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Punjab and North^West Frontier Province* 

Based on the Census Report for the Punjab, 1883, 

by the late Sir DENZIL. IBBETSON, K-CSL, 

and the Census Report for the Punjab, 1892, 

by the Hon. Mr. E. D. MacLAGAN, C.S.I., and 

compiled by H. A. ROSE. 


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This niossary of tlie Tribes and Castes found in the Pimjal), 
the North-West Frontier Province and tlie l^^^tected Territories 
on the North- West Frontier of India, is based upon the works of 
the late Sir Denzil Charles Jelf Ibbetson, K.C.S.I., Lieutenant- 
Governor of the Punjab and its Dependencies, and of the 
Hon'ble Mr. Edward Douglas Maclagan, C.S.T., now Secretary 
to the Grovernment of India in the Revenue Department. Sir 
Denzil Ibbetson's Report on the Punjal) Census of 1881 was 
reprinted as Pun jab Ethnography. Vohime HI of the present com- 
pilation will include the rest of this (rlosaari/, and Volume I will 
comprise the valuable chapters of Sir Denzil Ibbetson's Report 
which deal with the Physical Description of tlie Punjal), its Reli- 
gions and other subjects, supplemented by the matter contained 
in the Hon'ble Mr. Maclagan's Report on the Punjab Census of 
1891, and from other sources. 

This Glossary embodies some of the materials collected in 
the Ethnographic Survey of India which was begun in 1900, 
under the scheme initiated by Sir Herbert Risley, K.C.I.B., 
C.S.I. , but it has no pretensions to finality. The compiler's aim 
has been to collect facts and record them in the fullest possible 
detail without formulating theories as to the racial elements which 
have made the population of the modern Punjab, the growth of 
its tribes or the evolution of caste. For information regard- 
ing the various theories which have been suggested on those 
topics the reader may be referred to the works of Sir Alexande^ 
Cunningham,* Bellewf and Nesfield.J 

The Census Report for India, 190^, Sind The Races of India 
may also be referred to as standard works on these subjects. 

It is in contemplation to add to Volume III, or to publish as 
Volume IV, a subject-index to the whole of the present work^ 

* Archieological Stiruey Ri!porl.-< : more ospeoially Vols II, V and XIV for the Punjab. 
Also hi^ Ancient Geography of India, The Bitid'ii^l Perioi, 1S71. 
t Rice-i of Afghanist in and Yu-^nfzai. 
X Brief view of the Oasfe System of fli? Nn-th-We^'ei-n Rrouin-es and Oadh : Allahabad, 1885. 

together witli nppendices containing exhaustive lists of tlie 
numerous sections, septs and clans into which the tribes and 
castes of these Provinces are divided. 

A few words are necessary to explain certain points in the 
Glossary. To ensure brevity' the compiler has avoided constant 
repetition of the word " District " e. g., by " Lahore " the District 
of that name must be understood thus " in Lahore " is equivalent 
to the " in the District of Lahore," but by " at Lahore " is 
meant " in the city of Lahore." 

The printing of the name of a caste or tribe in capitals in 
the text indicates that a reference to the article on that caste 
or tribe is invited for fuller information. References to District 
or State Goi^:ettenrs should be taken to indicate the latest editio n 
of the Gazettepv unless the contrary is stated. References to a 
Settlenipvt liepoH indicate the standard Report on the Regular 
Settlement of the District in the absence of any express re- 
ference to an earlier or later report. 

Certain recognised abbreviations have also been used, e.g., 

J.R.A.S., for the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 

J.A.S.B., for the Journal of the (Royal) Asiatic Society 
of Bengal. 

P.N.Q., for Punjab Notes and Queries, 1883-85. 

I.N'.Q., for Indian Notes and Queries, 1886. 

ISf.I.N.Q., for North Indian Notes and Queries, 1891-9G. 

E.H.I., for Elliot's History of India. 

T.N., for Raverty's Translation of the Tahaqat-i-Nasiri. 

In certain districts of the Punjab lists of agricultural tribes 
have been compiled by District Officers for administrative pur- 
poses in connection with the working of the Punjab Alienation 
of Land Act (Punjab Act XIII of 1900), and these lists have been 
incorporated in the present Glossary for facility of reference. 

The two following extracts from an Address delivered by the 
late Sir Denzil Ibbetson on J;he Study of Anthropology in India to 


the Antliropological Society of Bombay in 1 890 are re-printed 
here as of permanent interest and value : — 

" Another scheme which suggested itself to me some years ago, and 
met with the approval of Sir Charles Elliot, would, I think, greatly simplify 
and lighten the labour of recording customs, but which I unfortunately 
never found leisure to carry out. It was to publish typical custom-sheets 
printed with a wide margin.'^ The ])rintod portion would give a typical 
set of, say, marriage ceremonies, divided into short paragraphs, one for 
each stage. The inquirer would note opposite each paragraph the depar- 
tures from the typical ceremonial which he found to obtain among the 
people and in the locality under inquiry. The main lines of these and 
similar ceremonies are common to many tribes over a considerable area, 
and the system, which is of course capable of indefinite expansion, would 
save a deal of writing, would suggest inquiry, would be a safeguard against 
omissions, and above all, would bring differences of custom into prominence. 

•3f * * * «■ * 

" And now I have come to the fourth and last head of my discourse, 
and you will, I am sure, be relieved to know that I shall be brief. What 
is the use of it all ? I must premise that no true student ever asks himself 
such a question. To some of you, I fear, I shall appear profane, but I take 
it that the spirit which animates the true scholar is the same in essence as 
that which possesses the coin-collector or the postage stamp maniac. He 
yearns for more knowledge, not because he proposes to put it to any 
definite use when he has possessed himself of it, but because he has not 
got it, and hates to be without it. Nevertheless, it is a question which, if 
we do not ask ourselves, others -will ask for us, and it behoves us to have 
our answer ready. In the first place, it is impossible to assert of any 
addition, however apparently insignificant, to the sum of human knowledge, 
that it will not turn out to be of primary importance. The whole fabric 
of the universe is so closely interwoven, mesh by mesh, that at whatever 
out-of-the-way corner we may begin unravelling, we may presently assist 
in the loosening of some knot which has barred the progress of science. 
What Philistine would look with other than contempt upon the study of 
the shapes of fancy pigeons, of the markings of caterpillars and butterflies, 
and of the respective colourings of cock and hen birds. Yet from these 
three sources have been drawn the most vivid illustrations and the strong- 
est proofs of a theory the epoch-making nature of which we are hardly 
able to appreciate, because it has already become an integral part of the 
intellectual equipment of every thinking man. But Ave need not trust to 
the vagueness of the future for evidence of the value of our studies in 
India. They have already cast a flood of light upon the origin and nature 
of European tenures, and they have even modified the course of British 
legislation. I do not think it is too much to say that, had we known 
nothing of land tenures in India, the recognition of tenant right in Ulster 
would have been indefinitely postponed." 

The scientific spirit which inspired the above remarks laid 
the foundations of all anthropological research in the Punjab and 

* This method was adopted in carrying ml the Ethnographic Survey in these Provinces. 
H. A. R, 


Nortli-West Frontier Province. The practical importance of an 
intensive study of tlie minutest data in the popular religion, 
folk-lore, traditions, survivals and superstitions cannot be easily 
exaggerated, and the present writer is convinced that nothing but 
a closer study of them will, for example, reconcile the apparently 
hopeless inconsistencies of the Punjab customary law. 


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Punjab Tribes and Castes. 


AbazaIj a section of tho Yusufzai Pathans, found in Buner. 

Abba Khel, one of the six septs of the Baizai clan of tho Akozai Yusufzai 
Pa^hd,Q8, found in Peshdwar. 

Abbassi, the name of the ruling family of the Daudpotrds who are 
Nawabs of Bahawalpur and claim descent from tho Abbasside dynasty 
of i^gypt : see Daudpotra and Kalhor^. 

Abual, a small caste of Muhamraadans found in Kdngra and the 
Jaswiin Dun of Hoshiarpur. The Abddls arc divided into 12 tolls 
or septs. The Abduls of Kangra do not associate with those of 
Sukhdr and Nurpur. The Abddls are beggars and wanderino- 
singers, performing especially at Rdjput funerals, at which they 
precede the body singing and playing dirges, len or hirldp. In 
the time of the Raj^s when any Rdjput was killed in battle and 
the news reached his home, they got his clothes and used to 
wear them while singing his dirge. Thus they sang dirges f»r 
Rdm Singh, wazir of Nurpur, and Sham Singh, Atd,riwdld,, who had 
fought against the British, and for Rajd, Rai Singh of Chamba. 
The Abdals now sing various songs and attend Rajput weddings. 
They are endogamous. Abddl means 'lieutenant* (see Platts' 
Hind, Dicty,, s. v.) and is the name of a class of wandering 
Muhammadan saints.* Whether there is any connection between 
the name and the Chihil Abddl of Islamic mythology does not 
appear. For the Abdals in Bengal see Risley, People of India, 
pp. 76 and 119. 

Abdal, an Arain clan (agricultural), found in Montgomery. 

Abdali, (1) a term once applied generally to all Afghans {q. v.), but 
now apparently obsolete : (2) the name of a famous family of tho 
Saddozai Pa^hdns which gave Afghanistan its first Afghan dynasty: 
Now known as Durrani, this family belonged to the Sarbani branch 
of the Afghans, and is believed by them to derive its name from Abddl 
or Avddl bin Tarin bin Sharkhabun h. Sarban 6. Qais, who received 
this name from Kwhdja Abd Ahmad, an abddl't or saint of the Chishtid 

* It is the plur. of hadal, ' substitute,' and the Abdal, 40 in number, take the fifth place 
in the Sufi hierarchical order of saints issuing from the great Qutb, Also called 'Rukabi,' 
* guardians,' they reside in Syria, bring rain and victory and avert calamity ; Eticyclopxdia 
o/ Isldm, s. V, p. 69. 

t See Abdal supra. 

2 Ahddli — Adam Ehel, 

order. Driven from their lands near Qandaliar by the Ghalzai, the 
Abdi'ili had long been settled near llerdt, but were restored by Niidir 
Shah to their old homo, and when Ahmad Shilh became king at 
Qandahiir his tribe served as a nucleus for the new empire. Influenced 
by a faqir named Sabar Shah he took the title of Durr-i-durrdn, 
' pearl of pearls.' The two principal Abdali clans are the Popalzai, 
(to which belonged the royal section, the Sadozai) and the Barakzai : 
M. LoDgworth Uames in Encycl. of Islam, p. 67. 

Abdalke, a Kharral clan (agricultural), found in Montgomery. 

Abduut [avadhuta)* a degree or class of the celibate Gosains who live by 
beorging. They are wanderers, as opposed to tho viatddri or dsanddri 
class. Sec Gosaia. 

Abhiea, the modern Ahfr {q. v.). 

Abhai'Anthi, one of the 12 orders or schools of the Jogis (5. v.). 

Abkal, a sept of Rdjputs, descended from Wahgal, a son of Sangar Chand, 

16th K^ja of Kahlur. 
Adlana, (1) a Jat clan (agricultural), found in Multan : (2) a branch of the 

Kharrals, found in Montgomery and the Minchin^b^d nizdmat of 


Abioia, an ancient tribe of Jat status found in Sindh and the Bahdwalpur 
State. It is credited with having introduced the arts of agriculture 
into the south-west Punjab and Sindh in the proverb : — 

Kar7i hahhshe hiror. 
Abra bahhshe hal di or. 

' Let R^jfi Karn give away crore of rupees, the Abra will give what 
he earns by the plough.' 

The tribe is also said to be an offshoot of the Sammas and is 
numerous in Bahawalpur. 

Abui, a Jdt clan (agricultural), found in Multan, 

Abwani, a Pathdu clan (agricultural), found in Amritsar. 

Acha Khel, an important clan of the Marwat Pathans, found in 

AcHi-LAMO (Tibetan), a group of actors, singers and dancers, found 
in Kanawar. They wear masks of skin with conch shells for 
eyes and a dress to which woollen cords are so attached that in 
dancing they spread out. Tho women play a large tambourine, and 
the men a small drum shaped like an hour-glass. Parties of five, 
— two men, two women and a boy — perform their dance. 

Achran, an agricultural clan, found in Shdhpur. 

Achakj(a), see under Brahman : syn. Mahabrahman. 

Adam Khel, one of the eight principal clans of the Afridi Pathans: 
said to be neither Gar nor Samil in politics. They have four 
septs— Hassan Khel, Jaw^ki, Galli and Ashu Khel. 

» Avadhuta is also the name of a Vaishnava sect. Ramanand founded the Ramawat sect 
whom he called Avadhuta, because his followers had ' shaken off ' the bounds of narrow- 
mindcdncss. To this sect belonged Tulsi Das, one of whose works was the Vairagya-Sandi- 
pani or ' kindling of continence.' {NoUs on Tuhi Dds, by Dr. G. A. Grierson. Indian 
Antiquary, 1893, p. 227), 

^ / -^ / ^-/V^ 

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Adan Shdhi-^Ahangar. 3 

Adan SHAHf, a Sikh sect or, moro correctly, order, founded by Adau 
Shdh, a disciple of Kanhyd. Ldl, the founder of the Sewapanthis 

Adh-nath, ono of the 12 orders or schools of the Jogis {q. v.), 
Admal, a sept of the Gakkhars {q. v.). 

A'dpanthj, possibly a title of those Sikhs who adhere to the original 
(ddi) faith (or to the ddi-granf;h) : cf. Census Report, 1891, § 88, 
but see Adh-ndth. 

Advait, a Hindu sect which maintains the unity of the soul with God 
after death. 

Afghan, pi. Afaghina: syn. Rohilla or Rohela and Pathdn {q. v-). The 
earliest historical mention of the Afghans occurs under the year 
1024 A. D. (414-15 Hijri) when Mahmud of Ghazni made a raid 
into the mountains inhabited by the Afghjinian— after his return 
from India to Ghazni — plundered them and carried off much booty.* 
Afghan tradition makes Kashighar or Shawdl their earliest scat, 
and the term Afghdnistan or land of the Afghans is said to be, 
strictly speaking, applicable to the mountainous country between 
Qandahdr and the Derajiit, end between Jalaldbad and the 
Khaibar valley on the north and SiwI and Dadar on the south, 
but it is now generally used to denote the kingdom of Afghanis- 
tan. The AfgMns used to be termed Abdalis or Awdalis from 
Malik Abdal under whom they first emerged from the Sulaimdn 
Range and drove the Kdfirs or infidels out of the Kdbul valley. 
(See also s. v. Pathan, Bangash, Dildzdk). By religion the 
Afghans are wholly Muhammadan and claim as their peculiar 
saint the ' Afghan Qntb,' Khwdjah Qutb-ud-din, Bakhtidr, Kaki 
of Ush (near Baghditd) who probably gave his name to the Qutb 
Mindr at Delhi. 

Agaei, Agri or Agaria "a worker in salt," from dgara, salt-pan. The Agaris 
are the salt-makers of Rdjputana and of the east and south-cast Punjab, 
and would appear to be a true caste. t In Gurgaon they are said to 
claim descent from the Rdjputs of Chittaur. All are Hindus, and 
found especially in the Sultdnpur tract on the common borders of Delhi, 
Rohtak and Gurgaon, where they make salt by evaporating the brackish 
water of the wells. Socially they rank below the Jdts, but above Lohdrs. 
A proverb says : " Theafe, thejawdsa, the Agari and the cartman — when 
the lightning flashes these give up the ghost," apparently because the rain 
which is likely to follow would dissolve their salt. Cf. Nungae. 

Aggarwal, a sub-caste of the Banias {q. v.). 
Agie, a doubtful synonym of Agari {q, v.). 
Agwana, a Jdt clan (agricultural), found in Multdn. 
Ahangar, a blacksmith. 

* For fuller details see the admirable articles by Mr. Longworth Dames on Afghanistan 
and Afridi in the Encyclopaedia of Islim (London: Luzac & Co.) now in courso of pub- 

t But the Agarfs are also said to be a mere eiib-castc of the Kumhars. In Kumaon dgari 
means an " iron-smolter " : N. I. N. Q. I., §§ 214, 217. It is doubtful whether Agi-a derives 
its name from the Agaris, as there is an Agi-a in the Peshawar valley. For an account of Uio 
salt-industry in Gurgaon, see Qurgaon Qazettecr, 1884, page 57. 

4 Ahdri^^Ahir, 

A.HARf, a doubtful synonym of Aheri {q. v.). 

AHEEf (a), Ileri, Ahiiri (?), an out-caste and often vagrant tribe, found in the 
south-east Punjab, and originally immigrant* from Rdjputana, especi- 
ally Jodhpur and Bik^ner. The name is said to be derived from 
her, a herd of cattle, but the Ahori, who appears to be usually 
called Heri in the Punjab, is by heredity a hunter and fowler. He 
is however ordinarily a labourer, especially a reaper, and even culti- 
vates land in Hiss^r, while in Karnal he makes saltpetre.* In ap- 
pearance and physique Aheris resemble Baurias, but they have no 
dialect of their own, and are not, as a body, addicted to crime. 

Of their numerous gots the following are found in the B^wal 
nizdmat of Ndbha : — 



























The Aheris are almost all Hindus, but in the Phulki^n States a few 
are Sikhs. Besides the other village deities they worship the goddess 
Masdnl and specially affect Bd,bd,ji of Kohmand in Jodhpur and 
Khetrp^l. In marriage four gots are avoided, and widow re-marriage 
is permitted. All their rites resemble those of the Dhdnaks,t and 
Chamarw^ Brahmans officiate at their weddings and like occasions. 
The N^iks, who form a superior class among the Heris, resemble 
them in all respects, having the same gots and following the same 
pursuits, but the two groups do oot intermarry or even take water 
from each other's hands. On the other hand the Aheri is said to 
be dubbed Thori as a term of contempt, and possibly the two tribes 
are really the same. 

For accounts of the Aheris in the United Provinces, see Elliot's 

Ahie. The name Ahir is doubtless derived from the Sanskrit ahhira, a 
milkman, but various other folk etymologies are current. J 

The Ahirs' own tradition as to their origin is, that a Brahman once 
took a Vaisya girl to wife and her offspring were pronounced amat' 
sangyd or outcast ; that again a daughter of the amat-sangyds married 
a Brahman, and that her offspringr were called ahhirs {i.e., Gop^s or 
herdsmen), a word corrupted into Ahir. 

They are chiefly found in the south of Dehli, Gurgdon, and Rohtak 
and the Phulki^n States bordering upon these districts, and in this 

• Ahen's also work in reeds and grass, especially at making winnowing-baskets and 
stools of reed. 

t The Aheris claim that they will not take water from a Dhinak, as the Chuhras do. 
Yet they rank no higher than the latter, since they eat dead animals, although they will 
cot remove filth. 

X One of these is ahi-dr, " snake-killer," due to the fact that Sri Krishna had once killed 
a snake. But according to the Mad-Bhagwat, Askaad 10, Addhiyae 17, Sri Krishna did'^oa 
kill the snake, but brought it out of the Jumna. 

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Ahir growps. 

limited tract they form a coDsiderable proportion of the whole popula- 

The first historical mention of the Abhiras occurs in the confused 
statements of the Vishnu Parana concerning them and the Sakas 
Yavanas, Bahlikas and other outlandish dynasties which succeeded 
the Andhras in the 3rd century A. D. 

In the 4th century the Abhfrap, Arjundyanas and Malavas are de- 
scribed as republican tribes settled in eastern Rdjpnt^na and Malwa.* 
They are divided into three hhdwps or sub-castes : — 

(1) the Nandbansi, who call themselves the offspring of Nandil, the 

foster-father of Sri Krishna.t 

(2) the Jdduhansiy who claim to be descendants of the Yadu, a 

nomadic race. 

(3) the Gudlhanai, who say that they are descended from the Gu51d 

or ' herdsman ' dynasty and the Gopis, who danced with the 
god Krishna in the woods of Bindraban and Gokal. 
The Jadubansi Ahirs are mostly found in the Ahirwati J and Haridna, 

while the Nandbansis and Gudlbansis are found in Mathura and 


All three sub-castes are endogamous and avoid four gots in marriage. 

The gots of the 

1 . Abhiryd,. 

2. Bachhvvalyd,, 

3. Balwnn. 

4. Bhankary^, 

5. Bhogwarjii. 

6. Bhunkaldn. 

7. Bhusaryd,. 

8. BhusU. 

9. Chatasya. 

10. Chura. 

11. Dabar. 

12. Dahiyd. 

1 3. Datarli. 

14. Dholiwdl. 

15. Dhundald. 

16. Dumdolyd. 

17. Harbald. 

18. Jadam. 

19. Jdnjaryd. 

20. Jarwal. 

Jddubansis are: — 

21. Jharudhyd. 

22. Kakralya. 

23. Kakudhya. 

24. Kalalyd. 

25. Kalg-dn. 

26. Kdnkas. 

27. Karera. 

28. Khdlod. 

29. Kharotya. 

30. Kharpara. 

31. Khatodhya from 
Khatode inPatidla. 

32. Khiswa. 

33. KhoM. 

34. Khorryd. 

35. KhosL 

36. Khurmya. 

37. Kinwal. 
33. Kosalyd from Kosli 

in Rohtak. 

39. Lanba. 

40. Lodiyd. 

41. Mahla. 

42. Mandhdr. 

43. Mitha. 

44. Mohal. 

45. Nagarya. 

46. Narbdn. 

47. Notiwdl. 

48. Pacharya. 

49. Sanp. 

50. Sonaryii. 

51. Sultdnya. 

52. Thokardn. 

53. Tohrmijl. 

54. Tundak. 

55. Solangia, original- 
ly Solanki Rdjputs. 

* V. A. Smith, Ancient History of India, pp. 240 and 250, 

t Sri Krishna, through fear of Raja, Kans, was changed for Nand's daughter and so 
brought up by him. Nand was an Ahir ; Krishna, a Kshatrya. J4du was the son of Jaeat 
from whom Krishna was descended, and the Jadubansi also claim descent from him ' 

t Another account says that the Ahirwati is held by the Jadubansi and Nandbansf 
who smoke together, whereas the Gualbansi will not smoke u-ith them (in spite of the 
latters' inferiority). 

It is not easy to define the boundaries of Ahirwati. It includes Rewari and the country 
to the west of it ; R4th or Bighauta lying to the south-west of that town and apparently 
overlapping it since Narnaul appears to lie in the Riiix as well as in the Ahirwatf. 

Ahir origins. 

56. Bhanotra, originally Nathawat Rajputs, from' Amla Bhanera 
in Jaipur: their ancestor committed murder and fled, finding a refuge 
with the Ahirs : and 

57. Ddyar, originally Tun war Rajputs till 995 Sambat : the legend 
is that Anangpal had given his daughter in marriage to Kalu R^ja of 
Dhiirc4nao-ar, but her husband gave her vessels for her separate use, and 
she complained to her father. Anangpal would have attacked his 
son-in-law but his nobles dissuaded him, and so he treacherously invited 
Kdlu to his second daughter's wedding. Kdlu came with his four 
brothers, Parmar, Nil, Bhawan and Jagpdl, but they learnt of the plot 
and fled to the Ahirs, from whom Kdlu took a bride and thus founded 
the Ddyar got. 

Some of the Nandbansi gots are : — 

1. Bachhwdl. 

2. Harbanwal. 

3. Kaholi. 

4. Khatban. 

5. Pachary^. 

6. Rabar. 
7. Sanwary^. 

The Ahirs again give their name to the Ahirwati dialect, which is 
spoken in the tract round Ndrnaul, Kanaudh and Rew^ri. It differs 
little, if at all, from the ordinary Hindi of the south-east Punjab ; * for 
a full account of it and its local varieties the reader must be referred to 
the Linguistic Survey of India, Vol. IX, pp. 49 — 51 and 233 — 241. 

The Ahirs are all Hindus, but in spite of their traditional connec- 
tion with Sri Krishna,t they affect Shivaji, Devi and Thdkarji. They 
also worship Bandeo, whose shrine is at Raipur in the Bawal nizamat 
of Ndbha and who is said to be a black snake : hence no Ahir will kill 
a black snake. In Saharanpur their marriage deities are Braha and 
Bar deotas, but no traces of these cults are noted in the Punjab. | 

Ahir women dress differently to those of the Jdt tribes, wearing 
red and yellow striped gowns, with a shawl of red muslin. But in 
Jind they are said to wear a gown {lenghd) of blue cloth. 

The Ahirs were probably by origin a pastoral caste, but in the 
.Punjab they are now almost exclusively agricultural, and stand in 
quite the first rank as husbandmen, being as good as the Kamboh 
and somewhat superior to the Jat. They are of the same social 
standing as the Jd,t and Gujar, who will eat and smoke with them ; 
but they have not been, at any rate within recent times, the dominant 
race in any considerable tract. Perhaps their nearest approach to 
such a position was in the State of Rampur near Rewdri, whose last 
chief, Rao Tula Rd-m, mutinied in 1857 and lost his state. His family 
still holds a jdgir and its members are addressed as Rao, a title which 
is indeed grateful to every Ahir. 

They are industrious, patient, and orderly ; and though they 
are ill spoken of in the proverbs of the country side, yet that is prob- 
ably only because the Jdt is jealous of them as being even better 
cultivators than himself. Thus they say ii). Rohtak : " Kosli (the head 

* C. R. 1891, p. 263. 

t Still, according to Mr. Maclagan, Krishna is their patron, C. R. 1891, p. 120. Moreover, 
they adopt Brahman or Bairagi gnrus, receiving from them a kanthi (necklace) and the 
Krishna-mantra in return for a hket or pujd of Rs. 2 or 3. 

i N. I, N. Q. IV § 460. 


Ahir-^Ahidwat. f 

village of the Ahirs) has fifty brick houses and Bovoral thousand 
swaggerers." So in Delhi : " Rather be kicked by a Rajput or stumble 
uphill, than hope anything from a jackal, spear grass, or an Ahir" ; 
and again: "All castus are God's creatures, but three castes are 
ruthless, when they get a chance they have no shame : the whore, 
the Bdnya, and the Ahir." The phrase Ahir be-plr refers to their sup- 
posed faithlessness. But these stigmas arc, now-a-days at least, wholly 

Their birth, death and marriage ceremonies are like those of tho 
Mdlis, Gujars and Jatg. Kareiva is permissible, but in Jind, it is said, 
a widow may not marry her husband's elder brother and this is also 
the case in Gurg^n, where some of the higher Ahir families disallow 
widow re-marriage in toto* and hold aloof from other Ahirs. Like 
the Rdjputs the Ahirs recognise concubinage, and a father has a right 
to the guardianship of a concubine's son [b-uretiocil) , bat ho does not 
inherit. The Ahirs who disallow widow re-marriage also follow the 
rule of ch{indavand,f 

They eat kachchi and pahht with all Brahmans and Vaisyas, but the 
latter do not oat hachchi from them. They will eat kachchi with Raj- 
puts, Jats, Hindu Gujars, Rors, Sunars and Tarkhans, while the latter 
eat also with tho former. They do not eat flesh. { 

In and around Delhi city the Ahir is also known as Ghosi and 
claims descent from Nandji, adopted father of Krishna (Kanliyaii). 
Anciently called Gwdlds the Ahirs were called Ghosi after their conver- 
sion to Isk'im§, but any cowman or milkseller ia also called ghosi. 
The principal Ahir or Ghosi gots are :— 

Mukhiall which ranks highest of all the gots. 

Charia (graziers). 

Ghur-charha (cavalry men) and Kasab. 

Tho Hindu Ghosi customs resemble those of tho Hindu Rtljputg. A 
Gaur Brahman officiates at the fhera rite in marriage. The Ghosi 
have a system of imnches and hereditary chaudhris. If ono of the 
latter's line fail, his widow may adopt a son to succeed him, or, failing 
such adoption, the panch elects a fit person. 

A very full description of the Ahirs will bo found in Elliott's Races of the North-Wett 
Provinces, and also in Shcrring, I, 332 fi. 

Ahlawat, a J^t tribe, said to be descended from a Chauhdn Rajput who 
came from Sambhar in Jaipur some 30 generations ago. From him 
sprang the Ahlawat, Olian, Kirma, JMare, and Jun Jats who do not 
intermarry. Tho tribe is found in Rohtak, Delhi, and Karndl, Its 
members worship a common ancestor called Sadu Dob. 

*P. C. L. II, p. 132. 

+ Ibid. p. 137. 

t Ihid. p. 138. 

§ Tho meaning appears to be that any Muhammadan who became a cowman by trade was 
caUed Ghosi, and that this name then became applied to any Ahir or Gwala, so that we now 
find the Hindu Ahir as well as liis Miahammadan competitor commonly called Ghosi. 

II MuliMa, ' spokesman,' is also a title given to a leading member of the caste, but it doM 
not appear to be equivalent to chaudhri. 

d', Ahl-i'Eadis'^Ahmadzai. 

Ahl-i-Hadi!^, or " Pcoplu of the Tradition," formerly styled WaMbis 
from the name of their founder. The Ahl-i-Hadis are Musalman 
purists. •* They accept the six books of traditions as collecied by the 
Sunnis, but reject the subsequent glosses of the fathers and the voice 
of the church, and claim liberty of conscience and the right of private 
interpretation. They insist strongly upon the unity of God, which 
doctrine they say has been endangered by the reverence paid by the 
ordinary Musalmdn to Muhammad, to the Imdms and to saints ; and 
forbid the offering of prayer to any prophet, priest or saint, even as a 
mediator with the Almighty. They condemn the sepulchral honours 
paid to holy men, and illumination of, visits to, and prostration before, 
their shrines, and even go so far as to destroy the domes erected over 
their remains. They call the rest of the Muhammadana " Mushrik," 
or those who associate another with God, and strenuously proclaim that 
Muhammad was a mere mortal man. They disallow the smoking of 
tobacco as unlawful, and discountenance the use of rosaries or beads. 
Apparently they insist much upon the approaching appearance of the 
last Imdm Mahdi preparatory to the dissolution of the world. Politically 
their most important and obnoxious opinion is that they are bound 
to wage war against all infidels. The orthodox deny them the title of 

A full history of the " Ahl-i-Hadis " is beyond the scope of this 
article. Its founder, Abdul- Wahhab, was born in Nejd in 1691 A. D., 
and his successors reduced the whole of Nejd and then overran the 
Hijaz. In 1809 their piracies compelled the Government of Bombay 
to capture their stronghold on the coast of Kirman, and in 1-81 1-1 8 the 
Sultan of Turkey beheaded their chief and reduced them to political 
insignificance. Their doctrines were introduced into India by Sayyid 
Ahmad Shah of Rai Bareli, originally a free-booter who, after a visit 
to Arabia, proceeded to the North- West Frontier, and there, in 1826, 
proclaimed a jihad, or religious war against the Sikhs. His extra- 
ordinary ascendency over the tribes of the Peshdwar Border and hia 
four years' struggle, not wholly unsuccessful, with the Durrani s on the 
one hand and on the other with the Sikhs, and his ultimate defeat and 
death are described in James' Settlement Rejwrt of Peshawar (pp. 
43-44) and more fully in Bellew's History of Yiisufzai (pp. 83—102). 
Patna is the head-quarters of the sect in India, but it has also colonies 
at Polosi on the Indus and at Sittana and Malka in Yusufzai beyond 

[For a general history of ' The Wahdbis in India ' see three articles in 
Selections from the Calcutta Review^ by E. J. O'Kinealy]. 

Ahl-i-Hdndd, [i) Indians: lit. * people of the Indians' (Hundd,'pl, of Hindi, 
Catafago's Arabic Dicty. 6-. v, Hunud) ; (m) Hindus, as opposed to 

AhLuwaLia, one of the Sikh vnials founded by Jassa Singh of Ahld, a 
village in Lahore, and now represented by the ruling family of 

AtiMADASi, one of the unorganised Baloch tribes found in the lowlands of 
Dera Ghdzi Khdn. 

AhmadzaI) one of the two main divisions of the Darwesh Khel Wazirs. 

Ahmadzai^'AkdU. 9 

Ahmadzai, Amazai, one of tho two principal clans of tlioUshtaraua Pa\.bdn8. 

AifUJA (I) a Jdt clan (agricultural), found in Multan. (2) Alsoa section of 
the Dahra Aroras. 

Ahulana, one of the two great dharras or factions of the Jiits found in 
Rohtak, etc. See Dahiya. 

Aibak, a small sept found at Wahind Sarmana near Kahror in Multin 
District which, despite its Turkish name, claims to bcloDg to tho 
Joiya tribe. 

AiNOKE, a Kharral clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

AiPANTHf, a follower of tho Aipanth, one of tho Jogi orders. It is found 
in Hissar and Mast Nath, founder of tho Bohar monastery in tho llohtak 
District, originally belonged to it. 

AiTLE, a sept or clan of Kanets found in the Kaljuii imrgand (Palidla 
(State territory), Simla Hills. 

AjAKi, ajjari, arydii, ayali, ajari/r. ajjar, herd, a goat-herd — in Rdwalpindi, 
Jholum, etc. In Jhelum, it is tho name of a sept of turbulent Awuus 
found in the village of Bhuchhal Kalan. 

Ajddhia-panthi, (t) a Hindu Vaishnava sect, so called because Riim Chandar 
lived in Ajudhia (Oudh) ; [ii) a Vaishnava. The latter is probably the 
only correct meaning. 

Aka Khel, one of the eight principal clans of the Afridis. 

Akali. The sect of the Akalis differs essentially from all the other Sikh 
orders in being a militant organization, corresponding to the Ndgas 
or Gosains among the Hindus. Their foundation is ascribed to (Juru 
Govind* himself, and they steadfastly opposed Baoda's attempted 
innovations. The term t is sometimes said to be derived from ahdll- 
jmrusha 'worshipper of tho Eternal.' But ahdl meaus ' deathless,' i.e., 
' God,' and Akdli is simply < God's worshipper.' The Akdlis wear blue 
chequered dresses,^ and bangles or bracelets of steel round their wrists, 
and quoits of steel in their lofty conical blue turbans, together with 
miniature daggers, knives, and an iron chain. § 

In their military capacity the Akalis were called Nihang, || or reckless, 
and played a considerable part in the Sikh history, forming the Shahids 

* Govind Singh, the tenth and last Gurii of the Sikhs, 1675—1708. 

t Murray's Hist, of the Panjab, i., p. 130 ; Cunningham's Hist, cf (he Sikhs, p. 117. 

J Malcolm points out that Krishna's elder brother, Bal Ram, wore blue clothes, whence ho 
is called Nilambari, or 'clad in dark blue,' and Sitivas, or 'the blue clad ' {Asiatick lie- 
searches xi, p. 221). 

§ Strict Akalis do not wear the jatd or top-knot, but some do. Those who do not only 
use 'dur and Inta' water and also smoke, which tho ./a/d wearers may not do. Others, 
again, wear a yellow turban beneath the blue one, so as to show a yellow band across tho 
forehead. The story goes that a Khatri of Delhi (Nand Lai, author of tlio Zi>id<i,jindmn) 
desired to see the Gurii in yellow, and Govind Singh gratified his wish. Many Sikhs wear tho 
yellow turban at tho Basant Panchmi. Acouplet erroneously ascribed to Bhai Gurdas says : 
Sidh, sufcd, jo ptihnc, 
8urk)i, zarddc, soi Giirbhdi. 

• They who wear dark blue (the Akalis), white (tho Nirmalas), red (the Udasi's), or yellow 
are all brothers in the Guru. ' 

II Ibbetson.§ 522. Cimningham (p. 379) says nihang.' naked ' or ' pure ' and it has that 
meaning litera lly (cf. Platts s. v.), but in Sikh parlance the word undoubtedly means 
' free from care,' * careless,' and so ' reckless.' In Hinduism it bears its original meaning. 

10 Akdli^'Akezai. 

or iirst of the i'our dehras. At the siege o£ Multan in 1818 a few 
A kill i fanatics'^ carried the faussebraye by surprise, and precipitated 
the fall of that fortress. The career of Phuld Singh illustrates 
both their defects and their qualities. This great Akali first came into 
notice as the leader of the attack on Metcalfe's escort at Amritsar in 
1809. lie was then employed by Ran jit Singh, who stood in consider- 
able awe of him, as a leader in the Indus valley, where he was guilty 
of atrocious cruelty towards the Muhammadan population, and ia 
Kashmir. Finally, Phula Singh and his Akdlis contributed to, or 
rather virtually won for Ranjit Singh, the great Sikh victory over the 
Yiisafzais at Teri in 1823. In this battle Phuld, Singh met with a 
heroic death, and his tomb at Naushahra is now an object of pilgrimage 
to Hindus and Muhammadans alike. 

Under Phula Singh's earlier leadership, and perhaps before his 
rise, the Akdlis had become a terror to friends and foes alike, and 
they were dreaded by the Sikh chiefs, from whom they often levied 
contributions by force. t Ranjit Singh, after 1823, did much to re- 
duce their power, and the order lost its importance. 

The Akdli headquarters were the Akal Bunga X at Amritsar, where 
they assumed the direction of religious ceremonies and the duty of 
convoking the Gurumat^; indeed, they laid claim to exercise a 
general leadership of the Khalsa. Since Ranjit Singh's time Anandpur 
has been their real headquarters, but their iufluence has to a large ex- 
tent passed away, and some of them have degenerated into mere 

As an order the Akdlis are celibate. They have, says Trumpp, no 
regular chief or disciple, yet one hears of their Gurus, whose leavings 
are eaten by their disciples {seivak or chela). They do not eat meat 
or drink spirits, as other Sikhs do, but consume inordinate quantities 
of hhang. 

LiTERATCRE.— The general histories of the Sikhs, see art. 'Sikh'; J.C.Oman, Mystics, 
Ascetics and Saints of India, London, 1903, pp. 153, 198 — 201 ; A. Barth, Beligions of India 

AsAZAi, (i) one of the principal branches of the Utmanzai Pathans, [ii) a 
Black Mountain tribe, a section of the Isazai clan of the Yusufzai 
Pathans, whose modern history is described in the Hazdra Gazetteer, 
1907, pp. 164—182. 

Akeke, an agricultural clan, found in Shahpur. 

Akezai, a Pathiin clan (agricultural), found in Montgomery. 

* They were headed by one Jassa Singh, called Mala ('rosary ') Singh, from his piety. 
' He denied himself the use of bhang, the only intoxicating drug in use among the Akalis. 
See Carmichael Smyth's Reigning Family of Lahore, p. 18S, Prinsep, On the Sikh Power in 
the Punjab, p. Ill, and Phoola Singh, the Akali, iu Carmichael Smyth, op. cit., pp. 1^5—192. 

t Contemporary writers had a low opinion of their character, e, g., Osbfrne describes 
their insolence and violence {Couri and Camp of Ranjit Singh, pp. 143—140, 1«1^ 

X One of the fakh/s or thrones, of the Sikhs, M'Gregor, Hisi. of the Sikhs, i. 238, says 
that on visiting the temple (sic) of the Akalis at Amritsar, the stranger piesents a few 
rupees and in return receives some sugar, while a small mirror is held before his face so 
as to reflect his image. This practice, if it ever eiisted, is now obsolete. 

4 -? 



r/.^-^ok. -^. =1'^ -< 6.^-^f.--t. < 

*' , 


^^•/.t..w/ ^^'>- 

AJchund KJiel^Ali Shcr KJicl H 

Akiiund Khel, tho section of the Painda Khel sept of tliQ Malizai Yufiufzai 
Patlijins to which tho Khi'in of Dir belongs. It occupies the lower part 
of the Kashkar (Dir) valley, in which lies tho village of Dfr. It owes; 
its uanio to tho fact that it was founded by ]\Iulla Iliils or Akhund 
Baba Avho acquired a sahitly^ reputation. [This Akhuud Babil is 
Bot to bo confused with tho Akhund of Swdt, who was born in 1784 
of Gdjar parents in Buner or Upper Swat and as Abd-ul-Ghafiir 
began life as a herd boy, but acquired the titles of A'khund and Buzuro" 
(saint) by his sanctity. He married a woman of the Nikbi Khel.] 

Akhundzada, or Pieza'da, a descendant of a saint of merely local or 
tribal reputation (as opposed to a Mian) among the Pathans of Swat 
and Dir. The descendants of Mulla Mushki Alam rank as A'khundzadas 
because ho held that rank, otherwise they would only bo Sahibz^das 
{q. v.). 

Akkdke, a Kharral clan (agricultural), found in Montgomery. Cf, Akiik. 

Ako Khel, sept of the Razzar clan of the Razzar Pathilns, found in 

Akoba, the branch of the Khattaks descended from Malik Akor, who found- 
ed Akora on the Kabul river in the Peslidwar District in the time of 
Akbar. The Akora or eastern faction of the Khattaks is opposed to 
the western or Teri party. 

Akra, a tribe (agricultural) found in Jlielum [Gr., p. 126]. 

Akozai Yusapzat, tlie tribe of Yusafzai Pathans which now holds Upper 
and Lower Swdt. Their septs hold this territory as follows, workino- 
upwards along the left bank of the Sw^t river : the Ranizai and Khsin 
Khel hold Lower Swd,t : while the Kuz-Sulizai (or lower Sulizai) compris- 
ing the Ala Khel, Musd, Khel and Babuzai ; and the Bar-Sulizai, com- 
prising the Matorizai, Azzi and Jinki Khels hold Upper Swat : Baizai 
is a generic term for all these septs except the Ranizai. Working down- 
wards on the right bank of the Swdt are the Shamizai, Sebujni, Nikbi 
Khel and Shamozai in Upper, and the Adinzai, Abazai and Khadakzai, 
all, except the two last-named, known collectively as Khwazozai, in 
Lower Swat. Tho Akozai also hold most of Dir, tho Painda Khel 
holding the left bank and tho Sultan Khel the right below Chutiatanr, 
while lower down the Sultau Khel holds both banks ; and below them 
again lie the Nasrudin Khel and the Ansa Khel. 

Akuke, a great ?ept of the Joiyas found in Montgomery and MuU;in, and 
also in Bahdwalpur State, in large numbers. 

Aldang, a sept of Kanetg found iu tho village of Labrang in Kanawar 
(in the Bashahr State). 

Aliani, one of the four clans of the Laghfirl tribe of tho Baloch. Tho chief 
of the Laghdris belongs to it. 

Ali Khanana, a clan of the Siiils : Chenab Colony Gazetteer, p. 54. 

Ali KheTv, an affiliated hamsdya or client clan of the Orakzai Path.^ns. 

Ali Sheb Khel, one of the four main clana of the Shinwari Pathiin.% when 
eastern sections are the Khuja or Khwaja, Rhekhmal, Ashn, Pirwal 
and Pisat. Other sections are th& Aotar or Watar and the Pakhcl. 

12 Alizai-^Ansari, 

Alizai, AllezAi, (1) ono of the five great clans of the Orakzai Pathdns. The 
name is now practically obsolete and the clansmen are known by the 
names of blieir sopfcs, e.g., Rturi, And and Tazi. The two last-named 
are Sliias, (2) a distinguished family in Multan (see Gazetteer 1902, 
p. 103). 

Allazai, ono of the principal branches of the Utmdnzai Pathflns. Of the 
three Utmi'mzai branches (Akazai, Allazai and Kanazai)the Allazai are 
most numerous in Hazdra and comprise three clans, Khushhdl-khdni, 
Sakl-kluini and Tarkbeli. The leading families are by clan Said- 
klutni, the most important being that of Klialdbat, of which Mirzamdn 
Khdn, Sir James Abbott's bravest a)id most loyal follower, was a 

Alpah, a Muhammadan Jdt clan (agricultural), found in Montgomery and 

Allahdadi, a Baloch clan (agricultural), found in Montgomery. 

Alpial, a tribe of Muhammadan Rajputs found in Rawalpindi where they 
hold the southern corner of the Fatah Jang tahsil. Their marriage 
ceremonies still bear traces of their Hindu origin, and they seem to 
have wandered through the Khushdb and Talagang country before 
settling in their present abodes. They ai'e "a bold lawless set of men 
of fine physique and much given to violent crime." 

Aluajia, a synonym for Kaldl [q. v.). 

A'luwala, i^LuwALiA, Aluwabi (see Ahluwdlid). 

Alwer, a Kharral clan (agricultural), found in Montgomery. 

'Alwi, (1) a Jat clan (agricultural), found in Multdn. (2) — or Alvi, a 
branch of the Khokhars which claimed descent from the Khalifa Ali 
and is found in Bahdwalpur, Multan, Muzaffargarh and Ludhidna. 

Amazai, a section of the Utmdnzai Yusufzai Pathans, lying north of the 
Utmdnzais. Their territory marches with the trans-Indus territory of 
the Tanawali Khdn of Amb. 

Amlawat, a tribe of Jdts claiming descent from Amla, a Rdjput : found in 

Amritsaria, a Sikh, especially one who worships at the Golden Temple 
in Amritsar. 

ANANDf, a title found among Sannidsis. 

Andar, a Pathdn sept, which occupies most of the district south of Ghazni 
in Afghanistan and is associated with the Musd Khel Kakar who are 
descended from an Andar woman. Probably Ghilzais. 

Andar, a Jdt clan (agricultural), found in Multdn. 

Andwal, a sept of the Dhund tribe, found in Hazdra. ^ 

Angar, Angra, an agricultural clan found in Shdhpur. Q '- .• •.• ^^.i : ,^p 

Ansari (pi. of nisdr, a helper),* lit. auxiliaries, was the title given to the 
believers of Madina who welcomed Muhammad after his flight from 

* Ansari appears to be really an adjectival form from amdr, pi. of nitir. 


if ' 


A^ /- <; 1, ^ 




V // 

On the 3rd. September 19^3 o^^ ^s-'i R^-J son of Pokhar 
■'■^ of T^ultan v/ho had turned faqir some 10 years ago and 

in:ui^^arated a religion which he termed Appa-panthi, 
-ied. His relatives and followers some ^COQ in numher 
Iressed his "body in silk clothes, placed some tiki on his 
'orehead, a garland round his neck and a tiladar (gold" 
.aced) cap on his head. They then placed his "body in a 
sitting position in a coffin and after carrying it round 
/:ie city, had it photographed. They then took it to the 
."iver arriving about 11 p..m., put it in the water, pro- 
-ceeded to cook and eat some halwa and finally returned 
•:ith the grave clothes and coffin. Besides these proceed 
•ings which were a.gainst the principles of Hinduism, they 
rmitted to perform that portion of tie funeral ceremony 
called the kirya karm . The Hindus were disgusted at these 
D"bsequies and wi^h the relatives and followers for tran- 
-grer-sir.--; ^11 the regular Hindu funeral rites. 

Ansdri-^Arain, 1 3 

Mecca,* and those ^vho claim descent from those men stylo themselves 
Ansdri. Ono of the most interestiuK Ansari families in the ]\injab Ib 
that of the Ansilri Shaikhs of Jullundur. It claims descent from 
Khalid ' Ansar' (Abii Ayub), who reoeivod Muhammad in his house at 
M ad ina, til rough Shaikhs Yusuf and Siraj-ud-din (Shaikh Darwesh). 
From the latter was descended the Pir Keshan, founder of the Koshanias. 
These Ansarifl are said by Raverty to be of Tajik extraction. They in- 
termarry with the Barkis or Barikkis of Jullundur who aro Path;ins. 

Ansari, a Jat clan (agricultural), found in Multan. 

Anuja, a Jii^ clan (agricultural), found in Multan. 

Anwal, a Jjit clan (agricultural), found in Multan. 

AoR-MAR, a tribe of Afghslna : see Urraur, 

ApA-PANTiif, possibly a follower of Padmakar Bhitt of Banda, a courHer of 
the Mahratta chief, the Apa Sdhib, and a worshipper of the Ganges. 
The sect is mainly found in Rohtak and Hiss.i.r. 

'Arab, a Jat clan (agricultural), found in Multan. [It is very doubtful if the 
Arabs of the Census returns are true Arabs, though there may be a few 
Arab merchants, etc., found occasionally at such centres as Peshdwar 
and Multan. It is possible that a certain number of Quresbis, Shaikhs 
and others return themselves as Arabs.] 

Aeain, Rain (the latter form prevails in the Jumna valley), is a term which 
has at least two distinct meanings : in the Sutlej valley and throughout 
the eastern plains the Arains form a true caste, but in all the rest of 
the two Provinces the term i^i applied to any market-gardener and is 
synonymous with Baghbdn, Mali, Maliar, and oven JiU in the South- 
Wesfe Punjab. We are now concerned with the Arains as a caste. 

Almost to a man Muhammadansand strongly inclined to orthodoxy, t 
the Arains claim to be immigrants from Uch and have some affinities with 
the Kambohs. On the other hand some of the Arain and Hindu Saini 
clan names are identical, and those not always merely names of other 
and dominant tribes. From Uch they migrated to Sirsa and thenco into 
the Punjab. 

In Sirsa the Sutlej Arains meet those of the Ghaggar. The two do 
not intermarry, but the Arains of the Ghaggar valley say they were 
Rajputs living on the Panjnad near Multdn who were ejected some 
four centuries ago by Saiyad Jakil-ul-diu of Uch. They claim some 
sort of connection with Jaisalmer. Till the great famines of 1759 
and 1783 A. D. they are said to have held all the lower valleys of the 
Choya and Ghaggar, but after the latter date the Bhattis harassed the 
Sumnis, the country became disturbed, and many of the Arains emi- 
grated across the Ganges and settled near Bareli and Rilmpur. They 
marry only with the Ghaggar and Bareli Arains. The Sutlej Arains 

* See Muir's Li/e of Muhammad, p. 188-89 (abridged edition). The viuhdjarin were the 
refugees who accompanied Muhammad, but the two names are sometimes confuwed. For 
further details see Tcmple'a Legends of the Punjab, III. The Saintu of Jalandhar and 
D. G. Barkley, in P. N. Q, II. 

t So much so that in Ambdia the Shaikhs, though really often identical with the Bains, 
arrogate to themselves a much higher place in the social scale. 

14 Arain groups, 

in Siraa say that they are, like the Arains of Lahore and Montgomery, 
connected by origin with the Hindu Kambohs. Mr. Wilson thinks it 
probable that both classes are really Kambohs who have become 
Mu sal mans, and that the Ghaggar Arain s emigrated in a body from 
Multan, while tlie others moved gradually up the Sutlej into their 
present place. He describes the Arains of the Ghaggar as the most 
advanced and civilised tribe in the Sirsa district, even surpassing the 
Sikh Jdts from Patidla ; and he considers them at least equal in social 
status with the Jd-ts, over whom they themselves claim superiority. 
The Arains of Ferozepore^ Ludhidna, Ambd,la and Hissar also trace 
their origin from Uch* or its neighbourhood, though the Hissar Arains 
are said to be merely Muhammadan Malis. 

On the whole it would appear probable that the Arains originally 
came from the lower Indus and spread up the five rivers of the Punjab; 
and that at an early stage in their history a section of them moved 
up the Ghaggar, perhaps then a permanent river flowing into the 
Indus, and there gained for themselves a position of some importance. 
As the Ghaggar dried up and the neighbouring country became more 
arid, they moved on into the Jumna districts and cis- Sutlej tract 
.srenerally, and perhaps spread along the foot of the hills across the 
line of movement of their brethren who where moving up the valleys 
of the larger rivers. Their alleged connection with the Malis is probably 
based only upon common occupation ; but there does seem some reason 
to think that they may perhaps be akin to the Kambohs, though the 
difference must be more than one of religion only, as many of the 
Kambohs are Musalm^n. 

In Amb^la the Rains are divided into two territorial groups, Mult^ni 
and Sirsawald. The former regard themselves as Shaikhs and will not 
intermarry with the latter. 

The sections of the Rains in JuUundur, in which District they form 
more than 19 per cent. o£ the population, and in Kapurthala are : — 

Adan, Sh^hpur. 

Arki, Sialkot. 

Bagga, GujrAt. 

Baghban, Bah^walpur, 


Bet or Bhat. 

Bhaddu, claiming to be Hindu 

Rajputs from the Deccan. 

Bhambhani, Dera Ghazi Khd,n. 
Bhatti, Dera Ghdzi Khiin and 

Bhutta, Bahd,walpur. 

Chdbe, Siiilkot. 

Chandor, Sialkot and Maler Kotla. 
Chanidl, Sialkot. 
Chandpal, Mdler Kotla. 

Chaughatta, Shahpur and Baha- 

Dhanjun, Bahawalpur. 
Dhenga, Mdler Kotla. 
Dhinga,! Sidlkot. 

* Possibly the persistence of the Uch tradition points rather to religious influence than to 
the place of origin. 

tThe Bot or But claim descent from Maluk (tutor of Jahangir !), who received a grant 
of land when Nurmahal was founded. 

:j: The Dhinga claim to be descendants of Fattu, son of Mitha, a Dhariw'41 Jat of Dhola 
Kangar. Fattu was converted to Islam in Akbar's reign. 

[ram origins. 


Dhofc, Baliawalpur. 


Gailana, claiming Hindu-Rajput 

Garhi, Gadhi 

Ghabar, Bahawalpur. 
Gher, Siiilkob. 
Ghiluj Sialkofc. 
Gilan, ]\Ialer Kotla. 
Gilin, Darbiih. 

Had wan i; in Uora Gliazi Klidn. 

Ja(n)jua,* Gujrjit. 
Jhanjhiina, in 8 hah pur. 
Jindran, Bahawalpur. 
Jiya, Bahawalpur. t 
Jutdla, Sid,lkot. 
Kamboh, Bahdwalpur. 
Khatura, (Katuri in Bahawalpur), 
Khuhara, Gujrtit. 
Khokhar, Gujrat, Shahpur and 

Kir, Siiilkot. 
Mahmania, SitUkot. 

]\[ctla, in Dcra Ghdzi Khan. 

]\lirok, BalKiwalpur. 

Nadhi, Bahawalpur. 

Nain, JMiilor Kotla. 

Naiii (Gujrat). 


Parj i. 

Pathan, also a Kamboh section, 


Kai or Rami. 

Sonkal, in Dcra Ghuzi Klu'ui. 
Salija, Bahawalpur. 

Sapal, in tSialkot. 
Siudhi, Bahawalpur. 
S oh and,. 

Tarar, in Gujrat. 
Thinda, Bahawalpur. 

Thanow, in Sialkot. 
Thekri, Bahawalpur. 
Waband in Gujrdt and Rawalpindi. 

In Gujrat the Wahand, Khokhar, Bagga and Nain do not intermarry 
with tho Kamboh and Khohara sections — whom they regard as 

The nucleus of this caste was probably a body of Hindu Saini or 
Kamboh cultivators who were converted to Isldm at an early period. 
Thus in Jullundur the Arains say they came from Sirsa, Rania and 
Dehli and claim descent from Rai Jaj (grandson of Lau, founder of 
Lahore), who ruled Sirsa: that they were converted in tho I2th 
century and migrated to the Jullundur Doab about 300 years ago. 
But the Bhuttaa claim descent from Raja, Bhiita, fifth in descent from 
Rdjji Karn and say they were forcibly converted even earlier— by 
Mahmud of Ghazni — and driven from Uch : — 

Uclih na dite Bhutidn cJiatd Basant! ndr, 
Dana, pdui, cJouJcgyd, cliahau vioti hdr. 

' The Bhutas neither surrendered Uch, nor tho lady Basanti, 
Food and water failed, and they had to eat pearls.' 

* Janjua claims to be descended from a Hindu Rijput of Pindi Bhattian. Mihr Uardana 
one of its ancestors, is said to liavc laid out the Shalimar Garden near Lahore. * 

t Said to be really Kambohs, not Arains. 


16 Arain^—Arord. 

Tlio Araios, apart from their orthodoxy, dlifcr little in their customs 
and dress from the Muhammadans generally. In Mnltan they prcicr the 
blue mnjJild or waistoloth to the white and those of one village (Jalla in 
Lodhran tahsil) are in consequence known as the nili imltan or ' blue 

Akaii. Arr, a tribe of Muhammadans of Jat status found in Dipdlpur tahsil, 
Montgomery District, where they are settled along the Lahore border on 
the upper course of the Khan wall canal. They claim Mughal descent, 
yet say ihey caiiie from Arabia, and are fairly good cultivators. Their 
ancestor came from Delhi, where he was in service 500 years ago, and 
settled in their present seat. By contracting marriages with J^ts they 
have sunk to J at status. In the Minchinabad nizdmat of Bahawalpur 
they are to be found intermarrying with, or giving daughters to, the 
Wattus. Also found in Shdhpur, and classed as agricultural in both 

Akbi a Muhammadan clan, said co be of Arabian origin, which was, in 
Mughal times, given several villages round Multan, but it has now to a 
large extent lost its hold of them. It is classed as Jiit (agricultural) 
both in Multan and Montgomery and is also found in the Ahmadpur 
East tahsil of Bahawalpur. 

Aek a tribe of Muhammadan J^ts, found in Jind, whose members ai 
said to still revere their jathera Sain Dd,s' shrine, and to give the 
dhidnis Re. 1 at weddings in hia name. 

Arke an Arain clan (agricultural), found in Amritsar. 

Arora, or Rora as it is often pronounced, is the leading caste par 
excellence of the Jatki-speaking, or south-western part of the Punjab, 
i.e. of the lower reaches of the five rivers and, below their junction, of 
the Panjnad, extending through Bahawalpur into Sind. Higher up 
the courses of the five rivers the Arora shares that position with the 
Khattri. The caste is wider spread and far more numerous than the 
Bhdtia, but fully half the Arords of the Punjab dwell in the Multan 
division and the Deraj^t ; though the caste is found, like the Khattri, 
throughout Afghanistan and even Turkestan. Like the Khattri again, 
but unlike the Bania, the Arord. is no mere trader, but will turn his 
hand to anything. He is an admiratble cultivator, and a large 
proportion of the Aroras on the lower Chenab are purely agricultural, 
while in the Western Punjab he will sew clothes, weave matting and 
baskets, make vessels of brass and copper, and do goldsmith's work. 
Despite his inferior physique, he is active and enterprising, industrious 
and thrifty. "When an Arora girds up his loins (says a Jhang 
proverb), ho makes it only two miles to Lahore.""^ 

In Bahawalpur the Aroras are very numerous and have the whole 
of its trade in their hands, dealing in every commodity, and even 
selling shoes and vegetables. Some are contractors, hankers or money- 
lenders, and in the latter capacity they have now acquired a considerable 
amount of land by mortgage or purchase from Muhammadan owners. 

* A variant of this proverb current in Gujrinwala is Lak badha Aroridn, te munna 
koh Lahor—' if the Aroras gird up their loins, they make it only three-fouiths of a kos to 



JZ c 

^ ^t^cV 

Arora groups', 17 

thougli 40 or 50 years ago they did not own an acre of cultivated land. 
In the service of the State more Arords than Mubummadans are 
employed, though the latter are nearly Hix times as namerous as the 
former. As several land-owning families have been ruined in their 
dealings with Arords such sayings^ as Kirdr howl yur, dusJiman dhdr 
na dhdr, " he who has a Kirar for a friend, needs not aD enemy," are 
current in the State. t 

By religion the great majority of the Aroras are Hindus, but a good 
many are Sikhs. 

Asa body the Arords claim to be Khattrig and say that like them 
they were dispersed by Paras Rdm. Folk etymology indeed avers that 
when so persecuted they denied their caste and described it as a7cr 
or 'other,' whence 'Arora'; but another tradition, current in Gujrat, 
Fays they were driven by Paras Rilm towards Multiin near which tboy 
founded Arorkot. Cursed by a faqir the town became desolate and 
the Arorfis fled by its three gates, on the North, South and "West, 
whence the three main groups into which they are now divided. But 
certain sections claim a different origin. The ruins of Arorkot are 
said to be near Rohri in Sindh.J 

The Arora caste is organised in a very similar way to theKhattris. 
Its primary divisions are the genealogical sections, as in all Hindu 
castes, but it has three or four territorial groups : — 

1. Uttarddhi, Northern. 

2. Dakhana or Dakhanadhain, Southern. 1 Sometimes classed as 

3. Dahrd, Western. | one group. 

4. Sindhi, of Sindh. 

Numbers 2 and 3 intermarry in some parts, bnt not in others. In 
Jhang they do not, but in Fazilka they are said to have begun to 
do so. The probability is that the Dakhand still take wives from the 
Dahnl group, as they used to do.§ 

The Uttaradhi sub-caste appears to be absolutely endogamoua east 
of the Indus, except in Bahdwalpur where it takes wives from the 
other three groups : in Hazara whore it occasionally takes them from 

* Kirir, a term applied by Muhammadans to any Hindu shoj -keeper or trader, is by no 
means equivalent to Arora, see s. n. Kirar. 

t The justice of Iho above quotation from the draft Gazettcpr of the Bnhawalpur State 
is disputed, and it is pointed out that the earlier Daudpotra rulers of Bah4walpur employed 
Arovas in positions of trust, and even appointed them to semimilitary office as Uakhsliis or 
paymasters. At present the Aroj-as are losing ground, especially in the liigher grades of the 
State service. 

X A correspondent, referring to the Arorham AoU, an Urdu pamphlet published by the 
Khatri Samachar Prps3, Lahore, edds some interesting details. The pamphlet appears to be 
based in a History of the Arorbans inNaprri and the Bhu Sufr (Oricin of the World) Punln. 
In the latter is piven a dialogue between Parasu Rama and Art, a Khatri, in wliich the latter 
stoutly refuses to oppose the Brahmans and wins Parasu Kama's respect, being advJRed by him 
to settle in Sindh. The pamphlet also ascribes a sectarian origin to the Arora proups. and 
declares that in 10.5 Vikrami social dissensions arose at Arorkot among the Aroras, so their 
purohit Gosain Sidh Bhoj convened a meetiner at which the upholders of the old customs sat 
to the north, the reformers to the south and the moderates or neutrals to the west. 
Accordingly the North of Arorkot. was assigned to the conservatives and the South to 
both the other parties, a fact which explains why the Dakhauis and Dahras are sometimes 
regarded as one and the same. 

§ Punjab Census Report, 1883, § 514. 

13 Arom traditions, 

tho Dahriis or Daklmnda on payment but not by exchange ; and in 
Fero/oporo where it takes from the Dahras.* 

The Uttarailhi alone seem, as a rule, to have the Bdri-Bunidbi 
divisions. The B6ri group consists of 12 sections, thus— 

Suh-group (i). 










Suh-group {it). 
1 7. 





Mdtiak Tahle. 

Suh-group (m) 



And of these numbers 1-7 intermarry, but will only take wives from 
numbers 8-12, and there is a further tendency on the part of numbers 
1-5 to discontinue giving daughters to numbers 6 and 7. In the 
south-east of the Punjab the Bdri and Bunjahi groups exist both 
among the Northern and Southern Arords.t 

A list of the Arord gats or sections will be found in Appendix I to this 

There are a few sections, e.g., Sachdeo, Lund, Bazaz and others, 
which are found in more than one of the territorial groups. The Sethi 
section may possibly be the same as the Seth or Sethi Section of the 
Khattris. The Rassewat or ropemakers are clearly by origin an occupa- 
tional section like the Bazdz or clothiers. 

The names ending in jd are beyond all question patronymics. Others 
such as Budhraja or Bodhrdji suggest a religious origin. 

The Gosain Mule-santie claim to be descendants of a Gaur Brahman 
who came to the Jhang District and assumed the name of the Guruwdrd 
section, but became a devotee or gosain who made converts. 

Other sections have various traditions as to their origins : Thus the 
Ndrangs say they were originally Raghbansis who denied their race 
when Paras Ram destroyed the Khattris, with the words nd rag, ' No 
RaghbanBi.' Ndrag became Narang. The Chikur, a sub-section of the 
Sachdeos are so called because on a marriage in that section sweet- 
meats were as plentiful as mud (chikur). Naruld is derived from wirdZa, 
* unique,' because once a snake got into the churn when a woman was 
making butter, so the men of this section never churn, though its 
women may. 

The Gogias or Gogas have a saying : 

Khat khuh, hhar pdni, Tan tani parsing Gogidni.' 

i.e., they say to a would-be son-in-law: 

' Dig a well and fill it with water. Then marry a Gogiani. 

* Trans-Indus Captain O'Brien notes a solitary case of a girl of the Jam section (Uttari- 
dhi) being given to a Kumbhar (Dakhana). 
jSirsa Settlement Report, 1884, p. 114. 

Arora totem sections. 


As in other castes some sections of the Arojas are credited wita 
inherited curative powers. Thus the Dalewdnia of Janipur can cure 
hydrophobia by spitting on a httle earth and applyin<j it to the bite. 
This power was conferred on their forbears by the blessinr^ of their 
'pir, tho saint of Daira Din Pand-h. The Duds^ have an inherited power 
of curing a sprain in the back or loins by touching the part affected. 
The pain called chuk may also be cured by this section which uses tho 
following charm: — 'Dun, sith bdri, i^Jmlon hhari dari, hhannv chit 
(waist) karcndd sari.' The charm is read over a cloth and this is then 
applied thrice to the part, a push being finally given to it to expel 
the pain. The power was conferred on Seth Hari, the ancestor of 
tho section, by faqirs. It is also said to be essential that the patient 
should go straight home without looking back. The power is exercised 

A man of tho Chugh got can cure chuh or pain in tho loinst by 
pushing tho sufferer from behind. If a Chugh is not on band, it in 
sufficient to go to his house and rub one's back against the wall. 
Chugh may bo derived from chuk, because the tribe has this power, 
but perhaps the idea is simply that a Chugh has power over chuk. It 
can also be cured by a family of Dhingr^ Arords of Bajanpur who 
apply a part of their clothing to the part affected and push the 
patient thrice, or if none of them are present their house- wall is as 
efficacious as a Chugh. 

Several Arora sections are named after animals such as : — 

Babbar (? 1) in Montgomery. 

Chutdni,t bat. 

Gaba, calf. 

Ghira, dove, Montgomery and 

Giddar, jackal. 

Ghord, horse, Dora Ismail Khan. 

Hans, goose, Montgomery. 

Kukar,§ Kukkar, cock, Mont- 
gomery, Multan and Hissar. 

Kukreja, cockerell, Dera Ismail 

Lumar, fox, Montgomery. 

Machhar, mosquito, Gujrat. 

Makkar, locust, Gujrat. 

Menddi (?) ram or Mindhd, long- 
haired, Montgomery. 

Nangidl, snake, Dora Ismail 

Nag-pdl, Nang-pdl.II 


(?) Sipra, a serpent. 

Other sections are named from pla)its, etc., and are perhaps more 
likely to be totemistic. Such are :— 

ChdwaM, rice. 

Gerd, said to avoid the use of 

ochre, gerii, (in Dera lemail 

Gheia, fr. ghi, clarified butter. 

Jandwdni, named after the j and 
tree in Dera Ismail Khan. 

Kasturia, said to avoid tho use of 
musk, kadilri, (Dora Ismail 

* In Hissar this section of the Aroras may not wear blue Unghd (trousers). 

t A child born feet foremost can euro pain in the loins by kicking the part alTcctecI; 

t Chutini, bat : a child was once attacked by bats, which, however, left him uninjured. 
The section worships bats' nests (chnruchitti) at marriages. 

§ The Kukar will not eat fowls, but most Hindus have a prejudice against them as food 
and in this very caste the Mchndiratta have for the last 12 or 14 years refused to eat them 

II Nangpal does not appear to mean ' snake,' but protector or raiser of snakes. 

25 Arom customs. 

Mnngi, a kind of tree (Hissar). 
Pabreja, a kind of plant (Multdn) 
Rihdni,§ basil. 
Siiwi-buti, green-herb. 
Sel4ni(?), piiml tree, Dera Ismail 

Taneja,II a kind of grass, tiran 

(Multan and Montgomery). 

Katbpill, wood or timber (Mont- 
gomery) . 

Kati'iria * dagger (Multan). 

Khani-jau, Ijarlcy-oater. 

Lot/i, a vessel. t 

Manak-tahlia : said, in Hissdr, to 
reverence the tdhli or shisham 

Mehndirattd,t henna : (Mont- 
gomery and Multiin). 
Tareja, tarri, ' a gourd ' : their ancestor once had to conceal himself 

among gourds, and they do not eat gourds. 

Veh-khani, Vid-khd,m poison-eater : fr. veh or viit, 'poison ', in the 

Sindhi dialect as spoken in Bahawalpur. Possibly arsenic is meant. 
With regard to the sections mentioned as existing in Dera Isnaail 

Khan, it is distinctly said that each shows reverence to the animal 

or plant after which it is named, thinking it sacred. The animal is 

fed, and the plant not cut or injured. The Chdwal^s, however, do not 

abstain from using rice, or show it any respect. 

The women of the Uttarddhi group wear red ivory bracelets (and 

affect red petticoats with a red border, in Ferozepore), whence this 

group is styled Ldlchuriwdld, 

The Dakhand women wear white ivory bracelets (and also affect 

red petticoats, the lower part 'laced ' with hlacJc^), 

By gotra the Aroras, in Gujrat at least, are said to bo Kushal, but 
their real gotra appears to be Kasib, ? Kishab or Keshav. 

At weddings the Uttarddhis in Ferozepore are said to have a distinc- 
tive custom in the do rate phere, i.e., the boy's party must reach the 
bride's house on the afternoon of the 5th if the date fixed be the 6th 
or night of the 7th and the viilni must be on the 5th-6th. Dakhnds 
and Dahras must on the other hand arrive before or on the afternoon 
of the 6th and if the lagan be fixed for an early hour on the 6th the 
bridegroom and a Brahman go in advance for that ceremony, the 
wedding-party following so as to arrive in the afternoon. 

Widow marriage** is in theory reprobated, but in practice tolerated 
among the Aroras, and in the south-west of the Punjab it is often 

* This section has a legend that a dagger fell from a wall amongst a number of children 
who were playing beneath it, but did not hurt them. Hence the section became known as 
Kataria, and worships the dagger, putting flowers before it at marriages. 

t Declare they milked a cow into a lotd and presented it to their guru. 

X The Mehndiratta in Multan abstain from the use of henna, but so do other Hindus. 

§ Because one of its members once received a faqir cordially, and the faqir blessed him 
saying he should prosper like basil {rihdni). 

II In Multan the Tanejas abstain from eating tarli (gourd) : or at least their women do, in 
Montgomery. The Tanejas of Jhang say tdey are Khattris and that their ancestor instead 
of employing his own purohit called in some other Brahman and seated him on a kind of 
grass called tiran, whence came the name Taneja. 

^ Dahra women are said to have red petticoats with a green border. These refined distinc- 
tions may possibly be observed in Ferozepore, but they are not general. It is also said 
that in some places Dahra women alone wear white, and Dakhanas spotted bracelets of both 

**• In Muzafiargarh widow re-marriage is not approved, and a couple who marry in 
defiance of the prejudice against it are called kachchrd, i, e., mulish or wicked. 

Arora — Arya Samdj. 2l 

Holemnized by tho couple going out and circumambulating burning 
reeds. The Brahmans recognise widow marriage and assist at it, in 
fact if it is solemnised without a Brahman, people refrain from eating 
or drinking with the couple for a short time. 

The customary law of the Aroras differs both from Hindu Law and 
the ordinary Punjab Custom. In its main features it resembles that 
of the Hindus generally in the south-west Punjab, and one of its 
distinctive features is tho 6'au"ai, an extra quarter share which <''oes to 
the eldest son. Many Arord sections allow sons by the wife of 
another caste provided she was married as a virgin, not as a widow 
one-third of their father^s property, two-thirds going to tho sons by 
the other (Arora) wife. The position of daughters and sisters is more 
favourable than it usually is among Hindus under the Punjab Custom.* 

Aewal, a Jat tribe, found in the Sangarh tahsil of Dera Ghdzi Khdn Dis- 
trict. Fiike the Manjothas and Sanghis it follows the Baloch customs 
in all matters connected with marriage, etc., thus differing from nearly 
all the other Jat tribes of that tahsil. Also found in Multau, where it 
is classed as agricultural. 

AryX, a Jiit clan (agricultural) found in Multilu. 

AiiYA Samaj. — By far the most important modern Hindu sect in the Punjab, 
the Arya Samaj was founded about 1847 by Paudit Dayanand JSaras- 
wati, a Brahman of Kathiawar. Born in 1824, Uayanand had an 
equal aversion to idolatry and marriage, and aftei- profound researches 
in Sanskritic lore ha founded a samdj or union at Lahore soon after 
1847 — and subsequently in the rest of the Punjab. The latter 
part of his life was spent in travels in the Unitca Provinces and 
Kajputana. His attacks on existing Hinduism roused great antagonism. 
He insisted on a special interpretation of the Vedas and left behind him 
several works such as the Vede Bhdtshya, or translation of the Vedas, 
the SatydHh Frahash in which tho Arya religion is contrasted with 
others, and the Bhumka, an introduction to the study of the Vedas. 

" The Arya or ' Vedic' religion", writes Mr. Maclagan," is primarily 
the outcome of the solvent action of natural science on modern 
Hinduism. Tho members of tho Arya Samaj find the fantastical 
representations of the world and of man which are put forward in the 
eighteen Puriinas to be inconsistent with natural science, and so reject 
their authority, looking on them as the outcome of the ignorance and 
craft of comparatively recent generations of Brahmans. The original 
and only authoritative scriptures in the eyes of the Arya kSamaj are 
the four Vedas, and its professed aim is to restore the paramount 
authority of the Vedas by purging away subsequent accretions. Scrip- 
tures more recent than the Vedas and anterior to the Puranas (such 
as the Brahmaniis, the six philosophic Darshanas, the ten Upanishads, 
etc.), are regarded OS explanatory of the Vedas and authoritative only 
where they are not contradictory thereto. The Vedas themselves con- 
stitute the only infallible revelation. — 'The Vedas', wrote Dayanand, 

* are revealed by God. 1 regard them as self-evident truth, admitting 
of no doubt and depending on the authority of no other book, being 

* F unjab Customary Laiv, XVIII, pp. vii, ix, xvii, cf. also Introd., p. 8. 

22 Arya Samdj doctrines. 

reprosontod in nature, the kingdom of God.' The bases of the Aryan 
I'aith are the revelation of God in the Vedas and in Nature, and the first 
pructicul element in this belief is the interpretation of the Vedas in 
conformity with the proved results of natural science. 

In the interpretation of the Vedas the Arya Sani^j finds itself at 
issue with the Sanskritists of Europe, whose translations represem 
the Vedaa as the religious literature ot a primitive people and, like the 
literature of other primitive peoples, quite regardless of, and inconsist- 
ent with, scientific accuracy. The Aryas contend that such a view 
arises from a mistaken literal translation of their scriptures, and that 
the earlier, and consequently more trustworthy, commentators having 
always refused to construe the Vedas in their literal sense, it is a 
mistaken view to suppose that they were originally composed with 
any meaning other than a metaphorical or derived one. FolloAving 
these principles, the Samdj not only defends the Vedic rishis from all 
imputations of pantheism and polytheism, but finds in their writings 
numerous indications of an accurate acquaintance with the facts of 
science. It holds that cremation, vegetarianism, and abstinence from 
spirituous liquors are inculcated by the Vedas, and inculcated to a 
laro-e extent on purely scientific grounds. It l)olds that the great 
relio"iousrite of Vedic times, the agnihotra or homa sacrifice, is instituted 
with a view to rendering air and water wholesome and subservient to 
health, and because ' it plays a prominent part in putting a atop to 
the prevalence of epidemics and the scarcity of rainfall.' It is con- 
Tinced that the latest discoveries of science, such as those of electricity 
and evolution, were perfectly well known to the seers who were in- 
spired to write the Vedas. 

"While conceding this much to modern natural science, the Aryas 
refuse to see in it anything tending to materialism or atheism. Retain- 
ino- their confidence in the Vedas, they have avoided the radical 
materialism of some of the earlier opponents of popular Hinduism. 
The Arya philosophy is orthodox, and based mainly on the Upanishads. 
The tenets of Daydnand, though leaning rather to the Shankya doc- 
trine, do not fit in precisely with any one of the six orthodox systems ; 
but these systems are all regarded by the Aryas as true and as differ- 
ent aspects of the same principles. The three entities of Dayanand's 
philosophy are God, the Soul and praJcriti or Matter. Soul he regarded 
as physically distinct from God, but related to Him as the contained 
to the container, the contemplated to the contemplator, the son to the 
father. Soul enters into all animals and there are indications of soul 
in the vegetable kingdom also. In most of its details the Aryan system 
retains the terminology of the traditional philosophy of Hinduism. 
It maintains above all things the law of metempsychosis and places 
the aim of virtue in escape from the law ; but this moksh or beatitude 
is for an era {kalp) only, after the termination of which the soul 
resumes its wanderings. The localization of the Hindu paradises, 
Parlok and Swarg, is rejected : heaven and hell lie in the pleasures and 
sorrows of the feoul, whether these be in this life or in the life to come. 

As a consequence of this doctrine it holds the futility of rites on 
behalf of the dead, and by this cuts at the root of that great Hindu 
inBtitutioD, the srdddh. Like other Hindus the Aryaa burn the dead, 

Arya Samdj aims. 23 

but for alleged sanitary reasons they employ spices for the hurninf^. 
At first they took the q^hul to the Gant^pR, but now thoy cast it into 
the nearest stream : tliey do not call in the Acluiraj, and they omit all 
the ceremonies of the kiryaharm. At marriage thoy ^o round the 
sacred fire and walk the seven steps like the Hindus, but omit the 
worship of Ganesh. They generally employ Brahmans at wedding^s, 
but in several known instances these have been dispensed with. The 
Sami'ij finds an efficacy in prayer {prdrthana) and worship (iijxjftnd) ; 
but it greatly limits the number of ceremonies to which it accedes any 
meritorious powers. It discourages entirely the practice of bathing in 
sacred streams, pilgrimages, the u«se of beads, and sandal-wooi marks, 
gifts to worthless mendicants, and all the thousand rifos of popular 
Hinduism. Only those rites (sanskdra-t) are to bo observed which 
find authority in the Vedas, and those are IG in number only. Ido- 
latry and all its attendant ceremonies have, according to tho Aryas, no 
basis in the Vedas and no place in true religion. Ri'im, Krishna and 
other objects of popular adoration are treated euhemeristically as pious 
or powerful princes of the olden time; and in their salutation to each 
other the Arj^as substitute the word 'Namasto' for the ^ Kitm Ram' 
of the vulgar. 

Social and political aims of the Samdj. — The Aryas are careful to 
defend their religion from a charge of novelty : thoy regard it as a revival 
of an old and forgotten faith, the decay of which Avas due mainly to tho 
Brahmans. The Arya theory of to-day is that the real Brahman is one 
who is a Brahman in the heart ; tliat the Vedas are not con6ncd to one 
class ; and that all castes are equal before God. It is careful, however, to 
accept the existence of the four castes of ancient Hinduism : it retains the 
sacred thread for the three superior castes, and by implication debHrs 
the Sudras from some of tho privileges of the twice-born. In practice 
no Arya will marry with another caste or cat with men of another caste. 
The sect being almost entirely composed of educated men and being 
based on theories unfitted to the understanding of the lower castes, tho 
right of Chuhras and tho like to join its ranks has not, I understand, 
been put to the test. But the Samdj is said to have been successful in 
receiving back into Hind n ism persons converted to Christianity or 
Muhammadanism and in reinstating such persons in caste. Tlie Aryas 
do not regard the cow as a sacred animal, but follow Hindu prejudice 
in considering the slaughter of a cow more heinous than that of other 
animals : and in the anti-cow-killing movement the Samaj was to some 
extent identified with the movement, though less so in the Punjab than 
in the United Provinces. In other respects the social programme of the 
Sam/ij is liberal and anti-popular in the extreme. It sets its face 
against child-marriage and it encourages the reman'iago of widows. It 
busies itself with female education, with orphanages and schools, dis- 
pensaries and public libraries, and philanthropic institutions of all sorts. 

The Arya doctrines have been formulated in a series of ten somewhat 
wide propositions, and any person professing belief in tho funda- 
mental principles of the Samilj is elieible for membership, and may, 
after probatiorj, be admitted as a full member and obtain a vote in tho 
affairs of the society. Weekly meetings are held — generally on Sun- 
days, so asi to admit of the presence of Government servants and 

24 Arya Samdj^Aujla, 

ploaclers— ^vitli prayers, lectures on the Vodas and other subjects, 
hymns sung on the S:ima Veda system, and other miscellaneous pro- 
ceedings. At an annual meeting, a report is read and an Executive 
Committee with office-bearers appointed. Each local Samd,j is inde- 
pendent of the others : but a considerable number of the local Samdjea 
have voluntarily submitted to the ParopaHrini Sabha op Provincial 
Committee, which in a general way supervises the local centres and 
arranges for the duo provision of Upadeshaks or missionaries. The Arya 
Samtij, though paying extreme reverence to the memory of Sw^rai 
Daydnand, refuses to look on him or any one else as an infallible 
Guru ; and in the absence of any central control exercised by an 
individual, the organization above described has been very instru- 
mental in keeping the society together and preventing so far any 
serious schism in its ranks. A still more marked influence is un- 
doubtedly exercised by the Dayanand Anglo-Vedic College, which 
was founded in Lahore some time ago and has been conducted entirely 
on Aryan lines. The College, while preparing students in the ordinary 
subjects with considerable success for the university examinations, pays 
special attention to instruction in Sanskrit and Hindi, and imparts a 
certain amount of religious training by the institutions of morning and 
evening prayer in the boarding houses, and by the reading of extract3 
from the 8atydrth PraMsh." 

The above quotations show how inadequately the Arya Samdj is 
described as a sect. Since they were penned, in 1891, the Samdj has 
been divided on the question of the lawfulness or otherwise of 
animal foods and two parties have been formed, one the vegetarian 
or Mahatma, the other the flesh-eating or ' cultured.* The former is, 
however, by no means narrow in its views, for it favours female educa- 
tion. The latter holds possession of the Dayanand College and is 
thence also called the Anarkalli or College party as opposed to the 
vegetarian or City party. 

AsANDAEi, syn. matddrl, a degree or order of the Gosains- The term is 
applied to those settled in mats, as opposed to ahdhut. 

AsAR, Asra, JiU clans (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

AsiAL, a clan of the Manj Bajputs. 

Asra, see Asar. 

AsRAM, a title found among Sannidsfs. 

AsTAWAR, a title found among Sannidsis. 

Athangal, a Jd.t clan (agricultural) found in the south of Multdn tahsil, 
where it settled from Jammu in Mughal times. 

Attar, a dispensing drusrgist. "You get the drugs from the fanmri, and 
take them to the attar to make up. He also roakeo nrah and sherbets. 
He no longer makes itr (otto) which is only made by the gcindi or 
perfumer." [D. C. J. L]. 

AughaN, Aghwan, synonyms for Afghdn, {q. v.). 

Adjla, a tribe of Jdts descended from their eponym a Hajual Rdjput and 
found in vSinlkot : also found in Montgomery where thny are Muhamma- 
dans and classed as agricultural. 

— ^ / •/ / / / 

AulaJch — Avoan, .25 

AuLAKff, Aurak, a Jdt tribe, whose head-quarters would appear to be in the 
Amritsar district, where they own a 6dra/i of, originally, 12 villages, but 
they are found in the northern Mdhva, as well as in the Mdnjha. 
They are said to be of Solur descent, and their ancestor Aulakh lived 
in the Mcinjha. But another story maizes their ancestor one Kaia Lui 
Ldk, a Lunar Kdjput. They are related to the Sekhu and Deo tribes 
with whom they will not intermarry. 

In Amritsar they give the following pedigr(^e :-— 

Ram C bandar 






Ude Rup 








This would make them akin to t'le Punnun. They are also found as 
a Jdt (agricultural) tribe west of the Rdvi as far aa Leiah. In Mont- 
gomery they are both Hindu and Muhammadan. The Muhammadan 
Aulakh of Leiah have a curious tale. Complaint was made to Uumdyun 
that Pir Muhammad Rajan drank hhang, in defiance of the Quranic 
prohibition. So the emperor summoned the saiut to Delhi and made 
him walk along a narrow path beset with poitioned swords, while a 
ferocious elephant pursued him. But as he walked the steel turned to 
water and one of his disciples killed the elephant with a single blow of 
his staff. Among the courtiers was Rdja Aulakh, a Punwar Rdjput, 
who at once embraced Islam. The saint returned to Kdjanpur, and 
Aulakh followed him, conquered the country from the Balun tribe and 
gave it to the Pirs, on whom the emperor also conferred it in jdgir, 
though the Aulakh continued to administer it until about 175 years 
ago, when their power declined. 

AuRAK, see Aulakh. 

Adre, an agricultural clan found in Shdhpur. 

Adrakzai, a branch of the Afridis in Tirdh. See Orakzai. 

AwAN. — The Awans are an important tribe, exclusively Muharamadnn, 
chieOy foun<l in the Salt Range, where they posnesa an Awilnkari,* but 
also widely spread to the east, south and west of that tract. Extend- 

* There is also an Awank«ri in Jiillundur : Purser's S. R , § 42. And in Hoshiarpur 
the Awins hold a bdra in the Dasuya pargana on the high level plain near Mukerian 
P. N. Q. I., § 465. 

25 Awdn origins. 

ing along the whole length of the Range from Jhelum to the Indus, 
they art) found in great numbers throughout the whole country be- 
yond it up to tho foot, of the Sulemtlos and the Safed Koh* ; though 
in traus-Indua Bannu they partly, and in Dera Ismail Khdn wholly, 
merge in the JjUs, a term which in those pg-rts means little more 
than a nondescript peasant. In Peshdwar the Awd,ns are included 
in the hamsdya or faqir class. In Kohd,t towards Khushalgarh they 
resemble the Awaus of the Salt Range, but elsewhere in that District 
2b'c are hardly distinguishable from the Bangash and Nid,zais among 
whom they live. 

The independent possessions of the Awdns in the Salt Range 
were once very considerable, and in its western and central portion 
they are still the dominant race. As a dominant tribe the eastern 
limits of their position conicide approximately with the western 
border of the Chakwdl and Find Dddan Khdn tahsils, but they have 
also spread eastwards along the foot of the hills as far as the 
Sutlej, and southwards down that river valley into Multd^n and Jhang. 
They formerly held all the plain country at the foot of the western 
Salt Range, but have been gradually driven up into the hills by 
Pathdns advancing from the Indus, and Tiwanas from the Jhelum. 

The word Awd,u is not unplausibly derived from Ahwan, 'helper,'t 
but various explanations of its origin are given. According to one 
tradition the Awans, who claim Arab origin, are descendants of Qutb 
Shdh, himself descended from AH, and were attached to the Mu- 
hammadan armies which invaded India as ' auxiliaries,'! whence their 
name. In Kapurthald a more precise vt-rsion of their legend makes 
them Alwi Sayyids, who oppressed by the Abba^sides, sought refuge 
in Sindh ; and eventually allied themselves with Sabuktagin, who 
bestowed on them the title of Awdn. But in the best available account 
of the tribe§ the Awdns are indeed said to be of Arabian ongin and 
descendants of Qutb Shah, but he is said to have ruled Herat and 
to have joined Mahraud of Ghazni when he invaded India. With 
him came six of his many sons : Gauhar Shdh or Gorrara, who settled 
near Sakesar .• Kalan Shdh or Kalgan who settled at Dhankot 
(Kdlabdgh) : Chauhan who colonised the hills near the Indu8|| : Khokhar 
or Muhammad Shah who settled on the Chenab: ToriT[ and Jhajh 
whose descendants are said to be still found in Tirdh and elsewhere. 

* Raverty says 'Awan-kirs' held the Karwin darra in Kurram, but none appear to be 
found now in the Kurram Valley : Notes, p. 82. 

I Another tradition is that when Zuhair went forth to fight with Hasan, he left his wife, 
then pregnant, with Zain-ul-abidaia in amdn or ' trust,' whence her son's descendants are 

■ called Awan. A curious variant of this appears in Talagang where it is said that Qutb 
Shah's descendant having lost all his sons was bidden by a saint to place his next born son 
in a potter's kiln 'on trust'. He did so, and after the kiln had been burnt the child was 
taken out alive. 

^ For Awan as equivalent to Auxiliary we may compare euergetai : McCrindle's Ancient 
Indt>, p. 38 

§ By Mr. W. S. Talbot in the Thelum Gazetteer, 1905, pp. 102— 104. He disposes of 
Cunningham's theory that Janju^s and A.w»ns were within historical times one race : (Arch. 
Survey Reports. II 17 fE ) : and of Brandreth's theory that the Awans, though recent immi- 
grants into the Punjab, are descended from Bactrian Greeks. Mr. Talbot also mentions the 
Gangs and Munds who are generally reckoned as Awans, but who are probably only 
affiliated indigenous clans, 

II One of his descendants waa Khattar, founder of the Khattara of Attock, 

^ Tossibly Tuii is meant, and the Kurram Valley is referred to as their; locality. 



i*^ ^*.l 

.r /f i^. /f. 


Z L 

<.^ 6'' n /Cl^^^':^Ai ^ /f^ '-^-/^ A • -^ ^ -M 

Awdn groups. 27 

The originally Hindu character of these names is patent, and not 
explained away by the tradition that Chauhan and Khokhar took their 
mother's name. 

In Gujrdt tradition gives Qutb Shah three wives, from whom pprang 
the Khokhars and the four muhins or clans of the Awans. By Barth, 
his first wife, he had a son named Khokhar : by Sahd, he had Khurara 
or Gurara : and by Fateh Khatuu, three sous — Kalgdn, Chauh^a and 

These four clans are again divided into numerous septs, often bear- 
ing eponymous namt^s, hut sometimes the names of Guiar, Jdt and 
other tribal septs appear. Thus in Si^lkot^ the Awans are said to 
be divided into 24 muhins. But in Gujr^t the Khurara clan comprises 
21 sub-divisions, including such names as Jdlap and Bhakri : the 
Kalgdn comprise 43 sub-divisions, including Dudial, Andar, Papin 
and others : the Cliauh^ns have three septs, Ludain, Bhusin and 
Ghuttar : and the Kundan Chechi. Mahr, Malha, Maydn, Puchal and 
Saroia. Few of these look like Muhammadan patronymics. 

Note. — The Awans in Kapurthala are said to have the following oots : — Kalg>in (really a 
m'lhin , Rai L'ul, Ghalli, Jand, Bagewali, Jaspal, Khokuar, Gobu or Gulistan, Harpal 
and Khor Joti. 

The A wan septs give their names to several places-names, such as 
Golera in Rjiwalpindi, Khiora (Khewra) iu Jhelum, Bajara in {Sialkot, 
Jand, etc. 

As claiming descent from Qutb Shdh the Aw^ns are often called 
Qutb-shahi, and sometimes style themselves Ulami. In Gujrdt they 
only marry inter se, refusing to give daughters even to the Chibbs, 
and not inter- marrying with the Khokhars. In Jhelum too "Awdns 
give their daughters in marriage to Awans only as a rule, though 
there seems to be some instances of marriages with leading men of the 
Chakwdl tribes : it is said, however, that the Kalabdgh Mallik refused 
to betroth his daughter to Sardar Muhammd Ali, chief of the Kdwal- 
pindi Ghebas. In some families at least, prominent Awdns not in- 
frequently take to wife women of low tribes (usually having an Awdn 
wife also), and this practice does not seem to meet with as much 
disapproval as in most other tribes of equal social standing : but 
ordinarily Awan wives alone are taken.t Certain families marry with 
certain other families only : and in all cases marriage is generally but 
not necessarily within the muhl." 

* The Customary Law of this District (Voliune XIV) p, 3, gives the following list of Awan 
8ub-clans :— 

1 BagwAl 9 Harpal 17 Mangar 

2 Bijra 10 Jalkhijh 18 Mirza 

3 Biddar 11 Jand 19 Pappan 

4 Chandhar 12 Jhan 20 Ropar 

5 Chhaila 13 ^Khambre 21 Salhi 

6 Dhinqle 14 Kharana 22 Sangwil 

7 Ghulie 15 Malka 23 Saroya 

8 Gorare I 16 Mandu 44 Wadhdl 

Those in italics arc returned as Khurara iu Gujrat. Kos. 1, 2, 3, 9, 11, 14, 22 and 24 
arc classed as Kalgan. 

+ In Rawalpindi the childrpn of a low-caste woman by an Awan are not considered true 

28 Awdn-^Azdd. 

This passage is entirely consistent with the popular classification 
of the Awans as zamhiddr or yeomen, in contradistinction to the sdhu 
or gentry (Jaojuas and Ghakkars), but on a level with the Mairs and 
other leading tribes of Chakwdl. 

The loading family among the Awd,ns is that of the Malik of Kd,- 
Idbagh, and throughout the Jhelum Salt Range they have numerous 
rnaliks* notably Lfil KMn of Nurpur in Find Dadan Khdn, head 
of the Shidl (descendants of Shihd,n, a great malik in the latter 
part of the eighteenth century). 

Like the Kassai's, Janjuas and Khokhars, but unlike the Ghakkars, 
the Awdns have the institution of sirddri, whereby the eldest son 
of a chief gets an extra share. In other respects their customs of 
inheritance are closely alike those of the other Muhammadau tribes 
among whom they live. In Shd-hpur and Jhelum, however, the 
Awdns recognize a daughter's right to succeed. 

In the Awdn villages nf Talagang tahsil all the graves have a 
vertical slab at either end, while a woman's grave can be at once 
distinguished by a smaller slab in the centre. t 

An Awdn girl plaits her hair on the forehead and wears only 
ear-drops, this style being given up after marriage. J Betrothal is 
effected by the girl's father sending a bard or barber to the boy's 
home with a few rupees and some sweets : or no ceremony at all 
is observed. , 

Ayasi, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Ayesh^, (heavenly), the name of the ruling family of Hunza& : for the 
legend of it! origin see Biddulph, Tribes of the Hindoo Koosh, p. 27. 

AzAD, "free", a term applied to the he-shara or irregular orders of Isldm 
also called majziib ; opposed to sdlik. Also used as a synonym for 
Qalandar. ^zdds hold that the shard or ritual law is only for the 
masses, not for those who have attained marifat or full comprehension 
of the Godhead. 

• But Brandreth says the chief is called ' Rai,' and his younger brothers and sons ' Malik.' 
Settlement Report, § 49, p. 23. 

t P. N. Q. I., § 594. 

t Ibid, n, § 352. There is a history of the Awans in Urdu, published by Dr. Ghulam 
Nabi of Lahore, 









•^(^ '-• 3 «-» * J . (, * -' 

r,'?':^ //. 




M. Ami'n Chand's Hi.itory of Sidlkot gives a curious pedigree of the 
Awd-ns which is tabulated below : — 


Zahir Q4sim* 

Ausl SMh— 15th in descent 

Qutb Shih 

r r 

Khokhar Jahan 


Pusu Hamir 

Progenitors of the Julians of 


Golera Kulugan Mirza 
1 (15 families.) 

^ 1 



Rai Rakh 


Malik Saniba. 
(? Saroia.) 



Banj lir 





Bharahwiu Samduh 


* Another account makes Ausl Shih descended from Muhammad Khaifa, the Prophet's 
son, by a woman of Janir. 

t See article Jun. 

In Siilkot the Awans are known under these 4 branches :— Gohera [there is a tract in 
the Rawalpindi District still called Guhcra, (or Gohera) after this tribe], Kahambara, 
Dengla and Mandu. 



Bab —A Muhammadan J^t clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery and 

Baba Lal Daryai, a sect, followers of a addhu whose ehrino is on the Chenib 
in the Wazirabdd tahsil of Gujrdnwdld- and who miraculously turned 
water into food. 

Baba Lku, a follower of one of several Bab^ Lal^. B^ba Ldl Tahliwdld was 
a Bairdgi of Find Dddan Khdn who could turn dry sticks into fihisham 
[tahli] treea. An(,ther Biiba Ldl had a famous coutroversy with D^rd 
Shikoh * Another Bdb^ Ldl had his headquarters at Bhera, and yet 
another has a shrine in Gurddspur. 

Babak. — A small tribe allied to the Sherdnis — indeed said to be descended 
from a son of Dom, a grnnd<on of Sherai-ai. They are divided i'lto 
two main branches, Maiisand and Ghor* Khel. The former are sub- 
divided into four and the latter into eiglit sul)-di visions. 

The Babavs are a civilised tribt^ and most of them can read and 
write. t They are devoted to commerce and are the wealthiest, quietest 
and most honest tribe of the sub-Sulaim^ti plains. Edwardes called 
them the most superior race in the whole of the trans-Indus districts, 
and the proverb says : ' A Bdbar fool is a (randapur sage.' Intensely- 
democratic, they have never had a recognised chief, and the tribe is 
indeed a scattered one, many residingr in Kandahar and other parts of 
Khor:isdn as traders. A few are still engaged in the powinda traffic. 
The B^bars appear to have occupied their present seats early in the 
]4tb century, driving out the Jiits and Baloch (?) population from the 
plnins and then being pushed northward, by the UshtHrnni proner. 
Their centre is Chaudwan and their outlying villages are held by Jdt 
and Baloch tenants, as they cultivate little themselves. 

Babbak, a Jdt tribe in Dera Ghazi Khdn — probably immigrants from the east 

or aboriginal — and in Bahd-walpur, where they give the following 

genealogy : — 








r 1 i 1 

Bdbbar. Oabbar. Rabbar. Jhaggar. 

Babla. a Bpction of the Bhfttias, to which belong the chaudhris of Shujabad. 

MuMnGr., 1902, p. 166. 
Bachhal, a tribe of Jdts, found in pargana Bhirug. Nar^ingarh tahsil, 

Amb^la : descended from a Taoni Rcljput by his JAt wife. 
Badah. — A 36.\ clan (asricultural) found in MultSn. 

* This sect ia noticed in Wilson's sects of the Hindus. . rr ^ t, i i /» * 

+ A Bnbar, the Amin-ul-Mulk Nur Muhammad Khin, was Diw4n-i.Kul-.Mamlak<it to 

Taimiar Shah and gave a daughter to Shah Zaman Abdili. Four Babar families are al»o 

Settled in Multaa : Oatetteer, 1901-02, p. 161^ 

32 Badanah — Badu, 

Badanah, &3U clan (agricultural) found ia Multan. 
Baddun, see Badu. 

Badechh, a tribe of Jiits, claiming to be Saroa Rajputs by descent through 
its eponym and his descendant Kura Pal whose sons settled in Si^lkot 
under Shah Jahan : also found ia Amritsar. 

Badee, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Badgdjar, Bar-, a class (or possibly rank) found among the Brahmans, 
Rajputs, Meos and possibly other tribes, as well as often along with 
Gujars. Thus the Bargujar Rd-jputs about Bhundsi in Gurgd,on border 
on villao-es held by Gujars, and in one village there Gujars hold most of 
the village and Bargujar Rd,jputs the rest. Similarly in Bd,sdalla near 
Punah^na in Gurgdon Meos hold most of the village and Gujars the 
rest. (Sir J. Wilson, K.CS.I., in P. N. Q. I., § 130). But according 
to Ibbetson, the Bargujar are one of the b6 royal Rd,jput famihes, and 
the only one except the Gahlot which claims descent from Ldwa, son 
of H&m Chandra. Their connection with the Mandahd,r is noticed 
under Mandah^r. They are of course of Solar race. Their old capital 
was R^jor, the ruins of which are still to be seen in the south of Alwar, 
and they held much of Alwar and the neighbouring parts of Jaipur till 
dipossessed by the Kachwdha. Their head-quarters are now at 
Anupshahr on the Ganges, but there is still a colony of them in 
Gurgd,on on the Alwar border. Curiously enough, the Gurg^on 
Bargujar say that they came from Jullundur about the middle of the 
15th century ; and it is certain that they are not very old holders of 
their present capital of Sohna, as the buildings of the Kambohs who 
held it before them are still to be seen there and are of comparatively 
recent date. 

Badhan or Pakhai, a tribe of Jdts, claiming Saroa Rd,jput origin and 
descended from an eponym through Kala, a resident of Jammu. 
Found in Sidlkot. 

Badhar, a Dogar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 
Badhade, an agricultural clan found in Shahpur. 

Badhi, a sept of Kanets found in Bashahr. They also own joargana Qhir 

in Kuthdr. 
Badhi, the carpenter who makes ploughs and other rude wood-work among 

the Gaddis : (f r. hadhnd, to cut with an axe or saw). See Barhd^i. 

Badi, a gipsy tribe which does not prostitute its women. The word is said 
to be a corruption of B^zi-(gar) q. v. Cf. Wddia. 

Badohal, a tribe of Jdts who offer food to their sati, at her shrine in Jasr^n 
in N^bha, at weddings ; also milk on the 9th sudi in each month. 
Found in Jind. 

Badozm, a Pathan family, found in Multdn the Derajat and Bahawalpur 


Badeo, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Badu Baddun, a gipsy tribe of Muhammadans, found in the Central Punjab, 
chiefly in the upper valleys of the Sullej and Beds, Xiil^© the Kehals 


C*^ L^ 

* V - r ^ 

H. r^ I /A 

/7 ^ ^ 

C Ui^*» -»- <t/2 • <t -^ 


l.J.rr?,^;^-^, /^. 

Badu~—Bahman. gg 

they are followers of Im^m Slidfi* and by his teaching justify their 
habit of eating crocodiles, tortoises and frogs. They are considered 
outcast by other Muhammadans. They work in straw, make pipe- 
bowls, their women bl^ed by cupping and tliey arc also said to load 
about bears and occasionally travel as pedlars. Apparently divided 
into three clans, Wahhi, Dhar.4 and Balara. They claim Arab origin. 
First cousins cannot intermarry. See Kehal. 

Badwal, a Rd,jput clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Badyb, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Bagdar, a Baloch clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Baghban, Baghwan, the Persian equivalent of the Hinili word M^li 
meaning a ' gardener,' and commonly used as equivalent to Ar^in 
in the Western Punjab, and even as far east as Lahore and Jullun- 
dur. The Baghbdns do not form a casbe and the term is merely 
equivalent to Mdli, Malidr, etc. 

Baqhela, lie. ''tiger's whelp," one of the main division of the K^thi^s, whose 
retainers or dependent*; they probably were originally. Conhtiod to 
the nei^^hbourhood of Kamdlia in Montgomery, and classed as Rajput 

Baghue, an agricultural clan found in Shahpur. 

Baqiyana, a Muhammadan Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Bagrah, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Mult^n. 

Bagrana, a Baloch clan (agricultural) found in Montgomerj. 

BAG9,i,t (1) a term applied to any Hindu Rajput or Jat from the B^gar 
or prairies of Bikaner, which lie to the south and west of Hiss^r in" 
contradistinction to Deswala. The B^gris are most numerous 
in the south of that District, but are also found in some numbers under 
the heading of Jat in Sialkot and Patidla. In Gurdaspur the Bagri 
are Salahria who describe themselves as Bdgar or Bhagar by claii 
and probably have no connection with the Bagri of Hisskr and its 
neighbourhood. (2) a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Baha DARKE, a Kharral clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery : also a 
Joiya sept. 

Bahali, a Rdjput clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Baha?,, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Bahi, a tribe of Pathans which holds a hdra of 12 villages near Hosbi^r* 
pur, (should be verified ?). 

Bahman, an Ardin clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

* It is said that in the time of the Prophet there were four brothers, Imam Azoin 
Imara Hamil, Imam Shafi, and Imam Naik, aud Shaikh Dbamar, ancestor of 
the Badus, -was a follower of this lm4m Shafi. Once Shaikh Uhamar killed a tortoiae an 
act which was reprobated by three of the brothers, bat Imam Shafi, approving bis con- 
duct the Shaikh ate the animal whereupon the three Imams called him had and hence bis 
descendants are called Badu ! Such is the Badii legend, but the four Imams were woi 

walpur it is applied to any Hindu or Muhammadan from Jaisalmcr or Bikaner who 
speaks Bagii. 

34 Bahniwdl — Bahti. 

Bahniwaf,, a Jdt tribe, found cViipfly in His?ar and Patidla. They are also 
fourd on the lower Sutlej in Montfjomery, where in 1S81 thpy probably 
returned th('ms<4ves as Bhatfci Rajputs, which they claim to be by de- 
scent. Ill His-iir tliey appear to \>e a B-Agri tvve, though they claim to 
be Deswali, and to have been Chauhans of Sambhar in Haj'mtana whence 
they spread into Hikdner and Siisa. Mr. Purser says of them:— "In 
numbers they are weak; but, in love of robbery they yield to none of 
the tribes." They gave much trouble in 1857. In t)>e 15th century 
the Bahniwal held one of the six cantons into which Bikciner was then 

Bahoke, a Kharral clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Bahowana, an agricultural clan found in Shahpur. 

Baheiipia. — Bahrupia is in its origin a purely " occupational term derived 
from the Sanskrit hahu ^ many ' a,nd riipa 'form/ and denotes an 
actor, a mimic, one who assumes many forms or characters, or engages 
in many occupations. One of the favourite devices of the Bahrupias 
is to ask for money, and when it is refused, to ask that it may be- 
given on condition of the t3ahrupia succeeding in deceiving the 
person who refuses it. Some days later the Bahrupia will again visit 
the house in the disguise of a pedlar, a milkman, or what not, sell 
his goods without beiui? detected, throw off his disguise, and claim the 
stipulated reward. They may be drawn from any caste, and in 
Rohtak there are Chuhra Bahrupias. But in some districts a family 
or colony of Bahrupias has obtained land and settled down on it, and 
so become a caste as much as any other. Thus there is a Bahrupia 
family in Pd,n]pat which holds a village revenue- free, though it now 
professes to be Shaikh. In Sialkot and Gujrd-t Mahtams are commonly 
known as Bahrupias. In the latter District the Bahrupias claim con- 
nection with the Rajas of Chittaur and say they accompanied Akbar in 
an expedition against the Pathans. After that they settled down to 
cultivation* on the banks of the Chenab. They have four clans — 
Rathaur, Chauhdn, Punwar and Sapawat— which are said not to in- 
termarry. All are Sikhs in this District. Elsewhere tht-y are Hindus or 
Muhammadans, actors, mountebanks and sometimes cheats. The 
Bahrupias of Gurd^spur are said to work in cane and bamboo. 
The Bahrupia is distinct from the Bhand, and the Bahrupia villages 
on the Sutlej in Phillaur tahsil have no connection with the Mahtons 
of Hosbiarpur.t Bahrupias are often found in wandering gangs. 

Bahti, a term used in the eastern, as Chang is used in the western, portion 
of the lower ranges of the Kd,ngra Hills and Hoshiarpur as equivalent 
to OJiirtli. All of them intermarry. 

Bahti, hill men of fairly good caste, who cultivate and own land largely; 
and also work as labourers. They are said to be degraded R^ijputs. 
In Hoshiarpur (except Dasuya) and Jullundur they are called Bahti; 
in Dasuya and Nurpur Chang ; in Kd,ngra Ghirth; all intermarry freely. 
In the census of 1881 all three were classed as Bd,hti. The Chang are 
also said to be a low caste of labourers in the hills who also ply as 

* As cultivators they are thrifty and ambitious. They also make baskets, ropes aud 
tope-nets — travggars, and chikkaS in Gujrat. 
t P. N. Q. I„ § 1034. 

J^U^ c^r4v^-^ /UcT^-'O ^\ 
^^l ATiwUv .<A.^- Ccd^v,' 


• /^ / 

Baid — Bairdgi. 35 

Baid, a got of the Oswal Bhnbri'is, Mulii;'il Bralunans and other castes : also 
a physician, a term applied o-eneraly to all who practise Vedic me- 

Baidwan,* an important Hindu-Sikh Jat tribo in Ambala. 

Bains, a J;U tribe, whose h^ad- quarters appear to be in Uoshidrpurf and 
Jullundur, thougli they have spread west^vards oven as far as Riiwal- 
pindi, and eastwards into Anibrila and the adjoining Native Statfs. 
'I'hey say that they are by origin Janjua lliijputs, and that their ances- 
tor Bains came eastwards in the time of Firoz Shiib. Bains is one of 
the 36 royal families of Hajputs, but Tt^d believes that; it is merely a 
sab-division of the Suryabansi section. They give their name to Bais- 
wara, or the easternmost portion of the Ganges-Jamna dodh. The 
Sardars of AUlwalpur in Jullundur are Bains, whose ancestor came 
from Hoshidrpur to Jalla near Sirhind in Nabha some twelve genera- 
tions ago. 

The Bairagi. 

Bairaqi. — The Bairdgi (Vairagi, more correctly, from Sanskr. vairdgya, 
' devoid of passion,') is a devotee of Vi<' nu. The Bainigis probably 
represent a very old element in Indian religion, for those of the sect 
who wear a leopard-skin doubtless do so as personating Nar Singh, 
the leopard incarnation of Vishnu, lust a? the Bhagauti faqir imitates 
the dress,J dance, etc., of Ki-ishna. Tlie priest who personates the 
god whom he worships is found in 'almost every rude religion : while 
in later cults the old rite survives at least in the religious use of animal 
masks,'§ a practice still to be found in Tibet. There is, moreover, an 
undoubted pun on the word Ihrdg, * leopard ', and Bairdyi, and this 
possibly acfount'^ for the wearing of the leopaid skin. The feminine 
form of Bairagi, hairdgan, U the term af^plied to the ^aif-shaped crutch 
on which a devotee leans either sitting or standnig, to tbe small 
enblematic crutch about a foot long, and to the crutch hilt of a sword 
or dagger. In Jiud tlie Bairdgi is said to be also called Shdmi. 

The orders devoted to the cults of Rdm i.nd Krishn are known 
generically as Bairdgis, and th^ir history commences with Rdmdnuja, 
who taught in Southern India in the ll-12tli centuries, and from his 
name tlie designation Ramdmiji may be derived. || But it is not until 
the time of Rdmanand, i.e., until the end of the 1 4th century, that the 
sect rose to power or importance in Northern India. 

The Bairdgis are divided into four main orders {f^ampardas^ , viz., 
Rdmdnandi, Vishnuswdmi, Nimdnandi and Mddliavachdri. 

* FrtDcifnlly derived from baid, a pbysiciftn — who rescued a bride of the clan from 
robbers and was rewarded l)y their adoptinpf his njirne. 

t The Bains hold a bdrah or pronp of 12 (iictuaily 15 or 10) villages near Mahilpur in 
this Distri'^t. 

t Tnimpp's Adi-Granth. p. 98. 

§ Robertson Smith : Religion of the Semites, p. 437. 

II See Ibbetson, § 521 : vphere the llamanxijis are said to worship Mahndeo nnd thus ap- 
pear to b-i Shaivas. Further the Bair^gis arc there said to have been founded by Sri 
Anand, the 12th disciple of Ranuinand. The termination ?i a h J t appears to be connected 
with his name. 

It is only to the followers of Raminand or his contemporaries that the term Bairagfis 
properly applied. 

8(J The Bairdgi caste. 

Of these the first-named contains six of the 52 dwdrds* (schools) of 
these Bairdgi orders, viz., the Anbhimandi, Dundaram, Agarji, Telaji, 
Kubhdji, and Ramsaluji. 

In the Punjab only two of the four sampardds are usually found. 
These are (i) the Kdmdnandis, who hke the Vishnuswdmis are devotees 
of Rdmchandr, and accordingly celebrate his birthday, the Rdmnaumi,t 
study the Rdmayand and make pilgrimages to Ajudhid : their insignia 
being the tar pundri or trident, marked on the forehead in white, with 
the central prong in red or white. 

The only other group found in the Punjab is (m) the Nimanandi, who, 
like the Mddhavachdris, are devotees of Krishna. They too celebrate 
the 8th of Bhddon as the date of Krishna's incarnation, but they study 
the Sri Madh Bhagwat and the Gita, and regard Bindraban, Mathra 
and Dwarkdndth as sacred places. On their foreheads they wear a two-' 
pronged fork, J all in white. 

In the Punjab proper, however, even the distinction between Rama 
and Nimd-nandi is of no importance, and probably hardly known. In 
parts of the country the Bairdgis form a veritable caste being allowed 
to marry, and [e.g.] in Sirsa they are hardly to be distinguished from 
ordinary peasants, while in Karnal many (excluding the sddkus or 
monks of the monasteries, asthal, whose property descends to their 
spiritual children§) marry and their hindu or natural children succeed 
thetn.ll This latter class is mainly recruited from the Jdts, but the 
caste is also recruited fromi the three twice-born castes, the disciple 
being received into his guru's sampardd and dwdra.*^ In some tracts, 
e. ^ , in Jind, the Bairdgis are mostly secular. They avoid in marriage 
their own samjjar da and their mother's dwdra. In theory any Bairdgi 
may take fond from any other Bairdgi, but in practice a Brahman 
Bairdgi will only eat from the hands of another Brahman, and it is 
only at the ghosti or place of religious assembly that recruits of all 
castes can eat together. The restrictions regarding food and drink are 
however lax throughout the order. Though the Bairdgis, as a rule, 
abstain frorn flesh and spirits, the secular members of the caste certainly 
do not. In the southern Punjab the Bairdgi is often addicted to bhang 

To return to the Bairdgis as an order, it would appear that as a 
body they keep the jata or long hair, wear coarse loin-cloths and 
usually affect the suffix Das. As opposed to the Sanidsis, or Ldl-pddris, 
they style themselves Sitd-padris, as worshippers of Sita Rdm. 

*Itmay be conjectured that the Va'abhacharis, Biganandis, and Ni'mi-Kharak-swamfs are 
three of these fh/'dra'« : or the latter term may be equivalent to Nimanandi. Possibly the 
SIta-padris are really a modern dwdra The Kadha-balabhi, who affect Krishna's wife 
Badha, can hardly be anything but a divdra. 

fTheinh of Bhadon. 

X Its shape is siiid to be derived from the figure of the Nar Singh (man-lion) incarnation 
which tore PraVdad t) pieces. 

§ Called nadi, is contradistinction to hivdu children. Celibate Bairagfs are called Nagas, 
the secular ghar-bd-i or i^/iir/sfi, i.e. , householders. 

II It is not clear how property descends, e o., it is said that if a .g-urii marry his property 
descends on his death to his disciples, in Jind (just as it, does in Karnal^. But apparently 
property inherited from the natural family devolves on the natural children, while that in- 
herited from the quni descends to the chela. In the Kaithal tahsil of Karnal the agricultural 
Bairai^is who own the village of Dig are purely secular, 

1[ But men of any caste may become Bairagis and the order appears, as a rule, to be re- 
cruited from the lower castes. 

< ^ « — . -V ^ 

Bairdgi developments. 87 

As regards his tenets a Bairdgi is pometimes said to be subject to 
five rules : — (i) ho must journey to Dwarka and there be branded witli 
iron on the right arm :* {ii) he must mark his forehead, as already 
describefl, with the gojn chandan clay : [Hi) he must invoke one of the 
incarnations of Krishna: {iv) he must wear a rosary of /mZsi : and (t) 
he should know and repeat some mantra relating to one of Vishnu's 
incarnations. Probably these tenets vary in details, though not in 
principle, for each samparda, and possibly for each dwdra also. 

The monastic communities of the Bairagis are powerful and ex- 
ceedingly well conducted, often very wealthy, and exercise much 
hospitality. They are numerous in Hoshiarpur. Some of their mahants 
are well educated and even learned men, and a few possess a knowledge 
of Sanskrit. 

Baibagi developments. 
The intense vitality of the Bairagi teachings maybe gauged from the 
number of sub-sects tn which they havf given birth. Among these may 
be noted the Hari-Dclsis (in Rohtak), the Kesho-panthfst (in Mult4n) 
the Tulsi-Dasis, Gujr^nwala, the Murdr-panthisl, the Babd-L^lis. 

The connection of the earliest form of Sikhism with the Bair<4gi 
doctrines is obscure, but it is clear that it was a close one. Kalladhilri 
the ancestor of the Bedi family of Una, was also the predecessor of 
the Brahman Kalladhari maliants of Dharmsal in the Una tahsil, who 
are Bairdgis, as well as followers of Ndnak, whence they are called 
Vaishav-Nanak-panthi. This community was founded by one Nakodar 
Dds who in his youth was absorbed in the deity while lying in the 
shade of a banyan tree instead of tending his cattle, and at last 
after a prolonged period of adoration, disappeared into the unknown. 
Another Baitdgi, Kdm Thamman, was a cousin of Nanak and is some- 
times claimed as his follower. His tank near Lahore is the seetie of a 
fair, held at the Baisiiklii, and formerly notorious for disturbances 
and, it is said, immoralities. It is still a great meeting point for 
Bairagi ascetics. Further it will not be forgotten that Banda, the 
successor of the Sikli gurus, was, originally, a Bair^i, while two 
Bairagi sub-sects (the Sarnddsi and Simrandflsi§) arc sometimes classed 
as Udd,sis. 

A modern offshoot of the Bairdgis are the Charand^sis, founded by 
one Charan Das who was born at Dehra in Alwar State in 1703.|| His 
father was a Dhusar who died when his so-j, then named Kanjit Singh, 
was only 5. Brought up by relations at Delhi the boy became a 

* These brands include the conch shell (s/ianfc),discu<' or fhfli-fcar, club or gada, and lotus. 
Besides the iron brands (f apt wia/)«, lit. fire-marks) watermarks (si'aZ juwdra, lit. cold-* 
marks) are also used. Further the initiatory rite, though often performed at Dwarkk, may 
be performed anywhere especially in the guru''si house. Some B..iragis even brand their 
women's arms before they will eat or drink anything touched by ihem. 

t t'robally worshippers of :i Inoal s.iinl or of Krishna himself. 

j Possibly followers of a Biba Murar whose shrine is in Lahore District, or worshippers 
of Krishn Mur4ri, i.e., the enemy of Mur, a demon. 

§ Sometimes said to be one and the same. Simran D4s was a Brahman, who lived two 
centuries ago, and his followers are Gosains who wear the tuhi necklace and worship their 
gurus bed. 

II Another account says he became Sukhdeo's disciple at the age of 10 in Sbt. 1708, 
1651 A. D. For a full account of the sect see Wilson's quoted in Maclagan's, Punjab Census 
Report, 1891, p. 121. 

38 Bdirdgi'—Bajwd. 

disciplo of Sulchdeo Dds, himself a spiritual descendant of Bi^sji, in 
Muzaffarna^ar, and assumed the name of Charan D^s. He taught 
the unity of God, preached abolition of caste and inculcated purity of 
life. His three principal disciples, Swdmi Ram-rup, Jagtan Gos^in 
and a woman named »Shahgoleai encli founded a monastery in Delhi, 
in which city there is also a temple dedicated to Charan D^s where the 
impression of his foot [cliaran) is worshipped.* His initiates are celibate 
and worship Krishna and his favourite queen Radha above all gods and 
goddesses. Tliey wear on the forehead the joti sao'up ov ''body of 
flame," which consists of a single perpendicular line of white ;t and 
dress in saffron clothes with a tulsi necklace. The chief scripture 
of the sect is the Bhagat-sdgar, and the 1 1th day of each fortnight is 
kept as a fast. Charan Dds is believed to have displayed miracles 
before Nddir Shd,h, on his conquest of Delhi, and however that may be, 
his disciples obtained grants of land from the Mughal emperors which 
they still hold. 
Bairwal, a tribe of Jats who claim to be descendants of Birkhman, a 
Chauh^n Rdjput, whose son married a Jat girl as his second wife and 
so lost status. The name is eponymous, and they are found in the 
Bdwal Niz^mat of N^bha. 

Baistola, a Jain sect : see Jain. 

Baizai, one of the two clans of the Akozai Yusafzai. It originally held 
the Lundkhwar valley, in the centre of the northernmost part of 
Peshawar, and all the eastern hill country between that and the Swdt 
river. It still hoLis the hills, but the Khattak now hold all the west of 
the valley and the Utm^n Khel its north-east corner, so that the Baizai 
only hold a small tract to the south of these last. Their six 
septs are the Abba and Aziz Khels, the B^bozai, Matorezai, Musa 
and Zangi Khels. The last lies south of the Ham range which 
divides Sw^t from Buner. Only the three first-named hold land in 
British territory. 

Bajar, a Gujar clan (agricultural} found in Amritsar. 

Bajarah, j 10 tf t!io 15 Awan families descended from Kulugan, son of Qutb 
Shdh: see History of Siillkot, p. 37. 

BajU; Bajju, a Rdjput tribe found in Si^lkot and allied to the Bajw^ 

Bajwa, a Jdit clan (agricultural) found in Sid^lkot, Amritsar and Multdn, and 
as a Hindu Jdt clan in Montgomery. The B^jwa Jats are of the same 
kin as the Bajju Rajputs. J In Sialkot they have the customs of rasoa 
or lagan and bhoja twixt betrothal and marriage. 

The ja^/jera of the Bajwd is Bdbd, M^nga, and he is revered at 
weddings, at which the rites of jandian and chhatra are also 

Tlie Bfljwa J^ts and Bajju Rdjputs have ^iven their name to the Bajwd-t 
or country at the fo 't of the Jammu hills in the Sialkot District. 
They say that they are Solar Rdjputs and that their ancestor Raja 

* Clearly there is some connection here with the Vishnupacl or foot-impression of Vishnu- 
t It is also called simply sarup, or " body " of Bhagwan. 
X It might be suggested that wd la a diminutive form. 

^ ^ ^ 
^ » / 

^ . *-' 



VI < -. 

