Skip to main content

Full text of "USPTO Patents Application 10670332"

See other formats


(12) INTERNATIONAL APPLICATION PUBLISHED UNDER THE PATENT COOPERATION TREATY (PCT) 



(19) World Intellectual Property Organization 

International Bureau 




(43) International Publication Date (10) International Publication Number 

29 March 2001 (29.03.2001) PCT WO 01/22416 Al 



(51) International Patent Classification 7 : G11B 20/18, 

27/32 

(21) International Application Number: PCT/EPOO/08975 

(22) International Filing Date: 

13 September 2000 (13.09.2000) 



(25) Filing Language: 

(26) Publication Language: 



English 
English 



(30) Priority Data: 

99203111.2 23 September 1999 (23.09.1999) EP 

00200290.5 27 January 2000 (27.01 .2000) EP 

(71) Applicant: KONINKLIJKE PHILIPS ELECTRON- 
ICS N.V. [NL/NL]; Groenewoudseweg 1, NL-5621 BA 
Eindhoven (NL). 

(72) Inventors: IJTSMA, Pope; Prof. Holstlaan 6, NL-5581 
AW Eindhoven (NL). HAMELINCK, Dirk; Prof. Holst- 
laan 6, NL-5581 AW Eindhoven (NL). NIJBOER, Jacob, 
G.; Prof. Holstlaan 6, NL-5581 AW Eindhoven (NL). 



(81) Designated States (national): AE, AG, AL, AM, AT, AU, 
AZ, BA, BB, BG, BR, BY, BZ, CA, CH, CN, CR, CU, CZ, 
DE, DK, DM, DZ, EE, ES, FI, GB, GD, GE, GH, GM, HR, 
HU, ID, IL, IN, IS, JP, KE, KG, KP, KR, KZ, LC, LK, LR, 
LS, LT, LU, LV, MA, MD, MG, MK, MN, MW, MX, MZ, 
NO, NZ, PL, PT, RO, RU, SD, SE, SG, SI, SK, SL, TJ, TM, 
TR, IT, TZ, UA, UG, UZ, VN, YU, ZA, ZW. 

(84) Designated States (regional): ARIPO patent (GH, GM, 
KE, LS, MW, MZ, SD, SL, SZ, TZ, UG, ZW), Eurasian 
patent (AM, AZ, BY, KG, KZ, MD, RU, TJ, TM), European 
patent (AT, BE, CH, CY, DE, DK, ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, IE, 
IT, LU, MC, NL, PT, SE), OAPI patent (BF, BJ, CF, CG, 
CI, CM, GA, GN, GW, ML, MR, NE, SN, TD, TG). 

Published: 

— With international search report. 

Before the expiration of the time limit for amending the 
claims and to be republished in the event of receipt of 
amendments. 

For two-letter codes and other abbreviations, refer to the "Guid- 
ance Notes on Codes and Abbreviations " appearing at the begin- 
ning of each regular issue of the PCT Gazette. 



(74) Agent: DE VRIES, Jan; Internationaal Octrooibureau 
B.V., Prof. Holstlaan 6, NL-5581 AW Eindhoven (NL). 



Sj (54) Title: METHOD OF IMMEDIATE WRITING OR READING FILES ON A DISC LIKE RECORDING MEDIUM 



< 





^ 2 p. 


m ► 


Udata 


STL 




Data Area 


-;'/.• .general' • 
Ptijpb.se Area"' : 


LOdata 



end of Data Area with 



end of Program Area 



O 



(57) Abstract: A method of recording digital information signals on a removable rewritable disc like recording medium, the method 
comprising a short initialization step whereafter a blanc, unformatted medium is ready to receive user data. The initialization step 
comprises defining a general purpose area on the recording medium which is not intended for recording user data but for defect 
management and special application programs. 



WO 01/22416 PCTVEP00/08975 

1 

Method of immediate writing or reading files on a disc like recording medium 



The invention relates to a method of recording digital information signals on a 
removable rewritable disc like recording medium, with a program area of the disc and, prior 
to removal of the disc out of a recording apparatus, finalizing the disc with a lead-in and lead- 
out area comprising control information. 
5 The invention further relates to an apparatus for recording digital information 

signals on/from a removable rewritable disc like recording medium, the apparatus comprising 
inputting means for receiving digital information signals, recording medium, receiving means 
for receiving the recording medium, recording means for reading the digital information 
signals on the recording medium, reading means for digital information signals stored on the 
10 recording medium, outputting means for outputting the read digital information signals, 

controlling means adapted to control recording digital information signals representing user 
data on a program area on the recording medium. 

15 The PC world needs a replacement for the floppy drive. A rewritable storage 

medium of the disc like optical type, such as the CD-RW, seems to be a logical choice 
because the read function of the magnetic floppy is already replaced by the CD-ROM. All 
PC's today are equipped with a CD-ROM and applications and software are distributed on 
CD-ROM. Therefore a recording medium like CD-RW or rewritable DVD, seems to be the 

20 perfect media to fill in the needed write capability. Recording media of the magneto-optical 
type already tried to fill this gap, but they all miss compatibility with the installed base. That 
is exactly what CD-RW for instance can deliver with the installed base of over approximately 
200 million CDROM drives. CD-RW media are cheap and the capacity is sufficient for 
floppy use. 

25 Furthermore, manufacturers of operating systems wants to get rid of legacy 

material like the floppy drive. For OEM companies the idea is attractive, as they can replace 
the floppy drive, the CD-ROM and the DVD-ROM drive by a one spindle drive like a Combi 
and by a double writer in the future. It will also add a new feature to the drive other then the 
ever-increasing speed 



WO 01/22416 



2 



PCT/EP00/08975 



There are products on the market which enable to use a CD-RW like a floppy 
drive, but they don't behave the way one would expect a CD floppy drive would do. The 
5 access time is too low, formatting time is too long and more important the drive does not fit 
into the strategy of current OS. The disc should be immediately available for dragging and 
dropping of files. A fast eject is required, deleting should be instant. Due to enable multiple 
drag and drop a defect management is required. However, the defect management should be 
done by the drive. This opens the way to use UDF 1.02 instead of UDF1.5, which is not 
10 supported on the write side by manufacturers of Operating systems. Further background 
formatting must be done by the drive and not by the application or OS to minimize bus 
traffic, and interaction between the drive and the OS. Finally, Read/Modify/Write for packets 
should be done by the drive. 

15 

In consequence, amongst other things, it is an object of the invention to 
obviate the above-mentioned disadvantages. According to one of its aspects a method 
according to the invention is characterized by performing an initialization step such as 
defined in the characterized part of claim 1. 

20 Because of the very limited amount of data to be recorded, this step will be 

finished in just a few seconds. The disc is then ready for data storage. Further, the general 
purpose area can be used to add additional functionality by, for instance, storing device 
driver programs herein or allowing disc space to be used by said programs. As the general 
purpose area is still readable by legacy drives as this drives will report the start of the Lead- 

25 out area as the end of the user area, these drives may employ the added functionality. Thus 
compatibility is achieved. 

An advantageous embodiment is obtained by adding defect management 
according to the characterizing part of claim 2. This is required in case of adding file drag 
and drop functionality equivalent to removable disc functionality. 

30 A further advantageous embodiment is obtained by reserving space for device 

drivers to handle defect management according to the characterizing part of claim 3. This 
enables legacy drives to handle the defect areas. 

A further improvement is obtained by adding a sentinel area next to a defect 
table such as defined by the characterized part of claim 5. This area may be used 



WO 01/22416 PCTYEP00/08975 

3 

advantageously for storage of proprietary information such as copy right information. This 
area may also be used to store a new defect table when the old table is wearing out. 

Another embodiment is obtained by performing formatting when the drive is 
idle, according to the characterizing part of claim 6. This has the advantage the medium is 
formatted before an eject request occurs. 

