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(12) INTERNATIONAL APPLICATION PUBLISHED UNDER THE PATENT COOPERATION TREATY (PCT) 



(19) World InteUectual Property 
Organization 
International Bureau 

(43) International Publication Date 
8 April 2004 (08.04.2004) 




PCT 



(10) International Publication Number 

wo 2004/029941 Al 



(51) International Patent Classification^: GllB 7/00, 11/00 

(21) International Application Number: 

PCT/KR2003/002009 

(22) International Filing Date: 

30 September 2003 (30.09.2003) 



(25) Filing Language: 

(26) Publication Language: 



English 
English 



(30) Priority Data: 
10-2002-0059341 

10-2003-0011832 



30 September 2002 (30.09.2002) KR 
25 February 2003 (25.02.2003) KR 



(71) Applicant: LG ELECTRONICS INC. [KRy^R]; 20, 
Yoido-dong, Youngdungpo-gu, Seoul 150-721 (KR). 

(72) Inventors: PARK, Yong Cheol; 215-204, Jugong APT., 
Wonmun-dong, Gwachon-si, Gyeonggi-do 427-030 (KR). 
KIM, Sung Dae; 1110-1406, Jugong APT., Sanbon l(il)- 
dong, Gunpo-si, Gyeonggi-do 435-746 (KR). 



(74) Agents: BAHNG, Hac Cheol et al.; Kims International 
Patent & Law Office, 15th Floor, Yo Sam Building, 648-23, 
Yeoksam-dong, Kangnam-gu, Seoul 135-080 (KR). 

(81) Designated States (national)i AE, AG, AL, AM, AT, AU, 

AZ, BA, BB, BG, BR, BY, BZ, CA, CH, CN, CO, CR, CU, 

CZ, DE, DK, DM, DZ, EC, EE, EG, ES, EI, GB, GD, GE, 
GH, GM, HR, HU, ID, IL, IN, IS, JP, KE, KG, KP, KR, 
KZ, LC, LK, LR, LS, LT, LU, LV, MA, MD, MG, MK, 
MN, MW, MX, MZ, NT, NO, NZ, OM, PG, PH, PL, PT, 
RO, RU, SC, SD, SE, SG, SK, SL, SY, TJ, TM, TN, TR, 
TT, TZ, UA, UG, UZ, VC, VN, YU, ZA, ZM, ZW. 

(84) Designated States (regional): ARIPO patent (GH, GM, 
KE, LS, MW, MZ, SD, SL, SZ, TZ, UG, ZM, ZW), 
Eurasian patent (AM, AZ, BY, KG, KZ, MD, RU, TJ, TM), 
European patent (AT, BE, BG, CII, CY, CZ, DE, DK, EE, 
ES, K, FR, GB, GR, HU, IE, IT, LU, MC, NL, PT, RO, 
SE, SI, SK, TR), OAPI patent (BE, BJ, CF, CG, CI, CM, 
GA, GN, GQ, GW, ML, MR, NE, SN, TD, TG). 

Published: 

— with international search report 

— before the expiration of the time limit for amending the 
claims and to he republished in the event of receipt of 
amendments 

[ Continued on next page] 



(54) Title: WRITE-ONCE OPTICAL DISC, AND METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR RECORDING MANAGEMENT INFOR- 
MATION ON WRITE-ONCE OPTICAL DISC 



ON 
ON 



o 



Lead- In Area 



TDMAl 



Data Area 



OSAO 



ISAO 



TDMA2 



TDFL 


Irack 
-Info 
or 


rrack 
-Info 
or 
SRM 


TDFL 




TDDS 
part 


TDDS 
part 


TEDS 
part 


TDDS 
part 



[Pclusters 
Nx256 clusters _ 



Lead— Out Area 



cluster 



Sector 
0 

S 

Sector 
30 


Track 
-Info 
or 
SBM 


Sector 
31 


TDDS part 



* DMA : Defect Management Area 

* TDMA : Temporary DMA 

* ISA : Inner Spare Area 

* OSA : Outer Spare Area 

* TDFL : Temporary Defect List 

•TDDS : Temporary Disc Definition Structure 



(57) Abstract: A write-once optical recording medium, and a method and apparatus for recording management information on the 
recording medium are provided. The method includes recording, in a temporary defect management area (TDMA), management 
information produced while the recording medium is in use, and transferring and recording the latest management information of 
the TDMA in a final defect management area (DMA) of the recording medium at a DMA fill-in stage of the recording medium. 



wo 2004/029941 Al lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 



For two-letter codes and other abbreviations, refer to the "Guid- 
ance Notes on Codes and Abbreviations" appearing at the begin- 
ning of each regular issue of the PCT Gazette. 



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1 

WRITE-ONCE OPTICAL DISC, AND METHOD AND 
APPARATUS FOR RECORDING MANAGEMENT INFORMATION ON 

WRITE-ONCE OPTICAL DISC 

5 Technical Field 

The present invention relates to a writable-once optical disc and a 
nnianagement information recording method and apparatus, and more particularly, to 
a method and apparatus for efficiently recording management information on a 
1 0 writable-once optical disc. 

Background Art 

Optical disc, which is a kind of optical recording media and can record a large 
15 amount of data, is widely being used. Today, a kind of innovative high-density 
digital versatile disc (HD-DVD) such as a blue ray disc (Blu-ray Disc), which can 
record and store video data of high quality and audio data of high fidelity for a long 
time, is under development. 

The Blu-ray disc is a next generation optical recording solution that can store 
2 0 a larger amount of data than a conventional DVD. The Blu-ray disc employs a blue- 
violet laser with the wavelength of 405 nm which is shorter than the wavelength of 
650 nm of a red laser used to access a conventional DVD. The Blu-ray disc has 
generally a thickness of 1.2 mm and a diameter of 12 cm. It includes a light 
transmission layer whose thickness is 0.1 mm so that the Blu-ray disc can store a 
2 5 larger amount of data than the current DVDs. 

Various standards related to the Blu-ray discs are in development. Among 
the different types of Blu-ray discs, a Blu-ray Disc Rewritable (BD-RE) and a Blu- 
ray Disc Write-Once (BD-WO) are being developed. 

FIG. 1 schematically illustrates a structure of a recording area of a general 



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BD-RE. Referring to FIG. 1, tiie BD-RE iacludes a recording layer divided into a 
lead-in area, a data area and a lead-out area. The data area includes a user data area 
for recording user data thereon, and an inner spare area ISAO and an outer spare area 
OS AO each allocated in the inner tracks and the outer tracks of tbe disc. These spare 
5 areas are used as replacement areas for replacing data in a defective area of the user 
data area according to linear replacement. 

In the BD-RE, if a defective area is found in the user data area during 
recording, data in the defective area is transferred to and recorded on a spare area. 
Further, as defect management information for managing the defective area, position 

10 information and the like relating to the defective area and the corresponding spare 
area are recorded on defect management areas (DMA 1 ^ DMA 4) in the lead-in area 
and the lead-out area. Also, since data can be recorded on and erased from any area 
of the BD-RE repeatedly (since the BD-RE is rewritable), the entire BD-RE can be 
randomly used irrespective of a specific recording mode. 

15 In contrast, in a writahle-once Blu-ray disc (BD-WO), data can be recorded 

only one time on a specific area of the disc. As a result, the BD-WO has certain 
limitations pertaining to recording modes and in randomly using the entire area of 
the disc due to the defect management difficulty. 