^ ^ ^^ ^^ -'^- 



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/". c -*. -» ^' ^'^ -• -^ ^ " .i * 

^-^ ' w^. ^^Z.'>iC 

4^ >• «• 

Bajwd — BaTchtiar. 3 9 

Shalip was driven out of Multan in the time of Sikandar Lodi. His 
two sons Kals and Lis escaped in the disiJruiso of falconers. Lis went 
to jHramii and there married a Katil Rajput brido, while K^ls married 
a J at girl in Pasriir. TIih descendants of both live in the Bajwiit, but 
are said to be distinguished as Bajju Kajputs and Bajwa Jats. 
Another story has it that their ancestor Jas or Hai Jaisan was driven 
from Delhi by Rai Pitora and settled at Karbala in Si^ikot. Yet 
another tale is tliat Naru, Rdjii of Jamrau, gave him 84 villages in 
ilaqa Ghol for killing Mir Jagwa., a mighty Pathfm. The Bajju 
Rdjputs admit their relationship with the Bajwa Jt^s. Kals had a 
son, Dawa, whose son Dewa had three sons, Muda, Wasr, and Nana 
surnamed Chachrah. Nana'a children having all died, he was told by 
an astrologer that only those born under a chachri tree would live. 
His advice was taken and Nana's next son founded the Chachrah sept, 
chiefly found near Narowdl. The Bajju Rfijputs have the custom 
of chundai-and and are said to marry their daughters to Chibli , 
Bhau and Manhds Riijputs, and their eons to Rajputs. 'i'ht» Bajju 
Rdjputs are said to have had till quite lately a custom by which a 
Mussalman girl could be turned into a Hindu for purposes o£ 
marriage, by temporarily burying her in an underground chamber and 
ploughing the earth over her head. In the betrothals of this tribe 
dates aroused, a custom perhaps brought with them from Multan, and 
they have several other singular customs resembling those of the Sahi 
Jats. They are almost confined to Sidlkot, though they have spread 
in small numbers eastwards as far as Patiala. 

Bakarki, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Bakhar, a Rdjput clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

BakkhaRj an agricultural clan found in Shahpur. 

Bakhri, a clan found in the Shahr Farid ilaqa of Bahawalpur. They claim 
to be Sumrds by origin, and have Charan bards, which points to a 
Rajput origin. They migrated from Bhakhkhar to Multdn, where 
they were converted to Islam by Gaus Baha-ud-Din Zakaria, and 
fearing to return to their Hindu kinsmen settled down in Multan 
as weavers. Thence they migrated to JSurpur, Pakpattan and other 
places, and Farld Khdn I settled some of thom in Shalir Farid from 
Nurpur. They make lungis. (The correct form is probably Bhakhri). 

Bakhshial, a family of Wahora Khatris, settled at Bhdun ia Jhelum, which 
has a tradition of military service. 

Bakhtiar, a small Pathan tribe of Persian origin who are associated with the 
Mian Khel Pathans of Dera Ismail Khan, and now form one of their 
principal sections. 

Raverty however disputes this, and ascribes to the Bakhtiars a 
Sayyid origin. Shiran, the eponym of the ShiraAii Pathdns, gave a -?^ -J* 
daughter to a Sayyid Ishaq whose son by her was named Habib the 
Abu-Sa'id, or 'Fortunate' (Bakhtyar). This son was adopted by his 
step-father Midnai, son of Dom, a son of Shirdz. The Bakhtiars have 
produced several saints, among them the Makhdiim-i-'Alam, Khwdja 
Yahya-i-Kabir, son of Khwaja llias, son of Sayyid Muhammad, and a 
contemporary of Sultan Muhammad Tugbluq Shah. Ho died in 

{40 BaJchtidr — BalJcd. 

1333 A. D., and his descendants are called Shaikhzais. Raverty says 
the Persian Bakhtiaris* are quite distinct from the Bakhti^rs. 
Bakhtmal sddhs, a Sikh sect founded by one Bakhtmal. When Guru Govind 
Singh destroyed the masands or tax-gatherers one of them, by name 
Bakhtmal, took refuoc with Mat^, a Gujar woman who disguised him 
in woman's clothes, putting bangles on hia wrists and a nath or nose- 
ring in his nose. This attire ho adopted permanently and the mahant 
of his gaddi still wears bangles. His followers are said to be also 
called Bakhshish sddhs, but this is open to doubt. The head-quarters 
of the sect appears to be unknown. 

Bal, a Jat tribe of the Bids and Upper Sutlej, said to be a clan of the 
Sekhu tribe with whom they do not intermarry. Their ancestor is also 
said to have been named Baya Bal, a Rajput who came from 
Malwa. The name Ba.1, which means " strength," is a famous one in 
ancient Indian history, and recurs in all sorts of forms and places. 
In Amritsar they say they came from Ballamgarh, and do not inter- 
marry with the Dhillon. 

Bal, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Balagan, a tribe of Jats, claiming to be Jammu Rajputs by descent from 
their eponym. Found in Sidlkot. 

Balahab, in Gurgaon the haldhar (in Sirsa he is called daurd,) is a village 
menial who shows travellers the way, carries messages and letters, and 
summons people when wanted by the headmen. In Karnd^l he iv, called 
lehhar\ ; but is not a recognised menial and any one can perform his 
duties on occasion. In Sirsa, Gurgaon and Karnal he is almost always 
a Chuhra, cf. Batwdl. 

Balahi, Balai, (/. haldhar. — In Delhi and Hissar a chaukiddr or watchman : 
in Sirsa a Cham^r employed to manure fields, or who takes to syce's 
and general work, is so termed. 

Balbie, a sept of Kanets which migrated from Chittor in R^jputdna 
with the founders of Keonthal and settled in the latter State. The 
founders of Keonthal were also accompanied by a Chaik, a Saldthiand 
a Pakrot, all Brahmans, a Chhibar Kanet, a blacksmith and a turi 
and the descendants of all these are still settled in the State or in its 

Balfaeosh, a synonym for Bhdt (Rawalpindi). 

Balham, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Bali, an agricultural clan found in Shdhpur. 

Bali, a section of the Muhials (Brahmans) : corr. to the Dhannapotras of 
the South-West Punjab. 

Balka, an agricultural clan found inSh^hpur: balkd in the east of the 
Punjab is used as equivalent to chela, for ' the disciple of afaqlr.' 

* There is said to be a sept of the Baloch of this name in Bah£walpur and l^uzaffargarhi 
on both sides of the Panjnad. 

f Or rehhar, probably from rdhbar, ' guide.' In Karnal is no Balahar caste, the 
term being applied to a sweeper who does this particular kind of coiv6e— which no one bufc 
a sweeper (or in default a Dh^nank) will perform. 

Bdlmiki-^Baloch. 41 

Balmiki, Valmiki. — The sect of tlie Chuhras, synonymous with B^ldshfihi 
andLalbet^i, so called from Balraik, Baliikh or Bald Shah, possibly the 
same as the author of the Rdmdyana* Biilmik, the poet, was a man 
of low extraction, hnd legend represents liim as a low-caste hunter 
of the Ndrd;ik in Karnal, or a 13hil highway-man converted by a 
saint whom he was al>out to rob. One It-gen I makes him a swt-eper 
in the heavenly courts, another sis living in austerity at Ghazni. 
See under Ldlbegi. 

Balo, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in MuUdn. 

BALOCH. Meaning of Baloch. 

The teim Baloch is used in several diffe ent wavs. By travellers 
and historians ir is employed to denote (i) the race known to them-elves 
and rheir neighbours as the Baloch, and [ii] in an extended St-nse as 
incluHini]^ all the thcos inhabiting the preat geographical area shown on 
our toMps as Biilichistan. In the lattersense it comprises the Brahui'^, 
a tribo which is certainly not of Bah ch origin. In the former sense it 
includes allrhe Baloch tiibe>^, whether fonnd in Persia on the west or 
the Puniab on the east, which can claim a de-icent, more or less pure, 
from Buloch ancestors. Two special uses of the t<-rm also require 
notice. In the great jungles below Thdu'^sai- in the Karnal district is 
settled a criminal tribe, almost certainly of Baloch extraction, which 
will be noticed below page 55.t Secondly, throughout the Punjab, 
except in the extreme west and the extreme east, the term Baloch 
denotes any Muhammadan caniel-nian. Throughout the upper grazing 
grounds of the Western Plains the Baloch settlors have taken to the graz- 
ing and breeding of camels rather than to husbandry; and thus the 
word Baloch has become associated with the care of camels, insomuch 
that in the greater part of the Punjab, the word Baloch is used for any 
Mu.-«almdn cauiel-man whatever be his caste, every Baloch being supposed 
to be a cacnel-man and every Muhammadan camel-man to be a Baloch, 

OiaoiNs OF THE Baloch 
Pnttinger and Khanikoff claimed for the Baloch race a TurkoTnan 
origin, and Sir T. Holdich and others an Arab descent. Bellew 
assigned them Rajput descent on very infidequate philological grounds, 
while Burton, Lassen and others have mainramed that they are, at 
least in the mass, of Iranian race. This last theory is supported by 
Mr. Longworth IJames who shows that the Baloch came into the r 
present locations in Mekran and on the Indian border from parts jr 
the Iranian plateau fui'ther to the west and north, bringing with them 
a language of the Old Persian stock, with many features derived from 
the Zend or Old Bactrian rather than the Western Persian. 

History of the Baloch. 

Dames assigns the first mention of the Bnloch in history 
to the Ara*<ic chronicles of the 10th century A. D., but Firdausi 
(c. 400 A.H.) refers to a still earlier period, and in his Shah-nnmaX the 
Baloches are described as forming part of the armies of Kai Kaus 

* Temple (in Legends of the Punjab, I, p. 529) acceptR this trarlition and says Balmikl 
is the samo BB Bala Shah or Niiri ^hah B^la, but aseigns to him 'the place n<>zt to 
Li\ Bep.' 

t This group is also found in Ambala, and the Giloi Baloch of Lyallpur are also said to bo 
an offshoot of it. 

X So Dames, but the text of the Shdh-ndma is very corrupt, and the reading Khoch "crest " 
cannot be relied upon implicit^. 

42 Baloch history. 

and Kai Khnsrao. The poem says tbat the army of Ashkash was 
from the wanderers of the Koch and Baloch, intent on war, with 
exalted coekscotnb creBts, whose back none in the world ever saw. 
Under NaushlrwSn, the Uliosroes who fought against Justinian, the 
Baloch are agaiu mentioned as mountaineers who raided his kingdom 
and had to be exterminated, though later on we find them serving m 
Nausbirw^n's own army. In these passages their association with the 
men of Gil and Dailarn (the peoples of Gildn and Adharbaijan) would 
appear to locate the Baloch in a province north of Karman towards the 
Caspian Sea. 

However this may be, the commencement of the 4th century of the 
Hijra and of the 10th A.D. finds the Balus or Baloch established in 
Karmiin, with, if Masndi can be trusted, the Qufs (Koch) and the 
Zutt (Jatts). The Baloch are then described as holding the desert 
plains south of the mountains and towards Makrdn and the sea, but 
they appear in reality to have infested the desert now known as the 
Lut, which lies north and east of Karmd-n and separates it from 
Khorasan and iSistan. Thence they crossed the desert into the two 
last-named provinces, and two districts of Sistan were in Istakhri's time 
known as Baloch country.^ Baloch raiders plundered Mahmud of 
Ghaznfs ambassador between Tabbas and Kbabis, and in revenge his 
son Masud defeated them at the latter place, which lies at the foot of 
the Karmdn Mountains on the edge of the desert. 

About thi-i time Firdausi wiot^^ and soon after it the Baloch must 
hnvH migrnted bodily from Karmdn into Mekran and the Sindh 
frontier, after a partial ai^d temporary halt in Sistan. With great 
prnbability Dames conjectures that at this period two movements of the 
Baloch took place : the fir;t, corresponding with the Saljuq invasion 
and the overthrow of the Dailami and Ghaznawi power in Persia, 
being their abandonment of Karm^n and settlement in Sistan and 
Western Makran ; while the second, towards Eastern Makran and the 
Sindh border, was contemporaneous with Changiz Kh6n's invasion and 
the wanderings of JaUl-ud-Din in Makran. 

To this second movement the Baloch owed their opportunity of 
invading the Indus valley; and thence, in their third and last 
migration, a great portion of the race was precipitated into the Punjab 

It is now possible to connect the traditional history of the Baloch 
themselves, as told in their ancient heroic ballads, with the above 
account. Like other Muhamraadan races, the Baloch claim Arabian 
extraction, asserting tbat they are descended from Mir Hamza, an 
uncle of the Prophet, and from a fairy (pari). They consistently 
place their fir>t seitletnent in Hulab (Alejipo], where they remained 
until, siding with the sons of AH and taking part in the battle of 
KarbaU, they were expelled by Yazid, the second of the Omayyad 
Cahphs, in 680 A.D. Thence they fl^d, first to Karm^n, and eventually 

* Their settlements may indeed have extended into Khorasan. Even at the present day 
there is a considerable Baloch population as far north as Turbat-i-Haidari (Curzon's 
Persia, 1892, i, p. 203), ^ 


Baloch history. 43 

to Sist^n where they wore hospitably received by Shams-ud-Din,* 
ruler of that country. His successor, Badr-ud-Dfn, demandef^, according 
to eastern usage, a bride from eacli of the 4 i bolaks or clans of the 
Baloch. But the Baloch race had never yet paid tribute in this form 
to any ruler, and they sent therefore 44 bovs dressed in girls' clothes 
and fled before the deception conli be discovered. Badr-ud-Din sent 
the boys back but pursued the Baloch, who had fled houth-eastwards, 
into Kech-Makrdu wheie he wa^ defeated at their haa'is. 

At this period Mir Jaldl Khd,n, son of Jiand, was ruler of all the 
Baloch. He left four sons, Rind, Lfiyhdr, Hot and Kor^i from whom 
are descended the Rind, Lashari, Hot and Korai tribes ; and a son-in- 
law, IVlurad, from whom are descended the Jatoif or children of Jato, 
Ja]i\ Khiin'a daughter. Unfortunately, however, certain tribes 
cannot be brought into any of these five, and in order to provide 
them with ancestors two more sons, All and Bulo, ancestor of the 
Bulod/ii, have had to be found for Jalal Khdn. From All's two sons, 
Ghazan and Umar, are descended the Ghazani Harris and the 
scattered Dmrdnis. 

Traciition av^rs that Jalal Kh^n had appointed Kind to the phdjh 
or turban of chiefsliip, bur that Hot retused to join him in ere iti'ig 
the dsri'kh or memorial cunopy totdeir father. ' Thereupon each p'^r- 
formed that ceremony separately and tiiu-* tl-ere were five dsrokhs 
in Kech.' But it is far more probable that five principal gatherings 
of clans were formed under well-known leaders, each of which became 
known by some nickname or epithet, such as rind " cheat," hot, 
"warrior," Lashdri, " men ot Ldshar" and, later, Bulei/ii, " men of 
Boleda." To these other clans became in the course of time affiliated. 

A typical example of an affiliated clan is afforded by the Doddf, a 
clan of Jdt race whose origin is thus described : — 

DoddJ Surara, expelled from Thatha by his brethren, escaped by 
swimming his mare across the Indus, and, half frozen, reached the 
hut of Sdlhe, a Rind. To revive him Sdlhe placed him under the 
blankets with his daughter Mua/io, whom he eventually married. 
" For the woman's sake," says the proverb, " the man became a Baloch 
who had been a Jatt, a Jaghdal, a nobody; he dwelt at Harrand 
under the hills, and fate made him chief of all." Tims Dodd; founded 
the preat Dodai tribe of the Baloch, and Gorish, his son, founded 
the Gort«hd.m or Gurchdni, now the principal tribe of Dodai oriij;in. 
The great Mirrd,ni tribe, which for 200 years gave chiefs to Dera 
Ghazi Khdn, was also of Doddi origin. 

* According to Dames there was a Shams-iid-Din, independent malik of Sistan. who 
claimed descent from the Saffaris of Persia and who died in 1104 A.D. ;559 H.) or nearly 
500 years after the Baloch migration from Aleppo. Badr-ud-Uin appears to be unknown 
to history. 

t It is suggested that Jatoi or ' husband of a Jat woman,' just as hahnoi means ' husband 
of a sister,' although in Jatoi the t is soft. 

X "Doda, a common name among the Sumr^s whose dynasty ruled Sindh until it wa» 
overthrown by the Sammas. About 1250 A.D. or before that year we find Baloch advt-nturert 
first allied with the Sodh(is and Jharejap, and then supporting Doda IV, Sumra. Under 
Umar, his successor, the Baloches are found combining with the Sammas, Sodhss and 
Jatts, (Jharejas), but were eventually forced back to the hills without effecting any perma- 
nent lodgment in the plains. 

44 Baloch history. 

Affer thfl overthrow of the Sumr^s of Sindh notliin^ is heard of 
the Baloch for 150 yeai-s and then in the reiofn of Jam Tutrhlaq, the 
Sarnmd (142:3 — 50), tliey are rei^orded as raiding near BhaUliar in 
Sii'dh. D'Mibtless, as Drttnes holds, Taimur's inva'^ion of 1399 led 
indirectly to this new movement. The Delhi empire was at its weakest 
and Triiiniir's descendants claimed a vague suzereignty over it. Prob- 
ably all the Western Punjab was effectively held by Mughal in- 
tendants until the Lodi dynapty was established in 1451. Meanwhile 
the Langah Hd-jputs had established themselves on the throne of Multan 
and iShah Husain Langah (14d9 — J 502) called in Baloch mercenaries, 
granting a j'igir, which extended from Kot Karor to Dhankot, to 
Malik Sohrab Dod^i who came to Multan with his sons, Ghazi Khan, 
Fath Khan and Ismd^ii Kh^n.* 

But the Dodd,i were, not the only mercenaries of the Langdhs. 
Shdh Hussain had conferred the jagirs of Uch and Shor(kot) on two 
Sammd brothers, Jd,m Bayazid and Jam Ibrahim, between whom and 
the Dodtiis a feud arose on tShd,h Mahmud's accession. The Jdma 
promptly allied themselves with Mir Chdknr, a Rind Baloch of Sibi 
who had also sought service and lands frotn the Langd,h ruler and 
thereby mused the Doddis' jealousy. MirClidkuris the greatest figure 
in the heroic poetry of the Baloch, and his history is a. r«inarkable 
one. The Raids were at picture-que but deadly feud with the Lashdris. 
Gohar, the fair owner of vast herds of camels tavdured Chakur, but 
Gwaharam Lashari also claimed her hand. The rivals agreed to decide 
their quarrel by a horse race, but the Rinds loosened the girths of 
Gwahardm's saddle and Chd,kur won. In revenge the Lashd,ris killed 
some of Gohat^s camels, and this led to a desperate 30 years' war 
which ended in Chakur's expulsion from Sibi in spite of aid invoked 
and received from the Arghun conquerors of Sindh. Mir Chakur was 
accompanied by many Rinds and by his two sons, iShahzadt and 
Shaihak, and received in jdgir lands near Uch from Jdm Bayazid, 
Sammd. Later, however, he is said in the leyends to have accomftanied 
Humayun en his re-conquest of India. Hovvever this may have been, 
he undoubtedly founded a military colony of Rinds at Satgarha, in 
Montgomery, at which place his tomb still exists. Thence he was 
expelled by Sher Shdh, a fact which would explain his joining 

At this period the Baloch were in great force in the South-West 
Punjab, probably as mercenaries of the Langah dynasty of Multdn, 
but also as independent freebooters. The Rinds advanced up the 
Chenab, Hd-vi ami Sutlej valleys; the Dodd,i and Hots up the Jhelum 
and Indus. In 1519 Bd,l>ar found Dodais at Bhera and Khushab and 
he confirmed Si hrab Khan's three sons in their possession of the 
country of Sindh. He also gave Ismail Khdn, one of Sohrdb's sons, 
the ancient 'pargana of Ninduna in the Ghakhar country in exchange 
for the lands of Shaikh Bayazid Sarwdni which he was obliged to 
Burrender. But in 1524 the Arghuns overthrew Shah Mahmdd Langah 

* The founders of tbe three Dehras, which give its name to the Derajit. Dera Fath 
Khan is now a mere village. 

t Shahzad was one of miraculous origin, his mother having been overshadowed by some 
raysteiious power, and a mystical poem in Balochi on the origins of Multan is ascribed to 
iiiaa. Firishta says he first introduced the Shia creed into Multan. a curious statement. 

Baloch organization. 45 

with bis motley host of Baloch, Jdt, Kind, Dodai and other tribes, and 
the greatest contusion reigned. 

The Arghuns however submitted to the Mughal emperors, and thTs 
app^'ars to hHve thrown the bulk ot the Bal<ch into opposition to the 
empire. They rarely entered the imperidl service — a fact which is 
possibly explaiued by their dislike to serve at a distance from their 
homes — and under Akbar we read of occasional expeditiona against 
the Baloch. But the Lnshdris apparently took service with the 
Arghiins and aided them against Jdm Firoz — indeed lej^end represents 
the Laghari as invading Guzerat and on return to Kachhi as obtaining 
a grant of Gundava from the king.* The Jis-tk^nis, a Lashariclan, 
also established a principality at Mankera in the Sindh-Sngar Doab at 
this time, but most of the Lash^ris remained in Makrjin or Kachhi. 
Among the earliest to leave the barren hills of Balochistan were the 
Chdndias who settled in the Chiinriko or Ohandiika tract along the Indus, t 
in Upper Sind on the Punjab border. The Hots pressed northwards 
and with the Doddis settled at Dera Ismd,d Khdn which they held for 
200 years. Close to it; the Kulachis founded the town which still bears 
their name. Both Dera Ismail Khan and Kuldchi were eventually 
conquered by Pathans, but the Kulachis still inhabit the country round 
the latter town. South of the Jistkanis of Mankera laj the Dod^is 
of the once great Mirrdni clan which gave Naw^bs to Dera Ghnzi 
Kh^n till Nadir Shah's time. Further still afield the Mazaris settled 
in J hang and are still found at Chatta Bakhsha in that District, The 
Rinds with some Jatois and Kordis are numerous in Multan, Jhang, 
Montgomery, Shahpur and Muzaffargarh, and in the last-named 
district the Gopiings and Gurmanis are encountered. All these are 
descendants of the tribes which followed Mir Chnkur and have become 
assimilated to the Ja^t tribes with whc>m in many cases they intermarry. 
West of the Indus only has the Baloch retained his own language and 
tribal organization. 

In the Deiajdt and Sulaim^ns the Baloch are grouped into tumans 
which cannot be regarded as mere tribes. The turn an is ni. facta 
political confederacy, ruled by a turnandor, and comprising men of 
one tribe, with aflSliated elements liom other tribes not necessarily 
Baloch. The tumans which now exist as Organisations are the Marri, 
Bughti, Mazari, Drishak, Tibbi Lund, Sori Lund, Leghari, Khosa, 
Nutkani, Bozdar, Kasr6ni, Gurchdni and Shambuni. Others, such as 
the Buled/ii, Hasani, Jakrani, Kahiri, are found in the Kachhi territory 
of Kalat and in Upper Sind, with representatives in Bahdwalpur 

The Bozdar tuman is probably in part of Rind descent, but the 
name means simply goatherd. They live in independent territory in 
the Sulaimdns, almost entirely north-west of Dera Ghazi Khan. 

The Bughti or Zarkdni tuman is composed of several elements. 
Mainly of Rind origin it claims descent from Gydndar, a cousin of 
Mir Chakur. The Raheja, a clan with an apparently Indian name, 
is said to have been founded by Raheja, a sou oi Gyandar. The No/Zidni 

* The Maghassis, a branch of the 1 asharfs, are still found in Kachh Gundiva. 
t Ch&ndias are also numerous in lUuzafargarh and Dera Ismail Khan. 

'^ The Baloch tumans. 

clan holds the guardianship of Pir Sohri's shrine though they have 
admitted Gurchani to a share in that office, and before an expedition 
, each man passes under a yoke of guns or swords held by men of the 
clan. They can also charm guns so that the bullets shall be harmless,* 
and claim for these services a share of all crops grown in the Bughti 

The Shambd,nis, who form a s\ib-tu7na7i, but are sometimes classed 
as an independent tuman, trace their descent to Rihan, a cousin of Mir 
Chakur, and occupy the hill country adjacent to the Bughti and 
Maz^ri tumans. The Bughti occupy the angle of the Sulaimau 
Mountains between the Indus and Kachhi and have their head-quarters 
at Syahaf (also called Dera Bibrak or Bughti Dera). 

The Buleci/ii or Burdi tuman derives its name from Boleda in 
Maktan and was long the ruling race till ousted by the Gichki. It is 
also found in the Burdikd tract on the Indus, in Upper Sindh and in 

The Drishak tuman is said to be descended from one of Mir Chaknr's 
companions who was nicknanied Drishak or ' strong/ because he held 
up a roof that threatened to crush some Lashd,ri women captives, but 
it is possibly connected with Dizak in Makran. Its head-quarters are 
at Asni in Dera Ghazi Khdn. 

The Gurchdni tuman is mainly Dodai by origin, but the Syd,hph^c?fe 
Durk^ni are Rinds; as are probably the Pitafi, Jogd,ni, and Chang 
clans — at least in part. The Jistkanis and Lashdris (except the Gabolt 
and Bhand sections) are Lasharis, while the Suhri^ni and Holawdni 
are Bulei/iis. The Gurchani head-quarters are at Ldlgarh near Harrand 
in Dera Ghazi Khan. 

KasraniJ (so pronounced, but sometimes written Qaisardni as 
descended from Qaisar) is a tuman of Rind descent and is the most 
northerly of all the organised tumans, occupying part of the Sulaimans 
and the adjacent plains in Deras Ghdzi Khdn (and formerly, but not 
now), Ismail Khdn. 

The Khosas form two great tumans,^ one near Jacobdbdd in Upper 
Sindh, the other with its head- quarters at Bdtil near Dera Ghdzi Kbdn. 
They are said to be mainly of Hot descent, but in Dera Ghdzi Kl'dn the 
Isani clan is Khetran by origin, and the small Jajela clan are probably 
aborigines of the Jaj valley which they inhabit. 

The Legrhdri tuman derives its origin from Kohphrosh, a Rind, 
nicknamed Ijephd,r or 'dirty.* But the tu,man also includes a Chandia 
clan and the Haddiani and Kaloi, the sub-iwman of the mountains, 
are said to be of Bozdar orig:in. Its head-quarters are at Choti in 
Dera Ghazi Khdn, but it is also found in Sindh. 

* The following Baloch septs can stop bleeding by channa and touching the wounds, and 
used also to have the power of bewitching the arms of their enemies : — The Baj4ni sept of 
IheDurkini, the Jabrani sept of the Lashari, anu the Girani sept of the Jaskini ; among the 
Gurchanis : the Shahmani sept of the Hadiani Legharis, and, among the Khosas, the 
Chitar and Faqi'rs. 

t A servile tribe, now of small importance, found mainly in Muzaffargarh. 

t The Qasranis practise divination from the shoulder-blades of sheep (an old Mughal 
custom) and also take auguries from the flight of birds. 

§ The Khosas also form a s\x\>-tuman of the Rinds of Shoran and a clan of the Lunds of 

Baloch tribes, 47 

The Lunds form two tumaiis, one of Sori, with its head -quarters at 
Kot Kandiwdirt, the other at Tibbi, both in Dera Gh6zi Khan. Both 
claim descent- from Ali, son of Rihd,ii, Mir Chakur's cousin. The Son 
Lunds include a Gurcli^ni clan and form a large tuman, livin^r in the 
plain!^, but the Tibbi Lunds are a small tuman to which are affiliated a 
clan of Khosas and one of Rinds — the latter of impure descent. 

The Marri tuman, notorious for its marauding habits which neces- 
sitated an expedition against it only in 1880, is of composite origin. 
The Ghazani section claims descetit from Ghazan, son of Ali, son of 
Jal^l Khdn and the Bijardnis from Bijar Phuzh^ who revolted against 
Mir Chdkur. The latter probably includes some Pathdn elements. 
The Mazaranis are said to be Khetrdns, and the Lohar^nis of mixed 
blood, while Jatt, Kalmati, BuletZ/ii and Hasani elements have 
doubtless been also absorbed. 

The Mazaris are an organised clan of iinportancp, with bead-quarters 
at Hojhan in Dera Ghd,zi Khan. Its ruling sept, the BdMchdni, is said 
to be Hot by descent, but the rest of the tribe are Rind-^. The name 
is derived apparently from mazdr, a tiger, like the Path.ln 'Mzarai.' 
The Kirds or Kurds, a powerful Brahui tribe, also furnish a clan to 
the Mazd,ris. The Mazdris as a body (excluding the Baldchdnis) are 
designated Sydh-Uf, or 'Black-bellies.' 

Other noteworthy tribes, not organized as tumans, are — 

The Ahmd^nist of Mdnd, in Dera Gh^zi Kh^n. They claim descent 
from Gydnddr and were formerly of importance. 

The Gislikfiuris, fcund scattered in Dera Ismdil Khan, Muzaffargarh 
and Mekr^n, and claiming descent from one of Mir Chdkur's Rind 
companiouR, nick-nam^^d Gishkhaur, But the Gishkhaur is really a 
torrent in the Boleda Valley, Mekrdn, and possibly the clan is of 
common descent with the BulecZ/ii.J 

Tdlpur or Talbur, a olan of the Leghdria, is, by some, derived from 
its eponym, a son of Bulo, and thus of BulecZM origin. Its principal 
representatives are the Mirs of Khairpur in Sind, but a few Talpurs are 
still found in Dera Ghazi Khdn. Talbur literally means ' wood-cutter' 
(fr. tdl, branch, and buragh, to cut). 

The Pitdfis, a clan found in considerable numbers in Dera Ismdil 
Khan and Muza£fargarh.§ Pitdfi would appear to mean 'Southern.' 

The Nutkini or Nodhti'k&m, a compact tribe, organized till quite 
recently as a tuman, and found in Sangarh, Dera Ghdzi Khdn District. 

The Mashori, an impure clan, now found mainly in Muzaffargarh.[| 

The Mastoi, probably a servile tribe, found principally in Dera Ghdzi 
Khdn where it has no social status. 

* The Phuzh are or were a clan of Kinds, once of great importance --indeed the whole Rind 
tribe IS said to have once been called Phuzh. They are now only found at Kolanah in 
Mekran, m Kachhi and near the Bolan Pass. a xv i nau ui 

JLarge Ahmdani clans are also found among the Lunds of fori and the Haddi4ni Leghfirig. 

;itie Lashari sub-h/»na»i of the Gurohani also includes a Oishkhauri sept, and the Dombkis 
nave a clan of that name. 

§ Also as a Gurchani clan in Dera Ghazi Khin. 
The Bughtis have a Masori clan. 

48 Baloch tribes. 

The Dashti, another servile tribe, now found scattered in small 
numbers iu Deras Ismdil Khan and Gh^zi Khan, in Muzaifargarh and 

'J'he Gopd,ng, or mora correctly Go\)}\anft [ic. gophanh, 'cowhprd'), 
also a servile tribe, now scattered over Kachhi, Dera Ismdil Khan, 
Multan and Muzaffargarh, especially the latter. 

The Hot (Hut) once a very powerful tribe (still so ia Mekr^n) and 
widely spread wlierever Baloches are found, but most numerous in Dera 
Ismdil Khdn, Muzaffargarh, Jhang and Multdn. 

The Jatoi, not now an organized tribe, but found wherever Baloches 
have spread, i.e., in all the Districts of the South-West Punjab and as 
far as Jhang, Shahpur and Lahore. 

The Kordi or Kauddi, not now an organized tuman, but found 
wherever Baloches have spread, especially in Dera Ismdil Khdn, Multdn 
and Muzaffargarh. 

The history of the Baloch is an instructive illustration of the trans- 
formations to which tribes or tribal confederacies are prone. The 
earliest record oftlieir organisation represents them as divided into 44 
holaks of which 4 were servile. 

But as soon as history begins we find the Baloch nation split up 
into 5 main divisions, Rind, Lashdri, Hot, Korai (all of undoubted 
Baloch descent) and Jatoi which tradition would appear to represent 
as descended from a Baloch woman (Jato) and her cousin (Murdd), 
Outside these groups are those formed or affiliated in Mekrdn, such 
as the Buled/iis, Ghazanis and Umardnis. Then comea the Doddi tribe, 
franklv of non-Baloch descent in the male line. Lastly to all these must 
be added the servile tribes, Gopdngs, Dashtis, Gliolds and others. In 
a fragment of an old ballad is a list of servile tribes, said to have been 
gifted by Mir Chakur to Bdnari, his sister, as her dower and set free 
by her : 

' The Kirds, Gabols, Gadahis, Tdlburs and the Marris of Kdhan — all 
were Chdkur's slaves.' 

Other versions add thePachdlo (now unknown) and * the rotten-boned 
Bozddrs.' Other miscellaneous stocks have been fused with the 
Baloch — such as Pathdns, Khetrdns, Jatts. 

Not one single tribe of all those specified above now forms a tuman 
or even gives its name to a tuman. We still find the five main divisions 
existing and numerous, but not one forms an organised tuman. All 
five are more or less scattered or at least broken up among the various 
tumans. The very name of hohk is forgotten — except by a clan nf the 
Rind Baloch near Sibi which is still stjled the Ghuldm (slave) holaJc. 
Among the Marris the clans are now called takdr (cf. Sindhi fakara, 
mountain), the septs phalli, and the smaller sub-divisions phnrd. 
The tuman (fr. Turkish ti'imdn, 10,000) reminds us of the Mughal 
hazara, or legion, and is a semi-political, semi-military confederacy. 

Tribal nomenclature among the Baloch offers some points of interest. 
As already mentioned the old main "divisions each bore a significant 
name. The more modern tribes have also names which occasionally 
look like descriptive nick-names or titles. Thus Lund (Pe is.) mean 

Baloch Ctistom. 49 

knave, debauchee or wanderer, just as Rind does : Khosa (Sindhi) means 
robber (and also ' fever '): AJarri in Sindhi also chatices to mean a plague 
or epidemic. Some of the clan-names also have a doubttuUy totemistic 
meaninj^ : e.g., Syah-phari/i, Hlaek-leet : (jul-phadh, Klower-fe'i't (a 
Drishak clan) : (jan-ia-gwalag-h, small red ant, (a Duikani clan) 
Kalpbur, an aromatic plant, Glinus lotoides (a Bughti clan). 

Baloch Customary Law in Dera Gbazi Kban.* 
Custom, not the Muhammadan Law prevails among the Baloch as 
a body but the Nutkiinis profess to follow the latter and to a large 
extent do in fact give effect to its provisions. Baloch often postpone 
a girl's betrothal till she is 16 years of age, and have a distmctive 
observance called the hiski,f which consists in Cristing a red cloth over 
the girl's head, either at her own h'-use or at. some pUce ag' eed upon 
by thft kinsmen. Well-to-do people slaughter a sheep or goat for a 
feast; the poorer Balocti simply distribute sweets to their guests. 
Betrothal is considered almost os binding as marri'ge, especially in 
R^janpur tahsil, and only i-npotence, leprosy or apos'asy will justify 
its breach. Baloch women ar^ not given to any one outside the race, 
pave to SHyyids, but a man may mairy any Muhammadan woman, 
Baloch, Jat or even Pathd,n, but not of course Savyid. The usual 
practice is to marry witliin ihe se^t, women beino^ sold out of it if they 
go astray. Only some sections of t'lO Nutkdni:^ admit an adult 
woman's right to arrange her own marriage ; but such a marriage, if 
effected without her guardian's consent, is considered ' black ' by all 
other Baloch. Public feeling demands strong grounds tor divorce, 
ar.d in the Jdmpur tahsil it is not customary, while unchastity is 
the only recognised jjround in Rd,jaripnr. Marriage is nearly always 
according to the orthodox Muhammadan ritual, but a foim called 
tan-hakhshi (' giving of the person ') is also recoirnised. It consists 
in the woman's mere declaration that she has given herself to her 
husband, and is virtually only used in the case ot widows* The rule 
of Rucce-'sion is equal division among the sons, except in the families 
of the Mazdri and Urishak chiefs in which tho eldest son gets a some- 
what larger share than his brothers. U!>ually a grandson got no 
share in the presence of a father's brother, but the custom now univer- 
sally recognised is that gi'andsons get their deceased fathers' share,t 
but even now in Sangnrh the right of representation is not fully 
recognised, for among the Baloch of that tahsil grandsons take 'per 
capita, if there are no sons. As a rule a widow gets a life interest in her 
husband's estate, but the Gurchanis in Jampur refuse to allow a woman 
to inherit under any circumstances. Daughters rarely succeed in the 
presence of male descendants of the deceased's grandfather equally 
remote, the Baloch of Kdjanpur and Jampur excluding the daughter 
by her father's cousin and nearer agnates ; but in Sangarh tahsil 
daughters get a share according to Muhammadan Law, provided they 

* From Mr. A. H Diack's Customary Law of ihe Dera Qhdzi Khan District, Vol. xvi of the 
Punjab Customary Law Series. 

|The '-isfci is falling into disuse in the northernmost tahsil of Dera Ghazi Klian and 
among the Gopang along the Indus in Jampur. 

:|: A few Nutkini sections in Sangarh still say that they only do so if it is formally b«« 
queathed to them by will. 

60 Baloch customs. 

do not make an unlawful marriaore.* Where the daugfhter inherits 
lier righi is not extinguisheil by her marriai^e, but the Balofh in 
Rajanpur t-ihsil msisr. tnat if marrie'l she si. all have married withm 
her lathe' 's ^/la/^i, or if unmHTi-ied tihall nanny within it, as a condi- 
tion ufii-r siiic^ssioii. The resilient son-inlaw acquires no epecial 
rights, bat tlie daughrer's son m Jdmpur and Kdjdnpur succe'eds where 
his mother would succeed. No other Baloch appear to rec'>gnise his 
right. When brother succeeds brother the whole blood excludes the 
half in Sangarh and Dera Ghd,zi Khan tahsils, but in Jd,mpur and 
Rdjanpur all the brothers succeed equally. Similarly, in Sangarh, the 
associated brothers take half and the others the remaining half. 
Sii|^ers never .succeed (exc-'pt in those few sections of the Nutkdois of 
Sangarh wnich follow Muhammadan law). A step-sou has no rights 
of succession, but may keep what his step-father gives him during his 
life-time, and, in Sangarh and Kdjanpur, may get one-third of a natural 
son's siiare by will. Adoption is not recoy^nis^d, except possibly 
among the Baloch of Sangarh, and those of Rdjanpur expressly forbid 
it. But adoption in the strict Hindu sense is quite unknown, since a 
boy can be adopted even if the adoptor has a son of his own, and 
any one can adopt or be ad' pted. In Sangarh, again, a widow may 
adopt, but only with the consent of her husband's kinsmen. The 
adopted son retains all his rights in his natural father's property, but 
in Sangarh he does not succeed his adopti^^e father if the latter have 
a son born to him after the ad -ption (a rule curiously inconsistent with 
that which allows a man to adopt a second son). Except in Jd,mpur 
tahsil, a maa may make a gift of the whole of his land to an heir to 
the exclusion of the rest, and as a rule he may also gift to his daugh- 
ter, her husband or son and to his sister and her children, but the 
Lunds and Legharis would limit the gift to a small part of the land. 
Gifts to a tion-relative are as a rule invalid, unless it be for religion, and 
even then in Jdmpur it should only be of p>irt of the estate. Death-bed 
gifts are invalid in Sangarh and Jampur and only valid in the other 
two tahsils of Dera Ghd,zi Khdn to ihe extent allowed by Muhammadan 
Law. Sons cannot en I orce a partition, but in Sangarh their consent 
is necessary to it ; yet in that and the Dera Ghdzi Khd,n tahsils it is 
averred that a fatlier can make an unequal partition (and even exclude 
a son from his share) to endure beyond his life-time. But in Jampur 
and Rd,janpur the sons are entitled to equal shares, the Mazdri and 
Drishak chiefs excepted. The subsequent birth of a son necessitates 
a fresh partition. Thus among the Baloch tribes we find no system 
of tribal law, but a mass of varying local nsuage. Primitive custom 
is ordinarily enforced, and though the semi-sacred Nutkaois in Sangarh 
tahsil consider it incumbent upon them to follow Muhammadan Law, 
even they to do not give practical effect to all its niceties. 

Birth customs. The usual Muhammadan observances at birth are 
in vogue. The hang is sounded into the child's ear by the mullah six 
days aft«r its birth and on the 6th night a sheep or cattle are slaugh- 
tered and the brotherhood invited to a feast and dance. The child 

* But the Khosas and Kasrinis in this tahsil do not allow daughters to succeed at all, 
unlfips their father bequeath them a share, and that share must not exceed the share admis- 
sible under Muhammadan Law, 

Baloch kinship . 51 

is also named on this occasion. If a boy it is given its grandfather's 
name, if hp be dead ; or its father'." name if he is dead: so too an uncle's 
name is triv^ n if both f ther hikI irrandfather be alive, ('omm n name's 
are Dcidu, Banjoul, Kaiiibir, Thag a (fr. thayagh, to be loni<-rved,, 

Circumcision (sha-ie, tahor) h performed at the age of 1 or 2, by a 
tahorokh. or circumcisor who i.>4 a Domb, not a mullah or a Pirhain, ex- 
cept in the plains where a Pirhain is employed. In the hills a Baloch 
can act if no Domb be available. Ten or twelve men bring a ram 
and slaughter it for a feast, to which the boy's father (who is called 
the tahor rvnzha*) contributes bread, in the evening : next morning 
he entertains th« visitors atid they depart. In the plains rattle are 
slanyhtered and the brotherhood invited; /lewdr being also given — a 
usage not in vogue in the hills. 

Jhand, the first tonsure, is performed, pror to the circumcision, at 
the shrine of Sakhi Sarwar, the weight of the child's hair in silver being 
given to its mujdwars. 

Divorce (called sd wan as well as h7n A;) i-< effected in the hills by 
casting stones 7 times or thrice and dismissing the wife. 

Concubinage is not unusual, and concubines are called suret, but 
winzas are not known, it is said. The cl ildren by such women are 
called suretwal and receive no share in their father's land, but only 
maintenance during his life-tiTne. These surets appear, however, to 
hold a better position than the mol'id or slave women. 

Terms of kinship. The kin generally are called shad or brdthari 
(brotherhood), hrahmd&^h. 

Pith-phiru, fore-fathers. 

Father's sister,— Father, pith ( X Mother, mcif ft)— Father's brother, 

phupM. I ndkho 

( ^ X 

Son, bachh or phusagh Daughter, jinkh <ri§ 

X X I 

nashdrf or dakhunX Son-in-law, zamdth Cousin, i e., 

(Daughter-in-law) paternal uncle's child, 

I ri.dkhozdkhf. 
Grand-child chhuh-zdkht 

Brother, ] _ p _ C Sister, giudr or gohdr X sirzdkht, i.e , sister's husband. 
hrdth, bird\\ ) I I 

X I 

Brother's wife, nashdr. Sister's child, gohar»zdkht 

The mother's brother is mama as in Punjabi, but her sister is tri and 
her son tri-zdkht. 

In aMressing relatives other words are used, such as ohha, father; 
addd (fem.-i), brother (familiarly). A wife is u-ually zdl, also dmrish.' 

A step-son is patrdk, pazddagh or phizndngh (fr. phadha, behind, 
thu-^ corresponding to the Punjabi pizhhlag). A st^p^daugliier is' 

* Wdth,i=Khv:aia or master. The father is 'lord of the tahor or purification,' 

t It will be observed that nns/idr^son's or brother's wife 

j Dakhun or dnhundXso appe rs to mean brother's wife. 

§ iri ihus equals mother's sister or father's brothers wife. 

II Bardf/iar is a poetical form. 

if Dames' Monograph, p. 25, 

52 Baloch mythology. 

A namesake is amndm and a contemporary amsan. Equally simple 
are the Baloch marriage customs. The youth gives shawls to his 
betroth ed's mother and her sisters, and supplies the girl herself 
with clothes till the weddinpr. Before that occurs minstrels (doms) 
are sent out to summon the guests, and when assembled they 
make gifts of money or clothes to the bridegroom. Characteristically 
the latter's hospitality takes the form of prizes— a camel for the best 
horse, money to the best shot and a turban to the best runner. The 
actual wedding takes place in the evening, Nendr* or wedding gifts, 
the neota or tambol of the Punjab, are only made in the plains, but 
among the hill Baloch a poor man goes the round of his section and 
begs gifts, chiefly made in cash. Similarly the tribal chiefs and 
headmen used to levy benevolences, a cow from every herd, a sheep 
from every flock, or a rupew from a man who owned no cattle, when 
celebrating a wedding. It is also customary to knock the heads of the 
pair together twic*^ and a relation of tbemties together the corners of 
their c/iddar« (shawls). 

A corpse is buried at once, with no formalities, save that a 
mullah, if present, reads the jandza. Dry brushwood is heaped over 
the grave. 

Tliree or four days later the asrokhi or sehd takes place. This 
appears to be a contiibution also called pathar or mhanna, each 
neighbour and clansman of the deceased's seciiou visiting his relations 
to condole with them and makinar them a present of four annas each. 
In thw evening the relations provide them with food and they depart. 

On a chief's death the whole clan assembles to present gifts which 
vary in amount from four annas to two rupees. Six montlis afier- 
wards the people all re-assemble at the grave, the brushwood is removed 
and the grave marked out with white stones. 

Of the pre-Islamic faith of the Baloch hardly a trace remains. 
Possibly in Noci/i-bandagh [lit. the cloud-binder), surnamed the Gold- 
scatterer, who had vowed never to reject a request and never to touch 
money with his hands, an echo of some old mythology survives, 
but in Baloch legend he is the father of Gwahardm, Ch^kur's rival 
for the hand of Gohar. Yet Chdkur the Rind when defeated by the 
Lash^ris is saved by their own chief NocZ/i-bandagh, and mounted on 
his mare Phul (' Flower'). 

The Baloch is as simple in his religion as in all pise aiad fanaticism is 
foreign to his nature. Among the hill Baloch mullahs are rarely found 
and the Muhammadan fasts and prayers used to be hardly known. 
Orthodox observances are now more usual and the Qur^n is held in 
great respect. Faqirs also are seldom met with and Sayyids are 

• Also called mhanna, lit. 'contributions.' 

t See Dome, Bilochi noma, pp ti4-tii'. But Dames {The Baloch Race, p. 37) translates 
darokh by memorial canopy, apparently with good reason. Capt. Coldstream says : ' Asrokh 
is a ceremony which takes place on a certain day after a death The friends of the deceased 
assemble at his house and his heirs entertain them and prayers are repeated. The cere- 
mony of dastarhandt ov tying a fa ri on the head of the dec-^ased's heir is then performed 
by his leading relative in presence of the guests. The date varies among the different 
tumans. In Dera Ghazi Khan it is generally the 3rd day after the death : in Balochistan 
there is appearently no fixed day, but as a rule the period is longer,' 

Baloch legends. 53 

unknown.* The Baloch of the plains are however much more religioua 
outwardly, and among them Sayyida possess considerable influence 
over their murids. 

The Bugtis especially affect Pir Sohri ('the red saint') a Pirozdni of 
the Nod/ianit section. This ptV was a gOKtherd who gave his onlv 
goat to the Four Friends of God and in return they miraculously filled 
his told with goats and gave him a staff wherewith if smitten the earth 
would bring forth watt-r. Most of the goats thus given wei-e red 
{i.e., brown), but some were white with red ears. Suhri was slain by 
some Buled/iis v?ho drove oft' his goats, but he came to life again 
and pursued them. Even though they cutoff his head he demanded his 
goats which they restored to him. Sohri returned home headless and 
before he died ba^ie bis eons tie his body on a camel and make his tomb 
wherever it rested. At four different places where there were kahir 
trees it halted, and these trees are st'll there. Then it rested at the 
spot where Sohri's tomb now is, and by they buried his daughter 
who had died that very day, but it moved itself in another direition. 
Most Baloohes offer a red goat at Sohri's tomb and it is slaughtered by 
the attendants of the shrine, the flesh being distributed to all who are 
present there. 

Another curious legend is that of the prophet Dris (fr. Arab. Idris) 
who by a faqir's sarcastic blessing obtained 40 sons" at a birth. Of 
these he exposed 39 in the wilderness and the legend describes how 
they survived him, and so terrified the people that public opinion 
• compelled Dris to bring them back to liis home. Bnt the Angel of 
Death bore them all away at one time. Dris, with his wife then 
migrates to a strange land but is false'y accused of slaying the king's 
son. Mutilateil and cast forth to die he is tended by a potter whose 
slave he becomes. The king's daughter sees him, blind and without 
feet or hands, yet she falls ni love with him and insists on marrying 
him. Dris is then healed by Health, Fortune and Wisdom and 
returning home finds his 40 sons still alive! At last like Enoch he 
attains to the presence of God without dying. J 

It must not however be imagined that the Baloch is superstitious. 
His nervous, imaginative temperament makes him singularly credulous 
as to the presence of sprites and hobc<oblins in desert place, but he 
is on the whole singularly free from irratiouHl beliefs. His Mu'hamma- 
danism is not at all bigoted and is strcngly tinged with Shiaism its 
mysticism appealing vividly to his imagination." " All the poets give 
vivid descriptions 6l the Day of Judgment, the terrors of Hell and 
the joys of Paradise, mentioning the classes of men who will receive 
rewards or punishments. The greatest virtue is generosity, the crime 
demanding most severe punishment is avaiice," a law in entire accord 
with the Baloch code. One of the most characteristic of Baloch 
legends is the Prophet's Maidj or Ascension, a qnaintlv beautiful 
narrative in anthropouiorphif form § fc:;ome of the legends current 

* There are a cotisiderablH mirnher f)f Say^'iHa amon^ the Hozdirn. 

+ More correctl}' Noii/iakani, descendants of No(i/iak, a diminutive of 7iodh. 'cloud ' a com 
mon proper name among the Baloch. The word is corrupted to Nutkani bj' outsiders 

JFor the full version see The. Baloch Race, pp. IGi)— 175 where the Ic^jend of the Chihil 
Tan zidrat is also given. That shrine is held in special reverence by the Brahilis 

§ It is given in Dames' Popular Poetry 0/ the Baloches, pp. 157 — 161. 


The Magassi Baloch. 

concerning Ali would appear to be Buddhist in origin, e.g., that of The 
Fig eon and the Hawk.* 

Music is popular atnong the Baloch, but singing to the damliro, a 
foui-.sirinf<ed guitar, and tlie sarindd, a tive-strmged iuatrument like 
a banjo, is contined to the Uombs. The Baloch himself uses the war, 
a wooden pipe about 'SO inches in length, bound round with t.trips of 
raw gut. Upon this is played the hung, a kind of droning accompani- 
ment to the singing, the singer himself playing it with one corner of 
his mouth. The effect is quaint but hardly pleasing, though Dames says 
that the nar accompaniments are graceful and melodious. 

The Magassi Baloch. 

The Magassi Baloch who are found in Mult^n, Muzaffarg'arh, Dera 
Ghdzi, Mi^nwdli and Jhang,t appear to be a "peculiar people" rather 
than a tribe.J As both Sunnis and Shias aie found among them 
they do not form a sect. Most of them in the above Districts are 
murids or disciples of Mian Nur Ahmad, Abbdssi, of R^janpur in Dera 
Ghdzi Kbdn, whose grandfather Muhammad Xrii's shrine is in 
Mid,nwd,li. The Magassis in Balochist^n are, however, all disciples of 
Hazrat Ghaus Bahd-ud-Din of Mult^n. Like all the murids of the 
Miin, his Magassi disciples abstain from smoking and from shaving 
the bpard. Magassis will espouse any Muhammadan girl, but never 
give daiitjhters in marriage outside the group, and strictly abstain 
from Hny connection with a sweeper woman, even though she be a 
cnnvprt ti) Isl^m. At a wedding sU the Magassi who are murids of the 
Midn assemble at the bride's home a dny before the procession and are 
feasted by her parents. The guests offer prayers § to God and the Midn 
for the welfare of the married pair. This feast is called shddmdna\\ and 

* Hid. p. 161. 










































They are divided into the following septs :— 




















Mangesi, &c 

The Madan'-Gadi Ri'nds will not give brides to the Laghari, Chandia, Kerni and Gidhi 
Rind septs, from whom they receive them, but all these Baloch will take wives from other 
Muhammadans except the Sayyids. The Mangesi only smoke with men of their own sept. 

t In Balochistan the Magassi are said to form a. turn an under Nawab Qaisar Khan, 
Magassi, of Jhal Magassi. They say that in the time of Ghazi Khan many of them migrated 
into the present Sangarh tahsi'l of Dera Ghazi Khan, but were defeated by Lai Khan, 
tumanddr of the Qasranis and driven across the Indus, where they settled in Nawankot, now 
in Leiah tahsil Their settlement is now a ruin, as they were dispersed in the time of the 
Sikhs, but a headman of Nawankot is still regarded as their sirdar or chief 

§ In Multan these prayers are called dzi and are said to be offered when the feast is half 

II In Leiah a i^hddmdna is said to be observed on occasions of great joy or sorrow All the 
members and followers of the " Sarai ' or Abbassi family ass'^mble and first eat meat cooked 
with snlt only and bread containing sugar, the leavings being distributed among the poor 
after prayers have been recited. Every care is taken to prevent a crow or a dog from 
touching this food, and those who prepare it often keep the mouth covered up. A shddmdna 
is performed at the shrines of ancestors. It is a solemn rite and prayers aie said in 
common. A boy is not accepted as a disciple by the Pir until he is circumcised, and until 
he is so accepted he cannot take part in a shddmdna. 

The Baloch criminal tribe. 55 

precet^es all tbe other rites and ceremonies. Contrary to Muhammadan 
usape a Maprassi bridegroom may consnmmate his marriafro on the 
very first niglit of the we'idinyr procession and in tlio Imu.-e of the 
bride's father. At a funeral, wheth-r of a male or female, the rela- 
tives repeat the four takhirs, if they art^ Sunnis, but disciples of the 
Mi4n recite the jannza of the Shfas. Magassis, when they metit one 
another, or any other viurid of the Midn Sdhib, shake and kiss each 
other's hands in token of their hearty love and union. 

The Magassi in Leiah are Shias and like all Shias avoid eating the 
hare. But the following customs appear to be peculiar to the Magassi 
of this tahsil : When a cliild is born the water in a cup in stirred 
with a knife, which is also touched with a bow smeared with horse-dung 
and given to the child to drink. The sixth nigtit after a male birth is 
kept HS a vigil by both men and women, the latter keeping apart nnd 
singing sihrd songs, while among the men a mirdsi beats his drum. 
This is called the chhati. On the 14th day the whole brotherhood is 
invited to asseiTible, women and all, and tlie boy is presented to them. 
The doyen of the kinsman is then asked to swing the cliild in his 
cradle, and for this he is given a rupee or a turban. From 14 paos to 
as many sers of gur and salt are then distributed among the kinsmen, 
and the boy is taken to the nearest well, the man who works it being 
given a dole of siij^ar and bread or flour. This is the rite usually 
called ghari gharoli, and it ought to be observed on the 14th day, 
but poor people keep it on the day after the chhati. The tradition is 
that the chhatti and ghari gharoli observances are kept, because 
Amir Hamza was borne by the fairies from Arabia to the Caucasus 
when he was six days old, dud so every Baloch boy is careful? guarded 
on the sixth night at'ter his birth. Amir Hamza was, indeed, brought 
back on the 14th day, and so on that day the observances are kept 
after a boy's birth. For this reason too, it is said, the bow is strung ! 
All wedding rites take place at night, and on the wedding night a 
couch and bedding supplied by the bridegroom are taken to the 
bride's house by mirasis, who sing songs on the way, and get a rupee 
as their fee. The members of the bridegroom's family accompany 
them. This is called tbe sejband. 

At a funeral five takhirs are recited if the mullah happens to bo 
a Shia, but if he is a Sunni only four are read. The nimdz in use 
are those of the Shias. 

The Baloch as a criminal tribe* 

The Baloch of Karniil and Ambdla form a criminal community. 
They say they were driven from their native land in the time of 
Nadir Shdh who adopted severe measures to check their criminal 
tendencies, but they also say that they were once settled in the Qasur 
tract near Lahore and were thence expelled owing to their marauding 
habits. They give a long genealogy of their descent from Abraham 
and derive it more immediately from Rind, whose descendants, they 
say, are followers of the Imdm Shdfi and eat unclean things like the 
Awdns, Qalandars, Mad^ris and the vagrant Baloch who are known as 

66 SaMch'-'BangdU. 

Hnburag. Gullu they insert in their gfenealogy as the ancestor of the 

Giloi Baloch. Speakino^ an argot of their own called Balnchi Fdrwi, 

tl>ey are skilful burglars and wander preat distances, disguised as 

faqirs and butchers. When about to start on a plundering expedition 

sardnrs or chiefs are appointed as lenders, and on its termination they 

divide the spoil, receiving a double portion for thems^'Ives. Widows 

also receive their due share of the booty. The Giloi Baloch of Lyallpur, 

however, claim descent from Sayyid " Giloi," a nickname paid to mean 

" freebooter." This tribe was formerly settled in the Montgomery 

District, but has been transplanted to two villages in Lyallpur and 

is settling down to cultivation, thougli it still associates with criminals 

in Ferozepur, Montgomery and Bahdwalpur. It now makes little use 

of its peculiar patois. 

BALtJCH, Bli^ch, a Pathd,n sept, see Bluch, 

Bald-panthi. — A small Bair^gi sub-sect. B'lM Thappa* or B^ld, Sahib was 
a Baiidgi sddhu of Jdt birth who lived in the Daska tahsil of Sidlkot. 

Balwatrah, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Mult^n. 

Bamba, an important tribe in Kashmir, and represented by two families in 
Hazdra: District Gazetteer, 1907, p. 34. 

Bam-maegi, Vamachari, tiie 'left-handed^ worshippers of Kali and the 
most notorious division of the Shdktiks. Said to have been founded by 
the Jogi Kanipa, chiefly recruited from Saniasis and Jogis, and to be 
found chiefly in Kdngra and Kashmir. As a rule their rites are 
kept secret and they are perhaps in consequence reputed to be chiefly 
indulgence in meat, spirits and promiscuity. The Choli-marg and 
Bira3pani are more disreputable groups or sub-sects of the Bam- 

Bamozai, an Afghan family, settled in Multdn, which came from Khordsan 
in the time of Ahmad Shah Abdd,li : Multdn Gazetteer, 1901-02, 
pp. 161—2. 

Banaich, a J[)ogar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Ba-nawa, ? a synonym for be-nawd, g.v. 

Ba?jb, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Ba^^p, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Bandal, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Bandechh, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Banpejah, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Bandial, an agricultural clan found in Shdhpur. 

Bangakh, see Bangash. 

Bangali, (1) a native of Bengal : (2) a vagrant tribe, probably akin to the 
Sdnsis (with whom they certainly intermarry) and found chiefly in 
Kangra, whither they were probably driven from Hoshidrpur by the 
passing of the Criminal Tribes Act. 

* This title suggests a Gurkha origin, as Thappa is a common title among the Gurkhas. 


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The Bangash. 6!? 

The Bangalig are a small group, Vmt aro in constant communication 
with tlio Sapehras and other criminal tribes of the plains. They live 
by bf'gging, exhibiting snakes, hunting and pilfering, but are probably 
not a'ldicted to serious crimo. Their camps are said to contain never 
less than 7 or more than 15 male adults. They make reed huts and 
can strike camp on the shortest notice, travelling with donkeys as 
pack-animals. Dogs arc kept for hunting, ancl the Bangdli will eat 
any wild animal, even a hyajua, but he eschews beef or pork according 
to the prejudices of the people among whom ho finds himself. There is 
said to be a special Bangali argot, known only to the tribe. Their women 
are prostitutes, os well as dancers and singers. Besides propitiating 
local deities the Bang^lis arr^ said to specially affect Sakhi Sarwar as 
* Lakhdd,tcl ' and occasionally visit bis shrine at Dharnikot near Nasirdbdd. 
(3) The term Bangali is applied to Kanjar in some districts and in 
others to any 8apd-da or snake-charmer in the plains.* There is no 
evidence that (2) or (3) have any connection with Bengal. In Panjabi 
Bangdli means a braggart, as in hhukhkhd Bangali, a boastful person. 
Bangash, BANGAKH.t This is the name given to a number of Pathdn 
tribes, formerly estimated to amount to some 100,000 families, as well 
as to the tract of mountainous country wliich they held. This tract 
was onc6 divided into Bella (Upper) and Pdin (Lower) Bangash and 
was thence called the Ban^ashat (in the plural) or Hhe two Bangash.' 
The first historical rafntion of the Bangashat occurs in Babar's Tuzi'ik, 
but the two tracts had long been under the control oi the Turk and 
Mughal rulers of the Ghazniwi empire as the most practicable routes from 
Ghazni and Kdbul into India lay through them. At a period when 
the Khataks and Orakzais are barely referred to, we find constant 
mention of the Afghans of Bangash. Roughly speaking, Upper 
Bansrash included Kurram and Lower Bangfash the country round 
Kohat, but it is difficult to define accurately the shifting boundaries of 
the turtidn as it was called by the Mughal*. According to the Ain-i- 
Akbari this tumdn formed part of the sarkclr and subah (province) of 

The Afghan tribes of Bangash were of Kurani (KarMrni) origin and 
the following table gives their traditional desceut : — 


Eakai (necond son\ 

f ' . 

Sulaiman. Sharaf-ud-Din, (called Shitak by 

I the Afghi.n8>. 

r i ^ i , ,. 

Wazir. Bai. Malik Kakhai Mir. The Bannuchie. 

The Baizai, descendants of Bai, and the Malik-Miris or Miranzais, 
sprung from Malik Mir, were the parent tribes of the Afghans of Bangash, 
and to thef^e were affilinted the Katrhzi, descended from Kilkhai or 
Kilghai, daughter of Malik Mir, by ahu<band of an unknown tribe. The 
Malik-Miris, as Malik Mir's descendants in the male line, held tho 
chieftainship, but it subsequently passed to the Baizais. The latter 

* Because of the belief that charming is most succosaf ully pr\cti8pd at Dacca in Benpal. 
There is or was a wild tribe in the rocks above Solon called V ingilis. Bapehra and Sapida 
are doubtful forms of Sapela, snake-charmer. 

t The Eaetern (or rather Northern) Afghan form. 

58 Bngash Jvistor'^ . 

lias several brandies, the Mardo, Azu, Lodi and Sh^liu khels. The 
Miranzai khels are the Hassan zai, with the Badah, Khdkhd, and Umar 
khel^^. A third branchy the Shamilzai,"^ apparently identical with the 
Kdghzi, produced the Laudi, Hassan Khel, Musa Khel and Isa Khel. 

Like the other Karlarni tribes the Afghans ot Bangash were 
disciples of the Pir-i-Roshdn, and tlieir attachment to that heresy 
brought about their ruin, the Mnghnl government ore^anizing 
conaiant expeditions against them. Afier the Khataks had moved 
towards tlie noith-ea^t from tlie Shuwal range (in Waziristdn),t the 
Baizai, Malik-Miris and Kaghzis then settled in the Upper Bangash, 
invaded the Lower (Koh^t) and, in alliance with the Khataks, drove 
the Orakzai who then held the Lower Bangash westNvards into Tirdh. 
This movement continued till the reign of Akbar.| 

The history of the Bangash tribes and the part they took 
in the Mughal operations against the Boshanias are obscure. Probably 
they were divided among themselves. § but those of them who had 
remained in Kurram appear to have adhered to the Eoshania doctrines. 

After Aurangzeb's accession in 1659, we find Sher Muhammad Khdn, 
of Koh^t, chief of the Malik-Miris, in revolt against the Mughals. He 
was captured, but subsequently released and became an adherent of the 
Mughals. Khushhdl Khan the Khatak gives a spirited account of his 
little wars with Sher Muhammad Khan which ended m his own defeat 
and the final establishment of the Bangash in their present seats. 

Among the Bangash Pathdns of Kohat, betrothal {kwazda, ' asking') 
is privately negotiated, the boy's father taking the initiative. Then a day 
is fixed upon for the father and his friends to visit the girl's father. At 
the latter's house prayers are read and swee's distributed, the nikdh 
being sometimes also read on this occasion. But as a rule the girl simply 
puts on a gold or silver coin as the sign that she is betrothed. If the 
wedding is to be celebrated at no distant date, the rarmana or bride- 
price is paid at the betrothal — otherwise it is not paid till the wedding. 
But a price is invariably expected, its amount varying from Ks. 100 to 
1,000, and Ihe boy's father also has to supply the funds for entertaining 
the wedding party on the wedding day. The day following the 
betrothal pitchers of milk are exchanged by the two parties and the 
milk is drunk by their kinsfolk. The boj's father also sends the girl 
a «uit of clothes and some cooked food on each Id and the Shabrat. 

On the day fixed for the commencement of the festivities sweets are 
distributed by the boy's father among his friends and kinsmen and music 
is played. Three days before the weddmg comes the kenaiii(il,yvhen the 
boy's kinswomen visit the bride and observe this rite, whicli consists in 
stripping the bride of all her ornaments and shutting her up in a room 
by herself. The next night the women visit her again for the kamei 
Wdasical or unplaiting of her hair. For this the barber's wife receives 
a fee. On the third day the bridegroom gives a feast to all his friends 

* Also interesting us having given birth to the Bangash Nawabs of i'arrukhabad, 

j The Miranzai give their name to the Miraczai ta'ppa, Upper and Lower, which forms 
the Hangii tahsil of Kohat. 

:j: The .4m still includes the Orakzai in the Bangash tumdn, but its Taguely defined 
boundaries may have been at that time deemed to include Tiral. 

I Some huudiedij of them were deported into Hindustau, 


-- Bdnhor — Bania. 59 

and follow-villagors, and in tlio afternoon he and hia friends don 
garlands. Tho neundra is also presented on this day. Then the boy 
and his wedding party go to the bridn'a house, returning that same 
night if it is not too far away, or else remaioing there for the night. 
On the fourth day in the morniner churi is given to tho woddinf pHrty 
and coloured wafer pprinklod on them, some m^ney being placed on the 
dish used fr.r the cJitiri as the perquisite of the bridle's barber. After a 
meal the girls of the party, accompanied by tho bri.legroom's b^st man 
[sauhhalnd) , go to a spring or- well to fetch water in which the bride 
bathes. This is called ghari gharol, as it often is in tho Punjab. 
Then the pair are dressed in new clothes and the nikdh is solemnized. 
Some parents give their daughter a dowry of cl thes and ornaments, 
called flarganni mdl or ' paternal wealth.' On the next day but one 
after the wedding churi* is brought from the brid -'s house to the bride- 
groom's — an observance called tirah. On the seventh day, nwamma wraj, 
the bride is fetched to her house by her kinswom' n, but three or four 
days later she returns to her husband, sometimes with more presents of 
clothes and ornaments from h-r parents. 

The ]3angnsh of Kohslt are tall and good looking, they shave the 
head and cHp the beard like the people of Peshdwar. Though neat in 
dress which is generally white, they have not much courage. Tho 
Shiah Bangasht are much braver. In Upper Miranzai the Bangash 
still affect the dark blue turban and shirt, with a ^rey sheet for a lungi, 
which were once common to the whole tribe — as Elphinstone noted. 
They shave the head and eradicate tnost of the hair on the chin and 
cheeks, leaving little but the ends of the moustache and a Newo-ate 
fringe. Young men often wear love locks and stick a rose in the 
turban— when they feel themselves irresistible. The mullds have not 
yet succeeded in preaching down the custom of clipping tho beard. 
The Miranzai woaien wear the ordinary blue shift with a loose trousers 
of susi and a shirt, but the shift is often studded with silver coins 
and ugly silk work. Few other ornaments are worn. 

Banhob, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Bani, Bal, a female servant, a ddi. 

Bania. — ^The word hdnid is derived from the Sanskrit bdnijya or trader • 
and the Biinia by caste, as his name implies, lives for and by com- 
merce. He holds a considerable area of land in the east of the Pro- 
vince ; bnt it is very rarely indeed that ho follows any other than 
mercantile pursuits. The commercial enterprise and intelligence of tho 
clnss is preat, and tlie dealings of some of tho great Banii houses of 
Dohli, Bikaner, and Marwar are of the most extensive nature. But 
the Bdnia oP the village, who represents the great ma'sa of the caste, 
is a poor creature, notwithstanding the title of Mahtljan or " great 
folk," which is confined by usage to the caste to which he belongs. 

* Wheat flour cooked with ghi and dry sugar. 

t Those of Samilzai dre.-)9 in white with a coloured Zungi and tnrban of r reculinr 
pattern woven locally. In Upper IMi'ranzai a pecnliar tunic is worn— it ia not very 
ionp and about 13 inches below fho collar is crathered into numerou? pleaiB— which dii- 
tinguiehes them from pardchas or Muhammadan shop-keepera. 

60 The Bdnia organisation. 

He spends bis life in his shop, and the results are apparent in his in- 
ferior physique and utter want of manliness. He is looked down upon 
by the peasantry as a cowardly inoney-grubbe^r ; but at the same 
time his social standing is from one point of view curiously higher 
than theirs, for he is what they are not, a strict Hindu; he is generally 
admifted to be of pure Vaisya descent, he wears the janeo or sacred 
thread, his periods of purification are longer than theirs^ he does not 
practise widow-mart in ge, and he will not eat or drink at their hands ; 
and religious ceremonial and the degrees of caste proper are so 
interwoven with the social fabric that the resulting position of the Bania 
in the grades of rustic society is of a curiously mixed nature. The B^nia 
is hardly used by the proverbial wisdom of the countryside : " He 
who has a Bdnia for a friend is not in want of an enemy j" and, 
''First beat a Bdnia, then a thief." And indeed the Banid has too 
strong a hold over the husbandman for there to be much love lost 
between them. Yet the money-lenders of the villages at least have 
been branded with a far worse name than they deserve. They 
perform functions of the most cardinal importance in the village 
economy, and it is surprising how much reasonableness and honesty 
there is in their dealings with the people so long as they can keep 
their business transactions out of a court of justice. 

Organisation. — The organisation of the Baniiis is exceedingly obscure. 
They have certain territorial divisions, but there is also a true sub- 
caste, called Bdra-Saini"^ in Gurgaon, which is said to be quite distinct 
from the others. They are descended from Chamdrs and at marriage 
the boy wears a miikat or tiara of dak leaves, shaped like a basket, into 
which a piece of leather is fixed. 

The territorial groups are at least three in number. Of these the 
> chief is the Ag'i.'arwAls, and there is a curious legend about their origin. 

Bdshak Ndg had 17 dangliters, who Avere married to the 17 sons of 
Ugar Sain, but these snake daughters of Bashak used to leave their 
homes by night to visit their parents, and in their absence their hus- 
bands lived with their handmaidens, and descendants of the-^e are the 
Dasa or Chhoti-sarn gots of the Banids, each got taking its name from 
that of the handmaiden from whom it is de(«cended. The children of 
Bdshak N/ig^s daughters formed the 17 gots\ of the Aggarwal. Once 
a buy and girl of the Goyal got were married by mistake and their 

♦From hdrd, 12, and sent, an array (Crooke's Tribes and Castes of the North-Western 
Provinces and Oudh /, p. 177.) 

t Cf, Punjab Census Report, 1883, § 533. The Aggarwal gots include :- 

1. Jindal. 8. Mangal. 

2. Mindal. 9, Tahil. 
;<. Gar. 10. Kansal. 

4. Eran. 11. Bansal. 

5. Dheran. 12. M ah war. 

6. Mital. l.S. (JovalorGoil. 

7. Mansal. ^ 14. Good. 

Of theae Kansal and Bansal are named from l-ans, a grass, and hdn-i, bamboo, and 
they do not cut or injure these plants. The Mahwar are said to be descended from a son 
of Agar Sain who married a low-caste wife, so other Banias will not smoke with them, 
Aa other account adds Sengal. 

The Bdnia organisation. 61 

descendants form the hoM-got called Gond,* so that there are 17^ got* 
in all. And asfain one of the sons of Ugar Sain mtirried a low-cHHte 
woman and liis descendants aro the Mahwar got wfiich c»nnot. smoke 
with otliei" Banias. The Aggarwdl MahJljaoa only avoid their own 
section i«» marriage (Jind). 

The seconc^ group is the Saralia, who aro an off-shoot of the 
Aggarwdl and appeur to have the same gots. 

The third group, the Osvval, appears to form a true sub-cas^e.t They 
strenuously claim a Puuwar Rajput origin, but other Kajputs of 
various tribes joined them. They followed one of their Bra'hmans iu 
becoming Jains, in Sambat 422. 

Hence there are tl-.ree territorial groups or sub-castes, aud a fourth 
of lower status bftsed on descent: — 

'Sub-groups:— \ 

Sub-caste 1. Aggarw^l , 

I Data or Chhoti- [ '"^^^ ^groha.^ I" West- 

Sub-caste IT. Saralia, from Sara la. J P^^''"^- 

Sub-caste III. Oswal, — from Osianagri — in Eastern Rajputana. 
Sub-caste IV. Biira-Saini. 

Apparently tliere are, besides these tf-rritorial groups, cross-divisions 
of the caste based on religious diffarences. These seem to be Saraogi 
or Jain, Maheshri or Shaiva, Aggarwal-Vishnoi or Vaishnavaa. 
But the Maheshri, who undoubtedly derive their name from Mahesli 
or Shiva, are not now all Shaivas, for one of their number was in 
consequence of a miracle converted to Jainisru and so founded the 
Talitar got of the Oswal, among whom the Kamfiwat got is also 
Maheshri. It would appear that the Shaiva groups formed true sub- 
castes, for the Maheshri certainly do not intermarry with the Aggarw:ll 
(»r Osw^l§ though Vaishnava and Jain Aggarwd,ls intermarry freely in 

* Or Gand, cf. the Garni or impure section of the Bhitias. Hissar Gazetter, 1892, 
p. 137. In Jhelum the Goiid and Billa sections do not intermarry, being said to be 
descendanta of a common ancestor. 

I The origioal Oswal gots are said to be : — 

1. Thaker, 10. Bahadur, Punwar, 

2. Baphna (Rajput, by origin), I 11. Kanbat „ 

3. Sankhli. ^ 12. Baid, 

4. Kamawat Pnnwar (Maheshri), 13. Tagu Srishtri, Sankla, 
J). M or RiikhPokarna, Sankla Punwar, 14. Burugotra, Bhatti, 

tj. Kuladhar, Bj-ibat; Punwirs, 15. Didu ,, 

7. Sri Srim, Sankla ,, 16. Chorbheria. Raghubatisi, 

8. Srishtsjota, Punwar, 17. Kanaajia, Rahtor, 

9. Sachanti, Punw4r, i 18. Chuichat. 

19. Kotari, or keepers of the treasure-house, 
but the last does not seem to be a true got, so that there were only 18 got$, as there still 
are among the Aggarw4l. 

The B'lid are said to have been originally a branch of the Srishtgota and to have been 
BO called becaiiHe Devi effected a miracnlons cure of tho e3'e3 of a Rirl belonging to that 
section by causing a special kind of al lo giow, the juice of which healed them. 

X To which place the Aggarwals make annual jiilcrimages, as it is the ancient city of 
Agar or Ugar Sain. They also have a boy's hair cut there for tho first time. 

§ An acionnt from Jind divides the Biniae (like the Bhibras) into the Srimal and 
Oswal groups, e^ch with different gots 

Srimal gots. 

Osw41 gots. 













62 The Bdnias in Bdwal — Banjdra. 

But from the extreme sonth-eaat of the Punjab comos the following account which 
differs widely from those pjiven above. The Bawal nizdmat borders on Rajputana, and 
formrt part of Nablia, in which State ho Banids are represented by four proups : — 
(I) AggHrwil. (2) Rnstagi, (3) Khandelwal, (4) Mahi'ir, who rank in this order, each 
group being able to take water from the one above it, but not vice versi. 

(i). The Aggarwilfl of Bawal msdmnnn N4bha perform all the ceremonies observed 
by the Brahmans of thnt tract, but they have a special custom of boring the ears and 
noses of clildren, both male and female. This is called parojan. For this ceremony 
they keep some of the rice used at the lagan preceding a wedding in another family; and 
carry tho deotas, which are usually kept in the parohifs chaige to their own house. 
The deotas are worshipped for seven days. The pandit fixes a mahurat or auspicious 
time for the boring and the rite is then performed, a feast being given to Brahmans and 
relatives. In the case of a boy, he is made to sit on a he-goat which is borrowed for tho 
occasion and alms are given, a present being al'^o made to the boy. In Nabha town 
some Aggarwal families perform this ceremony, but others do not, 

(ii). The Rustagi* group is found only in the Bawal nizdmat, in Gurgaon, Delhi, 
Alwar, Budaon, Bulandshahr and Gwalior. They are most strongly represented in 
Bawal, at Bhora in Rewari tahsil and at Barand in Alwar State, hut probably do not 
e/cceed 1,000 families in the whole of India. Though in marriage they only avoid one 
got, yet owing to the paucity of the numbers the poorer members cannot get wives and 
so die unmarried. They say that Rohtasgarh was their original home and that their 
name Kustagi is derived from Rohta*. They have 18 gots named after the villagea which 
they originally inhabited. They avoid widow re-marriage, but do not invariably wear 
the janeo, as the Aggarwals do. They perform the first hair-cutting of a boy at Nagar- 
kot or Dahni in Alwar at the asthdn of Devi. They observe the milni, i.e. when the 
parents of a betrothed couple meet the girl's father must give the boy's father from one 
to twenty-one rupees, and the girl's father must not visit the village where his daughter 
has been betrothed until afrer the marriage under the penalty of paying the milni, 
but once paid it is not payable a second time. At the Dewali Rustagfs pay special 
reverence to their sati. They are all Vaishnavaa and also worship Gopi Nath. The 
bardt must arrive the day before the wedding, but they have no other special marriage 

[Hi), The Khandelwals are few in number. They have 72 gots, the principal one in 
Nabha State being the Bajolia. They claim to have come from Khatu Khandela in 
Jaipur. The hardt in this group also arrives the day before the wedding but the boy's 
father has to feed the bard himself on that day. Like the Ahirs the Khandelwals on 
the widai day have a special custom. The women of the bride's family cloths the boy's 
father in yellow clothes and put a pitcher of water on his head, with a necklace of 
camel's dung round his neck and compel him to go and worship the well just as the 
women do. He only escapes after much teasing by paying them from 11 to 51 rupees. 
They do not wear the janeo, and as they are devotees of Bhagwan Das, Mahatma, of Tikha 
in the B4wal Th^na they do not smoke or sell tobacco. 

(iv). The Mahur are few in number in Bawal. They have two gots Mawal and Kargas. 
They are Vaishnavas and specially reverence Han-uman. 

Banjara. — This and the Labana caste are generally said to be identical^t 
being called Banjara in the eastern districts and Lahdna in the Punjab 
proper. But Banjd,ra, derived from hanij, 'a trader', or perhaps from 
hdnji 'a pedlar's pack,' is used in the west of tho Punjab as a generic 
term for ' pedlar.' Wanjdra {q. v.) is doubtless only another form of 
the name. 

The Banjdras of the eastern districts are a well-marked class, of 
whom a complete description will be found in Elliott's JBaces o/" //le 
JV.-W. P., I, pp. 52—56. They were the ^reat travelling traders and 
carriers of Central India, the Deccan and R^iput^na ; and under the 

* According to an account from Pataudi State the groups are Aggarwal, Basangi, 
Maheeri Saraogi and Kalal, and in Gurgaon it is said that the Saraogi and Vishnav (sic) 
Kanids do not intermarry though they can eat kachchi and pahki with each other. 

t In Southern India the Brinjara is also called Lawanah or Lumbana (fr. Hti, Sanskr 
lavan, ' salt'). See also und« Multmi. 




S^c. / 



'7 «.o^ £. 

Banjdra'^Bannvchi. 63 

Afghdn and Mughal empires were the commissariat of the imperial 
forces. A simile applied to a dying person is : 

Bnnjitra han tnen fhire liye lakrid hath; 
Tdnda icdhd lad gay a, koi sangi nahin sdth. 

*^The Banjara goes into the jungle with hin stick in his hand. 
He is ready for the journey, and there is nobody with him." 

From Sir H. Elliott's description they seem to bo a very composite 
class, including sections of various origin. But the original Banjara cHste 
is said to have its habitat in the sub-montane tract from Gorakhpur to 
Hard war. The Banjdras of the United Provinces come annu«lly into 
the Jumna districts and Eastern States in the cold weatVier with letters 
ot credit on the local merchants, and buy up large numbers of cattle 
which they take back again for sale as the summer approaclies; and 
theee men and the Banjara carriers from Rajputana are principally 
Hindus. The Musalman Banjdras are probably almost all pedlars. 
The headmen of the Banjara parties are called ndih (Sanskrit 
ndyaka, "chief) and Banjaras in general are not uncommonly known 
by that name. The Railways are fast destioying the carrving 
tiade of these people except in the mountain tracts. The word hanjdra 
is apparently sometimes used for an oculist, and any Hindu pedlar is 
so styled. Synonyms are bUdti or manidr in the central, and lanati 
in the eastern districts, and, amongst Muhammadans, khoja aud pardcha. 
In Amritsar their gots are said to include M;inh^s, Khokhar and 
Bhatti septs, and they have a tradition that Akbar dismissed Chaudhri 
Shah Quli from his service whereupon he turned trader or banjara. 

Bannuchi. — The hybrid branch of the Pathdns which holds tlie central 
portion of the Bannu tahsil, between the Kurram and Tochi rivers. 
This tract they occupied towards the close of the 1 4th century, after 
being driven out of Shawal by the Wazirs and in turn drivin"- tho 
Mangal and Hanni tribes back into Kohat and Kurram. The Banndchis 
have attracted to themselves Sayyids and other doctors of Isldm in 
great numbers, and have not hesitated to intermarry with these, with 
the scattered representatives of the former inhabitants of their tract 
who remained with them as hamsdyn, and with the families of the 
various adventurers who have at different times settled amongst them; 
insomuch that "■ Bannuchi in its broadest sense now means all Muham- 
madans, and by a stretch, even Hindus long domiciled within the limits 
of the irrigated tract originally occupied by the tribe." The descend- 
ants of Shitak, however, still preserve the memory of their separate 
origin and distinguish themselves as Bannuchi proper. They are of 
inferior physique, envious, secretive, cowardly, lying, great bigots, 
inoffensive, and capital cultivators. Sir Herbert Edwardes says of 
them : ' The Bannuchis are bad specimens of Afijhans ; can worse bo 
said of any race ? They have all the vices of Pathans rankly luxuriant, 
their virtues stunted.' Their Isakhi clan, however, is famed for the 
beauty of its women. ' Who marries not an Isakhi woman deserves an 
aes for a bride.' 

Shitak, a Kakai Karlaori, by his wife Bannu had two sons, Kiwi and 
Surani. The former had also two sons, Miri and Sami. To Miri's 
tioub fell the boutb, to Sami's the centre, and to Surani's tho north and 

64 Banot — Barar. 

west of Datid, the modern Bannu, which was named after Shitak's wife. 
When Bannu became a part of the kingdom of Kabul the Bannuchis 
split into two factions, ' black ' and ' white/ which left them a prey to 
the Wazirs. 
Banot, a sept of Hindu Rdjputs, which holds a hurah or^roup of 12 villages 
near Garhshankar in Hoshidrpur. The Banot say they ure of the same 
origin as the Narus, and the name is said to mean ' shadow of the 
ban' or forests of the Siwaliks in which they once dwelt. 

Bansi, a class of musicians, players on the pipe {bans) at temples and 
village shrines, but virtually employed in the same way as Halis or 
Sipis, in Chamba. 

Banwra, a Muliammadan Jat clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Banya-i, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Banyi, see Banya. 

Baoei, a tribe of Muhammadans, of Jdt status, found in Montgomery. 

Bapar, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in MuUd,n. 

Baphla, a J^t clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Bappi, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multan : see Bosan. 

Bar, a Muhammadan Jat clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Bar Mohmand, see Mohmand. 

Babai, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Baraiya, (Sanskrit, varajivi), an astrologer according to the Dharma Purdn, 
begotten by a Brahman on a Sudrd,. But under the same name the 
Tantrd describes a caste sprung from a gopd (cowherd) and a 
Tantravdya (weaver) and employed in cultivating betel (Colebrooke, 
Essays, 272-3). 

Baeakzai, a famous clan of the Abdali or Darrdiui Afghans which sap- 
planted the Sadozai family of that branch early in the 19th century. 
Its most famous members were Fath Kh&n and Dost Muhammad his 
brother. The latter took the title of amir after Shdh Shuj^'s failure 
to recover Qandahar in 1834 and founded the present ruling house of 
Afghanistan: (for its history see M. Longworth Dames in The Ency- 
clopsedia of Islam, 1908). 

Baeae, (1) a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multan, and in Montgomery 
in wliich District it is both Hindu and Muhammadan : (2) a Hindu 
and Muhammadan Kamboh clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Babae, an Arain clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Baear, fern. Barfi, alow caste given to begging and roguery. In Jullundur 
the Baiars make winnowing fans {chhaj), baskets, and sieves (chhanra) 
of reed. They also hunt with dogs. Their observances resemble those of 
the Chuhras. At a wedding one of the caste is selected to officiate, and 
he kindles the fire and makes the couple go round it. The bride's 
■ parents keep the wedding party one or three days, feeding its members 
on ricej sugar and bread. On its departure the girl's father gives her 



e:\fZ. ^ Jc^^^i 



■ ClA CtA 

^Zl-^^ ■fJ^l^^C 



a c ^, J^- ^^ 

Bardr—Barid. 65 

a (marriage portion) dower. The women 8in» songs, and the 
men chant a ballad called guga. The Bardfs believe in Ldl Beg and 
every Rabi they offer him a rot of 2.\ sers with a fowl, boiled and 
smothered in ghi. This is either given to faqirs or eaten by them- 
selves. (Some of the caste are vagrants and form a liuk between the 
Sinsis and Chuhrds. 

Baba^, (I) The name of a caste of Jdt'^ around Bha^incU; Barar bans, a 
p-^rson belonging to, or descended from, the Bardr caste. See under 
Sidhu Bardr ; (2) a Jd,^ clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Bara^la, also called Barar and Bardri, a basket-malcer and bamboo-worker 
in the higher hills who has als > spread into the sub-montane tracts. 
He is not a scavenger by profession though he is said to worship 
L^l Beg, tlie Chiihras' deity. See Koli an i Nirgilu. 

Barghat, a Giijar clan (agricultural) found in Amtitsar. 

BAjgiBiAL, a sept descended from Andeo Chand, son of Udal Chand 

fourteenth Rdja of Kahlur. Another account makes them descendants 

of Rdj^ Ajit Chand's younger son. 

Ba^hai. — A wood-cutter or carpenter in the hills (root badhna, to cut cf. 
Bddhi). In Kullu the Barhdis and B^dhis are the same, but not' iii 
Kd,ngra Proper. In Kullu they do not scruple to eat the flesh of dead 
animals. The Barhdis are not a separate caste, but Kolis or D^ots 
that use the nxe, and one of the Koli groups is returned as Barh^i. 
There is also a Barhdi tribe or clan among the Kathis of K^no-ra. 

BAipni. — The synonym for Tarkhdn in the Jumna Districts. The B^rhi 
considers himself superior to hi^ western brother the Khflti, and will 
not marry with him : his married women wear the nose-ring. Cf. 
Bldhi and Barhdi. 

Bkni, a caste in Bdwal who make pataJs and dimas* of leave.'*, while some 
are cooks to Hindu Wdjputs. Tliey are immigrants from Ra-jput^na and 
claim Rajput oriyin to which their got names point. Tnese are Chauhin 
(who are AsAwariast by persuasion), and others. 

In marriage they avoid four gots, and also fellow-worshippers of the 
devi. Thu« an A-^waria may not marry an Asd,\varia Chauhdn. At 
a wedding the p/j.eras are not performed until the bride has put on 
ivory bangles— like a Rdjput hride. Tliey affect Bhairon, eat Qe>*ix 
and dnnk liquor, but Hindu Riljputs will eat food cooked by them and 
though now regarded as Sudras they are admitted to temples. 

Baria. Varya, a Rajput tribe, said in Jullmdur to be Solar Rjijputa 
descended from R<ijd Karan of the Mahabharat. Their ancestor 
Mai (!) catne fro-n Jal Kdhia in Patiala about 500 vetra 
ago. Those of Sidlko^, where they are found in small numbers 
and rank as J4ts, not Riijputs, sny they are of Lunar Rdiput 
descent. The tribe is practically confined to Patiala and Ndbha and 
the name of the ancestor Mai, if common to the tribe, looks a.s if thoy 
were not Hajputs at all. Another form of the name appears to be 
• Wardh.' 1 he Warilh are descendants of WarAh, who-se grandson 

* Fatal a plato mado of leaves (also a screan, made of reeds), duna, a cup made cf leaves. 
Both are generally mado from the leaves of the dndk tree. 
t Devotees of Asawaria Devi, whoaa temple is at Sambbar in Jaipur. 

QQ Baridn'^Barwdld. 

RdjA Banni Pdl, is said to have founded Bhatinda, after conquering 
Bhatner and marrying the daughter of its Raj^. Banni P^l's son 
Udasi was defeated bj a king of Delhi but received fijagir. Bis son 
Sundar had seven sons, of whom the eldest founded Badhar m Ndbha. 
(C/. Baridn). 

Babian, a tribe of Jats, claiming to be Lunar Edjputs of the Jaler, Sahi and 
Lakhifarailies— through its eponym whose descendant Tok settled in 
Sidlkot. (c/. Barid). 

Babik (? Barakki) , a clan of Pathdns, claiming Arab descent. With the 
Ans^^ri Shaikhs they came from the Logar valley between Kdbul 
and Gliazni and settled at Jullundur. It includes the Guz * Aliik and 
Babdkhel families and one branch of it is called Suddkhel. Elphin- 
stonet describes the Barakkis as a class of Tdjiks, mixed with the 
Ghiljis (Gliil/.ais or possibly Khilchis). The Barakkis are also 
described as a T.1jik people, speaking a language of their own, and 
Baverty notes that some Barakki Tajiks also dwell among the 
Urmurs at Kaniguram in the Wazir country. For the connection 
of the Bdrik Pathans with Shaikh Darwesh see the article on the 

Bakikka. (s. m.). A low caste of Muhammadans. 

Babkandaj. (s. m.). Corrupted from the Arabic word Barqandfiz. A police- 
man J a constable ; a village watchman. 

Babkezai, a Path^n clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Bablas, BarMsyi, a Mughal clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Babukzai (? Barakzai), a Pathan clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Baewala, Batwal. These two names, though probably of different origin, 

are used almost as synonyms, the former being more common in the 

lower hills and the latter ia the moantain ranges of Kangra\ But in 

Chamba the Barw^ld is clearly distinct from the Batwal, being a maker 

of mats and winnowing fans, and the name is probably derived from 

lara or haria, the kind of grass used for them. Batwal or hatwdr on the 

other hand means a tax collector, and hatwdl is an ordinary peon of any 

caste even a Brahman, though of course he may be by caste a Batw^l.:{: 

At the capital, Chamba, Barwdlds used to be employed as watchmen 

and thus went up in the social scale as Batwdls. In Kdngra however 

the Batwal form a true caste, while Barwald, is little more than 

the name of an occupation. Both words correspond very closely 

with the Lahbar or Baldhar of the plains, and denote the village 

■watchman or messenger. In the higher hills this office is almost 

♦ For the Ghnzz Turks in Kurram see Raverty's translation of the Tabaqdt-i-Ndsiri. 
t Caubul, p. 315. , • 

'aIpO see the Saints of Jalandhar in Temple s Legends of the Punjab. 
± Dr J. Hutchison notes regarding the Batwils of Chamba that they claim descent from 
Siddh kaneri, a deified ascetic of whom they know nothing. Formerly employed as watch- 
en a few are still enlisted in the State Police. Barwalas and Batwals are all Hindus and 
have their own gotras, but Brahmans do not officiate at their weddings, which are solemnised 
hv two literate men of the caste. Their observances follow the usage of the locality in which 
thev aie settled. Thus in Chamba the biyah or full wedding rite is observed as among the 
hiffh castes though expense is curtailed and the ceremonies abridged. A Brahman fixes the 
day of the wedding. The dead are burut. 

Batwdl customs, 67 

coDfined to the BatwdMs, while in the lower hills it is porformed by 
men of various low castes who are all included under the generic term 
of Barwald. These men are also the coolies of the hills, and in fact 
occupy much the same position there as is hehi by the Chamdr s in the 
plains, save that they do not tan or work in leather. In Kdngra they 
are also known as Kirjlwak or Kirauk, a word which properly means a 
raan whose duty it is to assemble coolies and others for begdr or forced 
labour, and they are also called Satwiig or " bearers of burdens." Like 
most hill menials they often cultivate land, and are employed as 
ploughmen and field labourers by the Rajputs and allied racfs of tho 
hills who are too proud to cultivate with their own hands. They are 
true village menials, and attend upon village guests, fill pipes, bear 
torches, and carry the bridegroom's palanquin at weddings and the hko, 
and receive fixed fees for doing so. In the towns they appear to be 
common servants. They are of the lowest or almost tho lowest standing 
as ih caste, apparently hardly, if at all, above the Dumua or sweeper of 
the hills ; but the Batwal has perhaps a slightly higher standing than 
tho Barwfil^. Indeed the name of Barwala, is said to bo a corruption of 
6a/iarwa^a or " outsider," because, like all outcasts, they live in the 
outskirts of the village. 

At Batwdl weddings in Sialkotthe learned among tho Meghs officiate. 
The Batwdls have Brahman priests, but they do not conduct their 
marriage rites : they also avoid contact with them. The Batwd-la 
marry their girls at an early age, but allow widow-remarriage, and that 
too without regard to the husband's brother's claims. Two gots only are 
avoided. Batwdls* are menials. 

Birth observances. — Four or twelve months after the birth of a boy 
ritan are observed as follows : — Loaves of bread fried in oil are arranged 
in piles, seven in each heap, and the head of each family takes a nile and 
distributes it among its members. Only those who belong to the got in 
which the birth has taken place can take part in this feast. Among tho 
Jhanjotra the head of a boy or girl is not shaved till the child begins 
to talk. Sometimes a bodi is retained, as among Hindus. 

Their wedding ceremonies are thus described : — 

Four posts are fixed in the ground and four more placed over these. 
On these four latter two turbans, supplied by the fathers or guardians of 
the bride or bridegroom, are spread. Then tlie bride's father places 
her hands in those of the bridegroom, saying : ' In God's name I give 
you this girl (my daughter or relation).' Then the pair, the bride's 
hands clasped in the bridegroom's, walk round an earthen pitcher 
placed inside the four upright posts. This duly done, the marriage ia 
completed.t On his way home the bridegroom has to wind some raw 
cotton seven times round a shrub. 

Tho Batwdls either burn or bury their dead. In cither case on tho 
way to the ground they halt and place two balls of leavened barley 
bread at the shoulders, and tvio at the feet, of the corpse. Thirteen 

* The Batwils' folk-etymology deriveR their name from heticdl, ' son of a daughter '. A 
Rija's daughter became enceinte by an illicit amour and was expelled her father's kingdom. 
A Chi±r4 took her to wife, but her child founded the Batwdl caste. 

t At weddings food is thrown to tho crows — which birds tho Batwils aro said to chiefly 
"worehip— and until they take the food tho Batwils themselves will not eat. 

^S Barydr — Bashera. 

days after the dfath they tnke to a Bralimnn a rupee and 4 sers of 
wheat flour, and these lie carries to a tank, where he recites prayers. 
As araongs-t Hmdns hhajjaa* is performed after a death. Two yards 
of cotton cloth, knotted ab the four corners, are hung over the left 
shoulder, in token of mourning, by the kin. 

The remains of a body are taken either to the Ganges or to Parmandal. 

The Batwdls are not allowed to si 
ley do not, eat ghi until some has b( 

In Sidlko^ the Barwdl6 gots are : — 

The Batwdls are not allowed to sell ghi^ and after a cow has calved 
they do not, eat ghi until some has been offered to a Brahman. 




Moitin or Molin 


Ench of the Batw^i gots in Si^lkot has its own temple, e. g.^ the 
Jlianjotra at Ghulhe in ZafariTf^l tah^il : the Kaith at Amranwali in 
Si^lkot: and theMolln atGillanwdM in Zafarwal. The temple is simply a 
mound of earth before which they prostrate themselves, each head of a 
family sacrificing at it a goat in honour of his eldest son. 

In Kapurthala the Barwala gots are: — 









With the Chandgirain got the other Batwdlshave no connection, and 
do not even smoke with them. Like theBatw4ls the Enrw^l^s in Sidlkot 
employ Meghs, wlio rank Idgher than the ordinary Meghs, as priests in 
religious and cei emonial observances. 

The Bar w aids make baskets in Si^Iko^, In Kapdrthald they are 
village watchmen and messengers. 

Babyar, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Baryb, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Basan, an Ar^in clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar : Basan in Mont- 

Babati, Basdtia, a pedlar ; a petty merchant. 

Basha, a synonym for Bh^nd, q. v. The term is applied to a jester or tumbler 
kept by wealthy men, also to an acior (and so equivalent to Bahrupia, 
especially in the Central Punjab). In Sialkot the Bssha is said to be 
a class of Pernas. The Bashds are usually Muhammadans, and though 
probably mostly Mirasis by origin will not intermarry wiih them. 
The term is also apphed generally to any immoral person. Bashds 
are also cuppers and toy-sellers. 

Ba-shaka, * regular : a term applied to the four great regular orders among 
the Sunni Muhammadans, viz., the Chishti, Qd,diri, Saharwardi and 
Nakshbandi, who all uphold Sufi-ism. Opposed to Be-shara \ 

Bashera, a Kharral clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

* Worship. 


<? <: 

- /'=' 


C"^ ^ /<UC - 


t„ ^ t '"'"' 

"^- ^ • y^A-c&^i^ . 

(^. fj. f- y/y-^- 

Bashgdli-'Bathmdnu. 60 

BashoIli, a tribe of the Sidh-posh Kafirs : see under Kd6r. 

Basuear^ a group of non-Pathdn tribe'? which used to occupy the Panjkora 
Kohist^n or KohistAn-i-Malizai ia Dir, the upper part of this Kohistda 
being known a'^ Bashkdr and the lower as Sheringal, but the Ba^hk^r 
are now chiefly confined to the tract of that name. The Bashkari 
language is said to bo the same as the Garhwf. 

According to Birldulph the Bashkdrik, as he terms them, have three 
clans ; Mulanor, Kutchkor and Joghior. The Bashk^rik name the 
months thus : — 

Hassan Uusain 


Param Ishpo (first sister) 

Dowim Ishpo (sf cond sister) 

See under Torwd,l. 

Tlui lehpo (third sister) 
Chot Ishpo (fourth sister) 
Siiepi (great month) 


Loityul (small festival) 
Miina (intervemngi 
GAnjtil (great festiral) 

Basi. a tribe of J^^s, whose forebear Tulla has a mat at Gopalpur iu 
Lndhiana. At the birth of a son, and also at the Diwili, earth is dug 
there in his name. 

Base^, a JA\, clan (agricultural) found in Shdhpur : Basrao, a J^\ clan (agri- 
cultural) found in Amritsar. 

Bat, a. J^t clan (agricultural) found in Multd,n. Also a sept of Kashmiri 
Pandit, converted to laldim and found in the north-west submontane 
Districts of the Punjab. 

Batahra, (c/ Patahar), a stone-mason, a carver or dresser of stone, in the 
Kangra hills. In KuUu he is said to be a Koli who has taken to 
slate quarrying. In Chamba, however, they appear to fonu a true caste, 
working generally as stone-masons, but sometimes as carpenters or even 
cultivators. In Gurddspur and Kangra the word is synonymous with 


Batakzai, a Pathan clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Batar, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multao. 

Bat, Bath, a Jd^ clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. Crowther gives the 
following list of the Bdt septs : B?,t, Dhol, Jhandol, Pophart, Khairo, 
Jhandhor, Desi, Tatla, Anjla, Ghuman, Ghumdn, Khak, Dhawal, Janna,* 
Randher, Madri, Sadri, Hoti, Seti, and Kirbat, which may all inter- 
marry, so that a Bat sometimes may marry a BA^. All tbeso septs are 
said to be descendants of San-or Sainpdl, who came from the Mdlwa 800 
years ago. They first settled at Odhyara in Lahore. Khair(a)'8 
descendants have two jatheras, Rajpal and his grandson Shdhzdda, 
who fell in a fight with the Kang Jats at Khadur Sdhib in Amritsar. 
The Bd-th are also found as a Hindu and Muhammadan Jd^ clan in 

Batheke, a sept of the Wa^u Rdjputs, found in Montgomery and Bahdwalpur. 

Bathmanu, a Brahman al, of Bathmdna village in Dhami and one of the 
chief tribes in that State. With the Jamogi Kanets it gives the 
raj-tilak to the Rand, and like them belongs to the Garg gotra. Tho 
tcazir of the State usually belongs to one of these two septs. 

* There is said to be a settlement of Januas (PJanjiias) ' beyond Pcshiwai* ' whohavo 
become Mnhammadans. 

70 The Bauria tribal system. 

Bhi, a J^t clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Battar, a Jd,t sept. 

Batti, a Hindu Kamboh clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Bauria, Bawakia. The following is Sir Denzil Ibbetson's account of the 
B^iuria groups : — " They are said to be divided into three sections : the 
Bidiiwati of Bikiiner who trace their origin to Bidiiwat in Jaipur, do 
not eat carrion, disdain petty theft but delight in crimes of violence, 
will not steal cows or oxen, and affect a superiority over the rest; 
the Jangali or Kiilkamlia, also called Kdldhaballia — fr. dhabla, a skirt, 
the blanket, kanial, forming a petticoat, — generally found in the 
Jangaldes of the Sikh States, Ferozepore, and Sirsa, and whose women 
wear black blankets ; and the Kd.paria who are most nnmeroua in the 
neighbourhood of Dehli, and are notoriously a criminal tribe. The 
three sections neither eat together nor iutermariy. The Kalkamlia 
is the only section which are still hunters by profession, the other 
sections looking down upon that calling. The K^paria are for the 
most part vagrant ; while the Biddwati live generally in fixed abodes." 

This account is amplitied in an interesting account of the tribe by 
Mr. H. L. Williams of the Punjab Police. He gives the following 
table of their tribal system which is clearly based on the usual 
principle of territorial and other groups which cross-divide the natural 
sections* : — 

* As regards the Baurias in Lyallpur Mr. J. M. Dunnett writes : — 

" There is a further and occupational division among tho Baurias, Non- cultivators are 
Kapria, Gumria, and Gadera, while Kaldhablia, Deswalia, Dewawate and Labana are culti- 
vators. The division, I think, really means that some live by himting pure and simple, the 
others combining agriculture with it. At any rate the difference in izzat is so great that 
intermarriage between two divisions is imknown. Why Gadera, which must mean a shep- 
herd, is classed as iion- agriculturist, while Lab^nas, who hunt pigs are classed as cultivators 
I do not know." 



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Buuria beliefs, 73 

Besides the derivation from bdwar, a saarc, which is the one usually 
given, Mr. Williams records other traditions aa to tho origio of the 
name * Bauria/ According' to one thu emperor Akbar demandnd a 
dold from S.iiidal, Hiij;! of Uhitor, and on the lattor's refusing, a battle 
was fought, in which some of the waniors werr) engaged near a bdolt 
or well. Those on the Rajput side were called Baolias or Bawaliag. 
A third explanation is that, after the capture of Chitor, a young man of 
one of the tribes which had taken to the jun^^les saw aud love J a 
Rajput mai(i of good lineage. They were married, but the young man 
returned to jungle life aud was called Baola (imbecile) by tho brido'a 
relations for doing so, or on account of his uncouth manner. Mr. 
Williams' account continues : — 

" IVadition says that the Bd-warias are descendants of Chanda and 
Jora, and when Fatta and Jaimal, Rd.jputs of tho Surajbans or Solar 
race, were joint Riijas of Cliitor, Shnh^b-ud-din of Ghor assailed th« 
fortress. It was defended by the Rd,jputs and their feudal military 
classes, of whom the Bhils were the professi(jnal bowmen ; the Aheris, 
the skilled swordsmen ; and the B^warias, the bandukchis^ or musket- 
eers. In this connection the Bdwarias, although claiming Rajput 
origin, do not profess to have been the equals of the Hdjput ruling 
class, but rather their va-^sals or feudatories. Some few Bdwarias 
still wear the Rajput badge of metal kara, or ring, on the right ankle. 

"Of the now outcaste tribes, whom the Bawarias recognize as having 
shared with them the defence of (Jhitor, the Gridi Lobars, or wandering 
cutlers, are not only distinguished by the Rd'jpnt clan designations and 
silver and metal karas, but openly proclaim that they are doomed to a 
wandering existence till the Rajput power is again established in Chitor. 

" The Bidawati Bd,warias and others, whose place of origin is said to be 
Chhauni Bahddurjtn in Bikd,ner, claim to be descendants of Rd-jd, Hasdlu. 

"Religion. — The religion of the Bawarias is ancestor worship com- 
bined with allegiance to certain deities who are common to them and 
other outcaste or foul-feeding tribes." Mr. Williams then remarks that 
several Bd,waria cluns affect Guga, many of their members wearing 
silver amulets with his image in relief. It would appear that the cult 
of Giiga is specially affected by the clans of Chauhd,n descent, as Guo-a 
was a Riijput of that tribe and is peculiarly the patron of all clans which 
claim Chauhdn origin. The Bhdtis and other groups also affect Guga, and 
such groups as worship him do not affect Devi. Mr. Williams adds : — 

" Rdm Deo, supposed to have been an incarnation of Krishna, was 
the pon of Ajmal, a Kfljput of Ranchhal. He is specially reverenced 
by the PHnwd.r sept and several of the wanderintj tribes. Siinilarly 
Kd,li, Laltii Masdni and other deities have devotees amonj? the 
Bawarias. But the criminal members of the tribe make a special cult 
of Narsingh and pay their devotions to him in the following manner:— 
When planning a criminal expedition, a chiriUjh filled with (fhl is 
ignited and a live coal placed beside it, (jhi and Jialivd are added till 
both are in flatne ; on the smoke and fumci^, called Jiom, arisin<T, tlie 
persons present fold their hands and make supplication, saying : ' He, 

* Similarly tho Machhis or Jhiwars claim to have been artillerists in the Native Indian 
Armies.'and they also manufactured gunpowder, shot being made by the Lobars, 

74 The Bdurias in Gurgaon. 

Nar Singh, through thy blessing we shall succeed. Remember to protect 
us.* The remains of the halwd are given to black dogs and crows. 

Worship of the Sun also obtains in some septs. The cenotaph of 
an ancestor named Jujhar at Jhanda, in Patidla, is visited for religious 

In Gurgaon and the tracts round that District the Bdurias are divided 
into num(3rous groups. Of these the most important, locally, is the 
JaruldwJlld or Laturi^,* so called because its members wear long hair, 
like Sikhs.t This group is endogamous and includes 14 gots:-^ 

1 Badgujae. 10 GangwilXt 

2 Chauhan.J 11 Jaghotia.§§ 

3 Panwar. 12 Katoria.||||. 

13 Kotia. 

14 Mewatia. 

15 Bhatti 

16 Parwar [ in Labor*. 

17 Sangra 

4 Rathaub, 

5 Agotia.% 

6 Baghotia.ii 

7 Berara.^f 

8 Chiond .*• 

9 Dabria.ft 

18 Jagonsa 1 ^ 

19 Konja 

These 14 gots are strictly exogamous. "Widow re-marriage (karao) is 
permissible ; but not marriage outside ihe JaruMwdJa group. Even 
marriage with a Rdjput woman, of a khanp from which the Bauriaa 
are sprung, is looked down upon, and the offspring are called suret- 
wdl, as among the Rd-jputs, or taknot. Such children find it difficult 
to obtain mates and, if boys, can only do so by paying heavily for 
their brides. Such men too are only allowed to smoke with pure Bdurias 
after the nari has been removed from the huqqa. 

The addition to (or possibly overlapping) this grouping are a number 
of occupational groups, as follows : — 

I. Sehd,dari^,^^ skilled in entering [sic) the burrows of the seh 
(porcupine) and found in Bhawdni, Hissar District. 

* But see ||l| below. 

t The Banriaa do not appear to become true Sikhs but, probably because many of them 
wear long hair, they are often said to be so. Regarding the Biurias of Lyallpur Mr. J 
M. Dunnett writes : — 

" They are, I find, all Hindus, out-oastea of course, but still wearing the ch.oti and 
bnrning their dead. In one Police station in anticipation of registration (as members of 
a Criminal Tribe) they had become Sikhs, but in no case had the 'pahul been taken before 
orders for registration had been issued. One man thus naively explained that he had all 
the kahkas except the hcichh, and I had really come before he could get that made. In 
their zeal they had even gone the length of wearing a six^h hakka, called Ttanpan, a amall 
Bpade, with which they said the patdsha used in the pahul is stirred." 

X Sub-divided into 8 septs in Lahore, in which District they rank highest, 

§ Of Panwar origin. 

II ? Bighotia, from Bighoto, but they are said to be named from Baghot a village in Nabha 
and to be descended from Jatii Rajputs. 

^ Berara, so called from berar, a mixture of several kinds of grain ; the got is descended 
from a Panwar who married a woman of his own got by karewa. 

** From Chaond, a callage. 

tt From dab, a grass found in the Jumna riverain lands whence they came ; the got 
claims Panwar or even Chauhan origin. 

XX From beyond the Ganges : cf. Gangwalia a group mentioned below. 

§§0f Badgujar origin. 
BHEA 111! The Katorias claim Rathaur extraction. But it is also said that the Baurias who live 
'n Punjab are called JaniUwila or Katoria and wear long hair, like Sikhs. The Biurias 
of the U ted Provinces are styled Bidkias. 

If^ Or Sehodharia. 

The Bdurias in Gurga&n. 75 

2. Telbecha^ dealers in the oil of the pelican and other birds, 
and found east of the Ganges. These have an off-shoot in the 

3. Bailia, a group which raodesfely claims Jhfwar-KahAr origin, and 
is distinguished by churis (or an iron bangle) worn on the wrist. 

4. Ugarwa, an off-shoot of the Bfigris who live by burglary. 

5. Bhaurjalia (sic) who cse the baur {bdwar) or snare. 

6. Badhak or Badhakia, hunters, found in Bhaxatpur State, 
Mathra, etc. 

7. Chirim^rs, bird-snarers, found in tho same tracts. 
Other groups are territorial, such as the — 

1. DilwAHs, found in Delhi and its neighbourhood. An off-shoot 
of this group is the Ndriwal which sells ropes. 

2. Nagauria, from N^gaur in Jodhpur State. 

3. Bdgfi, from the Bagar of Bikdner. 

4. Marus, from Mdrwdr. 

Other groups of less obvious origin are also found. Suoh are the — 

1. K^ldhablia or Kaldhablia, who wear the black woollen clnak 
(kavxli) and are found in the Pati61a State and to the west of 

2. Gangwdlia,* found in Jaipur State. 

3. HdburJl, vagrants from the east of the Jumna. 

4. Gandhila, found on any riverain in the Punjab (? proper) and 
also east of the Jumna. 

5. Ahiria, foand in and about llodal and Palwal. According tea 
Brahinan parohit of the Ahirias at Hodal the Bdurias and Ahiriaa 
are descended from Goha, a Bhil, one of whose descendants married 
a Thakur.t Her children by him became Ahirias (Heria or Heri, 
lit. a hunter), while the Bdurias are of pure Bhil blood. Closely 
allifd to the Ahiria are the Badhaks. The Ahiria and Bduria do 
not intermarry. 

The panch, who are chosen from thp four khdnps and the Mewdtia 
group, are regftrded as leaders of the tribe. They form a panchayat 
(or ? a panchayat for each khdnp) for the whole group. Offences 
are tried before ttie panchayat which administers to the offender 
an oath on tho Ganges or tho Jumna : or he is made to advance 
fivo paces towards the sun and invoke its curse if he is guilty : but 
the most binding oath is that taken while plucking the leaf of 
a pi-pal tree. Fines go towards the expenses of the panchayat, and 
any surplus to the panch. Panchdyats also solemnize the marriages of 
widows and the fee then realised is paid to the widow's father-in-law. 
The Bduria sehrhs. 

Tradition avers that when a rdiii of Nimrdna married she was 
accompanied by five families of Rdthaur Baurirts from whom are 
descended the present Rathaur (? Bdurias or) Kdjputs. Hence the 

• Not, apparently, the same as the Gangil got mentioned above, 
t Apparently named Karaul, and founder of the State of Karauli. 

^6 The Bduria cults. 

Rdtliaurs* regard Niinrd/na as their Sehrh and worshio Devi at her 
temple there. The Panwdrs have their sehrh at Kali^na near 
Narnaul : the Badgfijars theirs at Kanaund : and the Chaubans at 
Ranmoth near Mandi>an (?) in Alwar. 

The Dabrias Bpecially affect Musd-ni Devit but the B^urias as a 
whole have no distinctive cults and few special observances. Some 
of them wear the hair long in honour of Masd,ni Devi, k> whom a 
childless man vows that if a child be vouchsafed to him its hair 
shall remain uncut. Some B^urias also wear the patri, an ornament 
shaped like a jugni and made of gold ; in case of sickness prayer is 
offered through {sic) the pa^.v to the pitars, 'ancestors/ and on 
recovery the sufferer has a patri made and wears it round his neck. 
At meal times it is touched and a loaf given in alms in the pitara* 
names. J Another charm is the devi M ddnd, a few grains of corn, 
which are carried on the person and which, like the patri, avert all 

The Devi at Nagarkot, Z^hir Pir (Giaga) and Thakurji ( ? Krishna) 
are other favourite deities of the Bd-urias, but the Sun god is also 
propitiated in times of calamity or sickness. Fasts (hart) are kept 
on Sunday in honour of Hhe Sun, and water thrown towards it. The 
janeo is never worn. For some reason not explained an oath on a 
donkey is peculiarly binding. Mr. Williams notes that B^urias are said 
not to ride the donkey and to regard it with peculiar aversion. Oaths 
are also taken on the cow and the pipal tree. 

The Baurias are strict Hindus, refusing to eat anything, even 
ghiy which has been touched by a Muhammadan, though they will drink 
water from a bhishti's skin, but not that kept in his house. Bdurias 
will only eat meat procured by themselves or killed by jhatka. Pork 
they eschew, but not the flesh of the wild pig.§ The nilgai is regarded 
as a cow and never eaten, nor is the flesh of a he-buffalo save by 
the Baurias of Shaikhd,wati in Jaipur. As they are no longer per- 
mitted to possess swords they slaughter goats with the chhuri. 

In Lahore, where the Bd^urias are said to be non-criminal, they have 
a dialect of their own called Ladi. Elsewhere their patois is called 
Lodi and is said to be understood by Bhils, Sdnsis, Kanjars and such 
like tribes. The Bd-wariah dialect is called Ghirhar, and sometimes 

* And the Katorias, as being of Rathaur descent. 

I Mr. Williams says : — 'boats are offered to Devi and, at the time of oblation, water is 
sprinkled on the animal's head ; if it shakes its ears the omen is propitious and Devi has 
accepted the sacrifice.' And Mr, Dunnett writes : — " In Lyallpur the worship of a devi is 
admitted by all but the Songira Dharmwat who revere Bhairkiya and Narswer (Nar Singh). 

The devi is worshipped in jungles at the sacred tree. At its roots a square is marked 
out with stones, and in the centre a hole is dug. A he-goat is then slain, and the blood 
poured into the hole, the holy tree and the foreheads of the worshippers being also sprin- 
kled. Over the hole a hearth is then constructed, on which the skuU, the left fore-leg, 
liver, kidneys and fat are burned. The remainder is then cooked on the same hearth, and 
eaten by the worshippers. The ceremonial is of course based on the idea that the god is 
of the brotherhood of the tribe." 

^ ' When anyone is in trouble, the cause is ascribed to his having angered a departed 
spirit, called patar, to appease which some crumbs are fried in oil and put in a brazier, 
before which all those present fold their hands and beat their brows.' (Williams). 

§ Tn some parts the Bauria* will, it is said, cat the flesh of animals which have died a 
uai\u:al death. 

Bduria customs. 7 ' 

Birth observances. — The child's name is chosen by a Brahman. On 
the fifth day after birth the mother takes a lota full of water on her head 
to the nearest well, a Brahmani and Nain, with other women, accompany- 
ing her and binuing songs. She rakes with her hhanjor (moistened grain) 
of gram or hnjra and after worshipping the well throws some of the 
hhanjor, with a little water out of her lota and a makka brought by 
the BrahmHni or Nain into the well. The rest of the bhanjor is 
distributed among children. The motiher is deemed purified on tho 
tenth day. Kathaur children are ttikon to the sehrh at Nimrana to 
have their heads shaved, but the Panwdrs, Chauhdns and Badgujars 
all take theirs to Masani Devi at Gurgaon. 

Wedding rt^es.— Betrothal is not specially initiated by either side, 
but as soon as the negotiations have reached a certain stage the 
girl's father, his Brahman or nai goes with the tika and even the 
poorest man confirms the agreement by presenting a rupee to the boy. 
Well-to-do people give him a camel or gold earrings. 

Biiuria men are, in their youth, sometimes branded. Most of their 
women are tattooed in one or more places on the face, viz., near the 
outer corners of the eyes, at the inner corner of the left eye, on the left 
cheek and on the chin : hence Bauria women are easily recognizable. 

Bdiurias do not marry within their own got, and it is said that the 
bridegroom must not be younger than the bride, and that a blind or 
one-eye'd man must espouse a blind or one-eye'd woman ! In some 
tribes, adds Mr. "Williams, fair women are only married to fair men, 
and the blackskinned, which form the majority, mate with one another. 

The girl's father intimates the date fixed for her wedding by 
sending a ici/ia c/it7^^2 written in Sanskrit, and on tho day fixed the 
wedding party goes to the girl's house. The bridegroom wears the 
aehra and his forehead is smeared with haldi. The ceremonies aro 
all in essence the same as those observed by the Rdjputs, except that 
no khera is named, for the simple reason that the Baurias have no 
fixed abodes. Weddings are, however, not solemnised by sending the 
patka or katdr in lieu of the bridegroom. Bduria brides wear a necklace 
made of horse hair on which aro threaded gold and silver beads. This 
is called sohag sutra and it is worn till the husband's death, when it 
is burnt with his corpse. 

On a man's death his elder and then his younger brother have tho 
first claim to his widow's hand. Failing such near kinsmen a stranger 
may espouse her on payment of pichha, a sum assessed by tho 
panches and paid by the new husband to tho nearest agnate of tho 
deceased's father. 

Co-habitation with a woman of another caste is punished by not 
allowing the offender to smoke with the brotherhood, and the woman is 
regarded as a suret and her children as tmretwdl even though she 
be a pure Rajput by caste. Infidelity on a wife's part is purged away 
by pressing a red hot iron into her tongue.* 

* Mr. Williams' account of the Bdwaria marriage customs is however different and runs 
as follows : — / . . 

"Each tribal sub-division is cndogamous, anc! Ciu:h got exogamous to tho father s po*^ 
Marriage is permitted in the mother's got excludiDg near relations. Blarriage within th 

78 Bduria sport. 

The observances at death differ in no way from those current 
among orthodox Hindus. The bones of the dead are taken to Garh 
Muketsar and there thrown into the Ganges. Mr. Williams however 
writes : — "The dead over seven years of age are burnt among most of 
the tribes, though some, as the Bid^wati, practise burial. The corpse 
of a young: person is draped with fine white cloth, of an old man with 
coarse cloth, and of a woman with turkey red. On the third day after 
a funeral, boiled rice is distributed among young girls. When a 
BAwaria wife is cremated her widower lights the pile. A father per- 
forms the same office for a son, a son for a father, on failing such 
relationship, any near relative. On the third day following, the ashes 
are collected and rice is laid on seven pipal leaves and placed at the foot 
of the tree, certain persons being told to watch from a distance. If a 
crow eats the rice, it is a good omen ; but bad if a dog devours it. The 
period of mounrnig lasts twelve days. The ceremony of shrddh is per- 
formed in Assu, when rice is given to crows, the idea being to supply 
the necessities of the deceased in another world." 

Sporting Propensities. — A distinguishing feature of this people is 
their shikarring: proclivities. In all parts of the Province they have 
dogs, large meshed nets for catching jackals and other vermin, and 
thong nooses for antelope. Where jungle is thick and game plentiful, 
sport sometimes takes the form of slaughter. Game is gradually 
driven into an enclosure formed by two lines of stakes, several feet 
apart, each tipped with a coloured rag and forming an angle at the 
apex of which are planted in several parallel rows the little bamboo 
stakes with slip knot thongs, looking in the distance like a patch of dry 
grass. The third side of the triangle is formed by the B^warias with 
dog and torn toms. When the beat begins, the line of beaters advances 

prohibited degrees of consanguinity is punished with excommunication up to a period of 12 
years, as among the Kuchband and other cognate tribes. The higher gots in the social scale 
are the Solkhi, or Sulankhi, Panwar, Choh4n, Bh4ti, and Sankhla, and hence intermarriage 
■with them is sought after for the sake of their blue blood. 

Marriage and betrothal occur when both sexes have arrived at adult age. Sons may 
remain immarried without incurring odiiun ; but, in the case of daughters, the panchdyat 
interferes and penalties are inflicted if too much time is allowed to pass. 

The ceremonies at betrothal — sdk or mangani — are simple. An emissary of the suitor 
meets, by appointment, the girl's relatives and hands a sum ranging from Rs. 5 to 9 to the 
senior male relative present, who pays the amoimt to the girl's father. The suitor is then 
invited, if acceptable, to the evening meal, when the contract is made. An interval then 
passes before tlie date of mariage is fixed, previous to which the girl's paternal imcle visits 
the suitor and gives him a rupee. Seven days before the wedding, the same relative 
presents himself and ties black cotton tags round the youth's ankles. 

Marriage is always by fhera, as among tribes of the same category . On the day ap- 
pointed, four wooden pegs, a span long, are driven into the ground forming a square, a fire 
lit in the centre and cotton seed steeped in oU placed over it. A square copper coin (mansuri 
faim) is put on the top of each peg. The couple circle seven times round the fire with a 
knot tied in their garments, and the ceremony ends. A Brahman is usually present and 
receives a donation of Rs. 2 to 5, Rs. 24 to 100, according to the status of the parties, is 
paid to the bride's parents, who prepare an outfit of cooking utensils and clothing, and 
return some of the rupees in a thdli, or brass vessel. The home-coming, or mukldwa 
ceremony comes last and consists in the bride's being sent to her husband's house with a 
gift of a chadnr from her parents. 

