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CLAIMS 



Having thus described our invention what we claim as new 
and desire to secure as Letters Patent, is: 



A superconductive composition having a transition 
temp^aUire greater than 26°K, the composition in- 
cluding a rare>&3J^th or near rare earth- like ele- 
ment, a transition metaP^Lement capable of 
exhibiting multivalent states ancT>oa£vgen, and in- 
cluding at least one phase that exhibits 
superconductivity at temperature in excess of 26°K^ 



The composition of claim 1, further including an 
alkaline earth element substituted for at least one 
atom of said rare earth or rare earth- like element 
in said composition. 



3. The composition of claim 2, where said transition 
metal is Cp. 



The composition of claim 3, where said Alkaline earth 
element is selected from the group /consisting of 
B, Ca, Ba, and Sr. / 



The composition of claim 1, where said transition 
metal element is selected /rom the group consisting 
of Cu, Ni, and Cr. 



The composition of c/Laim 2, where said rare earth 
or rare earth-like element is selected from the 
roup consisting of La, Nd, and Ce. 



The composition of claim 1, where said phase is 
crystalline with a perovskite- like structure. 



The composition of claim 2, where said phase is 
crystalline with a perovskite- like structure. 



The /composition of claim 1, where said phase exhibits 
a /layer-like crystalline structure. 



10. The composition of claim 1 ,ywhere said phase is a 
mixed copper oxide phase. 



The composition of yfclaim 1, where said composition 
is comprised of mixed oxides with alkaline earth 
doping. 



12. A superconducting combination, including a 

superconductive composition having a transition 
temperature > 26°K, 

means for passing a/superconducting electrical 
current through s^fid composition while said compo- 
sition is at a temperature > 26°K. , and 

cooling means/ for cooling said composition to a 
superconducting state at a temperature in excess 
of 26°K. 



13. The combination yof claim 12, where said 

superconductive composition includes a transition 
metal/ oxide . 



- 31 - 



14. The combination of claim 12, where said 

superconductive composition includes Cu-oxide. 



15. The combination of clairar 12, where said 

superconductive composition includes a multivalent 
transition metal, oxygen, and at least one addi- 
tional element. 




16. The combination' of claim 15, where said transition 
metal is Cu. 



The combination of claim 15, where said additional 
element is a rare earth or rare earth-like element. 



18. The combination of claim 15, where said additional 
element is an alkaline earth element. 



19. 



THe combination of claim 12, where said composition 
includes a perovskite-like superconducting phase. 



• - • r 

1 20. The combination of claim 12, Arhere said composition 

^ / 

includes a substituted transition metal oxide. 

J 21. The combination of claim 20, where said substituted 
transition metal oxyde includes a multivalent 

1 / 

u transition metal element. 

1 22. The combination/ of claim 20, where said substituted 
^/ transition met/al oxide is an oxide of copper. 

J 23. The combination of claim 20, where said substituted 
^ / 

^ transition metal oxide has a layer-like structure. 

j A method including the steps of forming a transition 

^ metaT>-oxide having a phase therein which exhibits 

2 a superconducting state at a critical temperature 
*y in excess of 26° K, 

J* lowering the temperature of said material at least 

(, to said critical temperature to produce said ^^s. 

y superconducting state in said phase, and 



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<1 



ring an electrical supercurrent through said 
transition metal^trxid^while it is in said super- 
conducting state. 





1 25. The method of claim 24, where/said transition metal 

A 7 
^ oxide is comprised of a tr^iisition metal capable 

3 of exhibiting multivalent/ states. 



] 26. The -«ath©4- of claim jf4, where said transition metal 
A 

oxide is comprised /of a Cu oxide. 



3 

V 
J" 

4 



A superconducting composition having a transition 
temperature in excess of 26°K, said composition 
being a substitutebSGy-oxide including a supercon- 
ducting phase having a structurfe^ubstantially 
close to the orthorhombic-tetragonal phase^c^nsi- 
tion of said composition. 



/ 28. The ^ compooilHLOii -oy claim 27, where said substituted 
Cu-oxide include/s a rare earth or rare earth- like 




987-074 



- 34 - 



29. The compositio n of claim 27, wj^tere said substituted 
A 

Cu-oxide includes an alkaline earth element. 



