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WHAT IS CLAIMED IS: 

1 . A composition comprising a bacterial pilus to which an antigen or 
antigenic determinant has been attached by a covalent bond. 

2. The composition of claim 1, wherein said covalent bond is not a 
peptide bond. 

3. The composition of claim 1, wherein said bacterial pilus is a Type- 1 
pilus of Escherichia coli. 

4 The composition of claim 1, wherein pilin subunits of said Type-1 
pilus comprises the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 146 or a sequence 
having at least 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90 or 95% sequence identity to SEQ ID 
NO: 146. 

5. The composition of claim 1, wherein said bacterial pilus and said 
antigen or antigen determinant are attached via a non- naturally occurring 
attachment. 

6 . The composition of claim 1 , wherein said attachment comprises an 
organizer comprising at least one first attachment site, and wherein said organizer 
is connected to said pilus by at least one covalent bond. 

7. The composition of claim 6, wherein said organizer is a 
polypeptide or a residue thereof, and wherein said second attachment site is a 
polypeptide or a residue thereof. 

8. The composition of claim 6, wherein said first and/or a second 
attachment sites comprise: 



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(a) an antigen and an antibody or antibody fragment thereto; 

(b) biotin and avidin; 

(c) strepavidin and biotin, 

(d) a receptor and its ligand; 

(e) a ligand-binding protein and its ligand; 

(f) interacting leucine zipper polypeptides; 

(g) an amino group and a chemical group reactive thereto; 

(h) a carboxyl group and a chemical group reactive thereto; 

(i) a sulfhydryl group and a chemical group reactive thereto; 

(j) a combination thereof. 



9. The composition of claim 1, wherein said bacterial pilus and said 
antigen or antigentic derminant are attached by an attachment comprising 
interacting leucine zipper polypeptides. 

10. The composition of claim 5, wherein interacting leucine zipper 
polypeptides are JUN and/or FOS leucine zipper polypeptides. 

11. A composition comprising a bacterial pilin polypeptide to which 
an antigen or antigenic determinant has been attached by a covalent bond. 

12 The composition of claim 1 1, wherein said covalent bond is not a 
peptide bond. 

13. The composition of claim 11, wherein said polypeptide is from a 
Type-1 pilus of Escherichia coii. 



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14. The composition of claim 11, wherein said bacterial pilin 
polypeptide comprises the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 146 or a 
sequence having at least 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90 or 95% sequence identity to SEQ 
ID NO: 146. 

15. The composition of claim 11, wherein said bacterial pilin 
polypeptide and said antigen or antigenic determinant are attached by a non- 
naturally occurring attachment. 

16. The composition of claim 11, wherein said attachment comprises 
an organizer comprising at least one first attachment site, and wherein said 
organizer is connected to said pilus by at least one covalent bond. 

17 The composition of claim 16, wherein said organizer is a 
polypeptide or a residue thereof, and wherein said second attachment site is a 
polypeptide or a residue thereof. 

18. The composition of claim 11, wherein said first and/or a second 
attachment sites comprise- 



(a) 


an antigen and an antibody or antibody fragment thereto; 


(b) 


biotin and avidin; 


(c) 


strepavidin and biotin; 


(d) 


a receptor and its ligand; 


(e) 


a ligand-binding protein and its ligand; 


CD 


interacting leucine zipper polypeptides; 


(g) 


an amino group and a chemical group reactive thereto; 


(h) 


a carboxyl group and a chemical group reactive thereto, 


(i) 


a sulfhydryl group and a chemical group reactive thereto; 



or 

(j) a combination thereof 



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19. The composition of claim 15, wherein said attachment comprises 
interacting leucine zipper polypeptides. 

20. The composition of claim 13, wherein said interacting leucine 
zipper polypeptides are JUN and/or FOS leucine zipper polypeptides. 

