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(12) INTERNATIONAL APPLICATION PUBLISHED UNDER THE PATENT COOPERATION TREATY (PCT) 



(19) World Intellectual Property Organization 

International Bureau 

(43) International Publication Date 
25 September 2003 (25.09.2003) 




PCT 



(10) International Publication Number 

WO 03/079353 Al 



(51) International Patent Classification 7 : 



G11B 20/18 



(21) International Application Number: PCT/JP03/02280 



(74) Agents: YAMAMOTO, Shusaku et ah; Fifteenth Floor, 
Crystal Tower, 2-27, Shiromi 1-chome, Chuo-ku, Osaka- 
shi, Osaka 540-6015 (JP). 



(22) International Filing Date: 27 February 2003 (27.02.2003) 

(25) Filing Language: English 

(26) Publication Language: English 



(30) Priority Data: 

2002-079593 



20 March 2002 (20.03.2002) JP 



(71) Applicant: MATSUSHITA ELECTRIC INDUSTRIAL 
CO., LTD. [JP/JP]; 1006, OazaKadoma, Kadoma-shi, Os- 
aka 571-8501 (JP). 



(81) Designated States (national): AE, AG, AL, AM, AT, AU, 

AZ, BA, BB, BG, BR, BY, BZ, CA, CH, CN, CO, CR, CU, 
CZ, DE, DK, DM, DZ, EC, EE, ES, FT, GB, GD, GE, GH, 
GM, HR, HU, ID, IL, IN, IS, KE, KG, KP, KR, KZ, LC, 
LK, LR, LS, LT, LU, LV, MA, MD, MG, MK, MN, MW, 
MX, MZ, NO, NZ, OM, PH, PL, PT, RO, RU, SC, SD, SE, 
SG, SK, SL, TJ, TM, TN, TR, TT, TZ, UA, UG, UZ, VC, 
VN, YU, ZA, ZM, ZW. 

(84) Designated States (regional): ARIPO patent (GH, GM, 
KE, LS, MW, MZ, SD, SL, SZ, TZ, UG, ZM, ZW), 
Eurasian patent (AM, AZ, BY, KG, KZ, MD, RU, TJ, TM), 
OAPI patent (BF, B J, CF, CG, CI, CM, GA, GN, GQ, GW, 
ML, MR, NE, SN, TD, TG). 



(72) Inventors: TAKAHASHI, Yoshihisa; 1-4 40 747, Non Published: 



akaminami, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka-shi, Osaka 532-0022 
(JP). ITO, Motoshi; 3-17-25-302, Furuichi, Joto-ku, 
Osaka-shi, Osaka 536-0001 (JP). UEDA, Hiroshi; 2-10-2, 
Mamiga-oka, Kashiba-shi, Nara 639-0223 (JP). 



with international search report 

before the expiration of the time limit for amending the 
claims and to be republished in the event of receipt of 
amendments 



[Continued on next page] 



(54) Title: INFORMATION RECORDING MEDIUM, RECORDING APPARATUS, REPRODUCTION APPARATUS, 
RECORDING METHOD AND REPRODUCTION METHOD ALLOWING FOR UPDATING OF A DEFECT LIST 



en 

ID 

rn 

o 



Lead- in 
area 
101 



ita area 
102 



Lead-out 
area 
103 



1st defect 
management area 



2nd defect 
management area 



User area 



Spare area 



3rd defect 
management area 



4th defect 



Disc definition 
structure 



Defect I i st 



Unused area 

\5 



113 



111 



-106 
107 



108 



109 



Header 



1st defect 
entry 



2nd defect 
entry 



121 

\ 

H123 



(JM)th defect 
entry 



Nth defect 
entry 



Anchor 



Defect list 
identifier 



Defect entry 
number 



1st update times 
information 



\ 

-124\ 
125 



—126 



Padding data 



}127\J 



1st defect 

position 

information 



1st substitute 
position 
information 



Anchor identifier 



2nd update times 
information Hc|52 



Reserve information - v| 53 



■131 



•132 



•133 



•141 



142 



^151 



(57) Abstract: An information recording medium includes a data area for recording user data, and a defect management area for 
recording a defect list for managing N number of defect areas existing in the data area, where N is an integer satisfying N 0. The 
defect list includes a header located at a fixed position in the defect list, N number of defect entries respectively including position 
information on positions of the N number of defect areas, and an anchor. The header, the N number of defect entries, and the anchor 
are located in this order. The header includes a defect list identifier for identifying the defect list, first update times information, 
and a defect entry number representing the number of the defect entries. The anchor includes an anchor identifier for identifying the 
anchor, and second update times information. 



WO 03/079353 Al llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllli 



For two-letter codes and other abbreviations, refer to the "Guid- 
ance Notes on Codes and Abbreviations " appearing at the begin- 
ning of each regular issue of the PCT Gazette. 



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- 1 - 
DESCRIPTION 

INFORMATION RECORDING MEDIUM, RECORDING APPARATUS, REPRODUCTION APPARATUS, 
RECORDING METHOD AND REPRODUCTION METHOD ALLOWING FOR UPDATING OF A DEFECT LIST 

5 

TECHNICAL FIELD 

The present invention relates to an information 
10 recording medium, a recording apparatus, a reproduction 
apparatus, a recording method, and a reproduction method, 
providing improved information reliability. More 
specifically, the present invention relates to an information 
recording medium, a recording apparatus, a reproduction 
15 apparatus, a recording method, and a reproduction method, 
allowing for updating of a defect list having a size of 2ECC 
(Error Correction Code) or larger and deletion of a defect 
entry. 

20 BACKGROUND ART 

Recently, large capacity replaceable information 
recording media and disc drive apparatuses for driving such 
information recording media are becomingmore andmore popular . 

25 As large capacity replaceable information recording media, 
optical discs such as, for example, DVDs (Digital Versatile 
Discs) are well known. A disc drive apparatus irradiates 
an optical disc with laser light and thus forms very small 
pits in the optical disc so as to record information. The 

30 disc drive apparatus also irradiates an optical disc with 
laser light and reproduces a change in the reflectance caused 
by the pits as information. Large capacity replaceable 
information recording media are suitable to a disc drive 



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apparatus performing information recording and reproduction 
in this manner. However, since the optical discs are 
replaceable , a defect caused by dust or scratches may exist 
on a recording surface thereof. 

5 

In order to guarantee the reliability of information 
recorded or reproduced by the disc drive apparatus, it is 
necessary to perform defect management of managing a defect 
existing on the optical disc. The defect management used 

10 for a conventional disc drive apparatus is described in the 
physical standards of DVD-RAM (e.g., "DVD Specifications 
for Rewritable Disc (DVD-RAM) Part 1 PHYSICAL SPECIFICATIONS 
Version 2.0"? hereinafter, referred to as the "DVD-RAM 
Standards"). Chapter 5 of the DVD-RAM Standards includes 

15 a description on the layout of a disc. 

Figure 12 shows a data structure of an information 
recording medium 1200 according to the DVD-RAM Standards. 

20 The information recording medium 1200 includes a 

lead-in area 1201 for recording information regarding the 
disc, a data area 1202 for recording user data, and a lead-out 
area 1203 showing the termination position of the user data. 

25 . The lead-in area 1201 includes DMA1 (Defect 

Management Area) and DMA2 for recording defect management 
information used for managing a defect area existing in the 
data area 1202, and reserved areas 1204 and 1205 for future 
expansion. 

30 

The data area 1202 includes a user area 1206 for 
recording user data and a spare area 1207. When there is 
a defect area in the user area 1206, the user data which 



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is to be recorded in the defect area is recorded in the spare 
area 1207 instead of a portion of the user area 1206 
corresponding to the defect area. 

5 The lead-out area 1203 includes DMA3 and DMA4 for 

recording defect management information used for managing 
a defect area existing in the data area 1202, and reserved 
areas 1208 and 1209 for future expansion, like the lead-in 
area 1201. 

10 

DMA1 through DMA4 have the same defect management 
information recorded in multiplex. The reason for this is 
that the information recorded in DMA1 through DMA4 cannot 
be a target of defect management . Even if some of DMA1 through 

15 DMA4 have a defect area and the information recorded on the 
information recording medium cannot be reproduced, as long 
as at least one of DMA1 through DMA4 is defect -free, the 
defect management information recorded in that area can be 
normally reproduced. Accordingly, loss of user data is 

2 0 prevented, which improves reliability. 

DMA1 includes a DDS ( Data Definition Structure ) 1210, 
aPDL (Primary Defect List ) 1211, and an SDL (Secondary Defect 
List) 1212. 

25 

The DDS 1210 includes information regarding a 
partition defining the PDL 1211 and the SDL 1212. 

The PDL 1211 is position information ( list ) of defect 
30 areas (for example, defect sectors) detected in the user 
area 1206 and the spare area 1207 at the time of shipping 
of the information recording medium, i.e., at the time of 
initialization of the information recording medium. This 



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list basically does not change unless the information 
recording medium is subjected to physical formatting. 

According to the DVD-RAM Standards, the total size 
5 of the DDS 1210 and the PDL 1211 fits in one ECC (Error 
Correction Code) block. The size of the SDL 1212 also fits 
in one ECC block. An ECC block is a unit of error correction 
in DVD-RAM, and has a size of 32 kbytes in 16 sectors (each 
sector has a size of 2 kbytes) . This size of one ECC block 
10 will be referred to as "1ECC size". 

Figure 13 shows a detailed data structure of the SDL 

1212. 

15 Unlike the PDL 1211, the SDL 1212 is information 

(list) which changes when a defect area (for example, defect 
sector) is detected during recording or reproduction. When 
a defect area is detected, the SDL 1212 is written in each 
of DMA1 through DMA4 at a timing appropriate to the disc 

20 drive apparatus used. 

The SDL 1212 includes a header 1301, a first defect 
entry 1302, a second defect entry 1303, an Nth defect 

entry 1304, and an unused area 1305. 

25 

The header 1301 includes, for example, an identifier 
which represents that the area is the SDL 1212, the total 
number of defect entries (N in the case of Figure 13), and 
the number of times the SDL 1212 has been updated. 

30 

The first defect entry 1302 includes first defect 
position information 1306 showing the position of a defect 
area existing in the user area 1206 and first substitute 



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position information 1307 showing the position of a part 
of the spare area 1207 in which the user data has been recorded 
instead of the defect area (for example , a substitute sector ) . 
The second defect entry 1303 includes second defect position 
5 information and second substitute position information . The 
Nth defect entry includes Nth defect position information 
and Nth substitute position information. Each of the defect 
position information and the substitute position information 
is generally a sector number. 

10 

The unused area 1305 exists in the case where the 
total size of the header 1301 and the first through Nth defect 
entries 1302 through 1304 is less than 1ECC size. In this 
case, padding data (for example, 0) which is meaningless 
15 information is recorded in the unused area 1305. 

There is a risk that while the disc drive apparatus 
is writing the SDL 1212 in DMA1 through DMA4 of the information 
recording medium 1200, the power of the disc drive apparatus 
20 may be turned off and processing may be interrupted. In such 
a case, the disc drive apparatus determines the update result 
of the defect management areas (DMA1 through DMA4 ) by the 
following procedure. 

25 (1) Error correction is performed on the SDL 1212 

having 1ECC size. When the error correction is accurately 
performed, the SDL 1212 is determined to have been updated 
normally. 

30 (2) The step of (1) is performed on all the SDLs 

included in DMA1 through DMA4 . 

(3) Regarding all the SDLs determined to have been 



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updated normally in step ( 2 ) , the numbers of updates of the 
SDLs Included in the header are compared with one another. 
The SDL having the largest number of updates is determined 
to be the correct SDL (latest SDL). 

5 

As described above, when the size of the SDL 1212 
is 1ECC size, the determination of the correct SDL can be 
performed accurately even when the power of the disc drive 
apparatus is turned off. Thus, the reliability of user data 
10 is guaranteed with no user data being lost. 

Recently, as the amount of information to be recorded 
on information recording media is increased, high density 
recording technology and large capacity technology have 

15 remarkably improved. For example, using blue lasers, 
information recording media having a larger capacity than 
that of conventional optical discs are now under development . 
Since such an information recording medium allows a larger 
capacity of information to be recorded thereon, the size 

20 of the SDL is larger than 1ECC size. As long as the size 
of the SDL is 1ECC size or smaller as according to the DVD-RAM 
Standards, no problem arises . When the size of the SDL exceeds 
1ECC size, the following problems occur. In the following 
case, the size of the SDL is assumed to be 4ECC size. 

25 

It is assumed that the following occurs to one DMA 
(for example, DMA1 ) as a result of the size of the SDL becoming 
4ECC size instead of the conventional 1ECC size. 

30 • The header is completely updated. 

• The SDL is updated up to 2ECC blocks, and the power 
of the disc drive apparatus is turned off exactly when the 



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third ECC block is starting to be updated. 

In this case, according to the conventional method 
of determining the SDL update result, error correction in 
5 units of 1ECC is normally performed. Comparing the number 
of updates of the SDL in DMA1 with that of the SDLs in DMA2 
through DMA4, the number of updates of the SDL in DMA1 is 
maximum. Therefore, although the updating of the SDL in DMA1 
fails in the middle, the SDL in DMA1 is erroneously determined 
10 to be the normal, latest SDL. 

One solution proposed to solve this problem is to 
add a header for each ECC block of the SDL having 4ECC size. 
Each header includes, for example, an identifier which 
15 represents that the area is the SDL, the total number of 
defect entries , and the number of updates of the SDL . 

Figure 14 shows a data structure of an SDL 1400 having 
4ECC size. 

20 

The SDL 1400 includes a first ECC block 1401, a second 
ECC block 1402, a third ECC block 1403, and a fourth ECC 
block 1404. 

25 The first ECC block 1401 includes a header 1405, a 

first defect entry 1406, a second defect entry 1407, 
an (M-l)th defect entry 1408, and an Mth defect entry 1409. 

The second ECC block 1402 includes a header 1410, 
30 an (M+l)th defect entry 1411, . . . , an Nth defect entry 1412, 
and an unused area 1413. 

The third ECC block 1403 includes a header 1414 and 



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an unused area 1415. 

The fourth BCC block 1404 includes a header 1416 and 
an unused area 1417. 

5 

The headers 1405, 1410, 1414 and 1416 each include, 
for example, an identifier which represents that the area 
is the SDL, the total number of defect entries, and the number 
of updates of the SDL . The first through Nth defect entries 
10 1406 through 1409 , 1411 and 1412 each include defect position 
information and substitute position information. In the 
unused areas 1413, 1415 and 1417, padding data (for example, 
0) which is meaningless information is recorded. 

15 in this case, the disc drive apparatus determines 

the update result of the defect management areas ( DMA1 through 
DMA4) by the following procedure. 

(1) For the SDL 1400 having 4ECC size, error 
20 correction is performed on the first ECC block 1401. When 

the error correction is accurately performed, the first ECC 
block 1401 is determined to have been updated normally . This 
step is performed on the second through fourth ECC blocks 
1402 through 1404 in the SDL 1400. When the error correction 
25 on the first through fourth ECC blocks 1401 through 1404 
is accurately performed, the step (2) is performed. 

(2) The numbers of updates of the headers 1405, 1410, 
1414 and 1416 respectively added to the first through fourth 

30 ECC blocks 1401 through 1404 are compared with one another. 

When the numbers of updates of the headers 1405, 1410, 1414 
and 1416 are all of the same value, the SDL 1400 is determined 
to have been updated normally. 



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(3) Steps (1) and (2) are performed on all the SDLs 
In DMA2 through DMA4. 

5 (4) Regarding the SDLs determined to have been 

updated normally in step (3) , the numbers of updates of the 
SDLs included in the header are compared with one another. 
The SDL having the largest number of updates is determined 
to be the correct SDL (latest SDL). 

10 

As described above, when the size of the SDL 1400 
exceeds 1ECC size, a header is provided for each 1ECC block 
of the SDL , so that the correct SDL can be determined even 
when the power of the disc drive apparatus is turned off. 
15 Thus, the reliability of user data is guaranteed with no 
user data being lost. 

There is another conventional technology for 
improving the reliability of data (see, for example , Japanese 
20 Laid-Open Publication No. 8-293187). 

Figure 15 shows a data structure of another 
conventional information recording medium 1500. 

25 The structure of the information recording medium 

1500 is identical with the structure of the information 
recording medium 1200 except for the structure of an SDL 

1501 and except that the size of the SDL 1501 is not limited 
to 1ECC size. Regarding Figure 15, identical elements 

30 previously discussed with respect to Figure 12 bear identical 
reference numerals and the detailed descriptions thereof 
will be omitted . 



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- 10 - 

The SDL 1501 includes a defect list identifier 1502 
which represents that the area is the SDL 1501, a reserved 
field 1503 for future expansion, first update information 
1504 and second update information 1510 for determining 
5 whether defect management information is old or new, a 
registered defect number 1505 which represents the number 
of defect sectors registered in the SDL 1501, first defect 
position information 1506 and second defect position 
information 1508 which represent the position of a defect 

10 sector, first substitute position information 1507 and second 
substitute position information 1509 which represent the 
position of a substitute sector for substituting the defect 
sector, and an unused field 1511 for registering defect 
sectors which may be detected in the future . The first update 

15 information 1504 and the second update information 1510 are, 
for example, numbers of times of recording. As long as the 
SDL 1501 is updated normally, the content of the first update 
information 1504 and the content of the second update 
information 1510 are identical to each other. 

20 

In this case, the disc drive apparatus determines 
the update result of the defect management areas (DMA1 through 
DMA4) by the following procedure. 

25 (1) Regarding the SDL 1501, the content of the first 

update information 1504 and the content of the second update 
information 1510 are compared with one another. When the 
content of the first update information 1504 and the content 
of the second update information 1510 are identical to each 

30 other, the SDL 1501 is determined to have been updated 
normally . 

(2) Step (1) is performed on all the SDLs in DMA2 



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through DMA4 . 

(3) Regarding the SDLs determined to have been 
updated normally in step (2), the contents of the update 
5 information in the SDLs are compared with one another. The 
SDL having the largest amount of update information is 
determined to be the correct SDL (latest SDL). 

As described above, as long as the first update 
10 information and the second update information added to the 
SDL included in one of DMA1 through DMA 4 are correctly read, 
the determination of the correct SDL can be performed 
accurately, regardless of the size of the SDLs. 

15 However, the SDL 1400 shown in Figure 14 has the 

following problems. A header needs to be added to all of 
the four ECC blocks included in the SDL 1400. This lowers 
the processing efficiency of updating the SDL 1400. In 
addition, a header (for example, the header 1410 ) is provided 

20 between one defect entry (for example, the Mth defect entry 
1409) and another defect entry (for example, the (M+l)th 
defect entry 1411). Due to this structure, the operations 
of, for example, searching for, adding, and deleting a defect 
entry are complicated. 

25 

The information recording medium 1500 shown in Figure 
15 has the problem that the second update information 1511 
may not be correctly read. 

30 Figure 16 shows data structures of defect lists in 

various states of the SDL 1501 in the information recording 
medium 1500 shown in Figure 15. Part (a) shows a data 
structure of a pre-update defect list . Part (b) shows a data 



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structure of a defect list which was updated normally. Part 
(c) shows a data structure of a defect list which was not 
updated normally- With reference to Figure 16, how the SDL 
1501 is updated, in the case where a sector which was previously 
5 determined as being registered as a defect area and then 
determined as being normal later, will be described. 

The data structure of the SDL 1501 shown in part (a) 
of Figure 16 is the same as that shown in Figure 15. In part 
10 (a) of Figure 16, the content of the first update information 
1504 and the second update information 1510 are both M, and 
the registered defect number 1505 is 2. 

Part (b) of Figure 16 shows a post -update data 

15 structure of the SDL 1501 in the case where the SDL 1501 
is updated normally. The content of the first update 
information 1504 is updated from M to M+l. The registered 
defect number 1505 is updated from 2 to 1 . The position 
information of the defect sector which has been determined 

20 as being normal (second defect position information 1508) 
and the position information of the substitute sector for 
substituting that sector (second substitute position 
information 1509) are deleted. Thus, the first defect 
position information 1506 and the first defect position 

25 information 1507 are left. The content of the second update 
information 1510 is updated from M to M+l, like the first 
update information 1504 - The second update information 1510 
is located subsequent to the first substitute position 
information 1507 . The unused field 1511 is increased by the 

30 size corresponding to the second defect position information 
1508 and the second substitute position information 1509 
which have been deleted. 



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Part (c) of Figure 16 shows a post -update data 
structure of the SDL 1501 in the case where the SDL 1501 
is not updated normally. It is assumed that immediately after 
the registered defect number 1505 is updated, the disc drive 
5 apparatus is turned off. In this case, the first update 
information 1504 and the registered defect number 1505 are 
updated normally as in part (b) of Figure 16. However, the 
second defect position information 1508, the second 
substitute position information 1509, the second update 
10 information 1510 and the unused field 1511 remain the same 
as those in the pre-update data structure shown in part (a) 
of Figure 16. 

In the case of the data structure shown in part (c) 
15 of Figure 16 , determination on the update result is performed. 

The disc drive apparatus uses, for example, the updated 
registered defect number 1505 to read the second defect 
position information 1508 as the second update information 
1510. The disc drive apparatus compares the content of the 
20 first update information 1504 and the content of the second 
defect position information 1508 read as the second update 
information 1510. When the content of the first update 
information 1504 and the content of the. second defect position 
information 1508 unfortunately match each other, the disc 
25 drive apparatus determines that the SDL 1501 has been updated 
normally even though the updating of the SDL 1501 was a failure . 

In the case where the information recording medium 
1500 shown in Figure 15 considers error correction of the 
30 size of 1ECC and the size of the SDL 1501 does not exceed 
1ECC size, the problem described above with reference to 
part (c) of Figure 16 does not occur. However, when the size 
of the SDL 1501 exceeds 1ECC size , the above -de scribed problem 



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occurs . 

DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION 

According to one aspect of the invention, an 
information recording medium includes a data area for 
recording user data, and a defect management area for 
recording a defect list for managing N number of defect areas 
existing in the data area, where N is an integer satisfying 
N ;> 0. The defect list includes a header located at a fixed 
position in the defect list, N number of defect entries 
respectively including position information on positions 
of the N number of defect areas, and an anchor. The header, 
the N number of defect entries, and the anchor are located 
in this order in the defect list . The header includes a defect 
list identifier for identifying the defect list , first update 
times information representing the number of times which 
the defect list has been updated, and a defect entry number 
representing the number of the N number of defect entries. 
The anchor includes an anchor identifier for identifying 
the anchor of the defect list, and second update times 
information representing the number of times which the defect 
list has been updated. 

In one embodiment of the invention, the defect list 
includes at least two blocks, and the defect list is recorded 
in units of one block. 