Further, in a BD-WO, management of the defective areas is one of the 

2 0 important matters that needs to be addressed, especially for data recording operations. 
But since the BD-WO is still in the early development stage, there are no schemes, 
no disc structures, no ai)paratuses5 and no methods on how to manage the defective 
areas of the BD-WO and record management information on flie BD-WO, which 
will be needed for the BD-WO to be commercially viable and operationally feasible. 

2 5 Accordingly, for the BD-WO, a unified specification is required that would satisfy 
the aforementioned advanced requirements. But any proposed specification relating 
to the current BD-RE cannot be used because it does not address the needs of the 
BD-WO. 



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Disclosare of Invention 

Accordingly, the present invention is directed to a writable-once optical disc 
and a management information recording method and apparatus that substantially 
5 obviate one or more problems due to limitations and disadvantages of the 
background art. 

An object of the present invention is to provide a method of recording disc 
management information such as timing, contents and location information in a 
plurality of management areas of a write-once optical disc. 

10 Additional advantages, objects, and features of the invention will be set forth 

in part in the description which follows and in part will become apparent to those 
having ordinary skill in the art upon examination of the following or may be learned 
from practice of the invention. The objectives and other advantages of the invention 
may be realized and attained by the structure particularly pointed out in the written 

15 description and claims hereof as well as the appended drawings. 

To achieve these objects and other advantages and in accordance with the 
purpose of the invention, as embodied and broadly described herein, a method of 
recording management information on a write-once optical recording medium, the 
recording medium including a temporary defect management area (TDMA) and a 

20 final defect management area (DMA), includes: recording, in the TDMA, 
management information produced while the recording medium is in use; and 
transferring and recording the latest management information of the TDMA in the 
DMA at a DMA fill-in stage of the recording medium. 

In accordance with an aspect of the invention, a method of recording 

25 management information on a write-once optical recording medium, the recording 
medium including a temporary defect management area (TDMA) and a final defect 
management area (DMA), the DMA including a defect list area for storing tlierein 
defect list information, includes: if no defect management is to be performed on the 
recoding medium, setting a predetermined value in the defect list area of the DMA; 



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4 

recording, in the TDMA, management information produced while the recording 
medium is in use; and transferring and recording the latest management information 
of the TDMA ia the DMA when the recording medium is to be fmalized. 

In accordance with another aspect of the invention, an apparatus for recording 
5 management information on a write-once optical recording medium, the recording 
medium including a temporary defect management area (TDMA) and a final defect 
management area (DMA), includes a combination of elements configured for: 
recording, in the TDMA, management information produced while the recording 
medium is in use; and transferring and recording the latest management information 

10 of the TDMA in the DMA at a DMA fill-in stage of the recording medium. 

hi accordance with another aspect of the invention, an apparatus for recording 
management information on a write-once optical recording medium, the recording 
medium including a temporary defect management area (TDMA) and a final defect 
management area (DMA), the DMA including a defect list area for storing therein 

15 defect list information, includes a combination of elements configured for: setting a 
predetemiined value in the defect list area of the DMA if no defect management is to 
be performed on the recoding medium; recording, in the TDMA, management 
information produced while the recordmg medium is in use; and transferring and 
recording the latest management information of the TDMA in the DMA when the 

2 0 recording medium is to be finalized. 

In accordance with another aspect of the invention, a write-once optical 
recording medium for recording management information thereon, includes: at least 
one recording layer including a temporary defect management area (TDMA) and a 
final defect management area (DMA), wherein management information produced 

25 while the recording medium is in use is recorded in the TDMA, and the latest 
management information of the TDMA is transferred and recorded in the DMA at a 
DMA fill-in stage of the recording medium. 

In accordance with another aspect of the invention, a write-once optical 
recording medium for recording management information thereon, includes: at least 



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one recordiag layer including a temporary defect management area (TDMA) and a 
final defect management area (DMA), the DMA including a defect list area for 
storing therein defect list information, wherein if no defect management is to be 
performed on the recoding medium, a predetermined value is set in the defect list 
5 area of the DMA; management information produced while the recording medium is 
in use is recorded in the TDMA; and the latest management information of the 
TDMA is transferred and recorded in the DMA when the recordiag medium is to be 
finalized. 

It is to be understood that both the foregoing general description and the 
10 following detailed description of the present invention are exemplary and 
explanatory and are intended to provide further explanation of the invention as 
claimed. 

Brief Description of the Drawings 

15 

Further objects and advantages of the inv^tion can be more fully understood 
from the foUovvdng detailed description taken in conjunction with the accompanying 
drawings, in which: 

FIG. 1 schematically illustrates a structure of a general single-layer BD-RE: 
20 FIG. 2 is a block diagram of an optical recording/reproducing device 

according the present invention; 

FIG. 3 illustrates a structure of a writable-once optical disc such as a single 
layer BD-WO according to an embodiment of the present invention; 

FIG. 4 illustrates an example of a DDS structure on a rewritable disc, a TDDS 
2 5 structure on a BD-WO and a disc management information recording method for the 
BD-WO according to an embodiment of the present invention; 

FIG. 5 illustrates a structure of a writable-once optical disc such as a single 
layer BD-WO according to another embodiment of the present invention; 

FIG. 6A shows an exemplary structure of a DMA of a single-layer BD-WO 



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6 

according to an embodiment of the present invention; 

FIG. 6B illustrates the structure of the DMA of FIG. 6A, a TDMA structure 
and a method of transferring data from the TDMA to the DMA according to an 
embodiment of the present invention; 
5 FIG. 6C shows an exemplary stracture of a DMA of a dual-layer BD-WO 

according to an embodiment of the present invention; 

FIG. 7 shows a chart for explaining the timing, contents and location 
information associated with the DMA fiU-ui process of a BD-WO according to a first 
embodiment of the present invention; 
10 FIG. 8 shows a chart for explaining the timing, contents and location 

information associated with the DMA fill-in process of a BD-WO according to a 
second embodiment of the present invention; 

FIG. 9A shows a chart for explaining the timing, contents and location 
information associated with the DMA fill-in process of a BD-WO according to a 
1 5 third embodiment of the present invention; 

FIG. 9B shows an example of the DMA to which the DMA fill-in process of 
FIG. 9A is applied; and 

FIG. 10 shows examples of values of a TDDS/DDS status flag recorded as 
part of the DDS information in the DDS section of the DMA according to the present 
2 0 invention. 

Best mode for Carrying Out the Invention 

Reference will now be made in detail to the preferred embodiments of the 
25 present invention, examples of which are illustrated in the accompan3dng drawings. 
Wherever possible, the same reference numerals will be used throughout the 
drawings to refer to the same or like parts. 

FIG. 2 is an example of a block diagram of an optical disc 
recording/reproducing device 20 according to sm embodiment of the present 



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invention. The optical disc recording/reproducing device 20 includes an optical 
pickup 22 for writing/reading data to/from an optical recording medium 21, a servo 
unit 23 for controlling the pickup 22 to maintain a distance between an objective lens 
of the pickup 22 and the recording medium 21 and for tracking relevant tracks on the 
5 recording medium 21, a data processor 24 for processing and supplying input data to 
the pickup 22 for writing, and for processing data read from the recording medium 
21, an interface 25 for exchanging data and/or commands with any external host 30, 
a memory or storage 27 for storing information and data therein including defect 
management data as needed (e.g., temporary defect management mformation, etc.) 

