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(19) 



J 



Europaisches Patentamt 
European Patent Office 
Office europeen des brevets 



(12) 



(n) EP 0 825 788 A2 

EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION 



(43) Date of publication: 

25.02.1998 Bulletin 1998/09 

(21) Application number: 97306279.7 

(22) Date of filing: 19.08.1997 



(51) mtci * H04Q7/14, H04Q 7/20, 
H04M 3/50 



(84) Designated Contracting States: 


• Yat Chung Woo, Thomas 


AT BE CH DE DK ES Fl FR GB GR IE IT LI LU MC 


Red Bank, New Jersey 07701 (US) 


NL PT SE 


• Sabnani, Kumar Krishan 




Westf ield, New Jersey 07090 (US) 


(30) Priority: 22.08.1996 US 700914 






(74) Representative: 


(71) Applicant: LUCENT TECHNOLOGIES INC. 


Buckley, Christopher Simon Thirsk et al 


Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974-0636 (US) 


Lucent Technologies (UK) Ltd, 




5 Mornlngton Road 


(72) Inventors: 


Woodford Green, Essex IG8 0TU (GB) 


• La Porta, Thomas F. 




Thornwood, New York 10594 (US) 





(54) Two-way wireless messaging system with flexible messaging 



(57) A system and method for two-way wireless 
messaging is disclosed. A plurality of messages are 
stored within a user agent of the two-way messaging 
network. The messages correspond to those selected 
by a subscriber of a two-way messaging service. The 
messages are encoded and include control information. 
An originating message transfer code is transmitted 
from the two-way messaging device of the subscriber to 
the two-way messaging network. The originating mes- 
sage transfer code includes, among other things a mes- 



sage number and a modifier that specifies customiza- 
tions that are to be applied to a message. The originating 
message code is then expanded within the user agent, 
and the expanded message is forwarded to desired des- 
tinations based on the content of the originating mes- 
sage transfer code. In one aspect of the present inven- 
tion, the message can be encoded with at least one con- 
trol tag and in another aspect of the invention, the mes- 
sage can be encoded with paired control tags that de- 
limit the beginning and end portions of a message to 
which control should be applied. 



FIG. 1 




PriMed by Joove. 75001 PARIS (FR) 



BNSDOCID: «EP_ .0825788A2_L> 



1 EP 0 825 788 A2 2 



Description 

This patent application is related to commonly as- 
signed, copending patent applications entitled Two- Way 
Wireless Messaging System and Two-Way Wireless s 
Messaging System Having User Agent, both filed July 
24, 1996 by the same inventors. 

Field of the Invention 

This invention relates to a two-way wireless mes- 
saging system having flexible messaging capability. 

Background of the Invention 

Wireless messaging, such as wireless paging, is a 
popular consumer wireless service and will grow be- 
cause of the availability of new narrowband Personal 
Communication Services (PCS) frequencies. Wireless 
communication and messaging provides the foundation 
for many different types of services. One popular service 
is one-way paging, which is now very successful. Its 
popularity has been contributed by numerous factors, 
including: 

(1) the small form factor of the pager device, making 
it portable: 

(2) the low cost of the paging service: 

(3) easy maintenance of the pager device: and 

(4) ease of use for both message senders and re- 
ceivers. 

One-way paging, however, has no reply capability. 
A subscriber to a one-way paging service must rely on 
an alternate method to respond to any messages that 
are received. For example, after receiving a page from 
the one-way paging service, a subscriber often has to 
find a telephone and make a call to respond to the mes- 
sage. 

Recently, some ideas have been proposed to de- 
sign a "two-way paging system" while preserving the 
benefits of one-way paging, i.e.. the small paging de- 
vice, low cost service, easy maintenance and ease of 
use. These two-way paging systems include return 
channels, but they are used only for fixed and limited 
replies. 

In commonly assigned, copending patent applica- 
tions entitled Two-Way Wireless Messaging System and 
Two-Way Wireless Messaging System Having User 
Agent, both filed July 24, 1996 and incorporated herein 
by reference in their entirety, the disadvantages of prior 
art wireless messaging systems are overcome through 
the use of a messaging network and two-way wireless 
messaging device which originates, receives and re- 
plies to messages having dynamic message compo- 
nents to and from the messaging network. It would be 
advantageous if the system would be adaptable for var- 
ious ways of modifying messages while maintaining lim- 



ited bandwidth. 

Summary of the Invention 

A two-way wireless messaging system in accord- 
ance with the present invention now allows flexible mes- 
saging that customizes various message components. 
These customizations include rich text attributes for de- 
lineating a portion of alphanumeric text that should be 
emphasized, optional components, user-defined selec- 
tions and preselections and variables. In one aspect of 
the present invention, a two-way wireless messaging 
device originates, receives and replies to messages 
having plain alphanumeric text. A message can include 
rich text attributes for delineating a portion of the alpha- 
numeric text that should be emphasized. The rich text 
attributes include attributes tor highlighting a portion of 
the alphanumeric text. 

In another aspect of the present invention, the two- 
way messaging device can originate, receive and reply 
to the messages having optional components for allow- 
ing a user of the messaging device to include and ex- 
clude parts of a message. Additionally, user-defined se- 
lections allow a subscriber of the two-way messaging 
system to specify a list of items of which a selection can 
be made. Also, messages can be customized with pre- 
defined selections having variables. 

The messages stored within a user agent are en- 
coded and include control information that is responsive 
to message transfer codes received from a two-way 
messaging device. The messages are encoded within 
a user agent with at least one control tag. and often with 
paired control tags delimiting the beginning and end of 
that part of a portion of a message where control should 
be applied. The originating message code that is for- 
warded from a two-way messaging device includes an 
encoded transfer code. This encoded transfer code typ- 
ically includes a message number and modifier that 
specifies customizations that are applied to the mes- 
sage. 

The foregoing disclosure also discusses a two-way 
wireless messaging system that can be used also in a 
public switch telephone network or similar network. 

Limitations of existing wireless paging systems are 
resolved and technical advances are achieved in the 
present invention by a method and system for transmit- 
ting messages on a wireless messaging network with a 
plurality of user agents and other intelligent servers such 
as transaction servers, distribution servers and batch 
servers. The benefits of the present invention are set 
forth below. 

In accordance with one aspect of the present inven- 
tion, a wireless messaging device can originate new 
messages or reply to previously received messages 
along a first communication channel (uplink), and re- 
ceive messages along a second communication chan- 
nel (downlink). Each such message is coded in a pre- 
determined manner and includes, among other things. 



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a message number that uniquely identifies a message 
stored both locally at the device and at the user agent, 
a modifier representing the customization to be applied 
to the message, and personalized address aliases. 

A user agent inside the two-way messaging net- 5 
work, corresponding to a subscriber of a two-way mes- 
sage system, stores among other things, a plurality of 
messages and destination addresses. When a user 
agent receives a coded message from its associated 
subscriber, it expands the message back to the desired 
full message and destinations by selecting from the 
stored messages and destination addresses according 
to the code. 

The message that can be transmitted is highly flex- 
ible. In addition to fixed pre-canned components, it can 
include dynamic components such as embedded re- 
plies, choices, predetmed variables, etc. As an exam- 
ple, consider a stock trading application. A subscriber is 
notified via two-way messaging when a stock he or she 
is interested in has reached a particular value. The no- 
tification message can embed a reply with choices to 
buy or sell and predefined variables for entering the 
number of shares and share price. 

The dynamic components allow customization of 
messages by message senders and recipients, thus 
greatly increasing the practical applicability of the sys- 
tem. The particular values of the dynamic components 
are encoded in the message modifier and are recov- 
ered and applied by the user agent. 

The coded message is much shorter than the cor- 
responding full-text message, thus allowing reduced 
bandwidth usage in a wireless communication environ- 
ment. Together with user agents, the use of coded mes- 
sage is especially suited for communication scenarios 
in which the bandwidth in the uplink and downlink direc- 
tions are asymmetric, or the end device is limited by ei- 
ther processing power, memory storage, or battery ca- 
pacity. 

The two-way messaging system of the present in- 
vention also can support multicasting. A message can 
be forwarded to a plurality of destinations for multiple 
responses. The address alias contained in a coded 
message can correspond to a single address, a group 
address or any combination of the two. With multicast, 
the number of (uplink and downlink) messages required 
for the transmission of a message is minimized. 

In another aspect of the present invention, the sys- 
tem can track and answer queries about transactions. 
A transaction is a single or a series of request-response 
interactions between a message sender and recipient 
(s). A transaction is most useful for communication sce- 
narios in which selective responses are desired. For ex- 
ample, a transaction can specify that a response arriving 
beyond a certain time limit will not be needed and should 
be discarded by the system. When combined with mul- 
ticast, a transaction can specify the desired semantics 
of the reply. For example, a transaction with ALL seman- 
tics specifies that responses from all recipients are de- 



4 

sired, while a transaction with OR semantics specifies 
that a response from any of the recipients will close the 
transaction. Once a transaction is closed additional re- 
sponses will be discarded by the system. 

In accordance with another aspect of the present 
invention, the system functionalities are distributed 
among a collection of user agents and intelligent serv- 
ers. The distributed nature enhances the modularity of 
the system and makes possible the incremental deploy- 
ment of the system. For example, a provider desiring 
only the functionalities of user agents but not those of 
the transaction servers need to only deploy the user 
agents. 

The method and system of the present invention 
can be implemented on top of any two-way messaging 
transport. This includes dedicated paging networks (e. 
g., narrowband PCS), cellular short messaging service 
(e.g., IS-95, IS-136 and GSM), or wireless data trans- 
port (e.g., ARDIS). 

The servers can be implemented on specialized 
network servers or intermediate switches. 

The messaging device can be a dedicated paging 
device similar to existing alphanumeric pagers, a unit 
that attaches to a computing device (e.g.. PDAs, lap- 
tops), or integrated as part of a communication device 
(e.g., cellular/PCS phones) or a computing device (e.g., 
PDAs, laptops). 

Brief Description of the Drawings 

The foregoing features and advantages of the 
present invention can be appreciated more fully from the 
following description, with references to the accompa- 
nying drawings in which: 

Figure 1 is a block schematic diagram of a system 
and method of the two-way wireless messaging system 
of the present invention showing its use in association 
with a public switched telephone network, data network, 
cellular network and a two-way messaging device. 

Figure 2 is another schematic diagram of the two- 
way wireless messaging system of the present inven- 
tion. 

Figure 3 is a more detailed view of the two-way wire- 
less messaging system showing various user agents, 
the messaging network, and examples of messages 
that can be forwarded among the different subscribers. 

Figure 4 is a schematic view showing the network 
architecture of the two-way wireless messaging system 
of the present invention. 

Figure 5 shows an example of the control architec- 
ture for the two-way wireless messaging system of the 
present invention. 

Figure 6 is a block diagram showing an example of 
the protocol architecture used between the messaging 
device and the batch server of the two-way wireless 
messaging system of the present invention. 

Figure 7 is a detailed flow chart showing an example 
of the protocol flow for new message delivery used with 



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the two-way wireless messaging system of the present 
invention. 

Figure 8 is a detailed flow diagram showing an ex- 
ample of the reply delivery in the two-way wireless mes- 
saging system of the present invention. 

Figure 9 is a schematic diagram of a two-way mes- 
saging device in the form of a two-way pager that can 
be used with the two-way wireless messaging system 
of the present invention. 

Figure 10 is a schematic diagram of an example of 
the batch server structure that can be used with the two- 
way wireless messaging system of the present inven- 
tion. 