According to another aspect of the invention, a 
recording apparatus for recording information on an 
information recording medium is provided. The information 
recording medium includes a data area for recording user 
data, and a defect management area for recording a defect 



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list for managing N number of defect areas existing in the 
data area, where N is an integer satisfying N s> 0 . The defect 
list includes a header located at a fixed position in the 
defect list , N number of defect entries respectively including 
5 position information on positions of the N number of defect 
areas, and an anchor. The header, the N number of defect 
entries, and the anchor are located in this order in the 
defect list. The header includes a defect list identifier 
for identifying the defect list, first update times 

10 information representing the number of times which the defect 
list has been updated, and a defect entry number representing 
the number of the N number of defect entries. The anchor 
includes an anchor identifier for identifying the anchor 
of the defect list, and second update times information 

15 representing the number of times which the defect list has 
been updated. The recording apparatus includes a recording 
section for recording the information on the information 
recording medium, a storage section for storing the 
information to be recorded on the information recording medium , 

20 andalatest defect list, andacontrol section for controlling 
execution of defect management processing which is performed 
using the recording section and the storage section. The 
latest defect list includes a latest header, P number of 
latest defect entries, and a latest anchor, wherein P is 

25 an integer satisfying P ^ 0 where P = N or P ^ N. The latest 
header includes first latest update times information and 
a latest defect entry number P. The latest anchor includes 
second update times information having a content identical 
to that of the first update times information. The defect 

30 management processing includes the steps of (a) determining 

(i) whether another defect area exists in the data area, 

(ii) whether a normal defect area exists among the N number 
of defect areas, or (iii) neither (i) nor (ii) is the case. 



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(b) when it is determined in the step (a) that another defect 
area exists in the data area, or that a normal defect area 
exists among the N number of defect areas, updating the P 
number of latest defect entries into P' number of latest 
5 defect entries , where P 1 is an integer satisfying P ' s= 0 where 
P = P' orP^P 1 ; and updating the latest defect entry number 
from P to P"; (c) incrementing, by one, each of the first 
latest update times information and the second latest update 
times information, and (d) recording the latest defect list 
10 updated in the steps (b) and (c) in the defect management 
area. 

In one embodiment of the invention, the step (d) 
includes the step of recording the updated latest defect 
15 list in the defect management area in the order of the updated 
latest header , the updated P 1 number of latest defect entries , 
and the updated latest anchor, or in the order of the updated 
latest anchor, the updated P' number of latest defect entries , 
and the updated latest header* 

20 

In one embodiment of the invention, the step (b) 
includes the step of, when it is determined in the step (a) 
that another defect area exists in the data area, adding 
another defect entry to the latest defect list. 

25 

In one embodiment of the invention, the step (b) 
includes the step of, when it is determined in the step (a) 
that a normal defect area exists among the N number of defect 
areas , deleting a defect entry including position information 
30 on a position of the normal defect area from the P number 
of latest defect entries. 



In one embodiment of the invention, the information 



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recording medium further includes another defect management 
area for recording a defect list having a content identical 
to that of the defect list recorded in the defect management 
area. The control section controls execution of the step 
5 (d) for the another defect management area. 

According to still another aspect of the invention, 
a recordingmethod for recording information on an information 
recording medium is provided. The information recording 

10 medium includes a data area for recording user data, and 
a defect management area for recording a defect list for 
managing N number of defect areas existing in the data area, 
where N is an integer satisfying N ;> 0 . The defect list 
includes a header located at a fixed position in the defect 

15 list, N number of defect entries respectively including 
position information on positions of the N number of defect 
areas, and an anchor. The header, the N number of defect 
entries, and the anchor are located in this order in the 
defect list. The header includes a defect list identifier 

20 for identifying the defect list, first update times 
information representing the number of times which the defect 
list has been updated, and a defect entry number representing 
the number of the N number of defect entries. The anchor 
includes an anchor identifier for identifying the anchor 

25 of the defect list, and second update times information 
representing the number of times which the defect list has 
been updated. The recording is performed using a latest 
defect list . The latest defect list includes a latest header, 
P number of latest defect entries , and a latest anchor, wherein 

30 P is an integer satisfying P ;> 0 where P = N or P * N. The 
latest header Includes the first update times information 
anda latest defect entry number P . The latest anchor includes 
second update times information having a content identical 



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to that of the first update times information. The recording 
method includes the steps of (a) determining (i) whether 
another defect area exists in the data area, (ii) whether 
a normal defect area exists among the N number of defect 
5 areas, or (iii) neither (i) nor (ii) is the case, (b) when 
it is determined in the step (a) that another defect area 
exists in the data area, or that a normal defect area exists 
among the N number of defect areas, updating the P number 
of latest defect entries into P 1 number of latest defect 

10 entries, where P' is an integer satisfying P' 0 where P 
= P' or P * P" ; and updating the latest defect entry number 
from P to P'; (c) incrementing, by one, each of the first 
latest update times information and the second latest update 
times information, and (d) recording the latest defect list 

15 updated in the steps (b) and (c) in the defect management 
area. 

In one embodiment of the invention, the step (d) 
includes the step of recording the updated latest defect 
20 list in the defect management area in the order of the updated 
latest header, the updated P' number of latest defect entries, 
and the updated latest anchor, or in the order of the updated 
latest anchor, the updated P ' number of latest defect entries , 
and the updated latest header. 

25 

In one embodiment of the invention, the step (b) 
includes the step of, when it is determined in the step (a) 
that another defect area exists in the data area, adding 
another defect entry to the latest defect list. 

30 

In one embodiment of the invention, the step (b) 
includes the step of, when it is determined in the step (a) 
that a normal defect area exists among the N number of defect 



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areas , deleting a defect entry including position information 
on a position of the normal defect area from the P number 
of latest defect entries. 

5 In one embodiment of the invention , the information 

recording medium further includes another defect management 
area for recording a defect list having a content identical 
to that of the defect list recorded in the defect management 
area. The control section controls execution of the step 
10 (d) for the another defect management area. 

According to still another aspect of the invention, 
a reproduction apparatus for reproducing information 
recorded on an information recording medium is provided. 

15 The information recording medium includes a data area for 
recording user data, and a defect management area for 
recording a defect list for managing N number of defect areas 
existing in the data area, where N is an integer satisfying 
N ;> 0. The defect list includes a header, N number of defect 

20 entries respectively including position information on 
positions of the N number of defect areas, and an anchor. 
The header located at a fixed position in the defect list, 
the N number of defect entries, and the anchor are located 
in this order in the defect list . The header includes a defect 

2 5 list identifier for identifying the defect list , first update 
times information representing the number of times which 
the defect list has been updated, and a defect entry number 
representing the number of the N number of defect entries. 
The anchor includes an anchor identifier for identifying 

30 the anchor of the defect list, and second update times 
information representing the number of times which the defect 
list has been updated. The reproduction apparatus includes 
a reproduction section for reproducing the information 



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recorded on the information recording medium, a storage 
section for storing the reproduced information, and a control 
section for controlling execution of defect management 
processing which is performed using the reproduction section 
5 and the storage section, the control section having an 
inherent defect list identifier for identifying the defect 
list and an inherent anchor identifier for identifying the 
anchor of the defect list . The defect management processing 
includes the steps of (a) reproducing the defect list 

10 identifier, the defect entry number, and the first update 
times information which are included in the header, and 
determining whether or not a content of the inherent defect 
list identifier matches a content of the reproduced defect 
list identifier, (b) calculating a position of the anchor 

15 in the defect list using the reproduced defect entry number 
when it is determined in the step (a) that the content of 
the inherent defect list identifier matches the content of 
the reproduced defect list identifier, (c) reproducing the 
anchor identifier and the second update times information 

20 based on the calculated position of the anchor, and 
determining whether or not a content of the inherent anchor 
identifier matches a content of the reproduced anchor 
identifier, (d) determining whether or not a content of the 
first update times information matches a content of the second 

25 update times information when it is determined in the step 
(c) that the content of the inherent anchor identifier matches 
the content of the reproduced anchor identifier, and 
(e) specifying the defect list recorded in the defect 
management area as the latest defect list when it is determined 

30 in the step (d) that the content of the first update times 
information matches the content of the second update times 
information . 



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In one embodiment of the invention, the information 
recording medium further includes another defect management 
area for recording a defect list having a content identical 
to that of the defect list recorded in the defect management 
5 area. The control section controls execution of the defect 
management processing for the another defect management area . 
The step (e) includes the steps of (ej performing the steps 
(a) through (d) for the another defect management area, and 
(e 2 ) specifying the defect list including the update times 
10 information having a largest number of updates as the latest 
defect list. 

According to still another aspect of the invention, 
a reproduction method for reproducing information recorded 

15 on an information recording medium is provided. The 
information recording medium includes a data area for 
recording user data, and a defect management area for 
recording a defect list for managing N number of defect areas 
existing in the data area, where N is an integer satisfying 

20 N s= 0 . The defect list includes a header, N number of defect 
entries respectively including position information on 
positions of the N number of defect areas, and an anchor. 
The header located at a fixed position in the defect list, 
the N number of defect entries , and the anchor are located 

25 in this order in the defect list . The header includes a defect 
list identifier for identifying the defect list , first update 
times information representing the number of times which 
the defect list has been updated, and a defect entry number 
representing the number of the N number of defect entries. 

30 The anchor includes an anchor identifier for identifying 
the anchor of the defect list, and second update times 
information representing the number of times which the defect 
list has been updated. The reproduction method includes the 



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steps of (a) reproducing the defect list identifier, the 
defect entry number, and the first update times information 
which are included in the header, and determining whether 
or not a content of an inherent defect list identifier for 
identifying the defect list matches a content of the 
reproduced defect list identifier, (b) calculating a 
position of the anchor in the defect list using the reproduced 
defect entry number when it is determined in the step (a) 
that the content of the inherent defect list identifier 
matches the content of the reproduced defect list identifier, 

(c) reproducing the anchor identifier and the second update 
times information based on the calculated position of the 
anchor , and determining whether or not a content of an inherent 
anchor identifier for identifying the anchor of the defect 
list matches a content of the reproduced anchor identifier, 

(d) determining whether or not a content of the first update 
times information matches a content of the second update 
times information when it is determined in the step (c) that 
the content of the inherent anchor identifier matches the 
content of the reproduced anchor identifier, and 

(e) specifying the defect list recorded in the defect 
management area as the latest defect list when it is determined 
in the step (d) that the content of the first update times 
information matches the content of the second update times 
information. 

In one embodiment of the invention, the information 
recording medium further includes another defect management 
area for recording a defect list having a content identical 
to that of the defect list recorded in the defect management 
area. The step (e) includes the steps of (e^ performing 
the steps (a) through (d) for the another defect management 
area , and ( e 2 ) specifying the defect list including the update 



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times information having a largest number of updates as the 
latest defect list. . 

According to still another aspect of the invention, 
5 an information recording medium includes a data area for 
recording user data, and a defect management area for 
recording a defect list for managing N number of defect areas 
existing in the data area, where N is an integer satisfying 
N 0 . The defect list includes a header located at a fixed 

10 position in the defect list, N number of defect entries 
respectively including position information on positions 
of the N number of defect areas, and an anchor located at 
a fixed position in the defect list . The header, the N number 
of defect entries, and the anchor are located in this order 

15 in the defect list. The header includes a defect list 
identifier for identifying the defect list, first update 
times information representing the number of times which 
the defect list has been updated, and a defect entry number 
representing the number of the N number of defect entries. 

20 The anchor includes second update times information 
representing the number of times which the defect list has 
been updated. 

In one embodiment of the invention, the defect list 
25 includes at least two blocks, and the defect list is recorded 
in units of one block. 

According to still another aspect of the invention, 
a recording apparatus for recording information on an 
30 information recording medium is provided. The information 
recording medium includes a data area for recording user 
data, and a defect management area for recording a defect 
list for managing N number of defect areas existing in the 



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data area, where N is an integer satisfying N ;> 0 . The defect 
list includes a header located at a fixed position in the 
defect list , N number of defect entries respectively including 
position information on positions of the N number of defect 
5 areas , and an anchor located at a fixed position in the defect 
list. The header , the N number of defect entries, and the 
anchor are located in this order in the defect list. The 
header includes a defect list identifier for identifying 
the defect list, first update times information representing 

10 the number of times which the defect list has been updated, 
and a defect entry number representing the number of the 
N number of defect entries . The anchor includes second update 
times information representing the number of times which 
the defect list has been updated. The recording apparatus 

15 includes a recording section for recording the information 
on the information recording medium, a storage section for 
storing the information to be recorded on the information 
recording medium, and a latest defect list, and a control 
section for controlling execution of defect management 

20 processing which is performed using the recording section 
and the storage section. The latest defect list includes 
a latest header, P number of latest defect entries, and a 
latest anchor, wherein P is an integer satisfying P ^ 0 where 
P = NorP/N. The latest header includes first latest update 

25 times information and a latest defect entry number P. The 
latest anchor includes secondupdate times information having 
a content identical to that of the first update times 
information. The defect management processing includes the 
steps of (a) determining (i) whether another defect area 

30 exists in the data area, (ii) whether a normal defect area 
exists among the N number of defect areas, or (iii) neither 
(i) nor (ii) is the case, (b) when it is determined in the 
step (a) that another defect area exists in the data area, 



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or that a normal defect area exists among the N number of 
defect areas, updating the P number of latest defect entries 
into P 1 number of latest defect entries , where P 1 is an integer 
satisfying P 1 s= 0 where P = P" or. P * P"; and updating the 
5 latest defect entry number from P to P ' ; (c) incrementing, 
by one, each of the first latest update times information 
and the second latest update times information, and 
(d) recording the latest defect list updated in the steps 
(b) and (c) in the defect management area. 

10 

In one embodiment of the invention, the step (d) 
includes the step of recording the updated latest defect 
list in the defect management area in the order of the updated 
latest header, theupdatedP 1 number of latest defect entries , 
15 and the updated latest anchor, or in the order of the updated 
latest anchor , the updated P ' number of latest defect entries , 
and the updated latest header. 

In one embodiment of the invention, the information 
20 recording medium further includes another defect management 
area for recording a defect list having a content identical 
to that of the defect list recorded in the defect management 
area. The control section controls execution of the step 
(d) for the another defect management area. 

25 

According to still another aspect of the invention, 
arecordingmethod for recording information on an information 
recording medium is provided. The information recording 
medium includes a data area for recording user data, and 
30 a defect management area for recording a defect list for 
managing N number of defect areas existing in the data area, 
where N is an integer satisfying N ;> 0. The defect list 
includes a header located at a fixed position in the defect 



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list, N number of defect entries respectively including 
position information on positions of the N number of defect 
areas , and an anchor located at a fixed position in the defect 
list. The header, the N number of defect entries, and the 
5 anchor are located in this order in the defect list. The 
header includes a defect list identifier for identifying 
the defect list, first update times information representing 
the number of times which the defect list has been updated, 
and a defect entry number representing the number of the 

10 N number of defect entries . The anchor includes second update 
times information representing the number of times which 
the defect list has been updated. The recording is performed 
using a latest defect list. The latest defect list includes 
a latest header, P number of latest defect entries, and a 

15 latest anchor, wherein P is an integer satisfying P ^ 0 where 
P = N or P ^ N. The latest header includes the first update 
times information and a latest defect entry number P. The 
latest anchor includes second update times information having 
a content identical to that of the first update times 

20 information. The recording method includes the steps of 
(a) determining (i) whether another defect area exists in 
the data area, (ii) whether a normal defect area exists among 
the N number of defect areas, or (iii) neither (i) nor (ii) 
is the case, (b) when it is determined in the step (a) that 

25 another defect area exists in the data area, or that a normal 
defect area exists among the N number of defect areas , updating 
the P number of latest defect entries into P 1 number of latest 
defect entries, where P' is an integer satisfying P" s= 0 where 
P = P f orP^P 1 ; and updating the latest defect entry number 

30 from P to P'; (c) incrementing, by one, each of the first 
latest update times information and the second latest update 
times information, and (d) recording the latest defect list 
updated in the steps (b) and (c) in the defect management 



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area . 

In one embodiment of the invention, the step (d) 
includes the step of recording the updated latest defect 
5 list in the defect management area in the order of the updated 
latest header, theupdatedP' number of latest defect entries, 
and the updated latest anchor, or in the order of the updated 
latest anchor , the updated P 1 number of latest defect entries , 
and the updated latest header, 

10 

In one embodiment of the invention, the information 
recording medium further includes another defect management 
area for recording a defect list having a content identical 
to that of the defect list recorded in the defect management 
15 area. The method further comprises the step of executing 
the step (d) for the another defect management area. 

According to still another aspect of the invention, 
a reproduction apparatus for reproducing information 

20 recorded on an information recording medium is provided. 

The information recording medium includes a data area for 
recording user data, and a defect management area for 
recording a defect list for managing N number of defect areas 
existing in the data area, where N is an integer satisfying 

25 N s> 0. The defect list includes a header located at a fixed 
position in the defect list, N number of defect entries 
respectively including position information on positions 
of the N number of defect areas, and an anchor located at 
a fixed position in the defect list . The header, the N number 

30 of defect entries, and the anchor are located in this order 
in the defect list. The header includes a defect list 
identifier for identifying the defect list, first update 
times information representing the number of times which 



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the defect list has been updated, and a defect entry number 
representing the number of the N number of defect entries. 
The anchor includes second update times information 
representing the number of times which the defect list has 
5 been updated. The reproduction apparatus includes a 
reproduction section for reproducing the information 
recorded on the information recording medium, a storage 
section for storing the reproduced information , and a control 
section for controlling execution of defect management 

10 processing which is performed using the reproduction section 
and the storage section, the control section having an 
inherent defect list identifier for identifying the defect 
list. The defect management processing includes the steps 
of (a) reproducing the defect list identifier, the defect 

15 entry number, and the first update times information which 
are included in the header, and determining whether or not 
a content of the inherent defect list identifier matches 
a content of the reproduced defect list identifier, 
(b) reproducing the second update times information included 

20 in the anchor and determining whether or not a content of 
the first update times information matches a content of the 
second update times information when it is determined in 
the step (a) that the content of the inherent defect list 
identifier matches the content of the reproduced defect list 

25 identifier, and (c) specifying the defect list recorded in 
the defect management area as the latest defect list when 
it is determined in the step (b) that the content of the 
first update times information matches the content of the 
second update times information. 

30 

In one embodiment of the invention, the information 
recording medium further includes another defect management 
area for recording a defect list having a content identical 



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to that of the defect list recorded in the defect management 
area. The control section controls execution of the defect 
management processing for the another defect management area . 
The step (c) includes the steps of (c a ) performing the steps 
5 (a) and (b) for the another defect management area, and 
(c 2 ) specifying the defect list including the update times 
information having a largest number of updates as the latest 
defect list. 

10 According to still another aspect of the invention , 

a reproduction method for reproducing information recorded 
on an information recording medium is provided. The 
information recording medium includes a data area for 
recording user data, and a defect management area for 

15 recording a defect list for managing N number of defect areas 
existing in the data area, where N is an integer satisfying 
N St 0 . The defect list includes a header located at a fixed 
position in the defect list, N number of defect entries 
respectively including position information on positions 

20 of the N number of defect areas, and an anchor located at 
a fixed position in the defect list . The header , the N number 
of defect entries, and the anchor are located in this order 
in the defect list. The header includes a defect list 
identifier for identifying the defect list, first update 

25 times information representing the number of times which 
the defect list has been updated, and a defect entry number 
representing the number of the N number of defect entries. 
The anchor includes second update times information 
representing the number of times which the defect list has 

30 been updated. The reproduction method includes the steps 
of (a) reproducing the defect list identifier, the defect 
entry number, and the first update times information which 
are included in the header, and determining whether or not 



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a content of an inherent defect list identifier for 
identifying the defect list matches a content of the 
reproduced defect list identifier, (b) reproducing the 
second update times information included in the anchor and 
5 determining whether or not a content of the first update 
times information matches a content of the second update 
times information when it is determined in the step (a) that 
the content of the inherent defect list identifier matches 
the content of the reproduced defect list identifier, and 
10 (c) specifying the defect list recorded in the defect 
management area as the latest defect list when it is determined 
in the step (b) that the content of the first update times 
information matches the content of the second update times 
information. 

15 

In one embodiment of the invention, the information 
recording medium further includes another defect management 
area for recording a defect list having a content identical 
to that of the defect list recorded in the defect management 
20 area. The step (c) includes the steps of (Ci) performing 
the steps (a) and (b) for the another defect management area, 
and ( c 2 ) specifying the defect list including the update times 
information having a largest number of updates as the latest 
defect list . 

25 

Thus, the invention described herein makes possible 
the advantages of providing an information recording medium, 
a recording apparatus , a reproduction apparatus , a recording 
method, and a reproduction method, allowing for updating 
30 of an SDL (defect list) having a size of 2ECC or larger and 
deletion of a defect entry. 



These and other advantages of the present invention 



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will become apparent to those skilled in the art upon reading 
and understanding the following detailed description with 
reference to the accompanying figures. 

5 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS 

Figure 1 shows a data structure of an information 
recording medium 100 according to a first example of the 
present invention ; 

10 

Figures 2A through 2D show detailed data structures 
of a header 121, a first defect entry 122 , an anchor 126, 
and an unused area 113; 

15 Figure 3 is a block diagram of a recording and 

reproduction apparatus 300 according to a first example of 
the present invention; 

Figure 4 is a flowchart illustrating a procedure of 
20 defect management processing for specifying the latest defect 
list in the first example; 

Figure 5 is flowchart illustrating a procedure of 
defect management processing for updating the latest defect 
25 list in the first example; 

Figure 6 shows a data structure of a defect list, 
during the processing for adding a defect entry in the first 
example, in various states of (a) before update, (b) when 
30 the defect list has been updated normally and (c) when the 
defect list has not been updated normally; 

Figure 7 shows a data structure of a defect list. 



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during the processing for deleting a defect entry in the 
first example, in various states of (a) before update, 

(b) when the defect list has been updated normally and 

(c) when the defect list has not been updated normally; 

5 

Figure 8 shows a data structure of a defect list, 
during the processing for changing a defect entry in the 
first example, in various states of (a) before update, 
(b) when the defect list has been updated normally and 
10 (c) when the defect list has not been updated normally; 

Figure 9 shows a data structure of an information 
recording medium 900 according to a second example of the 
present invention ; 

15 

Figure 10 is a flowchart illustrating a procedure 
of defect management processing for specifying the latest 
defect list in the second example; 

20 Figure 11 shows a data structure of a defect list, 

during the processing for adding a defect entry in the second 
example, in various states of (a) before update, (b) when 
the defect list has been updated normally and (c) when the 
defect list has not been updated normally; 

25 

Figure 12 shows a data structure of an information 
recording medium 1200 according to the DVD-RAM Standards; 

Figure 13 shows a detailed data structure of an SDL 

30 1212; 

Figure 14 shows a data structure of an SDL 1400 having 
4ECC size; 



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Figure 15 is a data structure of another conventional 
information recording medium 1500; and 

5 Figure 16 shows a data structure of an SDL 1501 of 

the information recording medium 1500 shown in Figure 15 
in various states of (a) before update, (b) when the defect 
list has been updated normally and (c) when the defect list 
has not been updated normally. 

