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Full text of "Gold fields of Australia. Notes on the distribution of gold throughout the world, including Australia, California, and Russia. With five maps: 1. The world, showing the gold districts; 2. The gold districts of Australia; 3. The gold district from Bathurst to Sidney; 4. The gold district of Victoria; 5. The gold districts of California"

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/ 

GOLD FIELDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

NOTES 

ON THE 

DISTRIBUTION OF GOLD 

THROUGHOUT 

THE WORLD, 

INCLUDING 

AUSTRALIA, 

I 

CALIFORNIA, AND RUSSIA. 

WITH FIVE MAPS: 

1. The World, showing the Gold Districts. 

2. The Gold Districts op Australia. 

3. The Gold District from Bathurst to Sidney. 

4. The Gold District of Victoria. 

5. The Gold Districts of California. 


THIRD EDITION. 

—♦-— 

TO WHICH IS ADDED, 

A GAZETTEIIR 

OF THE 

GOLD DIGGINGS OF AUSTRALIA. 

Eonlron: 

JAMES WYLD, 

* GEOGRAPHER TO THE QUEEN AND PRINCE ALBERT, 

MODEL OF THE EARTH, LEICESTER SQUARE ; 

CHARING CROSS EAST, Next Door to the Post Office; 

AND 

2, ROYAL EXCHANGE. 

Price Two Sfiillings and Sixpence, 


1853. 






TO 


SIR RODERICK IMPEY MURCHISON, 

G.C.St.S., F.R.S., 

/ 

{President of the Royal Geographical Society,) 

The man who, using the light of Science, 
foretold to the English world the existence of Gold in the 
Australian Continent; who, living, has seen the realization of his 
prediction ; and who, throughout a life of scientific usefulness, has 
been ever ready to put forth his hand to uphold those 
who laboured in the task of popular instruction 
, and of scientific advancement. 

It, 

THE FOLLOWING 

“ NOTES UPON THE GOLD DISTRIBUTED THROUGHOUT THE WORLD,” 

rexsppctfullp 3I3et)icatrl), 

\ 

BY 

HIS OBEDIENT SERVANT, 

JAMES WYLD. 


PREFACE. 

In publishing a Third Edition of the “ Notes on the Gold Fields,” 
not only has the information been extended and carried down to the 
latest date, but the first complete topography of the gold regions of New 
South Wales and Victoria is now published. 

The Gazetteer of the gold regions appended to this edition is entirely 
new, and with the topographical section, and the maps, will enable 
nearly five hundred gold diggings to be identified. 




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NOTES ON THE GOLD DISTRICTS 


AUSTRALIA, 

CALIFORNIA, RUSSIA, VIRGINIA, 

AND AMERICA. 


- ♦----- 

§ 1. INTRODUCTION ON THE GOLD QUESTION. 

From the time when men bartered with each other, a 
measure of value was set up, and is to be found in most 
commonwealths or tribes, however rude. Whether this 
measure have relation to a hundred oxen, a hundred slaves, 
a hundred beaver skins, or a hundred cowries, the principle is 
alike admitted. Whenever a state of advancement is reached, 
and the metals are brought into use, we find the recognition 
of a metallic currency, either of iron, or brass, gold or 
silver, marked out by its intrinsic value and its great specific 
gravity. As the production of other metals increased, gold 
and silver became distinguished by their rarity, and acquiring 
a higher relative value, became particularly fitted to serve the 
purpose of a measure of value. Oxen had to be fed ; death 
made monthly inroads among them, and they could not be 
readily transported to a distance, whereas gold and silver kept 
their value, entailed no trouble for maintenance, and could be 
carried from hand to hand. Thus a hundred pieces of metal 
represented a pa}rment with much more convenience than a 
hundred head of oxen. The legends of individual nations 
have assigned personages to whom the finding-out of money 
has been given ; but in this, as in other things, it is much 




Sardis, in Asia Minor. It was through the produce thus 
obtained, that the nations on both shores of the Medi¬ 
terranean Archipelago obtained that large supply of the 
precious metals, which had so great an influence on their 
advancing civilisation. It is true that individual adventurers 
were ever ready to engage in enterprises which promised 
wealth, and although the voyage of the Argonauts engaged 
the best blood of Hellas, yet neither gold robbing nor gold 
working enriched the nations of the west. At a later historical 
period, military expeditions brought large supplies of the 
precious metals into Europe, but there is no marked epoch of 
prosperity which can be assigned to their influence. 

In modern history the case has been different. It was 
of little comparative importance that Columbus discovered 
a new world, for Vasco de Gama had done that; but he 
succeeded in the great end of all such expeditions of discovery, 
the obtaining access to regions of gold and silver. The immense 
quantities of these metals poured in from America, affected not 
merely all the commercial transactions of Europe, but w'ere 
felt by the farmer in distant states, the shepherd on the 
hill side, from the increased money value of their products; 
while a vast population pouring over the western deep laid 
the foundation for new relations of commerce. This discovery 
of the western world is a marked epoch in the history of the 
world at a period when many great events were concurring 
to influence the destinies of the human race. The art of 
printing, the improvement of navigation, the discovery of 
gunpowder, gave a fresh impulse to the pi’actical arts, while 
the restoration of ancient learning, the toppling of the 
Aristotelean philosophy, and a greater extension of religious 
liberty, opened to the mind for a time a more independent 
action. On the English race in particular, that epoch had a 
marked influence. In England and Scotland English prin¬ 
ciples began to regain their ascendancy, and the rights of 
freedom were restored, while our kindred in the Netherlands 
obtained as great a measure of emancipation : at the same 
time the Spanish and Gallic races were depressed by the 
causes which elevated us. 


7 


It is interesting to look back and to make out the development 
of events, but it is no less so to see them pass before our eyes— 
to be present and to take part in them, and we have now arrived 
at a period far more important than that which we have just 
contemplated. Circumstances external to those which we have 
for our special subject and consideration, have been no less in¬ 
fluential than they in giving it this character. The establish¬ 
ment of the locomotive and the ocean steamer, the laying down 
of tlie telegraphic wire, the discovery of electro-metallurgy, and 
the application of the daguerreotype, create a new era in the 
practical arts; but never, perhaps, has the progress of science 
been more extraordinary. The advancement of the electro¬ 
magnetic sciences, of geology, of ethnology, and of the econo¬ 
mical sciences, has done much to liberate mankind from de¬ 
pendence and dogmatism, and to direct them to original research, 
while there have been those events in politics, in religion, and 
in social economy, which show that some great action on the 
human mind is in progress. At this time, when in addition to 
the gold workings of Russia and Virginia, the discoveries in 
Australia and California have opened a new field for enter¬ 
prise, which has set the nations of the world in movement, 
the position of the English race is still more striking than it 
was three centuries and a half ago. By two great empires it 
now keeps a great part of the world under its influence; on 
the shores of the Atlantic, of the Pacific, and of the Indian 
Ocean, our settlements are the means of awakening enterprise, 
and give us the opportunity of profiting by each new event; 
from the Icy Sea to the Gulf of Mexico, America belongs to 
our people ; Australia we have encompasse*d, and marked out 
its destinies, and in the south of Asia hundreds of millions 
already own us as their masters. 

Under these circumstances, it is not idle to speculate on 
what is going on around us, and in what way we are likely to 
be influenced. By events such as these, the destinies of men, 
of households, of whole nations, are affected. Until the 
expedition of Columbus, the lot of a Spaniard bound him to 
the Peninsula; but from that time, the farthest regions of the 


8 



earth became a beacon to the wanderer. The mother found 
her offspring listening to wonderful tales of new lands of 
gold, which were to draw one son to Mexico, another to 
Guiana, and another to Peru. Our people, born to enterprise, 
whom neither the shores of Jutland nor of this island could 
keep in, spread themselves oyer the world ; and Australia and 
California have given a new spur to emigration. The quick 
invention of the poet, and the ready belief of rude 
populations, never gave life to a tale so wonderful as that 
of the city of St. Francisco. A Hindoo or a Tartar emperor 
drew along with him the population of a metropolis in his 
camp, but San Francisco became a settled city in a few 
months, and by astonishing energy has maintained its existence 
against chance conflagrations and the ravages of the incendiary. 
A mighty commerce has been organised, traders and immigrants 
resort from all parts of the world, and a line of powerful 
steamers keeps up constant and regular communication, bring¬ 
ing it within the immediate influence of civilisation. What 
the destinies of Australia may be, none can tell; but the 
statesman, the merchant, the skilled mechanic, the under-fed 
husbandman, and the starving beggar, alike turn their eyes 
with eager glance on a scene teeming with brightest hopes: 
nor is there any one, who, in the progress of these great 
events, can feel assured that he will not be touched by 
their operation, in his household, his connexions, and his 
fortunes. 

At the same time, though the action may be immense, 
individual expectations may be overtasked. It is now known 
that gold digging,* however large, in its nominal returns, is 
not, as a pursuit, more productive of net profit than others. 
If, however, the labourer has to moderate his hopes, so has the 
merchant. The like observations, which we made in 1849 as 
to California, apply now to New Holland. The Geo¬ 
graphical and Mineralogical Notes published in the former 
year to accompany the Map of the Gold Regions of California, 
contained such a sketch of the development of Californian 
prosperity, as experience has proved. It was then said, “Our 


/ 


0 


9 

# 

fathers* watched the progress of America—we ourselves have 
seen that of Australia, but the opening of the Pacific is one 
of the greatest events in social history, since, in the fifteenth 
century, the East Indies were made known to Europe; for we 
have not, as in America or Australia, to await the slow growth 
of infant settlements, but to witness at once the energetic 
action of countries already in a high state of advancement. 
The eastern and western shores of the great ocean will now 
be brought together, as those of the Atlantic are, and will 
minister to each other’s wants. A happy coincidence of 
circumstances has prepared the way for these results; every¬ 
thing was ready; the word only was wanted to begin, and it 
has been given.” How well this description has been justified 
by subsequent operations, all will bear witness. 

We did not, however, stop with this general prediction, but 
went further to point out the details. The outflowings of 
Chinese emigrants and produce, which have gone towards the 
west, will now move to the east. The commercial enterprise 
of Australia and New Zealand has acquired a new field of 
exercise and encou^gement; the markets which Chile and 
Peru have found in Europe only, will be opened nearer to 

I 

their doors; the north-west shore of America will obtain all 
the personal and material means of organization; the islands 
of the Pacific will take the place in the career of civilisation, 
for which the labours of the missionary have prepared them ; 
and even Japan will not be able to withhold itself from the 
commonwealth of nations. All this is worth more to our 
merchants and manufacturers, and to the people employed by 
them, than even the gold mines can be, for this is the 
statement of certain results ; and the workings of the gold 
mines, however productive they may prove, must be attended 
with all the incidents of irregularity and uncertainty, and 
great commercial disadvantages. The sketch given above, of 
the organization of the Pacific, shows how necessary it is to 
modify the views of those who think we either shall, or can 


* 


Geographical Notes to Mr. Wylcl’s Map of the Gold Regions, p. 2 , 



10 


derive great immediate results from California. It is fortunate 
for us it is not so. We shall trade with California and the 
Oregon, it is true, but we shall do much more in the increased 
trade with Valparaiso, Callao, Matanzas, Honolulu, Shanghae, 
Hong Kong, Canton, Singapore, Sydney, Melbourne, 
Adelaide, Launceston, Hobart Town, Wellington, and 
Auckland. Already these markets feel the movement—new 
goods must be sent out, and in the improvement of these 
markets we shall have further guarantees of permanent 
prosperity.” 

That Chinese emigration has filled San Francisco with an 
industrious population, as it will Sydney and Melbourne. 
Chile has been enormously enriched by her exports of flour to 
California; Hawaii from merely exciting interest, as an example 
of Kanaka advancement, has become a state of importance; 
an enormous and profitable trade has been carried on with 
the South Pacific, and even Japan feels the effect of the 
Americo-English advance. 

The present position of Australia admits the application of 
the like observations. A civilised pof^lation was on the 
borders of the gold beds, trained miners were to be had from 
the copper shafts of Burra Burra and the coal-pits of 
Newcastle, while every facility was presented for throwing in a 
flood of immigrants ; and within a few months, 80,000 men 
were concentrated on the Victoria Gold Fields. To California, 
the passage round Cape Horn was a long and dear one; to 
Australia it is shorter, and, being better organised, it is 
cheaper. The overland transit of the isthmuses to California 
was beset with difficulties, which it took some time to over¬ 
come; a steam line, however, already girds the Australian 
shore, and the great ocean ships now approach it from the 
Cape of Good Hope, Singapore, and Panama, whilst the 
steam ships from London to Sydney ensure a regular and 
speedy communication between the metropolis and the rising 
communities of the Antipodes. 

The political circumstances affecting the South Pacific are, 
perhaps, even more favorable than those connected with the 


11 


North Pacific. California stood almost alone, with Oregon 
undeveloped, and Vancouver's Island only just occupied; but 
the Australian settlements form a chain of thriving provinces, 
including Moreton Bay, New South Wales, Victoria, Tas¬ 
mania, South Australia, and Western, Australia. Close at 
hand is New Zealand, which, with Tasmania, will, in case of 
need, supply those provisions for the gold mines which San 
J'rancisco received from Valparaiso and Shanghae. Valparaiso, 
the great English emporium in the South Seas, and nil the 
harbours of Chile and the South American coast, are more 
accessible to Australia than to California. The position of 
China as a source of immigration is more favorable for Sydney 
and Melbourne than their northern rival; and the events now 
taking place in China, where a new emperor besets the south, 
are likely to render even the w^ealthy classes of Qwang-tung 
and Fokien disposed to emigration. The coolies of Hindostan 
can, if there be need, be made as available for the English 
settlements in New Holland as for Mauritius or the West 
Indies; thus, there can be no fear of the want of working 
population for the imines; ^,or of shepherds for the wool 
stations, and indeed, the finding of the gold w^orks has already 
borne this good—that it has stopped the large immigration to 
California, which from Sydney alone was at the rate of 
3,500 yearly, the passages from England of most of whom 
had been already paid from the land-fund of the colonies they 
abandoned. Immigration has indeed begun from San Francisco, 
and extended to every settlement of the English race, and the 
Chinese havg followed the movement. 

The wool and other business of New^ Holland may be 
deserted for a time; but there can be no lasting want of cheap 
and plentiful labour. A short spell at gold digging will 
sicken most men of the calling; and they must fall back on 
the staple trade of the settlement, or they must starve. There 
is, moreover, the means of importing not only the Araforas 
and the Maoris for shepherds, but the Chinese and the 
Hindoos ; and it may be found useful to remove to New 
South Wales some of the Cape Caffres. 


12 


The one fear for New Holland is from the convicts; but even 
the gold finding meets the convict question. No more convicts 
can now be sent to New Holland : not only is the voice of the 
settlers given against it, but neither convicts nor keepers can 
be trusted so near the gold lands. As for the emancipists and 
ticket-of-leave men, to some the gold diggings will open a new 
path of life; but there is no ground for the same fear of them 
as in California. There they had no government to contend 
with, and the rowdies of the old world and the new, to shelter 
their misdeeds; but in New Holland it is otherwise: there is 
a strong community and a strong government; and the forms 
of the constitution and of law do not in this case give a 
shield to sham citizens. Already it appears likely that the 
Governor ►General will be able, by means of a system of legal 
licensing, on a moderate scale, to obtain funds for the main¬ 
tenance of order, and to protect for the workman the fruits of 
his labour; and as the Imperial Government has relinquished 
all claim to the monies received for mining licences, a large 
fund, for the purposes of emigration, will ultimately be placed 
at the command of the Colonial Legislature. 

In considering the probable effect of the gold diggings on 
existing interests, many circumstances have to be taken into 
consideration, which will certainly benefit them in consequence 
of the gold diggings. Thus, already, the home government 
have made arrangements for ocean steam communication, and 
lines of steam ships, regularly pursuing their voyages, bring 
Australia with ninety days sail of Great Britain. The 
overland route for the carriage of gold from the Victoria Gold 
Fields, will open a thousand miles of valuable country, and 
necessitate the completion of good and permanent roadways, 
the first and greatest necessity of a newly settled country. 
The convict agitation may likewise be considered as virtually 
settled. The introduction of a greater population will give a 
value to stock and sheep for meat which they did not here¬ 
tofore possess, and which will go to meet enhanced charges. 
While the freight of treasure and the greater chance of 
passengers make ocean steam navigation more profitable, so 



13 

likewise are greater facilities offered for home communication. 
The Sydney railways will now be pushed, and the more 
particularly as the land-sales and other revenues of the 
province so greatly increase ; and roads will be opened to the 
upland, which will give greater vent for the transport of 
wool and other produce to the shipping harbours on the shore. 
So, too, the steam navigation of the Murray, which has long 
been wished for, is likely to come into operation. 

§ 2. GEOLOGY OF GOLD. 

Gold is more abundantly found in quartz, and slaty rocks 
of high antiquity, particularly in those called Silurian by 
Murchison, which lie in contact with granite, porphyry, and 
other eruptive rocks. It is not, however, in such solid rocks 
when in their original position, that the richest gold mines have 
prevailed, but only in their debris or gravel, as spread out on 
the flanks of the mountains. Emery and quicksilver are 
frequently found in gold countries. 

It is considered by some, that gold is not to be found 
as an ore, chemically united with other elements, but always 
in a native or pure state, even if mechanically combined 
with platinum, silver, palladium or other allied metals. 
When in rock, it is therefore found in grains, thin leaves, 
knobs, or even great lumps, from a grain barely to be seen, 
to lumps which have been met with above one hundred 
pounds weight, and worth some 4,000 sovereigns. The 
gold may be either spread everywhere, and mixed up 
throughout the rock, or it may be in veins or lodes, spreading 
about like the twigs of a tree—here thickly, there scantily. 
As connected with the primary formations, gold veins are 
sometimes found in situ; but it is only in a few districts that 
they are worth working; for when followed as a mining 
operation, the yield of mineral is small, even if the worth is 
great. It is for this reason that the gold veins in the older 
rocks of our islands are not wrought, as a mass of rock 
must be crushed, and the yield of gold is insufficient to pay 


14 


the labour. Thus, Merionethshire and Wicklowshire have 
yielded no permanent results. Indeed, although gold veins 
are worked in many places, it is chiefly in the Brazils, 
Siberia, California and Australia that gold has been found 
worth working on a large scale. 

It is to the heaps of old detritus, resulting from the 
breaking down of mountain sides by former great convulsions, 
as well as to the banks of the rivers which flow through such 
accumulations, that we have to look for the most profitable 
supplies of gold. There, instead of hard rock, soft sand and 
gravel have to be searched, and the gold is often thrown toge¬ 
ther under natural arrangements; while there is a better pros¬ 
pect of getting on a bunch or nugget of rich ore. The gold- 
bearing rivers may be within the primary formations, or flow 
beyond them; but they derive their chief supplies from the 
heaps, and hills of old drift, orginally formed out of the older 
rocks. A grand error in all ages, and which has often diverted 
attention from stream washing, has been the constant endeavour 
to seek in the mountains for the “mother supply” of gold*. These 
researches have very seldom succeeded, because the object of 
search was beyond reach, the assumption of some large concen¬ 
trated mine being false. On piercing the rocks, the superficial 
supply has generally been found scanty, and those who hence 
attempted deep workings, in the hope of reaching better veins, 
have been disappointed, because the gold seems to be chiefly 
distributed superficially. 

