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(12) INTERNATIONAL APPLICATION PUBLISHED UNDER THE PATENT COOPERATION TREATY (PCT) 



(19) World Intellectual Property 
Organization 

International Bureau 

(43) International Publication Date 
22 April 2004 (22.04.2004) 




PCT 



(10) International Publication Number 

WO 2004/034396 Al 



(51) International Patent Classification 7 : 



G11B 20/18 



(21) International Application Number: 

PCT/KR2003/001938 

(22) International Filing Date: 

23 September 2003 (23.09.2003) 



(25) Filing Language: 

(26) Publication Language: 



English 
English 



(30) Priority Data: 

10-2002-0061897 



1 0 October 2002 (10.1 0.2002) KR 



(71) Applicant: SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO., LTD. 

[KR/KR]; 416, Maetan-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, 
442-742 Gyeonggi-do (KR). 

(72) Inventors: KO, Jung-Wan; 315-401 Daewoo Apt., 
956-2 Cheongmyung Maeul 3-danji, Youngtong-dong, 
Paldal-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 442-470 (KR). LEE, 
Kyung-Oeun; 122-1002 Sibeom Hanshin Apt, 87, Seo- 
hyun-dong, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 
463-050 (KR). HWANG, Sung-Hee; 420-403 Jugong 
Apt., 189, Gaepo-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-240 
(KR). 



(74) Agent: LEE, Young-Pil; The Cheonghwa Building, 
1571-18 Seocho-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-874 (KR). 

(81) Designated States (national): AE, AG, AL, AM, AT, AU, 

AZ, BA, BB, BG, BR, BY, BZ, CA, CH, CN, CO, CR, CU, 
CZ, DE, DK, DM, DZ, EC, EE, EG, ES, FI, GB, GD, GE, 
GH, GM, HR, HU, ID, IL, IN, IS, JP, KE, KG, KP, KZ, LC, 
LK, LR, LS, LT, LU, LV, MA, MD, MG, MK, MN, MW, 
MX, MZ, NI, NO, NZ, OM, PG, PH, PL, PT, RO, RU, SC, 
SD, SE, SG, SK, SL, SY, TJ, TM, TN, TR, TT, TZ, UA, 
UG, UZ, VC, VN, YU, ZA, ZM, ZW. 

(84) Designated States (regional): ARTPO patent (GH, GM, 
KE, LS, MW, MZ, SD, SL, SZ, TZ, UG, ZM, ZW), 
Eurasian patent (AM, AZ, BY, KG, KZ, MD, RU, TJ, TM), 
European patent (AT, BE, BG, CH, CY, CZ, DE, DK, EE, 
ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, HU, IE, IT, LU, MC, NL, PT, RO, 
SE, SI, SK, TR), OAPI patent (BF, BJ, CF, CG, CI, CM, 
GA, GN, GQ, GW, ML, MR, NE, SN, TD, TG). 

Published: 

— with international search report 

For two-letter codes and other abbreviations, refer to the "Guid- 
ance Notes on Codes and Abbreviations" appearing at the begin- 
ning of each regular issue of the PCT Gazette. 



(54) Title: METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR MANAGING DISC DEFECTS IN DISC, AND DISC ON WHICH DEFECTS 
ARE MANAGED 



RECORDING OPERATION 
#0 



RECORDING OPERATION 



"1 



SPARE AREA 



W//^////A 



100 



LEAD-IN/ 
LEAD-OUT AREA 



DATA AREA 



LEAD-IN/ 
OUTER AREA 



(57) Abstract: A method of and apparatus for managing disc defects in a disc using a temporary defect management area in the 
disc, and the disc, where the method includes recording in a data area user data; and recording in a temporary defect management 
area, which is present in at least one of a lead-in area and a lead-out area, which temporary defect information and temporary defect 
management information regarding the user data recorded in the data area are recorded. Accordingly, the method and apparatus are 
applicable to recordable discs and capable of effectively using the defect management area. 



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METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR MANAGING DISC DEFECTS IN 
DISC, AND DISC ON WHICH DEFECTS ARE MANAGED 

Technical Field 

5 The present invention relates to disc defect management, and 

more particularly, to a method of and apparatus for managing disc 
defects using a temporal defect management area (TDMA), and a disc in 
which defect management is performed using the method and 
apparatus. 

10 

Background Art 

Defect management is a process of rewriting data stored in a user 
data area of a disc in which a defect occurs. The data is rewritten to a 
new portion of the disc s data area, thereby compensating for the data 

15 loss otherwise caused by the defect. In general, defect management is 
performed using a linear replacement method or a slipping replacement 
method. In the linear replacement method, the user data area in which 
the defect exists is replaced with a spare data area having no defects. 
In slipping replacement method, the user data area with the defect is 

20 slipped, and the next user data area having no defects is used. 

Both the linear replacement and slipping replacement methods 
are applicable only to discs, such as a DVD-RAM/RW, on which data can 
be repeatedly recorded and recording can be performed using a random 
access method. In other words, the linear replacement and slipping 
25 replacement methods are difficult to apply to write-once discs on which 
recording is allowed only once. 

In general, the presence of defects in a disc is detected by 
recording data on the disc, and then confirming whether the data has 
been recorded correctly on the disc. However, once the data is 



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recorded on a write-once disc, it is impossible to overwrite the new data 
and manage the defects therein. 

After the development of CD-R and DVD-R, a high-density 
write-once disc with a recording capacity of several dozen GBs was 

5 introduced. This type of disc can be used as a backup disc since it is 
inexpensive and allows random access that enables fast reading 
operations. However, since defect management is not available for 
write-once discs, a backup operation is discontinued when a defective 
area (i.e., an area where a defect exists) is detected during the backup 

10 operation. In general, since a backup operation is performed when a 
system is not frequently used, such as at night when a system manager 
does not operate the system, it is more likely that a discontinued backup 
operation is maintained discontinued for the night when it is stopped 
because a defective area of a write-once disc is detected such that the 

15 backup operation is not completely performed. 



Disclosure of the Invention 

The present invention provides a defect management method and 
apparatus that can be applied to discs, and a disc having the defects 
20 managed using the defect management method. 

The present invention also provides a defect management method 
and apparatus that can manage disc defects even when a defect is 
detected during a recording operation, enabling the recording operation 
without interruption, and a disc having the method. 

25 Additional aspects and/or advantages of the invention will be set 

forth in part in the description which follows and, in part, will be obvious 
from the description, or may be learned by practice of the invention. 

According to an aspect of the present invention, a disc includes a 
data area in which user data is recorded, and a temporary defect 

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management area that is present in at least one of a lead-in area and a 
lead-out area and in which are recorded temporary defect information 
and temporary defect management information regarding the user data 
recorded in the data area. 

5 It is preferable, but not required, that the temporary defect 

information and temporary defect management information are recorded 
for every recording operation in which user data is recorded in the data 
area. 

Also, it is preferable, but not required, that the temporary defect 
10 information contains information indicating a position of a defective area 
of the data area in which corresponding user data is recorded, or 
contains information indicating a position of a replacement area that is a 
substitute for the defective area. 

According to another aspect of the present invention, a method of 
15 managing disc defects in a disc includes recording defect information 
regarding data, which is recorded in a data area of the disc according to 
a recording operation, as temporary defect information in a temporary 
defect management area that is present in at least one of a lead-in area 
and a lead-out area of the disc; and recording management information 
20 for managing the temporary defect information as temporary defect 
management information in the temporary defect management area. 

It is preferable, but not required, that the method further includes 
repeating the recording the defect information and the recording the 
management information for every recording operation; and recording a 
25 last recorded temporary defect management information and temporary 
defect information in a defect management area that is present in at 
least one of the lead-in area and the lead-out area. 



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The recording the last recorded temporary defect information is 
performed during finalization of the disc according to an aspect of the 
invention. 

It is preferable, but not required, that the recording the defect 
5 information further includes recording information indicating a position of 
a defective area of the data area containing corresponding user data, as 
the temporary defect information; recording information indicating the 
position of a replacement area, which is a substitute for the defective 
area, as the temporary defect information; or sequentially recording the 
10 temporary defect information in a temporary defect information area 

included in the temporary defect management area, starting from a start 
of the temporary defect information area. 

