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(12) INTERNATIONAL APPLICATION PUBLISHED UNDER THE PATENT COOPERATION TREATY (PCT) 



(19) World Intellectual Property 
Organization 

International Bureau 




(43) International Publication Date (10) International Publication Number 

19 February 2004 (19.02.2004) PCT WO 2004/015707 Al 



(51) International Patent Classification 7 : 



G11B 20/18 



(21) International Application Number: 

PCT/KR2003/001113 

(22) International Filing Date: 5 June 2003 (05.06.2003) 

(25) Filing Language: English 

(26) Publication Language: English 

(30) Priority Data: 

10-2002-0047515 12 August 2002 (12.08.2002) KR 

(71) Applicant (for all designated States except US): SAM- 
SUNG ELECTRONICS CO., LTD. [KR/KR]; 416 Mae 
tan-dong, Paldal-gu, Suwon-city, Kyungki-do 442-373 
(KR). 

(72) Inventors; and 

(75) Inventors/Applicants (for US only): KO, Jung- Wan 



[KR/KR]; 315-401 Daewoo Apt., 956-2, Cheongmyung 
Maeul 3-danji, Youngtong-dong, Paldal-gu, Suwon-si, 
Gyconggi-do 442-470 (KR). LEE, Kyung-Geun 
[KR/KR] ; 122-1002 Sibeom Hanshin Apt., 87, Seo- 
hyun-dong, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 
463-050 (KR). 

(74) Agent: LEE, Young-Pil; The Cheonghwa Building, 
1571-18, Scocho-dong, Scocho-gu, Seoul 137-874 (KR). 



(81) 



Designated States (national): AE, AG, AL, AM, AT, AU, 
AZ, BA, BB, BG, BR, BY, BZ, CA, CH, CN, CO, CR, CU, 
CZ, DE, DK, DM, DZ, EC, EE, ES, H, GB, GD, GE, GH, 
GM, HR, HU, ID, IL, IN, IS, JP, KE, KG, KP, KZ, LC, LK, 
LR, LS, LT, LU, LV, MA, MD, MG, MK, MN, MW, MX, 
MZ, NI, NO, NZ, OM, PH, PL, PT, RO, RU, SC, SD, SE, 
SG, SK, SL, TJ, TM, TN, TR, TT, TZ, UA, UG, US, UZ, 
VC, VN, YU, ZA, ZM, ZW. 

(84) Designated States (regional): ARIPO patent (GH, GM, 
KE, LS, MW, MZ, SD, SL, SZ, TZ, UG, ZM, ZW), 

[ Continued on next page] 



(54) Title: HIGH DENSITY WRITE-ONCE RECORDING MEDIUM ALLOWING DEFECT MANAGEMENT, AND METHOD 
AND APPARATUS FOR MANAGING DEFECTS 



fSTART^ 

STL 



WRITE IN TRACKS OR CLUSTERS 

i 



— S101 



JUMP BACK TRACK 

1 



— S102 



VERIFY WRITTEN DATA — S103 



S104 



< 



O 




SKIP DEFECTIVE CLUSTER AND 
REWRITE DEFECTIVE CLUSTER 
AND SUBSEQUENTLY WRITTEN 
DATA TO NEXT AVAILABLE 
RECORDING LOCATION 



T 



REPEAT VERIFY-AFTER -WRITE 
OPERATION FOR NEXT DATA 



— S106 



(57) Abstract: A high density write-once 
recording medium allowing defect man- 
agement, and a method and apparatus for 
managing defects are provided. According 
to the high density writing-once recording 
medium, data is written to the recording 
medium in tracks or clusters, the written data 
is verified, and if a defect is found a defective 
portion is skipped and data corresponding to 
the defective portion and the following written 
data arc rewritten on a next available recording 
location- The defect management method 
using slipping replacement is applied to the 
high density write-once recording medium 
in which defects are found, thereby allowing 
continued recording by slipping defects found 
in the recording medium and further increasing 
the reliability of the recording medium. 



