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(12) INTERNATIONAL APPLICATION PUBLISHED UNDER THE PATENT COOPERATION TREATY (PCT) 



(19) World Intellectual Property 
Organization 

International Bureau 

(43) International Publication Date 
8 April 2004 (08.04.2004) 




PCT 



IIIM 

(10) International Publication Number 

WO 2004/029668 A2 



(51) International Patent Classification 7 : 



G02B 



(21) International Application Number: 

PCT/KR2003/001976 

(22) International Filing Date: 

26 September 2003 (26.09.2003) 



(25) Filing Language: 

(26) Publication Language: 



English 
English 



(30) Priority Data: 

10-2002-0058515 

26 September 2002 (26.09.2002) KR 
10-2003-0002330 14 January 2003 (14.01.2003) KR 

(71) Applicant: LG ELECTRONICS INC. [KR/KR] ; 20, 
Yoido-dong, Youngdungpo-gu, Seoul 150-721 (KR). 

(72) Inventors: PARK, Yong Cheol; 215-204, Jugong APT., 
Wonmun-dong, Gwachon-si, Gyeonggi-do 427-030 (KR). 
KIM, Sung Dae; 11 10-1406, Jugong APT, Sanbon l(il)- 
dong, Gunpo-si, Gyeonggi-do 435-746 (KR). 

(74) Agents: BAHNG, Hae Cheol et al.; Kims International 
Patent & Law Office, 15th Floor, Yo Sam Building, 648-23, 
Yeoksam-dong, Kangnam-gu, Seoul 135-080 (KR). 



(81) Designated States (national): AE, AG, AL, AM, AT, AU, 
AZ, BA, BB, BG, BR, BY, BZ, CA, CH, CN, CO, CR, CU, 
CZ, DE, DK, DM, DZ, EC, EE, EG, ES, FT, GB, GD, GE, 
GH, GM, HR, HU, ID, IL, IN, IS, JP, KE, KG, KP, KR, 
KZ, LC, LK, LR, LS, LT, LU, LV, MA, MD, MG, MK, 
MN, MW, MX, MZ, NI, NO, NZ, OM, PG, PH, PL, PT, 
RO, RU, SC, SD, SE, SG, SK, SL, SY, TJ, TM, TN, TR, 
TT, TZ, UA, UG, UZ, VC, VN, YU, ZA, ZM, ZW. 

(84) Designated States (regional): ARIPO patent (GH, GM, 
KE, LS, MW, MZ, SD, SL, SZ, TZ, UG, ZM, ZW), 
Eurasian patent (AM, AZ, BY, KG, KZ, MD, RU, TJ, TM), 
European patent (AT, BE, BG, CH, CY, CZ, DE, DK, EE, 
ES, FT, FR, GB, GR, HU, IE, IT, LU, MC, NL, PT, RO, 
SE, SI, SK, TR), OAPI patent (BF, BJ, CF, CG, CI, CM, 
GA, GN, GQ, GW, ML, MR, NE, SN, TD, TG). 

Published: 

— without international search report and to be republished 
upon receipt of that report 

For two-letter codes and other abbreviations, refer to the "Guid- 
ance Notes on Codes and Abbreviations" appearing at the begin- 
ning of each regular issue of the PCT Gazette. 



(54) Title: OPTICAL DISC, 
OF WRITE ONCE TYPE 



METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MANAGING A DEFECTIVE AREA ON AN OPTICAL DISC 



BD-W0 



o 



Data Area 







User Data Area 






UA 




DUV DUV 
#1 ! # 2 ! ... 


DUV 












1 1 1 










TDFL 
Area 


i 

1 Recording 1 i 
! i i 
1 i 




0SA 


L0A 



< 



Rec(SlO) 



Sub_TDFL" 

"TDDS & 
Main_TDFL" 
(TDM A) 
"DDS k DFL" 
(DMA) 







f \ 


Cluster 


'Cluster 


Cluster 


y ■////// , 

^Cluster 


Cluster 


Cluster 




/ V 
/ \ 
/ \ 


#1 


y 4m 


#3 


#5 


#6 




/ \ 
/ \ 



Rep(Sll) 



Rep(S13) 



Rep(S15) 





Cluster 


Cluster 




#4 


#2 



Rec(S12) 



Rec(S14) 

(57) Abstract: A defective area on a write-once type optical recording medium, e.g., such as a BD-WO, is effectively managed with 
a method that can efficiently replace and/or record data that has been recorded in a defective area of the disc, e.g., in a spare area of a 
data area of the BD-WO. During the reproduction of data, the data that has been recorded and replaced can be read out and reproduced 
from an area other than a spare area. New TDFL information may be recorded cumulatively with the previous TDFL information 
as defect management information for the defective area, or repeatedly recorded at least twice in a certain recording region, e.g., a 
recording region chosen from a lead-in area, the data area, and a lead-out area, so that the temporary defect list information can be 
accurately and reliably secured. 