The next embodiment performs a finalization step according to the 
characterizing part of claim 7. The recording medium will be in a CD-ROM compatible state 
while the secondary defect table (SDT) is readable by a CD-ROM reader or legacy reader. 

However, an advantageous embodiment is obtained by allowing an early-eject 
step according to the characterizing part of claim 8. The eject time is made as short as 
possible while the recording medium leaves the drive in a CD-ROM or legacy drive 
compatible state. All data is recorded contiguously while the temporary defect table (TDT) 
may be used for defect management. 

Other advantageous embodiments are disclosed in the description. 



These and further aspects and advantages of the invention will be discussed in 
more detail hereinafter with reference to the disclosure of preferred embodiments, and in 
particular with reference to the appended Figures that show: 

Fig. 1 a basic disc lay-out of a CD-ROM; 

Fig. 2 a lay-of a disc according to the invention; 

Fig. 3 linking details of the Program Area; 

Fig. 4 the lay-out of the General Purpose Area; 

Fig. 5 the location of the first Main Defect Table (MDT) in the Lead-In Area; 
Fig. 6 the replacement of a defective MDT; 

Fig. 7 the replacement of a defective Secondary Defect Table (SDT); 

Fig. 8 the composition of a Defect Table Packet; 

Fig. 9 the lay-out of the Defect Table; 

Fig. 10 the lay-out of the Sentinel Packet; 

Fig. 1 1 the status of the disc after initialization; 

Fig. 12 the status of the disc after some de-icing and recording; 

Fig. 13 the status of the disc after several steps of finalization; 

Fig. 15 the early-eject status of the disc, 

Fig. 16 the re-opened status of the disc and 



WO 01/22416 



apparatus. 



PCT/EP00/08975 

4 

Fig. 17 a computer data system comprising a computer and a recording 



Fig. 1 illustrates schematically the basic format of a CD-ROM, as known from 
the relevant standard, which is often denoted to as the 6 Yellow book', in analogy to the 'Red 
book' standard for the audio CD. Descriptions of the physical standard of the CD-ROM can 
be found in the public available documents ISO/IEC 10149, of the audio-CD in IEC 908. The 
physical standard for the recordable CD, denoted as the 'Orange book; is disclosed in 
ISO/IEC 1 1 172/1/2/3/. The standard for the logical format of the CD-ROM is described in 
ISO-9660 (the High Sierra standard) and for the recordable CD in ECMA 168/ISO 13940 (the 
Frankfurter proposal). 

The data carrying area of the CD-ROM starts with a LEAD-IN area, a DATA 
AREA is available for user data and ends with a LEAD-OUT area. 

The methods for Defect Management and Formatting described in this 
description can be used to optimize the performance of High-speed CD-RW in a computer 
environment. To exploit the full capabilities of High-speed CD-RW in a computer data 
storage environment, several conditions should be fulfilled: 

1) the system needs random access, 

2) the recorded discs shall be compatible with Multi-read compliant CD-ROM drives, 

3) the system needs a method of Defect Management that can be handled by the drive or by a 
dedicated device driver, 

4) formatting shall be performed by the drive in back-ground (no interaction with the 
application or Operating System running on the computer), 

5) the disc has to be available for use immediately after insertion and the eject time shall be 
minimal, 

6) recording is based on fixed Packets of 32 User Data blocks, in a single Track, on a Single- 
session disc. 

To guarantee read compatibility with Multi-read CD-ROM drives (or legacy 
CD-R/RW recorders), the following requirements have to be fulfilled: 



WO 01/22416 PCT/EP00/08975 

5 

- the disc has a Lead-in Area, a Program Area and a Lead-out Area, 

- all Program Area between the Lead-in Area and the Lead-out Area shall be fully 
formatted, 

- all data, including the Defect Management information and Replacement Areas have to be 
available inside the Program Area (the logically addressable space) of the disc. The Defect 
Management then can be handled by a dedicated device driver running under the Operating 
System of the computer. When a disc fulfils all these conditions, we call such a disc: "ROM- 
compatible". Because current CD-ROM drives do not support Defect Management, optional 
device drivers, which can add this functionality to the system, could be given along in the 
General Purpose Area, e.g. during formatting. 



The Defect Management system is based on a Main Defect Table (MDT) in 
the Lead-in Area of the disc, and a Secondary Defect Table (SDT) and Replacement Packets 
in the General Purpose Area. The Defect Tables shall be preceded by a so-called Sentinel 
Packet (STL) containing all OOh bytes. The general lay-out of the disc obtained with a 
method according to the invention is illustrated with reference to Fig. 2. 

The General Purpose Area is located preferentially at the outside of the disc 
against the Lead-out area. A CD- writer with defect management according to the invention, 
will report the start address of the General Purpose Area as the start address of the Lead-out 
area. An UDF-file system gets thus a smaller partition to use. The part not used is reserved 
for replacement areas and contains the defect tables. In contrast to a legacy drive that will 
still report the end of the original Lead-out address. This trick is needed to make defect 
management backward compatible with legacy drives such as CD-ROM. A CD-ROM reader 
is able to read the defect management area because it will be in its data area. A device driver 
will perform the defect management in case of a legacy drive. Future CD-ROM readers 
should get the ability to handle the defect management themselves. This is only a firmware 
change in the ROM firmware. A writer Lead-out pointer should be added to the firmware. 
Compatibility with CD/DVD-ROM is obtained by a device driver or application that reads 
the defect table and handles the defect management. The operating system thus interacts with 
a CD-ROM, a legacy CD-RW, DVD-ROM or DVD-RAM only by a device driver or 
application that handles the defect mangement. The CD-RW with the improved format 
according to the invention interacts directly with the Operating System. 



WO 01/22416 



6 



PCT/EP00/08975 



Generally the end-user of the system likes to have the disc ready for use within 
seconds after it has been inserted into the drive. A blank disc however has to be formatted 
before all it's capabilities can be exploited fully. Because the normal formatting process takes 
too much time, a back-ground formatting procedure will be defined that initializes the disc 
with a minimum amount of information, after which it is available for recording, and then 
proceeds with the formatting during the time intervals when the drive is idle. The back- 
ground formatting only defines the physical formatting of the disc, which is system 
independent. A fully formatted disc is always in a ROM-compatible state. An eject command 
can be executed without delay. When an eject is requested before the disc has been fully 
formatted, a quick finishing process shall be executed to make the disc ROM-compatible 
before it leaves the recorder. 

According to the existing CD-RW recording format, data may be recorded in 
several distinct writing actions. This is referred to as incremental writing. In case of 
incremental writing, linking rules of recorded data must be taken into account. A link 
position is the physical location on the disc where the recording of EFM signals is allowed to 
start and stop. In case of data recording, an EFM recording sequence shall start and end with 
Link, Run-in and Run-out blocks. No gap between recordings is allowed, One set of recorded 
Link, Run-in, User Data and Run-out blocks is called a Packet. The number of User Data 
blocks in a packet is called the Packet size. The Link block contains the link position. 

Fig. 3 shows details of the Linking in the Program Area according to the 
existing CD-RW format. The Program Area consists of one Track with fixed Packets with a 
size of 32 User Data Blocks. Herein is : LNK = Link Block, RI1..RI4 = Run-in Blocks, ROl, 
R02 = Run-out Blocks, UD1..UD32 = User Data Blocks and TDB = Track Descriptor Block 

Fig. 4 shows the lay-out of the General Purpose Area (GPA) according to the 
invention. The General Purpose Area (GPA) consists of three parts : 

- the General Application Area (GAA), 

- the Defect Management Area (DMA), 



WO 01/22416 



PCT/EPOO/08975 



7 

- a Reserved Packet. 

The GPA is located within the logically addressable space of the disc (see Fig. 
5 2) at the end of the Program Area, immediately preceding the Lead-out Area. 