10 associated with the recording medium 21, and a microprocessor or controller 26 for 
controlling the operations and elements of the recording/reproducing device 20. 
Data to be written/read to/from the recording medium 21 may also be stored in the 
memory 27 if needed. All the components of the recording/reproducing device 20 
are operatively coupled. The recording medium 21 is a recording medium of write- 

1 5 once type such as a BD- WO. 

All the methods and disc structures discussed herein according to the present 
invention can be implemented using the recording/reproducing device 20 of FIG. 2 
or any other suitable device/system. For example, the microcomputer 26 of the 
device 20 may be used to control allocation of the disc structure and to control the 

2 0 recording of management information on the recording medium and the transferring 
of the management information from a temporary area (e.g., TDMA) to a permanent 
or final area (e.g., DMA) on the recording medium 21. The TDMA and DMA wiU 
be discussed later in more detail. 

A management information recording method for a writable-once optical disc 

2 5 such as a BD-WO according to the preferred embodiments of the present invention 
will be now described in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings. For a 
discussion convenience, a writable-once Blu-ray disc (BD-WO) will be exemplified. 
Herein, two types of a BD-WO - a single layer BD-WO and a dual layer BD-WO - 
are discussed. The single layer BD-WO has a single recording layer, whereas the 



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dual layer BD-WO has two recording layers. 

FIG. 3 illustrates a structure of a writable-OBce optical recording medium 
such as a single-layer BD-WO according to an embodiment of the present invention. 
Referring to FIG. 3, the BD-WO includes a lead-in area, a data area, and a lead-out 
5 area allocated on the single recording layer. Each of the lead-in area and the lead-out 
area includes a plurality of defect management areas (DMA 1 and DMA 2; DMA 3 
and DMA 4) for storing therein DMA information for defect management. Each of 
the DMAs 1-4 has a fixed size, e.g., 32 clusters. Generally, in view of the 
importance of defect management, the same information is written in each of the 

10 DMAs 1-4 so that if one of the DMAs is defective, then a different DMA can be 
accessed to obtain the defect management information. 

It should be noted that in a general BD-RE, since data can be repeatedly 
recorded on and erased from a DMA (although the size of the DMA is limited), a 
DMA of large size is not required. However, in a BD-WO according to the present 

15 invention, since data cannot be repeatedly recorded on and erased from the DMA, a 
DMA of large size is required for defect management. 

Still referring to FIG. 3, the lead-in area further includes a temporary defect 
management area (TDMA 1) for temporarily storing defect management information 
therein. The data area includes an inner spare area ISAO, a user data area, and an 

2 0 outer spare area OSAO. Parts of or the entire ISAO and OSAO are used as 
replacement areas for defective areas in the user data area according to linear 
replacement. For instance, during a recording of data into the user data area, if a 
defective area in the user data area is detected, then the data written or to be written 
to this defective area is transferred to a spare area (e.g., ISAO or OSAO) according to 

25 a linear replacement scheme. The outer spare area OSAO includes a temporary 
defect management area (TDMA 2). The defect management information 
temporarily stored in the TDMA 1 and/or TDMA 2 is also referred to herein as 
TDMA information. 

In one embodiment, the TDMA 1 allocated to the lead-in area has a fixed size. 



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9 

whereas the TDMA 2 allocated to the outer spare area OSAO has a variable size 
depending upon the size of the spare aTea(s). For example, if the OSAO has a size of 
N X 256 clusters where N > 0 (N = integer), then the TDMA 2 has a size of P clusters 
where P = (N x 256)/4. 
5 Li one example, the same information may be written in each of the TDMAs 

1 and 2. In another example, the TDMAs 1 and 2 may be sequentially used to 
sequentially record the TDMA information. Regardless, during replacement writing 
operations for writing data of a defective area onto a spare area, TDMA information 
is generated (e.g., under control of the microcomputer 26) and written onto the 

10 TDMAs 1 and/or 2. The TDMAs are also updated periodically or as needed. When 
the BD-WO is ready to be finalized or the DMA is to be filled in for other reasons, 
then ttie TDMA information (latest version) temporarily written in the TDMA(s) is 
transferred and written onto one or each of the DMAs 1-4. This transfer process will 
be discussed later in more detail. 

15 The TDMA information written in each of the TDMAs 1 and 2 includes 

temporary defect list (TDFL) information and temporary disc definition structure 
(TDDS) information. In one embodiment, the TDFL information includes one or a 
plurahty of TDFLs (TDFL #1 TDFL #n). Each TDFL mcludes one or a plurality 
of defect entries identifying defects and corresponding replacement areas on flie disc. 

2 0 Each defect entry includes location information pertaining to a defective area of the 
user data area and the corresponding replacement area. For example, during a data 
recording operation on the BD-WO, if a defective area is found in the user data area, 
then data written or to be written in that defective area is written in a part 
(replacement area) of a spare area (e.g., ISAO or OSAO) according to a linem" 

25 replacement scheme. Then the information pertaining to the defective area and the 
replacement area and their relationship is entered as a defect entry in the TDFL. For 
instance, this information may include a first physical sector number of the defective 
area on the disc, a first physical sector number of the replacement area (spare area) 
corresponding to that defective area, and any other data pertaining to the defect for 



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defect management. 

In one embodiment, the TDDS infomiation written in each of the TDMAs 1 
and 2 includes one or a plurality of TDDSs (TDDS #1 ~ TDDS #n). Each TDDS has 
a fixed size (e.g., one cluster) and includes location information pertaining to the 
5 TDFL(s) so that the location of any TDFL can be quickly identified by accessing the 
TDDS(s). This location information is also referred to herein as the TDDS part and 
can be written in a portion of Sector 0 of the one cluster. Here, a cluster has 32 
sectors each sector having 2048 bytes. As an example only, the TDDS part may 
include one or more physical sector numbers each indicating a location of a TDFL 
10 written on the BD-WO, and any other information pertaining to the TDFL 
information. 

Furthermore^ each TDDS includes recording mode information (RM) and 
disc usage management information. The recording mode information identifies a 
recording mode of the BD-WO and can be written in a portion of Sector 0 of the one 

15 cluster. The disc usage management information identifies the status of a recording 
area of the BD-WO, and can be represented in one of the two forms: track 
information (Track-Info) and space bitmap information (SBM), This structure of the 
TDDS will be discussed in more detail later by referring to FIG. 4. 

As the data recording operation for writing data into the data area progresses, 

2 0 the TDMAs may be updated periodically to reflect any recently discovered defective 
areas and corresponding replacement areas. After each updating of the TDMA, a 
TDFL and a corresponding TDDS, which may include all previous TDMA 
information and the recently generated TDMA infomiation, may be written in the 
TDMA. In this aspect, the latest TDDS and TDFL written in the TDMA of the BD- 

2 5 WO would include the latest TDMA information. Then when the BD-WO is to be 
finalized or the DMA(s) is ready to be filled in, the latest TDDS and TDFL written 
on the BD-WO are transferred and written in one or each of the DMAs 1-4 as the 
final md most-updated defect management information. 

FIG. 4 illustrates a DDS structure of a rewritable disc, an example of a TDDS 



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Structure on a BD- WO and a disc management information recording method for the 
BD-WO according to an embodiment of the present invention. As shown in FIG. 4, 
in the DDS of a general rewritable optical disc, only 60 byte information 
corresponding to an extremely small portion of 1 cluster is used to store therein the 
5 DDS information. The entire remaining part of the DDS is all set to *zero padding'. 