It is preferable, but not required, that the recording management 
information comprises sequentially recording the defect information in a 
15 temporary defect management information area included in the 
temporary defect management area, starting from an end of the 
temporary defect management information area. 

According to yet another aspect of the present invention, a 
recording and/or reproducing apparatus for use with a disc includes a 

20 recording/reading unit that records data on or reads data from the disc; 
and a controller that controls the recording/reading unit to record defect 
information regarding the data, which is recorded in a data area of the 
disc according to a. recording operation, as temporary defect information 
in a temporary defect management area that is present in at least one of 

25 a lead-in area and a lead-out area of the disc, and to record 

management information for managing the temporary defect information 
as temporary defect management information in the temporary defect 
management area. 



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It is preferable, but not required, that the controller controls the 
recording/reading unit to record the temporary defect information and the 
temporary defect management information in the temporary defect 
management area for every recording operation, and, during finalization 
5 of the disc, to record a last recorded temporary defect information and a 
last recorded temporary defect management information in a defect 
management area which is present in at least one of the lead-in area 
and the lead-out area of the disc. 

According to still another aspect of the present invention, a 

10 recording apparatus for use with a disc includes a recording/reading unit 
that records data on or reads data from the disc; and a controller that 
controls the recording/reading unit to record defect information regarding 
first data, which is recorded in a data area of the disc according to a first 
recording operation, as first temporary defect information in a temporary 

is defect management area that is present in at least one of a lead-in area 
and a lead-out area of the disc, to record first defect management 
information for managing the first temporary defect information as first 
temporary defect management information in the temporary defect 
management area, to record second defect information regarding 

20 second data, which is recorded in the data area according to a second 
recording operation, as second temporary defect information in the 
temporary defect management area, and to record defect management 
information for managing the second temporary defect information as 
second temporary defect management information in the temporary 

25 defect management area. 

Brief Description of the Drawings 

FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a recording and/or reproducing 
apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention. 



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FIGs. 2A and 2B illustrate structures of a disc according to 
embodiments of the present invention. 

FIG. 3 illustrates data structures of the discs of FIGs. 2A and 2B 
according to an embodiment of the present invention. 
5 FIGs. 4A through 4D illustrate data structures of a defect 

management area according to embodiments of the present invention. 

FIG. 5 illustrates recording of data in a user data area and a spare 
area, according to an embodiment of the present invention. 

FIGs. 6A, 6B and 7 illustrate data structures of temporary defect 
10 information TDFL #0 and TDFL #1 according to embodiments of the 
present invention. 

FIG. 8 is a flowchart illustrating a defect management method 
according to an embodiment of the present invention. 

FIG. 9 is a flowchart illustrating a defect management method 
15 according to another embodiment of the present invention. 

Best mode for carrying out the Invention 

Reference will now be made in detail to the present embodiments 
of the present invention, examples of which are illustrated in the 
20 accompanying drawings, wherein like reference numerals refer to the like 
elements throughout. The embodiments are described below in order to 
explain the present invention by referring to the figures. 

FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a recording and/or reproducing 
apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention. 

25 Referring to FIG. 1 , the recording and/or reproducing apparatus includes 
a recording/reading unit 1 , a controller 2, and a memory 3. The 
recording/reading unit 1 records data on a disc 100, which is an 
information storage medium according to a first embodiment of the 
present invention, and reads back the data from the disc 100 to verify the 

30 accuracy of the recorded data. The controller 2 performs defect 

management according to an embodiment of the present invention. In 

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the shown embodiment, the controller 2 uses a verify-after-write method 
in which data is recorded on the disc 100 in predetermined data units 
and the accuracy of the recorded data is verified to detect a defect in the 
recorded data. In other words, the controller 2 records user data on the 
5 disc 100 in units of recording operations, and verifies the recorded user 
data to detect an area (i.e., a defective area) of the disc 100 in which a 
defect exists. After the recording the data in the predetermined units, 
the controller 2 creates information that indicates a position of the 
defective area of the disc 100 as temporary defect information and 
10 stores the created temporary defect information in the memory 3. If the 
amount of the stored information reaches a predetermined level, the 
controller 2 records the stored information as defect information on the 
disc 100. 

Here, the recording operation is a unit of work determined 
15 according to a user's intention or is a recording work to be performed. 
According to this embodiment, a recording operation indicates a process 
in which the disc 100 is loaded into the recording and/or reproducing 
apparatus, data is recorded on the disc 100, and the disc 100 is taken 
out from the recording and/or reproducing apparatus. During the 
20 recording operation, data is recorded and verified at least once. In 

general, data is recorded and verified several times. Defect information, 
which is obtained using the verify-after-write method, is temporarily 
stored in the memory 3. 

When a user presses the eject button (not shown) of the recording 
25 and/or reproducing apparatus in order to remove the disc 1 00 after 
recording data, the controller 2 expects the recording operation to be 
terminated. Next, the controller 2 reads the information stored in the 
memory 3, provides the read data to the recording/reading unit 1 , and 
controls the recording/reading unit 1 to record the read data on the disc 

30 100. 



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If the recording of data on the disc 100 is completed (i.e., no more 
data will be recorded on the disc 100 and the disc 100 is to be finalized), 
the controller 2 records the temporary defect information and the 
temporary defect management information in a defect management area 
5 of the disc 100. 

During reproduction, the recording and/or reproducing apparatus 
utilizes the defect information and the defect management information in 
the defect management area and/or the temporary defect management 
area in order to access the recorded user data. While described in 
10 terms of a recording and/or reproducing apparatus as shown in FIG. 1 , it 
is understood that the apparatus can be an individual recording or 
reproducing apparatus or a recording and reproducing apparatus. 

FIGs. 2Aand 2B illustrates structures of the disc 100 of FIG. 1 
according to embodiments of the present invention. FIG. 2A illustrates 

15 in detail a single record layer disc representation of disc 100 having a 
record layer L0. The disc 100 includes a lead-in area, a data area, and 
a lead-out area. The lead-in area is located in an inner part of the disc 
100, and the lead-out area is located in an outer part of the disc 100. 
The data area is present between the lead-in area and the lead-out area, 

20 and is divided into a user data area and a spare area. 

The user data area is an area of the data area where user data is 
recorded. The spare area is an area of the data area other than the 
user data area which is the replacement area for a portion of the user 
data area having a defect. The spare area serves to compensate for a 
25 loss in the recording area due to a defect in the user data area. On the 
assumption that defects may occur within the disc 100, it is preferable, 
but not required, that the spare area assumes 5% of the entire data 
capacity of the disc 100, so that a greater amount of data can be 
recorded on the disc 100. 



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FIG. 2B illustrates a double record layer disc representation of disc 
100 having two record layers L0 and L1 . A lead-in area, a data area, 
and an outer area are sequentially formed from the inner part of the first 
record layer L0 to the outer part of the first layer L0. Also, an outer area, 
5 a data area, and a lead-out area are sequentially formed from the outer 
part of the second record layer L1 to the second record layer L1 inner 
part. Unlike the single record layer disc 100 of FIG. 2A, the lead-out 
area is present in the inner part of the disc 100 of FIG. 2B. That is, the 
disc 100 of FIG. 2B has an opposite track path (OTP) in which data is 
10 recorded starting from the lead-in area of the first record layer L0 and 
continuing toward the outer area of the first record layer L0, and 
continuing from the outer area of the second record layer L1 to the 
lead-out area of the second record layer L1 . The spare area is allotted 
to each of the record layers L0 and L1 . 

15 In the embodiments of FIGs. 2A and 2B, the spare areas are 

present between the user data area and the lead-out area and between 
the user data area and the outer area. If necessary, a portion of the 
user data area may be used as another spare area. Specifically, more 
than one spare area may be present between the lead-in area and the 

20 lead-out area. 

FIG. 3 illustrates details of the structures of the disc 100 according 
to an embodiment of the present invention. Referring to FIG. 3, a 
temporary defect management area is present in at least one of the 
lead-in area, the lead-out area, and the outer area of the disc 100. Also, 
25 a temporary defect management area is present at least one of the 
lead-in area and the lead-out area. 

In general, information that relates to managing defects in the disc 
100 is recorded in a defect management area. Such information 
includes the structure of the disc 100 for defect management, a position 
30 of defect information, whether defect management is performed, and a 

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position and a size of the spare area. In the case of a write-once disc, 
new data is generally recorded after previously recorded data when the 
previously recorded data changes according to an aspect of the 
invention. 

