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niiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 

di) EP 1 148 493 A2T 



(12) EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION 



(43) 


Date of publication: 


(51) IntCl7: G11 B 20/18, G1 1 B 7/00, 




24.1 0.2001 Bulletin 2001/43 




G11B 19/02 G11B 27/36 


(21) 


Application number: 01303253.7 






(22) 


Date of filing: 06.04.2001 






(84) 


Designated Contracting States: 


(72) 


Inventors: 




AT BE CH CY DE DK ES Fl FR GB GR IE IT LI LU 


• 


Ko, Jung-wan 




MCNLPTSETR 




Yongln-clty, Kyungkl-do (KR) 




Designated Extension States: 


• 


Chung, Hyun-kwon 




AL LT LV MK RO SI 




Kwangju-gun, Kyungki-do (KR) 


(30) 


Priority: 08.04.2000 KR 2000018500 


(74) 


Representative: Robinson, Ian Michael et a! 




10.04.2000 US 195473 P 




Appleyard Lees, 




14.03.2001 US 805444 




15 Clare Road 








Halifax HX1 2HY (GB) 


(71) 


Applicant: SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO. LTD. 








Suwon, Kyungkl-do (KR) 







(54) Method of verifying defect management area information of optical disc and apparatus for 
performing the same 




Europaisches Patentamt 
European Patent Office 
Office europeen des brevets 



(57) A method of verifying the defect management 
area (DMA) information of a recordable and reproduci- 
ble optical disc, and a test apparatus for performing the 
same. The method of verifying the DMA information in- 
cludes selecting one among a plurality of test modes for 
verifying DMA information, setting a test reference ac- 
cording to the selected mode, generating test informa- 
tion from the DMA information, which is generated or 
updated by a recording and reproducing apparatus to 



be tested, according to the verification test mode, and 
executing the test for verifying the test information using 
the test reference in the selected mode Accordingly, it 
is easily verified that a recording and reproducing appa- 
ratus properly translates and processes defect informa- 
tion, by using a different test disc (10, 11, 12, 13), which 
is made using a mirror file (1,2,3) with pre-fixed defect 
information which is not related to actual defects on a 
disc, depending on the DMA information verification test 
modes. 



FIG. 1 




Printed by Jouve, 75001 PARIS (FR) 



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EP 1 148 493 A2 



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Description 

[0001 ] The present invention relates to optical disc re- 
cording and reproducing technology, and more particu- 
larly, to a method of verifying the defect management 5 
area information of a recordable and reproducible opti- 
cal disc, and a test apparatus for performing the same. 
[0002] Digital versatile disc-random access memory 
(DVD-RAM) discs have a defect management function 
of replacing defective areas with normal recordable ar- 10 
eas and storing information necessary for the defect 
management in a portion referred to as a defect man- 
agement area (DMA) thereon. DMA information is re- 
peatedly recorded in four portions on a disc: two portions 
in a lead-in area and two portions in a lead-out area. 1$ 
DMA information is composed of a disc definition struc- 
ture (DDS), a primary defect list (PDL) and a secondary 
defect list (SDL). DMA information includes information 
on a spare area and important information on the start 
logical sector number of each zone, in addition to infor- 20 
mation on defects, which are detected during certifica- 
tion performed while a disc is being initialized or during 
use of a disc. 

[0003] Some information included in the DMA can be 
immediately read and used. On the other hand, the DMA 25 
includes information which varies with the positions and 
the number of defects on a disc. That is, some informa- 
tion, for example, the position information of the start 
logical sector number of each zone or the position infor- 
mation of a first logical sector number, can be obtained 30 
only by performing complex computation according to a 
given algorithm based on defect information registered 
in the DMA. 

[0004] Since such DMA information is closely related 
to a physical data recording position, a recording medi- 35 
um such as an optical disc, which can be used in a given 
recording and reproducing apparatus even if DMA infor- 
mation on the disc has been generated or updated in 
another recording and reproducing apparatus, may 
have a compatibility problem between the recording and <o 
reproducing apparatuses when the DMA information is 
wrong. To overcome this problem, an apparatus and 
method of verifying that a recording and reproducing ap- 
paratus correctly reads DMA information from a disc and 
correctly records DMA information on the disc is de- 45 
sired. 

[0005] One aim of the present invention is to provide 
a method of verifying that defect management area 
(DMA) information on a disc is correctly generated and 
updated in an optical disc recording and reproducing ap- so 
paratus which detects defects on the disc and records 
information on the defects in a DMA. 
[0006] A second aim of the present invention is to pro- 
vide a method of verifying that defect management area 
(DMA) information on a disc is correctly generated and ss 
updated in a recording and reproducing apparatus for 
repeatedly recordable and reproducible DVD-RAM 
discs, which detects defects on the disc and records in- 



formation on the defects in a DMA. 
[0007] A third aim of the present invention is to provide" 
a method of verifying that an optical recording and re- 
producing apparatus always reads and processes de- 
fect information properly, under the same conditions 
without being influenced by an actual state of a disc hav- 
ing defect information. 

[0008] A fourth aim of the present invention is to pro- 
vide a test apparatus for verifying that defect manage- 
ment area (DMA) information on a disc is correctly gen- 
erated and updated in an optical disc recording and re- 
producing apparatus which detects defects on the disc 
and records information on the defects in a DMA. 
[0009] A fifth aim of the present invention is to provide 
an apparatus for testing an optical recording and repro- 
ducing apparatus to verify that it always reads and proc- 
esses defect information properly, under the same con- 
ditions without being influenced by an actual state of a 
disc having defect information. 

[0010] Additional aims and advantages of the inven- 
tion will be set forth in part in the description which fol- 
lows and, in part, will be apparent from the description, 
or may be learned by practice of the invention. 
[001 1 ] According to one aspect of the invention there 
is provided a method of verifying that DMA information 
is properly generated or updated in a recording and re- 
producing apparatus which records or reproduces infor- 
mation on orfrom an optical disc with DMA information. 
The method includes selecting one among a plurality of 
test modes for verifying the DMA information and setting 
a test reference according to the selected mode, gener- 
ating test information from the DMA information, which 
is generated or updated by the recording and reproduc- 
ing apparatus to be tested, according to the verification 
test mode, and executing the test for verifying the test 
information using the test reference in the selected 
mode. 

[0012] Also according to the present invention there 
is provided an apparatus for testing a recording and re- 
producing apparatus which records or reproduces infor- 
mation on or from a recording and reproducing optical 
disc with DMA information to check whether the DMA 
information is properly generated or updated. The ap- 
paratus includes a modified drive which generates test 
information from the generated/updated DMA informa- 
tion of a test disc, which is obtained after the recording 
and reproducing apparatus processes the test disc with 
a DMA mirror file corresponding to a selected mode 
among a plurality of DMA information verification test 
modes for verifying the DMA information in the selected 
mode; and a verifier which compares the test informa- 
tion with predetermined test information of the selected 
mode to verify the test result. 

[0013] These and other aspects of the invention are 
defined in the appended claims. 
[0014] For a better understanding of the invention, 
and to show how embodiments of the same may be car- 
ried into effect, reference will now be made, by way of 



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EP1 148 493 A2 



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example, to the accompanying diagrammatic drawings 
in which: 

Figure 1 shows an embodiment of a test apparatus 
for performing a method of verifying defect manage- 5 
ment area (DMA) information of an optical disc ac- 
cording to the present invention; 

Figure 2 shows the states of test discs used in the 
test apparatus of Figure 1 ; 

Figure 3 is a flowchart of a method of verifying DMA 
information of an optical disc according to an em- 
bodiment of the present invention; and 

Figure 4 is a block diagram of a drive to be tested 
shown in Figure 1 . 

[0015] Reference will now made in detail to the 
present preferred embodiments of the present inven- 
tion, examples of which are illustrated in the accompa- 
nying drawings, wherein like reference numerals refer 
to the like elements throughout. The embodiments are 
described below in order to explain the present invention 
by referring to the figures. 

[001 6] An optical disc used in the present invention is 
a phase change recording DVD- RAM having a capacity 
of 4.7 gigabytes (GB). DVD-RAM discs are defined in 
the DVD specification for rewritable disc version 2.0. 
[001 7] Figure 1 is a block diagram of a test apparatus 
for performing a method of verifying the defect manage- 
ment area (DMA) information of an optical disc accord- 
ing to the present invention. 

[001 8] A first test type disc (hereinafter referred to as 
a C-1 disc) 10 is obtained by making known physical 
defects at predetermined positions on a blank disc. A 
drive to be tested 20 performs initialization with certifi- 
cation or initialization without certification on the C-1 
disc 10 to generate DMA information and records the 
generated DMA information on the C-1 disc 10. A disc 
with DMA 30 is withdrawn from the drive to be tested 20 
and loaded into a modified drive 40, which is capable of 
reading DMA information. 