La contrast, in the BD-WO, the entire TDDS area is used to store therein the 
TDDS information. As shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, the TDDS part and the recording 
mode information are written in Sector 0 of the cluster assigned as the TDDS, 
whereas Sectors 1-31 store therein the disc usage management information (Track- 

10 Info or SBM). In another example, the disc usage management information can be 
recorded on the first 31 sectors (Sectors 0 - 30) in the TDDS, and any remaining 
disc usage management information can be recorded on the last 32"^ sector (Sector 
31) in the TDDS along with the TDDS part and recording mode information. 

The recording mode information identifies one of a plurality of recording 

15 modes employed in the BD-WO according to the present invention. In this example, 
a value of "0000 0000" may be used to indicate a sequential recodiag mode, and a 
value of "0000 0001" may be used to indicate a random recording mode. Obviously, 
other examples are possible. Information about the BD-WO according to the present 
invention can be variously determined depending upon the needs through a process 

2 0 of specification regulation. 

The disc usage management information is varied in dependence upon the 
disc usage. In the BD-WO, the disc usage management information is required for 
accurately searching and detecting the start point of an available recording area, and 
is used to distinguish a recording area firom a non-recording area on the disc, in this 

25 aspect, the disc usage management information indicates where the available 
recording area and the recorded area are located within the data area (e.g., user data 
area). 

As mentioned above, the disc usage management information can be 
represented as either the track information (Track-Info) or the space bitmap 



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12 

infonnation (SBM). The Track-Info is generally used when the BD-WO is recorded 
in a sequential recording mode. The SBM is generally used when the BD-WO is 
recorded in a random recording mode. These recording modes can be determined 
depending on the recording mode identified in the recording mode information 
5 stored in the TDDS. 

In conventional writable-once optical discs, the recording status/mode 
information is expressed as 'track information' in case of compact disc series, and as 
'Rzone', 'Fragment' or 'recording range' in case of DVD series. But in the present 
invention, the aforementioned various expressions relating to the recording 
10 status/mode information are commonly designated as 'Track-Info', and accordingly 
the Track-Info will be appreciated as having such meaning irrespective of 
expressions. 

In one example, since the tracks on the BD-WO are sequentially used to 
record during the sequential recording mode, the Track-Info identifies the start point 
15 (location) of the recording area (e.g., user data area) of the BD-WO, and the end 
point (location) of the last recorded portion of the recording area. This information 
then indicates the start of the next available portion of the recording area on the BD- 
WO. 

The bitmap information identifies a start point of an available recordable 
2 0 portion of the recording area on the BD-WO using bit values such as '0' and '1'. 
For instance, if a particular cluster area of the recording area on the BD-WO has 
been recorded, then it is indicated by allocating a value of '1' to every minimal 
recording xmit (1 cluster). If a cluster area of the recording area has no recorded data 
thereon, tiien that cluster is assigned to a value of '0'. In this manner, if the SBM 
2 5 indicates that a particular cluster has a value of * 1' assigned thereto, then it indicates 
that that cluster has been already used (i.e., it has recorded data thereon). If the SBM 
indicates that a particular cluster has a value of '0% then it indicates that that cluster 
has not been used yet (i.e., it has no recorded data thereon). Obviously, the reversal 
or some other values may be used to indicate the recording/non-recording state of 



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each area unit such as the clusters of the user data area. Thus, the SBM makes it 
possible to express a recording usage status of the disc even in the random recording 
mode. 

FIG. 5 illustrates a structure of a writable-once optical disc such as a single 
5 layer BD-WO according to another embodiment of the present invention. The BD- 
WO structure of FIG. 5 is identical to the BD-WO structure of FIG. 3, except that the 
TDDS part and the recording mode information (RM) of TDDS information are 
updated and written after each update state as shown in FIG. 5. In this aspect, the 
disc usage management information (Track-bifo or SBM) is stored in Sectors 0-30 
10 of one cluster of the TDMA, and the TDDS part and RM are stored in Sector 31 of 
the one cluster. In another example, the TDDS part and RM may be stored in Sector 
0 of one cluster of the TDMA, and the Track-Info or SBM may be stored in Sectors 
1-31 of the one cluster. 

Now, the method of transferring the TDMA information from the TDMA to 
15 the DMA according to the embodiments of the present invention will be explained 
by referring to FIGS. 6A-10. This transfer process is also called a DMA fill-in 
process. 

FIG. 6A shows an exemplary structure of a DMA of a single-layer BD-WO, 
and FIG. 6B illustrates the structure of the DMA of FIG. 6 A, a TDMA stracture and 
2 0 a method of transferring data from the TDMA to the DMA according to an 
embodiment of the present invention. The DMA shown in FIGS. 6A and 6B equals 
one or each of the DMAs 1-4 shown in FIG. 3. 

Referring to FIGS. 6A and 6B, the DMA is composed of 32 clusters. The 
Clusters 1-4 of the DMA are designated as a DDS section, whereas the Clusters 5-32 
25 of the DMA are designated as a DFL section. All the clusters of the DMA in the 
BD-WO are designated for storing management data. 

During the DMA fill-in process, the latest TDDS information from the 
TDMA is transfOTed to and recorded in each of Cluster 1 to Cluster 4 of the DMA as 
DDS information. In this example, the latest TDDS part (TO) and the latest disc 



wo 2004/029941 PCT/KR2003/002009 

14 

usage management information (Track-Info or SBM) (DO) of the TDDS information 
are transferred onto the DMA. As a result, the same DDS information is four times 
recorded in the DMA. The latest TDFL information from the TDMA is also 
transferred to and recorded in Clusters 5-32 of the DMA as DFL information. Here, 
5 the same DFL information can be recorded in the DMA up to seven times by 
designating four clusters of the DMA for recording the DFL information therein. In 
one example, the TDDS part written in the DDS section of the DMA may identify 
the location of the DFLs in the DMA on the BD-WO, and not necessarily the 
location of the TDFLs in the TDMA on the BD-WO. Storing the same information 

10 repeatedly in the DDS section or the DFL section ensures that the DMA information 
is not lost (e.g., due to a defect in a portion of the DMA) and is accurately and 
completely accessed each time it is needed. 

FIG. 6C shows an exemplary structure of a DMA of a dual-layer BD-WO 
according to an embodiment of the present invention. Referring to FIG, 6C, one 

15 DMA of the dual- layer BD-WO is composed of a DMA part (Clusters 1 -32) from a 
first recording layer LO of the BD-WO, and a DMA part (Clusters 33-64) firom a 
second recording layer (LI) of the BD-WO, which are accessed according to the 
tracking direction indicated with the arrow. The same DDS information (e.g., for 
both recording layers) is repeatedly recorded on the Clusters 1 — 8 of the DMA, and 

2 0 the same DFL information is repeatedly recorded on the Clusters 9 - 64 of the DMA, 
up to the maximum of, e.g., seven times. In addition, the BD-WO includes a lead-m 
area, a data area and an outer zone area on the first recording layer, and a lead-out 
area, a data area and an outer zone area on the second recording layer. Each of the 
data areas may include at least one spare area and a user data area. The lead-in area 

25 of the first recording layer may include a TDMA and first and second DMAs. The 
lead-out area of the second recording layer may include aaotiier TDMA and first and 
second DMAs. Here, as an example, one DMA shown in FIG. 6C may be composed 
of the first DMAs fi-om the first and second recording layers, or of the second DMAs 
from the first and second recording layers. Additional DMAs may also be provided 



wo 2004/029941 PCT/KR2003/002009 

15 

in the outer zone areas. The spare area(s) may include additional TDMA(s). 