Marriage by karewa is permitted and is the only form permissible to widows. It is 
availed of when a woman is destitute, or has no parents. A surviving brother is required 
to marry the widow, and, in default, she may claim compensation through a pnnchdyat. 
When a widow marries, bracelets of lacquer are put on her and a fine of Rs. 5 imposed. A 
woman convicted of adultery is disgraced and her chadar torn, the male accomplice being 
fined from Rs. 2 to 4 by the panchdyat" 

V'.' ^....x 


^ * J I 


•'^^. , , V i-up-^t-^, s. j^y^. 



(^^ a 


^ A -- 

-J. .^.^- ^. Cv<.^^. 


r '(. ^''t' 

Bdwd^Belddr. 79 

with great noise and howling, causing the game to gallop away until the 
line of stakes is reached, when scared by the coloured rags the animals 
glaoce aside and speed towards the apex, where a clear space appears 
with no visible obstacle hut some tufts of familiar grass. In attemptino- 
to clear these, some antelope are caught in the thongs and thrown 
violently to the ground, when their throats are cut. 

Bawa, fern. Bawi (1), a title given to the male descendants of the first three 
Gurus of the Sikhs ; (2) a. fakir or sddhic; the head of an order of 

Bawah, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Bawre, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Shdbpur. 

Bazaz, (1) a cloth-dealer; (2) a section of the Aroras. 

Bazid Khel, a section of the Jawaki Afridis found in Baizai, Kohdt. 

Baziqar, /r. Pers. bdzi, ' play.' The Bdzigar is usually a Muhammadan 
the Nat a Hindu. Among the Bdzigar both sexes perform, but 
among Nats only the males. Some say the B^zigar is a tumbler and 
the Nat a rope-dancer, others that the former is a juggler and also an 
acrobat, the latter an acrobat only. In the Eastern Punjab the 
B^zigar is termed Bddi. See Nat. 

In Ferozepur the Bdzigars have a shrine at Sadhaiwala, built in 
honour of an old woman who died not many years ago. Liquor is 
poured into a cup-shaped hole in this tomb and drunk. Weddings 
in families which affect this shrine are generally solemnised there. 
They have a Kd,ja, and his wife is H^ni. Both settle disputes without 
appeal and are almost worshipped, the latter being attended by a 
number of women who carry her long train. Bdzigar camps consist 
of reed huts pitched in regular lines. The 'caste' is said to be 
recruited from various castes, even Brahmans and Jats, but each 
sub-division is endogamous. The Bdzigara are in fact only an occupation- 
al group. 

Bed,* a section of the Muhidls. 

BEDA,t (1) a musician caste inLad^kh : see Ind. Art. 1901, p. 330 ; (2) the 
caste which supplies the potential victim who rides on the rope at 
the Bihunda sacrifices in the Upper Sutlej valley : see North Indian 
Notes and Queries y IV, § 144. 

Bedi, fem. Bedan [i.q., vedi), a section of the Khatrf caste to which Guru 
Ndnak, the founder of Sikhism, belonged. It is divided into two sub- 
sections, which intermarry. 

Begeke, a Kharral clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery, Bkokb a sept 
of the Joiyas in Bahd,walpur. 

BELDAR,/r. helj mattock. One who works in mortar, etc., with a hoe or a 
spade, a labourer whose work is to dig or delve. In the Western 
Punjab the term is applied to the Od, q. v. 

* The Sanskrit atnbas7if/»d or vaidyd 'vulg. laidya, bed), a professor of medicine ^begotten 
by a Brahman on a Vais} a woman. (Colebrooke's Essays, p. i!72). " 

f In Traill's Statistical Account of Eumaon (reprinted from Asiatick Researches Vol XVI 
in uffirial Reportx on the Province of Kumaon, 1878) at p. 51 an account is given of the 
propitiatory festivals held in villages dedicated to Mah^deva. At these badii^ or rope- 
dancers are engaged to perform on the tight-rope or slide down an inclined rope stretched 
from the eniDmit of a cliff to the valley beneath. The iadis do not appear to be a caete 

80 Benach'^Bhabra. 

Bknach, a Dogar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Be-nawa (?ba-nawa) (1) a doubtful syn. for he-shara: (2)— or Bd-nawd,* 
according^ to Mr. Maclagan one of the most prominent of the 
Be-sliara or unorthodox orders of IsMm, and said to be followers of one 
Khwdja Hasan Basri. The term is sometimes apparently applied in 
a loose manner to Qddiri and Chishti faqirs, but it is properly applicable 
only to a very inferior set of beggars — men who wear patched garments 
and live apart. They will beg for anything except food, and in 
begging they will use the strongest language ; and the stronger the 
language, the more pleased are the persons from whom they beg. Many 
of the offensive names borne by villages in the Gujrdnwala District 
are attributed to mendicants of this order, who have been denied 
an alms. The proper course is to meet a Be-nawd beggar with gibes 
and put him on his mettle ; for he prides himself on his power of 
repartee, and every Be-nawd wears a thong of leather which he has to 
unloose when beaten in reply, and it is a source of great shame for him 
to unloose this thong [tasma khol dend). The Be-nawds appear to be rare 
in the west of the Punjab, and those in our returns are mainly from 
Karnal, Julluudur, LudhidiUa and Hoshi^rpur. 

Bkeag, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Be-shara, a term applied to the irregular or unorthodox orders of laMm 
whose followers, while calling themselves Musalm^ns, do not accom- 
modate their lives to the principles of any religious creed : c/. dzdd. 
The Be-shara orders include the Be-nawd, Gurzmar, Maddri and Rasul- 

Beskd, s.m. (K.), the watchman of harvested grain. 

Beta (incorrectly BATiA),a small outcaste group found in Spiti, correspond- 
ing to the Hesis of Kuliu. They live by begging, making whips for 
the men and bracelets of shell for the wot&en, arfd attending weddings 
as musicians along with the blacksmiths. Blacksmiths do not eat with 
them or take their women as wives. Merely to drink water out of an- 
other man's vessel conveys no pollution in Spiti, and in the higher parts 
of the Spiti valley the hookah is also common to all : while in the lower 
parts Hesis are merely required to smoke from the bowl of the common 
pipe through a stem provided by themselves. 

Betu, the synonym for Ddgi {q.v.) used in the Sar^j tahsil of Kullu. 
Bethi, a Sayyid clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 
Bhabha, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multdn : a sept of the Samwas in 

Bhabra, fem.Bhdbri,a caste of the Jainis, chiefly engaged in trade. The term 
Bhd,br4 appears to be of great antiquity, being found in an inscription of 
Asoka. The name is now fancifully derived from Bhaobhala, * one of 
good intent,'t but in Jullundur the Bliabr^s attribute their name to 
their refusal to wear the janeo at the instance of one Bir Sw^mi, who 
thereupon declared that their faith (bhu) was great. The term BMbra 
however appears to be used by outsiders of any Bani^s, especially of 
the Oswals and ochers whose home is in, whether they 

* Be-nawa can be the only correct form, meaning " without the necessaries of life, '' a 
a mendicant. 

+ Bhao, motive, hbala, good 


^'il^ « -u ^ tT*. 


^ C-Z 9 

***• *■ ^ Ji 

Hie Bhdbra groups. 


are Jains by religion or not. This would appear to be the casein 
Rawalpindi, an'l in Siisa the Sikh immigrants from Paliala certainly 
call the Oswal B^nias Bhabras. 

The Bhdbrds of Hoshidrpur are an interesting community. As 
a caste they have two groups, each comprising various gots or als, 
viz. : — 

Group I. — Oswals. 











Geodp II. — Khanderwals. 









The Osw^l came originally from Osia in Jaipur, the Khanderw^l from 
Khandela in Jodhpur. As to the origin of the got names, Mahmia or 
Maimia is derived from Mahm, the Down in Rohtak, and was originally 
called Dhariwal. Seoni (which occurs in both the gcoups) is a Khatri 
clan. The Liga (who perform the first tonsure, or mimdan, at home) 
came from Sultd-npur, in Kapurthala : the Tandw^i, of Tanda (? in 
Hosbiarpur) are an al of the Bhabhus, formed only a 100 years ago and 
not yet a got. The Nahar or ' lions ' once drank the milk of a lioness 
and hail from Jaipur. The Gadhia are called Churria in R^jputdoa. 
Most Bhabras cut their boys' hair for the first time at Dadi Kothi (now 
called Kangar Kothi), their temple near Jaijon. Most of the Hoshid-rpup 
Bhd,br^s are Oswals, of the Bhabhu and Nahar, those of Balachaur being 
Gadhia and Naha.r by got. Some Bhabras respect Brahmans and employ 
them on social occasions, at weddings and funerals, and for the shradhs, 
though the Jain tenets forbid the shrddh observances. The Khanderwals 
alone appear to wear the janeo. In Jind the Jains are said to be 
recruited, from the Aggarwal,* Oswal, Srimal, and Khandelwal Bdnias, 
but the last three are also styled Bhabrds— whether Jains or not. 
Jain Aggarwdls are said to intermarry with the Yaishnava Aggarwals 
in that vState but not in Karndl. Another account from Jind states 
that the Oswdl are bisa, i. e., of pure descent, while the Srimal are only 
dasa, i. e.,t of impure descent, and that these two groups do not in- 
termarry. The Oswal are also stated to avoid only the paternal got 

* An account of rather doubtful authority makes the Oswals and Khandelwala only 
' Bbaos,' the Bagri form of hhd{, ' brother ' — and derives Bhdbra from bhdo — because 
Parasnath was an Oswal of the ruling family of Osnagar. It makea the Aggarwalaa 
Saraogis, i.e., sikha or disciplea. Each group ia said to be endogamoua, i. c, Bhabfia do 
not intermarry with Sar^ogia. 

t Another account says that both Oswil and Srimal contaia hisa and dasa claases, the 
dasa being in a minority in both groups- 

82 Bhachar — Bhagti. 

in marriage, while tlie Srimal observe the ionx-got rule. On the other 
hand the BMbras of Nabha are said to have two sub-castes : Oswd,l, who 
observe the four-grot rule, and Kundewal (? Khandelwd,!), who avoid only 
the paternal got in marriage.* And again in Maler Kotla the * Bh^br^s 
or Oswd,ls ' are said to avoid two gois. The Jain Bhdbrd,s are strictly 
monogamous, a second wife not being permitted during the life-time of 
the first under any circumstances. t For further information regarding 
the Aggarwdl, Oswal, etc., see Bania, and for the Jain sectarian 
divisions see Jain. 

Bhachar, a Khokhar clan (agricultural) found in ^hahpur. 

Bhadah, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multd,n, 

Bhaddar, an agricultural clan found in Shdhpur. 

Bfadiar, a tribe of Jats, in Sid^lkot, which claims Solar Rajput origin and 
is descended from its eponym. Atu, 7th in descent from him, 
came from Ajudhia and took service under the R.ajas of Jammu. 

Bhadko, an Arain clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar and Montgomery. 

Bhagar, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Bhagat Bhagwan. See under Udasi. 

Bhagat, an agricultural clan found in Shahpur. 

Bhagat-panthi. — A sect of the Nanak-panthis which appears to be quite 
distinct from the Bhagtis or followers of Bdba Suraj of Chd,ha Bhagtdi 
in the Kahiita tahsil of Rawalpindi. It is found in the Bannu District, 
in Pah^rpur, and in tahsil Dera Ismail Khan. Though they reverence 
the Granth, the Nanak-panthis observe the usual Hindu ceremonies at 
marriao-e or death, but the Bhagat-panthis do not. They take the 
Granth to their houses, and read certain portions of it at weddings. 
Marriage and betrothal ceremonies may be performed at a dharmsdla, 
or the marriage may be celebrated by taking the Granth to the house 
and there reciting portions of it. No funeral rites are performed and 
the dead are buried, not burnt. Passages from the Granth are read 
for a few days after the death. And on occasions of marriage or death 
Jcardh imrshdd is distributed. There is no rule of chhiit or * touch,' 
forbidding contact with other castes. The sect makes no pilgrimages, 
avoids idolatry, and performs no shrddh for the dead. Daily worship 
is an essential duty and consists in recitations of the Granth at six 
stated hours of the day, viz., before sunrise, before noon, afternoon, 
before sunset, in the evening and at night. At worship they sit down 
eight times, rising eight times and making eight prostrations. This 
sect thus strives after pure Sikhism and freedom from Brahminical 

Bhaggo, a sub-division of Jats. 

Bhagti, a Gosain sub-sect or order, said to have been founded by Kanshi 
Ram, a brother of Saindas. The latter was a Brahman Bairdgi whose 
son Ramdnand has a shrine, well-known in and about the Gujrd,nwal^ 
District, at Baddoke. His sect has many followers among the more 
respectable Khatris and Brahmans of Lahore and its neighbourhood. 

* Till recently the Oswal of the Punjab avoided two gots in marriage, and the Dhundias 
among them still do so, but in 1908 a great asseciblage of the Pujeias resolved that only 
the paternal gob need be avoided. 

+ This is however said to be merely a counsel of perfection. 

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Bhagiid — Bhango. 83 

Bhagtia, a musician who accompanies dancing boys. 

Bhains, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Bhainsyi, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Bhajoka, an agricultural clan found in Shahpur. ^ 

Bhakhri ; see Bakhri. ^'zy' 

Bhakral, one of the group of tribes whicl/ hold considerable areas in 
the soutli-east of the Rtlwalpindi District. The Hliakral are also found 
in some numbers in Jhelura and Gujrat. Like the Budhal they 
probably came from the Jammu territory across the Jfielum. They do 
not approve oF widow marriage. A laige number of the tribe also 
return themselves as Pun war in Hi1,wal()indi, and the tribe may be 
classed as Hajput. 

Bhakri; a Sayyid clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Bhalar, a Jd,t claa (agricultural) found in Multd,n. 

Bhalerah, a Jat cJ^n (agricultnral) found in Multdn. 

Bhalka, a sept of the Baloch in Sindh, Bahdwalpur, and Dera Ghdzi Khan 
said to be addicted to robbery. 

Bhallowana, an agricultural clan found in Shd,hpur. 

Bhaman, a Jilt clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Bhamrai, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Bhamye, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Bhand, Bhand. — The Bhand or Naqqd,l is the story-teller, joker, and 
buSoon, and is often also called Bd^sha. The name comes from the 
Hindi bhdnda "buffooning.^' He is separate from, and of a lower 
professional status than, the Bahrupia. Beth are commonly kept by 
Rajds* and other wealthy men like the jester of the early English 
noble, but both also wander about the couutry and perform to street 
audiences. The Bhd,nd is not a tiue caste any more than the 
Bahrupia, and is probably often a Miidsi by caste. Elliott seems to 
imply that Bahrupia is a caste and Bhd,nil an occupation j but the 
former statement is certainly not true in the Punjab. 

Bhandar, a J^t clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Bhandela, a minor caste found in Sirmur, and cn'respouding to the 
Sikligar of the plains. 'J'hey appear to have come from Marw^r in the 
Mughal times and retain their peculiar speech and intonation. Sikhs 
by religion, they are dealers in arms, etc , by occupation, and are said 
to be much given to crime. 

Bhander, a Jat clan (agricultural) foun 1 in Amritsar. 

Bhanggi, fern. Bhanggan (also a woman who drinks bhang). A man of the 
sweeper caste : also a man belonging to the Bhanggi misl. 

Bhangqia, fern. Bhanggeban, a dealer in bhang. 

Bhango, a tribe of Jd,ts found in Sialkot which claims Solar Riijput 
ancestry and is descended from its eponym, who came from Nepal. 
Also found in Amritsar (agricultural) ; and in Montgomery as a Hindu 
Jclt clan (agricultural). 

* Kadeh Bhand, known as Kidir Bakhsh. was a famous Bhand, who peed to go frcpi 
one court to another. The Maharaja of Pati^la gave him a village. 

84 Bhangu-^Bhardi. 

BnANGtJ, Bliang^ij,* a J^t tribe which does not claim Rdjput origin. The 
Bhangu and Nol were among the earliest inhabitants of the Jhang 
District and held the country about Shorkot, the Nol holding that 
round Jhang itself before the advent of the Sid,ls, by whom both tribes 
were overthrown. Probably the same as the Bhango, supra. 

Bhaniwal, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Bhanjra, a synonym for Dumna in the lower hills of Hoshidrpnr and 
Gurddspur. He makes sieves, winnowing fans and other articles 
of grass and bamboo. Like the Sansois, Sarials and Daolis, the 
Bhanjr^s may be regarded as an occupational group cf the Dumnds, with 
whom they intermarry. 

Bhanot, a Rajput clan which occupies a hdrah or 12 villages immediately 
north of Garhshankar round Padrawa, S^lempur and Posi. The 
name is fancifully derived from Imi, because they once dwelt in the 
hanot or shadow of the ha7i or forests of the Siwdliks, and they are 
said to have come from Bhatpur, a village close to that range not 
now held by them. They appear to have been an al of the Ndrua. 

Bhaneanaye, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Bhanrae, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Bhanwala, a small J^t clan in Jind, whose jather a is a Gosain. 

BhAo, a sept of Raorhbansi Rajputs, found in Gujrat, immigrants from 
Ajudhia into Jammu and thence into the Gujrd.t sub-montane. 
The name, which perhaps suggests a Rdjputana origin, is said to be 
derived from the fear (bhao) which the tribe inspired : but others 
say the Bhao were free-booters and hence earned the title. 

The Bhao rank high, and they, the Manhas and Jural, greet one 
another ' Jai deo. ' They also intei marry with the Chibhs of Kadhdle 
and Ambariala; but not with the rest of that tribe, owing to an 
ancient feud. The first tonsure is performed at Kilit, a place in 
Samrdla, in Jammu territory. 

Bhar, a Jd.t clan (agricultural) found in Multd,n. 

Bhaeah, Bhaeah, two Jat clans (agricultural) found in Multd,n : (possibly 
one and the same). 

Bhaeais— The Bhardis who are scattered throughout these Provinces are 
also known as Pirhain,t a name which is explained thus: — 

(i) One Bukan Jdt was a devotee of Sakhi Sarwar who one day said 
to him twjhe piri di, *the saint's mouth has fallen on thee,^ whence 
the name Pirhai. 

(m) Another account says that after leaving Dhaunkal, Sakhi Say y id 
Ahmad went to Multdn and rested for a while at Parahin, a place 
south of Shd,hkot, which was the home of his mother's ancestors, 
Rihan Jdts by caste. At Multan an Afghan chief had a daughter to 
whose hand many of the Shiihkot youths aspired, but none were deemed 

* The Panjahi Diciy. gives Bhangias {sic) as ' an original tribe (M ).' 
t The form Pirhain is said to be in use in Saharanpur. The word pariah is also said to 
mean drummer and is possibly connected with Bharai - Crooke : Thinc/s Indian 

.y? < 6-J: ^- ^:^.r^ 



<; '^O* 

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Bhardi traductions. 85 

worthy. One day, however, the Afghdn invited Sayyid Ahmad to a 
feast and begged hira to accept his daughter in marriage. This offer 
the saint accepted, and the sihra below, wliich wrs composed on this 
occasion, is still sung wirh great reverence. The mirdsi, however, 
neglected to attend the wedding punctually, and when he did appear, 
rejected the saint's present of a piece of blue cloth, 1^ yards in 
length, at the instigation of the Jjits and Pathans, saying it was of no 
use to him. Hearing this the , Sayyid gave it to Shaikh Buddha, a 
Jdt who had been brought up with him, saying : "This is a bindi 
(badge), tie it round your head, and beat a drum. We need no 
mirdsi, and when yon are in any difficulty remember me in these 
words : — Daimji Rabdia saicdria, bohar Kali Kakki-wdlia — Help me 
in time of trouble, thou owner of Kd,li Kakki ! You and your 
descendants have come under cur protection, pandh, and you shall be 
called ijandhi.^' This term became corrupted into Parahin in time. 
Thus the account contradicts itself, as the name is said to be derived 
from Parahin, a place. 

The term Bhar^i itself is usually derived from chauhi bharnd, lit. 
'to keep a vigil,' in which are sung praises of the Sakhi. But another 
and less simple account says that owing to his marriage Sayyid 
Ahmad incurred the enmity of the Jdts and Pathd,ns of Shdhkot and 
left that place for Afghauistd,n, accompanied by Bibi Bai, Rd,nd, Mian, 
and his younger brother. Twenty-five miles from Dera Ghazi Khd,n 
they halted. No water was to be found, so the Sayyid mounted 
his mare Kali Kakki and at every step she took water came up. His 
pursuers, however, were close at hand, and when they overtook him 
the Sakhi was slain, and buried where he fell. The spot is known as 
Nigaha and still abounds in springs. 

Years after Isa, a merchant of Bokhara, and a devotee of Sakhi 
Sarwar, was voyaging in the Indian Ocean Avhen a storm arose. Isd 
invoked the saint's aid and saved the ship. On landing he journeyed 
to Multdn where he learnt that the saint had been killed. On reaching 
Nigd/ha he found no traces of his tomb, but no fire could be kindled 
on the spot, and in the morning as they loaded the camels their legs 
broke. Sakhi Sarwar descended from the hill on his mare, holding 
a spear in his hand, and warned the merchant that he had desecrated 
his tomb and must rebuild it at a cost of 1^ lakhs. He was then to 
bring a blind man, a leper, and an eunuch"^ from Bokhdra and 
entrust its supervision to them. One day when the blind man stumbled 
near the tomb he saved himself by clutching at some kahi grass where- 
upon his sight was restored and his descendants are still known as the 
Kahi. 'I'he eunuch was also cured and his descendants are called 
Shaikh. The leper too recovered, and his descendants, the Kalang, are 
still found in Nigahii. To commemorate their cures all three beat a 
drum, and Sakhi Sarwar appeared to them, saying ; *' He who is my 
follower will ever beat the drum and remain barahi,f ' sound,' nor 
will he ever lack anything." Hence the pilgrims to Nigdhd became 
known as Bhardin. 

* For eimuchs as attendants at shrines see Burton's Pilgrimage to Medina and Mecca 
Vol. I, p. 371. 

tCf. Bhara in the phrase raho hnra bhara, ' remain green and prosperous or fruitful ' 
y., p. 430. 

86 Bhardi — Bharhhunja. 

Strictly speaking the Bliarais do not form a caste, but an occu- 
pational group or spiritual brotherhood which comprises men of many 
castes, Dogar, Habri, Uawat, Dum, Rajput, Mochi, Gujar, Tarkhdn 
and last, but not least, Jdt. They belong to the Muhammadan religion, 
but in marriage they follow the Hindu customs. Thus a Jd,t Bhar^i 
may only uiarry a Jat woman, and in Kangra, it is said, she too 
must be a Bhardi. In Ambfila, however, a Bharai may marry 
any Jdtni, and in Kapurthala it is said that, being Muhammadans, 
marriao-e within the got is permitted, and tliat; Hd,jput Bliarais 
may take wives from Jilt Bhaidis. There appears indeed to be no 
absolute or even general rule, but the tendency apparently is for the 
Bhardis recruited from any one caste to form a separat'^ caste of 
Bharais, marrying only in that caste, e.g., in Ludhidna the Jdt Bhardi 
only marries a Bhar^i Jdtni, and the gots avoided are the same as 
among the Jdts. The Jdt Bhardis are numerous. They claim descent 
from one Gdrba Jat, a Hindu attendant at Saklii Sarwar's shrine, who 
was in a dream bidden by the saint to embrace Isldm. On conversion 
he was called Shaikh Gdrba. The Jdt Bhardis have several gots: — 
Dhillon, Deo, Rewal Garewdl, Mdn, Randhdwa, J ham, Karhi and 

Marriage Doicer. — The amount of mehr, given according to Muham- 
madan Law to the wife by the husbar.d, never exceeds Hs. 32-6 ; while 
the minimum dowry given to the bride by her father consists of Rs. 21 
in cash and 5 copper vessels. 

Insignia. — The Bhardi's insignia are a driun {dliol), beaten with a 
curiously-shaped stick, like a short crook ; a wallet {khallar) hung 
round the neok by a string. The stick and khallar are peculiar to the 
Hhardis. The standard of the Pirhais is a fringe [jagddhri) of tassels 
on a long pole. These fringes are presented by women as thank- 
offerings for the birth of sons and at weddings. They are supposed 
to be tied round the forehead of the saint as they would be tied on a 
bridegroom's forehead. 

Food. — It is f^aid that in many places Bhardis eat only goat's flesh, 
and that leprosy would aflflict him who ate any other kind of flesh. 
But this restriction is certainly not universal. Beef is avoided, because, 
it is said, the Bhardis have many Hindu votaries. 

Bharal, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Bbaranch, a smallJat clan in Jind who have the same Sidh as the Kale 

{q. v.). 
Bharat, a tribe, which gives daughters to the Jalaps, found in Jhelum. 
Bhae BHONCHr, a class of Jogis who charm away scorpion stings. 

Bharbhijnjas— B/iar&/ii'»iya, lit. one who roasts grain in an oven — form an 
occupational caste comprising only 4 got^^, viz. : — 

1. Jadubansi ,. (an Ahir got). 

2. Bhatndgar) ,. -c^- ,-, .. 

3. Saksain" f ••• (t^^o Kayath sro^.). 

4. Bdsdeo* ... ... (a Brahman groi). 

* Basdeo, father of Krishna, appears to have been worshipped by the Ahfra also. 

XI /^^ 


Bhafhhunija groups. 87 

As the gots are so few, only one got is avoided in marriage, but the 
caste is said to be strictly endogamous in Pati^la, and outsiders'aro 
never admitted into t)ie caste. 

By religion Bharbliunjas are both Hindus and Muhanimndans. Like 
other Hindus the former invoke Sada 8hiva when commencing work, 
as the shop is regarded as his thard (platform). Subha.i, another 
deota, is also worshipped at weddings, sherbet and some copper pice 
being offered him, tmd cooked food distributed in liis name. 

A Bharbhunja wife may not wear glass bangles or blue clothes or a 
nose-ring {lauvg). 

Bharbliunjas only make harts at weddings; and only eat food 
cooked by Brahinans. They wear the janeo, but permit karewa, the 
husband's brother's claims being recognised. /I'hey preserve an old 
system of local jianchdyats, with hereditary chaudhris, in which all 
caste disputes are settled. At weddings, etc., the chaudhri gives the 
lag and receives li shares in the hhaji. Bharbhunjas mostly pursue 
their creed and calling, but some take to service. In appearance they 
are dark and under-sized. 

In the N^bha State the Bharbhunjas have two occupational groups, 
the Dhankuta or " rice-huskers " (from dhdn, ricp, and kutnd) and 
the Malld,hs or boatmen. Thesp two groups do not intermarry, or drink 
togefclier, but they smoke from the same hxiqah with a different mouth- 
piece. The Malldhs use a large spoon, the Dhankutas a sharp crooked 
instrument, in parching gram. Both groups are found in the Bd,vval 
Niz^mat of this State. In the Phul and Amloh Nizdmats the Kd,yasths, 
a sub-group of the former, claim origin from tliat caste, audit is said : — 
Pa^hgiya jo Kdyastha, ivarnd bhatti jhokan Id'iq : 'He who acquires 
knowledge is a Kayastha, otherwise he is only fit to parch grain.' Hence 
many Kayasths have joined the Bharbhunja caste. In Bd,wal the 
Bharbhunja gots are named from the place of origin, e.g., Mandauria, 
from Mandaur in Alwar, and Chhatagia from Chh^tag. Elsewhere their 
gots are JMu-bansi, Cbandar-bansi, (claiming l^djput origin) Bhatnagar 
and Chandan Katar, and of these the Bhatnagar again suggests 
Kdyasth affinities. The caste is endogamous, and four gots are 
avoided in marriage, but widow marriage is said to be only allowed 
in Bawal. Jats, Gujars and Ahirs take water from a Bharbhunja's 
hands, but Bdnias, Khatris and Brahmans will only take fresh water 
brought by him, not from one of his vessels. The gurus of the 
Bharbhunjas are always Brahmans and perform the phera. Their 
women wear no nose-ring, its use having been prohibited by a sati 
in each group. The Bharbhunjas of Baiwal affect the cult of Bhairon, 
to whom the Mallahs of Agra used to marry their daughters. Tradition 
says that the god once saved a boat from sinking and thenceforward 
the family married one of their girls to the god and left her at his 
shrine where she survived for less than a year. But now only a doll 
of dough is formally married to the god. Other Bharbhunjas also 
reverence Bhairon, and their guru is Subh^n Sahib, whose shrine is 
in a town to the east. He is worshipped on the hhdi duj dnj in Katik. 
The Bbarbhunjas of Phul and Amloh have a pecuhar form of be- 
trothal contract. The bride's father goes to the bridegroom's and 
gives him 4 Mansuri pice, and the latter gives him twice as much in 

^S JBharech — Bhargava Dhusar. 

return. This is called paua hatdnd or exchange of presents, and the 
contract is then said to be irrevocable. If any one violates it without 
reasonable cause he is excomiDunicated by the chaudhris, but may be 
re-adtnitted on payment of a fine which is spent for the benefit of the 
brotherhood. All the Bharbhunjas, except those of Bdwal, wear the 
janeo. If a traveller or a wedding party of Bharbhunjas halts in any 
village the Bharbhunjas there are bound to entertain the whole party, 
otherwise they are excommunicated.'^ 

The Bharbhunja in Delhi claim to be Jaiswdl Edjputs, and have three 
gots, Jaiswil (the highest), Kherwii and Td,jupuria, which all intermarry 
and smoke and eat togethei'. Each village has a chaudhri and of 
two chaudhris one is called chaukrdt. The chaudhri can only act with 
the advice of t\vQvanchdyat. Each chaukrdt has what is called the 
* half pagrl ' and each chaudhri the ' full pagrL' The chaudhri has 
jurisdiction over petty disputes within the caste. Fines ranging from 
Re. 1 to Rs. 100 are levied and the smaller sums spent on feast, 
while larger fines are expended on such public objects as guest-houses. 
Each chaudhri and chaukrdt gets double hhdji at weddings. 

Bhakech, (Barech more correctly), one of the branches of the Pathans. 

From it was descended the family of the Naw^bs of Jhajjar which was 

called Bahidurwati after the name of Bahadur Khan, one of its members. 

The State of Bah^dargarh (Dadri) also belonged' to this family. 
Bharera, a term said to mean silver-smith, in the Simla Hills. The 

Bliareras intermarry with the Lohdrs. 
Bhaegava DeusAR, Dhunsar, a sub-division of the Gaur Brahmans, now 

mainly employed in trade or as clerks. They give themselves the 

following pedigree : — 


Bhrigu X Paloma Raja Sarjaiti, a Kehatrij-a. 

I I 

Chiman rishi x Cukanya. 


Pramata rishi x GhartacU. Aurab Raja Gadh, a Kshatriya. 

I I i 

Ruru X Parmadabra. Rachik x ?atwati Raja Parsainjat. 

) II 

Sonak. Jamdagnya X Ranuka. 


All the descendants of Bhrigu and Chiman were called Chimanbansi 
Bhargavas, and as Chiman the rishi used to perform his devotions at 
the hill of Arahak, near Rowdri in Gurgaon, which is now called Dhosi, 
those of his descendants who settled in that locality became known as 
Dhusars. Chiman rishihsis an ancient temple on this hill and a new 
one was built in recent years. Adjoining these temples is a tank, the 
Chandrakup. The Dhijsars have the following seven groups or gotras : — 

* Popular legend distorts this descent in a curious way. It says that once Chaman, a 
Brahman of Narnaul, took as his mistress a woman of menial caste, who bore him 7 sons and 
as many daughters. When asked to marry them he bade them appear on an amdAvaa with 
a cow and made each touch its different parts : so one touched its tail {puchal) and foimded 
the Puchalar gotra ; another its horns {sing) and founded the Singlas gofra, and soon. Each 
gotra has five panvaras, except the Kashib which has three or occasionally seven. The Kashibs 
are thus known as triparwaras or saptparwaras and the other gotras as p'^^ichpanvaras. 

Bhargava Dkusar history. 


The Dhusars affect the Yaj-ur Veda, the Mad3'andaDi sakha and the Katj'ani sutraj and 
invariably wear the sacred thread. Only the Brahma form of marriage is tolerated among 
them and in the choice of a bride the ffotra and worshippers of the same kulJevi (family 
goddess) are avoided. Widows never remarry. 

The Bhargava Dhusars claim to have given a long list of parohits and ministers to Hindu 
kings, from Chanda Bhargava who officiated at the sarp yng or serpent sacrifice originated by 
Rfija JamaijayatoHemu Shah, the Baqqal of Rewari, who revolted against Akbar, as the 
following table shows :— 


Name of parohit and 



Samvat Bik- 






Sanapat Bhargava 



Mahipat Bhargava 




Siravidat Bhargava and 

Suraj Sain 


their descendants. 

Jag Naraia Bhargava and 

Birshah to 

1800 to 

his descendants 



Samdat Bhargava and 

Murar Singh to 

2319 to 

his descendants 

Jit Mai 


Jai Narain Bhargava and 

Pal Singh to 

2532 to 

his descendants 

Bhagwant Kohi 

... 3097 

Sundarpal Bhargava ... 

Raja Bir Bikramajit ... 

... 3110 

Indarpil Bhargava and 

Samandarpal Jogi to ... 

135 to 

his descendants 



298 A. D. 

Jaideva Bhargava and 


367 to 

310 to 

his descendants 

Kuar Sain 



Indroman Bhargava and 

Hari Sain to 

579 to 

522 to 

his descendants 




£heo Narain Bhargava and 

Kaurpal to 

1000 to 

943 to 

his descendants 

Pirthwi R«j 

(Rai Pithora) 



90 Bharhir—Bhatia. 

Bhirhi a tribe which claims descent from Gaur Brdhmans, and observes 
the same ceremonies as they do, but at a weddmg performs seven 
2)hera8 instead of four. Work as sculptors, etc. (Found m Gurg^on). 

Bhaeoi, fern. Bharoia, s. m. one who attends travellers at a hharo. 

Bhaeth, an agricultural clan found in Shahpur. 

Bhaeth, a Rdjput sept found in Gujrdt, descended from their eponym. 

Bharwal, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Bhaewana, (1) a Muhammadan J at clan (agricultural) found in Mont- 
gomery ; (2) a clan of the Sidls, descended from Bhairo. 

Bhairyae, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found iu Amritsar. 

Bhat, see under Bhatt. 

BflAfE, an Ardin and Rajput clan (agricultural) found in Amritsnr. 

Bhati, see Bdhti. 

Bhati, a Jat, Arain, Gujar and Rajput clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar, 
also a Jdt and Rajput clan found in MuMn. 

Bhati, a tribe of Hindu Rajputs, chiefly interesting as being the ancestors 
of the Bhatti Rajputs and the SiDHtJ Barar Jd,ts, as the following table 

shows : — 



r ^^, 

Jaisal. Dusal. 

Hindu BMtis. Junhir or Ji unra, 


r i 

Batera. Achal 

I r ) 

, Sidhu Bar4r Barsi. Rajpal. 

Jats. I I 

Bhatti Rajputs. Wattn K4iputs. 

[Fagan—Hissar Gazetteer, pp. 124, 127—129.] 

Bhatia. — A caste originally from the country round Delhi but more recently 

from Bhatner and the Rajputana desert, and claiming tobeRdjputs 

of Yadubansi race, one branch of which became rulers of Jaisalmir 

■while the other took to commercial pursuits. The name would seem 

to show that they were Bhatis (Bhatti in the Punjab) ; but be that 

as it may, their Rajput origin seems to be unquestioned. They are 

numerous in Sind and Guzerat where they appear to form the leading 

mercantile element, and to hold the place which the Aroras occupy 

higher up the Indus. They have spread into the Punjab along the 

lower vallpys of the Indus and Sutlej, and up the whole length of the 

Cliendb as high as its debouchure into the plains, being indeed most 

numerous in tSialk't and Gujrdt. In these Provinces however they 

occupy an inferior position, both in a social and in a mercantile sense. 

They stand distinctly below the Khatri and perhaps below the Arora, 

and are for the most part engaged in petty shop-keeping, though the 

Bhatias of Dera Isma'il Khan are described as belonging to a ' widely 

spread and enterpj-ising mercantile community.' They are often 

supposed to be Khatris, are very strict Hindus — iar more so than the 

other trading classes of the Western Punj5,b-~eschewing meat and 

liquor. They do not practise widow-marriage. 

/^^^^, /..< . /^<Z.^'^, ^ 

The Bhdtia sections. 


The BMtia caste has 84* sections, called wwA;/i5, divided into two 
groups thus — 

Grodp I. — Bari- 




1. Babla 

2. Dhagga ^ Dhdighar. 

3. Anda ) 

4. BaJ^ha 

5. Jdwa 

6. Soni 



7. Gandhi. 

8. Chachra. 

9. Chabak. 

10. Kandal. 

11. Ghanghal. 

12. Kore. 

Both Bald,ha and Jdwa claim to be chdrghar. All the above sections 
are of Bardghar status. It is hardly necessary to explain that 
dhdighar may not give daughters to any but dhdighar, though they may 
take from chdrghar and so on. A breach of this rule involves degrad- 
ation and hence the same section may be both dhdighar and chdrghar. 

Group II. — Bunjahi, which comprises the remaining sectionsf such 
as Baila, Chotd,k, Dholia and Naida. 

There are no territorial groups, but the orthodox idea among the 
old men is that daughters should be given to the Western Bhatids 
of Shd,hpur, Jhelum and Dera Isma'il Khan as they are of superior 
status to those in Gujrdt, while the Eastern Bhatiiis of Sidlkot and 
Gujrdnwdla are considered inferior and wives are taken from them. 

It should, however, be noted that in Bahdwalpur these groups 

appear to be unknown, but of the 
wSk sections given in the margin the 

RaSha. Sijwala is the highest and the Rilla 

Challhar. the lowest. The Bhdtids have a 

Jilla. proverb ' dhan di wadi ai ' or 

^ ••''• ' wealth is greatness.' In Bahawal- 

pur, they live in large rectangular hawelis, each comprising 30 or 40 




\ An-Sip. 

1. Rai G^jaria, fi'oin 

2. Rao Haria, from Rai Hari Singh, a 

3. Rao Sapat, from S4pt4, a village of 
Mar war, the home of Bimi, a Bh4tf. The 
Bhatis of Sipta, were great devotees of 
Devi and as such held in great respect. 

4. Rao Paral- sauna, ' the sept of the five 
heroes,' Jasaji, Rawalji, Nawal Singh, 
Jodhraj and Bfr Singh who fell bravely 
fighting in Jaisalmi'r. Bahadar 8ingh 
belonged to this nalih. —All the above 
nakhs affect Devf. 

5. Rai Ramayi. Agai-raj, brother of 
Ram Chandar was a great bhagat who 
was ever repeating Rim's name. 

6. Rai Padamsi, from Padamsi Bbitf who 
fell bravely fighting in battle. He had i 
a son Udhe Rai. 

7. Rai Paleja, from Paleja a village, the 
home of Parma Bhatl, in Marwir. 

8. Rai Ved (Waid), from Man Singh, son 
of Megh Raj Bhati who was skilled in 
waidak (physic) : all the Bhatis who 
joined him became Eai by Rept. 

9. Rai Surya, from Sura Bhatf who fell 
in battle. 

10. Rai Ditya, from DiSta a village, the 
home of Arjan Bh4tf, a hhagnt of Devi. 

11. Rai Gokal Gandf, from Gokal Gindi 
of M ultin under whom served Nawal, son 
of Rawal Bhatl. R4wal fell in battle, 

12. Rai G4da, from Gida Bh4ti, a bhagat 
of Hanuman. 

13. Rai Nae Gandi, from Hegh Rij, son 
ofJodh Raj. Megh Ktij opened a shop 
at Bahawalpur, and was known as Niya 

* An 85th is also named below. 

t There \% also a lower ^roup called Gand, the oilsprin^ of Bbitiis married to Arora 
women or of widow remarriages. The Pushkama Brahman is their ■parohit^ 


The Bhdtia sections. 

14. Rai Midia, from Medi a village, the 
home of Kumbha Bhati, who fell ia 
battle. He had a son Oga, who was a 
servant of Bahadar All, Nawab. 

15. Rai Chhachia, from rhhe {six). Six 
families joined Desa Bhati. 

16. Rai Bablla, from Bablla, son of Jodha 
Bhati, of Nigu village. 

17. Rai Panchal, from Panchalpuri, the 
home of Rai Bhi'm. 

18. Rai Gulgula, from Gulgula Bhiii who 
was killed in battle. He had a son Man 

19. Rai Subra, from Subra, the name of a 
haithak* of Bhatls. 

20. Eai Nagra, from Nagra, a village in 

21. Rai Saraki, from Nawal Saraki, the 
name of those who sided with Nawal 
Singht in a dispute about some custom 
which the Qazi decided in his favour. 

22. Rai Soni, from Son a village, whose 
spokesman was Ratan Kai Bhati. 

23. Rai Sopla, from Bhopat Singh Bhati. 

24. Rai Jia, from Jia Bhati who display- 
ed great courage in the afmy. 

25. Rai Mogia, from Mogia Rhati who fell 

26. Rai Dhadha, from Dhadhalu, a village 
of the Thati country. 

27. Rai Rika, from Rika Bhati, who fell 
fighting. He had a son Gassa. 

28. Rai Jidhan, from Jidhan Bhati, who 
was a great cultivator. 

29. Rai Kothia, from Kothiar, a village. 

30. Rai Kotha, from Kothapur, a village. 

81. Rai Dhawan, from Dhawan Rai, who 
was famed for his generosity. He had a 
son Megha. 

82. Rai Devla, from a famous Deval Bhati, 
who lived in the village of Ganth. 

33. Rai Jia, from Jia CWdak, a cultivator, 
who lived in the Marwar Thati. 

34. Rai Baura, from Baura, a village in 
the Thati. 

35. Rai Dhage, from Dhaga Bhati, who 
fell bravely in battle. 

36. Rai Kandhya, from Shuja Bh4ti, who 
though his forehead was split in the Jai- 
salmir war, yet his trunk fought on for 
a long while. 

37. Eai Rathia, from R^thia Bhati, of 
Ratnar, a village in the Thati of Marwar, 
He was famous for his hospitality. 

38. Rai Kajrid,, from Kajarya, a village 
towards Multin where Man Singh mukhia 
lived. He had seven sons, all called 

39. Rai Sijwala, who were proficient in 

40. Rai JabaU, from Jabala, a village in 

41. Rai Malan, from Malan, a family of 
Gogla village, whose members knew an- 
tidotes to poisons. 

42. Rai Dhaba, from Dhaba muhhia of 
Rori village, who raised camels there. 

43. Rai Uhiran, from Dhiran Bhati, who 
fell in battle. He had a son Udhe Rai. 

44 Rai Bhagta, from Bhagtanand Bhati, 
who showed great valour in the Jaisalmir 

45. Rai Bira, from Bira Bhnti, who showed 
great valour in battle. He was a bhagat 
of Devi. 

46. Rai Thula, from Thula, a village of the 

47. Rai Sodhaya, from Sodha, a caste, 
Singh Mai Bhati having married the 
daughter of a Sodhi Rijput. 

48. Rai Biiri, from Bisra Bhati of Bakhar 

49. Rai Miichha, from Arjan Bhati, who 
was nicknamed Arjan Muchha, as he had 
long moustaches. He was a bhagat of 
Jasra Devi, and wore the 5 kes. 

50. Rai Tamboli, from Nanda and Niga, 
tainhoUs (betelnut-sellers). They were 
bhagats of Shiva. 

51. RaiTh4kar. 

52. Rai Bisnaw, from Bisanwant Bhati, 
who was a man of great good furtune. 
He had 4 sons. All the members of this 
family specially worshipped Ram Chandr 
and in one year 107 sons used to be born 
to it. 

53. Rai Bhudria, from Bhudar, a Bhati. 

54. Rai Indhar, from Indhar, a branch of 
the Bhatis. 

55. Rai Dhadha I, from Dhadhala village, 
the home of Rama Bhati 

56. Rai Beg Chandr, from Bega and Chan- 
da, Bhatis, who were customs collectors. 

57. Rai Bipal, from Bipal, the residence of 
Kunbha and Kana, Bhatis. 

58. Rai Potha, from the brothers Potha, 
Parm4 and Naga, Bhatis. 

59. Rai Premla, from Prema and Parma, 
Bhati Rajputs of Rasa village. 

60. Rai P-nrdhaga, from Puradh, a yag, 
performed by Kana and Kumbha, Bhatis, 
who were followers of Guru Mnak. 

61. Rai Madhr4, from Madhra Bhati, a 
servant of a Kh4n at Multan, who gave 
much in alms. 

62. Rai Pharas Gandi, from Pharas, the 
name of Jit4 Mai, Bhati, who had transac- 
tions with Maujiid Khan in Multan. He 
had perfumes, oil and aftar. 

63. Rai Puri Gandi, from Pare, a Bhiii, 
performer of Raipul. 

64 Rai Jujar Gandi from Jujar vUlage, 
the residence of A jit Singh and Ranphi, 
Bhitts, who sold perfumes. 

65. Rai Panwar, from Panwar, a branch of 
the Bhatf. 

66. Rai Prema Siij, from Prema and Suj4, 
the sons of Gondha, Bhatf. 

67. Rai Raj4, from Raja, a village in 

* A room or building where male visitors are received. 

tNot apparently the Nawal Singh of No. 11. This Nawal Singh was in the employ of 
one Qutb Khan, 

Bhafidni^'Bhdtrd. d& 

68. RaiParjia, fromParja, a caste. Rasan.l 78. Rai Nisat, from sat (juice) because 

son of Bhfm Singh, Bhati, in a fight with 
robbers killed 100 of them, while on 
his side only two of his 5 sons and 6 
Bh4tis fell. 

69. Kai Kupwar, from Kapiira, a, Bhati, 
who attained a great age. 

70. Rai Dhadar, from Dhadar, a village 
in the Punjab. 

71. Kai Kartarya, from Kartaryi, the 
family name of one Kana Bhati. 

72. Rai Gogla. 

73. Rai Kukar, from Kukar, a village iji 
the Punjab. 

74. Rai Multani, from Multan where Jod-u 
Rai, a Bhati clothier and his family lived. 

75. Rai Cham uja, from Chamujn, a village- 

76. Rai Dhiya, from Dhiya, a village. 

77. Rai Karan Gota, from Kama, Bhdtf, 
who was called Kama after his gotar. 
Two of them, Mul Raj and Megh Raj, 
served with distinction under the Nawab 
of Bahawalpur. 

Sam-un and Hamiin extracted juice from 
wheat and made lialwd of it. 

79. Kai Udesi, from Udhe Hai, the elder 
son of Parma. Bhati. He had a hitter 
feud with his younger brother. 

80. Rai Budhiya, Bhoj Kaj, Bhati, did 
Badh Pal's work, had camels and hired 

81. Rai BaUi, from Balayakar, a village 
in the Pimjab which was the home of 
Bhan, son of Bhoj R4j. 

82. Rai Pawar, from Pawri village, the 
home of Preman and Parmdn. 

83. Rai Kina, from Kina (enmity). The 
family of Mbs4 destroyed their enemy. 

84. Rai K4zia, from K4zi. Ir .Mai, Bhati, 
who worked as a clerk under a kdzi of 

85. Rai Mota, from Moti, daughter of Narii 
Mai Sohana, a resident of Multan, 

Bhatiani, a donkey owner in Dera Ghazi Khan, who also bakes bread 
while his womenfolk act as midwives. Said to be connected with the 
Kahdrs and Kumhdrs. 

BHAfi-DAE, one on whom land is bestowed as hhdtt, i.e., a rent-free grant of 
land given to a Brahman oj- jdgir by a ruler. 

BoATi Wad, a tribe of Jdts found in Sidlkot which claims Solar Rdjput 
descent and originated in Ajudhia whence its eponym migrated to 
Amritsnr, where it is also found as a Jat (agricultural) clan. 

BHAT9.A. — Like the Mani^r, Banjdra and others the Bhdtrd, is a pedlar. 
He claims Brahman origin, and his traditions say that one Mddho 
Mai, a Brahman rishi, a singer and a poet, once loved and wedded 
Kd,m Kundala, a dancing gii-1. From this pair are descended the 
Madhwas or Bhdtras.* The latter word appears to be a diminutive 
of the Sanskrit bhatta, a bard. However this may be, a curious 
legend accounts for the Bh4trd,s' location in the Punidb and their 
conversion to Sikhism. Madho was born and died in Ceylon,T but 
in the reign of Babar, GuriJ N^nak visited that island, and there 
made a disciple of Changa Bha^ra, a descendant of Mddho. The 
Adi Granth records that 20 maunds of salt a day were required for 
Changa's numerous followers, many of whom were converted to 
Sikhism and followed Guru Nd,nak back to India. 

The M^dhwd,'', however, did not at first settle in the Punjab. 
Originally they were to be found chiefly in the Dadra Dos, along 
the banks of the Ganges in the Bijnor District of the United 
•Provinces, whero many of them are hanjdras or pedlars by trade, 
some hawking cheap ornamButs for women, others so-called Vedic 
medicines.! Thence they migrated into Hoshi^rpur and Si4lkot, but 

♦ This tradition is said to be preserved in the Mahabharata and Singh 4 san Batisi. In a 
j)ttri/;a7ia of Mahi^rnja Ranji't Singh of 7th Asauj, 1866 Sambat, and now in the possession 
of a Bhatra of Dhariwil, the Madhwas w^ere exempted from the grazing tax. 

t A Sikh temple, known as Dera Baba, was built in Ceylon to the Guru's memory at the 
Madhw4s' original home. 

± Gullible patients are made to sign bonds for Ra. 50 or so, as the Bhitra's feo» 
if tney recover. 

§4 The Mdt or Bhatt 

they are now to be found in the great towns and places of pilgrim- 
age all over India. In Hoshiarpur theBhdtr^s are virtually all Sikhs 
(though children under 12 have their heads shaved) and here they 
pose as magicians, foretelling the future by gazing into a cup of oil. 
Thence they mainly frequent the K^ngra District. In Sialkot a moiety 
are true Sikhs, obssrving all the Sikh customs, and often posing as 
gurus, Akd^lis or Nihangs when on their wanderings.* They prey on the 
credulity of the people by astrology. The other moiety are jatadhdris, 
but smoke, and generally assume the characteristic garb of the 
Udasis, pretending to be emissaries of certain temples and col- 
lecting subscriptions for them. After the Diwdli the Bhdtrds set 
out on their tours, returning at the commencement of the rainy 
season. They travel in gangs generally of half-a-dozen or so, and 
the Sikhs are occasionally accompanied by their wives and 
daughters, for whose marriages they collect subscriptions. Various 
forms of swindling are practised by them and they earn large 
sums which they promptly squander on drink and gambling. 
Besides hawking small hardware for sale they pierce children's noses 
and ears for rings,t Hke the Ramdiya of the eastern districts. 

The Bhdtrds' claim to Brahminical origin is borne out by the fact 
that they wear the janeo and tilak, and even at eclipses receive 
certain offerings, while standing in water, from each and every caste. 
They also practise palmistry {rekha). Other castes call them harar- 
popo or Thags, and the higher Brahman groups disown them. 
Probably they are a branch of the Pakauts. 

The Bhdtras have 22 gots, of which 13 are found in Sialkot, viz. ;— 

Bhains. Gaml. Kasba. Lohi. 

Bhattf. Gojra. Lande. Rithor. 

Bhotiwil. Kag. Lar, Rod. 

Bhatt, fem. Bhatten, Bhattni, Bhdtni, Bhatani : dim. Bhatetd, : fem. 
Bhateti, the son or daughter of a Bhatt : also, contemptuously, any 
one of that caste. The Panid,bi form is Bhatt, but it is very commonly 
pronounced Bh^, especially in the Hills. 

The organisation of the Hindu Bh^ts almost baffles descriptioD, so 
fluid are its intricacies. 

In Hissar are found two sub-castes, Brahm and a few Rdj. The 
former are clients of the Mahdjanpt, performing certain functions for 
them at weddings, &c.§ ; they wear the janeo, avoid widow marriage, 
and only eat food cooked by a Gaur Brahman ||, while the Rdj are land- 
holders and cultivators, receiving dues at Jdt weddings. 

The Brahm, Brahma or Brahmi Bhdts are very widely spread, and 
always appear to stand higher than the other sub-castes or groups, 
which vary from place to place. Thus in Rolitak the other groups are 

* Recently, however, some of them have taken to disguising themselves as Bairagi 
sddMs. Others, of Daska, make an indelible mark on their necks and call themselves 
Hosaiai Brahmans, collecting alms from Muhammadans. 

t See p. 268 of Punjab Manufactures for the implements used. 

% And also of the Brahmans in Rohtak. 

§ They sing kabits in public when the bridegroom first sets out for his father-ili-law's 
house, receiving a rupee as then* fee on this occasion and also at the kdj of an old man. 

II Or Aggarwal Mahajans in Bobtak. 

The Bhdt groups. 95 

three in number, viz., Japrg^ or Tappawd,r,* Ch^rant, and a fourth 
class, to which belonged Udd, Bh^t.J The Jagg^s comprise the BLaria, 
Roria, SbakkarwdU, Solanki and other gots. 

In Gurg^on on the other hand the Bh^t or Rai, as he is called, is de- 
scribed as a Mir^si, and is divided into four clas6es§ ; — 

y ( 1. Brahm Rai, Bhdts of the Brahmans. 

X 2. Bero (^Baro) Rai, of the Rajputs. 

jj f 3. R5.J Hai, who eat fiesh and drink liquor. 

(4. Jag^, or genealogists : of whom I is superior to II.|| 

The Brahm group then extends right across the south of the Punjab 
into Mult^n, Dera Ghdzi KhSn, Dera Isma'il, Mi^nwdli and even Bannu • 
the group below them being called K^timar.^H 

On the other hand in Multd,n the Brahm Bhd,t8 are said to be divided 
into four classes : — 

Chandi Dds. I Mahal. 

Jangd Bhambd,. | Sutrak. 

This group is also called Vateshar and regards itself as Bahrf or 
superior, while the Bunjd,his, who are not recognised as Brahm Bhd,ts 
comprise the following gfois : — 

Dehi Palsihar. 

Agan-hotrl.^* Lakhnauri. 

Chandan. Manjhor. 

Dharor. Palsihar. 

Ghanghar.** Pali Palsihar. 
Guru Dat. 

The real grouping in MuUin however appears to be into four func- 
tional groups, viz. : — 

1. Brahm, eulogists and genealogists. 

2. Vartishar, who live upon dues payable at weddings and funerals 
for their services. At weddings they summon the brotherhood, and so 
on. At deaths they notify its members, and also procure certain 

*Jaggi, so called because they rise early and seated on their patron's roof recite hi <! 
genealogy. Tappawar is not explained. 

t Charan, a wanderer, pilgrim : singer, dancer : Platts, sub voce. 

I But another account says the Bhats include the following classes -—Brahm (the onlv one 
found in Rohtak), Jagg4, Raj and Charan, (already mentioned n together with the Monii 

and Garara. 

§ Apparently sub-castes : if not, I and II each form a sub-caste. But it is also said that 
the mirdsi^ of the Kajputs are called Kana or Ucharn Bhats, the E4nas being storv tellers 
and eulogists, as well as genealogists. And yet another account divides the ithats into four 
classes :— (1 . Rai Bhat, or ' meisteisingers.' (2^ Ranas "heralds " who used to act as envovs 
as well as encourage the fighting men by their singing of legends, (3) Kathaks or musicians' 
and (4) JagJis or genealogists and story tellers, ' 

The following kubit from Gurgion describes the superiority of the Rai Bhits •— 
Hamin That, Hamin Bhatt, Hamin Bhaunra, Hamin Bhdgi 
Bamin lir Betdl, Hamin javgal ke jogi. ' 

Kaprd pharen mdng Tcarar bdndh mandar aren, 
Betdl kahen Bikram suno dev dan kirat karen 
II The Bhat ?o<s are:-Bimblan, Bhardwaj, Chand Bardai, Chandlin, Kali^, Mirchal Sair 
Tind and Sodhian. ' ""-"»*> *"^^t 

^ But according to an account from Mult^n the groups are four xiz -—Brahm Vartech 
war, Chandisar and Kutichar, each with functions of its own ' 

** These two ?o<s are by some classed as Brahm, in other words some of their ttfmters 
are of Brahm status, others only of Bunjihl rank. ^i^miLCJc 

96 , The Bhdt groups. 

articles for tbe corpse. At funerals their females take part in the 
sidjpd (mourning), being paid annas 2 per day. At a girl's wedding they 
get Ke. 1-8, but at a boy's only Re. 1, the sum which they also get 
at a funeral. Their perquisite on other occasions is called vel badhdi. 

3. The Chandisar live in the villages and live by begging. The 
Kdtimdrs who used to be numerous in Multdn, are an off-shoot of 
this branch. 

4. The Kutichar are vagrant beggars. 

Accounts from Mi^nwdli, in which District the Bhd,ts are very few 
in number, give a threefold division of the caste, as follows :— 

J C i. Brahmi. I jj f ii. Kdtimdr or Sheni Khel. 

^iii. KhosU. 1 ^ |iii. Baddu. 

I performs ceremonies : II does not, though at weddings the Kd,timd,r 
sing songs of congratulation. The Baddii in virtually an out-caste.* 

A second account points to the fact that the Bh^ts derive their origin 
from the Pushkarnd, Brahmans as well as from the Sd,rsut, and says the 
Pushkarni Bh^t are equal in status to the S^rsut.t though the status 
of the sections varies, and a family whose widows marry outside the 
brotherhood is looked down upon. 

Lastly a third account gives the old functional groups : the out who 
sing songs and recite chronicles ' in the afternoon 'J ; the Md,gadh, who 
keep pedigrees of kings, and recount their deeds : the Windijdn, who 
teach princes ; and the Bh^t or Jagak§ who sang songs in the early 
morning hours to awaken the king-. Yet this same account divides the 
Bhdts into Brahms and Kd,timdrs. 

In Multd,n, tahsil Shnj5bd,d, only the Brahm and Kdtimd,r groups are 
known. The former comprises 7 gots : Chandi Dds, Mahol, Sutrak, 
Changar, Palsa, Chandaria, and Channan, all of which are said to be 
Sdirsut gots and intermarry. The Kd,timd.r8, also said to be Sd.rsuts, 
form a distinct sub-caste. They have, as a rule, no clients, and live 
by blackmail, but in Shujd,bd,d itself they receive fixed dues (from one 
to four annas a h^ad at weddings). They still compose habits which 
the Brahm Bhdts do not. 

In the accounts from Karndl, Patid,ld. and KapurthaldH allusion is 

* The Baddd takes alms from Muhammadans, which other Bhats will not do. No other 
will eat with him, yet he wears the janeo. His corpse is not burnt like a Hindu's, but is cast 
into a stream. It is to be regretted that no further particulars of this interesting group are 
t it is said that the gots are : — 

fChandiDas, f / Panian. 

1 Gandhor. DrT.r„,,„«.' ) Josi. 

SABS.T JHararRai. ^^'^^^^^ j Asuv. 

HABSUT -j Hatiara / CGhangar. 

1 Kdtimdr' ? I 

I^Thor, etc. I 

j; Just as the Jaggi have a stated time for their recitations : see above. 
§ Not to be confused with the Jajik, who in Dera Gh4zl Khan is a sewer of shrouds : see 

II In Kapurthala to the Siit is assigned the duty of reciting verses from the Purans : and 
to the Magadh that of eulogising the Surajbans, Chandrbans, etc., while to the Vandijan is 
allotted the recitation of chronicles, and eulogising Deo, rilchi, pjtar and Hati kinondan, 
whence they are designated Kabishars or bards. The latter also announce betrothals, set 
forth the dowry at weddings, and so on. 

The Bhdt groups. 


made to an older and apparently extinct organisation of the Bhdt caste 
into three main groups, viz. : — 

1. Sut, reciters of myths. 

2. M^o-adhs, chroniclers. 

3. Vaiidis, or Vandijan, who acted as advisers to Rdjas and as 
poets laureate. 

The Vandis alone are found in Patidld. where they are known as 
Brahmd Bhdts or Brahmsi Kais. They wear ihe janeo and retain their 
Brahminical gotras such as Konsal (in Kapurthald), Bhardwdj, etc. 

In their internal grouping the Brahm Bhdts imitate the Khatri 
organisation, having two groups as follows : — 

I. — BaRI, or the 12 GOTS. 

10. Phdg. 

11. Chandi dds. 

12. Dhiran. 

1. Gun deo. 4. Lakhau Sain. 7. Bhdriimal. 

2. Kataria. 5. Dhur. 8. Tdhu. 

3. Pangan. 6. Bisbel or -wel. 9. Kalian. 

and of these numbers 1 — 6 form a I)hd,ighar group, wiiich avoids only 
one got iu marriage, (as indeed does the whole Bd,ri group, apparently) 
whereas the Bunjahis avoid four. This latter group includes the 
following g^ois : — 




Tuhdnia, etc. 

On the other hand in Shd,hpur the Bhdt are divided into Bunjdhis 
and Khokhars, the latter suggesting the Khokharain group of the 
Khatris, thus : — 


II,— Khokhars. < 

f Ayupotri. 
I Dherru. 
•^ Jandidds. 

^Rai Pc4l. 






Of these the Jain section will intermarry with any other, but 
from the above notes it is abundantly clear that the Bhdts are 
simply an offshoot of the Brahmans, being differentiated from them 
by function. And to explain their origin various legends have been 
invented. One is that when -Janmeja celebrated a sacrifice he sum- 
moned the Gaur Brahmans and tricked one of tliem into accepting an 
offering of a diamond hy concealing it in some pcin. This Brahman 
became a Bhdt. Another, to whom Janmeja offered a gift, refused it 
and became a Taggd. Another ia that iShiva was celebrating the 
marriage of his son, and giving alms to Jogis, Jangams, Sanidsis and 
Suthrds, who received them with a good grace. Thereupon the god 
asked if any would constrain him to give alms, and a drop of sweat 
falling from his brows to the ground the first Bhdt pprang from 

Bhdt legends. 

it, with a Jcatdr in hia hands, and uttered a kalit which runs : — " 
goddess Kd^likd., give the Bhdt a Jcatdr whose sight will cause a close- 
fisted man {shum) to flee. Let the Bhd-t cleave him from head to foot 
with his /ca^dr." Shiva replied : — "0 Betal Rai, Bhdt, I would have 
given you the kingdom of the whole world had you not appeared thus. 
Now I grant you great influence and all will be terrified at your voice, 
but you will get what you may/' This habit, obtained from a Bhdt, 
would make all the Bhdts professional extortioners. A third tradition 
is that Brahmd offered gifts to Brahmans, but they all refused it, until 
one of their sisters' sons accepted it and thus became a Bhdt. 

Two legends from the Simla hills also describe the origin of the 
Bhdts. The first explains how they acquired the power of reading 
men's thoughts. Under Rdjd Bhoj,* it sayp, lived Kdli Dds, a famous 
Bhdt who held that a man could say anything he wished in poetry, 
and so Kdli, the goddess, pleased with his devotion, conferred on 
him the power of thought-reading. The other legend goes further 
back, and describes how Rdjd Jaswantt had a wise counsellor in a 
woman Khankdli. Once when he was holding his court at Srinagar 
in Garhwdl the Rdjd of Mdrwdr, Jagdeo, came to see him and found 
him and Khankdli in council. The lady veiled her face, explaining 
that as a man had come to that cowardly court she could not show her 
face before him. This reply naturally annoyed Jaswant who declared 
he would give her 10 times as much as Jagdeo would bestow. Khankdli 
then went to Jagdeo's tent ; but as he was at his devotions his Rdnl 
gave her a dish full of gold coins and gems which Khankdli refused to 
accept, as she could take no alms from a woman. When the Rdjd 
came she presented him with a rupee, as a nazr, and said she was the 
wife of a Bhdt and had come to demand dan (charity), which one of 
Rdjput blood could not refuse. He bade her ask a favour, and she de- 
manded his head, which the Rdjd at once cut off, and she carried it in a 
dish to Rdjd Jaswant. Tauntingly Jaswant asked what she had got 
from Jagdeo, who had fled from his own kingdom and sought a refuge 
with himself. In reply Khankdli showed him the head and demanded 
those of himself and his 9 sons in fulfilment of his vow, threatening him 
with the ruin of his kingdom if he refused. The king's sons, his queen, 
and he himself, however, all declined to sacrifice their lives in fulfilment 
of the Rdjd's rash promise. 

Khankdli then returned to Jagdeo's tent. She had forbidden his 
queen to burn his body till she returned, and when she found the Rdni 
lamenting over his corpse she restored it to life and promised him the 
empire of all India. This he soon achieved. In the first encounter 
Jaswant was overthrown and Jagdeo seized his kingdom. Gradually 
he subdued all the petty chiefs in India, compelling them to pay 
6 annas in the rupee as tribute. From Khankdli and Kdli Dds the 
Bhdt chain descends. 

In Sirmur the Bhdts are by origin Brahmans,J but having adopted 
karewa they lost status and are iiow by occupation genealogists. 
Many, too, are cultivators and trans-Giri mairy with Kanets. The 

* Cf. Legends II, p. 183. 

t See Legends of the Punjab III, pp. 242, 252. 

J There is a Wateshar or Bateshar group among the Brahmans also. 

The Muhammadan Ehdl. 


Blidts of Nd,haTi retain Brahman customs, but those of the interior have 
adopted those of the Kanets. With the Kanets the Bh^t3 furnish the 
Dewds or priests to the temples. Trans-Giri there is a sub-division of 
tVie Bhd,ts called Deti, but the rest of the Bhdts do not intermarry with 
them and they are inferior to the other groups. 

The Muhammadan Bhats. 
The Muhammadan Bhdts are even fewer in numbers than the Hindu, 
and far less elaborately organised. In Hissdr they date their con- 
version to A'lamgir^s reign, and still continue to minister to Mahdjans 
and other Hindus as well as to Mughals and Pirzildas, but Shaikhs 
only fee them at a daughter's wedding; as do also oilmen and weavers 
who give them 8 annas. But they get fees on the birth of a son. In 
Rohtak they have only three sections, Bijhdu. Sil Saha and Gur Deva, 
of whom the latter recite genealogies and compose songs. 

Their patrons are Muhammadan Rajputs and Hindu Mahiijans, and 
they receive — 


Girl's betrothal 



Birth of a son 


The Bhat women sing songs and chant 

The Bhat women sing songs and also the 


Women sing bandhdwa 

Sing congratulatory songs 


8 MansTori takas. 

Re. 1 or as. 8 with tahaa. 

8 iahas for each. 
Re. 1. 

At weddings when the dower arrives the Bhats read out the list of articles and recite the 
following kabit : — 

Zar Tci&i sone gota kindri murassa inoti kanchan chhahhha7-i hai, 
Kimkhdb atlas bdtvald jhurm Idt mehndi moti sut pda dhari hai. 

Bhukan rdtub hlrd pannd jardo jurat gird men chhuhdre sab ndr kahin khari hai. 
Sundar sohdg hhdg bhari jaisi khilli phul jhari hai. 

In Sb^hpur the Muhammadan Bh^^s ^^^ divided thus :— 

Section^ Gotra. 

Chiir^l. Koshal. 

Panj. „ 


Kaprdl, which is said to be purely endogamous and not to 



marry with any other Bh^t under pain of excommunication, 
other four sections marry inter se. 


The Bhat's fdnctions. 

The functions of the Bhdt differ in different parts of these Provinces. 
In the south-eastern districts he is not entrusted with any religious 
functions at all. Thus in Rohtak the Brahm Blidts merely get 
annas 4 to 8 on the bridegroom's departure at a wedding ; and the 
guests at a rich man'ss funeral are invited through a Bh^tj ^^° receives 
Re. I in cash, and a turban when the pagri is tied round the heir's 
head. A Bh^^ also summons the kinsmen to witness an excommuni- 


The Bhdt's functions. 

cation or a re-admission into caste.* As we go westward, however, the 
Bhd-t's functions become more definite, assuming at times almost a 
priestly colour, while his perquisites are correspondingly larger and more 
certain. Thus ia Kapiirthal<i the Brahm Bhdt sings congratulatory 
songs at a betrothal, at the saia chitthi, at a chhotd tikd, or marking 
of the bridegroom's forehead, the milni,i or meeting of the bride and 
bridegroom, at the lawdn or turina, the mittha bhdt and the chirJcani, 
receiving a fee of annas 2 or so, together with other rails. 

After a death the Bhdt remains for 13 days in the deceased's house 
and helps to procure what is required ; at a shdnt he gets a rupee ; 
and at a such he gets a similar fee with certain clothes : — 


r(l) Marriage procession .. 

. ! {2) Pilra 

I (3; Dowry 

•S ! 

t I (4) Warisui ... 

r(l) Procession to the funeral 

(2) Sidpdiov 1st four days... 
■( (3) Dahdya 


(4) On the 13th day 

j (5) Dharm shdnt 

Sing Manglachdr habits 


Proclaim publicly the presents given 

as the dowry. 
Carry baskets (chhdhds') of dried 
fruits, etc., to the bridegroom's 
father's house, and chant congra- 
tulations to the pair. 

(i) Sew the fca/aTi;]: 

(u) Buy what is necessary for the 

deceased's relatives. 
(ui) Sing in the procession. 
A. B hatni leads the mourning of the 

women of the brotherhood. 
On the tenth day the Bhatnf as- 
sembles the women in the house of 
the deceased's heirs. 
A Bhat assembles the male members 
of the brotherhood, and the deceaS' 
ed's heir is proclaimed. 
On the 17th day the shrddh is per- 


1 or 2 annas. 
1 anna. 
4 annas. 

2i aimas. 

8 annas or a rupee. 

2 annas and 2 sers of 
wheat flour. 

1 anna. 

A meal of cooked food. 

In the western districts the Bhd,tni fulfils the duties of a professional 
mourner. Thus in Shdhpur she leads the mourning by the women 
of the deceased's brotherhood for a fee of Re. 1, and in Dera Ghd,zi 
Khd.n she does this for a wage of 2^ annas a day, besides what the 
relatives may give her. 

In Kd,ngra§ the only relic of the Bhdt's former functions is the 
making of hahits, and a proverb runs : — Bhdt hi bhet kahit, i.e., a Bhat 
will always make a present of a kahit. Like the parohit and the barber 

* This account comes fi-om the Sampla tahsi'l of Rohtak. Elsewhere the Bh^ts merely 
sing congratulatory songs on auspicious occasions for a fee of four double-pice, raised at 
weddings to Re. 1-4-0. 

t They sprinkle the red coloured water on the white garments of the wedding guests. 

X But in Dera Ghazi Khan this is done by the Jajik, 

§ This is the account from Hami'rpur. In Nurpur tahsil Bhats merely visit the house of a 
newly married couple and receive a small fee, earning their living by cultivation. In 
Kangra tahsil they sometimes at a wedding get a fee called durbhia, which varies from 
3 pies to 2 annas : they also get one at an investiture with the janeo, and at weddings the 
girl's father gives his Bhat annas 2 and some cloth, while the boy's Bhit gets Re. 1-4.0, but 
they perform no rites. " 

Bhattahdr — Bhatti. tOl 

they are looked npon as ligifi, but aro virtually only employed as 
messen^'era at weddin^Ts, beint): pud a tritla by tho rooipiont for the 
message {neondar). In the Hill States, however, ten or twenty Bh^^s 
sometimes collect and recite habits, reaeivinsf a sum of money, called 
rinj, which is divided proportionately among them, the Bh^t; of the 
r^ji:! who gives it getting the lion's share. In former times, it i^ said, 
they were compelled to work, but this is not now the case. Elsewhere 
the Bhdt is now, speaking generally, a cultivator or a servant to a 

The Rliats act as parohits to the Khatris, while their own ^^aro/iiis 
and 'pcidhas are Sd,rsut Brahmans. 

BHATTAflAB,-HABA, fem.-liiiri, Bhattiar,-drdij a person who takes food to 
labourers in the field. 

Bhatti. The name Bhatti would appear to be unquestionably connected 
with Bhat, Bhatt, Bhd,ti and Bhatiti, Bhatt bearing the same relation 
to Bh^t as Jatt to Jat, kamm in Punjabi to kcim, etc. As a tribe the 
Bhattis are of some antiquity, numerous and wide-spread. They give 
their name to the Bhatti^na* and to the Bhattioraf tracts, as well 
as to various places, such as Bhatinda, Bhatner, Pindi Bhatti^n and 
possibly the Bhatti^t in Chamba. Historically the Bhattis first appear 
to be mentioned in the TLirikh-i-Firoz-shdhi of Shams-i-8iraj Afif, and 
the following notes are culled from the translation of that work in 
Elliott's Sist. of India : — 

In the reign of Ald-ud-Din, Tughlik of Khurasan obtained the 
district of Dipd>lpnr, of which Abohar was a dependency. To Abohar 
were attached all the jungles belonging to the Mini (Mina ?) and 
Bhatti tribes. Tughlik, anxious to ally his family with the native 
chiefs, heard that the daughters of Rdna Mall Bhatti were beautiful 
and accomplished, so he sent the amalddr of Abohar to negotiate the 
alliance of one of them with his brother, Sipahsd-lar Rajab. In his 
pride the Rana rejected these overtures, and so Tughlik proceeded to 
levy the outstanding revenue from the talivandls of the Bhattis with 
great severity. The Rdna's daughter, Bibi Naila, hearing of this, urged 
her own surrender. ' Consider,' she said, ' that the Mughals have carried 
off one of your daughters.' She was accordingly married to Rajab, 
assumed the name of Bibi Kadbanu, and became the mother of Firoz 
Shah III in 1309 A. D.f 

In 1394 Strang Khan was sent to Dipdlpur to suppress the 
rebellion of Shaikha Khokhar. There he raised troops and, taking 
with him Rai Khul Chain Bhatti and Rai Daud Kamdl Main (? Mina), 
he crossed the Sutlej near Tirhdrah (Tihjira, in Ludhiana).§ 

In 1389 we read of Rai Kamdl-ud-din Main (? Mina) and Rai Khul 
Chand Bhatti whose fiefs lay near Samana, being sent with Prince 
Hum6yun to raise troops at that fortress. I| 

* Sec the art. Bhattiana in the Imperial Gazetteer, 
t In the Ghiniot uplands north of the Chenab. 
t E. H. I. Ill, pp. 271-2. 
5 E. H. I. IV, p. 29. 
fj E. H. I. IV, p. 22. 

1 02 Bhatti clans. 

Timur found Bhatner unJer the rule of Rao Diil Chain,* a Rajput, 

and probably a Bhatti. Curiously enough he is represented as having 

a brother named Kamal-ud-din, and in one history Khul Chain is said 
to have been the Rai of Bhatner.t 

Again in 1527 we read of Mirza Kd,mran'8 coming from Lahore, with 
many horses and much wealth taken from the Bhattis and Khokhars.f 

The legends of the Bhattis are, however, silent on these events and 
ascribe the origin of the tribe to Achal through Barsi, who extended 
his dominions from the south to Bhatner, which they held until expelled 
from it by the Rdjdof Bikaner early in the 19th century. Then they 
spread over Bhattiana, which comprised the modern tahsil of Sirsa 
and the northern part of Fatehdbad. The tribe is now found princi- 
pally along the Ghaggar valley as far as Bhatntr. 

Various other traditions are, however, current in different localities 
and of these the most probable is that which connects the Bhattis 
with Jaisalmir. The story current in HissAr is that they were in very 
early times driven across the Indus, but returned and some 700 years 
ago dispossessed the Langdh, Joiya and other tribes of the country 
to the south of the lower Sutlej, Rud founded Jaisalmir, which State 
they still hold. Bhatti, the leader under whom they recrossed the 
Indus, had two sons Dasal and Jaisal. The former settled in Bhattiana 
and from him are descended the Sidhu-Bardr J^ts, the "Wattu being 
also descendants of his grandson, Rjijput. With this tradition may 
be compared the foUowing detailed account of the Bhattis of BahdiWal- 
pur, in which State they have 15 principal clans :— 

i. The Bhattis, or pure Bhattis, who are generally landowners 
or cultivators, though some are weavers and blacksmiths. 

ii. Pahor, found throughout the Lamma. 

iii. Chus. 

iv. Jogi and 

V. Jandd,ni. 

These five septs are closely connected, do not give daughters ont- 
eide the group, and usually intermarry. 

vi. Shaikhra. 

vii. Chakar-HuUe : a small sept, of recent origin called Chakar- 
ullah or servants of God. 

viii. Lallu. 

ix. Bhdbhe : a small sept. 

X. Katesar : also a small sept, which rears sheep. 

xi. Kulyar or Kawalyfir which has an interesting history :— 

Kulyar was a son of Rd-na Raj Wadhan, who had four other sons, 
(1) Dtterd, (2) Ntan, (3) Kdnjun, (4) Hatdr. The tradition is that the 

* The Zafarnima has Chan, probably for Chand : or Chain may be due to some confusion 
between Sain and Chand. Timur explains that R4o means ' brave.' (E. H. I. IV, pp. 422.5, 

t E. H. I. IV, p. 34. 

X E. H. I. V, p. 37. 

Bhatti clana. 108 

ancestors of Rdj Wadhan lived in ancient times near Ghajni, whence 
they migrated to Delhi, which after a time they left for Bha^ner. 
In the 7th century of the Hijra Rdj Wadhan together with his tribe 
left Bhatner and settled near Chhanb Kulydr (now in the Lodhrdn 
tahsil of Mult^n), which in those days lay on the southern bank of 
the Sutlej and formed part of the dominions of Rai Bhuttit, the ruler 
of a city, the greater part of which was destroyed by the Sutlej flowing 
over it; ; but parts of its ruins are still to be seen on the right bank 
of the Gb^ra (in tahsil Lodhrdn). R^nd, Rd,j Wadhan had a beautiful 
daughter whom Rai Bhuttd, desired to marry. The request was refused 
by Kulydr, the eldest son of Rilj Wadhan ; and the result was that a 
sanguinary battle took place in which Rai Bhuttd, was slain. The 
tract of the country thus conquered by the Kulyd,rs became known as 
Chhanb Kulyilr, which name it still retains. At this time Sher Shdh 
Sayyid Jaldl was living in Uch, where Rfln^ R^j Wadhan and his sons 
went to see him and embraced IsMm. Rdj Wadhan remained Jat Uch, 
Utterd, occupied the ' Vidh ' (Bi^s)*, Nun began to live on the Rdvi, 
(and that tribe is now dominant in Shujdbdd tahsil), Kanjun at the 
Don^ri Mari (?), and Kulyilr made Chhanb Kulydr his residence. 
Hat^r was deprived of his share of the inheritance.t 
xii. Daragh. 

xiii. Sangrd, : with a famous sept called W^gi. In the 8th 
century Hijra the Sangrds migrated from Rdjput^na and 
settled in Kathdla, then a large town on the Gurang or 
Hariari, the ruins of which are still to be seen near Tibba 
Tdnwin-wd,la. Kath^la was at that time held by the Joiyas. 

xiv. Mahtam : the Muhammadan Mahtams claim to be Bhattis 
and say a mirnsi once ironically called their ancestor 
'Mahtam, 'or chief. They appear to be distinct from the 
Hindu Mahtams. 

XV. Bhet : who claim to have been Bhattis who accompanied 
Shaikh Hakim from Delhi, but are said by others to be 
Dhedhs or Menghwals, whom that saint converted. 

xvi. Markand, Bokha, Jhakhkhar, Dhandla, Phanbi, Bir^r, 
Dadu, Kap3,hi (cotton-workers and reed-cutters), and 
K^hin, are nine clans descended from the same ancestor 
and they intermarry. Some are landowners, others tenants, 
but some are boatmen, and though Bhattis by origin they 
are regarded as of low status. 

On the south-east border of the Punjab the subject population of 
Bikiiner is largely composed of Bhattis, and tradition J almost alwajs 

* The tradition is that in those days the Bias flowed separately to the north of Kahror 
towards Shuj^bad. 

t The Mittru Bhatti of Multan say they came from Bikaner. 

J The Hissar tradition is very different and says that the ihattis are of the Jdtu family, 
and that like the T-unwar Rajputs they trace their origin to remote antiquity. At some 
distant period, two persons named bhatti and feumija are said to have come to this country 
from Mathra. The latter had no male issue, and his descendants (called Joiya Rajputs) 
live in Sirsa. After some generations tne of the Jamily of the former, niinnd Kusalu, 
became Baja— he had two sens, Dusul and Jaisul. 'J he latter became haja oi Jaisalmir, 
where his descendants still reign. The former remained in Bhatti«na— hf had cnJy ore son, 
named Janra, who had several wive." (all of other castes) by whom he had 21 gons, whoee 

104 Bhatti traditions. 

carries us back to the ancient city of Bhatner, which lies on the banks 
of the long since dry Ghaggar, iii the territory of that State bordering 
on Sirsa. But in that tract, which corresponds to the old Bhatti^na, 
the Bhatti is no longer a dominant tribe and the term is loosely applied 
to any Muharamadan Jdt or Rajput from the direction of tbe Sutlej, 
as a generic term almost synonymous with R^th or Pachh^da. 

In the central Punjab, however, and towards the north of it, the 
Bhattis, though scattered, hold strong positions. In Amritsar tradition 
avers that they have a Mong pedigree' beginning with Adam, 10th in 
descent from whom was Krishna, sim of Jad, the son of Jadam. And 
the present State of KapurthaU was held by a Raj^ who sought the 
aid of Lakhanpal and Harpal, sons of theR^oa, Purab Chand, of Bhatner 
against his foes. Accompanied by Panp^l, a third son of the Rand 
by a J at wife, tbey overran the neighbouring country ; but the Raja 
refused to give them the share he had agreed to bestow upon them, 
so they put him to death and partitioned his kingdom, Lakhanpal 
taking the Bdri Dodb, Harpal that of the Bist Jdlaudbar and Panpll 
the modern Ferozepur District, ilai Viru, Lakhanpd,l's great-grandson, 
founded Vairowal in Amritsar some 540 years ago and his grand- 
daughter, a sister of Rai Mitha, was married to Rai Ibrahim of 
Kapurthald., himself a Bhatti and descended from Harpal. But after a 
futile attempt to subdue Rai Mitha, Ibrahim forbade intermarriage 
between the two branches. 

Kapurthald, tradition is, however, quite silent as to Lakhanpal or 
Harpal, and, according to leorends current in that State, Rai Nd,nak 
Chand is said to have left Bhatner and settled in Bhuldua, in that 
State. Three brothers Bhatti, Manj and Chauhd,n founded the Rajput 
tribes so named, which settled in the Punjab only 14 generations ago. 

Nevertheless reciprocal marriage is confined to the Bhatti, Manj 
Naru and Khokhar* tribes, which avoid marriage with the Chauhdu, 
Awan, Nipdl, Bajoha, Janjua, Punwd,r, Varyd. 

The Khokhars and Nd,rus are regarded as foreign by race to the other 
Rdjputs, who all trace back their desoent to R5,ja Salivahan who has 
a shrine at Sidlkot. He is said to have been defeated by Imdm N3,sir. 

In Gujrdt tbe Bhattis trace their first settlements back to Dulla 
Bhatti, Rd.jd. of Pindi Bhattid,n who was put to death by Akbar. All 
his family was in Akbar's camp on the Jhelum, where they were kept 
in durance until released at the intercession of a faqir whose shrine 
is still pointed out at Chhapar on the bank of that river. Bulla's son, 
Kamdl Khd,n was allowed to settle on the waste lands near Ghamd;n, 
still a Bhatti village, while the rest returned to Pindi Bbatti^n.f 

descendants established different tribes, such as the Lal-hhcdl, Sidhij, and Barar Jats. Janra 
foiinded the town of Abohur, naming it after his wife Abho— by this wife he had three 
sons- Rajpal, Chun and Dhum :— the Wattu Bajputs are descendants of the first- the Mai 
Bajputs of the second— and the Nawab of Rania and his family, of the third. Inasmuch as 
the Bhattis were more num.erous than the rest, the country was called Bhattiana. The 
habits, manners and customs of Bhatti Rajputs are similar to those of the Tunwar Hajputs. 
Bissar Settlement Report, p. 8, §§ 25, 26. 

* The Khokhars (alone) give daughters to Sayyids. 

I The tribal.mircist gives the following pedigree of the tribe, "which claims Maharaja Eanjit 


^, t^ <--;^''^.^ /^'--'--^ '-~'^'' ^ '^ 

A Bhatti pedigree. 


The Bhatti of the Guji'anwdla Bdr, where they are the " natural 
enemies of the Virk," are descended from one Dhir, who eighteen 
generations ago left Bhatner, and settled in the Nur Mahnl jungles- as 
a grazier and freebooter. His grandson went furtlier on to the banks 
of the R^vi, and his son again moved up into the uplands of Guirln- 
w^ia. The modern descendants of these men are described as " a 
muscular and noble-looking race of men, agricuUurists more by 
constraint than by nntural inclination, who keep nu'nerous herds of 
cattle which graze over the pasture lands of the Bir, only plough 
just sufficient to grow food for their own necessities, and are famous 
as cattle-lifters and notorious thieves." The Bhatti of Gujranwala 
enjoyed considerable political importance in former times, and they 
still hold 86 villages in that District. In Sidlkot the Bhatti claim 
de^jcent from Bhoni seventh in descent frrim their eponymous ancestor 
Bhatti, who came to Gnjr^nwala from Bikdner, and thence to Sialkot. 
None of these Bhatti of tlie Bdr will g'ive their daughters to the 

Singh as one of its scions : — 



M'lharaja Ranjit Singh was 
descended from this branch. 










Nampal. Jarat. Gaundhar. Ratanpal. Sahnp^I. 



Tahsil Phaliin. 


Pindi Bhattian. 









Dehli and Bikdner. 


Katho . 


Rai Puthora. 



"1 I 1 

Masti. Daim. Dalla. 

Pindi Bliattian. I 


Muhammad Khin. 
Pindi Bhattidn. 
[another genealogy of tho^Bbattia aoe under Samil.] 

Kamtll Ehin. 

l06 JBhatti Chane-^Bhittanni. 

neighbouring Jfit tribes, though they will take wives from among them 
without scruple.* In the Salt-range the Bhatti seem to bold a very 
Subordinate position as Bhatti, though it may be that some of the 
innumerable Rajput tribes of that tract may consider themselves 
Bhatti, as well as what«-ver their local name may be. The Bhatti of 
Jhang hold the considerable Bhattiora tract north of the Ghendb, 
They came first from Bhatner to the right bank of the Jhelum near 
the Shahpur border, and thence to Bhattiora. They are described as 
"a fine race of men, industrious agriculturists, hardly at all in debt, 
good horse-breeders, and very fond of sport. They do very little 
cattle-lifting, but are much addicted to carrying off each other's 

The persistence of the traditions which connect the Bhattis with 
Bikdner, Jaisalmer and the old fortress of Bhatner cannot be disre- 
garded. But for a fuller discussion of their origins see Rajpdt, 

Bhatti is also (I) a Baloch clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery, 
aa well as (2) a Muhammadiu Kamboh clan (agricultural), and (3) a 
Muhammadau Jat clan (agricultural) in that District. 

Bhatti CHA>fB, Bhatti Naul, Bhatti Tahar, three Rajput clans (agricultural) 
found in Montgomery. Cf. Bhdti Wad. 

Bhaw AN A, an agricultural clan found in Sh^hpur. ^7 

Bheda, an agricultural clan found in Shahpur. •-^ <-*. r^ ^ ^/z^ 

Bhekh-dharI, bbekhi, a faqir, a sadhu: from bhekh, dress, disguise, and so 
' a sect of Hindu faqirs'. 

Bhidal, a Muhammadan Jat clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

BhikhaeI, fem. -an, a beggar. 

Bhikzbak, bliichchak q.v. 

Bhin, an agricultural clan found in Shdhpur. 

Bhindal, a tribe of Jdts claiming Solar Rajput origin, through its eponym, 
whose descendant Badar embraced Islam. It holds five villages in 

Bhindab, a tribe of Jats of the Lunar branch of the Lunar Rdjputs, through 
its eponym, who settled in the Punjab under Rai Tanar. Found in 

Bhisti, fem. -an, {hhistd, facetiously), lit., a dweller in Paradise, fr. Pers. 
hihisht ; a Muhammadan water-carrier. 

Bbittanni occupies a tract of hill country some 40 miles long by 1 2 to 16 wide, 
stretching along our border from the Marwat tahsil of Bannu to the 
Gumal valley. Along the northern part of this line, it owns little or 

*A8 among the Muhammadan Chibh, Manhas and other tribps. a Jati who esponsea a 
Bhatti becomes a Bhattini ^y tribe according to the proverb Chhutti Raja, te hoi Hani : 
' Touched by a Raja (a woman) becomes a Kini.' 

In Ladhiana the Shaikhs, a Bhatti clan, derive their name from Shaikh Chachu, a descend- 
ant of Raja Kanshan who accepted Islam and was granted the State of Hathur by the 
Muhammadaa emperors. For some other Bhatti clan names see the Appendix. 


^*,^< <. '^ ^ 


/ y 

vC-. ^ ;^ . ^A'-^^ 


,^ j"**^ <^t. 


^ ^^. 

^ t< 

^- ^c^^.^ ^, 





^<^ -^ 

/ -^ 


<r^- <- ^..^ ^ — fdc^... 


rf ^1 r.'^ J /-^-^^ 


■ ^^ 

Bhojiya — Bhojki. 107 

no land in the plains ; to the south it holds a strip of very fertile 
country extending from the Takwdra along the hills as far as Dabbra. 
It has a few scattered liamlets in the Nasrd-n country north of the 
Takw^ra, and is also found in considerable numbers in the north-east of 
the Gtimal valley. To the west the hill couniry of the Bhittannis ia 
hemmed in by that of tlie Wazirs. The two tribes are generally more 
or less at feufi, though the Bhittannis, til] recently, never scrupled to 
assist Wazir robbers in their incursiona into British territory. 

The Bhittaonis live in small villages, generally hidden away in 
hollows. Their houses are mud and brushwood hovels of the poorest 
description, and sometimes they hve in caves hollowed out of the 
rock. One of their principal places is Jandola, ou the road leading up 
the Tdnk zam to the Wazir country. 

The tribe is divided into three sections : Dhanna, Tatta and Wraspun. 
In the plains the lands of the Bhittannis were originnlly dividend into 
numerous s-nall divisions, known as ndlds. Each naldy as a rule, 
forms a single plot, owned by a number of families generally closely 
connected by birth. The waste land in each ndld is the property of 
the ndld proprietors. B«^fore land became valuable, the proprietors 
of the different TiiZ'is used readily to admit men of their own sub- 
section to a share in the ndld lands, and in this way, men, who had 
before lived exclusively in the hills, were continually settling in the 
plains. There has never been, therefore, any actual division of the 
conrtry on shares, and tlie present proprietors hold purely on a 
squatting tenure. The lands of the Wraspuns lie to the no i th^ the 
Tattas to the south, and the Dhannas in the middle. The Dhannaa 
own much less land than the other two sections, and fewer of them 
reside in the plains. The plain Bhittannis live in scattered hirris or 
villages. The larger ndlds have separate kirria and headmen of their 
owUj but more generally the people of several ndlds live together in 
one kirri, under a common headman. 
Bhojiya, a Muhammadan Jd,t clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 
Bhojki, a term applied to the pujdris or officiants at the great shrines of 
Devi, such as that of Jawiilamukhi, that at Bhaun in the Kangra 
District, Naina Devi io Hoshi^rpur, etc. The Bhojkis were said by 
Barnes to be *' not Br^hmans, thoufj;h they are the hereditary priests of 
these celebrated temples. They all wear the sacred thread; they 
intermarry among themselves alone, eat flesh, drink wine, and are a 
debauched and profligate set ; the men are constantly in the Courts 
involved in litigation, and the women are notorious for their loose 
morality." Colonel Jenkins writes of them: — "The Bhojkis are 
perhaps a unique feature of the Kdngra District. They claim to be 
Sdrsut Br^hmaus ; but if so, have certainly sunk in the social scale, 
as no ordinary Brahmans would eat kachi rasoi with them. They 
appear to occupy much the same position as the Gangaputras of 
Benares, and the probability is that they are mere Jogis who have 
obtained a reflected sanctity from the goddesses whose service they 
have entered. The name is evidently couneeted with the Sanskrit root 
bhoj to feed,"*^ and is taken from the nature of their duties. They 

* The term is probably derived from bhoj in the sense of 'grant' and the Bhoj kf a are 
probably merely beneficed Brdhman devoteeB of Devi. 

108 Bhojudnd — Bhular. 

intormarry among themselves and with a class of Jogis called Bodha 
Pandits. Another account states that the Bhojkis of Bhaun do not 
give daughters to those of Jaw^lamukhi or Naina Devi, though up 
to Sambat 1936 they used to accept brides from the latter, whom 
they regard as inferiors. The Bhojkis of Bliaun now otdy intermarry 
among tliemaelves, excluding their own got and the mother's relatives 
up to the 7th desrree. But they also intermarry with the Pandit 
Bodhas and the Bararas. The former are said to be Brdhraans, 
but both they and the Bararas take a deceased's shroud, etc., like the 
Achdraj. The Bhojkis of Chintpurni are Brahmans and marry with 
Brahmans, and will not even smoke with those of Bhaun, etc.'^ 

Bhojuana, a clan of the Sidls. 

Bhola, a Muhammadan J^t clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 
Bholae, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar (same as Bhullar). 
Bhonah, a J^t clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 
Bhonbye, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 
BhotaHj a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Mult an. 
BaoTAKj a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multd,n (same as Bhuttar). 
Bhoto, an ignorant hillman, a simpleton, 

Bhuchangi, a title given to Ak^lis : fr, hhuchang, a black snake. 
Bhukk, a Baloch clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery, Ferozepur, and in 
Bahawalpur, in which State they call them.selves Jd^ts. 

Bhukyal, mentioned in the Tabaqd.t-i-Akbari as a tribe subject to the 
Gakhars,* but in tbe Waki'dt-i-Jahangiii they are said to be of the 
same stock and connected with the Gakhars, occupying the country 
between Rohtds and Hatyd, to which they give their name of Bugi^l.t 

Bhular. — The Bhular, Her, and Min tribes call themselves asl or 
" original'^ Jd-ts, and are said to have sprung from the^ai or " matted 
hair" of Mnhd-deo, whose title is Bhola {' simple') Ma hadeo. They 
say that the Mdlwa was their original home, and are commonly 
reckoned as two and a half tribeN, the H^r only counting a? a half. 
But the bards of the Man, among which tribe several famihes have 
ris^n to political importance, say that the whole of the Man and Bhular 
and half the Her tribe of Rajputs were the earliest Kshatriya immi- 
grants from Rajputana to the Punjab. The head-quarters of the 
Bhular appear to be Lahore and Ferozepur, and the confines of the 
Md^njha and Malwa; but they are returned in small numbers from 
every division in the Punjd,b except Delhi and R^walpindi^ from almost 
every District, and from every Native vState of the Eastern Plains 
except Dujdna, Loharu, and Pataudi. The tribe is probably not a 
wholly homogeneous one. In Jind its Sidh is Kalanjar, whose samddh 
is at Mdri, and to it milk is offered on the 14th feat^j of each month ; 
also cloth at a wedding or the birth of a son. In Si^lkot its Sidh is 
Bhora, whose khdngdh is revered at weddings. In Montgomery the 
Bhular are Hindu and Muhammadan Jdts and classed as agricultural. 

Bh^n, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Shd,hpur. 

' •E.H.I, v., p. 278. t Ibid VI, p. 309. — 



iBhunid-^Bihizai. lOO 

BhundX, an aboriginal tribe, a man of that tribe. (P. D, 145). 

Bhut, a tribe found in the Sddiqdbdd hdrddri of Bah^walpur where 
they are landowners and tenants. They are formed from two distinct 
groups, one a Baloch, the other a J^t sept, the former being few, and 
the latter numerous. The Bhut Jdts are possibly a branch of the 
Abralis, with whom they intermarry, but they are also said to be a 
branch of the Bhattis. 

Bhutar, M., a landowner. 

Bhutha, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Sh^hpur. 

Bhutri, a Jat sept. 

Bhuts, a Jd,t sept. 

Bhutta. — The Bhutta are said by the late Mr. E. O'Brien to have traditions 
connecting them with Hindustan, and they claim to be descended from 
Solar Rajputs. But since the rise to opulence and importance of 
Pirzada Murad Bakhsh Bhutta, of Multdn, many of them have taken to 
calling themselves Pirzddas. One account is that they are immigrants 
frooi Bhutan — a story too obviously suggested by the name. They 
also often practise other crafts, such as making pottery or weaving, 
instead of or in addition to agriculture. They are said to have held Uch 
(in Brthawalpur) before the Sayyids came there. They are chiefly found on 
the lower Indus, CheniibandJiielum, in Shahpur, Jhang, Multdn, Muzaf- 
fargarh, and Dera Gh^zi Khan. In Jhang most are returned as Rdjputs. 
The Bhutta shown scattered over the Eastern Plains are perhaps mem- 
bers of the small Bhutnaor Bhutra clan of Malwa Jdts. kSeealso Butar. 
and Buta. Maclagan describes them as a Jdt or Bdjput clan found in 
Multiin tahsll and allied to the Langahs, etc., Bhutta, Langd>h, Dahar, 
Shajrd and Naich, being said to be sons of Mahli in tne couplet : — 

SagJii, jihdndi dddi, Sodi jihdndi md, 

Mahli jdi panj futr — Dahr, Bhtdtd, Langdh, Naich, Shajrd. 

A branch of this clan at Khairpur near Multaa is in the transition 
stage towards becoming Sayyid. 

According to the Bahawalpur tradition the Bhutta are of the same 
stock as the Bhdtia.* When Dewa Rawal, sister's son ot Raj^ Jajja 
Bhutto, was building the fort now called Derawar Jajja in a fit of 
jealousy stopped its construction ; whereupon his sister who was married 
to a Bhatia Rajput thus addressed him : — 

Rdi Jajja Bhutta sen ivain hi hhain puchhde, 
Kaya Bhutta hay a Bhatia Kot usdran de. 

" His sister besought Rai Jajja, the Bhutta : 

Whether thou art a Bhutta or a Bhd,tia, let the fort be built." 

Bhdtta, an Ai-ain clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Bib, a small and humble (agricultural) tribe, holding one or two villages in 
Abbottibad tahsil, Hazara district, and possibly connected with the 

BiBizAi, a Pathdn clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

* The Bahawalpur traditions make the Bhatia (Jaisalmer family), the Bhuttas, Bhatti^ 
and Watt us all one and the same family. 

110 Bih anggaU'-^Bisknot. 

BiHAxaaAN, one who has not a fixed abode, a /agftr who subsists on alms. 
BiLAi, a low Purbid caste of syces and grass-cutter. But see also under 

BiLAiTi, fem. -A^j a foreignerj a European or an Afghan. 

BiLHARA, <le9cribed as a donkey-keeper, the Bilhdra is really a liranch of the 
Malldl or Mohana (boatmen) group, like theNihaya and Manabhari. 
In Bah^walpur they are cultivators as well as boatmen and own 
several villages on theChend,b and Indus. They are also found as land- 
owners in Multan, Muzaffargarh and Dera Ghdzi. 

BiMBAK, an Ardin clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

BiBAJPANi, a disreputable sub-sect of the E^m-margi, q.v. 

BiSHNOij* Pablad Bansi, (fr. Vishnu, one of the Hindu Trinity), a sect 
whose founder Jhdmbaji lived towards the end of the 15th century. 
Tradition says that at Piupdsar, a village soutli of Bikdner, in 
the Jodhpur territory, lived Laut, a Rajput Punw^r, who had attained the 
age of 60 and had no son. One day a neighbour going out to sow his 
field met Laut, and deeming it a bad omen to meet a childless man, 
turned back from his purpose. This cut Laut to the quick, and he 
went out to the jungle and bewailed his childlessness until evening, 
when a faqir appeared to him and told him that in nine months he 
should have a son, and after showing his miraculous power by drawing 
milk from a calf, vanished from his sight. At the time named a child 
miraculously appeared iu Laut's house, and was miraculously suckled 
by his wife Hdnsa.t This happened in Sambat 15U8 (A.D. 1451). 
For seven years the boy, who was an incarnation {autdr) of Vishnu, 
played with his fellowR, and then for 27 years he tended cattle, but all 
this time he spoke no word. His miraculous powers were shown in 
various wayn, such as producing sweets from nothing for tbe delectation 
of his companions, and he became known as Achamba (the Wonder), 
whence his natce of Jhamba, by which he is generally known. After 
34 years, a Brahman was sent for to get him to speak and on bis 
confessing his failure Jhd,mbaji again showed his power by lighting a 
lamp by simply snapping his fingers, and uttered his first word. He 
then adopted the life of a teacher, and went to reside on a sandhill, 
Bome thirty miles south of Bikaner, where after 51 years he died and 
was buried, instead of being burnt, hke an ordinary Hindu. 

Another account of Jh^mbaji says that — 

" When a lad of five he used to take his father's herds to water at 
the well, and had for each head of cattle a peculiar whistle ; the cows 
and bullocks would come one by one to the well, drink and go away. 
One day a man named Udaji happened to witness this scene, and, 
struck with astonishment, attempted to follow the boy when he left the 
well. He was on horseback and the boy on foot, but gallop as fast 
aa he would he could not keep up with the walking pace of the boy. 
At last, in amazement, he dismounted and threw himself at his feet. 
The boy at once welcomed him by name, though he then saw him for 
the first time. The bewildered tjdaji exclaimed Jhdmhaji (omni- 

♦ Pronounced Viahnoi in Buhawalpur and £fk4ner. 

I Aooordiog to the Hiasar Settlement Report bia parents were Lohub-aad Kesar, 

Biahnoi tenets, m 

scient), and henceforth the boy was known by this name. On attaining 
manhood, Jbdimbaji leit his home, and, becoming a faqir or religious 
mendicant, ia said to have remained seated upon a sandhill called 
Samrathal in Bik^ner, for a space of 51 years. In 1485 a fearful famine 
desolated the country, and Jhduibaji gained an enormous number of 
disciples hy providing food for all that would declare their belief in him. 
He is said to have died on his sandhill, at the good old age of 84, and 
to have been buried at a spot about a mile distant frora it.'^ 

A further Account says that his body remained suspended for six 
months in the pinjra without decomposing. 

The name Bishnoi is of course connected with that of Vishnu the 
deity to whom the Bishnoia give most prominence in their creed 
though sometimes they themselves derive it from the 29 {his-nau) 
articles of faith inculcated by their founder. In fact it was very 
difficult in our returns to distinguish the Rishnoi from the Vaishnav 
who was often entered as a Baishnav or Bislino. The Bishnois some- 
times call themselves Prahlddbansis or Prahlddpanthis,"^ on the ground 
that it was to please Prahld,d-bhagat that Vishnu became incarnate in 
the person of Jhdmbaji. The legend is that 33 crores of beings were 
born along with Prahldd and five crores of them were killed by the 
wicked Hirndkash, and when Vishnu, as the Narsin^h avatar, saved the 
life of Prahldrd and asked Prahliid to name his dearest wish, the latter 
requested that Vishnu would effect the salvation (mukt) of the remain- 
ing 28 crores. To do this required a further incarnation, and Jh^mbaif 
was the result. 

Tenets of the Bishnois. — Regarding the doctrines of the sect Sir 
James Wilson,t from whom I have already quoted, writes: — 

" The sayings {sabd) of Jhambaji to the number of 120 were written 
down by his disciples, and have been handed down in a book (pothi) 
written in the Ndgri character and in a dialect similar to B^gri 
seemingly a Md,rwd,ri dialect. The 29 precepts given by him for the 
guidance of his followers are as follows : — 

Tis din sutak—vdnch roz ratwanti ndri 

Sera karo shndn — sil — santokh — suchh pydri 

Pdni — bdni — idhni — itnd lijyo chhdn. 

Dayd — dharm hirde dharo — garu hatdi jdn 

Chori — nindya — jhiUh — barjya had na kariyo koe 

Amal— tamdku — bhang — Hi dnr hi tydgo 

Mad — 7nds se dekhke dur hi bhdgo. 

Amar rakhdo that — bail tani nd bdho 

Amdshya barat — ri'inkh lilo rue ghdo. 

Horn jap samddh jnljd — b'ish baikunthi pdo 

TJntis dharrti ki dkhri garu batdi soe 

Fdh'il doe par chdvya jisko nam Bishnoi hoe, 
which is thus interpreted : — "For 30 days after child-birth and five 
after a menstrual discharge a woman must not cook food. Bathe in 
the morning. Commit not adultery. Be content. Be abstemious and 
pure. Strain your drinking water. Be careful of your speech. Ex- 

♦ Bee also under Narsinghie. 
tSirsa Settlement Heport, page 136, 

112 Bishnoi observances, 

amine your fuel in case any living creature be burnt with it. Show 
pity to livinof creatures. Keep duty present to your raind as the 
Teacher bade. Do not speak evil of others. Do not tell lies. Never 
quarrel. Avoid opium, tobacco, bhang and blue clothing. Flee from 
spirits and flesh. See that your goats are kept alive (nob sold to 
Musalm^ns, who will kill them for food). Do not plough with bullocks. 
Keep a fast on the day before the new moon. Do not cut green trees. 
Sacrifice with fire. Say prayers. Meditate. Perform worship and 
attain Heaven. And the last of the 29 duties prescribed by the 
Teacher — ' Baptize your children, if you would be called a true 

Some of these precepts are not strictly obeyed ; for instance, 
although ordinarily they allow no blue in their clothing, yet a Bishnoi, 
if he is a servant of the British Government, is allowed to wear a blue 
uniform ; and Bishnois do use bullocks, though most of their farming 
is done with camels. They also seem to be unusually quarrelsome (in 
words) and given to use bad language. But they abstain from tobacco, 
drugs and spirits, and are noted for their regard for animal life, which 
is such that not only will they not themselves kill auy living creature, 
but they do their utmost to prevent others from doing so. Conse- 
quently their villages are generally swarming with antelope and other 
animals, and they forbid their Musalmdn neighbours to kill them 
and try to dissuade European sportsmen from interfering with 
them. They wanted it made a condition of their settlement, that no 
one should be allowed to shoot on their land, but at the same time 
they asked that they mitjht be assessed at lower rates than their 
neighbours on the ground that the antelope being thus left undisturbed 
do more damage to their crops; but I told them this would lessen the 
merit {'pun) of their good actions in protecting the animals, and they 
must be treated just as the surrounding villages were. They consider 
it a good deed to scatter grain to pigeons and other birds, and often 
have a large number of half-tame birds about their villages. The day 
before the new moon they observe as a Sabbath and fast-day, doing no 
work in the fields or in the house. They bathe and pray three times a 
day, — in the morning, afternoon, and in the evening — saying'' Bishno, 
Bishno " instead of the ordinary Hindu " R^m Rd,m." Their clothing 
is the same as of other Bagris, except that their women do not allow 
the waist to be seen, and are fond of wearing black woollen clothing. 
They are more particular about ceremonial purity than ordinary Hindus 
are, and it is a common saying that if a Bishnoi's food is on the first of 
a string of twenty camels, and a man of another caste touches the 
last camel of the string, the Bishnoi would consider his food defiled 
and throw it away." 

The ceremony of initiation is as follows : — 

" A number of representative Bishnois assemble, and before them a 
sddh or Bishnoi priest, after lighting a sacrificial fire {horn) instructs the 
novice in the duties of the faith. He then takes some water in a new 
earthen vessel, over which he prays in a set form {Bishno gdyatri), 
stirring- it the while with his string of beads [rudla), and after asking 
the consent of the assembled Bishnois, he pours the water three times 
into the hands of the novice, who drinks it off. The novice's Bcalp 

Bishnoi rites. H^ 

lock {choti) is then cut off and his head shaved, for the Bishnois shave 
the whole head and do not leave a scalp-lock like the Hindus ; but they 
allow the beard to grow, ouly shaving the chiu on the father's death. 
Infant baptism is also practised, and 30 days after birth the child 
whether boy or girl, is baptised by the priest {sddh) in much the same 
way as an adult ; only the set form of prayer is different {garbh- 
gdyatri), and the priest pours a few drops of water into the child's 
mouth, and gives the child's relatives each three handfuls of the con- 
secrated water to drink; at the same time the barber clips off the 
child's hail'. This baptismal ceremony also has the effect of purifying 
the house which has been made impure by the birth {sutak).'^ 

The Bislinois intermarry among themselves only, and by a ceremony 
of their own in which it seems the circumambulation of the sacred fire, 
which is the binding ceremony among the Hindus generally, is omitted. 
They do not revere Brahmans,t but have priests {sadhs} of their own, 
chosen from among the laity. They do not burn their dead, but bury 
them below the cattle-stall or in a place frequented by cattle, such as a 
cattle-pen. They observe the Holi in a different way from other Hindus. 
After sunset on that day they fast till the next forenoon, when, after 
hearing read the account of how Prahldd was tortured by his infidel 
father Harn^kash for believing in the god Vishnu, until he was deliver- 
ed by the god himself in his incarnation of the Lion-man, and mourning 
over Prahld,d's sufferings, they light a saciificial fire and partake of 
consecrated water, and after distributing unpurified sugar iguf) in 
commemoration of Prahldd's delivery from the fire into which he was 
thrown, they break their fast. Bishnois go on pilgrimage where 
Jhdmbaji is buried, south of Bik^ner, where there is a tomb {mat) over 
his remains and a temple (mandir) with regular attendants (pujari) . 
A festival takes place here every six months, in Asauj and Phdgan, 
when the pilgrims go to the sandhill on which Jhd,mbaji lived, and 
there light sacrificial fires (horn') oi jandi wood in vessels of stone, and 
offer a burnt offering of barley, til, ghi and sugar, at the same 
time muttering set prayers. They also make presents to the attendants 
of the temple, and distribute moth and other grain for the peacocks 
and pigeons, which live there iif numbers. Should any one have 
committed an offence, such as having killed an animal, or sold a cow 
or goat to a Musalm^n, or allowed an animal to be killed when he 
could have prevented it, he is fined by the assembled Bishnois for the 
good of the temple and the animals kept there. Another place of 
pilgrimage is a tomb called Chhambola in the Jodhpur country, where 
a festival is held once a year in Chet. There the pilgrims bathe ia 
the tank and help to deepen it, and sing and play musical instruments 
and scatter grain to peacocks and pigeons," 

The Bislinois look with special attention to the sacred /lom or sacrifice; 
it is only the rich who can perform this daily ; the poor meet together 

* But according to the Hissar Settlement Report, the ceremony of admission to the sect is 
as follows : — The priests and the people assemble together, repeat the pahul-mantar over a 
cup of water, and give it to the candidate to drink ; who thereafter goes round the assembly 
and bows to all. His head is then shaved after the mamier of the founder of the sect. 
According to his means he has to pay a certain sum of money (Rs. 5 to 500 is the limit), for 
the purpose of buying gram, which is then sent to the Samrathal sandhill in order to feed 

t But in F^zilka the Bishnois are said to employ Brahmans for religious as well aB 
secuilar purposes. 

Il4 ' Bdchah — Bodla. 

to carry out the rite on the Amdvas day only. The gaenas or sddhs* 
who are their priests and are fed and feed by them Uke Brahmans, 
are a hereditary class and do not intermarry with other Bishnois, 
nor do they take offerings from any but Bishnois. The Bishnois 
themselves are a real caste and were shown as such in the Census 
tables ; and the returns of the caste are much more to be relied on than 
those of the sect, for the reason given above, that many Bishnois by 
sect must have been shown as Vaishnavas, and vice versa. It is said 
that a member of any of the higher Hindu castes may become a Bishnoi, 
but as a matter of fact they are almost entirely Jd,ts or Kh^tis (carpen- 
ters) or, less frequently, Rdjputs or Banias, and the Bd,nia Bishnois are 
apparently not found in the Punjab, their chief seat being Mur^ddbM, 
in the United Provinces. The man who becomes a Bishnoi is still 
bound by his caste restrictions ; he no longer calls himseK a Jd^, but 
he can marry only Jd,t Bishnois, or he is no longer a Khdti, and yet 
cannot marry any one who is not a Kh^ti ; and further than this, the 
Bishnoi retains the got of his original tribe and may not marry within 
it.f Karewa is practised among them, but an elder brother cannot 
marry a jounger brother's widow, though her brother-in-law or father- 
in-law are entitled, if she do not marry her dewar, to a payment called 
hhar from her second husband. 

There is not perhaps very much in the teaching of Jhdmbaji to 
distinguish him from the orthodox pattern of Hindu saints, and in some 
points his doctrine, more especially with regard to the preservation of 
life, is only an intensification of the ordinary Vaishnava tenets. But 
in the omission of the phera at marriage, the cutting off of the choti or 
scalp-lock, the special ceremony of initiation, and the disregard for 
the Brahmanicul priesthood, we find indications of the same spirit as 
that which moved the other Hmdu reformers of the period. 

BocHAH, a J^t clan (agricultural) in Multdu. 

Bodla. — The BodMs are a small section of the Wattu RijputsJ of the 
lower and middle Sutlej, who have for some generations enjoyed a 
character for peculiar sanctity, § and who now claim Qureshi origin 
from Abu Bakr Sadiq ; and many of them call theoiseives Qureshis. 
They still marry Wattu girls,- though they give their daughters only to 
Bodlds. They were till lately a wholly pastoral tribe, and still hold 
a jdgir, the proceeds of which they now supplement by cultivation. 
They came up from Multd,a through Bahawalpur to Montgomery, where 
they were described by Purser as " lazy, silly, and conceited/' From 
Montgomery they spread into Sirsa, where they occupied the Bahak 
pargana which they still hold. They are credited with the power of 
curing disease by exorcism, and especially snake-bite and hydrophobia; 
they are recognised samts, and can curse with great efficacy. They 
have no relations with the other Qureshis of the neighbourhood, and 

* According to the Hissar Settlement Report the sddhs are priests and the tha'jpun 
are secular clergy, generally elected by the people. Priesthood is not hereditary. In Fazilk4 
it is said that Bishnois never employ a Brahman if a Bhat is available. The Bhi.t too is a 

t In F?izilka the Bishnois are said to have 1^60 divisions : one named Roja, meaning nilgai, 
but no reverence is paid to that animal by the Rojas. Cf. Goraya. 

X No Wattu would claim affinity with the Bodlas, who are held in great respect in Bikaner, 
as Parmeshicar ro sakko ro aakko, i.e., ' Xin of Uod's kith and kin.' The use of Parmeshwax 
for Allah points to a Hindu origin. 

§ Bodla in Western Punjabi means ' simpleton ', and simplicity or lunacy is regarded as 
asign of sanctity in the East. 



J C3 

■C 3i i-^ J 

y~FZc ^^ /i. ^ J 

<iM/J f 



i**- A, i /-^ , 

Bohra-^Bond. 115 

their Wat^u origin is hereby open to question, though they may 
possibly be of Qureshi extraction, but now so completely affiliated to 
the Wattus by constantly taking brides from that tribo as to be undis- 
tinguishable from them. Their power of curing snake-bites is con- 
nected with a historical fact. When the Prophet and his companion 
Abu Bakar left Mecca, they concealed themselves in a cavern, and 
there the devoted companion, in order to protect his master, tore liis 
turban into rags and closed the holes with the pieces. One hole he 
stopped with his toe, and it was bitten by a snake. When the Prophet 
learnt what had occurred he cured it by sucking the wound, and the 
Sadiqis sometimes seek to prove their descent from the first Caliph 
by claiming the power of curing snake-bite. There is also said to be 
a class of wondering gharishti faqirs called Bodld,. A Sanidsi sub-sect 
also appears to bear this name. Possibly the word is confused with 
Bhola, 'simple', an epithet of MahMev. See also Qureshi. 
BoHEA. — The Bohrd includes two distinct classes : one Brahman money- 
lenders from Mdrwdr, who have settled in the districts on the Jumna, 
and acquired a most unenviable notoriety for unscrupulous rapacity. 
There is a rustic proverb : Bore kd Ram Ram aisd Jam ha sandesd : 
"A Bohrdi's 'good morning!' is like a message from the angel of 
death." These Bohras appear to accept brides from BcLnias, but do 
not give them daughters. 

In the hills any money-lender or shop-keeper is apparently called a 
hohrd (from the same root as beohdr ' trade '■^, and the word is used 
in the same general sense in the south of Rdjputdna and in Bombay, 
taking the place of the ' Biinia ' of Hindustan, though in Guzerat it is 
specially applied to a class of Shia traders who were converted to 
IsMm about 1300 A. D. [For the Mnhammadan Bora see Wilson's Sects 
of the Hindus, p. 170. They are represented in Multd,n.] In the Punjab 
all the Bohras are Hindus. In those Hill States in which Bohras are 
numerous, Banids are hardly represented in the returns, and vice versa ; 
and both the Bdnia and Boliia are in the liills also known as Mahd.ian. 
The Hill Bohrd,s are said to be exceedingly strict Hindus, and to be 
admitted to intermarriage with the lower classes of Rdjputs, such as 
Ei,this and Rd,wats. In Gurdd;spur there is said to be a small class 
of traders called Bohrds who claim Jd,t origin, and who are notorious for 
making money by marrying their daugrhters, securing the dower, and 
then running away with both, to begin again da capo. 

BojAK, a J^t clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

BoKHiA, a Baloch clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery : also called Bokhe 

and found as cultivators and camel-breeders in Bahdwalpur. 
BoLA, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 
BoMi, a Rd.jput sept, according to the Punjabi Dicty., p. 166. 
BoNAH, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 
Bon, Bona, fem. Bonai, a weaver of the Chamar caste. 

* Beames gives iv<hora as the true form of the word. Wohra is a got or section of the 
Muhammadan Khojas. It is fairly clear that the Bohras are connccti d in some way with the 
Khojas. In Jlewar there are Muhammadan B(h)oras <as well as Bora Hrahmans 'I ho 
former are united under elected mnlldhs and are said to be Hassanis by sect . cf. Malcolm'e 
fltfif. o/ Persia I, p. 395. Their chief coh'ny is at Ujjain. See ifemoiV on. Central India 
and Malwa, by Malcolm, II, pp. 91-92. 

116 Bopdhrde — Brahman. 

BoPAHRAE, a J at clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 
BoPERAi, a Hindu Jflt clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

BosAN, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multdn, to the south of the Vains. 
Their ancestor is said to have been a disciple of Bahdwal Haqq and 
to have received from him some of the land granted to him by the 
ruler of Multd,n. They came from Haidar^bad in Sind and are also 
found in Bahdwalpur as landowners. The Bappis, with whom they 
intermarry, and Sangis are said to be of the same stock. 

BoT, an Arain clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

BoTAB, BuTfAR, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

BozDAR, an independent Baloch tribe situated beyond our frontier at the 
back of the Kasrdni territory. They hold from the Sanghar Pass on 
the north to the Khosa and Khetrdn country on the south, and have 
the Luni and Musa Khel Pathdns on their western border. Those 
found in Dera Ghdzi Kh^n live in scattered villages about R^janpur 
and among the Laghdri tribe, and have no connection with the parent 
tribe. The Bozdd^r are hardly of Rind extraction seeing that their 
pedigree only makes them descendants of a goat-herd who married 
Bdno, widow of Rind's great-grandson, Shau Ali. They are divided 
into the Duldni, Ladwdni Ghuldm^ni, a suh-tuma7i, Chakrd,ni, Sihd,ni, 
Shd,hwdni, Jal^ldai, Jdfirdni and Rustamd,ni clans. They are more 
civilized than most of the trans-frontier tribes and are of all the Baloch 
the strictest Musalm^ns. Unlike all other Baloch they fight with the 
matchlock rather than with the sword. They are great graziers, and 
their name is said to be derived from the Persian buz, a goat. 

Brahman, (Panjdbi Bdmhan, Bahman; fern. Bd,mhani: dim. masc, Bamhanetd j 
fern. Bamhaneti, a Brahman's son or daughter : cf. Bamhanau, Brahman- 

The Brahmans in India are divided into two great geographical 
groups, the Utrahak, who live to the north of the Vindhias, and the 
Uakshnat, who inhabit peninsular India to the south of that range. 
The former are further divided into 5 groups, viz. — 

1. S^raswat, (modernised Sdrsut).! 

2. Kankubj. ( 

3. Gaur. ^Also called, collectively, Gaur, 

4. Utkal. I 

5. Maithal. J 

The southern groups* also number 5 and are : Darawar, Mahdrashtri, 
Borashat, or Karnfltik, Tailing and Gorjar.t Of these the only repre- 
sentative in the Punjab are the Pushkarnd Brahmans, who sprang 
from the Mah^rashtri group. t The mass of the Punjab Brahmans 

* Also called, collectively, Darawar, from the saint of that name. Another account says 
the Darawar comprise the Maharashtr, Tailing, Gurjar, Dakhshani and Indrik : (Amritsar). 

t Lest it be too hastily assumed that Gorjar, Gurjar or Gujar Brahmans have any 
connection with the Gujars, folk-etymology has suggested that the name is derived from 
gujjh, ' secrecy ', because their ancestor had once to conceal his faith. 

X But unlike the southern Brahmans the Pushkarnaa observe ghunghat (i. e„ their women 
veil their faces), but they have no garhlm dhan (pregnancy rite) and in other respects their 
customs are dissimilar. 





.'.).' .^<.<.J1Z. 


' / / / 

The Pitshhamds. 


are Sarsuts, but Gaurs are found in the eastern districts of the 
Province. JBut certain groups of Brahmans are neither recognised aa 
Sdrsut nor as Gaur, or have become totally distinct from the Brahman 
community. Such are the Pushkarn^s, Muhials, described below, and 
the Bhojki, Dhakochi, Taqa and Tagu groups. 

The Pdshkaenas. 

It will be convenient to describe first the Pushkarnds, a comparatively 
small and unimportant group found only in the south-west of the 
Punjab. They are divided into two territorial groups, (i) Sindhu, " of 
the Indus valley," and (ii) Mdrwari, of Mdrwdr, or Marechd. 