[0019] The modified drive 40 is manufactured to be 
used exclusively for a test and may be referred to as a 
reference drive. The modified drive 40 reads only the 
DMA information from the disc with DMA 30 and gener- 
ates a DMA mirror file 50 of the read DMA information 
in a file system. The drive to be tested 20 is realized as, 
for example, a DVD-RAM recording and reproducing 
apparatus, and is not designed to generate a mirror file 
of the DMA information. 

[0020] When the recording and reproducing architec- 
ture of the DVD-RAM recording and reproducing appa- 
ratus 20 is divided into a file layer, a host interface layer 
for interfacing a host computer with the recording and 
reproducing apparatus, a physical drive layer for record- 
ing and reproducing physical signals, and a recording 



medium layer, since physical sector numbers of a disc 
are assigned by a recording medium and a physical 
drive, and logical sector numbers of a disc are assigned 
by a host interface and a file system, writing and reading 
of DMA information is performed in the physical drive 
layer and the layers therebelow. 
[0021] Generally, when data is recorded on a record- 
ing medium in a computer, a recording start position is 
determined based on a logical sector number assigned 
by a file system. The file position indicated by a logical 
sector number is logical and relative position informa- 
tion. When a recording operation is performed in a drive, 
the logical sector number needs to be converted into a 
physical sector number indicating a position at which da- 
ta is actually recorded on a disc taking into account the 
physical state such as the state of defects of the disc. 
However, when user data is actually recorded by the file 
system, the user data is transmitted to a recording and 
reproducing apparatus using only the logical sector 
number, and the recording and reproducing apparatus 
converts the logical sector number into the physical sec- 
tor number, which indicates a position at which the data 
is actually recorded, using defect management informa- 
tion. Accordingly, when defect management information 
contained on a disc has erroneously been read and writ- 
ten in a recording and reproducing apparatus, data can- 
not be exactly read from or written to the disc in another 
recording and reproducing apparatus. 
[0022] Moreover, in the case of a DVD-RAM disc, eve- 
ry defect management process is supposed to be per- 
formed by a drive so that the file system or the host in- 
terface can record or reproduce a file without using in- 
formation related to a completed physical defect man- 
agement process. Accordingly, most of the drives are 
not provided with a function of recording or reproducing 
information in or from a DMA, and moreover, are not pro- 
vided with a standard command for recording or repro- 
ducing information in or from the DMA. However, an en- 
vironment must be prepared in any way such that data 
can be read by a computer, which can analyze DMA in- 
formation, to determine whether the DMA information is 
properly formed, and correct information must be able 
to be recorded in a corresponding DMA to make a stand- 
ard test disc. In order to effectively perform such oper- 
ations, a modified drive for recording or reproducing in- 
formation in or from the DMA is provided. This modified 
drive can be easily designed or obtained by those skilled 
in the art, and thus a description thereof will be omitted. 
[0023] A verifier 60 compares the DMA mirror file 50 
for the C-1 disc 10, which is generated by the modified 
drive 40 from the disc with DMA 30 generated by the 
drive to be tested 20, with a reference DMA mirror file 
for the C-1 disc 10 in application, and informs the man- 
ufacturer or user of the result of performing this test to 
check whether DMA information is properly generated 
after initialization. The reference DMA mirror file is 
stored in advance or is provided from the outside (a con- 
troller for generating a DMA mirror file) although not 



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shown. The DMA mirror file can be referred to as test 
information, and the reference DMA mirror file can be 
referred to as predetermined test information. 
[0024] The verifier 60 stores therein or is provided 
with from the outside, a reference DMA mirror file for a 5 
second test type disc (referred to as a C-2 disc) 11 , a 
reference DMA mirror file for a third test type disc (re- 
ferred to as a C-3 disc) 12 and a reference DMA mirror 
file for a fourth test type disc (referred to as a C-4 disc) 
1 3 in addition to the reference DMA mirror file for the C- 10 

I disc 10. 

[0025] An adder 70 adds the reference DMA mirror 
file 1 for the C-2 disc on the C-1 disc 1 0 and provides 
the result to the modified drive 40. Then, the modified 
drive 40 produces the C-2 disc 1 1 . The adder 70 is pro* *5 
vided outside the modified drive 40 for clear understand- 
ing of the present invention, but actually it is preferable 
to provide the adder 70 within the modified drive 40. In 
other words, the reference DMA mirror file for the C-2 
disc 1 1 is recorded on the C-1 disc 1 0 using the modified 20 
drive 40. 

[0026] The reference DMA mirror file 1 for the C-2 disc 

I I has DMA with pre-fixed contents regardless of the 
state of defects of a disc on which a C-2 mirror file is 
recorded, and a supplementary spare area (SSA) is not 25 
full. 

[0027] When loaded with the C-2 disc 1 1 , the drive to 
be tested 20 enters one of three reinitialization modes, 
i.e., reinitialization with certification, reinitialization with 
secondary defect list (SDL) conversion, or reinitializa- 30 
tion with clearing G2 list and SDL, to generate or update 
DMA information, and provides the disc 30 with DMA 
information that has been generated or updated in the 
reinitialization mode. When loaded with the disc 30 with 
the DMA information, which is generated or updated by 35 
initialization, the modified drive 40 reads only the DMA 
information and generates a mirror file 50 thereof. The 
DMA mirror file 50 is provided to the verifier 60. 
[0028] In the reinitialization with certification, a disc is 
initialized such that only a P list is maintained, and an *o 
old G1 list, an old G2 list and an SDL are disposed. Dur- 
ing this reinitialization, defects of all sectors, which are 
detected by certification, are registered in a new G1 list. 
A new G2 list and a new SDL are in a null state. When 
the new G1 list overflows with the defects of the sectors, 45 
. the remaining defects that cannot be registered in the 
new G1 list can be registered in the new SDL. 
[0029] Here, a list of defective sectors, which are de- 
tected by the test performed by a manufacturer in a fac- 
tory, is referred to as a P list. A list of defective sectors, 50 
which are detected during user certification, is referred 
to as a G1 list. A list, which is obtained by converting an 
old SDL during reinitialization, is referred to as a G2 list. 
Each of the P list, the G1 list and the G2 list falls under 
a primary defect list (PDL). 55 
[0030] In the reinitialization with SDL list conversion, 
the SDL entries, which are processed according to a lin- 
ear replacement algorithm, are erased and replaced 



6 

with PDL entries (i.e., the G2 list) that are obtained by 
processing 1 6 reassigned sectors, which are included" 
in a defective block, among the SDL entries according 
to a slipping replacement algorithm. The new SDL is in 
a null state. However, the P list and the old G1 list are 
maintained, and the entries of the old G2 list and the 
entries of the SDL are registered in the new G2 list. 
[0031] The reinitialization including the clearing of the 
G2 list and SDL is to initialize a disc only using the P list 
while using the disc, or to return to the latest certified 
state by removing the sectors that are reassigned for 
linear replacement. In this reinitialization, the SDL and 
the G2 list in the PDL are disposed, and the updated 
PDL includes the P list and the G1 list. These three rein- 
itialization modes are defined in the DVD specification 
for Rewritable disc version 2.0. 

[0032] Accordingly, the C-2 disc 11 for reinitialization 
testing preferably includes all the types of defects, i.e., 
P, G1 and G2. Particularly, sufficient SDL entries are re- 
quired for testing list conversion. In other words, it is 
preferable that the C-2 disc 1 1 has sufficient PDL entries 
to result in overflow after the list conversion to test an 
overflow state during the list conversion. For example, 
when old PDL entries are represented by m, and old 
SDL entries are represented by n, since the maximum 
number of entries of a new PDL, which is obtained after 
the SDL list is converted into a G2 list by reinitialization, 
is limited to 7679, a number n of SDL entries, which sat- 
isfies the condition of m+n*1 6>7679, are preferably pre- 
pared before reinitialization to test the overflow state of 
the list conversion. 