Similar to the single layer BD-WO, the TDMAs in the lead-in/lead-out area 
of the dual layer BD-WO may have a fixed size, whereas the TDMAs in the spare 
areas may have a variable size depending upon the size of the spare area(s). The use 
5 and structure of the DMAs and TDMAs on the single layer BD-WO as discussed 
herein applies equally to the DMAs and TDMAs on the dual layer BD-WO. 

In one embodiment, the latest disc usage management information is recorded 
each on the front part of a first DMA in the lead-in area and/or on the front/rear part 
of a DMA in the lead-out area (depending on whether the disc has a single or 
10 multiple recording layers). This allows the disc usage management information to 
be accessed quickly at the initial loading time of the disc. Further, the data reliability 
and data preservation can be assured by repetitive recording of same information in 
different parts of the disc. 

FIG. 7 shows a chart for explaining the timing, contents and location 
15 information associated with the DMA fill-in process of a BD-WO according to a first 
embodiment of the present invention. This DMA fill-in process is applicable to the 
BD-WO structures shown in FIGS. 3 and 5-6C, or other suitable BD-WO structures. 

Referring to FIG. 7, the time for transferring the TDMA information into the 
DMA of the BD-WO is when the BD-WO is to be finalized. Defect management is 
2 0 performed on the BD-WO. As a result, the TDMA information produced while the 
BD-WO is in use is recorded in the TDMA, and when the BD-WO is to be finalized, 
the latest TDMA information from the TDMA is transferred to and recorded in the 
DMA. 

The time for finalization is generally divided into three cases. The first case 
2 5 (50a) is when no more recording is performed on the BD-WO (e.g., data recording in 
the user data area is completed, or no user data area remains on the disc). The second 
case (50b) is when the TDMA is full of data and no further TDMA information can 
be recorded therein. As one example only, this case may occur if the entire 
TDMA(s) for recording the TDMA information have been used. The third case 



wo 2004/029941 PCT/KR2003/002009 

16 

(50c) is when the user requests a finalizatioii of the BD-WO. As one example only, 
the user or host may request the fmalization of the BD-WO even though some user 
data area or the TDMA is not full, or even though the user data recording in the user 
data area is not completed. 
5 In all three cases of timing, the contents transferred from the TDMA to the 

DMA are the latest TDDS and TDFL information written m tiie TDMA of the BD- 
WO. The latest TDDS information and the latest TDFL information written in the 
TDMA are transferred to a DDS section and a DFL section of the DMA, respectively, 
during the DMA fill-in process. 
10 FIG. 8 shows a chart for explaining the timing, contents and location 

information associated with the DMA fill-in process of a BD-WO according to a 
second embodiment of the present invention. This DMA fill-in process is applicable 
to the BD-WO structures shown in FIGS. 3 and 5-6C or other suitable BD-WO 
structures. 

15 The second embodiment addresses a scenario when the defect management 

(DM) on the BD-WO is not to be performed. Whether or not the DM is to be 
performed on the BD-WO can be determined during the initialization of the BD-WO 
or some other time based on known factors such as a user or host command not to 
perform defect management, etc. Referring to FIG. 8, if it is determined that the DM 

2 0 is not be performed (50d) on the BD-WO (e.g., when the disc is initialized), then a 
specified value, sign or other indication is set in a DFL section of the DMA. This 
indication indicates that no DM is performed on the BD-WO (e.g., no defect lists are 
recorded on the BD-WO or no linear replacement schemes are performed to transfer 
the data of a defective user area to a replacement/spare area). When no DM is to be 

2 5 performed, A/V (audio/video) data can be recorded in real time. Here, since no DM 
is performed during the disc recording (e.g., into the user data area), no TDFLs are 
generated and the predetermined value or some other fixed indication can be set in 
the DFL section of the DMA. In one example, the predetermined value for 
indicating no DM is set in the DFL section of the DMA in advance before the 



wo 2004/029941 



PCT/KR2003/002009 



17 

finalization of the BD-WO (e.g., at the disc initialization). At this time, the entire 
DFL section of the DMA may be padded with the zero value. In another variation, a 
predetermined value (e.g., zero) or some other indication may be set in the TDFL 
area of the TDMA, and then this value (TDFL information) may be transferred to the 
5 DFL section of the DMA while the TDDS information is transferred to the DDS 
section of the DMA during the DMA-fill in process (i.e,, at the finalization of the 
BD-WO). 

The process of transferring the TDDS information from the TDDS of the 
TDMA to the DDS section of the DMA in the second embodiment is identical to that 

10 of the first embodiment of FIG. 7. More specifically, after it is determined that no 
DM is to be performed on the BD-WO and then when the BD-WO is ready to be 
finalized, then the TDDS information is transferred to the DDS section of the DMA. 
As shown m FIG. 8, during the fmalization of the BD-WO, m the fn-st case (50a) 
when no more recording is performed on the BD-WO, in the second case (50b) when 

15 the TDMA is fiiU, and in the third case when the user requests finalization of the 
BD-WO, the latest TDDS information fiom the TDMA is transferred and recorded in 
the DDS section of the DMA as part of DMA fill-in process. 

For example, if the DMA fill-in process of FIG. 8 is applied to tiie DMA 
structure of FIG. 6 A, the Clusters 1-4 of the DMA would store therein the 

2 0 predetermined value (e.g., zero), and the latest TDDS information fi-om the TDMA 
is transferred and recorded in the DDS section of the DMA. AS discussed above, the 
same latest TDDS information can be recorded up to seven times in the Cluster 5-32 
of the DMA. That is, in the maximum 7 repetition recording, the same latest TDDS 
information is written in the Clusters 5-8, the Cluster 9-12, the Cluster 13-16, ... and 

2 5 the Clusters 29-32 of the DMA. 

FIG. 9A shows a chart for explaining the timing, contents and location 
information associated with the DMA fill-in process of a BD-WO according to a 
third embodiment of the present invCTition. This DMA fill-in process is applicable to 
the BD-WO structures shown in FIGS. 3 and 5-6C or other suitable BD-WO 



wo 2004/029941 



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18 

structures. 

The third embodiment addresses a scenario when no more data can be 
recorded in the user data area of the BD-WO, but the spare area(s) and the TDMA(s) 
are not fiill and can still be used to perform defect management. If any recordable 
5 area remains in the spare area (e.g., ISAO and OSAO) and the TDMA (e.g., TDMAs 
1 and 2) even though no more recordable area exists in the user data area of the BD- 
WO (e.g., because the user data area is fall, etc.), then at that time, the latest TDDS 
and TDFL information from the TDMA is transferred and recorded into an area of 
the DMA. Subsequently, when the BD-WO is ready to be finalized, the latest TDDS 

10 and TDFL information at that time from the TDMA is transferred and recorded into 
another area of the DMA, such as the remaining area of the DMA. 

Referrmg to FIG. 9A, in this embodiment, the DM is performed even during 
the reproduction of the BD-WO. Particularly, if the spare area and the TDMA are 
not ftiU and are available for use in the DM even though the recordable user data area 

15 is not available (50e), the latest TDMA information of the TDMA at this time is 
transferred and recorded in only a partial area of the DMA before the finalization of 
the BD-WO. Subsequently, when the BD-WO is to be finalized (50b or 50c), the 
latest TDMA information of the TDMA at that time is then transferred and recorded 
in the remaining or another area designated of the DMA. 