5 In general, when a disc is loaded into a recording/reproducing 

apparatus such as that shown in FIG. 1 , the apparatus reads data from 
the lead-in area and the lead-out area of the disc 100 to determine how 
to manage the disc 100 and record data on or read data from the disc 
1 00. However, if the amount of data recorded in the lead-in area 

10 increases, a longer time is spent preparing the recording or reproducing 
of data after the loading of the disc. Accordingly, the present invention 
proposes temporary defect management information and temporary 
defect information. The temporary defect management information and 
the temporary defect information are recorded in a temporary defect 

15 management area that is formed in the lead-in area and/or the lead-out 
area. 

According to an embodiment of the present invention, the defect 
management is performed using the linear replacement method. Thus, 
the temporary defect information includes information indicating the 

20 position of a defective area of the disc 100, and information indicating a 
portion of the disc 100 that can be a replacement area for the defective 
area. The temporary defect management information is used to 
manage the temporary defect information and includes information 
indicating the point of the disc 100 where the temporary defect 

25 information is recorded. 

According to an embodiment of the present invention, the 
temporary defect information and the temporary defect management 
information are recorded every time a recording operation ends. The 
temporary defect management area includes temporary defect 
30 information #0 and temporary defect information #1 . The temporary 



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defect information #0 includes information regarding a defect occurring in 
data recorded during recording operation #0 and information regarding a 
replacement area. The temporary defect information #1 includes 
information regarding a defect occurring in data recorded during 
recording operation #1 and information regarding a replacement area as 
temporary defect information #1 . Further, the temporary defect 
management area includes temporary defect management information 
#0, #1 . The temporary defect management information #0, #1 includes 
corresponding information for managing the temporary defect 
information #0, #1. 

If no more data can or is to be recorded on the disc 1 00 or if a 
user does not want to record more data on the disc 100 (i.e., the disc 
100 needs to be finalized), the temporary defect information recorded in 
the temporary defect information area and the temporary defect 
15 management information recorded in the temporary defect management 
information area are recorded in the defect management area. 

A reason for recording the temporary defect management 
information and the temporary defect information in the defect 
management area (DMA) again will now be explained. When no more 
data will be recorded on the disc 100 (i.e., the disc 100 needs to be 
finalized), the temporary defect management information and the 
temporary defect information, which are updated several times, are 
moved to the defect management area of the lead-in area, thereby 
enabling fast reading of the information recorded in the disc 100. Also, 
it is possible to increase the reliability of information by recording the 
defect management information in a plurality of areas. 

In an embodiment of the invention, the defect information 
recorded in the temporary defect information areas #0 through #i-1 is 
accumulatively recorded in a temporary defect information area #i. 
30 Therefore, it is sufficient to read the defect information from the last 

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recorded temporary defect information #i and again record the read 
information in the DMA during the finalization of the disc 100. 

For a high-density disc with a recording capacity of several dozen 
GBs, it is generally desirable that a cluster is allocated to an area in 
5 which temporary defect management information #i is recorded, and four 
to eight clusters are allocated to an area in which temporary defect 
information #i is recorded. This is because it is generally preferable to 
record new information in units of clusters to update information when a 
minimum physical unit of record is a cluster, although the amount of the 

10 temporary defect information #i is just several KBs. A total amount of 
defects allowed in a disc 100 is preferably about 5 percent of the disc 
recording capacity. For instance, about four to eight clusters are 
required to record temporary defect information #i, considering that 
information regarding a defect is about 8 bytes long and the size of a 

15 cluster is 64 KB long. 

A verify-after-write method can be performed on temporary defect 
information #i and temporary defect management information #i 
according to an aspect of the invention. When a defect is detected, 
information recorded in the defective area of the disc 100 containing the 
20 defect may be either recorded in a spare area using the linear 

replacement method, or recorded in an area adjacent to the defective 
area using the slipping replacement method. 

FIGs. 4A through 4D illustrate data structures of a temporary 
defect management area (TDMA) according to embodiments of the 
25 present invention. Referring to FIG. 4A, a temporary defect 

management area is logically divided into two parts: a temporary defect 
information area, and a temporary defect management information area. 
Temporary defect information TDFL #0, TDFL #1 , TDFL #2 are 
sequentially recorded in the temporary defect information area, starting 
30 from a start of the temporary defect information area toward the end 



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thereof. Temporary defect management information TDDS #0, TDDS 
#1 , TDDS #2 are sequentially recorded starting from a start of the 
temporary defect management information area toward the end thereof. 
The temporary defect management information TDDS #0, TDDS #1 , and 
5 TDDS #2 correspond to temporary defect information TDFL #0, TDFL #1 , 
TDFL #2, respectively. 

Referring to FIG. 4B, a temporary defect management area is 
logically divided into two parts: a temporary defect information area and a 
temporary defect management information area, as shown in FIG. 4A. 

10 However, the sequence of recording information in the temporary defect 
information area and the temporary defect management information area 
is not the same as the sequence of recording information in those of FIG. 
4A. In detail, temporary defect information TDFL #0, TDFL #1 , TDFL #2 
are sequentially recorded starting from an end of the temporary defect 

15 information area toward the start thereof. The temporary defect 

management information TDDS #0, TDDS #1 , TDDS #2 are sequentially 
recorded starting from an end of the temporary defect management 
information area toward the start thereof. The temporary defect 
management information TDDS #0, TDDS #1 , and TDDS #2 correspond 

20 to temporary defect information TDFL #0, TDFL #1 , and TDFL #2, 
respectively. 

Referring to FIG. 4C, corresponding temporary defect information 
and temporary defect management information are a pair of information 
in a corresponding temporary management information recorded in the 

25 temporary defect management area (TDMA). That is, temporary 

management information TDMA #0, TDMA#1, TDMA #2 are sequentially 
recorded starting from the start of the temporary defect management 
area toward an ending point thereof. The temporary management 
information TDMA #0 contains a corresponding pair of the temporary 

30 defect management information TDDS #0 and the temporary defect 



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information TDFL #0. The temporary management information TDMA 
#1 contains a corresponding pair of the temporary defect management 
information TDDS #1 and the temporary defect information TDFL #1. 
The temporary management information TDMA #2 contains a 
5 corresponding pair of the temporary defect management information 
TDDS #2 and the temporary defect information TDFL #2. 

Referring to FIG. 4D, compared to the temporary defect 
management area of FIG. 4C, corresponding temporary defect 
information and temporary defect management information are a pair of 

10 information in a corresponding temporary management information 

recorded in a temporary defect management area, but the sequence of 
recording the information is not the same. That is, temporary 
management information TDMA#0, TDMA#1, TDMA #2 are sequentially 
recorded starting from the end of the temporary defect management 

15 area toward the start thereof. The temporary management information 
TDMA #0, TDMA #1 , and TDMA #2 contain a pair of the corresponding 
temporary defect management information TDDS #0 and temporary 
defect information TDFL #0, a pair of the corresponding temporary defect 
management information TDDS #1 and temporary defect information 

20 TDFL #1 , and a pair of the corresponding temporary defect management 
information TDDS #2 and temporary defect information TDFL #2, 
respectively. 

FIG. 5 illustrates recording of data in a user data area A and a 
spare area B according to an embodiment of the present invention. Data 
25 can be processed in units of sectors or clusters. A sector denotes a 

minimum unit of data that can be managed in a file system of a computer 
or in an application. A cluster denotes a minimum unit of data that can 
be physically recorded on a disc at once. In general, one or more 
sectors constitute a cluster. 



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There are two types of sectors: a physical sector and a logical 
sector. The physical sector is an area on a disc where a sector of data 
is to be recorded. An address for detecting the physical sector is called 
a physical sector number (PSN). The logical sector is a unit in which data 
5 can be managed in a file system or an application. An address for 
detecting the logical sector is called a logical sector number (LSN). A 
disc recording/reproducing apparatus such as that shown in FIG. 1 
detects the recording position of data using a PSN, and when recording 
data on the disc 100, the entire data is managed in units of LSNs in a 
10 computer or an application and the position of data is detected using the 
LSN. The relationship between an LSN and a PSN is changed by a 
controller 2 of the recording/reproducing apparatus, based on whether 
the disc 100 contains a defect and an initial position of recording data. 

