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HE UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE 



In re Patent Application of 



Date: April 10,2006 



Applicants: Bednorz et al. 



Docket: YO987-074BZ 



Serial No.: 08/479,810 



Group Art Unit: 1751 



Filed: June 7, 1995 



Examiner: M. Kopec 



For: NEW SUPERCONDUCTIVE COMPOUNDS HAVING HIGH TRANSITION 
TEMPERATURE, METHODS FOR THEIR USE AND PREPARATION 

Commissioner for Patents 
P.O. Box 1450 
Alexandria, VA 22313-1450 



I, Dennis Newns, declare that: 

l . I received a B. A. degree in Chemistry form Oxford University United Kingdom in 
1964 and a Ph.D. degree in Theoretical Physical Chemistry form the University of 
London in 1 967. 



AFFIDAVIT OF DENNIS NEWNS 



UNDER 37 C.F.R. 1.132 



Sir: 



Page 1 of 16 



2. I am a theoretical solid state scientist. My resume and curriculum vitae are 
attached. 

3. The USPTO response dated October 20, 2005 at page 4 regarding the subject 
application cites Schuller et al "A Snapshot View of High Temperature 
Superconductivity 2002" (report from workshop on High Temperature 
Superconductivity held April 5-8, 2002 in San Diego) which the examiner states 
"discusses both the practical applications and theoretical mechanisms relating to 
superconductivity." 

4. The Examiner at page 4 of the Office Action cites page 4 of Schuller et al which 
states: 

"Basic research in high temperature superconductivity, because the 
complexity of the materials, brings together expertise from materials 
scientists, physicists and chemists, experimentalists and theorists... It 
is important to realize that this field is based on complex materials and 
because of this materials science issues are crucial. Microstructures, 
crystallinity, phase variations, nonequilibrium phases, and overall 
structural issues play a crucial role and can strongly affect the physical 
properties of the materials. Moreover, it seems that to date there are 
no clear-cut directions for searches for new superconducting phases, 
as shown by the serendipitous discovery of superconductivity in MgB 2 . 
Thus studies in which the nature of chemical bonding and how this 
arises in existing superconductors may prove to be fruitful. Of course, 
"enlightened" empirical searches either guided by chemical and 



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materials intuition or systematic searches using well-defined strategies 
may prove to be fruitful. It is interesting to note that while empirical 
searches in the oxides gave rise to many superconducting systems, 
similar (probable?) searches after the discovery of superconductivity in 
MgB 2 have not uncovered any new superconductors. 0 

5. The Examiner at pages 4 -5 of the Office Action cites pages 5- 6 of Schuller et al 
which state: 

"The theory of high temperature superconductivity has proven to be 
elusive to date. This is probably as much caused by the fact that in 
these complex materials it is very hard to establish uniquely even the 
experimental phenomenology, as well as by the evolution of many 
competing models, which seem to address only particular aspects of 
the problem. The Indian story of the blind men trying to characterize 
the main properties of an elephant by touching various parts of its 
body seems to be particularly relevant. It is not even clear whether 
there is a single theory of superconductivity or whether various 
mechanisms are possible. Thus it is impossible to summarize, or even 
give a complete general overview of all theories of superconductivity 
and because of this, this report will be very limited in its theoretical 
scope." 

6. The Examiner at page 5 of the Office Action cites page 7 of Schuller et al which 
states: 



Page 3 of 16 



"Thus far, the existence of, a totally new superconductor has proven 
impossible to predict from first principles. Therefore their discovery has 
been based largely on empirical approaches, intuition, and. even 
serendipity. This unpredictability is at the root of the excitement that 
the condensed matter community displays at the discovery of a new 
material that is superconducting at high temperature." 
I am submitting this declaration to clarify what is meant by predictability in theoretical 
solid state science. All solid state materials, even elemental solids, present 
theoretical problems. That difficulty begins with the basic mathematical formulation 
of quantum mechanics and how to take into account all interactions that are 
involved in atoms having more than one electron and where the interactions 
between the atoms may be covalent, ionic or Van der Waals interactions. A theory 
of a solid is based on approximate mathematical formalisms to represent these 
interactions. A theoretical solid state scientist makes an assessment using physical 
intuition, mathematical estimation and experimental results as a guide to focus on 
features of the complex set of interactions that this assessment suggests are 
dominate in their effect on the physical phenomena for which the theorist is 
attempting to develop a theory. This process results in what is often referred to as 
mathematical formalism. This formalism is then applied to specific examples to 
determine whether the formalism produces computed results that agree with 
measured experimental results. This process can be considered a "theoretical 
experiment." For example, applying the theoretical formalism to a particular crystal 