10 

BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION 

Hereinafter, the present invention will be described 
by way of illustrative examples with reference to the 
15 accompanying drawings. 

(Example 1) 

(1) Information recording medium 

Figure 1 shows a data structure of an information 
20 recording medium 100 according to a first example of the 
present invention. 

The information recording medium (optical disc) 100 
maybe, for example, a rewritable optical disc. The optical 

25 disc 100 is assumed to be subjected to error correction in 
units of 1ECC block . An ECC block is a unit of error correction 
in the field of optical discs . An ECC block has , for example , 
a size of 32 kbytes in 16 sectors (each sector has a size 
of 2 kbytes). This size of one ECC block will be referred 

30 to as "1ECC size", hereinafter. It is assumed that the 
recording of information on the optical disc 100 and updating 
of the information on the optical disc 100 are performed 
in units of 1ECC. 



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The data structure shown In Figure 1 is the structure 
of the optical disc 100 after position information on N number 
of defect areas in a defect management area is normally 
5 recorded (N is an integer satisfying N s= 0) . A defect area 
is, for example, a defect sector. 

The optical disc 100 includes a data area 102 for 
recording user data, and a lead-in area 101 and a lead-out 
10 area 103 acting as a buffer area when a recording and 
reproduction apparatus (not shown) overruns by the movement 
of an optical head (not shown) . 

The data area 102 includes a user area 106 for 
15 recording user data and a spare area 107. When there is a 
defect area (for example, a defect sector) in the user area 
106, the user data which is to be recorded in the defect 
area is recorded in the spare area 107 instead of a portion 
of the user area 106 corresponding to the defect area. 

20 

The lead-in area 101 includes a first defect 
management area 104 and a second defect management area 105 
for recording defect management information used for managing 
a defect area existing in the data area 102. 

25 

The lead-out area 103 includes a third defect 
management area 108 and a fourth defect management area 109 
for recording defect management information used for managing 
a defect area existing in the data area 102, like the lead-in 
30 area 101. 

The first defect management area 104, the second 
defect management area 105, the third. defect management area 



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108 , and the fourth defect management area 109 are 
respectively located at physically specific positions on 
the optical disc 100. 

5 In the first defect management area 104, the second 

defect management area 105, the third defect management area 
108 and the fourth defect management area 109, the same 
information for defect management is recorded in multiplex., 
The reason for this is, as described above, that the 

10 information recorded in the first, second, third and fourth 
defect management areas 104, 105, 108, and 109 cannot be 
a target of defect management. Even if some of the first, 
second, third and fourth defect management areas 104, 105, 
108, and 109 have a defect area and the information recorded 

15 in the defect area cannot be reproduced, as long as at least 
one of the four defect management areas is defect -free, the 
defect management information recorded in that area can be 
normally reproduced. Accordingly, loss of the user data is 
prevented, which improves reliability. In the first example, 

20 the optical disc 100 includes the four defect management 
areas 104, 105, 108, and 109, but the number of defect 
management areas may be any number of one or more. 

In the first defect management area 104, a disc 
25 definition structure 111 and a defect list 112 for managing 
N number of defect areas existing in the data area 102 (N 
is an integer satisfying N s> 0 ) are recorded . The first defect 
management area 104 includes an unused area 113. 

30 The disc definition structure 111 is information 

representing the disc structure, for example, whether or 
not the disc 100 has been subjected to defect management. 
This information also includes information regarding the 



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spare area 107 . The disc definition structure 111 is located 
at a physically specific position in the first defect 
management area 104. The disc definition structure 111 has 
a prescribed size. 

5 

In the unused area 113, currently meaningless 
information is recorded. Generally, padding data 127 (for 
example, 0) is recorded in the unused area 113. When a new 
defect area is detected in the user area 106, a defect entry 
10 for managing the new defect area is added to the defect list 
112 . As a result , the size of the unused area 113 is decreased 
by the size of the added defect entry. 

The defect list 112 includes a header 121, a first 
15 defect entry 122, a second defect entry 123, - . . , an (N-l)th 
defect entry 124, an Nth entry 125, and an anchor 126. The 
header 121, the first through Nth entries 122 through 125, 
and the anchor 126 are located in this order in the defect 
list 112. 

20 

In the first example, it is assumed that the total 
of the size of the defect list 112 and the size of the unused 
area 113 is 4ECC. The total size is not limited to 4ECC and 
is arbitrary. 

25 

The header 121 includes a defect list identifier 131 
which represents that the area is the defect list 112, a 
defect entry number 132 which represents the number of entries 
included in the defect list 112, and first update times 
30 information 133 which represents the number of times which 
an updated defect list has been recorded in the first defect 
management area 104. In Figure 1, the defect entry number 
132 is N (N is an integer satisfying N s> 0) , and the content 



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of the first update times information 133 is M (M is an integer 
satisfying M > 0 ) . The defect list identifier 131 may be 
located , for example, at the start of the header 121 as shown 
in Figure 1. 

5 

The header 121 is located at a physically specified 
position. In the first example, the header 121 is located 
at the start of the defect list 112. The position of the 
header 121 in the defect list 112 is arbitrary as long as 
10 the header 121, the first through Nth defect entries 122 
through 125, and the anchor 126 are located in this order 
in the defect list 112. 

In the case of the optical disc 100 shown in Figure 
15 1, the defect entry number 132 is N. Thus, the defect list 
112 includes the first defect entry 122, . .., and the Nth 
defect entry 125. The first defect entry 122 includes first 
defect position information 141 which is position information 
showing the position of a defect area, and first substitute 
20 position information 142 which is position information 
showing the position of a part of the spare area 107 which 
is usable instead of the defect area. Likewise, the second 
defect entry 123 includes second defect position information 
and second substitute position information. The (N-l)th 
25 defect entry 124 and the Nth defect entry 125 also have 
substantially the same structure. Here, each of the first 
defect position information 141 and the first substitute 
position information 142 is generally a sector number. 

30 The defect entries are generally located such that 

the defect position information included therein is in an 
ascending order . More specifically, when, for example, the 
defect position information is a sector number, defect 



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position information having the smaller sector number is 
located in the first defect entry 122 as the first defect 
position information 141. After this, the defect entries 
are located in the order of the sector numbers. Defect 
5 position information having the larger sector number is 
located in the Nth defect entry 125 as Nth defect position 
information. 

The defect entries in the defect list 112 do not need 
10 to be located in an ascending order. For example, the defect 
entries may be located such that the sector numbers are in 
a descending order. Alternatively, the defect entries may 
be located randomly. 

15 The anchor 126 includes an anchor identifier 151 for 

identifying that the area is an anchor of the defect list 
112, second update times information 152 which represents 
the number of times which the updated defect list has been 
recorded in the first defect management area 104 , and reserve 

20 information 153 for future expansion. In Figure 1, the 
content of the second update times information 152 is M (M 
is an integer satisfying M ;> 0) , and is the same as that of 
the first update times information 133 . As long as the first 
defect management area 104 is updated normally, the content 

25 of the first update times information 133 and the content 
of the second update times information 152 are identical 
to each other. The anchor identifier 151 may be located, 
for example, at the start of the anchor 126 as shown in Figure 
1. 

30 

In this specification, the first and second update 
times information 133 and 152 represent the number of times 
which the updated defect list has been recorded in the first 



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defect management area 104 (i.e. , the number of times which 
the defect list 112 has been updated and recorded on the 
optical disc 100). The first and second update times 
information 133 and 152 may represent the number of times 
5 which the defect list has been updated (i.e., the number 
of times which the defect list has been updated in the storage 
section described below) . In the following description , the 
first and second update times information 133 and 152 
represent the number of times which the updated defect list 
10 has been recorded in the first defect management area 104. 

The anchor 126 is located subsequently to the Nth 
defect entry 125. It should be noted that since the size 
of the defect list 112 is variable, the position at which 
15 the anchor 126 is located is also variable. 

Next, the header 121, the first defect entry 122, 
the anchor 126 and the unused area 113 will be described 
in detail. 

20 

Figures 2A through 2D respectively show detailed data 
structures of the header 121, the first defect entry 122, 
the anchor 126 and the unused area 113. 

25 In Figures 2A through 2D, "BP" represents the bit 

position, and "Val" represents the binary value corresponding 
to each BP. In the example shown in Figures 2A through 2D, 
the size of each of the header 121, the first defect entry 
122, the anchor 126 and the unused area 113 is 8 bytes (bit 

30 position 0 through bit position 63). 

Figure 2A shows an exemplary detailed structure of 
the header 121 . In this example , Val for only the bit position 



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62 of the defect list identifier 131 is 1 (Val=l); i.e., 
0 x 4000 in hexadecimal representation. 

Figure 2B shows an exemplary detailed structure of 
5 the first defect entry 122. It is assumed that the maximum 
number of the sector among the sectors usable in the data 
area 102 is 0 x 07FFFFFF in hexadecimal representation. The 
maximum value which has a possibility of being registered 
as the first defect position information 141 in the first 
10 defect entry 122 is 0 x 07FFFFFF in hexadecimal representation 
as shown in Figure 2B. 

Figure 2C shows an exemplary detailed structure of 
the anchor 126 . In this example , Val for all the bit positions 
15 59 through 63 in the anchor identifier 151 is 1 (Val = 1 ) ; 
i.e., 0 x FFFF in hexadecimal representation. 

Figure 2D shows an exemplary detailed structure of 
the unused area 113. In the unused area 113, the padding 
20 data 127 is generally recorded. In the unused area 113, Val 
= 0. In Figure 2D, 0 is recorded as the padding data, but 
the padding data is not limited to 0 . 

For the defect list identifier 131 and the anchor 
25 identifier 151, a value which is distinguishable from any 
other defect entry and that of the unused area 113 is adopted. 
As shown in Figure 2C, Val = 1 is set for at least one of 
the bit positions 59 through 63 which are never 1 in any 
defect entry or the unused area 113. 

30 

Similarly, as shown in Figure 2A, Val = 1 is set for 
at least one of the bit positions 59 through 63 which are 
never 1 in any defect entry or the unused area 113, such 



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that the value sequence of the bit positions 59 through 63 
in the defect list identifier 131 is different from that 
of the bit positions 59 through 63 in the anchor identifier 
151. 

5 

Owing to such settings, the anchor identifier 151 
is distinguishable from the defect list identifier 131, any 
defect entry, and the unused area 113. The defect list 
identifier 131 is also distinguishable from the anchor 
10 identifier 151, any defect entry, and the unused area 113. 

The values for the defect list identifier 131 and 
the anchor identifier 151 in Figures 2A and 2C are mere examples , 
and the values are not limited to these. 

15 

In the first example, the defect list identifier 131 
and the anchor identifier 151 are distinguished from any 
defect entry and the unused area 113 and further the defect 
list identifier 131 and the anchor identifier 151 are 

20 distinguishable from each other as described above. 

Therefore, even when any defect entry is read as the anchor 
identifier 151 in the anchor 126, that defect entry is never 
erroneously determined as the anchor identifier 151. 
Accordingly, it can be easily determined whether or not the 

25 defect list 112 has been updated normally. 

Since it is not necessary to provide a header for 
each 1ECC size, the processing efficiency of updating the 
defect list is improved. Since the header is not interposed 
30 between two defect entries, defect entries can be easily 
searched for, added, and deleted. 

The following description will be made with the 



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premise that the optical disc 100 has the data structure 
shown in Figure 1. 

( 2 ) Reproduction/recording ( update ) 
5 Figure 3 is a block diagram of a recording and 

reproduction apparatus 300 according to the first example. 
The recording and reproduction apparatus 300 records 
information on the optical disc 100 and/or reproduces 
information recorded on the optical disc 100. 

10 

The recording and reproduction apparatus 300 
includes a control section 301 , a recording and reproduction 
section 302 , and a storage section 303. 

I 5 The control section 301 controls the operation of 

the recording and reproduction section 302. The control 
section 301 may be, for example, a CPU. The control section 
301 has an inherent defect list identifier for identifying 
the defect list 112 of the optical disc 100 and an inherent 

20 anchor identifier for identifying the anchor 126 of the defect 
list 112 of the optical disc 100, which are stored initially. 
The contents (values) of the inherent defect list identifier 
and the inherent anchor identifier are correct and are not 
rewritable. The control section 301 uses the recording and 

25 reproduction section 302 and the storage section 303 to 
control the execution of the following processing : ( a ) defect 
management processing for specifying the latest defect list 
among the defect lists which are recorded in the first through 
fourth defect management areas 104, 105, 108 and 109; and 

30 (b) defect management processing for updating the defect 
lists which are recorded in the first through fourth defect 
management areas 104, 105, 108 and 109 into the latest defect 
list. 



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The recording and reproduction section 302 records 
information on the optical disc 100 and/or reproduces the 
information recorded on the optical disc 100* Such 
5 recording/reproduction is performed by, for example, 
emitting laser so as to write the information on the optical 
disc 100 as a signal and/or so as to read the information 
written as a signal on the optical disc 100. 

10 The storage section 303 stores information to be 

recorded on the optical disc 100 and/or stores information 
which has been reproduced from the optical disc 100. The 
storage section 303 may be, for example, a random access 
memory (RAM) . Owing to the operation of the control section 

15 301, the storage section 303 includes a defect list area 
saved for storing the defect list 112 reproduced from a defect 
management area (for example, the first defect management 
area 104) of the optical disc 100 or a latest defect list 
to be recorded in the defect management area. 

20 

(2-1) Defect management processing for specif ying the latest 
defect list 

Next, the operation of defect management processing 
for specifying the latest defect list performed by the 
25 recording and reproduction apparatus 300 will be described. 

The control section 301 executes the defect 
management processing. The control section 301 follows the 
procedure of the defect management processing to request 
30 the recording and reproduction section 302 to reproduce the 
information of the disc definition structure 111 located 
at the start of the first defect management area 104 and 
store the reproduced information from the disc definition 



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structure 111 in the storage section 303. 

Upon the request from the control section 301, the 
recording and reproduction section 302 reproduces the 
5 information of the disc definition structure 111 from the 
optical disc 100 and stores the information in the storage 
section 303. The recording and reproduction section 302 
reports to the control section 301 that the reproduction 
and storage of the information of the disc definition 
10 structure 111 has been completed. 

Upon receiving the report from the recording and 
reproduction section 302, the control section 301 checks 
whether or not the optical disc 100 has been subjected to 
15 defect management, based on the information of the disc 
definition structure 111 stored in the storage section 303. 

When confirming that the optical disc 100 has been 
subjected to defect management, the control section 301 

20 requests the recording and reproduction section 302 to 
reproduce the header 121 located at a fixed position of the 
defect list 112 (in the example of Figure 1, at the start 
of the defect list 112 ) recorded in the first defect management 
area 104 and to store the reproduced header 121 in the storage 

25 section 303. 

Upon the request from the control section 301, the 
recording and reproduction section 302 reproduces the header 
121 located at the start of the defect list 112 recorded 
30 in the first defect management area 104 and store the 
reproduced header 121 in the storage section 303 . The 
recording and reproduction section 302 reports to the control 
section 301 that the reproduction and storage of the header 



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121 has been completed. 

Upon receiving the report from the recording and 
reproduction section 302, the control section 301 compares 
5 the content of the inherent defect list identifier initially 
stored in the control section 301 with the content of the 
defect list identifier 131 included in the header 121 stored 
in the storage section 303 to check whether or not the stored 
information is the header 121 in the defect list 112. 

10 

When the two contents compared match each other, the 
control section 301 determines that the stored information 
is the header 121 in the defect list 112 and proceeds with 
the defect management processing. When the two contents 

15 compared do not match each other, the control section 301 
determines that updating of the first defect management area 
104 failed (abnormal defect management area) and terminates 
the defect management processing . The two contents compared 
do not match each other when, for example, there is a defect 

20 area in the first defect management area 104 and thus 
information cannot be read therefrom. 

In order to identify the anchor 126 in the defect 
list 112 recorded in the first defect management area 104, 

25 the control section 301 uses the defect entry number 132 
included in the header 121 stored in the storage section 
303 to calculate the position of the start of the anchor 
126 in the defect list 112. The position of the start of 
the anchor 126 can be obtained by multiplying the defect 

30 entry number 132 by the size of one defect entry which is 
a fixed value. 

The control section 301 requests the recording and 



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reproduction section 302 to reproduce the anchor 126 in the 
defect list 112 based on the calculated position, and store 
the reproduced information in the storage section 303. 

5 Upon the request from the control section 301 , the 

recording and reproduction section 302 reproduces the 
information present at the designated position in the defect 
list 112 and stores the reproduced information in the storage 
section 303. The recording and reproduction section 302 
10 reports to the control section 301 that the reproduction 
and storage of the information present at the designated 
position has been completed. 

Upon receipt of the report from the recording and 
15 reproduction section 302, the control section 301 compares 
the content of the inherent anchor identifier initially stored 
in the control section 301 with the content of the information 
located at the start of the entire information stored in 
the storage section 303 to check whether or not the stored 
20 - information is the anchor 126 in the defect list 112. The 
"information located at the start of the entire information 
stored in the storage section 303" is the information expected 
to be the anchor identifier 151 included in the anchor 126. 

25 When the two contents compared match each other, the 

control section 301 determines that the stored information 
is the anchor 126 in the defect list 112 and proceeds with 
the defect management processing. When the two contents 
compared do not match each other, the control section 301 

30 determines that updating of the first defect management area 
104 failed (abnormal defect management area) and terminates 
the defect management processing . The two contents compared 
do not match each other when, for example, the information 



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present at the position calculated using the defect entry 
number 132 is not the anchor 126. More specif ically, the 
two contents compared do not match each other when , for example , 
the recording and reproduction apparatus 300 is turned off 
5 while the first through Nth defect entries 122 through 125 
in the defect list 112 are being updated. In this case, the 
defect entry number 132 included in the header 121 does not 
match the total number of the first through Nth defect entries 
122 through 125. 

10 

The control section 301 compares the content of the 
first update times information 133 included in the header 
121 with the second update times information 152 included 
in the anchor 126 stored in the storage section 303. 

15 

When the two contents compared match each other, the 
control section 301 determines that the first defect 
management area 104 has been updated normally, and proceeds 
with' the defect management processing. 

20 

When the two contents compared do not match each other, 
the control section 301 determines that updating of the first 
defect management area 104 failed ( abnormal defect management 
area) and terminates the defect management processing. The 

25 two contents compared do not match each other when, for example, 
the recording and reproduction apparatus 300 is turned off 
while the first through Nth defect entries 122 through 125 
in the defect list 112 are being updated and therefore updating 
of the defect entries 122 through 125 is not completed. In 

30 this case, the content of the first update times information 
133 included in the header 121 does not match the content 
of the second update times information 152 included in the 
anchor 126 . 



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The control section 301 perforins substantially the 
same processing for each of the second defect management 
area 105 , the third defect management area 108 and the fourth 
5 defect management area 109. 

After checking whether or not each of the first 
through fourth defect management areas 104 , 105, 108 and 
109 is a normal defect management area, the control section 

10 301 specifies the latest defect management area among the 
defect management areas which have been determined to be 
normal, as follows. The control section 301 makes a 
comparison of the first update times information 133 recorded 
in the defect management areas which have been determined 

15 to be normal , and specifies the defect management area having 
the largest number of updates as the latest defect management 
area . The defect list recorded in the specified latest defect 
management area is specified as the latest defect list. 

20 For specifying the latest defect management area, 

the second update times information 152 included in the anchor 
126 may be used instead of the first update times information 
133. 

25 The control section 301 requests the recording and 

reproduction section 302 to reproduce the defect list recorded 
in the specified latest defect management area and store 
the reproduced defect list in the defect list area saved 
in the storage section 303. 

30 

Upon the request from the control section 301, the 
recording and reproduction section 302 reproduces the defect 
list recorded in the specified latest defect management area 



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and stores the reproduced defect list in the defect list 
area in the storage section 303. The recording and 
reproduction section 302 reports to the control section 301 
that the reproduction and storage of the defect list has 
5 been completed. 

Thus, the operation of defect management processing 
for specifying the latest defect list performed by the 
recording and reproduction apparatus 300 is completed. 

10 

Using the specified latest defect list , the user data 
recorded in the data area 102 , for example , can be reproduced. 
In this case, the control section 301 requests the recording 
and reproduction section 302 to reproduce the user data based 
15 on the latest defect list and store the reproduced user data 
in the storage section 303. 

Upon the request from the control section 301, the 
recording and reproduction section 302 reproduces the user 
20 data from the data area 102 and stores the reproduced user 
data in the storage section 303. 

Information recording may be performed using the 
specified latest defect list. 

25 

Figure 4 shows a procedure of defect management 
processing for specifying the latest defect list in the first 
example. The defect management processing is executed by 
the control section 301. Hereinafter, each step of the 
30 procedure of defect management processing will be described. 

The procedure of defect management processing is started 
after it is confirmed that the optical disc 100 has been 
subjected to defect management. Whether or not the optical 



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disc 100 has been subjected to defect management is determined 
based on the disc definition structure 111 in the optical 
disc 100. 

5 StepS401: The defect list identifier 131 , the defect 

entry number 132 and the first update times information 133 
included in the header 121 are reproduced. The content of 
the reproduced defect list identifier 131 is compared with 
the content of the inherent defect list identifier. The 

10 inherent defect list identifier identifies the defect list 
112 in the optical disc 100. The inherent defect list 
identifier has a correct value which is not rewritable. The 
inherent defect list identifier may be initially stored in 
the control section 301. When the two content s compared match 

15 each other, the defect management processing advances to 
step S402. When the two contents compared do not match each 
other # the defect management processing advances to step 
S406. 

20 Step S402: When the content of the defect list 

identifier 131 and the content of the inherent defect list 
identifier are determined to match each other in step S401, 
the reproduced information is determined to be the header 
121 in the defect list 112. Using the defect entry number 

25 132 included in the header 121, the position of the start 
of the anchor 126 in the defect list 112 is calculated. The 
position of the start of the anchor 126 is obtained by 
multiplying the defect entry number 132 by the size of one 
defect entry which is a fixed value. The defect management 

30 processing advances to step S403. 