Referring to FIG. 5, A denotes a user data area and B denotes a 
15 spare area in which PSNs are allocated to a plurality of sectors (not 
shown) in ascending order. In general, each LSN corresponds to at 
least one PSN. However, since LSNs are allocated to non-defective 
sectors in ascending order, the correspondence between the PSNs and 
the LSNs is not maintained when the disc 100 has a defective area, even 
20 if the size of a physical sector is the same as that of a logical sector. 

In the data area A, sections 1001 through 1007 denote 
predetermined units of data in which the verify-after-write method is 
performed. A recording apparatus records user data in section 1001 , 
returns to the start of section 1001 , and checks if the user data is 
25 appropriately recorded or a defect exists in section 1001 . If a defect is 
detected in a portion of section 1001, the portion is designated as defect 
#1 . The user data recorded in defect #1 is also recorded on a portion of 
the spare area B. Here, the portion of the spare area B in which data 
recorded in defect #1 is rewritten is called replacement #1 . 



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Next, the recording apparatus records user data in section 1002, 
returns to the start of section 1002, and checks whether the data is 
properly recorded or a defect exists in section 1002. If a defect is 
detected in a portion of section 1002, the portion is designated as defect 
5 #2. Likewise, replacement #2 corresponding to defect #2 is formed in 
the spare area B. Further, defect #3 and replacement #3 are 
designated in section 1003 of the user data area A and the spare area B, 
respectively. In section 1004, a defect does not occur and a defective 
area is not designated. 

10 The recording apparatus records information regarding defect #1 , 

#2, and #3 occurring in sections 1001 through 1003 as temporary defect 
information TDFL #0 in the temporary defect management area when 
recording operation #0 is expected to end, after the recording and 
verifying of data to section 1004, i.e., when a user presses the eject 

is button of a recording apparatus or recording of user data allocated in a 
recording operation is complete. Also, defect management information 
for managing the temporary defect information TDFL #0 is recorded as 
temporary defect management information TDDS #0 in the temporary 
defect management area. 

20 When recording operation #1 starts, data is recorded in sections 

1005 through 1007 and defects #4 and #5 and replacements #4 and #5 
are formed in the user data area A and the spare area B in the temporary 
defect management area, respectively, as explained with respect to 
sections 1001 through 1004. If the second recording operation is 

25 expected to end, the recording apparatus records information regarding 
defects #4 and #5 as temporary defect information TDFL #1 , and records 
the information contained in the temporary defect information TDFL #0 
once again. Thereafter, defect management information for managing 
the temporary defect information TDFL #1 is recorded in the temporary 

30 defect management area. 



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FIGs. 6A and 6B illustrate data structures of temporary defect 
information TDFL #0 and TDFL #1 according to an embodiment of the 
present invention. FIG. 7 illustrates a data structure of information 
regarding defect #i. 

5 Referring to FIGs. 6A and 6B, the temporary defect information 

TDFL #0 contains information regarding defects #1 through #3. In detail, 
the information regarding defect #1 indicates the position of an area in 
which defect #1 exists and the position of an area in which replacement 
#1 is recorded. The information regarding defect #2 indicates the 
10 position of an area in which defect #2 exists and the position of an area 
in which replacement #2 is recorded. The information regarding defect 
#3 indicates the position of an area in which defect #3 exists and the 
position of an area in which replacement #3 is recorded. 

The temporary defect information TDFL #1 further contains 
information regarding defects #4 and #5 in addition to the information 
contained in the temporary defect information TDFL #0. That is, the 
temporary defect information TDFL#1 includes the information regarding 
defect #1 , the information regarding defect #2, the information regarding 
defect #3, the information regarding defect #4, and the information 
regarding defect #5. 

Referring to FIG. 7, the information regarding defect #i describes a 
pointer pointing to defect #i and a pointer pointing to replacement #i. In 
detail, the pointer for defect #i specifies the starting and ending points of 
the defect #i, and the pointer for replacement #i specifies the starting and 
25 ending points of the replacement #i. 

Hereinafter, a defect management method according to an 
embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to 
FIG. 8. Referring to FIG. 8, in action 801 , a recording apparatus records 
defect information regarding data recorded according to a first recording 

17 



15 



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operation as first temporary defect information in a temporary defect 
management area of a disc. This process serves to manage disc 
defects. In action 802, management information for managing the first 
temporary defect information is recorded as first temporary defect 
5 management information in the temporary defect management area. 

In action 803, it is checked whether the disc needs to be finalized. 
In action 804, if it is determined in action 803 that the disc does not 
need to be finalized, actions 801 and 802 are repeated while increasing 
indexes given to the recording operation, temporary defect information, 
10 and temporary defect management information by 1 . However, it is 
understood that other numbers can be used for the index to the extent 
that the numbers serve to distinguish sets of recorded data. 

In action 805, if it is determined in action 803 that the disc needs 
to be finalized, a last recorded temporary defect management 

15 information and a last recorded temporary defect information are 
recorded in a defect management area. That is, the last recorded 
temporary defect management information and the last recorded 
temporary defect information are recorded as the final temporary defect 
management information and temporary defect information in the defect 

20 management area (DMA). The final temporary defect management 
information and temporary defect information may be repeatedly 
recorded so as to increase the reliability of data detection according to 
an aspect of the invention. 

Also, the verify-after-write method may be performed on the final 
25 temporary defect management information and the final temporary 

defect information according to an aspect of the invention. If a defect is 
detected from final temporary defect management information and the 
final temporary defect information, an area of the disc in which the defect 
occurs and data recorded after the area having the defect may be 
30 regarded as being unavailable (i.e., the areas of the final temporary 



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defect management information and the final temporary defect 
information are designated as a defective area) and the final temporary 
defect management information and the final temporary defect 
information may be again recorded after the defective area. 

5 FIG. 9 is a flowchart illustrating a disc defect management method 

according to another embodiment of the present invention. Referring to 
FIG. 9, a recording apparatus records user data in a data area in units of 
data to facilitate the verify-after-write method (in action 901). In action 
902, the user data recorded in action 901 is verified to detect the 

10 existence of defects in any area of the disc 100. In action 903, the 
controller 2 of FIG. 1 designates the area having the defect as a 
defective area, rewrites the user data recorded in the defective area in a 
spare area to create a replacement area, and creates pointer information 
pointing to the defective area and the replacement area, respectively. In 

is action 904, the pointer information is stored as first temporary defect 
information in the memory 3 of FIG. 1. In action 905, it is checked 
whether the recording operation is expected to end. If it is determined in 
action 905 that the recording operation is not likely to end, actions 901 
through 904 are repeated. 

20 However, in action 906, if it is determined in step 905 that the 

recording operation is likely to end (i.e., when the recording of the user 
data is complete by user input or according to the recording operation), 
the controller 2 reads temporary defect information #0 from the memory 
3 and records the temporary defect information #0 as temporary defect 

25 information TDFL #0 in a temporary defect management area. In action 
907, management information for managing temporary defect 
information TDFL #0 is recorded as temporary defect management 
information TDDS #0 in the temporary defect management area. 



30 



In action 908, it is checked whether the disc 100 needs to be 
finalized. If it is determined in action 908 that the finalizing of the disc 

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100 is not needed, actions 901 through 907 are repeated while indexes 
given to the recording operation, temporary defect information, and 
temporary defect management information are increased by 1 . 
However, it is understood that other numbers can be used for the index 
5 to the extent that the numbers serve to distinguish sets of recorded data. 

In action 910, if it is determined in action 908 that finalization of 
the disc 100 is needed, a last recorded temporary defect information 
TDFL #i and a last recorded temporary defect management information 
TDDS #i are recorded as defect information DFL and defect 
10 management information DDS in a defect management area (DMA). 
The defect information DFL and defect management information DDS 
may be repeatedly recorded several times to increase the reliability of 
data detection according to an aspect of the invention. 

Further, the verify-after-write method may be performed on the 
15 defect information DFL and defect management information DDS 
according to an aspect of the invention. If a defect is detected from 
those DFL and DDS, an area having the defect and data recorded after 
the area having the defect may be regarded as being unavailable (, i.e., 
the area including the DFL and DDS is designated as a defective area), 
20 and the defect management information and defect information may be 
again recorded after the defective area. 

