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(12) INTERNATIONAL APPLICATION PUBLISHED UNDER THE PATENT COOPERATION TREATY (PCT) 



(19) World Intellectual Property 
Organization 

International Bureau 




IIIIIIIM 



(43) International Publication Date (10) International Publication Number 

16 September 2004 (16.09.2004) PCT WO 2004/079740 Al 



(51) International Patent Classification 7 : G11B 20/12, 

G06F 12/10, G11B 7/004 

(21) International Application Number: 

PCT/KR2003/002597 

(22) International Filing Date: 

27 November 2003 (27.11.2003) 



(25) Filing Language: 

(26) Publication Language: 



English 
English 



(30) Priority Data: 

10-2003-0013327 4 March 2003 (04.03.2003) KR 
10-2003-0015932 14 March 2003 (14.03.2003) KR 

(71) Applicant: LG ELECTRONICS INC. [KR/KR] ; 20, 
Yoido-dong, Youngdungpo-gu, 150-721 Seoul (KR). 

(72) Inventors: PARK, Yong Cheol; 215-204, Jugong APT., 
Wonmun-dong, 427-030 Gwachon-si, Gyeonggi-do (KR). 
KIM, Sung Dae; 1110-1406, Jugong APT., Sanbon l(il)- 
dong, 435-746 Gunpo-si, Gyeonggi-do (KR). 



(74) Agents: BAHNG, Hae Cheol et al.; Kims International 
Patent & Law Office, 15th Floor Yo Sam Building, 648-23,, 
Yeoksam-dong, Kangnam-gu, Seoul 135-080 (KR). 

(81) Designated States (national): AE, AG, AL, AM, AT, AU, 
AZ, BA, BB, BG, BR, BW, BY, BZ, CA, CH, CN, CO, CR, 
CU, CZ, DE, DK, DM, DZ, EC, EE, EG, ES, FI, GB, GD, 
GE, GH, GM, HR, HU, ID, IL, IN, IS, JP, KE, KG, KP, KR, 
KZ, LC, LK, LR, LS, LT, LU, LV, MA, MD, MG, MK, MN, 
MW, MX, MZ, NI, NO, NZ, OM, PG, PH, PL, PT, RO, RU, 
SC, SD, SE, SG, SK, SL, SY, TJ, TM, TN, TR, TT, TZ, UA, 
UG, UZ, VC, VN, YU, ZA, ZM, ZW. 

(84) Designated States (regional): ARIPO patent (BW, GH, 
GM, KE, LS, MW, MZ, SD, SL, SZ, TZ, UG, ZM, ZW), 
Eurasian patent (AM, AZ, BY, KG, KZ, MD, RLT, TJ, TM), 
European patent (AT, BE, BG, CH, CY, CZ, DE, DK, EE, 
ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, HU, IE, IT, LU, MC, NL, PT, RO, SE, 
SI, SK, TR), OAPI patent (BF, BJ, CF, CG, CI, CM, GA, 
GN, GQ, GW, ML, MR, NE, SN, TD, TG). 

Published: 

— with international search report 

For two-letter codes and other abbreviations, refer to the "Guid- 
ance Notes on Codes and Abbreviations" appearing at the begin- 
ning of each regular issue of the PCT Gazette. 



(54) Title: METHOD FOR RECORDING ON OPTICAL RECORDING MEDIUM AND APPARATUS USING THE SAME 



DalaArea 



LIA0 



DMA2 DMA 1 

u — - — a 





User Data Area 


OSA0 (k x 256 clusters) 


LOA0 


2048 clusters 






m clusters 




— *- 








DMA3 DMA4! 

4 V. ■ 


ISAO 






TDMA2 







OPC I iTDMAl 





SBM 




TDFL 




TDDS 


TDDS 



O 



1 cluster 



Sector 0 
Sector 30 


SBM 


Sector 31 


TDDS 



j clusters 



Sector 0 
Sector 32j-2 


TDFL 


Sector 32j— 1 


TDDS 



(57) Abstract: A method and apparatus for recording on an optical recording medium, including the recording of management in- 
formation, are described as a standard for the write-once Blu-ray disc. The management information is recorded in a management 
area of the disc, such as a temporary defect management area (TDMA), and includes record status information and update infor- 
mation. The record status information is a space bitmap (SBM) indicating whether a recording operation has been performed for a 
predetermined area of the disc, and the update information is SBM update information indicating whether the record status informa- 
tion is to be continuously managed. The SBM update information is recorded in the TDMA and is stored in a memory of an optical 
disc recording/reproducing device for use during recording and reproducing operations. At the time of recording, an SBM-on state 
enables a logical overwriting operation to be performed as necessary. 



WO 2004/079740 PCT/KR2003/002597 

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METHOD FOR RECORDING ON OPTICAL RECORDING MEDIUM 
AND APPARATUS USING THE SAME 

Technical Field 

The present invention relates to optical recording media, and more 
particularly, to a method and apparatus for recording on an optical recording 
medium, such as a write-once Blu-ray disc (BD-WO), in which recording on the 
disc in a random mode is managed by recording management information 
including a space bitmap (SBM) to enable a selective performance of a logical 
overwrite (LOW) operation. 

Background Art 

Data recording devices and media using optical read/write means have 
generally been categorized according to their writing capability or flexibility. 
Among read-only optical recording media, there are those using CD-ROM and 
DVD-ROM formats, which have no write capability. Among known disc 
standards that allow multiple write operations to be freely performed, there are 
CD-RW, DVD-RAM, DVD-RW, and DVD+RW types, which are rewritable 
compact discs and digital versatile discs. 

WORM-type discs, on the other hand, are adopted for use as data storage 
devices requiring large storage capacity. Such discs, however, have limited 
recording flexibility and are for use in write-once read-many applications. 
These include CD-R and DVD-R types, which are recordable compact discs and 
digital versatile discs. 

