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MORRIS, DAN 

IBM CORPORATION 

YORKTOWN PATENT OPERATIONS 

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* A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A " 06089 '» " •' '* " «' » " " " " " " ' ' '* " " " " *'* *'* " -' " " " " " ' * " " 

FOCUS - 1 OF 107 PATENTS 
5,686,394 
<=2> GET 1st DRAWING SHEET OF 1 
Nov. 11, 1997 

Process for manufacturing a superconducting composite 

INVENTOR: Sibata, Kenichiro, Hyogo, Japan 
Sasaki, Nobuyuki, Hyogo, Japan 
Yazu, Shuji, Hyogo, Japan 
Jodai, Tetsuji, Hyogo, Japan 

SUM: 

. . . Ho-Cu-0 system or Ba-Dy-Cu-0 system compound oxide which possess the 
quasi-perovskite type crystal structure including an orthorhombically distorted 
perovskite or a distorted oxygen-deficient perovskite or the like. 



The aboveraentioned type superconductors can be prepared from a powder mixture 
Consisting of oxides and/or carbonates containing constituent elements of said 
superconductor. The powder mixture may include optionally oxides and/or 
carbonates of at least . . . 

FOCUS - 2 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,679,980 

<=2> GET 1st DRAWING SHEET OF 5 

Oct. 21, 1997 

Conductive exotic-nitride barrier layer for 
high-dielectric-constant material electrodes 

INVENTOR: Summerfelt, Scott R. , Dallas, Texas 

DETDESC : 

TABLE 

* * Conductive perovskite like 

FOCUS - 3 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,665,628 

<=2> GET 1st DRAWING SHEET OF 5 

Sep. 9, 1997 

Method of forming conductive amorphous-nitride barrier layer 
for high-dielectric- constant material electrodes 

INVENTOR: Summerfelt, Scott R., Dallas, Texas 

DETDESC : 

TABLE 

* * Conductive perovskite like 

FOCUS - 4 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,661,112 

<=2> GET 1st DRAWING SHEET OF 3 

Aug. 26, 1997 

Superconductor 

INVENTOR: Hatta, Shinichiro, 201-1028, Higashinakafuri-2-chome, Hirakata-shi, 
Japan 

Higashino, Hidetaka, A2-505, 117, Hitotsuyacho, Matsubara-shi, Japan 
Hirochi, Kumiko, 22, Keihanhondori- 1-chome, Moriguchi-shi, Japan 
Adachi, Hideaki, 3-1-505, Mitsuiminamimachi, Neyagawa-shi, Japan 

[*1] film being a transition metal element selected from Pt, Au, Ag, 
Pd,Ni and Ti the composition A-B-Cu-0 of said oxide film being in the form of 
layered perovskite- like structure. 

[*2] 2. A superconductor according to claim 1, wherein an additional metal 
film is formed on said oxide film, or the oxide films and metal films are 
laminated alternately to form a multi- layer structure. 

[*3] 

FOCUS - 5 OF 107 PATENTS 



5,648,114 



<=2> GET 1st DRAWING SHEET OF 4 
Jul. 15, 1997 

Chemical vapor deposition process for fabricating layered 
superlattice materials 

INVENTOR: Paz De Araujo, Carlos A., Colorado Springs, Colorado 

Watanabe, Hitoshi, Tokyo, Japan 

Scott, Michael C, Colorado Springs, Colorado 

Mihara, Takashi, Saitama, Japan 

DETDESC: 

. . . Layered superlattice materials may be summarized more generally under the 
formula: [See Original Patent for Chemical Structure Diagram] 

where Al, A2 . . . A represent A-site elements in the perovskite-like 
structure, which may be elements such as strontium, calcium, barium, bismuth, 
lead, and others, SI, S2 . . . Sk represent super- lattice generator elements, 
which usually is bismuth, but can also be materials such as yttrium, scandium, 
lanthanum, antimony, chromium, thallium, and other elements with a valence of + 
3, Bl, B2 . . . BI represent B-site elements in the perovskite-like structure, 
which may be elements such as titanium, tantalum, hafnium, tungsten, niobium, 
zirconium, and other elements, and Q represents an anion, which may be elements 
such as oxygen, fluorine, chlorine and hybrids of these elements, such ... 

... [*14] s2 > . . . Sk[xk]< + sk> Bl[yl]< + bl> B2[y2]< + b2 > . . . 
Bl[yl]< + bl> Q[z]< - 2> , where Al, A2 . . . Aj represent A-site elements in a 
perovskite-like structure, SI, S2 . . . Sk represent superlattice generator 
elements, Bl, B2 . . . Bl represent B-site elements in said perovskite-like 
structure, Q represents an anion, the superscripts indicate valences of the 
respective elements, the subscripts indicate an average number of atoms of the 
element in the unit cell, and at least wl and yl are non-zero, and wherein said 

A- PAG 

FOCUS - 6 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,647,904 

<=2> GET 1st DRAWING SHEET OF 2 

Jul. 15, 1997 

Method for manufacturing superconducting ceramics in a 

magnetic field 

INVENTOR: Yamazaki, Shunpei, Tokyo, Japan 

SUM: 

... 30o K. by a method in which a mixture of chemicals in a suitable 
composition is compacted and fired. These superconducting ceramics form a 
quasi-molecular atomic unit in a perovskite-like structure whose unit cell is 
constructed with one layer in which electrons have essentially one-dimensional 
motion, whereas a number of crystalline grains are arranged at randam with 
diverse crystalline directions, and therefore the critical current density is 

... cm from conventional several millimeters. The breadth and thickness may 
be more flexibly controlled by skilled persons according to the invention in 
comparison with the prior art technique. 

Superconducting materials are constructed in perovskite-like structures as 
illustrated in FIG. 1 in accordance with the present invention. The structure 
comprises copper atoms 2, an intervening copper atom 3, oxygen atoms 5 and 6 
surrounding the copper . . . 

C3 



DRWDESC : 

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS 



FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram showing the configuration of the 
perovskite-like molecular sturcture in accordance with the present invention. 

FIGS. 2(A) and 2(B) are top and side sectional views showing an apparatus for 
manufacturing superconducting ceramics in accordance with the present invention . 

-FOCUS - 7 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,6^6,094 

<=2> GET 1st DRAWING SHEET OF 4 

Jul. 8, 1997 

Rare earth substituted thallium -based superconductors 

INVENTOR: Tallon, Jeffrey Lewis, 3 Marine Drive, York Bay, Eastbourne, New 
Zealand 

Presland, Murray Robert, 4/1 Mahina Bay Road, Mahina Bay, Eastbourne, New 
Zealand 

ABST: 

... lanthanide rare earth elements and where 0.3 </= a,b </= 0.7, 0.05 </= c 
</= 1.1,2 - c </= d </= 1.95, 0.05 </= e </= 1, 1.9 </= f </= 2.1 and 6.5 </= g 
</= 7.5. These compounds, which are layered perovskite-like oxides, exhibit a 
high chemical stability, form readily into nearly single phase, do not require 
adjustment of oxygen stoichiometry after synthesis and compositions may be 
chosen allowing superconductivity at temperatures . . . 

SUM: 

... for example, do not require adjustment of oxygen stoichiometry after 
synthesis, and compositions may be chosen allowing superconductivity at 
temperatures exceeding 100 K. 

The novel compounds described herein have the same tetragonal layered 
perovskite-like structure of the parent compound T10 .5Pb0 .5CaSr2Cu207 comprising 
in sequence: a T10.5Pb0.5O layer with Tl/Pb occupying square comer-shared sites 
and oxygen distributed about the face centre; a SrO layer with ... 

FOCUS - 8 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,626,906 

<=2> GET 1st DRAWING SHEET OF 3 

May 6, 1997 

Electrodes comprising conductive perovskite-seed layers for 

perovskite dielectrics 

INVENTOR: Summerfelt, Scott R., Dallas, Texas 
Beratan, Howard R., Dallas, Texas 

ABST: 

... layer and the conductive oxide layer each comprise the same metal. The 
metal should be conductive in its metallic state and should remain conductive 
when partially or fully oxidized. Generally, the perovskite-seed layer has a 
perovskite or perovskite-like crystal structure and lattice parameters which are 
similar to the perovskite dielectric layer formed thereon. At a given deposition 
temperature, the crystal quality and other properties of the perovskite 
dielectric will generally be enhanced by depositing it on ... 

SUM: 

... As used herein, the term "high-dielectric-constant means a dielectric 
constant greater than about 50 at device operating temperature. As used herein 
the term perovskite" means a material with a perovskite or perovskite-like 



crystal structure. As used herein the terra "dielectric 11 , when used in reference 
to a perovskite, means a non- conductive perovskite, pyroelectric, ferroelectric, 
or high-dielectric-constant oxide material. The deposition of a ... 

... structure. To facilitate perovskite crystal formation, perovskite 
dielectrics such as PZT have been deposited on some conductive perovskites such 
as YBa2Cu30[7 - x ]and (La,Sr)Co03. Deposition of PZT on a substrate with a 
perovskite or perovskite- like crystal structure normally minimizes the formation 
of n:he pyrochlore phase and improves the properties of the perovskite 
dielectric. However, the materials used thus far for the deposition surface have 
several problems. For example, they typically involve new cations such ... 

... layer each comprise the same metal. The metal should be conductive in its 
metallic state and should remain conductive when partially or fully oxidized, 
and when in a perovskite. Generally, the perovskite- seed layer has a perovskite 
or perovskite- like crystal structure and lattice parameters which are similar to 
the perovskite dielectric layer formed thereon. At a given deposition 
temperature, the crystal quality and other properties of the perovskite 
dielectric will generally be enhanced by depositing it on ... 

