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(12) INTERNATIONAL APPLICATION PUBLISHED UNDER THE PATENT COOPERATION TREATY (PCT) 



(19) World Intellectual Property 
Organization 

International Bureau 

(43) International Publication Date 
29 April 2004 (29.04.2004) 




PCT 



(10) International Publication Number 

WO 2004/036561 Al 



(51) International Patent Classification 7 : 



G11B 7/007 



(21) International Application Number: 

PCT/KR2003/001931 

(22) International Filing Date: 

22 September 2003 (22.09.2003) 



(25) Filing Language: 

(26) Publication Language: 



English 
English 



(30) Priority Data: 

1 0-2002-0063 850 18 October 2002 (18.1 0.2002) KR 
10-2002-0079755 

13 December 2002 (13.12.2002) KR 

(71) Applicant: SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO., LTD. 

[KR/KR]; 416, Maetan-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, 
442-742 Gyeonggi-do (KR). 

(72) Inventors: HWANG, Sung-Hee; 420-403 Jugong 
Apt., 189 Gaepo-dong, Gangnam-gu, 135-240 Seoul 
(KR). KO, Jung-Wan; 315-401 Daewoo Apt., 956-2, 
Cheongmyung Maeul 3-danji, Youngtong-dong, Pal- 
dal-gu, Suwon-si, 442-470 Gyeonggi-do (KR). LEE, 
Kyung-Geun; 122-1002 Sibeom Hanshin Apt., 87, 



Seohyun-dong, Bundang-gu, 
Gyeonggi-do (KR). 



Seongnam-si, 463-050 



(74) Agent: LEE, Young-Pil; The Cheonghwa Building, 
1571-18, Seocho-dong, Seocho-gu, 137-874 Seoul (KR). 

(81) Designated States (national): AE, AG, AL, AM, AT, AU, 

AZ, BA, BB, BG, BR, BY, BZ, CA, CH, CN, CO, CR, CU, 
CZ, DE, DK, DM, DZ, EC, EE, EG, ES, FT, GB, GD, GE, 
GH, GM, HR, HU, ID, IL, IN, IS, JP, KE, KG, KP, KZ, LC, 
LK, LR, LS, LT, LU, LV, MA, MD, MG, MK, MN, MW, 
MX, MZ, NI, NO, NZ, OM, PG, PH, PL, PT, RO, RU, SC, 
SD, SE, SG, SK, SL, SY, TJ, TM, TN, TR, TT, TZ, UA, 
UG, UZ, VC, VN, YU, ZA, ZM, ZW. 

(84) Designated States (regional): ARIPO patent (GH, GM, 
KE, LS, MW, MZ, SD, SL, SZ, TZ, UG, ZM, ZW), 
Eurasian patent (AM, AZ, BY, KG, KZ, MD, RU, TJ, TM), 
European patent (AT, BE, BG, CH, CY, CZ, DE, DK, EE, 
ES, FT, FR, GB, GR, HU, IE, IT, LU, MC, NL, PT, RO, 
SE, SI, SK, TR), OAPI patent (BF, BJ, CF, CG, CI, CM, 
GA, GN, GQ, GW, ML, MR, NE, SN, TD, TG). 

Published: 

— with international search report 

For two -letter codes and other abbreviations, refer to the "Guid- 
ance Notes on Codes and Abbreviations" appearing at the begin- 
ning of each regular issue of the PCT Gazette. 



(54) Title: METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR MANAGING DISC DEFECTS USING TEMPORARY DEFECT MANAGE- 
MENT INFORMATION (TDFL) AND TEMPORARY DEFECT MANAGEMENT INFORMATION (TDDS), AND DISC HAV- 
ING THE TDFL AND TDDS 



o 



DMA 2 



Buffer 3 



Test 



TDMA 



DMA 1 



Buffer 2 



Drive and Disc information 
Buffer 1 



(57) Abstract: A disc having an updatable defect management area 
used by an apparatus for managing defects on the disc, the disc in- 
cluding a user data area which includes user data, a spare area that 
is a substitute area for a defect existing in the user data area, and an 
area in which are recorded an address of data that is last recorded in 
the user data area and an address of a replacement data recorded in 
the spare area. Accordingly, the disc defect management method and 
apparatus are applicable to a recordable disc such as a write-once disc 
while effectively using a defect management area of the disc. 



WO 2004/036561 PCT/KR2003/001931 



METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR MANAGING DISC DEFECTS 
USING TEMPORARY DEFECT MANAGEMENT INFORMATION (TDFL) 
AND TEMPORARY DEFECT MANAGEMENT INFORMATION (TDDS), 
AND DISC HAVING THE TDFL AND TDDS 

Technical Field 

The present invention relates to disc defect management, and 
more particularly, to a method of and apparatus for managing defects 
therein using a temporary defect management area (TDMA) and a disc 
having the TDMA for managing defects thereon. 

Background Art 

Disc defect management is the process of rewriting data stored in 
a user data area of a disc, in which a defect exists, to a new portion of 
the disc's data area, thereby compensating for a data loss otherwise 
caused by the defect. In general, disc defect management is performed 
using a linear replacement method or a slipping replacement method. 
In the linear replacement method, the user data area in which a defect 
exists is replaced with a spare data area having no defects. In the 
slipping replacement method, the user data area with the defect is 
slipped and the next user data area having no defects is used. 

Both the linear replacement method and the slipping replacement 
- are, however, applicable only to rewritable discs, such as a 
DVD-RAM/RW, on which data can be repeatedly recorded and recording 
can be performed using a random access method. In other words, the 
25 linear replacement and slipping replacement methods are difficult to 
apply to a write-once discs, on which recording is allowed only once. 

In general, the presence of defects in a disc is detected by 
recording the data on the disc, and confirming whether data has been 
recorded correctly on the disc. However, once data is recorded on a 

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write-once disc, it is impossible to overwrite new data and manage 
defects therein. 

After the development of a CD-R and a DVD-R, a high-density 
write-once disc with a recording capacity of several dozen GBs was 

5 introduced. This type of disc can be used as a backup disc since it is 
not expensive and allows random access so as to enable fast reading 
operations. However, since disc defect management is not available for 
write-once discs, a backup operation may be discontinued when a 
defective area (i.e., an area where a defect exists) is detected during the 

10 backup operation. In addition, since a backup operation is generally 
performed when a system is not frequently used (e.g., at night when a 
system manager does not operate the system), it is more likely that the 
backup operation will be stopped and remain discontinued because a 
defective area of a write-once disc is detected. 

15 

Disclosure of the Invention 

The present invention provides a write-once disc on which defects 
are managed, and a disc defect management method and apparatus 
usable with the write-once disc. 

20 The present invention also provides a write-once disc on which 

defects are managed and a disc defect management method and 
apparatus that can manage disc defects on the disc even when a defect 
is detected during a recording operation, allowing the recording operation 
to be performed without interruption. 

25 Additional aspects and/or advantages of the invention will be set 

forth in part in the description which follows and, in part, will be obvious 
from the description, or may be learned by practice of the invention. 

According to an aspect of the present invention, a disc includes a 
user data area in which user data is recorded; a spare area that includes 

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a substitute area in which is recorded replacement data for a portion of 
the user data recorded in a defective area existing in the user data area; 
and an area in which there are recorded an address of data that is last 
recorded in the user data area and an address of replacement data 
5 recorded in the spare area. 

According to an aspect, the disc further includes a temporary 
defect management area that includes temporary defect information and 
temporary defect management information recorded each recording 
operation so as to be used for disc defect management, wherein the 
10 temporary defect management area is an area that includes the address 
of the data last recorded in the user data area and the address of the 
replacement data recorded in the spare area. 

According to another aspect of the present invention, a method of 
managing a defect in a disc includes recording user data in a user data 

15 area; again recording user data, which is recorded in a defective area of 
the user data area in which a defect exists, in a spare area of the disc so 
as to make replacement data for a portion of the user data recorded in 
the defective area; and recording an address of data, which is last 
recorded in the user data area, and an address of the replacement data, 

20 which is recorded in the spare area, in a temporary defect management 
area that is formed to perform disc defect management. 

According to another aspect of the present invention, a recording 
and/or reproducing apparatus includes a recording/reading unit that 
records data on or reads data from a disc; and a controller that controls 

25 the recording/reading unit to record user data in a user data area of the 
disc; controls the recording/reading unit to again record a portion of the 
user data recorded in a defective area of the user data area as 
replacement data in a spare area; and controls the recording/reading unit 
to record an address of data, which is last recorded in the user data area, 

30 and an address of the replacement data, which is last recorded in the 



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spare area, in a temporary defect management area that is formed to 
perform disc defect management. 