The Defect Management system shall not be active in the GPA, so there is no replacement 
for defective Packets in the GPA. The General Application Area (GAA) can be used for 
storage of data that does not allow replacements by the Defect Management. Such as 
application programs or device drivers that can handle defect management. Or support of 
10 multiple operating systems employing UDF or ISO 9660 files system. Or support of multiple 
sources like music/video play. The size of the GAA is defined during the formatting of the 
disc. It is allowed to specify a length = 0 for the GAA. 

15 The Defect Management Area (DMA) consists of N Packets meant for 

replacement of defective Packets in the Data Area, a Sentinel Packet (STL), and the 
Secondary Defect Table (SDT). The number of Replacement Packets N is defined during the 
formatting of the disc. The SDT is meant for use by CD-ROM drives and legacy CD 
recorders for Defect Management during read-out. It is also a back-up in cases of failures in 

20 the MDT. The SDT is contained in one Packet. The SDT shall be preceded by a Sentinel 
Packet. The content of all 2K Blocks of the Sentinel Packet shall be all zeroes. The last 
Packet of the GPA shall be a Reserved Packet. This Packet shall not be used for any other 
purpose than for File System use. 

25 

The defect Management system of High-speed CD-RW is based on a Main 
Defect Table(one Packet) located in the Lead-in Area, a Secondary Defect Table, containing 
a copy of the MDT, in the General Purpose Area and Replacement Packets in the General 
Purpose Area. Fig. 5 shows the location of the first MDT in the Lead-in area. 

30 

The Defect Management of a recorder only replaces full Packets, which are 
found to be defective during writing or reading. Detection of possible errors can be based on 



WO 01/22416 PCT/EP00/08975 

8 

e.g. excessive servo signals, feedback from a "running OPC" during writing, or error flags 
from the error correction system during reading. 

The MDT can be updated by a recorder at each occasion of a defect detection. 
If the MDT is wearing out because of too many overwrites (or becomes defective for other 
reasons of failure), a new STL Packet is created just preceding the existing STL Packet and 
then the old STL Packet is be overwritten by a new MDT Packet. Fig. 6 shows the 
replacement of a defective MDT. The defective MDT Packet shall be overwritten with a DT 
with the update count field set to FFFFh, indicating that this table is no longer valid. 

The SDT only needs to be updated when the disc is ejected from a recorder. If 
the SDT is wearing out because of too many overwrites (or becomes defective for other 
reasons of failure), a new STL Packet is created just preceding the existing STL Packet and 
then the old STL Packet is overwritten by a new SDT, which is illustrated with reference to 
Fig. 7. The defective SDT Packet shall be overwritten with a DT with the update count field 
set to FFFFh, indicating that this table is no longer valid. The number of Replacement 
Packets shall be decreased by one and the Defect Tables shall be adapted accordingly. 

Thus, according to an embodiment of the method of the invention three Defect 
Tables are defined: 

- the Main Defect Table (MDT), located in the Lead-in Area, 

- the Secondary Defect Table (SDT), located in the General Purpose Area (GPA) and 
which is an exact copy of the MDT. Additionally, according to an embodiment of the method 
of the invention, a third Defect Table is defined: 

- a Temporary Defect Table (TDT). This TDT is created instead of the SDT, when an eject is 
requested before the Back-ground Formatting process has been finished, which will be 
discussed later. 

All Defect Tables have the same lay-out and after ejecting the disc from a 
recorder, they contain the same information. Each Defect Table (DT) is contained in 4 
consecutive Blocks, which 4 Blocks are repeated 8 times to fill up a complete Packet. Fig. 8 



WO 01/22416 PCTVEP00/08975 

9 

shows the composition of a Defect Table Packet. This repetition gives a good protection 
against local defects in the disc (dust, scratches, etc.). 

The Packet shall be filled consecutively, starting with DT 0, part 0 and ending with DT 7, 
part 3. 

5 

The Defect Table contains a list of Packets, which have been determined to be 
defective during verification or during use of the media, and a list of Packets reserved for 
replacements. The defective Packet shall be linearly replaced by a reserved Packet as 
10 assigned in the Defect Table. Identifying defective Packets may happen either during read or 
write operations by a recorder. 

Each 2K Block in the Defect Table Packet shall have the contents as defined 
15 in Fig. 9, which shows the Lay-Out of the Defect Table. The addressing method that shall be 
used for the Defect Management is according to Logical Block Numbering. With reference 
to Fig. 9, the specific bytes have the following content : 

20 Byte 0-2: Signature : 

These 3 bytes shall be set to: 

4D4454h, representing the characters "MDT", in each Block of an MDT, 
534454h, representing the characters "SDT", in each Block of an SDT, 
544454h, representing the characters "TDT", in each Block of an TDT. 

25 

Byte 3: version number: 
this byte shall be set to OOh 

Byte 4,5: DT update count 
30 These bytes shall indicate the total number of update operations on this Defect 
Table. This field shall be set to OOOOh during the creation of the DT, and shall be 
incremented by one each time the DT is re-written. If the DT Packet is defective, this Packet 
shall be overwritten with a DT with the update count field set to FFFFh, indicating that this 
table is no longer valid. 



WO 01/22416 



10 



PCT/EP00/08975 



Byte 6: DT number / DT part number 
The most significant 4 bits of this byte specify the DT number in the Packet as a 
binary value 0-7. The least significant 4 bits of this byte specify the part number in the DT 
a binary value 0-3. 

Byte 7: DT parts in use 
This byte specifies the number of parts (0-4) of the DT that actually contain valid 
DT Entries. 

Byte 8,9: Number of DT Entries: 
These 2 bytes indicate the number of replacement entries in the DT (total of all 4 
parts). The value shall be equal to the number of Replacement Packets in the 
Defect Management Area. 

Byte 10-15: Reserved: 
these 6 bytes are reserved and shall be set to OOh. 

Byte 16-18: Start of General Purpose Area 
These 3 bytes shall specify the Logical Block Number (LBN) of the first User Data 
Block of the first Packet in the General Purpose Area. Byte 16 bit 7-4 are reserved 
and shall be set to zero. 

Byte 16, 
bit 7-4: Reserved 

bit 3-0 : LBN of first User Data Block of GPA 
Byte 17, 

bit 7-0 : LBN of first User Data Block of GPA 
Byte 18, 

bit 7-0 : LBN of first User Data Block of GPA 

Byte 19,20: Size of Replacement Area 
These 2 bytes shall specify the number of Packets set aside for replacement of 



WO 01/22416 

defective Packets. 



11 



PCT/EP00/08975 



Byte 21-23: Size of General Application Area 
These 3 bytes shall specify the number of Packets set aside for the storage of data 
that is not under control of the Defect Management. 

Byte 24,25: Disc status 
These 2 bytes contain flags for indicating the status of the disc. They can be used 
for instance for tracking the Back-ground Formatting process. 

Byte 24 
Bit 7—5: Formatting status 
Bit 4-1 : Reserved and set to zero 
Bit 0 : Dirty Disc 

Byte 24 

Bit 7-0 : Reserved and set to zero 

Formatting status: 
bit 7,6 = 00 : disc is not formatted, 
01 : disc has been partially formatted, 

1 0 : disc has been fully formatted by the user, 

1 1 : disc has been fully formatted by the manufacturer. 

Bit 5 is meant to be used as a "De-icing not ready" flag, details of which will be discussed 
hereinafter 

Bit 5 = 1: indicates that the disc has been recorded non-consecutively, and 
that there are blank areas between some recordings. 

Bit 5 = 0 : indicates that all Packets between the start of the Program Area and 

the last recorded User Data in the Data Area (see Fig. 2) have been recorded or formatted. 

Before ejecting a disc with bit 5 set to 1, the blank area(s) shall be formatted. 

Dirty Disc: 

Bit 0 is meant to be used as a general "Power Fail Flag". 