DETDESC : 



ruthenate 



TABLE 

seed layer perovskite- like materials 

FOCUS - 9 OF 107 PATENTS 



5,611,854 
Mar. 18, 1997 

Seed crystals with improved properties for melt processing 
superconductors for practical applications 

INVENTOR: Veal, Boyd W., Downers Grove, Illinois 
Paulikas, Arvydas, Downers Grove, Illinois 
Balachandran, Uthamalingam, Hinsdale, Illinois 
Zhong, Wei, Chicago, Illinois 

DETDESC : 

... Although PbTi03 is shown in the Table, other perovskites of the form 
RTi03, when R is La or a rare earth are good candidates. EuTi03 has a lattice 
parameter of 3,897 [Angstrom] . NdGa03, and other perovskite- like oxides with 
the prototype GdFe03 structure should also serve well. NdGa03 is available as a 
commercial substrate material. Others may also be commercially available, 
particularly LaCr03 which has many industrial applications. 



Oxides with the GdFe03 ( 



FOCUS - 10 OF 107 PATENTS 



5,602,080 
<=2> GET 1st DRAWING SHEET OF 1 
Feb. 11, 1997 

Method for manufacturing lattice-matched substrates for 
high-T[c] superconductor films 

INVENTOR: Bednorz, Johannes G., Wolfhausen, Switzerland 
Mannhart, Jochen D. , Thalwil, Switzerland 
Mueller, Carl A., Hedingen, Switzerland 
Schlom, Darrell G. , State College, Pennsylvania 

SUM: 

... a close match-preferably approaching an ideal raatch-of the lattice 
parameters of a substrate-without a buffer layer-to a selected high-T[c 



] superconductor material having a perovskite or a perovskite-like crystal 
structure can be achieved by a method comprising the following steps: 
Determining the relevant lattice constant or constants of the selected 
superconductor material; choosing a desired orientation of the superconductor 
layer to ... 

... for the deposition of the superconductor. 

One preferred method of the invention for manufacturing a lattice-matched 
substrate for a film of a selected high-T[c ] superconductor material having a 
perovskite or perovskite-like crystal structure at a selected orientation 
relative to the film dimensions comprises the steps set forth below. 

The preferred method of the invention includes the step of determining a 
relevant lattice constant or constants of the selected . . . 

. . . make the codeposition from separate sources each containing one or more 
of the materials combined to form the buffer layer. 

Preferred substrate component materials include strontium titanate SrTi03 and 
lanthanum aluminate LaA103 for perovskite-like superconductor materials such as 
YBa2Cu307 - delta . 

In the following description, a preferred method for manufacturing 
crystalline substrate material having essentially the same lattice constant as 
the corresponding lattice constant of a ... 

FOCUS - 11 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,593,951 

<=2> GET 1st DRAWING SHEET OF 4 

Jan. 14, 1997 

Epitaxy of high T[C ] superconductors on silicon 

INVENTOR: Himpsel, Franz J., Mt. Kisco, New York 

SUM: 

... first showed superconducting behavior in mixed copper-oxides, typically 
including rare earth and/or rare earth- like elements and alkaline earth 
elements, for example La, Ba, Sr, . . . , and having a perovskite-like 
structure. 

Materials including the so called "1-2-3" phase in the Y-Ba-Cu-0 system have 
been found to exhibit a superconducting transition temperature in excess of 77K. 
R B 

FOCUS - 12 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,590,053 

<=2> GET 1st DRAWING SHEET OF 20 

Dec. 31, 1996 

Method of determining a space group 

INVENTOR: I to, Tatsuya, Kawasaki, Japan 
Kawai , Masahito , Kawasaki , Japan 
Yasukawa, Yoshihito, Kawasaki, Japan 

DETDESC : 

... present invention will be described with reference to FIG. 15 to FIG. 20. 
Let it be assumed here that a crystal as a target of analysis is one of 
LaGdSrCu04. In the case of investigation into such a perovskite-like copper 
oxide superconductor, it is an effective technique of investigating a new 
substance to laminate partial structures to grasp a laminate structure 

C6 




characteristic of the substance. The structure analysis of the target crystal by 
this technique will . . . 

FOCUS - 13 OF 107 PATENTS 
5,589,284 
<=2> GET 1st DRAWING SHEET OF 3 
Dec. 31, 1996 

Electrodes comprising conductive perovskite-seed layers for 

perovskite dielectrics 

INVENTOR: Summerfelt, Scott R. , Dallas, Texas 
Beratan, Howard R., Dallas, Texas 

ABST: 

... layer and the conductive oxide layer each comprise the same metal. The 
metal should be conductive in its metallic state and should remain conductive 
when partially or fully oxidized. Generally, the perovskite-seed layer has a 
perovskite or perovskite- like crystal structure and lattice parameters which are 
similar to the perovskite dielectric layer formed thereon. At a given deposition 
temperature, the crystal quality and other properties of the perovskite 
dielectric will generally be enhanced by depositing it on ... 

SUM: 

...As used herein, the terra "high-dielectric-constant 1 means a dielectric 
constant greater than about 50 at device operating temperature. As used herein 
the term perovskite" means a material with a perovskite or perovskite- like 
crystal structure. As used herein the term "dielectric", when used in reference 
to a perovskite, means a non- conductive perovskite, pyroelectric, ferroelectric, 
or high-dielectric-constant oxide material. The deposition of a ... 

... structure. To facilitate perovskite crystal formation, perovskite 
dielectrics such as PZT have been deposited on some conductive perovskite such 
as YBa2Cu30[7-x ]and (La,Sr)Co03. Deposition of PZT on a substrate with a 
perovskite or perovskite- like crystal structure normally minimizes the formation 
of the pyrochlore phase and improves the properties of the perovskite 
dielectric. However, the materials used thus far for the deposition surface have 
several problems. For example, they typically involve new cations such ... 

... layer each comprise the same metal. The metal should be conductive in its 
metallic state and should remain conductive when partially or fully oxidized, 
and when in a perovskite. Generally, the perovskite-seed layer has a perovskite 
or perovskite- like crystal structure and lattice parameters which are similar to 
the perovskite dielectric layer formed thereon. At a given deposition 
temperature, the crystal quality and other properties of the perovskite 
dielectric will generally be enhanced by depositing it on ... 

DETDESC : 

TABLE 

ruthenate seed layer perovskites or perovskite- 

* * like materials (e.g. 

FOCUS - 14 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,585,300 

<=2> GET 1st DRAWING SHEET OF 5 

Dec. 17, 1996 

Method of making conductive amorphous-nitride barrier layer 
for high-dielectric-constant material electrodes 

INVENTOR: Summerfelt, Scott R., Dallas, Texas 



DETDESC : 



TABLE 

* * Conductive perovskite like 

FOCUS - 15 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,583,096 

<=2> GET 1st DRAWING SHEET OF 8 

Dec. 10, 1996 

Superconductive compounds and process for producing said 

compounds 

INVENTOR: Cavazos, Ramon G., Paseo de la Reforma 403, Primer Piso, Mexico D.F. 
06500 

DETDESC : 

... A. Muller in their article entitled "Possible High Tc Superconductivity 
in Ba-La-Cu-0 System". (Zeitschrift fur Physik B-Condensed Matter 64,189-193 
(1986), reported: "... perovskite- like- mixed valent copper compound. Upon 
cooling, the samples show a linear decrease in resistivity, then an 
approximately logarithmic increase, interpreted as a beginning of localization. 
Finally, an abrupt decrease by . . . 

FOCUS - 16 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,563,331 

<=2> GET 1st DRAWING SHEET OF 3 

Oct. 8, 1996 

Magnetoresistive sensor utilizing a sensor material with a 
perovskite- like crystal structure 

INVENTOR: Von Helmolt, Rittmar, Erlangen, Federal Republic of Germany 
Wecker, Joachim, Roettenbach, Federal Republic of Germany 

ABST: 

A magnetoresistive sensor may be constructed with material having a 
perovskite- like crystal structure and an increased magnetoresistive effect. The 
material is based on the composition (Al) [ 1-x] (A2) [x]MnO[z] , with Al (trivalent) 
selected from Y, La, or a lanthanide, A2 (bivalent) from an alkaline- ... 

SUM: 

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 

The present invention relates to a magnetoresistive sensor with a layer made 
of a sensor material that possesses a perovskite- like crystal structure and 
exhibits an increased magnetoresistive effect. 

The general structure and operation of magnetoresistive sensors with thin 
films made of ferromagnetic transition metals are explained further in, for 
example, the book "Sensors", Vol. ... 

... x]Se (cf. "Journal of Applied Physics," Vol. 38, No. 3, Mar. 1, 1967, pp. 
959-964). A corresponding effect is also evident in NdO ,5PbO .5Mn03 crystals; 
these crystals have a perovskite- like structure (cf. "Physics B," Vol. 155, 
1989, pp. 362-365). However, the change in electrical resistance as a function 
of magnetic induction observed in these material systems is confined to low . . . 

... occur only to a reduced extent, in a sensor material that is the subject 
of a German patent application No. P 43 10 318.9 (not previously disclosed). 



This material possesses a perovskite-like crystal structure and exhibits an 
increased magnetoresistive effect. A composition based on (Al) [ 1-x] (A2) [x]MnOf x 
]is to be selected for the material, such that the trivalent constituent Al at 
least contains . . . 