A drift, resulting from the former abrasion of the surface 
of gold-bearing rocks, is a natural mining operation, 
which was carried out upon a large scale, thousands of 
years ago; and so far as the superficial supplies of gold are con¬ 
cerned, it is likely to be more productive than any immediate 
working in the rocks. A gold drift is, indeed, the result of 
a gigantic gold washing; and credulity might well dream it 
to be the labour of elfin workmen. By the action of ancient 
convulsions, and floods in the high mountain regions, the pri- 

* The Quartz veins in the Mariposa district of California are examples 
of superficial workings in the solid rock. 



15 



mary rocks were worn down, and the rubbings or detritus are 
now carried throuo-h the watercourses which drain tlie 
upper districts. The amount of this detritus is enormous; 
though the amount of gold found will not be in pro¬ 
portion to the local deposit of detritus, but to the whole 
amount of detritus which has been carried over the spot from 
the time the scouring of the mountain sides began. The 
whole amount of detritus will, it is true, be carried down the 
valley, and some part into the sea; but the gold, in virtue of 
its greater weight, will, in a river of any length, be deposited 
far above the sea estuary. Thus, the accumulations of gold 
in the whole water basin must relatively be large, as the result 
either of the former great drifts, or of a constant and long- 
continued action or washing of those ancient deposits. 

In many cases, although the upper sand of the river bed 
may show no token of gold, yet it may be found plentifully 
below, where the coating of sand is thick, or the washing of 
the flood is deep. The deeper the gully the greater the 
chance of a deposit, and in such places the diving bell has 
been used with success. Diamonds have likewise been found 
accompanying these deposits. 

The same cause which restricts the gold deposits to the 
water basin, further heaps it up on given spots. It may be 
there are several of these in the course of a river, and the 
deposits on each spot may be more or less thickly spread; but 
every natural bar which dams the waters, will likewise dam 
the gold ; and it is at these places, and above them, the gold 
will be mostly found, though mountain freshes will some¬ 
times sweep gold to a further barrier. In these natural divi¬ 
sions, the gold will be found heaped together against a ledge 
of rocks, or spread for miles along the banks, where the 
stream is sluggish. In some parts, the gold is to be met with 
resting on a bed of rock, in others mixed up with the gravel, 
at the lowest bound to which the action of the river flow or 
freshets reach. Local observation directs the miner to the 
V most likely place for finding the gold; but wherever met with, 
it is in the same condition as if obtained from crushing or 


removing the rock, namely—pure, and in dust, scales or 
nuggets. 

A distinction may be drawn between ancient deposits 
and new deposits. In ancient deposits, the gold is often 
found in what are no longer the watercourses of the quartz 
or granite mountain chains. A distinction of this kind is 
perhaps the basis for the difference between what in California 
are called the dry diggings and the wet diggings; though the 
dry diggings have been considered by some as less productive. 
The dry diggings are in the old drift on the higher banks, 
the wet diggings in the beds of the rivers; but then it is to 
be observed in this case, what are called the wet diggings 
really include the old and new deposits together ; and being on 
the site of the old watercourses, which pass through the 
ancient heaps of gold drift, expose all the richest materials 
of the whole period of natural gold accumulation. 

On the discovery of gold deposits in a given spot, it 
cannot be safely assumed that the whole water basin below 
will produce gold. Gold is found in the Goomty, at the foot 
of the Himalayas; but it is not therefore to be looked for in 
the Hooghly, a thousand miles below. In such a distance, the 
bulk of the gold will be deposited at each fall or natural weir, 
and but a small surplus can be available for a distance ; 
besides, there is good reason for believing, that when once the 
low and flat lands are reached, a few miles of sluggish river 
will thoroughly sift from gold all the detritus brought down 
from above. For these reasons, the lower valleys of the 
Murray are only likely to have gold deposits in virtue of 
ancient geological operations, as it is little likely any gold can 
be carried from the junction of the Darling to Lake Alex- 
andrina. Gold exists in the South Australian formations, 
near the mouth of the Murray, as it does in those of the New 
South Wales formations in the head waters of the Darling, 
both north and east of the Liverpool dividing range; in the 
Flunter and its tributaries, which flow into the western seas; 
and also in the Murray, at the head of its tributary streams, 
which flow from the Blue Mountain ranges through the 


17 


province of Victoria ; but the gold in the intermediate spaces 
is more likely to be found in the side creeks and feeders, 
than in the main stream. The deposits do not, indeed, depend 
upon the rivers, but on the mountain chains which contain 
gold-bearing rocks, and which is now the ascertained cha¬ 
racteristic of the mountain system of the river basin of the 
Murray. 

§ 3. SYSTEM OF GOLD-WORKING. 

For gold workings, there are three chief methods,—wash¬ 
ing, crushing, and mining,-—dependent on the locality in 
which the gold is found; washing being applied to sands, 
crushing or stamping, and mining, to rock formations. 

Gold-washing, streaming, or placer working, is a rude 
operation, much the same everywhere, or varying only 
according to the extent of labour and tlie degree of co¬ 
operation acquired. Thus, the black on the Niger, the 
Hindoo on the Goomty, and the Englishman on the Murray 
or Sacramento, works singly in the same manner, digging 
and turning over small portions of sand ; but some, banding 
together, form companies, which obtain more powerful washing- 
machines, or which, occupying a larger district, dam up or 
divert the mountain streams. Still, the operation of washing 
rests on the same basis. It must, too, be carried on upon the 
spot, because, the yield of gold being small in proportion 
to the bulk of earth, the sand can never be carried profitably 
to a distance. 

The gold being always found in a state nearly pure, and of 
high specific gravity, by its greater weight is readily separable 
from the earth or sand in which it is mixed, and on being well 
washed, even in the palm of the hand, will leave behind the 
metallic particles. The collecting of the sand, and the wash¬ 
ing, therefore constitute the whole operation; and in the 
beginning of the new discoveries, we find men working with 
clasp knives and wash-basins, for want of better tools. 
In the advanced stages of working in Australia or California, 


B 


18 


picks, and spades, and wheelbarrows are brought into play, 
bv whicli labour is made more effective. It does sometimes 
happen that the digger is rewarded with a lump or nugget of 
gold which, being of ten, twenty, forty, or fifty pounds weight, 
may at once yield him five hundred, a thousand, or two thou¬ 
sand pounds; but most commonly the gold must be obtained 
by washing, being really in dust or scales. Sometimes the 
digger restricts hiniself to the search for the larger particles, 
and this is called “ nuggetting.” 

In some of the rude districts of Hindustan, pans and win¬ 
nowing baskets are still used for wasliing ; but where parties 
are organized, even there a ‘^cradle’’ or washing machine 
is then employed. One reason, perhaps, why the attention of 
the Americo-English w^as not more stn)ngly called to gold¬ 
streaming is, because the gold-hunters of Virginia worked 
singly, and the yield was so inconsiderable as to leave little 
profit. So it is in those districts of India where the sands are 
poor, and the washing is carried on singly. The cradle, 
however, affords a great economy of labour; and thereby 
sands can be washed which would otherwise take an enormous 
period to sift. Some formations are, nevertheless, rich ; and 
in the early period of the Californian workings, Mr. Sinclair, 
an old settler, set fifty Indians to work on the North Fork 
of the Sacramento, with native-made willow baskets, and yet 
he got about ^£^600 or c£^700 weekly. 

The cradle is very simply arranged. In its primitive form, 
as used by the Chinese in Borneo, the Hindoos in the Dekkan, or 
the English in Australia and California, it is a box on rockers, 
six or eight feet long, open at the foot, and having at its head 
a coarse grate or sieve. In the early Californian cradles the 
bottom was rounded, and nailed across with small cleats. 
This kind of machine will employ four men—one digger or 
excavator, to raise the sand; another to carry it to the grate 
of the cradle; a third to rock or shake it violently; and a 
fourth to pour on water; but now the mechanical arrange¬ 
ments are still further improved. The use of the sieve is to 
keep the coarse stones from going into the cradle, while the 


19 


/ 


current of water washes away the earthy matter, and the 
gravel is gradually swept out at the foot of the machine, 
leaving the gold mixed with a heavy, fine black sand, above 
the first cleats. The sand and gold mixed together are 
then taken away, and the sand being dried, is blown away? 
the gold remaining free behind. The gold thus obtained is, 
according to quantity, put in quills, bottles, or bags. Cradles 
of large size in California have peculiar names. A cradle 9 or 
10 feet long is called a Long Tom, but some use the Virginia 
Burke Rocker, employing quicksilver to amalgamate the gold*. 

It will be perceived that the cradle is only carrying out the 
process which nature has pointed out. As the gold thinly dis¬ 
seminated in the rocks is washed out of the rubbings of the 
primary formations, and carried down the rivers until it 
lodges against some bar or ledge, where its greater weight 
causes it to fall to the bottom of the sand or river bed, so is 
the gold sand passed through the cradle, and the gold is 
lodged against the cleat or bar of the cradle, the gold being 
always at the bottom of the stream, and only able to pass in 
suspension when mixed up with a quantity of lighter mineral. 
Washing tables are used in Siberia ; but gold machinery does 
not admit of much complication. The use of the diving bell 
is but sparing as yet, but it is likely to lead to great results. 

From the description of the operations, it will be seen that 
the effectiveness of placer work depends wholly on the quantity 
of rude labour employed, and that it is only suited to canal 
diggers, excavators, and miners. With others it can be but 
a matter of gambling; for, wanting the bodily strength 
needful to get through the steady work, they hunt about for 
gold in the hope of getting a nugget which may make them 
rich for a time, though it cannot be for long, as the gambling 
itch which led to this gold hunting, leads them to stake their 
winnings at the play-table, and they have to begin their 
wanderings and hardships anew. 

* Quicksilver mines exist at New Almaden, in California, and the 
gold mines of California and Australia will be supplied with quicksilver for 
amalgamation at cheaper rates, and quicker than from the mines of Europe. 
Quicksilver is reported to be discovered in Natal. 

R 2 




20 


It may, however, be said that there is another condition 
which admits of gold washing, and that is, wliere a slave, as 
in the Brazils, or ill-fed Hindoo, works for a bare subsistence. 
This, however, seldom yields an income to a master, or revenue 
to the tax-gatherer; and the whole yearly produce of such 
labours is always inconsiderable, being perhaps a few thousand 
pounds for a large district. 

Quartz crushing, which is carried on in Australia and 
California, is applied to rocks in which the gold is more 
or less thickly spread about; and the purpose of crushing or 
stamping is to reduce it to the condition of sand for streaming, 
so that, being washed like the gold sands, the rock may be 
swept away, and the gold left behind. This allows of a still 
greater application of mechanical power, because it is worth 
while to carry the ore some distance to the stamping machine, 
whereas, though the cradle may be taken from one washing to 
another, yet the bulk of the cradle is kept down by this 
condition of being removed ; the stamping engine, however, can 
work for a large district round. In Californja it has been 
found worth while to set up steam engines, supplied with fuel 
from the neighbouring pine woods, or with Vancouver Island 
coal, but the chief difficulty is in getting together workmen to 
keep the engines in repair. The steam engine could not be 
at first worked in the inland of Australia, for though coal 
is wrought on the shore at Newcastle, the charge for land 
conveyance to the diggings became very costly. If, how¬ 
ever, gold working could be established low down on the 
Murray, then coal from Bass’s Straits could be steam-towed 
up the river as far as the junction of the Murray and the 
Darling, and perhaps higher. 

The crushing is applied to superficial rocks which are seen 
to have gold sparkling in them, and which are broken off by 
picks, or blasted with gunpowder. This kind of work is 
therefore very much like what is carried on in Cornwall, and 
fitted for such a population. 

Gold mining is carried on in the common way, by driving 
shafts, galleries and levels on lodes and veins of the ore; but 


which, being very narrow, seldom pay for the working 
though a chance lump or pocket will sometimes encourage 
working for a time. As the lodes are subject to the contin¬ 
gencies of other lodes, the mineral vein is often found to run 
down poor, or to be broken olf. The ore when obtained is 
broken up, crushed, and washed, to obtain the gold by its 
greater weight. Amalgamation with quicksilver is sometimes 
resorted to, but is most commonly applied in reducing 
silver. 


§ 4. THE GOLD MONETARY QUESTION. 

While the penniless look with hope on California and New 
Holland, the wealthy hear of them with dread. To the 
former they hold forth the chance of getting money; to the 
latter, fear that the value of their stores will be diminished. 
Among the many extraordinary incidents connected with the 
Californian discoveries, was the alarm communicated to many 
classes; which was not confined to individuals, but invaded 
governments. The first announcement spread alarm ; but, as 
the cargoes of g-old rose from a hundred thousand dollars to a 
million, bankers and financiers began seriously to prepare for an 
expected crisis. In England and the United States the panic 
was confined to a few; but on the continent of Europe every 
government, rich or poor, thought it needful to make pro¬ 
vision against the threatened evils. An immediate alteration 
in prices was looked for; money was to become so abundant, 
that all ordinary commodities were to rise, but more especially 
the proportion between gold and silver was to be disturbed, 
some thinkino; that the latter mio;ht become the scarcer 

o o 

metal. The governments of France, Holland and Russia 
in particular turned their attention to the monetary 
question, and in 1850 the government of Holland availed 
itself of a law which had not before been put in operation, to 
take immediate steps for selling ofl‘ the gold in the Bank of 
Amsterdam, at what they supposed to be the then highest 
pr ices, and to stock themselves with silver. Palladium, which is 


09 


likewise a superior wliite metal, was held more firmly, and 
expectations were entertained that it would become available 
for plating. The stock, however, is small. 

The silver operation was carried on concurrently with a 
supply of bullion to Russia for a loan, a demand for silver in 
Austria, and for shipment to India, and it did really produce 
an effect on the silver market, which many mistook for the 
influence of California. The particular way in which the 
Netherlands operations were carried out was especially calcu¬ 
lated to produce the greatest disturbance of prices. The 
ten florin gold pieces were sent to Paris, coined there into 
Napoleons, and silver five franc pieces drawn out in their 
place. At Paris the premium on gold in a few months fell 
from nearly 2 per cent, to a discount, and at Hamburgh a like 
fall took place. In London, the great silver market, silver 
rose between the autumn and the new year from 5s. per oz. 
to 5s. l|d. per oz., and Mexican dollars from 4^?. lOJd. to 
46'. ll|d. per oz.; nor did prices recover until towards the 
end of the vear 1851, when the fall was as sudden as the rise. 

As yet the large importations from Australia and California 
have produced no effect on prices, because the operations of 
the gold lands have opened a vent for a considerable portion 
of the bullion produced. In California a large amount was 
kept in stock, and a large amount was wanted for currency, 
prices being so enhanced. The trade created in the Pacific 
likewise took off a large amount of Californian bullion, which 
was absorbed into the currency. In Chile alone the value 
of imports to California was very large, and was paid for in 
gold; indeed the gold of California went to every market of 
the Pacific, and gold dust was soon regularly quoted in 
Valparaiso, Lima, Tacna, Canton and Madras. The same 
cause has operated with the Australian importations. As 
there was no mint in Australia, a large amount of coined 
metal was sent from England to purchase gold, and to meet 
the requirements of the extended trade; and even with greater 
facilities of minting the imports and deposits of specie are 
large in the Australian provinces. 


Europe and the United States were ca]:)able of taking a 
large amount of bullion for currency, as the banks held 
stocks below their full amounts; but it was noticed, that 
throughout 1850,1851, and 1852, the general stock of bullion 
in the banks did not show any increase corresponding to the 
exports from the gold lands. Political distrust has caused 
hoarding in some districts, while in some others, where a 
paper currency does not prevail, greater social prosperity has 
created a demand for more bullion, besides the demand for 
purposes of luxury. Thus, hitherto, the supply of the new 
gold fields has met with a ready circulation, but in a time of 
full confidence and steady peace the results would have been 
otherwise. 

Of' the total yearly yield of gold no accurate estimate can 
be made. In 1800 the whole yield of gold and silver was 
estimated at .£^10,250,000. The following is an estimate of 
the yield of gold and silver for each of the following years; 

Gold. Silver. Total. 


1840 ... £.^5,000,000 ... .P6,750,000 

1848 ... 7,000,000 ... 6,750,000 

1850 ... 17,500,000 ... 7,500,000 

1851 ... 22,500,000 ... 7,500,000 

1852 ... 40,000,000 ... 7,500,000 

1858 ... 45,000,000 ... 7,500,000 


.£11,750,000 

18,750,000 

25,000,000 

30,000,000 

47,500,000 

52,500,000 


The whole stock of bullion of gold and silver now in 
circulation, is estimated by various economists at c£500,000,000, 
but complete data are wanting. 

The chief supplies of gold are, at present, from Australia, 
50 per cent. ; from California, about 40 per cent. ; from 
Russia, 5 per cent.; Australasian Archipelago, 1 per cent.; 
Mexico and South America, 1 per cent. 


§ 5. GOLD IN EUROPE. 

The supply of gold from Europe has never been great. In 
the earliest historical period, some small amounts were for a 
long time obtained from river washings, from Spain ; but at 
the present day, the supplies are from mine workings. 






Ill r^noland, small particles of gold are sometimes found in 
the Cornish mines and tin streams, at Carnon Vale and at 
South Molton, in Devon, and in Wales they are found dissemi¬ 
nated among the rocks in Merionethshire and elsewhere; but 
hitherto gold has not been considered worth working—silver 
being the only precious metal obtained to any extent, and 
that of late years only, d'he gold ornaments of the Iberian 
and British chiefs, found in tombs, are supposed to have 
been got from river washings, and being rare, it is not 
thought that gold was at any time found on a large scale here. 
From the Cwmhusian mines in Merionethshire, seven pounds 
weight of gold have lately been obtained. Gold is said to 
have been found at Pollux Flill in Bedfordshire, at Little 
Taunton in Gloucestershire, and on Sheepstor, Dartmoor, 
and near North and South Molton in Devon. From the 
Poltimore mine. North Molton, geld gossan ore is raised. 
In the Lead-hills, in the south of Scotland, gold was worked 
under the Scotch kings, and it has been recognised in the 
Fifeshire mountains. 

The only remarkable gold district in Ireland is on the 
east shore in Wicklow. The richest deposit, as usual, was 
found on the banks of the rivers, an accidental discovery 
being made in the Ballinvalley streams at Croghan Kinshela, 
in 1796. The total value raised did not probably exceed 

0,000, and was soon worked out. Attempts were 
made to carry on gold mines in the primitive formations, but 
they did not pay. In Croghan Moira mine, about seven 
miles from Kinshela, gold was likewise found in small quatities. 
Indications of gold are said to have been found in the Miola 
rivulet in Ulster, and in the Shannon at Inchmore. 

In France, gold is likewise found at Gardette in the Isere, 
but not in sufficient quantity to pay the expense of working. 
In the rivers of the Rhone, Rhine, and Garonne, there is 
auriferous sand, and in those of the mountains of Cevennes 
and Languedoc. 

The rivers of Spain and Portugal—more particularly the 
Tagus, Douro and Darro—have gold sands; but they are not 
now wrought. At Adissa, in the St. Ubes district, a gold 


25 



mine was for some time worked : the produce in 1815 was 
41 lbs.; 1816, 18 lbs.; 1817, 11 lbs.; 1818, 12 lbs.; 1819 
13 lbs.; 1820, 12 lbs.; 1821, 18 lbs. The total value of 
the produce in seven years was only about <£^5000. In 
Arragon, Leon, Andalusia, Granada, and Galicia, are gold 
mines. It is probable dry diggings may be found in Spain. 
The mine of Domingo Flores, in Leon, was worked from 
1639 to 1749. At Culera in Gerona is gold quartz. 