Figure 11 is a schematic diagram showing an ex- 
ample of the functional parts of the user agent that can 
be used with the two-way wireless messaging system 
of the present invention. 

Figure 12 is a schematic diagram showing an ex- 
ample of the various functions of the transaction server 
that can be used with the two-way wireless messaging 
system of the present invention. 

Figure 12a depicts the open and closed states of 
the conversation manager. 

Figure 12b depicts the state transition diagram for 
the recipient states of the transaction server. 

Figure 13 shows a schematic illustration of a two- 
way messaging device where a simulated keyboard is 
displayed for entering a message. 

Figure 14 shows a simplified block diagram of var- 
ious components of the two-way message cellular sys- 
tem of the present invention. 

Figure 1 5a shows the basic message flow in a con- 
ventional system upon registration of a mobile messag- 
ing entity. 

Figure 15b shows a flow diagram for message de- 
livery to a mobile messaging entity. 

Figure 16 shows another simple block diagram of a 
two-way cellular messaging system having a user agent 
and transaction and distribution servers. 

Figure 17a shows an example of the basic message 
flow in the system of the present invention. 

Figure 1 7b shows an example of the basic message 
flow tor message delivery to a mobile messaging entity. 

Detailed Description of the Invention 

Referring to Figure 1, there is shown at 10 a two- 
way wireless messaging system of the present inven- 
tion, which allows an originating message code from a 
two-way messaging device 11 to be received in a user 
agent 12 of a two-way messaging network 14. The two- 
way messaging device 11 is illustrated throughout many 
of the drawings as a dedicated two-way pager. The two- 
way messaging device can also be an attachment to a 
communication device, or even integrated as part of a 
communication or computing device. A message can be 
delivered through a public switched telephone network 
16 that includes a network access switch 18 connected 



to a telephone 22 by a first communication coupling 20 
through a twisted pair line, co-axial cable, fiberoptic line, 
wireless link or any other type of communication cou- 
pling. The messaging network 1 4 can also be connected 
5 to a cellular network 24 or data network 26 for transport- 
ing E-mail messages 27 to a desired destination such 
as a personal computer at a desired time. Additionally, 
messages could be forwarded to a destination through 
the world-wide web 27a. 

In accordance with the present invention, a second 
communication coupling 28 connects the network ac- 
cess switch 1 8 to a Network Control Point (NCP) 30 that 
is coupled to a database 32 via a third communication 
coupling 36. The network 16 is coupled to the messag- 
ing network 14 via a fourth communication coupling 38. 
The communication coupling between the two-way 
messaging device 11 and two-way messaging network 
14 is an air interlace. The messaging network 14 also 
may have at least one user agent 12 corresponding to 
a subscriber 40 (Figure 2) of the two-way wireless mes- 
saging service. The subscriber 40 receives a message 
from the messaging network 14 along a first communi- 
cation channel 42. These messages can include trans- 
mitted messages or replies. Messages forwarded by the 
two-way messaging device 11 to the messaging net- 
work 14 are forwarded along a communication return 
channel 43. In the case in which messages and ad- 
dresses of recipients are coded, messages received by 
the two-way messaging network 14 are forwarded to a 
user agent 12. 

In accordance with the present invention, the user 
agent 12 includes a plurality of stored messages. A pre- 
determined message is forwarded to a desired destina- 
tion such as a data network 26, public switched tele- 
phone network 16 or a cellular network 24 in response 
to an originating message code that is received from a 
two-way messaging device 11 of the subscriber 40 
along the second communication return channel 43. 
This originating message code is expanded by the user 
agent 12 so that the downlink message to the desired 
destination can include full information. Also, the select- 
ed destination could be a second two-way messaging 
device 44 (Figure 1 ). 

As shown in Figures 1 and 2, the services which 
can use the two-way wireless messaging system 10 
vary, and can include services for sending messages to 
1) a telephone 22, 2) a computer as E-Mail 27, and an- 
other second messaging device, such as a pager 44. 
The second communication return channel 43 used by 
the two-way messaging device 11 and any other device 
not only carries new messages or replies, but also en- 
hances the system 10 capabilities. It can be used for 
acknowledgements, thus allowing reliable messaging, 
and for signaling such as registration or location infor- 
mation, if available. Because the message expands in 
the user agent 12, the channel bandwidth in the forward 
and reverse directions differs significantly, as much as 
a ratio of 100 (or more) to 1 . This asymmetry also can 



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exist in terms of processing power, memory storage and 
battery capacity between the messaging device 11 and 
the network 14. 

For purposes of discussion, a short two-way mes- 
saging scenario is first described, followed by a more 
detailed description of various messaging system ele- 
ments and their functions. 

Referring now to Figure 3, there is illustrated the 
two-way wireless messaging system having four user 
agents for Thomas, Dan, Mary and Paul referred re- 
spectively as UAT 50, UAD 52, UAM 54 and UAP 56. 

Thomas can originate through his pager 50a a mes- 
sage to his lunch group members, Dan, Mary and Paul, 
and inquire about lunch choices. The message is deliv- 
ered via the two-way wireless messaging network 14 
along message delivery channels 57a (air interface), 
57b (Data network interlace). 57c (telephone network 
interface) as a page to a two-way messaging device in 
the form of a pager 58 belonging to Dan, an electronic 
mail to a computer 60 belonging to Mary and a phone 
call to telephone 62 belonging to Paul respectively. The 
reply from each recipient is collected by the two-way 
messaging network 14 along a respective message re- 
turn communication channel 64a, b, c and forwarded 
back to Thomas via the first communication channel 42 
as a page. The type of message return communication 
channel 64a, b, c and message delivery channels 57a, 
b. c vary depending on the device, such as a pager 58, 
computer 60 or phone 62. 

In accordance with the present invention, the uplink 
messages are kept short because of the use of the user 
agents 50-56. The user agents mirror the state and con- 
text (e.g., any address and message tables in the user 
agent) of their messaging devices 11 (Figure 1), 50a, 
58. In the above example, the uplink message contains 
a short group identifier and a message number. These 
are used by the user agents as indices to respective da- 
ta tables in message expansion. For message reply, the 
uplink message contains only a reply code. This is ex- 
panded back to the full reply inside the network. By using 
group addressing, Thomas sends only one message 
uplink and the network automatically "copies" the mes- 
sage to the multiple recipients at the predetermined des- 
tinations. 

Dan, Mary and Paul each receive the message in a 
different format, which could have been proposed by 
Thomas during message origination or specified as part 
of the filtering/forwarding criteria of the respective user 
agents of the recipients. 

The criteria for filtering/forwarding can be very gen- 
eral. It could be based on the message originator, time 
of day, or any other commonly available forwarding op- 
tions. Messages can also be formed in a variety of tech- 
niques. For example, Thomas can send the message 
as a pre-canned message with an embedded response. 
Thus, the message would include not only the text of the 
request, but would also include a list of responses to be 
selected and returned by the recipient. 



Any user agent, e.g. . those depicted as items 50-56 
typically maintains, among other things, an identical 
copy of the address and message tables as the mes- 
saging devices. The address and message information 
5 stored in the messaging device and respective user 
agent should always be consistent with each other. Typ- 
ically, to change these address and message tables, a 
subscriber needs to change one copy first and the sys- 
tem will propagate the changes to the other. 

There are various methods a subscriber to the mes- 
saging system can use to enter new messages or ad- 
dresses. There are chiefly two main categories, i.e., 
through the messaging device itself, or through the mes- 
saging system. 

For example, as illustrated in Figure 13, the mes- 
saging device 11, e.g., a two-way pager can include a 
simulated keyboard 69 displayed on the LCD screen 88. 
A subscriber uses the pager buttons 84 to navigate 
around the simulated keyboard and select characters to 
compose a message. This method is tedious and appli- 
cable more to short, fixed messages. This method is not 
practical for making flexible messages that contain dy- 
namic components. 

A subscriber can also elect to add an incoming mes- 
sage sent by others to its own set of messages. For ex- 
ample, the subscriber will receive an incoming message 
from another individual. The subscriber may like that 
particular message and through an appropriate selec- 
tion of burtons on the messaging device 11, add that 
message to his or her own message list. 

In still another method, many existing messaging 
devices such as pagers, have an input/output (i/o) port. 
This port could be used to connect to a laptop or a Per- 
sonal Digital Assistant. A subscriber uses the laptop or 
PDA to edit messages and download them to the mes- 
saging device 11 via the input/output port. An appropri- 
ate protocol could be used. 

The other major category is to use the messaging 
system for updating any new messages and addresses 
to the subscriber user agent. For example, new mes- 
sages and addresses are directed to the user agent. 
This is one way to customize a subscriber's message 
and address set. The copy in the subscriber user agent 
is updated such as by using a dial-up program, an inter- 
net connection, a world-wide web page or even an op- 
erator to change the messages and addresses directly 
via wireline. 

In still another method, the subscriber signs up for 
a new third-party service. When the subscriber initially 
signs for that service, the subscriber is given a set of 
messages and addresses that are used to access the 
service. These messages and addresses are then load- 
ed directly into the subscriber's user agent by the serv- 
ice provider. 

In the following, a more detailed description of a us- 
er agent 12 (Figure 1 ) and its function relative to the two- 
way wireless messaging system 10 (Figure 1) is set 
forth. 



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In accordance with the present invention, each sub- 
scriber of the two-way wireless messaging system 10 is 
represented by a user agent- 12 that resides inside the 
messaging network 1 4. The user agent 1 2 expands cod- 
ed originating messages received from a two-way mes- 
saging device and provides pointers to the last known 
location of the two-way messaging device 11. It also 
maintains the status of the two-way messaging device 
1 1 , i. e. , if it is on-line, and a profile of the subscriber. The 
user agent 12 also can provide some value-added func- 
tions such as message screening and selective mes- 
sage forwarding. The user agent 12 may also be cus- 
tomized by its subscriber 40. Thus, the user agent 12 
acts as a personal server for the subscriber 40. 

The user agent 1 2 also provides other benefits. Be- 
cause messages are expanded inside the messaging 
network 14. the bandwidth on the uplink can be reduced, 
allowing bandwidth asymmetry on the wireless link. By 
performing intelligent processing in the network instead 
of at the end device 11, the enhanced power of the nel- 
work is utilized. The user agent 12 manages mobility by 
tracking the location of the subscriber. Finally the user 
agent 12 serves as a proxy for the two-way messaging 
device 11 when it is out of range : allowing the system 
10 to account for disconnected users. 

As shown in Figure 11, the user agent 12 can have 
respective fixed and extensible parts 70, 72. The fixed 
part 70 implements basic messaging functions that are 
generic for all user agents. It can mimic the context of a 
messaging device, (e.g., the address table and the mes- 
sage table) and maintains information about ongoing 
message delivery. The extensible part 72 includes user 
agent programs 72a. 72b, it can be programmed to per- 
form specific tasks as desired by the subscriber 40 (Fig- 
ure 1), e.g., maintaining a personal calendar retrieving 
specific information from a world wide web page 27a, a 
database 73, where data can be input 73a, or other sim- 
ilar functions. The software 74, is associated with the 
user agent program to provide run time support for the 
system. 

These basic functions include registration/deregis- 
tration, message delivery and message status query. 

In registration the current location of the two-way 
messaging device is updated to the system as shown in 
Figure 4. Registration can be explicit or implicit. Explicit 
registration occurs when a messaging device is pow- 
ered-up or when it moves into a new cluster 78 (Figure 
4). Implicit registration occurs when a message is re- 
ceived or delivered to a messaging device. During pow- 
er-up the user agent 12 can also download messages 
that have been received in the messaging network 14 
since the last power-down of the two-way messaging 
device. 