[0033] In addition, defects are located to be concen- 
trated before and after a position, which is most proper 
to determine whether the positions of a start logical sec- 
tor number and a first logical sector number, which are 
determined depending on the positions and the number 
of defects on the C-2 disc 11 , are exact, for example, a 
position corresponding to a logical sector number 0. Al- 
ternatively, defects are disposed on the C-2 disc 1 1 such 
that the start and last sectors of each zone are proc- 
essed as defects to increase the test effect. 
[0034] The verifier 60 compares the DMA mirror file 
50 for the C-2 disc 1 1 with the reference DMA mirror file 
for the C-2 disc 11 in application and informs the man- 
ufacturer or the user of the test result indicating whether 
the DMA information generated during the reinitializa- 
tion mode is correctly generated or updated. 
[0035] The adder 70 adds the reference DMA mirror 
file 2 for the C-3 disc 1 2 on the C-1 disc 1 0 and provides 
the result to the modified drive 40. Then, the modified 
drive 40 produces the C-3 disc 12. The reference DMA 
mirror file 2 for the C-3 disc 12 has DMA with pre-fixed 
contents regardless of the actual state of physical de- 
fects of a disc on which a C-3 mirror file is recorded, and 
a supplementary spare area (SSA) includes sufficient 
SDL defects to be full, 

[0036] When loaded with the C-3 disc 12, the drive to 
be tested 20 tests for whether the state, in which the 



EP 1 148 493 A2 



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EP1 148 493 A2 



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SSA of the corresponding disc is full, is exactly deter- 
mined, and informs the user. In addition, the drive to be 
tested 20 expands the SSA, which is in full condition, 
and thus the C-3 disc 1 2 becomes the disc 30 with DMA 
information which is updated according to the expansion 
of the SSA. When loaded with the disc 30 with the DMA 
information updated according to the expansion of the 
SSA, the modified drive 40 reads only the DMA infor- 
mation to generate a mirror file and provides the DMA 
mirror file 50 to the verifier 60. 

[0037] In the state in which the SSA is full, information 
on the expansion of the SSA is not embedded, but only 
information for determining the size and position of the 
SSA is changed. After the expansion of the SSA, infor- 
mation is converted to indicate that the SSA is not full. 
Accordingly, if reference information does not exist, it is 
difficult to determine whether a relevant drive normally 
expands the SSA. Therefore, it is preferable to use a 
reference DMA mirror file. 

[0038] When spare area full flags, one for a primary 
spare area and the other for the SSA, which are embed- 
ded in the SDL of a reference DMA mirror file provided 
as such reference information, is recorded to corre- 
spond to the state in which the SSA is full, the spare 
area full flags can be set to allow checking that, after the 
expansion of the SSA, the spare area full flag for the 
primary spare area is maintained, and the spare area 
full flag for the SSA is converted to indicate the state 
that the SSA is not full. 

[0039] Additionally, a spare area for defect manage- 
ment on a disc is divided into a primary spare area, a 
secondary spare area and an SSA. The primary spare 
area, which is first assigned when a disc is initialized for 
replacement of defects, is primarily used for slipping re- 
placement. The remaining spare area can be used as 
the secondary spare area for linear replacement. The 
secondary spare area, which is used for linearly replac- 
ing defects occurring while a disc is in use, is defined as 
a spare area which remains after the primary spare area 
is used for slipping replacement during the initialization. 
Alternatively, the secondary spare area may be sepa- 
rately assigned. The SSA is used for linearly replacing 
defects occurring while the disc is in use. The SSA is 
additionally assigned while the disc is in use after the 
initialization. 

[0040] When a spare area for linear replacement is 
lacking during the use of a disc after initialization, an 
SSA for linear replacement is assigned in such a man- 
ner that the SSA is gradually increased by a predeter- 
mined size in a reverse direction starting from the end 
of a logical volume area in a file system. The SSA is also 
used in the reverse direction starting from the end of the 
logical volume area during linear replacement. 
[0041] The verifier 60 compares the DMA mirror file 
50 for the C-3 disc with the reference DMA mirror file for 
the C-3 disc in application and informs the manufacturer 
or the user of the result of testing of the proper extension 
of the SSA. Since the SSA is reversely assigned starting 



from the end of the logical volume area of the file system^ 
when the test is performed using the C-3 disc, a file sys- 
tem verifier, although not shown, is preferably used for 
checking whether the assignment of the SSA complies 

5 with a file system of a prescribed standard. 

[0042] The adder 70 adds the reference DMA mirror 
file 3 for the C-4 disc on the C-1 disc 10 and provides 
the result to the modified drive 40. Then, the modified 
drive 40 produces the C-4 disc 1 3. The reference DMA 

10 mirror file 3 for the C-4 disc 13 has DMA with pre-fixed 
contents regardless of the defect state of a disc on which 
a C-4 mirror file is recorded, and a wrong start logical 
sector number of each zone is recorded on purpose. 
[0043] When loaded with the C-4 disc 1 3, the drive to 

15 be tested 20 performs recording and directly provides 
the result of the recording to the verifier 60, without load- 
ing the disc with DMA 30 on the modified drive 40 to 
allow the generation of the DMA mirror file 50. The drive 
to be tested 20 must be able to detect wrong start logical 

20 sector numbers, read data based on the previously 
stored DMA information, and must not write any user 
data to a disc. 

[0044] If the wrong start logical sector number of each 
zone is written to a disc, it is determined that a recording 

25 state that the previous drive determined to be right is 
wrong. In this case, since the previous drive recorded 
data based on the wrong logical sector number informa- 
tion written to the DMA, previously recorded data can 
be seriously damaged when new data is recorded on 

30 the disc or when the previously recorded data is updat- 
ed. Moreover, it is preferable to read the previously re- 
corded data based on a system of calculation used by 
the previous drive. 

[0045] It is preferable that a recording operation of the 

35 DMA information on a disc is not performed when the 
disc, to which the wrong start logical sector number of 
each zone is written, is loaded into the drive to be tested 
20, even if a user starts the operation. Accordingly, if the 
drive to be tested 20 does not perform the recording op- 

40 eration even if the user starts the recording operation to 
write data to the C-4 disc 13, the verifier 60 informs the 
user that the drive to be tested 20 operates normally. If 
not so, the verifier 60 informs the user that the drive to 
be tested 20 does not operate normally. 

45 [0046] Such a test of a disc, to which a wrong start 
logical sector number is written, can be performed by 
an engineer's manual operation and a determination of 
whether the drive to be tested 20 operates normally. 
[0047] Figure 2 shows the state of the test disc which 

so is used in the test apparatus of Figure 1 . Known physical 
defects are made on a blank reference disc 1 00, thereby 
producing a C-1 disc 101. Different methods may be 
used for making the known physical defects on the blank 
reference disc 100. One example is making erroneous 

55 pid on a stamper which is used for disc production. A 
C-2 mirror file is written to the C-1 disc 101, thereby pro- 
ducing the C-2 disc 102. A C-3 mirror file is written to 
the C-1 disc 101, thereby producing the C-3 disc 103. 



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EP 1 148 493 A2 



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A C-4 mirror file is written to the C-1 disc 101 , thereby 
producing the C-4 disc 104. The C-2 disc 102 r the C-3 
disc 103 and the C-4 disc 104, from which DMA infor- 
mation is erased, become a C-1 disc 105. 
[0048] The C-2 mirror file has the pre-fixed contents 
of the DMA which are written to a disc regardless of the 
defective state of the disc on which the C-2 mirror file 
will be recorded, and the SSA is not full. The C-3 mirror 
file has the pre-fixed contents of the DMA which are writ- 
ten to a disc regardless of the defective state of the disc 
on which the C-3 mirror file will be recorded, and the 
SSA is full. The C-4 mirror file has the start sector 
number of each zone among the pre-fixed contents of 
the DMA written wrongly to a disc on purpose, regard- 
less of the defective state of the disc on which the C-4 
mirror file will be recorded. 

[0049] A test disc is produced using a mirror file be- 
cause it is difficult to make a large number of defects 
(for example, several thousand defects) at predeter- 
mined positions. In addition, since defects may occur at 
undesirable positions even if defects are made at the 
predetermined positions, a problem that defect informa- 
tion varies with the physical characteristics of a disc may 
occur when a DMA is formed on the disc through a nor- 
mal process. Particularly, in the case where the DMA 
information written to the C-2 disc is updated by reini- 
tialization after use of the C-2 disc, the C-2 disc cannot 
be used as a test disc again. However, if standardized 
DMA contents and a modified drive which can record 
the contents are prepared, a disc with the same condi- 
tions can be reproduced at any time. For this reason, 
the test disc is made using a mirror file. 
[0050] Figure 3 is a flowchart of a method of verifying 
DMA information of an optical disc according to an em- 
bodiment of the present invention. A DMA verification 
test mode is set using a verification menu or key in step 
S1 01 . When the DMA verification test mode is set, one 
of the displayed verification test modes (a first verifica- 
tion test mode: initialization with certification and initial- 
ization without certification, a second verification test 
mode: reinitialization with certification, reinitialization 
with list conversion and reinitialization with clearing a 
defect list, a third verification test mode for verifying the 
expansion of the SSA, and a fourth verification test 
mode for verifying that recording is performed based on 
wrong DMA information) is selected in step S102. A 
DMA mirror file is selected according to the selected ver- 
ification test mode in step S103. 
[0051] In step S104, the selected verification test 
mode is executed using the selected DMA mirror file. 
When initialization without certification is selected as the 
verification test mode, it is checked whether the result 
of the test performed by the test apparatus of Figure 1 
using the C-1 disc complies with a predetermined DMA 
structure, and the start logical sector number of each 
zone is also checked. When initialization with certifica- 
tion is selected as the verification test mode, it is 
checked whether the result of the test performed by the 