Except in the Alpine regions, no considerable traces of gold 
are found in Italy ; nor are there any workings. There are 
no traces of gold in Italy. In Savoy, it is reported river 
depo'sits have been lately discovered; and gold is said to be at 
the foot of Mount Rosa. In Sicily, a mine, stated to have 
been formerly worked for gold, lies in the mountains north¬ 
west of Taormina. Pesterana, in the Alps, is oneof the oldest 
gold mines—the gold being scattered in sulphuret of iron. 

In Germany and the Germanic states, gold has been 
found in many localities, and was formerly extracted to a 
great extent in Bohemia. It is also obtained from the 
Hartz, the Mulda, Bavaria, and Baden. Gold is got from 
the arsenious ores of Silesia. In Hungary, gold is raised 
from the mines of Schemnitz and Kremnitz ; being the 
richest for this mineral in Europe. The yield is taken at 
1050 lbs. of gold yearly, worth ^£’35,000. In 1848, 
40 lbs. of gold was found in granite, in Salzburg, and 3 lbs. 
in Illyria. Transylvania is another rich district, and yields 
1375 lbs. of gold yearly. In the Banat of Temeswar, 60 lbs. 
of gold was obtained in 1848. The gipsies are the chief 
gold washers. One estimate of the whole produce of gold in 
Austria is 4000 lbs. yearly ; and in twenty-six years, 85,000 lbs. 
In Bohemia are gold washings on the Iser. In Salzburg are 
gold mines, which yielded 35 lbs. of gold yearly. In the 
Tyrol are gold washings, two miles from Zell. In the 
Danube are washings between Vienna and Pesth. 

In Sweden there are several gold mines. That of Adelfors, 
in Smaland, formerly yielded 15 to 20 lbs. of gold yearly ; 
but now, it is said, onlv 1 or 2 lbs. The working: began in 


26 



1,7^8. The Fahlun mines yield about 2lbs. yearly. Gold is 
here found with copper, as in Cornwall. In Norway is the 
gold mine of Edswold, in the Horn marge district. Stream 
washing does not seem to have been tried in Scandinavia. At 
Kongsberg, in Norway, gold has been found, wliich was 
coined by Christian IV. The lode is found in quartz. 

Turkey has gold in several districts. The best known 
deposit is that of the river washings in Bosnia, where it is 
found among sand and pebbles; but the country is so dis¬ 
ordered that no gold is produced. It is likewise found in 
Thrace, Macedonia, and at Sidei’ocapso, near Salonica. 
Cyprus and Thasus have been already mentioned. 

In Russia, the chief gold deposits are on the Asiatic side 
of the Ural Mountains; but in 1739 a gold mine was found 
and worked in Olonetz. 

The total produce of Russia from Europe and Asia, was, 
n the beginning of this century, estimated at 42,675 lbs., or 
about dS* 1,800,000 yearly. In 1830 the amount was estimated 
at 15,000 lbs., and at the like amount in 1831; in 1835, at 
12,280 lbs.; in 1842, at 41,000 lbs.; in 1843, at 55,000 lbs.; 
in 1847, 73,300 lbs.; in 1848, 75,600 lbs.; in 1849, 69,600lbs. 

The production of gold in Russia in 1847, was about 
d^4,000,000; in 1848, something more; and in 1849, about 
0 ^ 3 , 500 , 000 . 


§ 6. SIBERIAN GOLD REGIONS. 

The chief Russian gold districts are two—those of the Ural 
chain on the west, and those of Nertchinsk and Kholivan, 
in the Altai, on the east. The resemblance of the Ural district 
to California is remarkable, and has been pointed out by 
several eminent men. The workings are strictly gold diggings, 
with one small exception near Ekterinburg, The ancient 
gold drift has been spread over a surface of many square 
miles, in the basins of the rivers Grande Birussa, Upper 
Tongooska, Ooderei, and Pite, in the Yenissei province 
of Siberia. With the exception of the districts belonging 






to the imperial mines of Kholivan, Voskressensk and 
Nertchinsk, and the country beyond the Lake Baikal, 
the gold findings throughout Siberia are thrown open to 
private enterprise. The chief discoveries in this district were 
made in 1829 ; but being under regulation, they did not give 
a general stimulus to gold washing. That was reserved for 
California. 

The following shows the gradual produce of gold from 
Siberia.— lbs. lbs. 


1829 

55 

1830 

465 

1831 

453 

1832 

965 

1833 

... 1,600 

1834 

... 2,871 

1835 

... 4,054 

1836 

... 4,610 


1837 

... 5,828 

1838 

.. 8,460 

1839 

... 8,025 

1840 

... 11,202 

1841 

... 15,720 

1842 

07 7QO 

• • • ^ ^ 1 

1843 

... 40,868 


The difference between these amounts and the totals before 


given, will pretty nearly represent the gold produce of the 
Ural at the several periods. 


§ 8. GOLD IN ASIA AND AUSTRALASIA. 

The gold districts of Asia are chiefly those of Siberia, 
already described. 

In Hindostan, gold is found in several regions, and it may 
be said in every river system. Hitherto operations have 
been carried on languidly ; but under the stimulus of Australia, 
more vigorous researches may be made, and extensive placer 
workings be discovered. In the basin of the Indus, between 
Attock and Kalabagh, 300 people are employed in washing 
the sands, the gold being chiefly in flattened grains or scales, 
and yielding 2,000 oz. yearly. In the basin of the Ganges 
gold is found, as in the Goomty, Ramgunga, and other 
rivers at the foot of the Himalayas, where washings are carried 
on. Native gold is here likewise found in the gneiss, which 
is traversed by veins of granite, and distinctly stratifled. On 
each coast, and in the heart of the Dekkan, gold is found 




28 


, and worked in several localities. Among these may be enume¬ 
rated the river workings of the Paliaur and Poniaur, rivers 
in eastern Mysore; of Nolarnpoor, Kapoor, Srussumjee, 
Polwye, Tirumpaddy, and other rivers in C’alicut and on the 
Malabar coast; of Malapuram in Nedingahad ; of Kadala- 
onely and Parpanangady, on the south shore in Sliernaad; 
of Kahil, Aripanad, and the Tirumaly Hills, besides twenty 
river works in the Ernaad district. Of these latter, the yield 
was 62lbs. in 1834. 

Gold is further found in our Assam provinces, the river 
sands being washed. The yield is said to be about 38,000 oz. 

In China, gold is worked in the river sands of Sechuen and 
of Yunan, near the Tibet borders, and in the Burmese rivers 
on the frontiers. 

In Tibet, gold is found in dust in many of the rivers, and 
likewise scattered in lumps and grains, in quartz and other 
rocks. The gold is here worked, but the yearly yield is not 
known. 

In Malacca, gold is found at Naning, Pahang, Tringanu, 
Calantan, Battang, Moring, and in other localities; and the 
yearly return is estimated at 26,000 ounces. There is gold 
quartz at the foot of Mount Ophir. 

Gold, it is known, is produced in Japan, and in quantities 
sufficient for home purposes; but the yield is supposed to be 
falling off. The chief gold works are in a pyritic ore of 
copper; but there are likewise diggings in the alluvial soils. 
The Japanese copper has been often found to contain gold. 

Throughout Australasia gold is found, abounding most in 
those islands which are composed of primitive and transition 
rocks; being richest in the western and northern islands, and 
least abundant in the eastern islands, though it is met with in 
Java. Borneo is the richest of these gold regions; and it is 
worked at Banjarmassin and Pontianak, chiefly by Chinese 
mining companies. The gold is found in veins and mineral 
strata, in the sands and beds of rivers, and in dry diggings. 
Above 6000 Chinese have been employed at one time in these 




19 j 

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workings; and the yield is estimated at 9000 lbs. yearly, or 
-£^375,000. In Sarawak in 1849, 5^,000 men got d£’30,000 
worth of gold from the detritus of Mount Trian. The yield 
of the Sumatra mines is taken at 3000 lbs., or <^£^131,000 
yearly; and of the other mines in the several islands, about 
4000 lbs., of which Celebes, 800 lbs. ; Timor, 80 lbs.; and 
the Philippines, 1200 lbs. 

Gold is known to exist in New Guinea, but details are 
wanting. It is likewise said to have been discovered in New 
Caledonia. 

Gold exists in New Zealand, but the riches of these islands 
are in its agricultural products. 

§ 9. TOPOGRAPHY OF THE AUSTRALIAN GOLD REGIONS. 

The chief Australian gold diggings hitherto reported being 
connected with the basin of the River Murray, or rather, 
with the adjoining mountains from which its tributaries are 
derived, it becomes useful to give some account of that river 
system^. This river may justly rank among the great ones 
of the world, and is the greatest on the New Holland main 
land, of which it may be called the Mississippi. The extent 
of its basin is by no means known, its western feeders being 
those with which we are least acquainted. To the east it 
reaches beyond 151° east, approaching the shores of New 
South Wales; to the north a feeder has been found in 25° 
south lat., and on the south its mouth is in 35° south lat., 
though some of its feeders in the Victoria province are as far 
south as beyond 37°. On the west its mouth, and probably 
many main feeders, reach to 139° east longitude. The area of 
the basin at a mean is not less than 1,400 miles, from north to 
south, and 500 from east to west, covering between 600,000 
and 700,000 square miles, or a district six times the area of 
these islands, and five times the extent of California. By the 


* This is A’^ery conveniently illnstratecl on Mr. Wyld’s large Model of 
the Earth, in Leicester Square, where the mountain chains and the river 
systems of Australia can be seen at one view, and on a considerable scale. 




so 



latest accounts, gold was found over a length of 400 miles, 
and a breadth of 500 miles. 

The shores of the Australian mainland, where chiefly 
settled, are girded in within 100 miles of the sea by a belt of 
hills, having short water-courses to the sea. On their inland, 
or east side, all the waters are feeders of the great Murray, 
and have a long course before their waters reach the sea. 
For a considerable distance they flow among the mountains, 
but after a space open out on large sandy plains, in which 
sometimes the waters are lost. 

The Murray River system may be chiefly divided into two 
great parts. The rivers of the north and north-east all flow 
into the Darling, and those of the south and south-east, from 
southern New South Wales and Victoria, into, the Morum- 
bidgee, or Upper Murray. These two great arms uniting 
form the Lower or main Murray, which opening near the 
sea into a large lagoon, called Lake Alexandrina, discharges 
itself by several mouths into the sea south-east of Adelaide, in 
South Australia. 

The first shire in which gold was found, was that of Bathurst 
in New South Wales. This countrv was considered inacces- 
sible until 1813, and consists generally of table land, about 
2000 feet above the sea, broken up, and forming extensive 
treeless downs, such as Bathurst Plains, which latter have an 
extent of 50,000 acres, or eighty square miles. They have 
been compared to Brighton Downs in England ; they exliibit, 
however, a strange peculiarity: on the top of some of the knolls 
are found quagmires or bogs, sometimes resembling a pond 
dried up, or sometimes covered over by deep grass, and there¬ 
fore are very dangerous. In 1845, Bathurstshire, which 
includes 2000 square miles, had already 4400 inhabitants, with 
about 30,000 head of cattle, and 250,000 sheep. The chief 
towns were Bathurst, with 2000 inhabitants, now much in¬ 
creased, and Carcoar, likewise an incorporated town. 
Bathurst is 121 miles by road from Sydney, and ninety-five 
and a half by the air-line. Part of the Frederick’s Valley 
diggings are in this shire, as are Belubela, Coombing, Pepper 
Creek, C.’ampbell River, and the Crook well. 


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Bathurstsliire is in two valleys, that of the Macquarie, 
north, and that of the Lachlan, south, and in both, lar^e 
quantities of gold have been found. These valleys are divided 
by a tolerably high range, in which are Conobolus, 4461 feet 
high, and the Three Brothers. 

Wellinfftonshire lies next Bathurstsliire, and its southern 
divisions include the famous gold districts of the Turon and 
of Suinmerhill. The Turon diggings include Sofala, Big 
and Little Oakey Creeks, and Wyagden, which are partly 
in Roxburgh. Meroo diggings are thirty miles to the 
north, but the Louisa is its most productive creek. Here 
are Tambaroura, PyramulCreek, Nuggetty Gully, Cudgegong, 
Macquarie, and Molong. This shire contains about 1600 
square miles, and before the gold discoveries, scarcely as 
many inhabitants. The streams feeding the Summerhill 
Creek, and running by the Molong to the Macquarie, rise 
on the sides of the high mountain, Coiiobolus, which forms 
a centre in this region of the gold deposits. These diggings 
are described in detail in the Gazetteer. 

Roxburghshire lies north of Bathurstsliire and Wellington- 
shire, from the latter of which it is divided by the golden 
stream, the Turon. Its area is about 1000 square miles, and 
before the gold mania, its population was about 2500. The 
shire town of Kelso is near Bathurst, and its population was 
500. There are many high hills in this district. The diggings 
are Cudgegong, Turon, Winburndale, and Fish River. 

South of Bathurstshire is Georgianaland, chiefly watered by 
the Abercrombie river ruiiniiip; throuo-li it. On this river 
are the Tarshish diggings, Tuenna, the Sounding Rock, 
IMulgunnia, Copperhannia, Mountain Run Creek, and other 
diggings. There are likewise Pepper Creek, the Narrawa, 
and the Crook well. 

South of Georgianaland is Argyleshire, the seat of some 
important gold mines. It contains 2000 square miles, and a 
population of 5000, with about 300,000 sheep. It consists of 
many ridges, with swelling hills and irregular plains, well 
watered. In its south are numerous lakes and lagoons, one of 


which is I^ake Bathurst. This lake is from three to five miles 
across, its size varying according to the mountain torrents 
which are poured into it. To the north of Lake Bathurst 
are Goulburn Plains, consisting of about sixty square miles, 
without a tree. Here is the town of Goulburn, 125 miles 
from Sydney, with 1200 inhabitants. Gold is found in the 
Mulwaree Ponds, and the district near Lake George. 

Murray shire, another gold region, is south of Argvleshire, 
its area is 2200 square miles, with a population of 3000, 
having 25,000 cattle, and 300,000 sheep. Through Murray- 
shire runs the Gourock Range, at the foot of which is Lake 
George. This lake is 2000 feet above the sea, about sixteen 
miles wide, and seven broad, having on its west shore a 
steep range of hills. Near Lake George are the diggings 
at Carrawang Flat and Batmaroo. There are also the 
Yass, Molonglo, Queanbeyan, Morumbidgee, and Shoalhaven 
diggings. 

In the neighbouring maritime shire of St. Vincent, is 
Braidwood, a point in the mining district, having about 
200 inhabitants. The diggings are at Araluen, Budawang, 
Mount Ebrington, Mongarlo, and Shoalhaven. (Further 
south are the diggings on the Snowy River, for which see 
the Gazetteer.) The Inverpool dividing range rises in a 
north-east and south-west direction, until it joins the great 
north and southern mountain chain, and the waters flow from 
the crests of these hills in a north eastern and south¬ 
western course. The most northerly of the New South 
AVales gold fields is upon the northern side of the range 
on the branches of the Gwydir, a confluent of tlie Darling. 
The formation is of slate, with quartz veins. The 
diggings at this locality speedily enriched the adventurers. 
The gold is found in lumps and coarse grains, is very 
little worn, and one hundred ounces have been obtained 
by a digger in one day. No doubt exists of gold deposits 
at the head of the streams and creeks over the whole 
of the intermediate area. Seventy miles south is the great 
Hanging Rock gold field. At various places between 






































































































































3^5 

Bundara and Hanging Rock, gold has been found lying upon 
the surface of the ground. 

Hanging Rock digging, situated on the Peel river, has 
yielded large returns ; the creeks are found to be rich in 
auriferous deposits, and the country for many miles around 
presents the same indications. The Australian Agricultual 
Land Company have a large estate on this district, from 
which gold has been reported. 

There are reports of gold on the eastern side of the Rocky 
Mountains, more particularly in several parts of the Hunter 
river—one of the chief rivers of the coast, flowing through 
the colliery districts to Maitland and Newcastle. Several 
of the heads of the Hunter rise close to those of the 
Macquarie. Gold is reported as low down as Maitland. It 
is likewise found in the Manning, Macleay, Clarence, 
Brisbane, and as far north as Wide Bay, in the Moreton Bay 
district. 

In the province of Victoria, or Australia Felix, is the seat 
of the richest gold region in the world, nearer to Melbourne, 
the head town, than Bathurst is to Sydney. The whole range 
of the Australian Alps, 200 miles long, is supposed to afford 
sites for gold diggings. 

Bourkeshire, in which Melbourne is seated, contains about 
3000 square miles, and above 25,000 people. Melbourne, the 
capital, is the largest city in New Holland, next to Sydney. 
Here are Ballarat, or Buninyong, Clune’s diggings, Deep 
Creek, and Plenty diggings. Adjoining Bourkeshire is 
Grantshire, in which is the flourishing town of Geelong, with 
many diggings, including the Leigh. 

Dalhousieshire, north of Bourkeshire, includes many rich 
mining districts. Mount Alexander, or Bendigo, is a very 
rich digging, producing at the rate of 1,000,000 ounces per 
year, including Forest Creek, Fryer's Creek, Coliban, and 
Campaspe. 

In Anglesey, gold has been found at King Parrot Creek, 
and elsewhere, on the Goulburn. 

In Evelvnshire, gold has been found on the Varra. 

• ’ O 


In Murray, the Rev. Mr. Clarke discovered diggings on 
the Mitta Mitta, and on the Murray. 

In Howeshire, gold lias been discovered in the Genore. 

The whole of the Snowy River Creeks in Com berm eresh ire 
contain gold. To the west, gold is found in the heads of the 
Hopkins river, and near Portland Bay. 

The gold produce of Melbourne has been more plentiful 
than that of Sydney, and surpassing California. 

The richest yield of gold in these districts is obtained 
from a stratum of blue clay, which is found at a depth of 
from two to nine feet. The deeper it is found, the more 
valuable is the deposit of gold. 

In 1852, a gold field was found and worked at Echunga, 
25 miles from Adelaide, and many gold fields exist within 
60 miles of the city. Small portions of gold have been 
found at Pittwater and Avoca, in Van Dieman’s Land. 

§ 10. HISTORY OF THE AUSTRALIAN GOLD REGIONS. 

The resemblance of the Australian formations to those of 
the Ural was first remarked by Sir Roderick Murchison, who 
was so strongly impressed with the fact, that he felt it his 
duty to allude to it, in the address which he delivered to 
the Royal Geographical Society, as President, in May 1844. 
In the subsequent year he specially addressed the Cornish 
Miners on the subject, and adverted* particularly to the 
discovery of gold near Bathurst, on the western flank of 
what he styled the great Australian Cordillera; and he 
strongly urged the propriety of a strict geological investi¬ 
gation, with the view of establishing gold workings. Colonel 
Helmersen, of St. Petersburgh, a member of the Russian 
Academy of Sciences, also well acquainted with the Ural 
gold works, expressed the same opinion. The views of Sir 
R. Murchison obtained great publicity in Australia; but it 
is to be regretted the English government is not in the habit 
of taking counsel from men of science, so that^the opportunity 

* See also Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall, 
1845 ; and Transactions of British Association of Advancement of 
Science, 1849. 