21 A composition comprising: 

(a) a non-natural molecular scaffold comprising: 

(i) a core particle selected from the group consisting 

of: 

(1) a bacterial pilus or pilin protein; and 

(2) a recombinant form of a bacterial pilus or 

pilin protein; and 

(ii) an organizer comprising at least one first attachment 

site, 

wherein said organizer is connected to said core particle by at least one 
covalent bond; and 

(b) an antigen or antigenic determinant with at least one second 
attachment site, said second attachment site being selected from the group 
consisting of: 

(i) an attachment site not naturally occurring with said 
antigen or antigenic determinant; and 

(ii) an attachment site naturally occurring with said 
antigen or antigenic determinant, 

wherein said second attachment site is capable of association through at 
least one non-peptide bond to said first attachment site; and 

wherein said antigen or antigenic determinant and said scaffold interact 
through said association to form an ordered and repetitive antigen array 



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22. The composition of claim 21, wherein said organizer is a 
polypeptide or residue thereof; and wherein said second attachment site is a 
polypeptide or residue thereof. 

23 . The composition of claim 21 , wherein said first and/or said second 
attachment sites comprise' 

(a) an antigen and an antibody or antibody fragment thereto; 

(b) biotin and avidin; 

(c) strepavidin and biotin; 

(d) a receptor and its ligand; 

(e) a ligand-binding protein and its ligand; 

(f) interacting leucine zipper polypeptides; 

(g) an amino group and a chemical group reactive thereto; 

(h) a carboxyl group and a chemical group reactive thereto; 

(i) a sulfhydryl group and a chemical group reactive thereto; 

or 

(j) a combination thereof 

24. The composition of claim 2 1 , wherein said first and/or said second 
attachment sites comprise interacting leucine zipper polypeptides. 



25 The composition of claim 2 1 , wherein said bacterial pilus is a Type- 
1 pilus of Eschericia coli. 

26. The composition of claim 21, wherein pilus subunits of said type-1 
pilus comprise the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No. 146 or a sequence having 
at least 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90 or 95% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 146. 

27 The composition of claim 26, wherein said interacting leucine 
zipper polypeptides are the JUN and/or FOS leucine zipper polypeptides. 



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28. A composition comprising. 

(a) a non-natural molecular scaffold comprising- 

(i) a virus-like particle that is a dimer or a multimer of 
a polypeptide comprising amino acids 1-147 of SEQ ID NO: 158 as core particle 
or a sequence having at least 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90 or 95% sequence identity to 
SEQ ID NO: 158; and 

(ii) an organizer comprising at least one first attachment 

site, 

wherein said organizer is connected to said core particle by at least one 
covalent bond; and 

(b) an antigen or antigenic determinant with at least one second 
attachment site, said second attachment site being selected from the group 
consisting of: 

(i) an attachment site not naturally occurring with said 
antigen or antigenic determinant; and 

(ii) an attachment site naturally occurring with said 
antigen or antigenic determinant, 

wherein said second attachment site is capable of association through at 
least one non-peptide bond to said first attachment site; and 

wherein said antigen or antigenic determinant and said scaffold interact 
through said association to form an ordered and repetitive antigen array. 

29. The composition of claim 28, wherein said organizer is a 
polypeptide or residue thereof; and wherein said second attachment site is a 
polypeptide or residue thereof. 

30. The composition of claim 28, wherein said first and/or said second 
attachment sites comprise: 

(a) an antigen and an antibody or antibody fragment thereto; 

(b) biotin and avidin; 



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(c) strepavidin and biotin; 

(d) a receptor and its ligand; 

(e) a ligand-binding protein and its ligand; 

(f) interacting leucine zipper polypeptides; 

(g) an amino group and a chemical group reactive thereto; 
a carboxyl group and a chemical group reactive thereto; 



(h) 



(i) a sulfhydryl group and a chemical group reactive thereto; 
(j) a combination thereof. 



3 1 . The composition of claim 30, wherein said first attachment site is 
an amino group and said second attachment site is a sulfhydryl group. 

32. The composition of claim 30, wherein said virus-like particle and 
said antigen or antigenic determinant are attached by an attachment comprising 
interacting leucine zipper polypeptides. 

33. The composition of claim 32, wherein said interacting leucine 
zipper polypeptides are JUN and/or FOS FOS polypeptides. 

