath. Syn. Sup. 168. 

Tins little species is the size of a Wren: beak 
dull red: upper parts of the body brown, with a 
red tinge : the feathers of the upper wing-coverts, 
breast, and sides, tipped with white ; quills grey 
brown : under parts of the body, the belly ex- 
cepted, which is dark, pale brown: tail black: legs 
yellowish white : female resembles the male, in 
every respect, but in having the throat, and fore- 
part of the neck, variegated with white, and the 
belly of a pale yellow. Inhabits various parts of 
Asia. 



54: 



SENEGAL FINCH. 
(Fringilla senegala.) 

Fr. Jusco-ferruginea, vertice subtusque rtifa, rostro rubro nigro 
striata. 

Brown ferruginous Finch, with the crown and under parts ru- 
fous ; beak red, striated with black. 

Fringilla senegali. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 320. 18. — Gmel. Syst. 
Nat. 1. QOQ. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 46 1.. 93. 

Senegalis ruber. Brim 3. 208. 63. t. \0.f. 1. 

Le senegali rouge. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. A. gg.—Buf. Pi. Enl. 
157. f. 1. 

Senegal Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 312. 83. 

There is great probability that this species may 
be only a variety of the preceding, as some of the 
varieties, described by BufTon and other writers, 
approach so close to it as to make the line of dis- 
tinction almost imperceptible : its general appear- 
ance is as under : the beak reddish, margined with 
brown, with a streak of the latter colour beneath 
the under mandible, and a slight one on the ridge 
of the upper : the top of the head, throat, fore- 
part and sides of the neck, breast, upper part of 
the belly, sides, rump, and upper tail-coverts, 
reddish: lower parts of the belly, thighs, and 
under tail-coverts, brownish green : the rest of the 
body brown : tail black. 

This species is a native of Senegal : it feeds on 
millet ; which has suggested to the natives a mode 
of catching it very successfully, without injury 
to the bird : when they wish to catch any, they 



544 SULTRY FINCH. 

fasten a large hollowed gourd on a stick, with the 
bottom upwards, and a string is attached which 
leads to some sheltered spot where the operator 
may observe the motions of the bird, and to which 
he retires after having strewed some millet be- 
neath the gourd ; when the birds arrive in num- 
bers to feed on it, and the stick being pulled, 
entraps them : they are very familiar, and both 
sexes are said to sing tolerably well. 



SULTRY FINCH. 

(Fringilla calida.) 



Fr. fuaca-rufa, coy pore supra striis longitudinalibus nigris, pedi- 

bns pallidis. 
Fuscous-red Finch, with the body above longitudinally striated 

with black, feet pale. 
Fringilla calida. Lath. Si/n. Sup. II. xlviii. 2. 
Sultry Finch. Lath. Syn. Sup. II. 210. 13. 

Native of the Mahrattas : length five inches 
and a half: beak dusky: upper parts of the body 
pale rufous brown : the middle of each feather 
dusky black, especially on the top of the head : 
under parts plain brown : legs pale yellow. 



54.5 



CAPE FINCH. 
( Fringilla Alario. ) 

Fr. capite collo pectoreque atris, corpore castaneo subtus albo, 

rectricibus quatuor lateralibus lineola nigra. 
Finch with the head, neck, and breast dark-coloured ; body 

chesnut, beneath white ; the four lateral tail-feathers with a 

black mark. 
Fringilla Alario. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 31 Q. 9. — Gmel. Syst. Nat. 

1. 905. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 462. §5. 
Passerculis Capitis Bonae Spei. Bris. 3. 106. 17. t. 5.f. 2. 
Cape of Good Hope Sparrow. Albin. Birds, 3. 6J. 
Cape Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 315. 85. 

This inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, and is 
rather larger than the House Finch : beak pale 
cinereous : head and neck black, the colour end- 
ing in a point towards the breast, which, with 
the under parts of the body, is white : upper parts 
chesnut : quills blackish ; inner part of the lesser 
ones, under the wings, and the tail, chesnut; the 
four outer feathers of the latter with a longitu- 
dinal dusky spot at the tip : thighs rufous : legs 
brown. 



546 



1311ASILIAN FINCH. 
(Fringilla granatina.) 

Fr. corpore rufescente, rostro rubro, temporibus uropygio abdo- 

mineque violaceis, cauda cuveiformi. 
Finch with a rufescent body ; red beak ; temples, rump, and 

abdomen, violet; tail wedge-shaped. 
Fringilla granatina. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 31£). 11. — Gmel. Syst, 

Nat. 1. 906. — Briss. 3. 210. 67. t. 9. f. 3. — Lath. Ind. Orn. 

1. 463. 97. 
Le Granadin. Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. 4-. l6g. t. 7./. 1 .—Buff. PL 

Enl. lOQ.f. 3. 
Brasilian Finch. Edwards. 191. — Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 31(5. 87- 

This beautiful Finch is in length near five 
inches : its beak is of a fine red, with the base 
above blue : sides of the head blossom-coloured 
violet: irides dark-coloured: eyelids scarlet: back, 
quills, and scapulars brownish: the rest of the head 
and body, (the throat, lower part of the belly and 
thighs, which are black, excepted,) chesnut : rump 
blue: tail black: legs grey: varies in having a spot 
of brown between the beak and eye, and the hinder 
parts of the body, above and below, violet ; there 
are other slight varieties described : female with 
the top of the head, throat, and under parts fulvous, 
the latter palest : beneath the eyes a slight purplish 
tinge: the lower part of the belly and vent whitish: 
back grey brown : the rest similar to the male, 
but duller. Native of Brazil, and is often kept in 
confinement for its song. 



.547 



LONG-TAILED FINCH. 
(Fringilla macroura.) 

Fr. cauda elongata cuneiformi, corpore Jusco nigricante maculato, 
subtus cinerascente, rectricibus diiabus intermediis marginibus- 
que later alium virescentibus. 

Finch with an elongated cuneiform tail ; body fuscous, spotted 
with dusky, beneath cinerascent; the two intermediate tail- 
feathers, and the margins of the lateral ones, greenish. 

Fringilla macroura. Gmel. Syst. Nat .1. 918. — Lath. bid. Orn. 
1. 460. 90. 

Long-tailed Finch. Lath. Gen. Syn. 3. 310. 80. 

This bird is the size of the liedpole, but its long 
tail makes it appear much larger, the whole bird 
measuring above seven and a half inches in length: 
the upper parts of its plumage are fuscous, with 
dusky spots ; the feathers being darkest in the 
middle : quills brown, with greenish margins : 
under parts of the body pale ash-colour : tail 
wedge-shaped, and very long, with the two middle 
feathers narrow, and sharp at their tips : legs and 
beak brown. Inhabits Cayenne. 



END OF THE NINTH VOLUME. 



T. Davison, Lombar'l-street, 
Whitefriars, London. 



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