Brief Description of the Drawings 

The above and/or other aspects and advantages of the present 
5 invention will become more apparent by describing in detail 

embodiments thereof with reference to the accompanying drawings in 
which: 

FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a recording apparatus according to an 
embodiment of the present invention; 
io FIGs. 2A and 2B illustrate structures of a disc according to 

embodiments of the present invention; 

FIG. 3A illustrates data structures of the disc of FIGs. 2A and 2B 
according to an embodiment of the present invention; 

FIG. 3B illustrates a data structure of a disc with defect 
15 management areas (DMAs) and a temporary DMA (TDMA) as shown in 
FIG. 3A; 

FIGs. 4A through 4D illustrate data structures of a TDMA 
according to embodiments of the present invention; 

FIG. 5A illustrates a data structure of temporary defect information 
20 (TDFL) #i according to an embodiment of the present invention; 

FIG. 5B illustrates a data structure of temporary defect information 
(TDFL) #/ according to another embodiment of the present invention; 

FIG. 6 illustrates a data structure of temporary defect 
management information (TDDS) #i according to an embodiment of the 
25 present invention; 

FIG. 7 illustrates diagrams explaining recording of data in a user 
data area A and a spare area B, according to an embodiment of the 
present invention; 

FIG. 8 is a diagram illustrating effective use of a data area 
30 according to an embodiment of the present invention; 



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FIGs. 9Aand 9B illustrate data structures of TDFL#1 and TDFL 
#2 recorded according to the recording of data shown in FIG. 7; 

FIG. 10 illustrates a data structure of information regarding defect 

#i; 

5 FIG. 11 is a flowchart illustrating a disc defect management 

method according to an embodiment of the present invention; and 
FIG. 12 is a flowchart illustrating a disc defect management 
method according to another embodiment of the present invention. 

io Best mode for carrying out the Invention 

Reference will now be made in detail to the present embodiments 
of the present invention, examples of which are illustrated in the 
accompanying drawings, wherein like reference numerals refer to the like 
elements throughout. The embodiments are described below in order to 
15 explain the present invention by referring to the figures. 

FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a recording and/or reproducing 
apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention. 
Referring to FIG. 1, the recording and/or reproducing apparatus includes 
a recording/reading unit 1 , a controller 2, and a memory 3. The 
20 recording/reading unit 1 records data on a disc 100, which is an 

information storage medium according to an embodiment of the present 
invention, and reads back the data from the disc 1 00 to verify the 
accuracy of the recorded data. The controller 2 performs disc defect 
management according to an embodiment of the present invention. 

25 In the shown embodiment, the controller 2 uses a 

verify-after-write method in which data is recorded on the disc 100 in 
predetermined units of data, and the accuracy of the recorded data is 
verified to detect if an area of the disc 100 has a defect. In other words, 
the controller 2 records user data on the disc 100 in units of recording 

30 operations, and verifies the recorded user data to detect an area of the 



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disc 100 in which a defect exists. Thereafter, the controller 2 creates 
information that indicates the position of the area with the defect and 
stores the created information in the memory 3. When the amount of 
the stored information reaches a predetermined level or the 
5 verify-after-write operation is performed a predetermined number of 

times, the controller 2 records the stored information as temporary defect 
information on the disc 100. 

According to an aspect of the invention, the recording operation is 
a unit of work determined according to a user's intention or is a recording 
10 work to be performed. According to the shown embodiment, a recording 
operation indicates a process in which the disc 100 is loaded into the 
recording and/or reproducing apparatus, data is recorded on the disc 100, 
and the disc 100 is taken out from the recording apparatus. However, it 
is understood that the recording operation can be otherwise defined. 

15 During the recording operation, the user data is recorded and 

verified at least once. In general, while not required, data is recorded 
and verified several times. Defect information, which is obtained using 
the verify-after-write method, is temporarily stored as temporary defect 
information in the memory 3. When a user presses the eject button (not 

20 shown) of the recording and/or reproducing apparatus in order to remove 
the disc 100 after recording of data, the controller 2 expects the 
recording operation to be terminated. The controller 2 reads the 
information from the memory 3, provides it to the recording/reading unit 1 , 
and controls the recording/reading unit 1 to record it on the disc 100. 

25 When the recording of data is completed (i.e., additional data will 

not be recorded on the disc 100 and the disc 100 needs to be finalized), 
the controller 2 controls the recording/reading unit 1 to rewrite the 
recorded temporary defect information and temporary defect 
management information to a defect management area (DMA) of the 

30 disc 100 as defect management information. 



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During reproduction, the recording and/or reproducing apparatus 
utilizes the defect information and the defect management information in 
the defect management area and/or the temporary defect management 
area in order to access the recorded user data. While described in 
5 terms of a recording and/or reproducing apparatus as shown in FIG. 1 , it 
is understood that the apparatus can be an individual recording or 
reproducing apparatus or a recording and reproducing apparatus. 

FIGs. 2Aand 2B illustrate structures of the disc 100 of FIG. 1 
according to embodiments of the present invention. FIG. 2A illustrates 

10 in detail a single record layer disc representation of disc 100 having a 
record layer L0. The disc 100 includes a lead-in area, a data area, and 
a lead-out area. The lead-in area is located in an inner part of the disc 
100 and the lead-out area is located in an outer part of the disc 100. 
The data area is present between the lead-in area and the lead-out area 

15 and divided into a user data area and a spare area. 

The user data area is an area where user data is recorded. The 
spare area is a replacement area for a user data area having a defect, 
serving to compensate for loss in the recording area due to the defect. 
On the assumption that defects may occur within the disc 100, it is 
20 preferable, but not required, that the spare area assumes about 5% of 
the entire data capacity of the disc 100, so that a greater amount of data 
can be recorded on the disc 100. 

FIG. 2B illustrates a double record layer disc representation of 
disc 100 having two record layers L0 and LI. A lead-in area, a data 

25 area, and an outer area are sequentially formed from the inner part of 
the first record layer L0 to its outer part. Also, an outer area, a data 
area, and a lead-out area are sequentially formed from the outer part of 
the second record layer L1 to its inner part. Unlike the single record 
layer disc of FIG. 2A, the lead-out area is present at the second record 

30 layer L1 in the inner part of the disc 1 00 of FIG. 2B. That is, the disc 

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100 of FIG. 2B has an opposite track path (OTP) in which data is 
recorded starting from the lead-in area of the first record layer L0 toward 
the outer area of the first record layer L0 and continuing from the outer 
area of the second record layer L1 to the lead-out area of the second 
5 record layer L1 . The spare area is allotted to each of the record layers 
L0 and L1 according to the shown embodiment, but need not be so 
allocated in all aspects of the invention. 

In the shown embodiment, the spare areas are present between 
the user data area and the lead-out area and between the user data area 
10 and the outer area. If necessary, a portion of the user data area may be 
used as another spare area. That is, it is understood that more than 
one spare area may be present between the lead-in area and the 
lead-out area. 

FIG. 3A illustrates structures of the disc 100 of FIGs. 2A and 2B, 
according to an embodiment of the present invention. Referring to FIG. 
3A, if the disc 100 is a single record layer disc, at least one DMA is 
present in the lead-in area and the lead-out area of the disc 100. 
Further, at least one temporary defect management area (TDMA) is also 
present in the lead-in area and the lead-out area. If the disc 100 is a 
double record layer disc, at least one DMA is present in the lead-in area, 
the lead-out area, and the outer area, and at least one TDMA is present 
in the lead-in area and the lead-out area. For the double record layer 
disc shown in FIG. 2B, the DMA and the TDMA are preferably formed in 
the lead-in area and the lead-out area, which are located in the inner part 
of the disc 100, respectively. 

In general, the DMA includes information relating to managing 
disc defects in the disc 100. Such information includes the structure of 
the disc 100 for disc defect management, the recording position of defect 
information, whether defect management is performed, and the position 
30 and size of a spare area. For a write-once disc, when the above 

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information changes, new data is recorded after previously recorded 
data. 

Also, when the disc 100 is loaded into a recording/reading 
apparatus such as that shown in FIG. 1, the apparatus generally reads 
5 data from a lead-in area and a lead-out area of the disc 100 to determine 
how to manage the disc 100 and to record data on or read data from the 
disc 100. However, if the amount of data recorded in the lead-in area 
and/or the lead-out area increases, a longer time is spent on preparing 
the recording or reproducing of data after the loading of the disc 100. 

io To solve this problem and for other reasons, an aspect of the 

present invention uses temporary defect management information and 
temporary defect information that are to be recorded in a TDMA. The 
TDMA is allotted to the lead-in area and/or the lead-out area of a disc, 
being separated from the DMA. That is, only the last recorded defect 

15 information and the last recorded defect management information, which 
are required to perform disc defect management, are recorded in the 
DMA. As such, the amount of information that the recording/reading 
unit requires for a recording/reproducing operation is reduced. 

In the shown embodiment, since disc defect management is 
20 performed using the linear replacement method, the temporary defect 
information includes defect position information indicating a position of 
an area of the disc 100 having a defect and replacement position 
information indicating a position of an area of the disc 1 00 on which is 
stored replacement data. The replacement data is data to replace a 
25 portion of the user data recorded in a defective area of the user data 
area. While not required, it is preferable that the temporary defect 
information further includes information indicating whether the area 
having the defect is a single defect block or a continuous defect block. 



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The temporary defect management information is used to 
manage the temporary defect information and includes information 
indicating a position of the disc 100 where the temporary defect 
information is recorded. While not required, it is preferable that the 
5 temporary defect management information further includes information 
indicating a position of user data that is last recorded in the user data 
area and a replacement area that is last formed in a spare area. 
Detailed data structures of temporary defect information and temporary 
defect management information will be explained below. 

io In the shown embodiment, the temporary defect information and 

temporary defect management information are recorded every time a 
recording operation ends. In the TDMA, information regarding a defect, 
which occurs in data recorded during recording operation #0, and 
information regarding a replacement area are recorded as temporary 

15 defect information #0. Information regarding a defect, which occurs in 
data recorded during recording operation #1, and information regarding a 
replacement area are recorded as temporary defect information #1 . 
Further, information for managing temporary defect information #0, #1 is 
recorded as temporary defect management information #0, #1 in the 

20 TDMA. When additional data cannot be recorded in the data area or a 
user does not wish to record additional data therein (i.e., the data needs 
to be finalized), temporary defect information recorded in a temporary 
defect information area and temporary defect management information 
recorded in a temporary defect management information area are 

25 rewritten to the DMA. 