SufUCDTXjLUC^n^ Off 

30. The . compos it ior » of /laim 29, where said alkaline 
A 

earth element is/atomically large with respect to 



The , compos i t ion- of claim 27, where said composition 
has A crystalline structure which enhances 
eL&ctron-phonon interactions to produce 
superconductivity at a temperature in excess of 
26°K. 



32. The composition of cla^im 31, where said crystalline 
structure is layer -1 ike ,\enhancing the number of 
Jahn-Teller polarons in saitt composite. 



-■&--su£erconducting composition having a supercon- 
ducting onset temperai^iT^Jj^excess of 26°K. , the 
composition being comprised of a copperoxidg^doped 
with an alkaline earth element where the concen- 



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s 
7 
1 



tration of sfeid alkaline earth element is near to 
the concentration of said alkaline earth element 
where the superconducting copper oxide phase in 
said composition undergoes an orthorhombic to 
tetragonal structural phase transition. 



| 34. 

3 

r 



A superconducting composition having a supercon- 
t\ 

ducting onset temperature in excess of 26°K, the 

composition being/ comprised of a mixed copper oxide 

. 3+ . 

doped with an element chosen to create Cu ions 

in said compos/it ion. 




oc it ion of claim 34, where said doping el- 
fnent includes an alkaline earth element. 



36. A combination comprising: 



3 

y 



a composition having a/ superconducting onset tem- 



o/ 26°K, 



perature in excess o£ 26 U K, said composition being 
comprised of a substituted copper oxide exhibiting 
mixed valence stares and at least one other element 
in its crystal Vine structure, 



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? 

1 



means for passing a superconducting electrical 
current through said composition while said compo- 
sition is at a temperature /in excess of 26°K , and 



10 cooling means for cooling said composition to a 

1 1 superconducting state fat a temperature in excess 
of 26°K, 




; 

combination of claim 36, where said at least 
one other element id an alkaline earth element. 



/ 



The combination of claim 36, where said at least 
one other element is^ an element which creates Cu 
ions in said composition. 



3+ 



3 
3 

7 



39. The composition of claim 36, where said at least 

one other element is element chosen to create 

2+ 3+ 

the presence of both C\i and Cu ions in said 
composition. 



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3 
3 
V 



.^superconductor exhibiting a superconducting onset 
at a temperature^rfK^xcess of 26°K, said supercon- 
ductor being comprised of at Icas^E^teur elements , 
none of which is itself superconducting. 



/ 41. The ^porconductftr of claim 40, where said elements 
nclude a transition metal and oxygen. 





A superconductor having a superconducting onset 

A / 

temperature greater 26°K, said superconductor being 
a doped transition /metal oxide, where said transi- 
tion metal is itself non-superconducting. 



b 




The ^ouperconductor » of claijp 42, where said doped 
transition metal oxide i/ multivalent in said 
superconductor . 



The ^uperconducy)r of claim 42, further including 
an element whic^i creates a mixed valent state of 
said transition metal. 



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j 45. The i i Up 4J i i i. u uduil.ur jot claim 43, where said transi- 
A 




tion metal is Cu. 




J 46. "A* superconductor having^a superconducting onset 

A 

temperature greater th#n 26°K, said superconductor 
being an oxide having multivalent oxidation states 
and including a met^L, said oxide having a crys- 
talline structure vmich is oxygen deficient. 




4 
7 



The superconductor pi claim 46, where said transi- 
tion metal is Cu. 



A superconductive composition comprised of a tran- 
sition metal oxide having substitutions therein, 
the amount of said substitutions being sufficient 
to produce suf ficient^/ electron-phonon interactions 
in said composition /that said composition exhibits 
a superconducting onset at temperatures greater 
than 26°K. 



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I 49. The composition of claim 48, where paid transition 
^ metal oxide is multivalent in saLd composition. 



/ 50. The composition of claim where said transition 
^ metal is Cu. 




The composition oy claim 48, where said substi- 
tutions include an alkaline earth element. 