The Pushkariids claim to be faroMts of all the 'Bhdt Rd,jputs ' who 
are divided into Bhdts, Bhattis and Bhdtid,s,* and are described by 
Ibbetson as more strict in caste matters than the Sd/rsut. 

'i'he Pushkarnas are divided into two groups : Sindhu and Marechd, 
and are said to have 84 gots as given belowt : — 

I. — Sindhu — 


•1. Tangsali. 






25. Nang-a, 

•2. Vias. 






26. Kalla. 


•3. Mattur. 






■27. Visha. 


■4. Kapta. 






28. Ratta. 

5; Prohat. 





29. Billa. 

6. Machhar. 




t30. Wasu. 
13 1. Karada. 

t7. Wattu. 


Lapishia (Lapia). 



8. Matma. 





32. Chiara, 

II.— MareohA— 

1. Kakreja. 





40. Ramdev. 

2. Chullar. 





41. Upsidhiye. 

3. Acharaj. 





42. Achhu. 

4. Heda. 





43. Sheshdhir. 

5. Gajja. 





44. Vegai. 

6. Kadar. 





45. Vidang, 

7, Keerla, 





46. Hethoshi4. 

8. Naula. 





47 Somnath. 

9, Kewlia. 





48. Singhi. 

1 0. Teriwari. 





49, God^ni. 

11, Sandhu. 





50. Kh^khaf. 

12. God4. ^ 





51. Khanesh. 

13. Godanu. 





52. Khoh4r4. 

This list is given in a 

book. In Mi^nw^l! only those markedf ar 

e found. 

Daughters are generally given in marriage in on 

e and the same 

family, and if possible to brothers, accordin to a 

very wide-spread 


On the other hand in bah^walpnr 

the Marechd 

are described as 

pure Pushkarnst and comprise 15 gots :- 


1. AcMraj. 

6. Khidana. 



2. Bhor^. 

7. Kir^ru, 



3. Ciihanganfi. 

8, Kullh4. 



4. Gujja. 

9. Ludhdhar. 



5. Kabta. 

10. Muchchan. 



* Incidentally this indicates that the Bhattis and Bhiltias have a common origin — both 
come from the country to the south of the Punjab. There are said to be Bh4t Rijpata in 

t It is said that the Pushkarns used to be called Sri-Malis, that they rank below the 
Sarsut, Piirikh and Gaur sub-castes, and are (only) regarded as Brahmans because of their 
skill in astrology. But thoy are by origin possibly Sarsuts who made Pushkar or Pokhar, 
the sacred hike near Ajmer their head-quarters. One section of them is said to have been 
originally Beldars or Ods who were raised to Braluninical rank as a reward for excavating 
the tank and it still worships the pickaxe, but this tradition is not now current in the 

18 Brahmans in the South- West. 

Next come the Dassd or half-breeds and lastly the Sindhti with 2 
gots: Mattar and Wattu.^ 

In Bahawalpurt mention is made of a sub-caste, called Pdrikh, 
which I cannot trace elsewhere. It has 6 gotsX : — 

Bora, I Kathotia. I Parohit, 

Joshi. I Pandia. ! TiwM, 

It is distinct from the S^wanis. 

The Bkahmanical Hierarchy in the South-West Punjab. 

Before describing the Sdrsut Brahmans it will be best to describe 
the organisation of the Brahmanical heirarchy in the South-West 
Punjab, where the Sdrsuts aud Pushkarnds overlap, combining to 
form groups of beneficed and unbeneficed priests which are further 
attached to the different castes. 

The Wateshar. — The Wateshar§ are a group of Brahmans whose 
clientele is scattered, and who receive fixed dues from their patrons, 
irrespective of the services rendered to them. If they preside at a 
religious function they receive fixed fees in addition to their stand- 
ing dues. 

In Midnwdli the Wateshar class comprises the following sections 
of the Sarsutjl and Pushkamd; Brahmans : — 

T^u i. ( i. Kandiara. 

1. Dhajinanpotra ... J ^ Lain. 

* The Wattu 50* is the lowest of all: Brahmandn men Wattu, ghoron men tattii — "The 
Wattu among Brahmans is what a pony is among horses." 

I But towards Bikaner is a group known as Parik. 

J The sub- divisions of these sections are variously given thus : — 

f Ambruana, from Amar Nath, Rangild4si, from " Rangil 

Bhojipotra is said to include \ Dis," Wajal, from Wajalji, Tejal from Tejalji, all four 

i, ii and iii as in text and 1 with Ram Nand, Machhindraji and Bhara Mai, sons of 

C. Sidh Bojh, the saint and eponym of the section. 
This section also includes the Dand-dambh, the nick-name apparently of some family 
earnt by curing an ox, as the name implies. 

The Samapotra also in- ) the Kalkadasani, Prayagdasi, ^ and all six sub-divisions are 
eludes i and ii, as above with ) Prithwi Mai and Shamdasi S patronymic. 

The Samapotras are descended from Sidh Saman and perform a special worship on the 
Rikhipanchami, the 5th of the bright half of Bhadon. They also worship HingUj devi at 
births, weddings and on the 3rd of the bright half of Bais^kh. 

r Sidh Bhardwaji. 
The Bhardwija sub-divisions are ) Aror „ 

1 K^njar „ 
C Eatan „ 

TheKatpilare {|^°f;- 

? Takht. 

TheLalfiare U^^^^ 

v. Jan. 

For the correspondence between these sections and those of the Muhiil Brahmans see infra., 
§ It has been suggested that Wateshar is derived from hirt, ' dues.' It is doubtless the same' 
word as Vriteswar, derived homvritti or virat. and may be translated 'beneficed.' Thus the 
Wateshar form an occupational group and the description given of their sub-divisions is 
certainly not absolute. 

II Among the S4rsut Wateshar the matrimonial relations are complicated. The Sethpal 
marry with the Bhojipotra and Simepotra, if such alliances have been actually made in the 
past. If however they cannot obtain brides from these two sections they try to get them from 
the Bhardwaja or Kathpal. Agaia the Dhannanpotra only take brides from sections 
Nos. 2—4, but give none to them. Under these circumstances it is not surprising to learn 
that the Bhojipotra and Samepotra sections used till recently to practise female infanticide 
habitually. Lastly sections Nos, 5— 7 are willing to effect exchange betrothals with the 
Narainis, if no suitable match offers within this group of three sections, which intermarry. 
The Pushkami Wateshars also effect exchange betrothals as do the Shahri and Naraini. 

Brahmans in the South-West. 


2. Bhojfpotra 







Bharojike > 
Maghwrlai j 

intermarry with tho Bharogo and Maghw4ni. 
,, ,, Wadhwini. 

„ „ R4ma-Nanda. 

,, ,, MachiAna. 

Sindhu Pushkarn^ 

Of the Watesliar 
sections of Arords.* 








class each 

section is said to minister to certain 

* For instance the Kdthpdl Brahmans minister to — 

1. Gorwara, 2. Dhingra, 3, Dang, 4. Mad^n, 5. Chhabra, 6. Popli, etc. 
The Lalri minister to — 

1. Gera, 2. Lulla, etc. 
The Bhardivdj minister to— 

1. Haija, 2. Makheja, 3. Anej4, 4. Taneja, 5, Sareja, 6. 
8. Dhamija, 9. Sukhij4, 10. Nakr^, 11. Chugh, 12. 
14. Nangpal, 15. Maindiratta, 16. Kalra, 17. Minocha. 
The Bhojpotrd minister to— 

1. Gambhir, 2. Batra, 3, Chawla, 4. Khetarpal, 5. Gand, 6. Narag, 7. Billa, 8 
raji, 9. Rewari, 10. Chachra, 11. Busri, 12. Virmani. 
The Parhihdr minister to — 

1. Khera, 2. Khurani,, 3. Bhugr4, 4. Machhar. 
The Nangu minister to — 

1. Chikkar, 2. Sachdev, 3. Gulati, 4. Hans, 5. Kiir^bhatia, 6. 
The Sdmepoto-a minister to — 

Fareja, 7. Khanduja, 
Chhokra, 13. BathU, 


Kathuriye, 2 Khanijan, 3. Naroole, 4. Babar, 5. Dua, 6. Wasudev, 7. Bhangar, 
8. Hans, 9. Ghoghar, 10. Manglani, 11. Piplani, 12. Rihani, 13. Mandiani, 
14, Jindwani, 15. Pawe, 16. Salootre, 17. Jimeji, 18. Kawal, 19. Kansite Sunare, 
20. Lakhbatro, 21. Bhutiani, 22. Jatwani, 23. Nandwani, 24. Rajpotre, 
25. Danekhel with eleven others. 
The Lapshid minister to — 

1. Ch4wl^, 2. Kharbanda, 3. Mongi4, 4. Khattar, 5. Kaliicha, 6. Kurri. 
The Dhannanpotra minister to— 

1. Dudeja, 2. Chotmurada, etc. 
The Singopotrd minister to — 

1. Baj4j,etc. 
The Sethpdl minister to Sapr4, etc. 

All these are sections of the Aroras. 
The Dhannanpotra minister to the Dawra, Bugga, Janji Khel, Danjri, Rohri, Madanpotre, 
Dhamija, Sanduja, Uthra and other gots. 
Sarsut — 

I.— Bhojfpotra 1 

Shamipotra* { jntennarry (and take wives from H, III, IV and 

rhannanpotra \ Y j^gj. ^^ jj intermarry and take wives from 

n.— Bhenda. 






* To this sectioa belonged Li41j( Goeam. 


Brahmans i/n the South-West, 

Of the Siodhu-Pushkarnd, Wateshar the Nangu minister to the 
Gurmalia, Kaura, Gulati, Sadidev, Chikkar, Mungiya and Raon-khela 
and many other sections of the Aroras, and the Sajulia section of the 
Bhatids. The Lapiya minister to the Kharbanda, Chawala, Mongid, 
Karre, Khattar and Kalache gots, and the Parial to the Khera, Bugra 
and Khurana, all sections of the Arords. The Tanksali* minister 
to the Nangpal, Mutrija, Dua (Seth Hari) ; the M attar minister to the 
Khurana, all Sateja Aroras; the Gandhria to Mahesri Banias ; the 
Wasu to Bhatias ; the Wesa to Mahesri Banias and the Sohana to 

The Astri have fewer patrons than the Wateshar, and the clientele of 
each is confined to one place, where he resides. If a Wateshar is 
unable to officiate for a patron an Astri acts for him, receiving |ths of 
the fee, the balance of fths being handed over to the Wateshar. 

The Astri sections in Mid,nwali are — 

1. Ramdeh,t 2. Shason, 3. Bhaglal, 4. Ishwar, and 5. Dahiwdl. 

The Naraini is an immigrant group, and is thus without patrons, but 
if the Wateshar and Astri are illiterate, a literate Naraini is called 
in to perform any function requiring knowledge. As a rule, however, 
the Naraini only presents himself when alms are given to all and 







... Ehathar and Dhol 






Chanana .. 





Chandan .. 

Aneja Aroris, 





, Dhupar Aroras, 



... Dhaneja Aroris. 



Chatkare Aror4s, 









Kakrah ... 

Khurana and Taloja 






... Manocha Aroris. 

Only a Brahman may be an astri, a parohit or a thdni. He may also 
oflSciate as an Acharaj, a Bhdt, a Gosd,in or a Ved-patr, (and so may any 
other Hindu), but if he does so he must not accept any dues for the rites 
performed. Only a Brahman can take sankalpa, no other Hindu. 

in.— CMni 





Rughanpotra (or Aganhotrf ?), 








■ Brahmans of Khatrfs. 

IV. — Jhangan 

Sant ) 

v. — The Mahta Brahmans, whose sections are the Chhibbar, Dat, Mohan, Ved, Bali and 
Lau, do not act as parohits, but are engaged in agriculture, trade or service. Obviously 
these are the same as the Muhials of the North -West Pimjab. 

* The Tanksalis are called Jhani and receive certain dues on marriage and Dharm Sand in 
the Hadd Jaski,ni, i.e., in the tract under the rule of the Jask^ni Biloches. 
-j- Minister to the Danekhel section of the Aroras. 

The Muhidl Brahmans, 


A Brahman's own religious observances are performed by 
daughter's father-in-law, or by some relative of the latter, thou^li 
may, in their absence, get them performed by any other Brahman, 
sister's son is also employed. This is purely a matter of convenie 

rh he 
. , , ^ - convenience, 

the relations of a daughter's husband being entitled to receive gifts, 
but not those of a son's wife. 

The Skcular Brahmans. 

The Muhial Brahmans, — This group of secular Brahmans is said to 
derive its name from tmihin, a sum of money given by them at 
weddings to BhiUs and Jiljaks, varying from Rs. 5 to Rs, 7 or Rs. 12. 
The Muhid^ls are also styled Munlii'ils, and are said to be so called from 
tmihin, a sept. But it is also suggested that the name is derived from 
mukhia, 'spokesman,' or 'principal.' By origin the Muhiflls are cer- 
tainly Silrsuts and still take wives from that group in Gujrfit, while in 
Rilwalpindi the five superior sections (Sudhdn, Sikhan, BhaklAl, Bhog 
and IC4h) of the Bunjfihi Silrsuts used to give daughters to the Bhimwdl 
(Bhibhill) ' Muhiill Sarsuts' and occasionally to the other Muhiill 
sections, though they refused them to the inferior sections of the 
Bun]Yihis: Rawalpindi Gr. 1883-84, p. 51. 

Their organisation is on the usual principles and may be thus 
tabulated : — 

Group I.— Bari. 


Serf ion. 

1. Chhibbar. 



Ved or Baid 





BibhowAl or 


i. Dablijiya. 
ii. I'lm or coinmon. 

Group II. — Bonjahi. 

j Setpal (Sahanp41). 




^ 4./^Ui, ^*^^ i' 

The Bd.ri group either intermarries or takes daughters from the 
Bunjiihi, but the two sections of the latter (Lau and Bibhow^i) 
can only marry inter se.^ 

* The Bhats eulogise the Muhiiils in the following verses : — 

Daft data, Lau mangtd, \ ' The Datts are generous, and the Lau beggars, 

Cnhihhar wich Sardar. The Olihibbars are Sardirs. 

Walidn hath katariydn. The Haids dagger in hand 

Chaldc pahdn de hhdr. Walk full of pride. 

Bibho khdtc bimb phal, The Bibho (liibhownl) eat bimb phal (a fruit), 

Mohan Bali chakddr. I Mohan and Bali are chakddrs. 

There are further sub-divisions, but among the Waid the Samba, among the Datt the 
Kanjruria, among the Bnli the Khara and among the Chhibbar the Barra, are considered 
superior clans. 


The Sdrsut Brahmans. 

The following table illustrates the origin of the Muliial sections and 

sub-sections : — 





Sidh Suhan. 

Setp41 (Bari). 




Sidh Bhoj. 





Sidh Sam. 

Shamepotre. f 


Sidh Chdr. 



Midho Daa. Rama Nand. 

I, I 

Machhane. Rama Nandune. 













(Name of Sidh 

not known). 


I)hanan. Lalfi 

(, Bnnjahi). 



Phananpotre (B^ri). 




Prithwi Mai. 

Wadhu Ram. 

Manghu Ram. 

I , 

K4lka Via. 


Prithwi Malane. Wadhwani. Mangwani. Kalka Dasani, 
The descendants of thefiveSidhs are further sob-divided into pdnchtoUas 
(wVio give their daughters not less than 5 tolas of gold as dowry) and 
tritoliyas (who give not less than 3). The latter rank below the former. 

The origin of the Mnhidls is thus desci ibed : In Sambat 200 
Vikrami the five Sidhs went to the Naunuthi Hill and there practised 
asceticism. About that time too the Khatris of the Aror family 
(now the Arords) and the other Khatris fell out, so the latter separated 
from the Aroras and became jajmdns of the Sidhs. The Muhidls 
who did not attacli themselves to the Aroras refused to accept alms 
(dan) and are still purely secular. They are found chiefly if not 
exclusively in Rd,walpindi (where many are Sikhs) ; in Jhelum and 
Shahpur as lanHholders or io service. All Muhidls may marry girls of 
Brahman families which are not Muhidl. 

A small group of secular Brahmans found at Harid^na, in 
Hoshidrpur is the Kanchan Kawal. They are also called Suraj Duaj 
(Sun- worshippers). Their ancestor came from Delhi as a hdnungo 
to Haridna, whence they are also called Kdnungos. They can marry 
in the ndnhd's got, avoiding only the father's got. They do not take 
charity {dan), and either take service or engage in trade or cultivation. 
If any one of them takes alms he is outcasted and they do not 
intermarry with him. 

Other purely lay groups of Brahmans are : the Dhakociii of the 
Dhund and Karral Hills in Hazara, who are also called Mahajans : the 
Tagas of Karnal, who are Gaurs by origin and agriculturists by avoca- 
tion : and the criminal Tagus of the same District. 


The Sdrsut is essentially the Brahman of the Punjab, jast as the Khatri 

is distinctively a Punjab caste. The Sarsut, as a body, minister to all 

the Hindu castes, possibly even to those which are unclean and so stand 

outside the pale of Hinduism. Uoon this fact is based the leading 

Brahmans of the Rhatris. 123 

principle of their organization, which is that the status of each section 
depends on the status of the caste to whicli it tninistere. Inaccordanco 
with this principle, Ave may tentatively classify tlie iSdrsut thus : — 

Sub-group i. — Brahmans of Brahmans, called Sbukla. 

Sub-group ii. — -Bi-ahraans of theKhatris — 

5. Khokharan.* 
G. Sarin. 

1. Punch-zati. 4. Bunjahis. 

2. Chhe-zati. 3. As^th-bana. 

Sub-group uY. — Brahma tis of Arords. 

Sub-group iv. — Brahmans of Jdts. 

Sub-group v. — Brahmans of inferior castes, e.g., the Chamarwd. 

Further, each of the sub-groups is divided into grades on the analogy 
of the Khatri caste system thus — 

1. Panchzciti. 3. Butijahi. 

2. B^ri. 4. Inferior zdtL: 

Thus we may take the Shuklaf Brahmans to comprise the following 
gots : — 

fGallia ~1 ( Jetli. 

I Malia I I Jhing^n. ^ 

Pauchziti ...-j Kapuria ^ or < Mohla. 

Bhaturia I 1 Kumaria. 

t J I Trikha. 

The Sdj'sut Brcihinans of the Khatris. — The connection of the Khatri 
with the Sarsut Brnhman caste is peculiarly close. One tradition of its 
origin avers that when Parasu Rama was exterminating the K^hatriyas 
a pregnant woman of the caste took refuge with a Sdrsut. When her 
child, a son, was born, the Sarsut invested him Avith the janeo and 
taught him the Vedus. Hence the Sarsuts are invariably the parohits 
of the Kliatris, and fiom this incident arose the custom which allows 
paruhit Sindjajman to eat together. 

The boy manied 18 Kshatriya girls and his sons took the names of the 
various rishis and thus founded the gotras of the Khatrisj, which are the 
E.ame as those of the Brahmans. Tliis legend explains many points in 
the organization of the Sdrsut Brahmans in thn Punjab, though it is 
doubtless entirely mythical, having been intended to account for the close 
dependence of the Brahmans of the Sarsut branch on the Khatri caste. 

Gtoup I. — Panjzati i. At the top of the social tree stand five sections, 

. ,, , ,„ -v which are the parohits of tlie Dhaigrhar 

1. Monia. 1 t/-i j^ ' rrn • • ^ ■ ° 1 

2. Jetli. I Khatris. lliis group is known as the 

3. Jhingan. |^ Group Panjzati or Panjzati or ' five sections,' and also as 
*■ Kumada J P^^l^^^^^^'- Pachhdda or ' western.' Ii the Brah- 
mans followed the Khatri organization 

in all its complexity we should expect to find these sections constituting 
the Plidighar sub-group of a Bdri j^roup, and they are, \i would seem^ 
called phaighar-Lah(n-ia, at least in Lahore. 

There are'also said to be two groups, each oibzdtif<, which once formed 
themselves into endogamous cliques. These were : {i) Kalia, Malia, Bhaturia, 

* Probably this is correct. The Muhial having ceased to be Brahmans at all, no longer 
minister to tha Khokharan-Khatris and so a special group of Khokharan-Brahmans haa had 
lobe formed. 

t The Shuklas are beggars, who come from the east, from the direction of the United 
Provinces. They beg only from Brahmans, but arc not their parohits. They are quite 
distinct from the Shukal of the Simla llills. 

124 Brahmans of the Khatris. 

Kapnriaand Baggas, and [ii) Jhingan"^, Trikhat, Jetli]:, KuiiLhria§, and 
Punbu.ll The last-named got was, however, replaced by the Mohlas^ be- 
cause one of its members was discourteous to his daughter-in-law's people. 

The Bari group further, in addition to tlie Panchzdtis, comprises the 
following 7 gots : Paumbu, Gangd;har,*=» ]\lartha, Sethi Churavaur, 
Phiranda and Purang. 

Group II. — Bunj^hi. This group contains several sub-groups whose 
relations to one another are obscure, and indeed the subject of con- 
troversy. They may be classified, tentatively, as follows :— - 

Sul-group i. — Asht-bans, with the following eight sections: — 

hi Amritsar : 

or in Karndl 


and in Patidld. 

( '' ^ 

— ^ 

r — 

^- ^ 

]. Sand. 

1. Sand. 



2. Shori. 

2. Patak. 



3. Patak. 

3. Joshi Mat 




4. Mahrur. 

4, Joslii Mai 



Joshi Malmai. 

5. Joshi. 

5, TiwBDJ. 


Joshi Mahror. 

6. Tiwari. 

6. Kural. 


Tiwari. ft 

7. Kural. 

7, Regne. 



8. Bhardwaji. 



Ratn Bhardwaj. 


u.— B 

ara-ghar or Bara-zati 

(also called Bari) : — 

1. Sarad. 






ra. Sang. 

2. Bhauot. 



Vasdeo. Sudan. 

3. Airi. 


Lakhan Pal. 

Paonde. Majju. 

4. Kalie.Jt 



Bhogr. Sem. 

5. Parbhakka. 




ir. Dbammi, 

6, Nabh. 



Ramdeo. Tara. 

• Jhingan is said to be derived from j/uVigra or ;^«jyV!., a bell, because the sound of a bell 
was heard at its eponj^m's birth. This got is supposed to be only 20 generations old. 
It has three sub-sections, Gautam, Athu and Nathu. Further, Nathu's descendants are sub- 
divided into the less known sub-divisions of Cbamnapati and Kanwlapati. The Jhingans 
gotra is Bhardwaj ; iheir pur vur as Bhrign, Bharjan and Bhardv/aj, their slidkhd Madhunjan 
and the Rig Veda their veda. At Dipalpur at the house of an ancestor, Baba Chhajjil, they 
hold a fair in Magh, at which the cliUa, jhand, janeo and other rites are performed. Nathu's 
descendants all wear a noth in the nose. 

t Trikha's gotra is Farashar and it is sub-divided into the Palwarda, Aura and Dwija 
bub- sections. 

t The Jetli !7o^ra is Vatsa, and its sub- sections are Vialepotra, Chandipotra, and Rupe- 
potra — all eponymous. The two former are replaced by Hathila and Harnpotra, according 
to another account. The Mihrotra Khatris make them ofierings on the 12th of the light 
half of each lunar month. 

§ The Kumbria gotra is also Vatsa and they too have three sub-sections. 

II Apparently the same as the Paumbu. below. 

*|[Lhe Mohlas gotra is Somastam, audits sub-sections are Dalwali, Shiv-Nandi and Akashi. 

*" Of the Vasiaht gotra. They have five sub-sections, Veda Vyas, Gacgahar {sic), 
Gosain, Saraph, and Gangawa&hi, so-called because they used to lead bands of 
pilgrims to the Ganges. They were exempt from tolls under former governments. 
The Sar4ph (Sarraf) were bankers. The Gosains had many jajmdns and the Veda 
Vyas were learned in the Vedas. 'the Gangahars still perform their jhand or tonsure rite 
near the ruins of old Jhang, near which town they possessed a number of wells, each 
inscribed with their names. 

■ft Or Tawaria. At marriage they do not let the bride go to her father-in law's house, 
but send instead a big gur cake wrapped in red cloth. If however the mukldwd ceremony is 
performed at the same time us the wedding, they let the bride go also, otherwise they sen4^ 
her afterwards when her mulddud is given. 

+1 Probably the same ;isthe Bhabakkar, a. got named after a llishi. Its members make 
a boy don the janeo (sacred thread) in his 8th j'ear. Clad as a sddhu in a faqirs dress with 
the alfi or chola, the mirg-chhdla (deer-skin) and kachkol (a wallet for collecting alms) he 
begs from door to door and is then bidden to go to the forest, Lut his sister brings him 

Brahmans of the Ehatrts. 125 

The Zdt-wdle : — 

Sith-group Hi. — Panj-zati ii. About 116 years ago the Brahicans 
of the five sections below used to give their daughters in marriage to 
the Dhdighar- Lahoria Brahmans ; — 

(1) Kalie. I (3) Kapurie. I (5) Eaggo. 

(2) Malie. I (4) Bhaturie. | 

When their daughters ' began to be treated harshly in the houses of 
tlieir fathers-in-law, these Bralimans {i-)anjzatov five sections) arranged 
to contract marriages only among themselves ' and ceased to form re- 
lationships with the Dhaighar-Lahoria. 

Sub-group iv.- — ChheZcit-wala. — Similarly several other sections of 
Brahmans gave up giving daughters to the Dbaighar-Lahoria Brah- 
mans, such as— 

(1) Pandit. I (3) Dhniide. ( (5) Dhan Kaji. 

(2) Patak. I (4) Gadhari. I (6; Chhukari. 

Stib -group v. — Panchzdt-w^le iii — 

(1) Chuni. I (3) Lamb. I (5) Sarballie. 

(2) Rabri. I (4) Neule. * 

Suh-group vi. — Sat-zdti — 

(1) Sajre. (4) Neasi. j (6) Sardal. 

(2) Punj. (5) Chujii. (7) Anni. 

(3) Bandu, ' 

The above four sub-groups are called collectively Zat-wale, 

Suh-group vii. — This comprises the remaining Bunjdhi sections. 

The Zd,t-wd,Ie stand higher than this last sub-group vii, in that 
they do not accept offerings from, or eat in the houses of, Ndis, 
Kaldls, Kumhdrs or C'hhimbjis, whereas the latter do both. Moreover, 
the Asht-bans and Chhe-zdti sub-groups claim to be superior in status 
to the B^ris, but some families of these two sub-groups stooped to 
give daughters to the latter sub-group, and were, therefore, excom- 
municated by the remaining families of the Asht-bans and Chhe-zati 
sub-groups, so that they lost status and formed a new sub-group called 
Bans-puj. This sub-group now gives daughters to the Asht-bans and 
Chhe-zati sub-groups, but takes its wives, it is alleged, from the B^ris. 

Thus the Brahman organization reflects the main outlines of the 
Khatri scheme, but, thougli on many points of detail our information 
is incomplete, it is certain that local conditions modify the organiza- 
tion. For instance in Bahd-walpur the Khatris are few, while the 
Aroras are numerous aud infiuential, so that we find the following 
scheme : — 

Sub-group i. — Five sections, Mohla, Jetli, Jhingran, Trikha, 

Hyper gamous sub-group ii. — Five sections, Dhaman-potra, Sama- 
potra, Bhoja-potra, Setpal, Takht-Lalhdri ; and 

fJypergamous sub-group m.— Seven sections, Lai hd,ri, Bias, Kandaria, 
Kathpala, Shangru-potra or "Wed, Malakpura, and Bhenda. 

Of these three sub-groups, the five sections of the first are Brah- 
mans of the Khatris generally, not of the Dhdighar-Bdri Khatri9 
exclusively, while sub-groups ii and iii are Brahmans of the Arorfie 
in that part of the Punjab. 

126 Brahmans of the Khatris. 

The rules of marriage. — Like the Khatris, the Bunjdhi Brahmans 
profess to folJow the usual ' ionr-got ' rule in marriage, but, precisely 
like the Dhiiighar Khatris, the Zd-t-wale Brahmans avoid only their 
own section and the mother's relations. At least this appears to 
be the usual rule, but it would be rash to say it is an invariable 
one. For example, the B;ins-puj are an exception. The Asht-bans 
obtain wives from them, but if a father has taken a Bans-puj wife, 
the son may not : he must marry an Asht-bans or lose status. That 
is to say, the Asht-bans may only stoop to iuter-marriHge with the 
Bans-puj in alternate generations. 

Similarly the ' ionr-got ' rule is relaxed in other cases. Thus the 
Kanchan-Kamal section of Hoshiarpnr are also called Suraj Doaj, 
(Sun-worshippers). Their ancestor came from Delhi as a qdnungo 
at Haridna ; hence they are called Qanungos. These Brahmans can 
marry in the ndnka got, avoiding only the father's got. They do not 
take any dan (charity) and may either take service or engage in trade 
or cultivation. If any one of them takes to receiving charity, he is 
considered an outcast! and they do not intermalrry with him. 

The ages of marriage. — Among the Bunjahi Brahmans the age of 
betrothal is from 4-8 and that of marriage from 8-12 years in 
Rawalpindi. It is, however, impossible to lay down any universal 
rules, as, generally speaking, the ages of betrothal and marriage 
depend upon the status of each family within the group, as is the 
case among the Khatris. 

The revolt against hypergamy. — It will be seen how the lower sub- 
groups of the Khatris have endeavoured to shake off the yoke of the 
higher in matrimonial matters. A similar revolt against the position 
of the JDhd-ighar occurred amongst the Sarsut Brahmans. About 116 
years ago, says the account received from Areritsar, the Lahoria 
Pbdighar used to take daughters from the Panj-zat ii; but owing to 
the ill-treatment meted out to the girh by the phd.iKhHr, they resolv- 
ed to discontinue the custom, aud the three other groups of the Zat- 
wdle followed suit while the remaining Bunjahis continued to give 
wives to the Zdfc-wale, but no longer received them in return. The 
result was that the Bunjahis could not obtain wives and many fami- 
lies died out, so it was resolved by the Bunjahis that they should for 
the future break off all connection with the Zat-wdle, unless any of the 
latter should agree to give them daughters in return. This was prior to 
Sambat 1932 when a second meeting at Amritsar renewed the compact. 

It may be worth noting that in both castes the proceedings of 
these conferences were conducted in a formal manner, written agree- 
ments being drawn up, and the families which agreed to the de- 
mands put forward being entered in a register from time to time. 

The territorial groups. — Like the Khatris the Brahmans have terri- 
torial groups, but these groups do not usually correspond with the 
territorial groups of the former. For instance, the Brahmans of the 
Murree Hills are divided into two sub-castes-^ Pahdria and Dhakochi, 
who do not interman-y or eat together. The Dugri Brahmans corre- 
spond to the Dugri Khatris of the Si^lkot sub -montane, but they are 
said, on the one hand, to give daughters to the Sarsut, aud, on the 

r Bbojapotra. 
.. < Shamapotra. 

Takht Lalri.* 

( Dhannanpotra. 

f The Panchzatia, together with the— 
1 6. Puchhrat. 
.. -) 7. Shingnpotra. 
1 8. Malakpiira. 
1,9. Khetopotra, 

10. Rlifirdwaji. 

11. Kathp4la.t 

12. Kandhiara. 

The Brahmans of Knngra. 127 

other liand, to intermarry with the Batehru group of Brahmans in 
Kangra. Allusions have been already made to tlie Paclibflda and' to 
the Laboria, terms which seem to be applied exclusively to the five 
highest sectior-s who serve the Dhdighar Khatris. 

The Sarsdt Brahmans op the ArorAs. 

The gfrouping of the Brahmans of the Aroriis has already been des- 
cribed iu dealing with the Wateshars' system, and they further are said 
to be thus divided : 



But the most interesting territorial group of the Sdrsut is that of 
the Kd,ngra Brahmans whose organization shows no traces of the 
Khatri scheme, but reflects that of the Hindu Rajputs of Kilngra, and 
which will, therefore, be described at some length. 

The Brahmans op Kang^a. 

The Sarsut des or jurisdiction extends from the Saraswati river in 
Kurukshetr to Attock on the Indus and is bounded by Pehowa on the 
east, by Ratia and Fafehdbad in Hissar, by Multan on the south-west, 
and by Jammu and Nurpur, in Kangra, on the north. 

Thus the Brahmans of Kangra, who are or claim to be Sdrsut by 
origin, stand beyond the pale of the Sarsut organisation, but they 
have a very interesting organisation of their own. 

We];find the following groups : — 

i. — Nagarkotia. 
ii. — Batehru. 
iii, — Halbaha, or cultivating. 

Group I. — ^The Nagarkotia are the Brahmans of the Katoch, the 
highest of the Rdjputs, and they were divided by Dharm Chand, the 
Katoch Raja of Kdngra, into 13 functional sub-groups, each named 
ft; er the duties it performed in his time. These are — 

i. — Dichhit, the Gurus of the Katoch, who used to teach the Gayatri 

ii.— Sarotari, said to be from Sanskrit saw ladh. Their duty was 
to pour alioii or offerings of ghi, etc., into the hawan kund 
when a jag was performed. They had learnt two Vedas. 

iii.— Achdria, who performed the jag. 

* The Lalri have five sab-sectiona :-Lal Lalri, Viaa Lnlri, Takht Lalri, Ghauijal 
Lalri and Raj Bakht or Jan. 

t By ffofra Shamundal, the Kathpdlaa have fonr sab- sections, Surangu, Sidha, Gilkala 
and Fathak. 

128 The Brahmans of Kdngra. 

iy. — Upadbyaya, or TJpadlii,* or ' readers ' of the Vedas at the jag. 
V. — Awasthi, those who ' stood by ' the Icalas or pitcher at the Muni- 
pursh, and who received the pitcher and other articles (of 

vi. — Bed birch, who made the hedi, or square demarcated by four 
sticks in which the halas was placed. 

Yii. — N^o- Pundrik, whose duty it was to write the prescribed in- 
scriptions on the hawan Jcund. 

viii. — Panchkarn or secular Brahmana engaged in service on the 
Rajds. They performed j^t-e out of the six duties of Brah- 
mans, but not the sixth, which is the receiving of alms. 

ix. — Parohits, who were admitted to the seraglio of the Raja and 

were his most loyal adherents. 
X. — ^Kashmiri Pandit, literate Brahmans from Kashmir, who are 
found all over the Punjab. 

xi. — Misr,t said to mean ' mixed,' also Kashmiri immigrants, who had 
preserved their own customs and rites, but had intermarried 
with the Nagarkotia. 

xii. -Kaina, who helped the rulers by their incantations in time of 

war. (Said to be from ran, battle-field.) 

xiii. — Bip (Bipr), now extinct in Kdngra, These were parohits of 
the Nagarkotia and of some of the Batehru, 

Of these 13 sub-groups numbers x and xi seem to be territorial 
rather than functional. One cannot say what their relative rank 
is or was. The first six are also called the six Achdrias and were 
probably temple priests or menials of inferior status. The Bip pro- 
bably ranked high, and the Raiua, or magic men, were possibly the 
lowest of all. The Khappari are also said to be found in Kaiigra, but, 
no account from that District alludes to them. 

Group II. — Batehru. — There are two sub-groups— 
i, — Pakkd Batehru. — With 9 sections— 

(1) Dind, (2) Dohru, (3) Sintu, (4) Pallialu, (5) Panbar, 
(6) Rukkhe, (7) Ndg-Kharappe, (8) Awasthi-Chetu and 
(9) Misr-Kathu. 

* But apadhi is in Orissa translated ' title.' Vide Tribes and Castes of Bengal, I, p. 161. 
Upadhyayais, correctly speaking, qnite distinct from Upadhi. 

t It will be observed that the Misr (section) occurs in both the Batehru snb-gronps 
and among the Nagarkotia, so that we have three sub-sections — 

(1) Kasbmiri-Misr, Nagarkotia. 

(2) Kathu-Misr. Patka Batehru. 

(3) Mali-Misr, Kachcha Batehru. 

Of these the last named are parohits of the Kashmiri Pandits, the Kashrairi-Miara and 
the Rainas. 

The Nag (? section) are also thus found, for we have — 

(1) Nag-Pandrik, Nagarkotia, 

(2) Nag-Kharappa, Fakka Batehru. 

(3) Nag-GosaUi, Kachcha Batehru. 

It is explained that Kharappa (cobra) and Gosalu (? grass-snake) are nicknames im- 
pljit.g contempt, as these sub-aections are of low status. But a comparison with the 
Brahmans of Ur'issa suggests a totemistic origin for those sections : V. Tribes and Castes 
of Bengal, I, p. 161. 

The Awasthi too are found in all three groupa. 

The Brahmans of Kangra, i20 

ii. — Kachchd Batehru. — With 13 sections — 

(1) Tagnet, (2) Gbabru, (3) Suglie (Parsr^mio), (4) Chnp]ial, 
(5) Chatlivvan, ((3) Awasthi-Tliirkanun, (7) Awasthi- 
Gargajnun, (8; Ghogare, (9) Nag-Gosaiu, (10) Mali-Misr, 
(11) Acluiriapathiarj, (12) Pandit Bariswal and (13) 

Group III. — Halbalia. — The Halbahas have 29 got.s or sections : — 
(J) Pandit-Marchu, (2) Bhntwan, (3) Khurwal, (4) Gidgidie, 
(5) Lade, (6) Pahde-Koptn, (7) Pahde-Saroch, (8) Korle, 
(9) Awasthi-Chakolu, (10) Pandit-Bhangalie, (II) Narchalu, 
(12) Mahte, (13) Diikwal, (14) Saiihalu, (15) Pahde-Daroch, 
(16) Pandore, (17) Thenk, (18) Pahde-Kotlerie, (19) Bngheru, 
(20) Bhaiiwal, (21) Bashist, (22) Ghutanie, (23) Mir.dhe- 
Awasthi, (24) Prohit-Golerie, (25) Prohit-Jaswal, (26) Hasolar, 
(27) Poi-Pahde, (28) Faiiarach and (29) Pharerie. 

Of these the first fourteen now intermarry with the Batehru, giving, 

and, apparently, receiving wives on equal terms. 

Hijpergamy. — The Nagarkotia take brides from both sub-groups 
of the Batehru, and th^y have, since Sambat 191 J, also taken brides 
from the Halbaha. The Batehru take wives from all the sections 
ot the Halbaha. When a Halbaha girl marries a Nngarkotia, she is 
seated in the highest place at marriage-feasts by the women of her hus- 
band's brotherhood. This ceremony is called sara-dena and implies 
that the Halbaha bride has beconio of the same social status as the hus- 
band's kin. Money is never paid for a bri-ie. Indited Barnes observed : — 

" So far do the Nagarkotias carry their scruples to exonerate tho bridegi'oom from all 
expense, that they refuse to partake of any hospitality at the hands of the son-in-law, aud 
will not even drink water in the village where he resides.'' 

Social relations. — The accounts vary and tho customs have, it is 
explicitly stated, been modified quite recently. The Nagarkotia 
may eat with Batehrus and have even began to eat 'kachlii from 
the hands of a Halbaha according to one account. According to 
another this is not so, and a Nagarkotia who has married a Halbaha 
girl may not eat at all from the hands of his wife until she has 
borne at least one child, when the prohibition is said to be removed. 

The Batehru and Halbaha section names. — These show an extraor- 
dinary jumble of Brahminical gotras {e.g., Bashist.), functional and 
other names, so that the accuracy of the lists is open to doubt. 
It appears certain, however, that some of the sections are named 
from the tribes to whom they minister. Thus, we may assume, the 
Pahda-Kotleria are Pahdas of the Kotleria Kiliputs ; the Parohit- 
Goleria and Parohit-Jaswal to be jiarohits of the Goleria and Jaswal 
Riljputs, and so on. This is in accord with the system, which has been 
found to exist among the Sd,rsut of the plain?, whereby the Brahman 
takes his status from that of the section to which he ministers. But 
status is also determined by occupation. Like tlie Gaddis and Ghirths 
of the KAngra and Chamba hills the Brahmans of Kdngrabave numerous 
als with vaguely totemisLic * names. Thus among the Nagarkotia the 

* In Hiflsar there is a section of Br&hmanH, called Bh^da or sheep- This is interesting', 
because on the Sutlej, at least in Kulla Sarilj, there is a small caste called Bb^hv, who are 
hereditary victims in the sacriiicial riding of a rope down the cliffs to tho rirer. Other* 

130 The BraJimans of Kdngra, 

Pakkd Bateliru have tlie section called Kharappd, (or cobra) Ndg and the 
Kaclichd Batehru, a section styled Ghoslu (a species of fish or possibly 
grass-snake) Nilg. Pundrik also appears to be a snake section. These 
snake sections are said to reverence the snake after which they are 
named and not to kill or injure it. 

In addition to these, the Batehrn (Pakka and Kachchd.) have the 
following sections : — 

(i) Chappal, an insect ; no explanation is forthcoming. 

(ii) Sugga, a parrot ; no exi^lanation is forthcoming, 
(iii) Bhangwaria, fr. bhdngar, a kind of tree. 

(iv) KhaJTire Dogre : Date-palm Dogra, a section founded by a man who planted a gar- 
den of date-palms, and which originated in the Dogra countiy on the borders of Jammu. 

^v^ Ghabru, a rascal ; one who earns his living by fair means or foul. 

In the Chaniba State the Brahmans form an agricultural class, 
as well as a hierarchy. Those in the capital are employed in the 
service of the State or engaged in trade, while others are very poor 
and eke out a living as priests in the temples, or as parohits and even 
as cooks, but they abstain from all manual labour. Strict in caste ob- 
servances they preserve the ancient Brahmanical gotras, but are divided 
into numerous als which form three groups : — 

Group I. — AU : Baru, Banbaru, Pandit, Sanju, Kashmiri Pandit, Kolue,* Baid, Gautaman, 
Bugalan, Atan, Madyan.f Kanwan, Bodhran, Baludran, Bilparu, Mangleru, Lakhyinu, 
Suhklu, Nunyal, Nonyal, Sungl^l, Bhararu, Turnal, Haryan^, and Purohit. 

Group II. — Als : Chhunphanan, Thulyan, Dikhchat, Osti, Pads, Bhat, Dogre, Pantu, 
Kuthla, Ghoretu, Pathania, Myandhialu, Mangleru, Katochu, Pande, Datwan, Dundie, 
Hamlogu, Bhardiathu, Gharthalu, Hanthalu, Gwaru, Chibar, Barare, and Datt. 

Group III. — Als: Acharaj, Gujrati, Gwalhu and BujUru." 

The first group only takes wives from the second, and the first two 
groups have m caste relations with the third. The Brahmans of 
Chaniba town and Sungal§ disavow all caste connection with the 
halbdh or cultivating Brahmans who are hardly to be distinguished 
from the general rural population, though many act as priests at the 
viUage shrines and as iiurohits. Many Brahmans are in possession of 
sdsans or grants of land recorded on copper plates. The hill Brahmans, 
both men and women, eat meat, in marked contrast to those of the 
plains. In the Pangi wizdrat of the Chamba State Brahmans, Rajputs, 
Thdkurs and Rath is form one caste, without restrictions on food or 
marriage. In the Rd^vi valley, especially in Church, and to a less degree 
in Biahmaur also, free marriage relations exist among the high castes, 
good families excepted. But in recent years there has been a tendency 
towards greater strictness in the observance of caste rules. H 

wise traces of totemism are very rare among the Brahmans of the plains, though in the 
Bub-montane district of Ambala two are noted. These are the Pila Bheddi or 'yellow 
wolve^',' so called because one of tlieir ancestors was saved by a she-Wolf and so they now 
worship a wolf at weddings ; and Sarinhe, who are said to have once takf^n refuge under a 
sari7i tree and now revere it. 

* From Kullii, so called because they came with an idol from that country. They are 
priests of the Lakshmi Narain, Damodar and Radha Krishna temples. 

t The Kanwan are descendants of the Brahman family from which Raja Sahila Varma 
of Chamba purchased the site of the present capital. 

X The Ilaryan are in charge of the Hari Rai temple. 

§ The ancient Sumangala. a village noAv held entirely by Brahmans under a fdsan grant 
of the If'th century A.D They are descended from two immigrants, a Brahmachari and his 
rhe'a, from the Kurukshetra. The two families intermarry and also give daughters to the 
Brahmans of Chamba town. 

11 See the Chamba State Gazetteer by Dr. James Hutchison, pp. 130 — 132. 

i/cfi t::^JZzi^c. j^ ^^^^1^^ 'C^, 7.^.0 

The Brahmans round Simla. 131 

The Brahmans op the low castes. 

As we have seen the Bralimans of the higher castes form a scries 
of groups whoso status depends on that of their cHcnts. On a 
similar principle the Brahmans of the castes which are unclean 
and so outside the pale of Hindiiisui form distinct sub-castes outside 
the circle of those who minister to the higher castes. 

These sub-castes are— 

I. — The Chamarwd. — The Brahmans of the Chanor sub-caste of 
the Chamdrs. 

II. — Dhanakwa.~The Brahmans of the Dhdnaks or Hindu weavers 
in Rohtak. 

III. — The Brahmans of Chiihr.'is. 

Each of these three sub-castes appears to be now strictly endogamous, 
though the Chamarwa are said to have until recently intermarried 
with Chamiii'S. However, it seems clear that they do not intermarry 
with the other Sdrsut Brahmans if indeel they have any claim to 
Silrsat ancestry. No Charaarwa Brahraaa may enter a Hindu's house. 
According to a tale told in Amh^Xa, the origin of the Chamarwa 
Brahmans was this : — A Brahman, on his way to the Ganges to bathe, 
met> Ram Das, tlip famous CliHtnar hliagat. Ram Das gave him two 
coteries and told him to present them to Gangaji (Gangos), if she held 
out her hand for them. She did so, and in return gave him two hangans 
(bracelets). The Brahmnn went back to Ram Das, who asked him 
what the goddess had given him, and he, intending to keep one of the 
two hangans, said she had given one only; but when he looked for them 
they were not on his own body, but in the kiinda (breechea) of Ram 
Das. Ram Das then gave him the bracelets and warned the Brahman 
in future to accept gifts only from his descend ants, otherwise great 
misfortune would befall him. Accordingly his descendants only serve 
Chamars to this day. The Chamarwa are only iiaroliits of theChamars, 
not gurus. They must not be confounded with the masands who act as 
their guriis, though either a Chamarwa Brahman or a (Chamar) mnsand 
can preside at a Chamar's wedding. It is said that tlie Chamarwa is 
also called a Husaini Brahman. 

The Brahmans in the Simla Hills. 
North and east of Simla the Brahmans both Gaur and Sdrsut have 
three groups : Shukal, Krishan and Pujdri or Bhojgi, the two latter 
equal but inferior to the first. The Shukal are further divided into 
two occupational groups (i) tlioso who hold /ay/r^^ granted by chiefs 
and who receive ample dues and (ii) those Tvho receive little in fees. 
The former are generally literate and do not cultivate: they observe 
the rites prescribed by the ShAstras. The latter ai'e mainly agricul- 
turists and practise informal as well as formal marriage and even 
polyandry. The former take wives from the latter, hut do not give 
them. The Shukal gi'oup does not intermarry with the other two*. 

The Krishan Brahmans are also cnltivatf)rs and accept {dmost any 
alms. They also practise widow remarriage and the rit custom. The 

* The Shukal are not stated to correspond to the Shukia, or to le Brahmans to Brahmaca 

132 Brahmans degraded hy function. 

Pujdris or Bliojgis are temple-priests or chelas of a god. They appear 
to have only recently become a distinct group. Some are merely 'pujaris 
and accept no alms living by cultivation. These do not intermarry with 
the Krishan Brahmans. Others accept alma in the name of a deceased 
person and use the ghi with which idols are besmeared in Mdgh, They 
intermarry with the Krishan group. 

When Paras Ram* a Gaur Brahman overthrew theRdjputs the Sdrsuta 
protected those oi: their women who survived and when the Rdjputs 
regained power they replaced the Gaurs by Sdrsuts. Parns Ram had 
extended his conquests as far as Nirmand in the Sard,] tahsil of Kullu and 
there he established a colony of Gaur Brahmans in 6 villages, still held 
in mucifi by them. These colonists are now spread over Bashahr, Kulld, 
Sard] and Suket, and they are called Palsrdmi or Parasrdmi to this day. 

Both the Gaur and Sarsuts are also cross-divided into the Sasani, or 
beneficed, and Dharowar groups.t The former are priests or parohits 
oi the ruling families, being supported by the rents of their lands and 
the dues received from their clients. The latter live by cultivation, but 
do not hold revenue-free grants. Neither group accepts alms given to 
avert the evil influence of certain planets or offered during an echpse.J 

The Impuee Brahmans. 

We now come to deal with the groups of Brahmans who exercise 
degraded or spiritually dangerous functions. In contradistinction to 
the uttam or 'pure' Brahmans discussed above — Brahmans who serve 
pure castes and fulfil pure functions — we fiud groups of Brahmans who 
exercise impure or inauspicious functions. These groups are known 
by various names, but in some parts of the Punjab, e.g., in Midnwdli, 
they are divided into two classes, the Madham. Mahd-Brahman or 
Acharaj, and the Kanisht. The Madham form a kind of * middle ' class, 
performing functions which though unlucky and even unclean, are 
ritualistic. The Kanisht on the other hand are minor priests, whose 
rites are Lirgely magical, rather than religious; and they include such 
groups as the Ved-patr, Dakaut and Sawani. 

* The tradition begins by asserting that the Gaur accompanied the Rajputs from the 
plains, and that the latter usurped the Gaur's power. 'Ihey then made the Gaurs their 
parohits, but annexed their principalities. Later Kankubj and Maithila Brahmans 
accompanied those Rajputs who escaped from the plains after the Muhammadan invasions 
and found a refuge in the hills. 

t The Dharowar intermarry with the Krishan Rrahmans of the Hills, and give daughters 
to the Sasani and Shukal groups, but not to the Krishan group. 

J Jt must not be iuiagined that this description exhaut^ts the ramifications of the Bill 
Bra^|^lJ^ns. Ihns in Kumi.aisain we learn tliat there are Sar^iut Brahmans, Jhakbrii by 
family, descended from Gautama rislii, aud other families descended from BLardwaj 
rishi. These bitter came, some from Ka^hi, others from Sitidh, and they intermarry intei' 
se or with Bhardwaj Brahmans settled in Basbahr. They worship Brahma, as well as 
VishTiu, Mahe»h and the 10 incarnations. These Bhardwaj, wtio are known as the four 
Bri.hnian foZs, will not iniei marry with a cliss of Brahmans called Paochi, because the 
latter have stooped to widow vemarrinfie. Y(4 the Paochi is not the lowest group, for 
below it are the Pujaras, J.lso Sarmits wearing the jnnco, and affecting the various hill 
rZeoids, of whose lands they aio mostly hereditary tenants. Pujaras permit the bedani 
form of marriage, and also the rit syttem which is in vogue among the Kanets of the 
Simla Hills. They can also eat from a KaneL's hands, but Paochi Brahmans will not eat 
from theirs. The Pujaras are numerous and fairly widespread from Suket to Keonthal 
and Bashabr, giving their name to one Pujarli village in the last-named State, and to 
tinotber in Balsan, 

Brahmans degraded hy function, 183 

The Maha-Brahman or Acharaj. 

MaM-Brahman is usually said to be synonymous with Aclidraj, but 
strictly speaking, tlio Malia-Bralimans appear to be a Pub-division of 
the Garagacli^ra]* or Acharaj. They are themselves divided into two 
groups, (jarg and Sonana. On the other hand in Kangra the Achilraja 
is said to bo one of the two groups of Mahd-Bralimans. 

Of these the Dikhat has the following sections : — 

1, Josi. 3. Sonami. 5. Tamnaj-at. 

2. Kandarf. 4. Sutrak. 

The Mahd,-Brahmans are endogamoug. They give alms in the name 
of the dead after death to Sanidsis, or occasionally to a daughter's 
father-iu-law. The Brahmans do not receive anything in return for 
performance of marriage ceremonies. 

In Kdngra they (and the Sdwanis) are said to have the Bd,ri and Bun- 
jdhi groups, and this is also tlie case in Midnwdli. in Kangra the Acha- 
raj gots are — 

Asil. Baclas, Parasar. Sandal. 

A noteworthy offshoot of the Acharaj are the Par-acharajt, or 
Mahd-achilraj as they are called in Amritsar,J who accept those gifts 
from the Acharaj which the Achdraj themselves take from other 
Hindus after death. 

The function of the Mahd-Brahman or Achd,raj is to accept the 
offerings made after a death in the name of the deceased. Originally 
the term acharija meant simply a guide or teacher in matters spiritual, § 
and the process whereby it has come to denote a great sub-caste of 
* sin-eating' Brahmans isi obscure. As a body the Ach^iryas trace 
their origin to the 5 Gaurs and the 5 Dariiwars, asserting that thoso 
who accepted offerings made within 13 dayf^H of a death were excom- 
municated by the other Brahmans and formed a sub-caste. As the 
only occasion on which an Achdrya visits a house is at or after a death 
his advent is naturally inauspicious, and his touch is pollution. After 
he has quitted the house water is scattered on the fluor to avert ' the 
burning presence of death,* and, io Kangra and Multtin, villao-ers 
throw charcoal, etc., after him. In the Simla hills the Mahii-acharai 
occupies a special position. He is the ■paroliU of the I<ino-, chief or 
wealthy people and represents the dead man and as his substitute is 
fed sumptuously for a whole year by the kin. In some places he even 
takes food from the hand of the corpse on the pyre, but this custom 
is dying out and it now suffices to bribe the Mahd-achdraj to eat to his 
utmost capacity, tlie idea being that the more ho eats the better it will 

* Garagji was a saint who composed the work on astrology called the Qarag Sancrta whicli 
s said to be rare. ^ ' 

t In Kangra the Par-achuraj arc called Ojlia and are Again by got. In Kulhl they are 
known as Bhaf-acharya. ^ 

Jin Amrilsar and Mianwali the Mahu'-acharya make the death-gifts to their dau<^htprs 
or sons- in-law : in Kangra Saniasis take theee gifts in certain cases. In Si'ilkc)t the 
Acharaj make them to Saniasis, or their own daughters, i.e., the Maha-acharaj' appears 
to be unknown. ^ ^^ 

§ Especially one who invests the student with the sacrificial thread and instructs him 
in the Vedas, in the law of sacrifice, etc. ; Platts, UinditMdni Dictrj. 

II Or, in Kangra, for II days from Bndimans, 13 from Kshatrias, 10 from Vaisyas and 31 
from Sudras, i.e., during the period of impuiity after a death. 

134 Dahaut Weather-lore, 

be for the soul.* Ordinary people, however, only feed an Ach^raj for 
13 days after a death, but Brahmans also receive food for the dead 
occasionally after that period. 

The j^ch^raj, however, also officiates as a Wateshar in death 

The Dakaut Bkahmans. 

The Dakaut or Dak-putra derives his name from jpaka,t a Brahman 
who founded the caste. Once on his way to the Ganges, Bhadli, a 
Kumhdrni,J persuaded him to bathe instead in a pond, professing that 
she could get him bathed there in the Ganges. As soon as be 
touched the water he found himself by her enchantment in the river, 
so he made her his wife. Here we have an obvious allegory. 

A Dakaut of Midnwdli gives another version of this legend :— 

Dak was the son of Ved Viyds, the author of the Puranas, and 
was chosen in a Swdyamhar as her husband by Bhandli. Bhandli 
was the daughter of the Raja of Kashmir, who celebrated her 
Swayamhar with the condition that she should wed the man who 
answered her questions. Dak did po and married her. The Granth 
Bhaoidli in Punjabi gives all Bhandli's questions and Dak's answers 
in verses of which the following are examples : — 

Sat; andheri asliiami ode chand hadlon chhdyd 

Chdri pahhi tarmali ganjar basni dyd, 

PoochJio, parho Pandato vdcho Ved, Pordn 

Ek hi to pdni khoo men ek hi to part nashdn 

Nohdri to chdndni sunre kant same kd. hhdo 

Na harsi na goh hari na Poorab, Pachham vdo 

Bald hleva kharch kar dharn najhali ghds. 
A rough translation reads : 

* What would happen if the moon be covered by a cloud on the 
eighth dark night of the moon in the month of Asdrh ? All the four 
signs forebode the fall of rain. 

* The Brahman who nte from a dead man's hand was a Kashmiri. In by-gone days 
when a rdjd or wealthy mail died his direct passage to Heaven was secured by the follow- 
ing rite. His corpse was laid out on the pround and between it and the pyre, which was 
built not far o£E, was made a hearth on which khir (rice in milk) was cooked. This was 
placed in a skull, which was pot in the dead man's hand, and thence the Brahman was 
induced to eat the hhir by a fee of Rs. 1,000 to Rs. 30,000, or the grant of a village. He 
thus became a Khappari (fr. hhopri or khapri, a skull), and he and his children after 
him were cut-castes. Supernatural powers were attributed to them, and as they also 
pursued usury, they rapidly grew rich. After two or three generations, however, the 
Khappari's family could be re-admitted into caste on payment of a fine, and so on. A 
plate or lota is said to have been substituted for the skall. In Mandi State a Brahman, 
who must be good-looking, is fed and dressed for a year like the deceased Eaja. At the ex- 
piration of the year he is turned out of the State, and goes to Hardwar.He must never look 
back on the journey, and is never allowed to return to the iState, which p-riys him a pension. 

t In Mianwali the Dakauntri (sic) are said to be Suds by caste and descendants of Dak 
Bandlf, who composed a gmnfli on astrology called the Bandit Granth. In Rohtak the 
Daks are said to be descended from Sahdec risM, a dacoit (whence their name) who 
composed the Sahdeo Bhadli (Bhadli, his wife, was a sweeper woman). In this work natural 
phenomena are interpreted to forecast the future ; e.g., SuhL-ar vmli hddli rain sanishchar, 
chde luTxe Sahdeo: 'sun Bddli bin harse nahin jde.' i.e., " If clouds appear on Friday 
and stay till Saturday, they will not pass away without rain." In these verses Sahdeo 
usually addresses Bhadli. 

J In Gurgaon too Sahdeo la paid to have met a sweeper woman who told him that the 
auspicious moment had passed and bade him dive in a tank. He did so, and brought up 
first a gold bracelet and tben an iron one. Thinking her an expert he married her. 



Dahaut functions. 185 

Ask the 'yandits to study tlie effects of this rainfall in tlio Vcdaa or 

Tho results are that there will bo no water left anywhere save 
a little in wells and in other low places (meaning- that this in* 
auspicious rainfall will be followed by a scarcity of rain). 

If it does not rain and the wind does not blow for 9 months what will 
be the result ? 

The land will have no verdure and it is bettor to leave it with bag and 

Piirah lithe hadU, pachham cliale ivd, 
'Qak kahe sun Bhandli manji andar pa. 
* If a cloud appear from the east and the wind blow from the 
west ; Dak would ask Bhandli to take her cot inside' 

Titar Ichanhht' hadlt ran maldi khd. 
wase, ujre kkdlt hot na jd. 
'A cloud like partridge feathers, and a woman given to eating cream ; 
the one will rain and the other bring ruin, without a doubt.' 

Another story is tbat when Ram Chandar invaded Ceylon, both he 
and his enemy Kawana were under Saturn's sinister influence, aod 
before he crossed tho strait which he had bridged Rdta Cbandar 
desired to give alms. But neither the Brahmans nor the Mahd- 
Brahmans nor tho Bias, would accept them, aud in answer to his 
prayer Brahma created a doll of grass, sprinkled sar jiwan* amrit 
over it by cuttinj? Pilrbati's little finger, and thus endowed it with 
life. Shivji and Durga bestowed on him veracity, the /anco and tho 
tilaJc, and Brahma bade him receive the alms offered to Rahu and 
Ketu, and to Saturn — whence he was also called Sanichari. 

The Dakaut, however, bears yet other names. As he knows a little 
astrology and can divine the evil influence of the planets, he is 
sometimes styled Jotgi ; in Rupar he is called Pdnda, and round 
Sirhind and Mdler Kotla Dhaonsif. One group is called ArpopoJ 
because it is skilled in palmistry §. 

From Si^lkot comes a still more curious legend : Var^h Mihr, a great 
astrologer from the Deccan, came in the course of his Avandering=> to a 
Gujar village. While discoursing to tho people his period of yoga 
ended, and he confessed that had he been at home that day his wife 
would have conceived and borne a son of marvellous intelligence. His 

* Whence the name Dakaiit dnld-d-put. In Giirgaon dak is said to mean ' wanderer,' 
In this District the Dak is said to be no true Brahman, but a singuhirly astute cheat whose 
victims are mainly ivomen. These he instigates to burn 7 tangas (thatched roofs?) of a 
hut on 7 successive Saturdays, in order to seciu-e male issue. Or he sots husband and wife 
by the cars by declaring that their burj or stars do not coincide, and that icmedial measures 
must be taken. Seated among the women he looks at the hand of one and tho forehead of 
another : consults his pntrd or tnble, counts on his finger.'^, and then utters common- 
place predictions. He knows hardly any astrology. On Saturday he goes round bogging 
with an idol of Sanishchar, and he accepts a buffalo calf born in Magh or a foal born in 
Sawan, or any black animal. 

tSee Piinjdhi Dicfy., p. 305. 

X Cf. Harar-popo among the Bhatras, where it is said to equal thgg. In Karnjil the Arar- 
popo is desfribf-d as a beggar who may be a Gaur Brahman nr a Ghauhati (Rajput). 

§ The Bhojkis are quite distinct from the Dakauts, but owing to similarity of function the 
Dakauts are sometimes called Bliojki, e.j,, in Jaipiu", 

136 Dahaut functions. 

hostess asked him to form a temporary union with her daughter-in-law 
on the condition that her child should belong to him. ISo Dak was 
born. Years after Dak had to be surrendered to his father despite 
his attachment to his mother's kin^ but on the road home he saw that 
the corn in one field was mixed with stalks of a different kind like 
those iu one close by. His father, however, taught him that those 
stalks belonged not to the sower but to the owner of the field* ; and 
Pak applying the analogy to his own case compelled his father to 
restore him to his mother's kinsfolk. He founded the Dakauts. 

None of these variants quite agree with the account of the Dakauts 
given in the Karndl Gazetteer, 1890, which runs : — 

The Dakauts came from Agroha in the Dakhan. Raja Jasrat 
(Dasaratha), father of Ramcbandra, had excited the anger of Saturday 
by worshipping all the other grahas but him. Saturday accordingly 
rained fire on Jasrat's city of Ajudhia. Jasrat wished to propitiate him, 
but the Brahmans feared to take the offering for dread of the conse- 
quences; so Jasrat made from the dirt of his body one Daka Rishi who 
took the offerings, and was the ancestor of the Dakauts by a Sudra 
woman. The other Brahmans, however, disowned him ; so Jasrat 
consoled him by promising that all Brahmans should in future consult 
his children. The promise has been fulfilled. The Dakauts are pre- 
eminent as astrologers and soothsayers, and are consulted by every 
class on all subjects but the dates of weddings and the names of children, 
on which the Gaurs advise. They are the scapegoats of the Hindu 
religion ; and their fate is to receive all the unlucky offerings which no 
other Brahman will take, such as black things and dirty clothes. 
Especially they take the offerings of Wednesday, Saturday, and Ket. 
They are so unlucky that no Brahman will accept their offerings, and 
if they wish to make them, they have to give them to their own sister's 
sons. No Hindu of any caste will eat any sort of food at their hands, 
and at weddings they sit with the lower castes ; though of course they 
only eat food cooked by a Brahman. In old days they possessed the 
power of prophecy up to 10-30 a.m. ; but this has now failed them. 
They and the Gujrdtis are always at enmity, because, as they take 
many of the same offerings, their interests clash. 

In Kangra a confused variant of this legend makes Dak the astro- 
loger's sou by a Jtit girl, and Bhandli the daughter of a Rdjd,, whom 
Pak won in a swdyambara, answering all her questions by his art. 
Their son was Bojru. 

Another variant makes Garg give a miraculous fruit to the daughter 
of Gautama rishi. She eats it and vomits up a boy, who is in con- 
sequence called 40'k (vomiting). 

In the, Simla hills two legends regarding the origin of the Dakauts 
are current. According to the first the birth of Saturn,t decreased the 
Sun's lis;ht and power of illumination, so a Brahman propitiated the 
planet. Saturn was so pleased that he bade the Brahman ask a boon 
and agreed to become his pupil. He also proclaimed his intention of 
persecuting mankind unless placated by constant worship and devotion 

* The theory of paternity in Hindu Law is based upon a closely similar idea, 
t Hindu mythology avers that the Sun lost a sixteenth of his power on the birth of 
Saturn, bis eon. 

!rhe Bojrut. 


His evil influence was to last for 7i years, but ho assured the Brahman 
that he should be kept in comfort provided ho and his descendants 
worshipped the god. The JDakauts are his descendants. 

The other story is that the Brahman fell under Saturn's evil influ- 
ence. He was instructing a king's daughter, and in tlio room was a 
wooden peacock which swallowed its pearl necklace. The Brahman 
was suspected of its theft and kept in custody for 2i days when, 
Saturn's influence ceasing, the necklace was disgorged by the bird and 
his innocence proved. When he reproached the god Saturn coolly told 
him that he was lucky in getting off with 2^ days instead of the full 
term of 7 4 years of ill-luck. 

In the Kangra hills tho Dakaut is usually called Bojrd*. Bojru 
means thought-reader and in olden times the Bojrus practised black 
magic, not astrology, Now-a-days they practise palmistry. 

In Kangra the Bojru or Dakaut groups are said to be 36 in number ; 
of these the following are found in that District :— ^ 

In Pdlampur tahsil^ 

1. Subdchh. 3. Bachh. 

2. Par^sar. 4. Gol. 

5. Panus ? Tanus. 

6. Nao-iis. 

In Kiingra tahsil — 
Shakartari ... M&chh. got. I Mallian 
Bawalia ... '^{ig-is got. ' Bhuchal . . . Nagas gfoi. 

In Hamirpur tahsil— 

Shakartari. l Gaur. 

Lalian. / Gora. 

The Dakauts in Mianwd,]i are said to be Vasisht by gotra. 

In the Punjab the Bojrus are called Teli-rdjas, because they rub their 
bodies with oil, wear clothes soaked in oil and make a tikd of vermilion 
on their foreheads. They mostly beg from women, and carry about 
with them an image of Jawalamukhi who lives, they say, in Kdngra, 
and declares her acceptance of an offering by burning one half of it 
with her fiery tongue. Women are induced to give rings and clothes to 
the idol in return for dhup and sandhiir sanctified by tho goddess' touch. 
Small-pox is cured by applying the sandhtlr to the patient or burning 
the dhiqj before him. The Tcli-rdjas also tell fortunes by the samudrik. 

The Dakauts have 36 gats or sdscnis like the Gaurs including tho 
following ; — 


Uor, Gaur, from Gaur in 

Gosi, Ghosi. 




alia n. 




Paria, Peri a. 

Rawal \ Shankart£h. 
( Kesnwal. 


In Jind five gofs are found, viz., Raikp, (which stands highest of all), 
Pagoshia, Lalan, Paryd and Gorya. All these intermarry. 

* And the nanic (Jakaut is said to be derived from <lah, a small drum, which the Bojrus 
beat on Saturdays when begging ; but it is also said that Dak was the son of Garg rish{ hj 
4 KumhArni. They also beat a small drum over one's head to drive away evil. 

138 The Sdwanis. 

Of the 36 scisctns 30 are found in N^blia (where they are called 
Jotgis) and the other 6 form the sub-caste called the Purbia or Eastern 
Pakauts who are of inferior status * These two sub-castes eat and 
drink together, but do not intermarry. Betrothals are negotiated by 
Mirasis, not by N;us. In marriage 4 gots are avoided,t and karewa 
is allowed. None of the 5 pure Brahman groups certainly, or any 
other Brahman, it is said, will eat with the Dakaut or smoke with 
them : nor will Banid^s do so. 

These Dakauts take offerings {ddn) and alms {'pitn). They accept 
chhciyd da7is, as well as those made to Sanichar (Saturn), Ketu and 
Rahu. They also beg on Saturdays, receiving oil and coppers from 
Hindus. When begging they carry an iron image of Saturn. These 
dans are supposed to be karurl (hard, inauspicious) and to bring evil 
influences on the recipients, whence the proverb : 

Kdl Bdgar se upje, hurd Braliman se hoe. 

' Famine comes from the B^gar, and evil is done by the Brahman.* 

In Rohtak they live by palmistry and by begging, especially on a 
Saturday on which day they beg for oil,§ soap, coppers, a goat, 
he-buffah>, camel, horse, black grain, or other mean gifts. Some of 
them make a jD/ie7-i or 'tarn,' by going through a fixed number of 
lanes and repeating a fixed number of sentences at each door at a certain 
Ijour — usually early in the day. Besides gifts of oil made before bathing 
on a Saturday, Dakauts take gifts of iron, oil, salt, sweets, clothes, 
etc., weighed against persons who are under the influence of Saturn. 

The Pakauts observe all the Brahmanical ceremonies, and have 
Brahmans of their own. On the birth of a son they perform the 
ordinary Brahmanical rites, the ndm-karan, chaul karan, anna-'prdsna, 
chilra-haran, and upnayan karan. Their betrothal, wedding and 
general rites are also like those of other Brahmans. 

The Pakauts study astrology in the Bhadri Chhand and other Hindi 
chhandsj sometimes also from Sanskrit works. 

The Sawani or Sanwni Brahmans. 

Another term equivalent to Pakaut or Yedwa is Sawani, a Brahman 
who in Gurgaon interprets natural phenomena or the voices of birds 
and animals to forecast the future. The Sawanis appear to come from 

• Because it is said they eat flesh and drink liquor, which the Jotgis eschew. But the 
real reason would appear to be that they will accept certain offerings which a pure Brah- 
man would not take, such as those made to avert the influence of Rahu and Ketu. 
The Dakauta have also the Brahmanical gotms, Bhardwaj, Bashist, etc., (Nabha). 
t Only one sdsan is avoided according to the Nabha. account. 

X Dakauts, however, do not accept offerings made on the dead. These go to the Acharaj 
or Maha-Bralmian. 

§ In Ferozepore they beg for oil of rapeseed in small quantities almost as of right, 
singing : — 

Tel idmhe M mel, I " Oil and copper go together, he who 

Chhanichhar mandice, therewith worships Saturn will be for 

Sadd suhh pdive. ' ever happy.'' 

Well-to-do Hindus pour a little oil into a vessel, enough to reflect their face in, and give 
it to the Dakaut. This ensures them long life. 

Tha Ved'pdtrs, 139 

Lucknow, but the name is known as far west as Dora Ismd,il Khan and 

The Ved-i'atr Crahmans. 

It is not easy to say definitoly what the Ved-p.itr ia. Tho word 
itself would certainly appear to mean " vessel of tho Vedas," and tlioso 
of tho Ved-patr who study the Vedas and expound them to disciples 
are styled Ved-pathis.t Others, it is said, merely perform the mjnndi 
and pind-clihrdan harm on tho 12th day after a death, but these rites 
are usually pei formed by an Acharaj. 

In Gui^gaon the Ved-pdtrs accept alms at eclipses and are also 
known as Gujnttis, and this is the case in Sidlkct too, but in Amritsar 
the Ved-ptitr ranks below tho Gujrdtia and traces his descent from Ved 
Datt, the son of tho Gujrati fciahdoo by a Sudra woman. The Ved- 
pdtr is also called Vedwa, and the Dakauts are an inferior branch of tho 
Vedwas, being descendants of Dak who married Patli a Mlechh woman. 
The Vedwd-s take chhdyi-jxHrX and other forbidden gifts, such as cocks 
and goats ; but tho Dakaut is on an even lower plane for he accepts 
buffaloes, malo or female, horses, etc., while standing in water. 

In Bannu the Gujrati is said to be also known as Ved-patr, which 
again is equivalent to Dak, or in Kashmir and the hills to Bojru ; in 
Peshdwar and Kohat to Paiufit or Madho ; in Dera Ismdil Khdn to 
Siiwani ; and in Lahore, etc., to Dakaut. Dak, a Brahman, is said to 
have married Bhadli, a courtezan, and from them are descended tho 
Daks, whose gotra is Kaplash, their gots being — 

I Bakar. 
In Dera Ismail KMn ... -{ Vcdpiil. 

I Dagwa, 
In Bannu ...<! Tahir. 
I Patiwa,!. 

I Brahmi, etc. 

The Dakauts accept unlucky offerings, such as satana (7 kinds of 
grain mixed), oil, iron, goats, buffaloes and chhdyd-pdtr on Saturdays 
and eclipses. They also practise palmistry according to the Samndrah 
8hdstras, and swindle women, whom they frighten by means of charms 

• In Jlianwiili the Sawanfs are said to live by astrology and magic, divining evil 
influences by means of two iron pegs in a cup, in some obscure way, after the manner of the 
Jogis and Muhammadan Doriis. Jn Bahawalpur they are described as wandering out-castes, 
descended from a Brahman by a sweeper woman. Khatris, Aroras and other Brahmans will 
not associate with them and they accept black gifts at eclipses etc. 

t See Platts, p. 1208. Platts does not give Ved-patr, but both in Gurgaon and Rohtak pdtr 
is declared to mean " vessel." 

X The Vedwa takes alms on Saturdays, Sundays and Tuesdays, also when tho Bun passes 
into Rahu and Ketii, as well as to avert their influence at any other time. 

Offerings to Brahmans nro divided into bar or oraha, for the days of the week, and the 
two grahin for Rahii and Kefc, tho two demons who cause eclipses by attncking the sun 
and nionn. These two are parts of a demon ()-d/,s/(fj,s«), who, when sitting at dinner with 
the gods and demons drnnk of the nortnr of the god.i instead of the wine of tho demons. 
The snn and moon told of him, and Bhugwan cut him into two parts, of which Hahu, in- 
cluding the stomnch and therefore the nectar, is tho more worthy. When any body wishes 
to offer to Brahmnns from illness or other cniise, ho con!*ulta n Brahman who casta 
his horoscope and directs v^-hich offering of tho ^even r7)Y(/uis should bo made. The grahins 
are more commoidy offered during an eclipse, that to Rahii being given at tho bc^inninfj 
and that to Kot at the end of the transit. The Ganr BrahmatiH -will not take any black 
olTeritigs, such as a buffalo or goat, iron, FCsamo {til) or tinl, black blankets or cloihes, 
eatt, etc., nor oil, second hand clothes, green clothes; nor aatndja, which ia seven grains 
mixed, with a piece of iron in them; these Lelonping to the grahe whose rif[< rings are 
forbidden to them. An exceptioD, however, is made in favour of a black cow. 

140 The Dasaurias and Bids, 

written on paper in invisible ink. These practices are, however, said to 
be confined to Pakauts from Kdngra. 

The Dasaueia Beahmans. 

The Saurlas or Dasaurias* practise exorcism in the following way :— 
Four or more are called in and they apply fumes to the patient's 
nostrils, while lie sits on his feet, reciting meanwhile cha>rm8 like this: 
Le hulare mere hhalna, ae apii lalier sambhdl, " Jump up, my sturdy 
one, come in your ecstasy/' What with the heat and the strong scent 
the patient perspires freely, and this operation is repeated twice a day 
until his senses return. The exercisers get Rs. 5 or 10 as their fee. 
The patient is fed on almonds and churi.f The solemnity of the rite is 
sometimes enhanced by performing it on a burning ground.| 

A few Saurias are found in Rohtak where they work wonders with 
charms. They can thrust a sword through a man without hurting 
him, and bring sickness on an enemy. In Gurgaon§ by collecting a 
dead man's bones they magically obtain full control over his ghost, and 
to defeat them one of the bones should always be hidden. In Siiilkot 
they are exercisers, but also haunt burning-grounds. 

The Gdjeati oe Bias Beahmans. 

The Gujrd,ti is a territorial group, which immigrated from Guzerat. 
Gujrdti Brahmans also bear the following professional titles : — 

1. Bias, meaning updeshak or preacher. G. Tarwari, or one who has performed a 

a! Joshi, for Jotashi, astrologer. karma land of ten sanshdrs, directed 

3'. Pandaji.^Pawflifa. others to perform them and himself 

4.' Mahta or chief.' acted as a priest at those rites. 

5! Rawal or itinerant sdd/nJ. 11 7. Janji, or family priest, who used to act 

as a go-between at betrothals, as the 
Nais now do. 

The Gujr^ti Brahmans also have 4 main groups which rank in the 

following order : — 

f T f 1- Vadanagar.^ 3. Andich or Pahari. 

Sub-caste 1. ^ g^ jjagar or Visalnagars.** 4, Bararia or Srim^li. 

Of these groups the Yadandgar are the i^^i (family priests) of the 
N^gars, whose daughters they take in marriage and with whom they 
eat both Jcachchi find iiakhi. The Nagars, however, cannot take 
Vadanao-ar girls in marriage. Both these first two groups avoid ajiy 
intercourse with the two last. The B^rarias are the Bias of the 
nichi-sharan or lower grade ; because B^rar married a girl of his own 

The relations of the Gujrati to other Brahmans are curiously 
contradictory at first sight, but perfectly logical in reality. Owing to 
their strictness in religious observances, and their purity in food and 

* The practices here ascribed to the Saurias are also said to be characteristic of a Sarsut 
Bub-caste, called Channan. 
+ Wheaten bread kneaded with ghi. 

± But in Mianwali a group of the Sarsuts called Channan performs tins. 
§ The form in Gurgaon is Sevra and in Amritsar apparently Sarorei. 
jl These occupations are not now followed, necessarily, by those who bear these titles. 
% The Vadanagar are said to tale thtir name frcm "\ adanfigii, a town east of Pattan. 
*♦ From Yisal to-wo, but see the text. 

The Husainis. 141 

drees they rank as the highest* of all the Brahman groups, and confer 
the ashirbdd or benediction on tlio Gaur and the tSarsut. In spite 
of this they are all looked down upon for taking the chhaydf (shadow), 
grahant (eclipse) and tula ddn^ (offerings) : that is to say, they are 
despised for taking upon themselves the sins of tho community. 

In marriage two gotras are usually avoided, but sometimes only one 
is excluded. Exchange marriages are very common. At a wedding 
the bridegroom wears a silird or chaplet only, and not a crown [niaur). 
The pair are dressed like Shiva and Pjirbati in silk.]] 

At weddings the Ndgars worship Shiva the destroyer, and at 
funerals Vishnu the nourisher, a curiously perverse reversal of the 
ordinary rule. Shiva is their isht-dewa. They observe the ten harms 
of Shiva, and are guided by the Parvami-mdnsd or Jaimni-sutra. 

The Gu jrdti gotras are : — 

Gargas. I Itri. I Parisar. 

Gaiitam. | Kashiva. i Sangras. 

The Gujr^ti are said to have no gots. 

The flosAiNi Brahmans. 

The Husaini Brahmans are Hindus, wear the janeo and mark the 
tilak on their foreheads, but they beg from Muhammadans and not 
from Hindus, and narrate the story of Hazrat Imam Hnsait*, whence 
they are called Eusaini. They say they were originally Blidt Brahmans, 
and have some of their gots: — Gappe, Bhakar, Lande, Gi'ire, Dargopal, 
Kati, Chat Chut, Rabat, Bh^iradwaji, Dangmar, and many more. They 
marry in their own caste, avoiding 4 gots in marriage. They cannot 

* They do not eat kachchi or pahki cooked by Gaur or Sarsut Brahmans : nor any Hindu 
caste ; but they may take sweet stuff cooked in milk by people of such pure Hindu castes 
as the Gaur and Sarsut Brahmans, and the Banias. The Gujrati or Biaa Brahmana, who 
came from Guzerat are in some respects the highest class of all Brahmans; they are 
always fed first; and they bless a Gaur when they meet him, while they will not eat 
ordinary bread from his hands. They are fed on the 12th day after death, and the Gaurs 
will not eat on the 13th day, if this has not been done. But they take inauspicious 
offerings. To them appertain especially the Rahu offerings made at an eclipse. They will 
not take oil sesame, goats, or green or dirty clothps ; but will take old clothes if washed, 
buffaloes, and sahmja. They also take a special offering to Hahu made by a sick person, 
who puts gold in ghi, looks at his face in it, and gives it to a Gnirati, or who weighs himself 
against satnoja and makes an offering of the grain. A which has been possessed 
by a devil to that degree that he has got on to the top of a house (often r.o difficult feat 
in a village), or a foal dropped in the month of Sawan or buffalo calf in Magh are giv^n 
to the Gujratifls being unlucky. No Gaur would take them. Every harvest the Gnjrati 
takes a small allowanco (seorhi) of grain from the threshing floor, just as does the Gaur, 

tThe chhdyd-ddn is SO called because in sickness the giver looks at his reflection in some 
ghi poured into a bronze cup (,1-atort). If he is unable to see his face in the ghi he will die. 
The din itself comprises the cup, with the fanj-ratan. 

Other dans are ; the Rah^i and Ketii ddn», which consist of black cloth, flowers, etc., like 
the Sanichar ddn they are offered to Rahu, Ketii and Sanichar in sickness, or at weddings. 
The mdhd-ddn or " great gift," consisting of land or elephants, and made at death. The rog- 
Ihnrvi-hidhi ddn of black cloth is made to avert disease (»-oy). 

X The grahn-ddn comprises gold, silver placed in a cocoanut, and ornaments. It must be 
given by the offerer standing in the water of the tank at Thanesar. Grain, clothes or 
cows may be given at home. 

§ The hdd-ddn is an offering equal to one's weight in grain or coin. It is made by 
wealthy people on their birthday. 

II Other Hindus are, it is said, dressed like Krishna and Radha. The xihra is a bridal 
chaplet, the main- or inula f is a paper crown, worn by tho bridegroom. Krishna a.^ a 
wearer of the latter is called Muktdharf. Shiva or Mahadeva had no maur, even at his 
wedding, whereas Krishna always wears the mulint. This is interesting, but it leaves th^ 
use of tho crown at weddings unexplained. 

142 The Religion of the Brahnans, 

marry witli Bhdt Brahmans, but take water from their hands and vice 
versa. They are ignorant of their own religion and do not worship in 
viandarfi, but their janeos are made by Brahmans ; and auspicious times 
for weddings, etc., arc fixed by them. They have the same customs aa 
other Hindus, and believe in their pantheon. Their own tradition is 
that Yazid's troops en their return, after cutting off Imd,m Husain's 
head, stopped in Rd-hab, their ancestor's l)ome at Bdthowdl in the 
Sialkot District, and placed the head in his house. In the morning, 
finding the head to be that of the Prophet, he kept it, and gave the 
soldiers his own son's head instead, but they discovered that it was 
not the same as the one they h^d brout?ht. So Bahab cut off all his 
seven sons' lieads in succession and gave them to the soldiers. Since 
then Husaiiiis beg from Muhammadans. 

The religion of the Beahmans. ' 

The Brahman, even the Hiisaini, is almost always a Hindu, but a 
few have become Sikhs. Conversion, however, does not appear to 
have created any new divisions in the caste, though it has liad a 
disruptive influence in the following case : — The Patak section of 
the S.irsut Brahmans has two sub -divisions, Machhi-khdn^i and 
Khir-khilt .4. The former are farohits of the third Guru of the Sikhs 
(Guru Araar Das), who was a Baishnav (abstainer from meat and 
drink). The second Guru (Angadl used to eat meat and fish. In 
order to follow the second Guru's habit and yet maintain his Baishnav- 
ship, the third Guru gave a fish at the hhnddan (head-shaving^ 
ceremony of his son to his ^)ar^//l^7, and so liis descendants are called 
Machhi-kh;ui:ls (fish-eaters) to this day. And the descendants of the 
third Guru at a son's hhaddan at their temple at Gondwdl in Amritsar 
give a fish, made of gram -flour and boiled in oil, to their jparohit (a 
de.scendant of the original Machhi-khan^) instead of a live one. The 
ceremony, however, no longer called hhaddan — since shaving the head 
is prohibited among the Sikhs — and in its stead, the custom is to make 
the boy wear his hair long like a Sikh's, whereas before that the boys' 
. hair was cut and plaited like a girl's. 

Beahm-chaei,* a religmus student ; a Brahman from the time of his investi- 
ture with the Brahmanical thread until he becomes a house-holder; 
one who studies the Vedas under a spiritual teacher; an ascetic, a 
class of Hindu Stldhus. 

Beok-pa, 'highlander,' a terra applied to the Shin element in Baltistan : 
Biddulph, Tribes of the Hinioo Koosh, Ch. IV. 

BuBAK, a J^t clan (agricultural) found in Multan and in Bahdwalpur. 

BucH, a Jat or Rdjput clan found in Multan tahsil, where they were settled 

by Shdhzada Murad Bakhsh, governor of Multan, under Shdh Jah^n. 
Bddh, a Baloch clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 
BuDHEKE, a Kharral clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 
Bddhwal, a clan (agricultural) found in Shahpur. 

BuDLi, Budni, the people, now extinct or absorbed, which held the country 
from Kangrahar to the Indus prior to the Afghan immigration b. They 
were divided into several tribes and are described by the Akhiind 
Darweza as Kafirs, but he does not refer to them as Buddhists. 

* Barmh or Baralm, is ccimptcd frcm the SfEtirit wcid Em] 11. a. 

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Bughti — Bunirg. 143 

BuGHTf, BuGTr, also called Zarkanni, an organized Balocr tnman wliicli occu- 
pies the angle between the frontiers of the Punjab and Upper Sindh. 
Its clans are the Raheja, No//;iini,* Masoi-i, Kalphur, Phong or Mondrilni 
and kShambiini or Kiazai. The last, which is an almost independent 
section, separates the main tribe from our border; while the Marri lie 
still further west. The Bugti are made up of various elements, chiefly 
Rind, but claim descent from Gyiindar, son of Mir Chakur, whose 
son Ralieja gave his name to one of its septs, though the name has an 
Indian sound. The Noi/uini clan has supernatural powers (see p. 46, 
sujpra) and the Shambani form a ^\\h-tuman, which is sometimes con- 
sidered distinct from tbe Bneti. This tuman has its head-quarters at 
SyAhttf, formerly Marrao or Dera Bibrak (fr. hlvaragli, a cliief), also 
called Bugti Uera. 

BuHAR, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar : also in the Bahdwalpur, 
Bikdner and Jaisalmer States, and in Sindh, as well as scattered over 
Multan and Muzatfargarh. They are labourers, tenants and camel- 
breeders in the South-West Punjab and intermarry with the Dahas, 
Palyjirs and Parhars, all branches of the Punwar stock. 

Bdk, a Mahtam clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

BuKHAEi, a Sayyid clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar : see Sayyid. 

BdkneeAj a Kharral clan (agricultural) fouud in Montgomery. 

BuLEcZ/ti (Buledi, Bule^/uVBurdi), an organized Baloch tuman in Dera Glu'izi 
Khdn, also found near the Indus in Upper Sindh, in the tract called 
Burdika, and iu the Kachhi territory of Kalat. 

Buna, Buniya: see Chamar. 

BuEA, a small J^t clan, found in Jind. The samddh of its jathera is at 
Kallu Kotli in Patiala, and it is worshipped at weddings. 

BuijiANA, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Sh^hpnr. 

BuJKARAs. — The Buraras, originally named Hojali, are claimed by some 
as a Samma sept, but otluTS say they are a separate tribe. Their 
tradition is that they are de-'cended from a litija of Girnar near 
Jundgadh, who migrated to Sindh and was converted to Islam. The 
saint who converted him gave him a btii- (Ar. for " cloak,^') whence 
their name. They have three .«^epts : — 

[i) Bhojri or Bhojri-pat)as, four.d in Bnliawalpnr and Bikaner, and 
the highest in status, (ti) Sathia, and (in) Jokhia. 

BuBisn : see Yashkun. 

BuEEA, a Jat tribe, found in Dera Ghazi Khdn and Balidwalpur. The title 
of J^im is prefixed to their names and it is probably of Sindhi origin. 

BuTA, a Jat tribe, apparently confined to Hoshiarpur. Possibly the same as 
the Bhutta of the Western Plains or the Buttar of the Sikh tract. 

Bdtaba, fr. hut, a stcne. A caste of stone-cutters, found in the Kilngra hills, 
who used to be emp'oyed on the forts and temples of that tract. Barnes 
described them as idle and dissijiatcd. 

BufTAK, a small Jat tribe found chiefly on the Upper Sutlej said to be 
descended from a Silrajbansi Kajpnt who C:ime from the Lakki jungle 
and settled first in Gujranwala. Also found as a Hindu Jilt clan (agri- 
cultural) in Montgomery. 

BuzDEG, a title meaning ' saint,' acquired for instance by the Akhund of 
Swdt in addition to that of Akhund. 

• With two clans Zemakani or Durragh aud Pherozaoi. 


NoTK. — Owing to the confusion between Ch and Chh— which is not confined to writinpa 
in English— and that between J and Ch, which is frequent in Urdu writing, the articlea 
under this letter are not all warranted to be correctly placed. 

Chabeldas(I), -panthi ; a potty sect, founded by an Arora disciple of Shdmii, 
named Cliabeldiis, whose slirine is at Makhowal Kalan in tlie Sanghar 
talisil of Dera GMzi Khan. Its tenets differ little from those of 
Shamji's followers. 8ee Shamdclsi. 

Chachar, an agricultural clan, found in Shahpur and Multdn, classed as Ja( 
in the latter District. In Bahawalpur the Chdchars claim Mughal 
origin and they produce tables tracing their descent from Timur whom 
they connect with Abbds, cousin of Husain, son of Ali. But tradition 
says that the Surar, Subhago, Silro and Chitchat' tribes were once slave3 
of Riija Bungit, Rdi, raja of Amrkot, and that Jam Jhakhar redeemed 
them, and there is a saying : 

Surar, Snhlidgo, iS'dro, cliauthi Cliacharld, 
Anda lid Jam JJiaJchare hd hdhndn Bunga Ra. 

" Surar, S'jbhago (or Subh^a), Silro (or Silrii), (these three) and a 
fourth tribe, the Chachar Avere the slaves of Bung<i Rai ; it was J^m 
Jhakhar who brought thorn," (effecting their emancipation from Bimg^ 

The Clid,chars have several septs : — Raj-dc, the highest in status ; 
Rahmjtni, whose ancestors were Tchal/fas of Ghaus Bah^-ud-Din Zakariya : 
hence they are also called Shaikh- R ah mani, and some sanctity still 
attaches to the sept ; Narang, Jugana, Jhunjha, Chhutta, Gureja, 
Rukana, Kalra, Mudda, Diiwdni, Dohija, Gabr:tni, Muria, Kharyani 
and Zakrid,ni or followers of Ghaus Bahd,-ud-Din Zakariya. 

The whole tribe, however, are followers of that saint and never 
become disciples of any but his descendants. Chachar is also an Ardin 
clan in the Punjab. Cf. Chachhar. 

Chachhar, an Ard,in clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Chadana, a Kamboh clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Chadbha, (?) a sept of Khatris and of Jdts. 

Chaddrar, the correct form of Chhddhar {q. v.). 

Chaddu, a J^t clan (agricultural) found in Shdhpur. 

Chadhar, an agricultural clan found in Shahpur, Multan and Montgomery 
(Muhammadan) . It is classed as Jdt in the two latter districts. Doubt- 
less the same as the Chhadhar [q. v.) . 

CeApwf, an Ardin clan (agricultural) found in AmritspT. 

Ciiahak, a doubtful synonym of Chahng. 

Chahang, see Chdhng. 

Chahar, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsai , 

H6 Chdhil^Chdhi. 

Chahal, or more correctly Chuhil.— One of the largest Jdt tribes in tlie 
Punjab. They arc found in greatest numbers in Patittla, but are very 
numerous in Ambala and LudhiYma, ximritsar, and Gurdiispur, and extend 
all along under the hills as far west as Gujr^mwala and Si^dkot. It is 
SHid that Pi^ja Agarsen Surajbansi had four sons, Ch^diil, Chhina, Chima, 
and Sahi, and that the four Jdt tj-ibes who bear these names are 
sprung from them : (yet they intermarry). Their original home was 
Malwa, whence they migrated to the Punjclb. According to another story 
their ancestor was a Tunwar R^ijput called R^jd lUkh, who came from 
the Deccan and settled at Kahlur. His son Birsi married a Jdt woman, 
settled at Matti in the Malwa about the time of Akbar, and founded 
the tribe. 

In Amritsar the Chahil say that Cbdhal was a son of EAj6, Khang, 
who once saw some fairies bathing in a tank. He seized their clothes 
and only restored them on condition that one of theni became his 
bride. One Jchhr^n was given him, on condition that he never abused 
her, and she bore him a son, but one day he spoke harshly to her and she 
disappeared.* But to this day no Chahil ever abuses his daughter ! Settled 
first at Kot Gadana near Delhi, the Chahil migrated to Pakhi ChahiMn 
near Ambdla and there founded Eala Joga or Jogarla in the Md,lwa. 

The Chi'ihil affect Jogi Pir, originally Joga, son of Eajpfll, who is said 
to have been killed, after fighting with the Mughals even when he had 
been decapitated. Jogi Pir is their clihara {?jathera), and a fair is held 
in his honour on the 4th nauratrn in Asauj. ]n Jind the Chdhil 
claim descent from Bala, a Chauhan Rtliput who took a J^t wife, and 
so lost caste, but he acquired influence i3y accepting offerings made to 
Guga, and Chahils, vdiatsoever their caste, still take these offerings.! 
In Jind the Chahil worship Khera Bhumia. 

They are probably, says Mr. Pagan, B^gris, originally settled in 

Chahal, a Hindu and Muhammadan Jdt clan (agricultural) found in 

Chaong, Cqang, a minor agricultural caste, found in the western portion of 
the lower ranges of Kangra and Hoshiarpur. In the Dasuya tahsil of 
the latter district they own some \"illagGS, but are generally tenants. 
The term appears to be a purely local synonym of Bdhti or Ghirth. 
The Chang is quiet and inoffensive, diligent and a good cultivator, like 
the Saini of the plains. 

Chaik, a sept of Brahmans, hereditary priests of Keonthal. 
Chaina, a small tribe, cla'^sed as Jilt, in Dera Ghazi Khd,n. 

Cbak, (1) a Kamboh clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar, (2) a sept of Jdts 
to which Rdniha is sometimes said to have belonged. J 

Chaki, Chakani, the Multani equivalent for Teli or oilman. 

V ■ . 

* Through an opening in the roof— and so the Chahil do not make openings in their roofs 
to this day. They also avoid Avearing red clothes ; and, till recently, at any rate, did not 
use baked bricks in their honses— a relic of the time when they were ncmads, probably. 

t In Jind tahsil it is indeed said that the pvjdris of Giiga are generally called chahil : in 
Sangrur they are known as hhagats:. In Patiala Chahil is said to have been born of a hill 
fairy : and Baland Jogi Pir ia worshipped as their /af/iem. 

J Panjibi Dicty., p. 179. 

^.1*/^*, ^ /^4 ^^ . ' £ - 1^ ■^. ^ 

Chakarhe-^Cha'mdr. ^47 

Chakabke, a Kliarral clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Chakora, a Jut clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Chakealawi, fr. Chakrd,la a village in Mianw^ili : a new sect, which 
rejects more than half the Qimin, founded by one Ghuhim Nabi of 
Chakrtila, whose followers call themselves Ahl-i-Quran, i.e., believers 
in the Qur^in only. It rejects all the other traditions of the Propliet. 
Its founder has now changed his name to Abdulhth as he objected 
to being called ghuldm (servant) of the Prophet. He believes that the 
Quran is the only book wliich lays dovv'n what is required of a true 
Muslim and that the other subsidiary books and sayings of Muhammad 
are of no account. Ho has accordingly devised a new form of prayer 
which is distinct from that prescribed by the Prophet. 

His followers are numerous in the Shdhbaz Khel and Yarn Khel 
villages of the Mianwali tahsil, as well as in Dera Ismail Kht'm and 
Lahore. A monthly journal called the Ishaat-ul-Qurdn used to be 
published by Shaikh Chitfcu, a leading adherent of the sect in Lahore. 
As the sect did not thrive at Lahore its founder has now settled in 
Dera Ismail Khan. 

Chamal, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Chamain, a tribe of Gujars, claiming descent from a Tunwar Rtijput by a 
Gujar mother. They came from Delhi and are very old inh^bifants of 
the Karnul District, having possibly been expelled from Delhi by Sher 
Shdh. Chamain is probably only a local appellation. 

Chamab, Chamidr, fern. Chamd,ri, -iarf. 

The Chamd,r is the tanner and leather-worker of North-Western In- 
dia,* and in the western parts of the Punjttb he is called Mochi whenever 
he is, as he grenerally is, a Musalman, the caste being one and tiie same. 
The name Chamar is derived from the Sanskrit charmal-'h-a or "worker 
in hides.^' But in the east of the Punjab he is far more than a leather- 
worker. He is the general coolie and field labourer of the villages; and 
a Chamar, if asked his caste by an Englishman at any rnte, will 
answer " Coolie " as often as " ChaTodr."t They do all the hegor, ov 
such work as cutting grass, carrying wood and bundles, acting as watch- 
men, and the like ; and they plaster tlie houses with mud when they 
need it. They take the hides of all dead cattle and the flesh of all cloA'en- 
footed animals, that of such as do not divide the hoof going to Chuhrds. 
They make and mend shoes, thongs for the cart, and whips and otlier 
leather work; and above all they do an ifmnense deal of hard work in 
the fields, each family supplying each cultivating association with tho 
continuous labour of a certain number of hands. All this they do as 
village menials, receiving fixed customary dues in tho shape of a share 
of the produce of the fields. In the east and south-east of the Punjab 
the village Charaars also do a great deal of weaving, which however is 
paid for separately. The Chamars stand far above the Chiihras in social 

* Sherring has a long disquisition on the ChaniAr caste, which appears to be much nior« 
extensive and to include much more varicl tribes in Ilinduct.'m thin in the Punjab. 

f Why is a Chamar always addressed with " Oh Cbatnar ke " instead of " Oh Chaioir," 
as any other caste -would be ? 

148 Chamdr synonyms. 

position, and some of tlieir tiibes are almost accepted as Hindus.* They 
are generally dark in colour, and arc almost certainly o£ aboriginal 
origin, though hero again their numbers have perhaps been swollen by 
members of other and higher castes who have fallen or been degraded. 
Tlie people say : 

Karid Brahman, got Chamdr 
In ke sdth na utrie par. 
" Do not cross the ferry with a black Brahman or a fair Cham^r/^ 
one beino- as unusual as the other. Their women are celebrated for 
beauty, and loss of caste is often attributed to too great partiality for 
a Chamari. 

The traditional origin of the Chamars is that Chanu (or Cbanwe) and 
Banu were two brothers : the former removed a cow's carcase with hia 
own hands and so Banuf out-casted him.t In Kapurthala, however, 
another version is current, and according to this Gat told his brother 
Met to remove a carcase and then declined to associate with him for 
doing so, and the Mirasi who witnessed the incident, took Gat's part. 
Frotu Mat are descended the Chamars. 

Synonyms. — It is difficult to say what are the real synonyms of Chamdr. 
The term Chuhra-Chama,r is often used to denote the group formed by 
the two castes, just as Mochi-Julahd, is used, but it does not imply that 
the two castes are identical. Just as the Muhammadan Chamar is 
styled MocHi so the Sikh Chamar is called Ramdasia {qq. v.). In Sirsa 
a Chamar is called Meghwdl as a compliment, but opprobionsly he is 
styled Dhecl§ or Dherh, a term applied to any 'low fellow \ The 
* Meghwd.1' claim descent from Megh-rikh who was created by Narain. 

Groups. — The Chamars are divided into several sub-caste?. In the 
Eastern Punjab there appear to be at least five true sub-castes which 
do not intermarry. These are in order of precedence : — ■ 

i. Chdndor, said in Delhi to trace its origin from Benares, possibly 
from some association with Kabir. It is the principal sub- 
caste in Hissdr, including Sirsa, and its members do not tan, 
leaving that to the Chamrangs and Khatiks, and working only 
in prepared leather. See also under Meghwdl. 

ii. Raiddsi or Rabdasi, named after Rai Dd,s Bhagat, himself a 
Chamdr, a contemporary of Kabir, and like him a disciple of 
Ramdnand. It is the prevalent sub-caste in Karnal and its 

iii. Jatia, found in greatest numbers about the neighbourhood of 
Delhi and Gurgaon. They work in horse and camel hides, 
which are an abomination to the Chandar, probably as having 
the foot uncloven; and are perhaps named from the word jat 

* The Chamars will eat food prepared by any tribe excppt the Khakrob (Clbiihra), Kanjar, 
Sansi and Nat, Smokino; is only aU'wed anions tbemseWes and they will not eat or 
drink from a Dhobi, a Bum or a Ni'ljiar (indigo dyer). [KMrnalJ. 

t Banu or Banwe here would appear to be the eponym of the Bania caste, which is snid 
to still worship an dr and a ramhi at weddings. 

J A Diim witn-^ssed the occurrence, and so to this day m> Cbamar will eat or drink 
from a Dum or Miraf'i's hands, 

§ The Dhel appears to be a separate caste in the rentral Provinces, though closely allied 
mth the CharaAr. The Dhed is also a large tribe in Kachh and Sindh, also called Bhambi. 

The Chamdr suh-castes. 149 

a camel-grazier. On tlio other hand, they aro said to obtain 
the services of Gaur Brahmans, which woukl put them abovo 
all other Charaars, who have to bo content with the minisatrtions 
of the outcast Chamarwa Brahman. 

iv. Chambar, the prevalent sub-caste further west about Jullundur 
and Ludhiana. 

V. Golia^ lowest of all the sub-castes, indeed Golia is the name of 
a section of many menial castes in the Eastern Punjdb, and 
in almost all cases carries with it an inferior standino- in the 

Further west, in Ndbha, the sub-castes are, however, said to be four 
in number, viz. ;— 

1. Buna (Buuia). 

2. Chamdr. 

3. Chamarwa, ) i. i. i i .i • 

4. Chanbar(64) } who touch unclean thmgg. 

The Buna appears in Ludhiana as the Bunia, a Sikh Chamar, who 
having taken to weaving ranks higher than tlie workers in leather. 1'he 
Bahtia* is also said to be a Sikh Chamar who has taken to weaving, 
but many Rahtias are Muhammadans. 

Territorially the Chamnrs in Patiala are divided into two groups wh ich 
do not intermarry and thus form sub-castes. These are the Bagvi, or 
immigrants from the Bagar, found in the south-east of the State, 
and the Desi. 

Among the Desi iu Patiala two occupational gi'oups are found, nz., 
the Chamdrs who make shoes, and the Bonas, the latter sub-caste 
being weavers of blankets by occupation and Sikhs by religion. 

The Jind account divides the Chamdrs into 5 sub-castes, viz., Rdm- 
ddsi, Jatia, Chdmar [sic), Pdthi and Raigar, but it is not clear whether 
these are occupational or territorial or sectarian groups. The Nabha 
account says they are divided into 4 groups, viz., Chanwar, Jatid., 
Bahmnia (?) and Ciamar [sic). The Chdnwar are again divided into 
two sub-castes (?), Chanwar proper, who are Sultdni.s by reho-ion and 
workers in leather; and the Bonas (or blanket-weavers) who are Sikhs 
of Guru Govind Singh. The Bonas are not found in the south-east. 
The Jatias (descendants of Jntti, wife of Ramdds) are found only in 
the south-east and are regarded as inferiors by the Chanwars, who do 
not drir)k or smoke with them. A curious story is told of the orio-in 
of the Jatids, connecting the name with jhant (pubes). No Chanwar 
Chamar would give the Julias' forefather a girl to wife, so he married 
a Chuhra's daughter, but the jJicratf were nor, completed when a dispute 
arose, so the Chuhras and Jatias pei formed half the phc ran outside and 
the rest inside i he liouse until recently, ihe Jatia tan horse and camel 
hide, while the Chnnwars of Baw •! only tan the skins of kine which 
the Jatias rel'uss to touch. 

* In Sirsa the word seems to be applieri to the members of any low caste, such as Chamar 
or Chuhra. Mr. Wilson, however, had never heard the word used. Iu Patiala it is said to 
be applied t) a Sikh Chamar. 

150 Chamdr afots. 


The Calimnia al^^o claim descent from a wife of RiCmdas, and wear the 
janeo and thus assert their superiority over other Chamd,rs, but they 
are not found in Niibha. 

The BiUi is apparently the village messenger of the Delhi division. 
He is at least as often a Chuhra as a Chamdr, and ought perhaps to be 
classed with the former. But there is a Chanid,r clan of that name who 
work chiefly as grooms. 

The Dusddh is a Purbi tribe of Chamdrs, and has apparently come 
into the Punjab with the troops, being returned only in Delhi, Lahore, 
and Anibdla, 

Of the above groups it is clear that some are true sub-castes based 
on occupation, while others like the Buna are merely occupational 
groups which may or may not intermarry with other groups. This differ- 
entiation of the groups by occupation is most fully developed in the 
eastern and sub-montane tracts, where the Chamars form an exceedingly 
large proportion of the population and are the field-labourers of the 
villages. But in the central districts their place in this respect is 
taken by the Chuhra. In the west, too, the leather-worker, like all 
other occupational castes, is much less numerous than in the east. 
The weaver class, on the other hand, is naturally least numerous in 
the eastern Districts, where much of the weaving is done by the leather- 
working castes. And, when the Chamar sticks to leather-working in 
the eastern Districts, he is apparently dubbed Chamrang or Dabgar, 
just as in the Punjdb proper a Chamdr who has adopted Islam, and 
given up working in cow-hide becomes a Mussalman Khatik tanner. 

The gots or sections of the Chamars are very numerous, and some 
of them are large. They include the Chauhdn and Bhatti gots^ 
(numerous in the (;entral and eastern Districts, especially Ambdla) and 




Of these eleven gots all but the Kathana are found in the Jullundur 

The Chamars are by religion Hindus or S]khs. 

Owing to the fact that the famous bhagat Rdmdas was a Chamar 
by caste, many Chamars are Ramdasiast by sect, and of this sect again 
some are also Sikhs. 

Rdmdas was a descendant of Chanu. His mother, Kalsia, was child- 
less, but one day a/a^fr came to her and she gave him flour, in return 
for which he promised her a son. On his return his guru cross-ques- 
tioned him, as he was unable to pronounce the name ' I'armeshwar,' and 
learning of his promise declared that, as no aon had been bestowed on 
Kalsia in her destiny, the faqir himself must be born to her. So he 

* The two most numerous gots among the Mochis also, I'hey may of course have adopted 
these got names from the Rajputs, as Bains and Sindhu may have been b r rowed from 
the Jats. 

f The Ramdasia also claim descent from Ramdas. The Ramdasia (Sikhs) take the 
pahul from Chamars and drink ainrit at their hands. Ihe Mazhabi take them from the 
sweepers' hands. (Kapurthala). 


/ Ghameri. 







C U^o 

Chamarwa-^Chandl 151 

was reborn as R^rndda, who is called Raidas in Biiwal. As his mother 
was a Chamd,ri he refused her breasts, until his gurii bade him suck. 
One day when placed by his mother at a spot where Iliima Nand used 
to pass, he was touched by that taachcr's sandals, and when he cried 
out was told by him to be silent and repeat ' Ram Kdm.' Thus wa3 
supernatural power bestowed upon him. 

Contrary to the Ciiamars' customs Ramdas wore a janeo, sounded a 
conch, and worshipped idols. The Erahmans appealed to the magis- 
trate, whereupon Rarndds cast the idols into a tank, but they returned 
to him, whereas the Brahmans failed in a similar test. Again, cutting 
his neck open Ramdas exhibited 4 jdneos, of gold, silver, copper and 
thread, typical of the 4 yugas. Thenceforth he was known as a 
famous hhagat.* 

Cham^r women wear no nose-ring, but among the Bunas it is wora 
by married women, not by widows. The Chdrimars of Bdwal do not 
wear gold nose-rings, and all the Chamiirs of that locality avoid 
clothes dyed in safEron, and the use of gold. They also use beestings 
only after offering it to the gods on the amdicas. 

Chamakwa Brahman, the Brahman of the Cham<irs : see Brahman. Also 
a sub-caste of the Chamdrs in Nilbha {see Cham^r). 

Chambial, a Rajput sept (Hindu) of the first grade — deriving its name 
from Chamba State : cf. Maudidl, Jaswd,l, Patbania, etc. 

Chambr, a J^t clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Chamang, the caste or class which in Kand^war works in leather, correppond- 
ing to the Chamar of the plains. 

Chamkanni, or Pdra Chamkanui, a small tribe of Ghoeia Kiiel Pathans, 
found in Kurram. 

Chamrang, (a synonym of Chanuir, chiefly returned from Patidla and 
Si^lkot), the term chamrang is probably a purely occupational term. 
The chamrang does not stain or dye leather, but only tans it: fr. 
rangnd (which as apphed to leather means to Man '). The chamrang 
moreover only tans ox and buffalo hides, and does not work in the 
leather which he tans. By caste he is probably always a Chamar. 
■ In Delhi the term appears to be practically a synonym for Khatik 
( q. V. ), but the Khatik is, strictly speaking, a carrier, not a tanner, and 
a Mnhammadan, while the chamrang is a Hindu. In Gujrat also 
the chamrang is identical with the Khatilc. 

Cham YE, an Ardin clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Chanal, or probably Channdl, from Clulndala, whom all Sanskrit authorities 
represent as begotten by a Sudrd. on a Brahman. His occupation is 
carrying out corpses, executing criminals, and other abject offices 
for the public service.t The menial class of Ktingra and Mandi, 
corresponding to the Dagi in Kullu and the Koli in the Simla Hills, 

* In Jind the llamd^sias aio the dominant group and form a sub-c-iste, which lias 9gots:— 

t Colebrooke, Essays, 274. 

Mdhi.^ I Siddhu. 

Sanyar, Linh-mar. 

Laria. Lokra. 

152 Chanaii'-'Chandyi, 

the Cliandls in Kingm appear to be inferior to the Kolis of that Dis- 
trict, and some of them at least will not touch dead cattle, or mix on 
equal terms wifch those who do. On the other hand, in Kullu Sard,] 
some of the Chanals rank below Kolis. Ddgi-Chanal is a very common 
term for the caste : and in Kullu it appears to include the Nar. Yet 
a Chandl of Mandi State will not intermarry with a Ddgi of Kullu. 
The Ch»n.41 is also found in Chamba, where the proverb goes : Channl 
jetha, Rdthi kaneiha, ' 'Yhe low cai>te is the elder and the Rdthi the 
younger brother,' doubtless pointing to a tradition that the Chanal 
represents an earlier or aboriginal race. See the articles on Ddgi and 
Chanan, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Chananyi, a Kamboh clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Chanbal, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

ChandaLj-ni, an outcast, one of lowcaste. Punjabi Dicty., p. 187. See 

Chandar, a Muhammadan Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery 

and Sidlkot. Cf. Chandarh. 
Chandarh, a Jat sept, found west of the Rdvi : Punjabi Dicty., p. 187. 

Doubtless ='Chddhar or Chhadhar, {q. v.) 

Chandaesevi, syn. Parbhu Kdyasth : one of the two classes of Kdyasthas 
(g, 2,,) — found in the Deccan. 

Chandbar, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Chandel. One of the 36 royal (Rdjput) races, and fully described in Elliott's 
Baces of the N.-W. Provinces. It is not impossible that they are the 
same stock as the Chanddl, outcasts where subjects, Rdjputs where 
dominant. They are returned chiefly from the Simla Hill State of 
Bildspur. Ed-iput tradition in Karndl avers that the Chandel once held 
Kaithal and Sdmdna, bub were driven towards the Siwdliks by the 
Mandhdrs. It would be interesting to know how this lowest of all the 
Bdjpiit races finds a place among the Simla States, and whether the 
ruling family of Bildspur is Chandel. 

Chandee, a Muhammadan Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Chandia, (1) a Baloch tribe : see Baloch : (2) Chdndia, a Jat clan (agricul- 
tural) found in Multdn. 

Chandia, a sept of Edjputs, found in Kahlur and descended from Gambhir 
Chand, younger son of Pahar Chand, 24th Rdja of that State. 

Chandla, a Rdjput sept, of the second grade, said to be found in Hoshidrpur. 
Probably = Chandel(a), q. v. 

Chandrae, a Rdjput clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. Doubtless = 

Chandu, an agricultural clan found in Shdhpur and in Multdn. In the 
latter District it is classed as Jdt. 

Chaiidde,-war, an Arain clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery and 

ChANDYi, a Kamboh clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 



Chdng^'Channar. I53 

Chang, see dialing. 

Changala, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Changgar, fem,-i,-iruii, ni (Clihanggar in MulMni). The Clmnggars are 
outcasts of probably aboriginal descent, who are most nuinorous in (juiriU 
Amritsar, Lahore, Ferozepur, a.nd Fai-idkot, but especially in {Sialko^ 
and they say that their ancestors came from the Jammu hills. 'I'hey 
are originally a vagrant tribe who wander about in search of work • 
but in the neighbourhood of large cities they are settled in colonies. 
They will do almost any sort of work, but are largely employed in 
agriculture, particularly as reapers ; while their women are very generally 
employed in sifting and cleaning grain for p rain -dealers. They are all 
Musalnijins and marry by nikdh, and say that they were converted by 
Shams Tabriz ol|Multan, who bade their ancestor, a Hindu Rajput, support 
himself by honest labour and husk the wild saicdnh in the jungles because 
it was good {changa). Their clans are said to be Phulan, Cliauhan, 
Manlijis, and Sarohe."^ Their women still wear petticoats and not drawers ; 
but these are blue, not red. They are exceedingly industrious, and not 
at all given to crime. They have a dialect of their own regarding which, 
and indeed regarding the tribe generally, the late Dr. Jjeitner published 
some interesting information. He says that they call themselves not 
Changgar but Chubna, and plausibly suggests that Changgar is derived 
from clilidnna to sift. It has been suggested that Changgar is another 
form of Zingari ; but Dr. Leitner does not sujiport the suggestion. 

Changri, a sept of Kanets which holds Pheta and half Dharuth imrganas 
in Kuthar. 

CnANi, a Dogar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Chankar, a Ji'it clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Chann, an agricultural clan found in Shahpur. 

Channar, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Lodhran talisil, Multiln District. 

They are said to be connected with the Jhakkars and other tribes 

in the couplet:— 

Jkakkar, Channar, Kanjun, Nun teatera, 

Hin Rdne Shaitdn de i^anje hujh hliard. 
All these five clans assume the title of Rana. In Bahawalpur they 
are also called Channun-di and are found chiefly in the Mrddris of 
Bahawalpur and Ahmadpur East, as cultivators, and in the Kolii, as 
landowners and cattle-breeders. Their septs are : Admani, Ham, Wisal, 
Bhojar, and Bharpdl, said by some of the tribe to be descended from Pir 
Channar, but the more general belief is that the Pir never married and that 
the Channars are descended from his seven brothei-s, sons of Rai Sandhila. 
The Channars are, however, believed to be an offshoot of the Mahrs. 

Channar Pir: — Four miles from Derawar, on a hillock, is the tomb of 
Pir Channar, or Chanan Pir, son of Rai Sandhila. Sayyid Jalal visited the 
city of the Rai, now in ruins some three miles off, and asked if there was 
any Muhammadan in the city, male or female. He was told that there 
was none and he then asked if any woman was pregnant. The Rai said 
his wife was, and the Sayyid then ordered him to em})lc»y a Muhammadan 
midwife for the child would be a saint. "When the child was born the Rai 

* Or, in Kapurthala Bliullar, Bhatti, Cbauhan, Tiir and Kbokliar. 

154 Channoml — Chaudhridl. 

expossd him on tlie hillock, but a cradle of santal wood descended from 
heaven for the child. Seeing this Rai Sandhila endeavoured to take 
the child out of the cradle, but failed, as, whenever he approached, the 
cradle rose in the air. When the child grew up, he accepted Makhdum 
Jahanidn as his Pir, and as he was brought up in poverty so his tomb 
is especially efficacious for the rearing of children. The Channar tribe 
is descended from the seven brothers of the Pir. Both Hindus and 
Muhammadans frequent the shrine, rot or thick bread and meat 
being eaten by both as brethren. Hindus are not polluted by contact 
with Muhammadans at the shrine. 

Channozai, a Pathdn clan (agTi cultural) found in Montgomery. 

Chanon, a Jd,t clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Chanwal, returned as a Rajput sept in Hoshidrpur. 

Chanwan, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Chaitaeband, Chhapriband. See Chuhrd,. 

Charan. Cf. Bhat. 

Charan-Dasi, a modern offshoot of the Bairdgis, for an account of which 
see pages 37-38 above. 

Chaehoya, Cbarho^j* (the fern, in Multani is said to be chhirohi, P. Dicty,, 
pp. 195, 22G). 

The Charhoa is the Dhobi and Chhimba of the Multd,n division and 
the Derajat and not un seldom carries on the handicrafts of the Lildri 
and Rangrez also. In his capacity of washerman he is, like the Dhobi, 
a recognised village menial, receiving customary dues in exchange for 
which lie washes the clothes of the villagers. He is also found in 
Bahawalpur, in Gujrat (where he is described as a dyer in reds), and in 
Peshawar. See Dhohi. 

Chasti, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multau. 

Chateea, in M. chatrera, see Chitera. 

Chateath, a Kamboh clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar and Montgomery, 
in the latter District they are both Hindu and Muhammadan. 

Chatta, see nest. 

Chattha.- — A Jat tribe apparently confined to Gujranwala, in which district 
they hold 81 villages. They claim to be descended from Chatta, a 
grandson of Prithi Rai, the Chauhan Kiog of Dehli, and brother of the 
ancestor of the Chima. In the lOth generation from Chatta or, as other- 
Avise stated, some 500 years ago, Dahru came from Sambhal in Morada- 
bdd, where the bards of the Karnal Chauh^ns still live, to the banks of the 
Chenab and married among the Jat tribes of Gujrdnwala. They were 
converted to Islam about IGOU A. D. They rose to considerable politi- 
cal importance under the Sikhs; and the history of their leading family 
is told by Sir Lepel Griffin at pages 402 _^ of his Punjab Chiefs. 

Chattaesaz, an umbrella-maker : probably to be included among the Tarkhans. 

Chatyal, a J^t; clan (agricultural) found in Mult^n. 

Ohaudhrial, a faction or party which is opposed to the Zamindc4r (also called 
Chaudhri) party in the Chakwal tahsil of Jhelum. Broadly speaking 

* [Cf. the Balochi jano&ha, clotlies-"waslier. 


£ v 1* 

...U -C- ^-^^^t L^^C.^ ^,- 



' ' "' '^'-^-*-'jr / A< ^'^ n i^ -i^uu, *'*< *-*<r ^4^t 

^ ^-^- 4. ^ /^/7 

i' /: A 

Chaudri — Chaichdn. 155 

the Chaudliritils are the representatives of tlie old taluqddrs, Avhcreas 
tlie Zanilndiirs represent the new men put in during bikh rule. The 
former is the more numerous and powerful, but the latter is more 
united. Marriages between metrberd of these factions are much more 
rare than marriages between members of diifereut tribes. These fac- 
tions have ramifications which extend into Find Dadan Khun tahsil, 
across the Shahpur Salt Range and down into the Sli;ihpur i)lains. For 
a full account sec the Jhclum Gazetteer, 1904, pp. 12d-b. 

Chaudri — {i) A tribe found in Bahdwalpur. They have four main se]its, 
Janjdni, Jasrdni, Samddni, and Dhadani. They say that their original 
name was Saluki,(?) Saljuki. {ii) a faction: i. q. Zamindar : see 

Chadghatta, (1) a Mughal clan (agricultural) found ia Amritsar ; (2) a Jd^ 
clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Chauhan, a great Rdjput tribe, one of the Agnikulas, and also one of the 36 
(royal) ruling races. Tod calls them the most valiant of the whole 
Rajput race, and to them belonged Firthi Raj, the last Hindu ruler of 
Hindustfin. Before the seat of their power was moved to Delhi, Ajmer* 
and Sambhar in Jaipur seem to have been their home. After their 
ejectment from Delhi they ai'e said to have crossed the Jumna to 
Sdmbhal in Muradabad, and there still dwell the genealogists and bards 
of the Chauhan of the Nardakt of Karnal and Ambahi in which Districts 
they have retained their dominant position more than elsewhere in the 

The Cbauhfins in Ambala claim to belong to the Bachas got and to 
be of Surajbansi descent. In this District they hold J 69 vUlages, and 
their traditions give them the following pedigree and history :•— 

Rija Nanak Rao, took Sarabhal in MuradabAd. 

I , 


Rana Harra % ; in the. 5th geDeration founded 

Pandri and Habri, c. 988 A. D. 

r ' 1 

Augha, ancestor Eantha.§ 

of the Adhoa | 

Rajputs. Subh Mai. 

* The Ambala traditions mention Alal-kucdor-puri as their scat before Ajmor was 
founded. They also add that Kana Har Rai founded Jundla in the Panipat taht-il : thence 
the Chauhan spread northwards. In Karnil their cliaudhridis are Gumthala, RaoSambhli, 
Habri and, chief of all, Jundla. 

t For the Chauhan migrations and their conquest of the Pundirs see the article on 

J Rana Harra alsohad four illegitimate sonfl, by a Rorni, a Glijari, a Jatniand a Hnjamni 
respectively. The latter's son. Kawal Kaj, founded a hdra^ or group of 12 villages, of 
Rajputs : the Jatni's son, Bhadhi, was the ancost'ir of the Mndhnl Jats who hold two 
tarns, one in Kalsora in Thanesar, the other in Saharanpur. But the Karnal tradition i3 
different. It assigns to Rana Elarrni two Rajput wives and five of inferior status, viz., n 
Rorni, Avhose descendants form the Dopla got of the Roi's, a Jatni, a Gujari, a Joerin and a 
Nain. The descendants of the two latter are the Rajputs <>{ Muatafabad pargava in Jagadhri 
tahsil, while the Jatni's and Gujari's progeny appear to have settled east of the Jumna. 