The user agent 12 allows message delivery: 

(1 ) when the device originates a new message; 

(2) wnen the device receives a message; 

(3) when the device replies to a message; and 



(4) when the device receives a reply. 

Processing for groups 3 and 4 closely resembles 
that of groups 1 and 2. When a messaging device 11 
5 originates a new message, the user agent 12 translates 
the destination and reply address aliases sent by the 
device into the full address and expands the supplied 
message number and modifier into full message text 
and creates a record for the message. This record can 
io be used as a basis for any subsequent message query. 
When a messaging device 11 receives a message, the 
user agent 12 returns the current status (on/off) and lo- 
cation of its device. Certain personal messaging func- 
tions, e.g., forwarding or filtering can also be performed. 
15 For message status query, the query request is an- 
swered by the user agent by consulting its message 
record and if necessary, a transaction server is consult- 
ed about current delivery status, as will be explained lat- 
er. 

20 The extensible portion of the user agent specifies a 
framework in which additional functions can be added 
as user agent program modules 72a, 72b (Figure 11). 
This collection of programs contain codes to handle 
messages of a specific pattern. The extensible part 72 
25 follows an event -driven model and provides a kernel that 
pattern-matches incoming messages and dispatches 
them to an appropriate program module. Also, the ex- 
tensible part 72 can be used for signaling by addressing 
a message to the user agent itself. For example, a mes- 
30 sage status query can be implemented as a signaling 
function in the extensible part. 

Referring now to Figure 4, there is illustrated a basic 
architecture of the two-way wireless messaging system 
10 of the present invention. As illustrated, the system 
35 10 includes a three-tier hierarchy. The highest is a do- 
main 80: the cluster 78 is the middle: and the cell 82 is 
the lowest. The coverage area of a base station 76 de- 
fines a cell 82. A collection of adjacent cells 82 form a 
cluster 78 and a collection of clusters form a domain 80. 
40 Three domains are illustrated. A domain 80 is an admin- 
istrative unit and each subscriber is associated with a 
unique domain called the "home domain". The various 
servers of the present invention 10 are replicated in 
each domain 80 and the user agent of a subscriber re- 
45 sides and is managed by its home domain. For purposes 
of description only one single domain is described. This 
hierarchy is designed for several important principles in 
the present invention: 

50 ( t ) limiting the control information transmission; 

(2) limiting the size of transmitted messages; and 

(3) distributing functions in a modular manner. 

To limit the transmission of control information by a 
ss two-way messaging device 11, the amount of periodic 
signaling is reduced. For example, location updates can 
be minimized by defining the registration area to be a 
cluster 78. Thus, the two-way messaging device 11 only 



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re-registers with the system 10 when it crosses cluster 
boundaries. This can reduce the amount of signaling 
traffic, especially in a rnicrocell infrastructure with high 
subscriber mobility. Thus, the messaging network only 
knows the location of a messaging device to the reso- 5 
lution of a cluster 78 and a limited search is necessitat- 
ed to locate a device 11 before message delivery. 

A small cluster 78 size provides better precision of 
device location and a smaller messaging delay at the 
expense of more frequent updates. A larger cluster size, 10 
on the other hand, increases average messaging delay 
but requires less frequent updates. To obtain an optimal 
cluster size, both message arrival rate and mobility pat- 
tern should be considered. 

The primary function of a messaging system is to 1$ 
transport messages among subscribers. Therefore, the 
usefulness of a messaging system is ultimately judged 
on the kind of messages that it can carry. Most existing 
messaging systems such as electronic mail are opti- 
mized for a wireline environment. Their messages are 20 
free-form and may even include multimedia compo- 
nents. In a wireless environment, the constraints of lim- 
ited bandwidth and end device must be taken into ac- 
count. Indeed, the challenge is to preserve as much as 
possible the flexibility of the messages while keeping 25 
their resource requirements under check. 

In the present invention, we define a novel class of 
messages, iogether with their encoding and processing, 
which is optimized for use in wireless two-way messag- 
ing. They have been specially designed for efficient 30 
transport on asymmetric wireless links, ease of imple- 
mentation in a wireless device and maximum flexibility 
given the input limitations of wireless messaging devic- 
es. 

In the following, we first describe the kind of mes- 35 
sages that are supported, then their encoding, and final- 
ly their processing. 

A message could be one-way or two-way A one- 
way message is unidirectional; it cannot be replied to. 
A one-way message is used in situations where a reply *o 
is not needed or desired. For example, reminder mes- 
sages from a subscriber's calendar manager are typi- 
cally sent as one-way messages. 

A two-way message is a message that can be re- 
plied to. Because of the lack of a keyboard in the device, 45 
the possible replies are usually embedded as part of the 
original request, or pre-stored locally in the messaging 
device. In the following, an embedded reply is denoted 
by "\repty{}'. 1 

A message (including a reply) is constructed from 50 
a number of basic building blocks. Each type of building 
blocks provides a distinct way to customize a message. 
The building blocks can be mutually nested and their 
applications are governed by only some simple seman- 
tic rules. 55 

The most primitive building block is plain text. As 
the name suggests, it refers to simple plain alphanumer- 
ic text. This corresponds essentially to what is currently 



available under one-way alphanumeric paging An ex- 
ample of a plain text message is "Pis call me - . 

Rich text adds text attributes to plain text. Text at- 
tributes are typically used to highlight or emphasize the 
different parts of a message. An example of a right text 
message is "Pis call me \botdjnow}". The notation *\bold 
{)' delineates the part of the message, the word "now" 
in this case, that should be presented in bold face. We 
emphasize that the notation "\bold{}" here is merely 
used as a high-level representation of the bold text at- 
tribute, it is not stored or transferred as part of the mes- 
sage. The same remark applies to all building blocks be- 
low. 

Optional components provide a way to include or 
exclude parts of a message. An example of the use of 
an optional component is "Pis call me \optional{ASAP} 
". This message example represents two possible mes- 
sages: 

1) "Please call me": and 

2) "Please call me ASAP." 

A user-defined selection allows a subscriber to 
specify a list of choices among which a selection can be 
made. An example of the use of user-defined selection 
is "Pis call me at my \choice{homeloffice}". 

The user-defined selections are defined on a per- 
subscriber basis. This gives each subscriber the maxi- 
mum flexibility to customize for their own needs. In many 
situations, however, a basic set of selections can be ob- 
served to recur across different applications. An exam- 
ple is the selection VhoicefJanlFebL.IDec}" which al- 
lows a subscriber to choose a specific calendar month. 
This calls for the need of pre-defined selections. In the 
current example, the system could predefine "\months" 
to be the above selection and make it available to all 
subscribers. 

Another need for pre-defined selections arises 
when the choices cannot be easily enumerated. For ex- 
ample, the system could predefine "\phoneno" to denote 
a selection that allows a user to enter a phone number 
on demand. Generally, a pre-defined selection behaves 
like a variable whose value can be dynamically custom- 
ized by a user, thus a better name for them will be pre- 
defined variables. 

In some situations, it may be advantageous to send 
multiple related requests in a single message. In such 
cases, conditional components can be used to make ex- 
plicit the dependencies among the requests. As an ex- 
ample, consider the message "Would you like to go for 
!unch?"\reply{\choice{SurelCan'tmake it}}\case{$r}at? 
\reply{\choice{McDonaldlTaco Bell}} \or \esac. °$r" de- 
notes the last reply entered. The "\case" construct uses 
the last reply entered to branch into different actions. In 
the case "Sure" is selected, the follow-up question "at? 
\reply{\choice{McDonaldlTaco Bell}}" will be presented. 
In the case "Can't make it" is selected, no further action 
is taken. 



7 



DNSDOCID: <EP _0825788A2_I_> 



13 EP 0 825 788 A2 14 



At any point, a message is either stored or being 
transferred Corresponding to these, there are two en- 
codings of a message. When a message is stored, the 
message storage encoding is used. When a message 
is being transferred, the message transfer encoding is 5 
used. By making use of network states (e.g., those in 
the user agents), the message transfer encoding can be 
made much shorter than the message storage encod- 
ing, and is most suitable for use in a limited bandwidth 
environment. 10 

We define message storage encoding first. Each 
type of building blocks is encoded using control infor- 
mation. Some require only a single control tag (e.g., 
\month, \phoneno), while others (e.g., \optional, \reply) 
require paired control tags, delimiting respectively the '5 
beginning and end of the part of the message to which 
the control should be applied. In order to distinguish con- 
trol tags from plain text, they are chosen to be outside 
the range of plain text characters. As an example, con- 
sider the message "Care for lunch \optional {now) ? \re- 20 
plyl{\choice{OKII am busylmay be atxtime}". An example 
of storage encoding of this message is: 

Care for lunch 23 now 24 ? 40 45 OK 46 I am busy 
46 maybe at 10 47 41 where 23 and 24 mark respec- 
tively the beginning and end of an optional component, 2s 
40 and 41 mark respectively the beginning and end of 
a embedded reply component, 45 and 47 mark respec- 
tively the beginning and end of a user-defined selection, 
46 separates the choices in a user-defined selection, 
and 10 marks the pre-defined time variable. 30 

Next we turn to transfer encoding. With the use of 
a user agent inside the network, a message can be 
transferred by just naming its message number together 
with a modifier that specifies the customizations that 
need to be applied to it. For example, suppose the mes- 35 
sage above is labeled 5. Then, to originate it from a mes- 
saging device, all that needs to be transferred is: 
50 

if the sender does not want to include the word "now" or 

51 otherwise. *o 
Similarly, the possible replies to this message are 

encoded as: 
100 

if the reply is "OK", or 

101 ^5 
if the reply is "I am busy", or 

102 time if the reply "maybe at Mime" is chosen, 
where "lime" is some encoding of the time entered by 
the recipient. 

Essentially, the modifier encodes the action that so 
needs to be taken to obtain the final message to be de- 
livered from the stored message. 

The message modifier is generated locally at the 
messaging device, the procedure is referred to as pager 
processing. There are two parts to pager processing, ss 
namely send-side and receiver-side processing. Send- 
side processing is performed when a new message is 
originated from a messaging device. It is typically used 



to customize a request. Receiver-side processing is per- 
formed when forming a reply to a previously received 
message It is used to customize a reply. 

The basic processing in both send-side and a re- 
ceiver-side processing is similar. They both examine a 
message byte by byte, identify the control tags, and per- 
form the actions indicated. The main difference is that 
the send-side processing does not process control tags 
inside reply components, while the receiver-side 
processing acts only on the control tags inside reply 
components. 

Referring now to Figure 9 there is illustrated one ex- 
ample of a messaging device that can be used with the 
present invention. It is illustrated as a dedicated, stand 
alone two-way pager 11 . 1 n this example, the messaging 
device 11 generates, receives and displays messages 
to the subscriber user. The design of the messaging de- 
vices must take into account important hardware limita- 
tions, such as the need for minimum power consump- 
tion. As illustrated, the messaging device 11 should be 
business card size to provide the portability required of 
"any time, anywhere" service. The power consumption 
should be minimum, requiring infrequent battery 
change. 

Figure 9 shows a representative schematic of a 
pager 11 having four function buttons 84 at the bottom 
serving as soft keys, i.e. keys whose functions vary with 
the contexts, and two buttons86ontheside, used main- 
ly for scrolling purposes. The two-way pager includes a 
5-line LCD screen 88 in which the top four lines are used 
for text while the bottom line shows current bindings for 
soft keys. The pager contains computing hardware, e. 
g., a processor and memory for user interface code and 
pager protocol. A low power general purpose microproc- 
essor can be used for the pager. Memory should be ad- 
equate enough to contain these various messages and 
associated data. 