The aforementioned defect management method may be 
embodied as a computer program that can be run by a computer. 
Codes and code segments, which constitute the computer program, can 
25 be easily reasoned by a computer programmer in the art. The program 
is stored in a computer readable medium. When the program is read 
and run by a computer, the defect management method according to the 
present invention is performed by the computer. Here, the 
computer-readable medium may be a magnetic recording medium, an 



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optical recording medium, a carrier wave medium firmware or other 
recordable medium. 

While not required in all aspects, it is understood that the 
controller 2 can be computer implementing the method using the 
5 computer program encoded on a computer readable medium. The 
computer can be implemented as a chip having firmware, or can be a 
general or special purpose computer programmable to perform the 
method. 

In addition, it is understood that, in order to achieve a recording 
10 capacity of several dozen gigabytes, the recording and/or reproducing 
unit 1 could include a low wavelength, high numerical aperture type unit 
usable to record dozens of gigabytes of data on the disc 100. Examples 
of such units include, but are not limited to, those units using light 
wavelengths of 405 nm and having numerical apertures of 0.85, those 
15 units compatible with Blu-ray discs, and/or those units compatible with 
Advanced Optical Discs (AOD). 

Industrial Applicability 

As described above, the present invention provides disc defect 
20 management that is applicable to discs. According to an aspect of the 
present invention, a temporary defect information area is present in a 
lead-in area and/or a lead-out area, so that defect information can be 
accumulatively recorded. Also, during finalization of a disc, only last 
recorded temporary defect information is read from a temporary defect 
25 management area and is recorded in a defect management area, 
thereby enabling efficient use of the defect management area. 
Accordingly, it is possible to record user data on even a write-once disc 
while performing defect management, thereby more stably backup 
operations can be performed without interruptions. 



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While described in terms of a write-once disc, it is understood that 
the method can be used with rewritable media or where the medium has 
write-once and rewritable portions. 

Although a few embodiments of the present invention have been 
5 shown and described, it would be appreciated by those skilled in the art 
that changes may be made in this embodiment without departing from 
the principles and spirit of the invention, the scope of which is defined in 
the claims and their equivalents. 



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What is claimed is : 

1 . A disc usable with respect to a recording and/or 
reproducing apparatus, the disc comprising: 

a data area in which user data is recorded; and 
5 at least one of a lead-in area and a lead-out area adjacent the 

data area and which comprises a temporary defect management area 
which comprises temporary defect information and temporary defect 
management information regarding the user data recorded in the data 
area and which is accessible by the recording and/or reproducing 
10 apparatus to perform defect management on the disc. 

2. The disc of claim 1 , wherein: 

the data area further comprises additional user data recorded in 
the data area in an additional recording operation other than a recording 
is operation during which the user data was recorded in the data area, and 
the temporary defect management area further comprises 
additional temporary defect information and additional temporary defect 
management information recorded in the temporary defect management 
area and corresponding to the additional user data recorded in the 
20 additional recording operation. 

3. The disc of claim 1 , wherein the temporary defect 
information comprises information indicating a position of a defective 
area of the data area in which a corresponding unit of user data is 

25 recorded. 

4. The disc of claim 3, further comprising a replacement area 
in which is recorded the unit of the user data so as to be a substitute 
area for the defect area, wherein the temporary defect information 

30 contains information indicating a position of the replacement area. 



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5. The disc of claim 1 , wherein the temporary defect 
management area comprises a temporary defect information area, and 
the temporary defect information is recorded in the temporary defect 
information area. 

5 

6. The disc of claim 1 , wherein the temporary defect 
management area comprises a temporary defect management 
information area, and the temporary defect management information is 
recorded in the temporary defect management information area. 

10 

7. The disc of claim 1 , wherein the corresponding temporary 
defect information and temporary defect management information are 
recorded as a pair of information in the temporary defect management 
area. 

15 

8. The disc of claim 1 , further comprising a defect 
management area that is present in at least one of the lead-in area and 
the lead-out area, 

wherein, during finalization of the disc, a last temporary defect 
20 information and a last temporary defect management information, which 
are last recorded in the temporary defect management area, are 
recorded as final defect information and defect management information 
in the defect management area. 

25 9. A method of managing disc defects in a disc, the disc 

comprising a data area and a temporary defect management area in one 
of a lead-in and a lead-out area, the method comprising: 

recording temporary defect information in the temporary defect 
management area, the temporary defect information comprising defect 

30 information regarding data recorded in the data area according to a 
recording operation; and 



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recording temporary defect management information in the 
temporary defect management area, the temporary defect management 
information comprising management information for managing the 
temporary defect information. 

5 

1 0. The method of claim 9, further comprising: 
repeating the recording the temporary defect information and the 
recording the temporary defect management information for each unit of 
the data recorded during a plurality of recording operations; and 
10 recording a last recorded temporary defect management 

information and a last temporary defect information in a defect 
management area that is present in at least one of the lead-in area and 
the lead-out area. 



15 11. The method of claim 9, wherein the recording the last 

recorded temporary defect management information is performed during 
finalization of the disc. 



12. The method of claim 9, wherein the recording the 
20 temporary defect information comprises recording in the temporary 
defect information defect position information indicating a position of a 
defective area of the data area. 



13. The method of claim 11, wherein the recording the 
25 temporary defect information further comprises recording in the 

temporary defect information replacement position information indicating 
a position of a replacement area that includes a portion of the data also 
recorded in the defective area so as to be a substitute for the defective 
area. 

30 

14. The method of claim 9, wherein: 



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the temporary defect information comprises multiple units of 
temporary defect information, 

the temporary defect management area further comprises a 
temporary defect information area, and 
5 the recording the temporary defect information further comprises 

sequentially recording the units of the temporary defect information in the 
temporary defect information area starting from a start of the temporary 
defect information area. 

10 1 5. The method of claim 9, wherein: 

the temporary defect management information comprises multiple 
units of temporary defect management information, 

the temporary defect management area further comprises a 
temporary defect management information area, and 
15 the recording the temporary defect management information 

comprises sequentially recording the units of the temporary defect 
management information in the temporary defect management 
information area, starting from an end of the temporary defect 
management information area. 

20 

1 6. The method of claim 9, wherein: 
the temporary defect information comprises multiple units of 
temporary defect information, 

the temporary defect management area further comprises a 
25 temporary defect information area and a temporary defect management 
information area, 

the temporary defect management information comprises multiple 
units of temporary defect management information, and 

the recording the temporary defect information and the recording 
30 the temporary defect management information comprise sequentially 
recording corresponding units of the temporary defect information and 



26 



WO 2004/034396 PCT/KR2003/001938 

temporary defect management information as a pair of information in 
corresponding units of temporary management information, starting from 
a start of the temporary defect management area. 

5 17. The method of claim 9, wherein: 

the temporary defect information comprises multiple units of 
temporary defect information, 

the temporary defect management area further comprises a 
temporary defect information area and a temporary defect management 
10 information area, 

the temporary defect management information comprises multiple 
units of temporary defect management information, and 

the recording the temporary defect information and the recording 
the temporary defect management information comprise sequentially 
15 recording corresponding temporary defect information and temporary 
defect management information as a pair of information, starting from an 
end of the temporary defect management area. 

18. The method of claim 9, wherein the recording the 
20 temporary defect information further comprises: 

recording the data in predetermined units of the data; 

verifying the recorded data to detect a defective area of the disc in 
which a defect exists; 

if a defective area is detected, storing first temporary defect 
25 information in a memory, the first temporary defect information 

comprising information pointing to a position of the defective area and 
information pointing to a replacement area that contains a unit of data 
recorded in the defective area so as to be a substitute area for the 
defective area; 

30 repeating the recording the data through the storing in the memory 

at least once; and 



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reading at least the first temporary defect information stored in the 
memory and recording the read information as the first temporary defect 
information in the temporary defect management area. 

5 19. A recording and/or reproducing apparatus for use with a 

disc having a data area and a temporary defect management area in at 
least one of a lead in and a lead out area, the apparatus comprising: 

a recording/reading unit that records data on and/or reads data 
from the data area of the disc; and 

io a controller that controls the recording/reading unit to record 

temporary defect information in the temporary defect management area, 
the temporary defect information comprising defect information regarding 
the data recorded in the data area according to a recording operation, 
and to record temporary defect management information in the 

15 temporary defect management area, the temporary defect management 
information comprising management information for managing the 
temporary defect information. 