WO 2004/015707 Al lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 



Eurasian patent (AM, AZ, BY, KG, KZ, MD, RU, TJ, TM), 
European patent (AT, BE, BG, CII, CY, CZ, DE, DK, EE, 
ES, H, FR, GB, GR, HU, IE, IT, LU, MC, NL, PT, RO, 
SE, SI, SK, TR), OAPI patent (BF, BJ, CF, CG, CI, CM, 
GA, GN, GQ, GW, ML, MR, NE, SN, TD, TG). 

Published: 

— with international search report 



For two -letter codes and other abbreviations, refer to the "Guid- 
ance Notes on Codes and Abbreviations 1 ' appearing at the begin- 
ning of each regular issue of the PCT Gazette. 



WO 2004/015707 



PCT/KR2003/001113 



HIGH DENSITY WRITE-ONCE RECORDING MEDIUM ALLOWING 
DEFECT MANAGEMENT, AND METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR 

MANAGING DEFECTS 

5 Technical Field 

The present invention relates to the field of defect management 
on recording media, and more particularly, to a high density write-once 
recording medium that allows defect management via a slipping 
replacement in a defective region while performing recording in a 

10 verify-after-write mode, and a defect management method and 
apparatus. 

Background Art 

Conventionally, a defect management method has been used only 

is for media on which data can be re-recorded and can be random 
accessed. In the case of media that can be written just once, that is, 
write-once recording media, a defect management method is not yet 
available due to the characteristics of the media. 

Typically, defect management schemes using linear replacement 

20 and slipping replacement algorithms have been used. In a defect 
management method using linear replacement, when a defect occurs in 
a sector in a recording area while the media is being used, the defective 
sector is replaced with a sector from a spare area. The linear 
replacement algorithm is used for the recording media that allows 

25 repeated recording but is not usable as a real-time recording format. 

According to a defect management method using slipping 
replacement, a defective sector is skipped and data start being recorded 
on the next available sector. That is, if defects are found in one area, 
subsequent data is recorded in an area after a corresponding number of 

30 defective sectors have been skipped. Thus, in this method, defects are 
checked for upon initialization of media and a logical sector address for 



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recording user data is not assigned to defective sectors, so that the 
defective sectors are unavailable for use. 

In conventional recording media, the method using slipping 
replacement is used to skip over defective sectors found upon 
5 initialization of media or before Use after checking for defects. 

Thus, the defect management using linear replacement has a 
problem in that it can not be used for write-once recording media which 
do not support random access. Also, the method using slipping 
replacement cannot be used as is for write-once recording media since 
10 the recording medium on which data cannot be erased/re-recorded once 
written cannot perform certification for checking for any defects before 
use. 

Meanwhile, for next-generation write-once recording media using 
laser, high density write-once recording media have been developed 

15 using blue laser technology and multi-layer recording, following Compact 
Disc-Recording (CD-R) and Digital Versatile Disc-Recording (DVD-R). 
The high density write-once recording media provide recording capacity 
up to tens of gigabytes (GBs) in the same size as the existing media at 
an affordable price. Furthermore, since this media allow quick read 

20 speed and random access unlike backup media such as tapes, they can 
used, in particular, as backup to large capacity computer storage devices. 

However, this media have a drawback that, in the case of requiring a 
batch backup during nighttime when not much users do not access the 
system, backup is not executed and ceases to operate upon occurrences 

25 of a defect during the backup. 



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Disclosure of the Invention 

The present invention provides a high density write-once 
recording medium allowing a defect management. 

The present invention also provides a high density write-once 
5 recording medium that allows for a defect management using slipping 
replacement in a defective region while data are recorded in a 
verify-after-write mode. 

The present invention also provides a defect management method 
in which slipping replacement is used for a defective region while data is 
10 being recorded on the high density write-once recording medium in a 
verify-after-write mode. 

Furthermore, the present invention provides a defect management 
apparatus which uses slipping replacement for a defective region while 
data is being recorded on the high density write-once recording medium 
15 in a verify-after-write mode. 