20 Here, the time for finalization is divided into two cases 50b and 50c, which 

are identical to the two cases 50b and 50c in FIG. 7. Briefly, the first case (50b) is 
when the TDMA is fuU of data and no further TDMA information can be recorded 
therein. The second case (50c) is when the user requests a finalization of the BD- 
WO. 

25 FIG. 9B shows an example of the DMA to which the DMA fill-in process of 

FIG. 9A is applied. As shown in FIG. 9B, when the situation 50e occurs, the latest 
TDDS information is written as DDS information into two clusters (e.g., Clusters 1 
and 2) of the DMA, and the latest TDFL information is written as DFL information 
into four clusters (e.g., Clusters 5-8) of the DMA. Here the latest TDFL information 



wo 2004/029941 PCT/KR2003/002009 

19 

is written once in Clusters 5-8 without any repetition. Then when the disc is to be 
finalized (50b or 50c), the latest TDDS information of that time is written as DDS 
information into two clusters (e.g., Clusters 3 and 4) of the DMA and the latest 
TDFL information of that time is written as DFL information into the remainuig 
5 clusters of the DMA. For instance, the same TDFL information can be written up to 
six times in the Clusters 9-32 of the DMA. Other variations are possible. 

FIG. 10 shows examples of values of a TDDS/DDS status flag recorded as 
part of the DDS information in the DDS section of the DMA according to the present 
iavention. Such status flag can be used in aU the disc structures and methods 

10 discussed herein according to the different embodiments of the present invention. 
This status flag informs the user, host or other entity under which status/case the 
TDDS or DDS information has been recorded on the BD-WO. The TDDS or DDS 
status flag may be of one-byte size or some other size. 

For instance, in each of the above-discussed first to third embodiments of the 

15 present invention, the DDS information written in the DDS section of the DMA may 
include a DDS status flag. Similarly, the TDDS information written in the TDMA 
may include a TDDS status flag. One status flag having different values may be 
used to indicate different recording statuses of the TDDS and DDS information. In 
the alternative, separate TDDS status flag and DDS status flag can be used. 

2 0 Referring to FIG. 10, if the same status flag is used for both the TDDS and 

DDS information, then the status flag of '0000 0000' may mean that the BD-WO is 
finalized in response to the user's request (50c) and that the management 
information (e.g., DDS information) is recorded in the DMA. The status flag of 
'0000 11 ir may mean that the BD-WO is finalized because no more recording is 

25 allowed in the user data area (50a) and that the management information (e.g., DDS 
information) is recorded in the DMA. The status flag of ' 1 1 1 1 0000' may mean that 
the BD-WO is finalized because the TDMA is full (50b) and that the management 
information (e.g., DDS information) is recorded in the DMA. The status flag of 
'1111 llir may mean that the manag^ent information (e.g., TDDS information) 



wo 2004/029941 PCT/KR2003/002009 

20 

is recorded in the TDMA while the disc is in use. Obviously other variations or 
status flag values are possible. 



Industrial applicability 



Using the status flag discussed above, the status of the BD-WO can be 
determined or confirmed. For instance, when the disc is loaded for reproduction, the 
TDDS/DDS status flag value can be examined to determine under what 
circumstances and in what manner the DMA fill-in process occurred on the disc. 
Thus, the efficient use of the disc can be assured. 

It will be apparent to those skilled in the art than various modifications and 
variations can be made in the present invention. Thus, it is intended that the present 
invention covers the modifications and variations of this invention provided they 
come within the scope of the appended claims and their equivalents. 



wo 2004/029941 

What is claimed is; 



PCT/KR2003/002009 



1. A method of recording management information on a write-once 
optical recording medium, the recording medium including a temporary defect 
5 management area (TDMA) and a final defect management area (DMA), the method 
comprising: 

recording, in the TDMA, management information produced while the 
recording medium is in use; and 

transferring and recording the latest management information of the TDMA 
10 in the DMA at a DMA fill-in stage of the recording medium. 

2. The method of claim 1, wherein the DMA fill-in stage of the recording 
medium is when the recording medium is to be finalized. 

15 3. The method of claim 2, wherein the recording medium is to be finalized 

when no more recording in a user data area of the recording medium is allowed. 

4. The method of claim 3, wherein in the transferring step, the latest 
management information includes latest temporary defect list information and latest 

2 0 temporary disc definition structure information associated with the recording 
medium. 

5. The method of claim 2, wherein the recording medium is to be finalized 
when the TDMA is fiill and no more management information can be recorded in the 

25 TDMA. 

6. The method of claim 5, wherein in the transferring step, the latest 
management information includes latest temporary defect list information and latest 
temporary disc definition structure information associated with the recording 



wo 2004/029941 



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22 

medium. 

7. The method of claim 2, wherein the recording medium is to be finalized in 
response to a user's request. 

8. The method of claim 7, wherein in the transferring step, the latest 
management information includes latest temporary defect list information and latest 
temporary disc definition structure information associated with the recording 
mediimi. 

9. The method of claim 1, wherein the recording medium fitrther includes a 
spare area and a user data area, and 

wherein in the traasferring step, the DMA fill-in stage is when a recordable 
area remains in the spare area and the TDMA even though no recordable area 
remains in the user data area of the recording medium, and latest management 
information of the TDMA at that time is transferred into a first area of the DMA. 

10. The method of claim 9, further comprising: 

transferring and recording latest management information of the TDMA into 
a second area of the DMA at a second DMA fill-in stage of the recording medium. 

11. The method of claim 10, wherein the second DMA fill-in stage of the 
recording medium is when the recording medium is to be finalized. 

12. The method of claim 11, wherein if the management information is 
recorded in the first area of the DMA, then a defect management is performed duriag 
reproduction of the recording medium; and if the management information is 
recorded in the second area of the DMA, then a defect management is not performed 
during reproduction of the recording medium. 



wo 2004/029941 



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23 

13. The method of claim 11, wherein the recording medium is to be finalized 
when the TDMA is full and no more management information can be recorded in the 
TDMA. 

5 

14. The method of claim 13, whereia in at least one of the transferriag steps, 
the latest management infomiation includes latest temporary defect list information 
and latest temporary disc definition structure information associated with the 
recording medium. 

10 

15. The method of claim 11, wherein the recording medium is to be finaUzed 
in response to a user's request. 

16. The method of claim 15, wherein in at least one of the transferring steps, 
15 the latest management information includes latest temporary defect list information 

and latest temporary disc definition stmcture information associated with the 
recording medium, 

17. The method of claim 1, wherein the recording medium is a writable-once 
2 0 Blu-ray disc (BD-WO). 

18. The method of claim 1, wherein in the transferring step, the latest 
management information includes a status flag indicating a type of the DMA fill-in 
stage. 

25 

19. A method of recording management information on a write-once optical 
recording mediirai, the recording medium including a temporary defect management 
area (TDMA) and a final defect management area (DMA), the DMA including a 
defect list area for storing therein defect list information, the method comprising: 



wo 2004/029941 PCT/KR2003/002009 

24 

if no defect management is to be perfoimed on the recoding medium, setting 
a predeteraiined value in the defect list area of the DMA; 

recording, in the TDMA, management iaformation produced while the 
recording medium is in use; and 
5 transferring and recording the latest management information of the TDMA 

iQ the DMA when the recording medium is to be finalized. 