As shown in Figures 2 and 4, a base station 76 ter- 
minates the air interface and a link layer protocol with 
the pager 11. It manages the air interface resources. 
Base stations 76 can be deployed as cellular base sta- 
tions, packet radios or other types of transceivers as re- 
quired for any wireless messaging and paging systems. 

Referring now to the general overview of Figures 4 
and 5, there now follows a description of the various 
servers used with the two-way wireless messaging sys- 
tem of the present invention. 

A batch server 100 provides intelligence to base 
stations 76. A single batch server 100 connects to one 
or more base stations 76, and receives and acknowl- 
edges messages from the messaging device 11. It also 
receives messages destined to a messaging device, for- 
wards them to the proper base station 76 for delivery, 
and receives acknowledgements that the messages 
have been correctly received. The batch server 100 may 
batch downlink pages into groups for scheduled delivery 
to allow sleep mode operation of pagers. In essence, a 
batch server 100 acts as a point of transfer between the 



so 



ss 



BNSDOCIQ <RP _0825788A2_L> 



8 



15 



EP 0 825 788 A2 



16 



wired (network) and the wireless (subscriber and base 
station) portions of the system 10. It is responsible for 
relaying uplink messages from subscriber devices (via 
base station 7S) to the network and downlink messages 
from the network to subscriber devices (via base sta- 
tions 76). 

A protocol structure that can be used for interac- 
tions between the pager 11 , base station 76 : and batch 
server 100 is shown in Figure 6. The Message Layer 
Protocol (MLP) 102 is responsible for ensuring reliable 
message delivery between the batch server 100 and a 
messaging device. Each MLP 102 data unit contains 
one user-level message. At most one message per 
messaging device may be outstanding at a time. The 
sending entity of a message maintains a retransmission 
timer tor the outstanding message, and retransmits the 
message until it receives an acknowledgement. Ac- 
knowledgments are generated by the receiving MLP en- 
tity when a message is correctly received. 

The Airlink Specific Convergence Sublayer (ASCS) 
104 operates peer-to-peer between the batch server 
1 00 and the messaging device 1 1 . The ASCS 1 04 is re- 
sponsible for segmenting MLP 102 data units into the 
appropriate size for transmission over the air interface, 
and re-asscmbling air interface frames into MLP data 
units at the receiver. ASCS 104 passes only correctly 
received data units to an MLP; any corrupted data units 
are silently discarded. The ASCS protocol specification 
is dependent on the air interface protocol, and as a re- 
sult, many different ASCS's will exist. 

Two link layer protocols 106, 108 are illustrated. 
LINK1 106 operates between the batch server 100 and 
the base station 76. LINK2 108 operates over the air 
interface and is specified by the particular air interlace 
used in the system 10. 

The high-level structure of a batch server is shown 
in Figure 10. It maintains a number of data structures 
for its operation such as a registered messaging device 
table, which maintains a record for each messaging de- 
vice currently being served by the batch server. The 
record includes both information about the messaging 
device (i.e., last base station visited) as well as traffic 
statistics (e.g., number of uplink/downlink messages 
from/to a messaging device). The wireline (network) 
side is indicated generally at 109, and the wireless (sub- 
scriber and base station) side is indicated generally at 
109a 

A record is created in the registered messaging de- 
vice table under two circumstances: an explicit registra- 
tion or an implicit registration. An explicit registration in 
turn is performed under two conditions: power up initial- 
ization or cluster boundary crossing. The former is a new 
registration while the latter is a re-registration. A re-reg- 
istration requires the additional step of deleting the state 
information kept in the old batch servers. An implicit reg- 
istration, on the other hand, occurs when a base station 
receives a data message from a messaging device not 
currently registered. This is often the result of an active 



messaging device moving between cells in a cluster 
and then sending or receiving a message. The record 
is deleted when a power-down deregistration is re- 
ceived. 

5 Another data structure is Unacknowledged Mes- 
sage Queues (UMQs) 110 : which contain messages 
that are to be delivered on the downlink. They are logi- 
cally organized on a per messaging device basis, 
though the actual implementation may be based on sep- 

io arate queues or a common message pool. The batch 
server 100 uses a stop-and-go strategy in delivering the 
messages, i.e., it will not deliver a new message to a 
messaging device 11 until the previous message to the 
messaging device has been acknowledged. Thus, at 

15 any particular time, there is at most one outstanding un- 
acknowledged message. 

When an acknowledgement is received from a mes- 
saging device, the acknowledged message (i.e., the 
message at the head of the queue) is moved to the Ac- 

20 knowledged Message Queue (AMQs) 112. The ac- 
knowledgement is designed to be short: it contains only 
a so called receive buffer index (rbi), which is a locally 
unique (relative to the destination pager) identifier The 
rbi is used later to correlate the reply to the original mes- 

25 sage. 

Another data structure is the Acknowledged Mes- 
sage Queues 112, which contain messages whose de- 
livery has been acknowledged by the destination mes- 
saging devices and are currently awaiting their replies. 

30 A reply contains an rbi together with a reply code. The 
rbi is used to retrieve the original request: it serves es- 
sentially as a local message id, thus eliminating the 
need to send the system message id uplink. The reply 
code encodes the desired response, and is to be ex- 

35 panded by the replier's user agent. 

Generally, the length of these queues is small be- 
cause replies tend to follow the acknowledgements 
closely, in the order of about 30 minutes. A procedure 
could exist and be implemented by one skilled in the art 

to to migrate the state back to the user agent if a reply does 
not come within a certain time limit. Thus, the AMQs be- 
have like a cache for storing message information need- 
ed in processing a reply. 

Depending on the air interface, the batch server 1 00 

45 may also be responsible for other low-level tasks. These 
include the delivery of packets using a multicast opera- 
tion. There are two possible forms of multicast delivery: 
1) true and 2) ad-hoc. In a true multicast, messaging 
devices belonging to a multicast group share a single 

50 multicast address and messages are delivered using 
the multicast address. In an ad-hoc multicast, an ad- 
dress header message containing a list of destination 
device ID's is first sent to alert the receiving messaging 
devices. This is then followed by the actual body of the 

55 message. 

Referring again to Figures 4 and 5, there is illustrat- 
ed a messaging server 114, which enhances the mod- 
ularity of the system by coordinating activities of individ- 



9 



ENSDOCID: *EP_ _08257BBA2_L> 



17 

ual servers. The messaging server 114 receives origi- 
nating messages, coordinates with other servers to de- 
termine their location and format in which the message 
should be delivered, invokes value-added services and 
finally routes the messages toa server which can deliver 
them The messaging server 1 1 4 functionality is required 
in all messaging systems and its operation varies de- 
pending on the intelligence and value-added services 
available from the messaging system. 

The distribution server 116 is responsible for deliv- 
ering messages to their final destinations in the proper 
format. For messages to be delivered to a wireless de- 
vice such as a pager 11, the distribution server 116 ex- 
ecutes a direct paging algorithm based on location in- 
formation provided by a user agent 12. For messages 
that are to be translated into a different format, the dis- 
tribution server 116 routes the message to a translator. 
The distribution server functions are basically required 
in the system 10. If the system 10 does not make use 
of location information, but floods the air interfaces with 
messages to be delivered (true broadcast), the distribu- 
tion server function is minimal. 

The distribution server 116 works in conjunction 
with a user agent 12 that supplies location information, 
and manages user mobility in the present invention. The 
distribution server 116 forwards any message to be de- 
livered to the batch server 100 that was last known to 
have been serving the messaging device, such as a 
pager 11 or other wireless device. If the batch server 
100 successfully delivers the message, the distribution 
server 116 receives an acknowledgment and the algo- 
rithm terminates. If the batch server times-out, the dis- 
tribution server 1 1 6 will forward the message to all batch 
servers 100 which neighbor the original target batch 
server. This increases the coverage area in which the 
message delivery is attempted. The message is not sent 
to the original batch server on the second delivery at- 
tempt. If the message is still not delivered, the coverage 
area is increased again, sending to neighboring batch 
servers 1 00 of the latest subset until the message is de- 
livered. 

This algorithm has several benefits. First, no single 
batch server 100 is included twice in the search. Sec- 
ond, while the distribution server 116 performs directed 
paging on a cluster area, the batch servers 100 may ex- 
ecute a directed paging algorithm among the base sta- 
tions 76 within the cluster 78. This distributed control 
allows base stations 76 to be added to clusters without 
requiring the distribution server 116 to change its direct- 
ed paging algorithm search lists. The directed paging 
algorithms of the system 1 0 are designed to reduce both 
the air and network traffic in the paging system 1 0 when 
compared to the flooding techniques employed by many 
paging systems in operation today. Many variations of 
this basic algorithm are possible to those skilled in the 
art. 

The transaction server 118 (Figures 4, 5 and 12) 
tracks the transactions between messaging subscrib- 



18 

ers. This involves correlating messages, replies, and ac- 
knowledgments. The transaction server 118 supports 
several transactbn types, repons the status of transac- 
tions when requested, and closes transactions when 
5 complete. It supports one-to-one and one-to-many 
transactions. For example, a subscriber 40 (Figure 2) 
may send a message to three endpoints and request 
that it be only notified of the first response. In this case, 
the transaction server 118 will open a transaction when 
io the message is sent, and close it when the first reply is 
received. Any further replies will be discarded. If a sys- 
tem does not support transactions, the transaction serv- 
er 118 is not a required element. 

In the system of the present invention, the transac- 
ts tion server 118 supports the following basic transaction 
types which may be combined to form a more enhanced 
set of transaction services: 

1 . All-reply 
20 2. A/-reply 

3. Timed-reply 

The all-reply transaction remains open until a reply 
has been received by every message recipient. The N- 
2S reply transaction remains open until a reply has boon 
received by N message recipients. The timed-reply 
transaction remains open until a user specified time has 
expired. Once a transaction is closed, further replies are 
not accepted and not forwarded to the transaction orig- 
30 inator. For example, in a transaction in which only the 
first three replies are accepted within five minutes, if ei- 
ther five minutes elapses, or three replies are received, 
the transaction is closed. This is an example of combin- 
ing the A/-reply and Timed-reply transaction types. All 
35 transactions are subject to a system timer which is used 
to close transactions that have not been completed with- 
in a reasonable amount of time. 

A schematic diagram of one example of the struc- 
ture of the transaction server is shown in Figure 12. As 
-to noted before, the transaction server 118 supports three 
basic transaction types: all-reply, AArepty, and timed-re- 
ply. 

As shown in Figure 12, the transaction server has 
two levels of hierarchy: a conversation manager 120 

*s and a transaction manager 1 22. The conversation man- 
ager 1 20 maintains a simple two-state machine as either 
open 124 or closed 126 (Figure 12a). If a transactbn is 
open, replies to the original message are expected and 
accepted. If the transaction is closed, no replies are ac- 

so cepted. The transaction manager 122 is responsible for 
tracking the state of each recipient involved in the trans- 
action, and thus determine if a transaction should be 
closed. The transaction manager makes this decision 
based on the number of replies that are being accepted 

55 for a transaction, and the number of recipients 128 that 
have reached the done state as shown in Figure. " 2b. 
When the proper number of recipients are in the erne 
state, the transaction manager informs the conversation 



EP 0 825 788 A2 



20 



25 



BNSDOCID <EP _08257B8A2_I_> 



10 



19 



EP 0 825 788 A2 



20 



manager 120 to close the transaction. 