According to an aspect of the present invention, there is provided 
a high density write-once recording medium. In the high density 
write-once recording medium, data is written in predetermined recording 
units, the data is verified after writing, no data is written on a defective 
20 portion if a defect is found therein, and data corresponding to the 
defective portion and the following written data are rewritten on a next 
available recording location. Here, the predetermined recording unit is a 
track comprised of a predetermined number of clusters or a cluster. 

According to another aspect of the present invention, there is 
25 provided a defect management method used for a high density 
write-once recording medium. The method includes the steps of: writing 
data in predetermined recording units and verifying the written data; and 
skipping a defective portion if a defect is found during the verification and 
rewriting data corresponding to the defective portion and the following 
30 written data on a next available recording location. Here, the 
predetermined recording unit is a track comprised of a predetermined 
number of clusters or a cluster. 



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According to yet another aspect of the present invention, there is 
provided a recording/reproducing apparatus for performing defect 
management for a high density write-once recording medium, the 
apparatus having a driver that drives the recording medium, an optical 
5 pickup that reads/writes data from the recording medium by irradiating 
laser beams onto the recording medium, and a signal processor that 
modulates data into a signal for recording data and demodulates a 
recorded signal back to the original data. The apparatus also includes a 
controller that controls the operation of verifying data, which has been 

10 written in predetermined recording units to a recording area on the 
recording medium through the signal processor and the optical pickup 
and read through the optical pickup and the signal processor after the 
data have been recorded, and if a defect is found, the controller controls 
the operation of skipping a defective portion and rewriting data 

15 corresponding to the defective portion and subsequently written data to a 
next available recording location on the recording medium through the 
signal processor and the optical pickup. The apparatus further includes 
a memory that temporarily stores information about the skipped defective 
portion and subsequently written data. 

20 

Brief Description of the Drawings 

FIG. 1 shows a schematic example for illustrating a defect 

management method in which slipping replacement is used while data is 

being recorded on a high density write-once recording medium in a 
25 verify-after-write mode; 

FIG. 2 shows another schematic example for illustrating a defect 

management method in which slipping replacement is used while data is 

being recorded on a high density write-once recording medium in a 

verify-after-write mode; 
30 FIG. 3 is a flowchart showing a defect management method for a 

high density write-once recording medium according to an embodiment 

of this invention; and 



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FIG. 4 shows the configuration of a recording/reproducing 
apparatus for performing defect management for a high density 
write-once recording medium according to an embodiment of this 
invention. 

5 

Best mode for carrying out the Invention 

To perform a defect management method for a high density 
write-once recording medium according to this invention, slipping 
replacement can be used instead of linear replacement that is suitable 

10 for recording media that allow repeated recording. However, since the 
high-density write-once recording medium cannot perform a certification 
process during which defects are checked before using the medium, in 
this invention, data is recorded in a verify-after-write mode which requires 
that after a portion of data has been written the recorded portion should 

15 be verified. If it turns out that the corresponding portion of data has 
been normally recorded, the next portion of data is then recorded. If the 
portion of data is found to contain a defective portion, the defective 
portion is skipped by slipping replacement and data corresponding to the 
defective portion and data recorded on the following portion are rewritten 

20 to the next available region. In this way, a defect management method 
is used for the high-density write-once recording medium, increasing 
reliability of the medium. Here, the portion of data is written in a 
predetermined recording unit. The predetermined recording unit can be 
one track corresponding to the number of clusters that can be recorded 

25 during one revolution of the disc or one cluster. 

Since the recording medium requires error correction coding for 
performing error correction and interleaving of error correction blocks 
used to record the error correction blocks on physically scattered 
locations on the disc to enhance tolerance to physical defects on data, 

30 the smallest unit that can be recorded is limited to a cluster or error 
correction block. This smallest writable unit is defined as a recording 
cluster or just a cluster. 