WO 2004/029668 PCT/KR2003/001976 

1 

OPTICAL DISC, METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MANAGING 
A DEFECTIVE AREA ON AN OPTICAL DISC OF WRITE ONCE TYPE 

Technical Field 

5 

The present invention relates to a method for managing a defective area 
on a high density optical disc, and more particularly to a write once optical disc, 
an apparatus and a method for managing and efficiently recording defect 
management information for a defective area on a high density optical disc such 
10 as a Blu-ray Disc Write Once (BD-WO) type. 

Background Art 

Optical discs on which a large capacity of data can be written as optical 
15 recording media have been widely used in the backgroimd art. Among these 
new high density physical formats being developed is a new HD-DVD (High- 
Density Digital Versatile Disc) on which high quality video and audio data can 
be written and stored in large quantities, e.g., a BD (Blu-ray Disc). 

The Blu-ray disc is the next-generation optical recording solution that can 
20 surpass the data recording capability of existing DVDs. The world standard 
specifications for the Blu-ray disc HD-DVD have recently been established. 
The Blu-ray disc uses a celadon (blue-ultraviolet) laser having a wavelength of 
405 nm that is much denser than the red laser having a wavelength of 650 nm 
that is typically used for existing DVD technology. Accordingly, a larger 
25 amount of data than the existing DVD can be stored on the Blu-ray disc that has 
a thickness of 1.2 mm, a diameter of 12 cm, and an optical transmission layer 
having a thickness of 0.1 mm. 



WO 2004/029668 



2 



PCT/KR2003/001976 



Disclosure of Invention 

Accordingly, the present invention is directed to a method of managing a 
defective area on an optical disc write once that substantially obviates one or 
5 more problems due to limitations and disadvantages of the related art. 

An object of the present invention is to provide a method of managing a 
defective area on an optical disc of write once type that can efficiently replace 
data recorded in a defective area of a disc as replacement data. 

An object of the present invention is to provide a method of managing a 
10 defective area on an optical disc of write once type that can efficiently record 
replacement data in a spare area to prevent data recording errors. 

One or more of these and other objects of the present invention are 
accomplished by a method for managing an optical recording medium having at 
least one defective area in a user data area, the method comprising recording 
15 data recorded in the defective area in a spare area of the optical recording 
medium as replacement data and providing a first temporary defect list having a 
defect entry for the at least one defective area; and recording a cumulative 
temporary defect list for an additional defective area in the user data area, 
wherein the cumulative temporary defect list includes the first temporary defect 
2 0 list previously recorded and at least one additional defective entry for any 
additional defective area. 

One or more of these and other objects of the present invention are further 
accomplished by a recording medium comprising at least one spare area within 
a data area; a temporary defect management area for managing replacement data 
25 of at least one defective area within a user data area of the data area; and a 
cumulative temporary defect list stored within the temporary defect 
management area, wherein the cumulative temporary defect list includes 
management information for the replacement data of the at least one defective 



WO 2004/029668 PCT/KR2003/001976 

3 

area cumulatively recorded and management information for replacement data 
for at least one additional defective area of the user data area. 

One or more of these and other objects of the present invention are further 
accomplished by an apparatus for managing an optical recording medium 
5 having at least one temporary defect management area, and a spare area in a 
data area, the apparatus comprising a device for recording data recorded in at 
least one defective area of the spare area of the optical recording medium as 
replacement data and providing a first temporary defect list having a defect 
entry for the at least one defective area; and a device for recording a cumulative 
10 temporary defect list for an additional defective area in a user data area, wherein 
the cumulative temporary defect list includes the first temporary defect list 
previously recorded and at least one additional defective entry for any additional 
defective area. 

It is to be understood that both the foregoing general description and the 
15 following detailed description of the present invention are exemplary and 
explanatory and are intended to provide further explanation of the invention as 
claimed. 