§ Hantha or Ranta was the son of Kana Har Rai's old ago and his step-brothers 
disputed his legitimacy. So be appealed to the king of Delhi and his mother said that she 
had fed the Rana on dolah, a fiah supposed to possess aphrodisiac qualities. Tlie king 
declared that Ranti's sweat would smell of the fish if he were legitimate, lie ful611ed the 
test and was declared legitimate. 

156 ChauMn — Chdula. 

Ranilia's clcscenclants drove tlie Koli Rajputs across tlie Tangri, wliere 
they may still be found. 'I'llok Cliand, son of Subli Mai, liis descendant, 
retained 84 out of the 169 Chauhd,n villages — 'the chaurdst ; while Subh 
Mai's second son, M^nak Chand, turned Muhammadan and took the 
pachdsi or 85 remaining. Jagajit, 8th in descent from Tilok Chand, 
was Guru Govind Singh's antagonist c. 1700 A. D. In 1756 his 
grandson, Fateh Chand, with his two sons Bhup Singh and Chuhar 
Singh, Qed from Ahmad Shdh Durrani iuto Kotaha where 7,000 Chauhdns 
were massacred by the imperial forces under the Rai of Kotaha. 

In Hissar the true Chauh^ns are immigrants and may be divided into 
two branches, the Nimr5,na"^ and Sidhmukh or, as they call themselves, 
Bclril Thai. The Nimran^s who are descendants of Rdja Sangd,t, a 
great-gTandyon of Chahir Deo, brother of Pirthi Raj, are sub-divided into 
two clans, Rath and Bagauta, both of which came from Gurgdon, the 
former tracing their origin to Jatusana. The name Bdgauta would 
appear to be connected with Bighota.f 

The Bant, Thai had a group of 12 villages near Sidhmukh in Bikaner, 
close to a famous shrine of Gugra. 

The Sohu and Chotia Pachadas claim Chauhan descent. 

The Chauhans own a few villages to the south of Delhi city and have 

a small colony near Jakhauli in Sonepat talisil, but in this District 

they have adopted widow reman'iage and are disowned by their fellow 

Rajpnts, but they are the best cultivators of the tribe, and otherwise 

- decent and orderly. 

In the central and some western Districts the Chauhdns are found 
classed indifferently as Rajput or Jat, e. g., in Sialkot.;]: 

In Amritsar they are classed as an agricultural tribe (Rajput, Jat and 
Gujar), and they are also so classed in Montgomery (Rajput and Jat) 
and in Shdhpur. 

In Bahdwalpur the Chauhdns have three clans : — Khalis ; Hamshira 
[found mainly in Uch feskhdH — they claim that Muhammad Husain, 
their ancestor, was Akbar'&i foster-brother [liamshir), but others say they 
are Hnshmiras not Hamshiras] ; and Khichchi, who claim to be 
descended from Khichchi Khan, ruler of Ajmer 700 years ago, and say 
their ancestor founded Shergadh in Montgomery. Few in number they 
are confined to the hdrdd.ri of Khairpur Bast, where they are carpenters 
and khatiks by trade, though in Multdn they are well-to-do landowners. 

Numerous Jat and other tribes comprise Chauhdn sections or have 
sections which claim Chauhdn descent, indeed it would be difficult to 
name a large caste in the Punjab which has not a Chauhdn section, e.g. 
see Chamdr. The Kichi and Varaich are also numerous Chauhan 
clans in the Punjab. For the general history of the Chauhans and 
their organisation see Rajput. 

CsaULA, Chdwala : lit. a preparation of rice : a section of the Aroras. 

* N'lmrana is a small state, a feudatory of Alwar, and ruled .by a Chauhan family. 

t Eliot mentions four tracts as held by the Alanot Chauhans, viz., Riith. Bighota, 
Dhnndhod and Chandwar. Of these, Rath, the lars&sfc, lies mostly in Alwar. bat it 
includes Narnaul, now in Patiala territory, Bfghota lies north of Rath, and Dhundhoti 
between Bighota and Hariaca. 

J Punjab Customary Law, XIV, p. 2. 


■ P c. /f^ // " - ^ .^- ''^ ^' = -' "^ ■ 

^ U\. J C ^ C ^XJ 

^ y 

,^,^^j^ z 


^ . ^ 

r .z: 






'L'his would appear to be the form under wbicli 
this wcll-kuown word iisiially appeared to the 
Anglo- Indian of a century ago. It was then in 
common use in senses which are not to be found 
in Yule's Hohson-Jobson, nor curiously enough in 
any of the Indian Dictionaries available to me. 
Originally a Hindu word meaning a ' servant,' 
many changes have been rung upon it in Hindu 
life, so that it has meant a slave, a household slave, 
a family retainer, an adopted member of a great 
family, a dependant relative and a soldier in its 
secular senses ; a follower, a pvipil, a disciple and a 
convert in its ecclesiastical senses. It has passed 
out of Hindu usage into Muluimmadan usage with 
much the same meanings and ideas attached to it, 
and has even meant a convert from Hinduism to 
Islam . 

In the last century, persons bearing the title — 
it can hardly be called the stigma — of chela 
played so important a part in current politics, and 
the word was so familiar in its applied senses, that 
to the Anglo-Indian of that day it i-equired no 
reference and no explanation, though nowadays 
some of the secondary senses have become so far 
forgotten that the modern Dictionaries have 
missed them, and so comprehensive a work as 
Burnell's and Yule's Hohson-Johaon has failed to 
record it. 

I, therefore, make no apology for the lengthy 
quotations which follow to prove the uses to 
which it has been put, and giving its history for 
the last four centuries. R. 0. Temple. 

The Dictionaries. 
1854. — " Chera, chelS,, a disciple, a pupil, a 
Servant, a slave." — Lodiana Mission Panjahi 
TiicMonam, s.vv. 

1857. — " Chet, chetak, chevk, eherS,, chela, 
a servant, a slave brought up in the house, a pupil, 
a discii^le." — Forbes, Hindustani Victiouary, 


1857. — " Chela, by redup. chcldchdtd (ehelft,, 
Hind.), a disciple, a pupil, an eVeve of." — Moles- 
worth, Marathi JJictioaary, s.v. 

1872. — " Chit . . . . to Ijc a servant 

cheta, chetaka, cheda, chedaka, 

a servant, a slave, a minister- who fiilfils an 

ajjpoiuted duty." — Moniev-Williamsy Sant-krit 

Dictionary, s.vv. 

1875. — " Cetako, ceto (ceta), a servant, a 
slave. — Childers, Fali Dictionanj, s.vv. 

1875. — " Chera., chertl^., chelaka, chela, from 
cheda, a servant, slave Ijrought up in the house, 
a pupil, a disciple." — Bate, Hindi Dictionary, 

1879. — " Chela,, .... S. cheta, Pali 
cheto, a disciple, learnei', follower." — Fallon, 
Hindustani Dictionary, s.v. 

1884. — " Chet, chetak, cherS,, cheraa, 
cherwft., chelS., chelaka .... servant, 
slave, . . . . (S. chetakah and chedakah) 
a servant, a slave (brought up in the house) — a 
pui)il, disciide, follower." — Plutts, Hindustani 
Dictionary, s.vv. 

1885. — " Cheia (Hindi, said to be from the 
Sanskrit cheta, a servant), a discii)le, a pupil : 
esijeciiiUy the disciple of a guru or a mahanta. In 
Kangra also a magician." — Whitivorth, Anglo- 
Indian Dictionary, s.v. 

1888. — " Chela. (Sanskrit chetaka, chedaka) 

— a discij)le of an ascetic or holy man : in slang a 
hanger-on at a rich man's house who eats scraps." 

— Croolcc, Rural Glossary, s.v 


[July, 1896. 


Hindu Usage. 

1821. — " We saw a little monastery of Atteets, 
founded by the chiefs of Bhynsror. It is called 
Jhalaca .... The head of the establishment, 
a little vivacious, hot, wild-looking being, about 
sixty years of age, came forth to bestow his 
blessing and to beg something for his order. He, 
however, in the first place elected me one of his 
chelae or disciples by marking my forehead with 
a tika of hhaboot, which he took from a platter 
made of dhak-lenves, to which rite of inauguration 
I submitted with due gravity." — Tod, Rajasthan, 

Vol. i6.,j3. G12- 

1832. — "It was one day remarked that, when 
refreshing in the coond or reservoir, Sirdar Sing 
lob. 1782] did not lay aside his turban, which 
l^rovoked a suspicion that he had no hair. The 
Rana [Raja of Mewar], impatient to get a peep. at 
the bare head of the son of Chandrabhan, proposed 
that they should push each other into the water. 
The sport began, and the Dodeah's turban falling 
oS disclosed the sad truth. The jest was, however, 
not relished by the Sirdar, and he tai-tly replied in 
answer to his sovereign's question, 'what had 
become of his hair ?,' that ' he had lost it in his 
service in a former birth as chela by carrying 
■wood upon his head to feed the tlame when his 
sovereign as a jogi or ascetic performed penance 
[taiyasya) on the hills of Budrinath .... Chela 
is a phrase which includes servitude or domestic 
slavery : but implies at the same time treatment as 
a child of the family. Here it denotes that of 
a servant or disciple." — Tod, BajastJian, Vol. ii., 
fp. o27/. a/iti 528h. 

1874. — "The menials [of Bikanir] are heredi- 
tary household slaves called ' chelas.' They 
are, I believe, never sold by RajpOt families of 
distinction, though they often form part of a 
liride's dowry. When not the children of slaves, 
they have usually been purchased in times of 
famine from their starving relations. Their work 
is light, and they are generally well treated, and 
sometimes placed in positions of high trust. But 
Thakurs, especially the inferior ones, occasionally 
act with much cruelty towards their slaves as 
well as their other dependants. ' Chelas' who 
have fled from theii- masters are to be met with 
in British territory, where they often assume the 
caste of their former owners. The term ' chela ' 
signifies disciple rather than slave, and was 
applied to household servants by the large- 
minded Akbar .... whether in the use 
of this word the Rajpats were taught by Akbar or 
he by them, I cannot at present say : — [here is 

(lUoted the r>na<=o<->''^ f-..r^.^^ "01 1 

254]." — Powlett, Bikanir State, 'p- HI- Repeated 
in part in Rajjputana Gazetteer, Vol. i., 1879, 
p. 191. 

1874. — " The Karauli forces organized in their 
present form by the late Maharaja Madan Pal 
are as follow : — .... Infantry .... 
Paltans, 1st, Gol Paltan (under a ' kh&sehela ' or 
household slave; 2n(l, imder a ' nS-nk&rehela ' 
or slave holding grant of land; 3rd, under a 
household slave)." — Powlett, Karauli, p. 40. 

1878. — " Bakhtawar Singh [of Ulwur] died in 
1815 .... Banni Singh, then seven years 
old, was accepted as Raja by the Rajpiits and 
artillery [golanddz) headed by Akhe Singh 
Bankawat and an influential chela or household 
slave named Ramii .... Ramft and Ahmad 
Bakhsh [Khan, Vakil, afterwards Nawab of 
Firozpur and Lobar u] each tried to obtain for 
their respective parties the support of the Delili 
Resident, Sir David Ochterlony .... Ramil 
the faithful old chela died in 1825. His son 
Mulla had established a great influence over the 
young chief, and on the whole this influence was 
used for good, for he was kept under restraint and 
compelled to acquire some education". But Mnlla 
treated him sometimes with such indignity as to 
excite the anger of the Rajpiits and at last Akhe 
Singh had Mulla murdered to the extreme grief 
and displeasure of Banni Singh who expelled 
Akhe Singh from Ulwiu'." — -Powlett, Ulwur, p. 23- 
Copied into Bajpidana Go.zetteer, Vol. Hi., 1880. 
pp. 185/. 

1878. — " The household slaves or Khawas 
Chelas [of Ulwur] number about 200 .... 
Though known generally as kha'was chelas, the 
special title of kliavjas, which is an honourable 
distinction, enftbliug the bearer to sit in Darbar 
is borne by only five. Ramtl, the faithful Minister 
and adherent of M. R. Bakhtawar and Banni 
Singh, is the slave most distinguished in the 
history of the State. His family hold a valualiie 
rent-free grant. Khawas Sheo Bakhsh, Superin- 
tendent of stables, woods, etc., is at present tlie 
chela of most mark. 

When in 1870 the Council of Administration 
was established and a fixed sum assigned for the 
expenses of the palace, the late chief neglected 
to supply maintenance to. a number of the house- 
hold slaves, who applied to the Political Agent 
for the means of support. The Council thought 
the opportunity a good one for permanently 
reducing the number of slaves in the palace and 
so far diminishing the servile influence which was 
the cause of much evil. It was consequently 
determined that the complainius chelas should 

July, 1896.] 



irmy as Fort Gai'rlson Sepoys. This atteini^fc to 
onfer freedom upon tbem was resented as a 
ruel wrong. They had always been accustomed 
to live in the city of Ulwur, and leave it they 
declared they would not. It was on^y after a 
ong time, and after every effort to change the 
decision of ' he Council failed, that they paii"ai1y 
yielded." — PowlcU, Ulwitr, i^. 124. Copied hi'.o 
Bajputana Gazel'eer, Vol. Hi., 1830, pj). 196/. 

1884. — " Jd, lancli Ice ! Bhag jd ! tu kydjdne jog 1 
Jo dhiire hai jog Ico, oojag sliakal man 

Tiydg shahal man hlwg : kalliaii haljag 

men jog daheld! 
Pdiichon mar, pacliis tiydg de : job jogt 

kd chelS,. 
Go, thou son of cur! Be off! What 

dost thoa know of samtship ? 
Who tales the saial;ship, renounces all 

the desi'es of his heart. 
Renounces all the desires of his hea' b : 

the saintship is hard and difficult in 

the world ! 
Put off the five (desi- es) and the twenty- 
five (lus s) : then canst thou be ajogis 


TemioL-, Panjah Legends. Vol. i., 
p. 327, L:gend of Sild Bo%. 

1Q85. — " He Gur Deo! haro Uim Iclrpd ! Mdul 
ne tumhen balde. 
Kdnjihdrhe mundrd ddio ;jog lenko de. 
Ndoli, cheTa, har Ujo ; 
Jog ltd ra>^d dtjo ; 
Chiro were Jcdn ; 
Aj, Gar, Izirpd Icyo. 

Hail, my Lord Gu d ! Have me-cyj 

My mother sent roe to thee. 
Bore my e. rs, put in the {j' -ji's) r'og : 

I am coQie to take the sa ntshlp. 

My Lord make me a d'sciple. 

Shew me tlie way of devoL'oa. 

Bore my ear.^. 
Have mercy, Gavil, on me to-day." 

Temple. Panjab Legends, Vol. ii. 
p. 9/., Legend of Gcpi 

1885. — " Gorahii clielfi,n nun dkhUd: ' Puron 

Jcaddho ba mi io bdr. 
Eh iiuh chhc ii.i bxi as guzar goe, bahali 

pdi sut^Je! 
Eh di jhabde pdo mitndidn, Jogi leo 

Cheld. har do Goiakh Ndl^k da, s'uloii 

hardparld '.' 
T~J T.^r,i hr iniiinn. Inn <nie Thikof Ndtk 

' ' Chir&ji, ik meri garib di araj hai, eh da 
ajan nd mundrd pdo.^ 

Said Gorakh to his disciples : ' Take 

POran out of the hole. 
Six and V dirty years he has spent in it 

and suff.'i ed much pain ! 
Put the rings into his ears at once and 

make a Jogi of him. 
Make him a follower of Gorakh, for he 

is a great saint.' 
Whea they cooimenced to make him a 
Jogi, Tbikar Naih cried out : 
' Sir Gui i5, hear my humble peatlon, put 
not in the eav-rings without trial.' " 
Temple, Punjab Legends, Vol. ii., 
p. 440/., Legend of Puran Bhagat. 

18S6. — [The following quotations exhibit the 
difference between the Hindu and Musalman 
words in the same docuoient.] 

Ik si murid Sliehh dd safar dfir nun turid 

* * ♦ ♦ # • 

Azhardmdt Miijdn Waliddd Sdllb bllUTeo zindd 
hond- aur khS-dim mm sher banlcar dilchai 
dend * * * 

Piiirjogi ne ghasse khdkar da'^ vih ehele hor, 

Pakarc'i lid) an Imam Sahib de jaldi dlUe tor. 

* s * * a * 

Aiimff^z'd murid ban gae ; jdve b'^Jiat khudde. 

^ * * ♦ * 

Hdjiz ne eh sanldjab st'S.gird ■ i sid liamdrd ; — 
SuJ'i dd murid ban gtd, Icarhe baliutd clidrd. 

A disciple of Shekh (Ahmad Ghaus) went on a 
longjoa'Qey * « o * Miyah Walidadmira- 
cu'ously restored to I'fe a dead cat and shewed 
himself to a follower in the form of a tiger 

* c * » Then ohe jO(/t in h"& w;ath senttenor 
twenty disciples irore to seize tne Imam quietly 

* » ♦ * The wise {> ad learned became his 
followers as ali the world Luows ♦ * • 
The Hafiz hea d that h's own discip^ie had become 
a disciple of ;ht SMi with all his heart. * • — 
T"mple, Legendt, af He Panjab, The Saints of 

dlandha,,'Vul. -ill, pp. 169^"., 185, 187, 198, 200. 
207, 210. 

Muhammadan Usage. 

1583. — " And many of His Majesty's [Akbar] 
special d^scip'es ."a 081 [A. H.] called themselves 
chelahs m i mitafon of the use of this term among 
Jogis." — Badd'^i, ■!'., t). S25, in Blochmann, 
Ain i-AMa' i, Vot. i., p. 250, n. i. 

[TdrMH-:-B:dauni i?Xo, Vol. ii, p. Z24:']. "la 
A. H.9'?l the 1 'vg [Akbar] erected two buildings 

* ■ 1 — T-- .^intUi- font] i'nMrshoth 



[July, 1896. 

Musulman and Hindu ; one he called Khairptlra and 
the other Dharmpflra. Some of AbiVl-Fazl's 
people had the charge and used to spend the king's 
money in procuring food. As the jogis also used 
to flock there in great numbers a separate receiv- 
ing house was built for them and called Jogipiira. 
Nightly meetings were held in private with some 
of these men and they used to employ themselves 
in various follies and extavagrancies in contempla- 
tion, gestures, addresses, abstractions and reveries, 
and in alchemy, fascination and magic. The king 
himself studied alcbemy and used to exhibit the 
gold which he mad^ One night in the year 
called Shivrat was appointed for a grand assembly 
of jogis from all parts of the country, on which 
occasion he would eat and drink with the best of 
them ; and used to be gi-atified by their assurances 
of a life three or four times longer than the 
natural life of man." — Elliot, Historij of India, 
Vol. v., ]}. 538. 

c. 1596. — " The Chelahs or Slaves. His 
Majesty [Akbar] from religious motives dislikes 
the name banclah or slave, for he believes that 
mastership belongs to no one but God. He there- 
fore calls this class of men Chelahs, which Hindi 
term signifies a faithful disciple. Through His 
Majesty's kindness many of them have chosen 
the road to happiness, [by joining the Divine 
Faith] .... The pay of the Chelahs [in 
the Infantry] varies from 1 R. to 1 d. per diem. 
His Majesty has divided them into several sections 
and has handed them over to native and expe- 
rienced people who give them instruction in 
several things." — Biochmann, Trans, of the Ain-i- 
Alcbari, 1873, Vol. i., p. 2bof. 

c 1596. — "The Cheelah. His Majesty 
[Akbar] does not appi-ove of giving these unfortu- 
nate men the opprobrious name of slave, but calls 
them Cheelah, which word in the Hindowee 
language signifies one who relies on another 
. . . . The daily pay of a cheelah is from 
one Dam to one Rupee. They are formed into 
divisions and committed to the care of skilful 
persons to be instructed in various arts and occu- 
pations. — Gladwin, Trans, of Aijeen Alibery, 
1783, Vol. i., p. 167/., ed., 1885. 

c. 1596. — "The Persian Text from which 
Blochmann's and perhaps Gladwin's Translations 
were made is to be found in Biochmann, Persian 
Text of the Ain-i-Alchari, Vol. i„ p. 190, first 
line ff., where the word is spelt A^.^ chela. 

1791.— "Narrative of Mr. Y\'illiam Drake, for- 
merly Midshipman of the " Hannibal" and other 
prisoners taken last war, who have lately made 

prisoners taken by the French in the " Hannibal '' 
. . . . to the number of near 500 were landed 
atCuddalore the 30th June 1782, sent from thence 
to Chillumbram the beginning of July, where 
they remained prisoners with the French till 
August 12th, when they were delivered over to 
Hyder Ally Khan and marched to Bangalore, the 
privates in irons. They arrived at Bangalore the 
2nd September .... On the 19th October, 
the youngest of the whole, to the number of 51, 
were sent to Seringapatam, where they arrived 
the 31st October. They remained there till the 
7th November, when their heads were shaved, 
and, on the 20th all their things taken from them 
and they were circumcised. Soon after Mussalman 
names and dresses were given them, and they 
were marched about the parade .... [The 
Europeans] all were bound on the parade and 
rings (boly) the badge of slavery were put into 
their ears. They were then incorporated into a 
battalion of Cheylas, where they remained till 
the 19th December 1783 .... [In April 
1784] the command of a company of Cheyla 
boys, with exercising muskets without locks, was 
given to Messrs. Speediman andRutlidge, and the 
others were made Havildars, having the command 
of six .... [In February 1785 Tippoo] 
gave these BattaJions of Cheylas with fire-locks 
to Messrs. Speediman and RutlLdge and a batta- 
lion of boys with exercising maskets to Sergeant 
Dempster, and made the others Havildars in those 
and other Cheyla Battalions .... The 
Battalions to which they were posted were four of 
Christians called Ahmedy, and four of various 
castescalled Assud Ally e, all circumcised . . . . 
[In 1786 by Tippoo] all the European Cheylas 
and many other Europeans were then sent back 
to Seringapatam in consequence of the desertion 
that had taken place among them .... [In 
Jmie or July 1787] the Chittledroog party reached 
their destination the 27tli December and were 
incorporated into four Cheyla Battalions that 
were at that place .... [In February 1791 
at the taking of Tul Ryrah] one European 
Cheyla was killed and one wounded .... 
Those who have made their escape from Chittle- 
droog report the garrison of that place to be to 
the best of their knowledge as follows : — Four 
nominal Battalions of Cheylas consisting of 
about 800 .... Several European boys 
were taught dancing in the country style and 
forced to dance in female dresses before Tippoo. 
It is said that of late as they grew up they have 
been transfeiTcd to the Cheylah Battalions 
.... The country names given by Tippoo 
to such of tli£> TT.iT.-^-- — 

July, 1896.] 


enquiry and recovery of those wlio are still alive. 
They have occasionally been altered." — Scton- 
Karr, Selections, Vol. ii., p. 311jf. 

1795. — "A few days ago a Havlldar formerly 
attached to the 16th Bombay Battalion arrived 
from the Mahratta country, having escaped from 
Tippoo's dominions, where he had been detaiiied 
a prisoner 13 years, and compelled to serve in 
one of his Chela Corps. The on.'y intelligence 
that he brings is, that Tij)poo is diligently employ- 
ed in fortifying the lines near Seringapatam 
that wei-e stormed by our Grand Army on the 
celebrated 6th February, and that he knows of 
no European prisonei's that now remain under 
Tippoo's bondage.'' — Bombay Courier, March 
'21st, 17y5, in Seton-Karr, Selections, Vol. ii., 
p. 407. 

c. 1821. — "Hiyat Mahomed Khan [of Bho- 
palj, when installed Nabob, had no children by his 
wife, but he had adopted four Chelahs or family 
dependants, who were considered almost as rela- 
tions. The oldest of these, Fowlad Khan, was the 
son of a Gond. The second, Jumshei-e Khan, 
was the son of a Gossein ; and the third and fourth, 
Chiitta Khan snd Islam Khan, were the sons of a 
Brahmin. The merit of having withdrawn these 
childi'en from their errors to the true faith no 
doubt constituted in the eyes of a pious 
Mahomcdan prince another tie to strengthen that 
of adoption. 

Fowlad Khan, the eldest of the Chelahs, was 
the first who possessed the power of Minister, 
and it was during his administi*acion that the 
detachment under General Goddard passed 
throughtheterritoriesofBh opal [1778] . . . . 
Soon after these events a family quarrel occurred 
in which Fowlad Khan was slain in an attempt 
to capture the old Fort of Bhopal, then the resi- 
dence of the widow of Yar Mahomed Khan : who 
from disgust at his violent and tyrannical acts had 
for some time resolved to subvei t his authority 
and to raise to power Chutta Khan .... 
This virtuous woman had every reason to 
congi-atulate herself on her choice of Chutta 
Khan.'' — Malcolm, Central India, eel., 1880, 
Vol. i.,p. 296/. 

c. 1821. — " Chelah means literally an adopted 
dependant. It neither applies to a slave nor an 
adopted child, but to a person who is admitted to 
the claims of a dependant relation." — Malcolm, 
Central India, ed., 1880, Vol. %., p. 296/. 

c. 1825. — " When the Navab Saheb [of 
Junagadh] perceived that not one of the pillars 
of the State was able to extricate him from 
this difficulty in Samvat 1857 [A. D. 1800] he 
• • • ■ J-"« Bciuie ua.y ivaim xvuan ana 
Kekuam Khan visited 'Abdul- Mansiir Khan and 
asked leave to depart. 'Abdul-Mansiir Khun pro- 
posed their waiting for the troops he had sent for, 
>Yho would arrive in a few days. Kekuam Khan 

despatched some of them . ... to 
Nagar with letters to the Jam Saheb Jasaji 
declaring that he would confer a great obligation 
upon the Nawab by sending back the Divan 
Raghunathji. Accordingly the latter, although 
aware of his master's fickle temper and of thf 
envy of Wania Karsandas, of Nagar Kahandfis, 
Azam Beg Chela and others, he took into 
account that sincere excuses had been made and 
that it was his duty whether he liked it or not to 
comply with the wishes of his old msister and 
went to Junagadh." — Tarikh-i-Sorath, trans. 
Burgess, 1882, p. 196. See also p. 286. 

c. 1825. — " The author [Diwun RanchCdji] 
had been for two years at Porbandar, to which 
place Prabhudas and Kamal Chela, were sent to 
recall him." — Tarikh-i-Sorath, trans. Burgess, 

1882, j5. 197. 

c. 1825. — "Azam Beg Chela, Karsandas, a 
Vaniya, and Kahandas induced the Nawab Saheb 
[in Samvat 1861, A. D 1804] to take part in 
carousals and drinking bouts, with music and 
dancing and singing and administered the affairs 
of the state as they chose." — Tarikh-i-Sorafh, 
trans. Burgess, 1882, p. 202. 

c. 1825. — " Navab Saheb Bahadur Khan bin 
Hamid Khan Bahadur Babi .... After 
his father's death, however, he was brought back 
to Junagadh by the Jamadar Omar Makhasam, 
Azam Beg Cheia,h, Kahandas Vaishnav, Mugat- 
ram Bakshi, Jhiua Mehta and others and ascend- 
ed the throne in his 18th year, 9th of Phagan 
Sud, Samvat 1837 (A. D. 1810J . . . ." — 
Tarikh i-Sorath, trans. Burgess, 1882,^3. 205. 

c. 1825. — " The murder of Ahmad Klian 
[Faqir] was perpetrated on the 4th Muharram 
A. H. 124(1 (Samvat 1880) [A. D. 1823] and as a 
punishment for it Chela Esmayl Khan and 
Kadava were one year afterwards expelled from 
the town." — Tarikh-i-Sorath, trans. Burgess, 
1882, p. 227/. 

1854. — " KalimdtushshiCard Tasntf Sarkhnsh, 
The Words of the Poets, by Mirza Mohammad 
Afdhal, whose lukhallu^ is Sarkhflsh and who was 
generally called Chela.. The title of the book is 
a chronogram for 1093 [A. H. = 1682 A. D.] 

the date when he commenced to compile it." 

Sprenger, Catalogue of King of Oudh's Library, 
Vol. i., p. 108. 

" He wrote a biography of the poets of his 
own time entitled ''drd, ' the 
letters of which if taken according to their res 
pective numbers will give the year in which it . 
was written, viz., 1682 A. D,, 1093 A. H." — Beale ' 
Orient. Biograph. Diet. s.v. Sarkhush, ed. 1881.' * 

Another expedient resorted to was to seize the 
sons of Kajputs and Brahmans, who were then 
made into Muhammadans. Some were obtained 
by consent, some by payment; others were the 


[JlTLT, 1S96. 

1873. — " The author of the pretty Tazkirah 
entitled Kalimdtushshu'ai-cl -which contains bio- 
graphies of the poets of the 11th century was 
called Chelah. His real name is Mirza Muham- 
mad Afzal : as a poet he is known as Sai'khush."' 
— Blochmann, Ain-i-Akbari, Vol. ii., p- 253, n. i. 

1873. — "The word Chelah is the same as the 
Arab, tnurid, a discijile who places implicit belief 
in his onurshid or jilr, the head of the sect." — 
Blochmann, Ain-i-Alchari, Vol. i.,p. 253, n. i. 

1876. — "Chela, a Hindu boy seized in early 
life and forcibly made a Mnhammadan by order 
(jf Tij)pu. These boys, as they giew up, were 
incorporated in a miJitary corps retaining the 
name of Chelas." — B'ce, Mijso^x, Vol. ii., 
Appx. ii, Glossary, p. 6. 

[In 1779] " to break up the Bedar population 
[of Chittaldroog] .... he [Haidar Ali] 
removed 20,000 inhabitants to people the island 
of Seringapatam, and of all the boys of pi'oper 
age formed regular battalions of captive eon- 
verts, who ill following wars were of great service 
to him." — Op. clt. Vol. ii.,p, 463. 

1878. — The Lauh-i-TdriJch is an Urdu work, 
j which in its i^resent shape was composed in 1255 

A. H. (March 1839-March 1840) .... 

[This is a work on the Nawabs of Farrukhabad 

prepared] more especially from the recollections 
I of an old man, Allahdad Khan, son of Mukim 

Kh&,n Chela. — Irvine, Bangash Nawabs, in 

J. A. S. B., Vol. xlvii., p. 263. 

{To he continued.) 



[August, 1896. 



III. — Muliammadan Usage — contcl. 

(Concluded from p. 204J 

1878. — "At this time [1721], his 'Aniils or 
Ejnbordinate governors were : — for AllahiibaJ, 
Bhure Khan Chela: for Ii-ieh, Bhander and 
Jvalpi, Daler Khan Chela; for Sipri and Jalaun, 
Kanial Kluiu; for Bhojpnr, Nekuam Khan 
Chela ; for IShamsabad, Daiid Khan Chela ; for 
Budaon, Sahaswan (now both in the Budaon 
District) and Mihrabad (now in the Shahjahanpur 
District). Shamsher Khan Chela .... 
[1719 1720] Daler Khan Chela was ordered 
oif with a proper force and mai'ching I'ajjidly he 
ejected the fliunas of the enemy [Bundelas] from 
the' pargarudis of Kalpi and Jalalpnr [in the 
Hauilrpur District] .... Daler Khan Chela 
Avasby birtli aBnndehiThaliur [or possibly a Jat]- 
He was famed for his bravery .... Daler Khan 
was bnried in the village of Mandah [20 miles from 
Hamirpnr] and all the people of Bimdelkhaud 
mourned his loss. On every Thursday sweetmeats 
are offered at his tomb. Every son of a Bundela 
on reaching the age of twelve years is taken by his 
father and mother to Mandah, where they place 
his sword and shield on Daler Khan's tomb. 
They make an offering and the boy then girds on 
the sword and takes up the shield, while the 
parents pray that he may be brave as Daler 
Khan. Kettle drums are regularly beaten at the 
tomb." — Irvine, Bam/ash Nawahs, in J. A. S. B., 
Vol. xlvii., fp. 283, 285/. For details of the tra.di- 
tions regarding Daler Khan, see note C. p. oQhff. 

1878. — " [In 1727] Bhure Khan Chela now 
placed himself at the head of a number of brave 
Pathans and penetrated the enemy's army, 
intending to kill Chattarsal. Bhure Khan lost 
his own life instead .... For the loss of 
Bhure Khan the Nawab [Muhammad Khan of 
Farrukhabad] wept and for many days after the 
battle wore orange-coloured clothes in sign of 
mourning, saying — ' "What Bhure said was true ; 
he said he would die before me.' " — Irvine, 
Bangasli Naumhs, in J. A. S. B., Vol. xlvii.,i\ 293. 

1878. — "[In 1729] the Bibl Sahiba mother of 
Kaim Khun, hearing rejiorts of intended treach- 
ery sent Neknam Khan Chela to Faizabad. 
^ , . . . The same day Kaim Khan and 
Neknam Khan visited 'Abdul- Mansiir Khan and 
asked leave to depart. 'Abdul-Mansiir Khan pro- 
posed their waiting for the troops he had .'^ent for, 
who would arrive in a few days. Neknam Khan 

deliver IMuliammad Kliiin by their means.' He 
then in a, great rage lead Kaim Khan I>y the hand 
out of the audience hall. With them were 60 
Pathans clad in chain mail, whose orders were to 
strike at once if any one lifted a finger to touch 
them." — Irvine, Bang ash Nawahs, in J. Ai !S. B., 
Vol. xlvii., p. 300. 

1878. — "Nawab Muhammad Khan to the last 
maintained very plain and soldier-like habits 
. . . . In his audience halls and in his house 
the only carpet consisted of rows of common 
mats and on them the Pathans and chelas and 
all jjersons high or low had to be content to sit 
. . . . when any noble visited the Nawab 
no change was made, the same mats were sj^read 
to sit on and the same food presented .... 
Then for each day after their arrival the Nawab 
would name some chela to entertain the visitor 
sumptuously. [Then follows a story of Nawab 
Umdatul-Mulk Amir Khan and his extravagant 
entertainment by Ja'far Khan Chela]. " — 
Irvine, Bangasli Nawahs, in J. A. 8. B., Vol. xlvii., 
p. 338/. 

1878. — " Slavery is a part of the Muhammadan 
legal system, but there must be, I think, few 
instances, in Avhich it has been carried to the 
length practised by Muhammad Khiin. Slaves 
were preferred to eqiials or relations as deputy 
governors of provinces, slaves led his armies, he 
even kept a bodyguard of slaves. 

One of the i-easons assigned for this preference 
is the trouble given by his brother Pathans of 
Man. Many of them at one time had farming 
leases of parganahs. If the Nawab complained 
of embezzled revenue, their answer was, that they 
would fight, but not pay. If one of them was 
imprisoned as a defaulter, all the other Pathans 
rose in arms till he was released. For this reason 
it is said, some years after his rise to power, the 
Nawab remitted large sums to Afghanistan, and 
induced a colony of the Bangash tribe to emigrate 
and settle in the city of Farrukhabad. From 
among them he selected eighteen leaders as 
Jam'adars. They were petted in every way, the 
Nawab looking on them as his own right arm, 
and to them his daughters were given in marriage. 
He gave them land for their houses on the side of 
the city nearest to the Ganges, and the quarter to 
this day bears the name of Bangashpura. 

Another expedient resorted to was to seize the 
sons of Kajpiits and Brahmans, who were then 
made into Muhammadans. Some were obtained 
by consent, some by payment; others were the 

August, 1S96.] 

were tlius obtfiined and tauglit the precepts of 
Islam. From them were selected the leaders of 
the army, and the collectors of land revenue in 
the panjunahs. 

Muhiimmad Khan had quite a passion for 
increasing the number of his chelas. All his 
managers '^Amils) and deputies (Siibahdars) had 
orders to send him all the Hindu boys, whom 
they could procure between the ages of seven and 
thirteen. When they grew up, they were placed 
in his police or army, or were appointed to 
manage the Nawab's j^rivate affairs. When even 
;in amil had a fight with a troublesome village 
or invested it, he seized all the boys he could get, 
and forwarded them to the Nav.ab. Others 
l)ecame Miihammadans of their owu accord. In 
this way, evei*y year one or two hundred boys 
were made Muhammadans, and by tlie end of his 
life the Nawab had some four thousand chelas • 
Many of these were killed in battle in the Nawab's 
lifetime, many died without issue, and many 
were never married. The descendants of the rest 
still exist, and are distinguished as G-hazanfar- 
bachha (progeny of Ghazanfar), the title of 
Muhammad Khan having been Ghazanfar Jang. 
During the Nawab's lifetime these men were 
never styled chelas, they v/ere always know^n 
as Tifli-Sirkar (sous of the State). All places 
of trust were given to them, the Nawab's house- 
bold was in their charge, and his whole establish- 
ment under their orders. For many of them 
he obtained the title of Waw^ab from the 
emperor. Of whatever caste a chela had been, 
he was married to the daughter of a chela 
originally of the same caste, a Rajput was given 
to a Rajput, a Brahman to a Brahman, and so 
forth. This plan was followed till the time of 
Nawab Ahmad Khan Ghalib Jang (1752-1771). 
After that time they all got mixed together, so 
that one caste cannot be distinguished from 
another. Among the chelas were the sons of 
powerful Rajahs, who by misfortune had been 
captured and made Muhammadans. Thus 
Shamsher Khan ' Masjidwala' is reported to have 
been a Banafir Rajput, Sher Dil Klian was a 
Tomar, Pur Dil Khan a Gaur, Daud Khan a 
Brahman, and so forth. 

The Nawab used to tell his chelas to collect as 
much money, goods or jewels as possible. In 
adversity such property could be made o£ use to 
him or themselves. But he who built a masonry 
structure in any village would be at once removed 
from employment. Nothing was to be built but 
with sun-dried bricks and mud mortar, and to 
ench chela permission was given to build a single 
brick room as reception hall. The only excep- 

tion was in favour of Yakut Khan, Khan Bahadui", 
of whom we will speak again presently. 

A teacher was appointed for the boy chelas, 
his name was Kali Miyan Shah. When a boy 
could read and write, ho was taken before the 
Nawab, who presented him with one hundred 
rupees, a shield, and a sword, by way of khila't. 

From among the chelas of eighteen to 
twenty years of age, the Nawab selected five 
hundred youths, and trained them as a picked 
regiment. They had firelocks of Lahore, accou- 
trements of Sultani broad-cloth, powder-horns 
each holding two and a half seers of powder, and 
each a pouch with one hundred bullets. One 
day, they were drawn up along the Jamna bank 
under the fort at Delhi while the emperor was 
seated on the fort wall, with Muhammad Khiin 
standing in an attitude of respect beside him ; 
Muhammad Shah ordered him to fire at some 
moving object in the river, and was so delighted 
with the good practice they made, that he asked 
for a gift of the whole coi-ps. — Muhammad 
Khan made the ol>jection that they Avere a lot 
of Brahmans and Rajputs, who could do nothing 
but talk a rustic patois and use their swords. 
The emperor accepted the excuse, and sent one 
thousand rupees to be distributed." — Irvine, 
Bangash Naivahs, in J. A. S. B., Vol. xlvi., 
p. 3^0/. 

1378. — [Mr. Irvine gives the facts known about 
47 of the principal chelas, from which it will 
be sufficient to extract the following as illustra- 
tive of the subject in hand.] "{I) Yakut Khan, 
Khan Bahadur .... Seven ganjes [an 
interesting Anglo-Indian form on its own 
account !] were founded by Yakut Khan . . . . 
the chelas of former days used to say that Miyan 
Khan Bahadur spent 25 lakhs of rupees on the 
gunges [another foi'm I], his house and the bdghs 
he planted .... (4) Mukini Khan. This 
chela held Ujjain during the time of Muhammad 
Khan, was Subah of Malwa .... He was 
with the Nawiib from his early days and the 
Bibi Sahiba observed no pardah to him .... 
(5) Jafar Khan. He was the Nawab's Bakhshi 
. . . . (6) Daud Khan. He is said tc 
have been originally a Br.ihman. He was one oi 
the chelas with the Nawab in his younger day.' 
to whom the Bibi Sahiba observed no pardah . 
, . (9) Bhure Khan. A story told of tbi; 
man shows the amount of license accorded t'. 
the chelas. One day Bhure Khan coming int- 
darbdr late could find no place to sit. Kickin; 
away the pillow separating Mhd. Khan an< 
Kaim Khan, he sat down between the Nawab an. 
liis son. Kuim Khan turned angrily to hi 

[August, 1896. I 

father and said : — ' You have given such freedom 
to these chelas that they will never respect me.' 
Mhd. Khan got np in a rage and went off 
to his house at Aniethi. Mhd. Khiin then 
scolded Bhure Kluin sa3'ing that he had lost 
confidence in him, for if while he was alive they 
did not respect his sous, who knew what they 
would do when he was dead. Bhure Khan 
putting up his hands said :— ' May God Almighty 
grant that I never see the day when you no 
longer live 1' .... (10) Sa'dat Khan. He 
was amil of Mandeshwar in Malwa south of 
Nimach .... When Mhd. Khan qnarelled 
with Sa'dat Khan Burhanul-Mulk, Subahdar of 
Audh, he gave his chela Sa'dat Khan the 
ironical title of Burhanul-Mulk ! . . . . 
(11) Weknam Khan. He was one of the four 
chelas to whom the Bibi Saliiba used to appeal' 
unveiled . . . . (12) Jahan Khan. He was 
one of the Bakhshis and an old chela to whom the 
Bibi Sahibakept no pardah." — Irvine, Bangash 
Nawahs, in J. A. S B., Vol. xlvii., p. 341^'. 

1878. — [In 1748, on receipt of the erpperor 
Ahmad Shah of Dehli's farmdn to attack the 
Rohelas, in the days of Nawab Kaim Khan] 
" the principal leaders were then sent for to be 
consulted. Chief among them was Mahmud 
Afridi the Bakhshi and others. These all voted 
for immediate war, but the Nawab seems to have 
been reluctant to attack his fellow Pathans. 
Shuja't Khan Ghilzai, who had formerly 
exchanged turbans with 'All Mhd. Khan Roliela, 
Takut Khan Khan Bahadur, Shamsher Khan, 
Mukim Khan, Islam Khan, Kamal Khan, and 
Sardar Khan, ehelas, represented to the Nawab 
that the Rohelas were not his enemies." — Irvine, 
Bangash Nawabs, in J. A.S.B., Vol. xlvii.,p. 377. 

1878. — [After describing at pp. 381f. the 

ioings of the chelas at the battle of Dauri- 

aasulpur, 22nd November 1748] "the Rohelas 

idvauced as far as Khakatman opposite Farrukh- 

.bad where they first met with resistance. A chela 

vho was 'Amil of the place showed a strong 

ront and kept up a vigorous musketry fire at the 

nemy, many of whom were killed. He would not 

bandon his parganah and the Rohelas thinkinc- 

lere was-no need to entangle themselves in bram- 

les left the place and marched back. All the rest 

I the Trans-Ganges country was thus lost per- 

lanently to the Farrukhabad Nawab. Only 

mritpur, Khakatman and Paramnagar were 

•eserved through the courage of this nameless 

lela." — Irvine, Bangash Naioabs, in J. A. 8. B., 

ol. xlvii., p. 383. 

1879. — " [After the battle of Khudaganj, 2nd 
igust 1750] Ahmad Khan [of Farrukhabad] 

sent one of his father's ehelas, whom he trusted, 
his name was Bhiire Khan, with five hundred 
matchlock-men to take possession of Kannauj 
. . . . Rahm Khan Chela used to say 
that his father Dikiwar Khan, then very young, 
visited Kannauj a few days after the battle and at 
the commander's invitation he went into the Rang 
Mahal. There were no people in it, but bags 
of rupees and gold coins were scattered about 
. . . . Dilawar Khan lived all his life on the 
proceeds of the things he carried away with the 
Kila'dai-'s permission and at his death he left 
house and a pot full of gold coins." — Irvine, 
Bangash Naivahs, in J. A. S. B., Vol. xlviii., 
p. QiQ. 

1879. — " [To stop the rising that led to the 
battle of Khudaganj, 23rd July 1750, 'Abdul- 
Mansur Khan the Wazir] marched with a large 
force of his own troops .... and con- 
tingents under .... Isma'il Beg Khan 
Chela, 'Ise Beg Khan Chela." — Irvine, Ban- 
gash Naivahs, in J. A. S. B., Vol. xlviii., jj. 68. 

1879. — " The Wazir's orders to put the five 
Chelas to death reached Jalalu'ddin Ilaidar the 
Wazir's son (afterwards known as Shuja'uddaula) 
and on the 20th Ramzan (12th August 1750) he 
directed their jailor Zainul-'Abidain to bring them 
forth. [Then follows a long account of the execu- 
tion of Shamsher Khan and four others]." — 
Irvine, Bangash Naivabs, in J. A. S. B., Vol, xlviii., 
p. 69/. 

1879. — " According to the ciTstom of his family 
Nawab Ahmad Khan made about three or four 
hundred Hindu boys into chelas. Those who 
had charge of his territory acquired wealth : the 
rest who received only pay and gifts rose to no 
eminence. They were all known as Ghalib 
Bachha. (1) Zu'lfikar Khan. In Ahmad Khan's 
time there were three men known as Nawabs, at 
whose houses the naubat was played : 1st, Ahmad 
Khan himself, called the Bare Nawab ; 2nd, 
Zu'lfikar Khan, called the Majhle Wawab ; 
3rd, Daim Khan, called the Chhote Wawab. 
. . . . (2) Daim Khan. — Islam Khan, 
chela of Shamsher Khan, chela of Nawab 
Muhammad Khan, had two sons: («) Roshau 
Khan, and [b] Daim Khan .... Ahmad 
Khan said he would adopt him and gave him the 
titles of Azim Jang Muhammad Daim Khan 
Bahadur, but he was popularly known as the 
Chhote Nawab .... In his childhood the 
emperor Ahmad Shah had held him in his lap, fed 
him with his own hand, put on his shoulders 
miniature kettle-drums {nalckarah and dauU), 
thus conferring upon him the naubat .... 
[Here follows an account of 35 chelas.]" — Irvine, 

AoausT, 1896.] 



Bangash Nawabs, in J. A. S. B., Vol. xlviii., 
p. I(i0/. 

1884.— "Kaim KLau, the Nawalj's [Farukluibud] 
elder son, besciged Jaraliwar in the east of Banda, 
while Daler Khan, a trusted chela, advanced from 
his head-quarters at Sihonda towards Maudha iu 
Hamirpur. On the 13th May 1721 Dabr [Daler.^] 
Khan Avas defeated and shiin close to the above- 
named town now in the Hamirpur District." — 
N-W. P. Gazetteer, Vol. vii.,p. 154-. 

1884. — " The ehelas [of Farukhabad] were 
slaves by whom most offices of trust under the 
Bangash dynasty [of Farukhabad] were filled. 
Such ci'eatures were found better and more 
obedient servants than the haughty kinsmen of a 
reigning Nawab. ChieHy Hindu by birth these 
slaves had been seized as boys and broiight 
up as Mii.salmans. But in their marriages the 
i-estrictious of Hindu caste were until Nawab 
Ahmad's time [1750-71] observed. During the 
reign of Nawab Muhammad [1713-43] they 
were never called ehelas or disciples, liut always 
children of the State (atfal-i-sarkar). Their 
descendants are now known as Ghazanfar- 
bacha, that is, ' lion-whelps,' or progeny of Nawab 
Ghazanfar Jang [i. e., Muhammad Khan him- 
self.]"' — N-W. P. Gazetteer, Vol. vii.,p. 15-1. 

1884. — " When Muzaffar Jang [of Farukhabad] 
succeeded his father [in 1771] he was a lad of 1 3 
or 14 years only. But the princely power was 
for a time faithfully wielded by the pay-master 
Fakhruddaula [a chela], whose first task was to 
repress a disturbance raised by Murtaza, one of 
the surviving sons of Nawab Muhammad Khan 
. . . . Murtaza Khan was wounded and taken 
prisoner. He afterwards died in prison. Not 
lone after this Fakhruddaula was assassinated 
by Namdar Khan chela, a partisan of Murtaza 
Khan." — N-W. P. Gazetteer, Vol. vii.,p. 173. 

1884. — " There were two claimants to the 
succession [in 1798]- The ehelas Parmal and 
Muhamdi Khans put forward the late Nawab's 
[of Farukhabad] second son Imdad Husain." — 
N.-W.P. Gazetteer, Vol. vii.,p. 171. 

1884. — " Mukhim Khan, one of the most dis- 
tinguished of Nawab Muhammad's slave officials 
(ehelas). He was for a short time governor 
of Pargana Shamsabad wdiich of coui'se included 
Kaimganj [in Farukhabad].''— N.-W.P. Gazet- 
teer, VoL vii-, p. 269. 

1884. — "Takutganj [in Farukhabad], origin- 
ally called Sarai Nuri .... By a eunuch 
Sarai Nari was certainly founded. Presented as 
■^ iTift to Muhammad, first Nawab of Farukhabad 

ennobled uiider the title of Khan Bahadur. But 
of his servile origin Yakut was never asliamod. 
The slave officers of the Nawab, afterwards called 
ehelas, were then known as Tifl-i-sarkar oi- 
children of the State, and the motto which Yakut 
caused to be engraved on his seal was this : — 
Yakut- i-Kurkhru ha txifail-i-Mhd. ast. 
Red -faced Ruby is as the little child of 
Mhd.'s officers were forbidden to erect any 
structure more lasting than mud or sun-dried 
bricks. They might indeed build as a reception- 
hall one kiln-brick chamber ; but any further 
dabbling in bricks and mortar was the prero- 
gative of the Nawab alone. In Yakut's case, 
however, the prohibition was removed. The Nawab 
remarked that he could never have children, and 
that it did not much matter what buildings he 
left to revert to the State on his death. Yakut 
thereon built seven m-.irkets (ganj) including 
Yakutganj. It was foiinded in 1739 [1 lol A. H.] 
. . . . The remaining fouiidatious were : — 
(1) Khudagauj iu this district; (2) Kasganj or 
Yakutganj ; (3) Aliganj ; and (4) Daryaoganj in 
Eta ; (5) Kauriyaganj, probably the place so named 
in Ah'garh; and (6) Nabiganj in Mainpuri." — 
N.-W. P. Gazetteer, Vol. vii., p. 401/. and n. 
1884. — " Ddni niin pir beta ditf.d, 
Seivaddr Sanoar da Mtd ; 

Kuttiii churidn Tcare tayijilri 
Pirdn sadwdidh. 
Unlidi'i pirdi'b dsdddr ohele Idfe, 
The Saint gave Dani a son, 
She made him a follower of Sarwar : 
Making ready cakes and sweetmeat' 
She callect the saints. 
The saints made him a follower an^ 
Temple, Panjab Legends, Vol. i., pp> 93/., 97 
Three Fragments about Sakhl Sarwar. 
1885. — "Air ehele dltid,' 

Pliir chele hoe mitthid ! 
Gurdn Pirdh to mukare 
Sidh dpi dp saddiije. 
I gave my disciple a flock. 
And my disciple iiath becom 
faithless ! 
Denying his Saint and Teacher, 
He hath made himself a saint. 
Temple, Panjab Legends, Vol. u'., p. 103 : Sukh 
Sarwar and Jutt. 

1893. — " Chelah i^^^ chela, Hind.) froi 
(cheta San. servant) disciple. Especially Hindo 
convert to Mahomedanism." — Madras Manui 

Chaims — Chet-rdmi. 157 

Chawas, an agricultural clan found in Slidlipur. 
Chaweka, an agricultural clan found in Slialipur. 
Checbi, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Chela, [i] a disciple ; (n) a sept of the Siiils, q. v. ; [lii) a fom. diminutive form 
{chclri) is used in the sense of 'witch' or ' malignant female spirit/ 

ChemiyAj a J^t clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Chenji, U) a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar, (a?') a sept of tlio 
Gil J;its, apparently confined to Hoshidrpur. 

Chet-rami. — The name of a sect founded by one Clict Ram, an Arora of 
Buchhoke, which is still the central sanctuary of the sect, though its 
monastic headquarters are outside the Taxali Gate at Lahore. Chet Earn 
became a disciple of Mahbub Sliah, a J'dl'dlifaqir, of the Chishtia sect. 
After his death Chet Ham slept upon his tomb and there had a vision 
of Christ which is described in a Panjdbi poem, partly composed by him, 
partly by his successors or follower3. On his death in 1894 Chet Ram 
was cremated and his ashes drunk in water by his euthusiastic dis' 
ciples. Before dying he had designated the site of a future Chet-rdmi 
town to be called Isapuri or ' Jesus' town,' and there his bones and 
those of Mahbub Shah are to find their eventual resting-place. Re- 
garding the creed of the sect Dr. H. D. Griswoid writes:* — "The 
Chet-rami sect holds a double doctrine of the Trinity. There is 
the Christian Trinity consisting of Jesus, the son of Mary, the 
Holy Spirit, and God, which is found in the Chet-nlmi creed. 
There is also what might be called a Hindu Trinity consisting of 
Allah, Parmeshwar, and Khudd. Allah is the Creator, Parmeshwar, 
the Preserver, and Khuda, the Destroyer. This idea is, of course, 
based upon the Hindu doctrine of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva as 
Creator, Preserver and Destroyer, respectively. The three potencies 
of the universe, namely AlUh, Parmeshwar, and Khuda have their 
counterpart in the human body, which, from this point of view, is a 
kind of microcosmos. There is a generative part corresponding to 

y Allah, a nourishing part (the breast) corresponding to Parmeshwar, 
and a destroying part (the head) corresponding to Khuda." The 
Chet-ramis frequently carry a long rod surmounted by a cross, on 
which is inscribed their confession of faith. Some form of baptism 
also appears to be practised, but they distinguish between the external 
and internal rite, and are said to have four kinds of outward baptism, 
with water, earth, air and fire. Earth-baptism is used when a lay 
member tears off his clothes, casts dust upon his head and becomes 
a Chet-rd,mi monk, to mark his renunciation of the world. The monks 
are tho clergy of the sect, the theory being that 40 persons arc always 
to subsist on alms and preach the doctrines of Chet Rdm. These 40 
are called chclas and are addicted to intoxicating drugs. The sect is 
probably not very numerous, ai-d it is said to be persecuted by both 
Hindus and Muhammadans, though, when a chela begs of a Hindu he 
does so in tho name of Ram, and when from a Muhammadan in the 
name of AlUh and Muhammad. All castes, even the lowest 
are recruited, but caste distinctions are at least so far observed that 

* In an exhaustive Pafer read at the Mussooric Conjerencc, 1904, which the curious reader 
may consult for further details and parallels. 

158 Ghhahala-^Chhadhar. 

each caste o£ converts eats separately. Three melas are held annually 
at Buchhokc, one on Poh 1st (January) in memory of Mahbub Shah's 
death, another on Jetli 29f,h (May — June) to commemorate that of 
Chet K;im, and the third on Sasvan 18th (July— August) in memory 
of one Malang Shah, of whom nothing appears to be known except 
that he was a friend of Mahbub Shah. 

Chhabala, see Chhabihw^le. 

Chhabihwale, a term applied to the Khatri devotees of Shamji. His Gandia 
Jat devotees are called Eang Rangita and his Chandia Balocli worship- 
pers are styled Chhabala — both, though still Muhammadans, presenting 
offerino"s to his descendants. (For an account of the Hindu revival in the 
south-west Punjab under Bairdgi influences, by the Gosains Shamji and 
his successor Lalji, see Census Kep., 1891, pp. 127-9. 

Chhabri, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Chhadhak. Found along the whole length of the Chendb and Ravi 
valleys, but far most numerous in Jhang, where they for the most 
part reo-ard themselves as Rajputs, the Chhadhars claim to be descended 
from Rajii Tur, Tunwar. They say that they left their home in 
Rdiputtina in the time of Muhammad of Ghor, and settled in Bahawalpur, 
where they were converted by Sher Slulh of Uch. Thence they came to 
Jhano- where they founded an important colony and spread in smaller 
numbers up the Chenab and Rdvi. Steedman describes them as good 
ao-riculturists, and less given to cattle-theft than their neighbours. 
Mr. E. D. Maclagan spells the name Chaddrar, which is undoubtedly 
the correct form, and writes : — 

" The Chaddrars are Tunwars. Their chief tribes in the Sandal Bar 
are the Rajokes, Kamokes, Jappas, Luns, Pajikes, Deokes, Ballankes, 
Saiokes, etc. The Chaddrars of the B^r are said to have expanded 
from Dhdban, a small rahna or encampment south-west of Khurid,nwdla. 
The Luns of iwanwala in the Bar say they have been there for seven 
generations. At Bajla rahna there is a separate class of Luns or 
Lunas called Bala Luns, who celebrate marriages, wash the dead and 
• so forth, and act more or less as mullas '\ 

The following genealogy of the Chaddrars is given by sunirdsi of the 
tribe in the Hdfizabad tahsil : — ■ 

















Raji Ravilan, 





Chaddrar lallads. 


The same mirdsi also gave the following cluqi or ballad regarding 
the o-reat deeds of the Chaddrar : — 

Datdr opge Mir Br ah am, 
Park UcJtdr t^nnded ne : 
Tiir yhir taicdna hoed, 
J is kid Tdrd pdcd ne ; 
Rdjd l-ht'ib hhnld Ravilan. 
Jis Dilii Kot handed ne ; 
Dim Kot handhd ne kaisd 
Jo khutha sachch farlided ne. 

Di'id jo maiddn ditto ne 

Chaddrar nam dJiarded ne. 
Dhare ndm te vaddlie agjo, 

Alldh Nali dehded ne. 
Bdkim d, hakumat kiti. 
hulk »drd kankdcd ne. 
Chhatti Paint i te Lundke 
Damra ghar dhoded ne. 

Bannhi hattJi Nakodar lijd 

Biniar des niu-ded ne. 
Peihle jd Gagidne hathi, 

Phir Lahdur pauhnchded ne. 
Kharrald ndl pea, jdl jhagrd, 
Takhto Kharral liafded ne. 
ilodd de Chiniot Icdne. 

Zor changerd Ided ne, 
Malik Macche Khdn kuitho ne, 
Ragrd rok rullded ne, 
Uidrpdr hiikm Chaddrar dd. 

Sidld di kurid hercd ddl chikded ne. 

Ajj4n, Cha, Sultdna ydge 

Ddgar rdh ghalded ne. 
Vijjar, Vise Idii chdye 

Sir chattr Nahi jhidded ne. 
Hamhi nadi Chitrdng vasde, 

Bakhrd px'ird pded ne. 
Japped ne hhi ruthd chokhd, 
Dnftar xcdle A-arded ne. 
Dinglidn Bulglidn Bilochdn. 
Mdr Biloch vnnjdcd ne. 
Chulhe ie ral vandi de sa^ihard. 

8dr gardhi khded ne. 

Mirjd Dhir hoed kurerd : 

Bagyd shih chirded ne. 

Nitliar, Kdlil, Dalld, Malh'i mani gdicd 

Jauro takht 7nachdcd ne ; 

Jithe satt shahid akatthe hoe, 

Vthe duddh pided ne. 

Is kul te data Nilra, 

Oahna, Jdni, Wdchi, Ilrahtm Eaqqdni. 

Jas ilir Fruhim gded ne. 

Saith the Miriisi Ibrahim to the generous, 
He pronounces as follows ; — 
' Tunwar then became, strong. 
From which family Tara was born ; 
K4ja Ravilan was a fine hero. 
Who builfc the fort of Delhi ; 
Ho built Delhi Fort so 
That his name of a certainty was soondod 
in the Kbutba. — 

Secondly, when he had cleared a wido 
space (empire), 

He fixed the namo of Chaddrar. 
His name was established and grew from 
day to day. 

He worshipped God and his Prophet. 
A ruler came and ruled. 
The whole country called for help. 
The Chhattis-Paintis and the Luu country, 
Carried rupees to the home of the Chad- 

With only half a hand the Chaddrara took 

And made tha Diniar-des do obeisance. 
First they went to Gagiana (in the Bar) 
and settled, 

Then they reached Lahore. 
When they quarrelled with the Kharrals, 
They stripped the Kharrals of their throne. 
With a push of the shoulder (i.p., with a 
certain amount of trouble) they took Chiniot. 
They used more force. 
They killed Malik Macche Rhan. 
They hai'ried and destroyed him. 
The Chiiddrars were rulers on both sides 
of the river (ChenAb). 

They put the Siala' daughters on rafts and 
dragged them away. 

They cleared a wido road of {i.e., dis- 

Ajjun, Cha and Sultan the rebels. 
When Vijjar and Viso (Chaddrars) grew 
to wisdom 

The Prophet held his canopy over them. 
Hambi (a Chaddrar) lived on the Chitrang 

And divided his sliare fully. 
The Jappas' line was also good, 
And separated off a share. 
Thpy met the Bulghan Bilocheg. 
They boat and defeated the Biloches. 
They fed in common, but their share was 

They fought to their hearts' content. 
Mirza, eon of Dhir, was a stalwart man ; 
He struck tigers (with his swore'). 
T sing of Nithar, Kalu, Dalhi and Mallii : 
They also held power : 
Where seven martyrs were together (i.e., 
among enemies), 

'J'here they gave them milk to drink 
(killed them). 

Of this family were the generous Nur, 
Gahna, Jaoi, Wachu and Ibrahim the 
I, Ibrdhlm, bare snng this praise. 

160 Chhajju'^Ghhalapddr^ 

The Rdjoke Chaddrars once got hold of a Mughal empercfr's 

elephant and yoked it to a well at a place near Kliurid,nwd,la, still 

called the Hilthi Tlieh. The following- clicip on the subject was given 
by the Mird,si /a^i'r at Shaikh Sd^bu : — 

Malik Dddu, Idh chdi, Malik Dadu (aEajoke Chief) lifted his arm , 

Indra Rdja ris de. Indra Raja became enyious. 

Vass baddal Jailed ! Kain, black cloud ! 

Hdthi led ne khass Ho seized the elephant 

Mahdicat ne mdred. And killed the mahaut. 

Hdthi Akhar Bddahdli de, It was an elephant of the emperor Akbar'a, 

If the chare dhdmni, Lahdur kamdnd. Here it grazed on dhaman grass, in Lahore 

on sugar-cane. 

Rdj'ii ke Rdj'oke, The Rajokes, descendants of Raju, 

Sundh vaddhke khuhe j'utte ddiid. Cut off its trunk and yoked it to the well. 

CbhAjju, Chhajju-pantbi. — A sect which exhibits a curious combination of the 
Hindu and Muhammadan creeds among the lower orders. It is said to 
have been founded by Chhajju, a hhagat of Lahore, who lived about the 
time of Aurangzeb.* His followers buj-n their dead, but do not throw the 
ashes into the Ganges ; they take them to a place called Parnaji, in Bundel- 
khand, where they bury them. They believe in the divine mission of Mu- 
hammad, but have no social intercourse with the Muhammadans. One of 
their sacred ^ilaces is Malka Hans, in the Pakpattan tahsil of Montgomery, 
where their mahant, Lachhman Das, lives, and their sacred book is kept 
in a kind of temple. It is called the Kul Jama Banip, is written in 
Bhdsha, and its doctrines are based on a mixture of Hinduism and the 
Quran. They also have adherents at Qabula Tibbi and Harappa, and 
are said to be strong vegetarians and teetotallers. 

Chhajra. a tribe of J^ts who claim descent from the royal race of the 
Bhattis of Jaisalmer. They came to Multan under Kao Kehar, a chief- 
tain of their own, and settled there. Kehar is a name of note in Bhatti 
annals. One Eehar was contemporary of the Khalifa-ul-Walid, a.d. 
713.t He and his sons advanced the Bhatti kingdom of Jaisalmer. 
Another Kehar ruled Jaisalmer in the sixteenth century, and his son 
conquered all the Multdn country up to the Indus. The Chhajrda 
marry their daughters to their own tribesmen only, but receive the 
daughters of other Jd,t tribes in marriage. 

Chhajra, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multd,n tahsil. 

Chhajd, a Muhammadan J^t clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Chha Khang, a caste found in Spiti (from chlia, ' owner ' and JcMng, ' land '). 
But according to Sir James Lyall hhdng means ^ house ' or ' household/ 
not ' land. ' Zing means land : cf. Chdhzang. 

Chhala, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Chhalapdaes. a small community of some 10 houses in Delhi, who say that 
tbey came from the Mewat in Mughal times and that in the United 
Provinces they are known as Mujdwars.J Shaikhs Mujawar and 
Qalandar were their ancestors, and so the latter^s descendants are 
called Qalandars. But this seems to be an absolute fable. That they 
came from the Mewat may be conceded, but, in spite of what they 

* Chbajju's chauhdra is a conspicuous edifice rear the Divinity School at Lahore. The 
local histories describe him as an Arora who worked miracles in that city, but not as 
having founded a sect. Chhajju-panlhi would appear to be a local term for the more 
general term 'ParnAmi' (q.v.). 

t Walid was Khalffa from 705—15 A. d, : Elliot's Hist, of India, I, p. 428. 

J Ar. lit." u teighbour.' Ihe woxd is used in India to detoie an attendar t at aehrine. 

76. TheChajju-panthis. — A curious combination of the two creeds among 
■pantM . . 124 the lower orders is found in the sect known as Chajju-panthi 
"' • • ''2J2 or Parnami. Tliey are said to have been founded by Chajju 
^at, a resident of Lahore, who lived about the time of Aurangzeb.* His 
A^ers burn their dead, but do not throw the ashes into the Ganges ; they take 
1 to a place called Parnaji, in Bandelkand, where they bury them. They 
ve in the divine mission of Mahomed, but have no social intercourse with 
^ahomedans. One of their sacred places is Malik Hans, in the Pakpattan 
1 of the Montgomery district, where their sacred book is kept in a kind of 
le. This book is called " Kul Jama Barup" ; it is written in Bhasha, and 
DCtrines are based on a mixture of Hinduism and the Quran. 

Ghhalapddr rites. ICI 

say, it is probable that they are Hindu converts to Isldm, and that ia 
their former faith they were temple musicians or wandering minstrels. 
On the conversion of the Mewd,t their deities were overthrown, but the 
spirit of idolatory which remained, and is not yet quite extiuct, set up 
Muhammadan pirs in their stead, and they found employment in dedi- 
cating themselves to these saints. But it is doubtful whether they 
were ever really attached to the shrines of the saints to whom thoy 
are dedicated, viz., KhwAja Moin-ud-Din of Ajraer, Badi-ud-Din 
or Maddr Sahib,* or Saiyid Sdldr Masaud Ghazi, known as the 

* Bd,ld Mij'dn.' The Mujawars belonging to these shrines are of 
authenticated descent and certainly of higher status than the 
Cbhalapdars, who derive their name from cJihalap, the musical 
instrument which they carry and which is in itself a sign of low 
social status. That they call themselves Mujd,wars may be taken 
as a mere attempt to claim a higher origin, though they certainly 
take upon themselves certain duties comiectcd with the anniversaries 
of their saints, especially at Delhi, where they are to be seen 
wanderingf from house to house as harbingers of the approaching 
ceremonies, and singing songs to the accompaniment of the chhalap 
in praise of their saints. The anniversary of the first-named saint, 
who is the most reverenced of them all, is held at Ajmer from 
the 1st to the 6th of Rajab, when thousands from all parts of India 
gather at Ajmer. When there were no railways, people used to start 
on this journey weeks and even months beforehand, so that tbo 
month preceding Rajab actually came to be called ' the month of 
Khwdja Moin-ud-Din.^ On the 14th, 15th, and 16th of this month 
large numbers from the Mcwat, and the countryside generally, assemble 
at the Qutb, 11 miles from Delhi (which, as the name signifies, is the 
shrine of Khwaja Qutb-ud-Din, the chief disciple of the Ajmeri 
Khwdja) for throe days, which are observed as great holidays. On the 
16th this great concourse forms a huge caravan which sets out on its 
way to Ajmer. Even now the journey is mostly performed on foot, 
though bullock carts are also employed, chiefly for the women. The 
sight is picturesque and interesting, young and old being dressed in 
their best attire ; trains of chhaJcras (country carts) which carry the 
thousands of women and children, singing to the accompaniment of 
drums, flutes and all kinds of instruments. A conspicuous feature of 
the procession is the red and green banners and flags, called chliaridn 
(lit. * sticks'), to which the three days' gathering at the Qutb owes its 
name of the chhnrlou hi mela or 'fair of the flags', which are 
moi'o precisely called Khwaja ji ki chharian. In the preparation and 
erection of these .flags and in the ceremonies connected with them 
the Chhalapdcirs arc the principal actors. The flags look like so many 

* On the first day of Jamadf-ulawal, also called the tiionth of Madar, when tho baiinera 
or c/i/Kt)td7is of Mad4r were eroctod under tho walla of Delhi tho Chhalapdirs, accom- 
panied by a band of drummers, used to appear with Madar's banner before the emperor 
in his court of private audience, and on th^sir arrival ho came out of the palace and hia 
attendants used to give them trays of malidah, the Chhalapdars in return jjlHcing a bnddi 
or garland on tho emperor's body in memory of the Saint, Madar. Prayers were tlion 
offered in the name of the saint and tho malidah was doled out to all present. After tliis 
the king gave the Chhalapdars a standard from tho top of wliich hung a cloth called 
pharaira, embroidered with gold (called task or tamdmi, cto.) to the loose ends of which 
were attached silver cups or katoras. This standard was given to tho Chhalapdars in oidur 
that it might be preeented at the coDvent of Madar Sahib in tbo king's behalf. 

162 Chhalapddr rites. 

sfcanclards, distinguisbing the various bands and contingents whicli form 
the great Khwaja's camp or laahkar. Tlicy aro gaudily draped, have 
guilded tops, and aro garlanded with flowers, which have pecuHar 
names. The cloth, and even fragments of it, after having been once 
twisted round the stick are considered to be not only sacred, but 
possessed of healing virtues, and aro eagerly sought after, especially 
by mothers who cause them to be worn by their children, if sick or 
otherwise in danger, in order to get them cured. They collect women 
of their kith and kin, form a procession headed by the men beating 
drums, and follow them singing the Khwaja's praises, till they reach 
one of these flags, to which they make offerings of sweetmeats, pice 
and cowries and sometimes even rupees, the whole being the per- 
quisite of the Chhalapdars, who are in proprietary charge of the sticks. 
A portion of the sweetmeat, after it has been offered, is returned to 
those who bring it and also distributed among any others present. 
Sometimes this ceremony is performed at the bouse of the child's 
parenta, in which case the Chhalapdd,r takes his stick or flag there and 
bbe rite is gone through mjdst the singing of the child's relatives and 
with great festivities. In some cases the ceremony of putting on the 
garlands and draping a child in the cloth of a flag is repeated yearly 
during its minority, or until the term of years, for which its parents had 
vowed to perform it, has expired. 

For three days the scene at Qutb is most noisy and the din of the vocal 
and instrumental music of innumerable processions passing through 
the streets and crossing each other is enhanced by the noise and rowdy- 
ism of the jumping Darweshes called Qalandars. In front of every 
shop and place where a rustic fan^ily is staying during the fair, as well 
as around every stick or flag erected by Chhalapdars, groups of these 
Qalandars may be seen marking time with tbeir feet which movement 
by degrees rises into high jumps. Their chorus,* while they are thus 
jumping, is— 

Mast Qalandar ! Allah hi degd I ! 

Tdrnhe kd paisd ! Allah hi degd ! ! 

JDudh malidah ! Allah hi degd ! ! 

Dham Qalandar ! Dudh malidah ! ! Allah hi degd ! ! ! 

and so on. 

•* O Darwesh free and drunk ! God will give it ! Copper coin ! God 
will give it! Milk and malidahl God will give it ! Jump Qalandar! 
God will give milk and malidah ! (lit., a sweet dish)." 

This is repeated again and again until the shopkeeper or the person 
or family addressed, gives them somethiug in cash or kind taking 
which they mov(! on to jump before others. 

In all the songs sung by the Chhalapdars, and others generally, on this 
occasion the Kbwaja's praises are the principal theme. The following 
which forms the burden of a popular song is given here as a speci- 
men : — 

3Iere dil darydo Khwdja ! Tere jhalare pe Idgi hai hhir. " My bounti- 
ful river-like KhAvaja ! Look what a concourse of people (with eager 
prayers) has assembled at thy jhalara."i 

* Sung in a loud and emphatic voice, 
t Jhalara is a large spring at the shrine of the Khwaja at Ajmer. 

Chhdligar'^Chhaner. 163 

The second fair of flags is hold in honour of Mad^r Siihib below the 
walls of the fort or red palace of Shah Jaluin ia Delhi. It is similar to 
the Olio de^^cribed above, with this diiforenro, that it is less attended 
and the flags are taken to the tomb of tlie saint at Makkinpur. One of 
the songs (or sohlds as tliey are called) snug bj the Chhalapd;irs which 
refers to Madiir Sahib is : — Lei t.o chaloji luilama Makkinpur ? In this 
song a newly married girl implores hor hnsljand to take her with him to 
Makkin])ur. These fairs are especially popular among the women. 

The third fair is held in honour of 'BalaMiydn' Saiyid Sdldr Masaud 
Ghdzi, who is said to have lost his life in one of the early wars of the 
Musalmi'ms with the idokitrous Hindus. lie was young and about to 
be married, but foiight bravely and died in the hour of victory. As 
in tiie case of the second fair, the chharidn are erected under 
the walls of the Dellii Fort. One of the songs sung in praise of Saiyid 
S^diir runs : — Merd nit hanra Sdldr hdld ! Bald merd jdgo nd : " My 
bridegroom ever young, the young Salar, whj'- does he not awake ? " 

The Chhalapddrs say they have no chaudhri, but a imnchdyat system 
is iu vogue among them. A transgressor is punished with a fine of 10 or 
12 annas with which sweetmeats are purchased and distributed among 
the jianchs. In extreme cases he is punished by temporary excom- 
munication. Marriages are confined to the community. The niMh is 
in vogue, but the bride's dower does not exceed the legal minimum 
under Muhammadan Law. The ceremonies connected with birth 
and marriage, such as sachaq, chauthi, etc., and those observed till 40 
days after death are the same as those of the other Dellii Muliam- 
madans. Widow remarriage is not unlawful, and a deceased brother's 
widow may be taken in marriage. Some of the Chhalapdiirs' songs are :— 

(1) Sung on the bridegroom's side: — Apne Hary die lane pe main 
chunchun wdrun gi Icalydn! Merd jiice hana! Ajjne Earydle bane pe 
main, etc. " I will pick the choicest flowers and shower them upon my 
dear bridegroom, the beloved of God ! May he live long." 

(2) Sang on the bride's side :~Meri acchchi hano sohdg hanri ! " My 
good, and of her husband most beloved, bride ! 

(3) Sung at a hirlh .-'—Aye Idl re tere hath men jhunjhuna. "0 my 
pretty little baby, with a rattle {jhunjhuna) in thy hand." 

One of the ceremonies observed prior to birth is held when the 
woman has been enceinte for 7 months. It is called sath ivdnsd or * the 
custom of the 7th month.' 

The Chhalapdars say that they also sing the praises of Saiyid Ahmad, 
surnamed Kabir. 

Chhaligar, a syn. for Bdzigar, used in Sii'ilkot. 

Chhamia, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Chhana, a Jilt clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar and Multan. 

Chhanb, a Jat clan (ngricnltural) found in Multan. 

Chhaner, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar, 

1 64 Chhangav'^Chhdzang. 

CnHANaAR, M. = Changar, q. v. 

Chhant, an ao'ricultural clan found in Shrllipnr. 

Chhapera, a synonym, rarely used, for CliMpcgar or Chhimba, q. v. 

CnnATnA, Chhatta, see Chatlia. 

Chhatta, a tribe of Muhammadans found in Montgomery and, as Jats 
(agricultural), in Amritsar. Probably identical with the Chatta. 

Chhazanq. — A term confined in the Punjdb to the Buddhists of Spiti, among 
whom caate was said to be unknown. It includes all the land-owning 
classes of Spiti, where everybody except Hesis and Lohd,rs owns land. 
The Chhdzang are by nationality Tibetan, or as they call them- 
selves, Bhoti, and Chdhzang means the land-holding class, and the people 
towards Tibet, Laddkh, and Zanskd,r are known as Chhdzang. It 
appears to be used in a very wide sense to mean all who speak Bhoti, 
just as Monpa means ' the people that do not know,' that is, the 

Mr, A. H. Diack, a high authority on Spiti thus described the 
tribal system in that country, where four grades of society are re- 
cognised : — 

" (i). Jo or !r90.*— This is a title enjoyed for his lifetime by one who 
marries the daughter of any high-class family, such as that 
of the Nono of Spiti or the Thakur of Lahul, or any family 
of equal importance in Laddkh or Tibet. 

(ii). Lonpo. — This term is applied to the class not so high as the Jo 
or as low as the Chha-zang. Lonpo means ' minister' and 
is an hereditary title and office. Lohrag and Da-tong-kar- 
po (Dhongrukdru) are said to be synonyms for Lonpa. 

(iii). Chhd-zang. — The word means * middle-class,'t ['good 
position'] as opposed on the one hand to 'Tarap,' or high- 
class, such as members of the family of the Nono of Spiti, 
and on the other to ' Marap,' or Mow class,' which includes 
the blacksmiths, Hesis, etc. 

{iv). Lohon. — The word means ' teacher,' and is probably the des- 
cription given of himself by some wandering Tibetan 
pilgrim. Tliere was some difficulty in ascertaining the 
'caste' of Tibetan pilgrims at the census of 1891. They 
treated the question as a joke, and returned themselves 
as " stones,"" or articles of wearing apparel,t and the like. 

Tribal distinctions are recognized in Spiti, the chief being the 
following : — (l)Nandu, (2) Gyazhingpa, (3) Khyungpo, (4) Lon-chhenpo, 

* See under Nouo for the precise meaning of this term. Mr. Diack also added that the 
same name is borne by the lady whose marriage has invested her husband with the title, 
but the ffiminine form is generally jo-j'o. The chil iren of the union do not eujoy the title, 
Jo and Tiio (Cho) are synonyms. This however is contradictud by later information from 
Spiti, (See under Jo.) 

I Mr. Diack refers to the Census Report of 1881, § 562. and apparently accepts the 
derivation (given therein) fr. ::ang 'land,' chdh 'owner.' But 'land' =^ ehing, and 
• owner ' is dagpo in Spiti, and the derivation appears to be untenable. 

J Using family names, probably. 

Social grades in Spiti. ] G5 

(5) Hesir, and (6) Nyekpa * Marriage is forbidden within tlio clan but 
one clan intermarries freely with another. A woman on niarryino- is 
considered to belong to her husband's clan and the children of both 
sexes are of the clan of the futhor. The tribes (rto'wa) are not 
local ; members of each may be found in any village. The members 
phaibat, of the clan, wherever they may live, inherit in preference 
to the people of the village, in default of natural heirs. The Lon- 
chhen-pas and the Gyazbingpas are considered somewhat sujierior 
to the others, but my informant, a Spiti man, savs that in his country, 
as elsewhere, wealth is the real criterion of respectability." More up 
to date information sliows that Mr. Diack using (no doubt) a Luhula 
interpreter has confused Ljihula and Spiti nomenclature: the true 
class distinctions are these— 

Laduhh. Ldhul, 8piH. 

I.— Eoyal or noble ... ... r(gyalrig8) ... Jorica Nono. 

11.— Upper official class ... rjeriga ... Lonrigs or Lon- Lonpo. 

m.— Farmers or yoomon ... h(mangrigB) ... h(inaDgrig8) ... Chh^zang. 

All these three classes are Nangpa or Chajang, ^insiders.' All 
below them are styled Pipas in Spiti, Chipas in Ldliul, or Tolbevrio-v. 
inLaddkh. ^ '^ 

Mr. Francke describes the Spiti people as divided into three main 
classes : Nono, Chajang and PirA. The older accounts averred that 
only in the lower ]iarts of Spiti must menials provide their own stems 
for the common huga, which in the upper part was us^d by all without 
distinction of rank. Tliis is now indignantly denied, and, it is said 
a nangpa or commoner will carefully remove the stem from a nono's 
(noble's) pipe and 'start' it with hi'^ mouth. As a fact any one, bxcoi:)t 
a fipa, may use an ordinary man's pipe, and the nonos admit that if the 
stem were used by an inferior it would only be necessary to wash it. 
The tendency is, however, for etiquette to become stricter. Just as 
the Lahulas have advanced an utterly unfounded claim to be Kanets 
by caste, so the people of Spiti, in the presence of Hindus who 
pride themselves on their caste rules, pretend to caste distinctions of 
their own. 

As to the clan system, it must bo borne in mind that the thino- most 
necessary to ensure in tlie Buddhist world is that when a man dies 
there shall be some one ready to prepare his body for burial. Persons 
reciprocally bound to pc-rform the last offices for each other are called 
phuspun (father-brotherhoods), as well as p)haihat, as they are in 
theory of the same rttVa.t as it is called in Spiti. From this orio-in 
have sprung the clans which are found in every grade of society. 
Such are the Stond-karpo, the Rumpu, the (b)Lonchhenpa or ' great 
ministorR,' the Khyung-buba, the (r)Gyansheba and the Dreba all 
found at Dhankar. Even the fipa class has clans. In marriage the 

* For an explanation of these Tibetan clan names see Tibetan. 
■j" The word meaus ' bone ' and is pronounced raspa in Ladakh. 

166 - Chhatar-^Chhimha, 

'bone' must be avoided, just aa in Kullu and the Simla Hills the 
hadcU hd ndtha is the exogamous limit. It almost goes without saying 
that the ' bone brethren ' or fhaibat inherit in preference to any one 
outside the clan. 

Chratar, a tribe of Muhainmadan Jdts found in Gnjrat. Its eponym came 
from Ucli, but his real name is unknown. As a child he visited his 
maternal grandfatiier's house and was weighed against shces fchhatarj 
whence his nickname. 

CHHECHnAK, an Ar<4in clan (agricultural) found in Amntsar. 

Chhelar. a small clan of Jilts whose principal settlement is Chhelar in 
the Ndrnaul tahsil of Nabha. They revere Bhagwan Dd,s, a Hindu 
saint of Mukla in that State, and shave their children at his shrine. 
They avoid tobacco. 

Chhibbar, (1) a section of the Muhidl Brahmans ; (2) a sept of Kanets, who 
give their name to the Chhibrot pargana of Keonthal, to which State 
they migrated from Chittor in Rd,jputiina with its founders. Cf. Balbir. 

Chhibi, Chhibu, syns. of Chhimbd. 

Chhimba. The Chhimbd,, Clihipi or Chhimpi, called Paungar or Charhoa in 
Dera Gh^zi Khd,n, is by occupation a stamper or dyer, but he also turns 
his hand to tailoring or washing. Hence the caste includes the Darzia 
or tailors, the Lildris or dyers, and the Dhobis : ^ also the Chhap^ar.f 
By religion the Chhimbds are mainly Hindus and Muhammadans. 

The Chhimba is properly a calico-printer, and stamps coloured 
patterns on the cotton fabrics of the country, and he is said occasionally 
to stamp similar patterns on paper, but he can hardly be distinguished 
from the Dhobi. Besides printing in colour, he dyes in madder, but as 
a'rule, in no other colour. He is purely an artisan, never being a 
village menial except when a washerman. In some places, though 
not in all, Chhdpegar is used to distinguish those who ornament calico 
with patterns in tinsel and foil only. 

The Hindu Chhimbd,s are divided into two sub-castes, which may not 
intermarry, but may eat and smoke together. J These are the Tank 
and Rhilla. And in Patiala the Hindu Dhobis are said to form a third 
sub-caste. § 

The following legend explains the origin of the two former sub-castes :— 
At Pindlapur in the Deccan hved one Bamdeo, who one night enter- 
tained Krishna and Udhoji, but, as the latter was a leper, the villagers 
ejected them. They were in mdyavi form, and at midnight both of them 
vanished, leaving B^mdeo and his wife asleep. Udhoji hid in a shell 
{sipi), and when Bdmdeo went to wash clothes he found the shell and 
placed it in the sun. It produced the child Nd^mdeo who was fostered 

* Shahpur. 

tSee below. 

t In Patiala the Hindu Dhobi gots are not separately given, and it is said that the Tank 
print cloth, while the RLillas are tailors and the dhobis washermen. 

§ Bat in Maler Kotla the Tauk claim to be of higher status than the Rhilla, and do 
not even eat or Bmoke with them. 

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The Chhimhd gots. 


by B^mdeo's wife. N^mcloo taught his son Tank, and Rhilla, his 
daughter's son, the arts of dyeing, printing and washing clothes.* 

Territorially the Hindu Chhiuibas have various divisions,, in Siillkot 
they are divided into the Lahori and Dogra sub-castes, which are 
said not to intermarry and which have separate gats.f In Aniritsar too 
is found a Lahori group, which is also called Chhapagar or Nawandhi.J 
It is looked down upon by the other Chhimbas, who avoid all social 
relations with its nienibers, because at weddings, it is said, they make a 
cow's imago of flour and shoot arrows at it. 

Tho Lahori got a are : — 

1. Pharwain. i 3. Takhtar. 

2. Bagri^ | 4. Ded. 

The Dogra gots are :— 

1. Karaku. 5. Rihania. 9. Chebhc. 

2. Panotra. 6. Pabe. 10. Bhumral. 

3. Dowathia. 7. Saragra. Jl. Tanotra. 

4. Andh. 8. Bagri. 

The Hindu Clihimbiis have few or no special observances at births, etc. 
In or near Delhi after childbirth, if the child be a son, the mother wor- 
ships at a well to which she is taken 1 5 days after her confinement, accom- 
panied by the women of her quarter of the city who sing songs as they 
go. The mother docs obeisance to the well, and thi'ows some sweet stuff 
and rice into it. 

Hindu Chhimbas never grmd turmeric, except at a wedding. They 
will not make harls, and their women avoid wearing kdiich bracelets 
and the use of henna. 

The Hindu Chhimbds§ observe the ordinary Hindu rites, but Namdco, 
tho famous hhagat, is their patron saint, for no bettor reason than that 
he was himself by caste a Chhimbji. Accordingly they pay yearly 
visits to his dera at Ghaman near Amritsar, and oifer him a rupee and 
ndrial at weddings. Sikh Chhimbas appear to favour the tenets of 
Guru R^m Rai. 

The Muhammadan Chhimbas have several territorial divisions, e. g., 
in Patialall there are three, the Sirhindis (cndogamous), the Deswals 
and Multunis,1I who intermarry, as is also tho case in Jind. In Gui-gilon 
the Dcsi Chhimbas are said to be converts from the Tank and Rhilla 

* But in the Maler Kotla version it is said that originally the Chhimbas were a 
homofieneous casfo, until Nanidah (-dc(i) Chhiniba took unto himself two wives, one » 
Chhimba woman, tho other of anolher caste. From tho former sprang the Tank, from the 
latter the lUiiila. Hence tho Tank assert their owu superiority as they are pure 
Chhfmbas, while the Khilla are not. 

t But the Bagri is found in both groups. 

X Nawandhi = of low degree. 

§ In Gurgaon Hindu Chhimbas, who arc very superstitions, worship a Miihammadan'a 
grave, real or supposed, calling it a Sayyid's grave, offering a cock in .'he Sayyid'a uamo 
or a dish of boiled rice at his grave, lest their domestic peace be distarbcd. 

II In this State the Muhammadan Dhobis are said to have five sub-castes — Lahori, 
Sirhindi, Alultani, Purbia and Beswal. Of these the two latter only are found in the State. 
They do not intermarry. The Deswal sections are : — Goriya, Chauban and Kanakfv41 — all 
Ba.iput clans. 

^ For some of their sections see the Appendix. 

i68 Chhina'-Chhul 

sub-castes, while the Multd^nis are of the Inroi dan which dwelt in the 
Indus valley and took to printing calico. 

In Leia the saint of the Chliinibas is Ali,the dyer, who is said to have 
been a pupil of Luquian and to have invented washing and dyeing. 
Before beginning work they iuvoke him saying: — Fir ustdd Luqvidn 
Jiakim, hikmat da, hddshdh, All rangrez, chart rahe deg ; i. e., ' Luqmd,n 
the physician is the priest and teacher, the king of craft, and AH is 
the dyer. May his bounty endure for ever.' 

Most Muhammadan Chhimbas arc Sunnis, but in Karor some few are 

The Muhammadan Chhimbas have a loose system of panchdyats, and 
in Dora Ghilzi Khan elders or mahtars are elected by the caste. 

The women of the Muhammadan Chhimbas and Dhobis wear no 
laung (nose-ring), no ivory or glass bangles, or blue clothing. The 
Muhammadan Chhimbcls will not make achdrn or baria ? and avoid 
building a double hearth. 

Chhina, an agricultural clan found in Shd^hpur : also classed as Jat, (agricul- 
tural) in Amritsar. The Chhina are undoubtedly distinct from theChima 
Jats of Sidlkot and Gujranwala, though the two tribes are frequently con- 
fused. That there are Chhina in Sidlkot appears from the fact that the 
town of Jamki in that District was founded by a Chhina Jd,t who came, 
from Sindh and retained the title of Jam, the Sindhi equivalent for 
Chaudhri. Yet if the Chhina spread up the Chenab into Sidlkot and the 
neighbouring Districts in large numbers, it is curious that they should 
not be found in the intermediate Districts through which they must have 
passed. The Chhina are also found in Mianwali and in Bahawalpur 
^5tate. In the latter they are mainly confined to the Minchin^Md 
hdrddri, opposite Pakpattan, and there have three septs, T^reka 
Mahramka and Azamka, which own land. Other septs are tenants. 
Their genealogy gives them a common origin with the Wattus : — 


r 1 , 

Jay-Pal. Eaj-Pal, 

I I 

Chhina. Wattu. 

Phern, 18th in descent from Chhina was converted to Islam by B^wa 
Farid-ud-Din of Pakpattan. The Chhinas are courageous and hard- 
working, but they are also professional thieves, though they will not 
steal from Sayyids, /a5ir6' or mirdsis, dreading the abuse of the latter. 
Though a small tribe in comparison with the Wattus they will not allow 
the latter to got the upper hand, and if they steal one buffalo from the 
Chhinas, the latter endeavour to retaliate by stealiug five from the Wattus. 

Chhinba, fern, -an see Chhimba, P. Dicty., p. 225. 

Chholiana, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Chhon, Chhoni, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Chho^i, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Cehul, or Jhul : a synonym for Malldh, used in Hoshiarpur. 

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The Chilli feudal system. 169 

Chibh.— A Rajput tribe conCnetlj in tlio Punjab, to tlio northern portion 
of Gujrd,t under tlio Jamniu Hills, but also found in tlio hills above 
that tract which belong to tho Kashmir State. It gave its name to 
the Chibhi'il, tho hill country ol: Kashmir on tho left bank of the 
Jholum river along tho Hazara border, though it appears to no 
longer occupy those hills. Tho Chibh claim to be an offshoot, 
at least in the female line, of the Katoch of Kangra, aud their eponym 
Chibh Chand is said to have left Kitngra 14 centuries ago* and settled 
at Maghlora near Bhimbar in tho Jammu Hills, receiving from R/ija 
Sripat of Bhimbai his daughter's hand, with part of his country as her 
dower, t 

The first of the tribe to become a Muhammadan was one Siir 
Sadi, who died a violent death in Aurangzeb's reign. He is 
still venerated as a martyr, and the Muhammadan Chibh offer 
the scalp looks of their male children at his tOTub, till which ceremony 
the child is not considered a true Chibh, nor is his mother allowed 
to eat meat. 

The Chibha had at one time or another a very curious and interest- 
ing feudal organisation, survivals of which are still traceable in ita 
social gradations. Succession to the throne of the Bhimbar kingdom 
was governed by the rule of primogeniture, but younger sons had a 
right to a share and so it would seem that the rnj was divided into four 
onandin — Mahlot, Bund.ila, Kahawalittn and Rajal, and each of these 
great fiefs was held by a " prince of tho blood," the eldest son being 
Kaj^ of Bhimbar, Hence the raj always remained in the family of the 
Ghaniyitl Chibhs, descendants of Ghani Khiin, grandson of Shd,di Khdn, 
the ancestor of all the Muhammadan Chibhs, wlio is identified with the 
martyr Sur Sadi. 

Tho rdj also contained four strongholds, gnrhs, viz., Dewa, Butdhi, 
Ambaridl and Kadhd,la. These garhs were distinct from the mandift 
and were in charge of the Ghaghial, descendants of Ghani Kh^in's 
cousin. Their pre^-ise relation to the mandi'^ is by no means clear, 
but both garhfi and mandifi owed allegiance to the Hdja ; though their 
holders collected their own revenue and were independent in the 
management of their estates. But whatever the precise nature of 
the mandis and garhs may have been, there were also minor fief 9, 
which were bestowed on younger sons : these were 84 in number, at 
least in theory, and were called dhcris. Tho dheris again were classed 
as dheri did, i.e., a fief with a few villages attached to it, and dheri adnd 
or ono which had no dependent villages. 

Accordingly the Chibhs are divided into three grades, Mandidl, Garhiill 
and Dherial, but now-a-days it is difficult to say who are Mandiill and 
who Garhiill, though feeling still runs high on the point. Further 
the Ghanidls are all regarded as standing high, since they onco held 
the rij, though some have now slender means, and they will not give 

* Tradition makes Chibh Chand's father, Njihar Chand, Raja of Kangra, a contemporary 
of Taimiir, but tho Chibhal (Jliibhal) was aheady known by that name to Taimiir's his- 

I A variant says that the Chibhs are of Persian descent. Na'mdn, a descendant of Dirih, 
son of Rahman, ruled Khurasan, and his descendant, Gauhar Shah, came to the Deccan and 
married Nahir Chand's daughter and their son was named Ahdar Chand, a Hindu. Hi$ 
descendant N4hir Chand became Rnja of Kangra. 

170 The Childsis. 

daughters to others. The Samwcilias, Midn^s and Malktlnas are also 
regarded as superior for uuknown reasons, and either intermarry or 
seek matches for their girls among the Sayyii^s or Gakkhars whom they 
admit to be their superiors. Lastly the Chibhs descended from Sh^di 
Kliitn havo 14 septs, mostly named after oponyms: — 

1 . Rupyd,], descended from Rup Khdn. 

2. Barwdna, from Baru Khd,n. 

3. Daphriil, from Daphar Khdn. 

4. Dhurd>l, from Dhaur Khd,n. 

5. Darwesdl, from Darwesh Khdn. 

6. Jaskdl, from Jaisak Khdn. 

7. MaindAl, from Jaldl Din, Kii'is Din and Bhurd Khdn. 

8. Bdrdnshdhia, from Bdran Khdn. 

9. Samwillid,, S 

10. Midnd, > from Muhammad Khan. 

11. Malkc4nii, ) 

12. Malkdl, from Malik Khdn. 

13. Ghaniyd,!, from Ghani Khd,n. 

14. Ghaghial, from Ghaghi Khdn. 

ChilIsi, an inhabitant of Childs, which is a canton comprising six valleys 

in the Indus Kohistan. Its inaccessibility has given the Chilasis a 

spirit of independence and a distinctive character among all the Kohistan 

''' y communities. 'J'hough but somewhat recent converts to Isldm they are 

) ' \- more fanatical' than any other Dard community, and being Sunnis, every 

V . J Sbia wKo falls into their hands is put to death, without the usual alter- 

l^ "^ native of slavery. Once subject to Gilgit, the Childsis were notorious 

for slave-raiding and they once repulsed a Sikh expedition from Kash- 
mir. In 1851 they were however subdued by that State and now give 
no trouble to its government. The love of music, dancing and polo, so 
general in the Indus Kohistdn, is unknown in Childs. Tradition says 
that the whole of Shinkdri was once ruled by a Bindu rdjd, Chachai by 
name, from Chilas, which, on his death without issue, became divided 
into republics, as it is now. Later, a civil war between two brothers, 
Bot and Matchuk, ended in the expulsion of the latter's adherents, and 
the Bote are now the most prosperous family in the canton. Tradition 
also preserves the name of Naron, the old tutelary deity of Chilas. Each 
village is independent and has a number of elected elders, jushteros, 
but they are the servants, rather than leaders, of those whom they re- 
present. The elders are mostly occupied in the details of the village 
administration, but all matters are discussed in the sigas or public 
meeting, whose decision is announced by them. If several villages 
combine to hold a sigas, each appoints ajushtero, and after the general 
discussion, which is as open as that at a village sigas, a loud whistle is 
given, after which none but the representative jushteros are permitted 
to speak. The elders' decisions about land disputes are respected, 
but criminal justice is administered by the mullahs, who profess to 
follow the Muhammadan Law, but who are really guided by ancient 
custom, which is very stron^^f in some villages. Murder is rare and is 
generally regarded as a tort to be avenged by the nearest relation. 
The blood feud is however not allowed to continue indefinitely and 
after a time the parties are made to swear peace on the Quran,— 
Biddulph, Tribes of the Eindoo Koosh, pp. 17 and 18. 




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Chiliss — Chish ti. 1^1 

Chiliss, a group of some 200 families, so called by their neighbours, but 
styling themselves Galls, found scattered in the Kohi tract in the 
Indus Kohistdn. Originally, say their traditions, settled in Buncr, they 
migrated to Swat and tlionce to the Indus in vain attempts to escape 
conversion to Islam. They are looked up to by their neighbours and 
occupy, as a rule, the best land in the country. I'robably an ofl"- 
shoot of the Torwdlik, they doubtless derive their name from Chdhil,* 
the principal village in Torwal: Biddulph, Tribes of the Hindoo Koosh, 
pp. 10, 69. 

Chima.— One of the largest Jat tribes in the Punjdb. They say that some 
25 generations back their ancestor Chima, a Chauhan Rtijput, fled from 
Delhi after the defeat of llai Tanurat (Prithi Raj), by Muhammad of Ghor, 
first to Kangra in the Delhi District and then to Amritsar, where his 
son Chotu Mai founded a village on the Beds in tho time of Ala-ud-din. 
His grandson was called Rana Kang, and the youngest of his eight 
sons, Dhol (the name appears among the Hinjra), was tho ancestor of 
their present clans— Dogal, Mohtil, Nagara and Chima. Tho Chima 
have the peculiar marriage customs described under tho Siihi Jdts, and 
they are said to bo served by Jogis instead of Brahmans, but now-a-days 
Bhania purohits ai-o said to perform their ceremonies. They are a 
powerful and united tribe, but quarrelsome. They are said to marry 
within the tribe as well as with their neighbours. The bulk of the 
tribe embraced Isldm in the times of Firoz ShAh and Aurangzeb, but 
many retain their old customs. They are most numerous in Sialkot, 
but hold 42 villages in Gujranwala, and have spread both eastwards and 
westwards along the foot of tho hills. 

It is noteworthy that tho tribe takes its generic name from its young- 
est clan, and is descended from Dhol, a youngest son. 
Another genealogy is— 

Rai Tanura. 

Chotu Mai. 

Chima (4th in descent). 

r " 1 

Audhan. Audhar. 


• lUvan, founded Chima. 

The Sialkot PamphlHt of 1806 makes them Somabansi Rdjputs, 
claiming descent from Rama (sic) Ganj. It also says they follow the 
chiindavand rule of inheritance. 

Chima, a Hindu and Muhammadan Jilt clan (agricultural) found in Mont- 

CniMNE, a Kharral clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Ch[na, a Muhammadan Jat clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

China, nee Chhina. 

Chishti. — The Chishtis are by origin one of tho regular Muhammadan 
orders. They trace their foundation to one Abu Ishaq, ninth in 
succession from Ali, tho son-in-law of ]\Iuliammad, who migi-ating 

* But Chiliss also ocours as a proper name in llurza : Ibid, p, 27. 
t Sic : for Pithora. 

172 The ChisUi sect. 

from Asia Minor, settled at Chisht, a village in Khurasan and 
became the teacher of a large body of Musalmans.* One of his 
successors, Khwaja Muin-ud-din Chisliti, a native of Sanjar in Persia, 
migrated to India in the time of Ghias-ud-din Balban, settled in Ajmer 
and established the order in India. His khalifa or immediate successor 
was Khwdja Qutb-ud-din Bakhtiar Kaki, who is buried near the 
Qutb Minar at Delhi,t and his successor was the celebrated Bab^ 
Farid Shakarganj, whose shrine is at Pakpattan in Montgomery. The 
surname of this saint is said to be derived from the fact that, owing 
to the purity of his body, all he ate became sugar : if we may trust 
another story, he " nourished himself by holding to his stomach wooden 
cakes and fruits when he felt hungry. This miraculous but inexpensive 
provender is still preserved." An immense fair is held at his shrine 
each year, and the object of every piltrrira wlio attends is to get through 
th e narrow gate of the shrine on the afternoon or night of the 6th 
Muharram. The saint is adored by Hindus^ as well as Musalmans, 
and to be a disciple of Baba Farid does not necessarily imply being 
a Chishti ; and, again, the descendants of this saint and his relations, 
carnal or spiritual, have formed themselves into a separate caste of 
men who are found on the Sutlej in Montgomery and who, though 
bearing the name of Chishti, are now in all respects an ordinary 
lay caste, quite apart from the religious order of the same name. 

Baba Farid had two disciples : one of these was Ali Ahmad surnamed 
Sd,bir, whose shrine is at Pi ran Kaliar near Rurki, and whose followers 
are known as Sabir Chishtis ; the other was the celebrated and 
mysterious Niz^m-ud-din Aulia (1232-1324 a. d.), around whose tomb 
are collected some of the choicest monuments of ancient Delhi, and 
whose disciples are known as Nizdmis. 

The Chishtis in repeating the profession of faith lay a peculiar 
stress on the words Illalldhu, repeating these with great violence, and 
shaking at the same time their heads and the upper part of their 
bodies. The sect is said to be specially affected by Shias, and it is 
distinguisbed by its adoption of vocal music in its religious services. 
The members of the order are worked up by these religious songs 
to a high pitch of excitement, and often sink down exhausted. They 
frequently Wear coloured clothes, especially clothes dyed with ochre or 
with the bark of the acacia tree. Their principal shrines in the 
Punjab are the tomb of Nizam-ud-din Aulia at Delhi, Ihe hhdngdh 
of Miran Bhik in Ambala, the shrine of Baba Farid at Pakpattan, and 
the khdngdh of Hazrat Sulaim^n at Taunsa in Dera Ghazi Khan. 

In Bahawalpur the Chishti sect has in modern times shown great 
vitality. Shaikh Taj-ud-din Chishti was a gi'andson of Farid-ud-din 
Shakar-ganj and his descendants founded the village of Chishtian in 
that State. His shrine is also called Roza Taj Sarwar. Many tribes 
accepted Islam at his hands, especially the Sodlia and Rath, and this led 
to war with the Rajputs of Bikaner. The saint on going forth to battle 

* " The Cliishti or Chishtia is aa order of Muhammadan faqirs founded by Banda NawaZ 
\Vho is buried at Kalbargah." — Punjab Census Report, 1881, Section 518. 

f See the interesting account of this saint given in the late Mr. Carr Stephen's Archxology 
of Delhi, p. 1 7-t aeqq. He is the patron saint of the Afghans, 

X In Gurgaou the shrine of Shaikh Ahmad Chishti is mainly frequented by Eiadtis. 

The Chishti revival. 173 

pitched a flag on top of liis liouso and told his womun-folk that as long as 
the flag stood thoy would know he was safe. Unfortunately the flag 
was accidentally knocked down and the women prayed for the earth to 
swallow them up as the saint had commanded. Their prayer was grant- 
ed and they were engulfed, only the edges of their shawls remaining 
outside. A tower was built on the spot and at it women still make vows. 
One of the women, however, a Bhatti by tribe, did not join in the prayer 
and was not engulfed, but made her escape. Hence the Chishtis do not 
marry Bhatti women to this day. Near this shrine, at the tomb of 
Khw:S,ja Nur Muhammad, stood five largo jand trees, called rmijau 
Pirdn de jand, or the jand trees of the five pirs. Under their shade 
Bdiwa N^uak once sat and prophesied that ho who should obtain 
possession of it would indeed bo blessed, for it was a part of paradise. 
Muhammadans hero sacrifice goats and sheop after offering prayers for 
rain. Hindus offer a covering of chintz for the restoration of health, 
and sugar and boiled grain for rain. 

The Chishti revival. — The decay of the movement headed by Bawa 
Farld Shakar-ganj had become marked, when Khwjtja Nur Muhammad 
Qibla-i-Alim, a Punwar Riljput of the Kharral tribe, revived it. This 
saint was a disciple of Maulana Fakhr-ud-din, Muhib-ul-Nabi, of Delhi. 
He had miraculous powers and once saved the sinking sliip of ono 
of his disciples,* his spirit being able to leave his body at will. ' Ho 
had promised another disciple to pray for him at his death, 
and though he pre-deceased him, re-appeared in the flesh and fulfilled 
the promise. It would seem that in a sense the rise of the Chishti 
sect marks an indigenous revival of Isldm, under religious leaders 
of local tribes, instead of the older Sayyid families. Thus the Baloch 
tribes on the Indus are often followers of the Chishti saints, but 
even the Sayyids of both branches recognize their authority. 

The four chief khalifas of Qibld,-i-Alim were, Nur Muhammad II, of 
Hcljipur or Narowala, in tahsil Rajanpur, Qiizi Muhammad Aqil, of 
Chd,chanin Sharif, Hafiz Muhammad Jamal, Multiini, and Kliwiija 
Muhannnad Sulaiman Khan, of Taunsa Sharif, in tahsil Sanghai*. Klialiia 
Muhammad Aqil was a Qoraishi and one of his descendants. Shaikh 
Muhammad Kora, founded the religious tribe of that name. Muhammad 
Aqil's shrine was at Kot Mitlian, but, when Ranjit Singh confjuorcd the 
Deraj^t, Khwaja Khuda Bakbsh, Malibub Ilahi, his descendant, settled 
at Chacharan Sharif, which may now bo regarded as the head- quarter of 
the Bahawal])ur State religion. Muhammad A{|il displayed many 
mu'acles and in his old ago, owing to his spiritual enlightenment, had no 
shadow ; so he used to come out of his house on dark nights only, in order 
to conceal his sanctity. A cloth [luugi) which passed through liis body is 
kept as a relic to this day. One of his khalifas was Maulvi Sultan Mahmud 
whose shrine is at Khan Bcla. This saint was fond of misai, a kind of 
bread, of fowls and of snuff, in his lifetime; so these are offered 
at his shrine — a clear instance of anthrojDolatry — very similar are 
the offerings made to Birs. The Siifis, or devotees of the Chishtia 
sect, have a number of songs [kdfiK) which they consider the i'ood of 
the soul. Their principal poets aro Budha Shah, Ghulam Slijih, a 

*C/. the story of the Sikh Gurii Bam Rai given at eection 32 of the Punjab Census Report, 

i 74 Chitragupta-hansi — Chitrdli. 

Sindlil, and Khwdja Gliuldm Farid, late sajjdda-iiisMn of Chachar^n 
Sharif. The Chishtis, generally, are devoted to music. Outwardly the 
followers of tlio sajjiida-nashins of Chacharftn are distinguished by a 
special head-dress, the Chd-chanin-Wclla top, or hat, which is shaped 
like a mosque and is about 15 inches high, covering the ears and 

As a caste the Chishtis appear to be absorbing the Naqshbandis, many 
ot the Qadrias and other Sufi sects, especially in the south-east Punid,b. 
liike the Bodlas the Chishtis were till lately wholly nomad. They take 
Kiijput girls to wife. There is a saying — " You can tell a Chishti by 
his squint-eyo " ; but the origin of the saying is unknown. 

CHiTRAGorTA-BANsi, oue of the two classes of the Kayasths q. v., found in 
Northern India. 

Chitrali,* an inhabitant of the State of Chitrd,!. The Chitrdlis are divided 
into three classes — Adamzadas, Arbdbzd-das and Faqir-Miskm. The 
first-named are divided into some 23 clans including the Katoe, the 
family of the Mihtar of Chitral, whence it is also called Mihtari. The 
other Adamzada clans are — 

Muhammad Bege. 
Zundre or Ronos. 

From the Rono§ families the wazirs are generally, but not always, 
chosen. The Ronos are most numerous in Yassin, Mastuj and Chitrd,l, 
and are found, though in decreasing numbers, as one goes eastward, in 
Nilgar, Gilgit, Punyal, etc. In Nagar and Yassin they call themselves 
Hara or Haraiyo, in Wakhdn and Sarikul Khaibar-Khatar, and in Shigh- 
nan Gaibalik-Khatar. Wherever found they are held in great respect. 
Three principal traditions as to their origin exist, (1) that they descend- 
ed from Zun, Rono and Harai, the three sons of Sumalik who ruled in 
Mastuj before the Shdhrei dynasty of the Shins was established ; (2) that 
they are of Arab descent, from Muhammad Hanif a, son of Ali ; and 
(3) that they came from the ancient principality of Rajauri, near Punch, 
and are descended from three brothers, Sirang, Surung and Khangar 
Phututo. In appearance generally taller than the other inhabitants of 
ChitrAl, with rather high cheek-bones, oval faces not thickly bearded, an.d 
fairly developed features, some of them resemble high-class Rajputs in 
type. They give daughters to the ruling families, and the children of 

Atam Boge. 


Khoshal Bege. 



Munfiat Khane. 



* Chitral, Chitrar or Chitlar, as it is also called, will be found described in the Imperial 

•f The Khushwakt6 were rulers of Mastiaj and conquered Yassin. Descendants of the 
Kfttore and Khushwakte families are alike called Mihtarjao or Mihtarbak, i,e. sons of 

X Called collectively Shah Sangale : descended from the common ancestor and founder 
of the Katorl and Khushwaktd families. 

§ Rono appears to be unquestionably the same word as Rand, the change from d to o 
being very common. Philological speculation might suggest the following equivalents: 
Sumalik = Siwalik ; Zun = Jun, the aborigines of Si^lkot ; Khalar = Kshatriya, Khattri, 
or Khattar (iu Bawalpindi). 

Classes in Chitrdl. 176 

such marriages can succeed to all the honours of the father's family. They 
all give daughters to Sayyids, and tlio Zundro of Chitrill do not refuse 
fchoni to the Pathdns of Dir. In their turn, however, they take wives 
from both Shins and Yeshkuns, and the children of such wives rank 
as Ronos and, if daughters, can marry into vuling families. Occasioiially 
Rono women are given to Shins and Yeshkuns, but this is a penalty for 
misconduct when they cannot find husbands in their own class. Kulino- 
families give daughters born of slaves or concubines to Konos, but not 
those born of lawful wives.* 

The Arbclbzddas and Faqir-Miskin are really one and the same, but 
the latter are the very poor class, some having barely sufficient to live on. 
The Kho, who inhabit the whole of Kashkar K4la, the Lut-kho and 
Arkari valleys and the mam valley down to Drosh, are by class Faqir- 
Miskin. They call the country Kho also, and divide it into Turi-klio 
(Upper), Mul-kho (Lower) and Lut-kho (Great). Tliey speak Kho- war, 
and are divided into classes such as the Toriye, Shire, Darkhane and 
Shohane, but have no caste distinctions. The Yidghal are also classed 
as Faqir-Miskins, as are the Kalash and Bashgali Kafirs, Danoariks, 
Gabr, and Siilh Posh — all broken tribes subject to Chitral. 

The Arbdbzddas are really well-to-do Faqir-Miskin who have been 
rewarded for services to the Mihtar. Coolies and ponies are furnished 
for his service by both these classes, the Adamzddas being exempt, and 
this corvee falls very heavily on them. 

The Ashima-dek (or more correctly Hashmat-diak), according to 
Biddulph. is a large class, ranking below the Zundre and comprising 
the following clans : — 

Atam Be^6. 
Bairani Begd. 


Kashe, of Kaab, in Baclakhsban. 

Koshial Beg6. 



Shighnie (of Shighnan). 

The term Hashmat-diakf signiifies food-giver, and this class is bound to 
supply the Mihtar and his retainers with 8 sheep and as many kharwdrs 
of wheat from each house whenever he passes through their villao-cs 
but it pays no other revenue. 

In the valley below Chitral, scattered among the villages, a number of 
the meaner castes are found, as in the Gilgit and Indus valleys. They are 
called Ustilds or "artificers" and include Dartocho (carpenters), Daro-ere 
(wooden bowl makers), Kulale (potters), Doms (musicians), and Mochis 
(blacksmiths j. The two latter rank below the rest and (»nly intermarry 
among themselves. The other three intermarry without restriction 
inter se, and occasionally give daughters to the Faqir-Miskin class. 
Ustilds are not found in Kdshkdr Bdla or Lut-kho. 

The physical characteristics of the Chitrjllis vary little. In appearance 
the men are light, active figures from 5' 5'' to 5' 8" in heio-ht. Thouo-h 
well made they are not, as a rule, remarkable for muscular development 

* It is iiTineceasary to point out tho analogies presented by the social system in Cl.itril 
to that which prevails in Kangra, as described by Sir James Lyall in hia Settlement Revort 
on that District. *^ 

t From hashmat or ashmaf, food, given to the Mihtar and his servants when thev are 
travelling, by the Arbabzada claas. ^ 

1 76 Dress in Chitrdl. 

presenting in this respect a marked contraCst to the Tartar races, and, 
despite their hardy, simple lives, they soom unequal to any prolonged 
physical elTorl. Tlioir constitutions also lack stamina and Ihey succumb 
easily to disease or change of climate. This want ot physique is 
strongly marked in the Shins. In disposition tractable, good-tempered, 
fond of merry-making, the Chitrdlis are neither cruel nor quarrelsome 
and readily submit to authority, though the Arbdbzdda class compares 
unfavouralDly with the older tribes, having been guilty of cruelties in war. 

The women are pleasing-looking when young, but not particularly 
handsome. The Khos of Faqir-Miskin status, however, are Indo-Aryans 
of a high typo, not unliko the Shins of the Indus about Koli, but better 
looking, having oval faces and finely- cut features, which would compare 
favourably with the highest types of beauty in Europe. Their most 
striking feature is tbeir large, beautifift eyes which remind one of 
English gypsies, with whom they share tho reputation of being expert 
thieves. They are also proud of their unusually fine hair. The Chitral 
. women used to be in gi-eat demand in the slave markets of K^bul, 
Peshdwar and Badakhshdn. The fairest complexions are to be seen 
among the Burish of Yassin and Hunza where individuals may be found 
who might pass for Europeans, and red hair is not uncommon. 

In Chitrc41, as in some of the valleys to the westward, many customs 
have in part disappeared under the influence of IsMm. 

The usual dress in Chitrdl, as in Yassin, Hunza, Nagar, Sirikot, 
Wdkhdn, etc., is a loose woollen robe, for which those who can afford it 
substitute cotton in summer. This is of the same cut as the woollen 
robe, but has quilted edges, worked round the neck and front with silk 
embroidery. When first put on the sleeves, which are very full, are 
crimped in minute folds, right up to the neck, giving the wearer 
a clerical appearance. Boots of soft leather are also worn. As in 
WAkhdn and Sirikot the men wear small, scanty turbans, not the 
rolled cap of Gilgit and Astor. The women wear wide trousers, over 
which is a loose chemise of coarse-coloured cotton stuff, fastening in the 
middle at the throat, and coming down to the knees. The opening is 
held together by a circular buckle, from which hangs a curious 
triangular silver ornament called peshawez, that varies in size 
according to the circumstances of the wearer. Round the neck are 
generally one or two necklaces of silver beads with oval silver medallions, 
and a piece of carnelian or turquoise set in them. Tliey also wear a 
loose woollen cap, generally of dark colour such as brown; but this 
kind of cap is now confined to women of the lower classes residing in 
the upper valleys^ and Chitral i women of the better classes wear 
embroidered silk caps. In the Shin caste unmarried women are 
distinguished by a white cap, which is never worn by married Shin 

Both men and women wear numbers of charms, sewn in bright- 
coloured silk, and suspended from the cap or dress by small circular 
brass buckles. Some of the buckles are veiy tastefully worked. A 
curious kind of cloth is sometimes woven out of bird's down. That of 
wild fowl and of the great viilture (G. himalayensis) is most generally 
used. The down is twisted into coarse thread, which is then woven like 
ordinary cloth. Robes made of it are very warm, but always have a 

Customs in Chitrdl, 177 

fluffy uncomfox'tablc look, suggcstivo of dirt. They arc only made in the 
houses of those in good uircuujstances. The iia^hm of the ibex is also 
in great demand lor wai'm clothing, but it never seems to lose its strono- 
goaty smell. 

When young the men shave the whole top of the head from tlie fore- 
head to the nape of the nock, the hair on botli sides being allowed to 
grow long and gathered into a single large curl on each side of the 
neck. The beard is kept shorn.* Youths of the better class only shave 
the top of the head for a breadth of two inches in Iront, tapering to half 
an inch behind. Those who cannot boast long locks dress their hair 
into numerous small cork-screw ringlets all round the head — an ancient 
Persian fashion.t On the ajjproach of middle ago the whole head ia 
shaved in orthodox Muhammadan fashion and the beard allowed to grow. 
The effect of the long-flowing locks reaching to the waist is often ex- 
tremely picturesque. 

The mode of salutation between equals, on meeting after a prolonged 
absence, is graceful and pleasing. After clasping each other, first on one 
side and then on the other, hands are joined and each kisses the other's 
hand in turn. When the meeting is between two of unequal rank the 
inferior kisses the hand ot the superior and he in return kisses the for- 
mer on the cheek — in the anciout Pei'sian fashion. J 

In Chitral and Yassin, as in Shighnan, Badakhshan, VVakhdn, Gilgit 
and Hunza§ a chief's visit to a chief is celebrated by the kubah, an 
observance thus described Ijy Biddulpli : — "On arrival, the visitor is con- 
ducted to the Sliawaran,!! and the followers of both chiefs show their 
dexterity in firing at a mark set up on a tall pole, from horseback, while 
galloping at speed. After this a bullock is led out before the guest, 
who draws his sword and does his best to cut its head off at a single 
blow, or deputes one of his followers to do so, and the carcase is given 
to his retinue." 

In tho Khowar tongue the term " uncle" is applied to the brothers of 
both father and mother without distinction : but aunts on tho mother's 
side are styled " mother " which may point to polygamy as the ancient 
custom of the Khos.^ Marriage of a widow with the husband's brother 
is common, though not compulsory. 

Cases of uifidelity are extremely common, and the men show more of 
the jealousy of their wives usual in older Muhammadan communities. 
In case of adultery the injured husband has the right to slay the 
guilty couple when he finds them together, but should ho slay the one 
and not tho other he is held guilty of murder."^* When conclusive 
proof is wanting in a trial before the icazir, guarantee is taken for the 

* These fashions have also been adopted by the Baltis in Baltistan. 

f Biddulph cites Rawlinson's Ancient Monarchies, IV. 

J Biddulph cites Strabo, Bk. XV, Ch. 3, 20. 

§ In N4gar it is customary to kill tho buffalo with au arrow. 

|{ Polo ground : ao-callcd in Shine. lu Chitrali it is called jindli. 

^[ Maulavi Ghulam Muhammad however notes that the mother'.s sister is Cfllled bia^, 

** Tlu3 is the rule in Saiikul and Wakhau as well as south of the Hindu Kvs'd. 

U. (fUC 

J 78 Chitrdli games. 

future by the accused [)laciiijjf his lips to the woman's breast, and so 
sacred is the tic nf fosterage thus created that it has never been known 
to be broken. The husband has howover a right to both their lives.'^ 

The custom ol: fosterage is maintained among all the ruling families 
of the states of tlie Hindu Kiish and its ties seem stronger than those of 
blood kinshi}). When a child is born it is assigned to a foster-mother 
and brought u]) in her house, so that f rec|uently the father does not see it 
till it is six or seven years old.t The fortunes ol' the foster-mother's family 
are unalterably bound up with those of the child and should exile be 
his lot they accompany him. On the other hand if he rises to influence 
his foster-father is generally his confidential adviser and his foster- 
brothers are employed on the most important missions. 

Friendship too is commonly cemented by the milk tie. If a woman 
dreams that she has adopted any one, or a man dreams that he has 
been adopted by any woman, the tie is created in the manner, 
already dpscribed as in vogue to make the woman tahu to the man. 
Not many years ago this custom was very common, though it is falling 
into disuse.J A young couple at marriage sometimes induce a friend 
to become their foster-father, and the tie is ratified when they eat 
together : both being seated opposite each other, the foster-father, 
seated between them, takes a piece of bread in each hand and 
crossing his arms puts the bread into their mouths, taking care 
to keep his right hand uppermost. Marriage between foster-kindred 
is regarded as incestuous. Among the Hashmat-diak the tie of fosterage 
is formed in a peculiar way, for in order to strengthen tribal unity it is 
customary for every infant to be suckled in turn by every nursing mother 
of the clan. In consequence there is a constant interchange of children 
going on among the mothers. 

Polo is the national game and is called ghcil in Chitriil where 
it is played in a special way. Shooting from horse-back at a gourd 
filled with ashes, or at a small ball, hung from a pole 30 feet high, 
is also pi*acti:3ed. Dancing is the national amusement, several different 
steps being in vogue, each with its special air. Almost all these 
commence slowly, increasing in pace till the performer is bounding 
round the circle at top speed. In Chitnll and Yassin the Hashmat-diak 
affect to despise dancing, but the mlers keep dancing-boys for 
their amusement. Singing is common and the Khowar songs, which 
are mostly amatory in character, show a more cultivated taste than 
those in the Shina tongue, the music of the language and the better 
rhythm of the verse entitling them to the first place in Dard poetry.§ 

The Chitrdlis are noted for their swordsmanship, which has gained 
many a victoi'y over matchlocks. 

* But if he does not kill them and intends to divorce his wife, or if his wife or daughter 
has been enticed away by some one, he can take as compensation some or all of the 
seducer's property. This form of divorcr' is called in Shina pito phare hdk, i.e.. words uttered 
while turning his back towards tbe assembly, as by turning his back he signifies his accept- 
ance of compensation, 

t The Raj 4 of Bashahr observes a similar custom. 