35 



was lost, of taking all due and timely advantage of the 
discovery. 

'J^he Rev. W. B. Clarke also puhlished letters, suggesting 
a theory of the gold deposits, in w'hich, following Sir 
Roderick Murchison, and taking the Russian deposits as a 
basis, he predicted gold deposits in California and Australia. 
He likewise points out the Equator as a great gold region ; 
and this, too, the best practical authorities confirm. 

The government surveyors, under the direction of Sir 
Thomas Mitchell, in 1846, discovered gold deposits in the 
great dividing range in the north-east part of New South 
Wales, but the governor-general refused to allow the searches 
to be followed up, alleging that he had “ no funds to devote 
to such a visionary purpose.” 

Mr. Francis Forbes, of Sydney, about two years ago, pub¬ 
lished and circulated in New South Wales a paper, in which 
he affirmed in the strongest manner, on scientific data, the 
existence of gold formations in Australia. Mr. Forbes, 
not being listened to nor encouraged in his researches, went to 
California, where he died in 1850. About 1849, Mr. Smith 
tendered to the colonial secretary a piece of gold quartz, 
offering to disclose the site for a reward, which was refused. 

Even the discoveries in California did not arouse the 
Australians to adequate researches, though reports were spread 
of wonderful discoveries in Victoria and South Australia, 
which were speedily discredited. It was reserved for a gentle- 
*man of New South Wales, Mr. Edward Hammond Flargraves, 
to make the definitive discoveries. He had acquired experience 
in California, and being struck with the resemblance between 
the Californian formations and those of New Holland, deter¬ 
mined on a systematic search for gold, and on the 12th of 
February, 1851, he discovered the gold diggings in the 
Bathurst and Wellington districts, and ascertained the existence 
of gold sands in no less than twelve places. 

The proceedings of Mr. Hargraves and of the government 
were spread about, and on the 1st of May of that year—on the 
day of the opening of the Great Exhibition, and six years after 


36 


Sir Roderick Murchison's Cornish address—it was made known 
in Sydney that great gold discoveries had been made in the 
interior, when a period of wild speculation immediately com¬ 
menced. In the Bathurst district, active operations had 
already begun, and hundreds successfully proved the gold 
diggings. It is w'ell enough known that a Californian ex¬ 
citement prevailed there, which it is unnecessary to detaiL 
In the beginning of June, the Governor-General made a grant 
of JP500 to Mr. Hargraves, and afterwards an appointment 
of <£350 a year; and at the same time the “ Sir Thomas 
Arbuthnot” sailed from Sydney for England, with ^£^4000 
worth of gold among her cargo, and the exports continue large. 
Subsequently the Rev. W. B. Clarke was employed in 
exploring, and new gold regions discovered to the north and 
south. These researches induced like exertions in Victoria, 
and towards the end of 1851, the great gold diggings of 
Ballarat and Bendigo were in full work. 

§ 11. CANADIAN GOLD REGION. 

In 1850, the discoveries of gold in La Chaudiere River, and 
the neighbouring brooks in Lower Canada, being confirmed, 
a company was formed, and in 1851 specimens of the stream 
gold were shown in the Great Exhibition by Mr. Logan, 
the Government geologist, and by the Chaudiere Mining 
Company. Subsequent researches have proved that this gold 
basin is of considerable extent, reaching into Maine, and 
yields auriferous quartz, and in the winter of 1852, rich and 
extensive gold deposits were discovered at the estate of the 
British American Land Company, in the district of 
Sherbrooke. 

§ 12. VIRGINIAN GOLD REGION. 

The eastern gold region of the United States is considered 
to begin in Virginia, extending all through North Carolina, 
along the northern part of South Carolina, and thence north¬ 
westerly into Alabama, terminating in Tennessee. This dis¬ 
trict has been long known, and consists chiefly of diggings, 
but which are supposed to be pretty well worked out, though 



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very productive at times. The population of this district 
have long been marked as “ gold hunters.” A lump from a 
branch of the Rocky River weighed 281bs. The gold hunters 
here introduced the practice of making dust a currency. 
Quartz gold is found in Virginia, besides river gold. In con¬ 
sequence of the productiveness of the Virginian region, two mints 
were set up in 1835, for the coinage of gold ; one at Charlotte, in 
North Carolina, and the other at Dahlonega, in Georgia. 

The Virginian workings, which had been small, in 1830 
reached $466,000, or about ^£*100,000; and in 1843, $1,200,000, 
or a quarter of a million ; the whole up to that period being 
$10,000,000, or ^2,000,000. 

§ 13. CALIFORNIAN GOLD REGIONS. 

The existence of gold dust in New California was known at 
an early period ; having been found by Captain Shelvocke, 
one of the English privateers in Queen Anne’s time. 

Captain Shelvocke, it is to be observed, was quite 
forgotten ; though he affirmed that the black sands of the rivers 
yielded gold largely, and that the whole country abounded with 
gold. Nevertheless, gold workings had been carried on, though 
no attention was paid to the streams. In 1825, gold ore was 
worked by a Mexican, in a mine at St. Isidore, near St. Diego; 
but, through the disturbed state of the country,Tittle was 
done. In 1840, a small thread of gold was wrought in the 
district of St. Barbara, but not to any extent. Before the 
annexation of California, a considerable English population 
had already flocked in, in connection with the events narrated 
above; but they were drawn only by the natural promise of 
the country for grazing and tillage, and by its convenient 
situation for extending Americo-English power and trade in the 
North Pacific, for which it has attracted attention from the time 
of Sir Francis Drake downwards. The re-discovery of the gold 
diggings took place by accident, and not as in the case of 
New Holland, from a determined investigation. 

The discoverer was Mr. Marshall, who in September 1847 
had contracted with Captain Sutter to build a saw-mill, near 



some pine woods, on the American Fork, now a well-known 
feeder of the Sacramento river. 

In the spring of 1848, the saw-mill was nearly ready, the 
dam and race being constructed; but when the water was set 
on the wheel, the tail-race was found too narrow to let the 
water through quick enough. Mr. Marshall, to save work, 
let the water right into the race with a strong stream, so as to 
sweep the race wider and deeper. This he did, and a great 
bank of gravel and mud was driven to the foot of the race. 
One day, Mr. Marshall, on walking down the race to this 
bank, saw some glittering bits on the upper edge, and having 
gathered a few, examined them, and conjectured their value. 
He went down to Sutter’s Fort, and told the captain ; and 
they agreed to keep it a secret until a certain grist-mill of the 
captain’s was finished. The news got about, however; a 
cunning Yankee carpenter having followed them in their visit 
to the mill-race, and found out the gold scales. 

Forthwith the news spread. The first workmen were lucky, 
and in a few weeks some gold was sent down to San Francisco,and 
speedily the town was emptied of people. In three months there 
were four thousand men at the diggings, Indians having been 
hired, eighty soldiers deserted from the American posts, and 
runaways getting up from the ships in the harbour. Such 
ships as got away carried news to Europe and the States, and 
by the beginning of 1849 both sides of the Atlantic were in 
agitation. The subsequent growth of San Francisco and 
Sacramento, the wonderful shipments of gold dust, the 
establishment of California as a state of the Union, the 
founding of Utah as another state by the Mormons, the 
extension of Oregon, the impulse given to Nebraska, the 
throwing open of the Panama route to traffic, and the 
Nicaragua lake and river to navigation, and the development 
of the semi-English states of Hawaii and Mosquitia, are facts 
as familiar as household words. The red cross of St. George 
and the stripes and stars are now marking out a new empire 
for us on the Pacific, and the day is not perhaps so far off*, 
when we shall be able to put forward as stronghanded a claim 
to the lordship of the great ocean as of the narrow seas. 


6/K 

39 

The gold diggings of New or Upper California now 
embrace the whole basin of the Sacramento, which consists of 
a great northern and southern river, each flowing among the 
mountains, and discharging its waters through a westerly 
channel into the Bay of San Francisco. These two streams 
have many small brooks or feeders in the mountain gorges 
and steep dales, and all, so far as is yet known, yielding gold. 

The geological formation of the country belongs to the 
primary series, and the chief rocks are granite and quartz. 
In so far the resemblance in general between California and 
the other gold yielding countries is complete; but whereas, in 
most other cases gold mining is unproductive, the veins when 
found, however widely spread about, and however much they 
may hold as a whole, being unproductive for working in 
detail, yet, in California the rocks are ascertained to be a 
fertile source of metal. It is peculiar to California, that 
the process of quartz-crushing has been introduced and 
carried out on a large scale ; and it has this advantage, that 
as it requires large and expensive machinery, capitalists can 
take part in it, though the limit of their profits is necessarily 
the tribute or portion at which the miner will supply the 
quartz rock, unless as in the case of the great companies, the 
quartz belong to the proprietors, when the profits made are 
enormous, and almost beyond belief. The success of these 
quartz operations has turned the attention of gold-finders in 
another direction, and now, where gold-stream works are 
discovered, researches are likewise made for gold-bearing rocks 
in the neighbourhood. 

Some of the chief quartz workings are in Nevada and 
Mariposa counties, but the best known are on the rancho, or 
large estate bought by Colonel Fremont from Alvarado, the 
Mexican governor. They are those of Mariposa, Agua Fria, 
and Nouveau Monde. Some of the quartz has been assayed 
for <^^7,000 in the ton of rock. A Mariposa specimen was 
in the Great Exhibition. 

It may be observed here, that large deposits have been 
found in the neighbouring English settlement of Vancouver’s 





40 



Island, and also upon Queen Charlotte's Island. In Oregon, 
in Utah, and all the countries bordering on California, gold is 
found. 

^ 14. SOUTHERN AMERICAN GOLD REGIONS. 

The west coast of America is, perhaps, the region having 
the greatest number of gold deposits, whatever may be the 
most productive district, a fact which experience alone will 
settle. At any rate, between 20° to 45° north lat., gold is 
found everywhere, so far as has been tried in the valleys and 
ravines, and indeed over many regions of the south the same 
remark holds good. In Ecuador, in Bolivia, at Carabaya and 
other places in Peru, great gold deposits have been recognised. 

The grand chain running from south to north, through the 
mainland of America,^ and which may be designated the 
Great Cordillera, belongs, so far as is known, chiefly to the 
primary formations. This immense extent includes several 
gold regions, which may be thus classified : New California, 
the Peninsula of Old California, Mexico, Central America, 
New Granada, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Chile. These, as 
yet, have yielded to the world the largest supplies of gold.' 

New or High California is separately described. Of Old 
California but little is known; still the same geological 
formations are continued through it, and gold has been recog¬ 
nised. Some believe that gold is more abundant than in the 
other California. At Moleje there are gold workings. 

Mexico and Central America may be considered together. 
In the north we have the rich gold region of Sonora, the 
workings of which are given up since the inroads of the 
Indians. These districts are traversed by a chain of moun¬ 
tains, in a line due north, forming part of the great back-bone 
of the Cordilleras, and which sends out a great number of 
steep spurs, running in a north-east and south-west direction, 
and forming deep ravines or high table lands, as may be seen 
on the Great Model of the Earth. The plains, or “llanos,” 


Wyld’s Topular Atlas. 




41 


at the base of these Rocky Mountains, are coinposeti of lime¬ 
stone, overlying granite; but in lower latitudes they are su- 
perstratified with serpentine and greenstone trap. In the 
Sierra Nevada, another part of the chains, tlie rocks are com¬ 
posed of granite, quartz, porous trap, or basalt. The granite 
of that region is composed of white quartz, felspar, and black 
mica, and like all the others is gold bearing. These granites 
being likewise of a granular and loose structure, readily un¬ 
dergo decomposition. Some of the peaks under the line are 
of perpetual snow, and generally the lower levels are at such 
an elevation that during a great part of the year they have 
a thick coating of snow, which exercises an action on the 
granite. At the time of thaw, and in the rainy season, lasting 
from November to March, floods of water sweep from the 
mountain tops, and along their sides, through the deep gullies 
and ravines, into the valley, carrying with them the worn 
rock and the broken gold veins, with which the lower basins 
are yearly flooded. 

Sonora and Sinaloa, in North Mexico may be considered as 
closely connected with California, lying in the Californian 
Gulf. Many mines are known there, though the working is 
now interrupted by the Indians and the French adventurers, 
but a strong body of Americo-English having gone there, 
they may be soon taken up again. Among the mines 
known are Triarte, Rosario, Corala, Alamos, Hermosillo, 
and Guadalupe y Calvo. It is said that in 18B9 as much 
gold and silver was assayed in the government establishments 
of Hermosillo as was worth <£^400,000. The gold work¬ 
ings of Quitovac and Sonitac, to the north of Arispe, were 
discovered in 1836, and for three years yielded <£700 
worth of gold daily. Catorce is likewise rich in gold. In 
Guanaxuato, in the last century, 1,000 lbs. of gold were 
yearly coined, but in this 300 only. In this province, where 
the veins are worked principally for silver, the ores are 
frequently found to be very rich in gold, which is separated 
in the grinding process by putting quicksilver with those into 
the arrastres, or grinding mills, thus producing a mechanical 


42 


amalgamation of the gold with the quicksilver, which amalgam¬ 
ation is afterwards separated by washing. This process will 
probably be applied in California and Australia with good effect. 

The production of gold in Mexico in 1844 and 1845, was 
about $1,300,000 yearly, but in what proportions obtained is 
not known. 

In Central America gold is worked at Del Aquacato, in 
Costa Rica, and elsewhere. In 1823, the yield was 721bs.; 
1824, 2631bs.; and 1825, 2601bs. 

The Isthmus of Central America, from the Bay of 
Chiriqui to the Gulf of Darien, is a great gold field. The 
names of Costa Rica and Castilla del Oro, given to portions 
of the country by the first settlers, show the localities from 
which they collected gold. From the imperfect manner in 
which the accounts were kept of the gold produce of these 
districts, under the Spanish rule, no accurate result can be 
obtained; but from the royalties paid to the provincial govern¬ 
ments, it may be assumed that, up to the year 1804, the yearly 
product of gold was at least one million sterling. The mines 
of Mineral de Veraguas, of Estrella, in Chiriqui, and of 
Cuna, in Darien, were .amongst the most celebrated. The 
sands of the beach of Panama, and the country around the 
city, contain particles of gold; and when the railway across 
the Isthmus, and the ship canal of Darien, shall be completed, 
this country may again yield its mineral treasures of gold, 
iron and copper, to the untiring energy of an Anglo-Saxon 
population. 

In New Granada gold is found in the Central and Western 
Ancles. In the basin of the Rio Cauca are river washings, and 
sold is to be had in the Rio Atrato, Rio Zulia, and Rio Hacha. 
In the mountains of Antioquia it is obtained by mineral 
washings; the yield is about d^’500,000 yearly. The English 
mines in Columbia have, however, been much mismanaged, 
and large capitals have been lost there. 

The gold coinage of the mint of Bogota, in New Granada, 
is as follows:— 


43 




1810 ... 

81,004,969 

1818 ... 

8837,494 

1811 ... 

1,017,753 

1819 ... 

785,342 

1812 ... 

943,573 

1820 ... 

1,207,459 

1813 ... 

1,146,552 

1821 ... 

1,293,432 

1814 ... 

- 1,110,507 

1822 ... 

1,037,007 

1815 ... 

1,062,650 

1823 ... 

759,366 

1816 ... 

761,220 

1824 ... 

576,496 

1817 ... 

1,034,102 

1825 .. 

573,609 

The gold 

coinage of Popayan in Ecuador is 

as follows: — 

1810 ... 

#886,056 

1819 ... 

i«;566,722 

1816 ... 

236,909 

1823 ... 

495,848 

1817 ... 

703,372 

1824 ... 

840,563 

1818 ... 

779,362 

1825 ... 

742,978 


In most of the rivers of the west coast of South America 
and in the Cordilleras, gold is found. In Peru, gold is found 
in Pataz, Huailas, Ciirimayo, near Caxamarca, and Carabaya, 
and the average yield is cP100,000 yearly. The neighbouring 
country of Bolivia yields dPGO.OOO. 

There are many gold mines in Chile, but silver and copper 
mining are preferred. In the Great Exhibition there was a 
lump of gold ore, weighing 3 cwt. The average yearly 
produce fell to dP 160,000, but was formerly dP400,000. 

The amount of gold coined in the Valparaiso mint for the 
six months of this year, including July, is 7425 Spanish lbs., 
valued at dP448,000. 

The basin of the Amazons has as yet been little explored, 
but the steam-boat will soon plough its waters, and it may be 
that the dreams of our fathers shall be realized, and this 
prove the mightiest regions of gold- 

§ 15. BRAZIL GOLD. 

Gold is chiefly obtained from river washings in the Minas 
Geraes and Matto Grosso. In the former province, it is carried 
on by the Imperial Brazilian and St. John del Key Mining 
Companies, being obtained partly from rock ore, but chiefly 
from river washings. It is found scattered in grains in several 
primitive rocks. The chief time of working, is when the gold 
streams overflow their banks. A man takes his j)lace at the 










edge of tlie river, and begins to open a trench with a small 
hoe. In this trench the water is allowed to stand through 
the day, being poured off* at night. The sediment, called 
“ cascalho," is further washed, to obtain the ore. The gold 
mines are chiefly near St. John del Rey and Villa Rica. In 
Matto Grosso the chief gold workings are at Cuyaba and 
Jacobina, in the south-west. The yield has been estimated at 
17,000 lbs. yearly, but in the last century the average yearly 
value was nearly c^’SOOjOOO. 

The produce of the quintos or fifth of the gold from Minas 
Geraes, in the Brazils, gives the following yearly average:— . 


1752 to 1757 
1758 to 1765 
1766 to 1771 
1772 to 1777 

1778 to 1788 

1784 to 1789 
1790 to 1795 


Quintos. 
lbs. Portuguese. 

3,513 

3,263 

2,735 

2,397 

2,945 

1,465 

1,433 


Yearly Total of Produce, 
lbs. Portuguese. 

17,565 

16,315 

13,175 

11,985 

14.725 

7,325 

7,165 


From Paraguay, a lump of gold was obtained weighing 501bs. 


§ 16 . GOLD IN AFRICA. 

In the north of Africa, gold is found in the sands near the 
town of Tripoli, and, indeed, throughout the Regency. Near 
the town, the sands of the sea shore contain small quantities 
of gold, which are sifted. The people gather it up in hand¬ 
fuls, put it into a wooden bowl, and wash it with several 
waters, till the gold is left at the bottom. Gold is found like¬ 
wise near the Fezzan border. 

In Morocco, in the neighbourhood of Tarudant, there is 
said to be gold mines in the hills, but they are not worked. 
In South Morocco, near a place called Shiebon, is a glen of 
alluvial soil, in which much gold is found, both in dust and 
lumps, which is gathered into ostrich or vulture quills. At 
Luca likewise gold is wrought. 

The chief gold mines belonging to the Pasha of Egypt are 
in Kordofan, on the Fazangoro. In Abyssinia a little gold is 
found in the rivers. 

Others in North Africa are in the mountains of Mandara 








at Bourra on the Wassolo, in alluvial earth, and at Bambouk 
on the Wankaral. Of these, the yearly produce is reckoned 
at 5000 lbs. 

The interior of Africa has long been known for producing 
large quantities of gold dust; but the geography is too little 
known to enable the sites of production to be identified. 

In Foota Jalloo, on the west border, is a gold mine, in the 
country of Malee; and in Bambarra is likewise a gold mine. 

The whole yearly yield of gold from Africa is perhaps 
,£^500,000. 