Brief Description of the Drawings 

20 

The accompanying drawings, which are included to provide a further 
understanding of the invention and are incorporated in and constitute a part of 
this application, illustrate embodiment(s) of the invention and together with the 
description serve to explain the principle of the invention. In the drawings: 
25 FIG. 1 schematically illustrates the construction of a general optical disc 

recording/reproducing apparatus according to an embodiment of the present 
invention; 



WO 2004/029668 PCT/KR2003/001976 

4 

FIG. 2 illustrates a method of managing a defective area on a general BD- 

RE; 

FIG. 3 is a block diagram of an optical disc recording and reproducing 
device according to another embodiment of the present invention; 
5 FIGS. 4 A and 4B illustrate a structure of a single layer BD-WO and a 

dual layer BD-WO optical disc, respectively, according to an embodiment of the 
present invention; 

FIG. 5 illustrates a method of managing a defective area on an optical disc 

of write once type according to a first embodiment of the present invention; 
10 FIG. 6 illustrates management information created and recorded by the 

method of managing a defective area on an optical disc of write once type 

according to the first embodiment of the present invention; 

FIG. 7 illustrates a method of recording a temporary defect list on an 

optical disc of write once type according to the present invention; 
15 FIG. 8 illustrates a method of managing a defective area on an optical disc 

of write once type according to a second embodiment of the present invention; 
FIG. 9 illustrates management information created and recorded by the 

method of managing a defective area on an optical disc of write once type 

according to the second embodiment of the present invention; and 
20 FIGs. 10 and 11 illustrate examples of the method of managing a 

defective area on an optical disc of write once type according to the second 

embodiment of the present invention. 

Best mode for Carrying Out the Invention 

25 

Reference will now be made in detail to the method and apparatus for 
managing a defective area on an optical disc write once according to the 
preferred embodiments of the present invention, exampks of which are 



WO 2004/029668 PCT/KR2003/001976 

5 

illustrated in the accompanying drawings. Wherever possible, the same 
reference numbers will be used throughout the drawings to refer to the same or 
like parts. 

As various kinds of standards relating to the Blu-ray disc have been 
5 prepared, standards for BD-RE (Blu-ray Disc Rewritable) and BD-WO (Blu-ray 
Disc Write once) are being developed for various applications. As seen in FIG. 
1, an apparatus for recording/reproducing a signal on an optical disc, such as a 
BD-RE, may include an optical pickup 1 1 for recording/reproducing the signal 
on the optical disc 10, a VDR (Video Disc Recorder) system 12 for processing 

10 the signal readout from the optical pickup 11 or modulating an externally 
inputted data stream into a signal suitable for being recorded to process the 
modulated signal, and an encoder 13 for encoding an externally inputted analog 
signal and outputting the encoded signal to the VDR system 12. 

As seen in FIG. 2, the BD-RE is divided into, and assigned a lead-in area 

15 (LI A), a data area, and a lead-out area (LOA). The data area is provided with a 
user data area, and an inner spare area (ISA) and an outer spare area (OS A) 
assigned to a leading end and a rear end of the user data area, respectively. 

The VDR system 12 of the optical disc recording/reproducing apparatus 
as constructed above encodes and modulates the externally inputted data into the 

20 signal suitable for being recorded, and then writes the modulated signal in a 
cluster, e.g., a unit that corresponds to the unit of an ECC (Error Correction 
Coding) block having a specified recording size. As shown in FIG. 2, if a 
defective area is detected in the data area during recording of the data, a series 
of replacement recording operations for replacement recording of the data 

25 recorded in the defective area are performed in a cluster of a spare area, e.g., in 
the ISA. 

Accordingly, even if the defective area exists in the data area of the BD- 
RE, the VDR system 12 of the optical disc recording/reproducing apparatus 



WO 2004/029668 PCT/KR2003/001976 

6 

records the data recorded in the defective area in the single cluster in the spare 
area. During the reproduction of data, the VDR system 12 reads out and 
reproduces the data replaced/recorded in the spare area, so that any data 
recording errors can be prevented in advance. 
5 As the name of the BD-WO may suggest, data can be written only once 

on the BD-WO and is not re-writable on the BD-WO. However, the BD-WO 
can be read repeatedly. As a result, the BD-WO is useful where the 
rewritability of data on a recording medium is not desired or essential. However, 
an efficient defective area management scheme for the BD-WO, the second 

10 standardization of Blu-ray disc discussed hereinabove, has not yet been prepared 
and is therefore required. 

FIG. 3 is a block diagram of an optical disc recording and/or reproducing 
device 20 according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention. The 
optical disc recording and/or reproducing device 20 (hereinafter optical disc 

15 recording/reproducing device) includes an optical pickup 22 for writing and 
reading data to and from an optical recording medium 21, a servo unit 23 for 
controlling the pickup 22 to maintain a distance between an objective lens of the 
pickup 22 and the recording medium 21 and for tracking relevant tracks on the 
recording medium 21, a data processor 24 for processing and supplying input 

20 data to the pickup 22 for writing, and for processing data read from the 
recording medium 21, an interface 25 for exchanging data and/or commands 
with any external host 30, a memory or storage 27 for storing information and 
data therein including defect management data associated with the recording 
medium 21, and a microprocessor or controller 26 for controlling the operations 

25 and elements of the recording/reproducing device 20. 