52. The composition of claim 48, where said substi- 
tutions include a rare earth or rare earth- like 
element . 



j 53. A superconductor comprised of a copper oxide having 



J 

y 
r 

6 



a I al 



addfi 



fer-like crystalline structure and at least one 
Ltional element substituted in said crystalline 
structure, said structure being oxygen deficient 
anp exhibiting a superconducting onset temperature 
in! excess of 26°K. 



Y0987-/074 



40 - 



54. The superconductor of /laim 53, where said addi- 
tional element creates a mixed valent state of said 
copper^esffde in saircl superconductor. 





55. A combination, comprising: 

a transition metal oxide havAng an oxygen defi- 
ciency, said transition met/al being non- 
superconducting and said </xide having multivalent 
states , 



8 



means for passing an electrical superconducting 
current through said /oxide while said oxide is at 
a temperature greate/r than 26°K, and 



lo 
1/ 



cooling means for /cooling said oxide in a super- 
conducting state (at a temperature greater than 
26°K. 




>7-074 



/ 56. The combfination of claim 55, where said transition 
^L, metal is Cu. 



41 - 



57. A combination including; 

a superconducting oxide/ having a superconducting onset 
temperature in excess ibf 26°K and containing at least 3 
non-superconducting elements, 

means for passing a supercurrent through said oxide 
while said oxide |s maintained at a temperature greater 
than 26°K, and 

/ 

/ 

/ 

means for maintaining said oxide in a superconducting 
state at a temperature greater than 26°K. 



58. A combination, comprised of: 

a copper oxide supeVconductor including an element which 
creates a mixed valent state in said oxide, said oxide 
being crystalline and having a layer-like structure, 



means for passing a supercurxent through said copper 
oxide while it is maintained a\ a temperature greater 
than 26°K, and 



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9 



means for cooling said copper oxide to. a superconductive 



^ state at a temperature greater than 26?K. 



j 59. A combination, comprised of: 



a superconducting ceramic- like material having an 
onset of superconductivity /at a temperature in ex- 
cess of 26°K. , 



7 
t 



means for passing a super^current through said 
superconducting ceramic- like material while said 
ceramic- like material is maintained at a temper- 

/ 

ature in excess of 26°K. , and 



to 
// 



means for cooling sai/d superconducting ceramic-like 
material to a superconductive state at a temper- 
ature greater than /26°K. 



/ 60. 

b 



A superconductor comprised of a transition metal 
oxide, and at leas± one additional element, said 
superconductor having^ a distorted crystalline 
structure characterized by an oxygen deficiency and 



Y0987-074 



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vexhibiting a superconducting onset temperature in 
cx\ss of 26°K. 



61. The superconductor of claim 60, where said transi- 
tion metal is Cu. 



62. A superconductor comprised\pf a transition metal 
oxide and at least one additional element, said 
superconductor having a distorted crystalline 
structure characterized by an oxygen excess and 
exhibiting a superconducting onset temperature in 
excess of 26°K. 



63. The superconductor of claim 62, where said transi- 
tion metal is Cu. 



64. A combination, comprising: 

a mixed copper oxide composition having enhanced 
polaron formation, said composition including an 
element causing/ said copper to have a mixed valent 



Y0987-074 



44 - 



J) state in said composition, s/id composition further 

^ having a distorted octahedral oxygen environment 

*y leading to a greater /than 26°K., 

$ means for providing a/ supercurrent through said 

^ composition at temperatures greater than 26°K. , and 

/o cooling means for ^cooling said composition to a 

j 65. A superconducting composition exhibiting 

^ superconductivity at temperatures greater than 

^ 26°K, said composition being a ceramic- like mate- 

y rial in the Re\aE-TM-0 system, where RE is a rare 

earth or near rare earth element, AE is an alkaline 

£ earth element, TM isa multivalent transition metal 

^ element having at leafct two valence states in said 

i X 

0 composition, and 0 is oxygen, the ratio of the 

amounts of said transition^ metal in said two va- 

/ 0 lence states being determined by the ratio RE : AE. 