Meanwhile, a new type of high-density DVD, known as a Blu-ray disc, 



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which is a large-capacity optical disc for recording high-quality audio and video 
data using a blue-violet laser, has been developed. The Blu-ray disc adopts a 
rewritable disc format known as BD-RE. Standards for the Blu-ray disc also 
include those for a write- once optical disc known as a BD-WO disc. 
5 In the above types of optical recording media, surface imperfections and 

defects are generated during their manufacture, handling, or use. Accordingly, 
a method for managing the defective areas is used during a data recording 
operation, so that data reproduction can be carried out normally. 

Referring to FIG. 1, an optical disc recording/reproducing device 100 for 

10 use with an optical recording medium 102, such as a BD-RE or BD-WO 
formatted disc, receives a data/command input from a host (or controller) 200. 
The optical disc recording/reproducing device 100 is provided with an optical 
pickup 104 for writing/reading data to/from an inserted optical recording 
medium, a pickup servo 106 for controlling the optical pickup to achieving 

15 proper tracking and to maintain a controlled distance with respect to the surface 
of the optical recording medium, a data processor 108 for processing data to and 
from the optical pickup by restoring to a desired signal value a reproduction 
signal received from the optical pickup or by modulating a recording signal 
received from the host for transfer to the disc, an interface 110 for transferring 

20 data between the host and the recording/reproducing device, a microcomputer 
112 for controlling the recording/reproducing device, and a memory 114 for 
storing a program and for temporarily storing various information including 
defect management information and data. Under the control of the host 200 
and stored programming, the optical pickup 104 reads data stored (or written) on 

25 a disc, providing a data signal input to the data processor 108 for reproduction 
processing and output, and writes data onto specified areas of the disc using a 
write signal output from the data processor. During a write operation, the 



WO 2004/079740 PCT/KR2003/002597 

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optical disc recording/reproducing device 100 receives a data stream (or an 
encoded analog signal) and outputs the write signal to the optical pickup 104 in 
accordance with a commands input via the host 200 and the program stored in 
the memory 114 and executed by the microcomputer 112. 
5 Referring to FIG. 2, showing the structure of the recording area of a disc 

having one recording layer, a BD-RE type disc for use with the device of FIG. 1 
is divided into assigned areas. The assigned areas essentially comprise a data 
area set between a lead-in area (LIA) and a lead-out area (LOA). The data area 
includes an inner spare area (ISA) adjacent the lead-in area and an outer spare 

10 area (OS A) adjacent the lead-out area. 

As above the optical disc recording/reproducing device 100 processes 
input data from a host 200 and writes the data onto an optical disc in clusters 
corresponding to an error correction code block unit. If during a write 
operation the existence of a defective area is detected in the data area, the optical 

15 disc recording/reproducing device 100 carries out a series of replacement write 
operations to write a data cluster corresponding to the detected defective area in 
one of the two spare areas (shown in the example of FIG. 2 as the ISA). 
Therefore, by writing a data cluster of a defective area in a spare area instead of 
the defective area, the data can be read and reproduced from the spare area, thus 

20 preventing the occurrence of writing errors even when an optical disc exhibits 
defects in the data area and thereby assuring data security and data integrity. 

In addition to writing the data clusters of defective areas, position 
information is recorded as defect management information in a plurality of 
defect management areas or DMAs, including DMA1 and DMA2 provided in 

25 the lead-in area and DMA3 and DMA4 provided in the lead-out area. The 
position information includes cluster location information relating to a defective 
area, its replacement area, and the like and enables the defective areas to be 



WO 2004/079740 PCT/KR2003/002597 

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managed during a recording or reproducing stage. 

In the case of a BD-RE disc, since rewriting is possible in any recording 
area of the disc, the entire disc can be freely used irrespective of recording mode. 
Thus, disc management in a BD-RE disc is relatively unproblematic. 
5 Meanwhile, BD-WO disc has no rewrite capability, so disc management presents 
a greater challenge since data recording may be performed only once in any 
specified area of the disc. 

In any event, the management of defective areas is crucial during data 
recording, particularly for high-density DVDs such as the Blu-ray disc, but 
10 current BD-WO standards are inadequate, a problem that is compounded as 
multiple recording layers are employed. A unified standard, one that can 
accommodate the progressive demands of commercial systems for optical data 
storage, is required. 

15 Disclosure of Invention 

Accordingly, the present invention is directed to a method for recording 
on an optical recording medium, and an apparatus using the same, that 
substantially obviate one or more of the problems due to limitations and 
20 disadvantages of the related art. 

An object of the present invention, which has been devised to solve the 
foregoing problem, lies in providing a method and apparatus for recording on an 
optical recording medium, such as a BD-WO disc, by which record status 
information of the disc can be recorded and managed in a random recording 
25 mode and by which a determination can be made as to performance of logical 
overwriting in accordance with the disc's record status. 

It is another object of the present invention to provide a unified standard 



WO 2004/079740 PCT/KR2003/002597 

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for write-once optical recording media. 

It is another object of the present invention to provide such a standard 
compatible with rewritable optical recording media. 

It is another object of the present invention to provide a more efficient 
5 method for the management of defective areas during data recording on a 
write-once optical recording medium. 

It is another object of the present invention to provide a method for 
recording on an optical recording medium in which data security and data 
integrity is enhanced. 

It is another object of the present invention to provide a method for 
recording management information on an optical recording medium, which is 
suitable for a disc having predetermined recording areas across multiple 
recording layers. 

It is another object of the present invention to provide a method for 
recording management information on an optical recording medium, which can 
be adaptively applied according requests from a host. 

It is another object of the present invention to provide a method for 
recording management information on an optical recording medium, which 
enables adaptation to successive versions of the medium. 

It is another object of the present invention to provide an optical 
recording medium for adopting the above methods. 

It is another object of the present invention to provide an apparatus 
suitable for the above optical recording medium. 

Additional features and advantages of the invention will be set forth in 
the description which follows, and in part will be apparent to those having 
ordinary skill in the art upon examination of the following or may be learned 
from a practice of the invention. The objectives and other advantages of the 



WO 2004/079740 PCT/KR2003/002597 

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invention will be realized and attained by the subject matter particularly pointed 
out in the specification and claims hereof as well as in the appended drawings. 