Step S403: Based on the position obtained in step 
S402, information expected to be the anchor identifier 151 



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and the second update times information 152 included in the 
anchor 126 are reproduced- The content of the information 
expected to be the anchor identifier 151 is compared with 
the content of the inherent anchor identifier. The inherent 
5 anchor identifier identifies the anchor of the defect list 
112 . The inherent anchor identifier has a correct value which 
is not rewritable. The inherent anchor identifier is 
initially stored in the control section 301. When the two 
contents compared are determined to match each other, the 
10 defect management processing advances to step S404. When 
the two contents compared are determined not to match each 
other, the defect management processing advances to step 
S406. 

15 Step S404: When the content of the information 

expected to be the anchor identifier 151 and the content 
of the inherent anchor identifier are determined to match 
each other in step S403 , the stored information is determined 
to be the anchor 126 in the defect list 112. The content 

20 of the first update times information 133 included in the 
header 121 is compared with the content of the second update 
times information 152 included in the anchor 126. When the 
two contents compared are determined to match each other, 
the defect management processing advances to step S405 . When 

25 the two contents compared are determined not to match each 
other, the defect management processing advances to step 
S406. 

Step S405: When the content of the first update times 
30 information 133 and the content of the second update times 
information 152 are determined to match each other in step 
S404, the first defect management area 104 is determined 
to have been updated normally. Then, the defect management 



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processing advances to step S407. 

Step S406 : When the contents compared are determined 
not to match each other in steps S401, S403 or S404, updating 
5 of the first defect management area 104 is determined to 
have failed (abnormal defect management area) , and the defect 
management processing for the first defect management area 
104 is terminated. The defect management processing 
advances to step S407. 

10 

Step S407: It is determined whether or not the 
operations in steps S401 through S406 have been performed 
for all the defect management areas in the optical disc 100. 
When the operations in steps S401 through S406 have not been 
15 performed for all the defect management areas, the defect 
management processing returns to step S401. When the 
operations in steps S401 through S406 have been performed 
for all the defect management areas, the defect management 
processing advances to step S408. 

20 

Step S408: The latest defect list is specified. 
More specifically, the latest defect management area among 
the defect management areas determined to be normal is 
specified, as follows. A comparison is made of the first 

25 update times information (or the second update times 
information) recorded in the defect management areas 
determined to be normal , and the defect management area having 
the largest number of updates is specified as the latest 
defect management area. The defect list recorded in the 

30 specified latest defect management area is specified as the 
latest defect list. 



When the latest defect list of the optical disc 100 



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is specified by steps S401 through S408 , the defect management 
processing is completed. Using the latest defect list 
obtained in step S408, the user data recorded in the data 
area 102, for example, can be reproduced. 

5 

(2-2) Defect management processing for updating the latest 
defect list 

Returning to Figure 3, the operation of defect 
management processing for updating the latest defect list 

10 performed by the recording and reproduction apparatus 300 
will be described. In the following example, the defect list 
is updated when another defect area is detected while the 
user data is being recorded in the data area 102 of the optical 
disc 100, or when a portion of the user area 106 which was 

15 previously determined „to be a defect area is determined to 
be a normal defect area while the user data recorded in the 
data area 102 is being reproduced. Throughout this 
specification, a "normal defect area" is defined to mean 
an area which was previously determined to be a defect area 

20 but currently has no defect and allows information to be 
recorded therein and/ or allows information therein to be 
reproduced. An area which was previously determined to be 
a defect area is currently determined to be a normal defect 
area when, for example, the defect is caused by dust or stain 

25 such as a fingerprint on the surface of the optical disc. 

In this case, when the user cleans the surface of the optical 
disc to remove the dust or stain, the area in which the dust 
or stain existed (i.e., the area which was previously 
determined to be a defect area) is currently determined to 

30 be a normal area usable for recording/reproduction. 

The storage section 303 stores the latest defect list . 
The latest defect list may be located in the defect list 



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area in the storage section 303. The latest defect list 
includes the latest header, P number of latest defect entries 
(P is an integer satisfying P i> 0 where P = N or P * N) , and 
the latest anchor. In the first example, the latest header, 
5 the P number of latest defect entries, and the latest anchor 
are located in the latest defect list in this order. The 
latest header is located at a fixed position in the latest 
defect list. The latest anchor is located subsequently to 
the Pth latest defect entry among the P number of latest 

10 defect entries . The latest header includes the latest defect 
list identifier, the first latest update times information 
and the latest defect entry number P. The content of the 
latest defect list identifier is always the same as that 
of the inherent defect list identifier stored in the control 

15 section 301. The latest anchor includes the latest anchor 
identifier and the second latest update times information 
which has the same content as that of the first latest update 
times information. The content of the latest anchor 
identifier is always the same as that of the inherent anchor 

20 list identifier stored in the control section 301. It is 
assumed that the P number of latest defect entries are arranged 
in an ascending order of the defect position information 
(defect sector numbers) . The latest defect list may include 
an unused area. It is not always necessary that the latest 

25 header includes the latest defect list identifier. 

Similarly, it is not always necessary that the latest anchor 
includes the latest anchor identifier. 

The above- described arrangement of the latest header 
30 and the P number of latest defect entries and the latest 
anchor is merely an example. The arrangement of the latest 
header and the P number of latest defect entries and the 
latest anchor in the latest defect list is arbitrary. 



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The control section 301 executes the defect 
management processing . The control section 301 requests the 
recording and reproduction section 302 to determine whether 
5 (a) another defect area exists in the data area 102, (b) a 
defect area which was previously determined to be a defect 
area is currently a normal defect area, or (c) neither (a) 
nor (b ) is the case . Whether or not another defect area exists 
in the data area 102 is determined by, for example, comparing 

10 a signal obtained by reproducing data immediately after user 
data is recorded with a signal representing user data to 
be recorded. When these signals match each other, the user 
data is determined to have been normally recorded in the 
data area 102. When these signals do not match each other, 

15 it is determined that the user data has not been normally 
recorded in the data area 102 and another defect area exists 
in the data area 102. 

When determining that another defect area exists in 
20 the data area 102 or that the area which was previously 
determined to be a defect area is currently a normal defect 
area, the control section 301 updates the latest defect list 
stored in the storage section 303. 

25 Specific procedures of updating the latest defect 

list will be described. There are three cases of updating 
the latest defect list, namely, (i) addition of a defect 
entry, (ii) deletion of a defect entry; and (iii) change 
of a defect entry. Each of these cases will be described 

30 one by one. 

(i) Addition of a defect entry 

When it is determined that another defect area exists 



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in the user area 106 , a defect entry including the position 
information on the position of the another defect area is 
added to the latest defect list . Based on the defect position 
information on the detected defect area, the control section 
5 301 determines the position of the defect entry to be added. 
The control section 301 shifts the other defect entries and 
the latest anchor existing subsequent to the determined 
position toward the unused area, and adds the defect entry 
including the position information on the another defect 
10 area at the determined position. As a result, the P number 
of latest defect entries are updated to P 1 number of latest 
defect entries (P * P 1 , P < P'). 



Following the addition of the defect entry, the 
5 control section 301 updates the latest defect entry number 
from P into P' . In this case, the latest defect entry number 
is increased by the number of the added defect entries (i.e. , 
by the number of the detected defect sectors). 



0 After the P number of latest defect entries and the 

latest defect entry number P are updated, the control section 
301 increments, by one, the content of the first latest update 
times information included in the latest header and the 
content of the secondlatest update times information included 

5 in the latest anchor. 



(ii) Deletion of a defect entry 

When an area which was previously determined to be 
a defect area is currently determined to be a normal defect 
0 area, the control section 301 deletes the defect entry 
including the position information on the area determined 
to be the normal defect area. The control section 301 then 
shifts the defect entries located subsequent to the deleted 



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defect entry and the latest anchor toward the latest header 
by the size of the deleted defect entry. The unused area 
is expanded by the size of the deleted defect entry, and 
the control section 301 records padding data (for example, 
5 0) in the expanded portion of the unused area. As a result, 
the P number of latest defect entries are updated to P 1 number 
of latest defect entries (P * P' , P > P'). 

Following the deletion of the defect entry, the 
10 control section 301 updates the latest defect entry number 
from P into P' . In this case, the latest defect entry number 
is decreased by the number of the deleted defect entries 
(i.e., by the number of the defect sectors determined to 
be normal ) . 

15 

After the P number of latest defect entries and the 
latest defect entry number P are updated, the control section 
301 increments , by one, the content of the first latest update 
times information included in the latest header and the 
20 content of the secondlatest update times information included 
in the latest anchor. 

(iii) Change of a defect entry 

When another defect area is determined to exist in 

25 the spare area 107, the control section 301 rewrites the 
substitute position information corresponding to the another 
defect area in the latest defect list. The substitute 
position information corresponding to the another defect 
area is rewritten into substitute position information 

30 representing a portion other than the another defect area 
in the spare area 107. 



The control section 301 changes the latest defect 



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entry number from P to P f (P = P' since no defect entry is 
added to or deleted from the latest defect list) . Although 
the number of the latest defect entries remains the same, 
the substitute position information included is different. 
5 Throughout this specification, "updating of a defect list" 
encompasses the case of not changing the number of defect 
entries included in the defect list in addition to the case 
of changing the number of defect entries included in the 
defect list. 

10 

After the P number of latest defect entries and the 
latest defect entry number P are updated, the control section 
301 increments , by one, the content of the first latest update 
times information included in the latest header and the 
15 content of the second latest update times information included 
in the latest anchor. 

The operations (i) through (iii) are performed by 
the control section 301 for the latest defect list stored 

20 in the storage section 303. In the case where the first and 
second update times information 133 and 152 represent the 
number of times which the updated latest defect list has 
been recorded in the first defect management area 104, the 
first and second latest update times information may each 

25 be incremented by one only once before the updated latest 
defect list is recorded in the first defect management area 
104. By contrast, in the case where the first and second 
update times information 133 and 152 represent the number 
of times which the latest defect list has been updated in 

30 the storage section 303, the first and second latest update 
times information may be incremented by one each time the 
latest defect entries and the latest defect entry number 
are updated. 



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The control section 301 requests the recording and 
reproduction section 302 to record the latest defect list 
updated in the storage section 303 in the first defect 
5 management area 104 of the optical disc 100. For example, 
the control section 301 requests the recording and 
reproduction section 302 to record the updated latest header, 
the updated P ' number of latest defect entries , and the updated 
latest anchor in the first defect management area 104 in 
10 this order. 

Upon the request from the control section 301, the 
recording and reproduction section 302 records the updated 
latest defect list in the first defect management area 104. 

15 The updated defect list replacing the defect list 112 is 
recorded in the first defect management area 104 in the order 
of the latest header replacing the header 121, the latest 
defect entries replacing the first through Nth defect entries 
122 through 125, and the latest anchor replacing the anchor 

20 126. The recording and reproduction section 302 reports to 
the control section 301 that the recording of the updated 
latest defect list in the first defect management area 104 
has been completed. 

25 The control section 301 requests the recording and 

reproduction section 302 to record the latest defect list 
updated in the storage section 303 in each of the second 
through fourth defect management areas 105, 108 and 109. 
More specifically, again, the control section 301 requests 

30 the recording and reproduction section 302 to record the 
updated latest header, the updated latest defect entries, 
and the updated latest anchor in this order in the second 
through fourth defect management areas 105, 108 and 109. 



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Upon the request from the control section 301 , the 
recording and reproduction section 302 records the updated 
latest defect list in each of the second through fourth defect 
5 management areas 105 , 108 and 109. 

Thus, the operation of defect management processing 
for updating the latest defect list performed by the recording 
and reproduction apparatus 300 is completed. 

10 

The order of recording the updated latest defect list 
is not limited to the above -de scribed order of the latest 
header, the P ' number of latest defect entries , and the latest 
anchor. As long as the header 121, the N number of defect 

15 entries 122 through 125 , and the anchor 126 are located in 
this order in the defect list 112, the control section 301 
may request the recording and reproduction section 302 to 
record the updated latest anchor, the updated P' number of 
latest defect entries, and the updated latest header in this 

20 order in each of the first through fourth defect management 
areas 104, 105, 108 and 109, and the recording and reproduction 
section 302 may record the updated latest defect list in 
each of the first through fourth defect management areas 
104 , 105 , 108 and 109 upon the request from the control section 

25 301. 

Figure 5 shows a procedure of defect management 
processing for updating the latest defect list in the first 
example. The defect management processing is executed by 
30 the control section 301. Hereinafter, each step of the 
procedure of defect management processing will be described. 

Step S501: It is determined whether (a) another 



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defect area exists in the data area 102 , (b) a defect area 
which was previously determined to be a defect area is 
currently a normal defect area, or (c) neither (a) nor (b) 
is the case. When it is determined that (a) another defect 
5 area exists in the data area 102 or that (b) the defect area 
is currently a normal defect area, the defect management 
processing advances to step S502 . When it is determined that 
neither (a) nor (b) is the case, the defect management 
processing is terminated. Such a determination is, for 
10 example, performed when recording user data in the data area 
102 or reproducing user data recorded in the data area 102. 

Step S502: The latest defect entries and the latest 
defect entry number P are updated. The P number of latest 
15 defect entries are updated to P 1 number of latest defect 
entries. The latest defect entry number P is updated to P 1 . 

More specifically, when another defect area is 
determined to exist in the user area 106, another defect 
20 entry is added to the latest defect list. Next, the latest 
defect entry number is increased by the number of the added 
defect entries (P * P', P < P 1 ). 

When another defect is determined to exist in the 
25 spare area 107, the substitute position information 
corresponding to the another defect area in the latest defect 
list is rewritten. The substitute position information 
corresponding to the another defect area is rewritten into 
substitute position information representing a portion other 
30 than the another defect area in the spare area 107 . The latest 
defect entry number is not changed (P = P'). 

When an area which was previously determined to be 



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a defect area is currently determined to be a normal defect 
area, the defect entry including the position information 
on the position of the defect area which was previously 
determined to be a defect area is deleted. Next, the latest 
5 defect entry number is decreased by the number of the deleted 
defect entries (i.e., the number of defect areas (number 
of sectors) currently determined to be normal) (P * P 1 , P 
> P'). 

10 When the latest defect entries and the latest defect 

entry number P are updated, the defect management processing 
advances to step S503. 

Step S503: The first and second latest update times 
15 information are each incremented by one. Then, the defect 
management processing advances to step S504. 

Step S504: The latest defect list updated in steps 
S502 and S503 is recorded in the first defect management 

20 area 104 of the optical disc 100, For example, the updated 
latest header , the updated P" number of latest defect entries , 
and the updated latest anchor are recorded in the first defect 
management area 104 in this order. Then, the defect 
management processing advances to step S505. As long as the 

25 header 121, the N number of defect entries 122 through 125, 
and the anchor 126 are located in this order in the defect 
list 112, the updated latest anchor, the updated P' number 
of latest defect entries, and the updated latest header may 
be recorded in this order in the first defect management 

30 area 104. 

Step S505 : It is determined whether or not the updated 
defect list has been recorded in all the defect management 



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areas of the optical disc 100 (in this case, the first through 
fourth defect management areas 104 , 105, 108 and 109) . When 
the updated defect list has been recorded in all the defect 
management areas of the optical disc 100, the defect 
5 management processing is terminated. When the updated 
defect list has not been recorded in all the defect management 
areas of the optical disc 100, the defect management 
processing returns to step S504. 

10 As described above, the arrangement of the latest 

header, the P" number of latest defect entries and the latest 
anchor in the latest defect list is arbitrary. The updated 
latest defect list is recorded in each of the first through 
fourth defect management areas 104, 105, 108 and 109 of the 

15 optical disc 100 as follows. Such that the updated latest 
header is located at the position of the header 121, the 
updated P' number of latest defect entries are located at 
the positions of the defect entries 122 through 125, and 
the updated latest anchor is located at the position of the 

20 anchor 126, the updated latest defect list is recorded in 
each of the first through fourth defect management areas 
104, 105, 108 and 109 in the order of the updated latest 
header, the updated P' number of latest defect entries, and 
the updated latest anchor or in the order of the updated 

2 5 latest anchor , the updated P ' number of latest defect entries , 
and the updated latest header. 

In the above description, the updated latest defect 
list is recorded on the optical disc 100 shown in Figure 
30 1 where the optical disc 100 has been subjected to defect 
management. Next, recording of the updated latest defect 
list on an optical disc in an initial state immediately after 
being shipped from the plant will be described. 



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An optical disc in an initial state is assumed to 
have the same structure as that shown in Figure 1 except 
that, for example, the defect list 112 (Figure 1) has no 
5 information. In such optical disc, neither a defect list 
identifier for identifying the defect list nor an anchor 
identifier for identifying the anchor of the defect list 
is recorded. Therefore, in the case where the latest defect 
list includes neither the latest defect list identifier nor 

10 the latest anchor identifier, the defect management 
processing of recording the latest defect list includes the 
process of recording the defect list identifier and the anchor 
identifier in addition to the process of recording the latest 
defect list in the defect management area. In the case where 

15 the latest defect list includes the latest defect list 
identifier and the latest anchor identifier, no detailed 
explanation will be given since the processing was described 
above with reference to Figure 5. 

20 The control section 301 requests the recording and 

reproduction section 302 to record the latest defect list 
stored in the storage section 303 in the defect management 
area of the optical disc and to record the inherent defect 
list identifier and the inherent anchor identifier, which 

25 are initially stored in the control section 301, in a defect 
management area of the optical disc. More specifically, the 
inherent defect list identifier is recorded in the defect 
management area so as to be located at the start of the header 
121 . The inherent anchor identifier is recorded in the defect 

30 management area so as to be located at the start of the anchor 
126. In this case, an arbitrary value is recorded as the 
latest defect entry number and as the latest defect entry 
of the latest defect list which respectively correspond to 



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the defect entry number 132 and the first through Nth defect 
entries 122 through 125. As the first update times 
information and as the second update times information, for 
example, 0 or 1 is recorded. The values to be recorded as 
5 the first and second update times information are arbitrary 
as long as the values are equal to each other and represent 
that recording has been performed on an optical disc in the 
initial state only once. 

10 The method for recording the defect list identifier 

and the anchor identifier in the defect management area is 
not limited to the above -described method. For example, the 
inherent defect list identifier already stored in the control 
section 301 is given as the latest defect list identifier 

15 at the start of the latest header of the latest defect list 
stored in the storage section 303. Similarly, the inherent 
anchor identifier already stored in the control section 301 
is given as the latest anchor identifier at the start of 
the latest anchor of the latest defect list. As the defect 

20 management processing performed on an optical disc in the 
initial state, the latest defect list including the latest 
defect list identifier and the latest anchor identifier 
obtained in this manner may be recorded in the defect 
management area . 

25 

This process of defect management processing is 
performed in steps S504 and S505 in Figure 5. 

In the first example, it is accurately determined 
30 whether or not the defect management area has been updated 
normally. This will be described in three different cases 
of update. In the following explanation, the optical disc 
100 is used. 



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(Specific example 1: when a defect entry is added) 

Figure 6 shows data structures of a defect list in 
various states. Part (a) shows a data structure of a 
5 pre-update defect list. Part (b) shows a data structure of 
a defect list which was updated normally. Part (c) shows 
a data structure of a defect list which was not updated 
normally . 

Figure 6 shows the case where another defect area 
(defect sector) is detected in the user area 106 and one 
defect entry is added. The addition of the defect entry is 
performed as described above with reference to Figures 3 
and 5 . 

Part (a) of Figure 6 shows a data structure before 
the defect list is updated. The defect list shown in part 
(a) is the same as the defect list 112 shown in Figure 1. 
The defect list includes a first defect entry, . . . , and an 
Nth defect entry. The defect entry number is N, and the 
content of each of the first update times information and 
the second update times information is M. 

Part (b) of Figure 6 shows a data structure after 
25 the defect list is updated normally (one defect entry is 
added normally) . When one defect entry is added normally 
to the defect list, the defect list includes the first defect 

entry, , the Nth defect entry, and an (N+l)th defect entry. 

The number of defect entries is increased by one from the 
30 state in part (a) of Figure 6. The defect entry number is 
updated from N to N+l . The content of each of the first update 
times information and the second update times information 
is updated from M to M+l. 



10 



15 



20 



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Following the addition of the defect entry , the 
position of the anchor is shifted toward the unused area 
by the size of the added defect entry from the position shown 

5 in part (a) of Figure 6. The shifted position of the anchor 
is calculated as follows. The defect entry number (N+l) 
included in the header is multiplied by the size of one defect 
entry- The shifted position of the anchor is away toward 
the unused area from the end of the header by the multiplication 

0 result . At this point , the information which is read from 
the calculated position matches the value of the inherent 
anchor identifier of the control section 301. Thus, it is 
confirmed that the anchor is read. In addition, the content 
of the first updated times information matches the content 

5 of the second updated times information. Thus, it can be 
determined that the defect list has been updated normally. 

Part (c) of Figure 6 shows a data structure of a defect 
data in the case where the update failed before the anchor 

0 is recorded. The failure occurs when, for example, the 
recording and reproduction apparatus 300 is turned off while 
the defect list is being updated. In part (c) of Figure 6, 
the defect list includes the first defect entry, . - . , and 
the Nth defect entry, like in part (a) of Figure 6. Although 

5 the defect list includes the same defect entries as those 
of part (a) of Figure 6, the defect entry number is updated 
from N to (N+l). The content of the first update times 
information is updated from M to (M+l) . However, the content 
of the second update times information is M like in part 

0 (a) of Figure 6. In this case, the anchor is not located 
at the position which is obtained by multiplying the defect 
entry number (N+l) included in the header by the size of 
one defect entry. The information which is read from the 



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position calculated as the position of the anchor is padding 
data ( = 0 in part (c) of Figure 6) which is recorded in the 
unused area and is meaningless information . The information 
which is read as the position of the anchor is different 
5 from the value of the inherent anchor identifier of the control 
section 301. Thus, it is determined that the updating of 
the defect list failed, 

(Specific example 2: when a defect entry is deleted) 
10 Figure 7 shows data structures of a defect list in 

various states. Part (a) shows a data structure of a 
pre-update defect list. Part (b) shows a data structure of 
a defect list which was updated normally. Part (c) shows 
a data structure of a defect list which was not updated 
15 normally. 

Figure 7 shows the case where a defect area which 
was previously determined to be a defect area is currently 
determined to be a normal defect area, and the defect entry 
20 including the position information on the position of the 
defect area which is currently determined to be the normal 
defect area is deleted. The deletion of the defect entry 
is performed as described above with reference to Figures 
3 and 5 . 

25 

Part (a) of Figure 7 shows a data structure before 
the defect list is updated. The defect list shown in part 
(a) is the same as the defect list 112 shown in Figure 1. 

30 Part (b) of Figure 7 shows a data structure after 

the defect entry is deleted normally. When one defect entry 
is deleted normally from the defect list, the defect list 
includes the first defect entry, . . . , and an (N-l)th defect 



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entry. The number of defect entries is decreased by one from 
the state in part (a) of Figure 7. The defect entry number 
is updated from N to N-l. The content of each of the first 
update times information and the second update times 
5 information is updated from M to M+l. 