Of all the African mines, the Bambouk mines are, however, 
supposed to be the richest. They are about thirty miles south of 
the Senegal river; and the inhabitants are chiefly occupied in 
gold washing during the eight months of dry weather. About 
two miles from Natakou is a small round-topped hill, about 
300 feet high, the whole of which is an alluvial formation of 
sand and pulverized emery, with grains of iron ore and gold, 
in lumps, grains and scales. This hill is worked throughout; 
and it is said the richest lumps are found deepest. There are 
1200 pits or workings, some forty feet deep—but mere holes, 
unplanked. This basin includes at least 500 square miles. 
Forty miles north, at the foot of the Tabwara mountains, are 
the mines of Semayla, in a hill. This is of quartz slate; and 
the gold is got by pounding the rock in large mortars. In the 
river Semayla are alluvial deposits containing emery, impreg¬ 
nated with gold. The earth is washed by the women, in 
calabashes. The mine of Nambia is in another part of the 
Tabwara mountains, in a hillock, worked in pits. The whole 
gold district of Bambouk is supposed to extend over 10,000 
square miles. 

Close to the Ashantee country is that of the Bunkatoos, who 
have rich gold workings, in pits, at Bukanti and Kentosoe. 

Ill Natal, gold was discovered in 1852 on the Mooi river, 
and an expedition sent out to find the gold regions, from 
which the Portuguese at Delagoa Bay formerly obtained such 
large supplies. The Great Karroo, in South Africa, is a 
district to which research may usefully extend. 


A G A Z K T T K K R 

OF THR 

GOLD REGIONS OF AUSTRAGA, 

INCLUDING 

NEW SOUTH WALES, MORETON BAY, VICTORIA, 
SOUTH AUSTRALIA, & VAN DIEMAN'S LAND. 


Thk accompanying Gazetteer includes tlie names of above 
500 gold diggings, topographically described, of which only 
150 have appeared in any other work. These, even, 
have not been so fully described before : this list forms, 
therefore, a considerable accession to the geography of 
Australia. The authorities employed are the reports of 
Sir Thomas L. Mitchell, Surveyor-General of New South 
Wales; Mr. Stutchbury, Government Geologist; the Rev. 
W. B. Clarke, and Mr. Hargraves, Special Commissioners 
of Enquiry, the gold circulars, the Sydney daily, and other 
Australian newspapers ; Wells’ Geographical Dictionai’y, 
Wyld’s Maps of Australia, and much private information. 
The counties are in each case indicated (many of which 
have only lately been laid down), so that the locality can 
be ascertained on the maps. 




ABERCROMBIE DIGGINGS, in New South Wales, on 
the Abercrombie river. A large river, which rises on Mount 
Werong, and flows through Georgianashire, forming the head 
of the Lachlan. The digging town, or encampment, on this 
river is named Tarshish, SO miles south-east from Carcoar, 
17 miles from Mulgunnie, 50 from Bathurst, and 70 from 
Goulburn. The chief diggings are those on the head 
stream of the Abercrombie, the Tuena, the Crook well, 
Carcoar, Belabula, the Little Bread creek. Brown’s creek, 
Burrangylog, or Grove creek, Isabella river, Copperhania 
creek, and Mulgunnia creek. 

ADELAIDE HILL, a digging near Forest Creek, in 
Victoria, adjoining Bendigo. This is a rich digging next the 
Red Hill and the White Hill, and in a narrow gully opposite 
is the Forest creek diggers’ cemetery. 

ALBURY is in Murumbidgee district, New South Wales, 
on the borders of Victoria, and is a town with petty sessions, 
on the Murray, 286 miles from Sidney. The diggings are on 
the Mitta Mitta river, just above Albury, at Bungambrewatah; 
and on the river Murray, five miles from Albury, gold is 
found in the alluvium of the river. The Albury diggings 
was discovered by Mr. Heavers in 1852. 

ALEXANDER, MOUNT, Mount Alexander. 

ALLYN, a river in Durhamshire, New South Wales, which 
flows into the Paterson. 

ANAKIE, or ANUKIE HIIXS, in Grantshire, Victoria, 
near the Little river, SO miles north of Geelong. Gold was 
discovered in the end of 1851. 

AMERICAN GULLY is a gold working five miles north 
of Bendigo, in slate, with white quartz boulders. 

ANDERSON’S CREEK is a creek of the Yarra, to the 
east of Melbourne, in Evelynshire, Victoria. 

APSIiEY, a river of Vernonshire, New Soulh Wales, 
flowing into the Macleay. Gold is found in the Walcha. 


48 



\ 


ARALUEN DIGGINGS, discovered August 1851, are 
on the Aral lien, New South Wales, a remarkably dee}) 
gully, near Major's Creek, and a tributary of the Duah, or 
Broulee, Mounyas, in St. Vincentshire, New South Wales, 
180 miles from Sydney, 88 miles from Goulburn, 16 miles 
south-east from Braid wood, and not far from the sea coast. 
Three hundred diggers have been employed here. The 
banks are black soil to the depth of six inches, with substrata 
of clay and sand, intermixed with particles of quartz. 
There are deep workings for gold. To these diggings belong 
Major s Creek, Bell's Creek, Mount Ebrington, Arnprior, and 
Boro Flat. They are sometimes called Braid wood diggings. 

ARNPRIOR is in St. Vincentshire, New’ South AVales, on 
the Shoalhaven river, about 150 miles from Sydney, and ten 
miles from Braidwood. Gold has been found here. 

AVISFORD DIGGINGS, in New South AVales, include 
Meroo and Louisa Creeks. These diggings remitted 913 ounces 
by one escort. Avisford is on Meroo creek, in Wellingtonshire. 

AVOCA is a river of Victoria, between the Wimmera and 
Western Port districts, on which gold was found many years 
ago. It is near Bendigo. 

AVOCA, a district of Cornwall, Van Diemen's Land, in 
which gold was found in 1851. 

BADULDURRAI, a creek of the river Bell, AVellington- 
shire. New South Wales, in which gold has been reported by 
Sir T. L. Mitchell. 

BALD HILL, a digging near the Macquarie. In 1852, 
three men got 20 ounces in one day. This is one of the three 
first diggings discovered in Grantshire. 

BALLARAT, one of the great diggings in Victoria, was dis¬ 
covered by a blacksmith named Hiscocks. Another name for 
these diggings is Buninyong. They are 45 miles from 
Geelong, and 68 from Melbourne. Gold is found for 30 miles 
around. The richest yield is in a stratum of blue clay, 
at a depth of from two to nine feet, and chiefly on sloping 
banks, the strata being there thickest. Auriferous quartz is 
found. In some of the holes they work through tlie |)i|)ecl!iy. 


49 




and underlying quartz when they come upon a layer of 
gold, extending continuously, instead of as above the pipeclay 
in pockets. These diggings were discovered in August 1851, 
and in November produced 2,000 ounces per week, and later, 
10,000 ounces. One young man got c£’l,000 in one week. 
The diggings include Buninyong Gully and Black Hill. 

BANGALORE, a creek of Argyleshire, New South Wales, 
see Carawang and Terrago. 

BARNETT, a river on the east side of the dividing range, 
near the Hunter river, in New South Wales, in which gold 
has been discovered. 

.BARKER’S CREEK, a branch of the river Loddon, in 
Victoria, adjoining Forest Creek, and five or six miles north, 
mostly used for camping ground by the Forest Creek diggers. 

BARRABA, a station in Liverpool Plains district. New 
South Wales, on Manilla river, 35 miles from Tamworth. 
Gold has been discovered. 

BARWON, a river of Grantshire, Victoria. Gold has 
been found at Geelong, and in the Leigh. 

BATES’ CREEK, a digging near Araluen, which is 
worked. 

BATESFORD, a place in Grantshire, Victoria, near 
Geelong, in which gold has been found and worked. 

BATHURST, a county town in Bathurstshire, New South 
Wales, and a great gold digging town, 121 miles by road 
from Sydney, on the banks of the river Macquarie. Gold 
has been found in the streets of the town, and in January 1852 
in the sand of a watercourse. The gold is coarse and 
nuggetty, found in stiff red clay, abounding with small 
pebbly pieces of quartz. The whole surface of Bathurst 
plains is composed of quartz. The land here is 2,310 feet 
above the level of the sea. 

BATMAROO, see Butmaroo. 

BELL’S CREEK is in the Araluen district, and sliire 
of St. Vincent, New South Wales. It is a digging well 
worked. Gold is found near the surface, and also in deep 
diggings. The gold is bright; and 250 licences were issued 
in one month. n 


BELL’S GULI.Y, on Bell’s Creek. 

BELL’S POINT, on Bell’s Creek. 

BELL’S RIVER, in Wellingtonshire, New South Wales, 
runs into the Macquarie at Wellington. 'J’he upper part is 
called the Molong, and the lower the Smith. Gold was 
reported by Sir T. L. Mitchell on the Baduldurrai Creek, and 
the Nubriggen, and it is worked at Summerhill, Molong, and 
Boreenore. 

BELUBULA, a river of Bathurstshire, New South Wales, 
flowing into the river Lachlan, in which gold was found in 
May 1851, and also in Coombing Creek. 

BENDIGO, one of the great diggings in Stanleyshire, 
Victoria. It is a creek 30 miles from Forest Creek, and 
to the east of Forest Creek, running from Mount Alexander. 
The rock is white quartz and slate. At one time there were 
30,000 diggers in this field. 

BENDEE, a place on Maharatta creek, in the Menaroo 
district, or Wellesley shire, where gold was discovered by the 
Rev. W. B. Clarke in February 1852, about 60 miles from 
Twofold Bay or Boydtown. 

BENDOC, or BENDOCK, a river on the borders of 
Victoria and New South Wales, flowing into the Delegate. 
Here is a digging discovered by the Rev. W. B. Clarke in 
1852, and which has been worked. Gold is found in an 
alluvium of slate and quartz. 

BEREDPO, a creek of the Murumbidgee, on which gold 
has been found. 

BERRIMA, a river of New South Wales in Maneroo, on 
the west side, near Murrayshire, among the Australian Alps, 
in which gold was discovered by the Rev. W. B. Clarke in 
December 1851, in slate and quartz shingle, lying in granite. 

BERRAGON, a creek of tlie IMeroo. 

BIG, or GWYDIR RIVER, a river of Liverpool Plains, 
New South Wales, joining the Karaula, in which gold has 
been found. See Gwydir river. 

BILLABONG RANGE, in Wellington district. New 
South Wales, between the Lachlan and Bogan rivers. Gold 
has been found here. 




51 

BINGARA, a station on Liverpool Plains, 70 miles north of 
Tamworth, New South Wales, on the Carangoura creek of 
the Gwydir river. Sixteen men were at one time at work 
here for gold. A nugget of 5|- oz. was found here. 

BLACK HILL, a digging worked at Ballarat, Victoria, 
which has yielded from one to four ounces per man per day. 
Gold quartz is found here, the rock being trap and slate, 
intermingled with quartz. 

BLACK SWAMP, a digging worked near Carrawang, 
Argyleshire, New South Wales, which has been productive. 

BLACKNESS, or BLAKENESS CREEK, a digging 
in New South Wales, 14 miles from Yass. The rock is 
quartz, granite, slate and sand. 

BLACKMAN’S SWAMPS, or the Summerhill Creek, 
near Ophir. 

BLOODY GULLY, a digging near Bendigo, Stanleyshire, 
Victoria, about five miles north. Gold found in slate, and 
white quartz boulders. 

BOBUNDERA, a creek in Wellesleyshire, New South 
Wales, in Menaroo district, flowing into the Snowy River on 
the east side of the coast range, where gold has been found. 

BOGOLONG, a creek in Cowleyshire, New South Wales, 
where gold was discovered by the Rev. W. B. Clarke. 

BONDI, a station on the Jenore river, in Menaroo district, 
New South Wales, 50 miles from Boyd Town, where gold 
was found by the Rev. W. B. Clarke in February 1852. 

BOMBALO, a river in Wellesleyshire, New' South Wales, 
flowing into the Delegat. 

BOREENORE, see Teatree Creek. 

BORO FLAT, a digging on Boro Creek, of the Shoalhaven 
in Argyleshire, New South Wales, 145 miles from Sydney. 

BRAIDWOOD, a mining tow n in St. Vincentshire, New' 
South Wales, 164 miles from Sydney, and 72 from Goulburn. 
The diggings in this district are Araluen, 15 miles to the 
south ; to the north, Shoalhaven ; to the east, Mongarlow or 
Budawang ; and on the Little river, 12 miles distant. 
This district produced <F100,000 in the first year. 


52 


BREAD CREEK, EITTLE, a feeder of the Abercrombie 
river, Georgianashire, New South Wales, in which gold has 
been worked. 

BREADALBANE PLAINS, in Argyleshire, New South 
Wales, gold is found near Terago Lake and Carawang Plat. 

BRIGHT’S POINT, a place in Tuenna Creek, New South 
Wales, where gold has been worked. 

BRINDABELLA, a place on the Coodradigbee river, in 
Cowley shire, New South Wales, where gold was discovered 
by the Rev. W. B. Clarke in 1852. 

BRISBANE, a river in New South Wales, emptying 
into Moreton Bay, and on which gold is reported at Stanley 
Creek, in Canningshire. 

BROGO, a river of Aucklandshire, New South Wales, on 
which gold has been discovered at Robinson’s Hole, and 
which runs to the sea at Barmouth harbour. 

BROOKS’S CREEK, a creek in Murrayshire, New South 
Wales, flowing from the range dividing Yass river from Lake 
George, and in which gold was discovered by the Rev. W. 
B. Clarke in 1852. 

BROULEE MOUNYAS, or DEUA, a river of Broulee 
district. New South Wales, into which the Araluen Creek 
discharges. 

BROWN’S CREEK, a river of New South Wales, running 
towards the Abercrombie, in which gold has been discovered, 
as also in Mountain Run Creek. 

BROWN HILLS DIGGINGS at Ballarat, Victoria, 
where.deep shafts have been sunk, and a long gallery has been 
run. The gold is very fine, but in great quantities, embedded 
in flakes, or laminae of earth. 

BRUCEDALE, a place in Pine Ridge, eight miles from 
Bathurst, in which gold has been found, and lead worked in 
granite. 

BROWN’S RUN, a digging worked at Ballarat in Victoria. 

BUD A WANG, a mountain of New South Wales, in St. 
Vincentshire, in the range dividing the Shoalhayen waters 
from those that flow into the sea. It is 170 miles from 


53 




Sydney, and 12 east from Braid wood. The diggings are on 
the Mongarlo river. 

BUDDLE, a river of New South Wales, a branch of the 
Gwydir. 

BULLOCK CREEK, a creek about eight miles from 
Bendigo, in Victoria, where gold is dug. 

BUNDARA, a creek in Inglisshire, New South Wales, 
flowing towards the Muluerindi, and to the Peel, where 
gold has been found. 

BUNGAMBREWATAH, a place four miles from Albury, 
near the Mitta Mitta river, on which gold has been discovered 
and worked. 

BUNGONIA, a township on a creek in Argyleshire, New 
South Wales, 25 miles from Sydney, running into the 
Shoalhaven. Gold was found in the Shoalhaven in September 
1851, and at Shelley’s Flat. The metal is found with emery 
and sand. These diggings are sometimes called the Shoalhaven 
diggings. 

BUNINYONG, a mountain in Grantshire, Victoria, 50 miles 
from Geelong, and 70 from Melbourne, giving name to the 
diggings better known as Ballarat. This is a lofty volcanic 
hill, 2,000 feet high, and the centre of the neighbouring 
mountain ranges. Deep rocky gullies branch from it. 

BUNINYONG GULLY, a gully on the above mountains. 

BURNBANK, or CLUNES, a digging in Talbotshire, 
Victoria, 75 miles north-west from Geelong. 

BURRANDONG, a place in Wellingtonshire, New South 
Wales, near the confluence of the Cudgegong and Macquarie 
rivers, where gold has been discovered and worked. 

BURRANGYLONG, see Grove Creek. 

BURWANG, see Ovens. 

BUTMAROO, or BUTMAROE, a creek in New South 
Wales, in Murray shire, flowing into Lake George, where gold 
was discovered by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, in 1852, near 
Currandoola. 

BYNG MOUNT, see Mount Byng. 

BYRNE’S CREEK is a locality rc[)orted by Sir Thomas 


u 


54 

L. Mitchell as bearing gold. It is a river Howing towards the 
Macquarie. 

BYWONG, a mountain of Murravshire, in New South 
Wales, west of Lake George. Gold has been found in this 
neighbourhood, near the head of the Yass river, and in 
various places. 

CALIFORNIA GULLY, a digging near Bendigo, about 
five miles north, in slate, with white quartz boulders. 

CALKIN, on the Maharatta Creek, in Menaroo district. 
New South Wales, about 60 miles from Twofold Bay. Gold 
was discovered by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, in February 1852. 

CAM BELONG, or CAIVIbALONG, a creek of the 
Delegat river, 75 miles from Boydtown, or Twofold Bay, in 
Wellesleyshire, New South Wales, where gold was discovered 
by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, in February 1852. The rock is 
slate, traversed by quartz and trap. 

CAMPBELL’S CREEK is in Bathurstshire and West-' 
moreland, New South Wales, running towards the Macquarie 
and across the O’Connell Plains, east of Carcoar. Gold was 
discovered here in 1851, by the Rev. Mr. Walker. The 
digging town at this place is called Havilah. Gold is found 
likewise in Slaty Creek, Davis Creek, Sewell’s Creek, Gil- 
mandyke Creek, Pepper Creek, and Stony Creek. 

CANGI, a creek in Inglisshire, New South Wales, running 
into the Macdonald river, which is a feeder of the Cockburn 
liver, also of the Peel. Gold was discovered here in Sep¬ 
tember 1852. 

CANN’S PLAINS, a station of the Australian Agricultural 
Company, near Hanging rock, on which gold has been worked 
in a quartz ridge. 

CANOBOLUS, CANOBLAS, or COxNOBOLUS, a 
mountain on the borders of Bathurstshire and Wellington- 
shire. New South Wales, about 12 miles from Buree, and 
4461 feet high. From it rise the Molong and other gold 
creeks. 

CANOWINDRA, a place near the Molong river, in 
AVcllingtonshirc, New South IVales. 


CAPABELLA CREEK, in Cowleyshire, New South 
AVales, 520 miles from Yass, where gold was discovered in 1852, 
near Bogolong, by the Rev. W. B. Clarke. 

CARANGOURA, see Courangoura. 

CARCOAR, a town in Bathurstshire, New South Wales, 
on the Belubula river, 144 miles from Sydney, where gold 
was found in May 1851. 

CARLISLE’S CREEK is in the neighbourhood of ]Mac- 
donald’s river, Inglisshire. Gold was found there in Sep¬ 
tember 1852. 

CARLTON, a river in Pembrokeshire, Van Diemen’s Land, 
where gold was found in 1852, at Pittwater. 

CARAWANG FLAT, a place in Argyleshire, New South 
Wales, to the north of Lake George, near the Bangalore 
creek, a feeder of the Mulwaree Ponds, where rich diggings 
have been found. On Mr. Cooper’s estate the gold is coarse. 
There are diggings on a little flat between Mr. Badgery’s 
station and the waterfall. 

CAUDINE, a creek iiear the Turon, on which there are 
good diffffinffs. 

o OO O 

CIRCUS POINT, a digging near New Zealand Point, 
on the Lower Wallaby. These are dry diggings. 