To achieve these objects and other advantages in accordance with the 
present invention, as embodied and broadly described herein, there is provided a 
5 method for recording on an optical recording medium, the method comprising a 
step of recording management information in a management area of the optical 
recording medium, the management information including record status 
information indicating whether a recording operation has been performed for a 
predetermined area of the optical recording medium, and update information 

10 indicating whether the record status information is to be continuously managed. 

In another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a method for 
recording on an optical recording medium, the method comprising steps of: 
recording management information in a management area of the optical 
recording medium, the management information including record status 

15 information indicating a recorded/non-recorded status for a predetermined area 
of the optical recording medium, and update information indicating whether the 
record status information is to be continuously managed; reading the recorded 
management information; and determining, based on the update information, 
whether to update the record status information. 

20 In another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a method for 

recording on an optical recording medium, the method comprising steps of: 
recording management information in a management area of the optical 
recording medium, the management information including record status 
information indicating a recorded/non-recorded status for a predetermined area 

25 of the optical recording medium; and performing a logical overwrite operation 
when the record status information indicates a recorded status for the 
predetermined area. 



WO 2004/079740 PCT/KR2003/002597 

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In another aspect of the present invention, there is provided an apparatus 
for recording on and reproducing from an optical recording medium, 
comprising: a host for requesting recording data on a predetermined area of a 
data area of the recording medium; and a recording/reproducing device for 
5 processing management information of the recording medium, the management 
information including information indicating a recorded-non/recorded status of 
the predetermined area, wherein said recording/reproducing device determines a 
record status of the predetermined area based on the record status information 
and determines whether the record status information is to be updated, to 
10 perform a replacement-recording operation to record the data of the 
predetermined area elsewhere in the data area if it is determined that the 
predetermined area is a recorded area and that the record status information is to 
be updated. 

In another aspect of the present invention, there is provided an optical 
15 recording medium, comprising: at least one recording layer having a plurality of 
assigned areas for recording, the assigned areas including a management area, 
wherein management information is recorded in the management area, the 
management information including record status information indicating whether 
a recording operation has been performed for a predetermined area of the optical 
20 recording medium, and update information indicating whether the record status 
information is to be continuously managed. 

The following detailed description is made particularly with respect to a 
write-once Blu-ray disc. Nevertheless, other write-once type optical recording 
media may adopt the method and apparatus of the present invention. In 
25 addition, though most suited for optical discs using the BD-WO format, the 
fundamental principles of the present invention may be adopted by optical discs 
using other formats, including rewritable formats, for enhanced data security and 



WO 2004/079740 PCT/KR2003/002597 

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data integrity. 

It is to be understood that both the foregoing explanation and the 
following detailed description of the present invention are exemplary and 
illustrative and are intended to provide further explanation of the invention as 
5 claimed. 

Brief Description of the Drawings 

Further objects and advantages of the invention can be more folly 
10 understood from the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the 
accompanying drawings, in which: 

FIG. 1 is a block diagram of an optical disc recording/reproducing system 
of a related art; 

FIG. 2 is a diagram illustrating a method for managing a defective area of 
15 a rewritable optical recording medium, such as a BD-RE disc, for use in the 
system of FIG. 1; 

FIG. 3 is a diagram of a write-once optical recording medium, such as a 
BD-WO disc, illustrating a method of recording management information 
according to the present invention; 
20 FIG. 4 is a diagram of sample recording stages of a TDFL of FIG. 3; 

FIG. 5 is a diagram of an SBM of FIG. 3; 

FIG. 6 is a diagram of a sample set of SBM update flags included in a 
TDDS of FIG. 3; 

FIG. 7 is a diagram illustrating one mode of operation in recording on an 
25 optical recording medium, for explaining the relationship between the SBM-on/ 
off function and the performance of logical overwriting according to the present 
invention; 



WO 2004/079740 PCT/KR2003/002597 

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FIG. 8 is a diagram illustrating another mode of operation in recording on 
an optical recording medium, for explaining the relationship between the 
SBM-on/off function and the performance of logical overwriting according to 
the present invention; and 
5 FIG. 9 is a diagram of an optical recording medium having multiple 

recording layers according to the present invention. 

Best mode for Carrying Out the Invention 

Reference will now be made in detail to the preferred embodiments of the 
present invention, examples of which are illustrated in the accompanying 
drawings. Throughout the drawings, like elements are indicated using the same 
or similar reference designations. 

Generally speaking, an overwrite operation is a repeated recording in a 
specified area of a rewritable recording medium, and as such, is an inherent 
characteristic of the rewritable optical disc. In the case of a write-once type 
disc, however, if an already recorded area exists in the data area, it is physically 
impossible to perform an overwrite function on the area due to the inherent 
characteristics of such a disc. Therefore, the present invention makes use of 
logical overwriting (LOW), in distinction from "physical" overwriting. That is, 
upon determining a status of use (i.e., recorded or non-recorded) of each of a 
plurality of assigned areas of the disc, the logical overwriting according to the 
present invention is performed for a specified area of the disc, as necessary. In 
doing so, the inherent characteristics of a write-once optical disc are observed. 
The status of use of a disc adopting the fundamental principles of the present 
invention is determined based on a space bitmap (SBM) stored in a temporary 
defect management area (TDMA). 



WO 2004/079740 PCT/KR2003/002597 

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Terminology used in the following description of the present invention is 
based in part on conventional usage in the known field of DVD technology and 
is in part a result of an adaptation to novel principles of the present invention. 
For example, the above SBM includes bitmap data corresponding to each of a 
5 plurality of assigned areas of an optical recording medium, including at least one 
bit for each cluster of the recording area. The present invention also adopts an 
SBM-on/off function, whereby continuous management (updating) of the SBM 
is enabled or disabled for an instance of recording on a specified area of the disc, 
according to a user operation, the manufacturer's design, or a host command. 

10 The status of the SBM-on/off function is determined for each assigned area of 
the disc based on SBM update information, which controls SBM-updating for 
the corresponding area. The update information is determined according to 
first and second embodiments of the present invention. 

