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n?>.y Sgtheran Sz Co., I 
cellars and Bookbinders, £ 
_ t<( PicoadUl v.W , f 


PART I 



BY 


ELLEN WILLMOTT, F.L.S. 


Drawings by 

ALFRED PARSONS, A.R.A. 



LONDON 

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, W. 

1910 


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THE GENUS ROSA 


















































































































































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THE GENUS ROSA 



ft^S 

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BY 

ELLEN WILLMOTT, F.L.S. 

Drawings by 


ALFRED PARSONS, A.R.A. 



LONDON 

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, W. 

1910 



PRINTED BY 

HAZELL, WATSON AND VINEY, LD., 
LONDON AND AYLESBURY. 


TO HER MAJESTY QUEEN ALEXANDRA 


MOST GRACIOUS LADY, 

Herewith I lay at Your Majesty s feet a Book of Roses , wherein 
I have striven to set down , with such poor skill and diligence as has 
been vouchsafed to me , all that I have learned of that most Royal 
Family of the Kingdom of Flowers, For as there are many races and 
colours of men , so are there many hues and diversities of Roses; but 
whereas , by the imperfection of our nature , the beauty of men fails to 
reach that of the Divine Image , being indeed too often turned even to 
that which is vile , yet shall you never find a Rose that is not most 
lovely , szveet and perfect , full of that grace which comes only of 
purity , and abounding in that beauty which dwells only in God' s 
ozmi handiwork. 

A nd albeit such a task might appear too high for such an one as 
mine own self and albeit I might seem unworthily and presumptuously 
to vie with that Greek poetess of old, of whom it was said that “ she hath 
left little, but all Roses yet, being mightily encouraged thereto by Your 
Majesty s gracious countenance and protection, I have to the best of my 
power endeavoured to accomplish it. A nd forasmuch as mere zvords must 
needs fail to give just meed of praise to the beauty of Roses, I have been 
beholden to the skill oj a miming limner, who has striven so to portray 
each leaf and blossom that all may readily know and love the same . 
Wherefore , most Royal Lady, it remains only for me to dedicate, 
according to Your Majesty s gracious permission, my Roses to our own 
peerless Rose, my Queen of flowers to the Queen of our English hearts ; 
beseeching you herewith to accept the humble and dutiful devotion of 

Your Majesty s most faithful and obedient servant, 

ELLEN WILLMOTT. 


January , 1910 . 








PREFACE 


The book which is here offered to the public is the outcome of many 
years’ study of the genus Rosa. Originally it consisted of notes put 
together for my own use which, but for the encouragement of friends, 
might never have grown into a book. 

Two works are pre-eminent among the many which have been 
written on Roses : these are Redoutffs Les Roses, published in 1802- 
1820, and John Lindley’s Rosarum Monographia , published in 1820: 
the former is in the main a collection of beautiful drawings of Roses 
chosen for their beauty ; the latter is a systematic study of the genus. 

Redoute s Roses is the most beautifully illustrated book which I 
know. I11 delicacy ol drawing, in excellence of colouring and in fidelity 
to nature, it surpasses every other flower-book. The drawings are 
portraits, at once precise and artistic, of the most beautiful ol the Roses 
at that time grown in French gardens. They are not intended to 
illustrate a systematic account, though the text, written afterwards by 
Thory, who was a botanist, in addition to descriptions of the Roses 
drawn, deals to some extent with the genus as a whole. 

John Lindley, on the other hand, was a laborious writer, of vast 
botanical attainments and of unwearying patience. Most of the books 
on Roses before his time contained more or less vague and inadequate 
accounts of the genus, with little or no attempt at systematic treatment. 
Lindley was the first to perceive the true proportions of the subject, 
and his work has lightened the labours of all subsequent students. 

It is not a little remarkable that this careful and erudite mono- 
graph was the production of a youth who had not completed his 
twentieth year, a circumstance which seems to me greatly to increase 
the admiration due to a work in itself so excellent. 


PREFACE 


It might be thought that there was hardly room for another book 
on Roses, but it is now eighty years since the latest edition of 
Lindley’s work was published, and during that time many new Roses 
have been discovered, and our knowledge of others has greatly increased. 

I have aimed principally at giving all the evidence I could collect 
from every available source, advancing my own opinion as rarely 
as possible, for the subject is of very great botanical complexity, 
owing partly to its inherent difficulty, and partly to the mass of 
literature, adequate and inadequate, which has accumulated during the 
many centuries in which it has been studied. I can hardly hope to 
have presented many facts not mentioned by previous writers, but I 
have at least taken great pains to ensure accuracy, and to verify and 
give references for every statement I have made. I have had the 
inestimable advantage of criticism, of help and of encouragement 
from several competent authorities, and especially from the Rev. Canon 
Ellacombe of Bitton, who has given much kindly encouragement 
throughout, and helped on many occasions; Mr. J. G. Baker, F.R.S., 
late Keeper of the Royal Herbarium at Kew, who has been of especial 
service in drawing up the specific characters ; Professor Sargent of 
the Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University, U.S.A., who has read 
the whole book and given much valuable criticism and advice ; the late 
Rev. Charles Wolley-Dod of Edge Hall, Cheshire, who encouraged 
the work at its inception, and made many useful suggestions ; Major 
A. H. Wolley-Dod, Sir George Watt, Lord Redesdale, and Lieut. - 
Colonel Prain, Director of the Royal Gardens, Kew, who has 
been so good as to read the final proofs, and the work thus owes 
much to his courtesy. To all of these my grateful acknowledgments 
are due. But for the first I should never have undertaken the book 
at all ; but for the last it might never have reached the stage of 
publication. 

Ellen Willmott. 

July , 1910. 


Yin 


SIMPLICIFOLIAE 
























































RO SA_ RERSICA 


















































































































































































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i — ROSA PERSICA Michx. 


Rosa persica ; caule gracili, debili, sarmentoso ; ramulis pubescentibus ; aculeis 
pluribus, aequalibus, gracibbus, flavis ; foliis sessilibus, simplicibus, lanceolatis, 
simpliciter serratis, pubescentibus ; stipulis abortivis ; floribus solitariis; pedunculis 
aciculatis ; calycis tubo globoso, hispido ; lobis simplicibus, lanceolatis, dorso 
setosis ; petalis parvis, luteis, macula rubro-brunea prope basim praeditis ; stylis 
liberis ; fructu parvo, globoso, hispido ; sepalis persistentibus, erectis. 

R. persica Michaux in Jussieu, Gen. PL Apx. p. 452 (1789). — Gmelin, Syst. 
vol. i. p. 855(1796). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendrol. p. 274 (1893).— Rehder in Bailey, 
Cycl. Am. Hovt. vol. iv. p. 1549 (1902). — C. K. Schneider, III. Handbuch Laubholzk. 
vol. i. p. 547 (1906). 

R. berberifolia Pallas in Nov. Act. Petrop. vol. x. p. 379, t. 10 (1792). — Roessig, 
Die Rosen , No. 53 (1802-1820). — Thory in Redouts, Roses , vol. i. p. 27, t. (1817). — 
Lindley, Ros. Monogr. p. 1, No. 1 (1820). — Ledebour, Icon. vol. iv. t. 370 (1833). — 
Crepin in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xi. pp. 101, 102 ( Primit . Monogr. Ros. fasc. ii. 
pp. 216, 217) (1872). — Regel in Act. Hort. Petrop. vol. v. p. 381 (Tent. Ros. Monogr. 
p. 97 [1877]) (1878). — Masters in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xxviii. pt. 2, p. 135 (1889). — 
Hooker f. in Bot. Mag. vol. cxvi. t. 7096 (1890). 

R. simplicifolia Salisbury, Prodr. Stirp. Hort. Allert. p. 359(1796); Parad. 
Lond. t. 101 (1808). — Nicholson in Gard. Citron, n. ser. vol. ii. p. 468, fig. 100 

( i 88 5 )* 

Hulthemia berberifolia Dumortier in Herrmann, Dissert, p. 13 (1824). — 
Ledebour, FI. Ross. vol. ii. p. 72 (1844). — Boissier, FI. Orient, vol. ii. p. 668 
(1872). — Deseglise in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xv. p. 191 (Cat. Rais. Ros. p. 22 
[1877]) (1876). ... 

Lowea berberifolia Lindley in Bot. Reg. vol. xv. t. 1261 (1829). 

Stems slender, sarmentose ; branches pubescent ; prickles many, slender, sub- 
equal, straw-yellow. Leaves simple, sessile, oblong, lanceolate or linear, simply 
serrated, pubescent ; stipules abortive. Flowers solitary ; peduncles aciculate. 
Calyx-tube globose, hispid ; lobes lanceolate, simple, setose on the back. Corolla 
1-1J in. diameter; petals lemon-yellow, with a red-brown spot near the base. 
Styles free, densely villous. Fruit globose, hispid, i in. diameter ; sepals per- 
sistent, erect. 


Rosa persica differs from all other Roses by its simple leaves and 
abortive stipules, and has often been regarded as the representative 
of a distinct genus. It ranges from Persia eastwards to the Altai 
Mountains and the Soongarian Desert, reaching an altitude of 5,000 
feet. It is found in abundance near Amadin and in the fields at the 


3 


ROSA PERSICA 

foot of the Elvina Mountains, where it grows in bushes of about three 
feet in height. Unfortunately it is not hardy in England. It was first 
mentioned by Jussieu in his Genera Plantarum in 1789. It was intro- 
duced into France by Michaux and Olivier, and into England in 1790 
by Sir Joseph Banks. 


4 



ROSA PERSICA 


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2— ROSA HARDII Cels 

(R. CLINOPHYLLA x BERBERIFOLI A) 


Rosa Hardii Cels in Ann. de Flore et de Pomone , vol. iv. pp. 372, 373, fig. 
(1835-6). 

R. berberifolia x involucrata Paxton, Mag. Bot. vol. x. p. 195, t. (1843). — 
Deseglise in Bull. Soc. Boi . Belg. vol. xv. p. 232 (Cat. Rais. Ros. p. 63 [1877]) 
(1876). — Nicholson in Gard. Chron. n. ser. vol. xxiv. p. 468, fig. 10 1 (1885). 

A low erect bush, with slender, spreading, pubescent branches. Leaflets 5-7, 
oblanceolate, obtuse, f-i in. long, narrowed to the base, simply toothed, firm, glabrous 
on both surfaces ; petioles pubescent ; stipules narrow, adnate, gland-ciliated, with 
large, strongly toothed, free points. Flowers solitary ; peduncles short, naked or 
slightly aciculate. Calyx-tiibe globose, naked or slightly aciculate ; lobes simple, 
lanceolate, entire, not glandular on the back. Petals large, pale bright yellow, with 
a red-brown spot at the base. Styles villous, free, not protruded. 


This curious and beautiful Rose was described for the first time 
in 1836 by Cels in the Annales de Flore et de Pomone . After his 
description occurs the following : “ This interesting Rose, raised at the 
Luxembourg by our colleague M. Hardy, 1 from a cross between Rosa 
clinophylla and Rosa berberidifolia . It is of easy culture, and can with 
advantage replace Rosa persic folia in our gardens. The individual 
flower is larger in size and more symmetrical in form.” There is no 
mention of Rosa involucrata, as stated by Paxton in the Magazine of 
Botany , and by Deseglise and Nicholson. The Annales de Flore et 
de Pomone is a book so rare that Paxton may not have had access to 
it, and hence the misquotation. 

This Rose furnishes a manifest proof that hybrids may be made 
even between Roses of but little affinity. Rosa clinophylla Thory is an 
Indian and Chinese species which is classed in the group Bracteatae . 
Rosa berberifolia Pallas (Rosa persica Michx.) is, as we have seen 
(page 3), a species so different from all other Roses that several authors 
have thought it should be put into a distinct genus. Thus Dumortier 2 
made the genus Hulthemia, Linclley 3 Lowea, and Bunge 4 Rhodopsis. 

1 Hardy was Curator of the Luxembourg Gardens in Paris. 

2 In Herrmann, Dissert , p. 13 (1824). 

3 In Bot. Reg. vol. xv. t. 1261 (1829). 

4 In Ledebour, FI. Alt. vol. ii. p. 224 (1830). 

7 


ROSA HARDII 

Of this parent Rosa Hardii retains only the flower, which, with its 
yellow petals and dark eye, suggests the flower of H elianthemiim 
formo stint Dun. 

In England this Rose requires a well-chosen position, for pre- 
ference in the rock garden, where perfect drainage can be assured, 
together with full benefit from the sun’s rays. If only it were a little 
hardier and a little less capricious in its growth it would be one of the 
most popular of garden Roses, but it is generally a very short-lived 
plant and is apt to disappear suddenly. The drawing was made from 
a plant growing in the open ground at Warley. 

Notwithstanding the wide difference which appears to exist 
between this Rose and other yellow Roses, there would seem to be 
some affinity between them, if we can judge by the result which 
M. Pernet Ducher obtained by crossing the R. Persian Yellow with 
the H. P. Jean Ducher . This cross, which produced Rose Soleil d' or, 
gave also a non-perpetual variety with flowers almost single having in 
the centre of each flower a decided eye which afterwards fades white 
but remains quite distinct. It grew in M. Viviand Morel’s garden at 
Lyons and was extremely attractive, being very floriferous and of good 
habit. M. Pernet Ducher dedicated it to “Rhodophile Gravereaux,” 
the enthusiastic rosarian, who has gathered together in his garden at 
l’Haie, Bourg-la-Reine, the most complete collection of Roses in 
existence. 


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ROSA ARVENSIS 







































































































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3 — ROSA ARVENSIS Huds. 

Rosa arvensis : ramis flaccidis, longe prostratis, saepe rubrobruneis, glaucis ; 
aculeis sparsis, robustis, conformibus, uncinatis; foliolis 5-7 ovalibus, acutis, parvis, 
glabris, simpliciter grosse serratis ; rhachi glabra vel obscure pubescente, vix glan- 
dulosa ; stipulis adnatis, glanduloso-ciliatis, apice divergentibus ; floribus paucis ; 
pedunculis elongatis, glandulosis; bracteis glabris, lanceolatis; calycis tubo turbinato; 
lobis brevibus, ovatis, dorso nudis, exterioribus parce appendiculatis ; petalis albis ; 
stylis glabris, coalitis, longe protrusis ; disco longe, conico ; fructu subgloboso, 
parvo, serotino ; sepalis caducis. 

R. arvensis Hudson, FI. Angl. p. 192 (1762). — Linnaeus, Mant . p. 245 (ex 
parte) (1767). — Smith in Eng. Bot. vol. iii. t. 188 (1794). — Lawrance, Roses , t. 86 
(1799). — Guimpel, Willdenow & Hayne, Abbild. Deutsch. Holzart. p. 126, t. 95 
(1815). — Lindley, Ros. Monogr. p. 1 12, No. 62 (1820). — Hooker in Curtis, El. Loud. 
ed. 2, vol. iv. t. 123 (1821). — Trattinnick, Monogr. Ros. vol. ii. p. 103 (1823). — Seringe 
in De Candolle, Prodr. vol. ii. p. 597 (1825). — Syme, Eng. Bot. ed. 3, vol. iii. p. 231, 
t. 476 (1864). — Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc. vol. xi. p. 241 (1869). — Christ, Rosen 
Schweiz , p. 195 (1873). — Deseglise in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xv. p. 214 (Cat. Rais. 
Ros. p. 45 [1877]) (1876). — Crepin in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xviii. p. 323 (Primit. 
Monogr. Ros. fasc. v. p. 569 [1880]) (1879) ; vol. xxv. pt. 2, p. 203 (1886) ; vol. xxxi. 
pt. 2, p. 71 (1892). — Borbas in ALT. A had. Math. S. Termdszettud Kozlemenyek, 
xvi. Kotet. p. 343 (Ros. Ilung. p. 343) (1880). — Burnat, El. Alp. Mar. vol. iii. p. 25 
(1899). — Keller in Ascherson & Graebner, Syu. Mitteleur. El. vol. vi. p. 39 (1900). 

R. sylvestris Herrmann, Dissert, p. 10 (1762). 

R. repens Scopoli, El. Carniol. ed. 2, vol. i. p. 355 (1772). — K. G. Gmelin, El. 
Bad. Alsace , vol. ii. p. 418 (1806). — -Jacquin, Fragni. p. 69, t. 104 (1809). — Rau, 
Enum. Ros. p. 40 (1816). — K. Koch, Dendrol. vol. i. p. 264 (1869). 

R. scandens Moench, Verz. p. 118 {non Miller) (1785). 

R. Herporhodon Ehrhart, Beitr. zur Nat urk. vol. ii. p. 71 (1788). 

R. canina , var. sylvestris Roth, FI. Germ. vol. ii. pt. 1, p. 560 (1789). 

R. Halleri Krocker, El. Sites . vol. ii. pt. 1, p. 150 (1790). 

R. fuse a Moench, Metli. p. 688 (1794). 

R. serpens Wibel, Prim. FI. IVerth. p. 265 (1799). — Kirschleger, FI. Alsace , 
vol. i. p. 242 (1852). 

R. sempervirens Roessig, Die Rosen , No. 32 (non Linnaeus) (1802-20). 

R. glauca Dierbach, El. Heidelberg, vol. i. p. 140 (1819). 

R. arvensis , J 3 Sims in Bot. Mag. vol. xlvi. t. 2054 (1819). 

Bush not more than 2-3 feet high when not supported ; branches long, flaccid 
and trailing, in exposure red-brown and glaucous ; prickles uniform, stout, scattered, 
strongly hooked. Leaflets 5-7, small, oval, acute, simply coarsely serrated, glabrous, 
often glaucous green above, paler and rather glaucous below ; petioles glabrous or 
faintly pubescent, very slightly glandular; stipules adnate, somewhat gland-ciliated, 
with free, ovate, divergent tips. Flowers few, in a corymb; pedicels long, glandular; 

11 c 


ROSA ARVENSIS 

bracts lanceolate. Calyx-tube turbinate ; lobes short, ovate, not leaf-pointed, naked 
on the back, the outer with 1-2 small linear lobes. Petals large, pure white. Styles 
glabrous, forming a column considerably exserted beyond the very conical disc. 
Fruit small, subglobose or broadly ovoid, dark red, not ripening till October ; 
sepals deciduous. 


This well-marked species extends over central and southern 
Europe, from Spain and Britain to Greece. It is not mentioned by 
Turner or Lobel, but was noticed by Caspar Bauhin in 1623 1 under 
the name of “ Rosa arvensis Candida.” It is contained in Buddie’s 
herbarium, made late in the seventeenth century, and is called by Ray 2 
“ Rosa sylvestris altera minor flore albo nostra.” Linnaeus only knew 
it from Hudson’s description, and there is no specimen in his herbarium. 

This Rose, the most beautiful of all our English wild Roses, is 
readily known by its snow-white flowers, more cup-shaped than those of 
any of our other wild Roses, by its styles united in a smooth prominent 
column, surrounded by a halo of golden stamens, and by the rambling- 
habit of its long slender stems, which trail along the ground unless 
they encounter some object which encourages the branches to ascend. 
It is widely distributed throughout England, and is abundant in the 
southern counties, becoming scarcer as it goes north, and, though it 
ranges through Cheviotland to the Grampians, it is very rare north of 
the Tweed. With its wreaths of snowy bloom, its deep green foliage 
and purple, glaucous stems, it is one of the most beautiful objects of 
our English hedgerows at midsummer. 

The Ayrshire Roses, amongst the most popular of our climbing 
Roses, originated from Rosa arvensis . Among them are Queen of the 
Belgians , A lice Gray , Dundee Rambler, and many others very generally 
grown for wreathing arches and pillars and covering walls. They are 
not only beautiful, but have the additional advantages of being abso- 
lutely bardy, and at the same time the strongest growing and most 
floriferous of all our garden Roses. 

Rosa arvensis has also made many good natural hybrids with 
Rosa gallica L., Rosa canina L. and others. At Charbonnieres, near 
Lyons, there is a whole series of these interesting hybrids which have 
been named and described by the Abbe Boullu and others. 

This Rose is figured by Andrews (vol. i. t. 1). 

1 Pinax , p. 484. 2 Historia , vol. ii. p. 1471 (1688). 


12 



3— ROSA ARVENSIS 


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4— THE AYRSHIRE ROSES 

Although the Ayrshire Roses have occupied a prominent place 
in our gardens for more than a hundred years, they still enjoy so much 
favour that some account of their history may be of interest. This 
history has not been easy to trace, for unfortunately the present 
representatives of the two Scotch firms, Brown of Perth and Austin 
of Glasgow, which played an important part in Rose raising and 
growing in Scotland early in the last century, are not able to throw 
any light upon the subject, and there seem to be no documents relating 
to the work of these enthusiastic and enlightened florists. Loudon 
in his Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum gives “ Rosa arvensis 
Ayrshirea” as having been introduced from America in 1 8 1 8, but he 
adds a mark of doubt, and in volume viii. of the Florictdtural Cabinet 
two double forms of Rosa arvensis Huds. are said to be cultivated in 
Germany. These are hybrids, according to the Annals of the Horti- 
cultural, Society of 1845. 

An interesting account of the Ayrshire Rose by Mr. Patrick 
Neill, Secretary of the Caledonian Horticultural Society, appeared in 
the Edinburgh Philosophical Journal in 1820. 1 He says that, for a 
number of years past, a very rampant climbing Rose-bush has been 
cultivated in Scotland under the name of the Ayrshire Rose. From 
this it would appear that the Rose was already established in Scotland 
before 1818. In 1817 John Goldie, son-in-law of Mr. Smith who 
founded a nursery-garden at Monkwood Grove in Ayrshire about 1821, 
went to America and remained there for three years in search of plants 
wherewith to stock the new nursery. The Gardeners Magazine for 
1831 contains a list of some of the plants cultivated in this nursery; 
among these occur Rosa arvensis v. foliis variegatis and v.fl. pleno. In 
1828 Daniel Stewart exhibited at Dundee a seedling Rose named 
Craighall Climbing Rose. The description of this Rose says that 
“to the rambling habit of the Ayrshire it adds the beauty of some of 
the double white varieties.” 

In view of all this evidence of the tolerably widespread existence 
of the Ayrshire Rose in Scotland at this period, it is strange to read 


1 Vol. ii. art. xvii. p. 102. 

15 


THE AYRSHIRE ROSES 

in the Botanical Magazine in 1819 1 that Sir Joseph Banks hacl made 
the strictest inquiries and had been unable to discover that the Rose 
had ever been heard of either there or in any part of Scotland. The 
figure is stated to have been made from a plant growing in Sir Joseph’s 
garden at Spring Grove, but nothing is said as to the origin of this 
plant. N ow the Rose figured is Rosa arvensis with leaflets dark green 
above, paler and slightly glaucous below, stipules narrow, flat, edged 
with glands and having a red band down the middle. It is difficult to 
realise how this oversight could have arisen, for the true Ayrshire 
Rose was certainly growing at Spring Grove at that time, the plants 
having come from Ronald’s Nursery at Brentford in 18 11. 

And now, having gathered together all the early references to the 
Ayrshire Rose which it has been possible to find, we will quote Mr. 
Neill’s own account of its introduction into Scotland, as given in the 
Edinburgh Philosophical Journal referred to above: 

“At the time when the Botanical Garden at Leith Walk, Edinburgh, was 
originally established (about 1767), the late Dr. John Hope, Professor of Botany, 
and some well-wishers to the garden and to botanical science, united in sending 
out a person to North America, with the view of his collecting the seeds of new, 
curious or useful plants. Of the transatlantic rarities sent home by this collector, 
no register seems to have been made ; and both he and his patrons have thus in a 
great measure lost the credit that was due to them for their zeal. The late John, 
Earl of Loudoun, was a subscriber towards this botanical speculation ; and in return, 
he received, in 1768 or 1769, a share of a parcel of seeds sent either from Lower 
Canada or Nova Scotia. Among these were some briar heps ; which being sown 
in the garden at Loudon Castle, produced a number of rose-bushes. These, in a 
year or two, attracted much notice by the great length to which they pushed their 
shoots. The present Mr. George Douglas of Rodinghead (factor upon the Duke 
of Portland’s estate in Ayrshire) resided at Loudon Castle at that period ; and he 
perfectly recollects the sowing of the American heps, and the wide rambling rose- 
plants which sprung from them. Several of the neighbouring proprietors in 
Ayrshire got plants of the new rose for their gardens. Among others, the late Mr. 
Dalrymple of Orangefield received a plant from Mr. Douglas ; and he having 
trained it against the garden-wall, ‘ it ran amazingly ’ (as Mr. Underwood expresses 
it), the rapidity of its growth, and length of the shoots, surprising everybody. 
The nurserymen of Kilmarnock and Ayr having procured cuttings and layers from 
this plant, bestowed on it the name of the O vangefi eld Rose ; in places at a distance, 
however, it soon came to be known by the more general title of the Ayrshire Rose. 
The original Orangefield specimen was in existence little more than twenty years 
ago ; but the garden having, about that time, come into the possession of a tenant, 
who preferred currant bushes to rampant roses, it was grubbed up and destroyed. 
Several of the original plants, however, still remain at Loudon Castle, some trained 
against the walls of the factor’s house, and others in old hedges on the farm of 
Alton, near Loudon. Mr. Douglas has likewise some of the original plants growing 
in hedges and against walls, on his own property of Rodinghead.” 

Shortly after the publication of this account, Mr. Sabine read 
before the Horticultural Society a paper in which he discussed at 
length the history of the Ayrshire Rose. In this paper he examines 

1 Vol. xlvi. t. 2054. 

16 


THE AYRSHIRE ROSES 


in detail the description of the Rose, pointing out how it differs 
from Rosa arvensis and Rosa sempervirens L., the two Roses to which 
it bears the greatest resemblance. He reviews all the information 
available and quotes a letter from Smith of Monkwood Grove in which 
the writer states that he perfectly well remembers the Rose growing- 
in 1776 at Orangefielcl, where it had been planted by one John Penn, 
a Yorkshireman living in Ayr, and much interested in gardening. 
Penn had found it growing in a garden in Yorkshire and was told 
that it had come originally from Germany. The best authenticated 
version is, however, that given by Neill, and as it is corroborated by 
persons living at the time who would be likely to know, it may safely 
be assumed that the Ayrshire Rose originated at Loudoun Castle. 
Mr. Sabine was inclined to this opinion. Supposing the seed to have 
come from Canada or Nova Scotia, it might still be of garden origin, 
and so the fact that neither Rosa arvensis nor Rosa sempervirens is indi- 
genous to North America would not influence the case. 


17 



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5— ROSA SEMPERVIRENS Linn. 


Rosa sempervirens : ramis elongatis, sarmentosis ; aculeis sparsis, conformibus, 
modice robustis, leviter falcatis ; foliolis 5-7, ovatis vel oblongis, acutis, simpliciter 
serratis, firmis,viridibus, subpersistentibus; rhachi glabra, aciculata; stipulis adnatis, 
apicibus liberis parvis, ovatis ; floribus paucis, corymbosis, pedicellis, glandulosis ; 
bracteis lanceolatis ; calycis tubo oblongo vel globoso, glanduloso ; lobis lanceolatis, 
simplicibus, dorso glandulosis ; petalisalbis, magnitudinemediocribus ; stylis villosis, 
coalitis, protrusis ; fructu globoso, parvo, rubro ; sepal is deciduis. 

R. sempervirens Linnaeus, Sp. Plant, vol. i. p. 492 (1753). — Miller, Gard. Diet. 
ed. 8, vol. ii. No. 9 (1768). — Aiton, Hort. Kew. vol. ii. p. 205 (1789). — Lawrance, 
Roses , t. 45 (1799). — Roessig, Die Rosen, No. 32 (1802-1820). — Lindley, Ros. Monogr. 
p. 1 17 (1820) ; Bot. Reg. vol. vi. t. 465 (1820). — Thory in Redoutd, Roses , vol. ii. 
pp. 15, 49, tabs. (1821). — Sibthorp & Smith, FI. Graec. vol. v. t. 483 (1825). — 
Seringe in De Candolle, Prodr. vol. ii. p. 597 (1825). — Grenier & Godron, FI. France , 
vol. i. p. 555 (1848). — Visiani, FI. Dalni. vol. iii. p. 242 (1852). — Crepin in Bull. 
Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xviii. p. 310 (Primit. Monogr. Ros. fasc. v. p. 556 [1880]) (1879); 
vol. xxv. pt. 2, p. 202 (1886) ; vol. xxxi. pt. 2, p. 71 (1892). — Burnat & Gremli, 
Roses Alp. Marit. p. 127 (1879); Suppl. p. 48 (1882). — Willkomm & Lange, FI. 
Hisp. vol. iii. p. 209 (1880). — Christ in Boissier, FI. Orient. Suppl. p. 228(1888). — 
Burnat, FI. Alp. Mar. vol. iii. p. 22 (1899). — Rouy & Camus, Flore de France , 
vol. vi. p. 237 (1900). — Keller in Ascherson & Graebner, Syn. Mitteleur. FI. vol. vi. 
p. 36 (1900). — Rehder in Bailey, Cycl. Am. Hort. vol. iv. p. 1550 (1902).— C. K. 
Schneider, III. H andbuch Laiibholzk. vol. i. p. 544 (1906). 

R. alba Allioni, FI. Pedem. vol. ii. p. 139 ( non Linnaeus) (1785). 

R. balearica Persoon, Syn. vol. ii. p. 49 (1807). 

R. atrovirens Viviani, FI. Ital. Frag m. p. 4, t. 6 (1808). 

R. arvensis Alschinger, FI. Jadrensis, p. 1 13 {non Hudson) (1832). 

R. longicuspis Bertoloni, Mi sc. fasc. xxi. p. 15, t. 3 (1861). — Hooker f. FI. Brit. 
Ind. vol. ii. p. 367 (1879). 

R. Gandogeri Debeaux in Bull. Soc. Bot. France , vol. xxi. p. 9 (1874). 

Stems long, sarmentose; prickles scattered, uniform, moderately robust, slightly 
hooked. Leaflets 5-7, ovate or oblong, f-ij in. long, acute, simply serrated, bright 
green, glabrous on both surfaces, firm in texture, lasting through the winter; 
petioles glabrous, aciculate ; stipules adnate, with small, ovate, free tips. Flowers 
few, corymbose ; bracts lanceolate ; pedicels glandular. Calyx-tube oblong or globose, 
glandular; lobes lanceolate, simple, i in. long, glandular on the back. Petals rather 
large, pure white. Styles villous, united in a protruded column. Fruit small, 
globose, bright red ; sepals deciduous. 


This Rose has a very wide range. According to Nyman, 1 it is 
found in southern and western France, Portugal, Italy, Carinthia, 

1 Conspect. FI. Europ. p. 231 (1878). 

19 


ROSA SEMPERVIRENS 


Dalmatia, Greece, Thrace, and also in Algeria, Morocco and Tunis. 
Grenier & Godron give its localities in France as following the shores 
of the Mediterranean, then reaching Angers and following the banks of 
the Rhone as far as Lyons. There is, however, no other record of Lyons 
being one of its habitats. It is intermediate between Rosa arvensis 
Huds. and Rosa moschata Miller, differing from both by its bright 
green, firm, subpersistent leaflets. According to Fraas 1 it is mentioned 
by Hippocrates, Dioscorides, Theophrastus and Pliny. C. Bauhin 2 
published it under the name of “ Rosa moschata sempervirens ” in 1623, 
and it is figured and described by Parkinson 3 and Dillenius. 4 

As is natural with a Rose so widely distributed, there are many 
geographical varieties, to which different authors have given specific 
rank. Of these the chief are : 

Rosa scandens Miller, 5 with larger leaflets, more abundant, musk- 
scented flowers, more abundant bracts, and sepals casually compound. 
This is the Rosa sempervirens of the Italian and Sicilian botanists. 

Rosa pro strata DC., G with weak, decumbent stems, small leaflets, 
few and solitary flowers and glabrous styles. Dr. Christ describes a 
hybrid with Rosa dumetorum Thuill., and it is probable that var. Rtissel- 
liana of Loudon 7 and the Rose Clare 8 are hybrids between Rosa 
sempei virens and Rosa chinensis Jaccj. 

Rosa sempervirens microphylla DC., 9 which De Candolle found 
near Montpellier, with leaves much smaller than the type. 

Rouy in his Flore de France 10 describes several other varieties, 
among them a very pretty form found on Mont Boron, Nice, Rosa 
sempervirens micrantha , which has retained all its characteristics and 
has flowered in the open ground at Warley regularly year by year. 

M. de Pronville 11 refers to a very beautiful variety growing in the 
Luxembourg gardens under the name of Rosa sempervirens latifolia, 
which was described by Thory as follows: “ Leaflets much larger and 
longer than in any other variety of the type. Tubes and pedicels 
tinged with red. Nine to ten white flowers in an inflorescence.” 

It is to be feared that this Rose must be added to the long list of 
old Roses which have gone out of cultivation, to make room for the 
increasing number of new introductions to which Alphonse Karr 
referred when he said that a Rose which lacked fragrance was but half 
a Rose, since perfume is the soul and spirit of a flower. 

Several of our most valued climbing Roses belong to this group. 
Formerly the Ayrshire Roses were included, but now they are classed 
under Rosa arvensis Huds. 

The early garden varieties of Rosa sempervirens originated in the 

1 Synopsis Plantarum Florae Classicae , p. 74 (1870). 6 De Candolle, Cat. Hort. Monsp p. 138 (1813). 

2 Pinax, p. 482. 7 Arboretum , vol. iv. p. 773 (1838). 

3 Paradisus , p. 420 (1629). s Figured in Bot. Reg. vol. xvii. t. 1438 (1831). 

4 Hort. Elth t. 246, fig. 318 (1732). 9 De Candolle, loc. cit. 

5 Gard. Diet., ed. 8, No. 8 (1768). 10 Vol. vi. pp. 239-240 (1900). 

11 Sommaire Pune monographie du genre Rosier , p. 42 (1822). 

20 


ROSA SEMPERVXRENS 

gardens of the Due d’Orleans at Neuilly where Jacques was gardener. 
Felicite et Perpetue is one of the best known, and it is highly esteemed 
for its beauty and luxuriance and at the same time vigorous constitution. 
Myrianthes Renonciile, Princesse Maria , etc., and indeed the whole 
series are invaluable for training on pergolas or as pillar Roses wher- 
ever vigorous growth, ample foliage and masses and wreaths of flowers 
are desired. All the garden varieties of Rosa sempervirens retain the 
semipersistent foliage of the type, and in a mild winter the leaves 
remain on the plants throughout until the coming of spring renews 
them. 

Rosa longicuspis of Bertoloni, though accepted as a species by Sir 
J. D. Hooker, is probably nothing more than a robust geographical 
variety of Rosa sempervirens. It is confined to the mountains of 
Assam, and possibly Burma, and ascends to 5,000 feet above sea-level. 

Rosa sempervirens is figured by Andrews. 1 

1 Roses , vol. ii. t. 89 (1828). 


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PART II 


THE GENUS ROSA 

BY 

. - - . 

ELLEN WILLMOTT, F.L.S. 


Drawings by 

ALFRED PARSONS, A.R.A. 



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6 — ROSA MULT I FLORA Thunb. 


Rosa niiiltiflora : caulibus elongatis, sarmentosis, ramulis viridibus ; aculeis 
parvis, sparsis, conformibus, falcatis; foliolis 7-9, oblongis, acutis, simpliciter serratis, 
facie viridibus, glabris, dorso plus minusve pubescentibus ; rhachi pubescente, 
aciculis paucis falcatis praedita ; stipulis profunde laceratis, apice libero lanceolato; 
floribus multis, parvis, dense paniculatis ; bracteis lanceolatis, laceratis ; pedicellis 
plerumque setosis ; calycis tubo oblongo, nudo ; lobis ovatis, pinnatifidis, dorso 
parce glanduliferis; petalis parvis, orbicularibus, albis vel rubellis; carpellis 20-25 ; 
stylis pilosis, coalitis, protrusis ; fructu minimo, subgloboso, nudo ; sepalis caducis. 

R. multiflora Thun berg, FI. Jap. p. 214 (1784). — Lind ley, Ros. Monogr. p. 1 19, 
No. 66 (1820). — Seringe in De Candolle, Prodr. vol. ii. p. 598 (1825). — Jjjjjiquel, Prol. 
FI. Jap. p. 227 (1866-67). — C rep in in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xiii. p. 250 (. Primit . 
Monogr. Ros. fasc. iii. p. 257) (1874); vol. xviii. pp. 277-285 [Primit. Monogr. Ros. 
fasc. v. pp. 523-531 [1880]) (1879). — Franchet & Savatier, Euum. PI. Jap. vol. i. p. 134 
O874) ; vol. ii. p. 343 (1876). — Franchet in Mem. Soc. Sci. Nat. Cherb. vol. xxiv. 
p. 216 (1882). — Forbes & Hemsley in Joitrn. Finn. Soc. vol. xxiii. p. 253(1887). — 
Hooker f. in Bot. Mag. vol. cxvi. t. 7119 (1890). — Sargent in Garden and Forest \ 
yol. iii. p. 405, fig. 51 (1890). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendrol. p. 277 (1893). — Rehder 
in Bailey, Cycl. Am. IFort. vol. iv. p. 1549 (1902). — C. K. Schneider, III. Handbuch 
Lcmbholzk. vol. i. p. 540 (1906). 

R. poly ant J-ios Roessig, Die Rosen, No. 35 (1802-1820). 

R. japonic a Roessig, Die Rosen, No. 51 (1802-1820). 

R. multiflora , ft Tliunbergiana Thory in Redoute, Roses, vol. ii. p. 70 (1821). 

R. Thunbergii Trattinnick, Ros. Monogr. vol. i. p. 86 (1823). 

R. polyantha Siebold & Zuccarini in Abh. Acad. Muench. vol. iv. p. 128 
(1846). 

R. intermedia Carriere in Rev. Hart. 1868, p. 270, figs. 29, 30. — Crepin in 
Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. viii. p. 344 [Primit. Monogr. Ros. fasc. i. p. 123) (1869). 

R. IVichuriae K. Koch, IVochenschr. vol. xii. p. 202 (1869). 

R. thyrsijlora Leroy ex Deseglise in Bull. Soc. Bot . Belg. vol. xv. p. 204 [Cat. 
Rais. Ros. p. 35 [1877]) (1876). 

Stem long, sarmentose, reaching sometimes a length of 20-25 feet ; young 
branches bright green ; prickles small, scattered, uniform, hooked. Leaflets 7-9, 
oblong, acute, simply serrated, middle-sized, green and glabrous above, more or less 
pubescent beneath ; petioles pubescent, with a few falcate aciculi, without glands ; 
stipules deeply laciniated, with lanceolate gland-ciliated free tips. Flowers forming 
a dense panicle, sometimes half a foot long ; bracts small, lanceolate, laciniated ; 
pedicels usually setose, rarely naked. Calyx-tube oblong, naked ; lobes ovate, pin- 
nate, usually more or less glandular on the back. Petals orbicular, white in the 
type, about i in. long and broad. Carpels 20-25 ; styles pilose, united in a column 
protruded beyond the disc. Fruit small, subglobose, naked ; sepals deciduous. 

23 


E 


ROSA MULTIFLORA 

This species was first described by Flukenet 1 in the year 1700, 
as “ Rosa sylvestris cheusanica, foliis subtus incanis, floribus purpureis 
parvis.” Linnaeus had it in his herbarium, but confused it with Rosa 
indica. Siebold & Zuccarini in their Flora of Japan enumerated 
this Rose under the name of Rosa polyantha , not knowing that it had 
already been described by Thunberg, a pupil of Linnaeus, under the 
name of Rosa multiflora- . F ollowing the fixed rule of priority, the earlier 
name must be retained, although the two adjectives both mean one 
and the same thing and refer to the many blossoms which the Rose 
bears, Thunberg describing in Latin what Siebold describes in Greek. 

According to Sir J. D. Hooker, the type, which is the white 
single-flowered plant, was not seen in England until about 1875. He 
described it in 1890, and his article is accompanied by a drawing 
made from the plant growing in Mr. Girdlestone’s garden at Sunning- 
dale. Thory 2 mentions Rosa multiflora flare simp lici in 1821, and gives 
it on the authority of Noisette, who informed him that he had seen it 
growing in the Physic Garden at Chelsea and that William Anderson, 
the curator, had given him a plant which he had brought back to 
France, had propagated, and was offering for sale in his nursery. 
The type seems to have been known in France certainly since about 
1862, when M. Henon, mayor of Lyons, received from his son-in-law 
M. Coignct, an engineer in the Japanese service, seeds collected from 
plants growing wild in Japan. These seeds, distributed among the 
Lyons rose-growers by M. Jean Sisley under the name of Rosa poly- 
antha Sieb. & Zucc., proved to be the type, with small, single, white 
flowers. This, crossed with double Roses belonging to different 
groups, produced a large number of new varieties, some vigorous and 
tall-growing, others, on the contrary, dwarf and compact, such as Rose 
Mignonette , Rose Paquerette, etc. These diminutive Roses are classed 
by nurserymen as Rosa polyantha . They are charming, flower continu- 
ously, and should be given a place in every garden. Other hybrids of 
Rosa multiflora much resembled the type, but were discarded because 
they were not perpetual-flowering. Alex Bernaix, a rose-grower of 
Lyons, raised a hybrid between Rosa multiflora and Rose Noisette 
which much resembles Rosa moschata Miller. It is known as Rosa 
polyantha grandflora and is extremely vigorous, producing countless 
clusters of pure white single flowers borne upon long trailing shoots. 

The form with double pink flowers, which was figured by Redoute, 3 
was first introduced into this country in 1804 by Mr. Thomas Evans 
of the East India House. It flowered for the first time with Mr. 
Colville of Chelsea, but died three or four years later. A plant was 
sent from London to M. Boursault in Paris in 1808, and four years 
later it was in flower in M. Cartier’s garden. The other Rosa mu/ti/lora 

1 Amalth. p. 185 (1700). 

2 In Redoute, Roses , vol. ii. p. 69 (1821). 

3 Var. carnea : Roses , vol. ii. p. 67 (1821). 

24 


ROSA MULTIFLORA 


figured by Recloute is var. platyphylla, the Seven Sisters Rose, 1 2 which 
was introduced into France by Noisette in 1817 and flowered there 
in 1819, 

Of the numerous varieties of Rosa multiflora , Franchet & Savatier 
give names to six, exclusive of Rosa Lnciae F ranch. & Rochebr. and 
Rosa IV ichuraiana Crep. Several forms grown by the Japanese are 
figured in the Phonzo Zoufou (part 27); plates 8 and 28 of Braam’s 
leones 2 represent another form, and there are others in the Kew collec- 
tion of drawings. The species is widely spread in China and Japan, 
and extends to the Philippine Islands and to eastern Thibet. It may 
readily be recognized by its many small flowers, small fruits, and 
laciniatecl or pectinate stipules. It may be distinguished even when 
not in flower by this last character, which it keeps in all the varieties. 
The character of the long loose panicle is apt, however, to be lost, as 
in the old variety, the Seven Sisters ( Rosa platyphylla Thory), and still 
more in the Crimson Rambler , in which the panicle is so closely packed 
that at a short distance it looks like a huge double Rose. 

The single-flowered white Rose which Carriere 3 4 described in 
1 868 in an article entitled “ Rosa dubia ” is no other than the type Rosa 
multiflora . There can be no doubt about it because of the drawing 
which illustrates his description. Although he heads his article “ Rosa 
dubia,” he does not again use that name, nor even refer to it. “ Le 
qualificatif intermedia que nous lui avons donne est tres exact,” is his 
only other reference to a name. Fie says that the Rose had been raised 
by Andre Leroy of Angers from seeds sent him from China. Deseglise, 
who, however, wrote without having seen the living plant, unhesitatingly 
referred it to Rosa thyrsiflora Leroy ; he says the seeds came from Japan 
and not from China, and severely criticizes Carriere’s description, 
which passes over the principal characters and exaggerates the super- 
ficial attributes of the Rose for the purpose of attracting the attention 
of his readers to its nature as a “plante d’ornement.” In 1876 Carriere, 
writing again in the Revue Horticolep acknowledges his mistake and 
refers his Rosa intermedia to Rosa polyantha Sieb. & Zucc., saying that 
it was the Secretary of the French Horticultural Society, M. Lavallee, 
who brought to his notice the existence of Siebold & Zuccarini’s 
Rose. 

There are few Roses more desirable for a wild garden than the 
type of Rosa multiflora , where it can be given sufficient space to develop. 
It is perfectly hardy and grows very rapidly, and when in full flower 


1 Roses, vol. ii. p. 69 (1821). 

2 leones plantarum sponte China nascentium , e bibliotheca Braarniana excerptae. (There are two copies 
of this collection in the Kew Library, both with unnumbered plates, differently arranged. One has a 
printed title-page, dated 1821, and a short Latin preface in which Rosa microcarpa and Rosa involucrata 
are mentioned. The other has a lithographed title-page, dated 1818, and an “advertisement” signed 
W. Cattlep.) 

3 Revue Horticole , p. 269. 

4 Page 253. 


25 


ROSA MULTIFLORA 

is a strikingly beautiful object. The flowers are borne in a long, loose 
panicle chiefly at the ends of the branches, and in such abundance 
that there are often more than two hundred blossoms on a panicle ; 
they have a faint, delicate scent. The plant is easily propagated either 
by cuttings or by seeds : it does not, however, increase much from the 
roots. Seeds sown in spring germinate in about a month. The type 
is frequently used as a stock on which to bud and graft other Roses. 

The plates in the Botanical Magazine 1 and the Botanical Register* 
represent garden forms. Rosa Jlorida of Poiret , 3 for which the plate 
in the Botanical Magazine is quoted, is also one of the garden forms. 

Rosa multiflora is figured by Andrews . 4 

1 Vol. xxvi. t. 1059 0807). 

2 Vol. v. t. 425 (1819). 

3 Lamarck, Encycl. Suppl. vol. iv. p. 715 (1S16). 

4 Roses, vol. ii. t. 83 (1828). 


26 



6 — ROSA MULTIFLORA 






. 






* 












* ' r 






7— ROSA MULTIFLORA, var. PLATYPHYLLA Thory 


Rosa multijlora , var. platyphylla : a typo recedit habitu robustiori ; foliis 
majoribus ; floribus plenis, rubris. 

R. multijlora , var. platyphylla Thory in Redoute, Roses, vol. ii. p. 69, t. (1821). — 
Lindley in Bot. Reg. vol. xvi. t. 1372 (1830). — Franchet & Savatier, Enitm . PL Jap. 
vol. i. p. 134 (1874). — Crepin in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xxv. pt. 2, p. 188 (1886). — 
Rehder in Bailey, Cycl. Am. Hort. vol. iv. p. 1549 (1902). — C. K. Schneider, III. 
Handbuch Laubholzk. vol. i. p. 540 (1906). 

R. Thoryi Trattinnick, Ros. Monogr. vol. i. p. 85 (1823). 

Stem reaching a height of 10-12 feet or more; prickles scattered, uniform, 
stout, hooked. Leaflets 5-7, oblong, acute, \\-2. in. long, simply serrated, pubescent 
beneath ; petioles pubescent, ad culate and glandular ; stipules adnate, laciniated. 
Flowers many, in a corymbose panicle, double, red. 


This variety of Rosa multijlora was introduced into England some 
time between 1815 and 1817. Noisette saw it growing in a nursery- 
garden near London and took back a plant with him to France, where 
it flowered in his garden in September 1819. Redoute’s drawing and 
Thory’ s description were based upon this plant. The plate in the 
Botanical Register was from a plant growing in the Horticultural 
Society’s garden at Chiswick in 1830, where Lindley describes it as 
flowering in the most luxuriant manner and refers to it as the most 
beautiful of all the climbing Roses of our gardens. Loudon gives an 
excellent woodcut in his A rboretuml and says : “A plant of this variety, 
on the gable end of Mr. Donald’s house, in the Goldworth Nursery, 
in 1 826, covered about 100 square feet, and had more than 100 corymbs 
of bloom. Some of the corymbs had more than 50 buds in a cluster, 
and the whole averaged about 30 in each corymb ; so that the amount 
of flower buds was about 3,000. The variety of colour produced by 
the buds at first opening was not less astonishing than their number. 
White, light blush, deeper blush, light red, darker red, scarlet, and 
purple flowers, all appeared in the same corymb, and the production 
of these seven colours at once is said to be the reason why this plant 
is called the ‘ Seven Sisters Rose! This tree produced a shoot the 
same year which grew 18 feet in length in two or three weeks.” The 

1 Vol. ii. p. 774 (1838). 


ROSA MULTIFLORA, var. PLATYPHYLLA 

plant here referred to by Loudon only survived about three or four 
years. 