CLARENCE RIVER, a river in a district of the same 
name, emptying into the sea at Shoal Bay, where gold has 
been found, at Clowd’s creek. 

CLEAR CREEK, a creek of Winbiirndale,Roxburghshire. 

CLOWD’S CREEK, a creek of Clarence river, where 
gold has been found. 

CLUNES, on the Deep Creek, a branch of the Loddon 
river, in Talbotshire, Victoria. This was the digsinfir first 
discovered in this province, in August 1851. Gold was first 
found in an alluvium of decomposed quartz rock. Gold is 
likewise found in quartz veins or dykes. It is 7o miles north¬ 
west from Geelong'. 

COCK BURN, a river of New South Wales, in Inglisshire, 
which flows into the river Peel, near Tamworth. The rock 
is trap and quartz. Gold was found here by ’Mr. Hargi'caves, 


56 


in March 1852. Gold has been found in the Macdonald 
river, near the Cockburn. 

COGHILL’S CREEK, a gold working at Ballarat, in 
Victoria. 

COLE MOUNT, Mount Cole. 

COLIBAN, a river of Victoria, in Western Port district, 
which is a branch of the Campaspe, 15 miles from Forest 
Creek, where gold diggings have been found. 

CONDAMINE, a river flowing into the Darling, New 
South Wales. Gold is found in Rocky Creek. 

CONOBOLUS, see Canobolus. 

COODRADIGBEE, a river of Cowleyshire, New South 
Wales, flowing into the Murrumbidgee, in which gold was 
found at Brindabella by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, in 1852. 

COOMBING CREEK is in Bathurstshire, New South 
Wales, and falls into the Belubula river. It was one of 
the first gold discoveries in New South Wales, in May 1851. 

COPPERHANIA CREEK, a creek of the Abercrombie, 
in Georgianashire, New South Wales, in which rich diggings 
have been worked, also at its source at Limestone Hut. 

COURONGOURA, or CARANGOURA CREEK, run¬ 
ning into the Gwydir, or Big river, is in Liverpool Plains 
district. Gold was reported by Sir T. L Mitchell, and has 
been found at Bingara. 

COVEN, a creek in Kingshire, near Sunning, in which gold 
was found by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, in 1852. 

COWARA, a creek running into the Murrumbidgee river 
in which gold has been found. 

CRANEY, a river in Brisbaneshire, New South Wales, 
near the Isis, where gold has been worked. 

CRESWICK’S CREEK, a creek at Ballarat, in Victoria, 
where gold has been worked. 

CROKER, a branch of Apsley river, in Hawesshire, New 
South Wales. 

CROOKWELL, a river in New South Wales, in which 
gold has been found. It flows between Georgianashire and 
Kingshire, and joins the Narrawa. 


57 


o 


CllUDINO, a creek in the Turon district, in which gold 
has been discovered. 

CUDGEGONG CREEK, in New South Wales, flowing 
between Wellingtonshire and Roxburghshire, into the Cudge- 
gong river, where gold was reported by Sir Thomas L. Mitchell. 

CUDGEGONG RIVER flows between AVellingtonshire 
and Roxburghshire, Philipshire and Blighshire, into the 
Macquarie at Burrandong, where gold has been discovered 
and worked ; and likewise at Mudgee, as well as in the 
Louisa, Lawson’s and Meroo Creeks. 

CULLARIN, a range of mountains between Kingshire and 
Argyleshire, in which rise the gold creeks of the Gunning, 
Narrawa and Wolondilly. 

CUNNINGHAM’S CREEK divides Roxburghshire and 
Wellingtonshire, in New South Wales, and flow^s into the 
Turon river. Gold has been found here. 

CURRAGURRA, or CURRUNGARAH, a creek in 
Wellingtonshire, flowing into the Macquarie, where gold has 
been reported by Sir T. L. Mitchell. 

CURRANDOOLA, or CURRADULLA, a creek in 
Argyleshire, New South Wales, 130 miles from Sydney, where 
gold has been discovered at Butmaroo. 

DAISY HILL, a digging at Pyrenees, near Mount Cole, 
in Victoria. 

DANDENONG, a mountain 2180 feet high, giving name 
to a range in Evelynshire, Victoria, near the Yarra, 40 miles 
east of Melbourne, and reported as auriferous. A creek of 
the same name runs down to Port Philip. 

DAVIS, or REDFERN’S CREEK, a creek of Campbell’s 
river, 25 miles south of Bathurst, New South Wales, and six 
miles east of Gilmandyke, in which there are good diggings. 
Slaty Creek is a gold creek of Davis Creek. 

DEAD MAN’S CREEK, a creek of the Yass river. 
New South Wales, near Lake George, in which gold \vas 
discovered by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, in 1852. 

DEEP BANK, a digging at Sheep Station Point, Turon, 
which, see 


o 


58 

DEEP CREEK, a creek of the Turon, in Roxburghshire, 
New South Wales, worked for gold. 

DEEP CREEK, a creek in Rourkeshire, Victoria, rising 
in the High Timbered range, and flowing towards Melbourne. 
This was one of the earliest discoveries. Gold was found in 
August 1851, 16 miles from Melbourne, in slate rock. 

DEEP CREEK, a creek of the Loddon, in Talbotshire, 
Victoria, rising in l.ava Hills, south of Ballarat, 75 miles 
north-west of Geelong, in which are the Clunes diggings. 

DELEGAT, a river 74 miles west of Boydtown, in 
Wellesley shire, on the borders of New South Wales, Victoria, 
in which gold was discovered by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, 
in February 185^2, and in which it has been worked. Gold 
is found in an alluvium of slate and quartz, overlying 
schistose, and covered by very fine sand. It is found also 
in Slaughterhouse Creek, in the Bombalo, and at Quedong, 
near the junction of the Delegat with the Snowy river. 

DERWENT HILL, on the Bendoc, a hill of the Mount 
Alexander range, Victoria, in which gold has been worked 
at a depth of 40 feet. 

DEUA, see Duah. 

DEVIL’S HOLE, a digging of the Turon, which, see 
, DEVIL’S RIVER, a river of Victoria, in which gold was 
found and worked in 1852. 

DILIGANEA, a creek running into the Jenore, on the 
borders of Aucklandshire, New South AVales, and Howesliire, 
Victoria, in which gold was found by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, 
in February 1852. 

DIRT HOLE CREEK, a digging near the Upper 
Wallaba, in New South Wales, where, in February 1852, 
nearly 1,000 diggers were making good earnings. 

DISAPPOINTMENT MOUNT, a mountain in Bourke- 
shire, and near Anglesey, Victoria, 40 miles north of 
Melbourne, at the head of the Plenty Creek, Kilmore Creek, 
and Kinjr Parrot Creek. It is a dark rocky mass, covered 
with high timber, and thick vine scrub. As early as 1847 it 
was reported that gold was found, both in ore and sand, and 



At the eiul of 1852 the 


very likely was secretly worked, 
workings on the Plenty were began. 

DONKEY GULLY, a digging at Forest Creek, Victoria, 
where a nuffset of 22 lbs. weight was found. 

DUBBO, a station and seat of petty sessions on the 
Macquarie, in Lincolnshire, New South Wales, where gold 
has been found. It is 28 miles west from Montefiore. 

DU AH or DEUA, a river rising in Dampiershire, New 
South Wales, and flowing by the borders of St. Vincentshire 
into the Moruya Estuary, and so to the sea at Moruya Bay. 
On it are the Araluen diggings. It is about 200 miles south 
of Sydney, and 50 south-west of Braidwood. 

EAGLE BEAGLE, a creek of Wellingtonshire, New 
South Wales, in which gold is reported by Sir T. L. Mitchell, 
at Benada. 

EAGLE HAWK GULLY, a digging near Bendigo, 
Victoria, about six miles north-west. The gold is found in 
slate and white quartz boulders. 

EBBINGTON MOUNT, see Mount Ebrington. 

ECHUNGA, a river in Adelaideshire, South Australia, in 
which gold was found in 1852. 

EMU CREEK, a creek of the Summerhill river, Bathurst- 
shire. New South Wales, about 165 miles from Sydney, in 
which gold was early discovered. 

EMU CREEK, a creek adjoining Bendigo, on which there 
are diggings. 

ENGLAND, see New England. 

• EUCUMBENE, a river flowing into the Snowy river, 
204 miles from Sydney, in Wallaceshire, New South Wales. 
Gold is found in this river, in the Bombalo Creek and the 
Mowambah river. 

EUMBARALLA, or UMARALLA, a river in Beresford- 
shire. New South Wales, in which, and in the Kybean and 
Winifred Creeks, gold was found by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, 
in 1852. 

EUREKA DIGGINGS, rich diggings opened in 1852, at 
Ballarat. 


60 


FIERY CREEK rises near Mount Cole, among the 
P^^renees in Riponshire, Victoria, and flows into Lake Bolok. 
Gold was found in this river in 1852. 

FINGAL, a town giving name to a hundred in Cornwall, 
Van Diemen’s Land, 70 miles from Launceston, where there 
are gold diggings. 

FISH RIVER is in Westmoreland, New South Wales, 
flowing through the O’Connell Plains, towards the Campbell, 
and forms the head of the Macquarie, 90 miles from Sydney, 
and 15 miles from Bathurst. There are gold diggings on it. 
The head of the Fish River, in the Blue Mountains, four 
miles E.S.E. from Mobrin, is 3472 feet high. 

FISH RIVER, a branch of the Narrawa,' in which gold 
was found at Maroonalong, in September 1851. 

FOOT’S FOREST, a place near the Gwydir river, in New 
South Wales, where gold has been discovered. 

FOREST CREEK, one of the heads of the Loddon river, 
rising in Mount Alexander, Victoria, 100 miles north-west 
of Melbourne. The rocks are of slate, and the diggings, 
discovered in 1851, extend 10 or 12 miles along the river, 
and also along the Upper Forest Creek. A nugget was 
obtained from the surface weighing sixty ounces, and one, 
two, three and four pounds weight were common. A party 
of four obtained cPllOO in one day. Seven thousand people 
were at one time at work here. 

FOX’S STATION, a digging on the Tuena, which, see 

FREDERICK’S VALLEY, a creek in Bathurstshire, New 
South Wales, 153 miles from Sydney. This is another name 
for the Summerhill gold district, and includes Summerhill, 
Orange, Gosling Creek, Emu Creek, Wentworth diggings and 
Lewis Ponds. Gold was found here by Mr. Hargreaves, in 
April 1851, and was the first site discovered. 

FRYER’S CREEK, a creek adjoining Forest Creek in 
Victoria, and a tributary of the Loddon. The diggings extend 
about eight or ten miles from the junction with Forest Creek. 
Three men made ^£^1250 each in a fortnight. Red Hill, 
Adelaide Hill, ajid White Hill arc on this creek. 


GAMBOOLA, see Teatree Creek. 

GEBUR MOUNT, see Mount Macedon. 

GEELONG, a town 54 miles from Melbourne, and G41 
from Sydney, in Grantshire, Victoria. In Port Philip, gold 
was found in 1851 a mile from the town. 

GEELONG GULLY, a digging near Bendigo, Victoria. 

GENORE, see Jenore. 

GEORGE, see Lake George. 

GIBBO, a river and mountain of Murrayshire, Victoria, 
flowing into the Mitta Mitta, and in which gold was found 
by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, on the south-west side near the 
mouth, in December 1851. 

GTLMANDYKE, a creek of Campbell’s river, New South 
Wales, in which gold is worked in the rich alluvial flats, 
bearing thick grass to the water’s edge. In the neighbourhood 
are quartz and schistose rocks; it is about 25 miles south of 
Bathurst, and about one mile from a copper mine (at 
Summerhill). The diggers in 1852 got about 205. per man 
per day. At one time there were about 50 or 60 diggers. 

GINNING DERRY, a creek of the Murrurnbidgee river, 
in Murrayshire, New South Wales, near Mount Ainslie, and 
One-Tree Hill, in which gold was discovered by the Rev. 
W. B. Clarke, in 1852. 

GIPP’S LAND or BRUCESHIRE, Victoria. Gold was 
discovered in 1851, by Mr. Oakden. 

GOLDEN GUITuY, a digging west of the Turon, in 
which gold is found in the pipeclay. 

GOLDEN GULLY,or VALLEY, a digging near Bendigo, 
Victoria. 

GOLDEN POINT, a digging on a branch of the Loddon 
in Victoria. It had at one time 7000 men working on it; 

and 7000 ounces were sent bv escort in one week. The 

•/ 

holes were in some places sunk 25 feet deep. 

GOLDEN GULLY, NEW, a digging about five miles 
north of Bendigo, Victoria, in slate, with white quartz 
boulders. 

GOSLING CREEK, a creek of Bathurstshire, New South 


62 


Wales, 150 miles from Sydney, falling into the Frederick's 
Valley Creek, and on which are the Wentworth diggings. 

GOULBURN, a large town in Argyleshire, New South 
Wales, 125 miles from Sydney, at which gold has been found, 
and at the junction of the Mulwaree and Wolondilly, in a rich 
gold district. 

GOULBURN, a river of Victoria, flowing into the Murray. 
Gold has been found in King Parrot Creek, and Kilmore 
Gully. 

GRATTI CREEK, near Mudgee, and the Cudgegong, in 
New South Wales, in which gold is dug. 

GREEN VALLEY, near the Turon, New South Wales. 
At these diggings, men have made oz. per man per week. 

GREEN SWAMP, a digging near Winburndale. 

GREEN'S PINCH, a digging on the Sydney road, crossing 
the Ranges near Kilmore, Dalhousieshire, Victoria. 

GROVE CREEK, or BURRANGYLONG, a creek of the 
Abercrombie, opposite the Tuena, in Georgianashire, on which 
there are gold diggings. 

GROWLER’S GULLY, a digging near Bendigo, so 
named from the number of squabbles. 

GUNDAGAI, a town 244 miles from Sydney in Clarendon- 
shire, New South Wales, on the Murrumbidgee river, from 
which 13 oz. were remitted in one week. 

GUNDAROO CREEK, between Kingshire and Murray- 
shire. New South Wales, flowing into the Yass river, and 
in which gold was discovered by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, in 1852. 

GUNNING CREEK, a creek of the Narrawa, in King¬ 
shire, New South Wales, 150 miles from Sydney, and in which 
gold was discovered by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, in 1852. 

GWYDIR, BIG, or KINDER, a river joining the Karaula, 
and rising in Hardingeshire, New South Wales, 20 miles west 
of Armidale. Gold has been worked at Bingara and Rocky 
Creek, Carangoura Creek, Myall's Creek, Keera Creek, Foot's 
Forest and Manilla Creek. 

HANGING ROCK CREEK, rises in the Liverpool range, 
and flows into the Duno*owan Creek, and so into the Peel river 


68 




in Parryshire. These diggings, 25 miles south of Tamworth, 
were discovered in the beginning of 1852, and were soon 
frequented by about 200 diggers. The soil is a dry black 
loam, and has yielded from <iP10 to £12 per man per week. 

The gold is very dirty, and mixed with ironstone. The 
rocks are granite, ironstone and syenite, and trap with quartz 
vains. 

HAVILAH, a dio;o;ino; town on the O'Connell Plains, 
New South Wales, where gold was discovered by the Rev. 

Mr. Walker in 1851. 

HONEY CREEK, a digging near Araluen, discovered by 
the Rev. W. B. Clarke. 

HOPKIN’S RIVER, a river in Hampdenshire, Victoria, 
rising near Mount Cole, and flowing into Lady Bay. Gold 
has been found here and in Fiery Creek. 

HORTON RIVER, a feeder of the Gwvdir river. Gold 
is reported in Oakey C'reek. 

HUME RIVER is the upper Murray, flowing between 
New South Wales and Victoria. Gold is found in the Goulburn 
and at Albury. 

HUNTER'S POINT, a digging on the Peel river. 
HUNTER RIVER, Isis. 

INVERLOCHY, a station in Argyleshire, New South ' 
Wales, 18 miles from Goulburn, where gold has been found 
in a quartz range. 

IRON BARK GULLY, a digging about five miles north 
of Bendigo, Victoria. 

IRON-POT CREEK, or KARA, a creek in Brisbane 
Downs, running to the Snowy river, and in which gold wa 
discovered in 1851. 

ISABELLA, a river of Georgianashire, New South Wales, 
flowing into the Abercrombie river, in which gold was re¬ 
ported by Sir Thomas Mitchell. 

ISIS, a river in Brisbaneshire, New South Wales, flowing 
into Pcige's river, and so into the Hunter. Gold has been 
reported here. 

JACOB'S RIVER, or TONGARO, a river on the south- 




64 

west side of the great basaltic plateau of Maneroo, in which 
gold was discovered by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, in Dec. 1851, 
in pebbly alluvium. 

JARRAWA, a creek in Kingshire, New South Wales, 
rising near Mount Dixan, and flowing into the Narrawa. 
Gold is found in the Gunning Creek. 

JEM CROW, a digging near Mount Alexander, Victoria. 

JENORE, a river in Aucklandshire, New South Wales, 
and flowing through Howeshire, Victoria, to the sea at 
Mallagoota. Gold was discovered by the Rev. W. B. Clarke 
in the river, in February 1852, and likewise at Nangutta and 
Diliganea. 

JEW’S GULLY, a digging adjoining Bendigo, Victoria. 

JINDEBEIN, a place on the Snowy river, on the borders 
of New South Wales and Victoria, where gold was discovered 
by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, in December 1851. 

JUGION, a creek in Hardenshire, New South Wales, 
flowing into the Murrumbidgee, and in which gold was found 
nqar the junction with the latter, by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, 
in 1852. 

JUGLYMUNGEE, a creek flowing into the Mitta Mitta 
river, in Murrayshire, Victoria, in which gold was found by 
the Rev. W. B. Clarke, in December 1851. 

KANGAROO GULLY, a digging near Bendigo, Victoria, 
in slate, with white quartz boulders. 

KARA, see Iron-pot Creek. 

KEERA, a creek flowing to the Gwydir river, New South 
Wales, in which gold is reported. 

KILMORE, a digging in Anglesey, Victoria, 60 miles 
north of Melbourne, and 30 east of Bendigo, where gold has 
been discovered at Green’s Pinch, where the Sydney road 
crosses the ranges five miles distant. There is much quartz 
here. 

KILMORE GULLY, in Kilmore township, Anglesey, 
Victoria, flowing towards Mollison’s Creek and the Goulburn. 
The gold is found in grains on a strong blue clay, with a 
mixture of quartz. 




Go 

KINDUR RIVER, see the Gwydir. 

KING'S RIVER, see Ovens. 

KING PARROT CREEK, a branch of the Goulburn 
river, in Anglesey, Victoria, rising in the dividing range. 
Gold was found here in August 1851. 

KIORA, a place near the Moruya river, on the borders 
of St. Vincentshire and Dampiershire, New South Wales, 
where o’old has been found. 

KYBEAN RIVER, a branch of the Eumbaralla river, in 
Beresfordshire, New South Wales, where gold was found by 
the Rev. W. B. Clarke, in 185^2. 

KYNETON, a town 60 miles west of Melbourne, in 
Talbotshire, Victoria, close to the Bendigo diggings. 

LACHLAN, a great river of New South Wales, flowing 
towards the Murray. Gold is found on its headstreams, in 
the Abercrombie, Crook well, Narrawa, Belubula and their 
creeks, and also in those of the Murrumbidgee. 