Referring to FIG. 3, illustrating a write-once optical disc having a single 

15 recording layer, a BD-WO disc adopting the method of the present invention 
includes in addition to the areas of a BD-RE disc a TDMA comprised of a 
TDMA1 arranged in an inner spare area (IS AO) and a TDMA2 arranged in an 
outer spare area (OSA0). In the BD-WO according to the present invention, 
replacement data corresponding to a defective area is recorded in the ISA0 and/ 

20 or OSA0, following the same procedure as defect management performed in the 
BD-RE disc. Disc management information, on the other hand, is recorded in 
the TDMA. Here, disc management information is information related to 
managing the defective area together with other management information 
necessary for implementing the present invention, namely, SBM update 

25 information. 

A defect management area (DMA) typically includes a plurality of areas 
for each recording layer, for example, DMA1, DMA2, DMAS, and DMA4. 



WO 2004/079740 PCT/KR2003/002597 

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Upon completion of any recording stage using a write-once type optical disc, 
final values of the TDMA information must be transferred to, and recorded in, 
the DMA. Thus, the TDMA is a temporary DMA. 

In the case of a rewritable optical disc, data can be repeatedly written in 
5 and erased from the DMA, so that adequate disc management is achievable with 
a relatively small recording area reserved for the DMA. In the case of a 
write-once type optical disc, however, as soon as data is recorded in an area, the 
area's recording ability is in effect destroyed and the same area can never be used 
again for any other data. Hence, a management area of a larger size is required 

10 for write-once type discs. 

The TDMA1 of the disc shown in FIG. 3 has a fixed size within the LIA0, 
while the TDMA2 has a size relative to the size of the LOA0. For example, the 
TDMA2 may be comprised of m clusters, where m = (kx256)/4 and where 
1 <k <64 for a single layer disc. 

15 Disc management information is recorded as necessary in each of the 

above TDMAs in a recording unit defined as one cluster comprised of 32 sectors. 
The disc management information according to the present invention includes a 
temporary defect list (TDFL), a space bitmap (SBM) determining a record status 
of the disc, and a temporary disc definition structure (TDDS) updated for each 

20 instance of recording. The TDDS information is prepared cluster by cluster, 
which is the minimum recording unit, and is recorded together with each update 
of the TDFL or SBM, to include information related to a recording status in 
addition to general disc management information. Thus, a TDFL and TDDS 
pair or an SBM and TDDS pair is recorded in the TDMA for each update, such 

25 that a plurality of such pairs may be recorded as necessary, each TDFL and 
TDDS pair occupying j clusters and each SBM and TDDS pair occupying one 
cluster, with the TDDS making up the last sector of either pair. In doing so, 



WO 2004/079740 PCT/KR2003/002597 

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updated TDDS information can be confirmed by reading one end of the recorded 
area in the TDMA. Here, it should be appreciated that the same facilitated 
TDDS confirmation could be achieved by placing the TDDS in sector 0. 

FIG. 4 illustrates the method of recording a TDFL of FIG. 3 according to 
5 the present invention. The TDFL is a list of information for managing a series 
of steps for substituting (replacement-recording) a defective area of the data area 
with the spare area and, in the case of a single layer, occupies one to four 
clusters (1 <j <4) depending on the size of the defect list. 

Referring to FIG. 4, each instance of updating the TDFL results in another 

10 TDFL and TDDS pair being recorded in the TDMA. Here, assuming for 
example a recording of two defect entries (Defect Entry 1 and Defect Entry 2) 
during a first updating, a second updating to add a third defect entry would 
produce a TDFL having the third defect entry recorded in addition to the 
previous two, resulting in a TDFL consisting of Defect Entries 1, 2, and 3. In 

15 the same manner, the next TDFL results from the performance of a third 
updating, to record an updated TDFL consisting of Defect Entries 1, 2, 3, and 4. 
By cumulatively recording the defect entries in this manner, the entire list of 
defect entries for the whole disc can be confirmed by confirming the latest 
TDFL, thereby simplifying record operations. Thus, as long as the final TDFL 

20 remains effective, defect entries may be securely confirmed even if a defect has 
occurred in one or more of the previously recorded TDFLs, for example, in the 
firstly or secondly updated TDFL. 

The SBM of FIG. 3 is used in determining a status of use of the disc and 
contains information applicable to the entire recording area of the disc. One bit 

25 of the SBM lis allocated for each cluster to express whether the corresponding 
cluster is a recorded area or a non-recorded area. Thus, the recorded area may 
be determined by a bit value of "lb" and a non-recorded area may be determined 



WO 2004/079740 PCT/KR2003/002597 

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by a bit value of "Ob," or vice versa. Accordingly, by reading the SBM, the 
recorded areas and non-recorded areas of the whole disc can be recognized. 

That is, the method of the present invention enables the recorded area or 
areas and the non-recorded area or areas to be recognized by a simple reading of 
5 the SBM and enables the record status of each area of the disc to be determined 
regardless of the sequence of recording, that is, even when recording is 
performed in non-sequential manner as in a random recording mode. Therefore, 
if information is to be freely recorded on a write-once optical disc, SBM 
management is necessary. 

10 Referring to FIG. 5 5 the SBM is composed of three main fields, including 

a header enabling recognition of the SBM, data describing the SBM itself, and a 
terminator designating an end of the SBM. The header includes recording layer 
information nominating the recording layer, i.e., L0 or LI, so that the current 
SBM of every area of a multiple layer disc can be designated. The SBM is 

15 prepared (i.e., recorded) according to each area of the disc, whether a single 
layer disc or a multiple layer disc, and includes start position information, i.e., 
the first physical sector number of the start cluster, length information, bitmap 
data, and a reserved field. Thus, the TDDS is updated whenever there is a 
change to the record status of a specified area per recording layer and whenever 

20 the desired recording calls for updating. Importantly, a determination as to 
whether the SBM is to be updated for a given area can be performed as needed 
by a user, a disc manufacturer, or a host/controller (hereinafter referred to as the 
host). 