20. The method of claim 19, wherein the DMA further includes a disc 
definition structure area for storing therein disc definition structure information, and 

10 wherein in the transferring step, the latest management information of the 

TDMA is transferred to the disc definition structure area of the DMA and is latest 
disc definition structure information associated with the recording medium. 

21. The method of claim 19, wherein the recording medium is to be finalized 
15 when no more recording in a user data area of the recording medium is allowed. 

22. The method of claim 19, wherein the recording medium is to be finalized 
when the TDMA is full and no more management information can be recorded in the 
TDMA. 

20 

23. The method of claim 19, wherein the recording medium is to be finalized 
in response to a user's request. 

24. The method of claim 19, wherein the recording medium is a writable-once 
2 5 Blu-ray disc (BD-WO). 

25. The method of claim 19, wherein in the transferring step, the latest 
management information includes a status flag indicating a type of the finalization of 
the recording medium. 



wo 2004/029941 PCT/KR2003/002009 

25 

26, An apparatus for recording management information on a write-once 
optical recording medium, the recording medium iacluding a temporary defect 
management area (TDMA) and a final defect management area (DMA), the 
apparatus comprising: 

5 means for recording, in the TDMA, management information produced while 

the recording medium is in use; aud 

means for transferring and recording the latest management information of 
the TDMA in the DMA at a DMA fill-in stage of the recording medium. 

10 27. An apparatus for recording management information on a write-once 

optical recording medium, the recording medium including a temporary defect 
management area (TDMA) and a final defect management area (DMA), the DMA 
including a defect list area for storing therein defect list information, the apparatus 
comprising: 

15 means for setting a predetermined value in the defect list area of the DMA if 

no defect management is to be performed on the receding medium; 

means for recording, in the TDMA, management information produced while 
the recording medium is in use; and 

means for transferring and recording the latest management information of 
2 0 the TDMA in the DMA when the recording medium is to be finalized. 

28. A write-once optical recording medium for recording management 
information thereon, the recording medium comprising: 

at least one recording layer including a temporary defect management area 
2 5 (TDMA) and a final defect management area (DMA), 

wherein management information produced while the recording medium is in 
use is recorded in the TDMA, and 

the latest management information of the TDMA is transferred and recorded 
in the DMA at a DMA fill-in stage of the recording medium. 



wo 2004/029941 



PCT/KR2003/002009 



26 

29. The recording medium of claim 28, wherein the DMA fill-in stage of the 
recording medium is when the recording medium is to be finalized. 

5 30. The recording medium of claim 29, wherein the recording medium is to 

be finalized when no more recording in a user data area of the recording medium is 

allowed. 

31. The recording medium of claim 30, wherein the latest management 
1 0 information transferred and recorded in the DMA includes latest temporary defect 

list information and latest temporary disc definition structure information associated 
with the recording medium. 

32. The recording medium of claim 29, wherein the recording medium is to 
15 be finalized when the TDMA is full and no more management information can be 

recorded in the TDMA. 

33. The recording medium of claim 32, wherein the latest management 
infomaation transferred and recorded in the DMA includes latest temporary defect 

2 0 list information and latest temporary disc definition structure information associated 
with the recording medium. 

34. The recording medium of claim 29, wherein the recording medium is to 
be finalized in response to a user's request. 

25 

35. The recording medium of claim 34, wherein the latest management 
information transferred and recorded in the DMA includes latest temporary defect 
list information and latest temporary disc definition structure information associated 
with the recording medium. 



wo 2004/029941 



PCT/KR2003/002009 



27 

36. The tecording medium of claim 28, wherein the at least one recoding 
layer further includes a spare area and a user data area, and 

wherein the DMA fill-in stage is when a recordable area remains in the spare 
5 area and the TDMA even though no recordable area remains in the user data area of 
the recording medium, and latest management information of the TDMA at that time 
is transferred into a first area of the DMA. 

37. The recording medium of claim 36, wherein latest management 
1 0 information of the TDMA is transferred and recorded into a second area of the DMA 

at a second DMA fill-in stage of the recording medium. 

38. The recording medium of claim 37, wherein the second DMA fill-in stage 
of the recording medium is when the recording medium is to be finalized. 

15 

39. The recording medium of claim 38, wherein if the management 
information is recorded in the first area of the DMA, then a defect management is 
performed during reproduction of the recording medium; and if the management 
information is recorded in the second area of the DMA, then a defect management is 

2 0 not performed during reproduction of the recording medium. 

40. The recording medium of claim 38, wherein the recording medium is to 
be finalized when the TDMA is full and no more management information can be 
recorded in the TDMA. 

25 

41. The recording medium of claim 40, wherein the latest management 
information recorded in at least one of the first and second areas of the DMA 
includes latest temporary defect list information and latest temporary disc definition 
structure information associated with the recording medium. 



wo 2004/029941 



PCT/KR2003/002009 



28 

42. The recording medium of claim 38, wherein the recording medium is to 
be finalized in response to a user's request. 

5 43. The recording medium of claim 42, wherein the latest management 

information recorded in at least one of the first and second areas of the DMA 
includes latest temporary defect list information and latest temporary disc definition 
structure information associated with the recording medium, 

10 44. The recording medium of claim 28, wherein the recording medium is a 

writable-once Blu-ray disc (BD-WO). 

45. The recording medium of claim 28, wherein the latest management 
information includes a status flag indicating a type of the DMA fill-in stage. 

15 

46. A write-once optical recording medium for recording management 
information thereon, the recording medium comprising: 

at least one recording layer including a temporary defect management area 
(TDMA) and a final defect management area (DMA), the DMA including a defect 
2 0 list area for storing therein defect list information, 

wherein if no defect management is to be performed on the recoding medium, 
a predetermined value is set in the defect list area of the DMA, 

management information produced while the recording medium is in use is 
recorded in the TDMA, and 
25 the latest management information of the TDMA is transferred and recorded 

in the DMA when the recording medium is to be finalized. 

47. The recording medium of claim 46, wherein the DMA further includes a 
disc definition structure area for storing therein disc definition structure information. 



wo 2004/029941 PCT/KR2003/002009 

29 

and 

wherein when the recoding medium is to be finahzed, the latest management 
information of the TDMA is transferred to the disc definition structure area of the 
DMA and is latest disc definition structure information associated with the recording 
5 medium. 

48. The recording medium of claim 46, wherein the recording medium is to 
be finalized when no more recording hi a user data area of the recording medium is 
allowed. 

10 

49. The recording medium of claim 46, wherein the recording medium is to 
be finalized when tiie TDMA is full and no more management information can be 
recorded in the TDMA. 

15 50. The recording medium of claim 46, wherein the recording medium is to 

be finalized in response to a user's request. 