Consider a simple transaction with three recipients. 
The transaction server receives an OPENTX (open 
transaction) request from the messaging server 114. 
and assigns a unique transaction ID to the transaction. 
It then initiates a conversation manager 120 to handle 
this request. The conversation manager 120 is indexed 
by the transaction ID. The conversation manager 120 
transitions into its open state and initiates a transaction 
manager 122. The transaction manager 122 creates 
three records, one for each recipient, to reflect the re- 
cipient states. The records are indexed by the recipient 
address. The initial states are the states labeled by 
"sent", signifying that the message is being sent to all 
three recipients. 

The transaction server 118 also stores information 
concerning the transaction type. For example, the trans- 
action server 118 determines from the transaction type 
how many replies should be accepted for the transac- 
tion. The transaction server also sets a deadline timer 
by which time the transaction must be closed. If the 
transaction is not a timed transaction, a default system 
timer, typically on the order of a day, is used. At this time, 
the transaction server 118 replies to the messaging 
server with the transaction id. 

As acknowledgements and replies are received 
from the message recipients, the conversation manager 
120 maintains the transaction in its open state. The 
transaction manager 122 modifies the state ot each cor- 
responding recipient. As acknowledgements are re- 
ceived for the replies, the transaction manager 122 will 
transition the appropriate recipients to the done state. 
Depending on the number of replies allowed for the 
transaction, the transaction server 116 determines if 
more replies should be accepted. When the reply limit 
is reached, i.e., the required number of recipients have 
reached the done state, the transaction manager 122 
instructs the conversation manager 120 to close the 
transaction. The transaction manager 122 may also in- 
struct the conversation manager 120 to close the trans- 
action if the transaction time has expired. 

After this time, any replies received by the transac- 
tion server 118 are rejected. The transaction server sets 
a record timer. Until the timer expires, the state of the 
conversation manager is frozen in the closed state, and 
recipient states are frozen. During this time, the trans- 
action server 118 may be queried as to the state ot the 
transaction. When the record timer expires, the trans- 
action server 118 deletes the conversation manager 1 20 
and transaction manager 122 for the transaction. Any 
queries to the transaction server 118 after this time will 
result in an invalid transaction ID message. 

A simple routine flow chart is shown in Figure 12b 
and illustrates message transmission and acknowl- 
edgements. A message is sent 1 30 and acknowledge- 
ment received 1 32. A reply is received from the recipient 
134 and then the sequence is done 136 when the ac- 
knowledgement is received for a reply. 



Described below is an example of a protocol flow 
for a multicast message delivery with replies. Focus is 
directed on the salient features of the system. 

In the example, presented in Figures 7 and 8. a sub- 
5 scriber S 200 sends a message to three recipients. R1 
202, R2 204, and R3 (not shown). In this example. R1 
last registered at BS-R1 , 222 and is still currently in BS- 
R1. R2 last registered in BS-R21. 230. and has since 
moved to BS-R22, 232. R3 is currently inactive, i.e., 
10 power off. R1 202 receives the message on its messag- 
ing device in the first delivery attempt. R2 204 receives 
messages on its messaging device on the second de- 
livery attempt. R3 requests that the message be for- 
warded to a message storage server for subsequent re- 
is trieval. In the following, we illustrate the function of each 
. entity, the location management procedures of the sys- 
tem, and a direct paging algorithm. The interaction with 
individual base stations is not included in this example. 
It is assumed that there is a one-to-one mapping be- 
20 iween base stations and batch servers for simplicity. 

Figure 7 shows a highly schematic depiction of 
message delivery procedures. The originator of the 
message, S200, transmits its message into the network 
through its serving batch server, BS-S 208, via a 
2S PG2BS-NEW message. This PG2BS-NEW contains the 
address of S, an array of recipient addresses, an array 
of reply-to-addresses, and the coded message. In this 
example, the recipients listed are R1 202, R2 204. and 
R3 206, and the reply-to-address is the address of the 
30 message originator, S 200. The message is coded by 
indicating a message number and any dynamic compo- 
nent values. BS-S 208 receives the message, and gen- 
erates an acknowledgment back to S 200, BS2PG-ACK 
(shown by the reversed arrow), signifying that the net- 
3$ work has accepted the message for delivery. 

The batch server 208 forwards the message to the 
messaging server, MS 210, in a BS2MS-NEW mes- 
sage. In addition to the information contained in the 
PG2BS-NEW message, this message contains a mes- 
40 sage identifier (mid), which uniquely identifies this mes- 
sage throughout the system. 

The messaging server 210 contacts the user agent 
of the message originator, UA-S 212, with a MS2UA- 
NEW message. UA-S 212 performs the message ex- 
45 pansion function. It expands the message body depend- 
ing on the message number and dynamic component 
values received and expands any address aliases into 
the full system addresses. UA-S 212 responds to the 
messaging server 210 with the message body and the 
so message type, i.e., an indication if this message re- 
quires a reply, if it is part of a transaction, or if it is a 
simple one-way page. In this example the message is 
classified as a transaction in which replies from all re- 
cipients are required. This information is sent in the 
55 UA2MS-NEW message. 

As this point, the messaging server 210 contacts 
the user agents of the message recipients to determine 
the location of their corresponding messaging devices, 



25 



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BNSDOCID: <£P_ _082S788A2J_> 



11 



21 



EP 0 825 788 A2 



22 



the format in which they wish to receive the message, 
and their status. It does this by sending HDR messages 
to the user agents. The user agents respond with the 
status and last known location of the messaging devic- 
es. In this example, UA-R1 214 responds that the mes- 5 
saging device is active, and that its last known location 
is BS-R1 . UA-R2 216 responds that the messaging de- 
vice is active, and that its last known location is BS-R21 . 
UA-R3 218 responds that its pager is off, and that the 
message should be forwarded to a message storage 10 
server. 

The messaging server 210 receives these replies., 
and then requests that the transaction server 220 open 
a transaction for this message exchange via the 
OPENTX message. The transaction server 220 opens is 
the transaction, and returns a transaction ID in the TXR- 
SP message. The transaction ID uniquely identifies this 
transaction throughout the network, and furthermore, 
identifies the transaction server 220 managing this 
transaction. The transaction ID is forwarded to the user 20 
agent 212 of the message originator (TXUPDATE) so 
that it may access the transaction record if it later re- 
ceives any queries as to the status of the transaction. 

The messaging server 210 then forwards the full 
message body, along with the list of recipients, their dc- 2s 
sired message formats, and last known locations to the 
distribution server 221 (MS2DS). The distribution server 
221 , based on the location information provided, and the 
desired format of the message, determines how to de- 
liver the message to the recipients. It forwards the mes- 20 
sage to R1 202 via BS-R1 222, and the message to R2 
204 via BS-R21 . 230 as instructed by the location infor- 
mation received. It forwards the message for R3 to the 
message storage server, MSS 224. 

BS-R1 222 delivers the message to R1 202 (MSG), 3S 
and eventually receives an acknowledgement (ACK). 
The batch BS-R1 222 server forwards this acknowl- 
edgement to the distribution server 221 , which forwards 
the acknowledgement to the transaction server 220. 
The transaction server 220 updates its transaction *o 
record. 

Likewise, an acknowledgement is received from the 
message storage server 224 on behalf of R3. This ac- 
knowledgement is also forwarded to the distribution 
server 221 and transaction server 220. In addition, the *s 
distribution server 221 updates UA-R3 218, notifying it 
of the retrieval ID by which the user may retrieve the 
message from storage at a later time (UPDATE). The 
retrieval ID is downloaded by UA-R3 218 to R3 when 
R3 powers on. 50 

The batch server BS-R21 230 does not receive an 
acknowledgement for R2 204, and therefore times-out. 
It generates a negative acknowledgement to the distri- 
bution server 221 (NAK). The distribution server221 ex- 
ecutes the directed paging algorithm in which it expands 55 
the message delivery area to all batch servers neigh- 
boring the original target. In this example, these are BS- 
R22 232 and S-R23 234. BS-R22 232 successfully de- 



livers the message and receives the acknowledgement. 
The acknowledgement is forwarded to the distribution 
server 221 and transaction server 220. The distribution 
server 221 updates UA-R2 216 so that it may reflect the 
current location information of R2 204 It is through this 
interaction between the distribution server and user 
agents that the approximate location of the wireless 
messaging devices is learned, and the direct paging al- 
gorithm is executed. 

At this time, the message has been delivered to all 
recipients, and the transaction is open. 

Figure 8 shows the flow for the reply to a message 
generated above. At a high level, the reply flow is sym- 
metrical to the message origination flow. In this exam- 
ple, the recipient, R 240 generates the reply (REPLY), 
which is received by batch server BS-R 242. The reply 
is again a coded message, with an identifier to associate 
it with the original message. The batch server 242 cach- 
es information about messages it delivers for a finite 
time. If the reply is received by the batch server 242 with- 
in that time period, it can determine the full message ID, 
transaction ID, and other ID'S, from a local identifier. If 
the information has been removed from the cache, or if 
the wireless messaging device has moved to a different 
batch server area before sending its reply, the batch 
server 242 must fetch the information from the user 
agent of the wireless messaging device sending the re- 
ply. 

As in the message origination case, the batch serv- 
er forwards the message to the messaging server 244 
which contacts the user agent of the replying device 
246. The user agent 246 expands the reply, and returns 
the message to the messaging server. The messaging 
server 244 then contacts the transaction server 248 to 
notify it that a reply has been generated. If the transac- 
tion is still open, and more replies are still being accept- 
ed, the transaction server 248 instructs the messaging 
server 244 to continue delivering the reply, as in this ex- 
ample. The remaining portion of the reply delivery flow 
is similar to the message delivery flow: the user agent 
246 of the device receiving the reply is contacted to de- 
termine where to deliver the reply, and the reply is sent 
to the distribution server 250 for delivery. 

When the acknowledgement for the reply is re- 
ceived by the distribution server 250, it is forwarded to 
the transaction server 248. 

The two-way wireless messaging system with the 
present invention can be used with more than the 
above-illustrated examples. For example, it is condu- 
cive for dispatching where a dispatcher may transmit a 
message to a group of recipients in order to assign a 
task. For example, a maintenance supervisor can send 
a message to all shift workers if an outage occurs. The 
message recipients respond upon receiving the mes- 
sage indicating their availability. The supervisor may 
then assign a job to one or more members of the group. 

Additionally, the two-way messaging system can be 
used as a calendar reminder service where reminders 



BNSDCCID: -EP _08257B8A2J_> 



12 



23 



EP 0 825 788 A2 



24 



and alarms are generated by a network-based calendar 
server with the help of subscriber user agents The mes- 
saging devices are portable, and messages can be de- 
livered to a pager E-mail and other messaging device. 
The calendar can act somewhat as an "alarm" and notify s 
a user at any time of scheduled appointments, anniver- 
saries and important dates. Appointments can be en- 
tered into the calendar as part of the user agent. 

Additionally, the system can be used for emergency 
signaling and sending a S.O.S. message. In an emer- io 
gency signaling system, a person in distress can send 
an S.O.S. message. This message is routed to an emer- 
gency command center. The network can indicate the 
location of the sender of the message using a location- 
based service system. The emergency command cent- *5 
er may send messages to the person in distress to per- 
form an initial evaluation of their condition through the 
use of query messages. For example, messages such 
as "Are you injured?", "Are you bleeding?", or "Can you 
move?" may be sent with reply choices. Answers col- 20 
lected f rom the initial evaluation can be extremely useful 
in dispatching the proper emergency response units. 

Upon finishing dispatching (via a separate two-way 
message multicast as described earlier), an acknowl- 
edgment such as "Help is coming" or "Please meet the 2s 
ER people at the next block" can be relayed back to the 
person requesting emergency help. 