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FIG. 1 shows a schematic example for illustrating a defect 
management method for a high density write-once recording medium, in 
which slipping replacement is used while data is being recorded in a 
verify-after-write mode. Particularly, this example shows a case where 

5 data is written on one recording track and read back for verification. 
This defect management method using slipping replacement while 
performing a verify-after-write mode in tracks minimizes the distance 
covered by a pickup allowing high speed recording, whereas it decreases 
the efficiency of use for user data area since data recorded after a 

10 defective cluster need to be rewritten. 

Here, the unit in which data can be processed is divided into a 
sector and a cluster. The sector is the smallest unit in which data can 
be managed in a computer file system or application program, while the 
cluster is the smallest unit in which data can be written on the disc at a 

is time. In general, one cluster is comprised of one or more sectors. 
Sectors are classified into physical and logical sectors. A physical 
sector refers to a space for recording one portion of data on the disc, and 
for addressing purposes is assigned a separate physical sector number 
(PSN). A logical sector refers to a unit in which data can be managed 

20 in a file system or application program, and is assigned a separate 
logical sector number (LSN). A recording/reproducing apparatus for 
recording/reproducing data on a disc uses a physical sector number to 
locate data to be recorded, and a computer or application program for 
recording data manages the entire data by logical sectors and the 

25 location of data by specifying LSNs. A controller in the apparatus 
converts relationship between LSN and PSN using the presence of 
defects and the location where recording starts. 

Referring to FIG. 1, a pickup of the recording/reproducing 
apparatus writes one track of user data LSN=n, LSN=n+1*k, LSN= 

30 LSN=n+2*k, LSN=n+3*k, LSN=n+4*k, and LSN=n+5*k on a recording 
track and then jumps back to the original track. Here, one recording 



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track is comprised of a predetermined number of clusters, each cluster 
having k sectors. 

If defects are found when the pickup jumps back to the start 
position of the track and reads the written data for verification, clusters 
5 ranging from the defective cluster LSN=n+4*k to the last cluster within 
the track are slipped past and the clusters including the defective cluster 
and the following clusters are rewritten on the next available track. In 
this case, information about the skipped clusters is stored in a temporary 
storage memory in the recording/reproducing apparatus, 
10 Conversely, when the one track of data is read back for 

verification and data has been normally recorded without any defects, 
verify-after-write operation is repeated for the next track of user data to 
be recorded. 

Although it is possible to record and verify data in tracks and then 

15 re-record only a defective cluster on a new recording area, this method 
has no substantial advantages in that it not only requires information 
about the defective cluster, a new recording area where the defective 
cluster is recorded, and normal clusters residing between the defective 
cluster and new recording area, but also requires complicated processing 

20 for the recording/reproducing apparatus to read the data thus recorded. 

FIG. 2 shows another schematic example for illustrating a defect 
management method for a high density write-once recording medium, in 
which slipping replacement is used while data is being recorded in a 
verify-after-write mode. Particularly, this example shows a case where 

25 data is written in clusters and read back for verification. This defect 
management method using slipping replacement while performing a 
verify-after-write mode in clusters increases the use efficiency of user 
data area but slows down the recording speed. 

Referring to FIG. 2, when the pickup writes user data on each 

30 cluster and then jumps back to the original track for verification, if defects 
are not found, verify-after-write operation is repeated for the next cluster 
of user data to be recorded. 



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If defects are found when the pickup jumps back to the original 
track, more particularly, to the beginning of the track and reads one 
cluster of the written data LSN=n+4*k for verification past normal clusters 
LSN=n, LSN=n+1*k, LSN= LSN=n+2*k, and LSN=n+3*k, only the 

5 defective cluster LSN=n+4*k is skipped and user data corresponding to 
the defective cluster is rewritten on the next available cluster. In this 
case, information about the skipped cluster is stored in a temporary 
storage memory in the recording/reproducing apparatus. 

After a verify-after-write operation is repeated to skip all defective 

10 clusters and write all user data that has to be recorded, information on 
defects stored in the temporary storage memory is recorded on a 
predetermined area reserved for recording appropriate defect 
management information on the disc. This allows new data to be 
recorded on an area subsequent to the area where the previous user 

15 data has been recorded since some unused user data areas are left 
empty. Also, this makes it possible to locate the area where data has 
been normally recorded skipping the defective region when recording the 
recorded data. 