51. The recording medium of claim 46, wherein the recording medium is a 
writable-once Blu-ray disc (BD-WO). 
2 0 52. The recording medium of claim 46, wherein the latest management 

information includes a status flag indicating a type of the finalization of the 
recording medium. 



wo 2004/029941 



PCT/KR2003/002009 



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TDFL 


TDDS 
part 


Track 
-Info 
or 


TDDS 
part 


Track 
-Info 
or 


TDDS 
part 


TDFL 


TDDS 
part 



JO o PQ 





f-4 








o 




o 






o 








CO 


O CO 




a> 


CD 


CO 


CO 




CO 












CP 








-»-^ 
















o 







cd 

CO 
Q 



wo 2004/029941 



PCT/KR2003/002009 



6/11 



FIG. 6A 



Single Layer BP- WO 

DMA 



Cluster 


Cluster 


Cluster 




Cluster 


Cluster 


1 


2 


3 




31 


32 



Cluster 1~4 


DDS (4repetition) 


Cluster 5~8 


1^* position of DFL 


Cluster 9~12 


2°* position of DFL 






Cluster 29~32 


7*^ position of DFL 



wo 2004/029941 



PCT/KR2003/002009 



7/11 



a 
o 

. f-H 
-»-> 

I 

o 



CO 



PQ 
CD 













TDFL 




o o 

Q ^ B- 




TDFL 




« 
• 
« 




TDFL 




^ ^ o 




TDFL 



A 



I. 



o 



£-2 

O <^ 





GO 


2 


z 




to 


CO 




S-H 




CD 


CD 


o 


B 

1— 1 
O 



o 



CO 

o 

GO 



o 



CO 

o 
a. 

CV2 



C\2 
— I 

2 

CD 
CO 

1— H 

o 



o 

• I— I 

• »— I 

CO 

o 
z>- 



C\2 
CO 



05 

CO 
CD 
CO 

^3 



^ O 



^ ^ ^ 
Q ^ E-H 



Q^E-* 



CO 
(D 
CO 

CO 



CO 
CD 

r— I 
O 



<^ ^ 

Q ^ E-H 



wo 2004/029941 



PCT/KR2003/002009 



8/11 



FIG. 6C 



Dual Layer BP- WO 



Tracking direction 



Layer LO 


Cluster 
1 


Cluster 
2 


Cluster 
3 


• • • 


Cluster 
31 


Cluster 
32 


Layer LI 


Cluster 
64 


Cluster 
63 




Cluster 

35 


Cluster 

34 


Cluster 

33 



Tracking direction 



Clusters 1 ~ 8 


DBS 


Clusters 9 ~ 16 


position of DFL 


« 
• 


• 
• 


Clusters 57 ~ 64 


7*^ position of DFL 



wo 2004/029941 



PCT/KR2003/002009 



9/11 



FIG. 7 



DMA fill-in 
timing 



contents 



Location in DMA 



r 



50a- 

Finalization -<( 
50b- 
50c- 



- No more record 


Latest 
TDDS & TDFL 


DDS & DFL 


TDMA Full 


Latest 
TDDS k TDFL 


DDS & DFL 


- User selection 


Latest 
TDDS & TDFL 


DDS & DFL 



FIG. 8 



DMA fill-in 
timing 



contents 



Location in DMA 



r 



50d- 
50a- 



Finalization -s 
50b- 

50c- 



• D.M : Defect Management 

• DMA : Defect Management Area 



Non D.M 


Predetermined 
Value 
(ex,zero padding) 


DFL 


~ No more record 


Latest TDDS 


DDS 


TDMA Full 


Latest TDDS 


DDS 


~ User selection 


Latest TDDS 


DDS 



wo 2004/029941 PCT/KR2003/002009 



10/11 



FIG. 9A 



50e — 

50b — 
Finalization 

50c — 



DMA fill-in 

timing 


contents 


Location in DMA 


- No more record 
But Spare & TDMA left 


Latest 
TDDS & TDFL 


Part of DMA 


TDMA Full 


Latest 
TDDS Sc TDFL 


Remainder of DMA 


, User selection 


Latest 
TDDS Sc TDFL 


Remainder of DMA 



• D.M : Defect Management 

• DMA : Defect Management Area 



FIG. 9B 



Clusters 1 ~ 2 


DDS 

(before Finalization) 


Clusters 3 ~ 4 


DDS 

(at Finalization) 


Clusters 5 ~ 8 


DFL 

(before Finalization) 


Clusters 9 ~ 12 


1st position of DFL 
(at Finalization) 


• 
• 


• 


Clusters 29 ~ 32 


6th position of DFL 
(at Finalization) 



wo 2004/029941 



PCT/KR2003/002009 





11/11 




FIG 10 


(T)DDS status flag (ibyte) in DMA/TDMA 


0000 0000 


In DMA, after User select finalization 


0000 1111 


In DMA, after no more record 


nil 0000 


In DMA, after TDMA Full 


11111111 


In TDMA, before finalization 



INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT 



International application No. 
PCT/KR 03/02009-0 



CLASSIFICATION OF SUBJECT MATTER 
IPC^:G11B7/00, 11/00 

According to International Patent Classification (IPC) or to both national classification and IPC 



B. FIELDS SEARCHED 



Minimum documentation searched (classification system followed by classification symbols) 

IPC^:G11B7/00, 11/00 



Documentation searched other than minimum documentation to the extent that such documents are included in the flelds searched 
G11B 7/0045, 11/10, 11/12, 13/04, 20/10, 20/12 



Electronic data base consulted during the international search (name of data base and, where practicable, search terms used) 

WPI 



C. DOCUMENTS CONSroERED TO BE RELEVANT 



Category Citation of document, with indication, v/here ^ipropriate, of die relevant passages 



Relevant to claim No. 



US 5805536 A (Gage et al.) 8 September 1998 (08.09.98) 



US 5247494 A (Ohno et al.) 21 September 1993 (21 .09.93) 



EP 0556046 A1 (Sony) 1 8 August 1993 (1 8.08.93) 



1,19,26-28,46 



1.19,26-28,46 



1.19,26-28,46 



□ 



Further documents are listed in the continuation of Box 0, 



See patent family annex. 



* Special categories of cited documents: 

„A" document defining the general state of the art which is not 

considered to be of particular relevance 
„E** earlier application or patent but published on or after the international 

filing date 

„L" document which may throw doubts on priority claini(s) or which is 
cited to establish the publication date of another citation or other 
special reason (as specified) 

„0" document referring to an oral disclosure, use, exhibition or other 

means 

„P" document published prior to the international filing date but later than 

the priority date claimed 



„T" later document published after the international filing date or priority 

date and not in conflict with the application but cited to understand 

the principle or theory underlying the invention 
„X" document of particular relevance; the claimed invention cannotbe 

considered novel or cannot be considered to involve an inventive step 

when the document is taken alone 
„Y" document of particular relevance; the claimed invention cannotbe 

considered to involve an inventive step when the document is 

combined with one or more other such documents, such combination 

being obvious to a person skilled in the art 
„&** document member of the same patent family 



Date of the actual completion of the international search 

23 January 2004 (23.01.2004) 



Date of mailing of the international search report 

12 February 2004 (12.02.2004) 



Name and mailing adress of the ISA/AT 

Austrian Patent Office 

Dresdner StraBe 87, A- 1200 Vienna 

Facsimile No. 1/53424/535 



Authorized officer 



GROSSING G. 



Telephone No. 1/53424/386 



Form PCT/ISA/210 (second sheet) (July 1998) 



INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT 

Information on. pateat family members 



inteiStionai apolication No. 

PCT/KR 03/02009-0 



Patent document cited Publication Patent family Publication 

In search report date membGr{s) date 



EP 




556046 




KR 


B 


275000 


2000-12-X5 










DE 


T 


69318053T 


1998-08-20 










DB 


D 


69318053D 


1998-05-28 










US 


A 


53094X9 


1994-05-03 










EP 


A 


0556046 


1993-08-18 










JP 


A 


5225570 


1993-09-03 


US 


A 


5247494 


1993-09-21 


JP 


A 


60263353 


1985-12-26 


US 


A 


5805536 


1998-09-08 






none 





PCT/ISA/210 (patent family annex) Quly 1998)