The Rose was known to Donn 1 under the names of Rosa Rox- 
burghii and Rosa Grevillii , and it was growing at Cambridge about 
the year 1845. 

The “ Seven Sisters Rose," which was once such a iavourite in our 
gardens, is now but rarely seen ; it appears to have been discarded in 
favour of later multiflora hybrids of more fashionable shades of colour, 
and also of the wild single type now so largely grown in the wild garden. 
Loudon considered the plant short-lived, and this may be another 
reason to account for its gradual disappearance. 

In China it is also known as the “ Seven Sisters Rose," but the 
Chinese ascribe the derivation of the name to the seven flowers which 
generally open at the same time on each corymb. 

1 Hort. Cant. ed. 13, p. 351 (1845). 


30 


8— ROSA FOLYANTHA var. Hort. 

(ROSA MULTIFLORA x CHINENSIS) 

CRIMSON RAMBLER 

Rosa poly ant ha var. : caulibus elongatis, viridibus, lucidis, sarmentosis; aculeis 
magnitudine mediocribus, sparsis, aequalibus, falcatis ; foliolis 7, oblongis, acutis, 
magnitudine mediocribus, simpliciter dentatis, facie viridibus, glabris, dorso pubes- 
centibus ; rhachi pubescente, aciculis paucis, falcatis ; stipulis non usque ad basim 
fimbriatis, apicibus liberis, parvis, ovatis; floribus multis, in paniculam corymbosam 
dispositis ; pedicellis elongatis, glandulosis; bracteis minutis ; calycis tubo parvo, 
turbinato, glabro ; lobis ovatis, simplicibus, dorso glandulosis ; petalis permultis, 
parvis, kermesinis. 

Stems long, green, shining, sarmentose ; prickles moderately large, scattered, 
equal, falcate. Leaflets usually 7, oblong, acute, middle-sized, simply toothed, green 
and glabrous above, paler and pubescent beneath ; petioles pubescent, with a few' 
hooked aciculi ; stipules broader than in R. multi flora, not fimbriated to the base ; 
free tips small, ovate. Flowers many, in a corymbose panicle ; pedicels long, glan- 
dular; bracts minute. Calyx-tube small, turbinate, glabrous; lobes ovate, simple, 
not leaf-pointed, glandular on the back. Petals very numerous, small, bright 
crimson. 


Of the origin of this Rose nothing is known. The first record is 
to be found in the Journal dcs Roses of 18S6, when M. Takasima 
published a series of notes upon the Japanese Roses, accompanied by 
coloured drawings. Plate 5, which he refers to Rosa platyphylla figured 
by Redoute, 1 has every appearance of being the Crimson Rambler. 
The inflorescence and the flower are faithfully drawn and leave no 
doubt as to their identity, but the leaves seem to have been added as 
an afterthought, as there is no trace of the ciliated stipules which are 
such a constant character in all multiftora Roses and their hybrids. 
The next notice of it appeared in the Gardeners Chronicle , 2 where the 
story of its introduction into this country is given at length. The 
original plant was sent from Japan to Mr. Jenner in 1878 by Professor 
R. Smith, Professor of Engineering at Tokio, and Mr. Jenner very 
appropriately named it “The Engineer.” Mr. Jenner subsequently 
gave the Rose to J. Gilbert, a nurseryman of Lincoln, who exhibited 
some cut blooms in London on July 8, 1890, and received an Award 

1 Roses , vol. ii. p. 69 (1S21). 

2 Ser. 3, vol. xvi. p. 249 (1894). 

3 1 


ROSA POLYANTHA 

of Merit from the Floral Committee of the Royal Horticultural Society. 
Soon after Gilbert sold the stock of the Engineer Rose for a small sum 
to Messrs. Turner of Slough, who changed its name to ‘‘Crimson 
Rambler ” and put it upon the market. It soon found favour, and is 
now widely grown not only in England but all over the continent and 
the northern United States. Among its many claims to popularity 
are its extreme hardiness, the facility with which it may be propagated 
and the readiness with which it accommodates itself to all conditions. 
It is well, however, to avoid planting it against a wall which is much 
exposed to the sun, for in such positions it is apt, like most other 
Roses, to be attacked by thrips and mildew, and moreover its colour 
is less brilliant than when grown in the open or against a north wall. 
Care should also be taken to choose a suitable position away from 
other Roses, for its glowing brilliant colouring will clash with any but 
white flowers. When it can be planted in a green glade, or against a 
background of shrubs, or in an open place on grass, nothing can be 
more beautiful than a group of Crimson Rambler seen under these 
conditions. Although not a perpetual bloomer, its flowering season 
is often prolonged to four or five weeks, and the individual flowers last 
well owing to the substance of their petals. There is no Rose which 
produces flowers in such profusion ; a single plant, when well established, 
will easily give 6,000 flowers. It has been the parent of many hybrids, 
and each season the number is largely increased. 
























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9— ROSA MOSCHATA Miller 


THE MUSK ROSE 

Rosa moschata: caule elongato, viridi, sarmentoso; aculeis sparsis, conformibus, 
parvis, falcatis ; foliolis 5-7, oblongis, acutis, simpliciter serratis, facie glabris, dorso 
pubescentibus ; rhachi pubescente, vix glandulosa ; stipulis adnatis, apice libero, 
lanceolato ; floribus pluribus, corymbosis ; pedunculis pubescentibus, parce setosis ; 
calycis tubo oblongo; lobis ovato-lanceolatis, exterioribus parce pinnatifidis; petalis 
albis; stylis pilosis, coalitis, protrusis; fructu globoso, parvo, rubro; sepalis reflexis, 
caducis. 

R. moschata Miller, Gant Did. ed. 8, vol. ii. No. 13 (1768). — Jacquin, Hoyt. 
Schoen. vol. iii. t. 280 (1798) ; Fragm. p. 31, t. 34, fig. 3 (1809). — Lawrance, Roses , 
t. 64 (1799). — Roessig, Die Rosen, No. 27 (1802-1820). — Thory in Redoutc, Roses , 
vol. i. p. 33, t. (1817). — Lindley, Ros. Monogr. p. 121, No. 68 (1820); Dot. Reg. 
vol. x. t. 829, 861 (1824). — Hayne, Arzn. vol. xi. t. 33 (1830). — Christ in Boissier, 
FI. Orient. Suppl. p. 229 (1888). — Brandis, Indian Trees , p. 288 (1906). 

R. opsostemma Ehrhart, Beitr. zur Nat nr k. vol. ii. p. 72 (1788). 

R. arbor ea Persoon, Syn. pt. 2, p. 50 (1807). 

Stem tall, green, arching or sarmentose; prickles small, scattered, stout, hooked, 
uniform. Leaflets 5-7, oblong, acute, moderately firm, green, simply toothed, glabrous 
on the upper surface, pubescent beneath; petioles pubescent, slightly glandular; stipules 
adnate, not laciniated, with small lanceolate free tips. Flowers many, in a corymb; 
peduncles long, pubescent, slightly setose ; bracts lanceolate. Calyx-tube oblong ; 
lobes ovate-lanceolate, tCf in- 1 ong, not glandular on the back, the outer slightly 
compound. Petals pure white, middle-sized. Styles pilose, united in a column which 
is distinctly protruded beyond the conical disc. Fruit small, globose, red, naked ; 
sepals reflexing, deciduous. 


Rosa moschata ranges in a wild state from Afghanistan to Kashmir, 
Simla, Garhwal, Kumaon and Nepal, at altitudes of from 3,000 to 
8,500 feet. It is quite hardy in southern England. According to 
Fraas, 1 it is one of the Roses known to Theophrastus. Turner 
mentions it in 1551 ; three forms are figured by Lobel in 1581 in his 
Plantarum sen Stirpium leones , vol. ii .—-ftore simplici, p. 207, moschata 
and moschata major , p. 208. Gerard had three forms of it in his garden 
in Holborn in 1 596. Parkinson 2 figures it under the name of “ Rosa 
hispanica moschata simplex,” and there is a specimen of it amongst 
Plukenet’s plants in the British Museum. It is curious that Linnaeus 
overlooked such a well-known plant, although he had two good speci- 
mens in his herbarium. The principal varieties are the plants known 

1 Synopsis Florae Classicae , p. 74 (1870). 2 Paradisus, p. 419 (1629). 


33 


F 


ROSA MOSCHATA 


as Rosa Brimonii of Linclley (var. nepalensis) and Rosa Pissarti of 
Carriere (var. nastier ana Christ). A great many well-known garden 
roses are moschata hybrids, such as the Noisettes, Rosa mvea Don, and 
probably Rosa damascena Mill. There is also a fine hybrid between 
Rosa moschata and Rosa sempervirens L. 

Rosa moschata is the Musk Rose so beloved of our ancestors, and 
the old writers speak of it with affection. Its introduction into England 
is given by Hakluyt, who, writing in 1599, sa Y s that “the Artichowe 
was brought in the time of King Henry the Eight, and of later time 
was procured out of Italy the Muske Rose Plant,” 1 so it may rank as 
an Elizabethan plant. All the varieties are easily known by the central 
column of styles, which are more united in the Musk Roses than in 
any other of the Systylae ; and the rigid foliage, strongly pinnate in 
feeling, together with the forcibly defiexed petals, are characters which 
must be regarded as vital to a proper conception of the species. The 
scent is not pleasant to all, though Bacon reckoned it as the sweetest 
smell in the air next to the violet. At times, and indeed generally, 
Rosa moschata is almost scentless ; but in certain states of the atmo- 
sphere it is more or less fragrant, and undoubtedly the scent is strongest 
at night. The plant is very easily propagated by cuttings. 

In an unpublished diary Sir George Watt thus describes the Rose 
as he has met with it in the Himalaya : 

“ This is by far the most obvious and most characteristic Rose of the Himalaya. 
It climbs over the bushes by the wayside and over the small trees of the forest. It 
thus produces dense rounded masses which when in bloom look like patches of 
snow. Its bright flowers are the delight of bird and bee, and they perfume the air 
in a manner few people could realize who have not lived in the invigorating atmo- 
sphere of the early months of summer on the outer ranges of these mountains. And 
yet a bunch in the hand is overpowering rather than pleasant. But the western 
Himalaya without the musk rose would be without half their charm.” 

Redoute 2 and Miss Lawrance 3 figure a double form. Andrews 
figures var.pl. pi} and var. carnea. 5 

Rosa poly ant ha, var. grandiplora (see accompanying plate) was 
raised by Bernaix from seed obtained from Rosa moschata. Some 
doubt, however, exists as to its origin. Crepin, who at first regarded 
it as a mere variety of Rosa moschata , 6 afterwards came round to the 
opinion of M. Viviancl MoreE that it was a hybrid having Rosa 
multiplora Thunb. for one of its parents. He considered that the 
influence of this Rose was shown in the ciliated bracts and stipules, in 
the somewhat pyramidal inflorescence and in the shortly ovoid buds. 
He was not, however, convinced that the other parent was Rosa 
moschata , as M. Viviancl Morel believed, but thought it equally likely 
to be Rosa sempervirens L. 8 

1 Principal Navigations . . . ed. 2, vol. ii. pt. i. p. 165 (1599). 2 Poses, vol. i. p. 99 (1817). 

3 Poses, t. 53 (1799). 4 Roses, vol. ii. t. 94 (1828). 5 lb. t. 95. 6 Journ. des Poses , 1891, p. 42. 

7 Lyon Horticole , No. 17 (Sept 15, 1891). 8 Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xxxiii. pt. i, pp. 120, 12 1 (1894). 

34 




















































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9 — ROSA MOSCHATA 











































































NEPALENSIS 






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IO— ROSA MOSCHATA, var. NEPALENSIS Lindl. 


Rosa mo sch at a, var. nepalensis : a typo recedit habitu graciliori, foliis subtus 
ramulisque magis pubescentibus, foliolis angustioribus, acutioribus, pedicellis 
gracilibus, magis glandulosis. 


R. moschata , var. nepalensis Lindley in Hot. Reg. vol. x. t. 829 (1824). 

R. Brnnonii Lindley, Ros. Monogr. p. 120, No. 67, t. 14 (1820). — Hooker in 
Dot. Mag. vol. lxix. t. 4030 (1843). 

R. Rrownii Trattinnick, Ros. Monogr. vol. ii. p. 96 (1823). 

R. pubescens Roxburgh, FI. Ind. eel. 2, vol. ii. p. 514 (1832). 

R. moschata Hooker f., FI. Brit. Ind. vol. ii. p. 367 (1879). 

Stem tall, arching or sarmentose ; prickles small, scattered, uniform, hooked. 
Leaflets 5-7, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, \\-2 in. long, simply sharply serrated, 
pubescent beneath; petioles glandular and pubescent; stipules adnate, gland-ciliated, 
with a linear free point. Flowers up to 50-60 in a corymbose panicle ; pedicels 
slender, glandular and pubescent. Petals white, middle-sized. Styles connate in 
a slender column, distinctly protruded from the disc. Fruit small, globose, naked; 
sepals deciduous. 


Introduced in 1822 from Nepal by Wallich, who had sent 
specimens to the De Candolle herbarium, Geneva, in 1819-1821, this 
Rose was also collected in Nepal by Buchanan- Hamilton, who sent 
his specimens to Lambert. Lindley mentions a plant which was 
given to him from Prince Leopold’s garden, where it had been raised 
from seed received direct from Nepal. In the Kew Herbarium there 
are specimens collected in various localities in the province of Kwang- 
tung in the south of China. It is not found in the western Himalaya, 
but appears to be confined to the provinces of Garhwal, Kumaon and 
Nepal. In the forests of those regions it wanders from tree to tree 
and is described as being strikingly beautiful. Lindley described this 
Rose in his Monograph , dedicating it to Robert Brown under the 
name of Rosa Brnnonii , and also in the Botanical Register as Rosa 
moschata , var. nepalensis. It is under the latter name that the plant 
should now be known. 

Rosa moschata Mill, is such an extremely polymorphous species 
that it is not surprising that eminent botanists should hold different 
opinions as to its identity. Crepin 1 considered that Rosa Brnnonii 

1 Bull . Soc. Bot . Belg. vol. xviii. p. 287 (Primit. Monogr. Ros. fasc. v. p. 533 [1880]) (1879). 

37 


ROSA MOSCHATA, var. NEPALENSIS 

ought not even to be considered as a variety ; he had observed in 
other forms of Rosa moschata all the characters supposed to be peculiar 
to Rosa Brunonii. In any case it is sufficiently distinct, from a horti- 
cultural point of view, to be given a favourable position in gardens, 
where its luxuriant beauty may develop without risk of being cut back 
by inclement weather. A well-chosen situation is advisable, for it is 
rather more tender than the typical Rosa moschata Mill. 

The form grown in this country is easily distinguished from 
Rosa moschata Mill., as known in cultivation, by the pubescence of 
the branchlets, calyx and leaves, the much narrower and almost linear 
leaves, the glandular peduncles, and smaller, more exact flowers. 
U ndcr cultivation these characters become still more marked. Crepin 1 
pointed out that the character of pubescence is not confined to any one 
form of Rosa moschata but is found in many others. This need not, 
however, necessarily influence the inclusion in gardens of two Roses 
each so beautiful and so distinct in its way as Rosa moschata and Rosa 
moschata , var. ncpalensis . 

This Rose is figured by Andrews under the name of Rosa 
napaulensis . 2 

1 Loc. cit . 2 Roses , vol. ii. t. 82 (1S28), 







■ 














ROSA IvlOSCBAiA, berm. 










var.. ROSA PISSARDI, carriere. 






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II— ROSA MOSCHATA, var. NASTURANA Christ 

Rosa moschata, vat*, nasturana : a typo receditcaule humiliori ; foliolisminoribus, 
ovatis, firmis, dorso glabris ; rhachi glabra, magis glandulosa ; floribus paucioribus; 
pedicellis bruneis, glabris, magis glandulosis. 

R. moschata , var. nasturana Christ in Boissier, Ft. Orient. Suppl. p. 229(1888). 

R. Pissarti Carrierc in Rev. Hart. 1883, p. 314, fig. 62. 

Stem not so tall as in the type ; prickles uniform, scattered, moderately robust, 
slightly hooked. Leaflets 5-7, smaller, ovate, 1-1J in. long, firm in texture, green, 
very acute, glabrous on the back ; petioles glabrous, aciculate, very glandular ; 
stipules adnate with a lanceolate free tip, copiously margined with glands. Flowers 
much fewer than in the type; pedicels brown, glabrous, densely glandular. Calyx- 
tube narrowly oblong, naked ; lobes lanceolate, | in. long, slightly compound. Petals , 
styles and fruit as in the type. 


This is a mere geographical variety of Rosa moschata Miller. It 
inhabits the mountains of Persia and was received at the Museum in 
Paris, in 1880, under the name of Rosa Pissarti. Pissart, who was 
gardener to the Shah of Persia at Teheran, brought the Rose to the 
notice of Carriere in a letter which was published, together with Carriere’s 
description, in the Revue Horticole . In it he relates how the Rose 
had originally reached Teheran from Guiland on the shores of the 
Caspian and had at once become popular in Persian gardens. Nastaran 
is its Persian name. Dr. Stapf states that it ascends the mountains 
of southern Persia to 8,000 feet. Dr. Christ says that there is another 
form of Rosa moschata , with small double purplish flowers, which was 
found by Dr. Haussknecht at Bebehan in southern Persia ; it was 
called by the natives Gul e Reschti , or the Rose of Rescht. 


39 















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































i2 — ROSA MOSCHATA, var. ABYSSINICA Rehder 


Rosa n lose hat a, var. abyssinica: a typo recedit habitu compacto ; aculeis mains 
confertis ; foliolis parvis, rigidulis ; rhachi magis glandulosa ; floribus paucioribus, 
minoribus ; sepalis simplicibus. 

R. moschata ^ var. abyssinica Rehder in Bailey, Cycl. Am. Wont. vol. iv. p. 155° 
(1902). 

R. abyssinica R. Brown in Salt, Abyss. App. p. lxiv (1814). — Bindley, Ros. 
Monogr. p. 1 16, t. 13 (1820). — Seringe in De Candolle, Prodr. vol. ii. p. 598 (1825). — 
A. Richard, FI. Abyss, vol. i. p. 261 (1847). — Olivet,. FI. Prop. Afric. vol. ii. p. 381 
(1871). — Deseglise in Bull. Soc. Bot. Betg. vol. xv. p. 206 (Cat. Rais. Ros. p. 37 
[ 1 877]) (1876). — Crepin in Bait. Soc. Bot. Betg. vol. xviii. p. 29 (Priinit. Monogr. Ros. 
fasc. v. p. 537 [1880]) (1879). 

R. Schiniperiana Hochstetter in Fiona , xxiv. Intell. 31 (1841). 

Steins not sarmentose ; prickles small, slightly hooked, more crowded than in 
the type. Leaflets firmer in texture, oblong, acute, i-f in. long, scarcely at all hairy, 
but minutely aciculate on the midrib beneath ; petioles glandular and aciculate, not 
pubescent. Flowers few, in a corymb ; pedicels pubescent, not aciculate. Calyx- 
tube turbinate ; lobes ovate-acuminate, simple, Ah in. long, pubescent on the back. 


This variety is allied to the Persian variety nasturana Christ. In 
its extreme form it has not much resemblance to Rosa moschata Mill., 
but is really connected with it by forms found at lower altitudes and 
in less arid situations. It inhabits the mountains of Abyssinia at 
heights of from 6,000 to 7,000 feet above sea-level. It was formerly 
supposed to be exclusively African, but it was found at Yemen in 
Arabia in 1837 by Botta and by other botanists in various localities 
in Asia, though always in the same latitude as Abyssinia. It was 
originally found by Salt during his travels in Abyssinia in 1809-11, 
and was first recognized as a distinct species by Brown, who wrote a 
botanical appendix to Salt’s travels. 

Lindley’s description is very incomplete. Crepin attributed this 
to the dearth of specimens at his disposal when drawing up his 
description. Crepin, on the contrary, had ample material on which 
to base his conclusions. Oliver gives a good and careful description ; 
he was inclined to think it might not be specifically distinct from some 
extra- African form. With Rosa sempervirens L. it has some superficial 
resemblance, but little in essential characters. 

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PART III 


THE GENUS ROSA 

BY 

ELLEN WILLMOTT, F.L.S. 


Drawings by 

ALFRED PARSONS. A.R.A. 



LONDON 

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, W. 

1910 



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13— ROSA DUPONTII Desegl. 

Rosa Dupontii : caulibus erectis ; aculeis obliquis, sparsis, falcatis, aciculis 
intermixtis; foliolis 5, magnis, oblongis, acutis, subcoriaceis, facie viridibus, glabris, 
dorso pubescentibus ; rhachi pubescente, modice glandulosa ; stipulis adnatis, 
glanduloso-ciliatis, apicibus liberis ovato-lanceolatis ; floribus multis, corymbosis ; 
pedicellis elongatis, glandulosis ; bracteis lanceolatis ; calycis tubo oblongo, lobis 
acutis, dorso nudis, glanduloso-ciliatis, exterioribus pinnatifidis; petalis albis; stylis 
in columnam breviter protrusam coalitis. 

R. Dupontii Deseglise in Mem. Soc. Acad. Maine-et- Loire, vol. x. p. 58 (Ess. 
Mon. Ros. p. 18) (1861) ; in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xv. p. 206 (Cat. Rais. Ros. 
p- 37 [1877]) (1876). . 

R. damascena, var. subalba Thory in Redoute, Roses, vol. 1. p. 63, t. (1817). 

R. moschata , var. nivea Lindley in Bot. Reg. vol. x. t. 861 (1824). 

R. moschata , var. rosea Seringe in De Candolle, Prodr. vol. ii. p. 598 (1825). 

R. nivea Hort. Paris. 

An erect bush 3-4 feet high. Prickles slant, hooked, scattered, mixed with 
aciculi. Leaflets 5, oblong, acute, large, subcoriaceous, green and glabrous above, 
paler and pubescent beneath ; petioles pubescent and slightly glandular ; stipides 
adnate, gland-ciliated, with ovate-lanceolate free tips. Flowers many, corymbose ; 
pedicels long, glandular ; bracts lanceolate. Calyx-tube oblong, lobes f-i in. long ; 
lobes acute, naked on the back, gland-ciliated, the outer pinnatifid. Expanded 
petals pure white ; buds red outside. Styles united in a shortly protruded column. 


The Musk Rose is one of the old-fashioned flowers which greatly 
contributed to the charm and beauty of English gardens in former 
days. More fortunate than many another pretty Rose, it never com- 
pletely disappeared, so that when the fancy for single Roses returned 
it was soon restored to favour. 

Various accounts are given of its origin, but it is difficult to say 
with any degree of certainty whence it came. The beautiful drawing 
called Rosa damascena subalba in Redoute s Roses is accompanied by 
a description of the Musk Rose, which is said to grow in southern 
Europe, and to be indigenous to Spain. The writer concludes his 
account by remarking that its graceful growth and the beauty and 
profusion of its flowers will well repay those who procure it for their 
gardens. This was in 1817. Seven years later an excellent drawing 
of the Rose under the name of Rosa moschata , var. hort. nivea, the 
Snow-white Musk Rose, appeared in the Botanical Register. In the 

43 g 


ROSA DUPONTII 


accompanying description Lindley says that it is the most beautiful 
single Rose he knows, and that it was raised by the French grower 
Dupont. The drawing was made from a plant growing in the garden 
of the Horticultural Society at Chiswick, whither it had been sent from 
Versailles by De Pronville, who had recently published an excellent 
F rench translation of Lindley’ s Monograph, containing much additional 
information about Roses. 

William Paul, writing about the Musk Rose in the Rose Garden , 
says that it is common in Madeira and the north of Africa and is also 
found in Persia, and that, having been introduced into England about 
the year i 596, it has by reason of its long residence among us become 
widely spread throughout the country. He enumerates twelve hybrids 
by name. 1 The American writer Parsons 2 says that the Musk Rose 
grows naturally in Persia and other eastern countries, where it some- 
times attains the dimensions of a small tree, and it is doubtless the 
Rose which has been celebrated by eastern poets. He mentions a 
plant in his own garden which had withstood the rigour of twenty 
N ew York winters. According to Rivers, 3 Olivier, who travelled in 
the first six years of the French Republic, describes a Rose-tree at 
Ispahan called the “ Chinese Rose-tree,” which was fifteen feet in 
height and was formed by the union of several stems, each four or five 
inches in diameter. Seeds from this tree were sent to Paris, where 
they produced the common Musk Rose. 

Deseglise considers that Rosa Dupontii differs from the type Rosa 
moschata Mill, in having glabrous calyx and sepals, and leaves which 
are oval and pubescent on the under side. He gives its period of 
flowering as June, and its habitat as Maine-et-Loire, and says that 
Boreau found a specimen growing in a hedge near Angers. This 
hedge was afterwards destroyed, but the bush was transplanted to the 
Botanic Garden. Boreau’s plant disappeared during the changes 
which the garden has undergone since his time and no trace of it can 
now be found. 

1 Rose Garden , pt. 2, p. 150 (1848). 

2 The Rose , p. 262 ( 1 847). 

3 Rose Amateur's Guide , ed. 11, p. 155 (1877). 


44 


ROSA DUPONTII 



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i 4 — ROSA STYLOS A Desv. 

Rosa siylosa : caule elongato, arcuato, viridi ; aculeis robustis, conformibus, 
sparsis, falcatis ; foliolis 5-7, ovalibus vel ellipticis, acutis, simpliciter serratis, facie 
viridibus, pubescentibus vel glabris, dorso leviter pubescentibus, rarius glabris ; 
rhachi vix glandulosa, leviter pubescence ; stipulis glanduloso-ciliatis, apice libero 
ovato-lanceolato ; floribus 3-6 corymbosis ; pedunculis glandulosis ; calycis tubo 
ovoideo vel ellipsoideo, nudo ; lobis copiose pinnatifidis, dorso parce glandulosis ; 
petalis rubellis vel albidis ; stylis glabris, leviter coalitis, breviter vel longe protrusis ; 
disco longo, conico ; fructu ovoideo, rubro, serotino ; sepalis caducis. 

R. stylosa Desvaux, Bot . vol. ii. p. 317 (1809) ; vol. iv. p. 1 13, t. 14 (1814). 
— Thory in Redoute, Roses, vol. iii. p. 31, t. (1824). — Seringe in De Candolle, Prodr. 
vol. ii. p. 599 (1825). — Crdpin in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xxxi. pt. 2, p. 133 (1892). 

R. collina Smith in Eng. Bot. vol. xxvii. t. 1895 {non Jacquin) (1808). 

R. leucochroa Desvaux, Journ. Bot. vol. ii. p. 316 (1809) ; vol. iv. p. 113, t. 15 

( i 8 i 4 )- 

R. systyla Bastard, FI. Maine et Loire, Suppl. p. 31 (1812). — Woods in Trans . 
Linn. Soc. vol. xii. p. 230 (1818). — Lindley, Ros. Monogr. p. 1 1 1 (1820). — Smith, Eng. 
El. vol. ii. p. 395 (1824). — Syme, Eng. Bot. ed. 3, vol. iii. p. 230, t. 475 (1864). 

R. brevistyla Thory in Redoute, Roses, vol. i. p. 91, t. (1817). 

R. stylosa, var. systyla Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc. vol. xi. p. 239 (1869). 

R. virginea Ripart ex Desdglise in Journ. Bot. vol. xii. p. 167 (1874); in Bull. 
Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xv. p. 226 (Cat. Rais. Ros. p. 57 [1877]) (1876). 

Stem tall, green, arching ; prickles scattered, stout, falcate, uniform. Leaflets 
5-7 > ova l or elliptical, acute, middle-sized, simply serrated, green and glabrous or 
pubescent above, slightly pubescent, rarely glabrous beneath ; petioles hardly at all 
glandular and slightly pubescent ; stipules adnate, gland-ciliated, with ovate-lanceo- 
late free tips. Flowers 3-6, in a corymb ; pedn ~ es glandular; bracts ovate-lanceo- 
late. Calyx-tube ovoid or ellipsoid, nakc obes copiously pinnatifid, f in. long, 
not leaf-pointed, slightly glandular on the back. Petats pink or white, 1 in. long. 
Styles glabrous, loosely coherent, more or less protruded beyond the very conical 
disc. Fruit urceolate-globose, red, naked, ripening late ; sepals deciduous. 


Rosa stylosa Desv. in one or other of its forms is a frequent plant 
in the southern counties of England and extends eastward to Styria 
and Hungary. The typical species is characterized by its very broad- 
based prickles with hooked point, leaflets hairy on both sides, simply 
serrate, long, somewhat glandular, hispid peduncles, glabrous styles 
more or less decidedly exserted from a very conical disc, and white 
flowers ; but much the commoner form both in Britain and on the 
continent is Rosa systyla Bast., regarded by some as a mere variety, 

47 


ROSA STYLOSA 


differing from the type in its larger, more widely spaced leaflets, narrower 
in proportion, glabrous above and only thinly hairy beneath, and pale 
rose flowers. There are several other varieties, the more prominent 
of which are Rosa leucochroa Desv., which may be regarded as Rosa 
systyla with white flowers, though it is very often much more canina- 
like in character than either Rosa stylosa or Rosa systyla . This form 
is a very common one in the south-west of England and was formerly 
miscalled Rosa collina Jacq. Rosa virginea Rip. is a small form with 
smooth peduncles, white flowers and subglobose fruit. 

In addition to its glabrous, exserted style-column and very conical 
disc, Rosa stylosa in most of its forms can be distinguished from Rosa 
camna L. by its long peduncles with much narrower bracts. It is 
distinguished from Rosa arvensis Huds. by its stronger, more assurgent 
growth, and usually by its hairy leaflets, rose-coloured flowers, and 
shorter, much less firmly united style-columns. But some of its varieties 
approach that species very closely, and it also forms hybrids therewith. 


48 



i 4 — ROSA STYLOSA 












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ROSA LESCHENAULTIANA Wight & Arnott 


15 

Rosa Leschenaultiana : caulibus longis, diffusis ; aculeis parvis, sparsis, leviter 
hamatis ; foliis persistentibus ; foliolis 5-7, ellipticis vel oblongo-lanceolatis, acutis 
vel acuminatis, interdum basi rotundatis, minute serratis, supra atroviridibus, infra 
pallidioribus ; rhachi infra aculeis hamatis numerosis instructa, glanduloso-pubes- 
cente, glandulis saepius stipitatis ; stipulis adnatis, glanduloso-ciliatis, apice liberis, 
subulatis ; floribus numerosis, corymbosis, alabastris, acutissimis; pedicellis validis, 
glandulosis, bracteatis ; bracteis anguste oblongis, acuminatis, glanduloso-pubes- 
centibus, deciduis ; calycis tubo ovoideo, glandulosissimo ; lobis oblongo-lanceolatis, 
acuminatis, saepe foliaceis, extra glandulosissimis, intra pubescentibus ; petalis 
albis, late obovatis, rotundatis, integris vel emarginatis ; stylis conjunctis, exsertis, 
pilosis ; carpellis setis paucis instructis ; fructu globoso, rubro ; sepalis caducis. 

R. Leschenaultiana Wight & Arnott, Prodr. FI. hid. 301 (1834). — Wight, Icon. 
t. 38 (1840). — Crepin in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xiii. p. 259 ( Primit . Mo nog r. Ros. 
fasc. iii. p. 266) (1874). — Deseglise in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xv. p. 203 {Cat. Rais. 
Ros. p. 34 [1877]) (1876). — Hooker f, FI. Brit. Ind. vol. ii. p. 368 (1879). — Brandis, 
Indian Frees , p. 288 (1906). 

R. sempervirens , var. Leschenaultiana Thory in Redoute, Roses, vol. iii. p. 87, 
t. (1821). 

R. moschata , var. Leschenaultiana Rehder in Bailey, Cycl. Am. Hort. vol. iv. 
p. 1550 (1902). 

A large, straggling evergreen bush. Prickles small, sparse, slightly hooked. 
Leaves, including petioles, 4-6 in. long. Leaflets 5-7, elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, 
i\-2\ in. long, f-i in. wide, acute or acuminate, sometimes rounded at base, finely 
serrate, dark green above, paler below. Petioles with numerous hooked prickles on 
under side, glandularly pubescent, glands often stipitate. Stipules adnate, 1 in. long, 
glandular-ciliate, apices free, subulate. Flowers 2-24 in. across, numerous, in large 
corymbs ; buds very acute. Pedicels 1-2 in. long, stout, glandular, bracteate ; bracts 
narrowly oblong, acuminate, pubescent and glandular, deciduous. Calyx-tube ovoid, 
very glandular ; lobes oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, i-ii in. long, often foliaceous, 
very glandular outside, pubescent inside. Petals white, broadly obovate, i-ii in. 
long, 1 in. wide, rounded, entire or emarginate. Styles coherent, exserted, pilose ; 
carpels with few setose hairs. Fruit globose, red ; sepals deciduous. 


This Rose has often been called the South Indian form of Rosa 
moschata Mill., but it is a perfectly good and distinct species. It is 
closely related to the South European Rosa sempervirens L., and has 
been considered by Seringe 1 and others as a geographical form of this 
species, from which it differs by its more robust habit, larger flowers, 

1 In De Candolle, Prodr. vol. ii. p. 598 (1825). 

51 


ROSA LESCHENAULTIANA 


and very glandular leaf-petioles, pedicels and calyx. The glands 
extend to the back of the young petals. It was first brought to Europe 
by the distinguished French naturalist Leschenault de la Tour, and 
by him sent to Thory. Leschenault found it on the higher levels of 
the Neilgherri and Fulney Mountains, where it is plentiful, and it 
was collected by Wight in 1836, by Munro in the same year, by 
Gardner in 1847 and by Sir George Watt in 1874. It has recently 
been found by Dr. Henry in Yun-nan. It is the only wild Rose of the 
temperate mountains of South India, Rosa Lyellii Lindl. being found 
exclusively on the lower hills, especially of Mysore. 

Redoute made his drawings from Leschenault 5 s herbarium 
specimens, and although the plate answers to Thofy s description, it 
can give but a faint idea of the charm and beauty of this striking Rose. 
It is described by those who have seen it in its native mountains as so 
luxuriant that it festoons the trees to a height of sixty or seventy feet 
with its long trails of pure white fragrant flowers. The violet-tinted 
stems are powdered with a fine glaucous dust, which resembles the 
bloom on fruit and adds to the striking appearance of the Samatigui y 
as it is called by the natives. 

Thory named this Rose after Leschenault, who has been honoured 
by many dedications, among others that of the very beautiful Australian 
genus Lcschenaultia. It is in cultivation at Kew and elsewhere, but, 
like its prototype, is scarcely hardy in the neighbourhood of London. 


52 






1 6— ROSA WATSON I AN A Crep. 

Rosa JVatsoniana : caulibus debilibus, decumbentibus, sursum pubescentibus; 
aculeis parvis, sparsis, leviter uncinatis ; foliolis 3-5, linearibus, subintegris, leviter 
pubescentibus ; rhachi pubescente, parce glandulosa et aciculata ; stipulis longe 
adnatis, angustis, apicibus liberis linearibus ; floribus multis, in paniculam laxam 
dispositis ; bracteis linearibus, parvis ; calycis tubo subgloboso, nudo ; lobis lanceo- 
latis, integris ; petalis oblongis, acutis, parvis ; stylis in columnam protrusam 
coalitis ; fructu parvo, subgloboso, nudo ; sepalis caducis. 

R. JVatsoniana Crepin in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xxvii. pt. 2, p. 96 (1888) ; 
in Rev. Hort. Belg. vol. xiv. p. 183, fig. 16 (1888). — Sargent in Garden and Forest , 
vol. iii. p. 477, fig. 59 (1890). — Rehder in Bailey, Cycl. Am. Hort. vol. iv. p. 1550 
(1902). — C. K. Schneider, III. Handbuch Laubholzk. vol. i. p. 541 (1906). 

Stems very slender, weak, trailing, pubescent upwards ; prickles small, scattered, 
slightly hooked. Leaflets 3-5, linear, subentire, i-ii in. long, often variegated with 
white, pubescent on both surfaces ; petioles pubescent, slightly glandular and prickly; 
stipules adnate, with long linear free tips. Flowers many, arranged in a lax terminal 
panicle; pedicels short; bracts small, linear. Calyx-tube subglobose, naked; lobes 
lanceolate, entire, under \ in. long. Corolla J in. diameter ; petals oblong, acute, small, 
white or rose-red. Styles united in a column protruded beyond the disc. Fruit 
globose, the size of a pea, red, naked ; sepals caducous. 


This very curious Rose of unknown origin has never been found 
in a wild state. It is supposed to have been introduced from Japan, 
although it does not appear among the series of Japanese Roses 
figured m part 27 of the Phonzo Zoufou. It was sent by Mr. Edward 
Rand of Dedham, Massachusetts, to the Arnold Arboretum in 1878. 
He had originally found it in a garden at Albany, New York. It has 
been said to be a variety of Rosa multiflora Thunb., bearing the same 
relation to the type that Rosa longifolia Willd. bears to Rosa chinensis 
Jacq., but Crepin considers it to be more nearly related to Rosa 
anemoneflora Fortune, another Asiatic species. He named this Rose 
Watsoniana in compliment to the late Dr. Sereno Watson, Curator of 
the Gray Herbarium at Harvard University. 

Rosa Watsoniana does not make any great effect, but it is so 
interesting that it should be included in any collection of Roses. The 
inflorescence is pyramidal and the individual flowers are not more 
than half an inch in diameter ; the petals, pointed at the apex, are 

53 


ROSA WATSONIANA 

white tinged with pink. The leaves, three- to five-foliate, are pale in 
colour, with deep green veins, which give them a very curious appear- 
ance. It forms a low bush with many long thin branches which curve 
over very gracefully, and with its narrow leaves it is almost as suggestive 
of a dwarf bamboo as of a Rose. Its reputed Japanese origin seems 
very doubtful, but it certainly has the habit of so many of the Japanese 
shrubs in preferring shade and moisture. At Bitton, however, it has 
succeeded best on a wall facing the south. It can be increased by 
cuttings and layers. 

For the specimen from which the drawing was made I am indebted 
to the kindness of Mr. Gumbleton, in whose well-known garden at 
Belgrove, Queenstown, so many rare and curious plants have flowered 
for the first time. 


54 



ROSA RUGA (INDICA X ARAENSIS) 

. 

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V 









i7— ROSA RUGA Lindl. 

(ROSA CHINENSIS x ARVENSIS) 

Rosa ruga: caule decumbente ; aculeis brevibus, conformibus, sparsis, falcatis; 
foliolis 5-7, ovatis, acutis, simpliciter dentatis, utrinque glabris, viridibus, lateralibus 
distincte petiolatis ; rhachi glabra, aciculata; stipulis adnatis, apicibus liberis, parvis, 
ovato-lanceolatis ; floribus pluribus in columna, albis vel roseo-tinctis, plenis, 
suaveolentibus; pedicellis elongatis, nudis ; calycis tubogloboso, nudo; lobis parvis, 
simplicibus, ovatoacuminatis ; stylis exsertis, leviter coalitis ; fructu globoso, rubro, 
nudo ; sepalis caducis. 

R. ruga Lindley in Bot. Reg. vol. xvi. t. 1389 (1830). 

R. indie a, var. ruga Loudon, Arboretum , vol. ii. p. 77 1 (1838). 

Stem trailing, reaching a length of 10-12 feet in a single season ; prickles short, 
uniform, scattered, hooked. Leaflets 5-7, ovate, acute, middle-sized, simply toothed, 
green and glabrous on both surfaces, side ones distinctly stalked ; petioles aciculate, 
glabrous ; stipules ad n ate, with small ovate-lanceolate free points. Flowers several 
in a column, white or tinged with pink, double, fragrant ; pedicels long, naked. 
Calyx-tube globose, naked ; lobes small, simple, ovate-acuminate. Styles exserted, 
loosely coherent. Fruit rarely produced, globose, bright red, naked ; sepals deciduous. 


This very beautiful Rose was raised in Italy, and is believed to 
have been a cross between Rosa arvensis Huds. and a Tea Rose. 

About 1830 Mr. Clare sent it to the Horticultural Society’s garden 
at Chiswick, and it is to the generosity of the Society that we owe the 
introduction into English gardens of one of the most beautiful of 
climbing Roses. 

Rosa ruga is intermediate between its parents, uniting the free, 
graceful growth of Rosa arvensis with the fragrant double flowers of 
the Tea Rose. The flowers are borne in clusters and are shell-pink 
in colour, gradually becoming paler as they expand. It is exceedingly 
floriferous, and although its foliage is not, strictly speaking, persistent, 
it remains on the bush far into the winter. 

Lindley’s description of Rosa ruga in the Botanical Register is 
accompanied by a drawing which gives an excellent idea of the Rose, 
He also wrote about it in the Transactions of the Horticultural Society l 
stating it to be a mule between Rosa indica L. and Rosa arvensis , and 
calling attention to its not having been in the least injured by the frosts 
of 1837 and 1838, either at Pitmaston or at Redleaf. 

1 Ser. 2, vol. ii. p. 255 (1838). 

55 


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KEY TO TERMS IN GLOSSARY 


GLOSSARY 


DEFINITIONS 

The definitions here given are those of the terms which have been 
used in the descriptive part of this book ; they are drawn up with 
special reference to Roses, and chiefly for the advantage of the non- 
botanical reader. These botanical terms are arranged in relation to 
the several parts of the Rose-plant. Adjectival expressions are defined 
with the part of the plant to which they are oftenest applied. The 
accompanying illustrations show the principal parts of a Rose-bush. 
The various organs are figured separately. 


i. STEM 


(a) DIRECTION. 

ARCUATE or ARCHING. — Curved in a vertical plane. 


ASCENDING. — Directed obliquely or curved upwards. 


DECUMBENT. — Lying on the ground, but rising at the end. 


PROCUMBENT or PROSTRATE. — Lying on the ground. 


SARMENTOSE. — Prostrate, but often starting with a very small arch from the root. 

b 


ill 


W) CLOTHING. 


GLOSSARY 


ACICULATE. — Covered with acicuh. See Acicular, under 

Prickles. 


GLAUCOUS. — Having a greyish bloom like a plum. 



HISPID. — See under Fruit. 


NAKED. — Having neither prickles, hairs, bristles, nor 
setae. 


PRICKLY. — See under Fruit. 


SETOSE. — See under Fruit. 


VERRUCOSE. — Covered with warts. 


2. PRICKLES 

ACICULAR. — Shaped like aciculi — i.e ., needle-shaped 

throughout, but slightly thickened down- 
wards. 


DECLINING. — Directed obliquely downwards, though 

straight, not curved nor hooked. 


DILATED AT BASE. — Expanded at or from a little above 

the point of attachment. 




IV 


GLOSSARY 


FALCATE.— -Curved more or less uniformly throughout ; 

sickle-shaped. 



GEMINATE. — Twin ; two together. 


HETEROMORPHIC or HETEROMORPHOUS.— 
Of different forms. 


HOMOMORPHOUS or HOMOMORPHIC— 
Of similar form. 




HOOKED. — Curved considerably throughout, but more at 

the apex. 



v 


GLOSSARY 


INFRASTIPULAR. — Situated below the stipules. 


SETACEOUS. — Shaped like a bristle or stiff 

hair {seta). 


WHORLED or VERTICILLATE.— 

In a ring — i.e., a whorl or verticil around the 
stem. 




3. LEAVES 


PINNATE. — Having the leaflets quite distinct and 

arranged in pairs on the opposite 
sides of the petiole. 


SIMPLE. — In one piece; not divided into leaflets. 



4. LEAFLETS 

EACH SEPARATE LESSER LEAF OF WHICH THE WHOLE LEAF IS COMPOSED 

(a) INSERTION. 

LATERAL.— The side leaflets. 

NODES. “—The points on the petiole where the 
leaflets are attached, or on the stem 
or branch where the leaf is attached. 


vi 


GLOSSARY 


PETIOLULATE. — On a petiolule or short stalk. 


SESSILE. — Attached by their base to the petiole, not 

supported on a petiolule. 



TERMINAL. — The end or odd leaflet. 


(d) SHAPE. 


ACUMINATE. — Drawn out into a longish point, which 

has its sides somewhat hollowed. 



ACUTE. — Sharp, ending in a point, which has straight 
or somewhat convex but not concave sides. 


APICULATE. — burnished with a short abrupt point, 

usually formed by the excurrence of 
the midrib. 



CORDATE. — Having a rounded base indented in the 

middle like a heart. 



vi 1 


GLOSSARY 


CUNEATE. — Wedge-shaped, with the point nearest the 

attachment. 




CUSPIDATE. — See under Sepals. 


ELLIPTIC or ELLIPTICAL. — Oval, but somewhat 

acute at each end. 


LANCEOLATE. — Having a longish outline with curved 

sides, about three to five times as 
long as its greatest breadth, which 
is nearer to the base than to the 
apex. 


LANCEOLATE-ACUMINATE.— Having generally a 

lanceolate outline, 
with an acuminate 
point. 



LINEAR. — Long and very narrow, with parallel sides 

until near the tip. 



LINEAR-LANCEOLATE. — Having a form between 

linear and lanceolate. 



Vlll 


GLOSSARY 


LINEAR-OBLONG.— Between linear and oblong. 


MU CRON ATE. — Abruptly tipped with a short point 

of the same texture as the leaf- 
let. 


NARROWED. — Reduced rather rapidly to a point, 

but with curved sides. 





OB. — As a prefix, means inverted. 


OBLANCEOLATE. — Lanceolate, or approximately 

so, but attached by the 
narrow end. 



OBLONG. — Like oval, but more parallel-sided in the 

middle. 



ix 


GLOSSARY 


OBLONG-LANCEOLATE. — Having a form between 

oblong and lanceolate. 


OBOVATE.— Ovate, or approximately so, but attached by 

the narrow end. 


OBOVATE-CUNE ATE. — Of an obovate outline, but 

cuneate at the base. 


OBOVATE-OBLONG. — Between obovate and oblong. 


OBTUSE. — Blunt or more or less shortly rounded, not widely 

rounded. 


ORBICULAR. — Nearly circular. 









x 


GLOSSARY 


OVAL. — About twice as long as broad, the widest part being 
in the middle, with the ends equally rounded or 
more or less acute at the apex. 


OVATE. — About twice to twice and a half as long as broad, 
with rounded sides, broadest below the middle, 
and with an acute apex. 



OVATE-ACUMINATE. — See under Sepals. 


OVATE-CUSPIDATE. — Having an ovate outline, but with 

a cuspidate apex. 


OVATE-LANCEOLATE. — Between ovate and lanceolate. 




ROUNDED AT BASE. — More or less evenly semicircular 

at base. 



SUB. — As a prefix, means almost or somewhat. 


SUBACUTE. — Somewhat acute 


xi 


C 


GLOSSARY 




S UBOBTUSE. — Somewhat obtuse. 


SU BORBICULAR. — Nearly orbicular, very broadly ovate. 




SUBULATE. — Awl-shaped ; very narrowly triangular. 


(c) CLOTHING OR SURFACE. 

E. — As a prefix, means without. 


EGLANDULOSE or EGLANDULAR.— Without glands. 

o 


GLABRE SCENT. — Becoming glabrous, but often used as 

synonymous with Subglabrous. 


GLABROUS.— Without hairs. 


GLANDULAR.— Bearing glands — i.e , more or less spherical 

vessels often secreting a fluid. They 
may be (1) sessile or (2) stalked , often 
called stipitate . 


MEMBRANOUS. — Thin and flexible. 



PILOSE. — See under Styles. 


PUBERULOUS. — Very finely or shortly pubescent 


xil 


GLOSSARY 


PU BE SCENT. — Having fine adpressed hairs or down. 


PULVERULENT. — Having a dusty or powdery 

surface. 


RUGOSE. — Covered with a network of lines or 

veinlets, enclosing more or less convex 
spaces ; wrinkled. 


SU B GLABROUS. — Nearly glabrous. 