34. A composition comprising: 

(a) a non-natural molecular scaffold comprising: 

(i) Hepatitis B virus capsid protein comprising an 
amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of: 

( 1 ) the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO : 8 9, 

(2) the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO 90; 
(3 ) the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO : 93 ; 

(4) the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO : 9 8 ; 

(5) the amino acid sequence of SEQ IDNO:99; 



NO:105; 
NO: 106, 
NO:119; 
NO: 120; 
NO:123; 



NO 134, 
NO: 157; and 
NO: 158; and 



(6) the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO. 

(7) the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO 
104; 

(8) the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID 

(9) the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID 

(10) the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID 

(11) the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID 

(12) the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID 

(13) the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID 

(14) the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID 

(15) the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID 

(16) the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID 

(17) the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID 

(18) the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID 
(ii) an organizer comprising at least one first attachment 



site, 

wherein said organizer is connected to said core particle by at least one 
covalent bond; and 



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(b) an antigen or antigenic determinant with at least one second 
attachment site, said second attachment site being selected from the group 
consisting of: 

(i) an attachment site not naturally occurring with said 
antigen or antigenic determinant; and 

(ii) an attachment site naturally occurring with said 
antigen or antigenic determinant, 

wherein said second attachment site is capable of association through at 
least one non-peptide bond to said first attachment site; and 

wherein said antigen or antigenic determinant and said scaffold interact 
through said association to form an ordered and repetitive antigen array. 

35. The composition of claim 34, wherein said organizer is a 
polypeptide or residue thereof, 

wherein said second attachment site is a polypeptide or residue thereof, 

and 

wherein said first attachment site is a lysine residue and said second 
attachment site is a cysteine residue 

36. The composition of claim 34, wherein one or more cysteine 
residues of said Hepatitis B virus capsid protein have been either deleted or 
substituted with another amino acid residue. 

37. The composition of claim 34, wherein said first and/or said second 
attachment sites comprise: 

(a) an antigen and an antibody or antibody fragment thereto; 

(b) biotin and avidin; 

(c) strepavidin and biotin; 

(d) a receptor and its ligand; 

(e) a ligand-binding protein and its ligand; 



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(g) 
(h) 
(i) 



(0 



interacting leucine zipper polypeptides; 
an amino group and a chemical group reactive thereto; 
a carboxyl group and a chemical group reactive thereto; 
a sulfhydryl group and a chemical group reactive thereto; 



or 



0) 



a combination thereof. 



38. The composition of claim 36, wherein the cysteine residues 
corresponding to amino acids 48 and 107 in SEQ ID NO 134 have been either 
deleted or substituted with another amino acid residue. 

39. The composition of claim 37, wherein said Hepatitis B virus capsid 
protein and said antigen or antigenic determinant are attached by an attachment 
comprising interacting leucine zipper polypeptides. 

40. The composition of claim 39, wherein said interacting leucine 
zipper polypeptides are FOS and/or JUN polypeptides. 

41. The composition of any one of claims 28, 34, 35, 36 and 38, 
wherein said antigen is selected from the group consisting of. 



(a) 



an antigen suited to induce an immune response against 



bacteria, 



(b) 



an antigen suited to induce an immune response against 



viruses, 



an antigen suited to induce an immune response against 



parasites, 



(d) 



an antigen suited to induce an immune response against 



cancer cells, 



(e) 



an antigen suited to induce an immune response against 



allergens, 



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(f) an antigen suited to induce an immune response in a farm 

animals, and 

(g) a protein suited to induce an immune response in a pet. 

42. The composition of claim 41, wherein the antigen is a protein, 
polypeptide, or a fragment thereof. 

43. The composition of claim 41, wherein said antigen induces an 
immune response against one or more allergens. 



The composition of claim 41, wherein said antigen is: 


(a) 


a recombinant protein of HIV, 


(b) 


a recombinant protein of Influenza virus, 


(c) 


a recombinant protein of Hepatitis C virus, 


(d) 


a recombinant protein of Toxoplasma, 


(e) 


a recombinant protein of Plasmodium falciparum, 


(f) 


a recombinant protein of Plasmodium vivax, 


(g) 


a recombinant protein of Plasmodium ovale, 


GO 


a recombinant protein of Plasmodium malariae, 


(i) 


a recombinant protein of breast cancer cells, 


0) 


a recombinant protein of kidney cancer cells, 


(k) 


a recombinant protein of prostate cancer cells, 


0) 


a recombinant protein of skin cancer cells, 


(m) 


a recombinant protein of brain cancer cells, 


(n) 


a recombinant protein of leukemia cells, 


(o) 


a recombinant profiling, 


(P) 


a recombinant protein of bee sting allergy, 


(q) 


a recombinant protein of nut allergy, 


(r) 


a recombinant protein of food allergies, 


(s) 


a recombinant protein of asthma, or 



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(t) a recombinant protein of Chlamydia. 