. . . sensor according to an embodiment of the present invention includes at 
least two layers, a first layer and a second layer. Each of the first and second 
layers is made of a sensor material that possesses a perovskite-like crystal 
structure and exhibits an increased magnetoresistive effect. The sensor material 
of each of the first and second layers has a composition based on 
(Al)[l-x](A2)[x]MnO[z] , where Al is a trivalent 

DETDESC: 

... indicated can also contain minimal impurities with less than 0.5 atomic 
percent of each impurity element. Exemplary embodiments for corresponding 
materials are therefore La0.67Ba0.33MnO3, or PrO ,5SrO .5Mn03, or 
Nd0.33Ca0.67MnO3, or (Dy0.67Mg0.33)(Mn0.8Cu0.2)02.9. All these materials have 

Pat. No. 5563331, * 

FOCUS 

a perovskite-like crystal structure and are characterized by an increased 
magnetoresistive effect M[r ]of, in particular, more than 10%, and preferably 
more than 50%. The effect is thus considerably greater than in known Cu/Co 
multilayer systems. 



... 1557-1559). According to the present invention, corresponding layers of 
the sensor material are advantageously deposited onto substrates whose 
respective crystalline unit cell has dimensions matched to the unit cell of the 
sensor material. Substrate materials that also have a perovskite-like crystal 
structure are therefore particularly suitable. Corresponding exemplary 
embodiments are SrTi03, MgO, LaA103, NdGa03, MgA1204, or Y-stabilized Zr02 
(abbreviated YSZ). In addition, however, Si substrates that are coated with a 
special intermediate . . . 

... [*1] a layer system comprising at least two layers, including: 

a first layer; and 

a second layer; 

wherein each of said first and second layers comprises a sensor material that 
possesses a perovskite-like crystal structure and exhibits an increased 
magnetoresistive effect, such that the sensor material of each of said first and 
second layers has a composition based on (Al) [ 1-x] (A2) [x]MnO[z] , wherein Al is a 

. . . [*4] similar to said first layer and layers similar to said second 
layer. 

[*5] 5. A magnetoresistive sensor according to claim 2; wherein the layer 
system is deposited on a substrate made of a material that has a 
perovskite-like crystal structure. 

[*6] 6. A magnetoresistive sensor according to claim 1, wherein the first 
layer and the second layer have different thicknesses. 

[*7] 7. A magnetoresistive sensor according to claim 6, wherein the layer 
system includes . . . 

... [*7] similar to said first layer and layers similar to said second 
layer. 

[*8] 8. A magnetoresistive sensor according to claim 6, wherein the layer 
system is deposited on a substrate made of a material that has a 
perovskite-like crystal structure. 

c9 



[*9] 9. A magnetoresistive sensor according to claim 1, wherein the layer 
system includes more than two layers which alternate between layers similar to 
said first layer and layers similar to said second layer. 

[*10] 10. A magnetoresistive sensor according to claim 9, wherein the layer 
system is deposited on a substrate made of a material that has a 

Pat. No. 5563331, *10 

FOCUS 



perovskite-like crystal structure. 

[*11] 11. A magnetoresistive sensor according to claim 1, wherein the layer 
system is deposited on a substrate made of a material that has a 
perovskite-like crystal structure. 

[*12] 12. A magnetoresistive sensor according to claim 1, wherein 0.25 </= 
x </= 0.75. 

[*131 13. A magnetoresistive sensor according to claim 1, wherein z = 3. 

FOCUS - 17 OF 107 PATENTS 



5,554,585 



<=2> GET 1st DRAWING SHEET OF 1 



Sep. 10, 1996 

Method of forming a superconductor micros trip transmission 

line 



INVENTOR: Simon, Randy W-, Long Beach, California 
Piatt, Christine E., El Segundo, California 
Lee, Alfred E., Torrance, California 
Lee, Gregory S., West Los Angeles, California 



REF-CITED: 

. . . 61(l):28-35 (1973). 
Geballe, "Paths to Higher Temperature Superconductors, Science, vol. 259, Mar. 
12, 1993, pp. 1550-1551. 

Geller, S., et al., "Crystallographic Studies of Perovskite-like Compounds. II. 
Rare Earth Aluminates ," Acta. Cryst., 9:1019-1025 (1956). 

Geller, S., "Crystallographic Studies of Perovskite-like Compounds. IV. Rare 
Earth Scandates, Vanadites, Galliates, Orthochromites ," Acta Cryst., 10:243-248 
(1957). 

Gulyaev,, Yu V., et al., "YBa2Cu30[7 - x ]Films with a High-temperature ... 

FOCUS - 18 OF 107 PATENTS 



5,552,373 



<=2> GET 1st DRAWING SHEET OF 2 



Sep. 3, 1996 

Josephson junction device comprising high critical 
temperature crystalline copper superconductive layers 

INVENTOR: Agostinelli, John A., Rochester, New York 
Mir, Jose M . , Webster, New York 
Lubberts, Gerrit, Penfield, New York 
Chen, Samuel, Penfield, New York 



DETDESC: 

. . . can take any convenient form capable of permitting deposition of USCO 
thereon as a thin film. 

In a specifically preferred form of the invention SUB" is chosen from 



C/6> 



materials that themselves exhibit a perovskite or perovskite-like crystal 
structure. Strontium titanate is an example of a perovskite crystal structure 
which is specifically preferred for use as a substrate. Lanthanum aluminate 
(LaA103), lanthanum gallium oxide (LaGa03) and potassium tantalate are ... 

FOCUS - 19 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,527,567 

<=2> GET 1st DRAWING SHEET OF 6 

Jun. 18, 1996 

Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of layered structure 

oxides 

INVENTOR: Desu, Seshu B., Blacksburg, Virginia 
Tao, Wei, Blacksburg, Virginia 
Peng, Chien H., Blacksburg, Virginia 
Li, Tingkai, Blacksburg, Virginia 
Zhu, Yongfei, Blacksburg, Virginia 

... 1961), 695; G. A. Smolenski, V. A. Isupov and A. I. Agranovskaya, Fiz 
Tverdogo Tela, 3, (1961), 895). These compounds have a pseudo-tetragonal 
symmetry and the structure is comprised of stacking of perovskite-like units 
between (Bi202)<2 + > layers along the pseudo-tetragonal c-axis. A large number 
of these compounds do not contain any volatile components in their sublattice 
that exhibits spontaneous polarization. The tendency for ... 

PAGE 22 

FOCUS - 20 OF 107 PATENTS 
5,523,283 
<=2> GET 1st DRAWING SHEET OF 1 
Jun. 4, 1996 

L[a]A103 Substrate for copper oxide superconductors 

INVENTOR: Simon, Randy W., Long Beach, California 
Piatt, Christine E., El Segundo, California 
Lee, Alfred E., Torrance, California 
Lee, Gregory S., West Los Angeles, California 

REF-CITED: 

... 61(l):28-35 (1973). if 
Gaballe, "Paths to Higher Temperature Superconductors, Science, vol. 259, Mar. 
12, 1993, pp. 1550-1551. 

Geller, S., et al., "Crystallographic Studies of Perovskite-like Compounds. II. 
Rare Earth Aluminates," Acta. Cryst., 9:1019-1025 (1956). 

Geller, S., "Crystallographic Studies of Perovskite-like Compounds. IV. Rare 
Earth Scandates, Vanadites, Galliates, Orthochromites ," Acta Cryst., 10:243-428 
(1957). 

Gulysev, Yu V., et al., "YBa2CU30[ 7-x ]Films with a High-temperature ... 

FOCUS - 21 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,523,282 

<=2> GET 1st DRAWING SHEET OF 1 

Jun. 4, 1996 

High-frequency substrate material for thin-film layered 
perovskite superconductors 

INVENTOR: Simon, Randy W., Long Beach, California 



Piatt, Christine E., El Segundo, California 

Lee, Alfred E., Torrance, California 

Lee, Gregory S., West Los Angeles, California 

KEF- CITED: 

... A., et al., "The Flux Shuttle-A Josephson Junction Shift Register 
Employing Single Flux Quanta," Proceedings of the IEEE, 61(l):28-35 (1973). 
Geller, S., "Crystallographic Studies of Perovskite-like Compounds. Rare Earth 
Scandates, Vanadites, Galliates, Orthochromites," Acta Cryst., 10:243-251 
(1957). 

Gurvitch., M. , et al., "Preparation and Substrate Reactions of Superconducting 
Y-Ba-Cu-0 Films," . . . 

... in the Coprecipitation of Carbonate and Hydroxide Compounds of Lanthanum 
and Aluminum," Russian Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 22, No. 11, pp. 
1622-1625, 1977. 

S. Geller et al., "Crystallographic Studies of Perovskite-like Compounds. II. 
Rare Earth Aluminates," Acta Cryst., vol. 9, pp. 1019-1025, 1956. 
J. Kilner et al., "Electrolytes for the High Temperature Fuel Cell; Experimental 
and Theoretical . . . 

FOCUS - 22 OF 107 PATENTS 
5,519,234 
<=2> GET 1st DRAWING SHEET OF 30 
May 21, 1996 

Ferroelectric dielectric memory cell can switch at least 
giga cycles and has low fatigue - has high dielectric 
constant and low leakage current 

INVENTOR: Paz de Araujo, Carlos A., Colorado Springs, Colorado 
Cuchiaro, Joseph D., Colorado Springs, Colorado 
Scott, Michael C, Colorado Springs, Colorado 
McMillan, Larry D., Colorado Springs, Colorado 



. . . s2 > . . . Sk xk < + ak > Bl yl < + bl> B2 y2 < + b2 > . . . Bl yl < + 
bl> Q 2 < - 2> , where Al, A2 . . . Aj represent A-site elements in a 
perovskite-like structure, SI, S2 . . . Sk represent super lattice generator 
elements, Bl, B2 . . . Bl represent B-site elements in a perovskite-like 
structure, Q represents an anion, the superscripts indicate the valences of the 
respective elements, the subscripts indicate the number of atoms of the element 
in the unit cell, and at least wl and yl are non-zero. Some of these materials 
are extremely low . . . 