TOMENTOSE. — Densely covered with soft, inter- 
woven hairs. 


VEIN. — An elongated continuous vessel, running 
through the other tissues for the convey- 
ance of sap, etc. 


(d) EDGES. 

CRENATE. — Having teeth of a rounded outline 

on the edge. 


DENTATE. — Having teeth like a saw, but standing 

at right angles to the edge, not 
directed forward. If the teeth them- 
selves are dentate, the leaflet is said 
to be bidentate or doubly dentate. 





DENTICULATE. — See under Stipules. 


EN i IRE. — Not cut, toothed, nor lobed on the edges. 


INCISED. — Deeply cut at the edges, cut into slices. 



Xlll 


GLOSSARY 


SERRATE. — Having teeth like those of a saw — i.e., more 

or less directed forward. If the teeth are 
uniform in size, the leaflet is said to be 
uniserrate or simply serrated. If the teeth 
themselves are serrulate, the leaflet is said 
to be biserrate or doubly serrated. 



SERRULATE. — Like Serrate , but the teeth firm and small. 


TOOTHED = Dentate. 


5. PETIOLES 

THE STALKS OF THE LEAF 


FILIFORM. — Slender, like a thread. 



6 . STIPULES 


THE SOMEWHAT LEAF-LIKE ATTACHMENT AT THE BASE 

OF THE LEAF-STALK 


AD NATE. — Attached by the edges throughout to the petiole. 


ADPRESSED. — Pressed close to one another by their faces. 



xiv 


GLOSSARY 


Cl LI ATE. — Bearing- fine hairs like eyelashes (cilia) on the 

edo'es. 

o 


DENTICULATE. — Like Dentate , but the teeth fine and 

small. 




FIMBRIATED.— Fringed. 


GLAND-CILI ATE. — Having cilia tipped with glands. 



LACINIATE. — Sliced or cut into long, narrow, irregular 

segments. 



PECTINATE. — Having firm, rather long, straight teeth 

or setae, like a comb. 


XV 


GLOSSARY 


7. AURICLE 


T11E TERMINAL PORTION OR TIP OF THE STIPULE, WHICH IS FREE — Y.P., NOT ADNATE 

TO THE PETIOLE 


DELTOID. — Of an equilateral triangular form. 


DIVERGENT. — Gradually separating. 



ERECTO-PATENT. — Between erect and patent, 

nearly erect. 


FILIFORM. — See under Petioles. 


8. INFLORESCENCE 


THE MANNER IN WHICH THE FLOWERS ARE ARRANGED 


CORYMB, CORYMBOSE.— A raceme with the 

peduncles becoming 
gradually shorter 
towards the top of 
the axis, so that 
all the flowers are 
about on a level. 



CYME, CYMOSE. — An inflorescence formed of a 

terminal flower beneath 
which are lateral branches, 
each having a terminal 
flower and lateral branches 
again similarly dividing', 
and so on. 



xvi 


GLOSSARY 


FLOWER.— 

The part formed for bringing 
about the multiplication of the 
plant by seed. It consists of 
various organs arranged in 
rings one within the other. 


PANICLE, PANICLED, or 
PANICULATE.— 

A central axis with peduncled 
flowers arranged along it, the 
peduncles being branched. 



RACEME, RACEMOSE.— 

An inflorescence consisting of an 
elongate central axis bearing- 
equal or nearly equal unbranched 
side-stalks disposed throughout 
its leno th. 

o 


RAC H IS. — The axis of the inflorescence. 


UMBEL, UMBELLATE.— 

An inflorescence in which all the 
peduncles spring from the same 
point. 



xvi l 


GLOSSARY 


9 . BRACTS 


SMALL, UNDEVELOPED LEAFLETS USUALLY SITUATED AT OR A LITTLE ABOVE THE BASE OF THE 
PEDUNCLE. THEY ARE OF A DIFFERENT FORM AND TEXTURE TO THE TRUE LEAFLET 


BRACTEATE. — Bearing bracts. 


IMBRICATED. — Overlying one another like the tiles or 

slates on a roof. 



10. FRUIT 

THE FULLY DEVELOPED PORTION OF THE FLORAL ORGANS WHICH SURROUNDS THE SEEDS 


AMPULLAE FORM. — Flask-shaped — i.e., ovoid, with a nar- 
row, more or less elongated neck. 


CERNUOUS. — Nodding or curved downwards. 



CORIACEOUS. — Leathery or tough and rather hard. 


DEPRESSO-GLOBOSE. — Globose, but depressed or flat- 
tened at the top. 



xvi 11 


GLOSSARY 


FLASK-SHAPED = Ampullaeform. 


GLOBOSE = GLOBULAR. — Round, like a globe. 


HISPID. — Having short, stiff hairs. 




OBOVOID. — Inversely ovoid. 


OVOID. — Having an ovate or oval outline in profile. 


PENDULOUS. — Hanging downwards. 


PRICKLY. — Covered with prickles. 





xix 


d 


GLOSSARY 


PYRIFORM. — Pear-shaped. 


SETOSE. — Covered with bristles or stiff hairs {setae ) : 

see Setaceous under Prickles. 



SU BCERN UOUS. — Somewhat cernuous. 


SUBGLOBOSE. — Nearly globose. 


TURBIN AT E . — T op-shaped. 




UMBILICATE, — Hollowed out at the point of 

insertion of its peduncle. 



xx 


GLOSSARY 


URCEOLATE.— -Like a pitcher contracted at the mouth. 



ii. CARPELS 


IN ROSES, THE SEED 


BASAL. — Situated at and inside the base of the fruit. 



12. SEPALS = CALYX-LOBES 


THE UPPER AND FREE PORTION OF THE CALYX SURROUNDING THE PETALS. THE SEPALS 

ARE FIVE IN NUMBER 


APPENDICULATE. — Having an appendage or a more 

or less widened or expanded 
apex. 


CADUCOUS. — Falling off before the decay of the fruit. 



COMPOUND. — Divided into lobes or segments, which 

lobes or segments are again and again 
divided. 


CONN I VENT. — Converging at the tips so as to touch. 



xxi 


GLOSSARY 


CUSPIDATE. — A more or less rounded end, but drawn up 

into an abrupt point in the centre. 



DECIDUOUS or FALLING = Caducous. 


ERECT. — In prolongation of the direction of the peduncle. 


FOLIACEOUS. — Leaf-like; having an expanded lamina like 

a leaf. 


LEAF-POINTED. — Having the tip expanded like a leaf. 


OVATE-ACUMINATE. — Having generally an ovate out- 
line, with an acuminate point. 





PATENT. — Spreading out. 


xxii 


GLOSSARY 


PERSISTENT. — Adhering till the decay of the fruit. 


PI NN ATI FID. — Same as Pinnate (see under Leaves), 

but the segments or subdivisions not 
quite distinct from one another nor 
from the central axis. 


REFLEXED, REFLEXING. — Bent abruptly backwards. 




13. PETALS 


IN ROSES, THE COLOURED EXPANDED PORTION OF THE FLOWER 


EMARGINATE. — Notched or indented at the end. 



xxi 11 


GLOSSARY 


FUGACIOUS. — Very soon falling off or perishing. 


INCURVED. — Curved inwards. 



14. STYLES 

THE STALK-LIRE PROLONGATION UPWARDS OF THE CARPELS WHICH BEARS THE STIGMA 


COHERENT = Connate. 


CONNATE. — Attached to each other, either 

throughout their whole length (1), 
or for a short distance from base 
only (2). 


EXSERTED (or PROTRUDED).— 
Projecting beyond the disc. 





FREE. — Not attached to one another. 



XXIV 


GLOSSARY 


INCLUDED. — Not extending beyond the disc. 


PILOSE. — With scattered, rather stiff hairs. 




PROTRUDED.— See Exserted. 


UNITED IN A COLUMN. — Connate throughout their 

length. 


VILLOUS. — Having long, soft, straightish hairs. 




15. DISC 

THE SPACE BETWEEN THE CALYX AND THE STYLES 


CONICAL. — Narrowing to a point from a circular base. 



xxv 









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PART IV 



BY 


ELLEN WILLMOTT, F.L.S. 


Drawings by 

ALFRED PARSONS, A.R.A. 



LONDON 

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1 8 — ROSA SOULIEANA Crdp. 


Rosa Soulieana : caule longissimo, arcuato, glauco-viridi ; aculeis conformibus, 
brevibus, strictis, vel leviter hamatis, acutissimis, basi dilatatis ; foliis pallide viridi- 
bus, glabris ; foliolis 5-9 (saepius 7), late ellipticis vel obovatis, apice nunc rotundatis, 
nunc obtusis et mucronatis, basi excepta serratis ; rhachi parce pubescente; stipulis 
adnatis, apice liberis, triangularibus, acutis, marginibus plus minusve glandulosis ; 
floribus terminalibus, solitariis vel corymbosis ; pedunculis bracteatis ; bracteis 
viridibus, ovatis, acuminatis, dentatis vel integris, supra pubescentibus, margine 
saepe glandulis stipitatis vestitis ; calycis tube globoso, nudo, vel glandulis stipitatis 
instructo; lobis ovatis, acutis, reflexis, extra pubescentibus, intra lanatis, saepe cum 
1 ~3 appendiculis linearibus e marginibus ortis ; petalis albidis, late obovatis, trun- 
catis ; carpellis pilis setiformibus, nitidis, dense vestitis ; stylis pubescentibus, con- 
junctis, breviter exsertis ; fructu globoso, parvo, aurantiaco, nudo ; sepalis caducis. 


P, Soulieana Crdpin in Bull . Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xxxv. pt. 2, p. 21 (1896). — 
M. L. Vilmorin & Bois, Cat. Prim. Fruf. Vil. p. 85, fig. (1904). — C. K. Schneider, 
III. Handbuch Laubholzk. vol. i. p. 544 (1906). — Hemsley in Bot. Mag. vol. cxxxiii. 
t. 8158 (1907). 


A large straggling bush. Stems glaucous green, arching; prickles uniform, 
short, straight or slightly hooked, very sharp, dilated at base. Leaves with petioles 
2-3 in. long, pale green, glabrous. Leaflets 5-9 (usually 7), broadly elliptic or 
obovate, in. long, rounded, or obtuse and mucronate, serrate to near the base. 
Petioles sparsely hairy ; stipules adnate, more or less glandular along the margin, 
free ends triangular, acute. Flowers 1^-2 in. across, terminal and solitary, or in 
cymose corymbs. Peduncles 1 in. long, bracteate ; bracts green, ovate, acuminate, 
toothed or entire, pubescent above, margins often clothed with stipitate glands. 
Calyx-tube globose, naked or glandular; lobes ovate, acute, reflexed, pubescent out- 
side, woolly inside, usually with 1-3 bract-like outgrowths from margins. Petals 
creamy-white, broadly obovate, truncate ; carpels densely clothed with shining, 
bristle-like hairs. Styles hairy, coherent, exserted. Fruit globular, small, orange, 
naked ; sepals deciduous. 


Rosa Soulieana was discovered in Sze-chuan in the south-west of 
China by the Pere Soulie, and was named in compliment to him by 
Crepin, who in 1896 published his description, classing this Rose 
amongst the Systylae , that section of the genus so largely composed of 
Chinese and Japanese species. It is fairly common in the valley of 
the Yalung river, but does not occur east of this region. Its only 
affinity is with Rosa nioschata Mill., and, like that Rose, it is extremely 
fioriferous. It differs from it somewhat in its general aspect, in the 

57 


1 


ROSA SOULIEANA 

shape of its leaflets, which are oval and more rounded at the top and 
base, and in the form of its sepals, which are oval and shortened at the 
point. It varies from the other forms ot Rosa moschata in so many 
of its characters that Crepin had no hesitation in giving it specific rank. 
It is at flowering-time that it shows most resemblance to Rosa moschata , 
with its small, pure white flowers and straw-coloured buds borne in 
corymbs ; and again in autumn, when it is covered with masses of 
small, orange-coloured hips. 

Rosa Soulieana is in cultivation at Kew ; it is very free-growing and 
perfectly hardy. 


58 







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1 

I 

! 






i 9 — ROSA WICHURAIANA Crep. 

Rosa IV ichuraiana : caule longe repente, ad nodos saepe radicante ; aculeis 
sparsis, conformibus, modice robustis, leviter falcatis; foliolis 5-7, oblongis, obtusis, 
parvis, subcoriaceis, simpliciter serratis, utrinque viridibus, glabris, facie nitidulis ; 
stipulis adnatis, laciniatis, apice libero ovato ; rhachi glabra ; floribus multis, pani- 
culatis ; pedicellis nudis vel parce setosis ; bracteis lanceolatis, laciniatis, parvis ; 
calycis tubo globoso, nudo ; lobis ovatis, acuminatis, simplicibus, dorso glabris ; 
petalis albis, parvis, cuneatis, apice emarginatis ; stylis villosis, coalitis, distincte 
protrusis ; fructu globoso, parvo, nudo, rubro, serotino ; sepalis deciduis. 

R. Wichuraiana Crepin in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xxv. pt. 2, p. 189 (1886). — 
Sargent in Garden and Forest , vol. iv. p. 570, fig. 89, p. 569 (1891). — Bean in Card. 
Chron. ser. 3, vol. xxii. p. 99, fig. 28 (1897). — Mottet in Rev. Hort. 1898, p. 104, 
figs. 45, 46. — Rehder in Bailey, Cycl. Am. Hort. vol. iv. p. 1550 (1902). 

R. Luciae Franchet & Savatier, Rnum. PI. Jap. vol. i. p. 135 (ex parte) (1875) ; 
vol. ii. p. 344 (ex parte) (1876). — Hooker f. in Bot. Mag. vol. cxxi. t. 7421 (1895). 

Stem trailing widely, often rooting at the nodes ; prickles scattered, uniform, 
moderately robust, slightly hooked. Leaflets 5-7, small, oblong, obtuse, rather firm, 
bright green, shining above, glabrous on both surfaces, simply toothed ; petioles 
glabrous; stipules adnate, laciniated, with small, ovate, free tips. Flowers many, 
panicled ; pedicels naked or slightly setose; bracts small, lanceolate, laciniated. 
Calyx-tube small, globose, naked; lobes ovate-acuminate, i in. long, simple, glabrous 
on the back. Petals small, pure white, cuneate at the base, emarginate at the apex. 
Styles villous, united in a distinctly protruded column. Fruit small, globose, naked, 
bright red, not ripening till late autumn ; sepals deciduous. 


Rosa Wi ichuraiana was named after the German botanist Wichura, 
who accompanied the German expedition to China and Japan in 
1859-61. He died in 1866. The Rose came to England about 1890 
by way of the United States, where it had already become popular 
and was largely grown, notably in the Franklin Park, Boston, where 
it was employed with great success in covering banks and rocky slopes. 
It had been sent from Berlin by Louis Spath in 1888 to the Arnold 
Arboretum as Rosa bracteata , but proved to be Rosa Wichuraiana 
of Crepin, who first called attention to its distinctive characters in 
1886. At that date it was already in cultivation at Munich and 
Brussels. It had previously been confounded with Rosa Luciae F ranch. 
& Rochebr., and still earlier with Rosa sempervirens L. Although in 
a dried state it is difficult to distinguish Rosa Wichuraiana from some 

59 


ROSA WICHURAIANA 

nmltiflora varieties, from a horticultural point of view it exhibits some 
very marked differences, such as its decumbent habit and the late 
period of its flowering, which is prolonged long after the Rose season 
has passed. It is one of the most valuable of our recent introductions, 
for its prostrate growth, its bright, glistening, box-like foliage and its 
abundant small white flowers with delicious wild-rose fragrance. In 
the type the branches, which lie closely upon the ground, often extend 
to fifteen feet or more ; but hitherto this distinctive characteristic has 
not been transmitted to the hybrids, which are inclined to be more 
rampant and to throw up strong erect or arching branches instead of 
the creeping and trailing growths of the type ; the box-like leaflets 
have likewise disappeared. The aim now should be to retain these 
good qualities, and with a Rose which hybridises so freely this ought 
not to be an insurmountable difficulty. Although none of the hybrids 
have preserved the main Wichuraiana features, they form nevertheless 
a very beautiful race of Roses, which has been a great addition to our 
gardens. Among the most notable of them is jersey Beauty , raised 
in New Jersey by Manda in 1899, with almost persistent foliage and 
large, single flowers, which in the bud state are pale chrome in colour 
and change to cream white in the expanded flower. Rene Andre 
resulted from a cross with L Ideal, and has inherited something of the 
soft sunset colouring together with the tea scent of its parent. Perhaps 
the greatest favourite of all the Wichuraiana hybrids is the charming 
Dorothy Perkins, whose beautiful pure pink flowers resemble a clustered 
Rose de Meaux . It is impossible here to enumerate all the hybrids 
of this Rose which are deserving of notice, and many of which are 
extremely beautiful, although we are now only at the beginning of 
what may be accomplished in this direction by judicious hybridising. 
There is a great future for W ichuraiana hybrids, and we may confidently 
hope to see a glorified race retaining the foliage, habit and constitution 
of the type together with variety of colour and the true Rose scent. 
In the type we have the wild-rose odour, and Rene Andre is tea- 
scented, but in no hybrid so far have we the exquisite fragrance of the 
Provence Roses. 

Roses vary as much in perfume as they do in colour ; each has its 
own distinctive scent, except in the instances, sad to say far too frequent 
among the newer Roses, where the flowers are absolutely devoid of 
any fragrance whatever. 


60 


II 



i 9 — ROSA WICHU RAIANA 










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2o— ROSA JACKSONI Hort. 

(ROSA RUGOSA x WICHURAIANA) 

Rosa Jacksoni : caulibus brevibus, arcuatis ; aculeis inaequalibus, haud densis, 
rectis, gracilibus ; foliolis 7-9, oblongis, obtusis, firmis, glabris, late breviter sim- 
pliciter serratis ; rhachi aciculata, haud glandulosa ; stipulis adnatis, apicibus liberis 
ovatis ; floribus pluribus, corymbosis ; pedicellis leviter aciculatis; calycis tubo 
globoso, leviter aciculato ; lobis ovato-lanceolatis, apicibus elongatis, dorso leviter 
glandulosis ; petalis magnis, rubris ; stylis liberis, haud prompts ; fructu globoso, 
rubro. 

Stems low, arching ; prickles very unequal, not dense, straight, slender, the 
largest £ in. long. Leaflets 7-9, oblong, obtuse, firm, glabrous or nearly so, openly 
shallowly simply serrated ; petioles aciculate, not glandular; stipules adnate, with 
ovate free tips. Flowers several, corymbose ; pedicels slightly aciculate. Calyx- 
tube globose, slightly aciculate ; lobes ovate-lanceolate, with long leafy tips, slightly 
glandular on the back. Petals large, bright crimson. Styles free, not protruded 
beyond the disc. Fruit urceolate-globose or ampullaeform, bright red, much 
smaller than in Rosa rugosa. 


Rosa Jacks om is one of the numerous hybrids to which these two 
Roses ( Rosa IV ichuraiana and Rosa rugosa) have given rise. It was 
raised at the Arnold Arboretum by Mr. Jackson Dawson, and was 
sent from thence to Kew in 1897; it is thus one of the earliest of the 
IV ichuraiana hybrids. It is exactly intermediate between its parents, 
and is of graceful habit and good constitution, often making shoots 
seven to eight feet long in one season. It is extremely floriferous and 
is in every way an acquisition to a garden. 


63 


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2o— ROSA JACKSONI 

(RUGOSA x WICHURAIANA) 














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2i— ROSA ANEMONEFLORA Fort. 

Rosa anemonejlora: caule elongate, sarmentoso ; aculeis parvis, sparsis ; foliolis 
3-5, ovato-lanceolatis, angustis, acuminatis, argute serratis, facie glabris, dorso 
glaucis ; rhachi aculeata ; stipulis angustis, integris, subglandulosis, apicibus liberis, 
subulatis ; floribus parvis, corymbosis ; pedunculis glabris ; calycis tubo ovato- 
urceolato, nudo ; lobis subintegris, glabris ; stylis coalitis. 

R. anemonejlora Fortune ex Lindley in Jonrn. Hort . Soc. vol. ii. p. 316(1847). 
— Regel in Act. Hort. Petrop. vol. v. pt. 2, p. 367 (Tent. Ros. Monogr. p. 83 [1877]) 
(1878).— Crepin in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xxii. pt. 2, p. 45 (1881); vol. xxv. pt. 2, 
p. 195 (1886). 

Stem long, sarmentose ; prickles small, scattered. Leaflets 3-5, narrow, 
acuminate, ovate-lanceolate, finely serrated, glaucous beneath, glabrous on the upper 
surface ; petioles aculeate ; stipules narrow, entire, subglandular ; auricles subulate. 
Flowers small, corymbose; peduncles glabrous. Calyx-tube ovate-urceolate, naked ; 
lobes subentire, glabrous. Petals small, white, rounded. Styles united in a column. 


This Rose was found growing in the gardens of Shanghai by 
Fortune, who in the autumn of 1844 sent it to Chiswick, where it was 
grown. Two years later it was described by Lindley in th Journal 
of the Horticultural Society l 

Crepin was of opinion that the single form had been found pre- 
viously to the discovery of the double variety by Fortune, judging 
from an interesting series of specimens sent to him for examination from 
St. Petersburg, where they had been raised from seed collected in 
southern China. He also found in the Vienna herbarium, in company 
with some of F'ortune’s specimens, an old specimen which had come 
from Portenschlag’s collection. 

In many respects Rosa anemonejlora resembles Rosa macrocarpa 
L. and Rosa moschata Mill. It may readily be distinguished from 
other Roses of the Systylae section by its narrow acuminate leaflets, 
usually three, occasionally five, on the stem leaves. The individual 
flowers bear a close resemblance to the double A nemone nemorosa L. ; 
they are disposed in corymbs and are of a dull white. This Rose is 
seldom to be met with in gardens, but it is altogether so distinct that 
it should be included in every collection of Roses. A severe winter 

1 Vol. ii. p. 316(1847). 

67 


ROSA ANEMONEFLORA 

is apt to cut back the ends of its branchlets ; these leafless branchlets 
remaining on the plant while it is in flower give it a very characteristic 
appearance. 

There is an excellent plate of it in the Revue Horticole of 1849, 
together with a description by F. Herincq 1 of the plant growing in 
Hippolyte Jamain’s garden at Bourgda-Reine. 

The plant figured here is growing at Warley. 

1 p. 281, fig. 15. 


68 


22— ROSA PHOENICEA Boiss. 


THE PHOENICIAN ROSE 

Rosa phoenicea: ramis elongatis, sarmentosis ; aculeis sparsis, conformibus, 
falcatis ; foliolis 3-7, oblongis, obtusis, teneris, dentibus simplicibus, ovatis, apertis, 
facie ciliatis, dorso parce pubescentibus ; rhachi pubescente et aciculata, parce 
glandulifera ; stipulis adnatis, apicibus liberis ovatis, parvis ; floribus pluribus, 
corymboso-paniculatis, ramis inferioribus foliis compositis stipatis ; pedicellis nudis 
vel glandulosis ; calycis tubo angusto, nudo ; lobis ovatis, acuminatis, copiose pinnati- 
fidis ; petalis albis, magnitudine mediocribus ; stylis glabris, coalitis, protrusis ; 
fructu globoso, parvo, rubro, nudo; sepalis deciduis. 

R. phoenicea Boissier, Diagn. PI. Orient. Nov. fasc. x. p. 4 (1849); FI. Orient. 
vol. ii. p. 688 (1872). — Deseglise in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xv. p. 206 (Cat. Rais. 
Ros. p. 37 [1877]) (1876).— Crepin in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xviii. pp. 318-322 
(Primit. Monogr. Ros. fasc. v. pp. 564-8) (1880); vol. xxxi. pt. 2, pp. 57-61 (1892). — 
Christ in Boissier, FI. Orient. Suppl. p. 228 (1888). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendrol. 
p. 278 (1893). — Post, Ft. Syria , p. 309 (1896). 

Branches long, sarmentose ; prickles scattered, uniform, hooked, moderately 
large. Leaflets 3-7, oblong, obtuse, thin, the end one i-ii in. long, openly simply 
bluntly toothed, glabrous on the upper surface when mature, slightly pubescent 
beneath ; petioles pubescent, aciculate, slightly glandular ; stipules adnate, with 
small ovate free points. Flowers many, arranged in a corymbose panicle, the 
lower branches of which are subtended by compound leaves ; pedicels naked or 
glandular. Calyx-tube narrow, naked; ovate-acuminate, -J-f in. long, copiously 
compound. Petals pure white, middle-sized. Styles glabrous, united in a protruded 
column. Fruit globose, bright red, naked, J in. diameter ; sepals spreading, 
deciduous. 


Rosa phoenicea ranges from the Troad eastward to Syria, and is one 
of the commonest Roses in Palestine, ascending the mountains to an 
altitude of 6,000 feet. I ts area ol distribution thus forms a link between 
Rosa sempermrens L., which does not extend eastward beyond Greece, 
and Rosa moschata Mill , which is found in Persia on one side and in 
Abyssinia and the south of Arabia on the other. Although a perfectly 
distinct and well-marked species, it has been persistently misunder- 
stood by the various botanists who collected it on Mount Taurus, at 
Damascus, Beyrout, etc. Boissier was the first to distinguish it clearly 
as a new species and to describe it under the name of Rosa phoenicea. 
In affinity it stands next to Rosa moschata Mill., from which it differs by 

69 k 


ROSA PHOENICEA 

its thin, obtuse leaflets, usually five in number, with open ovate teeth, 
the lower branches of the panicle subtended by compound leaves, its 
glabrous styles and very compound sepals. The flowers are white 
and in appearance much resemble Rosa moschata Mill. ; the form of 
inflorescence is likewise similar, frequently displaying as many as forty 
flowers to a panicle. With Rosa sempervirens L. it has also some affinity, 
but is easily distinguishable from that species by the difference in 
some of the most important characters. It is not often met with in 
cultivation, but is perfectly hardy in England. 


70 


ROSA SETIGERA 





2 3 


ROSA SETIGERA Michx. 


THE PRAIRIE ROSE 

Rosa setigera: caulibus longis, erectis, arcuatis; aculeis parvis, sparsis, robustis; 
foliolis plerumque ternis, oblongis, acutis, simpliciter serratis, facie glabris, dorso 
pubescentibus ; rhachi pubescente, parce setosa et aciculata ; stipulis longe adnatis, 
apicibus liberis ovato-lanceolatis ; floribus paucis, laxe corymbosis ; bracteis parvis, 
linearibus ; pedicellis setosis ; calycis tubo turbinato ; lobis oblongis, acutis, saepe 
simplicibus, dorso pubescentibus et glandulosis; petalis cuneatis, emarginatis, roseis 
vel albis; stylis in columnam protrusam coalitis; fructu globoso, rubro, magnitudine 
mediocri, nudo ; sepal is caducis. 

R. setigera Michaux, FI. Bor. Am. vol. i. p. 295 (1803). — Lindley, Ros. Monogr. 
p. 128, No. 73 (1820).— Gray, Man. Bot. North U. States , p. 127 (1848). — Chapman, 
FI. South U. States, p. 125 (i860). — S. Watson in Smithsonian Mi sc. Coll. vol. xv. 
p. 313 (1878). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendrol. p. 278 (1893). — Sargent in Garden and 
Forest , vol. x. p. 320, fig. 42 (1897). — Rehder in Bailey, Cycl. Am. Hort. vol. iv. 
p. 1550 (1902). 

R. rubifolia Aiton, Hort. Kew. ed. 2, vol. iii. p. 260 (181 1). — Thory in Redoute, 
Roses, vol. iii. p. 71, t. (1824). 

R. setigera, var. tomentosa Torrey & Gray, FI. N. Amer. vol. i. p. 458 (1838). — 
Rehder in Bailey, Cycl. Am. Hort. vol. iv. p. 1550 (1902). 

Stem very tall and arching; prickles small, scattered, uniform, robust. Leaflets 
usually 3, very rarely 5, ovate or oblong, acute, thin, simply serrated, glabrous 
on the upper surface, pubescent beneath, the end one 2 or 3 in. long ; petioles 
pubescent and slightly aciculate and setose ; stipules adnate, gland-edged, with 
small, ovate-lanceolate, free tips. Flowers few, laxly corymbose ; pedicels setose ; 
bracts small, linear. Calyx-tube turbinate, naked or slightly glandular; lobes oblong- 
cuspidate, in. long, pubescent and glandular on the back. Corolla pink or white, 
ii or 2 in. in diameter; petals obovate-cuneate, emarginate. Styles united in a 
protruded column. Fruit globose, middle-sized, red, naked ; sepals deciduous. 


The Prairie Rose is found in a wild state from Florida and Texas 
northward to the Great Lakes, but does not extend westwards as far 
as the Rocky Mountains. According to Crepin , 1 this Rose is the only 
American representative of the section Systylae . 

It is a very distinct species and is not so much cultivated as it 
deserves. Parkman 2 suggests that perhaps national prejudice may to 

1 Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xv. p. 27 ( Primit . Monogr. Ros. fasc. iv. p. 388) (1876). 

2 Book of Roses, p. 155 (1866). 


7 1 


ROSA SETIGERA 


\ 


a certain extent account for its unpopularity in England, but a better 
reason may be found in the fact that there are such countless numbers 
of Roses in cultivation from which to make a choice. The type is some- 
what coarse in growth, and the deep pink of its flowers is not a shade 
which is generally popular. It is furthermore deficient in fragrance. 
But Rivers was too severe in saying of the Prairie Roses, “I will 
dismiss them with the remark that none of them are worth cultivating .” 1 
Where space can be given this Rose should certainly be grown, not 
only on account of its beautiful foliage and abundant flowers, but 
because it is the latest to blossom of all the single Roses. It is ex- 
ceedingly hardy and will grow and flourish under conditions which 
would discourage many other Roses of greater beauty but of less robust 
constitution. A Rose which blossoms so late in the season is valuable 
in prolonging our enjoyment of single Roses, and in the chance that it 
might be the parent of a Rose which might be expected to flower after 
all other varieties had passed, and perpetuate the many good qualities 
of the Prairie Rose. 

It forms fine hybrids with Rosa gallica L., and other species. 
Among these may be mentioned Queen of the Prairies , a Rose so 
hardy and of such easy culture that it is of great value when wall space 
has to be covered quickly. This hybrid blooms profusely, and with 
its ample foliage of tender green it cannot fail to be admired. Balti- 
more Belle is also one of the best known of its hybrids. The pollen 
parent of this Rose is probably a Noisette Rose, which would account 
for the delicacy and beauty of its flowers. It may be grown either as 
a standard or a trellis Rose. 

Professor Sargent says that the Prairie Rose sometimes forms 
shoots twelve or fifteen feet long in a single season, and that the following 
year these bear short ascending flowering branches. 

1 Rose Amateur's Guide , ed. ii, p. 87 (1877). 


72 


24 


ROSA SINOWILSONI Hemsl. 


Rosa Sinowilson i : caule elongato, sarmentoso ; aculeissparsis, falcatis, aequalibus ; 
foliolis 5-7, oblongis, acutis, magnis, simpliciter serratis, rigidis utrinque glabris ; 
rhachi glabra, parce aciculata ; stipulis adnatis, angustissimis, apicibus liberis, 
deltoideis, parvis ; floribus pluribus in paniculum corymbosum dispositis ; pedicellis 
elongatis, glabris ; calycis tubo subgloboso, nudo ; lobis lanceolatis vel ovato- 
lanceolatis, parce appendiculatis ; lobis linearibus, dorso glabris ; petalis albis, latis, 
sepalis duplo longioribus, dorso pubescentibus ; stylis coalitis, longe protrusis ; 
fructu subgloboso, nudo ; sepalis deciduis. 

R. Sinowilsoni Hemsley in Kew Bull. 1906, No. 5, p. 158. 

Stems sarmentose, 12-20 feet ; prickles scattered, falcate, uniform. Leaflets 5-7, 
oblong, acute, rounded at the base, 3-4 in. long, simply serrated, firm in texture, 
glabrous on both surfaces ; petioles glabrous, with a few small hooked prickles ; 
stipules adnate, very narrow, with small deltoid free tips. Flowers many, arranged 
in a very lax corymbose panicle ; pedicels glabrous, one or two inches long. Calyx- 
tube subgiobose, glabrous, in. long ; lobes ovate-lanceolatq, with a few linear erecto- 
patent appendages, naked beneath. Petals white, broad, twice as long as the sepals, 
pubescent on the outside. Styles united in a long column protruded beyond the 
disc. Fruit subgiobose, glabrous ; sepals deciduous. 


This very fine new species comes nearest to Rosa moschata Mill., 
from which it differs by its very lax panicle, long pedicels and compound 
sepals. It is also much larger in all its parts. It was found by Mr. 
E. H. Wilson, after whom it is named, on Mount Omi and the hills 
to the south in the province of Sze-chuan in the south-west of China, 
at an elevation of 2,000 to 4,000 feet above sea-level. 


73 




















25— ROSA KELLERI Baker 

Rosa Kelleri : caule elongato ; aculeis validis, conformibus, sparsis, falcatis ; 
foliolis 7-9, ellipticis, acutis, simpliciter late dentatis, facie glabris, dorso ad costam 
pilosulis ; rhachi parce glandulosa ; stipulis adnatis, glabris, denticulatis, apicibus 
liberis, angustis, acutis, divergentibus ; fioribus pluribus, corymboso-paniculatis ; 
pedicel li s elongatis, glabris ; bracteis linearibus ; cal yds tubo globoso ; lobisovatis, 
apice linearibus, parce appendiculatis, dorso glabris ; petalis albis, magnitudine 
mediocribus ; stylis coalitis, glabris, protrusis ; fructu ignoto. 

R. Kelleri Baker inedit. 

R. coreana Keller in Engler, ] a hr buck, vol. xliv. p. 46 (1909) [non R. koreana 
Komarov in Act . Hort. Petrop. vol. xviii. p. 434 [1901]). 

Stems long ; prickles stout, equal, scattered, falcate. Leaflets 7-9, elliptical, 
acute, i-i| in. long, simply openly toothed, glabrous on the upper surface, pubescent 
on the midrib beneath ; petioles slightly glandular; stipules adnate, narrow, denticu- 
late, with narrow, acute, divergent free tips. Flowers many, arranged in a corymbose 
panicle ; pedicels long, naked ; bracts linear. Calyx-tube globose, naked ; lobes ovate 
with a linear tip, slightly compound, glabrous on the back. Petals white, about an 
inch long. Styles glabrous, united in a protruded column. Fruit not seen. 


This new species is nearly allied to Rosa multi-flora Thunb., from 
which it differs by its non-laciniated stipules and larger flowers. It 
was found near Kan-ouen-to, in the Korea, by the Abbe Faurie. 
Rosa koreana of Komarov is closely allied to Rosa spinosissima L. 



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LONDON 

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III 








INDICAE 





























2 6 — ROSA CHINENSIS Jacq. 

(ROSA INDICA Lindl.) 

Rosa chinensis : caule arcuato ; aculeis sparsis, conformibus, falcatis ; foliolis 
5-7, oblongis, acutis, viridibus, simpliciter serratis, utrinque glabris ; rhachi glabra ; 
stipulis adnatis, apice libero ovato ; floribus paucis, corymbosis ; pedunculis nudis 
vel parce setosis ; calycis tubo subgloboso ; lobis dorso glabris, apice elongatis, 
simplicibus vel parce pinnatifidis ; petalis plerumque rubris ; stylis liberis, inclusis; 
fructu turbinato, rubro ; sepalis caducis. 

R . chinensis Jacquin, Obs. Bot. vol. iii. p. 7, t. 55 (1768). — Thory in Redoutd, 
Roses, vol. i. p. 49, t. (1817). — K. Koch, DendroL vol. i. p. 272 (1869). — Koehne, 
Deutsche DendroL p. 280 (1893). — Rehder in Bailey, Cycl. Am. Hort. vol. iv. p. 155 
(1902). — C. K. Schneider, III . Handbuch Laubholzk. vol. i. p. 546 (1906). 

R. sinica Linnaeus, Syst. Reg. ed. 13, p. 394 (form with monstrous calyx) (1774). 

R. canina Thunberg, FI. Jap. p. 214 ( non Linnaeus) (1784). 

R. semperflorens carnea Roessig, Die Rosen, No. 19 (1802-1820). 

R. indica Lindley, Ros. Monogr. p. 106, No. 58 (1820). — Lawrance, Roses, t. 6 
(1799). — Aiton, Hort. Kew. ed. 2, vol. iii. p. 266 (1811). — Thory in Redouts, Roses, 
vol. i. p. 49, t. (1817). — Hooker/!, FI. Brit. Ind. vol. ii. p. 364 (1879). — Crepin in 
Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xxv. pt. 2, p. 14 (1886). — Forbes & Hemsley in Journ. 
Linn. Soc. vol. xxiii. p. 249 (1887). 

Stems green, moderately tall, arching ; prickles scattered, uniform, stout, hooked. 
Leaflets 5-7, oblong, acute, green, middle-sized, simply serrated, glabrous on both 
surfaces ; petioles glabrous ; stipules adnate, with small ovate free tips. Flowers 
1-5, corymbose ; peduncles naked or slightly setose ; bracts lanceolate. Calyx-tube 
subglobose, naked ; lobes ovate, long pointed, naked on the back, simple or slightly 
compound. Fetals pink in the typical form. Styles free, included. Fruit turbinate, 
naked, red ; sepals deciduous. 


The Chinese Monthly Rose has been cultivated from time im- 
memorial in the East, and is now the most popular and widely grown 
Rose in Europe. Through its many varieties and hybrids it is the 
parent of a large proportion of the Roses now in cultivation. Of its 
country and origin nothing can be ascertained, but it does not appear 
to have been known in England before Sir Joseph Banks introduced 
it in 1789, and it is recorded to have flowered for the first time in 
Mr. Parsons’ garden at Rickmansworth. It is not admitted by 
Hooker as a native of India, nor does Matsumura include it in the 

79 


ROSA CHINENSIS 


flora of Japan. The oldest herbarium specimen known is that from 
Gronovius, in the British Museum, dated 1704. Nearly all the her- 
barium specimens seem to have been gathered from cultivated plants. 
The only wild specimens known are those collected by Dr. Henry in 
the glens near I chang in central China. He describes the growing 
plant as a large climbing shrub armed with brown, scattered, hooked 
prickles. Leaflets three to five, ovate or elliptic, acuminate, serrate, 
dark green above, glaucous below. The stipules are narrow, adnate 
almost to the top, finely serrated on the edge and ending in a subulate 
point. Contrary to the general rule among the cultivated forms of 
Rosa chinensis , these wild specimens have solitary flowers, usually red 
in colour, rarely pink. 

The Rosa indica of the Linnaean herbarium includes both the 
present plant and Rosa multiflora Thunb., and the figure of Petiver, 1 
which Linnaeus cites, represents Rosa microcarfta Lindl. There is a 
figure of it in part 27 of the Phonzo Zoufou. 

In the garden forms the flowers are usually produced at the 
extremities of the branches in a kind of panicle and are slightly scented ; 
some varieties, however, are very fragrant. Victor Hugo slandered 
the Bengal Rose when he said “Comme elle est sans epines, elle n’a 
pas d’odeur.” Under the name of Bengal Roses the French cultivate 
a large number of varieties which, from their perpetual blooming, hardi- 
ness and power of accommodating themselves to any aspect or situation, 
are invaluable among garden plants. The popular names given to 
this Rose, “Monthly Rose,” “Tous les Mois,” “ Quatre Saisons,” 
testify to its almost constant blooming. 

There is no more beautiful Rose in this section than Cramoisie 
Superieure, which combines all the qualities of the China Roses with 
a rich and glowing shade of red. It was raised in 1832 by Coquereau, 
an amateur living near Angers, and came into the hands of Vibert, 
who distributed it in 1835. It has transmitted its beautiful colour to 
many hybrids, all of which possess the great advantage of keeping their 
colour unchanged even in fallen petals or withered flowers. 

That useful, sweet and free-blooming Rose Mrs. Bosanquet may 
be mentioned here, for, although a hybrid, it has all the characters of a 
China Rose much pronounced. 

The curious Green Rose belongs to this section. It is in no way 
beautiful, but is remarkable from having all its floral organs transformed 
into leaves. 

An early mention of the China Rose is to be found in the Memoirs 
of Baroness d’Oberkirch : 2 

“ Haarlem, July ijth, 1782. 

“ I was delighted with Haarlem. We remained there several hours to admire 
the beautiful garden, and to see the gardener, who is celebrated throughout Europe. 

1 Gazophylacium , p. 56, t. 35, fig. 11 (1704). 2 Vol. ii. p. 118. 

80 









ROSA CHINENSIS 

The gardener showed us different kinds of plants with which we were unacquainted ; 
amongst others a shrub that produces magnificent flowers, of which the petals are 
soft as velvet, but odourless. He told us that it was called the Chinese Rose and 
had been imported within the last year with great care. Roses of this species may, 
in fact, be seen delineated on screens and in the corner of fans.” 

The variety known as Miss Willmotf s mdica (see accompanying 
plate) is a garden form. 


81 






27— ROSA CHINENSIS, var. LONGIFOLIA Rehder 

Rosa chinensis , var. longifolia : a typo recedit foliolis elongatis, lanceolatis. 

R. chinensis , var. longifolia Rehder in Bailey, Cycl. Am. Hort.vol. iv. p. 1551 
(1902). 

R. longifolia Willdenow, Sp. Plant, vol. ii. p. 1079 (1799). — Poiret in Lamarck’s 
Encycl. vol. vi. p. 296 (1804). — Thory in Redonte, Roses , vol. ii. p. 27, t. (1821). — 
Trattinnick, Ros. Monogr. vol. ii. p. 101 (1823). — Dds£glise in Bull. Soc. Bot . Belg. 
vol. xv. p. 231 {Cat. Rais. Ros. p. 62 [1877]) (1876). 

R. indie a, S longifolia Lindley, Ros. Monogr. p. 106 (1820). — Seringe in De 
Candolle, Prodr. vol. ii. p. 600 (1825). 

R. per sicifolia x salicifolia Hort. 


This is a slender variety of the Chinese Rose, with lanceolate 
leaflets, two or three inches long by a quarter of an inch broad. The 
flowers are smaller than in the type, and the flowering shoots usually 
without prickles. 

Lindley calls it the willow-leaved Chinese Rose, and adds that it 
has little to recommend it to notice. 

This Rose is figured by Andrews 1 under the name of Rosa fraxi- 
nellaefolia . 

1 Roses , vol. ii. t. ioo (1828). 


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28— ROSA CHINENSIS, var. PSEUDO-INDICA 


fortune’s double yellow, or BEAUTY of glazenwood 

Rosa chinensis , var. pseudo-indica (nov. nom .) : a typo recedit habitu sarmentoso, 
foliolis firmiotfbus, floriqus suaveolentibus, plenis, luteis, dorso rubro tinctis. 

R. pseudo-indica Lind ley, Ros. Monogr. p. 132 (1820). 

Fortune s Double Yellow Lindley in Journ. Hort. Soc. vol. vi. p. 52 (1851). — 
Hooker in Bot. Mag. vol. lxxviii. t. 4679 (1852). — Flore des Serres , vol. viii. t. 769 

(1852). 

R. Fortuniana Paxton, Flower Garden, vol. iii. p. 157 (1852-3). — Lemaire, 
Jar din Fleur, vol. iv. t. 361 (1853). 


Branches long and sarmentose ; prickles strongly hooked. Leaflets 5-7, oblong, 
iJ-2 in. long, glossy, firm in texture, sharply simply serrated ; petioles armed with 
hooks. Flowers often 3 or 4 in a corymb, sweet-scented, always double ; petals 
salmon-yellow, tinged on the outside with red. 


This Rose is hardly to be surpassed in beauty. It attracted the 
attention of the celebrated botanical collector Robert Fortune when, 
in 1842-6, he was travelling in China in search of new plants for the 
H orticultural Society of London. Whilst at Ningpo he paid frequent 
visits to the different nurseries, and also to the gardens of the Man- 
darins, which, although small, were extremely gay, particularly during 
the early months of the year, and contained a number of new plants of 
great beauty and interest. In his narrative 1 he thus describes his first 
view of the Rose: “On entering one of the gardens on a fine morning 
in May, I was struck by a mass of yellow flowers which completely 
covered a distant part of the wall ; the colour was not a common yellow, 
but had something of buff in it, which gave the flower a striking and 
uncommon appearance. I immediately ran up to the place, and to 
my surprise and delight found that I had discovered a most beautiful 
new yellow climbing Rose. I have no doubt from what I afterwards 
learned that this Rose is from the more northern districts of the Chinese 
empire and will prove perfectly hardy in England.” He sent plants 
to Chiswick in 1845. Lindley’s description sounds tame after Fortunes 


1 Journal of the Horticultural Society , vol. i. p. 218 (1846). 



M 


ROSA CHINENSIS, var. PSEUDO-INDICA 

glowing account ; he says it is a straggling plant with the habit of 
Rosa arvensis Huds., and that with its loose petals the whole flower 
has the aspect of a slightly domesticated wildling, but he adds that 
Mr. Fortune still continues to speak highly of its beauty in China. 

M essrs. Standish & Noble of Bagshot endeavoured to dispel the 
unfavourable opinion of Lindley, attributing the defects of the Rose 
to unsuccessful culture and injudicious pruning of the previous years 
growth upon which the flowers are produced. They certainly proved 
the truth of their remarks by exhibiting splendidly grown specimens, 
which in June 1852 were the admiration of all who saw them. Since 
then Fortunes Yellow has been grown in many parts of the country 
both in the open and under glass. It is hardy in most countries, but 
the inclemency of our climate often injures its blossoms. Grown in an 
orangery, where it has protection against the vagaries of an English 
summer, it is greatly admired not only for the rare beauty of its flowers 
but for the graceful wreaths in which it produces them. For many 
years a beautiful mass of its flowers has been exhibited at the Royal 
H orticultural Shows, sent from the garden of Lady Wantage at 
Lockinge. 

As this Rose is sometimes erroneously called Rosa Fortuniana it 
is as well to explain here that the mistake has arisen from what was 
probably a clerical error in Paxton’s Flozver Garden , vol. iii. p. 157, 1 
where, under the heading Rosa Fortuniana , is quoted the description of 
Fortune s Yellow Rose which had previously appeared in the Botanical 
Magazine. The true Rosa Fortuniana is described in the Flower 
Garden , vol. ii. p. 71, 2 and the description is accompanied by a good 
black-and-white drawing. There is no similarity between Fortunes 
Yellow and the true Rosa Fortuniana, which is a large-flowered 
Banksian Rose, probably a hybrid of Rosa Banksiae Ait. and Rosa 
laevigata Michx., whereas Fortunes Yellow Rose, according to Crepin, 3 
may be a garden form of Rosa gigantea Collett ex Crep. 

A writer in the Gardener s Chronicle , June 3rd, 1856, describing 
a visit to the Horticultural Society’s garden at Chiswick, says: “As to 
Fortune’s climbing Yellow China, its rich nankeen colour was actually 
glowing with salmon, the house was piled with gigantic Roses, sweeter 
than the sweetest of the Eastern world.” 

1 1852-3. 2 1851-2. 

3 Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xxvii. p. 150 (18S8) ; vol. xxviii. pt. 2, p. 11 (1889). 


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ROSA INDICA var GRAND1FLORA 




















































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29 — ROSA CHINENSIS, var. GRANDIFLORA Hort. 

Rosa chinensis , var. grandiflora : inter formas hujus speciei distincta floribus 
magnis, albis, simplicibus. 


This is a fine form of Rosa chinensis Jacq., with very large shell- 
pink and white flowers, and approaches most nearly to Rosa gigantea 
of Collett. All attempts to trace the origin of this beautiful Rose have 
failed, for no mention of it has been made in any of the books on 
Roses, and it has not been figured. The only specimen known was 
found growing in Canon Ellacombe’s garden at Bitton in Gloucester- 
shire, and it is through his generosity that the plant has lately been 
distributed. 


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30 — ROSA CH INENSIS, var. SEMPERFLORENS Koehne 

Rosa chinensis , var. semperflorens : a typo recedit caulibus aculeisque graci- 
lioribus, foliolis minoribus, rubro tinctis, petalis saturate rubris. 