45. The composition of any one of claims 1,11 and 21, wherein said 
antigen is selected from the group consisting of: 

(a) an antigen suited to induce an immune response against 

bacteria, 

(b) an antigen suited to induce an immune response against 

viruses, 

(c) an antigen suited to induce an immune response against 

parasites, 

(d) an antigen suited to induce an immune response against 

cancer cells, 

(e) an antigen suited to induce an immune response in a farm 

animals, and 

(f) an antigen suited to induce an immune response in a pet, 

and 

(g) any other antigen involved in a pathophysiological context. 

46. The composition of claim 45, wherein the antigen is a protein, a 
polypeptide, or a fragment thereof. 

47. The composition of any one of claims 1, 11 or 21, wherein said 
antigen is' 



(a) 


a recombinant 


protein 


(b) 


a recombinant 


protein 


(c) 


a recombinant 


protein 


(d) 


a recombinant 


protein 


(e) 


a recombinant 


protein 


(f) 


a recombinant 


protein 


(g) 


a recombinant 


protein 



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(h) 


a recombinant protein of Plasmodium malariae, 


(i) 


a recombinant protein of breast cancer cells, 


(j) 


a recombinant protein of kidney cancer cells, 


(k) 


a recombinant protein of prostate cancer cells, 


0) 


a recombinant protein of skin cancer cells, 


(m) 


a recombinant protein of brain cancer cells, 


(n) 


a recombinant protein of leukemia cells, 


(o) 


a recombinant profiling, 


(P) 


a recombinant protein of Chlamydia 



48. A pharmaceutical compo sition comprising the composition of any 
one of claims 1, 11, 21, 28, 34, 35, 36, 38, 41 or 44, and a pharmaceutical^ 
acceptable carrier. 

49. A vaccine composition comprising the composition of any one of 
claims 1, 11, 21, 28, 34, 35, 36, 38, 41 or 44. 

50. The vaccine composition of claim 49, further comprising at least 
one adjuvant. 

51. A method of immunizing, comprising administering to a subject the 
vaccine composition of claim 49 or 50. 

52. The method of claim 51, wherein said administering produces an 
immune response. 

53. The method of claim 51, wherein said administering produces a 
humoral immune response 



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54. The method of claim 51, wherein said administering produces a 
cellular immune response. 

55. The method of claim 51, wherein said administering produces a 
humoral immune response and a cellular immune response. 

56 The method of claim 51, wherein said administering produces a 
protective immune response 

57. A method of making the composition of claim 1, comprising 
combining said pilus and said antigen or antigenic determinant, wherein said pilus 
and said antigen or antigenic determinant interact to form an antigen array. 

58. The method of claim 57, wherein said antigen array is ordered 
and/or repetitive 

59 A method of making the composition of claim 11, comprising 
combining said pilin polypeptide and said antigen or antigenic determinant, 
wherein said pilin polypeptide and said antigen or antigenic determinant interact 
to form an antigen array. 

60 The method of claim 59, wherein said antigen array is ordered 
and/or repetitive. 

61 . A method of making the composition of claim 21, 28, 34, 35, 36 
or 38, comprising combining said non-natural molecular scaffold and said antigen 
or antigenic determinant, wherein said non-natural molecular scaffold and said 
antigen or antigenic determinant interact to form an antigen array. 



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62. The method of claim 61, wherein said antigen array is ordered 
and/or repetitive. 