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structure comprised of a particular set of atoms to compute a value of a desired 
property is in this context a "theoretical experiment/' 

8. Even when a successful theoretical formalism is developed, that formalism does 
not produce a list of materials that have a particular property that is desired. Rather 
for each material of interest the same "theoretical experiment" must be conducted. 
Moreover, even if such a "theoretical experiment" indicates that the particular 
material investigated has the property, there is no assurance that it does without 
experimentally fabricating the material and experimentally testing whether it has that 
property. 

9. For example, semiconductors have been studied both experimentally and 
theoretically for more than 50 years. The theory of semiconductors is well 
understood. A material is a semiconductor when there is a filled valence band that 
is separated from the next empty or almost empty valence band by an energy that is 
of the order of the thermal energy of an electron at ambient temperature. The 
electrical conductivity of the semiconductor is controlled by adding dopants to the 
semiconductor crystal that either add electrons to the empty valence band or 
remove electrons from the filled valence band. Notwithstanding this theoretical 
understanding of the physical phenomena of semiconductivity, that understanding 
does not permit either a theoretical or experimental solid state scientist to know a 
priori what materials will in fact be a semiconductor. Even with the well developed 
semiconductor theoretical formalisms, that theory cannot be asked the question 
"can you list for me all materials that will be a semiconductor?" Just as an 
experimentalist must do, the theoretical scientist must select a particular material for 



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examination. If the particular material already exists an experimentalist can test that 
material for the semiconducting property. If the particular material does not exist, 
the theoretical solid state scientist must first determine what the crystal structure will 
be of that material This in of itself may be a formidable theoretical problem to 
determine accurately. Once a crystal structure is decided on, the theoretical 
formalism is applied in a "theoretical experiment" to determine if the material has the 
arraignment of a fully filled valence and an empty valence band with the correct 
energy spacing. Such a theoretical experiment generally requires the use of a 
computer to compute the energy band structure to determine if for the selected 
composition the correct band configuration is present for the material to be a 
semiconductor. This must be verified by experiment. Even with the extensive 
knowledge of semiconducting properties such computations are not 100% accurate 
and thus theory cannot predict with 100% accuracy what material will be a 
semiconductor. Experimental confirmation is needed. Moreover, that a theoretical 
computation is a "theoretical experiment" in the conceptual sense not different than 
a physical experiment. The theorist starting out on a computation, just as an 
experimentalist staring out on an experiment, has an intuitive feeling that, but does 
not know whether, the material studied will in fact be a semiconductor. As stated 
above solid state scientists, both theoretical and experimental, are initially guided 
by physical intuition based on prior experimental and theoretical work. Experiment 
and theory complement each other, at times one is ahead of the other in an 
understanding of a problem, but which one is ahead changes over time as an 
understanding of the physical phenomena develops. 



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10. This description of the semiconductor situation is for illustration of the capability of 
theory in solid state science where there is a long history of both experimental and 
theoretical developments. 

11. Superconductivity was first discovered by H. Kammerlingh Onnes in 191 1 and the 
basic theory of superconductivity has been known many years before Applicants' 
discovery. For example, see the book "Theory of Superconductivity", M. von Laue, 
Academic Press, Inc., 1952 (See Attachment AD of the Third Supplementary 
Amendment dated March 1 , 2005). Prior to applicants* discovery superconductors 
were grouped into two types: Type I and Type II. 

12. The properties of Type I superconductors were modeled successfully by the efforts 
of John Bardeen, Leon Cooper, and Robert Schrieffer in what is commonly called 
the BCS theory. A key conceptual element in this theory is the pairing of electrons 
close to the Fermi level into Cooper pairs through interaction with the crystal lattice. 
This pairing results from a slight attraction between the electrons related to lattice 
vibrations; the coupling to the lattice is called a phonon interaction. Pairs of 
electrons can behave very differently from single electrons which are fermions and 
must obey the Pauli exclusion principle. The pairs of electrons act more like bosons 
which can condense into the same energy level. The electron pairs have a slightly 
lower energy and leave an energy gap above them on the order of .001 eV which 
inhibits the kind of collision interactions which lead to ordinary resistivity. For 
temperatures such that the thermal energy is less than the band gap, the material 
exhibits zero resistivity. 