The temporary defect information and the temporary defect 
management information are rewritten to the DMA for at least the 
following reason. Where additional data will not be recorded on the disc 
100 (i.e., the disc 100 needs to be finalized), only last recorded ones of 
30 the temporary defect management information and temporary defect 



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information, which have been updated several times, are again recorded 
in the DMA. Thus, the recording/reading unit 1 can read fast defect 
management information from the disc 100 just by reading the last 
recorded defect management information, thereby enabling fast 
5 initializing of the disc 1 00. Further, recording of the temporary defect 
information and temporary defect management information in the DMA 
increases the reliability of information. 

In the shown embodiment, defect information contained in 
previously recorded temporary defect information #0, #1, #2 and #M is 
10 further contained in temporary defect information #i. Thus, it is easy to 
finalize the disc 100 just by reading defect information contained in last 
recorded temporary defect information #i and to rewrite the read defect 
information to the DMA. 

In the case of a high-density disc with a recording capacity of 
several dozens of GBs, it is desirable that a cluster is allocated to an 
area in which temporary defect management information #i is recorded, 
and four to eight clusters are allocated to an area in which temporary 
defect information #i is recorded. This is because it is generally 
preferable to record new information in units of clusters to update 
information when a minimum physical unit of record is a cluster, although 
the amount of temporary defect information #i is just several KBs. A 
total amount of defects allowed in a disc is preferably about 5 percent of 
the disc recording capacity. For instance, about four to eight clusters 
are required to record temporary defect information #i, considering that 
information regarding a defect is about 8 bytes long and the size of a 
cluster is 64 KBs long. 

The verify-after-write method can also be performed on temporary 
defect information #i and temporary defect management information #i 
according to an aspect of the invention. When a defect is detected, 
30 information recorded in an area of a disc having a defect may be either 

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recorded in a spare area using the linear replacement method, or 
recorded in an area adjacent to the TDMA using the slipping replacement 
method. 

FIG. 3B illustrates a data structure of the disc 100 with a TDMA 
5 and DMAs as shown in FIG. 3A. If the disc 100 is a single record layer 
as shown in FIG. 2A, the TDMA and the DMA are present in at least one 
of a lead-in area and a lead-out area of the disc 1 00. If the disc is a 
double record layer disc 100 as shown in FIG. 2B, the TDMA and the 
DMA are present in at least one of a lead-in area, a lead-out area, and 
10 an outer area. While not required, it is preferable that the TDMA and 
the DMA are present in the lead-in area and the lead-out area, 
respectively. 

Referring to FIG. 3B, two DMAs are formed to increase the 
robustness of defect management information and defect information. 

15 In FIG. 3B, the disc 100 includes a temporary defect management area 
(TDMA), a Test area in which recording conditions of data are measured, 
a Drive and Disc information area in which information regarding a drive 
used during a recording and/or reproducing operation(s) and disc 
information indicating whether a disc is a single record layer disc or a 

20 double record layer are recorded, and Buffer 1 , Buffer 2, and Buffer 3 
areas that act as buffers that indicate borders of the respective areas. 

FIGs. 4A through 4D illustrate data structures of a TDMA 
according to embodiments of the present invention. Referring to FIG. 
4A, a TDMA is logically divided into a temporary defect information area 

25 and a temporary defect management information area. In the shown 
embodiment of the temporary defect information area, temporary defect 
information TDFL #0, TDFL #1 , TDFL #2 are sequentially recorded 
starting from a start of this area toward an end of the area. The 
temporary defect information TDFL #0, TDFL #1, TDFL #2, ... are 

30 repeatedly recorded several times to increase the robustness of the 



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information. In particular, FIG. 4A illustrates recording of the temporary 
defect information TDFL #0 P times. 

In the temporary defect management information area, temporary 
defect management information TDDS #0, TDDS #1, TDDS #2 are 
5 sequentially recorded starting from a start of this area. The temporary 
defect management information TDDS #0, TDDS #1, and TDDS #2 
correspond to the temporary defect information TDFL #0, TDFL #1 , and 
TDFL #2, respectively. 

Referring to the embodiment shown in FIG. 4B, as compared to 
10 FIG. 4A, a DMA is also logically divided into a temporary defect 

information area and a temporary defect management information area, 
but the sequences of recording information are not the same as that 
shown in FIG. 4A. More specifically, in the temporary defect information 
area, temporary defect information TDFL #0, TDFL #1 , TDFL #2 are 
15 sequentially recorded starting from an end of this area toward a start of 
this area. Similarly, the temporary defect information TDFL #0, TDFL #1 , 
TDFL #2 are repeatedly recorded several times to increase the 
robustness of information. 

In particular, FIG. 4B illustrates an embodiment in which the 
20 temporary defect information TDFL #0 is recorded P times. In the 
temporary defect management information area, temporary defect 
management information TDDS #0, TDDS #1 , TDDS #2 is sequentially 
recorded starting from the end of this area. The temporary defect 
management information TDDS #0, TDDS #1 , and TDDS #2 correspond 
25 to the defect information TDFL #0, TDFL #1 , and TDFL #2, respectively. 

Referring to FIG. 4C, corresponding temporary defect information 
and temporary defect management information are recorded as pairs of 
information in a TDMA. More specifically, temporary management 
information TDMA #0, TDMA#1 are sequentially recorded starting from 



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the start of the TDMA. The temporary management information TDMA 
#0 contains a pair of corresponding temporary defect management 
TDDS #0 and temporary defect information TDFL #0. Temporary 
management information TDMA#1 contains a pair of corresponding 
5 temporary defect management information TDDS #1 and temporary 

defect information TDFL #1 . The temporary defect information TDFL #0, 
TDFL #1 , TDFL #2 are repeatedly recorded several times to increase the 
robustness of the information. In particular, FIG. 4C illustrates recording 
of the temporary defect information TDFL #0 P times. 

10 Referring to FIG. 4D, compared to the TDMA of FIG. 4C, 

corresponding temporary defect information and temporary defect 
management information are recorded as pairs of information in a TDMA, 
but the sequence of recording the information is not the same. More 
specifically, in the TDMA, temporary management information TDMA #0, 

is TDMA#1 are sequentially recorded starting from an end of the TDMA. 
The temporary management information TDMA #0 contains a pair of 
corresponding temporary defect management information TDDS #0 and 
temporary defect information TDFL #0. The temporary management 
information TDMA #1 contains a pair of corresponding temporary defect 

20 management information TDDS #1 and temporary defect information 

TDFL #1 . Similarly, the temporary defect information TDFL #0, TDFL #1 , 
TDFL #2 are repeatedly recorded several times to increase the 
robustness of information. In particular, FIG. 4D illustrates recording of 
the temporary defect information TDFL #0 P times. 

25 FIGs. 5A and 5B illustrate data structures of temporary defect 

management information TDDS #i. In detail, FIG. 5A illustrates a data 
structure of temporary defect management information TDDS #i 
recorded on a single record layer disc 100 such as that shown in FIG. 2A. 
The temporary defect management information TDDS #i contains an 

30 identifier for the temporary defect management information TDDS #i, and 



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information regarding the position of corresponding temporary defect 
information TDFL #i. 

As previously explained with reference to FIGs. 4A through 4D, 
temporary defect information TDFL #i according to an aspect of the 

,5 present invention is repeatedly recorded several times. Accordingly, the 
information regarding the position of temporary defect information TDFL 
#i are recorded several times and includes pointers corresponding to 
temporary defect information TDFL #1. Each pointer points to the 
recording position of a corresponding copy of the temporary defect 

10 information TDFL #i. Temporary defect management information TDDS 
#i shown in FIG. 5A includes P pointers for temporary defect information 
TDFL #i recorded P times. 

Also, the temporary defect management information TDDS #i 
recorded on a single record layer disc 100 such as that shown in FIG. 2A 
15 further describes an address of a last recorded user data, which is last 
recorded in a user data area of a record layer L0, and an address of a 
last recorded replacement data, which is last recorded in a spare area of 
the record layer L0. Accordingly, a user can easily utilize the disc 100 
just by referring to the last recorded user data and replacement data. 

20 FIG. 5B illustrates a data structure of temporary defect 

management information TDDS #i recorded on a double record layer 
disc 100 such as that shown in FIG. 2B. Temporary defect management 
information TDDS #i contains an identifier for temporary defect 
management information TDDS #i, and information regarding the 

25 recording position of corresponding temporary defect information TDFL 
#i. As previously mentioned with reference to FIGs. 4A through 4D, 
temporary defect information TDFL #i according to an aspect of the 
present invention is repeatedly recorded several times. Thus, the 
information regarding the recording position of temporary defect 

30 information TDFL #i which contains pointers pointing to the recording 

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positions of respective temporary defect information TDFL #i, are 
recorded several times. In particular, temporary defect management 
information TDDS #i shown in FIG. 5B includes P pointers. Each pointer 
points to a corresponding copy of the of the temporary defect information 
5 TDFL #i. 