R. chinensis , var. semperflorens Koehne, Deutsche Dendrol. p. 281 (1893). — K. 
Koch, Dendrol. vol. i. p. 273 (1869). 

R. semperflorens Curtis in Bot. Mag. vol. viii. t. 284 (1784). — Jacquin, Hort. 
Schoen. vol. iii. t. 281 (1798). — Roessig, Die Rosen, Nos. 12, 19(1802-1820). — Aiton 
in Hort. Kew. ed. 2, vol. iii. p. 266 (1811). — Lindley, Ros. Monogr . p. 108, No. 59 
(1820). 

R. diver si folia Ventenat, Jard. Cels , t. 35 (1800). 

R. bengalensis Persoon, Syn. vol. ii. p. 50 (1807). 

R. indie a, var. semperflorens Seringe in De Candolle, Prodr. vol. ii. p. 601 (1825). 

Stem long, slender. Prickles uniform, slender. Leaflets 5-7, ovate, simply 
toothed, glabrous, more or less tinged with dark red. Flowers often solitary ; 
pedicels naked. Calyx-tube oblong, naked; lobes ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, simple, 
i in. long. Petals dark red. Fruit bright red. Sepals deciduous, spreading. 


As its name implies, this Rose is rarely without flowers, and it is 
for its beauty and hardiness one of the most valuable acquisitions to 
our gardens. It was introduced into England in 1 789 by Gilbert Slater 
of Knots Green. He was an enthusiastic and successful gardener, and 
was the means of introducing into this country many rare plants, which 
he readily distributed amongst those of his friends who would cultivate 
them. It was through his generosity that this Rose was in a very 
short time to be found in most of the gardens in the neighbourhood of 
London. 


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3 1 


ROSA CHINENSIS, var. MINIMA Rehder 


THE FAIRY ROSE 

Rosa chinensis , var. minima: a typo partibus omnibus multo minoribus recedit. 

R. chinensis , var. minima Rehder in Bailey, Cycl. Am. Hort. vol. iv. p. 1 55 1 
(1902). 

R. semperflorens minima Sims in Bot . Mag. vol. xlii. t. 1762 (1815). 

R. Lawranceana Sweet, Hort. Suburb. Loud. p. 119 (1818). — Lindley, Ros. 
Monogr. p. no (1820); Bot. Reg. vol. vii. t. 538 (1821). — Ddsdglise in Butt. Soc. 
Bot. Betg. vol. xv. p. 229 (Cat. Rais. Ros. p. 60 [1877]) (1876). 

R. indica pumita Thory in Redout e, Roses, vol. i. p. 1 15, t. (1817); vol. ii. p. 25, 
t. (1821). 

R. indica , var. humilis Seringe in De Candolle, Prodr. vol. iL p. 600 (1825). 


The first drawing of this charming little Rose appears in the 
Botanical Magazine of 1815, where it is called “ Rosa semperflorens 
minima, Miss Lawrance’s Rose.” Mr. Hudson of the War Office 
sent the flower from which the drawing was made. The next plate 
is that in the Bota 7 iical Register of 1821 under the name of Rosa 
Lawranceana. Redoutd’s drawing was made about the same time. 
Redoutd also gives a drawing of a dwarf double-flowered Rose, Rosa 
indica , var. pumila , which gives the idea of a stronger-growing Rose, 
but it is evidently intended for the double form of Miss Lawrance’s 
Rose because it came from Colville’s Nursery at Chelsea, where this 
Rose is known to have been growing. 

Although not such a favourite as formerly, the double form and 
its varieties are often to be seen, and may readily be known by their 
diminutive size. It is in fact a China Rose much dwarfed in all its 
parts, probably by the art of some Chinese or Japanese cultivator. 
The flowers are about an inch in diameter, and the ovate leaflets under 
half an inch long. In general appearance it much resembles a diminu- 
tive Pompon de Mai of the Parisian markets. It is often known as 
the Fairy Rose, a name which well describes it. Although of easy 
cultivation it requires attention to ensure its full beauty. Grown from 
cuttings it thrives and flowers in an incredibly short space of time, 
indeed it will often flower within a month of the cuttings having taken 


ROSA CHINENSIS, var. MINIMA 

root. Care must be taken to prune hard, for the old wood is apt to 
become hard and dry. 

Paul in the ninth edition of his Rose Garden enumerates the 
following nine varieties : A Iba , Fairy, Gloire des Lawranceanas , Jenny , 
La Desiree , Nemesis , Nigra , Red Pet , Retonr du Printemps. 

Sweet introduced the original plant from the Mauritius in 1810 
and dedicated it to Miss Lawrance. It was in all probability the 
Rosa jmsilla of the Mauritius Botanic Garden Catalogue. When the 
Rose arrived in England Miss Lawrance was at the zenith of her fame. 
A successful exhibitor at the Royal Academy, and possessed of much 
personal charm, she was exceedingly popular in London, where her 
lessons were in great request. All that was interesting and beautiful 
in the Vine Nursery, Hammersmith, soon made its way to her house 
in Queen Anne Street. Not only Mr. Lee, but most of the other 
nurserymen, made a point of sending their new flowers to be drawn by 
her. It was thought to be an honour for the owner as well as for the 
flower when Miss Lawrance painted its portrait. Her book on Roses 
was published in 1 799, and the demand was far in excess of the number 
of copies printed. At the time it created much sensation, as nothing 
like it had been published before and Roses were beginning to take a 
prominent place in gardens and were rapidly gaining in popularity. Miss 
Lawrance married Mr. Ivearse in 1813, but she continued exhibiting 
and giving lessons until her death in 1830. The admiration excited 
by her flower pictures was partly due to the purity and delicacy of their 
colouring. She always attached great importance to the quality of her 
colours, which were all prepared at her own house and under her own 
supervision. The only other flower-book published by her was A 
Collection of Passion Flowers , 1799—1800. 


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32— ROSA CHINENSIS x MOSCHATA Koehne 


(ROSA NOISETTIANA Redoute) 

Rosa chinensis x moschata : caulibus longis, arcuatis vel sarmentosis ; aculeis 
sparsis, robustis, falcatis, conformibus ; foliolis 5-7 , oblongis, acutis, magnitudine 
mediocribus, simpliciter serratis, viridibus, facie glabris, dorso leviter pubescentibus ; 
rhachi pubescente,aciculata; stipulis angustis, adnatis, apicibus parvis, liberis, ovatis; 
floribus multis, corymbosis, plenis, magnitudine mediocribus, albis vel rubellis ; 
pedicellis nudis ; calycis tubo turbinato, nudo ; lobis parvis, simplicibus, ovato- 
cuspidatis, dorso nudis; stylis pubescentibus, leviter coalitis, protrusis; fructu parvo, 
rubro, globoso, nudo ; sepalis patulis, caducis. 

R. chinensis x moschata Koehne, Deutsche Dendrol. p. 279 (1893). 

R. Noisettiana Thory in Redoute, Roses , vol. ii. p. 77, t. (1821). 

R. indica , var. Noisettiana Seringe in De Candolle, Prodr. vol. ii. p. 600 (1825). 
— Loudon, Arboretum , vol. ii. p. 770, fig. 505 (1838). 

Stems tall, arching or sarmentose ; prickles stout, hooked, uniform, scattered. 
Leaflets 5-7, oblong, acute, middle-sized, simply toothed, green, glabrous on the 
upper surface, slightly pubescent beneath ; petioles pubescent and aciculate ; stipules 
narrow, adnate, with small, ovate, free tips. Flowers many (up to 20-30) in a corymb, 
double, middle-sized, white or pink ; pedicels naked. Calyx-tube turbinate, naked ; 
lobes small, simple, ovate-cuspidate, naked on the back. Styles pubescent, loosely 
coherent, protruded beyond the disc. Fndt rarely produced, small, red, globose, 
naked ; sepals spreading, deciduous. 


This Rose is generally believed to have been raised at Charleston, 
South Carolina, in 1816 by Philippe Noisette, a French florist, who 
sent it to Paris to his brother, Louis Noisette, with whom it flowered 
for the first time in the year 1818. John Champney, another nursery- 
man of Charleston, likewise claimed to have raised it. His version 
was that he raised the first cross between Rosa chinensis and Rosa 
moschata , the result being Champney’s Pink Cluster ; from this seedling 
Philippe Noisette then raised the Blush Noisette, and this was the plant 
sent to Louis Noisette. In any case, however, it was Noisette who 
raised the Blush Noisette Rose. The new seedling had the vigorous 
constitution of Rosa moschata together with a profuse clustered inflor- 
escence, and Noisette, recognizing its value, carefully propagated it. 
Philippe Noisette also sent plants to Lendormi, an amateur gardener at 
Rouen, and to J acques Durand, a tradesman also of Rouen ; these same 

93 * 


ROSA CHINENSIS x MOSCHATA 

plants were still growing in 1829. Durands plants on their own roots 
came into the possession of Prevost fils, the celebrated nurseryman of 
Rouen, who at once proceeded to develop them. He found that many 
of the hybrids when grafted gave a greater number of flowers which 
opened better and were more perfect in form, but he noticed that the 
grafts united with difficulty to the canina stock and that many after 
having made a certain amount of growth turned yellow and came apart. 

The Noisette Roses do not seed freely, and this may account for 
the comparatively small number of hybrids obtained from them ; other- 
wise a race which could produce such Roses as William A lien Richardson 
and Lamarque would surely be worth developing further. One of the 
best known of the Noisette Roses is Aimee Vibert (see accompanying 
plate), raised at Angers in 1828 by the celebrated rose-grower J.-P. 
Vibert, who named it after his daughter. It has always been a favourite 
in gardens, not only on account of its very beautiful white clustered 
flowers, but because it blossoms profusely and is at its best in autumn 
when other Roses begin to feel the approach of winter. It is a useful 
Rose for gathering, for its stems are stiff and long and well able to 
support the heavy clusters of flowers. With so many valuable traits 
it is not surprising that its popularity has never waned. It still remains 
the most beautiful white Noisette we have, and being a true Noisette is 
absolutely hardy. Vibert was right in expecting great things from his 
Rose. Writing to Mr. Lee of Hammersmith to announce the magni- 
ficent new Rose he had raised and named after his daughter Aimee, 
he said the English when they saw it would go down on their knees. 

The variety purpurea figured by Redoute is a stage nearer Rosa 
chmensis than the original cross, and it has rose-red flowers. It is the 
earliest of the red-flowered forms. In the ninth edition of Paul’s Rose 
Garden 1 thirty-five Noisette Roses are enumerated in addition to sixteen 
hybrids between Rosa mdica fragrans and Rosa moschata. 

1 Pages 318-321 (1888). 


94 



















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32 — ROSA CHINENSIS x MOSCHATA 


(NOISETTIANA) 



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33 


ROSA CHINENSIS x MULTIFLORA Hort. 

(FELLENBERG) 

Rosa chinensis x multijlora : caulibus arcuatis, glabris ; aciculis conformibus, 
sparsis, falcatis, haud stipularibus ; foliolis 7-9, oblongis, magnitudine mediocribus ; 
acutisvel obtusis, argute simpliciter serratis, utrinque glabris; rhachi glabra, aciculata, 
haud glandulosa; stipulis adnatis, marginibus glandulosis, haud laciniatis, apicibus 
liberis, patulis, ovatis ; floribus multis, corymbosis ; pedicellis nudis ; calycis tubo 
globoso, nudo ; lobis ovato-acuminatis, simplicibus vel modice compositis ; petalis 
rubellis ; stylis leviter connatis ; fructu globoso, rubro ; sepalis caducis. 

Stems arching, glabrous ; prickles uniform, scattered, hooked, none stipular. 
Leaflets 7-9, oblong, middle-sized, acute or obtuse, simply sharply serrated, quite 
glabrous on both surfaces ; petioles glabrous, aciculate, not at all glandular; stipules 
adnate, edged with glands, not laciniated, with spreading ovate free tips. Flowers 
many, corymbose ; pedicels naked. Calyx-tube globose, naked ; lobes ovate-acuminate, 
| in. long, simple or slightly compound. Petals bright pink, much larger than in 
the double-flowered forms of Rosa multiflora Thunb. Styles slightly connate. 
Fruit globose, bright red ; sepals deciduous. 


This charming Rose was raised by Fellenberg, who distributed 
it in 1857. 

It was formerly better known in France under the name of La 
Belle Marseillaise. In England it has always enjoyed a well-merited 
popularity, for it is perhaps the freest and most continuous flowering 
of Roses known. Although in horticultural lists it is generally in- 
cluded under the Noisettes , its parentage is believed to be Rosa chinensis 
Jacq. x Rosa multijlora Thunb. It is, however, much nearer Rosa 
chinensis , and it has not the ciliated stipules which are a constant 
character in multijlora hybrids. It does not appear to have been either 
published or described, although constantly referred to in Rose lists 
and elsewhere. As with all the Roses in this section, cuttings root with 
extreme facility, and the plants thrive in any soil and in all situations. 
Planted as a hedge Rose, against a wall or in the wild garden, its fine 
corymbs of glowing carmine flowers are scarcely surpassed by any other 
member of this beautiful genus. 

De Pronville 1 alludes to this Rose as the “ Bengale a bouquets 
he says it was growing in the Trianon Nursery in 1818. 

1 Nomenclature du Genre Rosier , pp. 102, 104 (i8i8\ 

97 
















34— ROSA GI GAN TEA Collett ex Crep. 

Rosa gigantea: caule elongato, sarmentoso; aculeis sparsis, robustis, conformi- 
bus, falcatis; foliolis 5, oblongis, acutis, magnis, minute simpliciter serratis, utrinque 
viridibus, glabris ; rhachi glabra ; stipulis angustis, adnatis, apicibus liberis ovato- 
lanceolatis ; floribus solitariis; pedicellis nudis, glabris; calycis tubo oblongo, nudo; 
lobis simplicibus, lanceolatis, apice foliaceis, dorso glabris ; petalis magnis, albis, 
late cuneatis ; stylis pubescentibus, liberis, inclusis ; fructu globoso, glabro, nudo ; 
sepalis patulis, demum deciduis ; carpellis fructiferis, magnis, castaneis, nitidis, 
glabris. 

R. gigantea Collett ex Crepin in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xxvii. pt. 2, p. 148 
(1888); vol. xxviii. pt. 2, p. 11 (1889). — Card. Chron. ser. 3, vol. vi. p. 12, fig. 4 
(1889). — Collett & Hemsley in Journ. Linn. Soc. vol. xxviii. pp. 6, 55, t. 9 (1890). — 
Koehne, Deutsche Dendrol. p. 280 (1893). — Berger in Card. Chron. ser. 3, vol. xxiii. 
PP- 375, 376 (1898). — Rehder in Bailey, Cycl. Am. Hort. vol. iv. p. 1551 (1902). — 
Bot. Mag. vol. cxxx. t. 7972 (1904 )— Journ. As. Soc. Beng. vol. lxxiii. p. 203 (1904). — 
C. K. Schneider, III. Handbuch Laubholzk. vol. i. p. 545 (1906). — Brandis, Indian 
Trees , p. 287 (1906). 

Stems long, trailing ; prickles uniform, scattered, stout, hooked. Leaflets 5, 
large, oblong, acute, finely simply toothed, the end one 2F-3 in. long, the side ones 
distinctly stalked, green and glabrous on both surfaces ; petioles glabrous ; stipules 
adnate, narrow, with small, ovate-lanceolate free points. Flowers large, solitary; 
pedicels naked, glabrous. Calyx-tube oblong, naked ; lobes simple, lanceolate, with 
long foliaceous tips, ii-i-J in. long, glabrous on the back. Petals white, broadly 
cuneate, 2 in. long. Styles free, included, pubescent. Fruit globose, glabrous, naked, 
bright red ; sepals spreading, deciduous. Fruit carpels brown, shining, glabrous, 
i in. diameter. 


Rosa gigantea was collected in 1888 in the Shan Hills, Upper 
Burma, at elevations of 4,000 to 5,000 feet, by the late General Sir 
Henry Collett, who sent dried specimens to Kew and to the Calcutta 
Botanic Garden, whence they were sent to Crepin with the name 
gigantea suggested by the discoverer. It has also been collected by 
Mr. W. Hancock and Dr. A. Henry in Mengtze in the province of 
Yun-nan. .The flowers are said to be sometimes as much as fifteen 
inches in circumference. 

Rosa gigantea grows well on the Riviera, but, though it is quite 
hardy in England, the sun has not sufficient power to bring it to the 

99 


o 


ROSA GIGANTEA 

flowering stage. It blossomed for the first time in England at Albury 
Park, Guildford, in 1903. 

Rosa macrocarpa, which was found by Sir George Watt in Manipur 
in 1882, was believed by Crepin to be identical with Rosa gigantea , 
but Sir George himself considers them distinct. In an unpublished 
diary he gives the following description of Rosa macrocarpa , or, as he 
afterwards named it, Rosa xanthocarpa : 

“ An extensive climber, running over trees and forming at first straight 
unbranched stems, as thick as the arm, younger ones with a soft grey-brown bark 
and here and there short sharp hooked prickles ; above completely ramified until it 
envelopes the trees on which it is found. It thus produces a truly superb effect, and, 
when seen from a distance, causes the trees to appear like magnolias, with large 
yellow flowers. The leaves when young have a rich brownish green tint; when older 
they become pale shining green ; leaflets 5-7, ovate-oblong, acuminate, shortly and 
sharply serrate, the terminal one on a long petiole (1 in.), the others almost sessile ; 
stipules very long, linear, adnate throughout their length (except their spreading 
terminal arms) and thus extending along the greater portion of the leaf-stalk ; in 
the more vigorous shoots they are conspicuous and red-coloured, but in the older 
parts they become very narrow. Prickles very few on the flowering branches, 
short, sharp, recurved ; on the young flowerless shoots large, massive, flat, recurved. 
Flowers solitary or two or three in the axils of the terminal leaves of the shoots ; 
flower-buds very long, smooth, glaucous. Calyx-teeth erect in bud, long, lanceolate, 
acuminate, quite entire, not becoming foliaceous but embracing firmly the pointed 
bud, silky tomentose upon the upper surface and margins (ciliate), quite glabrous 
below (that is, the outer surface of the bud), sharply Aflexed when the flower is 
fully expanded. Ovary (the hip) glabrous ; achenes very large, massive, sparsely 
hairy, with long, protruding, free styles and yellow globular stigmas. Stamens 
numerous, anthers orange-coloured. The fleshy hip or fruit is eaten by the Nagas, 
becomes as large as a small apple, and is smooth, glabrous, yellow (certainly never 
red, as has been said of the species grown in Europe) and sweetly scented. 

“ This species seems to me as possibly allied to, though quite distinct from, 
Rosa chinensis Jacq., and may probably be the true ancestral form of the Tea-roses. 
It was nowhere observed near villages, but was found frequenting the forests, far 
away from human dwellings. Since the Nagas do not cultivate flowering plants 
and seem never to have done so, there is no reason to doubt but that Rosa 
macrocarpa is, as stated, a truly indigenous plant on the north-eastern mountains 
of the Burma-Manipur frontier.” 

In support of his view that the two Roses should be kept distinct 
Sir George adds that in all the forms of Rosa gigantea under cultivation 
the leaflets are much narrower than in Rosa macrocarpa , they are 7-9 
in number instead of 5-7, with petioles often formidably armed ; and 
moreover the flowers of Rosa gigantea are white, whilst those of Rosa 
macrocarpa are distinctly yellow. He suggests that the Rosa gigantea 
of cultivation may possibly be some hybrid of Rosa chinensis . 

The flowers from which the drawing was made came from the 
fine plant in Lord Brougham’s garden at Cannes. 


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PART 


THE GENUS ROSA 

BY 

ELLEN WILLMOTT, F.L.S. 


Drawings by 

ALFRED PARSONS, A.R.A. 



LONDON 

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, W. 

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3 S — ROSA BANKSIAE Ait. 

THE BANKSIAN ROSE 

Rosa Banksiae : caule elongato, sarmentoso ; aculeis sparsis, parvis, conformibus, 
uncinatis ; foliolis 5, oblongis, acutis, simpliciter serratis, utrinque glabris ; rhachi 
nuda ; stipulis liberis linearibus, deciduis ; floribus multis, umbellatis ; pedicellis 
nudis ; calycis tubo globoso, nudo, parvo ; lobis ovatis, acuminatis, simplicibus, 
dorso glabris ; petalis parvis, oblongis, albis vel luteis ; stylis nudis, liberis, inclusis; 
fructu globoso, nudo, magnitudine pisi ; sepalis deciduis. 

1. R. Banksiae, var. albo-plena Rehder in Bailey, Cycl. Am. Hort. vol. iv. 
p. 1552 (1902). 

R. Banksiae Aiton, Hort. Kew. ed. 2, vol. iii. p. 258 (1811). — Roessig, Die 
Rosen , No. 57 (1802-1820). — Poiret in Lamarck’s Encycl. vol. iv. p. 716 (1816). — 
Sims in Bot. Mag . vol. xlv. t. 1954 (1818). — Lindley in Bot. Reg. vol. v. p. 397 
(1819); Ros. Monogr. p. 131, No. 76 (1820). — Thory in Redoute, Roses , voh ii. 
p. 43, t. (1821). — Sabine in Trans. Hort. Soc. vol. iv. p. 170 (1822). — Trattinnick, 
Ros. Monogr. vol. ii. p. 212 (1823). — Seringe in De Candolle, Prodr. vol. ii. p. 601 
(Ic. PI. Chin, e Bibl. Braam. t. 28 [ descript . ex icon.]) (1825). — Sprengel, Syst. V eg. 
vol. ii. p. 556 (1825). — Franchet Sc Savatier, Enum . PI. Jap. vol. i. p. 137 (1875). — 
Forbes & Hemsley in Jonrn. Linn. Soc. vol. xxiii. p. 248 (1887). — Koehne, Deutsche 
Dendrol. p. 281 (1893). 

2. R. Banksiae Aiton, Hort. Kew. ed. 2, vol. iii. p. 258 ( sensu Crepin) (181 1). — 
Crepin in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xiv. pt. 2, p. 162 ( Primit . Monogr. Ros. fasc. iii. 
p. 366) (1875); vol. xxv. pt. 2, p. 7 (1886). — Regel in Act. Hort. Petrop. vol. v. 
p. 375 (Tent. Ros. Monogr. p. 91 [1877]) (1878). — Franchet in Nouv. Arch. Mus. 
ser. 2, vol. v. p. 267 (Plant ae Davidianae, vol. i. p. 1 1 5 [1884]) (1883). 

R. fragariaeflora Seringe in De Candolle, Prodr. vol. ii. p. 601 (Ic. PI. Chin, e 
Bibl. Braam. t. 28 \descript. ex icon.]) (1825). 

R. inermis Roxburgh, FI. Ind. ed. 2, vol. ii. p. 516 (1832). 

R. microcarp d Walpers, Rep. vol. ii. p. 12 (Ic. PI. Chin, e Bibl. Braam. t. 8 
\descript. ex icon.]) (1843). 

3. R. Banksiae lutea Lindley in Bot. Reg. vol. xiii. t. 1105 (1827); in Trans. 
Hort. Soc. vol. vii. p. 226 (1830). 

R. Banksiae , var. luteo-plena Rehder in Bailey, Cycl. Am. Hort. vol. iv. p. 1552 
(1902). 

4. R. Banksiae forma lutescens Voss & Siebert, Vilmorin Blumengart. vol. i. 
p. 49 (1896). 

R. Banksiae FLooker / in Bot. Mag. vol. cxvn. t. 7171 ( non Alton) (1891). 

Stem trailing to a great length ; prickles uniform, scattered, small, hooked, 
often absent from the flowering shoots in the cultivated plant. Leajlets 5, oblong, 

103 


ROSA BANKSIAE 


1-2 in. long, acute, simply serrated, green and glabrous on both surfaces ; petioles 
naked ; stipules free, linear, deciduous. Flowers many, in an umbel ; pedicels 
naked. Calyx-tube small, globose, glabrous ; lobes ovate-acuminate, J-J in. long, 
simple, glabrous on the back. Petals white or yellow, oblong, in. long. Styles 
free, included, glabrous. Fruit globose, naked, the size of a large pea ; sepals 
deciduous. 


The Banksian Rose, first brought into Europe by Mr. William 
Kerr in 1807, was named by Robert Brown in Aiton’s Hortus 
Kewensis in compliment to Lady Banks. It is one of the most distinct 
and at the same time one of the most beautiful species of Rose in 
cultivation. It is widely distributed in central and western China, 
ascending the mountains to a height of 5,000 feet, and was found by 
Siebold in Japan, but it is not generally admitted into the flora of 
Japan and was most probably introduced into that country from China. 
The Abbe Delavay found it growing plentifully in Yun-nan, and 
collected specimens in flower and in fruit on the Mu-so-yu Mountains. 
The Abbe David met with it in Shensi, and Potanin collected it in 
Kansu. Dr. Henry’s specimens were found in the provinces of Hupeh 
and Sze-chuan. It is abundant in the gorges of the Yangtse near 
Ichang, where it forms great hanging bushes. The single white form 

O' . o 00 o 

was collected m south Wushan. 

Dr. Henry says 1 that this Rose varies greatly in its external 
characters. The forms found in western China have small leaves 
with three hairy leaflets ; in central China the leaflets are glabrous, 
varying in size, and are often five in number. In the southern provinces 
the leaflets are almost always glabrous and most frequently seven in 
number. In the cultivated plant there are nearly always five leaflets, 
the third pair rarely developing. The prickles are usually to be seen 
in the wild plant, but rarely in cultivated specimens. In Hupeh, where 
it is abundant, it is glabrous and always covered with hooked prickles, 
generally wide at their base. There are usually five leaflets, rarely 
three or seven ; these are more or less oval-lanceolate and serrated. 
The very characteristic stipules are formed by long hairs which fall 
early and are only seen on the flowering branches. The flowers are 
small, white or yellow, and sweet-smelling, arranged in false umbels, 
usually numerous but sometimes single. The specimens collected by 
the Abbe Delavay in southern China, and now at Kew, have seven 
leaflets which are mostly glabrous. Franchet, describing the same 
plant in flower, says that it has not always prickles, and that the leaflets, 
three or five in number, are covered with hairs on the median nerve 
and rarely on the peduncle and pedicels. In an article in the Chih- 
wu-Ming 2 the Banksian Rose is described as a cultivated Rose with 
double flowers and five lanceolate leaflets. The writer says that the 

1 Gard Chron. ser. 3, vol. xxxi. pp. 438-9 (1902). 

2 Vol. xxi. p. 47 (1578). 

IO4 


ROSA BANKSIAE 


variety with small white flowers and purple centre is very fragrant, 
while that with yellow flowers and green centre is scentless. He also 
mentions a third variety with large white flowers, the scent of which is 
not remarkable. 

The first plant brought to England was certainly that of the double 
white-flowered form, which blossomed in Sir Joseph Banks’ garden 
at Spring Grove, Isleworth, and from which the drawing in the 
Botanical Magazine was made. 1 In 1819 it was drawn for the 
Botanical Register , the plant having in the meantime attained to a 
considerable size ; it is this form, too, of which Lindley gives a figure 
in his Monograph of 1820. A plant growing in the Orangery at 
Ditton Park had a stem eighteen inches in circumference, and as it 
had been there for over eighty years, it must have been one of the 
earliest planted in this country. The first Banksian Rose to blossom 
in Paris was also the double white-flowered variety, which M. Boursault 
had brought from England in 1819 and planted in his temperate 
house. Here the plants, grown in peat, reached the height of about 
forty feet and blossomed freely. Redoute’s drawing was made from 
one of these. 

The Jardin de la Marine at Toulon at one time possessed a 
magnificent specimen which had been sent there in 1813 by M. Bon- 
pland. Loiseleur-Deslongchamps 2 states that in 1833 its stem was 
2 feet 4 inches in circumference, while the largest of its six branches 
measured a foot in girth. The measurements were made by M. Robert, 
who said that on receiving the plant he had kept it in a pot two or three 
years, during which time it languished, but when planted out it grew 
so vigorously that in thirty years it covered the surface of a wall 75 by 
18 feet. It would have considerably surpassed these limits had the 
space allowed, but Robert was obliged each season to cut away a large 
part of it, which he used as faggots for heating his furnace. This grand 
plant, which had been the admiration of all beholders, was destroyed 
in 1869 when the Jardin de la Marine was abandoned. 

The Abbe Berleze described another very fine plant at Caserta 



1 In the Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society for November, 1909 (p. 218), Mr. E. H. Woodall, 
F.R.H.S., gives the following interesting account of the introduction of Rosa Banksiae : “ A curious fact 
concerning the Banksian Rose has this year come to light. The double white form of Rosa Banksiae was 
introduced to Kew in the early part of the nineteenth century, in 1815, but Wm. Kerr, according to a note 
in the Botanical Register , had it in cultivation as early as 1807. The double yellow was introduced some 
years later, and the single yellow only made its appearance about 1870. The typical form, the single 
white, remained unknown, though many inquiries were made for it in France, where these climbing roses 
abound in every garden in the Riviera, as well as in Italy and Switzerland. Four years ago I found a rose 
growing on the wall of Megginch Castle, Strathtay, Scotland, which seemed to me a very slender-growing 
form of R. Banksiae. Captain Drummond of Megginch told me it was a rose that his ancestor, Robert 
Drummond, had brought with other plants from China the year his brother, Admiral Sir W. Drummond, 
had cruised in the China seas, in 1796. This old rose had been repeatedly cut to the ground by severe 
winters, and rarely if ever had been known to flower. The impression, however, was that it was white and 
very small. Captain Drummond kindly gave me cuttings, which I took to Nice, and this year they flowered, 
proving themselves to be the single white Banksian rose so long sought for and hidden away in this nook of 
Scotland for more than 100 years. The introduction of the Banksian rose, therefore, is due to Robert 
Drummond of Megginch, who brought it from China in the year 1796.” 

2 La Rose , p. 289 (1844). 

105 


ROSA BANKSIAE 


which had climbed to the summit of a poplar sixty feet high. The 
tree itself was dead, but the Rose had taken complete possession, and 
when in flower was a wonderfully beautiful sight. 

In 1878 there was a very fine specimen in the garden of the Villa 
Palavacini at Pegli. 

The yellow Banksian Rose does not differ from the type except 
in the colour of its flowers. Roxburgh had both the yellow and white 
varieties growing in the Calcutta Botanic Garden in 1814, and he 
included them in his Hortus Bengalensis under the name of Rosa 
inermis. Lindley appears to have overlooked this mention of a yellow 
form, for in his Monograph of 1820 and again in the Botanical Register 
of 1827 he says that the double white-flowered Banksian was the only 
one hitherto known. There is a good figure in this Botanical Register l 
together with the following account of the introduction of the double 
yellow Banksian into England : “ The attention excited by the in- 
telligence [of the existence of the yellow-flowered variety] led to special 
directions being given on the part of the Horticultural Society to 
Mr. John Damper Parks, who was sent to China in 1823, to omit no 
opportunity of securing this valuable variety, in which he was so fortunate 
as to succeed, having brought home several plants in the Lowther Castle 
East Indiaman, 1824.” 

There is no record of a single yellow form having been found in 
a wild state, although both the white and the yellow varieties with single 
flowers have been in cultivation for about thirty years. Both were 
growing in the old Botanic Garden Dei Simplici in Florence, and 
Baroni, the Curator, published an account of them in the Bullettino 
della R. Societa Toscana di Orticultura , 2 giving the history of their 
origin. The single yellow form was growing in Sir Thomas Hanbury’s 
garden at La Mortola, Mentone, and was by him distributed in England 
in 1871. It flowered at Kew and also at Warley. The drawing of 
the single yellow form in the Botanical Magazine 3 was made from the 
plant growing in Canon Ellacombe’s garden at Bitton in Gloucester- 
shire. The writer of the description accompanying this figure says that 
the single yellow form was found by Dr. Abel growing on the walls 
of Nankin. This statement is misleading, and as it has been copied 
without verification by subsequent writers, it seems worth while to correct 
it here. Dr. Abel merely enumerates some of the plants he saw growing 
on the walls of Nankin, and amongst them mentions “ Rosa Banksiana,” 
but does not describe it in any way . 4 The same article refers to Dr. 
Abel as having gone out to China as physician to Lord Macartney’s 
Embassy in 1792-94. As Dr. Abel was born in 1780 it is impossible 
that he should have accompanied Lord Macartney in this capacity. 
It was to Lord Amherst’s Embassy of 1816 that Abel was attached 

2 Vol. ii. p. 238 (1877). 

4 Journey in Interior of China, p. 160 (1819). 

I06 


1 t. 1105. 
3 t. 7171. 


ROSA BANKSIAE 

in quality of physician and naturalist. He was amply equipped for 
scientific research, and but for the fact that the ship containing his 
collections was wrecked on the homeward voyage the mission would 
have been an exceedingly fruitful one. 

No naturalist accompanied Lord Macartney’s expedition, but 
Sir George Staunton collected specimens, and in his account of the 
Embassy gives lists of the plants found. 1 

Unfortunately the Banksian Rose does not flower freely m the 
neighbourhood of London, but on the Riviera, in south-eastern France, 
Italy, California and Chili, it may be seen in full perfection. It is 
cultivated extensively in France from the south as far north as Paris, 
and is everywhere the most vigorous of all Roses. On the Riviera this 
great vigour is turned to account for grafting certain varieties, to which 
it imparts its luxuriant growth. At Lyons it is sometimes cut to the 
ground by severe frost, but in Savoy it has never been known to suffer 
even during the hardest winters. It is one of the earliest Roses to 
blossom, but sunshine is absolutely necessary to bring it to the flowering 
state. 

Lindley, writing in the Botanical Register in 1827, said that the 
Banksian Rose had never been seen in a fruiting state by any European 
botanist. It is true that it does not seed Ireely, but yet it does often 
bear seed. F rom seed collected by M. Michelange Console at Palermo 
in 1888 from a double white-flowered plant, M. Viviand Morel raised 
several seedlings in his garden at Villeurbanne. The first to blossom 
produced yellow flowers. He also raised plants from seeds of the 
Yellow Banksian, but amongst all his plants none showed the least 
variation, the two types, the yellow and the white double-flowered, 
remaining constant. 

All the Banksian Roses strike freely from cuttings made under a 
bell-glass, a few leaves being allowed to remain. Like nearly all others, 
they flower on the preceding year’s growth. There are but very few 
Roses, such as Rosa chinensis J acq. , the Bourbon Rose , some dwarf tea- 
roses, etc., which flower on the year’s growth. If the Banksian be 
pruned too hard on the preceding year’s growth, it will not flower. 
Generally speaking, the vigorous-growing Roses are left too much to 
themselves. Dead and crowded wood should be cut away, and only 
those branches left which are growing in the direction required. 
These should be pruned after flowering; they will then develop several 
strong growths, which should be shortened to about three feet ; these 
again will send forth fresh shoots, but shorter and weaker as the season 
advances and the sap is less active. Treated in this way, they will flower 
well unless an exceptionally severe season has injured the young buds. 

1 An Authentic Account of an Embassy from the King of Great Britain to the Emperor of China (1798). 














ROSA BANKSI A 








ROSA FORJU N IAN A 
ROSA BANKSI/E * L/EVIGATA 



















































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3 6— ROSA FORTUNIANA Lindl. 

(ROSA LAEVIGATA x BANKSIAE Crep.) 

Rosa Fortuniana : ram is scandentibus, glabris ; aculeis parvis, falcatis, distan- 
tibus ; foliolis 3-5, ovato-lanceolatis, nitidis, argute serratis ; floribus solitariis ; 
calycis tubo hemispherico, nudo ; lobis ovatis, indivisis. 

R. Fortuniana Lindley & Paxton, Flow. Gard. vol. ii. p. 71, fig. 1 7 1 (1851). — 
Forbes & Hemsley in Journ. Linn. Soc. vol. xxiii. p. 249 (1886). 

R. Banksiae x laevigata Koehne, Deutsche Dendrol. p. 281 (1893). 

R. laevigata x Banksiae Crepin in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xxxiii. p. 127 
(1894). 

Stems long, slender, sarmentose ; prickles small, scattered, uniform, slightly 
hooked. Leaflets 3-5, ovate-lanceolate, shining, acute, simply toothed, middle- 
sized, green, firm in texture, persistent ; petioles glandular, aciculate, glabrous ; 
stipules linear, free, deciduous. Flowers solitary ; pedicels aciculate. Calyx-tube 
globose, naked or aciculate ; lobes small, ovate, simple. Petals much larger than in 
R. Banksiae , white or pale yellow. Fruit not seen. 


This Rose was sent by Robert Fortune to Chiswick in 1 850, and 
was described by Lindley for the first time in Lindley & Paxton’s 
Flower Garden in 1851. Lindley evidently did not think as highly 
of it as Fortune did, for he described it as a scrambling shrub, with- 
out much beauty as far as the flowers are concerned, but, from its 
exceedingly rapid growth, useful for covering walls and buildings. 

In response to the inquiry of a correspondent Fortune wrote : 

“The white climbing Rose referred to is cultivated in gardens about Ningpo 
and Shanghai, and is held in high esteem by the Chinese ; indeed it is one of the 
best white kinds which I have met with in China. It is frequently seen of a large 
size covering trellis-work formed into alcoves or built over garden walks. For this 
purpose it is well suited, as it is a luxuriant grower, and it blooms profusely and 
early. This Rose was amongst my first importations to the Horticultural Society, 
and is no doubt well worth cultivation in English gardens. It may not please in 
every respect Rose-fanciers, but it is very beautiful nevertheless, and it has some 
advantages peculiar to itself.” 1 

On the Riviera it is largely employed as the best stock on which 
to graft other varieties, having proved extremely potent in transmitting 
its remarkable vigour to the scion. 

1 Gard. Citron, i860, p. 623. 

109 


2 


ROSA FORTUNIANA 


This is the true Rosa Fortuniana described by Lindley in vol. ii. 
of Paxton’s Flower Garden and accompanied by a very truthful 
drawing. It has nothing whatever in common with Rosa pseudo-indica , 
described in vol. iii. of the same publication , 1 and by a clerical error 
set down as Rosa Fortuniana, This error has caused some confusion, 
and for this reason it has been thought well to refer here to the circum- 
stance already mentioned under the heading of Rosa chinensis, var. 
PSEUDO-INDICA (F ortune’s Double Yellow Rose). 

1 p. 157 (1852-3). 


1 10 


37— ROSA COLLETTII Crep. 

Rosa Collettii : ramis elongatis, sarmentosis ; aculeis sparsis, conformibus, 
parvis, falcatis ; foliolis 5-7, oblongis, acutis, rigidis, inconspicue simpliciter serratis ; 
rhachi glabra vel pubescente, hand glandulosa ; stipulis liberis, linearibus, deciduis ; 
floribus paucis, umbellatis vel corymbosis ; pedicellis nudis ; calycis tubo minimo, 
globoso, nudo ; lobis oblongis, acuminatis, simplicibus vel parce pinnatifidis, dorso 
pubescentibus ; petalis parvis, albis ; stylis liberis, villosis ; fructu globoso, rubro, 
parvo, nudo ; sepalis deciduis. 

R. Collettii Crepin in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg . vol. xxviii. pt. 2, p. 49 (1889). — 
Collett & Hemsley in Journ. Linn. Soc. vol. xxviii. p. 56, t. 10 (1890). 

Stems long, sarmentose; prickles scattered, uniform, hooked, small. Leaflets 
5-7, oblong, acute, rigid, inconspicuously simply serrated, the end one 1-1J in. long, 
glabrous on both surfaces or slightly pubescent beneath ; petioles glabrous or 
pubescent, not glandular ; stipules linear, free, deciduous. Flowers few, umbellate 
or corymbose ; pedicels not aciculate. Calyx-tube very small, globose, naked ; lobes 
oblong-cuspidate, \ in. long, simple or slightly compound. Petals white, i in. long. 
Styles free, villous. Fruit globose, very small, bright red, naked ; sepals deciduous. 


Rosa Collettii was found by the late General Sir Henry Collett 
in 1888, in the Koni district of the Shan Hills of Upper Burma, at an 
elevation of 3,000-4,000 feet above sea-level, where in certain localities 
it is common on the banks of streams. In May it had nearly passed 
out of flower. It was first described by Crepin, who classed it under 
the section Systylae and placed it next to Rosa microcarpa Lindl., 
with which he considered it had many points of resemblance, adding, 
however, that the specimens had suffered so much during their journey 
from the Calcutta Botanic Garden that he was unable to form a definite 
opinion upon the inflorescence, and pointing out that in Rosa micro- 
carpa and in Rosa Collettii the columnar styles were much shorter than 
in other Systylae. Crepin named the Rose in compliment to its dis- 
coverer, who was much interested in the flora of U pper Burma, which 
was at that time but little known. It is due to his researches that two 
most distinct and interesting Roses, Rosa gigantea Collett ex Crep. 
and Rosa Collettii Crep., have been brought to our knowledge. 

As Rosa Collettii has not yet been cultivated in England, we 
are dependent upon herbarium specimens for our knowledge of its 
characters. 


1 1 1 




3 8— ROSA MICROCARPA Lindl. 


Rosa microcarpa : ramis elongatis, sarmentosis ; aculeis sparsis, con form ibus, 
parvis, falcatis ; foliolis 3-5, oblongis, acutis, rigidis, simpliciter serratis, utrinque 
glabris ; rhachi glabra vel pubescente, aciculata, haud glandulosa ; stipulis liberis, 
linearibus, caducis, glanduloso-ciliatis ; floribus pluribus, corymboso-paniculatis ; 
ramis inferioribus foliis compositis stipatis ; pedicellis nudis ; calycis tubo minuto, 
globoso, nudo ; lobis simplicibus, ovato-lanceolatis, acuminatis ; petalis minutis, 
orbicularibus, albis; stylis villosis, liberis, protrusis ; fructu globoso, minimo, nudo, 
rubro ; sepalis deciduis. 

R. microcarpa Lindley, Ros. Monogr. p. 130, No. 75, t. 18 (1820). — Seringe in 
De Candolle, Prodr. vol. ii. p. 601 (1825). — Hance in Journ. Linn . Soc. vol. xiii. 
p. 102 (1873). — Cr£pin in Bull . Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xiii. p. 244, vol. xiv. pt. 2, p. 164 
(Primit. Monogr. Ros. fasc. iii. pp. 251, 368) (1874, 1875) ; vol. xviii. p. 276 (. Primit . 
Monogr. Ros. fasc. v. p. 522) (1879) ; vol. xxv. pt. 2, p. 13 (1886).— Desdglise in Bull. 
Soc. Bot. Belg . vol. xv. p. 233 (Cat. Rais. Ros. p. 64 [1877]) (1876). — Franchet in 
Nouv. Arch. Mus. sdr. 2, vol. v. p. 270 (Plant ae Davidianae, vol. i. p. 118 [1884]) 
(1883). — Forbes & Hemsley in Journ. Linn. Soc. vol. xxiii. p. 251 (non Retzius) 
(1887); Bid. Flor. Sinen. vol. i. p. 251 (1887). 

R. indica Linnaeus,^. Plant, vol. i. p. 492 (ex parte) (1753). — Koehne, Deutsche 
Dendrol. p. 277 (1893). 

R. cymosa Trattinnick, Ros. Monogr. vol. i. p. 87 (1823). 

R. amoyensis Hance in Journ. Bot. vol. vi. p. 297 (1868). 

R. intermedia Carribre, Rev. Hort. p. 270, fig. 29 (1868). 

R. dubia Carriere, Rev. Hort. p. 271, fig. 30 (1868). 

R. Banksiae, var. microcarpa Regel in Act. Hort. Petrop . vol. v. p. 376 (Tent. 
Ros. Monogr. p. 92 [1877]) (1:878). 

Stems long, sarmentose ; prickles scattered, uniform, small, falcate. Leajlets 
3-5, oblong, acute, rigid, simply serrated, usually glabrous on both surfaces, the 
end one i-i| in. long; petioles glabrous or pubescent, aciculate, not glandular; 
stipules free, linear, deciduous, gland-ciliated. Flowers very numerous, arranged in 
a corymbose panicle, the lower branches of which are subtended by compound leaves ; 
pedicels glabrous or pubescent, not aciculate. Calyx-tube globose, naked, ^ in- diam. ; 
lobes simple, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, i in. long. Petals white, orbicular, i in. 
long and broad. Styles villous, free, protruded from the disc. Fruit globose, naked, 
bright red, scarcely i in. diam. ; sepals deciduous. 


Rosa microcarpa is a well-marked species of the Banksian group. 
It is one of the commonest Roses in China, being abundant in all the 
warmer parts from Hong-Kong in the south to Mount Omi in the far 
west, and it is exceedingly common throughout the Yangtse Valley. 

113 


ROSA MICROCARPA 


The species is well named, having the smallest fruits of the genus. It 
differs from Rosa Banksiae Ait. by its very compound inflorescence and 
its exterior sepals, which are spiny on the back, with pointed appendices 
spiny on the edges ; these characters are not found in the Banksian 
Roses. Rosa Banksiae has larger flowers and fruits, smaller umbellate 
corymbs and free styles. The two species are very distinct in habit 
and appearance, and when seen growing side by side cannot be 
confused. Crepin protested strongly against the assertion that Rosa 
microcarpa was but a wild shoot ( souche sauvage ) of Rosa Banksiae. 
He allowed that there existed certain general affinities between the two 
types, but with such well-marked essential differences that the idea of 
specific identity could not for a moment be entertained. Petiver in 
the early part of the eighteenth century figured Rosa microcarpa under 
the name of Rosa cheusan glabra, juniper i fructul More than a 
hundred years later Lindley gave it its present name. Petivers figure 
is cited by Linnaeus under Rosa indica , but the plants contained in his 
herbarium under this name are Rosa midtiflora Thunb. and the plant 
we now call Rosa chinensis Jacq. Lindley calls attention to this fact 
as demonstrating how imperfect must have been Linnaeus’ knowledge 
of Asiatic Roses when he referred Petivers excellent figure to such 
dissimilar plants as Rosa indica and Rosa multiflora. 

Rosa microcarpa is very variable in its degree of hairiness, and in 
the number and character of the spinuliform appendages to the sepals. 

Lindley cites Rosa microcarpa as having been collected by Staunton 
in the province of Canton. Hance found it fairly common on the hills 
around Amoy, and he also collected it near Foochow. Dr. Savatier 
gathered specimens in the cemetery at Ningpo and sent them to Crepin. 

In gardens where Rosa multiflora is to be found, it would be 
unnecessary to plant Rosa microcarpa , since these two Roses with their 
small panicled flowers and diminutive fruit closely resemble each other 
in general aspect. 

1 First described by him in Gazophylaciutn Naturae et Artis , p. 5 6, t. 35, fig. 11 (1704). 


39— ROSA SORBI FLORA Focke 


Rosa sor biflora : caule elongato, sarmentoso ; aculeis falcatis, parvis, sparsis, 
aequalibus ; foliolis 5-7, oblongis, acutis, firmulis, glabris, viridibus, simpliciter 
serratis ; rhachi nuda ; stipulis linearibus, liberis, parvis, deciduis; floribus pluribus, 
perparvis, corymboso-paniculatis ; ramulis ultimis corymbosis ; pedicellis brevibus, 
nudis ; sepalis ovatis, acutis, simplicibus vel parce appendiculatis, dorso nudis ; 
petalis obovatis, albis, sepalis vix longioribus ; stylis liberis, glabris ; fructu globoso, 
perparvo, rubello ; sepalis deciduis. 

Rosa sorbiflora Focke in Card. Citron. ser. 3, vol. xxxvii. p. 227, fig. 96(1905). 

Stem long, sarmentose ; prickles small, hooked, scattered, uniform. Leaflets 
5-7, oblong, acute, 1-2 in. long, rather firm, glabrous, green, simply toothed ; petioles 
naked ; stipules free, linear, small, deciduous. Flowers very small, arranged in 
corymbose panicles, very numerous ; ultimate branchlets corymbose, not umbellate ; 
pedicels short, naked. Calyx-lobes ovate, acute, J in. long, simple or slightly com- 
pound, naked on the back. Petals obovate, white, but little longer than the sepals. 
Styles free, glabrous. Fruit globose, naked, bright red, less than j in. in diameter 
when dried ; sepals deciduous. 