Data to be written or read to or from the recording medium 21 may also 
be stored in the memory 27. All the components of the recording/reproducing 
device 20 are Bperatively coupled. In the exemplary embodiment shown, the 



WO 2004/029668 PCT/KR2003/001976 

7 

recording medium 21 is a recording medium of write-once type, e.g., such as a 
BD-WO. 

FIGS. 4A and 4B illustrate a structure of a single layer BD-WO and a 
dual layer BD-WO optical disc, respectively, according to an embodiment of the 
5 present invention. As shown in FIGS. 4A and 4B, the BD-WO can have one or 
two recording layers. In FIG. 4 A, a BD-WO having only a single recording 
layer (Layer 0) includes a single recording layer composed of a lead-in area 
(LIA), a data area, and a lead-out area (LOA), and is referred to herein as a 
single layer disc. 

10 In FIG. 4B, a dual layer BD-WO includes two recording layers (Layers 0 

and 1) and is referred to hereinafter as a dual layer disc. The first recording 
layer (Layer 0) includes a LIA, a data area, and an outer zone. The second 
recording layer (Layer 1) includes a LOA, a data area and an outer zone. 
Generally, a data writing occurs in the direction shown with the dotted arrow in 

15 the dual layer disc. The single layer disc can have a capacity of 23.3, 25.0 or 
27.0 Gbytes, whereas the dual layer disc can have a capacity of 46.6, 50.0, or 
54.0 Gbytes. 

It should be noted that all the different embodiments of the present 
invention, e.g., various methods discussed hereinafter, are applicable to any type 

2 0 of an optical disc, such as a single layer BD-WO, a dual layer BD-WO or a BD- 
RE. Further, although the use of the optical disc recording/reproducing device 
20 of FIG. 3 is discussed below in conjunction with the methods of the 
invention, the invention is not limited to such and encompasses other 
recording/reproducing devices as long as they are configured to implement the 

25 present methods. For instance, the device shown in either FIG. 1 or FIG. 3, e.g., 
the VDR system 12 or the optical disc recording/reproducing device 20 may be 
used to implement the present methods as needed. 



WO 2004/029668 PCT/KR2003/001976 

8 

FIG. 5 illustrates a method of managing a defective area on an optical disc 
of write once type according to a first embodiment of the present invention. For 
example, the BD-WO (Blu-ray Disc Write Once) includes an LIA (Lead-in 
Area), a data area, and an LOA (Lead-Out Area). The data area may be divided 
5 into a user data area where a PSN (Physical Sector Number) and an LSN 
(Logical Sector Number) are simultaneously given and a non-user data area 
where only the PSN is given. 

The non-user data area, as shown in FIG.' 5, is divided into an ISA (Inner 
Spare Area) and an OS A (Outer Spare Area) for replacement-recording data of a 

10 defective area. The LIA is divided into a TDMA (Temporary Defect 
Management Area) for temporarily recording management information of the 
defective area and the replacement-recorded data, and a DMA (Defect 
Management Area) for generally permanently recording defect management 
information. However, FIG. 5 shows only an example of the positions of the 

15 TDMA and the DMA, and their positions may be changed. For example, the 
DMA may also be arranged in the LOA, and the TDMA may additionally be 
arranged in the data area if needed. 

In the case of a general rewritable optical disc, data can be repeatedly 
written in and erased from a DMA, even if the DMA has a limited size, and a 

2 0 DMA of a large size is therefore not required. However, in the case of an 
optical disc of write once type, once an area has been used for recording data, 
this area cannot be used for data recording again. Accordingly, a defect 
management area of a larger size is required in optical discs of this type. Also, 
if no further recording is made on the optical disc of write once type, e.g., in the 

25 case where the optical disc of write once type is finalized, the final TDMA 
information needs to be transferred to the DMA. This defect management area 
is referred to as the TDMA (Temporary DMA), e.g., as distinguished from the 
DMA. Accordingly, the TDMA can be regarded as a distinguishing feature of 



WO 2004/029668 PCT/KR2003/001976 

9 

the structure of the optical disc of write once type according to the present 
invention. 

In the TDMA, a TDFL (Temporary Defect List) where information on the 
defective areas and the position information of the replacement-recorded areas 
5 are recorded and managed in the form of a list and general management 
information of the disc are recorded. According to the present invention, a 
TDDS (Temporary Disc Definition Structure) for storing the position 
information of the TDFL is recorded in the TDMA. However, the structure and 
relationship between TDFL and TDDS will be explained in greater detail 

10 hereinafter with reference to FIGs. 6 and 7. 