test apparatus of Figure 1 using the C-1 disc complies 
with a predetermined DMA structure, and a list of the 
known defects of the C-1 disc and the start logical sector 
number of each zone are also checked. When reinitial- 
5 ization with certification is selected as the verification 
test mode, it is checked whether the result of the test 
performed by the test apparatus of Figure 1 using the 
C-2 disc complies with a predetermined DMA structure, 
and it is checked whether the P list is maintained. In ad- 
dition, a list of the known defects of the disc (which are 
the same as the intentional defects of the C-1 disc) and 
the start logical sector number of each zone are also 
checked. When reinitialization with list conversion is se- 
lected as the verification test mode, it is checked wheth- 
er the result of the test performed by. the test apparatus 
of Figure 1 using the C-2 disc complies with a predeter- 
mined DMA structure, and it is checked whether the P 
and G1 lists are maintained. In addition, PDL and SDL 
for the list conversion and the start logical sector number 
of each zone are also checked. When reinitialization 
with clearing is selected as the verification test mode, it 
is checked whether the result of the test performed by 
the test apparatus of Figure 1 using the C-2 disc com- 
plies with a predetermined DMA structure, it is checked 
whether the P and G1 lists are maintained, and it is 
checked whether the G2 list and SDL are erased. The 
start logical sector number of each zone is also checked. 
In the third verification test mode for verifying the expan- 
sion of the SSA, it is checked whether the result of the 
test performed by the test apparatus of Figure 1 using 
the C-3 disc complies with a predetermined DMA struc- 
ture. In addition, it is checked whether the result of the 
test complies with a predetermined file system, using a 
file system verifier. In the fourth verification test mode 
for testing start logical sector numbers, it is checked by 
the test apparatus of Figure 1 using the C-4 disc whether 
wrong start logical sector numbers are sorted, and it is 
checked whether user data is not written to the disc. 
[0052] Thereafter, the result of the selected verifica- 
tion test mode is displayed in step S105. Although not 
shown in Figure 3, the process of returning to the step 
S1 02 to select another verification mode and performing 
the steps S103 through S105 may be repeated until an 
end mode is set. 

[0053] Figure 4 shows the drive to be tested 20 having 
a light source 22 to emit light, a focusing element 24 to 
focus the light emitted from the light source 22 on a disc 
D, and a controller 26 which controls the light source 22. 
The verification process described above seeks to verify 
the proper operation of the controller 26. 
[0054] As described above, the present invention 
easily verifies that a recording and reproducing appara- 
tus properly translates and processes defect informa- 
tion and simply implements a test apparatus with low 
cost by using a different test disc, which is made using 
a mirror file with pre-fixed defect information which is 
not related to actual defects on a disc, depending on a 
test type. 



15 



20 



25 



30 



35 



40 



45 



50 



6 



11 



EP1 148 493 A2 



12 



[0055] Although a few embodiments of the present in- 
vention have been shown and described, it would be ap- 
preciated by those skilled in the art that changes may 
be made in these embodiments without departing from 
the principles of the invention, the scope of which is de- 
fined in the claims and their equivalents. 
[0056] The reader's attention is directed to all papers 
and documents which are filed concurrently with or pre- 
vious to this specification in connection with this appli- 
cation and which are open to public inspection with this 
specification, and the contents of all such papers and 
documents are incorporated herein by reference. 
[0057] All of the features disclosed in this specifica- 
tion (including any accompanying claims, abstract and 
drawings), and/or all of the steps of any method or proc- 
ess so disclosed, may be combined in any combination, 
except combinations where at least some of such fea- 
tures and/or steps are mutually exclusive. 
[0058] Each feature disclosed in this specification (in- 
cluding any accompanying claims, abstract and draw- 
ings), may be replaced by alternative features serving 
the same, equivalent or similar purpose, unless ex- 
pressly stated otherwise. Thus, unless expressly stated 
otherwise, each feature disclosed is one example only 
of a generic series of equivalent or similar features. 
[0059] The invention is not restricted to the details of 
the foregoing embodiment(s). The invention extend to 
any novel one, or any novel combination, of the features 
disclosed in this specification (including any accompa- 
nying claims, abstract and drawings), or to any novel 
one, or any novel combination, of the steps of any meth- 
od or process so disclosed. 

Claims 

1 . A method of verifying whether defect management 
area (DMA) information is properly generated or up- 
dated in a recording and reproducing apparatus 
which records or reproduces information on or from 
an optical disc with the DMA information, the meth- 
od comprising: 

selecting (S102) one among a plurality of test 
modes for verifying the DMA information and 
setting a test reference according to the select- 
ed verification test mode; 



2. The method of claim 1 , wherein the test information 
is a DMA mirror file (50). 

3. The method of claim 1 , wherein the test information 
5 is directly read from a DMA area on a disc used for 

a test. 

4. The method of claim 1 , further comprising display- 
ing a result of the executed test. 

10 

5. The method of claim 1 , wherein the plurality of test 
modes for verifying the DMA information are a first 
verification test mode for testing the generation of 
the DMA information depending upon initialization 

is with certification or initialization without certification 
of the optical disc, a second verification test mode 
for testing the generation or updating of the DMA 
information depending upon reinitialization with cer- 
tification, reinitialization with list conversion or rein- 
20 itialization with clearing a defect list of the optical 
disc, a third verification test mode for verifying ex- 
pansion of a supplementary spare area of the opti- 
cal disc, and a fourth verification test mode for ver- 
ifying that recording on the optical disc is performed 
25 based on wrong DMA information. 

6. The method of claim 5, wherein the generating of 
the test information comprises recording pre-fixed 
contents of a DMA and selecting a first mirror file 

30 (i) f in which the supplementary spare area is not 
full, in response to the selected verification test 
mode being the second verification mode, record- 
ing the pre-fixed contents of the DMA and selecting 
a second mirror file (2), in which the supplementary 

35 spare area is full, in response to the selected veri- 
fication test mode being the third verification mode, 
and selecting a third mirror file (3), in which a start 
sector number of each zone among the pre-fixed 
contents of the DMA is written wrongly on purpose, 

40 in response to the selected verification test mode 
being the fourth verification mode. 

7. The method of claim 5, further comprising: 

obtaining a first test disc (10) by forming 
45 known physical defects on a blank disc and using 
the first test disc in generating the test information 
in the first verification test mode. 



15 



20 



generating (S103) test information from the 
DMA information, which is generated or updat- 50 
ed by the recording and reproducing apparatus, 
according to the selected verification test 
mode; and 

executing (S1 04) a test for verifying the test in- ss 
formation using the test reference in the select- 
ed verification test mode. 



8. The method of claim 7, wherein the executing of the 
test comprises performing initialization without cer- 
tification, checking whether the DMA information of 
the first test disc (1 0) complies with a predetermined 
DMA structure, and checking a start logical sector 
number of each zone of the first test disc, in the first 
verification test mode. 

9. The method of claim 7, wherein the executing of the 
test comprises performing initialization with certifi- 



7 



13 



EP1 148 493 A2 



14 



cation, checking whether the DMA information of 
the first test disc (1 0) complies with a predetermined 
DMA structure, checking a list of the known defects 
of the first test disc, and checking a start logical sec- 
tor number of each zone, in the first verification test 5 
mode. 

1 0. The method of claim 7, further comprising obtaining 
a second test disc (11) by recording pre-fixed con- 
tents of a DMA in the first test disc, and recording 10 
a first mirror file indicating that the supplementary 
spare area is not full in the first test disc, and using 

the second test disc in generating the test informa- 
tion in the second verification test mode. 

15 

11. The method of claim 10, wherein the executing of 
the test comprises performing reinitialization with 
certification, checking whether the DMA information 
of the second test disc complies with a predeter- 
mined DMA structure, checking whether a P-list is 20 
maintained, checking a list of defects which are the 
same as the known defects of the first test disc, and 
checking the start logical sector number of each 
zone of the second test disc, in the second verifica- 
tion test mode. 25 

12. The method of claim 10, wherein the executing of 
the test comprises performing reinitialization with 
list conversion, and checking whether the DMA in- 
formation of the second test disc complies with a 30 
predetermined DMA structure, checking whether a 
P-list and a G1-list are maintained, checking a pri- 
mary defect list (PDL) and a secondary defect list 
(SDL) for the list conversion, and checking a start 
logical sector number of each zone of the second 35 
test disc, in the second verification test mode. 