According to a first preferred embodiment of the present invention, the 
25 status of the SBM-on/off function is determined by the SBM information, which 
is comprised of the start position information and the length information of a 
given area of the disc. An SBM-on condition for an area enables 



WO 2004/079740 PCT/KR2003/002597 

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SBM-updating for the area. Here, SBM-updating is performed using the area's 
bitmap data, which is applied according to the stored values of the start position 
and length of the corresponding area. To set the SBM-on/off function to "off ' 
and thereby disable SBM-updating in an area, the start position information and 
5 length information of the area are set to a specified value, e.g., set to zero. 

As above, the SBM-on/off function according to the present invention 
quickly adapts to a diverse range of requests of the host. For example, if 
real-time recording on a BD-WO disc is desired, defect management is not 
performed. Thus, the spare area is not used for replacement-recording, and 
SBM-updating of the spare area is not required. In such a case, only the user 
data area would be continuously managed, with no SBM-updating being 
performed in any other area. Here, it should be appreciated that, if the SBM 
were to be updated whenever there was a change in the disc management 
information in the management area (non-user data area), which is frequent, 
continued SBM-updating would soon be impossible due to the limited size of the 
SBM recording area, which is located in the TDMA in a preferred embodiment 
of the present invention. In turn, with a discontinuation of SBM-updating, 
further management of the record status using the SBM information would 
become impossible in all areas, including the user data area. Therefore, since 
the user data area absolutely requires a current SBM to perform logical 
overwriting, it is preferable to exclude areas such as the management area from 
SBM-updating operations so that updating may be reserved for the user data area. 
To implement such a recording scheme according to the host command, the 
SBM-on/off function may be used to perform the SBM-updating of the user data 
area only, whereby SBM-updating is disabled for all other areas (i.e., areas other 
than those to be updated) by setting to zero the start position information and the 
length information of each area that is not to be updated. It should be well 



WO 2004/079740 PCT/KR2003/002597 

15 

appreciated that the present invention is not limited to any one example of 
applying the SBM-on/off function according to assigned areas of a disc, such as 
the above example, and that the SBM-on/off function of the present invention is 
adaptively selectable, to enable the system designer to program any desired 
5 combination of SBM-on states versus SBM-off states according to a 
predetermined assignment of disc areas. 

According to a second preferred embodiment of the present invention, the 
status of the SBM-on/off function is determined by a set of SBM update flags 
recorded in the TDDS, with one SBM update flag allotted for each assigned area 

10 of a disc. The SBM update flags may be applied in association with the start 
position information and length information for each area (per the first 
embodiment) or may be applied independently. The SBM update flags may be 
represented by one byte so that, in a dual layer disc divided into eight areas, one 
bit may be allocated to each area. Thus, one of two values would be assigned 

15 to each area to indicate the status of the area, i.e., whether or not the area is to be 
updated. 

Referring to FIG. 6, which is an example of the SBM update flags of the 
TDDS, a "Ob" value is recorded in areas to be updated continuously, and a "lb" 
value is recorded in areas where no updating is to be performed. Thus, in a 
20 dual layer optical disc, supposing that a host commands SBM-updating for the 
user data areas only, the recording of the respective SBM update flags enables 
(sets to "on") updating for the user data areas and disables (sets to "off 1 ) 
updating for the remaining areas. Specifically, flag bits b2 and b5 are both "on" 
and flag bits bO, bl, b3, b4, b6, and hi are all "off." When an optical disc 
having the above SBM update flag information is loaded into an optical disc 
recording/reproducing device, the flags are read to determine whether to update 
the SBM of a specified area of the disc. 



WO 2004/079740 PCT/KR2003/002597 

16 

In addition to a set of SBM update flags as above, the recorded disc 
management information contained in a TDDS of FIG. 3 also includes the first 
physical sector numbers of each of the latest TDFL and the latest SBM. The 
first physical sector numbers of the latest TDFL and SBM are included so that 
5 their respective positions can be ascertained by reading the TDDS, to detect 
currently known defective areas and a status of use of the disc. Here, the first 
physical sector number is the address of the leading sector in the corresponding 
cluster and typically occupies four bytes, and the latest TDFL or SBM is that 
containing the most recently updated information. 

10 The disc management information recorded in the TDDS further includes 

the first physical sector number of a usable (available) cluster for optimum 
power calibration (OPC), which is used by the optical disc recording/ 
reproducing device to perform a test write and read operation to determine the 
most efficient laser power setting for recording, and as such, is always needed. 

15 Therefore, the first physical sector number of a usable OPC cluster is included, 
irrespective of the status (on or off) of the SBM-updating, to accommodate cases 
where SBM-updating is enabled for the user data area only, in which case the 
OPC cluster, being located outside the user data area (e.g., in the LIA0), would 
be excluded from SBM-updating. By always recording this information in the 

20 TDDS, the OPC cluster can be accessed whenever necessary, even if 
SBM-updating is disabled for the corresponding area. 

FIGS. 7 and 8 respectively illustrate modes of operation in recording on a 
write-once optical recording medium, such as a BD-WO disc, for explaining the 
relationship between the SBM-on/off function and the performance of logical 

25 overwriting according to the present invention. Here, the example of FIG. 7 
considers a disc format in which the size of the spare area is fixed regardless of 
recording operations, while the example of FIG. 8 considers a disc format in 



WO 2004/079740 PCT/KR2003/002597 

17 

which the size of the spare area is adaptable according to data recording 
operations. 

If a recording command from the host requests data recording on an area 
A-B as shown in FIGS. 7 and 8 5 which is an already recorded area, a 
5 replacement recording operation for the data is needed, whereby the desired data 
is recorded in an alternative area within the data area, i.e., in a replacement area 
A-B', using a logical overwrite operation according to the present invention. 
Thus, the host can command the recording irrespective of whether the specified 
area of the disc is actually recorded already, even in the case of a write-once 

10 optical disc, so that the write-once optical disc, can, through logical overwriting, 
simulate the capabilities of a rewritable optical disc. 

In carrying out the recording command on the already recorded area A-B 
as above, the first step is a reading of the SBM to confirm that the area's status of 
use, i.e., already recorded. If "overwriting" is requested, the data is 

15 replacement-recorded within the data area in the replacement area A'-B', and the 
corresponding defect management information is recorded in the TDMA as the 
TDFL information, to complete the desired recording command. Accordingly, 
if the host desires a reproduction of the A-B data of a disc recorded as above, the 
optical disc recording/reproducing device refers to the recorded defect 

20 management information and reproduces the data stored in area A-B' instead of 
the data stored in area A-B. 