It shall be set to 1 at each write action and shall be reset to 0 when 

the disc is closed and ejected in a normal way. 



WO 01/22416 



12 



PCT/EP00/08975 



Byte 26-28: Last Written Address 
These 3 bytes shall specify the Logical Block Number (LBN) of the first User Data 
Block of the last Packet that has been recorded or formatted. Byte 26 bit 7-4 are 
reserved and shall be set to zero. 

Byte 26 
bit 7—4 : Reserved 

bit 3-0 : LBN of first User Data Block of last formatted Packet 
Byte 27 

bit 7-0 : LBN of first User Data Block of last formatted Packet 
Byte 28 

bit 7-0 : LBN of first User Data Block of last formatted Packet 

Byte 29-31: Reserved: 
these 3 bytes are reserved and shall be set to OOh. 

Byte 32—2047: DT replacement entries 
Each DT Entry consists of 6 bytes. The first three bytes indicate a defective Packet 
and the last three bytes identify the Replacement Packet that has been assigned. 
The most significant bits of byte n and byte n+3 are used to indicate the status of 
the replacement. Unused bytes shall be set to OOh. 

Byten 
bit 7,6 : Status 1 
bit 5,4 : Reserved 1 
bit 3-0 : Defective Packet LBN 

Byte n+1 
bit 7-0 : Defective Packet LBN 



Byte n+2 



WO 01/22416 

bit 7-0 : Defective Packet LBN 

Byte n+3 
bit 7,6 : Status 2 
bit 5,4 : Reserved 2 
bit 3-0 : Replacement Packet LBN 

Byte n+4 
bit 7-0 : Replacement Packet LBN 

Byte n+5 
bit 7-0 : Replacement Packet LBN 

The Defective Packet LBN shall be equal to the LBN of the first User Data 
Block in the defective Packet to be replaced. The Replacement Packet LBN shall be equal to 
the LBN of the first User Data Block in the Replacement Packet, that is assigned to hold the 
replaced Packet. 

The value of Status and Reserved may be as defined as following : 
Status kbit 7,6 : 
= 00 : the entry identifies a valid replacement, 

= 01 : the entry identifies a defective Packet that has not been recorded at 
it's replacement address, 

= 10 : the entry identifies a Replacement Packet usable for future 
replacement, the Defective Packet LBN shall be set to zero, 
= 11 : the entry identifies a Replacement Packet unusable for future 
replacement, the Defective Packet LBN is unspecified. 

Reserved 1 : 
bit 5,4 set to 00 

Status 2: bit 7,6 : 

= 00 : the original location has been recorded with the same data as the 
replacement location, 



PCT7EP00/08975 

13 



WO 01/22416 PCT7EP00/08975 

14 

= 01 : the original location may contain different data as the replacement 

location, 

= 10 : reserved, 

= 11: reserved. 

5 

Reserved 2: 
bit 5,4 set to 00 

The DT Entries in the tables shall be sorted in ascending order as if each DT 
10 Entry were a single 48 bit unsigned binary integer. There shall be no hierarchical 

replacements: no Replacement Packet LBN shall be equal to any Defective Packet LBN. 



Next the lay-out of the Sentinel Packets will be explained with reference to 
15 Fig. 10. Each 2K block in the STL Packet shall have the contents as shown in Fig. 10. 
Herein the successive bytes have the following content : 

Byte 0-2: Signature 

These 3 bytes shall be set to: 53544Ch, representing the characters "STL", in each 
20 Block of an STL, 



Byte 3: version number: 
this byte shall be set to OOh 



25 Byte 4,5: STL update count 

These bytes shall indicate the total number of update operations on this STL 
Packet. This field shall be set to OOOOh during the creation of the STL, and shall be 
incremented by one each time the STL is re-written. If the STL Packet is defective, this 
Packet shall be overwritten with an STL with the update count field set to FFFFh, indicating 

30 that this table is no longer valid. 



Byte 6,7: Reserved: 
these 2 bytes are reserved and shall be set to OOh. 



WO 01/22416 PCT/EP00/08975 

15 

Byte 8-2047: Reserved: 
these 2040 bytes are reserved and shall be set to OOh. 



5 As apparent from the above, each MDT/SDT/TDT is preceded by a Sentinel 

Packet (also referred to a Zero Packet). This packet may be used advantageously for storage 
of proprietary information such as copy right information. Information of this kind stored in 
the Lead-In area, is unreadable by a CD-ROM reader. To the contrary, a SDT is readable. 

1 0 Next the Defect Management procedure will be discussed. 

At Initialization (details of which be discussed later) an MDT is created, 
containing a DT Entry for each Replacement Packet, with Status 1 = 10, the Defective Packet 
LBN set to OOOOOh and Status 2 = 00. Packets found to be defective during reading by a 
15 recorder, can be indicated in the Defect Table with Status 1 set to 01, and the Defective 
Packet LBN set equal to the LBN of the first User Data Block of the defective Packet. If a 
Replacement Packet itself is found to be defective, it is indicated by Status 1 = 11. The 
Defective Packet LBN is undefined. 

20 

If an error is detected in a Packet during reading, the drive may replace the 
Packet, mark the Packet for replacement, or ignore the error. If the defective Packet is to be 
replaced or marked for replacement, the drive shall assign the Replacement Packet with 
Status 1 = 10 and the lowest LBN. If the Packet is replaced, then: 
25 - the data from the original Packet shall be recorded in the Packet identified by the 
Replacement Packet LBN. 

- the Status 1 field of the DT Entry shall be set to 00, 

- the Defect Table sort order shall be maintained, 

If the Packet is being marked for later replacement, then: 
30 - the Status 1 field of the DT Entry shall be set to 01, 

- the Defect Table sort order shall be maintained, 

- future read requests shall be fulfilled from the Packet identified by the Defective Packet 
LBN, 

- future write requests shall be handled by writing to the Packet identified by the 



WO 01/22416 PCT7EP00/08975 

16 

Replacement Packet LBN, changing the Status 1 field to 00, and updating the Defect 
Table sort order. Optionally also the original location can be overwritten. The Status 2 
field shall be set accordingly. 

5 

Next the back-ground formatting will be explained in more detail. The disc 
shall be considered fully formatted if the Lead-in Area, the maximally possible Program Area 
and the Lead-out Area have been recorded. The user data bytes in the 2K Blocks can contain 
relevant data or can be set to dummy data (all bytes AAh). The disc shall be considered 

10 partially formatted if at least the MDT in the Lead-in Zone has been recorded. The status of 
the disc shall be indicated by the Disc Status and the Last Written Address fields contained in 
the MDT. If compatibility with CD-ROM drives is required, then the disc shall contain a 
Lead-in Area, a Lead-out Area, and a Program Area with no blank areas between the Lead-in 
and Lead-out areas. Formatting is the process to reach the status of CD-ROM compatibility. 

1 5 Formatting can be done in two different ways: 



By pre-formatting, which is the conventional way of formatting used for many 
storage media. After the pre-formatting process, the disc is fully formatted. User Data shall 
20 not be recorded to the disc until the pre-formatting process is complete. This process 
generally consists of the following steps: 

- write Lead-in Zone, 

- write Data Zone, 

- write Lead-out Zone, 

25 - verify the Data Zone (optional) including updating DMAs (if present). 



Formatting can also be done as : Back-ground Formatting, which is a 
formatting process that runs in the background during use of the disc on a recorder. After the 
30 Back-ground Formatting process, the disc is fully formatted. User Data may be recorded to 
the disc during the Back-ground Formatting process. The Back-ground Formatting process 
consists of the following steps: 

- Initialization 

- De-icing 



WO 01/22416 

- Finalization 

- Early-eject closing (if applicable) 

- Re-opening an early-ejected disc 

- Verification 

5 

Because the Pre-formatting process may be rather time consuming, Back- 
ground Formatting can be a much more time-efficient solution for the user of the disc. During 
the Back-ground Formatting process only a minimum amount of data will be recorded onto 
10 the disc, after which the disc can be used by the application. A disc on which a Back-ground 
Formatting process is active, may be formatted further by the CD recorder in the background 
during the moments that the application is not accessing the disc. 