13. The method of claim 12, wherein the generating of 
test information further comprises preparing suffi- 
cient SDL entries to test an overflow state during *o 
the list conversion, in the second verification test 
mode. 

14. The method of claim 10, wherein the executing of 

the test comprises performing reinitialization with 45 
clearing, checking whether the DMA information of 
the second test disc complies with a predetermined 
DMA structure, checking whether a P-list and a 
G1-Iist are maintained, checking whether a G2-list 
and a secondary defect list (SDL) are cleared, and so 
checking a start logical sector number of each zone 
of the second test disc, in the second verification 
test mode. 

15. The method of claim 7, further comprising obtaining ss 
a third test disc (1 2) by recording pre-fixed contents 

of a DMA in the first test disc, and recording a sec- 
ond mirror file (2) having sufficient secondary defect 



list (SDL) defects to fill the supplementary spare ar- 
ea, and using the third test disc in generating the" 
test information in the third verification test mode. 

16. The method of claim 15, wherein the executing of 
the test comprises checking whether the DMA in- 
formation of the third test disc complies with a pre- 
determined DMA structure when the selected veri- 
fication test mode is the third verification test mode. 

17. The method of claim 16, wherein the executing of 
the test further comprises checking whether the 
DMA information of the third test disc complies with 
a file system. 

1 8. The method of claim 7, further comprising obtaining 
a fourth test disc (1 3) by recording a third mirror file 
(3), in which a start sector number of each zone 
among pre-fixed contents of a DMA is written 
wrongly on purpose, in the first test disc, is used in 
the fourth verification test mode. 

19. The method of claim 18, wherein the executing of 
the test comprises checking whether the wrong 
start logical sector numbers on the fourth test disc 
are sorted out, checking whether user data is not 
written to the fourth test disc, and checking whether 
data is read based on the DMA information record- 
ed in advance, in the fourth verification test mode. 

20. A method of verifying whether defect management 
area (DMA) information is properly generated or up- 
dated in a recording and reproducing apparatus 
which records or reproduces information on or from 
an optical disc with the DMA information, the meth- 
od comprising: 

generating test information (50) from the DMA 
information, which is generated or updated by 
the recording and reproducing apparatus (20), 
according to a predetermined DMA verification 
test mode; and 

verifying the test information using a test refer- 
ence for verifying the DMA information. 

21 . The method of claim 20, wherein the test informa- 
tion is a DMA mirror file (50). 

22. The method of claim 20, wherein the generating of 
the test information (50) comprises directly reading 
the test information from a DMA area on a disc used 
for generating the test information. 

23. The method of claim 20, further comprising display- 
ing a result of the verification. 

24. The method of claim 20, wherein the predetermined 



8 



15 



EP 1 148 493 A2 



16 



DMA verification test mode is one among a first ver- 
ification test mode for testing the generation of the 
DMA information depending upon initialization with 
certification or initialization without certification, a 
second verification test mode for testing the gener- 5 
ation or updating of the DMA information depending 
upon reinitialization with certification, reinitialization 
with list conversion or reinitialization with clearing a 
defect list, a third verification test mode for verifying 
expansion of a supplementary spare area, and a to 
fourth verification test mode for verifying that re- 
cording is performed based on wrong DMA informa- 
tion. 

25. An apparatus for testing a recording and reproduc- 15 
ing apparatus which records or reproduces informa- 
tion on or from a recordable and reproducible opti- 
cal disc with defect management area (DMA) infor- 
mation to check whether the DMA information is 
properly generated or updated, the apparatus com- 20 
prising: 

a modified drive unit (40) for generating test in- 
formation (50) from the generated or updated 
DMA information of a test disc (10), which is 25 
obtained after the recording and reproducing 
apparatus (20) processes the test disc with a 
DMA mirror file corresponding to a selected 
mode among a plurality of DMA information 
verification test modes for verifying the DMA in- 30 
formation in the selected mode; and 

a verifier (60) for comparing the test information 
(50) with predetermined test information of the 
selected mode to verify a test result. 35 

26. The apparatus of claim 25, wherein the test infor- 
mation (50) is a DMA mirror file. 

27. The apparatus of claim 25, wherein the modified *o 
drive unit (40) reads the test information from a 
DMA area on the test disc and provides the test in- 
formation to the verifier (60). 

28. The apparatus of claim 25, wherein the plurality of 45 
test modes for verifying DMA information are a first 
verification test mode for testing the generation of 
the DMA information depending upon initialization 
with certification or initialization without certification, 

a second verification test mode for testing the gen- 50 
eration or updating of the DMA information depend- • 
ing upon reinitialization with certification, reinitiali- 
zation with list conversion or reinitialization with 
clearing a defect list, a third verification test mode 
for verifying expansion of a supplementary spare 55 
area, and a fourth verification test mode for verifying 
that recording is performed based on wrong DMA 
information. 



29. The apparatus of claim 28, wherein the test disc is_ 
a first test disc (1 0) on which known physical defects 
are formed on a blank disc, in the first verification 
test mode. 

30. The apparatus of claim 29, wherein the verifier (60) 
checks whether the DMA information generated on 
the first test disc complies with a predetermined 
DMA structure and checks the start logical sector 
number of each zone of the first test disc, in re- 
sponse to the selected verification test mode being 
the first verification test mode in which initialization 
without certification is performed. 

31 . The apparatus of claim 29, wherein the verifier (60) 
checks whether the DMA information of the first test 
disc (1 0) complies with a predetermined DMA struc- 
ture and checks a list of the known defects and the 
start logical sector number of each zone of the first 
test disc, in response to the selected verification test 
mode being the first verification test mode in which 
initialization with certification is performed. 

32. The apparatus of claim 29, wherein the test disc is 
a second test disc (1 1 ) on which pre-fixed contents 
of a DMA are recorded in the first test disc, and on 
which a first mirror file that the supplementary spare 
area is not full is recorded, in the second verification 
test mode. 

33. The apparatus of claim 32, wherein the verifier (60) 
checks whether the DMA information of the second 
test disc complies with a predetermined DMA struc- 
ture and whether a P-list is maintained, and checks 
a list of defects which are the same as the known 
defects and the start logical sector number of each 
zone of the second test disc, in response to the se- 
lected verification test mode being the second ver- 
ification test mode in which reinitialization with cer- 
tification is performed. 

34. The apparatus of claim 32, wherein the verifier (60) 
checks whether the DMA information of the second 
test disc complies with a predetermined DMA struc- 
ture and whether a P-Iist and a G1-Iist are main- 
tained, and checks a primary defect list (PDL) and 
a secondary defect list (SDL) for the list conversion 
and a start logical sector number of each zone of 
the second test disc, in response to the selected 
verification test mode being the second verification 
test mode in which reinitialization with list conver- 
sion is performed. 

35. The apparatus of claim 34, wherein the second test 
disc (11) has sufficient SDL entries to test an over- 
flow state during the list conversion. 

36. The apparatus of claim 32, wherein the verifier (60) 



9 



17 



EP 1 148 493 A2 



18 



checks whether the DMA information of the second 
test disc complies with a predetermined DMA struc- 
ture, whether a P-list and a G1-list are maintained, 
and whether a G2-list and a secondary defect list 
(SDL) are cleared, and checks a start logical sector 
number of each zone of the second test drive, in 
response to the selected verification test mode be- 
ing the second verification test mode in which rein- 
itialization with clearing is performed. 

37. The apparatus of claim 29, wherein the test disc is 
a third test disc (12) on which pre-fixed contents of 
DMA in the first test disc, and on which a second 
mirror file having sufficient secondary defect list 
(SDL) defects to fill the supplementary spare area 
is recorded, in the third verification test mode. 

38. The apparatus of claim 37, wherein the verifier (60) 
checks whether the DMA information of the third 
test disc complies with a predetermined DMA struc- 
ture in response to the selected verification test 
mode being the third verification test mode. 

39. The apparatus of claim 38, wherein the third test 
disc (12) further has file system information, the ap- 
paratus further comprising a file system verifier 
checking whether the file system information on the 
third test disc complies with a predetermined file 
system in response to the selected verification test 
mode being the third verification test mode. 

40. The apparatus of claim 29, wherein the test disc is 
a fourth test disc (1 3) on which a third mirror file, in 
which a start sector number of each zone among 
pre-fixed contents of a DMA is written wrongly on 
purpose, is recorded on the first test disc, in the 
fourth verification test mode. 

41 . The apparatus of claim 40, wherein, in response to 
the selected verification test mode being the fourth 
verification test mode, the modified drive unit (40) 
does not read the DMA information of the fourth test 
disc as a mirror file, and the verifier checks whether 
the wrong start logical sector numbers on the fourth 
test disc are sorted out, whether user data is not 
written to the fourth test disc, and whether data is 
read based on the recorded DMA information. 