63. A composition comprising: 

(a) a non-natural molecular scaffold comprising: 

(i) a core particle selected from the group consisting 

of: 

(1) a bacterial pilus; and 

(2) a recombinant form of a bacterial pilus or 

pilin protein; and 

(ii) an organizer comprising at least one first attachment 

site, 

wherein said organizer is connected to said core particle by at least one 
covalent bond; and 



(b) an antigen or antigenic determinant with at least one second 
attachment site, said second attachment site being selected from the group 
consisting of: 

(i) an attachment site not naturally occurring with said 
antigen or antigenic determinant; and 

(ii) an attachment site naturally occurring with said 
antigen or antigenic determinant, 

wherein said second attachment site is capable of association through at 
least one non-peptide bond to said first attachment site; 

wherein said antigen or antigenic determinant and said scaffold interact 
through said association to form an ordered and repetitive antigen array, and 

wherein said antigen or antigenic determinant is selected from the group 
consisting of an influenza M2 peptide, the GRA2 polypeptide, the DP 178c 
peptide, the tumor necrosis factor polypeptide, a tumor necrosis factor peptide, 
the B2 peptide, the D2 peptide, and the Ap peptide. 



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64. The composition of claim 63, wherein said antigen or antigenic 
determinant is the influenza M2 peptide or variants thereof. 

65. The composition of claim 63, wherein said antigen or antigenic 
determinant is the GRA2 polypeptide. 

66. The composition of claim 63, wherein said antigen or antigenic 
determinant is the DP 178c peptide. 

67. The composition of claim 63, wherein said antigen or antigenic 
determinant is the tumor necrosis factor polypeptide. 

68. The composition of claim 63, wherein said antigen or antigenic 
determinant is a tumor necrosis factor peptide. 

69. The composition of claim 63, wherein said antigen or antigenic 
determinant is the B2 peptide. 

70. The composition of claim 63, wherein said antigen or antigenic 
determinant is the D2 peptide. 

71 The composition of claim 63, wherein said antigen or antigenic 
determinant is the AP peptide. 

72. The composition of claim 63, wherein said organizer is a 
polypeptide or residue thereof; and wherein said second attachment site is a 
polypeptide or residue thereof 

73. The compo sition of claim 63 , wherein said first and/or said second 
attachment sites comprise: 



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(a) an antigen and an antibody or antibody fragment thereto; 

(b) biotin and avidin; 

(c) strepavidin and biotin; 

(d) a receptor and its ligand, 

(e) a ligand-binding protein and its ligand; 

(f) interacting leucine zipper polypeptides; 

(g) an amino group and a chemical group reactive thereto; 

(h) a carboxyl group and a chemical group reactive thereto; 

(i) a sulfhydryl group and a chemical group reactive thereto; 

(j) a combination thereof. 



74. The composition of claim 63, wherein said first and/or said second 
attachment sites comprise interacting leucine zipper polypeptides. 

75 . The composition of claim 63, wherein said bacterial pilus is a Type- 
1 pilus of Eschericia coli. 

76. The composition of claim 63, wherein pilus subunits of said type- 1 
pilus comprise the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No 146 or a sequence having 
at least 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90 or 95% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 146. 

77. The composition of claim 63, wherein said interacting leucine 
zipper polypeptides are the JUN and/or FOS leucine zipper polypeptides 

78. A vaccine composition comprising the composition of claim 63 or 
claim 43 



79. A method of immunizing, comprising administering to a subject the 
vaccine composition of claim 49 or 50. 



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80. The method of claim 79, wherein said administering produces an 
immune response. 

81. A method of making the composition of claim 63, comprising 
combining said non-natural molecular scaffold and said antigen or antigenic 
determinant, wherein said non-natural molecular scaffold and said antigen or 
antigenic determinant interact to form an antigen array. 

82. The method of claim 81, wherein said antigen array is ordered 
and/or repetitive. 

83. A method of immunizing, comprising administering the 
composition of any one of claims 1, 1 1, 21, 49 or 50 to a subject, wherein for 
inducing a Th2 response, wherein said administering produces a Th2 response that 
is specific for said antigen or antigenic determinant. 

84. The method of claim 83, wherein antibodies specific for said 
antigen or antigenic determinant of a subtype corresponding to the Th2 subtype 
are induced in the subject. 

85. The method of claim 83, wherein the subject does not generate a 
Thl response that is specific for said pilus, said pilin polypeptide, or said antigen 
or antigenic determinant.