J Milk from a woman's breast is esteemed a sovereign remedy for cataract and other 
eye-diseases. lis use establishes the milk-tie for ever afterwards. 

§ In Gilgit, Hunza and Nagar the songs are generally of a warlike nature and celebrate 
the deeds of dillcrcut princes. 

Chitrdli feslivah. 179 

The Cliitnil calendar is computed by tim aolar year, commencing 
with tlio winter solstico ; bat tlie inontlis take their names from pecu- 
haritics of season or agricultural operations : — 

1. Thungshal or Tbhongshal (longi 7. Yogh (full). 

nights). I 8. Miizho Was (middle). 

2. Phhoting (extreme cold). 9. Poiyaniso (the cad). 

3. Ariyiin (wild duck). 10. Kliolkrcmi (tlircshing). 

4. Shahdagh (black mark).* 11. Kisliman (sowing). 

5. Boi (sparrows). 12. Chhauchori (loaf-falling). 
0, Ronzak (trembling— of the| 

growing corn). 

The Muhammadan calendar is, however, coming into use, especially 
among the Uashinat-diak class. The Muhammadan days of the week 
are used, but Friday is called Adinna. 

In Chitrd,! the new year festival is called Dashti. It corresponds 
to the Nost of Yasin, Gilgit, Hunza, Nagar, Ponyal, Astor and Gor, 
but no bonfires are lit as in those territories. J 

At the commencement of the wheat harvest the Phindik,§ as it is 
called in Chitral, is observed. Tlie day having boon fixed with reference 
to the state of the crop, the last hour of daylight for the precedino- 
ten diiys is spent in dancing on the f<liawaran. At dusk on the evening 
before the festival, a mcmbci- of every household gathers a handful 
of ears of corn. This is supposed to be done secretly. A few of 
the ears arc hung over the door of the house, and the rest are roasted 
next morning and eaten steeped in milk, 'l^he day is ]->assed in the 
usual rejoicings, and on the following day harvest operations are com- 
menced. As some crops are always more forward than others, and 
ready to bo reaped before the appointed day, no restriction is placed 
on their being cut ; but to oat of the grain before the festival would 
provoke ill-luck and misfortune. 

Next comes the Jastandikitik || or " devihdriving " which celebrates 
the completion of the harvest. When the last cro]) of the autumn 
has been gathered, it is nt-cessary to drive away evil sjnrits from 
the granaries. A kind of porridge called mul is eaten, and 
the head of the household takes his matchlock and fires it iuto 
the floor. Then, going outside, he sets to work loading and firing 
till his powder-horn is exhausted, all his neighbours being similarly 
employed. Tho next day is spent" in the usual rejoicings, part of 
which consists in firing at a sheep's head set up as a mark. 

A festival called Binisik, " seed-sowing " — somewhat similar to the 
Chilli of Gilgit and the Thumor Piopan or "the Tliam's sowing" of 
Hunza and Nt'igar — takes place in Chitr.i.1 ; but the present ruling 

* In allusion to the earth's appearance when the snow melts. 

t Nos means ' fattening,' and alludes to tlie slau.i^htering of cattle whirh takes place. The 
first day is one of work, and is dovoted in every household to dressing and storing 
the carcases of bullocks, sheep, and goats slaughtered a few ilays previ(jusly. This is 
done by drying them in a i)articular way, so that they remain lit for food for several 
months. This is necessary because the pastures have become covered with snow and 
only sufficient fodder is stored to keep a few animals alive through the winter. 

X In Chilas and Darcl, too, no bonfires are in vogue at the Daikio, as this fesavai is 
there called. 

§ Called Ganoni in Gilgit and Shigat in Wskhan. 
jl The Domeniko or " smoke -making " of Gilgit. 

180 The Chilli festival in Gilgit. 

class having novor identified themselves with their humbler subjects, 
the ruler takes no part in it.'^ The following account of the Chilli 
festival in Gilgit is contributed by Maulavi Ghulam Muhammad, author 
of The Festivals and Folklore of Gilgit : — 

" At night a big goat called asirkhan ai mugar (the goat of the kitchen) 
was killed at the R^'s house and a feast prepared by cooking about a 
maund of rice and two of flour. The baking of the bread was com- 
menced by an unmarried girl, on whom a gift [khillat] of a chddar (head 
cover) of longcloth was bestowed, but the other women took up her 
task. In former times a big loaf, called hi ai tiki (the loaf of seed), of 
a maund of flour, was also cooked on a fire made of straw, and distri- 
buted, half to a man of the Katchalat family, a fourth to the yarfa 
(the Rajfis grain collector), and a fourth to the Rdjd-'s ploughmen. But 
on this occasion three loaves (two of 20 sers each and one of ten sers) 
were prepared. The big loaf was about seven feet in circumference 
and four inches thick. One of them, with 24 sers of flour, wasgiveu to 
the Katchata in the morning, and the other two were divided equally 
between the yarfa and the ploughmen in the afternoon. The local 
band played all through the night with dancing and singing. At 
10 in the morning the people of Gilgit, Barmas, etc., assembled at 
the R^'s house where a durhar was observed, i-e., some ghi, chilli leaves 
and seeds of the wild rue were placed on an iron pan, beneath which 
a little fire was made in order to fumigate the air with its smoke. 
The bandsmen and the man who had brought the load of chilli 
branches from the jungle, were then each given a khillat of a muslin 
turban. A khillat of ti turban and a choga (cloak) was also given to 
Ghulam, one of the Katchata family, whose face was then rubbed 
with flour, a small loaf of bread mixed with ghi being given him to 
eat. According to custom while eating this he ought to have bellowed 
like an ox, but this I'ite was not observed. A maund of wheat was also 
put in a leather bag. The procession was ready to proceed to the 
Rd's field by about 11-30. The bag of grain was loaded on the 
Katchata, one man took the iron pan used in the Duban, and another 
took the two big loaves, the one uppermost being covered with about 
four sers of butter with a pomegranate placed in the middle, while two 
chilli branches were stuck in the butter r-ound the pomegranate. Two 
men carried a he- and a she-croat, while the remainder of the procession 
had branches of c/tiZZi in their hands; and the procession, with the band 
playing in front, started for the Rd,'s field whei e the sowing was to be 

* In Yasin this festival is accompanied by a curious custom. The charvelu is mounted 
on a good liorse aod clad in a robe of honour given him by the Mihtar. In this way 
he is conducted to the polo ground, where all seat themselves while the music strikes 
up, and the tnrangfah gallops twice up and down the ground. Should any accident happen 
to him, such as either himself or his horse falling, it is regarded as a presage of mis- 
fortune to the whole community, and of speedy death to himself. In order to avert exil, 
he and his family observe the day as a solemn fast. 

+ A family of Gilgit, which in ancient times became such a source of danger to the chief 
of Gilgit, that it was attacked and massacred to a man, only a pregnant woman managing to 
escape towards Darel. After this the crops of Gilgit did not flourish for several years, and 
a damjdl (soothsayer) said that its fertility depended on the Katchata family, and that until 
a man of that clan was brought there to commence the seed-sowing the crops would never 
flourish. After a great search the son of the woman who had escaped towards Darel was 
fouiid and brought to Gilgit. On his return the crops gave a gocd outturn. 

Chohang-^ChoMhi. 181 

The Katchata then took from a leather baj^ one affor the other 4 
handfiils of wlieat, in eacli of wliich he rnixod a wa.s7ia of gold-dust., 
and o-avo them to Kajii Ali Dad Khdu, wlio throw the first handful 
towards tho west, the second towards the east, tho third to tho 
north and the fourth to the soutii. Then the Rti himself ploughed 
three turns in his field with a pair of bullocks which were ready on tho 
spot. The ivazir of Gilgit ought then to have ploughed three turns but 
this was omitted. The band then commenced pLaying and two grey- 
beards of good family, with swords and shields in their hands, jumped 
forward and began to dance amid joyous cheers from the people. This 
dance is called achhush meaning ' prestige^ or ' pomp,' and is intended 
to awaken the deity of prestige Meanwhile a hc-go;it was, accordino* 
to custom, killed by a man of a Rono family. This goat is called 
acWiush ai mugar, i.e., ' tho goat of the deity of pomp ' and is sacrificed 
in his honour. Its head and two of its foft were separated and two 
men, one with the head and thn other with the two feet in their hands, 
came forward and danced amid the rejoicings of the people. All tho 
flesh of tho goat was, as is customary, given to the people of Barmas 
village to prepare a feast. A she-goat, called the yadeni ai ayi, i.e., 
' the goat of tho deity of drums,' was then killed and given to tho bands- 
meu. The procession then started back to the Rajii's house where the 
feast cooked at night was served. The Rdju had to give some bread 
to tho niotabars and the bandsmen from his own dish. This custom 
is called ishjnn ; after that tho people started for the shawaran (])olo 
ground) to play polo and make merry. After polo the people no-ain 
went to the Rji'a house and dined there- Tho Katchata commenced 
ploughing his fields the same day, while the other zamhuldrs did not 
commence work on their fields till the next day."* 

Chohano, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Ami itsar. 

CaoHAR, a Dogar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

CaoKAEi, a Jd,t clan (agricultural) found in Mukan. 

* Tho corresponding Thomil festival of Piniidl is thus describod by the Maulavi : 

" A very intereatin,!!; ceremony known as tlie Thomil used to bo observed every year at 
Sher Killa, tho seal of tho Ilaja of Piuu;U, before seed-sowiiii;. On tlio day it was to be 
observed, the people visited tlic liajii in his Fort and t^ot from him 10 or 2u scrs of Hour, 4 
or G scrs of ghi and one big goat. Tim Hour was mado into broad thin leaves on which 
the ghi was placed. Tho preliminaries were observed in the Fort. All the persons present 
held in their hands a small branch of tho holy juniper tree, aad thoso possessing oims 
brought their weapons Avith them. From the gate of the Fort, tho Raja attended by^ his 
people marcliofl out to (he open Holds among tlieir shouts and cries, a band playini? various 
war-tunes. The assembly then gatliered in an ojien Held, and tho cooked leaves were 
presented to the Rija who tasted one of them. The rest was then distributed amonc all 
present. After tho feast prayer was madn for an abundant crop. Tho goat was then 
killed, and leaving the carcase boliind, its iiend was brought before the assembly and 
being greased with butter, lloiu- was spriidded on it from tho forehead down to the nose. 
Tho head was then placed at some distance as a tar<;et to be lired at. Tho firing was opened 
by the Raj^ who was followed by his vwtahar.^ and any other who possessed fire-arms. 
WHiosoever hit tho head was liable to contribute a chalar of country wino. When this 
target practice was over, the assembly dispersed after a nnti dance, which was civcn by a 
motuhcir of th« Raja, who used to him with a turban. In the evening the goat's 
flesh was roasted and enjoyed with tho wino contributed by thos(> who had hit'lts head io 
tho day. Only the people of Sher Killa had the right to share in this merry-making, no 
one else from other villages of Punial being even allowed to attend it. A few years ago 
this ceremony was discontinued, but it was revived this year (I'JIO)." 

182 ChoJcar'-^Chuhrd, 

Chokar, Chliokar, a Gujar tribe, found in KarnAl, where they have lonpf been 
settled. Iininio-ratiag from beyond Muttra they once hold a chauhisi, 
or group of 21 villages, with Namaunda as their head-quarters. 

Choke r A, a Muhammadan Jiit clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Choniya, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Mulfcdn. 

CnoNPRA, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Araritsar. 

Chopea, a Khatri section. 

Chosar, a J^t clan (agricultural) found in Mnlt^n. 

Chota, a Mahtam clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

CeoTiA, one oE the clans of the Pachddas (9. v.). They claim to be Chauhd,n 
Kdjputs by descent from their eponjm, Chotiji. Most of them are 
Muhammadans and only a few Hindus. 

Chowah, Chowan, a J^t clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Chuchkana, a clan of the Sidls. 

CeuHAL, an agricultural clan found in Shdhpnr. 

Chuetan, (? Cbauhdn) a sept of Banrias, claiming Chaubd,n descent, found 
in Fei'ozepur. They avoid the use of oil in lamps, and use ghi instead. 
After the wedding a girl seldom revisits her parents' home, and if 
in consequence of a quarrel with her husband's people she does do 
Fo, and dies in her paternal home, her parents are bound to find 
another bride for her husband in her stead. Fornication in this sept 
is punished with excommunication and re-admission to the caste only 
permitted on payment of a fine, but even that does not remove the stigma. 

Chuhra. — The sweeper or scavenger, and hence the out-caste, par excellence, 
of the Punjab, whose name is popularly supposed to be a corruption 
of Sudra."^ It has many synonyms, but few of them are precisely 
the exact equivalent of Chuhr^. Thus a Chamdr is, probably by 
origin, a Chuhra who works in leather, but the Chamars appear to 
form almost a distinct caste, though both the castes are placed in the 
same rank and lumped together in the popular phrase Chuhr^-Chamar, 
just as Mochi-Juhihd, is used to denote collectively the two castes 
which bear those names. As a scavenger or rather as a 'sweeper up 
of dusc ' the Chuhra is termed khdk-roh. As a domestic he is 
ironically t styled Mihtar or 'chieftain': as a worker in leather 
he is called a Dhed (lit. 'crow '), as a weaver he is styled Megh, 
at least in Sid,lkot, in which district the Meghs however form to all 
intents and purposes a tjeparate caste : and as an executioner he is 
known as Jallad. Further as a tanner the Chuhra is called a 
Khatik in the Eastern Punjab, and as a breeder of swine he is known 
as a Hiili. These two groups appear to form distinct castes, or at 
least sub-castes which rank below the Chuhrii, proper. The Khatiks 
have a sub-group called Basur. 

Chtinge of religion also involves the adoption of a new title and 
the Chuhra on conversion to Sikhisra becomes a Mazbi or Mazhabi, 

* Once Balmik, founder of the caste, arrived late at a feast given by a Bhagat and 
found only fragments of it left. These he devoured and earned the name of Chuhra or 
'one who eats leavings.' 

t But in Gurgaon mihtar is used as equivalent to chcntdhri and the term may be origin- 
ally free from any taint of irony. 


'7; They will eut dead bodies of It « "'^' '""-''"'' '^ "^' 
rds), but not foxes, &c T,!,%W,. ■ n' i"^'' *""«•' '•'>'g« 
Sandal, a Chdhra, who „sed 7„ 'f "'' ^■'"''•'^' i^''''' f™'" 

re was another Club a who use I t„ r"" g;;^^' depredations. 
: with the "cavern "j a!,jeat men IC "! *''" ^"'^ ^''k (the 
at night until quite latelvThl '''r ^^'"^^ ""^'^^'^ t" 
Bar Tattar, I'.e., tlie desert ^' P^°P'^ sometimes call 

The Chuhra grotqys. 183 

while one who embraces Isli'im becomes a Musalli,* vr in the south-west 
of the Punjab a Kuitana,t or ho niuy ever aspire to be entitled iJindar : 
indeed in the villages ol" the i'aclihada KajpiitH of hsirsa the peu|ilo who 
remove filth are called Dindar-Kluikrob and they follow Muhaniniadan 
observance.-, being even admitted to tmoke with otlier Muliaimiiadans. 
Bhangi is also used, but not very correctly, as ii synonym for Cliuliia. 

The Chuhras' relations to other castes vary consideral)ly. They aro 
distinctly superior to the Sausis, from whom alone they will not eat 
in Niibha. 13ut in Gurgaon they are also said to look down upon the 
Changars or Dliias, who are makers of winnowing sieves, and they 
are said to refuse food from the Uhanak's hands too, thongli tJieir 
claim to superiority is a doubtful one. The Chuhras aro split up into 
various groups : 


Deswali — of the Gangotic plain. 
B^ofi-i — of the Great Indian Desert. 

Sotarwala— of the rivei'ain lands. 
Janfflilke — of the JanLral tract. 

Various other divisions exist, being recognised by the Chuhras them- 
selves if not by others. Such are : — 

1. Bahniki. | 2. Ldl-Begi. 

These two are really identical, Lai Beg having been Balmik's disciple. 
Both terms aro thus equivalent to ' disciples of Balmik or Lai Beg.' 

The gots of the Chuhras are numerous and some are wide-spread. 
Various origins are claimed for them. Thus the Bohat, found in 
Gurgaon, claim to bo Punwar Rajputs, and the Sdrwdn, also of Gurgaon, 
to be Chauhans. There is also a Chauhd,u got, south of the Sutlej. 

In Rohtak the Lohat also claim to be descendants of one Sdnjhar 
Das, a Rd,jput, while the Baohar say they are Punwar Rdjputs from 
Dhciranagri in the Deccan and that their ancestors immigrated into 
that District with the Ktlyaths. These two gotii do not intermarry with 
Changars, and lay stress on the necessity for marrying a girl before 
she is L5 or 16. They regard Bdlmik as God's brother and revere him 
as their prophet with a Muhammadan ritual, reciting prayers (navidz) 
in a line headed by an imam, and prostrating themselves with the 
words : — Balmik hafi, Bdliaik slulfi, Balmik nm'dfi, holo momno icohi ck. 

The Pail-powar got, in Rohtak, also claims Rajput origin, saying 
that a Rdjput woman who was pregnant threw in her lot with the 
Chuhrds. Her son was called a Pail-powdr on account of her descent. 
This got reveres Guru Ndnak, docs not employ Brahmans, and gets its 
weddings solemnized by one of its own members. But it buries its dead. 

The original division, Dr. Youngson was informed, was into Lute, 
Jhae, and Tengre, the Lute being Manhd,s Rajput, wandering Dogras ; 
the Jhae, Dh^o or Sahi being named from their founder, who, when 
a child, slept beside a hedgehog [sch) ; and the Te'ngrc being makers 
of wionowing-sieves, living in the desert, and named Tengre on account 
of their pride. Besides the three original divisions, there are Goriyd, 
so called from the fact that their founder was born in a tomb {gor). 

* Musalli may bo defined as a Clmhi'a converted to Islam who has abandoned hardin 
food, eatinf^ only haldl. The Muaallia do not intermarry with the Chuhras, or at least 
only take dauj^hters from them. 

t Kurtaua or Kotaiui is said to be derived from Uindi kora, 'whip,' nixd tan n a 'to 
stretch,' and thus to mean ' flogger,' because swuepora wero employed aa executioners by 
Muhammadan rulers. 

184 Chuhrd genealogy. 

They bail from Delhi. TIio founder was Slmli Jahan^s son. He was 
also called Kandara, because lie spoke harshly.* 

Next come : Pal.han, originally from Kdbul, in Akbar's time. There 
were three brothers, of wh«m phagana was the eldest. They entered 
the country as /agiri', or ji5ir5. Gil; from Chakrari in Gujrd,nwdld,. A 
tree sheltered the iirst of the name in a time of rain: and in Dera 
Ghazi Khan tlie section respects bricks. Bhatti ; from the Bar in 
Gujrauwala, Findl Bhattian, Dulla being their chief. Sahotre; in 
Akbar's time Sahotra was thrown to the tigers, but the tigers did not 
injure him. In Dera Gha:,ii Khan the Sahotra section respects the 
lion. iSoeni Bliunniar ; descendants of Raja Karn, the Brahman, who 
gave away Ij maunda of gold every day before he ate his food. 

Then follow Laddar; Khokar, who are said to avoid eating the heart 
of a dead animal in Montgomery, while in Dera Ghd,zi Khdn they do not 
eat hharta or things roasted on the fire ; Khonje, Kaliane, Ratti, Mathi, 
Burt, Mome (in ildqa Moma near Gondhal). The Momi are said to be 
descended from Biilmik, Hauns, Chapriban (in Khak beyond Lahore, 
makers of wicker-work), Ghussur, Balhim, Labante, Nahir. 

The Dum, the Chulira, the Mirasi, the Machchi, the Jliiwar, and the 
Changar, are all of the same origin. They claim to be indigenous in the 
Sialkot District, at least as far as the older divisions are concerned. 

In the time of the Pandavas and Kauravas there were four sons of 
Kanwar Brahma, viz., Puraba, Partha^ Siddhra, and Prashta, the last 
being also called Jhaumpra, from living in a jungle. There are other 
names applied to him and to his successors, such as Ghungur Beg, AU 
Maluk, Lai Beg, Pir Chhota, Balmik, Bala. The following genealogical 
tree was given, but I presume it is a voiy uncertain one : — 

A Genealogy. 


1 ■ 
Kalak Das, and his wife Silawanti. 


Eighteen generations, all jdngli. 

B41a Rikhi and his house. 




* Another version (Ironi Moutgomcry) is that Jhata, Jhaba, Tiugri, and Athwal were 
four brotliera, probably Muharamadans. Of these Jhata became a follower of Baba Farid, 
and his descendants, called Jhatas, continued to observe the Muhammadan law (i.e., did 
not become Chuhras). Jhaba's and Tingra's descendants worked as Chuhras, and are 
kuownasJhais (Chais') and TIngras, respectively. Of Athwal's progeny some remained 
Muhammadans, while others became Chuhras and are now known as Athwal Chnhraa. 

The Jhaba (Jhai or Chai) section is closely associated with Multan, When that city 
was founded, tradition asserts that the king commenced to build a fort which collapsed 
as fast as it was built. The spot was held by the Jhaba Bhangis, one of whom offered 
himself as the fort's foundation-stone, and is said to be still standing in the Khani Burj 
of the Fort. Some people regard this hiirj as a place of pilgrimage. The Jhai — possibly 
owinfT merely to his fortunate name — was sacrificed to ensure victory in battle — Jhaye 
sandhi faich ^vandi, which is explained to mean, if a living Chuhra be built into a thick 
wall of burnt brick before going to war, victory is assured. 

In Tarn Taran tahsil, Amritsar District, Brahma's son, Chuhra, had three sons. Lata, 
Jhaba, and a ^iclMag named Tingru, from whom are dttscynded the 2| original eectioni of 
the caste. 





Anothcb Genealogy ob EosaiNAMA. 

Adis and wife V^shni. 

Sadda Saddijiva and wife Govitfcri. 

Ghnng and wife Suranfjiyi. 

Dhand and wife SiU Sakafc. 

Nil Kanth and wife G<5 Atma Devf 

Kanwur Brahmi and wife Burhadji or Jasfcrf. 

Sidhri. Puraba. Bhilrthi. Prashta, also called Jhaiimpri, lat Incarnation, and wife Mansa Divf. 

Ad Gdpal and wife Bhilni. 

Sank^awar and wife Sadawanti, 2nd Incarnation. 

Un^sh Deota. MngaL Gosafn and wife Dhanwanti. 
Gaur Rikh and wife Naurang^i. 

Dayal Bikh and wife Mangl4n. , 

Jal Bhigan and wife Pavittar^n. 


Angaeh Deoti and wife Satwanti, 
Agganwar and wife Asna. 

Sankh Pat or Sant6kh and wife Jaaa Vartf, 3rd Incarnation. 

, J 
Bala Rikhi and wife Sham Rup, 4th Incarnation. 

Bfr Barorik and wife Rajwanti, Sth Incarnation. 


Ball and wife Nan Gbandran. 

lawar B4la and wife Mans4, 6th Incarnation, 


Balmik and wife Mah^n, 7th Incarnation . 


I I 

Ud Rikh. Budh Bikh and wife Salikin. 

Marwar Did4ri and wife Dayali. 

, I 
Nur Did^ri and wife Asiwanti. 


Shim Snrand4 and wife Surgan, Sth Incarnation, 

Sham Barbarj and wife Lnchhmi. 

Sri Rang Sham and wife Rajwanti. 

Sati and wife Salo. 

Shah Safa and wife Savin. 

ArjAn and wife Arfin. 



A Chuhrd genealogy. 


Pir S4val and wife Jafarin. 


Asa and wife Janatan 
Ahir Maliik and wife Sikiawati. 
Ghungar B6g and wife Naear^n, 

Biz B^g and wife Sadiqan. 
Bar^hhl Beg and wife Varsin, 

Lai B6g and wife Patil4n, 9fch Incarnation. 
Bali Sher (also called Pir Jhdta, the wrestler) and wife Amdlikan, iOth Incaraation. 
Sada Bala L41 Khan and wife Roshanan. 

Fir Dhagana and wife Nur Dfvanf, 


Shah Siira and wife Gussan. 

Mahi Sh4h. Dargahi Shah. Shah Akhlas and wife Lachhmi. 

Ghasiti Shah. 

T£ra Shah. S6va Shah and wife Sarsi. 

Saram Shah. 

Karam Shah. 

Fazl Shah. 

Jam Shah. Arpar Shih. 

! ! 

Langar Shih | I | 

I Zabardast Shih. Chugatta Murad 

Mohammed | Shah. Shah. 


Arif Sh4h. 

Falel Shah. 

Qasinti Shah. Shab, 

' I 

*Qntab I I 

Shah. Rahni Shdh. Umar Sh4h. 

*Sardar Shah. *Sult4n Shah. 

I I I 

Fath Shah. *Bahadur Shih. *Nadir Shih. 

Bala is a name given to the leaders. 

Jawabir Shih. Bari Shih. 

I . I 

Alim Shah. *Jamiat Sb4b. 

I I 

*Alif Shah. *Gauhar Shah. 

I I I 

*Hakim Shah. *Fath Shah. *Bahiwal Shih. 


Akal Purakh (i.e., God). 

Mahadeo Sri Mahiraj. 

Bikhi Deo, 

Rikhi Deo. 


Sahad Rikh. 

Sandokh Rikh. 

Balmik or Balnik. 

* Fresenc representatiTea. 



Bald Shdh Santokh Rilch di, Bala Shah is son of SanWkh Rikh, 

Santdkh Rikh Shardp Dit Rikh dd, Santokh Rikh is son of Sharap Dit Rikh, 

Bhirdp Dit Rikh Aindh dd, Sharap Dit Rikh is sou of Ainak, 

Aindk Rikhi dd, Ainak is son of Uikhi, 

Rikhi Bikhi dd, Rikhi is son of Bikhi, 

Bikhi Mahddiv dd, Bikhi is son of Mahad6v, 

Mahddiv bhagivdn Ant Ehandi da, Mahadev or Shiv is son of Aut Kbanda, 

Aut Khandd Alakh Purkh dd, Aut Khanda is son of Holy Person, 

Alakh Purkh Sakt dd, Holy Person is son of Alndghty Power, 

8akt Agam dd Almighty Power is son of the Unknowable.* 

Another version is that Bh^rthd, Sadhara, Paratnd and Purba were 
four Brahman brothers, and when their cow died they made Purba, the 
youngest, drag away the carcase, first promif<ing to help him in his task, 
but eventually out-casting him for doing it. In Dera Ghdzi Khan 
Urga, Bh^rga, Sidhra and Frastd, also called Chhaumpra, are given as 
the four brothers, and the following verses are current : — 

(«) Alldh chitthi ghalli hai, sab khol bidn, God sent a letter, setting forth all things : 

Ithe gid manke hun, kiun karin ahhmdn ? ' Hereunto you submitted, why do you repine 

Qokhri te aike sabi kardi arydn. The cow was cast out by one of you, why then 

do you plead, 
Aadn Brahman janam di gal jamd tanydn. That "we are Brahmans by birth," ye who 

wear the jdmd\ tied with strings.' 

The last couplet is also given thus : — 

Odkhri uU daki kardi arydn, ' They are all arguing over the COw : — 

Aidn Brahman janam de gal jdme tanydn. (Saying) " We are Brahmans by birth, thongh 

we wear the jdmd fastened with tags." ' 

Further these two verses are sometimes added : — 

Ute charkhane doreli larydn, Wearing too the chicken cloth, 

Rabbd ! Sdde bha di galldnmushkil banian, Lord ! ' We are in great distress.' 

(it) Alaf Alldh nun ydd kar bandidn %ve dhun ' Remember God, Man ! Praise be to him, 
surjanhdr, the Creator and Protector of mankind 1 

Chugdi chardi gokhri ho pd{ mu7-ddfd, The cow fell dead while grazing 

Hue deote akathe jdke karin pukdrd. The gods assembled and exclaimed : — 

Tubin Brahman zdt de ki hangai bhdrd, " Ye are Brahmans by caste, yet in what 

distress are ye fallen ! 

Tusdde pichhdn kaun hai jiadd maqsad Who is there among ye, of high purpose t '' 

Sdde pichhun Chhaumprd jisdd maqsad " Chaumpra is of us and his purpose is high," 

Hiikmho'gidChhaumpre'jdsat^murddra,' Chaumpri was bidden to cast away the 

Usne dhanak charhdt, gokhri jd pdi pichh- He drew his bow and the COw was thrown far 

vidrd. away. 

Ayd gokhri satke Itahe :' did lachanhamdrd.' After throwing it away he came back and 

said :— " Now fulfil your promise." 
Chaukwn sddidn dur hd terd nich utdrd. (But they said :-) " Begone from our hearths, 

thou art now an out-caste." 
The following stanza is also current in Dera Gh^zi Khan : — 

(Hi) Tun, Sdhib, ghar Bdhmandn mcrd janam Thou, God, hast given me birth in a Brahman's 

dedi. ^ house. 

Ehdke sdnpal pid, ekd thdli ra86i. I was brought up with others, eating together 

, with them in the same dish. 

Chaumpra age Rab de kart rajo'i :— Chaumpia prays before H ^r^ : — 

Khabrdn ghallin tordidn, ho m&nh dhardi. ' ThoU liast seni jii'^ tidings from afar— now 

, . , come before me. 

Mera janam dio nleh ghar men, sun band. Thou hast given me birth in a low house, heaf 

naivdzd. nie, mv Lord. 

• Cf. the genealogy given at p. 530 of The Legends of the Punjab, V<-1. III. 
T The jdmd is the long over;i?arment, faetened with tag8 iastead of buttons 

iS^ Chuhrd origins. 

Ndle ummat lakhsh, ndle lalchsh jandzd. Grant me followers and grant me funeral 

prayers— (or 
Forgive my followers and also forgive us for 

not having funeral prayers). 
Hindu, nere dwan na detven, Musalmdn na The Hindus do not allow us to come near 
parheii jandzd. them, and Muhammadans will not read our 

funeral prayers. 
Meri Icaun siffdt Iharegd, sun gharih-nawdzd. Who will bear me up— hearken ! Lord ! ' 
Alldh dkhe Chauinprid tun ho sydnd. God says : ' Chaumpra ! be wise! 

Do mazhab de niin dd mam darydd vagdnd. I will make two rivers to flow of the things 

which are forbidden by the two religions 

(i.e., one of the carcases of cows and the 

other of the carcases of pigs). 
Pdrjannat bandki sahmnd vilchdnd. I will make heaven across them and show it to 

Bdm te Rahimne chhip chhiplahnd i?i Ram (Hindus) and Rahi'm (Muhammadans) 

will conceal themselves. 
Sawd neze din Idkar hd'i ddzakh dhdnd. A great tire will be burnt in hell at about 10 a.m. 

(i.e., when the sun is H bamboo high). 
Alldh dJche ChaumpHd ummat teri nun vich God says : ' Chaumpra, now will I send thy 

jnnnat pdh'&nch.dnd. followers to Heaven.' 

Alldh chitthi likhi he, hath Chatimpre phardi. God has written a letter and given it in the 

hands of Chaumpra : — 
Tunhi isho satnd ji tain'&n di. ' Thou hast to carry out this carcase — it is your 


Various legends have been invented to explain the origins of the 
Chuhra caste as a whole and of its different groups. Most of these 
carry its history back to Bdlmik as its progenitor, or, at least, its patron 
saint. Hence it is necessary to recount, in the first instancs, what 
current tradition has to say of Balmik. 

One legend avers that Bd,lmik used to sweep Bhagwan's courtyard, 
and that the god gave him a robe, which he did not put on but buried 
in a pit. When asked by Bhagwan why he did not wear it, Balmik 
went in search of it and found in it a boy whom he took to Bhagwan. 
The god directed him to rear the boy, who was named Ld;l Beg. 

Balmik is said to mean, ' born of the halni' or serpent's hole. 
Balmik was a Bhil, a race of mountaineers, who used to rob and kill 
travellers passing through the forest. One day seven Rishis journeyed 
by, and when Balmik attacked them, they asked him why he did so, as 
they had nothing worth stealing. He replied that he had vowed to kill 
all whom he found in the forest. 'J'he Rishis thpn enquired if he had 
friends to assist him if captured. Whereupon he asked his parents 
and wife if tJiey would help him in case of need, but they declared they 
would not. Balmik then told the Rishis he was friendless, and they 
urged him to give up his evil ways, and to repeat ' mard, mard,' 
continuously. But rapidly recited ' mard , mard' soumis like ^Ram, 
Kdm,' and as he thus repeated (jod's name, his sins were forgiven him. 
By the end of 12 years his body was covered with dust and overgrown 
with grass, the flesh beingr decomposed. Once more the seven Rishis 
passed by and heard a faint voice repeating ' Ram, Rom,' under a cover- 
ing of clay. This they removed, and, having re-clothed his bones with 
flesh, called hiru Balmik, as one who had come out of a serpent's hole. 

1. Tabds and Totems. 
The Gil will not eat hatdun, the egg-plant (hhatd hart) : the Lute do 
not eat hare or rabbit : the Kanar^ (?) abstain from cloves : the Sahotr^ 
refuse to look on a tiger ; at marriages, however, they make the image 

Chuhri panchfiyats. 189 

of a tiger which the women worship : the Bhat^i will not bit on a bench 
of boards or bricks : no Chuhrii will cat seh, or hef^gehog. 

The Sarwan Chuhras do not dye cloth with hasumha, eallron, and 
will only use thatch for their roofs. In the Bawal nizdmat of Ndbha 
they also wear no gold ornaments, thinking this tahu to be imi)Osed 
on them by their ,sati. In Dera Ghazi Kh^m the different sections 
reveience diffocnt animals, i.e., the Sahoti respect the lion, the 
Athwal or Uthwdl the camel, and one section the porcupine, while bricks 
are said to be revei'ed by the Gil, men bowing and women veiling their 
faces before them. Thus the Sindhu muliin or got rtispects indigo : the 
Kandiara respects the horned rat ; while the Khokhar got is said to avoid 
eating hharta, ^.e., anything roasted on a fire.* Thu Khokhar got is 
also said to abstain from the flesh of dead wnimals as well as from 
eating the heart, which all other Chuhras will eat. 

The flesh of the hare is also avoided by Clmhras generally — a tahu 
explained by the following legend : — Once a Chulira by chance killed 
a culf, and hid it under a basket, but its owner tracked it to the 
Chuhra's liouse. 'i'he Chuhra declared that the basket contained a 
hare, and when it Avas opened it was found that the calf had turned 
into a hare — so from that time all the Chuhras have given up eating 
hate. iSome, however, do not abide by this rule. In Kiingra it is said 
that once a hare sought Biilmik's protection, and thus the tahu arose. 
In Montgomery the avoidance of hare's llesli is ascribed to the influence 
of the Makhdum Jahaniau of Kher fShcih, those who are not his 
followers disregarding the prohibition. Li Dera Ghazi Khdn the 
current legend is that once Billa Shah, the ancestor of the Chuhras, 
and MuUdh Niir, the Mirasi, were in God's dargah, or court. The 
latter asked Bald Shdh not to sweep, whereupon a quarrel arose and 
Bdla Shah struck the bard with his broom, knocking out his right eye. 
MulUh Nur appealed to God and produced a hare as his witness — so 
now the sweepers do not eat hare's flesh. In Gurgaon, however, the 
prohibition is said to be confined to the Sus Gohar got, or, according to 
another account, to the Balgher got. In Mdler Kotla it is confined to the 
Sahota got. About Leiah, women are said to eat the hare, but not nien» 

2. Governing Body. 

Their representative assembly, or governing body, is the Painch, 
Panch, Panchayat, the members of which are chosen by the people, 
and the head of which, i.e., the Pir Panch or Sar Panch, is selected 
by the other members. I have heard them speak of a kharjmuch too, 
I.e., the most troublesome n, ember of the paiich ! The office of the 
^n'r ^anc7i is held permanently, and is even in some cases hereditary. 
If the pir is unable to pieside at the meetings his place may be tak3n 
by a narharnh, or substitute, for the time being. The ^jaz/jc/i settles 
disputes of all sorts, havin<r to interfere especially in matters of mar- 
riage and divorce ; it also looks after the poor. It punishes offenders 
by excomnuinication, liukka panl hand, and also by imposing fines 
of 20, 40, 100 I'Uppes, or even more- Thf punishment of excommuni- 
cation, of being haradari so jiidd, is a heavy one, pointing to the fact 
that the people, valuing s-o highly the opinion of their fellow-mexi, 

* This peenis imposaiblo. Bluirfhd is pocaibly iutonded. It is a preporatiuu of the 
irinjal {hatdun) made by roasting it in hot ashes : Maya Singh's Panjabi Dictionary : s. v. 

190 Chuhrd marriage rules. 

are amenable to tlio rules of their society by reason of sanctions 
affecting their standing in the society. All over the Punjab the 
dearest thhig to a Fanjdbi is his 'izzat, i.e., the estimation in which 
he is held by his fellows. In the south-east of the Province the 
Chuhras have chahiUras or places of assembly at several towns, such 
as Hiinsi,, Barwdla, Sirsa and Bhiwani. Each chahutra is under 
a chaicdhri, who in Gurgaon is styled mihtar. The chaudhris preside 
over panchdyats at which all kinds of disputes are decided, and also act 
at weddings as muMiias or spokesmen. In Nabha the chaudhris are 
indeed said to exercise supreme authority in caste disputes. 
3. Kdles of Intermarriage. 

They do not marry within their own section, but they take wives 
from all the other divisions. Marriage with a wife's sister is permitted 
after the death of the wife. Marriage with the wife's mother, or wife's 
aunt, is not allowed- Two wives are allowed; the former of whom is 
considered the head, and has peculiar rights and privileges. The 
wives live together in the same house. Marriage takes place when 
the giii is about 7 or 8, and even 5 years of age. 

Marriages are arrauged by the ndi (barber), the chhimhd (washerman), 
and the mirdsi (village bard and genealogist). The consent of the 
parents is necessary in all cases, except when the woman is a widow, 
or independent of her parents. Girls are never asked whom they will 
uiiirry, or if they are willing to marry. They would not give an ex- 
pression of their wishes, as they say, sharm he mare, for shame. There 
is no freedom of choice in the case of young persons marrying. 

A price is paid by the bridegroom's family, the amount of it being 
settled by the two contracting parties. It becomes the bridegroom's 
property after marriage. An engagement to marry may be broken 
off in the case of a defect or bleQiish in either the man or the woman, 
and divorce may be obtained after marriage by a regular " writing: of 
divorcement." Divorced wives marry again. Children of different 
mothers inherit on equal terms, and all assume the father's section. 

Widows remarry, but they have no price. The widow of an elder 
brother may marry a younger brother, and the widow of a younger 
brother may marry an elder brother. A widow marrying out of her 
husband's family takes her children with her. 

4. Food. 

It is difficult to say precisely what animals the Chuhras really avoid, 
and probably the prohibitions against eating any particular animal are 
loose, varying from place to place and under the pressure of circum- 
stances. Chuhras in Gujrd;D will eat dead animals, i.e., those which 
have died a natural death :* also the sahna (lizard) and wild cat, but 
not the jackal, fi)X. goh (lizai'd), or tortoise: yet one group lives chiefly 
on the tortoise and is called huchemdnda. Hence the Chuhras are 
superior to the Sdnsfs who eat jackals, etc., and interior to the Musallis 
who have given up eating the flesh of animals which have died a natural 
death. In Si^lkot the Chuhrd,s are said to avoid pork and only to eat 
flesh allowable to Muhammadans, but they may eat hardm flesh as well 
as haldl. 

* Thus in Moutgomery it is said all Chuhras, except the Khokhars, will eat the flesh of 
dead animals 

Chuhrd observances. 191 


Birth and Peeq nancy. 

In accouchement the woman sits, with one woman on each side of her 
and one behind her. The ddi, or midwife, sits in front. No seat ia 
used. When the child is born the midwife places h'-r liead on the 
stomach of the mother to press out the blood, and with her feet and 
hands presses (dabdli) the whole body. The ddi and women relations 
attend during and after confinement. 

As an expression of joy at the birth of a child a string of shirin, or 
acacia leaves, is hunp; across the door. Green symholises joy and bless- 
ing, vnibdrikhddi. The leaves of the akh, a plant with poisonous milky 
juice, are thrown en the house to keep away evil spirits. If the child 
is a boy, born after two girls, they put the boy in a cloth, which they 
tie at both ends as a sort of cradle, and then they lift the child throuo-h 
the roof, while the nurse says : — Trihhal hi dhdr d-gai, i.e., ' the third 
time thrives.' Gtir is given to the friends, and ten days after that a 
dinner, to which the relatives are invited. At the end of 21 days the 
mother is over her separation, and resumes cooking. 


Adoption of children is common, but with no special ceremonies. 


A man of any other caste can be admitted into the Chuhra caste after 
the following initiatory rite has been performed : — The would-be convert 
asks the Chuhra headman of the place to fix a day, on which all the 
Chuhras assemble at the than of Bdlmik. At the time and dat" appointed 
the dhddhis of Balmik go there, prostrate themselves and sing praises 
to God and Bdlmik, with accompaniments on the rabdna and dotdra. 
Tho khidmatgdr, or attendant at the shrine, lights &jot, or large lamp 
filled with ghi and gogal at the candidate's cost, as well five ordinary 
lamps filled with ghi. He also prepares churmd of wheat or other 
grains according to the candidate's means, \vith ghi and gur in the 
name of God and Balraik ; boiling, too, IJ se?'6' of rice in an iron pan 
in the name of Balmik's orderly. When all these things are placed 
in front of the than in Dera Ghdzi, the Chuhras assembled say :— 

Sihdhe ! Bdli didn karin kardhidn, le dwin than de age, 

Jo koi mane tainu ndl sidaq de usnic har shdkhd phal lage, 

Awen dekh nahin bhuhid oh raze bage, 

Teri matti da buki manid dhar dargdh de age. 

Baki ute mnin dcvdn brdtdn jiwen banaydn din te rdtdn, 

Bolo momno ' eh sach paun dhani.' 

" Make hakva, Sihdhas (Chuhras) in Bd,li's honour, and bring it 

before his shrine. 

Whosoever adores thee in sincerity, prospers in every way. 

Be not misled by whited domes, 

A handful of his (or thy) earth is acceptable to the Almighty. 

I will bring thee offerings on a camel's back as often as day 

follows night, 

Declare, ye believers in God, that the One True God is Master of 

the Winds." 

192 Ghuhfd betrothals. 

The candidate is then admitted into the caste. He is made to eat 
a little cMirmd and rice out of the kardhi, drink some water and 
smoke. The rest of the churmd is distributed among the other Chuhfas 
and he is declared a member of the caste. 

In Hohtak B^lraiki sweepers admit a man of any caste into the 
Chulird ranks, except a Dh^nak, a S^nsi or a Dhia. The recruit is 
merely required to prepare IJ sevf^ of malida and. after placing it under 
Bdlmik's banner, worship the saint. The followers of Nd,nak admit 
converts of every caste into their ranks. 

In Grurgaon the rite of initiation is a revolting one and is thus de- 
scribed : — 

Over a rectangular pit is put a chdrpdi, and beneath it the candidate 
is seated in the pit, while the Chuhrd,s sit on the chdrpdi. Each bathes 
in turn, clearing his nose and spitting,'^ so that all the water, etc., falls 
on to ihe man in the pit. He is then allowed to como out and seated 
on the chdrpdi. After this all the Chuhrd,s wash his body and eat with 
him, and then ask him to adopt their profession. 

An initiate appears to be called Bhangi, or in Gnrgaon Sarbhangi. 
The latter, it is said, may smoke and eat with the Chuhrd,s, but are not 
admitted to intermarriage with them. 


When a betrothal takes place, the Idgi, the marriage functionary and 
o-o-between, goes to the house of the boy's parents, taking with him 
suo-ar and dates for the inmates. He states the purpose of his visit, 
and there is placed before him five or ten, or more, rupees, of which 
he takes one and goes. If the people are very poor they intimate to 
the Idgi how much he should take out of the heap. Returning to the 
house of the girl's parents he makes his report, describing the boy, bis 
prospects, circumstances, and so on. 

A Idgi now goes from the boy's residence, carrying clothes and 
jewels for the girl. He himself is presented with a turban {pagri) and 
songs are sung by the womankind. The bindingr portion of the cere- 
monies is where the turban is given to the Idgi before witnesses. 

In two, three, four, or five years, the girl's parents send the Idgi to 
say that it is time for the marriage. If the parents of the boy find it 
convenient, they declare that they are ready, and instruct the Idgi to 
ask the other house to send a nishdn, hahdchd, hahord, which is a present 
of three garments, one to the mirdsi, one to the ndi, and the third to 
the chuhrd who lights the fire. There is gur also in the basket contain- 
ino" the clothes, and this is distributed to the singing girls and others. 
The Idgi receives a rupee or two, and goes back with the news that the 
hahdchd has been accepted. Then a trewar, a present of seven garments, 
is prepared, and sent from the gii'l's residence, a white phulkdri (embroi- 

* Chuliras tliink that ttie dirt of their own bodies purifies others and they so remore 
it with their own hands. If a man follows their occupation but does not undergo the 
ordeal described above they do not treat him as a Chuhra or effect any relationship 
with him. 

Chuhrd weddings. 1J)3 

dered shawl), a chdb or chop (a red cotton shawl with a silk embroidered 
edge), a chdli (bodice), a kurtd (jacket), a daridi (narrow silk cloth), a 
lungi or sdya (a chenk cloth or petticoat), two pagria (turbans) and one 
chddar (sheet or shawl). The jacket has a gold button, hird, and three 
silver ones called allidn, and gota, or gold and silver lace, with the Go^ure 
of a man embroidered on the right breast or shoulder. This present 
is sent to the boy's residence, where the garments are spread out on a 
bed to give the inmates and friends an opportunity of seeing them. 
The Idgi takes with him also giir, patdsse (sweets), and a rupee as rofind, 
which he gives to the bridegroom. This rdpnd may be seven dried 
dates, and other tliiners. The boy's hands are dyed with maiudt (henna) 
to sifjnify joy. Again rupees are placed before tho logi, of which he 
takes as many as he has been instructed to take. He then says that 
such and such a day has been 6xed for the wedding and goes back to tell 
the bride's friends that the day is appointed. On this occasion songs 
are sung by the boy's sister and mother. 

Eight or nine days before the wedding they have what they call «iat 
pdnd, that is, they take ghungnid^'i (wheat roasted in the husk) to the 
quantity of five or six parSpi, which they put in tho boy's lap. This he 
distributes with gicr to his friends, of the same age as he is, seated on a 
basket. Wheat is distributed to the other friends, perhaps as much 
as four or five maunds, with gur. The boy is anointed with oil as 
many times as there are days before the marriage, and a song is sung 
by his friends. 

The ndi anoints the bridegroom to make hira sweet. The ointment 
is made of the flour of wheat and barley, kachiir (a drug), khardal 
(white mustard), chaihal charild (a scent), and oil. This preparation 
is called batnd. 

When the boy is taken off the basket they bind a gdnd (ornament) 
or Jcangnd (bracelet) on his wrist, which consists of an iron ring, a 
cowrie, and a manka (string) of kach (glass) beads. They put a knife 
into his hand at the same time. All this is to keep off the evil spirits. 
The same operation is performed on the giil by her friends ; only she 
puts on a kangni (wrist ornament) or churi (bracelet of iron), instead 
of taking a knife in her hand. 

Betrothal takes place at any time from five years of age and upward, 
the consent of the parents only being necessary. If the betrothal 
is cancelled, the painch aiTanges the amount to be repaid, and 
recoveT's it. 

When the wedding day approaches, a big dinner is given in the 
boy's home on a Wednesday, the entertainment extending to Thursday 
morning. This is called mel. 

The hharjdi, or gome other relative, with his wife, goes to the well 
for a jar of water, which they carry between them. With this water 
the ndi washes the biidegroom on a basket. His hair is washed 
with buttermilk and oil. Seven chapman (unburnt earthen plates) 
are placed before him. These ho breaks with his ftx . His uncle on 
the mother's side gives him a cow, etc., and the bride's uncle gives 
the same to her. The bridegroom puts on his new clothes, the old 

194 Chuhrd weddi7igs. 

ones being appropriated by the oidi. After his uncles have sung, his 
sister sings and gives him his clothes. 

He is then dressed on a rug after his bath ; the sdfd or turban is 
placed on his head, over which the sehra, or garland of flowers, is 
throvpn and saffron is sprinkled on his clothes. 

A tray is put down with a rupee in it, representing 101 rupees. 
On the rupee gur is spread, while they say, Jagat pai-wd^i sitpri so 
dharm, Ikotr sau rupaid ghar dd ; " According to the custom which 
binds us like religion, We lay before you 101 rupees of our own 

Then into the tray is put the tamhol or neundrd, i.e., the contribution 
given by wedding guests to defray the expenses of the festival. At 
each succeeding marriage one rupee more is given, or the same sum 
is given each time, if it is so arranged. Neundrd is given in the girl's 
home as well. This custom of giving at each other's wedding is a 
very binding one. Whoever receives neundrd from his guests must 
pay back in neundrd one and half or double the amount at their 
wedding feasts. 

The party now gets ready to go to the bride's home. The bridegroom 
is seated on a mare, or, if poor, he goes on foot. He is accompanied 
by the sarhahla, or bridegroom's friend, generally seated behind him 
on the same animal. On their way they give a rupee to the headmen 
of the villages they pass. This is for the poor. Fireworks blaze as 
they proceed, while the drums and other noisy instruments of music 
announce the coming of the bridegroom, who sits under a paper 
umbrella, or canopy, which has been made by the fireworks-man. 
This last-named individual gets money also on the way — a rupee or 
so. As they approach the bride's village the women and girls of the 
villagfc come out, singing, to surround the whole party with a cotton 
thread, as if they had made prisoners of them all. 

Meantime the bride has been dressed, and songs have been sung by 
her friends. 

Having arrived at the village they rest in a garden, or go to the 
ddrd, or traveller's rest-house, while dinner is being prepared. .A 
large tray is brought out {changer la I) with sugar in it. The lagis put 
some into the bridegroom's mouth, the rest beine: divided among the 
guests. The sarbahld, or bridegroom's friend, and the others prepare 
to go to the bride's house with the beating of drums. The two parties 
meet and salute one another. The bride's father gives a cow or a 
buffalo, but if he is poor he gives a rupee, which the mirasi, or village 
bard, gets. Nearing the house they find the way obstructed by a stick , 
[kuddan) placed across the path by the meMars, or dg hdlnihcdle, (fire- 
lio-hters). They must be paid a rupee before the party can proceed. 
They reach another grate formed by a red cloth held by women. This 
is chunni. The bride's sister receives a rupee at this stage. The 
mdchhi, or jhiwar {water-carrier), brings a vessel of water, and says, 
" Mere kumh dd lag deo, Give the price of my earthen water jar." 
He also receives a rupee. 

The marriage party now dine, while the women of the marriage 
party sbg. 

Chuhrd weddings. 195 

While the party dines outside, the lard (bridegroom) and the sarhdhld 
(friend) go inside the house. A chhdnani (a sort of sieve for cleanino- 
flour or wheat) ia placed over the door with a light barnino- in it. 
Thrt bridegroom strikes tins vvith a sword or knife seven times, knocking 
it down, light and all, with the seventh stroke. The sarhdhli, or bride's 
friend, comes wich a handful of oil and gur which she holds firmly, 
while the othei" girls tell the bridesfruom to open the hand with his 
little finger. This he tries to do, but the star fca/tZa advises him to use 
his thumb and press more forcibly. When her hand is opened, she 
rubs the bridt^groom's face with the mixture. The young lady also 
spits rice in his face — phurhrd. The bridegroom is then drawn into 
an inner room by means of a pair of trousers {piejdma) twisted round 
his neck. He has to give the girls a rupee before they let him go. 
They place a small tent made of reeds [ghdrdheri) like a tripod, on a 
IDiri (stool), and in it kujidil (small lamps and vessels) made of dough. 
One of tliese is lit, and the bridegroom is asked to put cloves into the 
little kujidn. 

They then take a tray and put it on a cup (katSrd). This they 
call tilkan. All the girls press down the tray on the cup with their 
hands one above another, telling the bridegroom to lift it up. He 
tries to do so but cannot, and the sarhdhld with his foot overturns it. 
This is the signal for the girls to giyegdli (abuse) to the sarhdhld : they 
pull his hair, slap him, push him about, and generally ill-treat him until 
the bridegroom at his cries for help asks them to desist. 

They deny having beaten him, and treat them both to sweets [laddu 
and pardkridTi) and sugar which they call hejwdri or hdjirl. The bride 
is now admitted and seated. They throw bits of cotton wool on her, 
wluch he picks off. He takes off her troubles, as it were. They throw 
them on him also. Daring these observances the girls sing at intervals. 

The bridegroom now walks seven times round the bride, and the 
bride seven times round him. He lays his head on hers, and she hers 
on him, after which she kicks him on the back. The others follow 
suit. It goes hard with the unhappy bridegroom then. They seize 
his chddar (shawl), and tie two pice in it. The bride then fastens it 
tightly round his neck, meaning by this that he is captured and is 
hallnn jogd nahin (unable to move). He recites the following 
couplet : — 

Maiyi hhafdngd, tan khdin. I will earn money, and feed you. 
Meri galo'n patkd Idhiii. RemoTe the shawl from my neck. 

The bride then takes off the chddar, but they tie it to the bride's 
shawl {gand chattr.ivd), meaning that they are now one. 

The girl ia bathed, the barber's wife {nain) braids her hair, then she 
flits on a {{ukra) basket under which is a light. Two pice are placed 
under her feet. The one that gives the bath gets the pice. The uncle 
gives the girl a cow, etc. Of the earth wetted with the water of the 
bath some is thrown to the ceiling. The mother passes before the girl 
a large basket made of reedi seven times. This is called khdrd langdi, 
and she then sing& : — 

Khdri chiitar machittar, The basket is of divers colours, 

Khdrd addiyd, And I sit on the basket. 

Khdre ton utdr. Take me ot! the basket, 

Mdrnmd vaddhiyd. Great uncle. 

198 Chuhrd weddings. 

The girl is taken away, and the bridegroom gives the barber's wife a 

The lagi is now sent to bring the clothes that the bridegroom has 
brought for tlie bride. Jewels also he brings, and she is fully dressed. 
These jewels are various — for the nose, huldk, laung, nath ; ear, 
dandidh, pattar, chaunke, bale ; neck and throat, /lass, harnel, takhtidn ; 
ioTehe'<i,d, chikkdn, chaunk,'ph{d ; arm, pi dan, bowattd,^ chura, gokhru, 
hangan ; fingers, chhdj) or chhalld, drsi ; foot, paajebdn, karidn. 

The bride is now ready and comes to be married. She is seated 
and the Brahman (or the Maulavi) is called. Four poles are stuck in 
the ground fastened together, with green branches above. The 
Brahman (or Maulavi) reads a service, and two pice are handed seven 
times. The Brahman says : Sntto; eki, meki, neki teki,pd6 dhangd, and 
snaps the pice. 

The bridegroom goes round the bride seven times, and she round him 
peven times under the green canopy. The Brahman gets four annas 
in pice, and one rupee. The married pair sit on a bed or seat, while 
the bride's people bring him clothes, which he puts on over the ones 
lie has. The mirdsi seizes his turban, and retains it until it is redeemed 
with a rupee. Tiie parents are next called, and water is brought to be 
sprinkled over the hands of the married pair. She is thus given over 
to him. They rise from the chdrpdi, and go inside, throwing backward 
over their heads barley and cotton seeds which had been placed in their 
laps. They do not take away all the blessing. 

A trewar (21 or 12, etc., pieces) of clothes is now given [khat), all 
shown to the assembled guests, and vessels also seven, viz., thai 
(platter), cJihannd (metal drinking vessel), loh (large iron baking pan), 
hardhi (trying pan), degchi (pot), kaixhhi (ladle), dhaknd (lid). There 
are 21 kalle, or scones, placed in the basket of clothes. The Idgis 
who take this away receive presents of money. The bridegroom's 
father gives alms to the poor at this point, and there is much crying 
and weeping as the bride prepares to leave her home. 

The bride is put into the doll (palanquin), and the bridegroom's 
father throws money on it, which goes to the poor. 

The bridegroom's party return home carrying the bride with them. 
At the bridegroom's house all the women sing at intervals. When 
they reach the house the mother is at the door. 

The mother has a cup of water in her hand, which she waves round 
the heads of the married couple. She then attempts to drink it seven 
times, the bridegroom preventing her. At the seventh time she drinks. 
Then they enter the house, and the bride is placed on a mat. All the 
bridegroom's relations are called, and a large vessel called a para i is 
brought, in which is a mixture of rice, ghi and sugar cooked. This is 
gotkundld. The* women seat themselves and of this they take a morsel 
and each puts a little m the bride's mouth. She, sharm ke mare (out of 
shame) refuses to take it, but they insist as they are her relations. 

The women all partake. They call this bharmddld, i.e., union with 
the family. If they do not have this meal, they do not admit the other 
party to family privileges. 

The Chuhrd tnukld,v^. I97 

After this the bride remains two days more in the house, and on the 
third and fourth day the women again gather. They take a pardt 
(tray) in wliich they put water and milk, or kachchi las^i, and in 
another vessel they put citd (meal). In the meal they put gur and ghi, 
mixing them together (gulrd). Into the tray of milk Hnd water they 
make the bride put her heel, and in it the bridegroom washes her foot. 
The bridegroom now puts in his foot, and she is told to wash it. This 
\b shagun. The bride unties her gdnd (wrist ornament), which is so 
securely fastened that they sometimes draw it over the hand, while 
they sing. It is thrown into the pardt o? uiilk and water. Then the 
bridegroom unfastens the bride's gdnd. 

It is placed in the vessel next. They are fastened together. The 
nain [Idgin] tnkos both and turns them round in the water seven times. 
She drops them in the water seven times, the bride and the bridegroom 
grabbing at them. The one that succeeds the oftener in getting hold 
of them first wins — the caste therefore wins. This is done amid great 
laughter. Only women are present, besides the bridegroom. 

The flour, ghi and sugar are then ciivided amongst them. Other 
Bongs are sung when the bride first comes to the house. The ^rirls also 
express their opinion of the dowry in a song. 

Mdklava, oe the Home-coming op the Bride. 

Next day the bride goes back to her father^s house, and there is sent 
after her kachchi piuni, or kachchi hhdji, which is rice flour with sugar. 
She returns to her husband's home in six months, or two years, or 
three, when there is mukldva, as sending home a wife is called. She 
brings a suit of clothes for her husbanil, one for her mother-in-law 
and one for her father-in-law. She wears kach, i. e., glass bracelets 
because she is still kachchi (unripe) ; not pakki. She now resides in 
her husband's, her own house. Various songs are sunt: on this occasion. 

A few branches of the Chuhr^s, including the Sotarwala, celebrate 
niarriagfes by the Muhammadan nikdh, but the great majority observe 
the Bindu p/iera. The following is a specimen of the songs {chhand or 
shlok) sung at aphera: — 

Pahli'm smirdn ek Unkdr, 

Duje guru Ganesh, 
Tije sviiran ddh Bhiicdni, 

8at dip nu kund jdni. 
Atvan ke dil tani sanwdre, 

Tin log ke kdraj sdre ; 
Magh pati pith panchami, 

Kaho bed ke sdj. 
Jis din gaurdn ar ndye, 

Chanda charhe ugds ; 
Ndm lijiyo Ganesh kd, 

Bo sdjan nistar. 
Gaydra din se lagan chalaya, 

Le hokar gurudwdre pati sab parwdr ; 
Ghar ghar turi mewa bichdr, 

Do Pdn4i bakhshish. 

198 Chtihrd huryings. 

One or two customs observed by the Chuhrd,g at marriages deserve 
notice :— 

On the evening when the bridegroom sets out for the bride's house, 
his mother cooks 10 sei's of rice sweeteued with gur, and invites all 
the women of the communifcy to eat each a mouthful of it. They 
then Hsk her to j^ive them a chhdj (a sieve for winnowing grain) and a 
doi (wooden spoon), and she at once does so. Two or three of the 
women, one of whom is wearing a ghaghm (the lower part of a 
petticoat) instead of a frock, get on top of the house with the chhdj and 
the doi, and the woman in the ghaghrd sings an obscene song at the 
top of her voice, beating the chhdj after every stanza so violently 
that it is broken to pieces. This custom is termed iiharuhd (foolery). 
It is an indispensible observance at a wedding. 

Last but not least comes the rite of admitting the bride into the 
bridegroom's got which is done in this wise : — 

Two or three days after the bride's arrival her mother-in-law 
prepares a maund and ten sers of sweet rice and serves it up on a 
large tray. Seven sohdgans (women whose husbands are alive) are 
invited, and they eat with the bride out of the tray. Unless this is 
done she is not considered a real member of the got. 

Bigamy is permissible, that is to say, a man whose wife is barren or 
who only gives birth to girls, may take a second wife. But he cannot, 
at least in Mdler Kotla, take a second wife if he has a son, under 
penalty of excommunication, nor can he take a third wife while the 
other two are with him. 

Divorce is practised. 

Death and burial. 

The Chuhras generally bury their dead. When a person is dyinj? 
they call in the Muhamraadan priest to read the sahdni, but if it is in 
a Hindu village where there is no mulla nothing of this nature is done, 
except that in some cases they lift the sick man on to the ground.* This 
they call satthar.f The dead are carried to the grave on a bed, bound 
in a shroud made of cloth, which is tied at the head and the feet like 
a sack, and in the middle. The body, after being washed with soap 
and water, is dressed in a jacket, a cap, and a sheet, or in two sheets, 
and is sprinkled with rose water. In the grave the shoulder is placed 
towards the pole star, and the feet to the east. If it is that of a young 
person they put a black blanket over the bier, if of an old person a 
red one. This is called khes. The priest sits on the west side and 
looks towards the east. He recites a prayer, and they repeat it after 
him. This is jandza. One rupee, called askdt,X is given to the priest 

* In Maler Kotla the Chuhras bury the dead, like Muhammadaiis, but on their way to 
the grave the carriers of the bier change places as among Hindus. And on their return 
they pick up straws and break them, saying, ' God bless the dead and protect those left 
behind', while the faqir, who usaally accompanies the parties, recites verses of Guru 
N4nak, like a Sikh. Three days later the deceased's nearest relative feeds the men who 
• carried the bier, and on the 17th day h^- listributea food to the poor and to unmarried 

I Satthar, lit., a couch. 

J A.skdt, probably for zahdt, alms, 

The Chuhrd creed. 100 

on the Qurdn. A cloth called jde namdz is also given. The blanket 
becomes the property of the mirdsi. The face of the dead is not placed 

If a very old person dies, his fripnds make a mock mourning : bat 
their grief is really very great for a young person. 

They (the women) ''^ stand in a circle ; the mirdsan (wife of the 
family bard) stands in the centre. She sings mournful tunes, the 
other women following her. They beat their legs, breasts and fore- 
head with their hands in time to the dirge. Nothing could be sadder. 
The woman that leads repeats the aldhni, and the other women beat 
the breast, thus making sidpd. 

Purification Rites. 
After child-birth a woman is unclean for 21 days. In the period of 
menstruation she does not go to a well, and alter it she washes her 
clothes and bathes. After a funeral all who may have touched the 
dead body or the grave must bathe. 

Many Chuhras reverence sanghar,f in order that sanghat or trouble 
may be averted. 

Sanghar kd vart, — They have a special favour for Vaishnu Devi. 
They put mehndi on girls' hnnds, and tie a mauli, or cotton bracelet, 
round their wrists, feeding the girls also in the devVs name, that the 
children may be preserved. 

Devi dd vart. — On Thursflay night they liHve darud,X praying for 
the dead. They pour water into a cup, and take bread in their hands. 
They eat a little, drink a little, and give the remainder to a child. 
They have no special days. 


(a). — The Dedication op a Temple to Bala Shae. 

The principal goddesses or devis of the Hindus, e. gf., Kdli Devi, 
appear to be of low caste. This is especially noteworthy. 

When a shrine is made to Bala, the Chuhrd,s make a mound of earth 
in which they bury a gold knife, a silver knife, a copper knife, the head 
of a goat, and a cocoanut, all bound in Ij yards of red cloth. Having 
levelled the mound, or rather dressed it and made it neat and tidy, 
they raise on it a sort of altar of mud, in which they make three niches 
for lamps. Having put oil in the lamps and lighted them they place 
them in the niches. Goat's tiesh is cooked, of which part is eaten and 
part distributed to the poor. A chela performs the sacrifice, after 
which they all eat together. 

The order of rehgious ceremony is as follows : — A basket (changcrd) 
is placed near the mud altar^ which resembles a raised grave more 
than anything else, and in the basket there is churmdh, made of flour 
butter and sugar. In front of the altar the chela burns ghi with spices, 
such as camphor. He spriukles the assembled company with lasai 

* The women go half-way towards the graveyard weeping and wailing, 
f Sanghar is the pod of the jand tree, which is used as a vegetable by the poorer claues 
especially in times of ecarcity. 
J Darudfdtia — obseqaiea. 


Chuhrd lays. 

(butter milk or rather whey) for cooling purposes. Five pice are put 
in the ghi, which become the chela's, as a fee. Silver or gold is put 
in a cup of water and the water is sprinkled on the people. This is 
called chandii. The c/ieZa stands before the altar, the people standing 
behind him, while he recites a dedicatory Htanj. 

The Chuhr^s have a lofty conception of Bd-lmik, and believe that 
when he hoiioured the earth with his existence all the regions of 
heaven and earth were illuminated as described in the following 
verses, current in Maler Kotla : — 

Arise, mother Mainawanti, from slumber, 

Baba Bala has been incarnated. 
A trembling has come upon Paital, the dust 

has come off. 
Armies have come from Kumbaf shouting 

for Khwaja ! 
Kuhidn,'\ viachh, chirhore and tandueX fly 

and demand flesh. 
The war of Ganesh has been declared at 

Dera Ghizi IQian. 
The heaven was illuminated with lamps, the 

burnt dead have been revived. 
Riding on a brown mare with iron curb in 

her mouth. 
Godhan, the hermit, has come at the door. 
The bridle of the mare is of hempen rope_ and 

her ears decorated with anhan sankan.^ 
Godhan, the hermit, is standing with his joined 

The leader of the armies applies for more 

I offer kardhi churma\\ and goats. He is 

the One \ 

Uth Mata Mainawanti* sutie, Babe Bale lid 

Bhamak 'pari Faitdl men : chhutigardghohdr. 

Char {an di Kumbd te Khivdjd di pukdr ! 

Euhidn, machh, chirhore, ud ud mange mds 

Chher chhiri Gonesh di Dera Ghdzi Khdn. 

Jotdn jalen akds ud ud baithke jagd lie 

Munh kajiale (Jcandiale=curb) sdr de kakki 

keli de asivdr. 
An khare Gndhan tapashi Darbdr. 
Eundt san de lagdm die, ankan sankan kdn. 

An khnrote Godhan tapashi band kharotd 

Chherdn de agwdn uhal mange, hun bal 

inange sandeh dd. 
Dhidn kardhi churma av,r bakre-sakre wahi 


The two following songsl are sung in honour of Giljhapra, one of the 
titles by which Lai Beg is known : — 

In the name of God, the most merciful and 

compassionate ! 
Be on thy head the hand of the priest, the 

spiritual guide ; be thy faith perfect. 
Bounty (springs) from bountiful God ! 
Compassion** from the Compassionate ! 
There is no goodness like that of NikahiLft 
There is no glory like that of Az^ziL^ 
There is no swiftness like that of Israfil.§§ 
Even beneath the earth, even on the summit 

of the heavens : thou art found everywhere. 
Empire is Muhammad's, the Bestower of 

greatness and blessing ! 
Thou art the sole master of the faith, who 

hadst heard everything. 
Welfare comes from God, the Most High. 

Bism illdhir Bahmdn-ir-Rahim ! 

Bir par dast Pir Murshid dd, sdhit rahe 

Karrn to Earima I 
Bdm to Bohima ! 
NeU tan Nekdhil di. 
Azmat tdn Azdzil di. 
Daur tan Isrdfil di. 
Zatnin de daliche : asmdn de samete : simat 

simal tu. 
Bddahdhat Muhammad di ujmo barkat deo ! 

Ap itiqdd de mdlik, zikar sune the ^dre. 
Ehair tdn Allah Ta'dla di, Nis Ta'dld di 

* Mother of Gopichand. 

I Probably the Dame of a place. 

J These are auimala, but of what kind Is not known. 

§ An ornament worn by horaeB. 

il A kind of sweet cooked food. 

^ The first of these songa is clearly a variant of the Dedicatory Litany given by Dr. 

** " Ram," a corruption of " Raham " " compassion." 

ft Nikahll, for Mikdil, the archangel Michael. 

tj Azazil, the fallen angel, now called Shaitan. 

§§ larafil, the archangel who will sound the trumpet to destroy the whole world on the 
last day. 

Chuhrd lays. 


Daman Bibi Fdtima de. 
Chhatar tan Dilli da. 

Tabd tan Makke dd. 

Ajmer tan Zindd Khwdjd Mauj Din di. 

Eazrat Kdti Kafalmin manuJch tan dc. 

A^vwal amdn ik nastu. 

Dum amdn do nasf.u. 

Tidram amdn ta nastu. 

Chdram amdn lip nastu. 

Awwal Fir Asd. 

Dom Plr Hazrat E}uudjd Khdsd, 

Soin Fir Safd. 

Chdram Fir Dddd Giljhaprd. 

Pet nun ruti tan nun kaprd ! 

Nezd to damdun ! 

Sadd sadd bdnkrd jduii ! 

Fir merd ja7nid : sab pirdn lar pdyd. 

Jhaggd topi Mdi Gaurjd** leke pahndyd. 

Teh muhdrki Alldh Nabi nun di. 

Wdh wdh ji mere shdh di sdmali, bel bahut 

si barhdi. 
Bale Siidh Nuri. 
■Eaidar Shdh Nuri, 
Habbut Ta'dld Nuri. 
Mania Mushkil-kushd Ddkhddkh Nuri. 
Takht bakht Rabbul Almiii Nuri, 

Bald Shdh Nuri kiMe bete ? 
Amir Shdh Nm'i de bete, 
A7nir Shdh Nuri kihde bete ? 
Eaidar Shdh Nuri de bete, 
Eaidar Shdh Nuri kihde bete ? 
Rabbut Ta'dld Nuri de bete. 
Habbut Tadla Nuri kihde bete ? 
idauld Mushkil'kushd Ddkhddkh de bete, 

Manila Mushkil-kushd kihde bete? 
Takht bakht Rabbul Almin Nuri de bete. 
Wdh tudh ji Sat Jug men ki bhdnd bartdyd ? 

Sonne dd ghat, tonne dd mat : 

Sonne dd ghord, Sonne dd jord, 

Sonne di kunji, sonne dd tdld, Honne de kiwdr 

Dakkhan munh mori, uttar munh diivdr 

Ldo kunji kholo kiiodr 

La mere sachche Dddd Fir de diddr 

Shahanshdh be paricdh, 

Wohi ik Alldh, 

Tere nam dd palld, 

Tu zdhir nam ik Alldh 

Wdh! wdh! ji ! Tretd men kyd bhdnd 

bartdyd ? 
Chdndi dd ghat, Chdmdi dd mat ; 
' Chdiidi dd ghord, Chdndi dd jord, 
Chdndi d{ kunji, Chdndi dd tdld, Chdndi 
di kiivdr 

The skirt * of Fdtima (is most trustworthy). 
There is no crown like that of the Delh 

There is no tahdf like that of Makka. 
Ajmer belongs to the ever-living Khwaji 

Ilazrat Kati Katalmin of mamikh lan.'\ 
The Ih-st faith is the first nastu,-f 
The second faith is the second na^itu. 
The third faith is the third nastu. 
The fourth failhjs the lipf of nastu. 
The first I'ir is Asa.§ 

The second Pir is His Majesty Khwajd Khnsa || 
The third Pir is Safa/j 
The fourth Pir is father Giljhapra, 
Bread is to tlie belly, clothing to the body, 
I bend the spear ! 
I go joyfully for ever and ever. 
My Pir has been born and committed to the 

charge of all the I'irs. 
Mother Gaurj-i put on him a, jhaggd and a cap. 
Congratulation to God and the Prophet. 
How excellent it is, my Lord ! Thou hast 

greatly increased my Saint's progeny. 
The god-like Bale Shah. 
The god-like Haidar Shdh, 
The god-like Halibut Ta'ala. 
Thegodlike Maula ilushkil-kushaft Dakhdikh. 
The Heavenly Preserver of the Worlds, (Lord 

of) throne and wealth. 
' AVhose son is Bala Shah Nuri ? ' 
' (He is son) of the god-like Amir Shah.' 
' Whose son is the god-like Amir Shah ? ' 
• Of the god-like Haidar Shah.' 
' Whose son is the god- like Haidar Shdh ? ' 
' Of the Heavenly Habbut Ta'ala.' 
' Whose son is the Heavenly Habbut Ta'ala t ' 
' Of the god-like Maula Mushkil-kushi Dikh- 

' Whose son is Maula Mushkil-kusha ? ' 
' Of the Heavenly Preserver of the Worlds.' 
How excellent, sir ! How was a vat used ia 

the Sat Jug ? 
Golden waterpot, golden dome : 
Golden horse, golden clothes. 
Golden is the key, golden is the padlock, and 

golden are the door-leaves. 
Entrance to the south, wall to the north ! 
Bring the key and open the door. 
Behold my true Father Saint, 
The independent King of Kings, 
He alone is the one God, 
In Thy name is my refuge, 
Thou art evidently one God. 
How excellent, sir ! How was a vat used in tho 

Silver waterpot, silver dome. 
Silver horse, silver clothes, 
Silver is the key, silver is the padlock, and 

silver are the door- leaves. 

* Lit. skin, so ' protection,' 
f Meaning unknown. 

j The correct name is Muin-ud-Din Chishti, 
§ Asa=Isa, Josus Chriet. 
II Khwaji Khizr. 

T[ Saf4, it is not known who thia Saf4 wa3. 
♦• P4rbati, wife of Shiv. 
tt Bemover of diflaculties. 


Chuhrd lays. 

Uttar munh mori, daJckhan munh diiodr, 

Ldo kmiji kholo kiwar, 

Le mere aachche Dddd Fir de diddr, 

Shnhanshdh be parivdh, 

Woh{ ik Allah. 

Tere nam dd palld, 

Tu zdhir nam ik Alldh. 

Kijo khaii'sald. 

Jumld fuqron kd ishq Alldh. 

Wdh ! wdh ! ji ! Divdpar Jug men kyd bhdnd 

hartdyd ? 
Tdmbe dd ghat, tdnihe dd 7nat : 
Tdmbe dd ghord, tdmbe ddjord, 
Tdmbe di kunji, tdmbe dd tdld, tdmbe de 

Purab munh mori, pachhajn mukh diwdr, 
Ldo kunjt kholo kiivdr, 
Lo mere sachhe Dddd Pit de diddr, 
Shdhnnehdh be parwdh, 
Wohi ik Alldh. 
Tere nam dd palld, 
Tu zdhir ndin ik Alldh ! 
Wdh ! lodh ! ji ! Kal Jug men kyd bhdnd 

Mitti dd ghot, mitfi dd mat ; 
Milti dd ghord, mitti ddjord, 
Mitti di kun)i, mitti dd tdld, mitti de kiwar. 

Pachham munh mori, purab munh diwdr, 

Ldo kunji kholo kiicdr, 

Lo mere sachhe Dddd Pir de diddr, 

Shdhanshdh be parwdh, 

Wohi ik Alldh. 

Tere nam dd palld, 

Tu zdjhir nam ik Alldh ! 

Wdh ! tudh ! ji ! Ldlo Ldl karenge nihdl 

Ghari ghari de kdfenge kdl. 

Ldl ghord, ldl jord : 

Ldl kalghi, ldl nitshdn, 

Ldl tambu, ldl pahilivdn, 

Ldl mai.ldn, 

Sonne di tokri ; rupe dd jharu : gal phulon 

de hdr. 
Jd khare hote sachhe Sdhib de Darbdr 
Kijiye chhutkdrd. 

Ali sdhib Paighambar Duldul sangdrd : 
Khabar hui Ddnon nu kitd dilkdrd. 
Yd Pirji, merd bhi dii kartd hai jang men 

chalUngd kardrd, 
Chix-ngi to niwdld. 
Sarsabz rahe dumdld. 
Arash pe kurushmen dhuni pd baifhe, Nuri 

8hdh Bdld. 

Arash te uttard ghard wa pidld, 

Hukm hud Sa7ndli Beg nu pi gayd, hud 

Sirarid, Vgatid, sahnd bidd karnd ikkindrd, 

Sdr di chhari Multdn di kumdn, indal hasti 
zard ambdri. 

Entrance to the north, wall to the south, 

Bring the key and open the door, 

Behold my true Father Saint, 

The independent King of Kings, 

He alone is the one God. 

In Thy name is my refuge, 

Thou art evidently one God. 

Grant us welfare. 

All the saints love God. 

How excellent, sir ! How was a vat used in 

the Dwapar Jug ? 
Brazen water-pot, brazen dome : 
Brazen horse, brazen clothes, 
Brazen is the key, brazen is the padlock and 

brazen are the door-leaves. 
Entrance to the east, wall to the west, 
Bring the key and open the door, 
Behold my true Father Saint, 
The independent King of Kings, 
He alone is the one God. 
In Thy name is my refuge, 
Thou art evidently one God ! 
How excellent, sir ! How was a vat used in the 

Kal Jug ? 
Earthen water-pot, earthen dome : 
Earthen horse, earthen clothes, 
Earthen is the. key, earthen the padlock and 

earthen the door-leaves. 
Entrance to the west, wall to the east, 
Bring the key and open the door, 
Behold my true Father Saint, 
The independent King of Kings, 
He alone is the one God, 
In Thy name is my refuge, 
Thou art evidently one God ! 
How excellent ! Lalo Lai will exalt us, 
(He) will remove the difficulties of every 

Red is the horse, red are the clothes : 
Red is the plume, red is the standard. 
Red is the tent, red is the wrestler. 
Red is the field, 
Of gold is the basket, of silver the broom : 

garland of flowers on the neck. 
(He) attends the court of the True Lord : 
Release us. 

The prophet Ali equipped his Duldul:* 
The giants heard of it and made a noise. 
Lord ! I too have a desire, I will certainly 

march bravely in the battlefield. 
Chungi to niwala.f 
May the dumdld remain green. 
By the Throne of God on the Arsh the god-like 

Bala Shih lighted fire and sat there (extort- 
ing compliance with what he wanted from 

From Heaven came down a pitcher and a cup, 
An order being given to Samali Beg, he drank 

it up and was intoxicated. 
! Siraria ! Ugatia ! Dismiss ond avert our 

Of sdl.X the stick, the bow from Multan ; the 

tuskless elephant, and yellow (golden) seat 

with the canopy. 

* The name of Ali's horse. 

t Meaningless phrase. 

I The sal tree is the shorea robusta. 

Chuhrd lays. 


Came riding on the Father Lai Beg, the true 

Saint and Prophet, 
Welcome. Lai Klwn, thou courtier. 
Seventy plun two, i.e., seventy-two evils (were) 

destroyed under thy hand ! 
Thou wilt separate water from milk.* 
Prorisions and a silk skein are offered to thee, 

vouchsafe us a little help. 
On the royal throne, with the Multan bow, in a 

golden hoivdah, on a tuskless elephant. 
Came the Father Lil Beg, the true Saint and 

Welcome, Lai Khan, darhdrl, 
By the testimony of Sarwar, by the holy 

Kalima of Muhammad, 
None is worthy of being worshipped but God ; 

and Muhammad is His Prophet. 

Ai Dddd Ldl Beg sachche Sat Gar Wall dt 

Ao Miydn Ldl Khd^i Darbdri. 
Sattar do hahattar bald tumhdre panje tale 

■mdri ! 
Chhdnnnge diidh dd dudh, pdui dd pdni. 
Toshd xKi Imhhvd, bhet hai tnmhdrl ; Jcuchh 

hijo madiid hamdri. 
Shdh detakht, Mulidn dl human, indal haati, 

zard a)nhdrl, 
Ai Dddd Ldl Beg sachche Sat Gar Wall di 

. HnUHh'i. 

Ao Miydn Ldl Khdn Darbdri,' 

Sarwar dl shahidi Hazrat dd kalima pdk. 

" Ld ildha ill-illdho; Mohammad-ir-RasM'Ul- 

(2). Another runs as follows :- 

Awxoal Fir And. 

Dom Plr Khdsd, 

Som Pir Sdfd. 

Chdram Pir Giljhoprd. 

Bare dd mat, jit4 dd pahilivdn, sarjan 

umrnat pai ! 
Sachche Sliahe Tcald tihdl. 
Jis din Alirdn Shdh Ja^iamid, chauddn 

tahaq hoi rushndi ! 
Thdpi tnili Muhammadon ! 
Baddi mill Paighambron ! 
Jhotdjamid ban-khande men ; chhutdphird 

Dargdh wich maqtulon bang sundi, 

•* Kholo bdivnn topi chird " : htirdn mangal 

Tale bage jmdd Dariydo, jithe pire ashndn 

Uchche daliche satranjidn, jithe pire mdl 

Sone di fohri ; rupe dd jhdvu, 
Ki hhandi hai tolcri ; ki khandi hai jhdru, ? 
Tokri kh'indi hai " pdk dar pdk : '' 
Jhdru kha)uli hai " khdh dav khdk." 
Jhdrii jharmidii dil kar safd ! 
Le borid ah de dere nd jde. 
Eds di kunji ? Kda dd tdld ? 
Kaun hai kholnewdld ? 
Ishq di kunji, prem dd tdld, 
Jibrdil hai kholnewdld ; 
Wohi ik hai. 

All now seat themselves, and then the ghi having been burnt and horn 
thus offered, the chimndn, made of flour, sugar and ghi, is distributed 
to the worshippers. The chongerd, or basket, is carried round. Some 
of the chtirmdn is given to the dogs, some to the crows, some to the 
cows, some to the old women, ani then the people eat, beginninor with 
the most wealthy and resf)ectable. The wrestler for Shdh Eli gets a 
share. The remainder is given to friends in the neighbourhood who are 
abgent. A collection of money is also taken. 

While they are seated, two stools are placed by the altar, and near 
them four cakes of dried cowdung are lighted, so that the drummer 

* To Hopiralo water from milk, i.e., to administer the hiphost jastice, 

t Th« male-buffalo donotinp; Lil Beg. 

X Thia phrase meaca "auroad the 52 turbans," 

The first Pir is Asa. 

The second Pir is Khasa. 

The third Pir is Safa. 

The fourth Pir is Giljhapra. 

The friend of the defeated, the hero of the 

victorious, (he) has followers of repute ! 
The true saint has done this miracle. 
When Miran Shah was born the fourteen 

regions were illuminated ! 
He received a pat from Muhammad ! 
He was glorified by the Prophet ! 
The male-buffalot was born in the wilderness 

and strayed in God's court : from the slain a 

call was heard, 
The virgins of Paradise sang joyfully " Kholo 

bdwan topi chird.'''!(. 

Below flows the life-giving river where the 

saint bathed. 
Above were spread carpets and rugs whereon 

the saint was seated. 
Golden is the basket ; silver is the broom, 
What says the basket ; what says the broom ? 
The basket says " pure and clean " : 
The broom says " dirt and dust." 
Sweep with the broom, clean the heart ! 
Take the mat and go to his dwelling. 
Of what is the key ? Of what is the lock ? 
Who is the opener ? 

Of ' love ' is the key, of ' love ' is the look : 
Jibrafl is the opener ; 
He is the One. 

204 The Chtihrd priests. 

may dry his rahhnna (tambourine) when it becomes limp. It being 
evening the two chelas sing to the rahhdna (tambourine) and the dotdra 
(fiddle). The drum is heated until it gives a ringing sound when 
beaten, the dotdra goes (as one of the men expressed it) Un^ bin, bin, 
bin, the rabbana, c/ham, ghavi, gham, gham, and all are ready. Bulanda 
comes and says, "■ Pir Bashk is here and so is N^nak, but where is the 
lame man ? He is lying in the house, is he ? What will he be able to 
tell to-morrow morning?" The farmers gather round and ask them 
whrttthey sre singing. Thny answer : " Let us sing the five attributes 
of God, and then we shall have leisure to speak to you.'* 

The chelas get their fees and go. Every year after the crop is 
gathered in Hdr, they go through this service, with the exception of the 
making of the shrine, the butti on the thard (the altar on the platform), 


(a). — Priests. 

With respect to their priests, whose names are Bala Shdh, Markhande. 
Mid,n Sura, Lai Beg, BRlmik, Jhaumpra, Pir Jhot^, Gungar Beg, Ail 
Maluk, they look on them as antdrs (incarnations) of the one Bala, 
Jhaumprd, in one of these traditions is called by Alif Chela, the tenth 

The priests are called 'pir, and do duty at marriages and funerals. At 
marriages the mirdsi (bard) places a diva, lamp of dtd (dough) in a 
clean place and the people bow before it, while he says that the jot, or 
light of their ancestors, is being burnt. 

Their faqirs or sddhus are b'h^h Madd^ri, Naushahiyd,, Nangesh^hiya, 
Yatimsh^hiya, Bairiigi. The Sh^h Madariya has a lit, or bodi, and a 
rosary. The Naugeshaliiya have long hair plaited with bor kd dudh 
(the milk of the banyan tree) and washed with earth. They bind it 
round the head with a cord of wool, and wear over it a turban of yellow 
cloth. 'Phey wear a laro^e bead over the forehead. They go naked for 
twelve years, having the person smeared with ashes. 

The Bairagi is dressed much like the Nangeshahiya, but he carries a 
bairdgan, or prop, on which he sits. 

The Naushdhiya has the hair united. He wears a rosary, and on the 
wrist an ornament called a gajrd. His clothes are yellow — whatever 
he has of clothes. 

The Yatimshdrhiya is like the Baird,gi. 

The faqirs^ work is to expel evil spirits with their mantras (incanta- 

(b). — Articles of faith. 
The tenets of their religion are especially — 
1. Sin is a reality. 2. There is one God. 3. Bd,ld, is a mediator. 

Sdddi MTi tere agge, Our cry is to thee ; 

Teri kuk dhur Dargde.—Amin. Thy cry reaches the presence of God. 

4. They sacrifice an animal, and also present offerings of corn, gur, 
ghi. It is cooked and placed on the shrine. It is called hafdhi. 

Chuhrd beliefs. 205 

The gydni, chela or priest, stands in front, the congi-ej^atiou behind 
him. When the gryani (knowing one) says, ' Bolo, moniino, sarhgati' 
they say, * Amin, sarbgati,' i.e., ' let all have salvation.' The victim 
sacrificed is a fowl or a goat according to their means. It is called 
All \h da Nam (God's Name). The i\.od is distributed and eaten, and 
the fanj sifateu (five attributes) are sung. 

5. The spirit returns to God. 

6. 'i'hero will be a resurrection of the body. 

7. There will be judgment. 

8. Tlierc are angels. 

The priests of the Chuhras are recruited from various sources. Thus 
in many parts of Gurgaon weddings are performed by pddhas, who 
will eat with Chuhras, though they are probably degraded Brahmans 
by caste, like the Cbamarwci. See also Lalbeqi. 

(c). — Shrines. 

The shrine in a village always faces the east. Ita shape is a dome, 
or, as they say, gdo dum ki shakal (like a cow's tail), upright. There 
are only lamps in it, no idols. The name of the shrine is Bala Shah. 

(d) . — Rites. 

They have no secret rites. Their shrine is worshipped on Thursdays, 
sacrifices are ofi:"ered, and also chiirmdn (a sweetmeat made of bread 
crumbs mixed with butter and sugar), and the gydjii prays. It is only 
at the consecration of a new slirino that the head of the animal sacrificed 
and knives are buried under the shrine. The shrine is built on the 
sacrifice and sacrificial weapons, as a foundation. 

There is no ceremony for admission among the Chuhrds, except 
participating in the hardhi. 

(e). — Saceifices, 

The animal sacrificed is a fowl, a goat, and perhaps a cow. 

The gydni, or a Muhammadan mulla, offers the sacrifice. 

The sacrifice is offered not near the ahrine but at a little distance 
from it. It is cooked and eaten. They also burn ghi, rdl or scented 
resin,* and guggal (a gum, used as incense) . This is called horn. 

When a child is born, he is brought on the twenty-first day and 
offered or consecrated to Billmik, and called Bdlinik ha bor. He is a 
nazar, or offering. 

(/). — Fetishism. 

Belief in spirits is general. A spirit may attach itself to a roof and 
break it, or to a well and throw a man in, or to animals and they will 
attack and injure man. A bad ruh (an evil-spirit) may meditate mischief 
and God sends a warning. This is called sabhdicak (of good intent). 

Good spirits attach themselves to wood and other things, especially 
cooking vessels. They bring blessings. 

Fields are haunted and may accordingly be barren. 
• Rdl, resin of the Sho rea rdbusta. 

206 Chuhrd beliefs. 

(g). — Ancestor- WORSHIP. 

The ChulirdiS fear the spirit of a woman who dies in childbirth, 
because she has become a churel, a witch that is to be dreaded. Faqirs 
have power over spirits and receive information from them of the 
designs of the spirit world. 

Bad dreams come from the dahdi (the pressure) of an evil spirit. To 
drive the evil spirits away BAlmik's name is taken. Sickness is caused 
by had ruh hi say a (the shadow of an evil spirit). Faqirs and jpirs 
drive away spirits \\it\\ jhdrd'^ karaund, jhdr phunkt (conjuring). 

Ghosts of the dead haunt houses, burial grounds, etc. They come as 
little boys vtith white hair. Not long since in this neigbourhood two 
children strayed from home in the gi'ey dawn and were seen by some 
of the villagers, who, not recognising them as children of the village, 
were terrified at the sight of them, believing them to be ghosts. I 
understand that the children ran some risk of being treated harshly, if 
not killed, as evil-intentioned ghosts. 

Churels have their feet pointing backwards. They have long paps 
which they throw over their shoulders. Their hair is long, and face 
beautiful. A dyer was returning home one day, when he met a churel, 
who accompanied him to his house. She was very attractive, for she 
concealed the marks by which he would have recognised her. But at 
night, wlien it was time to put outthe light, she did it with her hand, 
which she stretched to such a distance that the dyer in terror found 
he had a churel by his side. He would have given the alarm, but she 
threatened him and gave him a rupee. The fag ir found her out, how- 
ever, being set to do it by the dyer's friends. Usne use qdhu harliyd 
(he caught her). She then asked for her rupee and disappeared. 

If a woman dies before giving birth to her child, she certainly 
becomes an evil-spirit. When they bury her, they put a nail through, 
her hands and her feet, and put red pepper on her eyes. They place a 
chain round her ankles and so bury her. On the way home they sow 
■seti sarou (white mustard) that it may blind her. They have tuna for 
her, i.e., charms, otherwise she would come and hurt every one in the 
house. " This is a fact," said my informant emphatically ! 

At a certain stage of the incantations the cheld says, " Are you 
going ? " The spirit says, " Yes, but I wa,nt a fowl, a goat, a piece of 
cloth, etc." This is given, and the bad spirit goes. 

There are several kinds of spirits, churel, bhilt, kliavis, jinn, deo, pari. 
The churel we have described. The j^aris are churds when they come 
in companies. Kfaqir, who dies within his twelve years of faqiri, 
becomes a bhitt, or a khavis, or a jinn, or a deS. If he dies in his forty 
days of fasting, when he comes to eat one grain a day, he becomes a 
hhavis or a jmn, or a deo. 


Laung (clove) J is the name of one of the ancestors in the clan of 
Goriye. It is especially revered. 

* Lit. 'sweep away.' 

t Lit. 'blow away.' 

X Also a noaa stud or oraament. 

Chuhrd omens and oaths. 207 

Among the Gils, the haingyah (egg plant) is particularly noticed. 
The chiefs name was Parth, so they do not eat the 'part* (rind) of the 

Women never take the name of their zdt (caste) on their lips. 


Omens and Names. 

If a Chuhrd goes on a journey and meets a rnirdsi, he goes back. 
If some one calls after him he goes back. The braying of a donkey 
meeting him is a good omen, if a washerman meets a man beginning 
a journey, it is sufficient to send him back, certain of failure if he goes 
on. Some men are known to carry good fortune, and are sent out to 
meet travellers. 

A Chuhra never steps over a broom. The broom that is used to sweep 
corn ia hung up on a nail in the house. That for ordinary use is placed 
on a grave, bat never upright. 

Children are frequently given names arising out of superstitions : thus, 
Kakd is used as a first name. Ghasita means dragged, that is, dragged 
over a dust heap, ruri. Rur^ hH.s the same meaning. As the name is 
one of dishonour, tlie evil-eye will not fall on the children that bear it. 
Likar means having half of tho liead shaved, and the other not ; this ia 
to keep the child alive. Nathu means having a ring in the nose, to 
hold him and keep him from going away, i.e., dying. 

Oaths, magic and witchceaft. 
The oath by B^la Shdh is used. 

The practice of magic arts is confined to /ajiVg and pzV«. It is the 
sauhrief that bring evil-spirits. A person possessed is cured in the 
following manner : — The/ag-iV takes a drum, a thdli or platter and a 
ghard or earthen jar. The platter is placed over the jar, and the whole 
is called gharidl.X Thefaqir beats the drum, another person beats the 
gharidl, and others sing. The sick person shakes his head, and when 
the music (?) ceases they ask him questions: " Who are you ?" " I am 
so and so," he replies. " How did j on come into this state?" "Such 
and such a one put me into this state." " Who bewitched you ?" " So 
and so." " What did he get for doing it ?" '•' So many rupees." " For 
how long are you sick? "I have to be sick so many days, and then 
die." They play and sing again. After a time the sick man perspires 
and recovers. The evil-spirit goes with the perspiration. 

A curious and repulsive cure is used among Hindus and probably 
others. It is called jari or niasdn. An unmarried person dies, and his 
or her body is burnt at the burning ghdt. A faqir takes some of tho 
ashes from the burning pile, goes to tho hills for a certain plant, and 
makes bread of these two ingredients on a grave. The broad is made 
into pills, one of which is given to a naked childless woman. She gives 
the pill in a drink to her enemies, and herself has a child. Her barren 
condition was caused by an evil-spirit. Masdn means demon, and burn- 
ing-place among Hindus. 

* Part is the form given in Maya Singh's Punjabi Dictionnry, p. 877. 
I Sauhrd,— i, lit. (I) parenta-in-law; (2) Bimpieton, wretch. 
% Qharidl, lit. a gong. 

208 Chuhrd social customs. 

Jhundd is an iron whip which a faqir beats himself with for the 
sake of another, so that the evil-spirit in him may be troubled and flee. 
They also burn oil in a tavd (iron dish). The faqir puts his hand in 
the hot oil and pours it on his person. The evil-spirit feels it, but the 
faqir does not. Tho faqir also beats his body with a millstone. After 
the sick man recovers, the faqir takes a fowl, kills it, dips a string in 
its blood, knots the string, blows on it, and finally binds it round the 
sick man's neck, assuring him that the evil-spirit will not come again. 
If the man goes where there is impurity [sutak] the virtue in the string 

Dreams are from evil-spirits, and the Chuhras fear them. To dream 
that a person who is dead is cutting flesh, is an intimation that there 
will be a death in the house. Muhammadan Sayyids give the ta^wix (a 
charm) to keep away dreams. 

The evil eye is universally believed in. Some men are very injurious 
in this way. If a man with the evil eye looks at any one taking food, 
sickness follows. To cure this, the sick person asks a bit from the 
evil-eyed man when he is at a meal. The morsel given acts as a cure. 
"When a cow is sick, and gives no milk, they give her a bit of the 
evil-eyed {had nazr) man's food. 

Sorcerers and witches act on their victim by making a figure of him 
and torturing the figure by inserting a needle into it. The torture 
reaches the person who is personated. Nails and hairs are carried 
away to be subjected to pain that the original owners 'may be tormented. 
They are carefully thrown away when cut off, lest any enemy should 
get possession of them. Women are especially careful in this parti- 

Sickness is caused by evil spirits. 

Ceremonial prohibition or taboo. 

The Chuhrds never touch a Gagra, or a Sansi, gipsy. Women and 
children do not go near graves. The daughter-in-law never mentions 
the father-in-law's name. Chuhras do not eat monkeys, or snakes, or 
jackals, or rats. 

Agricdltdeal superstitions. 

Crops are cut on a Sunday, Monday, or Friday, and sown on a 
Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday. 

If the Chuhyd,s burn a siip (winnowing sieve or fan) in a village, the 
farmer is injured. It is a curse— the curse of the poor. 

Social cdstoms. 

The household eat together, but the women eat after the men. If 
men eat after women they are injured, because women are weak of 

' Yd jidh ya jhuth, donon nuqsdn pahuchdnde : ' * Food touched by 
others and falsehood are both injurious.' They use shardb (strong 
drink), opium {aflm, post, hhang) and charas. Drunkards are despised. 

Customs op social intercourse. 
In salutation, they say pairie pan to the great, the answer being terd 
hhald kare Khudd. Also mathd teknd, saldm. 

Chuhrd vocations, 209 


They eat paJcki among themselves, and kachchi with Gagre and 
Sd,nsis. They smoke only among themselves. No caste above them 
eats with them. 


The oEioiNAL work op the Chdhras. 
They were the tanners of the village communities, and used to lire 
in huts at a distance from the village, the walla of which were made of 
bones, and the roof of skins. When an animal died, the Hindus beat a 
drum to let them know that they must come and carry off the dead 
body. Five rupees was the fee given and also a ehroud. The 
Chuhr^s took off the animal's hide and ate its flesh. Sweeping was 
also their work. 

Formerly, when a Hindu died, the Chuhrds received a sheet or 
Jcafan (nhroud), and they still receive clothes. In the old days they 
got five rupees at the Hindu burning-place, and exacted it with clubs. 
If a cow dies on a Hindu's laud they call it dushndy and the Hindu 
who takes the cow's tail to the Ganges to be purified is beaten there by 
a Chuhra with a shoe. 


Nowadays their work is farm service. They are landless day- 
labourers on the farm. They are divided into — 

(1) The dthr%, who gets a maund of wheat for every mdni at the 
harvest ; also odds and ends. He has ghundidn, pir de ddne, the barley 
that is sown in a strip round the wheat field; wheat soAvn by the water- 
course ; bread twice a day ; clothes and shoes twice a year ; tobacco ; 
vegetables and wood : 

(2) The se'p hhulli, who receives three-quarters of a maund for every 
mdni, and bread daily if he goes to a distance to work ; and 

(3) The wife, who takes away dung from the farmyard, and receives 
half a maund of corn. 

It was cow-burying that led to their isolation. They say the Mdchhi, 
the Jhiwar, thn Chuhrd, the Changar, and the Mird,si are all of the 
same caste, but have different occupations. 

There is a story told of the Chuhras by Muharamadans and others 
that does not reflect to their credit. They are believed to be inclined 
to be uppish and to forget past favours, being ungi-ateful, and are 
supposed to work best when they are well beaten, otherwise they take 
advantage of the kindness of their masters. I give this only as the 
opinion of their neighbours. 

The story ia that once on a time the king of the Chuhrfls met Moses, 
who was on his way to talk with God.* The king of the Chubrds asked 
Moses to carry a petition to God from him, that he might be enabled to 
take the usual tax from people passing through his territory. Moses 
accordingly presented the king's petition, but God said, " Moses, you do 

* They and others call Moses Mihtar Mdsa; mihtar being a title of distinction, although 
used mostly for the Chnhfas. 

210 Chunian^Churdhi. 

not know what yon are doing, yon do not know this people. They will 
turn on you, and dishonour you in the end.*' But Moses persevered, 
and obtained for the Chuhrd king what he desired, viz,, that he should 
levy taxes on travellers. The next time Moses passed that way he 
was accosted in a most humiliating manner. " Oh Musri, are you the 
man that carried a petition for me ? You must pay the dues." " Did 
I not tell you, Moses," snid God, " that you would bring dishonour on 
your head. They have no gratitude." 


The Chuhrds have oral traditions which they recite at their gather- 
ings. If a Chuhrd, wishes to learn them, he becomes the disciple of some 
one who is in possession of them, i. e., who can repeat them from 
memory. I heard, however, that there was a book of the Chuhrds in 
Gujrd,nwala District, but I was unable to obtain it, as the owners had 
the idea that I would use it to their disadvantage, 

Chdnian, a Muhammadan Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Churahi is the generic name for the people of the Chur&h. wizdrat, in Chamba 
State, who include Brahmans, Rdjputs, Thdkurs, Rdthis, and the follow- 
ing low castes : — Hdlis, Kolis, Sippis, Barw^las, Lohdrs, Chamdrs, 
Dumnas, Rih^ras, Chandls, Meghs, etc. The low castes are all endog- 

Tradition makes the Thdknrs descendants of the old R^n^s, or petty 
chieftains, who held Chamba, prior to the foundation of the State by the 
Rdjd,s, and the Hdlis, its oldest inhabitants. It also makes the Brahmans 
immigrants from Brahmaur and the Rajputs from the plains ; but the 
Rdthis preceded these two castes, having been expelled from the Dugar 
counti'y by Gugga Chauhd,n — a curious legend. 

Marriage among the Churdhis is adult, and women are allowed every 
license before marriage. Three degrees on either side, counting from 
the grandparents, are avoided, but otherwise there are few restrictions, 
Brahmans intermarrying with Rd,this, by both forms of marriage, and 
also with Rdjputs and Thdkurs. Polyandry is not recognized, but polygamy 
is, and the first or head wife (bari Idri*) is given Rs. 6 when a second 
wife is admitted into the house. This fee is caWed jethw a ghf. 

The observances at betrothal are simple. The initiative is taken by 
the boy's people, and the binding rite consists in the boy's agents placing 
eight Chamba coins, worth nearly 2 annas, in the plates used for enter- 
taining the bride's ruhdrus or representatives, and giving one rupee 
for ornaments to the girl. 

Marriage is of three kinds. In the superior form, called ^'awatj, the per- 
liminaries are as follows : — Some six months before the wedding the boy's 
father or brother goes to the girl's house with one or two friends and gives 
her father Rs. 7 and a goat as his Idg^. A rupee is also given to the 
bride to buy ornaments, and this is called handhd dend\\. If the parents 

• Ldri = wife. 

f Fr.jeiha. elder and udgh, a share, 

J Jandi (jdni =^ marnage), jandi appears to be a diminutive. 

§ Lag, a custorr.ary due. 

jl Bandhd — jewelleiy. 

Weddings in Churdh, ^ll 

agree, an auspicious day is fixed for the wedding, and a day before it two 
messengers {dhdmu*) from the bride's house come to fetch the boy, who 
worships the family deva or devi. Next day, accompanied by a few friends 
and one of the dhdmu, he goes to the bride's house. One of the boy's 
menial Hdlis accompanies him, carrying the badhdi^f, a present of two 
mdnisX o^ grain, to her father. This Hdli is called putridr^. On his 
arrival at the entrance the boy worships the kumhk\\ (a vessel full of 
water) ; throwing two copper coins into it and then seating himself on a 
blanket placed near the wall. The bride's sister now has a mimic fight 
with him and does not let him sit down till he has paid her two annas. 
This is called bishk^. She then fetches the bride and seats her by the 
boy whose future brother-in-law brings a vessel of boiled rice which he 
and the boy's brother scatter over the floor. This is called bhdt 
chingdna*''^. The pair are then seated, as are the guests, and a feast with 
songs and dancing follows. The bride's dowry called sudytt is then given 
to her by her parents. In the afternoon the boy's party returns to his 
house with two or three of the girl's friends, and the bride herself and 
other men and women of the bride's party. Before leaving the threshold 
of the bride's house the ceremony of drtiH is performed, a lighted lamp 
being waved four times rouud the head of the pair by a priest, who 
recites verses from the SukUmber and Deo Lild. At the boy's house this 
observance is repeated, and the kumhh worshipped by the bride and 
bridegroom, at the door. Then the boy's mother lifts up the bride's veil 
and presents her with a rupee or half a rupee according to her position. 
This is called ghundu^^ khard karnd. After this a feast is eaten and 
another feast given on the following day, and songs and dances performed. 
The binding portion of the ceremony is when drti is waved round the 
couple's heads at the boy's house. At his wedding the boy wears a high 
peaked cap like a Gaddi's, but not a sehra || || . 

Within a month after the marriage the married pair pay a visit to the 
wife's parents and make them a small present. This observance is 
called har-phera^^i. 

Widow remarriage is recognised. Formerly the widow was obliged to 
many one of the deceased husband's brothers, but now this is not the 
practice. She can choose her own husband within her own caste or 
sub-division. This union is solemnized by an inferior form of marriage 
called sargudhi'^^*. There are no dhdmu, and the bridegroom simply 
goes to the woman's house with his putridr and brother. The bandhd is 
given as at a regular wedding, but drti is not performed, and there is less 
feasting and the cost is much less. The binding ceremony in this form 
is when an ornament is put on her, usually a nose-ring. 

* Dhnmu, fr. dham a feast 1 dhdmu = guest. 

+ Badhdi, fr. harhna, to increase. 

T Mdniy a measure. 

& Putridr^ from pufr, a son . 

I Kumhh = a new ghard full of water. 
^ Bishk, fr. bishnd = haithnd, to sit down. 
*• Chingdna, to scatter. 
"f^ Sudj, dowry : fr. sud, red. 

tt.4rh'. to swing round anything from right to left. 
§8 Ohundtl-thddar, a bride's head-dress. 
fill Sehra, bridegroom's bead-dress. 

^fl Har-phera, fr, flctr, God, and pheriid, to go ; to visit in the name of God, 
**• Sargudhi, fr. tar, head (hsir) and gudhnd or gundhna, to plait. 

212 Marriage in Ghurdh, 

A quiet form of sargudhi marriage is called garih chdra*. The lag, 
etc., are all rendered as iii the other form, but on an auspicious day the 
bridegroom accompanied by his sister simply goes to the bride's house, and 
at the entrance worships the kumhh. He then seats himself on the blanket 
in the usual way, and the girl is seated next him by her mother. After 
eating the couple take leave of the girl's father and proceed to the boy's 
house where the kuinbh is again touched. This second worship of the 
kumhh makes the marriage binding. 

The third and lowest form of marriage is the handhd ludndf in which a 
widow, who is to marry her husband's brother, is married to him on the 
kiria day, i.e., 7th to the 11th or ISthday after the first husband's death. 
She puts aside her late husband's ornaments and puts on his brother's, in 
token that she accepts him. A he-goat is sacrificed at home to the de- 
ceased husband and a small feast usually given. The widow's parents need 
not attend, but they are entitled to a lag, called hakrd, as being the price 
of a goat. If the widow wishes to marry a stranger, he must pay the 
hakrd of one rupee, and Re. 1-8 or Rs. 3 as chadydliX to her parents. An 
auspicious day after the kiria karm period is ascertained from a jotshi,^ 
and the ornaments changed as described above. 

Lastly a man who elopes with a girl can, after a certain interval, open 
neo'otiatioiis with her father, and if he assents, pay him Rs. 7 and a goat as 
compensation. This observance is termed lag rit\\ and operates as a valid 

The custom of gharjawdntri or service in lieu of a money payment for 
a wife, is common among all castes in the State, especially in the Churah 
and Sadr wizdrats. The term of service is usually three or seven years, 
and the marriage may take place at any time if the girl's father is agreeable. 

A husband may divorce his wife if he cannot get on with her. The 
divorce is complete if the husband receives back his ornaments and says : 
" I have divorced you, Bdjd ki durohi^^/' i.e., on the Rajd,'s oath. The 
husband also breaks a stick in her presence. Divorced wives can 
remarry if they like. 

In succession all sons, even bastards, if recognized by the father, 
succeed on equal terms, but the eldest son gets the best field as his 
jethwdgh ; the second son gets a special implement, sickle, sword or axe 
as his hathidr, while the third gets the family house as his mulwdher. 

The son {rand put) or daughter {rand dhidff) of a widow born in 
her husband's house has all the rights of her deceased husband's own 
children. It is, however, essential that the widow should continue to live 
in her husband's house and the child be begotten therein. 

* ' The custom (c/idra) of the poor.' 

f Ludnd = to put on aa a dress. 

j Chadydli, fr. chadnd = chorna, to let go. 

§ Jotuhi, an astrologer. 

[| Rit = custom. 

^ Marriage customs differ considerably in the eastern and western portions of Churah, and 
the above description chiefly applies to the eastern half. In the western half the bydh 
or full marriage rite, according to orthodox Hindu custom, is the rule, and the janai is 
uncommon ; but the other forms are as above. 

** Durohi =^ oath, 

■\-\-Rand = 'widow, and dhid = daughter. 

Tenv/res in Churdh. 213 

All doad Hindus except children not yet tonsured are burnt. The 
head is placed towards the north and the hands on tho chest, the face 
being turned skyward. _ Tho Hindu rites are, in essentials, observed, but 
tho place of the achdraj is taken by the Bhd^. 

For seven, nine or thirteen days mourning is observed, only one meal 
a day, called upas*, being eaten, and on tho day on which mourning is to 
cease, a suit of good woollen clothes (which are prepared beforehand in 
anticipation of death and worn on festival days) is given to the priest 
, who presides over the obsequies. Sixteen balls of rice are prepared 
and offered to the deceased's ancestors and finally removed and 
thrown into the nearest stream. The relations of the deceased also 
wash their clothes and a he-goat is killed. Then a feast is given to the 
relations and the mouruing ends. This feast is usually given by the 
deceased's wife's parents. Ceremonies are performed and balls made 
and offered after one, three and six months, a year and four years, to 
the deceased. At the latter, i. e., at the end of the fourth year, called 
chuharhi, the ceremonial is done on a big scale. 

The obsequies of any man who dies childless are done in tho same way, 
but if he brings any calamity on the household an effigy is made and 
placed near a spring or on the roof of the house or in some good place 
and worshipped by offering him a cap, bread, and an earthen pot of ghi 
which are finally worn and eaten by the man who is supposed to have 
been affected by him. The spirit of the person who dies a violent death 
is appeased by taking an earthen pot full of boiled ghi, a pitcher full of 
water, and a goat to the spot where he met his death, aad the goat is 
killed there and his head and the vessels rolled down the hill. This is done 
onthepaniydru, i.e., on the hiria harm day. The people perform sarddh. 
Ceremonies are also performed for the propitiation of ancestors in 
general, t 

The Chur^his are zaminddrs and hold land on two forms of tenure. 
Those who pay half its produce are called ghdrdX and those who pay a 
fixed share of gi'ain, etc., are called mudydri.^ The half share is alone 
divided after deducting the seed for the next crop. Occupancy tenants 
are not allowed any special privilege in the shape of remission of rent or 
favourable rates. The Chur^his are primarily and essentially cultivators, 
but many of them own flocks of sheep and goats with which, like the 
Gaddis, they visit Pdngi in summer and tho low hills in winter. 

The Churd.hia worship the deities on the following days :— 

Shiv — Sunday, Monday and Thursday. 

Sdkti — Sunday, Moaday and Tuesday. 

Nag or Mahal — Thursday and Saturday. 

Kailu — Thursd ay . 

Kyelang — Sunday and Thursday. 

Sitla — Sunday, Tuesday and Thursday. 

Chaund — Tuesday, Thursday and Sunday. 

* Opd$ = fast. 

t Men who have died childless are propitiated by putting garlands of flowera and a red 
woolleD cap on their effigies on the Sankrdnt and tfdns days. 
1 Fr. ghdr = half, 
f Fr. muda, a fixed amoant. 

21* Churdhi festivals. 

To Shiv are offered a chola or woollen coat, a sheep, charms of silver 
oblono; in shape worn round the neck, a nddi (a silver-arch ornament 
shaped like a drnm). These offerings are taken by the head of the 
family, and the ornaraentjg are worn by him out of respect for Shiv and 
to avert his wrath. To Sakti Devi are offered, as elsewhere, a goat, 
trident and cakes. The offerings to a Nd,g are an iron mace {khan(fa), 
a crooked iron stick {kundi), (these are left at the shrine), a sheep and 
cakes (these are divided among the priest, chela and worshipper, and 
eaten). To Kailu are offered a red cap, an iron mace and a kid. The 
cap and part of the kid go to the priest, the rest to the worshipper. 
Kyelang's offerings are a mace, a goat and a red cap. Sitla^s offerings 
are a goat and cakes like the Devi's. Chaand gets cakes, and occasion- 
ally a goat, is also sacrificed at her shrine. 

Churahis make a pilgrimage to Manmahesh in Bhadon or in Asuj, on 
the Drub Ashtami day. 

Blocks of wood or stone which are supposed to possess some super- 
natural attributes are worshipped. When a deity is to be set up for the first 
time and consecrated, a Brahman's presence is necessary. The priests 
preside at shrines; and in dwellings the elder members of the household. 
Priests are not selected from the Brahman class only, but from all the 
other castes except low castes. Brahmans, Rdjputs, Rathis andfhakkara 
are eligible to hold the position of a priest. 

The following are some of the festivals observed in Churd,h :— 

1. Biswd., on 1st Baisd,kh, at which pindri or balls of grain are eaten 
with honey and ghi or gur. People also collect together tor singing and 
dancing, this being the Hindu New Year's Day. 

2. Patvom ki sankrdnt* on 1st Bhadon, held in memory of their 
ancestors. Flour is mixed with water, salt and spices and spread on 
bhuji leaves, called patroru, and eaten. 

3. Masru, held on the same day as the Drub Ashtami at Manimahesh 
in honour of Shiva — that is, on the eighth day of the light half of 
Bhadon. It is accompanied by dancing. 

4. Several of the ordinary melas observed in the capital, such as 
Holi, Diwd,li, Lohri, etc., are also held in Churd,h. 

5. Chhinj, or wrestling matches, associated with the Lakhd^ta cult, 
are held annually in every pargana of Churah. 

Ceorbra, a Kharral clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Chub£qar : ( I ) a maker of bracelets, called in the west Bangera or Wangri- 
gar. Also called sometimes Kachera or glass-worker, the Churigar 
generally makes bracelets of glass or lac, which are sold in the east by 
the Manid-r, and in the west by the Bangera. The Churigar also makes 
bracelets of bell-metal or any other material except silver or gold. 
The term is probably merely an occupational one, and in the east of the 
Punjab practically synonymous with Manidr. (2) A Jd,t clan (^agricul- 
tural) found in Multan. 

Sanhr&ni =: firit d»j of the month. 



Dabb, Dab, a Ji\ clan (agricultural) found in Multdn and Shdhpur. 

Dabekah, a Kamboh clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Pabgar, a low caste who make kuppis for oil and yhi. Tliey prepare 
the raw hides themselves. The term is, at least in these Provinces, a 
purely occupational one, but the dabgars are principally recruited 
from the Chamdr caste, and, in Sidlko^, from the Khojds and Chuhrds 
also. By metathesis the term becomes badgar. 

Dabkaya, Dahaya, cf. Katayfi, a gilder, a beater of wire. 

Dachchi, a clan of the Bhattis of the Sandal Bdr, who are said to marry 

with the Chaddrars, but not with the Bliagsiri or Jandrdkea, though the 

latter also are both Bhatti clans. 

Dadd, an agricultural clan found in Shdhpur. 

Daddcke, a Kharral clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Dadi, a sept of Rajputs, descended from Chhatar Cliand, 3rd Bon of Par^ 
Chand, Slst Rdja of Kahlur or Bilaspur State. 

Dadi, see under Dawai. 

Dadpotra, a J^t clan (agricultural) found in Multau (doubtless Ddud- 
potra, q. v.). 

Dadra BHAffi, a Rdjput clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery, 

Dadu, a 3a\ clan (agricultural) found in Multd,n. 

Dadupanthi, — Founded by DiLdu,* a Gaur Brahman, who died in 1703. The 
Dddupanthi sect is usually divided into three orders : — 

(*) Ndga3,t found in the villages about Jaipur : they wear the 
choti or scalp-lock, and ornaments, and are wrestlers, fencers 
and on occasion warriors ; 

(»i) the Viraklas,J who wear ochre-coloured garments and do not 
livo in houses ; 

* Didu was born at Ahmad4bad in Ouzerit, wbence he migrated to Narilina 50 
miles south-west of Jaipur and now the head-qnarters of the sect. At the gurHdwdra 
hero the D^d^panthis assemble in Ph^gan and thence go to Sambhar where a fair ia 
held on the Hnniversary of Dado's death. Regarding his birth, tradition avers that an a"ed 
Brahman had no son, but one day God, in the guise of an old man, told him in response'^ to 
his prayers, that he would find floating on the river a box containing a male child, sucking 
its toe. He did so, and his wife's breasts miraculously filled with milk, so that she 
was able to suckle the child. When the boy was 10 years old, the aged man again appear, 
fid to the boy and gave him some betel from his own mouth, whereby all secrets were 
revealed to him, and the old then named him Dadii Jiv, bidding him remain 
celibate and found an order of his own. Dadii then exclaimed ; Dddit gaih mahin gur 
dev mild, pdyd ham parshdd, Mastak meri kar dharyd dekhd agam agdd. " By chance J 
found a guru ; he gave me pnrshdd and laid his hands upon my hend, whereby all secrett 
were revealed to me.'' Didii'a death is assigned to Sbt. 17G0 (1703 A.D.) • but he 
is nlso said to have been 6th in descent from Riiminand. If so he flourished in 1600 
A. D. Other accounts make him contemporary with Dar4 Shikoh, others with Govind 
Singh. According to Vacauliffe, Sikh Religion, VI, p. 140, the D^dupanthfa place D4dd's 
death at the same time and place as Kabir's. 

t N4ga is said to be derived from Sanskrit ndgvaka, naked, but thero ia the usaal play 
on the words nanjfa (naked) and nag, snake. The Nig4s are mercenary soldiers in 
Jaipur and other States of R4jputana but are not known in the Punjab. See below 

J Virakta simply means ascetic. Mr. Maolagan eaya the celibates of to-day wear 
white, shave the beard and moustache, and wear necklaces, with white round caps to 
whiob ia attached a piece of cloth which hangs down the baok^-olearly the kapdli. 

216 The Dddupanthia. 

{in) the Uttradhas, who shave the head with the beard and mous- 
tache,''^ wear white clothes, and generally practise as physi- 
cians; besides 

(iv) the secular Dddupanthis, who are called Bistardharis. 

Dadu is said to have had 52 disciples who established as many deras 
or resting places.t The head of each dera, the deraddr, presents 
contributions to the gaddi-nashin or incumbent of the guru'dwdra at 
Nardind, who is elected by a conclave of the deraddrs. The eect is 
recruited from the Brahman, Kshatriya, Rdjput, Jdt and Gujar castes, 
but never from those of menial rank 4 As a rule children are initiated. 

Dddu composed a book called the Dddu Bani, of 5,000 verses, some of 
which are recited by his followers, after cheir ablutions every morning. 
In the evening drti is performed to it by lighting lamps and reciting 
passages from it.§ Dd,du forbade idolatry, built no temples,|| and 
taught the unity of God. In salutation his votaries use the word Sat 
Rdm, the " True God." But, in spite of Dd,du's denunciation of idolatry, 
his hair, his tumha (cup), chold (gown) and kharsun (sandals) are 
religiously preserved in his cave (guphd) at Sdmbhar.^ 

Before a guru admits a disciple the privations and diflficulties of jog 
are impressed upon him, and he is warned that he will have to 
remain celibate, live on alms, abstain from flesh and stimulants, and 
uphold the character of his order. In the presence of all the sddhus 
the guru shaves off the disciple's choti (scalp-lock) and covers his head 
with the hapdli (sknll-cap), which Dd,du wore. He is also given a 
kurta of hhagwd (ochre) colour, and taught the guru-mantra which he 
must not reveal. The rite concludes with the distribution of sweets. 

On a guru's death the usual Hindu rites are observed, and on the 
I7th day a feast is given to the sddhus. A fine tomb is sometimes 
erected outside the dera, in memory of the deceased, if he was wealthy. 

Although the Dddupanthis proper are celibate, both men and women 
are admitted into the community, and a great many have taken to 
marriage without ceasing to be D5,dupanthi8. These form the histat' 
dhdri or secular group, which should probably be regarded as a 
separate caste. Many of them are merchants, especially in grain, and 

* The Utfcradhi have a guru at Rathia in Hissar. See below. 

•j- Of these 52 digoiples, Raijab, Gharib Dis and Sundar D43 were the chief. Raijab 
was a Muhammadan ; it is said that Muhammadana who follow Dad^ are called Uttradhi in 
contradistinction to the Hindu Dadiipanthi8 who are called Nagf. But the N^gi is 
clearly the N4ga already described, and Uttradhi can only mean " northern." 

The second, Gharib DAs, composed many hymns, still popular among Hindus, but his 
followers are said to be mostly Chamirs, who cut the hair short and wear cotton quilting. 
Bundar Dig composed the Sahya, a work resembling the Sikh Qranth. 

J But see the foregoing foot-note. The followers of Gharib Das. at any rate, elude 
Ohamirs, and Mr. Maclagan adds that many adherents of the sect are found among the 
lower castes. 

§ According to Wilson the worship is addressed to Kama, the deity negatively described 
lntheVed4nta theology. 

II Now temples are built by his followers who say that they worship " the book '' in them. 

<|| Mr. Maclagan adds : " In fact, the doctrine of Dadu is sometimes described as 
pantheistic. It is contained in several works in the Bhasba tongue which are said to 
include many of the sayings of Kabir. Accounts of the guru and his followers are given 
in the Janm-lila." 

rhe Mall. LAHORE. 
I Alipur Road. DELHI. 

\J c ^ c^ . 

Dadwd I — Ddgi. 217 

Dadwal. — The Rdjput clan to which belongs the ancient ruling family of 
Datarpur, but said to take its name from Ddd'i in Kiuigra on the 
Hoshidrpur border. The Rdnds of Bit Manasw^l, or tableland of the 
Hoshi^rpur Siwaliks were Dadwdl Rajputs, and the clan still Lolds 
the tract. 