Also, temporary defect management information TDDS #i 
recorded on a double record layer disc 100 such as that shown in FIG. 
2B further describes an address of a last recorded user data that is last 
recorded in a user data area of a first record layer L0, the address of a 
last recorded replacement data that is last recorded in a spare area of 
the first record layer L0, an address of a last recorded user data that is 
last recorded in a user data area of a second record layer L1 , and an 
address of a last recorded replacement data that is last recorded in a 
spare area of the second record layer L1 . Accordingly, a user can easily 
utilize the disc 100 just by referring to the last recorded user data and 
last recorded replacement 

FIG. 6 illustrates a data structure of temporary defect information 
TDFL #l according to an aspect of the invention. Referring to FIG. 6, 
temporary defect information TDFL#i contains an identifier for temporary 
20 detect information TDFL #i, and information regarding defects #1 , #2 nd 
#K. The information regarding defects #1 , #2 nd #K comprises state 
information indicating the positions of the defects and the replacements, 
and whether a defective area is a single defect block or a continuous 
defect block. 

25 Generally, data can be processed in units of sectors or clusters. 

A sector denotes a minimum unit of data that can be managed in a file 
system of a computer or in an application. A cluster denotes a minimum 
unit of data that can be physically recorded on a disc 100 at once. In 
general, one or more sectors constitute a cluster. 



10 



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There are two types of sectors: a physical sector and a logical 
sector. The physical sector is an area on the disc 100 where a sector of 
data is to be recorded. An address for detecting the physical sector is 
called a physical sector number (PSN). The logical sector is a unit in 
5 which data can be managed in a file system or an application. An 

address for detecting the logical sector is called a logical sector number 
(LSN). A disc recording/reading apparatus such as that in FIG. 1 detects 
the recording position of data on the disc using a PSN. In a computer or 
an application relating to data, the entire data is managed in units of 
10 LSNs and the position of data is detected using an LSN. The 

relationship between an LSN and a PSN is changed by a controller 2 of 
the recording/reading apparatus, based on whether the disc 100 contains 
a defect and an initial position of recording data. 

Referring to FIG. 7, the disc 100 includes a user data area A and 
15 a spare area B in which PSNs are sequentially allocated to a plurality of 
sectors (not shown) according to an aspect of the invention. In general, 
each LSN corresponds to at least one PSN. However, since LSNs are 
allocated to non-defective areas, including replacements recorded in the 
spare area B, the correspondence between the PSNs and the LSNs is 
20 not maintained when the disc 100 has a defective area, even if the size 
of a physical sector is the same as that of a logical sector. 

In the user data area A, user data is recorded either in a 
continuous recording mode or a random recording mode. In the 
continuous recording mode, user data is recorded sequentially and 

25 continuously. In the random recording mode, user data is randomly 
recorded. In the data area A, sections 1001 through 1007 denote 
predetermined units of data in which the verify-after-write method is 
performed. A recording and/or reproducing apparatus such as that 
shown in FIG. 1 records user data in section 1001, returns to the start of 

30 section 1001 , and checks if the user data is appropriately recorded or a 



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defect exists in section 1001 . If a defect is detected in a portion of 
section 1 001 , the portion is designated as defect #1 . The user data 
recorded in defect #1 is also recorded on a portion of the spare area B 
so as to provide replacement data for a portion of the user data which 
5 was recorded in the defect #1 area. Here, the portion of the spare area 
B in which data recorded in defect #1 is rewritten is called replacement 
#1 . Next, the recording apparatus records user data in section 1002, 
returns to the start of section 1002, and checks whether the data is 
properly recorded or a defect exists in section 1002. If a defect is 

10 detected in a portion of section 1002, the portion is designated as defect 
#2. Likewise, replacement #2 corresponding to defect #2 is formed in 
the spare area B. Further, defect #3 and replacement #3 are 
designated in section 1003 of the user data area A and the spare area B, 
respectively. In section 1004, a defect does not occur and a defective 

15 area is not designated. 

The recording and/or reproducing apparatus records information 
regarding defect #1, #2, and #3 occurring in sections 1001 through 1003 
as temporary defect information TDFL #0 in a TDMA, when recording 
operation #0 is expected to end, after the recording and verifying of data 
20 to section 1004 (i.e., when a user presses the eject button of a recording 
apparatus or recording of user data allocated in a recording operation is 
complete). Also, management information for managing temporary 
defect information TDFL #0 is recorded as temporary defect 
management information TDDS #0 in the TDMA. 

25 When recording operation #1 starts, data is recorded in sections 

1005 through 1007 and defects #4 and #5 and replacements #4 and #5 
are formed in the user data area A and the spare area B, respectively, as 
explained in sections 1001 through 1004. Defects #1 , #2, #3, and #4 
occur in the single blocks, whereas defect #5 occurs in is a continuous 

30 defect block. Replacement #5 is a continuous replacement block that is 



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replacement data for the user data recorded in defect #5. According to 
an aspect of the invention, a block refers to a physical or logical record 
unit, a range of a unit block not being limited. If the second recording 
operation is expected to end, the recording apparatus records 
5 information regarding defects #4 and #5 as temporary defect information 
TDFL#1, and records the information contained in the defect information 
DFL #1 once again. Thereafter, management information for managing 
temporary defect information TDFL #1 is recorded as temporary defect 
management information #1 in the TDMA. 

io FIG. 8 is a diagram illustrating effective use of a user data area 

according to an aspect of the present invention. FIG. 8 shows that an 
available portion of a user data area can easily be detected with an 
address of user data that is last recorded in the user data area A and an 
address of replacement that is last recorded in the spare area B. 

is Specifically, the available portion can be more easily detected, when the 
user data is recorded from the inner part/outer part of the user data area 
A to its outer part/inner part and data, which is replacement data for a 
defect occurring in the user data area A, is recorded from the outer 
part/inner part of the spare area to its inner part/outer part, respectively. 

20 In other words, the user data and the replacement data are preferably 
recorded in the opposite recording directions according to an aspect of 
the invention. 

For a disc 100 such as that shown in FIG. 2B, when physical 
addresses of user data are increased from the inner part of the first 

25 record layer L0 to the outer part and increased from the outer part of the 
second record layer L1 to the inner part, a physical address of the last 
data, which is last recorded in the corresponding user data areas A of the 
record layers L0 and L1 , has the largest number. Also, last recorded 
replacement data has a physical address with the smallest number, 

30 when physical addresses of replacements are reduced from the outer 



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part to the inner part in the spare area B of the first record layer L0 and 
increased from the inner part to the outer part in the spare area B of the 
second record layer LI. Accordingly, as previously mentioned, if the 
addresses of the last recorded data and last recorded replacement data 
5 are included in the temporary defect management information TDDS #i, 
it is possible to detect the positions of data and the replacement data 
that are to be newly recorded, without completely reading the temporary 
defect information TDFL #i and estimating the positions of the defect and 
the replacement data. Further, available portions of the user data area 
10 A and the spare area B are located continuously, thereby enabling 
effective use of the user data area A. 

FIGs. 9Aand 9B illustrate data structures of temporary defect 
information TDFL #0 and TDFL #1 recorded as explained with respect to 
FIG. 7. FIG. 10 illustrates a data structure of information regarding 
is defect #i recorded as explained with reference to FIG. 7. 

Referring to FIGs. 9A and 9B, temporary defect information TDFL 
#0 contains information regarding defects #1 , #2, and #3. The 
information regarding defect #1 indicates a position of an area in which 
the defect #1 exists and a position of an area in which the replacement 

20 #1 is recorded. The information regarding the defect #1 may further 
include information indicating whether the defect #1 is a continuous 
defect block or a single defect block. Likewise, the information 
regarding the defect #2 indicates whether the defect #2 is a continuous 
defect block or a single defect block, a position of an area in which the 

25 defect #2 exists and a position of an area in which the replacement #2 is 
recorded. The information regarding the defect #3 indicates whether the 
defect #3 is a continuous defect block or a single defect block, a position 
of an area in which the defect #3 exists, and a position of an area in 
which the replacement #3 is recorded. 



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Temporary defect information TDFL #1 further contains 
information regarding the defects #4 and #5 in addition to the information 
contained in the temporary defect information TDFL #0. More 
specifically, the temporary defect information TDFL #1 includes the 
5 information regarding the defect #1 , the information regarding the defect 
#2, the information regarding the defect #3, the information regarding the 
defect #4, and the information regarding the defect #5. 

Referring to FIG. 10, the information regarding a defect #i 
includes state information indicating whether the defect #i is a continuous 

10 defect block or a single defect block, a pointer pointing to the defect #i, 
and a pointer pointing to a corresponding replacement #i. When the 
defect #i is determined to be in a continuous defect block, the state 
information further represents whether a pointer for the defect #i points 
to the start or end of the continuous defect block and whether a pointer 

15 for the replacement #i points to the start or end of a replacement block 
that replaces the defect #i. When the state information indicates the 
pointer for defect #i as the start of the continuous defect block and the 
pointer for the replacement #i as the start of the replacement block, the 
pointer for the defect #i represents a starting physical sector number of 

20 the continuous defect block and the pointer for the replacement #i 
represent a starting physical sector number of the replacement #i. 