42. A method of verifying whether a recording and re- 
producing apparatus reads and processes defect 
management area (DMA) information properly, 
comprising: 

using a test disc (1 0) containing predetermined 
defect information which does not have any re- 
lation with actual defects on the test disc and 
the reproducing and recording apparatus (20) 
to generate test information (50); and 



comparing the test information (50) with refer- 
ence test information to determine a verification" 
of the recording and reproducing apparatus. 

5 43. The method of claim 42, wherein the using a test 
disc comprises: 

making known physical defects at predeter- 
mined positions in a blank disc, to produce the 
10 test disc (10), having the recording and repro- 

ducing apparatus (20) process the test disc, to 
generate a disc with the DMA information (30), 
and reading only the DMA information from the 
disc with the DMA information using a refer- 
ence drive (40), to generate a DMA mirror file 
as the test information (50); 

wherein the reference test information is a ref- 
erence DMA mirror file. 

44. The method of claim 42, wherein the generating of 
the test information (50) and the comparing of the 
test information with the reference test information 
are in accordance with a verification test mode for 
testing the generation of the DMA information. 

45. The method of claim 42, wherein the generating of 
the test information and the comparing of the test 
information are in accordance with one of a plurality 
of test modes, wherein the plurality of test modes 
are a first verification test mode for testing the gen- 
eration of the DMA information depending upon in- 
itialization with certification or initialization without 
certification of the optical disc, a second verification 
test mode for testing the generation or updating of 
the DMA information depending upon reinitializa- 
tion with certification, reinitialization with list conver- 
sion or reinitialization with clearing a defect list of 
the test disc, a third verification test mode for veri- 
fying expansion of a supplementary spare area of 
the test disc, and a fourth verification test mode for 
verifying that recording on the test disc is performed 
based on wrong DMA information. 

46. The method of claim 45, wherein the generating of 
the test information comprises recording pre-fixed 
contents of a DMA and selecting a first mirror file, 
in which the supplementary spare area is not full, in 
response to the one verification test mode being the 
second verification mode, recording the pre-fixed 
contents of the DMA and selecting a second mirror 
file, in which the supplementary spare area is full, 
in response to the one verification test mode being 
the third verification mode, and selecting a third mir- 
ror file, in which a start sector number of each zone 
among the pre-fixed contents of the DMA is written 
wrongly on purpose, in response to the one verifi- 
cation test mode being the fourth verification mode. 



20 



25 



30 



35 



40 



45 



50 



10 



19 



EP 1 148 493 A2 



20 



47. The method of claim 45, wherein, in the first verifi- 
cation test mode, the using of the test disc, com- 
prises: 

making known physical defects at predeter- 
mined positions in a blank disc, to produce the 
test disc as a first test disc (10), having the re- 
cording and reproducing apparatus (20) proc- 
ess the first test disc, to generate a first test disc 
with the DMA information (30), and reading only 
the DMA information from the first test disc (1 0) 
with the DMA information using a reference 
drive (40), to generate a first test DMA mirror 
file as the test information (50); 

wherein the reference test information is a first 
reference DMA mirror file. 

48. The method of claim 47, wherein the comparing 
comprises performing initialization without certifica- 
tion, checking whether the DMA information of the 
first test disc complies with a predetermined DMA 
structure, and checking a start logical sector 
number of each zone of the first test disc, in the first 
verification test mode. 

49. The method of claim 47, wherein the comparing 
comprises performing initialization with certifica- 
tion, checking whether the DMA information of the 
first test disc complies with a predetermined DMA 
structure, checking a list of the known defects of the 
first test disc, and checking a start logical sector 
number of each zone, in the first verification test 
mode. 

50. The method of claim 47, wherein, in the second ver- 
ification test mode, the using of the test disc, com- 
prises: 

obtaining a second test disc (11) by recording 
pre-fixed contents of a DMA in the first test disc 
(10), and recording a second mirror file (1) in- 
dicating that the supplementary spare area is 
not full in the first test disc; 

having the recording and reproducing appara- 
tus (20) process the second test disc, to gen- 
erate a second test disc with the DMA informa- 
tion (30), and 

reading only the DMA information from the sec- 
ond test disc with the DMA information using 
the reference drive (40), to generate a second 
test DMA mirror file as the test information (50); 

wherein the reference test information is a sec- 
ond reference DMA mirror file. 



51. The method of claim 50, wherein the comparing 
comprises performing reinitialization with certifica- 
tion, checking whether the DMA information of the 
second test disc complies with a predetermined 

5 DMA structure, checking whether a P-list is main- 

tained, checking a list of defects which are the same 
as the known defects of the first test disc, and 
checking the start logical sector number of each 
zone of the second test disc, in the second verifica- 

10 tion test mode. 

52. The method of claim 50, wherein the comparing 
comprises performing reinitialization with list con- 
version, and checking whether the DMA information 

15 of the second test disc complies with a predeter- 
mined DMA structure, checking whether a P-Iist and 
a G1 -list are maintained, checking a primary defect 
list (PDL) and a secondary defect list (SDL) for the 
list conversion, and checking a start logical sector 

20 number of each zone of the second test disc, in the 
second verification test mode. 

53. The method of claim 52, wherein the generating of 
the test information further comprises preparing 

25 sufficient SDL entries to test an overflow state dur- 
ing the list conversion, in the second verification test 
mode. 

54. The method of claim 50, wherein the comparing 
30 comprises performing reinitialization with clearing, 

checking whether the DMA information of the sec- 
ond test disc complies with a predetermined DMA 
structure, checking whether a P-list and a G1 -list 
are maintained, checking whether a G2-!ist and a 
35 secondary defect list (SDL) are cleared, and check- 
ing a start logical sector number of each zone of the 
second test disc, in the second verification test 
mode. 

40 55. The method of claim 47, wherein, in the third verifi- 
cation test mode, the using of the test disc, com- 
prises: 

obtaining a third test disc (1 2) by recording pre- 
45 fixed contents of a DMA in the first test disc, 

and recording a third mirror file (2) having suf- 
ficient secondary defect list (SDL) defects to fill 
the supplementary spare area; 

50 having the recording and reproducing appara- 

tus process the third test disc, to generate a 
third test disc with the DMA information, and 
reading only the DMA information from the third 
test disc with the DMA information using the ref- 

55 erence drive, to generate a third test DMA mir- 

ror file as the test information; 

wherein the reference test information is a third 



11 



21 



EP1 148 493 A2 



22 



the adding comprises adding a reference DMA 
mirror file (1) to the test disc (10) to form the~ 
second disc (11); and 

the comparing of the second test information 
comprises comparing the second test informa- 
tion with the reference DMA mirror file. 



tion test mode, the using of the test disc, com- 

2s: 

obtaining a fourth test disc (13) by recording a 
fourth mirror file (3), in which a start sector 
number of each zone among pre-f ixed contents 
of a DMA is written wrongly on purpose, in the 
first test disc; 



10 



15 



20 



62. The method of claim 43, further comprising: 

adding a second reference DMA mirror file (1) 
to the test disc (1 0) to form a second test disc 
(11): 

having the recording and reproducing appara- 
tus process the second test disc, to generate 
another test disc with additional DMA informa- 
tion; and 

reading only the additional DMA information 
from the another test disc, to generate another 
DMA mirror file as the test information; and 



having the recording and reproducing appara- 
tus process the fourth test disc, to generate a 
fourth test disc with the DMA information, and 
reading only the DMA information from the 
fourth test disc with the DMA information using 
the reference drive, to generate a fourth test 

DMA mirror filp p«s thA tAst information* 



comparing the second reference DMA mirror 
25 file to the second reference test DMA mirror file 

to determine a second verification of the record- 
ing and reproducing apparatus. 

63. The method of claim 62, wherein: 

30 

the adding comprises adding a reference DMA 
mirror file (1) to the test disc (10) to form the 
second disc (11); and 



reference DMA mirror file. 

56. The method of claim 55, wherein the comparing 
comprises checking whether the DMA information 
of the third test disc (12) complies with a predeter- 
mined DMA structure when the one verification test 
mode is the third verification test mode. 

57. The method of claim 56, wherein the comparing fur- 
ther comprises checking whether the DMA informa- 
tion of the third test disc (12) complies with a file 
system. 

58. The method of claim 47. wherein, in the fourth ver- 



wherein the reference test information is a 
fourth reference DMA mirror file. 

59. The method of claim 58, wherein the comparing 35 
comprises checking whether the wrong start logical 
sector numbers on the fourth test disc are sorted 
out, checking whether user data is not written to the 
fourth test disc, and checking whether data is read 
based on the DMA information recorded in ad- 40 
vance, in the fourth verification test mode. 