Meanwhile, the optical disc recording/reproducing device 20 as described 
above with reference to FIG. 3 sequentially records data in a predetermined 
recording region of the user data area during the data recording operation. In 
order to detect the defective area while the data recording operation is 

15 performed, a recording size corresponding to one or more physical tracks or 
recording unit(s) (in case of the BD-WO, a single cluster) may be set as a DVU 
(Defect Verifying Unit) in the predetermined recording region. In addition, this 
DVU can be set to have a range of sizes according to the design of the system. 

Also, the optical disc recording/reproducing device 20 repeatedly 

20 performs a series of operations for detecting the defective area, which includes 
confirming whether the data is normally recorded by recording data in the DVU 
and then reproducing the data recorded in the DVU. 

For example, as shown in FIG. 5, the optical disc recording/reproducing 
device 20 detects the defective area by sequentially recording data in first to 

25 fifth clusters Cluster #1 - #5 as a first DVU (DVU #1 step S10), and then 
sequentially reproducing the data recorded in the first DVU. If the defective 
area is detected in the second cluster (step Sll), the optical disc 
recording/reproducing device 20 performs the recording operation for 



WO 2004/029668 PCT/KR2003/001976 

10 

replacement-recording the data of the second cluster, e.g., the data of the second 
cluster temporarily stored in an internal buffer (or the memory 27) of the optical 
disc recording/reproducing device 20, in the spare area (step SI 2). Although the 
process of replacement-recording the data in the OS A is shown in FIG. 5, it will 
5 be appreciated that the replacement-recording of data in the ISA is also possible. 

The data of the second cluster may be replacement-recorded from the rear 
end of the OSA or from the fore or lead end thereof. The optical disc 
recording/reproducing device 20, after the aforementioned replacement 
recording operation, reproduces the data recorded in the third cluster of the first 

10 DVU again, and if the defective area is detected in the fourth cluster (step SI 3) 
at this time, the optical disc recording/reproducing device 20 performs the 
recording operation for replacement-recording the data of the fourth cluster, e.g., 
the data of the fourth cluster temporarily stored in the internal buffer or memory 
of the optical disc recording/reproducing device 20, in the spare area (step S14). 

15 Accordingly, in the first DVU, normally recorded first, third and fifth 

clusters and two defective areas are recorded, and in the outer spare area, the 
second cluster and the fourth cluster are replacement-recorded. 

If the data recording operation Recording 1 having a temporary sequence 
is terminated while the defective area detection and replacement recording 

2 0 operation as described above are repeatedly performed in the unit of a DVU, 
e.g., DVU m, DVU #2,..., DVU #n, the optical disc recording/reproducing 
device 20 records defect management information for managing the defective 
area and the replacement-recorded data as TDFL (Temporary Defect List) 
information. Accordingly, the method of recording the TDDS and the TDFL 

2 5 will be explained in greater detail hereinafter. 

FIG. 6 illustrates the structures of TDDS and TDFL and the relationship 
between the TDDS and the TDFL. The TDFL includes a plurality of entries. 
Each entry within the TDFL includes position information of the defective area 



WO 2004/029668 PCT/KR2003/001976 

11 

{First PSN of Defective) and position information of the replacement-recorded 
area {First PSN of Replacement), e.g. 5 this arrangement of entries has been used 
in the same manner as the existing rewritable optical disc. The TDDS is an area 
that includes information for managing the disc, and, especially with respect to 
5 the present invention, the TDDS has information on the position of the latest or 
most recent TDFL (First PSN of latest TDFL) . 

Accordingly, whenever a defective area is detected that requires 
management, the corresponding entry is recorded in the TDFL. After the 
recording in the TDFL is completed, information indicative of the position of 

10 the corresponding TDFL is recorded in the TDDS. Accordingly, the system can 
easily access the position of the latest updated TDFL by reproducing the TDDS, 
and efficient defect management becomes possible by confirming the entries of 
the corresponding TDFL. 

The TDDS and the TDFL are recorded in the TDMA as shown in FIG. 6. 

15 If a user requests a disc finalization for terminating the data recording on the 
optical disc, a series of operations for copying and recording new TDDS and 
TDFL information stored in the TDMA into a separately arranged DMA are 
performed during the disc finalization. Accordingly, by confirming the DMA 
area during a reuse of the disc, it can be easily recognized that the corresponding 

20 disc is finalized and that the contents of the final TDDS and TDFL can be 
confirmed as well. In the case of the recording of the TDDS and the TDFL in 
the DMA, these structures are referred to as DDS (Disc Definition Structure) 
and DFL (Defect List), respectively, to indicate finalized information. 