Depending on the subscriber's profile, a follow-up 
notification via two-way messaging could be sent to the 
family members of the subscriber. 30 

This service takes advantage of the reliability bidi- 
rectionality. multicast, and transaction support of the 
two-way messaging system. 

Additionally, messages may be directed to sub- 
scribers in a certain location. For example, if the trains 35 
in New York are not running, all people in New. York may 
be sent a message. This service is similar to current sim- 
ple paging services except that it is location dependent. 

Referring now to Figures 1 4, 1 5a and 1 5b. there are 
illustrated embodiments of a more conventional two- *o 
way wireless cellular messaging system based on 
standards that explains the basics of a cellular system. 
Figures 1 6 and 1 7a, 1 7b illustrate the use of servers and 
user agent of the present invention in association with 
a cellular system. *s 

As illustrated in Figure 14, a cellular system is illus- 
trated generally at 300 and uses an IS-1 36 air interlace 
between base stations and mobile messaging entities, 
and an IS-41C network node interface. The IS-1 36 air 
interface is a digital cellular air interface standard that 50 
supports functions such as mobile registration, paging 
to deliver calls, call origination, handoff, telephony serv- 
ice and exchanges messages as part of a messaging 
service. The IS-41C network node interlace is network 
protocol that operates between cellular mobile switching ss 
centers, various databases used for mobility manage- 
ment and a messaging center 302. As illustrated in Fig- 
ure 14, the cellular messaging system includes a Home 



Location Register 304 (HLR), Visitors Location Register 
306 (VLR), a Mobile Switching Center 308 (MSC) and 
a Base Station 31 0 (BS). as is common to most conven- 
tional cellular networks. In accordance with current sys- 
tems, a messaging agent 31 2. also referred to as Short 
Messaging Agent or entity (SME). generates a message 
to the Messaging Center 302 (MC). That message is for- 
warded to a Mobile Switching Center 308 for further de- 
livery after receiving a message routing address corre- 
sponding to a desired destination. The desired destina- 
tion typically is a Mobile Messaging Entity 314, which 
could be a two-way pager or similar device, shown by 
the acronym MS-SME in the drawings. 

IS-1 36 supports approximately 420 channels, sub- 
sets of which are re-used in each cell of a cellular sys- 
tem. Each channel is capable of supporting 48.6 Kbps 
of traffic. The majority of channels in the system are 
used to support voice conversations. The remaining 
channels are used to support Digital Control Channels 
(DCCH). Each mobile station acquires a DCCH over 
which it exchanges control information and short mes- 
sages with the cellular base stations. 

The DCCH is divided into three forward channels 
(downlink) and one reverse channel (up-link). The for- 
ward channels arc the Broadcast Control Channel 
(BCCH), Shared Control Feedback Channel (SCF), and 
the Short Messaging/Paging/Access Response Chan- 
nel (SPACH). The BCCH is further divided into three 
control sub-channels, two of which are used to broad- 
cast system information, and one. called the Short Mes- 
saging Service Broadcast Control Channel (S-BCCH). 
which is reserved for delivering broadcast messages as 
part of a messaging service. The SCF is used to provide 
link layer status information to support mobile station 
media access procedures. The SPACH, as indicated by 
its name, is used to deliver messages as part of a short 
messaging service, pages as part of call detivery in tel- 
ecommunications service, and resource assignments. 

The reverse channel is called the Random Access 
Control Channel (RACH). This channel is used by the 
mobile station to send control messages or messages 
that are part of a short messaging service, to the cellular 
base station. Link layer feedback for this channel is pro- 
vided over the SCF. 

The architecture of a messaging system based on 
IS-136/IS41C is shown in Figure 14. The Base Station 
310 and Mobile Switching Center 308 (MSC) operate in 
similar capacities as in most standard cellular telephone 
networks. The Base Station 310 terminates the IS-1 36 
protocol. The Home Location Register 304 HLR stores 
a permanent profile for each mobile messaging entity or 
other mobile station and a pointer to the current Visitors 
Location Register 306 (VLR) serving the entity. The Vis- 
itors Location Register 306 stores a temporary copy of 
the profile of any mobile station or mobile messaging 
entity, and a pointer to the Mobile Switching Center 308 
with which a mobile station is currently registered. The 
Messaging Center is the heart of the messaging system, 



45 



so 



13 



5 0825788A2_L> 



25 



EP 0 825 788 A2 



26 



coordinating the activities of the other entities. 

Figures 15 a and b show graphically the flow for 
message delivery to an IS-1 36 -based mobile station. 
Invocations are shown in capital letters and responses 
are shown in lower case letters. The messages shown 
in bold type are IS-1 36 messages. Those shown in ital- 
ics are IS-41 C messages. Those in regular print are rep- 
resentative messages defined in vendor-specific inter- 
faces called the A-interface. In Figure 15a : a mobile 
messaging entity 314 registers, perhaps by powering 
on. The Visitors Location Register 306 stores a pointer 
to the serving Mobile Switching Center 308 upon receiv- 
ing the REGNOT message. It forwards this message to 
the Home Location Register 304 which stores a pointer 
to the Visitor Location 306. 

At some later time, a fixed endpoint sends messag- 
es to the Messaging Agent 31 2 (SMDPP), as shown in 
Figure 15b. The message is received by the Messaging 
Center 302 which queries the Home Location Register 
34 to determine the location of the mobile station (SM- 
SREQ or Mobile Messaging Entity 31 4). This messages 
contains the Mobile Identification Number (MIN) of the 
destination messaging entity. The request is propagated 
to the serving Mobile Switching Center 308 which as- 
signs a routing address to the messaging entity (SM- 
SADDR parameter). The routing address is returned to 
the Messaging Center 302 which then forwards the 
message to the serving Mobile Switching Center 30S. 
The Mobile Switching Center 308 delivers the message 
via the Base Station 301 (SMS DELIVERY) over the 
messaging channel of IS-1 36. 

Mobile messaging entities 314 may also initiate 
message exchanges. In this case, a mobile messaging 
entity 314 sends a message to an Messaging Center 
302 via its IS-1 36 RACH. 

Various classes of the system operation can be an- 
ticipation. The privacy and urgency classes are inter- 
preted by a messaging entity: the network does not dis- 
tinguish between these classes. The deferred message 
delivery may be explicitly requested, or activated by the 
network in cases when a mobile messaging entity 314 
cannot be located (powered off, out of range, etc.) for 
message delivery. In these cases, the message is de- 
livered when the mobile messaging entity 314 becomes 
active. Message updating allows a sender to overwrite 
a previously sent message. 

This system has several other benefits. It can oper- 
ate using the cellular network infrastructure for location 
management. By requiring messaging entities to regis- 
ter as they move, and updating Visitor Location Regis- 
ters and Home Locations Registers, the network can di- 
rect messages accurately to its subscribers. 

Several entities from the system may be added to 
the IS-16/IS41C cellular system to provide advance 
messaging capabilities in accordance with the present 
invention, as shown in Figure 1 6. The Messaging Server 
functions are performed by the IS-136/IS-41C Messag- 
ing Center 302. Both entities receive messages, coor- 



dinate the invocation of any other servers, and then for- 
ward the messages to another entity that can deliver 
them. 

The Distribution Server 320 functions may also be 
5 subsumed in the Messaging Center, although in Figure 
16 it is shown as a separate entity. In the IS-136/IS41C 
system, the Messaging Center 302 determines the lo- 
cation of the destination messaging device through in- 
teractions with the Home Location Register 304, and 
10 then forwards the message. Alternatively, this function 
could be performed in a similar manner by an external 
Distribution Server 320. as shown in Figure 16. In this 
case, the Messaging Center 302 would invoke any serv- 
ices triggered by the receipt of the message, (e.g., de- 
'5 ferred delivery), and send the message to the Distribu- 
. tion Server 320 which would be responsible for deliver- 
ing it. The Distribution Server 320 would interact with 
the Home Location Register 304 to determine the loca- 
tion of the destination Mobile Messaging Entity 314. 
20 The user agenl function is not included in the IS- 
136/IS-41C system. By adding a user agent 322 to the 
system, message expansion may be performed inside 
the network. This allows shorter coded messages into 
the network, which saves resources on the air interface. 
25 Messages may also contain variables and selections. 
The user agent may also be used to provide value-add- 
ed services, such as message screening. Because the 
IS-136/IS-41C system uses Home location Registers 
304 and Visitor Location Registers 306 to track location 
30 information, the location functions of the user agent are 
not required in this system. 

The transaction server functions are not included in 
IS-136/IS-41C. By adding a transaction server 324 to 
the system, value-added transaction services may be 
35 supported in the cellular messaging system. These in- 
clude all of the transaction services supported in the sys- 
tem. 

If user agents and transaction servers are added to 
the system, the procedures in the Messaging Center 
40 302 must be modified. The Messaging Center 302 must 
forward incoming message request to the user agents, 
and must recognize when transaction services are be- 
ing requested. These additions do not violate the cellular 
standards. The value-added servers may be implement- 
's ed as adjunct processors to the Messenger Center 302 
or they may be implemented as remote processors. In 
the former case, only the procedures of the Messaging 
Center 302 must be modified; no external messages are 
generated. In the latter case, operations must be de- 
50 fined between the Messaging Center and remote proc- 
essors, as is the case with many telecommunications 
services today. These operations may be invoked using 
standard Signaling System No. 7 protocols, such as the 
Transaction Capability Application Part (TCAP). 
55 Figures 17a and 17b illustrate the message distri- 
bution flow when messaging system of the present in- 
vention is used. 

New block reference numeral designations are 



25 



30 



BNSDOCJD: <EP 08257B8A2_I_> 



14 



27 



EP 0 825 788 A2 



25 



used for purposes of clarity. Two mobile messaging en- 
tities (MS-SME) are used Moving from left to right, the 
blocks designate a first Mobile Messaging Entity (MS- 
SME) 400: a Base Station (BS) 402: Mobile Switching 
Center (MSC) 404: Visitors Location Register (VLR) 
406: the sender's Home Location Register/User Agent 
(HLR-S/UA-S)408; the recipient's Home Location Reg- 
ister/User Agent (HLR-R/UA-R) 410: Transaction Serv- 
er (TX) 412; Messaging Center (MC) 414: Distribution 
Server (DS) 416; and Second Mobile Messaging Entity 
(MS-SME) 41 8. Major differences between the flow pre- 
sented in Figures 17a and 17b and the flow presented 
in Figures 15a and 15b are described in detail. Other 
parts of the message flow, such as registration process 
are similar. 

Figure 17a illustrates a registration process and 
shows that the registration flow of the Mobile Messaging 
Entity 400 is similar to the registration described in Fig- 
ure 15a. Registration occurs in the respective user 
agents defined as Home Location Register/User Agents 
408, 410. 

Referring now to Figure 17b ; the messaging flow 
after registration is illustrated. A first coded message 
SMDPP is sent from a Mobile Messaging Entity 418 to 
a Messaging Center 41 4. The message is coded so that 
later message expansion occurs in the network. An ac- 
knowledgement is then sent back. Instead of going to a 
home location register of the recipient as in the previous 
example of Figure 1 5b, the message is forwarded to the 
HLR-S/UA-S 408 of the sender. In the HLR-S/U A-S 408. 
message expansion occurs and the message is for- 
warded back to the Messaging Center 414 and then to 
the HLR-R/UA-R 410 of the recipient. The user agent of 
the recipient can do filtering, request a new format or 
provide location information. The user information could 
poll the Visitor Location Register 406 as in the current 
system or could bypass as shown in this example. A 
Home Location Register could provide location informa- 
tion. The message is forwarded to the Messaging Cent- 
er 414. 