SUM: 

... 676 (1962) and Chapter 8 pages 241-292 and pages 624 & 625 of Appendix F 
of the Lines and Glass reference cited above. As outlined in section 15.3 of the 
Smolenskii book, the layered perovskite-like materials can be classified under 
three general types: 

(I) compounds having the formula A m - 1 Bi2M m 0 3m + 3 , where A = Bi<3 + > 
, Ba<2 + > , Sr< . . . 

... strontium titanates Sr2Ti04, Sr3Ti207 and Sr4Ti3010; and 

(III) compounds having the formula AmMm0 3ra+2 , including compounds 
such as Sr2Nb207, La2Ti207, Sr5TiNb4017, and Sr6Ti2Nb4O20 . 

Smolenskii pointed out that the perovskite-like layers may have different 
thicknesses, depending on the value of m, and that the perovskite AM03 is in 
principal the limiting example of any type of layered perovskite-like structure 
with m = infinity. Smolenskii also noted that if the layer with minimum 
thickness (m = 1) is denoted by P and the bismuth-oxygen layer is denoted by B, 
then the type I compounds may be described as . . . BP m BP m . . . . Further 



C(2_ 



• # 

Smolenskii noted that if m is a fractional number then the lattice contains 
perovskite-like layers of various thicknesses, and that all the known type I 
compounds are f erroelectrics . Similarly, Smolenskii noted that the type two 
compounds could be represented as . . . SP m SP m . . . where P is the 
perovskite-like layer of thickness m and S is the strontium-oxygen connecting 
layer, and that since the type I and type II compounds have similar 
perovskite-like layers, the existence of "hybrid* compounds such as . . . BP m 
SP n BP m SP m . . . "should not be ruled out", though none had been obtained at 
that time. 

Pat. No. 5519234, * 

FOCUS 

Up to now, these layered ferroelectric . . . 

. . . s2 > . . . Sk xk < + sk> Bl yl < + bl> B2 y2 < + b2 > . . . Bl yl < + bl> 
Q z < - 2> , where Al, A2 . . . Aj represent A-site elements in a 
perovskite-like structure, SI, S2 . . . Sk represent super lattice generator 
elements, Bl, B2 . . . Bl represent B-site elements in a perovskite-like 
structure, Q represents an anion, the superscripts indicate the valences of the 
respective elements, the subscripts indicate the average number of atoms of the 
element in the unit cell, and at least wl and yl are non-zero. Preferably, the 
A- ... 

. . . layered super lattice material comprises a material having a localized 
structure, within a grain or other larger or smaller unit, which localized 
structure contains predominately repeatable units containing one or more 
perovskite-like layers and one or more intermediate non-perovskite-like layers 
spontaneously linked in an interdependent manner. 

In another aspect the invention provides a non-volatile ferroelectric memory 
comprising: a ferroelectric memory cell including a layered superlattice ... 

DETDESC: 

... curves as shown in FIG. 5C, which show fatigue of less than 30%, which is 
much less than for any ferroelectric material on which endurance tests had been 
"performed in the prior art. It was realized that the SrBi4Ti4015 was one of the 
layered perovskite-like materials catalogued by Smolenskii, and thought that 
perhaps the natural layered structure of these materials might be the source of 
the low- fatigue property. Other devices were fabricated having the structure 
shown in FIG. 2C, i.e. a ... 

... flexible than the lattice of a ferroelectric material. Turning to FIG. 
13, a layered superlattice material 92 is illustrated. Smolenskii recognized 
that what we call the layered superlattice materials spontaneously form into 
layers 94 with a perovskite-like structure which alternate with layers 96 having 
a simpler structure. Depending on the material, the perovskite-like layers 94 
may include one or a plurality of linked layers of perovskite-like octahedrons 
90. As an example, FIG. 14 shows a unit cell of the material ABi2B2< + 5> 09, 
which is the formula for strontium bismuth tantalate (SrBi2Ta209) and other 
layered superlattice materials, such as tantalum, niobium, and tungsten, having 
a element with a valence of + 5 in the B-site. In this structure, each 
perovskite-like layer 94 includes two layers of octahedrons 90 which are 
separated by layers 96 of a material that does not have a perovskite-like 
structure. In this material the primitive unit cell consists of two perovskite 
layers 94 and two non-perovskite layers 96, since the structure shifts between 
the layers 98A and 98B. In FIG. ... 

... 015, which is the formula for strontium bismuth titanate (SrBi4Ti4015) 
and other layered superlattice materials having an element, such as titanium, 
hafnium, and zirconium, having a valence of + 4 in the B-sites. In this material 
each the perovskite-like layer 94 has four layers of octahedrons 90. 

As the understanding of what Smolenskii called a layered perovskite-like 
structure increased, the inventors have realized that these materials are more 
than a substance which spontaneously forms in layers. This is seen most easily 
by an example. Strontium bismuth tantalate (SrBi2Ta209) can be considered to 

Pat. No. 5519234, * 



C|3 



FOCUS 

be ... 

... in the following definition: (B) a material having a localized structure, 
within a grain or other larger or smaller unit, which localized structure 
contains predominately repeatable units containing one or more perovskite-like 
layers and one or more intermediate non-perovskite-like layers spontaneously 
linked in an interdependent manner. 

It has been discovered that the layered superlattice materials catalogued by 
Smolenskii et al. are all likely candidates for fatigue free switching 
ferroelectrics and dielectric materials that are resistant to ... 

. . . x2 < + s2 > . . . Sk xk < + sk> Bl yl < + bl> B2 y2 < + b2 > . . . Bl yl 

< + bl> Q z < - 2> , 

where Al, A2 . . . Aj represent A-site elements in the perovskite-like 
structure, which may be elements such as strontium, calcium, barium, bismuth, 
lead, and others SI, S2 . . . Sk represent superlattice generator elements, 
which usually is bismuth, but can also be materials such as yttrium, scandium, 
lanthanum, antimony, chromium, thallium, and other elements with a valence of + 
3, Bl, B2 . . . Bl represent B-site elements in the perovskite-like structure, 
which may be elements such as titanium, tantalum, hafnium, tungsten, niobium, 
zirconium, and other elements, and Q represents an anion, which generally is 
oxygen but may also be other elements, such as fluorine, ... 

[*2] s2 > . . . Sk xk < + sk> Bl yl < + bl> B2 y2 < + b2 > . . . Bl yl 

< + bl> Q z < - 2> , where Al, A2 . . . Aj represent A-site elements in a 
perovskite-like structure, SI, S2 . . . Sk represent superlattice generator 
elements, Bl, B2 . . . Bl represent B-site elements in a perovskite-like 
structure, Q represents an anion, the superscripts indicate the valences of the 
respective elements, the subscripts indicate the average number of atoms of the 
element in the unit cell, and at least wl and yl are non-zero. 

[*3] 3. A ... 

FOCUS - 23 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,504,041 

<=2> GET 1st DRAWING SHEET OF 5 

Apr. 2, 1996 

Conductive exotic-nitride barrier layer for 
high-dielectric- constant materials 

INVENTOR: Summerfelt, Scott R., Dallas, Texas 

DETDESC : 

TABLE 

* * Conductive perovskite like materials 

FOCUS - 24 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,489,548 

<=2> GET 1st DRAWING SHEET OF 3 

Feb. 6, 1996 

Method of forming high-dielectric- constant material 
electrodes comprising sidewall spacers 

INVENTOR: Nishioka, Yasushiro, Tsukuba, Texas, Japan 
Summerfelt, Scott R. , Dallas, Texas 



• # 

Park, Kyung-Ho, Tsukuba, Japan 
Bhattacharya, Pijush, Midnapur, India 

DETDESC : 

TABLE 

* * Conductive perovskite like 

FOCUS - 25 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,478,610 

<=2> GET 1st DRAWING SHEET OF 5 

Dec. 26, 1995 

Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of layered structure 

oxides 

INVENTOR: Desu, Seshu B., Blacksburg, Virginia 
Tao, W., Blacksburg, Virginia 

SUM: 

... 34, (1961), 695; G. A. Sraolenski, V. A. Isupov and A. I. Agranovskaya, 
Fiz Tverdogo Tela, 3, (1961), 895). These compounds have pseudo- tetragonal 
symmetry and the structure is comprised of stacking of perovskite- like units 
between (Bi202)<2 + > layers along the pseudo- tetragonal c-axis. A large number 
of these compounds do not contain any volatile components in their sublattice 
that exhibits spontaneous polarization. The tendency for ... 

FOCUS - 26 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,468,679 

<-2> GET 1st DRAWING SHEET OF 27 

Nov. 21, 1995 

Process for fabricating materials for ferroelectric, high 
dielectric constant, and integrated circuit applications 

INVENTOR: Paz de Araujo, Carlos A., Colorado Springs, Colorado 
Scott, Michael C, Colorado Springs, Colorado 
Cuchiaro, Joseph D., Colorado Springs, Colorado 
McMillan, Larry D., Colorado Springs, Colorado 

SUM: 

... 676 (1962) and Chapter 8 pages 241-292 and pages 624 & 625 of Appendix F 
of the Lines and Glass reference cited above. 