A method of repeating verify-after-write operation by clusters 
20 involves jumping back to the original track in order to read back and 
verify the written cluster because data is read from or written to a rotating 
disc by laser beams. Thus, this method decreases the recording speed 
by the time taken for the disc to rotate from the beginning of the original 
track till the cluster recorded within the track. However, this approach 
25 also makes it possible to skip only the defective clusters, thereby 
increasing the efficiency of use for user data area. 

On the other hand, a method of repeating the verify-after-write 
operation by tracks increases the writing speed by writing and verifying 
clusters corresponding to one track during the same period of time 
30 necessary to perform verify-after-write operation for one cluster. 
However, this approach involves rewriting the defective cluster as well as 
all subsequently recorded clusters in order to maintain the sequential 



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order of logical sector numbers of the recorded data, thereby decreasing 
the efficiency of use for data recording areas. To increase the writing 
speed, it is possible to write two or more tracks at the same time. 
However, this method cannot increase the writing speed much since it 

5 will simply reduce the time by the difference between the time taken to 
perform one track jump backward for all tracks and that taken to perform 
jump backward for all tracks in units of two or more tracks. If defects 
occur at the beginning of a unit of two or more tracks to be recorded, it 
causes greater loss of recording areas. 

10 FIG. 3 is a flowchart showing a defect management method for a 

high density write-once recording medium according to an embodiment 
of this invention. Referring to FIG. 3, the defect management method 
includes the steps of: writing user data in one recording unit - one track 
or one cluster (S101); jumping back to the original track (S102); verifying 

15 the data written on the track (S103); determining whether there is a 
defect in the recorded data (S104); and rewriting the defective cluster 
and all following clusters of data on the next available area if the defect is 
found (S105). In the step S105, in the case of performing 
verify-after-write for each track as shown in FIG. 1, the defective cluster 

20 and all subsequent clusters are skipped and corresponding data are 
rewritten on the next available track. In the case of performing 
verify-after-write for each cluster as shown in FIG. 2, only the defective 
cluster is skipped, and data corresponding to the defective cluster is 
rewritten on the next available cluster. If no defect is found in the step 

25 S104, a verify-after-write operation is repeated in tracks or clusters in the 
step S106. 

FIG. 4 shows the configuration of a recording/reproducing 
apparatus for performing defect management for a high density 
write-once recording medium according to an embodiment of this 
30 invention. The recording/reproducing apparatus consists of a driver 20 
for driving a disc 10, that is, a recording medium, an optical pickup 30 
that reads/writes data from/to the disc 10 by irradiating laser beams onto 



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the disc 10, a signal processor 40 that modulates data onto a signal for 
recording data and demodulates a recorded signal back to the original 
data, a controller 50 that controls each block, and a memory 60 that 
temporarily stores data to be recorded and records information 
5 necessary for defect management. 

Referring to FIG. 4, data to be recorded received for recording 
through the controller 50 is written to the disc 10 through the signal 
processor 40 and the optical pickup 30, and a location on the disc 10 
where data is written is adjusted by the driver 20. The controller 50 

10 controls the location where data is written and the amount of data. The 
written data is read through the optical pickup 30 and the signal 
processor 40 according to the control by the controller 50. The 
controller 50 compares data read from written area with currently written 
data residing in the memory 60, and if a defect is found, the controller 

15 rewrites a defective cluster and subsequently written data to a new 
recording area on the disc 10 through the signal processor 40 and the 
optical pickup 30, and records information about the defective cluster 
and subsequently written data on the memory 60 which is a temporary 
storage area. After the verify-after-write operation is performed 

20 sequentially to write all data to be recorded, under the control of the 
controller 50, the information about defects stored in the memory 60 is 
read and written to a predetermined area on the disc 10 through the 
signal processor 40 and the optical pickup 30. 

25 Industrial Applicability 

As described above, this invention applies a defect management 
method to a high density write-once recording medium, using slipping 
replacement while data is being recorded in a verify-after-write mode, 
thereby allowing continued recording by slipping defects found in the 

30 recording medium and further increasing the reliability of the recording 
medium. 