FIG. 7 illustrates a method of recording a TDFL on an optical disc of 

25 write once type according to the first embodiment of the present invention. The 
main characteristic of this method is a cumulative use of the TDFL. Since the 
preservation of defect entries is critical to successful defect management, the 
cumulative recording method is used so that the entries can be protected 



WO 2004/029668 PCT/KR2003/001976 

12 

cumulatively with previous TDFL information throughout the recording of the 
TDFL information. Further,' by simply confirming the final TDFL information, 
all defect information produced up to that point can be conveniently confirmed 
at a single reference location. 
5 Specifically, if two defect entries existed in the n-th recorded TDFL, the 

two n-th defect entries (Defect_Entry #1 and DefectJSntry #2) previously 
recorded are recorded during the recording of the TDFL #n+l, and then one 
entry Defect JEntry #3 newly produced is added to the TDFL #n+l. As a result, 
in the TDFL #n+l, three defect entries exist. 

10 Although FIG. 7 illustrates an example where three entries are 

sequentially arranged, the present invention is not limited to this example. For 
instance, the entries may be recorded according to a specified sorting type such 
as Defect _Entry # 3, #1, #2 and so on. In the same manner, the TDFL #n+2 
includes the TDFL # n+1 information and a presently added new defect entry, 

1 5 e.g., Defect_Entry #4. 

FIGs. 8-11 illustrate a method of managing a defective area on an optical 
disc of write once type according to a second embodiment of the present 
invention. Irrespective of the cumulative recording of TDFL according to the 
first embodiment, the second embodiment provides a repeated recording of 

20 TDFL presently updated in different areas of the disc. For example, if the 
TDFL (n+l)-th is to be updated, the TDFL (n+l)-th recorded with the contents 
of the TDFL n-th, and/or the entry added to the TDFL (n+l)-th, are recorded in 
different areas of the disc at least twice. Therefore, the second embodiment of 
the present invention, in the same manner as the first embodiment, provides a 

25 copy of the TDFL information in the disc as a backup in order to prevent the 
loss of important TDFL information. 

More specifically, FIG. 8 illustrates a method of managing a defective 
area on an optical disc of write once type according to the second embodiment 



WO 2004/029668 PCT/KR2003/001976 

13 

of the present invention. For example, the BD-WO (Blu-ray Disc Write Once) 
includes an LIA (Lead-in Area), a data area, and an LOA (Lead-Out Area). The 
data area may be divided into a user data area where a PSN (Physical Sector 
Number) and an LSN (Logical Sector Number) are simultaneously given and a 
5 non-user data area where only the PSN is given. The non-user data area, as 
shown in FIG. 8, is divided into an OS A (Outer Spare Area) for replacement- 
recording data of a defective area and a TDFL (Temporary Defect List) area for 
recording management information of the defective area and the replacement- 
recorded data. 

10 The optical disc recording/reproducing device 20 as described above with 

reference to FIG. 3 sequentially records data in a predetermined recording 
region of the user data area of the BD-WO in FIG. 8 during the data recording 
operation. In order to detect the defective area while the data recording 
operation is performed, a recording size corresponding to one or more physical 

15 tracks or recording units (in case of the BD-WO, a single cluster) may be set as 
a DVU (Defect Verifying Unit) in the predetermined recording region. In 
addition, the DVU can be set to have a range of sizes according to the design of 
the system. 

The optical disc recording/reproducing device 20 repeatedly performs a 
2 0 series of operations for detecting defective area(s), which includes confirming 

whether the data is normally recorded by recording data in the DVU, and then 

reproducing the data recorded in the DVU. 

For example, as shown in FIG. 8, the optical disc recording/reproducing 

device 20 records the temporary defect list information in the TDMA dividedly 
2 5 arranged in the lead-in area as main TDFL MainJTDFL information, and 

repeatedly records the TDFL information in the TDFL area arranged in the head 

of the recording region of the data area as sub TDFL SubJTDFL information as 

well. 



WO 2004/029668 PCT/KR2003/001976 

14 

The repeatedly recorded main and sub TDFL information, as shown in 
FIG. 9, includes a plurality of defect entries Defect _Entry #1- #m, A first 
physical sector number of the defective area First PSN of Defective and a first 
physical sector number where the corresponding data is replacement-recorded 
5 First PSN of Replacement may be recorded in relationship to each other in each 
of the defect entries. 

Therefore, the optical disc recording/reproducing device 20 records the 
main TDFL (Main TDFL) information and the TDDS information for rapidly 
accessing the repeatedly recorded main and sub TDFL information in the 
10 TDMA separately arranged in the lead-in area. Here, for example, the TDDS 
information, as shown in FIG. 9, includes physical sector numbers (First PSN of 
latest MJTDFL) and (First PSN of latest SJTDFL) for indicating a new, latest 
TDFL (TDFL #2) included in each of the main TDFL (MainJTDFL) 
information and the sub TDFL (SubJTDFL) information. 
15 Also, if a user requests a disc fmalization for terminating the data 

recording on the optical disc, a series of operations for copying and recording 
the TDDS and main TDFL information stored in the TDMA into one or more 
DMAs separately arranged in the lead-in area are performed, e.g., as shown in 
FIG. 9. 