Following the deletion of the defect entry , the 
position of the anchor is shifted toward the header by the 
size of the deleted defect entry from the position shown 

10 in part (a) of Figure 7. The shifted position of the anchor 
is calculated as follows. The defect entry number (N-l) 
included in the header is multiplied by the size of one defect 
entry like in Specific example 1. The shifted position of 
the anchor is away toward the unused area from the end of 

15 the header by the multiplication result . At this point, the 
information which is read from the calculatedposit ion matches 
the value of the inherent anchor identifier of the control 
section 301. Thus, it is confirmed that the anchor is read. 
In addition, the content of the first updated times 

20 information matches the content of the second updated times 
information . Thus , it can be determined that the defect list 
has been updated normally. 

Part (c) of Figure 7 shows a data structure of a defect 
25 data in the case where the update failed before the anchor 
is recorded. The failure occurs when, for example, the 
recording and reproduction apparatus 300 is turned off while 
the defect list is being updated. In part (c) of Figure 7, 
the defect list includes the first defect entry, . . . , and 
30 the Nth defect entry, like in part (a) of Figure 7. Although 
the defect list includes the same defect entries as those 
of part (a) of Figure 7, the defect entry number is updated 
from N to (N-l). The content of the first update times 



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information is updated from M to (M+l) . However, the content 
of the second update times information is M like in part 
(a) of Figure 7. In this case, the anchor is not located 
at the position which is obtained by multiplying the defect 
5 entry number (N-l) included in the header by the size of 
one defect entry. The information which is read from the 
position calculated as the position of the anchor is the 
Nth defect position information which is included in the 
Nth defect entry . The value of the inherent anchor identifier 

10 of the control section 301 is different from any of the defect 
list identifier, the defect entries, or the padding data 
as described above with reference to Figures 2A through 2D. 
Thus, it never occurs that the content of the Nth defect 
position information accidentally matches the value of the 

15 inherent anchor identifier, resulting in an erroneous 
determination that the defect list has been updated normally. 

(Specific example 3: when a defect entry is changed) 

Figure 8 shows data structures of a defect list in 
20 various states. Part (a) shows a data structure of a 
pre-update defect list. Part (b) shows a data structure of 
a defect list which was updated normally. Part (c) shows 
a data structure of a defect list which was not updated 
normally. 

25 

Figure 8 shows the case where another defect area 
exists in the spare area 107 which is used as the substitute 
area (substitute sector) for the defect area (defect sector) 
represented by the (N-l)th defect position information, and 
30 the substitute position information in the (N-l)th defect 
entry is changed. The change of the defect entry is performed 
as described above with reference to Figures 3 and 5. 



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Part (a) of Figure 8 shows a data structure before 
the defect list is updated. The defect list shown in part 
(a) is the same as the defect list 112 shown in Figure 1. 

5 Part (b) of Figure 8 shows a data structure after 

the defect list is changed normally (after the substitute 
position information is changed normally) . Since no defect 
entry is added or deleted, the defect list includes the first 
defect entry, . . . , and the Nth defect entry like in part 
10 (a) of Figure 8. The number of defect entries is N like in 
part (a) of Figure 8. The content of each of the first update 
times information and the second update times information 
is updated from M to M+l. 

15 Accordingly, the position of the anchor after the 

update is the same as the position of the anchor before the 
update . The position of the anchor is calculated as follows . 
The defect entry number N included in the header is multiplied 
by the size of one defect entry. The position of the anchor 

20 is away toward the unused area from the end of the header 
by the multiplication result . At this point , the information 
which is read from the calculated position matches the value 
of the inherent anchor identifier of the control section 
301. Thus, it is confirmed that the anchor is read. In 

25 addition, the content of the first updated times information 
matches the content of the second updated times information. 
Thus, it can be determined that the defect list has been 
updated normally. 

30 Part ( c ) of Figure 8 shows a data structure of a defect 

data in the case where the update failed before the anchor 
is recorded. The failure occurs when, for example, the 
recording and reproduction apparatus 300 is turned off while 



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the defect list is being updated. In part (c) of Figure 8, 
the defect list includes the first defect entry, . . . , and 
the Nth defect entry , like in part ( a ) of Figure 8 . The defect 
entry number is N like in part (a) of Figure 8. The content 
5 of the first update times information is updated from M to 
(M+l). However, the content of the second update times 
information is M like in part (a) of Figure 8. In this case, 
the position which is obtained by multiplying the defect 
entry number N included in the header by the size of one 
10 defect entry is the correct position of the anchor. However, 
since the content of the first update times information is 
different from the content of the second update times 
information, it never occurs that the defect list is 
erroneously determined to have been updated normally. 

15 

In the first example, the header 121 includes the 
defect list identifier 131. The header 121 is located at 
a physically specified position in the optical disc 100 and 
therefore does not need to include the defect list identifier 
20 131. Even without the defect list identifier 131, the same 
effect as described in the first example can be provided. 

As described above, according to the first example 
of the present invention, the information recording medium 

25 100 includes the data area 102 for recording user data, and 
the defect management areas 104, 105, 108 and 109 for recording 
a defect list used for managing N number of defect areas 
existing in the data area 102 (N is an integer satisfying 
N > 0 ) . The defect list 112 includes the header 121, the 

30 N number of defect entries respectively including the position 
information on the positions of the N number of defect areas, 
and the anchor 126. The header 121, the N number of defect 
areas, and the anchor 126 are located in this order in the 



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defect list 112. 

Owing to such a structure, the size of the defect 
list 112 is variable. Since the size of the defect list 112 
5 is varied in accordance with the number of detected defect 
areas (defect sectors), the size of the defect list 112 is 
decreased when the number of the defect areas is small - Namely , 
the defect list 112 is accommodated in a small ECC size (e.g., 
1ECC size). When the size of the defect list 112 is small, 

10 the time required for recording the defect list 112 in the 
defect management area is shorter and the processing 
efficiency is improved. Even when a defect area exists in 
the remaining ECC blocks (unused area) of the defect 
management area other than the defect list 112, that defect 

15 management area can be processed as a normal defect management 
area. Accordingly, data in the defect management area can 
be normally reproduced. 

According to the first example of the present 
20 invention, the header 121 includes the defect list identifier 
131 for identifying the defect list 112, the first update 
times information 133 representing the number of times which 
the defect list 112 has been updated, and the defect entry 
number 132 representing the number of defect entries. The 
25 anchor 126 includes the anchor identifier 151 for identifying 
the anchor of the defect list 112, and the second update 
times information 152 representing the number of times which 
the defect list 112 has been updated. 

30 Owing to such a structure, it is not necessary to 

provide a header for each 1ECC size even when the size of 
the defect list 112 is not accommodated in 1ECC size. Thus, 
the processing efficiency of updating the defect list 112 



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is improved. Since the header is not interposed between the 
two defect entries, defect entries can be, for example, 
searched for, added and deleted easily. 

5 The content of the anchor identifier 151 is different 

from any of the defect list identifier 131, the defect entry 
number 132 , the first update times information 133 , the defect 
entries, or the second update times information 152. As such, 
even when a defect entry is deleted, the information which 
10 is erroneously read as the anchor identifier 151 never matches 
the content of the inherent anchor identifier. Therefore, 
the defect list 112 is not erroneously determined to have 
been updated normally when it has not been updated normally. 

15 (Example 2) 

(1) Information recording medium 

Figure 9 shows a data structure of an information 
recording medium 900 according to a second example of the 
present invention. 

20 

The information recording medium (optical disc) 900 
maybe, for example, a rewritable optical disc. The optical 
disc 900 is assumed to be subjected to error correction in 
units of 1ECC block . An ECC block is a unit of error correction 
2 5 in the field of optical discs. This size of one ECC block 
will be referred to as "1ECC size" , hereinafter. It is assumed 
that the recording of information on the optical disc 900 
and updating of the information on the optical disc 900 are 
performed in units of 1ECC block. 

30 

The data structure shown in Figure 9 is the structure 
of the optical disc 900 after position information on N number 
of defect areas in a defect management area is normally 



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recorded (N is an integer satisfying N ^ 0) . A defect area 
is, for example, a defect sector. 

The optical disc 900 includes a data area 902 for 
5 recording user data, and a lead-in area 901 and a lead-out 
area 903 acting as buffer areas when a recording and 
reproduction apparatus (not shown) overruns by the movement 
of an optical head (not shown). 

10 The data area 902 includes a user area 906 for 

recording user area and a spare area 907. When there is a 
defect area (for example, a defect sector) in the user area 
906, the user data which is to be recorded in the defect 
area is recorded in the spare area 907 instead of a portion 

15 of the user area 906 corresponding to the defect area. 

The lead-in area 901 includes a first defect 
management area 904 and a second defect management area 905 
for recording defect management information used for managing 
20 a defect area existing in the data area 902. 

The lead-out area 903 includes a third defect 
management area 908 and a fourth defect management area 909 
for recording defect management information used for managing 
25 a defect area existing in the data area 902, like the lead-in 
area 901. 

The first defect management area 904, the second 
defect management area 905, the third defect management area 
30 908, and the fourth defect management area 909 are 
respectively located at physically specific positions in 
the optical disc 900. 



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In the first defect management area 904 , the second 
defect management area 905 , the. third defect management area 
908 and the fourth defect management area 909, the same 
information for defect management is recorded in multiplex. 
5 The reason for this is , as described above in the f irst example , 
that the information recorded in the first, second, third 
and fourth defect management areas 904, 905, 908, and 909 
cannot be a target of defect management. Even if some of 
the first, second, third and fourth defect management areas 

10 904, 905, 908, and 909 have a defect area and the information 
recorded in the defect area cannot be reproduced, as long 
as at least one of the four defect management areas is 
defect -free, the defect management information recorded in 
that area can be normally reproduced. Accordingly, loss of 

15 the user data is prevented, which improves reliability. In 
the second example, the optical disc 900 includes the four 
defect management areas 904, 905, 908, and 909, but the number 
of defect management areas may be any number of one or more . 

20 In the first defect management area 904, a disc 

definition structure 911 and a defect list 912 for managing 
N number of defect areas existing in the data area 902 (N 
is an integer satisfying N ^ 0) are recorded. 

25 The disc definition structure 911 is information 

representing the disc structure, for example, whether or 
not the disc 900 has been subjected to defect management. 
This information also includes information regarding the 
spare area 907 . The disc definition structure 911 is located 

30 at a physically specific position in the first defect 
management area 904. The disc definition structure 911 has 
a prescribed size. 



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The defect list 912 includes a header 921 , a first 
defect entry 922, a second defect entry 923, . . . , an (N-l)th 
defect entry 924, an Nth entry 925, and an anchor 927 located 
at a fixed position in the defect list 912. The defect list 
5 912 further includes an unused area 926, unlike in the first 
example. The header 921, the first through Nth entries 922 
through 925, and the anchor 927 are located in this order 
in the defect list 912. 

10 In the second example, it is assumed that the size 

of the defect list 912 is 4ECC . The size of the defect list 
912 is not limited to 4ECC and is arbitrary. 

The header 921 includes a defect list identifier 931 
15 which represents that the area is the defect list 912 , a 
defect entry number 932 which represents the number of defect 
entries included in the defect list 912, and first update 
times information 933 which represents the number of times 
which an updated defect list has been recorded in the first 
20 defect management area 904. In Figure 9, the defect entry 
number 932 is N (N is an integer satisfying N ;> 0) , and the 
content of the first update times information 933 is M (M 
is an integer satisfying M ;> 0 ) . The defect list identifier 
931 may be located, for example, at the start of the header 
25 921 shown in Figure 9. 

The header 921 is located at a physically specified 
position. In the second example, the header 921 is located 
at the start of the defect list 912. The position of the 
30 header 921 in the defect list 912 is arbitrary as long as 
the header 921, the first through Nth defect entries 922 
through 925, and the anchor 927 are located in this order 
in the defect list 912. 



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In the case of the optical disc 900 shown in Figure 
9, the defect entry number 932 is N. Thus, the defect list 
912 includes the first defect entry 922, . .., and the Nth 
5 defect entry 925 . The first defect entry 922 includes first 
defect position information 941 which is position information 
showing the position of a defect area, and first substitute 
position information 942 which is position information 
showing the position of a part of the spare area 907 which 

10 is usable instead of the defect area. Likewise, the second 
defect entry 923 includes second defect position information 
and second substitute position information. The (N-l)th 
defect entry 924 and the Nth defect entry 925 also have 
substantially the same structure. Here, each of the first 

15 defect position information 941 and the first substitute 
position information 942 is generally a sector number. 

The defect entries are generally located such that 
the defect position information included therein is in an 

20 ascending order . More specifically, when, for example, the 
defect position information is a sector number, defect 
position information having the smaller sector number is 
located in the first defect entry as the first defect position 
information 941 . After this , the defect entries are located 

25 in the order of the sector numbers. Defect position 
information having the larger sector number is located in 
the Nth defect entry 925 as Nth defect position information. 

The defect entries in the defect list 912 do not need 
30 to be located in an ascending order. For example, the defect 
entries may be located such that the sector numbers are in 
a descending order. Alternatively, the defect entries may 
be located randomly. 



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In the unused area 926, currently meaningless 
information is recorded. Generally, padding data 952 (for 
example, 0) is recorded in the unused area 926. When a new 
5 defect area is detected in the user area 906, a defect entry 
for managing the new defect area is added to the defect list 
912 . As a result , the size of the unused area 926 is decreased 
by the size of the added defect entry. 

10 The anchor 927 includes second update times 

information 951 which represents the number of times which 
the updated defect list has been recorded in the first defect 
management area 904. In Figure 9, the content of the second 
update times information 951 is M (M is an integer satisfying 

15 M > 0 ) , and is the same as that of the first update times 
information 933 . As long as the first defect management area 
904 is updated normally, the content of the first update 
times information 933 and the content of the second update 
times information 951 are identical to each other. 

20 

In this specification, the first and second update 
times information 933 and 951 represent the number of times 
which the updated defect list has been recorded in the first 
defect management area 904 (i.e. , the number of times which 

25 the defect list 912 has been updated and recorded on the 
optical disc 900). The first and second update times 
information 933 and 951 may represent the number of times 
which the defect list has been updated (i.e., the number 
of times which the defect list has been updated in the storage 

30 section described below ) . In the following description , the 
first and second update times information 933 and 951 
represent the number of times which the updated defect list 
has been recorded in the first defect management area 904. 



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The anchor 927 is located at a fixed position in the 
defect list 912, unlike in the first example. The anchor 
927 is preferably located which is determined based on the 
5 position of the header 921 . In the second example , the anchor 
927 is located at the position of the end of the defect list 
912, i.e., at the end of the first defect management area 
904. Since the size of the defect list 912 is fixed at 4ECC, 
the anchor 927 is located at the end of the fourth ECC block 
10 from the start of the defect list 912. However, as long as 
the header 921 , the 1st through Nth defect entries 922 through 
925, and the anchor 927 are located in the defect list 912 
in this order, the anchor 927 may be fixed at an arbitrary 
position in the defect list 912. 

15 

In the optical disc 900 in the second example, the 
anchor 927 is located at a physically fixed position in the 
defect list 912. The header 921 includes the first update 
times information 933, and the anchor 927 includes the second 

20 update times information 951. Since the position of the 
anchor 927 is fixed, the content of the first update times 
information 933 and the content of the second update times 
information 951 are compared with each other without fail. 
Accordingly, it can be easily determined whether or not the 

25 defect list 912 has been updated normally. 

The following description will be made with the 
premise that the optical disc 900 has the data structure 
shown in Figure 9. 

30 

(2) Reproduction/recording (update) 

The recording and reproduction apparatus 300 shown 
in Figure 3 is used for recording information on the optical 



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disc 900 according to the second example and/or reproducing 
information recorded on the optical disc 900 . Unlike in the 
first example, the control section 301 in the second example 
has only an inherent defect list identifier for identifying 
5 the defect list 912 in the optical disc 900 stored thereon. 
The content (value) of the inherent defect list identifier 
is correct and is not rewritable. The description of the 
recording and reproduction apparatus 300 shown in Figure 
3 is provided in the first example and will not be repeated 
10 here. 

( 2 - 1 ) Defect management processing for specifying the latest 
defect list 

Next, with reference to Figure 3, the operation of 
15 defect management processing for specifying the latest defect 
list performed by the recording and reproduction apparatus 
300 will be described. 

The control section 301 executes the defect 
20 management processing. The control section 301 follows the 
procedure of the defect management processing to request 
the recording and reproduction section 302 to reproduce the 
information of the disc definition structure 911 located 
at the start of the first defect management area 904 and 
25 store the reproduced information from the disc definition 
structure 911 in the storage section 303. 

Upon the request from the control section 301, the 
recording and reproduction section 302 reproduces the 
30 information of the disc definition structure 911 from the 
optical disc 900 and stores the information in the storage 
section 303. The recording and reproduction section 302 
reports to the control section 301 that the reproduction 



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and storage of the information of the disc definition 
structure 911 has been completed. 

Upon receiving the report from the recording and 
reproduction section 302, the control section 301 checks 
whether or not the optical disc 900 has been subjected to 
defect management, based on the information of the disc 
definition structure 911 stored in the storage section 303. 

When confirming that the optical disc 900 has been 
subjected to defect management, the control section 301 
requests the recording and reproduction section 302 to 
reproduce the header 921 located at a fixed position of the 
defect list 912 (in the example of Figure 9, at the start 
of the defect list 912 ) recorded in the first defect management 
area 904 and store the reproduced header 921 in the storage 
section 303. 

Upon the request from the control section 301, the 
recording and reproduction section 302 reproduces the header 
921 located at the start of the defect list 912 recorded 
in the first defect management area 904 and store the 
reproduced header 921 in the storage section 303. The 
recording and reproduction section 302 reports to the control 
section 301 that the reproduction and storage of the header 
921 has been completed. 

Upon receiving the report from the recording and 
reproduction section 302, the control section 301 compares 
the content of the inherent defect list identifier initially 
stored in the control section 301 with the content of the 
defect list identifier 931 included in the header 921 stored 
in the storage section 303 to check whether or not the stored 



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information is the header 921 in the defect list 912. 

When the two contents compared match each other, the 
control section 301 determines that the stored information 
5 is the header 921 in the defect list 912 and proceeds with 
the defect management processing. When the two contents 
compared do not match each other, the control section 301 
determines that updating of the first defect management area 
904 failed (abnormal defect management area) and terminates 
10 the defect management processing. The two contents compared 
do not match each other when, for example, there is a defect 
area in the first defect management area 904 and thus 
information cannot be read therefrom. 

15 in order to confirm the content of the first update 

times information 933 and the content of the second update 
times information 951 in the first defect management area 
904, the control section 301 requests the recording and 
reproduction section 302 to reproduce the anchor 927 located 

20 at the fixed position in the defect list 912 (in Figure 9, 
at the end of the fourth ECC block from the start of the 
defect list 912) and store the reproduced anchor 927 in the 
storage section 303. 

25 Upon the request from the control section 301, the 

recording and reproduction section 302 reproduces the anchor 
927 located at the designated position in the defect list 
912 and stores the reproduced anchor 927 in the storage section 
303. The recording and reproduction section 302 reports to 

30 the control section 301 that the reproduction and storage 
of the anchor 927 has been completed. 

The control section 301 compares the content of the 



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first update times information 933 included in the header 
921 with the content of the second update times information 
951 included in the anchor 927 stored in the storage section 
303. 

When the two contents compared match each other , the 
control section 301 determines that the first defect 
management area 904 has been updated normally, and proceeds 
with the defect management processing. 

When the two contents compared do not match each other , 
the control section 301 determines that updating of the first 
defect management area 904 failed ( abnormal defect management 
area) and terminates the defect management processing. The 
two contents compared do not match each other when , for example , 
the recording and reproduction apparatus 300 is turned off 
while the first through Nth defect entries 922 through 925 
in the defect list 912 are being updated. In this case, the 
content of the first update times information 933 included 
in the header 921 does not match the content of the second 
update times information 951 included in the anchor 927. 

The control section 301 performs substantially the 
same processing for each of the second defect management 
area 905, the third defect management area 908 and the fourth 
defect management area 909. 

After checking whether or not each of the first 
through fourth defect management areas 904, 905, 908 and 
909 is a normal defect management area, the control section 
301 specifies the latest defect management area among the 
defect management areas which have been determined to be 
normal, as follows. The control section 301 makes a 



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comparison of the first update times information 933 recorded 
in the defect management areas which have been determined 
to be normal, and specifies the defect management area having 
the largest number of updates as the latest defect management 
5 area . The defect list recorded in the specified latest defect 
management area is specified as the latest defect list. 

The second update times information 951 included in 
the anchor 927 may be used for specifying the latest defect 
10 management area instead of the first update times information 
933. 

The control section 301 requests the recording and 
reproduction section 302 to reproduce the defect list recorded 
15 in the specified latest defect management area and store 
the reproduced defect list in the defect list area saved 
in the storage section 303. 

Upon the request from the control section 301, the 
20 recording and reproduction section 302 reproduces the defect 
list recorded in the specified latest defect management area 
and stores the reproduced defect list in the defect list 
area in the storage section 303. The recording and 
reproduction section 302 reports to the control section 301 
25 that the reproduction and storage of the defect list has 
been completed. 

Thus, the operation of defect management processing 
for specifying the latest defect list performed by the 
30 recording and reproduction apparatus 300 is completed. 

Using the specified latest defect list , the user data 
recorded in the data area 902, for example, can be reproduced. 



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In this case, the control section 301 requests the recording 
and reproduction section 302 to reproduce the user data based 
on the latest defect list and store the reproduced user data 
in the storage section 303. 

Upon the request from the control section 301, the 
recording and reproduction section 302 reproduces the user 
data from the data area 902 and stores the reproduced user 
data in the storage section 303. 

information recording may be performed using the 
specified latest defect list. 

Figure 10 shows a procedure of defect management 
processing for specifying the latest defect list in the second 
example. The defect management processing is executed by 
the control section 301. Hereinafter, each step of the 
procedure of defect management processing will be described. 
The procedure of defect management processing is started 
after it is confirmed that the optical disc 900 has been 
subjected to defect management. Whether or not the optical 
disc 900 has been subjected to defect management is determined 
based on the disc definition structure 911 in the optical 
disc 900. 

Step S1001: The defect list identifier 931, the 
defect entry number 932 and the first update times information 
933 included in the header 921 are reproduced. The content 
of the reproduced defect list identifier 931 is compared 
with the content of the inherent defect list identifier. 
The inherent defect list identifier identifies the defect 
list 912 in the optical disc 900. The inherent defect list 
identifier has a correct value which is not rewritable. The 



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inherent defect list identifier may be initially stored in 
the control section 301 . When the two contents compared match 
each other, the defect management processing advances to 
step S1002 . When the two contents compared do not match each 
other, the defect management processing advances to step 
S1003. 