20. The recording and/or reproducing apparatus of claim 19, 
20 wherein the controller further controls the recording/reading unit: 

to record additional data in the data area according to another 
recording operation, 

to record additional temporary defect information and additional 
temporary defect management information in the temporary defect 
25 management area corresponding to the additional data recorded 
according to the additional recording operation, and 

during finalization of the disc, to record a last recorded temporary 
defect information and a last recorded temporary defect management 
information in a defect management area which is present in at least one 
30 of the lead-in area and the lead-out area of the disc. 



28 



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21 . A recording and/or reproducing apparatus for use with a 
disc having a data area and a temporary defect management area in one 
of a lead-in and a lead-out area, the recording and/or reproducing 
apparatus comprising: 

5 a recording/reading unit that records data on or reads data from 

the data area of the disc; and 

a controller that controls the recording/reading unit to 

record first temporary defect information in the temporary 
defect management area, the first temporary defect information 
10 comprising defect information regarding a first unit of the data recorded 
in the data area according to a first recording operation, 

record first temporary defect management information in 
the temporary defect management area, the first temporary defect 
management information comprising defect management information for 
is managing the first temporary defect information, 

record second temporary defect information in the 
temporary defect management area, the second temporary defect 
information comprising defect information regarding a second unit of the 
data recorded in the data area according to a second recording operation, 
20 and 

record second temporary defect management information 
in the temporary defect management area, the second temporary defect 
management information comprising defect management information for 
managing the second temporary defect information. 

25 

22. The recording and/or reproducing apparatus of claim 21 , 
wherein the controller further controls the recording/reading unit to record 
additional units of the data in the data area while increasing an index 
given to each additional recording operation, temporary defect 

30 information, and temporary defect management information, and to 

record a last recorded temporary defect management information and a 



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WO 2004/034396 PCT/KR2003/001938 

last recorded temporary defect information in a defect management area 
included in at least one of the lead-in area and the lead-out area of the 
disc. 

5 23. The recording and/or reproducing apparatus of claim 21 , 

wherein: 

the controller further controls the recording/reading unit to record 
last data in the data area according to a last recording operation and to 
record final defect management information and final defect information 

10 in a defect management area, the final defect information and the final 
defect management information respectively comprising a last recorded 
temporary defect information and a last recorded temporary defect 
management information regarding the last data recorded according to 
the last recording operation, and 

15 the defect management area is present in at least one of the 

lead-in area, the lead-out area, and an outer area of the disc. 

24. The recording and/or reproducing apparatus of claim 21 , 
wherein the controller further controls the recording/reading unit to 

20 sequentially record the temporary defect information in a temporary 
defect information area of the temporary defect management area, 
starting from a start of the temporary defect information area. 

25. The recording and/or reproducing apparatus of claim 21 , 
25 wherein the controller further controls the recording/reading unit to 

sequentially record the temporary defect management information in a 
temporary defect management information area of the temporary defect 
management area, starting from an end of the temporary defect 
management information area. 



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26. The recording and/or reproducing apparatus of claim 21 , 
wherein the controller further controls the recording/reading unit to 
sequentially record temporary management information comprising a 
corresponding pair of the temporary defect information and temporary 

5 defect management information in the temporary defect management 
area, starting from a start of the temporary defect management area. 

27. The recording and/or reproducing apparatus of claim 21, 
wherein the controller further controls the recording/reading unit to 

io sequentially record temporary management information comprising a 
corresponding pair of the temporary defect information and temporary 
defect management information in the temporary defect management 
area, starting from an end of the temporary defect management area. 

15 28. The recording and/or reproducing apparatus of claim 21 , 

further comprising a memory, 

wherein the controller further 

controls the recording/reading unit to record the data on the 
disc in predetermined units of data according to a predetermined 
20 recording operation, 

verifies the recorded units of data to detect a defective area 
of the disc in which a defect exists, 

creates defective position information pointing to a 
defective area and replacement position information pointing to a 
25 replacement area that is a substitute area for the defective area, 

stores the created defective position and replacement 
position information as temporary defect information in the memory, 

controls the recording/reading unit to record an additional 
unit of the data after the defective area according to a further recording 
30 operation, 



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reads the temporary defect information from the memory 
after completion of the recording of the additional unit of the data 
according to the further recording operation, and 

controls the recording/reading unit to record the read 
5 temporary defect information in the temporary defect management area. 

29. The disc of claim 5, wherein the temporary defect 
management area further comprises a temporary defect management 
information area other than the temporary defect information area, and 

10 the temporary defect management information is recorded in the 
temporary defect management information area. 

30. The disc of claim 7, wherein the corresponding temporary 
defect information and temporary defect management information are 

15 recorded as temporary management information in adjacent units in the 
temporary defect management area. 

31 . The disc of claim 30, wherein: 
additional user data is recorded in the data area, 

20 additional temporary defect information and additional temporary 

defect management information corresponding to the additional user 
data is recorded as additional temporary management information in 
adjacent units in a second area of the temporary defect management 
area, and 

25 the temporary management information is recorded in a first area 

of the temporary defect management area other than the second area. 

32. A storage medium usable with respect to a recording and/or 
reproducing apparatus, the storage medium comprising: 

30 a data area comprising user data; and 



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10 



a management area other than the data area and which 
comprises a temporary defect management area comprising temporary 
defect information regarding the user data recorded in the data area and 
which is accessible by the recording and/or reproducing apparatus to 
perform defect management on the disc, 

wherein the storage medium is a write-once storage medium 
having a property which prevents, after the data is recorded on an area 
of the storage medium, new data from being written to the area of the 
storage medium. 



33. The storage medium of claim 32, wherein the management 
area further comprises a defect management area other than the 
temporary defect management area and comprising the temporary 
defect information usable by the recording and/or reproducing apparatus 

15 to perform the defect management on the storage medium. 

34. The storage medium of claim 33, wherein: 
the data area further comprises additional user data, 
additional temporary defect information corresponding to the 

20 additional user data is recorded as additional temporary management 
information in the temporary defect management area, 

the additional temporary defect information further comprises the 
temporary defect information, and 

the defect management area comprises the additional temporary 
25 defect information. 



35. A storage medium usable with respect to a recording and/or 
reproducing apparatus, the storage medium comprising: 

a data area comprising user data and additional user data 
30 recorded in an area other than an area in which the user data is 
recorded; and 



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a management area other than the data area and which 
comprises a temporary defect management area comprising temporary 
defect information regarding the user data recorded in the data area, and 
additional temporary defect information recorded in an area other than 
5 an area in which the temporary defect information is recorded, 

wherein the additional temporary defect information comprises 
defect information corresponding to the additional user data and to the 
user data and is accessible by the recording and/or reproducing 
apparatus to perform defect management on the disc. 

10 

36. The storage medium of claim 35, wherein the temporary 
defect management area further comprises: 

temporary defect management information usable by the 
recording and/or reproducing apparatus to manage the temporary defect 
15 information, and 

additional temporary defect management information usable by 
the recording and/or reproducing apparatus to manage the additional 
temporary defect information. 

20 37. The storage medium of claim 36, wherein: 

the temporary defect information and the temporary defect 
management information are recorded as temporary management 
information in adjacent units in the temporary defect management area, 
the additional temporary defect information and the additional 
25 temporary defect management information are recorded as additional 
temporary management information in adjacent units in the temporary 
defect management area, and 

the temporary management information is recorded in an area of 
the temporary defect management area other than an area in which the 
30 additional temporary management information is recorded. 



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38. The storage medium of claim 35, further comprising a 
further area comprising replacement data corresponding to a portion of 
the user data recorded in a defective portion of the data area, 

wherein one of the temporary defect information and the 
5 additional the temporary defect information comprises a defect position 
information relating to a position of the defective portion and replacement 
position information relating to a position of the replacement portion. 

39. The storage medium of claim 35, wherein the management 
10 area further comprises a defect management area other than the 

temporary defect management area and comprising one of the 
temporary defect information and the additional temporary defect 
information usable by the recording and/or reproducing apparatus to 
perform the defect management on the disc. 