2 0 Thus, if a defect is included in the main TDFL information recorded in 

the BD-WO, the optical disc recording/reproducing device 20 can alternatively 
or in conjunction search the repeatedly recorded sub TDFL, thereby improving 
the security and integrity of the TDFL information. 

Therefore, the TDFL information may be recorded two or more times as 

25 described hereinabove. As shown in FIG. 10, the TDFL information can be 
recorded in the lead-in area, i.e., the recording region preceding the data area, 
and in the recording region at the edge of the data area (next to the OSA in FIG. 
10) two or more times. Also, as shown in FIG. 11, the TDFL information may 



WO 2004/029668 PCT/KR2003/001976 

15 

be recorded in the leading portion or the rear portion of the data area two or 
more times, or sequentially recorded therein. 

For reference, the TDFL information repeatedly recorded at least twice 
according to the present invention may be dividedly recorded in another 
5 recording region in addition to the specified recording region described with 
reference to FIGs. 8 to 1 1, for example, in a partial recording region of the outer 
spare area or in the lead-out area. Also, the TDDS information may be 
repeatedly recorded at least twice to secure the stability of the information. 

10 Industrial applicability 

Optical discs on which a large capacity of data can be written as optical 
recording media have been widely used in the background art. Among these 
new high density physical formats being developed is a new HD-DVD (High- 
Density Digital Versatile Disc) on which high quality video and audio data can 

15 be written and stored in large quantities, e.g., a BD (Blu-ray Disc). 

It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various modifications and 
variations can be made in the present invention without departing from the spirit 
or scope of the invention. Thus, it is intended that the present invention cover 
the modifications and variations of this invention provided they come within the 

2 0 scope of the appended claims and their equivalents. 



WO 2004/029668 

What is claimed is: 



16 



PCT/KR2003/001976 



1 . A method for managing an optical recording medium having at least 
one defective area in a user data area, said method comprising: 

5 recording data recorded in the defective area in a spare area of the optical 

recording medium as replacement data and providing a first temporary defect 
list having a defect entry for the at least one defective area; and 

recording a cumulative temporary defect list for an additional defective 
area in the user data area, wherein the cumulative temporary defect list includes 
10 the first temporary defect list previously recorded and at least one additional 
defective entry for any additional defective area. 

2. The method according to claim 1, further comprising recording 
information for accessing the cumulative temporary defect list as temporary disc 

1 5 definition structure information in a temporary disc definition structure area of 
the optical recording medium. 

3 . The method according to claim 2, wherein the cumulative temporary 
defect list and the temporary disc definition structure information are recorded 

2 0 in the same area of the optical recording medium. 

4. The method according to claim 3 5 wherein the cumulative temporary 
defect list and the temporary disc definition structure information are recorded 
in a temporary defect management area of the optical recording medium. 

25 

5. The method according to claim 2, further comprising recording the 
temporary disc definition structure information and the cumulative temporary 
defect list information in a final defect management area separately provided in 



WO 2004/029668 PCT/KR2003/001976 

17 

a specified area of the optical recording medium during a disc finalization 
operation. 

6. The method according to claim 4 5 further comprising recording the 
5 temporary disc definition structure information and the cumulative temporary 
defect list information in a final defect management area separately provided in 
a specified area of the optical recording medium during a disc finalization 
operation. 

10 7. The method according to claim 1, wherein the optical recording 

medium is a Rlu-ray disc of writable once type (BD-WO). 

8. The method according to claim 1, wherein the optical recording 
medium is a Blu-ray disc of rewritable type (BD-RE). 

15 

9. The method according to claim 6 5 wherein the optical recording 
medium is a Blu-ray disc of writable once type (BD-WO). 

10. The method according to claim 6, wherein the optical recording 
2 0 medium is a Blu-ray disc of rewritable type (BD-RE). 

1 1 . The method according to claim 1, wherein each of the first temporary 
defect list and the cumulative temporary defect list includes management 
information for the data within the respective defective areas. 

25 

12. The method according to claim 11, wherein the management 
information includes a first physical sector number of the replacement data for 



WO 2004/029668 PCT/KR2003/001976 

18 

each defect entry and a first physical sector number of a defective area for each 
defect entry. 

13. The method according to claim 1, wherein the spare area of the 
5 optical recording medium includes an inner spare area and an outer spare area, 

and the step of recording data recorded in the defective area utilizes at least one 
of the inner spare area and the outer spare area. 