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13. There are about thirty pure metals which exhibit zero resistivity at low temperatures 
and have the property of excluding magnetic fields from the interior of the 
superconductor (Meissner effect). They are called Type I superconductors. The 
superconductivity exists only below their critical temperatures and below a critical 
magnetic field strength. Type I and Type II superconductors (defined below) are well 
described by the BCS theory. 

14. Starting in 1930 with lead-bismuth alloys, a number of alloys were found which 
exhibited superconductivity; they are called Type ll_superconductors. They were 
found to have much higher critical fields and therefore could carry much higher 
current densities while remaining in the superconducting state. 

15. Ceramic materials are expected to be insulators -- certainly not superconductors, 
but that is just what Georg Bednorz and Alex Muller, the inventors of the patent 
application under examination, found when they studied the conductivity of a 
lanthanum-barium-copper oxide ceramic in 1986. Its critical temperature of 30 K 
was the highest which had been measured to date, but their discovery started a 
surge of activity which discovered materials exhibiting superconducting behavior in 
excess of 125 K. The variations on the ceramic materials first reported by Bednorz 
and Muller which have achieved the superconducting state at much higher 
temperatures are often just referred to as high temperature superconductors and 
form a class of their own. 

16. It is generally believed by theorists that Cooper pairs result in High Tc 
superconductivity. What is not understood is why the Cooper pairs remain together 
at the higher temperatures. A phonon is a vibration of the atoms about their 



equilibrium positiins in a crystal. As temperature increases these vibrations are 
more complex and the amplitude of these vibrations is larger. How the Cooper pairs 
interact with the phonons at the lower temperature, when these oscillations are less 
complex and of lower amplitude, is understood, this is the BCS theory. Present 
theory is not able to take into account the more complex and larger amplitude 
vibrations that occur at the higher temperatures. 

17. The article of Schuller referred to by the Examiner in paragraphs 4 ( 5 and 6 present 
essentially the same picture. 

18. In paragraph 4 above Schuller states "Of course, 'enlightened' empirical searches 
either guided by chemical and materials intuition or systematic searches using 
well-defined strategies may prove to be fruitful. It is interesting to note that while 
empirical searches in the oxides gave rise to many superconducting systems, similar 
(probable?) searches after the discovery of superconductivity in MgB 2 have not 
uncovered any new superconductors." Schuller is acknowledging that experimental 
researchers using intuition and systematic searches found the other known high Tc 
superconductors. Systematic searching is applying what is known to the 
experimental solid state scientist, that is, knowledge of how to fabricate compounds 
of the same class as the compounds in which Bednorz and Muller first discovered 
High Tc superconductivity. That a similar use of intuition and systematic searching 
"after the discovery of superconductivity in MgB 2 have not uncovered any new 
superconductors" is similar to a "theoretical experiment" that after the computation 
is done does not show that the material studied has the property being investigated, 
such as semiconductivity. The Schuller article was published in April 2002 



Page 9 of 16 



approximately one year after the expermental discovery of superconductivity in 
MgB 2 was reported on in March 2001 (Reference 8 of the Schuller article. See 
paragraph 19 of this affidavit.) This limited time of only one year is not sufficient to 
conclude that systematic searching "after the discovery of superconductivity in MgB 2 
" cannot uncover any new superconductors. Experimental investigations of this 
type are not more unpredictable than theoretical investigations since the 
experimental investigation has a known blue print or course of actions, just as does 
a "theoretical experiment." Just as an physical experimental investigation may lead 
to a null result a "theoretical experiment" may lead to a null result. In the field of 
High Tc superconductivity physical experiment is as predictable as a well developed 
theory since the experimental procedures are well known even though very 
complex. Experimental complexity does not mean the field of High Tc 
superconductivity is unpredictable since the methods of making these material are 
so well known. 

9. In paragraph 4 above Schuler refers the discovery of MgB 2 citing the paper of 
Nagamatsu et al. Nature Vol. 410, March 2001 in which the MgB 2 is reported to 
have a Tc of 39 K, a layered graphite crystal structure and made from powders 
using know ceramic processing methods. MgB 2 has a substantially simpler structure 
than the first samples reported on my Bednorz and Muller and therefore can be 
more readily investigated theoretically. There have been recent reports by Warren 
Pickett of the University of California at Davis and by Marvin L. Cohen and Steven 
Louie at the University of California at Berkeley describing progress in a theoretical 
understanding of the Tc of MgB 2 . It is not surprising that progress in the theory of 



Page 10 of 16 



superconductivity at 39 K has been made based on this relatively simple material. 