15 

40. The storage medium of claim 39, wherein: 

the additional temporary defect information includes the temporary 
defect information, and 

the defect management area comprises the additional temporary 
20 defect information. 



41 . A recording and/or reproducing apparatus for use with a 
storage medium having a data area and a management area in an area 
other than the data area and which includes a temporary defect 
25 management area, the recording and/or reproducing apparatus 
comprising: 

a pickup unit that transfers data with respect to the data area; and 
a controller that controls the pickup unit to transfer the data with 
respect to the data area, and to transfer temporary defect information 
30 with respect to the temporary defect management area, the temporary 
defect information comprising defect information regarding the data 



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recorded in the data area according to a recording operation and which 
the controller uses to perform defect management with respect to the 
storage medium, 

wherein the storage medium is a write-once storage medium 
5 having a property which prevents, after the data is recorded on an area 
of the storage medium, new data from being written to the area of the 
storage medium. 

42. The recording and/or reproducing apparatus of claim 41 , 
10 wherein the controller further controls the pickup unit to transfer 

additional data with respect to an area of the data area other than an 
area in which the data is recorded, and to record additional temporary 
defect information corresponding to the additional data in the temporary 
defect management area. 

15 

43. The recording and/or reproducing apparatus of claim 41 , 
wherein the controller further transfers temporary defect management 
information with respect to the temporary defect management area, the 
temporary defect management information comprising management 

20 information used by the controller for managing the temporary defect 
information. 

44. The recording and/or reproducing apparatus of claim 43, 
wherein the controller controls the pickup unit to transfer the temporary 

25 defect information and the temporary defect management information to 
be recorded as temporary management information in adjacent units in 
the temporary defect management area. 

45. The recording and/or reproducing apparatus of claim 43, 
30 wherein: 



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the controller further controls the pickup unit to transfer additional 
data with respect to the data area, and to transfer additional temporary 
defect information and additional temporary defect management 
information corresponding to the additional data and which is recorded 
5 as additional temporary management information in adjacent units in a 
second area of the temporary defect management area, and 

the temporary management information is recorded in a first area 
of the temporary defect management area other than the second area. 

10 46. The recording and/or reproducing apparatus of claim 41 , 

wherein: 

the controller further controls the pickup unit to transfer 
replacement data corresponding to the data recorded in a defective 
portion of the data area with respect to a further area of the data area, 
15 and 

the temporary defect information comprises a defect position 
information relating to a position of the defective portion and replacement 
position information relating to a position of the replacement portion. 

20 47. The recording and/or reproducing apparatus of claim 41 , 

wherein the management area further comprises a defect management 
area other than the temporary defect management area, and the 
controller controls the pickup unit to additionally transfer the temporary 
defect information with respect to the defect management area. 

25 

48. The recording and/or reproducing apparatus of claim 47, 
wherein: 

the controller further controls the pickup unit to transfer additional 
data with respect to the data area, and to transfer additional temporary 
30 defect information corresponding to the additional data and which is 



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recorded as additional temporary management information in the 
temporary defect management area, 

the additional temporary defect information further comprising the 
temporary defect information, and 
5 the defect management area comprises the additional temporary 

defect information. 

49. A computer readable medium encoded with processing 
instructions for implementing a method of transferring data with respect 

io to a storage medium performed by a computer, the storage medium 
having a data area and a management area in an area other than the 
data area and which includes a temporary defect management area, the 
method comprising: 

controlling a pickup unit to transfer data with respect to the data 

is area; 

obtaining temporary defect information comprising defect 
information regarding the data recorded in the data area according to a 
recording operation and which is used to perform defect management 
with respect to the storage medium; 
20 obtaining temporary defect management information used to 

manage the temporary defect information; and 

controlling the pickup unit to transfer the temporary defect 
information and the temporary defect management information with 
respect to the temporary defect management area. 

25 

50. The computer readable medium of claim 49, wherein the 
method further comprises transferring additional data with respect to an 
area of the data area other than an area in which the data is recorded, 
and transferring additional temporary defect information corresponding to 

30 the additional data with respect to an area of the temporary defect 



38 



WO 2004/034396 



PCT/KR2003/001938 



management area other than an area in which the temporary defect 
information is recorded. 

51 . The computer readable medium of claim 49, wherein the 
5 method further comprises controlling the pickup unit to transfer the 
temporary defect information and the temporary defect management 
information to be recorded as temporary management information in 
adjacent units in the temporary defect management area. 

io 52. The computer readable medium of claim 51 , wherein: 

the method further comprises controlling the pickup unit to transfer 
additional data with respect to the data area, and to transfer additional 
temporary defect information and additional temporary defect 
management information corresponding to the additional data and which 
15 is recorded as additional temporary management information in adjacent 
units in a second area of the temporary defect management area, and 

the temporary management information is recorded in a first area 
of the temporary defect management area other than the second area. 

20 53. The computer readable medium of claim 49, wherein: 

the method further comprises controlling the pickup unit to transfer 
replacement data corresponding to a portion of the data recorded in a 
defective portion of the data area with respect to a further area of the 
data area, and 

25 the temporary defect information comprises a defect position 

information relating to a position of the defective portion and replacement 
position information relating to a position of the replacement portion. 

54. The computer readable medium of claim 49, wherein the 
30 management area further comprises a defect management area other 
than the temporary defect management area, and the method further 



39 



WO 2004/034396 



PCT/KR2003/001938 



comprises controlling the pickup unit to additionally transfer the 
temporary defect information with respect to the defect management 
area. 

5 55. The computer readable medium of claim 54, wherein: 

the method further comprises controlling the pickup unit to transfer 
additional data with respect to the data area, and to transfer additional 
temporary defect information corresponding to the additional data and 
which is recorded as additional temporary management information in 
10 the temporary defect management area, 

the additional temporary defect information further comprising the 
temporary defect information, and 

the defect management area comprises the additional temporary 
defect information. 



40 



WO 2004/034396 



PCT/KR2003/001938 



1/8 

FIG. 1 



USER INPUT 





/ 1 


I 




RECORDING/ ! 
READING UNIT 










CONTROLLER 












b 






d 






MEMORY 



FIG. 2A 



LO 




DATA AREA 










I 




e A 








LEAD-IN 
AREA 


USER DATA AREA 


SPARE AREA 


LEAD-OUT 
AREA 






FIG. 2B 








100 


LO 




DATA AREA 










I 


r 




> 






LEAD-IN 
AREA 


USER DATA AREA 


SPARE AREA 


OUTER ; 
AREA i 



LEAD-OUT 
AREA 


SPARE AREA 


USER DATA AREA 


OUTER 
AREA 



WO 2004/034396 



PCT/KR2003/001938 



2/8 




RECORDING OPERATION 

RECORDING OPERATION 

#1 



FIG. 3 



SPARE AREA 



100 



> LEAD-IN/ 
LEAD-OUT AREA 



> DATA AREA 





LEAD-IN/ 
OUTER AREA 



WO 2004/034396 



PCT/KR2003/001938 



3/8 

FIG. 4A 



TDMA 


TDFL #0 


TDFL #1 


TDFL #2 


♦ * • 


s 


TEMPORARY DEFECT 
INFORMATION AREA 










> 




TDDS #0 


TDDS #1 


TDDS #2 


♦ ♦ * 




TEMPORARY DEFECT 












> MANAGEMENT 
INFORMATION AREA 



FIG. 4B 



TDMA 









« • • 


TDFL #2 


TDFL #1 


TDFL #0 










TDDS #2 


TDDS #1 


TDDS #0 



TEMPORARY DEFECT 
INFORMATION AREA 



TEMPORARY DEFECT 
!> MANAGEMENT 
INFORMATION AREA 



WO 2004/034396 



PCT7KR2003/001938 



4/8 



FIG. 4C 



TDFL #0 



TDDS #0 

-jT 



TDMA 



TDMA #0 



TDMA #1 



FIG. 4D 



TDMA 



• • • 



TDMA #1 



TDMA #0 



TDFL #0 



TDDS #0 



WO 2004/034396 



PCT/KR2003/001938 



5/8 



O 



=»»= 
o 

LU 
Q_ 
O 

Q 

cr 
o 
o 

UJ 



o 

=*= 




o 




LU 




Q_ 
O 






o 
z 






Q 




-RECOR 


REPLACEMENT |2 


REPLAGEM ft 





^DEFECT #5 § 



§ DEFECT #4§ 



n$ DEFECT #3§ 



^DEFECT #2^ 

V X ^ V V V V V A 



^DEFECT #1^ 



o 
o 



CO 

o 
o 



o 
o 



o 
o 



o 
o 



CM 

o 
o 



o 
o 



LU 



LU 



WO 2004/034396 



PCT/KR2003/001938 



6/8 



FIG. 6A 



TDFL #0 



INFORMATION 


REGARDING 


DEFECT #1 


INFORMATION 


REGARDING 


DEFECT #2 I 


INFORMATION 


REGARDING 


DEFECT §3 



FIG. 6B 



TDFL #1 




INFORMATION REGARDING 
DEFECT #1 



INFORMATION REGARDING 
DEFECT §2 



INFORMATION REGARDING 
DEFECT §3 



INFORMATION REGARDING 
DEFECT #4 



INFORMATION REGARDING 
DEFECT #5 



FIG. 7 



INFORMATION REGARDING 
DEFECT §\ 



POINTER FOR DEFECT #i 



POINTER FOR REPLACEMENT §\ 



WO 2004/034396 



PCT/KR2003/001938 



7/8 

FIG. 8 

(start) 