This interesting new Rose is allied to Rosa Banksiae Ait, which 

o 

it resembles in its habit, leaves and stipules, but it is abundantly dis- 
tinguished by its numerous very small flowers, arranged in corymbose 
panicles, of which the ultimate branchlets are corymbose, not umbellate. 
Its original describer, Dr. Focke of Bremen, compares its inflorescence 
to that of a Sorbus or Viburnum. It was found by Mr. E. H. Wilson 
in the western part of the province of Hupeh in central China. 




















S 



















BO SA LAMGATA 








4 o— ROSA LAEVIGATA Michx. 

THE CHEROKEE ROSE 

Rosa laevigata : caulibus longe repentibus ; aculeis sparsis, parvis, uncinatis, 
sursum aciculis copiosis intermixtis ; foliolis 3, magnis, oblongis, acutis, rigicle 
coriaceis, nitidis, glabris ; rhachi glabra, aciculata ; stipulis liberis, linearibus ; 
floribus solitariis, calycis tubo oblongo, aciculato ; lobis simplicibus, apice foliosis, 
dense aciculis marginatis ; petalis niveis, magnis, inodoris ; stylis inclusis ; fructu 
oblongo, rubro, dense aculeato ; sepalis patulis, demum deciduis. 

R. laevigata Michaux, FI. Bor. Amer, vol. i. p. 295 (1803). — Nouv . Duhamel , 
vol. vii. p. 23 (excl. syn.) (1819). — Lindley, Ros. Monogr. p. 125, No. 70 (1820). — 
Trattinnick, Ros. Monogr. vol. ii. p. 184 (1823). — Lowe, Man. FI. Madeira , p. 253 
(1862). — Chapman, FI. South U.S. p. 126 (1865). — Crepin in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. 
vol. xiv. pt. 2, p. 155 ( Primit . Monogr. Ros. fasc. iii. p. 359) (1875). — S. Watson in 
Smithsonian Misc. Coll. vol. xv. p. 31 1 (1878). — Forbes & Hemsley in Jo urn. Linn. 
Soc. vol. xxiii. p. 250 (1887). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendrol. p. 301 (1893). — Rehder 
in Bailey, Cycl. Am. Hort. vol. iv. p. 1558, fig. 49 (1902). — C. K. Schneider, III. 
Handbuch Laubholzk. vol. i. p. 588 (1906). 

R. ternata Poiret in Lamarck’s Encycl. vol. vi. p. 284 (1804). 

R. nivea De Candolle, Cat. Hort. Monsp. p. 137 (1813). — Thory in Redoute, 
Roses, vol. ii. p. 81, t. (1821). — Trattinnick, Ros. Monogr. vol. ii. p. 183 (1823). — 
Seringe in De Candolle, Prodr. vol. ii. p. 599 (1825). 

R. sinica Lindley, Ros. Monogr. p. 126, No. 71, t. 16 {non Murray nee Alton) 
(1820) ; in Bot. Reg. vol. xxiii. t. 1922 (1837). — Hooker in Bot. Mag. vol. lv. t. 2847 
(1828). 

R. hystrix Lindley, Ros. Monogr. p. 129, No. 74, t. 17 (1820). — Trattinnick, 
Ros. Monogr. vol. ii. p. 182 (1823). — Seringe in De Candolle, Prodr. vol. ii. p. 599 
(1825). 

R triphylla Roxburgh ex Lindley, Ros. Monogr. p. 138, No. 88 (1820). — Seringe 
in De Candolle, Prodr. vol. ii. p. 600 (1825). — Roxburgh, FI. Ind. ed. 2, vol. ii. 

p- 515 (1832). 

R. cucumenna Trattinnick, Ros. Monogr. vol. ii. p. 181 {Ic. PI. Chin, e Bibl. 
Braam. t. 28 \descript. ex icon.]) (1823). 

R. amygdalifolia Seringe in De Candolle, Prodr. vol. ii. p. 601 {Ic. PI. Chin, e 
Bibl. Braam. t. 28 \descript. ex icon.]) (1825). 

R. cherokeensis Donn, ex Small, FI. South-Eastern U.S. p. 528 (1903). 

Stems trailing widely ; prickles small, scattered, hooked, mixed upwards with 
copious aciculi. Leaflets always 3, oblong, acute, firm, shining, glabrous, simply 
serrated, the end one 2 or 3 in. long ; petioles glabrous, aciculate ; stipules small, 
linear, free from the base. Flowers usually solitary ; pedicels and oblong calyx- 
tube densely aciculate ; lobes simple, leaf-pointed, about 1 in. long, pubescent but 

1 17 R 


ROSA LAEVIGATA 


not glandular on the back, aciculate on the margin in the lower part. Corolla pure 
white, 3 in. diam. ; petals inodorous. Styles not exserted. Fruit oblong, red, 
densely aciculate ; sepals spreading, finally deciduous. 


This beautiful and very distinct Rose is a native of southern China. 
It was first described by Plukenet in 1705 1 under the name of "Rosa 
alba cheusanensis foliorum marginibus et rachi media spinosis.” 

Few Roses have such a bewildering synonymy as Rosa laevigata , 
and many eminent botanists have confused it, a surprising fact when 
it is remembered how distinct and well marked a species it really is. 
It was overlooked by Linnaeus, and there is no specimen in his her- 
barium. His Rosa sinica was founded upon a specimen of Rosa 
chmensis Jacq. with monstrous sepals. The names under which it 
is most generally but erroneously known are Rosa sinica L., Rosa 
Camellia Hort. and the Cherokee Rose. Botanists are agreed in 
referring these and several other names to one and the same Rose, the 
Rosa laevigata of Michaux. 

The Cherokee Rose was for many years believed to be indigenous 
to the southern United States, where it was in 1803 collected by 
Michaux. But the consensus of opinion has decided that Rosa laevigata 
is not an American plant. Its native habitats are given as China, 
Japan and the Isle of Formosa; Japan, however, is considered as a 
doubtful station, and it was more probably introduced from China. 
Bose, who calls it Rosier trifoliole , says that it is a native of China 
and is cultivated in French gardens under the name of Rosier toujour s 
vert cle la Chine , but he adds that it seldom blooms in France. 2 
Siebold cultivated it in Japan under the name of Rosa Camellia . It 
is abundantly naturalized in the southern United States, Madeira and 
the Cape of Good Hope. There is a specimen in the Smithian her- 
barium from Carolina, collected by Fraser in 1791. It is said to have 
been cultivated by Philip Miller at Chelsea in 1759. Lowe says that 
in Madeira, where it is erroneously called the Macartney Rose, it 
makes shoots twelve to eighteen feet long in a single year. In the 
Phonzo Zoufou , part 27, three forms are figured ; the type, called Nanisa , 
a form with double flowers called Botanbara , and a third form, probably 
a hybrid, with purplish flowers and naked calyx and peduncle, called 
Hatobara . The variety Braamiana of Regel 3 is founded on a figure 
in Braam’s drawings of Chinese plants with four or five flowers and 
five to seven leaflets ; it is doubtless a hybrid. 

If Rosa laevigata , the Cherokee Rose, could be grown in England 
as it is grown in southern Europe, Madeira, Teneriffe and China, it 
would take rank as one of the very finest wall Roses. It is perfectly 

1 Amoltheum , p. 185. Plukenet’s type-specimen is in the herbarium of the British Museum. 

2 In Nouveau Cours d’ Agriculture, vol. xlii. p. 280 (1823). 

3 Act. Hort. Petrop. vol. v. p. 327 {Tent. Ros. Monogr. p. 43 [1877]) (1878). 

I 18 


ROSA LAEVIGATA 


hardy in the south of England and in Essex, and produces long, 
vigorous shoots with handsome trifoliate leaves, which seem to give 
every promise of flowers, but they very seldom appear. It flowers 
sparsely at Abbotsbury and a few places along the south coast, but 
it is in Savoy and on the Riviera that this beautiful Rose is seen in 
perfection, and there the profusion of pure white flowers with their 
glowing yellow anthers and long trails of dark glistening foliage form 
pictures which for beauty cannot be surpassed. 














RO SA L/EVIGATA x INDICA (ANEMONE) 

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4 i— ROSA LAEVIGATA x CHINENSIS 


ROSE ANEMONE 

Rosa laevigata x chinensis: caulibus sarmentosis ; aculeis conformibus, robustis, 
falcatis, sparsis ; foliolis 3, interdum 5, magnis, oblongis, acutissimis, simpliciter 
serratis, subcoriaceis, utrinque glabris, facie viridibus, lucentibus, dorso pallidioribus ; 
rhachi glabra, haud glandulosa; stipulis angustis, adnatis, apicibus liberis, magnis, 
lanceolatis; floribus saepius solitaries ; pedunculis dense aciculatis ; calycis tnbo 
globoso ; lobis lanceolatis, simplicibus, acutis, dorso haud glandulosis ; petalis 
maximis, rubellis, purpureo-tinctis ; stylis villosis, liberis, haud protrusis. 

Stems sarmentose ; prickles uniform, stout, hooked, scattered. Leaflets usually 
3, sometimes 5, large, oblong, very acute, simply serrated, subcoriaceous, glabrous 
on both surfaces, bright green and shining above, paler beneath ; petioles glabrous, 
not glandular ; stipules narrow, adnate, with large lanceolate free tips. Flowers 
usually solitary ; peduncles densely aciculate. Calyx-tube globose ; lobes lanceolate, 
simple, leaf-pointed, f-i in. long, not glandular on the back. Petals very large, 
pink, tinged with red-purple. Styles villous, free, not exserted. 


This very beautiful Rose was raised by J. E. Schmidt of Erfurt 
in 1896. It is perfectly hardy and very floriferous, and with its large, 
well-formed, shell-pink flowers and glistening foliage makes a welcome 
addition to our gardens. 


121 




































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42— ROSA BRACTEATA Wendl. 

THE MACARTNEY ROSE 

Rosa bracteata : caulibus decumbentibus, sursum pubescentibus et aciculatis ; 
aculeis plerumque geminis, stipularibus, robustis, uncinatis ; foliolis 7-9, parvis, 
obovatis, obtusis, simpliciter serratis, rigide coriaceis, utrinque glabris ; rhachi 
glabra, aciculata ; stipulis breviter adnatis, apicibus liberis, lanceolatis, pinnatifidis, 
glandulis copiosis marginatis ; floribus plerumque solitariis; pedunculis brevissimis ; 
bracteis magnis, ovatis, pectinatis, imbricatis ; calyce dense persistenter pubescente ; 
tubo globoso ; lobis simplicibus, ovatis, acuminatis vel cuspidatis ; petalis magnis, 
obovatis, niveis ; staminibus haud exsertis ; fructu globoso, rubro, pubescente ; 
sepalis patulis, caducis. 

R. bracteata Wendland, Obs. p. 50 (1798) ; Hort. Herrenh . fasc. iv. p. 7, t. 23 
(1801). — Ventenat,y#n/. Cels , t. 28 (1800). — Jacquin, Fragrn. p. 30, t. 34, fig. 2 (1809). 
— Sims in Bot. Mag. vol. xxxiv. t. 1377 (1811). — Thory in Redoute, Roses , vol. i. 
p. 35, t. (1817). — Nonv. Duhamel, vol. vii. p. 22, t. 13, fig. 2 (1819). — Lindley, Ros. 
Monogr. p. 10, No. 7 (1820). — Crepin in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xiv. pt. 2, p. 137 
( Primit . Monogr . Ros. fasc. iii. p. 341) (1875). — *S. Watson, Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 
vol. xv. p. 310 (1878). — Forbes & Hemsley in Joiirn. Linn. Soc. vol. xxiii. p. 249 
(1887). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendrol. p. 300 (1893). — Rehder in Bailey, Cycl. Am. 
Hort. vol. iv. p. 1558 (1902). — C. K. Schneider, III. Handbuch Laubholzk. vol. i. 
p. 586 (1906). 

R. Incida Lawrance, Roses , t. 84 ( non Ehrhart) (1799). 

R. Macartnea Dumont de Courset, Bot . Cult. vol. v. p. 460 (1804). 

Stems decumbent, trailing widely, pubescent and aciculate upwards ; prickles 
mostly in stipular pairs, robust, hooked. Leaflets 7-9, obovate, obtuse, small, simply 
serrated, rigidly coriaceous, glabrous on both surfaces; petioles glabrous, aciculate; 
stipules nearly free, narrow, pectinate, margined copiously with glands. Flowers 
usually solitary, with very short peduncles ; bracts ovate, pectinate, imbricated. 
Calyx persistently densely pubescent ; tube globose ; lobes ovate, simple, acuminate 
or cuspidate. Petals large, obovate-cuneate, pure white. Stamens very numerous, 
very hairy, not exserted beyond the disc. Fruit globose, pubescent, orange-red ; 
sepals spreading, deciduous. 


This very beautiful and distinct Rose was introduced from China 
to Europe by Sir George Staunton, who accompanied Lord Macartney’s 
embassy to China in 1792. It is figured in Cattley’s plates of Chinese 
plants, 1 and in the Phonzo Zoufou . 2 Its only near ally is the Indian 


I2 5 


ROSA BRACTEATA 

Rosa involucrata of Roxburgh. The carpels are frequently as many 
as i 50-170. 

Few Roses can rival the Macartney, with its bright, glossy, ever- 
green foliage and noble ivory-white flowers, which are produced in 
abundance and continue throughout the summer. Although indigenous 
to China and northern India, it resists our winters unless they are 
exceptionally severe. In Britain it is deficient in pollen and the fruit 
rarely attains perfection. The shelter afforded by a south wall is 
sufficient protection against a severe winter, and in such a position the 
Macartney Rose will flower in the neighbourhood of London until 
Christmas, provided it is not checked by a continuous sharp frost. 

This Rose has given several varieties, some of which are still 
to be found in gardens. Others formerly in cultivation seem now 
to have disappeared, among them Victoire Modeste , Rubra duplex , 
Coccinea , Rosea , etc., which once all grew in the nursery-garden of 
Sisley Vandael, rue de Vaugirard, Paris. The nomenclature of the 
bracteata Roses now grown appears to be in some confusion. Many 
of the plants grown in England under the name of Marie Leonida 
have great difficulty in expanding their buds, though of vigorous 
constitution, imposing appearance, and very floriferous. In the Revtce 
Horticole 1 there is a note upon Rosa bracteata , pi. pi. , which the writer 
describes as a beautiful Rose raised at Milan by M. Mariani and 
resembling Marie Leonida . The reader is cautioned against con- 
founding it with the old Rosa bracteata , fl % pi , which, as it never properly 
expanded its buds, went out of cultivation. The writer goes on to say 
that the principal difference between Mariani’s new Rose and Marie 
Leonida is that in the latter the anthers turn purple, but in Mariani’s 
Rose they remain yellow. The Rose here referred to evidently 
expanded its flowers, whereas the Rose brought from England under 
the same name and grown with every care in the south of France 
and in Italy, still maintains the same peculiarity which has made it a 
failure in English gardens. The plants experimented with were bought 
from different English nurseries, some as Marie Leonida and others as 
Rosa bracteata alba , pi. pi. 

When Mariani’s Rose was figured for the Revue Horticole , it 
was growing in the garden of M. Sisley Vandael, son-in-law of the 
celebrated Dutch flower-painter Vandael. Another Rosa bracteata alba 
odorata was raised by Lenet, a Lyons rose-grower. In Max Singer’s 
Dictionnaire des Roses 2 Lenet’s Rosa bracteata is quoted under the 
date 1876. M. Jean Sisley in his copy of the Dictionnaire makes a 
marginal note, “ Je la possede depuis 1848.” 

M. Gorde of Nantes tried to discover the origin of Marie 
Leonida , but without success. It was certainly raised at Nantes, and 
was exhibited there on the 30th September, 1832. M. Ursin, President 

1 1834, p. 479. 2 Vol. i. p. 78 (1885). 

126 




- 





















4 . 






































\ 





ROSA BR ACTE AT A 


of the Societe Nantaise cT Horticulture, mentioned it in his address as 
follows : 

“ C’est a la fecondation adultdrine, qui donne naissance aux hybrides, c’est a 
ce don magique qui fait participer Fhomme au pouvoir du Createur, que sont dues 
toutes ces tribus nouvelles de Roses, de Pelargoniums, d’GEillets, de fruits de toute 
espdce, ecloses depuis peu d’annees pour charmer ineffablement les regards, le gotit 
et l’odorat. Ici l’art l’emporte sur la nature et concentre souvent dans un seul 
individu les perfections eparses que la puissance creatrice ne s’etait pas donne la 
peine de reunir. Je ne citerai pour preuve de cette assertion que le succes obtenu 
recemment par Fun de nos honorables colldgues. Jusqu’ici, quelques Rosiers 
remontants flattaient la vue par la continuity de leurs fleurs; mais ils etaient ou 
sans odeur Fete, ou sans verdure Fhiver. La main d’un amateur ingenieux assortit 
Funion de deux espdces interessantes : la Rose The et la Rose Macartney. La 
nature applaudit au succds de son experience ; et de cet hymen accompli sous les 
plus heureux auspices, nait la Rose Marie Leonida, oil la persistance des feuilles, 
la douceur du parfum, la purete et la permanence des fleurs reunissent tous les 
avantages que nous ne trouvions que disperses.” 

M. Vi viand Morel suggests that there may perhaps be only two 
double-flowered varieties of this Rose now grown, one which opens 
its buds and one which does not. He is furthermore inclined to 
believe that this state may be influenced by the graft, which is possible 
when we remember how large a part is played in the growth of a Rose 
by the subject on which it is grafted. 

The hybrid between Rosa bracteata and Rosa laevigata is a garden 

form. 


127 












ROSA cpSTOFHYLLA 






43 — ROSA INVOLUCRATA Roxb. 


Rosa involucrata : caule elongato, arcuato, ramis pubescentibus ; aculeis 
robustis, patulis, subconformibus, saepe geminis infrastipularibus ; foliolis 7-9, 
oblongis, acutis, viridibus, simpliciter serratis, facie glabris, dorso saepe pubes- 
centibus ; rhachi pubescente et aciculata; stipulis breviter adnatis, profunde laciniatis, 
dense glandulosis, apicibus liberis, lanceolatis, magnis ; floribus paucis vel multis, 
corymbosis ; bracteis laciniatis ; pedicellis pubescentibus ; ovario parvo, globoso, 
pubescente; sepalis ovatis, acuminatis, dorso pubescentibus, saepissime simplicibus; 
petalis magnis, albis ; stylis liberis, glabris ; fructu globoso, pubescente ; sepalis 
caducis. 

R. involucrata Roxburgh ex Lindley, Ros. Monogr. p. 8, No. 5 (1820). — Rox- 
burgh, FL Ind . ed. 2, vol. ii. p. 513 (1832). — Wight, Icon. t. 234 (1840). — Crdpin in 
Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xiv. pt. 2, p. 140 ( Primit . Monogr. Ros. fasc. iii. p. 344) 
(1875). — Hooker f, FI. Brit. Ind. vol. ii. p. 365 (1879). — Brandis, Indian Trees , 
p. 287 (1906). 

R. Lyellii Lindley, Ros. Monogr. p. 12, No. 8, t. 1 (1820). — Crepin in Bull. Soc. 
Bot. Belg. vol. xiv. pt. 2, p. 143 ( Primit . Monogr. Ros. fasc. iii. p. 347) (1875). — 
Deseglise in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xv. pt. 2, p. 233 [Cat. Rais. Ros. p. 64 [1877]) 
(1876). 

Stem long, arching ; branches densely pubescent ; prickles subequal, stout, 
spreading, often in infrastipular pairs. Leaflets 7-9, oblong, acute, middle-sized, 
simply sharply serrated, green, glabrous on both surfaces or pubescent beneath ; 
petioles pubescent and aciculate, not glandular ; stipules shortly adnate, with long 
free lanceolate tips, deeply laciniated and densely glandular on the margin. Flowers 
several, corymbose; pedicels pubescent, not aciculate ; bracts deeply laciniated. 
Calyx-tube globose, densely pubescent, not aciculate ; lobes ovate-acuminate, f in. 
long, densely pubescent all over the back. Petals large, pure white. Styles free, 
glabrous. Fruit small, globose, densely pubescent ; sepals deciduous. 


Rosa involucrata , discovered in Nepal by Dr. Buchanan, was first 
described by Lindley in 1820. The name is Roxburgh’s and was 
used in his Flora of India, which at that date was in manuscript. 
The plate in Wight’s leones gives an excellent idea in black and white 
of this beautiful species, and there is a very good illustration of it 
in the Botanical Register. It is a native of subtropical (and to some 
extent even tropical) India. It has been collected in Kumaon, Sikkim, 
Assam, Silhet, Manipur, and on the banks of the Irawaddi in Burma, 
and from the mountains of the Gangetic basin to those of Rajputana 

129 


ROSA INVOLUCRATA 

and Mysore. China also may be included among its habitats if we 
may rely upon the plate in Braam’s Chinese drawings. 1 There is in 
the herbarium of the Botanical Garden at St. Petersburg a specimen 
belonging to the Chamisso collection of which the origin is given as 
“ China.” Bretschneider includes it in his Botanical Discoveries in 
China. 

Rosa involucrata much resembles Rosa bracteata, but may easily 
be distinguished from that species by its narrower leaflets, drawn out 
at the points and thin in texture, by its long, slender branches, light 
brown and densely pubescent, by its laciniated stipules and bracts, and 
by its long, straight prickles pointing upwards, whereas in Rosa bracteata 
they are mostly hooked and it is only on the young flowering shoots 
that they are somewhat straight. The large white flowers and graceful 
growth of this species are seen to best advantage on the Riviera, for, 
although it will generally survive our English winters and has been 
known to flower in the open air at Kew, it cannot be considered as 
sufficiently hardy to take its place in our gardens. It was planted in 
the Calcutta Botanic Gardens in 1797, and imported into England by 
Whitley of Fulham in 1816. It is the only Rose indigenous in the 
plains and lower mountains of India, and is usually found growing in 
marshy ground or by the side of tanks and margins of streams. Rosa 
bracteata , on the contrary, prefers a dry situation. 

Rosa involucrata is thus described by Sir George Watt in an 
unpublished diary of explorations in Manipur during 1882 : 


“ Common along the sandy margins of the rivers which traverse the valley of 
Manipur proper, especially around the city. 

“ Children are sent out to collect its large beautiful white flowers and to bring 
these into town, where they are used as offerings in religious worship or worn in 
the hair of the women. It grows in great isolated masses, being quite covered with 
flowers during two or three months of the winter season. 

“The Indian distribution of this rose is somewhat remarkable. In his Hima- 
layan Journal (vol. ii. pp. 261-2) Sir J. D. Hooker points out its extraordinary 
occurrence in the jungles of Eastern Bengal, intermixed with palms and other 
tropical plants and thus living on alluvial soils. Some years ago I came upon it, 
in great profusion, within the valleys of the Rajmahal hills (thus just outside the 
Tropics), luxuriating under conditions so very different from those of Eastern and 
Northern Bengal that its presence there seemed unaccountable. It is true I also 
collected in the same locality Androsace saxifragaefolia , Drosera Burmanii and 
several other plants which, like the rose, are representatives of the warm temperate 
vegetation, but the dry rocky soil and high temperature of Rajmahal is so different 
from that of the inundated swampy plains of Bengal, as to suggest a power of 
endurance at variance with the somewhat local and restricted occurrence of the 
species. I suspect there may be two species at least commonly placed under the 
present name, the one the swamp-loving, the other the dry-soil plant. In some 
respects the Manipur form is suggestive of a third that comes near to Rosa bracteata 
Wendl., ex Bot. Mag . vol. xxxiv. pi. 1377, the old-fashioned Macartney’s Rose. 

“ The assemblage of wild roses of tropical (or perhaps rather subtropical) India 


1 See above, p. 25, note 2. 
130 


ROSA INVOLUCRATA 


is an important one nevertheless, and Col. D. Prain ( fourn . As. Soc. Beng. 1904, 
lxxiii. p. 202) refers Rosa involucrata to three varieties (which perhaps meets the 
case), but to these should be added Rosa Lyellii Lindl., an even still more moun- 
tainous form, their representative in the lower N.W. Himalaya and from thence to 
Rajputana and South India. Where met with the plants usually regarded as Rosa 
involucrata are plentiful enough, but between one locality and another a gap of 
many thousand square miles may interpose, over which the plant seems to possess 
no inclination to spread. For example, on passing North-East from Silhet it 
disappears, and on the road from thence vid Cachar to Manipur, a distance of over 
120 miles in a direct line, although it traverses many situations in which Rosa 
involucrata might luxuriate, it is nowhere met with until the valley of Manipur 
proper is reached, when, at altitudes of from 2,500 to 4,000 feet, what I have 
suggested as being possibly the Chinese form of the assemblage is found not only 
plentiful but one might almost say characteristic. This sudden appearance and 
disappearance, in Eastern Bengal, is that which the species everywhere manifests 
through its Indian area.” 

The plate shows a plant known in gardens as Rosa clinophylla . 
It is a garden form o {Rosa involucrata in which the character of toothed 
stipules and bracts has almost disappeared. 



















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PART VII 


March 14, 1911 

THE GENUS ROSA 

BY 

ELLEN WILLMOTT, F.L.S. 

Drawings by 

ALFRED PARSONS, A.R.A. 

ill 


LONDON 

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, W. 

1911 


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VI 

MICROPHYLLAE 


T 





































' . , >v Ul -V : 

& 





































44— ROSA MICROPHYLLA Roxb. 


Rosa microphylla : caulibus erectis, glabris, glauco-purpureis; aculeis omnibus 
geminis stipularibus, ascendentibus, modice robustis; foliolis 11-15, oblongis, parvis, 
firmis, simpliciter serratis, utrinque glabris, vel dorso parce pubescentibus ; rhachi 
glabra vel pubescente ; stipulis parvis, angustis, longe adnatis, apice libero minuto ; 
floribus saepe solitariis ; pedunculo brevi, ntido vel aciculato ; calycis tubo globoso, 
dense aciculato ; sepalis ovatis, simplicibus, conspicue dentatis ; petalis albis vel 
rubris ; stylis liberis, inclusis, dense villosis ; fructu magno, edibili, globoso, viridi, 
dense aculeato, cortice crasso, sepalis conniventibus persistentibus coronato. 

R. microphylla Roxburgh ex Lindley ,Ros. Monogr. p. 9, No. 6 (1820); Bot. Reg . 
vol. xi. t. 919(1825).— Roxburgh, Ft Ind. ed. 2, vol. ii. p. 515 (1832). — Crdpin in Bull. 
Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xiv. pt. 2, p. 146 ( Priniit . Monogr. Ros. fasc. iii. p. 350) (1875). — 
Hooker f, FI. Brit. Ind. vol. ii. p. 364 (1879) ; in Bot. Mag. vol. cvii. t. 6548 (single 
form) (1881). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendrol. p. 301 (1893). — Rehder in Bailey, Cycl. 
Am. Hort. vol. iv. p. 1588 (1902).— C. K. Schneider, III. Handbuch Laubholzk. vol. i. 
p. 588(1906). 

R. Roxburghii Trattinnick, Ros. Monogr. vol. ii. p. 233 (1823). 

Stems erect, glabrous, glaucous-purple; prickles mostly in stipulary pairs, 
large, rather ascending, generally without intermediate aciculi. Leaflets 1 1-15, small, 
oblong, obtuse or sub-acute, simply serrated, green and glabrous on the upper sur- 
face, glabrous or pubescent beneath ; petioles glabrous or slightly pubescent; stipules 
very narrow, adnate, with small free tips. Flowers few or solitary; peduncles short, 
hispid. Calyx-tube globose, rugose, densely aciculate ; lobes small, ovate, hispid 
on the back, deeply toothed. Petals pink or white, middle-sized. Styles free, 
included, densely hairy. Fruit depresso-globose, green, umbilicate at the base, 
large, edible, with a very thick skin, with only a few sessile basal carpels with a 
tuft of hair at the apex. 


Rosa microphylla is a very distinct species, clearly marked by its 
large, densely prickly, green, crab-apple-like fruit, crowned by the cori- 
aceous, deeply toothed calyx-lobes. It is a native of Japan and of 
central, western and northern China, where it grows in the warm river 
valleys and never ascends above altitudes of 4,000 feet. 

The first published description of this Rose appeared in Lindley’s 
Monograph, his attention having been called to it through seeing a 
collection of Chinese drawings in the possession of Sir H. Colebrook, 
amongst which occurred a figure of this plant in its double form. It 
was found to exist in the Calcutta Botanic Garden, having been procured 

i35 


ROSA MICRO PH YLLA 


from Canton by Dr. Roxburgh. Thence it was conveyed to this 
country, where it flowered for the first time in Colvifs nursery in 1824. 
Later it was thriving in Curtis’s Glazenwood Nursery at Coggeshall 
in Essex. It had long been cultivated in China and Japan, but the 
Rosa microphylla of the Simla forests is not our plant. Till 1862 only 
the double form had been known in Europe, but in that year the single 
form was collected by M. Maximovicz on the shore of Lake Hakone 
in central Japan, and it was from these plants that Crepin published 
his excellent description. Dr. Savatier also found this Rose on the 
same spot in 1871, and two years later Dr. Shearn collected it at 
N ew-Kiang in north China. 

Three forms are figured in the Phonzo Zoufon J one with single 
white flowers, a second with single red flowers, and a third with double 
red flowers. There is an excellent figure representing the double red 
form in the Botanical Magazine } 

In its general appearance this charming Rose somewhat resembles 
the Macartney Rose, and forms a most attractive object in the garden. 
In France it is often called the Rose Chataigne from the resemblance 
of its fruit to a sweet chestnut. Its leaflets, eleven to fifteen in number, 
are more numerous than in any other Rose yet known. At Tresserve, 
in Savoy, it blossoms from May to December, and its widely open 
flowers, which often measure five inches across, are succeeded by large, 
thorny, sweet-scented fruits. Although easily increased by seed, cut- 
tings or suckers, it is still comparatively rare in English gardens. 

An interesting hybrid of Rosa microphylla x rugosa originated in 
the garden of the Institut Botanique de Strasbourg. It was found 
growing at the foot of a plant of Rosa microphylla and clearly shows its 
parentage, having the straight branches of Rosa microphylla , with its 
globular buds and large prickly fruits. Its general habit and appear- 
ance suggest the rugosa influence. 


1 Part 27. 

2 Vol, Ixiii. t. 3490 (1836). 


136 



44 — ROSA MICROPHYLLA 





















VII 

CINNAMOMEAE 





























45 — ROSA CINNAMOMEA Linn. 


THE CINNAMON ROSE 

Rosa cinnamomea : caulibus arcuatis, bruneis ; aculeis parvis, geminis, stipu- 
laribus, aciculis intermediis interdum productis ; foliolis 5, oblongis, simpliciter 
serratis, acutis vel obtusis, utrinque pubescentibus ; rhachi pubescente, haud glan- 
dulosa ; stipulis longe adnatis, apicibus liberis, parvis; floribus 1-2, pedunculis 
brevibus, nudis ; bracteis oblongis, magnis ; calycis tubo globoso, nudo ; lobis 
simplicibus, apice productis, dorso pubescentibus, haud glandulosis ; petalis plerum- 
que rubris, magnitudine mediocribus ; stylis liberis, inclusis ; fructu parvo, globoso, 
rubro, nudo, pulposo, sepalis conniventibus coronato. 

R. cinnamomea Linnaeus, Syst. Nat . ed. 10, p. 1062 (1759); Sp. Plant, ed. 2, 
p. 703 (1762). — Allioni, FI. Pedem. vol. ii. p. 138 (1785). — Lawrance, Roses, t. 34 
( r 799). — Smith, Eng. Bot. vol. xxxiv. t. 2388 (1812). — Guimpel, Willdenow & Hayne, 
Abbild. Deutsch. Holzart, vol. i. p. 113, t. 85 (1815). — Thory in Redoute, Roses, 
vol. i. pp. 105, 133, tabs. (1817). — Lindley, Ros. Monogr. p. 28, No. 18, t. 5 (1820). 
— Trattinnick, Ros. Monogr. vol. ii. p. 171 (1823). — Seringe in De Candolle, Prodr. 
vol. ii. p. 605 (1825). — Koch, Syn. Ft. Germ. p. 224 (1837). — C. A. Meyer in Mem. 
Acad. Sci. St. Petersbourg, ser. 6 , vol. vi. pp. 7, 8, 9, 10, 21 ( Ueber die Zimmtrosen , 
pp. 7, 8, 9, 10, 21) (1847). — Grenier & Godron, FI. Franq. vol. i. p. 556 (1848). — 
Grenier, FI. Jura. p. 233 (1865). — Boissier, FI. Orient, vol. ii. p. 676 (1872). — Christ, 
Rosen Schweiz, p. 57 (1873) ; in Boissier, Ft. Orient. Suppl. p. 210 (1888). — Deseglise 
in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xv. p. 271 {Cat. Rais. Ros. p. 102 [1877]) (1876). — Crepin 
in Journ. des Roses, 1891, p. 54 {Nouvelle Classif. Ros. p. 19, 1891); Bull. Soc. Bot. 
Belg. vol. xxxi. pt. 2, p. 74 (1892) ; Bull. Herb. Boiss. vol. v. p. 143 (1897). — Keller in 
Ascherson & Graebner, Syn. Mitteleur. FI. vol. vi. p. 295 (1902). — Rehder in Bailey, 
Cycl. Am. Hon. vol. iv. p. 1555 (1902). — C. K. Schneider, III. Handbuch Laubholzk. 
vol. i. p. 573 (1906). 

R. majalis Herrmann, Dissert, p. 8 (1762). — Roessig, Die Rosen, No. 3 (1802- 
1820). 

R. foecundissima Muenchausen, Haitsv. vol. v. p. 279 (1774). 

R. fluvialis Lange, FI. Dan. vol. v. t. 868 (1782). 

R. davurica Pallas, FI. Ross. vol. i. pt. ii. p. 61 (1788). — Lindley, Ros. Monogr. 
p. 32, No. 20 (1820). — Trattinnick, Ros. Monogr. vol. ii. p. 170 (1823). 

R. collincola Ehrhart, Beitr. zur Naturk. vol. ii. p. 70 (1788). 

R. gorenkensis Besser, Enum. Folk. Podol. p. 60 (1822). — K. Koch, Dendrol. 
vol. i. p. 242 (1869). 

R. Fischeriana Besser, Enum. Folk. Podol. p. 60 (1822). 

R. turbinella Swartz ex Sprengel, Syst. Feg. vol. v. p. 554 (1825). 

R. amblyotis C. A. Meyer, Mdm. Acad. Sci. St. Petersbourg , ser. 6, vol. vi. 
p. 30 ( Ueber die Zimmtrosen, p. 30) (1847). 

Stems arching, brown, five or six feet long ; prickles in stipulary pairs, small, 
moderately robust, often with intermediate aciculi on the sterile shoots. Leaflets 

141 


ROSA CINNAMOMEA 

usually five, oblong, middle-sized, simply serrated, acute or obtuse, softly pubescent 
on both surfaces ; petioles pubescent, not glandular ; stipules adnate, with small 
free tips. Flowers i or 2 ; peduncles short, naked, hidden by the large oblong bracts. 
Calyx-tube globose, naked ; lobes simple, leaf-pointed, pubescent, not glandular on 
the back. Petals middle-sized, usually red. Styles free, included. Fruit small, 
globose, red, naked, pulpy, crowned by the connivent persistent sepals . 


Next to the Scotch Rose, the Cinnamon Rose occupies a wider 
geographical area than any other species of the genus ; it extends from 
western Europe to Siberia and Japan, but does not reach Britain or 
the Himalaya. The names cited above cover a considerable range 
of variation, but they probably all belong to a single species. Salisbury 
found a plant in the wood at the Aketon pasture near Pontefract; this 
station is referred to in Smith’s English Botany and admitted by 
Woods, 1 but Babington in a note says “probably not native.” 2 

Although the cinnamon-scented Rose is mentioned by Dodoens, 3 
Clusius, 4 Lobel, 5 C. Bauhin, 6 J. Bauhin, 7 none of the references can be 
intended for the plant now known as Rosa cmnamomea . As Haller 
(1708-1777) did not mention the Rose, it is probable that the single 
form had not in his time been introduced into cultivation. The double 
variety was common enough in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, 
and, varying somewhat, seems to have been grown in most of the old 
gardens. Clusius was the first to publish a description. Gerard 8 and 
Parkinson 9 refer at more or less length to this Rose. Gerard gives 
figures of both double and single Rosa cinnamomea , with the following 
account : 

“The Canell or Cinnamon rose, or the rose smelling like Cinnamon, hath shoots 
of a brown colour, foure cubits high, beset with thorny prickles, and leaues like vnto 
those of Eglantine, but smaller and greener, of the sauour or smell of Cinnamon. 
Whereof it took his name, and not of the smell of his floures (as some haue deemed) 
which haue little or no sauour at all : the floures be exceeding double, and yellow 
in the middle, of a pale red colour, and sometimes of a carnation : the root is of a 
wooddie substance. 

“We haue in our London gardens another Cinnamon or Canell rose, not 
differing from the last described in any respect, but onely in the floures ; for as the 
other hath very double floures, contrariwise these of this plant are verie single, 
wherein is the difference. 

“ Rosa Cinnamomea pleno flore. 

“ The double Cinnamon Rose. 

1 Trans. Linn. Soc. vol. xii. p. 175 (1816). 

2 British Botany , ed. 4, p. no (1836). 

3 Histona , p. 187 (1583). 

4 Rariorum aliquot stirpium per Pannoniam . . . observatarum historia, pp. 109, no, 112 (1583); Rariorum 
plantarum historia, pp. 115, 116 (1601). 

5 Kruydtboeck, pt. 2, p. 241 (1581). 

6 Pinax , p. 483 (1623). 

7 Historia , vol. ii. p. 39 (1651). 

8 Herball, bk. 3, p. 1086 (1597). 

9 Paradisus , pp. 416, 419 (1629) ; Theatrum , p. 1020 (1640). 

142 





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ROSA CINNAMOMEA 

“ Rosa Cinnamomea flore simplici. 

“ The single Cinnamon Rose. 

“ These Roses are planted in our London gardens, and elsewhere, but not found 
wilde in England.” 

It is difficult to identify the Rose from Gerard’s figures, or to say 
with any certainty if his single form was simply the cinnamon-scented 
Rose of the other pre-Linnaean writers, or whether it was really our 
Rosa cinnamomea. There are somewhat similar figures in several 
other pre-Linnaean books. 

Linnaeus at first confused this Rose with Rosa alptna {pendtdina). 
H is description of the Rose he calls Rosa cinnamomea in the first edition 
of the Species P lantarum is the same as that of Rosa alptna in the second 
edition, but his Rosa cinnamomea of the Systema Naturae and Species 
P lantarum , ed. 2, is our plant. 

Rosa cinnamomea is easily distinguished from all other Roses by 
its very large spreading stipules, often an inch or more across from 
point to point. The name is misleading, for it is difficult to detect the 
scent of cinnamon in any part of the plant, although Gilbert, 1 in 1683, 
describes it as having “a faint scent, a little like Cinnamon, from whence 
its name.” 

The double form figured is an old Rose, formerly to be found in 
many continental gardens, known as the Rose de Mat, Rose de P agues, 
or Rose du Saint-Sacrement , and figured by Redoute 2 under the name 
of Rosa majalis. It differs from the double cinnamomea usually found 
in cultivation by its finely and slantingly crimped petals, which are of 
a beautiful bright rosy tint shading to nearly white. It has now almost 
died out, but may occasionally be met with in some out-of-the-world 
botanic garden. The Rose from which the drawing was made grew 
in the old Correvon garden at Yverdun, Canton de Vaud, Switzerland. 

1 Florist's Vade Mecum , p. 150. 2 Roses, vol. i. p. 105 (1817). 


143 


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4 6— ROSA ACICULARIS Lindl. 

Rosa acicularis: caule elato, arcuato ; ramis floriferis, plerumque dense aculeatis 
et aciculatis ; aculeis gracillimis, rectis, saepe geminis infrastipularibus, in aciculis 
sensim gradatis ; foliolis 5-9, oblongis, acutis, membranaceis, glaucis, simpliciter 
serratis, facie glabris, dorso interdum pubescentibus ; rhachi glabra vel pubescente, 
obscure glandulosa ; stipulis adnatis, apice libero, ovato-lanceolato, glanduloso- 
ciliato ; floribus solitariis vel paucis ; pedunculis elongatis, nudis vel setosis; calycis 
tubo ampullaeformi ; lobis simplicibus, elongatis, apice foliaceis, nudis vel glandu- 
losis ; petalis rubellis ; stylis villosis, liberis, haud protrusis ; fructu plerumque 
cernuo, interdum erecto, rubro, pulposo ; aut subovato et apice breviter constricto 
vel elliptico et utrinque attenuato, aut suboblongo, saepius obovato-pyriformi, basi 
valde attenuato, sepalis persistentibus conniventibus coronato. 

R. acicularis Lindley, Ros. Monogr. p. 44, No. 27, t. 8 (1820). — C. A. Meyer in 
Mdm. Acad . Sci. SI. Petersbourg, ser. 6, vol. vi. p. 15 ( Ueber die Zimmtrosen , p. 15) 
( 1 847). — Maximowicz in Mdm. Acad. Sci. St. Pdtersbourg, vol. ix. p. 100 {Prim. FI. 
Amur) (1859). — Franchet & Savatier, Enum. PI. Jap. vol. i. p. 137(1874). — Crepin 
in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xiv. p. 5 (Prirnit. Monogr. Ros. vol. iii. p. 299) (1875). — 
S. Watson in Smithsonian Misc. Coll. vol. xv. p. 309 (1878). — Koehne, Deutsche 
Dendrol. p. 298 (1893). — Dippel, III. Handbuch Laubholzk.woX. iii. p. 584 (1893). — 
Keller in Ascherson & Graebner, Syn. Mitteleur. FI. vol. vi. p. 296 (1902). 

R. alpina Pallas, FI. Ross. vol. i. pt. 2, p. 61 (non Linnaeus) (1784). 

R. Gmelini Bunge in Ledebour, FI. Alt. vol. ii. p. 228 (1829).— Ledebour, FI. 
Ross. vol. ii. p. 75 (1844). — D^s^glise in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xv. p. 281 (Cat. 
Rais. Ros. p. 112 [1877]) (1876). 

R. carelica Fries, Summa Peg. Scand. vol. i. p. 171 (1846). — Lange, FI. Dan. 
Suppl. 2, t. 75 (1865). — Desdglise in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xv. p. 274 (Cat. Rais. 
Ros. p. 105 [1877]) (1876). 

Stem tall, arched, reaching a height of 6-8 feet ; flowering branches usually 
densely prickly. Prickles very slender, straight, needle-like, passing gradually into 
aciculi, often in pairs at the base of the leaves. Leaflets 5- 9, moderately large, thin, 
oblong, acute, glaucous, simply openly toothed, glabrous on both surfaces or pubes- 
cent beneath ; petioles glabrous or pubescent, slightly glandular ; stipules adnate, 
with ovate-lanceolate gland-ciliated free tips. Flowers one or few ; peduncles long’ 
naked or thinly setose ; bracts ovate. Calyx-tube ampullaeform ; lobes lanceolate’ 
simple, an inch long, leafy at the tip, naked or glandular on the back. Petals bright 
pink. Styles free, villous, not protruded. Fruit bright red, pulpy, erect or more 
often cernuous, sometimes subovate and shortly constricted at the apex or elliptical 
and tapering at each end, sometimes suboblong or obovate-pyriform, much narrowed 
at the base, crowned by the persistent connivent sepals. 


Rosa acicularis is a northern plant, extending through northern 
Russia and Siberia to Japan and across Behring Sea into northern 

H5 


ROSA ACICULARIS 


Alaska, and reaching southward to the Altai Mountains, but not to 
the Himalaya. In Europe, Japan and North America it is rare. 
In habit it is an erect, vigorous bush from six to eight feet high, with 
branches and stems generally armed with slender prickles. It was 
brought to England from Siberia by Mr. Thomas Bell. 

It was first mentioned by J. G. Gmelin in 1768 1 as “ Rosa non 
spinosa fructu turbinato,” but it was Lindley who first described it as 
a distinct species in his Monograph. He based his description, how- 
ever, upon plants growing in Mr. Sabine’s garden at North Mimms 
in Hertfordshire, which had doubtless lost some of their distinctive 
characters. The result has been a certain confusion among - continental 
botanists as to the true form of Lindley’s plant. This is not a matter 
for much surprise, when we take into consideration the wide area over 
which Rosa acicularis is distributed and the great variation in the species 
to which such differing geographical conditions would give rise. Crepin 
even suggested that Rosa acicularis might prove to be a circumpolar 
type. It has by some authors been referred to Rosa alpina L., 
notably in the first instance by Pallas in 1784, but, allowing certain 
affinities with Rosa alpina , it is between Rosa cinnamomea L. and 
Rosa blanda Ait. that it must be placed. In North America it is 
extremely difficult to draw the line between forms of Rosa acicularis 
and Rosa blanda. 

The chief merit of Rosa acicularis as a garden or woodland plant 
lies in its earliness ; it is the first Rose to come into leaf, and its flowers 
are among the first to open. It is perfectly hardy and easy to naturalize, 
and in autumn the handsome long scarlet fruits are brilliant in colour 
and remain long on the plant. 

The great variation to which the fruit of Rosa acicularis is subject 
can best be appreciated by comparing the accompanying drawings, 
which have been chosen to illustrate the two extremes. 

1 Flora Sibirica, vol. iii. p. 177. 


146 



4 6— ROSA AC ICU LARIS 






































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46— ROSA ACICULARIS 






















































































































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47— ROSA ACICULARIS, var. NIPPONENSIS Koehne 

Rosa acicularis, var. nipponensis : a typo recedit habitu humiliori, aculeis 
minoribus ; foliolis minoribus, 7-1 r, dorso glabris ; floribus solitariis ; sepalis 
brevioribus ; petalis minoribus, saturate rubris. 

R. acicularis , var. nipponensis Koehne, Deutsche Dendrol. p. 298 (1893). — 
Hooker f. in Bot. Mag. vol. cxxv. t. 7646 (1899). — Rehder in Bailey, Cycl. Am. 
Hort. vol. iv. p. 1555 (1902) 

R. nipponensis , Crepin in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xiv. p. 7 ( Primit . Monogr. 
Ros. fasc. iii. p. 301) (1875). 

Stem short, erect ; branches slender, dark brown. Prickles crowded, passing 
gradually into aciculi, straight, slender. Leaflets 7-1 1, usually 9, oblong, obtuse, 
small, simply sharply serrated, green and glabrous on both surfaces ; petioles glabrous, 
aciculate ; stipules adnate, with short deltoid free tips, slightly gland-ciliated. 
Flowers solitary ; pedicels long, densely setose. Calyx-tube ampullaeform, glabrous ; 
lobes simple, ovate, leaf-pointed, not glandular on the back. Corolla bright dark 
red, in. in diam. Styles not exserted. Fruit ampullaeform, naked, bright red, 
pulpy, ripening at the end of August, crowned by the erect persistent sepals. 


This beautiful, dwarf, dark-flowered variety of Rosa acicularis 
Lindl. has only recently been introduced into England. The plant 
cultivated in the Royal Gardens, Kew, was received from the Botanic 
Garden at Copenhagen. It has also been received from the Botanic 
Garden at Wurzburg. It most resembles Rosa Malyi Kern, or Rosa 
rubella Smith in its dwarf habit and copious, dark red flowers. There 
is a specimen in the Kew herbarium, collected in 1864 by Tschonoski 
on the well-known mountain Fujiyama in the island of Nippon. The 
seeds were first distributed by the Botanic Garden of St. Petersburg 
about 1870. 















































































































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4 8 — ROSA FRANCOFURTANA Muench. 


(ROSA CINNAMOMEA x GALLICA) 

Rosa franco fur tana : caule alto, arcuato ; aculeis ramulorum floriferorum nullis 
vel sparsis, mod ice robustis ; foliolis 5, tenuibus, late oblongis, basi rotundis, sim- 
pliciter serratis, magnis, facie parce, dorso densius pubescentibus ; rhachi pubescente, 
haud glandulosa ; stipulis adnatis, apicibus liberis, magnis, lanceolatis ; floribus 
solitariis, vel paucis, corymbosis, plenis, rubellis vel albis ; pedicellis dense hispidis ; 
calycis tubo robusto, globoso, saepius hispido ; lobis ovatis, apicibus elongatis, 
compositis ; fructu ignoto. 