In contrast, when the state information indicates the pointer for 
the defect #i as the end of the continuous defect block and the pointer 
for the replacement #i as the end of the replacement block, the pointer 

25 for the defect #i represents an ending physical sector number of the 

continuous defect block and the pointer for the replacement #i represent 
an ending physical sector number of the replacement #L The definition 
of a continuous defect block using state information enables effectively 
recording of information and saves a space of recording, even if 

30 information regarding defects is not recorded in units of blocks. 



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The pointer for the defect #i specifies a starting point and/or 
ending point of the defect #i. The pointer for the defect #i may include a 
starting PSN of the defect #1 according to an aspect of the invention. 
The pointer for the replacement #i specifies a starting and/or ending 
5 points of the replacement #i. The pointer for the replacement #i may 
also include a starting PSN of replacement #1 according to an aspect of 
the invention. 

Hereinafter, a disc defect management method according to 
embodiments of the present invention will be described with reference to 
10 the accompanying drawings with reference to FIGs. 11 and 12. 

FIG. 11 is a flowchart illustrating a disc defect management 
method according to an embodiment of the present invention. In action 
1101, a recording apparatus records defect information regarding data, 
which is recorded according to a first recording operation, as first 
15 temporary defect information in a TDMA of a disc. This process serves 
to manage disc defects. In action 1102, the recording apparatus 
records management information for managing the first temporary defect 
information as first temporary defect management information in the 
TDMA. 

20 In action 1103, it is checked whether finalization of the disc is 

required. In action 1104, if it is determined in action 1103 that the 
finalization of the disc is not required, actions 1101 and 1102 are 
repeated while increasing an index given to each recording operation, 
temporary defect information, and temporary defect management 

25 information by 1 . However, it is understood that other numbers can be 
used for the index to the extent that the numbers serve to distinguish 
sets of recorded data. 

If it is determined in action 1103 that finalization of the disc is 
required, a last recorded temporary defect management information and 



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a last recorded temporary defect information are recorded in a DMA 
(action 1105). That is, the last recorded temporary defect management 
information and the last recorded temporary defect information are 
recorded as the final defect management information and defect 
5 information in the DMA, respectively. The final defect information and 
defect management information may be repeatedly recorded to increase 
the reliability of data detection. 

Further, according to an aspect of the invention, the 
verify-after-write method may be performed on the final temporary defect 

10 management information and temporary defect information. If a defect 
is detected from this information, an area of the disc having the defect 
and the following area containing data may be regarded as being 
unavailable (i.e., they are designated as a defective area), and the final 
temporary defect management information and temporary defect 

is information may be again recorded after the defective area. 

FIG. 12 is a flowchart illustrating a disc defect management 
method according to another embodiment of the present invention. In 
action 1201, a recording apparatus records user data in a data area of a 
disc in units of data to facilitate the verify-after-write method. In action 

20 1202, the data recorded in action 1201 is verified to detect an area of the 
disc having a defect. In action 1203, the controller 2 of FIG. 1 
designates the area having the defect as a defective area, controls the 
recording/reading unit 1 to rewrite data recorded in the defective area to 
a spare area so as to create a replacement area, and creates state 

25 information specifying whether the defective area is a single defect block 
or a continuous defect block, and pointer information that points to the 
positions of the defective area and the replacement area. In action 
1204, the state information and the pointer information are stored as first 
temporary defect information. 



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In action 1205, it is checked whether the first recording operation 
is expected to end. If it is determined in action 1205 that the first 
recording operation is not expected to end, actions 1201 through 1204 
are repeated. In action 1206, if it is determined in action 1205 that the 
5 first recording operation is likely to end (i.e., when the recording of the 
user data is complete by user input or according to the first recording 
operation), the stored temporary defect information is read and 
repeatedly recorded as first temporary defect information TDFL #0 in a 
TDMA several times. In action 1207, management information for 
10 managing the first temporary defect information TDFL #0 is recorded as 
first temporary defect management information TDDS #0 in the TDMA. 

In action 1208, it is checked whether the data needs to be 
finalized. If it is determined in action 1208 that finalization of the disc is 
not required, actions 1201 through 1207 are repeated. In action 1209, 
15 whenever actions 1201 through 1207 are repeated, an index given to a 
corresponding recording operation, temporary defect information TDFL, 
and temporary defect management information TDDS is increased by 1 . 
However, it is understood that other numbers can be used for the index 
to the extent that the numbers serve to distinguish sets of recorded data. 

20 In action 1210, if it is determined in action 1208 that the 

finalization of the disc is needed, a last recorded temporary defect 
information TDFL #i and a last recorded temporary defect management 
information TDDS #i are recorded as the final defect information DFL 
and the final defect management information DDS in the DMA. 

25 Recording of the final defect information DFL and the final defect 
management information DDS may be repeated several times to 
increase the reliability of data detection. Similarly, the verify-after-write 
method may be performed on the final defect information and defect 
management information. If a defect is detected in this information, an 

30 area of the disc having the defect and the following area containing data 



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may be regarded as being unavailable (i.e., they are designated as a 
defective area), and the final temporary defect management information 
and temporary defect information may be again recorded after the 
defective area. 

5 The aforementioned defect management may be embodied as a 

computer program that can be run by a computer, which can be a 
general or special purpose computer. Thus, it is understood that the 
controller 2 can be such a computer. Codes and code segments, which 
constitute the computer program, can be easily reasoned by a computer 

10 programmer in the art. The program is stored in a computer readable 
medium readable by the computer. When the program is read and run 
by a computer, the defect management is performed. Here, the 
computer-readable medium may be a magnetic recording medium, an 
optical recording medium, a carrier wave, firmware, or other recordable 

15 media. 

In addition, it is understood that, in order to achieve a recording 
capacity of several dozen gigabytes, the recording and/or reproducing 
unit 1 could include a low wavelength, high numerical aperture type unit 
usable to record dozens of gigabytes of data on the disc 100. Examples 
20 of such units include, but are not limited to, those units using light 

wavelengths of 405 nm and having numerical apertures of 0.85, those 
units compatible with Blu-ray discs, and/or those units compatible with 
Advanced Optical Discs (AOD). 

25 Industrial Applicability 

As described above, the present invention provides a disc defect 
management method that is applicable to write-once discs. According 
to the present invention, at least one temporary defect information area 
is present in a lead-in area of a disc and/or a lead-out area, so that 
30 information regarding a defect that exists in the disc can be 



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accumulatively recorded. Also, it is easy to finalize the disc by reading 
only lastly recorded temporary defect information from a temporary 
defect information area and recording the read information in a defect 
management area, thereby enabling effective use of the DMA. 
5 Accordingly, user data can be recorded even on write-once discs while 
performing disc defect management, thereby performing backup 
operations more stably without interruptions. 

While described in terms of use with write-once disks, it is 
understood that the present invention can be used with other writeable 
10 discs, including re-writeable recording media. 

While this invention has been particularly shown and described 
with reference to preferred embodiments thereof, it will be understood by 
those skilled in the art that various changes in form and details may be 
made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention 
15 as defined by the accompanying claims and equivalents thereof. 



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What is claimed is : 

1 . A disc for use with a recording and/or reproducing 
apparatus, the disc comprising: 

a user data area in which user data is recorded; 
5 a spare area other than the user data area and which includes a 

substitute area for a defective area existing in the user data area; and 
an address area which includes an address of a last data that is 
last recorded in the user data area and an address of a replacement 
data recorded in the spare area and which are accessed by the recording 
10 and/or reproducing apparatus. 

2. The disc of claim 1 , further comprising a temporary defect 
management area which includes temporary defect information and 
temporary defect management information recorded for each of a 

is plurality of recording operations for use by the recording and/or 
reproducing apparatus to perform disc defect management, 

wherein the temporary defect management area includes the 
address area. 

20 3. The disc of claim 1 , further comprising a record layer, 

wherein the address of data and the address of the replacement area 
are recorded to correspond to each other in the record layer. 

4. The disc of claim 2, wherein at least one of the temporary 
25 defect information and the temporary defect management information is 

repeatedly recorded on the disc. 

5. The disc of claim 2, further comprising at least one of a 
lead-in and a lead-out area other than the user data area and the spare 

30 area, wherein the temporary defect management area is formed in the at 
least one of the lead-in area and the lead-out area. 



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6. The disc of claim 2, wherein the temporary defect 
management area further comprises a pointer to a recording position of 
the temporary defect information. 

5 

7. The disc of claim 2, wherein the temporary defect 
management information is recorded to correspond to the temporary 
defect information in the temporary defect management area, the 
temporary defect information being recorded for each of a plurality of 

10 recording operations in which the user data is recorded in the user data 
area. 



8. The disc of claim 2, wherein the temporary defect 
information comprises a defect position pointer that points to a position 
is of a defective area in the user data area and a replacement position 
pointer that points to a position of the replacement data that replaces a 
portion of the user data recorded in the defective area. 



9. The disc of claim 8, wherein the temporary defect 
20 information further comprises state information that specifies a state of 
the defective area. 



10. The disc of claim 9, wherein the state information specifies 
whether the defect is a continuous defect block extending over more 

25 than one block or a single defect block. 

1 1 . The disc of claim 9, wherein the state information specifies 
that the defective area is in a continuous defect block extending over 
more than one block, and the corresponding defect position pointer and 

30 replacement position pointer indicate a start position of the defective 
area and a start position of the replacement data, respectively. 