The Dadw^ls are found in the neighbourhood of Datd,rpur, the seat 
of their former sovereignty, and on the south-west face of the Siwd,lik3 
in Hoshidrpur tahsil near Dholbdha and Jatiauri or Jankipuri, its 
ancient name, which is .still used. Jdnnk was an ancienfc Surnjbausi 
ruler. The Dadwdls are a branch of the Katoch and do not intermarry 
with them, or with the Golerid,3 or Sibd,yas on the ground of a common 
descent. They have an interesting local history which describes how 
they wrested the tract round Datdrpur from a Chdhng rdni. 

The Dadvv^ls have several als or families, whose names are derived 
from their settlements, such as Janaurach, Dholb^hia, Datd,rpurift, 
Fatehpuria, Bhdmnowdlia, Khangwarach, Naruria, Rdmpuria, etc. 
Datiirpur is their chief village, but they have no system of chhats 
and makdns. (For their history and the septs which intermarry with 
them see the Hoshidr'pur Gazetteer, 1904, pp. 48-9.) 

DaprIna, an agricultural clan found in Shdhpur. 

Daqar, a Jat tribe, numerous in Delhi and Gurgdon, and with a small 
colony in Rohtak. 

DAaf, Dagdi, (from (^o'gr/i,,''^ a blemish ; the word ddghi is a term of abuse 
in KuUu), a generic term for an impure caste in Kullu. Koli is 
hardly a synonym, though, according to Ibbetson, these two words, 
together with a third, Chanel, are used almost indifferently to describe 
the lower class of menials of the highest hills. The Koli of the 
plains is easily distinguishable, by his locality, from the Koli of the 
hills. The former is probably nothing more than a Chamar tribe 
immigrant from Hindustan ; the latter, of Kolian origin. The two 
would appear to meet in the Siwaliks. Cunningham believed that 
the hills of the Punjab were once occupied by a true Kolian race 
belonging to the same group as the Kols of Central India and Behar, 
and that the present Kolis are very probably their repret^entatives. 
He points out that dd, the Kolian for water, is still used for many 
of the smaller streams of the Simla hills, and that there is a line of 
tribes of Kolian origin extending from Jabbalpur at least a<? far as 
AlUhd,biid, all of which use many identical words in their vocabularies 
and have a common tradition of an hereditary connection with work- 
ing in iron. The name of Kullu, however, he identifies with Kulinda, 

* But according to the late Mr. A. Anderson : — " The popular explanation of the word 
Dagi is that it is derived from (iflfir cattle, because they drau away the carcasses of dead 
cattle and also eat the flesh. If a man says ho is a Koli, then a Kanet turns round on 
him anl asks him whether he does not dmg carcassea ; and on his saying he does, the 
Kanet alleges he is a Dagi, and the would-be Koli consents. There are very few in 
Kullu proper that abstain from touching,' the dead. There are more in Saraj, but they 
admit tliey are called either Bagis or Kolis, and that whether they abstain from touching 
carcasses or not, all eat, drink and intermarry on equal terms. It is a mere piece of 
afiectation for a man who does not touch the dead to say he will not intermarry with 
the family of a man who is not so fastidious. This is a social distinction, and probably 
also indicates more or less the wealth of the individual who will not touch the dead." 

^18 Ddgis. 

and thinks that it has nothing in common with Kol. KoU, the 
ordinary name for any inhabitant of KuUd, is a distinct word 
from Koli and with a distinct meaning. 

The names Koli, Ddgi, and Chanel seem to be used to denote almos* 
all the low castes in the hills. In the median ranges, such as those 
of K^ngra proper, the Koli and Chanel are of higher status than 
the Ddgi, and not very much lower than the Kanet and Ghirth 
or lowest cultivating castes ; and perhaps the Koli may ba said to 
occupy a somewhat superior position to, and the Chand.1 very much 
the same position as, the Chamar in the plains, while the D^gi 
corresponds more nearly with the Chuhra. In Kullu the three words 
seem to be nsi^d almost indifferently, and to include not only the 
lowest castes, but also members of those castes who have adopted 
the pursuits of respectable artisans. The interesting quotations from 
Sir James Lyall give full details on the subject. Even in Kdngra 
the distinction appears doubtful. Sir James Lyall quotes a tradition 
which assigns a common origin, from the marriage of a demi-god 
to the daughter of a Kullu demon, to the Kanets and Ddgis of 
Kullu, the latter having become separate owing to their ancestor 
who married a Tibetan woman, having taken to eatmg the flesh 
of tlie yak, which, as a sort of ox, is sacred to Hindus ; and 
he thinks that the story may point to a mixed Mughal and Hindu 
descent for both castes. Again he writes : " The Koli class is 
" pretty numerous in Rdjgiri on the north-east side of pargana 
" Hamirpur ; like the Kanet it belongs to the country to the east of 
" Kdngra proper. I believe this class is treated as outcast by other 
" Hindus in Rdjgiri, though not so in BiUspur and other countries 
" to the east. The class has several times attempted to get the Katoch 
" Rdjd to remove the ban, but the negotiations have fallen through 
*' because the bribe offered was not sufiBcient. Among outcasts the 
•'Chamars are, as usual, the most numerous." Of pargana Kdngra he 
writes : " The Dagis have been entered as second-class Gaddis, but 
" they properly belong to a different nationality, and bear the same 
''relation to the Kanets of Bangdhal that the Sepis, Badis, and H^lis 
" (also classed as second-class Gaddis) do to the first-class Gaddis." 
So that it would appear that Dagis are more common in Kdngra 
proper, and Kolis to the east of the valley ; and that the latter are 
outcast while the former claim kinship with the Kanet. {Kdngra 
Settlement Eeport, ^ 67 , -pp. 6b aT:\d t)2 ; 113 shows that in Kullii at 
least the Dagi is not a caste). Hali is the name given in Chamba 
to D^gi f*!" Chandl; and the H^lis are a low caste, much above 
the Dumna and perhaps a little above the Chamar, who do all sorts 
of menial work and are very largely employed in tlie fields. They 
will not intermarry with the Chamdr. See also Koli. 

The late Mr. A. Anderson, however, wrote as to the identity of Dagi 
and Chanel : — " In Kullu proper there are no Chand,ls, that is, there are 
none who on being asked to what caste they belong will answer that 
they are Chanals ; but they will describe themselves as Dagi-Chana,ls 
or Koli-Chan^ls, and men of the same families as these Ddgi-Chanals 
or Koli-Chanals will as often merely describe themselves as D^gis or 
Kolis. In Kullu Dagi, Koli, and Chanal mean very nearly the same 
thing, but the word Koli is more common in Sard.j and Chanal is 

Dahd^Dahha, 219 

scarcely used at all in KuUu ; but Cliandils are, I believe, numerous 
in Mandi, and in the K^ngra valley. A Dagi who had been out of 
the Kullu valley, told me he would call himself a Ddgi in KuUu, a 
Chand,! in Kangra, and a Koli in Pldch or Saraj, otherwise these local 
castes would not admit him or eat with him. Again aud afain 
the same man lias called himself a Dagi and also a Koli. If a Kanet 
wishes to be respectful to one of this low caste he will call him a Koli 
if angry with him a Ddgi. A Chanal of Mandi State will not 
intermarry with a Kullu Udgi. In some places as in Mandli kothi, 
Kanets smoke with D&gia, but this is not common in Kullu, though 
the exclusiveness has arisen only within the last few years, as casto 
distinctions became gradually more defined .... A Chamd,r in Saraj will 
call himself a Dtlgi, and men calling themselves Kolis sai'l they would 
eat and drink with him. They said he was a Chamdr merely because 
he made shoes, or worked in leather. Most Ditgis in Kullu proper 
will not eat with Cbamars, but in some places they will. It depends 
on what has been the custom of the families." 

pAHA, a Rd,jput clan (agricultural) found in l\3ultd,n, Kabirwdla tahsil, 
Dalid, (Pahd), also a Jd,t sept, found in Dera Ghdzi Khj'ui. Like the 
Parhdr(s) Jdts, and tlieir Mirasis the Mongla and Sidhar, they are 
said to eschew the use of black clothes or green bangles. 

Da HAL, a Jd,t clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Dahalo, Dahalo, two Jdt clans (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Dahamrai, Dahamraya, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multin. 

Dahan, one of the principal clans of the tTd,ts in Karnal : head-quarters at 

Dahan, a Jdt clan (asrricultural) found in Multdn. 

Dahang, a J^t clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Dahar, a Jat tribe, akin to t'le Langilh, found in Multan (agricultural). 

Dahar, an agricultural clan found in ShAhpur. 

Dahar, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in MuUftn. In Bahflwalpur they 
hold an important position. Their descent is traced from Raja Rawan, 
ruler of Mirpnr Mathila, near Ghot-ki, who wts conveited to Isldm by 
Sayyid JhIjII and was by him named Amir-nd-Djlhr, or " Ruler of the 
Age." Once rulers of part of Sindh, the Dilhr power decreased in the 
time of the Langfih supremacv, anrl in Akbar's time they were address- 
ed merely as Zaminddrs, but the Nd,hars conceded many privileo-es 
to them and these were maintained by the Ditudpotr.4s on their rise to 
power. The Ddhrs are closely connected with the Gihlni-Makhdums 
of Uch, to whom they have, it is said, given eighteen daugrhters in 
marriage from time to time. (For further details see the Bahdwalmir 

Dahar, a Jat clan (asricultural) found in Multdn. 

Dahawa, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Dahba, a Muhammadan ZiX tribe found in Gujrdt. It claims Janjua Rajput 
origin and descent from one Khoga, a servant of Akbar who gave him 
a robe of honour and a gray {dahh) horse — v^ hence its name. 

220 Dahima — Dahiyd. 

DahimAj a group of Brahmans, found in Hiss^r. 

Dahiya — (1) A J&\ tribe found on the north-eastern border of the S^uipla 
and the adjoining portion of the Sonepat tahsils of Eohtak and Delhi. 
They claim to be descended from Dalila, the only son of a Chauhdn 
Rdjput natned M^nik Rai, by a Dhankir Jdt woman. This is probably 
the Manik Rai (Jhaulian who founded Hansi. Another account makes 
their ancestor Dhadhij, son of Haria Harpdl^ son of Prithi Raja.* 
Another traiHtion derives the name Dahiyd/ from Dadhr^rd, a village 
in Hissdr, which it thus makes tlie starting place [nikds) of the tribe. 
The Dahiyd, is one of the 36 royal tribes of Rdjputs, whose original 
home was about the confluence of the Sutlej with the Indus. They 
are possibly the Dahiae of Alexander. 

(2) A faction, opposed to the Ahuldna, said to be named after the 
Dahiyd Jats. These two factions are found in Karddl, as well asin Delhi 
and R 'htak. The Ahulaua faction is headed l)y the Ghatwdl or Malak 
Jats, whose head-quai'ters are Dher-ka-Ahiildna in Gohdna, and who 
were, owing to tlieir successful oppo>*ition to the Rajputs, the accepted 
heads of the Jats in these parts. Some one of the emperors called 
them in to assist him in coercing the Mandahar Kajputs, and thus the 
old enmity was strengthened. The Dahiya Jats, growing powerful, 
became jealous of the supremacy of the Ghatwals and joined the 
Mandahdrs against them. Thus the country side was diviHed into two 
factions; the Gujars and Tagas of the tract, the Jaglan Ja,ts of thapa 
Naultha, and the Latmar Jd,ts of Rolitak joining the Dahiyas, and the 
Huda Jats of Rohtak, and most of the Jats of the tract except the 
Jdglans, joining the Ahulanas. In the Mutiny, disturbances took place 
in the Rohtak District between these two factions, and the Mandahdrs 
of the Nardak ravaged the Ahulanas in the south of the tract. The 
Dahiya is also called the Jat, and occasionally th-e Mandahar faction. 
The Jdts and Rajputs seem, independently of these divisions, to 
consider each other, triUally speaking, as natural enemies. This 
division runs right throui^h Sonepat and more faintly through Delhi 
tahsil, and is so firmly rooted iu the popular mind that Muhammadans 
even class themselves wiih one or the other parly. Tlius the Muham- 
madan Giijars of Pdnohi Gdjran call themselves Dahiyas and so do 
all the neighbouring villages. 

* Jn Delhi the legend is that Haria Harp4l, being defeated in battle by the king of Delhi 
took refuge in a lonely forest which from the number of its trees he called Ban auta — now 
corrupted into Barauta-in Rohtak. There he ruled and his son Uhaclhij after him. Dhadhfj 
one day in hunting chanced upon a certain pond or tank near PogLhaU in the same district 
•where the Jat women had come together to get their drinking-water Just then a man 
came out of the village leading ■■> buffalo-calf with a rope to the pond to give it water. The 
animal either from fright or frolic bounded away from the hand of its owner, and he gave 
chase but, in vain. Neighbours joined in the pursuit, which was nevertheless unsuccessful, 
till the animal in its headlong flight came across the path of a Jatni going along with .-wo 
gharrti^ of vvaier on her head She quietly put out her foot on the rope which was trailing 
along the ground and stood firm under the strain which the impetus of the fugitive gave. 
The calf was caught, and Dhadhfj looking on with admiration, became enamou.ed of the 
stalwart comeliness of its captor. Such a wife, he said must needs bear a strong race of 
sons to her husband, and that husband, notwithstanding the fact of her already being 
married he forthwith detenuined to be himsnlf. »y a mixture ^-.f cajolery, threats and 
gift-making he obtained his desire— and the Jatni married the Kshalri prince By her 
ht- had three sons — 'I'eja Snhja, and Jaisa. Dhadhij gave his name to the Dahiyas. and 
his children spread over the neiyhi'Ouring tracts, dividing the country between them— 
Tejrt's descendants live in Kohtak ; Sahja's partly in Rohtak and partly in 13 villages 
of Delhi ; while Jaisa's descendants live in Rohtak and in Iti villages in Delhi. 

■\Vk are asked to anuounce that the third 
anneal meeting oi' the Dakiiiia-Mahasabhu 
will he held on the 2:Jrd, 21th and L'oth Marcli 
at the temple Qf tSri Padhiniati Mataji (family 
o-oddtss of the Dahima JJrahmaus) situated 
near the village of Manglod in the Nagor 
<listr:ot of the Jodhpnr Stat". 





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^1* i^t^X. 



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.^.i^. ///.'. .'^^''. 






Only 11 persons have returned themselves as Dahrids. It is a 
]i sian term used to denote atheism. Freethinker is a some 
^ similar term adopted by 5 men, who do not practically b( 
in any religious doctrines whatever. Ndstih is the San 





/\ c A,^ M, ^(A <^ ^ -v* 4 >?. /* ' 

Dahleo-^Dalo. 221 

The Ahuldna tradition traces their origin to RdjputAn.^. Their 
ancestor was coming Delhi-wards with his brothers, Mom and Som, in 
search of a livelihood. They quarrelled on the road and had a deadly 
fight on the banks of the Ghdtd, naddi. Mom and Som, who were on 
one side, killed their kinsman and cmne over to Dellii to the king there 
wlio received them vvith favour and gave them lands : to Som the tract 
aciosH the Ganges wht^re his descendants now live as Rajputs. M6ra was 
sent to Rohtak, and he is now represented by the Ja^s there as well 
as in Hdnsi and Jind. The Rohtak party had their head-quarters at 
Ahulana in that district, and thence on account of internal quarrels 
they spread themselves in different directions, some coming into the 
Delhi district. 

Dahko, a Jd,t clan (agricultural) found in Multiin. 

DAHLOLf, a J^t clan (agricultural) found in Multiin. 

Daho, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Mult^m. 

Dahoka, a Kharral clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Dahon, a J^t clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar, 

Da HONDA, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Mult^n. 

Dahrala, a Jd,t clan (agricultural) found in Multfln. 

Dabrija, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multd,n. 

DaIr, a 3&X clan (agricultural) found in Multttn. 

Dak, Dakaut, Dakotra : see under Brahman. 

Dal, a Jd,t clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Dalal, a Jdt tribe found in Kohtak. It claims Rd,thor RSjput origin, and its 
traditions say that, 28 generations ago, one Dhanna Rao settled at 
Silauthi, and married a Badgujar Jat woman of Sankhaul near 
Bahddurgarh, by whom he had four sons — Dille, Desal, Man and 
Sahiya.* From these sprang the four clans of Dalai, Deswal, M^n and 
Sew^gt Jats, who do not intermarry one with another. The Daldls are 
hereditary enemies of the Dahiya J^ts. 

Dalani, a Jd.t clan (agricultural) found in Mult^n. 

Dalel, a Dogar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Daleo, a small Jdt clan, found in Ludhiana. They say that Jagdeo had five 
sons: Daleo, Dewal, Ulak (Aulak), MalanghJ and Pamar. Now R4id, 
Jail Pangal promised a Bh^tni, Kangali by name, lO times as much 
largi'sse as Jagdeo gave her. But Jagdeo cut off his head. The 
BhtUni, however, stuck it on again. Still, ever since this clan has had 
stiiall necks ! 

Dallawalia, the eighth of the Sikh misls or confederacies which was 

recruited from J^ts. 
Dalo, Dalo, two (?) Jat clans (agricultural) found in Mult^n. 

* Or Drtlla, Desu, Man and Sewa were the sons of Kbokhar, a Chauhan Bijput who 
married a Jat wife, according to the Jind acconnt. 
t Or Sawal iu Jfad. 
t? Bailan^ 

222 Damai— Darwgfar. 

Damai, a Gurkhil clan in the Simla Hill States, who do tailor's work, and 
are thought a very low caste. 

Dammar, (m.) a tribe of Jdts, originally called Ldr, immigrants from Sind. 
They affect the Sindhi title of Jjlm and claim to be superior to other 
Jdts in that they do not marry daughters outside the tribe ; but the 
rule is often broken. 

Dandan, a Rajput clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Dandi, (i) a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in MuUfln, (ii) also a Sany5,8l 

Dandial, an agricultural clan found in Sbdhpur. 

Dandiwal, a Jat clan, claiming Chauhd,n descent, which emigrated from 
Delhi via Jaisalmir to Sirsa : found in Hissar, ard also in Jind State. 
In the latter it affects the jathera and jandidn worsliip, and has as its 
sidh a Pir whose shrine is at Beluwald, in British 'Teiritory. At the 
birth of a son, they offer to his samddh a piece of gur, a rupee and 
some cloth which are taken by a Brahman. 

Danqarah, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multd,n. 

Danqarik, lit. ' cow-people' : ^0 a small tribe, confined to four villages in 
Chitr5,l and said to speak a language cognate with Shina. Though 
long since converted to l8ld.m, the name Daogarik would seem to show 
that they were Hindus originally ; {ii) a term applied to all the Shina- 
speaking people of Chitral and the Indus Kohist^n generally, 
because of the peculiar aversion of the Shins, which is only shared 
by the Dangariks and Kd,ldjsh Kd,firs, for the cow and domestic fowls. — 
Biddulph's Tribes of the Hindoo Koosh, pp. 64 and 113. 

Dangk, an Ardin clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Danna — see Wargara. 

Panwar, a J^t clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Daoli, a hill caste of Dumnd status who work for gold in streams in the low 
hills {e.g., al>out Una) ; in the high hills {e.g., Kdngra) called Sansoi, 
and correspondmg to the Khirs who are the goldworkers of the plains. 
Cf. daula, ddula, a washer for gold. 

Darah, a Dogar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 
Dakain, Deen, see Mallah. 

Dard, a term applied by the Mair to the tribes of the Indus Kohist^n who 
live on the left bank of that river : Biddulph's Tribes of the Hindoo 
Koosh, p. 12. 

Dakqare, wooden bowl makers, see Chitr^li. 

Daegh, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multd,n. 

Daeol, Daroli, a sept of Rajputs descended from Mian Kela, a son of 
Sangar Chand, 16th Rajd, of Kahlar. 

I>ART0CHE, carpenters, in the valley below Chitrdl, and in the Gilgit and 
Indus valleys : see Chitrdli. 

Dabugar, a maker of gunpowder. This term and its synonyms include 
various castes ; always Mubammadans. 


/"^, ^4-i!? J^ 




i iU/' /'c 1> , V , '^ ^ 

Darvesh — Ddtye. 223 

Darvesh. — Darveah means one who beps from door to door (tiar "door"). 
But the Darvesh of our Census returns are a peculiar class found mainly 
in Batala and Pathaukot and in Amritsar and Kapurthala. They culti- 
vate a little land, play musical instruments, br'y, make ropes, go to a 
house where there has been a death and chant the praises of the 
deceased, hang about mosques, and so forth. They are hardly ascetics, 
yet ihe small number of women seem to show that they have not yet 
formed into a Sf'parate cnste, and are still recruited from outside. 
Elsewhere, e. g. in Gujrat, they are poor scholars who seek instruction in 
mosques and live on alms or by bogging from door to door, resembling 
the tdlib-ul-ilm of the frontier. Sometimes they are employed as bdngis 
at mosques, or in other minor posts. 

Darvesh Kbel. — The Utmanzai and Ahmadzai clans (descendants of Mus^ 
Darvesh) of the Wazir Fa^hans [q. v.). 

Darzi. — Hindi syn. suji, a purely occu [national term, there being no Darzi 
caste in the proper acceptation of the word, though there is a Darzi 
guild in every town. The greater number of Darzis belong perhaps 
to the Dhobi and Chhimba castes, more especially to the latter; but 
men of all castes follow the trade, which is that of a tailor or sempster. 
The Darzis are generally returned as Hindu in the east and Musalman 
in the west. 

Das(a) — (a) Sanskrit ddsd, a mariner ; according to the Purdn, begotten by 
a Sudra on a Kshatriya. The Sdstrd and Tdntrd give a differenc origin 
(Colebrooke's Essays, p. 274) ; (6) Dds, the appellation common to Sudrds. 
cf. Karan. 

Dasa, fr. das, * ten,' as opposed to Bisa, fr. bis, ' twenty ' : half-caste, as 
opposed to one of pure descent — see under Bdnia. In Gurgaon the 
term is applied to a group, which is practically a distinct caste, of 
Tagas who have adopted the custom of widow remarriage, and so lost 
8ta,tus, though they are of pure Taga blood : Punjab Ctistoninry Law, 
Zi, p. 132. 

Dashal, fr. Dashwal, * of the plains,' is a group of Rajputs found in 
the Simla Hills. To it belong the chiefs of Ghund, Theog, Madh^n 
and Darkoti, four baronies feudatory to Keonthal State. It is 
asserted tha*; the Dash^ls once ranked as Kanets, wearing no sacred 
thread and performing no orthodox funeral rites ; and a fifth Dashd 
sept is still only of Kanet status. This latter sept gives its name to 
Dashauli, a village in Puuar iiargana of Keonthal. 

Dashti, once a servile tribe of the Baloch, now found scattered in 
small numbers through Deras Ghdzi and Ismail Kh^n and Muzaffargarh. 
Possibly, as Dames suggests, from one of the numerous dashts or table- 
lands, found throughout the country. 

JPaspal, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multan, 

Dasti, Dasbti (from dasht, ' wilderness '). — A Baloch tribe of impure de- 
scent. See under Baloch. 

Da-tono-kar-po, DaoNQRU-KARU : See Chdhzang. 

Datyi, a Labana clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

224 The Ddudpotras, 

Daitdpotra.— The sept to which belon^s'J'the ruling family of Bahawalpur. 
It claims to be Abbdssi* and is practically confined to Babdwalpur and 
the neighbouring portions of Multdn, part of which was once included 
in that State. 

The Dd.udpotra septa trace their descent from Muhammad Khdn II, 
Abb^si, loth in descent from Ddud Khd,n I. Muhammad Khdn II had 
three sons : — 

(1) Firoz or Piruj Khdn, (2) A'rib (or Arab) Khdn, ancestor of the 
Arbd,ni sept, and (3) fsab Kh&n, ancestor of the Isbd,ni or HiBbd,ni sept. 

The descendants of Piruj Khd.n are known as Pirjanis, Firozdnis or 
Pir Pirjcluis and to this sept belongs the family of the Naw^bs of 
Bahawalpur. A sub-sept of the Pirjinis is called Shamd,ni, from Shah 
Muhammad Khdn. 

The Arbdnis have five sub-septs : Mus^ni, Ruknd,ni or Rukrd-ni, 
Rahm^ni, Jarabrdni and Bhinbr^ni, all descended from eponyms (Musd. 
KH^n, etc.). The Miasd,ni have an offshoot called Kandd,ni. The 
Isbdnis have no sub-septs. 

A large number of sub-septs also claim to be Dd,U(lpotra though they 
are not descended from Muhammad Khd;n II. Thus the Achr^nis claim 
descent from Achar, a son of Kehr. Kehr was brother to the wife of 
Channi Khdn, father of Ddud Khda I, and founded the Kehrd,ni sept, 
which has seven main branches : — 




Jamdni. I 

Mundh^ni. }■ These five are knownf collectively as Panj-pdre. 

Marufdni. I 

Tayyibani. J 
A number of other septs also claim to be D^udpotra, but their claims 
are often obscure, disputed or clearly untenable. Such are the Nohani, 
Zoraia, Kardni (who claim to be Kehrdnis), Ronjha or Ranuhja (a sept 
of the Sammas), and Chandr^ni (who intermarry with the Arbd,nis and 
therefore are presumed to be Arbdnis). The Wisr4ni,t Muldni, 
Thumra,§ Widani, K^lra, Jhiinri, Bhanbhani, Hakrd and Kat-bal|| are 
spurious Ddudpotras. 

* For the origin of this title see the Bahdioalpur Gazetteer. 

\ .'pare, is said to mean ' -fold,' but c/. the Panj-pare among the Path4ns, also the 
Panj-pao of Multan. 

t The Arbani and Isbani Diudpotras do not recognise the Wisranis. The former declare 
that four families of the Abra {q. v.) tribe migrated from Wlsarwah in Sindh in the time 
of Nawab Muhammad Bahawal Khan II. The Abras gave one daughter in marriage 
to Balawal Khan, Pirj4ni, a second to an Arbani family, and a third to an Isbini, 
and asked their sons-in-law to admit them among the Daiidpotras, so that they might 
be entitled to all the privileges which the Daiidpotras enjoyed. This was granted and they 
were called Wisrani Daudpotras (from Wiaharwah). 

§ The story goes that once Muhammad Bahawal Khan III happened to see one Nuria 
Kharola with his head shaved. A shaven head being generally looked down upon, the 
Naw4b remarked in Sindhi (which he always spoke), ho disso thora, ' look at that bald 
head,' and so they were nick-named Thumra. They are really Kharolas (converted sweepers) 

by caste. , . , . 

II Originally Jits of low status (there is still a sept of Mohanas which is known by 
this name). They give their daughters in marriage to any tribe while the Da-fidpotras 
are particularly strict in forming alllancea. 

Ddiidzai — Ddwari 225 

For a full account of the Dd,udpotra septs, whose modern develop- 
ments illustrate the formation of a tribe by descent, aflSliation and 
fiction, reference must be made to the Bahdwalfur Gazetteer. 
Daudzai.— The Pathan tribe which occupies the left bank of the Kabul river as 
far down as its junction with the Bara. Like theMohmand, the Ddudzai 
are descended from Daulatvdr, son of Ghorai, the progenitor of the 
Ghoria Khel. Ddud had three sons, Mandkai, RJtimur, and Yusuf, 
from whom are descended the main seciions of the tribe. Mandkai 
had three sons. Husain, Nekai, and Balo, of whom only the first ia 
represented in Ppshdwar. Nekai fled into Hindijst^n, while Bale's few 
descendants live in parts of Tirah. Kalid-i-Afdidm, pp. 167, 168. 179. 
182. A. N., p. i., iii. ff i , i 

Daul, a J^t clan (agricultural) found in Amrifcsar. 

Dadla, an Arain clan (agricultural) found iu Montgomery. 

Daulat Khel. — One of the four great tribes of the Lohani Pa^h^ns''^ which 
about the bpginni)ig of the 17th century drove the Marwats and Mid,n 
Khel out of Tank. Their principal clan was the Katti Khel ; and under 
their chief, Katal Khd,n, the Daulat Khel ruled Tank in Dera Ismail 
Kbdn, and were numerous and powerful about the middle of the 18th 
century. They accompanied the Durrdni into Hindustd,n, and brought 
back mu?h wealth. But since that time the Bhitanni and other tribes 
have encroached, and they are now small and feeble. The Naw^b of 
Tdnk, the principal ^rtfjircZar of the District, is a Katti Khel. Raverty 
described them as ildtsov nomads dwelling to the north of the Sulaiman 
Range from Daraban town on the east to the borders of Gha/mi on the 
west, along the banks of the Gomal, each clan under fhe nominal rule 
of its own malik. Though their principal wealth consisted in flocks 
and herds they were engaged in trade, importing horses from Persia 
and majitha into Hindustan, and taking back with them piece-goods 
and other merchandise for sale in Kabul and Kandahd,r. They used to 
pay ushr or tithe to the dynasty at Kdbul, but were not liable to 
furnish troops. 

Dauleke, a Kharral clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 
Daura, a messenger : cf. Baldhar, 
Dauri, see Djiwari. 

Dautannj, Dotanni, aPathdn clan, numbering some 700 fighting men, which 
inhabits the Wilno valley and the country between the Waziri hills 
and the Gumal. Their lands are comparatively fertile, growing rice 
and cereals. They are on good terms with the Wazirs, and are well- 
to-do, carrying on a profitable trade with Bokhara. They brino- down 
postinft, chakmas, and charras. They have three kirris in ^British 
territory, near Katmalana and in the Kahiri ildqa. About a third of 
them are kafila folk and have no kirris. They own about 3,500 camels. 
They leave their flocks behind in the hills. They come and go aloncr 
with the Midn Khels, though forming separate caravans. 

Dawari. — Living on the fertile alluvium of the Tochi valley in Nor- 
thern Waziristan, the Ddwari s or Dauris have no necessity to culti- 

* Really only a clan of the Mimu Khel, tho Daulat Khel practically absorbed that tribo 
and gave its own name to it. 

226 Ddwari septs. 

vate very strenuously or to migrate. Hence they are lacking in 
military spirit,* unenterprising and home-staying, and a Dawari,^ even 
when outlawed, will not remain away from the valley for more than 
a couple of years. 

Their descent is thus given : — 


r 1 

Tappizai. Mallizai. 


r I I I I I I I ■ I I I I I I 1 

1 ■§ J 1 's -§ % 1 

















There are also two disconnected sections, Malakh and Amzoni. The 
Idak sub-section also does not claim descent from either of the main 
branches. The Malakh are a mixed division, including the Muhammad 
Khel, Idak Khel, Pai Khel, Dihgans, Land Boya and Ghazlamai. 
The latter sept includes three or four Sayyid houses which claim 
descent from t)angar Sahib. The Dihgans are quite a distinct sept, 
cnniing from Afghanis td,n. The origin of the Malakh is the common 
Afghan story of a foundling. Some Durrauis abandoned a boy in a 
box, and as Dangar Pir found him he brought him up, calling him 
Malakh because he was good-looking. 

The Amzoni comprise the following septs : — Chiton, Umarzai, Kurvi 
Kalla, Raghzi Kalla, Urmur Kail a, Ahmad Khel, Ali Khel, Fath Khel, 
Bai Khel, Khatti Kalla, Kharri Kalla and Aghzan Kalla. 

Amzon, the ancestor of these septs, is said to have been a Shammai 
Khostwd,l who mixed with the Dawaris. But the Fath Khel and Bal 
Khel are known to be Wazirs, and the Urmur Kalla are by origin 
Urmurs of Kdniguram. 

The Darpa Khel consist of Darpa Khels, Panakzai and Khozi, and of 
these tht) Panakzais are Momit Khel Dd^waris while the #Khozis are 
Akhunds. As regards Darpa Khel himself it is said that he was a 
Khostwal, but others say that he was a Dum of Tanis. 

The Idak sub-section is composed of three different septs, 
Taritas, Madira, and Malle Khels, who agreed to settle in one village 
on the Id day, whence the village was named Idak. The Malli Khel 
are Turis, the Taritas are Kharotis, while the Madiras are Katti Khels. 

The Tsori are stated to bie Khattaks. Of the Hassu Khel, the Shinki 
Khel are the offspring of a baby found near the Shinki Kotal or pass. 
The Mosakkis are said to be Bangash Haidar Khels. Urmuz and 

* But to this rule the Malakh form an exception, being much like the Wazirs, pastoral, 
migratory and not keeping their women secluded. 

Ddwari' customs. 227 

Shammarare descendants of Tir who was an Isakhel, but another story 
is that he came from the Wurdak country. All the rest of tho septs 
artj Dilwaris proper. 

Personal appearance. — The use of the spade in cultivating the stiff 
soil of the valley has made the Dawaii a very broad-shouldered, 
muscular man, not very tall, with thick legs and arms, heavy in gait 
and slow in his movements. 

Personal habits. — The vices of the Dt4waris are sodomy and chmras- 
smoking. The latter habit is said to be on the increase. The Ddwaris 
are by repute the laziest and dirtiest of all the Wazirist^n tribes. Cut 
off from the outside world, they had no inducement to cultivate more 
land than would ensure a supply of grain till the next harvest and 
their habit of greasing their clothes with ghi makes them filthy to a 
degree. There are no professional washermen in the valley. 

The Ddwaris used to be famous for their hospitality, which took the 
form of wasliing a guest's hands, spattering his clothes with ghi, and 
scattering the blood of a goat or sheep ostentatiously on the outer walls 
of the house as a sign that guests were being entertained. They were 
also steadfast supporters of their clients' or hamsdyas' riiJ:hts and true 
to their engagements. They are now said to bo losing these qualities. 

Ornaments. — Dawari men used to dye the right eye with black anti- 
mony and the left with red, colouring half their cheeks also in the samo 
way.* The men (but not the women) used also to wear coins sewn on 
the breast of their cloaks as is commonly done by Ghilzai women. 

Medicine.— The only treatment in vogue is the common Path^n one 
of killing a sheep, the flesh of which is given to the poor, and wrapping 
the patient in tho skin. This is the remedy for every disease and even 
for a wound. Its efficicy is enhanced by tho prayers recited by a 
mullah, who also used sometimes to give amulets to, or sometimes 
merely breathe on, the sick man. 

Cultivation. — Owing to the heavy nature of the soil the plough is not 
used, all cultivation being dono by the im, a spade with a long handle. 
Wheat, barloy, maize and inferior rice with, in a few villages, millet 
and 7nung are sown. Fruit-trees are i^rown only near the villages and 
trees and cultivation used to be confined to the area commanded by the 
firearms possessed by each village. 

Crafts-— The Dawaris practise the weaving of coarse cloth, rude 
carpentry and blacksmith's work, carpenters being the only artizans 
known. These are employed to make doors for the houses, which are 
mere huts, built by the people themselves. 

/SociaZ organization. —The Dawaris, as is usual among the southern 
Pathdn tribes, are intensely democratic. The maliks or headmen havo 
little influence unless they liave a strong following among their own 
relations. The D.1,waris are fanatical and l)igoted, and much under the 
influence of m?<Z^a/is who exercise a powerful weapon in tho right to 
exclude a man from the religious congregation and other ceremonies. 

Marriage Customs.— As among the Wazirs, the Diiwari wedding 
customs are much the same as among other Pathan tribes. When the 

* For a somewhat similar custom see the Indian Antiquary, 190G . 213, 

228 Ddwari marriage. 

parents are agreed that their son and daughter, respectively, are suited 
and shall be married, a day is fixed and the bridegroom's kinsmen go 
to the bride's guardian's house taking with them sheep, rice and 
Rs. 80 Kabuli with which to feast the bride's relatives and friends. 
The marriage contract is then ratified, the two young people are 
formally betrothed, and the price to be paid by the bridegroom for the 
bride is fixed. The bride's guardians may ask any price they like, as 
there is no fixed scale of prices in Ddwar, and unless the guardians are 
amenable and remit a portion of the money demanded, the sum demanded 
by them for the girl must be paid. The price thus paid is taken by the 
girl's guardian, who is of course her father, if alive — if noc her brother, 
and if she has no brother, then by the relation who is by custom her 
wdris.* The guardian, however, sometimes gives a portion of the price 
to the girl to fit herself out with ornaments, etc. Some few years ago a 
determined eifort was made by Vdemaliks and mullahs of Lower Dawar 
to have the price of girls in Dawar fixed at Rs. 200 for a virgin and 
Rs. 100 for a widow. This they did because they thought that many 
D^waris were prevented from marrying owing to the high prices de- 
manded by guardians, which sometimes ran up to Rs. 1,000 and more, 
and showed a tendency to increase rather than decrease. The majority 
of the malihs were in favour of the proposal, and as a test case the 
mullahs attempted last year to enforce the new custom on the occasion 
of the marriage of the sister of the chief malik of Tappi. Public 
opinion, however, was too strong for the reformers and a serious riot 
was only prevented by the intervention of the authorities. The usual 
reference to the Political Officer on the subject was, of course, met 
with the reply that, although he was glad to hear of the proposal, yet 
he could not and would not interfere m what was a purely domestic 
question for the Ddwaris themselves to settle. The subject was then 
allowed to drop and now, as before, everyone can put what fancy 
prices they like on their girls. The husband has no claim on the 
girl until this ceremony (known locally as lasniwai or clasping of hands) 
has been performed. 

The next ceremony is that]of nihah which is the consummation of 
the marriage. 

In Dawar and Waziristan boys and girls are betrothed at the ages 
of 8 and 6 respectively, and the mairiage is consummated at their 
majority. Should the husband die after the lasuiwai aud before the 
nikah, the girl becomes the property of his heirs, and one of them can 
either marry her or they can give her in marriage elsewhere, provided 
that she is given to a member of the same tribe and village and that 
the parents consent. If the parents do not consent, then they can 
buy the girl back again by returning all the money received for 
her, and are then free to marry her to whom they please. Simi- 
larly a widow is married by one of the deceased's heirs, or they 
may arrange a marriage for her elsewhere. She must, however, 
be supported by them until she marries again, otherwise she is 
free to marry as she chooses, and they are not entitled to exact money 

* No money ie given to the mother of the girl, except when she is a widow and has 
been turned out by her late Lusband's heirs, and has alone borne the cost of the 
girl's upbringing. 

Custom in Ddwdr. 229 

for her. As a rule the bride and bridegroom are much of an age, but 
occasionally here as elsewhere some aged David takes his Abit^hag to 
his bosom. These are not as a rule happy marriages. 'J'he expenses of 
a wedding in Waziribtdn are fairly heavy. A wealthy man will spend 
HS much as Ks. 1,500 or evi-n ];s. 2,000 Ktibuli. An ordinary well-to-do 
man spends some Rs. 500 and a poor one Rs. 200 K^buli. There 
are no restrictions on intermarriage between Dawaris and Wazirs. 
They intermarry freely, and the majority of the bigger D^war malikti 
have a Wazir wife, and the Wazir maliks living in D^war have 
generally at least one Ddwari wife. As a rule Dawaris do not give 
their daughters to living far away, which is probably due mostly 
to the fact that those living far off do not come and ask for them, but 
content themselves with something nearer home. The Mullah 
Powindah who lives at Kamjuram bas a Ddwari wife of the village of 
Idak, but this is an exception, and probably due to the fact that be- 
fore our occupation and iiis rise to power, be used to live during the 
six months of ihe cold season in Idak. There is no law or custom 
regarding marriage. 

Inheritance. — The ordinary Muhammadan laws hold good in Ddwar 
with regard to inheritance. 

Customary Law in Da war. 
General. — With regard lo oflences against the human body, the 
general principle of the customary penal law in Dawar may be said 
lo be that ot " an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth." For murder 
the penalty is d^ath; for bodily injury, bodily injury of a similar 
nature. Nevertheless the Ddwari, though like every other Pathan, has 
his price, whereby his wounoed body or side may be salved ; and for 
most offences a fixed sum is laid down by paying which the offender 
may satisfy the wrath of the party offended. The amount actually 
paid, however, depends largely on the strength and influence of the 
oppo ing parties, the weaker usually having to go to the wall, being 
mercilessly fleeced if the offending party, and having to be content 
with little or uothmg if offended. As a general rule, for purposes of 
calculating C( mpensation a woman is considered as equal to half a 
man, and a Hindu is equal to a woman. Children over two years 
old are considered men or women, according to sex, for purposes 
of assessing compensation. Customary law in Ddwar only takes 
cognisance of the actual deed accomplished and not the intention 
of the offender; for instance, there -is no such thing in Ddwar, 
as attempted murder. If the man is merely wounded in the attempt 
compensatioa is only paid for the hurt actually caused. Again there 
is no such thing as letting a man oft' because he killed , another 
man accidentally. Accident or no accident, the man is dead and the 
penalty must be paid either in cash or kind. The right of self-defence 
is recognised, but in no case does it extend to the killing or perma- 
nent maiming of the person against whom it is exercised, not even if 
he be attempting to commit murder. Should he be Ijilled compensation 
must be paid to his kins, and if pennnnently maimed to himself. 
Revenge is, if possible, taken on the actual offender {badiddr) whde he 
lives. But after his death his brother inherits the feud and after him 
the murderer'a other heirs. If he leave no such relatives, his section is 

2 30 Criminal Law in Dawar. 

responsible, if the injured party belongs to another section. If the 
offendod party kill a relation of the actual hadiddr, while he is still alive, 
Hs. 100 must be paid as componsafcioa. If the offender and his brothers 
die without revenge having been taken, and the inheritance falls to a 
relation, tliat relation can, if he wishes to escape the feud, renounce the 
heritage with the feud attached to it. 

The tendency among the D^waris as among the Wazirs is to exact the 
blood penalty, but if a man is afraid, he can get the village elders and 
go and kill a sheep before the house of the offended party (a cere- 
mony known as nanowali and have the compensation assessed and 
the case settled in that way. 

Murder. — In Ddwar, as far as the consequences of the deed are 
concerned, there is no difference between murder and the accidental 
killing of a man or woman. The penalty is the same in either case. 
The punishment is death at the hands of the murdered man's relations, 
or if they cannot inflict it themselves, at the hands of assassins hired 
by them. 

A murder can, however, be compounded on the intervention of the 
village jVrgra by the payment of a sum varying from Rs. 1,000 to 
Rs. 1,200 in cash. In some cases a woman is given in marriage to a 
relative of the murdered man by the murderer, in which case the price 
of the woman is agreed upon between the parties 'and deducted from 
the amount of compensation to be paid. If both of the parties do not 
compound the offence willingly, but one is forced to do so by the 
other, or both are forced to do so by the village or tribal jirga, then 
compensation is only paid in cash. The amount of compensation paid 
for a woman is in all cases half that of a man, and the amount paid 
for the murder of a Hindu is the same as that for a woman. There are 
four exceptions to the law that the death or hurt of a man or woman 
must be avenged by the relations, either by taking a life or by taking 
money in compensation. The exceptions are — 

[i) If a man is accidentally killed or hurt in a nandasa (the name 
given to the local dance at the Id) : unless it can be prov- 
ed that the man who killed the other had a feud or any 
grudge against the deceased. 
[ii) If any one be accidentally hurt or killed in the stone-throwing 
which sometimes accompanies a wedding : provided always 
that there is no grudge or feud. 

{ii')) At a tent-pegging match if a rider warn the bystanders that 
his horse is unmanageable, no claim lies against him if 
any one is injured. 

[iv] If a man cutting wood from a tree warn people sitting under 
the tree, he is not responsible for any accident that may 
occur from falling branches. 

If a person is injured by a runaway horse or other animal, the animal 
is usually given in compensation. The burden of proof of any injury 
being accidental is on the party who inflicts it. A council of elders is 
summoned at his expense, and if he can satisfy them that it really was 
an accident, they assess the compensation as they think fit. All feuds 
are suspended while the parties are out with a tribal lashkar or chigha. 

Criminal Law in Ddwar. 


the punishment is 
for a nose or ear 
of compensation* 

The rates of compensation for a female are the same aa those for 

a male, as also are those for Hindus, but in the Malakh ildqa the 

rates for women are only half those for men, and Hindus are con- 
sidered equal to women. 

Under the custom the punishment for a hurt is a hurt of similar 
nature to that inflicted, i. e., for the loss of a limb 
the loss of that limb; for a wound, a similar wound ; 
cut, a nose or ear cut. There is, however, a scale 
fixed by which nearly every form of hurt can be compensated, 
scale is as follows : — 

For the permanent total disablement of an arm or a leg, Rs. 500. 
If the disablement be not quite total then the compensation is Rs. 250, 
and if it bo only slight Rs. 120. 


For the loss of one eye 250 

Ditto both eyes ,., 500 

The rates for the loss of fingers are — 

Thumb , ... 50 

1st finger 40 

2nd „ 35 

3rd „ 30 

4th „ 2o 

The compensation for cutting off a nose is from Rs. 500 to Rs. 600. 
Ears are paid for at Rs. 100 a piece. The compensation for a wound is 
Rs. JO to Rs. 100 according to its nature, and that payable for teeth is — 


Front, upper or lower loO 

Further back 50 

Back teeth 25 

Adultery. — 'If the parties are caught in the act, both may be killed, but 
in the Malakh and Tappizai ildqas (where a woman is considered half 

* In the Malakh ildqa the scale is somewhat different, though for permanent disable- 
ment of a limb it is the same. 

For the loss of one eye 
„ ,, both eyes 

Compensation for fingers : — 



First joint. 


Third joint. 







Ist finger 




2nd , 








4th , 




The compensation for a wonndnd nose is Rs. 85, or if cut off entirely Rs. 500. 

A wound in ihe face more than one finger in breadth is Rs, 85, but if- on any other 
part it is only Ks. 12-8 per finger breadth. 

For teeth the compensation is-- Rs. 

Two front, upper or lower ... ... ■ ... ... 100 each 

Next two, ,, 80 „ 

Next two, ,, 60 „ 

Back teeth, ,, 50 „ 

232 The Dawi PafMns. 

a man) tlie woman alone can be killed and the man's foot cut off, and 
if the man is killed half the compensation for his murder must be 
paid. This is the invariable rule in the Malakh ildqa. 

For rape the man may be killed, and for an assault • with intent to 
outrage a woman's modesty he may be killed and half compensation 
paid, or his foot may be cut off. For house trespass in order to 
commit adultery the man's nose or ear may be cut off, and if the hus- 
band suspects his wife of being a consenting party, he may kill her. 

The penalty for elopement or abduction is death or Rs. 1,000. Should 
a woman go wrong and become a bad character the husband may cut 
off her nose and divorce her. Should she then marry again he is 
entitled 'to no compensation. 

Offences against property. — The punishments for burglary, robbery 
and theft are all much the same. The amount stolen, with compensa- 
tion for the damage done and the expenses of the suit are recovered, 
plus a village fine of Rs. 40 to Rs. 200^ according to the offender's 
means. If no damage is done and no property stolen, only the village 
fine is recovered. 

Arson. — In cases of arson the risker is referred to the village jirga 
which, if the offence is pioved, realises a village fine of from Rs. 100 
to Rs. 200. Compensation is also realised and paid to the offended 
party.t Should loss of life result from the fire, the pen&lty for murder 
who perishes in the flames, is exacted in addition, for every person. 

Cutting of crops. — Compensation for the damage done is paid, as well 
as a fine of Rs. 5 if. the offence is committed by night, and Rs. 2 
or Rs. 3 if the offence is committed by day. 

Dawi, a tribe of Ghorgasht Path^ns, descended from Dd,wai, son of Dd,nai, 
and so akin to the Kakar, Naghar and Payni, The Dawi live in the 
tract held by the last nam^d, occupying Sanger or Sang-Mandali, and 
the Zarghun Darra or ^ green valley.' Dd^wai had two sons, Domarah 
and Homarah and adopted three more, viz., KhAvardai, Zamar and 
Samar, according to_ the most authentic account, but other traditions 
omit the two last-named. The story goes that Dawai espoused the 
widow of a Sayyid of Khujand, and adopted her son by him. His 
name was Hasan, but in his youth he was notorious as a robber {ghal). 
He repented, however, of his misdeeds and became the disciple of a 
saint of Multan, roarried a Pathan wife and had four sous, Musa, Ali, 
Sikandar and Balil, whose descendants are known as Hasani or Khundi 
{lit. protected), a corruption probably of Khujandi. The Hasani, being 
of Sayvid blood dwell among other tribes as their spiritual guide, and 
Shaikh Hasan Dawi,t one of the most famous of them, attached himself 
to the Shaikh-nl-Islam Baha-ul-Haqq-wa-ud-Din Zakaria§ of Mnltd,n, 
and was buried at a spot between Tul and Sambar. His tomb is still a 
place of pilgrimage and tales of his power of thought-reading are 
still told. Another Dawi saint was Shaikh Neknam, and a third 

* In the Malakh ildqa the fine is Rs. 60 and in Dangar Khel Rs. 100. 
+ In the Malakh iJaqa rlonble compensation is paid. 
X Not to be confused -wiih Hasan Dawi, tfap prosenitor of the tribe. 

§ The ' Saint of Multan ' who died in 1265 6 at the age of 100. He was a disciple of 
the Shaikh-ul-Kamil, Shahab-ud-D in, 8oa of Abu-Hifz, Umar-ua-Saharwardi, 

Ddya-^Deswdli. 288 

Shaikh Hd,ji Abu Ishitq, who was accounted an Afghdn because hia 
mother was an Afghan. He was a contemporary of Sultan Sher Sbdh 
and dwelt at Kaitbal. 

Daya, a synonym for Machhi in Multan, fom. ddi (so called because women 
of the Machhi caste act as wet-nurses). Cf. Vaidehd. 

Dayal, a Rajput clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 
Dedhar, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Dehgan, Dihqan, Dihqan, an Iranian (Tdjik) tribe (or rather class, as the 
word means husbandman) which is represented by the Shalmanis of the 
Peshjiwar valley. Raverty says that the Chaghun-Sarai valley on tho 
west side of the Chit nil river also contains several large Dihgdn villages 
which owe allegiance to the Sayyids of Kunar. 

Debia, one of the principal clans of the Jats in Karn^l. It has its head- 
quarters at Ludhidna and originally came from Rohtak. Probably the 
same as Dahia. 

Dehe, a Muhammadan Kamboh clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Deo, — (1). A title of several ancient ruling families, used as an aflSx, like 
. Chand or Singh. It was thus used by the old dynasty of Jammu. 

(2). A tribe of Jdts which is practically confined to the Sidlko^ 
district where they regard Sankatra as one of their ancestors and have a 
highly revered spot dedicated to him, in tho town of that name, in 
tahsil Zafarwal. They claim a very ancient origin, but not Rajput. 
Their ancestor is said to be Mahdj, who came from " the Saki jungle " in 
Hindustcin. Of his five sons, Soh^l, Kom, Dewal, Aulakh and Deo, the two 
latter gave their names to two Jdt tribes, while the other branches dis- 
persed over (xujr^nwdld, and Jhang. But another story refers them to Raj^ 
Jagdeo, a Surajbansi Hdjput. They have the same marriage ceremony 
as the Sahi, and also use the goat's blood in a similar manner in honour 
of their ancestors, and have several very peculiar customs. They will 
not intermarry with the Md.n Jd,ts, with whom they have some ancestral 
connection. Also found in Amritsar. 

Deoania, a Jd,t tribe found in Sialkot and apparently distiact from the Deo. 

Deora, a sept of Kanets descended from a son of Tegh Chand, third son of 

Rd,]^ Kahn Chand of Kahlur. 
Deowana, an agricultural clan found in Shdhpur. 

Derija, a Jd,t clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Desi, (i) of the country, fr. des, country ; (ii) of the plains, as opposed to 
jmhdri, of the hills : cf. P. Dicty., p. 287 ; (iii) a Jdt clan (agricultural) 
. found in Multan. Cf. Deswali. 

Dbswal, ' men of the country,' a Jat tribe, sprung from the same stock a3 
the Dalai. They are most numerous in Rohtak, Gi]rgdon,and KarniU. 
In Mew^r and Ajmer, Mu-ialman Rilj puts are callei Deswiil, and are 
hardly recognised as Hiijputs. 

Deswala, a territorial term sometimes applied to certain Ji{ tribes as opposed 
to Pachhamw^la. 

Deswali, opposed to Bdgri, q,v. 

234 Dewa — Dliamdn. 

Dewa, a title given in Sirmur to Kanet families which perform priestly duties 
in the deotas' temples. A Dewd, will generally marry in a Dewd, family 
and a Negi in a Negi family. The Dewiis rank below the Bhdts and 
above the Deth is, an H are intimately connected with the (feoias. wliora 
they serve : e.g., the temple of Mahasu must be closed for 20 day? if 
therp is a I'irth or death in the Dewa' 3 family — see the Sirmur Gazetteer , 
pp. 42—44. Gf. Karan. 

The form of this designation in the Simla Hills appears to be dinwdn. 

Dewal, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Dewala, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

JDewak, a J^t clan (agricultural) found in Mult^n. 

Dhaca, Dabha, Dhabi, Dibha, syns. of Dhobi, q.v. 

Phabba, a Khatri sub-division. 

Dhadah, a tribe of Jdts, found in Kapurtliala, whither it migrated from Delhi. 

Dhadhi, Dhadi, a musician, singer or panegyrist ; fr. dhdd, a kind of 
tabor. In the Derajdt, however, the Dhadi only chants and never, it 
is said, plays on any instrument : he is also said not to ijitermarry with 
the Dum. In Mult^n he is a panegyrist, if given alms ; if not, he curses. 

Dhakar, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Dhakkae, a Mahtam clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Dhakktj, an agricultural clan found in Shdhpur and Montgomery. Classed 

both as Rdjput and Jat in the latter district. 
Dhakochi, a sub-caste of Brahmans in the hills of Haz^ra, which allows 

widow remarjiage. It does not intermarry or eat with the Pahd^ria, the 

other sub-caste of Brahmans in these hills. 
Dhala, a caster of metals. 

Dhalan, a small J^t clan found in B^wal (Nd,bha State). They derive 
their orio-in from Raja Dhaj, a Tunwar ruler of Hastinapar, who 
lost caste by marrying a foreign wife. 

Dhali, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Dbali, a tribe of Muhammadan J£ts, found in Gujrat, where its founder, a 
Bhatti Rajput, obtained a grant of land from Akbar in exchange for a 
fine shield, dhdl, which he possessed. 

Dhaliwal, see Dh^riwal. 

Dhalon, a Jat clan (agricultuial) found in Amritsar. 

Dhamali, a class of Muhammadan /agiVs (= Jalali). fr. (i/iamaZ, leaping and 

Dhaman, an endogamous occupational sub-caste of the Loh^r-Tarkhd,n 
castes, fr. dhaund 'to blow' the bellows. The Dhaman are black- 
smiths, as opposed to the Khatti or ' carpenter ' sub-caste. The 
Dhamd,n is by far the largest group among the Tarkhans and forms 
a true sub-caste in Sirsa, in Hoshiiirpur (in which district the Dham^ns 
and Khattis will not eat or smoke together) and probably throughout 
the eastern districts, as far north as Gujrd,nw^la. The Dhamd^ns 
include the Hindu Suthaes, q.v. 

i tf 

''^. '- .y ^3L...J-^^-<Cr f^. 



il, p. < /<»— ^,-f. ^ 

^f^c ^ -'6^ 

Dhamra — Dhan. 235 

Dhamra, an agricultural clan found in Shahpur. 

Dhanak, a caste, essentially of Hindustan and not of tlio Punjab proper, 
and confined to the south-east of the Province. Wilson derives the 
names from the Sansk. dhanashka, bowman, but the Dh^naks of the 
Punjab are not hunters and only differ from the Chuhras in that they 
will not remove nightsoil, though they will do general scavenging. In 
villages they do a great deal of weaving also. The Chuhras are said to 
look down on them, but thev are apparently on an equality, as ncitlier 
will eat the leavings of the other though eaoh will eat the leavings 
of all other tribes except Sdnsis, not excluding even Khatiks. 
There are, practically speaking, no Sikh or Mussahnfln Dhdnaks, 
and their creed vvould appear to be that of the Chuhras The only 
considerable tribe the Dhanaks have returned is Ldl Guru, another 
name for Ld,l Beg, the sweeper Guru. But they are said to burn their 
dead. They marry by phera and no Brahman will officiate. 'I'hey also 
appear to be closely aihed to tiie Pasis."^ See Lillbegi. 

Dhanda, a small clan of Jats, found in Jind, Their jathera is Swdmi 
Sundar D<is, at whose samddh milk is offered on the 12th sudi every 
month : beestings also are offered, and, at weddings, a lamp is lighted 

Dha^jdsahar, a JiCt clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Phaijtqe, an Arain clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Dhanial, a tribe of Rfljput status which belongs to the group of hill tribes 
of the Salt-range Tract. It is from them that the Dhani country in the 
Chakwal tahsil of Jhelum takes its name ; and there appears still to be 
a colony of them in those parts, though they are now chietly found in 
the lower western hills of the Murree ranore, being separated from the 
Satti by the Ketwal. They claim to be descended from Ali, son-in-law 
of the Prophet. They are a fine martial sot of men and furnish many 
recruits for the army, but were always a turbulent set, and most of the 
serious crime of the surrounding country used to be ascribed to them. 
Many of them are of J^t status. 

Dhanjon, an Arilin clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. Also a Kamboh 
clan in that District and in Montgomery. In the latter it is both Hindn 
and Muhammadan. 

Dhankae, a Jat tribe of the same stock as the Rdthi. They are almost 
confined to Jhajjar tahsil in Rohtak, and arc perhaps nothing more 
than a local clau of the Ratlii tribe. 

Dhanoe, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

DHAN9,Ai, a jpogar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. j 

Dha^^T, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Dhar, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Dhari, a bard (Monckton's 8. R. Gujrdt, 53), doubtless=I)HApi, q.v. 

* In Karnil they are regularly employed in weaving. But they also collect cnw-dung and 
take it to the fields, and get a chapdUi u day from each client's house and a little at harvest. 

236 Dhdriwdl'-Dhaunchah. 

Dhakiwal. — The Dh^riwdl, Dhdni- or Dh^liwal, (or, in Karndl, Phor) Jdts, for 
the name is spelt in all three ways, are said to be Bhatti Rajputs, and 
to take their name from their place of origin Dhar^nagar. They say that 
Akbar married the daugliter* of their chief, Mihr Mitha.t They are 
found chieBy on the Upper Sutlej and in the fertile district to the west, 
their head-quarters being the north-western corner of the Mdlwa, or 
Ludhidna, Ferozepur, and the adjoining parts of Pati^la. Mr. Brandreth 
describes them as splendid cultivators, and the most peaceful and con- 
tented portion of the population of the tract. Akbar conferred the 
title of Mi^n on Mihr Mitha and gave him 120 villages round Dhaula 
Kd,ngarJ in jdgir. The Dhdriwd,l have undoubtedly been settled in 
that part from an early period, and the south-east angle of the Moga 
tahsil is still called the Dhdliwal tappa. Mitha's descendants are still 
called Miiin, but they are said not to have been converted to Islam 
though for several generations their leaders bore distinctly Muham- 
madan names. However this may be Mihr Mitha is now their sidh 
with a shrine at Lallawala in Patiala, and on the 2nd eudi of each 
month sweetened- bread and milk are offered to it. In Sidlkot, however, 
their sidh is called Bhoi and his seat is said to be at Janer§ Fatta. 

The Dhdriwdl are divided into two groups, Udhi or Odi and Moni 
or Muni (who alone are said to be followers of Mihr Mitha in Gujrdn- 
wala) . 

Dhaekhan, a synonym of Tarkh^n {q.i\) throughout the South-Wesfc Punjab. 
In Jhang they are all Muhammadans and have Awd,n, Bharmi, Bhat-ti, 
Dhddhi, Gilotar, Jaujuh^n, Kari, Khokhar, Sahdrar, S4hte and Sid,l 
septs. The latter when the first tonsure of a child is performed, cook 2| 
hhasaria or cakes, each containing I5 sers of wheat-flour, and of these 
the eldest of the family eats one, the second is given in alms and the 
third (^) is eaten by the girls of the family. 

Dhaeuera, a group, practically a sub-caste, of Brahmans found in Grurgaon, 
who have become out-castes because they adopted the custom of widow The name may be derived from (i/iare^, a concubine, or 
dharewa, marriage of a widow. They are Gaurs. 

pSAsf, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Dhatjl, an agricultural clan found in Shahpur, and, as Muhammadan Jiis, 
in Montgomery. 

DhauLka, an agricultural clan found in Shd,hpur. 

Dhau^i (Dhawan), a Khatri got, see P. Dicty., p. 304. 

DSAONCHAK, one of the principal clans of the Jats in Karnd,!, with its head- 
quarters at Binjhaul. Intermarries in Rohtak. 

* As her dower 100 ghumaos of land were given her at Kangir and this land was trans- 
ferred to Delhi and kept as the burial ground of the Mughal emperors ! 

f Mihr or Mahr, ' chief,' and Mitho, a name unknown to Akbar's historians 

j Dhaula, the ' white ' house or palace. Kangar is in Patiala territory to the south-east 
of Moga. 

§ Janer is described by Cunningham, Arch. Sui'vey Reports XIV, 67—69. 

II Punjab Customary Law, II, p. 132, 


D}iaugri~-Dhillon. 237 

Dhadgei, see Dhogrj. 

DhawnAj a Rajput clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Dhed, a tribe of J^ts found in Multan, where they settled in Akbar's time. 

Dhed, lit. a crow ; a leather- worker. 

Dhedh, Dherh, Dhed, (see above). A synonym for Chaniclr. The te>-ra is, 
however, used for any 'low fellow/ though especially appliod to a 
Chamdr. In the Punjab the Dhodh is not a separate caste, as it is in 
Bombay and the Central Provinces. 

pHENDYE^ a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar, 

Dher, a tribe of Jd,ts claiming Solar Rajput origin through its oponym 
and his descendant Harpiil who settled near Kalanaur and thence it 
migrated into Sialkot. 

Dhesi, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Dhidha, an Ardin clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Dhiduana, a clan of the Sid,ls. 

DfliLA, an agricultural clan found in Shd,hpur. 

Dhillon, Dhillhon. — The phillon* is one of the largest and most widely dis- 
tributed Jiit tribes in the Punjab, especially in the Sikh Districts. 
Their head-quarters would appear to be Gujranwd,la and Amritsar ; but 
they are found in largo numbers along the whole course of the Sutlei 
from Ferozepur upwards, and under the hills to the east of those two 
Districts. The numbers returned for the Delhi District are curiously 
large, and it is doubtful whether they really refer to the same tribe. 
Like the Gord,ya they claim to be Saroha Rajputs by origin, and to 
have come from Sirsa. If this bo true they have probably moved up 
the Sutlej, and then spread along westwards under the hills. But 
another story makes them descendants of a Surajbansi Rajput named 
Lu who lived at Khdrmor in the Miilwa, and held some office at the 
Delhi court. They are said to be divided into three great sections, the 
Bdj, S^j and Siinda. 

Another pedigree is assigned them in Amritsar. It makes Iju (Loh 
Sain) son of Raja Karn, thus :— 

SURAJ (Sun). 

Karn, born at Karn Bas in Bulandshahr. 

r I j ^ 

Loh Sain. Chatar Sain. Brikh Sain, Chaudar Sain. 


Earn's birth is described in the legend that Rajd Kauntal had a 
daughter Kunti by name, who was married to Rslja Pclndav. War- 
bhiishd rikhi taup;ht her a mantra by Avhich she could bring the sun 
under her influence and by its power she bore Karn who became Rdja 
of Hastimlpur. Whi^n Ptlndav renounced his kingdom after the battle 
at Kuruchhetar and Rajd Karn had been killed in the battle, Dhillon 

* Folk-etymology connects the name with dhilla, * lazy.' It is also said to be dcriTcd 
from a word meaning 'gentle.' 

238 Dhindsa'—Dhiruke. 

left Hastindpur and settled in Wangar near Bhatinda, where his 
descendants lived for 10 generations. Karn is said to have a temple at 
Amb on the Ganges, where he is worshipped on the Chet chaudas. In 
Sidlkot the Dhillu jathera is Ddud Shdh, and he is revered at weddings. 
The Bhangi misl of the Sikhs was founded by a Dhillon, Sirdar 
Ganda Singh. In Amritsar the Dhillon do not marry with the Bal 
because once a mirdsi of the Dhillons was in difficulties in a Bal village, 
and they refused to help him, go the Dhillons of the Manjha do not even 
drink water from a Bal's hands; nor will the mwdsis oi the Dhillon 
intermarry with those of the Bal. In Ludhiana at Dhillon village there 
is a shrine of the trihal jathera, who is called Bdbaji. Gur is offered to 
him at weddings and he is worshipped at the Diwali, Brahmans taking 
the offerings. 
Dhindsa, a Jdt tribe, which would appear to be confined to, Ludhiana 
and the adjoining portion of Patiala. They claim to be descended from 
Saroha Rajputs. In Jind their Sidh is Bdbd Harndm Dd,s, aBairdgiof 
the 17th century, whose shrine is at Khari^l in Karnal. Offerings are 
made to it at weddings. In Sialkot the Dhindsa also revere a sati's tomb. 

Dhing, an agricultural clan found in Shdhpur. 

Dhinwar, Dhimar. — The word Dhinwar is undoubtedly a variant of Jhinwae,* 
while the term Dhimar is a corruption of it, with possibly, iu the Punjab, 
a punning allusion to the custom described below. The Dhinwar is 
confined in the Punjab to the tracts round Delhi, where the word is also 
applied to any person of dark complexion. The Dhinwars are divided 
into two groups, one of which makes baskets and carries jydlkis, works 
ferries and is in fact a Kahae. Many of this group are fishermen or 
boatmen, and call themselves Mallahs, while some are Bharbhunjds. 
The other group is so criminal in its tendencies that it was once pro- 
posed to proclaim the Dhinwars a criminal tribe, but violent crime is rare 
among them and though they wander all over the Punjab, disguised as 
musicians, beggiiig, pilfering and even committing burglary or theft on 
a large scale, many of them are cultivators and some even own land. 
The Dhinwars of Gurgd,on once used to marry a girl to Bhaironji, and 
she was expected to die within the year. The Dliimars do not own the 
Dhinwars as the latter are notorious thieves. No Hindu of good caste 
will take water from a Dhinwar's hands, though he will accept it from 
a Dhimar. (The latter caste appears to be the equivalent of the Jhinwar 
in the United and Central Provinces). See also under Jhinwar. 

Dhiemalia, the second oldest sect of Sikhs. The Dhirmalia owe their origin 
to Dhirmal,t who refused to acknowledge Guru Har Rai, his younger 
/<" hrother , as the Guru. The sect has an important station at Chak Rdm 
Das in Shdhpur, where the Bhais descended from Dhirmal own the 
village lands. They have a considerable following, chiefly of Khatris 
and Aroras. Bdba Bar Bhag Singh, another member of the family, has 
. a shrine at Mairi, near Arab in Hoshidrpur. The sect has no special 
tenents differentiating it from the Nanakpanthis. 

Dhiecke, a Kharral clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

* For ih, = d/i, cf. rij/ia, cooked, for Wd/ii: lajha hM, ior bdndhd hud, tied: rvjjha, for 
ruddhd, busy, and other examples. 

t Not the second son of Ramdas, the 4th Gur^, as sometimes stated, but of Gurditta, the 
Udasi who never became Guru. 


^J^t^'l^ir' f^ ^t < ^ CC^j/( *^^ 6-W ^t^^^i^" 

>«• c^ 

:^^. C4^^ — ,,1^,7, ^^^ ^o 9->*^ ^^;"- 


Dholv-^Dhotar. ' 239 

Dhobi, perhaps the most clearly defined and the one most nearly approaching 
a true caste of all the Menial and Artisan castes. He is found undor 
that name throughout the Punjab, but in the Derajat and tlie Multiln 
Division he is undistinguishable from the Charhoa. He ia the washer- 
man of the country, but with washing he generally combines, especially 
in the centre and west of the Province, tlie craft of calico-printing, 
and undoubtedly in these parts the Dhobi and Chhimba castes overlap. 
The Dhobi is a true village menial in the sense that he reci^ves a fixed 
share of the produce in return for washing the clothes of the villajjes 
where he performs that office. But he occupies this position only 
among the higher castes of landowners, as among the Jdts and castes 
of similar standing the women generally wash the clothes of the family. 
The Dhobi is, therefore, to be found in largest number in the towns. 
His social position is very low, for his occupation is considered impure ; 
and he alone of the tribes which are not outcast will imitate the Kumhdr 
in keeping and using a donkey. He stands below the N^i, but perhaps 
above the Kumhar. He often takes to working as a Darzi or tailor, 
and in Peshiiwar dhohi simply means a dyer (rangrez). He is most 
often a Musalmitn. His title is barita or khalifa, the latf er being the 
title of the heads of his guild. 

The Dhobi sections appear to be few. They include : — 

1. Agrai. 5. Kamhoh. 9. Rikhari. 

2. Akthra. 6. Khohhar. 10 Liirli. 

3. Bhalam. 7. Koh^ns. 11. Lippal. 

4. Bhatfi. 8. Mahraal. 

(Those italicised are also Chili m Via a?icZ Charhoa po^v, Nos 1, 3 and 
9 being also Charhoa gots). The Hindu Dhobis in Kapurthala say they 
are immigrants from the United Provinces and preserve four of their 
original seven gro^s, fi^., Magia, Miirwair, Balwar and Kanaujia, while 
the Muhammadan sections are said to be Galanjar, Mohar, Role, Sano-ari, 
Saukhar and Satal- 

Dhoda, an agricultural clan found in Sluthpur. 

Dhodi Bhandaet, KeATAR, Namonana and Waib, fonr Rajpijt septs (agricul- 
tural) found in Mult^n. 

Dhoqri, the ironsmiths, miners and charcoal-burners of the Barmaur wizcirat 
of Chamba State, where, when holding land as tenants, they are, like 
other low-castes, termed jhumridhc, lit. ' family servants'. In Kullii 
territory all say the term dhogri is applied to any Dt'iglu or K'oli who 
takes to iron-smelting : cj. Chhazanq for the Dhongru Kd,ru in Spiti. 

The name is probably connected \y ith dhaukni, etc., 'bellows,' and 
dhauna, ' to blow the bellows. ' 

Dhol, a tribe of Jats, found in Kapurthala, whither it migrated from the 

East, beyond the Jumna, after settling in Amritsar : see also Dhaul. 
Dbori, a J^t clan (agricultural) found in Shdhpur. 

Dhot, a Kamboh clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar and Montgomery — 
in the latter both Hindu and Muhammadan. 

Dhotar, a Jdt tribe, almost entirely confined to Guji'iinwala. They are mostly 
Hindus, and claim to be descended from a Solar Rajput who emigrated 
from Hindustan or, according to another story, from Grhazni, sjmo 20 
generations back. 

240 Dhudhi — Dhund. 

Dhudhi, Dhudbi, a tribe of Muhammadans found in Pdkpattan tabsil, 
Montgoraery district, and akin to the Raths, In this district it is 
clasbed as Rcijput, 3 At, Ardin, and in Sh^hpur as Ji\,. In Montgomery 
the Dhudhi Hutidna raok as Rajputs. 

Dhudhial, an agricultural clan found in Sh^hpur. 

Dhudhi, a small clan of Panwdr Rajputs found with their kinsmen the Rathor 
scattered alonor the Sutlej and Chendb. Their original seat is said to 
have been in the Mails! tahsil of Multd,n, where they are mentioned as 
early as the first half of the 14th century. When the Delhi empire was 
breaking up they spread along the rivers. One of them, Hdji Sher Mu- 
hamra-id, was a saint whose shrine in Multdn is still renowned. They 
are said to be " fair agriculturists and respectable members of society." 

Dhddi, a Jilt tribe found in tahsil Mailsi, district Multdn, and formerly, in 
the 13th century, established in the extreme east of it. 

Dhul, an agricultural clan found in Shdhpur and, as Riijputs, in Montgomery. 

Dhul, one of the principal clans of the Jats in Karnal, with its head- quarters 
at Pai. 

Dhdllu Bhatti, a Rajput clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Dhund, the Dhund with the Satti, and Ketwal, occupy nearly the whole of 
the Murree and Hazd-ra Hills on the right bank of the Jhelum in the 
Hazdra and Rawalpindi districts. Of the three the Dhund are the most 
northern, being found in the Abbottlbdd tahsil of Hazdra and in the 
northern tracts of Rawalpindi, while below them come the Satti. 
Andwd,l appears to be one of the Dhund clans. They claim to be 
descendants of Abbas, the paternal uncle of the Prophet ; but another 
tradition is that their ancestor Takht Khd,n came with Taimur to Delhi 
where he settled ; and that his descendant Zorab Khan went to Kahuta 
^ in the time of Shdh Jahan, and begat the ancestors of the Jadwd,l, 

/^ Dhund, Sarrd,ra, and Tandoli tribes. His son Khal^ra or Kulu Rai was 

sent to Kashmir, and married a Kashmiri woman from whom the Dhund 
are sprung, and also a Ketwd,l woman. From another illegitimate son of 
his the Satti, who are the bitter enemies of the Dhund, are said to have 
sprung ; but this the Satti deny and claim descent from no less a person 
than Nausherwan. These traditions are of course absurd. Kulu Rai is 
■ a Hindu name, and one tradition makes him brought up by a Brahman. 
Colonel Wace wrote of the Dhund and Karrdl : '^ Thirty years ago their 
acquaintance with the Muhammadan faith was still slight, and though 
they now know more of it, and are more careful to observe it, relics of 
their Hindu faith are still observable in their social habits." This much 
appears certain that the Dhund, Satti, Bib, Ohibh, and many others, 
are all of Hindu origin, all originally occupants of the hills on this part 
of the Jhelum, and all probably more or less connected. Among the 
Punwdr clans mentioned by Tod, and supposed by him to be extinct, are 
the Dhoonda, Soruteah, Bheeba, Dhund, Jeebra, and Dhoonta ; and it 
is not impossible that ttiese tribes may be Punwd,r clans. The history of 
these tribes is given at pages 592 j(y^ of Sir Lepei Griffin's Punjab Chiefs. 
They were almost exterminated by the Sikhs in 1837. Colonel Cracroft 
considered the Dhund and Satti of Rawalpindi to be a ' treacherous, 
feeble, and dangerous population,' and rendered especially dangerous by 
their close connection with the Karral and Dhund of Hazdra. He says 

tr.^ / 

y C^ S^ ^ J 

A ^ / 

Dhunia — Dllazak. 241 

that the Satti are a finer and more vigorous race and less inconstant 
and volatile than thp Dhund, whoso traditional oneniios they are. Sir 
Lepel GriflRn wrote that the Dhund " have ever been a lawless untract- 
able race, but their coiiratre is not equal to their disposition to do evil." 
On the other hand, Major Wace described both the Dhund and Karral as 
"attached to their homes and fields, which they cultivate simply and 
industriously. For the rest their character is crafry and cowardly." 
Both tribes broke into open rebellion in 1857, and the Dhund were 
severely chastised in Rfiwalpindi, but left unpunished in Hazdra. 
Mr, E. B. Steedmnn said : " The hillmen of Rawalpindi are not of very 
fine physique. They have a good deal of pride of race, but, are rather 
squalid in appearance. The rank and file are poor, holding but little 
land and depending cliiofly on their cattle for a livelihood. They have 
a great dislike to leaving the hills, especially in the hot weather, when 
they go up as high as they can, and descend into the valleys during the 
cold weather. They stand high in the social scale." In Haz^ra the 
local tradition makes two of the two main Dhund clans, Chandial and 
Ratnic'll, descendants of two Rdjput chiefs who were descended from Gahi, 
ruler of a tract round Delhi. To this day they refuse to eat with other 
Muharamadans or even to allow them to touch their cooking vessels. 
At weddings they retain the Hindu custom, whereby the hardt or pro- 
cession spends 2 or 3 days at the house of the bride's fattier, and various 
other Hindu social observances. They rarely marry outside the tnbe^ 
but polygamy is fairly common among them.'^' Mr. H. D. Watson 
describes them as physically rather a firie racf, and intelligent, but 
factious and unscrupulous. 

DflUNiA, a synonym for Penja [q. v.). See also under Kandera. 

Dhunsar, Dhusar, see under Bhargava Dliusar. 

DiiDSSA. — A daughter of Guru Har Rai married a Gend Khatri of Pasrur, 
named Amar Singh, whose descendants arc called dhussas or intruders, 
but no sect of this name appears in our Census tables. 

DiHADRAE, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 
DiLAZAK, an important Pathan tribe. 

The Dilazak were the first Afghdn tribe to enter the Peshiiwar valley, 
and the Akhund, Darweza, avers that they came first into Nangrahdrt 

* E. Molloy, in P. N. Q. II, § 281. 

t The "Dilazaks first fcntcred Nangrahar from the west or south-west and, prior to Ti'raur's 
invasion, settled in the Peshawar valley, allying themselves with the Shalmim's. In Bihar's 
time and under Akbar they held Walasau and the eastern part of Bajaur. They assigned the 
Doilba to the Yusufzais and Mandars and they in turn to the Gagi'unis, but the latter were defeat- 
ed by the Uibzaks Upon this tlie Khashis, headed by Malik Ahina 1. the Mandar chief, attacked 
the Dilazaks and drove them out of all their territorios north of the Kibul river. The Khalfls 
and Mohmands then induced Kamran to attack the Dilazaks and he expelled them from Pesha- 
war and all their possessions west of the Indus (c 1533-4). Subsequently (c. 1d4'.)-S()) Khan 
Kaju. Malik Ahmad's successor, formed a great confederation of Khashi tribes and defeated the 
Ghwaria Khel, headed by the Khah'ls, at shaikh i'apiir in 154.i-5o. Kaju's power may be 
gauged from the fact that he had at one time a force of 150,000 men under his command and his 
authority was acknowledged from Nangrahar to the Marigalla pass, and from Upper Swit to 
Pindi and Kalabagh. Adam Khi'm Gakhar is said to have been his feudatory. Three or four 
j'ears later in 1552 Hum^yim reached Peshawar, which fortress he found in ruins, and appointed 
Sikandar Khan the Cossack (Qa/ak) its governor. Soon after 1552 Khan Kaju marched on 
Bagram and there invested isikandar, but havins; no artillery or other firearms was pompelled 
to raise the siege. Khan Kaju's Mulla or chief priest and minister was Shaikh Mali who divided 
the conquered lands among the Khe^shis. 

242 Diiiddr'^Dirmdn. 

from the west and passed on eastward before the time of Timur. Enter- 
ing the vale of Peshdwar they formed an alliance with the Shalmfinis, 
who were then bubject to the Sultd,n of Sw^t, and subdued or expelled, 
exterminated or absorbed the other tribes which held the valley. Thus 
they occupied the eastern part of Bdjaur, and their territory extended 
from the Jinde riv^r to the K^Mpani and the hills of Swat. The 
Shalmanis held the Hashtna»ar tract, but all the lands from Bd,jaur 
to the Indus north of the K^bul and south of it as far as the Afridi 
hills, were Dilazak territory .vhen the Khashi Pathdns appeared on 
the scene. That branch of the Afg'hd,n ration had been expelled from 
their seats near Kabul by Mirza (Jlugh Beg, B^bar's uncle, they ap- 
plied for aid to the Dilaz^ks and were by them assigned the Shabkadr 
Do-dbah or tract between the two rivers. 

Accordingly the Yusufzai ard Mandar tribes of the Khashis settled 
in the Do-^bah, and some under the Mandar chief, Mir .Jamd,l Amanzai, 
spread towards Ambar and Diinishkol, while many Mandars and some 
of the Yusufzais pushed on into Bdjaur. Then they came into collision 
with the Umr Khel Dilazdks, who held the Chanddwal valley, and defeated 
them with the loss of their chief, Malik Haibu. The Yusufzai, Mfindar 
and Khalil'^ then divided Bajaur among themselves, but soon fell out 
and in the end the Khalils were crushed in a battle fought in the Hindu- 
raj valley. The Khalils never again obtained a footing in Bajaur. 

Meanwhile the Gagidnis had attempted to set a footing in Bdjaur 
but failed and besought Malik Ahmad Mandar for aid. He assigned 
the ])o-abah to them, but they soon found cause of quarrel with the 
Dilazaks, and even with the Yusufzais and Mandars also. In 1519 
the Gagidnis brought Bd,bar into the Hashtnagar tract, ostensibly 
against the Dilazdks, with whom the Yusufzai and Mandars left them 
to fight it out. In the result the Dilazak completely overthrew the 
Gagi.anis. The former were elated at their victory, and thus aroused 
the jealousy of Malik Ahmad, who formed a great Khashi confederacy, 
including various vassals of the Yusufzai and Mandar. In a great 
battle fought in the Guzar Kud, between Katlang and Shahbdzgarhi, 
the Dilazaks were defeated with great loss, but in the pursuit Ahmad's 
son Khdn Kaju chivalrously allowed the Dilazdk women to escape across 
the Indus. He subsequently received the hand of the daughter of 
the Dilazdk chief, and the political downfall of the Dilazak was 
thereby sealed. As good subjects of Bdbar they were obnoxious to 
Mirza Kamrd,n, and this doubtless accounts for the failure of all their 
attempts to retrieve their position, since they were only finally overcome 
after much severe fighting. In alliance with Kamr^n the Khalils 
sought to despoil the Dilazaks of their remaining lands, and by 1534 
they had obtained possession of the country from Dhdka to Attock, 
together with the Khyber and Karappa passes. 

DiNDAR, 'possessed of the Faith': a term applied to a Chuhra, Chamdr 
or any other low-caste convert to Islam. Better class converts are 
called Naumuslim, Sheikh or somewhat contemptuously, Sheikhra. Gf. 

DiEMAN, (a corruption of Abdur-rahmd,n) an Afghan sept of theKBAGiANi tribe. 

* The Khalils had quarrelled with the other tribes of the Ghwaria Khel and quitted th 
northern Qandahar territory to occupy the Lashura valley in Bajaur, some time previouslyQ 

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Diwdna'^Dod. 248 

DiwANA. — The third oldest sect of the Sikhs. To Guru Har Rai, or perhaps 
to Guru Rdm Dds, must ho ascribed the origin of the DiwJlna Siidhs 
or " Mad Saints," a name they owe chiefly to their addiction to ex- 
cessive consumption of hemp drugs. Founded by Bahl and Uaria 
with the Guru's permission the order is but loosely organised, and is 
recruited mainly from the Jdts and Ohamars. Its members are for 
the most part non-celibate. Outwardly those S^dhs keep the hair 
uncut and wear a necklace of shells, with a peacock's feather in the 
pagri. They fellow the Adi Grantli and repeat the true name.'^ Sikh 
history relates that one of the sect who attempted forcible access to Guru 
Govind Singh was cut down by a sentry, whereupon Ghudda, their 
spiritual guide, sent 50 men of the sect to assassinate him. But of these 
48 turned back, and only two proceeded to the Guru, without weapons, 
and playing on a sarangi ; and instead of killing him they sang to him. 
He gave them a square rupee as a memorial. (Macauliffo : ISikh Re- 
ligion, V, p. 218). They are mainly returned from Kdngra district. 

DiwAR, a family of Oadhioks, settled at Dalwd-l in Jhelum, 

DoD, a Rajput tribe found in Hoshidrpur, The Dods are almost entirely 
con6ned to the Bit tract in the Siwdliks, their head being the Rdna 
of The Dods are Jadav or Chandr-bansi by origin. Tra- 
dition avers that they once fought an enemy H times as numerous as 
themselves, and so became called Deorha, whence Dod. The clan once 
ruled in Orissa, whence Deo Chand fought his "way to Delhi, defeated 
its rulers, the Turs (Tunwdrs), and then conquered Jaijon : — 

Orisa sc charhiya Raja Deo Chand Barydhan Tika ae. 

Tur Raja auliydn jo thaJce fauj rachae, 

Tur chhadde nathhejo mil baithe hai, 

Dod Qarh Muktesar men jo mile chare thdon, — 

' Raja Deo Chand marched from Orissa. The Tiir Raja collected a large army in order to 
meet him, but fled before him. The Dods occupied Garh Muktesar and the places round it.' 

Thus Deo Chand came to Jaijon and ruled the Dodba, His descend- 
ant Jai Chand gave his name to Jaijon. The Dod Rdjd was, however, 
defeated by a Rdjd of Jaswdn, and his four sons separated, one taking 
Jaijon, the second Kungrat, the third Mdnaswal Garhi and the fourth 
Saroa. Jaijon and Saroa were subsequently lost to the Dods, and after 
their defeat by Jaswdn they sank to the status of rdnas, losing that of 
Rajas. Of the 22 villages dependent on Kungrat, none pay talukddrl 
to the rdna who is a mere co-proprietor in Kungrat, as the family lost 
its position during the Sikh rule. The Rana of Manaswdl, however, 
maintained his position under the Sikhs and holds most of the 22 
Mdnaswal villages (Bit = 22) in jdgir, his brothers holding the rest. 

Another account runs thus : — 

Four leaders of the tribe migrated from Udaipur to Garh Mandil, I.IOU years ago, and 
thence to Garh Muktasar. Thence Jodh Chand seized Minaswal, expelling Hira, the Mahton 
leader, whose tribe held the tract, 40 generations a^o. Rana Chacho Chand, the 19th Rana, 
was attacked by the Katoch ruler, but his brother Tilok feingh (Tillo) defeated him at 
Mahiidpur in Una, and Tillo's shrine at Bhawani is reveninced to this day. In Samb»t 1741 
Rana Jog Chand repelled a Jaswal invasion. R4na Bakhl Chand annexed Bhalan, with 12 
dependent villages, in Una. His successor, Ratn Chand, repelled a Jaswal army under 

* Maclagan, § 101. The Diw4na Sadhs appear to be a sect of the Milwa with head- 
quarters at Pi'r-pind in 

t But the Manj Rdjputs have a baiya in Bit Manaswil, according to Mr. ColdBtream in 
Punj4b Notes and Queries I, § 465. 

244 Dodai — l)ogar. 

Bhagwan Singli Sonkhla who was killed, and in his memory a sbrinc at Kharali was 
erected. A treaty now dciined the Jaswal and Dod territories. Under Mian'Gulab Singh/ 
regent during /\chal Chand's minority, Nadir Shah is said to have visited the tract and 
ordered a massacre of the Kasali people, but the Rima obtained from him a grant of Bathri, 
then a Jaswi 1 villaiic. Rai.a Jhagar Chand, however, espoused the Jaswals' cause, when 
they Wire aUncJitd by Sansar Chand of Kangja in U04 A. D., and repulsed him. On 
Ranjit Singh's invasion of the Blanaswal plateau, the Rana was confirmed in his possessions, 
subject to a contingent of 15 horse. The rule of inheritance was primogeniture, mitigated by 
a .system of lopping olT villages as fiefs for younger sons, many of whose descendants still 
hold villages, thus reducing the size of the estate. 

The Dods are also found aa a Muhammadan J at clan (agricultural) 
in Montgomery. 

DoDAi^ once an important Baloch tribe, but not now found under that 
name. Its most important representatives are the Mirr^ni of Deras 
Ghdzi and Ismdil Khd,n, and Jhang, and the most important clans 
of the Gurcli^ni. 

DoDHi, a Gaddi milkman, in Gujrdt. 

DoDi, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

JDoGAR, fern. Dogarni. — The Dogars of the Punjab are found in the upper 
valley of the Sutle] and Be^s above the lower border of the Lahore 
district, and have also spread westwards along the foot of the hills into 
Si^lkot. There are also considerable colonies of them in Hissar and 
Karnd,l. 'I'he Dogars of Ferozepur-, where they hold the riverside 
almost exclusively from 20 miles below to 20 miles above the head- 
quarters of that District, were thus described by Mr. Brandreth : — 

" In my account of the Ferozepur ildqa I have already alluded to the 

Dogars, who are supposed to be converted Chauhd,ii^' Kajputs from the 

neighbourhood of Delhi. They migrated first to the neighbourhood of 

P^k Patfan, whence they spread gradually along the banks of the 

JSutlej, and entered the Ferozepur district about 100 years ago. The 

Ferozepur Dogars are all descended from a common ancestor named 

Bahlol, but they are called Mahu DogarSj from Mahu the grandfather 

of Bahlol. Bahlol had three sonsjt Bambu, Langar and Sammu. The 

Dogars of Ferozepur and Mull^nwd,la are the descendants of Bambu ; 

those of Khai the descendants of Langar ; the descendants of Sammu 

live in the Kasiir territory. There are many other sub- castes of the 

Dogars in other districts Hlong the banks of the cSutlej, as the Parchats, 

the Topuras, the Chopuras, etc. The Chopura Dogars occupy Mamdot.J 

Ferozepur Dogars consider themselves superior in rank and descent to 

* Francis (.Ferosepwr Gazefteer, 1888-9, pp. 15-16) gives a full account of the Dogar 
history in that District and on p. 56 he says that the Dogar claim to be Punwar, as well as 
Chauhau, and are probably a section of the great Ehatti trite and clotely allied to the 
^'AIrAL. The Manj traditions say that the Dogars are descended from Lumra (? fox) who, 
like Naipal, was cne of Rana Blmti's :i4 sons. They thrust aside the Watnis to the west 
and the Naip^ls to the east, aud piokably subdued the Machhis, Malhihs imd other inferior 
tribes, assuming the position of social superiors rather than that of actual cultivators, and 
affecting the title of Sirdar. 

t Francis ^Ferczcpur Gazetieer, p. f<6) gives a different account He fays that Mahu had 
two sons Sahlol (whose descendants live on the Kasur side of the Sutlej) and Bahlol, 
From Bahlol sprang four branches, Khamii, Phaimaki, Ullaki and Kandarki. The Phaimaki 
hold Khai and Avill not give daughters to other branches which they consider inferior. 
Infanticide was formerly common amongst them. 

i Francis says the sections mostly locateu in Mamdot are the Mattar, Chluni, Rupal, 
Pbandi and Kbamma, as wOil as the Chopra, 

The pogars. 245 

tho other sub-castts. They arc very particular to whom they give 
their daughters in marriage though they take wives from all the other 
families. At one time infanticide is said to have prevailed nmong 
them, but 1 do not think there is much trace of it at the present day. 
" Sir Henry Lawrence, who knew the Dogars well, writes of them 

, that 'they are tall, handsome, and sinewy, and wre remarkable for 
liaving, almost without exception, large acquiline no.•^esJ they are 
fanciful and violent, and tenacious of v/hat they consider their rights, 
though susceptible to kindness, and not wanting in courage ; they 
appear to have been always troublesome subjects, and too fond of their 
own free mode of life to willingly take service as soldiers. The Jewish 
face which is found among the J)ogais, and in which they resemble 
the Afghans, is very remarkable, and makes it probable that there is 
very little Cliauh^n blood ia their veins, notwithstanding the fondness 
with which they attempt to trace their connection with that ancient 
family of Kajputs. Like the Gujars and Naipdls they are great thieves, 
and prefer pasturing cattle to cultivating. Their favourite crime is 
cattle-stealing. There are, however, some respectable persons among 
them, especially in the Ferozepur ildqa. It is only within the last few 
years that the principal Dogars have begun to wear any covering for 
the head ; formerly the whole population, as is the case with the poorer 
classes still, wore their long hair over their shoulders without any 
covering either of sheet or turban. Notwithstanding tho difference of 
physsiognomy, however, the Dogars preserve evident traces of some 
connection v/ith the Hindus in most of their family customs, in 
which they resemble the Hindus much more than the orthodox 


Mr. Purser wrote that they are divided into two tribes, one of which 
claims to bo Chauhan and the other Punwar Rdjputs, and he noted 
their alleged advent from Fak Pattan, but not their previous migra- 
tion from Delhi. If they ever did move from Delhi to the Montgomery 
district, it can hardly have been since the Ghaggar ceased to fertilize 
the intervening country, and the date of the migration must have been 
at least some centui-ies back ; and the Dogars of Hissar camo to those 
parts from the Punjab, probably from the Sutlej across the Sirsa 
district. Tho Dogars of Lahore and Ferdzepur are essentially a 
riverside tribe, being found only on the river banks : they bear the 
very worst reputation, and appear from the passage quoted above to 
have retained till lately .some at least of the habits of a wild tribe. 
Their origin was probably in the Sutlej valley. They appear to have 
entered the Ferozepur district about 1700 A.D., and during the next 
forty years to have possessed ihemsolves of a very consideralale portion 
of the district, while their turbulence reudoied them almost independ- 
ent of the Sikh Government. In 1808 wo recognised the Dogar 
State of Ferozepur, and took it under our protection against Kanjit 
Singh ; but it lapssed in 1835. 

The Rdjput origin of the Pogars is probably very doubtful, and is 
strenuously denied by their Ivdjpiit neighbours, though Sir Deuzil 
Ibbetson believed that Dogar, or perhaps Doghar,*^ is used in some 

* Doghar means two waterpots, one carried on top of the other. The d is soft. lu Dogar 
it is hard. 

246 Dogli—Dohli. 

parts of the Provinco to denote one of mixed blood. Another derivation 
of tlie name is doghgar or milkman."^" The Dogars seem to be originally 
a pastoral rather than an agricultural tribe, and still to retain a strong 
liking for cattle, whether their own or other people's. They are often 
classed with Gujats, whom they much resemble in their habits. In 
Karndl, Lahore and Ferozepur they are notorious cattle-thieves, but 
further north tliey seem to have settled down and become peaceful 
husbandmen. They are not good cultivators. Their social standing 
seems to be about that of a low-class Rajput, but in Sirsa they rank as 
a good agricultural caste, of equal standing with the Wattus. They are 
practically all Musalmdns, but in Karndl their women still wear the 
Hindu petticoat j and in marriage the mother's got is excluded. In 
Jullundur they marry late, and are said to have marriage songs 
unintelligible to othor tribes. Some of the largest Dogar clans are 
the Mattar, China, Tagra, Mdhu and Chokra. 

According to an account obtained from Kapurthala the Dogars were 
originally settled at Lakhiwal, near which was fought a battle between 
the Man] and Bhatti Rajputs, the Dogars siding with the latter. The 
Manj were, however, victorious and expelled the Dogears from Lakhiwdl, 
but for generations no Dogar would drink from the hands of a Manj. 

The Dogar septs in Kapurthala are: — Dasal, from LakhiwS,!: founded 
Dasal which was destroyed by the Sikhs, who had been plundered by 
the Dogars in their flight from Ahmad Shah Abd^li ; Biljwa, or Ratrd., 
from Sund,ru; Ripd^l, Nainah, Mattar, Asar all from Lakhiwal. 

Other gots are the Si<^hi, Banch, Ddre, Chhane, Khame, Mabhi, M4hu, 
Daddd, Dhandi, Gug, Dher, Tote, Kohli, Fade, Sanapi, Jakhra, Katwdl, 
Chhohar, Chopri, Ghangi, Wali, Wisar, Khari, Sombar, Ilsar, Johde, 
Kotordal, Gosa^l, Saurai, Dbaurdi and Gamload. 

In Montgomery the Dogar -Khiwa, -Mahu and -Mittar rank as three 
agricultural Rajput clans. 

DoGLi. — A term applied to the offspring of a Rajput man by a Gaddi woman 
in Kdngra. Cf. Dogala, a mongi-el. (The d is soft). 

DoGBA, a term applied to any inhabitant of the Dugar fZes,t whatever his 
caste, but more especially to the Hindu Rajputs of that region. Brah- 
mans also are included in the term, as are Rathis and 'I'hakkurs (as 
Rajputs), but not Ghirths or Kanets.J 

According to Drew [Jammu and Kashmir Territories, pp. 43 et seq.). 
there are two lakes near Jammu, the Saroin Sar and Man Sar, and the 
country between them was called in Sanskrit Drigarhdesh or the 
country between the two hollows. This was corrupted into Dugar. 
Drew divides the Dogras of the Jammu hills into Brahmans, E^jputs 
(including the Midns and workiug Rajputs), Khatris, Thakars, Jats, 
Banyas and K(i;rars (petty shopkeepers), Nais, Jiurs (carriers)', Dhiy^rs 
(iron-smelters), Meghs and Dums. 

DoHLi, a drummer (player on dol) in Gujrat. 

* In Hissar the Dogars have a vague traditiou that they camefrom the hill called Dogar in 

t Deb here does not appear to mean ' plain,' but simply tract. 

ISee Bingley's Dogras {Class Band'booki for the Indian Army, 1899). 


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Dolat—Drigs. 247 

DoLAT, DuLHAT, a claii of Jrlts found in Ndbha, Pa^idla and Ferozepore."*^ Rai 
Khanda, their ancestor, is said to have held a jagir near Delhi. His 
brothers Ragbir and Jagobir were killed in Nadir Shah's invasion, but 
he escaped and fled to Siuna Gujariwdla, a village, now in ruins, close 
to Sunam, and then the capital of a petty state. He sank to Jat status 
by marrying his brother's widows. The origin of the name Dolat is 
thus accounted for. Their ancestor's children did not live, so his wife 
made a vow at Naina Devi to visit the shrine twice for the tonsure 
ceremony of her son, if she had one. Her son was accordingly called 
Do-lat (from lat hair). 

Dolat, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

DoM, DoMB, fern, dombdni, Bal., a bard, minstrel ; see Dum. In Dera Gh,4zi 
Khdn the doms or mirdsis arc a low class of Muhammadans who used 
to keep horse-stallions and still do so in the Bozdd;r hills. 

DoMARAH, a Jd,t clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

DoMBKi, DoMKi. — Described in ballads as •' the greatest house among the 
Baloch/ and of admittedly high rank, the Domki are still called the 
Dapfar fPers. daftar) or recorders of Baloch genealogy. But owing 
to this fHct and the similarity of name some accuse them of being 
Doms, and a satirist pays : 'The Dombkis are little brothers of the 
Doms.' The name is however probably derived from Dumbak, a 
river in Persia. Their present head-quarters aie at Lahri in Kachhi. 

DoMRA, a young bard : a term of contempt, but see Dumril. 

DosALi, a small caste found in Hoshidrpur, but not east of the Sutlej.f 
Its members make dishes of leaves, often of ^awar leaves for Hindus 
to eat of. At weddings their services are in great request to make 
leaf platters, and that appears to be their priticipal occupation. They 
sew the leaves together with minute pieces of dried grass straw, 
as is done in the Simla Hills by Dumnas. The Dosdli is deemed an 
impure caste, and Rdjputs, etc., cannot drink from their hands. But 
it is deemed hifj;her than the Sarera, or the Bhanjrd, but below the Bdhti 
or Ghirth, and near the Chhimba. The Dosdli rarely or never marries 
outside his own caste. 

DoTANNi, see Dautanni. 

DoTOEN, see Thakur. 

DoYE, an Arain clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Drakhan, Bal., a carpenter- contrast dras-hk, a tree. 

Dren, see Mallah. 

Drigs, a tribe of Jdta found along the Cheiidb in Multdn. They attribute 
their origin to Kech Makrdn and were probably driven out of Sind late 
in the 15th century setthng in Bet Kech in Akbar's time. They are 
entitled Jdm. 

* But their Sidh and Pi'r is Didar Si igh, whose shrine is at Mard Khefa in Jmd. 

I Ibbetson indeed describes the Dosali as a hill caste, somewhat above the Chamar, or 
rather aa an occupational group, deriving its name from duKa, the small piece of straw 
used to pin loaves together. I'.ut the Uosalfs are also found in Amritsar where they have a 
tradition that their forebear used to carry a lantern before the emperor, whence h« was 
called Misaali. This menial task led to his excommunication, and the name was corrupted 
into Dosili. 

248 Drishah — Drugpa. 

DhisnAK, aro the most scattered of all theRALoCH tumans of Dera Ghdzi KhSn, 
many of theif villaofes lying among a Jd,t population on the bank of the 
Indu" ; and this fact renders the tnman less powerful than it shoulc? be 
from its numliers. They hold no portion of the hills, and are practically- 
confined to the Ghazi district, lying scattered about between the 
Pitok Pass on the norhh and Sori Pass on the south, The tribe 
belongs to the Rind section ; but claims descent from Hot, son of 
Jaldl Kh^n. Its sections are the Kirm^mi, Mingwani, Gulpadh, 
Sargdni, Arbdni, Jistkdni and Isanani, the chief belonging to the 
first of these. Their head-quarters are at Asni close to Rdjanpur. 
They are said to have descended into the plains after the Mazdri, or 
towards the end of the 17th century. 

Deugpa, * red-cap ' (but see below). — A Buddhist order. Like its sister order 
the NiNGMAPA, from whom they appear to be distinct, the Drugpa was 
founded about 750 a. d. by Padanisambhava, who is known iu Ld^hul as 
'Guru' or Guru Rinpoche. Padamsanibhava visited Mandi, Ganotara, 
Ldhul, Kashmir and both the Bangd,hal8, but died in Great Tibet.* One 
of his great doctrines was called Spiti Yoga, and he may have developed 
it in Spiti. A sorcerer and exorcist, he helped to decjrade the faith by the 
most debased Tantraism, but he merits admiration as a great traveller. 

The name Drugpa possibly means, according to Mr, Francke, the 
Bhutia order, the Tibetan for Bhutan being Drukyiil or Drugyiil and for 
a Bhutia 'Drugpa.' The Bhutan church is governed by a very great 
Ldma, who is ahnost a Pope in himself.t In Spiti his title is given as 
Dorji Chang, but in Ladd,kh he is known as N(g)a(k)wang Namgial. 
The Bhutan Ldma appears to rule the following religious houses in 
Western Tibet :— 


Gesar and Sumor in the 
Daba dzong. According to 
a Spiti manepa (preacher) 
his Heu tenant in Tibet is 
known as the Gangri 
Durindzin,or Gyalshokpa J 
and his influence is widely 
spread. He is or should 
be appointed for a term of 
three years. 

In LShuI there are two distinct f-ects of the Drugpas : — 
1. The Zhung Drugpas (Middle Bhuteas) or Kargiutpa (Tantraists). 
This sect has 3 Lahula communities all connected with the parent com- 
munity at Hemis : only one Ldhula house boasts an abbot {khripa), 
[pronounced thripa] and he is appointed by the abbot of Hemis. The 
head monastery is at Dechen Choskor near Lhassa. 

* Padamsambhava was an Indian monk who became a great friend of the Tibetan emperor 
Khrising bte btsau (pron. Treshing detsam), who extended his empire from the Chinese 
frontier to Gilgit. 

t Sherring describes the curious P. ru?a administration which rules one of the most 
sacred regions of Tibet independenth , and sometimes in defiance of the Lhassa authorities ; 
Westetn Tibet, p. 278. 

J Dashok, according to Sherring, op. cU, and the Kangr Donjan of the Gazetteer of 
the Eangra District, Fart II. 


Dariphug and 

Zatulphug in the holy cir- 
cuit of Kailas, 



Jakhyeb in Take Md,na- 




Rungkhung and 
Do. in the Upper Karn^li 


Garrdzong, near Gartok, 



Duhir-^Dum. 249 

But the Zhun Drngpas acknowledge the suzerainty of the pope or 
Dalai Ld,raa of Bliuti1,ii, and in December 1909 the abbot of Hernia 
Skoshok Stag Tsang Has Chen passed through Kullu to attend the 
Bhuti'm Dalai Ldina's court. 

2. Hlonilrugpa, pronounced Lodrug]Da (the Southern Bhuteas). There 
are no less than ivvelvG houses of this order. All are subordinate to 
Stagna (pron, Takna) in Laddkh and that house again is subordinate to 
Bhutiln. The abbot of Stagna appoints the abbot of the ancient house 
of Guru Ghuntd,l or Gandhola which was founded by Guru Rinpoche 
himself, and the Gandhola abbot appoints the other Lahula abbots of 
the order. He sends an annual tribute of Rs. 30 to Gangri Durindzin 
through the abbot of Stagna. The Drugpas of Mhul thus keep up their 
connection with Bhutan. Orders appointing or relieving an abbot are 
supposed to be signed in Bhutan, and when the ritual dancing at 
Krashis (Tashi) Dongltse (at Kyelong) was revised a brother was bent 
to Bhutiin to learn the proper steps, instead of to the much less distant 
Drugpa monastery at Hemis in Lad^kh.* 

Like the Ningmapas the Drugpas are distinguished for their low 
moral standard and degraded superstitions which are little bettor 
than devil-worship. The brethren are allowed to marry and their 
children {huzhan or ' naked boys ') let their hair grow till they 
enter the community. 

DoBfR, a weighman, in Muzaffargarh. 

DuHLAB, an agricultural clan found in Sh^hpur. 

DuKPA, Lo-DUKPA, the Buddhist sect to which all the monks in L^hul and 
the monks of the Pin monastery in Spiti belong. Its peculiarity is that 
no vow of celibacy is required of, or observed by, its members, who 
marry and have their wives living with them in the monasteries. The 
sect wears red garments and is subject to the Dharma R^jd, of BhutJln, 
in which country it is most numerously represented. The Nyingmd is 
the sub-division of the Dukpa sect to which the monks of Pin and 
the families from which they are drawn belong. The word merely 
means * ancient,' and they appear to have no distinguishing doctrines. 
(Apparently the same as the Nyimapa sect of § 252 of Census Report, 
1881). But see Drugpa and Ningmapa from Mr. Francke's accounts 
of those orders. 

DuM, or less correctly Dom : fern. Dumni, dim. Diimnl. According to Ibbetson 
the D urn is to lie carefully distinguished from the Dom or Domrd,, the 
executioner and corpse-burner of Hindustan, who is called Dumna in the 
liills of Hoshidrpur and Kdngra. But in Chamba the Dumnsl is called 
Dum and in the Hill States about Simla he is a worker in bamboo.t 
Aocording to Ibbelson the Dum of the plains is identical with the 
MiRASi, thrt latter being the Muhamraadan, Arabic name for the Hindu 
and Indian Dum. But though the Diims may overlap the Mirdsis 

* Tt is not, however, certain that all Drugpas are subject to Bhutan. Kamsay gives a 
separate sect called Hlondukpa (Hlo meaning Bhutin) which includes the Stagna 
house. It was founded, he says, in the 1 5th century by N(g')a(k)wang Namgial : Dicty. 
of WeUern Tibet, Lahore, 1890, p. 83. Possibly there was a reformation from Bhut4n in 
the iDth century. 

t In Maya Singh's Pttnjd6i Didy. § Diimn'i is said to — ' a species of bee. 

250 Duftf^Dumnd. 

and be in common parlance confused with them, they appear to be, in 
some parts of the Punjab at least, distinct from tliem, and the Mirdsis 
are beyond all question inextricably fused with the Bh^ts. In 
Gurgdon the Dum is said to be identical with the Kanchan, and to be 
a Minlsi who plays the tahla or camoigi for prostitutes, who are often 
Mirdsi girls. Such Dums are also culled htiarwa (pimp) or sufardai. 
Dum women fis well as men ply this trade. But another account from 
the same District says that the Dum is the mirdsi of the Mir^sis ; and 
that he gets his alms from the menial castes, such as the Jhiwar, 
Dakaut, Koli, Oliamfir, Bliangi, Juldhd, and Dhd,nak. la Lahore too 
they arc described as quite beyond the Mirdsi pale, as the true Mirdsis 
will not intermarry with them nor will prostitutes associate with them, 
though, like the Bhands,^ they sing and play for them when they dance 
or siny professionally. In fact they rank below the Chuhrd. So too 
in Ludhidna tl)ey are distinct from and lower than the Mlrasi. 

In Dera Ghdzi Khd,n the Dum or Langd, are said to be an occupa- 
tional grtmp of the MiRAsis, and to be the mird.n of the Baloch tribes. 
In other words they are identical with the Dom or Domb, whose name 
means minstrel in Balochi. 

DuMNA.— The Dumnd., called also Domra, and even Dum in Chamba, is the 
Chuhrd. of the hills proper, and is also found in large numbers in the 
sub-montane tracts of Kdngra, Hoshidrpur and Gurdd,spur. Like the 
Chuhrd of the plains he is something more than a scavenger ; but 
whereas the Chuhrd. works chiefly in graes, the Dumna adds to this 
occupation the trade of working in bamboo, a material not available 
to the Chuhrd. He makes sieves, winnowing pans, fans, matting, grass 
rope and string, and generally all the vessels, baskets, screens, furniture 
and other articles which are ordinarily made of bamboo. When he con- 
fines himself to this sort of work and gives up scavengering, he appears 
to be called Bhanjra, at any rate in the lower hills, and occasionally 
Sariiil. 'I'he Dumna appears hardly ever to become Musalmdn or Sikh, 
and is classed as Hindu, though being an outcast he is not allowed 
to draw water from wells used by the ordinary Hindu population. 

TheDumnd, is often called Dum in other parts of India, as in Chamba; 
and is regarded by Hindus as the type of uncleanness. Yet he seems 
once to have enjoyed as a separate aboriginal race some povfer and 
importance. Further information regarding him will be found in 
Sherring (I^ 400) and Elliott (I, 84). He is, Sir Deuzil Ibbetson con- 
sidered, quite distinct from the Dum-Mirdsi. 

DtJMNA, a low sweeper caste, a 'so called Bhanjrd, in the hills and in Gurdds- 
pur, Jnllundur and Hoshiarpur. They make chiks, baskets, etc., of 
bamboo and do menial service. Apparently the term is a generic one, 
including Barwalds, Batwd^ls, Daolis and Sansois. But in Lahore, where 
the Dumna is also found, he is described as distinct from the Batwdl, 
and as a Hindu who is yet not allowed to draw water from Hindu wells. 
Some of the Dumnd,s will eat from a Muhammadan's hands. Their 
clans are Kalotra, Manglu, Pargat, Drahe and Lalotra. The word is 
probably only a variant of Dum. 

* The Diain ranks below the Bhand also. The latter are skilled in hhanddr a practise of 
which the Diim is ignorant. It consists in absorbing all the water in a large bath and 
ejecting it through the ears, nostrils or mouth. 


Dumrd — Dutanui, 251 

DuMRA, DoMRA, dim. of Dura, q. v. In the hills the term is applied to any 
low caste which works as tailors, masons or carpenters, or in bamboo. 

Dun, a tribe of Jdte, found in Jmd, and so called from duhnd, to milk, be 
cause they used to milk she-buffaloes. 

DuND Rai, a tribe of Jdts which claims Solar Rrljput origin through its 
eponym who .settled in the Milnjha and his descendant Hari who 
migrated to Sid,lkot. 

Durrani, see Abdd,li. 

DuSAUH, Dos^d, a Purbia tribe of Chanidrs. They are the thieves and 
burglars of Behdr where also the c/iatiA;ida7*« have been drawn from 
this class from time immemorial. 

DusANJ, a Hindu Jdt tribe found in Ferozepur, whom tradition avers that 
Saroia, Jat, had five sons, Sdugha, Mallhi, Dhindsa, Dhillon aud Dusanj, 
eponyms of as many gots. 

DuTANNi, see Dautanui. 


Faizullaporia, the sixth of the Sikh misls or confederacies, which was 
rccruitccl fi'om Jilts. 

Faqartadaei, a J^t clan (agricultural) fouud in Multan. 

Faqib, pi. FDQAKA, 'poor/ a mendicant (Arabic). 'I'he term faqir compre- 
hends at least two, if not three, vcrj ciifferent classes, exclusive of the 
religious orders pure and simple. Many of these are of the highest 
respectabihty ; the members are generally collected in moDasterics or 
shrines where they live quiet peaceful lives, keeping open house to 
travellers, training their neophytes', and exercising a wholesome influ- 
ence upon the people of the neighbourhood. Such are many at least 
of the Bairagis and Gosains. .Some of the orders do not keep up 
regular monasteries, but, travel about begging and visiting their 
disciples; though even here they generally have permanent head- 
quarters in some village, or at some shrine or tcmjile where one of their 
order officiates. So too the monastcrial ordeis travel about among 
their disciples and collect the offerings upon which they partly subsist. 
There is an immense number of these men whose influence is almost 
wholly for good. Some few of the orders are professedly celibate, 
though even among them the rule is seldom strictly observed; but most 
of the Hindu orders are divided into the Sanyogi and Viyogi sections 
of which the latter only takes vows of celibacy, while among the Musal- 
m^n orders celibacy is seldom even professed. Such, however, as live 
in monasteries arc generally, if not always, celibate. The professed 
ascetics are called Sadhs if Hindu, and Pirs if Musalm^n. The Hindus 
at any rate have their neophytes who are undergoing probation before 
admission into the order, and these men are called chela. But besides 
these both Hindu and Musalman ascetics have their disciples, known 
respectively as scicak and murid, and these latter belong to the order 
as much as do their spiritual guides; that is to say, a Kayath clerk 
may be a Bairagi or a Pa^han soldier a Chishti, if they have committed 
their spiritual direction respectively to a Bairagi guru and Chishti pir. 
But the Muhammadan Chishti, like the Hindu Bairagi or Gosain, may 
in time form almost a distinct caste. Many of the members of these 
orders are pious, respectable men whose influence is wholly for good. 
But this IS tar from being the case with all the orders. Many of them 
are notoriously profligate debauchcrs, who wander about the country 
seducing women, extorting alms by the threat of curses, and relying 
on their saintly character for protection. Still even these men are 
members of an order which they have deliberately entered, and have 
some right to the title which they bear. But a very large portion of 
the class who are included under the name Faqir are ignorant men of 
low caste, without any acquaintance with even the general outlines of 
the religion they ])rofess, still less with the special tenets of any parti- 
cular sect, who borrow the garb of the regular orders and wander 
about the country living on the alms of the credulous, often hardly 
knowing the names of the orc^crs to which the external signs they wear 
would show them to belong. Such men are mere beggars, not ascetics ; 
and their numbers are unfortunately large. Besides the occupations 
described above, the Faqir class generally have in their hands the 

254 Faqir miskin — Firdusi. 

custody of petty shrines, the menial service of village temples and 
mosques, the guardianship of cemeteries, and similar semi-religious 
offices. For these services they often receive small grants of land 
from the village, by cultivating which they supplement the alms and 
offerings they receive. 

The subject of the religious orders of the Hindus is one of the greatest 
complexity ; the cross-divisions between, and the different meanings of, 
such words as Joc.i, Saniasi and Sadh are endless. See also Bharai, 
Chajjupanthi, D^dupanthi, Jogi, Saniasi, Udd,si, etc., etc. 

Faqir miskin, see under Chitrd,li. 

Faqeakh, a Jd,t clan (agricultural) found in Mult^n. 

Fardka, an agricultural clan found in Shahpur. 

Fattiana, one of the principal branches of the Sid-ls of Jhang. 

Fekozkb, a Kbarral clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Firdusian, a sect or order of the Sufis, founded by Shaikh Najm-ud-Din 



Gabare, Gaware (also called Mahron, from their principal village), a group 
of souie 300 families found in certain villages of the Kohi tract in the 
Indus Kohistdn. Thoy speak a dialect called Gowro and have a tradi- 
tion that they originally cauie from lldsliuug in Swat. — Biddulph'a 
Tribes of the Hindoo Koonh, p. 10. 

Gabhal, a Muharamadan Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Gabir, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Gabr, or, as they call themselves Narisati,* a small tribe found in a few 
villages in Chitral. Possibly the Gabrak of Bd,bar'3 Memoin, their 
language differs onsiderably from that of the Gabare of the Indus 
valley. The Chitrdlis speak oi them as a bald race, and they certainly 
have scanty beard«. Sir G. Robertson describes them as all Musal- 
md,ns of the Sunni sect, who have a particular language of their ONvn 
and are believed to have been anciently fire-worshippers. 

The Gabr has no very .listinctivo appearance except that one 
o^'-cabionally seea a face like that of a pantomime Jew. There are one 
or two fair-visagpd, well-looking men belonging to the better class, 
who wouid compare on equal terms with the similar class in Chitral : 
they, however, are the exception, 

The remainder, both high and low, seem no better than the poor 
cultivator cla-^s )n other parts of the Mehtar's dominions, and have a 
singularly furtive and mean look and manner. The women have a 
much better appearance. They dress in loosf blue garments, which 
fall naturally into graceful folds. The head is covered with a blue 
skull-cap from which escape long plaits of hair, one over each shoulder, 
and two hanging down behind. White metal or bead neck and wrist 
ornaments contrast well with the dark blue material of their clothes. 
At a short distance these women are pleasing and picturesque. 

The Ramgul Kdfirs are also spoken of as Gabars or Gabarik, but 
they have no relationship with the Gabr. 

Gadarah, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multiin. 

GipARf, a J6t clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Gadaria, the shepherd and goatherd of Hindustan. Almost confined to the 
Jumna zone in the Punjab, the Gadaria has, even in that part of the 
Province, almost ceased to be distiuctively a shepherd, as the 
cultivating classes themselves often pasture their own flocks, and has 
become rather a blanket weaver, being indeed as often called Kambalia 
as Gadaria. The Gadaiias are Hindu almost without exception. 

Gaddi, Gadi.— (I) The Muhammadan Gaddis of Delhi, Kariidl and Ambdla 
area tribe founii apparently in the upper cZoai of the Jumna and Ganges. 
Closely resembling the Gbosi, they are perhaps like him a sub-division 
or offshoot of the Ahirs,t and are by hereditary occupation milkmen, 

* Fr. Nureut, one of tho so-called Gabr villages in the Kunar valley. It ifl also called 
Birkot, and by the Kafirs Satrgran, Niirsnt being its Chitrali name. — The Kdfiri of the 
Hindoo-Koosh, p. 265. 

■j" There is also a Gaddi tribe among the Sainia- 

256 Ihe Bill Gaddie. 

bnt in Karnal, where they are most numerous, they have settled down 
as cultivators and own several villages, though they are poor husband- 
men. (2) The Hindu Gaddis of Chaiuba and Kdngra are billmen. 
Like the Kanets, Moos an(i other congeries of tribes they are com- 
posed of several elements. Indigenous to the Brahmaur ivizdrat of the 
Chainba State they have spread southward across the Dhaula Dhd,r into 
tlie northern part of Kdngra Proper, and they give their name to the 
Gaderan, a tract of mountainous country with ill-defined bimndaries 
lying on both sides of the Dhaula Dhsir, and their speech is called 

In Chamba they number 11,507 souls, but these figures do not include 
the Brahman and RAjput sections which returii themselves under their 
caste names. The majority are Khatris. 

The Gaddfs are divided into four class s : (i) Brahman?, (u) Khatris 
and Riijputs who regularly wear the sacred thread, (iii) Thd^kurd and 
Kdthis who, as a rule, do not wear it, and {iv) ?i menial or dependant 
class, comprising Kolis, RihdraH,"^ Lnhars, Bddhis, 6ipis and Halis, 
to whom the title of Gaddi is incorrectly applied by outsiders as inhubib- 
ants of the Gaderan, though the true Gaddis do nob acknowledge them 
as Gaddis at all. 

Each class is divided into numerous gotras or exogamous sections, 
but the classes themselves are not, strictly speaking, exogamous. Thus 
the Jhunun gotar of the Khatris intermarries with (? gives daughters 
to) the Brahmans; and the Brahmans of Kukti regularly intermarry 
with the other groups. Similarly the yaneo-wearing families do not 
object to intermarriage with those which do not wear it, and are even 
said to give them daughters (menials of course excepted). t 

In brief, Gaddi society is organised on the Rajput hypergamous 

The Gaddis have traditions which ascribe their origin to immigration 
from the plains. Thus the Chauhnn Rajputs and Brahman Gaddis 
accompanied Kaja Ajia Varma to Chamba iu 850-70 A. D., while the 
Churahan, Harkhd,n, Pakhru, Chiledi, Manglu and Kundail Rajputs 
and the Khatris are said to have fled to its hills to escape Aurangzeb's 
persecutions. These traditions are not irreconcilable with the story that 
Brahmaur, the ancient Brahmapura, is the home of the Gaddis ; for 
doubtless the nucleus of their confederation had its seats in the Dhaula 
Dhdr, in which range Hindus have from time to time sought an asylum 
from war and persecution in the plains. 

The Brahman, Rdjput, Khatri, Thdkur and Rdthi sections alike 
preserve the Brahminical gob'a of their original tribe. But these 
gotras are now sub-divided into countless als or septs which are appa- 
rently also styled gotras. Thus among the Brahmans we find the Bhats 
from the Bhaitiyat wizdrat of Chamba, and Ghungaintu {ghungha, 
dumb), both als of the Kaundal gotra. The Brahman sept-names 
disclose none of those found among the Sarsut Brahmans of the Punjab 

* A small caste or group of menials, employed as navvies. See footnote on page 259 

t It is indeed stated that no distinction is now made between families which do, and those 
which do not, wear the janeo ; but in former times the Rajas used to confer the janeo on 
Kathis in return for presents and services— and so some of them wear it to this day. 

Oaddi al names. 


plains, so completely do the Gaddi Bralimans seem to liavo become 
identified with the Gaddi S3'stem. Many of the a/6* bear obvious 
nick-names, sucli aa Cliadhu, cross-legf^ed ; * Dundu, one- hand- 
ed ;t Tanju and Tandetu, cat's-eyed ; j Bhanoretii, jquinter ; § 
Chutanbru, debaucliee ; || Ghmuiin, one who speaks through his nose ; ^I 
Jukku, gambler ; *^ Manlntu, one who fled to the plains to escHpe 
cholei-a, mari ; Jirgh, dumb ; tt Nansain, adopted by a ndni or grand- 
mother ; Sasi, one who lived with his mother-in-law. Litkar, lame; XX 
Timaretu, squinter; §§ Chupetu, reticent. 

Otlier names denote occupations not by any means Brahminical : 
Snndheta, sellei- of assafoctida {simdha) ; Palihan, sharpener ;|||| Bardan, 
archer ; ^[^1 Siihdhrdntu, once a sdli or wealthy man who became bank- 
rupt ((//tara?i<w) ; Sipainu, tenant of a Sipi menial; Kanetu, a Bdnd's 
tenant; Adhkfiru, a physician who left his patients uncured (ndh, half : 
kant, doer) ; Saunpolu. seller of saitnf, aniseed ; Langhe, ferryman ; 
Jogi ; Lade, a trader to Ladakli ; Khuthlu, A;i<//i-seller ; Jhunnu, 
idler ; **^ Phangtain, dealer in phamb, wool. 