/ 66. A superconductive composition hav\ng a transition 

oi temperature greater than 26°K, the Vompos it ion in- 



Y0987-074 



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A 



3 
H 

r 




eluding a multivalent transition metal oxide and 
it least one additional element, said composition 
haying a distorted orthorhombic crystalline struc- 
ture 



I 67. The composition of claim 66, where said transition 
metal oxide \s a mixed copper oxide. 



/ 68. The composition of\claim 67, where said one addi- 
tional element is anNalkaline earth element. 




// 69. A superconductive combinat 



comprising: 



a superconducting composition exhibiting a super- 
conducting transition temperature greater than 
26°K, said composition being a transition metal 
oxide having a distorted orthorhombic crystalline 
structure, and 



J means for passing a superconducting electrical 
& current through said composition while said compo- 
sit ion is at a temperature greater than 26°K. 



Y0987-074 



46 



i 70. The combination of claim 69, wh</re said transition 
^ metal oxide is a mixed copper <6xide. 



J 71. The combination of claim 707 where said mixed copper 
^ oxide includes an alkalin£ earth element. 



J 72. The combination of claim 71, where said mixed copper 
^ oxide further includejs a rare earth or rare earth- 



like element. 




A method for makiAg a superconductor having a 
superconducting onset temperature > 26°K, said 
method including the steps of: 

preparing powaers of oxygen-containing compounds 
of a rare earth or rare earth- like element, an 
alkaline earth element, and copper, 



7 



f 



mixing said compounds and firing said mixture to 
create a mixed copper oxide composition including 
said alkali ine earth element and said rare earth or 
rare eartih-like element, and 



Y0987-074 



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A 



I } annealing said mixed copper oxide exposition at 
an elevated temperature less than /bout 950°C in 

/ ^ an atmosphere including oxygen t^ produce a super- 
^ conducting composition having ^ mixed copper oxide 
I phase exhibiting a superconducting onset temper- 
/ ature greater than 26°K, sefid superconducting com- 

/"7 position having a layer-l/ke crystalline structure 

fy after said annealing stefc. 



/ 74 - 



The method of claim/73, where the amount of oxygen 
incorporated into ysaid composition is adjusted by 
said annealing st/ep, the amount of oxygen therein 
affecting the c/itical temperature of the 
superconducting composition. 



I 75 . A method f jSr making a superconductor having a 

^ superconducting onset temperature greater than 

j 26°K, sa/d superconductor being comprised of a rare 

y earth ofc rare earth-like element (RE), an alkaline 

^ earth ^lement (AE) , copper (CU), and oxygen (0) and 

L havinW the general formula RE-AE-CU-0, said method 

y including the steps of combining said rare earth 
or r$re earth-like element, said alkaline earth 



Y0987-074 



- 48 - 



? 

la 

ff earth or rare earth-like elemen/ and said alkaline 

/pL, earth element therein, and 



element and said copper in the pres/nce of oxygen 
to produce a mixed copper oxide i^luding said rare 



>3 
k 

it 



heating said mixed copper /oxide to produce a 
superconductor having a ^crystalline layer-like 
structure and exhibiti/g a superconducting onset 
temperature greater t/han 26°K, the critical tran- 
sition temperature yof said superconductor being 
dependent on the /mount of said alkaline earth el- 
ement therein. 



J 76. The method of claim 75, where said heating step is 
<?L done in an/atmosphere including oxygen. 



A combination, comprising 



3 

Y 
s~ 



a mixed copper oxide composition including an 
alkaline earth element (AE) and a rare earth or 
rare earth-like element (RE), said composition 
having a layer-like crystalline structure and 
multi-valent oxidation states, said composition 



Y0987-074 



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"7 exhibiting a substantially ze^o resistance to the 

% flow of electrical current tl/erethrough when cooled 

J to a superconducting state/at a temperature in ex- 

lO cess of 26°K, and 



// electrical means for parsing an electrical super- 

f^L current through said composition when said compo- 

l ^ sition exhibits substantially zero resistance at a 

/ y temperature greater than 26°K. 



J 78. The combination of claim 77, where the ratio 
Q-s (AE,RE) : Cu is substantially A : 1 , 



/ 79. 



The combination of claim II 7, where the ratio 
(AE,RE) : Cu is substantially 1:1. 