60. The method of claim 42, further comprising: 



the comparing of the second test information 
comprises comparing the second test informa- 
tion with the reference DMA mirror file. 

64. The method of claim 53, wherein a number of the 
SDL entries prepared satisfies m+n*16>7679, be- 
fore the reinitialization, where m represents a 
number of old PDL entries and n represents a 
number of old SDL entries. 

65. The method of claim 50, wherein defects are con- 
centrated before and after a position, which is most 
proper to determine whether the positions of a start 
logical sector number and a first logical sector 
number, which are determined depending on the 
positions and the number of defects on the second 
test disc, are exact. 

66. The method of claim 50, wherein defects are dis- 
posed on the second test disc such that start and 
last sectors of each zone of the second test disc are 
processed as defects by the recording and repro- 
ducing apparatus. 



adding additional defect data to the test disc to 45 
form a second test disc (11); 

using the second test disc and the recording 
and reproducing apparatus to generate second 
test information; and 50 

comparing the second test information with 
second reference test information to determine 
a second verification of the recording and re- 
producing apparatus. 55 

61. The method of claim 60, wherein: 



12 



23 



EP1 148 493 A2 



24 



67. The method of claim 55, wherein the third mirror file 
has spare area full flags, one for a primary spare 
area and the other for the supplementary spare ar- 
ea, embedded in the SDL and correspond to state 

in which the supplementary spare area is full, such 5 
that after the expansion of the supplementary spare 
area, the spare area full flag for the primary spare 
area is maintained, and the spare area full flag for 
the supplementary spare area is converted to indi- 
cate that the supplementary spare area is not full. 10 

68. A method of verifying whether a recording and re- 
producing apparatus properly translates and proc- 
esses defect information, the method comprising: 

15 

preparing a test disc (10) using a defect man- 
agement area (DMA) mirror file with pre-fixed 
defect information unrelated to actual defects 
on the test disc; 

20 

generating test information (50) based on hav- 
ing the recording and reproducing apparatus 
(20) process the test disc; and 

conducting a verification test on the test infor- 25 
mation. 

69. The method of claim 68, wherein the generating of 
the test information comprises generating a test 
DMA mirror file (50) from the test disc (1 0); and 30 

the conducting the verification test comprises 
comparing the test DMA mirror file (50) with a ref- 
erence DMA mirror file. 

70. A method of verifying whether a recording and re- 35 
producing apparatus reads and processes defect 
management area (DMA) information properly, 
comprising: 

processing a test disc (1 0) containing predeter- *o 
mined defect information which does not have 
any relation with actual defects on the test disc 
using the reproducing and recording apparatus 
to generate the DMA information; 

45 

generating test information (50) from the gen- 
erated DMA information; and 

comparing the test information (50) with refer- 
ence test information to determine a verification so 
of the recording and reproducing apparatus. 

71. DMA information which is properly generated by a 
recording and reproducing apparatus using the 
process of: 55 

processing a test disc (1 0) containing predeter- 
mined defect information which does not have 



any relation with actual defects on the test disc 
using the reproducing and recording apparatus" 
(20) to generate the DMA information; 

generating test information (50) from the gen- 
erated DMA information; and 

comparing the test information with reference 
test information to determine a verification of 
the recording and reproducing apparatus. 

72. A recording and reproducing apparatus verified ac- 
cording to the process of: 

processing a test disc (10) containing predeter- 
mined defect information which does not have 
any relation with actual defects on the test disc 
using the reproducing and recording apparatus 
(20) to generate DMA information; 

generating test information (50) from the gen- 
erated DMA information; and 

comparing the test information with reference 
test information to determine a verification of 
the recording and reproducing apparatus. 

73. A recording and reproducing apparatus verified ac- 
cording to the process of: 

using a test disc (1 0) containing predetermined 
defect information which does not have any re- 
lation with actual defects on the test disc and 
the reproducing and recording apparatus to 
generate test information; and 

comparing the test information (50) with refer- 
ence test information to determine a verification 
of the recording and reproducing apparatus. 

74. An apparatus for testing a recording and reproduc- 
ing apparatus which records or reproduces informa- 
tion on or from a recordable and reproducible opti- 
cal disc with defect management area information 
to check whether DMA information is properly gen- 
erated, the apparatus comprising: 

a modified driver (40) generating test informa- 
tion based on the DMA information of a test disc 
(10) generated by a reproducing device (20) 
processing the test disc with predetermined de- 
fect information which does not have any rela- 
tion with actual defects on the test disc; and 

a verifier (60) comparing the test information 
with reference test information to determine a 
verification of the recording and reproducing 
apparatus. 



13 



25 



EP1 148 493 A2 



26 



75. The apparatus of claim 74, wherein the modified 
driver (40) reads only the DMA information from the 
test disc with the DMA information, to generate a 
DMA mirror file as the test information; 

wherein the reference test information is a ref- s 
erence DMA mirror file. 

76. The apparatus of claim 74, wherein the modified 
driver (40) generates the test information and the 
verifier compares the test information with the ref- 10 
erence test information in accordance with a verifi- 
cation test mode for testing the generation of the 
DMA information. 

77. The apparatus of claim 74, wherein the modified *5 
driver (40) generates the test information and the 
verifier (60) compares the test information are in ac- 
cordance with one of a plurality of test modes, 
wherein the plurality of test modes are a first verifi- 
cation test mode for testing the generation of the 20 
DMA information depending upon initialization with 
certification or initialization without certification of 

the optical disc, a second verification test mode for 
testing the generation or updating of the DMA infor- 
mation depending upon reinitialization with certifi- 25 
cation, reinitialization with list conversion or reini- 
tialization with clearing a defect list of the test disc, 
a third verification test mode for verifying expansion 
of a supplementary spare area of the test disc, and 
a fourth verification test mode for verifying that re- 30 
cording on the test disc is performed based on 
wrong DMA information. 

78. The apparatus of claim 77, wherein the generating 

of the test information comprises recording pre- 35 
fixed contents of a DMA and selecting a first mirror 
file, in which the supplementary spare area is not 
full, in response to the one verification test mode 
being the second verification mode, recording the 
pre-fixed contents of the DMA and selecting a sec- 40 
ond mirror file, in which the supplementary spare 
area is full, in response to the one verification test 
mode being the third verification mode, and select- 
ing a third mirror file, in which a start sector number 
of each zone among the pre-fixed contents of the *s 
DMA is written wrongly on purpose, in response to 
the one verification test mode being the fourth ver- 
ification mode. 

79. The apparatus of claim 77, wherein, in the first ver- 50 
ification test mode: 

the recording and reproducing apparatus (20) 
processes the first test disc, to generate a first 
test disc with the DMA information, and the 55 
modified driver (40) reads only the DMA infor- 
mation from the first test disc with the DMA in- 
formation, to generate a first test DMA mirror 



file as the test information; 

wherein the reference test information (50) is a 
first reference DMA mirror file. 

80. The apparatus of claim 79, wherein the verifier per- 
forms initialization without certification, checks 
whether the DMA information of the first test disc 
complies with a predetermined DMA structure, and 
checks a start logical sector number of each zone 
of the first test disc, in the first verification test mode. 

81 . The apparatus of claim 79, wherein the verifier per- 
forms initialization with certification, checks wheth- 
erthe DMA information of the first test disc complies 
with a predetermined DMA structure, checks a list 
of the known defects of the first test disc, and 
checks a start logical sector number of each zone, 
in the first verification test mode. 

82. The apparatus of claim 79, wherein, in the second 
verification test mode: 

the modified driver (40) generates a second 
test disc by recording pre-fixed contents of a 
DMA in the first test disc, and records a second 
mirror file indicating that the supplementary 
spare area is not full in the first test disc; 

the recording and reproducing apparatus (20) 
processes the second test disc, to generate a 
second test disc with the DMA information; and 

the modified driver (40) reads only the DMA in- 
formation from the second test disc with the 
DMA information, to generate a second test 
DMA mirror file as the test information; 

wherein the reference test information is a sec- 
ond reference DMA mirror file. 

83. The apparatus of claim 82, wherein the drive to be 
tested performs reinitialization with certification, 
and the verifier (60) checks whether the DMA infor- 
mation of the second test disc complies with a pre- 
determined DMA structure, checks whether a P-list 
is maintained, checks a list of defects which are the 
same as the known defects of the first test disc, and 
checks the start logical sector number of each zone 
of the second test disc, in the second verification 
test mode. 

84. The apparatus of claim 82, wherein the drive to be 
tested performs reinitialization with list conversion, 
and the verifier checks whether the DMA informa- 
tion of the second test disc complies with a prede- 
termined DMA structure, checks whether a P-list 
and a G1 -list are maintained, checks a primary de- 



14 



27 



EP1 148 493 A2 



28 



feet list (PDL) and a secondary defect list (SDL) for 
the list conversion, and checks a start logical sector 
number of each zone of the second test disc, in the 
second verification test mode. 