In fact a few months after the Schuller article was published in April 20002 Marvin 

.L Cohen and Steven Louie were authors on an article Choi, HJ; Roundy, D; Sun, 

H; Cohen, ML; Louie, SG "First-principles calculation of the superconducting 

transition in MgB 2 within the anisotropic Eliashberg formalism " PHYSICAL REVIEW 

B; JUL 1 , 2002; Vol. 66; p 2051 3. The following is from the Abstract of this article: 

" We present a study of the superconducting transition in MgB 2 using the 
ab initio pseudopotential density-functional method, a fully anisotropic 
Eliashberg equation, and a conventional estimate for/*\ Our study shows 
that the anisotropic Eliashberg equation, constructed with ab initio 
calculated momentum-dependent electron-phonon interaction and 
anharmonic phonon frequencies, yields an average electron-phonon 
coupling constant /v=0.61, a transition temperature Tc=39 K, and a boron 
isotope-effect exponent a(B)=0.32. The calculated values for Tc. A. and 
g(B) are in excellent agreement with transport, soecific-heat. and 
isotope-effect measurements, respectively . The individual values of the 
electron-phonon coupling A(k,k(')) on the various pieces of the Fermi 
surface, however, vary from 0.1 to 2.5. The observed Tc is a result of both 
the raising effect of anisotropy in the electron-phonon couplings and the 
lowering effect of anharmonicity in the relevant phonon modes/' 
(Emphasis added) 



Thus the statement of the Schuller article in paragraph 5 above "The theory of high 
temperature superconductivity has proven to be elusive to date" is not totally accurate 
since shortly after the publication of the Schuller article a theory of the Tc of MgB 2 was 
published by Marvin .L. Cohen and Steven Louie. 

A month later they expanded on this in the article Choi, HJ; Roundy, D; Sun, H; 

Cohen, ML; Louie, SG "The origin of the anomalous superconducting properties of 

MgB2 1 ' NATURE, AUG 15, 2002;Vol 418; pp 758-760. The following is from the 

Abstract of this article: 

" Magnesium diboride ... differs from ordinary metallic superconductors in 
several important ways, including the failure of conventional models ... to 
predict accurately its unusually high transition temperature, the effects of 
isotope substitution on the critical transition temperature, and its 

Page II of 16 



anomalous specific heat .... A detailed examination of the energy 
associated with the formation of charge-carrying pairs, referred to as the 
'superconducting energy gap', should clarify why MgB 2 is different. Some 
early experimental studies have indicated that MgB 2 has multiple gaps ... 
Here we report an ab initio calculation of the superconducting gaps in 
MgB 2 and their effects on measurable quantities. An important feature is 
that the electronic states dominated by orbitals in the boron plane couple 
strongly to specific phonon modes, making pair formation favourable. This 
explains the high transition temperature, the anomalous structure in the 
specific heat, and the existence of multiple gaps in this material. Our 
analysis suggests comparable or higher transition temperatures mav 
result in layered materials based on B, C and N with partially filled planar 
orbitals. (Emphasis added) 



Thus the statement in the Schuller article in paragraph 5 above 'Thus far, the existence 
of, a totally new superconductor has proven impossible to predict from first principles" 
was shown by the work of Marvin .L Cohen and Steven Louie published shortly after 
the article of Schuller also to be not totally accurate. 

20. In paragraph 5 above Schuller states "The theory of high temperature 
superconductivity has proven to be elusive to date. 11 As stated above although solid 
state theorist believe that Cooper Pairs are the mechanism of the High Tc 
superconductors, we do not as of yet completely understand how to create a 
mathematical formalism that takes into account the atomic vibrations at these higher 
temperatures to theoretically permit that electrons to remain paired. 