15 Next the initialization will be explained. When a blank disc is inserted into a 

recorder, an initialization procedure is started by the host computer. This initialization creates 
an STL and MDT at the end of the Lead-in Area, according to a set of parameters given by 
the host computer, such as: Start of GPA, Size of Replacement Area, Size of GAA. In general 
the host computer also writes some initial File System Structures (FSS) to the disc. These 

20 File System Structures as well as the User Data can be placed anywhere in the logically 

addressable space of the disc. In the following examples it is assumed that the disc is initially 
recorded sequentially. As a result of the initialization procedure the following disc, as shown 
schematically in Fig. 1 1 will exist. Because of the very limited amount of data to be recorded, 
the initialization procedure will be finished just in seconds. The disc is now ready for data 

25 storage and can be released for the application. 

Next the de-icing will be explained, with reference to Fig. 12, showing the 
status of a disc after some de-icing and recording. De-icing is the process of recording all 
30 Packets in the Program Area of the disc. During the de-icing phase, unrecorded areas shall be 
filled with Packets containing 2K Blocks with all AAh bytes or with User Data when 
requested. The De-icing shall be performed by the drive itself, without any support from the 
host computer. During the time intervals when the drive is idle, the De-icing process can 
proceed in the background. When the application or OS requests disc access, the De-icing 



PCT/EP00/08975 

17 



WO 01/22416 PCT/EP00/08975 

18 

process is suspended and the control of the disc is returned to the OS. Application requested 
writes in blank areas shall be registered by the drive and shall not be overwritten by the De- 
icing process. The drive shall keep track of all areas that have been recorded or de-iced. 

Next finalization will be discussed in more detail, with reference to Fig. 13, 
showing the status of a disc after several steps of finalization. After the full Data Area and the 
General Purpose Area have been recorded or de-iced, the Lead-in and Lead-out Area are 
recorded. To be able to interrupt the recording of the Lead-in and the Lead-out Area on 
write/read requests from the host computer, the Lead-in area as well as the Lead-out area are 
written in variable Packet size. The Lead-in and Lead-out should be recorded continuously 
until the moment of the interrupt request, after which the recording shall stop by writing a 
Packet end (2 Run-out Blocks and a partial Link Block). After the action requested by the 
host has been finished, writing to the Lead-in or Lead-out is resumed with a Packet start 
(partial Link Block and 4 Run-in Blocks) followed by User Data Blocks. To prevent too 
much fragmentation in the Lead-in and Lead-out area, each Packet shall be at least of a size 
of 128 User Blocks. At the end of the finalization process the host computer overwrites the 
General Application Area with the required files, updates the File System Structures and 
creates additional File System Structures if needed (e.g. UDF secondary AVDP). 

Next the process of ejecting a disc from a recorder is explained, with reference 
to Fig. 14 which shows an example of the final status of a disc. When the disc is ejected from 
the recorder the MDT Packet shall be copied to the SDT Packet. 

However, early ejecting may be feasible as explained hereinafter, with 
reference to Fig. 1 5, showing an early eject status of the disc. When the user pushes the eject 
button of the drive, he is expecting the disc to come out in the shortest possible time. 
However he also expects that the disc is "ROM-compatible". This means that the disc shall 
have at least a Lead-in and a Lead-out Area and no blank areas in the Program Area. If the 
Back-ground Formatting process is not yet finished, the drive may decide to finish the de- 
icing and finalization processes in the normal way. If the remaining formatting will take too 



WO 01/22416 PCT7EP00/08975 

19 

much time to finish, then the drive can decide to close the disc in a temporary ROM- 
compatible way, for which the following steps are needed (see Fig. 15): 
- write/read requests from the computer shall be completed and the active de-icing process 
stops, 

5 - if recordings have been made in blank areas, all blank areas up to the last recorded 
Packet shall be de-iced, 



1) Only Replacement Packets that are actually in use (indicated in the MDT with 

10 Status 1 = 00) are copied to the location immediately following the area reserved for the 
temporary GAA. 

2) An adapted copy of the MDT is placed as TDT (Temporary Defect Table) next to the 
copied Replacement Packets, together with an STL and a Reserved Packet: 

15 - the signature in the copy shall be set to 544454h 

- the DT Entries in the TDT shall point to the temporary Replacement Packets, while 
the DT Entries in the MDT shall not be changed (still pointing to the Replacement 
Packets in the final GPA), 

- the LWA (Last Written Address) in both the MDT and TDT shall be set to the LBN of the 
20 first User Data 

Block of the temporary Reserved Packet, 

- all other fields in the MDT and TDT shall be unchanged and reflect the values of the 
final disc after formatting has been fully completed, 

- if the SLT and/or TDT can not be written correctly at the intended location, then the 
25 next 2 Packets shall be used. The TDT shall always be the last but one Packet 

before the start of the temporary Lead-out. 

3) A Lead-out Area of at least 30 seconds is recorded. If this Lead-out is going to overlap 
recorded Packets in the final General Purpose Area, then the normal De-icing and 

30 Finalization processes shall be finished instead of applying this Early-eject procedure. 

4) The Lead-in Area, with subcode data according to the actual situation of the disc, is 
recorded. 



WO 01/22416 PCT7EP00/08975 

20 

5) The OS writes the GAA immediately following the last Packet that has been de-iced or 
recorded, the temporary GAA shall have the same size as the final GAA. 

6) The OS updates the file system structures and writes required additional structures, 

5 

7) If all data to be stored in the GAA does not occupy all Packets, then the remaining 
Packets shall be de-iced. 

8) The TDT is updated, including the reset to 0 of the Dirty Disc bit. 

10 

9) The MDT is updated, including the reset to 0 of the Dirty Disc bit. 

Next re-opening and early-ejected disc will be discussed, with reference to 
Fig. 16, showing the re-opened status of the disc. When an early-ejected disc is re-inserted 

15 into a recorder, this device will detect the "partially formatted" status and the host computer 
can initiate the continuation of the Back-ground Formatting. De-icing shall restart from the 
position indicated by the LWA pointer (see Fig. 15), thus starts overwriting the temporary 
Lead-out Area. It will proceed until the full disc has been de-iced/finalized. The Replacement 
Packets already present in the final GPA shall not be overwritten. The temporary GPA is 

20 considered as being formatted. Links of the file system to the temporary GAA are invalid. 
New write requests can overwrite the temporary GPA. Before a next eject, the OS shall 
update the File System Structures. 



25 Finally it is remarked that although he invention has been described with 

reference to preferred embodiments thereof, it is to be understood that these are not limitative 
examples. Thus, various modifications thereof may become apparent to those skilled in the 
art, without departing from the scope of the invention, as defined by the claims. For instance 
a CD-RW may be replaced with a DVD-RW or the like. 

30 

Next an embodiment of a computer data system comprising a computer and a 
recording apparatus according to the invention will be described, with reference to Fig. 17. 
The recording apparatus 1 comprises recording medium receiving means 2 for receiving a 



WO 01/22416 PCT/EP00/08975 

21 

removable recording medium 3. The recording medium 3 may be a disc of the optically 
readable type such as CD-RW, DVD-RAM or DVD-RW. The recording medium 3 is 
rotationally driven by rotation means 4. An optical pick-up unit 5, movable in a radial 
direction of the recording medium 3, writes optically detectable marks along a spiral track 8 
5 on the recording medium 3 employing a light beam 6. To this purpose the recording medium 
3 is provided with a suitable phase change material which has different optical properties in 
crystalline or amorphous states. Heating with the light beam 6 may induce these states. The 
light beam 6 is modulated by recording means 9 according to digital information signals to be 
recorded. These digital information signals have been suitable encoded with encoding means 

10 10, employing EFM modulation and CIRC error encoding, as prescribed by the CD- 
standards. Inputting means 11, which may employ suitable interface means, receive the 
digital information signals from a connected computer 12. 