The message then is forwarded to a Transaction 
Server 412 to open up a transaction. The transaction is 
then returned to the Messaging Center 414, and then 
sent to the Distribution Server 416, which performs a 
directed paging algorithm. The message flow then is 
very similar to the previous example with the SMDPP 
and the acknowledgments that revert back to the Distri- 
bution Server. 

The messaging system of the present invention has 
many benefits. Messaging expansion is possible within 
of the user agent. Additionally, the user agent can filter 
messages and perform other functions. Transaction 
support also can be current within the cellular network. 
The system allows directed paging and can change ar- 
eas using the directed paging function, which reduces 
the number of needed registrations. It is not necessary 
to register every time a switching area is changed and 
there is no need for a Visitors Location Register. The 



Distribution Server also can perform directed paging. 

Each server also can be deployed as desired If di- 
rected paging algorithm is not running, then no Distribu- 
tion Server is necessary. If message expansion is not 

5 needed, a user agent is not necessary. This gives added 
flexibility to the system. All servers are flexible. 

While the best mode for carrying out the invention 
has been described in detail, those familiar with the art 
which the invention relates will recognize various alter- 

10 native designs and embodiments practicing the inven- 
tion as defined by the following claims. 



Claims 

15 

1. A two-way wireless messaging system comprising 

A messaging network, and 

a two-way wireless messaging device, includ- 

20 jng means in the two-way messaging device for 

originating, receiving and replying to messages 
having plain alphanumeric text, and wherein a 
message includes rich text attributes for delin- 
eating a portion of the alphanumeric text that 

2S should be emphasized or highlighted. 

2. A two-way wireless messaging system comprising 

A messaging network, and 

30 a two-way wireless messaging device, includ- 

ing means in the two-way messaging device for 
originating, receiving and replying to messages 
having optional components for allowing a user 
of a messaging device to include and exclude 

35 parts of a message. 

3. The two-way wireless messaging system according 
to claim 2 wherein a message includes user-defined 
selections that allow a subscriber of the two-way 

^0 messaging system to specify a list of choices 
among which a selection can be made. 

4. The two-way wireless messaging system according 
to claim 2 wherein said user-defined selections can 

45 be defined on a per-subscriber basis for customiz- 
ing each message. 

5. The two-way wireless messaging system according 
to claim 2 wherein said message includes pre-de- 

so fined variables that can be dynamically customized. 

6. The two-way wireless messaging system according 
to claim 2 wherein a message includes conditional 
components having multiple related requests. 

55 

7. The two-way wireless messaging system according 
to claim 2 wherein a message includes embedded 
replies that can be customized by a recipient. 



15 



BNSOCCID: <EP 082578aA2_l_> 



29 



EP 0 825 788 A2 



30 



8. The two-way wireless messaging system according 
to claim 2 including a user agent for storing mes- 
sages, each message having encoding and control 
information. 

9. The two-way wireless messaging system according 
to claim 8 wherein a message stored in a user agent 
is expanded after the user agent receives an origi- 
nating message code that includes a modifier. 

10. A two-way wireless messaging system comprising 

a messaging network having at least one user 
agent corresponding to a subscriber of a two- 
way wireless messaging service that receives 
messages from the messaging network, 
said user agent including a plurality of messag- 
es stored therein for forwarding to a desired 
destination in response to an originating mes- 
sage code that is received from a two-way mes- 
saging device of the subscriber, and 
wherein said messages stored within said user 
agent are encoded and include control informa- 
tion. 

11. The wireless two-way messaging device according 
to claim 10 wherein said messages encoded within 
a user agent include at least one control tag. 

1 2. The wireless two-way messaging device according 
to claim 10 wherein said messages encoded within 
a user agent include paired control tags delimiting 
the beginning and end of a portion of a message to 
which control should be applied. 

1 3. The wireless two-way messaging device according 
to claim 10 wherein an originating message code 
forwarded from a two-way messaging device in- 
cludes an encoded transfer code. 

14. The wireless two-way messaging device according 
to claim 1 3 wherein said encoded transfer code in- 
cludes a message number and modifier that spec- 
ifies customizations that are to be applied to the 
message. 

1 5. The two-way wireless messaging system according 
to claim 10 wherein a message includes alphanu- 
meric text and including rich text attributes for de- 
lineating a portion of the alphanumeric text that 
should be emphasized or highlighted. 

1 6. The two-way wireless messaging system according 
to claim 1 0 wherein said messages include optional 
components for allowing a user of a messaging de- 
vice to include and exclude parts of a message. 

1 7. The two-way wireless messaging system according 



to claim 10 wherein a message includes user-de- 
fined selections that allow a subscriber of the two- 
way messaging system to specify a list of choices 
among which a selection can be made. 

5 

18. The two-way wireless messaging system according 
to claim 17 wherein said user-defined selections 
can be defined on a per-subscriber basis for cus- 
tomizing each message. 

10 

19. The two-way wireless messaging system according 
to claim 10 wherein said message includes pre-de- 
fined variables that can be dynamically customized. 

is 20. The two-way wireless messaging system according 
to claim 10 wherein a message includes conditional 
components having multiple related requests. 

21 . The two-way wireless messaging system according 
20 io claim 10 wherein a message includes embedded 

replies that can be customized by a recipient. 

22. A method for two-way wireless messaging compris- 
ing the steps of 

25 

storing a plurality of messages within a user 
agent of a two-way messaging network, the 
messages corresponding to those selected by 
a subscriber of a two-way messaging service, 

30 wherein the messages are encoded and in- 

clude control information, 
transmitting from the two-way messaging de- 
vice of the subscriber to the two-way messag- 
ing network, an originating message transfer 

35 code having a message number and modifier 

that specifies customizations that are applied 
to a message, 

expanding the originating message code within 
the user agent, and 
^o forwarding an expanded message to desired 

destinations based on the content of the origi- 
nating message transfer code. 

23. A method for two-way wireless messaging accord- 
45 ing to claim 22 wherein said message includes al- 
phanumeric text, and including the step of delineat- 
ing a portion of the alphanumeric text for emphasiz- 
ing or highlighting. 

50 24. A method according to claim 22 including the step 
of including and excluding portions of a message 
by choosing optional components of a message. 

25. A method according to claim 22 including the step 
55 of specifying a list of user-defined choices among 

which a selection can be made. 

26. A method according to claim 22 including the step 



16 

BNSDCOD <FP _0825788A2_L> 



31 



EP 0 825 788 A2 



of customizing each message with pre-defined var- 
iables. 

27. A method according to claim 22 including the step 

of transmitting a message that includes conditional 5 
components having multiple related requests. 

28. The two-way wireless messaging system according 
to claim 10 wherein a message includes embedded 
replies that can be customized by a recipient. jo 

29. A method according to claim 22 including the step 
of encoding a message with at least one control tag. 

30. A method according to claim 22 including the step is 
of encoding a message with paired control tags that 
delimit the beginning and end of a portion of a mes- 
sage to which control should be applied. 

20 



25 



30 



35 



40 



45 



50 



<EP 08257BaA2_l_> 



17 



EP 0 825 788 A2 




0825788A2 I > 



18 



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BNSDCCIO <EP 08257B8A2J_> 



19 



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DOMAIN 1 

DISTAIBUTII 
SERVER 

100 114 

2 



BATCH 
SERVER 



80 

/ 


118 ^ 




TRANSACTION 
SERVER 






MESSAGING 
SERVER 




/ 






BATCH 
SERVER 





FIG. 4 





14 



FIG. 5 



12 



12 

A 





USER 




USER 




AGENT 




AGENT 


1 


/ 



MASSAGING 
SERVER 



-114 



-SERVICES 



/ 




\ 


TRANSACTION 




DISTRIBUTION 


SERVER 




SERVER 



I 



INTERHORKING 
FUNCTION 



116 




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FIG. 

208 210 



P6 2BS-NEW I S. [H». fit). (P«. fit] . seqf . type. egf ndif ier) 
}S2PG-Att_|seqfl 

BS36-MEM IS. [fi». lit). (Pi. fit) .'lid. seq#.Bg».KHlif ier. type! 

HS gUlHO l |R». fit) . (P>. f it] . lid, seql. eg*. Hdifier. type) 
UA36JS I ( (R] . [P] . lid. ts^-body. type-SI 
MB IS. [PI . BidL type-SL f orwt-fllj 

4 mi II I 



IORlS.lP|.iid.type-S.forBt-fl2] 

i I mi I • 



K)fl (S. [P].iid.type-S.fonaHQ) 

4— •* I I 



IMBSPISH.N l*]. loc-fll. f ilter-Hi. status-Rl. type-fli. foraat-flt 
■ i i ii i i i i 



WflSP(S2t. (fMd). loc-flS L filteMR status-HZ tYpe-ffl. fonat-fla 



|UARSP(S3>. (P-R31]. loc-(GL fil 



OPENTXIS. !R). (PI. lid] 



TXRSP(iid,xidl 



TXUPOATE 



liid.xid) 



er-fl3,status-fl3, type-ffl, foriat-fl3 



HS20SIS. H S». (Pi. fitl.dst. fit. type). ■id.xidtasQ-hady) 



MSG IS -flH. Hit , fit), fit) . lid. xid. E^-tody. type-fll) 
HSG B- fgi. j^MrtUidji ld, embody. type-R2) 



MSG (S. R3, (P. f it)j, lid, gg^ody. type-fi3)| 



MS 6|S-flli. |P-fli.fit],Bg- body. type-fll) 
166 (S-flS. (P-ti2». fit). isg-bo'dy. type-IB) 

MXlrtil.ACKzf 



MXPl.i id.xid.rtii 
eJl ) iid.xid.rtiil.ACK2) 

naifQ. lid. retrieval-id] 



MX (R3L lid, xid. retrieval-id) 
UPDATE liil retrieval-id) 
1 > HMX(R2,iid,nd) 




MSG (S-fl2i. (P-fl2i, fit), lid, xid. eo-body. type-flS 



KSGIS-ffii.flt 
!6GlS-fl2».|P-fl2».flt 



MX fjg. xid. rbi2. *Oe 8S-B22) 



MX (B2lilxi(Lrtji2.ACK2) 

.-B22I) J 

NMX(R2.iid«id) 



.Bj-ttody. typHB) 
*"*» (rbt2. ACK2J 



j-pod) 
, cg-toody, type-fl2l 



BNSDOCID: <EP_ _0825788A2_L> 



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FIG. 6 



100 



102- 
104- 
108- 



MLP 
ASCS 
LINK2 

PHYSICAL 
WIRELESS) 



MESSAGING 
DEVICE 



108- 



LINK2 


LINK1 


PHYS. 