21. In paragraph 5 above Schuller further states "This is probably as much caused by 
the fact that in these complex materials it is very hard to establish uniquely even the 
experimental phenomenology." Even though these materials are complex that 
complexity does not have to be understood to make these material since 
experimental solid state scientists well understand the method of making these 
materials. The book "Copper Oxide Superconductors" by Charles P. Poole, Jr., 

Page 1 2 of 1 6 



Timir Datta and Horacio A. Farach, John Wiley & Sons (1998), [(See Attachment 23 
of The Fifth Supplemental Amendment dated March 1, 2004)] referred to herein as 
Poole 1988 states in Chapter 5 entitled "Preparation and Characterization of 
Samples" states at page 59: 

"Copper oxide superconductors with a purity sufficient to exhibit zero resistivity 
or to demonstrate levitation (Early) are not difficult to synthesize. We believe 
that this is at least partially responsible for the explosive worldwide growth in 
these materials". 

Poole et al. further states at page 61 : 

"In this section three methods of preparation will be described, namely, the solid 
state, the coprecipitation, and the sol-gei techniques (Hatfi). The widely used 
solid-state technique permits off-the-shelf chemicals to be directly calcined into 
superconductors, and it requires little familiarity with the subtle physicochemical 
process involved in the transformation of a mixture of compounds into a 
superconductor." 

22. It is thus clear that experimentalists knew, at the time of Benorz and Muller's 
duscovery, how to make the High Tc class of material and that to do so it was not 
necessary to precisely understand the experimental phenomenology. 

23. Charles Poole et al. published another book in 1995 entitled "Superconductivity" 
Academic Press which has a Chapter 7 on "Perovskite and Cuprate Crystallography 
Structures 1 '. (See Attachment Z of the First Supplementary Amendment dated 



Page 13 of 16 



March 1 , 2005). This book will be referred to as Poole 1995. At page 179 of Poole 
1995 states: 

"V. PEROVSKITE-TYPE SUPERCONDUCTING STRUCTURES 

In their first report on high-termperature superconductors Bednorz and Muller 
(1986) referred to their samples as "metallic, oxygen-deficient ... perovskite-like 
mixed-valence copper compounds." Subsequent work has confirmed that the 
new superconductors do indeed possess these characteristics." 

24. Thus Poole 1988 states that the high T c superconducting materials "are not difficult 
to synthesize'* and Poole 1995 states that "the new superconductors do indeed 
possess [the] characteristics" that Applicants' specification (the patent application 
currently under examination) describes these new superconductors to have. 

25. In paragraph 5 above Schuller states: 

"The theory of high temperature superconductivity has proven to be 
elusive to date. This is ....caused by the fact ... the evolution of many 
competing models, which seem to address only particular aspects of 
the problem. The Indian story of the blind men trying to characterize 
the main properties of an elephant by touching various parts of its 
body seems to be particularly relevant. It is not even clear whether 
there is a single theory of superconductivity or whether various 
mechanisms are possible. Thus it is impossible to summarize, or even 
give a complete general overview of all theories of superconductivity 
and because of this, this report will be very limited in its theoretical 
scope." 



Page 14 of 16 



The initial development of a theory always considers the problem from many 
different aspects until the best and most fruitful approach is realized. That at this 
time "It is not even clear whether there is a single theory of superconductivity or 
whether various mechanisms are possible" does not mean that experimental solid 
state scientists do not know how make this class of High Tc materials. As stated by 
Poole 1988 and Poole 1995 the experimental solid state scientist does know how to 
make this class of High Tc materials. 
26. The Examiner at page 5 of the Office Action cites page 7 of Schuller et al which 
states: 

"Thus far, the existence of, a totally new superconductor has proven 
impossible to predict from first principles. Therefore their discovery has 
been based largely on empirical approaches, intuition, and. even 
serendipity. This unpredictability is at the root of the excitement that 
the condensed matter community displays at the discovery of a new 
material that is superconducting at high temperature," 
A first principles theory that accurately predicts all physical properties of a material 
does not exist for as simple a material as water in its solid form as ice which may 
very well be the most extensively studied solid material. Most theories of solid state 
materials have phenomenological components that are approximations based on 
empirical evidence. As stated above solid state theoretical scientists have not as of 
yet formulated a theoretical formalism that accounts for electrons remaining paired 
as Cooper pairs at higher temperatures. But this does not prevent experimental 
scientists from fabricating materials that have structurally similar properties to the 



Page 15 of 16 



materials first discovered by Bednorz and Muller. This is particularly true since the 
basic theory of superconductivity were also well known at the time of their discovery 
and the methods of making these materials was well known at the time of their 
discovery. It was not necessary at the time of their discovery to have the specific 
theoretical mechanism worked out in detail in order to make samples to test for High 
Tc superconductivity. Even Schulter acknowledges "empirical searches in the 
oxides gave rise to many superconducting systems." 
27. 1 hereby declare that all statements made herein of my knowledge are true and that 
all statements made on information and belief are believed to be true; and further, 
that these statements were made with the knowledge that willful false statements 
and the like so made are punishable by fine or imprisonment, or both, under Section 
1001 of Title 18 of the United States Code and that such willful false statements 
made jeopardize the validity of the application or patent issued thereon. 