R. francofitr tana Muenchausen, Hausv. vol. v. p. 288 (1774). — Borkhausen, 
Holz. p. 312 (1790). — Gmelin, Ft. Bad. vol. ii. p. 405 (1806). 

R. turbinata Aiton, Hort. Kew. vol. ii. p. 206 (1789). — Jacquin, Hort. Schoen. 
vol. iv. t. 415 (1804) ; Fragm. p. 71, t. 107, fig. 2 (1809). — Thory in Redoute, Roses, 
vol. i. p. 127 (1817); Prodr. Monogr. Ros. p. 118 (1820). — Bindley, Ros. Monogr . 
p. 73 (1820). — Seringe in De Candolle, Prodr. vol. ii. p. 603 (1825). — Koch, Syn . FI. 
Germ. p. 224 (1837). — Ddsdglise in Butt. Soc. Bot. Betg. vol. xv. p. 255 (Cat. Rais. 
Ros. p. 85 [1877]) (1876). — Dippel, Handbuch Laubholzk. vol. iii. p. 566 (1893). — 
Keller in Ascherson & Graebner, Syn. Mitteleur Ft. vol. vi. p. 52 (1900). — Rehder 
in Bailey, Cyct. Am. Hort. vol. iv. p. 1553 (1902). 

R. campanulata Ehrhart, Beitr. zur Naturk. vol. vi. p. 97 (1791). — Thory in 
Redoute, Roses, vol. ii. p. 95 (1821). 

R. francofitr tensis Roessig, Die Rosen, No. 11 (1802-1820). 

R. inermis Thory in Redoute, Roses, vol. ii. p. 93 (1821). 

R. cinnamomea x gallica Koehne, Deutsche Dendrol. p. 283 (1893). — C. K. 
Schneider, III. Handbuch Laubholzk. vol. i. p. 549 (1906). 

Stem tall, arching; prickles usually absent from the flowering shoots; if present, 
scattered, moderately stout. Leaflets 5, thin, broadly oblong, rounded at the base, 
simply serrated, large, slightly pubescent on the upper surface, more so beneath ; 
petioles pubescent, not glandular ; stipules adnate, with large, lanceolate, free tips. 
Flowers solitary or few, corymbose, double, pink or white, 2-3 in. diam. ; pedicels 
densely hispid. Calyx-tube stout, globose, usually hispid ; lobes ovate with a long 
point, | in. long, compound. Fruit not known. 


Rosa francofurtana was described and figured by Clusius 1 in 1583 
under the name of Rosa sine spinis , and again in 1601 2 with a figure 
which Crepin without hesitation referred to this species. In the text 
Clusius states that he had seen the plant growing in gardens at Frank- 

1 Rariorum aliquot stirpium per Pannoniam . . . observatarmn historia, pp. 108, 109. 

2 Rariorum plantarum historia , p. 115. 


153 


ROSA FRANCOFURTANA 


fort-on-the-Main. Tabernaemontanus in 1591/ C. Bauhin in 1623, 2 
and J. Bauhin in 1651 s also describe Clusius’ Rose, as do Parkinson 4 
in 1640 and Ray 5 in 1688. Linnaeus makes no mention of it, but 
Muenchausen in 1774 describes it fully and identifies it conclusively 
with Clusius’ Rose. Aiton in 1789 calls it Rosa turbinata from the 
shape of its fruit; and Ehrhart in 1791 calls it Rosa campanulata . 
Borkhausen, however, calls it Rosa francofurtana. Roessig in 1802 
figured and described it under the name of Rosa francofurtensis. 

This Rose, once common in English gardens, is now rarely to 
be met with, but Roessigs description exactly agrees with the Rose 
we know as Rosa francofurtana. Nearly allied hybrids are Rosa 
Ventenatiana Thory and Rosa orbessanea Thory; the latter is nearer 
to Rosa gallica L. than is Rosa francofurtana. 

1 Neuw und volkommenlich Kreuterbuch , pt. 3, p. 789. 

2 Pinax , p. 482. 

3 Historia , vol. ii. p. 35. 

4 Theatrum Bot. pp. 1013, 1019. 

5 Historia , vol. ii. p. 1470. 


154 


ROSA EEDTSCHENKDANA 








49— ROSA FEDTSCHENKOANA Regel 

Rosa Fedtschenkocina: caulibus arcuatis ; aculeis geminis, stipularibus, magnis, 
uncinatis ; aciculis intermecliis, copiosis ; foliolis 7-9, oblongis, parvis, obtusis, sim- 
pliciter serratis, utrinque glabris, vel clorso pubescentibus ; rhachi glabra vel pubes- 
cente ; stipulis longe adnatis, apicibus liberis parvis, ovatis, glandulis, ciliatis ; 
floribus 1-4; pedunculis brevibus, hispidis; calycis tubo globoso, aciculato ; lobis 
simplicibus, apice elongatis, dorso glandulosis ; petalis albis, parvis ; stylis liberis, 
inclusis ; fructu ovoideo, rubro, aciculato, sepalis persistentibus coronato. 

R. Fedtschenkoana Regel in Act Hart. Petrop. vol. v. p. 314 (Tent. Ros . 
Monogr. p. 30 [1877]) (1878). — Hooker f in Bot. Mag. vol. cxxvii. t. 7770 (1901). 

Stems low, arching ; prickles in stipulary pairs, large, hooked, moderately stout, 
with copious intermediate unequal aciculi. Leaflets 7-9, oblong, obtuse, small, thin, 
simply serrated, glabrous on both surfaces or pubescent beneath ; petioles glabrous 
or pubescent, not glandular ; stipules adnate, with small free tips, gland-ciliated. 
Flowers 1-4; peduncles short, hispid. Calyx-tube ovoid, densely aciculate ; lobes 
simple with a long point, densely glandular on the back. Petals small, white. 
Styles free, included. Fruit ovoid, bright red, densely aciculate, crowned by the 
persistent sepals. 


The Fedtschenko Rose was discovered in the Turkestan and 
Koram regions of Central Asia over thirty years ago by Madame 
Olga Fedtschenko, by whom it was introduced into the Botanic Garden 
oi St. Petersburg. Thence it was sent to Warley, where it flowered 
for the first time in England, but did not bear fruit until the following 
year. The stems are red in the young state, darkening with age ; the 
leaves are pinnate and glaucous, and the flowers white. The odour 
resembles that of Rosa Beggeriana Schrenk. It is most nearly allied 
to Rosa acicularis LindL, but is smaller in all its parts and more 
densely aciculate. Regel describes four varieties, lagenaejormis , ovata, 
pubescens and glandulosa , the characters of which are indicated by their 
names. 


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Part 

I published September 

15, 

1910 


II 

99 

October 

19, 

99 

99 

III 

99 

November 

14, 

99 

99 

IV 

99 

December 

14, 

99 

» 

99 

V 

99 

January 

14, 

1911 

9 9 

VI 

99 

February 

14, 

99 

99 

VII 

99 

March 

14, 

9 9 


April 12, 1911 


PART VIII 


THE GENUS ROSA 

BY 

ELLEN WILLMOTT, F.L.S. 


Drawings by 

ALFRED PARSONS, A.R.A. 



LONDON 

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, W. 

1911 








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/ 









so— ROSA MACROPHYLLA Lindl. 


Rosa macrophylla : caule erecto ; ramulis rubro-bruneis, inermibus, vel aculeis 
rectis geminis stipularibus, aciculis intermixtis, armatis ; foliolis 9-1 1, oblongis, 
acutis, simpliciter serratis, facie viridibus, glabris, dorso pubescentibus ; rhachi 
pubescente ; stipulis latis, adnatis, apice libero, ovato ; floribus 1-3 ; pedunculis 
parce setosis ; fructu turbinato, nudo, vel parce setoso ; sepalis lanceolatis, sim- 
plicibus, apice elongatis, foliaceis, dorso glandulosis ; petalis rubris, magnitudine 
mediocribus ; stylis pilosis, liberis, inclusis; fructu rubro, pulposo, turbinato, sepalis 
persistentibus coronato. 

R. macrophylla Lindley, Ros. Monogv. p. 35, t. 6 (1820). — Wallich, PL As. 
Par. vol. ii. p. 19, t. 117 (1831).— Brandis, Forest Flora N.W. Ind. p. 203 (1874); 
Indian Trees , p. 288 (1906). — Crepin in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xiii. p. 283 ( Primit . 
Monogr. Ros. fasc. iii. p. 290) (1874) ; vol. xiv. p. 167 {Primit. Monogr. Ros. fasc. iii. 
p. 371) (1875). — Hooker f, Ft. Brit. Ind. vol. ii. p. 366(1879). — Forbes & Hemsley 
in Journ. Linn. Soc. vol. xxiii. p. 251 (1887). — Collett, Ft. Siml. p. 168 (1902). 

R. Hoffmeisteri Klotzsch in Reise Prinz. Waldem. p. 153, t. 7 (1862). 

R. Guilelmi Waldemarii Klotzsch in Reise Prinz. Waldem. p. 153, t. 8 (1862). 

R. Hookeriana Bertoloni, Misc. fasc. xxiv. p. 14 (1863). 

Stem erect ; branches reddish brown. Prickles , when present, straight, in 
stipulary pairs and intermixed with aciculi. Leaflets 9-1 1, oblong, acute, simply 
serrated, green and glabrous on the upper surface, pubescent beneath ; petioles 
pubescent ; stipules broad, adnate, with ovate free tips. Flowers 1-3 ; peduncles 
slightly setose. Calyx-tube naked or slightly setose ; lobes lanceolate, simple, leaf- 
pointed, glandular beneath. Petals red, middle-sized. Styles pilose, free, included. 
Fruit red, pulpy, elongate-ovoid, crowned with the persistent sepals. 


Rosa macrophylla is a native of the temperate Himalaya from 
Kashmir to Sikkim and the Naga Hills, and extends to the central 
and western provinces of China, reaching sometimes to altitudes of 
from 10,000 to 12,000 feet. It is quite hardy and ripens its fruit in 
England. Macrophylla is not a specially appropriate name, as there 
are many Roses that have larger leaflets. It is nearly allied to Rosa 
alpina L. and Rosa acicularis Lindl., differing from the former by its 
occasional pairs of stipular prickles, and from both by its more numerous 
leaflets. It is very variable in its prickles and in the size and shape 
of its leaflets. In an extreme form (var. minor Lindl.) it has flowers 
only i-R in. diam. and obtuse leaflets not more than in. long. Rosa 
macrophylla is not common in cultivation. 

157 v 






5o — ROSA MACROPHYLLA 



































































































































' 








































































































































































































































































































































































































































































SI— ROSA PRATTII Hemsl. 

Rosa Pratt ii : caule arcuato ; aculeis conformibus, subrectis, modice robustis, 
saepe geminis infrastipularibus ; foliolis i i-i 3, oblongo-lanceolatis, acutis, parvis, 
rigidulis, simpliciter serratis, utrinque glabris ; rhachi glabra, aciculata, haud glandu- 
losa ; stipulis adnatis, apicibus liberis, ovatis, patulis ; floribus paucis, corymbosis ; 
pedicellis hispidis ; calycis tubo angusto, parce aciculato ; lobis ovatis, acuminatis, 
simplicibus, dorso glandulosis ; petalis rubris, parvis ; stylis villosis, liberis ; fructu 
subgloboso, glanduloso, rubro, sepalis persistentibus coronato ; carpellis dorso et 
apice pilis setiformibus subluteis vestitis. 

R. Prattii Hemsley in Jour n. Linn. Soc. vol. xxix. p. 307, t. 30 (1892). 

Stems arching ; prickles uniform, nearly straight, moderately stout, spreading, 
often in infrastipular pairs. Leaflets 1 1 - 1 3, oblong-lanceolate, acute, simply serrated, 
firm in texture, glabrous on both surfaces, the end one under an inch long ; petioles 
glabrous, aciculate, not glandular ; stipules adnate, with small, spreading free tips. 
Flowers few, corymbose ; pedicels densely hispid. Calyx-tube narrow, slightly 
aciculate ; lobes ovate-acuminate, simple, in. long, glandular on the back. Petals 
bright red, i in. long. Styles free, villous. Fruit subglobose, glandular, red ; sepals 
persistent ; carpels clothed with yellowish bristle-like hairs on back and apex. 


Rosa Prattii is nearly allied to Rosa macrophylla Lindl., but is 
readily distinguished from it by its numerous small and closely arranged, 
narrow, obscurely toothed leaflets. 

Mr. A. E. Pratt, naturalist and traveller, collected this rare and 
extremely interesting Rose in 1890 in west Sze-chuan on the frontier 
of Tibet at an elevation of about 9,000 feet, and he discovered it also 
in the neighbourhood of Ta-Chien-Lu on the borders of Tibet, western 
China. It is a distinct and interesting species, and it is to be hoped 
it may be introduced into cultivation in this country ; up to the present 
it is only known to us in a dried state. 


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52— ROSA SERICEA Lindl. 

Rosa sericea : caule elongato, erecto; ramulis multis, brevibus, dense foliosis ; 
aculeis majoribus validis, uncinatis, saepe geminis infrastipularibus, aciculis copiosis 
inaequalibus intermixtis; foliolis 7-1 1, parvis, oblongis, obtusis, viridibus,simpliciter 
dentatis, facie glabris, dorso sericeis ; rhachi pubescente; stipulis adnatis, glanduloso- 
ciliatis, apicibus liberis, parvis, ovatis; floribus plerumque solitariis ; pedicellis 
brevibus, nudis vel sericeis et glandulosis ; calycis tubo globoso, subnudo ; lobis 
simplicibus, lanceolatis ; dorso nudis vel glandulosis ; petalis plerumque 4, albis ; 
magnitudine mediocribus ; stylis villosis, liberis, inclusis ; fructu parvo, globoso, 
rubro, sepalis persistentibus coronato. 

R. sericea Lindley, Ros. Monogr. p. 105, No. 57, t. 12 (1820). — Seringe in De 
Candolle, Prodr . vol. ii. p. 613 (1825). — Royle, III . Sot. vol. i. p. 208 ; vol. ii. t. 42, 
fig. 1 (1839). — Hooker in Bot. Mag . vol. xvi. t. 5200 (i860). — Crepin in Bull. Soc. 
Bot. Belg. vol. xiv. pt. 2, p. 15 1 (Primit. Monogr. Ros. fasc. iii. p. 355) (1875); 
vol. xxv. pt. 2, p. 9 (1886). — Deseglise in Bull . Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xv. p. 280 
(Cat. Rais. Ros. p. 111 [1877]) (1876). — Hooker f, FI. Brit. hid. vol. ii. p. 367 
(1879). — Forbes & Hemsley in Journ, Linn. Soc. vol. xxiii. p. 254 (1887). — Mottet 
in Rev. ILort. 1897, pp. 444-6, figs. 136, 137. — Collett, FI. Siml. p. 168 (1902). — 
Rehder in Bailey, Cycl. Am. Hold. vol. iv. p. 1557 (1902). — Brandis, Indian Trees , 
p. 288 (1906). 

R. IVallichii Trattinnick, Ros. Monogr. vol. ii. p. 193 (1823). 

Stem erect, reaching a height of 6-8 feet, with many short densely leafy branch- 
lets ; main prickles stout, hooked, often in infrastipular pairs, intermixed with copious 
irregular aciculi. Leaflets 7-1 1, small, oblong, obtuse, simply toothed, green and 
glabrous on the upper surface, silky beneath ; petioles pubescent ; stipules adnate, 
glandular-ciliated, with small, ovate free tips. Flowers usually solitary ; pedicels 
short, naked or glandular and silky. Calyx-tube globose, nearly naked ; lobes simply 
lanceolate, naked or glandular on the back. Petals usually 4, sometimes 5, pure 
white, middle-sized. Styles pubescent, free, included. Fruit small, globose, red, 
naked, crowned by the persistent sepals. 


Rosa sericea inhabits the temperate Himalaya from the valley of 
the Ravi eastward to Sikkim, Bhutan, Manipur, Burma, and extends 
into the mountainous regions of Tibet and also of central China. It 
reaches an altitude of 6,000 feet above the sea in Manipur, of 13,000 
feet in Sikkim and of 14,000 feet in Kumaon, and is quite hardy in 
England. It was first discovered by Dr. Wallich about 1820 at 
Gossain Than, and has since been collected in many other Himalayan 
localities. It was described for the first time by Lindley from specimens 
in the herbarium of Sir J. Banks, and about two years later found its 

163 


ROSA SERICEA 


way into English gardens. It is the only four-petalled Rose in the 
whole genus. Lindley, having described it from dried specimens, 
probably never doubted that the flower presented the usual five divisions 
in calyx and corolla. In his description he does not refer to this strange 
anomaly, and his drawing gives a flower with five petals, although 
pentamerous flowers are extremely rare. 

Rosa sericea is thus described by Sir George Watt in an un- 
published diary of explorations in Manipur during 1882 : 

“A singularly beautiful rose, forming as it does small, erect, isolated bushes 
that frequent exposed grassy situations or low brushwoods. As a species it may be 
described as distributed throughout the temperate Himalaya, from the valley of the 
Ravi (in the far north-west) eastward to Sikkim, Bhutan, Manipur, Burma and China. 

“ The young twigs are round, smooth, green, with below each lateral bud a pair 
of large, flat, greatly prolonged (if they might not be called winged), brown, glistening 
prickles which end, on their upper half, in a sharp straight spine ; on the older twigs 
the prickles are round, straight, and very sharp, arising from a round basal expansion. 
The flowers borne on short lateral twigs, all along the secondary branches (one of 
the most striking features of the plant), are small, often less than one inch in diameter 
or, when exceptionally luxuriant, may be twice that size. Petals four, one large, 
another (opposite to it) small and the other two medium-sized, pure white or faintly 
tinged with pink toward the centre. Fruit the size of a pea, red and hairy. 

“ In Manipur this rose is exceedingly local and scarce ; it was met with by me 
in two localities only, viz. near the village of Langda (altitude 6,000 feet), and again 
above the village of Ching Sow (altitude 7,500 feet). In the western Himalaya it 
is exceedingly plentiful in the Baghi district, some 50 miles north of Simla, at an 
altitude of from 9,000 to 14,000 feet above the sea. It is thus met with at consider- 
ably lower altitudes in the east than in the west. 

“The extraordinary development of the prickles upon the young twigs led me 
at first to suspect that this was a quite distinct species from Rosa sericea Lindl. 
But I soon satisfied myself that the formation of flattened prickles was but a con- 
dition of growth, and in no way varietal in value. I have since repeatedly seen 
both conditions growing side by side and often from the same root. Certainly the 
Manipur plant seemed at first sight different (corresponding with var. pteracantha) 
from that which I had gathered in Sikkim and subsequently in Simla ; but although 
hopeful at first of being able to confirm the impression thus formed in the field, 
when I placed the specimens side by side in the herbarium I had reluctantly to 
agree with the opinion arrived at by most botanists, namely, that the numerous 
forms referred to this plant constitute but one species, though it seems probable that 
that species has been confused, through the inclusion of certain forms that more 
correctly belong to Rosa Webbiana Wall., which may be regarded as its representative 
west and north of the Ravi, and is in fact the most common rose in Pangi and 
Ladakh.” 

The most remarkable variety of Rosa sericea is var. pteracantha 
of Franchet, 1 which differs from the type in having remarkably dilated 
main prickles, decurrent, which, being translucent red on the young 
growths, give the plant an appearance of great beauty. This Rose 
was discovered in Yun-nan growing with the typical form, by the Abbe 
Delavay. Seeds were sent to M. de Vilmorin, who raised the plants 
now in cultivation. Another variety is Rosa demidata Franchet, 1 in 
which the stems are quite unarmed and the leaves glabrous beneath. 

1 Plant. Delavay., pars i. p. 220 (1889). 

164 



52— ROSA SERICEA 













Bfl - SA B1MJDA.var.IAKA , 


ROSA LAXA 





. 





53 — ROSA LAXA Retz. 


Rosa laxa : caule arcuato ; aculeis major i bus, robustis, falcatis, saepe geminis 
infrastipularibus, aciculis intermediis, inaequalibus, setaceis additis ; foliolis 7-9, 
oblongis, subacutis, firmulis, simpliciter serratis, utrinque glabris vel dorso parce 
pubescentibus ; rhachi glabra vel pubescente, haud glandulosa ; stipulis adnatis, 
apicibus liberis ovatis, parvis, patulis ; floribus paucis, corymbosis vel solitariis ; 
pedunculis nudis vel hispidis ; calycis tubo oblongo, nudo ; lobis ovatis, longe 
acuminatis, simplicibus, dorso nudis ; petalis albis vel rubellis, magnitudine medio- 
cribus ; stylis liberis, villosis ; fructu globoso, nudo, rubro, pulposo ; sepalis conni- 
ventibus, coronato pedunculo subcernuo. 


R. laxa Retzius in Hoffmann, Phyt. Bldtt. p. 39 (1803). — Seringe in De Candolle, 
Prodr. vol. ii. p. 605 (1825). — Fries, Smmna Veg. Scand . p. 172 (1846). — Crepin in 
Bull. Soc . Bot. Belg. vol. xiii. pt. 2, p. 26 ( Primit . Monogr. Ros. fasc. iii. p. 320) 


(1875). — Deseglise in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xv. {Cat. Rais. Ros. p. 107 1877 
(1876). — Regel in Act. Hort. Petrop. vol. v. p. 330 {Tent. Ros. Monogr. p. 46 [1877 
{excl. syn.) (1878). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendrol. p. 295 (1893). 

R. soongarica Bunge ex Ledebour, FI. Alt. vol. ii. p. 226 (1830). 

R. Gebleriana Schrenk in Bull. Rhys. Math. Acad. Sci. St. Petersbourg , vol. i 
p. 80 (1843). — Ledebour, FI. Ross. vol. ii. p. 76 (1844). 

R. cinnamoniea , var. soongarica Ledebour, FI. Ross. vol. ii. p. 76 (1844). 


Stem arching ; prickles rather large, robust, falcate, some in infrastipular pairs 
with unequal setaceous aciculi also present. Leaflets 7-9, oblong, subacute, simply 
serrated, moderately firm in texture, glabrous on both surfaces or slightly pubescent 
beneath, the end one i-ii in. long ; petioles glabrous or pubescent, not glandular; 
stipules adnate, with small, spreading, ovate free tips. Flowers 1-3 ; pedicels naked 
or hispid. Calyx-tube oblong, naked ; lobes simple, ovate, with a very long point, 
J-f in. long, naked on the back. Petals white or pink, middle-sized. Styles free, 
hairy. Fruit globose, naked, bright red, pulpy, crowned with the persistent conni- 
vent sepals ; fruit peduncle subcernuous. 


Although described in 1803 it was not until 1846 that this Rose 
was clearly understood. This will explain the many synonyms met 
with in its early history. The accounts given by Wikstrom , 1 Trattin- 
nick , 2 Sprengel , 3 Seringe and Bunge 4 threw very little light upon the 
identity of Retzius’ type, but the careful descriptions given by Fries 

1 Nagra Arter of Vaxtsldgtet Rosa in K. V. Acad. Handl. No. 3, t. iii. fig. 3 (1820). 

2 Ros. Monogr. vol. ii. p. 13 (1823). 

3 Syst. Veg. vol. ii. p. 548 (1825). 

4 In Ledebour, FI. Alt. vol. ii. p. 226 (1830). 

167 


ROSA LAXA 


and by Meyer , 1 who had himself collected it in Siberia, established the 
species. 

Rosa laxa may be regarded as intermediate between Rosa alpina 
L. and Rosa cinnamomea L. From Rosa acicularis Lindl. it differs 
by its robust hooked main prickles, smaller, firmer, simply-toothed 
leaflets, and globose fruit. It is a native of the Altai Mountains and 
central Siberia. Although it has been long in cultivation in Sweden, 
it has not yet reached this country. 

Lindley’s later-named Rosa laxa 2 is a variety of Rosa blanda Ait. 
and must not be confused with Rosa laxa of Retzius. 

1 In Mem. Acad. Sci. St. Petersbourg , ser. 6, vol. vi. pp. 6, 20 ( Ueber die Zimmtrosen , pp. 6 , 20) (1847). 

2 Ros. Monogr. p. 18, t. 12, No. 3 (1820). 


ROSA LAXA 



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54— ROSA BEGGERIANA Schrenk 


Rosa Beggeriana : caule erecto ; aculeis robustis, conformibus, falcatis, saepe 
infrastipularibus geminis ; foliolis 7-9, parvis, oblongis, acutis, simpliciter serratis, 
facie glabris, dorso glabris vel pubescentibus, haud glandulosis ; rhachi glabra vel 
pubescente, haud glandulosa ; stipulis adnatis, apice libero, parvo, ovato ; floribus 
paucis, corymbosis ; pedunculis brevibus, plerumque nudis ; calycis tubo globoso, 
nudo ; lobis lanceolatis, simplicibus, dorso nudis ; petalis albis, parvis ; stylis 
villosis, liberis, haud protrusis ; fructu globoso, sordide rubro, nudo, magnitudine 
pisi ; sepalis deciduis. 

R. Beggeriana Schrenk, Enum. PL Nov. p. 73 (1841). — Ledebour, FI. Ross. 
vol. ii. p. 82 (1844). — Crepin in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xiv. pp. 15-21 ( Primit . 
Monogr. Ros. fasc. iii. pp. 309-315) (1875). — Regel in Act. Hort. Petrop. vol. v. p. 369 
{Tent. Ros. Monogr. p. 85 [1877]) (1878). — Aitchison in Journ. Linn. Soc. vol. xix. 
p. 161, t. 7 (1882). — Christ in Boissier, FI. Orient. Suppl. p. 208 (1888). 

R. Silverhielmii Schrenk in Bull. Sclent. Acad. St. Pdtersbourg, vol. ii. p. 195 
(1844). — K. Koch, Dendrol. vol. i. p. 249 (1869). 

R. Lehmanniana Bunge, Lehmann Ret. Bot. p. 287 (1851). — Boissier, FI. 
Orient, vol. ii. p. 678 (1872). 

Stem erect, 3-4 feet high ; prickles stout, hooked, uniform, often in pairs at the 
base of the leaves. Leaflets 7-9, small, oblong, acute, simply toothed, glabrous 
above, glabrous or pubescent beneath ; petioles glabrous or pubescent, not glandular; 
stipules adnate, with small, ovate free tips. Flowers few, corymbose ; peduncles 
short, usually naked ; bracts ovate-lanceolate. Calyx-tube globose, naked, ^ in. 
diam. ; lobes simple, lanceolate, J-J in. long, naked on the back. Corolla white, 1 in. 
diam. Styles free, villous, not protruded. Fruit globose, dark red, naked, the size 
of a pea ; sepals deciduous. 


Rosa Beggeriana represents a small, well-marked group of species, 
widely spread over the tablelands of central Asia, which possess the 
geminate stipular prickles of Rosa cinnamomea L. and a small globose 
fruit not larger than a pea and not often seen on cultivated plants. 
Although not particularly ornamental, it is interesting on account of its 
curious double thorny stipules ; by some authors these are considered 
stipules and by others thorns. 

Its introduction into cultivation is due to Dr. J. E. T. Aitchison, 
botanist of the late Afghan Boundary Survey, who found it a common 
shrub at the western extremity of the Kurram district and throughout 
the Hariab, in the vicinity of streams and watercourses. It is also 

1 7 1 z 


ROSA BEGGERIANA 


very common in the neighbourhood of cultivated ground, where it forms 
natural hedges along the various channels of irrigation, at an altitude 
of from 4,000 to 9,000 feet. It forms a bush of from 4 to 6 feet in 
height. When in bloom it is covered with a mass of small pure white 
flowers which have a peculiar, somewhat briar-like scent. The fruit is 
little larger than an ordinary pea, at first orange-red and when fully 
ripe of a deep purple-black. This species is employed, as well as Rosa 
Eglanteria L., Rosa Ecae Aitch., the Gooseberry and Hippophae, in 
forming hedges in the Hariab district, and is much browsed by cattle, 
especially goats. 

Rosa anserinaefolia Boiss., which extends to the Himalaya, differs 
from Rosa Beggeriana mainly by its pubescent leaves. They are 
connected with the Sweet Briars through Rosa laser ans Boiss., which 
has doubly serrated leaflets, somewhat glandular beneath. 


172 


55— ROSA SETIPODA Hemsl. & E. H. Wils. 

Rosa setipoda : caule arcuato ; aculeis patulis, conformibus, oppositis vel sparsis, 
e basi lata subulatis, rectis; foliolis 7-9, oblongis, acutis, simpliciter serratis, utrinque 
glabris vel dorso pubescentibus ; rhachi glabra, parce aciculata ; stipulis adnatis, 
glandulis marginatis, apicibus liberis elongatis ; floribus pluribus in paniculum 
corymbosum dispositis ; pedunculis et pedicellis dense aciculatis ; bracteis linearibus, 
parvis ; calycis tubo angusto, aciculato vel nudo ; lobis lanceolatis, apice elongato, 
foliaceo, dorso nudis ; petalis latis, rubellis, calyce vix longioribus ; stylis liberis, 
inclusis ; fructu oblongo, apice constricto, rubro ; sepalis erectis, persistentibus. 

R. setipoda Hemsley & E. H. Wilson in Kew Bull. 1906, No. 5, p. 158. 

Stem arching, 5-10 feet long ; prickles opposite or scattered, spreading, straight, 
subulate from a dilated base. Leaflets 7-9, oblong, acute, simply serrated, thin, 
glabrous on both surfaces or pubescent beneath ; petioles glabrous, with a few small 
prickles; stipules adnate, gland-margined, with long free points. Flowers many, 
arranged in a corymbose panicle with densely aciculate peduncle and pedicels ; 
bracts linear, small. Calyx-tube narrow, aciculate or naked ; lobes an inch long, 
lanceolate, foliaceous, with a long point, naked on the back. Petals pink, not longer 
than the calyx-lobes. Styles free, included. Fruit oblong with a constricted apex, 
bright red ; sepals finally erect, persistent. 


Rosa setipoda is closely allied to Rosa macrophylla Lindl., from 
which it differs principally by its densely aciculate peduncles and 
pedicels. It was first collected by Professor Henry in 1889 in the 
Fang district in the province of Hupeh in central China, and was 
afterwards tound by Mr. E. H. Wilson in the same district at an 
elevation of 7,000 to 8,000 feet. Mr. Wilson says: “ Its long pedicels 
clothed with spreading gland-tipped bristles and numerous toliaceous 
bracts give it a singular appearance.” 


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Part I published September 15, 1910 

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II 

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October 19, „ 

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November 14, ,, 

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December 14, ,, 

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January 14, 1911 

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April 12, „ 


PART IX 


May 12, 1911 








I 

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THE GENUS ROSA 

BY 


ELLEN WILLMOTT, F.L.S. 

Drawings by 

ALFRED PARSONS, A.R.A. 



LONDON 

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, W. 

1911 


henry sotheran & co.. 

Booksellers and Bookbinders, 


87 Piccadilly, W. 






















56— ROSA FENDLERI Crep. 

Rosa Fendleri: caule elongato, arcuato ; aculeis gracilibus, parvis, leviter 
falcatis, saepe geminis infrastipularibus, ad ramos steriles aciculis intermixtis ; 
foliolis 5-7, obovato-oblongis, obtusis, firmis, opacis, simpliciter serratis, facie glabris, 
dorso leviter pubescentibus ; rhachi aciculata, glabra vel pubescente ; stipulis 
adnatis, glanduloso-ciliatis, apicibus liberis, parvis, ovatis ; floribus saepe solitariis ; 
pedicellis nudis ; calycis tubo parvo, nudo, globoso ; lobis simplicibus, apice elongato, 
dorso nudis ; petalis parvis, cuneatis, rubellis ; stylis pubescentibus, liberis, inclusis ; 
fructu nudo, globoso, parvo, rubro, sepalis erectis coronato. 

R. Fendleri Crepin in Ball. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xv. p. 91 ( Primit . Monogr. 
Ros. fasc. iv. p. 452) (1876). — S. Watson in Smithsonian Misc . Coll. vol. xv. p. 310 
(1878). — Coulter, Man. Bot. Rocky Mount, p. 88 (1885). — Macoun, Cat. Canad. 
Plants , vol. i. pt. 3, p. 521 (1886). — Rehder in Bailey, Cycl. Am. Hort. vol. iv. 
p. 1554 (1902). 

R. parviflora Macoun, Cat. Canad. Plants , vol. i. pt. 1, p. 145 ( non Ehrhart) 

( i 88 3 ). 

R. IVoodsii Britton & Brown, III. FI. North States and Canada , vol. ii. fig. 230 
( non Lindley) (1897). 

Stems arching, reaching a height of 6-8 feet ; prickles small, slender, slightly 
hooked, often in infrastipular pairs, mixed with copious aciculi on the sterile shoots. 
Leaflets 5-7, obovate-oblong, obtuse, J-f in. long, firm, opaque, simply toothed, the 
side ones shortly stalked, the end one cuneate at the base, glabrous on the upper 
surface, slightly pubescent beneath ; petioles aciculate, glabrous or pubescent ; 
stipules adnate, gland-ciliated, with small ovate free tips. Flowers often solitary ; 
pedicels naked. Calyx-tube small, globose, naked ; lobes simple, lanceolate-acuminate, 
i in. long, naked on the back. Petals small, cuneate, pink. Styles free, included, 
pubescent. Fruit small, red, globose or subglobose, crowned by the erect persistent 
sepals. 


Rosa Fendleri inhabits the Rocky Mountains from West Texas 
and New Mexico to the Sierra Nevada, and northward into Canada. 
In N ew Mexico it reaches a height of 6,000—7,000 feet. It was first 
collected by Fendler in New Mexico in 1847. Amongst the Cinna- 
momeae with simple sepals it may easily be recognized by its early 
flowering, its small, obovate leaflets, and its small, globose, bright 
scarlet fruit crowned by the persistent sepals. It is rare in Europe in 
gardens. 


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57 — ROSA ELYMAITICA Boiss. & Haussk. 


Rosa elymaitica : caulibus brevibus, ramosis ; aculeis multis, conformibus, 
arcuatis, modice robustis, saepe geminis infrastipularibus ; foliolis 3-5, orbicularibus, 
parvis, rigidulis, grosse simpliciter serratis, facie tenuiter, dorso dense pubescentibus ; 
rhachi dense pubescente, parce glandulosa ; stipulis adnatis, apicibus liberis, parvis, 
latis ; pedunculis brevissimis, hispidis, saepissime solitariis ; calycis tubo oblongo, 
hispido ; lobis ovatis, acuminatis, parce compositis, dorso pubescentibus ; petalis 
parvis, albis vel roseis ; stylis villosis, liberis ; fructu globoso, rubro, hispido, sepalis 
subpersistentibus patulis coronato. 

R. elymaitica Boissier & Haussknecht, FI. Orient, vol. ii. p. 675 (1872). — 
Crepin in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xiii. p. 278 ( Primit . Monogr. Ros. fasc. iii. p. 285) 
(1874). — Deseglise in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xv. p. 278 [Cat. Rais. Ros. p. 109 
[1877]) (1876). — Christ in Boissier, FI. Orient. Suppl. p. 227 (1888). 

R. albicans Godet ex Boissier, FI. Orient, vol. ii. p. 675 (1872). 

Stems short, much branched; prickles numerous, uniform, curved, moderately 
robust, often in infrastipular pairs. Leaflets 3-5, orbicular, J-J in. long, obtuse, 
rather rigid, simply conspicuously serrated, thinly pubescent on the upper surface, 
densely pubescent but not glandular beneath ; petioles pubescent, obscurely glandular; 
stipules adnate, with short, broad, free tips. Peduncles very short, hispid, usually 
solitary. Calyx-tube oblong, hispid ; lobes ovate-acuminate, J in. long, slightly 
compound, pubescent on the back. Petals white or rose-red, not longer than the 
sepals. Styles free, villous. Fruit globose, hispid, dark red, i in. diameter, crowned 
by the subpersistent spreading sepals. 


This interesting Persian species was first discovered by Aucher 
Eloy and later by Bunge at Teheran, but was only distributed under 
herbarium numbers. Haussknecht collected it in 1 867-68 in Kurdistan 
on Mount Parrow below Kirmanscha, and in Persia at Teng N alii, 
ascending to altitudes of from 7,000 to 9,000 feet. Crepin intended 
to dedicate it to Haussknecht, but did not publish the name, and it 
was not until several years later that Boissier and Haussknecht described 
it under the name of Rosa elymaitica. 

It is a very distinct species and has been classed with the 
Cmnamomeae , although presenting several marked differences from 
other species of this group. Its principal characters are its dwarf, 
compact habit, and large, curved, uniform prickles, its very small, 

*79 


ROSA ELYMAITICA 


orbicular, rigid, conspicuously toothed leaflets, and small flowers 
and fruit. 

It has not been cultivated in England. 

Rosa albicans of Godet is a variety with the leaves and stems 
clothed with dense, loose, white tomentum. 


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5 8 — ROSA RUGOSA Thunb. 


Rosa rugosa: caulibus erectis, ramosis ; ramis junioribus viridibus ; aculeis 
densis, rectis, gracilibus, valde inaequalibus ; foliolis 7-1 1, oblongis vel obovatis, 
breviter simpliciter serratis, rugosis, facie viridibus, glabris, dorso pallidis, pubes- 
centibus ; rhachi pubescente ; aciculis saepe falcatis ; stipulis apice libero, ovato- 
acuminato ; floribus paucis, corymbosis vel solitariis ; bracteis ovatis, magnis, dorso 
pubescentibus ; pedicellis brevibus, nudis ; calycis tubo globoso, nudo ; lobis lanceo- 
latis, simplicibus, apice foliaceis ; petalis magnis, saturate rubris, raro albis ; fructu 
magno, depresso-globoso, nudo, sepalis persistentibus coronato. 

R. rugosa Thunberg, FI. Jap. p. 213 (1784). — Lindley, Ros. Monogr. p. 5, No. 3, 
t. 19 (1820). — Seringe in De Candolle, Prodr. vol. ii. p. 607 (1825). — Siebold & 
Zuccarini, FI. Jap. vol. i. p. 66, t. 28 (1835). — Fr. Schmidt in Mem. Acad. Sci. St. 
Petersbourg , ser. 7, vol. xii. No. 2, p 128 {FI. Sac ha linen sis) (1868).— Crepin in Bull. 
Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xi. p. 52 {Primit. Monogr. Ros. fasc. ii. p. 168) (1872) ; vol. xiv. 
P- 4 1 {Primit.' Monogr. Ros. fasc. iii. p. 335) (1875). — Franchet & Savatier, Enum. 
PI. Jap. vol. i. p. 137 (1874). — Garden , vol. ix. t. 20 (May 13, 1876). — Gard. Chron. 
n. ser. vol. xiv. p. 372, fig. 72 (1880). — Forbes & Hemsley in fount. Linn. Soc. 
vol. xxiii. p. 253 (1887). 

R.Jerox Aiton, Hort. Kew. ed. 2, vol. iii. p. 262 (1811). — Lindley in Bot. Reg. 
vol. v. t. 420 (1819) ; Ros. Monogr. p. 3, No. 2 (1820). 

R. kamt c hatica Thory in Redoute, Roses, vol. i. p. 47, t. ( non Ventenat) (1817). 

R. Regehana Linden Sc Andre in III. Hort. 1871, p. 11. 

R. Andreae Lange, Ind. Sem. Hort. Haim., Adnot. p. 23 (1874). 

Stem erect, branched, 4-5 feet long ; young branches pale green. Prickles 
dense, slender, straight, very unequal, passing gradually into aciculi. Leajlets 
7-1 1, usually 9, oblong or obovate, large, thick, rugose, dull green and glabrous 
above, pubescent and pale with the veins much raised beneath, shallowly simply 
toothed ; petioles pubescent, with a few straight or falcate aciculi; stipules very 
broad, with ovate-acuminate free tips. Flowers few, corymbose or solitary ; bracts 
large, ovate, pubescent on the back ; pedicels short, naked. Calyx-tube globose, 
naked ; sepals lanceolate, simple, 1 in. long, pubescent, leafy at the tip. Petals 
i-ii in. long, bright red, rarely white. Carpels 50-60 ; styles villous, not protruded 
beyond the disc. Fruit depresso-globose, naked, bright red, pulpy, i-i^ in. diameter, 
crowned by the persistent sepals. 


Rosa rugosa is common in Japan and extends to eastern Siberia, 
Kamschatka and the north of China. Siebold describes it as growing 
on the sand-hills by the seashore towards the north of Nippon, where 
it is called by the natives Hama Nasu , the “ Shore Bringal .” 1 

1 Bringal is the Anglo-Indian name of the fruit of the Egg-plant or Aubergine ( 'Solatium Melongena), 

l8l 


ROSA RUGOSA 

Thunberg described it many years before it was cultivated in 
Europe. Bunge saw it in cultivation in the north of China, and 
most probably it was this Rose which was seen by La Perouse in the 
Bay of Ternai on the coast of Tartary. 1 Its introduction into this 
country in 1796 is due to Messrs. Lee and Kennedy, to whom we 
owe so many of the good plants in our gardens. In cultivation with 
us it is the least exacting of all the Roses, every position and every 
soil suiting it perfectly. It hybridizes freely and seems to preserve 
at least one distinctive character, that of its reticulate, rugose leaves, 
which appears in a greater or lesser degree in all the hybrids, certainly 
to the third generation. 

Meyer in his monograph on the Cinnamomeae 2 names and de- 
scribes six varieties, which he calls respectively Thunbergiana , ferox, 
Lindleyana , Chamissoana , Ventenatiana and submermis. 

This Rose is figured by Andrews 3 and by Miss Lawrance 4 under 
the name of Rosa ferox. 

1 Voyage de La Perouse autour du Monde , vol. iii. p, 49 (1798). 

2 In Mini. Acad. Sci. St. Petersbourg ; ser. 6, vol. vi. p. 33 ( Ueber die Zimmtrosen , p. 33) (1847). 

3 Roses, vol. ii. t. 129 (1828). 

4 Roses, t. 42 (1799). 


182 



5 8— ROSA RUGOSA 
























































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S9 — ROSA WARLEYENSIS (nov. hyb.) 

(ROSA RUGOSA x BLANDA) 

Rosa warleyensis : caulibus armatissimis ; aculeis gracilibus, subulatis, inter- 
dum geminis infrastipularibus ; foliolis 5-7, oblongis, viridibus, modice rugosis, 
facie glabris, dorso leviter pubescentibus, haud glandulosis ; rhachi pubescente, 
aciculata ; stipulis adnatis, latis, margine haud glandulosis, apicibus liberis, ovatis ; 
floribus solitariis ; pedunculis nudis; calycis tubogloboso, nudo ; lobis basi ovatis, 
apicibus elongatis ; petalis magnitudine mediocribus, rubellis; stylis liberis, villosis ; 
fructu globoso, nudo, rubro, sepalis erectis persistentibus coronato. 

R. rugosa x virginiana Koehne, Deutsche Dendrol. p. 298 (1893). — Keller in 
Ascherson & Graebner, Syn. Mitteleur . FI. vol. vi. p. 307 (1902). 

Stems much armed ; prickles slender, subulate, passing gradually into copious 
aciculi, some in infrastipular pairs. Leaflets 5-7, oblong, middle-sized (i-if in. 
long), green, less rugose than in Rosa rugosa , glabrous on the upper surface, thinly 
pubescent, not at all glandular beneath ; petioles pubescent and aciculate ; stipules 
adnate, broad, not gland-margined, with ovate free tips. Flowers solitary ; peduncles 
naked. Calyx-tube globose, naked ; lobes ovate at the base, with a long point, 
i-i in. long. Petals middle-sized, pink. Styles free, villous. Fruit globose, naked, 
bright red, J-J in. diameter, crowned with the erect persistent sepals. 


The drawing represents one of the many Rosa rugosa Thunb. 
hybrids. In all Rose hybrids and crosses there is generally one 
character which persists until at least the third or fourth generation. 
Thus the Rosa multijlora Thunb. crosses have ciliated stipules, and 
in the Rosa rtigosa hybrids the character of the reticulated, deeply 
veined, rough, dark green leaves is found with but little modification 
in all the hybrids now known. Rosa warleyensis was raised from 
seeds which were sent to Warley many years since and which were 
said to have been gathered from a wild Rose. It shows unmistakable 
signs of Rosa blanda Ait. influence, and is in fact about midway 
between its two parents. It is a pretty and free-flowering Rose, quite 
distinct from the generality of Rosa rugosa hybrids, and it well 
deserves a place in the garden. 







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59 — ROSA WARLEYENSIS 

(RUGOSA x BLANDA) 










































6o— ROSA CALOCARPA 


(ROSA RUGOSA x CHINENSIS) 


Rosa calocarpa : caule satis alto, arcuato ; aculeis densis, vel gracilibus et 
rectis, vel robustioribus et leviter falcatis ; foliolis 5-7, oblongis, acutis, simpliciter 
late dentatis, facie viridibus, parce pubescentibus, dorso pallidis, pubescentibus ; 
rhachi pubescente, aciculata, haud glandulosa ; stipulis adnatis, apicibus liberis, 
parvis, ovatis ; floribus saepe pluribus, corymbosis ; pedicellis brevibus, leviter 
aciculatis ; calycis tubo globoso, nudo ; lobis simplicibus, apicibus elongatis, pubes- 
centibus, dorso glandulosis, parce aciculatis ; petalis sordicle rubris, late cuneatis ; 
stylis liberis, inclusis, pubescentibus ; fructu parvo, globoso, rubro, nudo vel basi 
parce aciculato ; sepalis denium deciduis. 

R. rugosa calocarpa Andre in Rev. Hart. p. 129, fig. 35 (1891). 

R. rugosa x indica Crepin in Bull ’ Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xxxiii. p. 122 (1894). 

R. chinensis x rugosa Keller in Ascherson & Graebner, Syn. Mitteleur. FI. 
vol. vi. p. 371 (1902). 

Stem moderately tall, arching ; prickles copious, passing gradually into aciculi, 
slender and straight, or more robust and slightly hooked. Leaflets 5-7, oblong, 
acute, 1-2 in. long, simply openly toothed, green and slightly pubescent on the upper 
surface, pale and pubescent all over beneath ; petioles pubescent and aciculate, not 
glandular ; stipules adnate, with small ovate free tips. Flowers often several, 
corymbose ; pedicels short, slightly aciculate. Calyx-tube globose, naked ; lobes 
simple, long-pointed, pubescent, glandular and slightly aciculate on the back. Petals 
dark red, broadly cuneate, middle-sized. Styles free, included, pubescent. Fruit 
small, globose, bright red, naked or slightly aciculate towards the base; sepals finally 
deciduous. 


Rosa calocarpa is one of the many beautiful Rosa rugosa Thunb. 
hybrids raised by Bruant of Poitiers. It was described by Edouard 
Andre in the Revue Horticole of 1891 and put into commerce in 1895. 
It was one of a batch of seedlings resulting from Rosa rugosa being 
crossed with the common China Rose. Bruant noticed among the 
seedlings one with very bright pink flowers smaller than the type but 
more regular in form. The plant was kept under observation, and 
blossomed very freely from spring until late in the summer, and in 
autumn was covered with clusters of brilliant reel fruits which kept their 
colour and beauty to the end of the year, notwithstanding the intense 

189 BB 


ROSA CALOCARPA 


cold of the winter of 1891 in France. This Rose, now to be found 
in many gardens, has thoroughly justified the favourable opinion first 
formed of it. It is especially adapted for planting in groups in the 
wild garden, where it is as brilliant an object in winter as it is in summer, 
for the colour of the fruit is so vivid a scarlet that it is visible from afar. 
It begins to flower the second year after grafting, and then continues 
each succeeding year to produce flowers and fruit in great profusion. 


190 



6o— ROSA CALOCARPA 

(RUGOSA x CHINENSIS) 






























































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6i— ROSA IWARA Siebold 


(ROSA RUGOSA x MULTIFLORA) 

Rosa Iwara : caulibus erectis, arcuatis, modice longis ; ramis viridibus, dense 
pubescentibus, aculeis copiosis, gracilibus, aciculis inaequalibus, setis glandulosis 
armatis ; foliolis 7, magnis, oblongis, acutis, viridibus, simpliciter serratis, haud 
rugosis nec valde venatis, utrinque glabris ; rhachi dense pubescente, haud glandu- 
losa ; stipulis angustis, adnatis, laciniatis, apice libero, angusto, laciniato ; pedicellis 
leviter hispidis ; calycis tubo parvo, globoso, nudo vel leviter aciculato ; lobis lanceo- 
latis, integris, longe productis, dorso dense pubescentibus ; petalis parvis, albis ; 
stylis liberis, hispidis, haud protrusis ; fructu parvo, rubro, globoso. 