Totemism does not exist, unless Guarete, 'born in a </Mor or cowshed/ 
and Sunhunu, from one who had a sif?'t7iK tree in frout of his bouse, 
could be regarded as totemistic sections. 

In Kangra one got — Paunkhnu — is said to provide j)nro}iits for all the 
other Brahman Gaddis. The Brahmans in Kangra, it is said, inter- 
marry with the Jhunu got of the Gaddi Khatris. 

Among the Riljputs wo find the Ordian, 'ill-wishers' : ttt TJanydn, 
' squinters ' XXX ^^^ Misan, * pig- nosed ' ; §§§ all als of the Bacliar gntar : 
Kurralu, * brown-haired,' |||||| and Dinriin, ' black,' ^f^j\ als of the Dewal 
andUttam gotars respectively. Very doubtful instances of totemism are 
Phagdn ' bran ( ■phak) eater* (Bhardwdj) ; Khuddu, ' eater of parched 
maize' (Sunkhy^l) ;Ghoknu, ' shooter of doves' — ghug (Dewal) ; Rikluin- 
tu, * boar-killer ' (Atar) ; Chakcr, 'purveyor of chikor to the Bajds 
(Ambak) ; Kadan, 'sower of kadu or punipkius ' (Bh^rdwdj) ; Pakhru 

* bird-shootor ' (Bisistpal). 

A few aZs refer to occupations ; Charu, fr. char, 'headman' (Bhar- 
dudri) ; Garhaigu, ' keeper of a stronghold,' garh (Atar) ; Baidu, 

* physician ' (Koiulal) ; Makratu, ' boxer ' 3**^'^" Ghiugain, ' seller of 

Others again are fanciful : Tharrotu, from an ancestor who thrpat- 
ened to drag his adversary before the thara or comt at (.hamba; 
Dakiydn, from one who ust'd to dance with ddkin, Hiili, women: or 
uncomplimentary, e.g., Kholu, tjreedy ; Jhurjcli\, idle ; Rohaila, noisy ; 
Jhibidn, mad ; Chutrainya, debiinchee ; Mukhriin, stammerer ; Gulrdn, 
liar; Judr, liar; Kuhainta, hunch-back; Kangru, scold j Jhirru, 

* Fr. cliudda, buttocks : cf. chadha, 

' sedentary,' also an al name, 
t Fr. dundd, one who has lost a hand. 
j Fr. tandd, cal's-cycd. 
§ Fr. bJiingra, squint. 
II Fr. chut, debauchee. 
% Fr. gnnna, speaking through the nose, 
*• Fr. jud, gambling, 
ft Fr. firingar, dumb. 
XX Fr. lattd, lame. 

§§ Fr. tirid. squint. 

llll Fr. pnlnd, to sharpen. 

*i% Fr. bari, arrow 

*** Fr. j/iiii-Hii, to idle or to meditate. 

ttt Fr. orda, evil. 

Xt+ Fr. riiKi, a squint. 

§§§ Fr. mitiu, snout. 

Ililll Fr. kerra, brown. 

^IIT Fr. dimia, black. 

**** Fr. muka, fist. 

258 Qaddi totems* 

tease; Ainlaitu, opium-cater; Dharanibar, pock-marked. In Kdngra 
the Agiisni got of Rajput Gaddia is said to be really an offshoot of the 
Jarial lliljputs. 

Among the Kliatris, no trace exists of the section-names current in 
the plains. We find occupational names : Sdhnu, shopkeeper {sdh) ; 
Fadhotaru, from one who lived on a plain {jmdar) ; Rusahri, cook ; 
Charhain, climber ; Nakletu, mimic ; Sundhu, dealer in assafcetida ; 
Bangetc, a physician who powdered zinc [hang) ; Mogu, dealer in coral ; 
Dhanchu, fr. one who lived with his flocks [dhan) ; Panjaru, wool- 
comber ; Gharati, water-miller : with two inexplicable names ; Drudhain, 
one who recovers stolen millet from mouses' holes ; and Druhru, one who 
so recovers walnuts — fr. drndh, druhri, a mouse's hole ! Other Khatri 
ah (so-called gots) in Kangra are : Bhundu, Bhakhu, Baddn, Bhatelu, 
Biluin, Bihantii, Chadlu, Chaledi, Chapetu, Clmgainu, Dagran, Galoti,, Jhuraiii, Phatu, Magletu, Rahlu, Salnu, Sundhu, Targain, 
Thakleq, Tliosaru, and Thakru. None of these names are found among 
the Khatris of the plains, as Barnes appears to have been informed. 
But just as among the Brahmans of the hills, e. g. in Chamba, we find 
the ancient gotras broken up into countless als, so too among the Gaddi 
Khatris it may well be that the old sub-divisions have been forgotten 
amono- the crowd of al names. Other als found in Chamba follow. 

Traces of totemism can hardly be said to exist in Gohaina, killer of a 
lizard {goh) ; Bersain, * one who fetched her trees for his flocks ' ; Potu, 
one who ate sheep's entrails {poia) ; Thapliag, one who ate wheat-cakes 
{thoplu) ; Sarw^n, planter of a cypress {Pers. saru !) ; Phakolu, one 
who was poor and ate phah, ' husks.' 

One or two curious names are : — Sanglu, carrier of a sacred chain 
[sangal) ; Sanjuan, maker of offerings {sanj); Mangnesu, beggar. 

Mere nicknames are Kalsain, Kaletu and Kal^ri, * black ' ; Lateti, 
lame; Phiugaletu, crippled,* Kiari,t blind; Ghusu,J boxer, Tatangru§ 
and Kachingar, dumb. 

Among the R^this the als would seem in a few cases to be really 
totemistic : Mardlotar, 'born under a mardZ tree,' the ulmus Walli' 
chiana. Sinuri, 'born while it was snowing'; Salbainu, 'born while 
locusts were at Kugti'; R^ute, 'born under a rai or silver fir*; 
Jotain, born in the Sural pass, jot. 

Mosi of the names a''e however mf^rely tiicknames, e.g., Jamuhd,n, 
cl msy (Jam) ; Tanari, deaf; Dhageta, cragsmnn ; Dapher, lazy, etc. 
Som<- ari- derived from events, e. g., Harokar, said to mean one ostra- 
cise>l for 'laying a brother by his blood-kin [har, bone). 

Ht-ligious nauies also occur : Japaintu, from jap, repetition: Faqir, 
beggar; Jogian, fiom a jogi ancestor. 

Occupational names are : Phakru, maker of combs for cleaning wool, 
Ghorn (royal) groom; Ghuletu, wrestler; Bhajretu,!] porter; Gdhri, 
Alpine grazier; Addpi, collector of blankets (fidp) in which part of the 
revenue was paid; Lunesar, salt-dealer; Kahngherii, trader in combs 
[hinghio] ; Palnu, sharpenerU of sickles. 

* Fr. phingola, cripple. 
I Fr. fcdno, blicd. 
J Fr. guthu, fist. 

§ Fr. tattd, dumb. 
II Fr. bhdra, load. 
^ Fr. palni, to sharpen. 

Gaddi dress. 259 

In Ki'ingra tlio Riltlii als aro said to bo Barjati, KuMi, Ghariiti (a 
Khatri al in Cliamba), and Sakliotru. The H^jas used to confor the 
janeo on Eiithis in return for presents and services, and this is why sonio 
of them still wear it. 

Among the Thakkurs of Kdngra are tlie Barilu, Harehi, Janwi'ir, 
Marthdn and Siuri als. Other ah whose members do not wear the janeo 
(and are therefore presumably Thakkur too) are the Baghretu, Ghdrij 
Tutdri and Ugbarotu. 

The Gaddis are an interesting people^ and offer a striking contrast in 
several respects to the other inliabitants of Chamba. The costume of 
the Gaddis, both men and women, is characteristic and striking. The 
old head-dress of the men is of a peculiar shape, with a flap rodnd the 
margin, and a peak-like projectiun in the centre, said to represent the 
Kailds of Mani Mahes. 'I'he flap is tied up for ordinary wear, but let 
down over the ears and neck in time of mourning, as well as in severe 
weather. The front is often adorned witih dried flowers or beads. 
But this head-dress is falling into disuse, save on special occasions 
its jilace being taken by the pagri. On the body a pattu coat 
called chola, reaching bolow the knee, is worn. It has a deep collar, 
which hangs loose in two lappets in front, and in the sowing the 
wearer stows away various articles, such as a needle and thread, pieces 
of paper and twine. The chola is tightened round tho waist by a black 
rope worn as a waist-band. This is made of sheep's wool and is called 
dora. Above the waist-band the coat is loose, and in this receptacle 
the Gaddi carries many of his belongings. On the march a shepherd 
may have four or five lambs stowed away in his bosom, along with hig 
daily food and other articles. The logs are generally bare, but many 
wear pattu paijdmas, loose to the knees for the sake of freedom in 
walking, but fitting tight round the calf and ankle where it rests in 
numerous folds. Shoes are in common use. From the girdle hang a 
knife, a flint box and steel and a small leather bag, in which the wearer 
carries money and other small articles. The hill people are all fond of 
flowers, and in the topi or pagri may often be seen a tuft of the wild 
flowers in season, red berries, or other ornament. The chief ornament 
is the tahit, a square silver plate of varying size covered with carving 
and hung from the neck. Gaddi women wear a dress like that of the 
men, made oi pattu and called cholu. It hangs straight, like a gown, 
from the neck to the ankles, and round the waist is the woollen cord 
or dora. A cotton gown of a special pattern is now common and is 
called ghundu. It is worn in the same way as the chnlu. The head ia 
covered with a chadar, and the leys and feet aro bare. The Gaddi 
women wear special ornaments, of which the chief is the galsari, and 
sometimes a tahit, similar like the men. They also wear heavy brass 
anklets, called ghunkare which are peculiar to the Gaddi women.* Tho 
Gaddis say that they assumed tho garb of Shiva and Parvati when they 
settled in Brahmaur which they call Shiv-bhiimi or Shiva's lancl, 
but it is not their dress alone that makes them conspicuous. Tlieir 
whole bearing is characteristic, conveying an impression of sturdy in- 
dependence which is fully borne out by closer contact with them. They 
are robust of frame, and accustomed to exposure in all weathers owing 

♦ Brasa nnklets called jiTidrw, aie wcrn ly Gcdci diiklrpn to waid off tho evil eye 
and to prevent them from crying. They are made by the meni;il cnste, named rihdra* 
which ia itself supposed \o have the power of iniiuirg tbildren by sorcery. ' 

260 Oaddi Weddings. 

to the migratory life so many of them lead. In their manners they are 
frank and open, deferential to their superiors and yet manly and dignified. 
They delight in festive gatherings^ and are fond of singing and dancing— 
the latter in a style peculiar to themselves. Their women are pleasing 
and comely, and have the reputation of being also modest and chaste. 
The Gaddis are a semi-pastoral and semi-agricultural tiibe,and own large 
flocks of sheep and goats, which are their chief source of wealth. With 
them they go far afield, the summers being spent in the higher 
mountains of lYmgi and Ldhul ; and the winters in the low hills bor- 
dering on the plains. Tliis duty the male members of the family take 
in turn, the others remaining at homo to tend the cattle and look after 
the farm work. Many of them own land on both sides of the Dhaula 
Dhdr, and reap the winter crop in K^ngra, returning in spring to cut 
the summer crop in Brahmaur. Ou the whole they are better shep- 
herds than farmers, and perliaps for this reason they are the meet 
prosperous agricultural class in the State. The yeaily exodus to Kangra 
takes place in October and November, and the return journey in April 
and Mhj. With an appearance of candour and simplicity, the Gaddis 
have the reputation of being good at making a bargain; hence the 
saying in the hills — 

Gaddi mitr hhola, 

Denda tap to mangda chola. 

" The Gaddi is a simple friend, 

He offers his cap, and asks a coat in exchange." 
The Gaddi wedding customs merit special notice. 
In betrothal the boy's parents or guardians send their parohit to 
negotiate for a girl about whom they have information, and he brings 
back her parents' reply. If it is favourable the boy's parents send 
two or more respectable men to the girl's home to complete the bar- 
gain. Then if it is clinched, two of the boy's family go with the 
parohit to perform the ceremony. If the betrothal is dliarma puna 
this consists in the bride's father giving the parohit a bunch 
of druh grass with four copper coins or more, if they please, 
to be handed over to tho boy's father in token that the alliance 
is accepted. The -parohit hands over the driib, and the coins are 
returned to the parohit with a rupee added by the boy's father. The night 
is spent at the bride's house, and after a meal her father gives the boy's 
father 8 copper coins and these he places in a vessel as a perquisite to 
the servant who cleans it. In a betrothal by exchange [tola] the first 
observances are the same,but when ali go to finally complete the alliance a 
grindstone and sil with 3 or 5 roris of gur, supdri, hihan and roUydii^ are 
placed before the paity and then the parohit -p\Q,cea supidri, hihan and 
roliydn in the skirt of his sheet and puts them on thesi7. Before tappinfif 
them on the sil with the grindstone he receives 4 annas from the boy's 
father and mentions the names of the boy and girl whose alliance is to be 
formed, and then taps them. After this the supdri, etc., are placed in a 
vessel, with the balls of gur broken up, and distributed to those present 
after tho girl's father has taken a bit. The elder members of the girl's 
family do not take any as it would be contrary to custom. The boy's father 
puts Ko. 1-4 in this vessel and this is made over to the bride's parents 

♦ Roliyan red colour for marking the tila on tlie forehead : hihan, coriander. 


Gaddi Weddings. 261 

who get jewellery to that amount made for her. After this the bride 
appears before the boy's father and he gives her a rupee. The rest of 
the ceremony is exactly as described above, but in this case the coins put 
in the vessel come out of tlio boy's fatlitr's pocket. The ceremony in the 
other house is performed in exactly tlie same way, though not on the same 
day for the sake of convenience. A propitious date is not fixed, but a 
lucky day is desirable, and Tuesday, Friday and Saturday are considered 

After having the date for the wedding fixed by a fctrohit tv/o men 
are sent to the girl's people with a iscr of ghi to notify them of the date, 
and if they approve ot it messengers from both sides go to the parohit 
and get him to write the lakhnotcri. For this he is jiaid 8 Chamba coins 
or 4 annas in cash, rice and some red tape [dori). At the wedding itself 
the sutnhurat rite is first performed by worshipping Ganpati, humhh * and 
the nine planets and then the avpnri (a mixture of tunneric, flour and 
oil) purified by mantras is rubbed on the boy. Three black woollen 
threads are ah^o tied round hia right wrist to protect him from the evil 
eye. lie is then taken out into the court-yard by his niOthcr, with part 
of her i-ed sheet thrown over his head, to bathe. At the bath the black 
thread is torn off and he is led back by his mother. Next he must up- 
set an earthen lid, containing burning charcoal and mustard placed at 
the entrance to the worshipping place, and this must be thrown away 
so as to remove any evil influence which he may have contracted in the 
court-yard. The j^cirolnt then ties nine red cotton threads round the 
boy's right wrist and gives him ghi and gur to taste. 'J'hose wristlets 
are called /k'fi^i^an/j. This is preceded by the ifiZ-sajidl ceremony. Again 
Ganpati, Brahma, Vishnu, Jcmnhh, diat and the nine planets are wor- 
shipped, and then a he-goat is sacrificed to the planets by the boy, its 
blood being sprinkled on the sdndori [bagar grass rope) e.nd muuj mala 
(a ring of hagar). The sdndori is then spread round the room along the 
cornice and the bridegroom made to don a white dlioti or sheet round 
liis loins, to put flour mundrat [jogis ear-rings) in his ears, sling a satchel 
over his shoulder, tie a black woollen rope round his chests and cover hia 
buttocks with an animal's skin, suspend ufanani (bow for carding wool) 
to the black rope and take u. tirnhdr stick in his riglit hand with a 
Brahminical thread tied round his right thumb. This dress is assumed so 
that he may appear a regular yogf* (ascetic). After this the presiding 
priest asks him; 'why hast thou become a ^o^i ?' His answer is 'to 
receive the Brahminical cord.' Then he is further interrogated by the 
priest as to what kind of cord he requires, i.e., one of copper, brass, silver, 
gold, or cotton, and he asks for the latter. The priest then sends him to 
bathe .'it 15adri Narain, Trilok Nath and Mani-Mahesha, and these sup- 
posed baths are taken in turn by dipping his hands and feet in, and 
pouring some water on his face from, a vessel put ready for the purpose 
in the doer-way. After these ablutions the pretended ^o^i begs, first of 
liis relations and then at the house, and they give him a piece of bread 
and promise him cattle, goats, etc.. according to their means. In conclu- 
sion the priest asks him whether he wishes to devote himself to jdtera 

* Kumhh. A small pitcher filled with water, is placed over a handful of rice and peach 
leaves or a few blades of drub are put into it. It is •worshipped exactly Jiko tho deotas. 

t Dia. A small earthen lamp with R burning wick is placed over a handful of rice and 
TTorshippcd like the others, 

262 Gaddi Weddings. 

(worldly business) or mdtera (an ascetic life) and he invariably answers 
* to ji'afera/ and then the priest makes him take off his jogi's clothes, 
receiving 4 annas as his fee for this. The cattle, etc., which the rela- 
tions promised to the boy go to him and not to the priest. 

This over, the boy is made to sit on a wicker basket, or a sheep-skin 
bag for carrying grain (called hhalru), and a dagger is placed on the 
tnunj maid* above his head. Then the people pour oil over bis head, 
with a few blades of grass {drub], taken from a vessel containing oil 
and held by his mother's brother or in his absence by her sister. After 
this the bridegrocmi fits an arrow to the fanani (bow) and shoots it at 
the head of the dead goat which is placed over the nine planets, thereby 
pretending to slay them. The rite of tasting gur and ghi by the boy 
ends this ceremony. The bridegroom is then dressed. He wears a 
white pcigri (turhan) and kuwd, a red hidncha, and a white j)atha 
with gtdhadan suthan and ajaulf thrown over the shoulders. The 
present {suhdg-pafdri) is tlien arranged. It consists of a kharhas,"^ 
hidncheri, ghngru, § nau-dori, \\ U7igi,% chundi** kdngi, manitidr, 3 
roris of gur, dates, grapes, almonds, rice and 7 luchis, aud these are 
carried by the parohit to the bride's house, with the procession. The 
boy is then veiled with a purified veil {sehra) by his mother's brother, 
his brother's wife puts antimony on his eyes, and his sister fans him. 
After this the boy gets up and the drti is then waved thrice from right 
to left over his head by the parohit, and his mother throws three round 
cakes {luchis) on three sides of him. The drti mast be sanctified by 
mantras before being used at the door. After this the boy's father 
gives him the tawihol (present) of Re. 1, and 4 copper coins, the latter 
being the parohit's fee. The boy then gets into a doli in the court- 
yard and his mother gives him her breast to suck. The pdlki is then 
carried by four bearers to the entrance, beneath the woollen parrots call- 
ed toran, whicli the boy, his mother and the parohit worship, aud then 
the bearers present the boy with a kumhh filled with water and he puts a 
copper coin in it. The bridal procession, consisting of the male n-em- 
bers of the house and friends, dressed in their best clothes and preceded 
by tom-toms, goes to the bride's house. On arrival the boy with his 
followers is put up in a house other than the girl's, or camps out in the 
open air. The boy's father or uncle, with one or two more, then takes a 
basket full of round cakes to the bride's parents : this is called 
hatpartana. They return from the bride's house, after eating 
something and putting 4 copper coins in the plate, and rejoin the 
procession. This observance is called juth •pal. Two respectable men 
are also deputed to the bride's parohit, to settle the amount he will 
take for pei-forming the rites at the lagan, and then rejoin the camp. 
Thehoj^^ parohit then proceeds to the bride's house to deliver the 
harsuhi^'\ (bride's) dress to her. The harnchi consists of a white 
sheet {dupatta), ludncheri, ghagaru, naudori,iingi, kangi (comb), (articles 

* A small ring or wreath made of hagar grass, 
■j- All these are articles of dress. 

t Khnrhas^ a dopatta of white cotton cloth : hidncheri, the bride's dress. 
§ Ohagru, coloured cloth for a shirt. 

ll The nau-dori or '9 doris ' are red cords, four on either side at the back of the head, 
plaited into the hair and converging into a ninth thick doul which hangs down the back. 
V Ungi, of iron with which the hair is parted in front : the ]^avg> is a comb. 
^* Chundi is an antimony holder for the eyes, worn on the back of the head. 
^\ It will be observed that the banihi coosists of the sanae ai tides as the svhdg.patAri, 

Gaddi Weddings. 263 

of attire), chundi, 3 balls of giir, cocdh, dates, grapes, almonds, 1 ser of 
riceand 9 Zi<c/u'.s>, 3 wheat cake.", 7 ^ju?-/? of chandan chura * roliydn, 
kesar, sandhx'ir, nahi'ini,\ muth and KiiptiriX. The priest then comes back 
to couduct tlio bridegroom and his followers to the bride's house with 
tom-toms playing. The boy i» recoived at the eutrance by his mother- 
in-law who performs the drti ceremony over him, waving it seven times 
over his head with hei- right hand, holding her left over his turban. 
Four tnrus are taken from the boy's ri^rht to his left and thi-ee in 
the reverse direction. Threo cakes, jilacod in the plate with the 
drti are also thrown out towards the court-yard. The priest 
gives 4 chnJclis (coppnr coins) to the boy who then places them in the 
drti after clasping his hands before it. The mother-in-law then re- 
tires, while the father-in-law comes to the spot and jilacing a i^atka 
(white cloth) routul his own neck, washes and worships liis son-in-law's 
feet. The boy's priest gives a duna (leaf-plate) with some rice, a wal- 
unt, drub and flowers into his hands. Both the palms are held up- 
wards, with both thumbs joined, and held up in his hands by the father- 
in-law wlio brings the bridegroom into the verandah while the mantras 
are being recited. After this the bride is brought to the place and 
made to stand a foot from him, face to face Avith the bridegroom. 
'J'he priest then takes hold of the boy's neck with his right hand and 
of the girl's with his loft and makes their shoulders thrice touch each 
other, first pressing the boy's right to the girl's left. Tin's is called 
vhdn par chdn. After this two torches are held on either side of them. 
Seven small pieces of mdlti (jasmine) twigs are then put in the o-irl's 
hands, she drops them into the boy's hands and he breaks them one 
by one, placing them under his right foot. This breaking of the twjo-s 
is called chiri. It is preceded by giving hihun into the hands of the 
couple and they blow it at each other. This goes by the name of /arwr/. 
The pair are next made to sit down and the bov's father-in-law offers 
sankalap, that is gives his daughter away, and then washes the couple's 
feet as they sit before him. Certain minor rites, called chichdri,^ are 

* Sandal-wood chips. 

t A sweet smelling root : muth, the root of a kind of grass, 

X Supdri betel-nut : kcsai- — saffron. 

§ Citchdrt. Two or three blades of drub are tied together with red cotton thiead and 
placed in a cup of green leuves. Then a chaldi (copper coin), <il, rice, roU'ydn (turmeric) 
some flowers, water aud a walnut are also placed in it. This cup is put in the bridegroom's 
hands and his father-in-law's hands are laid over them. The priest then recites some 
mantnif!, aftt-r which the dml is taken up by the father-in-law and with it he sprinkles 
Water from the cup thrice over the heads of the pair. This is called the pahli bishtar or 
first char. This is repeated, but the secon'l iinie some blades of grass, kesar CsalTron) 
sarvdn shadhe and flowers are thrown into the water. While the priest recites mantrat 
the father-in-law sprinkles water on the couple's feet. This second rite is called jiddfr. 

The third or anjli. ceremony is similar, but this time the mixture is made of dhain til 
drub and rice, and after reciting numtras it is sprinkled over the boy's head. ' ' 

The fourth rkdr is called daa hi^hiur and is an exact repetition of the first char. 

The iifth char {nchmnni) is solemnised l)y putting water, iil, and rice in a cup which is 
placed on the ground as was done in the otlier c/«ir..<, but at the end of the ceremony the 
priest thrice throws a few drops of water from the cup on to the father-in-law's hands and 
the boy and they drinV it from his hands. 

The sixth and last char is called madhuparak. The cup is filled with milk til. and rice 
and put in the boy's left hand ; he daubs the four fingers and thumb of his righ't haod with 
it and then lifts his hand towards his mouth and. putting it again into the cup sprinkles 
its contents on thcground. This cup is then taken by one of the bridegroom's' jan (one 
who has come with the procession) and given to the tom-tom player. This jan returns to the 
bridegroom and after being purified by mantras is allowed to mix again with the other meo 

264 Oaddi Weddings. 

now performed by tlie bridegroom and bl3 father-in-law. Then 
Ganpati/^ Bra]ima,t Vishnu, J Kumbh, dia and the nine planets are 
worshipped. After this one end of the o-irl's sheet is held out by her 
brother and on this red Ukka is sprinkled thrice by the boy. Simi- 
larly the boy's wf»ist-band is held out and anointed by the girl. The girl 
then holds up her hands ; and into them 4 copper coins, a walnut, drub, 
flowers, til and rice are thrown by the priest and then the boy is made 
to lay his hands over hers. The priest then takes part of the bride's sheet 
and wra})S both pairs of hands in it by running a tape {dori) round it. 

The girl's father then performs the hanid-ddn (giving the girl 
away) with tho fji'oper mantra-i. At its conclusion the girl's maula 
(mother's brother) touches her wrapper with a copper coin and it is 
then unknotted, the things in the girl's hands being taken by the 
boy and given to the parohit. The gur and ghi is then tasted and 
this concludes the ceremony called lagan. Tho girl 7iow retires, but 
the boy remains to go through another rite called the manihdr.^ After 
doing the drti over the bridegroom, the tape with the betelnut is then 
put on the boy's left toe and he is required to pierce the nut with 
his dagger. This done, the priest takes the taps up and throws it over 
the boy's hsad, passes it down to his heels and under his soles, and 
then ties it round the pagri. The boy is then drawn by the manihdr 
by his mother-in-law and led inside the house to the kdmdeo.W The 
girl is also brought there by her brother and dressed in the harsuhi 
clothes and placed by the boy's side before the picture. Finally the 
remaining 7 doris of the harsuhi are handed over to the boy by the 
girl's mdmi (mother's sister) ; ho places then on the bride's head and 
then her hair is combed and arranged with these doris by her mami 
and the following sono- is sunor : — 

Kim gori baithi sir kholi, hor 
Kun baithi pilh gheri, 

Gaura baithi sir kholi, hor 
Isar bai^hd pith gheri. 

" Who is that beautiful girl sitting with her hair dishevelled ? 
Who is sitting with his back turned ? 

Oh, Gaura is sitting with her hair uncombed, 
Isar (Shiva) is silting with his back turned." 

* Ganpati is represented by a walnut in a green cup, placed before the boy under the canopy 
on a heap of rice. It is given a copper coin— Ganpati being thus in^'oked to keep off mishaps, 

f Brahma's etSgy is made of a few blades of drub, which are turned down twice, the 
ends being fixed in cow-dung and placed in a green cup. He is then similarly worshipped 
as being the Creator of the universe. 

I Vishnu is represented and worshipped like Brahma, but the blades are only turned 
down once from the centre in his case. Vishnu is worshipped as being the first Cause and 
the Protector of the universe. 

§ Mnniltdr. — Nino walnuts (the nine planets) are put on rice and worshipped and their 
blessing invoked. There must be a separate handful of rice for each of the walnuts. A 
bored copper coin, a betelnut and a cotton dori (three cords about H spans long) — all these 
together are called •na?u7itir— but the ceremony is performed by taking the boy out to the 
doorway and there he takes out lus dagger from the waist and touches the coin with its 
point, protending to bore it. '1 he string is then passed through the bored coin and put in 
a «idn» (grain measure) and then the Dvinihar is sanctified and tied round the boy's head* 
dress by his mother-in-law at the gate-way after the drti. 

[I A picture. 


Gaddi Weddingi. 2Bt 

After this the boy's jaul (shoulder-band) and tho brido'd kharvds 
(sheet) are knotted together and the bride is carried by her maternal 
uncle {viaula) to tho canopy wliere the wedding is to be celubrated. 

Under this canopy (laid) tliey are placed, on bamboo baskets covered 
with woollen cloths, facing east. The bridegroom sits to the right of 
tho bride and in front of tho sacred hre {liotiia or havan). The brido's 
father then washes the couple's feel ; after which Gaupati, Navagirah, 
Brahma, Vislniu, Kumbh, Sat RisliI, Chaur Vedi, Chaur-disa (the four 
quarters) and Chaur-updes (the four elements) are worshipped in due 
order, to war. 1 off mishaps. Thi.s is followed by placing fried barley 
in a chhaj (sieve) which is brought to the haid. First, the bridegroom 
takes a handful of this grain and puts it on three ditfer<^nt spots, while 
the bride's brother keeps wiping it away with his right hand as fast as 
it i3 put down. This is repeated, but the second time the brid^-'s 
brother puts the grain down and the bridegroom wipes it away. This 
is called khtla^ hhedni and is done to break the tio of relationship, if 
any exists, between the contracting parties. After this hhila hhedni 
the boy's father puts 4 annas into the chhajX and the bride's brother 
takes off the red piece which he has worn on his head during tho cere- 
mony and puts it in the chliaj too. It is then removed and the 4 annas 
are claimed by the boy's brother-in-law. Then the bride's brother's 
wife conies and grinds turmeric (lialdar) on the sil and sprinkles it wet 
on the feet of the pair, three times on each. Sho receives 4 takas, i.e., 
16 copper coins, for performing this rite. Then the couple are made 
to stand up and walk round tlie sacred 6ro four tim^s from right to 
left. The briilegrooai keeps his right hand on the bride's back all tho 
while. After each turn they are made to halt near the baskets and 
their feet are worshipped, by throwing til, drub, milk, and red colour, 
etc., by the bride's fatlier, and at the end the bride's brother worship:^ 
the couple's feet in the pame way. These four rounds are called 
chdrldi, and constitute the binding rite in the wedding. At the chdrldi 
two women sing the following song :— 


Pahlia Idjdria 2}hirde kiidure, 

Dicjia Idjdria plurdo Isar Gaicraja, 

Trijia Idjdria anjan dhrir Idi, 

Ghauthia Idjdria anjan tori nahsa, 

" In the first round of the lii go bachelors, 

In the second round of the Idi go Ishwar and Gauraja. 

In the third round they let the anjanX di-ag on the ground 
In the fourth round the diolha (bridegroom) broke it and 
ran away. 

The bride and bridegroom now change seats and sit facing each 
other. The bride then h-^dds up her hauls and in them a green leaf 
cup [duni) containing 8 ^mo walnuts, rice, fl )vvers, 4 coins, etc., is placed 
by the prinst. Tho bridegroom covers tho bride's h mds with his hands 
and then the priest unknots the viinikdr from the boy's pagri and puts 

* Parched grain. | t Winnowing fan, 

X In tha mirriagii ly the biy wjirs a long .strip of clotti round his shoulder and 
the girl a kkirviU (coloured sheet) over hit head. Bjlh those are tied together whoa the/ 
do tho chdrldi and tho knot which fdsteas thooi tosethor is called anjan. 

266 Gaddi Weddings. 

it on their hands. Tho bride's father then takes til, drub, rice, flowers 
and copper coins and the sankalap is peiformed to the recitation of 
mantras. After this he places 4 copper coins and a rupee in the vessel 
containing water, turmeric, milk and curd and sprinkles the mixture 
on tbe haid (canopy). Iliis is called sdj iiana or giving of dowry. The 
bride's mother's brother then comes and touches the boy's and girl's 
hands with a svr of rice and a copper coin, and then they are released, the 
laanihdr being given to the girl to be put round her neck. The rice 
and coin go to the pi-iest. After this all the girl's other relations and 
friends give her presents, either in cash or in kind, according to their 
social position. These presetits are then divided thus : — To the bride's 
and bridegroom's ji)a?o/w7.s 2 annas each; to tho bride's ^^a^fci-carriers 4 
annas; to the bridegroom's the same; and to the carpenter {hddhi) who 
erects tho temple and the canopy [haid) 4 annas also : to the bride's 
musicians 2 annas ; and to the bridegroom's 4 annas. After this the 
bride's j^arohit counts the things received in dowry, receiving for this 8 
copper coins, with four more as dehl (door-way) for acting as the family 
priest. Of the residue a fourth goes to the bride and a tenth of the re- 
mainder is appropriated by her priest. The balance with the canopy is 
then given by the bride's father as sankalap to the boy's father and forms 
part of the paraphernalia. After this the gotra-chdr mantras are read 
and fried rice is thrown towards the couple by both the priests. Each 
gets 4 annas for reading the gotra-chdr. This is followed by making 
the fathers of the couple sit under tliR canopy, and a blade of drub is put 
by the bride's priest into the girl's father's hands. He holds it between 
the tips of his middle fingers at one end, the other end being similarly 
held by the boy's father. The bride's father then says : " asmat kania, 
tusmat gotra," meanint^j "our girl passes to your got." The ends of the 
blade are then reversed and the bo^'s father says: "tusmat kania, asmat 
gotra," meaning " your girl has come into our got." At the conclusion 
the bridegroom comes to the end of the canopy where he receives ruldr 
(salutation with a present) from his mother-in-law and the other elderly 
women of the bride's house. The mother-in-law gives a rupee in cash 
and 4 copper coins, the others only copper coins, and without receiving 
this gift from the women it is not etiquette for him to appear before 
them. The boy touches the bride's mother's feet in token of her giving 
him this privilege. The ceremonies at the bride's are now over and the 
bride is taken in the pdlki, with all the paraphernalia, followed by the 
bridegroom, his followers and friends, to his house. 

Song sung on the bride's arrival at the bridegroom's house— 

Soi ipichaik) aunde-jo ddar de — jdnde-jo bhali mar ; 
Ballare j<'inde-jo mochar-mdr — bhale hhale ddar. 

" Receive the soi (tbose who come with the bride) with courtesy 
and on their departure give them a good thrashing. 

Give to this hallar (bastard) a shoe -boating, this is good treatment 
for him." 

On arrival at the d(;or-way the following song is sung : — 

Ham ku pujna kun gori ai, 
Ham ku pujna Gaura ai, 
Ham ku pujdeputri phal mangde. 

Gadii Weddings, 267 

" Who Is that beautiful girl who has come to worship a pome- 
granate tree ? 

It is (laura who has come to worship, 

While she is worshipping she is praying for a son." 

Then the drti is presented by the boy's mother anil she also gives the 
bride a rupee. Next the pair are conducted to the^ Icdmdeo (picture on 
the wall), and Ganpati, etc., are worshipped, after which they are both 
made to go four times round the earthc.'n lamp {diwa) atid humhh (pot 
containing water), tat)e and a bunch of pomegranate. This circuro- 
ambulatiou is called the athldi (eight rounds). 

After this the bridal veil is taken off by the iiarohii and the imitation 
birds on the veil are given to tho priest, the brothers of tlie couple and 
their newly acquired mltras (brothers mado by sacred observ-ancs). 
Having done the athldi the bride and bridegroom's wrist threads are 
loosened by two men who thus become brothers. These threads were 
put on by them at the commencement of the prelimiuary observances. 

At the conclusion the bridegroom receives presents [tamhol] from the 
men and women, ard similarly munhsdni from the women is received 
by the bride for unveiling her. Songs are sung by the women on these 

The following foast-song is sung at the bridegroom's house: — 

Kuniaye chauha pdya, kuni dhotore hath 2^0,11" , 
Janne, chiuha pdya,soi dhotore hath pair, darohi Rdm Rdm, 

Bhat parithd, mas parlthd, upar parithe tdre mare, 
Bhate mdse khde na jdne soi, hahin lidrdi hare, hare. 

" Who has smeared the floor with cowdung ; who has washed the 
hands and feet ? 

The^a^i (followers of the bridegroom) have done it, the soi (fol- 
lowers of the bride) have washed their hands and feet: we 
appeal to R^m (for the truth of our statement). 

Boiled rice has been given, meat has been given, over them have 

been given small pebbles, 
The soi know not how to eat rice and meat, the sister expreeses 

surprise (by saying) ' hare h are \" 

Four feasts are given in the boy's house to the guests: Ist, on the 
day of the oil ceremony; 2nd, on the morning on which the procession 
starts to the bride's house ; 3rd, on the day the procession returns home, 
and 4th, on the morning on which the bridegroom receives presents. 

The 6rst two feasts are given at the brido's house on the oil day to 
the guests of the girl and the last two on the marriage day to the bride- 
groom and his followers and to the bride's guests. 

Another form of marriage called hujkya is common in which the 
ceremony is gone through only at the bride's house, thus saving ex- 

The Gaddis also practise the form of marriage called jhind phuh, 
solemnised by burning brushwood and circun: ambulating the fire eight 

2GS Gaddi Death Customs, 

times lianc? in hand, or with the bride's sheet tied to the boy's girdle. 
It is admissible in cases where a girl's parents have consented to her 
betrothal bat refuse to carry out the marriage, and is sometimes done 
forcibly by the bridegroom ; or in cases in which a girl elopes with her 
lover. No priest or relative need attend it. 

Widow remarriage is permitted, except among the Brahmans. The 
rite is called gudani or jhanjardra and also choli'dori and is solemnised 
tlius: — The pair are made to sit down by the dkva and Icumhh, with 
some dliap burniner. They worship both these objects, then the bride- 
groom places a dori (tape) on the widow's head and another woman 
combs her head and binds hor hair with the tape. A.fter tbis the bride- 
groom places 'a nose-ring (hdlil) in the woman's hand and she puts it on. 
This is the binding portion of the ceremony. A feast is given to guesta 
and relations and songs are sung. If no priest presides at the ceremony 
the kumhli, etc., worship is dispensed with, but the tape and ring cere- 
mony is gone through and the guests, etc., feasted. A widow used to 
be compelled to marry her husband's elder or younger brother, but the 
custom is no longer enforced by the State. 

Divorce is permitted by mutual consent, but there ia no special form. 
A divorcee may remarry. 

Sons, whether by a wife married for the first time, or by a widow or 
divorc<^e remarried, succeed, but illegitimate sons do not, unless they 
are adopted in default of legitimate sons or heirs. The eldest son gets 
an extra share, called jaithund, but he has per contra to pay a propor- 
tionatoly larger share of any debts. Among the sons the property ia 
otherwise divided miindavand, i e., equally, except in Kangra, where the 
chundavand rule prevails among that small part of the tribes, which ori- 
ginally came from the sonthera side of the upper Rd,vi in Ohamba.* 

The Qaddis also have the cust Jm whereby a widow's child [chaukandhii) 
born at any time after her husband's death succeeds to his property, 
provided that the widow has continued to live in his house and has 
worn a red dori (tape) in the name of his chula (oven) or dardt (axe). 
Cases have even occurred in which the widow has retained her late 
husband's property without complying with these conditions, though 
the Gaddis consider her rights disputable. 

Gaddis burn their dead. Lepei's and those who die of lnhar, a kind 
of typhus, are first buried, but their corpses are exhumed after three 
months and burnt. The ceremonies performed are the same as for those 
who are burnt. The body is placed on the funeral pyre with the head 
of the deceased to the north, and all the jewellery and the blanket, which 
is thrown over it when on the bier, are taken off and the body burnt. 
A copper coin is placed by the pyre as the tax of the land on whichf 
the body is burnt. Fire is first applied to the pyre under the head by 
the neai'est relative and the other gotrts (blood relations). The parohit 
joins the relations in this observance, but no cei-emonies are observed. 
The light is applied after going round the pyre once from left to right. 
On the 10th day after the demise the daspindi ceremony ia performed 

* Sir J. B. Lyall's Kangra Settlement Report, § 74, quoted in P. C. L. II, p. 183. 
tin allusion to the idea that the Muhammadans own the world, Hindus the sky, and 
that the owners' land must not be used unless paid for. 

&ddcli Beliefs. 269 

by the nearest blood relationa, with tho aid of the 'parohit. Other rela- 
tions wash their clothes and bathe on this day and remove tlio kaiahal 
which is spread to receive the mourners. On the 12th day, at nis/lit, a 
he-goat is sacrificed in the decoaseii's name. This goat is given to tlie 
parohit. Next moiniiig five finds (balls of rice) or one supindi are 
again offered to the deceased by the chief mourner, to the recitation of 
mantras by the paroMt, The clothes, utensils, cnsh, etc., are given to 
him. On the l4th day the deceased's relations on the wife's side come 
to the house in the morning and give a feast to tho brotherhood. A 
goat is killed for this feast and tho mourning ceases from this day. At 
the end of the third month oblations arc again offered to tho deceased 
and the occasion is signalised by a feast to the brotherhood. All the 
ofEerings made in this ceremony go to the parohit who presides over it. 
Similar ceremonies are gone throngh at the end of the sixth month and 
tho 1st and 4th years. 

If buried the body is laid flat in the grave with the back 
on the ground and the palms of both hands folded on the chest. The 
head is kept to the vtar (north). Cliildren and females are buried in 
the same way. When burnt the ashes are collected, together with 
tho seven bones of the finger, knee and ankle joints, on the day the 
corpse is burnt. They are brought to the house in a piece of maaru "^ 
and kept for ten days in the clothes in which the deceased breathed 
.his last and in the room in which he expired. After tho daspindl 
they are washed in honey, milk, clarified butter, cowdung and hilpatri 
seed and then dried and deposited in a sinall wooden box, wrapped in 
the piece of mo.sru and buried in a recess made in the wall of the 
house, with a coating of barley and mustard over it. They should be 
taken to Hardwar to be thrown into the Ganges as soon as tho family 
has collected suBScient funds for the journey, and at most within four 

The religion of the Gaddis presents some interesting features. As 
we have seen the Gaddis are by preference Shaivas,t but their worship 
is catholic to a degree. Thus on Sundays and Thuisdays Niigs and 
Sidhs are worshipped, on Sundays alono Kailung, Devis on Tuesdays, 
and on Thursdays ' Birs.* 

To the Nags, ahri or beestings, male kids or lambs, and ova (the 
first-fruits of all crops), incenso and small cakes are off ered ; and to 
the Sidhs a sack, a stick of rose-wood, a crutch, sandals and rot or 
thick bread. 

To the Devis are offered vermilion, hindli (brow-mark), S'llu (a red 
chddar), dora (waist-rope), sur (a coarse spirit), and a goat. 

To the Birs a he-goat, a chola or thick woollen coat, a waistband, a 
white conical cap {chulcanni topi) and fine bread. Kailu Bir, the numen 
of abortion, is only worshipped by women. Kailung is a >!ag, and 
the father of all the Nags. He is worshipped, as is Shiva, under the 

• The cloth in which the corpse is wrapped. 

t As the verso goes :— 

Gaddi t)\drda hheddn 
Qaddin dindi dupa. 

Qaddi jo dinda Iheduji 
Qaddin jo dindi rxijia. 

The Gaddis feed their flecks : 
The Gaddins offer incense (to Sha), 

To the Gaddfs lie (Sliiva) gives she 
And to the Gaddins, beauty. 

270 Gaddi godlings, 

form of tho dardt or sickle, which is always carried by a Gaddi 
when shepherding his flocks. Then there is the worship of autars. 
An autar is the spirit of a person who has died cliildless and causes 
sickness. To propitiate this spirit the sick person dons clothes, which 
are made for him with a silver imago of the deceased, and he then 
worships the autar idol (which is always set up near a stream).* 

The clothes and image are worn " in token of the deceased." 
^n^ars are said to have been admitted inio the category of the deities 
owiug to their evil influences on niea and women. They are propiti- 
ated also on the Amd,was and Puranmdshi days. 

Autars also appear in dreams and warn people that they will carry 
them off to the next world. To scare away the ghost in such a case 
jamamvdla is performed, 4 SaZis, offerings of ghunganidn (boiled maize), 
nettle baths, and bran bread being offered four limes by night. 

But these do not exhaust the list of beliefs. Bated is the sprite of 
springM, rivers and wells, and hhicheri, sodden Indian corn, 3 balls of 
suhdL (moss), 3 of ashes, 3 measures of water, a pumpkin or a flour- 
sheep are offered to him. 

To joginis or rock spirits, 3 coloured grains of rice, 5 sweet cakes, a 
loaf, a flour-lamp with a red wick, 3 kinds of flowers, 3 pieces of dhwp, 
and a she-goat are offered with prayers. RdJcshanis and bandsats 
would seem to be the same as joginis. Chungu is the demon found 
on walnut aud mulberry trees and under the karangora shrub. He ia 
worshipped with a cocoa-nut, a chuhora (handle of a plough), almonds, 
grapes, milk and a loaf of 5 paos with his eflSgy in flour (a basket on 
his back), a four-cornered lamp of flour on the bread, and apiece of 

Gunga, the disease-spirit of cows, is propitiated by setting aside a 
tawa of bread in his name until the final offerings can be made. 
Then a piece of iron, something like a hockey-stick, is made, and the 
deity taken into the cattle-shod where he is worshipped by the sacred 
fire on a Thursday. A he-goat is killed and a few drops of the blood 
sprinkled on the iron. At the same time cakes are offered and some 
eaten by one member of the household, but not by more than one or 
the scourge will not abate, and the rest are buried in the earth. Every 
fourth year this deity is worshipped after the same fashion. Kailu is, 
it seems, peculiar to the Gaddis, or at least to Chamba. Early in 
pregnancy the woman puts aside 4 chaklis, (the copper coin of Chamba) 
with her necklace in the name of Kailu. Two or three months after 
delivery the parohit, with the woman, worships the demon by putting 
up a large stone under a walnut or hainth tree, which is sanctified by 
recitino" certain mantras and then worshipped. A white goat (which 
may have a black head) is then offered up to the demon, by making an 
incision in its right ear and sprinkling the blood over a long cloth, 2^ 
yards wide by 9 or 12 yards long, and chaklis and some bread are also 
offered to the demon. 

Finally the woman tastes a piece of gur, and places it on the cloth, 
which she then wears until it is worn out, when a new one ia made and 

* Wheu first set up the idol is worshipped with prayers and the sacrifice of a he-goat or 
sheep. Bhain and IhicUii are also placed before it and then eaten by the axdar's xelativeB. 

<r^ ^ 

^'i*" cc^^t.'Zj ^^ 




Gadgor-^Gadgor. 271 

purified in the same way before being worn. The ceremony may be 
performed at the woman's house, in which case the clotli alone is u.scd as a 
symbol of the deity. The _i;-oat is returned to its owner with the fcmr 
coins. No other woman may use this sheet, which would cause her 
divers bodily ills. 

Ploughing, sowing and reaping should be begun on the lucky days — 
Sunday, Tuesday and Tliursday. Jf the wheat does not grow on a terraced 
field the plough is not put on it again that year until a goat has been 
Bacri6ced there, and neglect of this rule will result in a death in the 
family. When new ground is to be broken up the paroliit must be asked 
to name the day and a he-goat sacrificed before the plough is ])ut to it. 
But instead of this sacrilicc, some people lake four young girls to the spot 
and there wash their feet, mark their foreheads with red and give them 
gxir to eat before they begin to i)lough. And the first fruits of such land 
are always offered to the dcuta before being used. The godlings associ- 
ated with chinia, maize, wheat, pulse and barley are Devi, Chaund, 
Kailung, Kathura Nag and Sandholu Nag respectively. 

The chief fairs are seven in number, viz., the Easua on 1st Baisdkh, 
the Patroru on 1st Bhadon, the Sair on IstAssauj, the Lahori (cr Lohri) 
on 1st Mitgh, and the Dholru on 1st Chet. The dates of the Shibrdt 
(in Phdgan on varying dates) and of the Holi (in Phagan or Chet) vary. 
The first four festivals are celebrated by games and dances, but there 
are differences. At the Basua imidiris or flour cakes are eaten with ghi 
and honey. At the Patroru a cake of a vegetable called siiil is eaten : 
only young girls dance. At the Sair hahrus are cooked : and at the 
Lohri khichri or rice and dal. At the Holi l-haddas (parched maize) aro 
eaten, the fire is worshipped at night and a performance called 6arn held, 
Bongs being also sung. At the Dholru again inndiris are eaten, but 
amusements are rarely allowed. There seems to be no aununl feast of 
dead. Shiva and the Devis are sacrificed to on a Shibnitri. 

The seasons for worship are : — Chet, pilgrimages to Bawan and 
Jawdlaji in Kdngra. 

Bhadon and Asauj, pilgrimages to the shrines of Narsingh, Hari-har, 
Lakshmi Devi, Ganesh, Kailung — all in Brahmaur ; and in Bhadon only, 
as a rule, to Maui Mahesha. Shiva is not worshipped at any particular 

The low-castes in Brahmaur are chiefly Halis, Kolis, Lohdrs and Rihrf* 
rSs, with afew Sippis and Badhis. All these are described in their 
proper places. An obscure group is the Bararu, sometimes called Bhats, 
who are d<»scribed as Gaddis, and hold among them the same position 
as Btahmans do among other Hindus. The name appears to be connected 
with hardri, a thorny shrub. 

The Gaddi salutations are as follows : — Among Brahmins, namankdr .; 
to Brahrnans from others, pairi jiaiina to which they reply aslr hachan. 
Rajputs givajaijai to one another Jind receive it from those beneath them ; 
responding with ram ram. Kliatris, Thakurs ami Rathis offer hidrki to 
one another and receive it from the low-castes, giving in reply ram rdm. 

Gadqkr, an agricultural clan found in Shdhpur. 

Gadoob, a i&\ clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

2-^2 Qadha^Gadun. 

Gadha (?) shophord, cowherd ; also called raivdnri in Peahdwar. 

Gadhi, a term of contempfc said to be applied by Nihangs (Akdlis) to those 
who smoke. 

Gadhiok, a tribe small in numbers, but intelligent and enterprising, found in 
a few villages o£ tho Central Salt Range. Their traditions assert 
that their ancestor Mahta Uhandu liai came from Mathra to Delhi and 
entered the Mughal service under BAbar, who employed him with Rdja 
Mai Janjua to drain the eastern Dhanni tract in the Salt Range. 
Gharka Kassar and Sidhar Manilas afterwards aided them to colonise 
the tract, and Babar granted Chandu Rai a percentage in the revenue of 
tho Dhanni and other tracts in the Salb Range. Humsiyuu granted 
Kdli orKaiik Dds, son of Chandu Rai, a sanad * (dated 1554) of 30,000 
tankds for the improvement of the Kahun tract and the family also 
received sanads from Akbar and Auraugzeb. In the latter's reign one 
branch of the tribe was converted to Islam, but most of its members 
ttre still Hindus. Gadhiok is said to be a corruption of gaddi-hok, 
on its ancestors having presented 31 gaddls at a Itukdi (the announce- 
ment of the presents brought at a wedding). The Gadhiok usually 
marry among themselves, but some intermarry with Khatris of the 
Bdri group, tliodgh never Avith Bunjahis. In neither case is widow 
marriage allowed. Their Brahman s are of the Nauli got and at a 
boy's munnan or head-shaving the father or head of the Family himself 
decapitates a goat with a sword and gives the head, feet and skin to the 
Naule parohitb' of the tribe, though they do not eat flesh and other 
Brahmans would not touch such offerings. The skin, etc., are sold. 
A similar observance is in vogue at the janeo investiture. Gadhioks 
eat flesh at weddings, a usage contrary to local Hindu custom. At 
the viunnan of a first-born son the custom found among some other 
Khatris is followed and the mother flees to the house of a neighbour 
who plays the part of her parents. Her husband would bring her back 
again, and remarry her by the dukCija or 'second wedding ' which costs 
about half as much as the first. Gadhioks avoid touching weighing 
Bcale3,t at least in theory, and also usury, but one or two families, not 
admitted to be descendants of Kali Diis or true Gadhioks, have no such 
scruple. No Gadhiok will wash, set out on a journey or begin a new 
task on a Thursday — the day on which their ancestor left bis original 
home. Hindu Gadhioks eat and dritik with Khatris : Mubammadans 
with any Muhammadan save a Mochi or Musalli. The latter style them- 
selves Shaikh : while the Hindus generally use the title of Mahta, but 
the family of Dahvdl is styled Diwdn, Mulraj, one of its members having 
been governor of Hazara under the Sikhs. The saviddh of Kdli Dds 
is a conspicuous object at . Kallar Kahilr. The Gadhioks have many 
habits, apparently in a down-country dialect, and now claim Rsijput 
orio^in or statu?, but they are probably of Khatri ertraction as their 
intermarriage with that caste shows. 

Ginf a Baloch clan (agricultural) found in Shahpur : see also under Garri. 

Gauun, or Jadun, as they are called indifferently, are a tribe of 
Pathdns found in Hazara and in Attock. They claim descent from 

1^1 ' ■' ' ■ ' ' 

* This sanai contains a reference to the Bagh-i-Safa established at Kallar Kahir by 
Biibar and mentioned in his Memoirs. 
I Implyiu^ that retail trade is cousidered derogatory. 

^C^^' L ^^,^' ^:^'- 

(A^o^ *^ 

C ^ 

Oadwdr — Gdgrah. 273 

Sarliang, a groat-gi-andson of Ghurg-liuslit, two of whose sons fletl, they 
say, because of a blood feud to the momitains of Chacli and Ilaziira. 
It is almost certain that the Jadun are not of Indian origin ; though it 
has been suggested that in their name is preserved the name of Jiidu 
or Yadu, the founder of the Hd,iput Yiidubaiisi dynasty, many of 
whose descendants migrated from Guzenit some 1, 100 years b«-foro 
Christ, and were afterwards supposed to bo found in the hills of Kiibul 
and Kandd,har. They occupy all the south-eastern portion of the 
territory between the Peshawar and Ilazara borders, and the southern 
Blopea of Mahdban, having been assigned their present lands in the 
eastern Sama after Malik Ahmad and the Kashi chiefs of the Afghdns had 
defeated the Dilazak. And when Jahangir finally crushed the Dilaz^ik, 
they spread up the Dor valley ns high as Abbottabild. Early in the 
18th century, on the expulsion of the Karlugh Turks by Saiyid JaUl 
Bd,ba they appropriated the country about JDliamtaur ; find about a 
hundred years later they took theBagra tract from the few remaining 
Dilazilk who held it, while shortly before the Sikhs took the country 
their Hassazai clan deprived the Karrtll of a portion of the Nildn valley. 
They are divided into three main clans, Sdlar, Mansiir, and Hassanzai, 
of which the last is not represented among the trans-Indus Jadun and 
has lost all connection with the parent tribe, having even forgotten 
its old Pashtu language. Bellew made them a Gakkhar clan, but 
this appears to be quite incorrect. The true Pathans of Hazara call 
them mldtar or mcrcenai-ios, from the Pashtu equivalent for laJchan or 
" one who girds his loins". In Hazara a Salar occupy the Kajoia plain ; 
the Mansur are found in Mangal and in and round Nnwansbahr ; while 
the Haasanzaia reside in Dhamtaur and the adjacent villages, and in 
the Mangal and Bagra tracts. The two former tribes keep up a slight 
connection with the Pathd.ns to the west of the Induw, and a few can 
still speak Pashtu. After they had obtained a footing to the east of 
the Indus, in Ilazara, those three tribes elected a Hassanzai of Uharataur 
to the /s/idn-ship, and his son succeeded him, but the chiefship is now 
in abeyance, though the family is still looked up to. In rJiis part the 
Durrani rule was quite nominal and the Jaduus of Ilazdra only paid 
them a horse, a falcon or two and a small sum of money as tribute. 
Gadwar, a Jd^ clan (agricultural) found in Multau. 

Gag, a Dogar clan (agricultural) found in Amribsar. 

GAofs a Dogar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar, 

Gaqea, a small caste, for the most part Mussabnau, and chiefly found 
in the central districts. They wander about catchinor and oating 
vermin, but their hereditary occupation is that of catching, koopiu"-, 
and ap])lying leeches ; and they are often called Jukora, from jonk, a 
•leech.' They also make matting and generally work in grass and 
straw, and in some parts the coarse sacking used for bags for pack 
animals and similar purposes is said to be made almost entire Ij- by 
them. The Muhammadan Giigras marry by nlkoh. They seem to 
fulfil some sort of functions at weddings, and are said to receive fees on 
those occasions. It is said that they worship Bahi Shah, the Chiihra 
guru. Also called Gagri or Gegri and Jokliaru. 

Gaqrah, a Jd^ clan (agricultural) fouod in Multan. 

274 Gagrel — Gahhhar. 

Gaqrel^ a Muhammadan Nai converted from Hinduism, in Karndl. 
Gahi, see under Ghdi. 

GAKK^A^l, an important Muliammadan tribe, found in JUelum, Rawal- 
pindi aud Ilazilra. Regarding tbo Gakkhars in the first-named district 
Mr. W. S. Talbot writes :— 

" The Gakkhars, though not numerically important, are in other respects 
one of the most prominent tribes in the Jlielum district, and in social 
position amongst the Musalmans of the tract share with the Janjuit 
the honour of the first place : in popular estimation indeed they seem to 
rank a little higher than oven the Janju^s. They are almost entirely 
confined in this district to the Jhelum tahsil, where they hold the bulk 
of the Khuddar circle, with a good many villages in the Maiddn: else- 
where they are found ia any numbers only in the Rawalpindi and 
Hazdra districts. 

Origin, — Of the history and origin of this tribe much has been written : 
the earliest suggestion, that of General Court, that the name of the 
Gakkhars points to their flescent from the Greeks, has not found 
later supporters : though it has now been adopted and improved upon by 
some of the present representatives of the tribe, who claim descent from 
Alexander himself ! Mr. A. Brandreth * adopted the local tradition, that 
the Gakkhars ' came from Persia through Kashmir,' which is still the 
claim of the majority of the Gakkhars themselves. The views of 
General Cunningham are set forth at length in his ArcliEeological 
Survey Reports, II, pp. 22 to 3-:^, to which the curious must be 
referred for the detailed reasons on which he basos his conclusion, that 
the Gakkhars represent the ' savage Gargaridae ' of Dionysius the 
Geographer, (who wrote probably in the 4th Century A. D.), and 
are descendants of the great Yuechi Scythians, who entered India from 
the North- West in the early centuries of the Christian era. Sir 
Denzil Ibbetson t notices with approval Mr. Tliomson^s comment X 
on Cunningham's theory; though the Turanian origin of the Gakkhars 
is highly probable, yet the rest of the theory is merely a plausible 
surmise. On the whole there seems to be little use in going beyond the 
sober narrative of Ferishta, who represents the Gakkhars as a brave 
and savage race, living mostly in the hills, with little or no religion, and 
much given to polyandry and infanticide.' 

As already indicated, the story of most of the Gakkhars is that they are 
descended from Kaigollir or Kaigwar Shah, of the Kaidni§ family once 
reigning in Ispahan : thac they conquered Kashmir and Tibet, and ruled 
those countries for many generations, but were eventually driven back to 
Kabul whence thny entered the Punjab in company with Mahmud 
Gha^navi early in the 11th Century: thi'S story is rejec'ied by Ibbetson, 

* Jholimi Settlement Report, § 48. 

I Pinijah Census Report, 1881. § 463. 

J § f)7, Jhelmn Settlement Report. 

§ It ie not poj^sible to obtain satisfactory information ren^arrlinf? this word. The city of 
Kayan -was the cnpital of Kai Kayus, Kni Kiibad, and Kai Kliasrii ; and some say that the 
Gakkhars call themselves Kayini because they claim descent from these three kings. 
Others say that the Mughals proper, and e.specially the Chughattns and Qizilbashes, are 
Kav'itii-' ; and that the Gakkhars call themselves Kanani or Gauaanites because they claim 
descent t'l om Jacob and Joseph who lived la Canaan j and that it is this word which has 
been misread Kayani. 


JU^ / L C / A V CI 

. Gdkkhar history. 275 

because on Ferishta's showing a Gakkhar army resisted Mahmud : and 
that it IS at any rate certain that they lield tlioir present poseessions long 
before the Muharamadan invasion of India : on tho other side it will be 
of interest to notice briefly below tho contentions of tlio most prominent 
member of the tribe of tho present time, the late Kluin Bah;'idiir R:'ijit 
Jah.indiid Kluln, E. A. C, who has made a most painstakincr study of 
the original authorities : it must bo noted, however, that, particnlarly in 
the exactness of tho references to the aathoritios cited by him, there is 
something wanting, owing to his omission to supply further information 
asked for : his views are as follows : — 

All the historians before the timo of Ferishta agree that tlie Kho- 
khars, not the Gakkhars, killed Shah;1,b-ud-din Ghori. Ferishta cer- 
tainly confuted those two tribe>i, in other cases : thus ho frequently 
refers to Shekha and Jasrat as Gakkhar chiefs; therA are no sutsh 
names in the Gakkhar tree, whereas Shekha and Jasrat appear as 
father and son in the genealogy of the Khokhars : see tree o-iven in tho 
vernacular settlement report of the Gujrat district, by Mirza Azim Betr^ 
l8Qo. {T>ibaqdt-i-Akbari, pp. 18, Id, 127, 147 and 600; Rauzat-ut- 
T(ihirin, E\Vv)t, I, p. ^01; Muntakhib-ut-Tawdrikh, p. 18; Ibn-i-Asir 
Elliot, II, p. 43?; Tabaqdt-i-NcUiri, pp. 123-4, etc.) 

Ferishta's account of tho Gakkhars as a tribe of wild barbarians 
without either religion or morality, practising polyandry and infanti- 
cide, is a literal translation from the Arabic of, Ibn*i-Asir, an earlier 
historian, who was there, however, writing of the wild tribes in the 
hills to the west of Peshawar, and not of the Gakkhars : the chapter in 
Ibn-i-Asir immediately following deals with the murder of Shahdb-ud- 
din by the Gakkhars : hence perhaps the mistake ; or Ferishta may have 
borne a grudge against tho Gakkhars, who are said by him to have 
maltreated an ancestor of his own named Hindu Sh^h. (Ibn-i-Asir 
p. 82, Elliot, XII, Ferishta, p. 159). ' 

Gakkhar ShSh, alias Kaigwdr Shd,h, is mentioned as one of the prin- 
cipal followers of Mahmud of Ghazni. [Iqbdlndma-i-Jahdngiri, p. 109; 
Ahbar Ndma, p. 242). 

The use of the Hindu title of " Rdjd," has been taken as evidence that 
tho Gakkhar story of their origin is incorrect ; but up to comparatively 
recent times the Gakkhar chiefs used the title of Sultdn. Some sannds 
of the Mughal emperors are cited, and other evidence, but the refer- 
ences need not be given, as it is certain that the title of Sultdn was 
formerly used by this tribe. 

In La Perron's History of the Pdrsis,^ p. 27, it is said that a migration 
of Persians to China, under a son of Yazdezard, took place in the 7th 
century : it is suggested that this was tho occasion when the ancestors 
of the tribe settled in Tibet : an old M.S. pedigree-table produced shows 
a Sultan Yazdajar some 45 generations back. 

An officer who knew tho Gakkhars well wrote of them : ' Some 
of their principal mo,n are very gentlemanly in their bearing, and show 
unmistakably their high origin and breeding ' : anotlior says : ' They 
are essentially the gentlemen and aristocracy of tho (R;twalpindi\ 
district: . . . Tho Gakkhars still bear many traces of their hiirfi 
descent in their bearing, and in the estimation in which they are held 

• Vol. I, Karaka, 1884, citing the Zend Avcsta, I, cccixivi. 

276 The Gahhhar dans. 

througliout tho district/ Mr. Thomson wrote of them: 'Physically the 
Gakkhars aro not a lar^e-limbed race, but tliey are compact, sinewy, 
and vigorous. They make capital soldiers, and it has been stated on 
pood authority that they are the best light cavalry in Upper India. 
They are often proud and self-respecting, and sometimes exceedingly 
wcll-mannorod.' All this does them no more than justice ; and to any- 
one who knows them well, tho statement that as late as the 13th 
century they were wild barbarians, without religion or morality, is in 
itself almost incredible. Raja, Jahdnd£d Khdn seems to have succeeded 
in tracing the libel to its origin : he shows also that they have 
sometim.ea bren confused with the Khokhars ;* but it cannot be said that 
his arguments in favour of their Persian origin are very couvincing : 
in the matter of the assassination of Shah^ib-ud-din Ghori, the his- 
torians who state that he was killed by the Gakkhars at Dhamiak in 
this district are supported by a strong local tradition. 

Clans and Man(li8.--The Gakkhars have split into many branches, of 
which the most important in this district are the Admal, the Iskandrd,! 
and the Bugial, who occupy most of the Khuddar circle : a smaller 
clan named Firozal hold a few villages close to Jhelum : and a still 
smaller branch, the Tulidl (which is little esteemed, and with which the 
other clans do not intermarry), has four or five estates on the river near 
Dina. The clan-names are in all cases derived from those of the com- 
mon ancestors : the principal seats or mother villages of each branch are 
called Mandis, of which there are six generally recognised in the Jhelum 
district : Sultd.npur (Admal) ; Lehri and Bakrdla (Iskandrd,!) ; Domeli, 
Padhri, and Baragowdh (Bugidl) : Bheth and Salihdl, formerly flourish- 
ing mandis of the Bugidl, are now decayed. 

Character. — Regarding the character of the Gakkhars there is not 
much to add to what has already been said : pride of race is very strong 
in them, and though they make good soldiers, they are bad farmers : 
and where they have not fallen back on Government service, they are 
almost always in a most unprospeious condition, being much wanting 
in industry and thrift : their most unpleasing characteristic is their in- 
tense jealousy of one another, which leads to bitter feuds^ and some- 
times to murder. 

History. — The first settlement of the tribe in this district is generally 
• admitted to be Abridm in Suitdnpur, under the Lehri hills : thence 
they spread over the Khuddar, soutliwards towards the river, and as 
far as Landi Patti to the west, being constantly opposed by the Janjuds 
who were almost invariably defeated and ejected : in his first invasion 
of India Bilbar took the part of the JanjiHs, and with them defeated 
Hati Khdn, the great Gakkhar chief of Pharwala, but in a subsequent 
invasion made friends with the Gakkhars and procured from them an 
auxiliary force. When Bdbar's son, Humayiin, was in A. D. 1542 
ousted by Sher Shdh, the principal Gakkhar chiefs took the side of the 
exile: to bridle their pride Sher Shdh built the huge fort of Kohtas, 
about ten miles from Jhelum : and in the constant warfare that followed 
the Gakkhar country was terribly harried, but the tribe was never sub- 
dued, and en Humiiyun''s return to power began to grow powerful. 

* See also an article in the Indian Antiquary, 1907 ' The Khokhara and the GakkhafS 
ip. Punjab HiBtory ' by H. A. Koee.I.C.S 

Gnjja^^Gan^apun 277 

Their enbseqaent history until the rise of " Snltdn " Muqarrab Khdn, 
about 1740 A. D., chiefly concerns other districts : he was nn Adniill 
chief of the Kdwalpindi district; and claimed to rule the \vholo of the 
tract from Attock to the Chenab ; tiie Domoli Bugiiils however did not 
acknowledge his pretensions, and or\ his dofcHt by the Sikhs at Gujrjit, 
they at once rebelled, captured Muqarrab Kluiii and murdered him. The 
usual internecine feuds then arose, and tlio diileront clans fell in turn 
an easy prey to the Sikhs, thou^^li the easiern hill iiiand'is were never 
thoroughly subdued, and were in constant rebellion until the beginning 
of tlie British rule: in 1849 the Gakkhars nearly all took the losing 
side, and therefore forfeited much of their possessions and dignities, 
falling on evil days, from which they have only extricated themselves 
by the readiness with which they have siuce taken employment under 

In Haz^ra the Gakkhars have had a still more chequered history. 
Descended from Fateh Khc4n, founder of Kh.1,npur, to whom the hills of 
Khdnpur as well as those of the Karral and Dhiind were entrusted by 
his grandfather Sultdn Sarang Khi'm about the end of the 16th century, 
the Ghakkars could not keep the Karriil and Dhiind tribes under control 
during the decline of tlie Mughal dynasty. Under Durrdni rule how- 
ever they were given charge of the lower parts of Hazara, their chief 
Sultiin Jdfar Khan being famous for his uprightness. But Sirddr Hari 
Singh drove them from their lands and they were not roiustated till 
1868-72, when they recovered almost the whole of the Khdnpur tract. 

Gajja, an agricultural clan found in Shahpur. 
Gal, a Jilt clan (agriculcural) found in Amritsar and Mult^n. 
Galbaha, an agricultural clan found in Shahpur. 
Galhak, a Jd,^ clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Galwathah, a Jitt clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Gandapur : A Pathdn tribe of Ushtarani (Saiyid) extraction. Besides the 
original stock they include by affiliation some offshoots of the Shirdni, 
the Mushezai section of the Ohurghushti Fath^ns, and the H^nizai sec- 
tion of the Yusufzai tribe. They hold the whole of the north-western 
part of trans-Indus Dera Ismail east of Tdnk and south of the Nfla Koh 
ridge of the Salt Range, comprising an area of 460 sfiuare miles, abutting 
on the Sulaim^^ns to the west ; and the town of Kulachi is their head- 
quarters. They were originally a poor iiaioindah and pastoral tribe, 
but they now cultivate more largely than any other Dera Ismilil Pathdna. 
They reached the height of their prosperity about the middle of the 
J 8th century, but lost their eastern possessions some seventy years later, 
they being confiscated by Nawab Muhammad Khdn, the Saddozai 
governor of Leiah. They still engage in the pawindah traffic. They 
are lawless, brutal and uncivilised ; and their hereditary Khan has but 
little power. Mr. St. George Tucker thus described their sections:-— 

" The Gaudapurs profess to be all descended from one or two original 
ancestors, but there is no doubt, as in mcst similar cases, that other 

* Further information will bo found in Mr. Brandreth's Jhelum Settlement Report, 1865, 
§5 55 to 58 ; Mr. Thomson's Settlement Refcrt, 1883, §57; and in Pun;ab Governmtnl 
Stkctions, Ne%o 89ries,No. XXllJ, 1887. 

278 GAndhi'^GangusMhi. 

tribea and familiea have been associated with them from time to time, 
who all claim now to be of the original stock. They are divided into 
six main divisions or nallahs (valleys*). Most of these nalloha have a 
single generic name, covering all the men of that nallah ; but there aro 
also joint nallahs, in which two altof):ether distinct sections aro combined, 
each having a generic name of its own. The hereditary chiefship 
rested at first with the Brahimzai nallah, but the Brahirazaia having 
been very much weakened by losses in a fight against the Bdbars, tlie 
chiefship was transferred some 200 years ago to the Hamrdnzai, who 
have retained it ever since. Azild Kluin was the first Hamrdnzai Khdn. 
It was in his time that the Gandapurs seized Takwdra from the 
Driskhels. Kuldchi was soon afterwards settled by fugitive Baloch 
from Dera Fateh Khd^n, from whom it obtained its name. These 
eventually returned to their own country, and Kuldchi became the head 
town of the Gandapurs". 

Gandhi, a Jdt tribe, which seems to be chiefly found in the same tract with 
the LUngat. 

GANDHfLA, fem. -AN, a low vagrant tribe, said by Elliott to be "a few degrees 
more respectable than the Bawarias," though in the Punjab their posi- 
tions are perhaps reversed. They wander about bare-headed and bare- 
footed, beg, work in grass and straw, catch quails, clean and sharpen 
knives and swords, cut wood, and generally do odd jobs. They are said 
to eat tortoises and vermin. They also keep donkeys, and even engage 
in trade in a small way. It is said that in some parts they lead about 
performing bears ; but this is doubtful. They have curious traditions 
which are reported from distant parts of the Province, regarding a king- 
dom which the tribe once possessed, and which they seem inclined to 
place beyond the Indus. They say they are under a vow not to wear 
shoes or turbans till th eir possessions are restored to them. 

Gandu, a small J^t clan found in Jind. It has bakkuds at Mddpur, and at 
these it worships iisjatheras at weddings and on the Diw^li. 

GlNof, one who extracts and sells otto {itr), whereas the atdr makes 'arak 
not itr. 

Gandia, a tribe of Ja^s found in Dera Qhdzi Khdn. Like the Chd,ndia Baloch 
they present offerings to the descendants of Shdmji, though Muhammad- 
ans, and are also called Rang Rangia. See under Gosain and Chhabih- 

Gang, a tribo which, like the Munds, is generally reckoned as Awdn, though 
the leaders of the admittedly Awdns do not allow the claim. It is Bur- 
rounded by Awans on all sides and may be an affiliated clan (see Jhelum 
Gazetteer, 1904, p. 101). 

Ganqah, a J^t clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

GANao, an Ardin clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

GANGUSHABi.— A Sikh sect, founded by Gangu or Gangadds, a Basi 
Khatri of Garhshankar. Sikh history relates that he presented four 
pice weight of giir — all his worldly wealth— to his Guru, Amardris, and 
was sent to preach iu tlie hill country. He founded, a shrine at Daun 
near Kharar, and his great-grandson, Jowdhir Singl/, founded one of still 
greater fame at Khatkar Kaldn in Jullundur. Mahi Bhagat of 

J* 0/, the thoha amoug tho Meos. 

ii^C^iA. .' 

////l,-.y / 

t*^» 4 ^4.^, 

'/• /-■ ^- 

Oanj — Gdrd. 279 

Mahisar was another celebrated leader of this sect. The Gangushdhis 
possess Guru Amar Das^ bed and having refused initiation from Gurii 
Govind Singh were exconimuoicated by him.* 
Ganj, a J^t clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

GANJ-BAKHSHr. — A Sikh sect, few in numbers, of which nothing is known, f 
except that Ganj-bakhsh was a faqir of Gurdaspur wli3 receivuu a 
blessing from Guru Amar DasJ. 

Ganwan, a J^t clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Ganwanen, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Ganwen, a J^t clan found in the centre of Shujiibdd tahsil, Multdn district 
where they settled from Delhi in Mughal times. 

GANWABf, a Jilt clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Gab or Garh and Samal or Samcl. — The two factions into which the Pathans 
and other tribes of the North-West Frontier were, and to some extent 
still are, divided. Many legends designed to explain the origin of 1, 

these factions are current. When Rajit, runs an old tradition, ruled / 
in the modern North-West Frontier Province his wazir Gomal o-overned 
Balochistdn as far as Waziristan as his viceroy. Gomal had two 
nephews, Samal and Garh, between whom the country was divided. 
Hence Samal comprises the Spin and Tor gund tribes borderino- on 
Khost in Afghanistan, and the Zakka Khel, Aka Khel, Sih Pai, Qamrai 
the Tamam Khatak of Tirah, the Afridi country, and generally speakino- 
all the tribes of the Kohat and Bannu districts. Gar or Garh 
comprises the Qamar Khel, Kiiki Khel, Adi Khel, Aya Khel, and many 
villages of the Orakzai, Musazai, Mula Khel, Mushtai, Bazotai, Alisher- 
zai, etc. According ta Cockerell these factions are not now of much 
importance, having been superseded by the more rabid enmity between 
Sunni and Shi'a, but Major James writing in 1870 described the feud 
between them as still very strong and bitter and merely supplemented 
by that between the two sects. He assigned to the Samil half the 
drakzai and Bangash, tno Molimand, Malik-din Khel, Sipdh (Sih Pai) 
and Kamr, with the Znkka, Aka and Adam Khels of the Afridis, and 
to th« Gar the rest of the Orakzai and Bangash and the Khalil, with 
the Kiiki and Qambar Khels of the Afridis. The tradition, accepted 
by Ibbetson, that the factions originated in the fratricidal enmity of the 
two sons of the ancestor of the Bangash, who woro called Bun-kash 
or * root-de.stroyers ' on that account, derives support from tho fact 
that the two great branches of the Batjgash arc called Gari and 
Samilzii, but how the feud spread as far north as the Mohmands and 
Khalils does not appear. 

Gara, Gsrra, a term applied to any doghld, or person whoso parents wcro 
of different castes, in tho Hill States, especially to the issue of a 
Muhatnmadiin KdJDut by a wifoof another caste. [? whethcr=:^an'/ of 
Jammu] (2). A village of Gam; Brahmans converted to Muhammadanism 

♦ Mackgan, § b7. 

I Murray's History of the Punjab, I, p. l2l. 

X Maclagan, § 98. Another Ganjbakhsh, a Muhamniadan, has a shrine outside the BbitI 
Gate at Lahore. ' 

280 Garalwdl'^Gathdnati. 

in Gurgdon call themselves Gaur Shaikhs but aro styled Gava by their 
neighbours, and a proverb says :— 

Khet men jdrd gdnw men Gdrd, 

" As coarse grass tends to S})read in tlio field, so a Gilrd tries to 
convert liis fellows." 

(3). In Karndl the descendant of a Rajput by a widow (of his owner 
any other caste) married by karewa is called G^ra. 
Garalwal, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Gardezi, a branch of the Husaini Sayyids, also called B^ghdadi. They 
once owned a large part of the Sarai Sidhu tahsil of Multdn. The 
Zaidis are an offshoot of the Gardezls. [See The RojCes of the 
N.-W. P. of India, Vol. I, p. 125). 

Ga9e£, an Ardiii clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Garewal, an important Jat tribe in Ludhiana, which claims to be of sdu 
or gentle status. Hindu Garewd,l are also found in Montgomery. 

Gabh, a Baloch clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Garhar, a J^t clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Garhwi, a non-Pathd;n tribe which with the Torwals holds the Swat Kohistan. 

The Garhwis speak a language of their own called Garhwi. See under 

Garno, an Arain clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Ga]R?-i, or Gadi, a small class of milkmen and cultivators in Karn^l, known 
as Gaddi in Delhi. 

GARRf, a low caste of strolling actors and mountebanks, mostly Hindu 
who have their head-quarters in Jammu but are not infreqneutly found 
in the Bajwat, or plain country under the Jammu hills, in Sidlko^. 
According to Sir Dunlop Smith the Garris are perhaps hardly * actors ' 
or ' mountebanks,' but rather wandering minstrels like the Mird,sis, 
only they do not keep to one place like the latter. They stroll about 
in very small bands and do not visit the Punjab proper. They gener- 
ally visit the Rajput villages in the Siaikot and Zaffarwal tahsils about 
the time of the kharif harvest, very rarely at the rahi. They say 
they are Hindus, but their standing is low and their religious beliefs 
are hazy. They invariably have a zither-like instrument called a king. 
They speak the Dogar dialect, which the Jats do not understand, and 
their songs generally relate to a great ancestress, the recital of whose 
history is said to have a wonderful effect on the women. They occasion- 
ally dance to their own singing. They are not at all, criminal, and 
their women are fairly respectable. They marry within the tribe ^ly. 

Gat, a Mahammadan Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Gatab, a J^t clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Gathwala (from gatlia, a burden). A JtU tribe, once carriers by trade. 
It holds 10 villages in tahsil Jind, whither they migrated from 
HuUn^, a village in the Gohd,na tahsil of Rohtak. They have Bdiragis 
as theiv jdtheras. 

GaThanah, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar, 

L (lA ^ c 

y c <^e^^^ ^ % 


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Gaur — Gaurwdh. 281 

Gaur, a variant of Gd,vr or Gabr, 'unbeliever' among the Baloch. The 
Gaur gave their name to the town of Gauram (Dames' Popular Poetry 
of the Baloches, p. 163). Cf. also Gibari and Gabr. 

Gaujr, agroup of the Brahmans, confined almost entirely to the eastern 
districts, the Punjab Himalayas and the sub-montano as far west as 
Gujrdt. The Gaurs a.'o generally divided into two classes, adh- or pure 
Gaurs, and gattas who arc of illegitimate descent. In the Delhi 
territory the latter class appears to be called Dhakckka or Doghla. In 
Sirmur State the ac?/i-Gani*s arc said not to intermarry with the gattas. 
Tho adh-Gama are themselves sub-divided into chiUi and kali kantJu- 
todlds, or ' wearers of Avhitc and black rosaries/ a division which is 
undoubtedly sectarian. Trans-Giri in this State the highest section of 
the Brahmans Cand apparently Gaurs) is the Pabuch which does not 
intermarry with the Bh^ts though its members may eat food cooked 
by Bhdt girls, yet may not eat it if cooke'l by a Pabuch. On the 
other hand a Pabuch may not eat food cooked by a girl of his own 
section if she has been married to a Bh^t. Tho Pabuch refrain from 
killing any animal and from eating flesh. 

Tho Gaurs are divided into 36 sasaiis* or sf'ctions which appear to 
bo exog;*mous, and every Brahman group similarly divided, as are tho 
Dakauts, may be taken to bo of Gaur origin. It is not at all improbable 
that tho Khandiiudl Brahmans are aluo a branch of the Gaurs. t 

The Tagas of Karnal are certainly Gaurs who have taken to cultiva- 
tion, and 80 apparently are the criminal Tagus also. 

The Gaurs of Hissar say they came originally from Beno-al 
but more probably they came as parohits or family priests of the various 
immigrant tribes among whom they are settled.^ As elsewhere they 
are fed on the 13th day after death, but will not take offerings of black 
colour [Jcdld dan), nor those made at eclipses [grahn kd dan or on a 
Saturday. They will however accept offerings not only from ao-ricul- 
tural tribes but also from Khiitis, Kurahars, Lobars, Nais, BHiido-is 
and Jogis, though not from Chuhras or Chamars. The great majority 
of them have, like the Sarsut, adopted agriculture and are not directly 
engaged in religious functions. The Gaur is held in poeuliarly low 
estimation by the people, apart from his religious status. Sec also 

Gaujriwah — (Gaurai or Gaulai appears to be a synonym in Gurgaon)— -a 
term applied generally to any Rajputs, who have lost rank by practisin:' 
karewa.^ In Delhi however they form a distinct clan, and thou<i"h both 
they and the Chauhan permit widow remarriage, they are looked upon 
as a separate tribe. They are described as noisy and quarrelsome, but 

* The term ndsan means originally a grant of land and is still used in that sense in Chamba 
(Gaictiec)-, p. 131), and in Mandi iGa-cttco; p. 20). The process by which the term sd»a>» 
came to mean a section of a caste is obscure. The Brahminical (jotrax are of course still 
preserved by the i^aur and appear lo cross-divide the sdsans. Roth sdsans and gotrus are 
further sub divided into countless alu. Thus tho Gaur 'sub-tribe' (zdf or jdt) contains an 
nl called Indauria, ' from Indaur' who arc by r/otm BharadwHJ and pamhita of the Lohin 
Jits. The vagueness of the Brahmans in ''Urgaon as to theii* aia and gota is however 
astonishing : Gurgaon Settlement Rep., 1872-83, p. 32. 

t Hissar Qa.cUeer, 19C4, p. 78. 

X Cf. the note on p, 310 iiijra where it is pointed out that Quda=Thane5ar, 

§ Cf. Gava. 

282 Gautam — GeluTcpd. 

sturdy ia build, and clannish in disposition— in contrast to the Chauhan. 
In Gurgaon they arc confined ^Jmost wholly to the Palwal tahsil; a 
lew are Muhammadans, but the majority are Hindus. 
Gautam(a), a zdt 01" group of Brahmans owning a few villages in Gurgdon, 
where they arc rcprc-iented by a single got, the Maithal, which has 
52 alb: The Gautam appears to rank below the Gaur, for the latter 
will smoke from the same huqqa as a Gaur, but in smoking with a 
Gautam or Chaurasia will remove the mouthpiece and use his hand in 
its stead. Gaurs too will drink from a Gautam's brass vessel, but not 
from his earthenware, whereas, they say, a Gautam will drink from a 
Gaur's. But the Gautaius deny this. 
Gawar, see Gvvar. Also a rustic, a clown, an ignorant person : fem. -ni. 

Punjabi Didy., p. 375. 
Gawaria, a small Jat got (? from gai, cow), found in tahsil Jind. 
G-AWAsf, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 
GAZAR,= Dhobi. 

Gazdar, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 
Gazzi a Muhammadan Jat clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 
Gedkf, see under Gidri. 

GEaf a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 
Geblan, an Ardin clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 
Gelan (1) a Jd,t cUn (agricultural) found in Multd^n; (2) an Arain clan 

(agricultural) found in Amritsar. 
Gelukpa, ' virtuous ones,' a Buddhist order founded about A. D. 1420 by 
Tsonkhapa, the first Grand Lama ol: Gahldan, and now found chiefly in 
Tibet, where both the Dalai and Tashi Lamas belong to it. The monks 
are bound to celibacy, and certainly refrain from marriage, though in 
the years of their novitiate they are said to be by no means immacalate. 
Tlieir outward mark is a yellow cap. 

The founder Tsonkhapa belonged to a school of reformers of whom 
Bromston (pron. Tomton) is the best known (circ. 1150). Bromston 
lived in the Ki monastery and the tradition of his residence there 
was preserved till the time of Csoma de Kosroes, about 1820, but 
it was lost during the Dogra War in 1842. Mr. Francke thinks that 
de Kosroes rightly identified Ki with the celebrated Hons of Rvasgengs 
(pron. Rareng). Bromston's name is preserved in Bromston-chu 
(Tointon-chu) and Brorastonsna, ' the stream and rock of Bromston ' 
near Ki. He apparently founded the Kadempa sect in the Rdreng 
monastery and either there or at Ki Tsonkhapa studied his works* 
and inaugurated a new reformation. His object was to restore the 
ancient Buddhist faith and purify it from Tantraism. His brethren 
were to bo celibates and use no wine. He even attempted to restore 
the priestly garb of the ancient Indo-Buddhist church, and to this 
day the Gelukpa novices {yetahul} wear nothing but yellow, at least 
in Spiti : but Lamdism as usual proved too strong and though piobably 
the dress of the whole community was yellow the distinctive colour 

* Tsongkliapa eliminated the rgiut, the Sanskrit Tantra txom the Kagiur, whereas the 
Eiugniapa still accept it. 

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Gendas — Ghanghas. 283 

is now red, but a fully initiated brother (gelang) still wears yellow 
in his cap and girdle^, and on high festivals monks of high dt-groo 
wear yellow silk coats undernoatli their red shawls. To some extent 
Tsonkhapa's reforms produced a liigher moral standard, and tho 
Gelukpas are in name celibate everywiiere, though probably not proof 
against temptation in tlie polyandr(ms homes where their summers 
are spent. In Spiti they do not even profess to be teetotalers. 
The Ki, Lhao(t)pai Gonpa near Dankhar, and Tabo monasteries in 
Spiti belong to this order, and Ki keeps up an intimate connexion 
with Tibet, those of its monks who aspire to high rank being obliged to 
qualify at the dGuvai Khamszan monastery in Tashi Lunpo near 
Shigatze which is ruled by tho Panchan Ldma, the acknowledged head 
of the order. 

Gendas, a small Jdt tribe or got found in tahsils Sangrur and Dadri of Jind. 
Its name is said to be derived either from ganddsa, an axe, or Gendwds, 
a village in tahsil Hiasar. 

Ghag, a Muhammadan Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

GlIAGAHj a J^t clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Ghageah, a J-it clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Ghagheel, a Avoman who wears a petticoat, a respectable woman. But cf. 

Ghai, Gahi, a caste of grass-cutters found in Kangra Proper and in Niirpur, 
where they also ply rafts and skins on the Beas. Apparently also 
called Ghasi. 

Ghallu, a tribe found in the south-west corner of the Multd,n district since 
the Ain-i-Akhari was compiled. It is also numerous in tha hdrddris 
of Bah^walpur and Ahraadpur of Baliawalpur State, as especially in 
the pes/iHn of Uch. Its eponym was a Hindu Rath (Rdjput), con- 
verted to Isld,m by Makhdum Jahaniiin. From his seven sons sprang 
as many septs, viz., the Hanbiipotre, Ghaniinpotre, Dipiil, Jhaubu, 
Kurp^i, Kanji and Gujj. The Ghallu-? in Bahilwalpur are botii land- 
owners and cultivators and their tenants and servants are the Gbuliims, 
once their slaves, a email tribe of unknown origin, 

Ghalo, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Ghalo Kanjanarah, a Ja^ clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

GhaloWAknun, a Jd^ clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Ghaman, a J^t clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Ghaman, a J^t clan (agricultural) found in ^miitsar. 

Ghamar, -yar, -iar, fem. -AEf, etc., Ghdmar, fem. -i, -ni, see Kumhdr. 

Ghambye, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Gban, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multd,n. 

Ghaneea, a clan (agricultural) found in Shahpur. 

Ghanghas, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar and Karnal. 
It is also found in Jind tahsil. Folk-etymology derives its name from the 
tale that its eponym once asked a smith for an axe, but got instead 
a ghan (sledge-hammer) which ho was told to shape into an axe by 
rubbing {ghisnd) it. 

284 Ghanghra^Ghatwdl. 

Ghanghea, a Hindu Kamboh clan (agricuUural) found in Montgomery. 

Ghaniere, a Kharral clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

GHARAMf, a thatcher, a maker of lattice work. The Ghardmis form a small 

caste, probably distinct, from the Jhmwars, and work in grass, etc. 
GHARATfA, a miller, also ghur-. 
GharhanAj an agricultural clan found in Shdhpur. 
Ghaeiala, a moulder. 
Ghariali(a), fern. -AN, one whose business it is to strike the hour on a 

gong [gharidl). 
GeARSHiN. in Pashto originally Kharsin, a tribe of Sayyids affiliated to the 
Minnas but, resident among the U.-htartina 8hiranis. Its progenitor, 
purnamed the Gharshin,* belonged to the same family as the Sayyids 
of Uch, and it furnished more than one saint to the Afghans Malik 
Ydr Pardn, a contemporary of GLi^s-ud-din, Balban, was a Gharshin, 
and others are found near Kandahar, among the Kakar and Mus^ 
Khel Panni Patlians and in Uch and other places in Bahd,walpur. 
Ghaewal, a tribe of Rajputs, found in the upper part of Kahuta, in Rawal- 
pindi. They claim descent from one Pir Kala, a son of R^jd, Mall (ances- 
tor of the Janjud-s). He married Kaho Rd,ni when he came to those 
hills, and named the ildqa in which he settled Kahru after her. Hence 
his descendants were called Kahrwal or Gharwal. The tribe is numer- 
ous and important, living in a picturesque country. The DuMl is a 
branch of this tribe. 
Ghasi, fem. -ar : also ^r/iassi, a grass-cutter, in Multd,n; the term is also 
used in the hills. Cf. ghasidrd, fem. -i, -an, a grass-cutter. Neither 
appear to form distinct castes. 
Ghattu, a Muhammadan Jat clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery, 
Ghatwal, one of the Jdt tribes of the South-East Punjab. They trace their 
origin from Garh Ghazni, and place ihat city in the Deccan and not in 
Afghanistan. They claim descent from Saroha Rdjputs. Their head- 
quarters are at Ahulana in the Gohana tahsil of Rohtak, and they 
occupy the country between it and the Jumna, being numerous in the 
north of Delhi and to the south of Karnal. AhuUna is said to have been 
founded 22 generations ago, and gives its name to the Haulania faction. 
The Ghatwal are often called malak, a title they are said to have 
obtained as follows : — 

"In the old days of Rdjput ascendancy the Rd,jputs would not allow 
Jats to cover their heads with a turban, nor to wear any red clothes, nor 
to put a crown {mor) on the head of their bridegroom, or a jewel \nat) 
in their women^s noses. They also used to levy seignorial rights from 
virgin brides. Even to this day Kajputs will not allow inferior castes 
to wear red cloihes or ample loin clothes in their villages. The Ghat- 
wdls obtained some succe-»sps over the Rdjputs, esp<-cially over the 
M-mdHhars of the dodh near Deoban and Mint,'laur, and over those of 
the Bdgar near Kdldnaur and Dadri, and removt- d the obnoxious pro- 

* The name is said to be derived from ghar, a mountain and shin, green or fruitful, 
because while residing about Bora and Peshi'n, two Sayyids, at the request of the herdsmen 
of the tribes, solicited divine aid to turn their bleak and rugged hills into grass-covered 

189. Gharib Dasis are a branch of Dad upan this, Gharib Das bein^ one Gharib 

...1,357 of the important diHciples of Dadu.f The sect is, however, (jn Dasi. 
.. •■ 398 the decline as its strength has come down in 20 years from 1,357 
(aee margin). 

Ghaunrar — Gheye. 285 

hibitions. They thus acquired the title of maldk (master) and a red 
turban as their distinguishino- mark ; and to tliis day a Jat witli a 
red pagri is most probably a Gha^wal." 

Mr. Fanshawe says that the title is a mere nickname conferred 
by a malih or chief called Rdi Si'd ; yet in Rolitak they appear 
generally to be called malak rather than Ghatwiil.* In Jind the 
Ghatwj'il reverence Bairagis as their jatheras. In Hissdr the Brahmans 
of Depdl are their paroJiits to this day, because their ancestor rescued 
the only surviving woman of the tribe, after the Hajputs of Kalanaur 
had blown up all the rest of the Ghatwi'ils, who had defeated them. 

Ghaunrar, a sept of Rdjputs, descended from Mian Bajokhar, son of 
Saugar Chand, 16th Riija of Kalilur. 

Ghazlani, a Pa^h^n clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Ghbba, a tribe of Rdjput status in the Attock district. Tradition makes the 
Gheba, Sidl and Tiwitna descendants of Gheo, Saino and Teno, the three 
sons of Rcli Shankar Punwdr.f The Sial and Tiwdna appear to admit 
the relationship, and it is not at all impossible that this group of Rdjput 
tribes may be of Punwdr origin. The Gheba are said to have come to 
the Punjab some time after the SidI and Tiwd;na, and to have settled in 
the wild hilly country of Patahjang and Pindigheb in Attock. Here 
they held their own against the Awfins, Gakkhars, and neighbouring 
tribes till Ranjit Singh subdued them. The Jodra are said to have come 
from Jammu, or according to another story from Hindustan, whence 
also Colonel Cracroft says that the Gheba traditions trace that tribe, 
and to have held their present tract before the Gheba settled alongside 
of them.J They now occupy the eastern half of the Pindigheb, and the 
Gheba the western half of the Fatahjang tahsil in Rawalpindi, the 
two tracts marching with each other. The Gheba is also said to be in 
reality a branch of the original Jodra tribe that quarrelled with the 
others, and took the name of Gheba which till then had been simply a 
title used in the tribe ; and the fact that the town of Pindigheb was 
built and is still held by the Jodra, and no*; by the Gheba, lends some 
support to the statement. The history of the Gheba family is told at 
pages 538 ff. of Sir Lepel Griffin's Punjab Chiefs'. Colonel Cracroft 
described the Gheba as " a fine, hardy race of men, full of fire and 
energy, not addicted to crime, though their readiness to resent insult 
or injury, real or imagined, or to join in hand-to-hand fights for 
their rights in land, and their feuds with the Jodra and Alpial are 

Ghei, one who sells ghi : a section of the Khatris. 

GHETAL-PANTin, -lA, ono wlio has no religious guide, a bad man. 

Gheye, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

♦There are in several parts of India, especially in Monghyr and its neighbourhood, tribes 
of low-class Hajputs called (Ihatwal, who hold or held assignments of revenue on condition 
of defending the glials or passes in the hills by which the hill tribes were wont to make 
predatory incursions into the plains below. 

t An amended gencalogj' is given at page 520 of Griffin's -Pa?) jab Chiefs. 

5: But Cracroft also nolod that other tales assign U the Ghcbas the same origin as the 
Kheoras, now cultivators in the tract, 


The Ghilzais. 

Ghilzai, GhalzAi, a tribe of the Matti brancli of the Pa^hdns, and till the rise 
of the Durrani power, the most fainous of all the Afghi'in tribes. The 
official spelling of the name is Ghaleji at Kabul and Kandahar. They 
first rose into notice in the time of Mahmud Ghaznavi, whom they 
accompanied in his invasions of India. Not long afterwards they 
conquered the tract between Jal^il:ibd,d and Keliit-i-Ghilzai, and spread 
east and west over the country they now hold. In the beginning of 
the 18th century they revolted against their Persian rulers^ established 
then'.selves under Mir Wais as independent rulers at Kandahar, and 
overran Persia. But a quarter of a century later they were reduced 
by Nadir Shdh, and their rule disappeared, to be succeeded not long 
after by that of the Durrani. They are of the same stock as the Is^ 
Khel and Lodi Pathans, as the following pedigree table shows : — 

Qais-i-Abdur Rashid or Shaikh Bait. 
Bibi Mato 
Shah Husain, a Shansab^ni Tajik of Ghor. 


Ibrahim or Lodai. 

r r 

Ni4zi. Dotarni 
Isi Khel. 






Mahp&l. SxiT, NuharwI. 

Mama. Mayal. Tator. Shaikh or Patakh. Hud. Marwat, 

^- , 

r — 

Isot or Sot. 


Sin or Yasin. 




Yeain or Y-unas. 

Haidar or Khizr 




Tradition derives the name Ghalzai fro.u ghalzoe, the 'illicit (first-born) 
son' of Bibi by Shd-hHusain, whom she afterwards married. Her 
descendants first dwelt in the Shilghar territory, south of Ghazni, but 
when the Ghalzai became numerous, they drove the Nid,zis to the east- 
ward, and the Andar branch of the Ghilzais still hold Shilghar. Other 
branches are the Hotak or Hotaki, Kharoti, Nasir or N^siri, Sulimdn 
Khd,n, Taraki and Tokli. Of thes*- the Kharoti and Nd,sir however 
do not appear to be true Ghilzais, but to be descendants of one of 
the several Turk tribes located on the western frontiers of the Ghazni 
kingdom, towards the Afghd,nistdn, by the Turk feudatories under the 
Samanis and the Turk Sultans of Ghazni. The Hotaki is the royal 

The Ghirths. 287 

clan, auJ from it sprang tlio Hsiji, "Wais,* and the Sultans, Mahmud, 
Ashraf and Husain. Tho Ghilzai aro fciuud almost txclubivcly as 
nomads in tlio North- Weist Frontier Province and the Punjab, and form 
with the Lodi Pathd,ns tho bulk of the Pawjndah folk. 

Ghirth. — The Ghirths fill much the sirinio position in Kangra proper and the 
hills below it as do the Kanots in tho parts to tho east. They correspond 
also to the Bahti iti the eastern and the Changf in the western portion 
of the lower ranges. All three intermarry freely, and wofO considered 
by Sir James Lyall as identical. The Ghirths of Kangra and Iloshidr- 
pur were thus described by Barnes : — 

" My previous remarks (sec Rathi) will have introduced the reader to the Ghirths. They 
form a considerable item in the copulation of these hills, and in actual numbers exceed any 
other individual caste. With the Ghirths I have associated the few .Jats that reside in this 
district, and the Changs, which is only another name for Ghirths, prevalent about Ilaripur 
and Nurpur. They amount altogether to 111,507 souls. The Ghirths are sub-divided 
into numerous sects. There is a common saying that there are 360 varieties of rice, and 
that the sub-divisions of the Ghirths are equally extensive, the analogy arising from the 
Ghirths being the usual cultivators of rice. The Ghirths predominate in the valleys of 
Palam, Kancjra, and Rihlu. They are found again in the Hal Dun, or Ilan'pur valley. 
These localities are thu strongholds of the caste, although they are scattered elsewhere in 
every portion of the district, and generally possess the richest lands and the most open 
spots in the hills. The Ghirths belong to the Sudra division of Hindus, and this fact 
apparently accounts for the localities wherein they are found. The open valleys, although 
containing the finest lands, are also the only accessible portions of tho hills. The more 
relined castes preferred the advantages of privacy and seclusion, although accompanied by 
a sterner soil and diminished returns. They abandoned the fertile valleys to less fastidious 
classes, whose women were not ashamed to be seen nor to work in the fields, and the men 
were not degraded by being pressed as porters. 

The Ghirths are a most indefatigable and hard-working race. Their fertile lands yield 
double crops, and they are incessantly employed during the whole year in the various 
processes of agriculture. In addition to the cultivation of their fields, the Ghirth women 
carry wood, vegetables, mangoes, milk and other products to the markets for sale ; many 
sit half the day wrangling with customers until their store is disposed of. The men aro 
constantly seized for b(.';/(/c, or forced labour, to carry travellers' loads, or to assist in tho 
various public buildings in course of construction. From these details it will be perceived 
that the Ghirths have no easy lime of it, and their energies and powers of endurance must 
be most elastic to boar up against this incessant toil. 

To look at their frames, they appear incapable of sustaining such fatigue. The men aro 
short in stature, frequently disfigured by goitre (which equally affects both sexes), dark 
and sickly in complexion, and with little or no hair on their faces. Both men and women 
have coarse features, more resembling the Tartar physiognomy than any other type, and 
it is rare to see a handsome face, though sometimes the younger women may be called 
pretty. Both sexes arc extremely addicted to spirituous drinks. Although industrious 
cultivators, they are very litigious and quarrelsome ; but their disputes seldom lead to 
blows ; and though intemperate they are still thrifty, — a Ghirth seldom waste? his substance 
in drink. In their dealings with one another they are honest and truthful, and altogether 
their character, though not .so peaceable and manly as the Rathi, has many valuable and 
endearing traits. The Ghirths being Sudras do not wear the janeo or thread of caste. 
They take money for their daughters, but seldom exchange them, Tho .yoimger brother 
takes his brother's widow ; if she leave his protection, he was entitled by the law of 
the country to her restitution, and under us he should at all events receive money 

* Mir Wais Hotaki gained possession of Kandahar in 1708-0 and on his death in 1720 
was succeeded by his brother Abdul-Azfz, but he was speedily deposed and Mfr Wais' 
elder son Shah Mahmiid raised to power. lie subdued Persia in 1722-23 and was there 
succeede<l by his cousin Shah Ashraf, but this ruler was overthrown by Nadir Shah. 
Meanwhile Shah llusain, Mahmiid's brother had become ruler of Kandahar and he not 
only refused Shah Ashraf an asylum, but had him put to death. Shiih Husain reduced 
the Slial district and Fxishang, which the Baloch chief Mihrab Khan had aimexed, and 
caused Dera Gh4zi Khan to be sacked by a detachment— a disaster from which Ghizi 
Khan's family never recovered. 


The Ghirth septs. 

The Ghirths are said to be of Edjput origin by mixed marriages or 
illegitimate intercourse. They are fssentially agricultural, and the 
proverb says : — " As the rice bends in the ear the Ghirth lifts his head." 
Their social position is low. "You can no more make a saint of a 
Ghirth than expect chastity of a buffalo," and they practise widow 
marriage,. for " You can't make a Ghirthni a widow, any more than you 
can turn a hill buffalo into a barren cow." 

Folk etymology derives Ghirth from ghi, because Shiv made them out 
of ghi. In Hoshiarpur Ghirths are called Bahti.'^ In Hindustan they 
arc called Kurmi. Chang is the Punjabi name, and Ghirth the Pahdri 

The Ghirths have few large sub-divisions. The eight largest are the 
Kandal, Bhardwaj, Pathari, Chhabru, TJeru, Badial, Chhora, andBhattu. 
Bhardw^-j (a Brahtninical gotra), is also found as an al among the Brah- 
mans of Chamba.t Chh^bru is found only in Hoshiarpur, and Chhora 
and Bhattu only in Kangra. The others occur in both Districts. But 
the Ghirths say that they have a large number of als or septs — 360 in 
all. A great part of these are named after villages. Others are 
named after trades, occupations, etc., etc. A very few are possibly 
totemistic in origin. 

Among these septs occur the following names :— 

A. — Names of animals or plants : — 

(4) Gidar, jackal, 
(o) Gadohari, a kind of bird. 
(6) Garuri, ' an animal like a 
B. — Names of occupations or nick -names : — 

(1) Dhare, fruit of the wild 


(2) Ghora, horse. 

(3) Khunla, a kind of bird. 


[]) Suran^iala, miner. 
(2; Nande, nandhi, dumb. 
(8) Mormar, peafowl-hunter. 

(4) Jokhnu, weighman, 

(5) Paniari, panidrd, water- 


(6) Masand, long-haired 

(said to be its meaning). 

(7) Lakria, woodman. 

(8) Ghord, jockey. 

(9) Hariala, born on the 

Rihdli or 3rd Bliadon. 

C. — Names of colours :— 

(1) Kiila, black. 

(2) Kahra, red-brown. 

(10) Saini, vegetable-seller, 
fll) Hutl^, stammerer. 

(12) Khfiugar, Jchdnsi, a cough. 

(13) Lahu, charred or burnt. 

(14) To pa, bought for a topd or 2 

seers of grain. 

(15) Kumhar, potter. 

(16) Naul, 7ieoZ(i. 

(17) Pathrala, founded by a leaf- 

seller {pattdj leaf). 

(3) Nila, blue. 

* Bauhtia appears to be a variant of Bahti. Possibly, this suggests, Bahti means simply 

t According to the account of the Ghirths compiled by the late Mr. A H. Gunter, C.S., the 
Brahminica'- gotras de preserved but each comprises a number of als, e.g., the Kundal got(ra) 
includes the Chang, Sial, Thetar and Tholi zdts (= als), the Konsal got includes the 
Panihari, the Tul got the Pataku al, and the Kasab the Katt i. The gots, it is distinctly 
stated, are named after common ancestors ' who were n's/its.' 

Ghirth ohservances. 280 

D.— (1) Khera, founded by a woman whose child was born undor a 
hher tree. 

(2) Banyanu, founded by a woman whoso child was born under a 

han or oak. 

(3) Dadda, founded by a woman whose child was born near a 

bamboOj and laid on the tree. 

(4) Khunld,, an animal of some kind. The name was given to a 

child as a token of affection. Hence his descendants are 
still called by the name. 

(5) Ladhdri^, from ladhdr, a kind of tree. 

(6) Ghurl, a wild goat ; so called because its progenitor cried like 


(7) Khajurd, date-palm (c/. the Nagarko^ia Brahman al of this 
name) ; so-called because its founder was born under a date- 

(8) Khatta, from khattdf a kind of tree : for a similar reason. 

Other exogamous sections {gots) are Bahiru, Banjiira, Barol, 
Chakotra, Bhut, Didlu, Hangaria, Jalnrich, Kathc, Narotra, Panjla, 
Panyiu, Panyaria, Sd^kre, Sial, Thimbu, Thirku, etc., all of unknown 

In the Rajput hypergamous system the Ghirth does not rank very 
high for not till the seventh generation can his daughter become a 
queen [Satwin 'pirhi Ghirthni ki dhl Rani hojdti), whereas the Rathi'a 
daughter can attain to that position in four generations and even the 
Kanet's reaches it in five. But the Rd^jas could pi'omote a Ghirth to 
be a Rdthi, as Sir James Lyall records (Kdngra Sett. Rep., § 73), 

The following accounts of the Ghirth social observances are given 
as typical of the usaj^es among all the Hindu castes of the Kangra Hills 
and not as peculiarly characteristic of the Ghirths. They resemble 
generally tnose in vogue among the Gaddis of Kd,ngra, but the local 
variations appear to be endless. These are described in the foot-notes 
to the text below — 

In betrothal the father, mother or uncle, if alive, will tell the youth 
to arrange to marry such and such a girl. If these are not alive, he 
chooses himself; otherwise he remains passive throughout the arrange- 
ments. The father then finds a go-between {nibdrii) who goes to the 
girl's parents and makes the pro|30sal to them. If they accept, a day 
is arranged for the ceremony of betrothal {natd). On this day the 
rTlhdrii conducts the boy's father or other guardian (the boy does not 
go as a rule*) to the girl's house. Ho takes with him cream, delii, in a 

* Provided the father has no infirmity rendering the son's assistance necessary, the son 
will not accompany him. Ho will generally accompany any other guardian. If the boy 
goes too, he is allowed to stay at the girl's parents' house if the Brahmans declare the 
occasion favourable, otherwise he must slay in some other house, llie boy's Brahman 
may be one of the p irty. It makes a point of arriving during the particular wat h of the 
particular day which the Brahman has found to be propitious. He leads the way in, 
followed by the father and next relative. The others stay in the enclosure outside. The 
things are put down and a rupee in silver and a half anna bit in copper are placed by the 
boy's father in the moveable shrine (called iZitta dcra) of Gancsh on the freshly plastered 
chaukah. At tiio same time the girl's parents put down a tray containing a little yur of 

200 Ghirth weddings. 

clay vessel {dehdli), grain, gur and clothes for the girl, and two rupees 
two pice in cash (and jewels, if rich enough) ; and if a price for the 
girl has been agreed upon, they take that too. When they get to the 
house they find a ghard of water and an oil-lamp and a vessel contain- 
ing a little gur and ghi in the girPs parents' house, and her parents 
waiting for them, but not the girl herself. They put down the grain, 
gur and dehi, rupees and pice, and clothes and jewels by the water in a 
wicker basket put ready for them, and no one speaks a word. Square 
mats made of suorarcane stalks are placed for the deputation. When 
they hitve set c'own the grain, etc., the boy's party bow with joined 
hands to the lamp and water- vessel, and dipping their fingers into the 
grir and ghi put them in their mouths. Then the boy's party salam 
and the girl's pnrty salam, and then all sit down for the first time. 
Then the g;o-between takes the rupees and pice and clothes to the girl 
who is with the women in another room, gives the money to her, and 
gets down the clothes. Then the riiharu comes back, and receiving 
the girl's price from the boy's father, gives it to the girl's father. 
Then the boy's father gives pice to the girl's party's kamins, i. e., the 
barber, the parohit (family Brahman) and the watchman. The boy's 
party stays till night, when the girl's party entertain him with a meal. 
Then the girl's mother calls in other women of the village, and they 
sing and the boy's father gives them pice. Next day the boy's party 
having breakfasted return home. 

From this time until the wedding, which in the case of a virgin is called 
hidh, the boy's father sends once a year rice or maize, cream, gur and 
clothes for the girl. The person who brings these gifts is entertained 
at night by the girl's parents and goes away the next day. The date 
of the wedding is arranged by the girl's father.* It may take place 

their own. The boy's father puts a half anna in this and tastes the gur. He puts a pice 
in the lota of water (garivi) before the shrine, touches his forehead and bends down to 
Gan6sh, the girl's Brahman worshipping all the time in the usual way. The girl's mother 
puts the jewelry on the girl, and the ceremony is over. The girl's parents take all the 
things brouo;ht, including the rupee and pice, into the shrine in the tray, out of which the 
girl's mother takes them, and not the girl's father. It is the mother's right. There is a 
feast next morning and pice are distributed to the poor, and a few annas to the Brahman, 
the dhdi of the girl's family and the local watchman. A few pice are also given to the 
girl's sisters, if any, and her other female relations. 

* The boy's family Brahman settles the day. About 20 days before the day fixed the 
father takes him to the house of the skirl's parents, where there is a consultation between 
him and their Brahman as to whether the day fixed is also auspicious for the father, 
paternal uncle and brother of the boy and girl respectively. 

The girl's father puts some rice and gur and a few blades of drub grass and two pice, 
and the boy's father also one anna in copper, into a tray. These are divided by the two 
Brahmans who throw out the grass. In the tray the girl's mother also puts the red paste 
for making the tika on the forehead which is used for all religious occasions, except these 
connected with death. The girl's Brahman puts the tika on the boy's father's forehead and 
then on the foreheads of a few of the bystanders. Both families then make their prepara* 
tions and summon their friends and relations to the wedding. 

On the day the boy's party, whif-h always includes the Brahman and the family barber, 
goes to the girl's house, the boy being carried in a pdlki and musicians accompanying. The 
boy is dressed in red with a fringe of silk tassels (sera) bound round his turban and 
hanging in front of his face. He has been washed and dressed by the barber before 
starting. The sera and a pair of shoes and a coat are given him by the boy's maternal 
uncle When the party reaches the girl's house they all wait outside until the girl's 
Brahman announces that the auspicious moment (the conjunction of two stars, ' lagan ') has 
arrived. The boy and his Brahman with the barber and a friend who has the custody of 
the money for current expenditure go inside. The chauhah with the diwa dera is ready. The 
friend puts a rupee and half anna in the shrine while the Bralunans mutter a few words. 

Ghirth weddings. 291 

when tho girl is 7 years old oven ; there is no limit of age. When tho 
date of tho wedding is fixed tho boy's fatlier givea whatever it was 
arranged shouki be then paid, and both parties make p-eparations for 
it. Oil tho wedding day the boy is shavcl, waslied with b"tnd to rnakft 
him clean and dressed in a kwah (red cholu.) and a red' r">gri, red 
paijdmds and kaviarhand and sera (t;isselled head-dress). Mehipii (the 
plant) is put into his hand to make his fingers red, and he is put info 
a pdlki and taken to tlie girl's house. The girl's fat 1 1 er's waiii there 
spreads a cloth. On this cloth tho two fathers meet. The gii-l's father 
then gives the boy's father's nain pice, and the boy's father does the 
like to the other nain. This is called awdrinda or in Punjabi lodranda 
because each of the fathers waves the pice round tho head of the other 
before giving them to the barbers. This takes place outside the house. 
Then the girl's party takes tlio boy into the house. Then the girl's 
parohit reads the Ved mantar over the couple. Then they go into the 
salin and put four poles previously adorned into the ground, and place 
others joining their tops. Tho boy and girl arc then set underneath, 
and more mantars are read. Then the jjirl and boy walk four times 
round the poles with their clothes tied together [Unjri). The marriage 
ceremony is now complete. Then the parties feast at the bride's 
house, but the women are not present. Then behind the pardd the 
bride's head is anointed with chaunh. Then either on that day or the 
next the bridegroom takes the bride to his father's house, if it is near 
enough. Perhaps tho girl's barber and the midwife may accompany 

The girl's mother takes tho rupee and half anna. A blanket is spread inside the outer 
room. The boy and girl sit facing each other on it with the boy's barber supporting him 
and the girl's barber's wife supporting her, and the respective Brahmans facing each other 
on the two other sides. Both read the service. The barber's wife puts the boy's cloak over 
the pair and the barber lifts the .sera from his face and tho barber's wife her cloak from 
the girl's, so that they can see each other. The boy takes the ring off the little finger of his 
right hand and puts it on the little finger of the girl's right hand. The cloak over the pair 
is removed and tho girl's face hidden again. Some gwr mixed with p/u' is put by the girl's 
mother in a tray and the boy takes some, after which the barber's wife gives some to the 
girl. The friend with the money bag puts two pice into the tray. These are taken by the 
barber's wife. The boy comes out to his relations and the girl goes into the inner room 
among the women. After all have refreshed themselves four sticks with small cross-sticks 
at the top are fixed in the ground in tho enclosure to form a small square in which 5 or 6 
can sit. The barber's wife makes a figure {chaunh) with flour on the ground and a small 
heap of grain at each of the two points marked with a cross, and these heaps are covered 
with baskets. The boy sits on one basket, and the girl on the other supported by their 
Brahmans, the barber and his wife, respectively, the Brahmans being further off than the 
barber and his wife. A fire is lit at the point marked with a double cross. The Brahmans 
put rice soaked in water and ghi on the fire. The girl's mother brings a tray containing a 
little rice and a UUl filled with water and puts them down • by her Brahman in worship. 
He throws soaked rice over them and gives them to the boy's Brahman, who puts them iii 
front of the boy. The girl's mother or father then brings another tray with a little rice 
in it and an empty basket and puts them down by Ihe girl's Brahmaii, and the girl's 
parents put into the tray whatever jewelry tliey intend to give to their daughter, and 
the Brahman hands the tray to the boy's Hraliman, who puts the jewelry down in front of 
the boy and returns the tray to the girl's Brahman. 

Friends and relations are then called to bring their presents, and they put money in the 
tray, which is then offered to the girl by her Brahman. The girl takes out as much as she 
can with two hands, and this is handed over to the boy's Brahman. The remainder in the 
tray belongs to the girl's parents. In the same way presents of cloth are put in the basket 
and these belong to the girl's parents Next morning the barber and larber's wife again 
show the couple's faces to each other under the cloak as before ; but this time they are 
sitting on the two baskets, and the girl has all the jewelry on. The boy puts another ring 
on the girl's finger. They separate again as before, and the ceremonies are over. In the 
evening the girl will be taken ofl in a falhi, the boy preceding her in his fdlU. 

292 GMrth inheritance, 

her, but none of her other people. The bride and bridegroom are 
brought into the house and are set before a Hghted lamp and ghara of 
water to which they bow with hands joined. They are then given ghi 
and gitr to eat, and the bridegroom's marriage garments are taken off. 
Then the bridegroom takes the bride to his mother. Then the bride, 
the barber, the midwife and the people who have carried the bride's 
gifts (given by the bride's parents) and the Kahdrs are feasted, and 
the next day they take the bride home again. If she is not of age, 
she sleeps with her mother-in-law. If she has attained puberty, she 
sleeps in a separate room with her husband. Then two or three 
months later the bridegroom goes to his father-in-law's house and 
brings her to his father's house again (/iarp/^cra), and she remains 
there, unless the girl's parents send for her again. 

The reading of the mantars (lagan) and the going round the poles 
(ghumdna) are the binding and essential parts of the ceremony. Some- 
times wh' n the girl's parents are dead the purchase- money is paid and 
the marriage completed by the observance of these two ceremonies 

A bride-price is paid, but its amount is not fixed. No regard is 
had to the poverty or wealth of the bridegroom. The older the gu-l, 
the more is paid for her. The greater the necessity of the bridegroom, 
i. e., the more difficulty he experiences in getting a wife, the more he 
must pay, e. g., if he is a widower. 

Widow remarriage is common. Indeed as divorce or rather sale of 
wives is frequent* both widows and divorcees remarry. They go 
through the simple ceremony called jhanjrdrd or widow remarriage, 
which consists in the priest putting a red cloak over each party and 
knotting the corners together as they sit on a newly plastered 
spot [chaunkah) outside the husband's house. The priest then leads 
the way in, the woman and the man following him in that order. 
Both then do obeisance at the small shrine to Ganesh with its offerings 
of a lota of water and lamp {chirdgh) placed outside, and the ceremony 
is over. Before the cloaks are knotted a nose-ornament of gold given 
by the husband is taken by the woman from the hands of the barber's 
wife and put on. This ornament is the common sign of marriage. 

The Ghirths generally think the younger brother has a right to 
claim the elder brother's widow, but the claim is not enforceable, nor 
apparently ever was. The elder brother cannot marry the younger 
brother's widow, but the Ghirths of Pd,lampur say that it is done in the 
K^ngra tahsil. 

Ghirths follow the Hindu law of inheritance, but, it is said, all 
the sons inherit according to the rule of chun^dvand, i. e., all the 
sons by one wife get as much as all those by another wife.t But 

* Divorce is permitted at the pleasure of the husband ; under no circumstances can the 
wife claim divorce against his will. It is called chhodni. If a wife be unfaithful, the 
abductor pays the husband the price of her hartan (lit. ' user ') in the presence of witnesses 
and receives a bill of divorce. There is no ceremony. The jhanjrdrd takes place with 
another man. 

t The Gaddis who live south of the Ravi and are called Chanoti also follow this rule. 
Those of Brahmaur observe the fagvand rule. In other words the cMnddvand rule is a 

local 911Q, 

OMrth funerals. 293 

when the property is divided the oldest son will get some weapon or a 
head of cattle or a plot of land, with the consent of the brothers, in 
token of his being the head of tho family. The rest of the immoveable 
property will be divided equally. Thatj which is given in this way_ to 
the eldest brother is called jetMmda. 

A Ghirth can adopt any boy of his own tribe, preferably one 
descended from an ancestor of his own. If after the adoption a son 
be born to the adopter, the adopted son will receive a share equal to 
that of a natural son. If after the adoption offspring be born from 
a number of wives, then first the share of tho adopted son will be set 
apart by the rule oFpagva?irZ; tho remainder of the property being 
divided by chunddvand. 

At Ghirth funerals there is always an Acharj Brahman. When the 
deceased is laid on the pyre (salbi) the Brahman reads prayers and 
then the heir puts the pind or balls of rice on tfie forehead and breast 
of the deceased. The fire is then lighted. For ten days after the 
Brahman comes and reads mantars, and pind is thrown down the kha4 
or ravine daily. The ceremony of srcidh is performed on — 

(a) The anniversaries of the death of the father, grandfather, and 
great-grandfather and their collaterals and are thus observ- 
ed : — A Brahman (not an Achdrj) is called in and makes the 
pind. The observer the.n places rice, pice, cloth, etc., by 
the find, which the Brahman gets. The pind is finally 
thrown into water. The Brahman reads the mantars, and a 
feast is celebrated. This is done yearly. On the first an- 
niversary (bdrkhi) and the fourth [chauharkh) there is a 
special celebration when all the Brahmans of the village 
must be feasted, and the entertainment is costly. 

(6) The suppind (next-of-kin) performs these funeral ceremonies 
and commemorations when there is no son, just as if he 
were a son. The hirid takes place for Ghirths 22 days after 
the death in all cases. Then besides the balls of rice for 
each ancestor of the deceased a large ball is made which is 
broken up by the Achd,rj Brahman and added to tho other 
balls. This is called supindta. 

(c) When a man dies a violent death, there are two Jcirids — one in 
the heir^s house and another, the nardin bal, which takes 
place at tho Ganges, at Kuruchhetar (in Karn:ll) or at 
Matan in Kashmir or at tho houso of any of the family 
who can afford it. This at Matan always takes place in 
tho month of Malmas (Lend). At the nardin bal there is no 

It cannot be said that the Ghirths have any distinctive belief 
or special caste cults.* They affect: (1) Jakh, really a form of Shiv 
in the form of a stone, only without the jaleri and generaly 
placed among bushes. This is common to all Hindus owning cattle. 
The milch cattle are devoted to particular jakhs and offerings 
made for them to their particular jakhs when the cattle calve. Any 

* Malaghat is said to bo the ' placo in the Deccan ' whence the Ghirths and their deotd 
(godling) came, and also their god's name. Ajiipiil, a tree god, is also mentioned, and 
sainath ' the]|.lamp of Gosain.' 

294 Ghirth cults, 

one may present the offerings, and those who live near the jaJeh 
take it — in the case of jakhs in the waste the gwdla who happens to be 
grazing cattle near. 

(2) Ndg or snake worship. Every house or collection of houses