As outlined in section 15.3 of the Sraolenskii book, the layered 
perovskite- like materials can be classified under three general types: 

(I) compounds having the formula A m-1 Bi2M m 0 3m + 3 , where A = Bi<3 + > , 
Ba<2 + > , Sr< . . . 

. . . s2> . . . Sk xk < + sk> Bl yl < + bl> B2 y2 < + b2> . . . Bl yl < + bl> Q 
z < - 2> , 

where Al, A2 . . . Aj represent A-site elements in a perovskite- like 
structure, SI, S2 . . . Sk represent super lattice generator elements, Bl, B2 . . 
. Bl represent B-site elements in a perovskite- like structure, Q represents an 
anion, the superscripts indicate the valences of the respective elements, the 
subscripts indicate the average number of atoms of the element in the unit cell, 
and at least wl and yl are non-zero. Preferably, the A- ... 

DETDESC: 

... compatible with, or can be designed to be compatible with, the other 



or 



materials common ly used in integrated circuits, such as silicon and gallium 
arsenide. 

The class of materials are those disclosed by Smolenskii as having a layered 
perovskite-like structure, as discussed in the Background of the Invention. It 
has been realized that these materials are more than a substance which 
spontaneously forms in layers. This is seen most easily by an example. Strontium 
bismuth tantalate (SrBi2Ta209) can ... 

... in the following definition: (B) a material having a localized structure, 
within a grain or other larger or smaller unit, which localized structure 
contains predominately repeatable units containing one or more perovskite-like 
layers and one or more intermediate non-perovskite-like layers spontaneously 
linked in an interdependent manner. 

It is well-known that compounds having the perovskite structure may be 
described in terms of the general formula ABQ3, where A and B are cations and Q 
is an anion . In the . . . 

Pat. No. 5468679, * 

FOCUS 

... flexible than the lattice of a ferroelectric material. Turning to FIG. 
13, a layered super lattice material 92 is illustrated. Smolenskii recognized 
that what we call the layered superlattice materials spontaneously form into 
layers 94 with a perovskite-like structure which alternate with layers 96 having 
a simpler structure. Depending on the material, the perovskite-like layers 94 
may include one or a plurality of linked layers of perovskite-like octahedrons 
90. As an example, FIG. 14 shows a unit cell of the material ABi2B2< + 5> 09, 
which is the formula for strontium bismuth tantalate (SrBi2Ta209) and other 
layered superlattice materials, such as tantalum, niobium, and tungsten, having 
a element with a valence of + 5 in the B-site. In this structure, each 
perovskite-like layer 94 includes two layers of octahedrons 90 which are 
separated by layers 96 of a material that does not have a perovskite-like 
structure. In this material the primitive unit cell consists of two perovskite 
layers 94 and two non-perovskite layers 96, since the structure shifts between 
the layers 98A and 98B. In FIG. ... 

015, which is the formula for strontium bismuth titanate (SrBi4Ti4015) 
and other layered superlattice materials having an element, such as titanium, 
hafnium, and zirconium, having a valence of + 4 in the B-sites. In this material 
each the perovskite-like layer 94 has four layers of octahedrons 90. 

It has been discovered that the layered superlattice materials catalogued by 
Smolenskii et al. are all likely candidates for fatigue free switching 
ferroelectrics and dielectric materials that are resistant to . . . 

x2 < + s2> . . . Sk xk < + sk> Bl yl < + bl> B2 y2 < + b2> . . . Bl yl 
<bl> Q z < - 2> , 

where Al, A2 . . . Aj represent A-site elements in the perovskite-like 
structure, which may be elements such as strontium, calcium, barium, bismuth, 
lead, and others SI, S2 . . . Sk represent superlattice generator elements, 
which usually is bismuth, but can also be materials such as yttrium, scandium, 
lanthanum, antimony, chromium, thallium, and other elements with a valence of + 
3, Bl, B2 . . . Bl represent B-site elements in the perovskite-like structure, 
which' may be elements such as titanium, tantalum, hafnium, tungsten, niobium, 
zirconium, and other elements, and Q represents an anion, which generally is 
oxygen but may also be other elements, such as fluorine, ... 

FOCUS - 27 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,447,908 

<=2> GET 1st DRAWING SHEET OF 1 

Sep. 5, 1995 

Superconducting thin film and a method for preparing the 



ci6 



same 



INVENTOR: Itozaki, Hideo, Hyogo, Japan 
Tanaka, Saburo, Hyogo, Japan 
Fujita, Nobuhiko, Hyogo, Japan 
Yazu, Shuji, Hyogo, Japan 
Jodai, Tetsuji, Hyogo, Japan 

SUM: 

... structure. The terra of quasi-perovskite type means a structure which can 
be considered to have such a crystal structure that is similar to 
Perovskite-type oxides and includes an orthorhombically distorted perovskite or 
a distorted oxygendef icient perovskite or the like. 

The superconducting thin film may be also another type of superconductor 
consisting mainly of a compound oxide represented by the formula: 

THETA 4( PHI 1-q ,Ca q ) n Cu ... 

FOCUS - 28 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,447,906 

Sep. 5, 1995 

Thin film high TC oxide superconductors and vapor deposition 
methods for making the same 

INVENTOR: Chaudhari, Praveen, Briarcliff Manor, New York 

Gambino, Richard J., Yorktown Heights, New York 

Koch, Roger H., Amawalk, New York 

Lacey, James A., Mahopac, New York 

Laibowitz, Robert B., Peekskill, New York 

Viggiano, Joseph M. , Wappingers Falls, New York 

SUM: 

. . . areas . 

It is another object of the present invention to provide continuous, smooth 
copper oxide superconductive films exhibiting superconductivity at temperatures 
in excess of 40o K. and methods for making these films, where the films exhibit 
perovskite- like structure. 

It is another object of this invention to provide transition metal oxide 
superconductive films including a rare earth element, or rare earth- like 
element, where the films exhibit superconductivity at temperatures greater than 
40o ... 

... earth- like element, B is an alkaline earth element, and y is sufficient 
to satisfy valence demands of the composition. 

It is another object of the present invention to provide smooth, continuous 
copper oxide superconducting films having a perovskite- like crystal structure 
and exhibiting superconductivity at temperatures in excess of 40o K . , and to 
provide methods for making these films. 
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION 

The films of this invention are oxide superconductors exhibiting 
superconductivity at temperatures in excess of . . . 

... addition to being continuous, smooth, and of excellent compositional 
uniformity. The Cu oxide films are therefore considered to be unique examples of 
this class of films, as are the processes for making them. 

Typically, the films are characterized by a perovskite- like crystalline 
structure, such as those described in more detail by C. Michel and B. Rayeau in 
Revue Dde. 



c 17 



Chiraie Minerale, 21, p. 407 (1984). These films are formed by a 

FOCUS - 29 OF 107 PATENTS 



5,439,878 
<=2> GET 1st DRAWING SHEET OF 21 
Aug. 8, 1995 

Method for preparing copper oxide superconductor containing 

carbonate radicals 

INVENTOR: Kinoshita, Kyoichi, Hoya, Japan 
Yamada, Tomoaki, Higashimurayama, Japan 

SUM: 

... novel superconducting material. 
Description of the Prior Art 

Several types of copper oxide superconductors have been discovered since 
high-To superconductivity was detected in the La-Ba-Cu-0 system. 
Superconductivity would arise from the layered perovskite-like structure having 
Cu06 octahedra, or Cu05 pyramids, or Cu02 square planes as a building unit. The 
layered perovskite-like structure and a sufficient carrier concentration of the 
material are essential factors for making the material superconducting as 
indicated by Osamura & Zhang (Japan. J.Appl.Phys.26, L2094-L2096, 1987). ... 

FOCUS - 30 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,439,876 

<=2> GET 1st DRAWING SHEET OF 5 

Aug. 8, 1995 

Method of making artificial layered high T c superconductors 

INVENTOR: Graf, Volker, Wollerau, Switzerland 
Mueller, Carl A., Hedingen, Switzerland 

DETDESC: 

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS 

One material particularly suited as a substrate in the epitaxial growth of 
high T c superconductor material is strontium titanate, SrTi03, which forms 
crystals like perovskite (FIG. 1). Each titanium ion 1 is octahedrally 
surrounded by six oxygen ions 2, the bigger strontium ions 3 being disposed in 
the spaces in between. At room temperature, ... 

FOCUS - 31 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,426,092 

<=2> GET 1st DRAWING SHEET OF 14 

Jun. 20, 1995 

Continuous or semi-continuous laser ablation method for 
depositing fluorinated superconducting thin film having 
basal plane alignment of the unit cells deposited on 
non- lattice-matched substrates 

INVENTOR: Ovshinsky, Stanford R., Bloomfield Hills, Michigan 
Young, Rosa, Troy, Michigan 

SUM: 

. . . growth of a crystalline superconducting material in a manner as if 
mimicking the orientation of a substrate having an identical lattice structure 

r a 



without the presence of^uch a substrate lattice structi^^ Simply stated, an 
"epitaxial- like" perovskite superconducting material grown on a 
non- lattice-matched substrate would nonetheless be characterized by a lattice 
structure identical to the lattice structure which would be present if the 
material was grown on a perovskite substrate. Thus, "... 