Step S1002: When the content of the defect list 
identifier 931 and the content of the inherent defect list 
identifier are determined to match each other in step S1001, 
the reproduced information is determined to be the header 
921 in the defect list 912. The anchor 927 located at a fixed 
position (in Figure 9, at the position of the fourth ECC 
block from the start of the defect list 912) is reproduced. 
The content of the first update times information 933 included 
in the header 921 is compared with the content of the second 
update times information 951 included in the anchor 927. 
When the two contents compared are determined to match each 
other, the defect management processing advances to step 
S1004. When the two contents compared are determined not 
to match each other , the defect management proces sing advances 
to step S1003. 

Step S1003: When the content of the defect list 
identifier 931 and the content of the inherent defect list 
identifier are determined not to match each other in step 
S1001, or when the content of the first update times 
information 933 and the content of the second update times 
information 951 are determined not to match each other in 
step S1002, updating of the first defect management area 
904 is determined to have failed (abnormal defect management 
area), and the defect management processing for the first 
defect management area 904 is terminated. The defect 



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management processing advances to step S1005. 

Step S1004: When the content of the first update 
times information 933 and the content of the second update 
5 times information 951 are determined to match each other 
in step S1002, the first defect management area 904 is 
determined to have been updated normally. Then, the defect 
management processing advances to step S1005. 

10 Step S1005: It is determined whether or not the 

operations in steps S1001 through S1004 have been performed 
for all the defect management areas in the optical disc 900. 
When the operations in steps S1001 through S1004 have not 
been performed for all the defect management areas , the defect 

15 management processing returns to step S1001. When the 
operations in steps S1001 through S1004 have been performed 
for all the defect management areas, the defect management 
processing advances to step S1006. 

20 Step S1006: The latest defect list is specified. 

More specifically, the latest defect management area among 
the defect management areas determined to be normal is 
specified, as follows. A comparison is made of the first 
update times information (or the second update times 

25 information) recorded in the defect management areas 
determined to be normal , and the defect management area having 
the largest number of updates is specified as the latest 
defect management area. The defect list recorded in the 
specified latest defect management area is specified as the 

30 latest defect list. 

When the latest defect list of the optical disc 900 
is specified by steps S1001 through S1006, the defect 



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management processing is completed. Using the latest defect 
list obtained in step S1006, the user data recorded in the 
data area 902, for example, can be reproduced. 

(2-2) Defect management processing for updating the latest 
defect list 

Returning to Figure 3, the operation of defect 
management processing for updating the latest defect list 
performed by the recording and reproduction apparatus 300 
will be described . In the following example , the defect list 
is updated when another defect area is detected while the 
user data is being recorded in the data area 902 of the optical 
disc 900, or when a portion of the user area 906 which was 
previously determined to be a defect area is determined to 
be a normal defect area while the user data recorded in the 
data area 902 is being reproduced. Throughout this 
specification, a "normal defect area" is defined to mean 
an area which was previously determined to be a defect area 
but currently has no defect and allows information to be 
recorded therein and/or allows information therein to be 
reproduced. An area which was previously determined to be 
a defect area is currently determined to be a normal defect 
area when, for example, the defect is caused by dust or stain 
such as a fingerprint on the surface of the optical disc. 
In this case, when the user cleans the surface of the optical 
disc to remove the dust or stain, the area in which the dust 
or stain existed (i.e., the area which was previously 
determined to be a defect area) is currently determined to 
be a normal area usable for recording/reproduction. 

The storage section 303 stores the latest defect list . 
The latest defect list may be located in the defect list 
area in the storage section 303. The latest defect list 



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includes the latest header, P number of latest defect entries 
(P is an integer satisfying P a 0 where P = N or P * N) , and 
the latest anchor . The latest header, the P number of latest 
defect entries, and the latest anchor are located in the 
latest defect list in this order . The latest header is located 
at a fixed position in the latest defect list. The latest 
anchor is also located at a fixed position in the latest 
defect list. The latest header includes the latest defect 
list identifier, the first latest update times information 
and the latest defect entry number P. The content of the 
latest defect list identifier is always the same as that 
of the inherent defect list identifier stored in the control 
section 301. The latest anchor includes the second latest 
update times information which has the same content as that 
of the first latest update times information. It is assumed 
that the P number of latest defect entries are arranged in 
an ascending order of the defect position information (defect 
sector numbers ) . The latest defect list may include an unused 
area. It is not always necessary that the latest header 
includes the latest defect list identifier. 

The above-described arrangement of the latest header 
and the P number of latest defect entries and the latest 
anchor is merely an example . The arrangement of the latest 
header and the P number of latest defect entries and the 
latest anchor in the latest defect list is arbitrary. 

The control section 301 executes the defect 
management processing . The control section 301 requests the 
recording and reproduction section 302 to determine whether 
(a) another defect area exists in the data area 902, (b) a 
defect area which was previously determined to be a defect 
area is currently a normal defect area, or (c) neither (a) 



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nor ( b ) is the case . Whether or not another defect area exists 
in the data area 902 is determined by, for example, comparing 
a signal obtained by reproducing data immediately after user 
data is recorded with a signal representing user data to 
be recorded. When these signals match each other, the user 
data is determined to have been normally recorded in the 
data area 902. When these signals do not match each other, 
it is determined that the user data has not been normally 
recorded in the data area 902 and another defect area exists 
in the data area 902. 

When determining that another defect area exists in 
the data area 902 or that the area which was previously 
determined to be a defect area is currently a normal defect 
area, the control section 301 updates the latest defect list 
stored in the storage section 303. 

Specific procedures of updating the latest defect 
list will be described. There are three cases of updating 
the latest defect list, namely, (i) addition of a defect 
entry, (ii) deletion of a defect entry; and (iii) change 
of a defect entry. Each of these cases will be described 
one by one. 

(i) Addition of a defect entry 

When it is determined that another defect area exists 
in the user area 906 , a defect entry including the position 
information on the position of the another defect area is 
added to the latest defect list . Based on the defect position 
information on the detected defect area, the control section 
301 determines the position of the defect entry to be added. 
The control section 301 shifts the other defect entries and 
the latest anchor existing subsequent to the determined 



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position toward the unused area, and adds the defect entry 
including the position information on the another defect 
area at the determined position. As a result , the P number 
of latest defect entries are updated to P 1 number of latest 
defect entries (P * P", P < P'). 

Following the addition of the defect entry, the 
control section 301 updates the latest defect entry number 
from P into P 1 . In this case, the latest defect entry number 
is increased by the number of the added defect entries (i.e. , 
by the number of the detected defect sectors). 

After the P number of latest defect entries and the 
latest defect entry number P are updated, the control section 
301 increments, by one, the content of the first latest update 
times information included in the latest header and the 
content of the second latest update times information included 
in the latest anchor. 

(ii) Deletion of a defect entry 

When an area which was previously determined to be 
a defect area is currently determined to be a normal defect 
area, the control section 301 deletes the defect entry 
including the position information on the area determined 
to be the normal defect area. The control section 301 then 
shifts the defect entries located subsequent to the deleted 
defect entry toward the latest header by the size of the 
deleted defect entry. The unused area is expanded by the 
size of the deleted defect entry, and the control section 
0 301 records padding data (for example, 0) in the expanded 
portion of the unused area. As a result, the P number of 
latest defect entries are updated to P' number of latest 
defect entries (P * P', P > P'). 



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Following the deletion of the defect entry, the 
control section 301 updates the latest defect entry number 
included in the latest header from P into P' . In this case, 
the latest defect entry number is decreased by the number 
of the deleted defect entries (i.e., by the number of the 
defect sectors determined to be normal). 

After the P number of latest defect entries and the 
latest defect entry number P are updated, the control section 
301 increments , by one , the content of the first latest update 
times information included in the latest header and the 
content of the second latest update times information included 
in the latest anchor. 

(iii) Change of a defect entry 

The operation in this case is the same as the operation 
described in the first example, and will not be repeated 
here . 

The operations of (i) through (iii) are performed 
by the control section 301 for the latest defect list stored 
in the storage section 303. As in the first example, in the 
case where the first and second update times information 
933 and 951 represent the number of times which the updated 
latest defect list has been recorded in the first defect 
management area 904, the first and second latest update times 
information may each be incremented by one only once before 
the updated latest defect list is recorded in the first defect 
management area 904 . By contrast , in the case where the first 
and second update times information 933 and 951 represent 
the number of times which the latest defect list has been 
updated in the storage section 303, the first and second 



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latest update times information may be incremented by one 
each time the latest defect entries and the latest defect 
entry number are updated. 

The control section 301 requests the recording and 
reproduction section 302 to record the latest defect list 
updated in the storage section 303 in the first defect 
management area 904 of the optical disc 900. For example, 
the control section 301 requests the recording and 
reproduction section 302 to record the updated latest header, 
theupdatedP' number of latest defect entries, and the updated 
latest anchor in the first defect management area 904 in 
this order. 

Upon the request from the control section 301, the 
recording and reproduction section 302 records the updated 
latest defect list in the first defect management area 904 . 
The updated defect list replacing the defect list 912 is 
recorded in the first defect management area 904 in the order 
of the latest header replacing the header 921, the latest 
defect entries replacing the first through Nth defect entries 
922 through 925, and the latest anchor replacing the anchor 
927 . The recording and reproduction section 302 reports to 
the control section 301 that the recording of the updated 
latest defect list in the first defect management area 904 
has been completed. Unlike in the first example, the anchor 
927 is located at the fixed position, i.e., at the end of 
the fourth ECC block from the start of the defect list 912 
in the optical disc 900 in the second example. Therefore, 
even when the total size of the header 921 and the defect 
entries in the defect list 912 is accommodated in 1ECC size, 
data of at least two ECC blocks, i.e. , the data for the first 
ECC block and the data for the fourth ECC block need to be 



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recorded. 

The control section 301 requests the recording and 
reproduction section 302 to record the latest defect list 
updated in the storage section 303 in each of the second 
through fourth defect management areas 905, 908 and 909. 
More specifically, again, the control section 301 requests 
the recording and reproduction section 302 to record the 
updated latest header, the updated latest defect entries, 
and the updated latest anchor in this order in the second 
through fourth defect management areas 905, 908 and 909. 

Upon the request from the control section 301, the 
recording and reproduction section 302 records the updated 
latest defect list in each of the second through fourth defect 
management areas 905, 908 and 909. 

Thus, the operation of defect management processing 
for updating the latest defect list performed by the recording 
and reproduction apparatus 300 is completed. 

The order of recording the updated latest defect list 
is not limited to the above -de scribed order of the latest 
header, theP' number of latest defect entries, and the latest 
anchor. As long as the header 921, the N number of defect 
entries 922 through 925, and the anchor 927 are located in 
this order in the defect list 912, the control section 301 
may request the recording and reproduction section 302 to 
record the updated latest anchor, the P' number of latest 
defect entries, and the latest header in this order in each 
of the first through fourth defect management areas 904, 
905, 908 and 909, and the recording and reproduction section 
302 may record the updated latest defect list in each of 



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the first through fourth defect management areas 904, 905, 
908 and. 909 upon the request from the control section 301. 

Returning to Figure 5, a procedure of defect 
management processing for updating the latest defect list 
in the second example will be described. The defect 
management processing is executed by the control section 
301. The operations in steps S501 through S503 and S505 are 
substantially the same as those of the first example, and 
will not be repeated here. 

Step S504 : The updated latest defect list is recorded 
in the first defect management area 904 of the optical disc 
900. For example, the updated latest header, the updated 
P' number of latest defect entries, and the updated latest 
anchor are recorded in the first defect management area 904 
in this order. As long as the header 921, the N number of 
defect entries 922 through 925 , and the anchor 927 are located 
in this order in the defect list 912. the updated latest 
anchor, the updated P* number of latest defect entries, and 
the updated latest header may be recorded in this order in 
the first defect management area 904 . In the optical disc 
900 , the anchor 927 is located at the fixed position in the 
defect list 912 (in Figure 9, at the end of the fourth ECC 
block from the start of the defect list 912). Therefore, 
even when the total size of the header 921 and the defect 
entries in the defect list 912 is accommodated in 1ECC size, 
data of at least two ECC blocks, i.e. , the data for the first 
ECC block and the data for the fourth ECC block are recorded. 

As described above, the arrangement of the latest 
header, the P' number of latest defect entries and the latest 
anchor in the latest defect list is arbitrary. The updated 



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10 



15 



latest defect list is recorded in each of the first through 
fourth defect management areas 904, 905, 908 and 909 of the 
optical disc 900 as follows. Such that the updated latest 
header is located at the position of the header 921, the 
updated P' number of latest defect entries are located at 
the positions of the defect entries 922 through 925, and 
the updated latest anchor is located at the position of the 
anchor 927, the updated latest defect list is recorded in 
each of the first through fourth defect management areas 
904, 905, 908 and 909 in the order of the updated latest 
header, the updated P' number of latest defect entries, and 
the updated latest anchor or in the order of the updated 
latest anchor, the updated P ' number of latest defect entries , 
and the updated latest header. 



In the above description, the updated latest defect 
list is recorded on the optical disc 900 shown in Figure 
9 where the optical disc 900 has been subjected to defect 
management. Next, recording of the updated latest defect 
20 list on an optical disc in an initial state immediately after 
being shipped from the plant will be described. 

An optical disc in an initial state is assumed to 
have the same structure as that shown in Figure 9 except 

25 that, for example, the defect list 912 (Figure 9) has no 
information . In such optical disc , no defect list identifier 
for identifying the defect list is recorded. Therefore, in 
the case where the latest defect list does not include the 
latest defect list identifier, the defect management 

30 processing of recording the latest defect list includes the 
process of recording the defect list identifier in addition 
to the process of recording the latest defect list in the 
defect management area. In the case where the latest defect 



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list includes the latest defect list identifier, no detailed 
explanation will be given since the processing was described 
above with reference to Figure 5. 

5 The control section 301 requests the recording and 

reproduction section 302 to record the latest defect list 
stored in the storage section 303 in the defect management 
area of the optical disc and to record the inherent defect 
list identifier , which is initially stored in the control 

10 section 301 , in the defect management area of the optical 
disc. More specifically, the inherent defect list 
identifier is recorded in the defect management area so as 
to be located at the start of the header 921. In this case, 
an arbitrary value is recorded as the latest defect entry 

15 number and as the latest defect entry of the latest defect 
list which respectively correspond to the defect entry number 
932 and the first through Nth defect entries 922 through 
925 . As the first update times information and as the second 
update times information, for example, 0 or 1 is recorded. 

20 The values to be recorded as the first and second update 
times information are arbitrary as long as the values are 
equal to each other and represent that recording has been 
performed on an optical disc in the initial state only once. 

25 The method for recording the defect list identifier 

in the defect management area is not limited to the 
above -described method. For example, the inherent defect 
list identifier already stored in the control section 301 
is given as the latest defect list identifier at the start 

30 of the latest header of the latest defect list stored in 
the storage section 303 . As the defect management processing 
performed on an optical disc in the initial state, the latest 
defect list including the latest defect list identifier 



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obtained in this manner may be recorded in the defect 
management area . 

This process of defect management processing is 
performed in steps S504 and S505 in Figure 5. 

In the second example, it is accurately determined 
whether or not the defect management area has been updated 
normally. This will be described below. In the following 
explanation, the optical disc 900 is used. 

(Specific example 1: when a defect entry is added) 

Figure 11 shows data structures of a defect list in 
various states. Part (a) shows a data structure of a 
pre-update defect list. Part (b) shows a data structure of 
a defect list which was updated normally. Part (c) shows 
a data structure of a defect list which was not updated 
normally . 

Figure 11 shows the case where another defect area 
(defect sector) is detected in the user area 906 and one 
defect entry is added. The addition of the defect entry is 
performed as described above with reference to Figures 3 
and 5 . 

Part (a) of Figure 11 shows a data structure before 
the defect list is updated. The defect list shown in part 
(a) is the same as the defect list 912 shown in Figure 9. 

The defect list includes a first defect entry, and an 

Nth defect entry. The defect entry number is N, and the 
content of each of the first update times information and 
the second update times information is M. 



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Part (b) of Figure 11 shows a data structure after 
the defect list is updated normally (one defect entry is 
added normally) . When one defect entry is added normally 
to the defect list, the defect list includes the first defect 
5 entry, . . . , the Nth defect entry, and an (N+l )th defect entry. 
The number of defect entries is increased by one from the 
state in part (a) of Figure 11. The defect entry number is 
updated fromN to N+l . The content of each of the first update 
times information and the second update times information 
10 is updated from M to M+l. 

Following the addition of the defect entry, the size 
of the unused area is decreased by the size of the added 
defect entry like Specific example 1, but the position of 
15 the anchor is fixed. The content of the first updated times 
information matches the content of the second updated times 
information. Thus , it can be determined that the defect list 
has been updated normally. 

20 Part (c) of Figure 11 shows a data structure of a 

defect data in the case where the update failed before the 
anchor is recorded. The failure occurs when, for example, 
the recording and reproduction apparatus 300 is turned off 
while the defect list is being updated. In part (c) of Figure 

25 11, the defect list includes the first defect entry, 

and the Nth defect entry, like in part (a) of Figure 11. 
Although the defect list includes the same defect entries 
as those of part (a) of Figure 11, the defect entry number 
is updated from N to (N+l) . The content of the first update 

30 times information is updated from M to (M+l) . However, the 
content of the second update times information is M like 
in part (a) of Figure 11. Since the content of the first 
updated times information does not match the content of the 



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second updated times information, it is determined that the 
updating of the defect list failed. 

In the case where a defect entry is changed or a defect 
5 entry is deleted, it can toe determined whether or not the 
defect list has been updated normally by comparing the content 
of the first update times information and the content of 
the second update times information in substantially the 
same manner. 

10 

In the second example, the anchor 927 includes only 
the second update times information 951. As in the first 
example, the anchor 927 may also include an anchor identifier 
for identifying the anchor in the defect list 912. In this 
15 case also, the same effect as described in the second example 
can be provided. 

In the second example, the header 921 includes the 
defect list identifier 931. The header 921 is located at 
20 a physically specified position in the optical disc 900 and 
therefore does not need to include the defect list identifier 
931. Even without the defect list identifier 931, the same 
effect as described in the second example can be provided. 

2 5 As described above, according to the second example 

of the present invention, the information recording medium 
900 includes the data area 902 for recording user data, and 
the defect management areas 904, 905, 908 and 909 for recording 
a defect list used for managing N number of defect areas 

30 existing in the data area 902 (N is an integer satisfying 
N s= 0). The defect list 912 includes the header 921, the 
N number of defect entries respectively including the position 
information on the positions of the N number of defect areas. 



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and the anchor 927 located at a fixed position in the defect 
list 912. The header 921 includes the first update times 
information 933, and the anchor 927 includes the second update 
times information 951. 

5 

Since the anchor 927 is located at the fixed position , 
other information is never erroneously reproduced as the 
anchor 927. Namely, the content of the first update times 
information 933 and the content of the second update times 
10 information 951 can be compared with each other without fail . 

Accordingly, it can easily be determined whether or not the 
defect list 912 has been updated normally. 

Again, since the anchor 927 is located at the fixed 
15 position, it is not necessary to calculate the position of 
the anchor 927 and check whether or not the anchor 927 is 
located at the calculated position as is necessary in the 
first example, in order to reproduce the anchor 927. 
Therefore, the processing of defect management can be 
20 simplified and improved in speed. 

It is not necessary to provide a header for each 1ECC 
size even when the size of the defect list 912 is not 
accommodated in 1ECC size. Thus, the processing efficiency 
25 of updating the defect list 912 is improved. Since the header 
is not interposed between the two defect entries, defect 
entries can be, for example, searched for, added and deleted 
easily. 

30 INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY 

As described above, an information recording medium 
according to the present invention includes a data area for 



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recording user data and a defect management area for recording 
a defect list used for managing N number of defect areas 
(N is an integer satisfying N^O) existing in the data area. 
The defect list includes a header, N number of defect entries 
5 respectively including the position information on the 
positions of the N number of defect areas, and an anchor. 
The header, the N number of defect entries, and the anchor 
are located in this order in the defect list. Owing to such 
a structure, the size of the defect list is variable, and 
10 therefore the processing speed is improved in accordance 
with the size of the defect list. 

With the information recording medium according to 
the present invention, the header includes a defect list 
identifier for identifying the defect list, first update 
times information representing the number of times which 
the defect list has been updated, and a defect entry number 
representing the number of defect entries. The anchor 
includes an anchor identifier for identifying the anchor 
of the defect list, and second update times information 
representing the number of times which the defect list has 
been updated. It is not necessary to provide a header for 
each 1ECC size even when the size of the defect list is not 
accommodated in 1ECC size. Thus, the processing efficiency 
of updating the defect list is improved. Since the header 
is not interposed between the two defect entries, defect 
entries can be, for example, searched for, added and deleted 
easily. 

30 The content of the anchor identifier is different 

from any of the defect list identifier, the defect entry 
number, thefirst update times information, the defect entries, 
or the second update times information. As such, even when 



15 



20 



25 



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a defect entry is deleted, the information which is 
erroneously read as the anchor identifier never matches the 
content of the inherent anchor identifier. Therefore, the 
defect list is not erroneously determined to have been updated 
5 normally when it has not been updated normally. 

Various other modifications will be apparent to and 
can be readily made by those skilled in the art without 
departing from the scope and spirit of this invention. 
10 Accordingly, it is not intended that the scope of the claims 
appended hereto be limited to the description as set forth 
herein, but rather that the claims be broadly construed. 



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CLAIMS 

1. An information recording medium, comprising: 

a data area for recording user data, and 
5 a defect management area for recording a defect list 

for managing N number of defect areas existing in the data 
area, where N is an integer satisfying N ss 0 ; 
wherein : 

the defect list includes : 
10 a header located at a fixed position in the 

defect list, 

N number of defect entries respectively 
including position information on positions of the N number 
of defect areas a and 
15 an anchor; 

the header, the N number of defect entries, and the 
anchor are located in this order in the defect list; 
the header includes: 

a defect list identifier for identifying the 

20 defect list, 

first update times information representing 
the number of times which the defect list has been updated, 
and 

a defect entry number representing the 
25 number of the N number of defect entries; and 
the anchor includes : 

an anchor identifier for identifying the 
anchor of the defect list, and 

second update times information 
30 representing the number of times which the defect list has 
been updated. 

2. An information recording medium according to claim 1, 



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wherein the defect list includes at least two blocks , and 
the defect list is recorded in units of one block. 