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12. The disc of claim 9, wherein the state information specifies 
that the defective area is in a continuous defect block extending over 
more than one block, and the corresponding defect position pointer and 

5 replacement position pointer indicate an end position of the defective 
area and an end position of the replacement data, respectively. 

1 3. The disc of claim 1 , further comprising a defect 
management area that is formed in at least one of the lead-in area and 

10 the lead-out area, 

wherein the defect management area further comprises a last 
recorded temporary defect information and a last recorded temporary 
defect management information recorded as defect information and 
defect management information, respectively, during finalization of the 

15 disc, and 

the last recorded temporary defect information and the last 
recorded temporary defect management information comprise the 
temporary defect information and the temporary defect management 
information last recorded in the temporary defect management area. 

20 

14. The disc of claim 13, further comprising a plurality of the 
defect management areas. 

15. A method of managing a defect in a disc, the disc 

25 comprising a user data area and a spare area other than the user data 
area, the method comprising: 

recording user data in the user data area; 
again recording the user data, which is recorded in a defective 
area of the user data area in which a defect exists, in the spare area so 
30 as to make replacement data for the user data recorded in the defective 
area; and 



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recording an address of a last user data, which is last recorded in 
the user data area, and an address of a last replacement data, which is 
recorded in the spare area, in a temporary defect management area that 
is on the disc to perform disc defect management. 

5 

16. The method of claim 15, wherein the recording the 
addresses further comprises recording the address of last recorded data 
and the address of last recorded replacement data to correspond to each 
other in a record layer of the disc. 

10 

17. The method of claim 15, wherein the recording the 
addresses further comprises recording the address of the last recorded 
data and the address of the last recorded replacement data as temporary 
defect information in the temporary defect management area. 

15 

1 8. The method of claim 1 7, wherein the recording the 
addresses further comprises repeatedly recording the temporary defect 
information. 

20 1 9. The method of claim 1 7, wherein the recording the 

addresses further comprises recording in the temporary defect 
information a defect position pointer that points to a defective area and a 
replacement position pointer that points to the position of the 
replacement data. 

25 

20. The method of claim 17, wherein the recording the 
addresses further comprises recording in the temporary defect 
information state information that specifies a state of the defective area. 

30 21 . The method of claim 20, wherein the recording the 

addresses further comprises recording in the state information block 



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information that specifies whether the defective area is a continuous 
defect block extending over more than one block or a single defect block. 

22. The method of claim 21 , wherein the recording the 

5 addresses further comprises recording in the block information that 
specifies that the defective area is in the continuous defect block, and a 
corresponding defect position pointer and a replacement position pointer 
to indicate a start position of the defect and a start position of the 
replacement data, respectively. 

10 

23. The method of claim 21 , wherein the recording the 
addresses further comprises recording in the block information that 
specifies that the defective area is the continuous defect block, a 
corresponding defect position pointer and a replacement position pointer 

is to indicate an end position of the defective area and an end position of 
the replacement data, respectively. 

24. A recording and/or reproducing apparatus for use with a 
disc having a user data area, a temporary defect management area, and 

20 a spare area other than the user data area, the apparatus comprising: 
a recording/reading unit that records data on or reads data from 
the disc; and 

a controller that controls the recording/reading unit to 

record user data in the user data area of the disc, 
25 again record user data that was recorded in a defective 

area of the user data area in the spare area so as to make replacement 
data for the user data recorded in the defective area, and 

record an address of last data, which is last recorded in the 
user data area, and an address of last replacement data, which is last 
30 recorded in the spare area, in the temporary defect management area 



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that is used by the apparatus to perform disc defect management with 
respect to the disc. 

25. The recording and/or reproducing apparatus of claim 24, 
5 wherein the controller further controls the recording/reading unit to record 
the address of last the last recorded data and the address of the last 
recorded replacement data in a record layer of the disc so that the 
addresses correspond to each other. 

io 26. The recording and/or reproducing apparatus of claim 24, 

wherein the controller further controls the recording/reading unit to record 
the address of the last recorded data and the address of the last 
recorded replacement data in a record layer of the disc as temporary 
defect information in the temporary defect management area. 

15 

27. The recording and/or reproducing apparatus of claim 26, 
wherein the controller further controls the recording/reading unit to 
repeatedly record the temporary defect information on the disc. 

20 28. The recording and/or reproducing apparatus of claim 26, 

wherein the controller further controls the recording/reading unit to record 
in the temporary defect information a defect position pointer that points 
to a defective area and a replacement position pointer that points to a 
position of the replacement data. 

25 

29. The recording and/or reproducing apparatus of claim 26, 
wherein the controller further controls the recording/reading unit to record 
in the temporary defect information state information that specifies a 
state of the defective area. 



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30. The recording and/or reproducing apparatus of claim 29, 
wherein the controller further controls the recording/reading unit to record 
in the state information block information that specifies whether the 
defective area is a continuous defect block extending over more than 

5 one block or a single defect block. 

31 . The recording and/or reproducing apparatus of claim 29, 
wherein the controller further controls the recording/reading unit to record 
in the state information block information specifying that the defective 

10 area is a continuous defect block extending over more than one block, 
and a corresponding defect position pointer and a replacement position 
pointer to indicate a start position of the defective area and a start 
position of the replacement data, respectively. 

is 32. The recording and/or reproducing apparatus of claim 29, 

wherein the controller further controls the recording/reading unit to record 
in the state information block information specifying that the defect is a 
continuous defect block extending over more than one block, and a 
corresponding defect position pointer and a replacement position pointer 

20 to indicate an end position of the defective area and an end position of 
the replacement data, respectively. 

33. The disc of claim 1 , wherein the disc is a write-once 
storage medium having a property which prevents, after the data is 

25 recorded on an area of the disc, new data from being written to the area 
of the disc. 

34. The method of claim 15, wherein the disc is a write-once 
storage medium having a property which prevents, after the data is 

30 recorded on an area of the disc, new data from being written to the area 
of the disc. 



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35. The recording and/or reproducing apparatus of claim 24, 
wherein the disc is a write-once storage medium having a property which 
prevents, after the data is recorded on an area of the disc, new data from 

5 being written to the area of the disc. 

36. A storage medium for use with a recording and/or 
reproducing apparatus, the storage medium comprising: 

a user data area in which user data is recorded, the user data 
10 area comprising a first defective area; and 

a management area other than the user data area and which 
includes a first temporary defect information area corresponding to the 
first defective area and comprising first temporary defect information 
regarding the first defective area and a copy of the first temporary defect 
15 information that consists of the first temporary defect information, 
wherein the management area is accessed by the recording 
and/or reproducing apparatus to perform defect management. 

37. The storage medium of claim 36, wherein: 

20 the user data area further comprises a second defective area, 

the management area further comprises a second temporary 
defect information area corresponding to the second defective area and 
comprising second temporary defect information regarding the second 
defective area and a copy of the second temporary defect information 

25 that consists of the second temporary defect information. 

38. The storage medium of claim 37, wherein: 

the second temporary defect information comprises the first 
temporary defect information and information regarding the second 
30 defective area, and 



34 



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the first temporary defect information does not include information 
regarding the second defective area. 

39. The storage medium of claim 38, further comprising a 
5 defect management area other than the user data area and which 

includes the second temporary defect information. 

40. The storage medium of claim 36, wherein the management 
area further comprises a first temporary defect management information 

10 area corresponding to the first temporary defect information area and 
comprising first temporary defect management information regarding the 
first temporary defect information and a copy of the first temporary defect 
management information that consists of the first temporary defect 
management information. 

15 

41 . The storage medium of claim 40, wherein: 

the first temporary defect management information comprises a 
pointer to a position of the first temporary defect information, and 

the first temporary defect information comprises a pointer to a 
20 position of the first temporary defect. 

42. The storage medium of claim 41 , further comprising a 
spare area other than the user data area and which comprises first 
replacement data replacing a portion of the user data recorded in the first 

25 defective area, 

wherein the first temporary defect information further comprises a 
pointer to a position of the first replacement data. 

43. The storage medium of claim 42, wherein the first 

30 temporary defect management information further includes an address of 
the first replacement data, and an address of a last portion of the user 



35 



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data to be recorded prior to recording of the first temporary defect 
management information. 

44. The storage medium of claim 36, wherein the storage 
5 medium is a write-once storage medium having a property which 

prevents, after the data is recorded on an area of the disc, new data from 
being written to the area of the storage medium. 

45. A storage medium for use with a recording and/or 
10 reproducing apparatus, the storage medium comprising: 

a user data area in which user data is recorded in blocks, the user 
data area comprising a first defective area; and 

a management area other than the user data area and which 
includes a first temporary defect information area corresponding to the 
is first defective area and comprising first temporary defect information 
regarding the first defective area usable by the recording and/or 
reproducing apparatus to perform defect management, 

wherein the first temporary defect information comprises first state 
information which differentiates between and indicates whether the first 
20 defective area is a first block type comprising a first number of the blocks 
or a second block type consisting of less than the first number of the 
blocks. 

46. The storage medium of claim 45, wherein the management 
25 area further comprises first temporary defect management information 

comprising a pointer to a position of the first temporary defect 
information, and 

the first temporary defect information further comprises a pointer 
to a position of the first temporary defect. 