FOCUS - 32 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,424,282 

<=2> GET 1st DRAWING SHEET OF 5 

Jun. 13, 1995 

Process for manufacturing a composite oxide superconducting 

wire 

INVENTOR: Yamamoto, Susumu, Hyogo, Japan 

Murai, Teruyuki, Hyogo, Japan 

Kawabe, Nozomu, Hyogo, Japan 

Awazu, Tomoyuki, Hyogo, Japan 

Yazu, Shuji, Hyogo, Japan 

Jodai, Tetsuji, Hyogo, Japan 

DETDESC: 

. . . term of "quasiperovskite type structure means any oxide that can be 
considered to have such a crystal structure-that is similar to perovskite-type 
oxides and may include an orthorhombically distorted perovskite or a distorted 
oxygen-deficient perovskite or the like. 

In practice, the element ct is preferably selected from Ba, Sr and/or Ca and 
the element beta is preferably selected from Y, La and/or lanthanid such as Sc, 
Ce, Gd, Ho, Er, Tin, Y b, ... 

FOCUS - 33 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,423,285 

<=2> GET 1st DRAWING SHEET OF 27 

Jun. 13, 1995 

Process for fabricating materials for ferroelectric, high 
dielectric constant, and integrated circuit applications 

INVENTOR: Paz de Araujo, Carlos A., Colorado Springs, Colorado 
Cuchiaro, Joseph D., Colorado Springs, Colorado 
Scott, Michael C, Colorado Springs, Colorado 
McMillan, Larry D., Colorado Springs, Colorado 

SUM: 

... 676 (1962) and Chapter 8 pages 241-292 and pages 624& 625 of Appendix F 
of the Lines and Glass reference cited above. 

As outlined in section 15.3 of the Smolenskii book, the layered 
perovskite- like materials can be classified under three general types: 

(I) compounds having the formula A m-1 Bi2M m 0 3m + 3 , where A = Bi<3 + > , 
Ba<2 + > , Sr< . . . 

. . . s2> . . . Sk xk < + sk> Bl yl < + bl> B2 y2 < + b2> . . . Bl yl < + bl> Q 
z < - 2> , where Al, A2 . . . Aj represent A-site elements in a perovskite- like 
structure, SI, S2 . . . Sk represent superlattice generator elements, Bl, B2 . . 
. Bl represent B-site elements in a perovskite- like structure, Q represents an 
anion, the superscripts indicate the valences of the respective elements, the 
subscripts indicate the average number of atoms of the element in the unit cell, 
and at least wl and yl are non-zero. Preferably, the A- ... 

DETDESC: 

c /? 



... compatible with, or can be designed to be compatible with, the other 
materials commonly used in integrated circuits, such as silicon and gallium 
arsenide. 



The class of materials are those disclosed by Smolenskii as having a layered 
perovskite-like structure, as discussed in the Background of the Invention. It 
has been realized that these materials are more than a substance which 
spontaneously forms in layers. This is seen most easily by an example. Strontium 
bismuth tantalate (SrBi2Ta209) can . . . 

... in the following definition: (B) a material having a localized structure, 
within a grain or other larger or smaller unit, which localized structure 
contains predominately repeatable units containing one or more perovskite-like 
layers and one or more intermediate non-perovskite-like layers spontaneously 
linked in an interdependent manner. 

It is well-known that compounds having the perovskite structure may be 
described in terras of the general formula ABQ3, where A and B are cations and Q 
is an anion . In the . . . 

... flexible than the lattice of a ferroelectric material. Turning to FIG. 
13, a layered super lattice material 92 is illustrated. Smolenskii recognized 

Pat. No. 5423285, * 

FOCUS 

that what we call the layered superlattice materials spontaneously form into 
layers 94 with a perovskite-like structure which alternate with layers 96 having 
a simpler structure. Depending on the material, the perovskite-like layers 94 
may include one or a plurality of linked layers of perovskite-like octahedrons 
90. As an example, FIG. 14 shows a unit cell of the material ABi2B2< + 5> 09, 
which is the formula for strontium bismuth tantalate (SrBi2Ta209) and other 
layered superlattice materials, such as tantalum, niobium, and tungsten, having 
a element with a valence of + 5 in the B-site. In this structure, each 
perovskite-like layer 94 includes two layers of octahedrons 90 which are 
separated by layers 96 of a material that does not have a perovskite-like 
structure. In this material the primitive unit cell consists of two perovskite 
layers 94 and two non-perovskite layers 96, since the structure shifts between 
the layers 98A and 98B. in FIG. ... 

... 015, which is the formula for strontium bismuth titanate (SrBi4Ti4015) 
and other layered superlattice materials having an element, such as titanium, 
hafnium, and zirconium, having a valence of + 4 in the B-sites. In this material 
each the perovskite-like layer 94 has four layers of octahedrons 90. 

It has been discovered that the layered superlattice materials catalogued by 
Smolenskii et al. are all likely candidates for fatigue free switching 
ferroelectrics and dielectric materials that are resistant to . . . 

... Sk xk < + sk> Bl yl < + bl> B2 y2 < + b2> . . . Bl yl < + bl> Q z < - 2> 
,tm (1) 

where Al, A2 . . . Aj represent A-site elements in the perovskite-like 
structure, which may be elements such as strontium, calcium, barium, bismuth, 
lead, and others SI, S2 . . . Sk represent superlattice generator elements, 
which usually is bismuth, but can also be materials such as yttrium, scandium, 
lanthanum, antimony, chromium, thallium, and other elements with a valence of + 
3, Bl, B2 . . . Bl represent B-site elements in the perovskite-like structure, 
which may be elements such as titanium, tantalum, hafnium, tungsten, niobium, 
zirconium, and other elements, and Q represents an anion, which generally is 
oxygen but may also be other elements, such as fluorine, ... 

FOCUS - 34 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,409,890 

Apr. 25, 1995 

Process for producing an elongated sintered article 



c i-O 



• 



INVENTOR: Yamamoto, Susurau, Hyogo, Japan 
Kawabe, Nozomu, Hyogo, Japan 
Awazu, Tomoyuki, Hyogo, Japan 
Murai, Teruyuki, Hyogo, Japan 

SUM: 

. . . term quasi-perovskite type means a structure which can be considered to 
have such a crystal structure that is similar to perovskite-type oxides and 
includes an orthorhombically distorted perovskite or a distorted 
oxygen-deficient perovskite or the like. 

The sintering operation of the powder mixture is carried out at temperature 
which is higher than 600o C. but is not higher than the lowest melting point of 
any component in the material powder to be sintered. If the sintering 
temperature exceeds the . . . 

FOCUS - 35 OF 107 PATENTS 
5,401,715 
<=2> GET 1st DRAWING SHEET OF 1 
Mar. 28, 1995 

Semiconductor substrate having a superconducting thin film 

INVENTOR: Itozaki, Hideo, Hyogo, Japan 
Harada, Keizo, Hyogo, Japan 
Fujimori, Naoji, Hyogo, Japan 
Yazu, Shuji, Hyogo, Japan 
Jodai, Tetsuji, Hyogo, Japan 

DETDESC: 

... term quasi-perovskite type means a structure which can be considered to 
have such a crystal structure that is similar to perovskite-type oxides and 
includes an orthorhombically distorted perovskite or a distorted 
oxygen-deficient perovskite or the like. 

An atomic ratio of the lanthanide element "Ln" :Ba:Cu is preferably 1:2:3 as 
is defined by the formula but the atomic ratio is not restricted strictly to 
this ratio. In fact, the other compound oxides having ... 

FOCUS - 36 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,389,603 

<=2> GET 1st DRAWING SHEET OF 5 

Feb. 14, 1995 

Oxide superconductors, and devices and systems comprising 

such a superconductor 

INVENTOR: Batlogg, Bertram J., New Providence, New Jersey 
Cava, Robert J., Bridgewater, New Jersey 

DETDESC : 

... microscopy indicate a basically orthorhorabic crystal structure, but there 
are also indications that, at least for some of the inventive compounds, the 
structure may be weakly monoclinic. Both of these possibilities are intended to 
be included in the term "perovskite- like 11 or analogous terras. Diffraction 
studies have also revealed the presence of a variety of long period long range 
ordered superlattices (typically in the ab plane). 

FIG. 2 shows the field (225 Oe)-cooled ... 
We claim: 



C 2_/ 



[*1] 1. An article comprising a superconductive element comprising at least 
one superconductive material having a perovskite-like crystal structure and 
nominal formula (Pb2A2 Cu f )BCu208 + delta with (A selected from the group 
consisting of Sr, Ba, Sr and Ba, Sr and Ca, and Sr, Ba and Ca; Cu 1 is selected 
from the group consisting of ... 

... [*1] parallel to the ab- plane; and wherein the composition is selected 
such that the superconductive material has a transition temperature of at least 
about 30K. 

[*2] 2. An article comprising a superconductive element comprising at least 
one superconductive material having a perovskite-like crystal structure and 
nominal formula (X2A2Cu f ) BCu208 + delta , where X is selected from the group 
consisting of Pb, Pb and Bi, Pb and Tl, and Pb, Bi and Tl, with X being at least 
50 atomic % of ... 

FOCUS - 37 OF 107 PATENTS 
5,362,710 
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Nov. 8, 1994 

Process for preparing high Tc superconducting material 

INVENTOR: Fujita, Nobuhiko, Hyogo, Japan 
Kobayashi, Tadakazu, Hyogo, Japan 
Itozaki, Hideo, Hyogo, Japan 
Tanaka, Saburo, Hyogo, Japan 
Yazu, Shuji, Hyogo, Japan 
Jodai, Tetsuji, Hyogo, Japan 

SUM: 

. . . quasi-perovskite type oxide means a structure which can be considered to 
have such a crystal structure that is similar to perovskite-type oxides and 
includes an orthorhombically distorted perovskite or a distorted 
oxygen-deficient perovskite or the like. 