Alternatively, recorded digital information signals on the recording medium 3, 
may be read via the same optical pick-up unit 5, by suitable reading means 13. These are 

1 5 connected to decoding means 14 to perform EFM decoding and CIRC error correction 
processing. The decoded and corrected signal are outputted, via outputting means 15, 
comprising suitable interface circuitry, to the computer 12. 

All units are controlled by a controlling unit 16 connected to memory means 
17, such as for example a non- volatile ROM. The controlling unit 16 may comprise a 

20 processing unit which operates according to a specific program loaded in the memory means 
17, in order to perform the method according to the invention, either independent or under 
control of the computer 12. 

The computer 12 comprises interface circuitry 18 adapted to receive digital 
information signals from the recording apparatus 1 or to send digital information signals to 

25 the recording apparatus 1 . The digital information signals may comprise, apart from signals 
read from the recording medium 3 or to be recorded thereon, control signals from the 
computer 12 to control the recording apparatus 1. 

The interface circuitry 1 8 is connected to an internal data and address bus 1 9 
in order to exchange data and control signals with a hard disk unit 20, a RAM memory unit 

30 21, a central processor unit 22 and a ROM memory unit 22. The computer 12 may be loaded 
with a suitable operating system and a device driver to operate with the recording apparatus 
1. In case of a recording apparatus according to the invention, the recording apparatus lwill 
perform the major parts of the method according to the invention itself, such as back-ground 
formatting or defect management, without requiring excessive interaction with the computer 



WO 01/22416 PCT/EP00/08975 

22 

12. In that case the computer 12 will only interact with the recording apparatus 1 in case of 
write, read or eject requests and the like. 

However, an other embodiment of the invention is obtained when the 
recording apparatus 1 is not adapted to perform independently the method of the invention, 
5 such as in case of a legacy CD-RW writer or CD-ROM reader. In this case the computer 12 
will have to use a dedicated device driver, loaded in the corresponding memory units of the 
computer 12, to control the recording apparatus 1 in such a manner to perform at least the 
defect management according to the method of the invention. Such a dedicated device driver 
may be obtained from the recording medium 3 itself or from other external means such as 
10 internet. 



The invention may be implemented by means of both hardware and software, 
and that several "means" may be represented by the same item of hardware. Further, the 
15 invention lies in each and every novel feature or combination of features. It is also remarked 
that the word "comprising" does not exclude the presence of other elements or steps than 
those listed in a claim. Any reference signs do not limit the scope of the claims. 



WO 01/22416 PCT7EP00/08975 

23 

CLAIMS: 



1 • A method of recording digital information signals on a removable rewritable 

disc like recording medium, the method comprising recording user data within a program 
area of the disc and, prior to removal of the disc out of a recording apparatus, finalizing the 
disc with a lead-in area and a lead-out area comprising control information, the method 
5 characterized by, 

performing an initialization step after inserting a blank disc into a recording 
apparatus, the initialization step comprising recording control data in a lead-in area which 
control data defines a general purpose area (GPA) within the program area of the disc and 
where after the disc is ready to record user data in a remaining data area of the program area. 

10 

2. A method according to claim 1, wherein the initialization step comprises 
defining a main defect table (MDT) in the lead-in area adapted to contain a list of address of 
defect areas and replacement areas, and 

defining a defect management area (DMA) within said general purpose area (GPA) adapted 
1 5 to contain replacement areas for defect management. 

3. A method according to claim 2, wherein the initialization step comprises 
defining a general application area (GAA) within the general purpose area 

(GPA) adapted to contain application drivers adapted to handle defect management and/or 
20 support of specific operating systems. 

4. A method according to claim 3, characterized by, 

replacing defect areas with replacement areas in the defect management area (DMA) and 
recording the addresses of the defect areas and corresponding replacement areas in the main 
25 defect table (MDT) in the lead-in area. 

5. A method according to claim 2, wherein the initialization step comprises 
defining a sentinel area (STL) within the lead-in area comprising dummy data adapted to be 



WO 01/22416 PCT/EP00/08975 

24 

overwritten by a new main defect table when the main defect table (MDT) becomes 
defective. 



6. A method according to claim 1 , wherein the initialization step is followed by 
5 a back-ground formatting step intended to be performed when no user data is written to the 

disc, the back-ground formatting step comprising 

a de-icing step comprising recording dummy data in blank areas within the data area, said de- 
icing step to be performed until the complete data area has been recorded with dummy data 
when not recorded already with user data. 

10 

7. A method according to claim 6, comprising a finalization step to be performed 
when the de-icing step has been completed, the finalization step comprising: 

completing recording of the lead-in and lead-out area , 

recording the general application area (GAA) with the required data if needed and 
15 recording a copy of the main defect table (MDT) as a secondary defect table (SDT) in the 
general purpose area (GPA). 

8. A method according to claim 7, comprising an early-eject step to be performed 
when the disc is ejected from a recorder prior to completion of the finalization step, the early- 

20 eject step comprising: 

completing recording or reading requests, 

stopping an active de-icing step and performing only a de-icing step to de-ice 
all blank area up to the last recorded area with user data, 

recording a temporary general purpose area next to area with the last recorded 
25 user data or to the last de-iced area , 

copying replacement areas actually in use within the defect management area 
(DMA) to the area immediately followed by the temporary general application area, 

copying and adapted copy of the main defect table as a temporary defect table 
next to the copied replacement areas and 
30 recording a temporary lead-out area next to the temporary defect table and 

recording the lead-in area. 

9. A method according to claim 7, comprising a re-opening step to be performed 
when an early-eject step has been performed, the re-opening step comprising: 



WO 01/22416 PCT7EP00/08975 

25 

performing the de-icing step for areas following the last recorded area before 
the temporary lead-in area. 

10. A method of reproducing digital information signals recorded on a removable 
5 rewritable disc like recording medium such as obtained with a method according to claim 7, 

characterized by, 

performing defect management employing the secondary defect table (SDT). 

11. A method of reproducing digital information signals recorded on a removable 
10 rewritable disc like recording medium such as obtained with a method according to claim 8, 

characterized by, performing defect management employing the temporary defect table 
(TDT). 

12. A method according to claim 1 , wherein the recording medium is of the 
1 5 optical type. 

13. A method according to claim 12, wherein the recording medium is a CD of the 
rewritable type and which is in a CD-ROM compatible state after completion of the early- 
eject step. 

20 

14. A recording apparatus for recording digital information signals on a removable 
rewritable disc like recording medium, the recording apparatus comprising, 

input means for receiving the digital information signals, 
recording medium receiving means for receiving the removable medium, 
25 recording means to record digital information signals on the removable 

medium, 

reading means to read recorded digital information signals recorded on the 
removable medium, 

outputting means for outputting the read digital information signals, 
30 controlling means adapted to control recording digital information signals representing user 
data on a program area on the recording medium, characterized in that, 

the controlling means are adapted to perform the method according to one of 
the claims 1-9. 



WO 01/22416 PCT7EP00/08975 

26 

15. A recording apparatus according to claim 14, characterized in that, 

the controlling means are adapted 

to record recording medium status information from a recording medium, the recording 
medium status information comprising formatting status corresponding to an early-eject step 
5 or to a finalization step, and 

to resume the back-ground formatting step in case if the medium status information read 
from a recording medium corresponds to an early-eject step. 

15. A recording apparatus according to claim 14, characterized in that, 

10 the controlling means are adapted to register the areas that have been recorded or de-iced. 