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Furthermore, when a high density write-once recording medium is 
used for batch backup in a large-capacity computer storage device, a 
defect management method using slipping replacement according to this 
invention enables the recording medium to execute seamless backup 
5 even when defects occur in the recording medium, thereby preventing a 
backup operation from being interrupted. That is, this eliminates the 
need to restart a backup operation or replace the recording medium with 
a new one, thus enhancing the reliability of the system. 

While this invention has been particularly shown and described 
10 with reference to preferred embodiments thereof, it will be understood by 
those skilled in the art that various changes in form and details may be 
made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention 
as defined by the appended claims. 



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What is claimed is: 

1. A high density write-once recording medium wherein data 
is written in predetermined recording units, 

wherein the data is verified after it was written in the 
5 predetermined recording units, and if a defect is found, no data is written 
in a defective portion, and 

wherein data corresponding to the defective portion and the 
following written data are rewritten in a next available recording location. 

10 2. The recording medium of claim 1, wherein the 

predetermined recording unit is a track comprised of a predetermined 
number of clusters. 

3. The recording medium of claim 1, wherein the 
15 predetermined recording unit is a cluster. 

4. The recording medium of claim 1, wherein information 
about the defect existing on the recording medium is further recorded in 
a predetermined area. 

20 

5. A high density write-once recording medium recorded using 
a laser beam, wherein 

data is written in track units, each track being comprised of a 
predetermined number of clusters, 
25 wherein the data is verified after it was written on each track, and 

if a defect is found, no data is written to clusters ranging from a defective 
cluster to the last cluster in the track, and 

wherein data corresponding to the defective cluster and the 
following written clusters are rewritten on a next available track. 

30 



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6. The recording medium of claim 5, wherein information 
about the defect existing on the recording medium is further recorded in 
a predetermined area. 

5 7. A high density write-once recording medium recorded using 

a laser beam, wherein 

data is written in cluster units, 

wherein the data is verified after it was written on each cluster, 
and if a defect is found, no data is written on a defective cluster, and 
io wherein data corresponding to the defective cluster is rewritten on 

a next available cluster. 

8. The recording medium of claim 7, wherein information 
about the defect existing on the recording medium is further recorded in 

15 a predetermined area. 

9. A defect management method used for a high density 
write-once recording medium, the method comprising the steps of: 

writing data in predetermined recording units and verifying the 
20 written data; and 

skipping a defective portion if a defect is found during the 
verification and rewriting data corresponding to the defective portion and 
the following written data on a next available recording location. 

25 10. The method of claim 9, further comprising the step of 

repeating a verify-after-write operation for next recording unit of data if no 
defect is found in the recording unit during the verification. 

11. The method of claim 9, further comprising the step of 
30 storing information about the skipped defective portion and following 
written data in a temporary storage area. 



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12. The method of claim 11, further comprising the step of 
recording information about the defect existing on the recording medium 
in a predetermined area on the recording medium using the information 

5 stored in the temporary storage area. 

13. The method of claim 9, wherein the predetermined 
recording unit is a track comprised of a predetermined number of 
clusters. 

10 

14. The method of claim 9, wherein the predetermined 
recording unit is a cluster comprised of a predetermined number of 
sectors. 

15 15. A defect management method used for a high density 

write-once recording medium recorded using a laser beam, the method 
comprising the steps of: 

writing data on a track comprised of a predetermined number of 
clusters, and verifying the written data; and 

20 skipping clusters ranging from a defective cluster to the last 

cluster in the track if a defect is found in the track during the verification, 
and rewriting data corresponding to the defective cluster and the 
following written clusters on a next available track. 

25 16. The method of claim 15, further comprising the step of 

repeating a verify-after-write operation for next track of data if no defect 
is found in the track during the verification. 

17. The method of claim 15, further comprising the step of 
storing information about the skipped defective cluster and following 

30 written clusters in a temporary storage area. 