Before performing a logical overwrite operation using the method of the 
present invention, the current record status in the corresponding area of the disc 
must be accurately determined. That is, logical overwriting is impossible 

25 without continuously updated disc management information, i.e., a current SBM. 

One mode of operation, corresponding to the example of FIG. 7, is 
summarized in Table 1 . 



WO 2004/079740 



PCT/KR2003/002597 



18 

Table 1 



conditions 


results 


SBM-on/off 
function 


spare area 
assignment 


logical 
overwriting 


defect management 


on* 


yes 


yes* 


yes 


on* 


no 


yes* 


no 


off 


yes 


no 


yes 


off 


no 


no 


no 



As shown in Table 1, the logical overwriting can be performed only when 
the SBM update flag is in an "on" state, so as to be continuously updated. The 
5 "logical overwrite" replacement-recorded data, i.e., the LOW data, is therefore 
recorded in the user data area, preferably at the end of the user data area. Here, 
the availability ("yes" or "no") of an assigned spare area determines whether 
defect management is permitted, but the SBM update flag ("on" or "off 1 ) 
determines whether logical overwriting is permitted. 
10 Another mode of operation, corresponding to the example of FIG. 8, is 

summarized in Table 2. 



Table 2 



conditions 


results 


SBM-on/off 
function 


spare area 
assignment 


logical 
overwriting 


defect management 


on* 


yes* 


yes* 


yes 


on 


no 


no 


no 


off 


yes 


no 


yes 


off 


no 


no 


no 



As shown in Table 2, logical overwriting can be performed only when 



WO 2004/079740 PCT/KR2003/002597 

19 

both conditions are met, i.e., with SBM-on/off function enabled, i.e., set to "on" 
so as to be continuously updated, and an assigned spare area is available. Thus, 
the spare area is used for the LOW data as well as for recording a replacement 
cluster during defect management of the disc. Here, record status is confirmed 
5 only when the SBM-on/off function is "on," and logical overwriting is 
performed only when an assigned spare area exists. 

FIG. 9 illustrates the SBM-on/off function according to a preferred 
embodiment of the present invention. The SBM-on/off function is determined 
with respect to each of a plurality of assigned areas of an optical disc having 

10 plurality of recording layers L0 and LI, each of which includes an inner area, an 
inner spare area, a user area, an outer spare area, and an outer area. In the case 
of a dual-layer disc as above, the inner area of the first recording layer L0 
becomes the lead-in area, and the inner area of the second recording layer LI 
becomes the lead-out area. This is in contrast to the case of a single-layer disc, 

15 whose outer area is defined as the lead-out area. In one configuration of a 
BD-WO disc as above, the ISA1 has a size of px256 clusters, where 1 <p <64, 
and the OSA1 has a size of qx256 clusters, where 1 <q <32. 

The start position and recording direction of each area are shown for a 
preferred scheme offering efficient recording. It should be noted, however, that 

20 the start position of each area is determined according to its recording direction 
and that changing the recording direction of any area would change the start 
position of the area accordingly. 

In an apparatus using the method of the present invention, such as the 
optical disc recording/reproducing device 100 shown in FIG. 1, when an optical 

25 recording medium such as a BD-WO disc is inserted into the device, all of the 
existing disc management information is first read out and stored in the memory 
114 for use during the disc's recording and/or reproducing operations. Thus, 



WO 2004/079740 PCT/KR2003/002597 

20 

the SBM and SBM update flag are included in the stored disc management 
information. With a command from the host 200 to record data in a specified 
area of the disc, the area's positional information, i.e., the start position and 
length information, is input to the optical disc recording/reproducing device 100 
along with the data to be recorded. The microcomputer 112 receives the 
recording command, and according to the positional information, determines 
whether the area to undergo recording is a recorded area or a non-recorded area 
based on the disc management information stored in the memory 114. The 
microcomputer 112 then determines whether to update the SBM of the specified 
area based on the area's record status. If the area is one where the SBM-on/off 
function is "on" and has an already recorded status, replacement-recording for a 
defective area would be performed elsewhere in the data area, as in FIGS. 7 and 
8, and then the SBM is updated. 

In the case of FIG. 8, however, replacement-recording is performed in the 
spare area of the data area. Therefore, with the SBM-on/off function state to 
"on" for the user data area only, i.e., the spare area is in an SBM-off state, there 
is no SBM-updating performed in the spare area. 

It should be noted that one or the other or both of the SBM information 
(specifically, the start position information and length information) and the SBM 
update flag may be stored in the memory 114 of the above apparatus according 
to the present invention, to be accessed and used during operation as necessary 
In doing so, the method according to each of the first and second embodiments 
can be implemented, either separately or jointly, as desired. 

Industrial applicability 



As described above, by adopting the method and apparatus of the present 



WO 2004/079740 PCT/KR2003/002597 

21 

invention, record status information of an optical recording medium such as a 
dual layer BD-WO disc can be recorded and managed in a random recording 
mode and then a determination can be made as to performance of logical 
overwriting in accordance with the disc's record status. The disclosure of the 
5 present invention can be used as a unified standard for write-once optical 
recording media, which is even compatible with rewritable optical recording 
media, to provide a more efficient method for the management of defective areas 
during data recording on a write-once optical recording medium and thereby 
provide enhanced data security and data integrity. The SBM-on/off function 

10 with respect to each area of an optical disc can be selectively applied in response 
to any request from a host. Moreover, by adopting the present invention, a 
write-once disc can simulate the characteristics of a rewriteable disc through a 
logical overwrite operation, whereby the data of a defective area is replacement- 
recorded. The replacement-recording is performed in either the management 

15 area or the user data area, to enable adaptation to successive versions of the 
medium. 

It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various modifications 
and variations can be made in the present invention without departing from the 
spirit or scope of the invention. Thus, it is intended that the present invention 
20 cover such modifications and variations provided they come within the scope of 
the appended claims and their equivalents. 