BASE 
STATION 



'76 



-106 



MLP 
ASCS 



LINK1 



BATCH 
SERVER 



-102 
-104 
-106 



240 



242 



RECIEVER 
A 



BS-R 



244 

A 



MS 



246 



FIG. 8 

248 

s 



UA-R 



UA-S 



XS 



REPLY (R,rep*. type, i) 



ACK(i) 



HDR (R, P*. R lid, aid' . xid. rep*, type, i] 



250 



DS 



HORlP*.R,a id, aid', xid. rep», type, i) 
RSP (P. R. a id, aid', xid. rep-body, type-fl) 



HORIP. Raid, aid', xid. (Rtypel) 



RSPIOK) 



HDR (P. R aid, aid \ xid. type-R, format 



BS-S 



R) 



SENDER 



RSP(P»,R», loc-S. fi lter-S. status-S, type-S. f ormat-S, rep-body] 



HDRIR. (P.Rx-.Rx.ds 



t.type. format], nix', xid. rep-body) 



MSG(P». R*. mid', xid. type-S. rep-body) 
MSG IP*, Rx, aid ' . x id. type-S. rep-body) 



ACKlrbi. AC K2) 
ACK(P.nid\xid.i'.ACK2) 



ACX(P.Bid\xid.i',ACK2) 



ONSDOCID: <EP. _0625788A2_I_> 



22 



EP 0 825 788 A2 



FIG. 9 



4- 



LET'S GO TO DINNER: 





a) McDonalds 




b) BURGER KING 




0 TACO BELL 




1 A 1 1 B 1 |. C | | | 



86 



QQQCp 



64 



FIG. 10 



109 



WIRELINE SIDE 
NETWORK 



/reply 



\ NEW DOWNLINK 
\ NETWORK 



ACKNOWLEDGED 
MESSAGE QUEUES 
\ 



UNACKNOWLEDGED 
MESSAGE QUEUES 



ACK 



•110 



WIRELESS SI0E 
TO PAGER 



109a 



23 



EP 0 825 788 A2 




FIG. 11 72 

<L 



EXTENSIBLE PARI 



UA 
PROGRAM 



72a 



UA 
PROGRAM 



V 



72b 



FIXED PART- STANDARD FUNCTIONALITY 



MESSAGE EXPANSION 
FORWARDING. SCREENING 
SUBSCRIBER PROFILE 
MIRRORED STATE OF END DEVICE 



74- 



I 



I 



RUNTIME SUPPORT 



DATA _ 
INPUT S 



-73a 



FIG. 12 



118 



r 
r 



TRANSACTION SERVER 



c 



CONVERSATION 
MANAGER 



-120 



i r 



J TRANSACTION V 122 Si |! 12-^4 IRANSACT10N 

^ka^eHv j! 128 !j >^a^ 

1 / . . . \ (RECIPIENT^ . . . MECIPIBfrt / . . . \ 
)/ \l STATE J ! ; il l STATE J/ \ 



120 



CONVERSATION 
MANAGER 



122 — TRANSACTION 
>^ MANAGER 



RECIPIENT] 
STATE 



RECIPIENT 
STATE . 



! (RECIPIENT^ (RECIPIENT! , J ! ! ^BECIPIEMfl fRECIPIBif) ! 
iL..yMrLyilZ^3 j^3] H_ ST ATE J _ L STATE _Jj 



FIG. 12A 



RECEIVES 
DONE FROM 
TRANSACTION 

MANAGER 




,126 


130 




132 


RECEIVES 




OPEN TX 




FROM'HS 


134 


•124 


136 




RECEIVES ACKNOWLEDGMENT 
FROM RECIPIENT 



RECEIVES REPLY FROM 



RECIPIENT 

S ACKNOW 
FOR REPLY 



RECEIVES ACKNOWLEDGMENT 



6NSD0C1D: <CP 0825788A2_I_> 



24 



EP 0 825 788 A2 



FIG. 13 



\ 



88 

t 



1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


1 


8 


9 


-f — 

0 


Q 


M 


E 


R 


T 


Y 


V 


I 


0 


P 


A 


S 


0 


F 


G 


H 


J 


K 


L 




Z 


X 


C 


V 


B 


N 


H 


< 


> 


\ 
1 



84 



FIG. 14 



304 



312 



306 

L 



HLfl 




VLfl 






300 
/ 



/ 



314 



MS-SHE 



IS-41C 
IS-136 
A-INTERFACE 



GNSCXXtD: <EP. _0825788A2_L> 



25 



EP 0 825 788 A2 



314 



1 



310 



MS 
SHE 



1 



B5 



REGISTRATION 



FIG. 15A 

30 8^ 3 06^ 3 04^ 30^ 312^ 



MSC 



REGISTRATION 



ACCEPTED 



ACCEPTED 



VLR 



REGNOT 



regnot 



HLR 



REGNOT 



regnot 



MC 



SHE 



314^ 3 10^ 



MS 
SHE 



BS 



SMS DELIVERY 



DELIVERY JK 



FIG. 15B 

308 X_ 3 06^ 3 04^ 



MSC 



HESSAGE 



AK 



VLR 



SHSREQ 



Sfflsreq [SMSADOfl] 



SMDPP 



sndpp(AK] 



HLR 



SHSREQ 



sasreq 



302^ 312^ 



HC 



SHSREQ (MINI 



smsreq 



SHE 



SMDPP 



sndpp [AK] 



304 



312 



FIG. 16 

306 



HLR 




VLR 






300 



314 

I 



MS-SME 



BU3DOCID: <EP 0825788A2_I_> 



26 



EP 0 825 788 A2 



CO 

i 

CO 



CO 



y 



.y 



^ 2 



y 



CO 



CO 



J* 



CD 



a> 



CO 



y 



r y 



CJ 



C71 



CO 
»— « 
CO 

3 



C-> 
CJ> 



y 



i 



CO 
»— I 

CO 



8 



27 

BNSOOCID: <EP_ _0825788A2.I.> 



EP 0 825 788 A2 




28 

6NSD0CID: <EP 0825788A2_L> 



(19) 



J 



Europaisches Patentamt 
European Patent Office 
Office europeen des brevets 



(12) 



(id EP 0 825 788 A3 

EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION 



(88) Date of publication A3: 

29.12.1999 Bulletin 1999/52 

(43) Date of publication A2: 

25.02.1998 Bulletin 1998/09 



(51) Intel .6; H04Q 7/14, H04Q 7/20, 
H04M 3/50 



(21) Application number: 97306279.7 

(22) Date of filing: 19.08.1997 



(84) Designated Contracting States: 


• Yat Chung Woo, Thomas 


AT BE CH DE DK ES Fl FR GB GR IE IT LI LU MC 


Red Bank, New Jersey 07701 (US) 


NL PT SE 


• Sabnani, Kumar Krishan 




Westf ield, New Jersey 07090 (US) 


(30) Priority: 22.08.1996 US 700914 






(74) Representative: 


(71) Applicant: LUCENT TECHNOLOGIES INC. 


Buckley, Christopher Simon Thirsk et al 


Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974-0636 (US) 


Lucent Technologies (UK) Ltd, 




5 Mornington Road 


(72) Inventors: 


Woodford Green, Essex IG8 0TU (GB) 


• La Porta, Thomas F. 




Thornwood, New York 10594 (US) 





(54) Two-way wireless messaging system with flexible messaging 



CO 
< 

00 
00 

in 

CM 
00 

o 

CL 
LJJ 



(57) A system and method for two-way wireless 
messaging is disclosed. A plurality of messages are 
stored within a user agent of the two-way messaging 
network. The messages correspond to those selected 
by a subscriber of a two-way messaging service. The 
messages are encoded and include control information. 
An originating message transfer code is transmitted 
from the two-way messaging device of the subscriber to 
the two-way messaging network. The originating mes- 
sage transfer code includes, among other things a mes- 



sage number and a modifier that specifies customiza- 
tions that are to be applied to a message. The originating 
message code is then expanded within the user agent, 
and the expanded message is forwarded to desired des- 
tinations based on the content of the originating mes- 
sage transfer code. In one aspect of the present inven- 
tion, the message can be encoded with at least one con- 
trol tag and in another aspect of the invention, the mes- 
sage can be encoded with paired control tags that de- 
limit the beginning and end portions of a message to 
which control should be applied. 



FIG. 1 



\ 



1 



on fa 

WW DO) 




I 9HIDCC 
IM*OC 



caller 
7ae*oc 



Pmted toy Jouve. 75001 PARIS (FR) 



BNSDOCID. 'EP. _0825788A3J_> 



EP 0 825 788 A3 



European Patent 
Office 



EUROPEAN SEARCH REPORT 



Application Number 

EP 97 30 6279 



DOCUMENTS CONSIDERED TO BE RELEVANT 



Caiegory 



Citation of document with indication, where appropriate, 
ot relevant passages 



Relevant 
to claim 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE 
APPLICATION (lnt.CL6) 



WO 94 23394 A (MOTOROLA INC) 
13 October 1994 (1994-10-13) 



* page 3, line 24 - page 7, line 14 * 

* page 10, line 20 - page 12, line 1 * 

* page 18, line 5 - page 19, line 3 * 

* page 25, line 15 - line 26 * 

* figures 1,3 * 

WO 93 16564 A (ERICSSON TELEFON AB L M) 
19 August 1993 (1993-08-19) 

* page 17, line 15 - page 18, line 4 * 

* page 25, line 24 - page 26, line 27 * 

* figures 1,2,5 * 

EP 0 821 535 A (LUCENT TECHNOLOGIES INC) 
28 January 1998 (1998-01-28) 

* column 2, line 5 - column 3, line 46 * 

* column 4, line 51 - column 5, line 47 4 

* column 7, line 19 - line 51 * 

* column 16, line 20 - line 41 * 

* figures 1,3,9,13 * 



1,2,4,5, 

8-10, 

13-15, 

18,22, 

24,26 



H04Q7/14 
HO4Q7/20 
H04M3/5O 



10,22 



1-30 



TECHNICAL FIELDS 
SEARCHED (lnl.CI.6J 



G088 
H04Q 
H04M 



The present search report has been drawn up for ail claims 



THE HAGUE 



L'4e d ccrrpttnon ol me tearch 



3 November 1999 



Ejurmner 

Bare!, C 



CATEGORY OF CrTED DOCUMENTS 

X : particularly relevant if taken alone 

Y : parbcuUriy relevant rf contorted with another 

document of the tame category 
A . technological background 
O : non-written ditcJoiure 
P . aihnmwdiaiw document 



T * theory or prmepl* underlying (he invention 
E : earlier patent documtnt, but ptAfaahed on. or 

after the Wing dale 
D : document ert*d in the application 
L : document cied for other re 



& : member of the »im» patent tamdy. corraaponcmg 
document 



6NSDOCID: <EP 0825788A3_I_> 



2 



EP 0 825 788 A3 



ANNEX TO THE EUROPEAN SEARCH REPORT 
ON EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION NO. 



EP 97 30 6279 



This annex lists the patent family members relating to the patent documents cited in the above-mentioned European search report 
The members are as contained in the European Patent Office HOP hie on 

The European Patent Ottice is tn no way liable to- tnese particulars which a/o merely given for the purpose of information. 

03-11-1999 



Pal sot document 








Patent family 


Publication 


ated in search report 




date 




member(s) 


dale 


WO 9423394 


A 


13-10-1994 


US 


5426594 A 


20-06-1995 








AU 


6417394 A 


24-10-1994 


WO 9316564 


A 


19-08-1993 


SE 


469867 B 


27-09-1993 








AU 


679438 B 


03-07-1997 








AU 


3652193 A 


03-09-1993 








CA 


2129544 A 


18-08-1993 








CN 


1079090 A 


01-12-1993 








EP 


0627154 A 


07-12-1994 








FI 


943770 A 


05-10-1994 








JP 


7503826 T 


20-04-1995 








MX 


9300826 A 


01-09-1993 








NO 


943030 A 


31-08-1994 








SE 


9200466 A 


18-08-1993 








US 


5699053 A 


16-12-1997 


EP 0821535 


A 


28-01-1998 


US 


5918158 A 


29-06-1999 








CA 


2205858 A 


24-01-1998 








JP 


10079964 A 


24-03-1998 



l 

1 

U- - 

o 

iu For more details about this annex . see Official Journal of the European Patent Office, No. 12/82 



BNSOOCID: <EP 0825788A3J_> 



3