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18. The method of claim 17, further comprising the step of 
recording information about the defect existing on the recording medium 
in a predetermined area on the recording medium using the information 
stored in the temporary storage area. 

5 

19. The method of claim 15, wherein the verification comprises 
the steps of: 

writing data on a track comprised of a predetermined number of 
clusters; 

10 jumping back to the original track; and 

reading and verifying the data written on the track. 

20 A defect management method used for a high density 
write-once recording medium recorded using a laser beam, the method 
15 comprising the steps of: 

writing data on a cluster, and verifying the written data; and 
skipping a defective cluster if a defect is found in the cluster 
during the verification, and rewriting data corresponding to the defective 
cluster on a next available cluster. 

20 

21. The method of claim 20, further comprising the step of 
repeating a verify-after-write operation for next cluster of data if no defect 
is found in the cluster during the verification. 

25 22. The method of claim 20, further comprising the step of 

storing information about the skipped defective cluster in a temporary 
storage area. 

23. The method of claim 22, further comprising the step of 
30 recording information about the defect existing on the recording medium 



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in a predetermined area on the recording medium using the information 
stored in the temporary storage area. 

24. The method of claim 20, wherein the verification comprises 
5 the steps of: 

writing data on a cluster; 

jumping back to one track; and 

reading and verifying the data written on the cluster. 

10 25. A recording/reproducing apparatus for performing defect 

management for a high density write-once recording medium, the 
apparatus including a driver that drives the recording medium, an optical 
pickup that reads/writes data from the recording medium by irradiating a 
laser beam onto the recording medium, and a signal processor that 

15 modulates data onto a signal for recording data and demodulates a 
recorded signal back to the original data, and a controller that controls 
the operation of verifying data, which has been written in predetermined 
recording units to a recording area on the recording medium through the 
signal processor and the optical pickup and read through the optical 

20 pickup and the signal processor after the data, and if a defect is found 
controls the operation of skipping a defective portion and rewriting data 
corresponding to the defective portion and subsequently written data to a 
next available recording location on the recording medium through the 
signal processor and the optical pickup. 

25 26. The apparatus of claim 25, further comprising a memory 

that temporarily stores information about the skipped defective portion 
and subsequently written data. 

27. The apparatus of claim 26, wherein after verify-after-write 
30 operation is performed sequentially to write all data to be recorded, the 
controller controls the operation of writing the information about defects 



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stored in the memory to a predetermined area on the recording medium 
through the signal processor and the optical pickup. 

28. The apparatus of claim 25, wherein the driver adjusts a 
5 location on the recording medium where data is written, and the 

controller further controls the location where data is written and the 
amount of data to be recorded and compares data read from an area 
where data has been written with currently written data residing in the 
memory and verifies if a defect is found. 

10 

29. The apparatus of claim 25, wherein the predetermined 
recording unit is a track comprised of a predetermined number of 
clusters. 

15 30. The apparatus of claim 25, wherein the predetermined 

recording unit is a cluster. 



17 



WO 2004/015707 



PCT/KR2003/001113 




WO 2004/015707 



PCT/KR2003/001113 



2/4 




WO 2004/015707 



PCT/KR2003/001113 



-r / A 

3/4 

FIG. 

(sv 


3 

\rt) 


WRITE IN TRACKS OR CLUSTERS 






JUMP BACK TRACK 






VERIFY WRITTEN DATA 



— S101 



— S102 



— S103 



YES 



IS ANY 
DEFECT FOUND? 