Dennis Newns 




day of April 



2006. 



DANIEL P. MORRIS 
NOTARY PUBLIC, State of New York 
No. 4688676 
Qualified in Westchester County 



Commission Expires March 16, 19 ^.. ■ 2^0 o 



Daniel P Morris 



Page 16 of 16 




IN THE UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE 

In re Patent Application of Date: February 2, 2006 

Applicants: Bednorzetal. Docket: YO987-074BZ 

Serial No.: 08/479,810 Group Art Unit: 1751 

Filed: June 7, 1995 Examiner: M, Kopec 

For: NEW SUPERCONDUCTIVE COMPOUNDS HAVING HIGH TRANSITION 
TEMPERATURE, METHODS FOR THEIR USE AND PREPARATION 

Commissioner for Patents 
P.O. Box 1450 
Alexandria, VA 22313-1450 

DECLARATION OF GEORG BEDNORZ 
UNDER 37 C.F.R. 1.132 

Sir: 

I, J.Georg Bednorz , declare that: 

1 . I am a coinventor of the referenced application. 

2. I received a M. S. Degree in Minerology/Crystallography (1976) from the 
University of Muenster in Germany and a Ph.D. degree in Natural Science (1982) 
from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zuerich - Switzerland. 



3. The USPTO response dated October 20, 2005 at page 7 cites the following web 
page http://www.nobelchannelxom/learningstudio/introduction.sps?id=295&eid=0 
Which states 

It is worth notipg that there is no accepted theory to explain the 
high-temperature behavior of this type of compound. The BCS theory, 
which has proven to be a useful tool in understanding 
lower-temperature materials, does not adequately explain how the 
Cooper pairs in the new compounds hold together at such high 
temperatures. When Bednorz was asked how high-temperature 
superconductivity works, he replied, "If I could tell you, many of the 
theorists working on the problem would be very surprised." 

4. This declaration is to explain the meaning of the statement attributed to me "If 
I could tell you, many of the theorists working on the problem would be very 
surprised" in response to a question from the interviewer about the mechanism of 
High Tc superconductivity. 



Page I of 2 



5. Following the discovery of the High Tc superconductivity in oxides by my 
coinventor Alex Mueller and me, the enormous research effort conducted by 
experimentalist specialized in different disciplines of solid state science created a 
very complex scenario. After our discovery new layered perovskite-like 
CuO-compounds with comparable and higher Tc were discovered of the type that are 
reported on in our original publication and that are described in our patent 
application. These new materials were made according to known principles of 
ceramic science that we described in our patent application. The rapid experimental 
developments were guided by previous work on materials having related the 
composition and structure. This enormous amount of new information collected over 
a short period of time made it hard to get a clear picture at that time of the 
experimental situation for both experimental specialists and theorists. In addition to 
showing superconductivity at temperatures higher than previously observed, this new 
information included novel and unusual properties, so far unexplained in the 
superconducting and normal state. I am an experimental scientist and in the field of 
solid state science, because of the complexities of theory and experiment, workers in 
the field are either experimentalist or theorist and typically not both. In this field, 
including the* field of high Tc superconductivity, theory utilizes complex mathematical 
procedures about which theorists are experts. Thus theorists working in the field 
would have been surprised if, I, as an experimentalist, had been the sole person in 
the field to gain a sufficient overview and experimental and theoretical insight, to 
propose a final theory of high temperature superconductivity at this early stage of 
research. ^* 

6. i hereby declare that all statements made herein of my knowledge are true 
and that all statements made on information and belief are believed to be true; and 
further, that these statements were made with the knowledge that willful false 
statements and the like so made are punishable by fine or imprisonment, or both, 
under Section 1001 of Title 18 of the United States Code and that such willful false 
statements made jeopardize the validity of the application or patent issued thereon. 




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