3. A recording apparatus for recording information on an 
5 information recording medium, wherein the information 
recording medium includes a data area for recording user 
data, and a defect management area for recording a defect 
list for managing N number of defect areas existing in the 
data area, where N is an integer satisfying N ^ 0; wherein: 

10 the defect list includes a header located at a fixed position 
in the defect list, N number of defect entries respectively 
including position information on positions of the N number 
of defect areas, and an anchor; the header, the N number 
of defect entries, and the anchor are located in this order 

15 in the defect list; the header includes a defect list 
identifier for identifying the defect list, first update 
times information representing the number of times which 
the defect list has been updated, and a defect entry number 
representing the number of the N number of defect entries; 

20 and the anchor includes an anchor identifier for identifying 
the anchor of the defect list, and second update times 
information representing the number of times which the defect 
list has been updated; 

the recording apparatus comprising: 

25 a recording section for recording the information 

on the information recording medium, 

a storage section for storing the information to be 
recorded on the information recording medium, and a latest 
defect list, and 

30 a control section for controlling execution of defect 

management processing which is performed using the recording 
section and the storage section; 
wherein : 



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the latest defect list includes a latest header, P 
number of latest defect entries, and a latest anchor, wherein 
P is an integer satisfying P ^ 0 where P = N or P * N; 

the latest header includes first latest update times 
5 information and a latest defect entry number P; 

the latest anchor includes second update times 
information having a content identical to that of the first 
update times information; and 

the defect management processing includes the steps 

10 of: 

(a) determining (i) whether another defect area 
exists in the data area, (ii) whether a normal defect area 
exists among the N number of defect areas, or (iii) neither 
(i) nor (ii) is the case, 

15 (b) when it is determined in the step (a) that another 

defect area exists in the data area, or that a normal defect 
area exists among the N number of defect areas, updating 
the P number of latest defect entries into P" number of latest 
defect entries, where P 1 is an integer satisfying P' s= 0 where 

20 P = P' orP^P'; and updating the latest defect entry number 
from P to P ' ; 

' (c) incrementing, by one, each of the first latest 
update times information and the second latest update times 
information, and 

25 (d) recording the latest defect list updated in the 

steps (b) and (c) in the defect management area. 

4. A recording apparatus to claim 3, wherein the step (d) 
includes the step of recording the updated latest defect 
30 list in the defect management area in the order of the updated 
latest header, the updated P ' number of latest defect entries , 
and the updated latest anchor, or in the order of the updated 
latest anchor, the updated P 1 number of latest defect entries , 



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and the updated latest header. 

5 • A recording apparatus according to claim 4 , wherein the 
step (b) includes the step of, when it is determined in the 
5 step (a) that another defect area exists in the data area, 
adding another defect entry to the latest defect list. 

6. A recording apparatus according to claim 4, wherein the 
step (b) includes the step of, when it is determined in the 
10 step (a) that a normal defect area exists among the N number 
of defect areas, deleting a defect entry including position 
information on a position of the normal defect area from 
the P number of latest defect entries. 

15 7. A recording apparatus according to claim 4, wherein the 
information recording medium further includes another defect 
management area for recording a defect list having a content 
identical to that of the defect list recorded in the defect 
management area, 

20 wherein the control section controls execution of 

the step (d) for the another defect management area. 

8. A recording apparatus according to claim 3, wherein the 
step (b) includes the step of , when it is determined in the 

25 step (a) that another defect area exists in the data area, 
adding another defect entry to the latest defect list. 

9. A recording apparatus according to claim 3, wherein the 
step (b) includes the step of, when it is determined in the 

30 step (a) that a normal defect area exists among the N number 
of defect areas, deleting a defect entry including position 
information on a position of the normal defect area from 
the P number of latest defect entries . 



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10 . A recording apparatus according to claim 3 , wherein the 
information recording medium further includes another defect 
management area for recording a defeat list having a content 
5 identical to that of the defect list recorded in the defect 
mana geme n t area , 

wherein the control section controls execution of 
the step (d) for the another defect management area. 

10 11. A recording method for recording information on an 
information recording medium, wherein the information 
recording medium includes a data area for recording user 
data, and a defect management area for recording a defect 
list for managing N number of defect areas existing in the 

15 data area, where N is an integer satisfying N ^ 0 ; wherein: 
the defect list includes a header located at a fixed position 
in the defect list, N number of defect entries respectively 
including position information on positions of the N number 
of defect areas, and an anchor; the header, the N number 

20 of defect entries, and the anchor are located in this order 
in the defect list; the header includes a defect list 
identifier for identifying the defect list, first update 
times information representing the number of times which 
the defect list has been updated, and a defect entry number 

25 representing the number of the N number of defect entries; 

and the anchor includes an anchor identifier for identifying 
the anchor of the defect list, and second update times 
information representing the number of times which the defect 
list has been updated; 

30 wherein the recording is performed using a latest 

defect list; the latest defect list includes a latest header, 
P number of latest defect entries , and a latest anchor, wherein 
P is an integer satisfying P ^ 0 where P = N or P ^ N; the 



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latest header includes the first update times information 
and a latest defect entry number P; and the latest anchor 
includes second update times information having a content 
identical to that of the first update times information; 
5 the recording method comprising the steps of: 

(a) determining (i) whether another defect area 
exists in the data area, (ii) whether a normal defect area 
exists among the N number of defect areas, or (iii) neither > 
(i) nor (ii) is the case, 

10 ( b ) when it is determined in the step ( a ) that another 

defect area exists in the data area, or that a normal defect 
area exists among the N number of defect areas, updating 
the P number of latest defect entries into P 1 number of latest 
defect entries, where P' is an integer satisfying P" ;> 0 where 

15 P = P 1 or P s*s p" ; and updating the latest defect entry number 
from P to P ' ; 

(c) incrementing, by one, each of the first latest 
update times information and the second latest update times 
information, and 

20 (d) recording the latest defect list updated in the 

steps (b) and (c) in the defect management area. 

12. A recording method to claim 11, wherein the step (d) 
includes the step of recording the updated latest defect 

25 list in the defect management area in the order of the updated 
latest header, the updated P 1 number of latest defect entries, 
and the updated latest anchor, or in the order of the updated 
latest anchor, the updated P ' number of latest defect entries , 
and the updated latest header. 

30 

13. A recording method according to claim 12, wherein the 
step (b) includes the step of, when it is determined in the 
step (a) that another defect area exists in the data area. 



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adding another defect entry to the latest defect list- 

14. A recording method according to claim 12 # wherein the 
step (b) includes the step of, when it is determined in the 
5 step (a) that a normal defect area exists among the N number 
of defect areas, deleting a defect entry including position 
information on a position of the normal defect area from 
the P number of latest defect entries. 

10 15. A recording method according to claim 12, wherein the 
information recording medium further includes another defect 
management area for recording a defect list having a content 
identical to that of the defect list recorded in the defect 
management area, 

15 wherein the control section controls execution of 

the step (d) for the another defect management area. 

16. A recording method according to claim 11, wherein the 
step (b) includes the step of, when it is determined in the 

20 step (a) that another defect area exists in the data area, 
adding another defect entry to the latest defect list. 

17. A recording method according to claim 11, wherein the 
step (b) includes the step of, when it is determined in the 

25 step (a) that a normal defect area exists among the N number 
of defect areas, deleting a defect entry including position 
information on a position of the normal defect area from 
the P number of latest defect entries. 

30 18. A recording method according to claim 11, wherein the 
information recording medium further includes another defect 
management area for recording a defect list having a content 
identical to that of the defect list recorded in the defect 



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management area, 

wherein the control section controls execution of 
the step (d) for the another defect management area. 

5 19. A reproduction apparatus for reproducing information 
recorded on an information recording medium, wherein the 
information recording medium includes a data area for 
recording user data, and a defect management area for 
recording a defect list for managing N number of defect areas 

10 existing in the data area, where N is an integer satisfying 
N s> 0; wherein: the defect list includes a header, N number 
of defect entries respectively including position 
information on positions of the N number of defect areas, 
and an anchor; the header located at a fixed position in 

15 the defect list, the N number of defect entries, and the 
anchor are located in this order in the defect list; the 
header includes a defect list identifier for identifying 
the defect list, first update times information representing 
the number of times which the defect list has been updated, 

20 and a defect entry number representing the number of the 
N number of defect entries ; and the anchor includes an anchor 
identifier for identifying the anchor of the defect list, 
and second update times information representing the number 
of times which the defect list has been updated; 

25 the reproduction apparatus comprising: 

a reproduction section for reproducing the 
information recorded on the information recording medium, 
a storage section for storing the reproduced 
information , and 

30 a control section for controlling execution of defect 

management processing which is performed using the 
reproduction section and the storage section, the control 
section having an inherent defect list identifier for 



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identifying the defect list and an inherent anchor identifier 
for identifying the anchor of the defect list,- 
wherein : 

the defect management processing includes the steps 

5 of : 

(a) reproducing the defect list identifier, the 
defect entry number , and the first update times information 
which are included in the header , and determining whether 
or not a content of the inherent defect list identifier matches 

10 a content of the reproduced defect list identifier, 

( b ) calculating a position of the anchor in the defect 
list using the reproduced defect entry number when it is 
determined in the step (a) that the content of the inherent 
defect list identifier matches the content of the reproduced 

15 defect list identifier, 

( c ) reproducing the anchor identifier and the second 
update times information based on the calculated position 
of the anchor, and determining whether or not a content of 
the inherent anchor identifier matches a content of the 

20 reproduced anchor identifier, 

( d) determining whether or not a content of the first 
update times information matches a content of the second 
update times information when it is determined in the step 
(c) that the content of the inherent anchor identifier matches 

25 the content of the reproduced anchor identifier, and 

( e ) specifying the defect list recorded in the defect 
management area as the latest defect list when it is determined 
in the step (d) that the content of the first update times 
information matches the content of the second update times 

30 information. 

20. A reproduction apparatus according to claim 19, wherein 
the information recording medium further includes another 



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defect management area for recording a defect list having 
a content identical to that of the defect list recorded in 
the defect management area, 
wherein : 

5 the control section controls execution of the defect 

management processing for the another defect management area ; 
and 

the step (e) includes the steps of: 
(e x ) performing the steps (a) through (d) for the 
10 another defect management area, and 

( e 2 ) specifying the defect list including the update 

times information having a largest number of updates as the 

latest defect list . 

15 21. A reproduction method for reproducing information 
recorded on an information recording medium, wherein the 
information recording medium includes a data area for 
recording user data, and a defect management area for 
recording a defect list for managing N number of defect areas 

20 existing in the data area, where N is an integer satisfying 
N ^ 0; wherein: the defect list includes a header, N number 
of defect entries respectively including position 
information on positions of the N number of defect areas, 
and an anchor; the header located at a fixed position in 

25 the defect list, the N number of defect entries, and the 
anchor are located in this order in the defect list; the 
header includes a defect list identifier for identifying 
the defect list , first update times information representing 
the number of times which the defect list has been updated, 

30 and a defect entry number representing the number of the 
N number of defect entries ; and the anchor includes an anchor 
identifier for identifying the anchor of the defect list, 
and second update times information representing the number 



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of times which the defect list has been updated; 

the reproduction method comprising the steps of: 

(a) reproducing the defect list identifier , the 
defect entry number, and the first update times information 

5 which are included in the header, and determining whether 
or not a content of an inherent defect list identifier for 
identifying the defect list matches a content of the 
reproduced defect list identifier, 

( b ) calculating a position of the anchor in the defect 
10 list using the reproduced defect entry number when it is 

determined in the step (a) that the content of the inherent 
defect list identifier matches the content of the reproduced 
defect list identifier, 

( c ) reproducing the anchor identifier and the second 
15 update times information based on the calculated position 

of the anchor, and determining whether or not a content of 
an inherent anchor identifier for identifying the anchor 
of the defect list matches a content of the reproduced anchor 
identifier, 

20 (d) determining whether or not a content of the first 

update times information matches a content of the second 
update times information when it is determined in the step 
(c) that the content of the inherent anchor identifier matches 
the content of the reproduced anchor identifier, and 

25 (e) specifying the defect list recorded in the defect 

management area as the latest defect list when it is determined 
in the step (d) that the content of the first update times 
information matches the content of the second update times 
information . 

30 

22. A reproduction method according to claim 21, wherein 
the information recording medium further includes another 
defect management area for recording a defect list having 



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a content identical to that of the defect list recorded in 
the defect management area, 
wherein : 

the step (e) includes the steps of: 
5 (e a ) performing the steps (a) through (d) for the 

another defect management area, and 

( e 2 ) specifying the defect list including the update 
times information having a largest number of updates as the 
latest defect list. 

10 

23. An information recording medium, comprising: 
a data area for recording user data, and 
a defect management area for recording a defect list 

for managing N number of defect areas existing in the data 
15 area; where N is an integer satisfying N s= 0 ; 
wherein : 

the defect list includes: 

a header located at a fixed position in the 

defect list, 

20 N number of defect entries respectively 

including position information on positions of the N number 
of defect areas, and 

an anchor located at a fixed position in the 

defect list; 

25 the header, the N number of defect entries, and the 

anchor are located in this order in the defect list; 
the header includes : 

a defect list identifier for identifying the 

defect list, 

30 first update times information representing 

the number of times which the defect list has been updated, 
and 

a defect entry number representing the 



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number of the N number of defect entries; and 

the anchor includes second update times information 
representing the number of times which the defect list has 
been updated. 

5 

24. An information recording medium according to claim 23 , 
wherein the defect list includes at least two blocks, and 
the defect list is recorded in units of one block. 

10 25. A recording apparatus for recording information on an 
information recording medium, wherein the information 
recording medium includes a data area for recording user 
data, and a defect management area for recording a defect 
list for managing N number of defect areas existing in the 

15 data area, where N is an integer satisfying N 0; wherein: 
the defect list includes a header located at a fixed position 
in the defect list, N number of defect entries respectively 
including position information on positions of the N number 
of defect areas, and an anchor located at a fixed position 

20 in the defect list ; the header, the N number of defect entries , 
and the anchor are located in this order in the defect list; 
the header includes a defect list identifier for identifying 
the defect list, first update times information representing 
the number of times which the defect list has been updated, 

25 and a defect entry number representing the number of the 
N number of defect entries ; and the anchor includes second 
update times information representing the number of times 
which the defect list has been updated; 

the recording apparatus comprising: 

30 a recording section for recording the information 

on the information recording medium, 

a storage section for storing the information to be 
recorded on the information recording medium, and a latest 



WO 03/079353 



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- 118 - 

defect list, and 

a control section for controlling execution of defect 
management processing which is performed using the recording 
section and the storage section; 
5 wherein : 

the latest defect list includes a latest header, P 
number of latest defect entries, and a latest anchor, wherein 
P is an integer satisfying P ;> 0 where P = N or P ^ N; 

the latest header includes first latest update times 
10 information and a latest defect entry number P; 

the latest anchor includes second update times 
information having a content identical to that of the first 
update times information; and 

the defect management processing includes the steps 

15 of: 

(a) determining (i) whether another defect area 
exists in the data area, (ii) whether a normal defect area 
exists among the N number of defect areas, or (iii) neither 
(i) nor (ii) is the case, 

20 (b) when it is determined in the step (a) that another 

defect area exists in the data area, or that a normal defect 
area exists among the N number of defect areas, updating 
the P number of latest defect entries into P ' number of latest 
defect entries, where P" is an integer satisfying P' 2- 0 where 

25 P = P' orP^P'; and updating the latest defect entry number 
from P to P 1 ; 

(c) incrementing, by one, each of the first latest 
update times information and the second latest update times 
information, and 

30 (d) recording the latest defect list updated in the 

steps (b) and (c) in the defect management area. 

26. A recording apparatus to claim 25, wherein the step (d) 



WO 03/079353 



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- 119 - 

includes the step of recording the updated latest defect 
list in the defect management area in the order of the updated 
latest header, the updated P 1 number of latest defect entries , 
and the updated latest anchor , or in the order of the updated 
5 latest anchor , the updated P' number of latest defect entries , 
and the updated latest header. 

27. A recording apparatus according to claim 26, wherein 
the information recording medium further includes another 

10 defect management area for recording a defect list having 
a content identical to that of the defect list recorded in 
the defect management area, 

wherein the control section controls execution of 
the step (d) for the another defect management area. 

15 

28. A recording apparatus according to claim 25, wherein 
the information recording medium further includes another 
defect management area for recording a defect list having 
a content identical to that of the defect list recorded in 

20 the defect management area, 

wherein the control section controls execution of 
the step (d) for the another defect management area. 

29. A recording method for recording information on an 
25 information recording medium, wherein the information 

recording medium includes a data area for recording user 
data, and a defect management area for recording a defect 
list for managing N number of defect areas existing in the 
data area, where N is an integer satisfying N s= 0; wherein: 
30 the defect list includes a header located at a fixed position 
in the defect list, N number of defect entries respectively 
including position information on positions of the N number 
of defect areas, and an anchor located at a fixed position 



WO 03/079353 



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- 120 - 

in the defect list ; the header, the N number of defect entries , 
and the anchor are located in this order in the defect list; 
the header includes a defect list identifier for identifying 
the defect list, first update times information representing 
5 the number of times which the defect list has been updated, 
and a defect entry number representing the number of the 
N number of defect entries; and the anchor includes second 
update times information representing the number of times 
which the defect list has been updated; 

10 wherein the recording is performed using a latest 

defect list; the latest defect list includes a latest header, 
P number of latest defect entries, and a latest anchor, wherein 
P is an integer satisfying P s= 0 where P = N or P ^ N; the 
latest header includes the first update times information 

15 and a latest defect entry number P; and the latest anchor 
includes second update times information having a content 
identical to that of the first update times information; 
the recording method comprising the steps of: 

(a) determining (i) whether another defect area 
20 exists in the data area, (ii) whether a normal defect area 

exists among the N number of defect areas, or (iii) neither 
(i) nor (ii) is the case, 

(b) when it is determined in the step (a) that another 
defect area exists in the data area, or that a normal defect 

25 area exists among the N number of defect areas, updating 
the P number of latest defect entries into P" number of latest 
defect entries , where P 1 is an integer satisfying P ' ^ 0 where 
P = P f orP^P'; and updating the latest defect entry number 
from P to P 1 ; 

30 (c) incrementing, by one, each of the first latest 

update times information and the second latest update times 
information, and 

(d) recording the latest defect list updated in the 



WO 03/079353 



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PCT/JP03/02280 



steps (b) and (c) in the defect management area. 

30. A recording method to claim 29, wherein the step (d) 
includes the step of recording the updated latest defect 

5 list in the defect management area in the order of the updated 
latest header, the updated P' number of latest defect entries, 
and the updated latest anchor, or in the order of the updated 
latest anchor, the updated P 1 number of latest defect entries , 
and the updated latest header. 

10 

31. A recording method according to claim 30, wherein the 
information recording medium further includes another defect 
management area for recording a defect list having a content 
identical to that of the defect list recorded in the defect 

15 management area, 

wherein the method further comprises the step of 
executing the step (d) for the another defect management 
area. 

20 32. A recording method according to claim 29, wherein the 
information recording medium further includes another defect 
management area for recording a defect list having a content 
identical to that of the defect list recorded in the defect 
management area, 

25 wherein the method further comprises the step of 

executing the step (d) for the another defect management 
area. 

33. A reproduction apparatus for reproducing information 
30 recorded on an information recording medium, wherein the 
information recording medium includes a data area for 
recording user data, and a defect management area for 
recording a defect list for managing N number of defect areas 



WO 03/079353 



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- 122 - 

existing in the data area, where N is an integer satisfying 
N s= 0; wherein: the defect list includes a header located 
at a fixed position in the defect list, N number of defect 
entries respectively including position information on 
5 positions of the N number of defect areas, and an anchor 
located at a fixed position in the defect list; the header, 
the N number of defect entries, and the anchor are located 
in this order in the defect list ; the header includes a defect 
list identifier for identifying the defect list , first update 
10 times information representing the number of times which 
the defect list has been updated, and a defect entry number 
representing the number of the N number of defect entries; 
and the anchor includes second update times information 
representing the number of times which the defect list has 
15 been updated; 

the reproduction apparatus comprising: 

a reproduction section for reproducing the 
information recorded on the information recording medium, 

a storage section for storing the reproduced 
20 information, and 

a control section for controlling execution of defect 
management processing which is performed using the 
reproduction section and the storage section, the control 
section having an inherent defect list identifier for 
25 identifying the defect list; 

wherein : 

the defect management processing includes the steps 

of: 

(a) reproducing the defect list identifier, the 
30 defect entry number, and the first update times information 
which are included in the header, and determining whether 
or not a content of the inherent defect list identifier matches 
a content of the reproduced defect list identifier, 



WO 03/079353 



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- 123 - 

(b ) reproducing the second update times information 
included in the anchor and determining whether or not a content 
of the first update times information matches a content of 
the second update times information when it is determined 

5 in the step (a) that the content of the inherent defect list 
identifier matches the content of the reproduced defect list 
identifier, and 

( c ) specifying the defect list recorded in the defect 
management area as the latest defect list when it is determined 

10 in the step (b) that the content of the first update times 
information matches the content of the second update times 
information. 

34. A reproduction apparatus according to claim 33, wherein 
the information recording medium further includes another 
defect management area for recording a defect list having 
a content identical to that of the defect list recorded in 
the defect management area, 
wherein : 

the control section controls execution of the defect 
management processing for the another defect management area ; 
and 

the step (c) includes the steps of: 
(Ci) performing the steps (a) and (b) for the another 
defect management area, and 

( c 2 ) specifying the defect list including the update 
times information having a largest number of updates as the 
latest defect list. 

30 35. A reproduction method for reproducing information 
recorded on an information recording medium, wherein the 
information recording medium includes a data area for 
recording user data, and a defect management area for 



15 



20 



25 



WO 03/079353 



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- 124 - 

recording a defect list for managing N number of defect areas 
existing in the data area, where N is an integer satisfying 
N 2> 0; wherein: the defect list includes a header located 
at a fixed position in the defect list, N number of defect 
5 entries respectively including position information on 
positions of the N number of defect areas, and an anchor 
located at a fixed position in the defect list; the header, 
the N number of defect entries , and the anchor are located 
in this order in the defect list ; the header includes a defect 

10 list identifier for identifying the defect list , first update 
times information representing the number of times which 
the defect list has been updated, and a defect entry number 
representing the number of the N number of defect entries; 
and the anchor includes second update times information 

15 representing the number of times which the defect list has 
been updated; 

the reproduction method comprising the steps of : 

(a) reproducing the defect list identifier , the 
defect entry number, and the first update times information 

20 which are included in the header, and determining whether 
or not a content of an inherent defect list Identifier for 
identifying the defect list matches a content of the 
reproduced defect list identifier, 

( b ) reproducing the second update times information 
2 5 included in the anchor and determining whether or not a content 

of the first update times information matches a content of 
the second update times information when it is determined 
in the step (a) that the content of the inherent defect list 
identifier matches the content of the reproduced defect list 
30 identifier, and 

( c ) specifying the defect list recorded in the defect 
management area as the latest defect list when it is determined 
in the step (b) that the content of the first update times 



WO 03/079353 



PCT/JP03/02280 



- 125 - 

information matches the content of the second update times 
information . 