LAKE GEORGE, a lake between Argyleshire and 
Murray shire. New South Wales, 2000 feet above the sea, 
16 miles long from north to south, and seven miles broad. 
Gold has been found in the neighbourhood, to the north of 
Carowang Flat, and Mulwaree ponds, to the south in the 
creek of Batmaroo, on the west at Gundaroo. Lake George 
gap is 2151 feet above the level of the sea. 

LAMBTON, a creek of the Narrawa, in Kingshire. New 
South Wales. 

LAWSON’S CREEK, a creek in Phillipshire, New Soutli 
Wales, running into the Cudgegong river, near the town of 
Mudgee, and in which there are gold workings. 

LEANING OAK CREEK runs into Meroo creek, in 
Wellingtonshire, New South Wales. Gold is worked here. 

LEIGH RIVER runs into the Barwon, and divides 
Grantshire and Granvilleshire, Victoria. It rises at Buninyong 
Gold has been worked here at Russell’s and Brown’s stations. 

LEWIS HILL, a digging near the Turon, in Roxburgh¬ 
shire, at the foot of a range of hills 

LEWIS PONDS are in Bathurstshire, New South Wales. 

E 


They join Emu Swamp, and run into Frederick’s Valley, 
and so into the Macquarie. They are about 140 miles from 
Sydney. The Cornish settlement is on these ponds, which 
are a chain of waterholes; these when full form a continuous 
stream. This was one of the first gold discoyeries of Mr. 
Hargreayes, in April 1851. 

LEWIS CREEK, a digging near Mudgeeand the Cudge- 
gong. 

LIMESTONE HUT, a gold digging near the source of 
the Copperhania Creek of the Abercrombie, in Georgianashire, 
New South Wales. 

LITTLE RIVER, or CREEK, or MONGARLO, 12 
miles from Braid wood, where diggings were found in February 
1852. The gold is nuggetty and coarse, and found embedded 
in schist rock. One hundred licences were at one time granted, 
and the riyer was flumed. At Nuggetty Point a nugget of 
54 oz. 2dwts. was found, in 1852. The creek flows into the 
Shoalhayen at Marlow, and there are diggings at the source 
at Budawang Mountain. The gold district is about 13 miles 
across. 

LITTLE RIVER, a riyer of Grantshire, Victoria, flowing 
from the Anakie Hills into Port Philip. 

LOUDON, a riyer in Victoria, rising in many heads in the 
high mountains between Talbotshire and Bourkeshire, in¬ 
cluding Mount Byng, Mount Alexander, Mount Dromedary, 
and Mount Greenock, and flowing into the Murray river due 
north. Sir Thos. L. Mitchell called it the Yarra. The creeks 
and gullies of the sources constitute the richest gold field 
yet known, including Mount Alexander, Forest Creek, Deep 
Creek, and Barker’s Creek. 

LONDON BRIDGE, a place in Murrayshire, New South 
Wales, where gold was found by the Rey. W. B. Clarke in 
1852, in the Queen bey an. 

LONG CREEK, a feeder of the Moroo Creek, in Welling- 
tonshire, which flows into the Cudgegong. Five or six 
hundred people were at one time at work here, and doing well- 
Holes were sunk to the depth of 14 feet. 




GT 

LONG GULLY, a digging about five miles north of 
Bendioro. 

o 

LOUISA CREEK, a creek on the south bank of the 
Moroo, about 20 miles west of Mudgee, and 170 from Sydney? 
in Wellingtonshire, New South Wales. The country is 
thickly sprinkled with quartz-boulders and pebbles, and gold 
quartz is found. There are likewise rocks of slaty formation. 
Some of the dig-tj-inffs are in clay. This district is famous 
for the largest nuggets in the world, including Dr. Kerr’s 
“hundredweight of gold,” valued at <£4000; Brennan’s nugget, 
found 25 yards off, and sold in December 1851 for £1155, 
weighing 336 oz., and nine inches broad; and nuggets weighing 
312 oz., 240 oz. and 157 oz. 

LUCKY POINT, a digging on the Turon, which, sae 

MACDONALD, a river of Inglisshire, New South Wales, 
flowing from New England range to the Muluerindie and to 
the Peel. Gold has been found in the Cangi Creek. 

MACDONALD’S CREEK, a digging near Mudgee, 
which, see 

MACEDON MOUNT, see IMount Macedon. 

MAC ION’S CREEK, a digging in Victoria. 

MACIiACHLAN, a river of Wellesleyshire, New South 
Wales, flowing into the Snowy river, where gold was found 
by the Rev. W. B. Clarke in 1852, on the Punchbowl Creek, 
and at the junction with the Snowy and Delegat rivers. 

MACLEAY, a river of New South Wales, rising in 
Sandonshire, and flowing through Vermontshire to the sea at 
Trial Bay. Gold is found in the Walcha. 

MACQUARIE, a great river of New South Wales, one 
of the main feeders of the Murray, and a great gold river. 
At its source the first diggings were opened by Mr. Hargreaves, 
in April 1852. Gold is found in Mookerw'ae, Campbell’s 
river, the Fish river, Winburndale, Turon, Summerhill, 
Cudgegong and Bell rivers, and it has been ascertained in its 
bed at Nelly’s Corner, Walgumbulla, and at various points 
for 200 miles, as low down as Dubboo. 

MAHARATTA CREEK, 60 miles from Twofold Bay, 

K 2 


68 



is near Bendoc Creek, and near the borders of New South 
Wales and Victoria, in Wellesley shire. Gold was found here 
by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, in February 1852. 

MAITLAND POINT, a digging on the Turon, which, see 

MAJOR’S CKEEK, is near Araluen, in St. Vincentshire, 
New South Wales, and flows into the Duah. Gold was 
discovered in November 1851. It is a slow, sluggish stream, 
making its way through a narrow flat, not more than two miles 
long. The top soil, one foot deep, yields gold, but the great 
yield is from a vein of decomposed granite, at the depth of 
from 10 to 20 feet, under a stratum of rich black soil, and 
another of stiff clay, with boulders. The granite has been 
tunnelled, and the holes flumed. Three hundred and fifty- 
seven licences were granted in one month, 1200 people were at 
once at work. Some men made as much as 3 oz. per day; 
one 11 oz.in a day ; and another 44 oz. in a week. The gold 
is rather finer than that of some of the neighbouring diggings, 
and very bright. There is a digging likewise at Stony Creek, 
near Wells Creek. 

MALLE SCRUB, 12 miles north from Bendigo, Victoria. 
Gold is worked in Whipstick Gully. 

MALOON CREEK, is in Murray shire. New South Wales, 
near Queanbeyan, north-west of Braidwood. Gold was 
discovered here in 1852, by the Rev. W. B. Clarke. 

MANEROO, see Moneroo. 

MANILLA RIVER is in New England, New South 
Wales, 50 miles from Tam worth, and ,one and-a-half from 
Piedmont. Gold has been found here. 

MANNING, a river 225 miles from Sydney, rising in the 
dividing range east of the Peel, and flowing between 
Hawesshire, Macquarieshire and Glostershire to the sea at 
Farquhar inlet. Gold was found here by Mr. Hargreaves, 
in March 1852. 

MARKS POINT, a digging on the Tuenna, where a man 
has got 4 oz. of gold per day. 

MAROONALONG or MAROORALONG, a place on 
tlie Fish river of the Narrawa, where s:old was discovered in 


^// o 


C9 

September 1851, and where there are diggings at the depth of 
12 feet. The ruby and turquoise have likewise been found 
here. 

MARRIED MAN’S CREEK, a digging in Wellington- 
shire, New South Wales. 

MARULAN, a town and mountain in Argyleshire, 110 
miles from Sydney. Gold has been found at Shelley’s flat, 
four miles distant. 

MELBOURNE, a city, the capital of Victoria, in 
Bourkeshire. Gold has been found in the streets, [^and in 
many parts of the neighbourhood. 

, MENAROO, Monaroo. 

MERGES MOUNT, see Mount Merces. 

MERINDA, a creek in Wellingtonshire, New South 
Wales, flowing into the Moroo Creek, and so into the 
Cudgegong, 20 miles west of Mudgee, 30 south-east from 
Wellington, and 53 from Bathurst. This is a gold digging, 
and Dr. Kerr’s nugget '•* hundredweight of gold” was found 
near tlie junctions with the Moroo. 

MEROO, see Moroo. 

MITCHELi;S CREEK, in Wellingtonshire, New South 
Wales. Gold was reported by Sir T. L. Mitchell, and after¬ 
wards found. 

MITTA MITTA RIVER is in Victoria, and falls into 
the Murray near Albury, rising in the Australian Alps. Gold 
was found by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, in December 1851, in 
Juglymungee Creek, at Lake Omeo, near the source, and at 
Mount Gibbo. 

MOAMBI or MOWAMBAH RIVER, a stream in 
Wallaceshire, New South Wales, flowing towards the Snowy 
river. Gold was found by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, in 
Decem])er 1851. 

MOLLISON’S CREEK, a branch of the Goulburn, in 
Victoria, near which gold has been found at Kilmore Gully. 

MOLONG,a river rising in Mount Canoblas,in Wellington¬ 
shire, and dividing the latter from Ashburnliamshire. It is 
joined by the Saw-pit Creek, Ploughman’s Creek, Nandillp 


70 


Ponds, Boreenore, or Teatree Creek, Nubrygen and Badul- 
durrai Creeks, and forms the head of the Bell river. All 
these are rich diggings. The town of Molong, lower down, 
is 163 miles from Sydney. 

MONDAY, see Mundy. 

MOLONG LO, a creek in Murray shire, joining the Queen- 
beyan, and flowing into the Murrumbidgee. Gold was found 
by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, in 1852. 

MONAROO, MANEROO, or MENEROO, is the name of 
large plains in the south of New South Wales, on the borders 
of Victoria, and many of the rivers of which, as the Snowy 
river, are gold bearing. 

MONGARLO, see Little River. 

MOOKERWAE, or OAKEY CREEK, a creek in WeL 
lingtonshire. New South Wales, flowing into the Macquarie, 
30 miles south-east of Wellington. Here are gold diggings 
in schistose rock. 

MOONLIGHT FLAT, a digging at Forest Creek, 
Victoria. 

MOROO or MEROO, a creek in Wellingtonshire, New 
South Wales, flowing into the Cudgegong. It is a rich gold 
district, to which belong Merinda Creek, Leaning Oak and 
Long Creek. On it, the “ hundred weight of gold ” nugget 
was found; and here are the World’s End diggings. 

MORUYA, a river and estuary, between St. Vincentshire and 
Dampiershire, New South Wales, which receives the Duah, 
the Araluen Creek, and the Kiora. 

MOUNTAIN RUN, a tributary to Brown’s Creek, which 
see. Fifty men have been at work on this stream. 

MOUNT ALEXANDER is in Dalhousieshire, Victoria, 
in the Alexandrine range near Bendigo. From it flow the heads 
of the Loddon, and Campaspe rivers to the north. Here are 
the richest diggings in the world, including Bendigo, Forest 
Creek, Coliban, Fryer’s Creek, Red Hill, White Hill and 
Adelaide Hill. Gold is found near the surface, and likewise 
in deep diggings in clay, quartz and ironstone. One man 
found 80 ihs. ill one hour. 


71 



MOUNT ANDERSON, a mountain near Buninyong. 

MOUNT BLACKWOOD, a mountain about 40 miles 
south of Mount Alexander, in Bourkeshire, Victoria. A rich 
digging was found here. 

MOUNT BUNINYONG, see Buninyong. 

MOUNT BYNG, a mountain in Victoria, near Mount 
Alexander, and having diggings. 

MOUNT CAMPBELL,amountainnear Mount Alexander. 

MOUNT CANOBLAS, see Canoblas. 

MOUNT COLE, is in the Pyrenees, Victoria, between the 
sources of the Loddon and the Wimmera. Gold is said to 
have been discovered here. 

MOUNT DISAPPOINTMENT, see Disappointment 
Mount. 

MOUNT EBRINGTON, six miles from Araluen, in St. 
Vincentshire, New South Wales. In the diggings here, gold 
is found in nu^g:ets. 

MOUNT EMU CREEK, in the neighbourhood of 
Hopkins river, and Fine river, Hampdenshire, Victoria. Gold 
has been found here. 

MOUNT FORBES, a mountain in Anglesey, Victoria, 
near which, gold has been found at Kilmore. 

MOUNT GREENOCK, a mountain near Burn Bank, in 
V^ictoria. 

MOUNT GIBBO, see Gibbo. 

MOUNT MACEDON, or GEBUR, is a mountain in 
Bourkeshire, Victoria, 30 miles south-east of Mount Alexander. 
There are gold workings here. 

MOUNT MERGES, a mountain in Victoria, where gold 
has been found. 

MOUNT WELLINGTON, a mountain in Victoria, where 
gold has been found. 

MOUNT WILLIAM, a mountain of Riponshire, Victoria, 
4500 feet high, near the heads of the Glenelg, and Hopkins 
rivers, where gold is said to have been discovered. 

MOWANBAH, see Moamba. 

MUCKEWE, see Mookerwae. 





MUDGEE, a town in Wellingtonshire, New South AVales, 
on the Cudgegong river. Gold has been found in this 
neighbourhood, at Lawson'^s creek. 

MULGUNNIA CREEK, a creek of the Abercrombie 
river in Georgianashire, New South Wales, on which there are 
gold diggings; and at Trunkey Valley creek. 

MULLAMURRA, a creek joining Winburndale, in 
Roxburghshire, New South Wales. 

MULUERINDI, a river which flows to the Peel, in New 
England, and in which gold is found in the Macdonald river, 
Bundara river, and Swamp Oak river. 

MULWAREE PONDS, a feeder of the river Wolondilly, 
near Goulburn, and which receives the waters of the Merrijah 
rivulet, 146 miles from Sydney in Georgianashire, New South 
Wales. Gold has been found at Carawang Flat. 

MUNDY POINT, a digging on the Turon, whence a 
race or flume has been cut to Oakey creek. 

MURRAY, the great river of Australia, which flows for 
some distance between New South Wales and Victoria; its 
head is called the Hume. Gold has been found in the Ovens, 
Mitta Mitta, in the river near Albury, in the Goulburn, the 
Campaspe, the Loddon, and the heads of its great northern 
feeders, the Lachlan and the Darling. 

MURRUMBIDGEE, one of the great rivers of New 
South Wales, rising in Beresfordshire, and flowing towards the 
Lachlan. Gold has been found in the V^ass river, Queanbeyan, 
Molonglo, Cowara, Coodradigbee, Jugion, Bololong, Einin- 
derry, Tarcutta, Beredpo, and other head streams. 

MURRUBUNDI, a creek running into Page’s river, Bris- 
baneshire, and so into the Hunter. It rises in the dividing 
range of Liverpool Plains. 

M US WELL BROOK, a small brook flowing into the 
Hunter, near the town of Muswellbrook in Durhamshire, New 
South Wales. At these diggings one man got oz. in one 
week. 

MYALL CREEK runs into the Gwydir river, 120 iiiiles 
from Tam worth. 


73 


MYERS STATION, near Rendigo. Here is a digging 
at York Gully. 

NAMOI or NAMOY, the native name for the Peel. 

NANGUTTA, a place on the Jenore river, near Auckland- 
shire, where gold was found by the Rev. W. R.. Clarke, in 
Februarv 1852. 

j 

NARRAWA, a river in Kingshire, New South Wales, rising 
in the Cullarin range, and flowing towards the Crookwell. 
Gold has been found here, and at Maroonalong in September 
1851. 

NEAL’S POINT, a digging on the Turon. 

NELLY’S CORNER, or NEELI, a place on the 
Macquarie, where Mr. Stutchbury found scale gold in 1851. 

NEW CHUM GULLY, a digging five miles north of 
Rendigo. 

NEW ENGLAND, the district in New South Wales, in 
which Inglisshire and Hardingeshire are now included. Gold 
has been found at Swamp Oak Creek, the Macdonald, the 
Cockburn, and Walcha. 

NEW ZEALAND POINT, a digging near the Turon. 

NIMITAREL or NIMITYRELLE, are mountains in 
the Monaroo district, on the east side of the coast range, 
where gold was found by the Rev. W. R. Clarke. 

NURRYGEN, a river of Wellingtonshire, New South 
Wales, running into the Rell river, and in which gold was 
reported by Sir T. L. Mitchell, and found, as also in the 
Raduldurrai Creek. 

NUGGETTY POINT or CREEK, is on the Little or 
Mongarlo river. It was worked out in 1851, but a nugget 
was afterwards found, weighing 54 oz. 2 dwts. 

NUGGETTY GULLY, a digging near Rendigo, Victoria. 

OAKENVILLE CREEK, an estate of the Australian 
Agricultural Company, in New England, New South Wales. 
Here is an auriferous quartz vein. 

OAKEY CREEK is a name for the Mookerwae, in 
Wellingtonshire, which see 

OAKEY CREEK flows into the Horton, and so into the 


74 


Gwydir or Big river, New South Wales. On this river are 
several important diggings. The rock is trap, with quartz 
veins. 

OAKEY CREEK (BIG), a digging on the Turon, in 
Roxburghshire, New South Wales. 

OAKEY CREEK (LITTLE), a digging on the Turon, 
in Roxburghshire, which has yielded many nuggets. 

O’CONNELL PLAINS, a district in Westmoreland and 
Roxburghshire, New South Wales, 115 miles from Sydney. 
Gold is found in the Fish river and Campbell’s river. 

OMEO, a lake near the Mitta Mitta and Livingstone 
rivers, in the Australian Alps, in Murrayshire, Victoria. 
Gold is found here. This district is 3800 feet above the level 
of the sea. 

OPHIR, a gold digging station. These diggings are on 
Summerhill Creek, approaching the Macquarie, in Welling- 
tonshire. New South Wales. The gold was discovered in 
April 1851 by Mr. Hargreaves. The escort was established 
12th of August, 1851. 

ORANGE, a place in Bathurstshire, New South Wales, 
near Frederick’s Valley, where gold is worked. 

OVENS, a river in Murray, Victoria, flowing from snowy 
ranges towards the river Murray, or Hume. Gold is worked 
here at Reed Creek. 

PAGE’S RIVER is in Brisbaneshire, New South Wales, 
rising in the Liverpool range, and flowing towards the Hunter 
at Aberdeen. Gold is found in the Murrurundi, near its 
source, and in the Isis. 

PATERSON’S POINT, a digging on the Turon, which 
see 

PEEL, or NAMOI RIVER rises in the Liverpool range 
in Parryshire, and flows to the Macquarie and Darling. Gold 
has been found at Hanging Rock, in the Cockburn, the 
Macdonald, the Swamp Oak Creek, and the Bundara. 

PEG LEG GULLY, a digging near Bendigo, named 
from a wooden legged digger. 

J'EPPER CREIvK (bMdes Georginanashirc and Baihurst- 


shire, New South Wales, and Hows into the Campbell river. 
Gold has been worked here. 

PICKANINNY CREEK, a digging in Victoria. 

PIEDMONT, a station 60 miles from Tamwortli, New 
England, 1 ^ miles from which, on the Manilla river, gold has 
been discovered. 

PIENBONE CREEK, a digging near Mudgee. 

PITTWATER, or SORELL, a town in Pembrokeshire, 
Van Diemen’s Land, on the Iron Creek, near which gold was 
worked in 1852. 