R. Iwara Siebold ex Regel, Ind. Sern. Hort. Petrop. p. 53 (1861). — Regel 
in Act. Hort. Petrop. vol. v. p. 381 ( Tent . Ros. Monogr. p. 97 [1877]) (1878). — 
K. Koch, Dendrol. vol. i. p. 237 (1869). — Crepin in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xiii. 
p. 261 ( Primit . Monogr. Ros. fasc. iii. p. 268) (1874). — Rehder in Bailey, Cycl. Am. 
Hort. vol. iv. p. 1549 (1902). 

Stems erect, arching, moderately tall ; branches green, densely pubescent, with 
copious slender prickles, irregular aciculi and a few glandular bristles. Leaflets 7, 
large, oblong, acute, dull green, simply broadly serrated, not rugose or strongly 
veined, pubescent on both surfaces ; petioles densely pubescent, not glandular ; 
stipules narrow, adnate, laciniated, with narrow, laciniated free tips ; bracts large, 
pubescent, oblong or lanceolate; pedicels slightly hispid. Calyx-tube small, globose, 
naked or slightly aciculate ; lobes lanceolate, entire, long-pointed, densely pubescent 
on the back. Petals small, usually white. Styles free, hairy, not protruded beyond 
the disc. Fruit small, red, globose. 


Rosa Iwara is first mentioned in the Year-book of the Royal 
Horticultural Society of the Netherlands 1 for 1844. This volume 
contains a list of names of “old and newly imported Japanese and 
Chinese plants cultivated under the auspices of the Society in the 
nursery-garden of Siebold & Co. at Leyden, and on sale there.” In 
this list the plant is given as Rosa Iwara Siebold, habitat Japan, a 
decorative and medicinal shrub, imported by Siebold in 1832, raised 
from seed, and growing in the open air. 2 It is described as “ A 
species of Rosa multiflora which, notwithstanding its small, single, 
white flowers, may be regarded as one of the most beautiful of shrubs.” 

1 gaavboek van de Koninklijke Nederlandsche Maatschappij tot Aanmoediging van den Tninbonw (1845). 

2 P- 36. 


193 


ROSA I WAR A 


The price of shoots is io guilders, of plants grafted on wild Roses 
6 guilders. 1 In an account of Siebolcl’s garden in the same volume 
the writer says: “The Rosa Iwara raised by us from seed in 1832 
has withstood the winter in the open air for more than ten years ; it 
is now a shrub some six feet high, and is the first in our garden to 
produce its leaves and the last to lose them/' 2 The list is quoted in 
the Revue Horticole, 1845, p. 224. 

Rosa Iwara was described in 1861 by Dr. Regel, and in 1869 
by Koch, who calls it also Rosa I bar a. Crepin’s description was 
based on plants in Prince Walferdange’s garden in Luxembourg, 
whither they had been sent by Siebold himself in 1849. It is believed 
to have been a spontaneous hybrid between Rosa multiflora Thunb., 
from which parent it has its scattered, unequal prickles, protruded 
styles and ciliated stipules, and Rosa rugosa Thunb., from which it 
has its dull green, shallowly toothed leaflets, few-flowered corymbs and 
globose ovary. It bears clusters of pure white flowers about mid- 
summer, and its distinct character makes a welcome variation from 
other garden Roses. 

1 P - 38. 2 p. 27. 


194 


62— ROSA WILLMOTTIAE Hemsl. 


Rosa Willmottiae : caule suberecto ramoso ; aculeis genii n is infrastipularibus, 
subulatis, patulis, rectis, pallide bruneis, aciculis intermediis nullis; foliolis 9, 
oblongis, perparvis, obtusis, firmis, glabris, valde simpliciter serratis ; rhachi nuda ; 
stipulis adnatis, glandulis valde marginatis, apicibus liberis, oblongis, obtusis ; 
floribus rubellis, solitariis ; pedicellis modice longis, nudis ; sepalis lanceolatis, 
simplicibus, dorso glabris ; petalis latis, sepalis duplo longioribus ; stylis liberis, 
parce pilosis ; fructu oblongo, rubro, glabro ; sepalis demum deciduis. 

R. Willmottiae Hemsley in Kew Bull . 1907, No. 8, p. 317. — Bot. Mag. voi. 
cxxxiv. t. 8186 (1908). 

A suberect, much-branched bush 5 to 10 feet high; prickles in infrastipular 
pairs, spreading, subulate, pale brown, without any intermediate aciculi. Leaflets 9, 
oblong, obtuse, very small, glabrous, firm in texture, strongly simply toothed ; 
petioles naked ; stipules adnate, conspicuously margined with glands, with oblong 
obtuse free tips. Flowers bright pink, solitary, with moderately long naked pedicels. 
Calyx-tube oblong, glabrous ; lobes lanceolate, simple, f in. long, glabrous on the 
back. Petals broad, twice as long as the sepals. Styles free, slightly hairy. F^ruit 
oblong, red, naked ; sepals finally deciduous. 


This interesting new species was raised by Messrs. James Veitch 
& Sons from seeds collected by Mr. E. H. Wilson on the Sangpan 
Mountains in south-western China near the border of Tibet, at an 
elevation of 9,500 to 11,000 feet. It comes nearest to the West 
Himalayan Rosa Webbiana Wall., but that Rose has straw-coloured 
prickles, fewer leaflets (usually seven), stipules without glands on the 
edge and sepals much longer in proportion to the petals. 


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June 14, 1911 


PART X 


THE GENUS ROSA 

BY 

ELLEN WILLMOTT, F.L.S 


Drawings by 

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LONDON 

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6 3 — ROSA VIRGINIANA Mill. 


Rosa virginiana ; caule erecto ; ramis floriferis saepe inermibus ; aculeis 
inaequalibus, rectis vel leviter falcatis, saepe ad basim foliorum solitariis vel geminis; 
foliolis 7-9, oblongis, obtusis, rigidulis, conspicue simpliciter serratis, facie lucidis, 
viridibus, dorso interdum leviter pubescentibus ; rhachi glabra vel pubescente, haud 
glandulosa ; stipulis adnatis, apice libero, parvo, deltoideo ; floribus paucis, corym- 
bosis vel solitariis ; pedunculis nudis vel leviter setosis ; bracteis lanceolatis ; calycis 
tubo globoso ; lobis elongatis, apice foliaceis, dorso glandulosis, simplicibus, vel 
exterioribus parce pinnatifidis ; petalis rubellis ; stylis liberis, pilosis, haud protrusis; 
fructu parvo, globoso, rubro, serotino ; sepalis reflexis, deciduis. 

R. virginiana Miller, Card . Diet . ed. 8, vol. ii. No. 10 (1768). — Keller in 
Ascherson & Graebner, Syn. Mitteleur. FI. vol. vi. p. 297 (1902). — C. K. Schneider, 
III. Handbuch Laubholzk. vol. i. p. 570 (1906). — Robinson & Fernald, Gray s New 
Man. Bot. ed. 7, p. 497 (1908). 

R. Carolina Linnaeus, Sp. Plant, vol. i. p. 492 (ex parte) (1753). — Aiton, Hort. 
Kew. vol. ii. p. 203 (ex parte) (1789). 

R. lucida Ehrhart, Beitr. zitr Naturk. vol. iv. p. 22 (1789). — Guimpel, 
Willdenow& Hayne, Abbild. Deutsch. Holzart. vol. i. p. 1 1 7, t. 93 (1815). — Thory 
in Redoute, Roses, vol. i. p. 45, t. (1817). — Savi, FI. Ital. vol. i. p. 71, t. 23 (1818). — 
Nouv. Duhamel , vol. vii. p. 17, t. 7, fig. 2 (1819). — Lindley, Ros. Monogr. p. 17, 
No. 11 (1820). — Seringe in De Candolle, Prodr. vol. ii. p. 602 (1825). — A. Gray, 
Man. Bot. N. States , ed. 5, p. 158 (ex parte) (non Lawrance, Roses, t. 84) (1867). — 
S. Watson in Smithsonian Misc. Coll. vol. xv. p. 31 1 (1878). — Rehder in Bailey, 
Cycl. Am. Hort. vol. iv. p. 1554 (1902). 

R. humilis , var. lucida , Best in Bull. Torrey Bot. Chib, vol. xiv. p. 276(1887). — 
Britton & Brown, Illust. FI. N. States and Can . vol. ii. p. 231 (1897). 

An erect bush, reaching a height of 4-6 feet ; branches red-brown in exposure ; 
flowering shoots often unarmed. Prickles unequal, straight or slightly hooked, 
often solitary or in pairs at the base of the leaves. Leaflets 7-9, oblong, obtuse, 
moderately firm, middle-sized, simply deeply toothed, green and glossy above, 
glabrous or slightly pubescent beneath ; petioles glabrous or pubescent, not glandular ; 
stipules adnate, with small deltoid free tips. Flowers few in a corymb or solitary ; 
peduncles naked or slightly setose ; bracts lanceolate. Calyx-tube globose ; lobes an 
inch or more long, leafy at the tip, glandular on the back, all simple or the outer 
slightly compound. Petals bright pink. Styles free, villous, not protruded beyond 
the disc. Fr'mit globose, bright red, i in. diameter, late in ripening ; sepals reflexed, 
deciduous. 


Rosa virginiana in a wild state extends in the neighbourhood 
of the coast from Newfoundland to Pennsylvania. It may be easily 
distinguished by its deeply toothed, glossy leaves. It was the first of 

197 DD 


ROSA VIRGINIANA 


the American species to be introduced into Europe, and is still a 
favourite in gardens. It is the Rosa sylvestris virginiensis of Parkinson 1 
and the Rosa parvo rubello flore foliis lucentibus of Sutherland. 2 
Dillenius figures it in Hortus Elthamensis under the name of Rosa 
Carolina fragrans and his figure is cited by Linnaeus and Alton under 
Rosa carolma L. There can be no doubt about the synonym of Miller, 
as there is an authentic specimen from his herbarium at the British 
Museum. Lindley has identified this on the sheet as Rosa lucida 
Ehrh., but by mistake he cites Miller’s plant under Rosa fraxinifolia 
Borkh., 4 which has misled K. Koch 5 and Koehne, 0 who have taken up 
Miller’s name for Rosa blanda Ait. 

d he double-flowered form, Rose d' Amour, has been a favourite 
in English gardens since Miller introduced it in 1768. It has been 
identified with Rosa rapa of Bose, and both the double and single 
forms are the St. Mark’s Rose of Venice, where it is expected to flower 
on April 25th, St. Mark’s day. 

This Rose is more commonly known as Rosa lucida Ehrh., but 
as the latter name was not given until some twenty years after it had 
been described by Miller as Rosa virginiana , we follow the rule of 
priority and adopt Miller’s name. 

For its many good points this Rose has every claim to our 
appreciation ; it is equally valuable in garden and in woodland. The 
individual flowers remain long on the bush, the outer petals becoming 
paler while the centre keeps its bright, rich colour. The leaves, which 
are a glossy polished green in summer, turn a brilliant yellow in autumn, 
and remain long on the branches, while the clusters of bright red fruit 
give it a glowing beauty scarcely to be surpassed. Harshberger, 
writing in Garden and Forest , describes the beauty of Rosa virginiana 
as he saw it with its hall-ripe hips tinged with orange, glistening in the 
sunlight on Barnegat Peninsula, flourishing in sand and rejoicing in 
the salt-laden breezes. 7 

Andrews figures this Rose under the names of Rosa hicida and 
Rosa pennsylvanica Jl . pll 

1 Theatrum , p. 1017 (1640). 

2 Hort. Med. Edin. p. 297 (1683). 

3 Vol. ii. p. 325, t. 245, fig. 316 (1732). 

4 Ros. Monogr. p. 26, No. 17 (1820) ; Bot. Reg. vol. vi. t. 458 (1820). 

5 Dendrol. vol. i. p. 243 (1869). 

6 Deutsche Dendrol. pp. 298, 299 (1893). 

7 Vol. v. p. 45 (1892). 

3 Roses , vol. ii. plates 78, 10 r, 102 (1828). 


198 









» 



63 — ROSA VIRGINIANA 




















































































64 — ROSA HUMILIS Marsh 

Rosa humilis : caulibus decumbentibus ; aculeis parvis, modice robustis, haud 
falcatis, saepe geminis stipularibus, aciculis paucis, interdum additis ; foliolis 5-9, 
oblongis, acutis, simpliciter serratis, facie glabris, dorso parce pubescentibus; rhachi 
glabra, haud glandulosa ; stipulis adnatis, apice libero ovato ; floribus solitariis vel 
paucis ; pedunculis brevibus, saepe aciculatis ; calycis tubo globoso, parvo, saepe 
aciculato, glanduloso ; lobis lanceolatis, apice elongatis, dorso glandulosis, majoribus 
saepe parce pinnatifidis ; petalis rubris, magnitudine mediocribus ; stylis pilosis, 
liberis, haud exsertis ; fructu parvo, globoso, rubro, saepe aciculato ; sepalis patulis, 
decicluis. 

R. humilis Marshall, Arbust . Amer. p. 136 (1785). — S. Watson in Smith- 
sonian Misc. Coll. vol. xv. p. 312 (1878). — Dippel, Handbuch Laubholzk. vol. iii. 
p. 580 (1893). — Rehder in Bailey, Cycl. Am. Hort. vol. iv. p. 1554 (1902). 

R. parvijlora Ehrhart, Beitr. zur Naturk. vol. iv. p. 21 (1789). — Pursh, FI. 
Amer. Sept. vol. i. p. 344 (1814). — Lindley, Ros. Monogr. p. 20 (excl. syn .) (1820). 

R. Carolina Aiton, Hort. Kew. vol. ii. p. 203 (ex parte) (1789). 

R. Lyoni Pursh, FI. Amer. Sept. vol. i. p. 345 (1814). 

R. lucida A. Gray, Man. Bot. N. States , p. 127 (ex parte ) (non Ehrhart) 
(1848). — Meehan, Native Flowers , ser. 1, vol. ii. p. 33, t. 9 (1879). 

R. humilis , var. parvijlora Koehne, Deutsche Dendrol. p. 293 (1893). — Keller 
in Ascherson & Graebner, Syn. Mitteleur . FI. vol. vi. p. 292 (1902). 

R. virginiana , var. humilis C. K. Schneider, III. Handbuch Laubholzk. vol. i. 
p. 570 (1906). 

Stems usually low and spreading ; prickles small, moderately stout, not hooked, 
frequently in stipular pairs, often with a few aciculi. Leajlets 5-9, oblong, acute, 
simply serrated, 1 in. or more long, glabrous on the upper surface, slightly pubes- 
cent beneath ; petioles glabrous or pubescent, not glandular ; stipules adnate, with 
ovate free tips. Flowers one or few ; peduncles short, often aciculate ; bracts small. 
Calyx-tube globose, small, often aciculate and glandular ; lobes lanceolate, long- 
pointed, glandular on the back, the largest usually sparsely pinnatifid. Petals 
bright red, 1 in. long. Styles pilose, free, not protruded beyond the disc. Fruit 
small, globose, red, often aciculate ; sepals spreading, deciduous. 


Rosa humilis ranges from Canada and Newfoundland through 
the eastern United States to Florida. The oldest specimen known 
is that collected by Bartram in 1764, but it was first described by 
Marshall in 1785. By Aiton, and perhaps also by Linnaeus, it was 
confused with Rosa Carolina L. 

Next to Rosa Carolina it is the commonest Rose in Virginia, 
eastern Tennessee and Carolina. The double form had never been 


201 


ROSA HUMILIS 


observed in a wild state until 1889, when Mr. G. N. Best found a 
large colony of it growing by the roadside near Rosemont, N ew J ersey. 

In general this Rose prefers the shade, and it is in such positions 
that it usually grows. Although subject to variation, it has certain 
characters which distinguish it from other Roses in the same group, 
notably its slender growth, low and spreading habit, rather long, straight 
prickles and narrow stipules. The flowers are bright pink, symmetrical 
in form and fragrant. The fruit is neither so bright in colour nor so 
persistent as in the other Roses of the same group. 


202 



t 








ROSA HUM] 




X "PTyriOQ A 
• Maj vx w GiA_ 


1 













6s— ROSA HUMILIS X RUGOSA Koehne 

Rosa kumilis x rugosa: caul i bus brevibus, decumbentibus ; aculeis parvis, 
modice robustis, interdum gem inis infrastipularibus ; foliolis 7, oblongis, obtusis, 
simpliciter serratis, facie glabris, dorso pubescentibus ; rhachi pubescente, haud 
glandulosa; stipulis adnatis, apicibus liberis, integris, deltoideis ; floribus solitariis ; 
pedicellis elongatis, glabris, parce aciculatis ; calycis tubo ovoideo, parce aciculato ; 
lobis lanceolatis, apicibus elongatis, simplicibus, pubescentibus, dorso multis aciculis 
armatis ; petalis magnitudine mediocribus, rubris ; stylis liberis, haud exsertis. 

R. humilis x rugosa Koehne, Deutsche Dendrol. p. 294 (1893).— Keller in 
Ascherson & Graebner, Syn. Mitteleur. FI. vol. vi. p. 308 (1902). 

Stem low, spreading ; prickles small, moderately stout, sometimes in infrasti- 
pular pairs, without any intermediate aciculi. Leaflets 7, oblong, obtuse, simply 
serrated, the larger an inch or more long, glabrous on the upper surface, pubescent 
beneath ; petioles pubescent, not glandular ; stipules adnate, with deltoid entire free 
tips. Flowers solitary; pedicels long, glabrous, slightly aciculate. Calyx-tube 
ovoid, slightly aciculate ; lobes lanceolate with a long point, simple, 1 in. long, 
pubescent and furnished with many aciculi on the back. Petals middle-sized, dull 
purplish red. Styles free, not protruded beyond the disc. 


This hybrid between Rosa kumilis Marsh, and Rosa rugosa 
Thunb. was raised not long ago in America. The characters of the 
kumilis parent greatly predominate in it over those of the rugosa 
parent. Although the colour is not particularly pleasing, it is never- 
theless a useful Rose, and is especially well adapted for the wild 
garden and for hedges and plantations. It is exceedingly floriferous, 
hardy and quick growing, and forms a thick, compact bush, while its 
abundant and bright-coloured fruits make it very ornamental in the 
autumn. 


203 


















;■ 



6s— ROSA HUMILIS x RUGOSA 



















1 



66— ROSA HUMILIS, var. GRANDIFLORA Baker 

Rosa humilis , var. grandiflora : a typo recedit floribus magnis. 


Rosa humilis, var. grandiflora is a native of the northern United 
States. It differs from the ordinary form by its larger flowers, which 
are two inches in diameter. 


207 






















































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6 7 — ROSA MULTIBRACTEATA Hemsl. & E. H. Wils. 


Rosa multibract eat a : caule ramosissimo ; aculeis oppositis vel sparsis, magnis, 
subulatis, rectis, patentibus, aciculis intermediis nullis ; foliolis 5-7, parvis, obovatis, 
obtusis, basi cuneatis, crassis, rigidulis, simpliciter serratis, utrinque glabris ; rhachi 
et petiolo glabris ; stipulis adnatis, rigide chartaceis, pallidis, glabris, apicibus 
liberis deltoideis, parvis ; floribus in thyrsum terminalem dispositis ; pedicellis 
nudis ; bracteis conspicuis, rigide chartaceis, pallidis ; calycis tubo globoso, nudo ; 
sepalis ovatis, simplicibus, tubo aequilongis ; petalis latis, emarginatis, sepalis vix 
longioribus ; stylis liberis, pilosis ; fructu parvo, globoso, nudo, sepalis erectis 
persistentibus coronato. 

R. multibracteata Hemsley & E. H. Wilson in Kew Bull. 1906, p. 157. 

Stems much branched, 5-6 feet long ; prickles opposite or scattered, large, 
subulate, spreading, straight, without any aciculi intermixed. Leaflets 5-7, obovate- 
cuneate, in. long, obtuse, simply serrated, dark green, somewhat rigid in texture, 
glabrous on both surfaces ; petioles glabrous ; stipules adnate, rigidly chartaceous, 
pale, glabrous, with small deltoid free tips. Flowers in a close thyrsus at the end 
of each branchlet ; pedicels naked ; bracts conspicuous, similar in texture and colour 
to the stipules. Calyx-tube small, globose, glabrous ; lobes lanceolate, simple, J in. 
long. Petals broad, emarginate, a little longer than the sepals. Styles free, pilose. 
Fruit globose, small, naked, crowned with the erect persistent sepals. 


This very distinct new species is nearest to Rosa IVebbiana Wall, 
and Rosa Willmottiae, but differs from them both by its thyrsoid 
inflorescence and by its very peculiar pale rigid chartaceous stipules 
and bracts. It was found by Mr. E. H. Wilson in the Min valley 
in the province of Sze-chuan, between Mao-chou and Sangpan, at an 
elevation of 7,000 feet. 


209 


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July 14, 1911 




THE GENUS ROSA 

BY 

ELLEN WILLMOTT, F.L.S. 

Drawings by 

ALFRED PARSONS, A.R A. 



LONDON 

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68— ROSA CAROLINA L. 


Rosa Carolina : caule elongato, arcuato ; aculeis conformibus, gracilibus, saepe 
geminis infrastipularibus ; foliolis 5-7, oblongis, acutis, leviter simpliciter serratis, 
utrinquegriseo-pubescentibus; rhachi pubescente, haud glandulosa; stipulis adnatis, 
apice libero parvo, ovato, acuto ; floribus saepe paucis, corymbosis ; pedunculis 
glandulosis ; bracteis ovatis ; calycis tubo globoso, saepe glanduloso ; lobis elon- 
gatis, apice foliaceis, simplicibus vel parce pinnatifidis, dorso glandulosis ; petalis 
rubellis ; stylis villosis, liberis, haud protrusis ; fructu parvo, urceolato-globoso, 
rubro, pulposo, nudo vel glanduloso ; sepalis deciduis. 


R. Carolina Linnaeus, Sp. Plant, ed. 2, p. 703 (1762). — Wangenheim, Nordam. 
Holzart. p. 112, t. 31, fig. 71 (1787). — Aiton, Hort. Kew. vol. ii. p. 203 (ex parte ) 
(1789). — Lawrance, Roses, t. 54, 68 (1799). — Roessig, Die Rosen, No. 44 (1802-1820). 
— Lindley, Ros. Monogr. p. 23, No. 15, t. 4 (1820). — Emerson, Trees of Mass. ed. 2, 
vol. ii. p. 488, t. (1875). — S. Watson in Smithsonian Misc. Coll. vol. xv. p. 310 
(1878). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendrol. p. 292 (1893). — Keller in Ascherson & Graebner, 
Syn. Mitteleur. FI. vol. vi. p. 291 (1902). — Rehder in Bailey, Cycl. Am. Hort. 
vol. iv. p. 1553 (1902). — C. K. Schneider, III. Handbuch Laubholzk. vol. i. p. 568 
(1906). 

R. virginiana Du Roi, Obs. Bot. p. 21 (non Miller) (1771); Harbk. Baum. 
vol. ii. p. 353 (1772). — Roessig, Die Rosen, t. 13 (1802-1820). — Trattinnick, Ros. 
Monogr. vol. ii. p. 154 (1823). 

R. carolinensis Marshall, Arbust. Amer. p. 135 (1785). 

R. palustris Marshall, Arbust. Amer. p. 135 (1785). 

R. corymbosa Ehrhart, Beitr. zur Nat urk. vol. iv. p. 21 (1789). 

R. pennsylvanica Michaux, FI. Bor. Amer. vol. i. p. 296 (1803). 

R. caroliniana Bigelow, FI. Boston, p. 12 1 (1814). 

R.Jlexuosa Rafinesque, Precis des Decomertes , p. 35 (1814) ; Desvaux , Journ. 
Bot. vol. iv. p. 268 (1814). — Poiret in Lamarck, Encycl. Suppl. vol. v. p. 778(1817). — 
Seringe in De Candolle, Prodr. vol. ii. p. 623 (1825). 

R. enneaphylla Rafinesque, Precis des Decomertes, p. 35 (1814) ; Desvaux , 
Journ. Bot. vol. iv. p. 268 (1814). — Poiret in Lamarck, Encycl . Suppl. vol. v. p. 778 
(1817). — Trattinnick, Ros. Monogr. vol. ii. p. 228 (1823). 

R. maialis , 7 Loiseleur in Nouv. Duhamel, vol. vii. p. 16 (1819). 

R. virginica Sprengel, Nov. Prov. Hort. Acad. p. 36 (1819). 

R. Hudsoniana Thory, Prodr . Monogr. Ros. p. 62 (1820). — K. Koch, Dendrol. 
vol. i. p. 244 (1869). 

R. Rafinesquiana Trattinnick, Ros. Monogr. vol. ii. p. 234 (1823). 

R. Sprengeliana Trattinnick, Ros. Monogr. vol. ii. p. 163 (1823). 

W cinnamomea , var. gemella Seringe in De Candolle, Prodr. vol. ii. p. 605 (ex 
parte) (1825). — Crepin in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xi. p. 73 (Primit. Monogr. Ros. 
vol. i. fasc. i. p. 189) (1872). 

FF 


21 I 


ROSA CAROLINA 


Stem arching, brown, reaching a height of 6-10 feet; prickles often in infra- 
stipular pairs, uniform, small, slender, straight or slightly hooked. Leaflets 5-7, 
oblong, acute, faintly simply toothed, grey and softly pubescent on both surfaces ; 
petioles pubescent, not glandular; stipules adnate, with small ovate free tips. 
Flowers often several, corymbose ; peduncles glandular ; bracts ovate. Calyx-tube 
globose, often glandular ; lobes long, leaf-pointed, glandular on the back, simple or 
slightly compound. Petals bright pink. Styles villous, free, not protruded. 
Fruit small, urceolate-globose, bright red, naked or glandular, pulpy ; sepals 
deciduous. 


Rosa Carolina is distributed through eastern North America, 
from Canada (Ontario) and Nova Scotia southward to Florida, and 
is common in low, moist ground and in swamps. Erect in habit, it 
is the tallest of the American wild Roses, and one of the latest to 
flower. Its fruit is bright scarlet, and not only remains long on the 
plant, but keeps its form and colour. With its reddish stems and 
ruddy hips this plant is a beautiful object in the wild garden during 
winter. It grows freely and increases rapidly by its underground 
roots. It differs from the other American Roses by its grey, pubescent, 
faintly toothed leaflets and its adpressed stipules and small globose 
fruit. 


In the first edition of the Species Plantarum Linnaeus confused 
this Rose with Rosa virginiana Mill., which was called by Dillenius 
Rosa Carolina fragrans } The Rosa Carolina of the second edition, 
described from his own herbarium, is the true one, but here also 
Linnaeus quotes the synonym of Dillenius, though with a mark of 
doubt. 

Rosa Jlorida Donn 1 2 is merely a slight variety, with less hairy 
leaves than in the type. 


Note. — Redoutd, vol. i. p. 81 is Rosa Carolina var. corymbosa ; vol. i. p. 95 is 
Rosa Hudsomana var. salicifolia\ vol. ii. p. 109 is Rosa Hudsomana var. scandens ; 
vol. ii. p. 1 17 is Rosa Hudsomana var. subcorymbosa . This last is a semi-double 
form. 


1 Hort . Elth . vol. ii. p. 325 (1732). 

2 Hort. Cant . ed. 8, p. 169 (1815). 


212 


68 — ROSA CAROLINA 




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6 9 — ROSA NITIDA Willd. 


Rosa nitida : caule brevi, recto; aculeis densis, gracilibus, valde inaequalibus, 
majoribus geminis infrastipularibus ; foliolis 7-9, lineari-oblongis, acutis, firmis, 
viridibus, nitidis, utrinque glabris, simpliciter serratis ; rhachi glabra, nuda ; stipulis 
adnatis, apice libero, ovato ; floribus saepissime solitariis ; pedunculo hispido ; calycis 
tubo globoso, hispido ; lobis lanceolatis, acuminatis, simplicibus, dorso glandulosis ; 
petalis cuneatis, pulchre rubris, magnitudine mediocribus ; stylis liberis, inclusis, 
pubescentibus ; fructu parvo, globoso, hispido ; sepalis patulis, caducis. 

R. nitida Willdenow, Enum. Hort. BeroL p. 544 (1809). — Lindley, Ros. Monogr. 
p. 13, No. 9, t. 2 (1820). — Crdpin in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xv. p. 63 ( Primit . 
Monogr. Ros. fasc. iv. p. 424) (1876). — S. Watson in Smithsonian Misc. Coll. vol. xv. 
p. 312 (1878). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendrol. p. 293 (1893). — Rehder in Bailey, Cycl. 
Am. Hort. vol. iv. p. 1554 (1902). — C. K. Schneider, III . Handbuch Laubholzk. 
vol. i. p. 571 (1906). 

R. rubrispina Bose ex Poiret in Lamarck, Fncycl. Suppl. vol. iv. p. 715 (1816). — 
Trattinnick, Ros. Monogr. vol. ii. p. 179 (1823).— Seringe in De Candolle, Prodr. 
vol. ii. p. 623 (1825). 

R. Reduteana , var. rubescens Thory in Redoutd, Roses , vol. i. p. 103, t. (1817) ; 
Prodr. Monogr. Ros. p. 44 (1820). 

R. lucida , var. nitida A. Gray, Man. Bot. N. States, p. 127 (1848). 

Stem short, stiffly erect, turning red-brown in exposure; prickles crowded, 
slender, straight, passing gradually into aciculi, the largest in infrastipular pairs. 
Leaflets 7-9, linear-oblong, acute, rigid, simply toothed, shining, glabrous on both 
surfaces ; petioles glabrous ; stipules adnate, with ovate free tips. Flowers usually 
solitary ; peduncles densely hispid and setose. Calyx-tube globose, hispid ; lobes 
simple, lanceolate-acuminate, |-i in. long, glandular on the back. Petals cuneate, 
bright pink, i-ijin. long. Styles free, pubescent, not exserted. Fruit small, globose, 
bright red, hispid ; sepals spreading, deciduous. 


Rosa nitida is confined in a wild state to the region between 
Newfoundland and eastern Massachusetts, and is found along the 
margins of swamps and in other low-lying places. The oldest specimen 
is in the herbarium of the British Museum ; it was gathered in 
Newfoundland in 1776. By Miss Lawrance 1 and Andrews 2 it was 
confounded with Rosa blanda Ait., from which it differs in its dwarf 

1 Roses , t. 27 (1799). 

3 Roses, vol. ii. t. 90 (1828;. 

215 


ROSA NITIDA 


habit, narrow, glossy leaflets, and dense, very unequal, red prickles. 
From Rosa virginiana Mill, it differs in its dwarf habit, narrow 
leaflets, and dense, very unequal prickles. This Rose may be readily 
distinguished by the bright red of its branches, and in autumn by the 
vivid glistening red of its leaves. Though a very handsome and 
hardy species, and perhaps the most beautiful Rose of eastern North 
America, Rosa nitida is rare in cultivation in Europe. 


216 



6 9 — ROSA NITIDA 















ROSA FOHOLOSA 

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7o— ROSA FOLIOLOSA Nutt. 


Rosa foliolosa : caule brevi, erecto vel arcuato ; aculeis conformibus, gracilibus, 
subrectis, saepe geminis infrastipularibus ; foliolis 7-1 1, lineari-oblongis, parvis, 
acutis vel obtusis, firmulis, viridibus, simpliciter serratis, saepissime utrinque 
glabris ; rhachi aciculata, glabra; stipulis adnatis, apicibus liberis ovatis ; floribus 
saepissime solitariis ; pedunculis brevibus, nudis vel hispidis ; calycis tubo globoso, 
saepe hispido ; lobis ovatis, acuminatis, dorso hispidis, pubescentibus, simplicibus 
vel parce compositis ; petalis roseis, magnitudine mediocribus; stylis liberis, villosis; 
fructu globoso, rubro, saepe hispido ; sepalis patulis, deciduis. 

R. foliolosa Nuttall ex Torrey & Gray, FI. N. Amer. vol. i. p. 460 (1840). — 
S. Watson in Proc. Amer. Acad. vol. xx. p. 349 (1885). — Sargent in Garden and 
Forest , vol. iii. p. 100, fig. 22 (1890). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendrol. p. 294 (1893). — 
Dippel, Handbuch Laubholzk . vol. iii. p. 581, f. 243 (1893). — Rehder in Bailey, 
Cycl. Am. Hort. vol. iv. p. 1554 (1902). — Small, FI. S.F. United States , p. 527 
( I 9°3)- — C. K. Schneider, III. Handbuch Laubholzk. vol. i. p. 570 (1906). 

Stem short, erect or arching ; prickles uniform, small, slender, nearly straight, 
often in infrastipular pairs. Leaflets 7-1 1, linear-oblong, acute or obtuse, the end 
one 2-1 in. long, rather rigid, green, simply serrated, usually glabrous on both 
surfaces; petioles acicu late, glabrous ; stipules adrtate, with ovate free tips. Flowers 
usually solitary; peduncles short, naked or hispid. Calyx-tube globose, often 
hispid ; lobes ovate-acuminate, in. long, hispid and pubescent on the back, simple 
or the outer slightly compound. Petals bright red ; corolla i-ij in. diameter. 
Styles free, villous. Fruit globose, red, in. diameter, hispid or naked ; sepals 
spreading, deciduous. 


This interesting and distinct species was first discovered by 
Thomas Nuttall in 1818-20 in Arkansas; it was, however, some 
twenty years before it was described and named. In the interim it 
had been collected by other botanists from east Texas to Arkansas, 
but it does not appear to be very widely distributed. 

In appearance it most nearly resembles Rosa virginiana Mill., 
from which it differs in its dwarfer habit, smaller, narrower, more 
numerous leaflets, and in its hispid peduncle, calyx and sepals. It is 
a late bloomer, and although it is not at any time very floriferous there 
are always sufficient of the bright pink, sweetly scented flowers to 
make this species a welcome addition to our Rose gardens, while with 
its short, compact, graceful habit, leafy stems and shining leaves it is 
a good shrub even when not in blossom. 

219 


ROSA FOLIOLOSA 

There appears to be some uncertainty with regard to the colour 
of the flowers of Rosa foliolosa in a wild state. N one of the botanists 
who have collected it have recorded this definitely, and the plants 
raised from seed at the Arnold Arboretum are stated in Garden and 
Forest 1 to have pale yellow or creamy white flowers, whilst the flowers 
on the plants growing at Kew and at Warley are bright pink and 
rather large. It is quite hardy in England and increases by under- 
ground stems ; a peculiarity is that the blossoms are produced on the 
second year’s growth, after which the branches dwindle and die- 
making way for the new growth. 

1 Vol. iv. p. 66 (1891). 


220 












































;s 



7i— ROSA GYMNOCARPA Nutt. 

Rosa gymnocarpa : caule debili, valde ramoso ; aculeis inaequalibus, multis, 
gracilibus, rectis, saepe geminis infrastipularibus ; foliolis 5-7, obovatis, parvis, 
obtusis, duplicato-serratis, rigidulis, viridibus, utrinque glabris ; rhachi glabra, 
aciculata ; stipulis adnatis, glanduloso-ciliatis, apicibus liberis, ovatis, parvis ; 
floribus saepissime solitariis ; pedicellis nudis vel hispidis ; calycis tubo oblongo, 
nudo ; lobis parvis, ovatis, simplicibus ; petalis rubellis, parvis ; stylis liberis ; 
fructu parvo, ovoideo, nudo, rubro ; pedicellis cernuis ; carpellis paucis ; sepalis 
caducis. 

R. gymnocarpa Nuttall ex Torrey & Gray, FI. N. Am. vol. i. p. 461 (1840).— 
Presl, Epimel. Bot. p. 203 (1849). — Torrey, U. S. and M ex. Bound. Survey , vol. ii. 
p. 64, t. 21 (1859). — Crepin in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xv. p. 72 (Primit. Monogr. 
Ros. fasc. iv. p. 433) (1876). — S. Watson in Brewer & Watson, Bot. Calif, vol. i. 
p. 187 (1876) ; Proc. Amer. Acad. vol. xx. p. 350 (1885). — Coulter, Man. Bot. Rocky 
Mount, p. 88 (1885). — Rehder in Bailey, Cycl. Am. Hort. vol. iv. p. 1554 (i9° 2 )- — 
Piper in Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. vol. xi. p. 334 (FI. State of Washington ) 
(1906). 

R. spithamea , var. subinermis Engelmann in Bot. Gaz. vol. vi. p. 236 (1881). 

Stems weak, much branched ; prickles numerous, unequal, slender, straight, 
spreading, often in infrastipular pairs. Leaflets 5-7, small, obovate, obtuse, green, 
rather rigid, doubly toothed, glabrous on both surfaces ; petioles glabrous, aciculate ; 
stipules adnate, narrow, gland-edged, with small ovate free tips. Flowers usually 
solitary ; pedicels naked or hispid. Calyx-tube oblong, naked ; lobes ovate, simple, 

in. long, naked on the back. Petals small, pink. Styles free. Fruit small, 
ovoid, bright red, naked, with few carpels , cernuous pedicels and deciduous sepals. 


Rosa gymnocarpa was first found in British Columbia by David 
Douglas in 1824-5, and afterwards in Oregon by Nuttall, who wrote 
the description incorporated in Torrey & Gray’s Flora. It inhabits 
California, and extends northward to British Columbia and eastward 
to Idaho, Montana and Oregon. It resembles the European Rosa 
spinosissima L. in its dwarf habit, small, obtuse leaflets, small, solitary 
flowers, and abundant, unequal, slender prickles, but the prickles are 
often in infrastipular pairs, the leaflets are fewer and doubly toothed, 
and the fruit is very different. It also bears some resemblance to Rosa 
Beggeriana Schrenk. The flowers are very small, slightly involute, 
pale pink, deepening in colour on the edges of the petals. Albino 

221 


ROSA GYMNOCARPA 


forms have been found. Torrey at first classed it among the Caninae, 
but it is now recognized as belonging to the Cinnamomea section. 

There is a plate of Rosa gymnocarpa in the Report of the Mexican 
Boundary Survey , but Crepin did not consider it sufficiently distinct. 
He thought that either the plant collected at San Diego, from which 
the drawing was made, was not the true type, or else the artist had 
not made a perfectly accurate drawing. 


222 






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72— ROSA CALIFORN ICA Cham. & Schlecht. 


Rosa californica : caule alto, arcuato ; aculeis conformibus, robustis, falcatis, 
saepe geminis infrastipularibus ; foliolis 7-9, oblongis, obtusis, magnitudine 
mediocribus, viridibus, simpliciter serratis, facie glabris, dorso saepe pubescentibus ; 
rhachi pubescente, aciculata ; stipulis latis, adnatis, apicibus liberis, parvis, ovatis, 
margine glandulosis ; floribus multis, corymbose paniculatis ; bracteis oblongo- 
lanceolatis, margine glandulosis ; pedicellis brevibus, nudis ; calycis tubo globoso, 
parvo, nudo ; lobis ovatis, acuminatis, simplicibus, dorso nudis ; petalis parvis, 
rubris ; stylis liberis, pilosis ; fructu globoso, rubro, nudo; sepalis caducis. 

R. californica Chamisso & Schlechtendal in Linnaea , vol. ii. p. 35 (1827). — 
Torrey & Gray, FI. N. Am. vol. i. p. 462 (1840). — C. A. Meyer in Mem . Acad. Sci. 
St. Pdtersbourg , ser. 6, vol. vi. p. 18 (JJebev die Zimin trosen , p. 18) (1847). — Presl, 
Fpimel. Bot. p. 202 (1849). — S. Watson in Brewer & Watson, Bot, Calif, vol. i. 
p. 187 (1876) ; Proc. Amer. Acad. vol. xx. p. 343(1885). — Crepin in Bull. Soc. Bot. 
Belg. vol. xv. p. 49 ( Prhnit , Monogr. Ros. fasc. iv. p. 410) (1876). — Koehne, Deutsche 
Dendrol. p. 295 (1893). -Rehder in Bailey, Cycl. Am. Hart. vol. iv. p. 1554 (1902). 

Stems tall, arching ; prickles uniform, robust, hooked, often in infrastipular 
pairs. Leaflets 7-9, oblong, obtuse, green, middle-sized, simply openly serrated, 
glabrous on the upper surface, often pubescent beneath ; petioles pubescent and 
aciculate ; stipules broad, adnate, gland-edged, with small, ovate, free tips. Flowers 
many, arranged in a corymbose panicle ; bracts oblong-lanceolate, gland-edged ; 
pedicels short, naked. Calyx-tube small, globose, naked ; lobes ovate-acuminate, 
i-f in. long, naked on the back. Petals small, pink. Styles free, villous. Fruit 
globose, bright red, naked ; sepals deciduous. 


Rosa californica is distinguished from the other American Cinna- 
momeae by its robust prickles, almost as hooked as in Rosa canina L., 
and by its small pale pink flowers produced in clusters, often as many 
as thirty or forty in a panicle. It varies much in habit. As we know 
it in England, it is distinguished by its tall growth, the bushes frequently 
attaining a height of five or six feet, but from the description of this 
Rose in its native habitat it would seem to vary r in stature from quite 
dwarf bushes. It is common in California, ascending to 6,000 feet 
above sea-level in the Sierra Nevada, and it extends to British Columbia, 
Oregon, Nevada and Washington. 

Rosa californica is extremely polymorphous. When Crepin first 
examined the specimens sent him, he was inclined to make varieties of 

223 gg 


ROSA CALIFORNICA 


a large number, because they did not answer to the description of 
Chamisso & Schlechtendal’s type. He subsequently modified his 
opinion, but a large number of varieties have been distinguished by 
both Crepin and Watson. Among the principal are Rosa ultra - 
montana of Sereno Watson and Rosa glandulosa of Crepin. Rosa 
calif ornica has been hybridized with Rosa wtgosa Thunb. and is quite 
hardy, but is not often met with in cultivation in England, 


224 


73— ROSA PISOCARPA A. Gray 

Rosa pisocarpa: caule erecto, aculeis parvis, rectis, saepe geminis infrastipu- 
laribus ; foliolis 5-7, parvis, oblongis, simpliciter serratis, facie glabris, dorso leviter 
pubescentibus ; rhachi pubescente, haud glandulosa ; stipulis adnatis, baud glandu- 
loso-ciliatis, apice libero parvo ; floribus paucis, corymbosis ; pedunculis nudis ; 
calycis tubo globoso, nudo ; lobis lanceolatis, simplicibus, apice foliaceis, dorso 
glandulosis ; petalis parvis, rubellis ; stylis liberis, villosis, haud protrusis ; fructu 
parvo, globoso, rubro, pulposo, sepalis erectis persistentibus coronato. 


R. pisocarpa A. Gray in Proc. Anier. Acad. vol. viii. p. 382 (1873). — S. Watson 
in Brewer & Watson, Bot. Calif, vol. i. p. 187 (1876). — Hooker f in Bot. Mag . 
vol. cxii. t. 6857 (1886). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendrol . p. 295 (1893). — Rehder in 
Bailey, Cycl. Am. Hort. vol. iv. p. 1554 (1902).— C. K. Schneider, III. Handbuch 
Laubholzk. vol. i. p. 578 (1906).— Piper in Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. vol. xi. p. 33s 
(FI. State of JVashington) (1906). 

Stem erect, reaching a height of 5-6 feet ; branches bright red-brown in exposure. 
Prickles small, slender, nearly straight, often in pairs at the base of the leaves. 
Leaflets 5-7, small, oblong, simply serrated, glabrous above, thinly pubescent 
beneath ; petioles pubescent, not glandular ; stipules adnate, not gland-ciliated, with 
small, ovate, free tips. Flowers often 3-4, in a corymb; pedicels naked ; bracts ovate- 
lanceolate. Calyx-tube globose, naked ; lobes lanceolate, simple, leaf-pointed, f in. 
long, glandular on the back. Petals small, bright pink. Styles free, villous, not 
protruded. Fruit red, pulpy, globose, J in. diameter, ripening early in September, 
crowned by the erect persistent sepals. 


. ^ osa pisocarpa is scarcely more than a mountain variety of Rosa 
californica Cham. & Schlecht., from which it differs only in the small 
size of its parts. Its characters, however, have kept constant after 
many years’ cultivation. It was first found in Oregon by Mr. Elihu 
Hall in 1871. Sir J. D. Hooker and Dr. Asa Gray found it in the 
upper valley of the Sacramento, at an elevation of 4,000-6,000 feet 
above sea-level. A plant was sent to the Royal Gardens, Kew, from 
the Arnold Arboretum by Professor C. S. Sargent. 


225 











73— ROSA PISOCARPA 








































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7 4 — ROSA MOYESII Hemsl. & E. H. Wils. 

Rosa Moyesii : caule elongato, arcuato ; aculeis paucis, patentibus, rectis, 
subulatis ; aciculis intermediis nullis ; foliolis 7-13, ellipticis, cuspidatis, simpliciter 
serratis, facie glabris, dorso ad costam pubescentibus ; rhachi aciculata ; stipulis 
adnatis, latis, glanduloso-ciliatis, apicibus liberis deltoideis ; floribus solitariis ; 
pedunculis nudis vel aciculatis ; calycis tubo ovoideo, aciculato ; lobis simplicibus, 
elongatis, apice foliaceo ; petalis latis, magnis, saturate rubris ; stylis liberis, 
pubescentibus ; fructu ovoideo, apice constricto, rubro, sepalis erectis coronato. 

R. Moyesii Hemsley & E. H. Wilson in Kew Bull. 1906, p. 159. — - fount . 
Hort. ser. 3, vol. lvi. p. 587 (1908). — Bot. Mag. vol. cxxxvi. t. 8338 (1910). 

Stems tall, arching, 10-14 feet long ; prickles few, slender, straight, spreading, 
not intermixed with aciculi. Leaflets 7-13, elliptical, cuspidate, simply serrated, 
glabrous on the upper surface, pubescent on the midrib beneath ; petioles aciculate ; 
stipules adnate, gland-ciliated, with deltoid free tips. Flowers solitary; peduncle 
about an inch long, naked or aciculate. Calyx-tube ovoid, aciculate ; lobes long, 
simple, with a long leafy tip. Petals large, dark red. Styles free, pubescent. Fruit 
ovoid, above an inch long, constricted at the apex, bright red, crowned with the 
erect persistent sepals. 


Rosa Moyesii is very near to Rosa macrophylla Lindl. It is found 
in the province of Sze-chuan, in the south-west of China, where it is 
not uncommon on the hills between Mount Omi and Tatien-lu near 
the Tibetan frontier, at an elevation of 6,000-12,000 feet. It was 
first collected near Tatien-lu by Mr. A. E. Pratt, and afterwards by 
Mr. E. H. Wilson when travelling for Messrs. James Veitch & Son, 
by whom it has now been brought into cultivation. It was named 
alter the Rev. J. Moyes, of the China Inland Mission stationed at 
Tatien-lu, who greatly aided Mr. Wilson in his exploration. 


22 9 


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Part I published September 

15, 

1910 

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III 

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November 

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IV 

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December 

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January 

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1911 

99 

VI 

99 

February 

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August 14, 1911 PART 

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THE GENUS ROSA 

BY 

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LONDON 

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75— ROSA NUTKANA Presl. 

Rosa nutkana: caule erecto, brunneo; aculeis robustis, leviter falcatis, aequali- 
bus, sparsis, saepe geminis infrastipularibus ; foliolis 5-7, oblongis, acutis, magni- 
tudine mediocribus, simpliciter serratis, facie viridibus, glabris, dorso pallidioribus, 
leviter pubescentibus ; rhachi leviter pubescente ; stipulis latis, apice libero, magno, 
ovato; floribus solitariis vel paucis; pedunculis brevibus, plerumque nudis; bracteis 
magnis, ovatis ; calycis tubo globoso, nudo ; lobis simplicibus, apice foliaceis, dorso 
leviter glandulosis ; petalis majoribus, rubris; stylis villosis, liberis, haud protrusis ; 
fructu magno, nudo, globoso, pulposo, sepalis erectis persistentibus coronato. 