85. The apparatus of claim 84, wherein the modified 
driver (40) prepares sufficient SDL entries on the 
second test disc to test an overflow state during the 
list conversion, in the second verification test mode. 

86. The apparatus of claim 84, wherein the verifier per- 
forms reinitialization with clearing, checks whether 
the DMA information of the second test disc com- 
plies with a predetermined DMA structure, checks 
whether a P-list and a G1 -list are maintained, 
checks whether a G2-list and a secondary defect 
list (SDL) are cleared, and checks a start logical 
sector number of each zone of the second test disc, 
in the second verification test mode. 

87. The apparatus of claim 79, wherein, in the third ver- 
ification test mode: 

the modified driver (40) generates a third test 
disc by recording pre-fixed contents of a DMA 
in the first test disc, and records a third mirror 
file having sufficient secondary defect list (SDL) 
defects to fill the supplementary spare area; 

the recording and reproducing apparatus (20) 
processes the third test disc, to generate a third 
test disc with the DMA information, and 

the modified driver (40) reads only the DMA in- 
formation from the third test disc with the DMA 
information, to generate a third test DMA mirror 
file as the test information; 

wherein the reference test information is a third 
reference DMA mirror file. 



purpose, in the first test disc; 

the recording and reproducing apparatus (20) 
processes the fourth test disc, to generate or 
s not generate a fourth test disc with the DMA in- 

formation; 

wherein the verifier (60) directly receives the 
fourth test disc with or without the DMA infor- 
10 mation from the recording and reproducing ap- 

paratus. 

91. The apparatus of claim 90, wherein the verifier 
checks whether the wrong start logical sector num- 

15 bers on the fourth test disc are sorted out, checks 
whether user data is not written to the fourth test 
disc, and checks whether data is read based on the 
DMA information recorded in advance, in the fourth 
verification test mode. 

20 

92. The apparatus of claim 74, wherein: 

the modified driver (40) adds additional defect 
data to the test disc to form a second test disc; 

25 

the recording and reproducing apparatus (20) 
processes the second test disc to generate ad- 
ditional DMA information as second test infor- 
mation; and 

30 

the verifier (60) compares the second test in- 
formation with second reference test informa- 
tion to determine a second verification of the 
recording and reproducing apparatus. 

35 

93. The apparatus of claim 92, wherein: 

the modified driver (40) adds a reference DMA 
mirror file to the test disc to form the second 
*o disc; and 



15 



88. The apparatus of claim 87, wherein the verifier 
checks whether the DMA information of the third 
test disc complies with a predetermined DMA struc- 
ture when the one verification test mode is the third 
verification test mode. 

89. The apparatus of claim 88, wherein the verifier 
checks whether the DMA information of the third 
test disc complies with a file system. 

90. The apparatus of claim 79, wherein, in the fourth 
verification test mode: 

the modified driver (40) generates a fourth test 
disc by recording a fourth mirror file, in which a 
start sector number of each zone among pre- 
fixed contents of a DMA is written wrongly on 



the verifier (60) compares the second test in- 
formation with the reference DMA mirror file. 

45 94. The apparatus of claim 75, wherein: 

the modified driver (40) adds a second refer- 
ence DMA mirror file to the test disc to form a 
second test disc; 

so 

the recording and reproducing apparatus (20) 
processes the second test disc, to generate an- 
other test disc with additional DMA information; 
and 

55 

the modified driver (40) reads only the addition- 
al DMA information from the another test disc, 
to generate another DMA mirror file as the test 



15 



29 



EP1 148 493 A2 



30 



information; and 

the verifier compares the second reference 
DMA mirror file to the second reference test 
DMA mirror file to determine a second verifica- 5 
tion of the recording and reproducing appara- 
tus. 



95. The apparatus of claim 92, wherein: 

the modified driver (40) adds a reference DMA 
mirror file to the test disc to form the second 
disc; and 

the verifier (60) compares the second test in- 
formation with the reference DMA mirror file. 



96 



The apparatus of claim 85, wherein the modified 
driver (40) prepares a number of the SDL entries 
which satisfies m+n*16>7679, before the reinitiali- 
zation, where m represents a number of old PDL 
entries and n represents a number of old SDL en- 
tries. 



97. The apparatus of claim 82, wherein the modified 
driver (40) concentrates defects before and after a 
position, which is most proper to determine whether 
the positions of a start logical sector number and a 
first logical sector number, which are determined 
depending on the positions and the number of de- 
fects on the second test disc, are exact. 

98. The apparatus of claim 82, wherein the modified 
driver (40) disposes defects on the second test disc 
such that start and last sectors of each zone of the 
second test disc are processed as defects by the 
recording and reproducing apparatus. 

99. The apparatus of claim 87, wherein the third mirror 
file (3) has spare area full flags, one for a primary 
spare area and the other for the supplementary 
spare area, embedded in the SDL and correspond 
to state in which the supplementary spare area is 
full, such that after the expansion of the supplemen- 
tary spare area, the spare area full flag for a primary 
spare area is maintained, and the spare area full 
flag for the supplementary spare area is converted 
to indicate that the supplementary spare area is not 
full. 

100. The apparatus of claim 74, wherein the verifier (60) 
receives the reference test information from an ex- 
ternal source to make the comparison between the 
test information and the reference test information. 

1 01 .The apparatus of claim 94, wherein the verifier (60) 
receives the second reference DMA file from an ex- 
ternal source to make the comparison between the 



10 



15 



20 



25 



35 



40 



45 



50 



55 



second reference DMA mirror file to the secondxef- 
erence test DMA mirror file. 

1 02. The apparatus of claim 94, wherein the verifier (60) 
stores the second reference DMA file to make the 
comparison between the second reference DMA 
mirror file to the second reference test DMA mirror 
file. 

1 03. The apparatus of claim 78, wherein the verifier (60) 
positively verifies the recording and reproducing ap- 
paratus if the recording and reproducing apparatus 
does not process the test disc by performing a re- 
cording operation of the DMA information on the 
test disc when the wrong logical sector number of 
each zone is written on the fourth test disc in the 
fourth verification mode. 

104. A method of manufacturing a compliant recording 
and reproducing apparatus, comprising: 

manufacturing an uncertified recording and re- 
producing apparatus (20) that updates and 
generates defect management area (DMA) in- 
formation; and 

verifying whether the uncertified recording and 
reproducing apparatus is compliant with a 
standard, said verifying comprising: 

using a test disc (1 0) containing predeter- 
mined defect information which does not have 
any relation with actual defects on the test disc 
and the reproducing and recording apparatus 
(20) to generate test information (50), and com- 
paring the test information with reference test 
information to determine a verification of the re- 
cording and reproducing apparatus, the verifi- 
cation indicating that the uncertified recording 
and reproducing apparatus is compliant with 
the standard. 

1 05.A disc recording and reproducing apparatus for re- 
cording and reproducing information on an optical 
disc, comprising: 

a light source (22) to emit a light; 

a focusing element (24) to focus the light onto 
the optical disc to record and reproduce the in- 
formation; and 

a controller (26) to control said light source, 
said controller being verified to update and gen- 
erate defect management area (DMA) informa- 
tion by using a test disc (1 0) containing prede- 
termined defect information which does not 
have any relation with actual defects on the test 
disc and the reproducing and recording appa- 



16 



31 EP 1 148 493 A2 

ratus to generate test information (50), and 
comparing the test information with reference 
test information to determine the verification of 
the recording and reproducing apparatus. 

5 

1 06.A disc recording and reproducing apparatus for re- 
cording and reproducing information on an optical 
disc: 

a light source (22) to emit a light; w 

a focusing element (24) to focus the light onto 
the optical disc for recording and reproducing 
the information; and 

15 

a controller (26) to control said light source and 
to update and generate defect management ar- 
ea information compliant with a standard. 



25 



30 



35 



40 



45 



50 



55 



17 



EP 1 148 493 A2 




18 



EP 1 148 493 A2 




19 



EP 1 148 493 A2 



FIG. 3 



(start) 



SET DMA VERIFICATION TEST MODE ~~| S101 



SELECT VERIF ICATION TEST MODE ~| — -S102 

i 



SELECT DMA MIRROR FILE ACCORDING 
TO SELECTED VERIFICATION TEST MODE 



I 



EXECUTE TEST ACCORDING TO 
SELECTED VERIFICATION TEST MODE 



DISPLAY RESULT OF 
EXECUTED TEST 



( E "° ) 



-S103 
-S104. 

-S105 



20 



EP 1 148 493 A2