PLENTY, a river between Bourkeshire and Evelynshire, 
Victoria, rising in Mount Disappointment, and flowing south 
to the Yarra. Gold is found in sandstone and slate, intersected 
by perpendicular veins of quartz. 

PLOUGHMAN’S CREEK runs into the Nandillo Ponds, 
in Wellingtonshire, New South Wales. 

POOR MAN’S CREEK, a digging on the Upper Wallaba. 

PORCUPINE, a river near Forest Creek, Victoria, on 
which rich diggings have been found. 

PORTLAND GULLY, a digging adjoining Bendigo. 

PORTLAND BAY is in Normanbyshire, Victoria. Gold 
was discovered within 10 miles of the bay in 1851. 

PUNCHBOWL CREEK runs into Winifred Creek, and 
so into the Eumaralla river in Beresfordshire, New South 
Wales. Gold w'as found by the Rev. W. B. Clarke in 1852. 

PYRAMUL, a river of Wellingtonshire, New South 
Wales, flowing into the Macquarie. Gold is found in a slaty 
formation at a depth of three feet. 

PYRENEES, a range of mountains in Talbotshire,Victoria. 
Gold has been found at Clunes, Mount Cole, in the Hopkins 
river. Fiery Creek, and Daisy Hill. 

QUEANBEYAN, a river in Murrayshire, New South 
'\Vales, flowing from the Gourock range to the Molonglo 
Creek, and thence to the Murrumbidgee. Gold was found in 
1852 at London Bridge and another place by the Rev. 
W. B. Clarke. 

QUEDO.NG, a place near the junction of the Maclachlan 


river with the Snowy river, on the Delegat river, where gold 
was found by the Rev. W. R. Clarke in 1852. 

RATION HILL, a digging near the Turon. Claims 
have been sold here for dfSOO or cf’SOO. 

RED BANK CREEK, a digging near Mudgee and the 
Cudgegong. 

REDFERN’S CREEK, see Davis’s Creek. 

RED HILL, a digging at Mount Alexander, Victoria, on 
Forest Creek. The base is freestone rock, on which lies a 
concrete of ironstone. 


REED CREEK, or REEDY CREEK, a tributary of 
the Ovens, flowing from the east, in Murray, Victoria, where 
gold was discovered in March 1852. The diggings are 
16 miles in length, and gold is obtained by surface washing. 

REUBEN’S RACE, a dam made on the Turon. 

RICHARDSON’S POINT, a digging on the Moroo. 

RICH RED SURFACE GULLY, or TATIARA, 
a digging north-west of Bendigo. 

ROBINSON’S HOLE, a creek running to the Brogo 
river, Aucklandshire, New South Wales. 

ROCKY RIVER, a branch of the Condamine, in 
Aubignyshire, New South Wales, in which gold has been 
discovered. 

ROSEHILL, a bar on the Turon, where large earnings 
have been made. 

RUN OF WATER, a place in which gold has been 
discovered north-east of Goulburn, in Argyleshire, New 
South Wales. 


RUSSELL’S STATION, a digging in Victoria, 
SAWPIT CREEK is near the head of Molong creek, 
in Wellingtonshire. Here are diggings. 

SAWYER’S CREEK is between Sofala, and the head 
of Little Oakey Creek on the Turon, in Roxburghshire, and 
and is a very rich digging. 


SECTION CREEK is in Wellingtonshire. This is re¬ 
ported by Sir T. L. IMitchell, as auriferous. 

SEWELL’S CREEK, a creek of Campbell’s river, on 


the borders of Bathiirstshire, New South \Vales, six miles 
east of Gilmandyke. Here are good diggings. 

SHALLOW GULLY, a digging near Bendigo, Victoria. 

SHEEP STATION POINT, a digging on the Turon, 
yielding three or four ounces per man per day. 

SHEEPWASH CREEK, a digging adjoining Bendigo. 

SHELLEY’S FLAT, four miles from Marulan, and 
118 from Sydney, in Argyleshire, New South Wales. Gold 
has been discovered here. 

SHOALHAVEN, a river rising in Beresfordshire, Dam- 

piershire. New South Wales, and flowing through several 

counties. Gold is found at Arnprior, Bungonia, Warri, Boro 

/ 

Creek, and Mongarlo river. 

SLAUGHTER-HOUSE CREEK, a branch of the 
Delegat river, in which gold was found by the Rev. W. B. 
Clarke, in February 1852. The rock is slate, traversed by 
quartz and trap, with patches of granite. 

SLATY CREEK, a branch of Davis’s Creek, which runs 
into Campbell’s river, and in which gold has been worked. 

SLEWED GULLY, a digging near Bendigo. 

- SMITH’S RIVER is the lower part of the Bell river, in 
W ellingtonshire. 

SNOWY MOUNTAINS. Gold has been discovered by 
the Rev. W. B. Clarke in the branches of the Australian 
Alps. 

SNOWY RIVER, a river rising in Wallaceshire, New 
South Wales, and flowing into the sea in Combermereshire, 
Victoria. Gold has been found in this river at Jindebein, 
and in the Delegat river, Winifred Creek, Maclachlan river, 
Bobundara Creek, Moambo river. Slaughter-house Creek, 
Bombalo river, Bendoc river, and Woolwye river. 

SOFALA, a digging town on the Turon river, near 
Lewis Hill and Cunningham’s Creek, in Roxburo-hshire. 
New South Wales. The escort was established 12th Aiio-ust, 
1851. 

SORRELL, see Pittwater. 

SOUNDING ROCK, a digging of the Abercrombie. 


78 



SPICEirS CHEEK is near the Moroo. The first digger 
with his wife made in five weeks. There were after¬ 

wards 200 men at work. 

SPRING GULLY, a digging at Bendigo, Victoria. It 
is a tributary of the Loddon, between Forest and Fryer’s 
Creeks. One hundred pounds of gold was got out of one 
hole. 

SPRING HILL, a digging at Ballarat, Victoria. 

STANFIELD'S NOOK, a place 14 miles from Avoca, in 
Cornwall, Van Diemen’s Land. Gold has been found here 
in very small quantity. 

STARVATION GULLY, a digging near Bendigo, 
Victoria. 

STIEGLITZ’S RUN, a digging in Victoria, where a 
hundred men were at work in 1852. 

STOCKYARD CREEK, a gold digging near the Turon 
and the Dirt Hole, where about a thousand men were at 
work in February 1852, making good earnings. 

STONY CREEK, a creek of the Campbell river, near 
O’Connell Plains, where gold was found by Mr. Stutchbury 
and the Rev. Mr. Walker. It is in . Westmoreland, New 
South Wales. 

STONY CREEK, a feeder of Bell’s Creek, Araluen, very 
'rich in gold. 

STONY CREEK, a feeder of the Snowy river, in which 
gold was found by the Rev. AV. B. Clarke, in Dec. 1851. 

STRATHLODDEN, a station in Victoria, where gold was 
discovered in 1851. 

SUCCOMBOCO, a district on the east side of the coast 
range, in New South'Wales, on the borders of Victoria, where* 
gold was found by the Rev. AV. B. Clarke, in 1852. 

SUMMERHILL, a plain in Bathurstshire New South 
Wales, 145 miles from Sydney, and 30 miles from Bathurst, 
near the Frederick’s Valley, or Summerhill Creek. This was 
the first gold field discovered by Mr. Hargreaves, in April 
1851. By the 25th of May, there were a 1000 people at 
Summerhill. The rock is clay slate, formino: the bed of the 


79 


creek, a^cl in the high lands basalt traversed by quartz veins, 
as are also the sides of the creek. Large nuggets are found 
here. The lower diggings are called Ophir. Summerhill 
includes a large district, between Moloiig Creek and Lewis 
Ponds. The escort was established 12th May, 1851. Sum- 
inerhill is 3010 feet above the level of the sea. 

SURVEYOR'’S CREEK, a branch of the Macdonald river, 
in which gold was found by Mr. Hargreaves, in September 
1851. 

SUTTOR’S STATION, Brucedale. 

SWALLOW CREEK, a feeder of the Macquaiie river 
in Bathurstshire. Gold has been found here. 

SWAiMP OAK CREEK, flows towards the Macdonald, 
and so to the Peel in Darlingshire, New South AVales. Gold 
was found here by Mr. Hargreaves, in March 1852. The 
rocks are trap and quartz. 

SYDNEY GULLY, a digging near Bendigo, Victoria. 

TATE’S GABOK CREEK, flows into the Macquarie in 
Roxburghshire. 

TALLIMANGEA CREEK, a digging near Mudgee. 

TAMBEROORA CREEK, is in Wellington, New South 
Wales, between the Turon and Pyramul Creek. It yielded 
458 oz. in one week, and at the rate of £14- per man per 
week. 

TAM WORTH, a town on the Peel river, and the estate 
of the Australian Agricultural Company, 155 miles from 
Maitland in Parryshire. Gold is worked in the Peel and 
Cockburn rivers. 

TARAGO LAKE, see Terrago. 

T ARC ATT AH, a feeder of the Murrumbidgee river in 
Wynyardshire, New. South Wales, where gold has been 
found. 

TARS HI SH, a digging station on the Abercrombie river, 
in Georgianashire, 20 miles south-east from Carcoar, and 17 
miles from Mulgunnie. 

TATIARA GULLY, see rich Red Surface Gully. 

TEATREE (’REEK, or Boreenore, in Wellingtonshire, 


80 


New South Wales, runs into the Molong near Tangrain, and 
so into the Macquarie. Gold is found in limestone. 

TEMPLAR’S CROSSING CREEK, is a digging near 
Summerhill. 

TERRAGO, a lake on Breadalbane Plains, Argyleshire, 
New South Wales, in a creek near which gold was found by 
the Rev. W. B. Clarke, in 1852. It is 2264 feet above the 
level of the sea. 

THOMPSON’S POINT, a digging on the Turon. 

THREE BROTHERS, a mountain in Bathurstshire, 
where gold has been found. 

TIPPERARY GULLY, a digging near Bendigo, Victoria. 

TONGARO, see Jacob’s river. 

TRUNKEY VALLEY CREEK, a continuation of 
Mulgunnie Creek, where the diggers have made £1 per man 
per day. It is in Georgianashire, New South Wales. 

TUENA, a creek of the Abercrombie in Bathurstshire, 
New South Wales. These diggings are very rich; and one 
party got net <sP400 in one week. The gold is heavy and coarse. 

TURL TURL, is a good digging near Tuena. 

TURON, a river of Roxburghshire, New South Wales, 
rising near Hartley and Cullen Cullen, and flowing into the 
Macquarie in Wellingtonshire. These diggings were opened 
early in 1851, and have proved very rich. The gold requires 
to be sunk for. The rocks in the neighbourhood include 
compact porphyry, succeeded by clay-slate, with veins of gold 
quartz. The gold is clean and pure. Many nuggets have 
been found. The escort was established, 12th August, 1851. 
Part of the course has been diverted by a race or flume. 
Sofala is on these diggings, as are Little Oakey and Big 
Oakey Creek, Stockyard Creek, Sawyer’s Creek, Cunning¬ 
ham’s Creek and Deep Creek. 

UMARALLA, sec Eumeralla. 

UMBY CREEK, a digging near Mudgee. 

URAL CREEK is in the Maneroo district, near the 
Snowy river. Gold was discovered here by the Rev. W. B* 
Clarke, in December 1851. 




81 


WALCHA, a creek of the river Apsley, wliich is a 

feeder of the jMacleay river, in Vernonshire, New Soutli 
Wales. 

WALGAMBALI.A, a bar at the junctions of the Tam- 
beroora and Macquarie. 

AVALLABY or AVALLABA CREEK, a creek of the 
Macquarie in Gordonshire, New South AVales, 32 miles from 
Montefiores, and where there are good diggings, as well as at 
Poor Man’s Creek, on the Upper Wallaba, and at Circus 
Point, on the Lower Wallaba, and at Dirthole Creek. 

WARDY YALLOCK, a river in Grantshire, Victoria, 
rising near Mount Buninyong, and flowing south to the lakes. 

There are diggings in this river and likewise in the neigh- 
bouring range. 

WARRI is a place in the Shoalhaven river, where gold 
has been worked. 

AVARWICK, a place in Moreton Bay district, where tliere 

are diggings from which one man has got 7oz. of gold in a 
week. 


WATILE FOREST CREEK runs into Major’s Creek, 
in Saint Vincentshire, New South AVales. The diggings are 

WATTLE bLEET, a table land between Wyagden and 

the Turon ranges, near Bathurst, in which there are 
diggings. 

WENTAVORTH DIGGINGS are in Bathurstshire, 
New South Wales, 140 miles from Sydney, at the junction 
of Gosling Creek, with the Frederick’s Valley Creek. Gold 
has been picked up from the surface of the ground prin¬ 
cipally m fragmentary quartz and ochreous loam. In one 
day a miner raised .£>500 worth of gold from what is termed 

the “ golden lode.” A company has been formed in Sydney 
to work these mines. 


AA ESI BURN, a place near Bathurst, 
copper have been found. 

WHIPSTICK GULLY is in the Malle 


where gold and 
Scrub, 12 miles 




82 

north of Bendigo, Victoria, where there are rich diggings, 
first worked by Germans. 

WHITE HILL, a rich digging adjoining Bendigo, 
in Victoria. 

WHITE HORSE GULLY, a digging adjoining Bendigo, 
Victoria, in which a 451b. nugget was found. 

WINBURNDALE, a river in Roxburghshire, New South 
Wales, and falling into the Macquarie. Gold is found in the 
river at Green Swamp, and in the Mulla-murra Creek. At 
one time 50 men were at work. Gold is met with from 10 
to 20 feet below the surface. 

WINIFRED CREEK, flows into the Maclachlan river, 
in Beresfordshire, New South Wales. Gold was found in 
Punch-bowl Creek, by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, in 1852. 

WOLONDILLY RIVER, rises in the Cullarin range, 
New South Wales, flowing through Argyleshire, and between 
Camdenshire and Westmoreland, to the Warragamba river. 
Gold is found in the Mulwaree Ponds, at Carowang Flat, and 
near Terrago Lake, in the run of water north-east of 
Goulburn. 

WOOL WYE CREEK, gold was discovered here by the 
Rev. W. B. Clarke, in December 1851. It flows into the 
Snowy river, in Wallaceshire, New South Wales. 

WORLD’S END, a digging at Moroo Creek, 18 miles 
from Mudgee, and 30 from Wellington, in Wellingtonshire, 
New South Wales. 

YALWELL CREEK, a digging near the Shoalhaven 
river, where gold was discovered in March 1852. Men have 
got d^^l per day. 

YANKEE GULLY, a digging five miles north of 
Bendigo. 

YARRA YARRA, a river of Victoria, near the mouth of 
which, is Melbourne. Gold has been found at Melbourne 
and on the head streams, and in the Plenty and Anderson’s 
Creeks. 

YARRA, see Loddon. 




83 

YASS, a river of New South Wales, rising in Mount 
Ainslie, and flowing between Kingshire and Murrayshire, to 
the Murrumbidgee. Gold has been found in various places 
and at Gunderoo Creek. 

YORK GULLY, a digging at Bendigo, near Myer's 
Station, Victoria, where are diggings in pipeclay, three feet 

below the surface. Nuggets are found in a layer of two 
inches of soil. 



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SUMMARY OF THE CONTENTS. 


Origin of Gold Workings, p. 3 ; Ancient Gold Mining, p. 5; Phaeniciana, 
Carthaginians, Greeks. Effect of the Discovery of the American Mines, p. 6, 
Corresponding epoch in 1848 ; Influence of California and Australia on . 
Europe and Asia, p. 8 ; Emigration; Supply of Population, p. 11. ! 

GEOLOGY OF GOLD, p. 13 ; Quartz crushing, pp. 13 to 20 ; Gold ! 
veins; Stream working; Nuggetting, pp. 13 to 18; River washings,, 
p. 15 ; Bars—Dry Diggings,Wet Diggings, p. 16 ; Formation of the Murray 
river basin, p. 16. 

GOLD WORKING, p. 17 ; Streaming, Placer working, Nuggetting, 
Cradle, p. 18 ; Quicksilver amalgamation, p. 19 ; Washing tables. Diving 
Bell, p. 19; Use of Slaves, p. 20; Quartz crushing, p. 20; Stamping 
engines. Steam power. Gold Mining, p. 21. 

GOLD MONETARY QUESTION.—Silver panic of 1850, p. 21 ; Palla¬ 
dium, p. 22 ; Price of Silver, ditto of Gold, p. 22 ; Stock of Bullion, p. 23 ; 
Annual Produce of Gold and Silver, p. 23. 

GOLD MINES OF EUROPE, p. 23 ; England, Ireland, Scotland, p. 24 ; 
France, Spain, pp. 4, 5, 25 ; Italy, pp. 5, 25 ; Germany, Austria, pp. 5, 25 ; 
Sweden, p. 25 ; Turkey and Greece, pp. 5, 25 ; Russia, p. 26. 

SIBERIAN GOLD REGIONS.—Ural yearly produce, p. 26. 

GOLD IN ASIA.—Siberia and Tartary, pp. 26, 27 ; Asia Minor, Cj'prus, 
p. 5 ; India, p. 27; Assam, p. 28 ; China, Tibet, Malacca, Japan, 
Borneo, p. 28 ; Sumatra, Celebes, Timor, Philippines, p. 29 ; New Guinea, 
New Caledonia, New Zealand, p. 29. I 

AUSTRALIAN GOLD REGIONS, p. 29 ; Topography of the river 
Bain, of the Murray, p. 29. 

GOLD DISTRICTS OF NEW SOUTH WALES.—Bathurstshire, p. 30 ; 
Wellingtonshire, p. 31 ; Roxburghshire, p. 31 ; Georgianaland, p. 31 ; i 
Argyleshire, p. 31 ; Murrayshire, p. 32 ; St. Vincentshire, p. 32 ; Southern 
Gold Diggings, p. 32 ; Northern Gold Diggings, Peel river, p. 32;! 
Hunter river, p. 33 ; Moreton Bay, p. 33. 

GOLD DISTRICTS OF VICTORIA.—Bourkeshire, p. 33 ; Grantshire, 
Dalhousieshire, p. 33 ; Eastern Diggings, p. 34 ; Western Diggings, p. 34 ; 
South Australia, p. 34 ; Van Diemen’s Land, p. 34. 

HISTORY OF THE AUSTRALIAN GOLD REGIONS.—Murchison, 
p. 34 ; Clarke, p. 35 ; Hargreaves, p. 35. . 

NORTH AMERICAN GOLD REGIONS.—Canada, p. 36; Virginia, p. 36- 

CALIFORNIA, p. 37 ; History, Discovery, p. 38 ; Geology, p. 39 ; Quartz 
workings, p. 39 ; Vancouver’s Island, p. 40 ; Oregon, Utah. 

SOUTHERN AMERICAN GOLD REGIONS. — California, p. 40; 
Mexico, pp. 40, 41 ; Central America, pp. 40, 41, 42 ; Costa Rica, New 
Granada, p. 42 ; Ecuador, p. 43 ; Peru, Bolivia, Chile, p. 43 ; Brazil, p. 43 ; 
Paraguay, p. 44. 

AFRICAN GOLD REGIONS.—Barbary, p. 44 ; Egypt, p. 44 ; Guinea, 
p. 45 ; Natal, p. 45. 

GAZETTEER OF THE GOLD REGIONS OF AUSTRALIA, pp. 4( 
to 83. 


Printefl by \V. J. Gotboiirii, H. Prititcs Street, Leicester Square.