RECORD DEFECT INFORMATION REGARDING DATA 
RECORDED IN A FIRST RECORDING OPERATION AS 
FIRST TEMPORARY DEFECT INFORMATION IN 
TEMPORARY DEFECT MANAGEMENT AREA 



801 



RECORD MANAGEMENT INFORMATION FOR 
MANAGING FIRST TEMPORARY DEFECT INFORMATION 
AS FIRST TEMPORARY DEFECT MANAGEMENT IN 
TEMPORARY DEFECT MANAGEMENT AREA 



— 802 




INCREASE INDEXES GIVEN TO RECORDING 
OPERATION, TEMPORARY DEFECT INFORMATION, 
AND TEMPORARY DEFECT MANAGEMENT 
INFORMATION BY 1 



804 



RECORD LASTLY RECORDED TEMPORARY DEFECT 
MANAGEMENT INFORMATION AND TEMPORARY 
DEFECT INFORMATION IN DEFECT 
MANAGEMENT AREA 



— 805 



( END ) 



WO 2004/034396 



PCT/KR2003/001938 



FIG. 9 




RECORD USER DATA IN DATA AREA IN UNITS OF 
DATA TO FACILITATE VERIFY-AFTER-WRITE METHOD 



•901 



VERIFY RECORDED USER DATA TO DETECT A 
DEFECTIVE AREA 

I 



•902 



CREATE POINTER INFORMATION POINTING OUT 

OEFECTIVE AREA AND REPLACEMENT AREA, RESPECTIVELY — 903 

1 

STORE POINTER INFORMATION AS FIRST TEMPORARY — 904 
DEFECT INFORMATION IN MEMORY 



NO 



DOES 

recording operation end? 
"yes" 



•905 



READ FIRST TEMPORARY DEFECT INFORMATION FROM 
MEMORY AND RECORD IT AS TEMPORARY DEFECT |— 906 
INFORMATION TDFL #0 



RECORD MANAGEMENT INFORMATION FOR MANAGING I — 907 
TEMPORARY DEFECT INFORMATION TDFL #0 AS TEMPORARY 
DEFECT MANAGEMENT INFORMATION TDDS #0 IN 
TEMPORARY DEFECT MANAGEMENT AREA 




INCREASE INDEXES GIVEN TO RECORDING OPERATION, 

TEMPORARY DEFECT INFORMATION, AND 
TEMPORARY DEFECT MANAGEMENT INFORMATION BY 1 



909 



T 



L 



RECORD LASTLY RECORDED TEMPORARY DEFECT 
INFORMATION TDFL #i AND TEMPORARY DEFECT 

MANAGEMENT INFORMATION TDDS f\ AS DEFECT 
DEFECT INFORMATION DFL AND DEFECT MANAGEMENT 
INFORMATION DOS IN DEFECT MANAGEMENT AREA 



910 



I 



( END ) 



INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT 


International application No. 




PCT/KR2003/001938 



A. CLASSIFICATION OF SUBJECT MATTER 
IPC7 Gl IB 20/18 



According to International Patent Classification (IPC) or to both national classification and IPC 

B. FIELDS SEARCHED 

Minimum documentation searched (classification system followed by classification symbols) 
IPC 7 Gl IB 20/18 Gl IB 20/12 Gl IB 7/00 



Documentation searched other than minimum documentation to the extent that such documents are included in the fields searched 
Korea Patents and applications for inventions since 1975 
Korea Utility models and applications for utility models since 1975 



Electronic data base consulted during the intertnational search (name of data base and, where practicable, search terms used) 
"defect", "manage", "optical disc" 



C. DOCUMENTS CONSIDERED TO BE RELEVANT 



Category* 



Citation of document, with indication, where appropriate, of the relevant passages 



Relevant to claim No. 



US 6,385,148 B2(MATSUSHITA) 7 MAY 2002 
See the whole documents 



WO 2001/075879 A 1 (MATSUSHITA) 11 OCTOBER 2001 
See the whole documents 

EP 0350920 A2(MATSU SHITA) 17 JANUARY 1990 
See the whole documents 

US 4,835,757 A(TOSHIBA) 30 MAY 1989 
See the whole documents 

US 6,367,038 Bl(SAMSUNG) 2 APRIL 2002 
See the whole documents 



1,9,19,21,32,35,41,49 
2-8,10-18,20,22-31, 
33-34,36-40,42-48, 
50-55 

1-55 



-55 



1-55 



1-55 



[ | Further documents are listed in the continuation of Box C. 



See patent family annex. 



* Special categories of cited documents: 

"A" document defining the general state of the an which is not considered 

to be of particular relevance 
"E" earlier application or patent but published on or after the international 

filing date 

"L" document which may throw doubts on priority claim(s) or which is 
cited to establish the publication date of citation or other 
special reason (as specified) 

"O" document referring to an oral disclosure, use, exhibition or other 
means 

"P M document published prior to the international filing date but later 
than the priority date claimed 



"T" later document published after the international filing date or priority 

date and not in conflict with the application but cited to understand 

the principle or theory underlying the invention 
"X" document of particular relevance; the claimed invention cannot be 

considered novel or cannot be considered to involve an inventive 

step when the document is taken alone 
"Y" document of particular relevance; the claimed invention cannot be 

considered to involve an inventive step when the document is 

combined with one or more other such documents^uch combination 

being obvious to a person skilled in the art 
"&" document member of the same patent family 



Date of the actual completion of the international search 
09 JANUARY 2004 (09.01 .2004) 


Date of mailing of the international search report 
10 JANUARY 2004 (10.01.2004) 


Name and mailing address of the ISA/KR 

^fl Korean Intellectual Property Office 
W ^Si 920 Dunsan-dong, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-701 , 
3p Republic of Korea 

Facsimile No. 82-42-472-7 1 40 


Authorized officer ^ — 

HAN, Choong Hee f^SOu 
Telephone No. 82-42-481-5700 ^^_JS 



Form PCT/IS A/2 10 (second sheet) (January 2004) 



INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT 

Information on patent family members 



International application No. 
PCT/KR2003/001938 



Patent document 
cited in search report 



Publication 
date 



Patent family 
member(s) 



Publication 
date 



US 6,385,148 B2 
WO 2001/075879 A1 
EP 0350920 A2 
US 4,835,757 A 
US 6,367,038 B1 



07 MAY 2002 
1 1 OCT 2001 
17 JAN 1990 
30 MAY 1989 
02 APR 2002 



W0 2000/054274 A1 
EP 1043723 B1 

US 2003/156471 A1 
KR 2002-0087483 A 

JP 02-23417 A 
US 5,111,444 A 

JP 63-58672 A 
0E 3728857 A1 

KR 2000-034797 A 
JP 2003-115171 A2 
EP 1260983 A3 



14 SEP 2000 

20 FEB 2002 

21 AUG 2003 

22 NOV 2002 

25 JAN 1990 
05 MAY 1992 

14 MAR 1988 
10 MAR 1988 

26 JUN 2000 
18 APR 2003 
02 MAY 2003 



Form PCT/ISA/2IO (patent family annex) (January 2004)