WO 2004/079740 PCT/KR2003/002597 

22 

What is claimed is: 

1. A method for recording on an optical recording medium, the method 
comprising a step of: 

recording management information in a management area of the optical 
5 recording medium, the management information including 

record status information indicating whether a recording operation has 
been performed for a predetermined area of the optical recording medium, and 

update information indicating whether the record status information is to 
be continuously managed. 

10 

2. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the optical recording 
medium is a write-once optical recording medium. 

3. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the record status 
15 information is a bitmap allocating one bit to a minimum recording unit, the 

allocated bit indicating a record status of the minimum recording unit. 

4. The method as claimed in claim 3, wherein the minimum recording 
unit is a cluster and the record status information contains at least one bit for 

20 every cluster of the recording area. 

5. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the record status 
information further indicates a record status for each of a plurality of assigned 
areas of the recording medium. 

25 

6. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the update information 
further indicates whether the record status information is to be updated for each 



WO 2004/079740 

23 

of a plurality of assigned areas of the recording medium. 



PCT/KR2003/002597 



7. The method as claimed in claim 6, wherein the assigned areas of the 
recording medium comprise a user data area and a non-user data area and 

5 wherein the record status information of the user data area is updated and the 
record status information of the non-user data area is not updated. 

8. The method as claimed in claim 6, wherein the update information is 
determined by allocating one bit for each of the plurality of assigned areas of the 

10 recording medium. 

9. The method as claimed in claim 6, wherein the indication as to whether 
the record status information is to be updated for the predetermined area is 
determined by recording the update information according to each assigned area. 

15 

10. The method as claimed in claim 9, wherein the update information 
consists of start position information and length information and wherein the 
update information respectively corresponds to each of the plurality of assigned 
areas of the recording medium. 

20 

11. The method as claimed in claim 10, wherein the record status 
information of any one of the plurality of assigned areas is updated if the 
recorded update information has a normal value and is not updated if the 
recorded update information has an abnormal value. 

25 

12. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the management 
information further includes position information of a first usable area for 



WO 2004/079740 

performing optical power calibration. 



24 



PCT/KR2003/002597 



13. A method for recording on an optical recording medium, the method 
comprising a step of recording management information in a management area 

5 of the optical recording medium, the management information including position 
information of a first usable area for performing optical power calibration. 

14. A method for recording on an optical recording medium, the method 
comprising steps of: 

10 recording management information in a management area of the optical 

recording medium, the management information including 

record status information indicating a recorded/non-recorded status for a 
predetermined area of the optical recording medium, and 

update information indicating whether the record status information is to 
15 be continuously managed; 

reading the recorded management information; and 

determining, based on the update information, whether to update the 
record status information. 

20 15. The method as claimed in claim 14, wherein the optical recording 

medium is a write-once optical recording medium. 

16. The method as claimed in claim 14, wherein said reading step is 
performed upon loading the optical recording medium into an optical 

25 recording/reproducing device. 

17. A method for recording on an optical recording medium, the method 



WO 2004/079740 PCT/KR2003/002597 

25 

comprising steps of: 

recording management information in a management area of the optical 
recording medium, the management information including record status 
information indicating a recorded/non-recorded status for a predetermined area 
5 of the optical recording medium; and 

performing a logical overwrite operation when the record status 
information indicates a recorded status for the predetermined area. 

18. The method as claimed in claim 15, wherein the optical recording 
medium is a write-once optical recording medium. 

19. The method as claimed in claim 15, wherein the recorded/non- 
recorded status is indicated for each of a plurality of assigned areas of the 
recording medium. 

20. The method as claimed in claim 19, wherein the assigned areas 
comprise a user data area and a non-user data area. 

21. The method as claimed in claim 20, wherein the logical overwrite 
function results in replacement-recording data being recorded in the non-user 
data area. 

22. The method as claimed in claim 21, wherein the logical overwrite 
function results in replacement-recording data being recorded in a spare area. 

23. An apparatus for recording on and reproducing from an optical 
recording medium, comprising: 



WO 2004/079740 PCT/KR2003/002597 

26 

a host for requesting recording data on a predetermined area of a data 
area of the recording medium; and 

a recording/reproducing device for processing management information 
of the recording medium, the management information including information 
5 indicating a recorded-non/recorded status of the predetermined area, 

wherein said recording/reproducing device determines a record status of 
the predetermined area based on the record status information and determines 
whether the record status information is to be updated, to perform a replacement- 
recording operation to record the data of the predetermined area elsewhere in the 
10 data area if it is determined that the predetermined area is a recorded area and 
that the record status information is to be updated. 

24. The apparatus as claimed in claim 23, wherein the optical recording 
medium is a write-once optical recording medium. 

25. The apparatus as claimed in claim 23, the management information 
further including update information indicating whether the record status 
information is to be continuously managed, wherein the determination as to 
whether the record status information is to be updated is based on the update 
information. 

26. An optical recording medium, comprising: 

at least one recording layer having a plurality of assigned areas for 
recording, the assigned areas including a management area, 

wherein management information is recorded in the management area, 
the management information including 

record status information indicating whether a recording operation has 



WO 2004/079740 PCT/KR2003/002597 

27 

been performed for a predetermined area of the optical recording medium, and 

update information indicating whether the record status information is to 
be continuously managed. 

5 27. The optical recording medium as claimed in claim 26, wherein the 

optical recording medium is a write-once optical recording medium. 

28. The optical recording medium as claimed in claim 26, wherein the 
optical recording medium is a Blu-ray disc. 

10 

29. The optical recording medium as claimed in claim 26, wherein the 
optical recording medium comprises two layers. 

30. The optical recording medium as claimed in claim 26, wherein the 
15 plurality of assigned areas for recording divided into a user data area and a non- 
user data area. 



31. The optical recording medium as claimed in claim 30, wherein the 
update information indicates that the record status information is to be 

20 continuously managed in the user data area only. 