30 



36 



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47. The storage medium of claim 46, further comprising a 
spare area other than the user data area and which comprises first 
replacement data replacing a portion of the user data recorded in the first 
defective area, 

5 wherein the first temporary defect information further comprises a 

pointer to a position of the first replacement data. 

48. The storage medium of claim 47, wherein the first 
temporary defect management information further includes an address of 

10 the first replacement data, and an address of a last portion of the user 
data to be recorded prior to recording of the first temporary defect 
management information. 



49. The storage medium of claim 48, wherein: 
15 the user data area further comprises a second defective area 

other than the first defective area, 

the spare area further comprises second replacement data 
replacing a portion of the user data recorded in the second defective 
area, 

20 the management area further comprises a second temporary 

defect information area corresponding to the second defective area and 
comprising second temporary defect information regarding the second 
defective area and second temporary defect management information 
regarding the second temporary defect information, and 

25 the second temporary defect information comprises the first 

temporary defect information, second state information which 
differentiates between and indicates whether the second defective area 
is the first type block or the second type block, a pointer to the second 
defective area, and a pointer to the second replacement data. 



37 



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50. The storage medium of claim 49, wherein the first state 
information is one of the first type block and the second type block, and 
the second state information is the other one of the first type block and 
the second type block. 

5 

51 . The storage medium of claim 45, wherein the storage 
medium is a write-once storage medium having a property which 
prevents, after the data is recorded on an area of the storage medium, 
new data from being written to the area of the storage medium. 

10 

52. A computer readable medium encoded with processing 
instructions for implementing a method of managing a defect in a storage 
medium performed by a computer, the method comprising: 

transferring user data with respect to a user data area of the 
15 storage medium, the user data area comprising a first defective area with 
respect to which a first portion of the user data is transferred; 

transferring first replacement data comprising the first portion of 
the user data with respect to a spare area of the storage medium other 
than the user data area; and 
20 transferring first management information with respect to a 

management area of the storage medium so as to manage the user data 
and the first replacement data, the first management information 
comprising an address of the first replacement data and an address of a 
last portion of the user data to be recorded on the storage medium prior 
25 to creation of the first management information. 

53. The computer readable medium of claim 52, wherein the 
first management information further comprises: 

first defect information comprising a pointer to the first defective 
30 area and a pointer to the first replacement data, and 



38 



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first defect management information comprising a pointer to the 
first defect information, the address of the last portion of the user data, 
and the address of the first replacement data. 

5 54. The computer readable medium of claim 52, wherein: 

if the storage medium is not to be finalized, the transferring the 
first management information comprises transferring the first 
management information with respect to a temporary defect 
management area, 

io if the storage medium is to be finalized, the transferring the first 

management information comprises transferring the first management 
information with respect to a defect management area, and 

the defect management area is other than the temporary defect 
management area. 

15 

55. The computer readable medium of claim 52, wherein: 
the user data is recorded in blocks, 

the first defect information further comprises state information 
indicating and differentiating between a first block type and a second 
20 block type, and 

the transferring the first management information further 
comprises, 

if the state information indicates the first block type, 
determining that the first defective area comprises a first number of 
25 continuous blocks, and 

if the state information indicates the second block type, 
determining that the first defective area consists of a second number of 
blocks which is less than the first number of blocks. 

30 56. The computer readable medium of claim 52, wherein the 

transferring the first management information comprises recording in a 



39 



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first temporary management area the first management information and 
a copy of the first management information consisting of the first 
management information. 

5 57. The computer readable medium of claim 52, wherein the 

storage medium is a write-once storage medium having a property which 
prevents, after the data is recorded on an area of the storage medium, 
new data from being written to the area of the storage medium. 

10 58. A recording and/or reproducing apparatus for use with a 

storage medium having a user data area, a temporary defect 
management area, and a spare area other than the user data area, the 
apparatus comprising: 

a pickup unit that transfers user data with respect to the user data 

is area, the user data area comprising a first defective area; and 

a controller that determines an available portion of the user data 
area and the spare area using a first address and a second address and 
controls the pickup unit to 

transfer the user data with respect to the user data area, 

20 transfer first replacement data with respect to the spare 

area, the first replacement data comprising a portion of the user data that 
was recorded in the first defective area, and 

transfer first management information with respect to the 
management area, the first management information being used by the 

25 controller to manage the user data and the first replacement data and 
comprising the first address comprising an address of the first 
replacement data and the second address comprising an address of a 
last portion of the user data to be recorded in the user data area prior to 
creation of the first defect information. 



40 



2004/036561 



PCT/KR2003/001931 



59. The recording and/or reproducing apparatus of claim 58, 
wherein the first management information further comprises: 

first defect information comprising a pointer to the first defective 
area and a pointer to the first replacement data, and 

first defect management information comprising a pointer to the 
first defect information, the address of the last portion of the user data, 
and the address of the first replacement data. 

60. The recording and/or reproducing apparatus of claim 58, 
wherein: 

if the storage medium is not to be finalized, the controller controls 
the pickup unit to transfer the first management information with respect 
to a temporary defect management area of the management area, 

if the storage medium is to be finalized, the controller controls the 
pickup unit to transfer the first management information with respect to a 
defect management area of the management area, and 

the defect management area is other than the temporary defect 
management area. 

61 . The recording and/or reproducing apparatus of claim 58, 
wherein: 

the user data is recorded in blocks, 

the first defect information further comprises state information 
indicating and differentiating between a first block type and a second 
block type, and 

the controller further, 

if the state information indicates the first block type, 
determines that the first defective area comprises a first number of 
continuous blocks, and 



41 



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if the state information indicates the second block type, 
determines that the first defective area consists of a second number of 
blocks which is less than the first number of blocks. 



10 



62. The recording and/or reproducing apparatus of claim 58, 
wherein the controller further controls the pickup unit to record in a first 
temporary management area the first management information and a 
copy of the first management information consisting of the first 
management information. 



63. The recording and/or reproducing apparatus of claim 58, 
wherein the storage medium is a write-once storage medium having a 
property which prevents, after the data is recorded on an area of the 
storage medium, new data from being written to the area of the storage 
15 medium. 



42 



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1/12 

FIG. 1 



1 



RECORDING/READING 
UNIT 



C 



USER INPUT 



CONTROLLER 



100 



^1 



MEMORY 



LO 
1 



FIG. 2A 



DATA AREA 



100 



LEAD-IN 
AREA 


USER DATA AREA 


SPARE 
AREA 


LEAD-OUT 
AREA 




FIG. 2B 






LO 
I 


DATA AREA 






, ~ 






LEAD-IN 
AREA 


USER DATA AREA 


SPARE 
AREA 


OUTER 
AREA 



100 
—1 



LEAD-OUT 
AREA 


SPARE 
AREA 


USER DATA AREA 


OUTER 
AREA 



WO 2004/036561 



PCT/KR2003/001931 



RECORDING OPERATION 

RECORDING OPERATION 

#1' 



2/12 

FIG. 3A 




SPARE AREA 



100 



> LEAD-IN/LEAD-OUT 
AREA 



> DATA AREA 





LEAD-OUT/OUTER 
AREA 



WO 2004/036561 



PCT/KR2003/001931 



3/12 

FIG. 3B 

DMA 2 
Buffer 3 
Test 

TDMA 

DMA 1 
Buffer 2 
Drive and Disc information 
Buffer 1 



FIG. 4A 



first copy of TDFL #0 



second copy of TDFL #0 



pth copy of TDFL #0 



TDMA 





TDFL #0 


TDFL #1 


TDFL #2 


• • • 








TDDS #0 


TDDS #1 


TDDS #2 


• • * 









TEMPORARY DEFECT 
INFORMATION AREA 



TEMPORARY DEFECT 
MANAGEMENT 
INFORMATION AREA 



WO 2004/036561 



PCT/KR2003/001931 



FIG. 4B 



4/12 

first copy of TDFL #0 



second copy of TDFL #0 



pth copy of TDFL #0 



TDMA 





\ 

\ 

\ 

\ 

\ 

\ 




• » • 


TDFL #2 


TDFL #1 


TDFL #0 








♦ • ♦ 


TDDS #2 


TDDS #1 


TDDS #0 



TEMPORARY DEFECT 
INFORMATION AREA 



TEMPORARY DEFECT 
!> MANAGEMENT 
INFORMATION AREA 



FIG. 4C 



first copy of TDFL #0 



second copy of TDFL #0 



pth copy of TDFL #0 



TDFL #0 



TDDS #0 




TDMA 



TDMA #0 



TDMA #1 



WO 2004/036561 



PCT/KR2003/001931 



5/12 

FIG. 4D 



TDMA 



TDMA #1 



TDMA #0 



TDFL #0 



TDDS #0 



first copy of TDFL #0 



second copy of TDFL #0 



pth copy of TDFL #0 



WO 2004/036561 



PCT/KR2003/001931 



6/12 



FIG. 5A 



TDDS #i 



IDENTIFIER FOR TDDS #i 



first copy of TDFL #i POINTER 



second copy of TDFL #\ POINTER 



Pth copy of TDFL #\ POINTER 



MOST RECENTLY RECORDED DATA 
ADDRESS OF LO 



MOST RECENTLY RECORDED 
REPLACEMENT ADDRESS OF LO 



WO 2004/036561 



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FIG. 5B 



7/12 



TDDS #i 



FIG. 6 



IDENTIFIER FOR TDDS #i 



first copy of TDFL #\ POINTER 



second copy of TDFL §\ POINTER 



Pth copy of TDFL #\ POINTER 



MOST RECENTLY RECORDED 
DATA ADDRESS OF LO 



MOST RECENTLY RECORDED 
REPLACEMENT ADDRESS OF LO 



MOST RECENTLY RECORDED 
DATA ADDRESS OF L1 



MOST RECENTLY RECORDED 
REPLACEMENT ADDRESS OF L1 



TDFL #i 



IDENTIFIER FOR TDFL #i 



INFORMATION REGARDING DEFECT #1 



INFORMATION REGARDING DEFECT #2 



INFORMATION REGARDING DEFECT #k 



WO 2004/036561 



PCT/KR2003/001931 



8/12 



E 



REPLACEMENT #5 



REPLACEMENT #4 



REPLACEMENT #3 



•REPLACEMENT #2 



; REPLACEMENT #1 



o 
uj 

Q_ 
O 

o 
z 

o 
c£ 
o 

o 

Ll) 