R. nutkana Presl. Epimel. Bot. p. 203 (1849). — C rep in in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg . 
vol. xv. pp. 39-46 ( Primit . Monogr. Ros. fasc. iv. pp. 400-407) (1876). — S. Watson 
in Smithsonian Misc. Coll. vol. xv. p. 312 (1878). — Coulter, Man. Bot. Rocky Mount. 
p. 88 (1885). — Sargent in Garden and Forest , vol. i. p. 449, fig. 70(1888). — Koehne, 
Deutsche Dendrol. p. 296(1893). — Rehder in Bailey, Cycl. Am. Hort. vol. iv. p. 1555 
(1902). — C. K. Schneider,///. Handbuch Laubholzk. vol. i. p. 576(1906). — Piper in 
Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. vol. xi. p. 334 {FI. State of Washington) (1906). 

R. fraxinifolia Hooker,/ 7 /. Bor. Am. vol. i. p. 199 {non Borkhausen nee Gmelin) 
(1833). — Torrey & Gray, Ft. N. Am. vol. i. p. 460 (1840). — Newberry in Pacific R. 
R. Rep. vol. vi. pt. iii. p. 73 (1857). 

R. cimiamomea Hooker, Ft. Bor. Am. vol. i. p. 200 {non Linnaeus) (1833). — 
Torrey & Gray, Ft. N. Am. vol. i. p. 459 (1840). — Seemann, Bot. Voy. Herald , 
p. 52 (1852). 

R. melina Greene, Pittonia , vol. iv. p. 10 (1899). 

Stem erect, 3-4 feet long, bright brown. Prickles stout, slightly hooked, equal, 
scattered and often in pairs at the base of the leaves. Leaflets 5-7, oblong, acute, 
middle-sized, membranous, simply serrated, green and glabrous above, paler and 
slightly pubescent beneath ; petioles slightly pubescent ; stipules broad, with large, 
ovate, free tips. Flowers one or few ; peduncles short, rarely setose ; bracts large, 
ovate. Calyx-tube globose, naked ; lobes simple, leaf-pointed, 1 in. long, slightly 
glandular on the back. Petals rather large, pink. Styles villous, free, not protruded 
beyond the disc. Fruit large, globose, red, pulpy, naked, crowned by the erect 
persistent sepals. 

Rosa nutkana inhabits the north-west coast regions of North 
America from Alaska to northern California. It was first found by 
Menzies in Vancouver’s Island in 1790, and rather later by Haenke 
at Nutka Sound. It most resembles Rosa blanda Ait. in habit, but 
differs in the presence of many robust prickles on the flowering 
branches, some of them in infrastipular pairs. It resembles also 
Rosa cimiamomea L. in its short peduncles and large bracts, but the 
fruit is much longer. It was sent from the Arnold Arboretum to the 
Royal Gardens, Kew, in 1884. Both Nuttall and Douglas recognised 
it as a distinct species, but did not describe it. 

231 


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ROSAWEBBIANA. 


































































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76— ROSA WEBB I AN A Wall. 

Rosa IVebbiana: caulibus brevibus, erectis; aculeis longis, stramineis, robustis, 
rectis, subaequalibus, leviter ascendentibus ; foliolis 7-9, parvis, obovatis, obtusis, 
simpliciter serratis, facie glabris, dorso interdum pubescentibus ; rhachi haud 
glandulosa ; stipulis apice libero, parvo, deltoideo ; fioribus plerumque solitariis ; 
pedunculis plerumque nudis; calycis tubo urceolato, plerumque nudo ; lobis lanceo 
latis, simplicibus, dorso nudis'; petalis rubellis ; stylis villosis, liberis, haud protrusis; 
fructu globoso, coriaceo, brunneo, nudo, saepe cernuo, sepalis persistentibus 
coronato. 

R. IVebbiana Wallich ex Royle, III. Bot. p. 208, t. 42, fig. 2 (1839). — Crepin 
in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xiii. p. 273 ( Priniit . Monogr. Ros. fasc. iii. p. 280) (1874). 
— Hooker/!, FI. Brit. Bid. vol. ii. p. 366 (1879). — Aitchison in fount . Linn. Soc. 
vol. xix. p. 161 (1882). — Christ in Boissier, FI. Orient. Suppl. p. 207 (1888). 

R. unguicularis Bertolini, Misc. fasc. xxii. p. 15, t. 3 (1862). 

Steins short, erect, sending out many short flowering shoots. Prickles of the 
flowering shoot subequal, robust, straight, long, straw-coloured, rather ascending, 
those of the sterile stem more unequal. Leaflets 7-9, small, firm, obovate, obtuse, 
shallowly simply toothed, glabrous on both sides or pubescent beneath ; petioles not 
glandular ; stipules adnate, with short deltoid free tips. Flowers usually solitary ; 
peduncles usually naked, cernuous in the fruiting stage. Calyx-tube urceolate, 
usually naked ; lobes lanceolate, simple, not leaf-pointed, about i in. long, naked on 
the back. Petals pink, moderately large. Styles villous, free, not exserted. Fruit 
globose, coriaceous, brown, naked, i in. diam., crowned by the persistent sepals. 


This variable species is common in the central Himalaya from 
Kashmir to Kamaon, at elevations of from 6,000-13,000 feet above 
sea-level. It is found also in western Tibet, Afghanistan, and at 
Samarkand. Dr. J. E. T. Aitchison brought a fine series of forms 
from the Kurram valley in 1879, including the varieties pustulata 
Christ, with stems clothed with copious sessile glands between the 
prickles, and microphylla Crepin ; also Rosa maracandica Bunge, from 
Samarkand, a high dry-country form with a very dense habit and all 
its parts dwarfed. The Rose was dedicated to Captain Webb, who 
first discovered it in the province of Kamaon and sent specimens to 
Wallich, who distributed them. 

Rosa IVebbiana most nearly resembles Rosa pimpinellifolia L., 
but is very different in the prickles, which are subequal on the flowering 
shoots, straw-coloured and rather ascending. The leaflets are less 

233 


ROSA WEBBIANA 

distinctly serrated, the flower is pink and the fruit cernuous. The 
plant in the Kew collection was brought home by Dr. Aitchison in 
1879. x 9°3 a specimen was presented to Kew by Sir Martin 

Conway, who had found it in the Karakoram range. It has also been 
collected by Dr. Albert Regel in Turkestan at an elevation of 6,000- 
7,000 feet above sea-level. It requires a rather sheltered situation, 
and is best grown under a wall facing south. The great beauty of 
this Rose lies in the young shoots, which at first are absolutely blue 
and covered with pure white thorns. It has the smallest leaves of any 
species of Rose in cultivation ; they are produced in nines, and the 
diminutive leaflets form a striking contrast to the large white thorns. 
There is a form with variegated leaves which is extremely pretty but 
does not grow so high as the type. Both forms are easily increased 
by cuttings. 


234 







77 


ROSA WOODS 1 1 Lindl. 


Rosa Woodsii: caule debili, arcuato ; aculeis patulis, gracilibus, rectis, inae- 
qualibus, saepegeminis infrastipularibus; foliolis 7-9, oblongis, obtusis, magnitudine 
mediocribus, teneris, simpliciter vel raro duplicato-serratis, facie glabris, dorso 
glabris vel pubescentibus ; rhachi pubescente, aciculata, haud glandulosa ; stipulis 
adnatis, haud glandulosis, apicibus liberis, parvis, ovatis ; floribus 1-3 ; pedicellis 
brevibus, nudis ; calycis tubo parvo, globoso, nudo ; lobis lanceolatis, longe 
acuminatis, simplicibus vel parum pinnatifidis, dorso nudis vel hispidis ; petalis 
rubris, parvis ; stylis liberis, dense pilosis ; fructu parvo, pyriformi, rubro, nudo ; 
sepalis subpersistentibus. 

R. Woodsii Lindley, Ros. Monogr. p. 21 (1820) ; Bot. Reg. vol. xii. t. 976 (1826). 
— Torrey & Gray, FI. N. Amer. vol. i. p. 460 (1838). — S. Watson in Pvoc. Amer. 
Acad. vol. xx. p. 345 (1885). — Coulter, Man. Bot. Rocky Mount, p. 88 (1885). — 
Rehcler in Bailey, Cycl. Am. Hort. vol. iv. p. 1554 (1902). — Robinson & Fernald, 
Gray’s New Man. Bot. ed. 7, p. 496 (1908). 

R. virginiana Koehne, Deutsche Dendrol. p. 299 (ex parte) (1893). 

Stem weak, low, arching ; prickles slender, unequal, spreading, straight, often 
in infrastipular pairs. Leaflets 7-9, oblong, obtuse, J-i in. long, thin, usually simply, 
rarely doubly serrated, glabrous on the upper surface, glabrous or pubescent beneath ; 
petioles pubescent, aciculate, not glandular ; stipules adnate, not gland-edged, with 
small ovate free tips. Flowers solitary or few ; pedicels short, unarmed. Calyx- 
tube small, globose, naked ; lobes lanceolate with a long acuminate tip, simple or 
slightly pinnate, J-f in. long, naked or hispid on the back. Petals small, pink. 
Styles free, villous. Fruit small, pyriform, bright red, naked, 5-J in. diam. ; sepals 
ultimately deciduous. 


Rosa Woodsii occurs on the prairies from Minnesota to Missouri 
and from Colorado northward to the Saskatchewan river. It is a 
low bushy plant, with erect red-brown stems, most nearly resembling 
the weak forms of Rosa blanda Ait. Lindley likens it to a stunted 
Rosa cinnamomea L. It differs from Rosa blanda in the arrangement 
of its prickles, which are in infrastipular pairs, by its frequently slightly 
pinnate sepals, and by its flowering earlier than most of the Roses of 
the Cinnamomea section. 

Lindley describes it in his Monograph and mentions that Mr. 
Sabine and himself, having but little hope of finding a new British 
Rose worthy of bearing Mr. Woods’ name, decided to call the new 
Rose “Woodsii” in compliment to him. The plant was at that time 
growing in Mr. Sabine’s garden at North Minims. Writing again 

235 


ROSA WOODSII 


about “ Mr. Joseph Woods’ Rose” in the Botanical Register , Lindley 
deplores the error and misapprehension which have been the fate of 
this Rose. He proceeds to say that it was first mentioned in a little 
work on the nomenclature of Roses, by M. de Pronville, who stated, 
upon the authority of a cheating gardener, that it bore yellow flowers 
with a black centre. The passage occurs in de Pronville’s book 
after the description of Rosa pimpinellifolia L., and is as follows: 
“ M. Noisette a recu d’Angleterre un rosier qui parait etre line 
variete du pimpinellifolia, et qui vient du Missouri, Amerique-Septen- 
trionale. M. Kennedy la envoye sous le nom de Rose lutea, nigra ” T — 
not quite so bad as Lmdley’s version. De Pronville himself alludes 
to the incident in his French translation of Lindley’s Monograph 2 : 
“ M. Sabine assure que c’est cette plante qui a ete envoyee en France 
cl’une de nos pepinieres comme un nouveau Rosier d’ Amerique, portant 
des fleurs no Fes et jaunes, et cite sous ce rapport, dit M. Lindley, 
dans l’ouvrage de M, de Pronville. On le croit indigene du Missouri.” 
It was Noisette who first brought Rosa Woodsii to de Pronville’s 
notice. It flowered in M. Vallee’s garden at Versailles, and in 1823 
with de Pronville, to whom Sabine had given a plant. 

There is an excellent plate in the Botanical Register from the 
plant growing in the Florticultural Society’s garden at Chiswick. We 
have thought well to illustrate both the pink and the white forms. The 
former is from a specimen in the Royal Gardens, Kew, and is some- 
what oft type in being unarmed and in having cernuous peduncles. 
The white form is very rarely to be met with in gardens. The 
drawing was made from the plant growing at Warley. 

1 Nomenclature raisonuee du Genre Rosier, p. 23 (1818). 

2 Monogr. da Genre Rosier, p. 39 (1S24). 


236 



































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78— ROSA GRANULOSA Keller 

Rosa granulosa : caule brevi, ramosissimo ; aculeis robustis, rectis vel subfal- 
catis, saepe geminis, aciculis intermixtis ; foliolis 5-7, oblongis, biserratis, facie 
glabris, dorso pubescentibus et granuloso-glandulosis ; rhachi pubescente et 
glandulosa ; stipulis adnatis, glandulis marginatis, apicibus liberis elongatis, dorso 
glandulosis ; floribus 1-3 ; pedicellis brevibus, erectis ; calycis tubo globoso, nudo ; 
lobis simplicibus, dorso et margine glandulosis ; petalis ignotis ; stylis liberis, 
lanosis ; fructu subgloboso, parvo, nudo, atropurpureo, sepalis erectis persistentibus 
coronato. 

R. granulosa Keller in Engler , Jahrbuch, vol. xliv. p. 46 (1909). 

A small much-branched bush, with short, dark-brown stems ; prickles robust, 
straight or subfalcate, often geminate, intermixed with aciculi. Leaflets 5-7, 
oblong, biserrate, the upper an inch long, glabrous on the upper surface, pubescent 
and covered with large granular glands beneath ; petioles pubescent and glandular ; 
stipules adnate, margined with glands, with large free tips, glandular beneath. 
Flowers 1-3; pedicels short, erect. Calyx-tube globose, naked ] lobes entire, with 
a lanceolate point, glandular on the back and edges. Petals unknown. Styles 
free, woolly. Fruit subglobose, small, naked, dark purple, crowned by the erect 
persistent sepals. 


This interesting- new species forms a connecting* link between the 
sections Cinnamomeae and Rubiginosae ■ From all the other species 
of Cinnamomeae it differs in having leaves covered with granular 
glands on the under surface. It was found by roadsides in central 
Korea by Abbe Faurie, who has collected largely in Japan and dis- 
covered many interesting novelties. 


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79— ROSA MOHAVENSIS Parish 

Rosa mohavensis : caule ramosissimo ; aculeis rectis, patulis, gracilibus, valde 
inaequalibus, interdum geminis ; foliolis 5-7, oblongis, obtusis vel subacutis, sim- 
pliciter serratis, firmis, utrinque glabris ; rhachi glabra, parce aciculata ; stipulis 
liberis, apicibus liberis,ovatis; floribus solitariis; pedunculis nudis, modice brevibus; 
calycis tubo globoso, nudo ; lobis parvis, integris, lanceolatis, dorso nudis ; petalis 
obovato-cuneatis, parvis, rubellis ; stylis pubescentibus ; fructu globoso, nudo, 
sepalis persistentibus coronato. 

R. mohavensis Parish in Bull. South Calif. Acad. vol. i. p. 87 (1902). 

Stems much branched ; prickles slender, straight, spreading, very unequal, 
some in pairs. Leaflets 5-7, oblong, obtuse or subacute, in. long, firm in texture, 
simply toothed, glabrous on both surfaces ; petioles glabrous, slightly aciculate ; 
stipules free, with small, ovate, free tips. Flowers solitary ; peduncles naked, not 
very short. Calyx-tube globose, naked ; lobes small, lanceolate, entire, J-f in. long, 
naked on the back. Petals small, obovate-cuneate, pink, f in. long. Styles 
pubescent. Fruit globose, naked, crowned with the persistent sepals. 


Rosa mohavensis is a native of the mountains of southern California. 
It has the habit of Rosa spinosissima L., but differs from it in several 
particulars, having geminate prickles and fewer leaflets. 


239 


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8o— ROSA PINETORUM Heller 

Rosa pinetorum : caule ramosissimo ; aculeis rectis, patulis, gracillimis, 
inaequalibus, interdum geminis ; foliolis 5-7, parvis, oblongis, obtusis, membran- 
aceis, simpliciter serratis, utrinque glabris ; rhachi glabra, parce aciculata ; stipulis 
angustis, apicibus liberis lanceolatis ; floribus solitariis ; pedunculis brevibus, 
nudis; calycis tubo globoso, nudo ; lobis lanceolatis, integris, dorso glandulosis ; 
petalis rubellis, magnitudine mediocribus ; stylis pubescentibus ; fructu parvo, 
globoso, rubro, sepalis persistentibus coronato. 

R. pinetorum Heller in Muhlenbergia , vol. i. p. 53 (1904). 

Stents much branched ; prickles vz ry slender, straight, spreading, unequal, some 
in pairs. Leaflets 5-7, few, oblong, obtuse, simply toothed, very thin, J-J in. long, 
glabrous on both surfaces ; petioles glabrous, slightly aciculate ; stipules narrow, 
with lanceolate free tips. Flowers solitary ; peduncles short, naked. Calyx-tube 
globose, naked ; lobes lanceolate, entire, glandular on the back. Petals middle- 
sized, pink, ii in. long. Styles pubescent. Fruit small, globose, red, crowned 
with the persistent sepals. 


Rosa pinetorum was discovered in the pinewoods of Monterey 
county, southern California. In habit it comes nearest to Rosa 
gymnocarpa Nutt. 


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8i— ROSA ILLINOIENSIS Baker 

Rosa illmoiensis : caule ramosissimo ; aculeis stramineis, gracilibus, rectis, 
patulis, inaequalibus, interdum geminis ; foliolis 7, parvis, late oblongis, obtusis, 
simpliciter serratis, utrinque glabris ; rhachi parce aciculata, glabra ; stipulis 
angustis, apicibus liberis, ovato-lanceolatis; floribus solitariis ; pedunculis brevibus, 
hispidis ; calycis tubo globoso, parce aciculato ; lobis ovato-lanceolatis, integris, 
dorso glabris ; petalis magnis, albis ; stylis pilosis ; fructu ignoto. 

R. illinoiensis Baker inedit. 

Stems much branched ; prickles straw-coloured, slender, spreading, straight, 
unequal, a few in pairs. Leaflets 7, small, broadly oblong, obtuse, simply serrated, 
i-J in. long, glabrous on both surfaces ; petioles glabrous, slightly aciculate ; stipules 
narrow, with ovate-lanceolate free tips. Flowers solitary ; peduncles short, hispid. 
Calyx-tube globose, slightly aciculate ; lobes ovate-lanceolate, entire, i in. long, 
glabrous on the back. Petals large, pure white, \ in. long. Styles pilose. Fruit 
not seen. 


Rosa illinoiensis is a native of the bare rocky districts of La Salle 
county, Illinois, United States, where it was collected by Green, 
Lansing and Dixon in 1910. It has the habit ol the European Rosa 
spinosissima L,, but its leaflets are only seven in number and its upper 
prickles are arranged in infrastipular pairs. 


243 


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PART XIII 


September 20, 1911 

THE GENUS ROSA 

BY 

ELLEN WILLMOTT, F.L.S. 


Drawings by 

ALFRED PARSONS, A.R.A. 



LONDON 

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, W. 

1911 



■ 


VIII 

SPINOSISSIMAE 


VOL. II.— B 























t\ 


i 


82 — ROSA SPINOSISSIMA L. 


THE BURNET ROSE 

Rosa spinosissima : caule erecto vel arcuato ; aculeis sparsis, rectis, gracilibus, 
aciculis copiosis intermixtis ; foliolis 7-9, parvis, oblongis, obtusis, simpliciter 
serratis, utrinque glabris ; rhachi glabra ; stipulis longe adnatis, apice libero ovato ; 
floribus semper solitariis ; pedunculis aciculatis vel nudis ; calycis tubo globoso ; 
lobis lanceolatis, simplicibus, dorso glabris ; petalis albis ; stylis liberis, tomentosis, 
inclusis ; fructu globoso, nudo, brunneo, sepalis persistentibus coronato. 

R. spinosissima Linnaeus, Sp. Plant . vol. i. p. 491 (1753). — Lange, FI. Dan. 
vol. iii. t. 398 (1770). — Jacquin, Fragm. p. 79 t. 124 (1809). — Guimpel, Willdenow 
& Hayne, Abbild. Deutsch. Holzart , vol. i. p. 115, t. 86 (1815). — Lindley, Ros. 
Monogr. p. 50, No. 31 (1820). — Syme, Eng. Bot. ed. 3, vol. iii. p. 203, t. 461 (1864). — 
Grenier,/ 7 /, fiirass , p. 226(1865). — Burnat&Gremli ,RosesAlp.Marit. p. 61 (1879). — 
Koehne, Deutsche Dendrol. p. 299(1893). — Rehder in Bailey, Cycl. Am. Hort. vol. iv. 
p. 1556 (1902). — C. K. Schneider, III. Handbuch Laubhotzk. vol. i. p. 583 (1906). 

R. pimpinellifolia Linnaeus, Syst. Nat . ed. 10, vol. ii. p. 1062 (1759) ; Sp. Plant. 
ed. 2, vol. ii. p. 703 (1764). — Aiton, Hort. Kew. vol. ii. p. 202 (1789). — Roessig, Die 
Rosen , No. 59 (1802-1820). — -Nouv. Duhamel, vol. vii. p. 19, t. 16, fig. 2 (1819). — 
Dumortier in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. vi. p. 39 (1867). — Christ, Rosen Schweiz , 
p. 62 (1873). — Borbas in M. T. A had. Math. S. Termdszettud Kozlemenyek xvi. 
Kotet. p. 537 (Ros. Hung. p. 537) (1880). — Waldner, Europ. Rosentyp. p. 28 (1885). — 
Crdpin in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xxxi. pt. 2, p. 73 (1892). — Burnat, FI. Alp. Mar. 
vol. iii. p. 35 (1899). — Keller in Ascherson & Graebner, Syn. Mitteleur. FI. vol. vi. 
p. 309 (1902). 

R. viminea Lindley, Ros. Monogr. p. 49, No. 30 (1820). 

R. spinosissima , subsp. pimpinellifolia Hooker, Student's Flora , p. 120(1870). 

Stem short and erect on the coast sandhills, longer and arcuate inland ; prickles 
scattered, straight, slender, intermixed with copious unequal aciculi. Leaflets 7-9, 
small, oblong, obtuse, simply serrated, glabrous on both surfaces ; petioles glabrous ; 
stipules adnate, with small, ovate, free tips, not margined with glands. Flowers 
always solitary ; peduncles aciculate or naked. Calyx-tube globose, naked ; lobes 
lanceolate, entire, glabrous on the back. Petals pure white, middle-sized. Styles 
free, tomentose, included. Fruit globose, dark brown, naked, crowned with the 
persistent sepals. 


Rosa spinosissima is a very distinct species, its spiny aspect being 
well described by its name. The synonymy and description here given 
only apply to the type, for by reason of its widely extended range over 
Europe and temperate Asia, its specific characters have been much 
modified by the varying conditions, as well as by cultivation, It has 

247 


ROSA SPINOSISSIMA 


not only the widest distribution of any species of the genus, but it is the 
most northerly in its range, being the only Rose known to be spon- 
taneous in Iceland, where it was discovered by Sir W. J. Hooker. 
It extends from Iceland to Ireland, through northern and central 
Europe, and is sparingly found in Italy and Spain ; it reaches 
northern China and Japan, but does not touch the Himalaya. It has 
been known to botanists under different names for some four centuries, 
if not more, and has been distinguished in their writings. Thus 
C. Bauhin’s 1 figures are perfectly manifest, and Lobel’s Duyn-Roosen 2 
and the Rosa arvina of Tabernaemontanus 3 are unmistakable. Ray 
in his Historia Plantarum 4 leaves no doubt as to the identity of our 
Burnet Rose, nor does Dalechamp under his “ Rosa sylvestris pomi- 
fera.” 5 Gerard in his Catalogue of i 596 calls it “ Rosa pomifera, the 
Pimpernel Rose." Many other instances among the pre-Linnaean 
botanists could be cited, but those enumerated will suffice. 

It is well known that Linnaeus gave but scant attention to the genus 
Rosa, and thereby created great confusion both at the time and subse- 
quently. The name spinosissima was adopted by him from Bauhin, 
and under this name he first described this Rose in his Species Plan- 
tarum (1753), but he did not mention its peduncles till the publication of 
the Sy sterna Naturae (17 59), wherein he credits it with hispid peduncles 
and introduces Rosa pimpinellifolia with those organs glabrous. In 
the Mantissa ( 1 77 1 ) he publishes Rosa pimpinellifolia without descrip- 
tion, saying that Haller makes it the same as Rosa spinosissima , which 
he describes as having its peduncles sometimes smooth and sometimes 
hispid. This seems to have started a controversy which has lasted to 
the present day, in spite of the fact that there are two specimens in 
Linnaeus’ herbarium, both labelled Rosa pimpinellifolia , and both 
having smooth peduncles. Smith altered the name on one of these to 
Rosa spinosissima , possibly because J acquin, who supplied the specimen 
and who had labelled it Rosa austriaca (which it certainly is not), added 
that it differed but slightly from Rosa spinosissima. The confusion 
this time does not appear to have been Linnaeus’, except that he 
united under one name a smooth and a hispid-peduncled plant which 
he had at first thought should be kept distinct. In the Amoenitates 
Linnaeus speaks of Rosa spinosissima as growing in Sweden ; but as 
the plant had not in his time been found there, it is probable that he 
is here confusing Rosa cinnamomea with Rosa spinosissima. The name 
spinosissima was adopted by Lindley, Woods, and Sir J. E. Smith ; 
the latter came to the conclusion that when Linnaeus added Rosa 
pimpinellifolia he had forgotten the plant to which he had previously 

1 Pinax, p. 483 (1623). 

2 Kruydtboeck , pt. 2, p. 244 (1581). 

3 Kreuterbuch , pt. 2, p. 788 (1591). 

4 Vol. ii. p. 41 (1650). 

5 Icon. p. 1088 (1590). 

248 


ROSA SPEND SIS SIMA, 

(GARDEN FORM) 




ROSA SPINOSISSIMA 


given another name. Neither Crepin nor Deseglise was disposed to 
accept the name spinosissima ; Deseglise considered that it would lead 
to confusion over Bauhin and Tournefort’s synonyms. The modern 
tendency is to apply the name Rosa pimpinellif olia to the form with 
smooth peduncles, and Rosa spmosissima to that with hispid-glandular 
peduncles ; but the latter, being the older name, has priority among 
botanists. I propose, however, to call the form with smooth peduncles 
Rosa spinosissima , var. pimpinellifolia . It has not previously been 
reduced to a variety by any author, but it deserves no higher rank. 

Although this Rose has been the cause of so much controversy, 
it is the smallest wild Rose known, rarely exceeding a foot or eighteen 
inches in height in its wild state. It is one of the prettiest of our native 
flowering shrubs. It is found all round Great Britain, but often with 
great intervals between different localities, and almost everywhere it 
seems to like to be within the influence of the sea. On the continent, 
however, it is otherwise, since the Abbe Coste in his Flore de la 
France gives as its locality “ Europe — surtout centrale.” 

A variegated pink and white form of Rosa spinosissima was 
described and figured by Sir Robert Sibbald, under the name of Rosa 
Ciphiana} His drawing was made from plants found wild on his 
property of Kippis, in Perthshire. Mrs. Delany, in her beautiful 
collection of mosaic flowers now in the British Museum, has a charm- 
ing representation of the Ciphian Rose made at Bulstrocle in 1775. 
The late Rev. C. Wolley-Dod, of Edge Hall, Cheshire, found near 
Llandudno a pink-flowered form which comes true from seed, and 
maintains its colour and character. Major Wolley-Dod has recently 
found the same form in Kent. W. Koch, in his Synopsis , 2 mentions 
a var. rosea , with which the Llandudno and Kent forms agree. 

Of the two plates the first represents Rosa spinosissima L., that is, 
the form of the species with hispid peduncles, but the larger prickles are 
as a rule longer and more marked off from the lesser armature ; the 
foliage is usually darker and more bluish green, more often with nine 
leaflets, and the petals smaller and of a less pronounced yellow than the 
plate shows. The other plate shows a cultivated form frequently found 
in French gardens. 

1 Scot in Illustrata , pt. 2, p. 46, t. 2 (1684). 

2 Vol. ii. p. 194 (1837). 


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8 3 — SCOTCH ROSES 

The name of Scotch Rose or Scots Rose, given to a section of 
the group Sftinosissmiae, originated with the hybrids raised by Robert 
Brown of Perth from the native Burnet Rose crossed with some double 
garden Roses. In 1820 Sabine read before the Horticultural Society 
a most interesting paper upon the varieties of the Double Scotch 
Roses, 1 in which he thus relates the circumstances ol their introduction : 

“ In the year 1793, Robert Brown of Perth and his brother transplanted some 
of the wild Scotch Roses from the Hill of Kinnoul, in the neighbourhood of Perth, 
into their nursery-garden : one of these bore flowers slightly tinged with red, from 
which a plant was raised, whose flowers exhibited a monstrosity, appearing as if 
one or two flowers came from one bud, which was a little tinged with red : these 
produced seed, from whence some semi-double flowering plants were obtained ; 
and by continuing a selection of seed, and thus raising new plants, they in 1802 
and 1803 had eight good double varieties to dispose of; of these they subsequently 
increased the number, and from the stock in the Perth garden the nurseries both of 
Scotland and England were first supplied.” 

Sabine arranged these Roses in sections according to the colour 
of the flowers. He enumerates twenty-six varieties which he classes 
in seven sections : 

I. Double White Scotch Roses. 

II. Double Yellow Scotch Roses. 

III. Double Blush Scotch Roses. 

IV. Double Red Scotch Roses. 

V. Double Marbled Scotch Roses. 

VI. Double Two-coloured Scotch Roses. 

VII. Double Dark-coloured Scotch Roses. 

In most cases he used names which indicated the colours of the 
flowers, as “True Double Red,” “Double Light Red,” “Double 
Dark Red.” This system has certain obvious drawbacks, and it is a 
pity that he did not at least add the popular names for purposes of 
identification. Of these twenty-six varieties all except three were of 
British origin. Contemporary events in France were not conducive 
to the peaceful pursuit of gardening in that country, but with the 
advent of more settled times it was not long before those excellent 
gardeners, Vibert, Descemet, Prevost, Laflay, and others were raising 

1 Trans. Hort. Soc. Nov. 7, 1820. 

251 


SCOTCH ROSES 


Roses of great beauty. For the most part they turned their attention 
to the Bengals, the Centifolias, and afterwards to the Noisettes, leaving 
the spinosissima hybrids to our English and Scotch growers, Brown, 
Austin, Malcolm, Lee and Kennedy, and others, who were so 
active in raising new varieties that there were soon between two and 
three hundred upon the market under distinctive names. A glance 
at the nurserymen’s catalogues of the first half of the last century is 
bewildering and leads us to wonder if so many of these little Roses 
could possibly have been sufficiently distinct to appear as independent 
varieties. Many of them were charming, to judge from the few which 
have survived the changes of fashion, and it would be interesting to 
try to reintroduce some of the vanished varieties by raising a fresh 
series of seedlings. Paul in his Rose Garden 1 enumerates by name 
seventy-six of these hybrid Scotch Roses which were in vogue about 
1840. They must have lost favour very shortly after, for only about 
eight out of the number are now to be found. In its wild state Rosa 
spinosissima has a greater tendency to form hybrids than any other of 
our native Roses. 

It does not appear that Scotch Roses were ever so popular upon 
the continent as they were in England, although the F rench catalogues 
contain a certain number of varieties. Prevost in 1829 includes 
thirty-six, but mostly under fancy names, so that it is difficult to identify 
them with Sabine’s list. 

These little Roses are so charming that they can never entirely 
disappear from our gardens. Flowering from three weeks to a month 
earlier than the generality of other Roses, they continue in bloom for 
a considerable time, and in autumn their bronze foliage and plentiful 
hips are an additional charm. The fruit apparently ripens but slowly, 
and is therefore not attacked by birds until towards the end of winter. 
Their compact habit and wealth of blossom makes them very beautiful 
objects for the rock garden. Care should, however, be taken not to 
plant them where their suckers are likely to interfere with the rarer 
plants. These Scotch Roses are seen to best advantage when growing 
on grass where they may increase unrestrained year after year, without 
requiring the least attention, except that the old wood should be cut 
out from time to time. 

1 Pt. 2, pp. 17-19 (1848). 


252 






8 4 — STANWELL PERPETUAL 

This beautiful Rose has been for more than a century one of the 
greatest charms of our English gardens. In all ways it is good, in 
colour, fragrance, and habit. Never capricious, it will grow and thrive 
year after year, producing its beautiful flowers in profusion, shedding 
its delicious fragrance all around, and continuing in flower long after 
the other Scotch Roses are over. It flourishes even in poor soil, 
requires no attention, and will produce flowers even in the shade, 
although it undoubtedly prefers a sunny, open situation and so placed 
will attain to extreme old age and still preserve all its charms. 

Simon and Cochet 1 give Robert Brown of Perth as the original 
raiser of this Rose, but they assign no date. Miss Lawrance has an 
excellent drawing of it under its name Stanwell PerpehiaP Mr. 
Sabine considered the plate too richly coloured, but it has been 
observed that when the wood has been well ripened during the 
previous season the delicate blush pink of the flowers is generally of 
a deeper shade the following summer. This is more especially the 
case in France. In the Hortvs Kewensis of 1 8 1 1 Miss Lawrance’s 
plate is quoted under Rosa spinosissima as “ Double Scotch Rose.” 
The Rose is also figured by Andrews, but though he gives two plates 
(N os. 125 and 126), either of which would do very well for Stanwell 
Perpetual , the drawings are not sufficiently accurate to enable us to 
decide. His Rosa spinosissima incarnata (plate No. 126) was brought 
by Mr. Crace from Rouen, where it had the reputation of flowering 
all the year round. Andrews found it in flower in October in the 
Hammersmith nursery under the name of Lees Eternal \ and he 
mentions that it flowers much later than other Scotch Roses. These 
Scotch Roses and their hybrids were essentially British in their origin 
and development, and as they never found the same favour in F ranee, 
it is not surprising to find that they were ignored by Redoutd His 
drawings of Roses are so beautiful in colouring and so delicate in 
delineation, that it is much to be regretted that he did not leave us 
any drawings of the Double Scotch Roses ; Stanwell Perpehial in 
particular would have been a charming subject for his brush. 

1 Nomenclature de tons les Noins des Roses, p. 167 (1899). 

2 Roses, t. 63 ( 1 799). 


253 


VOL. II. — C 


STANWELL PERPETUAL 


Mr. Sabine concludes his interesting paper upon “ The Double 
Scotch Roses” by referring to the “Tall Double Scotch Rose.” 
Although, according to his practice, he refrains from giving its popular 
name, there can be no doubt as to its identity, for he cites Miss 
Lawrance’s drawing of Stanwell Perpetual. He saw the Rose 
growing in Lee and Kennedy’s nursery and ascertained that it had 
come from Dr. Pitcairn’s garden at Islington, but of its previous 
history nothing could be traced. It is evidently of garden origin, but 
it is difficult to determine its parentage, and it has not been known to 
produce fruit. We give Sabine’s description of the Rose in his own 
words : 


“ The plant differs much from the Scotch Roses, being of taller growth, and 
looser habit ; the branches do not grow thickly together, but detached ; the aculei 
are of various sizes, and straight, but they are generally small, and many are more 
like setae than aculei ; the petioles are hairy, the foliola are not flat, but folded 
together, and bend back at their connection with the petiole; their colour is a paler 
green than is usual in the foliola of Scotch Roses ; they are also more elliptical and 
more acutely serrated ; and their under surfaces are hairy. The peduncles are 
short, not stiffly upright, thickening towards the top, and having glandiferous 
setae; the germen is long, ovate, and smooth, with long narrow sepals, which when 
the flower opens, are reflected quite to the peduncle. Mhe bud is a bright pink ; 
the flower is large and double, having a fine rich scent ; it opens cupped, and has 
no resemblance to the flowers of the Double Scotch Roses ; the centre has a very 
delicate and beautiful tinge of pale carmine, approaching to flesh colour ; the outside 
petals are so much paler, as to be almost white ; the interior petals gradually become 
shorter and smaller as they approach the centre, and the stamina are seen amongst 
them ; the petals have occasionally a stripe of carmine in them, like to that of a 
carnation, or similar to the variegation of the York and Lancaster Rose. The 
flowers become paler after they have been some time expanded, and as they open in 
succession, there is a great variety of appearance when the plant is in full bloom. 
It comes into flower after the true Scotch Roses are over, and is a very desirable 
plant for any garden.” 1 

1 Trans. Hort. Soc. Nov. 7, 1820. 


254 





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8s— ROSA SPINOSISSIMA, var. OCHROLEUCA Baker 

Rosa spmosissima, var. ochroleuca : a typo recedit caule altiore, floribus 
majoribus, luteis. 

R. ochroleuca Swartz in Mem. Svensk. Acad. pt. 2, p. 3 (1820). 

Stems erect, branched, 3-4 feet high ; prickles crowded, slender, straight, passing 
gradually into aciculi. Leaflets 7, small, oblong, simply serrated, glabrous on both 
surfaces ; petioles glabrous or slightly glandular ; stipules adnate, with small ovate 
free tips. Flowers solitary ; pedicels naked. Calyx-tube globose, naked ; lobes 
simply lanceolate, glabrous on the back. Petals pale yellow. Styles free, villous, 
not protruded. Fruit globose, dark brown, naked, crowned by the persistent sepals. 


The herbarium of the British Museum contains an authentic 
specimen of the Rosa ochroleuca of Swartz. The plant growing at 
Tresserve, from which our drawing was made, answers in every respect 
to the Swartz specimen. In the Kew herbarium there is a specimen 
collected by Mr. John Ross at Sachow, in northern China, and labelled 
“ Common yellow garden Rose.” 

This Rose differs from Rosa xanthina of Lindley ( Rosa platy- 
acantha Schrenk)by its slender prickles intermixed with copious aciculi. 
It is quite hardy in England, whilst Rosa xanthina is only doubtfully 
so. Sabine in his enumeration of the varieties of the Double Scotch 
Rose includes four forms with yellow flowers. He calls them “ The 
Small Double Yellow,” k ‘ The Pale Double Yellow,” “ The Large 
Double Yellow,” and “ The Globe Double Yellow.” 1 

The present Rose is the Rosa spmosissima luteola of Andrews, 2 
and his figure is one of the best in the collection. 

x Trans. Hort. Soc. Nov. 7, 1820. 

2 Roses , vol. ii. t. 128 (1828). 


255 




































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ALTSICA 

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Va 


86— ROSA SPINOSISSIMA, var. ALTAICA Rehd. 

Rosa sftinosissima, var. altaica: a typo recedit caule elatiori ; foliolis floribusque 
majoribus. 

R. sftinosissima, var. altaica Rehder in Bailey, Cycl. Am. Hort. vol. iv. p. 1557 
(1902). 

R. altaica Willdenow, Enum. Hort . Berol. p. 543 (1809). 

R. grandiflora Lindley, Ros. Monogr. p. 53, No. 32 (1820) ; in Bot. Reg . vol. xi. 
t. 888 (1825). 

R. sibirica Trattinnick, Ros. Monogr. vol. ii. p. 230 (1823). 

R. pimpinelh folia, var. altaica Seringein De Candolle, Prodr. vol. ii. p. 608(1825). 

R. pimftinelli ‘folia , var. grandiflora Ledebour, FI. Alt. vol. ii. p. 227(1830); 
FI. Ross. vol. ii. p. 73 (1844). 

An erect bush 4-7 feet high ; prickles straight, slender, dense, passing gradually 
into aciculi. Leaflets 7-1 1, oblong, obtuse, simply serrated, glabrous on both sur- 
faces, |"! in. long ; petioles glabrous, not glandular ; stipules adnate, with small 
free tips. Flowers solitary ; peduncles naked. Calyx-tube globose, naked ; lobes 
lanceolate, simple, entire, not leaf-pointed, naked on the back. Corolla pure white, 
2-2\ in. diameter. Styles free, villous, not protruded. Fruit globose, sub-coriaceous, 
black, crowned by the persistent sepals. 

Lindley describes this Rose in his Monograph, but he was evidently 
doubtful about giving it specific rank, since he states that he does so at 
Mr. Sabine’s suggestion. He adds, however, that it is too remarkable 
a plant to be passed over unnoticed, and even should it eventually be 
referred to Rosa sftinosissima L. it would always be a distinct variety. 
The plate in the Botanical Register , which was made from the plant 
growing in the Horticultural Society r ’s garden at Chiswick in 1825, 
represents a much larger-flowered plant than the present ; this may, 
however, be due to the artist having slightly exaggerated his subject. 
Lindley gives Siberia as its habitat. Of the plants growing at Kew 
some were collected in Songaria by Schrenk and others in the Altai 
Mountains by Ledebour. Its long shoots covered with rather large, 
pure white flowers make it one of the most beautiful of the single Roses, 
and it is one of the earliest to blossom. It is quite as hardy as the 
ordinary Scotch Rose to which it is so nearly allied, and increases very 
rapidly by suckers. 

The drawing was made from a plant growing in my garden at 
Tresserve, where it is in flower year after year all through the month 
of May. 


257 













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B flit* II 















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8; — ROSA SPINOSISSIMA, var. HISPIDA Koehne 

Rosa spinosissima, var. hispida : a typo recedit caule altiori, foliolis majoribus, 
floribus sulphureis multo majoribus. 

R. spinosissima , var. hispida Koehne, Deutsche Dendrol , p. 300 (1893). — Rehder 
in Bailey, Cycl. Am. Hort. vol. iv. p. 1557 (1902). 

R. hispida Sims in Bot. Mag. vol. xxxviii. t. 1570 {non Poiret) (1813). 

R. lutescens Pursh, FL Anier . Sept. vol. ii. p. 735 (1814). — Lindley, Ros. 
Monogr. p. 47, No. 29, t. 9 (1820). — Torrey & Grav, FL N. Anier. vol. i. p. 462 
(1838). 

Stem erect, branched, 4-5 feet high ; prickles irregular, straight, moderately 
robust, passing gradually into aciculi. Leaflets 7-11, oblong, obtuse, green, f-i in. 
long, simply toothed, glabrous on both surfaces ; petioles glabrous, aciculate ; stipules 
adnate, with small lanceolate free tips. Flowers solitary ; pedicels naked. Calyx- 
tube globose, naked ; lobes ovate, simple, J in. long, not leaf-pointed. Corolla 
sulphur-yellow, 2^-3 in. diameter. Styles free, densely villous, not protruded. 
Fruit globose, dark brown, glabrous, 4-f in. diameter, crowned with the persistent 
sepals, 

Rosa spinosissima , var. hispida is a yellow-flowered variety nearly 
allied to var. ochrolenca . It was growing in 1813 in the Physic Garden 
at Chelsea, where it had been established for many years. A specimen 
preserved in Sir Joseph Banks’ herbarium was gathered in Dr. 
Pitcairn’s garden at Islington as far back as 1781. There is a good 
drawing in the Botanical Magazine. From its being called the 
“Yellow American Rose” Pursh was led into the mistake of including 
it in his F lora of N orth America. 1 1 onlydiffersfrom Rosa spinosissima , 
var. altaica in the sulphur-yellow colour of its flowers. Its fruit does 
not differ from that of the typical Rosa spinosissima L. It comes 
true from seed. 

The specimen from which our plate was drawn is somewhat off 
type in the armature, which should be like that of the type. 


259 
















































































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88— ROSA SPINOSISSIMA, var. MYRIACANTHA 

Koehne 

Rosa spinosissima, var. myriaeantha : a typo recedit foliolis minoribus, dupli- 
cato-serratis, dorso glandulosis et parce pubescentibus ; costa faciei inferioris 
hispida ; pedicel lis dense hispidis ; sepalis margine glandulosis. 

R. spinosissima, var. myriaeantha Koehne, Deutsche Dendrol. p. 300(1893). — 
Rehder in Bailey, Cycl. Am. Hort. vol. iv. p. 1557 (1902). 

R. myriaeantha De Candolle, in Lamarck & De Candolle, FI. Frang . ed. 3, 
vol. iv. pt. ii. p. 439 (1805). — Lindley, Ros. Monogr. p. 55, No. 34, t. 10 (1820). — 
Thory in Redoute, Roses , vol. iii. p. 1 1, t. (1824). — Willkomm & Lange, Prodr. FL 
Hisp. vol. iii. p. 21 1 (1880). 

R. pimpinelli folia, var. myriaeantha Loiseleur, FL Gall. vol. i. p. 294 (1806). — 
Seringe in De Candolle, Prodr. vol. ii. p. 608 (1825). 

R. pimpinelli folia, var. adenophora Grenier Godron, FL France, vol. i. 
P . 554 (1848). 

R. granatensis Willkomm in Linnaea, vol. xxv. p. 24 (1852). 

Stems short, erect, much branched ; prickles very dense, slender, spreading, 
unequal. Leaflets 7-9, obovate, obtuse, in. long, rigid, doubly serrated, green, 
glabrous on the upper surface, glandular and slightly pubescent beneath, glandular 
on the margin ; petioles pubescent, glandular and aciculate ; stipules adnate, with 
small glandular free tips. Flowers solitary ; peduncles short, densely hispid. Calyx- 
tube globose, naked or hispid ; lobes simple, i in. long, glandular on the margin. 
Petals small, white or tinged with red. Styles free, villous. Fruit globose, brown, 
naked or hispid ; sepals spreading, persistent. 


The Rose of a Thousand Thorns is a curious and interesting variety 
of Rosa spinosissima L. It differs from the type in the glands which 
occur on the back of the leaves, on the petioles and on the margin 
of the sepals, in its densely hispid pedicels and in its doubly toothed 
leaves. 

It is connected with Rosa spinosissima by Rosa Ripartii of 
Desdglise. It has, however, no connection with Rosa villosa L., to 
which it was referred by Lapeyrouse. 1 It inhabits Spain and also 
the south of France, where it is found growing in the stony, arid 
parts of the Route de Mireval, near Montpellier. De Candolle, who 
describes it in his Flore Francaise , gives Dauphine and the neighbour- 
hood of Lyons among the localities where it occurs ; but there does 

PI. des Pyrenees , p. 283 (1813). 

261 


VOL. II. — D 


ROSA SPINOSISSIMA, var. MYRIACANTHA 

not appear to be any record of its ever having been found near Lyons, 
nor indeed in Dauphine. Redoute made a charming figure of this 
Rose, to accompany which Thory quotes De Candolle’s description 
from the Flore Francaise. 

This Rose is rare in cultivation in England, although it is quite 
hardy and in gardens preserves its characters unchanged. 


262 
















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8 9 — ROSA SPINOSISSIMA, var. AN DREWS 1 1 

Rosa spinosissima , var. Andrewsii : a formis minoribus typicis recedit floribus 
paulum plenis, rubris. 


This very pretty little Rose is the form of Rosa spinosissima most 
generally met with in old French gardens. Sometimes it occurs in 
hedges parting off flowers from vegetables, sometimes in isolated 
bushes, and it is rarely absent from the village curd’s garden. Its 
power of renewing itself under any conditions of neglect and starvation 
accounts for its being still with us whilst many of the other Scotch 
Roses, at one time so plentiful, have long since disappeared. 

Andrews has nine plates of Scotch Roses, and his Rosa spinosis- 
sima nana , one of the three forms on plate 123, is evidently intended 
for the present Rose, although it is never actually so vivid in colour as 
in his drawing. Miss Lawrance has two drawings of single red forms 
of Rosa spinosissima , and her plate 1 5 represents a very pretty variegated 
form which may be the Rosa nova variegata of Du Pont referred to 
by Thory. 1 Redoute’s Grande Pimprenelle aux Cent- Reus is described 
by Thory as resembling Du Font’s Rose, but finer and more beautiful 
in every respect ; 2 it has long disappeared from cultivation. 


These are but a few out of the large number of varieties to which 
hybrids of Rosa spinosissima have given rise, for in the space available 
it has only been possible to mention some of the more notable among 
them. 


1 Gym. Ros. p. 14 (1813). 

2 Roses, vol. ii. p. 103 (1821). 


263 


















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Part I published September 15, 1910 


11 

II 

October 

19, 

it 

III 

II 

November 14, 

it 

IV 

If 

December 

14, 

it 

V 

If 

January 

14, 

1911 

VI 

It 

February 

14, 

it 

VII 

II 

March 

14, 

it 

VIII 

II 

April 

12, 

it 

IX 

II 

May 

12, 

ii 

X 

II 

June 

14, 

it 

XI 

II 

July 

14, 

ii 

XII 

II 

August 

14, 

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XIII 

II 

September 20, 

ii 




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