J 80. The combination of c/Laim 77, where said crystalline 
^ structure is perovs|cite-like. 



Y0987-074 



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A 



' 81. The combination of claim 77, where sarid mixed copper 
oxide composition has a non -stoichiometric amount 

? / 

w of oxygen therein. / 

/ 82. A method for making a superconductor having a 

^ superconducting onset temperature greater than 26°, 

^ said superconductor being/comprised of a rare earth 

V or rare earth- like element (RE), an alkaline earth 

£ element (AE) , a transition metal element (TM), and 

(, oxygen (0) and hiving the general formula 

7 RE-AE-TM-0, said method including the steps of 

combining said rare earth or rare earth-like ele- 

^ ment, said alkaline earth element and said transi- 

'0 tion metal element in the presence of oxygen to 

11/ I 

'r produce a mixed transition metal oxide including 

said rare eartW or rare earth-like element and said 
/ J alkaline eartn element therein, and 

/ j/ heating saifd mixed transition metal oxide to 

/J produce a/ supercoductor having a crystalline 

layer- like/ structure and exhibiting a supercon- 

l~J ducting oriset temperature greater than 26°K, said 

/ Q \ 

' ° superconductor having a non-stoichiometric amount 

// J 

of oxygen therein. 



Y0987-074 



- 51 - 




83. The method of claim 82, where said transition metal 



is coppei 




A superconducting combination, comprising: 



7 




a mixed transition metal oxide composition con- 
taining a non-stoichiometric amount of oxygen 
therein, a transition metal and at least one addi- 
tional element, said /composition having substan- 
tially zero resistance to the flow of electricity 



/, 



therethrough when cooled to a superconducting state 
at a temperature greater than 26°K, and 



10 
II 



electrical means /for passing an electrical super- 
current through said composition when said compo- 
sition is in jsaid superconducting state at a 



temperature greater than 26 K 




/ 85. The combination of c/aim 84, where said transition 
metal is copper. 




/ *8&z — A iiieLhod-; — ^""p^f^ing *~ he steps ofj 



YO987-074 



- 52 - 



J. 

3 



forming a composition including a transition metal, 
a r^are earth or rare earth- like y&lement, an 
alkalirui earth element, and oxygen, where said 
compos itionVis a mixed transition inetal oxide hav- 
ing a non-stoifcliiometric amount/of oxygen therein 



""7 and exhibiting a^superconducrang state at a tern- 
$ perature greater than\i6 0 K, 

cooling said composition/ to\said superconducting 
state at a temperature^reater tM^an 26°K, and 

h passing an electrical current through \aid compo- 
/ 3L sition while said/composition is in said su^ercon- 
^3 ducting state. 



/ 87. The method pf claim 86, where said transition metal 

oL 



is copper i 



88. A meoiod, including the steps of: 



•? 

3 



forming a composition exhibiting a superconductive 
state at a temperature in excess of 26°K, 



Y0987-G74 



53 - 



V 



cooling said composition to a temperature in excess 
of 26°K at which temperature y^aid composition ex-" 
hibits said superconductive/state, and 



7 
f 



passing an electrical current through said compo- 
sition while said / composition is in said 
superconductive sta#e. 



/ 89. The method ofl claim 88, where said composition is 
comprised oy a metal oxide. 



/ 90. The met'al of claim 88, where said composition is 
compri4ed of a transition metal oxide. 



Y0987-074 



54 - 



ft 



(ADDED) A combination, comprising: 

a composition exhibiting the onset of a DC substantially 

zero resistance state at an ons^t temperature in excess 
of 30K, and 

means for passing an electrAcal current through said 

composition while it is iiy said substantially zero re- 
sistance state. 



(ADDED) The combination of claim 91, where said compo- 
sition is a copper o/cide. 



(ADDED) An apparatus, comprising: 

a mixed copper oxide material exhibiting an onset of 
superconductivity at an onset temperature greater than 
26K, and 



means for producing an electrical current through said 
copper oxic e material while it is in a superconducting 
temperature in excess of 26K. 



state at a 



(ADDED) 



oxide mate 



he apparatus of claim 93, where said copper 
ial exhibits a layer-like crystalline struc- 




[