36. A reproduction method according to claim 35 , wherein 
5 the information recording medium further includes another 
defect management area for recording a defect list having 
a content identical to that of the defect list recorded in 
the defect management area, 
wherein : 

10 the step (c) includes the steps of: 

(ci) performing the steps (a) and (b) for the another 
defect management area, and 

( c 2 ) specifying the defect list including the update 
times information having a largest number of updates as the 
15 latest defect list. 



WO 03/079353 



PCT/JP03/02280 



1/16 



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WO 03/079353 



PCT/JP03/02280 



2/16 



121 

I 
I 


m FIG.2A 

4 


Header j j 




Defect list identifier 
(16 bits) 


Defect entry number 
(16 bits) 


isi upaaie 1 lines 
information (32 bits) 


BP 


63 59 48 


47 32 


31 0 


Val 


0100 0000 0000 0000 


• • • • 


• • • • 


122 

I 

I 


uiFIG.2B 1st defect entry 


142 




1st defect position information 
(32 bits) 


1st substitute position 
information (32 bits) 


BP 


63 59 48 


47 32 


31 0 


Val 


0000 0111 1111 1111 


. • • 1111 


.... 


126 

j 

I 


FIG.2C 

151 


Anchor 1 p 152 




I Anchor identifier 
(16 bits) 


Reserve information 
(16 bits) 


2nd update times I 
information (32 bits) 


DD 

Br 


63 59 48 


47 32 


31 0 


Val 


1111 1111 1111 1111 


• • • • 


• • m m 


113 

j 
I 


FIG. 2D 


Unused area 127 




Padding data ^ 


BP 


63 59 




0 


Val 


0000 0000 000 0000 


. . . . .... 0000 0000 0000 



WO 03/079353 



PCT/JP03/02280 



3/16 



FIG. 3 



Control section 



-301 



-300 



Storage section 



Recording and 
reproduction 
sect i on 



-302 



303 



WO 03/079353 



PCT/JP03/02280 



4/16 



FIG. 4 



C START ) 



S4.01 

"Do the defect 
ist identifiers match 
.each other?, 

YES 



NO 



The position of the anchor is calculated. — S402 



S403 

1)o the anchor 
identifiers match 
each other? 



NO 



YES 



S404 



S405 



Do the 1st update 
"times information and the 2nd 
.update times information match, 
each other? 

YES 



NO 



defect management area 



S406 



i 



Abnormal defect management area 



I 



S407 

Has the 
'determination been done" 
for all the defect management^ 
areas? 



YES 



The latest defect list is specified. 
I 



— S408 



( END ) 



WO 03/079353 



PCT/JP03/02280 



5/16 



FIG. 5 



( START ) 



S501 

Does another 
defect area exist? 
Is the area previously determined to 
be a defect area currently a 
normal defect area? 



NO 



YES 



The latest defect entries and the 
latest defect entry number are updated. 



S502 



The latest update times 
information is updated. 



S503 



The updated defect list is recorded 
in the defect management area. 



— S504 




( END ) 



WO 03/079353 



PCT/JP03/02280 



6/16 



FIG, 6 

(a) . (b) (c) 



I 

Heai 


i 

ier 


Defect I i st 
identifier 


0x4000 


\ 
\ 
V 

\ 

\ 

\ 

\ 

\ 

\ 

\ 
\ 
\ 

\ 

\ 

V 

\ 
\ 
\ 

\ 


Defect 1 i st 
identifier 


0x4000 




Defect 1 i st 
identifier 


0 x 4000 


Defect entry 
number 


N 


Defect entry 
number 


N+1 


Defect entry 
number 


N+1 


1st update times 
information 


M 


1st update 
times information 


M+1 


1st update 
times information 


M+1 


~~T~ 

1st 

defect 
entry 


1st defect position 
information 


0x0010 


1st defect position 
information 


0x0010 


1st defect position 
information 
1st substitute 
position information 


0x0010 

L 

0 x 0800 
1 — 


1st substitute 
position information 


0 x 0800 


1st substitute 
position information 


0x0800 


-*- 

2nd 

defect 
entry 
* 


2nd defect 
position information 


0 x 0020 


2nd defect 
position information 


0 x 0020 


2nd defect 
position information 


0x0020 


2nd substitute 
position information 


0x0810 


2nd substitute 
position information 


0x0810 


i 

/ 
t 
f 
i 

1 

/ 
/ 
/ 
/ 

! 

1 
t 
1 
I 

t 

i 

i 

i 

i 

t 


2nd substitute 
position information 


0x0810 




■ 


• 










1 

(N-1)th 

defect 

entry 


(!H)th defect 
position information 

(IM)th substitute 
position information 


0x0080 
0x0870 


(IM)th defect 
position information 
""Mth"substTtute 
position information 


0 x 0050 



0x0840 


OH) th defect 
position information 

position information 


0x0080 
0 x 0870 


-4- 

Nth 

defect 
entry 


Nth defect 
position information 


0x0090 


Nth defect | 0x0080 
position information j_ 


Nth defect ; Ox0090 
position information j_ 


Nth substitute 
position information 


0x0880 


Nth substitute 1q x 0870 
position informationj 


Nth substitute | 0x0880 
position information) 


Ancf 


lor 


Anchor identifier 


OxFFFF 


0M)th defect ; 
position information 1 


Anchor identifier 


OxFFFF 



2nd update 
I times information 


M 


(N+1)th substitute 
position information 


— 

0x0880 


2nd update 
times information 


M 


i 

Unu 
ar 


i 

sed 
ea 

f 


Padding 
data 


0x0000 
0x0000 

0x0000 
0 x 0000 


Anchor identifier 


OxFFFF 


Padding 
data 

i 
i 


0x0000 
0 x 0000 

0 x 0000 
0x0000 


2nd update 
times information 


M+1 


Padding 
data i 


0x0000 
0x0000 

0x0000 
0x0000 



WO 03/079353 



PCT/JP03/02280 



7/16 



FIG. 7 



(a) (b) (c) 



Hea< 


ier 


Defect 1 i st 
identifier 


0x4000 


/ 

! 1 
i / 
/ 
/ 
/ 
/ 
/ 
/ 
f 

/ 

/ 

/ 

/ 

/ 

/ 

/ 

t 

1 

t 


Defect 1 i st 
identifier 


0x4000 


\ 

\ 

\ 

\ 

\ 

\ 

\ 

\ 

\ 

\ 

\ 

\ 

\ 

\ 

\ 

\ 

\ 

\ 

\ 


Defect 1 i st 
identifier 


UX4UUU 


Defect entry 
number 


ii 
N 


Defect entry 
number 


N-1 


Defect entry 
number 


N-1 


1st update times 
information 


IV) 


1st update 
times information 


IUI+1 

UP 1 




1st update 
times information 


hi * i 


1st 

defe 

entr 1 


/ 


1st defect position 
information 


0x0010 


1st defect position 
information 
1st substitute 
position information 


0x0010 



U a UOUU 


1st defect position 
information 


0x0010 


1st substitute 
position information 


n v nann 

U a UoUU 


1st substitute 
position information 


u a uoyu 


2nd 

defect 
entry 

* 


2nd defect 
position information 


n y nnon 
u x uuzu 


2nd defect 
position information 


0x0020 


2nd defect 
position information 


0x0020 


2nd substitute 
position information 




Hyflfiin 
U XUolU 


2nd substitute 
position information 


0x0810 


2nd substitute 
position information 


0x0810 












• 


• 




A 

(IM)th 

defect 

entry 


(IH)th defect 
position information 

(IH)th substitute 
position information 


0x0080 


0x0870 


(IH)th defect 
position information 

"~N : 1)th"substitute' 
position information 


0x0090 


0x0880 


(N-I)th defect 
position information 

" (N-l)th substitute 
position information 


0 x 0080 

1 



0x0870 

....... 


— h- 

Nth 


Nth defect 
position information 


0x0090 


i 

Anchor identifier jOxFFFF 
1 


Nth defect \ mm 
position information j_ 


entt 


7 


Nth substitute 
position information 


0x0880 


2nd update | M+1 
times information | 


Nth substitute | 0x088{) 
position information] 


And 


ior 


Anchor identifier 


n v fetp 

UXFriT 


j 0x0000 
jOxOOOO 

| 

! 
i 
i 

i 
i 
i 

Padding j ; 
data | • 

i 
i 
i 

jOxOOOO 
iOxODOO 


Anchor identifier 


OxFFFF 


2nd update 
times information 


M 


2nd update 
times information 


M 


Unu 
ar 


sed 
ea 


Padd i ng 
data 


0x0000 
0x0000 

0x0000 
0x0000 


Padding 
data 


0x0000 
0x0000 

0x0000 
0x0000 



WO 03/079353 



PCT/JP03/02280 



8/16 

FIG. 8 



(a) (b) (c) 



Hea( 


ier 


Defect list 
identifier 


0x4000 




Defect list 
identifier 


0 x 4000 




Defect list j 0x4000 
identifier j 


Defect entry 
number 


N 


Defect entry 
number 


N 


Defect entry j ^ 
number j 


1st update times 
information 


M 


1st update 
times information 


M+1 


1st update | ^ 
times information j 


J 

defei 
entr 1 


3t 
/ 


1st defect position 
information 
1st substitute 
position information 


0x0010 
0x0800 


1st defect position 
information 

1st substitute 
position information 


0x0010 


0 x 0800 

I 


1st defect position 1qx0010 

information _|_ 
IsTIubstitute | 0 x 080() 
position information; 


* 

2nd 

defect 
entry 

* 


2nd defect 
position information 


0x0020 


2nd defect 
position information 


0x0020 


2nd defect 
position information 


0 x 0020 


2nd substitute 
position information 


0x0810 


2nd substitute 
position information 


0x0810 


2nd substitute 
position information 


0x0810 




• 


■ 










A 

(N-1)th 

defect 

entry 


(JH)th defect 
position information 


0x0080 


0M) til defect 
position information 
"MlhlubslTtute" 
position information 


0x0080 



OxOFOO 


(IH)th defect 
position information 


0x0080 




(IH)th substitute 
position information 


0x0870 


(N-I)th substitute 
position information 


0x0870 


H- 

Nth 

defect 
entry 


Nth defect 
position information 


0x0090 


Nth defect . 
position information 


0 x 0090 


Nth defect 
position information 


0x0090 



Nth substitute 
position information 


0x0880 


Nth substitute 
position information 


0x0880 


Nth substitute 
position information 


0x0880 


And 

1 


r 

lor 

f 


Anchor identifier 


OxFFFF 


Anchor identifier jOxFFFF 


Anchor identifier 


OxFFFF 


2nd update 
times information 


M 


2nd update j ^ 
times information j 


2nd update 
times information 


M 


Unu 

ar 


sed 
ea 


Padding 
" data 


0x0000 
10x0000 

• 
• 

0x0000 
jOxOOOO 


Padding 
data 


0x0000 
0 x 0000 

0x0000 
0x0000 


Padding 
data 

\ 

! 


0 x 0000 
0x0000 

0x0000 
0 x 0000 



WO 03/079353 



PCT/JP03/02280 



9/16 



CO 



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WO 03/079353 



PCT/JP03/02280 



10/16 



FIG. 1 0 



( START ) 



S1001 

1)o the defect 
I ist identifiers match 
each other ?^ 

YES 



~Dothe^\ S1002 
1st update times 
information and the 2nd update 
times information match 
each other? 



NO 



S1004 



S1003 



Normal defect management area 



Abnormal defect management area 
"I 



NO 



S1005 

Has the 
determination been done" 
for all the defect management, 
areas? 



YES 



The latest defect list is specified. 
( END ) 



S1006 



WO 03/079353 



PCT/JP03/02280 



11/16 



FIG. 1 1 



(a) (b) (c) 



i 

Heac 


ier 


Defect list \ mm 
identifier j 




Defect list \ Mm 
identifier j 




Defect 1 ist 
i aenx i t i er 


0 x 4000 


Defect entry j ^ 
number i 


Defect entry j ^ 
number j 


Defect entry 
nuniDer 


M+1 


1st update times j ^ 
information | 


1st update j ^ 
times information j 


1st update 
times information 


H+1 


J 


i 


1st defect position : 
information 


0x0010 


1st defect position 
information 


0X0010 


1st defect position 
information 


Ox 0010 


entry 


1st substitute 
position information 


0x0800 


1st substitute 
position information 


0 x 0800 


1st substitute 
position information 


0 x 0800 


-f- 

2nd 

defect 
entry 

* 


2nd defect 
position. information 


0x0020 


2nd defect 
position information 


0 x 0020 


2nd defect 
position information 


0 x 0020 


2nd substitute 
position information 


0x0810 


2nd substitute 
position information 


0x0810 


2nd substitute 
position information 


0x0810 
















A 

(IM)th 

defect 

entry 


(IM)th defect 
position information 


0x0080 


(H-I)th defect 
position information 


0 x 0050 


(JM)th defect 
position information 


0 x 0080 


(*M)th substitute 
position information 


0x0870 




(IH)th substitute ?q x 0840 
position information! 


(IH)th substitute 
position information 


0 x 0870 

i 


-4- 

Nth 


Nth defect 
position information 


0x0090 


Jth defect ; \ mm 
position mformationi 


Nth defect | OxO090 
position information j_ 


enti 

\ 


SCI 

7 
If 


Nth substitute 
position information 


0x0880 


Nth substitute 
position information 


0x0870 


Nth substitute | OxOB80 
position mformationi 


\ 

Unu 
ar 


i 

sed 
ea 


Padding 
data 


0x0000 
0x0000 

0x0000 
0x0000 


(N+1)th defect 
position information 


0x0090 


Padd i ng 
data 


0 x 0000 
0 x 0000 

0 x 0000 
0 x 0000 


(N+1)th substitute 
position information 


0x0880 


Padding 
data 


0x0000 
0x0000 


An 


shor 
\ 


2nd update 
times information 


M 


2nd update 
times information 


m 


• 2nd update 
times information 


M 



WO 03/079353 



PCT/JP03/02280 



12/16 



FIG. 12 



Lead-in 
area 

1201 



Data area 
1202 



Lead-out 
area 

1203 




WO 03/079353 



PCT/JP03/02280 



13/16 



FIG. 13 



2— 




Header 


-1301 


1st defect - 
entry 


-1302 


1st defect position information 


1st substitute position information' 


2nd defect 


-1303 


2nd defect position information 


entry 


2nd substitute position information 


• 
• 

I • 




Nth defect _ 
entry 


-1304 


Nth defect position information 


Nth substitute position information 


Unused area - 


-1305 



-1307 



WO 03/079353 



PCT/JP03/02280 



14/16 



FIG. 1 4 



1400 / 



140H 



4ECC 



SDL 



1402- 



1403! 



1404 -ft 



Header 



1st defect 
entry 



2nd defect 
entry 



(HM)th defect 
entry 



ttth defect 
entry 



Header 



M+1)th defect 
entry 



Nth defect 
entry 



Unused area 



Header 



Unused area 



Header 



Unused area 



-1405 
-1406 

-1407 



-1408 



-1409 

: 1410~ 
-1411 



-1412 
3413 



-1414 



-1415 
-ill? 
-141? 



Identifier, defect entry number, 
number of times of update 



1st defect position information 



1st substitute position information 



2nd defect position information 



2nd substitute position information 



(M-I)th defect position information 



(fil-l)th substitute position information 



Mth defect position information 



Htb substitute position information 



Identifier, defect entry number, 
number of times of update 



(M+l)th defect position information 



{M+1)th substitute position information 



Nth defect position information 



Nth substitute position information 



Padding data 



Identifier, defect entry number, 
number of times of update 



Padding data 



Identifier, defect entry number, 
number of times of update 



Padding data 



1ECC 



1ECC 



1ECC 

+ 

1ECC 



WO 03/079353 



PCT/JP03/02280 



15/16 



FIG. 15 



Lead-in 
area 

1201 



DMA1 



DMA2 



User area 



Data area 
1202 



Spare area 



DMA3 



Lead-out 
area 

1203 



DMA4 



-1500 



DDS 



PDL 



SDL 



-1206 



-1207 



-1212 
-1218/ 

-1501 



Defect list 
identifier 



Reserved field 



1st update 
information 



Registered defect 
number 



1st defect position 
information 



1st substitute 
position information 



2nd defect position 
information 



2nd substitute 
position information 



2nd update 
information 



Unused field 



-1502 

-1503 
-1504 

-1505 

-1506 

-1507 

-1508 

-1509 
-1510 
-1511 



WO 03/079353 



PCT/JP03/02280 



16/16 



FIG. 1 6 





1 c:ni 
I oy I 

/ (a) 




(b) 




(c) 


1502 — 


Defect list 
identifier 




Defect list 
identifier 




Defect list 
identifier 


1503 — 


- Reserved field 




Reserved field 




Reserved field 


1504 — 


1st update 
- information: HI 




1st update 
information: M+1 




1st update 
information: (i+1 


1505 — 


Registered 
- defect number: 2 




Registered 
defect number: 1 




Registered 
defect number: 1 


1506 — 


1st defect position 
information 




1st defect position 
information 




1st defect position 
information 


1507 — 


1st substitute 
"position information 




1st substitute 
position information 




1st substitute 
position information 


1508 — 


2nd defect position 
information 


/ 
/ 
1 
/ 
/ 


2nd update 
information: M+1 


\ 
\ 

\ 
\ 

\ 


2nd defect position 
information 


1509 — 


2nd substitute 
position information 


/ 

// 

' f 




Y\ 

\ ' 


2nd substitute 
position information 


1510 — 


2nd update 
_ information: M 


/ 
/ 
/ 
/ 

/ 




\ 
\ 

\ 

\ 

\ 
\ 


2nd update 
information: M 








Unused field 






1511 — 


- Unused field 








Unused field 



INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT 



International Appifpron No 

PCT/JP 03/02280 



A. CLASSIFICATION OF SUBJECT MATTER 

IPC 7 G11B20/18 






According to International Patent Classification (IPC) or to both national classification and IPC 




B. FIELDS SEARCHED 


Minimum documentation searched (classification system followed by classification symbols) 

IPC 7 G11B 


Documentation searched other than minimum documentation to the extent that such documents are included in the f ields searched 


Electronic data base consulted during the international search (name of data bas 


,e and, where practical, search terms used 


) 


PAJ, EPO-Internal 






C. DOCUMENTS CONSIDERED TO BE RELEVANT 


Category 0 


Citation of document, with indication, where appropriate, of the relevant passages 


Relevant to claim No. 


A 


PATENT ABSTRACTS OF JAPAN 

vol. 1997, no. 03, 

31 March 1997 (1997-03-31) 

-& JP 08 293187 A (MATSUSHITA ELECTRIC IND 

CO LTD), 5 November 1996 (1996-11-05) 

cited in the application 

abstract 


1,3,11, 
19,21, 
23,25, 
29,33,35 


A 


EP 1 132 914 A (MATSUSHITA ELECTRIC IND CO 
LTD) 12 September 2001 (2001-09-12) 

column 1, line 19 -column 3, line 38; 
figure 8 


1,3,11, 
19,21, 
23,25, 
29,33,35 






/- 




j X j Further documents are listed in the continuation of box C. 


|X Patent family members are listed 


in annex. 


° Special categories of cited documents : 

'A' document defining the general state of the art which is not 
considered to be of particular relevance 

"E" earlier document but published on or after the international 
filing date 

"L" document which may throw doubts on priority claim (s) or 
which is cited to establish the publication date of another 
citation or other special reason (as specified) 

"O" document referring to an oral disclosure, use, exhibition or 
other means 

■P" document published prior to the internationai filing date but 
later than the priority date claimed 


T later document published after the international filing date 
or priority date and not in conflict with the application but 
cited to understand the principle or theory underlying the 
invention 

'X* document of particular relevance; the claimed invention 
cannot be considered novel or cannot be considered to 
involve an inventive step when the document is taken alone 

■Y' document of particular relevance; the claimed invention 

cannot be considered to involve an inventive step when the 
document is combined with one or more other such docu- 
ments, such combination being obvious to a person skilled 
in the art. 

document member of the same patent family 


Date of the actual completion of the international search 


Date of mailing of the international search report 


9 July 2003 


17/07/2003 




Name and mailing address of the ISA 

European Patent Office, P.B. 5818 Patentlaan 2 
NL-2280 HV Rijswijk 
Tel. (+31-70) 340-2040, Tx. 31 651 epo nl, 
Fax: (+31-70) 340-3016 


Authorized officer 

Lehnberg, C 



Form PCT/ISA/210 (second sheet) (July 1992) 



page 1 of 2 



INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT 


International Apt^Htion No 

PCT/JP 03/02280 


C.(Continuation) DOCUMENTS CONSIDERED TO BE RELEVANT 


Category 0 


Citation of document, with Indication.where appropriate, of the relevant passages 


Relevant to claim No. 


A 


US 5 319 626 A (OZAKI MINORU ET AL) 
7 June 1994 (1994-06-07) 

column 1, line 8 -column 2, line 56 
abstract 




1,3,11, 
19,21, 
23,25, 
29,33,35 


A 


US 5 404 357 A (ITO MOTOSHI ET AL) 
4 April 1995(1995-04-04) 

column 2, line 39 -column 3, line 11 




1,3,11, 
19,21, 
23,25, 
29,33,35 



Form PGT/lSA/210 (continuation of second sheet) (July 1992) 



page 2 of 2 



INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT 

Information on patent family members 



international t 



■;ation No 



PCT/JP 03/02280 



DQfnnf i-J/^i ■mart')' 




Pi ihlir-ntipin 
f^UDMUcUIUi 1 




ndttjIlL Tdl Tilly 


i UDiication 


cited in search report 




date 




member(s) 


date 


JP 08293187 


A 


05-11-1996 


JP 


2812243 B2 


22-10-1998 


EP 1132914 




A 


12-09-2001 


BR 


0109255 A 


29-04-2003 








CN 


1416572 T 


07-05-2003 








EP 


1132914 A2 


12-09-2001 








WO 


0167449 A2 


13-09-2001 








JP 


2001325773 A 


22-11-2001 








US 


2001026511 Al 


04-10-2001 



US 5319626 A 07-06-1994 JP 2671656 B2 29-10-1997 

JP 5006626 A 14-01-1993 



US 5404357 A 04-04-1995 JP 2887949 B2 10-05-1999 

JP 5002837 A 08-01-1993 



Form PCT/ISA/210 (patent family annex) (July 1992)