1 6. A recording apparatus according to claim 1 4, characterized in that, 

the controlling means are adapted to store the address of the last recorded or de-iced area 
from the recording medium and to resume recording or de-icing from this area. 

15 

1 7. A recording apparatus according to claim 14, characterized in that, 

the controlling means are adapted to read digital information signals recorded 
on the recording medium according to the method of claim 

20 1 8. A computer data system comprising a computer connected to a recording 

apparatus for recording digital information signals on a removable rewritable disc like 
recording medium, the recording apparatus comprising : 

inputting means connected to the computer for receiving the digital 
information signals therefrom, 
25 recording medium receiving means for receiving the removable medium, 

recording means to record digital information signals on the removable 

medium, 

reading means to read recorded digital information signals recorded on the 
removable medium, 

30 outputting means for outputting the read digital information signals to the 

computer, 

controlling means adapted to control recording digital information signals representing user 
data on a program area on the recording medium, characterized in that, 



WO 01/22416 PCT/EP00/08975 

27 

the computer is adapted to control the controlling means of the recording apparatus to 
perform the method according to one of the claims 1-9. 

19. A computer data system comprising a computer connected to a reproducing 

5 apparatus for reproducing digital information signals recorded on a removable rewritable disc 
like recording medium, the reproducing apparatus comprising: 

recording medium receiving means for receiving the removable medium, 
reading means to read recorded digital information signals recorded on the removable 
medium, outputting means for outputting the read digital information signals to the computer, 
10 controlling means to control the read means and output means, the control means being 
connected to the computer means, characterized in that, 

the computer is adapted to control the controlling means of the reproducing apparatus to 
perform defect management using the secondary defect table (SDT) obtained according to 
method of claim 7 or using the temporary defect table (TDT) obtained according the method 
1 5 according to claim 8. 

20. A computer program product directly loadable into the internal memory of a 
digital computer, comprising software code portions for performing the steps of one of the 
claims 1-11 when said product is run on a computer. 



WO 01/22416 



PCT/EP00/08975 



LEAD-IN 



1/8 



DATA AREA 



LEAD-OUT 



FIG. 1 








— ► 


m - 


► 


m 


LI data 


STL 


MDT- 


Data Area 


• ///•General://:: 
: Purpose" Area// 


LO data 



end of Data Area with 
Defect Management " 



end of Program Area — 

FIG. 2 



Lead-in 
Area Program Area 



p> 


•* 










R02 


LNK | RI1 | RI4 


TDB ; 4; TDB 


R01 | R02 | LNK 


RI1 RI4 






1 1 // 1 1 

^ 


I 1 // I— 1 









2 seconds pre-gap with Track Descriptor Blocks 

start of Track 1, Index 1 

Program Area 



R02 


LNK | RI1 | RI4 |.UD1 | iUD32|R01 R02 


LNK RI1 ■•'»• RI4 


U01 




•* — - i ■■ d 7 »> 





Program Area Lead-out Area 



. ► 


M 








R02 


LNK 


RI1 


| RI4 | . UD1 f. •■/•;. IUD.32 1 R01 R02 


LNK 


Rn ~r 


RI4 


UD 




*4 




: ■ ■ = : 


// 



last packet in Program Area 

end of Track 1 



FIG. 3 



WO 01/22416 



PCT/EP00/08975 



2/8 








^ Defect Management Area 


► 






data 


General 
Application Area 


7: M. Replacement": ■ 7/ ott ' .7" ; cW 7 

:77:-;;Pc#e^ 


Rsv. 
Packet 


Lead-out 




1 end of Data Area start of Lead-out ' 





FIG. 4 



Lead-in Area 





■+ 




— ► 






LNK RI1 RI4 


•UDt 




UQ32- 


-rcti" 



Lead-in Area Program Area 







► 


.4 


RD2--LNK RI1 RI4 

1 — 1 1 // 1 — • 


UD1 ' U032 


R01 R02 


LNK RI1 


RI4 TDB 




—J // 

mitt * 


// 



FIG. 5 



Lead-in Area Program Area 



^ 


M 


Li data 


STL 


current 7 

7 MOT '7 


defective 
MDT3 


defective 
MDT2 


defective 
MDT1 


data 



FIG. 6 



WO 01/22416 



PCT/EPOO/08975 



3/8 



General Purpose Area 



Defect Management Area 





^ . — . ^ 






General 
Application Area 






■.current 

•/SOT;.-'. 


■defective 

;:SDT.2 ; ; 


defective 

/. SDT M; . 


Rsv. 
Packet 





FIG. 7 



one Packet = 32 x 2K Blocks 



•4 — ► 


DTO 


DT1 


DT2 


DT3 


DT4 


DT5 


DT6 


DT7 



Defect Table 
partO 


Defect Table 
parti 


Defect Table 
part 2 


Defect Table 
part 3 


■+ — ■ ► 



one Defect Table = 4 x 2K Blocks 



FIG. 8 



BP in sector 


Contents 


Length in bytes 


0 


Signature of the STL ("STL") 


3 


3 


Version number 


1 


4 


DT update count (FFFFh indicate invalid table) 


2 


6 


Reserved 


2 


8 ... 2047 


Reserved 


2040 



FIG. 10 



WO 01/22416 



PCT/EP00/08975 



4/8 



RP in coptnr 
□r III ocUlUI 


vAJMLulilo 


1 onnth in K\/ioc 
Lufiyul 111 Uylco 


n 

u 


Oiyi Idlulc Ul Lf It? U I ^IVIL/I Uf OU\ Ul \U\ J 


0 


0 
0 


version numDer 


1 
I 


*r 


ui upudic couni ^rrrrn indicate invaiiu laoiej 


o 

d 


u 


DT ni imhpr /fir<it d hits' hinarv vaii ip 0-7\ / 

DT part number (last 4 bits: binary value 0-3) 


I 


7 


Number of DT parts actually in use 


1 


8 


Total number of replacement entries in the DT 


2 


10 


Reserved 


6 


16 


Start of General Purpose Area 


3 


19 


Size of Replacement Area 


2 


21 


Size of General Application Area 


3 


24 


Disc Status 


2 


26 


Last written Address (LWA) 


3 


29 


Reserved 


3 


32 


DT Entry 0 


6 


38 ... 2047 


DT Entries 1 ...335 


335x6 



FIG. 9 



General 



<< ► 


-4 ► 


M ► 


M ► 


unrecorded 


:STL ; . 


.MDT: 




unrecorded 


unrecorded 


unrecorded 



File system structure 
e.g. 8 Packets 

Main Defect Table + STL 
2 Packets 



FIG. 11 



WO 01/22416 



PCT/EP00/08975 



5/8 



General 



M ► 


M ► 


*4 — ^ 


*4 ► 


unrecorded 


.STL 


MDT 


§tt 


; fJata 


:^'ced ; 


unrecorded 


unrec. 


t 


unrec. 


unrecorded 



1 replaced Packet- 



-back-ground format 
-recorded data 



FIG. 12 



General 






► 


^ — ► 


m ► 


unrecorded 


. stu. 


MDT ; 


IB 




Deseed 


•'.•De-.':' 
• iced • 


H 
P 

1. 


VDe^V; 
'.iced;' 


unrecorded 



i at start of finalization, de-icing shall be finished 



















yDeV/; 






. STL: 


MDT' 


m 




.iced ■' 














Data 


L 


.iced/ 





1 Lead-in and Lead-out written 



STL. 



MDT 



.FSS: 



Host computer writes GAA, 
updates FSS and adds additional FSS 



FIG. 13 



WO 01/22416 



PCT/EPOO/08975 



6/8 



Lead-in 



Data Area 



«« 





















► 




s 


M 


F 






F 




m 




s 


S 








T 


D 


S 






S 


GAA 


m 




T 


D 


. rsy. 