o 



on 

LU 
Q_ 
O 

CD 



O 

o 

LU 



: DEFECT |4$\ 



^DEFECT #3^ 



^DEFECT #2 



DEFECT 



o 
o 



CO 

o 
o 



to 
o 
o 



o 
o 



o 
o 



CM 

o 
o 



o 
o 




m 



WO 2004/036561 



PCT/KR2003/001931 



9/12 



CO 

O 




WO 2004/036561 



PCT/KR2003/001931 



10/12 



FIG. 9A 



FIG. 9B 




INFORMATION REGARDING DEFECT #1 


INFORMATION REGARDING DEFECT #1 


INFORMATION REGARDING DEFECT #2 


INFORMATION REGARDING DEFECT §2 


INFORMATION REGARDING DEFECT #3 


INFORMATION REGARDING DEFECT §3 




INFORMATION REGARDING DEFECT #4 


INFORMATION REGARDING DEFECT #5 



FIG. 10 



INFORMATION REGARDING DEFECT §\ 



STATE 


POINTER FOR 


POINTER FOR 


INFORMATION 


DEFECT #1 


REPLACEMENT #i 



WO 2004/036561 



PCT/KR2003/001931 



11/12 

FIG. 11 

(start) 



RECORD DEFECT INFORMATION REGARDING DATA 
RECORDED IN FIRST RECORDING 
OPERATION AS FIRST TEMPORARY DEFECT 
INFORMATION IN TDMA 



— 1101 



RECORD MANAGEMENT INFORMATION FOR MANAGING 
FIRST TEMPORARY DEFECT INFORMATION AS 
FIRST TEMPORARY DEFECT MANAGEMENT 
INFORMATION IN TDMA 



1103 




1 102 



YES 



INCREASE INDEXES GIVEN TO RECORDING 
OPERATION, TEMPORARY DEFACE INFORMATION, AND 
TEMPORARY DEFECT MANAGEMENT INFORMATION BY 1 



J 



1 104 



I 



RECORD LASTLY RECORDED TEMPORARY DEFECT 
MANAGEMENT INFORMATION AND TEMPORARY 
DEFECT INFORMATION IN DMA 



1105 



( END ) 



WO 2004/036561 



PCT/KR2003/001931 



FIG. 12 



12/12 
(start) 



RECORD USER DATA IN DATA AREA IN UNITS OF DATA 
TO FACILITATE VERIFY-AFTER-WRITE METHOD 



1201 



VERIFY USER DATA TO DETECT AREA OF DISC 
HAVING A DEFECT 



1202 



CREATE INFORMATION REGARDING POINTERS 
INDICATING POSITIONS OF THE DEFECTIVE AREA 
AND REPLACEMENT AREA 



1203 



STORE CREATED INFORMATION AS FIRST 
TEMPORARY DEFECT INFORMATION IN MEMORY 




READ FIRST TEMPORARY DEFECT INFORMATION FROM 
MEMORY AND RECORD IT AS FIRST TEMPORARY 
DEFECT INFORMATION TDFL #0 SEVERAL TIMES 



RECORD FIRST TEMPORARY DEFECT MANAGEMENT 
INFORMATION TDDS #0 IN TDMA 



1204 



1205 



1206 



1207 




YES 



INCREASE INDEXES GIVEN TO RECORDING OPERATION, 
TEMPORARY DEFECT INFORMATION TDFL, AND TEMPORARY 
DEFECT MANAGEMENT INFORMATION TDDS BY 1 



X 



— 1209 



RECORD LASTLY RECORDED TEMPORARY DEFECT 
INFORMATION TDFL #i AND TEMPORARY DEFECT MANAGEMENT 
INFORMATION TDDS #i AS DEFECT INFORMATION DFL 
AND DEFECT MANAGEMENT INFORMATION DDS IN DMA 

I 



— 1210 



( END ) 



INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT 



International application No. 
PCT/KR2003/001931 



A. CLASSIFICATION OF SUBJECT MATTER 
IPC7 G11B 7/007 

According to International Patent Classification (IPC) or to both national classification and IPC 

B. FIELDS SEARCHED 

Minimum documentation searched (classification system followed by classification symbols) 

IPC7 Gl IB 7/007 

Documentation searched other than minimum documentation to the extent that such documents are included in the fields searched 



Electronic data base consulted during the intertnational search (name of data base and, where practicable, search terms used) 
WPI, PAI "Disk, Defect management, DMA, CD, Tempolarary Defect Management Area" 



C. DOCUMENTS CONSIDERED TO BE RELEVANT 



Category* 


Citation of document, with indication, where appropriate, of the relevant passages 


Relevant to claim No. 


A 


US 4 949 326 (YUJI TAKAGI ET AL) 
14 August 1990 (1990.08.14) 
* the whole document* 


1,2, 15, 24, 36, 45 


A 


US 5 1 11 444 (YOSHIHISA FUKUSHIMA ET AL) 
5 May 1992(1992.05.05) 
*the whole document* 


1,2, 15, 24, 36, 45 


A 


US 6 385 148 B2 (MOTOSH1 ITO ET AL) 
7 May 2002 (2002.05.07) 
*the whole document* 


1,2, 15, 24,36, 45 


A 


US 5 859 823 (MIKIO YAMAMURO ET AL) 
12 January 1999(1999.01.12) 
*the whole document* 


1, 2, 15, 24, 36, 45 


' | ] Further documents are listed in the continuation of Box C. X See patent family annex. 



'A w 
"E" 

11T It 



Special categories of cited documents: 

document defining the general state of the art which is not considered 
to be of particular relevance 

earlier application or patent but published on or after the international 
filing date 

document which may throw doubts on priority claim(s) or which is 
cited to establish the publication date of citation or other 
special reason (as specified) 
"O" document referring to an oral disclosure, use, exhibition or other 
means 

"P" document published prior to the international filing date but later 
than the priority date claimed 



"T" later document published after the international filing date or priority 

date and not in conflict with the application but cited to understand 

the principle or theory underlying the invention 
"X" document of particular relevance; the claimed invention cannot be 

considered novel or cannot be considered to involve an inventive 

step when the document is taken alone 
"Y" document of particular relevance; the claimed invention cannot be 

considered to involve an inventive step when the document is 

combined with one or more other such documents,such combination 

being obvious to a person skilled in the art 

document member of the same patent family 



Date of the actual completion of the international search 
07 JANUARY 2004 (07.01 .2004) 


Date of mailing of the international search report 
08 JANUARY 2004 (08.01.2004) 


Name and mailing address of the ISA/KR 1 

Jl k Korean Intellectual Property Office 
m^-^^f 920 Dunsan-dong, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-70 1 , 
jfcF" Republic of Korea 

Facsimile No. 82-42-472-7140 


Authorized officer 

OH, EUNG GIE ffSk E§1 J 
Telephone No. 82-42-481-5929 



Form PCT/ISA/210 (second sheet) (January 2004) 



INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT 

Information on patent family members 



International application No. 
PCT/KR2003/001931 



Patent document 
cited in search report 



Publication 
date 



Patent family 
member(s) 



Publication 
date 



US 4949326 A 


14.08.1990 


EP 271335 B1 
DE 377861 CO 
JP 63298778 A2 
KR 9108494 81 
KR 9108505 B1 


16.10.1991 
21.11.1991 
06.12.1988 
18.10.1991 
18.10.1991 


US 51114444 A 


05.05.1994 


JP 2023417 A2 

CD OKnnon oi 
tr ooUMidJ HI 

DE 68913605 CO 


25.01.1990 
L)y .(Jo. 1yy4 
13.07.1989 


US 6385148 82 


07.05.2002 


JP 3040779 B2 
JP 3075478 B2 
JP 3075477 82 
EP 1043723 A1 
EP 1041560 A2 
EP 1041559 A2 
W0 200054274 A1 
DE 69904138 CO 
CN 1338103 T 
TW 466479 B 


05.05.2000 
14.08.2000 
24.11 2000 
11.10.2000 
04.10.2000 
04.10.2000 
14.09.2000 
09.01.2000 
27.02.2000 
01.12.2001 


US 5859823 A 


12.01.1999 


KR 262473 B1 
JP 311321 B2 
EP 798714 B1 
DE 69703597 CO 
CN 1094629 B 


01.08.2000 
27.11.2000 
29.11.2000 
04.01.2001 
20.11.2002 



Form PCT/ISA/210 (patent family annex) (January 2004)