32. A method for recording on an optical recording medium, the method 
comprising of: 

recording management information in a management area of the optical 
25 recording medium, the management information including record status 
information indicating whether a recording operation has been performed for a 
user data area of the optical recording medium, and 



WO 2004/079740 PCT/KR2003/002597 

28 

updating the record status information when the recording operation has 
been performed for a user data area of the optical recording medium. 



WO 2004/079740 



PCT/KR2003/002597 




WO 2004/079740 



PCT/KR2003/002597 



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FIG. 5 



Sector 0 



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Sector 31 



Contents 


Field 


Number of 
Bytes 


Header 


Un-allocated Space Bitmap Identifier 

Format Version (= OOh) 

Reserved, OOh 

Layer Number (0 or 1) 

Reserved, OOh 


2 
1 
1 
4 
r 




SBM for Inner Area 

Start Position Information 


4 




Length Information 


1 4 




Bitmap Data 


nl 




Reserved, OOh 


4 




SBM for ISA 

Start Position Information 


4 




Length Information 


4 




Bitmap Data 


n2 




Reserved, OOh 


4 


Data 


SBM for User Area 

Start Position Information 


4 


Length Information 


4 




Bitmap Data 


n3 




Reserved, OOh 


4 




SBM for OSA 

Start Position Information 


4 




Length Information 


4 




Bitmap Data 


n4 




Reserved, OOh 


4 




SBM for Outer Area 

Start Position Information 


4 




Length Information 


4 I 




Bitmap Data 


n5 




Reserved, OOh 


4 


Terminator 






TDDS ! 



WO 2004/079740 



PCT/KR2003/002597 



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PCT/KR2003/002597 



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WO 2004/079740 



PCT/KR2003/002597 




INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT 



International application No. 

PCT/KR 03/02597-0 



CLASSIFICATION OF SUBJECT MATTER 
IPC 7 : G1 1 B 20/1 2, G06F 12/10, G11B 7/004 

According to International Patent Classification (IPC) or to both national classification and IPC 



B. FIELDS SEARCHED 



Minimum documentation searched (classification system followed by classification symbols) 

IPC 7 :G11B, G06F 



Documentation searched other than minimum documentation to the extent that such documents are included in the fields searched 



Electronic data base consulted during the international search (name of data base and, where practicable, search terms used) 

WPI, EPODOC, PAJ 



C. DOCUMENTS CONSIDERED TO BE RELEVANT 



Category Citation of document, with indication, where appropriate, of the relevant passages 



Relevant to claim No. 



x 



X 

Y 
Y 



WO 1996/030902 A1 (INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES 
CORPORATION) 3 October 1996 (03.10.96) 
abstract, figs. 2, 3, 4A, 4B; page 6, line 14- page 7, line 10; page 
7, line 44 - page 8, line 12. 

US 5475820 A (NATRASEVSCHI, A. et al.) 12 December 1995 
(12.12.95) 

abstract, figs. 2, 2A, 4; column 3, line 26 - column 4, line 18; 
column 6, line 9 - column 7, line 24. 



US 5448728 A (TAKANO, S. et al.) 5 September 1995 (05.09.95) 
abstract, figs. 10a, 10b, 11; column 9, line 16- column 10, line 23. 

US 2002/0136134 A1 (ITO, M. et al.) 26 September 2002 
(26.09.02) 

abstract, fig. 4; paragraphs [001 5]-[001 7], [0024]-[0027], [0030]. 



13 



32 

17-24 
17-24 



1,13,14,17, 

23,26,32 



/*s Further documents are listed in the continuation of Box C. 



See patent family annex. 



* Special categories of cited documents: 

„A" document defining the general state of the art which is not 

considered to be of particular relevance 
„E" earlier application or patent but published on or after the international 

filing date 

„L" document which may throw doubts on priority claim(s) or which is 
cited to establish the publication date of another citation or other 
special reason (as specified) 

„0" document referring to an oral disclosure, use, exhibition or other 
means 

„P" document published prior to the international filing date but later than 



„V* later document published after the international filing date or priority 

date and not in conflict with the application but cited to understand 

the principle or theory underlying the invention 
„X" document of particular relevance; the claimed invention cannot be 

considered novel or cannot be considered to involve an inventive step 

when the document is taken alone 
„Y" document of particular relevance; the claimed invention cannot be 

considered to involve an inventive step when the document is 

combined with one or more other such documents, such combination 

being obvious to a person skilled in the art 
„&" document member of the same patent family 



Date of the actual completion of the international search 

16 February 2004 (16.02.2004) 


Date of mailing of the international search report 

1 1 March 2004 (1 1 .03.2004) 


Name and mailing adress of the ISA/AT 

Austrian Patent Office 

Dresdner StraBe 87, A-1200 Vienna 

Facsimile No. 1/53424/535 


Authorized officer 

LOIBNER K. 

Telephone No. 1/53424/323 



Form PCT/rSA/210 (second sheet) (July 1998) 



INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT International application No. 

PCT/KR 03/02597-0 


C (Continuation). DOCUMENTS CONSIDERED TO BE RELEVANT 


Category* 


Citation of document, with indication, where appropriate, of the relevant passages 


Relevant to claim No. 


A 


US 4807205 A (PICARD, M.) 21 February 1989 (21.02.89) 
abstract figs. 1-3; column 6, line 6 - column 7, line 33. 


1,13,14,17, 
23,26,32 



Form PCT/ISA/210 (continuation of second sheet) (July 1998) 



INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT 

Information on patent family members 



International application No. 

PCT/KR 03/02597-0 



Patent document cited 
in search report 



Publication 
date 



Patent family 
member(s) 



Publication 
date 



us 


A 


20020136 
134 








none 




us 


A 


4807205 




DE 
FR 
EP 
JP 


D 
A 
A 
A 


3673142D 
2591015 
0227530 
62145574 


1990-09-06 
1987-06-05 
1987-07-01 
1987-06-29 


us 


A 


5448728 


1995-09-05 


JP 
JP 


A 
A 


5053734 
5046456 


1993-03-05 
1993-02-26 


us 


A 


5475820 


1995-12-12 


JP 


A 


4232653 


1992-08-20 


wo 


A 


19960309 








none 





02 



PCT/ISA/210 (patent family annex) fluty 1998)