L 


T 


S 






S 




m 




L 


T 





GPA 



Lead-out 



copy MDTtoSDT 



i 



FIG. 14 



Lead-in 
Area 



Data Area 



General Purpose Lead-out 
Area Area 

->-H ► 



s 

T 
L 



m., 
mr 

am. 



'.data. 



A 
A 



i 



p 



temp. GPA temp. LO i 



still correct! 
i 



S 
T 
L 



m 
s 



.•data.' 



de-ice 



-de-ice restart from here 



FIG. 15 



WO 01/22416 



PCT/EP00/08975 



7/8 



Lead-in 
Area 

< — - — ►H- 



Data Area 



General Purpose Lead-out 

Area Area 
► 



s. 


M 


F. 






t 


D 




.'.'dala 


device.'.' 


■t 


T 


•s- 







i recording & de-icing stopped, blank areas filled 



"DMT*" 



(1) 





s. 


M 


F. 








R 


S 


■T. 




T 


D 


•s. 


.'/data''.'. 


de-ice.'.- 




•P. 


T 


D 




■t: 














L 


L 


T. 



(2) 



T 



i drive copies Replacement Packets, creates and writes TDT + STL + RSV 



■F 

•s- 

S. 



•'.'data 



(4) 



i drive writes Lead-out, Lead-in 
i i 
(6) (6[ (5) 



(3) 



data.-'.' 



•de-ice 



i OS writes GAA and updates FSS 



i 



(9) 



(7) (8) 





s 


M 




.■'.data-.-'.-' 




m. 




R 


S 


T. 


R 






R 














T 


D 




.deHce. 






P. 


T 


D 


S 






P 














L. 


T 


vim 






L 


l 


T. 


V 






L 













1 temp.GPA 1 temp.LO 1 
drive de-ices remainder of GAA, updates MDT & TDT (Dirty Disc bit reset to 0) 



FIG. 16 



WO 01/22416 



PCT/EPOO/08975 



5 



8/8 



9 



10 



11 



-0- 



6-; 



13 



14 



15 



-0—1 



-17 



16 



12- 



20- 



21 



19- 



-0— 1 



-0- 



22- 



23 



18- 



^0 



FIG. 17 



INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT 



Inter nal Application No 

PCT/EP 00/08975 



A. CLASSIFICATION OF SUBJECT MATTER 

IPC 7 G11B20/18 G11B27/32 



According to International Patent Classification (IPC) or to both national classification and IPC 



B. FIELDS SEARCHED 



Minimum documentation searched (classification system followed by classification symbols) 

IPC 7 G11B 



Documentation searched other than minimum documentation to the extent that such documents are included in the fields searched 



Electronic data base consulted during the international search (name of data base and. where practical, search terms used) 

EPO-Internal , WPI Data, PAJ, INSPEC, IBM-TDB 



C. DOCUMENTS CONSIDERED TO BE RELEVANT 



Category ° Citation of document, with indication, where appropriate, of the relevant passages 



Relevant to claim No. 



US 5 623 470 A (ASTHANA PRAVEEN ET AL) 
22 April 1997 (1997-04-22) 

abstract; figures 2,3 
column 1, line 44 -column 2, line 47 
column 3, line 45 -column 4, line 9 
claim 1 

EP 0 798 711 A (TOKYO SHIBAURA ELECTRIC 
CO) 1 October 1997 (1997-10-01) 
page 10, line 32 -page 15, line 39 
figure 12 

-/-- 



1,2, 

12-14, 

18,20 



1-6,12, 
14,18,20 



Further documents are listed in the continuation of box C. 



Patent family members are listed in annex. 



° Special categories of cited documents : 

"A" document defining the general state of the art which is not 

considered to be of particular relevance 
"E" earlier document but published on or after the international 

filing date 

■L" document which may throw doubts on priority claim (s) or 
which is cited to establish the publication date of another 
citation or other special reason (as specified) 

"O' document referring to an oral disclosure, use, exhibition or 
other means 

"P" document published prior to the international filing date but 
later than the priority date claimed 



"T" later document published after the international filing date 
or priority date and not in conflict with the application but 
cited to understand the principle or theory underlying the 
invention 

"X" document of particular relevance; the claimed invention 
cannot be considered novel or cannot be considered to 
involve an inventive step when the document is taken alone 

"Y" document of particular relevance; the claimed invention 

cannot be considered to involve an inventive step when the 
document is combined with one or more other such docu- 
ments, such combination being obvious to a person skilled 
in the art. 

*&" document member of the same patent family 



Date of the actual completion of the international search 

31 January 2001 


Date of mailing of the international search report 

06/02/2001 


Name and mailing address of the ISA 

European Patent Office, P.B. 5818 Patentlaan 2 
NL - 2280 HV Rijswijk 
Tel. (+31-70) 340-2040, Tx. 31 651 epo nl. 
Fax: (+31-70) 340-3016 


Authorized officer 

Schiwy-Rausch, G 



Form PCT/ISA/210 (second sheet) (July 1992) 



page 1 of 2 



INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT 



Inter nal Application No 

PCT/EP 00/08975 



C.(Continuation) DOCUMENTS CONSIDERED TO BE RELEVANT 



Category c 



Citation of document, with indication, where appropriate, of the relevant passages 



Relevant to claim No. 



A,P 



EP 0 541 219 A (IBM) 

12 May 1993 (1993-05-12) 

abstract 

line 38 - line 44 
line 53 -column 5, 



1-4,12, 
14,18 



column 2, 

column 4, 

column 6, 

column 8, 



1 ine 58 -col umn 7, 
1 ine 41 -column 9, 



line 43 
line 21 
line 32 



claims 1,2; figures 6,9C 



EP 1 014 365 A (SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO 
LTD) 28 June 2000 (2000-06-28) 



abstract 

column 1, line 7 - line 13 

column 1, line 30 -column 2, line 7 

column 4, line 45 -column 5, line 30 

EP 0 798 716 A (TOKYO SHIBAURA ELECTRIC 
CO) 1 October 1997 (1997-10-01) 

figures 3,4,10 
column 4, line 22 - line 40 
column 8, line 30 -column 9, line 6 



1,2,6,7, 
10, 

12-14, 
18-20 



1,12-14, 
18,20 



Form PCT/ISA/210 (continuation of second sheet) (July 1992) 



page 2 of 2 



INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT 

information on patent family members 



inter nal Application No 

PCT/EP 00/08975 



Patent document 




Publication 




Patent family 




Publication 


cited in search report 




date 




member(s) 




date 


US 5623470 


A 


22-04-1997 


CN 


1202261 


A 


16-12-1998 








EP 


0873560 


A 


28-10-1998 








MO 


9724723 


A 


10-07-1997 








JP 


11501760 


T 


09-02-1999 


EP 0798711 


A 


01-10-1997 


JP 


9259576 


A 


03-10-1997 








CN 


1164732 


A 


12-11-1997 








US 


5878020 


A 


02-03-1999 


EP 0541219 


A 


12-05-1993 


US 


5303219 


A 


12-04-1994 








JP 


2547925 


B 


30-10-1996 








JP 


5210845 


A 


20-08-1993 


EP 1014365 


A 


28-06-2000 


CN 


1257274 


A 


21-06-2000 








JP 


2000276838 


A 


06-10-2000 








BR 


9905358 


A 


12-09-2000 


CD 070071 c 

tr u/yo/io 


A 

A 


m in i no "7 

oi-io-iyy / 


in 

Jr 


nocnc a~7 

y2byb4/ 


A 

A 


no in mn7 
03-10-1997 








CN 


1164731 


A 


12-11-1997 








DE 


69700222 


D 


24-06-1999 








DE 


69700222 


T 


25-11-1999 








US 


5991253 


A 


23-11-1999 








US 


5883867 


A 


16-03-1999 



Form PCT/ISA/210 (patent family annex) (July 1992)