14. The method according to claim 1, wherein the cumulative temporary 
10 defect list is repeatedly recorded in at least two areas of the optical recording 

medium. 

15. The method according to claim 14, wherein the at least two areas of 
the optical recording medium are a portion of a data area and a lead-in area of 

15 the optical recording medium. 

16. The method according to claim 15, wherein the portion of the data 
area is an area adjacent to an outer spare area of the optical recording medium. 

2 0 17. The method according to claim 14, wherein the at least two areas of 

the optical recording medium are front and end parts of a data area of the optical 
recording medium. 

18. The method according to claim 14, further comprising recording 
25 temporary disc definition structure information in a lead-in area of the optical 
recording medium. 



19. A recording medium comprising: 



WO 2004/029668 PCT/KR2003/001976 

19 

at least one spare area within a data area; 

a temporary defect management area for managing replacement data of at 
least one defective area within a user data area of the data area; and 

a cumulative temporary defect list stored within the temporary defect 
5 management area, wherein the cumulative temporary defect list includes 
management information for the replacement data of said at least one defective 
area cumulatively recorded and management information for replacement data 
for at least one additional defective area of the user data area. 

10 20. The recording medium according to claim 19, further comprising a 

temporary disc definition structure within a lead-in area of the recording 
medium, wherein the recording information for accessing the cumulative 
temporary defect list is stored as temporary disc definition structure information 
within the temporary disc definition structure. 

15 

21 . The recording medium according to claim 20, wherein the cumulative 
temporary defect list and the temporary disc definition structure information are 
recorded in the lead-in area of the optical recording medium. 

2 0 22. The recording medium according to claim 21 , wherein the cumulative 

temporary defect list and the temporary disc definition structure information are 
recorded in a temporary defect management area of the optical recording 
medium. 

25 23. The recording medium according to claim 20, further comprising a 

final defect management area including the temporary disc definition structure 
information and the cumulative temporary defect list finalized as a final defect 
definition structure information and a final defect management list, respectively. 



WO 2004/029668 



PCT/KR2003/001976 



20 

24. The recording medium according to claim 22 5 further comprising a 
final defect management area including the temporary disc definition structure 
information and the cumulative temporary defect list finalized as a final defect 

5 definition structure information and a final defect management list, respectively. 

25. The recording medium according to claim 19, wherein the recording 
medium is a Blu-ray disc of writable once type (BD-WO). 

10 26. The recording medium according to claim 19, wherein the recording 

medium is a Blu-ray disc of rewritable type (BD-RE). 

27. The recording medium according to claim 24, wherein the recording 
medium is a Blu-ray disc of writable once type (BD-WO). 

15 

28. The recording medium according to claim 24 5 wherein the recording 
medium is a Blu-ray disc of rewritable type (BD-RE). 

29. The recording medium according to claim 19, wherein each of the 
2 0 management informations of the cumulative temporary defect list includes a 

first physical sector number of the replacement data for each defect entry and a 
first physical sector number of a defective area for each defect entry. 

30. The recording medium according to claim 19, wherein the at least one 
25 spare area includes an inner spare area and an outer spare area, and the 

replacement data for the at least one defective area is located in at least one of 
the inner spare area and the outer spare area. 



WO 2004/029668 PCT/KR2003/001976 

21 

3 1 . The recording medium according to claim 19, wherein the cumulative 
temporary defect list is repeatedly recorded in at least two areas of the recording 
medium. 

5 32. The recording medium according to claim 31, wherein the at least 

two areas of the recording medium are a portion of a data area and a lead-in area 
of the recording medium. 

33. The recording medium according to claim 32, wherein the portion 
10 of the data area is an area adjacent to an outer spare area of the recording 

medium. 

34. The recording medium according to claim 32, wherein the at least 
two areas of the recording medium are front and end parts of a data area of the 

1 5 recording medium. 

35. The recording medium according to claim 3 1, further comprising: 

a lead-in area to store therein temporary disc definition structure 
information. 

20 

36. An apparatus for managing an optical recording medium having at 
least one temporary defect management area, and a spare area in a data area, 
said apparatus comprising: 

means for recording data recorded in at least one defective area of the 
25 spare area of the optical recording medium as replacement data and providing a 
first temporary defect list having a defect entry for the at least one defective 
area; and 



WO 2004/029668 PCT/KR2003/001976 

22 

means for recording a cumulative temporary defect list for an additional 
defective area in a user data area, wherein the cumulative temporary defect list 
includes the first temporary defect list previously recorded and at least one 
additional defective entry for any additional defective area. 



WO 2004/029668 PCT/KR2003/001976 



1/11 



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