The present invention also provides a process for producing the 
abovementioned superconducting material, characterized by sintering a mixture of 
the following powders: 

an oxide, carbonate, nitrate or sulfate of one element "A" selected from ... 

FOCUS - 38 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,356,674 

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Oct. 18, 1994 

Process for applying ceramic coatings using a plasma jet 
carrying a free form non-metallic element 

INVENTOR: Henne, Rudolf, Boeblingen, Federal Republic of Germany 
Weber, Winfried, Leinf elden-Echterdingen, Federal Republic of Germany 
Schiller, Guenter, Gerlingen, Federal Republic of Germany 
Schnurnberger, Werner, Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany 
Kabs, Michael, Hanau, Federal Republic of Germany 

SUM: 

... materials are oxidized materials, for example, spinels and perovskites on 
a nickel or cobalt or nickel-cobalt basis. It is, however, also conceivable to 
apply all possible kinds of spinels and perovskites in accordance with the 
inventive process. This also applies to spinel- like and perovskite-like 
compounds and to non oxidized compounds, for example, nitrides, halides, 
carbides, etc., with nitrogen or halogens or also non-metallic compounds, 



C ^"2- 




methane or acetylene then being carried along as non-metallic element by the . . . 

FOCUS - 39 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,354,733 

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Oct. 11, 1994 

Copper oxide superconductor containing carbonate radicals 

INVENTOR: Kinoshita, Kyoichi, Hoya, Japan 
Yamada, Tomoaki, Higashimurayama, Japan 

SUM: 

... 2. Description of the Prior Art 

Several types of copper oxide superconductors have been discovered since 
high-T c superconductivity was detected in the La-Ba-Cu-0 system. 
Superconductivity would arise from the layered perovskite-like structure having 
Cu06 octahedra, or Cu05 pyramids, or Cu02 square planes as a building unit. The 
layered perovskite-like structure and a sufficient carrier concentration of the 
material are essential factors for making the material superconducting as 
indicated by Osamura & Zhang (Japan.J.Appl.Phys.26, L2094-L2096, 1987). ... 

FOCUS - 40 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,340,796 

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Aug. 23, 1994 

Oxide superconductor comprising Cu, Bi, Ca and Sr 

INVENTOR: Cava, Robert J., Bridgewater, New Jersey 
Sunshine, Steven A., Berkeley Heights, New Jersey 

ABST: 

Novel superconductive oxides are disclosed. The oxides all have layered 
perovskite-like crystal structure and manifest superconductivity above about 
77K. An exemplary material has composition Bi2 .2Sr2CaO . 8Cu208 . Other materials 
are described by the nominal formula X2 + xMn-xCun- ... 

SUM: 

. . . high temperature superconductors has been reported since publication of 
the above seminal papers. Most of the work deals with YBa2Cu30 x (the so-called 
1-2-3 compound) and related compounds. 

In all of these compounds the superconducting phase is perovskite-like, 
typically having orthorhombic crystal structure, and the compounds that exhibit 
high (i.e., T c > 77K) temperature superconductivity generally contain one or 
more rare earth elements . 

The discovery of high T c superconductivity in some . . . 

... likely to be stable high T c superconductors, with T c s likely to be 
above 100K. 

The novel phases all have a crystal structure that is closely related to that 
of the above described 80K compound and thus are perovskite-like. They differ 
from each other essentially only in the number of crystal planes between the two 
Bi-0 double planes that bound the unit cell in the c-direction, or by the size 
of the supercell. The composition of the ... 

DETDESC : 

... in added layers of M and Cu between the Bi-0 double layers and are 
expected to result in one or more phases of stable high T c superconductive 



material . 



All of the inventive phases have layered perovskite-like crystal structure, 
and the existence of relatively weak bonding between at least some layers may be 
the cause of the observed relatively high ductility of the inventive materials. 
It will be appreciated that by "perovskite-like" we mean not only the 
prototypical, truly cubic structure, but very significantly distortions 
therefrom. 

Material specification in accordance with the invention depends upon the 
nature of the intended use. For power transmission, or any other currentcarrying 

PAGE 

Pat. No. 5340796, * 

FOCUS 

What is claimed is: 

[*1] 1. An article comprising material perovskite-like structure and of 
nominal composition X2+ x M4-x Cu3010 +0.5 +/" delta , where [x = p/q < 
0.4, and p and q are positive integers] 0 </= x < 0.4, X is Bi and Pb, ... 

FOCUS - 41 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,338,721 

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Aug. 16, 1994 

Process for manufacturing a superconducting composite 

INVENTOR: Yamamoto, Susumu, Hyogo, Japan 

Murai, Teruyuki, Hyogo, Japan 

Kawabe, Nozomu, Hyogo, Japan 

Awazu, Tomoyuki, Hyogo, Japan 

Yazu , Shu j i , Hyogo , J apan 

Jodai, Tetsuji, Hyogo, Japan 

DETDESC: 

. . . quasi-perovskite type structure means any oxide that can be considered 
to have such a crystal structure that is similar to perovskite-type oxides and 
may include an orthorhombically distorted perovskite or a distorted 
oxygen-deficient perovskite or the like. 

In practice, the element alpha is preferably selected from Ba, Sr and/or Ca 
and the element beta is preferably selected from Y, La and/or lanthanid such as 
Sc, Ce, Gd, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu and the ... 

FOCUS - 42 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,332,722 

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Jul. 26, 1994 

Nonvolatile memory element composed of combined 
superconductor ring and MOSFET 

INVENTOR: Fujihira, Mitsuka, Yokohama, Japan 

DETDESC: 

. . . term quasi-perovskite type means a structure which can be considered to 
have such a crystal structure that is similar to perovskite-type oxides and 
includes an orthorhombically distorted perovskite or a distorted 
oxygen-deficient perovskite or the like. 

Another superconducting compound oxide which can be used by the present 
invention is represented by the general formula: 



(M,Sr)2CuO 4- delta 



in which M stands for Y or La and . . . 

FOCUS - 43 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,328,892 

Jul. 12, 1994 

Oxide superconductor composition and a process for the 
production thereof 

INVENTOR: Manako, Takashi, Tokyo, Japan 
Shimakawa, Yuichi, Tokyo, Japan 
Kubo, Yoshimi, Tokyo, Japan 

SUM: 

. . . following formulae: 
TISr 3 - x Y x Cu207(IA) 
wherein 0.1 </= x </= 1, and 
TISr 4 - x Y x Cu309(IB) 

wherein 0.1 </= x </= 2. Unit cells of the layered perovskite-like crystal 
structures of these compositions of the formulae (IA) and (IB) may be shown 
respectively as follows: 

T10/Sr0/Cu02/Sr or Y/Cu02/SrO(IX) 

T10/Sr0/Cu02/Sr or Y/ ... 

FOCUS - 44 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,296,458 

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Mar. 22, 1994 

Epitaxy of high T c superconducting films on (001) silicon 

surface 

INVENTOR: Himpsel, Franz J., Mt . Kisco, New York 
SUM: 

... first showed superconducting behavior in mixed copper-oxides, typically 
including rare earth and/or rare earth- like elements and alkaline earth 
elements, for example La, Ba, Sr, . . . , and having a perovskite-like 
structure. Materials including the so called "1-2-3 phase in the Y-Ba-Cu-0 
system have been found to exhibit a superconducting transition temperature in 
excess of 77K. 

R B 

FOCUS - 45 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,286,712 

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Feb. 15, 1994 

High TC superconducting film 

INVENTOR: Fujita, Nobuhiko, Hyogo, Japan 
Kobayashi, Tadakazu, Hyogo, Japan 



Itozaki, Hideo, Hyogo, Japan 
Tanaka, Saburo, Hyogo, Japan 
Yazu, Shuji, Hyogo, Japan 
Jodai, Tetsuji, Hyogo, Japan 

SUM: 

. . . quasi-perovskite type oxide means a structure which can be considered to 
have such a crystal structure that is similar to perovskite-type oxides and 
includes an orthorhombically distorted perovskite or a distorted 
oxygen-deficient perovskite or the like. 

The present invention also provides a process for producing the 
abovementioned superconducting material, characterized by sintering a mixture of 
the following powders: 

an oxide, carbonate, nitrate or sulfate of one element "A 11 selected from ... 

FOCUS - 46 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,283,465 

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Feb. 1, 1994 

Superconducting lead on integrated circuit 

INVENTOR: Yamazaki, Shunpei, Tokyo, Japan 

DETDESC : 

... subjected to supplemental annealing at 500o-600o C. for 1-2 hours as 
illustrated in FIG. 1(B). The supplemental annealing allows the superconducting 
ceramic material to form a modulated perovskite- like structure and, as a result, 
a high critical temperature is realized. On the substrate, there are provided 
superconducting leads 10 and 10 1 for interconnection among devices and contacts 
formed in or on the semiconductor substrate and a ... 

FOCUS - 47 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,278,140 

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Jan. 11, 1994 

Method for forming grain boundary junction devices using 
high T c superconductors 

INVENTOR: Chaudhari, Praveen, Briarcliff Manor, New York 
Chi, Cheng-Chung J., Yorktown Heights, New York 
Dimos, Duane B., Montclair, New Jersey 

Mannhart, Jochen D., Metzingen, New York, Federal Republic of Germany 
Tsuei, Chang C, Chappaqua, New York 

SUM: 

... first showed superconducting behavior in mixed copper-oxides, typically 
including rare earth and/or rare earth- like elements and alkaline earth 
elements, for example La, Ba, Sr, . . . , and havine a perovskite- like 
structure. Materials including the so called "1-2-3 phase in the Y-Ba-Cu-0 
system have been found to exhibit a superconducting transition temperature in 
excess of 77K. R. B. ... 