-S104 



SKIP DEFECTIVE CLUSTER AND 
REWRITE DEFECTIVE CLUSTER 
AND SUBSEQUENTLY WRITTEN 
DATA TO NEXT AVAILABLE 
RECORDING LOCATION 



NO 



REPEAT VERIFY-AFTER-WRITE 
OPERATION FOR NEXT DATA 



-S106 



( END ) 



WO 2004/015707 



PCT/KR2003/001113 




INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT 



International application "No. 
PCT/KR03/01113 



A. CLASSIFICATION OF SUBJECT MATTER 
IPC7 Gl IB 20/18 

According to International Patent Classification (IPC) or to both national classification and IPC 

B. FIELDS SEARCHED 

Minimum documentation searched (classification system followed by classification symbols) 
IPC7 G11B7/00 G11B20/10G11B20/18 

Documentation searched other than minimum documentation to the extent that such documents are included in the fields searched 
Korean Patents and applications for inventions since 1975 
Korean utility models and applications for utility models since 1975 



Electronic data base consulted during the intertnational search (name of data base and, where practicable, search terms used) 
WPI, PA J "defect, fault, error, record, write, verify, track, cluster" 



DOCUMENTS CONSIDERED TO BE RELEVANT 



Category* 



Citation of document, with indication, where appropriate, of the relevant passages 



Relevant to claim No. 



KR2002-0057729 A (LG ELECTRONICS CO LTD) 12 JUL 2002 
See the whole document 

JP2000-268511 A (SANYO ELECTRIC CO LTD) 29 SEP 2000 
See the whole document 

KR1 999-0075796 A (LG ELECTRONICS CO LTD) 15 OCT 1999 
See the whole document 

JP2000- 173056 A (FUNAI ELECTRIC CO LTD) 23 JUN 2000 
See the whole document 

US5533031 A (INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORP) 02 JUL 1996 
See the whole document 

US6198709 A (SONY CORP ) 06 MAR 2001 
See the whole document 



5-8, 15-24 
1-4, 9-13 
5-8, 15-25 
1-4, 9-13 
1-4, 9-13 
1-4, 9-13 



[ ~~] Further documents are listed in the continuation of Box C. 



X See patent family annex, 



"A" 
*'E" 
"L" 

"O" 
"P" 



Special categories of cited documents: 

document defining the general state of the art which is not considered 
to be of particular relevance 

earlier application or patent but published on or after the international 
filing date 

document which may throw doubts on priority claim(s) or which is 
cited to establish the publication date of citation or other 
special reason (as specified) 

document referring to an oral disclosure, use, exhibition or other 
means 

document published prior to the international filing date but later 
than the priority date claimed 



"T" later document published afterthe international filing date or priority 

date and not in conflict with the application but cited to understand 

the principle or theory underlying the invention 
"X" document of particular relevance; the daimed invention cannot be 

considered novel or cannut be considered to involve an Inventive 

step when the document is taken alone 
"Y" document of particular relevance; the claimed invention cannot be 

considered to involve an inventive step when the document is 

combined with one or more other such dccuments,such combination 

being obvious to a person skilled in the art 

document member of the same patent family 



Date of the actual completion of the international search 
24 SEPTEMBER 2003 (24,09.2003) 


Date of mailing of the international search report 
24 SEPTEMBER 2003 (24.09.2003) 


Name and mailing address of the ISA/KR 

jflMht Korean Intellectual Property Office 

| J^l 920 Dunsan-dong, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-701, 

Tgkt'~J/f Republic of Korea 

Facsimile No. 82-42-472-7140 


Authorized officer 

KIM, Sae Young / p * ;?|T^|ti» \ 
Telephone No. 82-42-481-5685 V ^ ' * 



Form PCT/ISA/210 (second sheet) (July 1998) 



INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT 

Information on patent family members 



International application No. 
PCT/KR03/01113 



Patent document 
cited in search report 



Publication 
date 



Patent family 
member(s) 



Publication 
date 



KR2002-0057729 A 
JP2000-268511 A 
KR 1999-0075796 A 
JP2000-173056 A 
US5533031 A 

US61 98709 A 



12-07-2002 
29-09-2000 
15-10-1999 
23-07-2000 
02-07-1996 

06-03-2001 



None 

None 

None 

None 

JP1996-045187 A 
KR 1996-0002305 A 

W09908273 A1 
KR2000-0068750 A 
CN1236469 T 



16-02-1996 
26-01-1996 

18-02-1999 
25-11-2000 
24-11-1999 



Form PCT/ISA/210 (patent family annex) (July 1998)