FOCUS - 48 OF 107 PATENTS 
5,252,547 
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Oct. 12, 1993 



Method of forming an inorganic protective layer on an oxide 

superconducting film 



INVENTOR: Itozaki, Hideo, Hyogo, Japan 
Tanaka, Saburo, Hyogo, Japan 
Fujita, Nobuhiko, Hyogo, Japan 
Yazu, Shuji, Hyogo, Japan 
Jodai, Tetsuji, Hyogo, Japan 

SUM: 

. . . term of quasi-perovskite type means a structure which can be considered 
to have such a crystal structure that is similar to Perovskite-type oxides and 
includes an orthorhombically distorted perovskite or a distorted 
oxygen-deficient perovskite or the like. 

The superconducting thin film may be also another type of superconductor 
consisting mainly of a compound oxide represented by the formula: 

THETA 4( PHI 1 ■ q ,Ca q ) ■ Cu ... 

FOCUS - 49 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,249,525 
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Oct. 5, 1993 

Spark-discharge lithography plates containing image- support 

pigments 

INVENTOR: Lewis, Thomas E., E. Hampstead, New Hampshire 
Nowak, Michael T., Gardner, Massachusetts 

DETDESC : 

... A perspective view of the first layer, labeled "Layer 0", appears in FIG, 
6E. As shown in these figures, the spinel structure contains a number of 
octahedral sites for metal ions. Like perovskite structures spinels may also be 
defective, an example being gamma-Fe203. A spinel structure may also be 
intergrown with other structures. 

In spinel compounds useful as image-support pigments, the ... 

FOCUS - 50 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,244,874 

Sep. 14, 1993 

Process for producing an elongated superconductor 

INVENTOR: Yamamoto, Susumu, Hyogo, Japan 
Kawabe, Nozomu, Hyogo, Japan 
Awazu, Tomoyuki, Hyogo, Japan 

DETDESC: 

. . . term quasi-perovskite type means a structure which can be considered to 
have such a crystal structure that is similar to perovskite-type oxides and 
includes an orthorhombically distorted perovskite or a distorted 
oxygen-deficient perovskite or the like. 

Another superconducting compound oxide which can be prepared by the present 
invention is represented by the general formula: 

(M, Sr)2CuO 4 - delta 

in which M stands for Y or La and . . . 

FOCUS - 51 OF 107 PATENTS 



5,241,191 ^ 
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Aug. 31, 1993 

Cubic perovskite crystal structure, a process of preparing 
the crystal structure, and articles constructed from the 

crystal structure 

INVENTOR: Agostinelli, John A., Rochester, New York 
Chen, Samuel, Pen fie Id, New York 

DETDESC : 

... 1, PA-2, PA-3, PA-4 and PA-5, cited above and here incorporated by 
reference, can be employed. Highly compatible substrates are materials that 
themselves exhibit a perovskite or perovskite- like crystal structure. Strontium 
titanate is an example of a perovskite crystal structure which is specifically 
preferred for use as a substrate. Lanthanum aluminate (LaA103), lanthanum 
gallium oxide (LaGa03) and potassium tantalate are . . . 

FOCUS - 52 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,236,894 

Aug. 17, 1993 

Process for producing a superconducting thin film at 
relatively low temperature 

INVENTOR: Tanaka, Saburo, Itami, Japan 
Itozaki, Hideo, Itami, Japan 
Higaki, Kenjiro, Itami, Japan 
Yazu, Shuji, Itami, Japan 
Jodai, Tetsuji, Itami, Japan 

SUM: 

... crystal structure. The term quasi-perovskite type means a structure which 
can be considered to be similar to perovskite-type oxides and includes an 
orthorhombically distorted perovskite or a distorted oxygen-deficient 
perovskite or the like. 

Still another example of the above-mentioned compound oxide is compound 
oxides represented by the general formula: 

THETA 4( PHI 1 - q , Ca q ) m Cu n 0 p + . . . 

FOCUS - 53 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,221,660 

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Jun. 22, 1993 

Semiconductor substrate having a superconducting thin film 

INVENTOR: Itozaki, Hideo, Hyogo, Japan 
Harada, Keizo, Hyogo, Japan 
Fujimori, Naoji, Hyogo, Japan 
Yazu, Shuji, Hyogo, Japan 
Jodai, Tetsuji, Hyogo, Japan 

DETDESC : 

. . . term quasi-perovskite type means a structure which can be considered to 
have such a crystal structure that is similar to perovskite-type oxides and 
includes an orthorhombically distorted perovskite or a distorted 
oxygen-deficient perovskite or the like. 



An atomic ratio of tne lanthanide element "Ln" :Ba:Cu xs preferably 1:2:3 as 
is defined by the formula but the atomic ratio is not restricted strictly to 
this ratio. In fact, the other compound oxides having . . . 

FOCUS - 54 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,212,148 

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May 18, 1993 

Method for manufacturing oxide superconducting films by 

laser evaporation 

INVENTOR: Roas, Bernhard, Erlangen, Federal Republic of Germany 
Endres, Gerhard, Forchheim, Federal Republic of Germany 
Schultz, Ludwig, Bubenreuth, Federal Republic of Germany 

SUM: 

... yet exactly established. This initial product is then converted, by 
applying a heat and oxygen treatment, into the material with the desired 
superconducting phase. 

The superconductive metal-oxide phases, to be obtained in this manner, can 
have perovskite-like crystal structures and, in the case of YBa2Cu30 7 - x , 
whereby 0 < x < 0.5, have an orthorhomic structure (compare, for example, 
"Europhysics Letters", Vol. 3, No. 12, Jun. 15, 1987, pages ... 

FOCUS - 55 OF 107 PATENTS 

5,183,799 

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Feb. 2, 1993 

Superconducting materials including La-Sr-Nb-0, Y-Ba-Nb-0, 
La-Sr-Nb-Cu-O, and Y-Ba-Nb-Cu-0 

INVENTOR: Ogushi, Tetsuya, Kagoshima, Japan 
Hakuraku, Yoshinori, Kagoshima, Japan 
Ogata, Hisanao, Ibraki, Japan 

ABST: 

... V, Nb, Ta, T, Zr or Hf; 0 < x < 1; 0 < z < 1; i = 1, 3/2 or 2; 0 < y </= 
4; Gis F, CI or N; delta is oxygen defect, and having a perovskite-like crystal 
structure, show superconductivity at a temperature higher than the liquid 
nitrogen temperature. 

SUM: 

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 

This invention relates to a superconducting material having a 
perovskite-like crystal structure and a superconducting part using the same, 
particularly to a superconducting material suitable for having a high 
superconducting transition temperature (Tc), and a process for producing the 
same. 

Heretofore, . . . 

DETDESC: 

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS 

The superconducting materials of this invention have a perovskite-like 
crystal structure and represented by the formulae: 



(LxAl-x)i MO y( 1) 



(Lx A 1 ■ x ) iH 1 - zCuz ... 

... by laminating this superconducting material with other films of 
electrical insulating material. It is preferable to laminate a plurality of 
film-like layers alternately, respectively. Further, it is preferable to use as 
an insulating material a perovskite-like ceramic of the same series. 

Further, in the above-mentioned formulae (1) and (2), a total of valence 
number (p) of L, A and M, or L, A, M and Cu, and the valence number y of ... 

... OMITTED p SYMBOL OMITTED = SYMBOL OMITTED y SYMBOL OMITTED +/- 0.5 

Pat. No. 5183799, * 

FOCUS 

Further, it is preferable to include M of the valence of two. 

More in detail, the material represented by the formula (1) has a 
perovskite-like crystal structure and has as the L element at least one element 
selected from the group consisting of scandium (Sc), yitrium (Y), and lanthanide 
elements of atomic numbers 57 to 71 (La to Lu) belonging to the group ... 

... Ta) belonging to the group Vb of the periodic table and titanium (Ti), 
zirconium (Zr) and hafnium (Hf) belonging to the group IVb of the periodic 
table, these element being able to include Cu. 

The oxide superconducting material having the perovskite-like crystal 
structure of this invention has as a fundamental constitution an octahedron 
having the M element which is an atom belonging to the group Vb or IVb as its 
center and 6 oxygen atoms. Since this material has defect of oxygen, that is, 
one or ... 

... a mutual action of strong attraction necessary for forming a hole pair or 
electron pair showing a superconducting phenomenon at a temperature of 150K or 
higher. 

The oxide superconducting material of this invention has the perovskite-like 
crystal structure as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2. These drawings show unit lattices 
of the materials represented by the formulae: 

(L x A 1 - x ) i MO y( 1) 

and ( ... 

. . . formula (4) with at least one element selected from those of the group 
IVb and Vb, the total amount of the elements of the group IVb and Vb can exceed 
the amount of Cu. 

It is also possible to produce an oxide superconducting powder having a 
perovskite-like crystal structure containing M element mainly by mixing a powder 
of oxide material represented by (L x A 1 ■ x ) i CuO y , wherein x is 0 < x < 
1; ... 

... Cu:M = 1:1, carrying out substitution reaction between Cu and M element 
in vacuum, and finally pulverizing the final reaction product. 

It is further possible to produce an oxide superconducting powder having a 
perovskite-like crystal structure and containing M element mainly by depositing 
in vacuum a film of pure metal of M element selected from the elements of groups 
IVb and Vb on outer surface of oxide ceramic . . . 

... 1, 3/2 or 2; y is 0 < y </= 4, containing the M element mainly (M being